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Full text of "NOAA technical report NMFS SSRF"


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NOAA Technical Report NMFS SSRF-728 

**l 0F f°+4, Vertical Sections of 
$ j^ \ Semimonthly Mean Temperature 
^pH ^j on the San Francisco- 
**tes<*** Honolulu Route: From 

Expendable Bathythermograph 
Observations, June 1966- 
December 1974 

J. F. T. Saur, L. E. Eber, D. R. McLain, 
and C. E. Dorman 

January 1979 



U.S. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE 

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 

National Marine Fisheries Service 



NOAA TECHNICAL REPORTS 
National Marine Fisheries Service, Special Scientific Report — Fisheries 

The major responsibilities of the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) are to monitor and assess the abundance and geographic 
distribution of fishery resources, to understand and predict fluctuations in the quantity and distribution of these resources, and to establish levels 
for optimum use of the resources. NMFS is also charged with the development and implementation of policies for managing national fishing 
grounds, development and enforcement of domestic fisheries regulations, surveillance of foreign fishing off United States coastal waters, and the 
development and enforcement of international fishery agreements and policies. NMFS also assists the fishing industry through marketing service 
and economic analysis programs, and mortgage insurance and vessel construction subsidies. It collects,, analyzes, and publishes statistics on 
various phases of the industry. 

The Special Scientific Report — Fisheries series was established in 1949. The series carries reports on scientific investigations that document 
long-term continuing programs of NMFS, or intensive scientific reports on studies of restricted scope. The reports may deal with applied fishery 
problems. The series is also used as a medium for the publication of bibliographies of a specialized scientific nature. 

NOAA Technical Reports NMFS SSRF are available free in limited numbers to governmental agencies, both Federal and State. They are also 
available in exchange for other scientific and technical publications in the marine sciences. Individual copies may be obtained (unless otherwise 
noted) from D825, Technical Information Division, Environmental Science Information Center, NOAA, Washington, D.C. 20235. Recent SSRFs 
are: 



649. Distribution of forage of skipjack tuna (Euthynnus pelamis) in the 
eastern tropical Pacific. By Maurice Blackburn and Michael Laurs. 
January 1972, i i i + 16 p., 7 figs., 3 tables. For sale by the Superintendent 
of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 
20402. 



661. A review of the literature on the development of skipjack tuna 
fisheries in the central and western Pacific Ocean. By Frank J. Hester 
and Tamio Otsu. January 1973, iii + 13 p., 1 fig. For sale by the 
Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, 
Washington, D.C. 20402. 



650. Effects of some antioxidants and EDTA on the development of ran- 
cidity in Spanish mackerel (Scomberomorus maculatus) during frozen 
storage. By Robert N. Farragut. February 1972, iv + 12 p., 6 figs., 12 
tables. For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government 
Printing Office. Washington, D.C. 20402. 

651. The effect of premortem stress, holding temperatures, and freezing 
on the biochemistry and quality of skipjack tuna. By Ladell Crawford. 
April 1972, iii + 23 p., 3 figs., 4 tables. For sale by the Superintendent 
of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 
20402. 

653. The use of electricity in conjunction with a 12.5-meter (Headrope) 
Gulf-of-Mexico shrimp trawl in Lake Michigan. By James E. Ellis. 
March 1972, iv + 10 p., 11 figs., 4 tables. For sale by the Superintendent 
of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 
20402. 

654. An electric detector system for recovering internally tagged 
menhaden, genus Brevoortia. By R. O. Parker, Jr. February 1972, iii + 7 
p., 3 figs., 1 app. table. For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, 
U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402. 

655. Immobilization of fingerling salmon and trout by decompression. 
By Doyle F. Sutherland. March 1972, iii + 7 p., 3 figs., 2 tables. For sale 
by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, 
Washington, D.C. 20402. 

656. The calico scallop, Argopecten gibbus. By Donald M. Allen and T. 
J. Costello. May 1972, iii + 19 p., 9 figs., 1 table. For sale by the 
Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, 
Washington, D.C. 20402. 



662. Seasonal distribution of tunas and billfishes in the Atlantic. By 
John P. Wise and Charles W. Davis. January 1973, iv + 24 p., 13 figs., 4 
tables. For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government 
Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402. 

663. Fish larvae collected from the northeastern Pacific Ocean and 
Puget Sound during April and May 1967. By Kenneth D. Waldron. 
December 1972, iii + 16 p., 2 figs., 1 table, 4 app. tables. For sale by the 
Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, 
Washington, D.C. 20402. 

664. Tagging and tag-recovery experiments with Atlantic menhaden, 
Brevoortia tyrannus. By Richard L. Kroger and Robert L. Dryfoos. 
December 1972, iv + 11 p., 4 figs., 12 tables. For sale by the Superinten- 
dent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 
20402. 

665. Larval fish survey of Humbolt Bay, California. By Maxwell B. 
Eldrtge and Charles F. Bryan. December 1972, iii + 8 p., 8 figs., 1 table. 
For sale bv the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing 
Office, Washington. D.C. 20402. 

666. Distribution and relative abundance of fishes in Newport River, 
North Carolina. By William R. Turner and George N. Johnson. 
September 1973, iv + 23 p., 1 fig., 13 tables. For sale by the Superinten- 
dent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 
20402. 

667. An analysis^ of the commercial lobster (Homarus americanus) 
fishery along the coast of Maine, August 1966 through December 1970. By 
James C. Thomas. June 1973, v + 57 p., 18 figs., 11 tables. For sale by the 
Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, 
Washington, D.C. 20402. 



657. Making fish protein concentrates by enzymatic hydrolysis. A 
status report on research and some processes and products studied bv 
NMFS. By Malcolm B. Hale. November 1972, v + 32 p., 15 figs., 17 
tables, 1 app. table. For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. 
Government Printing Office, Washington. D.C. 20402. 

658. List of fishes of Alaska and adjacent waters with a guide to some of 
their literature. By Jay C. Quast and Elizabeth L. Hall. July 1972, iv + 
47 p. For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government 
Printing Office, Washington. D.C. 20402. 

659. The Southeast Fisheries Center bionumeric code. Part I: Fishes. 
By Harvey R. Bullis, Jr., Richard B. Roe. and Judith C. Gatlin. July 
1972, xl + 95 p.. 2 figs. For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, 
U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington. D.C. 20402. 

660. A freshwater fish electro-motivator (FFEM)-its characteristics and 
operation. Bv James E. Ellis and Charles C. Hoopes. November 1972. iii 
+ 11 p.. 2 figs. 



668. An annotated bibliography of the cunner, Tautogolabrus adspersus 
(Wilbaum). By Fredric M. Serchuk and David W. Frame. May 1973, ii + 
43 p. For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government 
Printing Office, Washington. D.C. 20402. 

669. Subpoint prediction for direct readout meterological satellites. By 
L. E. Eber. August 1973, iii + 7 p., 2 figs., 1 table. For sale by the 
Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, 
Washington. D.C. 20402. 

670. Unharvested fishes in the U.S. commercial fishery of western Lake 
Erie in 1969. By Harry D. Van Meter. July 1973, iii + 11 p., 6 figs.. 6 
tables. For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government 
Printing Office, Washington. D.C. 20402. 

671. Coastal upwelling indices, west coast of North America, 1946-71. 
By Andrew Bakun. June 1973. iv + 103 p., 6 figs., 3 tables, 45 app. figs. 
For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing 
Office. Washington. D.C. 20402. 



Continued on inside back cover 



NOAA Technical Report NMFS SSRF- 728 



.„p ATMOSP^ 



NORfl 




"""ssrsr^ 



Vertical Sections of 
Semimonthly Mean Temperature 
on the San Francisco- 
Honolulu Route: From 
Expendable Bathythermograph 
Observations, June 1966- 
December 1974 



J. F. T. Saur, L. E. Eber, D. R. McLain, 
and C. E. Dorman 

January 1979 



U.S. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE 

Juanita M. Kreps, Secretary 

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 

Richard A. Frank, Administrator 

Terry L. Leitzell, Assistant Administrator for Fisheries 

National Marine Fisheries Service 



For Sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office 
Washington, D.C. 20402 Stock No. 003-017-OO438-4 



The National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) does not approve, rec- 
ommend or endorse any proprietary product or proprietary material 
mentioned in this publication. No reference shall be made to NMFS, or 
to this publication furnished by NMFS, in any advertising or sales pro- 
motion which would indicate or imply that NMFS approves, recommends 
or endorses any proprietary product or proprietary material mentioned 
herein, or which has as its purpose an intent to cause directly or indirectly 
the advertised product to be used or purchased because of this NMFS 
publication. 



CONTENTS 



Page 

Introduction 1 

Methods 2 

Observations 2 

Instrumentation 3 

Initial processing 4 

Quality control 4 

Computational procedures 4 

1. Conversion to a standard grid 4 

2. Least squares harmonic fit 5 

3. Vertical sections of mean temperature and mean temperature change 5 

4. Tables of mean temperature 5 

Results 5 

Annual cycles 6 

Mixed layers and thermoclines 6 

Temperature inversions 6 

Structure below the permanent thermocline 7 

Coastal upwelling 8 

California subsurface countercurrent 8 

The 30-day temperature changes 9 

Acknowledgments 10 

Literature cited 10 

Appendix 1. Vertical sections of mean temperature and mean "30-day" temperature change 11 

Appendix 2. Tables of mean XBT temperature 23 

Table 

1. Number of expendable bathythermograph sections by cooperating ship and total observations 

by year on the San Francisco-Honolulu route 3 

Figures 

1. Three great circle routes between Honolulu and U.S. west coast ports on which frequent XBT 
observations have been made by cooperating merchant ships 1 

2. The time-distance distribution of XBT observations on or near the San Francisco-Honolulu 

route from June 1966 through December 1974 2 

3. Station position chart and mean temperature cycles at selected depths for seven typical loca- 
tions 6 

4. Monthly profiles of mean temperature for warming and cooling periods at seven typical loca- 
tions 7 



/' 



Vertical Sections of Semimonthly Mean Temperature 

on the San Francisco-Honolulu Route: From 

Expendable Bathythermograph Observations, 

June 1966-December 1974 

J. F. T. SAUR, ' L. E. EBER, 2 D. R. McLAIN, 3 and C. E. DORMAN 4 

ABSTRACT 

Frequently repeated sections of expendable bathythermograph observations between San Fran- 
cisco and Honolulu, taken by merchant vessels during the period June 1966 through December 1974, 
were analyzed to obtain mean seasonal cycles. Results are depicted in a set of semimonthly vertical 
sections of mean temperatures to 500 m and in a set of corresponding sections of 30-day mean 
temperature changes to 200 m. In addition, seasonal cycles at selected depths are included along with 
mean monthly vertical profiles for seven typical locations along the route. 

The analyses reveal geographic and temporal facets of the mean thermal structure, including: 1) 
depth of the surface mixed layers in winter, 2) growth and decay of the seasonal thermocline, 3) 
decrease in depth of the permanent thermocline from Oahu to the California coast, 4) a region of 
temperature inversions or very weak vertical temperature gradients that develops between 50 and 100 
m during the spring in the Transition Zone, and 5) the location and movement of warming and cooling 
regions during the year. 

Vertical mixing appears to be the dominant process along most of the route for transmitting the 
annual surface warming and cooling cycle downwards to depths of 100 to 150 m. However, advective 
processes are active in the California Current. 

Tables of semimonthly mean temperatures are given in an Appendix. 



INTRODUCTION 

Vertical sections of mean subsurface temperatures 
from the surface to 500 m, presented here, were derived 
from a time-series of sections of expendable bathy- 
thermograph (XBT) observations made from June 1966 
through December 1974 by merchant ships between San 
Francisco, Calif., and Honolulu, Hawaii (Fig. 1). The 
observational program was developed by Saur and the 
data collected under the direction of the National 
Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS). With technical as- 
sistance from the Fleet Numerical Weather Central 
(FNWC), XBT systems were placed on merchant ships 
and observations were made routinely by the ship's 
mates. Saur and Stevens (1972) described the XBT 
system, observational procedures, and early projects for 
obtaining observations from cooperating ships. 

Collection of subsurface temperature observations on 
the San Francisco-Honolulu route began when the first 
production models of the XBT system became avail- 
able. The work started as a 1- to 2-yr feasibility and 



'Southwest Fisheries Center La Jolla Laboratory, National Marine 
Fisheries Service, NOAA, La Jolla, Calif.; present address: Scripps In- 
stitution of Oceanography, La Jolla, CA 92093. 

2 Southwest Fisheries Center La Jolla Laboratory, National Marine 
Fisheries Service, NOAA, La Jolla, CA 92038. 

'Pacific Environmental Group, National Marine Fisheries Service, 
NOAA, Monterey, CA 93940. 

'Department of Geological Sciences, San Diego State University, San 
Diego. CA 92182. 



development project on the use of the system aboard 
merchant vessels. It was then continued as an ocean 
monitoring project, and is now a part of a coordinated 
program among FNWC, NMFS, and NORPAX (North 
Pacific Experiment) programs to obtain XBT observa- 
tions in the Pacific. The data are now routinely collected 



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Q> Howaiion Islands 




Figure 1.— Three great circle routes between Honolulu 
and U.S. west coast ports, on which frequent XBT obser- 
vations have been made by cooperating merchant ships, 
and a schematic representation of the three upper ocean 
regimes in the area. Mean subsurface temperatures 
reported here are for the San Francisco-Honolulu route 
for which the longest time series — starting in June 1966 — 
exists. 



and selected vertical sections of the temperature 
distribution, with individual XBT profiles, have been 
published regularly in Fishing Information 5 since March 
1972. 

The ship routes between Honolulu and U.S. west coast 
ports cross the eastern limb of the major anticyclonic 
gyre of the North Pacific Ocean. If we confine our atten- 
tion to the upper ocean, from the surface to a few hun- 
dred meters, we can identify three oceanic regimes: the 
California Current and the Eastern North Pacific Cen- 
tral waters separated by a Transition Zone (Fig. 1). 

The waters in the California Current are mainly cooler, 
lower salinity waters of subarctic origin that are modified 
in their slow southeastward movement along the Cali- 
fornia coast. The Eastern North Pacific Central waters 
are warmer, higher salinity waters that occupy about the 
southwestern one-half of the route. 

The Transition Zone is a complex region, not yet fully 
understood. In our region of interest it is bounded on the 
south and southwest by the subtropical front (Roden 
1971, 1975). On the north and northeast it is bounded, re- 
spectively, by the subarctic front (Dodimead et al. 1963) 
and some type of southeastward extension of this fea- 
ture, which LaFond and LaFond (1971) called the Cali- 
fornia Front. Saur (1974) described criteria for identify- 
ing these regimes from the XBT profiles, changes in 
slopes of isotherms in the vertical sections, and accom- 
panying surface salinity observations. Laurs and Lynn 
(1977) discussed features of the Transition Zone from 
oceanographic observations made in June of several dif- 
ferent years by fishery research vessels. 

Mean temperatures presented here provide a base for 
study of temperature anomalies (Dorman and Saur 1977, 
1978) and for further research on the relation of tempera- 
ture variability to air-sea interaction and the changing 
environment of marine organisms. 



METHODS 



Observations 



The time-distance distribution of XBT observations 
for the period June 1966 through December 1974 is shown 
in Fig. 2. The great circle distance from a reference point 
near Oahu was used for location. About 90^ of the obser- 
vations were made by ships on the great circle route. 
Some departures from the great circle track resulted 
from storms and the fact that tankers of Chevron Ship- 
ping Company generally followed a rhumb line (constant 
heading) course. For these observations taken at loca- 
tions displaced from the usual route by 100 to 150 km, 
the use of great circle distance from Oahu tends to 
minimize temperature errors, because the general orien- 
tation of isotherms in the upper layers is northwest- 



^Fishing Information is a National Marine Fisheries Service monthly 
publication, containing fisher.' advisory information and environmental 
charts for the equatorial and North Pacific Ocean. It is compiled and dis- 
tributed by the Southwest Fisheries Center, National Marine Fisheries 
Service. NOAA. P.O. Box 271. La Jolla. CA 92038. 



1966 



1967 



1968 



1969 



1970 



1971 






. -:■:-: ; 






1972 



1973 



1974 



Figure 2. — The time-distance distribution of XBT observations on or 
near the San Francisco-Honolulu route from June 1966 through 
December 1974. Location of an observation is measured by its great 
circle distance from an offshore reference point (lat. 21°12'N, long. 
157°42'W) near Honolulu. 



southeast. The San Francisco end of our section is a point 
on the edge of the continental shelf a short distance 
south-southwest of the Farallon Islands and 3,800 km 
(2,050 n.mi.) from the reference point. 

With the exception of the first year and one-half when 
only four observations per day were scheduled, the XBT 
observations were taken on a 4-h schedule related to the 
ship's watch, rather than at prespecified "stations." 
Thus the location of observations along the route differs 
from one section to another. Also, the distance between 
observations depended upon the ship's speed. Of those 
ships cooperating in the program, normal speeds were 
either about 16 to 17 kn or about 22 kn, so that the dis- 
tance between observations was about 120 km (65 n.mi.) 
or 165 km (90 n.mi.), respectively. The slower ships would 
generally get 27 to 30 observations per transit and the 
faster ships about 17 to 20 observations. A few sections 
with more closely spaced observations for special studies 
were made when scientific personnel were aboard. 

The frequency of sections reflects the growth and 
change in character of the project. With the exception of 
six sections made by oil tankers in the summer of 1970, 
all of the observations from the beginning of the project 
in June 1966 through January 1971 were made from one 
vessel, Californian, a bulk-cargo and container vessel of 
Matson Navigation Company. This 17-kn ship made a 
round trip about every 18 to 21 days, generally making 
observations on one 5-day leg only. During this period 
several gaps of 4 to 8 wk duration occurred because of 
ship repair schedules, short labor strikes, and equip- 
ment failures. 



A prolonged maritime strike in 1971 interrupted the 
series for two periods of nearly 3 and 5 mo each. A faster 
(22 kn) ship, Hawaiian Enterprise, made most of the sec- 
tions in 1971 and 1972, resulting in more frequent sec- 
tions but with greater spacing between observations. As a 
part of the International Decade of Ocean Exploration 
(TDOE) programs, we began instrumenting other ships in 
late 1972 for other routes, but which also would make 
sections irregularly on the San Francisco route. Using 
these ships, the frequency of sections on the San Fran- 
cisco route was increased in 1973 and intense coverage 
was obtained in 1974. 

For the entire period from June 1966 through 
December 1974 there was a total of 4,913 observations 
(Table 1). A number of the sections did not have com- 
plete coverage, with the coverage generally being poorest 
near either end of the route. This should be considered 
when interpreting the computer analyses which will be 
presented. 

Instrumentation 

The basic sensing and recording system used through- 
out the period was the Sippican XBT system. Progres- 
sive improvements were made in the recorder by the 
manufacturer — some partially due to the field ex- 
periences from this project — during the first few years, 
1966-68. Since then, the recorder, with pressure sensitive 
paper and an option switch for 460 m (1,500 ft) or 760 m 



(2,500 ft) depth recording, has remained essentially un- 
changed. 

The XBT system initially installed aboard the Cali- 
fornian included an experimental digitizer (developed by 
FNWC) with analog signal input from a retransmitting 
slidewire in the XBT recorder and digital output onto a 
5-level punched paper tape at depth intervals of slightly 
less than 3 m (Saur and Stewart 1967). This was a dual 
purpose output for testing radio transmission of data to 
FNWC and for subsequent computer conversion, ashore, 
onto magnetic tape for permanent archives. The digitizer 
system became unstable after April 1969 which made the 
output unsuitable for archiving data. Although commer- 
cial digitizing systems were tried with some of the new 
recorders installed on other ships in 1971 and 1972, all of 
the data used herein from May 1969 onward were derived 
from the analog traces. 

Sippican model T-4 XBT probes (460 m) were used 
during the first 1.5 yr of the project. We switched to use 
of model T-7 probes (760 m) in November 1967, to try to 
minimize probe-to-probe temperature errors by cor- 
recting deep temperatures to a smoothed deep level 
temperature (e.g., 600 or 700 m). This plan proved to be 
unworkable because the deep level temperatures could 
be offset to warmer temperatures by insulation failures 
on the wire and such a bias could not always be 
recognized with certainty by examination of the analog 
traces or vertical sections. At a later date mesoscale ed- 
dies were discovered and appeared to have deep 



Table 1 



—Number of expendable bathythermograph (XBT) sections by cooperating ship 
and total observations by year on the San Francisco-Honolulu route. 













Year 










Total 




1966 


1967 


1968 


1969 


1970 


1971 


1972 


1973 


1974 


sections 


Matson Navigation Co. 
Californian 
Hawaiian Enterprise 
Hawaiian Citizen 
Hawaiian Queen 


10 


15 


18 


15 


15 


5 
4 


'18 


19 


6 

2 26 

1 

10 


84 

67 

1 

10 


Chevron Shipping Co. 
Idaho Standard 
Washington Standard 
McGarragill 
Chevron Californian 
Chevron Mississippi 










3 
2 

1 




1 
1 


2 
4 


1 


3 
2 
1 
4 
5 


States Lines 
Michigan 
Idaho 












1 

1 








1 
1 


American President Line 
President Cleveland 












1 








1 


Pacific Far East Line 
Monterey 
Mariposa 
















2 


1 
9 


3 
9 


U.S. Coast Guard 
USCGC Midgett 
















2 




2 


Total sections 
Total observations 


10 
204 


15 
329 


18 
550 


15 
435 


21 
592 


12 
229 


20 
453 


29 
635 


54 
1,486 


194 
4,913 



'11-16 February 1968 section had two XBT drops at each 4-h interval. 

2 Includes one special section, 27 April-1 May 1974, with hourly observations by R. L. Bernstein 
and C. A. Collins. 



temperature changes equal to or greater than temperature 
error of the probes manufactured in 1968 and later. 

As the cost of probes rose in the early 1970's we 
returned to using T-4 probes. With the merchant ships 
the amount of wire on the probe was the limiting factor 
on depth of the XBT observation. We found that the 
manufacturer's safety margin of excess wire on the probe 
usually permitted a reliable determination of 
temperature to 500 m. 



duce bias toward higher temperatures in the remainder 
of an analog record, and 3) slippage of the friction 
clutch on the chart drive, which occurred mainly in early 
years before we became more experienced with the XBT 
system. Corrections were made at a later time when 
temperature values were interpolated at 5-m intervals 
between the surface and 300 m and at 10-m intervals 
between 300 and 500 m depth, for the computer analysis 
of temperature fields. 



Initial Processing 

The procedures for initial processing of the observa- 
tions into digital form on magnetic tape evolved as the 
project developed. 

As noted earlier, the XBT system used during 1966-69 
aboard the Californian included an experimental 
digitizer with a punched paper tape output. Most of the 
observations through April 1969 were computer 
translated from this output, which was regularly 
calibrated with the manufacturer's test canister on the 
visit to the ships before and after each voyage. In cases of 
digitizer failure significant points were read by eye from 
the analog traces, as were all observations for May- 
December 1969. Some sets of observations from 1967 to 
1968 were semiautomatically digitized by FNWC in the 
early stages of development of its XBT digitizing system 
for computer determination of temperature-depth inflec- 
tion points. 

When the NMFS Pacific Environmental Group (PEG) 
was established in Monterey, the 1970 and later observa- 
tions were digitized on an analog-digital table, under the 
supervision of McLain and using the facilities and com- 
puters of FNWC. The digitizing procedures generally fol- 
lowed those used at FNWC, described by Dale and 
Stevens (1970), except as modified by McLain at PEG to 
handle the NMFS data separately from FNWC data, to 
digitize analogs from T-4 probes to 500 m, and to plot 
vertical sections. 

Quality Control 

Preliminary vertical sections of the distribution of 
temperature were constructed, at first by hand and later 
by computer, for quality control. Saur reviewed each 
data set for possible errors utilizing the preliminary sec- 
tions, analog traces, and continuity from section to sec- 
tion. Locations of observations were plotted to help check 
positions and an independent check of time and distance 
between observations was made against the ship's speed. 
For observations through 1970, copies of marine weather 
logs on which positions of 6-h weather observations were 
logged independently of XBT logs were also used to cor- 
rect time and position errors. 

The data checks were made to eliminate large errors 
due to instrument failure not detected before digitizing. 
These were of several types: 1) erroneously high 
temperatures throughout a trace due to defective ther- 
mistors or insulation failure from the start, 2) insula- 
tion failure during the probe descent which would intro- 



Computational Procedures 

The determination of the vertical sections of mean 
subsurface temperature presented herein involved three 
steps: 1) Conversion of observed temperatures from 
each section to temperatures on a standard 
grid; 2) computation of a seasonally varying mean at 
each grid point by least squares fit of 12-, 6-, and 4-mo 
harmonics; and 3) reconstruction of gridded 
temperature fields from the harmonics, spatial smooth- 
ing, and contouring of vertical sections. The computer 
programs used for this were adaptations by Eber of those 
he prepared at SWFC to map environmental variables in 
marine weather observations for presentation in Fishing 
Information. 



1. Conversion to a standard grid. — It was previ- 
ously mentioned that observations were not taken at the 
same predetermined location from section to section. 
The first step was to analyze observed values from each 
section to a standard rectangular grid, using a procedure 
from Eber's EDMAP 6 (Environmental Data Manipula- 
tion, Analysis, and Plotting) program. 

The grid was selected with a distance interval of 92.5 
km (50 n.mi.) and a depth interval of 10 m. This resulted 
in a grid of 42 by 51 points representing a vertical section 
3,800 km (2,050 n.mi.) by 500 m. Distance and depth 
were converted to grtd coordinate units for the 
temperature analysis. 

The procedure scanned the data list and fitted 
temperature values to the grid. Each observation con- 
tributed to the values at its nearest grid points according 
to an inverse weighting scheme based on distance from 
the observation to each of the grid points. The weighting 
factor decreased to zero at one grid length. If no observa- 
tion was found within one grid length of a grid point, it 
was flagged as a "no data" point in that section. 

The procedure can be viewed as a refinement of center- 
ing the observational data within 185-km (100 n.mi.) by 
20-m blocks that have a 50% overlap between adjacent 
(both vertically and horizontally) blocks. However, if 
there is more than one observation within a block, each is 
weighted according to the distance to the center of the 
block and the number of grid points it will affect. (The 



'Unpublished documentation of the EDMAP program is on file at the 
Southwest Fisheries Center, National Marine Fisheries Service, NOAA, 
La Jolla. CA 92038. 



procedure gives somewhat greater weight to an observa- 
tion near a grid point than would a weighting of 1-R 2 , 
where R is the distance in fractions of a grid length.) If 
there is only one observation within a unit grid area and 
there are no observations in any of the surrounding grid 
areas, the observed value would be assigned to each of 
the four nearest grid points. 

The middate of the observations in a given section was 
assigned to its corresponding grid field for later use in 
determining harmonic coefficients. Thus the maximum 
time error for data at either end of the section would be 
about 2.0 to 2.5 days. 

2. Least squares harmonic fit. — In order to establish 
a smooth mean seasonal cycle for each gridpoint, a least 
squares fit was made for the harmonic function 



T tJ = (A„). . + 2 (A n cosnwt + B n amnut) ij 



where oj = 2tt/365, t is the day of the year, and i and; are 
gridpoint indices. Robinson (1976) also used the first 
three harmonics of the Fourier function for time smooth- 
ing of monthly mean values of mechanical bathyther- 
mograph data (to 400 ft) for the North Pacific Ocean. 
Since our initial gridded fields were not distributed at 
equal intervals in time, the terms which normally disap- 
pear in harmonic analysis of evenly spaced data (due to 
orthogonality) are not zero when applying the least 
squares fit. Seven simultaneous equations for least 
squares fit were solved to determine the seven unknown 
constants to represent the mean temperature and thel2-, 
6-, and 4-mo cycles. 

To avoid overweighting certain years because of 
greater sampling frequency, a set of harmonic constants 
was determined for each of three time periods: June 
1966-December 1970, 1971-73, and 1974. The first period 
was selected because of the consistency of the sampling 
mentioned earlier. The year 1974 was analyzed separate- 
ly because of the unusually high-density sampling. The 
observations from 1971 and 1972 were considered as 1 yr 
and combined with 1973. 

Constants from the three periods were weighted and 
combined by Dorman to provide the mean constants 
representative of the 1966-74 period. Weights assigned to 
the periods were as follows: 



equally spaced times throughout a year. (For con- 
venience of identification these are labeled as 01 
January, mid-January, 01 February, etc., to mid- 
December.) 

The data field for each of the 24 mean vertical sections 
was reconstructed from the harmonic functions at each 
grid point. Because the time smoothing by the least 
squares fit was independent from point to point, a spatial 
smoothing was applied to the grid field before contour- 
ing. 

The spatial smoothing was done with one pass of a 5 X 
5 point (370 km by 40 m) smoother in the EDMAP pro- 
gram. The smoother was a two-step numerical filter, 
after Shapiro (1970), which was mostly effective for 
reducing amplitudes of perturbations with wave lengths 
of less than about four grid lengths. Its response was zero 
at a wave length of two grid lengths, 0.45 at three grid 
lengths, and 0.75 at four grid lengths. The response was 
0.96, or greater, at wave lengths of seven grid lengths or 
more. 

The contouring part of the EDMAP program divided 
each grid square into 25 subsquares, whose corner values 
were determined by Bessel's central difference formula 
for double quadratic interpolation. The intersection of 
each contour with the boundary of a subsquare it 
transects was determined by linear interpolation. The 
isotherms were computer plotted and are reproduced 
herein, with drafting touch-up only for clarity of presen- 
tation. The isotherms were not changed subjectively. 

The major changes in the seasonally varying mean 
temperature were found to occur in the upper 200 m of 
the water column. The figures of Appendix 1 also show 
the distribution of the "30-day" temperature changes for 
the upper 200 m. The changes were computed from the 
spatially smoothed data (described on page 7) and are 
centered on the date of the vertical section in the upper 
panel. Note that there is a 50% overlap between two con- 
secutive temperature change charts. 

4. Tables of mean temperature. — Mean temperature 
values, in °C, for selected depths and alternating grid 
points (intervals of 185 km) are presented in Appendix 2. 
The values are those reconstructed from the fitted har- 
monics for the given grid point (distance and depth) and 
extracted before the grid was spatially smoothed for con- 
touring. The tables are identified as 01 January, mid- 
January, etc., to mid-December, as were the vertical sec- 
tions of Appendix 1 . 



Period Weight 

June 1966-December 1970 4.5 

1971-1973 2.0 

1974 1.0 

3. Vertical sections of mean temperature and mean 
temperature change. — Appendix 1 contains vertical 
sections of the mean temperature structure along the 
Honolulu-San Francisco route, to depths of 500 m, for 24 



RESULTS 

This section discusses some of the general features of 
the mean temperature distributions in Appendix 1. 
Further, we have selected seven locations, each of which 
has vertical temperature structure and cycles 
characteristic of a part of the route. For each of these, 
Figure 3a-g shows the seasonally varying mean 
temperature for eight depths from the surface to 500 m, 
and Figure 4a-g shows the mean monthly vertical profiles 
of temperature for the warming and cooling periods. 



Annual Cycles 

At the surface the annual period is predominant at all 
locations (Fig. 3a-g). The annual range was smallest 
(about 4 C C) near Oahu, largest (about 7°C) in the Tran- 
sition Zone, and again smaller near the California coast 
(about 5°C). From near Oahu to the California front, the 
cycles at 50 m diminished in amplitude and the summer 
maximum lagged that at the surface by 1 to 2 mo. At the 
low salinity core of the California Current (Fig. 3f) the 
summer maximum penetrated almost simultaneously 
from the surface to 200 m. In the inshore area, California 
Current (Fig. 3g), the temperature range at 50 m was 
small (about 1°C). Here the minimum and the maximum 
temperatures lagged those at the surface by about 4 mo, 
and appear to be related to the occurrence of upwelling 
and the subsurface countercurrent, respectively. 

Mixed Layers and Thermoclines 

The surface mixed layers reach their maximum depth 
in winter, mid-February through early April, Appendix 
1. Depths of the mixed layers were generally at least 100 
m, except they decreased to 75 m near California. They 
were deepest, about 150 m, in the central part of the sec- 
tion (2,000 to 2,200 km) in the neighborhood of the sub- 
tropical front. 

We consider the permanent thermocline to be the 
region of the maximum vertical temperature gradient in 
winter (January through March) ; vertical sections of Ap- 
pendix 1 and profiles of Figure 4. In the western half of 
the section it was deeper (200 to 250 m) and warmer (15° 
to 17 °C) than in the California Current region where it 



lay at depths of 100 to 120 m and had temperatures of 11 ° 
to 13°C. The seasonal thermoclines are formed by warm- 
ing in spring and summer (May through September) and 
are generally confined to the upper 50 to 100 m which are 
vertically mixed in winter. In the California Current 
region the seasonal thermocline merged with the perma- 
nent thermocline into a single feature, whereas in the 
Transition Zone the two thermoclines were separated in 
the spring by temperature inversions (next section) and 
later by a near thermostad (vertically isothermal) layer, 
Figure 4d. The latter was particularly evident in the 
summer (July through August) sections by the steeper 
slope of the 15°-19°C isotherms at depths from 50 to 150 
m at distances of 2,000 to 3,000 km from Honolulu. In the 
Eastern North Pacific Central waters from Honolulu to 
near 1,800 to 2,000 km along the route, a layer of weak 
vertical temperature gradient occurred between the 
seasonal and permanent thermoclines. 

Temperature Inversions 

A characteristic feature found by Saur (1974) in the 
individual profiles in the Transition Zone (between 2,000 
and 3,000 km from Honolulu) was the occurrence of com- 
plex vertical thermal structure, especially in the spring 
months. The thermocline would often be interrupted by 
isothermal layers and temperature inversions appeared 
in some profiles. These were attributed to interleaving, 
by horizontal mixing, of layers of cool, low-salinity water 
with warmer, higher salinity water of nearly the same 
density. These features usually are relatively small scale 
and transient, so that during our computation of means, 
they were generally smoothed out. However, some 






JFMAMJJASONDJ 




JFMAMJJASONO. 





DJFMAHJJASOND. 




DJFMiW. . A SONDJ 




D J F y A M J 



A S O N J 



Figure 3. — Station position chart and mean temperature cycles at selected depths (meters) for seven typical locations, great circle distances 
from offshore reference point (lat. 21°12'N, long. 157°42'W) near Honolulu, and geographic coordinates: a. Near Oahu: 185 km (100 n.mi.i: 
lat. 22 C 10'N, long. 156°15'W. b. Eastern North Pacific Central Water: 1,390 km (750 n.mi.); lat. 28°17 r N, long. 146°20'W. c. Subtropical front: 
2,130 km (1,150 n.mi.); lat. 31°39'N, long. 139°42'W. d. Transition Zone: 2,500 km (1,350 n.mi); lat. 33U2N. long. 136°12'W. e. California 
front: 2,870 km (1,550 n.mi.); lat. 34°39'N. long. 132°35'W. f. Low salinity core. California Current: 3,430 km (1,850 n.mi.); lat. 36°36'N, long. 
126°55'W. g. Inshore region, California Current: 3,615 km (1,950 n.mi.); lat. 37°12'N, long. 124-59'W. 



TEMPERATURE , °C 
10 15 20 



b. 



100 



E 


200 


T 




(- 




n 




i 




u 


300 



400 



500 



100 



E 200 

x 
i— 

Q. 

Ll) 

a 300 



400 



500 




TEMPERATURE ,°C 
10 15 20 



100 



E 200 

x 

fe 

UJ 

a 300 



400 



500 




30 





o c 


) 5 


10 


15 


20 




25 


3< 








rj3/\ 




1 l/W 

; aoct 










mnA 




-^\NOV 
DEC 




100 


" 






" 


E 


200 




FEB 




- 


X 

I— 








^\OCT. NOV 




a 
UJ 
Q 


300 








,TATlON POSITION 


- 




40- 




^->^ 






400 






. 






- 




500 




| 


20- 


-^Lm 


. 


•o- 




&• 150- :40* iJO* 1 
• 1 



Figure 4.— Monthly profiles of mean temperature (°C), for wanning and cooling periods at seven typical locations (shown by diamond on inset 
chart); distance from offshore reference point near Honolulu and geographic coordinates as in Figure 3. a. Near Oahu. b. Eastern North 
Pacific Central Water, c. Subtropical front, d. Transition Zone . e. California front, f. Low-salinity core of the California Current, 
g. Inshore region of California Current. 



temperature inversions remained in the vertical sections 
of Appendix 1, e.g., the 15°C isotherm in the 01 April sec- 
tion, the 15°-17°C isotherms in the mid-April section, 
the 16°-17°C isotherms in the 01 May section, and the 
16°C isotherm in the mid-May section. It appears that, 
on the average, when surface warming begins in the 
spring and vertical mixing is suppressed, the warmer, 
higher salinity Eastern North Pacific Central waters 
spread toward the California coast around 100 m, under- 
running the low-salinity, modified subarctic waters 
which are still cool around 50 m. 

In winter months, e.g., mid-January section of Appen- 
dix 1, there appeared to be a temperature maximum at 
the base of the mixed layer between 1,200 and 3,000 km 
along the section. From an examination of individual 
profiles it was found that these were not typical of usual 
conditions. There was almost always an isothermal layer 
to the top of the thermocline. The apparent maximum 
resulted from the tendency of the three harmonics to give 
near-surface temperatures for this area in winter which 



were slightly low, 0.1° to 0.2°C. The weak horizontal 
temperature gradients and vertical exaggeration of the 
section, amplified the effect in the computer contoured 
sections. 

Structure Below the Permanent Thermocline 

Below the permanent thermocline, the slopes of the 
isotherms can be used to separate the section into two 
regions. The 10°C isotherm is typical. In the western part 
of the section from Honolulu to about 1,800 km it 
generally changed depth by less than 50 m, i.e., the slope 
was less than 3 m/100 km. In the eastern part of the sec- 
tion, from a point at 2,200 km on the section to near San 
Francisco (3,800 km) the depth of the 10°C isotherm 
decreased by 150 to 200 m, or a slope of greater than 9 
m/100 km. The smaller slopes are associated with the 
Eastern North Pacific Central waters, while the steeper 
slopes were associated with both the California Current 
and Transition Zone regions. 



c. 



TEMPERATURE , °C 
10 15 20 




TEMPERATURE ,°C 
10 15 20 



25 



30 



100 



e 200 

X 

I- 

Q. 

LJ 

O 300 



400 



500 



100 



E 200 

X 
h- 
0. 
UJ 
Q 300 





APR/ 
MAY, 


/f/^<^»auG 






- 




W \JJJN 






APR 


NJUL. AUG 






- 








TAT!CN POSITION 






«o* 




-\ 


f 




JO* 






- 






!0* 


" -"fMawci.on is 






■o- itr -:" 


XT 



15 20 25 30 



500 
Figure 4. — Continued. 



400 



500 




Coastal Upwelling 

Reid et al. (1958) have described upwelling and the 
subsurface countercurrent along the California coast 
from repeated detailed oceanographic observations by 
the California Cooperative Oceanic Fisheries Investiga- 
tions (CalCOFI) program. Some effects of upwelling also 
appear in XBT mean temperatures, although sampling 
was poor at the California end of the route. In January, 
Appendix 1, the 9°C isotherm was closest to the surface 
(about 130 m) some 200 km from the California coast, 
but bent downward to 150 m at the coast. About late 
March the 9 C C isotherm began to rise and reached a 
depth of about 120 m at the coast by mid-June, so that it 
then had nearly a uniform upward trend approaching the 
coast. Starting in September it began to sink again at the 
coast and the "ridge" in the isotherm again moved 
gradually offshore and by mid-November had returned 
to the position 200 km offshore where it was in January. 

Coastal upwelling causes a delay in the onset of sum- 
mer warming and a reduced range of the seasonally vary- 
ing mean temperature. In the inshore area of the Califor- 
nia Current (Fig. 3g), after a nearly constant winter 
temperature of about 12°C, summer warming at the sur- 



face did not begin until late May or early June, as com- 
pared with April or May farther offshore (Fig. 3e, f). Also, 
in the inshore area the September temperature max- 
imum reached only 16°C, for an annual range of only 
4°C, whereas farther offshore (Fig. 3f) it reached 17.5°C 
for an annual range exceeding 5°C. 

California Subsurface Countercurrent 

In the vertical sections of Appendix 1 the downwarp- 
ing of the 6°, 7°, and 8°C isotherms from 200 km at sea to 
the California coast shows warmer water against the 
coast (at depths of 200 to 500 m) than offshore. This 
agrees with observations of Reid et al. (1958) who 
reported the existence of a narrow northward moving 
undercurrent against the California coast and below 200 
m. An exception occurred during April and May when 
the 8°C isotherm rose to about 200 m at the coast. This 
indicates that upwelling normally reached to that depth 
during these months. Another exception was the nearly 
level approach to the coast of the 8°C isotherm from mid- 
August to mid-September. This may reflect a brief late- 
summer upwelling period, but might just be the result of 
inadequate sampling immediately adjacent to the coast. 



TEMPERATURE , °C 
10 15 20 



2S 



30 




TEMPERATURE ,°C 
10 15 20 



25 



30 



100 



E 200 

X 
K 

Q_ 
UJ 
Q 300 



500 



400 



500 





' APR 

MAS] 


/ 1 J ) AUG 
// - ->- JUL 






- 




^ \MAY 






MAR 


7\AiiS 






- 








STATION POSITION 






AD- 


Son 


T* 


1 




30* 












JO* 


■-^»„« 




■- ■ 


>0- iW 140- 


ISO* i 



10 



20 



25 



30 



100 



E 200 

I 
I— 

Q. 

UJ 

Q 300 



400 



500 





FEB i 


K^<^ P 


- 


JAN/jJ 


jU?^\nov 
*^\DEC 


FEB y 


^SEP 


- 


/'NOV 






RATION POSITION 


- 


-0 


p* 








SO 
20 


zL 


" 


" 


° , ,5 ° ,at ' , '"' 





10 



20 



25 



30 



Figure 4. — Continued. 

The 30-Day Temperature Changes 

The lower panels of the figures in Appendix 1 show 
contours of temperature change in the upper 200 m dur- 
ing 30-day periods (of a 360-day yr). The maximum rate 
of warming was 2°C/mo in June at the surface near 2,600 
km, which is in the Transition Zone. The maximum rate 
of cooling was just over 1.5°C/mo during November and 
December in the same area. The rate of cooling was 
smaller because the cooling takes place over a depth of at 
least 50 m whereas the warming is confined to a shal- 
lower layer of about 25 m. There was very little 
temperature change at any depth throughout the section 
from mid-March to mid-April, but there was no cor- 
responding period in the fall. 

In the fall period the downward mixing of heat into the 
upper thermocline as the surface cools is evident over 
most of the route in the temperature changes (Appendix 
1) and in the vertical profiles (Fig. 4a-g). Beginning in 
August a subsurface maximum of warming appeared just 
above 50 m throughout most of the section. The level of 
maximum warming moved downward during the fall 
reaching 100 m in December. During this time the sur- 
face was cooling and a strong gradient of temperature 
change developed between the surface cooling and the 



100 



E 200 

I 
h- 
O- 
LU 

Q 300 



400 



500 



1 


' EEB. |! 
JAN., 


^ .DEC 




" 


uov/yy 




" 


EEfi 


Ih^E 




- 


II 






>TAT10N POSITION 




- 


flO" 


Son 


5* 








10* 


Z^ 




■ 


, 


1 ' 


150* > 





subsurface warming. The maximum subsurface warm- 
ing decreased as its depth increased with time, and sub- 
surface warming essentially disappeared by February. 

The patterns of temperature change in the California 
Current region differ from those over most of the section. 
For example, from September through November and at 
distances of 3,200 to 3,400 km along the route, cooling ex- 
tended downward from the surface to 200 m, at least. 
This created a break in the pattern of the warming max- 
imum at 50 m, which existed over the rest of the section. 
A secondary center of cooling below 100 m occurred at 
2,700 to 2,900 km on the route. These changes were as- 
sociated with the development of a wave pattern in the 
isotherms along the permanent thermocline. The centers 
of cooling were associated with a steepening of the slope 
of the isotherms in the corresponding vertical sections, 
whereas in between these centers the isotherms flatten 
out. The steepening and flattening indicate a splitting of 
the broad flow of the California Current into filaments of 
stronger and weaker flow, respectively. The cooling pat- 
tern propagated westward along the section at a speed of 
about 100 km/mo (3.8 cm/s). 

There was a counterpart center of warming which ap- 
peared in mid-December in the California Current region 
(around 3,400 km and 90 m) and which could be followed 



TEMPERATURE ,°C 
10 15 20 



100 



E 200 

I 
r- 
o_ 

UJ 

Q 300 



400 



500 



100 



E 200 

I 
h- 
Q_ 

bJ 

Q 300 



400 



500 




20 



25 



30 



1 ' J 1 J 'J SKI ' 
i-lh. - /^>» DEC 

MAR ^T 

.^T MAR 

MOV/ / 

// station - 


- 


// ^ 


yP* 


a* 


«■ ISO" IW iM* i 



Figure 4. — Continued. 

through early April propagating westward, also at the 
rate of 100 km/mo. This warming, however, was as- 
sociated with the disappearance of the previously men- 
tioned wave pattern along the thermocline. 

From considerations of heat balance we may infer from 
the patterns of temperature changes that over most of 
the section vertical mixing dominates in transmitting the 
surface warming-cooling cycle downward to subsurface 
levels of 100 to 150 m. In contrast, horizontal advection of 
heat may be dominant in the California Current to 
depths of 200 to 300 m. The cause of the growth and 
decay of the wave pattern on the thermocline in the 
eastern part of the sections should be investigated. 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

The observational series could not have been started 
without full support and encouragement from the late 
0. E. Sette, then Director of the Bureau of Commercial 
Fisheries, Biological Laboratory, at Stanford, Calif., and 
Paul M. Wolff, USN, then Officer-in-Charge of the Fleet 
Numerical Weather Facility, Monterey. Throughout 
there has been close cooperation between NMFS and 
FNWC on this project, with the latter supplying partial 
financial support, services, and, since 1973, the XBT 
probes. 



The cooperation of the shipping companies and per- 
sonnel of ships listed in Table 1 is gratefully 
acknowledged. Special recognition is due L. E. Ingraham 
and George Pearce, then Chief Mate and Second Mate of 
the Californian, for their interest and cooperation during 
the first 2 yr of the project to establish a working ship- 
board routine and to shakedown a new, and sometimes 
seemingly capricious, oceanographic instrument. 

We wish to recognize the assistance of many individ- 
uals on this project: Paul N. Sund, Kenneth Bliss, Byron 
Ruppel, Robert Melrose, and Brian Jarvis for field opera- 
tions; and Patricia Current, Theodora Cristobal, Marsha 
Foulkes, and Hilary Hogan in data processing. Special 
thanks are due Dorothy Stewart Roll for programming 
and data management during the first 5 yr of the project 
and Al Good for additional programming and process- 
ing. Ann Moore (SIO) helped prepare materials for 
publication, and Lorraine Prescott (NMFS) typed the 
manuscript. 

Partial funding support was received prior to 1970 from 
the Oceanometrics Program of the Navy Electronics 
Laboratory, San Diego. Beginning in 1971 under IDOE 
programs, funding of field operations has been received 
from both the National Science Foundation and the Of- 
fice of Naval Research. This report was prepared under 
NSF Grant OCE 75-23356 to Scripps Institution of 
Oceanography. 



LITERATURE CITED 

DALE, D. H., and P. D. STEVENS. 

1970. Computer processing of expendable bathythermograph 
traces. U.S. Fleet Numerical Weather Central, Tech. Note 61, 
12 p. 

DODIMEAD, A. J, F. FAVORITE, and T. HIRANO. 

1963. Review of oceanography of the Subarctic Pacific Region. 
Int. North Pac. Fish. Comm., Bull. 13, 195 p. 
DORMAN, C. E., and J. F. T. SAUR. 

1977. Maps of temperature anomalies between San Francisco and 
Honolulu, 1966-1974, computed by an objective analysis. Center 
for Marine Studies, San Diego State University, San Diego, 14 p. 

1978. Temperature anomalies between San Francisco and Hono- 
lulu, 1966-1974, gridded by an objective analysis. J. Phys. 
Oceanogr. 8:247-257. 

LaFOND, E. C, and K. G. LaFOND. 

1971. Thermal structure through the California Front: factors 
affecting underwater sound transmission measured with a towed 
thermistor chain and attached current meters. U.S. Naval 
Undersea Research and Development Center, San Diego, NUC TP 
224, 133 p. 

LAURS, R. M., and R. J. LYNN. 

1977. Seasonal migration of North Pacific albacore, Thunnus 
alalunga, into North American coastal waters: Distribution, rela- 
tive abundance, and association with Transition Zone waters. 
Fish. Bull., U.S. 75:795-822. 
RETD, J. L., Jr., G. I. RODEN, and J. G. WYLLIE. 

1958. Studies of the California Current system. Calif. Coop. 
Oceanic Fish. Invest., Prog. Rep., 1 July 1956 to 1 Jan. 1958, 
p. 28-57. 
ROBINSON, M. K. 

1976. Atlas of North Pacific Ocean monthly mean temperatures 
and mean salinities of the surface layer. Naval Oceanographic 
Office, Rep. No. NOO RP-2, p. i-xix, Wash., D.C. 
RODEN, G. I. 

1971. Aspects of the transition zone in the Northeastern Pacific. 
J. GeophyB. Res. 76:3462-3475. 



10 



1975. On North Pacific temperature, salinity, sound velocity and 
density fronts and their relation to the wind and energy flux fields. 
J. Phys. Oceanogr. 5:557-571. 
SAUR, J. F. T. 

1974. Subsurface temperature structure in the northeast Pacific 

Ocean. U.S. Dep. Commer., NOAA, NMFS, Fish. Inf. 1974(5): 
8-9. 



SAUR, J. F. T., and P. D. STEVENS. 

1972. Expendable bathythermograph observations from ships of 
opportunity. Mar. Weather Log 16:1-8. 
SAUR, J. F. T., and D. D. STEWART. 

1967. Expendable bathythermograph data on subsurface thermal 
structure in the eastern North Pacific Ocean. U.S. Fish Wildl. 
Serv., Spec. Sci. Rep. Fish. 548, 70 p. 
SHAPIRO, R. 

1970. Smoothing, filtering, and boundary effects. Rev. Geophys. 
Space Phys. 8:359-387. 



APPENDIX 1 

Vertical Sections of Mean Temperature and Mean "30-day" Temperature Change 

This Appendix contains 24 vertical sections of mean temperature (°C), from the surface to 500 m, between San 
Francisco and Honolulu (upper panel) and spaced at 15-day intervals of a 360-day yr. The lower panel is a vertical sec- 
tion to 200 m showing the 30-day changes in temperature and centered on the date of the temperature section above it. 
For convenience the sections are labeled as: 01 January, mid-January, 01 February, etc., through mid-December. 

The grids of mean temperature were spatially smoothed, as explained in the text, before being contoured. 



-KILOMETERS- 
2000 



Son Francisco- 



E 200 




MERN XBT TEMPERRTURE* DEG-C 

1000 2000 



01 JANUARY 

3800 




200 



MERN XBT TEMPERRTURE CHANGE. DEG-C MID-DECEMBER TO MID- JANUARY 

11 



-KILOMETERS- 
2000 



San Francisco- 



E 200 



0. 
LJ 




MERN XBT TEMPERRTURE*. CEE-C 



MID-JRNURRY 




MERN XBT TEMPERRTURE CHRNGE* DEG-C 



01 JRNURRY TO 01 FEBRURRY 



-KILOMETERS- 
2000 



Son Francisco-i 
3000 3800 



E 200 




MERN XBT TEMPERATURE* DEG-C 

1000 2000 



01 FEBRURRY 

3000 3800 




MERN XBT TEMPERRTURE CHRNGE. DEG-C MID-JRNURRY TO MID-FEBRURRY 



12 



-KILOMETERS- 
2000 



San Francisco- 




MERN XBT TEMPERATURE , DEG-C 



MID-FEBRURRY 




MERN XBT TEMPERATURE CHANGE. DEG-C 



01 FEBRURRY TO 01 MARCH 



-KILOMETERS- 
2000 



San Froncisco- 



£ 200 




200 £ 



MEAN XBT TEMPERATURE? DEG-C 

1000 2000 



01 MARCH 




MEAN XBT TEMPERATURE CHANGE* DEG-C MID-FEBRUARY TO MID-MARCH 



13 



-KILOMETERS- 
2000 



Son Francisco- 



E 200 




MEAN XBT TEMPERATURE , DEG-C 



MID-MARCH 

3800 




MERN XBT TEMPERATURE CHANGE* DEG-C 



01 MARCH TO 01 APRIL 



-KILOMETERS- 
2000 



San Francisco- 



E 200 




MERN XBT TEMPERATURE* DEG 

1000 



200 E 



)1 APRIL 




DEG-C MID-MARCH TC MID-APRIL 



14 



-KILOMETERS- 
20O0 



San Francisco- 



E 200 



a. 

a 




MEAN XBT TEMPERATURE CHANGE, DEG-C 



01 APRIL TO 01 MAY 



-KILOMETERS- 
2000 



San Francisco- 




MERN XBT TEMPERATURE CHANGE* DEG-C 



MID-RPRIL TO MID-MAY 



15 



-KILOMETERS- 
2000 

_1_ 



San Francisco- 



£ 200- 




200 E 



MEAN XBT TEMPERATURE. DEG-C 

1000 2000 



MID-MRY 

3000 3800 




MEAN XBT TEMPERATURE CHANGE. DEG-C 



01 MAY TO 01 JUNE 



-KILOMETERS- 
2000 



San Francisco- 




■:BT TEMPERATURE CHANGE. DEG-C 



MID-MRY TG MID- JUNE 



16 



-KILOMETERS- 
2000 



San Froncisco- 



£ 200 




MEAN XBT TEMPERATURE* DEG-C 

1000 2000 



200 E 



MID- JUNE 

3000 3800 




MERN XBT TEMPERRTURE CHRNGE. DEG-C 



01 JUNE TO 01 JULY 



-KILOMETERS- 
2000 



San Francisco- 




MERN XBT TEMPERATURE* DEG-C 

1000 



01 JULY 




<BT TEMPERRTURE CHRNGE* DEG-C 



MID-JUNE TO MID- JULY 



17 



KILOMETERS- 



e 200 




-200 £ 






MERN XBT TEMPERRTURE. DEG-C 



MID- JULY 




MERN XBT TEMPERRTURE CHANGE. DEG-C 



01 JULY TO 01 RUGUST 



-KILOMETERS- 
2000 



Son Froncisco- 



E 200- 



-200 £ 




MERN XBT TEMPERRTURE. DEG-C 



01 RUGUST 

3000 J800 




MERN XBT TEMPERRTURE CHANGE. DEG-C 



MID- JULY TO M1D-RUGUST 



18 



-KILOMETERS 



San Francisco- 



E 200- 




MERN XBT TEMPERATURE* DEG-C 

1000 



MID-AUGUST 

3800 




MEAN XBT TEMPERRTURE CHRNGE* DEG-C 01 RUGUST TO 01 SEPTEMBER 



r' 



-KILOMETERS- 
2000 



San Francisco-i 

3000 3800 

i-^J, 1, . I , ■ I 




200 E 



MEAN XBT TEMPERRTURE, OEG-C 

1000 



01 SEPTEMBER 

3000 3800 




MERN XBT TEMPERRTURE CHANGE* DEG-C MID-AUGUST TO MID-SEPTEMBER 



19 



-KILOMETERS- 
2000 



Son Francisco-i 
3000 3800 



g 200 




MEAN XBT TEMPERATURE* DEG-C 

1000 



MID-SEPTEMBER 

3000 3800 




MERN XBT TEMPERATURE CHANGE. DEG-C 01 SEPTEMBER TO 01 OCTOBER 



-KILOMETERS- 
2000 



San Francisco- 



£ 200 




MERN XBT TEMPERATURE* DEG-C 



01 OCTOBER 



3800 




MEAN XBT TEMPER- IGE» DEG-C MID-SEPTEMBER TO MID-OCTOBER 



20 



-KILOMETERS- 
2000 



San Francisco- 




MERN XBT TEMPERATURE* DEG-C 

1000 2000 



MID-OCTOBER 

3800 




MEAN XBT TEMPERRTURE CHANGE. DEG-C 01 OCTOBER TO 01 NOVEMBER 



-KILOMETERS- 
2000 



San Francisco- 




200 E 



MEAN XBT TEMPERATURE* DEG-C 

1000 2000 



01 NOVEMBER 

3000 3800 




-100 I 



MEAN XBT TEMPERRTURE CHANGE* DEG-C MID-OCTOBER TO MID-NOVEMBER 



21 



-KILOMETERS- 
2000 



San Francisco- 




-200 £ 



MEAN XBT TEMPERATURE. DEG-C 

1000 



MID-NOVEMBER 

) 3800 




MERN XBT TEMPERATURE CHANGE , DEG-C 01 NOVEMBER TO 01 DECEMBER 



-KILOMETERS- 
2000 

J i_ 



San Francisco- 




200 E 



MERN XBT TEMPERATURE , DEG-C 

1000 2000 



01 DECEMBER 

1000 3800 




MEAN XBT TEMPEAATURE CHANGE. DEG-C MID-NOVEMBEA TO MID-DECEMBER 



22 



-KILOMETERS- 
2000 



San Froncisco- 



E 200 




MEAN XBT TEMPERATURE! DEG-C 

1000 2000 



MID-DECEMBER 

3000 3800 




MERN XBT TEMPERATURE CHRNGE, DEG-C 



01 DECEMBER TO 01 JRNURRY 



APPENDIX 2 

Tables of Mean XBT Temperature 

This Appendix contains 24 tables of mean temperatures (°C) spaced at equal intervals throughout the year, 
corresponding to the temperature sections of Appendix 1. Each table contains, at alternating grid points, i.e., intervals 
of 185 km (100 n.mi.) on the San Francisco-Honolulu route, the mean temperature for selected depths, in meters. The 
mean temperatures are those computed from the fitted three-component harmonic function for the given distance and 
depth. These temperatures were abstracted from the complete grid, without smoothing. 



23 










10 




20 




30 




140 




50 


D 


60 


E 


70 


P 


80 


T 


90 


H 


100 




120 


00 


150 




200 




250 




300 




1400 




500 




I HI 




KB 



MEAN XBT TEMPERATURE* DEG-C 01 JANUARY 

23.9 23.9 23.2 23.0 22.6 22.3 21. B 21.14 20.9 19.8 19.3 18.9 18.2 17.7 16.7 16.14 15.5 14.9 13.7 12.3 

23.9 23.8 23.2 23.0 22.6 22.3 21.8 2 1 . 4 20.8 19.8 19.3 18.9 18.2 17.6 16.7 16.3 15.5 114.9 13.8 12.3 

23.9 23.8 23.2 23.1 22.5 22.3 21.8 2 1 . 4 20.8 19.7 19.3 18.9 18.2 17.6 16.7 16.3 15.5 15.0 13.8 12.2 

23.9 23.8 23.2 23.1 22.5 22.3 21.8 21.14 20.8 19.7 19.3 18.9 18.1 17.6 16.8 16.2 15.5 15.0 13.8 12.2 

23.9 23.8 23.2 23.1 22.5 22.2 21.8 21.3 20.8 19.7 19.3 18.9 18.1 17.7 16.9 16.1 15.6 15.0 13.9 12.1 

214.0 23.8 23.2 23.1 22.5 22.2 21.8 21.4 20.9 19.7 19.3 19.0 18.3 17.8 17.0 16.3 15.7 15.0 13.9 11.9 

2U. 23.7 23.2 23.1 22.5 22.2 21.9 21.0 20.9 19.8 19.4 19.0 18. u 17.9 17.1 16.2 15.7 14.8 13.5 11.4 

214.0 23.7 23.2 23.1 22. H 22.1 21.9 21.14 21.0 19.8 19.5 18.9 18.3 17.8 16.8 15.7 15.14 114.5 12.8 10.6 

23.8 23.14 23.1 22.9 22.1 21.8 21.6 21.1 20.7 19.6 19.4 18.8 18.0 17.5 16.14 15.14 14.4 13.7 11.9 10.0 

23.3 22.9 22.8 22.5 21.6 2 1 . 4 21.0 20.7 20.2 19.2 19.2 18.14 17.6 17.0 15.7 114.5 13.3 12.7 11.3 9,7 

22.8 22. 4 22.3 22.0 21.1 20.8 20.3 20.1 19.7 18.8 18.8 17.9 17.2 16.14 15.0 13.9 12.6 12.0 11.0 9.5 
21.5 21.1 21.1 20.6 20.1 19.7 19.1 18.9 18.6 17.5 17.9 17.1 16.2 15.3 114.2 13.0 11.7 11.0 10.1 9.1 
20.0 19.6 19.7 19.2 18.6 18.2 17.7 17.14 17.0 16.2 16.2 15.8 14.7 13.9 12.8 11.6 10.14 9.9 9.4 8.8 
17.2 17.2 17.14 16.5 16.1 15.8 15.2 15.0 14.5 13.4 13.2 12.9 12.0 11.3 10.5 9.9 9.2 9.0 8.6 8.1 

13.9 114.1 114.7 13.6 13.14 13.2 12.7 12.5 12.3 11.6 11.1 11.0 10. 4 10.0 9.14 9.0 8.14 8.1 7.9 7.5 

11.4 11.5 11.9 11.6 11.6 11.5 11.2 11.1 10.9 10.5 9.9 9.9 9.14 9.0 8.4 8.0 7.6 7.U 7.2 7.0 
8.U 8.6 8.E 8.9 8.9 8.9 8.8 8.6 8.6 8.3 7.8 7.8 7.4 7.1 6.7 6.5 6.14 6.2 6.2 6.2 
6.7 6.6 6.6 6.6 6.8 6.8 6.7 6.5 6.6 6.14 6.2 6.3 5.9 5.7 5.5 5.6 5.5 5.5 5.6 5.5 

50 150 251 350 1450 550 650 750 850 950 1050 1150 1250 1350 H450 1550 1650 1750 1850 1950 

93 278 1461 6U9 834 1019 1205 1390 1575 1761 1946 2131 2317 2502 2687 2872 3058 3243 3428 3614 

DISTANCE 



MEAN XBT TEMPERATURE* DEG-C MID-JANUARY 

23.6 23.6 22.9 22.7 22.2 21.9 21.5 20.9 20.4 19.4 18.9 18.5 17.8 17.2 16.4 15.9 15.0 14.6 13.4 12.1 

23.6 23.6 22.9 22.7 22.2 21.9 21.5 20.9 20.4 19.4 18.9 18.5 17.7 17.2 16.3 15.9 15.0 14.5 13.5 12.0 

23.6 23.6 22.9 22.7 22.1.21.9 21.4 20.9 20.4 19.4 IB. 9 18.5 17.7 17.1 16.3 15.9 15.0 14.6 13.5 11.9 

23.6 23.6 22.8 22.7 22.1 21.9 21.4 20.9 20.3 19.3 18.9 18.5 17.7 17.1 16.4 15.8 14.9 14.5 13.5 11.9 

23.6 23.5 22.8 22.7 22.1 21.8 21.4 20.8 20.3 19.3 18.8 18.5 17.6 17.1 16.5 15.7 15.0 14.5 13.6 11.9 

23.5 23.5 22.8 22.7 22.0 21.8 21.4 20.8 20.3 19.3 IB." 18.5 17.7 17.2 16.5 15.8 15.1 14.6 13.6 11.8 

23.5 23.4 22.8 22.7 22.0 21.7 21.4 20.8 20.4 19.4 19.0 18.6 17.8 17.3 16.6 15.9 15.2 14.5 13.4 11.5 

23.5 23.3 22.8 22.7 22.0 21.7 21.4 20.9 20.4 19.4 19.1 18.6 17.9 17.3 16.6 15.7 15.1 14.5 12.8 10.8 

23.3 23.0 22.7 22.6 21.9 21.6 21.2 20.8 20.3 19.4 19.1 18.6 17.9 17.3 16.3 15.5 14.3 13.9 12.1 10.1 
23.1 22.6 22.4 22.3 21.6 21.3 20.9 20.5 20.0 19.3 19.0 18.4 17.7 17.0 15.7 14.7 13.3 13.0 11.5 9.8 

22.6 22.2 22.1 21.9 21.2 20.8 20.3 20.0 19.5 19.0 18." 18.0 17.3 16.4 15.0 14.0 12.5 12.3 11.1 9.6 

21.4 21.1 21.0 20.7 20.2 19.8 19.2 18.9 18.6 17.7 18.0 17.1 16.2 15.1 14.0 13.0 11.5 11.1 10.3 9.2 

20.0 19.7 79.5 19.3 18.6 18.2 17.7 17.3 17.1 16.2 16.2 15.9 14.8 13.7 12.7 11.5 10.2 10.0 9.5 8.8 
17.3 17.4 17.2 16.7 16.1 15.8 15.2 14.9 14.5 13.4 13.3 12.9 12.0 11.1 10.5 9.8 9.1 9.0 8.6 8.1 

14.1 14.3 14.6 13.8 13.5 13.2 12.7 12.4 12.3 11.5 11.1 11.0 10.4 9.9 9.4 8.9 8.4 8.2 7.9 7.6 

11.5 11.7 11.9 11.7 11.6 11.4 11.2 11.1 11.0 10.4 9.9 10.0 9.3 8.9 8.4 8.0 7.5 7.4 7.2 7.0 
8.4 8.7 B.9 8.9 9.C B.8 8.8 8.6 8.7 8.2 7.9 7.9 7.3 7.0 6.6 6.4 6.3 6.2 6.1 6.3 
6.8 6.6 6.6 6.7 6.7 6.7 6.8 6.5 6.6 6.4 6.2 6.3 5.8 5.6 5.5 5.5 5.5 5.4 5.5 5.5 

50 150 250 350 450 550 o^O 750 850 950 1050 1150 1250 1350 1450 1550 1650 1750 1850 1950 

93 278 463 649 834 1019 12"5 1390 1575 1761 1946 2131 2317 2502 2687 2872 3058 3243 3428 3614 

DTSTANCE 










10 




20 




30 




40 




50 


D 


60 


E 


70 


P 


80 


T 


90 


U 


100 




120 


(H) 


150 




200 




250 




300 




400 




500 




N HI 




Kfl 



24 



MEAN XBT TEMPERATURE » DEG-C 



01 FEBRUARY 








23.1 


23.5 


22.7 


22.4 


21.9 


21.7 


21.2 


20.4 


19.9 


19. 1 


18.6 


18.2 


17.4 


16.8 


16.1 


15.5 


14.6 


14.3 


13.2 


12.1 




10 


23.3 


23. H 


22.7 


22.4 


21.9 


21.6 


21. 1 


20.4 


19.9 


19. 1 


18.5 


18.2 


17.4 


16.7 


16.0 


15.4 


14.6 


14.2 


13.2 


12.0 




20 


23.3 


23. U 


22.6 


22.4 


21.8 


21.6 


21. 1 


20.4 


19.9 


19. 1 


18.5 


18.1 


17.4 


16.7 


16.0 


15.4 


14.5 


14.2 


13.2 


11.9 




30 


23.3 


23. H 


22.6 


22.4 


21.8 


21.6 


21. 1 


20.4 


19.9 


19. 1 


18.5 


18. 1 


17.3 


16.6 


16. 1 


15.4 


14.5 


14.1 


13.2 


11.9 




no 


23.2 


23.3 


22.5 


22.3 


21.9 


21.5 


21.0 


20.3 


19.9 


19. 1 


18. 4 


18.1 


17.3 


16.6 


16.1 


15.4 


14.5 


14. 1 


13.2 


11.8 




50 


23.2 


23.3 


22.5 


22.4 


21.7 


21.4 


21.0 


20.2 


19.8 


19.0 


18.5 


18. 1 


17.2 


16.5 


16.0 


15.4 


14.5 


14.1 


13.2 


11.8 


D 


60 


23. 1 


23.1 


22.4 


22. 3 


21.7 


21. 3 


20.9 


20.2 


19.6 


19.0 


18.5 


18.1 


17.3 


16. £ 




15.5 


14.6 


14.2 


13.0 


11.5 


E 


70 


23.0 


23.0 


22.4 


22.3 


21.6 


21.3 


20.8 


20.3 


19.7 


19. 1 


18.6 


18.2 


17.4 


16.7 


16.1 


15.5 


14.6 


14.3 


12.7 


10.9 


P 


80 


22.9 


22.7 


22.2 


22.2 


21.6 


21.2 


20.8 


20.3 


19.7 


19. 1 


18.6 


18.2 


17.5 


16.7 


16.0 


15.4 


14. 1 


13.9 


12.1 


10.2 


I 


90 


22.7 


22. U 


22.0 


22.0 


21.4 


21.0 


20.7 


20. 1 


19.5 


19.2 


18.6 


18.2 


17.5 


16.6 


15.6 


14.8 


13.4 


13.2 


11.6 


9.8 


H 


100 


22.3 


22.0 


21.8 


21.7 


21. 1 


20.7 


20.3 


19.8 


19.2 


19.0 


18.6 


17.9 


17.3 


16. 3 


14.9 


14. 1 


12.6 


12.5 


11.2 


9.6 




120 


21.3 


21.2 


20.9 


20.7 


20.2 


19.8 


19.3 


18.9 


18.5 


17.9 


18.0 


17.1 


16.3 


15.0 


13.8 


12.9 


11.5 


11.2 


10.4 


9.2 


00 


150 


19.9 


19.8 


19.4 


19.4 


18.6 


18.4 


17.8 


17.3 


17. 1 


16.4 


16. 1 


15.8 


14.8 


13.5 


12.6 


11.4 


10.1 


10.1 


9.5 


8.8 




200 


17. U 


17.6 


17. 1 


16.9 


16. 1 


15.9 


15.3 


14.7 


14. 4 


13.5 


13.3 


12.9 


12.0 


10.9 


10.4 


9.7 


9.1 


9.0 


8.6 


8. 1 




250 


14. 3 


14.5 


14.6 


14.0 


13.5 


13.2 


12.8 


12.4 


12.2 


1 1.5 


11. 1 


11.1 


10.4 


9.7 


9.3 


8.8 


8.3 


8.2 


7.9 


7.6 




300 


11.7 


11.9 


12.0 


11.8 


11.6 


11.4 


11. 3 


1 1.0 


11.0 


10.3 


9.9 


10.0 


9.3 


8.8 


8.3 


7.8 


7.5 


7.4 


7.2 


7.0 




too 


8.6 


8.8 


8.9 


8.9 


9.0 


8.8 


8.8 


8.6 


8.7 


8.2 


7.9 


7.9 


7.3 


6.8 


6.6 


6.2 


6.2 


6.1 


6.2 


6.2 




500 


6.9 


6.6 


6.6 


6.7 


6.6 


6.6 


6.7 


6.5 


6.6 


6.4 


6. 1 


6.2 


5.9 


5.5 


5.4 


5.4 


5.4 


5.3 


5.4 


5.6 




N HI 


50 


150 


250 


350 


45C 


550 


650 


750 


850 


950 


1050 


1150 


1250 


1350 


1450 


1550 


1650 


1750 


1850 


1950 




Kfl 


93 


278 


463 


649 


834 


1019 


1215 


1390 


1575 


1761 


1946 


2131 


2317 


2502 


2687 


2872 


3058 


3243 


3428 


3614 



DISTANCE 



MEAN XBT TEMPERATURE? DEG-C 



MID-FEBRUARY 








23.3 


23.3 


22.7 


22.3 


21.7 


21.5 


20.9 


20.0 




10 


23.2 


23.3 


22.6 


22.3 


21.7 


21.5 


20.9 


20.0 




20 


23.2 


23.3 


22.6 


22.2 


21.7 


21.4 


20.9 


20.0 




30 


23. 1 


23.3 


22.5 


22.2 


21.6 


21.4 


20.8 


20.0 




40 


23. 1 


23.2 


22.4 


22. 1 


21.6 


21.3 


20.8 


19.9 




50 


23.0 


23.2 


22.3 


22. 1 


21.5 


21.2 


20.7 


19.9 


D 


60 


22.8 


23.0 


22.2 


22.0 


21.4 


21. 1 


20.6 


19.8 


E 


70 


22.7 


22.8 


22. 1 


21.9 


21. 3 


21.0 


20.5 


19.8 


P 


80 


22.6 


22.6 


22.0 


21.9 


21.3 


21.0 


20.4 


19.8 


I 


90 


22.4 


22.3 


21.8 


21.8 


21. 2 


20.8 


20.4 


19.7 


H 


100 


22. 1 


22.0 


21.6 


21.5 


20.9 


20.6 


20. 1 


19.5 




120 


21.3 


21.3 


20.9 


20.7 


20. 2 


19.9 


19.4 


18.8 


00 


150 


19.9 


20.0 


19.5 


19.5 


18.6 


18.5 


17.9 


17.3 




200 


17.5 


17.7 


17. 1 


17. 1 


16. 1 


16.0 


15.4 


14.6 




250 


14.5 


14.7 


14.6 


14.2 


13. 4 


13. 3 


12.9 


12. 3 




300 


11.9 


12. 1 


12. 1 


1 1.9 


11.6 


11.4 


11.3 


11.0 




400 


8.6 


8.9 


8.9 


9.0 


9.0 


8.8 


8.8 


8.6 




500 


6.8 


6.7 


6.7 


6.8 


6. 5 


6.5 


6.7 


6.6 




H BI 


50 


150 


250 


350 


450 


550 


650 


750 




Krt 


93 


278 


463 


649 


834 


1019 


12"5 


1390 



19.6 19.0 18.3 

19.6 19.0 18.3 

19.6 19.0 18.3 

19.6 18.9 18.2 

19.5 18.9 18.2 

19.5 19.0 18.2 

19.3 18.9 18.2 

19.2 IS. 8 18.7 

19.2 18.8 18.2 

19. 1 18.9 18.7 
18.9 18.9 18.3 

18.3 18. 1 17.9 

17.0 16.6 16.0 

14.2 13.7 13.2 

12.1 11.5 11.1 
10.9 10.3 10.0 

8.6 8.1 7.9 

6.6 6.4 6.1 



17.9 
17.9 
17.9 
17.8 
17.8 
17.7 
17.7 
17.7 
17.8 
17.8 
17.6 
16.9 
15.7 
12.7 
11.0 
9.9 
7.8 
6.1 



17.2 
17.2 
17.1 
17.2 
17. 1 
17.0 
16.9 
17.0 
17.2 
17.2 
17.1 
16.4 
14.9 
12. 1 
10.5 
9. 3 
7.3 
5.9 



16.4 
16. 3 
16.3 
16.2 
16.2 
16.1 
16.0 
16.1 
16. 7 
16.2 
16.0 
14.9 
13.3 
10.7 
9.6 
8.6 
6.7 
5.5 



15.8 

15.8 

15.8 

15.8 

15.8 

15.7 

15.7 

15.7 

15.7 

15.4 

14.9 

13.6 

12.3 

10.3 

9.2 

8.3 

6.6 

5.5 



15.1 

15. 1 

15. 1 

15.2 

15.2 

15. 1 

15.2 

15.3 

15.2 

14.8 

14.1 

12.9 

11.3 

9.6 

8.7 

7.7 

6.2 

5.3 



14.3 

14.3 

14.3 

14.3 

14.2 

14.2 

14.2 

14.2 

13.9 

13.5 

12.8 

11.6 

10.2 

9.2 

8.3 

7.5 

6.2 

5.4 



14.0 

13.9 

13.9 

13.8 

13.8 

13.7 

13.9 

13.9 

13.7 

13.1 

12.5 

11.3 

10. 1 

9.0 

8.2 

7.4 

6. 1 

5.3 



13.1 

13.1 

13.0 

13.0 

12.9 

12.7 

12.6 

12.4 

12.0 

11.6 

1 1. 1 

10.4 

9.4 

8.5 

7.8 

7.2 

6.2 

5.4 



12.1 

12.1 

12.1 

12.0 

11.8 

11.7 

11.5 

11.0 

10.3 

9.9 

9.6 

9.2 

8.8 

8.1 

7.5 

7.0 

6.1 

5.5 



850 950 1050 1150 1250 1350 1450 1550 1650 1750 1850 1950 
1575 1761 1946 2131 2317 2502 2687 2872 3058 3243 3428 3614 
DTSTANC3 



25 










10 




20 




30 




10 




50 


D 


60 


E 


70 


P 


80 


T 


90 


H 


100 




120 


(M) 


150 




200 




250 




300 




100 




500 




N III 




Kfl 



MEAN XBT TEMPERATURE* DEG-C 01 MARCH 

23.3 23.2 22.6 22.2 21.6 21.3 20.7 19.8 19.3 18.6 18.1 17.6 17.0 16.0 15.6 14.9 11.2 13.8 13.0 12.2 
23.2 23.2 22.6 22.2 21.6 21.3 20.7 19.7 19.3 18.8 18.1 17.6 17.0 15.9 15.5 14.9 14.1 13.7 12.9 12.2 
23.1 23.2 22.6 22.1 21.6 21.3 20.6 19.7 19.3 18.8 18.1 17.6 16.9 15.9 15.6 11.9 11.1 13.6 12.9 12.2 

23.1 23.2 22.5 22.1 21.5 21.2 20.6 19.7 19.3 18.8 18.1 17.5 17.0 15.9 15.6 15.0 11.2 13.6 12.8 12.1 
23.0 23.1 22. 4 22.0 21.5 21.2 20.6 19.7 19.3 18.8 18.1 17.5 17.0 15.9 15.5 15.0 1U. 1 13.6 12.7 11.9 
22.9 23.1 22.3 21.9 21.0 21.1 20.6 19.7 19.2 13.9 18.1 17.4 16.9 15. R 15.4 15.0 11.1 13.5 12.5 11.7 
22.7 22.9 22.2 21.8 21.3 21.0 20. U 19.6 19.1 18.8 18." 17.4 16.8 15.7 15.3 10. 9 14.0 13.5 12.'3 11. 4 
22.6 22.8 22.1 21.7 21.1 20.9 20.3 19.5 18.9 18.6 17.0 17.3 16.8 15.7 15. "4 15.0 14.0 13.5 12.2 11.0 

22.4 22.6 21.9 21.7 21.0 20.8 20.2 19.14 18.8 18.6 17.9 17.3 16.8 15.7 15.3 14.9 13.9 13.1 12.0 10.1 

22.2 22.3 21.7 21.5 20.9 20.7 20.1 19.3 18.7 18.6 17.0 17. n 16.9 15.8 15.2 11.7 13.7 13.0 11.5 9.9 
21.9 22.0 21.5 21.3 20.7 20.5 19.9 19.2 18.6 18.6 17.9 17.3 16.9 15.7 11.9 11.1 13.1 12.4 11.0 9.6 

21.3 21.5 21.0 20.7 20.1 19.9 19.3 18.6 18.1 18.1 17.7 16.7 16.5 14.9 13.6 13.0 11.9 11.2 10.3 9.2 
19.9 20.1 19.8 19.6 18.6 18.6 18.0 17.3 16.9 16.7 15.9 15.5 15.0 13.1 12.2 11.3 10.5 10.1 9.3 8.7 

17.4 17.7 17.3 17.1 16.1 16.2 15.5 14.6 11.0 13.9 13.2 12.5 12.1 10.7 10.2 9.6 9.3 9.0 8.5 8.0 

14.5 14.7 14.7 14.3 13.4 13.4 12.9 12.3 12.0 11.6 11.2 10.9 10.5 9.6 9.2 8.6 8.3 8.2 7.8 7.5 
11.9 12.1 12.1 11.9 11.6 11.5 11.3 10.9 10.8 10.3 10.0 9.8 9.3 8.6 8.3 7.7 7.5 7.4 7.1 6.9 

8.7 8.9 8.9 9.0 8.9 8.9 8.8 8.6 8.5 e.2 7.9 7.7 7.4 6.7 6.6 6.2 6.2 6.1 6.2 6.1 

6.7 6.7 6.7 6.8 6.5 6.6 6.6 6.5 6.5 6.3 6.1 6.0 6.0 5.5 5.6 5.3 5.1 5.3 5.4 5.5 

50 150 250 350 450 550 650 750 850 950 1C50 1150 1250 1350 1450 1550 1650 1750 1850 1950 

93 278 463 649 834 1019 12"5 1390 1575 1761 1916 2131 2317 250? 2687 2872 3053 3213 3428 3614 

UISTANCE 



MEAN XBT TEMPERATURE 9 DEG-C MID-MARCH 

23.1 23.2 22.7 22.2 21.6 21.2 20.5 19.7 19.1 18.7 17.9 17.3 16.8 15.8 15.1 11.8 14.1 13.5 12.9 12.2 

23.3 23.1 22.6 22.1 21.6 21.2 20.5 19.7 19.1 18.7 17.9 17.3 16.8 15.7 15.3 14.8 14.1 13.5 12.8 12.2 

23.2 23.1 22.6 22.1 21.5 21.1 20.5 19.6 19.1 18.7 17.9 17.2 16.7 15.7 15.3 14.8 14.1 13.4 12.7 12.2 

23.2 23.1 22.6 22.1 21.5 21.1 20.4 19.6 19.1 ie.7 17.9 17.2 16.8 15.7 15.3 14.8 14.2 13.4 12.7 12.1 
23.1 23.1 22.5 22.0 21.4 21.1 20.4 19.6 19.1 18.7 18.0 17.2 16.8 15.7 15.3 14.8 14.2 13.4 12.6 11.9 

23.0 23.0 22.4 21.9 21.0 21.1 20.4 19.6 19.1 16.8 18.0 17.2 16.8 15.7 15.2 14.8 14.1 13.3 12.4 11.6 

22.8 22.9 22.3 21.8 21.2 21.0 20.3 19.6 19.0 18.7 17.9 17.1 16.8 15.6 15.2 14.8 14.0 13.2 12.3 11.3 
22.6 22.7 22.1 21.7 21.0 20.8 20.2 19.4 18.8 le.5 17.8 17.1 16.7 15.5 15.2 11.8 14.0 13.1 12.2 11.0 

22.4 22.6 21.9 21.6 20.9 20.7 20.1 19.2 18.7 16.4 17.8 17.1 16.6 15.5 15.1 14.8 14.0 13.0 12.0 10.5 

22.1 22.3 21.8 21.4 20.7 20.6 19.9 19.1 18.6 18.3 17.7 17.0 16.7 15.5 15.1 14.7 13.9 12.7 11.6 10.0 

21.9 21.9 21.6 21.2 20.5 20.4 19.7 19.0 18.4 18.3 17.7 17.0 16.7 15.5 11.9 14.3 13.5 12.2 11.0 9.6 

21.3 21.5 21.1 20.8 19.9 19.8 19.1 18.5 18.0 16.0 17.5 16.6 16.5 14.9 13.9 13.3 12.4 11.0 10.2 9.2 

20.0 20.1 20.0 19.6 18.6 18.6 18.0 17.3 16.8 16.8 15.9 15.5 15.1 13.2 12.1 11.5 10.8 10.0 9.3 8.7 
17.3 17.6 17.5 17.2 16.1 16.3 15.6 14.6 13.9 14.0 13.2 12.4 12.1 10.8 10.2 9.6 9.4 8.9 8.5 8.1 

11.1 11.7 11.8 11.3 13.1 13.5 12.9 12.2 11.8 11.7 11.3 10.8 10.5 9.6 9.2 8.7 8.4 8.1 7.8 7.5 
11.8 12.0 12.1 12.0 11.7 11.5 11.2 10.9 10.7 10.3 10.1 s.7 9.4 8.6 8.3 7.8 7.6 7.3 7.1 6.9 

8.7 8.9 d.9 9.1 8.9 8.9 8.7 8.6 8.4 6.2 7.9 7.6 7.5 6.7 6.6 6.3 6.2 6.2 6.2 6.0 

6.6 6.6 6.7 6.9 6.6 6.6 b.6 6.5 6.5 6.3 6.7 5.9 5.9 5.6 5.7 5.3 5.4 5.3 5.5 5.5 

50 150 250 350 450 550 650 750 850 950 1C50 1150 1250 1350 1150 1550 1650 1750 1850 1950 

93 278 163 649 834 1019 1215 1390 1575 1761 1946 2131 2317 2502 2687 2872 3058 3243 3428 3614 

DTST1NCS 










10 




20 




30 




40 




50 


D 


60 


£ 


70 


P 


80 


T 


90 


H 


100 




120 


(M) 


150 




200 




250 




300 




100 




500 




N HI 




K(l 



26 










10 




20 




30 




40 




50 


D 


60 


E 


70 


P 


80 


T 


90 


H 


100 




120 


(M) 


150 




200 




250 




300 




400 




500 




N MI 




KB 



MEAN XBT TEMPERATURE* DEG-C 01 APRIL 

23.5 23.2 22.8 22.3 21.7 21.2 20.5 19.9 19.1 16.7 17.8 17.1 16.7 15.7 15.3 11.9 14.2 13.1 12.8 12.1 

23.5 23.2 22.7 22.2 21.6 21.2 20.5 19.8 19.1 18.7 17.8 17.1 16.6 15.6 15.3 in. 8 11.1 13.3 12.7 12.1 

23.4 23.2 22.7 22.2 21.6 21.1 20.4 19.8 19.1 18.7 17. R 17.1 16.6 15.6 15.2 14.8 14.2 13.3 12.7 12.0 

23.3 23.1 22.7 22.2 21.5 21.1 20.3 19.7 19.1 18.7 17. R 17.1 16.6 15.7 15.2 14.8 14.2 13.3 12.7 12.0 
23.2 23.1 22.6 22.1 21.4 21.1 20.3 19.7 19.1 18.7 17.9 17.1 16.7 15.7 15.2 14.8 14.2 13.3 12.6 11.8 

23.1 23.0 22.5 22.0 21.4 21.0 20.3 19.7 19.1 18.7 17.9 17.1 16.8 15.7 15.2 14.8 14.2 13.2 12.5 11.5 
22.9 22.8 22.4 21.9 21.2 21.0 20.2 19.6 19.0 18.6 17.9 17.1 16.8 15.6 15.2 14.8 14.1 13.0 12.4 11.2 

22.8 22.7 22.2 21.8 21.0 20.8 20.2 19.4 18.9 ie.5 17.9 17.0 16.7 15.6 15.2 14.7 14.1 12.9 12.3 10.9 

22.5 22.5 22.0 21.7 20.9 20.7 20.0 19.2 18.8 18.3 17. R 17.0 16.6 15.5 15.1 14.7 14.1 12.7 12.1 10.5 

22.2 22.2 21.8 21.5 20.7 20.5 19.7 19.1 18.6 18.2 17.7 17.0 16.6 15.5 15.1 14.7 14.1 12.5 11.7 10.0 

21.9 21.9 21.6 21.3 20.5 20.3 19.5 18.9 18.4 18.1 17.6 16.9 16.6 15.4 15.1 14.5 13.8 12.0 11.1 9.6 

21.4 21.4 21.1 20.8 19.9 19.7 18.9 18.4 17.9 17.9 17.4 16.7 16.5 15.0 14.2 13.6 12.8 10.9 10.2 9.2 
20.0 20.0 20.0 19.7 18.7 18.6 18.0 17.3 16.8 16.8 15.9 15.6 15.2 13.3 12.2 11.7 11.1 9.8 9.3 8.8 
17.2 17.5 17.6 17.2 16.2 16.3 15.6 14.6 13.9 14.0 13.2 12.4 12.1 10.9 10.2 9.8 9.4 8.8 8.5 8.1 
14.2 14.6 14.8 14.4 13.5 13.4 12.9 12.2 11.8 11.7 11.3 10.8 10.6 9.7 9.2 8.8 8.5 8.1 7.8 7.5 
11.7 11.9 12.1 12.1 11.7 11.6 11.2 10.9 10.6 10.4 10.1 9.6 9.5 8.6 8.3 7.9 7.7 7.3 7.1 7.0 

8.6 8.8 8.9 9.2 8.9 8.9 8.7 8.6 8.3 8.2 8.0 7.5 7.5 6.8 6.6 6.5 6.4 6.2 6.2 6.1 

6.5 6.6 6.7 6.9 6.7 6.7 6.6 6.5 6.4 6.3 6.2 5.9 5.9 5.6 5.7 5.4 5.5 5.4 5.5 5.5 

50""" 150 250 350 450 550 650 750 850 950 1050 1150 1250 1350 1450 1550 1650 1750 1850 1950 

93 278 463 649 834 1019 1205 1390 1575 1761 1946 2131 2317 2502 2687 2872 3058 3243 3428 3614 

DISTANCE 



MEAN XBT TEMPERATURE. DEG-C MID-APRIL 

23.7 23.4 23.0 22.5 21.9 21.4 20.6 20.2 19.4 18.9 17.9 17.2 16.7 15.9 15.5 15.0 14.3 13.4 12.8 12.0 

23.7 23.4 22.9 22.4 21.9 21.4 20.6 20.2 19.3 18.8 17. a 17.1 16.7 15.8 15.3 14.9 14.3 13.4 12.7 11.9 

23.6 23.3 22.9 22.4 21.8 21.3 20.5 20.1 19.3 18.8 17.9 17.1 16.6 15.8 15.2 14.9 14.3 13.3 12.7 11.8 

23.6 23.2 22. E 22.4 21.7 21.2 20.4 20.1 19.2 18.8 17.8 17.1 16.6 15.8 15.2 14.8 14.3 13.3 12.7 11.8 

23.4 23.2 22.7 22.3 21.6 21.1 20.3 20. 19.2 16.7 17.9 17.1 16.6 15.8 15.2 14.8 14.3 13.3 12.7 11.6 

23.3 23.0 22.6 22.2 21.5 21.0 20.2 19.9 19.2 18.6 17. " 17.2 16.7 15.8 15.2 14.9 14.3 13.2 12.7 11.3 

23.1 22.8 22.4 22.0 21.3 21.0 20.2 19.7 19.1 18.6 17.9 17.2 16.8 15.8 15.3 14.8 14.3 13.0 12.6 11.1 

22.9 22.6 22.3 22.0 21.1 20.9 20.1 19.5 19.1 18.5 17.1 17.2 16.8 15.8 15.3 14.8 14.2 12.8 12.4 10.8 

22.6 22.4 22.1 21.8 21.0 20.7 19.9 19.3 18.9 18.3 17.9 17.1 16.7 15.7 15.2 14.8 14.2 12.7 12.1 10.5 

22.3 22.1 2 T. 9 21.6 20.7 20.5 19.7 19.2 18.7 18.1 17. R 17.1 16.6 15.7 15.2 14.7 14.1 12.4 11.7 10.0 
22.1 21.8 21.6 21.4 20.5 20.3 19.4 18.9 18.5 16.0 17.6 17.0 16.6 15.5 15.2 14.6 13.9 11.9 11.1 9.7 

21.4 21.2 20.9 20.9 19.8 19.6 18.7 18.4 17.9 17.7 17.3 16.8 16.4 15.2 14.5 13.9 13.0 10.7 10.1 9.2 
19.9 19.9 19.8 19.8 18.7 IB. 4 17.9 17.3 16.8 16.7 15.9 15.8 15.2 13.5 12.5 11.8 11.2 9.7 9.4 8.8 
17.1 17.3 17.5 17.2 16.3 16.2 15.6 14.7 14.0 14.0 13.2 12.6 12.1 11.0 10.3 9.9 9.5 8.8 8.6 8.2 
14.1 14.5 14.6 14.5 13.7 13.3 12.9 12.3 11.8 11.7 11.4 10.8 10.5 9.R 9.3 9.0 8.6 8.1 7.9 7.6 

11.5 11.8 11.9 12.2 11.8 11.5 11.2 10.9 10.6 10.4 10.2 9.7 9.5 8.8 8.3 8.0 7.8 7.3 7.2 7.1 

8.5 8.8 8.9 9.2 9.0 8.9 8.7 8.6 8.3 6.2 8.0 7.6 7.5 6.9 6.6 6.6 6.5 6.3 6.2 6.2 

6.6 6.7 6.8 7.0 6.8 6.7 t>.6 6.5 6.4 6.3 6.7 5.9 5.8 5.6 5.7 5.5 5.6 5.5 5.5 5.5 

50 150 250 350 450 550 650 750 850 950 1C50 1150 1250 1350 1450 1550 1650 1750 1850 1950 

9) 278 463 649 8i4 1019 12"5 1390 1575 1761 1946 2131 2317 2502 2687 2872 3058 3243 3428 3614 

DISTANCE 










10 




20 




30 




40 




50 


D 


60 


E 


70 


P 


80 


T 


90 


H 


100 




120 


(M) 


150 




200 




250 




300 




400 




500 




S BI 




KB 



27 










10 




20 




30 




no 




50 


15 


60 


E 


70 


P 


80 


T 


90 


11 


100 




120 


CM) 


150 




200 




250 




300 




UOO 




500 




N MI 




KM 



MEAN XBT TEMPERRTUREs DEG-C 01 MAY 

214.0 23.7 23.3 22. B 22.3 21.8 21.1 20.7 19.9 19.2 16.3 17.6 17.1 16.4 15.9 15. 4 144.7 13.7 12.9 12.0 

21.0 23.7 23.2 22. « 22.3 21.7 21.0 20.7 19.8 19.2 18.2 17.5 17.0 16.3 15.7 15.3 111. 6 13.6 12.9 11.9 

23.9 23.7 23.2 22.7 22.2 21.7 20.9 20.7 19.8 19.2 18.2 17. 4 16.9 16.2 15.6 15.2 14.6 13.5 12.9 11.7 

23.9 23.5 23.0 22.6 22.0 21.5 20.8 20.5 19.7 19.1 18.0 17.14 16.8 16.1 15. U 15.0 14.4 13.14 12.8 11.6 

23.7 23. U 22.8 22.5 21. R 21.3 20.6 20.3 19.5 19.0 18.0 17. 14 16.8 16.0 15.14 15.0 1 4 . H 13.4 12.9 11.4 

23.5 23.1 22.6 22.4 21.fi 21.1 2a. 14 20. 1 19.4 18.8 18.0 17.4 16.8 16.0 15.4 15.0 14.3 13.3 12.8 11.2 

23.2 22.8 22.5 22.3 21.5 21.0 20.2 19.8 19.3 18.7 18.0 17.4 16.8 16.0 15.4 14.9 14.3 13.1 12.7 10.9 

23.0 22.6 22.2 22.1 21.3 20.8 20.1 19.6 19.2 18.6 18.0 17.4 16.9 16.0 15.5 14.9 14.3 13.0 12.4 10.7 
22.7 22.3 22.0 21.9 21.1 20.6 19.9 19.5 19.1 18.4 18.0 17.4 16.8 16.0 15.4 14.8 14.2 12.7 12.1 10.4 
22.4 22.1 21.8 21.8 20." 20.4 19.6 19.1 18.8 18.2 17.9 17.3 16.7 15.9 15.3 14.7 14.0 12.4 11.7 10.0 

22.1 21.8 21.4 21.5 20.5 20.2 19.3 19.0 18.5 18.1 17.7 17.2 16.7 15.7 15.3 14.6 13.9 11.8 11.1 9.7 
21.4 21.1 20.7 20.9 19.9 19.5 In. 7 18.4 18.0 17.7 17.2 17.0 16.4 15.1 14.7 13.9 12.9 10.7 10.1 9.3 
19.9 19.8 19.5 19.8 18.8 18.3 17.8 17.4 16.8 16.7 15.9 16.0 15.3 13.7 12.8 11.8 11.2 9.7 9.4 8.9 
17.1 17.3 17.2 17.4 16.4 15.9 15.6 14.8 14.2 14.0 13.1 12.8 12.1 11.1 10.5 9.9 9.5 8.7 8.6 8.3 
14.0 14.4 14.4 14.7 13.9 13.3 12.9 12.5 12.0 11.8 11.4 10.9 10.5 9.8 9.4 9.0 8.7 8.1 7.9 7.6 
11.4 11.8 11.6 12.3 11.9 11.5 11.3 11.0 10.7 10.5 10.2 9.8 9.5 8.9 8.4 8.1 7.8 7.4 7.2 7.2 

8.4 8.8 H.9 9.2 9.1 8.9 8.8 8.6 8.3 6.3 8.1 7.6 7.4 7.0 6.6 6.6 6.5 6.3 6.1 6.3 

6.6 6.7 0.8 7.0 7.0 6.8 6.7 6.6 6.4 6.3 6.2 5.9 5.8 5.6 5.6 5.5 5.7 5.6 5.4 5.6 

50 150 250 350 450 550 650 750 850 950 1C50 1150 1250 1350 1450 1550 1650 1750 1850 1950 

93 278 463 649 834 1019 12 A 5 1390 1575 1761 1946 2131 2317 2502 2687 2872 3058 3243 3428 3614 

DISTANCE 



MERN XBT TEMPERATURE* DEG-C MID-MRY 

24.3 24.2 21.7 23.3 22.9 22.3 21. B 21.3 20.5 19.8 16.9 18.3 17.7 17.1 16.6 16.0 15.2 14.3 13.3 12.2 

24.3 24.2 2J.7 23.2 22. B 22.3 21.7 21.3 20.5 19.8 16.8 18.2 17.6 17.0 16.4 15.8 15.1 14.1 13.2 12.0 

24.3 24.1 23.5 21.1 22.7 22.2 21.5 21.2 20.4 19.7 18.7 18.1 17.5 1b.fi 16.2 15.7 15.0 14.0 13.1 11.8 
24.2 24.0 23.3 23. 22.1 22.0 21.4 21.0 20.3 19.6 18.5 17.9 17.3 16.6 15.9 15.5 14.8 13.8 13.1 11.7 
24.0 23.7 23. C 22.6 22.2 21.7 21.1 20.6 20.0 19.4 18.3 17.6 17.1 16.1 15.7 15.3 14.6 13.6 13.0 11.5 
23.7 23.4 22.7 22.6 21.9 21.1 20.7 20.1 19.8 19.2 18.2 17.7 17.0 16.2 15.6 15.1 14.4 13.5 12.8 11.1 

23.4 23.1 22.4 22.5 21.7 21.1 20.4 19.9 19.5 19.0 16.1 17.7 16.9 16.2 15.6 15.0 14.4 13.3 12.5 10.7 

23.0 22.7 22.2 22.2 21.5 20.8 20.1 19.7 19.3 16.8 18." 17.6 16.9 16.2 15.6 14.9 14.3 13.2 12.2 10.5 
22.7 22.4 21.9 22.0 21.2 20.6 19.9 19.5 19.1 1 e. 6 16.0 17.6 16.9 16.1 15.5 14.8 14.1 12.9 11.8 10.2 

22.5 22.1 21.6 21.8 20.9 2C.u 19.7 19.3 18.9 18.4 17.9 17.5 16.8 16.0 15.3 14.6 13.9 12.4 11.4 10.0 

22.1 21.8 21.2 21.5 20.6 20.1 19.4 19.0 18.6 1E.2 17.7 17.4 16.7 15.8 15.2 14.4 13.6 11.9 11.0 9.7 
21.4 21.1 2C.4 20.9 19.9 19.4 18.7 18.5 18.0 17.7 17.1 17.2 16.3 15. U 14.7 13.7 12.7 10.8 10.1 9.3 
19.9 19.9 19.1 19.8 18.8 18.2 17.7 17.4 16.9 16.8 15.8 16.2 15.3 13.9 13.1 11.7 11.1 9.7 9.4 9.0 

17.2 17.4 16.8 17.5 16.5 15.8 15.5 15.0 14.4 14.1 13.0 13.0 12.1 11.1 10.6 9.8 9.5 8.8 8.6 8.3 
14.0 14.5 ln.1 14.8 14.0 13.3 12.9 12.6 12.1 11.9 11.3 11.0 10.6 9.9 9.4 9.0 8.7 8.1 7.9 7.7 
11.4 12.0 11.8 12.4 12.0 11.5 11.14 11.1 10.8 1C.6 10.2 9.9 9.5 8.9 8.4 8.1 7.8 7.4 7.2 7.2 

8.4 8.9 8.9 9.2 9.1 8.9 6.9 8.7 8.5 8.4 8.1 7.8 7.4 7.0 6.7 6.5 6.5 6.3 6.0 6.3 

6.7 6.7 6.9 7.0 7.0 6.3 6.8 6.7 6.5 6.4 6.7 6.0 5.8 5.7 5.5 5.6 5.7 5.6 5.4 5.6 

50 150 250 350 450 550 650 750 850 950 1C50 1150 1250 1350 1450 1550 1650 1750 1850 1950 

93 278 463 649 8iu 1019 12 n 5 1390 1575 1761 194fi 2131 2317 2502 2687 2872 3058 3243 3428 3614 

SISTASCE 










10 




20 




30 




40 




50 


D 


60 


E 


70 


P 


80 


T 


90 


H 


100 




120 


CM) 


150 




200 




250 




300 




400 




500 




N MI 




KM 



28 










10 




20 




30 




140 




50 


D 


60 


E 


70 


P 


80 


T 


90 


H 


100 




120 


(M) 


150 




200 




250 




300 




400 




500 




N HI 




KB 



MEAN XBT TEMPERATURE* DEG-C 01 JUNE 

21.7 21.6 20. 1 23.7 23.1 22.9 22. 21.9 21.2 20.5 19.6 19.1 18.5 17.9 17.3 16.6 15.9 10.9 13.8 12.6 

20.6 20.6 20.1 23.6 23.3 22.8 22.3 21.8 21.1 20.0 19.5 19.0 18.0 17.8 17.1 16.5 15.8 10.8 13.6 12.0 

20.6 20.5 23.9 23.5 23.2 22.7 22.2 21.7 21.1 20.3 19.0 18.9 16.2 17.5 16.9 16.3 15.6 10.6 13.5 12.2 
20.5 20.3 23.6 23.3 22.9 22.5 22.0 21.5 20.9 2C.1 19.1 18.5 17.9 17.1 16.5 16.0 15.3 10.2 13.0 12.0 
20.3 20.1 23.3 23.1 22.6 22.1 21.6 21.0 20.0 19.9 18.7 18.2 17.6 16.7 16.1 15.7 15.0 10.0 13.1 11.6 
23.9 23.7 22.9 22.8 22.3 21.6 21.1 20.5 20.1 19.6 18.6 18.0 17.3 16.5 15.9 15.3 10.6 13.8 12.7 11.1 
23.5 23.3 22.5 22.5 21.9 21.2 20.6 20.1 19.7 19.2 18.3 17.9 17.1 16.3 15.8 15.1 10.0 13.6 12.3 10.6 
23.1 23.0 22.1 22.2 21.6 20.9 20.3 19.8 19.0 19.0 18.1 17.7 17.0 16.3 15.7 10.9 10.2 13.0 11.9 10.0 

22.7 22.6 21.7 21.9 21.2 20.6 20.0 19.5 19.1 18.7 18.0 17.7 16.9 16.2 15.5 10.7 10.0 12.9 11.5 10.1 

22.0 22.2 21.0 21.7 20.9 20.3 19.7 19.3 18.9 ie.5 17.8 17.6 16.9 16.0 15.3 10.5 13.7 12.5 11.1 9.9 

22.1 21.9 21.1 21.0 20.6 20.0 19.5 19.0 18.6 18.3 17.6 17.5 16.7 15.9 15.2 10.2 13.0 11.9 10.7 9.7 
21.3 21.2 20.3 20.8 20.0 19.0 18.8 18.5 18.1 17.8 17.1 17.2 16.3 15.0 10.6 13.0 12.0 10.9 10.0 9.0 
19.9 20.1 19.0 19.8 18.9 18.3 17.8 17.5 17.0 16.9 15.8 16.2 15.2 10.0 13.1 11.6 11.0 9.8 9.3 9.0 

17.0 17.6 16.6 17.5 16.6 15.8 15.5 15.1 10.5 10.3 12.8 13.1 12.2 11.2 10.6 9.8 9.5 8.8 8.5 8.3 

10.1 10.7 10.0 10.9 10.0 13.0 13.0 12.7 12.3 12.1 11.3 11.1 10.6 9.9 9.0 8.9 8.7 8.1 7.8 7.7 
11.5 12.1 11.8 12.0 12.0 11.6 11.5 11.2 10.9 10.7 1C.2 10.0 9.5 9.0 8.0 8.0 7.8 7.0 7.1 7.1 

8.0 8.9 9.0 9.2 9.3 8.9 9.0 8.8 8.6 8.5 8.1 7.9 7.0 7.0 6.7 6.5 6.5 6.3 6.0 6.2 

6.8 6.7 6.9 6.9 6.9 6.8 6.8 6.7 6.7 6.5 6.1 6.1 5.9 5.7 5.5 5.5 5.7 5.5 5.3 5.6 

50 150 250 350 O50 550 650 750 850 950 1050 1150 1250 1350 1050 1550 1650 1750 1850 1950 

93 278 063 609 830 1019 12"5 1390 1575 1761 1906 2131 2317 250? 2687 2872 3058 3203 3028 3610 

DISTANCE 



MEAN XBT TEMPERATURE* DEG-C MID-JUNE 

25.0 25.0 20.5 20.1 23.9 23.0 23.0 22.0 21.9 21.2 20.5 20.0 19.5 18.8 18.2 17.5 16.7 15.8 10.5 13.2 

25.0 20.9 20.5 20.0 23.8 23.0 23.0 22.3 21.8 21.1 20.3 19.9 19.3 18.7 18.1 17.3 16.6 15.6 10.3 13.0 
20.9 20.8 20.3 23.9 23.7 23.3 22.8 22.2 21.8 21.1 20.2 19.7 19.0 18.0 17.8 17.0 16.3 15.3 10.1 12.8 
20.9 20.7 20.0 23.7 23.0 23.1 22.6 21.9 21.5 20.8 19.1 19.3 18.7 17.7 17.3 16.6 16.0 10.9 13.8 12.5 
20.6 20.5 23.6 23.0 23.1 22.6 22.1 21.3 21.0 2C.0 19.0 18.7 18.2 17.1 16.6 16.0 15.0 10.5 13.3 11.9 

20.1 20.1 23.1 23.0 22.6 21.9 21.5 20.7 20.0 20.0 19.0 18.3 17.7 16.7 16.2 15.0 10.9 10.1 12.7 11.2 
23.6 23.7 22.6 22.6 22.1 21.0 20.9 20.2 19.9 19.5 18.6 18.0 17.3 16.5 16.0 15.1 10.5 13.8 12.1 10.6 

23.2 23.3 22.1 22.2 21.6 21.0 20.5 19.8 19.5 19.1 18.3 17.8 17.1 16.3 15.7 10.8 10.2 13.0 11.6 10.3 

22.8 22.8 21.7 21.8 21.2 20.6 20.1 19.5 19.2 ie.8 18.0 17.7 16.9 16.1 15.5 10.5 13.8 13.0 11.2 10.0 
22.0 22.5 21.3 21.5 20.9 20.3 19.8 19.2 18.9 18.6 17.8 17.6 16.8 16.0 15.3 10.3 13.6 12.5 10.8 9.8 
22.0 22.1 21.0 21.2 20.5 20.0 19.6 18.9 18.6 18.3 17.6 17.0 16.7 15.9 15.1 10.0 13.2 12.0 10.5 9.7 
21.2 21.3 20.3 20.6 19.9 19.0 19.0 18.0 18.1 17.9 17.0 17.2 16.3 15.0 10.5 13.2 12.3 11.0 9.9 9.3 

19.9 20.2 19.0 19.6 18.8 18.0 17.9 17.5 17.1 17.0 15.8 16.2 15.2 10.1 13.0 11.5 10.9 10.0 9.3 8.9 
17.0 17.8 16.6 17.0 16.5 15.9 15.5 15.1 10.5 10.5 12.8 13.1 12.3 11.3 10.6 9.7 9.5 8.9 8.5 8.3 
10.2 10.8 10. C 10.8 13.9 13.5 13.0 12.7 12.0 12.2 11.2 11.2 10.7 10.0 9.0 8.8 8.6 8.2 7.8 7.6 
11.6 12.2 11.8 12.3 12.0 11.6 11.5 11.2 11.0 1C.8 10.2 10.0 9.5 9.0 8.5 8.0 7.8 7.0 7.1 7.1 

8.0 9.0 9.0 9.1 9.3 8.9 9.0 8.8 8.7 8.6 8.1 7.9 7.5 7.0 6.8 6.0 6.0 6.3 6.1 6.1 

6.8 6.7 6.8 6.8 6.8 6.9 6.9 6.8 6.8 6.6 6.1 6.1 6.0 5.8 5.5 5.5 5.7 5.5 5.0 5.6 

50 150 250 350 050 550 650 750 850 950 1050 1150 1250 1350 1050 1550 1650 1750 1850 1950 

93 278 063 609 830 1019 1205 1390 1575 1761 1906 2131 2317 2502 2687 2872 3058 3203 3428 3610 

DISTANCE 










10 




20 




30 




00 




50 


D 


60 


E 


70 


P 


80 


T 


90 


H 


100 




120 


(M) 


150 




200 




250 




300 




O00 




500 




N HI 




Kfl 



29 










10 




20 




30 




40 




50 


D 


60 


I 


70 


P 


80 


I 


90 


H 


100 




120 


CM) 


150 




200 




250 




300 




100 




500 




H HI 




KB 



MEAN XBT TEMPERATURE* DEG-C 01 JULY 

25.a 25.3 24.9 21.5 24.3 23.9 23.6 22.9 22.6 22.0 21.4 21.0 20.6 19.9 19.2 18.6 17.7 16.8 15.1 14.0 

25. U 25.2 21.8 214.5 214.3 23.9 23.5 22.8 22.5 21.9 21.3 20.9 20.14 19.7 19.1 18. 14 17.6 16.6 15.2 13.9 

25.3 25.2 214.7 214.14 214.2 23.8 23.14 22.7 22.0 21.8 21.2 20.7 20.1 19.4 18.8 18.0 17.3 16.2 14.9 13.6 

25.3 25.1 2<4.5 24.1 24.0 23.6 23.2 22.44 22.2 21.6 20.9 20.1 19.7 18.5 18.1 17.5 17.0 15.7 14.6 13.0 
25.0 24.8 214.1 23.8 23.5 23.1 22.6 21.8 21.6 21.1 20.2 19.2 18.8 17.6 17.1 16.14 16.0 15.1 13.7 12.2 
214.4 24.4 23.5 23.2 22.9 22.3 21.9 21.1 20.8 20.3 19.5 18.6 18.0 17.0 16.5 15.7 15.2 14.5 12.9 11.3 

23.8 24.0 22.8 22.6 22.2 21.6 21.2 20.4 20.2 19.7 19.0 18.2 17.6 16.7 16.2 15.2 14.7 13.9 12.2 10.7 

23.4 23.5 22.3 22.1 21.6 21.1 20.7 19.9 19.7 19.3 18.5 17.9 17.2 16.4 15.8 14.8 14.2 13.4 11.5 10.3 

22.9 23.1 21.8 21.7 21.1 20.7 20.3 19.5 19.3 18.9 18.2 17.7 16.9 16.1 15.5 14.5 13.8 12.9 11.0 10.0 

22.4 22.7 21.4 21.3 20.7 20.4 19.9 19.1 19.0 18.6 17.9 17.5 16.7 16.0 15.3 14.2 13.5 12.4 10.7 9.8 
22.0 22.2 21.1 21.0 20.4 20.1 19.6 18.8 18.7 18.3 17.7 17.3 16.6 15.8 15.1 13.9 13.2 12.0 10.4 9.6 

21.2 21.4 20.4 20.4 19.8 19.5 19.1 18.4 18.2 18.0 17.1 17.0 16.3 15.4 14.4 13.1 12.3 11.1 9.9 9.3 
20.0 20.3 19.2 19.4 18.8 18.6 18.0 17.4 17.2 17.1 15.9 16.0 15.1 14.2 12.9 11.6 10.9 10.1 9.2 8.9 

17.5 17.9 16.8 17.1 16.5 16.1 15.5 15.1 14.6 14.6 12.9 13.1 12.3 11.5 10.5 9.8 9.5 9.0 8.5 8.2 

14.3 14.8 14.1 14.4 13.7 13.7 13.0 12.7 12.4 12.3 11.3 11.2 10.7 10.2 9.4 8.8 8.7 8.3 7.8 7.6 

11.6 12.2 11.9 12.1 11.9 11.7 11.5 11.1 11.0 10.9 10.2 10.0 9.6 9.0 8.4 8.0 7.8 7.5 7.2 7.0 
6.5 8.9 8.9 9.0 9.2 9.0 9.0 8.8 8.7 8.7 8.2 8.0 7.6 7.1 6.8 6.5 6.4 6.3 6.2 6.0 
6.7 6.6 6.7 6.7 6.6 7.0 6.9 6.8 6.9 6.6 6.2 6.2 6.0 5.8 5.7 5.5 5.5 5.5 5.5 5.5 

50 150 250 350 450 550 650 750 850 950 1C50 1150 1250 1350 1450 1550 1650 1750 1850 1950 

93 278 463 649 834 1019 1205 1390 1575 1761 1946 2131 2317 2502 2687 2872 3058 3243 3428 3614 

DIST4MCE 



MEAN XBT TEMPERATURE, DEG-C MID- JULY 

25.7 25.4 25.1 24.8 24.6 24.3 24.0 23.4 23.0 22.6 22.1 21.7 21.3 20.6 20.0 19.4 18.5 17.5 16.2 14.7 

25.7 25.4 25.1 24.8 24.6 24.2 23.9 23.3 23.0 22.5 22.0 21.6 21.1 20.5 19.8 19.2 18.4 17.3 15.9 14.5 
25.6 25.3 25.0 24.7 24.5 24.1 23.8 23.1 22.9 22.4 21.9 21.3 20.8 20.2 19.6 18.8 18.1 17.0 15.6 14.1 

25.6 25.3 24.8 24.5 24.3 24.0 23.6 22.8 22.7 22.2 21.6 20.7 20.4 19.2 18.8 18.1 17.7 16.5 15.3 13.4 

25.4 25.1 24.5 24.2 23.8 23.5 23.0 22.2 22.0 21.6 20.8 19.7 19.2 18.1 17.5 16.8 16.5 15.6 14.3 12.4 

24.8 24.7 23.9 23.5 23.1 22.6 22.2 21.5 21.1 20.5 19.8 18.8 18.3 17.3 16.7 15.9 15.5 14.8 13.4 11.4 
24.1 24.2 23.1 22.7 22.2 21.8 21.5 20.7 20.4 19.8 19.3 18.4 17.7 16.9 16.3 15.4 14.9 14.0 12.6 10.8 

23.5 23.6 22.5 22.2 21.6 21.3 20.9 20.0 19.9 19.3 18.8 18.0 17.3 16.5 15.9 14.9 14.4 13.4 11.8 10.3 

23.0 23.1 22.0 21.7 21.1 20.9 20.4 19.5 19.5 18.9 18.4 17.7 16.9 16.2 15.6 14.5 13.8 12.8 11.2 10.0 
22.5 22.7 21.6 21.3 20.7 20.5 20.0 19.1 19.1 18.5 18.1 17.5 16.7 16.0 15.3 14.3 13.5 12.3 10.8 9.8 

22.1 22.2 21.2 20.9 20.3 20.2 19.6 18.8 18.8 16.2 17.8 17.3 16.6 15.9 15.1 13.9 13.2 11.9 10.5 9.6 

21.2 21.4 20.5 20.2 19.7 19.6 19.1 18.3 18.3 17.9 17.2 17.0 16.3 15.5 14.5 13.2 12.4 11.2 10.0 9.3 
20.0 20.2 19.4 19.2 18.7 18.7 18.1 17.4 17.3 17.0 16.1 15.9 15.1 14.2 12.8 11.8 11.0 10.1 9.3 8.8 
17.4 17.8 16.9 16.8 16.4 16.3 15.6 15.0 14.6 14.6 13.1 13.1 12.3 11.7 10.5 9.9 9.5 9.1 8.6 8.2 

14.3 14.7 14.1 14.0 13.6 13.8 13.1 12.6 12.4 12.3 11.0 11.2 10.7 10.3 9.4 8.9 8.7 8.3 7.9 7.5 

11.7 12.0 11.9 11.8 11.8 11.8 1U4 11.1 11.0 10.9 10.3 10.0 9.6 9.1 8.4 8.1 7.8 7.5 7.3 6.9 

8.6 8.9 8.8 8.9 9.0 9.1 9.0 8.8 8.7 8.7 8.2 8.0 7.6 7.2 6.8 6.5 6.4 6.4 6.3 6.0 

6.7 6.6 6.6 6.6 6.6 7.1 6.9 6.6 6.8 6.6 6.3 6.2 6.1 5.8 5.8 5.5 5.5 5.5 5.6 5.6 

50 150 250 350 450 550 650 750 850 950 1050 1150 1250 1350 1450 1550 1650 1750 1850 1950 

93 278 463 649 634 1019 1205 1390 1575 1761 1946 2131 2317 2502 2687 2872 3058 3243 3428 3614 

DISTiSCE 





10 




20 




30 




40 




50 


D 


60 


E 


70 


P 


80 


I 


90 


H 


100 




120 


00 


150 




200 




250 




300 




400 




500 




M m 




KB 



30 










10 




20 




30 




no 




50 


D 


60 


E 


70 


P 


80 


I 


90 


H 


100 




120 


00 


150 




200 




250 




300 




100 




500 




8 HI 




K!1 



MEAN XBT TEMPERATURE* DEG-C 01 AUGUST 

25.9 25.6 25.2 25.1 24.9 24.5 24.2 23.8 23.5 23.1 22.7 22.2 22.0 21.3 20.6 20.2 19.3 18.1 16.9 15.3 

25.9 25.6 25.3 25.1 21.9 21. 5 24.2 23.8 23. 4 23.0 22.6 22.1 21.8 21.2 20.5 20.0 19.1 17.9 16.7 15.1 

25.9 25.5 25.2 25.0 24.8 214.4 24.1 23.6 23.3 22.9 22.5 21.9 21.5 20.9 20.3 19.6 18.9 17.7 16. U 14.6 

25.9 25.5 25.1 24.9 24.7 24.3 23.9 23.3 23.1 22.7 22.2 21.4 20.9 20.0 19.4 18.8 18.3 17.2 16.1 13.7 

25.7 25.3 24.9 24.6 24.2 23.9 23.3 22.7 22.5 22.0 21.4 20.2 19.6 18.7 18.1 17.2 17.0 16.2 15.1 12.5 

25.2 24.9 24.3 23.8 23.3 22.9 22.5 21.9 21.5 2C.7 20.2 19.2 18.5 17.6 17.0 16.1 15.8 15.0 14.0 11.5 

24.5 24.3 23.5 23.0 22.3 22.1 21.6 20.9 20.6 19.8 19.5 18.7 17.8 17.0 16.5 15.6 15.1 14.1 13.2 11.0 

23.7 23.6 22.8 22.3 21.6 21.5 21.0 20.2 20.1 19.3 18.9 18.2 17.4 16.7 16.1 15.1 14.5 13.4 12.3 10.4 

23.1 23.1 22.3 21.8 21.1 21.0 20.5 19.7 19.7 18.8 18.6 17.9 17.0 16.3 15.8 14.7 13.9 12.8 11.6 10.1 

22.7 22.6 21.6 21.3 20.7 20.6 20.0 19.3 19.3 18.5 18.3 17.6 16.7 16.1 15.5 14.4 13.6 12.3 11.2 9.9 

22.2 22.2 21.4 20.9 20.3 20.2 19.6 18.9 19.0 18.2 18.0 17.4 16.6 15.9 15.3 14.1 13.3 11.9 10.8 9.6 

21.4 21.2 20.6 20.1 19.7 19.6 19.0 18.3 18.3 17.8 17.4 17.0 16.3 15.6 14.6 13.4 12.5 11.2 10.3 9.2 
20.1 20.0 19.5 19.0 18.6 18.7 18.1 17.4 17.4 16.9 16.3 16.0 15.1 14.3 12.8 12.0 11.0 10.1 9.5 8.8 

17.5 17.6 17.1 16.5 16.3 16.4 15.6 14.9 14.7 14.4 13.4 13.1 12.2 11.8 10.5 10.1 9.5 9.1 8.8 8.2 
14.4 14.5 14.2 13.7 13.6 13.8 13.1 12.5 12.4 12.2 11.5 11.2 10.7 10.3 9.4 9.1 8.7 8.4 8.0 7.5 

11.8 11.8 11.8 11.6 11.7 11.8 11.3 11.0 10.9 10.8 10.3 10.0 9.6 9.2 8.5 8.2 7.8 7.6 7.4 6.9 
8.7 8.7 8.7 8.9 8.9 9.1 8.9 8.7 8.6 8.6 8.2 8.0 7.6 7.3 6.8 6.6 6.4 6.4 6.4 6.1 
6.6 6.6 6.6 6.6 6.6 7.2 6.9 6.7 6.8 6.6 6.3 6.2 6.0 5.8 5.8 5.6 5.4 5.5 5.7 5.6 

50 150 250 350 450 550 650 750 850 950 1050 1150 1250 1350 1450 1550 1650 1750 1850 1950 

93 278 463 649 834 1019 1205 1390 1575 1761 1946 2131 2317 2502 2687 2872 3058 3243 3428 3614 

DISTANCE 



MEAN XBT TEMPERATURE* DEG-C MID-AUGUST 

26.2 25.8 25.5 25.4 25.2 24.8 24.5 24.3 23.8 23.5 23.1 22.6 22.4 21.9 21.1 20.7 19.8 18.6 17.5 15.8 

26.2 25.7 25.5 25.4 25.1 24.8 24.5 24.2 23.7 23.5 23.1 22.5 22.2 21.8 21.0 20.5 19.7 18.4 17.3 15.6 

26.2 25.7 25.5 25.3 25.1 24.7 24.4 24.1 23.6 23.4 23.0 22.4 21.9 21.5 20.8 20.1 19.4 18.2 17.1 14.9 

26.1 25.7 25.4 25.3 25.0 24.6 24.2 23.9 23.5 23.2 22.7 21.9 21.4 20.7 20.0 19.4 18.8 17.9 16.7 13.8 
26.0 25.6 25.3 25.1 24.5 24.2 23.7 23.3 23.0 22.5 21.9 20.9 19.9 19.4 18.7 17.8 17.4 16.6 15.8 12.5 
25.5 25.1 24.7 24.3 23.5 23.3 22.8 22.4 21.9 20.9 20.5 19.8 18.7 17.9 17.3 16.5 16.0 15.3 14.7 11.5 

24.8 24.4 23.8 23.3 22.5 22.3 21.8 21.3 20.9 19.8 19.6 19.0 17.9 17.2 16.6 15.8 15.2 14.2 13.8 11.1 

23.9 23.6 23.0 22.6 21.7 21.6 21.0 20.5 20.3 19.2 19.0 18.5 17.4 16.8 16.2 15.3 14.6 13.5 12.9 10.4 

23.3 22.9 22.4 22.0 21.2 21.1 20.5 19.9 19.8 18.8 18.7 18.1 17.1 16.5 15.9 14.9 14.0 12.9 12.1 10.1 
22.9 22.4 21.9 21.5 20.8 20.6 20.0 19.5 19.4 18.5 18.4 17.8 16.8 16.3 15.6 14.6 13.6 12.4 11.6 9.9 

22.4 22.0 21.5 21.0 20.3 20.3 19.6 19.1 19.1 18.2 18.1 17.5 16.6 16.1 15.4 14.3 13.3 12.0 11.2 9.6 

21.5 21.0 20.6 20.1 19.6 19.6 19.0 18.4 18.4 17.6 17.5 17.1 16.3 15.6 14.8 13.6 12.6 11.2 10.5 9.2 

20.2 19.8 19.5 18.9 18.6 18.6 18.0 17.4 17.4 16.7 16.5 16.1 15.0 14.3 13.0 12.2 11.0 10.1 9.7 8.8 
17.5 17.3 17.1 16.4 16.3 16.3 15.7 14.9 14.7 14.1 13.7 13.2 12.2 11.8 10.6 10.2 9.4 9.1 9.0 8.2 
14.5 14.3 14.2 13.5 13.7 13.6 13.1 12.5 12.3 12.0 11.6 11.2 10.7 10.3 9.4 9.2 8.7 8.4 8.2 7.5 
11.9 11.6 11.7 11.5 11.8 11.7 11.3 11.0 10.9 10.7 10.4 10.1 9.6 9.2 8.5 8.2 7.8 7.6 7.5 6.9 

8.8 8.6 8.7 8.9 8.9 9.1 8.9 8.7 8.6 8.5 8.2 8.0 7.6 7.3 6.8 6.7 6.4 6.5 6.4 6.2 

6.7 6.7 6.6 6.6 6.6 7.2 6.9 6.7 6.7 6.5 6.4 6.1 6.0 5.7 5.8 5.6 5.4 5.6 5.7 5.7 

50 150 250 350 450 550 650 750 850 950 1050 1150 1250 1350 1450 1550 1650 1750 1850 1950 

93 278 463 649 834 1019 1205 1390 1575 1761 1946 2131 2317 2502 2687 2872 3058 3243 3428 3614 

DISTANCE 










10 




20 




30 




40 




50 


D 


60 


£ 


70 


P 


80 


T 


90 


H 


100 




120 


00 


150 




200 




250 




300 




400 




500 




8 HI 




KB 



31 










10 




20 




30 




U0 




50 


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60 


E 


70 


p 


BO 


I 


90 


ii 


100 




120 


m 


150 




200 




250 




300 




1400 




500 




N PII 




Kfl 



MEAN XBT TEMPERATURE, DEG-C 01 SEPTEMBER 

26.3 26.0 25.7 25.7 25. H 25.1 214. 8 24.6 21.1 23.8 23.0 22.9 22.6 22.2 21.4 20.9 20.1 18.8 17.8 16.1 

26.U 26.0 25.7 25.6 25.1 25.1 2U . 7 24.5 24.0 23.8 23. 3 22.8 22.5 22.1 21.3 20.7 20.0 18.7 17.7 15.8 

26.3 25.9 25.7 25.6 25.3 25.0 24.6 24. 4 23.9 23.7 23.3 22.7 22.3 21.9 21.1 20.4 19.7 18.6 17.5 15.0 

26.3 25.9 25.7 25.6 25.2 24.9 24.5 24. J 23.8 23.5 22.9 22.4 21.7 21.3 20.5 19.8 19.1 18.3 17.2 13.9 
26.2 25.8 25.5 25.4 24.8 2U.6 24.0 23. k 23.4 22.9 22.2 21.5 20.4 20.0 19.3 18.4 17.7 17.1 16.4 12.5 
25.8 25.3 25.1 24.7 23.9 23.7 2J. 1 22.8 22.3 21.3 20.8 20.4 19.0 18.3 17.7 16.9 16.2 15.6 15.2 11.5 
25.1 24.5 2-J.2 23.8 22.8 22.6 21.1 21.6 21.1 20.1 19.7 19.4 18.0 17.3 16.7 15.9 15.2 14.4 14.2 11.0 
24.1 23.6 21.1 22.9 21.9 21.7 21.0 20.7 20.3 19.2 19.0 18.7 17.5 16.8 16.3 15.4 14.6 13.6 13.3 10.5 

23.4 22.9 22.5 22.2 21.4 21.1 20.4 20.1 19.8 18.8 18.7 18.3 17.1 16.6 16.0 15.1 14.0 13.0 12.4 10.1 

23.1 22.3 22.0 21.6 20.9 2C . 6 20.0 19.7 19.4 16.5 18.4 18.0 16.9 16.1 15.7 14.7 13.6 12.5 11.9 9.9 

22.5 21.9 21.5 21.2 20.4 20.2 19.6 19.3 19.0 18.2 18.1 17.8 16.7 16.2 15.5 14.4 13.2 12.0 11.4 9.6 

21.6 20.9 20.6 20.2 19.7 19.5 18.9 18.5 18.3 17.5 17.6 17.2 16.2 15.6 14.9 13.7 12.5 11.3 10.7 9.2 

20.2 19.6 1".3 19.0 18.6 18.4 18.0 17.5 17.3 16.6 16.1 16.1 15.0 14.2 13.2 12.1 10.9 10.1 9.8 8.8 

17.7 17.2 17.(1 16.5 16.4 16.1 15.8 15.0 14.7 13.9 13.9 13.3 12.1 11.6 10.7 10.2 9.4 9.1 9.0 8.2 
14.7 14.2 1u. 1 13.6 13.9 13.5 13.2 12.6 12.3 11.8 11.7 11.2 10.6 10.2 9.5 9.2 8.6 8.4 8.3 7.5 
12.0 11.6 11.6 11. b 11.» 11.6 11.4 11.1 10.9 10.6 10.4 10.1 9.5 9.2 8.5 8.2 7.7 7.7 7.5 7.0 

8.1 8.6 d.b 8.9 9.0 9.1 8.9 8.7 8.6 8.3 8.2 8.0 7.5 7.2 6.8 6.6 6.4 6.5 6.4 6.3 

6.7 6.7 6.6 6.7 6.7 7.1 b.8 6.7 6.6 6.5 6.4 6.1 5.9 5.6 5.7 5.6 5.5 5.6 5.7 5.7 

50 150 250 350 450 550 650 750 850 950 1050 1150 1250 1350 1450 1550 1650 1750 1850 1950 

93 278 463 649 634 1019 1215 1390 1575 1761 1946 2131 2317 2502 2687 2872 3058 3243 3428 3614 

DISTANCE 



flEHN XBT TEMPERATURE? DEG-C MID-SEPTEMBER 

2b. 4 2b. 2 25.9 25.9 25.6 25.3 25.0 24.7 24.2 23.9 23.4 23.0 22.5 22.2 21.5 20.7 20.1 18.9 17.8 16.2 

26.5 2b. 2 25.9 25.8 25.6 25.3 24.9 24.7 24.2 23.9 23.4 23.0 22.5 22.1 21.4 20.6 20.0 18.8 17.8 15.9 
26. u 26.1 25.9 25.8 25.6 25.3 24.8 24.6 24.1 23.8 23.3 22.9 22.4 22.0 21.3 20.4 19.8 18.7 17.6 15.2 
26.4 26.1 25.9 25.7 25.5 25.2 24.7 24.5 24.0 23.7 23.0 22.7 21.9 21.6 20.8 19.9 19.2 18.5 17.4 14.0 
2b. 3 26.0 25.7 25.6 25.1 24.9 24.4 24.1 23.7 23.2 22.4 22.0 20.8 20.5 19.8 19.0 18.0 17.4 16.6 12.6 
26.0 25.5 2-J.3 25.1 24.2 24.2 23.6 23.2 22.7 21.8 21.1 21.0 19.4 18.7 18.1 17.3 16.5 15.9 15.3 11.5 
25.4 24.8 24.5 24.3 23.2 23.0 22.2 22.0 21.4 2C.5 19.9 19.8 18.2 17.5 16.9 16.1 15.2 14.7 14.2 11.0 
24.4 23.8 23.5 23.2 22.3 21.9 21.1 21.1 20.4 19.4 19.0 19.0 17.5 16.9 16.3 15.4 14.5 13.8 13.3 10.4 

23.6 23.0 22.6 22.4 21.6 21.1 20.4 20.4 19.7 18.8 18.6 18.4 17.2 16.6 16.0 15.1 13.9 13.1 12.5 10.1 
23.2 22.4 21.9 21.8 21.1" 20.6 20.1 19.9 19.3 18.5 18.3 18.1 16.9 16.4 15.7 14.7 13.5 12.6 12.0 9.9 
22.6 21.9 21.4 21.3 20.5 20.2 19.7 19.5 18.9 IE. 2 18.0 17.9 16.7 16.2 15.5 14.4 13.1 12.1 11.5 9.6 

21.0 20.9 2C.5 20.4 19.7 19.4 18.9 18.7 18.2 17.5 17.5 17.3 16.2 15.5 14.9 13.5 12.3 11.3 10.7 9.2 

20.1 19.6 19.2 19.1 18.6 18.3 17.9 17.6 17.2 16.4 16.4 16.1 14.9 14.0 13.4 11.9 10.7 10.1 9.8 8.7 
17. 17.1 l.l 16.8 lo. 4 15.9 15.8 15.1 14.7 13.7 13.8 13.3 12.1 11.4 10.8 10.1 9.3 9.1 9.0 8.1 
14.1 1u.l 14.0 13.9 14.0 13.4 13.3 12.7 12.3 11.7 11.6 11.2 10.6 10.0 9.5 9.2 8.5 8.3 8.3 7.5 
12.1 11.7 11.6 11.6 11.9 11.5 11.5 11.2 10.9 10.4 10.4 10.1 9.5 9.1 8.6 8.1 7.6 7.6 7.5 7.0 

-.6 8.7 9.0 9.1 9.0 8.9 8.8 8.6 6.2 8.2 7.9 7.5 7.1 6.8 6.5 6.3 6.5 6.3 6.3 

. ■- o.7 6.7 6.9 6.8 7.0 6.8 6.7 6.5 6.4 6.1 6.1 5.9 5.6 5.6 5.6 5.5 5.5 5.6 5.7 

50 150 250 350 450 550 6^0 750 850 950 1C50 1150 1250 1350 1450 1550 1650 1750 1850 1950 

91 278 463 649 834 1019 12"5 1390 1575 1761 1946 2131 2317 2502 2687 2872 3058 3243 3428 3614 

DISTANCE 





c 




10 




20 




30 




40 




50 


D 


6J 


E 


70 


P 


30 


T 


90 


II 


100 




12 1 


CO 


150 




200 




250 




)00 




»0< 




5 00 




s !•; [ 




KM 



32 










10 




20 




30 




1)0 




50 


D 


60 


£ 


70 


P 


80 


T 


90 


H 


100 




120 


(M) 


150 




200 




250 




300 




U00 




500 




H ai 




KH 



MERN XBT TEMPERATURE* DEG-C 01 OCTOBER 

26.U 26.2 26.1 25.9 25.7 25.1 25.0 21.6 21. 2 23.8 23.2 22.9 22.3 21.9 7 1 . 3 20.3 19.9 18.7 17.6 16.0 

26.1 26.2 26.0 25.8 25.7 25.1 25.0 21.6 21.1 23.8 23.2 22.9 22.3 21.9 21.2 20.2 19.7 18.6 17.5 15.8 

26.1 26.2 26.0 25.8 25.6 25.1 21.9 21.5 21.1 23.8 23.1 22.8 22.3 21.8 21.1 20.1 19.6 18.6 17.1 15.2 

26.1 26.2 25.9 25.7 25.6 25.3 21.8 21.5 21.1 23.7 22.9 22.7 21.9 21.5 20.9 19.9 19.1 18.1 17.2 11.1 

26.3 26.1 25.8 25.6 25.3 25.1 21.6 21.2 23.8 23.3 22.0 22.3 21.2 20.7 10.1 19.3 18.2 17.6 16.1 12.8 

26.1 25.7 25.5 25.3 21.6 21.5 23.9 23.1 23.0 22.3 21.3 21.1 19.9 19.1 18.6 17.6 16.8 16.3 15.1 11.5 
25.6 25.1 21.7 21.6 23.7 23.1 22.5 22.1 21.7 21.0 20.0 20.2 18.5 17.7 17.1 16.2 15.3 15.0 11.0 10.8 

21.6 21.2 23.6 23.5 22.6 22.0 21.1 21.1 20.1 19.7 19.0 19.2 17.6 16.9 16.3 15.1 11.1 13.9 13.0 10.1 

23.7 23.3 22.7 22.6 21.7 21.2 20.6 20.6 19.6 18.9 18.5 18.5 17.1 16.6 15.9 11.9 13.8 13.2 12.2 10.0 

23.2 22.6 22.0 21.9 21.1 20.6 20.1 20.0 19.1 18.5 18.1 18.1 16.9 16.3 15.6 11.5 13.1 12.7 11.7 9.8 
22.6 22.1 21.1 21.1 20.6 20.1 19.7 19.6 18.7 18.1 17.fi 17.9 16.7 16.1 15.1 11.1 13.0 12.1 11.2 9.6 
21.6 21.1 20.5 20.5 19.8 19.3 19.0 18.8 18.1 17.5 17.3 17.2 16.1 15.1 11.7 13.2 12.0 11.3 10.6 9.2 

20.3 19.8 19.2 19.3 18.6 18.2 17.9 17.7 17.1 16.1 16.2 16.0 11.8 13.8 13.1 11.5 10.6 10.1 9.7 8.7 
17.9 17.2 16.8 17.0 16.1 15.8 15.8 15.3 11.5 13.7 13.6 13.1 12.1 11.2 10.8 9.9 9.3 9.0 8.8 8.1 
11.9 11.2 11.0 11.2 11.1 13.1 13.3 12.9 12.3 11.6 11.5 11.2 10.5 9.9 9.5 9.0 8.5 8.3 8.1 7.1 
12.2 11.8 11.7 11.9 11.9 11.5 11.5 11.2 10.9 10.1 10.3 10.0 9.5 8.9 8.6 7.9 7.6 7.6 7.1 7.0 

8.9 8.6 8.7 9.1 9.2 9.0 8.9 8.8 8.7 8.2 8.1 7.8 7.5 7.0 6.8 6.1 6.3 6.1 6.3 6.2 

D.9 6.7 6.8 6.9 6.8 6.9 6.8 6.8 6.5 6.1 6.2 6.1 6.0 5.6 5.6 5.5 5.5 5.5 5.5 5.7 

50 150 250 350 150 550 650 750 850 950 1C50 1150 1250 1350 1150 1550 1650 1750 1850 1950 

93 278 163 619 831 1019 12"5 1390 1575 1761 1916 2131 2317 2502 2687 2872 3058 3213 3128 3611 

DISTANCE 



MERN XBT TEMPERRTURE* DEG-C MID-OCTOBER 

26.3 26.1 26.0 25.7 25.5 25.3 21.8 21. 3 23.9 23.5 22.8 22.5 21.9 21.1 20.8 19.7 19.3 18.3 17.0 15.6 

26.3 26.1 25.9 25.7 25.5 25.3 21.8 21.2 23.9 23.1 22.fi 22.5 21.9 21.3 20.7 19.6 19.2 18.3 17.0 15.5 

26.3 26.1 25.9 25.6 25.5 25.3 21.7 21.2 23.9 23.1 22.7 22.5 21.9 21.3 20.7 19.6 19.1 18.2 16.9 15.1 

26.2 26.1 25.8 25.5 25.5 25.2 21.7 21.2 23.9 23.1 22.6 22.5 21.7 21.2 20.6 19.5 18.9 18.1 16.7 11.2 

26.2 26.0 25.7 25.1 25.3 25.1 21.6 21.0 23.7 23.2 22.3 22.2 21.3 20.7 20.1 19.3 18.3 17.6 16.0 13.0 
26.0 25.8 25.5 25.2 21.8 21.7 21.1 23.1 23.1 22.6 21.1 21.5 20.3 19.1 18.8 17.8 17.0 16.5 11.8 11.6 
25.6 25.3 21.8 21.7 21.0 23.7 22.9 22.7 21.9 21.1 20.3 20.1 18.9 17.9 17.3 16.3 15.6 15.2 13.5 10.7 
21.9 21.6 23.8 23.7 22.9 22.3 21.8 21.7 20.6 20.0 19.2 19.3 17.8 17.1 16.3 15.2 11.1 13.9 12.6 10.3 

21.0 23.8 22.8 22.8 21.9 21.3 20.9 20.7 19.7 19.1 18.5 18.5 17.2 16.6 15.8 11.6 13.8 13.1 11.8 10.0 

23.3 23.0 22.1 22.0 21.2 20.7 20.3 20.1 19.1 18.5 18.1 18.1 16.8 16.3 15.5 11.3 13.1 12.6 11.3 9.7 

22.5 22.3 21.5 21.1 20.6 20.1 19.8 19.7 18.7 18.1 17.7 17.8 16.6 16.0 15.2 13.8 12.9 12.0 10.9 9.5 

21.6 21.3 20.7 20.6 19.8 19.3 19.0 18.9 18.0 17.5 17.1 17.1 16.1 15.3 11.5 12.9 11.9 11.2 10.3 9.2 
20.3 19.9 19.1 19.1 18.7 18.2 17.9 17.8 17.0 16.1 16.0 15.8 11.8 13.7 13.3 11.2 10.5 10.1 9.5 8.6 
17.9 17.3 17.0 17.2 16.1 15.8 15.8 15.5 11.1 13.7 13.3 12.9 12.1 11.1 10.8 9.7 9.3 9.0 8.6 8.0 
11.8 11.3 11.2 11.1 11.0 13.1 13.3 13.0 12.3 11.7 11.1 11.1 10.6 9.8 9.5 8.9 8.1 8.2 7.9 7.1 

12.1 11.9 11.8 12.1 11.8 11.5 11.5 11.3 10.9 10.1 10.2 9.9 9.5 8.9 8.6 7.8 7.6 7.5 7.3 6.9 
8.8 8.7 8.7 9.1 9.2 8.9 8.9 8.8 8.7 e.2 8.1 7.7 7.5 7.0 6.8 6.3 6.3 6.3 6.3 6.1 
6.8 6.7 6.8 6.9 6.8 6.8 6.8 6.8 6.6 6.3 6.2 6.0 6.0 5.6 5.6 5.5 5.5 5.5 5.1 5.6 

50 150 250 350 150 550 650 750 850 950 1050 1150 1250 1350 1950 1550 1650 1750 1850 1950 

93 278 163 619 831 1019 1205 1390 1575 1761 1916 2131 2317 2502 2687 2872 3058 3213 3128 3619 

DISTANCE 










10 




20 




30 




10 




50 


D 


60 


E 


70 


P 


80 


T 


90 


H 


100 




120 


JO 


150 




200 




250 




300 




100 




500 




S MI 




KH 



33 





10 




20 




10 




HO 




50 


1) 


60 


E 


70 


P 


SO 


T 


90 


11 


100 




120 


(M) 


150 




200 




250 




300 




1400 




500 




N fll 




KB 



MEAN XBT TEMPERRTUREp DEG-C 01 NOVEMBER 

2b. 25.8 25.6 25.3 25.2 214.9 20.0 23.8 23.5 22.9 22.2 21.9 21.3 20.6 20.1 19.0 18.6 17.7 16.3 15.1 

26.0 25.8 25.6 25.3 25.1 214.9 20.0 23.8 23.5 22.8 22.2 21.9 21.3 20.6 20.0 19.0 18.6 17.7 16.3 15.0 

26.0 25.8 23.6 25.3 25.1 20.9 21.14 23.7 23.5 22.8 22.2 21.9 21.3 20.6 20.0 19.0 18.6 17.7 16.2 114.8 
25.9 25.8 25.6 25.2 25.1 20.9 20.0 23.7 23.11 22.8 22.1 21.9 21.3 20.6 20.0 19.0 18.5 17.6 16.1 1H.1 
25.9 25.7 25.5 25.1 25.0 2H.8 20.0 23.7 23. U 22.8 22.0 21.8 21.1 20. 14 19.7 19.0 18.2 17.14 15.0 13.1 

25.8 25.6 25.3 25.0 214.8 20.6 20.0 23.3 23.0 22.5 21. U 21.14 20.11 19.5 18.9 17.9 17.2 16.6 114.5 11.7 

25.5 25.14 2U.7 214.6 214.2 23.8 23.1 22.8 22.1 21.6 20.0 20. U 19.3 18.2 17.6 16.3 15.8 15. <4 13.2 10.7 

25.1 214.9 23.9 23.8 23.1 22.5 22.3 21.9 20.9 20.3 19. a 19.3 18.1 17. a 16.0 15.1 1U.7 13.9 12.2 10.2 

20.2 2U.2 23.1 22.9 22.0 21.6 21.3 20.9 20.0 19.3 18.7 18.5 17.3 16.7 15.7 114.5 13.9 13.1 11.14 9.9 
23.0 23.U 22.11 22.1 21.2 20.8 20.11 20.3 19.3 18.6 18.2 18.0 16.8 16.3 15.0 111.0 13.3 12.11 10.9 9.7 

22.6 22.6 21.8 21.5 20.7 20.3 19.9 19.7 18.7 18.1 17.7 17.6 16.5 15.9 15.1 13.5 12.8 11.9 10.5 9.11 

21.6 21. H 2C.9 20.6 19.8 19. U 19.1 18.9 18.0 17.5 17.0 16.9 16.0 15.3 10.0 12.6 11.9 11.1 10.0 9.1 
20.2 20.1 19.7 19.14 18.6 18.2 18.0 17.8 16.9 16.3 15.9 15.6 10.7 13.7 13.1 11.1 10.6 10.0 9.3 8.6 

17.7 17.14 17.3 17.1 16.3 15.8 15.7 15.6 14.2 13.8 13.0 12.7 12.1 11.1 10.7 9.6 9.3 9.0 8.5 7.9 
114.6 10.3 114.14 10.3 13.8 13. U 13.2 13.0 12.2 11.7 11.3 11.0 10.6 9.8 9.5 8.8 8.5 8.2 7.8 7.3 

11.9 11.9 11.9 12.0 11.7 11.5 11.0 11.3 10.9 10.5 10.1 9.8 9.5 8.8 8.5 7.8 7.6 7.0 7.2 6.8 
8.7 8.7 8.8 9.1 9.1 9.0 8.9 8.8 8.7 8.3 7.9 7.7 7.6 7.0 6.8 6.3 6.3 6.2 6.3 6.0 
6.7 6.6 6.8 6.9 6.8 6.7 6.8 6.8 6.6 6.3 6.1 6.0 6.1 5.7 5.6 5.6 5.5 5.5 5.5 5.5 

50 150 250 350 050 550 650 750 850 950 1050 1150 1250 1350 1050 1550 1650 1750 1850 1950 

93 278 063 609 830 1019 12"5 1390 1575 1761 1906 2131 2317 2502 5687 2872 3058 3203 3028 3610 

DTSTiHCE 



MEAN XBT TEMPERATURE* DEG-C MID-NOVEMBER 

25.6 25.3 25.1 20.8 20.6 20.3 23.8 23.2 22.9 22.1 21.5 21.1 20.5 19.8 19.2 18.3 17.8 17.0 15.6 10.3 
25.5 25.3 25.1 20.8 20.6 20.3 23.8 23.2 22.9 22.1 21. « 21.1 20.5 19.8 19.1 18.3 17.8 17.0 15.6 10.3 
25.5 25.3 25.1 20.8 20.6 20.3 23.8 23.2 22.9 22.1 21.5 21.2 20.6 19.8 19.1 18.3 17.9 17.0 15.5 10.3 
25.5 25.3 25.1 20.7 20.6 20.3 23.8 23.2 22.8 22.1 21.5 21.1 20.6 19.9 19.2 18.3 17.9 17.0 15.0 13.8 
25.5 25.3 25.0 20.7 20.5 20.0 23.8 23.1 22.8 22.1 21.5 21.1 20.6 19.9 19.1 18.0 17.8 17.0 10.9 13.1 

25.0 25.3 20.9 20.6 20.5 20.2 23.7 23.1 22.6 22.0 21.1 20.9 20.3 19.0 18.7 17.7 17.2 16.5 10.3 11.8 
25.3 25.2 20.6 20.3 20.0 23.7 23.2 22.8 22.1 21.5 20.5 20.2 19.5 18.5 17.7 16.0 16.1 15.3 13.1 10.8 

25.1 25.0 20.0 23.8 23.1 22.7 22.6 22.1 21.2 20.5 19.7 19.3 18.0 17.7 16.6 15.2 15.0 10.0 12.1 10.2 
20.0 20.0 23.3 23.1 22.1 21.8 21.7 21.1 20.3 19.5 19.0 18.6 17.5 17.0 15.8 10.5 10.1 13.0 11.3 9.9 
23.5 23.6 22.7 22.2 21.3 21.1 20.7 20.0 19.6 18.7 18.5 18.0 16.9 16.0 15.0 13.9 13.3 12.3 10.7 9.7 

22.7 22.8 22.1 21.6 20.7 20.0 20.0 19.8 19.0 18.1 17.9 17.5 16.5 15.9 15.0 13.0 12.8 11.8 10.3 9.0 
21.5 21.5 21.1 20.6 19.8 19.0 19.0 18.9 18.1 17.5 17.1 16.8 16.0 15.3 10.3 12.6 11.9 10.9 9.8 9.1 

20.2 20.1 19.9 19.3 18.6 18.2 17.9 17.8 16.9 16.3 15.9 15.0 10.7 13.7 12.9 11.2 10.7 10.0 9.2 8.6 
17.5 17.3 17.5 17.0 16.2 15.9 15.5 15.5 10.2 13.8 12.9 12.6 12.1 11.2 10.7 9.7 9.3 8.9 8.0 7.9 

10.3 10.2 10.6 10.1 13.7 13.5 13.0 12.9 12.2 11.7 11.2 10.9 10.6 9.9 9.5 8.8 8.5 8.1 7.7 7.3 
11.7 11.7 12.0 11.9 11.6 11.6 11.3 11.3 10.9 10.5 10.0 9.8 9.6 8.9 8.5 7.9 7.7 7.0 7.2 6.8 

8.5 8.7 8.6 9.1 9.0 9.0 8.9 8.8 8.6 6.3 7.9 7.6 7.6 7.1 6.8 6.0 6.3 6.2 6.3 6.0 

6.6 6.6 6.7 6.8 6.8 6.8 6.7 6.7 6.6 6.3 6.1 6.1 6.1 5.8 5.7 5.6 5.5 5.5 5.5 5.5 

50 150 250 350 050 550 650 750 850 950 1C50 1150 1250 1350 1050 1550 1650 1750 1850 1950 

93 27b U63 609 830 1019 12 n 5 1390 1575 1761 1906 2131 2317 2502 2687 2872 3058 3203 3028 3610 

DISTANCE 










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MEAN XBT TEMPERATURE. DEG-C 01 DECEMBER 

25.1 20.8 20.5 20.2 23.9 23.7 23.2 22.6 22.2 21.3 2C.7 20.0 19.8 19.1 Id. 3 17.7 17.1 16.3 1U.9 13.6 

25.1 21.8 21.5 20.2 23.9 23.7 23.1 22.6 22.2 21.3 2C.7 20.1 19.8 19.1 18.3 17.7 17.1 16.3 10.9 13.6 

25.1 20.8 20.5 20.2 23.9 23.7 23.2 22.6 22.2 21.3 20." 20.0 19.8 19.1 18.3 17.6 17.1 16.3 10.9 13.6 

25.1 20.8 20.5 20.2 23.9 23.7 23.2 22.6 22.2 21.3 20.8 20.0 19.8 19.1 18.3 17.6 17.3 16.0 10.8 13.0 

25.0 20.8 20.5 20.2 23.9 23.7 23.2 22.6 22.2 21.3 20. « 20.0 19.9 19.2 18.0 17.7 17.3 16.0 10.6 12.9 

25.0 20.8 20.5 20.2 20.0 23.7 23.2 22.7 22.2 21.3 20.6 20.3 19.8 19.1 18.3 17.0 17.0 16.2 10.2 11.9 

25.0 20.9 20.3 20.0 23.7 23.0 23.0 22.5 22.0 21.1 20.0 20.0 19.0 18.6 17.7 16.0 16.2 15.2 13.2 10.9 

25.0 20.8 23.9 23.7 23. C 22.7 22.7 22.0 21.0 20.0 19.8 19.3 18.6 18.0 1b. 8 15.3 15.3 10.1 12.2 10.3 

20.0 20.3 23.5 23.1 22.2 22.0 21.9 21.3 20.7 19.6 19.0 18.7 17.7 17.3 16.0 10.7 10.3 13.1 11.3 9.9 
23.5 23.6 22.9 22.0 21.0 21.3 20.9 20. b 19.9 18.8 18.9 la.1 17.1 16.6 15.5 10.0 13.3 12.3 10.8 9.7 
22.8 22.8 22.0 21.7 20.8 20.6 20.1 19.9 19.3 16.3 18.2 17.5 16.7 16.0 15.0 13.5 12.8 11.7 10.0 9.0 
21.5 21.0 21.3 20.6 19.9 19.5 19.0 18.9 18.2 17.0 17.3 16.8 16.1 15.3 10.3 12.7 12.0 10.8 9.7 9.0 

20.1 19.9 2C.0 19.3 18.6 18.2 17.9 17.7 16.9 16.2 16.0 15.0 10.7 13.8 12.8 11.3 10.7 9.9 9.1 8.6 
17.3 17.3 17.7 16.7 16.1 15.9 15.0 15.0 10.2 13.7 12.9 12.6 12.1 11.3 10.6 9.7 9.3 8.9 8.0 8.0 
10. 10.2 10.7 11.9 13.5 13.0 12.9 12.8 12.2 11.7 11.1 10.9 10.6 10.0 9.5 8.9 8.5 8.1 7.7 7.0 
11.5 11.6 12.0 11.8 11.6 11. b 11.2 11.2 10.8 1C.5 1C.0 9.8 9.6 8.9 8.0 8.0 7.7 7.3 7.2 6.8 

8.0 8.7 8.8 9.0 9.0 9.0 8.8 8.7 8.6 8.0 7.8 7.6 7.6 7.2 6.7 6.5 6.0 6.2 6.3 6.0 

6.6 6.6 6.6 6.7 6.8 6.8 6.7 6.7 6.7 6.3 6.1 6.1 6.0 5.9 5.7 5.6 5.5 5.6 5.6 5.0 

50 150 250 350 050 550 650 750 850 950 1C50 1150 1250 1350 1050 1550 1650 1750 1850 1950 

93 278 063 609 830 1019 12^5 1390 1575 1761 1906 2131 2317 2502 2687 2872 3058 3203 3028 3610 

DISTANCE 



MERN XBT TEMPERATURE 9 DEG-C MID-DECEMBER 

20.5 20.3 23.8 23.6 23.2 22.9 22.0 22.0 21.5 2C.5 2C.0 19.6 18.9 18.3 17.0 17.0 16.3 15.5 10.3 12.9 

20.5 20.3 23.8 23.6 23.2 22.9 22.0 22.0 21.5 2C.0 2C.0 19.5 18.9 18.3 17.0 17.0 16.3 15.6 10.3 12.9 

20.5 20.3 23.8 23.6 23.2 22.9 22.0 22.0 21.5 20. 20.1 19.5 18.9 18.3 17.0 16.9 16.3 15.6 10.3 12.8 

20.5 20.2 23.8 23.6 23.2 22.9 22.0 22.0 21.5 2C.0 2C.0 19.6 18.9 18.0 17.5 16.9 16.0 15.7 10.3 12.8 

24.5 20.3 23.9 23.7 23.2 23.0 22.0 22.0 21.5 20.5 20.1 19.6 19.0 18.5 17.6 16.8 16.5 15.7 10.2 12.5 

20.5 20.3 23.9 23.6 23.3 23.0 22.5 22.1 21.5 2C.5 2C.0 19.7 19.1 18.5 17.7 16.9 16.5 15.7 10.1 11.9 

20.6 20.3 23.8 23.6 23.1 22.9 22.6 22.1 21.6 20.5 20.0 19.6 19.1 18.0 17.5 16.0 16.1 15.1 13.0 11.2 
20.6 20.3 23.7 23.5 22.8 22.5 22.5 21.8 21.0 2C.2 19.8 19.2 18.6 18.1 16.9 15.5 15.5 10.3 12.5 10.5 
20.2 23.9 23.0 23.1 22.2 22.0 21.9 21.3 20.9 19.6 19.5 18.8 17.9 17.5 16.2 15. C 10.0 13.3 11.6 9.9 
23.5 23.3 23.0 22.5 21.5 21.0 21.0 20.8 20.2 19.1 19.2 18.3 17.0 16.9 15.7 10.2 13.3 12.0 11.0 9.7 
22.9 22.6 22.5 21.9 21.0 20.8 20.2 20.0 19.6 18.5 18.6 17.7 16.9 16.2 15.0 13.7 12.7 11.8 10.6 9.5 
21.5 21.2 21.2 20.6 20.0 19.6 19.0 18.9 18.0 17.0 17.6 16.9 16.1 15.3 10.3 12.9 11.9 10.9 9.9 9.1 

20.1 19.7 19.9 19.2 18.6 18.2 17.8 17.5 17.0 16.1 16.1 15.6 10.7 13.9 12.8 11.5 10.6 9.9 9.2 8.7 

17.2 17.2 17.6 16.6 16.1 15.8 15.3 15.2 10.0 13.5 13.1 12.7 12. C 11.0 10.5 9.8 9.3 8.9 8.5 8.0 
13.9 10.1 10.7 13.7 13.0 13.3 12.8 12.6 12.2 11.7 11.1 10.9 10.5 10.0 9.5 8.9 8.5 8.1 7.8 7.0 
11.0 11.5 12.0 11.7 11.5 11.5 11.2 11.2 10.9 1C.5 9.9 9.8 9.5 9.0 8.0 8.0 7.7 7.3 7.2 6.9 

8.3 8.6 8.8 8.9 8.9 8.9 8.8 8.7 8.6 8.3 7.8 7.7 7.5 7.2 6.7 6.5 b.O 6.2 6.2 6.1 

6.6 6.6 6.6 6.7 6.9 6.8 6.7 6.6 6.6 6.0 6.? 6.2 5.9 5.8 5.7 5.6 5.5 5.6 5.6 5.5 

50 150 250 350 050 550 650 750 850 950 1C50 1150 1250 1350 1050 1550 1650 1750 1850 1950 

93 278 063 609 810 1019 12"5 1390 1575 1761 1906 2131 2317 2502 2687 2872 3058 3203 3028 3610 

DISTANCE 










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35 

* United Stales Government Printing Office: 1979—697-366/74 



672. Seasonal occurrence of young Guld menhaden and other fishes in a 
northwestern Florida estuary. By Marlin E. Tagatz and E. Peter H. 
Wilkins. August 1973, iii + 14 p., 1 fig., 4 tables. For sale by the 
Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, 
Washington, D.C. 20402. 

673. Abundance and distribution of inshore benthic fauna off 
southwestern Long Island, N.Y. By Frank W. Steimle, Jr. and Richard B. 
Stone. December 1973, iii + 50 p., 2 figs., 5 app. tables. 

674. Lake Erie bottom trawl explorations, 1962-66. By Edgar W. Bow- 
man. January 1974, iv + 21 p., 9 figs., 1 table, 7 app. tables. 

675. Proceedings of the International Billfish Symposium, Kailua- 
Kona. Hawaii, 9-12 August 1972. Part 1. Report of the Symposium. 
March 1975, iii + 33 p.; Part 2. Review and contributed papers. July 
1974. iv + 355 p. (38 papers); Part 3. Species synopses. June 1975, iii + 
159 p. (8 papers). Richard S. Shomura and Francis Williams (editors). 
For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing 
Office. Washington. D.C. 20402. 

676. Price spreads and cost analyses for finfish and shellfish products at 
different marketing levels. By Erwin S. Penn. March 1974, vi + 74 p., 15 
figs?, 12 tables, 12 app. figs., 14 app. tables. For sale by the Superinten- 
dent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 
20402. 

677. Abundance of benthic macroinvertebrates in natural and altered 
estuarine areas. By Gill Gilmore and Lee Trent. April 1974, iii + 13 p., 
11 figs., 3 tables, 2 app. tables. For sale by the Superintendent 
of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office. Washington, D.C. 
20402. 

678. Distribution, abundance, and growth of juvenile sockeye salmon, 
Oncorhynchus nerka. and associated species in the Naknek River system. 
1961-64. By Robert J. Ellis. September 1974, v + 53 p., 27 figs., 26 tables. 
For sale bv the Superintendent of Documents. U.S. Government Printing 
Office. Washington, D.C. 20402. 

679. Kinds and abundance of zooplankton collected by the USCG 
icebreaker Glacier in the eastern Chukchi Sea, September-October 1970. 
By Bruce L. Wing. August 1974, iv + 18 p., 14 figs., 6 tables. For sale by 
the Superintendent of Documents. U.S. Government Printing Office, 
Washington, D.C. 20402. 

680. Pelagic amphipod crustaceans from the southeastern Bering Sea, 
June 1971. By Gerald A. Sanger. July 1974. iii / 8 p., 3 figs., 3 tables. For 
sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Of- 
fice, Washington, D.C. 20402. 

681. Physiological response of the cunner, Tautogolabrus adspersus, to 
cadmium. October 1974, iv + 33 p., 6 papers, various authors. For sale by 
the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, 
Washington. D.C. 20402. 

682. Heat exchange between ocean and atmosphere in the eastern 
North Pacific for 1961-71. By N. E. Clark, L. Eber, R. M. Laurs, J. A. 
Renner. and J. F. T. Saur. December 1974, iii + 108 p., 2 figs., 1 table, 5 
plates. 

683. Bioeconomic relationships for the Maine lobster fishery with con- 
sideration of alternative management schemes. By Robert L. Dow, 
Frederick W. Bell, and Donald M. Harriman. March 1975, v + 44 p., 20 
figs., 25 tables. For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. 
Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402. 

684. Age and size composition of the Atlantic menhaden, Brevoortia 
tyrannus, purse seine catch, 1963-71, with a brief discussion of the 
fishery. By William R. Nicholson. June 1975, iv + 28 p., 1 fig., 12 
tables, 18 app. tables. For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. 
Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402. 

685. An annotated list of larval and juvenile fishes captured with sur- 
face-towed meter net in the South Atlantic Bight during four RV Dolphin 
cruises between May 1967 and February 1968. By Michael P. 
Fahay. March 1975, iv + 39 p., 19 figs., 9 tables, 1 app. table. For sale 



bv the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, 
Washington, D.C. 20402. 

686. Pink salmon, Oncorhunchus gorbuscha, tagging experiments in 
southeastern Alaska, 1938-42 and 1945. By Roy E. Nakatani, Gerald J. 
Paulik, and Richard .Van Cleve. April 1975, iv + 39 p.. 24 figs., 16 
tables. For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government 
Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402. 

687. Annotated bibliography on the biology of the menhadens. Genus 
Brevoortia, 1963-1973. By John W. Reintjes and Peggy M. 
Keney. April 1975, 92 p. For sale by the Superintendent of 
Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402. 

688. Effect of gas supersaturated Columbia River water on the survival 
of juvenile chinook and coho salmon. By Theodore H. Blahm, Robert J. 
McConnell, and George R. Snyder. April 1975, iii + 22 p., 8 figs., 5 
tables, 4 app. tables. For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. 
Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402. 

689. Ocean distribution of stocks of Pacific salmon, Oncorhynchus spp., 
and steelhead trout, Salmo gairdnerii, as shown by tagging experiments. 
Charts of tag recoveries by Canada, Japan, and the United States, 1956- 
69. By Robert R. French, Richard G. Bakkala, and Doyle F. Suther- 
land. June 1975, viii + 89 p., 117 figs., 2 tables. For sale by the 
Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, 
Washington, D.C. 20402. 

690. Migratory routes of adult sockeye salmon, Oncorhynchus nerka, in 
the eastern Bering Sea and Bristol Bay. By Richard R. Straty. April 
1975, iv + 32 p.. 22 figs., 3 tables, 3 app. tables. For sale by the 
Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office. 
Washington, D.C. 20402. 

691. Seasonal distributions of larval flatfishes (Pleuronectiformes) on 
the continental shelf between Cape Cod, Massachusetts, and Cape 
Lookout, North Carolina, 1965-66. By W. G. Smith, J. D. Sibunka, and 
A. Wells. June 1975, iv + 68 p., 72 figs., 16 tables. 

692. Expendable bathythermograph observations from the 
NMFS/MARAD Ship of Opportunity Program for 1972. By Steven K. 
Cook. June 1975, iv + 81 p., 81 figs. For sale by the Superintendent of 
Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office. Washington, D.C. 20402. 

693. Daily and weekly upwelling indices, west coast of North America, 
1967-73. By Andrew Bakun. August 1975, iii + 1 14 p., 3 figs., 6 tables. 

694. Semiclosed seawater system with automatic salinity, temperature 
and turbidity control. By Sid Korn. September 1975, iii + 5 p., 7 figs., 
1 table. 

695. Distribution, relative abundance, and movement of skipjack tuna, 
Katsuwonus pelamis, in the Pacific Ocean based on Japanese tuna long- 
line catches, 1964-67. By Walter M. Matsumoto. October 1975, iii + 
30 p., 15 figs., 4 tables. 

696. Large-scale air-sea interactions at ocean weather station V, 1951- 
71. By David M. Husby and Gunter R. Seckel. November 1975, iv + 
44 p., 11 figs., 4 tables. For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, 
U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402. 

697. Fish and hydrographic collections made by the research vessels 
Dolphin and Delaware II during 1968-72 from New York to Florida. By 
S. J. Wilk and M. J. Silverman. January 1976, iii + 159 p.. 1 table, 2 
app. tables. For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. 
Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402. 

698. Summer benthic fish fauna of Sandy Hook Bay, New Jersey. By 
Stuart J. Wilk and Myron J. Silverman. January 1976, iv + 16 p., 21 
figs., 1 table, 2 app. tables. For sale by the Superintendent of 
Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402. 

699. Seasonal surface currents off the coasts of Vancouver Island and 
Washington as shown by drift bottle experiments. 1964-65. By W. 
James Ingraham, Jr. and James R. Hastings. May 1976, iii + 9 p., 4 
figs., 4 tables. 



UNITED STATES 
DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE 

NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION 

NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE 

SCIENTIFIC PUBLICATIONS STAFF 

ROOM 450 

1107 N E 45TH ST 

SEATTLE. WA 98105 



OFFICIAL BUSINESS 



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US DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE 

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THIRD CLASS 
BULK RATE 





Library 

Division of Fishes 
U.S. National Museum 
Washington, D.G. 20560 



NOAA SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNICAL PUBLICATIONS 

NOAA, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, was established as part of the Department of 
Commerce on October 3, 1970 The mission responsibilities of NOAA are to monitor and predict the state of the 
solid Earth, the oceans and their living resources, the atmosphere, and the space environment of th= ^irth, and to 
assess the socioeconomic impact of natural and technological changes in the environment. 



The six Major Line Components of NOAA regularly produce various types of scientific a. 
mation in the following kinds of publications: 



technical infor- 



PROFESSIONAL PAPERS— Important definitive 
research results, major techniques, and special in- 
vestigations. 

TECHNICAL REPORTS— Journal quality with 
extensive details, mathematical developments, or 
data listings. 

TECHNICAL MEMORANDUMS— Reports of 
preliminary, partial, or negative research or tech- 
nology results, interim instructions, and the like. 

CONTRACT AND GRANT REPORTS— Reports 
prepared by contractors or grantees under NOAA 
sponsorship. 



TECHNICAL SERVICE PUBLICATIONS— 

These are publications containing data, observations, 
instructions, etc. A partial listing: Data serials: Pre- 
diction and outlook periodicals: Technical manuals, 
training papers, planning reports, and information 
serials: and Miscellaneous technical publications. 



ATLAS — Analysed data generally presented in the 
form of maps showing distribution o r rainfall, 
chemical and physical conditions of oceai and at- 
mosphere, distribution of fishes and mar e mam- 
mals, ionospheric conditions, etc. 




Information on availability of NOAA publications can ba obtained from: 

ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE INFORMATION CENTER 

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730 /9&&f 

Tisks 




S ^TES O* * 



NOAA Technical Report NMFS SSRF-730 

Surface Circulation in the 
Northwestern Gulf of Mexico 
as Deduced From Drift Bottles 

Robert F. Temple and John A. Martin 

May 1979 




U.S. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE 

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 

National Marine Fisheries Service 



NOAA TECHNICAL REPORTS 
National Marine Fisheries Service, Special Scientific Report — Fisheries 

The major responsibilities of the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) are to monitor and assess the abundance and geographic 
distribution of fishery resources, to understand and predict fluctuations in the quantity and distribution of these resources, and to establish levels 
for optimum use of the resources. NMFS is also charged with the development and implementation of policies for managing national fishing 
grounds, development and enforcement of domestic fisheries regulations, surveillance of foreign fishing off United States coastal waters, and the 
development and enforcement of international fishery agreements and policies. NMFS also assists the fishing industry through marketing service 
and economic analysis programs, and mortgage insurance and vessel construction subsidies. It collects, analyzes, and publishes statistics on 
various phases of the industry. 

The Special Scientific Report — Fisheries series was established in 1949. The series carries reports on scientific investigations that document 
long-term continuing programs of NMFS, or intensive scientific reports on studies of restricted scope. The reports may deal with applied fishery 
problems. The series is also used as a medium for the publication of bibliographies of a specialized scientific nature. 

NOAA Technical Reports NMFS SSRF are available free in limited numbers to governmental agencies, both Federal and State. They are also 
available in exchange for other scientific and technical publications in the marine sciences. Individual copies may be obtained (unless otherwise 
noted) from D825, Technical Information Division, Environmental Science Information Center, NOAA. Washington, D.C. 20235. Recent SSRFs 
are: 



649. Distribution of forage of skipjack tuna (Euthynnus pelamis) in the 
eastern tropical Pacific. By Maurice Blackburn and Michael Laurs. 
January 1972, iii + 16 p., 7 figs.. 3 tables. For sale by the Superintendent 
of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 
20402. 



661. A review of the literature on the development of skipjack tuna 
fisheries in the central and western Pacific Ocean. By Frank J. Hester 
and Tamio Otsu. January 1973, iii + 13 p., 1 fig. For sale by the 
Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, 
Washington, D.C. 20402. 



650. Effects of some antioxidants and EDTA on the development of ran- 
cidity in Spanish mackerel (Scomberomorus maculatus) during frozen 
storage. By Robert N. Farragut. February 1972, iv -r 12 p., 6 figs., 12 
tables. For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government 
Printing Office. Washington. D.C. 20402. 

651. The effect of premortem stress, holding temperatures, and freezing 
on the biochemistry and quality of skipjack tuna. By Ladell Crawford. 
April 1972, iii + 23 p., 3 figs.. 4 tables. For sale by the Superintendent 
of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office. Washington, D.C. 
20402. 

653. The use of electricity in conjunction with a 12.5-meter (Headropel 
Gulf-of-Mexico shrimp trawl in Lake Michigan. By James E. Ellis. 
March 1972. iv + 10 p., 11 figs., 4 tables. For sale by the Superintendent 
of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office. Washington, D.C. 
20402. 

654. An electric detector system for recovering internally tagged 
menhaden, genus Brevoortia. By R. O. Parker, Jr. February 1972, iii + 7 
p.. 3 figs.. 1 app. table. For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, 
U S Government Printing Office, Washington. D.C. 20402. 

655. Immobilization of fingerling salmon and trout by decompression. 
By Doyle F. Sutherland. March 1972, iii + 7 p., 3 figs., 2 tables. For sale 
bv the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, 
Washington, D.C. 20402. 

656. The calico scallop. Argopecten gibbus. By Donald M. Allen and T. 
J. Costello. May 1972. iii + 19 p., 9 figs.. 1 tabje. For sale by the 
Superintendent of Documents. U.S. Government Printing Office. 
Washington. D.C. 20402. 



662. Seasonal distribution of tunas and billfishes in the Atlantic. By 
John P. Wise and Charles W. Davis. January 1973, iv + 24 p.. 13 figs., 4 
tables. For sale by the Superintendent of Documents. U.S. Government 
Printing Office. Washington, D.C. 20402. 

663. Fish larvae collected from the northeastern Pacific Ocean and 
Puget Sound during April and May 1967. By Kenneth D. Waldron. 
December 1972, iii + 16 p., 2 figs., 1 table, 4 app. tables. For sale by the 
Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, 
Washington, D.C. 20402. 

664. Tagging and tag-recovery experiments with Atlantic menhaden, 
Brevoortia tyrannus. By Richard L. Kroger and Robert L. Dryfoos. 
December 1972, iv + 11 p., 4 figs., 12 tables. For sale by the Superinten- 
dent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 
20402. 

665. Larval fish survey of Humbolt Bay. California. By Maxwell B. 
Eldrige and Charles F. Bryan. December 1972, iii + 8 p., 8 figs., 1 table. 
For sale bv the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing 
Office. Washington, D.C. 20402. 

666. Distribution and relative abundance of fishes in Newport River, 
North Carolina. By William R. Turner and George N. Johnson. 
September 1973, iv + 23 p., 1 fig., 13 tables. For sale by the Superinten- 
dent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 
20402. 

667. An analysis of the commercial lobster {Homarus americanus) 
fishery along the coast of Maine, August 1966 through December 1970. By 
James C. Thomas. June 1973. v + 57 p.. 18 figs.. 11 tables. For sale by the 
Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, 
Washington, D.C. 20402. 



657. Making fish protein concentrates by enzymatic hydrolysis. A 
status report on research and some processes and products studied by 
NMFS. By Malcolm B. Hale. November 1972, v + 32 p.. 15 figs.. 17 
tables, 1 app. table. For sale by the Superintendent of Documents. U.S. 
Government Printing Office. Washington. D.C. 20402. 

658. List of fishes of Alaska and adjacent waters with a guide to some of 
their literature. By Jay C. Quast and Elizabeth L. Hall. July 1972. iv + 
47 p. For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government 
Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402. 

659. The Southeast Fisheries Center bionumeric code. Part I: Fishes. 
By Harvey R. Bullis. Jr.. Richard B. Roe, and Judith C. Gatlin. July 
1972, xl + 95 p.. 2 figs. For sale by the Superintendent of Documents. 
1 S Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402. 

660. A freshwater fish electro- motivator (FFEM)-its characteristics and 
operation. By James E. Ellis and Charles C. Hoopes. November 1972. iii 
+ 11 p.. 2 figs. 



668. An annotated bibliography of the cunner, Tautogolabrus adspersus 
I Wilbauml. By Fredric M. Serchuk and David W. Frame. May 1973. ii + 
43 p. For sale by the Superintendent of Documents. U.S. Government 
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669. Subpoint prediction for direct readout meterological satellites. By 
L. E. Eber. August 1973, iii + 7 p.. 2 figs., 1 table. For sale by the 
Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, 
Washington. D.C. 20402. 

670. Unharvested fishes in the U.S. commercial fishery of western Lake 
Erie in 1969. By Harry D. Van Meter. July 1973. iii + 11 p., 6 figs.. 6 
tables. For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government 
Printing Office. Washington, D.C. 20402. 

671. Coastal upwelling indices, west coast of North America. 1946-71. 
By Andrew Bakun. June 1973, iv + 103 p., 6 figs., 3 tables, 45 app. figs. 
For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing 
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Continued on inside hark cover 







NOAA Technical Report NMFS SSRF-730 

Surface Circulation in the 
Northwestern Gulf of Mexico 
as Deduced From Drift Bottles 

Robert F. Temple and John A. Martin 

May 1979 



U.S. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE 

Juanita M. Kreps, Secretary 

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 

Richard A. Frank, Administrator 

Terry L. Leitzell. Assistant Administrator for Fisheries 

National Marine Fisheries Service 

For Sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office 
Washington, D.C. 20402 - Stock No. 003-01 7-004S6-2 



The National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) does not approve, rec- 
ommend or endorse any proprietary product or proprietary material 
mentioned in this publication. No reference shall be made to NMFS, or 
to this publication furnished by NMFS, in any advertising or sales pro- 
motion which would indicate or imply that NMFS approves, recommends 
or endorses any proprietary product or proprietary material mentioned 
herein, or which has as its purpose an intent to cause directly or indirectly 
the advertised product to be used or purchased because of this NMFS 
publication. 



CONTENTS 

Introduction 1 

Methods 2 

Results and discussion 3 

Comparison of ballasted and unballasted drift bottles 3 

Surface circulation 3 

January-February 3 

March-May 4 

June-July 8 

August 10 

September-December 10 

Literature cited 13 

Figures 

1. The drift bottle study area in the northwestern Gulf of Mexico with the location of stations occupied 

in 1962 and 1963 2 

2. Surface circulation deduced from recoveries of drift bottles released in January 1963 and February 

1962 and 1963 in the northwestern Gulf of Mexico 6 

3. Surface circulation deduced from recoveries of drift bottles released in March and April 1962 and 

1963 in the northwestern Gulf of Mexico 7 

4. Surface circulation deduced from recoveries of drift bottles released in May 1962 and 1963 in the 

northwestern Gulf of Mexico 8 

5. Surface circulation deduced from recoveries of drift bottles released in June and July 1962 and 1963 

in the northwestern Gulf of Mexico 9 

6. Surface circulation deduced from recoveries of drift bottles released in August 1963 in the northwest- 

ern Gulf of Mexico 10 

7. Surface circulation deduced from recoveries of drift bottles released in September and October 1962 

and 1963 in the northwestern Gulf of Mexico 11 

8. Surface circulation deduced from recoveries of drift bottles released in November 1962 and 1963 and 

December 1962 in the northwestern Gulf of Mexico 12 

Tables 

1. Numbers of drift bottles released and recovered in the Gulf of Mexico within 0-15 and 16-30 days, by 

cruises, 1962 and 1963 3 

2. Comparison by cruise of recovery of ballasted and unballasted drift bottles within 30 days after 

release in the Gulf of Mexico 4 

3. Comparison of the direction and speed of ballasted (B) and unballasted (U) bottles recovered within 

15 days after release in the Gulf of Mexico 5 

4. Estimated range and average current velocity for September-December, 1962-63, in the northwestern 

Gulf of Mexico 13 



in 



Surface Circulation in the Northwestern Gulf of Mexico 
as Deduced From Drift Bottles 1 



ROBERT F. TEMPLE and JOHN A. MARTIN 2 



ABSTRACT 

Drift bottles were released monthly at predetermined stations in the northwestern Gulf of Mexico 
from February 1962 to December 1963. Of the total 7,863 bottles released, 12% (953) were recovered 
within 30 days after release. Analysis of the monthly recoveries revealed seasonal shifts in the flow of 
surface waters. Between September and February the dominant flow was west along the Louisiana 
and east Texas coasts, shifting southwest along the southern Texas coast. Between March and May, 
currents underwent a transitional period, shifting to the north and onshore, particularly along the 
south and central Texas coast. Converging currents, also apparent along the south Texas coast, ap- 
peared to progress up the coast with time. In June and July the surface flow was to the northeast and 
east. August was another transitional period with currents appearing to weaken and turning on- 
shore. Movements of surface waters appeared directly related to prevailing winds. 



INTRODUCTION 

As part of an expanded research effort in 1962 (Kut- 
kuhn 1963), the Bureau of Commercial Fisheries, now 
the National Marine Fisheries Service, NOAA, initiated 
a drift bottle study to determine the direction and rate of 
flow of surface waters in the northwestern Gulf of Mex- 
ico. The objectives of this study were: 1) to document on 
a monthly basis surface current direction and velocity; 
and 2) to attempt to relate monthly variations in current 
direction and speed with the success or failures of the 
yearly shrimp crops. Shrimp are planktonic, and may be 
dependent upon currents for transportation to the estu- 
arine nursery grounds, which are essential for successful 
completion of their life cycle. The drift bottle study 
reported herein began in 1962 and continued through 
1963. 

Seasonal difference in direction and speed of surface 
currents in the Gulf of Mexico have been generally de- 
scribed by Smith et al. (1951), Leipper (1954), Curray 
(1960), Chew et al. (1962), and Ichiye (1962). More recent 
works on current include those by Drennan (1963), Dren- 
nan et al. (1963), Armstrong et al. (1967), Watson and 
Behrens (1970), Ichiye and Sudo (1971), 3 and Moore 
(1973). Many of the above studies, however, although 
contributing to an understanding of ocean currents in the 
Gulf, were restricted to limited geographic areas and 
completed over relatively short time periods. The data 
presented in this report are unique in that they were 
generated from the entire northwestern Gulf of Mexico 



'The compilation, tabulation, and analysis of part of the data reported 
herein were supported under the Department of Interior's Bureau of Land 
Management Interagency Agreement No. 08550-1A5-19. 

-Gulf Fisheries Center, National Marine Fisheries Service, NOAA, 
Galveston, TX 77550. 

'Ichiye, T., and H. Sudo. 1971. Mixing processes between shelf and 
deep sea waters of the Texas coast. Dep. Oceanogr., Texas A&M Uni- 
versity, Ref. 71-19-T, p. 30. 



and on a monthly basis for a 2-yr period, thus providing a 
time series heretofore unavailable. 



METHODS 

Cruises were conducted monthly with chartered 
shrimp vessels from February 1962 to November 1963 to 
stations located over the continental shelf (Fig. 1). The 
monthly schedule was followed as closely as possible, the 
only exceptions being due to adverse weather conditions 
or mechanical breakdowns. Operations were similar be- 
tween years except that fewer stations were occupied in 
1963, and one vessel was used to cover the entire study 
area rather than two as in 1962. The general overall ef- 
fects of these modifications were that in 1963 the areal 
coverage was slightly reduced, and the time required to 
provide total coverage of the study area was increased. 
The latter effect explains seeming discrepancies in the 
date labeling of figures used in the analysis to follow. For 
example, the April cruise in 1963 extended into May. 

Drift bottles used throughout the study were made of 
clear glass, about 22 cm in height, 6 cm in diameter, and 
had a capacity of about 240 cm 3 . Each bottle contained a 
bright reddish-orange card on which was a brief message 
in Spanish and English. A reward of 50 cents was paid for 
the return of the card with information of location and 
date of recovery. In most cases, half the bottles released 
at a station were ballasted (odd numbers) and half were 
unballasted (even numbers). Those ballasted floated at 
or just under the surface. The reason for the use of the 
two types of bottles was an attempt to determine the 
direct effects of winds. 

The number of bottles released during each cruise 
varied during the 2-yr study. Generally, 12 bottles were 
released at each station in 1962; 4-10 bottles were 
released per station in 1963. This modification did not af- 
fect the rate of recovery for bottles within 30 days after 
release for the percent recovered in 1963 was greater than 



m i-i e : 




° 7 



o J 



co 



■O 
CN 



in 1962 (Table 1). This increase was probably due to 
greater public awareness of the program in 1963 than in 
1962. 

The technique used to depict surface currents was the 
same as used by Day (1958). Recovered bottles were 
grouped into two time periods of 15 days each, i.e., 0-15 
days and 16-30 days. The 0-15 day recoveries were first 
plotted as straight lines connecting points of release and 
recovery. These lines were resolved into directional ar- 
rows, and over these arrows we then plotted, as straight 
lines, the 16-30 day recoveries. The final step was to 
reduce the 16-30 day straight lines to flow arrows con- 
forming with the 0-15 directional arrows, thus depicting 
residual drift, not the actual path traversed by a bottle. 
The reason for the selected groupings and the exclusion 
of bottles recovered after 30 days was the existence of the 
sand or sand-shell beaches throughout the northwestern 
Gulf of Mexico, and the possibility of bottles drifting 
ashore, remaining intact, but not being found until some 
later date. 

Rates of drift, killometers per day, were determined 
from recoveries made within 15 days after release. In in- 
stances where several bottles were returned from a single 
station, the bottle or bottles adrift for the shortest time 
period were used to determine rate of drift. Also, if two or 



more bottles, recovered from the same release, were 
adrift for the same period of time but had traveled dif- 
ferent distances, these distances were averaged before 
determination of drift rate. Consequently, one direc- 
tional arrow may represent the recovery of several bot- 
tles, and the speed an average speed. 

Daily wind data from the climatological records pub- 
lished monthly by the U.S. Weather Bureau, now the 
National Weather Service, were used to depict prevailing 
wind conditions over the study area during each cruise 
(U.S. Department of Commerce 1962-1963a, 1962-1963b, 
1962-1963c). This information was recorded at weather 
stations in Brownsville and Galveston, Tex., and New 
Orleans, La. Since the time required to complete each 
cruise varied, it was arbitrarily decided to construct 
resultant wind vectors for the time period between the 
first and last days of each cruise plus an additional 15 
consecutive days. These data were converted to Beau- 
fort units and incorporated into progressive vector anal- 
ysis, the lengths of which measured in Beaufort units 
were divided by the total number of days to give a vector 
average for each period under consideration. 

All drift bottle release and recovery data used in this 
report are on file in the National Oceanographic Data 
Center, Department of Commerce, Washington, D.C. 
20235, under Ref. 78-0035. 



Table 1 Numbers of drift bottles released and recovered In the Gulf of 

Mexico within 0-15 and 16-30 days, by cruises, 1962 and 1963. 





Inclusive 




Total 


Recoveries 


Z Recovered 


Cruise 




Dates 




Deposited 


0-15 


16-30 


Within 30 days 


1-62 


Feb. 


17-Feb. 


27 


651 


25 


12 


6 


2-62 


Mar. 


20-Mar. 


27 


697 


27 


53 


11 


3-62 


Apr. 


18-Apr. 


26 


690 


33 


39 


10 


4-62 


May 


18-May 


22 


525 


26 


11 


7 


5-62 


June 


18- July 


1 


691 


32 


25 


8 


6-62 


July 


18-Aug. 


1 


276 


21 


10 


11 


7-62 


Sep . 


7-Sep. 


25 


663 


45 


26 


11 


8-62 


Oct. 


16-Oct. 


30 


594 


13 


8 


4 


9-62 


Nov. 


14-Dec. 


5 


697 


74 


19 


13 


10-62 


Dec. 


4-Dec. 


19 


583 


30 


1 


5 


1962 Totals 








6,067 


326 


204 


9 


1-63 


Jan. 


22-Feb. 


5 


305 


13 


5 


6 


2-63 


Feb. 


19-Mar. 


9 


203 


14 


20 


17 


3-63 


Mar. 


27-Apr. 


6 


254 


21 


61 


32 


4-63 


Apr. 


21-May 


7 


180 


46 


24 


39 


5-63 


May 


13-May 


23 


209 


57 


21 


37 


6-63 


June 


19-June 


27 


192 


25 


31 


29 


7-63 


July 


10- July 


16 


50 


1 


1 


4 


8-63 


Aug. 


17-Aug. 


31 


118 


9 


6 


13 


9-63 


Sep. 


22-Oct. 


4 


86 


10 


35 


42 


10-63 


Oct. 


20-Nov 


4 


111 





13 


12 


11-63 


Nov. 


20-Dec. 


1 


88 


1 


9 


11 


1963 Totals 








1,796 


197 


226 


24 



RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 

Comparison of Ballasted 
and Unballasted Drift Bottles 

Because of the use of two types of bottles, i.e., 
ballasted and unballasted, data were grouped by bottle 
type to determine if differences existed between rates of 
recovery (Table 2), direction of drift, and speed of 
drift. 

Cruise values of percent recovery fluctuated from 22 to 
54% between Cruise 1-62 and Cruise 6-63. Thereafter, 
values fluctuated from to 76%, reflecting probably the 
reduced number of bottles released during this period 
(Table 1). It was readily apparent that in general fewer 
ballasted than unballasted bottles were recovered with- 
in 30 days after release (Table 2). For a comparison of 
direction and speed of ballasted and unballasted bottle 
drift, we arbitrarily selected 10 "test groups" for anal- 
ysis, i.e., stations from which several ballasted and un- 
ballasted bottles were recovered within 15 days from a 
single release (Table 3). 

The average direction of both types of bottles was 
usually similar. One exception was "test 8" in which 
several ballasted bottles moved southward down the 
coast, while several unballasted bottles moved north- 
ward up the coast. Average speeds were also generally 



similar with no definite indication that unballasted bot- 
tles drifted at a greater rate than did unballasted bottles. 

Surface Circulation 

Over the 2-yr period, surface currents underwent 
distinct directional shifts which were, in general, similar 
between years. Because of this, specific months, 
although illustrated individually, have been grouped, 
irrespective of years: January-February; March-May; 
June-July; August; and September-December. 

January-February. — Currents during this period 
generally paralleled the northwestern Gulf coast, flowing 
west off Louisiana and becoming southwest off Texas 
(Fig. 2). Slight deviations from this pattern were ap- 
parent in 1962 in two areas. Just west of the Mississippi 
River the flow was to the north and onshore, whereas off 
the south Texas coast there were indications of an in- 
shore countercurrent to the north. 

Current velocities ranged from a low of 4 km/day to a 
high of 14 km/day. Greatest velocities (9-14 km/day) 
were observed in waters over the central portion of the 
study area, i.e., off western Louisiana and eastern Texas. 
Lowest velocities occurred just west of the Mississippi 
River (5 km/day) and off south Texas (4 km/day) in the 
vicinity of Brownsville. 



Table 2. — Comparison by cruise of recovery of ballasted and 
unballasted drift bottles within 30 days after 
release in the Gulf of Mexico 







Recoveries 




Ballasted / 


Cruise 


Ballasted 


Unballasted 


Total 


Total Recovered 


1-62 


8 


29 


37 


22 


2-62 


27 


53 


80 


34 


3-62 


17 


55 


72 


24 


4-62 


9 


28 


37 


24 


5-62 


21 


36 


57 


37 


6-62 


7 


24 


31 


23 


7-62 


19 


52 


71 


27 


8-62 


7 


14 


21 


33 


9-62 


50 


43 


93 


54 


10-62 


9 


22 


31 


29 


1-63 


9 


9 


18 


50 


2-63 


17 


17 


34 


50 


3-63 


31 


51 


82 


38 


4-63 


25 


45 


70 


36 


5-63 


33 


45 


78 


42 


6-63 


25 


31 


56 


45 


7-63 





2 


2 





8-63 


3 


12 


15 


20 


9-63 


34 


11 


45 


76 


10-63 


8 


5 


13 


62 


11-63 


7 


3 


10 


70 



-Comparison of the direction and speed of ballasted (B) 
and unballasted (U) bottles recovered within 15 days 
after release in the Gulf of Mexico. 



Type 



Number 



Direction (True) 



Bottle Recovered Range 



Average 



Speed (km/day) 
Range Averag 



230°-276° 
007°-016° 
347°-007° 
244°-359° 

204°-215° 
204°-205° 

331°-339° 
292°-307° 
292°-317° 



180*-195° 
195°-009° 



336°-354° 
341°-012° 



276° 
268° 
013° 
357° 
263° 
244° 
207° 
204° 
339° 
334° 
302° 
305° 
298° 
298° 
187° 
334° 
291° 
291° 
346° 
360° 



1.9.-4.6 
3.7-18.5 
3.7-15.7 
0.9-3.9 

17.0-21.1 

18.3-19.1 

5.9-6.3 

2.6-6.3 

2.4-4.8 

2.9-9.3 

6.3-8.3 

5.6-6.5 

5.6-26.8 

25.9-38.9 

5.9-38.9 

4.4-7.9 

8.3-14.6 



4.6 

4.1 

9.3 

11.7 

1.7 

1.1 

19.8 

18.7 

6.1 

3.7 

4.3 

5.0 

6.3 

7.0 

6.1 

10.7 

32.4 

20.0 

6.7 

9.8 



Resultant wind vectors for the cruise periods revealed 
differences between areas in the northwestern Gulf as 
well as differences between months. In January 1963, 
winds at New Orleans were generally northerly or off- 
shore, those at Galveston northeasterly or alongshore, 
and those at Brownsville southeasterly or onshore. This 
circulation pattern of winds may account for the absence 
of recoveries of bottles released east of Galveston. 

In February 1962 and 1963 winds were generally 
similar over the entire study area, i.e., east to southeast 
flowing west alongshore at New Orleans and Galveston 
and onshore at Brownsville. Strongest winds occurred at 
Brownsville in both years and probably accounted for the 
reduced rate of alongshore flow of surface waters 
observed in that area. 

March-May. — Drift bottle movements indicated a 
transitional period for surface currents in the study area 
during both years with several distinct features (Figs. 3, 
4). First, the flow of surface waters off Louisiana was 
predominately to the west in March of both years, but as 
time progressed, the flow direction generally shifted to 
the north and became onshore in May. This onshore 
component was more pronounced in May 1962 than in 
May 1963 when some east to west movement was still ap- 
parent. Apparent monthly differences in the timing of 
the breakdown of the dominant east to west movement 
between years may be accounted for by the difference in 
cruise dates between years or may reflect real yearly dif- 



ferences. Associated with this dominant flow off Loui- 
siana was a generally weak northward onshore movement 
of nearshore waters just west of the Mississippi River. 

The second prominent feature during this period was 
the movement of waters off the south Texas coast. 
Recoveries during both years indicated an area of con- 
vergence of currents. Furthermore, as the season pro- 
gressed, this arc of convergence moved northward up the 
Texas coast until the flow of surface waters became 
almost directly onshore. In May 1963, however, this pat- 
tern can only be inferred due to the paucity of drift bottle 
releases off the south Texas coast. 

The third distinct feature of the circulation pattern 
was the indication of the presence of an oceanic surface 
current that existed in waters beyond the continental 
shelf. This was particularly apparent in March of both 
years and April 1962 when several bottles deposited on 
the edge of the shelf apparently moved against (straight 
line trajectory) prevailing shelf currents. From this set of 
data, it appeared that in the surface waters three current 
systems may have been present in the study area: a near- 
shore countercurrent, a shelf current, and an oceanic cur- 
rent. 

Current velocities varied depending on location with- 
in the study area. Speeds of the dominant east to west 
drift off Louisiana ranged between 7 and 14 km/day 
whereas the weak onshore current just west of the Missis- 
sippi River ranged from 1 to 3 km/day. Within the area of 
convergence off Texas, speeds ranged from 3 to 17 km/ 




Figure 2.— Sur- 
face circulation 
deduced from re- 
coveries of drift 
bottles released in 
January 1963 and 
February 1962 and 
1963 in the north- 
western Gulf of 
Mexico. (Arrows 
indicate direction 
of flow; numbers 
indicate average 
km/day). 







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— r 



TEXAS 

MAY 1962 





J*S& 



H8M 183M 



BROWNSVILLE 
\ 


GALVESTON 

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NEW ORLEANS 


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WIND VECTORS 


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BEAUFORTS 



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28 c 



26 c 



30° 




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TEXAS 

MAY 1963 



I 2 
L_. i ■ ' 

BEAUFORTS 



98° 96° 94° 92° 90° 

Figure 4.— Surface circulation deduced from recoveries of drift bottles released in May 1962 and 1963 In the northwestern Gulf of Mexico. 
(Arrows indicate direction of flow; numbers indicate average km/day). 



day with an overall average of about 6. In general veloc- 
ities of surface currents decreased from March to May as 
currents became more onshore. 

With few exceptions, winds were generally similar be- 
tween years over the study area, but a marked seasonal 
shift in direction was apparent. Resultant wind vectors 
indicated that the winds became more southerly or on- 
shore during this 3-mo period and may account for the 
general weakening of the east to west flow of surface 



waters off Louisiana and east Texas as well as a shift in 
surface currents to the north off south Texas. With the 
exception of May 1962, wind force was greatest at 
Brownsville. 

June-July. — Following the March-April transitional 
period, the dominant east to west flow of January- 
February had in essence reversed (Fig. 5). Currents 
flowed northward along the south Texas coast, whereas 




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off Louisiana currents were to the north or east with the 
northerly current generally restricted to nearshore waters 
and the eastward movement restricted to the deeper 
waters over the shelf. The strength of this eastward flow 
was apparently greater in 1962 than in 1963 as evidenced 
by the recovery of bottles as far away as Florida within 30 
days after release. In 1963, bottles were also recovered in 
Florida but time adrift exceeded 30 days and the 
recoveries therefore are not shown in Figure 5. 

Current velocities varied throughout the study area 
with values ranging from 3 to 12 km/day along the Texas 
coast and averaging 7 km/day. Onshore currents along 
the Louisiana coast ranged from 1 to 9 km/day with an 
average of 3 km/day. Monthly velocities were similar be- 
tween years. 

The influence of the prevailing southerly wind so char- 
acteristic of the summer in the northwestern Gulf of 
Mexico was readily apparent at Brownsville and 
Galveston for June and July of both years. Surface water 
currents off Texas were observed flowing either directly 
downwind or slightly to the right of the prevailing wind 
direction. Off Louisiana, however, the wind direction 
varied between years. In 1962, air flow was to the east 
whereas in 1963 it was more to the north. This variation 
generally supports the stronger eastward movement of 
surface waters off Louisiana in 1962. 

August. — Drift bottles were released during this time 
period only in 1963, and their movements indicated still 
another transitional period in current direction and 



velocity (Fig. 6). Surface currents, rather than moving 
alongshore and to the north, had shifted to onshore 
toward the west; velocities had slowed to a rate of 2-3 
km/day, a marked decrease from those velocities 
observed in the June-July period. 

At Brownsville and Galveston winds were generally 
southeasterly. At New Orleans, winds were variable, as 
evidenced by the relatively small resultant vector, and 
were northwesterly. 

September-December. — The release and recovery of 
drift bottles indicated that surface currents had returned 
to the dominant flow noted in January-February, i.e., a 
general west to southwesterly flow (Figs. 7, 8). Several 
features of the circulation pattern, however, should be 
noted. First, recoveries of bottles in the vicinity of 
Brownsville, Texas, in 1962 indicated a westerly onshore 
movement that dissipated as the season progressed. 

Second, the onshore component of the prevailing 
southwest current was not as apparent in 1963 as in 1962. 
Few bottles released in the study area were recovered 
within 30 days, and of those that were, most were 
released at nearshore stations. Whether this was due to 
the lack of areal coverage or the total number of bottles 
released is not known, but the results were similar to 
those observed in December 1962 (Fig. 8), a period when 
a large number of bottles were released and areal 
coverage was extensive. This absence of recoveries may 
indicate either an along- or offshore movement of surface 
waters. 




BEAUFORTS 



Figure 6.— Surface circulation deduced from recoveries of drift bottles released in August 1963 in the northwestern Gulf of Mexico. (Arrows 

indicate direction of flow; numbers indicate average km/day). 



10 




11 




Figure 8.— Surface 
circulation de- 
duced from re- 
coveries of drift 
bottles released in 
28 ° November 1962 
and 1963, and 
December 1962 in 
the northwestern 
Gulf of Mexico. 
Arrows indicate 
direction of flow; 
numbers indicate 
average km/day). 



12 



Table U. — Estimated range and average current velocity for September- 
December 1962-63 in the northvestern Gulf of Mexico. 



1963 



Range 



Average Range 



Average 



September 
October 
November 
December 



1-10 

2-4 

2-12 

2-5 



8-9 9 

no data 
no data 
no data 



Information on current velocities was generally 
restricted to the 1962 data, but no distinct trend was 
readily apparent. Ranges and averages for each month 
are shown in Table 4. 

The seasonal shift in wind circulation over the study 
area during this period agreed generally with the direc- 
tion of surface water movement. With few exceptions, 
east to southeast winds became more northerly until in 
November 1963 and December 1962 north winds 
dominated over the entire study area. The lack of drift 
bottle recoveries during this period supports the implied 
offshore southerly flow of surface waters. 



LITERATURE CITED 

ARMSTRONG, R. S., J. R. GRADY, and R. E. STEVENSON. 

1967. Cruise "Delta I" of the "Geronimo". Commer. Fish. Rev. 
29(2):15-18. 
CHEW, F., K. L. DRENNAN, and W. J. DEMORAN. 

1962. Some results of drift bottle studies off the Mississippi Delta. 
Limnol. Oceanogr. 7:252-257. 



CURRAY, J. R. 

1960. Sediments and history of Holocene transgression, continen- 
tal shelf, northwest Gulf of Mexico. In Shepard, F. P., F. B. 
Phleger, and T. H. van Andel (editors), Gulf of Mexico, p. 221- 
266. The Collegiate Press, Menasha, Wis. 
DAY, C. G. 

1958. Surface circulation in the Gulf of Maine as deduced from 
drift bottles. U.S. Fish Wildl. Serv., Fish. Bull. 58:443-472. 
DRENNAN, K. 

1963. Surface circulation in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico. Gulf 
Coast Res. Lab., Oceanogr. Sec, Tech. Rep., 116 p. 
DRENNAN, K. L., W. J. DEMORAN, and R. D. GAUL. 

1963. Some results of recent circulation studies east of the Missis- 
sippi delta. (Abstr.) Trans. Am. Geophys. Union 44:61. 
ICHTYE, T. 

1962. Circulation and water mass distribution in the Gulf of Mex- 
ico. Geofis. Int. (Mexico City) 2(3):46-76. 

KUTKUHN, J. H. 

1963. Expanded research on Gulf of Mexico shrimp resources. Proc. 
Gulf Caribb. Fish. Inst., 15th Ann. Sess., 1962:65-78. 

LEIPPER, D. F. 

1954. Physical Oceanography of the Gulf of Mexico. In P. A. Galt- 
soff (coordinator), Gulf of Mexico, its origin, waters, and marine 
life, p. 119-137. U.S. Fish Wildl. Serv., Fish. Bull. 55. 
MOORE, G. T. 

1973. Submarine current measurements — northwest Gulf of Mex- 
ico. Trans. Gulf Coast Assoc. Geol. Soc. 23:245-255. 
SMITH, F. G. W., A. F. MEDINA, and A. F. B. ABELLA. 

1951. Distribution of vertical water movement calculated from sur- 
face drift vectors. Bull. Mar. Sci. Gulf Caribb. 1:187-195. 
U.S. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE. 

1962-1963a. Local climatological data, Brownsville, Texas. 

Weather Bureau. 
1962-1963b. Local climatological data, Galveston, Texas. Weather 

Bureau. 
1962-1963c. Local climatological data, New Orleans, Louisiana. 
Weather Bureau. 
WATSON, R. L„ and E. W. BEHRENS. 

1970. Nearshore surface currents, southeastern Texas Gulf Coast. 
Contr. Mar. Sci. 15:133-143. 



13 



6 U.S Government Printing Office: 1979— 698-045'1 18 



< 



672. Seasonal occurrence of young Guld menhaden and other fishes in a 
northwestern Florida estuary. By Marlin E. Tagatz and E. Peter H. 
Wilkins. August 1973. iii + 14 p.. 1 fig., 4 tables. For sale by the 
Superintendent of Documents. U.S. Government Printing Office, 
Washington, D.C. 20402. 

673. Abundance and distribution of inshore benthic fauna off 
southwestern Long Island, NY. By Frank W. Steimle. Jr. and Richard B. 
Stone. December 1973, iii + 50 p.. 2 figs., 5 app. tables. 

674. Lake Erie bottom trawl explorations, 1962-66. By Edgar W. Bow- 
man. January 1974. iv + 21 p., 9 figs., 1 table, 7 app. tables. 

675. Proceedings of the International Billfish Symposium, Kailua- 
Kona, Hawaii, 9-12 August 1972. Part 1. Report of the Symposium. 
March 1975. iii + 33 p.; Part 2. Review and contributed papers. July 
1974. iv + 355 p. (38 papers); Part 3. Species synopses. June 1975, iii + 
159 p. (8 papers). Richard S. Shomura and Francis Williams (editors). 
For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing 
Office, Washington, D.C. 20402. 

676. Price spreads and cost analyses for finfish and shellfish products at 
different marketing levels. By Erwin S. Penn. March 1974, vi + 74 p.. 15 
figs^ 12 tables, 12 app. figs., 14 app. tables. For sale by the Superinten- 
dent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 
20402. 

677. Abundance of benthic macroinvertebrates in natural and altered 
estuarine areas. By Gill Gilmore and Lee Trent. April 1974, iii + 13 p., 
11 figs., 3 tables, 2 app. tables. For sale by the Superintendent 
of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 
20402. 

678. Distribution, abundance, and growth of juvenile sockeye salmon, 
Oncorhynchus nerka, and associated species in the Naknek River system, 
1961-64. By Robert J. Ellis. September 1974, v + 53 p., 27 figs., 26 tables. 
For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing 
Office, Washington, D.C. 20402. 



by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, 
Washington, D.C. 20402. 

686. Pink salmon, Oncorhunchus gorbuscha, tagging experiments in 
southeastern Alaska, 1938-42 and 1945. By Roy E. Nakatani, Gerald J. 
Paulik, and Richard Van Cleve. April 1975, iv + 39 p., 24 figs., 16 
tables. For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government 
Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402. 

687. Annotated bibliography on the biology of the menhadens, Genus 
Breuoortia, 1963-1973. By John W. Reintjes and Peggy M. 
Keney. April 1975, 92 p. For sale by the Superintendent of 
Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402. 

688. Effect of gas supersaturated Columbia River water on the survival 
of juvenile chinook and coho salmon. By Theodore H. Blahm, Robert J. 
McConnell. and George R. Snyder. April 1975, iii + 22 p., 8 figs., 5 
tables, 4 app. tables. For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. 
Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402. 

689. Ocean distribution of stocks of Pacific salmon, Oncorhynchus spp., 
and steelhead trout, Salmo gairdnerii, as shown by tagging experiments. 
Charts of tag recoveries by Canada, Japan, and the United States, 1956- 
69. By Robert R. French, Richard G. Bakkala, and Doyle F. Suther- 
land. June 1975, viii + 89 p., 117 figs., 2 tables. For sale by the 
Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, 
Washington, D.C. 20402. 

690. Migratory routes of adult sockeye salmon, Oncorhynchus nerka, in 
the eastern Bering Sea and Bristol Bay. By Richard R. Straty. April 
1975, iv + 32 p., 22 figs., 3 tables, 3 app. tables. For sale by the 
Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, 
Washington, D.C. 20402. 

691. Seasonal distributions of larval flatfishes (Pleuronectiformes) on 
the continental shelf between Cape Cod, Massachusetts, and Cape 
Lookout, North Carolina, 1965-66. By W. G. Smith, J. D. Sibunka, and 
A. Wells. June 1975, iv + 68 p., 72 figs., 16 tables. 



679. Kinds and abundance of zooplankton collected by the USCG 
icebreaker Glacier in the eastern Chukchi Sea, September-October 1970. 
By Bruce L. Wing. August 1974, iv + 18 p., 14 figs., 6 tables. For sale by 
the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, 
Washington, D.C. 20402. 

680. Pelagic amphipod crustaceans from the southeastern Bering Sea, 
June 1971. By Gerald A. Sanger. July 1974, iii + 8 p., 3 figs., 3 tables. For 
sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Of- 
fice, Washington, D.C. 20402. 

681. Physiological response of the cunner, Tautogolabrus adspersus, to 
cadmium. October 1974, iv + 33 p., 6 papers, various authors. For sale by 
the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, 
Washington, D.C. 20402. 

682. Heat exchange between ocean and atmosphere in the eastern 
North Pacific for 1961-71. By N. E. Clark, L. Eber, R. M. Laurs, J. A. 
Renner, and J. F. T. Saur. December 1974, iii + 108 p., 2 figs., 1 table, 5 
plates. 

683. Bioeconomic relationships for the Maine lobster fishery with con- 
sideration of alternative management schemes. By Robert L. Dow, 
Frederick W. Bell, and Donald M. Harriman. March 1975, v + 44 p., 20 
figs., 25 tables. For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. 
Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402. 

684. Age and size composition of the Atlantic menhaden, Breuoortia 
tyrannus. purse seine catch, 1963-71, with a brief discussion of the 
fishery. By William R. Nicholson. June 1975, iv + 28 p., 1 fig., 12 
tables, 18 app. tables. For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. 
Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402. 

685. An annotated list of larval and juvenile fishes captured with sur- 
face-towed meter net in the South Atlantic Bight during four RV Dolphin 
cruises between May 1967 and February 1968. By Michael P. 
Fahay. March 1975, iv + 39 p., 19 figs., 9 tables, 1 app. table. For sale 



692. Expendable bathythermograph observations from the 
NMFS/MARAD Ship of Opportunity Program for 1972. By Steven K. 
Cook. June 1975, iv + 81 p., 81 figs. For sale by the Superintendent of 
Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402. 

693. Daily and weekly upwelling indices, west coast of North America, 
1967-73. By Andrew Bakun. August 1975, iii + 114 p., 3 figs., 6 tables. 

694. Semiclosed seawater system with automatic salinity, temperature 
and turbidity control. By Sid Korn. September 1975, iii + 5 p., 7 figs., 
1 table. 

695. Distribution, relative abundance, and movement of skipjack tuna, 
Katsuwonus pelamis, in the Pacific Ocean based on Japanese tuna long- 
line catches, 1964-67. By Walter M. Matsumoto. October 1975, iii + 
30 p., 15 figs., 4 tables. 

696. Large-scale air-sea interactions at ocean weather station V, 1951- 
71. By David M. Husby and Gunter R. Seckel. November 1975, iv + 
44 p., 11 figs., 4 tables. For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, 
U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402. 

697. Fish and hydrographic collections made by the research vessels 
Dolphin and Delaware II during 1968-72 from New York to Florida. By 
S. J. Wilk and M. J. Silverman. January 1976, iii + 159 p., 1 table, 2 
app. tables. For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. 
Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402. 

698. Summer benthic fish fauna of Sandy Hook Bay, New Jersey. By 
Stuart J. Wilk and Myron J. Silverman. January 1976, iv + 16 p., 21 
figs., 1 table, 2 app. tables. For sale by the Superintendent of 
Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402. 

699. Seasonal surface currents off the coasts of Vancouver Island and 
Washington as shown by drift bottle experiments, 1964-65. By W. 
James Ingraham, Jr. and James R. Hastings. May 1976, iii + 9 p., 4 
figs., 4 tables. 



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NOAA Technical Report NMFS SSRF-731 

Annotated Bibliography and 
Subject Index on the 
Shortnose Sturgeon, 
Acipenser hrevirostrum 



James G. Hoff 



April 1979 



U.S. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE 

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 

National Marine Fisheries Service 



NOAA TECHNICAL REPORTS 
National Marine Fisheries Service, Special Scientific Report — Fisheries 

The major responsibilities of the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) are to monitor and assess the abundance and geographic 
distribution of fishery resources, to understand and predict fluctuations in the quantity and distribution of these resources, and to establish levels 
for optimum use of the resources. NMFS is also charged with the development and implementation of policies for managing national fishing 
grounds, development and enforcement of domestic fisheries regulations, surveillance of foreign fishing off United States coastal waters, and the 
development and enforcement of international fishery agreements and policies. NMFS also assists the fishing industry through marketing service 
and economic analysis programs, and mortgage insurance and vessel construction subsidies. It collects, analyzes, and publishes statistics on 
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The Special Scientific Report — Fisheries series was established in 1949. The series carries reports on scientific investigations that document 
long-term continuing programs of NMFS, or intensive scientific reports on studies of restricted scope. The reports may deal with applied fishery 
problems. The series is also used as a medium for the publication of bibliographies of a specialized scientific nature. 

NOAA Technical Reports NMFS SSRF are available free in limited numbers to governmental agencies, both Federal and State. They are also 
available in exchange for other scientific and technical publications in the marine sciences. Individual copies may be obtained (unless otherwise 
noted) from D825, Technical Information Division, Environmental Science Information Center, NOAA, Washington, D.C. 20235. Recent SSRFs 
are: 



649. Distribution of forage of skipjack tuna {Euthynnus pelamis) in the 
eastern tropical Pacific. By Maurice Blackburn and Michael Laurs. 
January 1972. iii + 16 p., 7 figs., 3 tables. For sale by the Superintendent 
of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 
20402. 



661. A review of the literature on the development of skipjack tuna 
fisheries in the central and western Pacific Ocean. By Frank J. Hester 
and Tamio Otsu. January 1973, iii + 13 p., 1 fig. For sale by the 
Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, 
Washington, D.C. 20402. 



650. Effects of some antioxidants and EDTA on the development of ran- 
cidity in Spanish mackerel iScomberomorus maculatus) during frozen 
storage. By Robert N. Farragut. February 1972, iv + 12 p., 6 figs., 12 
tables. For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government 
Printing Office. Washington. D.C. 20402. 

651. The effect of premortem stress, holding temperatures, and freezing 
on the biochemistry and quality of skipjack tuna. By Ladell Crawford. 
April 1972, iii + 23 p., 3 figs., 4 tables. For sale by the Superintendent 
of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington. D.C. 
20402. 

653. The use of electricity in conjunction with a 12.5-meter (Headrope) 
Gulf-of-Mexico shrimp trawl in Lake Michigan. By James E. Ellis. 
March 1972, iv + 10 p., 11 figs., 4 tables. For sale by the Superintendent 
of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office. Washington, D.C. 
20402. 

654. An electric detector system for recovering internally tagged 
menhaden, genus Brevoortia. By R. O. Parker, Jr. February 1972. iii + 7 
p.. 3 figs.. 1 app. table. For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, 
U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402. 



655. Immobilization of fingerling salmon and trout by decompression. 
By Doyle F. Sutherland. March 1972, iii + 7 p., 3 figs., 2 tables. For sale 
by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office. 
Washington, D.C. 20402. 

656. The calico scallop, Argopeeten gibbus. By Donald M. Allen and T. 
J. Costello. May 1972. iii + 19 p., 9 figs.. 1 table. For sale by the 
Superintendent of Documents. U.S. Government Printing Office, 
Washington, D.C. 20402. 



662. Seasonal distribution of tunas and billfishes in the Atlantic. By 
John P. Wise and Charles W. Davis. January 1973, iv + 24 p., 13 figs., 4 
tables. For sale by the Superintendent of Documents. U.S. Government 
Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402. 

663. Fish larvae collected from the northeastern Pacific Ocean and 
Puget Sound during April and May 1967. By Kenneth D. Waldron. 
December 1972, iii + 16 p.. 2 figs., 1 table, 4 app. tables. For sale by the 
Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, 
Washington, D.C. 20402. 

664. Tagging and tag-recovery experiments with Atlantic menhaden, 
Brevoortia tyrannus. By Richard L. Kroger and Robert L. Dryfoos. 
December 1972. iv + 11 p., 4 figs., 12 tables. For sale by the Superinten- 
dent of Documents. U.S. Government Printing Office. Washington, D.C. 
20402. 

665. Larval fish survey of Humbolt Bay, California. By Maxwell B. 
Eldrige and Charles F. Bryan. December 1972, iii + 8 p., 8 figs., 1 table. 
For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing 
Office. Washington. D.C. 20402. 

666. Distribution and relative abundance of fishes in Newport River, 
North Carolina. By William R. Turner and George N. Johnson. 
September 1973. iv -t- 23 p., 1 fig., 13 tables. For sale by the Superinten- 
dent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 
20402. 

667. An analysis of the commercial lobster {Homarus americanus) 
fishery along the coast of Maine, August 1966 through December 1970. By 
James C. Thomas. June 1973, v + 57 p., 18 figs., 11 tables. For sale by the 
Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, 
Washington. D.C. 20402. 



657. Making fish protein concentrates by enzymatic hydrolysis. A 
status report on research and some processes and products studied bv 
NMFS. By Malcolm B. Hale. November 1972. v + 32 p.. 15 figs., 17 
tables. 1 app. table. For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. 
Government Printing Office. Washington. D.C. 20402. 

658. List of fishes of Alaska and adjacent waters with a guide to some of 
their literature. By Jay C. Quast and Elizabeth L. Hall. July 1972. iv + 
47 p. For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government 
Printing Office. Washington. D.C. 20402. 

659. The Southeast Fisheries Center bionumeric code. Part I: Fishes. 
By Harvey R. Bullis. Jr.. Richard B. Roe. and Judith C. Gatlin. July 
1972, xl + 95 p., 2 figs. For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, 
U.S. Government Printing Office. Washington. D.C. 20402. 

660. A freshwater fish electro-motivator (FFEM)-its characteristics and 
operation. By James E. Ellis and Charles C. Hoopes. November 1972, iii 
+ 11 p.. 2 figs. 



668. An annotated bibliography of the cunner, Tautogolabrus adspersus 
( Wilbaum). By Fredric M. Serchuk and David W. Frame. May 1973, ii + 
43 p. For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government 
Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402. 

669. Subpoint prediction for direct readout meterological satellites. By 
L. E. Eber. August 1973. iii + 7 p., 2 figs., 1 table. For sale by the 
Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, 
Washington, D.C. 20402. 

670. Unharvested fishes in the U.S. commercial fishery of western Lake 
Erie in 1969. By Harry D. Van Meter. July 1973, iii + 11 p., 6 figs., 6 
tables. For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government 
Printing Office. Washington. D.C. 20402. 

671. Coastal upwelling indices, west coast of North America, 1946-71. 
By Andrew Bakun. June 1973. iv + 103 p.. 6 figs., 3 tables, 45 app. figs. 
For sale by the Superintendent of Documents. U.S. Government Printing 
Office. Washington. D.C. 20402. 



Continued on inside back cover 



"*> *™psq*. , 




NOAA Technical Report NMFS SSRF- 731 

Annotated Bibliography and 
Subject Index on the 
Shortnose Sturgeon, 
Acipenser brevirostrum 



James G. Hoff 
April 1979 



U.S. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE 

Juanita M. Kreps, Secretary 

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 

Richard A. Frank, Administrator 

Terry L. Leitzell, Assistant Administrator for Fisheries 

National Marine Fisheries Service 



For Sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office 
Washington, D.C. 20402 - Stock No. 003-01 7-OO4S2-0 



The National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) does not approve, rec- 
ommend or endorse any proprietary product or proprietary material 
mentioned in this publication. No reference shall be made to NMFS, or 
to this publication furnished by NMFS, in any advertising or sales pro- 
motion which would indicate or imply that NMFS approves, recommends 
or endorses any proprietary product or proprietary material mentioned 
herein, or which has as its purpose an intent to cause directly or indirectly 
the advertised product to be used or purchased because of this NMFS 
publication. 



CONTENTS 

Page 

Introduction 1 

Annotated bibliography 1 

Subject index 14 



Annotated Bibliography and Subject Index on the 
Shortnose Sturgeon, Acipenser brevirostrum 



JAMES G. HOFF 1 



ABSTRACT 

A bibliography that consists of 165 references on the classification, distribution, abundance, life 
history, and ecology of the shortnose sturgeon, Acipenser brevirostrum. Brief annotations and a sub- 
ject index are included for this rare and endangered species. 



INTRODUCTION 

This bibliography consists of 165 references on the 
systematics, distribution, life history, and ecology of the 
shortnose sturgeon, Acipenser brevirostrum LeSueur. 

Arrangement of the references is alphabetical by 
author's surname. With multiple authors, the entry is 
made only under the senior author's name. Each author's 
works are listed chronologically by year of publication 
and those published in the same year are given 
alphabetical sequence by title. Anonymous articles are 
listed by the name of the journal or the originating 
agency. 

Brief annotations of the contents of the publications 
that apply to the shortnose sturgeon and its scientific 
name are given. This annotation is not done to make 
value judgments of the papers but to give clearer descrip- 
tions of the contents than can be obtained from their ti- 
tles. 

In the task of examining the vast number of scattered 
references in the ichthyological literature, I have received 
aid from many individuals. Thanks go to the librarians 
at the Marine Biological Laboratory at Woods Hole, 
Mass., and to the librarians at the Museum of Com- 
parative Zoology at Harvard University. My in- 
debtedness to those persons and institutions is great. I 
acknowledge the help I received from Brian Kinnear and 
Mike Dadswell, comembers of the shortnose sturgeon en- 
dangered species recovery team. 

I wish to give special thanks to the Southeastern 
Massachusetts University biology students who helped 
throughout the preparation of this bibliography, notably 
Susan Faria, James Hoff, Jr., and Michael Murphy. And 
finally, I thank the typist, Rita Sasseville. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

ALEXANDER, A. B. 

1905. Statistics of the fisheries of the New England 
states. Rep. U.S. Coram. Fish. 1904:245-326. 



Catch and market statistics for sturgeon in 
Maine, New Hampshire, Massachusetts, and 
Connecticut are given. Since species are not 
mentioned, the shortnose sturgeon is probably 
included. 

ANONYMOUS. 

1975. Threatened wildlife of the United 
States. U.S. Fish Wildl. Serv. Resour. Publ., 289 
P- 

The shortnose sturgeon is listed as being en- 
dangered and a recommendation was made by 
the Department of the Interior to locate and 
protect shortnose sturgeon spawning sites. 

APPY, R. G., and M. J. DADSWELL. 

1978. Parasites of Acipenser brevirostrum LeSueur 
and Acipenser oxyrhynchus Mitchill 
(Osteichthyes: Acipenseridae) in the Saint John 
River Estuary, N. B., with a description of Cabal- 
leronema pseudoargumentosus sp. n., 
(Nematoda: Spirurida). Can. J. Zool. 56:1382- 
1391. 

Shortnose, juvenile Atlantic, and mature Atlan- 
tic sturgeons have distinct parasite faunas 
which may reflect their contrasting life histories. 

ATZ, J. W., and C. L. SMITH. 

1976. Hermaphrodism and gonadal teratoma-like 
growths in sturgeon (Acipenser). Bull. South. 
Calif. Acad. Sci. 75:119-126. 

An adult Acipenser brevirostrum from the 
Hudson River exhibited ovotestes. This tera- 
toma-like structure may have been the result of 
the abnormal development of a parthogenetic or 
self-fertilized egg. 



■Southeastern Massachusetts University, North Dartmouth, MA 
02747. 



BAIRD, S. F. 

1873. List of fishes collected at Woods Hole. 
U.S. Comm. Fish. 1871-1872:823-827. 



Rep. 



The shortnose sturgeon was collected in 1871 at 
Woods Hole. A complete collection of the 121 
fish species was deposited in the U.S. National 
Museum. 

BEAN, T. H. 

1897. Notes upon New York fishes received at the 
New York Aquarium, 1895-1897. Bull. Am. Mus. 
Nat. Hist. 9:327-375. 

A single shortnose sturgeon from Gravesend 
Bay was brought to the aquarium on 13 May 
1896. It had taken food regularly, and was living 
(7 December 1897). The species proved to be 
well adapted to aquarium life. 

1901. Catalogue of the fishes of Long Island. Rep. 
Forest Fish Game Comm. N.Y. State 1900:251- 
260. 

Range and differentiation from the common 
sturgeon is provided. 

1902. Food and game fishes of New York. Rep. 
Forest Fish Game Comm. N.Y. State 7:251-260 . 

The shortnose sturgeon is only positively 
recognized in the Delaware and Gravesend Bay. 
In 1817, it was brought in the shad season to 
Philadelphia and sold from 25 to 75 cents each. 



1904. Catalogue of the fishes of New York. 
N.Y. State Mus. 60, 784 p. 



Bull. 



Includes an erroneous description of shortnose 
sturgeon spawning and feeding habits, mis- 
quoted directly from Ryder (1888). 



BERG, L. S. 

1904. Zyr systmatik 
Anz. 27:665-667. 



der Acipenseridae. Zool. 



A taxonomic account of the shortnose sturgeon 
is given. 

1940. Classification of fishes both recent and fos- 
sil. Applied Scientific Research Corporation of 
Thailand, Bangkok (1965):346-517. 

Comments on Acipenserini: Acipenser L., Up- 
per Cretaceous (scutes) to recent; Europe, Asia, 
N. America. 

BERTFN, L. 

1939. Revision des Stromiatiformes (Teleosteens, 
Isopondyles) du museum. Bull. Mus. Hist. 
Nat., Paris 2(ll):378-382. 

The article includes a synonymy of Acipenser 
brevirostrum. 



BIGELOW, H. B., and W. C. SCHROEDER. 

1936. Supplemental notes on fishes of the Gulf of 
Maine. Bull. U.S. Bur. Fish. 48:319-348. 

A 30-inch specimen, taken at Provincetown 
about 1907, now in the collection at the 
Museum of Comparative Zoology, was the only 
reliable record for the Gulf of Maine. This 
record was omitted from "Fishes of the Gulf of 
Maine" (Bigelow and Welsh 1925). 



1953. Fishes of the Gulf of Maine. 
Wildl. Serv., Fish. Bull. 53, 577 p. 



U.S. Fish 



A description, life history, and coastal distribu- 
tion of the shortnose sturgeon. The only locality 
records given are from Provincetown and Wa- 
quoit, Mass.; from the Hudson River, N.Y.; 
from the Delaware Bay and River; and from 
Charleston, S.C. 



BLAIR, W. F., A. P. BLAIR, P. BRODKORB, F. R. 
CAGLE, and G. A. MOORE. 
1957. Vertebrates of the United States. 2d 
ed. McGraw-Hill Book Co., N.Y., 616 p. 

A brief description and range for A. 
brevirostrum. 

BOWERS, G. M. 

1907 . Statistics of the fisheries of the New England 
states for 1905. Rep. U.S. Comm. Fish. 1906:1- 
93. 

Catch and market statistics for sturgeon in 
Maine, Massachusetts, and Connecticut are 
given. Since species are not mentioned, the 
shortnose sturgeon is probably included. 

BOYLE, R. H. 

1969. The Hudson River, a natural and unnatural 
history. W. W. Norton and Co., N.Y., 304 p. 

According to the Interior Department, all recent 
catches of shortnose sturgeon, except for one 
Florida specimen, have been from the Hudson. 
Occasional specimens exceed the published 
record size in the scientific literature. In 1965 
and again in 1969, a hermaphroditic specimen 
was caught. Information on their natural 
history, caviar preparation, cooking, and de- 
mand at aquariums is provided. 



BREDER, C. M., Jr. 

1938. The species of fish in New York Har- 
bor. Bull. N.Y. Zool. Soc. 41(l):26-28. 

The shortnose sturgeon is included in a list of 
fishes inhabiting the New York harbor. 



1948. Field book of marine fishes of the Atlantic 
coast, from Labrador to Texas. G. P. Putnam's 
Sons, N.Y., 332 p. 

The shortnose sturgeon is briefly described with 
its range. 



BRICE, J. J. 

1898. A manual of fish-culture, based on the 
methods of the United States Commission of Fish 
and Fisheries. Rep. U.S. Comm. Fish. 1897:1- 
340. 



COMMITTEE ON RARE AND ENDANGERED 
WILDLIFE SPECIES. 

1966. Rare and endangered fish and wildlife of the 
United States. U.S. Dep. Inter. Res. Publ. 34, 
var. pag. 

Information for the shortnose sturgeon is 
presented on distinguishing characteristics, 
present distribution, former distribution, en- 
dangered status, estimated numbers, fecundity, 
reason for decline, protective measures already 
taken, measures proposed, number in cap- 
tivity, and culture potential in captivity. 



Experimental work indicates that there are no 
insurmountable obstacles in the way of exten- 
sive artificial propagation, although the work 
presents some unusual difficulties. 

BUMPUS, H. C. 

1898. The breeding of animals at Woods Hole dur- 
ing the months of June, July and 
August. Science 8:850-858. 

Acipenser brevirostrum was occasionally taken 
in June, the females bearing ripe eggs. 



CHUTE, W. H. 

1944. Guide to the John G. Shedd Aquarium, 
ed. Shedd Aquarium, Chicago, 236 p. 



4th 



The shortnose sturgeon is one of the species held 
in the Shedd Aquarium. 

COBB, S. N. 

1900. The sturgeon fishery of the Delaware River 
and Bay. Rep. U.S. Comm. Fish. 1899:369-380. 

Both species are found in the Delaware River, 
but only the common sturgeon is put to 
commercial use. Acipenser brevirostris rarely 
exceeds 3 ft and therefore is not gilled. Some are 
taken at the shore seine fisheries and in the shad 
gill nets. 

COLLINS, J. W., and H. M. SMITH. 

1892. Report on the fisheries of the New England 
states. Bull. U.S. Fish. Comm. 10:73-176. 

The common sturgeon is included as one of the 
products of the fisheries of Massachusetts. 
Since size was not mentioned, it is possible that 
shortnose sturgeons were processed also. 

COMMITTEE ON NAMES OF FISHES. 

1970. A list of common and scientific names of 
fishes from the United States and Canada. 3rd 
ed. Am. Fish. Soc. Spec. Publ. 6,150 p. 

Acipenser brevirostrum is listed. 



COPE, E. D. 

1883. The fisheries of Pennsylvania. Rep. State 
Comm. Fish. 1881 and 1882:103-183. 

Sturgeon are sold in the markets of 
Philadelphia and adjacent cities. Numerous 
fishing boats are engaged in taking them in 
strong nets, the catch is often very large. 



CUERRIER, J. P. 

1947. Quelques indications sur la taille de maturite 
la frequence des pontes et la saison de ponte de 
l'Esturgeon de lac. Annals ACFAS 13, 100 p. 

The article deals with Acipenser spawning 
season and size at maturity. 

1951. The use of pectoral fin rays to determine age 
of sturgeon and other fish species. Can. Fish 
Cult. 11:10-18. 

The aging method is applicable to shortnose 
sturgeon. 

CURRIAN, H. W., and D. T. RIES. 

1937. Fisheries investigation in the lower Hudson 
River IV. In A biological survey of the lower 
Hudson watershed, p. 125-145. Rep. N.Y. State 
Conserv. Dep., Suppl. 26 (11). 

Ninety-five shortnose sturgeons ranging in 
length from 450 to 884 mm were examined. The 
diet of sturgeon in the lower Hudson included 
insects, crustaceans, mollusks, and annelids. 



DADSWELL, M. J. 

1975. The biology and resource potential of certain 
fishes in the St. Johns Estuary. (Mimeogr.) A 
report to the Department of Environment, 
Canada, from the Huntsman Marine Laboratory, 
98 p. 

The shortnose sturgeon is included as a poten- 
tial fisheries resource in the St. Johns River. 



1976. Biology of the shortnose sturgeon (Acipenser 
breuirostrum) in the St. John River estuary, New 
Brunswick, Canada. Trans. Atl. Chap. Can. Soc. 
Environ. Biol. Annu. Meet. 1975:20-72. 

Information on growth, length-weight relation- 
ships, food, fecundity, population estimates, 
and migrations. 

DAHLBERG, M. 

1975. Guide to coastal fishes of Georgia and nearby 
states. Univ. Georgia Press, Athens, 186 p. 

A brief description and range of the shortnose 
sturgeon and a note that it is commonly caught 
in gill nets in the Altamaha River. 

DEAN, B. 

1894. Recent experiments in sturgeon hatching on 
the Delaware River. Bull. U.S. Fish Comm. 
13:335-339. 

Fish size is not mentioned, some shortnose stur- 
geon may have been used in the experiments. 

1895. Fishes, living and fossil. An outline of their 
forms and probable relationships. Macmillan 
and Co., N.Y., 161 p. 

A review of the internal and external anatomy 
of Acipenser is given. Acipenser breuirostrum 
is included in the classification. 



DEES, L. T. 

1961. Sturgeons. 
Leafl. 526, 8 p. 



U.S. Fish Wildl. Serv., Fish. 



A review of the general life history and commer- 
cial value of sturgeons along with a brief 
description and more specific life history of each 
species, including the shortnose sturgeon. 

DeKAY, J. E. 

1842. Zoology of New York or the New York fauna. 
Part HI. Reptiles and Amphibia. Albany, N.Y., 
415 p. 

The description given by LeSueur agrees with 
the Hudson River species. DeKay had seen it 
also in the markets of Norfolk, Va. 

DIVISION OF LANDS AND FORESTS AND FISH 
AND GAME (New York). 

1913. Third annual report of the conservation com- 
mission. J. B. Lyon Co., Albany, N.Y., 366 p. 

Snails make up a large part of the food of the 
shortnose sturgeon in one of the ponds at the 
Linlithgo Hatchery. 



DUMERIL, A. 

1867. Prodrome d'une monographie des estur- 
geons et description des especes de l'Amerique du 
Nord qui appartienment au sous genre Anta- 
ceus. Nouv. Arch. Mus. Hist. Nat., Paris, p. 131- 
188. 

Notes are presented on the general characters, 
distribution, and other points of sturgeon 
natural history. He adopts six subgenera, with 
Huso, Acipenser, and Antaceus forming a group 
"Mesocentres." 

1870. Histoire naturelle des poissons ou 
ichthyologie generate. Tome II. Ganoides, Dipnes, 
Lophobranches. Librairie Encyclopedique de 
Roret, Paris, p. 170-173. 

The shortnose sturgeon is described. 



EDDY, S. 

1957. How to know the freshwater fishes. Wm. C. 
Brown Co., Dubuque, Iowa, 286 p. 

A brief description and range of the shortnose 
sturgeon is given. 

EVERMANN, B. W., and B. A. BEAN. 

1896. Indian River and its fishes. Rep. U.S. 
Comm. Fish. 1897:227-248. 

The shortnose sturgeon is recorded from the In- 
dian River. 



EVERMANN, B. W., and W. C. KENDALL. 
1900. Check-list of the fishes of Florida. 
U.S. Comm. Fish. 1899:35-103. 



Rep. 



The occurrence of sturgeons in Florida is cited 
in three references: St. John's River as Acipen- 
ser sp. (Goode 1879), Key West as Acipenser sp. 
(Jordan 1884), and Indian River as Acipenser 
brevirostris (Evermann and Bean 1896). 

1902. An annotated list of the fishes known to oc- 
cur in the St. Lawrence River. Rep. U.S. Comm. 
Fish. 1901:217-225. 

The occurrence of the shortnose sturgeon in the 
St. Lawrence is erroneously cited in two 
references: in the St. Lawrence and streams 
flowing into it (Fortin 1864) and in the St. 
Lawrence and lacs St. Pierre, St. Louis, and St. 
Froid (Montpetit 1897). 

FEGELY, T. 

1977. Taking a closer look: Pennsylvania's endan- 
gered cold-blooded animals. Pa. Angler 
46(12):4-5. 



The shortnose sturgeon is on both state and 
federal endangered lists. A picture is included. 

FORTIN, P. 

1864. Continuation of the list of fish of the Gulf 
and River St. Lawrence. Annu. Rep. Fish. Ap- 
pend., p. 60-72. 

The first occurrence of the shortnose sturgeon in 
the St. Lawrence River is recorded. Vladykov 
and Greeley (1963) report that this record is A. 
fuluescens. 



FOWLER, H. W. 

1905. The fishes of New Jersey. Rep. N.J. Mus., 
477 p. 

Fowler to date had not collected it from New 
Jersey. He reports a record from shallow water 
at the island by Trenton in the Delaware. 

1910. Notes on chimaeroid and ganoid 
fishes. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 62:603-612. 

The article gives a list of the species collected 
with descriptions and location where found. 
Three examples of A. brevirostrum were ex- 
amined. 

1912. Records of fishes from the middle Atlantic 
states and Virginia. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 
64:34-59. 

The shortnose sturgeon is reported at Torres- 
dale, Philadelphia County. The author also 
found one at Bristol, Bucks County, in May 
1908. 

1919. Notes on New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and Vir- 
ginia fishes. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 17:292- 
300. 

The shortnose sturgeon is included. 

1920. A list of the fishes of New Jersey. Proc. 
Biol. Soc. Wash. 33:139-170. 

The shortnose sturgeon is listed as occurring at 
Burlington, Cape May, Mercer, and Gloucester 
counties. 

1945. A study of the fishes of the Southern Pied- 
mont and coastal plain. Wickersham Printing 
Co., Phila., 408 p. 

The shortnose sturgeon is known in the Poto- 
mac, Neuse, and St. John's Rivers. 

1952. A list of fishes of New Jersey, with off-shore 



species. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 104:89-151. 
The shortnose sturgeon is listed with its range. 

FRIED, S. M., and J. D. McCLEAVE. 

1973. Occurrence of the shortnose sturgeon (Aci- 
penser brevirostrum), an endangered species, in 
Montsweag Bay, Maine. J. Fish. Res. Board 
Can. 30:563-564. 

Thirty-one shortnose sturgeons were caught in 
the summers of 1971 and 1972. Of nine fish 
preserved for study, six were stated to be longer 
than any previously documented and four ex- 
ceeded the maximum total length previously 
postulated, but they overlooked Gorham's 
(1971) report of a 1,295-mm specimen. These 
specimens represent the second population of 
this species found in the Gulf of Maine. 

GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF NEW JERSEY. 

1890. Final report of the state geologist. Vol. II. 
Mineralogy. Botany. Zoology. The John L. 
Murphy Publishing Co., Trenton, N.J., p. 668-669. 

The shortnose sturgeon is found in the Dela- 
ware in proportion to the common sturgeon at 
about 5 to 1. 

GILL, T. 

1862. Catalogue of the fishes of the eastern coast of 
North America from Greenland to 
Georgia. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 
13(Suppl.):l-63. 

Acipenser brevirostrum is included. 

1873. Catalogue of the fishes of the east coast of 
North America. Rep. U.S. Comm. Fish. 1871- 
1872:779-814. 

The shortnose sturgeon is listed with its range. 

GOODE, G. B. 

1879. Catalog of the collections to illustrate the 
animal resources and the fisheries of the United 
States. Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus. 14, 64 p. 

Acipenser brevirostrum is included in a list of 
animals of North America which are beneficial 
or injurious to man. 

GOODE, G. B., and T. H. BEAN. 

1879. A list of the fishes of Essex County including 
those of Massachusetts Bay. Bull. Essex Inst. 
11, 351 p. 

The species is represented in the museum of the 
Essex Institute by a stuffed skin obtained at 
Rockport. 



GOODE, G. B. ( and a Staff of Associates. 

1884. The fisheries and fishery industries of the 
United States. Sec. I. Natural history of useful 
aquatic animals. Gov. Print. Off., Wash., D.C., 
895 p. 

The shortnose sturgeon is described along with 
a brief natural history. The sturgeon's ability to 
leap out of the water is mentioned. Plate 243 is 
from a drawing from a photograph of a 
specimen of shortnose sturgeon collected from 
Woods Hole, Mass., 1871. 

1887. The fisheries and fishery industries of the 
United States. Sec. V. History and methods of the 
fisheries. Gov. Print. Off., Wash., D.C., 881 p. 

Sturgeon are included in a review of the river 
fisheries of the Atlantic States. Size and species 
were not mentioned and the shortnose sturgeon 
is probably included. 

GORDON, B. L. 

1960. The marine fishes of Rhode Island. The 
Bait and Tackle Shop, Watch Hill, R.I., 136 p. 

A 2.5-ft shortnose sturgeon was taken in May 
1956 in the traps at Point Judith. A 28-in fish 
believed to be a shortnose sturgeon was taken in 
Narragansett Bay in 1957. 

GORHAM, S. W. 

1965a. Distributional checklist of the fishes of New 
Brunswick. New Brunswick Museum, Canada, 
p. 1-32. 

The shortnose sturgeon is included with a 
locality record. 

1965b. Notes on the fishes from the Browns Flat 
area, Kings County, New Brunswick. Can. 
Field-Nat. 79:137-142. 

Eight specimens were collected using salmon 
nets. 

1971. The shortnose sturgeon, Acipenser breviros- 
trum, an endangered species in New Bruns- 
wick? Mus. Mem. N.B. Mus. 3:13-15. 

The article presents new records of specimens in 
the St. John system and data on length and 
weight. The longest specimen is recorded to this 
date. 

GORHAM, S. W., and D. E. McALLISTER. 

1974. The shortnose sturgeon, Acipenser brevi- 
rostrum, in the Saint John River, New Brunswick, 
Canada, a rare and possibly endangered 
species. Natl. Mus. Nat. Sci., Syl. 5:5-16. 



The paper provides new information for a series 
of specimens from the St. John system on dis- 
tribution, length, and weights. A taxonomic de- 
scription of the Canadian population is given for 
the first time. Pictures are included. A new 
maximum size, greater than that reported by 
Gorham (1971), is reported. 



GREELEY, J. R. 

1937. Fishes of the area with annotated list. In A 
biological survey of the lower Hudson watershed, 
p. 45-103. Rep. N.Y. State Conserv. Dep., Suppl. 
26(11). 

The article includes information on length- 
weight relationships, spawning times, growth, 
and distribution in the Hudson River estuary. 

GRUNCHY, C. G., B. PARKER, and D. E. McAL- 
LISTER. 
In press. Shortnose sturgeon. In D. S. Lee, C. R. 
Carter, D. E. McAllister, J. R. Stauffer, C. H. 
Hocutt, R. E. Jenkins, and J. McCann, Atlas of 
North American freshwater fishes. J. N.C. State 
Mus. 

A spot distribution map, illustration, and 
species account of shortnose sturgeon is given. 

GRZIMEK'S ANIMAL LIFE ENCYCLOPEDIA. 

1973. Polypterids, sturgeons and related 
forms. Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., N.Y., Vol. 4, 
531 p. 

A very brief description of A. brevirostrum with 
a comment on its commercial value. 

GUNTHER, A. 

1870. Catalogue of the fishes of the British 
Museum. Taylor and Francis, Lond., Vol. 8, 549 p. 

A taxonomic description is given. 

HALKETT, A. 

1913. Checklist of the fishes of the Dominion of 
Canada and Newfoundland. King's Printer, Ot- 
tawa, 138 p. 

Acipenser brevirostrum is contained in the list, 
with its general range of distribution including 
the erroneous St. Lawrence record. 

HARKNESS, W. J. K. 

1923. The rate of growth and the food of the lake 
sturgeon (Acipenser rubicundus (LeSueur)). 
Publ. Ont. Fish. Res. Lab. 18:13-42. 

The author found the earstones or otoliths of the 
sturgeon to form growth lines. Technique for ag- 



ing was employed later for the shortnose stur- 
geon. 

HARKNESS, W. J. K., and J. R. DYMOND. 
1961. The lake sturgeon. Ont. Dep. Lands 
Forests, 97 p. 

Acipenser brevirostrum, with its range, is in- 
cluded in a list of the sturgeons of the world. 



HTLDEBRAND, S. F., and W. C. SCHROEDER. 

1928. Fishes of Chesapeake Bay. Bull. Bur. Fish. 
43, 366 p. 

The shortnose sturgeon is discussed from pub- 
lished accounts and a specimen taken off 
Provincetown, Mass., now in the Museum of 
Comparative Zoology, Cambridge, Mass., is de- 
scribed. 

HOFF, J. G. 

1965. Two shortnose sturgeon, Acipenser breviros- 
tris, from the Delaware River, Scudder's Falls, 
New Jersey. Bull. N.J. Acad. Sci. 10:23. 

A ripe shortnose sturgeon of each sex was ex- 
amined. 

HOLLAND, B. F., Jr., and G. F. YELVERTON. 

1973. Distribution and biological studies of 
anadromous fishes offshore North Caro- 
lina. N.C. Dep. Nat. Econ. Res., S. S. R. No. 24, 
132 p. 

Between 1968 and 1971, eight shortnose stur- 
geon were caught offshore between Cape Fear, 
N.C, and Cape Henry, Va. 

HOLLY, M. 

1936. Pisces 4. Ganoidei. Das Tierreich (67), 
Berlin, 65 p. 

A systematic review of the sturgeon family. 

HOVEY, H. C. 

1883. The sturgeon fishery. Bull. U.S. Fish 
Comm. 4:346-348. 

Information on the sturgeon fishery of the Dela- 
ware River is given along with the sturgeon's 
preparation for market and the table. 

JENKINS, R. E., and J. A. MUSICK. 

In press. Fishes. In D. Linzey (editor), 
Threatened and endangered plants and animals 
of Virginia. Va. Polytech. Inst. 

Shortnose sturgeon endangered animal of 
Virginia. 



JEROME, W. C, Jr., A. P. CHESMORE, and C. 0. 
ANDERSON, Jr. 
1968. A study of the marine resources of the Parker 
River-Plum Island Sound Estuary. Division of 
Marine Fisheries, Department of Natural 
Resources, The Commonwealth of Massachu- 
setts, 79 p. 

An Atlantic and a shortnose sturgeon were 
taken by Bill Sibley on the Peggybell in Ipswich 
Bay near the mouth of Plum Island Sound in 
1966. A picture of the shortnose sturgeon is in- 
cluded. 

JORDAN, D. S. 

1876. Manual of the vertebrates of the northern 
United States, including the district east of the 
Mississippi River, and north of North Carolina 
and Tennessee, exclusive of marine species. 1st 
ed. Jansen, McClurg and Co., Chicago, 342 p. ■ 

A brief description and range is given. 

1878, 1880, 1884. Manual of the vertebrates of the 
northern United States, including the district east 
of the Mississippi River, and north of North Caro- 
lina and Tennessee, exclusive of marine 
species. 2d, 3rd, 4th ed. Jansen, McClurg & 
Co., Chicago. 

A brief description and range is given. 



1886. Notes on fishes collected at Beaufort, North 
Carolina, with a revised list of the species known 
from that locality. Proc. U.S. Natl. Mus. 9:25- 
30. 

Shortnose sturgeon is included in the list. 

1887. A catalogue of the fishes known to inhabit 
the waters of North America north of the Tropic of 
Cancer, with notes on the species discovered in 
1883 and 1884. Rep. U.S. Comm. Fish. 1885:789- 
973. 

The shortnose sturgeon is listed. 

1897, 1899, 1904. A manual of the vertebrate 
animals of the northern United States including 
the district north and east of the Ozark Moun- 
tains, south of the Laurentian Hills, north of the 
southern boundary of Virginia, and east of the 
Missouri River, inclusive of marine species. 7th, 
8th, 9th ed. A. C. McClurg and Co., Chicago. 

A brief description and range is given. 

1929. Manual of the vertebrate animals of the 
northeastern United States inclusive of marine 



species. 13th ed. World Book Company, N.Y., 
446 p. 

Description and range are given. 

JORDAN, D. S., and B. W. EVERMANN. 

1896a. A checklist of the fishes and fish-like verte- 
brates of North and Middle America. Rep. U.S. 
Comm. Fish. 1894:207-584. 

The range of the shortnose sturgeon is given. 

1896b. The fishes of North and Middle 
America. Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus. 47, 3313 p. 

The shortnose sturgeon is described with its 
range. The specimen described is from South 
Carolina. 

1904. American food and game fishes. Double- 
day, N.Y., 572 p. 

The range is from Texas to Cape Cod and the 
habits are similar to the common Atlantic. 

1937. American food and game fishes. Double- 
day, N.Y., 512 p. 

The shortnose sturgeon is included with a brief 
description and distribution. 

JORDAN, D. S., B. W. EVERMANN, and H. W. 
CLARK. 

1930. Check list of the fishes and fishlike verte- 
brates of North and Middle America, north of the 
northern boundary of Venezuela and Colom- 
bia. Rep. U.S. Comm. Fish. 1928 (Part 2), 670 p. 

Shortnose sturgeon is included in the checklist. 

JORDAN, D. S., and C. H. GILBERT. 

1882. Synopsis of the fishes of North 
America. Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus. 16, 1018 p. 

A description and range is given. 

KENDALL, W. C. 

1908. Fauna of New England. 8. List of the 
Pisces. Occas. Pap. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist. 7, 152 
P- 

The shortnose sturgeon is recorded in New 
England. 

KILBY, J. D., E. CRITTENDEN, and L. E. WIL- 
LIAMS. 

1959. Ichthyological notes: Several fishes new to 
Florida freshwaters. Copeia 1959:77-78. 

The shortnose sturgeon was incorporated in 



Florida's faunal list in 1896. In recent years 
authors have been inclined to exclude Florida 
from the range of the species. However, one 
adult shortnose sturgeon was taken in 1949 by 
commercial seine from the St. John's River and 
donated to the University of Florida collec- 
tions. 

KIRSCH, P. H., and M. W. FORDICE. 

1889. A review of the American species of sturgeons 
(Acipenseridae). Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 
41:245-257. 

A review of the American Acipenseridae, based 
on species belonging to the Museum of the Uni- 
versity of Indiana. 

KOSKI, R. T., E. C. KELLEY, and B. E. TURN- 
BOUGH. 

1971. A record-sized shortnose sturgeon from the 
Hudson River. N.Y. Fish Game J. 18:75. 

A shortnose sturgeon measuring 932 mm in total 
length was caught in January 1970 in the 
Hudson River (from Tappan Zee Bridge to Bear 
Mountain Bridge). 

LEACH, G. C. 

1920. Artificial propagation of sturgeon. Part 1. 
Review of sturgeon culture in the United 
States. Rep. U.S. Comm. Fish. 1919:3-5. 

A review of the attempts and drawbacks in 
sturgeon culture in the United States is 
provided. Species were not mentioned; how- 
ever, this material is applicable to the short- 
nose sturgeon. 

LEIM, A. H., and L. R. DAY. 

1959. Records of uncommon and unusual fishes 
from eastern Canadian waters, 1950-1958. J. 
Fish. Res. Board Can. 16:503-514. 

The first authentic Canadian record is given for 
the shortnose sturgeon. The specimen, 69 cm 
long, was caught by the MV Harengus in the 
Long Reach, Saint John River, N.B., on 20 May 
1957. Identification was made by V. D. 
Vladykov. 

LEIM, A. H., and W. B. SCOTT. 

1966. Fishes of the Atlantic Coast of 
Canada. Bull. Fish. Res. Board Can. 155, 485 p. 

A general description and natural history of the 
shortnose sturgeon is given. 

LELAND, J. G., II. 

1968. A survey of the sturgeon fishery of South 
Carolina. Contrib. Bears Bluff Labs. 47, 27 p. 



The history and present situation of the stur- 
geon fishery of South Carolina is presented. In- 
dividual species were not mentioned; however, 
it is stated that there is practically no market 
for small sturgeon (3-12 pounders) and that 
these are not taken in the sturgeon nets. They 
do become enmeshed in shad nets and are killed 
by the shad fisherman. These small sturgeon 
may include shortnose sturgeon. 

LeSUEUR, C. A. 

1818. Description of several species of Chondro- 
pterygious fishes of North America, with their 
varieties. Trans. Am. Philos. Soc. 1:383-395. 



McAllister, d. e. 

I960. List of the marine fishes of Canada. Bull. 
Natl. Mus. Can. 168, 8 p. 

Shortnose sturgeon is included in the list. 

1970. Rare and endangered Canadian 
fishes. Can. Field-Nat. 84:5-8. 

At this time, shortnose sturgeon is known only 
in the lower St. John River, N.B., from the 
mouth to Gagetown. Increasing pollution and a 
hydroelectric dam may be of significance in 
their survival. 



The author gives the original description of the 
species, with three varieties, from specimens 
caught in the Delaware River. 



MacCALLUM, G. A. 

1921. Studies in helminthology. 
1:137-284. 



Zoopathalogica 



Three individuals of the trematode Nitzschia 
superba were found on the gills of a male and 
female shortnose sturgeon from the New York 
Aquarium on 22 September 1915. 

MAGNIN, E. 

1959. Repartition actuelle de Acipen- 
serides. Revue Trav. Inst. (Sci. Tech.) Pech. 
Marit. 23:277-285. 

A distribution of the Acipenseridae is 
presented. 

1963. Notes sur la repartition, la biologie et par- 
ticulierement la croissance de VAcipenser 
breuirostris LeSueur 1817. Nat. Can. (Que.) 
90:87-96. 

Magnin presents data on the age, length, and 
biology of 10 specimens from the St. John River 
near Fredericton, N.B. 

1964. Croissance en longeur de trois esturgeons 
d'Amerique du Nord: Acipenser oxyrhynchus Mit- 
chill, Acipenser fulvescens Raffinesque, et Aci- 
penser breuirostris LeSueur. Verh. Int. Verein. 
Theor. Angew. Limnol. 15:968-974. 

A growth comparison of three eastern North 
American species is presented. 

MASSMANN, W. H. 

1958. A checklist of fishes of the Virginia waters of 
Chesapeake Bay and its tidal tributaries. Va. 
Fish. Lab., Fin Fish Prog. Rep. 60, 14 p. 

The shortnose sturgeon is on the checklist. 



McAllister, d. e., and c. g. g. grunchy. 

1977. Status and habitats of Canadian fishes in 
1976. In T. Mosquin (editor), Canada's 
threatened species and habitats, 185 p. Canadian 
Nature Federation, Ottawa. 

Listed shortnose sturgeon as rare with moderate 
population in St. John River, N.B. Unanswered 
questions on its spawning and population 
trends. 

McCLEAVE, J. D., and S. M. FRIED. 

1974. Three unusual shortnose sturgeon (Acipen- 
ser brevirostrum) from Montsweag Bay, 
Me. Can. Field-Nat. 88:359-360. 

Three unusual specimens were captured: one 
with only one barbel, one with forked barbels, 
and one bilaterally blind. The blind specimen 
appeared to be in good condition and it is noted 
that blind, dark, healthy shortnose sturgeon 
have also been observed. 

McCLEAVE, J. D., S. M. FRIED, and A. K. TOWT. 
1977. Daily movements of shortnose sturgeon, Aci- 
penser brevirostrum in a Maine estuary. Copeia 
1977:149-157. 

The daily summer movements of 15 shortnose 
sturgeon in Montsweag Bay were studied by 
ultrasonic telemetry. 

McLANE, W. M. 

1955. Fishes of the St. John's River Sys- 
tem. Ph.D. Thesis, Univ. Fla. Tallahassee, 367 
P- 

Both common and shortnose sturgeon are 
reported to be extremely rare on the Atlantic 
coast of Florida. 

MEEHAN, W. E. 

1896. Fish, fishing and fisheries of Pennsyl- 
vania. Rep. State Comm. Fish. 1895, 245 p. 



Chapter 5 is entitled The Sturgeon Fisheries of 
the Delaware. 

1910. Experiments in sturgeon culture. Trans. 
Am. Fish. Soc. 39:85-91. 

The shortnose sturgeon used in the experiment 
were from the Delaware River. The experiment 
showed that shortnose sturgeon can be carried 
from year to year in ponds 200 or more feet long 
and proportionately wide and deep, and their 
eggs can be taken safely in sufficient number to 
warrant fish cultural work. 

METH, F. F. 

1971. Ecology of St. John River Basin II. Catalogue 
of estuary fish species for the Saint John 
River. Environment Canada (Mimeogr. rep.), 
28 p. 

Shortnose sturgeon recorded for the Saint John 
River. 

1972. Ecology of Saint John River Basin V. Status 
of estuary fisheries. Environment Canada 
(Mimeogr. rep.), 6 p. 

Shortnose sturgeon recorded for the Saint John 
River. 

1973. Sport and commercial fisheries of the St. 
John estuary. Rep. St. John River Basin Board 
76:1-70. 

The paper includes a general account of the 
shortnose sturgeon. 

MIGDALSKI, E. C, and G. S. FICHTER. 

1976. The fresh and salt water fishes of the 
world. Alfred A. Knopf, N.Y., 316 p. 

Its range and differentiation from the common 
sturgeon are given. 

MILLER, R. R. 

1972. Threatened freshwater fishes of the United 
States. Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. 101:239-252. 

Connecticut, Delaware, Maryland, Massachu- 
sets, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania list short- 
nose sturgeon as being an endangered species. 



MONTPETLT, A. N. 

1897. Les poisson d'eau douce du Canada, 
treal, 553 p. 



Mon- 



NEW YORK MARKET INDEX AND JOURNAL. 

1880. Report for 1879 and 1880 of the sale of fish in 
Fulton Market, New York. Bull. U.S. Fish 
Comm. 3, 426 p. 

It is reported that 70,633 pounds of sturgeon 
were sold between March 1878 and March 1879 
and 68,858 pounds between March 1879 and 
March 1880. Species and size were not men- 
tioned; therefore, shortnose sturgeon may be in- 
cluded in the sale. 

NICHOLS, J. T. 

1918. Fishes of the vicinity of New York 
City. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. Handb. Ser., No. 7, 
118 p. 

A small sturgeon, Acipenser breuirostris, that 
reaches a length of 2 ft occurs in the New York 
City area. 

NICHOLS, J. T., asd C. B. BREDER, JR. 

1927. The marine fishes of New York and southern 
New England. Zoologica (N.Y.) 9, 192 p. 

The shortnose sturgeon is briefly described with 
its distribution. 

OFFICE OF ENDANGERED SPECIES AND INTER- 
NATIONAL ACTIVITIES. 

1973. Threatened wildlife of the U.S. U.S. Dep. 
Inter. Res. Publ. 114, 289 p. 

This is a revision of Resource Publication 34 
(1966) (see Committee on Rare and Endan- 
gered Wildlife Species (1966)). 



PERLMUTTER, A. 

1961. Guide to marine fishes. 
Press, 431 p. 



New York Univ. 



The shortnose sturgeon is erroneously reported 
as occurring in the St. Lawrence and lacs St. 
Pierre, St. Louis, and St. Froid. 



A short description of the color, distribution, 
size, general information, and economic impor- 
tance of the shortnose sturgeon is provided. 

PRATT, H. S. 

1935. A manual of land and fresh water vertebrate 
animals of the United States (exclusive of 
birds). 2d ed. P. Blakiston's Son and Co., Inc., 
Phila., 416 p. 

A brief description of the species is given. 

PROVANCHER, L'ABBfi. 

1876. Faune canadienne. Les poissons. Nat. Can. 
(Que.) 7:361-363. 

Fortin's erroneous record of the shortnose stur- 
geon in the St. Lawrence River is cited. 



10 



RICHARDSON, J. 

1836. Fauna boreali-Americana, or the zoology of 
the northern parts of British America. Part HI. 
The fish. Richard Bentley, Lond., 278 p. 

The shortnose sturgeon is described. 

ROSTLUND, E. 

1952. Freshwater fish and fishing in native North 
America. Univ. Calif. Press, Berkeley, 248 p. 

The range is given for the shortnose sturgeon. 

RYDER, R. A. 

1888. The sturgeons and sturgeon industries of the 
eastern coast of the United States, with an ac- 
count of experiments bearing upon sturgeon cul- 
ture. Bull. U.S. Fish Comm. 8:231-328. 

This is the first diagnosis of the species since 
LeSueur's original description in 1817. From 
specimens caught in the Delaware River, the 
author gives distinctive characters by which the 
species might be recognized. He also notes that 
the species is always small, confirmed by the 
fact that sexual maturity is reached much 
earlier than in the common form. 

SCHAEFER, R. H. 

1967. Species composition, size and seasonal abun- 
dance of fish in the surf waters of Long 
Island. N.Y. Fish Game J. 14:1-46. 

One shortnose sturgeon was caught off Fire 
Island, N.Y., in 1962. 

SCHRENKELSEN, R. 

1938. Field book of the freshwater fishes of North 
America north of Mexico. Putnam, N.Y., 312 p. 

A general account of the shortnose sturgeon is 
presented. 

SCHWARTZ, F. J., W. W. HASSLER, J. W. REINT- 
JES, and M. W. STREET. 

1975. Endangered and threatened plants and 
animals of North Carolina: Marine fishes. Pro- 
ceedings of the symposium on endangered and 
threatened biota of North Carolina. 1. Biological 
concerns. N.C. State Mus. Nat. Hist., p. 250- 
264. 

These are unconfirmed reports of the shortnose 
sturgeon from offshore; once sporadically known 
from Albemarle and Pamlico Sounds, and other 
North Carolina waters, but today it is believed 
extirpated. 

SCHWARTZ, F. J., and G. W. LINK, JR. 

1976. Status of Atlantic, Acipenser oxyrhynchus, 



and shortnose, Acipenser brevirostrum, sturgeons 
in North Carolina (Pisces, Acipenseridae). ASB 
(Assoc. Southeast. Biol.) Bull. 23:94. 

The shortnose sturgeon is believed extinct in 
North Carolina. 



SCOTT, W. B. 

1954, 1967. Freshwater fishes of eastern 
Canada. 1st, 2d ed. Univ. Toronto Press. 

Distribution in Canada for the shortnose stur- 
geon and variation from the common sturgeon is 
provided. 

SCOTT, W. B., and E. J. CROSSMAN. 

1959. The freshwater fishes of New Brunswick: A 
checklist with distributional notes. R. Ont. Mus. 
Life Sci. Contrib. 51, 37 p. 

The only shortnose sturgeon caught in Canada 
up to this date is Vladykov's catch in 1957 in the 
St. John River. 



1973. Freshwater fishes of Canada. 
Res. Board Can. 184, 966 p. 



Bull. Fish. 



A more detailed description and natural history 
than Leim and Scott (1966) is given. It is noted 
that the largest shortnose sturgeon on record 
was a 1,006-mm female from the Connecticut 
River. 

SCOTT, W. B., and M. G. SCOTT. 

1965. A checklist of Canadian Atlantic fishes with 
keys for identification. R. Ont. Mus. Life Sci. 
Contrib. 66, 106 p. 

The shortnose sturgeon is included in the list 
and a key to the family Acipenseridae is 
provided. 



SLASTENENKO, E. P. 

1958. The freshwater fishes of Canada. 
Printers, Toronto, 383 p. 



Kiev 



A general account of the shortnose sturgeon. 

SMITH, H. M. 

1891. Report on the fisheries of the South Atlantic 
states. Bull. U.S. Fish Comm. 11:269-356. 

Size is not reported; therefore, shortnose stur- 
geon may have been caught. The sturgeon fish- 
ery is noted as having the most noticeable de- 
cline in the river fisheries of the South Atlantic 
States during the past decade. A decrease of 
80% in the yield of sturgeon during the past 10 
yr is reported. 



11 



1892. Economic and natural-history notes on fishes 
of the northern coast of New Jersey. Bull. U.S. 
Fish Comm. 12:365-380. 

Only the common sturgeon is cited. However, in 
its discussion it is mentioned that small fish 
called "moose" are sold whole; the name ap- 
pears to be a corruption of "mammoose" which 
is current in Delaware Bay, and is applied to 
young fish that are too small to dress and are 
usually sold whole. These small sturgeon may 
be the shortnose species. 

1894. A statistical report of the fisheries of the 
middle Atlantic states. Bull. U.S. Fish Comm. 
14:339-467. 

The common sturgeon is included in a list of the 
important fishes of the middle Atlantic states. 
However, the species is broken into three 
groups: sturgeon, mammoose — Delaware River, 
and moose (young) — New Jersey. The latter two 
groups most likely include the shortnose stur- 
geon. 

1897. Fishes found in the vicinity of Woods 
Hole. Bull. U.S. Fish Comm. 17:85-111. 

The shortnose sturgeon is found in company 
with the common sturgeon but is less numerous 
than the latter. It is taken in traps. 

1907. The fishes of North Carolina. N.C. Geol. 
Econ. Surv. 2, 445 p. 

Actual records of its occurrence in North Caro- 
lina are rare. 

1914. Passing of the sturgeon. Rep. U.S. Comm. 
Fish. 1913:66-67. 

A review of the overfishing of the sturgeon, 
which is applicable to the shortnose sturgeon. 

1915. Report of the commissioner of fisheries for 
the fiscal year ended June 30, 1914. Sturgeon Fish- 
ery of Delaware River. Rep. U.S. Comm. Fish. 
1914, 81 p. 

Some sturgeon with large roe are caught as late 
as September, but a large portion of such fish 
are of the smaller species (A. breuirostrum), 
locally called "bottlenose." 

SMITH, H. M., and B. A. BEAN. 

1899. List of fishes known to inhabit the waters of 
the district of Columbia and vicinity 
(1898). Bull. U.S. Fish Comm. 18:179-187. 

Shortnose sturgeon are found in this area but 



are not as abundant as the common sturgeon 
and have undergone the same decrease in recent 
years. It is probably not recognized by fisher- 
men as a different species. 



STORER, D. H. 

1846. A synopsis of the fishes 
America. Mem. Am. Acad. Sci., 
2(7):253-550. 



of North 
New. Ser. 



A brief description of the shortnose sturgeon is 
presented. 

SUMNER, F. B., R. C. OSBURN, and L. J. COLE. 
1911. A biological survey of the waters of Woods 
Hole and vicinity. Part II. Bull. U.S. Bur. Fish. 
31:549-794. 

The common sturgeon is listed, however the 
shortnose sturgeon is included in its references. 
When listing parasites of the common stur- 
geon, it is noted that the spiny-headed worm, 
Echinorhynchus attenuatus, is listed for the 
shortnose sturgeon. 



SYRYABINA, E. S. 

1974. Gel'minty osetrovykh 
Bonaparte, 1831). Moscow, 
"Nauka," 168 p. 



ryb (Acipenseridae 
USSR; Izdatel'stvo 



This is a monograph on the helminth fauna of 
acipenserid fish of the world based on data from 
the literature and on the author's examination 
of his own collection of eight fish from waters of 
the U.S.S.R. The 22 species of Acipenseridae 
known are parasitized by 95 helminth species, 
27 of which are specific to this group. 

TAUBERT, B. D., and R. J. REID. 

1978. Observations of the shortnose sturgeon (Aci- 
penser breuirostrum) in the Holyoke pool of the 
Connecticut River, Massachusetts. Progress 
Report to NEUSC. Mass. Coop. Fish Unit, 
Amherst, Mass., 14 p. 

Spawning site and larvae description are iden- 
tified in the Connecticut River. 

TOWER, W. S. 

1908. The passing of the sturgeon: A case of the un- 
paralleled extermination of a species. Pop. Sci. 
Mon. 73:361-371. 

A history of the sturgeon fishery and the ex- 
termination of the sturgeon is provided. Species 
are not mentioned. 

TOWNSEND, C. H. 

1901a. Statistics of the fisheries of the middle 



12 



Atlantic states. Rep. U.S. Comm. Fish. 
1900:195-310. 

Catch and market statistics for sturgeon in New 
York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, 
Maryland, and Virginia are given. Species are 
not mentioned. 

1901b. Statistics of the fisheries of the New 
England states. Rep. U.S. Comm. Fish. 
1900:311-386. 

Catch and market statistics for sturgeon in 
Maine, Massachusetts, and Connecticut are 
given. Since species are not mentioned, the 
shortnose sturgeon is probably included. 



TRACY, H. C. 

1906. A list of the fishes of Rhode Island. 
Comm. Inland Fish. R.I. 36, 176 p. 



Rep. 



The shortnose sturgeon is briefly described 
along with its occurrence in Rhode Island. 

TRTTES, R. W. 

1960. An oceanographic and biological reconnais- 
sance of Kennebecasis Bay and St. John River 
Estuary. J. Fish. Res. Board Can. 17:377-408. 

Additional occurrence of shortnose sturgeon is 
recorded in the St. John River, N.B. 

TRUnT, R. V., T. H. BEAN, and H. W. FOWLER. 
1929. The fishes of Maryland. Bull. Md. Conserv. 
Dep. 3, 120 p. 

A general account of the shortnose sturgeon is 
given. 



UHLER, P. R, and O. LUGGER. 

1876. List of fishes of Maryland. 
Fish. Md. 1876:67-176. 



Rep. Comm. 



The shortnose sturgeon inhabits the Potomac 
River. This individual, represented by a few 
strips of skin is USNM # 26273. It was collected 
19 March 1876. 

U.S. CONGRESS. 

1973. House of Representatives Endangered 
Species Act of 1973. Public Law 93-205, 
December 28, 1973. 

Shortnose sturgeon are included on the list. 



VLADYKOV, V. D., and G. BEAULIEU. 

1951. Etudes sur l'esturgeon (AcipenserJ de la 
province de Quebec. II. Variations du nombre de 
branchiospines sur le premier arc bran- 
chial. Nat. Can. (Que.) 78:129-154. 

The shortnose sturgeon is included in a detailed 
account of gill rakers for three western Atlantic 
sturgeon species. 

VLADYKOV, V. D., and J. R. GREELEY. 

1963. Order Acipenseroidei. In Fishes of the 
Western North Atlantic. Mem. Sears Found. Mar. 
Res. 1(3), 630 p. 

A description and natural history of the short- 
nose sturgeon, based on a total of 109 speci- 
mens, is given. An extensive bibliography is in- 
cluded. 



WALDEN, H. T. 

1964. Familiar freshwater fishes of America. Har- 
per and Row, N.Y., 282 p. 

A brief description and range is given. 

WHITWORTH, W. R., P. L. BERRIEN, and W. T. 
KELLER. 

1968. Freshwater fishes of Connecticut. Conn. 
State Geol. Nat. Hist. Surv. Bull. 101, 134 p. 

The shortnose sturgeon is briefly described 
along with its natural history. 

WILDER, B. G. 

1875. Notes on the North American ganoids, Amia, 
Lepidosteus, Acipenser, Polydon. Proc. Am. As- 
soc. Adv. Sci. 1875:151-196. 

The brains of three Acipenser species (A. oxy- 
rhynchus, A. rubicundus, and one undeter- 
mined) were compared with the brains of other 
genera. Since size was not indicated, A. brevi- 
rostrum could have been the undetermined 
species. 

YARROW, H. C. 

1877. Notes on the natural history of Fort Macon, 
North Carolina, and vicinity. No. 3. 
Fishes. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 29:203-218. 

Shortnose sturgeon are said to be abundant in 
the North, New, and Neuse Rivers. 



13 



SUBJECT INDEX 



Age and growth 

Cuerrier 1951 

Dadswell 1976 

Gorham and McAllister 1974 

Greeley 1937 

Harkness 1923 

Magnin 1963, 1964 
Anomalies 

Atz and Smith 1976 

Boyle 1969 

McCleave and Fried 1974 
Aquarium (specimens and demand) 

Bean 1897 

Boyle 1969 

MacCallum 1921 
Biology 

Committee on Rare and Endangered Wildlife Species 
1966 

Dadswell 1976 

Magnin 1963 

Office of Endangered Species and International Activ- 
ities 1973 

Ryder 1888 

Vladykov and Beaulieu 1951 
Brain 

Wilder 1875 
Canada 

Leim and Scott 1966 

McAllister 1960 

Scott 1954, 1967 

Scott and Crossman 1973 

Scott and Scott 1965 

Slastenenko 1958 
Commercial fisheries 

Alexander 1905 

Bowers 1907 

Cobb 1900 

Collins and Smith 1892 

Cope 1883 

Goode and a Staff of Associates 1887 

Hovey 1883 

Leland 1968 

Smith 1894 

Townsend 1901a, 1901b 
Commercial value 

Bean 1902 

Cobb 1900 

Dees 1961 

Goode 1879 

Grzimek's Animal Life Encyclopedia 1973 

Perlmutter 1961 
Connecticut 

Alexander 1905 

Bowers 1907 

Miller 1972 

Townsend 1901b 

Whitworth et al. 1968 



Cooking 

Boyle 1969 

Hovey 1883 
Culture 

Brice 1898 

Committee on Rare and Endangered Wildlife Species 
1966 

Dean 1894 

Leach 1920 

Meehan 1910 

Office of Endangered Species and International Activ- 
ities 1973 

Ryder 1888 
Delaware (State and River) 

Bean 1902 

Bigelow and Schroeder 1953 

Cobb 1900 

Dean 1894 

Fowler 1905 

Geological Survey of New Jersey 1890 

Hoff 1965 

Hovey 1883 

LeSueur 1818 

Meehan 1896 

Miller 1972 

Ryder 1888 

Smith 1892, 1915 

Townsend 1901a 
Description 

Bean 1901 

Bigelow and Schroeder 1953 

Blair et al. 1957 

Breder 1938, 1948 

Committee on Rare and Endangered Wildlife Species 
1966 

Dahlberg 1975 

Dees 1961 

DeKay 1842 

Dumeril 1867, 1870 

Eddy 1957 

Fowler 1910 

Goode and a Staff of Associates 1884 

Gorham and McAllister 1974 

Grzimek's Animal Life Encyclopedia 1973 

Gunther 1870 

Hildebrand and Schroeder 1928 

Jordan 1876, 1878, 1880, 1884, 1897, 1899, 1904, 1929 

Jordan and Evermann 1896b, 1937 

Jordan and Gilbert 1882 

Leim and Scott 1966 

LeSueur 1818 

Migdalski and Fichter 1976 

Nichols and Breder 1927 

Office of Endangered Species and International Activ- 
ities 1973 

Perlmutter 1961 

Pratt 1935 



14 



Richardson 1836 
Ryder 1888 
Scott 1954, 1967 
Scott and Crossman 1973 
Storer 1846 
Tracy 1906 

Vladykov and Greeley 1963 
Walden 1964 
Whitworth et al. 1968 
District of Columbia 
Smith and Bean 1899 

Eggs 

Hoff 1965 

Smith 1915 
Endangered status 

Anonymous 1975 

Committee on Rare and Endangered Wildlife Species 
1966 

Fegely 1977 

Fried and McCleave 1973 

Gorham 1971 

Gorham and McAllister 1974 

Miller 1972 

Office of Endangered Species and International Activ- 
ities 1973 

Smith 1914 

Tower 1908 

U.S. Congress 1973 
Florida 

Boyle 1969 

Evermann and Kendall 1900 

Fowler 1945 

Kilby et al. 1959 

McLane 1955 
Food (ingested by shortnose sturgeon) 

Currian and Ries 1937 

Dadswell 1976 

Division of Lands and Forests and Fish and Game 1913 
Georgia 

Dahlberg 1975 
Habits 

Bean 1904 

Goode and a Staff of Associates 1884 

Jordan and Evermann 1904 

Ryder 1888 
Larvae 

Taubert and Reid 1978 
Length-weight relationship 

Gorham 1971 

Gorham and McAllister 1974 

Greeley 1937 

Magnin 1963 
Maine (State and Gulf of) 

Alexander 1905 

Bigelow and Schroeder 1936, 1953 

Bowers 1907 

Fried and McCleave 1973 

McCleave and Fried 1974 

McCleave et al. 1977 

Townsend 1901b 



Maryland 

Fowler 1945 

Miller 1972 

Townsend 1901a 

Truitt et al. 1929 

Uhler and Lugger 1876 
Massachusetts 

Alexander 1905 

Baird 1873 

Bigelow and Schroeder 1936, 1953 

Bowers 1907 

Bumpus 1898 

Collins and Smith 1892 

Hildebrand and Schroeder 1928 

Jerome et al. 1968 

Miller 1972 

Smith 1897 

Storer 1846 

Taubert and Reid 1978 

Townsend 1901b 

Movements and migrations 

Dadswell 1976 

McCleave et al. 1977 
Museum (specimens) 

Baird 1873 

Bigelow and Schroeder 1936 

Goode and Bean 1879 

Giinther 1870 

Hildebrand and Schroeder 1928 

Kilby et al. 1959 

Kirsch and Fordice 1889 
Natural history 

Bigelow and Schroeder 1953 

Boyle 1969 

Committee on Rare and Endangered Wildlife Species 
1966 

Cuerrier 1947 

Dees 1961 

Dumeril 1867 

Goode and a Staff of Associates 1884 

Leim and Scott 1966 

Scott and Crossman 1973 

Vladykov and Greeley 1963 

Whitworth et al. 1968 
New Brunswick (Saint John River) 

Dadswell 1976 

Gorham 1965a, 1965b, 1971 

Gorham and McAllister 1974 

Leim and Day 1959 

Magnin 1963 

McAllister 1970 

Meth 1973 

Scott and Crossman 1959 

Trites 1960 
New England 

Alexander 1905 

Bowers 1907 

Collins and Smith 1892 

Kendall 1908 

Nichols and Breder 1927 



15 



New Hampshire 

Alexander 1905 
New Jersey 

Fowler 1905, 1919, 1920, 1952 

Geological Survey of New Jersey 1890 

Hoff 1965 

Miller 1972 

Smith 1892 

Townsend 1901a 
New York 

Bean 1897, 1902, 1904 

Bigelow and Schroeder 1953 

Boyle 1969 

Breder 1938 

Currian and Ries 1937 

DeKay 1842 

Greeley 1937 

Koski et al. 1971 

Miller 1972 
North America (Atlantic Coast) 

Gill 1862, 1873 

Jordan 1887 

Jordan and Evermann 1896a, 1896b 

Jordan and Gilbert 1882 

Jordan et al. 1930 

Schrenkelsen 1938 
North Carolina 

Fowler 1945 

Holland and Yelverton 1973 

Jordan 1886 

Schwartz and Link 1976 

Schwartz et al. 1975 

Smith 1907 

Yarrow 1877 
Parasites 

Appy and Dadswell 1978 

MacCallum 1921 

Sumner et al. 1911 

Syryabina 1974 
Pennsylvania 

Bean 1902 

Cope 1883 

Fegely 1977 

Fowler 1912, 1919 

Meehan 1896 

Miller 1972 

Townsend 1901a 
Range or distribution 

Bean 1901, 1902 

Bigelow and Schroeder 1953 

Blair et al. 1957 

Breder 1938, 1948 

Committee on Rare and Endangered Wildlife Species 
1966 

Dahlberg 1975 

Dumeril 1867 

Eddy 1957 

Fowler 1952 



Gill 1873 

Gorham and McAllister 1974 

Greeley 1937 

Halkett 1913 

Harkness and Dymond 1961 

Jordan 1876, 1878, 1880, 1884, 1897, 1899, 1904, 1929 

Jordan and Evermann 1896a, 1896b, 1904, 1937 

Jordan and Gilbert 1882 

Magnin 1959 

Migdalski and Fichter 1976 

Nichols and Breder 1927 

Office of Endangered Species and International Activ- 
ities 1973 

Perlmutter 1961 

Rostlund 1952 

Scott 1954, 1967 

Sumner et al. 1911 

Walden 1964 
Record size 

Boyle 1969 

Fried and McCleave 1973 

Koski et al. 1971 

Scott and Crossman 1973 
Rhode Island 

Gordon 1960 

Tracy 1906 
Saint Lawrence 

Evermann and Kendall 1902 

Fortin 1864 

Halkett 1913 

Montpetit 1897 

Provancher 1876 
Spawning 

Bean 1904 

Bumpus 1898 

Cuerrier 1947 

Greeley 1937 

Ryder 1888 

Taubert and Reid 1978 
South Carolina 

Bigelow and Schroeder 1953 

Jordan and Evermann 1896b 

Leland 1968 
Systematics 

Berg 1904, 1940 

Benin 1939 

Committee on Names of Fishes 1970 

Dean 1895 

DeKay 1842 

Dumeril 1867 

Gorham and McAllister 1974 

Kirsch and Fordice 1889 
Virginia 

DeKay 1842 

Fowler 1919 

Holland and Yelverton 1973 

Townsend 1901a 






16 



* U.S Government Pnnting Office 1979—698-002/109 



672. Seasonal occurrence of young Guld menhaden and other fishes in a 
northwestern Florida estuary. By Marlin E. Tagatz and E. Peter H. 
Wilkins. August 1973, iii + 14 p., 1 fig., 4 tables. For sale by the 
Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, 
Washington, D.C. 20402. 

673. Abundance and distribution of inshore benthic fauna off 
southwestern Long Island, N.Y. By Frank W. Steimle, Jr. and Richard B. 
Stone. December 1973, iii + 50 p., 2 figs., 5 app. tables. 

674. Lake Erie bottom trawl explorations, 1962-66. By Edgar W. Bow- 
man. January 1974, iv + 21 p., 9 figs., 1 table, 7 app. tables. 

675. Proceedings of the International Billfish Symposium, Kailua- 
Kona, Hawaii, 9-12 August 1972. Part 1. Report of the Symposium. 
March 1975, iii + 33 p.; Part 2. Review and contributed papers. July 
1974, iv + 355 p. (38 papers); Part 3. Species synopses. June 1975, iii + 
159 p. (8 papers). Richard S. Shomura and Francis Williams (editors). 
For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing 
Office, Washington, D.C. 20402. 

676. Price spreads and cost analyses for finfish and shellfish products at 
different marketing levels. By Erwin S. Penn. March 1974, vi + 74 p., 15 
figs^, 12 tables, 12 app. figs., 14 app. tables. For sale by the Superinten- 
dent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 
20402. 

677. Abundance of benthic macroinvertebrates in natural and altered 
estuarine areas. By Gill Gilmore and Lee Trent. April 1974, iii + 13 p., 
11 figs., 3 tables, 2 app. tables. For sale by the Superintendent 
of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 
20402. 

678. Distribution, abundance, and growth of juvenile sockeye salmon, 
Oncorhynckus nerka, and associated species in the Naknek River system, 
1961-64'. By Robert J. Ellis. September 1974, v + 53 p., 27 figs., 26 tables. 
For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing 
Office, Washington, D.C. 20402. 

679. Kinds and abundance of zooplankton collected by the USCG 
icebreaker Glacier in the eastern Chukchi Sea, September-October 1970. 
By Bruce L. Wing. August 1974, iv + 18 p., 14 figs., 6 tables. For sale by 
the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, 
Washington, D.C. 20402. 

680. Pelagic amphipod crustaceans from the southeastern Bering Sea, 
June 1971. By Gerald A. Sanger. July 1974, iii + 8 p., 3 figs., 3 tables. For 
sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Of- 
fice, Washington, D.C. 20402. 

681. Physiological response of the cunner, Tautogolabrus adspersus, to 
cadmium. October 1974, iv + 33 p., 6 papers, various authors. For sale by 
the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, 
Washington, D.C. 20402. 

682. Heat exchange between ocean and atmosphere in the eastern 
North Pacific for 1961-71. By N. E. Clark, L. Eber, R. M. Laurs, J. A. 
Renner, and J. F. T. Saur. December 1974, iii + 108 p., 2 figs., 1 table, 5 
plates. 

683. Bioeconomic relationships for the Maine lobster fishery with con- 
sideration of alternative management schemes. By Robert L. Dow, 
Frederick W. Bell, and Donald M. Harriman. March 1975, v + 44 p., 20 
figs., 25 tables. For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. 
Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402. 

684. Age and size composition of the Atlantic menhaden, Breuoortia 
tyrannus, purse seine catch, 1963-71, with a brief discussion of the 
fishery. By William R. Nicholson. June 1975, iv + 28 p., 1 fig., 12 
tables, 18 app. tables. For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. 
Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402. 

685. An annotated list of larval and juvenile fishes captured with sur- 
face-towed meter net in the South Atlantic Bight during four RV Dolphin 
cruises between May 1967 and February 1968. By Michael P. 
Fahay. March 1975, iv + 39 p., 19 figs., 9 tables, 1 app. table. For sale 



by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, 
Washington, D.C. 20402. 

686. Pink salmon, Oncorhunchus gorbuscha, tagging experiments in 
southeastern Alaska, 1938-42 and 1945. By Roy E. Nakatani, Gerald J. 
Paulik, and Richard Van Cleve. April 1975, iv + 39 p., 24 figs., 16 
tables. For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government 
Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402. 

687. Annotated bibliography on the biology of the menhadens. Genus 
Brevoortia, 1963-1973. By John W. Reintjes and Peggy M. 
Keney. April 1975, 92 p. For sale by the Superintendent of 
Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington. D.C. 20402. 

688. Effect of gas supersaturated Columbia River water on the survival 
of juvenile chinook and coho salmon. By Theodore H. Blahm, Robert J. 
McConnell, and George R. Snyder. April 1975, iii + 22 p., 8 figs., 5 
tables, 4 app. tables. For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. 
Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402. 

689. Ocean distribution of stocks of Pacific salmon, Oncorhynckus spp., 
and steelhead trout, Salmo gairdnerii, as shown by tagging experiments. 
Charts of tag recoveries by Canada, Japan, and the United States, 1956- 
69. By Robert R. French, Richard G. Bakkala, and Doyle F. Suther- 
land. June 1975, viii + 89 p., 117 figs., 2 tables. For sale by the 
Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, 
Washington, D.C. 20402. 

690. Migratory routes of adult sockeye salmon, Oncorhynckus nerka, in 
the eastern Bering Sea and Bristol Bay. By Richard R. Straty. April 
1975, iv + 32 p., 22 figs., 3 tables, 3 app. tables. For sale by the 
Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, 
Washington, D.C. 20402. 

691. Seasonal distributions of larval flatfishes (Pleuronectiformes) on 
the continental shelf between Cape Cod, Massachusetts, and Cape 
Lookout, North Carolina, 1965-66. By W. G. Smith, J. D. Sibunka, and 
A. Wells. June 1975, iv + 68 p., 72 figs., 16 tables. 

692. Expendable bathythermograph observations from the 
NMFS/MARAD Ship of Opportunity Program for 1972. By Steven K. 
Cook. June 1975, iv + 81 p., 81 figs. For sale by the Superintendent of 
Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402. 

693. Daily and weekly upwelling indices, west coast of North America, 
1967-73. By Andrew Bakun. August 1975, iii + 114 p., 3 figs., 6 tables. 

694. Semiclosed seawater system with automatic salinity, temperature 
and turbidity control. By Sid Korn. September 1975, iii + 5 p., 7 figs., 
1 table. 

695. Distribution, relative abundance, and movement of skipjack tuna, 
Katsuwonus pelamis, in the Pacific Ocean based on Japanese tuna long- 
line catches, 1964-67. By Walter M. Matsumoto. October 1975, iii + 
30 p., 15 figs., 4 tables. 

696. Large-scale air-sea interactions at ocean weather station V, 1951- 
71. By David M. Husby and Gunter R. Seckel. November 1975, iv + 
44 p., 11 figs., 4 tables. For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, 
U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402. 

697. Fish and hydrographic collections made by the research vessels 
Dolphin and Delaware II during 1968-72 from New York to Florida. By 
S. J. Wilk and M. J. Silverman. January 1976, iii + 159 p., 1 table, 2 
app. tables. For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. 
Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402. 

698. Summer benthic fish fauna of Sandy Hook Bay, New Jersey. By 
Stuart J. Wilk and Myron J. Silverman. January 1976, iv + 16 p., 21 
figs., 1 table, 2 app. tables. For sale by the Superintendent of 
Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402. 

699. Seasonal surface currents off the coasts of Vancouver Island and 
Washington as shown by drift bottle experiments, 1964-65. By W. 
James Ingraham, Jr. and James R. Hastings. May 1976, iii + 9 p., 4 
figs., 4 tables. 



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NOAA Technical Report NMFS SSRF-732 

Assessment of the Northwest 
Atlantic Mackerel, 
Scomber scombrus, Stock 

Emory D. Anderson 

April 1979 






U.S. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE 

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 

National Marine Fisheries Service 



NOAA TECHNICAL REPORTS 
National Marine Fisheries Service, Special Scientific Report — Fisheries 

The major responsibilities of the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) are to monitor and assess the abundance and geographic 
distribution of fishery resources, to understand and predict fluctuations in the quantity and distribution of these resources, and to establish levels 
for optimum use of the resources. NMFS is also charged with the development and implementation of policies for managing national fishing 
grounds, development and enforcement of domestic fisheries regulations, surveillance of foreign fishing off United States coastal waters, and the 
development and enforcement of international fishery agreements and policies. NMFS also assists the fishing industry through marketing service 
and economic analysis programs, and mortgage insurance and vessel construction subsidies. It collects, analyzes, and publishes statistics on 
various phases of the industry. 

The Special Scientific Report — Fisheries series was established in 1949. The series carries reports on scientific investigations that document 
long-term continuing programs of NMFS, or intensive scientific reports on studies of restricted scope. The reports may deal with applied fishery 
problems. The series is also used as a medium for the publication of bibliographies of a specialized scientific nature. 

NOAA Technical Reports NMFS SSRF are available free in limited numbers to governmental agencies, both Federal and State. They are also 
available in exchange for other scientific and technical publications in the marine sciences. Individual copies may be obtained (unless otherwise 
noted) from D825, Technical Information Division, Environmental Science Information Center, NOAA, Washington, D.C. 20235. Recent SSRFs 
are: 



649. Distribution of forage of skipjack tuna iEuthxnnus petamis) in the 
eastern tropical Pacific. By Maurice Blackburn and Michael Laurs. 
January 1972, iii + 16 p., 7 figs., 3 tables. For sale by the Superintendent 
of Documents. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington. D.C. 
20402. 



661. A review of the literature on the development of skipjack tuna 
fisheries in the central and western Pacific Ocean. By Frank J. Hester 
and Tamio Otsu. January 1973, iii + 13 p.. 1 fig. For sale by the 
Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office. 
Washington. D.C. 20402. 



650. Effects of some antioxidants and EDTA on the development of ran- 
cidity in Spanish mackerel iScomberomorus maculatus) during frozen 
storage. By Robert N. Farragut. February 1972, iv + 12 p., 6 figs.. 12 
tables. For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government 
Printing Office. Washington. D.C. 20402. 

651 . The effect of premortem stress, holding temperatures, and freezing 
on the biochemistry and quality of skipjack tuna. By Ladell Crawford. 
April 1972. iii + 23 p.. 3 figs.. 4 tables. For sale by the Superintendent 
of Documents. U.S. Government Printing Office. Washington, D.C. 
20402. 

653. The use of electricity in conjunction with a 12.5-meter (Headrope) 
Gulf-of- Mexico shrimp trawl in Lake Michigan. By James E. Ellis. 
March 1972, iv + 10 p., 1 1 figs., 4 tables. For sale by the Superintendent 
of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington. D.C. 
20402. 

654. An electric detector system for recovering internally tagged 
menhaden, genus Brecoortia. By R. O. Parker, Jr. February 1972, iii + 7 
p., 3 figs.. 1 app. table. For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, 
I S < i.ivernment Printing Office. Washington. D.C. 20402. 

655. Immobilization of fingerling salmon and trout by decompression. 
Bv Doyle F. Sutherland March 1972, iii + 7 p., 3 figs.. 2 tables. For sale 
by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, 
Washington. D.C. 20402. 

656 The calico scallop. Argopecten gibbus. By Donald M. Allen and T. 
• I. Costello. May 1972. iii + 19 p.. 9 figs.. 1 table. For sale by the 
Superintendent of Documents. U.S. Government Printing Office. 
Washington, D.C. 20402. 



662. Seasonal distribution of tunas and billfishes in the Atlantic. By 
John P. Wise and Charles W. Davis. January 1973, iv + 24 p., 13 figs., 4 
tables. For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government 
Printing Office, Washington. D.C. 20402. 

663. Fish larvae collected from the northeastern Pacific Ocean and 
Puget Sound during April and May 1967. By Kenneth D. Waldron. 
December 1972. iii + 16 p., 2 figs., 1 table, 4 app. tables. For sale by the 
Superintendent of Documents. U.S. Government Printing Office. 
Washington. D.C. 20402. 

664. Tagging and tag-recovery experiments with Atlantic menhaden. 
Brevoortia tyrannus. By Richard L. Kroger and Robert L. Dryfoos. 
December 1972. iv + 11 p., 4 figs., 12 tables. For sale by the Superinten- 
dent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 
20402. 

665. Larval fish survey of Humbolt Bay. California. By Maxwell B. 
Eldrige and Charles F. Bryan. December 1972, iii + 8 p., 8 figs., 1 table. 
For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing 
Office, Washington. D.C. 20402. 

666. Distribution and relative abundance of fishes in Newport River, 
North Carolina. By William R. Turner and George N. Johnson. 
September 1973, iv + 23 p., 1 fig., 13 tables. For sale by the Superinten- 
dent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 
20402. 

667. An analysis of the commercial lobster {Homarus americanus) 
fishery along the coast of Maine. August 1966 through December 1970. By 
James C. Thomas. June 1973, v + 57 p., 18 figs., 11 tables. For sale by the 
Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, 
Washington, D.C. 20402. 



657. Making fish protein concentrates by enzymatic hydrolysis. A 
status report on research and some processes and products studied by 
NMFS B\ Malcolm B. Hale. November 1972. v + 32 p., 15 figs.. 17 
tables. 1 app table. For sale by the Superintendent of Documents. U.S. 
Government Printing Office. Washington. D.C. 20402. 

List ot fishes of Alaska and adjacent waters with a guide to some of 
their literature. By Jay C. Quast and Elizabeth L. Hall. July 1972. iv + 
47 p. For sale by the Superintendent of Documents. U.S. Government 
Printing Office. Washington. D.C. 20402. 

659. The Southeast Fisheries Center bionumeric code. Part I: Fishes. 
By Harvey R. Bullis. Jr.. Richard B. Roe. and Judith C. Gatlin. July 
1972. xl + 95 p.. 2 figs. For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, 

- Government Printing Office. Washington. D.C. 20402. 

660. A freshwater fish electro-motivator iFFEMl-its characteristics and 
operation By James E. Ellis and Charles C. Hoopes. November 1972. iii 
+ 11 p.. 2 I 



668. An annotated bibliography of the cunner. Tautogolabrus adspersus 
iWilbauml. By Fredric M. Serchuk and David W. Frame. May 1973. ii + 
43 p. For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government 
Printing Office. Washington. D.C. 20402. 

669. Subpoint prediction for direct readout meterological satellites. By 
L. E. Eber. August 1973, iii + 7 p., 2 figs., 1 table. For sale by the 
Superintendent of Documents. U.S. Government Printing Office. 
Washington. D.C. 20402. 

670. Unharvested fishes in the U.S. commercial fishery of western Lake 
Erie in 1969. By Harry D. Van Meter. July 1973. iii + 11 p., 6 figs.. 6 
tables. For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government 
Printing Office. Washington. D.C. 20402. 

671. Coastal upwelling indices, west coast of North America. 1946-71. 
By Andrew Bakun. June 1973. iv + 103 p.. 6 figs.. 3 tables. 45 app. figs. 
For sale by the Superintendent of Documents. U.S. Government Printing 
Office. Washington. D.C. 20402. 



("nntinued tin inside back over 



NOAA Technical Report NMFS SSRF-732 



^P >'WS^, 




'^f MT 0* C 



Assessment of the Northwest 
Atlantic Mackerel, 
Scomber scombrus, Stock 

Emory D. Anderson 



April 1979 



U.S. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE 

Juanita M. Kreps, Secretary 

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 

Richard A. Frank, Administrator 

Terry L. Leitzell, Assistant Administrator for Fisheries 

National Marine Fisheries Service 



For Sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office 
Washin e ton, D.C. 20402 - Stock No. 003-017-00450-3 



The National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) does not approve, rec- 
ommend or endorse any proprietary product or proprietary material 
mentioned in this publication. No reference shall be made to NMFS, or 
to this publication furnished by NMFS, in any advertising or sales pro- 
motion which would indicate or imply that NMFS approves, recommends 
or endorses any proprietary product or proprietary material mentioned 
herein, or which has as its purpose an intent to cause directly or indirectly 
the advertised product to be used or purchased because of this NMFS 
publication. 



CONTENTS 

Introduction 1 

Methods 1 

Results 6 

Catch 6 

Catch composition 8 

Abundance indices 8 

Fishing mortality 9 

Recruitment 10 

Partial recruitment 10 

Stock size 11 

Catch and stock size projections 11 

Discussion 12 

Literature cited 12 



Figures 

1. Northwest Atlantic from North Carolina to Labrador showing ICNAF Subareas 3, 4, and 5 and 
Statistical Area 6 2 

2. Northwest Atlantic off the U.S. coast showing bottom trawl survey sampling strata and ICNAF 
Subarea 5 and Statistical Area 6 3 

3. Stratified mean catch (kilograms) per tow of Atlantic mackerel from the U.S. spring (1968-77) and 
autumn (1963-76) bottom trawl surveys 4 

4. Exponential curve calculated through 1968-77 time-series (1969 point omitted from calculation of 
curve) of spring survey catch-per-tow (kilogram) indices for Atlantic mackerel 4 

5. Relationship between fishing mortality for Atlantic mackerel from cohort analysis and fishing 

effort derived from spring survey catch per tow and total catch 5 

6. Power curve relationship between Atlantic mackerel year-class size at age 1 from cohort analysis 

and autumn survey catch per tow at age 5 

7. Power curve relationship between Atlantic mackerel year-class size at age 1 from cohort analysis 

and spring survey catch per tow at age 1 6 

8. Power curve relationship between Atlantic mackerel year-class size at age 2 from cohort analysis 

and spring survey catch per tow at age 2 6 

9. Atlantic mackerel spawning stock biomass (metric tons) in 1962-77 and abundance at age 1 of the 
1961-77 year classes from cohort analysis 10 



Tables 

1. Mean weights at age (kilograms) for Atlantic mackerel (ICNAF 1974) 

2. Estimation of fishing mortality (F) in 1977 for the ICNAF Subareas 3, 4, and 5 and Statistical Area 
6 Atlantic mackerel fishery 

3. Fishing mortality rates (F) for Atlantic mackerel in ICNAF Subareas 3, 4, and 5 and Statistical 
Area 6 derived from cohort analysis with natural mortality (M) = 0.30 

4. Catch per tow (number) of age Atlantic mackerel from the U.S. autumn bottom trawl surveys 
(strata 1-2, 5-6, 9-10, 13, 16, 19-21, 23, 25-26) and year-class size (millions of fish) at age 1 from 
cohort analysis 

5. Catch per tow (number) of ages 1 and 2 Atlantic mackerel from the U.S. spring bottom trawl surveys 
(strata 1-25, 61-76) and year-class size (millions of fish) at ages 1 and 2 from cohort analysis . . . . 

6. Atlantic mackerel catch (metric tons) from ICNAF Subareas 3, 4, and 5 and Statistical Area 6 
during 1961-77 

7. Estimated Atlantic mackerel catches (metric tons) in 1977 by country from ICNAF Subareas 3, 4, 
and 5 and Statistical Area 6 

8. Atlantic mackerel catch (commercial and recreational) (millions of fish) from ICNAF Subareas 3, 
4, and 5 and Statistical Area 6 during 1962-77 

9. Stratified mean catch (kilograms) per tow (In and retransformed) of Atlantic mackerel from the 
U.S. bottom trawl surveys in the spring (strata 1-25, 61-76) and autumn (strata 1-2, 5-6, 9-10, 13, 
16,19-21,23,25-26) 

iii 



10. Stratified mean catch (number) per tow of Atlantic mackerel by year class from the 1973-76 

U.S. spring bottom trawl surveys in ICNAF Subarea 5 and Statistical Area 6, strata 1-25, 61-76 . . 8 

11. Atlantic mackerel catch per standardized U.S. day fished 8 

12. Atlantic mackerel stock size by age in ICNAF Subareas 3, 4, and 5 and Statistical Area 6 (millions 
of fish) derived from cohort analysis assuming natural mortality (M) = 0.30 and fishing mortality 

OF) = 0.39 at ages 4 and older in 1977 9 

13. Percentage of fishing mortality (F) of Atlantic mackerel at ages 1 and 2 compared with mean F 

at ages 3 and older (partial recruitment) 11 

14. Summary of parameters used in the Atlantic mackerel assessment 11 

15. Projected Atlantic mackerel catch in ICNAF Subareas 3, 4, and 5 and Statistical Area 6 in 1978 
with fishing mortality ranging from 0.00 to 0.70, and the resulting spawning stock in 1979 and its 
percentage change from 1978 11 



IV 



Assessment of the Northwest Atlantic Mackerel, 
Scomber scombrus, Stock 



EMORY D. ANDERSON 1 



ABSTRACT 

The status of the Atlantic mackerel, Scomber scombrus, stock in the International Commission 
for the Northwest Atlantic Fisheries (ICNAF) convention area is analyzed in this paper. Total catch 
declined from a high of 431,606 tin 1972 to an estimated 92,000 t in 1977. The U.S. spring bottom trawl 
survey has shown a continuous decrease in Atlantic mackerel abundance since 1968. Fishing mortality 
(F) in 1977 was estimated at 0.39, nearly one-half of the 1976 level and the lowest since 1972. The 1974 
year class appears to be the strongest since 1969, whereas the 1975 and 1976 year classes appear to be 
very weak. Spawning stock biomass decreased from 1 .8 million t in 1970-72 to an estimated 402,500 t at 
the beginning of 1978, which is slightly below the 1962-67 level when catches averaged only about 
25,000 t. A zero catch in 1978 would increase the 1979 spawning stock by 6%; a catch of 23,500 t (F = 
0.07) would maintain the spawning stock at the 1978 level. 



INTRODUCTION 

The following report analyzes the status of the 
Northwest Atlantic mackerel, Scomber scombrus, stock 
inhabiting the waters from Cape Hatteras, N.C., to New- 
foundland, which is the area included in ICNAF (Inter- 
national Commission for the Northwest Atlantic Fisher- 
ies) Subareas 3, 4, and 5 and Statistical Area 6 (SA 3-6) 
(Fig. 1). This assessment provided the basis for 
establishing the allowable level of catch in 1978 in the 
southern part of this area (SA 5-6) and was used by the 
National Marine Fisheries Service for its environmental 
impact statement/preliminary fishery management plan 
for the Atlantic mackerel fishery and by the Mid- 
Atlantic Fishery Management Council for its environ- 
mental impact statement/fishery management plan for 
this fishery. 

In previous years, this stock was managed through IC- 
NAF, and assessments were completed jointly by scien- 
tists from various member nations within the ICNAF 
Assessments Subcommittee. The last such assessment, 
on which the 1977 total allowable catch (TAC) was 
based, was made at the time of the Ninth Special 
Meeting of ICNAF held at Puerto de la Cruz, Tenerife, 
Canary Islands, Spain, in November-December 1976 (IC- 
NAF 1977). Separate assessments submitted by 
Anderson et al., 2 Isakov et al., 3 and Ivanov 4 provided the 



■Northeast Fisheries Center Woods Hole Laboratory, National Marine 
Fisheries Service, NOAA, Woods Hole, MA 02543. 

2 Anderson, E. D„ P. W. Wood, B. B. Ackerman, and F. P. Alme- 
ida. 1976. Assessment of the mackerel stock in ICNAF Subareas 3- 
6. Int. Comm. Northwest Atl. Fish. Res. Doc. 76/XH/137, Ser. No. 4033 
(mimeogr.), 21 p. 

'Isakov, V. I., L. Ivanov, P. Kolarov, W. Mahnke, A. Paciorkowski, 
V. A. Rikhter, S. Ucinski, and B. Vaske. 1976. Reassessment of the 
mackerel stock in the ICNAF area. Int. Comm. Northwest Atl. Fish. 
Res. Doc. 76/XII/169, Ser. No. 4065 (mimeogr.), 10 p. 

'Ivanov, L.S. 1976. Relative assessment of mackerel stock in the IC- 
NAF area and forecast of the possible catch in 1977. Int. Comm. North- 
west Atl. Fish. Res. Doc. 76/XII/135, Ser. No. 4030 (mimeogr.), 7 p. 



basis for the 1976 assessment. In addition to this paper, 
catch projections for 1978 were provided by Isakov 5 and 
several unpublished Canadian reports (Hunt 6 ; Lett and 
Hunt 7 ; and Lett and Marshall 8 ). 

Data utilized here include international commercial 
and U.S. recreational catch statistics for 1961-77 and 
U.S. research vessel bottom trawl survey results for 1963- 
77. Results include estimates of fishing mortality, stock 
size, recruitment, and projected catch options for 1978, 
with the resulting spawning stock biomass levels for 
1979. 

METHODS 

International commercial Atlantic mackerel catches 
for 1961-76 were obtained from ICNAF Statistical Bul- 
letins published in 1963-77 (volumes 11-26), provisional 
catches for January-March 1977 were obtained from IC- 
NAF Circular Letters, and catches for the remainder of 
1977 were estimated. 

Various marine angler surveys provided estimates of 
the 1960, 1965, 1970, 1974, and 1976 U.S. recreational 
catches of Atlantic mackerel (Clark 1962; Deuel and 
Clark 1968; Deuel 1973; Deuel 9 ; Christensen et al. 10 ). 



6 Isakov, V. I. 1977. Estimation of stock and total allowable catch of 
mackerel in the Northwest Atlantic for 1977-78. Int. Comm. Northwest 
Atl. Fish. Res. Doc. 77/VT/41, Ser. No. 5066 (mimeogr.), 6 p. 

6 Hunt, J.J. 1977. Data tables mackerel — Subareas 3-6. Can. Atl. 
Fish. Sci. Adv. Comm., Working Pap. 77/6, 3 p. CAFSAC, P.O. Box 1006, 
Dartmouth, Nova Scotia B2Y 4A2. 

'Lett, P. F., and J. J. Hunt. 1977. A preliminary study of some bio- 
logical factors related to the assessment of mackerel. Can. Atl. Fish. 
Sci. Adv. Comm., Working Pap. 77/19, 16 p. 

•Lett, P. F., and W. H. Marshall. An interpretation of biological fac- 
tors important in the management of the northwestern Atlantic mack- 
erel stock. Department of Fisheries and Environment, Fisheries and 
Marine Service, Bedford Institute of Oceanography, Dartmouth, Nova 
Scotia, B2Y 4A2. Unpubl. manuscr., 37 p. 

9 D. G. Deuel, Northeast Fisheries Center, Narragansett Laboratory, 
Natl. Mar. Fish. Serv., NOAA, Narragansett, R.I., pers. commun. 
September 1976. 

'"Christensen, D. J., B. L. Freeman, and S. E. Turner. 1976. The 




Catches in the intervening years were estimated by as- 
suming that the ratio between catch and stock biomass 
from cohort analysis using only commercial data (ICNAF 
1977) in each of the above years was the same in the 
preceding and succeeding 2 yrs, with the exception that 
the mean of the 1970 and 1974 ratios was used for 1972, 
and the mean of 1974 and 1976 was used for 1975. 

The 1962-75 numbers at age from the commercial 
catch were taken from Anderson et al. (see footnote 2). 
The 1976 numbers at age were revised from those used in 
the last ICNAF assessment (ICNAF 1977). The general 
procedure used previously was to: 1) apply the length 
frequencies and age-length keys reported by individual 
countries to their catches to obtain numbers at age by 
country, 2) combine all such numbers at age for respec- 
tive countries, and 3) prorate the summed numbers at 
age upwards to include catches from countries lacking 
sampling data. However, since significant differences 
were evident among age-length keys submitted by 
various countries for 1976 (Anderson et al."), it was 
decided to combine country age-length keys by quarter. 
The procedure used was to: 1) determine numbers at 
length by country by month from available length fre- 
quencies and corresponding catches, 2) combine the 
numbers at length by quarter and prorate upwards to in- 
clude country catches lacking sampling data, 3) apply 
the combined quarterly age-length key to the quarterly 
numbers at length to obtain quarterly numbers at age, 
and 4) combine the quarterly numbers at age to obtain 
the annual numbers at age. The estimated numbers at 
age for 1977 were determined by applying the above pro- 



United States recreational fishery for Atlantic mackerel. Int. Comm. 
Northwest Atl. Fish. Res. Doc. 76/XH/142, Ser. No. 4038 (mimeogr.). 7 p. 
"Anderson, E. D., C. F. Cole, and P. W. Wood. 1976. Variability in 
mackerel age data reported to ICNAF. Int. Comm. Northwest Atl. Fish. 
Res. Doc. 76/XW146. Ser. No. 4042 (mimeogr.), 13 p. 



Figure 1. — Northwest Atlantic from North Carolina 
to Labrador showing ICNAF Subareas 3, 4, and 5 and 
Statistical Area 6. 



cedure to the available January-March catch and sam- 
pling data and then prorating the results upwards to 
include the catch expected to be taken during the re- 
mainder of the year. Numbers at age for the 1962-77 
commercial catches were prorated upwards to include 
the added U.S. recreational catches. 

Mean weights at age (Table 1) adopted by ICNAF 
(1974) and used in previous assessments were employed 
in the present analysis. These values were applied to the 
numbers-at-age catch data for 1962-77 to obtain calcu- 
lated catches which were compared with the observed 
catches. These values were also applied to the stock size 
numbers at age calculated from cohort analysis to obtain 
stock biomass values. The summed biomass values for 
each year were adjusted using the appropriate ob- 
served/calculated catch ratios. The mean weights at age 
were used unadjusted in the projections of catch and 
stock biomass for 1978-79. 

Table 1.— Mean weights at age 
(kilograms) for Atlantic mackerel 
(ICNAF 1974). 





Mean 




Mean 


Age 


weight 


Age 


weight 


1 


0.095 


6 


0.506 


2 


0.175 


7 


0.564 


3 


0.266 


8 


0.615 


4 


0.350 


9 


0.659 


5 


0.432 


10 + 


0.693 



Stratified mean catch-per-tow (kilograms) indices for 
Atlantic mackerel were calculated from U.S. research 
vessel spring (1968-77) and autumn (1963-76) bottom 
trawl surveys conducted in SA 5-6 in which sampling is 
based on a stratified random design (Cochran 1953) and 
strata (Fig. 2) constitute different depth zones and areas 
(Grosslein 1969). Survey methods, procedures, and gear 




Figure 2. — Northwest Atlantic off the U.S. coast showing bottom trawl survey sampling strata and ICNAF Subarea 5 and Statistical Area 6. 



were described by Grosslein. 12 Spring indices were 
calculated from catches in strata 1-25 and 61-76, and 
autumn indices from catches in strata 1-2, 5-6, 9-10, 13, 
16, 19-21, 23, and 25-26 (Fig. 2). All autumn catches and 
the 1968-72 spring catches were made with a No. 36 
Yankee trawl, and the 1973-77 spring catches were made 
with a larger No. 41 trawl. The 1968-72 spring catches 
were adjusted upwards to equivalent No. 41 trawl 
catches using a 3.25:1 ratio between the No. 41 and No. 
36 trawls (Anderson 1976) to establish a standardized 
time-series of catches. A In (x + 1) transformation of the 
station catches (kilograms) was made before calculation 
of the mean catch-per-tow indices. The In indices were 
then retransformed to the original scale for compati- 
bility with other data used in the assessment. Retrans- 
formation was accomplished by the method described by 
Finney (1941) using the equation: 



exp(i + — ) - 1 



(1) 



where y = retransformed catch per tow, x = In catch per 
tow, and S 2 = population variance (In scale). 

Stratified mean catch per tow (numbers) by age for the 
1973-77 spring surveys was determined by applying age- 
length keys to the length frequency of the stratified mean 
catch per tow (Anderson et al. see footnote 2). Since age 
samples were not taken prior to the 1973 spring survey, 
only the mean catch per tow for ages 0, 1, and 2 was 
determined prior to 1973. From the 1968-72 spring sur- 
veys, age 1 fish were defined as those measuring 22 cm 
and less (fork length) and age 2 fish were defined as those 
measuring 23-29 cm. Age fish from the autumn surveys 
were defined as those measuring 23 cm or less. 



Standardized U.S. commerical catch per day (metric 
tons) was calculated for 1964-76 as described by 
Anderson (1976). 

Instantaneous fishing mortality {F) in 1977 was esti- 
mated using a technique developed by Anderson et al. 
(see footnote 2) which assumes a linear relationship be- 
tween fishing effort and fishing mortality. The lack of an 
adequate measure of fishing effort or catch per effort was 
circumvented by calculating, as an index of fishing ef- 
fort, the quotient of total catch divided by the spring sur- 
vey catch per tow (Table 2). Because of the aberrant 1969 
spring value (Anderson 1976; Anderson and Almeida 
1977) and the year-to-year fluctuations in the remaining 
values, the 1968-77 time-series (Fig. 3) was smoothed by 

Table 2.— Estimation of fishing mortality (F) in 1977 for the ICNAF 
Subareas 3, 4, and 5 and Statistical Area 6 Atlantic mackerel fishery. 











Fishing 






Spring 


survey catch/tow 


Catch 3 


effort 


MeanF 5 


Year 


Actual 1 


Calculated 2 


(t) 


index 4 


age 3 + 


1968 


3.998 


4.518 


109,940 


24,334 


0.155 


1969 


0.065 


3.199 


165,113 


51,614 


0.144 


1970 


2.039 


2.265 


262,681 


115,974 


0.185 


1971 


1.969 


1.604 


403,675 


251,668 


0.268 


1972 


1.332 


1.135 


431,606 


380,270 


0.316 


1973 


0.748 


0.804 


429,250 


533,893 


0.451 


1974 


0.769 


0.569 


347,220 


610,228 


0.515 


1975 


0.255 


0.403 


293,740 


728,883 


0.532 


1976 


0.317 


0.285 


243,033 


852,747 


67 (0.626) 


1977 


0.199 


0.202 


92,000 


455,446 


'HO, 391) 



12 Grosslein. M. D. 1974. Bottom trawl survey methods of the North- 
east Fisheries Center, Woods Hole, Mass., USA. Int. Comm. North- 
west Atl. Fish. Res. Doc. 74/96, Ser. No. 3332 (mimeogr.), 27 p. 



■Stratified mean catch (kilograms) per tow (retransformed from In to 
linear scale). 

2 Values predicted from exponential curve calculated using actual 
values for 1968-77 (except 1969). See Figure 4. 

3 Includes commercial and recreational catch. 

4 Catch divided by calculated spring survey catch/tow. 

5 Obtained from cohort analysis assuming F = 0.39 in 1977. 

Calculated from regression of fishing effort index on mean F for 
1968-75: Y = 0.121 + 0.000OO059X, r = 0.991. 

T Actual value calculated from cohort analysis was 0.745, assuming 
F = 0.39 in 1977. 



S 3 



SPRING 



AUTUMN 



--J-— T 




Figure 3.— Stratified mean catch (kilograms) per tow of Atlantic 
mackerel from the U.S. spring (1968-77) and autumn (1963-76) bottom 
trawl surveys. 



2£ 



X 

o 




1968 



1970 



1972 



1974 



1976 



YEAR 
Figure 4. — Exponential curve calculated through 1968-77 time-series 
(1969 point omitted from calculation of curve) of spring survey catch- 
per-tow (kilograms) indices for Atlantic mackerel. Equation for the 
curve is: Y = 6.382 exp (-0.345 A'), r = 0.976. 

fitting an exponential curve by least squares to the data 
points (Fig. 4), and the predicted values calculated from 
the curve were used in place of the original values to 
determine the fishing effort index. Cohort analysis (Pope 
1972) was performed using F = 0.30 for ages 4 and older 



Table 3. — Fishing mortality rates (F) for Atlantic mackerel in ICNAF Subareas 3, 4, and 5 and Statistical Area 6 derived from cohort analysis 

with natural mortality (A/) = 0.30. 



Year 
















Year 


















class 


1962 


1963 


1964 


1965 


1966 


1967 


1968 


1969 


1970 


1971 


1972 


1973 


1974 


1975 


1976 


1977 


19.M 


(.038) 


— 




— 


— 


— 


— 




— 




— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


1952 


.030 


1.0421 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


1953 


.088 


'(.0421 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


1954 


jit:; 


.019 


'(.039) 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


1955 


.043 


.006 


'(.039) 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


i956 


.050 


.006 


.033 


'1.0521 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


1957 


.051 


.017 


.321 


.713 


'(.060) 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


1958 


.127 


.313 


.374 


.946 


.288 


.357 


(.1551 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


1959 


.030 


.067 


.066 


.095 


.163 


.446 


.156 


.336 


'(.185) 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


1960 


.006 


.004 


.014 


.025 


.054 


.060 


.013 


.039 


.090 


'(.2681 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


1961 


.030 


.010 


.012 


.016 


.026 


.040 


.007 


.042 


.195 


.262 


'(.3161 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


1962 


— 


.004 


.032 


.018 


.023 


.041 


.119 


.049 


.369 


.291 


.500 


(.451) 


— 


— 


— 


— 


1963 


— 


— 


.044 


.017 


.034 


.032 


.200 


.059 


.145 


.150 


.670 


.892 


'(.515) 


— 


— 


— 


1964 


— 


— 


— 


.024 


.042 


.107 


.351 


.081 


.142 


.290 


.239 


.426 


.575 


'(.532) 


— 


— 


1965 


— 


— 


— 


— 


.028 


.045 


.149 


.249 


.162 


.342 


.47(1 


.449 


.596 


.503 


'(.745) 


— 


1966 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


<.001 


.039 


.136 


.207 


.472 


.419 


.283 


.454 


.474 


2.002 


.390 


1967 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


.027 


.064 


.181 


.327 


.441 


.465 


.580 


.686 


.888 


.390 


1968 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


.003 


.030 


.097 


.215 


.409 


.507 


.536 


.990 


.390 


1969 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


.077 


.173 


.246 


.410 


.410 


.523 


.787 


.390 


1970 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


.056 


.091 


.545 


.430 


.547 


.598 


.390 


1971 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


.015 


.305 


.598 


.551 


.708 


.390 


1972 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


.168 


.463 


.469 


.916 


.390 


1973 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


.058 


.452 


.652 


.390 


1974 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


-.202 


-.330 


J .220 


1975 


— 


_ 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


'.018 


-.067 


1976 




— 






— 


— 


— 






— 




— 




— 


— 


-.006 


F 


.038 


.042 


.039 


.052 


.060 


.111 


.155 


.144 


.185 


.268 


.316 


.451 


.515 


.532 


.745 


J .390 


(age 3+ I 1 

































'Mean F for age 3+ assumed. 

-Determined from assumed stock size and known catch. 
Weighted by stock numbers at age from Table 12. 
'Age 4 + . 



in 1977 with instantaneous natural mortality (M) = 0.30 
for all ages (ICNAF 1974). This level of F was chosen as a 
first approximation since the fishing effort index in 1977 
was about half the 1976 index implying a similar reduc- 
tion in fishing mortality from earlier estimates for 1976 of 
about 0.60-0.70. A linear regression between the 1968-75 
fishing effort indices and the mean F values for ages 3 
and older from the cohort analysis predicted an F of 0.374 
for 1977 based on the fishing effort index for 1977. A sec- 
ond cohort analysis was performed using 0.38 as the ter- 
minal F in 1977. A second linear regression using the 
revised F values from this cohort analysis predicted F = 
0.389 for 1977. A third cohort analysis was performed us- 
ing F = 0.39 for 1977 (Table 3). A third linear regression 
predicted F = 0.391 for 1977 (Table 2, Fig. 5); therefore, 
F = 0.39 was accepted as the best estimate. 



























Y 


.121 +. 00000059 X 










. 








r= .991 










- 










74 


X*" 75 


^1 


.626 


- 








73 
















71 


/■rz F 77=- 391 










68 




70 
















69 
















■ 








" 











250.000 5O0.CQC 750,000 

FISHING EFFORT INDEX 



Figure 5. — Relationship between fishing mortality for Atlantic 
mackerel from cohort analysis and fishing effort derived from 
spring survey catch per tow and total catch. 



Power curve relationships, fitted by least squares, be- 
tween 1) autumn survey catch per tow (numbers) at 
age and year-class size at age 1 determined from cohort 
analysis for 1963-73 (Table 4, Fig. 6), 2) spring survey 
catch per tow at age 1 and year-class size at age 1 for 
1967-73 (Table 5, Fig. 7), and 3) spring survey catch per 
tow at age 2 and year-class size at age 2 for 1966-73 
(Table 5, Fig. 8) were used to estimate the sizes of the 
1974-76 year classes. 

For age groups incompletely recruited to the fishery, 
the ratio of fishing mortality at each such age to fishing 
mortality of fully recruited ages (the latter considered 
here to be the mean F for ages 3 and older) was used as a 
measure of partial recruitment to the fishery. Partial re- 
cruitment coefficients were calculated for ages 1 and 2 for 
calendar years 1962-77. 

Age-specific F and stock size (N) values were deter- 
mined for 1962-77 using cohort analysis. The value for N 
at each age in 1978 was calculated using the relation- 
ship: 



Table 4. — Catch per tow (number) of age I) Atlantic- 
mackerel from the U.S. autumn bottom trawl surveys 
(strata 1-2. 5-6, 9-10, 13, 16, 19-21, 23, 25-26) and year- 
class size (millions of fish) at age 1 from cohort 
analysis. 



Year 
class 



Autumn survey 
ageO 



Cohort analysis 
age 1 



1963 


0.087 


1964 


0.022 


1965 


0.134 


1966 


0.170 


1967 


15.709 


1968 


0.215 


'1969 


38.504 


1970 


0.027 


1971 


0.517 


1972 


0.119 


1973 


0.339 


1974 


0.648 


1975 


0.012 


1976 


0.000 


'Not used. 




"Calculated. 





429.5 

542.2 

1,212.9 

3,165.3 

7,786.5 

3,114.3 

3,244.9 

1,657.5 

1,711.9 

1,212.6 

1,981.2 

2 (2,515.6) 

2 (614.3) 

-(0) 




AUTUMN SURVEY CATCH PER TOW - AGE 1 NUMBERS OF FISH ) 



Figure 6. — Power curve relationship between Atlantic mackerel 
year-class size at age 1 from cohort analysis and autumn survey 
catch per tow at age 0. The 1969 point was not used in calculating 
the curve. 



Table 5. — Catch per tow (number) of age 1 and 2 Atlantic mackerel 
from the U.S. spring bottom trawl surveys (strata 1-25, 61-76) and 
year-class size (millions of fish) at ages 1 and 2 from cohort analysis. 







Age 1 




Age 2 


Year 


Spring 


Cohort 


Spring 


Cohort 


class 


survey 


analysis 


survey 


analysis 


1966 


— 


3,165.3 


21.661 


2,344.1 


1967 


197.993 


7,786.5 


'1.190 


5,617.3 


1968 


'0.299 


3,114.3 


12.435 


2,300.1 


1969 


6.208 


3,244.9 


13.390 


2.226.5 


1970 


2.954 


1,657.5 


5.545 


1,161.4 


1971 


12.093 


1,711.9 


6.683 


1,248.9 


1972 


1.949 


1,212.6 


0.749 


759.4 


1973 


2.067 


1,981.2 


1.101 


1,385.1 


1974 


5.330 


2 (2,103.9) 


4.928 


2 (1,488.3) 


1975 


0.447 


-(915.3) 


0.254 


: (651.8) 


1976 


0.043 


-(416.9) 


— 


— 



N i + 1 = N, 



(2) 



'Not used. 
-Calculated. 



8.000 


- 






67 


6,000 


- 








4.000 

c 


68 f 


Y 


1199.437X - " 6 

r =.861 




2,000 


■70* 71 








h 










«-75 










■*-76 









SPRING SURVEY CATCH PER TOW - AGE l ( NUM6ERS OF FISH I 



Figure 7. — Power curve relationship between Atlantic mackerel 
year-class size at age 1 from cohort analysis and spring survey 
catch per tow at age 1. The 1968 point was not used in calculating 
the curve. 

where Z = instantaneous total mortality = F + M. Catch 
(in weight) options for 1978 were calculated for a range of 
F values by applying mean weights at age to the catch at 
age in numbers (C,) determined using the catch equa- 
tion: 



C = W. i_i (i _ e 
' Z, 



'•') 



(3) 



and summing over all ages. Resultant stock sizes at age 
in 1979 were determined using Equation (2). 



RESULTS 



Catch 



Table 6 contains a summary of annual Atlantic mack- 
erel catches by the United States, Canada, and other 
countries during 1961-77. International catches in- 
creased from 13,700 t in 1961 to 431,600 t in 1972 and 
then declined to 243,000 t in 1976. United States 
commercial catches varied from 900 to 4,400 t during this 
period and averaged 2,300 t/yr. Estimated U.S. recrea- 
tional catches increased from 6,800 t in 1961 to a high of 
33,300 t in 1969 and then declined to 5,000 t in 1976; the 
yearly average for the period was about 15,000 t. Cana- 
dian catches ranged between 5,500 and 21,200 t and 
averaged 12,600 t. 

A total allowable catch (TAC) of 105,000 t was 
allocated by ICNAF for the international commercial 
fishery in 1977. The provisional reported catch for 
January-March was 52,114 t (Table 7). Because of the 
considerable reduction in TAC from 1976 (310,000 t) and 
the high demand for Atlantic mackerel by the distant- 
water fleets, it was assumed that all countries, except 
Canada, the United States, and "Others," would harvest 
their full catch allocations during the remainder of 1977. 
Based on past performance, the Canadian catch was con- 



©67 








" 




Y = 954. 587 X 278 




- 




r = .834 




- 


74 


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•.« 


66 


73 








• ^0 


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Al2 

I 5 


1 


1 l 


1 1 



2,000 - 



5 1,000 



4 8 12 16 20 24 

SPRING SURVEY CATCH PER TOW - AGE 2 ( NUMBERS OF FISH) 

Figure 8.— Power curve relationship between Atlantic mackerel 
year-class size at age 2 from cohort analysis and spring survey catch 
per tow at age 2. The 1967 point was not used in calculating the 
curve. 



Table 6. — Atlantic mackerel catch (metric tons) from ICNAF Sub- 
areas 3, J, and 5 and Statistical Area li during 1961- 





United States 


Canada 


Other 
countries 




Year 


Commercial 


Recreational 


Total 


1961 


1.361 


6,828 


5,459 


11 


13,659 


1962 


938 


8.698 


6,801 


175 


16,612 


1963 


1,320 


8,348 


6,363 


1,299 


17,330 


1964 


1,644 


8,486 


10,786 


801 


21,717 


1965 


1,998 


'8,583 


11,185 


2,945 


24,711 


1966 


2,724 


10,172 


11,577 


7,951 


32,424 


1967 


3,891 


13,527 


11,181 


19,047 


47,646 


1968 


3,929 


29,130 


11,134 


65,747 


109,940 


1969 


4,364 


33,303 


13,257 


114,189 


165,113 


1970 


4,049 


'32,078 


15,690 


210,864 


262,681 


1971 


2,406 


30,642 


14,735 


355,892 


403,675 


1972 


2,006 


21,882 


16,254 


391,464 


431,606 


1973 


1,336 


9,944 


21,247 


396,723 


429,250 


1974 


1,042 


'7,640 


16,701 


321,837 


347,220 


1975 


1,974 


6,503 


13,544 


271,719 


293,740 


-1976 


2,345 


'4,947 


15,744 


219,997 


243,033 


1977 


3,000 


5,000 


20,000 


64,000 


92,000 



! From angler survey; 

-Provisional. 

'Estimated. 



remaining years estimated (see text) . 



Table 7. — Estimated Atlantic mackerel catches (metric Ions) in 1*177 
by country from ICNAF Subareas 3, 4, and 5 and Statistical Area (». 





Reported through 


Estimated 






Country' 


March 


remainder 


Total 


Allocation 


Bulgaria 


3,110 


890 


4,000 


4.000 


Canada 


— 


20,000 


20,000 


30.000 


Cuba 


683 


1,317 


2,000 


2.000 


F.R.G. 


— 


1,100 


1,100 


1.100 


G.D.R. 


7,981 


4,419 


12.400 


12,400 


Italy 


50 


250 


300 


300 


Poland 


17.167 


3,033 


20,200 


20,200 


Romania 


— 


1,100 


1.100 


1,100 


Spain 


10 


— 


10 


— 


U.S.S.R. 


22,586 


214 


22.800 


22.800 


U.S.A. Icoram.) 


.527 


2,473 


3.000 


6.000 


U.S.A. (reel 


— 


5,000 


5,000 


— 


Others 




90 

39,886 


Mil 
92.000 


5,100 


Total 


52.114 


105.000 



sidered to be 20,000 t (30,000 t allocated), and the U.S. 
commercial catch 3,000 t (6,000 t allocated). The catch 
by countries without specific allocations ("Others") 
which were expected to take some Atlantic mackerel as 
by-catch was chosen as 100 t (5,100 t allocated) because 



of severe catch restrictions for many other species. The 
U.S. recreational catch was arbitrarily considered to be 
the same in 1977 as in 1976 (5,000 t). The total catch in 
1977 was, therefore, taken to be 92,000 t for the purpose 
of this assessment. 



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Catch Composition 

Table 8 contains estimates of the Atlantic mackerel 
catch in numbers at age during 1962-77. Ages ranged be- 
tween and 10 + . Average age of the catch during the 
period was 3.6 yr, with annual mean ages ranging be- 
tween 2.3 and 4.8 yr. In 1977, 45 r c of the catch in 
numbers was age 3 fish, with a mean age of 3.8 yr. Pre- 
dominant age groups in the catches have varied, general- 
ly reflecting the passage of dominant year classes 
through the fishery. 

Abundance Indices 

United States research vessel bottom trawl survey 
catch-per-tow data (Table 9) indicate a continued de- 
cline in Atlantic mackerel abundance. The spring survey 
catch-per-tow (kilograms) index decreased 37% from 
1976 to 1977. Both the spring and autumn indices have 
demonstrated a continuous biomass decline since 1968- 
69 (Fig. 3). The spring survey mean catch per tow in 
numbers has also declined continuously (Table 10) and 
has shown a marked decrease in the number of age 1 
Atlantic mackerel in 1976 and 1977. 

The standardized U.S. commercial catch-per-day in- 
dex (Table 11) has generally been consistent with esti- 
mates of abundance from survey data and with stock 



Table 9. — Stratified mean catch (kilograms) per tow 
(In and retransformed) of Atlantic mackerel from 
United States bottom trawl surveys in the spring 
(strata 1-25, Gl-76) and autumn (strata 1-2, 5-6, 9-10, 
13, 16, 19-21, 23, 25-26). 



Table 11. — Atlantic mackerel catch per standardized 
U.S. day fished. 



Spring' 



Autumn- 



Year 


In 


Retransformed 


In 


Retransformed 


1963 


— 


— 


.013 




.016 


1964 


— 


— 


<.001 




COOl 


1965 


— 


— 


.046 




.073 


1966 


— 


— 


.057 




.085 


1967 


— 


— 


.195 




.372 


1968 


.575 


3.998 


.117 




.217 


1969 


.029 


0.065 


.154 




.459 


1970 


.471 


2.039 


.068 




.099 


1971 


.425 


1.969 


.052 




.073 


1972 


.354 


1.332 


.070 




.107 


1973 


.228 


0.748 


.034 




.043 


1974 


.277 


0.769 


.046 




.108 


1975 


.121 


0.255 


.010 




.016 


1976 


.144 


0.317 


.028 




.039 


1977 


.118 


0.199 


— 




— 


'Based on 


catches with No. 


41 trawl; 


1968 


■72 catches 


were 


ivith No. 36 trawl and were adjusted to 


equivalent 


No. 41 catches using a 3.25:1 ratio (41/36). 




-Based on 


catches with No. 


36 trawl. 









Catch per 


day 




Catch per day 


Year 


(metric tons) 


"i ear 


(metric tons) 


1964 


0.43 




1971 


1.29 


1965 


0.49 




1972 


0.84 


1966 


0.84 




1973 


0.53 


1967 


1.75 




1974 


0.17 


1968 


2.80 




1975 


0.53 


1969 


1.92 




1976 


0.59 


1970 


2.07 









biomass estimates obtained from cohort analysis (Table 
12), although it increased in 1975 and 1976 while the 
other indices continued to decrease. The U.S. commer- 
cial index may be limited as a measure of overall stock 
abundance because it has been based on small inshore 
catches, and particularly since these catches have com- 
prised an increasingly smaller proportion of the total 
catch in recent years. The U.S. Atlantic mackerel catch 
from directed effort averaged 3.6 ( c of the international 
catch each year during 1964-67, 1.4% in 1968-69, 0.2% 
during 1970-76, and <0.1 c c in 1974-75. The increase in 
the index in 1975-76 may reflect only localized improve- 
ments in abundance. 

Distant-water fleet catch-per-effort data are con- 
sidered to be unreliable as a measure of Atlantic mack- 
erel abundance. Previous analysis of distant- water fleet 
statistics by Anderson (1976) indicated that various 
country-vessel tonnage classes experienced different pat- 
terns of catch per hour fished during 1968-74, most of 
which were not in agreement with the change in stock 
biomass determined by cohort analysis. Total stock bio- 
mass peaked in 1969 (Table 12) and then declined sharp- 
ly, whereas distant-water fleet catch per effort generally 
increased or was erratic in year-to-year changes. 
Anderson (1976) suggested that learning, improvements 
in vessel efficiency through technological changes, or 
both occurred in varying degrees for nearly all country- 
tonnage classes engaged in the Atlantic mackerel fishery 
which invalidates their catch rates as consistent 
measures of stock abundance. In view of the previous 
inconsistency in these data, it is difficult to interpret the 
current catch rates. Although 1977 data are not avail- 
able, 1976 data indicated increases in catch per effort for 
certain Bulgarian, German Democratic Republic, and 
Polish vessel classes and decreases for some U.S.S.R. 
vessels. The difficulty in interpreting distant-water fleet 
catch rates was recognized at the time of the last ICNAF 
assessment (ICNAF 1977), and it was also felt that a 
schooling species such as Atlantic mackerel was subject 
to continued accessibility to fishing gear even at low 
levels of abundance. 



Table 10. — Stratified mean catch (number) per tow of Atlantic mackerel by year class from the VM'.V 
bottom trawl surveys in ICNAF Subarea 5 and Statistical Area 6. strata 1-25. (>l-7<» 


7ti U.S. spring 


Year class 


Year 1976 1975 1974 1973 1972 1971 1970 1969 1968 1967 1966 1965 1964 


1963+ -Total 



1973 


— 


— 


— 


— 


1.949 


6.683 


8.188 


15.957 


3.669 


21.081 


6.309 


3.319 


0.365 


0.574 68.094 


1974 


— 


— 


— 


2.067 


0.749 


1.347 


0.185 


0.492 


0.249 


1.401 


0.440 


0.237 


0.107 


— 7.274 


1975 


— 


— 


5.330 


1.101 


0.141 


0.128 


0.030 


0.028 


0.020 


0.014 


0.001 


— 


— 


— 6.793 


1976 


— 


0.447 


4.92S 


0.365 


0.070 


0.014 


0.006 


0.009 


— 


0.004 


— 


— 


— 


— 5.843 


1977 


0.043 


0.254 


0.340 


0.153 


0.050 


0.017 


0.010 


0.024 


0.011 


0.018 


0.007 


0.019 


— 


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Fishing Mortality 

Instantaneous fishing mortality (F) for ages 4 and 
older in 1977 was estimated to be 0.39 (see section on 
Methods) . Age-specific F values computed from cohort 



analysis, assuming instantaneous natural mortality (M) 
= 0.30, for 1962-76 are given in Table 3. Mean annual F 
values for ages 3 and older were stable during 1962-64, 
averaging 0.04, and then increased steadily to a peak of 
0.74 in 1976. 



Recruitment 

The estimated sizes of the 1961-73 year classes at age 1, 
computed by cohort analysis, are given in Table 12 and 
plotted in Figure 9. Sizes ranged between 430 million fish 
(1962 and 1963 year classes) and 7,786 million fish (1967 
year class) and averaged 2,108 million. Only 4 of these 13 
year classes were above the mean. The median size was 
1,658 million. 



SPAWNING STOCK 




Figure 9. — Atlantic mackerel spawning stock biomass (metric tons) 
in 1962-77 and abundance at age 1 of the 1961-77 year classes from 
cohort analysis. Open circles indicate estimated year-class sizes. 



The 1974 year class at age 1 was estimated to be 2,516 
million fish based on the autumn survey age index 
(Table 4, Fig. 6) and 2,104 million based on the spring 
survey age 1 index (Table 5, Fig. 7). At age 2 this year 
class was estimated to be 1,488 million fish based on the 
spring survey age 2 index (Table 5, Fig. 8). The 
corresponding catch of 349.5 million fish at age 2 in 1976 
(Table 8) implies, using Equation (3), an F of 0.314. It 
then follows that the size of this year class at age 1 (from 
cohort analysis) would be 2,447 million fish. The mean of 
the above three estimates at age 1 was 2,356 million fish. 
The catch of 375.4 million fish at age 1 in 1975 (Table 8) 
and the year-class estimates of 2,516 and 2,104 million 
fish at age 1 result, using Equations (2) and (3), in year- 
class estimates at age 2 of 1,543 and 1,238 million fish, 
respectively. The mean of these two estimates and the 
other estimate of 1,488 million at age 2 was 1,423 million 
fish. The reported catch of 349.5 million at age 2 from a 
year-class size of 1,423 million fish requires, from Equa- 
tion (3), an F of 0.331. Cohort analysis, using this F at 
age 2 in 1976, results in a year-class size of 2,358 million 
fish at age 1 in 1975. Given this estimate and the mean 
(2,356 million) of the three other estimates, the 1974 year 
class at age 1 was set at 2,360 million fish. 

The 1975 year class at age 1 was estimated to be 614 
million fish based on the autumn survey age index 
(Table 4, Fig. 6) and 915 million based on the spring sur- 



vey age 1 index (Table 5, Fig. 7). At age 2 this year class 
was estimated to be 652 million fish based on the spring 
survey age 2 index (Table 5, Fig. 8). The catch of 33.0 
million fish at age 2 in 1977 (Table 8) implies, from 
Equation (3), an F of 0.060, which then infers (from 
cohort analysis) a year-class size of 898 million fish at age 
1 in 1976. The mean of the above three estimates at age 1 
was 809 million fish. The catch of 12.3 million fish at age 
1 in 1976 (Table 8) and the year-class estimates of 614 
and 915 million fish at age 1 result, from Equations (2) 
and (3), in year-class estimates at age 2 of 444 and 667 
million fish, respectively. The mean of these two esti- 
mates and the other estimate of 652 million at age 2 was 
588 million fish. The reported catch of 12.3 million fish at 
age 2 from a year-class size of 588 million fish requires an 
F of 0.067. Cohort analysis, using this F at age 2 in 1977, 
results in a year-class size of 809 million fish at age 1 in 
1976. Given this estimate and the mean (809 million) of 
the three other estimates, the estimated size of the 1975 
year class at age 1 was considered to be 810 million fish. 

The 1976 year class at age 1 was estimated to be 417 
million fish based on the spring survey age 1 index (Table 
5, Fig. 7). There were no fish from this year class caught 
at age (Table 4) during the 1976 autumn survey. The 
survey catch-per-tow index for this year class at both 
ages and 1 was lower than for any other year class dur- 
ing 1963-77 (Tables 4, 5). This indicates that this year 
class may be very weak. Previously the weakest year 
classes since 1961 appeared in 1962 and 1963 (430 million 
fish at age 1). Based on the single estimate from the 1977 
spring survey data, the size of the 1976 year class at age 1 
was set at 415 million fish. 

There are no estimates of the size of the 1977 year class 
available. Since the contribution of age 1 fish to the 1978 
catch is expected to be low, estimation of the size of the 
1977 year class is not particularly critical to the results of 
the assessment. However, the consequences of overesti- 
mating the size of this year class are more detrimental to 
conservation management than of underestimating it. If 
the year class is underestimated, any unrealized catches 
at age 1 can be regained in later years since yield per re- 
cruit reaches a maximum at about age 4 (ICNAF 1973). 
However, if the year class is overestimated, the 1978 
allowable catch may be set too high to achieve manage- 
ment objectives and the 1979 stock size would be less 
than projected. The 1977 year class at age 1 was, there- 
fore, set at the minimum level of the weak 1976 year 
class. 

Partial Recruitment 

Atlantic mackerel appear to have been fully recruited 
to the fishery at age 3 and older in recent years, based on 
age-specific mortality rates (Table 3). Partial recruit- 
ment at ages 1 and 2 varied considerably during 1963-77 
(Table 13). Partial recruitment at age 1 ranged from 1 to 
lOOTc and at age 2 from 16 to 90%. Values prior to 1968 
are less precise than those since because the numbers-at- 
age data for 1962-67 are based on very limited sampling 
data and are not as reliable as later data (Anderson et al. 



10 



Table 13. — Percentage of fishing mortality (F) of 
Atlantic mackerel at ages 1 and 2 compared with mean 
F at ages 3 and older (partial recruitment). 



Year 


Agel 


Age 2 


Year 


Agel 


Age 2 


1962 


78.9 


15.8 


1970 


41.6 


16.2 


1963 


9.5 


23.8 


1971 


20.9 


64.6 


1964 


100.0 


82.1 


1972 


4.7 


28.8 


1965 


46.2 


32.7 


1973 


37.3 


67.6 


1966 


46.7 


70.0 


1974 


11.3 


89.9 


1967 


0.9 


40.5 


1975 


38.0 


85.0 


1968 


17.4 


25.2 


1976 


2.4 


44.3 


1969 


2.1 


44.4 


1977 


1.5 


17.2 



see footnote 2). Partial recruitment at ages 1 (1.5%) and 2 
(17.2%) in 1977 was near the low end of the range of 
values. In view of the wide fluctuations evident in previ- 
ous years, the 1977 partial recruitment coefficients may 
not reflect the situation that would actually occur in 
1978. An average of the 1968-77 values (except 1970, 
1973, and 1975) was used for age 1 in 1978 (9%). The high 
values in 1970 and 1975 were excluded from this average 
because they occurred as a result of large catches taken 
from strong incoming year classes which does not repre- 
sent the expected situation in 1978. The high 1973 value 
was also excluded because it resulted from a large 
harvest of age 1 fish from a year class of below-averge 
size. This catch reflected a shifting of intensive fishing 
effort onto younger age groups in an attempt to maintain 
high levels of catch at a time when older age groups ex- 
hibited a sharp drop in abundance. 

An average of the 1968-77 values (except 1974-75) was 
used for age 2 in 1978 (39%). The 1974-75 values were ex- 
cluded because they were unusually high and do not 
represent the expected situation for 1978. Such high 
values may have resulted from: 1) large catches being 
taken from strong year classes, and 2) apparent diversion 
of fishing effort onto that age group from older age groups 
in an attempt to maintain high levels of catch. Partial re- 
cruitment in 1978 was, therefore, predicted to be 9% at 
age 1, 39% at age 2, and 100% at ages 3 and older (Table 
14). 



sisting of 50% of the age 2 fish and 100% of the age 3 and 
older fish (Isakov 13 ; Moores M ), increased from around 
500,000 t during 1962-67 to 1.8 million t in 1970-72 before 
decreasing to 434,700 t in 1977 (Fig. 9). 

Catch and Stock Size Projections 

Under the assumption that the 1977 catch would be 
92,000 t, the total stock biomass at the beginning of 1978 
was estimated to be 468,600 t (11% decrease from 1977) 
with a spawning stock biomass of 402,500 t (7% decrease 
from 1977). Catch options for 1978 and resultant spawn- 
ing stock biomass levels in 1979 were calculated for 
values of F ranging from to 0.70 (Table 15). In the 
absence of any catch in 1978 (F = 0.00), the spawning 
stock biomass would increase about 6% from 1978 to 
428,000 t in 1979. A catch of 23,500 t (F = 0.07) would 
maintain the spawning stock in 1979 at the 1978 level. 

Table 15. — Projected Atlantic mackerel catch (metric tons) in ICNAF 
Subareas 3, 4, and 5 and Statistical Area fi in 1978 with fishing 
mortality ranging from 0.00 to 0.70, and the resulting spawning stock 
in 1079 and its percentage change from 1978. 









Spawning 


' r change in 


Fishing 


Total 


Catch in 


stock 


spawning stock 


mortality 


mortality 


1978 


in 1979 


from 1978 


(F) 


(Z) 


(10 J tons) 


(10 3 tons) 


(by weight) 


0.00 


0.30 


0.0 


428.0 


+6.3 


0.05 


0.35 


16.9 


409.6 


+ 1.8 


0.07 


0.37 


23.5 


402.5 


0.0 


0.10 


0.40 


33.0 


392.6 


-2.5 


0.15 


0.45 


48.5 


376.3 


-6.5 


0.20 


0.50 


63.2 


360.8 


-10.4 


0.25 


0.55 


77.3 


346.0 


-14.0 


0.30 


0.60 


90.8 


331.9 


-17.5 


0.35 


0.65 


103.7 


318.5 


-20.9 


0.40 


0.70 


116.0 


305.6 


-24.1 


0.45 


0.75 


127.8 


293.4 


-27.1 


0.50 


0.80 


139.0 


281.7 


-30.0 


0.55 


0.85 


149.8 


270.6 


-32.8 


0.60 


0.90 


160.1 


260.0 


-35.4 


0.65 


0.95 


170.0 


249.8 


-37.9 


0.70 


1.00 


179.5 


240.1 


-40.3 



Table 14.— Summary of parameters used in the Atlantic 
mackerel assessment. 



Parameter 


Value 


Fishing mortality in 1977 (age 4 + ) 


0.39 


Recruitment at age 1 : 1974 year class " 


2,360.0X10« 


1975 year class 


810.0X10 6 


1976 year class 


415.0X10 6 


1977 year class 


415.0X10 6 


Partial recruitment in 1978 (%): age 1 


9 


age 2 


39 


age 3 + 


100 


1978 spawning stock (10'tons) projection 


402.5 



Stock Size 

Age-specific stock size estimates generated from 
cohort analysis and summed biomass values determined 
by applying mean weights at age to these estimates are 
given in Table 12. Total stock biomass (age 1 and older) 
increased from about 600,000 1 in 1962-66 to a peak of 2.4 
million t in 1969 and then declined steadily to an esti- 
mated 524,400 t in 1977. Spawning stock biomass, con- 



Equilibrium yield calculations, assuming a constant 
level of recruitment at age 1 and partial recruitment of 9, 
39, and 100% at ages 1, 2, and 3+, respectively, indicate 
that F i = 0.40. The F 01 level, defined as the level of Fat 
which the change in yield per recruit with respect to the 
change in F is only 10% of that which would occur if the 
fishery began on the virgin stock (Gulland and Boerema 
1973), has been used recently within ICNAF as a basis for 
setting catch quotas. Fishing mortality at F _i = 0.40 
would result in a 1978 catch of 116,000 t and would 
reduce the spawning stock by 24% in 1979. 

An assessment assuming a total catch of 110,000 t in 
1977 (TAC of 105,000 plus 5,000 for the U.S. recreational 
catch) instead of 92,000 t has no significant effect on the 



,3 Isakov, V. I. 1976. On some results of biological studies on mack- 
erel from the Northwest Atlantic. Int. Comm. Northwest Atl. Fish. Res. 
Doc. 76/VI/52, Ser. No. 3838 (mimeogr.), 14 p. 

H Moores, J. A. 1976. Mackerel research in the Newfoundland area 
during 1975. Int. Comm. Northwest Atl. Fish. Res. Doc. 76AT/18, Ser. 
No. 3798 (mimeogr.), 10 p. 



11 



catch projections for 1978. The fishing mortality esti- 
mate for 1977 would be 0.435 instead of 0.39 and the pro- 
jected spawning stock biomass in 1978 would be about 
390,000 t instead of 402,500 t. A catch of about 25,000 t, 
instead of 23,500 1, could be taken in 1978 and still main- 
tain the spawning stock in 1979 at the 1978 level. 

DISCUSSION 

The accuracy of the projected catch options for 1978 
and the resultant spawning stock biomass levels in 1979 
(Table 15) is dependent upon the accuracy of the data 
and parameters used in the analysis. The variability and 
bias associated with these data and parameters are evi- 
dent. 

The U.S. recreational catches (Table 6) are estimated 
and lack any measure of accuracy or reliability, and the 
validity of the international commercial statistics is un- 
certain. The numbers at age in the catch (Table 8) were 
generated from length and age samples contributed by 
various countries, and although ICNAF established 
recommended sampling procedures, the validity of the 
samples is unknown. Anderson et al. (see footnote 11) 
found significant differences in age interpretation and 
age-length keys between countries during 1970-76, 
particularly in 1976. As indicated earlier, country age- 
length keys for 1976 were combined in an attempt to 
modulate these differences. The procedure recom- 
mended by ICNAF specifies stratified age samples, 
whereas Kimura (1977) showed that random age samples 
are more accurate. 

The U.S. bottom trawl survey data provided the basis 
for estimating the size of the recruiting year classes 
(Tables 4 and 5, Figs. 6-8) and also for predicting fishing 
mortality in 1977 (Table 2, Fig. 5). Although confidence 
limits were not given for any of these estimates, survey 
catch-per-tow data in general are subject to high vari- 
ability (Grosslein 1971), and particularly so for Atlantic 
mackerel (Anderson 1976; Sissenwine 1978) since it is a 
pelagic schooling species. Therefore, even though the 
relationships using survey catch-per-tow data to predict 
year-class sizes and fishing mortality are statistically sig- 
nificant, the predicted values are necessarily somewhat 
imprecise. 

The values for instantaneous natural mortality (M = 
0.30) and partial recruitment coefficients, although hav- 
ing a basis for being chosen, introduce additional uncer- 
tainty to the final results. 

In view of all the variability and uncertainty in the 
data, the results of this assessment must be treated with 
appropriate caution. Given the catch and stock size 
projections, fishery managers may set allowable catch 
levels for 1978 appropriate to management objectives 
which they have adopted. Since highly precise projec- 
tions are currently not available, the decision process 
should include consideration of the acceptable level of 
risk of failing to achieve management objectives. If an 
objective is to rebuild the stock by a certain percentage 
from 1978 to 1979, it may be wise to set the catch in 1978 
at a level corresponding to a greater percentage increase 



in stock size as a safety factor to guard against the prob- 
ability that the predicted stock size and recruitment 
levels are, in fact, overestimated. According to the Fish- 
ery Conservation and Management Act of 1976 enacted 
by Congress, the level of catch must consider relevant 
economic, social, or ecological factors. Since economic 
and social factors are beyond the scope of this paper, only 
ecological or biological considerations will be discussed. 
The historical relationship between Atlantic mackerel 
spawning stock and recruitment is shown in Figure 9. 
The spawning biomass estimated for 1978 is slightly 
below the 1962-67 level when, prior to the recent decade 
of intensive international fishing, catches averaged only 
about 25,000 t and stock size was relatively stable. The 
spawning biomass of about 500,000 t present in 1962-67 
produced year classes ranging from the weakest (1962-63) 
to the strongest (1967). The large spawning stocks pres- 
ent during the late 1960's-early 1970's produced both 
above- and below-average year classes. It appears that 
for Atlantic mackerel, as for most species, spawning 
stock size alone exerts little influence on the size of a year 
class unless perhaps the spawning stock is reduced to ex- 
tremely low levels. Lett and Kohler 15 found in popula- 
tion simulations of Atlantic herring, Clupea harengus, in 
the Gulf of St. Lawrence that recruitment was indepen- 
dent of spawning stock size over a fairly wide range, and 
that a stock-recruitment relationship emerged only when 
the stock was collapsing due to overfishing. Environ- 
mental factors are obviously a major influence on Atlan- 
tic mackerel year-class size, but the present state of 
knowledge concerning this influence is inadequate for 
assessment use. Consequently, it is virtually impossible 
to define an optimum or minimum spawning stock size 
at or above which level adequate recruitment can be 
predicted or below which weak recruitment is likely. 
However, since spawning stock size has continued a 
steady decline and recent year classes (1975-76) appear 
to be as weak as any observed previously, there is reason 
for concluding that the spawning stock should not be al- 
lowed to fall much below the projected 1978 level. 

LITERATURE CITED 

ANDERSON, E. D. 

1976. Measures of abundance of Atlantic mackerel off the north- 
eastern coast of the United States. Int. Comm. Northwest Atl. 
Fish. Res. Bull. 12:5-21. 

ANDERSON, E. D., and F. P. ALMEIDA. 

1977. Distribution of Atlantic mackerel in ICNAF Subarea 5 and 
Statistical Area 6 based on research vessel spring bottom trawl 
surveys, 1968-76. Int. Comm. Northwest Atl. Fish. Sel. Pap. 
2:33-44. 

CLARK. J. R. 

[1962.) The 1960 salt-water angling survey. U.S. Fish Wildl. 
Serv., Circ. 153. 36 p. 
COCHRAN, W. G. 

1953. Sampling techniques. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., N.Y.. 330 p. 



15 Lett, P.F., and A. C. Kohler. 1976. Recruitment: a problem of 
multispecies interaction and environmental perturbation with special 
reference to Gulf of St. Lawrence herring {Clupea harengus L.). Int. 
Comm. Northwest Atl. Fish. Res. Doc. 76A1/4, Ser. No. 3763 (mimeogr.), 
40 p. 



12 



DEUEL, D. G. 

1973. 1970 salt-water angling survey. U.S. Dep. Commer., 
NOAA, Natl. Mar. Fish. Serv., Curr. Fish. Stat. 6200, 54 p. 
DEUEL, D. G.. and J. R. CLARK. 

1968. The 1965 salt-water angling survey. U.S. Fish Wildl. Serv., 
Resour. Publ. 67, 51 p. 

FINNEY, D. J. 

1941. On the distribution of a variate whose logarithm is normally 
distributed. Suppl. J. R. Stat. Soc. 7(2):155-161. 
GROSSLEIN, M. D. 

1969. Groundfish survey program of BCF Woods Hole. Commer. 
Fish. Rev. 31(8-91:22-35. 

1971. Some observations on accuracy of abundance indices de- 
rived from research vessel surveys. Int. Comm. Northwest Atl. 
Fish. Redb. 1971 (Part III):249-266. 
GULLAND, J. A., and L. K. BOEREMA. 

1973. Scientific advice on catch levels. Fish. Bull., U.S. 71:325- 
335. 
INTERNATIONAL COMMISSION FOR THE NORTHWEST 
ATLANTIC FISHERIES. 

1973. Report of Standing Committee on Research and Statistics — 



June 1973. App. I. Report of Assessments Subcommittee. Ann. I. 
Report of ad hoc Mackerel Working Group. Int. Comm. North- 
west Atl. Fish. Redb. 1973 (Part I):87-94. 

1974. Report of Standing Committee on Research and Statistics — 
January 1974. App. I. Report of Assessments Subcommittee. Ann. 
I. Report of the ad hoc Mackerel Working Group. Int. Comm. 
Northwest Atl. Fish. Redb. 1974:31-36. 

1977. Report of Standing Committee on Research and Statistics — 
December 1976. App. III. Report of ad hoc Working Group on 
Mackerel. Int. Comm. Northwest Atl. Fish. Redb. 1977:25-32. 
KIMURA, D. K. 

1977. Statistical assessment of the age-length key. J. Fish. Res. 
Board Can. 34:317-324. 

POPE, J. G. 

1972. An investigation of the accuracy of virtual population analy- 
sis using cohort analysis. Int. Comm. Northwest Atl. Fish. Res. 
Bull. 9:65-74. 

SISSENWINE. M. P. 

1978. Using the USA research vessel spring bottom trawl survey as 
an index of Atlantic mackerel abundance. Int. Comm. North- 
west Atl. Fish. Sel. Pap. 3:49-55. 



13 



il US. Government Printing Ollice: 1979—698-006 111 



672. Seasonal occurrence of young Guld menhaden and other fishes in a 
northwestern Florida estuary. By Marlin E. Tagatz and E. Peter H. 
Wilkins. August 1973, iii + 14 p.. 1 fig.. 4 tables. For sale by the 
Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, 
Washington, D.C. 20402. 

673. Abundance and distribution of inshore benthic fauna off 
southwestern Long Island, NY. By Frank W. Steimle, Jr. and Richard B. 
Stone. December 1973, iii + 50 p., 2 figs., 5 app. tables. 

674. Lake Erie bottom trawl explorations, 1962-66. By Edgar W. Bow- 
man. January 1974, iv + 21 p., 9 figs., 1 table, 7 app. tables. 

675. Proceedings of the International Billfish Symposium, Kailua- 
Kona, Hawaii, 9-12 August 1972. Part 1. Report of the Symposium. 
March 1975, iii + 33 p.; Part 2. Review and contributed papers. July 
1974, iv + 355 p. (38 papers); Part 3. Species synopses. June 1975, iii + 
159 p. (8 papers). Richard S. Shomura and Francis Williams (editors). 
For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing 
Office, Washington, D.C. 20402. 

676. Price spreads and cost analyses for finfish and shellfish products at 
different marketing levels. By Erwin S. Penn. March 1974, vi + 74 p., 15 
figs^, 12 tables, 12 app. figs., 14 app. tables. For sale by the Superinten- 
dent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 
20402. 

677. Abundance of benthic macroinvertebrates in natural and altered 
estuarine areas. By Gill Gilmore and Lee Trent. April 1974, iii + 13 p., 
11 figs., 3 tables, 2 app. tables. For sale by the Superintendent 
of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 
20402. 

678. Distribution, abundance, and growth of juvenile sockeye salmon, 
Oncorhynchus nerka, and associated species in the Naknek River system, 
1961-64'. By Robert J. Ellis. September 1974, v + 53 p., 27 figs.. 26 tables. 
For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing 
Office, Washington, D.C. 20402. 



by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, 
Washington, D.C. 20402. 

686. Pink salmon, Oncorhunchus gorbuscha, tagging experiments in 
southeastern Alaska, 1938-42 and 1945. By Roy E. Nakatani, Gerald J. 
Paulik, and Richard Van Cleve. April 1975, iv + 39 p., 24 figB., 16 
tables. For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government 
Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402. 

687. Annotated bibliography on the biology of the menhadens, Genus 
Brevoortia, 1963-1973. By John W. Reintjes and Peggy M. 
Keney. April 1975, 92 p. For sale by the Superintendent of 
Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402. 

688. Effect of gas supersaturated Columbia River water on the survival 
of juvenile chinook and coho salmon. By Theodore H. Blahm, Robert J. 
McConnell, and George R. Snyder. April 1975, iii + 22 p., 8 figs., 5 
tables, 4 app. tables. For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. 
Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402. 

689. Ocean distribution of stocks of Pacific salmon, Oncorhynchus spp., 
and steelhead trout, Salmo gairdnerii, as shown by tagging experiments. 
Charts of tag recoveries by Canada, Japan, and the United States, 1956- 
69. By Robert R. French, Richard G. Bakkala, and Doyle F. Suther- 
land. June 1975, viii + 89 p., 117 figs., 2 tables. For sale by the 
Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, 
Washington, D.C. 20402. 

690. Migratory routes of adult sockeye salmon, Oncorhynchus nerka, in 
the eastern Bering Sea and Bristol Bay. By Richard R. Straty. April 
1975, iv + 32 p., 22 figs., 3 tables, 3 app. tables. For sale by the 
Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, 
Washington. D.C. 20402. 

691. Seasonal distributions of larval flatfishes (Pleuronectiformes) on 
the continental shelf between Cape Cod, Massachusetts, and Cape 
Lookout, North Carolina, 1965-66. By W. G. Smith, J. D. Sibunka, and 
A. Wells. June 1975, iv + 68 p., 72 figs., 16 tables. 



679. Kinds and abundance of zooplankton collected by the USCG 
icebreaker Glacier in the eastern Chukchi Sea, September-October 1970. 
By Bruce L. Wing. August 1974, iv + 18 p., 14 figs., 6 tables. For sale by 
the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, 
Washington, D.C. 20402. 

680. Pelagic amphipod crustaceans from the southeastern Bering Sea, 
June 1971. By Gerald A. Sanger. July 1974, iii + 8 p., 3 figs., 3 tables. For 
sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Of- 
fice. Washington, D.C. 20402. 

681. Physiological response of the cunner, Tautogolabrus adspersus, to 
cadmium. October 1974, iv + 33 p., 6 papers, various authors. For sale by 
the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, 
Washington, D.C. 20402. 

682. Heat exchange between ocean and atmosphere in the eastern 
North Pacific for 1961-71. By N. E. Clark, L. Eber, R. M. Laurs, J. A. 
Renner, and J. F. T. Saur. December 1974, iii + 108 p., 2 figs., 1 table, 5 
plates. 

683. Bioeconomic relationships for the Maine lobster fishery with con- 
sideration of alternative management schemes. By Robert L. Dow, 
Frederick W. Bell, and Donald M. Harriman. March 1975, v + 44 p., 20 
figs., 25 tables. For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. 
Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402. 

684. Age and size composition of the Atlantic menhaden, Brevoortia 
tyrarmus, purse seine catch, 1963-71, with a brief discussion of the 
fishery. By William R. Nicholson. June 1975, iv + 28 p., 1 fig., 12 
tables, 18 app. tables. For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. 
Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402. 

685. An annotated list of larval and juvenile fishes captured with sur- 
face-towed meter net in the South Atlantic Bight during four RV Dolphin 
cruises between May 1967 and February 1968. By Michael P. 
Fahay. March 1975, iv + 39 p., 19 figs., 9 tables, 1 app. table. For sale 



692. Expendable bathythermograph observations from the 
NMFS/MARAD Ship of Opportunity Program for 1972. By Steven K. 
Cook. June 1975, iv + 81 p., 81 figs. For sale by the Superintendent of 
Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402. 

693. Daily and weekly upwelling indices, west coast of North America, 
1967-73. By Andrew Bakun. August 1975, iii + 114 p., 3 figs., 6 tables. 

694. Semiclosed seawater system with automatic salinity, temperature 
and turbidity control. By Sid Kom. September 1975, iii + 5 p., 7 figs., 
1 table. 

695. Distribution, relative abundance, and movement of skipjack tuna, 
Katsuwonus pelamis, in the Pacific Ocean based on Japanese tuna long- 
line catches, 1964-67. By Walter M. Matsumoto. October 1975, iii + 
30 p., 15 figs., 4 tables. 

696. Large-scale air-sea interactions at ocean weather station V, 1951- 
71. By David M. Husby and Gunter R. Seckel. November 1975, iv + 
44 p., 11 figs., 4 tables. For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, 
U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402. 

697. Fish and hydrographic collections made by the research vessels 
Dolphin and Delaware II during 1968-72 from New York to Florida. By 
S. J. Wilk and M. J. Silverman. January 1976, iii + 159 p., 1 table. 2 
app. tables. For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. 
Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402. 

698. Summer benthic fish fauna of Sandy Hook Bay, New Jersey. By 
Stuart J. Wilk and Myron J. Silverman. January 1976, iv + 16 p., 21 
figs., 1 table, 2 app. tables. For sale by the Superintendent of 
Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402. 

699. Seasonal surface currents off the coasts of Vancouver Island and 
Washington as shown by drift bottle experiments, 1964-65. By W. 
James Ingraham, Jr. and James R. Hastings. May 1976, iii + 9 p., 4 
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NOAA Technical Report NMFS SSRF-736 

A Historical and Descriptive 
Account of Pacific Coast 
Anadromous Salmonid Rearing 
Facilities and a Summary of 
Their Releases by Region, 
1960-76 



Roy J. Wahle and Robert Z. Smith 



September 1 979 










U.S. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE 

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 

National Marine Fisheries Service 



NOAA TECHNICAL REPORTS 
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TOO. Expendable bathythermograph observations from the NMFS/ 
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701. Seasonal abundance and distribution of zooplankton, fish eggs, 
and fish larvae in the eastern Gulf of Mexico, 1972-74. By Edward D. 
Houde and Nicholas Chitty. August 1976, iii + 18 p., 14 figs., 5 tables. 

702. Length composition of yellowfin, skipjack, and bigeye tunas caught 
in the eastern tropical Atlantic by American purse seiners. By Gary T. 
Sakagawa. Atilio L. Coan, and Eugene P. Holzapfel. August 1976. iv + 
22 p., 7 figs., 7 tables, 15 app. tables. 



703. Aquacultural economics bibliography, 
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712. Annual physical and chemical oceanographic cycles of Auke Bay, 
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713. Current patterns and distribution of river waters in inner Bristol 
Bay, Alaska. By Richard R. Straty. June 1977, iii + 13 p., 16 figs., 
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714. Wind stress and wind stress curl over the California Current. By 
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figs.. 31 tables. 

705. Migration and dispersion of tagged American lobsters, Homarus 
amencanus, on the southern New England continental shelf. By Joseph 
R. Uzmann, Richard A. Cooper, and Kenneth J. Pecci. January' 1977, i 
+ 92 p., 45 figs., 2 tables, 29 app. tables. 

706. Food of western North Atlantic 'una' (Thunnus) and lancetfishes 
(Alepisaurus). By Frances D. Matthews, David M. Damkaer. Leslie W. 

Knapp, and Bruce B. Collette. January 1977. iii + 19 p., 4 figs.. 1 table, 

11 app. tables. 

707. Monthly temperature and salinity measurements of continental 
shelf waters of the northwestern Gulf of Mexico. 1963-65. By Robert F. 
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708. Catch and catch rates of fishes caught by anglers in the St. Andrew 
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tables. 

718. Surface currents as determined by drift card releases over the con- 
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719. Seasonal description of winds and surface and bottom salinities 
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711. A list of the marine mammals of the world. By Dale W. 
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721. National Marine Fisheries Service survey of trace elements in the 
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bum. March 1978. iii + 313 p., 5 tables. 3 app. figs., 1 app. table. 



NOAA Technical Report NMFS SSRF-736 



rf£2v, 




A Historical and Descriptive 
Account of Pacific Coast 
Anadromous Salmonid Rearing 
Facilities and a Summary of 
Their Releases by Region, 
1960-76 

Roy J. Wahle and Robert Z. Smith 



September 1 979 



U.S. DEPARTMENT OFCOMMERCE 

Juanita M. Kreps, Secretary 

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 

Richard A. Frank, Administrator 

National Marine Fisheries Service 

Terry L. Leitzell. Assistant Administrator tor Fisheries 



For Sale by the Superintendent of Documents. U.S. Government Printing Office 
Washington. DC. 20402 - Stock No. 003-017-00460-1 



The National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) does not approve, rec- 
ommend or endorse any proprietary product or proprietary material 
mentioned in this publication. No reference shall be made to NMFS, or 
to this publication furnished by NMFS, in any advertising or sales pro- 
motion which would indicate or imply that NMFS approves, recommends 
or endorses any proprietary product or proprietary material mentioned 
herein, or which has as its purpose an intent to cause directly or indirectly 
the advertised product to be used or purchased because of this NMFS 
publication. 






CONTENTS 



Page 



Introduction 1 

Interpretation and organization 1 

History 2 

Pacific coast 3 

Alaska 3 

British Columbia 6 

Washington coastal and Puget Sound 7 

Columbia Basin 11 

Columbia Basin-Washington 11 

Columbia Basin-Idaho 13 

Columbia Basin-Oregon 16 

Oregon coastal 18 

California 22 

Hatchery trends 26 

Hatchery numbers 26 

Species reared 30 

Rearing trends 30 

Size at time of release 33 

Acknowledgments 34 

Literature cited 34 

Appendix Table 1 35 

Appendix Table 2 40 

Figures 

1. Map of locations of Alaskan salmonid rearing facilities, 1960-76 5 

2. Map of locations of British Columbian salmonid rearing facilities, 1960-76 8 

3. Map of locations of Washington-Puget Sound salmonid rearing facilities, 1960-76 12 

4. Map of locations of Washington coastal salmonid rearing facilities, 1960-76 14 

5. Columbia Basin regions 16 

6. Map of locations of Columbia Basin- Washington salmonid rearing facilities, 1960-76 20 

7. Map of locations of Columbia Basin-Idaho salmonid rearing facilities, 1960-76 23 

8. Map of locations of Columbia Basin-Oregon salmonid rearing facilities, 1960-76 25 

9. Map of locations of northern Oregon coastal salmonid rearing facilities, 1960-76 27 

10. Map of locations of southern Oregon coastal salmonid rearing facilities, 1960-76 28 

11. Map of locations of northern California salmonid rearing facilities, 1960-76 31 

12. Number of Pacific coast salmonid rearing facilities releasing anadromous salmonids by year, 
1960-76 32 

13. Numbers of Pacific coast releases of chinook and coho salmon and steelhead trout (in millions) 32 

14. Average size of various species of Pacific coast anadromous salmonid releases (all species combined), 
1960-76 33 

15. Total Pacific coast migrant anadromous salmonid releases (all species combined), 1960-76 34 

Tables 

1. Migrant releases of chinook and coho salmon and steelhead trout — Pacific coast 3 

2. Migrant releases of chum, pink, sockeye, and cherry salmon and sea-run cutthroat trout — Pacific 

coast 3 

3. Anadromous fish rearing facilities — Alaska, 1960-76 4 

4. Migrant releases of chinook and coho salmon — Alaska 6 

5. Anadromous fish rearing facilities — British Columbia, 1960-76 7 

6. Migrant releases of chinook and coho salmon and steelhead trout — British Columbia 9 

7. Anadromous fish rearing facilities — Washington coastal and Puget Sound, 1960-76 9 

8. Migrant releases of chinook and coho salmon and steelhead trout — Washington coastal and Puget 
Sound 15 



9. Migrant releases of chum, pink, sockeye, and cherry salmon and sea-run cutthroat trout — Wash- 
ington coastal and Puget Sound 15 

10. Migrant releases of chinook and coho salmon and steelhead trout — Columbia Basin 17 

11. Migrant releases of chum, sockeye, and cherry salmon and sea-run cutthroat trout — Columbia 

Basin 17 

12. Migrant releases of chinook and coho salmon and steelhead trout — Pacific coast by Columbia River 
Development Program hatcheries, 1960-76 .....' 18 

13. Migrant releases of chum and cherry salmon and sea-run cutthroat trout — Pacific coast by Columbia 

River Development Program hatcheries, 1960-76 18 

14. Anadromous fish rearing facilities — Columbia Basin-Washington, 1960-76 19 

15. Migrant releases of chinook and coho salmon and steelhead trout — Columbia Basin-Washington .... 21 

16. Migrant releases of chum, sockeye, and cherry salmon and sea-run cutthroat trout — Columbia Basin- 
Washington 21 

17. Anadromous fish rearing facilities — Columbia Basin-Idaho 1960-76 22 

18. Migrant releases of chinook salmon and steelhead trout — Columbia Basin-Idaho 24 

19. Anadromous fish rearing facilities — Columbia Basin-Oregon, 1960-76 24 

20. Migrant releases of chinook and coho salmon and steelhead trout — Columbia Basin r Oregon 26 

21. Migrant releases of chum salmon and sea-run cutthroat trout — Columbia Basin-Oregon 26 

22. Anadromous fish rearing facilities — Oregon coastal, 1960-76 29 

23. Migrant releases of chinook and coho salmon and steelhead and sea-run cutthroat trout — Oregon 
coastal 29 

24. Anadromous fish rearing facilities — California, 1960-76 30 

25. Migrant releases of chinook and coho salmon and steelhead and sea-run cutthroat trout — Cali- 
fornia 32 



A Historical and Descriptive Account of Pacific 

Coast Anadromous Salmonid Rearing Facilities and 

a Summary of Their Releases by Region, 1960-76 

ROY J. WAHLE and ROBERT Z. SMITH 1 



ABSTRACT 

A brief history of the artificial culture of salmonid fishes in North America is presented. The 
report contains a Pacific coast section followed by sections for each of six major regions on the coast: 
Alaska, British Columbia, Washington coastal and Puget Sound, Columbia Basin, Oregon coastal, 
and California. The Columbia Basin is further divided into three subregions. The Pacific coast section 
provides information on current production of anadromous salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) and trout 
{Salmo spp.). Each regional or subregional section contains a short history and background, a map 
with current rearing facilities located, a general hatchery information table, and migrant release 
tables summarized by species. In the final portion of the report, changes in numbers of facilities, 
species reared, rearing techniques, and size at time of release are discussed. 



INTRODUCTION 

When the report on the "Releases of Anadromous 
Salmon and Trout from Pacific Coast Rearing Facilities, 
1960 to 1973" by Roy J. Wahle, William D. Parente, 
Paula J. Jurich, and Robert R. Vreeland (1975) was 
published, it had three main objectives: 1) to provide 
past and present trends in artificial production of Pacif- 
ic coast anadromous fish, 2) to supply base information 
needed for analysis of production practices, and 3) to 
bring together in a single source, detailed release informa- 
tion from all anadromous fish rearing facilities in Alaska, 
British Columbia, Washington, Idaho, Oregon, and Cali- 
fornia. In fulfilling these objectives, it was necessary for 
Wahle et al. (1975) to be very detailed. We have pre- 
pared this summary report to provide the reader with a 
more readily usable, quick reference to anadromous fish 
production on the Pacific coast, Alaska to California, 
from 1960 to 1976. 

In addition to a section on interpretation and organ- 
ization, this report includes a general history section cov- 
ering artificial salmonid propagation in North America. 
The history is followed by a coast-wide summary and 
sections for Alaska, British Columbia, Washington 
coastal and Puget Sound, Columbia Basin, Oregon 
coastal, and California. The last portion of this report 
deals with hatchery production trends. These include 
changes in numbers of hatcheries, species reared, rearing 
techniques, and the size of fish at time of release. 

The two appendix tables have been provided to allow 
maximum use of the informational tables in each 
regional section. Appendix Table 1 has an alphabetized 
list of Pacific coast rearing facilities along with the region 
for each. This table can be used as an index for locating 



'Environmental and Technical Services Division, National Marine 
Fisheries Service, NOAA, 811 NE. Oregon Street, P.O. Box 4332, Port- 
land. OR 97208. 



individual facilities in the report. Appendix Table 2 con- 
tains information on all State, Federal, or Provincial 
agencies rearing anadromous fish on the Pacific coast. It 
includes addresses, phone numbers, and people to con- 
tact with each of these agencies. 

The Columbia Basin, containing portions of Washing- 
ton, Idaho, and Oregon, has been handled separately be- 
cause of: 1) the large geographical area drained by a com- 
mon river system; 2) the constant interaction of diverse 
resource agencies and interested user groups; 3) the need 
for evaluation of production and habitat improvement 
measures within the Basin; and 4) the contribution and 
value of Columbia Basin anadromous salmonids to Pa- 
cific coast fisheries. 

Each regional section includes a short history and 
background, a map with the facilities located, a general 
hatchery information table, and a release summary 
table. The general information table lists the approxi- 
mate location, species reared, operating and funding 
agencies, year of construction, and the operational status 
in 1976 for the facilities in each region. 

Unless otherwise cited, all historical information on 
early hatcheries has been based on Cobb (1931). One 
area of possible confusion to the reader concerns the use 
of agencies "names." During the years fish have been 
artificially propagated in the United States, many of the 
agencies concerned have undergone name changes. In 
this report, we have attempted to use agency names as 
taken from the literature rather than the names that may 
be in current use. 

INTERPRETATION AND ORGANIZATION 

Six species of salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) and two of 
anadromous trout (Salmo spp.) are included in this 
report. Because of their current economic and rec- 
reational importance, the primary species considered are 
chinook, 0. tshawytcha, and coho, 0. kisutch, salmon, 



and steelhead trout, S. gairdneri. The other species: 
chum, 0. keta, pink, 0. gorbusha, sockeye, 0. nerka, and 
cherry, 0. masu, salmon, and sea-run cutthroat trout, S. 
clarki, are presently reared on a limited basis and are in- 
cluded only if they were raised in the region being con- 
sidered. 

We have further divided chinook salmon into three 
races (spring, summer, and fall) and steelhead trout into 
two races (summer and winter). These designations are 
commonly used by all fisheries agencies rearing anadro- 
mous salmonids and are based for the most part on the 
season during which the adult fish return to freshwater. 
Rearing periods differ among the races of chinook 
salmon. 

Releases of fish included in Wahle et al. (1975) were 
divided into two categories: migrants and submigrants. 
This was done to separate production releases from those 
necessitated by reducing numbers of fish to achieve 
"optimum" pond capacity levels. The definitions used 
were based on the best available knowledge of the ideal 
size at release for obtaining the greatest immediate sea- 
ward migration, but were not used as hard and fast rules. 
Exceptions were made in special cases if it was felt that a 
group of fish belonged in a different category than indi- 
cated by the definition. 

The migrant and submigrant classifications used in 
this report should not be confused with the terms "fry," 
"fingerling," and "yearling" that we have included in the 
various history sections. "Fry" normally refers to fish re- 
leased without any rearing, as soon as the yolk sac has 
been absorbed. "Fingerlings" can refer to any number of 
different sizes depending on the author and the species. 
Often "fry" and "fingerlings" refer to fish we would call 
submigrants. "Yearlings" in the historical literature 
normally refers to fish reared for a year in the hatchery 
before release. Depending on species, we might call these 
fish migrants. 

As reported by Wahle et al. (1975), our definitions of 
migrants for each species are: 

Spring and summer chinook salmon — those released 

after 12 mo of rearing or larger than 30/lb (15.1 g/fish). 
Fall chinook salmon — those released after 90 days of 

rearing or larger than 300/lb (1.5 g/fish). 
Coho salmon — those released after 12 mo of rearing or 

larger than 30/lb (15.1 g/fish). 
Pink and chum salmon— those released after any period 

of feeding at the rearing facility. 
Steelhead and sea-run cutthroat trout— those released 

after 12 mo of rearing or larger than 10/lb (45.4 g/fish). 

Migrant criteria for sockeye and cherry salmon were not 
presented in Wahle et al. (1975). For those species, we 
have relied on the hatcheries or agencies involved to indi- 
cate whether each release was migrant in nature. 

We define submigrants as those releases that do not 
meet migrant specifications. In the case of pink and 
chum salmon, submigrants would be any unfed fry 
released. 



Data for this report was obtained from Wahle et al. 
(1975) and the appropriate State, Federal, and Canadian 
fishery management agencies. 

HISTORY 

Artificial propagation of salmonids began in North 
America in the mid-1800's. Theodatus Garlick of Cleve- 
land, Ohio, in conjunction with H. A. Ackley, Success- 
fully artificially bred brook trout, Saluelinus fontinalis 
(Milner 1874). The first hatchery in North America was 
established by Seth Green at Mumford, N.Y., in 1864, 
and the first anadromous fish hatchery was built in New 
Castle, Canada, in 1866 for the purpose of taking Atlan- 
tic salmon, Salmo salar, eggs (Atkins 1874). 

In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, efforts were 
made by Federal and various State commissions to intro- 
duce Pacific coast salmon into eastern waters. In 1872, 
Livingston Stone was sent to California by the U.S. Com- 
mission of Fish and Fisheries to obtain salmon eggs for 
shipment to the east coast. He established the first Pacif- 
ic fish cultural station in 1872 on the McCloud River, 
named after the then Commissioner of Fisheries, Spencer 
F. Baird. While the main purpose of this station was the 
shipment of eggs east, the Commission made a coopera- 
tive agreement with the State of California in which the 
State furnished part of the operating expense money in 
return for the station's releasing native fingerlings into 
the McCloud River. Eggs taken for shipment were kept 
in baskets at the hatchery until the eyes of the embryo 
were visible. They were then packed in moss, crated, and 
taken by stagecoach to Red Bluff, Calif. From there, they 
traveled by train to San Francisco and then on to the east 
coast. To assure the survival of the eggs, it was necessary 
to continually dampen the moss in which they were 
packed. In the first year of operation, 50,000 eggs were 
taken, but 20,000 were lost due to difficulties experienced 
in keeping the eggs cool prior to shipment. The re- 
maining 30,000 eggs were shipped east and from these 
7,000 fry were planted in Pennsylvania's Susquehanna 
River (Stone 1874). 

Before the attempts to transplant Pacific salmon to 
the eastern United States were discontinued, Pacific 
coast salmon had been planted in a large number of ma- 
jor streams on the Atlantic coast, in the Mississippi 
drainage, and in the Great Lakes. Some of these trans- 
plants were moderately successful. From approximately 
10,000 chinook salmon fingerlings planted in Lake 
Quinsigamond, Mass., 600 fish weighing between 0.68 
and 2.27 kg were caught. Early plants of pink salmon in 
selected New England streams also met with some suc- 
cess. A female pink salmon weighing approximately 1.9 
kg was taken in the Penobscot River. Most of these trans- 
plants resulted in failures as the selected waters were 
either too warm or too turbid for salmon to survive. The 
few runs that did become established either had so few 
returnees that they were not self sustaining or fishermen 
caught all the fish (Cobb 1931). 

These early efforts at transplanting fish created a large 
demand for eggs. This demand resulted in construction 



of hatcheries in all the Pacific Coast States. After a short 
time, the taking of eggs for transportation became sec- 
ondary to augmenting runs in Pacific coast streams by 
rearing and releasing the fish (Stone 1874). From these 
beginnings emerged the Pacific coast salmon rearing in- 
dustry. 

PACIFIC COAST 

With today's increasing use of the fishery resource and 
the continuing degradation of the environment necessary 
for proper spawning and freshwater rearing of anadro- 
mous salmonids, it has become necessary to augment 
natural production if we are to maintain viable sport and 



commercial fisheries. From 1960 through 1976 a total of 
189 facilities, including 120 hatcheries and 69 rearing 
ponds and net pens, have made production releases for at 
least 1 yr. During this period, 3.44 billion migrant salm- 
on and steelhead trout weighing over 105 million lb (47.6 
million kg) have been released (Tables 1, 2). Annual mi- 
grant production of all species increased from 152 million 
fish weighing 1.7 million lb (0.77 million kg) at release in 
1960 to 294 million fish weighing 11.1 million lb (5.03 
million kg) in 1976. 

Alaska 

Most early Alaska hatcheries were located in the 



Table 1.— Migrant releases of chinook and coho salmon and steelhead trout— Pacific coast 1 (in thousands). 





Fall chinook 


Spring ( 
Number 


:hinook 
Pounds 


Summer chinook 
Number Pounds 


Coho 


Winter steelhead 
Number Pounds 


Summers 
Number 


teelhead 


year 


Number 


Pounds" 


Number 


Pounds 


Pounds 


1960 


117.680.3 


556.6 


7,636.3 


228.8 


0.0 


0.0 


14,490.7 


444.3 


2,593.5 


315.2 


233.0 


310 


1961 


103,220.8 


672.7 


5,315.2 


197.9 


0.0 


0.0 


26,148.8 


864.6 


2,522.8 


314.6 


674.5 


97.3 


1962 


86,121.5 


544.5 


5,690.7 


244.8 


0.0 


0.0 


27,333.4 


995.8 


3,509.1 


390.5 


723.8 


73.4 


1963 


99,806.7 


658.9 


9,421.1 


370.1 


0.0 


0.0 


30,987.2 


1,123.5 


2,922.8 


332.9 


1,336.4 


146.8 


1964 


106,684.2 


752.1 


13,963.7 


499.8 


0.0 


0.0 


30,275.5 


1,309.0 


4,221.9 


556.6 


1,784.5 


221.0 


1965 


95,918.6 


740.6 


7,302.7 


303.7 


0.0 


0.0 


34,746.8 


1,516.8 


4,216.2 


536.5 


1,660.4 


185.2 


1966 


95,712.4 


891.7 


11,645.7 


477.1 


0.0 


0.0 


40,422.2 


1,931.2 


6,166.6 


829.x 


1,770.2 


223.3 


1967 


96,386.1 


885.8 


14,063.7 


644.6 


0.0 


0.0 


40,276.6 


2,059.9 


5,784.1 


774.2 


3,316.5 


401.2 


1968 


112,534.2 


1,174.8 


13,877.8 


863.3 


2,138.3 


13.6 


38,371.4 


2,119.1 


6,077.0 


828.6 


4,860.0 


580.0 


1969 


124,125.1 


1,266.4 


10,392.1 


804.6 


2,121.3 


20.2 


47,988.0 


2,814.4 


6,380.0 


886.1 


4,814.1 


593.9 


1970 


137.757.4 


1,603.8 


16,879.7 


1,478.1 


4,228.2 


35.4 


48,209.4 


2,751.3 


7,101.9 


1,047.7 


6,795.4 


1,041.3 


1971 


168,388.9 


1,706.2 


14,726.1 


1,151.0 


2,184.5 


37.0 


51,182.3 


3,039.6 


8,733.5 


1,090.6 


8,143.4 


1,091.5 


1972 


166,678.2 


2,019.1 


16,546.0 


1,401.3 


2,604.9 


42.6 


58,858.9 


3,772.7 


9,247.3 


1,263.9 


6,399.9 


998.7 


1973 


162,515.8 


2,266.4 


17,604.5 


1,761.6 


2,312.6 


34.3 


53.400.0 


3,178.5 


8,680.1 


1,243.3 


8,111.9 


972.5 


1974 


149.968.2 


2,504.4 


16,506.1 


1,353.1 


1,202.8 


43.0 


56.580.9 


3,453.1 


8,060.6 


1,088.7 


10,048.1 


1,285.3 


1975 


157.707.6 


2,554.7 


21,389.5 


1.848.6 


120.8 


3.1 


60,936.3 


3,854.5 


7,376.7 


1,067.2 


7,126.3 


1,068.1 


1976 


163.110.3 
2.144,316.3 


2,775.9 
23,574.6 


22.462.0 
225.422.9 


1,974.0 
15,602.4 


880.5 


42.7 

271.9 


62,928.3 
723.136.7 


3,710.3 
38,938.6 


8,895.7 
102,489.8 


1,360.6 
13,926.3 


7,043.2 
74,841.6 


1,035.2 


Total 


17,793.9 


10,045.7 



'Data derived from Wahle et al. (1975) prior to 1974 and from appropriate State, Federal, and Provincial records thereafter. 
-1 lb = 0.454 kg. 



Table 2.— Migrant releases of chum, pink, sockeye, and cherry salmon and sea-run cutthroat trout- 
coast 1 (in thousands). 



Pacific 





< 'hum 


Pink 


Soc 


keye 


Cherry 


Sea-run 
Number 


cutthroat 


year 


Number 


Pounds- 


Number 


Pounds 


Number 


Pounds 


Number 


Pounds 


Pounds 


1960 


5,031.6 


8.8 


555.5 


2.5 


3,177.0 


69.2 


0.0 


0.0 


155.4 


42.8 


1961 


4,774.1 


13.0 


0.0 


0.0 


2,788.0 


72.5 


0.0 


0.0 


189.4 


52.6 


1962 


1,859.3 


4.6 


145.7 


0.5 


2,224.0 


43.8 


0.0 


0.0 


292.0 


77.6 


1963 


5,454.4 


9.3 


0.0 


0.0 


3,125.4 


67.8 


0.0 


0.0 


139.8 


48.0 


1964 


3,358.5 


6.9 


525.3 


0.9 


3,364.0 


58.8 


0.0 


0.0 


258.7 


64.3 


1965 


3,116.7 


5.8 


0.0 


0.0 


3,301.0 


73.6 


0.0 


0.0 


231.9 


52.4 


1966 


1,785.4 


6.0 


421.0 


1.3 


73.0 


1.6 


0.0 


0.0 


395.9 


95.3 


1967 


1,827.0 


6.4 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


554.2 


128.7 


1968 


1,264.3 


3.7 


602.8 


1.4 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


561.6 


121.3 


1969 


2,448.0 


5.8 


0.0 


0.0 


23.4 


0.7 


0.0 


0.0 


531.9 


126.3 


1970 


1,563.0 


4.4 


774.9 


2.4 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


639.5 


139.8 


1971 


3,839.6 


9.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


815.6 


169.1 


1972 


5,624.2 


17.2 


1,957.9 


5.1 


2.5 


( 3 ) 


0.0 


0.0 


491.8 


122.0 


1973 


6,565.5 


20.5 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


26.1 


3.2 


585.9 


151.8 


1974 


10,012.1 


34.1 


1,211.9 


3.5 


0.0 


0.0 


44.4 


4.3 . 


462.3 


112.4 


1975 


29,637.5 


88.2 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


1.0 


0.1 


471.8 


118.2 


1976 


23,779.9 


86.6 


4,850.4 


8.7 


16.2 


0.6 


0.5 


0.1 


496.9 


132.5 


Total 


111,941.1 


330.3 


11,045.4 


26.3 


18,094.5 


388.6 


72.0 


7.7 


7,274.6 


1,755.1 



'Data derived from Wahle et al. (1975) prior to 1974 and from appropriate State, Federal, and Provincial records 
thereafter. 
z l lb = 0.454 kg. 
'Less than 100 lb. 



southeastern part of the State. They were funded by fish 
canneries and reared primarily sockeye salmon. The first 
hatchery in the State was a co-op built in 1891 by sev- 
eral canneries in Karluk, Kodiak Island. This was not an 
auspicious beginning for salmon culture in Alaska as the 
hatchery stopped production after only 1 yr because of 
violent disagreements among the canneries' personnel 
over fishing rights in the area. 

By the early 1900's private hatcheries were in opera- 
tion on Kodiak, Kuiu, Baranof, Etolin, Revillagigedo, 
Chichagof, and Prince of Wales Islands, as well as on the 
mainland. These facilities operated for varying periods of 
time through 1936. The world's largest and most costly 
facility to that time, the Fortmann Hatchery, was con- 
structed in 1901 by the Alaska Packer's Association at 
Loring, Revillagigedo Island. It had a capacity of 
hatching 110 million eggs. 

From 1893, when records were first kept, to 1912, re- 
leases of fry increased from 600,000 to a maximum of 156 
million, and then declined to 32.5 million in 1936 when 
the last facility closed. During the peak years, from 1905 
to 1912, the private hatchery annual releases averaged 
over 106 million fish. Although most of the fish were 
sockeye, a few pink salmon were released from several of 
the facilities. 

Until 1900, the operation of private hatcheries was vol- 
untary. Thereafter, a Congressional Act required salm- 
on canning companies in Alaska to operate hatcheries 
and, each year, release four sockeye salmon fry for each 
adult salmon of any species taken during the previous 
year. In addition, the companies were required to keep 
records of the numbers of fish spawned, eggs taken, per- 
centage hatched, fry planted, and release locations. In 
1902, the release ratio was increased to 10 fry for each 
salmon taken. Most companies either ignored the re- 
quirement or found it impossible to follow. Because of 
this, the regulation was modified in 1906 to reduce li- 
cense fees and taxes for complying companies. 

In 1905, the U.S. Bureau of Fisheries erected Alaska's 
first Federal hatchery on Yes Bay near Ketchikan. This 
station, along with another Bureau hatchery on Afognak 
Bay, Afognak Island, hatched and released primarily 
sockeye salmon along with a few pinks, coho, and steel- 
head trout fry. Numbers of fish released ranged from 6 
million in 1906 to 142 million in 1910 and then declined 



to 22 million in 1928. In addition, these two hatcheries 
shipped at least 150 million eyed eggs to Oregon, Wash- 
ington, and the New England States including Maine, as 
well as the Province of British Columbia. The two hatch- 
eries operated until 1933 when, because of the De- 
pression, funding at Federal hatcheries was cut by 40%. 
All over the country, rearing programs were cut back and 
nine hatcheries, including the two in Alaska, were shut 
down (Leach and James 1934). 

Little effort other than some experiments with 
planting eyed eggs was expended on anadromous salmon- 
id production between 1936 and 1955. In 1955, the Deer 
Mountain Hatchery at Ketchikan hatched and reared 
coho and sockeye salmon. Some of the eggs for these 
plants, as well as those for some chinook salmon plants in 
1965-66, came from the Green River in Washington. A 
hatchery near Fairbanks and the Deer Mountain Hatch- 
ery, as well as one operated on the Karluk River by a 
sports group, released fall chinook salmon and steelhead 
trout during the late 1950's. Fire Lake Hatchery, near 
Anchorage, opened in 1956. While this facility mainly 
reared trout for planting into lakes for resident fisheries, 
steelhead trout were also included in its program. Be- 
sides releasing a small number of steelhead trout fry, the 
hatchery also supplied eggs to the Fairbanks facility. All 
these hatcheries except Fire Lake have ceased anadro- 
mous rearing operations. Since 1960, one additional 
hatchery, Crystal Lake, and four experimental rearing 
facilities (one rearing pond and three saltwater net pens) 
have become operational (Table 3). Of the six, five are 
operated by the Alaska Department of Fish and Game 
(ADFG) and one by the National Marine Fisheries Serv- 
ice (NMFS). Four are located in southeastern Alaska and 
two are near Anchorage (Fig. 1). 

In addition to these rearing stations, ADFG also oper- 
ates several chum and pink salmon incubation facilities 
which release unfed fry. One, Kitoi Bay Hatchery on 
Afognak Island, has been in operation since 1953 and has 
also released large numbers of sockeye salmon fry. Others 
have been constructed in the past 3 yr by ADFG Fisher- 
ies Rehabilitation Enhancement and Development 
(FRED) Division using special monies appropriated by 
the State legislature. These incubation stations are being 
built to offset dramatic drops in Alaska's fish stocks 
(Alaska Department of Fish and Game 1976). 



Tabic .'!.— Anadromous fish rearing facilities— Alaska, 1960-76. 









Operating 


Species reared 


Anadromous 


Year anadromous 




Facility 




General location 


agency ' 


during year span - 


releases in 


1976 


operation began 


Funding agency' 


Hatcheries 


















Crystal Lake 




Petersburg 


ADFG 


sc. co, sh 


Yes 




1972 


ADFG. Anadromous 
Fish Act 3 


Fire Lake 




Anchorage 


ADFG 


sc. CO 


Yes 




1956 


ADFG 


Ponds and net pens 


















Halibut Cove Lagoon net pen 


Homer 


ADFG 


sc. CO 


Yes 




1972 


ADFG 


Little Port Walter net 


pen 


S.E. Baranof Island 


NMFS 


sc. co, sk 


Yes 




1967 


NMFS 


Mendenhall Pond 




Juneau 


ADFG 


sc. co 


Yes 




1972 


ADFG 


Starrigavan net pens 




Sitka 


ADFG 


SC. CO 


Yes 




1971 


ADFG 



ADFG = Alaska Department of Fish and Game. NMFS = National Marine Fisheries Service, 
-sc = spring chinook salmon, co = coho salmon, sh = steelhead trout, sk = sockeye salmon. 
- Fish and Wildlife Service monies. 



WHITEHORSE 




Map Facility 
No- 



1 Halibut Cove 

2 Fire Lake 

3 Mendenhal I Pond 

4 Starngavin Net- Pens 

5 Little Port Walter 

6 Crystal Lake 



V 




80 160 
i i i 

Scale in Kilometers 



LOCATION MAP 



Figure 1.— Map of locations of Alaskan salmonid rearing facilities, 1960-76. 



The State legislature also appropriated monies to be 
used to finance nonprofit, low-interest, State-secured 
loans for fish culture. The initial facilities built with 
these funds are still in the developmental stage. Re- 
leases made from both these private facilities and the 
FRED Division incubation stations are not included in 
this report because they normally consist of unfed fry. 

Presently, the two agencies rearing fish in Alaska are 
concentrating on chinook and coho salmon (Table 4). 
Since a large majority of the chinook salmon plants have 
resulted from eggs taken from native stocks which closely 
approximate the spring race as we have defined it, we 
have called all of the chinook salmon plants spring 
chinook. 

In 10 yr, releases of migrant chinook salmon went from 
a meager 400 fish weighing 4 lb (1.8 kg) to almost 600,000 
fish weighing 33,000 lb (15,000 kg) in 1974. Coho salmon 
have also increased, from 171,000 migrants weighing 
9,000 lb (4,000 kg) released in 1968 to approximately 1 
million migrants weighing 50,000 lb (27,700 kg) in 1974. 

Five of the Alaskan rearing facilities presently oper- 
ating are noteworthy. The first of these, Fire Lake Hatch- 
ery, is actually a complex made up of a main hatchery 
and satellite ponds located at nearby Ft. Richardson and 
Elmendorf Air Force Base. These ponds are unique as 
they are the only ones currently using condenser cooling 
water heated as a byproduct during the thermal gener- 
ation of electricity. This free supply of warm water allows 
fish to easily reach migrant size in an area were extreme 
weather conditions and cold-water temperatures would 
normally necessitate the use of expensive heating equip- 
ment to achieve similar growth. 

Little Port Walter is a NMFS Research Station which 
was established in the late 1930's. It was expanded to in- 
Table 4. — Migrant releases of chinook. coho, and sockeye salmon and 
steelhead Irout— Alaska' (in thousands). 

















Winter 


Release 


Spring c 
No. 


hinook 
Lb. 2 


Coho 


Sockeye 
No. Lb. 


steelt 
No. 


lead 


year 


No. 


Lb. 


Lb. 


1960 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


1961 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


1962 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


1963 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


1964 


0.4 


1 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


1965 


8.8 


0.3 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


1966 


166.9 


1.7 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


1967 


538.3 


11.6 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


I'.O 


0.0 


1968 


82.4 


2.8 


171.7 


8.9 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


1969 


95.9 


5.7 


187.4 


13.8 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


1970 


45.7 


1.6 


227.0 


21.5 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


1971 


217.4 


11.6 


92.7 


6.5 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


1972 


71.8 


3.8 


309.7 


20.1 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


1973 


177.3 


11.0 


143.3 


15.9 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


1974 


598.8 


33.3 


969 i 


50.1 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


1975 


154.8 


6.9 


1,032.1 


72.1 


0.0 


0.0 


17.5 


0.6 


1976 


225.7 


9.7 


930.6 


48.1 


16.2 


0.6 


16.5 


1.4 


Total 


2.384.2 


100.0 


4.063.5 


257.0 


16.2 


0.6 


34.0 


2.0 



Derived from Wahle et al. (1975) prior to 1974 and from Alaska De- 
partment of Fish and Game and National Marine Fisheries Service 
release reocrds thereafter. 

-1 lb = 0.454 kg. 

'<100 lb. 



elude saltwater net pen rearing of coho salmon in the 
mid-1960's. The net pens are suspended from a floating 
platform anchored near the shore of a small saltwater 
bay. The salinities of the net pens are controlled using 
freshwater piped from nearby Sashin Creek. To obtain 
the initial supply of coho salmon for rearing, fingerlings 
were seined from the bay and placed in the pens. After 
migrating to the ocean, the adult fish return to the area 
of the net pens where they are trapped and spawned. 

The Starrigavan net pens are patterned after the Little 
Port Walter facility. They are anchored in the bay near 
Sitka. Like its prototype, the facility pipes water from a 
nearby creek to control salinity. Local and Crystal Lake 
Hatchery coho salmon fry were initially reared. As they 
become more available, endemic stocks are replacing 
those from Crystal Lake. 

Halibut Cove is the saltwater net pen facility south- 
west of Anchorage. It is also an offshoot of the Little Port 
Walter and Starrigavan facilities. Rearing salmon in this 
near Arctic environment is challenging because the 
lagoon freezes in the winter and the water temperature 
drops to -2 C C (18°F). Freshwater from a nearby lake is 
available only during the warmer months. There are no 
local salmon stocks available and no hatching facilities 
on the site, so Fire Lake chinook and coho salmon fry are 
brought in for rearing. 

Mendenhall Rearing Pond is located just off the 
Mendenhall River near Juneau. It is supplied with water 
from the melting Mendenhall Glacier. This pond is cov- 
ered by ice each year from October to May so fish can be 
fed only during the warmer months. During the winter, 
water under the ice must be aerated with an electric 
pump. Coho salmon eggs are obtained from returns to 
the rearing pond. Because of the cold water, eggs taken 
from Mendenhall Pond are transferred to Crystal Lake 
Hatchery near Petersburg for hatching. The fry are then 
brought back to the pond for rearing and release. 

British Columbia 

The program of anadromous fish propagation in 
British Columbia began in 1884 with the establishment 
of a hatchery on the Fraser River near the town of New 
Westminster. From 1901 through the mid-1930's addi- 
tional facilities were constructed and operated by the 
Provincial government and private fisheries organiza- 
tions on the Finger and Skeena Rivers, at Rivers Inlet, 
and on Vancouver Island. As in Alaska, all of these 
hatcheries concentrated on sockeye salmon production, 
but also intermittently hatched a few chum, coho, 
chinook, and pink salmon. All fish were released as fry. 
From 1885 to 1927 more than 2 billion sockeye salmon 
fry were released. 

The operation of hatcheries decreased and then finally 
stopped completely in the late 1930's due to the De- 
pression and the outbreak of World War II. Nothing was 
done on a production basis again until 1967 when a pilot 
project began at the newly constructed Big Qualicum 
Hatchery on Vancouver Island. At present, Canadian 
Fisheries and Marine Services (CFMS) operates six fa- 



cilities in British Columbia (Table 5). Five of these are 
on Vancouver Island and the sixth, Capilano, is on the 
mainland just north of the city of Vancouver (Fig. 2). 

Hatchery emphasis has been placed on fall chinook 
and coho salmon (Table 6) rather than sockeye salmon 
as was the case in the early years. In 9 yr (1968-76) fall 
chinook salmon migrant releases have increased twenty- 
fold (from 147,000 to 30 million fish). Coho salmon re- 
leases also increased, from almost 70,000 migrants in 
1970 to over 2.3 million in 1976. In addition, the CFMS 
has begun a steelhead trout rearing program with the 
first migrant fish released in 1973 and has been experi- 
menting with summer chinook salmon. 

While numbers and pounds released by British Colum- 
bia hatcheries each year have been small when compared 
with the production of the large Columbia River com- 
plexes, results have been encouraging. To date, the most 
dramatic success has been the survival of the 1971-brood 
coho salmon released from Capilano hatchery. Of 284,000 
fish released, there was a return of 2,700 jacks (fish re- 
turning as 2-yr olds) in 1973 and 37,000 adults in 1974. 
This is a hatchery return of almost 14%. In addition, 
these fish contributed heavily in the fishery, exhibiting a 
1:1 catch to escapement ratio. The total survival for this 
brood of fish was almost 28%. 2 

It is interesting to note that of the six CFMS facilities, 
three began as spawning channels. All three of these have 
either been modified to include rearing facilities or have 
been converted to hatcheries. Big Qualicum Hatchery 
originally had two spawning channels; one is still being 
used for that purpose for chum salmon and the other has 
been converted to a rearing channel. Puntledge and 
Robertson Creek were unsuccessful as spawning channels 
primarily due to unsuitable water supplied during egg 
incubation. After several years of operation with poor 
results, the two facilities were converted to hatcheries. 

Washington Coastal and Puget Sound 

The Baker Lake Hatchery built in 1896 by the State of 
Washington on a tributary of the Skagit River, was the 
State's first facility located outside the Columbia River 



"K. Sandercock, Department of Environment, Fisheries and Marine 
Service, Vancouver 1, B.C., Canada U6E 2P1, pers. commun. November 
1976. 



system. At this hatchery sockeye salmon were spawned, 
the eggs hatched, and the fry released back into the 
Skagit River. After several years, the hatchery was sold 
to the U.S. Fish Commission and was operated as part of 
the Federal hatchery system. 

Between 1899 and 1925 more than 50 different salmon 
facilities were constructed and operated in this region by 
State and Federal agencies. Most were eventually fail- 
ures due in part to lack of suitable water supplies, an 
insufficient supply of eggs, lack of funds, or, in many 
cases, lack of knowledge. A few, such as the Quilcene Na- 
tional Fish Hatchery (1911) operated by the U.S. Fish 
and Wildlife Service (USFWS) and the Dungeness 
(1902), Green River (1901), Nooksack (1899), Puyallup 
Salmon (1917), Samish (1899), Skykomish (1905), and 
Willapa (1899) hatcheries operated by Washington De- 
partment of Fisheries (WDF), are still in operation to- 
day. 

All species of salmon were reared at these early facili- 
ties with coho and fall chinook salmon being predomin- 
ant at the State hatcheries and fall chinook, coho, and 
sockeye salmon at the Federal hatcheries. In addition, 
both State and Federal hatcheries raised steelhead trout. 
In 1932, responsibility for steelhead and other anadro- 
mous trout was transferred to the newly formed Wash- 
ington Department of Game (WDG) (Berg 1968). The 
majority of fish from the early State hatcheries were re- 
leased as unfed fry while the Federal hatcheries reared a 
considerable number to larger sizes before release. 

Due to the serious decline of the fishery resource, 
WDF, WDG, and USFWS have constructed new facili- 
ties to improve the runs of salmon and steelhead trout 
(Chaney and Perry 1976). Since 1960, these three agencies 
have operated or supervised a total of 26 hatcheries and 
32 rearing ponds or net pens (Table 7). Of these, all of the 
hatcheries and 19 of the rearing ponds and net pens re- 
leased anadromous fish in 1976. The rearing facilities in 
this region are located in two areas: Puget Sound (Fig. 3) 
and Pacific coast (Fig. 4). 

This region has produced a large percentage of the 
total anadromous salmonids raised on the Pacific coast. 
The 921 million migrant fish that have been released over 
the 17 yr since 1960, constitute 27% of the total coastal 
releases by number (Tables 8, 9). By weight, the 23.4 
million lb (10.6 million kg) of migrants are 22% of the 
coastal total. Migrant releases in 1976 totaled 89.4 mil- 



Table 5.— Anadromous fish rearing facilities— British Columbia, 1960-76. 













Year 








Species reared 


Anadromous 


anadromous 




General 


Operation 


during 


releases 


operations 


Hatcheries 


location 


agency" 


year span" 


in 1976 


began 


Big Qualicum 


Qualicum Beach 


CFMS 


fc, co, sh 


Yes 


1967 


Capilano River 


North Vancouver 


CFMS 


fc, co, sh 


Yes 


1971 


Puntledge 


Courtenay 


CFMS 


fc 


Yes 


1971 


Quinsam 


Campbell River 


CFMS 


fc, co, sh 


Yes 


1975 


Robertson Creek 


Port Alberni 


CFMS 


fc, co, sh 


Yes 


1972 


Rosewall' 


Fanny Bay 


CFMS 


CO 


Yes 


1972 



'CFMS = Canadian Fisheries and Marine Service. 

2 fc = fall chinook salmon, co = coho salmon, sh = steelhead trout, sc 

'Operated as research facility. 



spring chinook salmon. 




Map Facility 
No 



1 Qumsam 

2 Puntledge 

3 Rosewall 

4 Robertson Creek 

5 Big Qualicum 

6 Capilano 



WAS H INGTON 



40 80 120 

i 1 ' ■ 

Scale in Kilometers 



Figure 2. — Map of locations of British Columbian salmonid rearing facilities, 1 960-7 ti. 



Table 6. — Migrant releases of chinook and coho salmon and steelhead 
trout — British Columbia 1 (in thousands). 





Fall chinook 
Number Pounds 2 


Coho 


Winter st 
Number 


eelhead 


vear 


Number 


Pounds 


Pounds 


1960 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


1961 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


1962 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


1963 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


1964 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


1965 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


1966 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


1967 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


1968 


147.0 


1.3 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


1969 


460.0 


4.7 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


1970 


67.5 


0.7 


69.0 


2.5 


0.0 


0.0 


1971 


299.0 


3.0 


88.0 


2.7 


0.0 


0.0 


1972 


822.7 


9.0 


210.0 


7.5 


0.0 


0.0 


1973 


2,038.3 


23.4 


507.6 


19.6 


41.7 


2.0 


1974 


2,361.1 


31.7 


517.7 


20.7 


23.0 


3.1 


1975 


2,220.1 


36.3 


998.4 


43.8 


25.8 


2.8 


1976 


3,005.5 


36.8 


2,385.7 


143.8 


80.5 


6.3 


Total 


11,421.2 


146.9 


4,776.4 


240.6 


171.0 


14.2 



Derived from Wahle et al. (1975) prior to 1974 and from Canadian 
Fisheries and Marine Service records thereafter. 
"1 lb = 0.454 kg. 



lion fish and 2.7 million lb (1.2 million kg). In 1976, fall 
chinook salmon were the most numerous with 35 million 
released, followed by coho salmon, steelhead trout, and 
chum salmon. By weight, coho salmon were dominant 
with 1.3 million lb (0.59 million kg) stocked, followed 
in order by fall chinook salmon, steelhead trout, and 
spring chinook salmon. No summer chinook salmon are 
reared in this region. 

As noted in Table 7, the two State fisheries agencies 
use Dingell-Johnson Act and Anadromous Fish Act 
monies to partially fund some of their hatchery programs. 
Dingell-Johnson monies come from a Federal tax on rec- 
reational fishing gear and are divided among the States 
based on the number of fishing licenses sold. It is ad- 
ministered by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service 
(USFWS). 

The Anadromous Fish Act (Public Law 89-304) is 
administered jointly by the USFWS and the National 
Marine Fisheries Service. Under this Act, cooperative 
agreements with States are made and other non-Federal 
interests for the conservation, development, and en- 
hancement of, among others, the anadromous fishery 
resources of the Nation. Federal matching funds of up to 
50% may be used to finance project costs if one state is 



Table 7. — Anadromous fish rearing facilities — Washington coastal and Puget Sound, 1960-76. 











Anadromous 








General 


Operating 


Species reared 


releases 


Year anadromous 




Facility 


location 


agency' 


during year span" 


in 1976 


operation began 


Funding agency 


Hatcheries 














Aberdeen 


Aberdeen 


WDG 


sh, src 


Yes 


1936 


WDG 


Arlington 


Oso 


WDG 


sh (src) 


Yes 


1956 


WDG 


Bellingham 


Bellingham 


WDG 


sh (src) 


Yes 


1935 


WDG 


Chambers Creek 


Tacoma 


WDG 


sh 


Yes 


1973 


WDG, Anadromous 
Fish Act 3 


Dungeness 


Sequim* " 


WDF 


fc, sc, co (ch, pi) 


Yes 


1902 


WDF 


George Adams 


Shelton 


WDF 


fc, sc, co, ch (pi) 


Yes 


1960 


WDF, Tacoma PUD 


Green River 


Auburn 


WDF 


fc, co (sc, ch) 


Yes 


1901 


WDF 


Hood Canal 


Hoodsport 


WDF 


fc, sc, co, ch, pi 


Yes 


1953 


WDF 


Issaquah 


Issaquah 


WDF 


fc, co (sk) 


Yes 


1937 


WDF 


Minter Creek 


Purdy 


WDF 


fc, co, ch (sc, pi, ce) 


Yes 


1937 


WDF 


Nemah 


Nemah 


WDF 


fc, co, ch 


Yes 


1953 


WDF 


Nooksack 


Kendall 


WDF 


fc, CO 


Yes 


1899 


WDF 


Puyallup salmon 


Orting 


WDF 


fc, co (sc, pi) 


Yes 


1917 


WDF 


Puyallup trout 


Puyallup 


WDG 


sh 


Yes 


1947 


WDG 


Quilcene 


Quilcene 


USFWS 


fc, co, ch (sh) 


Yes 


1911 


USFWS 


Quinault 


Neilton 


USFWS 


fc, co, ch, sh 


Yes 


1968 


USFWS 


Samish 


Burlington 


WDF 


fc, co (ch) 


Yes 


1899 


WDF 


Seward Park 


Seattle 


WDG 


sh 


Yes 


1935 


WDG 


Shelton 


Shelton 


WDG 


sh, src 


Yes 


1947 


WDG, Anadromous 
Fish Act 3 


Simpson 


Matlock 


WDF 


fc, co (ch) 


Yes 


1949 


WDF, PP&L 


Skagit 


Marblemount 


WDF 


fc, sc, co, ch (pi, sh) 


Yes 


1947 


WDF 


Skykomish 


Startup 


WDF 


fc, sc, co (ch, pi) 


Yes 


1905 


WDF 


Soleduck 


Sappho 


WDF 


fc, sc, CO 


Yes 


1970 


WDF 


South Tacoma 


Lakewood 


WDG 


sh 


Yes 


1933 


WDG 


Tokul Creek 


Fall City 


WDG 


sh 


Yes 


1933 


WDG 


Willapa 


Lebam 


WDF 


fc, co (ch, sk) 


Yes 


1899 


WDF 


Rearing ponds and net pens 














Bamaby Pond 


Rockport 


WDG 


sh 


Yes 


1961 


WDG, Dingell-Johnson 3 


Blue Slough Pond 


Darrington 


WDG 


sh 


No 


1961 


WDG 


Bogachiel Pond 


Forks 


WDG 


sh 


Yes 


1968 


WDG, Anadromous 
Fish Act 3 


Garrison Creek 


Steilacoom 


WDF 


fc, co, pi (sc, ch) 


Yes 


1973 


WDF, Sports Club 


(Western State) 














Green River pond 


Palmer 


WDG 


sh 


Yes 


1968 


WDG, Anadromous 
Fish Act 3 



Table 7. — Continued. 











Anadromous 








General 


Operating 


Species reared 


releases 


Year anadromous 




Facility 


location 


agency 1 


during year span J 


in 1976 


operation began 


Funding agency 1 


Harrison 


Rockport 


WDG 


sh 


No 


1970 


WDF, Dingell-Johnson 3 


Mayr Bros, pond 


Aberdeen 


WDG, Private 


sh 


Yes 


1974 


WDG, Private 


Olympic rearing channel 


Port Angeles 


WDF 


fc, CO 


Yes 


1975 


WDF 


Percival-Deschutes Complex 


Olympia 


WDF 


fc, SC, CO 


Yes 


1949 


WDF, Olympic Salmon 


(including Capital Lake) 












Club 


Salt Creek pond 


Joyce 


WDG 


sh 


No 


1964 


WDG, Sportsmen's 
Group 


Skykomish ponds 


Gold Bar 


WDG 


sh 


Yes 


1974 


WDG 


South Sound net pens 


Tacoma 


WDF 


fc, co. ch 


Yes 


1972 


WDF 


Squaxin 


Squaxin Island 


WDF, Squaxin 
Tribe 


fc, SC, CO 


Yes 


1971 


WDF, Squaxin Tribe 


Tualip 


Marysville 


WDF, Tualip Tribe 


fc, CO 


Yes 


1973 


WDF, Tualip Tribe 


Whitehorse 


Darrington 


WDG 


sh (src) 


Yes 


1962 


WDG, Dingell-Johnson 3 


\VDF minor facilities and coops 














Bay Center 


Bay Center 


Bay Center 
Mariculture 


fc, ch, pi 


No 


1972 


Private 


Bowmans Bay 


Anacortes 


WDF 


fc. sc. co. ch 


No 


1947 


WDF 


Domsea Farms 


Manchester 


Domsea Farms 
Mariculture 


CO 


No 


1969 


Domsea Farms 
Mariculture 


Elliot Pond 


Seattle 


WDF, NW Steel- 
headers 


fc, CO 


No 


1974 


WDF, NW Steelheaders 


Gig Harbor net pens 


Gig Harbor 


WDF, Puget Sound 
Herring Sales, 
Peninsula High 
Key Club 


fc, ch 


Yes 


1975 


WDF, Puget Sound 
herring sales 


Gorst Creek 


Bremerton 


WDF, Sports Club 


fc 


No 


1962 


WDF 


Little Clam Bay 


Port Orchard 


WDF 


CO 


No 


1962 


WDF 


Lummi 


Bellingham 


Lummi Tribe 


CO 


Yes 


1972 


Lummi Tribe 


Manchester 


Port Orchard 


WDF 


fc, CO 


No 


1973 


WDF 


NW Steelheaders 


Palmer, Renton 


WDF, NW Steel- 
headers 


SC, CO 


No 


1971 


WDF, NW Steelheaders 


Ocean Shores pond 


Ocean Shores 


Sports Group 


CO 


Yes 


1974 


Sports Group 


Peninsula 


Port Angeles 


Peninsula Jr. 
College 


CO 


Yes 


1975 


Peninsula Jr. College 


Sultan Pond 


Sultan 


WDF, Sultan 

Sportsmen's Club 


CO 


Yes 


1973 


Sultan Sportsmen's 
Club 


Tacoma net pens 


Tacoma 


WDF, City of 


fc, CO 


Yes 


1973 


WDF, City of Tacoma 


(including Totem Marina) 




Tacoma 










Westport boat basin 


Westport 


WDF, Ocosta 
School 


CO 


Yes 


1972 


WDF 


Whidby Island 


Oak Harbor 


WDF, Sports Club 


fc, SC. CO 


No 


1972 


WDF, Sports Club 


Wynoochee Pond 


Montesano 


WDF, NW Steel- 
headers 


fc, CO 


No 


1974 


WDF, NW Steelheaders 



WDG = Washington Department of Game, WDF = Washington Department of Fisheries, Tacoma PUD = Tacoma Public Utility District, USFWS 
= U.S. Fish and Wildlife Sen-ice, PP&L = Pacific Power and Light. 

fc = fall chinook salmon, sc = spring chinook salmon, co = coho salmon, sh = steelhead trout, ch = chum salmon, pi = pink salmon, ce = cherry- 
salmon, src = sea-run cutthroat trout, sk = sockeye salmon (minor species in parentheses). 

J Dingell-Johnson Act monies administered by U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Anadromous Fish Act monies administered by National Marine 
Fisheries Service and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 



involved. If two states cooperate on a project, the match- 
ing funds can total 66 2/3%. 3 

State and Federal anadromous salmonid rearing pro- 
grams in this region are augmented by: 1) State and pri- 
vate cooperative efforts, 2) commercial enterprises, 3) 
regulated Indian tribe rearing programs, and 4) unregu- 
lated Indian tribe rearing programs. 

The WDF cooperates with sport and school groups in 
salmon rearing programs. The agency supplies surplus 
fry for rearing in saltwater net pens or ponds. The coop- 



J E. Wold, Director, Columbia River Fisheries Development Program, 
National Marine Fisheries Service. NOAA, Portland, OR 97208, pers. 
commun. June 1979. 



erating groups supply equipment, fish food, and labor 
needed to rear the fish to migrant size. Releases are made 
directly from the pens or ponds. Facilities operated in 
this manner include Northwest Steelheader (various 
Puget Sound areas), Gorst Creek, Percival, Salt Creek, 
Whidby Island, and Westport boat basin. 

Two commercial fish rearing companies, Domsea 
Farms and Bay Center Mariculture, have released salm- 
on in this region. Normally these companies buy surplus 
eggs from State hatcheries, rear the fish to smolt size in 
freshwater, and then transfer the fish to saltwater net 
pens for final rearing to market size. Although emphasis 
is placed on commercial production, cooperative experi- 
mental releases have been made. Under Washington law, 



10 



the companies have no special harvest rights to fish 
returning to the release site. 4 

While the private companies are prohibited by State 
law from engaging in "ocean ranching," (see Oregon 
Coastal section), the treaty Indian tribes are not. Many 
tribal councils have become active in this form of aqua- 
culture. The operations take place either on streams 
completely within reservation boundaries or on streams 
where the tribe has been granted exempt status through 
treaty. In one example of this type of operation, the 
Quinault Indians, as a tribal enterprise, hatch and rear 
salmon and release them into the Quinault River system. 
After maturing in the ocean, adult fish return to the 
Quinault River where many are caught in the exclu- 
sively Indian river net fishery. 

The fish released by these Indian operated facilities do 
contribute to ocean sports and commercial catches 
before they return to the rivers where only tribal 
members may fish for them. Because of difficulties in ob- 
taining accurate release information from some of the 
operations, we have included in this report only the re- 
leases from facilities that provide information to WDF. 



USFWS. The funds were used for stream clearance and 
construction and modernization of hatcheries. 

In 1956, the Program was expanded to include the up- 
per Columbia and Snake River drainages extending into 
Idaho. The word "Lower" was subsequently dropped 
from the Program name. The funding is now admin- 
istered by the National Marine Fisheries Service, De- 
partment of Commerce, Portland, Oreg. 

Since 1960, releases from Program hatcheries have ac- 
counted for 74% of the Columbia Basin migrant release 
by number and 57% by weight (Tables 12, 13). 

In recent years, an additional source of funds for con- 
struction and operation of hatcheries in the basin has 
been the power producing agencies and companies. The 
U.S. Army Corps of Engineers has funded the con- 
struction or modernization of nine hatcheries as mitiga- 
tion and compensation for their hydroelectric projects 
and is presently providing operational monies for these 
facilities. Also in the basin, 17 facilities were con- 
structed by public utility districts or private power com- 
panies in connection with the effects of their water re- 
lated projects. 



Columbia Basin 

The Columbia Basin, as referred to in this report, 
contains the portions of Washington, Idaho, and Oregon 
drained by the Columbia River (Fig. 5). The five State 
and Federal fish management agencies in this region ac- 
count for 54% (by number) and 55% (by weight) of the 
total Pacific coast anadromous releases made in 1976 
(Tables 10, 11). Migrant releases for the 17-yr period 
starting in 1960 amount to over 2 billion fish and 61 mil- 
lion lb (27.7 million kg), raised at a total of 81 facili- 
ties — 63 hatcheries and 18 rearing ponds. During the 17- 
yr, all species of fish included in this report, except pink 
salmon, were released into streams of the basin. During 
1976, anadromous migrants were released from 53 hatch- 
eries and 14 rearing ponds. 

The Columbia Basin is unique in the number of hatch- 
eries constructed and operated as compensation for habi- 
tat destroyed by water use projects on the Columbia 
River and its tributaries. Compensation was initiated on 
the Columbia River by the Mitchell Act passed by 
Congress in 1938. The Act provided for a cooperative 
fisheries management program involving the Federal 
Government and the States of Oregon and Washington. 
Initially a small amount of money was appropriated for 
the implementation of the Act under the Department of 
Commerce. Little was accomplished until 1946 when the 
Act was amended to create the Lower Columbia River 
Development Program (subsequently referred to as the 
Program) at the time under the Department of Interior. 
Initial funding came from the U.S. Army Corps of 
Engineers and the Program was administered by the 



'H. Senn. Chief of Artificial Production, Washington Department of 
Fisheries. Olympia, WA 98504, pers. commun. November 1977. 

I . .Mahnken, Manchester Field Station, National Marine Fisheries 
Service, NOAA, Manchester, WA 98353, pers. commun. August 1976. 



Columbia Basin-Washington. — The State Fish Com- 
missioner, James Crawford (1890), stated in his first 
report to the Governor of Washington concerning artifi- 
cial propagation: "To foster and replenish the streams of 
our state with salmon and trout, the establishment of a 
hatchery is a positive necessity. While though much 
could be done by the passage and enforcement of a 
stringent law protecting our fish during the spawning 
season, still, as has been demonstrated in the older states 
without the aid of artificial propagation, the stock of wild 
fish will eventually be exhausted." This statement was 
based on declining populations of fish in Washington's 
rivers, especially the Columbia, even at that early date. 
Diversions and obstructions were blocking access to 
historically important spawning and rearing areas. Also, 
operators of gill nets, fish wheels, and traps, along with 
the Indians and their dip nets, were taking excessive 
numbers of fish. It was estimated that each fish wheel 
took more than 100 tons offish per year (Crawford 1890). 
The pack of salmon by Washington canneries had in- 
creased from 4,000 cases in 1866 to a high of 629,000 cases 
in 1883 (Crawford 1892) and then declined to 321,000 
cases in 1889 (Cobb 1931). 

In light of this dwindling resource, the 1891 legislature 
appropriated $15,000 for securing a site and erecting a 
hatchery. The commission first selected a location in 
Okanogan County, but was unable to build there because 
of title and land survey problems (Crawford 1892). 

In 1894, Commissioner Crawford investigated the 
possibility of enhancing upper Columbia stocks of salm- 
on by taking and eyeing eggs artificially in the lower 
reaches of the Columbia River and transporting them to 
suitable hatching sites up the river. Working with fish- 
ermen using pound net traps in Baker's Bay, near the 
mouth of the Columbia River, he secured 150 chinook 
salmon which he held for spawning. He obtained only 
6,000 eggs before the holding area was washed out. No 



11 



L U M B I 




Scale in Kilometers 



LOCATION MAP 

Figure 3.— Map of locations of Washington-Puget Sound salmonid rearing facilities, 1960-76. 



further efforts to take eggs were made that year, but the 
idea was proven feasible as the eggs survived the trans- 
fer (Crawford 1896). 

A law passed in 1893 provided for licensing of all 
Washington commercial fishermen. The fishermen sup- 
ported the measure. The monies were to be placed in the 
Fish Commission fund to be used for fishery projects. In 
1895, $20,000 was appropriated from this fund and the 



first hatchery in Washington was built on the Kalama 
River, 4 mi above its junction with the Columbia River. 
The land was donated by the citizens of Cowlitz County. 
Its initial capacity, 4 million eggs, was increased to 6 
million in 1896. An auxiliary station was built on the 
Chinook River near the mouth of the Columbia River for 
collecting eggs as well as for hatching additional fish 
(Crawford 1896). 



12 



Map Facility 

No 




Map 
No 


Facility 


1 


Nooksack 




23A 


Domseo Farms-Freshwater 


2 


Lummi Ponds and Net Pens 




23B 


Domsea Farms— Saltwater 


3 


Bellingham 




24 


Seward Park 


4 


Samish 




25 


Little Clam Say 


5 


Skagit 






Manchester 


6 


Harrison Pond 




26 


Issaquah 




Barnaby Pond 




27 


Hood Canal 


7 


Bowmans Bay 




28 


Minter Creek 


S 


Whidbey Island Rearing Pond 


29 


Green River Hatchery 


9 


Arlington 




30 


Green River Pond 


10 


Blue Slough 




3 1 


Gig Harbor 


1 1 


Whitehorse 




32 


Shelton 


12 


Olympic Rearing Channel 




33 


George Adams 


13 


Peninsula College 




34 


Totem Marine (Tocoma Net Pens) 


1 4 


Tulalip 




35 


Sooth Tocoma 


IS 


Dungeness 






Garrison Creek 


IS 


Sultan Pond 






Chambers Creek 


17 


Skykomish Hatchery 




36 


South Sound Net Pens 


18 


Sfcykomish Rearing Ponds 




37 


Puyallup Trout 


19 


Quilcene 




38 


Squaxin Islond Net Pens 


20 


Elliot Boy Net Pens 




39 


Puyallup Salmon 


21 


Tokul Creek Hatchery and 


Pond 


40 


Percival-Deschutes Complex 


22 


Gorst Creek Pond 






(including Capital Lake) 




Not 


Shown - Misc 


Northwest 




Stee 


Iheaders Net 


Pens 





By 1900, State hatcheries were being constructed on 
the Wenatchee, Wind, Little Spokane, Methow, and 
Klickitat Rivers (Berg 1968). In addition, the U.S. Fish 
Commission constructed a station on the Little White 
Salmon River in 1897, supplemented by an auxiliary sta- 
tion on the Big White Salmon River. All these early 
hatcheries concentrated their efforts on chinook salmon 
fry plants. Coho salmon fry and chinook salmon finger- 
ling releases became more prevalent after 1900, especial- 
ly at the Federal facilities. In addition, some steelhead 
trout and chum salmon fry were also produced. In 1932, 
the Washington State legislature divided the anadro- 
mous fish programs between two newly created agencies. 
The Washington Department of Fisheries (WDF) as- 
sumed responsibility for salmon and the Washington De- 
partment of Game (WDG) became responsible for trout 
(steelhead and sea-run cutthroat). 

The program of artificial propagation in Washington 
continued at about the same level until the early 1940's 
when the Columbia River Development Program (see 
Columbia Basin section) became active in this area. 
Under the Program, fish ladders were built over impassi- 
ble barriers and log jams were removed from such 
Columbia River tributaries as Abernathy Creek and the 
Kalama, Cowlitz, Wind, and Klickitat Rivers to open up 
new spawning areas that were previously blocked to mi- 
grating fish. New hatcheries including Willard National 
Fish Hatchery (NFH), Klickitat, and Skamania were 
constructed, and Spring Creek NFH, Little White NFH, 
and Carson NFH remodeled. 

From 1960 to 1976, 30 hatcheries and 12 rearing ponds 
raised anadromous salmonids in this region (Table 14). 
In 1976, the USFWS operated 3 hatcheries and 2 hatch- 
ery complexes, WDF operated 10 hatcheries and 5 ponds, 
and WDG operated 11 hatcheries and 4 ponds. The two 
USFWS hatchery complexes, Little White Salmon NFH 
and Leavenworth NFH, were formed in 1976 by placing 



one and two formerly independent stations (Willard, and 
Winthrop and Entiat, respectively) under the managers 
of these two complexes. Although the facilities in this 
region are scattered throughout the Columbia River 
drainage, there is a large concentration in the lower river 
and its tributaries within 75 mi of Portland, Oreg. (Fig. 
6). 

This region, with 1.2 billion migrant releases between 
1960 and 1976, is the largest producer of salmon and 
steelhead trout on the coast. In 1976 releases numbered 
92.6 million smolts, 31% of the coastal total, weighing 3.4 
million lb (1.5 million kg), 31% of the total (Tables 15, 
16). 

Columbia Basin-Idaho. — Artificial production of 
salmon and steelhead in Idaho began around the turn of 
the century. A substation of Clackamas Hatchery, oper- 
ated in Oregon by the U.S. Commission of Fish and Fish- 
eries, was constructed on the Salmon River to take salm- 
on and steelhead eggs. Additionally, eggs were shipped 
into the State from Clackamas Hatchery and another of 
its substations, Little White Salmon Hatchery, located 
in Washington. Fry hatched were released to the Pahsim- 
eroi and Lemhi Rivers as well as the Salmon River 
(Leach 1932, 1933). This substation was phased out dur- 
ing the mid-1930's when the Federal hatchery system 
underwent a drastic budget reduction. 

In addition to the Federal hatchery, the State of Idaho 
included a few salmon and steelhead with trout pro- 
grams of their early hatcheries. In one example, the State 
took eggs from brood steelhead trout trapped in the 
Lewiston Dam fish ladder, eyed them in a spring at 
Hatwai Creek, and reared them at Grangeville 
Hatchery. 6 

All of the early hatchery efforts were minor in scope. 
The State relied instead on wild stocks offish to perpetu- 
ate the anadromous fish runs. In 1956, because of the de- 
cline in the stocks, the Columbia River Development 
Program extended to the upper Columbia and Snake 
Rivers. (See the Columbia Basin section.) Under the Pro- 
gram, natural spawning and rearing areas were increased 
in Idaho through, among others, the construction offish- 
ways over Sellway Falls and the now removed Lewiston 
Dam in the Clearwater River drainage and Dagger Falls 
on the Middle Fork Salmon River. Approximately 220 
screens were built on irrigation diversions to prevent the 
loss of fish onto irrigated fields. Obstructions and debris 
were also removed from tributaries of the Clearwater 
River. 

It had become obvious by 1960 that the increase in the 
number of dams in the Columbia and Snake Rivers had 
caused upstream passage problems for adult fish and 
downstream mortality for juvenile fish. About this time, 
Idaho Power Company was required to construct fish 
rearing facilities below Oxbow Dam on the Snake River, 
and more attention was focused on rearing anadromous 
fish in Idaho's hatcheries (Chaney and Perry 1976). 



'D. Ortmann, Idaho Department of Fish and Game. Boise, ID 83707 
pers. commun. September 1976. 



13 



La Pu 





LOCATION MAP 



Map Facility 

No 



Salt Creek Pond 

Soleduck 

Bogachiel 

Quinault 

Simpson 

Mayr Brothers Pond 

Aberdeen 

Wynoochee Net Pens 

Ocean Shores Pond 

Westport Boat Basin 

Bay Center 

Wi Napa 

Neman 



20 40 60 

• 1 1 1 

Scale in Kilometers 



OREGON 

Figure 4. — Map of locations of Washington coastal salmonid rearing facilities, 1960-76. 



14 



Table 8.— Migrant releases of chinook and coho salmon and steelhead trout— Washington coastal and Puget 

Sound' (in thousands). 





Fall chinook 


Spring i 
Number 


:hinook 
Pounds 


Coho 


Winter steelhead 
Number Pounds 


Summers 
Number 


teelhead 


year 


Number 


Pounds 2 


Number 


Pounds 


Pounds 


1960 


20,065.3 


89.0 


302.4 


7.5 


6,094.2 


126.5 


1,128.2 


156.3 


0.0 


0.0 


1961 


19,508.0 


123.9 


694.7 


10.6 


9,612.6 


243.5 


847.0 


135.6 


20.4 


1.7 


1962 


20,914.1 


112.0 


584.6 


12.6 


9,541.6 


185.1 


1,215.3 


168.9 


0.0 


0.0 


1963 


19.224.1 


114.1 


466.3 


7.1 


5,297.8 


96.7 


1,236.0 


165.4 


206.6 


21.4 


1964 


29,380.5 


185.9 


294.8 


16.9 


9,687.2 


305.1 


1,205.2 


175.9 


121.6 


13.0 


1965 


30,955.2 


196.5 


491.8 


15.5 


10,763.3 


358.1 


1,204.5 


177.5 


132.2 


13.8 


1966 


27.566.0 


212.8 


62.8 


4.6 


12,907.0 


500.5 


1,380.2 


205.1 


97.0 


12.6 


1967 


29,938.7 


238.3 


378.5 


32.7 


12,787.3 


634.0 


1,152.9 


179.0 


77.3 


9.2 


1968 


30.163.1 


290.7 


558.9 


45.3 


13,855.3 


721.5 


1,305.2 


186.6 


193.0 


22.7 


1969 


36,030.0 


320.0 


256.8 


21.4 


14,901.0 


779.8 


1,960.0 


278.0 


124.9 


17.7 


1970 


31,745.1 


290.1 


309.4 


17.7 


18,297.2 


940.8 


1,606.6 


256.8 


325.4 


37.0 


1971 


47,330.8 


434.2 


190.1 


24.0 


16,497.0 


928.8 


1,581.0 


227.4 


364.7 


62.9 


1972 


36,221.1 


418.8 


708.2 


48.5 


18,969.7 


1,083.2 


1,454.7 


257.0 


392.6 


63.5 


1973 


43,007.7 


635.2 


1,267.0 


170.4 


18,425.3 


1,049.7 


1,796.1 


321.2 


421.7 


62.4 


1974 


31,004.3 


688.0 


829.5 


96.0 


21,270.0 


1,313.7 


1,533.1 


283.2 


528.4 


67.9 


1975 


33,342.7 


702.1 


1,030.3 


164.4 


22,858.7 


1,263.6 


1,582.4 


288.7 


564.4 


75.3 


1976 


34,902.5 


759.0 


693.6 


118.5 


23,539.4 


1,255.4 


2,296.5 


389.9 


399.9 


58.8 


Total 


521,299.2 


5,810.6 


9,119.7 


813.7 


245,304.6 


11,786.0 


24,484.9 


3,852.5 


3,970.1 


539.9 



'Derived from Wahle et al. (1975) prior to 1974, Foster et al. (Foster, R., R. Kolb, and V. Fletcher. 1975. 1974 
hatchery statistical report of production and plantings. Wash. Dep. Fish., Olympia, 156 p.) for WDF 1974, 
Fletcher et al. (Fletcher, V., B. Kiser, B. Rogers, and B. Foster. 1976. 1975 hatchery statistical report of produc- 
tion and planting. Wash. Dep. Fish., Olympia, 154 p.) for WDF 1975, Foster et al. (1977) for WDF 1976, and from 
WDG release records and USFWS hatchery annual reports. 

2 1 lb = 0.454 kg. 



Table 9. 



-Migrant releases of chum, pink, sockeye, and cherry salmon and sea-run cutthroat trout- 
Washington coastal and Puget Sound' (in thousands). 





Chum 


Pink 


Sockeye 


Cherry 


Sea-run c 
Number 


utthroat 


year 


Number 


Pounds 2 


Number 


Pounds 


Number 


Pounds 


Number 


Pounds 


Pounds 


1960 


5,031.6 


8.8 


555.5 


2.5 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


1961 


4,710.5 


12.6 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


1962 


1,141.8 


2.8 


145.7 


0.5 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


1963 


3,683.6 


6.8 


0.0 


0.0 


4.4 


( 3 ) 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


1964 


3,207.7 


6.7 


525.3 


0.9 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


1965 


2,911.4 


5.5 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


24.0 


1.5 


1966 


1,047.3 


3.6 


421.0 


1.3 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


134.7 


24.1 


1967 


1,302.9 


3.4 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


156.6 


20.3 


1968 


1,090.7 


3.1 


602.8 


1.4 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


155.4 


22.3 


1969 


2,318.1 


5.5 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


136.3 


29.2 


1970 


1,500.5 


4.3 


774.9 


2.4 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


85.2 


16.1 


1971 


3,839.6 


9.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


251.5 


48.3 


1972 


4,985.7 


16.0 


1,957.9 


5.1 


2.5 


( 3 ) 


0.0 


0.0 


111.8 


26.3 


1973 


6,001.9 


19.1 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


24.3 


3.1 


130.0 


31.7 


1974 


9,384.8 


- 30.7 


1,211.9 


3.5 


0.0 


0.0 


44.4 


4.3 


107.7 


19.3 


1975 


29,637.5 


88.2 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


1.0 


0.1 


96.0 


22.0 


1976 


22,653.1 


81.9 


4,850.4 


8.7 


0.0 


0.0 


0.5 


0.1 


79.8 


21.2 


Total 


104,448.7 


308.0 


11,045.4 


26.3 


6.9 


( 3 ) 


70.2 


7.6 


1.469.0 


282.3 



Derived from Wahle et al. (1975) prior to 1974, Foster et al. (see footnote 1, Table 8) for WDF 1974, Fletcher 
et al. (see footnote 1. Table 8) for WDF 1975, Foster et al. (1977) for WDF 1976, and from WDG release records and 
USFWS hatchery annual reports. 

2 1 lb = 0.454 kg. 

3 <100 1b. 



By 1976, releases had been made from two USFWS 
hatcheries and 11 hatcheries and 1 rearing pond oper- 
ated by the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) 
(Table 17). Of these, two are especially notable. Dwor- 
shak NFH was constructed at a cost of over $16 million 
by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. It was built as 
compensation for the loss of a large run of steelhead trout 
cut off by the construction of Dworshak Dam. It is one of 
the largest and most modern of the Pacific coast facili- 



ties. The State's Rapid River Hatchery (funded by Idaho 
Power Company) has been very successful as a spring 
chinook salmon station. From initial return of 1,039 
immature male fish (jacks) in 1968, the run has grown 
until in 1973 the total number of returning fish reached a 
high in excess of 17,000. 

Of the 14 facilities, only the 6 on the Clearwater and 
Salmon River drainages are directly accessible to return- 
ing fish (Fig. 7). The remainder are above the limits for 



15 




Columbia Basin - Washington 



Columbia Basin - Idaho 




Columbia Basin -Oregon 



80 



160 



240 



Scale in Kilometers 



Figure 5. — Columbia Basin regions. 



salmon and steelhead trout migration. In these cases, the 
State has been very successful with the program of trans- 
ferring fish reared to suitable release sites, and trapping 
and returning brood stock, spawning them, and trans- 
porting the eggs back to the hatchery. In this way, IDFG 
has been able to make good use of off-site hatcheries on 
good water sources. 

Summer steelhead trout and spring chinook salmon 
are the two species reared in the greatest numbers in 
Idaho. Although the facilities in the State have released 
only 6^ of the Pacific coast migrant totals by weight 
since 1960, they have accounted for 42^ of the summer 
steelhead trout and ll c r of the spring chinook salmon by 
weight during that period (Table 18). Summer steelhead 
trout production has increased from an initial release in 
1965 of 24.000 migrant fish weighing 2,600 lb (1,200 kg) to 



a high of 6.3 million fish weighing 750,000 lb (340,200 kg) 
in 1974. This is largely due to the opening of Dworshak 
NFH in 1969. 

Columbia Basin-Oregon. — The first hatchery in Ore- 
gon was constructed by a private corporation, the Ore- 
gon and Washington Fish Propagating Company. Its 
hatchery, the first in the Columbia Basin, was built in 
1876 on the Clackamas River near its confluence with the 
Willamette River. The company operated the hatchery 
from 1876 to 1880 when lack of funds forced a closure. In 
1887, the Oregon Fish and Game Commission rented and 
renovated the facility, but was able to operate it for only 
1 yr because of funding problems. In 1889, the operation 
of the hatchery was transferred to the U.S. Commission 
of Fish and Fisheries. One condition of this transfer was 



16 



Table 10. — Migrant releases of chinook and coho salmon and steelhead trout — Columbia Basin 1 (in thousands). 





Fall chinook 


Spring c 
Number 


hinook 
Pounds 


Summer chinook 
Number Pounds 


Coho 
Number Pounds 


Winter steelhead Summer s 
Number Pounds Number 


teelhead 


vear 


Number 


Pounds^ 


Pounds 


1960 


91,923.9 


341.1 


7,235.5 


207.4 


0.0 


0.0 


7,394.8 


249.8 


933.9 


125.8 


153.8 


22.5 


1961 


49,269.2 


319.6 


4.483.3 


171.7 


0.0 


0.0 


15,088.2 


526.0 


894.2 


100.5 


480.7 


64.1 


1962 


57.573.4 


290.7 


4.854.4 


190.0 


0.0 


0.0 


14,617.1 


610.9 


1,812.4 


169.8 


355.5 


41.1 


1963 


60,043.0 


331.8 


8.742.4 


327.3 


0.0 


0.0 


22,416.9 


811.2 


1,314.9 


120.3 


837.6 


101.6 


1964 


66,782.5 


415.6 


13,037.7 


432.9 


0.0 


0.0 


18,128.4 


838.8 


1,342.6 


173.6 


1,328.0 


180.0 


1965 


58.355.8 


381.4 


6.387.2 


251.3 


0.0 


0.0 


20,713.8 


947.9 


1,701.9 


227.0 


1,259.8 


144.4 


1966 


56,324.2 


498.1 


11.277.4 


455.9 


0.0 


0.0 


24,663.0 


1,205.8 


1,733.1 


206.5 


1,467.3 


188.1 


1967 


57,808.3 


512.9 


12,881.6 


560.4 


0.0 


0.0 


23,791.9 


1,181.2 


1,997.7 


234.7 


2,940.0 


348.1 


1968 


65,360.3 


677.2 


12,448.2 


734.0 


2,138.3 


13.6 


19,294.4 


1,064.8 


1,773.1 


200.5 


4,329.4 


503.8 


1969 


68,593.1 


686.3 


9,190.4 


692.7 


2,121.3 


20.2 


28,043.6 


1,661.9 


1,665.6 


197.0 


4,212.0 


502.9 


1970 


86,255.7 


902.6 


15,986.0 


1.387.9 


4,228.2 


35.4 


25,160.8 


1,474.3 


2,112.4 


299.0 


5,921.8 


911.5 


1971 


84,414.2 


697.3 


13,336.2 


991.1 


2,184.5 


37.0 


29,424.2 


1,728.2 


2,241.1 


257.6 


7,187.5 


935.6 


1972 


90,689.5 


993.4 


15,140.3 


1,267.0 


2,604.9 


42.6 


34,176.7 


2,264.5 


2,073.5 


267.6 


5,334.5 


836.6 


1973 


93.619.3 


1,122.7 


15,243.9 


1,450.8 


2,312.6 


34.3 


29,235.5 


1,747.8 


2,640.3 


392.2 


7,207.3 


824.7 


1974 


91,303.9 


1,203.9 


14,060.4 


1,093.3 


1,202.8 


43.0 


28,733.7 


1,740.7 


2,236.0 


294.7 


8,956.5 


1,117.2 


1975 


92,382.6 


1.239.6 


19,243.5 


1,538.1 


120.8 


3.1 


30,079.6 


2,016.2 


1,949.4 


279.8 


6,177.2 


915.5 


1976 


98.855.7 


1.342.5 


20,236.9 


1,672.5 


880.5 


42.7 


29,808.3 


1,823.4 


2,274.4 


340.0 


6,247.6 


910.5 


Total 


1.269.554.6 


11,956.7 


203.785.3 


13,424.3 


17,793.9 


271.9 


400,770.9 


21,893.4 


30,696.5 


3,886.6 


64,396.5 


8,548.2 



'Derived from Wahle et al. (197o) prior to 1974 and from appropriate State and Federal agencies thereafter. 
2 1 lb = 0.454 kg. 



Table 11. — Migrant releases of chum, sockeye, and cherry salmon 
and sea-run cutthroat trout — Columbia Basin' (in thousands). 

















Sea-run 




Chum 


Sockeye 
No. Lb. 


Cherry 
No. Lb. 


cutthr 
No. 


oat 


year 


No. 


Lb." 


Lb. 


1960 


0.0 


0.0 


3,177.0 


69.2 


0.0 


0.0 


1.2 


1.3 


1961 


63.6 


0.4 


2,788.0 


72.5 


0.0 


0.0 


15.9 


2.6 


1962 


717.5 


1.8 


2,224.0 


43.8 


0.0 


0.0 


9.7 


3.1 


1963 


1.770.8 


2.5 


3,121.0 


67.8 


0.0 


0.0 


12.9 


2.7 


1964 


150.8 


0.2 


3,364.0 


58.8 


0.0 


0.0 


82.5 


10.0 


1965 


205.3 


0.3 


3,301.0 


73.6 


0.0 


0.0 


86.9 


13.9 


1966 


738.1 


2.4 


73.0 


1.6 


0.0 


0.0 


87.0 


17.5 


1967 


524.1 


3.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


190.0 


40.9 


1968 


173.6 


0.6 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


248.2 


52.5 


1969 


129.9 


0.3 


23.4 


0.7 


0.0 


0.0 


261.3 


50.3 


1970 


62.5 


0.1 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


303.5 


59.1 


1971 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


371.3 


66.9 


1972 


638.5 


1.2 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


172.9 


40.6 


1973 


563.6 


1.4 


0.0 


0.0 


1.8 


0.1 


210.9 


48.7 


1974 


627.3 


3.4 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


150.3 


31.9 


1975 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


173.7 


43.9 


1976 


1,126.8 


4.7 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


192.7 


45.9 


Total 


7,492.4 


22.3 


18,071.4 


388.0 


1.8 


0.1 


2,570.9 


531.8 



'Derived from Wahle et al. (1975) prior to 1974 and from appropriate 
State and Federal agencies thereafter. 
-1 lb = 0.454 kg. 

that no eggs or fry obtained were to be taken out of 
Oregon. 

Around the turn of the century, several other hatcher- 
ies and egg taking stations were built on the Clackamas 
River by government and private organizations. Due to 
financial difficulties, ownership of these often changed 
hands, and most were operated by the Federal Govern- 
ment for at least part of their existence. One, built by the 
Columbia River Packer's Propagating Company on the 
upper Clackamas River, was operated privately in 1895- 
96, Federally in 1897-98, and finally by the State in 1899. 

Propagation of steelhead trout in the State began in 
1897. The U.S. Commission of Fish and Fisheries had 
fair success with a temporary egg taking station for steel- 



head trout on the Salmon River, a tributary of the Sandy 
River. The following year, eggs were taken at Willam- 
ette Falls and again at the Sandy River station. The 
State also did some experimental steelhead trout 
research work on the upper Columbia River and its tribu- 
taries. 

In 1909, the State constructed Bonneville Hatchery on 
Tanner Creek near the present site of Bonneville Dam. It 
was designed as a central hatching station, receiving all 
of its eggs from other facilities on the river. With a 
capacity of approximately 60 million eggs, it was one of 
the largest on the coast. Prior to Bonneville's con- 
struction there were no significant runs of salmon into 
Tanner Creek. After a number of years of rearing the 
transferred eggs and releasing fry into Tanner Creek, 
adult fish began to return to Bonneville at maturity. 
These developed stocks of fish became the hatchery's 
main egg source and the transfer programs were scaled 
down. In the past several years Bonneville has been able 
to rely on its egg source and actually supply surplus for 
other stations. 

In 1920, the Legislature split the Oregon Fish and 
Game Commission's responsibility for anadromous fish 
between two new agencies: the Fish Commission of Ore- 
gon (FCO) took over salmon production and the Oregon 
Game Commission (OGC) concentrated on steelhead 
and sea-run cutthroat trout. The existing hatcheries were 
realigned under these two agencies, those raising pri- 
marily steelhead trout were placed under the OGC and 
those raising primarily salmon under the FCO. 

In 1976, there were 15 hatcheries and 4 ponds oper- 
ated in this region by the USFWS and Oregon Depart- 
ment of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW) (Table 19). As noted 
in the tables, the FCO and OGC were recombined into 
the ODFW in 1975. Most of the current facilities are con- 
centrated near the mouth of the Columbia River, on the 
Willamette and Deschutes River systems, or near Bonne- 
ville Dam (Fig. 8). Wallowa Hatchery, located in ex- 



17 



Table 12. 



-Migrant releases of chinook and coho salmon and steelhead trout — Pacific coast by Columbia River Development 

Program hatcheries' (in thousands). 





Fall chinook 


Spring 
Number 


•hinook 
Pounds 


Summer 
Number 


chinook 
Pounds 


Coho 
Number Pounds 


Winter steelhead Summer s 
Number Pounds Number 


teelhead 


vear 


Number 


Pounds' 


Pounds 


1960 


89,105.2 


329.7 


1,836.1 


60.2 


0.0 


0.0 


6,359.8 


217.6 


916.9 


124.7 


67.5 


11.3 


1961 


46.640.1 


305.5 


827.3 


30.0 


0.0 


0.0 


14,182.8 


507.4 


605.1 


65.2 


303.1 


43.2 


1962 


55,783.6 


283.3 


1,666.8 


57.7 


0.0 


0.0 


12,863.8 


571.4 


1,408.9 


110.4 


227.2 


28.6 


1963 


58,845.0 


325.8 


2,391.4 


85.0 


0.0 


0.0 


19,589.1 


756.8 


1,027.7 


83.9 


366.7 


53.6 


1964 


65,501.5 


407.5 


7,643.3 


220.8 


0.0 


0.0 


16,529.8 


775.3 


1,106.7 


145.6 


562.3 


87.1 


1965 


56,191.0 


370.5 


3,042.4 


102.0 


0.0 


0.0 


17,919.4 


853.9 


1,352.9 


174.8 


595.3 


73.5 


1966 


54,944.7 


488.9 


3,812.4 


111.5 


0.0 


0.0 


21,170.4 


1,074.7 


1,733.1 


206.5 


745.7 


101.8 


1967 


55,118.5 


497.8 


5,484.8 


177.5 


0.0 


0.0 


20,208.9 


1,000.3 


1,411.1 


161.4 


855.7 


126.3 


1968 


55,514.9 


595.5 


3,788.8 


166.8 


0.0 


0.0 


15,715.2 


866.9 


1,425.9 


149.3 


1,527.7 


175.7 


1969 


57,927.3 


574.1 


3.496.8 


164.4 


0.0 


0.0 


18,620.3 


1,103.7 


1,494.9 


171.6 


822.7 


96.6 


1970 


62,175.2 


689.6 


2,578.7 


148.3 


393.8 


9.8 


17,450.8 


1,002.7 


1,363.6 


196.9 


1,525.6 


258.1 


\1971 


63,277.3 


483.3 


3,784.3 


238.9 


400.3 


13.9 


21,281.2 


1,207.2 


1,287.4 


151.7 


1,130.3 


156.1 


1972 


67,053.7 


721.8 


3,619.8 


253.1 


231.7 


13.3 


23,887.6 


1,520.5 


1,315.3 


172.8 


1,233.0 


198.7 


1973 


70,384.2 


831.4 


4,822.9 


401.3 


217.1 


4.3 


20,879.2 


1,196.4 


1,385.9 


223.5 


1,151.4 


189.4 


1974 


65,476.3 


887.5 


4,423.5 


269.2 


330.0 


8.1 


20,163.6 


1,177.4 


1,137.9 


162.7 


1,168.5 


176.7 


1975 


70,455.2 


918.9 


5,229.8 


326.7 


114.6 


2.9 


21,104.2 


1,382.9 


937.3 


144.7 


1,025.3 


153.9 


1976 


80,866.8 


1,108.1 


5,933.6 


479.8 


406.6 


15.8 


22,217.8 


1,325.9 


1,216.7 


184.9 


950.4 


150.5 


Total 


1,075,260.5 


9,819.2 


64,382.7 


3,293.2 


2,094.1 


68.1 


310,143.9 


16.541.0 


21,127.3 


2,630.6 


14,258.4 


2,081.1 



'Derived from Wahle et al. (1975) prior to 1974, Foster et al. (see footnote 1, Table 8) for WDF 1974, Fletcher et al. (see footnote 1, 
Table 8) for WDF 1975, Foster et al. (1977) for WDF 1976, and from WDG release .records and USFWS hatchery annual reports. 
"1 lb = 0.454 kg. 



Table 13.— Migrant releases of chum and cherry salmon and sea-run 
cutthroat trout — Pacific coast-Columbia River Development Pro- 
gram hatcheries' (in thousands). 





Chum 


Cherry 


Sea-run ct 
Number 


ltthroat 


year 


Number 


Pounds J 


Number 


Pounds 


Pounds 


1960 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


1961 


63.6 


0.4 


0.0 


0.0 


6.9 


0.8 


1962 


• 717.5 


1.8 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


1963 


1,770.8 


2.5 


0.0 


0.0 


6.4 


0.8 


1964 


150.8 


0.2 


0.0 


0.0 


82.5 


10.0 


1965 


205.3 


0.3 


0.0 


0.0 


85.9 


13.6 


1966 


738.1 


2.4 


0.0 


0.0 


41.5 


6.7 


1967 


524.1 


3.0 


0.0 


0.0 


119.4 


23.9 


1968 


173.6 


0.6 


0.0 


0.0 


121.2 


25.8 


1969 


129.9 


0.3 


0.0 


0.0 


35.3 


7.5 


1970 


62.5 


0.1 


0.0 


0.0 


50.0 


10.6 


1971 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


40.1 


8.0 


1972 


638.5 


1.2 


0.0 


0.0 


22.8 


5.7 


1973 


563.6 


1.4 


1.8 


0.1 


27.0 


9.0 


1974 


627.3 


3.4 


0.0 


0.0 


4.3 


1.1 


1975 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


1976 


1.126.8 


4.7 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


Total 


7.492.4 


22.3 


1.8 


0.1 


643.3 


123.5 



'Derived from Wahle et al. (1975) prior to 1974, Foster et al. (see foot- 
note 1, Table 8) for WDF 1974, Fletcher et al. (see footnote 1, Table 8) 
for WDF 1975. Foster et al. (1977) for WDF 1976, and from WDG re- 
lease records and USFWS hatchery annual reports. 

2 1 lb = 0.454 kg. 

treme eastern Oregon near Enterprise, is the only excep- 
tion. 

Migrant releases from Oregon Columbia Basin hatch- 
eries represent 20 c r (698 million migrants) of the 1960-76 
Pacific coast total by number and 19^ [20.3 million 
pounds (9.2 million kg)], by weight (Tables 20, 21). Fall 
chinook salmon, with 44 million migrants released, was 
the main species by number reared in 1976 followed by 
coho salmon, spring chinook salmon, and steelhead 
trout. The same year, the largest release by weight was of 
coho salmon, 600,000 lb (272,200 kg) followed by fall chi- 



nook salmon, spring chinook salmon, and steelhead 
trout. 

The Columbia River Development Program 
("Program") had an important impact on anadromous 
fish in Oregon's portion of the Columbia Basin. Funds 
were provided for stream clearance and improvement as 
well as for fishway and hatchery construction or recon- 
struction. Fishways were built on the Clatskanie River, 
Eagle Creek, and Scappoose Creek, among others, and 
the existing fishway at Willamette Falls was rebuilt. On 
streams such as the Calpooia and Clatskanie Rivers as 
well as Big, Tide, Goble, Eagle, Deep, Clear, Abernathy, 
and Delph Creeks, where needed, accumulated debris, 
logjams, and splash dams were removed. The State fish- 
eries agencies screened problem irrigation diversion 
ditches and canals to prevent loss of trout and salmon 
fingerlings. Sandy, Cascade, Eagle Creek, and Gnat 
Creek hatcheries were constructed under the Program. 
Bonneville, Oxbow, Klaskanine, and Big Creek hatcher- 
ies were either renovated or completely reconstructed. 

One of the major accomplishments of the Program in 
Oregon was the development or improvement of runs of 
several salmonid species in the area above Willamette 
Falls. A three-part project, the initial phase was a co- 
operative study of passage problems over Willamette 
Falls. Monies were then provided to stock the upper 
Willamette River and its tributaries as well as for stream 
clearance and improvement. In the final phase, the 
Program provided the major portion of funding the $4.1 
million fishway. As a result of these efforts, runs of fall 
chinook salmon and summer steelhead trout have been 
developed and spring chinook and coho salmon have in- 
creased. 

Oregon Coastal 

The first anadromous fish facility on the Oregon coast 



18 



Table 1-1. — Anadromous fish rearing facilities — Columbia basin-Washington, 1960-76. 









Species reared 


Anadromous 








General 


Operating 


during 


releases 


Year anadromous 


Facility 


location 


agency 1 


year span' 


in 1976 


operation began 


Funding agency 


Hatcheries 














Abemathy 


Longview 


USFWS 


fc (sc, co, sh) 


Yes 


1959 


USFWS, NMFS 


Beaver Creek 


Cathlamet 


WDG 


sh, src 


Yes 


1958 


NMFS 


Carson 


Carson 


USFWS 


sc (fc, co, sh) 


Yes 


1937 


USFWS, NMFS 


Chelan PUD 


Chelan 


WDG 


sh 


Yes 


1964 


Chelan PUD 


Columbia Basin 


Moses Lake 


WDG 


sh 


Yes 


1961 


Chelan PUD 


Cowlitz Salmon 


Salkum 


WDF 


fc, sc, CO 


Yes 


1967 


Tacoma P&L 


Cowlitz Trout 


Ethel 


WDG 


sh, src 


Yes 


1967 


Tacoma P&L 


Elokomin 


Cathlamet 


WDF 


fc, co (ch) 


Yes 


1954 


NMFS 


Goldendale 


Goldendale 


WDG 


sh 


No 


1943 


WDG 


Grays River 


Grays River 


WDF 


fc, co, ch 


Yes 


1961 


NMFS 


Kalama Falls 


Kalama 


WDF 


fc, SC, CO 


Yes 


1959 


NMFS 


Klickitat 


Glenwood 


WDF 


fc, SC, CO 


Yes 


1950 


NMFS 


Leavenworth complex 


Leavenworth 


USFWS 


sc, co, sk (fc) 


Yes 


1938 


USFWS 


Entiat 


Entiat 


USFWS 


smc (sc, co) 


Yes 


1942 


USFWS 


Winthrop 


Winthrop 


USFWS 


sms (fc, sc, co, sh) 


Yes 


1967 


USFWS 


Lewis River 


Woodland 


WDF 


co (fc, sc) 


Yes 


1909 


WSF, Pacific P&L 


Little White Salmon complex Cook 


USFWS 


fc, sc, co (ch) 


Yes 


1898 


USFWS, NMFS 


Willard 


Cook 


USFWS 


co (sc) 


Yes 


1951 


NMFS, USFWS 


Lower Kalama 


Kalama 


WDF 


fc, CO 


Yes 


1895 


WDF 


Mossyrock 


Mossyrock 


WDG 


sh, src 


Yes 


1972 


Tacoma P&L 


Naches 


Yakima 


WDG 


sh 


Yes 


1933 


WDG 


Skamania 


Washougal 


WDG 


sh (fc) 


Yes 


1956 


NMFS, WDG 


Speelyai 


Yale 


WDF 


sc, co (fc) 


Yes 


1958 


Pacific P&L 


Spring Creek 


Underwood 


USFWS 


fc (co) 


Yes 


1901 


USFWS, NMFS, Corps 


Big White Salmon pond 


Underwood 


USFWS 


fc, CO 


Yes 


1901 


USFWS, NMFS, Corps 


Toutle 


Toutle 


WDF 


fc, sc, CO 


Yes 


1952 


NMFS 


Tucannon 


Pomeroy 


WDG 


sh 


Yes 


1971 


WDG 


Vancouver 


Vancouver 


WDG 


sh, src 


Yes 


1936 


WDG 


Washougal 


Washougal 


WDF 


fc, co (ce) 


Yes 


1958 


NMFS 


Wells Trout 


Azwell 


WDG 


sh 


Yes 


1968 


Douglas Co. PUD 


Yakima 


Yakima 


WDG 


sh 


Yes 


1937 


WDG 


Rearing Ponds 














Alder Creek 


Toutle 


WDG 


sh 


Yes 


1973 


NMFS, WDG 


Gobar 


Toutle 


WDG 


sh 


Yes 


1975 


NMFS, WDG 


Nelson Bridge 


Yakima 


WDG 


sh 


No 


1964 


WDG 


Nile Springs 


Yakima 


WDF, Sportsmen 
Group 


sc 


Yes 


1976 


Sportsmens Group 


Priest Rapids 


Priest Rapids Dam 


WDF 


fc 


Yes 


1972 


Grant PUD 


Ringold Salmon 


Ringold 


WDF 


fc, sc, CO 


Yes 


1962 


NMFS 


Ringold Trout 


Ringold 


WDG 


sh 


Yes 


1962 


NMFS 


Rocky Reach 


Wenatchee 


WDF 


fc, CO 


Yes 


1970 


Chelan PUD 


Swofford Island 


Mossyrock 


WDG 


sh 


Yes 


1968 


WDG 


Washburn Island 


Brewster 


WDG 


sh 


No 


1966 


Douglas PUD 


Wells Salmon 


Azwell 


WDF 


fc sc, smc, co 


Yes 


1968 


Douglas PUD 



'USFWS = U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, NMFS = National Marine Fisheries Service, WDG = Washington Department of Game, WDF = Wash- 
ington Department of Fisheries, Chelan PUD = Chelan County Public Utility Division, Tacoma P & L = Tacoma Power and Light, Pacific P&L = Pacific 
Power and Light, Corps = U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Douglas PUD = Douglas County Public Utility Division, Grant PUD = Grant County Public 
Utility Division. 

"fc = fall chinook salmon, sc = spring chinook salmon, smc = summer chinook salmon, co = coho salmon, sh = steelhead trout, ch = chum salmon, 
src = sea-run cutthroat trout, sk = 9ockeye salmon, ce = cherry salmon. 



was a private hatchery constructed by R. D. Hume. The 
hatchery was completed in 1877 on a site near Ellens- 
burg on the lower Rogue River. Hume, a local salmon 
packer, operated the hatchery without assistance for 11 
yr. In 1889, the Oregon Legislature supported his efforts 
with monies appropriated for enlargement as well as for 
operation and maintenance of the hatchery. Hume con- 
tinued to operate the facility until his death in 1908 at 
which time it was turned over to the State. He built 
another hatchery in 1897 on the Rogue River at the 
mouth of Oak Creek. The U.S. Fish Commission, as 



agreed prior to construction, assumed responsibility for 
operating this hatchery after its completion. 

Hume was an early developer of hatchery techniques. 
He is credited with the concept of adult holding ponds. 
The adult chinook salmon needed for the hatchery egg 
supply were trapped in tidewater on their way to the up- 
per Rogue River. At trapping, these fish had not yet 
reached sexual maturity. Hume constructed a large, 
concrete-lined, covered holding pond to retain the fish 
until spawning time. Most present day hatcheries are 
built with a similar type adult holding facility. 



19 




OREGON 





Vancouver 


l ¥$ 2I 7 i s~^^ 










16 17 IB RIVER 






Map Facility 


Map 


Facility 






No 


No 








1 Grays River 


2 1 


Spring Creek 






2 Elokomin 




2IA Big White Salmon Pond 






3 Beaver Creek 


22 


Klickitat 






4 Abernathy 


23 


Goldendale 






5 Cowlitz Trout 


24 


Tucannon 






6 Cowlitz Salmon 


25 


Nile Springs 






7 Mossyrock 


26 


Yakima 






8 Swofford Pond 


27 


Nelson Bridge Pond 






9 Toutle 


28 


Naches 






10 Alder Creek Pond 


29 


Ringold Trout 


N 




1 1 Lower Kalama 




Ringold Salmon 


I 




12 Kalama Falls 


30 


Priest Rapids 






13 Gobar Pond 


31 


Columbia Basin 


1 




14 Lewis River 


32 


Leavenworth 








1 5 Speelyai 




32A Entiat 






16 Vancouver 




32B Winthrop 

r~i _ _ 1 f\ _ _ L_ 


80 

i 


160 
i 


17 Skamania 

18 Washougal 


33 

34 


Rocky Reach 
Chelan PUD 


Scale In Kilometers 




19 Carson 


35 


Wells Trout 






20 Little White Salmor 




Hatchery 






20A Willard 




Wells Salmon Pond 








36 


Washburn Island 









Figure 6.— Map of locations of Columbia Basin-Washington salmonid rearing facilities, 1%0-7I>. 



20 



Table 15.— Migrant releases of chinook and coho salmon and steelhead trout — Columbia Basin- Washington' (in thousands). 





Fall chinook 


Spring chinook 
Number Pounds 


Summer 
Number 


chinook 
Pounds 


Coho 
Number Pounds 


Winter steelhead Summers 
Number Pounds Number 


teelhead 


vear 


Number 


Pounds" 


Pounds 


1960 


57,338.0 


242.0 


1,218.1 


39.1 


0.0 


0.0 


3,849.0 


93.2 


545.1 


64.8 


136.4 


20.9 


1961 


33,531.9 


241.5 


667.7 


27.1 


0.0 


0.0 


9,161.6 


259.3 


586.5 


73.1 


417.6 


57.2 


1962 


42,537.5 


233.2 


1,822.5 


61.2 


0.0 


0.0 


6,802.2 


197.0 


715.5 


97.0 


355.5 


41.1 


1963 


42,646.2 


238.7 


1,680.9 


55.3 


0.0 


0.0 


15,096.9 


428.9 


568.7 


74.4 


767.2 


95.0 


1964 


40,611.0 


240.8 


3,607.1 


120.3 


0.0 


0.0 


9,833.6 


401.5 


647.6 


111.3 


1,192.0 


166.8 


1965 


37,073.6 


234.4 


2,072.4 


77.7 


0.0 


0.0 


13,950.5 


557.5 


943.7 


151.8 


1,176.7 


135.4 


1966 


38.121.2 


322.5 


2,425.4 


67.1 


0.0 


0.0 


17,932.4 


811.1 


879.1 


117.1 


1,175.5 


150.0 


1967 


34,969.8 


313.1 


3,269.7 


122.0 


0.0 


0.0 


15,092.7 


709.6 


992.8 


138.1 


1,460.3 


214.0 


1968 


42,448.4 


405.5 


2,399.9 


121.0 


2,138.3 


13.6 


12,256.9 


653.3 


792.2 


114.4 


1,904.9 


237.2 


1969 


45,846.5 


459.1 


3,876.2 


317.4 


2,121.3 


20.2 


20,808.5 


1,181.1 


782.6 


110.0 


1,948.9 


257.8 


1970 


52,857.2 


541.4 


5,633.1 


527.5 


3,834.4 


25.6 


18,441.7 


1,054.7 


1,399.9 


209.7 


2,292.3 


355.9 


1971 


50,830.3 


421.3 


6,706.0 


530.3 


1,784.2 


23.1 


23,336.8 


1,330.6 


1,493.0 


184.6 


1,813.8 


236.5 


1972 


58,504.5 


651.5 


7,063.5 


712.8 


2,373.2 


29.3 


22,445.3 


1,450.0 


1,185.7 


154.2 


1,990.4 


298.9 


1973 


61,036.0 


751.1 


5,899.1 


635.5 


2,095.5 


30.0 


21,317.9 


1,266.1 


1,815.9 


269.0 


1,578.6 


249.4 


1974 


57,986.7 


844.0 


6,826.0 


584.4 


872.8 


34.9 


20,616.4 


1,257.8 


1,187.2 


157.0 


1,618.0 


231.9 


1975 


60,938.2 


867.0 


7,863.2 


729.7 


0.0 


0.0 


21,785.9 


1,440.6 


1,099.5 


153.9 


1,789.0 


259.3 


1976 


58,174.1 


816.8 


9,431.8 


877.9 


294.0 


18.2 


20,573.6 


1,223.8 


1,325.3 


212.9 


1,461.4 


231.9 


Total 


815.451.1 


7,823.9 


72,462.6 


5,606.3 


15,513.7 


194.9 


273,301.9 


14,316.1 


16,960.3 


2,393.3 


23,078.5 


3,239.2 



'Derived from Wahle et al. (1975) prior to 1974, Foster et al. (see footnote 1, Table 8) for WDF 1974, Fletcher et al. (see footnote 1, 
Table 8) for WDF 1975, Foster et al. (1977) for WDF 1976, and from WDG release records and USFWS hatchery annual. 
2 1 lb = 0.454 kg. 



Table 16. — Migrant releases of chum, sockeye, and cherry salmon 
and sea-run cutthroat trout — Columbia Basin-Washington' (in 
thousands). 

















Sea- 


run 




Chum 


Sockeye 
No. Lb. 


Cherry 
No. Lb. 


cutth 
No. 


roat 


year 


No. 


Lb. J 


Lb. 


1960 


0.0 


0.0 


3,177.0 


69.2 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


1961 


50.8 


0.3 


2,788.0 


72.5 


0.0 


0.0 


6.9 


0.8 


1962 


402.9 


1.2 


2,224.0 


43.8 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


1963 


1,489.9 


2.1 


3,121.0 


67.8 


0.0 


0.0 


6.4 


0.8 


1964 


150.8 


0.2 


3,364.0 


58.8 


0.0 


0.0 


82.5 


10.0 


1965 


205.3 


0.3 


3,301.0 


73.6 


0.0 


0.0 


85.9 


13.6 


1966 


422.7 


0.4 


73.0 


1.6 


0.0 


0.0 


87.0 


17.5 


1967 


152.1 


0.2 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


182.5 


38.5 


1968 


38.6 


0.1 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


248.2 


52.5 


1969 


47.3 


0.1 


23.4 


0.7 


0.0 


0.0 


261.3 


50.3 


1970 


62.5 


0.1 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


302.3 


55.2 


1971 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


364.3 


65.1 


1972 


638.5 


1.2 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


159.2 


37.2 


1973 


563.6 


1.4 


0.0 


0.0 


1.8 


0.1 


202.4 


46.3 


1974 


627.3 


3.4 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


150.3 


31.9 


1975 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


139.6 


32.8 


1976 


1,126.8 


4.7 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


151.8 


34.6 


Total 


5,979.1 


15.7 


18,071.4 


388.0 


1.8 


0.1 


2,430.6 


487.1 



'Derived from Wahle et al. (1975) prior to 1974, Foster et al. (see foot- 
note 1, Table 8) for WDF 1974, Fletcher et al. (see footnote 1, Table 8) 
for WDF 1975, Foster et al. (1977) for WDF 1976, and from WDG release 
records and USFWS hatchery annual reports. 

2 1 lb = 0.454 kg. 

Hume was also one of the first to raise anadromous fish 
to larger than fry size on a production basis. Prior to his 
work, and in many cases afterwards, fish were released 
just after absorption of the yolk sac. A few fish were 
raised to fingerling and yearling size as a curiosity. While 
raising fish to larger sizes was not physically difficult, in- 
creased cost and need for larger facilities prevented the 
general adoption of the rearing procedure. Hume, among 
others, correctly predicted higher survival of larger fish 
with little increased costs of rearing. Presently, all 



anadromous facilities, with the exception of several 
chum and pink salmon hatcheries, rear their production 
fish for at least 30 days. 

In the 1890's and early 1900's, there were hatcheries or 
egg taking stations built on most of Oregon's coastal 
streams. In 1902 alone, hatcheries were built on the Co- 
quille, Siuslaw, Alsea, Yaquina, and Tillamook Rivers. 
One of these, built by the State on the Siuslaw River and 
then turned over to the U.S. Fish Commission, is inter- 
esting because of the reason for its failure. Adult fish 
were unable to reach the hatchery because fishermen 
working downstream blocked fish passage with nets 
stretched completely across the river. This is an extreme 
example of the intensive coast-wide pressure placed on 
the resource. 

In 1920, the responsibility for rearing anadromous sal- 
monids was split between the newly formed FCO and the 
OGC. By 1929, there were 10 State hatcheries and 1 Fed- 
eral hatchery in operation. The total accumulated pro- 
duction through 1929 was almost 650 million fish with 
most coming from State facilities. Emphasis was placed 
on fall chinook and coho salmon which accounted for 56% 
and 31% of these releases, respectively. 

There are presently 12 hatcheries in operation on the 
major coastal tributaries (Figs. 9, 10). Up until 1975 
when the two State fisheries agencies were recombined to 
form the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, five of 
these were operated by FCO and another five by OGC 
(Table 22). Nine of the 10 State hatcheries were built to 
enhance existing or depleted runs. The tenth, Cole Rivers 
Hatchery, is similar to many of the Columbia Basin fa- 
cilities in that it was built on the Rogue River to compen- 
sate for the loss of spawning grounds and resultant fish 
from Lost Creek Dam. 

In 1976, species reared in the greatest numbers at Ore- 
gon coastal hatcheries were coho salmon, fall chinook 



21 



Table 17.— Anadromous fish rearing facilities— Columbia Basin-Idaho. 1960-76. 









Species 


Anadromous 








General 


Operating 


reared during 


releases 


Year anadromous 




Facility 


location 


agency ' 


year span 2 


in 1976 


operation began 


Funding agency 1 


Hatcheries 














Dworshak 


Orofino 


USFWS 


sh 


Yes 


1969 


USFWS, Corps 


Eagle 


Boise 


IDFG 


smc 


Yes 


1976 


IDFG 


Hagerman 


Hagerman 


IDFG 


smc, sh (sc) 


Yes 


1969 


IDFG 


Hayden Creek 


Salmon 


IDFG 


sc, sh 


Yes 


1973 


NMFS, IDFG, USFWS 


Kooskia 


Kooskia 


USFWS 


sc 


Yes 


1966 


USFWS 


MacKay 


MacKay 


IDFG 


smc 


Yes 


1976 


NMFS 


McCall 


McCall 


IDFG 


smc 


Yes 


1976 


IDFG, PNRC 


Mullen 


Mullen 


IDFG 


sc 


Yes 


1976 


IDFG 


Niagara Springs 


Buhl 


IDFG 


sh 


Yes 


1966 


Idaho Power Co. 


Oxbow 


Oxbow Dam 


IDFG 


fc 


No 


1964 


Idaho Power Co. 


Pahsimeroi 


Challis 


IDFG 


smc, sh 


Yes 


1970 


IDFG, NMFS 


Rapid River 


Riggins 


IDFG 


sc 


Yes 


1964 


Idaho Power Co. 


Sandpoint 


Sandpoint 


IDFG 


sc 


Yes 


1972 


IDFG, NMFS 


Ponds 














Decker Flats 


Stanley 


IDFG 


sc 


No 


1968 


USFWS, NMFS, IDFG 



USFWS = U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Corps = U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, IDFG = Idaho Department of Fish 
and Game, NMFS = National Marine Fisheries Service, PNRC = Pacific Northwest Regional Commission. 

'fc = fall chinook salmon, sc = spring chinook salmon, smc = summer chinook salmon, sh = steelhead trout (minor 
species in parentheses). 



salmon, and winter steelhead trout, respectively. Sum- 
mer steelhead trout and spring chinook salmon also ac- 
counted for a substantial number of releases. The first 
three represented 52 c ™c, 19^, and 139c of the migrant 
numbers released (Table 23). 

There are also two private fish cultural operations ac- 
tive on the coast. They are a part of a new concept in 
commercial rearing of salmon by private companies 
termed "ocean ranching." Ocean ranching consists of 
raising fish to migrant size, releasing them into the 
ocean, and recovering returning adults. In Oregon, these 
returnees can then be sold commercially, hopefully at a 
profit, by the company. The enterprises are licensed by 
ODFW and must receive their initial egg supply from 
hatchery excesses at the State hatcheries. After their 
returns reach a sufficient number, the private hatcher- 
ies will be able to secure their own eggs without having to 
depend on the State. The primary species to be raised at 
these private facilities will be chinook, coho, and chum 
salmon. 

California 

Anadromous salmonid production on the Pacific coast 
began in California in 1872 with the activities of Living- 
ston Stone. The Federally operated fish hatchery he built 
on the McCloud River was first used solely as a collection 
site for eggs to be shipped to the east coast. After several 
years, the U.S. Bureau of Fisheries cooperated with the 
State in egg shipments and fry releases in local streams 
to augment natural spawning. The first State operated 
salmon hatchery was authorized and constructed in 1885 
on Hat Creek, a tributary of the Pit River. The local 
source of chinook salmon eggs proved inadequate so oper- 
ations were transferred in 1888 to the newly constructed 
Mt. Shasta Hatchery on a site near Sisson in Siskiyou 
County. This station is still in full-scale operation pro- 



ducing rainbow trout, making it the oldest functional 
hatchery on the west coast (Leitritz 1970). 

Up to the 1920's, many State and Federal hatcheries 
were built in northern California on the Klamath and 
Sacramento Rivers and their tributaries. There were also 
hatcheries on coastal tributaries such as the Eel, Rus- 
sian, and Mad Rivers. A hatchery operated by the county 
of Santa Cruz at Brookdale was the most southerly loca- 
tion of early fish cultural operations. 

Plants from these early hatcheries were made through- 
out the Sacramento and Klamath River drainages and 
most northern coastal streams. Some releases were made 
as far south as the Ventura River, south of Santa Bar- 
bara. While the majority of these fish were fall chinook 
salmon, the State hatcheries also liberated a few coho 
salmon fry. In 1902, the State hatcheries began a sub- 
stantial steelhead trout program. As fish propagation 
was a cooperative effort between the Federal and State 
governments, the Federal hatcheries supplied a large 
portion of the eggs that State hatcheries reared for 
release. In 1914, the Federal installations began to artifi- 
cially feed the small fall chinook salmon and release 
them as fingerlings or yearlings rather than planting 
them as unfed fry. This followed the example set by R. D. 
Hume in Oregon. 

In 1976, 1 Federal, 10 State, and 2 private hatcheries 
and ponds were operated in California (Table 24) . Of the 
13, 6 are on tributaries of the Sacramento River (Fig. 11). 
Fall chinook salmon, coho salmon, and winter steelhead 
trout are the three primary species reared in California, 
but the hatcheries are also undertaking spring chinook 
salmon and summer steelhead trout programs (Table 
25). 

As shown in the "Funding Agency" column of Table 
22, over one-half of the hatcheries and ponds are either 
partially or wholly supported by organizations other than 
the California Department of Fish and Game. While 



22 



Map Facility 
No 




1 Sandpoint 

2 Mullen 

3 Dworshak 

4 Kooskm 

5 Rapid River 

6 Oxbow 

7 Mc Call 

8 Hayden Creek 

9 Pahsimeroi 
10 Decker Flats Pond 
| | Mac Kay 

12 Eagle 

13 Hagerman 
I 4 Niagara 







80 



160 



Scale in Kilometers 

Figure 7. — Map of locations of Columbia Basin-Idaho salmonid rearing facilities, 1960-76. 



23 



Table 18. — Migrant releases of chinook salmon and steelhead trout- 
Idaho' (in thousands). 



■Columbia Basin- 



Release 


Fall chinook 


Spring chinook 


Summer chinook 


Summer steelhead 


year 


Number 


PoundV 


Number 


Pounds 


Number 


Pounds 


Number 


Pounds 


1960 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


1961 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


1962 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


1963 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


1964 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


1965 


1,282.3 


5.7 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


24.1 


2.6 


1966 


214.7 


1.3 


580.0 


25.7 


0.0 


0.0 


138.8 


15.5 


1967 


1,473.5 


5.9 


449.3 


19.4 


0.0 


0.0 


1,364.8 


121.9 


1968 


202.3 


1.1 


1,471.5 


58.5 


0.0 


0.0 


2,034.2 


228.1 


1969 


255.5 


1.9 


1,057.6 


40.9 


0.0 


0.0 


1,732.5 


185.3 


1970 


497.3 


2.3 


3,377.0 


177.2 


393.8 


9.8 


3,173.3 


491.7 


1971 


0.0 


0.0 


3,489.3 


172.5 


400.3 


13.9 


4,932.0 


634.8 


1972 


0.0 


0.0 


3,954.6 


198.2 


231.7 


13.3 


2,585.1 


411.2 


1973 


0.0 


0.0 


3,830.5 


206.3 


217.1 


4.3 


4,619.6 


400.0 


1974 


0.0 


0.0 


3,511.8 


187.9 


330.0 


8.1 


6,340.0 


752.6 


1975 


0.0 


0.0 


5,134.1 


309.9 


114.6 


2.9 


3,511.6 


520.4 


1976 


0.0 


0.0 


5,994.6 


354.8 


523.7 


22.3 


3,774.4 


487.4 


Total 


3,925.6 


18.2 


32,850.3 


1,751.3 


2,211.2 


74.6 


34,230.4 


4,251.5 



'Derived from Wahle et al. (1975) prior to 1974, Idaho Department of Fish and Game 
release records, and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service hatchery annual reports. 
-1 lb = 0.454 kg. 



Table 19. — Anadromous fish rearing facilities— Columbia Basin-Oregon, 1960-76. 









Species reared 


Anadromous 








General 


Operating 


during 


releases 


Year anadromous 




Facility 


location 


agency' * 


year span J 


in 1976 


operation began 


Funding Agency 


Hatcheries 














Big Creek 


Knappa 


ODFW (FCO) 


fc, co, sh (ch) 


Yes 


1938 


NMFS, Oregon 


Bonneville 


Bonneville 


ODFW (FCO) 


fc, co (sh) 


Yes 


1909 


NMFS, Oregon, Corps 


Cascade 


Cascade Locks 


ODFW (FCO) 


fc, co (sc, ch) 


Yes 


1958 


NMFS 


Eagle Creek 


Estacada 


USFWS 


sc, co, sh (fc) 


Yes 


1957 


NMFS 


Fall River 


LaPine 


ODFW (OGC) 


sc 


No 


1929 


Oregon 


Gnat Creek 


West port 


ODFW (OGC) 


sh (fc, sc, ch) 


Yes 


1960 


NMFS 


Hood River 


Dee 


ODFW (OGC) 


co, sh 


No 


1958 


Oregon 


Klaskanine 


Astoria 


ODFW (FCO) 


fc, co, sh 


Yes 


1911 


NMFS, Oregon 


Leaburg 


Leaburg 


ODFW (OGC) 


sc (co, sh) 


Yes 


1954 


Corps 


Marion Forks 


Idanha 


ODFW (FCO) 


sc.sh 


Yes 


1950 


Corps, Oregon 


McKenzie 


Leaburg 


ODFW (FCO) 


sc (co) 


Yes 


1930 


Corps, Oregon 


Metolius 


Camp Sherman 


ODFW (FCO) 


sc, sh 


No 


1947 


Oregon 


Oakridge (Willamette) 


Oakridge 


ODFW (FCO) 


sc (co) 


Yes 


1911 


Oregon, Corps 


Oak Springs 


Maupin 


ODFW (OGC) 


sh (sc) 


Y'es 


1920 


Oregon 


Oxbow 


Cascade Locks 


ODFW (FCO) 


fc, sc (co) 


Yes 


1938 


NMFS, Oregon 


Roaring River 


Scio 


ODFW (OGC) 


sh 


Yes 


1925 


Oregon 


Round Butte 


Madras 


ODFW (OGC) 


sc, smc, sh 


Yes 


1972 


PGE 


Sandy- 


Sandy 


ODFW I FCO) 


fc. co (sc, sh) 


Yes 


1950 


NMFS 


South Santiam 


Foster 


ODFW (FCO) 


sc, sh (fc) 


Yes 


1923 


Corps, Oregon 


Wallowa 


Enterprise 


ODFW (OGC) 


sh 


No 


1924 


Oregon 


Wizard Falls 


Camp Sherman 


ODFW (OGC) 


sc, sh 


No 


1949 


Oregon 


Ponds 














Aumsville 


Aumsville 


ODFW (FCO) 


fc 


Yes 


1970 


Oregon, NMFS 


Dexter 


Dexter 


ODFW (FCO) 


sc 


Yes 


1955 


Corps, Oregon 


Salem 


Salem 


ODFW (FCO) 


fc 


No 


1968 


Oregon, NMFS 


Stayton 


Stayton 


ODFW (FCO) 


fc 


Yes 


1969 


Oregon, NMFS 


Wahkenn 


Bonneville 


ODFW (FCO) 


fc, CO 


Yes 


1961 


NMFS 



'Present agency with premerger agency in parentheses. 

fc = fall chinook salmon, sc = spring chinook salmon, co = coho salmon, sh = steelhead trout, ch = chum salmon (minor species in parentheses). 

'ODFW = Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, OGC = Oregon Game Commission, FCO = Fish Commission of Oregon, NMFS =National Ma- 
rine Fisheries Sen-ice. USFWS = U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Corps = U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Oregon = State of Oregon General Funds, 
PGE = Portland General Electric. 



24 



WASHINGTON 




Map Facility 
No 



1 Klaskanine 

2 Big Creek 

3 Gnat Creek 

4 Sandy 

5 Wakeena Pond 

6 Bonneville 

7 Cascade 

8 OxBow 

9 Hood River 

10 Eagle Creek 

1 1 Oak Springs 

12 Salem Pond 

13 Aumsville Pond 



Map 
No. 


Facility 


14 


Stayton Pond 


15 


Roaring River 


16 


S. Santiam 


17 


Marion Forks 


18 


Metol ius 


19 


Wizard Falls 


20 


Round Butte 


21 


Mc Kenzie 


22 


Leaburg 


23 


Dexter Pond 


24 


Oakridge 


25 


Fall River 


26 


Wallowa 



80 

i 



160 



Scale in Kilometers 



Figure 8.— Map of locations of Columbia Basin-Oregon salmonid rearing facilities, 1960-76. 



25 



Table 20 


. — Migranl 


releases 


of chinook and coho salmon 


— Colum 


bia Basin- 


Oregon 1 








(in 


thousands) 












Fall chinook 
Number Pounds ; 


Spring chinook Summer 
Number Pounds Number 


chinook 
Pounds 


Coho 


year 


Number 


Pounds 


1960 


34.585.9 


99.1 


6,017.4 


168.3 


0.0 


0.0 


3,545.8 


156.6 


1961 


15,737.3 


78.1 


3,815.6 


144.6 


0.0 


0.0 


5,926.6 


266.7 


1962 


15,035.9 


57.5 


3,031.9 


128.8 


0.0 


0.0 


7,814.9 


413.9 


1963 


17.396.S 


93.1 


7,061.5 


272.0 


0.0 


0.0 


7,320.0 


382.3 


1964 


26,171.5 


174.8 


9.430.6 


312.6 


0.0 


0.0 


8,294.8 


437.3 


1965 


19,999.9 


141.3 


4.314.8 


173.6 


0.0 


0.0 


6,763.3 


390.4 


1966 


17,988.3 


174.3 


8.272.0 


363.1 


0.0 


0.0 


6,730.6 


394.7 


1967 


21,365.0 


193.9 


9,162.6 


419.0 


0.0 


0.0 


8,699.2 


471.6 


1968 


22,709.6 


270.6 


8.576.8 


554.5 


0.0 


0.0 


7,037.5 


411.5 


1969 


22,491.1 


225.3 


4,256.6 


334.4 


0.0 


0.0 


7,235.1 


480.8 


1970 


32,901.2 


358.9 


6,975.9 


683.2 


0.0 


0.0 


6,719.1 


419.6 


1971 


33,583.9 


276.0 


3,140.9 


288.3 


0.0 


0.0 


6,087.4 


397.6 


1972 


32,185.0 


341.9 , 


. 4,122.2 


356.0 


0.0 


0.0 


11,731.4 


814.5 


1973 


32,583.3 


371.6 


5.514.3 


609.0 


0.0 


0.0 


7.917.6 


481.7 


1974 


33,317.2 


359.9 


3,722.6 


321.0 


0.0 


0.0 


8,117.3 


482.9 


1975 


31,444.4 


372.6 


6.246.2 


498.5 


6.2 


0.2 


8,293.7 


575.6 


1976 


40,681.6 


525.7 


4.810.5 


439.8 


62.8 


2.2 


9.234.7 


599.6 


Total 


450.177.9 


4.114.6 


98,472.4 


6.066.7 


69.0 


2.4 


127.469.0 


7,577.3 



'Derived from VVahle et al. (1975) prior to 1974, Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife 
release records, and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service hatchery annual reports. 
2 1 lb = 0.454 kg. 



Table 21 


.— Migran 


t releases of chum salmon a: 


nd sea-run 


cutthroat trout — ( 


'olumbia 








Basin-Oreg 


on 1 (in thousands). 








Release 


Chum 


Winter steelhead 


Summer steelhead 


Sea-run 


cutthroat 


year 


Number 


Pounds 


Number 


Pounds 


Number 


Pounds 


Number 


Pounds 


1960 


0.0 


0.0 


388.8 


61.0 


17.4 


1.6 


1.2 


1.3 


1961 


12.8 


0.1 


307.7 


27.4 


63.1 


6.9 


9.0 


1.8 


1962 


314.6 


0.6 


1,096.9 


72.8 


0.0 


0.0 


9.7 


3.1 


1963 


280.9 


0.4 


746.2 


45.9 


70.4 


6.6 


6.5 


1.9 


1964 


0.0 


0.0 


695.0 


62.3 


136.0 


13.2 


0.0 


0.0 


1965 


0.0 


0.0 


758.2 


75.2 


59.0 


6.4 


1.0 


0.3 


1966 


315.4 


2.0 


854.0 


89.4 


153.0 


22.6 


0.0 


0.0 


1967 


372.0 


2.8 


1,004.9 


96.6 


114.9 


12.2 


7.5 


2.4 


1968 


135.0 


0.5 


980.9 


86.1 


390.3 


38.5 


0.0 


0.0 


1969 


82.6 


0.2 


883.0 


87.0 


530.6 


59.8 


0.0 


0.0 


1970 


0.0 


0.0 


712.5 


89.3 


456.2 


63.9 


1.2 


3.9 


1971 


0.0 


0.0 


748.1 


73.0 


441.7 


64.3 


7.0 


1.8 


1972 


0.0 


0.0 


887.8 


113.4 


759.0 


126.5 


13.7 


3.4 


1973 


0.0 


0.0 


824.4 


123.2 


1,009.1 


175.3 


8.5 


2.4 


1974 


0.0 


0.0 


1,048.8 


137.7 


998.5 


132.7 


0.0 


0.0 


1975 


0.0 


0.0 


849.9 


125.9 


876.6 


135.8 


34.1 


11.1 


1976 


0.0 


0.0 


949.1 


127.1 


1,011.8 


191.2 


40.9 


11.3 


Total 


1.513.3 


6.6 


13.736.2 


1,493.3 


7.067.6 


1,057.5 


140.3 


44.7 



'Derived from Wahle et al. (1975) prior to 1974, Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife 
release records, and L'.S. Fish and Wildlife Service hatchery annual reports. 
-1 lb = 0.454 kg. 



some of these are voluntarily funded by county govern- 
ments or private industry, most were constructed and are 
supported as compensation for loss offish spawning areas 
due to construction of dams and other water related pro- 
jects. Coleman NFH, operated by the USFWS, was built 
in 1942 in conjunction with Shasta Dam and the Central 
Valley Project which blocked salmonid access to a large 
area of the Sacramento River drainage. The Trinity 
River and Nimbus hatcheries were both built by the 
Bureau of Reclamation to compensate for construction of 
the Trinity Dam and the Folsom and Nimbus Dams, re- 
spectively. Additionally, Iron Gate and Mokelumne are 



funded by power companies and the Feather River 
Hatchers' is supported by the California Department of 
Water Resources. 

HATCHERY TRENDS 

Hatchery Numbers 

Since the first Pacific coast hatchery was built in 1872, 
rearing of salmon and steelhead trout has become a big 
business, both in efforts and dollars expended and bene- 
fits derived. In the late 1800's and early 1900's, many 



26 



<b 




Q 1 


Map 
No. 


Facility 




la 


Nehalem 


?0 ( 


lb 


Nehalem (old site) 




2 


Cape Mears Pond 




3a 


Trask 


SALEM 


3b 


Trask Pond 




4 


Cedar Creek 




5 


Siletz 




6 


Oregon Aqua- Foods 




7 


Lint Slough 




8 


Fall Creek (Alsea Salmon) 




9 


Alsea Trout 
N 



EUGENE 



40 



80 



Scale in Kilometers 

Figure 9. — Map of locations of northern Oregon coastal salmonid rearing facilities, 1960-76. 



State, Federal, and local government agencies and pri- 
vate enterprises rushed to build hatcheries. Though 
many of these early efforts ended in failure for various 
reasons, there were 72 hatcheries and rearing ponds on 
the coast in 1929. The total releases from all early hatch- 
eries through 1928 were in excess of 12 billion fry and 1 
billion fingerlings and yearlings (Cobb 1931). 

Between 1929 and the early 1940's, there was a decline 
in the number of active hatcheries due in part to the De- 
pression and World War II. All but 3 of the 18 U.S. 



Bureau of Fisheries (now U.S. Fish and Wildlife Serv- 
ice) hatcheries were closed, replaced, or turned over for 
State operation. The Alaskan, Canadian, and California 
facilities in production in 1929 were also closed, or in a 
few cases, converted to trout culture. Only the State 
hatcheries of Washington and Oregon did not decline 
significantly in number. Many of those built in these two 
States prior to 1929 are currently in production. Addi- 
tionally, new facilities built in the Washington coastal 
region in the 1930's are still in operation today. 



27 



Brookings 



Map Facility 
No 




C A L I F R N I 
Map Facility 
No 



1 Anadromous Inc. 

2 S. Coos 

3 Whistlers' Bend Pond 

4 Rock Creek 

5 Bandon 

6 Hemlock Meadows 



7 Elk River 

8 Libby Pond 

9 Indian Creek Pond 
10 Cole Rivers 

I | Medco Pond 

12 Butte Falls 



40 



80 



Scale in Kilometers 



Figure 10. — Map of locations of southern Oregon coastal salmonid rearing facilities, 1960-76. 



28 



Table 22.— Anadromous fish rearing facilities — Oregon coastal, 1960-76. 









Species reared 


Anadromous 








General 


Operating 


during 


releases 


Y'ear anadromous 




Facility 


location 


agency' ' 


year span 2 


in 1976 


operation began 


Funding agency 2 


Hatcheries 














Alsea 


Philomath 


ODFW (OGC) 


sh, src (fc, co) 


Yes 


1937 


Oregon 


Anadromous Inc. 


Coos Bay 


Private 


CO 


Yes 


1975 


Private 


Bandon 


Bandon 


ODFW (OGC) 


sh, src (fc, co) 


Yes 


1924 


Oregon 


Butte Falls 


Butte Falls 


ODFW (OGC) 


sc, sh 


No 


1916 


Oregon 


Cedar Creek 


Hebo 


ODFW (OGC) 


fc, sc, sh, src (co) 


Yes 


1935 


Oregon 


Cole Rivers 


McLeod 


ODFW (OGC) 


sc, sh 


Yes 


1972 


Corps 


Elk River 


Port Orford 


ODFW (FCO) 


fc (co, sh) 


Yes 


1969 


Oregon, Fed 


Fall Creek 


Alsea 


ODFW (FCO) 


fc, co (sc) 


Yes 


1952 


Oregon 


Nehalem 


Nehalem 


ODFW (FCO) 


fc, co, sh (sc, ch) 


Yes 


H968 


Oregon 


Oregon Aqua Foods 


Newport 


Private 


fc, sc, CO 


Yes 


1972 


Private 


Rock Creek 


Idlevld Park 


ODFW (OGC) 


sc, co, sh (fc) 


Yes 


1922 


Oregon 


Siletz River 


Nashville 


ODFW (FCO) 


co (fc, sc) 


Yes 


1937 


Oregon 


South Coos 


Coos Bav 


ODFW (FCO) 


CO 


No 


1900 


Oregon 


Trask River 


Tillamook 


ODFW (FCO) 


fc, sc, co (ch) 


Yes 


1914 


Oregon 


Rearing ponds 














Cape Mears 


Tillamook 


ODFW (OGC) 


fc 


No 


1967 


Oregon 


Hemlock Meadows 


Roseburg 


ODFW (OGC) 


sh 


No 


1964 


Oregon 


Indian Creek 


Shady Cove 


ODFW (OGC) 


CO 


No 


1969 


Oregon 


Libbv 


Gold Beach 


ODFW (OGC) 


fc 


No 


1965 


Oregon 


Lint Slough 


Waldport 


ODFW (OGC) 


fc, CO 


No 


1963 


Oregon 


Medco 


Prospect 


ODFW (OGC) 


sh 


No 


1962 


Oregon 


Whistlers Bend 


Roseburg 


ODFW (OGC) 


fc 


No 


1967 


Oregon 



: Current agency with premerger agency in parentheses. 

2 fc = fall chinook salmon, sc = spring chinook salmon, co = coho salmon, sh = steelhead trout, src = sea-run cutthroat trout, ch = chum 
salmon. 

; ODFW = Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, FCO = Fish Commission of Oregon, OGC = Oregon Game Commission, Oregon = 
State of Oregon General Fund, Corps = U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Fed = Federal Fund 89-304. 

4 Hatchery moved to this location in 1968. It was constructed on the original site in 1918. 



Table 23. 


— Migrant 


releases of chinook 


and col 


to salmon 


and steelhead and sea-run cutthroat trout- 


—Oregon 


coastal' 












(in thousands] 


. 














Fall chinook 


Spring chinook 
Number Pounds 


Coho 


Winter steelhead 
Number Pounds 


Summer; 
Number 


iteelhead Sea-run c 
Pounds Number 


utthroat 


year 


Number 


Pounds 2 


Number 


Pounds 


Pounds 


1960 


304.5 


1.0 


98.4 


13.9 


1,001.7 


68.0 


216.3 


16.7 


79.2 


8.5 


154.2 


41.5 


1961 


358.1 


2.6 


137.2 


15.6 


1,390.0 


89.2 


263.5 


28.8 


173.4 


31.5 


173.5 


50.0 


1962 


340.7 


1.1 


251.7 


42.2 


2,810.7 


167.8 


294.1 


33.2 


368.3 


32.3 


280.4 


74.1 


1963 


677.2 


7.5 


212.4 


35.7 


2,773.6 


171.7 


299.6 


36.8 


292.2 


23.8 


126.9 


45.3 


1964 


359.5 


1.9 


330.8 


39.6 


1,960.6 


121.2 


511.0 


60.8 


334.9 


28.0 


173.5 


53.4 


1965 


77.8 


0.9 


190.4 


23.8 


2,172.3 


129.0 


573.1 


57.4 


268.4 


27.0 


114.2 


35.9 


1966 


806.5 


9.2 


138.6 


14.9 


2,105.0 


138.7 


617.1 


90.4 


205.9 


22.6 


163.5 


51.1 


1967 


890.7 


10.7 


265.3 


39.9 


2,432.8 


156.8 


606.5 


79.2 


299.2 


43.9 


200.0 


65.5 


1968 


2,706.7 


42.6 


259.7 


39.9 


3,229.0 


193.8 


869.0 


127.2 


337.6 


53.5 


152.7 


45.2 


1969 


1,599.1 


61.7 


175.6 


27.4 


3,407.9 


235.8 


935.6 


136.3 


477.2 


73.3 


131.2 


45.5 


1970 


2,880.5 


107.5 


417.8 


56.1 


3,303.3 


219.2 


1,213.1 


173.4 


529.5 


90.6 


195.8 


60.8 


1971 


2,138.8 


96.4 


412.5 


57.8 


3,834.9 


261.3 


1,292.5 


206.3 


457.6 


74.5 


192.8 


53.9 


1972 


1,669.2 


103.6 


378.4 


57.2 


3,528.3 


244.1 


1,378.5 


211.4 


460.6 


71.7 


206.3 


55.0 


1973 


2,143.4 


97.5 


408.7 


64.9 


3,926.6 


266.2 


1,285.3 


183.5 


445.8 


81.6 


244.0 


70.8 


1974 


2.631.9 


162.4 


534.5 


83.3 


4,287.7 


273.5 


1,187.4 


159.0 


421.6 


73.0 


204.3 


61.2 


1975 


1,924.6 


120.1 


657.7 


106.3 


4,196.4 


307.8 


1,277.3 


196.5 


384.7 


77.3 


106.0 


51.5 


1976 


1,902.2 


166.4 


417.3 


57.5 


5,217.7 


349.2 


1,279.3 


206.8 


317.9 


53.3 


220.1 


64.2 


Total 


23.411.4 


993.1 


5,287.0 


776.0 


51,578.5 


3,393.3 


14,099.2 


2,003.7 


5,854.0 


866.4 


3,129.4 


924.9 



'Derived from Wahle et al. (1975) prior to 1974 and Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife hatchery release reports. 
n lb = 0.454 kg. 



In the late 1940's salmon and steelhead trout popula- 
tions along the Pacific coast began to decline because of 
increased fishing pressure, loss of habitat, and fish 
passage problems at newly constructed hydroelectric 
projects. This decline stimulated increased hatchery pro- 
duction efforts. The Lower Columbia River Develop- 
ment Program, of the then Bureau of Commercial Fish- 



eries, funded the construction of a number of hatcheries, 
including Willard, Kalama Falls, Abernathy, and Klicki- 
tat, and the renovation of other facilities already in oper- 
ation. Several new hatcheries were built in California in- 
cluding the Coleman NFH constructed by the U.S. 
Bureau of Reclamation for the USFWS to replace two fa- 
cilities inundated by the filling of Shasta Lake. 



29 



Table 24.— Anadromous fish rearing facilities— California, 19B0-76. 









Species reared 


Anadromous 








General 




during 


releases 


Year anadromous 




Facility 


location 


Operating agency 1 


year span 2 


in 1976 


operation began 


Funding agency 1 


Hatcheries 














Coleman 


Anderson 


USFWS 


fc, sh (co) 


Yes 


1942 


USFWS 


Crystal Lake 


Burney 


CDFG 


sh (co) 


Yes 


1948 


CDFG 


Darrah Springs 


Paynes Creek 


CDFG 


co (fc) 


Yes 


1954 


CDFG 


Feather River 


Oroville 


CDFG 


fc, sc, sh 


Yes 


1967 


CDWR 


Iron Gate 


Hornbrook 


CDFG 


fc, sc, co, sh 


Yes 


1966 


CDFG, PP&L 


Mad River 


Blue Lake 


CDFG 


fc, co, sh 


Yes 


1971 


CDFG, NMFS 


Merced rearing facility 


Snelling 


CDFG 


fc, CO 


Yes 


1973 


CDFG 


Mokelumne 


Clements 


CDFG 


fcsh 


Yes 


1964 


EBMUD 


Nimbus 


Rancho Cordova 


CDFG 


fcsh 


Yes 


1955 


BR 


Prairie Creek 


Crick 


Humbolt County 


fc, co, sh, src 


Yes 


1928 


Humbolt County 


Trinity 


Lewiston 


CDFG 


fc, sc, co, sh 


Yes 


1963 


BR 


Ponds 














Cochran Creek 


Eureka 


Fish Action Council 
Humbolt County 


fc, co 


Yes 


1968 


CDFG 


Pacific Lumber Co. 


Scotia 


Pacific Lumber Co., 
CDFG 


sh 


No 


1972 


Pacific Lumber Co. 


Talmadge 


Talmadge 


Sports Club, CDFG 


sh 


Yes 


1972 


Mendocino County 



'USFWS = U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, CDFG = California Department of Fish and Game, CDWR = California Department of Water Resources, 
PP&L = Pacific Power and Light, NMFS = National Marine Fisheries Service (Anadromous Fish Act), EBMUD = East Bay Municipal Utility Dis- 
trict, BR = Bureau of Reclamation. 

2 fc = fall chinook salmon, sc = spring chinook salmon, co = coho salmon, sh = steelhead trout, src = sea-run cutthroat trout. 



As water-use projects continued to block access to 
anadromous salmonid spawning and rearing areas, it was 
necessary to build hatcheries to compensate for the 
resulting loss of fish. Some of these hatcheries include 
Trinity River and Iron Gate in California, Chelan PUD 
and the two Cowlitz hatcheries in Washington, and 
Round Butte in Oregon. 

The 1960's saw the re-entry of Alaska and British 
Columbia into the salmonid propagation field. Again, 
this was necessitated by decline in fish stocks and the de- 
creases in catches in those two areas. Idaho was also 
forced into the hatchery salmon and steelhead trout pro- 
gram because of the adverse effects of dams on the 
Columbia and Snake Rivers. 

In 1960 there were 72 hatcheries, pens, and saltwater 
net pens producing salmon and steelhead trout on the 
coast (Fig. 12). This was approximately the same 
number as in 1929. The number increased to a maxi- 
mum of 154 in 1976, over a twofold gain. In all, 192 facil- 
ities reared anadromous fish for at least 1 yr on the Pa- 
cific coast during the 17-yr span ending in 1976. 

Species Reared 

One of the major trends in hatchery production of sal- 
monids has been the shift in emphasis placed on rearing 
different species of salmon and anadromous trout. Prior 
to 1929, of the over 12 billion fry and 1 billion fingerlings 
and yearlings released, almost half were sockeye salm- 
on. In 1910 alone there were almost 400 million sockeye 
salmon fry released (Cobb 1931). 

With the closing of large Alaska and British Columbia 
sockeye salmon stations in the 1920's and 1930's species 
emphasis changed. For the 17 yr since 1960, the major 
species reared have been chinook salmon, coho salmon, 



and steelhead trout (Fig. 13). The sockeye salmon re- 
leases had declined to only 3 million in 1960 with most of 
these coming from Leavenworth NFH on the upper 
Columbia River in Washington. Since 1967, when 
Leavenworth terminated its sockeye salmon program, 
only two releases of this species have been made totaling 
27,000 fish. 

Rearing Trends 

One of the major changes in hatchery operations has 
been the switch from releasing unfed fry to releasing 
salmon and steelhead trout after a period of rearing. In 
the late 1800's and early 1900's, the standard hatchery 
practice was to release fish soon after the eggs hatched, 
when the yolk sac had been absorbed. The small number 
that were retained and fed were kept as curiosities. 
Although no difficulty was experienced raising these fish, 
the added expense of fish food as well as the inadequate 
rearing space at the hatcheries precluded general adop- 
tion of rearing programs. 

As previously stated, a few fish culturists, including R. 
D. Hume from Oregon, disagreed with the practice of re- 
leasing unfed fry. It was their belief that unfed fry were 
ill equipped to survive competition with wild fish and 
predators and the increased survival and contribution 
obtained from releasing larger fish would outweigh the 
additional expense of rearing. Over the years this has 
proven to be true and today almost all anadromous fish 
are fed for a period of time before they are released. 

The early efforts of rearing fish depended on diet based 
on ground meat and fish products. Liver, spleen, and 
salmon carcasses were common ingredients, supple- 
mented with various grains and meals. These diets were 
not very efficient and were messy and time consuming to 



30 



Map 
No. 



Facility 



Map 
No 



Facility 



1 Iron Gate 

2 Prairie Creek 

3 Mad River 

4 Cochran Creek 



8 Darrah Springs 

9 Crystal Lake 
10 Feather River 

Talmadge Pond 



5 Pacific Lumber Co. Pond 12 Nimbus 

6 Trinity River '3 Mokelumne Facility 
1 Coleman 14 Merced River 





LOCATION MAP 



80 



160 



Scale in Kilometers 



Figure 1 1.— Map of locations of northern California salmonid rearing facilities, 1960-7G. 



31 



Table 25. 



-Migrant releases of chinook and coho salmon and steelhead and sea-run cutthroat trout — California 1 

thousands). 



(in 





Fall chinook 


Spring chinook 
Number Pounds 


Coho 


Winter steelhead 
Number Pounds 


Summer steelhead Sea-run c 
Number Pounds Number 


utthroat 


year 


Number 


Pounds 2 


Number 


Pounds 


Pounds 


1960 


5,386.6 


125.5 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


315.1 


16.4 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


1961 


34,085.5 


226.6 


0.0 


0.0 


58.0 


5.9 


518.1 


49.7 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


1962 


7,293.3 


140.7 


0.0 


0.0 


364.0 


32.0 


187.3 


18.6 


0.0 


0.0 


1.9 


0.4 


1963 


19,862.4 


205.5 


0.0 


0.0 


498.9 


43.9 


72.3 


10.4 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


1964 


10,161.7 


148.7 


300.0 


10.4 


499.3 


43.9 


1,163.1 


146.3 


0.0 


0.0 


2.7 


0.9 


1965 


6,529.8 


161.8 


224.5 


12.8 


1,097.4 


81.8 


736.7 


74.6 


0.0 


0.0 


6.8 


1.1 


1966 


11,015.7 


171.6 


0.0 


0.0 


747.2 


86.2 


2,436.2 


327.1 


0.0 


0.0 


10.7 


2.6 


1967 


7,748.4 


123.9 


0.0 


0.0 


1,264.6 


87.9 


2,027.0 


281.3 


0.0 


0.0 


7.6 


2.0 


1968 


14,157.1 


163.0 


528.6 


41.3 


1,821.0 


130.1 


2,129.7 


314.3 


0.0 


0.0 


5.3 


1.3 


1969 


17,442.9 


193.7 


673.4 


57.4 


1,448.1 


123.1 


1,818.8 


274.8 


0.0 


0.0 


3.1 


1.3 


1970 


16,808.6 


302.9 


120.8 


14.8 


1,152.1 


93.0 


2,169.8 


318.5 


18.7 


2.2 


55.0 


3.8 


1971 


34,206.1 


475.3 


569.9 


66.5 


1,245.5 


112.1 


3,618.9 


399.3 


133.6 


18.5 


0.0 


0.0 


1972 


37,275.7 


494.3 


247.3 


24.8 


1,664.5 


153.3 


4,340.6 


527.9 


212.2 


26.9 


0.8 


0.1 


1973 


21.707.1 


387.6 


507.6 


64.5 


1,161.7 


79.3 


2,916.7 


344.4 


37.1 


3.8 


1.0 


0.6 


1974 


22,667.0 


418.4 


482.9 


47.2 


802.8 


54.4 


3,081.1 


348.7 


141.6 


27.2 


0.0 


0.0 


1975 


27,837.6 


456.6 


303.2 


32.9 


1,771.1 


151.0 


2,524.3 


298.8 


0.0 


0.0 


6.1 


0.8 


1976 


24,444.4 


471.2 


888.5 


115.8 


1,046.6 


90.4 


2,948.5 


416.2 


77.8 


12.6 


4.3 


1.2 


Total 


318.629.9 


4,667.3 


4,846.7 


488.4 


16,642.8 


1,368.3 


33,004.2 


4.167.3 


621.0 


91.2 


105.3 


16.1 



'Derived from Wahel et al. (1975) prior to 1974, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service hatchery annual reports, and California hatchery 
records. 

-1 lb = 0.454 kg. 






T I I 1 I I r~ 

i960 61 62 63 64 65 66 d7 



-i — I — I 1 — r~ 

72 73 71 75 76 



Year 



Figure 12. — Number of Pacific coast salmonid rearing facilities 
releasing anadromous salmonids by year, 1960-76. 



Figure 13. — Numbers of Pacific coast releases of chinook and coho 
salmon and steelhead trout I in millions). 



32 



prepare. In the 1950's, conversion ratios as low as 5.6 lb 
(25 kg) of food fed per pound (0.45 kg) of weight gained 
were reported from the ground-meat base diets used at 
several FCO hatcheries. At most hatcheries today, less 
than 2 lb (0.91 kg) of food are required for a 1 lb (0.45 kg) 
gain in weight. Another disadvantage of the meat diets 
was the spread of bacteria and viral diseases, to young fish 
from diets that included salmon carcasses. Although the 
diets did have disadvantages, they still allowed larger 
fish to be reared. 

Several developments in the late 1950's had important 
effects on rearing practices. Improved pasteurization 
methods were developed to treat salmon viscera, an im- 
portant component of many meat based diets. This pro- 
cess was used to kill disease-causing organisms that 
would otherwise have affected the young fish. Commer- 
cial, dry, pelletized trout diets received much attention 
experimentally as a salmon diet. Few of the standard 
trout feeds showed promise and all required meat diets to 
be used while the fish started feeding. 

In 1959, after many years of experimentation, the FCO 
began feeding Oregon moist pellets (OMP) to fish at 16 of 
their salmon hatcheries. The OMP diet, developed joint- 
ly by the FCO and Oregon State University scientists 
with funds supplied by the U.S. Bureau of Commercial 
Fisheries (now National Marine Fisheries Service), was a 
breakthrough in the area of hatchery nutrition. This easi- 
ly fed diet does not require any preparation at the 
hatchery and is readily accepted by the fish. It consists of 
a combination of cereals, fish meals, fish oils, dried skim 
milk, and vitamin supplements. Fish fed this diet have 
shown, in almost all cases, better survival and contribu- 
tion to the fishery than fish fed old ground meat type 
diets (Hublou et al. 1959, Hublou 1963). Development of 
the OMP has opened the way for other types of diets in- 
cluding the Abernathy dry pellet developed at Abernathy 
Salmon Cultural Development Center. These new diets 
have made hatcheries biologically and economically 
feasible ventures. 



Size at Time of Release 

One of the most interesting trends of hatchery pro- 
duction over the last 17 yr has been the change in release 
size of migrant coho, spring chinook, and fall chinook 
salmon. Until the early 1960's hatcheries emphasized 
numbers of fish liberated. It was common for a hatchery 
to take more eggs than could be reared to migrant size. 
As fish grew and crowding occurred, fish in excess of 
hatchery capacities were released. Out of an egg-take of 
over 13 million fall chinook salmon eggs in 1959, Spring 
Creek NFH produced only 7.8 million migrants in May of 
1960. The other 5.8 million were thinned out 3 mo earlier 
CWahle et al. 1975). The average size for all species of mi- 
grant salmon released from Pacific coast rearing facili- 
ties in 1960 was 88 fish/lb (5.2 g/fish) (Fig. 14a). Fall chi- 
nook salmon, reared for 5 or 6 mo, averaged 211 fish/lb 
(2.29 g/fish) (Fig. 14b). Spring chinook and coho salm- 
on, reared for an average of 20 mo, both averaged 33 
fish/lb (13.8 g/fish) (Fig. 14c,d). 




I960 65 

C Spring Chinook 



Figure 14. — Average size of various species of Pacific coast anad- 
romous salmonid releases (all species combined), 1960-76. (1 lb 
equals 0.454 kg.) 



In the early 1960's, a trend developed away from maxi- 
mizing numbers at hatcheries. Instead, the philosophy of 
raising less fish to a larger size began to gain acceptance 
among the fish rearing agencies. Marking experiments 
showed that these larger fish had better survival and 
contribution to the fisheries (Senn and Noble 1968; John- 
son 1970; Wallis 7 ; Senn et al. 8 ; Washington Department 
of Fisheries 9 ). Numbers of migrant fish released actually 
declined slightly from 1960 to 1962 (Fig. 15) even though 
the number of facilities increased (Fig. 12). While mi- 
grant numbers held fairly constant from 1960 to 1976, the 
number of migrant pounds increased almost six times 
(Fig. 15). In 1976, fall chinook salmon smolts averaged 59 
fish/lb (7.7 g/fish) (Fig. 14b). Spring chinook and coho 
salmon showed similar size change, going from approxi- 
mately 32 fish/lb (4.2 g/fish) to 11 fish/lb (41.2 g/fish) and 
from 33 fish/lb (13.6) to 17 fish/lb (26.7 g/fish), respec- 
tively (Fig. 14c, d). During this time, the average size for 
all species combined went from 88 fish/lb (5.2 g/fish) to 
26 fish/lb (17.5 g/fish) (Fig. 14a). 



? Wallis, J. 1968. Recommended time, size and age for release of 
hatchery-reared salmon and steelhead trout. Fish. Comm. Oreg., Clacka- 
mas. Proc. Rep., 61 p. 

8 Senn, H. G., R. C.Hager, and C. W. Hopley, Jr. 1975. The effects 
of experimentally varying the size and time of release of hatchery-reared 
coho salmon. Unpubl. manuscr., 14 p. Washington Department of 
Fisheries, Olympia, Wash. 

"Washington Department of Fisheries. 1977. 1972-brood Toutle 
River coho time/size at release study. Unpubl. manuscr., 16 p. Wash- 
ington Department of Fisheries, Olympia, Wash. 



33 



LITERATURE CITED 




Figure 15.— Total Pacific coast migrant anadromous salmonid 
releases (all species combined), 1960-76. (1 lb equals 0.454 kg.) 



ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

Because of the large amount of data required to write 
this report, we wish to thank all those who helped us with 
our research. We especially thank the following individ- 
uals: William Sholes and Patrick O'Brien, California De- 
partment of Fish and Game; Carl Copper, Ernest Jef- 
feries, and Jim Griggs, Oregon Department of Fish and 
Wildlife; Walt Bethke, Idaho Department of Fish and 
Game; Jim Morrow, Washington Department of Game; 
William Hopley, Robert Foster, Harry Senn, Walt Wil- 
liams, and Robert Hager, Washington Department of 
Fisheries; Keith Sandercock, Canadian Fisheries and 
Marine Service; Joe Wallis and Roger Blackett, Alaska 
Department of Fish and Game; and Marvin Smith, Paul 
Handy, and John Miller, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 
In addition, the following individuals contributed help- 
ful editorial comments: Al Pruter and John Hodges, Na- 
tional Marine Fisheries Service; E. W. (Joe) Lesh, Cali- 
fornia Department of Fish and Game; Chris Jensen, Ore- 
gon Department of Fish and Wildlife; Dave Ortmann, 
Idaho Department of Fish and Game; and L. Edward 
Perry and Fredrick Cleaver, Pacific Northwest Regional 
Commission. We also thank Robert Vreeland and Reino 
Koski, National Marine Fisheries Service, for invalu- 
able assistance with editing and proofreading the report. 



ATKINS, C. G. 

1874. On the salmon of eastern North America, and its artificial 
culture. U.S. Comm. Fish Fish., Rep. Coram. 1872 and 1873, 
part 2, append. B:226-335. 

BERG, 1. 1. 

1968. History- of the Washington State Department of Fisheries 
1890-1967. Wash. Dep. Fish., Olympia, 35 p. 

CHANEY. E.. and L. E. PERRY. 

1976. Columbia Basin salmon and steelhead analysis. Summary 
rep. September 1. 1976. Pac. Northwest Reg. Comm., 74 p. 

COBB. J. N. 

1931. Pacific salmon fisheries. U.S. Bur. Fish., Rep. U.S. Comm. 
Fish. 1930, append. B:409-704. 

CRAWFORD, J. 

1890. First report of the State Fish Commissioner. State Wash., 

Olympia. 34 p. 
1892. Second report of the State Fish Commissioner. State 

Wash., Olympia, 36 p. 
1896. Fourth report of the State Fish Commissioner. State Wash., 

Olympia. 40 p. 

DAVIS, H. S. 

1953. Culture and diseases of game fishes. Univ. Calif. Press, 
Berkeley, 332 p. 

FOSTER, D„ V. FLETCHER, and B. RISER. 

1977. 1976 hatchery statistical report of production and plant- 
ings. Wash. Dep. Fish.. Olympia, 155 p. 

HAIME. J. 

1874. The history of fish-culture in Europe from its earlier records 
to 1854. U.S. Comm. Fish Fish., Rep. Comm. 1872 and 1873, part 
2, append. D:463-492. 
HUBLOU, W. F. 

1963. Oregon pellets. Prog. Fish-Cult. 25:175-180. 
HUBLOU, W. F.. J. WALLIS, T. B. McKEE, D. K. LAW, R. O. SINN- 
HUBER.andT. C.UY. 
1959. Development of the Oregon pellet diet. Oreg. Fish Comm., 
Res. Briefs 7:28-56. 

JOHNSON, A. K. 

1970. The effect of size at release on the contribution of 1964-brood 
Big Creek Hatchery' coho salmon to the Pacific Coast sport and 
commercial fisheries. Oreg. Fish. Comm., Res. Rep. 2:64-76. 
LEACH, G. C. 

1932. Propagation and distribution of food fishes, fiscal year, 

1931. U.S. Bur. Fish., Rep. U.S. Comm. Fish., 1931, append. 
4:627-690. 

1933. Propagation and distribution of food fishes, fiscal year, 

1932. U.S. Bur. Fish., Rep. U.S. Comm. Fish., 1932, append. 
4:531-569. 

LEACH, G. C, and M. C. JAMES. 

1934. Propagation and distribution of food fishes, fiscal year 
1934. U.S. Bur. Fish., Rep. U.S. Comm. Fish., 1934, append. 
4:385-417. 

LEITRITZ, E. 

1970. A history of California's fish hatcheries, 1870-1960. Calif. 
Dep. Fish Game, Fish Bull. 150, 92 p. 

MILXER, J. W. 

1874. The progress of fish culture in the United States. U.S. 
Comm. Fish Fish., Rep. Comm. 1872 and 1873, part 2, append. 
D:523-558. 

SENN, H. G., and R. E. NOBLE. 

1968. Contribution of coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch from a 
Columbia River watershed hatchery. Wash. Dep. Fish., Fish. 
Res. Pap. 3:51-62. 

STONE. L. 

1874. Report of operations during 1872 and the United States 
salmon-hatching establishment on the M'Cloud River, and on the 
California Salmonidae generally; with a list of specimens col- 
lected. U.S. Comm. Fish Fish., Rep. Comm. 1872 and 1873, part 
2, append. B:168-215. 



34 



WAHLE. R. J., W. D. PARENTE. P. J. JURICH, and R. R. 
VREELAND. 

1975. Releases of anadromous salmon and trout from Pacific Coast 
rearing facilities, 1960 to 1973. U.S. Dep. Commer.. Natl. Mar. 



Fish. Serv., Data Rep. 101, 443 p. on 7 microfiche. 
VVALTEMYER, D. L., and S. C. LINDSTROM (editors;. 

1976. A summary of preliminary 1976 forecasts for Alaskan salmon 
fisheries. Alaska Dep. Fish. Game, Inf. Leafl. 169, 49 p. 



Appendix Table 1. — Pacific coast anadromous fish rearing facilities. 



Facility name 



Region 



Facility name 



Region 



Aberdeen State Fish Hatchery 
4203 Central Park Drive 
Aberdeen, WA 98520 

Abernathy Salmon Cultural 

Development Center 
1440 Abemathy Road 
Longview. WA 9S632 

Alder Creek Rearing Pond 

co Beaver Creek State Fish Hatchery 

Route 1. Box 274A 

Cathlamet. WA 98612 

Alsea Fish Hatchery 
Star Route 2. Box 52 
Philomath, OR 97370 

Anadromous Inc. 
Route 2. Box 2012 
Deer Island, OR 97054 

Arlington Trout Hatchery 
Route 3. Box 107 
Arlington. WA 98223 

Aumsville Pond 
8743 Bishop RdS.E. 
Aumsville. OR 97325 

3andon Fish Hatchery 
Route 1. Box 195 
Bandon. OR 97411 

Bamaby Rearing Pond 
P.O. Box 102 
Rockport. WA 98283 

Bay Center Mariculture 

Box 303 

Bay Center, WA 98527 

Beaver Creek Trout Hatchery- 
Route 1, Box 274A 
Cathlamet. WA 98612 

Bellingham Fish Hatchery 
Whatcom Falls Park 
Bellingham, WA 98225 

Big Creek Fish Hatchery 
Route 4. Box 594 
Astoria. OR 97103 

Big Qualicum Hatchery 

RR= 3 

Qualicum Beach, British Columbia 



Washington coastal and 
Puget Sound 



Columbia Basin-Washington 



Columbia Basin- Washington 



Oregon coastal 



Oregon coastal 



Washington coastal and 
Puget Sound 



Columbia Basin-Oregon 



Oregon coastal 



Washington coastal and 
Puget Sound 



Washington coastal and 
Puget Sound 



Columbia Basin- Washington 



Washington coastal and 
Puget Sound 



Columbia Basin-Oregon 



British Columbia 



Big White Salmon Rearing Pond 
c/o Spring Creek National Fish 

Hatchery 
Underwood, WA 98651 

Blue Slough Rearing Pond (Closed) 
c/o Washington Dept. of Game 
600 N.Capitol Way 
Olympia, WA 98504 

Bonneville Fish Hatchery 
P.O. Box 262 
Bonneville, OR 97008 

Bowman's Bay Rearing Ponds 

(Closed) 
c/o Washington Dept. of Fisheries 
Rm 115, Gen. Admin. Bldg. 
Olympia, WA 98504 

Butte Falls Fish Hatchery 
580 Fish Lake Road 
Butte Falls, OR 97522 

Cape Mears (Closed) 
c/o Oregon Dept. of Fish and Wildlife 
P.O. Box 3503 
Portland, OR 97208 
ATTN:Mr.Jefferies 

Capilano Hatchery 

4500 Capilano Park Road 

North Vancouver, British Columbia 

Carson National Fish Hatchery- 
Carson, WA 98610 

Cascade Fish Hatchery- 
Star Route. Box 526 
Bonneville, OR 97008 

Cedar Creek Fish Hatchery 
Route 1, Box 9 
Hebo, OR 97122 

Chambers Creek Trout Hatchery 
c/o South Tacoma Hatchery 
7723 Phillips County Road, S.W. 
Tacoma. WA 98498 

Chelan PUD Trout Fish Hatchery 
Star Route 
Chelan, WA 98816 

Cochran Creek Rearing Pond 
c/o Humbolt Fish Action Council 
P.O. Box 154 
Eureka, CA 95501 



Columbia Basin- Washington 



Washington coastal and 
Puget Sound 



Columbia Basin-Oregon 



Washington coastal and 
Puget Sound 



Oregon coastal 



Oregon coastal 



British Columbia 



Columbia Basin- Washington 



Columbia Basin-Oregon 



Oregon coastal 



Washington coastal and 
Puget Sound 



Columbia Basin- Washington 



California 



35 



Coleman National Fish Hatchery 
Route 1, Box 2105 
Anderson, CA 96007 



California 



Elokomin Salmon Hatchery 
Route 1, Box 300 
Cathlamet, WA 98612 



Columbia Basin-Washington 



Cole Rivers Fish Hatcher*' 
Laurelhurst Road 
Trail, OR 97541 

Columbia Basin State Fish Hatchery 
Route 2, Box 333C 
Moses Lake, WA 98837 

Coos River State Hatchery (Closed) 
c/o Oregon Dept. of Fish and Wildlife 
P.O. Box 3503 
Portland, OR 97208 
ATTNiMr.Jefferies 

Cowlitz Salmon Hatchery 
2284 Spencer Road 
Salkum, WA 98582 

Cowlitz Trout Hatchery 
Salkum, WA 98582 

Crystal Lake Hatchery 
P.O. Box 1088 
Petersburg, AK 99833 



Oregon coastal 



Columbia Basin- Washington 



Oregon coastal 



Columbia Basin- Washington 



Columbia Basin- Washington 



Alaska 



Entiat National Fish Hatchery- 
Star Route, Box 410 
Entiat. WA 98822 

Fall Creek Hatchery lAlsea Salmon) 
Route 2, Box 47 
Alsea. OR 97324 

Falls River Fish Hatchery- 
15055 S. Century Drive 
Bend, OR 97701 

Feather River Hatchery 
5 Table Mt. Blvd. 
Oroville, CA 95965 

Fire Lake Hatchery 

P.O. Box 488 

Eagle River, AK 99577 

Garrison Spring Salmon Hatchery 

P.O. Box 94141 

Fort Steilacoom, WA 98494 



Columbia Basin-Washington 



Oregon coastal 



Columbia Basin-Oregon 



California 



Alaska 



Washington coastal and 
Puget Sound 



Crystal Lake Hatchery 
Route 2, Box 1113 
Burney, CA 96013 



California 



George Adams Hatchery 
Rt. 5, Box 125 
Shelton, WA 98584 



Washington coastal and 
Puget Sound 



Darrah Springs Hatchery 

P.O. Box 8 

Paynes Creek, CA 96075 

Decker Flats Rearing Pond 
P.O. Box 1196 
Salmon, ID 83467 



California 



Columbia Basin-Idaho 



Gnat Creek Fish Hatchery 
Star Route 2 
Clatskanie, OR 97016 

Goldendale Trout Hatchery- 
Route 2, Box 1 1 1 
Goldendale, WA 98620 



Columbia Basin-Oregon 



Columbia Basin-Washington 



Deschutes Rearing Pond 
c/o Washington Dept. of Fisheries 
Rm 115, Gen. Admin. Bldg. 
Olympia. WA 98504 



Washington coastal and 
Puget Sound 



Gorst Creek Pond 
c/o Washington Dept. of Fisheries 
Rm 115, Gen. Admin. Bldg. 
Olympia, WA 98504 



Washington coastal and 
Puget Sound 



Dexter Rearing Pond 
General Delivery 
Lowell, OR 97456 



Columbia Basin-Oregon 



Grays River Salmon Hatchery 

P.O. Box 768 

Grays River, WA 98621 



Columbia Basin- Washington 



Domsea Farms Aquaculture 
Salt water-P.O. Box 372 

Manchester, WA 98353 
Fresh water-510 Washington 

Bremerton, WA 98310 

Dungeness Salmon Hatchery 
Route 6, Box 983 
Sequim, WA 98383 

Dworshak National Fish Hatchery 
P.O. Box 251 
Ahsahka. ID 83520 

Eagle Hatchery 
Eagle, ID 83616 

Eagle Creek National Fish Hatchery- 
Route 1. Box 610 
Estacada. OR 97023 

Elk River Fish Hatchery- 
Star Route. Box 150 
Port Orford, OR 97465 



Washington coastal and 
Puget Sound 



Washington coastal and 
Puget Sound 



Columbia Basin-Idaho 



Columbia Basin-Idaho 



Columbia Basin-Oregon 



Oregon coastal 



Green River Salmon Hatchery- 
Route 1. Box 740 
Aubum, WA 98002 

Green River Rearing Pond 
P.O. Box 96 
Palmer, WA 98048 

Hagerman State Fish Hatchery 
Hagerman, ID 83332 

Halibut Cove Lagoon 
c/o F.R.E.D. Division 
P.O. Box 234 
Homer. AK 99603 

Harrison Rearing Pond 
c/o Barnaby Rearing Pond 
P.O. Box 102 
Rockport. WA 98283 

Hayden Creek Hatchery 
P.O. Box 25 
Lemhi, ID 83465 



Washington coastal and 
Puget Sound 



Washington coastal and 
Puget Sound 



Columbia Basin-Idaho 



Alaska 



Washington coastal and 
Puget Sound 



Columbia Basin-Idaho 



36 



Hemlock Meadows Rearing Pond 

(Closed) 
c/o Oregon Dept. of Fish and Wildlife 
P.O. Box 3503 
Portland. OR 97208 

ATTN: Mr. Jefferies 

Hood Canal Salmon Hatchery 
P.O. Box 6 
Hoodsport. WA 98548 



Oregon coastal 



Washington coastal and 
Puget Sound 



Little Clam Bay Rearing Pond 
c/o Washington Dept. of Fisheries 
Rm 115. Gen. Admin. Bldg. 
Olympia, WA 98504 

Little Port Walter Research Station 
c/o Auke Bay NMFS Fisheries 

Laboratory 
P.O. Box 155 
Auke Bay, AK 99821 



Washington coastal and 
Puget Sound 



Alaska 



Hood River State Trout Hatchery 

(Closed) 
c/o Oregon Dept. of Fish and Wildlife 
P.O. Box 3503 
Portland. OR 97208 

ATTN: Mr. Jefferies 



Indian Creek Rearing Pond (Closed) 
c/o Oregon Dept. of Fish and Wildlife 
P.O. Box 3503 
Portland, OR 97208 
ATTN: Mr. Jefferies 

Iron Gate Hatchery 
Copco Star Route 
Hombrook, CA 96044 



Columbia Basin-Oregon 



Oregon coastal 



California 



Little White Salmon National Fish 

Hatchery 
P.O. Box 17 
Cook, WA 98605 

Lower Kalama Salmon Hatchery 
1404 Kalama River Road 
Kalama, WA 98625 

Lummi Indian Net Pens 

c/o Lummi Indian Tribal Enterprises 

Mr. Jim Ellis 

P.O. Box 309 

Marietta, WA 98268 

MacKay Hatchery 
MacKay, ID 83251 



Columbia Basin-Washington 



Columbia Basin-Washington 



Washington coastal and 
Puget Sound 



Columbia Basin-Idaho 



Issaquah Salmon Hatchery 
P.O. Box 465 
Issaquah, WA 98027 



Washington coastal and 
Puget Sound 



Mad River Hatchery 
Route 1, Box 184 
Areata, CA 95521 



California 



Kalama Falls Salmon Hatchery 
3900 Kalama River Road 
Kalama, WA 98625 

Klaskanine Fish Hatchery 
Route 1, Box 764 
Astoria, OR 97103 

Klickitat Salmon Hatchery 
Route 2. Box 90 
Glenwood, WA 98619 

Kooskia National Fish Hatchery 
Route 1. Box 98-A 
Kooskia, ID 83539 



Columbia Basin-Washington 



Columbia Basin-Oregon 



Columbia Basin-Washington 



Columbia Basin-Idaho 



Marion Forks Fish Hatchery 
Star Route, Box 71 
Idanha, OR 97350 

McCall Hatchery 
P.O. Box 1021 
McCall, ID 83638 

McKenzie Fish Hatchery 
43863 Greer Drive 
Leaburg, OR 97401 

Medco Rearing Pond (Closed) 
c/o Oregon Dept. of Fish and Wildlife 
P.O. Box 3503 
Portland, OR 97208 
ATTN: Mr. Jefferies 



Columbia Basin-Oregon 



Columbia Basin-Idaho 



Columbia Basin-Oregon 



Oregon coastal 



Leaburg Fish Hatchery 
90701 Fish Hatchery Road 
Leaburg, OR 97401 

Leavenworth National Fish Hatchery 
Route 1, Box 123- A 
Leavenworth, WA 98826 

Lewis River Salmon Hatchery 
4404 Lewis River Road 
Woodland, WA 98674 

Libby Rearing Pond (Closed) 
c/o Oregon Dept. of Fish and Wildlife 
P.O. Box 3503 
Portland. OR 97208 
ATTN: Mr. Jefferies 

Lint Slough Rearing Pond 
c/o Oregon Dept. of Fish and Wildlife 
P.O. Box 3503 
Portland, OR 97208 
ATTN: Mr. Jefferies 



Columbia Basin-Oregon 



Columbia Basin-Washington 



Columbia Basin- Washington 



Oregon coastal 



Oregon coastal 



Mendenhall Rearing Pond 

c/o Alaska Dept. of Fish and Game 

210 Ferry Way 

Juneau, AK 99801 

ATTN: Mr. Bethers 

\ 

Merced River Rearing Facility 
P.O. Box 94 
Snelling, CA 95369 

Metolius Hatchery (Closed) 
c/o Oregon Dept. of Fish and Wildlife 
P.O. Box 3503 
Portland, OR 97208 
ATTN: Mr. Jefferies 

Minter Creek Salmon Hatchery 
Route 4, Box 4595 
Gig Harbor, WA 98335 

Mokelumne Rearing Facility 
P.O. Box 158 
Clements, CA 95227 



Alaska 



California 



Columbia Basin-Oregon 



Washington coastal and 
Puget Sound 



California 



37 



Mossyrock Trout Hatchery 
P.O. Box 108 
Mossyrock, WA 98564 

Mullen Hatchery 
P.O. Box 448 
Mullen, ID 83846 

Naches Trout Hatchery 
Rural Route 1 
Naches, WA 98937 

Nehalem Fish Hatchery 
Route 1, Box 292 
Nehalem, OR 97131 

Nelson Bridge Rearing Pond 
c/o Naches State Fish Hatchery 
Rural Route 1 
Naches, WA 98937 

Nemah Salmon Hatchery 

Star Route 

South Bend, WA 98586 

Niagara Springs Hatchery 
P.O. Box 128 
Wendell, ID 83355 

Nile Springs 

c/o Washington Dept. of Fisheries 
Rm 115, Gen. Admin. Bldg. 
Olympia, WA 98504 

Nimbus Hatchery 
2001 Nimbus Road 
Rancho Cordova, CA 95670 

Nooksack Salmon Hatchery 
Glacier Star Route 
Deming, WA 98244 

Northwest Steelheaders' Rearing 

Ponds 
c/o N.W. Steelheaders Council 
3634 Walker Road 
Tacoma, WA 98443 

Oakridge Fish Hatchery 
76389 Fish Hatchery Pt. 
Oakridge, OR 97463 

Oak Springs Fish Hatchery 
Route 1, Box 134 
Maupin, OR 97037 

Olympic Rearing Channel 

420 Laird 

Port Angeles, WA 98362 



Columbia Basin-Washington 



Columbia Basin-Idaho 



Columbia Basin-Washington 



Oregon coastal 



Columbia Basin- Washington 



Washington coastal and 
Puget Sound 



Columbia Basin-Idaho 



Columbia Basin- Washington 



California 



Washington coastal and 
Puget Sound 



Washington coastal and 
Puget Sound 



Columbia Basin-Oregon 



Columbia Basin-Oregon 



Washington coastal and 
Puget Sound 



Pacific Lumber Co. Rearing Ponds 
c/o Pacific Lumber Council 
Scotia, CA 95565 

Pahsimeroi Hatchery 
P.O. Box 84 
Ellis. ID 83235 

Percival Cove Rearing Pond 
c/o Washington Dept. of Fisheries 
Rm 115, Gen. Admin. Bldg. 
Olympia. WA 98504 

Prairie Creek Hatchery' 
Orick, CA 95555 

Priest Rapids Salmon Rearing Facility 
P.O. Box 937 
Mattawa, WA 99344 

Puntledge Rearing Facility 

c/o Big Qualicum Hatchery 

RR# 3 

Qualicum Beach, British Columbia 

Puyallup Salmon Hatchery 
Route 1. Box 97 
Orting, WA 98360 

Puyallup Trout Hatchery 
1416 14th Street 
Puyallup. WA 98371 

Quilcene National Fish Hatchery 
Quilcene, WA 98376 

Quinault National Fish Hatchery 
P.O. Box 80 
Neilton, WA 98556 

Rapid River Hatchery 
(Circle "C" Hatchery) 
Riggins, ID 83549 

Ringold Salmon Rearing Pond 
Star Route 
Mesa, WA 99343 

Ringold Trout Rearing Pond 
Star Route 
Mesa, WA 99343 

Roaring River Fish Hatchery 
42255 Fish Hatchery Drive 
Scio. OR 97374 

Robertson Creek Rearing Facility 

c/o Environment Canada 

Fisheries and Marine Service 

1090 Pender St. 

Vancouver, British Columbia V6E 2P1 



California 



Columbia Basin-Idaho 



Washington coastal and 
Puget Sound 



California 



Columbia Basin- Washington 



British Columbia 



Washington coastal and 
Puget Sound 



Washington coastal and 
Puget Sound 



Washington coastal and 
Puget Sound 

Washington coastal and 
Puget Sound 



Columbia Basin- Washington 



Columbia Basin- Washington 



Columbia Basin- Washington 



Columbia Basin-Oregon 



British Columbia 



Oregon Aqua Foods 
88700 Marcola Road 
Springfield, OR 97477 

Oxbow Hatchery' 
P.O. Box 85 
Oxbow, OR 97840 

OxBow Fish Hatchery- 
Star Route. Box 750 
Cascade Locks. OR 97014 



Oregon coastal 



Columbia Basin-Idaho 



Columbia Basin-Oregon 



Rock Creek Fish Hatchery 
Toketee Route, Box 12 
Idleyld Park. OR 97447 

Rock Reach Salmon Rearing Facility 

601 N. Jenifer Lane 

E. Wenatchee. WA 98801 

Rosewall Rearing Facility 
c/o Pacific Biological Station 
P.O. Box 100 
Nanaimo, British Columbia 



Oregon coastal 



Columbia Basin-Washington 



British Columbia 



38 



Round Butte Fish Hatchery 
P.O. Box 513 

Madras. OR 97741 



Columbia Basin-Oregon 



South Tacoma Trout Hatchery 
7723 Phillips County Road, S.W. 
Tacoma, WA 98498 



Washington coastal and 
Puget Sound 



Salem Rearing Pond 
c/o Oregon Dept . of Fish and Wildlife 
P.O. Box 3503 
Portland, OR 97208 
ATTN': Mr. Jefferies 

Salt Creek Rearing Pond (Closed) 
c/o Washington Dept. of Game 
600 X.Capitol Way 
Olympia. WA 98504 

Samish Salmon Hatchery 
P.O. Box 555 
Old Highway 99 
Burlington, WA 98233 

Sandpoint Hatchery 

Route 1 

Sagle, ID 83860 

Sandy River Fish Hatchery 
39800 S.E. Fish Hatchery Road 
Sandy, OR 97055 

Seward Park Hatcher, 
Seward Park 
Seattle, WA 98118 

Shelton Trout Hatchery 
Route 5, Box 251 
Shelton, WA 98584 

Siletz Fish Hatchery 
Nashville Route. Box 125 
Blodgett. OR 97326 

Simpson Salmon Hatchery 
Route 1, Box 140 
Elma, WA 93541 

Skagit Salmon Hatchery 
Cascade Route 
Marblemount, WA 98267 

Skamania Trout Hatchery- 
Route 2, Box 464 
Washougal, WA 98611 

Skykomish Rearing Ponds 
Route 2, Box 395'/ 2 
Sultan, WA 98294 

Skykomish Salmon Hatchery 
Route 2, Box 423 
Sultan, WA 98294 

Soleduck Salmon Hatchery 
P.O. Box 8 
Beaver. WA 98305 

South Santiam Fish Hatchery 
43182 N. River Road 
Sweet Home, OR 97386 

South Sound Net Pens 
c/o Washington Dept. of Fisheries 
Rm 115, Gen. Admin. Bldg. 
Olympia, WA 98504 



Columbia Basin-Oregon 



Washington coastal and 
Puget Sound 



Washington coastal and 
Puget Sound 



Columbia Basin-Washington 



Columbia Basin-Oregon 



Washington coastal and 
Puget Sound 



Washington coastal and 
Puget Sound 



Oregon coastal 



Washington coastal and 
Puget Sound 



Washington coastal and 
Puget Sound 



Columbia Basin-Washington 



Washington coastal and 
Puget Sound 



Washington coastal and 
Puget Sound 



Washington coastal and 
Puget Sound 



Columbia Basin-Oregon 



Washington coastal and 
Puget Sound 



Speelyai Salmon Hatchery 
11001 Lewis River Road 
Ariel, WA 98603 

Spring Creek National Fish Hatchery 
Underwood, WA 98651 

Squaxin Island Mariculture 
33324 Pacific Highway 
Auburn, WA 98002 

Starrigavan Net Pens 
P.O. Box 499 
Sitka, AK 99835 

Stayton Rearing Pond 
c/o Aumsville Rearing Pond 
8743 Bishop Road S.E. 
Aumsville, OR 97325 

Steilacoom Net Pens (Closed) 
c/o Washington Dept. of Fisheries 
Rm 115, Gen. Admin. Bldg. 
Olympia, WA 98504 

Swofford Rearing Pond 
1182 Spencer Road 
Winlock, WA 98596 

Talmadge Rearing Pond 

c/o Mendocino County Offices 

Ukiah, CA 95482 

Tokul Creek Trout Hatchery 

Route 1 

Fall City, WA 98024 

Toutle River Salmon Hatchery 
1500 Cook Road 
Toutle, WA 98649 

Trask River Fish Hatchery 
15020 Chance Road 
Tillamook, OR 97141 

Trinity River Hatchery 
P.O. Box 162 
Lewiston, CA 96052 

Tucannon Trout Hatchery 
Route 1, Box 32 
Pomeroy, WA 99347 

Tulalip Rearing Facility 
c/o Mr. Wayne Williams 
3901 Totem Beach Road 
Marysville, WA 98270 

Vancouver Trout Hatchery 
12208 Evergreen Highway S.E. 
Vancouver, WA 98660 

Wahkeena Rearing Pond 

c/o OxBow State Salmon Hatchery 

Star Route, Box 750 

Cascade Locks, OR 97014 



Columbia Basin — Washington 



Columbia Basin— Washington 



Washington coastal and 
Puget Sound 



Alaska 



Columbia Basin-Oregon 



Washington coastal and 
Puget Sound 



Columbia Basin- Washington 



California 



Washington coastal and 
Puget Sound 



Columbia Basin- Washington 



Oregon coastal 



California 



Columbia Basin- Washington 



Washington coastal and 
Puget Sound 



Columbia Basin- Washington 



Columbia Basin- Oregon 



39 



Wallowa Fish Hatchery 
Route 1, Box 278 
Enterprise, OR 97828 

Washburn Island Rearing Facility 

(Closed) 
c/o Washington Dept. of Game 
600 N. Capitol Way 
Olympia, WA 98504 

Washougal Salmon Hatchery- 
Route 2, Box 443 
Washougal, WA 98671 

Wells Salmon Rearing Facility 
Box 3, Azwell Route 
Pateros, WA 98846 

Wells Trout Hatchery 
Box 2, Azwell Route 
Pateros, WA 98846 

Westport Boat Basin Rearing Facility 
c/o Washington Dept. of Fisheries 
Rm 115, Gen. Admin. Bldg. 
Olympia. WA 98504 

Whidby Island Rearing Facility 
c/o Whidby Salmon Association 
P.O. Box 175 
Clinton, WA 98236 



Columbia Basin-Oregon 



Columbia Basin- Washington 



Columbia Basin-Washington 



Columbia Basin- Washington 



Columbia Basin — Washington 



Washington coastal and 
Puget Sound 



Washington coastal and 
Puget Sound 



Whistler's Bend Rearing Pond 

(Closed) 
c/o Oregon Dept . of Fish and Wildlife 
P.O. Box 3503 
Portland, OR 97208 

ATTEN: Mr. Jefferies 

Whitehorse Rearing Pond 
Route 3, Box 229 
Arlington, WA 98223 

Willapa Salmon Hatchery- 
Route 1, Box 192 
Raymond, WA 98577 

Willard National Fish Hatchery 
Star Route 
Cook, WA 98605 

Winthrop National Fish Hatchery 
P.O. Box 218 
Winthrop, WA 98862 

Wizard Falls Fish Hatchery- 
Camp Sherman, OR 97730 

Yakima Trout Hatchery 
2306 S. 16th Avenue 
Yakima. WA 98902 



Oregon coastal 



Washington coastal and 
Puget Sound 



Washington coastal and 
Puget Sound 



Columbia Basin- Washington 



Columbia Basin- Washington 



Columbia Basin-Oregon 



Columbia Basin-Washington 



Appendix Table 2. — Agencies operating fish rearing facilities on the Pacific coast. 



Agency 



Address 



Contact 



Phone 



Alaska Department of Fish and Game 



California Department of Fish and Game 



F.R.E.D. 

333 Raspberry Road 

Anchorage, AK 99502 

1001 Jedsmith Drive 
Sacramento, CA 95819 



Environment Canada-Fisheries and Marine Service 1090 West Pender St. 

Vancouver 1, B.C. V6E 2P1 



Humboldt County, California 
Idaho Department of Fish and Game 

National Marine Fisheries Service I Alaska) 

Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife 
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service 

Washington Department of Fisheries 
Washington Department of Game 



Nikki Newcome 907-344-0541 



Patrick O'Brien 916-445-0111 



Ted Perry 



604-666-6966 



Walt Bethke 



C/o Prairie Creek Hatchery 
Orick, CA 95555 

600 South Walnut 
P.O. Box 25 
Boise, ID 83707 

Auke Bay Research Station 

Box 155 

Auke Bay, AK 99821 

P.O. Box 3503 
Portland, OR 97208 

Suite 1692 

Lloyd 500 Building 

500 N.E. Multnomah St. 

Portland, OR 97232 



Room 115, General Admin. Bldg. Harry Senn 
Olympia, WA 98501 



Steven Sanders 707-488-2253 



208-964-3791 



William Heard 907-789-7231 



Ernie Jefferies 503-229-5675 



Paul Handy 



503-231-6216 



206-753-1872 



600 N. Capitol Way 
Olympia, WA 98504 



James Gearhart 206-753-5713 



* U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: 1979^99-286/207 REGION 10 



40 



NOAA TECHNICAL REPORTS 
NMFS CIRCULAR AND SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC REPORT- 
GUIDELINES FOR CONTRIBUTORS 



FISHERIES 



CONTENTS OF MANUSCRIPT 

First page. Give the title (as concise as possible) of the paper 
and the author's name, and footnote the author's affiliation, 
mailing address, and ZIP code. 

Contents. Contains the text headings and abbreviated figure 
legends and table headings. Dots should follow each entry and 
page numbers should be omitted. 

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and literature citations do not belong in the abstract. 

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Government Printing Office Style Manual, 1973 edition. Fish 
names, follow the American Fisheries Society Special Publica- 
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from the United States and Canada, third edition, 1970. Use 
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May 1977. 

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Copies. Fifty copies will be supplied to the senior author and 
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NOAA Technical Report NMFS SSRF- 737 

Movements of Pelagic Dolphins 
{Stenella Spp.) in the Eastern 
Tropical Pacific as Indicated 
by Results of Tagging, 
With Summary of Tagging 
Operations, 1969-76 



W. F. Perrin, W. E. Evans, and 
D. B. Holts 



September 1979 




U.S. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE 

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 

National Marine Fisheries Service 



NOAA TECHNICAL REPORTS 
National Marine Fisheries Service, Special Scientific Report — Fisheries 

The major responsibilities of the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) are to monitor and assess the abundance and geographic 
distribution of fishery resources, to understand and predict fluctuations in the quantity and distribution of these resources, and to establish levels 
for optimum use of the resources. NMFS is also charged with the development and implementation of policies for managing national fishing 
grounds, development and enforcement of domestic fisheries regulations, surveillance of foreign fishing off United States coastal waters, and the 
development and enforcement of international fishery agreements and policies. NMFS also assists the fishing industry through marketing service 
and economic analysis programs, and mortgage insurance and vessel construction subsidies. It collects, analyzes, and publishes statistics on 
various phases of the industry. 

The NOAA Technical Report NMFS Circular series continues a series that has been in existence since 1941. The Circulars are technical 
publications of general interest intended to aid conservation and management. Publications that review in considerable detail and at a high 
technical level certain broad areas of research appear in this series. Technical papers originating in economics studies and from management in- 
vestigations appear in the Circular series. 

NOAA Technical Report NMFS Circulars are available free in limited numbers to governmental agencies, both Federal and State. They are 
also available in exchange for other scientific and technical publications in the marine sciences. Individual copies may be obtained (unless 
otherwise noted) from D822. User Services Branch, Environmental Science Information Center, NOAA, Rockville, MD 20852. Recent Cir- 
culars are: 



700. Expendable bathythermograph observations from the NMFS. 
MARAD Ship of Opportunity Program for 1973. By Steven K. Cook. 
June 1976, iii + 13 p., 10 figs. For sale by the Superintendent of Docu- 
ments, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC 20402; Stock 
No. 003-017-00382-5. 

701. Seasonal abundance and distribution of zooplankton. fish eggs, 
and fish larvae in the eastern Gulf of Mexico, 1972-74. By Edward D. 
Houde and Nicholas Chitty. August 1976, iii + 18 p., 14 figs., 5 tables. 

702. Length composition of yellowfin, skipjack, and bigeye tunas caught 
in the eastern tropical Atlantic by American purse seiners. By Gary T. 
Sakagawa, Atilio L. Coan, and Eugene P. Holzapfel. August 1976. iv + 
22 p., 7 figs.. 7 tables. 15 app. tables. 

703. Aquacultural economics bibliography. By John Von- 
druska. October 1976, 123 p. 



ments, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC 20402; Stock 
No. 003-020-00134-3. 

712. Annual physical and chemical oceanographic cycles of Auke Bay, 
southeastern Alaska. By Herbert E. Bruce, Douglas R. McLain, and 
Bruce L. Wing. May 1977, iii + 11 p., 16 figs., 1 table. For sale by the 
Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Wash- 
ington, DC 20402; Stock No. 003-020-00134-3. 

713. Current patterns and distribution of river waters in inner Bristol 
Bay. Alaska. By Richard R. Straty. June 1977, iii + 13 p., 16 figs., 
1 table. 

714. Wind stress and wind stress curl over the California Current By 
Craig S. Nelson. August 1977, iii + 87 p., 18 figs., 1 table. 3 app. For 
sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Of- 
fice. Washington, DC 20402; Stock No. 003-020-00139-4. 



704 The macrofauna of the surf zone off Folly Beach, South Carolina. 
By William D. Anderson Jr., James K. Dias. Robert K. Dias. David M. 
Cupka, and Norman A. Chamberlain. January 1977, iv + 23 p., 2 
figs., 31 tables. 

705. Migration and dispersion of tagged American lobsters, Homarus 
amerkanus, on the southern New England continental shelf. By Joseph 
R. Uzmann. Richard A. Cooper, and Kenneth J. Pecci. January 1977. v 
+ 92 p., 45 figs., 2 tables, 29 app. tables. 

706. Food of western North Atlantic 'una- iThunnus) and lancetfishes 
(Alepisaurus). By Frances D. Matthews, David M. Damkaer, Leslie W. 
Knapp. and Bruce B. Collette. January 1977, iii + 19 p., 4 figs., 1 table, 
11 app. tables. 

7ii7 Monthly temperature and salinity measurements of continental 
shelf waters of the northwestern Gulf of Mexico. 1963-65. By Robert F. 
Temple. David L. Harrington, and John A. Martin. February 1977, iii + 
26 p.. 5 figs., 10 tables. 

708. Catch and catch rates of fishes caught by anglers in the St. Andrew- 
Bay system, Florida, and adjacent coastal waters, 1973. By Doyle F. 
Sutherland. March 1977, iii + 9 p., 2 figs., 9 tables. 

709. Expendable bathythermograph observations from the NMFS 
MARAD Ship of Opportunity Program for 1974. By Steven K. Cook and 
Keith A. Hausknecht. April 1977, iv + 45 p.. 10 figs., 9 tables, 35 app. 
figs. For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government 
Printing Office, Washington, DC 20402; Stock No. 003-017-00397-3. 



715. Bottom obstructions in the southwestern North Atlantic, Gulf of 
Mexico, and Caribbean Sea. By G Michael Russell, Abraham J. Bar- 
rett, L. Steve Sarbeck. and John H Wordlaw. September 1977, iii + 21 
p.. 1 fig., 1 app. table. For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, 
U.S. Government Printing Ofi'ce. Washington, DC 20402; Stock No. 003- 
020-00140-8. 

716. Fishes and associated environmental data collected in New York 
Bight, June 1974-June 1975. By Stuart J. Wilk, Wallace W. Morse, 
Daniel E. Ralph, and Thomas R. Azarovitz. September 1977, iii + 53 
p., 3 figs., 3 tables. For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. 
Government Printing Office, Washington, DC 20402; Stock No. 003-017- 
0040-4. 

717. Gulf of Maine-Georges Bank ichthyoplankton collected on ICNAF 
larval herring surveys September 1971-February 1975. By John B. 
Colton. Jr. and Ruth R. Byron. November 1977, iii + 35 p., 9 figs.. 14 
tables. 

718. Surface currents as determined by drift card releases over the con- 
tinental shelf off central and southern California. By James L. Squire, 
Jr. December 1977. iii + 12 p., 2 figs. 

719. Seasonal description of winds and surface and bottom salinities 
and temperatures in the northern Gulf of Mexico, October 1972 to Janu- 
ary 1976. By Perry A. Thompson, Jr. and Thomas D. Leming. Febru- 
ary 1978, iv + 44 p., 43 figs., 2 tables. For sale by the Superintendent of 
Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC 20402; 
Stock No. 003-017-00414-7. 



710. Midwater invertebrates from the southeastern Chukchi Sea: 
Species and abundance in catches incidental to midwater trawling survey 
of fishes. September-October 1970. By Bruce L. Wing and Nancy Barr. 
April 1977. iii + 43 p.. 1 fig., 2 tables, 2 app. tables. For safe by the 
Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Wash- 
ington, DC 20402; Stock No. 003-020-00130-1. 

711. A list of the marine mammals of the world. By Dale W. 
Rice. April 1977, iii + 15 p. For sale by the Superintendent of Docu- 



720. Sea surface temperature distributions obtained off San Diego, 
California, using an airborne infrared radiometer. By James L. Squire, 
Jr. March 1978, iii + 30 p., 15 figs., 1 table. For sale by the Superin- 
tendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, 
DC 20402; Stock No. O03-017-0O415-5. 

721. National Marine Fisheries Service survey of trace elements in the 
fishery resource. By R. A. Hall, E. G. Zook, and G. M. Mea- 
burn. March 1978, iii + 313 p., 5 tables, 3 app. figs., 1 app. table. 



NOAA Technical Report NMFS SSRF- 737 










Movements of Pelagic Dolphins 
(Stenella Spp.) in the Eastern 
Tropical Pacific as Indicated 
by Results of Tagging, 
With Summary of Tagging 
Operations, 1969-76 



W. F. Perrin, W. E. Evans, and 
D. B. Holts 

September 1979 



U.S. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE 

Juanita M. Kreps, Secretary 

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 

Richard A. Frank, Administrator 

National Marine Fisheries Service 

Terry L. Leitzell, Assistant Administrator for Fisheries 



For Sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office 
Washington, D.C. 20402 - Stock No. 003-O17-OO462-7 



The National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) does not approve, rec- 
ommend or endorse any proprietary product or proprietary material 
mentioned in this publication. No reference shall be made to NMFS, or 
to this publication furnished by NMFS, in any advertising or sales pro- 
motion which would indicate or imply that NMFS approves, recommends 
or endorses any proprietary product or proprietary material mentioned 
herein, or which has as its purpose an intent to cause directly or indirectly 
the advertised product to be used or purchased because of this NMFS 
publication. 



CONTENTS 



Page 



Introduction 1 

Material and methods 2 

Chronological account of tagging operations, 1969-76 3 

Account of radiotagging experiment 6 

Results and discussion 8 

Short-term movements 8 

Long-term movements 8 

Acknowledgments 14 

Literature cited 14 

Figures 

1. Number of releases of tagged spotted dolphins, Stenella attenuata, by 2-degree area, 1969-76 2 

2. Number of releases of tagged spinner dolphins, Stenella longirostris, by 2-degree area, 1969-76 3 

3. Chute system used for tagging dolphins in the tuna seine 7 

4. Cruise track of chartered purse seiner Queen Mary while tracking movement of school of radiotagged 
spotted dolphins, Stenella attenuata, in November-December 1971 8 

5. (Top) Minimum distance and net direction of travel, with days at liberty, of spotted dolphins, 
Stenella attenuata, tagged 1969-76 and recaptured before 1 January 1977. Returns from radio trans- 
mitters not included. (Bottom) Blow up of inset 11 

6. Minimum distance and net direction of travel, with days at liberty, of spinner dolphins, Stenella 
longirostris, tagged 1969-76 and recaptured before 1 January 1977 11 

7. Movement of tagged spotted dolphins, Stenella attenuata, recaptured within 48 h of release 12 

8. Plot of minimum distance traveled on time at liberty (logarithmic scale) for tagged and recaptured 
spotted dolphins, Stenella attenuata 13 

9. Deviation from E- W direction of net movement plotted on minimum distance traveled for tagged and 
recaptured spotted dolphins, Stenella attenuata 13 

Tables 

1. Dolphins and small whales tagged, 1969-76. Radiotags included 2 

2. Tags released from commercial seiners, 1969-76 4 

3. Tag releases (steel-dart spaghetti tags) by NMFS observers aboard commercial tuna seiners, 
1971-75 4 

4. Tag return data for spotted dolphin, Stenella attenuata, 1969-76. Recovered radiotags included 9 

5. Tag return data for spinner dolphin, Stenella longirostris, 1969-76 10 

6. Net distance traveled and net travel rates for radiotrack segments <50 h long 10 

7. Estimated catch of yellowfin tuna within 250 n.mi. and within 250-600 n.mi. of point of tag release 
for 12 tagged dolphins recovered between 50 and 200 days after release and traveling up to 582 mi 
(average 174 mi) and 15 tagged dolphins recovered between 200 and 400 days after release and trav- 
eling <223 mi (average 93 mi). Catches for the first group are between 50 days after release and before 
recapture and for the second group between 200 days and recapture 12 

8. Time of year at liberty and net direction of movement for seven tagged spotted dolpins, Stenella 
attenuata, traveling more than 300 n.mi. before recapture 12 



Movements of Pelagic Dolphins (Stenella Spp.) in the 

Eastern Tropical Pacific as Indicated by Results of 
Tagging, With Summary of Tagging Operations, 1969-76 

W. F. PERRIN 1 , W. E. EVANS 2 , and D. B. HOLTS 1 
ABSTRACT 

Through 1976, 3,712 small cetaceans were tagged in the course of research cruises operating out of 
the Southwest Fisheries Center. These included 2,996 spotted dolphins, Stenella attenuata; 324 spin- 
ner dolphins, S. longirostis; 193 common dolphins, Delphinus delphis; and 113 bottlenose dolphins, 
Tursiops truncatus. Others tagged in small numbers included Pacific whitesided dolphins, Lagenor- 
hynchus obliquidens; striped dolphins, Stenella coeruleoalba; and a short-finned pilot whale, Globice- 
phala macrorhynchus. Several types of tags were used. Tags have been recovered from 97 spotted dol- 
phins and 7 spinner dolphins. Time at liberty ranged from less than 2 h to more than 4 yr. Net distance 
traveled ranged from 7 to 582 n.mi. Average short-term movement in the spotted dolphin is 30-50 
n.mi./day; range is 200-300 n.mi. in diameter, and seasonal onshore-offshore migrations may exist. 



INTRODUCTION 

Populations of pelagic dolphins are important to the 
purse seine fishery for yellowfin tuna in the eastern 
tropical Pacific and are affected by the fishery. 3 Ade- 
quate assessment of the impacts of the fishery on the dol- 
phin populations requires knowledge of such aspects of 
life history as home range and seasonal migration. For 
this reason, we began a program of tagging dolphins in 
1969. The tagging program was specifically designed to 
examine movements, but the tagging itself was largely 
opportunistic. In addition, research projects with other 
objectives but involving tagging have also yielded infor- 
mation on movements. The main purpose of this report is 
to summarize and to report the results of analyses of data 
on movements of spotted dolphins, Stenella attenuata, 
and spinner dolphins, S. longirostris, yielded by tag 
returns through 1976. A secondary purpose is to summa- 
rize and document all dolphin tagging operations carried 
out in conjunction with dolphin/tuna research at the 
Southwest Fisheries Center, La Jolla, Calif., from 1969 
through 1976. This is necessary because of the possi- 
bility that tagged dolphins released by us may be re- 
covered by other investigators not familiar with our pro- 
gram. We suspended field work in our tagging program in 
1976, pending development of better tags and design of a 
plan for large-scale tagging aimed at estimating popula- 
tion sizes. The results of the expanded program will be 
the subject of future reports. 



■Southwest Fisheries Center, National Marine Fisheries Service, 
NOAA, La Jolla, CA 92038. 

2 Hubbs-Sea World Research Institute, Sea World, San Diego, CA 
92109. 

-Report of the Workshop on Stock Assessment of Porpoises Involved in 
the Eastern Pacific Yellowfin Tuna Fishery. Unpubl. Manuscr., 109 
p. SWFC Admin. Rep. No. LJ-76-29, Nat. Mar. Fish. Serv., La Jolla, 
CA 92038. 



Many small marine odontocetes are thought to under- 
go migrations of varying scale in time and distance. Most 
published conclusions about movements have been 
based on sightings or strandings and have to do with 
season of the year or sea surface temperature. Fraser 
(1934) noted a possible intrusion of elements of the 
warm -temperate Atlantic cetacean fauna (including Del- 
phinus delphis) into the North Sea during a year of 
anomalous sea-surface warming. Sightings and corre- 
lated oceanographic data suggest that the distributions 
of dolphins (Lissodelphis peroni, Lagenorhynchus cru- 
ciger, Lagenorhynchus obscurus, and Delphinus del- 
phis) off the east coast of New Zealand are "closely asso- 
ciated with certain temperature ranges and conse- 
quently with specific water masses and convergence 
regions," causing different animals to be seen in summer 
than in winter (Gaskin 1968). Similarly, Kasuya (1971) 
found, on the basis of aerial sightings, that warm-water 
delphinids, including Stenella attenuata, in Japanese 
waters migrate north in the summer season as far as Hok- 
kaido; whereas cold-water forms, such as Phocoenoides 
dalli and Lissodelphis borealis, migrate south in the 
winter. The northern extent of the distribution of the 
warm-water forms may vary seasonally as much as 13° of 
latitude (780 n. mi.) (Miyazaki et al. 1974). Evans (1975) 
demonstrated the existence of similar seasonal migra- 
tions by the common dolphin, D. delphis, off the coasts 
of southern California and Baja California. Several other 
similar studies have been carried out, and this review is 
not exhaustive. 

Very little information has been available on home 
range of pelagic dolphins. As Norris (1967) noted, some 
dolphins seem quite sedentary. He found that herds of 
spinner dolphins, Stenella longirostris, are consistently 
found off limited stretches of coast; five such home 
ranges have been tentatively recognized off Oahu, 
Hawaii. On the other hand, some other dolphins are very 



mobile. Herds of common dolphins off southern Cali- 
fornia and Baja California may move as far as 120 km in 
a 24-h period, following underwater escarpments (Evans 
1971, 1974). 

Preliminary results of our tagging program through 
early 1974 have been previously published (Perrin 1975). 
Time at liberty for tagged spotted dolphins ranged from 
1.7 h to 502 days and minimum distance traveled from 13 
to 532 km. 4 The tentative conclusion was that these data 
indicate a great deal of east-west and north-south move- 
ment within the eastern portion of the range of the off- 



4 A maximum value for minimum distance traveled of 2,415 km was 
given in Perrin (1975). Subsequently, additional information has been ac- 
quired concerning the recapture of that tag, and the data are now consid- 
ered to be unreliable and are not included in the analysis below. 



shore race of S. attenuata. Tag returns for S. longirostris 
showed less net movement. 

MATERIALS AND METHODS 

During the course of research on the dolphin/tuna 
problem, 3,712 small cetaceans were tagged (Table 1), 
including 2,996 spotted dolphins (Fig. 1) and 324 spinner 
dolphins (Fig. 2). One of us (Evans) carried out other dol- 
phin-tagging operations during the period 1969-76, but 
these did not involve Stenella spp. and will be described 
in another report. Several types of tags and tag legends 
were used: 

1. Spaghetti tag with plastic dart. This tag was de- 
scribed and figured by Nishiwaki et al. (1966). The 



Table 1.— Dolphins and small whales tagged, 1969-76. Radiotags 
included. 





Stenella 


Stenella 


Delphinus 


Tursiops 




Uniden- 




Year 


attenuata 


longirostris 


delphis 


truncatus 


Other 


tified 


Total 


1969 


207 


11 














218 


1970 


618 


94 


10 








'46 


768 


1971 


147 


18 


50 


12 


2 1 


3 15 


243 


1972 


306 


41 


28 


19 


2 7 





401 


1973 


203 


35 


56 


8 


•2 


1 


305 


1974 


1,048 


70 


23 


72 


2 7 


1 


1,221 


1975 


336 


46 


26 


2 


s 4 


32 


416 


1976 


131 


9 














140 


Total 


2,996 


324 


193 


113 


21 


65 


3,712 



'Probability is high that these were either spotted dolphins, Stenella at- 
tenuata, or spinner dolphins, S. longirostris. 

•'Pacific white-sided dolphin, Lagenorhynchus obliquidens. 

'Spotted or spinner dolphins. 

4 Striped dolphin, Stenella coeruleoalba. 

■Two striped dolphins and two short-finned pilot whales, Globicephala 
macrorhynchus. 













1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 




















"V 


\ 




























■«, 








-_ 










Stenella attenuata 




















- 


^ 




-- 


















































\ 










20° 




s, 














































1 




4 












> 


am 


IsiO 


a 1 


; 






























12 


28 


32 


63 






15 




.... \v-~d 4 TV ■SA™ 














































I 


20 


176 


59 


39 




8 


28 


41 




7 


i 


















































2 


1 


19 


10 


5 


24 


S4 


81 


6t 


14 














































5 




9 


33 


1 




3 


1 


1941 


1 


15 


II 


2C 


34 


3 


51 


16 


■v. 


\ 


I jO 




IO» 


















7 




6 


13 


41 




3 


8 


18 


45 


17 


6 


3 


12 


31 




II 


145 


54 


39 


1 


6 


20 


36 


6 


12 


29 




\ 


J- ^ 






















6 




9 


8 


32 




17 




8 


.8 




10 


44 


62 




9 


3! 


46 


92 


67 


88 


116 


56 


22 




II 


16 


\ 


\ 


&^V 










































II 






3 




7 




1 


8 


1 


27 


19 


24 


28 


9 








39 


2 


4 




' 


I 


































































9 


50 


7 






34 


12 


II 


4 














































































1 




39 


14 


1 


1 


( 




0° 


































































2 






1 


1 


5 


6 




J> 


































































Gal 


»w 


ffOS 


Is 


*J 


» 








( 


P 






















































3 






























\ 




















































































1 




It 


>0° 


1 








30 








U 


to 


1 






: 











i; 


c 








i 


0° 


1 


T 




IC 


»• 


T 1 


1 


1 


9 


T 


1 


T 


T 


8 


& 


nun? 


0° 



Figure 1.— Number of releases of tagged spotted dolphins, Stenella attenuata, by 2-degree area, 1969-76. Re- 
leases given in Table 1 for which precise localities are not available are not included. 







































^ 


'. 




























\ 








_1 




Stenella longirostris 




















I 




















































) 




\ \ r>^_ 




1 


— r 














































1 






Hawaiia 


i? / 


s. 
































1 




5 






S 


\ 


^v-W / cs. C ?=V 




\ 








































14 












8 






1 
















































8 








4 


2 


7 


2 




18! 

v 






j 






























I 














1 


3 




i 


4 




2 


5 




12 


2^ 






- 
















2 


6 


1! 








1 


1 




1 


4 


II 


3 




3 


12 


7 


7 




6 


2 


2 




14 


3 




9 




















1 






1 


3 


5 


i 




2 


10 






5 


1 






5 


1 


18 


4 


7 




1 


3 




1 




1 


8 








. 














































2 










2 




4 


5 








5 
















































































4 
















































































5 












" 




























































1 














































































SB 


7^X7^(7i 


Is 


8? 


J 














_z 












































7 






















1 


1 
























































































IC 


o°l 1 


1 i: 


)0 




1 


1 


u 


: 


1 


1 


1 


i: 





1 


1 


1 


120" 






1 


110° 




' 


1 


ioo° 


T 




1 


90° 


1 


rr 




80° 


1 1 1 II 1 70° 



Figure 2. — Number of releases of tagged spinner dolphins, Stenella longirostris, by 2-degree area, 1969-76. 
Two dolphins given in Table 1 for which precise localities are not available are not included. 



tags released in 1969 and 1970 were yellow and bore 
one of two legends (in addition to serial number) : 

a. RETURN TUNA COMM SAN DIEGO or 

b. REWARD BU COMM FISHERIES SAN DIEGO. 

2. Spaghetti tag with steel dart. This type of tag was 
developed for use on large pelagic fishes (Mather 
1963) and was first used on cetaceans by Sergeant and 
Brodie (1969). It has been modified from its original 
design by addition of a clear plastic sleeve to protect 
the legend (Evans et al.1972). It is manufactured by 
Floy Tag and Manufacturing, Inc., Seattle, Wash. 
Four versions of the tag were used in the operations 
described here: 

a. 15-cm long, orange, with legend: 

REWARD U.S. BUR COMM FISH LA JOLLA, 
CALIF(CF) 

b. 12-cm long, yellow, with legend: 

REWARD NATL MARINE FISH SERVICE LA 
JOLLA, CAL 

c. 32-cm long, yellow, with legend: 

NUC-502 SAN DIEGO, CAL. 92132 REWARD 

d. 30-cm long, orange, with legend: 

NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE 
LA JOLLA, CA U.S.A. REWARD. 

3. Spaghetti tag with steel dart/braided. These tags 
were designed at sea for use in underwater observa- 
tions of tagged dolphins during the research cruise of 
the Elizabeth C. J. in 1976 (see following section on 
Chronological Account of Tagging Operations, 1969- 
76). Three-strand braids of spaghetti tubing of various 
colors were linked together in unique colorAength com- 



binations and fastened to steel-dart tags from which 
all but 1 in of tubing (bearing the serial number) has 
been removed. Six-inch lengths of Vi-in wide flexible, 
bright orange plastic streamers were added to the ends 
of some of the tags to further increase visibility. 

4. Plastic deer ear tag. This tag ("jumbo rototag") was 
described and figured by Norris and Pryor (1970). Tag 
and applicators are manufactured by Dalton, Henley, 
United Kingdom. 

a. Tags released in 1971 were yellow and bore the leg- 
end: 

DEVUELVA OF. DE PESCA PREMIO. 150 
PESOS BU COMM FISH SAN DIEGO CON 
CABEZA 

b. Tags released in 1972 were yellow, with the leg- 
end: 

$15 DOLLAR REWARD FOR RETURN WITH 
HEAD BU COM FISH SAN DIEGO 

c. Tags released in 1973 were white and bore no leg- 
end other than the serial number. 

5. Radiotag. Martin et al. (1971) and Evans (1971, 
1974) described and figured the radiotags used. 

CHRONOLOGICAL ACCOUNT OF 
TAGGING OPERATIONS, 1969-76 

1. In 1969 and 1970, the Inter-American Tropical Tuna 
Commission (IATTC) conducted tuna-tagging opera- 
tions on three cruises on the chartered tuna seiners, 
the Connie Jean and the Anne M. At NMFS' re- 
quest, tuna tags (spaghetti tag with plastic dart — see 
discussion of tag types above) were also placed in dol- 



phins captured with tuna (see Bayliff 1973 for de- 
scription of tagging operations). Nine hundred and 
forty-nine dolphins were thusly tagged (Table 2). 

In 1970, a crewman on the seiner Conquest vol- 
unteered to tag dolphins during fishing operations. He 
tagged 37 dolphins (probably spotted and spinner dol- 
phins) with plastic-dart spaghetti tags. 



3. Beginning in 1971, scientific observers from NMFS 
each year have accompanied some tuna seiners to the 
"porpoise-fishing" grounds. Through 1975, these 
observers tagged dolphins on an opportunity basis. 
The observers tagged 105 dolphins on 3 cruises in 
1971, 316 on 9 cruises in 1972, 204 on 16 cruises in 
1973, 1,221 on 25 cruises in 1974, and 416 on 22 cruises 
in 1975 (Table 3). Two short-finned pilot whales, 



Table 2. — Tags released from commercial seiners, 1969-76. Releases by NUMFS observers aboard nonchartered seiners are 
detailed in Table 3. Tag type PD = plastic-dart spaghetti tag, MD = metal-dart spaghetti tag (see Table 3), DE = deer ear 
tag, and RX = radio-transmitter tag. Letters a, b, and c refer to tag type subcategories defined in text. 





Cruise 


Cruise 








Tagged 












Spotted 


Spinner 


Common 


Bottlenosed 




Uniden- 






Vessel 


number 


period 


dolphin 


dolphin 


dolphin 


dolphin 


Other 


tified 


Total 


Tag type 


Connie Jean 


1055 


Oct-Nov 69 


207 


11 














218 


PD(a) 


AnneM 


1057 


Jun-Aug 70 


>278 


>46 


10 


— 


— 


9 


343 


PD (61a, 278b) 


AnneM 


1058 


Sep-Nov 70 


340 


48 














388 


PD(b) 


Conquest 


— 


Mar- Apr 70 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


37 


37 


PD(b) 


Queen Mary 


13 


Nov-Dec 71 


>105 


— 











'15 


120 


MD (107b, 24c) 








15 

















15 


DE(a) 








3 

















3 


RX 


Independence 


26 


Sep-Oct 72 


1 


4 


18 





2 1 





24 


MD(a) 








61 

















61 


DE(b) 


Trinidad 


52 


Oct-Nov 73 


12 


1 


7 











20 


MD(a) 


John F. Kennedy 


53 


Nov-Dec 73 


59 

















59 


MD(a) 








22 

















22 


DE (c) 3 


Elizabeth C J 


208 


Oct -Dec 76 


124 


8 














132 


MD' 








7 


1 














8 


RX 


Total 






1,234 


119 


35 





1 


61 


1,450 




'Spotted or spinner. 










3 With 2-in disc 










^Pacific white-sided dolphin, Lagenorhynchus obliquidens. 




'With braided tubing. 









Table 3. 


—Tag releases (steel-dart spaghetti tags) by NMFS observers aboard commercial tuna seiners, 








1971-75. Tag types defined 


in text. 




















Tagged 












Cruise 


Spotted 


Spinner 


Common 


Bottlenose 




Uniden- 








number 


Year 


dolphin 


dolphin 


dolphin 


dolphin 


Other 


tified 


Totals 


Tag type 


6 


1971 








23 





'1 





24 




(a) 


8 




8 


18 


17 


11 








54 




(a) 


9 




16 





10 


1 








27 


105 


(10c, 95a) 


14 


1972 


18 

















18 




(a) 


15 




43 





2 











45 




(a) 


16 




22 


21 














43 




(a) 


17 




6 





2 


9 


'6 





23 




(a) 


20 




16 

















16 




(a) 


21 




54 


1 





1 








56 




(a) 


22 




32 


13 














45 




(a) 


23 




15 

















15 




(a) 


24 




38 


2 


6 


9 








55 


316 


(a) 


29 


1973 


2 


4 


7 











13 




(a) 


30 




12 


5 











1 


18 




(a) 


31 




1 

















1 




(a) 


32 




1 

















1 




(a) 


33 




1 

















1 




(a) 


34 




9 

















9 




(a) 


38 




4 


1 














5 




(a) 


39 




1 

















1 




(a) 


40 




1 

















1 




(a) 


41 




12 


10 


6 











28 




(a) 


43 




5 


1 


4 











10 




(a) 


44 




11 


1 


4 





=2 





18 




(a) 


45 




23 





8 











31 




(a) 


47 




7 





4 











11 




(a) 


48 




9 


12 


16 


8 








45 




(a) 



Table 3.— Continued. 











Tagged 










Cruise 


Spotted 


Spinner 


Common 


Bottlenose 




Uniden- 






number Year dolphin 


dolphin 


dolphin 


dolphin 


Other 


tified 


Totals 


Tag type 


49 


11 

















11 204 


(a) 


54 1974 


3 














3 


(a) 


55 


3 

















3 


(b) 


57 


16 


3 














19 


(a) 


58 


47 


3 





9 








59 


(a) 


59 


24 


8 


2 


4 








38 


(a) 


61 


51 


8 


4 


17 


■3 





83 


(b) 


65 


17 





4 











21 


(a) 


66 


29 

















29 


(a) 


67 





1 














1 


(a) 


68 


20 


1 


7 











28 


(b) 


71 


2 


5 














7 


(a) 


72 


1 

















1 


(b) 


73 


3 


2 














5 


(a) 


74 


34 


1 











1 


36 


(b) 


75 


2 

















2 


(a) 


76 


1 


1 














2 


(a) 


78 


8 

















8 


(b) 


80 


10 

















10 


(a) 


81 


2 








8 








10 


(b) 


82 


34 

















34 


(a) 


87 


91 


5 


6 


32 


•4 





138 


(b) 


90 


5 


7 














12 


(a) 


91 


623 


14 





2 








639 


(a) 


94 


5 


2 














7 


(a) 


96 


20 


6 














26 1,221 


(a) 


99 1975 1 

















1 


(a) 


100 


16 








1 








17 


(d) 


102 


43 


2 








2 1 





46 


(d) 


104 


42 


4 











3 2 


48 


(d) 


105 


18 


2 














20 


(d) 


106 


45 


3 





1 








49 


(d) 


110 


3 











2 1 





4 


(d) 


112 


42 


8 














50 


(d) 


113 


27 


10 














37 


(d) 


114 


1 

















1 


(d) 


115 


6 


1 














7 


(b) 


116 


2 


1 














3 


(d) 


117 


1 

















1 


(d) 


118 





2 














2 


(d) 


119 


15 


5 














20 


(d) 


120 


1 

















1 


(d) 


121 


43 

















43 


(d) 


123 


8 


1 


2 





4 2 





13 


(d) 


124 


1 

















1 


(d) 


125 


5 

















5 


(d) 


129 


16 


7 


24 











47 416 


(d) 


Total 1,762 


205 


158 


113 


20 


4 


2,262 





■Pacific white-sided dolphin, Lagenorhynchus obliquidens. 
2 Striped dolphin, Stenella coeruieoalba. 



'Spotted dolphin or spinner dolphin. 
4 Short-finned pilot whale, Globicephala macro- 
rhynchus. 



Globicephala macrorhynchus, were also tagged in 
1975. Before application, the tag heads were sprayed 
with Topazone, a topical antibiotic. The tags were ap- 
plied in several different ways: 

a. from the bow (when animals rode the bow wave), 
with a quick-release head (Beckett 1968) mounted 
on a long wooden pole or with a crossbow (as de- 
scribed by Kasuya and Oguro 1972, but using a 
rubber stop on the crossbow bolt rather than a 
brass stop); 



b. from a skiff at the corkine of the seine during the 
dolphin-rescue maneuver called "backing-down" 
(see Perrin 1969 for details of fishing operation), 
using short (40 cm) wooden wands, with perma- 
nently mounted tag pins, as applicators; and 

c. on the work-deck, when live dolphins were extri- 
cated from the net or the catch and then thrown 
overboard, using short applicators. 

4. In late 1971, NMFS chartered the tuna seiner Queen 
Mary for a dolphin/tuna research cruise on the fishing 



grounds. Three tagging operations were carried out on 
the cruise. 

a. Radiotags were attached to spotted dolphins, to 
monitor herd movements, herd integrity, and re- 
cruitment of associated yellowfin tuna to the herd. 
The technique has been described by Evans (1971, 
1974). Five dolphins were radiotagged and fol- 
lowed. 

b. Fifteen spotted dolphins were measured, sexed, 
and injected with lead acetate and tagged with 
plastic deer ear tags placed in the dorsal fin. The 
animals were pulled into a small skiff for exami- 
nation and tagging. Technique of application was 
described by Norris and Pryor (1970). The pur- 
pose of the injection of lead acetate was to lay 
down a time check in the hard tissues, so that 
growth rates in teeth and bone could be calibrated 
through examination of recaptured animals. The 
technique was developed by Nishiwaki and Yagi 
(1953). The tagged animals were also injected with 
an antibiotic to combat sepsis. Results of this 
experiment will be analyzed when tags are re- 
turned (none returned with sufficient data to 
date). 

c. One hundred and twenty dolphins were also tagged 
with steel-dart spaghetti tags. 

5. In late 1972, NMFS chartered the seiner Inde- 
pendence for a dolphin/tuna cruise. Sixty-one spotted 
dolphins were injected with lead acetate and tagged 
with plastic deer ear tags. Tagging was accomplished 
through use of an aluminum chute supported by two 
skiffs at the corkline of the seine (Fig. 3). In addition, 
24 dolphins were tagged with steel-dart spaghetti 
tags. 

6. Also in 1973, the seiner Trinidad was chartered by 
NMFS for technological research on dolphin rescue 
methods and equipment. During the cruise, 20 dol- 
phins were tagged with steel-dart spaghetti tags. 

7. In late 1973, NMFS chartered the seiner John F. Ken- 
nedy. The main purpose of the cruise was to conduct 
research on dolphin-rescue methods, but some tagging 
was also carried out. Twenty-two spotted dolphins in 
a single herd were tagged with white deer ear tags, in- 
serted in the dorsal fin. A 2-in diameter thin red 
plastic disc was placed on the tag post on each side of 
the fin to increase visibility of the tag in the water. 
The objective was to tag dolphins in several herds, us- 
ing a different color for each herd, and then to study 
herd structure and integrity through observation of 
tagged animals in the seine in subsequent hauls in the 
same area. Rough weather, however, prevented 
further use of the tagging chute (described above) 
and completion of the scheduled tagging. In addi- 
tion to the 22 dolphins tagged with ear tags, 59 spot- 
ted dolphins were tagged with steel-dart spaghetti 
tags. 



8. In late 1976, NMFS chartered the seiner Elizabeth C. 
J. for a combined dolphin/tuna behavioral research 
and gear research cruise sponsored by several govern- 
mental and private organizations. Two types of tags 
were used to mark dolphin schools so that they could 
be followed and recaptured and the tagged dolphins 
observed in the net. Radiotags were placed on seven 
spotted dolphins and one spinner dolphin. The radio- 
tags failed after only a few hours, but two were subse- 
quently recovered (the recoveries are treated below 
like other tag returns; the radio-transmitted data will 
be presented elsewhere). In addition, 124 spotted dol- 
phins and 8 spinner dolphins were tagged with steel- 
dart spaghetti tags modified for greater underwater 
visibility (see 3. Spaghetti tag with steel dart/braided 
above) . 

ACCOUNT OF 
RADIOTRACKING EXPERIMENT 

Transmitters were placed on one adult male (animal 
A) and two adult females (animals B and C) captured in 
a tuna seine on 21 November 1971. The object of the 
experiment was to track the school and set the net on 
what was assumed to be the same herd five times, at 24-h 
intervals and at about 1000. The initial set was in the 
afternoon, and the tagged animals were not released un- 
til almost sunset. The chronology of events (Fig. 4) may 
be summarized as follows: 

After the release of the tagged animals it became in- 
creasingly obvious that the behavior of the male was 
quite different from that of the females. At first all ani- 
mals appeared to stay on the same relative heading. 
After sunset the females began to move away from the 
male and the decision was made to stay with the male. 
After 6 h of tracking the females were separated from the 
male by an estimated 12 n.mi. and their transmitted 
signals were extremely weak. It was assumed the trans- 
mitter on at least one of the two animals (B and C) had 
failed. 

The vessel followed the male (A) until 1040 on 22 No- 
vember when the first recapture set was made (set 2). 
Net distance traveled between initial release and this re- 
capture was 59 n.mi., in about 16 h. One of the females 
(C) rejoined the male (A) at 0800 but separated from him 
again at 0930 prior to the net set. An additional long- 
range transmitter was placed on another male (D) during 
set 2. Also, a long-life, short-range transmitter was 
placed on another female (E). After release, A and D 
stayed together and were rejoined by one of the females 
from the first set (C). Female B was not seen again fol- 
lowing her separation from A and C after initial release in 
set 2. A, D, E, and C were followed until 1036 (set 3) on 23 
November. Net distance traveled in 24 h was 28 n.mi. 
During this period, the males (A and D) were separated 
by some distance (3 n.mi.) from the school containing the 
females (C and E). The set (3) was made on the portion 
of the school containing the males A and D. They evaded 
capture by passing between the boat and the net skiff be- 



CHUTE 



CAGE 



TOP 



OOOOOOOOOOOOQOOO 
CvjPJpj — — — — — — — 







r- 



TOP 



100 



scale — cm 



END 



Figure 3. — Chute system used for 
tagging dolphins in the tuna seine. 




1 


21 Nov. (initial release) 


2 


22 Nov. 


3 


23 Nov. 


4 


24 Nov. 


5 


25 Nov. (end of radio track) 


6 


6 Dec. (recontact) 


7 


7 Dec. (end 2nd track) 


8 


10 Dec. (recontact) 




Figure 4. — Cruise track of chartered purse seiner Queen Mary while 
tracking movement of school of radiotagged spotted dolphins, Sten- 
ella attenuata, in November-December 1971. Heavy lines represent 
portions of the cruise track when radio contact was maintained with 
the school. The lines represent movements of the vessel, not necessar- 
ily the exact route of the radio-tagged animals. 



fore completion of the net circle. After the set, A and D 
were followed until 2200 when they separated. Male D 
was followed, with a faint signal in the background from 
A, until 1020 on 24 November (set 5). Net distance trav- 
eled in this 24-h period was 69 n.mi., but actual distance 
traveled was about 110 n.mi. (Fig. 4). At this time, A and 
D had reconverged, but the set was made on the portion 
of the school containing D. Animal D again eluded cap- 
ture in the seine. A and D rejoined after the set and were 
followed until 0700 on 25 November when the track was 
terminated because of an approaching storm. Net dis- 
tance traveled during this 22-h period was approxi- 
mately 75 n.mi. The school had doubled back and was 
heading north on almost exactly the same path it had fol- 
lowed south 3 days before. Total net distance traveled 
during the 110 h of the 5-day radiotrack was only about 
75 n.mi., about one-fourth of the actual distance trav- 
eled. Maximum distance between any two points on the 
track was about 160 n.mi. 

On 6 December, 11 days and approximately 285 n.mi. 
distance from termination of the first track, signals from 
both of the males (A and D) were picked up at 1255 and 
followed until 0750 on 7 December when strong signals 
were received from A in a school of <30 spotted dol- 
phins. The school was chased to allow close approach and 
a good estimate of size, but no net set was made, and the 
school was not further followed. Net distance traveled 
during this 19-h second radiotrack was about 75 n.mi. 
Three days later, on 10 December, at 0925, signals were 
again received from A and D, and, this time, also from 



the female C, which had not been heard from since sepa- 
rating from the males on 23 November. The males and 
females were again segregated within the school. The 
school was not set on or followed after this recontact, and 
the research cruise ended shortly thereafter. Net distance 
traveled by the school between initial release and last 
contact (19 days) was 357 n.mi. (19 n.mi./day, south- 
southeast). 

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 

Of 3,712 tags released from 1969 through 1976, 104 had 
been returned as of 1 January 1977 (Tables 3, 4). Tags 
were recovered only from spotted dolphins (97) and spin- 
ner dolphins (7). Time at liberty ranged from 1 h and 40 
min to 1,478 days for S. attenuata and from 15 h and 48 
min to 776 days for S. longirostris. Minimum distance 
traveled (distance between release and recovery loca- 
tions) ranged from 7 to 582 n.mi. for S. attenuata (Fig. 5) 
and 12 to 275 n.mi. for S. longirostris (Fig. 6). Details of 
returns are presented in Tables 4, 5. Returns are suffi- 
cient for the spotted dolphin to allow some analyses 
based on these and on the results of radiotagging. 

Short-Term Movements 

Twenty-six tagged spotted dolphins were recaptured 
within 2 days (48 h) after release (Fig. 7). Longer term re- 
coveries were not included in the analysis because of the 
increasing potential for bias caused by the animals 
doubling back on themselves (see results of radiotagging 
experiment above). A linear regression line fitted to the 
data has a slope indicating an average movement rate of 
about 1.2 n.mi./h (about 30 n.mi./day). 

The results of the radiotagging experiment indicate 
daily movement rates of similar scale (Fig. 4), yielding 
estimates of net daily travel rate ranging from 5 to 89 
n.mi. and an average of 54 n.mi./day (Table 6), as com- 
pared with the estimate of about 30 n.mi./day based on 
short-term tag returns. The former can be assumed to be 
less affected by the "doubling back" factor. 

Long-Term Movements 

A plot of minimum distance traveled on time at liberty 
for all tag returns shows maximum movement of 500 to 
600 n.mi. (Fig. 8). The data may have a periodic com- 
ponent. Average minimum distance traveled is 100 n.mi. 
for 10- to 50-day returns (n = 21) and 274 n.mi. for 50- to 
200-day returns (n = 12) but only 93 n.mi. for 200- to 400- 
day returns (n = 15). A major question in interpreting 
these results is that of recovery effort. Tags are recov- 
ered during the fishing operation. Was there signi- 
ficantly more fishing effort in areas <200 n.mi. from 
areas in which tags were released 200 to 400 days earlier 
than in areas more than 200 n.mi. from areas of release? 
In other words, could the data reflect periodic fishing ef- 
fort rather than periodic movement of dolphins? In an at- 
tempt to settle this question, we examined, for each of 
the 50- to 200-day returns (12) and each of the 200- to 



Table 4.— Tag return data for spotted dolphin, Stenella attenuata, 1969-76. Recovered radiotags included. Tag type codes defined in text. 





















Minimum 
















Release 




] 


-tecapture 




Days at 
liberty 
(orh) 


distance 
traveled 
(n.mi.) 


Direction 
net movement 
°T bearing 


Tag 
type 






Date 


Cruise 
number 


Position 


Date 


Position 


Tag 




lat. N 


long. W 


lat.N 


long. W 


number 


1 


1 Nov 69 


1055 


14°17' 


98°58' 


1970 


— 


_ 


60 


— 


— 


— 


PD 


(a) 


T3154 


2 


2 Nov 69 


1055 


13°49' 


99°20' 


25 Feb 70 


15°39' 


101 °09' 


114 


152 


316 


NW 


PD 


(a) 


T3160 


3 


4 Nov 69 


1055 


15°03' 


101 °42' 


3 Mar 70 


15°10' 


100°41' 


119 


59 


83 


E 


PD 


(a) 


T3193 


4 


17 Nov 69 


1055 


10°28' 


107°40' 


3 Apr 70 


7°58' 


98°10' 


137 


582 


104 


ESE 


PD 


(a) 


A1171 


5 


18 Nov 69 


1055 


10°58' 


107°34' 


19 Nov 69 


10°41' 


107°08' 


(24 h) 


31 


124 


SE 


PD 


(a) 


A1181 


6 


18 Nov 69 


1055 


11°09' 


107°20' 


5 Mar 70 


13°20' 


100°15' 


107 


435 


72 


ENE 


PD 


(a) 


A1199 


7 


11 Sep 70 


— 


9°46' 


140°50' 


3 Dec 70 


9°32' 


134°15' 


83 


390 


92 


E 


MD 


(b) 


P1019 


8 


24 Nov 71 


13 


12°11' 


107°57' 


11 Jan 72 


11°37' 


105°03' 


48 


174 


101 


E 


MD 


(c) 


01667 


9 


7 Dec 71 


13 


9°49' 


105°29' 


12 Jan 72 


10-40' 


106°31' 


36 


67 


320 


NW 


MD 


(c) 


00769 


10 


8 Dec 71 


13 


10°15' 


104°32' 


9 Dec 72 


9°16' 


104°26' 


(15 h) 


59 


174 


S 


MD 


(a) 


00013 


11 


9 Dec 71 


13 


9°17' 


104°48' 


10 Feb 72 


9°16' 


98°40' 


63 


363 


90 


E 


MD 


(a) 


00096 


12 


9 Dec 71 


13 


9°17' 


104°48' 


10 Feb 72 


9°16' 


98°40' 


63 


363 


90 


E 


MD 


(a) 


00099 


13 


11 Dec 71 


26 


9°21' 


105°50' 


12 Jan 72 


10°40' 


106-13' 


32 


82 


344 


NNW 


DE 


(b) 


116 


14 


11 Dec 71 


26 


9°21' 


105 °50' 


8 Jan 72 


8°50' 


104°40' 


28 


76 


144 


ESE 


DE 


(b) 


118 


15 


13 Jan 72 


14 


7°10' 


102°30' 


1973 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


MD 


(a) 


00609 


16 


21 Jan 72 


17 


10°30' 


99°50' 


10 Feb 72 


9°50' 


97°10' 


20 


162 


104 


ESE 


MD 


(a) 


00591 


17 


30 Jan 72 


16 


6°15' 


98°58' 


31 Jan 72 


6°07' 


99°36' 


(21 h) 


40 


252 


WSW 


MD 


(a) 


00434 


18 


24 Feb 72 


16 


14°54' 


99°34' 


4 Mar 72 


14°40' 


100°55' 


9 


80 


260 


W 


MD 


(a) 


00457 


19 


25 Feb 72 


21 


9°45' 


98°35' 


28 Mar 72 


10°35' 


100°55' 


32 


147 


290 


WNW 


MD 


(a) 


00475 


20 


27 Mar 72 


22 


9°28' 


98°21' 


11 Apr 72 


13°16' 


96°22' 


15 


256 


27 


NNE 


MD 


(a) 


00111 


21 


8 Aug 72 


26 


12°30' 


109°23' 


21 Feb 74 


12°55' 


99°41' 


501 


568 


86 


E 


DE 


(b) 


011 


22 


23 Oct 72 


26 


10°28' 


104°03' 


15 Nov 76 


— 


— 


1478 


— 


— 


— 


DE 


— 


039 


23 


27 Mar 73 


45 


9°53' 


96°17' 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


MD 


(a) 


01425 


24 


6 Feb 74 


61 


17°37' 


112°41' 


3 Aug 74 


19°20' 


113°25' 


179 


Ill 


338 


NNW 


MD 


(b) 


02959 


25 


9 Feb 74 


61 


17°24' 


102°24' 


9 Feb 74 


17°29' 


102°19' 


( 2h) 


7 


44 


NE 


MD 


(b) 


02986 


26 


18 Feb 74 


59 


11°05' 


90°38' 


29 Jan 75 


12°45' 


91°43' 


345 


119 


328 


NNW 


MD 


(a) 


01457 


27 


18 Feb 74 


59 


9°37' 


91°26' 


6 Mar 74 


11°20' 


91°23' 


16 


103 


2 


N 


MD 


(a) 


01461 


28 


18 Feb 74 


59 


9°37' 


91°26' 


6 Mar 74 


11°40' 


91°50' 


16 


125 


349 


N 


MD 


(a) 


01469 


29 


20 Feb 74 


58 


14°46' 


102 °09' 


20 Feb 74 


14°39' 


102°11' 


( 2h) 


7 


188 


S 


MD 


(a) 


00837 


30 


25 Feb 74 


66 


H°15' 


102 °20' 


27 Feb 74 


14°38' 


102"38' 


(54 h) 


32 


328 


NNW 


MD 


(a) 


00073 


31 


4 Apr 74 


82 


5°10' 


89°10' 


4 Mar 75 


4°22' 


87°02' 


334 


136 


111 


ENE 


MD 


(a) 


00059 


32 


19Jun74 


91 


18°16' 


115°51' 


7 Mar 75 


16°32' 


113-30' 


260 


170 


127 


SE 


MD 


(b) 


02101 


33 


20Jun74 


91 


18°00' 


114°50' 


30 Jun 74 


18°09' 


115°49' 


10 


57 


279 


W 


MD 


(b) 


02699 


34 


21Jun74 


91 


17°54' 


114°02' 


22 Jun 74 


17°57' 


113°38' 


(14 h) 


23 


82 


E 


MD 


(b) 


02085 


35 


21Jun74 


91 


17°20' 


114°23' 


30 Jun 74 


18°09' 


115°17' 


9 


71 


314 


NW 


MD 


(b) 


02691 


36 


21Jun74 


91 


17°20' 


114°23' 


1 Jul 74 


18°19' 


114°23' 


10 


39 


356 


N 


MD 


(b) 


02694 


37 


22Jun74 


91 


18°27' 


113°19' 


13 Dec 74 


20°07' 


112°15' 


174 


117 


31 


NNE 


MD 


(b) 


02032 


38 


22Jun74 


91 


18°27' 


113°91' 


20 Apr 75 


17°23' 


114°09' 


302 


80 


217 


SW 


MD 


(b) 


02037 


39 


22Jun74 


91 


18°20' 


113°17' 


1 Jul 74 


18°19' 


114 23' 


9 


63 


269 


w 


MD 


(b) 


02042 


40 


22 Jun 74 


91 


18°20' 


113°17' 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


MD 


(b) 


02047 


41 


22Jun74 


91 


17°57' 


113-38' 


25 Jun 74 


17-10' 


115 o 00' 


3 


91 


239 


WSW 


MD 


(b) 


02071 


42 


23 Jun 74 


91 


18°00' 


113°00' 


24 Jun 74 


17°53' 


113°06' 


(14 h) 


9 


219 


SW 


MD 


(a) 


00395 


43 


23 Jun 74 


91 


18°00' 


113°00' 


15 Apr 75 


18°17' 


113"36' 


296 


38 


297 


WNW 


MD 


(a) 


00398 


44 


23 Jun 74 


91 


18°00' 


113-00' 


8 Aug 74 


18°12' 


114°45' 


46 


101 


277 


W 


MD 


(b) 


02029 


45 


26 Jun 74 


91 


17°50' 


116°00' 


20 Apr 75 


17°23' 


114°09' 


298 


109 


104 


ESE 


MD 


(a) 


00376 


46 


28 Jun 74 


91 


17°45' 


115°00' 


3 May 75 


18°12' 


114°20' 


315 


47 


55 


NE 


MD 


(a) 


00667 


47 


28 Jun 74 


91 


17°45' 


115-00' 


30 Jun 74 


18°09' 


115-49' 


(45 h) 


52 


297 


WNW 


MD 


(a) 


01037 


48 


28 Jun 74 


91 


17°45' 


115°00' 


29 Jun 74 


17°57' 


115-22' 


(18 h) 


24 


300 


WNW 


MD 


(a) 


01039 


49 


29 Jun 74 


91 


18°07' 


115°08' 


5 Aug 74 


19°08' 


116-00' 


37 


70 


330 


NNW 


MD 


(a) 


01016 


50 


29 Jun 74 


91 


17°57' 


115°22' 


30 Jun 74 


18°09' 


115-49' 


(25 h) 


28 


295 


WNW 


MD 


(a) 


01056 


51 


30 Jun 74 


91 


18°09' 


115°49' 


5 Aug 74 


18°05' 


114-10' 


36 


94 


92 


E 


MD 


(a) 


01023 


52 


30 Jun 74 


91 


18-09' 


115°49' 


5 Aug 74 


19°08' 


116°00' 


36 


60 


350 


N 


MD 


(a) 


01028 


53 


1 Jul 74 


91 


18°19' 


114°23' 


2 Jul 74 


18°35' 


114-40' 


(17 h) 


23 


315 


NW 


MD 


(a) 


01043 


54 


1 Jul 74 


91 


18°19' 


114°23' 


2 Jul 74 


18°35' 


114-40' 


(17 h) 


23 


315 


NW 


MD 


(a) 


01050 


55 


1 Jul 74 


91 


18°19' 


114°23' 


2 Jul 74 


18°35' 


114-40' 


(17 h) 


23 


315 


NW 


MD 


(a) 


01093 


56 


1 Jul 74 


91 


18°19' 


114°23' 


2 Jul 74 


18°35' 


114-40' 


(17 h) 


23 


315 


NW 


MD 


(a) 


01094 


57 


1 Jul 74 


91 


17°58' 


114°36' 


4 Aug 74 


19°00' 


114-26' 


34 


63 


9 


N 


MD 


(a) 


01077 


58 


1 Jul 74 


91 


17°58' 


114°36' 


4 Aug 74 


19°00' 


114-26' 


34 


63 


9 


N 


MD 


(a) 


01084 


59 


1 Jul 74 


91 


17°58' 


114°36' 


7 Jul 74 


16°50' 


114-15' 


6 


71 


164 


SSE 


MD 


(a) 


01079 


60 


2 Jul 74 


91 


18°35' 


114°40' 


5 Jul 74 


18°18' 


114-12' 


3 


32 


123 


ESE 


MD 


(a) 


01069 


61 


2 Jul 74 


91 


18°12' 


114°26' 


4 Aug 74 


19°00' 


114-23' 


33 


48 


3 


N 


MD 


(b) 


02013 


62 


2 Jul 74 


91 


18°12' 


114°23' 


3 Aug 74 


19°20' 


113-25' 


32 


87 


39 


NE 


MD 


(b) 


02018 


63 


5 Jul 74 


91 


18°23' 


114°46' 


9 May 75 


18°12' 


114-20' 


308 


27 


114 


ESE 


MD 


(b) 


02060 


64 


5 Jul 74 


91 


18°18' 


114°12' 


20 Apr 75 


17°23' 


114-09' 


289 


55 


117 


S 


MD 


(b) 


02117 


65 


5 Jul 74 


91 


18°18' 


114°12' 


3 Aug 74 


19°20' 


113°25' 


29 


76 


36 


NE 


MD 


(b) 


02118 


66 


31 Jul 74 


91 


18°28' 


111°00' 


16 Nov 74 


20°05' 


109-39' 


108 


124 


38 


NE 


MD 


(b) 


02534 


67 


1 Aug 74 


91 


19°40' 


110°12' 


24 Mar 75 


16°00' 


109°40' 


235 


222 


172 


S 


MD 


(b) 


02745 



Table 4.— Continued. 





















Minimum 
















Release 






Recapture 




Days at 
liberty 
(orh) 


distance 
traveled 
(n.mi.) 


Direction 
net movement 
°T bearing 


Tag 
type 






Date 


Cruise 
number 


Position 


Date 


Position 


Tag 




lat.N 


long. W 


lat.N 


long. W 


number 


68 


3 Aug 74 


91 


19°20' 


113°25' 


20 Apr 75 


17°23' 


114°09' 


259 


124 


200 


SSW 


MD 


(b) 


02618 


69 


4 Aug 74 


91 


19°00' 


114°26' 


14 Apr 75 


17°07' 


113°33' 


252 


123 


156 


SSE 


MD 


(b) 


02622 


70 


4 Aug 74 


91 


19°00' 


114°26' 


20 Apr 75 


17°23' 


114°09' 


258 


98 


171 


S 


MD 


(b) 


02646 


71 


8 Aug 74 


91 


18°12' 


114°45' 


22 May 75 


17°20' 


114°55' 


287 


53 


190 


S 


MD 


(b) 


02152 


72 


9 Aug 74 


91 


18°40' 


113°55' 


10 Apr 75 


17°10' 


114°15' 


244 


92 


192 


SSW 


MD 


(b) 


02155 


73 


17 Aug 74 


91 


11°15' 


109°05' 


18 Aug 75 


11°34' 


108°16' 


(19 h) 


52 


68 


ENE 


MD 


(b) 


02275 


74 


17 Aug 74 


91 


10°54' 


109°13' 


18 Aug 75 


11°34' 


108°16' 


(25 h) 


71 


52 


NE 


MD 


(b) 


02784 


75 


17 Aug 74 


91 


10°54' 


109°13' 


17 Aug 75 


11°15' 


109°05' 


( 5h) 


22 


20 


NNE 


MD 


(b) 


02786 


76 


17 Aug 74 


91 


10°54' 


109°13' 


17 Aug 75 


1115' 


109°05' 


( 5h) 


22 


20 


NNE 


MD 


(b) 


02792 


77 


17 Aug 74 


91 


10°54' 


109°13' 


17 Aug 75 


11°15' 


109°05' 


( 5h) 


22 


20 


NNE 


MD 


(b) 


02799 


78 


7 Jan 75 


99 


20°14' 


110°32' 


13 Jan 75 


19°35' 


110°20' 


6 


41 


164 


SSE 


MD 


(a) 


01321 


79 


21 Jan 75 


100 


13°35' 


100°35' 


30 Mar 75 


12°59' 


103°00' 


68 


146 


256 


wsw 


MD 


(d) 


04509 


80 


30 Jan 75 


102 


14°47' 


99°09' 


3 May 75 


15°31' 


109-00' 


93 


572 


276 


w 


MD 


(d) 


04227 


81 


31 Jan 75 


112 


13°08' 


91°50' 


1 Feb 75 


13°12' 


91°38' 


(16 h) 


12 


71 


ENE 


MD 


(d) 


04366 


82 


31 Jan 75 


112 


13°08' 


91°50' 


1 Feb 75 


13°12' 


91°38' 


(16 h) 


12 


71 


ENE 


MD 


(d) 


04391 


83 


31 Jan 75 


112 


13°08' 


91°50' 


18 Feb 75 


12°23' 


91°38' 


18 


47 


165 


SSE 


MD 


(d) 


04377 


84 


18 Feb 75 


112 


9°25' 


95°15' 


5 Aug 75 


9°13' 


99°18' 


168 


240 


267 


W 


MD 


(d) 


04389 


85 


19 Feb 75 


113 


9°20' 


95°43' 


21 Feb 75 


9°08' 


96°55' 


2 


72 


261 


W 


MD 


(d) 


04407 


86 


21 Feb 75 


113 


9°01' 


97°57' 


23 Feb 75 


8°32' 


98°28' 


2 


42 


227 


SW 


MD 


(d) 


04413 


87 


21 Feb 75 


113 


9°01' 


97°57' 


23 Feb 75 


8°32' 


98°28' 


2 


42 


227 


SW 


MD 


(d) 


04414 


88 


22 Feb 75 


119 


12°10' 


92°10' 


2 Max 75 


12°48' 


92°37' 


8 


46 


325 


NW 


MD 


(d) 


04963 


89 


14 Apr 75 


121 


17°07' 


113°33' 


21 Apr 75 


17°29' 


114-11' 


7 


42 


301 


NNW 


MD 


(d) 


04264 


90 


14 Apr 75 


121 


17°07' 


113°33' 


21 Apr 75 


17°29' 


114°11' 


14 


54 


152 


WNW 


MD 


(d) 


04266 


91 


21 Apr 75 


105 


14°48' 


109°15' 


5 May 75 


14°00' 


108°49' 


14 


54 


152 


SSE 


MD 


(d) 


04467 


92 


21 Apr 75 


105 


14°48' 


109°15' 


5 May 75 


14°00' 


108°49' 


14 


54 


152 


SSE 


MD 


(d) 


04468 


93 


24 Oct 76 


208 


9°33' 


104°46' 


26 Oct 76 


9°11' 


105°01' 


(15 h) 


26 


214 


SW 


MD 1 


— 


05194 


94 


25 Oct 76 


208 


9°33' 


104°46' 


26 Oct 76 


9°11' 


105°01' 


(15 h) 


26 


214 


SW 


MD' 


— 


05200 


95 


25 Oct 76 


208 


9°33' 


104°46' 


26 Oct 76 


9°11' 


105°01' 


(15 h) 


26 


214 


SW 


MD 1 


— 


05217 


96 


25 Oct 76 


208 


9°33' 


104°46' 


26 Oct 76 


9°ir 


io5°or 


(15 h) 


26 


214 


SW 


RX 


— 


— 


97 


25 Oct 76 


208 


9°33' 


104°46' 


26 Oct 76 


9°ir 


105 °or 


(15 h) 


26 


214 


SW 


RX 


— 


— 



With braided tubing. 



Table 5.— Tag return data for spinner dolphin, Steneila longirostris, 1969-76. Tag type codes defined in text. 





















Minimum 
















Release 






Recapture 




Days at 
liberty 
(orh) 


distance 
traveled 
(n.mi.) 


Direction of 
net movement 
°T bearing 


Tag 
type 






Date 


Cruise 
number 


Position 


Date 


Position 


Tag 




lat.N 


long. W 


lat.N 


long. W 


number 


1 


18 Aug 70 


26 


10°47' 


127-48' 


17 Sep 71 


11-17' 


123-09' 


395 


275 


83 


E 


PD 


(a) 


A6242 


2 


23 Nov 71 


13 


13°20' 


108-00' 


8 Jan 74 


11-44' 


105-32' 


776 


172 


124 


SE 


MD 


(a) 


01116 


3 


8 Dec 71 


13 


10°15' 


104-32' 


28 Feb 72 


11-01' 


101-15' 


82 


199 


76 


ENE 


MD 


(a) 


00741 


4 


8 Dec 71 


13 


10°15' 


104-32' 


28 Feb 72 


11-01' 


101-15' 


82 


199 


76 


ENE 


MD 


(a) 


00016 


5 


10 Jan 72 


16 


9°04' 


105°01' 


6 Feb 72 


9-35' 


108°10' 


37 


189 


280 


W 


MD 


(a) 


00413 


6 


31 Jan 75 


112 


13°08' 


91-50' 


1 Feb 75 


13°12' 


91°38' 


(16 h) 


12 


71 


ENE 


MD 


(d) 


04363 


7 


13 Apr 75 


105 


6°38' 


93°21' 


16 Apr 75 


6°54' 


94-43' 


3 


83 


281 


W 


MD 


(d) 


04464 



Table 6.— Net distance traveled and net travel rates for radiotrack 
segments <50 h long. 







Minimum 






Track segment 


Duration 


distance 


N.mi. 


N.mi. 


(Fig. 4) 


(h) 


(n.mi.) 


h 


day 


1-2 (set) 


16 


59 


3.7 


89 


2-3 (set) 


24 


28 


1.2 


29 


3-4 (set) 


24 


69 


2.9 


70 


4-5 


22 


75 


3.4 


82 


1-3 (set) 


40 


70 


1.8 


43 


2-4 (set) 


48 


80 


1.7 


41 


3-5 


46 


10 


0.2 


5 


6-7 (chase) 


19 


60 


3.2 


77 


Average 


— 


— 


2.3 


54 



400-day returns (15), the logged take of yellowfin tuna 5 
within a radius of 250 n.mi. and a radius of 250 to 600 
n.mi. during the period after 50 days following release 
and before capture, or after 200 days and before recap- 
ture, respectively (Table 7) (catch of yellowfin tuna is the 
closest correlate of actual tag recapture effort (i.e., 
number of dolphins captured) for which data of suffi- 
cient geographical and temporal precision are avail- 
able). For both groups of tag returns, the catch of yellow- 
fin tuna in each instance was greater in the 250- to 600- 



5 Unpublished data furnished by J. Joseph, Inter- American Tropical 
Tuna Commission, P.O. Box 271, La Jolla, CA 92038. 



10 




Figure 5. — (Top) Minimum distance and net direc- 
tion of travel, with days at liberty, of spotted dol- 
phins, Stenella attenuata, tagged 1969-76 and re- 
captured before 1 January 1977. Returns from radio 
transmitters not included. (Bottom) Blow up of 
inset. 



Figure 6. — Minimum distance and net direction 
of travel, with days at liberty, of spinner dol- 
phins, Stenella longirostris, tagged 1969-76 and 
recaptured before 1 January 1977. 



20° 



10° 



Stenella longirostris 



395 



1601 1 1 1 1 M J5CK 1 1 1 1 1 1 i46° 1 1 1 1 1 1 130° Mill i 2 6°; 1 1 1 1 1 1 iid-l I I I I I I lOO"! 1 1 1 1 1 1 90°l Mil I W-l I I I I I I .TO 




11 





ou 














70 


- 








• 
















'e 


60 










/ 

/ 












• 


/ 














/ 

/ 


CJ 












/ 


UJ 

_l 

UJ 


50 








• 


/ 
/ 


> 












/ 


< 












/ 


rr 












/ 


i- 












/ 

/ Y= 10.4 + 1.15X 


bJ 
O 


40 








• 


/ n= 16 
/ r = 0.6 1 


< 










/ 




h- 










/ 




(D 










/ 




o 


30 








/ 
/ 




2 










45) 




-> 










/ • 




2 






(3) 

• 


• 


/ • • 

(4) 




^ 


20 






/ 






S 






/ 
/ 
/ 












/ 
/ 




.(2) 






10 








• 






n 


•• 




1 


1 1 1 



10 20 30 40 

TIME AT LIBERTY (h) 



50 



Figure 7. — Movement of tagged spotted dolphins, Stenella attenuata, 
recaptured within 48 h of release. When more than one dolphin was 
tagged and recovered from the same school at the same time, the 
number is indicated in parentheses. Dashed line is linear regression 
line fitted to unweighted data points. 



n.mi. area than in the 250-n.mi. area. This result shows 
that the pattern in Figure 8 of apparent annual migra- 
tion or dispersal of at least some of the tagged animals is 
real and not an artifact of the distribution of recapture 
effort. 

The net direction of movements of <300 n.mi. was es- 
sentially random, but movements >300 n.mi. had a very 
strong east-west component (Fig. 9). This apparent pre- 
dominance of longitudinal movement in long-distance 
returns is probably not due to chance. If it is assumed 
that the distribution of deviations in Figure 8 would be 
random, given that neither longitudinal nor latitudinal 
movement predominate, the probability that all seven of 
the over 300 n.mi. net movements would have devi- 
ations of <20° is described by a binomial probability 
distribution. If n = 1 and P = 90, then the probability is 
2.6 X 10~ 5 . The data, therefore, show that, if seasonal mi- 
gration or dispersal does indeed exist, it is primarily 
onshore-offshore. The time-of-year data for the few tag 
returns indicating movements >300 n.mi. indicate that 
movement may be generally onshore (E) in fall and 
winter and offshore (W) in late spring and summer 



Table 7. — Estimated catch of yellowfin tuna within 250 n.mi. and 
within 250-600 n.mi. of point of tag release for 12 tagged dolphins 
recovered between 50 and 200 days after release and traveling up to 
582 mi (average 174 mi) and 15 tagged dolphins recovered between 
200 and 400 days after release and traveling <223 mi (average 93 
mi). Catches for the first group are between 50 days after release and 
before recapture and for the second group between 200 days and 
recapture. 







Estimated yellowfin tuna catch 




Within 250 n.mi. 


Within 250-600 n.mi. 


Tag returns 




(short tons) 


(short tons) 


Group 1 








(50-200 days): 


1. 


886 


14,041 




2. 


9,363 


25,908 




3. 


4,858 


35,508 




4. 


4,728 


30,119 




5. 


76 


657 




6. 


2,065 


11,906 




7. 


2,365 


4,562 




8. 


745 


1,529 




9. 


516 


1,501 




10. 


1,202 


7,885 




11. 


1,436 


4,497 




12. 


4,737 


6,605 


Group 2 








(200-400 days): 


1. 


5,108 


6,224 




2. 


2,396 


26,142 




3. 


470 


6,325 




4. 


4,656 


14,737 




5. 


4,523 


16,180 




6. 


3,277 


12,389 




7. 


3,893 


14,452 




8. 


3,893 


13,126 




9. 


4,485 


13,573 




10. 


1,955 


3,177 




11. 


3,051 


6,746 




12. 


952 


3,611 




13. 


3,214 


6,377 




14. 


5,390 


13,312 




15. 


759 


3,944 



Table 8. — Time of year at liberty and net direction of 
movement for seven tagged spotted dolphins, Stenella 
attenuata, traveling more than 300 n.mi. before 
recapture. 





Net movement 






Distance 


At liberty 


Direction 


(n.mi.) 


1. Jan-May 


W 


572 


2. Aug-Feb 


E 


568 


3. Sept 


E 


390 


4. Nov-Mar 


ENE 


435 


5. Nov-Apr 


ESE 


582 


6.' Dec-Feb 


E 


363 



■Two dolphins. 



(Table 8). This hypothesis must be considered as highly 
tentative, however, pending availability of more data. 

In summary, home range at any particular season is 
roughly circular, on the order of 200 to 300 n.mi. in 
diameter, and may move seasonally several hundred 
miles onshore (possibly in fall and winter) and offshore 
(possibly in spring and summer). Average short-term net 
movement is on the order of 30 to 50 n.mi./day. 



12 









10-50 DAYS 


50-200 DAYS 




200 - 400 DAYS 








(n=2l) 


(12) 




(15) 






600 






• 






• 


£ 


500 














c 
















*-* 
















Q 








. 








LlI 
















_l 


400 














UJ 








• 








> 
















< 








* 








IT 
















h- 
















UJ 


300 




















. 










< 








/ \ 








1- 








/ 


\ 


# 




cn 








s 


\ 








200 






/ 


V 






o 






# 




s 


v •. 




5 
3 






.' • > 


/ . 








5 








• 


. 


•^ 




Z 
5 


100 


L- 1 


■ • ®f 
. > 


• 




* • 








« 




* 


1 I.I 











i 1 III 



50 



100 



200 



'f 400 
I YR. 



2 YRS. 



TIME AT LIBERTY (days) 



Figure 8. — Plot of minimum distance traveled on time at liberty (logarithmic scale) for tagged and recap- 
tured spotted dolphins, Stenella attenuata. Circled means are for 10- to 50-, 50- to 200-, and 200- to 400- day 
returns. 



so 

CO 


, , 


• 






a) 


• 








□> 80 


.." 


• 


• 




a> 










■o 


• 








Z 70 


_ w 




, 




O 




• 






h- 






• 




O 


— 




• 




LU 60 


— , 








£E 


• 








a 


* 








H 50 


. 




" 




<n 










UJ 


— , 




• 




5 


"* • 








(L 40 










in 










< 


% 








UJ 










30 


— • — 


• 






S 


. • 








o 


• 








tr 










"- 20 


• 




• • 




z 










o 




• 


• • 




i= 10 


. • 




• 




< 


• 


# 






> 










w 




, 


• 




Q 


1 1 1 1 1 V II 


i i i 


1 1 1 1 1 1 


iitltiftr i — j 


( 


) 50 


100 


150 200 250 


300 350 



'■''III'' 



MINIMUM DISTANCE TRAVELED (n.mi.) 

Figure 9. — Deviation from E-W direction of net movement plotted on minimum distance traveled for tagged 
and recaptured spotted dolphins, Stenella attenuata. 



13 



ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

We thank the hundreds of people (scientists, techni- 
cians, crew members, and vessel owners and operators) 
who helped get the tags out and the recoveries in. Some 
are mentioned in the text; others (including the many 
"tunaboat observers" who released the tags listed in Ap- 
pendix 2) are not. We thank W. H. Bayliff who proposed 
the initial design of the tagging shute. We also thank J. 
G. Jennings, J. M. Coe, T. Quinn, V. I. Gallucci, R. L. 
Brownell, Jr., and W. H. Bayliff, for criticizing the 
manuscript. Unpublished data were furnished by the 
Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission through the 
courtesy of C. J. Orange. R. Butler and N. K. Wiley pro- 
vided invaluable assistance with data processing. 



LITERATURE CITED 

BAYLIFF, W. H. 

1973. Materials and methods for tagging purse seine- and bait- 
boat-caught tunas. Inter-Am. Trop. Tuna Comm., Bull. 15:463- 
503. 

BECKETT, J. S. 

1968. A harpoon adapter for tagging large free-swimming fish at the 
surface. J. Fish. Res. Board Can. 25:177-179. 
EVANS, W. E. 

1971. Orientation behavior of delphinids: Radio telemetric 
studies. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 188:142-160. 

1974. Radio-telemetric studies of two species of small odontocete 
cetaceans. In W. E. Schevill (editor). The whale problem. A 
status report, p. 385-394. Harvard Univ. Press, Cambridge. 

1975. Distribution, differentiation of populations, and other 
aspects of the natural history of Delphinus delphis Linnaeus in the 
northeastern Pacific. Ph.D. Thesis, University of California at 
Los Angeles, 164 p. 

EVANS, W. E., J. D. HALL, A. B. IRVINE, and J. S. 
LEATHERVYOOD. 

1972. Methods for tagging small cetaceans. Fish Bull., U.S. 
70:61-65. 



FRASER, F. C. 

1934. Report on Cetacea stranded on the British coasts from 1927 to 
1932. Trustees British Museum, London, 41 p. + 6 maps. 
GASKIN, D. E. 

1968. Distribution of Delphinidae (Cetacea) in relation to sea sur- 
face temperatures off eastern and southern New Zealand. N.Z. J. 
Mar. Freshwater Res. 2:527-534. 

KASUYA, T. 

1971. Consideration of distribution and migration of toothed 
whales off the Pacific coast of Japan based upon aerial sighting 
records. Sci. Rep. Whales Res. Inst. Tokyo 23:37-60, pi. I-VI. 

KASUYA, T., and N. OGURO. 

1972. A new tagging method of dolphins. Sci. Rep. Whales Res. 
Inst. Tokyo 24:81-85. 

MARTIN, H., W. E. EVANS, and C. A. BOWERS. 

1971. Methods for radio tracking marine mammals in the open 
sea. 1971 IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers) 
Conference on Engineering in the Ocean Environment, 44-49. 
MATHER, F. J., III. 

1963. Tags and tagging techniques for large pelagic fishes. Int. 
Comm. Northwest Atl. Fish. Spec. Publ. 4:288-293. 
MIYAZAKI, N„ T. KASUYA, and M. NISHIWAKI. 

1974. Distribution and migration of two species of Stenella in the 
Pacific coast of Japan. Sci. Rep. Whales Res. Inst. Tokyo 26:227- 
243. 

NISHIWAKI, M., M. NAKAJIMA, and T. TOBAYAMA. 

1966. Preliminary experiments for dolphin marking. Sci. Rep. 
Whales Res. Inst. Tokyo 20:101-107. 

NISHIWAKI, M., and T. YAGI. 

1953. On the age and the growth of teeth in a dolphin, (Prodel- 

phinus caeruleo-albus) . (I). Sci. Rep. Whales Res. Inst. Tokyo 

8:133-146. 
NORRIS, K. S. 

1967. Some observations on the migration and orientation of 
marine mammals. In R. M. Storm (editor), Animal orientation 
and navigation, p. 101-125. Oregon State Univ. Press, Corvallis. 

NORRIS, K. S., and K. W. PRYOR. 

1970. A tagging method for small cetaceans. J. Mammal. 51:609- 
610. 
PERRIN, W. F. 

1969. Using porpoise to catch tuna. World Fishing 18(6):42-45. 

1975. Distribution and differentiation of populations of dolphins of 
the genus Stenella in the eastern tropical Pacific. J. Fish Res. 
Board Can. 32:1059-1067. 

SERGEANT, D. E„ and P. F. BRODIE. 

1969. Tagging white whales in the Canadian Arctic. J. Fish Res. 
Board Can. 25:2201-2205. 



14 



NOAA TECHNICAL REPORTS 

NMFS CIRCULAR AND SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC REPORT— FISHERIES 

GUIDELINES FOR CONTRIBUTORS 



CONTENTS OF MANUSCRIPT 

First page. Give the title (as concise as possible) of the paper 
and the author's name, and footnote the author's affiliation, 
mailing address, and ZIP code. 

Contents. Contains the text headings and abbreviated figure 
legends and table headings. Dots should follow each entry and 
page numbers should be omitted. 

Abstract. Not to exceed one double-spaced page. Footnotes 
and literature citations do not belong in the abstract. 

Text. See also Form of the Manuscript below. Follow the U.S. 
Government Printing Office Style Manual, 1973 edition. Fish 
names, follow the American Fisheries Society Special Publica- 
tion No. 6, A List of Common and Scientific Names of Fishes 
from the United States and Canada, third edition, 1970. Use 
short, brief, informative headings in place of "Materials and 
Methods." 

Text footnotes. Type on a separate sheet from the text. For 
unpublished or some processed material, give author, year, title 
of manuscript, number of pages, and where it is filed — agency 
and its location. 

Personal communications. Cite name in text and footnote. 
Cite in footnote: John J. Jones, Fishery Biologist, Scripps Insti- 
tution of Oceanography, La Jolla, CA 92037, pers. commun., 21 
May 1977. 

Figures. Should be self-explanatory, not requiring reference 
to the text. All figures should be cited consecutively in the text 
and their placement indicated in the left-hand margin of the 
manuscript. Photographs and line drawings should be of 
"professional" quality — clear and balanced, and can be re- 
duced to 6V2 inches (40 picas) for page width or to 3 ! /s inches (19 
picas) for single-column width, but no more than 9 inches (54 
picas) high. Photos should be printed on glossy paper — sharply 
focussed, good contrast. Label each figure. List, and typed dou- 
ble spaced, each figure legend. DO NOT SEND original figures 
to the Scientific Editor; NMFS Scientific Publications Office 
will request these if they are needed. 

Tables. Each table should start on a separate page and should 
be self-explanatory, not requiring reference to the text. 
Headings should be short but amply descriptive. Use only 
horizontal rules. Number table footnotes consecutively across 
the page from left to right in Arabic numerals; and to avoid con- 
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Literature cited. In text as: Smith and Jones (1977) or (Smith 
and Jones 1977); if more than one author, list according to years 
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ferred to in the text should be listed alphabetically by the senior 
author's surname under the heading "Literature Cited"; only 
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The author is responsible for the accuracy of the literature cita- 
tions. Abbreviations of names of periodicals and serials should 
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Abbreviations and symbols. Common ones, such as mm, m, 
g, ml, mg, °C (for Celsius), %, °L, etc., should be used. Abbrevi- 
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rarely used in these abbreviations. But periods are used in et al., 
vs., e.g., i.e., Wash. (WA is used only with ZIP code), etc. 
Abbreviations are acceptable in tables and figures where there is 
lack of space. 

Measurements. Should be given in metric units. Other 
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CONTENTS 

ABSTRACT 

TEXT 

LITERATURE CITED 

TEXT FOOTNOTES 

APPENDIX 

TABLES (each table should be numbered with an Arabic 
numeral and heading provided) 

LIST OF FIGURE LEGENDS (Entire figure legends, includ- 
ing "Figure" before each number) 

FIGURES 



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