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Full text of "The nobilities of Europe"

303 



THE NOBILITIES OF EUROPE 



This edition is limited to Two Hundred and Fifty Copies 






B 




A 






THE 



NOBILITIES 
OF EUROPE 



EDITED BY THE 

MARQUIS DE RUVIGNY 

AUTHOR OF "THE BLOOD ROYAL OF BRITAIN," "THE JACOBITE PEERAGE, 
BARONETAGE AND KNIGHTAGE," "THE PLANT AGENET ROLL," ETC. 




LONDON 
MELVILLE AND COMPANY 

12 BUCKINGHAM STREET, STRAND, W.C. 
1909 




C,5 
21 






Printed by BALLANTYNE, HANSON &> Co. 
At the Ballantyne Press, Edinburgh 



PREFACE 

THIS work is designed to collate in brief for easy reference informa- 
tion not readily available in any other Book of Record. Being 
compiled in the United Kingdom for British readers, the scope of 
the work has in a measure been condensed to those branches of 
the subject upon which knowledge is often required, whether for 
international, historical, or social reasons, and sought for in vain 
in this country. 

The present issue is sectionalised, the first part giving tabulated 
lists of the Heads of families of British nationality or descent 
ennobled abroad, with an alphabetical list in which the Editor has 
endeavoured to state the origin of the various dignities conferred 
upon or inherited by British subjects. This is followed by comments 
on certain European Nobilities, which it is intended to supplement 
in future issues. 

The second part comprises certain Orders of Knighthood, with 
lists of British subjects, past and present, who have received the 
honour of admission thereto. Similar lists of the other orders are 
in preparation for the next edition, and the Editor will be most 
grateful to those concerned who will supply him with further infor- 
mation. 



15 HANOVER CHAMBERS, 

BUCKINGHAM STREET, STRAND, W.C., 

January 1909. 



CONTENTS 



PAGE 

PREFACE v 

INITIALS USED FOB THE PRINCIPAL ORDERS OF KNIGHTHOOD xi 

OTHER ABREVIATIONS xii 

PART I 

GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND, DEALING WITH DIGNITIES GRANTED BY 
SOVEREIGN RULERS OF OTHER NATIONALITIES AND HELD BY BRITISH 
SUBJECTS AND DESCENDANTS . . . . . . . 1-176 

A List of British Subjects holding Titles of Nobility granted by Sovereigns 
of other Nationalities .......... 7 

A List of Foreign Noblemen of British Paternal Descent .... 25 

An Alphabetical List of those British Families who have received Foreign 
Titles and of those Foreign Titled Families who have become British 
Subjects 43 

FRANCE 177-184 

Britons Ennobled in France 180 

French Nobles who have become British Subjects 184 

SWEDEN AND THE SWEDISH NOBILITY ....... 185-194 

Britons Ennobled in Sweden 190 

Swedish Nobles who have become British Subjects 194 

THE NETHERLANDS THE DUTCH NOBILITY, PAST AND PRESENT. BY M. 

BIJLEVELD . 195-200 

Britons Ennobled in Holland 199 

Dutch Nobles who have become British Subjects ..... 200 

DENMARK. BY H. R. HIORT-LORENZEN, COUNCILLOR OF STATE . 201-203 

Britons Ennobled in Denmark . ... . . . . 203 

Danish Nobles who have become British Subjects 203 

BELGIUM ~ . . 204 

Britons Ennobled in Belgium 204 

Belgian Noble who has become a British Subject ..... 204 

ITALY 205-206 

Britons Ennobled in Italy 205 

Italian Nobles who have become British Subjects 206 

THE PAPAL NOBILITY . . . 207-208 

Britons Ennobled in the Papal States 207 

Roman Noble who has become a British Subject ..... 208 

Tii 



Vlll 



CONTENTS 



THE PEEEAGE OF MALT.V. HOLDERS OF TITLES OF NOBILITY IN 
RECOGNISED BY TJ/E BRITISH GOVERNMENT 

Chronological Table of Maltese Titles 

Foreign Titles Incorporated in the Maltese Peerage . 

THE NOBILITY IN THE GERMAN LANDS OF THE HOLY ROMAN EMPIRE 
Britons Ennobled in the Holy Roman Empire .... 

Britons Ennobled in Austria ....... 

Britons Ennobled in Prussia ....... 

Britons Ennobled in Bavaria ....... 

Britons Ennobled in Hanover ....... 

Britons Ennobled in Wiirtemberg ...... 

Britons Ennobled in Saxe Weimar . . . . . .* 

Britons Ennobled in Saxe Coburg Gotha 

German Nobles who have become British Subjects . 

SPAIN 

Britons Ennobled in Spain ....... 

Spanish Nobles who have become British Subjects . 
RUSSIA 

Britons Ennobled in Russia 



PAGB 



225-23. 



FINLAND 

British Families Ennobled in Finland 

PORTUGAL AND THE PORTUGUESE NOBILITY 
Britons Ennobled in Portugal . 
Chronological Table of Portuguese Titles 



234-236 
. 236 

237-238 
. 238 

239-251 

. 243 

244 



PART II 

FOREIGN ORDERS OF KNIGHTHOOD AND THEIR BRITISH HOLDERS, PAST AND 

PRESENT 255 

THE SOVEREIGN ORDER OF ST. JOHN OF JERUSALEM OR MALTA. BY LORD 

ASHBURNHAM 258-261 

THE ORDER OF THE HOLY GHOST 261-262 

THE MILITARY ORDER OF ST. JAMES OF COMPOSTELLA . . . 263-265 

THE SAXE ERNESTINE FAMILY ORDER 265-267 

THE ORDER OF THE ELEPHANT OF DENMARK . . . . . . 267 

THE ORDER OF THE DANNEBROG OF DENMARK . . . . . 267-271 
THE IMPERIAL MILITARY ORDER OF MARIA THERESA .... 271-274 

THE ROYAL MILITARY ORDER OF ST. FERDINAND OF SPAIN . . 275-279 

THE ROYAL ORDER OF ST. OLAF OF NORWAY 280-282 

THE PONTIFICAL ORDER OF ST. GREGORY THE GREAT .... 282-284 
THE SACRED MILITARY ORDER OF THE HOLY SEPULCHRE . . . 284-285 

THE ORDER OF THE CHRYSANTHEMUM 285 

THE ORDER OF THE PAWLONIA 285 

THE ORDER OF THE CROWN OF JAPAN 285 

THE ORDER OF THE RISING SUN OF JAPAN 286-292 

THE ORDER OF THE SACRED TREASURE OF JAPAN . . . 292-298 

INDEX TO PART II .. . 301-307 



GENEALOGICAL TABLE 

THE MALE LINES OF THE ROYAL HOUSE OF WETTIN . . . Frontispiece 

ILLUSTRATIONS 

ARMORIAL BEARINGS OF THOMAS, IST COUNT RICCARDI-CUBITT To face page 69 
ARMORIAL BEARINGS OF GEORGE O'NEILI, COUNT OF TYRONE 134 

ARMORIAL BEARINGS OF H.E. THE BARON VON PAWEL-RAMMINGEN, 

K.C.B., K.C.V.O 137 

ARMORIAL BEARINGS OF GEORGE, 2ND BARON DE WORMS . . 173 

ARMORIAL BEARINGS OF DANIEL, 7ra MARQUESS OF ST. VINCENT- 

FEBRERI 221 

INSIGNIA OF THE SAXE ERNESTINE FAMILY ORDER 265 



INITIALS USED FOR THE PRINCIPAL ORDERS 
OF KNIGHTHOOD IN THIS WORK 



C. = Companion. 

G.C. = Grand Cross, Grand Commander, or Grand Cordon. 

G.O.= Grand Officer. 

K. = Knight. 

K.C. = Knight Commander. 

O. = Officer. 



A. = Alcantara (Spain). 

A. A. = Albert of Anhalt. 

A.B. = Alexander of Bulgaria. 

A. I. = Annunciation of Italy. 

A.N. = St. Alexander Newski (Russia). 

A.R. = St. Andrew of Russia. 

A.S. = Albert of Saxony. 

A.T. = Alphonse XII. of Spain. 

B. =Bath (England). 

B.A. = St. Benedict of Aviz (Portugal). 

B.C. = Crown of Bavaria (i.e. Bava- 
rian Crown). 

B.E. = Black Eagle of Prussia. 

Cal. = Calatrava (Spain). 

Ch. = Christ (Papal States). 

C.B. = Christ of Brazil. 

C.I. = Crown of Italy. 

C.J. = Chrysanthemum of Japan. 

C.N. = Constantino of Naples. 

C.P. = Christ of Portugal. 

C.R. = Crown of Roumania. 

C.S. = Charles III. of Spain. 

C.W. = Crown of Wurtemberg. 

D. =Dannebrog of Denmark. 
D.D. = Double Dragon of China. 

E. = Elephant of Denmark. 
E.E. = Eagle of Este-Modena. 

E.T. = Elizabeth Theresa of Austria. 

F.B. = Fedelity of Baden. 

F.J. = Francis- Joseph of Austria. 

F.M. =St. Ferdinand and the Merit 

of the Two Sicilies. 

F.S. =St. Ferdinand of Spain. 

F.W. = Frederick of Wurtemberg. 

G. = Garter (England). 

G.B. =St. George of Bavaria. 

G.F. = Golden Fleece (Austria and 

Spain). 

G.L.H. = Golden Lion of Hesse. 
G.L.N. = Golden Lion of Nassau. 
G.R. =St. George of the Reunion 

(Two Sicilies). 

H. =Guelph of Hanover. 
H.B. =St. Hubert of Bavaria. 
H.F. =St. Hubert of France. 
H.G. =Holy Ghost of France. 
H.H. = House of Hohenzollern 

(Prussia). 
H.L. = Henry the Lion of Brunswick. 



H.S. =Holy Sepulchre (Papal States). 
I.C. = Isabella the Catholic of Spain. 
I.C. A. =Iron Crown of Austria. 
I.C.P. = Iron Cross (Prussia). 
I.E. = Indian Empire. 
I.M. = Independence of Montenegro. 
J.S. =St. James of the Sword (San- 
tiago, Spain). 
J.S. P. =St. James of the Sword of 

Portugal. 

L. Louise of Prussia. 

L.A. = Leopold of Austria. 
L.B. = Leopold of Belgium. 
L.H. = Legion of Honour (France). 
L.N. = Lion of the Netherlands. 
L.S. =Lion and Sun of Persia. 
L.Z. =Lion of Zoehringen. 
M. = Sovereign Order of Malta. 
Med. = Medjidie (Turkey and Egypt). 
M.B. = Maximilian of Bavaria. 
M.C.F. = Merit of Charles Frederick of 

Baden. 

M.E. = Mexican Eagle. 
M.G. = St.MichaelandSt.George(U.K.). 

M.G.S. = Milan the Great of Servia. 

M. J. = Maximilian Joseph of Bavaria. 

M.L. =St. Maurice and St. Lazarus 
(Italy). 

M.L.S. = Marie Louise of Spain. 

M.O. = Merit of Oldenburg. 

M.S. = Merit of Saxony. 

M.T. = Maria Theresa of Austria. 

M.V. = Marie Victoria of Spain. 

O.L.M. =Our Lady of Montesa (Spain). 

O.M. = Order of Merit (U.K.). 

O.N. -Orange-Nassau (Netherlands). 

O.T. = Osmanieh of Turkey. 

P. =St. Patrick (Ireland). 

P.C. = Crown of Prussia. 

P.G. = Philip the Good of Hesse. 

P.H. = Phenix of Hohenlohe (Prussia). 

P.J. =Pawlonia of Japan. 

P.M. = St. Peter of Montenegro. 

P.N. =Pius IX. (Papal States). 

P.S. = Polar Star of Sweden. 

R.B. Rose of Brazil. 

R.C. =Rue Crown of Saxony. 

R.E. =Red Eagle of Prussia. 

R.G. = Redeemer (Saviour) of Greece. 



xii INITIALS USED FOR PRINCIPAL ORDERS 



R.S. = Rising Sun of Japan. 
Sword = Sword of Sweden. 
S. = Seraphim of Sweden. 

S.A. =Star of Abyssinia. 
S.A.M. =St. Anne of Munich. 
S.A.R. =St. Anne of Russia. 
S.C.A. = Starry Cross of Austria. 
S.C.B. = Southern Cross of Brazil. 
S.E. = Saxe Ernestine Family Order. 
S.E.B. =St. Elizabeth of Bavaria. 
S.G. = St. Gregory the Great (Papal 

States). 

S.G.H. =St. George of Hanover. 
S.G.R. =St. George of Russia. 
S.H. =St. Stephen of Hungary. 
S.H.S. =St. Henry of Saxony. 
S.I. = Star of India. 
S.J. =St. Januarius of the Two 

Sicilies. 

S.L. =St. Louis of France. 
S.M. =St. Michael of France. 



S.M.B. =St. Michael of Bavaria. 

S.O. =St. Olaf of Norway. 

S.P. =St. Stanislas of Poland. 

S.R. =Star of Roumania. 

S.S. =St. Sylvester (Papal States). 

S.T. =St. Stephen of Tuscany. 

S.T.J. = Sacred Treasure of Japan. 

S. W. = St. Waldemar of Russia. 

T. = Thistle (Scotland). 

Ta. = Takova ( Servia). 

T.A. = Teutonic Order of Austria. 

T.B. = Theresa of Bavaria. 

T.N. = Teutonic Order of the Nether- 
lands. 

T.S. = Tower and Sword (Portugal). 

V. =Vasa of Sweden. 

V. O. = Victorian Order ( U. K. ). 

V. V. = Conception of Villa Vicosa. 

W.E. = White Elephant of Siam. 
W.E.P.=White Eagle of Poland. 

W.N. = William of the Netherlands. 



OTHER ABBREVIATIONS USED 



a. =ante (before). 
app. = apparent. 

b. = born, 
bapt. = baptized, 
bur. = buried. 

c. circa (aboat). 
cr. = created. 

d. =died. 

da. = daughter. 

E. = England, 
ex. = extinct. 

F. = France. 
G.B. = Great Britain 
h. = heir. 

H.R.E. =Holy Roman Empire. 

I. = Ireland. 

m. = married. 

M.I. = monumental inscription. 

P. C. = Privy Councillor. 



P.S. = Papal States. 

rec. = received. 

S. = Scotland. 

s.p. sine prole, (without issue).' 

s.p.l. =sine prole legilimd (without law- 
ful issue). 

s.p.m. sine prole masculd (without male 
issue). 

s.p.m.s.=0tne prole masculd superstite 
(without surviving male 
issue). 

s.p.s. =sine prole superstite (without 
surviving issue). 

sue. = succeeded. 

v.m. vita matris (during mother's 
life). 

v.p. = vita patris (during father's life). 

yr. = younger. 



In the Genealogical Tables dates written so 1823+ 1900 are those of birth and 
death, while those written 1820-1840 are of a reign. 







PART I 

DEALING WITH DIGNITIES GRANTED BY SOVEREIGN 

RULERS OF OTHER NATIONALITIES TO 

BRITISH SUBJECTS AND FAMILIES 




THE NOBILITIES OF EUROPE 



GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND 

DEALING WITH DIGNITIES GRANTED BY SOVEREIGN 
RULERS OF OTHER NATIONALITIES AND HELD 
BY BRITISH SUBJECTS AND DESCENDANTS 

THE Nobility of these Realms is so minutely described in many admirable 
works of reference available to British readers, that the remarks herein are 
more particularly directed towards those subjects of His Majesty who 
hold dignities in other Nobilities. Dealing merely in summary with the 
numerical total of families having British hereditary titles, it may be men- 
tioned that they apparently number 1732 : viz., 685 Peers and some 1047 
Baronets. 

The number of British subjects holding dignities of other Nobilities is 
remarkably small, probably for reasons hereinafter mentioned. They may 
be said to consist of three classes, viz. : (1) Those conferred on British 
subjects ; (2) those inherited by British subjects ; and (3) those held by 
heirs of noble families from abroad who have adopted British Nationality. 

In the first of these classes previous permission to accept the dignity, 
and, when received, to assume the designation or title attached to it, can only 
be conferred by the especial grace of the Sovereign upon whose pleasure like- 
wise any honorary place or precedence to be enjoyed by a holder depends. 

These marks of Royal approval and license are the subjects of record 
by means of a Sovereign's Warrant to the Earl Marshal of England, such 
warrants being registered in the College of Arms, and from thenceforth a 
dignity receives official recognition. Each warrant states that it is granted 
by especial grace, and is not to create a precedent for a similar grant in future. 

This procedure has ruled from very early days. The first recorded 
Englishman who received a foreign title appears to have been Sir Hugh 
Calveley, 1 who, having assisted Henry of Trastamara to dethrone his half- 
brother, Peter the Cruel, was by him April 1366 cr. COUNT OF CARRION in Old 
Castile. He was, however, recalled by the Black Prince in the same year, 
being afterwards sent with the English forces which restored King Peter, 
and dying shortly afterwards, s.p., no question of the recognition by the 
Crown of this honour arose. 

The next instances are those of the seven French Peerages conferred by 
the fourth and fifth Henrys of England, as Kings of France, 2 and owing to 

1 For the traditional creation of Reginald Mohun as Earl of Somerset by Pope 
Innocent IV. in 1147, see p. 176. 

2 See p. 180. The creation of the Black Prince as Prince of Aquitaine 19 July 1362, 
and afterwards of his brother, John of Gaunt, as Duke of Aquitaine 2 Mar. 1390, are in 
rather a different category, being grants from the reigning Duke of Aquitaine to members 
of his own family. 

A 



2 THE NOBILITIES OF EUROPE 

the dual sovereignty no question as to their recognition was raised ; indeed 
the heir of one of them, Henry (Bourchier), 2nd Count of Eu (afterwards 
Earl of Essex), was summoned to the English Parliament in his French title 
"Henrico Bourgchier Comiti deEwe" 13th January 1444/5 (23 Henry IV.), 
though he was then actually in possession of an English Barony. 1 These 
dignities were ultimately merged in English Peerages, and had become 
extinct by Aug. 16, 1654. In the reign of Elizabeth we find record of the 
question of previous permission arising. Sir Thomas Arundel having been 
created by the Emperor Rudolph II. a COUNT OF THE HOLY ROMAN EMPIRE 
14 Dec. 1595, for his gallantry in forcing the Water Tower at Gran, in 
Hungary, on his return to England in the following year objection was 
raised by the Peers that a dignity so conferred could not be allowed here 
as to place and precedent, or any other privilege, without a Royal mandate. 
Camden mentions in his history of Queen Elizabeth, that " the Queen 
wrote the same year to the Emperor, acquainting him that she forbid her 
subjects giving him place and precedence in England." 2 Sir Thomas was 
a Catholic, and the decision was doubtless considerably influenced by the 
isolated position then occupied by England in consequence of the religious 
question, and displays a true Tudor spirit. King James I. and VI. recog- 
nised the title, 3 and settled any question of precedence by creating him an 
English Peer 4 May 1605. In Scotland the close alliance with France, and 
the great military services rendered to the French Kings by Scottish 
subjects, led to the Earls of Douglas and Arran being created French 
Dukes ; and these titles, as well as that of Lord of Aubigny conferred on 
the Stuarts of Darnley, were always used and recognised, and, as regards 
that of Chatellerault at least, granted precedence. The Earl of Douglas 
styles himself in his charters " Duke of Touraine, Earl of Douglas and 
Longaville," 4 and the Earl of Arran appears in the Rolls of Parliament 5 
as " Duke of Chatellerault," and is constantly referred to in the Privy 
Council Records 6 as " His Dukis Grace of Chestellerault." 

From the commencement of the seventeenth century to the present day, 
the spirit of Elizabeth's decision has, on the whole, been observed, and of 
the titles which have been conferred upon those who have remained British 
subjects only a few have been officially recognised by the Crown. The first 
instance recorded of a Royal License being granted to a British subject to 
accept a foreign dignity 7 was in the case of Sir Ignatius White, Bt., P.C., who 
on 20 Aug. 1677 was made Marquess of Albeville in the Empire a creation 
which, under a warrant from the Earl Marshal, dated 30 Oct. 1686, was 
registered in the College of Arms, London, together with a recital that 




1 G. E. C.'s Complete Peerage, i. 393. The writ differed somewhat from those addressed 
to English Earls, where the surname is omitted. As to the using a foreign title of a higher 
grade in the summons to an English Peer, see the cases of the Scottish Earls, &c., quoted at 
the same reference, note d. 

2 4 ed. 1688, p. 526. 

3 G. E. C.'s Complete Peerage, i. 157. 

4 Eraser's Douglas Book, i. 430, ii. 553. 6 Scottish Acts of Parliament, ii. 515, &c. 
P. C. Register, i. 649, &c. 

7 John (Granville), 1st Earl of Bath, had had Royal License 26 Apr. 1661, authorising 
him and his heirs to use the titles of Earl of Corbeil, Lord of Thorigny and Granville in 
Normandy, as heir male of Hamon Dentatus, who held those titles before Normandy was 
lost to the Crown of England, but these could hardly be considered foreign titles in the 
same sense as those enumerated above. 

8 His ancestor had been created Baron of Alby in the Empire in 1513, see p. 171. 



GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND 3 

Knight, Baron, Count, and Marquis of the [Holy Roman] Empire, to receive 
honours from any King at amity with His Majesty." l 

The next to receive such permission was Charles, Lord Granville (after- 
wards 2nd Earl of Bath), who on 21 July 1684 had Royal License from King 
James II. and VII. to assume the dignity of a Count of the Holy Roman 
Empire, which dignity had been conferred on him 27 January preceding 
for his services in the Turkish war. After that there is an interval of 
nearly a century before another case occurs, and in the last twenty years of 
the eighteenth century five warrants of recognition were granted, while 
during the whole of the nineteenth century only twenty-two are recorded. 
The following is, as far as the writer has been able to ascertain, a complete 
list of those British subjects in whose favour warrants have been granted 
by the Crown : 

1. 7 Apr. 1679. Right Hon. Sir Ignatius White alias d'Alby, Knight Baronet of 

England, Baron de Vique, now Marquis d'Albyville, and 
Knight, Baron, Count, and Marquis of the Empire, to receive 
honours from any King at amity with His Majesty. 

2. 21 Jul. 1687. Charles, Lord Granville, afterwards 2nd Earl of Bath, for him- 

self and his heirs, to assume and use the dignity of a Count 
of the Holy Roman Empire. 

3. 22 Feb. 1784. John Dillon of Lismullen, afterwards a Bt., for himself and 

his heirs, to assume and use the dignity of a Baron of the 
Holy Roman Empire. 

4. 14 May 1785. James Lockhart-Wishart, for himself and his heirs, to assume 

and use the dignity of a Count of the Empire. 

5. 19 Aug. 1785. George, 3rd Earl Cowper, for himself and his heirs, to assume 

and use the dignity of a Prince of the Empire. 

6. 27 Feb. 1792. Vice-Adm. Philip d'Auvergne, R.N., to accept and enjoy the 

dignity of Duke of Bouillon, &c. 

7. 24 Apr. 1800. John Talbot Dillon, son of Francis Dillon of Proudstown, Count 

of the Empire, for himself and his heirs, to assume and use 
that dignity. 

8. 21 Oct. 1806. Horatio, Lord Nelson, for himself and his heirs, to assume and 

use the title of Duke of Bronte in Sicily. 

9. 4 Apr. 1809. Jerome, 4th Count of Salis-Soglio in the Holy Roman Empire, 

for himself and his heirs, to use that title. 

10. 18 Oct. 1811. Arthur, Viscount Wellington, to accept and use the title of 

Count of Vimieira in Portugal. 

11. 18 Oct. 1811. Sir William Carr Beresford, to accept and use the title of Count 

of Trancoso in Portugal. 

12. 7 Sep. 1812. Horace David Choi well St. Paul, afterwards a Bt., Henry 

Heneage St. Paul, Charles Maxmillian St. Paul, and Anna 
Maria St. Paul, children of the late Horace St. Paul, Count 
of the Holy Roman Empire, that they upon whom that 
dignity shall have devolved, or shall devolve, may avail them- 
selves of the said honour, assume and use the title thereof, 
and bear the armorial ensigns annexed thereto. 

13. 29 Jul. 1813. John, son and heir of Thomas Dimsdale, M.D., Hon. Baron of 

the Russian Empire, for himself and his heirs, to assume and 
use that dignity. 

14. 27 Sep. 1819. Lieut. -Gen. George Porter, M.P., for himself and his heirs, to 

assume and use the title of Baron de Hochepied in Hungary. 

15. 22 Jan. 1822. Thomas Francis Fremantle, 2nd Baron Fremantle of the 

Austrian Empire (afterwards 1st Lord Cottesloe [U.K.]), for 
himself and his heirs, to assume and use that dignity. 

16. 16 Aug. 1824. Richard, 2nd Earl of Clancarty [I.], for himself and his heirs, 

to assume and use the title of Marquis of Heusden in the 
Netherlands. 

17. 10 Oct. 1825. Gen. Sir Edward Thornton, for himself and his heirs, to accept 

and use the title of Count of Cassilhas in Portugal. 

18. 9 Apr. 1832. Lieut.-Gen. Sir William Keir Grant, for himself and his heirs, to 

assume and use the dignity of a Baron of the Austrian Empire. 

1 G. E. C.'s Complete Baronetage. 



4 THE NOBILITIES OF EUROPE 

19 6 Jun. 1846. Sir Isaac Lyon Goldsmid, Bt., to assume and use the title of 

Baron Goldsmid of Palmeira in Portugal. 

20 10 Aug 1874 Solomon Benedict Worms, for himself and his heirs, to assume 

and use the dignity of a Baron of the Austrian Empire. 

21 7 Jan 1883. Capt. Ronald MacLeary Laurentz Campbell, for himself and his 

heirs, to assume and use the title of Baron von Craignish in 

Saxe Coburg Gotha. 
22. 22 Mar. 1886. William Charles Philip Otho Bentinck, for himself and his mother 

and for the other descendants of his father, to assume and 

use the dignity of a Count of the Empire. 
23 14 Feb. 1887. Edmund Kempt Campbell, for himself and his heirs, to assume 

and use the title of Baron Campbell of Laurentz in Saxe 

Coburg Gotha. 

24. 13 May 1890. Baron William Henry von Schroder in Prussia, to use the said 

title of Baron. 

25. 6 Nov. 1891. Paul Julius Router, for himself and his heirs, to assume and use 

the title of Baron de Reuter in Saxe Coburg Gotha. 

26. 5 Nov. 1892. Adolph Kusel, Baron de Kusel in Italy, to use the said title. 

27. 8 Feb. 1893. Samuel Selig Kusel, Baron de Kusel in Italy, to use the said title. 

28. 29 Jul. 1896. William Ernest Bush, to assume and use the title of Baron de 

Bush in Saxe Coburg Gotha. 

29. 6 Oct. 1900. Maurice Arnold de Forest, to use the title of Baron de Forest 

in the Austrian Empire. 

30. 17 Oct. 1900. Alleyne Alfred Boxall, for himself and the heirs male of his body 

upon whom the dignity shall devolve pursuant to the letters 
patent, to accept the honour and assume and use in the United 
Kingdom the title of BaronBoxall conferred uponhim by H.R.H. 
the Duke of Saxe Coburg Gotha (Duke of Edinburgh), K.G. 

31. 16 Sep. 1905. Henry, 5th Baron de Teissier in France, for himself and his 

heirs, to assume and use that title. 

32. 16 Dec. 1905. Thomas Cubitt, of Eden Hall, co. Kent, to assume and use the 

title of a Count of the Kingdom of Italy. 

33. 14 Aug. 1908. Albert Llewellyn Nugent, of Beacon Lodge, co. Southampton, 

lately R.N., 4th son and heir male of Walter Nugent, late 
of Ballyburr Castle, co. Kilkenny, His Majesty's Royal 
License and authority that he and the heirs male of his body 
(being subjects of His Majesty's Realms) upon whom the 
baronial title and dignity shall descend, may bear and use 
the title of Baron Nugent in this country, in the manner 
declared in the letters patent or diploma granted by His 
Majesty Francis Joseph, Emperor of Austria, to the said 
Walter Nugent, and bearing date the 25th day of August 1859. 

Of these 33 grants 10 were for the life of the grantee only, while the 
others were to the grantee and his heirs. One of them was to a Count (Salis) 
who had become a naturalized British subject, while three others were 
to persons on whom the dignities (Duke of Bouillon, Baron de Hochepied, 
and Count Riccardi-Cubitt) had devolved by descent or marriage. Twelve 
of them (Nos. 1, 2, 4, 5, 6, 7, 10, 11, 12, 18, 19, 28) have become extinct, 
and the representatives of the remaining 21 are those authorised by their 
Sovereign's warrant to bear the designations of their respective dignities 
and receive official recognition of the same in the United Kingdom. 1 Some 
87 other hereditary distinctions, however, are, or are claimed to be, vested 
in British subjects, making a total of 108, 2 tabulated by nationalities as 
follows : 

1 Two other titles (Baron de Longueuil and Count Mettlxa) have, however, been officially 
recognised in accordance with the provisions of the treaties under which Canada and the 
Ionian Islands were respectively annexed to the British Crown. 

2 As to the Principality and Counties of the Empire claimed by the Duke of Marl- 
borough, Lord Clifford, Sir Charles Nugent, Bt., and H. G. St. Paul Bulter, as also for the 
Prussian Barony of Villiers, ascribed in the Peerages to Lord Clarendon, see the Alphabetical 
List. Some other titles concerning which the Editor was unable to obtain particulars, and 
which consequently are not included above, will be found mentioned in this list. As regards 



GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND 







W 


I 


1 

a 


Marquesses. 


Counts. 


1 
> 


ri 




J 


French 




... 


3 


5 


3 




3 


14 






3 


f Holy Roman ) 1 
Empire . . J| 








5 




1 


6' 


>27 


Austrian . . . 














6 


6 














Prussian . . . 










2 




2 


4 










Bavarian . . . 














2 


2 














Hanoverian . 














1 


1 












Wiirtemberg . . 


1 














i 














Hesse .... 


1 














1 














* Coburg .... 










1 


... 


5 


6. 










Spa 


a ish 


... 


... 


1 


2 








3 




Portuguese .... 










5 


2 


8 


15 










d 

M 


Italian .... 










1 




4 


5> 


-14 














Sicilian .... 






2 


1 


2 


... 


2 


7 


Genoese . . . 








1 








1 
















k Venetian . . . 










1 






1 
















Papal 




1 


2 


4 


15 




... 


22 


Dut 


ch ... 














3 


3 












Bel 


rian 




1 




1 






1 


3 




Hungarian .... 














1 


1 
2 














Swedish 


... 








... 


... 


2 


Danish 














2 


2 














Rus 


sian 














1 


1 




Bra 


zilian . ... 






... 


1 


... 






1 




Total .... 


2 


2 


8 


15 


35 


2 


44 


108 



A list of the present holders follows this. They consist of 2 Serene High- 
nesses, 2 Princes, 8 Dukes, 15 Marquesses, 35 Counts, 2 Viscounts, and 
44 Barons, and out of the total 108, 17 (Princes of Waterloo and Giustiniani, 
Dukes of Chatellerault, Aubigny, and Chatellerault (?), Marquesses of Heusden 
and Maranham, Counts Arundell, Mertola, and TaafEe, Viscount Stern, and 
Barons Bentinck, Keppel, Fremantle, Mackay, Rothschild, and Stern) are 
vested in Peers of the Realm (Wellington, Newburgh, Abercorn, Richmond, 

the Portuguese titles held by the Duke of Wellington, the daughter of Sir Charles Napier > 
Sir Frederick Croft, Bt., H. G. E. V. Barreto, and Lord Michelham, it must be observed 
that they were apparently only granted for life, and that, unless their present holders 
have obtained renewal of them in their favour, they have presumably become extinct. 



6 THE NOBILITIES OF EUROPE 

Hamilton, Clancarty, Dundonald, Arundell, Conyers, Taafle Wandsworth 
Portland, Albemarle, Cottesloe, Reay, Rothschild, and Michelham), and 
5 (V. Montserrat and Barons St. Cran Barre, Dillon, Serra da Estrella, and 
Barry) in Baronets (Cook, Brooke-Pechell, Dillon, Croft, and Barry), 
nationality of the various titles 1 is best shown by the foregoing table. 70 
were conferred on actual British subjects, 2 33 belong to naturalized families, 
and 5 have been inherited. 

Turning now to those foreign Peers 3 of British paternal descent, they 
number, as far as the editor has been able to ascertain, 123, 4 and their rank 
and nationality is shown in the following table : 





Princes. 


1 

P 


Marquesses. 


Counts. 


q 


I 


Jonkheer. 


Untitled. 


1 


Fre 


nch .... 




3 


2 


10 




6 


... 


... 


21 




German 


r Holy Roman ) 
Empire . . f 








5 




2 






7 


' 


Austrian . . . 








3 


... 








3 


Prussian . . . 


... 






1 










1 










^ Bavarian . . . 




... 


... 






2 




... 


2J 


Spa 




... 


4 


1 


1 










6 




Portuguese .... 








2 


3 


2 






7 


Ital 










... 


... 


1 






1 




Pap 


al 


1 


1 


2 


2 










6 












Dut 


ch 








... 




4 


5 




9 




Belt 


rjan 




... 


... 


2 


1 


2 


1 




6 


' 


Swe 


dish 








7 




9 


... 


28 


44 




Dan 


ish . 








... 




... 




1 


1 




Rus 


sian ... 


1 






1 


... 


1 




... 


3 




Pim 


\\-\\ 












1 




5 


6 




Total 


2 


8 


5 


34 


4 


30 


6 


34 


1235 



They are chiefly the descendants of those Scottish officers who served under 
Gustavus Adolphus and Charles XII., and of those adherents of the Stuarts 
who followed their Sovereigns into exile. 

1 These figures do not include the Spanish and Portuguese titles held by the Prince of 
Waterloo (Duke of Wellington), the numerous Genoese, Sardinian, and other titles vested 
in the Duke Gandolfi, the Tuscan Marquessate of the Duke of Lousada, &c., which are for 
the purposes of this table held to be merged in the higher titles enjoyed by their holders. 

2 Eleven of these, however (Stem, Rothschild, Stern, Schroder, de Worms, de Reuter, 
Kusel, Kusel de Forest, Schroder, and Slatin), were either themselves, or the sons of, 
naturalized Germans, while two (Scicluna and Tagliaferro) were Maltese. 

8 The term *' Peer " is used throughout this work to denote the heads of noble families ; 
similarly " Peerage " is used to signify the works treating of the Nobility. 

4 It is probable that there are others, especially in Italy. The Editor will be very 
grateful for any information as to other families. 

5 This number includes the names given in the Addenda. 



A LIST OF BRITISH SUBJECTS HOLDING TITLES OF 

NOBILITY GRANTED BY SOVEREIGNS OF 

OTHER NATIONALITIES 

ARRANGED ACCORDING TO THEIR TITULAR RANK AND DATE OF 

CREATION, WITH THE DATE OF THE ROYAL LICENSE TO 

USE THE SAME WHEN SUCH HAS BEEN OBTAINED 1 

SERENE HIGHNESSES (2) 

26 Dec. 1858. H.S.H. Louis Alexander (von Battenberg), 2nd PRINCE OF 
BATTENBERG (FURST VON BATTENBERG) [Hesse], also COUNT 
OF BATTENBERG (GRAF VON BATTENBERG) [Hesse 5 Nov. 1851], 
G.C.B., K.C.M.G., G.C.V.O., Rear-Admiral of the British 
Fleet and a Personal A.D.C. to H.M. the King ; b. at Gratz 
24 May 1854 ; sue. his mother 18 Sep. 1895 ; m. at Darm- 
stadt 30 Apr. 1884 his cousin, Princess Victoria, da. of Louis IV., 
Grand-Duke of Hesse, K.G., by his wife, H.R.H. the Princess 
Alice of Great Britain and Ireland ; and has issue. 

Heir : Prince George of Battenberg, Cadet R.N. (son), 
b. 6 Nov. 1892. 

19 Sep. 1861. H.S.H. Adolphus Charles Alexander Albert Edward George 
Philip Louis Ladislaus (von Hohenstein), 2nd DUKE OF TECK, 
(HERZOG VON TECK) [Wiirtemberg], also 2nd PRINCE OF 
TECK (FuRST VON TECK) [Wiirtemberg 1 Dec. 1863 and 
Austria 21/22 Jan. 1864], and 3rd COUNT OF HOHENSTEIN 
(GRAF VON HOHENSTEIN) [Austria 16 May 1835], G.C.V.O., 
K.R.E., Capt. and Brevet-Major 1st Life Guards ; H.B.M.'s 
Military Attache at Vienna ; b. 13 Aug. 1868 ; sue. his father 
20 Jan. 1900; m. 12 Dec. 1894 Lady Margaret Evelyn, 
da. of Hugh Lupus (Grosvenor), 1st Duke of Westminster 
[U.K.], K.G. ; and has issue. 

Heir : Prince George Francis Hugh of Teck (son), b. 
11 Oct. 1895. 

PKINCES (2) 2 

18 Jul. 1815. Arthur Charles (Wellesley), 4th PRINCE OF WATERLOO (PRINS 
VAN WATERLOO) [Netherlands, now (since 1831) Belgium], 
DUKE OF CIUDAD RODRIGO (DUQUE DE CIUDAD RODRIGO) 
and a GRANDEE of the 1st CLASS [Spain 31 Jan. 1812], DUKE OF 
THE VICTORY (18 Dec. 1812), MARQUESS OF TORRES VEDRAS 
(17 Dec. 1811), and COUNT OF VIMIEIRA (13 May 1811) (DUQUE 
DA VITORIA, MARQUEZ DE TORRES VEDRAS and CONDE 
DE VIMIERA) [Portugal], is 4th DUKE OF WELLINGTON [G.B.], 

1 Titles recently extinct of whom titled relatives survive are included, but they are 
not included in the figures given after each class. 

2 The Duke of Marlborough also claims to be Prince of Mendelheim in the Holy 
Roman Empire (see under Churchill, p. 64). 



8 THE NOBILITIES OF EUROPE 

Ac., K.G., G.C.V.O., K.B.E., G.C.K.E., G.C.C.S. ; b. 15 Mar. 
1849; sue. his brother 8 June 1900; m. 24 Oct. 1872 
Kathleen Emily Bulkeley, da. of Capt. Eobert Williams, 
A.D.C. ; and has issue. 

Heir : Prince Arthur Charles of Waterloo (Marquess Douro), 
late Lieut. Grenadier Guards (son), b. 9 June 1876. 

17 Jan. 1863. Charles (Giustiniani-Bandini), 2nd PRINCE GIUSTINIANI- 
BANDINI (PRINCIPE GIUSTINIANI-BANDINI), 6th MARQUESS 
BANDINI OF LANCIANO and KUSTANO (MARCHESE DI LANCIANE 
E KUSTANO) (30 May 1753), and 7th LORD OF VARANO (SIGNOR 
DI VARANO) (29 Oct. 1721) [P.S.], -th DUKE OF MONDRAGONE 
and COUNT OF CARINOLA (DucA DI MONDRAGONE E CONTE 
DI CARINOLA) [Naples], 1 and 7th COUNT O'MAHONY (CONDE 
O'MAHONY) [Spain 1710], is 9th EARL OF NEWBURGH [S.], &c. ; 
b. 1 Jan. 1862 ; sue. his father 3 Aug. 1908 ; m. 8 Aug. 
1885 Donna Maria Lanza, da. of the Prince of Trabia and 
Butera ; and has issue. 

Heir : Sigismund Maria Bandino Joseph, Duke of Mondragone 
(Viscount Kynnaird) (son), b. 20 June 1886. 

DUKES (8) 

5 Feb. 1548. James (Hamilton), 15th DUKE OF CHATELLERAULT (Due DE 
CHATELLERAULT) and PREMIER DUKE OF FRANCE, is 2nd 
DUKE OF ABERCORN [I.], K.G., P.C., &c. ; b. 24 Aug. 1838 ; 
sue. his father 31 Oct. 1885 ; m. 7 Jan. 1869 Lady Mary Anna, 
da. of Richard (Curzon-Howe), 1st Earl Howe [U.K.] ; and 
has issue. 

Heir : James Albert Edward, Marquess of Chatellerault 
(Marquess of Hamilton), M.P., a Godson of H.M. the King, 
and Treasurer of the Household, &c. (son), b. 30 Nov. 1860 ; 
is m. and has issue. 

Jan. 1684. Charles Henry (Gordon-Lennox), 6th DUKE OF AUBIGNY (Due 
D'AUBIGNY) [F.], and a Peer of France, is DUKE OF RICH- 
MOND [E.], LENNOX [S.], and GORDON [U.K.], K.G., G.C.V.O., 
C.B., A.D.C. to H.M. the King, &c. ; b. 27 Dec. 1845 ; sue. his 
father 27 Sep. 1903 ; m. 1st, 10 Nov. 1868, Amy Mary, da. of 
Percy Ricardo, Esq., of Bramley Park, co. Surrey, who d. 23 
Aug. 1879 ; 2nd, 3 July 1882, Isabel Sophie, da. of William 
George Craven, Esq., 1st Life Guards, who d. 20 Nov. 1887 ; 
and has issue. 

Heir : Charles Henry, Marquess of Aubigny (Earl of March, 
Darnley, and Kinrara), M.V.O., D.S.O., Capt. Irish Guards, &c. 
(son), b. 30 Dec. 1870 ; is m. and has issue. 

26 Aug. 1730. James (Edwin-Cole), 6th DUKE OF POLIGNANO and -th 
MARQUESS OF POLIGNANO (1495), &c. (DucA DI POLIGNANO, 
MARCHESE DI POLIGNANO, BARONE DI CASALCIPRANI) [Two 
Sicilies] ; of Swineshead Hall, co. Lincoln ; J.P., Barrister- 
at-law of Lincoln's Inn ; b. 27 Apr. 1835 ; sue. his brother 
14 Apr. 1897 ; m. 7 Dec. 1880 Mary Barbara, da. of Gent 
Huddleston, Esq. ; s.p. 
Heir : 

1 All these titles were confirmed by the King of Italy 9 June 1893. 



GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND 9 

17 Oct. 1759. Francis Clifford (de Lousada), 5th DUKE OF LOSADA and 
LOUSADA (DuQUE DE LOSADA Y LOUSADA) and a GRANDEE 
of the 1st CLASS [Spain], and 3rd MARQUESS OF ST. MINIATO 
(MARCHESE DI SAN MINIATO) [Tuscany 3 Apr. 1846], Comm. 
(ret.) R.N.; b. 17 Oct. 1842; sue. his brother 26 Dec. 1905; 
m. 20 Dec. 1879 Emily Florence, widow of Sir Eardley Gideon 
Culling Eardley, 4th Bart. [U.K.], da. and h. of James Magee 
of New Orleans, U.S.A., and The Lodge, co. Antrim ; s.p. 

Heir : Count Edward Eugene de Lousada (cousin), b. 
16 Feb. 1853. 

9 Jun. 1801. Alexander Nelson (Hood), 5th DUKE OF BRONTE (DucA DI 
[R.L. 21 Oct. BRONTE) [Sicily], Commander of the Royal Order of the 
1806.] Crown of Italy, Private Secretary to H.R.H. the Princess 
of Wales, formerly Extra Gentleman Usher of the Privy 
Chamber and Comptroller of the Household and Equerry to 
H.R.H. the Duchess of Teck; b. 28 June 1852, 2nd son of the 
4th Duke (1st Viscount Bridport, U.K.), whom he sue. in 
the Dukedom 4 June 1904 under his will. 
Heir: ? 

1830. George (de Stacpoole), 4th DUKE and MARQUESS (1825) 
OF STACPOOLE (DucA E MARCHESE DI STACPOOLE) [P.S.], 
and 5th COUNT and VISCOUNT (21 July 1818) STACPOOLE 
(COMTE ET VICOMTE DE STACPOOLE) [F.], J.P. co. Galway, 
late Lieut. 3rd Batt. Yorkshire Regt., &c. ; b. 21 June 
1860 ; sue. his father 16 Mar. 1893 ; m. 1 Dec. 1883 Pauline, 
da. and h. of Edward Francis MacEvoy of Tobertynan, co. 
Meath, M.P. ; and has issue. 

Heir : George Mary Edward Joseph Patrick, Count de 
Stacpoole, Lieut. 5th Batt. Royal Irish Fusiliers, b. 8 Mar. 
1886. 

20 Apr. 1864. Alfred Douglas (Douglas-Hamilton), 2nd DUKE OF CHATELLE- 

RAULT (DUC DE CfiATELLERAULT) [F.], is DUKE OF HAMILTON 

[S.] and BRANDON [E.], and PREMIER PEER OF SCOTLAND, 
&c. ; b. 6 Mar. 1862 ; sue. his cousin 16 May 1895 ; m. 4 Dec. 
1901 Nina Mary Benita, da. of Major Robert Poore ; and has 
issue. 

Heir : Douglas, Marquess of Chatellerault (Marquess of 
Douglas and Clydesdale) (son), b. 3 Feb. 1903. 

6 May 1899. Alfonso Otho (Hornyold-Gandolfi), 2nd DUKE and MARQUESS 
(29 Mar. 1895) GANDOLFI (DucA E MARCHESE GANDOLFI) 
[P.S.], 14th MARQUESS (MARCHESE) GANDOLFI [Genoa 29 Aug. 
1529], llth MARQUESS OF MELASSI AND MONTCRESCENTE 
(1616), and COUNT OF RICALDONI (1620) (MARCHESE DI 
MELASSI E MONTCRESCENTE E CONTE DE RICALDONI) [Mantua], 
10th COUNT OF GAZELLI and CHIOSANICA (CONTE DE GAZELLI E 
CHIOSANICA) [Sardinia 1626] ; of Blackmore Park, Hanley 
Castle, co. Worcester, and San Remo, Italy, a Godson of King 
Alfonzo XII. of Spain, Knight of Malta ; b. 20 June 1879; 
sue. his father 27 Feb. 1906 ; unm. 

Heir : Marquess Ralph Vincent Gandolfi (brother), b. 
4 May 1881. 



io THE NOBILITIES OF EUROPE 



MARQUESSES (15) 

1528. Stacey William Beaufort (Grimaldi), llth MARQUESS GRIMALDJ 
(MARCHESE GRIMALDI) [Genoa and (1793) Sardinia]; b. 23 
Nov. 1867; sue. his father 11 Sep. 1907; m. 19 Dec. 1903 
Zoe Ora, da. of ( ) Karkeck ; s.p. 

Heir : Henry Wynford dei Marchesi Grimaldi (brother), b. 
4 July 1869. 

1602. Sergius Mortimer Emmanuel Rouault (Rouault-de-Longue- 
ville-de-Bucy), llth MARQUESS OF BUCY AND MERVAL, LORD 
AND COUNT OF LONGUEVILLE, also 21st LORD OF GAMACHES, 
17th BARON OF HERICOURT (1420), 12th MARQUESS ROUAULT 
OF GAMACHES AND BEAUCHAMPS AND VISCOUNT OF TILLOY 
(May 1620), 8th COUNT and 6th MARQUESS OF CAYEU 
(MARQUIS DE BUCY ET DE MERVAL, SEIGNEUR ET COMTE 
DE LONGUEVILLE, SEIGNEUR DE GAMACHES, BARON D'HERI- 
COURT, MARQUIS ROUAULT DE GAMACHES ET DE BEAUCHAMPS 
ET VlCOMTE DE TlLLOY, COMTE ET MARQUIS DE CAYEU) 
[F.], a GRANDEE of the 1st CLASS (GRANDE DE PRIMERA CLASE) 
[Spain 17 Sep. 1722], and a Hereditary Knight of the Golden 
Spur; b. 8 Mar. 1864; sue. his father 20 Dec. 1867; late 
Major S. African Field Force ; is unm. 
Title of Heir : Count of Longueville. 

1622. Melville Amadeus Henry Douglas Heddle de La Caillemotte 
(de Massue de Ruvigny), 15th MARQUESS OF RAINEVAL, near 
AMIENS, also 9th MARQUESS OF RUVIGNY, near BEHAN, and 
COUNT OF LA CAILLEMOTTE (1651), VISCOUNT (c. 1637) and BARON 
(c. 1524) OF RUVIGNY, 10th LORD OF LA CAILLEMOTTE (c. 1598), 
and 41st BARON OF RAINEVAL (a. 1080) (MARQUIS DE RAINE- 
VAL, MARQUIS DE RUVIGNY, COMTE DE LA CAILLEMOTTE, 
VICOMTE ET BARON DE RUVIGNY, SEIGNEUR DE LA CAILLE- 
MOTTE, AND BARON ET SEIGNEUR DE RAINEVAL) [F.] ; b. 26 
Apr. 1868 ; sue, his father 8 Feb. 1883 ; m. 30 Aug. 1893 Rose 
Amalia, da. of Poncrazio Gaminara of Tumaco ; and has issue. 
Heir : Henry, Count of La Caillemotte (son), b. 22 Oct. 
1896. 

5 Aug. 1653. Henry (Walrond), 9th MARQUESS OF VALLADO, COUNT OF 
PARAMA AND VALDERONDA, and a GRANDEE of the 1st CLASS 
(MARQUIS DE VALLADO, CONDE DE PARAMA Y VALDERONDA Y 
GRANDE DE PRTMERA CLASE) [Spain] ; of Dulford House, co. 
Devon, J.P., late Lieut.-Col. and Hon. Col. 4th Batt. Devon- 
shire Regt. ; b. 9 Nov. 1841 ; sue. his father 1876 ; m. 
1861 Caroline Maud, da. of William John Clarke of Buckland 
Toussaints, co. Devon, Esq., J.P., D.L. ; and has issue. 

Heir : Henry Humphrey Walrond, B.A. Exeter Coll. Oxon. 
(son), b. 1862 ; is m. 

a. 11 Jan. Bayard Alexis (de Bourbel), 9th MARQUESS OF BOURBEL- 
1668. MONTPIN^ON, 9th MARQUIS DE BOURBEL DE MONTPINCON) [F.] ; 
b. at Allahabad 22 Jan. 1881 ; sue. his father 25 Mar. 1904 ; 
educated at Harrow; entered R.A. 1897/8, ret. 1903; now 
Dist. Engineer Mexican Railways. 
Heir : 



GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND n 

4 Apr. 1707. Mary Guadalupe Ignacia Antoinette (Heaven, nee Ramirez 
de Arellano), 4th MARCHIONESS OF BRACERAS (DoNA MARIA 
GUADALOPE IGNACIA ANTONIA (HEAVEN nacida RAMIREZ DE 
ARELLANO Y DE BRACERAS), 4th MARQUESA DE BRACERAS) 
[Spain]; sue. her ( ) 12 Apr. 1901; m. 17 Oct. 1862 
Joseph Robert Heaven, of the Forest of Birse, co. Aberdeen, 
Esq. ; and has issue. 

Heir : Robert Edward Heaven, Capt. 4th Batt. Cheshire 
Regt. (son), b. 4 Mar. 1866. 

13 Jul. 1717. Daniel (Testaferrata-Bonici-Ghaxaq), 7th MARQUESS TESTA- 

FERRATA (MARCHESE DI TESTAFERRATA) [Sicily], a HEREDITARY 

KNIGHT OF THE HOLY ROMAN EMPIRE (6 Nov. 1637) and a 
PATRICIAN OF ROME (20 Dec. 1553) and MESSINA (28 Aug. 
1792), is 7th MARQUESS OF ST.' VINCENT-FERRERI (Naples 
10 Nov. 1716, now Malta), and 6th BARON OF THE CULEJA 
(Malta 1737), &c. ; b. 18 Aug. 1880 ; sue. his father 23 June 
1903; unm. 

Heir : Ignatius, dei Marchesi Testaf errata -Bonici (uncle), 
b. 16 Nov. 1848 ; is m. and has issue. 

1768. Gerard Gustavus Ducarel (de la Pasture), 4th MARQUESS AND 
COUNT OF THE PASTURE (MARQUIS ET COMTE DE LA PASTURE) 
[F.] ; b. 1 Mar. 1838; sue. his father 1 Dec. 1840 ; m. 1st, 4 July 
1864, Leontine, da. of Charles Standish, who d. 8 Apr. 1869*; 
2nd, 20 May 1873, Georgiana Mary, da. of Robert J. 
Loughnan, Esq., a Judge in the Indian Civil Service ; and 
has issue. 

Heir : Charles Edward Mary, Count de la Pasture, Capt. 
Scots Guards (son), b. 15 Sep. 1879. 

1 . Marie Emanuel Alvar (de Biaudos-Scarisbrick), -th MAR- 
QUESS OF CASTEJA (MARQUIS DE CASTEJA) [F.] ; b. 23 Mar. 
1849; sue. his father (by adoption) 11 Aug. 1899; m. 

28 May 1874 Adolphine Gabrielle Marie, da. of Arthur 
(de Faret), Marquess of Fournes [F.] ; and has issue. 

Heir : Marie Andrew Leon Alvar, Count of Casteja (son), 
b. 13 Feb. 1875. 

18 Jul. 1818. William Frederick (Le Poer-Trench), 4th MARQUESS OF 

[R.L. 16 Aug. HEUSDEN (MARRIES VAN HEUSDEN) [Netherlands], is 5th EARL 

1824.] OF CLANCARTY [I.], &c. ; b. 29 Dec. 1868 ; sue. his father 

29 May 1891 ; m. 10 July 1889 Isabel Maud Penrice, da. of 
John George Bilton ; and has issue. 

Heir : Richard Frederick John Donough Le Poer-Trench 
(Lord Kilconnel) (son), b. 27 Dec. 1891. 

1824. Douglas Mackinnon Baillie Hamilton (Cochrane), 3rd MAR- 
QUESS OF MARANHAM (MARQUEZ DE MARANHAM) [Brazil], is 
12th EARL OF DUNDONALD [S.], C.V.O., C.B., Major-Gen, 
late 2nd Life Guards; b. 29 Oct. 1852; sue. his father 
15 Jan. 1885; m. 18 Sep. 1878 Winifred, only da. of 
Robert Bamford-Hesketh, of Gwrych Castle, co. Denbigh, Esq. ; 
and has issue. 

Heir : Thomas Hesketh Douglas Baird Cochrane (Lord 
Cochrane), 2nd Lieut. 4th Batt. Lincolnshire Regt. (son), 
b. 21 Feb. 1886. 



12 THE NOBILITIES OF EUROPE 

1875. ( ) (Scicluna), 3rd MARQUESS SCICLUNA (MARCHESE SCICLUNA) 
[P.S.], &c. ; b. in Valetta 1904 ; sue. his father Feb. 1907. 
Heir: ? 

17 Jun. 1895. Albert Henry de Vreque (O'Brien-Ffrench), 1st MARQUESS OF 
CASHELTHOMOND (MARCHESE DI CASHELTHOMOND) [P.S.]; 

h. ( ) ; cr. as above by Pope Leo XIII. in consideration of his 

being ex parte matris heir apparent of the ancient and princely 
family of O'Brien of Cashelthomond in Italy ; m. Winifred, 
2nd da. of Major James Legh Thursby, of Craig-le, co. 
Carnarvon [younger brother of Sir John Hardy Thursby, 
1st Baronet [U.K.], J.P., D.L.] ; and has issue. 
Heir : Rollo, Marchesino di Cashelthomond, b. 31 July 1892. 

6 May 1899. Kalph Vincent (Gandolfi-Hornyold), 1st MARQUESS (MARCHESE) 
GANDOLFI [P.S.] ; b. 4 Mar. 1881 ; cr. as above by Pope Leo 
XIII. ; is a Lieut. 5th Batt. Worcestershire Regt. ; unm. 
Heir : To be nominated. 

Jul. 1902. Gerard Lisle March Phillipps (de Lisle); 1st MARQUESS DE 
LISLE (MARCHESE DI LISLE) [P.S.] ; b. 24 Jan. 1860 ; m. 9 July 
1902 Yvonne Louise Marie Huguette, da. of Fernand Camille 
(Frotier), 10th Marquess of La Coste-Messeliere [F.] ; marriage 
dissolved 1903. 
Heir : None. 

COUNTS (34) i 

Feudal. Alexander William Theobald (de Vismes de Ponthieu), -th 
COUNT OF VISMES (COMTE DE VISMES) [F.] ; b. 10 Sep. 1888 ; 
sue. his father 1895. 

Heir : Count Lewis Robert Auriol Musgrave de Vismes 
(brother), b. 1894. 

14 Dec. 1595. Edgar Clifford (Arundell), 14th COUNT ARUNDELL (GRAF VON 
ARUNDELL) [H.R.E.] ; is BARON WARDOUR OF ARUNDELL [E.] ; 
b. 20 Dec. 1859 ; sue. his cousin 11 July 1907 ; m. 28 Nov. 
1895 Ellen, widow of J. Melbourne Evans, da. of ( ). 

Heir : Count Gerald Arthur Arundell (brother), b. 11 Dec. 
1861 ; is m. and has issue. 

Oct. 1645. Marie Louise Susan Edith Grace (Drummond), suo jure 8th 
COUNTESS OF LUSSAN AND BARONESS VALROSE (COMTESSE 
DE LUSSAN ET BARONNE DE VALROSE) [F.], only da. and h. 
of the late [Duke and] Earl of Perth and Melfort [S.], and 
Duke of Melfort, Count of Lussan, &c. [F.] ; b. 29 Apr. 1854; 
sue. her father 28 Feb. 1902 ; unm. 

Heir : Francis Maurice Drummond Drummond (1865), 
previously Davies, Bar.-at-Law (cousin-german), b. 21 Mar. 
1839. 

31 Mar. 1668. Marcia Amelia Mary (nee Lane Fox), suo jure 10th COUNTESS 

OF THE TOWN OF MERTOLA (CONDESSA DA VlLLA DE MERTOLA) 

[Portugal], is suo jure 7th BARONESS FAUCONBERG (1283) and 
13th BARONESS CONYERS (1509) [E.]; b. 18 Oct. 1863; sue. 
her father in the Portuguese honours 24 Aug. 1888, and had 

1 Sec also Addenda. 



GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND 13 

the Barony of Conyers called out of abeyance in her favour 
1892, and that of Fauconberg in 1903 ; m. 5 Aug. 1886 Charles 
Alfred Worsley ( Anderson- Pelham), 4th Earl of Yarborough 
[U.K.], P.O., &c. ; and has issue. 

Heir : Charles Sackville Anderson- Pelham (Lord Worsley) 
(son), b. 14 Aug. 1887. 

6 Jan. 1685. Joseph Stagno (Navarra), -th COUNT OF CASANDOLA (CONTE 
DI CASANDOLA [Sicily] and a PATRICIAN OF MESSINA (PATRIZIO 
MESSINESE), is -th COUNT OF THE BAHRIA [Malta 1743]. 
Heir: ? 

12 Jul. 1691. Andrea Rushout Northwick Prescod (Metaxa), 8th COUNT 

[R. 3 Jun. METAXA (CONTE METAXA) [Venice] ; b. 23 Mar. 1844 ; sue. his 

1840.] father 29 Apr. 1875 ; m. 14 Nov. 1871 Louisa Elizabeth, 

da. of Thomas White of Wateringbury Hall and of Congelow, 

co. Kent ; she d. 1896. 

Heir : Count Andrea Dudley Richard Metaxa (grandson), b. 
20 Jan. 1902. 

29 Dec. 1732. William Charles Philip Otho (Bentinck), 7th COUNT BEN- 

[R.L. 22 Mar. TINCK (GRAF VON BENTINCK [H.R.E.], also COUNT OF WALDECK- 

1886.] LIMPURG (GRAF VON WALDECK-LIMPURG) and a Hereditary 

Member of the Upper House (KAMMER DER STANDESHERREN) 

[Wiirtemburg 18 Dec. 1888], COUNT AND BARON OF ALDEN- 

BURG, LORD OF GAILDORF, MIDDACHTEN, &c. ; b. 28 Nov. 1848 ; 

sue. his brother (in virtue of a family arrangement) 30 Nov. 

1874 ; m. 8 Mar. 1877 the Baroness Marie "Cornelia, da. of 

Charles, Baron de Heeckeren-Wassenaer, Grand-Master of 

the Horse to the King of the Netherlands ; and has issue. 

Heir : William Frederick Charles Henry, Hereditary Count 
(son), b. 22 June 1880. 

14 Dec. 1734. Valerio (Magawly-Cerati-de-Calry), 6th COUNT MAGAWLY OF 
CALRY (CONTE MAGAWLY DI CALRY) [Sicily], also 6th BARON 
OF CALRY (FREIHERR VON UND zu CALRY) [H.R.E. 1731], 
and 9th COUNT OF CERATI (GRAF VON CERATI) [Bavaria 25 June 
1669], &c. ; b. in Dublin 19 Jan. 1854 ; sue. his father 20 Aug. 
1860 ; m. 12 Aug. 1880 Ellen Falkenburg, da. of Redman 
Abbott of Philadelphia, Esq. ; and has issue. 

Heir : Count Valerio Awly Magawly-Cerati de Calry (son), 
b. at Chestnut Hill, Philadelphia, 25 Aug. 1883. 

12 Mar. 1748. John Francis Charles (de Salis), 7th COUNT OF SALIS-SOGLIO 
[R.L. 4 Apr. (GRAF VON SALIS-SOGLIO) [H.R.E.], J.P. cos. Limerick and 
1809.] Armagh and a D.L. co. Limerick, Councillor of H.B.M.'s Em- 
bassy at Berlin ; b. at Hillingdon Place 19 July 1864 ; sue. his 
father Aug. 1871 ; m. at Brussels 6 Dec. 1890 the Countess 
Helene Marie, da. of Prince Eugene de Caraman-Chimay, who 
d. at Brussels 31 May 1902 ; and has issue. 

Heir : Count John Eugene de Salis (son), b. at Brussels 4 Oct. 
1891. 

5 Nov. 1787. Dudley Beaumont Melchoir (Gurowski), 4th COUNT GUROWSKI 
(GRAF GUROWSKI) [Prussia], Lord of the Manor of Wield, 
co. Hants, and of the Chateau of Montboron, near Nice ; 
Capt. and Hon. Major Kent R.G.A. Militia ; b. 17 June 1865 ; 
sue. his father 13 Jan. 1908 ; m. in London 11 Dec. 1900 
the Baroness Caroline Hyacinthe, da. of Hans (von Essen), 



i 4 THE NOBILITIES OF EUROPE 

-th Baron Essen (Friherr von Essen) [Sweden 1719, No. 158], 
by his wife Lady Mary Hyacinthe, da. of Frederick John 
William (Lambart), 8th Earl of Cavan [I.] ; and has issue a da. 

Heir: ? 

17 . Henry (Taaffe), 7th COUNT TAAFFE (GRAF VON TAAFFE) 

[H.R.E.], is 12th VISCOUNT TAAFFE [I.], and a Lieut, in the 
Kaiser Franz- Josef Dragoons ; b. 22 May 1872 ; sue. his father 
29 Nov. 1895 ; m. 22 May 1897 Maria Magda, da. of ( ) 
Fuchs ; and has issue. 

Heir : Count (Hon.) Edward Charles Richard Taaffe (son), 
b. 20 Mar. 1898. 
17 . Robert Edgar (de Grenier de Fonblanque), -th COUNT OF 

FONBLANQUE (COMTE DE FONBLANQUE) [F.], but has not aS- 

sumed and does not use the title ; b. in London 4 Jan. 1869 ; 
sue. his father 30 May 1891 ; m. in London 17 Oct. 1891 
Florence Gertrude, da. of Gaudente, Count Sparagnapane. 

Heir Presumptive : Jack Berkeley, Viscount de Fonblanque 
(step-bro.), b. 1 Feb. 1888. 

17_. Cornelius Denis (O'Kelly), 5th COUNT O'KELLY OF TYCOOLY 
(GRAF O'KELLY VON TYCOOLY) [H.R.E.], of Gallagh, co. Galway, 
late a Capt. 4th Batt. Connaught Rangers ; b. 9 Aug. 1865 ; 
sue. his grandfather 18 Aug. 1892 ; unm. 

Heir : Count Edward Joseph O'Kelly (brother), b. Dec. 1868. 

5 Jun. 1798. Count Louis Pomian Lubienski, now (D.P. 10 Dec. 1897) Boden- 
ham-Lubienski, cadet of the family of Lubienski, COUNTS 
LUBIENSKI (GRAFS VON LUBIENSKI) [Prussia], feudal Nobles 
of Poland, and head of the third main branch of his house, of 
Rotherwas, co. Hereford, J.P., D.L.; b. at Rome 20 Aug. 1852; 
sue. his father 22 Nov. 1867 ; m. 27 Nov. 1895 Evelyn, eldest 
da. and co-h. of the late John Stratford Kirwan of Moyne, co. 
Galway, Esq., by his wife Lady Victoria, da. and co-h. of 
George (Hastings), 2nd Marquess of Hastings [U.K.] ; and by 
her, who d. 6 Mar. 1902, has issue. 

Heir : Count Hyacinth Edward Henrv Charles Bodenham- 
Lubienski (son), b. 4 Nov. 1896. 

13 May 1824. Edward (Thornton), 3rd COUNT OF CASSILHAS (CONDE DE 
[R.L. 10 Oct. CACILHAS) [Portugal] ; b. 27 Oct. 1893 ; sue. his grandfather 
1825]. 26 Jan. 1906. 

17 Apr. 1834. Eloisa Fanny Harriet (nee Napier), 2nd COUNTESS OF CAPE 
ST. VINCENT (CONDESSA DE CABO SAN VICENTE), also COUNTESS 
NAPIER OF ST. VINCENT (7 Dec. 1842) and VISCOUNTESS OF 
CAPE ST. VINCENT (10 July 1833) (CONDESSA NAPIER DE SAN 
VICENTE E VISCONDESSA DE CABO SAN VICENTE) [Portugal] ; 
b. 1818 ; sue. her father 5 Nov. 1860 ; m. 19 Oct. 1843 the 
Rev. Henry Jodrell, M.A., who d. 1896 ; and has issue. 

Heir : Heloise Napier Jodrell (da.) ; m. 15 Oct. 1870 Col. 
David John Dickson Stafford, who d. 1901. 

19 Aug. 1853. Euston Henry (Sartorius), 2nd COUNT OF PENHAFIRME (CoNDE 
DA PENHAFIRME) [Portugal], a Major-Gen, (ret.) in the British 
Army, and a V.C., C.B., &c. ; b. at Cintra 6 June 1844 ; confirmed 
in the title (originally conferred on his father for his military 
services) by King Charles I. for life only, 20 June 1903 ; m. 



GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND 15 

22 Dec. 1874 Emily Jane, da. of Sir Francis Cook, 1st Bart. 
[U.K.], 1st Viscount Montserrat [Portugal]. 

Eldest son : Euston Francis Frederick Sartorius, Lieut. 
Grenadier Guards, b. at Preston, co. Lancaster, 22 Mar. 1882. 

14 Jan. 1861. Laura Williamina (nee Lady Laura Williamina Seymour), 
suo jure 1st COUNTESS OF GLEICHEN (GRAFIN VON GLEICHEN) 
[Saxe-Coburg-Gotha] ; b. 27 Jan. 1833 ; cr. as above by the 
late Duke Ernest II. on the eve of her Morganatic marriage 
(26 Jan. 1861) with Vice-Admiral H.S.H. Prince Victor of 
Hohenlohe-Langenburg ; he d. 31 Dec. 1891, leaving issue. 

Heir : Count Albert Edward Wilford von Gleichen, C.V.O., 
C.M.G., D.S.O., Lieut.-Col. late Grenadier Guards (son), b. 
15 Jan. 1863. 

22 Aug. 1862. Henry Patrick Marie (Russell), 2nd COUNT RUSSELL (CoNTE 
RUSSELL) [P.S.], heir male of the Barons of Killough, co. 
Down, and a distinguished traveller and author ; b. 14 Feb. 
1834 ; sue. his father 21 Jan. 1875 ; unm. 

Heir : Count Francis Charles Marie Russell, a Capt. in the 
Papal Service (brother), b. 1 Apr. 1836. 

19 Aug. 1864. Edmund James de Poher (Power, now [R.L. 14 May 1863] 
de La Poer), 1st COUNT DE LA POER (CONTE BELLA POER) 
[P.S.], is de jure 17th BARON LE POWER AND COROGHMORE [I.], 
as heir male of the body of Sir Richard Power, so cr. 13 Sep. 
1535, K.M., J.P., D.L. co. Waterford, High Sheriff 1879, and 
M.P. for same co. 1866-1873, J.P. co. Tipperary, formerly a 
Private Chamberlain to H.H. Pope Pius IX., by whom he 
was cr. as above. Received 22 Jan. 1874 as Knight of Justice 
and 17 Dec. 1891 as Knight of Devotion into the Sov. Order 
of St. John of Jerusalem ; b. 6 Mar. 1841 ; m. 1 June 1881 the 
Hon. Mary Olivia Augusta, da. of William (Monsell), 1st Lord 
Emly [U.K.] ; and has issue. 

Heir : John William Rivallon de La Poer, Contino della 
Poer, Lieut. 1st Batt. Prince of Wales' Leinster Regt. (son), 
b. 10 Mar. 1882 ; m. 2 July 1907 Muriel, da. and h. of the 
Hon. Robert Rainy Best ; and has issue a da. 

Nov. 1868. Robert Cecil Joseph Patrick (Kearney), 1st COUNT CECIL- 
KEARNEY (CONTE CECIL-KEARNEY) [P.S.], J.P. co. Mayo, 
formerly 97th Foot ; b. ( ) ; cr. as above by H.H. Pope 
Pius IX. ; m. 1st, Alice Florence, da. of Col. William Perceval, 
C.B., who d. 30 June 1897 ; 2ndly, 29 Apr. 1903, Alice 
Evelyn, widow of Capt. John Otway Cuffe, of Killaghy, co. 
Kilkenny, da. of William Wogan, Esq. ; s.p.s. 
Heir : None. 

7 Feb. 1879. Charles Joseph (Moore), 2nd COUNT MOORE (CONTE MOORJE) 
[P.S.] ; b. 20 Nov. 1880 ; sue. his father 5 Jan. 1904. 
Heir : None. 

26 Nov. 1883. John Nicholas (Murphy), 1st COUNT MURPHY (CONTE MURPHY) 
[P.S.], D.L., and High Sheriff co. Cork 1857, author of " The 
Chair of Peter " and many other works ; b. at Cork 1815 ; 
cr. as above by H.H. Pope Leo XIII. ; m. 11 Sep. 1855 
Alice, da. of Daniel Leahy of Shankkiel House, co. Cork, 
Esq., D.L. He d. s.p.s. 11 Sep. 1889, when the title became 
extinct. His widow (Countess Murphy) survives. 



1 6 THE NOBILITIES OF EUROPE 

1884. George Noble (Plunkett), 1st COUNT PLUNKETT (CONTE 
PLUNKETT) [P.S.], Bar.-at-Law; J.P., Director National 
Museum, Dublin, President of the Society for the Preservation 
of the Irish Language (1907), Vice- President Royal Irish 
Academy (1907-8), Vice- President of the Society of Anti- 
quaries of Ireland, Chairman Dublin Press Fund, author of 
various art studies and historical works ; b. in Dublin 3 Dec. 
1851; cr. as above by H.H. Pope Leo XIII.; m. 26 June 
1884 Josephine, da. of Patrick Cranny ; and has issue. 

Heir : Joseph Mary Plunkett (son), b. in Dublin 21 Nov. 
1887. 

18 . Ferdinand (O'Gorman), 1st COUNT O'GoRMAN (CONTE O'GoR- 
MAN) [P.S.], K.C.P., K.C.G.G., a Private Chamberlain to T.H. 
Popes Pius IX. and Leo XIIL, Guardian of the Tombs of the 
Imperial House of Austria in the ducal chapel at Nancy, &c. &c. ; 
b. (_) ; cr. as above by H.H. Pope ; m. 4 Feb. 1857 

Alice Margaret, da. of Hyacinth (d'Hoffelize), Count of 
Hoffelize and a Peer [F.] ; and has issue. 

Heir : Count Robert John Gaspard O'Gorman, K.M. 
(son). 

18 . Edward Alexander (O'Byrne), 2nd COUNT O'BYENE (CoNTE 
O'BYRNE) [P.S.], of Corville, co. Tipperary, and of Allars- 
town, co. Louth ; b. 1865 ; sue. his father Sep. 1905 ; m. 
19 Sep. 1892 Rose Emily, 4th da. and co-h. of Joshua James 
Netterville, Esq., J.P. ; and has issue. 

Heir : Count John Edward O'Byrne (son), b. 23 Aug. 1894. 

Apr. 1892. Girolamo (Tagliaferro), 1st COUNT TAGLIAFERRO (CONTE 
TAGLIAFERRO) [P.S.], is a banker at Malta ; b. Sept. 1820 ; cr. as 
above by Pope Leo XIII. ; m. Jan. 1847 Marianna, da. of 
( ) Borg, who d. Oct. 1867 ; and has issue. 
Heir : Alfred Giacomo, Contino Tagliaferro (son), b. 1853. 

20 Jul. 1892. William Henry (Rushbrooke), 1st COUNT RUSHBROOKE (CONTE 
RUSHBROOKE) [P.S.], of Cosford, Thursley, co. Surrey, and 
Whitepoint, Queenstown, co. Cork, J.P. for both these cos. 
and Lord of the Manor of Ringmen in the latter, Capt. late 
15th Regt. ; b. 21 Nov. 1849 ; cr. as above by H.H. Pope 
Leo XIII. ; m. 19 July 1887 Margaret Mary, da. of Henry 
Frederic Whyte, of the family of Whyte of Leixlip; and 
has issue. 

Heir : William Philip Henry Rushbrooke (son), b. 19 June 
1888. 

11 Jan. 1896. Peter Alexander Cameron (Mackenzie), 1st COUNT and VIS- 
COUNT (14 Jan. 1894) OF SERRA LARGO (CONDE E VISCONDE 
DE SERRA LARGO) [Portugal], of Tarlogie House, Tarlogie, by 
Tain, Ross-shire, K.C.C.P. ; b. at Kingussie, Inverness, 12 Aug. 
1856 ; cr. as above by Dom Carlos I. for life ; m. 14 Oct. 1886 
Dona Anezia Augusta, eldest da. of Senhor Jose Maria do 
Amaral of Para, Brazil, and Lisbon, Portugal; and has 
issue. 

Eldest son : Percy Melville Mackenzie, 2nd Lieut. 2nd Batt. 
Gordon Highlanders, b. at Rio de Janeiro 29 Aug. 1887. 



GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND 17 

11 Feb. 1899. Walter Clifford (Meller), 1st COUNT OP ERESO (CONTE D'ERESO) 
[P.S.], M.A., S.C.L.Oxon., a Knight Commander of the Order 
of the Holy Sepulchre, so cr. by H.H. Pope Leo XIII., and a 
member of the Istitudo Araldico Italiano ; b. 18 Ap. 1848 ; 
m. 20 Apr. 1896 the Lady Helen Blanche, da. of Randolph 
(Stewart), 9th Earl of Galloway [S.], who d. s.p. 5 Jan. 1903. 
Heir : None. 

6 May 1899. Charlotte Mary (Gandolfi-Hornyold), suo jure 1st COUNTESS 

GANDOLFI (CONTESSA GANDOLFI) [P.S.] ; b. 1 Jan. 1885 ; cr. as 
above by Pope Leo XIII. ; unm. 

Heir : To be nominated. 

May 1903. Keyes (O'Clery), 1st COUNT O'CLERY (CONTE O'CLERY) [P.S.], 
The O'Clery, of Darragh House, Kilfinane, Kilmallock, co. 
Limerick, and of 2 Essex Court, Temple, London, G.C.I.C., 
K.C.G.G., and a Chamberlain to H.H. Pope Leo XIII. by 
whom he was cr. as above, D.L. co. London, Bar.-at-Law 
Mid. Temple 1874, M.P. co. Wexford 1874-80, served as a 
Papal Volunteer in 1867 and 1870, author of various his- 
torical works ; b. at Limerick 1849. 

Heir: ? 

27 May 1904. Thomas (Cubitt, now [R.L. 10 Dec. 1904] Riccardi-Cubitt), 

[R.L. 16 Dec. 1st COUNT RICCARDI-CUBITT (CONTE RICCARDI-CUBITT) [Italy] ; 

1905.] b. 8 May 1870 ; cr. as above by King Victor Emanuel III. ; 

m. 23 May 1893 Fede Maria, suo jure 1st Countess (Contessa) 

Riccardi [Italy, 3 May 1903], da. and h. of Adolfo (Riccardi), 

3rd Count Riccardi [Sardinia], Col. and Hon. A.D.C. to the 

King of Italy ; and has issue. 

Heir (to mother's title) : Charles Cyril, Contino Riccardi 
(son), b. 28 Jan. 1896. 

1905. Llewellyn (Blake), 1st COUNT BLAKE (CONTE BLAKE) [P.S.], 
of Ballinafad, co. Mayo, and Cloghballymore, co. Galway, 
J.P., D.L., for the former co., and J.P. for the latter, High 
Sheriff Galway City 1886, Lieut.-Col. late 6th Batt. Connaught 
Rangers ; b. 1842 ; cr. as above by Pope Pius X. ; unm. 
19 . Joseph Francis (Lescher), 1st COUNT LESCHER (CONTE LESCHER) 
[P.S.], of Boyles Court, near Brentwood, J.P. cos. Essex, 
Middlesex, and London, D.L. and High Sheriff (1885) co. 
Essex ; b. 6 Aug. 1842 ; cr. as above by Pope Pius X. ; 
m. 7 May 1875 Mira Charlotte, da. and h. of Capt. William 
Hankey, 9th Lancers ; and has issue a da. 

VISCOUNTS (2) 

17 Jan. 1870. Sydney James (Stern), 2nd VISCOUNT STERN (VISCONDE DE 
STERN) [Portugal], is 1st BARON WANDSWORTH [U.K. 1895], 
J.P. cos. London and Surrey, Hon. Col. 4th Vol. Batt. East 
Surrey Regt., and formerly (1891-1895) M.P. for North- West 
Suffolk ; b. 1845 ; sue. his father 18 ; unm. 

7 Jun. 1870. Frederick Lucas (Cook), 2nd VISCOUNT MONTSERRAT (Vis- 

CONDE DE MONSERRATE) [Portugal], is a Baronet [U.K. 1886], 
a Lieut, for the City of London, and formerly (1895-1906) 
M.P. Lambeth ; b. 21 Nov. 1844 ; sue. his father for life 17 Feb. 
1901 ; m. 7 Jan. 1868 Mary Anne Elizabeth, da. of Richard 
Payne Cotton of Cavendish Square, M.D. ; and has issue. 

B 



1 8 THE NOBILITIES OF EUROtE 

BAKONS (44) 

20 May 1575. Luitbert Alexander George Lionel Alphons (von Pawel 
Rammingen), 2nd BARON PAWEL RAMMINGEN (FREIHERR 
VON PAWEL RAMMINGEN [S.C.G.], a NOBLE OF THE HOLY 
ROMAN EMPIRE, K.C.B., K.C.V.O., K.C.H., Hon. Col. 3rd 
Batt. Essex Regt., &c.) ; b. at Coburg 27 July 1843 ; sue. 
his father 8 July 1886 ; naturalized by Act of Parliament 
19 Mar. 1880 ; m. 24 Apr. 1880 H.R.H. Princess Frederica of 
Hanover, Princess of Great Britain and Ireland, Duchess of 
Brunswick and Luneburg, &c., da. of George V., King of 
Hanover; s.p.s. 

Heir : Baron Paul Julius August Plato Sylvester Albert 
von Pawel Rammingen (brother), b. at Coburg 31 Dec. 1851 ; 
m. and has issue. 

Feudal. William John Arthur Charles James (Cavendish-Bentinck), 
a BARON and NOBLE of the Duchy of Guelders, is 6th Duke of 
Portland [E.], &c. &c., E.G., P.C., G.C.V.O. ; b. 28 Dec. 1857; 
sue. his cousin 6 Dec. 1879 ; m. 11 June 1889 Winifred Anna, 
da. of Thomas Yorke Dallas- Yorke, of Walmsgate, co. 
Lincoln, D.L. ; and has issue. 

Heir : William Arthur Henry Cavendish-Bentinck (Marquess 
of Titchfield) (son), b. 16 Mar. 1893 

Feudal. Arnold Allan Cecil (Keppel), a BARON and NOBLE of the 
Duchy of Guelders, is 8th Earl of Albemarle [E.], &c., C.B., 
M.V.O. ; b. 1 June 1858; sue. his father 28 Aug. 1894; 
m. 4 Jan. 1881 Lady Gertrude Lucia, da. of Wilbraham 
(Egerton), 1st Earl Egerton ; and has issue. 

Heir : Walter Egerton George Lucian Keppel (Viscount 
Bury), Lieut. Scots Guards (son), b. 28 Feb. 1882. 

8 Apr. 1547. Augustus Alexander (Brooke-Pechell), 14th BARON DE ST. 
CRAN BARRE and LA BOYSSONNADE [F.], but has not assumed 
and does not use this title, is a Baronet [G.B.], and Lieut. -Col. 
R.A.M.C. ; b. 31 July 1857; sue. his brother 9 Feb. 1904; 
m. 24 Sep. 1888 Mabel Marion Anderson, da. of Major-Gen. 
George Briggs, Madras Army ; and has issue. 
Heir : Paul Brooke-Pechell (son), b. 10 Dec. 1889. 

16 Jul. 1638. Joseph (Attard-Montalto), 9th BARON ST. PAUL (BARONE DI 
SAN PAOLINO) [Sicily], is 7th BARON OF BENUARRAT [Malta 
1737], and Treasurer of the Maltese Committee of Privileges, 
&c. ; b. 16 May 1870 ; sue. 1893 ; unm. 

Heir : Paolino Attard-Montalto, dei Baroni di San Paolino 
(brother), b. 1875 ; is m. and has issue. 
Alfred (Porcelli), BARON PORCELLI OF ST. ANDREA (BARONE 
PORCELLI DI SANT' ANDREA), 21st in succession from the 
feudal Baron Pierre des Porcellets of Provence, c. 1060, and 
6th from Guglielmo, the first of the family who established 
himself in Naples 1680, is a Col. (ret.) R.E. in the British 
Army ; b. at Palermo 16 Jan. 1849 ; sue. his father 18 Jan. 
1884 ; m. 1 Aug. 1885 Effie Constance, widow of Col. F. 
Brownlow, da. of Col. Robert Christopher Tytler ; and by her, 
who d. 26 June 1886, has issue. 

Heir : Baron Ernest George Macdonald Porcelli, Lieut. 2nd 
Batt. Duke of Cornwall's L.I. (son), b. 27 May 1886. 



GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND i9 

26 Jan. 1700. Reginald Charles d'Iberville (Grant), 8th BARON OF LONGUEUIL 

[R. 4 Dec. (BARON DE LONGUEUIL), of Longueiiil, in the province of 

1880.] Quebec, Canada [F.] ; b. 24 Jan. 1856 ; sue. his half-brother 

13 Dec. 1898 ; m. 17 Feb. 1891 Kate Isobel, widow of W. H. 

Burro wes, da. of John Church of Carfin, co. Lanark. 

Heir : John Charles de Bienville Grant (brother), b. 1861 ; 
is m. and has issue. 

8 Apr. 1704. Elbert Adrien William (de Hochepied-Larpent), 10th BARON 
[R.L. 27 Sep. OP HOCHEPIED [Hungary] ; b. 5 Dec. 1900 ; sue. his father 
1819.] 15 June 1903. 

Heir : Baroness Clarissa Catherine de Hochepied-Larpent 
(sister), b. 26 Sep. 1898. 

6 Jun. 1731. Baron Rolf (Olof Rudolph) Cederstrom, cadet of the family 
of Cederstrom, COUNTS (11 May 1819) and BARONS (6 June 
1731) CEDERSTROM [Sweden], being a second cousin of the 
4th and present Count Cederstrom, is a J.P. co. Brecknock ; 
b. 10 July 1870; m. 25 Jan. 1899 Madame Adelina Patti, 
having been naturalized as a British subject 27 Dec. preceding. 

1750. Henry Edward William (Fock de Robeck), 5th BARON ROBECK 
(FRIHERR AF ROBECK) [Sweden], J.P., D.L. co. Wicklow, 
Lieut.-Col. and Hon. Col. Wicklow R.G.A. (Mil.), formerly 
Capt. R.A. ; b. 3 Mar. 1859 ; m. 21 Dec. 1886 Annie, da. of 
L. W. Alexander of Straw Hall, co. Carlow ; and has issue. 

Heir : Baron John Henry Edward de Robeck (son), b. 10 
Apr. 1895. 

13 Feb. 1769. Charles Robert Southwell (Dimsdale), 7th Hon. BARON 

[R.L. 29 Jiil. DIMSDALE [Russia], J.P. co. Herts, and a Bar.-at-Law ; b. 

1813.] 4 June 1856; sue. his father 2 May 1898; m. 1st, 20 Nov. 1882 

Alice, da. of Charles James Monk, M.P., who d. 1886 ; 2ndly, 

2 Apr. 1891 Mabel Sophia, widow of Lieut.-Col. Edward George 

Godolphin Hastings, da. of Sir Brydges Powell Henniker, 4th 

Bart. [U.K.] ; and has issue. 

Heir : Edward Charles Dimsdale, Lieut. Rifle Brigade 
(son), b. 20 Dec. 1883. 

4 July 1783. John Fox (Dillon), 7th BARON DILLON (FREIHERR VON DILLON 

[R.L. 22 Feb. [H.R.E.], is a BARONET [U.K. 1801], J.P., D.L. co. Meath, 

1784.] formerly Hon. Major 5th Batt. Prince of Wales' Leinster 

Regt. ; b. 1843 ; sue. his father 28 Nov. 1875 ; m. 18 Nov. 1879 

Marion Louisa, da. of Robert Stewart Dykes ; and has issue. 

Heir : Baron Robert Dillon, Lieut.-Col. late 30th Regt. 
(cousin). 

17 Jan. 1788. Henry Edmond (de Lossy de Ville), -th BARON DE VILLE 
[Belgium], of 77 Westbourne Terrace, Hyde Park, W. ; b. in 
London 7 Oct. 1870 ; sue. his father 30 Jan. 1895 ; m. 17 Oct. 
1898 Ida, da. of Agostino Gatti ; and has issue a da., 
Henrida. 

Heir : Baron John Francis de Lossy de Ville (brother), 
b. in Baden 17 Oct. 1873. 

12 June 1812. Arthur Evelyn Melfort (de Cetto), 4th BARON CETTO (FREIHERR 
VON CETTO) [Bavaria], in Holy Orders of the Anglican Church, 
educated at Haileybury and Oxford, B.A. 1903, is Curate of 
Cranleigh, Guildford ; b. 23 Oct. 1876 ; sue. his uncle 14 Feb. 



20 THE NOBILITIES OF EUROPE 

1906, but has not assumed and does not use the title ; m. 15 
June 1907 Stella Isabel, da. of Lieut.-Col. Harry Edmund 
Dolphin, R.A. 

Heir : Baron Henry Adrien Rodney de Cetto (brother), b. 4 
June 1879. 

29 Nov. 1816. Thomas Francis (Fremantle), 3rd BARON FREMANTLE 

[R.L. 22 Jan. (FREIHERR VON FREMANTLE) [Austria], is 2nd BARON COTTES- 

1822.] LOE [U.K.], &c. ; b. 30 Jan. 1830 ; sue. his father 3 Dec. 1890 ; 

m. 9 Sep. 1859 Lady Augusta Henrietta, da. of John (Scott), 

2nd Earl of Eldon [U.K.] ; and has issue. 

Heir : Baron (the Hon.) Thomas Francis Fremantle, Lieut.- 
Col. Comdg. 1st Bucks Rifle Vols. (son), b. 5 Feb. 1862. 

4 Dec. 1819. Henry (de Teissier), 5th BARON DE TEISSIER [F.], formerly 

[R.L. 16 Sep. Capt. 8th Hussars and Capt. and Hon. Major 3rd Batt. 

1905.] Princess of Wales' Own (Yorkshire Regt.), &c., served in 

the Nile 1884, Suakin 1885, and South African campaigns ; 

b. 12 Sep. 1862 ; m. 28 Dec. 1887 Agneta Mary, da. of Freche- 

ville Lawson Ballantine-Dykes of Dovenby Hall, Carlisle ; and 

has issue. 

Heir : Geoffrey Fitzherbert de Teissier (son), b. 5 Dec. 1888. 

14 Feb. 1820. Charles Conard Adolphus (du Bois de Ferrieres), 3rd BARON 
FERRIERES (BARON VAN FERRIERES) [Netherlands], is a J.P. 
co. Gloucester, and was formerly (1880-5) M.P. for Cheltenham ; 
b. at Tiel 2 Oct. 1823 ; sue. his father 1867 ; m. at Bray, co. 
Berks, 20 Feb. 1851 Anne (Baroness de Ferrieres), yst. da. 
of the late William Sheepshanks, Esq., of Arthington Hall, co. 
York. He d. Mar. 1908, when the title became extinct. 

4 Jun. 1822. Donald James (Mackay), 3rd BARON MACKAY OP OPHEMERT 
(BARON MACKAY VAN OPHEMERT), also JONKHEER (20 Feb. 
1816) [Netherlands], is llth LORD REAY [S. 1628], and 1st 
BARON REAY [U.K. 1881], &c., G.C.S.I., G.C.I.E. ; b. 22 Dec. 
1839; sue. his father 6 Mar. 1876; m. 5 June 1877 Fanny 
Georgiana Jane, C.I., widow of Capt. Alexander Mitchell, M.P., 
da. of Richard Hasler, Esq., of Aldingbourne, co. Sussex. 

Heir : Baron ^Eneas Mackay, formerly Prime Minister and 
now Minister of State for the Netherlands (cousin), b. 29 Nov. 
1838. 

29 Sep. 1822. Nathaniel Mayer (Rothschild), 3rd BARON ROTHSCHILD (FREI- 
HERR VON ROTHSCHILD) [Austria], is also 1st BARON ROTHS- 
CHILD (1885), and 2nd BART. (1847) [U.K.] ; b. 8 Nov. 1840 ; 
m. 17 Apr. 1867 Baroness Emma Louisa, da. of Baron Charles 
de Rothschild, a member of the Imperial German Parliament ; 
and has issue. 

Heir: Baron (Hon.) Lionel Walter Rothschild, M.P., b. 
8 Feb. 1868. 

1 Feb. 1828. Montagu William Ferdinand (de Bertouch), 2nd BARON DE 
BERTOUCH [Denmark], Master of the Hunt (Jaegermester) 
to H.M. the King of Denmark ; b. 24 Aug. 1851 ; sue. his 
father 8 July 1869 ; m. 31 July 1882 Beatrice Caroline, a 
well-known authoress, da. of James Elmslie ; and has issue. 

Heir : Baron Ernest Rudolph Ferdinand Julian de Bertouch 
(son), b. 1 July 1884 ; m. 8 Jan. 1907 Gladys, da. of Capt. 
Thomas Barns of Til worth, Axminster ; and has issue. 



GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND 21 

30 Nov. 1843. Joseph (Profumo), 3rd BARON PROFUMO [Sardinia, now Italy], 

of the Mole House, Hersham, co. Surrey, Managing Director 
of the Provident Association of London, Ltd., &c., contested 
S. Monmouthshire as a Liberal 1892 ; b. at Turin 26 Aug. 
1849 ; sue. his father 30 Oct. 1867 ; m. 15 July 1875 Annie, 
da. of Lewis Mill, Esq. ; and has issue 4 children. 

Heir : Albert Profumo, Baroncino Profumo, Bar.-at-Law 
of the Inner Temple (son), b. 20 Apr. 1879 ; is m. 

6 Oct. 1851. Everard Alexander (Hambro), 2nd BARON HAMBRO [Den- 
mark], of Milton Abbey, co. Dorset, and Hayes Place, co. 
Kent, K.C.V.O., K.C.S.O., O.R.G., K.C.C.P., J.P. cos. Kent 
and Surrey, D.L. co. Dorset and for City of London, a 
Director of the Bank of England, &c. ; b. 11 Apr. 1842 ; 
sue. his father under the special remainder with which the 
title was conferred 19 Nov. 1877, but has not assumed and 
does not use it ; m. 23 Oct. 1866 Gertrudo Mary, da. of Henry 
Stuart of Montford, Isle of Bute (M. of Bute, coll.) ; and by 
her, who d. 3 June 1905, had issue. 

Heir : Charles Eric Hambro, M.P. for Wimbledon Div. of 
Surrey since 1900 (son), b. 30 Sep. 1872 ; is m. and has issue. 

14 Dec. 1853. Frederick Leigh (Croft), 3rd BARON SERRA DA ESTRELLA 

(BARAO DA SERRA DA ESTRELLA) [Portugal], and a BARONET 

[U.K. 1818] ; b. 14 Feb. 1860 ; sue. his father 24 May 1904 ; unm. 

Heir : Francis Edgar Croft (brother), b. 19 Oct. 1861 ; m. 

and has issue. 

31 May 1855. Henry Edward Ernest Victor (Barreto), 4th BARON DE BARRETO 

(BARAO DE BARRETO) [Portugal], of Quarry Court, Marlow; 
b. 16 Feb. 1869 ; sue. his father 1890 ; m. 1891 Ethel, da. of 
Arthur Wolton. 

Heir : Arthur Harold Oscar Barreto (brother), b. 1871. 

25 Aug. 1859. Albert Llewellyn (Nugent), 3rd BARON NUGENT (FREIHERR 
[R.L. 14 Aug. VON NUGENT) [AUSTRIA], of Brecon Lodge, Christchurch, Hants, 
1908.] late R.N. ; b. 8 Jan. 1841 ; sue. his brother 1907 ; m. 7 Apr. 
1862 Elizabeth, eldest da. of Theodore Baltazzi, of Constanti- 
nople ; and by her, who d. 11 Mar. 1899, has issue. 

Heir : Baron Algernon John Fitzroy Nugent (son), b. 
5 Oct. 1865 ; is m. 

18 Jun. 1862. Colin James Rudolph (Halkett), 4th BARON HALKETT (FREI- 
HERR VON HALKETT) [Hanover] ; b. 22 Nov. 1867 ; sue. his 
brother 1904 ; m. 190- Josephine, da. of ( ) von Nagel of 
Bavaria. 

Heir : Baron James Colin Ernest Halkett (half-bro.), b. 
1873. 

29 Jul. 1864. Herbert (Stern), 2nd BARON STERN (BARAO DE STERN) [Portugal], 
is BARON MICHELHAM ; so cr. 28 Dec. 1905, and a BARONET 
(31 July 1905) [U.K.], &c. ; b. 28 Sep. 1851 ; sue. his father 
20 Oct. 1887; m. 28 July 1898 Aimee Geraldine, da. of 
Octavius Bradshaw of Powderham Castle, co. Down, Esq., D.L. 
Heir : (Hon.) Hermann Alfred Stern (son), b. 5 Sep. 1899. 

1867. John Benjamin Charles (Heath), 4th BARON HEATH (BARONE 
HEATH) [Italy] ; b. 17 Jan. 1853 ; sue. his cousin 1904 ; m. 1886 
Alice, only da. of Dr. Augustus Voelcker ; and has issue. 
Heir : Leslie Gerald Heath (son), b. 1888. 



22 THE NOBILITIES OF EUROPE 

26 Dec. 1868. John Henry William (Schroder), 2nd BARON SCHRODER 

[R.L. 13 May (FREIHERR VON SCHRODER) [Prussia], is a BART. [U.K. 1892], 

1890.] C.V.O., Knt. of the Royal Prussian Order of the Crown; b. 13 

Feb. 1825; m. 19 Sep. 1850 Dorothea Evelina, da. of ( ) 

Schliisser of St. Petersburg, who d. s.p. 5 Dec. 1900. 

Heir : Baron Charles Henry von Schroder (brother), b. 
4 Aug. 1826. 

23 Apr. 1871. George (de Worms), 2nd BARON DE WORMS (FREIHERR VON 
[R.L. 10 Aug. WORMS) [Austria], G.C.F.J., F.S.A., J.P., D.L. ; b. 16 Feb. 

1874.] 1829 ; m. 18 Apr. 1860 Louisa, only da. of Denis (Samuel), 
1st Baron de Samuel [Portugal 1855] ; and has issue. 

Heir : Baron Anthony Denis Maurice George de Worms 
(son), b. 4 Jan. 1869 ; is m. and has issue. 

7 Sep. 1871. August Julius Clement Herbert (de Reuter), 2nd BARON 
[R.L. 6 Nov. REUTER (FREIHERR VON REUTER) [Saxe Coburg Gotha] ; b. 

1891.] 10 Mar. 1852 ; sue. his father 1899 ; m. 5 Jan. 1876 Edith, 
da. of Robert Campbell of Combe Wood, Esq. ; and has issue. 
Heir : Baron Herbert Julius de Reuter (son), b. 6 Sep. 1878. 
18 Jan. 1872. James (Erskine), 1st BARON ERSKINE (FREIHERR VON ERSKINE) 
[Bavaria], 5th son of David, 2nd Baron Erskine [U.K.] ; b. 
4 Sep. 1821 (or 1819) ; cr. as above ; m. 27 Feb. 1849 the 
Countess Wilhelmina (Countess Lerchenfeld), da. of Anton 
Josef Clemens, Count Toerring Minucci of Munich; and has 
issue. 

Heir : Baron Herman David Montagu Erskine (son), b. 
12 Feb. 1854. 

23 Nov. 1876. Edward Arthur (Barry), 2nd BARON BARRY (BARAO DE BARRY) 
[Portugal], and a Baronet [U.K. 1899] ; b. 25 Apr. 1858 ; sue. 
his father 28 Feb. 1907 ; m. 1st, 31 Jan. 1883, Kathleen Ellen, 
da. of Percy Bicknell of Gurteen Shinrone, co. Tipperary, Esq., 
d. 4 Dec. 1885 ; 2ndly, 10 Feb. 1891, Eleanor Margaret, da. of 
Col. Courtenay Harvey Saltren Scott. 

Heir : Claude Francis Barry (son), b. 16 Dec. 1883. 

11 Sep. 1882. Ronald (Campbell), 2nd BARON CRAIGNISH (FREIHERR VON 
[R.L. 4 Jan. CRAIGNISH) [Saxe Coburg Gotha] ; b. 6 Apr. 1866 ; sue. his 
1883.] father 22 Dec. 1897 ; m. 12 July 1905 Constance Helen Wortley, 
da. of Montague Augustine Armstrong Armstrong of Queens- 
town, South Africa, Esq. 
Heir : None. 

8 Mar. 1883. Thomas Glas (Sandeman), 2nd BARON SANDEMAN (BARAO DE 

SANDEMAN) [Portugal] ; b. 15 June 1837 ; had the title renewed 
in his favour on the death of his brother 28 Nov. 1895 ; 
m. 1st, in London 23 Dec. 1874, Minna Eva Mountjoy 
Bentley, who was b. in London 11 Nov. 1855 and d. in 
Oporto 2 May 1889 ; 2ndly, 14 Aug. 1894, Elizabeth Eva, da. 
of Alexander Gordon Pilmer, Esq. ; and has issue by both 
marriages. 

Eldest son: Thomas Glas Sandeman, b. 16 Mar. 1877; 

m. 31 July 1907 Margaret Helena, da. and h. of George Theo- 

philus Robert Preston, of Ellel Grange, co. Lancaster. 

1 Nov. 1886. Edmund Kempt (Campbell), 1st BARON CAMPBELL OF LAURENTZ 

[R.L. 14 Feb. (FREIHERR CAMPBELL VON LAURENTZ) [Saxe Coburg Gotha 

1887.] and 26 Jan. 1889 Prussia], K.R.E., K.F.J., K.C.C.P., K.C.R.S., 



GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND 23 

O.L.B., Knight Commander of the Saxe Ernestine Family 
Order, of the Iron Cross of Prussia, &c., Major 7th Prussian 
Cuirassier Regt. and formerly A.D.C. to H.R.H. the late Duke 
of Saxe Coburg and Gotha ; b. 8 July 1848 ; m. 28 Sep. 1886 
Sarah Elizabeth, da. of James S. Budgett of Stoke Park, 
Guildford, Esq. ; s.p. 
Heir : None. 

25 Dec. 1889. BARONESS PAULINE MARIE LOUISE BUSH (only child of 1st 

Baron Bush) [Saxe Coburg Gotha], who d. 24 July 1903 ; 
b. 4 Sep. 1900 ; unm. 

23 Oct. 1890. Adolph (Kusel), 1st BARON KUSEL (BARONE KUSEL) [Italy] ; 

[R.L. 5 Nov. b. 10 Feb. 1834 ; m. 1st, 29 July 1868, Annie, da. of Richard 

1892.] Horton of Little Leigh, co. Chester, d. ( ) ; 2ndly, 12 Sep. 1878, 

Alice, da. of James Birch, of S eft on, co. Lancaster ; and has 

issue. 

Heir : Arthur Adolph, Baroncino Kusel (son), b. 31 May 
1869. 

23 Oct. 1890. Samuel Selig (Kusel), 1st BARON KUSEL (BARONE KUSEL) 

[R.L. 8 Feb. [Italy], K.C.C.L, &c., Capt. (ret.) 3rd Batt. E. Surrey Regt., 

1893.] late Controller- Gen. of the Egpytian Customs, is also a Bey 

[Egypt May 1882] ; b. 12 June 1848 ; m. 17 May 1876 Elvira, 

da. of Cleto Chini, Esq., of Leghorn and Cairo ; and has issue 

a da. 

Heir: ? 

6 Apr. 1893. Alan (Danvers), 1st BARON DANVERS (BARAO DANVERS) 
[Portugal], Knight Commander of the Orders of Christ 1883, 
and of Villa Vicosa 1902, an Electrical Engineer, formerly 
Managing Director and Chief Electrician in Portugal of the 
Anglo-Portuguese Telephone Coy., F.I.D., M.I.E.E. in England 
and America, F.R.G.S. of Lisbon, &c. &c. ; b. in London 21 
Aug. 1861 ; cr. as above for life by King Charles I. for political 
services. 

11 Jun. 1896. Alfred Wilby (Tait), 1st BARON SOUTELLINHO (BARO DE 
SOUTELLINHO) [Portugal], of Oporto, Fellow of the Linnaean 
Society of London 1884, Knight Commander of Santiago 
(with collar) 26 Aug. 1894 ; b. at Oporto 12 Oct. 1847 ; cr. as 
above for life by King Charles I. ; m. 26 Apr. 1876 Jessie 
Graham, da. of Charles Hutcheson, of Glasgow ; s.p. 

26 Feb. 1899. Maurice Arnold (BischofEsheim, now de Forest), 1st BARON 
[R.L. 6 Oct. DE FOREST (FREIHERR VON FOREST) [Austria], Lieut. Stafford- 

1900.] shire Imperial Yeomanry, and an Hon. Lieut, in the Army ; 
b. 9 Jan. 1879 ; m. 1st, 19 Apr. 1901, Matilda Madeline Rose, 
widow of Albert Menier of Paris, da. of ( ) (marriage annulled 
by the Holy See 1903) ; 2ndly, 11 Feb. 1904, the Hon. Ethel 
Catharine Hannah, da. of William Cransfield (Gerard), 2nd 
Baron Gerard [U.K.] ; and has issue. 

Heir : Baron Alaric Frederic Maurice de Forest (son), b. 
28 Apr. 1905. 

8 Sep. 1900. Alleyne Alfred (Boxall), 1st BARON BOXALL (FREIHERR VON 

[R.L. 17 Oct. BOXALL) [Saxe Coburg], a Knight Commander of the Saxe 

1900.] Ernestine Family Order, and formerly Personal Solicitor to 

H.R.H. Alfred, late Reigning Duke of Coburg and Gotha 

(Duke of Edinburgh), K.G., by whose successor H.R.H. Duke 



24 THE NOBILITIES OF EUROPE 

Charles Edward (Duke of Albany) he was, with the previous 
(18 July 1900) approval of H.M. Queen Victoria, cr. as above ; 
b. 11 Oct. 1855 ; m. 22 Oct. 1881 Mary Elizabeth, da. of James 
Henry Lermitte of Knightons, Esq., J.P. ; and has issue. 

Heir : Baron Alleyne Percival Boxall, M.A. Oxon. (son), 
b. 14 Sep. 1882. 

27Jul. 1904. Rudolph Bruno (Schroder), 1st BARON; SCHRODER (FREIHERR 
VON SCHRODER) [Prussia], of 35 Park Street, W., a partner 
in the firm of Henry Schroder & Co. of London; b. at 
Hamburg 14 Mar. 1867 ; m. at Cologne 5 Apr. 1894 Emma 
Christine Marie, da. of Theodore Deichmann ; and has issue. 

Heir : Baron Rudolph Bruno Schroder (son), b. in London 
5 Jan. 1895. 

18 Feb. 1906. Violet (Hoffnung- Goldsmid), 1st BARONESS GOLDSMID OF THE 
PALMEIRA (BARONEZZA DE GOLDSMID DA PALMEIRA) [Portugal], 
eldest da. and co-h. of the late Sir Julian Goldsmid, Bart. 
[U.K.], 3rd Baron Goldsmid da Palmeira, had her father's 
Barony revived in her favour by Dom Carlos I. as above; 
m. 26 Nov. 1889 Sidney Francis Hoffrung, now [R.L. 13 Feb. 
1896] Hoffnung- Goldsmid ; and has issue. 

Heir : Cyril Julian Hoffriung- Goldsmid (son), b. 14 Oct. 
1890. 

25 Oct. 1906. Rudolph Charles (Slatin), 1st BARON SLATIN (Rudolf Karl 

(Slatin) (FREIHERR VON SLATIN) [Austria], is a Major.-Gen. in 
the British Army, Inspector- Gen. of the Brito-Egyptian 
Sudan, a K.C.M.G., C.V.O., C.B., K.F.J., K.M.L., K.D., &c., 
and a Pasha in Egypt ; b. 1857 ; cr. as above by the Emperor 
Francis- Joseph. 
Heir: ? 



A LIST OF FOREIGN NOBLEMEN OF BRITISH 
PATERNAL DESCENT 

ARRANGED ACCORDING TO THEIR TITULAR RANK AND 
DATE OF CREATION 

PRINCES (2) 

30 Aug. 1815. Alexander (Petrovitch), 3rd PRINCE BARCLAY OF TOLLY- 
WEIMARN (KNJAES BARCLAY DE TOLLY- WEIMARN) [Russia], 1 
a General in the Russian Army ; b. ( ) ; sue. his wife's 
cousin 17 Oct. 1871, by virtue of an Imperial Ukase of 8 Dec. 
1859 ; m. the Countess Augustine, eldest da. and co-h. of 
Alexander Ivanovitch, 1st Count Luders [Russia 29 May 1862] 
(by his wife the Princess Gertrude Christine, sister and in her 
issue h. of Michael (Barclay), 1st Prince Barclay of Tolly, the 
celebrated Russian Field- Marshal). By an Imperial Ukase 
the title was confirmed to him, and made hereditary for his 
descendants of both sexes, 28 Mar. 1880. 
Heir : 

21 May 1858. Laval Llewellyn William (Nugent), 3rd PRINCE NUGENT 
(PRINCIPE DI NUGENT) [P.S.], also 3rd COUNT OP NUGENT 
(GRAF VON NUGENT) [Austria 12 Apr. 1848] ; b. at Vienna 
14 May 1870 ; sue. his father 21 July 1896 ; unm. 
Heir: None. 



DUKES (7) 

1465. Jacobo Maria del Pilar Carlos Manuel (Stuart- Fitzjames), 17th 
DUKE OF ALBA DE TORMES in Salamanca, and a GRANDEE of 
the 1st CLASS (1465 or '72), 17th MARQUESS OF CORIA and 
COUNT OF SALVATIERRA (a. 1472), and 18th COUNT OF ALBA 
DE TORMES (1439), 10th DUKE OF LIRIA AND XERICA in 
VALENCIA and a GRANDEE of the 1st CLASS (16 Oct. 1707), 
17th DUKE OF VERAGUA AND LA VERGA, and MARQUESS OF 
JAMAICA (1537), 19th COUNT OF GELVES ( ), 20th COUNT 
OF AYALA, 21st COUNT (9 Feb. 1457) and 27th LORD OF 
LEMOS (a. 1188), 18th MARQUESS OF SARRIA (1 May 1543) 
and a GRANDEE of the 1st CLASS, 19th COUNT OF VILLALBA 
AND ANDRADE, 15th COUNT OF GALVE, 15th MARQUESS (20 
Jan. 1559), and 23rd LORD OF THE CARPIO (1325) and a 
GRANDEE of the 1st CLASS (1631 or 10 May 1640), 14th COUNT- 
DUKE OF OLIVARES (15 ), -th MARQUESS OF ELICHE AND 
DUKE OF MONTORO and GRANDEE of the 1st CLASS, 17th 
MARQUESS OF TARAZONA (17 Aug. 1642), 18th COUNT (1474) 

1 Prince Barclay is not himself of British descent, being the one exception of those 
named in the list, but as he now bears the title originally conferred on his wife's ancestor, 
the famous Scottish soldier, he is here included. 

25 



26 THE NOBILITIES OF EUROPE 

19th VISCOUNT (a. 1470) and 20th LORD (22 May 1432) OF 
MONTEREY, 24th LORD OF ULLOA, -th DUKE OF HUESCAR AND 
ARJONA, -th MARQUESS OF THE MOTA, VILLANUEVA DEL RIO 
AND ST. LEONARDO, and COUNT OF LERIN AND OSORNO AND 
FUENTES DE VALDEPERO, and six times a GRANDEE of the 
1st CLASS, 13th MARQUESS OF VILLANUEVA DEL FRESNO AND 
BARCARROLA (a. 1516), -th LORD OF VILLANUEVA DEL FRESNO 
AND VILLALBA (temp. John I.), 19th COUNT OF MIRANDA DEL 
CASTANAR (9 Feb 1437), -th COUNT OF SAN ESTABEN DE GORMAZ 
AND CASARRUBIOS DE MONTE, 9th MARQUESS OF THE ALGAVA, 
and 10th COUNT OF FUENTIDUENTA, 24th COUNT OF SIRUELA 
and a GRANDEE of the 1st CLASS, &c. (17 DUQUE DE ALBA DE 
TORMES, 17 DUQUE DE VERAGUA Y DE LA VERGA, 10 DUQUE DE 
LIRIA Y DE XERICA, DUQUE DE ARJONA, DE MONTORO Y DE 
HUESCAR, 14 CONDE-DUQUE DE OLIVARES, 15 MARQUES DEL 
CARPIO, 17 MARQUES DE CORIO, 18 MARQUES DE SARRTA, 17 
MARQUES DE TARAZONA, MARQUES DE ELICHE, DE LA MOTA, DE 
SAN LEONARDO, DE VILLANUEVA DEL FRESNO, DE JAMAICA, DE 
VILLANUEVA DEL Rio, DE BARCARROVA Y DE VILDERRABANO, 
9 MARQUES DE ALGAVA, 21 CONDE DE LEMOS, 23 CONDE DE 
SIRUELA, 18 CONDE DE ALBA DE TORMES, 18 CONDE DE MON- 
TEREY, 20 CONDE DE ANDRADE Y DE VILLALBA, 19 CONDE DE 
GELVES, 19 CONDE DE MIRANDA DEL CASTANAR, 9 CONDE DE 
CASARRUBIOS DEL MONTE, CONDE DE LERIN, DE SAN ESTEBAN 
DE GORMAZ, DE FUENTIDUENTA, DE OSORNO, DE AYALA, DE 
FUENTES DE VALDEPERO, Y DE GALVE, 19 VIZCONDE DE 
MONTEREY, 27 SENOR DE LEMOS, 23 SENOR DEL CARPIO, 
24 SENOR DE ULLOA Y 20 SENOR DE MONTEREY, 14 GRANDE 
DE ESPANA de PRIMERA CLASE) [Spain], is de jure 10th DUKE 
OF BERWICK, &c. [E.] ; b. at Madrid 17 Oct. 1878 ; sue. his 
father 15 Oct. 1901 and his mother as Count of Siruela 
27 Mar. 1904 ; unm. 

Heir : Hernando Carlos, 15th Duke of Penaranda (brother) ; 
see below. 

14 . Maria de la Asuncion Rosalia (nee Stuart-Fitzjames), suo jure 
18th DUCHESS OF GALISTEO, 15th MARCHIONESS OF THE BANEZA 
(1559), and 16th VISCOUNTESS OF THE PALACES OF THE VAL- 

DUERNA (DUQUESA DE GALISTEO, MARQUESA DE LA BANEZA, 
VlZCONDESA DE PALACIOS DE LA VALDUERNA) [Spain] ; b. at 

Paris 17 Aug. 1851 ; da. of the 15th Duke of Alba, whom she 
succeeded in the above titles by a family arrangement 10 
July 1881 ; m. at Madrid 20 Oct. 1873 Jose (Mesia), 4th 
Duke of Tamames (1802), 10th Marquess of Campollano 
[Spain]. 

Heir : Jose, Marquess of Compollano (son), b. 1 Oct. 1879. 
22 May 1608. Hernando Carlos (Stuart-Fitzjames), 14th DUKE OF PENA- 
RANDA, also 9th MARQUESS OF VALDENABANO (15 ), llth 
COUNT (13 Dec. 1599) and 12th LORD OF MONTIJO (15), two 
times a GRANDEE of the 1st CLASS (DUQUE DE PENARANDA, 
MARQUES DE VALDENABANO, CONDE Y SENOR DE MONTIJO) 
[Spain] ; b. at Madrid 3 Nov. 1882 ; sue. his father the 16th 
Duke of Alba (whose younger son he is) by a family arrange- 
ment 15 Oct. 1901 ; unm. 

Heir : James, 14th Duke of Alba (brother) ; see above. 



GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND 27 

23 May 1710. Jacques Gustave Sidoine (Fitzjames), 8th DUKE OF FITZJAMES 
(Due DE FITZJAMES), of Warty, Oise [F.], Lieut.-Col. of 
Marines in the French Service ; b. 12 Feb. 1852 ; sue. his 
father 25 Sep. 1906 ; unm. 

Heir : Count Henry de Fitzjames, Lieut, of Cavalry " de 
Varmee, territoriale franc " (brother), b. 1855 ; m. ; s.p. 

30 Mar. 1806. Napoleon Louis Alexander Fergus (Macdonald), 3rd DUKE OF 
TARENTE (Due DE TARENTE) [F.E.] ; b. at Courcelles-le-Roy 
23 Jan. 1854 ; sue. his father 6 Apr. 1881 ; m. at Douai 22 
Nov. 1899 Valentine Luce, widow of Louis Ernest Camescasse, 
da. of ( ) Delegorque, whom he divorced 7 Oct. 1901. 
Heir: ? 

6 Jun. 1859. Marie Armand Patrice (de MacMahon), 2nd DUKE OF MAGENTA 
(Due DE MAGENTA) [F.E.], Lieut.-Col. 129th Infantry Reg. in 
the French Service ; b. in Paris 10 June 1855 ; sue. his father 
17 Oct. 1893 ; m. at Chantilly 22/23 Apr. 1896 H.R.H. the 
Princess Margaret of Orleans, da. of H.R.H. Robert, Duke of 
Chartres ; and has issue. 

Heir : Maurice Jean Marie, Marquess of MacMahon (son), 
b. at Luneville 13 Nov. 1903. 

27 Jun. 1900. Rene (de Warren), 1st DUKE OF WARREN (DucA DI WARREN) 
[P.S.] ; b. 187- ; cr. as above by letters patent of H.H. Pope 
Leo XIII. ; unm. 
Heir : None. 



MARQUESSES (5) 

20 Dec. 1816. Louis Charles Alexander (Law), 4th MARQUESS OF LAURISTON 
and a PEER (17 Aug. 1825) (MARQUIS DE LAURISTON ET PAIR DE 
FRANCE) [F]., also COUNT OF LAURISTON (COMTE DE LAURIS- 
TON) [F.E. 29 June 1808], of the Chateau de Richecourt, Aisne, 
and of 108 rue du Bac, Paris ; b. at Paris 25 July 1824 ; sue. 
his brother Mar. 1906 ; m. 1852 Felicie, da. of ( ) Pascal ; 
and has issue. 

Heir : Emile Paul Hubert, Count of Lauriston (son), b. 
2 Aug. 1860. 

5 Nov. 1827. Charles Marie (de MacMahon), 4th MARQUESS OF MACMAHON 
and a PEER, also MARQUESS OF VIANGES and BARON DE SULLY 
(MARQUIS DE MAHON ET PAIR DE FRANCE, MARQUIS DE 
VIANGES et BARON DE SULLY) [F.], a Cavalry Officer in the 
French Army ; b. 10 Apr. 1856 ; sue. his father 26 Sept. 1863 ; 
m. 23 June 1881 Marthe Marie Therese, da. of ( ) de Vogue. 
Heir : Marie (sister), m. 24 Oct. 1878 the Count of Oilliamson. 

24 Sep. 1872. Richard William Charles (Pickman), 2nd MARQUESS OF 
PICKMAN (MARQUES DE PICKMAN) [Spain], G.C.I.C., K.C.C.S., 
Academic correspondiente de la Real de Ciencias de Barce- 
lona, de la Sociedad de Ciencias Fisicas y Naturales y de la 
Filomatica de Burdeos, de la Sociedad del Fomento de la 
Indus tria Frances a, de la Academia Nacional de la Gran 
Bretana, Director de la Sociedad Manufacturera de Productos 
Ceramicos de la Cartuja ; b. in Seville 7 Sept. 1837 ; sue. his 
father 4 Jan. 1883, and had confirmation of the title from King 



28 THE NOBILITIES OF EUROPE 

Alfonso XII. 22 Oct. following ; m. in Seville 16 July 1873 
Dona Maria del Kosario, da. of ( ) Gutierrez Salas Ortez y 
Macarelli ; and has issue. 

Heir : Dona Maria de las Cuevas Antonia Rosario Pickman 
(da.), b. in Seville 2 July 1874. 

26 Sep. 1876. John Evans (d'Oyley), 1st MARQUESS D'OYLEY (MARCHESE 
D'OYLEY) [P.S.], Knight Grand Cross of the Orders of the 
Holy Sepulchre, Charles III. of Spain, Christ of Portugal, 
St. Stanislaus of Russia, Medjedie of Turkey, Lion and Sun of 
Persia, &c. ; b. 17 June 1838 ; cr. as above by H.H. Pope 
Pius IX. ; m. 8 Sep. 1868 Annie Alexis, Lady of the Sovereign 
Order of Malta, &c., da. of Alastair Macdonald, cadet of 
Keppoch ; and has issue. 

Heir : Gilbert Ralph, Count d'Oyley (son), b. 13 Feb. 1875 ; 
is m. and has issue. 

Apr. 1896. Patrick (MacSwiney), 1st MARQUESS MACSWINEY OF MASHANA- 
GLASS (MARCHESE MACSWINEY DI MASHANAGLASS) [P.S.], a 
banker in Paris and sometime " Camerier secret " to H.H. Pope 
Leo XIII., by whom he was cr. as above ; m. 26 Oct. 1895 
Stella, da. of ( ) Cavalcanti d' Albuquerque. 
Heir: ? 

COUNTS (32) 

George (O'Neill), styled 15th EARL OF TYRONE, a Peer of Portu- 
gal, Grand Officer of Honour of the Royal Household to the King 
of Portugal, Knight of Malta, O.L.H. ; b. 15 Feb. 1849 ; sue. 
by a family arrangement as Chief of his house and name on 
the death s.p.m. of Henry (O'Neill), styled Hth Earl of Tyrone 
(Comte de Tyrone), K.C.L.H., the last of the French branch, 
14 Aug. 1901 ; m. 14 June 1871 Dona Maria Isabel, da. of 
( ) Fernandez ; and has issue. 

Heir: Hugh O'Neill, Lieut. Portuguese R.N. (son), b. 
9 June 1874. 

18 May 1654. Wilhelm Ludwig Carl (Douglas), -th COUNT OF SKINNINGE 
[No. 19] and BARON OF SKALBY [1651] (GREFVE AF SKIN- 
NINGE OCH FRIHERR AF SKALBY) [Sweden], commonly called 
COUNT DOUGLAS (GREFVE AF DOUGLAS), Knight of the 
Orders of Vasa and of the Crown of Prussia, Major of the 
Prussian Regt. " Gardes du Corps," Lord of the Manors of 
Langenstein, Gondelsheim, Statten, Worndorf, Gotenstein, 
Munchlof and Siekingen, &c. &c. ; b. at Genf 8 Feb. 1849 ; 
sue. his father 14 Jan. 1898 ; unm. 

Heir : Count Ludwig Wilhelm August von Douglas, Secre- 
tary of State for Foreign Affairs (F. V. Minister for Utrikes 
Arendena) &c. (brother), b. at Zurich 26 Nov. 1849. 

7 Jul. 1673. Matthaus (Montmorency), -th COUNT MONTMORENCY-MARISCO 
(GRAF VON MONTMORENCY-MARISCO) [H.R.E.] ; b. in Dublin 
27 Nov. 1809 ; d. s.p. at Gratz 15 Aug. 1892, when the title 
became extinct; m. at Vienna 16 June 1863 Katharina 
Elizabeth Lonyay von Ragy-Lonya und Bdsaros-Rameny, 
who survives. 



GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND 29 

10 Sep. 1681. Theobald Moritz Kajetan Sigmund (von Butler), -th COUNT 
BUTLER OF CLONEBOUGH (GRAF BUTLER VON CLONEBOUGH 
GEN HAIMHAUSEN), also a BARON (27 Apr. 1678) [H.E.E.] ; 
b. at Haimhausen 2 Apr. 1836 ; sue. his father 29 June 1879 ; 
m. at Mulberg Schweiz 23 July 1867 Ferdinande Frederica 
Karoline Georgine, da. of ( ) Treherne-Treherne. 
Heir : Count Theobald von Butler, b. 15 July 1899. 

3 Jan. 1698. Erik Carl Alfred (Piper), 6th COUNT PIPER [No. 46], and 
BARON [1698] (GREFVE OCH FRIHERR PIPER) [Sweden], 
Principal Chamberlain (Ofver-Hofstallmastare) to the King of 
Sweden, Chief Equerry and President of the Commission for 
Army Horses (Chef for Stuteriofverstyrelsen o Ordforande i 
Stuterikommissconen), Knight Commander of the Orders of 
the Seraphim and the Sword ; Knight of the Royal Norwegian 
Order of St. Olaf (E.N.S. t. 0.0.) and of the Danish Order of 
the Dannebrog, 2nd Class (K.D.D. 0. 2 a gr.), L.L.A., Here- 
ditary Lord of the Manors of Christinehof, Andrarum, Torup, 
Hogesta and Baldringe (Inneh. fideikommiss-egendomarne 
Christinehof, Andrarum, Torup, Hogesta o Baldringe), and 
owner of (samt eg) Sofdeborg, Tagra, Illstorp and Karup, all 
in Skane ; b. 25 Dec. 1834 ; m. 10 Aug. 1857 Ebba Wilhelmina, 
da. of ( ) von Hafljner of Denmark ; and has issue. 

Heir : Count Erik Alfred Wolfgang Piper, Chamberlain 
(Kammarherre) ; Namndeman inom Herrestaift" harad i Skane 
(son), b. 25 May 1858 ; is m. and has issue. 

20 Feb. 1712. Gustaf Harald (Spens), 6th COUNT SPENS OF HOJA (GREFVE 

TIL HOJA) [Sweden No. 54], and 8th BARON (FRIHERR) SPENS 
[Sweden No. 9, 28 Apr. 1622], f. d. Landshofding i Kronobergs 
Ian, f. d. Gen. Major i Armeen, Knight Commander of the 
Polar Star (K. m. st. K.N.O.), Knight Commander of the 
Sword (K.S.O.), a EX, Knight of the Order of Charles XIII 
(B. af Konung Carl XIII.'s Orden), Knight Commander of 
the Dannebr6g (K.D.D. 0. 1 a gr.) ; b. 3 Aug. 1827 ; sue. 
his cousin 1902 ; m. 26 Aug. 1851 Ebba Eleanora, da. of 
Kammarherre J. von Seth, who d. 26 Jan. 1892. 

Heir : Count Carl Gustaf Spens, Lieut. -Col. in the Army, 
Knight of the Sword (Ofverste Lojtnant och Biddare af 
Svards Orden) (son), b. 19 Sep. 1854 ; is m. and has issue. 

14 Jul. 1724. Josef Maria (Walsh, now von Wallis), 7th COUNT WALLIS (GRAF 
VON WALLIS) [H.R.E.], also COUNT WALLIS [Bohemia 10 May 
1735], of Biidwitz in Moravia, Planitz in Bohemia, and Nie- 
derleis in Lower Austria, K.M., and Chamberlain to the 
Emperor ; b. at Vienna 9 Feb. 1863 ; m. in the Palazzo 
Mocenigo at Venice, Amalia, Lady of the Starry Cross, da. 
of Aloysius, Count Mocenigo ; s.p. 
Heir : ? None. 

21 Nov. 1751. Adolf Gustav Axel (Hamilton), 6th COUNT HAMILTON OF 

BARSEBACK (GREFVE HAMILTON AF BARSEBACK [Sweden No. 
86], also 7th BARON HAMILTON OF HAGEBY (FRIHERR HAMILTON 
AF HAGEBY) [Sweden 12 Ap. 1689, No. 99], Lieut, in the Crown 
Prince's Hussar Regt. (Under-Lojtnant vid Kronprincens 
Husar-reg : te), Hereditary Lord of the Manor of Barseback in 
Skane (Inneh. Barsebacks ndeikommiss i Skane), and owner 



3 o THE NOBILITIES OF EUROPE 

with his brothers and sisters of Danbykolm in Sodermanland ; 
b. 15 June 1874 ; m. 28 May 1907 Countess Elsa Harriet Mar- 
garetha, da. of Count Gotthard, Wachtmeister af Johannishus. 
Heir : Count Henning Wathier Hamilton, Sub-Lieut, in the 
Skanska Dragoon Regt. (brother), b. 23 Sep. 1875 ; m. 1 Feb. 
1902 Baroness Ida Magdalena, da. of Chamberlain the Baron 
Adolf Rutger Bennet ; and has issue. 

13 Aug. 1752. Karl Oliver (Walsh, now von Wallis), 5th COUNT OF WALLIS and 
7th BARON OF WALLIS (1642) (GRAF VON WALLIS und FREIHERR 
VON WALLIS) of Koleschowitz [H.R.E.], and 5th COUNT WALLIS 
[Bohemia }3 Mar. 1706], Chamberlain and formerly A.D.C. to 
the Emperor Francis- Joseph, Capt. 12th Uhlans, a Member of 
the Chamber of Deputies (1871) ; b. 26 July 1837 ; m. 12 
May 1873 the Countess Sophie, a Lady of the Starry Cross, 
da. of Charles (Parr), 4th Prince Parr [H.R.E.], a Hereditary 
Member of the Austrian House of Lords, who d. in Vienna 
10 June 1874, but has no surviving issue. 

Heir : Count Franz Oliver von Wallis, Chamberlain to the 
Emperor and a Field-Marshal Lieutenant (brother), b. 26 Sep. 
1838; m. s.p. 

Mar. 1755. Henri Marie Gustave Charles (Walsh), 8th COUNT OF SERRANT 

(CoMTE DE SERRANT) [F.], of Les Allieres, near Chateau 

Gontier, Mayenne ; b. (posthumous) at Bouille-Menard 5 Oct. 

1876 sue. his cousin 28 June 1895. 

Heir : Count Paul Walsh de Serrant (uncle), b. 10 Oct. 

1827 ; m. with issue. 

Feb. 1756. Augustus Rene Wilfred (D'Arcy), 4th COUNT OF ARCY (COMTE 
D'ARCY) [F.], of the Chateau de la Prias, pres Issoire, Puy de 
Dome ; b. 8 Nov. 1833 ; sue. his father ( ) ; m. 22 
Jan. 1861 Elizabeth, da. of ( ) de Pelacot ; and has issue. 

Heir : Peter Mary Patrick, Viscount d'Arcy (son). 
15 Feb. 1760. ( ) (O'Rourke), -th Count O'Rourke [Russia]. 

11 Nov. 1763. Roderick Josef Marik Max (O'Donell), 6th COUNT O'DoNELL 
OF TYRCONELL (GRAF O'DONELL VON TYRCONELL) [H.R.E.] ; 
b. 20 Oct. 1871 ; sue. his father 29 Sept. 1907 ; m. Mar. 1905 
Hanna, da. of ( ) von Tarnoczy- Bauer, previously wife of ( ) 
de Landstenier. 

Heir : Count Heinrich O'Donell (son), b. 22 Oct. 1908. 

15 Oct. 1771. Carl Gustaf Wilhelm (Sinclair), 5th COUNT SINCLAIR OF LAM- 
BAHOF (GREFVE AF LAMBAHOF) [No. 95], also BARON LAMBA- 
HOF (FRIHERR AF LAMBAHOF) [No. 270, 6 Oct. 1766], and a 
Noble [No. 965, 2 Oct. 1680] [Sweden], Knight of the Sword, 
Capt. Comdg. 2nd Company Royal Swedish Life Guards (Kapten 
o Kompanichef vid Andra Lif-grendier-reg. tet) ; b. 3 June 
1849 ; m. 14 Dec. 1889 Emilie Charlotta Isidora (Elly), da. 
of ( ) Smedberg ; and has issue a da. 
Heir : 

Sep. 1776. Montrose Denis (O'Kelly), 5th COUNT O'KELLY-FARRELL 
(COMTE O'KELLY-FARRELL) [F.] ; b. at La Bordeneuve Aug. 

1828 ; sue. his cousin ( ) ; m. 1865 Valentine, da. of ( ) Goode ; 
and has issue. 

Heir : Count Robert O'Kelly-Farrell (son). 



GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND 31 

1777. Countess Anna Maria Josepha Frances von Jerningham, only 
surviving child of William, 2nd COUNT OF JERNINGHAM (GRAF 
VON JERNINGHAM) [H.R.E.], who d. 10 Feb. 1868, when his 
honours became extinct ; b. 30 Nov. 1845. 

17 Sep. 1790. Emil (Jenison), 4th COUNT OF WALWORTH (GRAF VON WAL- 
WORTH) [H.R.E.], commonly called Count Jenison- Walworth ; 
b. at Heidelberg 13 Sep. 1853 ; sue. his father 11 June 1870 ; 
m. 4 Aug. 1900 the Princess Gisela, widow of Prince ( ) 
Iturbide of Mexico, da. of Baron Mikos von Torrodhaga ; s.p. 
Heir : 

29 Jun. 1809. Johan Gustaf (Lagerbjelke, originally Piper), 4th COUNT 
LAGERBJELKE (GREFVE LAGERBJELKE) [Sweden No. 115], and 
5th BARON LAGERBIELKE (FRIHERR LAGERBIELKE) [Sweden 
4 Nov. 1766, No. 254], vid faderns dod 1895, jur. Kandidat, 
Ledamot o Sekreterare i Patent- o Registrering-sverket, R. Anh. 
Albr. Bj. 0. 1, a Kl. Inneh. Elfs jo o Stufftsta fideikommiss- 
egendomer i Sodertorn ; b. 3 June 1860 ; m. 9 May 1894 
Edith Wilhelmina, da. of Ernst August Edelstam ; s.p. 
Heir : Baron Ernst Gustaf Lagerbielke, b. 4 Sept. 1897. 

11 Apr. 1812. Rene Andre (d' Alton), 3rd COUNT D'ALTON-SHEE [F.E.], 
also a PEER OF FRANCE (4 June 1814) (COMTE D'ALTON-SHEE ET 
PAIR DE FRANCE) ; b. at Paris 31 Dec. 1855 ; sue. his father 
22 May 1874. 
Heir : ? Count Paul d' Alton (brother). 

28 Mar. 1816. Lucian Adolph Esprit (Warren), 3rd COUNT OF WARREN 
(CoMTE DE WARREN) [F.], and a Noble of Lorraine (31 July 
1726), Capt. of Artillery (retired), served in the Franco- 
German War, being present at Chatillon, Rueil, Champigny, 
Bourget, &c. &c. ; b. at Nancy 26 July 1844 ; sue. his father 
6 Jan. 1898; m. 1st, 18, Berthe Emilie, da. of ( ) 
Lacroix, who d. 1872 ; 2ndly, 1874, Martha Adrienne Marie, 

da. of ( ) d'Golbery who d. 1908 ; and has issue by both 

marriages. 

Heir : Count Edouard Frangois Patrice de Warren, Officer 
16th Dragoons (son), b. 1871. 

19 Jan. 1818. Franz (de Reding de Biberegg), 3rd COUNT OF REDING OF 

BlBEREGG (COMTE DE REDING DE BlBEREGG) [F.], and a BARON 

OF THE HOLY ROMAN EMPIRE (21 Sept. 1688) ; b. 12 May 
1857 ; sue. his father 23 July 1889 ; m. 10 June 1883 Adelaide, 
da. of ( ) de Saugy ; and has issue. 

Heir : Baron Henry de Reding de Biberegg (son), b. 18 July 
1887. 

11 Jan. 1823. Richard (de Nugent), 3rd COUNT OF NUGENT (COMTE DE 
NUGENT) [F.], K.M., K.L.H., a Cavalry Officer in the Austrian 
Army ; b. ( ) ; sue. his father 15 Jan. 1891. 

Heir : Count Felix Marie Pierre de Nugent (half-bro.), b. at 
Paris 17 Apr. 1846 ; is m. and has issue. 

11 Dec. 1829. Marie Patrice Joseph Georges (de Wall), 3rd COUNT OF WALL 
(CoMTE DE WALL) [F.], Sous-Lieutenant de Cavalerie demis- 
sionnaire in the French Service ; b. at ( ) ; sue. his father 
( ) ; m. 2 Oct. 1880 Marie Suzanne Fernande Thibault, da. 
of Emmanuel Marie Stanislaus de la Rochethuton ; and 
has issue. 
Heir : Robert, Viscount de Wall (son). 



32 THE NOBILITIES OF EUROPE 

15 Oct. 1847. Charles Jean Jacques (O'Sullivan), 2nd COUNT O'SuLLiVAN 
OF GRASS OF SEOVAND (COMTE O'SULLIVAN DE GRASS DE 
SEOVAND), also BARON O'SULLIVAN DE GRASS DE SEOVAND 
(10 Nov. 1838) [Belgium] ; b. at Vienna 2 Jan. 1837 ; sue. his 
father 11 Jan. 1866 ; m. 1867 Charlotte, da. of ( ) Walter. 
Heir: ? 

. Alphonse Charles Albert (O'Kelly), -th COUNT O'KELLY 

OF GALWAY (COMTE O'KELLY DE GALWAY) [BELGIUM], 
K.R.S., K.C.P. ; b. at Brussels 22 July 1834; m. Emma 
Maria, da. of ( ) Bousmans, who d. 30 Apr. 1874 ; and has 
issue a da. 

Heir : Count Louis Francois Joseph O'Kelly de Galway 
(brother), b. at Brussels 29 Dec. 1836 ; is m. and has issue 
9 sons. 

27 Nov. 1847. Laval Jeremy Anthony (Nugent), 2nd COUNT NUGENT (GRAF 
VON NUGENT) [AUSTRIA] ; b. at Trieste 19 Apr. 1843 ; sue. his 
father 17 Apr. 1849 ; m. 1st, 30 June 1866, Baroness Emma, 
da. of Henry, Baron Ritter de Zahony, who d. 20 Dec. 1872 ; 
2ndly, 11 Oct. 1876, Marie, da. and h. of Anthony, Count Palla- 
vicini-Febbia, Marquess of Centurione, whom he divorced ; and 
3rdly, 27 Sep. 1885, Baroness Caroline, da. of Charles, Baron 
von Steininger, a General in the Austrian Army ; and has 
issue. 

Heir : Count John Anthony Laval Maria Victor, now 1st 
Count Nugent-Pallavicini-Centurione, b. 1 Aug. 1877 ; see 
below. 

17 Mar. 1860. William Charles Paul (d' Alton), 2nd COUNT D' ALTON [F.E.] 
and 3rd BARON D' ALTON [F.E. 15 Jan. 1809] (COMTE ET BARON 
D' ALTON), a French Cavalry officer ; b. 1853 ; sue. his 
father 2 June 1866; m. 20 July 1885 Antoinette, da. of 
( ) de La Roque-Ordan. 
Heir : Count Edouard d' Alton (son), b. 1886. 

22 Mar. 1876. Francis Michael (O'Connell), 1st COUNT O'CONNELL (COMTE 
O'CONNELL) [P.S.], served in French Army during the Franco- 
German War, and was cr. as above by Pope Pius IX. for his 
services to the clergy during the Commune ; b. 1847 ; sue. 
his father ( ) ; m. 1877 the Princess Nonia Bertong de 
Penang, nee Clark ; and has issue. 
Heir : Count Frances O'Connell (son). 

1 . Diogo Murray Kenmure (Gordon Correa), 2nd COUNT and 4th 

VISCOUNT (17 Dec. 1812) OF TORRE BELLA (CONDE E VISCONDE 
DE TORRE BELLA) [Portugal], is Attache to the Portuguese 
Legation in Berlin ; b. in London 7 Jan. 1865 ; sue. his father 
in the Countship 6 Apr. 1906, and his mother in the Viscounty ; 
unm. 

Heir : D. Gabriella Maria Gordon Correa Henriques de 
Noronha (sister), b. in London 2 June 1861. 

20 Dec. 1891. Maria Maximilian Leopold Robert Hugo Josef (MacCaffry), 
2nd COUNT MACCAFFRY OF KEAN MORE (GRAF MACCAFFRY 
VON KEAN MORE) [Austria] ; b. at Pardubiz 27 Oct. 1867 ; 
sue. his father 11 Feb. 1893. 
Heir : 



GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND 33 

2 Dec. 1894. Hugo Sholto Oskar Georg (von Douglas), 1st COUNT OF 
DOUGLAS, also BARON KALSWIEK (15 Nov. 1886) (GRAF VON 
DOUGLAS UND FREIHERR AUF RALSWIEK) [Prussia] ; b. at 
Aschersleben 19 Apr. 1837 ; m. at Gottesgnaden 25 Apr. 1865 
Jenny Amelie, da. of ( ) Reisner. 

Heir : Morton Edmund Arran Sholto von Douglas (son), 
b. at Aschersleben 26 Jan. 1866. 

28 Feb. 1901. John Anthony Laval Maria Victor (Nugent), 1st COUNT 
NUGENT-PALLAVICINI-CENTURIONE [Austria], son and h.-app. 
of the 2nd Count Nugent [Austria], see above ; b. 28 Feb. 1901 ; 
cr. as above by the Emperor Francis- Joseph ; unm. 

14 Jan. 1902. Reginald Henshaw (Ward), 1st COUNT WARD (CoNTE WARD) 
[P.S.], G.C.C.S., K.C.C.P., K.C.C.R., K.L.S., &c., Lord of the 
Manor of North Scarle, co. Lincoln, Consul - General for 
Roumania in London 1903-1907, &c. ; b. 22 Apr. 1862 ; cr. 
as above by H.H. Pope Leo XIII. ; m. at New York 29 Nov. 
1889 Edyth, da. of Horatio Victor Newcomb, Esq., of New 
York, but by her, who d. May 1906, had no issue. 
Heir : None. 

17 Jul. 1903. Francisco Jose Hugo Alessandro (Heaven y Ramirez de Arel- 
lano), 1st COUNT OF RAMIREZ OF ARELLANO (CONDE DE 
RAMIREZ DE ARELLANO) [Spain], G.C.S.G., G.C.I.C., G.C.H.S., 
&c. ; b. 15 Apr. 1877 ; unm. 
Heir : None. 

VISCOUNTS (4) 

27 Aug. 1853. Edouard Henri Joseph (Conway), 1st VISCOUNT CONWAY 
(VicoMTE DE CONWAY) [Belgium], K.L.B., O.L.H., K.R.E., 
G.C.I.C.A., G.C.F.J. ; b. ( ) ; cr. as above by King Leopold I. ; 
m. 21 Nov. 1833 Sarah Maria Victoria Langebean, da. of 
Richard O'Ryan, Esq. 
Heir : 

7 Dec. 1868. James Francis (Mason), 2nd VISCOUNT MASON OF ST. DOMINGOS 
(VISCONDE DE MASON DE SAN DOMINGOS) [Portugal] ; b. 28 
Aug. 1861 ; sue. his father. 
Heir : 

7 Dec. 1888. Jose Zuzarte (Wrem), 1st VISCOUNT WREM (VISCONDE DE 
WREM) [Portugal], K.C.C.P., K.T.S., K.C.I.C., K.C.C.S., 
Portuguese Consul for Barcelona and district ; b. at Barcelona 
9 Jan. 1850 ; cr. as above by D. Carlos I. ; m. 25 Jan. 1874 
D. Maria Luiza, da. of Vice -Admiral Jacobo MacMahon 
Santiago, Spanish R.N. ; and has issue a son and 3 das. 

Eldest son : Caetano Zuzarte Wrem MacMahon, b. 1 July 
1884. 

25 Aug. 1870. Thomas Elms d'Oliveira (Croft), 2nd VISCOUNT OF GRACA 
(VISCONDE DE GRACA) [Portugal], Fidalgo Cavalleiro of the 
Royal Household ; b. at Lisbon 12 June 1846 ; sue. his father 
26 Jan. 1874 ; and had confirmation of the title for life 18 Mar. 
1875 ; m. 1st, 8 Jan. 1876, D. Anna Mafalda, 2nd da. of Jose 
Maria Camillo (de Mendon9a), 1st Viscount of Abrigada 
[Portugal 1870], K.C.V.V., who was b. 2 Aug. 1856 and d. at 



34 THE NOBILITIES OF EUROPE 

Lisbon ( ) ; 2ndly, 29 July 1878, D. Julieta de Salles, da. of 
Manuel da Cunha Galvao, Privy Councillor to H.I.M. the 
Emperor of the Brazils ; she was b. at Rio de Janeiro 6 Oct. 
1856. 
Heir : None. 

BARONS (26) 

1654. Carl Fridrik Miles (Fleet wood), 10th BARON FLEETWOOD 
(FRIHERR FLEETWOOD) [Sweden No. 49], Knight of the Polar 
Star (R.N.O.) and Knight of the Dannebrog 2nd Class, Jur. 
Kand., Haradshofding i Vestra Warends domsaga af Krono- 
bergs Ian, Ledamot af Lagbyran ; b. 1 Sept. 1852 ; sue. 
his brother 1895 ; m. 1st, 1888, the Countess Hedwig Ida 
Anna Amalia, da. of Count Axel Lewenhaupt, who d. 1897 ; 
2ndly, 1901, Baroness Elisif, da. of Baron Axel Rappe, who 
d. 1904 ; and has issue several daughters. 

Heir : Georg Wilhelm Miles Fleetwood (brother), Knight of 
the Sword, Major vid Hallands-reg. tet ; b. 10 Aug. 1857. 
12 Ap. 1689. Hugo David (Hamilton), 8th BARON HAMILTON OF HAGEBY 
(FRIHERR HAMILTON AF HAGEBY) [Sweden No. 99], Lord of the 
Manor of Boo in Nerike (Inneh. o beb. Boo fideikommiss i 
Nerike); b. 31 Aug. 1859; sue. his father 189- ; m. 1 
Jan. 1888 Baroness Ebba Margaretha, da. of His Excellency 
Baron Frederick von Essen, K.S. ; and has issue. 

Heir : Baron Hugo Douglas Frederick Hamilton (son), 
Sub-Lieut. Life Guards ; b. 20 Jan. 1889. 

2 June 1719. Carl Wilhelm (Bennet), 5th BARON BENNET (FRIHERR BENNET) 
[Sweden No. 154], Knight Commander of Vasa (K.W.O.) 2nd 
Class, and Knight of the North Star (R.N.O.), Lieut. Skanska 
Dragoons (F. d. Lojtnant vid Skanska Dragon-reg. tet.), 
Ledamot af Stuterikommissionen, Eg. o bed. Rosendal i 
Skdne ; b. 11 Oct. 1839 ; sue. his father 10 Mar. 1867 ; m. 18 
Sept. 1873 Baroness Wilhelmina Gustafva Sofia, da. of Major 
the Baron Adolf Herman Bennet, K.C.V.O., Knight of the 
Sword, &c. ; and has issue. 

Heir : Baron Rutger Welhelm Bennet, 2nd Lieut. Skanska 
Hussars (Under-Lojtnant vid Skanska Husar-reg. tet) ; b. 14 
Oct. 1877. 

Aug. 1737. Louis Gaston (d'Anstrude), 6th BARON D'ANSTRUDE [F.], also 
3rd BARON D'ANSTRUDE [F.E. 26 Aug. 1811] ; b. 16 Jan. 1828 ; 
sue. his father 28 Mar. 1838 ; m. Marie Adfele, da. of ( ) 
Guyard de Balon ; and has issue four das. 

Heir : 

14 Oct. 1751. Pierre Guillaume Louis (Quarles), 4th BARON QUARLES OF 
QUARLES (FREIHERR QUARLES VON QUARLES) [H.R.E.], also 
3rd BARON QUARLES VON QUARLES [Netherlands by adoption 
16 Sep. 1815], a Colonel in the Dutch Service ; b. at Fort Bath, 
Zuland, 4 Sep. 1853 ; sue. his father 12 Nov. 1882 ; m. at 
Rozendaal 8 May 1884 Margaretha Christina Agatha Johanna, 
da. of Victor Eliza Philip Menno Scholten van Aschat ; and 
has issue three daughters. 

Heir : Baron Alexander Johan Quarles (brother), b. at 
Bergen-op-Zoom 10 Apr. 1858. 



GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND 35 

5 Mar. 1759. Ernest (von London), -th BARON LOUDON (FREIHERR VON 
LOUDON) [H.R.E.] ; b. at Vienna 6 Sep. 1832 ; m. at Lucknow, 
Mahren, 11 Sep. 1856, the Countess Henrietta, da. of Count 
( ) von Seilern und Aspang ; and has issue. 

Heir : Baron Antoine von Loudon (grandson) ; b. at Bis- 
triss 12 Aug. 1883. 

1766. Eugene (Hermelin, originally Scragge), -th BARON HERMELIN 
(FREIHERR HERMELIN) [Sweden No. 272], Lieut. Upplands 
Regt. (Lojtnant vid Upplands-reg. tet), Lord of the Manor of 
Noor in Uppland (Inneh. o beb. fideikommiss-egendomen 
Noor i Uppland) ; b. 10 July 1865 ; unm. 

Heir : 

14 Nov. 1767. Franz Wilhelm (MacNevin O'Kelly), -th BARON MACNEVIN 
O'KELLY OP AUGHRIM (FREIHERR MACNEVIN O'KELLY VON 
AUGHRIM) [H.R.E.], also BARON O'KELLY VON AUGHRIM 
[Bohemia 20/30 Sep. 1753], Lord of the Manor of Ballynahown 
(Herr auf Ballynahown) in Ireland ; b. at Laibach 12 June 
1849 ; sue. his father ( ) ; m. at Linz 15 Nov. 1873 the 
Countess Eleanor Francesca, da. of ( ) von Montfort ; and 
has issue. 

Heir : Baron Hugo Maria Wilhelm Johann Ludwig MacNevin 
O'Kelly (son), b. 16 May 1875. 

1772. Hilding Georg Pfeifl (originally Fife), -th BARON PFEIFF 
(FRIHERR PFEIFF) [Sweden No. 289], Lieut. Vestgota Regt. 
(Lojtnant vid Vestgota-reg : te) ; b. 1 Feb. 1882 ; sue. his 
father 18 ; unm. 

Heir : 

Jul. 1778 Charles George (d'Hanmer-Claybrooke), 5th BARON D'HANMER- 
and CLAYBROOKE [F.], formerly a Lieut, in the French Navy ; b. 
10 May 1820. 29 Dec. 1844 ; sue. his father 18 ; is m. and settled in America. 
Heir : 

. Anne Frederic Armand (Mackau), -th BARON DE MACKAU [F.], 

ancien Auditeur au Conseil d'Etat, Depute au Corps Legislatif 
1866-70, and for the arrondissement of Argentan, Orne, since 
20 Feb. 1876 ; b. at Paris 29 Nov. 1832 ; m. 17 May 1858 
Marie Josephine Matilda, da. of Joseph Louis Frangois 
(Maison), -th Count Maison, and grandda. of the Marshal 
Marquis Maison. She, by whom he had issue an only da. 
the Countess of Quinsonnas (who d. 24 Apr. 1891), d. 18 Jan. 
1886. 

Heir: ? 

1815. Volrath Wilhelm (Haij), -th BARON HALT (FRIHERR HALT) 
[No. 362], and a Noble [No. 1187] [Sweden], Knight of the 
Sword (R.S.O.) 1st Class, Capt. Comdg. Vestgota-Dals Regt. 
(Kapten o Kompanichef vid Vestgota-Dals- reg : te), Lord of 
the Manors of Ons jo and Gaddeback in Westgothland (Inneh. 
ndeikommiss egendomarna Ons jo o Gaddeback i Vester- 
gotland) ; b. 2 Sep. 1849 ; sue. his father 190- ; m. 23 Sep. 
1905 Hilma Caroline, da. of ( ) Carlen ; and has issue. 

Heir : Erik Volrath Wilhelm Haij (son), b. 29 June 1906. 
16 Sep. 1815. George August (Tindal), 4th BARON TINDAL [Netherlands], 
also 4th BARON TINDAL [F.E. 12 Apr. 1813], Chamberlain to 
Her Majesty Queen Wilhelmina, and formerly to the late King 






36 THE NOBILITIES OF EUROPE 

William III. ; b. at The Hague 11 Jan. 1839 ; sue. his father 
20 Nov. 1880 ; m. 1st, at Amsterdam, 29 Sep. 1864, Susanne 
Catherine, da. of Johan Hendrik Hackman Asschenberg, who 
was b. 13 Sep. 1843, and d. at Wiesbaden 18 Mar. 1900; 
2ndly, at Amsterdam, 1905, the Jonkvrouw Julie Claire, 
div. wife of Abraham Fock, L.L.D., and da. of the Jonkheer 
Cornelis Jacob Arnold den Tex, L.L.D., Burgomaster of 
Amsterdam ; but has no issue. 

Heir : Jonkheer Francois Jean Rudolphe Tindal (cousin- 
german), b. at Maastricht 27 Nov. 1836 ; m. but has no issue. 

11 Jun. 1816. Marie Guillaume Joseph (Le Clere), 3rd BARON LE CLERE [F.] ; 
b. at Brives 21 Oct. 1821 ; sue. his father 18 ; m. at Brives 
5 Feb. 1882 Marie Caroline Bertha, da. of ( ) Jaussen. 
Heir : 

6 May 1822. James Arnoud Henri Louis (Melvill), 7th BARON MELVILL OF 

CARNBEE [Netherlands], Capt. of Marines in the Dutch Service ; 
b. at the Hague 11 Aug. 1867 ; sue. his father 23 May 1891 ; 
m. at Paris 10 Jan. 1906 Martha Auguste Leonie Marguerite 
(des barons) de Mestral Combremont. 

Heir: August Louis John Melvill van Carnbee (brother), 
b. 1862. 

16 Jun. 1824. Julian Alphonse Herbert Hippolyte (de Cecil), 2nd BARON DE 
CECIL [Belgium] ; b. at Rasselt 29 May 1824 ; sue. his father 
4 Oct. 1863 ; m. at Cortenbosch, near St. Trond, 18 Dec. 1856, 
Marie Hubertine Adele, da. of Frederic Cox, Esq. ; and has 
issue 2 das. 

Heir : 

8 Dec. 1829. Otto Peter Karl Elimar Georg (Washington), 3rd BARON 
WASHINGTON (FRIHERR VON WASHINGTON) [Bavaria] ; Herr 
auf Pols in Steiermark, Knight of Malta ; b. at Pols 31 July 
1856 ; sue. his father 3 July 1903 ; m. there 27 Mar. 1883 
Countess (Reichsgrafin) Gisela, da. of Count Vincent Welser 
von Welsersheimb, Chamberlain to the Emperor-King, &c. 
Heir : None. 

7 Nov. 1840. Paulo Carlos (Allen de Moraes Palmeiro), 3rd BARON REGA- 

LEIRA (BARAO DA REGALEIRA) [Portugal], Fidalgo Cavalleiro 
da Casa Real, K.C.C.P., sometime attached to the Portuguese 
Legation in Paris ; b. 20 June 1842 ; sue. his mother 18 ; 
and had confirmation of the title 25 Apr. 1864 ; m. 1865 
D. Maria Joaquina, da. of Carlos da Cunha Menezes ; and 
has issue 2 sons and 2 das. 

Heir : Paulo Francisco Allen (son), b. 16 July 1867. 

16 Jul. 1851. Edouard (Whettnall), 2nd BARON WHETTNALL [Belgium] ; b. 
at Liege 16 July 1839 ; sue. his father 18 

Heir: ? 

7 Sep. 1856. Georg Edvard (Ramsay), 2nd BARON RAMSAY (FRIHERRE 
RAMSAY) [Finland No. 40], Generallojtnant vid gardesinfan- 
teriet, Befalhafvare for finska militaren, inskrifven i rullorna 
bid Lifgardets 3e., finska, Sharpskyttebataljon, Knight of the 
Order of St. Alexander Newsky (R. Al. New. 0.), Knight of 
the Orders of St. Vladimar (R.W1.0.) 2nd Class, St. Anne of 
Russia (R.A.O.) 1st Class, and St. Stanislaus (R.St.O.) 1st 
Class, med svard [och sos], Knight Commander of the Danne- 



GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND 37 

brog (K.D.D.O.) 2nd Class, Guldsabel mp. "for tapperhet," 
Medalj for Krimkriget o. f. Turk ft., Rum. Jarnk. Tr. D., Utm. 
t. f. 40 ars tjanst ; Innehar. Sasom majorat Michailischki i 
guv Suvalki, Eger Munksnas i Helsinge sn., Helsingfors ; b. 19 
Sep. 1834 ; m. 1861 Elisabeth, da. of ( ) Gumming ; and has 
issue. 

Heir : Edward Alexander Ramsay, Stabskapten vid Lifgar- 
dets 3e., finska, Skarpskyttebataljon, K.A.R. (R.A.O.) 3e., 
R.St.O. 3e., Helsingfors (son), b. 17 Mar. 1862 ; m. 1888 
Isabella Elisabeth, da. of ( ) Rosinskij ; and has issue. 

12 May 1874. Roger Frederick Walter (Clifford), 4th BARON CLIFFORD, also 
5th JONKHEER (16 Sept. 1815) [Netherlands] ; b. at Wassenaer 
11 Dec. 1888 ; sue. his father 29 Jan. 1908 ; unm. 
Heir : None. 

29 Nov. 1874. Richard Heinrich Christian Ascan (Swaine), 3rd BARON SWAINE 
(FREIHERR VON SWAINE) [Bavaria] ; b. 30 Oct. 1867 ; sue. his 
uncle 20 Oct. 1902 ; m. 9 June 1895 the Baroness Alice, da. of 
Baron ( ) von Behr ; and has issue 2 das. 

Heir : Baron Karl Alexander von Swaine (brother), b. 21 
Apr. 1870 ; is m. and has issue. 

1885. Osborn Axel (Dickson), 2nd BARON DICKSON (FRIHERR DICK- 
SON) [Sweden No. 406] (son of Grosshandlaren Oscar Dickson, 
Nobil. o Friherre Dickson), Friherre vid faderns dod 1897, 
Grosshandlare o Verkstall, Direktor i aktiebolaget "Dickson 
& Co." ; b. 30 Mar. 1866 ; unm. 

Heir : Baron Douglas Georg Dickson (brother), b. 1 May 
1874. 

16 Feb. 1894. Alexander (Stuart), 1st BARON STUART [Russia], Councillor 
of State, Director of the Principal Archives of the Ministry 
of Foreign Affairs. 

23 May 1907. Andrew Vincent (Patterson), 1st BARON PATTERSON (BARAO 
DE PATTERSON) [Portugal], of Palacio Foz, Lisbon, Knight 
Commander of the Orders of Christ (17 May 1904) and of Our 
Lady of Villa Vicosa, and a Gentleman of the Royal House- 
hold (F. da C.R.) 23 June 1908 ; b. at Cleveland, Ohio, U.S.A., 
25 Aug. 1867 ; cr. as above by King Charles I. 

. Emile Tannequy (Wogan), BARON DE WOGAN [F.], and 

6th Baronet [I.] as heir male of Sir Charles Wogan, cr. a 
Baronet by James III. in exile 1719, and a Senator of Rome 
13 June 1719, a well-known litterateur, Member of the Yacht 
Club of France, Officer of the French Academy, and Vice- 
President of the Association Artistique et Litteraire de Saint- 
Patrice, &c. &c. ; b. in Paris 23 Nov. 1859 ; sue. his father 
23 June 1891 ; m. 17 Oct. 1888 Griselle Anne Marie, only 
child of Alexander Hutchinson, Esq., of Singapore, by his 
wife, Henrietta Emma Aimee, eldest da. and co-h. of Henry 
Louis (de Loyaute), last Count of Loyaute [F.] ; and has issue 
an only da., Yvonne Betsey Isabel, b. 22 Nov. 1893. 



38 THE NOBILITIES OF EUROPE 

JONKHEERS (5) 

16 Sep. 1815. JONKHEER Adriaan Gerrit QUARLES VAN UFFORD [Netherlands], 
a Civil Engineer ; b. at Loosduinen 29 Jan. 1879 ; sue. his 
father 7 May 1904 ; m. at Gravenhage 11 Oct. 1904 Cornelia 
Elizabeth Anna, da. of Wilhelmus Jacobus van Hoogenhuyze ; 
and has issue. 

Heir : Jonkheer Louis Pierre Quarles van Ufiord, b. at 
Delft 26 July 1905. 

5 Sep. 1821. JONKHEER Hugo Jan Jacob VAN RENSSELAAR BOWIER [Nether- 
lands] ; b. at Utrecht 20 Oct. 1865 ; in U.S., unm. 

Heir : Jonkheer Marten Wilhelmus Marius Magdalenus 
Bowier (brother), b. at Utrecht 18 Aug. 1875, settled in the 
United States. 

7 May 1838. JONKHEER Willem Frederick Gustaaf Adolf VAN PESTEL 
[Netherlands] ; b. at Amersfoort 4 Aug. 1834 ; sue. his father 

30 Jan. 1880 ; m. at Vright 10 Oct. 1863 the Jonkvrouw 
Anna Paulina, da. of the Jonkheer van Beresteyn ; and has 
issue. 

Heir : Willem Frederick Anne van Pestel (son), Notary, 

b. at Amersfoort 14 July 1864 ; is m. and has issue 3 das. 

14 May 1882. JONKHEER John William MAY [Netherlands], formerly Consul- 

General of the Netherlands in London ; b. at ( ) ; m. 1st, 

Margaret, da. of ( ) Garret ; 2ndly, Sophy, da. of ( ) Cruden. 

Heir : 

18 Feb. 1884. JONKHEER Hugo LOUDON [Netherlands] ; b. at The Hague 
18 June 1860 ; sue. his father 30 May 1900 ; m. at The Hague 
26 Mar. 1903 Anna Petronella, da. of Willem van Marken, 
by his wife the Jonkvrouw Henriette Caroline Wilhelmina 
(nee van Riemsdyk) ; and has issue. 

Heir : Jonkheer James Willem (son), b. at The Hague 27 
Jan. 1904. 

CHEVALIER (1) 

16 Dec. 1816. Hyacinthe Emmanuel Dieudonne Ghislain Guillaume (Cam- 
berlyn), 2nd CHEVALIER CAMBERLYN D'AMOUGIES [Netherlands, 
since 1830 Belgium], Burgomaster of Pepinghem in Brabant 
since 1863, has the Civil Cross of the 1st Class ; b. in Ghent 

31 July 1829; sue. his father 1834; m. at Molenbuk 
St. Jean 6 Apr. 1872 Eleanore Marie Caroline Josephine 
Ghislaine, da. of ( ) van der Dunen de Kestergat, who was 
b. 21 Apr. 1848 ; and has issue. 

Heir : Fernand Marie Joseph Ghislain Guillaume Camberlyn, 
(son), b. at Pepinghem 23 Jan. 1873. 

UNTITLED NOBLES (31) 

1576. Samuel August Duse, NOBLE OP SWEDEN [No. 119], Capt. 
Norrlands Artillery Regt. (Kapten vid Norrlands Artilleri- 
regte), Knight of the Order of Vasa(R.W.O.) ; b. 2 Aug. 1873 ; 
sue. his father. 
Heir : 



GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND 39 

1621. Johann Georg Achates Crafoord, NOBLE OP SWEDEN [No. 743], 
Lieut, in the Scania Infantry Regt., Lord of the Manors of 
Molletorp and Smalleback, in the province of Blekinge ; 
b. 28 Dec. 1858; m. 1st, 1889, Ebba Elisa, da. of ( ) 
Tengberg, who d. 1896 ; 2ndly, 21 July 1906, Baroness Eva 
Maria Ingeborg Joaquine Stellan Walfrid, da. of Baron ( ) 
Gyllenkrok ; and had issue. 

Heir : Carl Fridrik Crafoord (son), b. 29 July 1890. 

14 July 1633. Carl Wilhelm Robert Ramsay, NOBLE OF SWEDEN [No. 215], 
Ingenior, forestandare for aktb. " Armaturfabriken Carl 
Holmbergs " filial i Stockholm ; b. 17 June 1860 ; unm. 

Heir : Carl Gustaf Adolf Ramsay, Eg. o beb. Hornsborg i 
Smaland (half-brother, " Huf-Syskon"), b. 8 July 1862. 

14 July 1634. Wolter Ramsay, NOBLE OP FINLAND [No. 17], previously of 
29 Jan. 1818. Sweden, Jur. U. Kandidat, Hofrattsauskultant, Ingenior, 

Varkstallande Direktor i Aktiebolaget Hogfors bruk och 

Vattola trasliperi ; Hogfors bruk i Plyhajarvi sn. ; b. 8 Sep. 

1855 ; sue. his father 18 ; m. 1885 Alice Anna Maria, da. 

of (_) Wolfi. 
Heir : Carl Gustaf Wolter Ramsay (son), b. 3 Nov. 1855. 

1636. Henry Welam Philp, NOBLE OF SWEDEN [No. 242], Student 
vid Uppsala Universitet ; b. 11 Sep. 1877 ; sue. his father 
190- ; unm. 

Heir : Hjalmar Casimir Luigi Philp, Civil Engineer (uncle), 
b. 31 Jan. 1853 ; is m. 

22 Feb. 1645. Wladimir (Walodja) Pistolekors (originally Scott), NOBLE OP 
1818. FINLAND [No. 30], previously of Sweden [No. 321], Tjansteman 
vid Kejserliga Kartasigillata o Sedeltryckeriet i St. Petersburg ; 
b. 15 Mar. 1856 ; sue. his father 18 ; m. 1882 Maria, da. 
of ( ) Novikoff. 
Heir : 

1647. Axel Fredrik Lagergreen (originally Laurin), NOBLE OF SWEDEN 
[No. 391], F. d. Lojtnant vid Gotlands Nationalbevaring ; 
Kommissionslandtmatare i Kronobergs Ian ; Eg. o beb. 
Sanna i Smaland ; b. 30 Dec. 1835 ; sue. his father. 

Heir : Alarik Lorentz Alexander Lagergreen, Civil Engineer 
in Kristianstad (nephew), b. 17 Feb. 1869. 

1648. Knut Gustaf Stjerncreutz (originally Tait), NOBLE OF SWEDEN 
[No. 436], Fabriksarbetare o Husegare i Jackson i Michigan 
i Norra Amerika ; b. 8 Feb. 1840 ; sue. his father ; m. 1882 
Mary, da. of ( ) Adeler. 

Heir : Karl Gustaf Adeler Stjerncreutz (son), b. 1882. 

1649. Carl Netherwood, NOBLE OF SWEDEN [No. 446], Postexpeditor 
(tjenstl) ; b. 1856 ; sue. his father 18 ; unm. 

Heir : Georg Wilhelm Netherwood, Kammarjunkare (f. d. 
tjenstgor) (Hufvudmannens Farbroders), b. 1828. 

22 Dec. 1663. Georg Fredrik Fraser, NOBLE OF FINLAND [No. 59], previously 
12 Jan. 1820. of Sweden [No. 725], Gardeskapten, Knight of St. Anne of 

Russia, 3rd Class ; b. 19 Mar. 1849 ; m. 1877 Johanna Wilhel- 

mina, da. of ( ) Astrom. 

Heir : Carl Harald Otto Fraser (son), b. 5 Feb. 1879. 



40 THE NOBILITIES OF EUROPE 

1664. Carl Gustaf Mathias Nisbeth, NOBLE OF SWEDEN [No. 828], 
Civil-ingenior, Verkst Direktor i Reimersholms Nya Sprit- 
foradlingsbolag ; Knight of the Order of Vasa 1st Class 
(R.W.O.), L.L.A., Inneh. Tisslinge fideikommis i Uppland ; 
b. 21 Aug. 1849; sue. his father 18; m. 17 Oct. 1877 
Baroness Maria Theresa, da. of Baron Claes Gustaf Fredrik 
Raab ; and has issue. 

Heir : Carl Wilhelm Carlsson Nisbeth, officersvolontar vid 
Upplands Artilleri-reg : te (son), b. 26 June 1886. 

1666. Wilhelm Malcolm Robert Carl Leijonancker (originally Young), 
NOBLE OF SWEDEN [No. 778], Student at Lund University ; 
b. 10 June 1885 ; sue. his father 1900 ; unm. 

Heir : Carl Erik Daniel Leijonancker (brother), b. 28 Nov. 
1893. 

1666. Ake Wilhelm Belfrage, NOBLE OF SWEDEN [No. 782], Forval- 
tare vid Dais Angsag i Angermanland ; b. 11 June 1857 ; 
sue. his father 18 ; m. 6 Nov. 1885 Laura Wilhelmina, da. of 
( ) Billing ; and has issue. 
Heir : Wilhelm Gosta Belfrage (son), b. 14 June 1888. 

1676. Uno Wilhelm Gyllenskepp (originally Thomson), NOBLE OF 
SWEDEN [No. 902], Exam. Apotekare, provisor p, Apoteket i 
Boras ; b. 30 Aug. 1868 ; sue. his father ; unm. 
Heir: ? 

1678. Adolf Wilhelm Pfeifi (originally Fife), NOBLE OF SWEDEN 
[No. 945], Beb eget hus i Stockholm ; b. 12 Oct. 1848 ; sue. his 
father ; m. 28 Nov. 1882 Ida Elin, da. of ( ) Kraft ; and 
has issue. 

Heir : Gustaf Harald Waldemar Pfeiff (son), b. 8 Mar. 1887. 

1695. Birger Adolf Gustaf Rosentwist (originally Twist), NOBLE OF 
SWEDEN [No. 1330], Kopman i Boston, Norra Amerika ; b. 
1868 ; sue. his father ; m. 1893 Emma Kristina Gorner fran. 
Tyskland, but has no issue. 
Heir : 

1715. Carl August Eugene Lagerbielke (originally Fistulator), NOBLE 
OF SWEDEN [No. 1378], Extra Jagmastare i Sunnerbo revir ; Eg. 
o. beb Borsna i Smaland ; b. 10 Apr. 1844 ; sue. his father 
18 ; m. 1 Aug. 1869 Anna Erika Clara, da. of ( ) Thalen ; 
and has issue 2 das. 

Heir: Nils Georg Johan Lagerbielke, hofrattsrad i Svea- 
hofratt (cousin), b. 3 Aug. 1861 ; is m. 

1736. Robert Montgomery, NOBLE OF SWEDEN [No. 1960 A), Jur. 
Kandidat, Chamberlain (Kammarherre), Chief of the Council 
of Askerskarah in Orebro co. (Namndeman inom Askers karah 
af Orebro Ian), Knight of the North Star (R.N.O.) and of 
Vasa 1st Class (R.W.O.), Hereditary Lord of the Manor of 
Sergersjo together with Morby, Styrsta, and Kopberga in 
Nerike (Inneh. Sergersjo fideikommiss-egendom samt eg Morby, 
Styrsta o Kopberga, alia i Nerike), and as such is obliged 
to adopt, together with his eldest son, the name of Cederhielm 
of Sergersjo and write himself Montgomery-Cederhielm (Skall, 
sasom innehafvare af namnda fideikommiss, likasom aldsta 
sonen, bara namnet Cederhielm af Segersjo, och kallar sig, 



GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND 41 

till foljd deraf, Montg ornery -Cederhielm) ; b. 8 May 1851 ; sue. 
his father 18 ; m. 11 Sep. 1880 Baroness Emilie, da. of 
Fredrik Alexander, -th Baron Funck [Sweden 1723, No. 189] ; 
and has issue. 

Heir : John Archibald Robert Montgomery (son), b. 23 June 
1881. 

1742. John Gustaf Philip Marc Jennings, NOBLE OF SWEDEN [No. 
1874], a Major in the Army (Major i Armeen), Captain of 
the Upplands Regt. of Reserves (Kapten i Upplands Reg : tes. 
Reserv), Knight of the Sword 1st Class (R.S.O.), Heredi- 
tary Lord of the Manor of Skanellaholm in Uppland (Inneh. o 
beb ndeikommiss-egendomen Skanellaholm i Uppland) ; b. 
2 Nov. 1842 ; m. 4 Oct. 1866 Julia Georgina Ottilianna 
(Lilly), da. of ( ) von Heijne ; and has issue. 

Heir : Georg Jennings (son), b. 16 May 1877. 

1751. David Gudmund Otto Silverstolphe (originally Mascall), NOBLE 
OF SWEDEN [No. 1939], Student at Upsala University (Jur. 
Fil. Kand., e. o. hofrattsnotarie, amanuens i civil-departementet 
o hos telegrafstyrelsen) ; b. 25 Aug. 1875 ; sue. his father 18 ; 
unm. 

Heir : David Otto Mauritz Silverstolphe, Civil Engineer 
(cousin), b. 19 Mar. 1869 ; is m. and has issue. 
1757. George Adlersparre (originally Spalding), NOBLE OF SWEDEN 
[No. 1988], of Durban, Natal; b. 4 Mar. 1871 ; sue. his father 
1902; unm. 

Heir: Christopher Adlersparre, of London, Architect 
(brother), b. 24 Apr. 1872 ; is m. and has issue. 
1767. Hugo Linusson Adlerstam, NOBLE OF SWEDEN [No. 2057], 
Vagmastare i Wareham i Norra Amerika ; b. 18 Aug. 1845 ; 
sue. his father 18 ; m. 1873 Flora, da. of ( ) Westgate ; 
and has issue. 

Heir : Raymond Elliot Adlerstam (grandson), b. 1896. 
19 Sep. 1772. Adolf von Wright, NOBLE OF FINLAND [No. 149], previously 
26 Jan. 1818. of Sweden [No. 2077], Mejerikonsulent i St. Michels, Kuopio 
och delar af Wiborgs Ian, R.St.O. 3e. ; Ager Haminanlaks i 
Kuopio sn. ; b. 27 Dec. 1851 ; sue. his brother ; unm. 

Heir : Viktor Julius von Wright, Vide och rottingsvaru- 
fabrikant, Ager Hus i Helsingfors (brother), b. 5 Aug. 1856. 
19 Sept. 1772. Hjalmar Fredrik Henrik von Wright, NOBLE OF SWEDEN 
[No. 2077], Kammerherre, Eg. o beb Hedvigslund i Soder- 
manland ; b. 10 July 1836 ; sue. his father 18 ; m. 1st, 1860, 
the Countess Johanna Maria, da. of Capt. Count Johnn August 
Kalling, who d. 1862 ; 2ndly, 1865, Natalia Amalia, da. of 
( ) Ramsay, who d. 1893 ; and has issue a da. by each 
marriage. 

Heir : None. 

1773. Gustaf Fredrik Sebastian Adelskb'ld (originally Hanson), 
NOBLE OF SWEDEN [No. 2029], Landlbruksbetrade vid Oijared ; 
b. 23 Mar. 1876 ; sue. his father 18 ; m. 24 Aug. 1901 Signe 
Elisabeth, da. of ( ) Anrep ; and has issue. 

Heir : Sten Gustaf Fredrik Adelskold (son), b. 18 Apr. 1906. 

12 Jan. 1774. Knut Robert Gabriel Montgomery, NOBLE OF SWEDEN [No. 

1906 B], Ryttmastare i Lifreg : tets. dragoners reserv, R.S.O. ; 



42 THE NOBILITIES OF EUROPE 

b. 6 Dec. 1850 ; sue. his father 18 ; m. 30 July 1879 Julia 
Carolina, da. of Major Georg Julius von Axelson [NOBLE OF 
SWEDEN 1772, No. 2022] ; and has issue. 

Heir : Hugo Georg Montgomery, Civil Engineer (Ingenior 
vid Elektriska aktb. Holmia) (son), b. 24 Feb. 1881. 

1780. John Echard Fridrik af Klerker, NOBLE OP SWEDEN [No. 
2132 A], Doctor of Philosophy (Fil. Doktor), Teacher of 
Botany at Stockholm High School (Docent i Botanik vid 
Stockholms Hogskola), and an author (Skriftslallare), Beb. 
egen Villa vid Djursholm ; b. 4 Feb. 1866 ; sue. his father 
18; m. 17 Apr. 1894 Edla Hedwig Sofia, da. of ( ) 
Soderstrom. 

Heir : Samuel Karl Anton Klerker (brother), b. 9 Aug. 
1870; ism. 

1782. James Pilegaard Fox Maule, NOBLE OF SWEDEN [No. 2135], 
Winderslewgaard i Danmark, Kjellerup, b. 7 Mar. 1855 ; sue. 
his father 18 ; unm. 

Heir : Carl Fox Maule, Civil Engineer (Huf-Syskon), b. 
22 Jan. 1870 ; is m. 

12 Jun. 1782. Alexander Balnagown Boss, NOBLE OF DENMARK, Grossever ; 
b. 21 Mar. 1853 ; sue. his father 10 Mar. 1892 ; m. 4 Apr. 1888 
Marie Johanna, da. of ( ) Hansen. 
Heir : 

1785. Patrick Baron Seton, NOBLE OF SWEDEN [No. 2139] (son af 
Godsegaren Alexander Seton, o hans 2 : a fru, Mary Isabelle 
Baillie), Master of the Chase (Hofjagmastare), J.P. co. Lin- 
lithgow (Fredsdomare for Skotska grefskapet Linlithgow), 
O.K.s. Jmt. ; Knight of the Order of Vasa (R.W.O.) 2nd 
Class, G.M. Commander of the Griffon of Mecklenburg- 
Schwerin (K. Meckl. Schw. Grip. 0.), Lord of the Manors of 
Ekolsund and Segersta in Uppland and Preston in Scotland 
and owner of the plantation of New Preston in Ceylon (Eg. 
Ekolsund o Segersta, bada i Uppland, Preston i Skottland o 
theplantaget New Preston pa Ceylon) ; b. 25 Aug. 1849 ; sue. 
his father 18 ; m. 17 July 1873 Beate Louise Eleanore, 
da. of ( ) Rosencrantz ; and has issue. 
Heir : Alexander Georg Seton (son), b. 3 May 1882. 

1810. Carl Wilhelm Otto Murray, NOBLE OF SWEDEN [No. 2216], 
Grosshandlare, Eg. o beb Annehill vid Salts jobaden ; b. 26 Mar. 
1836 ; sue. his cousin (adelsman vid sin Kusins dod) 1889 ; 
m. 22 Sep. 1862 Gustafva, da. of ( ) Bergoo ; and has 
issue. 

Heir : Johnn Otto Cornelius (Corny) Murray, Siukgymnast 
(son), b. 26 Feb. 1865. 

1818. Fredrik Henrik af Robson, NOBLE OF SWEDEN [No. 2265], 
Adelsman vid aldre broderns dod 1875 ; ofverste-Lojtnant i 
Armeen; Major vid Lefrig: tet. till Fot; Knight of the Sword 
1st Class (R.S.O.) ; b. 17 June 1847 ; sue. his brother 1875 ; 
m. 10 Nov. 1892 Bertha, da. of ( ) Sernander; and has 
issue. 

Heir : Gustaf Henrik Rutger af Robson (son), b. 24 Aug. 
1893. 



AN ALPHABETICAL LIST 

OF THOSE BRITISH FAMILIES WHO HAVE RECEIVED 
FOREIGN TITLES 

AND OF THOSE FOREIGN TITLED FAMILIES WHO HAVE BECOME 

BRITISH SUBJECTS, AND OF THE TITLES CONFERRED 

UPON OR INHERITED BY THEM 

Giving as far as possible the full dates of their creation, their nationality, by 
whom and on whom they were originally confer red, and the remainder 
with which they were granted, and in the case of foreign families the 
date and manner of their naturalization. 



D'ABZAC. " Nicholas Simeon, VICOMTE D'ABZAC DE GERAC en France," doubtless 
a member of the Huguenot refugee family of Abzac, d. 4 Dec. 1710, and is 
buried in the Huguenot Cemetery in Merrion Bow, Dublin. 1 

ACRI [Naples 1495]. See Stuart, Count of. 

ACTON. The Emperor William conferred the Red Eagle 1st Class on the Italian 
Vice- Admiral, Baron Acton, 25 July 1888. He was probably a Cadet of the 
family of Acton, Barons Acton [U.K.]. 

ADAM. A family of this name is mentioned by Marryat 2 in his list of those English 
and Scots who were ENNOBLED in Sweden, but never introduced into the House 
of Lords. 3 

ADELSKOLD. John Christian Adelskold [of an old noble family of Scottish origin, 
named first in Sweden Thomoeus and Thomee, descended from Andrew Hanson, 
a Scottish refugee], 4 was ENNOBLED [Sweden No. 2029] by King Gustavus III., 
1773, and introduced into House of Lords 1775. 5 Still existing, see p. 41. 

ADLERSPABBE. See Spalding. 

ADLERSPARRE [Sweden 1816]. See Spalding, Baron and Count. 

ADLEBSTAM. See Lulle. 

ADLERSTOLPE. See Feif. 

AIREY. John Moore Cole Airey, Capt. R.N. [2nd son of Lieut. -Gen. Sir George 
Airey, K.H., by his wife, Catherine Talbot] ; b. 1810, was by decree of 25 Apr. 

1 See the Pedigree of D'Abzac, by Henry "Wagner, Esq., F.S.A., in The Genealogist, 
xviii., p. 57. 

2 One Year in Siveden, by Horace Marryat (London, 1862), ii. 501. 

3 The following families, according to Marryat (ii. 501), were ennobled in Sweden, 
but never introduced, i.e. took their seats in the House of Lords : Adam, Colin Campbell 
(1731), Hugh Campbell (1736), Crook, Coote, Cutler, Donoway, Duffus, Duncan, Downe, 
Erskein (1652), Gordon, Guthrie, Andrew Gray, Golding, Malcolm Hamilton (killed at 
Copenhagen and ennobled after death 1664), Hare, Kinnaird, Karr, Johnston, Law, Leslie, 
Lewis, Lamb, Man, Moneypenny, Morgan (1720), Norman, Nairne, Peper, Porteus, Ram, 
Richards, Ried, Reading, Stuart, Sharp, Seton, Shute, Philip Sadler (1640), Salmon (1745), 
Smith (1574), Traill, Winne, Wildman, Wilson, and Young (1776). 

4 Scottish Families in Finland and Sweden, by Otto Donner (Helsingfors, 1884), p. 12. 

5 Sveriges Ridderskaps. 

43 



44 THE NOBILITIES OF EUROPE 

1872, confirmed by a charter of 20 June following, cr. by Louis I., King of 
Portugal, VISCOUNT AIKEY (VISCONDE DE AIREY) for life, " em sua vida." ] 
He m. 1851 Amelia Sarsfield, dau. of George Denis Walsh, Esq., of Lisbon, 
by his wife, Amelia Sarsfield, and d. s.p. at 1 Rue de Ferregeal de Cirna, Lisbon, 
17 July 1893, when his honours became extinct. Will proved 7 Mar. 1895. 

AIREY [Portugal 1872]. See Airey, Viscount of. 

ALBA DE TORMES [Castile 1465]. See Fitzjames, Count (1439) and Duke of. 

ALBANI. See de Lara, Count. 

ALBERSTROF [H.R.E. a. 1760]. See Walkinshaw, Countess of. 

ALBEVILLE [H.R.E. 1677]. See White, Marquess of. 

ALBEVILLE. See Connock. 

ALBY [H.R.E. 1513]. See White, Baron of. 

ALBY [H.R.E. 1658]. See White, Count of. 

ALBY [F. 16]. See White, Count of. 

ALBY. See Connock. 

ALDRIDGE. See Bliss. 

ALGAVA [Castile]. See Fitzjames, Marquess of. 

ALKAIN. Jos6 Carlos Alkain, K.C.C.P., " Negociante e rico proprietario residente 
na Republica de Buenos Ayres," 2 was by decree dated Nov. 1873, followed by 
a charter of 6 Aug. 1874, cr. by Louis I. VISCOUNT OF CASTELLO-ALVO (Vis- 
CONDE DE CASTELLO-ALVO) [Portugal] for life, " em sua vida." 3 

ALLEN. Dona Ermelinda Allen [da. of Edward William Allen, " subdito Inglez " 
and H.B.M. Consul at Vianna do Castello and afterwards at Funcha] ; 4 b. 2 May 
1768 ; m. 11 May 1794 Jose Monteiro de Almeida (b. 18 May 1751, d. in Paris 
7 June 1816) ; and was 7 Nov. 1840 cr. BARONESS OF THE REGALEIRA (BARONEZA 
DA REGALEIRA), and 15 Apr. 1854 VISCOUNTESS OF REGALEIRA (VISCONDESSA 
DA REGALEIRA) [Port.], with rem. of the Barony 5 to Dona Maria Izabel, only 
da. and h. of her eldest brother, Carlos Manuel Allen. This Dona Maria 
Izabel, 2nd Baroness of Regaleira (who had confirmation 15 Apr. 1854), was 
b. 6 Mar. 1808, and m. Col. Jo&o Carlos de Moraes Palmeiro, K.C.C.P., K.C.V.V., 
Fidalgo Cavalleiro da Casa Real, and was mother of the present Baron, who 
had renewal 25 Apr. 1864. See p. 36. 

ALLEN. Alfredo Allen of Quinta de Campanha, Oporto [descended from John 
Allen of Oporto, 2nd son of the above-named Edward William Allen] ; b. 1828, 
educated at Fontenay-aux-Roses, near Paris, under the Rev. Father Superior 
Dr. Jose de Silva Tavares, was 13 Jan. 1866 cr. VISCOUNT VILLAR D'ALLEN 
(ViscoNDE DE VILLAR D'ALLEN) in Portugal. He m. at Oporto Maria Jose, 
da. of Jos6 Maria Ribello Valente of the Alto Douro, and had issue 6 (1) Alberto 
Ribello Valente Allen, who m. 1st, 1878, Laura, only da. of Manuel Pinto Gomes 
de Menezes ; 2ndly, 1889, Felismina, widow (? da.) of Joaquim Fructuoso Ayres 
de Gouveia, brother of the Bishop of Bethesaida ; and (2) Roberto Ribello Valente 
Allen. 

ALLIANCE [Spain 1809.] See Frere, Viscount of the. 
ALMBDA [Portugal 1875]. See Emanuel, Baron d'. 
ALTDORFF [Germany]. See Schomberg, Baron of. 

ALTEN. Baron Sir Charles von Alten, G.C.B., Field-Marshal and Hanoverian 
Minister for War and Foreign Affairs, and a Major-Gen, in the British Army, 
youngest son of Augustus Eberhardt, Baron Alten (Freiherr von Alten), of 
an ancient Protestant family in Hanover ; 7 after the conquest of Hanover by 
the French, 1803, passed into the British Army, and was appointed to command 
the King's German Legion, with which he served in Spain, being afterwards 
in command of the third Division of the British Army at Quatre-Bras and 

1 Arch, da T. do T. Chanc. de D. Luiz L, liv. 24, fl. 116. 

2 Itesenha das Familias Titulares e Grandes de Portugal, by Albano da Selveira Pinto 
&c. (2 vols., Lisbon^ 1890, i. 397. 

8 Regist. no Arch, da Torre, do Tombo., Merces de D. Luiz I., liv. 24, a fl. 275, v. 

* Resenha das Familias, &c., ii. 383. 5 Ibid., ii. 384. 

6 Ibid., ii. 768. ? DiCf NaL Bio ^ it 347< 



AN ALPHABETICAL LIST 45 

Waterloo, for his services at which he was 1815 cr. COUNT OF ALTEN (GRAF VON 
ALTEN). He had apparently become a British subject, for he had R.L. to accept 
various foreign Orders of Knighthood from George III. The Countess Louise 
Fredericke Augusta, da. of Charles Francis Victor, COUNT VON ALTEN of Hanover, 
m. 1st, 22 July 1852, William Drogo (Montagu), 7th Duke of Manchester [G.B.], 
K.P. ; and 2ndly, 16 Aug. 1892, Spencer Compton (Cavendish), 8th Duke of 
Devonshire [E.], K.G. ; and has issue by 1st marriage. 

ALVA. See Alba. 
ANCKARCREUTZ. See Brand. 

ANCKARSPARRE. A family descended from the English family of Tingwall, who 
settled in the mining district of Wermland about 1600, ENNOBLED [No. 2180] 
in Sweden in 1802. 1 Extinct 1825. 

ANDERSON. Thomas Anderson [son of Thomas Anderson, a Scottish merchant 
in Stockholm, who d. 1672], was Secretary to the Board of Trade, and was 
ENNOBLED [No. 1277] in 1693 under the name of Blixenstjerna. 2 Extinct 1753. 

ANDERSON. Alexander Anderson, came from Scotland, and, having entered the 
Swedish Service, rose to the rank of Col., and was naturalized and ENNOBLED 
[Sweden No. 738] 1668. " Utgangen pa manssidan 1862, attemedlemmarne 
ha sedan lange kallat sig von Andersson." 3 Extinct in male line 1862. 

ANDRADE [Castile], See Fitzjames, Count of. 
ANGRA [Portugal 1826]. See Stuart, Marquess of. 

ANNESLEY. Francis Charles Annesley, a Capt. in the Prussian Army [3rd son 
of the Hon. Robert Annesley, who was 2nd son of Richard, 2nd Earl of 
Annesley [I.] ], was ENNOBLED in Prussia by royal letters patent 18 ; he 
d. s.p. 8 Oct. 1887.* 

ANSTRUDE. See Anstruther. 

ANSTRUDE [F. 1737]. See Anstruther, Baron of. 

ANSTRUDE [F.E. 1811]. See Anstruther, Baron of. 

ANSTRUTHER. Franois Cesar d' Anstrude, SEIGNEUR DE BIERRY, S in Burgundy 
[descended in the fifth degree from David Anstruther (younger son of Robert 
Anstruther, Baron of Anstruther, by his wife Isabella Bethune of Balfour), 
a " Gentelhomme de la Garde Eccossoise " who settled in Burgundy], had 
his Lordship of Bierry erected into a BARONY under the name of Anstrude with 
the title of BARON OF ANSTRUDE (BARON D'ANSTRUDE) [F.] for himself and 
the heirs of his body by letters patent 6 of King Louis XV. Aug. 1737. His 
grandson, Francois Cesar, 3rd Baron Anstrude, Page to Queen Marie Antoinette, 
afterwards Mayor of Anstrude and a Member of the " college electoral " of 
the Yonne (b. at Anstrude, Yonne, 25 Oct. 1769), was 26 Apr. 1811 cr. by 
Napoleon a BARON OF THE EMPIRE, with rem. to the heirs male of his body. 7 
Both titles still existing. See p. 34. 

AQUAIRVA [San Marino]. See d'Avigdor, Duke of. 

AQUITAINE. See Plantagenet. 

ARABET. Gaspar Peter Elias, BARON DE ARABET, " son of Baron de Arabet and 
Susan Regina, his wife ; b. at Alicante in Spain, and professing the Protestant 
faith," 8 was naturalized as a British subject by Act of Parliament 3 July 1835. 9 

1 Marryat, ii. 485 ; Donner. 2 Ibid., ii. 486 ; Donner, p. 20. 

3 Sveriges Ridderskaps, 1900, p. 22 ; Donner, p. 19. 

4 Burkes Peerage, 1902. 

5 This list does not include the names of those Scottish families connected with the 
Scots Guards of the French Kings who held or acquired properties with the title of 
Seigneur. For a list of these see The Scots Men-at-Arms and Life Guards in France from, 
their Formation to their final Dissolution, A.D. 1418-1830, by William Forbes-Leith, S.J. 
(Edinburgh, 1882), ii. 222-226. 

6 These are printed in full by La Chenaye des Bois, Diet, de la Noblesse, i. 611. 

7 Armorial du Premier Empire, Titres, Major ais et Armoiries concedes par Napoleon I., 
by the Viscount A Reverend (Paris, 1894, 4 vols.), i. 15. 

8 Preamble to Act of Parliament. 

9 5 and 6 Wm. IV. chap. 42. The arms of a family of this name, Barons in Austria 1789, 
are given in Rietstraps' Armorial General, 1884, i. 59. Susan Victoria Regina Mary, only 
da. of "C. P. d' Arabet, Baron of the Holy Roman Empire," m. 8 Jan. 1811 Sir James 
Nugent, 2nd Bt. [I.]. See Peerages. 



46 THE NOBILITIES OF EUROPE 

ARDALES [Castile]. See Fitzjames, Marquess of. 

ARJONA [Spain ?]. See Fitzjames, Duke of. 

ABMLOD. See Pott. 

ARRIVABENE. " Count Carlo Arrivabene," an Austrian subject, was naturalized in 
the United Kingdom under that style 28 Apr. 1859. 

ARUNDELL. Sir Thomas Arundell of Wardour, served as a volunteer with the 
Imperial Army in Hungary, and having captured the Turkish standard with 
his own hand at the battle of Gran, 1595, was for this heroic achievement 
cr. by the Emperor Rudolph II., by letters patent dated at Prague 14 Dec. 
1595, a COUNT OF THE HOLY ROMAN EMPIRE, with rem. to his descendants for 
ever, " so that every of his children and their descendants for ever, of both 
sexes, should enjoy that title, have place and vote in all Imperial Diets, 
purchase lands in the dominion of the Empire, list any voluntary soldiers, 
and not be put to any trial but in the Imperial Chamber." 1 This patent is 
duly recorded in the College of Arms, London, but any precedence, as such in 
England, was never acknowledged by Queen Elizabeth, though the title was 
recognised by her successor King James, 2 by whom he was 4 May 1605 cr. 
BARON ARUNDELL or WARDOUR. Both titles are still held by his descendants. 
See p. 12. 

ARUNDELL [H.R.E. 1595]. See Arundell, Count of. 

AUBIGNY [F. 1421]. See Stuart, Lord. 

AUBIGNY [F. 1673]. See de Perrancourt de Querouaille, Duchess of. 

AUBIONY [F. 1673]. See Lennox, now Gordon-Lennox, Duke of. 

3 

D'AUVERGNE. Philip d'Auvergne, Vice-Admiral of the Red and for many years 
Commander-in-Chief on the Guernsey and Jersey Station [said to have been 
descended from Robert, a younger son of Robert IV., Count of Auvergne, 
who settled in Jersey], 4 was 4 Aug. 1791 adopted as his heir by Godfrey (of 
Auvergne) Reigning Duke of Bouillon, Count of Auvergne, being by him 
invested 21 Aug. following with all his possessions in the County of Auvergne, 
and having Royal License from George III. 27 Feb. following " to accept and 
enjoy the several successions and honours devolved and to devolve to him 
by these dispositions, and to unite the arms of the said Duchy of Bouillon to his 
own." On the Restoration he was put into possession of the Duchy, which 
he governed as DUKE OF BOUILLON for a few months, but by the Congress 
of Vienna it was annexed to the Netherlands and the title of Duke of Bouillon 
allowed to his rival the Duke of Montbazon. He d. s.p. by his own hand 
18 Sept. 1816. 5 

D'AVIGDOR. Count Soloman Henry d'Avigdor; m. 24 June 1840 Rachel, 3rd da. 
of Sir Isaac Lyons Goldsmid, 1st Baronet [U.K.] and 1st Baron Goldsmid 
[Port.]. In the obituary notice of " Rachel, Countess d'Avigdor," in The Times, 
1 Nov. 1896, he is said to have " received the French title of Duke, which 
however they never used." This is certainly incorrect, and the title appears 
to have been DUKE OF AGUAIRVA (DucA DI AGUAIRVA), which was conferred 
on him by the Regents of San Marino. His heir is his grandson, Osmond 
Elim d'Avigdor-Goldsmid, Esq., of Somerhill, co. Kent. J.P. 6 

AYALA [Castile]. See Fitzjames, Count of. 

AZURARA [Portugal 1819]. See Salter, Viscount of. 

1 Brydges" Collins' Peerage of England, 1812, vii. 45. As to the operation of this 
remainder, however, see p. 227. 

2 G. E. C.'s Complete Peerage, i. 156. 

3 D'Aulby. "John Edward, Count d'Aulby," also using the title of "Count de 
Borgettho in Italy," a solicitor, b. at Braintree, Essex, was living 15 Mar. 1900. See The 
Times for that date. 

4 Duke Godfrey by letters patent under the Great Seal of Bouillon, acknowledged the 
descent of his father, Charles d'Auvergne, and of his father's younger brother, Major-Gen. 
James d'Auvergne, from the ancient Counts of Auvergne, their and the Duke's common 
ancestors, confirmed them in their common armorial bearings, and recognised them as 
cousins, which letters patent were by direction of George III., 1 Jan. 1787, duly recorded 
at the College of Arms. 

6 Gentleman's Magazine, ii. 380, and Burke's Vicissitudes of Families, remodelled ed. 

6 See Burke's Landed Gentry, 1906, p. 678. 



AN ALPHABETICAL LIST 47 



BALLYHIGUE [F. 1839]. See de Cantillon, Baron of. 
BALLYNAKILLY [F.]. See Wall, styled Marquess of. 

BANDINI. Sigismond Nicholas Venatius Gaetano Francis (Bandini), 5th MARQUESS 
BANDINI OF LANCIANO AND RUSTANO [son of Charles, 4th Marquess Bandini 
of Lanciano and Rustano (who was great-grandson of Alexander (Bandini), 
Lord of Varano, cr. 30 May 1753 by Pope Benedict XIV. MARQUESS BANDINI 
OF LANCIANO AND RUSTANO (MARCHESE DI LANCIANO E DI RUSTANO) [P.S.], 
with rem. to the heirs male of his body, and great-great-great-grandson of 

( ) Bandini, of a noble Tuscan family who was 29 Oct. 1721 cr. by Pope 

Innocent XIII. LORD OF VARANO (SIGNOR DI VARANO) [P.S.] ), by his wife the 
Princess Cecilia, suo jure Countess of Newburgh [S.], Duchess of Mondragone 
and Countess of Carinola [Naples], only da. and h. of Vincent (Giustiniani), 
6th Prince Giustiniani [P.S.], and 6th Earl of Newburgh [S.], see p. 88] ; sue. 
his father in his paternal honours 4 July 1850, and being heir apparent to 
the Earldom of Newburgh [S.], was naturalized (with his mother) by Act of 
Parliament 17 Aug. 1857. On 17 Jan. 1863 he was cr. by Pope Pius IX. 
PRINCE GIUSTINIANI-BANDINI (PRINCIPE GIUSTINIANI-BANDINI) [P.S.], with 
rem. to the heirs male of his body, and with the rank and all honours, places 
and precedencies which appertained to or were held by his ancestors, the 
Princes Giustiniani, and 2 June 1877 he became, by the death of his mother, 
Earl of Newburgh [S.] and Duke of Mondragone, &c. [Naples]. See p. 8. 

BANDINI [P.S. 1753]. See Bandini, Marquess. 

BANDINI. See Giustiniani-Bandini. 

BANEZA [Sp. 1559]. See Fitzjames, Marquess of the. 

BARBARO. George Crispo (Barbaro), 5th MARQUESS OF ST. GEORGE [Malta 1778], 
claims to be an HEREDITARY PATRICIAN OF VENICE, that dignity having been 
conferred on his family some time before 1778. 

BARCARROTA [Sp. a. 1516]. See Fitzjames, Marquess of. 

BARCLAY. William Barclay, Major-General in the Swedish Service [son of the 
Laird of Sigot], 1 was ENNOBLED in Sweden [No. 562] 1648. Family extinct 
after 1706. 2 

BARCLAY DE TOLLY. William Barclay de Tolly, of a Scottish family, d. at Riga 
1735, and was interred in the Church of St. Peter there. He had, with a younger 
son, Reinhold Gotthard (see below), an elder son, William, a merchant in 
Riga, father of Augustus William (b. at Riga 24 July 1752, d. 20 Dec. 1826), 
Burgomaster of Riga 1789; whose 4 sons and 3 das. (George William, Andrew, 

Augustus, John, N , wife of ( ) Balfour, and 2 others) were ENNOBLED 

[Russia] by the Czar Nicholas I. by an Imperial Ukase of 31 Dec. 1827. 3 

BARCLAY DE TOLLY. Reinhold Gotthard (in Russian Bogdan) Barclay de Tolly, 
younger son of William Barclay de Tolly of Riga (see above) ; b. 25 Apr. 1734 ; 
d. 30 Apr. 1781, " qui choisit la carriere des armes et parvenu au grade 
d'Officier, reut la nationalite et la NOBLESSE HEREDITAIRE en Russie." He 
had 3 sons and a da. ( 1 ) Bogdanovitch ci-devant Erick Johann, General-Major 
du genie, d. 1819, leaving an only son, Andrew, who d. s.p. before 1851. 
(2) Michael Bogdanovitch, b. at Luhde Grasshof in Livonia 14 Dec. 1761, 
entered the Russian Army, became a Major under Catherine II. and a Major- 
Gen, under Alexander I. ; Lieut. -Gen. after the Prussian Campaign, and General 
of Infantry and K.A.W. for the passage of Kwarkin, when the Russians under 
his command traversed the Gulf of Bothnia on the ice, and Governor-General 
of Finland ; Minister of War at the time of the invasion of Russia by the 
French, it being by his advice that the Russians adopted the plan of retiring 
before Napoleon ; appointed to command the Russian-Prussian forces ; 23 
May 1813 cr. a COUNT OF THE EMPIRE by the Czar Alexander I., and 
30 Aug. 1815, after the capture of Paris, a PRINCE OF THE EMPIRE as PRINCE 
BARCLAY OF TOLLY (KNJAES BARCLAY DE TOLLY) with rem. to his descendants, 
and a Field-Marshal ; he d. 13 May 1818, leaving an only son Ernest Mikha'ilo- 
vitch (Ernest Magnus), 2nd Prince Barclay de Tolly, Col. and A.D.C. to the 
Emperor Nicholas I., who d. s.p. 17 Oct. 1871. (3) Andrew Bogdanovitch, Col. 

1 Marryat, ii. 486. 2 Sveriges Adel. 

3 Annuaire de la Noblesse de Russie, 1892, pp. 25 et seq. 



48 THE NOBILITIES OF EUROPE 

of Engineers, d. unm. (4) Gertrude Christine, b. 1770, d. 1865 ; m. Alexander 
Ivanovitch, 1st Count Luders [Russia], so cr. 29 May 1862 ; and had issue 
3 das., the eldest of whom, Augustine, m. Gen. Alexander Petrovitch-Wei'mam, 
who was 8 Dec. 1859, by an Imperial Ukase of the Czar Alexander II., nominated 
heir to the title of Prince Barclay de Tolly " avec le droit de la transmettre a 
ses descendants legitimes des deux sexes " by a further Ukase of the 28 Mar. 
1880. 1 See p. 25. 

BARCLAY DE TOLLY [Russia 1815]. See Barclay, Count (1813) and Prince of. 

DE BARDI. A Bill to naturalize Jean Jacques Catherine Gaston (de Bardi), Marquess 
of Lanseqiie, was introduced in the House of Commons 1 Dec. 1797, 2 but 
nothing further was done in the matter. He was a son of M. de Bardy, 
President, Treasurer-General of France, and had been received " Conseiller au 
Parlement de Paris " 6 July 1766, 3 but the Editor has been unable to ascertain 
any other details. 

BARRETO [Portugal 1855]. See Bliss, afterwards Barreto, Baron de. 
BARRON. See Seton. 

BARRY. Francis Tress Barry, Esq., of the firm of Mason and Barry of London 
and Oporto, for many years H.B.M.'s Consul for the provinces of Biscay, 
Santander, and Guipuzcoa, was by decree dated 23 Nov. 1876, confirmed by 
royal letters patent Jl Dec. following, cr. by Louis I., King of Portugal, 
BARON BARRY (BARAO DE BARRY) for life only, " em sua vida." 4 He was 
M.P. for Windsor 1890-1906, and was 22 Feb. 1899 cr. a Baronet [U.K.]. He 
d. 28 Feb. 1907, leaving with other issue, a son and h. See p. 22. 5 

BARRY [Portugal 1876]. See Barry, Baron de. 
BARSEBACK [Sweden 1751]. See Hamilton, Count of. 

BATTENBERG. Louis Alexander, 2nd PRINCE and COUNT OF BATTENBERG [eldest 
son of Prince Alexander of Hesse and the Rhine, by his morganatic wife, Julia, 
nee Countess Julia von Hanke, who was 5 Nov. 1851 cr. by the Grand Duke 
Louis IV. COUNTESS OF BATTENBERG (GRAFIN VON BATTENBERG) in Wiesbaden 
[Hesse], with the qualification of " Erlaucht " for herself and her descendants, 
and 26 Dec. 1858 PRINCESS OF BATTENBERG (FURSTIN VON BATTENBERG), 
with the qualification of " Durchlaucht " with the same rem.], was naturalized 
in the United Kingdom 30 Sept. 1868, and is now an Admiral in the 
British Navy (see p. 7). His youngest brother, Prince Henry of Batten- 
berg, K.G., P.C., Governor of the Isle of Wight, m. 23 July 1885 H.R.H. 
Princess Beatrice of Great Britain and Ireland, da. of H.M. Queen Victoria, 
being the same day cr. by letters patent a Royal Highness [U.K.], and was 
naturalized in the United Kingdom by a Private Act of Parliament 6 Aug. 
following. 8 He d. 20 Jan. 1896, leaving three sons and a da., Princess Victoria 
Eugenie, who was 5 Apr. 1906 cr. a Royal Highness, and m. 31 May following 
Alfonso XIII., King of Spain. 

BATTENBERG [Hesse 1858]. See Battenberg, Count (1851) and Prince of. 

BATTHYANY. Gustavus Theodore Anthony, COUNT BATTHYANY, "son of the late 
Antonius, Count de Batthyany, and Camilla, Comitissa de Rogendorf, his late 
wife ; b. at Presburg in Hungary, and professing the Roman Catholic religion," 6 
was naturalized in the United Kingdom by Act of Parliament 27 July 1838. 7 

BEAUCHAMPS [F. c. 1620]. See de Bucy, Marquess of. 

BEAUFORT. Thomas (Beaufort), Duke of Exeter [E.], K.G., was 1 July 1418 cr. by 
Henry V. as King of France, COUNT OF HARCOURT (COMTE D'HARCOURT) in 
Normandy, " by the service of rendering to the King at Rouen unum florem 
deliciarum annually on the feast of St. John the Baptist." 9 He d. s.p.m. 
30 Dec. 1426, when all his honours became extinct. 

1 Annuaire de la Noblesse de Riasie, 1892, pp. 55-56. 

2 Journals of the House of Commons. 

3 La Chenaye des Bois, xi. 474. 

* Jtegist. no Arch, da T. do T. de Merces de D. Luiz I., liv. 32, fl. 1. 

He has, however, not yet obtained formal renewal of the Barony, though the 
necessary steps are now in progress. 
Preamble to Act of Naturalization. 

9 i a ^ d 7 ict - cha P' 48> 8 48 and 49 Viet. chap. 1. 

* G. E. C. s Complete Peerage, iii. 297. 



AN ALPHABETICAL LIST 49 

BEAUMONT. John (Beaumont), 6th BARON (1309) and afterwards (12 Feb. 1440) 
1st VISCOUNT BEAUMONT [E.], was by letters patent dated at Canterbury 
27 July 1436 cr. by Henry [VI. of England, as] King of France, COUNT OF 
BOULOGNE (COMTE DE BOULOGNE) [F.], 1 and shortly afterwards, 18 Jan. 1441, 
he had a grant of the Viscounty of Beaumont for himself and the heirs male 
of his body, whereby he became VISCOUNT BEAUMONT (VICOMTE DE BEAU- 
MONT) [F.]. His only surv. son d. s.p. 19 Dec. 1507, when his French honours 
became extinct. 

BEAUMONT LE ROGER [F. 1470]. See Stuart, Count of. 
BEAUMONT LE ROGER [F. 1527]. See Stuart, Count of. 
BEAUREGARD [F.E. 186-]. See Haryett, Countess of. 
BECHEVET [F.E.], Count of. See under Haryett. 

BECQUET. Louis Matthias Becquet, SEIGNEUR DE BEFFE, and Peter Thomas 
Becquet, SEIGNEUR DE MOULIN LE COMPTE, his brother, then living in Flanders, 
had a declaration of their Noblesse from King James III. and VIII., as descen- 
dants of the noble family of Becquet of England, 15 Mar. 1700. 2 

BECQUET. Philip Francis Becquet, SEIGNEUR DE SALEPPE and Councillor of the 
County of Douay, had a similar declaration as his cousins, 28 Apr. 1703. 3 

BELFRAGE. Hans Belfrage [descended from John, son of the Laird of Balram, 
and Elizabeth Stuart, who settled as a Merchant at Wenesborg in 1624] 4 was 
ENNOBLED [Sweden No. 782] 1666, and introduced into the Swedish House 
of Lords 1668. 5 Family still existing. See p. 40. 

BELINAYE. Armand, MARQUIS DE LA BELINAYE, " formerly of Rennes in Brittany, 
in the Kingdom of France, but now of Warren Street, Fitzroy Square, in the 
co. of Midx.," was naturalized by royal letters patent 23 May 1797. 6 

BEMPOSTA [Portugal 1835]. See Hyde, Count (1824) and Marquess of. 

BENNET. James Bennet [son of William Bennet of Grubet, a Scottish minister 
1600], fled to Sweden to escape religious persecution in Edinburgh, entered the 
Swedish Service in 1650, and was naturalized and ENNOBLED [Sweden No. 831] 
in 1675. The sons of his eldest son, Robert and William, returned to England 
and entered the Royal Navy, 7 but his younger son, William, 1st BARON BENNET, 
one of the bravest of Charles XII. 's officers, remained in Sweden and served at 
Pultowa, Helsingsborg, &c., and was chosen to convey the news of the death 
of King Charles to Queen Ulrika Eleanora. He was cr. BARON [Sweden No. 154] 
2 June 1719, and introduced into House of Lords 5 June following. 8 The title 
is still held by his descendants. See p. 34. 

BENNET [Sweden 1719]. See Bennet, Baron. 

BENTINCK. Baron Hans William Bentinck, 4th son of Baron Bernard Bentinck 
of Diepenheim, Schoonheten, &c., in the Province of Overyssel [great-grandson 
of William, 1st Baron Benting, of Velde, temp. 1548, whose family had been 
nobles of Guelders since 1233 and members of the Knighthood of the Duchy 
since 1377], accompanied William of Orange to England in 1688, and was 
9 Apr. 1689 cr. by him Earl of Portland, &c. [E.]. His descendants (since 1716), 
Dukes of Portland [G.B.], are by descent nobles of Guelders. See p. 18. 

BENTINCK. The Hon. Baron William Bentinck of Rhoon and Pendrechtin in 
Holland, and of Terrington St. Clements, co. Norfolk [2nd surv. son of Hans 
William, 1st Earl of Portland and a Noble of Guelders], was cr. by the Emperor 
Charles VI., by patent dated at Vienna 29 Dec. 1732, a COUNT OF THE HOLY 
ROMAN EMPIRE as COUNT BENTINCK (GRAF VON BENTINCK) for himself and 
all his male descendants and their daughters. He m. 1 June 1733 the Countess 
Charlotte Sophia, da. and h. of Anthony II., Count of Aldenburg, Sovereign 
Lord of Kniphausen and Varel, and his son the 2nd Count succeeded to those 
lordships 5 Feb. 1800. They were, however, annexed to Oldenburg 1854. The 
4th Count obtained recognition as a mediatised Sovereign Count by the German 

1 French Rolls, 14 Hen. VI. M.I., No. 1. See also Courthope, p. 51; Dugdale, ii. 
52 ; and G. E. C., i. 285. 

2 Ruvigny's Jacobite Peerage, p. 198. 3 Ibid., p. 202 

4 Marryat, ii. 486. 

5 Sveriges Ridderskaps, 1908, pp. 51-59. 

6 Patent Rolls. 7 Marryat, ii. 482. 
8 Ex inform, the present Baron Bennet. 

D 



50 THE NOBILITIES OF EUROPE 

Diet 12 June 1845, with the hereditary title of " Erlaucht " (Comte Illustrissime), 
and the present Count, under a family agreement of 18 Dec. 1888, succeeded 
his mother in the Lordship of Waldeck-Limpurg (with a hereditary seat in 
the Upper House of Parliament in Wurtemburg), and assumed the title of 
Count of Waldeck-Limpurg by patent 1889. Royal License to use tho title 
in the United Kingdom and for all the male descendants of the 5th Count 
and their daughters to bear the title of Count or Countess before their Christian 
names, was granted by Queen Victoria 22 Mar. 1886. See p. 13. 

BENTIVOGLIO-MIDDLETON. John Bowring Spence, of the International Customs 
Bureau, Brussels ; m. at Rome 27 Apr. 1895 Costanza, da. of Count Benti- 
voglio-Middleton of Rome. 1 

BERESFORD. Gen. Sir William Carr Beresford, P.C., G.C.B., G.C.T.S., G.C.F.S., 
G.C.F.M., &c., Marshal-Gen, of the Portuguese Army and Capt.-Gen. of Spain, 
afterwards (1814) LORD and (1823) VISCOUNT BERESFORD [U.K.], was by 
decree of 13 May 1811 2 cr. by John VI., King of Portugal, COUNT OF TRAN- 
coso (CONDE DE TRANCOZO), " em aua vida" and had Royal License from 
King George III. to assume and use that title in the United Kingdom 18 Oct. 
following. On 17 Dec. 1812 he was further cr. MARQUESS OF CAMPO MAYOR 
(MARQUEZ DE CAMPO MAIOR) [Portugal]. According to the Complete Peerage 3 
he was also cr. by Ferdinand VII. of Spain MARQUESS OF CAMPO MAYOR and 
DUKE OF ELVAS (MARQUES DE CAMPO MAIOR y DUQUE DE ELVAS) in that 
kingdom. He d. s.p. 8 Jan. 1854, when all his honours became extinct. 

BERKELEY. Elizabeth, wife of Christian Frederick Charles Alexander (of Hohen- 
zollern), Margrave of Brandenburg- Anspach-Bayreuth, nee Lady Elizabeth 
Berkeley, was 20 Feb. 1801 cr. by the Emperor Francis II. a PRINCESS OF 
THE HOLY ROMAN EMPIRE as PRINCESS BERKELEY (FURSTIN VON BERKELEY) 
for life. 4 She was the 2nd da. of Augustus (Berkeley), 4th Earl of Berkeley [E.] ; 
was b. 17 Dec. 1750 ; m. 1st, William (Craven), 6th Baron Craven [E.], who 
d. 27 Sep. 1791 ; and 2ndly, at Anspach 13 Oct. 1791, the Margrave of Branden- 
burg as above, who d. s.p. at Benham Valence, co. Berks, 5 Jan. 1806. She 
was known as the Margravine of Brandenburg, and was an authoress of some 
note, and d. at Naples 13 Jan. 1828. 

BERKELEY [H.R.E. 1801]. See Berkeley, otherwise Craven, Princess of. 

BERNIERE. Jean Antoine, BARON DE BERNIERE, near Caen, a Huguenot refugee 
in England 1685 [descended from Guillaume de Berniere, who proved his nobility 
1644], served in the British Army, and left issue. His great-grandson, Major- 
Gen. Henry Abraham Crommelin de Berniere, d. s.p.m.s. 1813. He m. Miss 
Longley, sister to the Archbishop of Canterbury, and his only surviving child, 
Frances Charlotte Josephine, m. the Rev. Newton Smart, Preb. of Salisbury 
and Rector of Withesham ; and had issue. 5 

DE BERTOUCH. Ernest Rudolph (de Bertouch), 1st BARON DE BERTOUCH [Den- 
mark], so cr. 23 Jan. 1839, 6 Capt. of Hussars and Chamberlain to the King, 
was Councillor of the Danish Legation in London, and m. 16 Nov. 1847 Louisa 
Henrietta, da. of John Gage, Esq., and niece of Henry, 3rd Viscount Gage [I.]. 
He d. 8 July 1869, leaving an only son, the 2nd Baron (see p. 20), who m. 
an English lady, as has also his son, and the family are now domiciled in the 
United Kingdom. Though only cr. Barons in Denmark in 1839, they claim 
descent from the illustrious House of Berthout, Dynasts and Hereditary 
Standard-Bearers of Brabant, Princes of Grimberghe, Lords of Assche, 
Malines, &c., 7 of whom Robert, younger son of John II. Berthout de Grim- 
berghe, Sire d' Assche (who was killed in the revolt in Brussels 1421), settled 
in Artois, and m. Marie de Florenville, Dame de Luneville. His 2nd son, 

1 The Times, May 1895. 

2 In the Complete Peerage the date is given as 19 Oct. 1811, this being possibly that 
of the letters patent. 

3 ii. 320. Burke (Peerage, 1849, pp. 89, 1091) says that he was "Count of Trancoso, 
Marquess of Campo Mayor, and Duke of Elvas in Portugal" but the last was certainly not 
a Portuguese dignity. 

4 Patent registered at the College of Arms, London. 

5 Agnew, Protestant Exiles from France, p. 327. 

6 Danmarks Adels Aarbog, 1906. 

7 Berthout genanut Bertouch, ein altes Brdbanter Dynasten-geschlechts, Bannerhersen von 
Grimberghe, Herren von Mecheln, by Ernst Jean Albert de Bertouch, Chancellor to H.M. 
the German Emperor. 



AN ALPHABETICAL LIST 51 

another Robert, is said to have married an Ursines or Orsini heiress, in memory 
of which his descendants have since carried a bear in chief in their arms. 
He was the first to change the spelling of his name to Bertouch, His son 
Hughes was an avocat du Roi and a member of the Parliament of Paris, and 
d. in Paris 1520, leaving a son, Francis Robert, Seigneur de CMteauneuf-sur- 
Sarthe, who m. Anne, Dame de Merville. He was a Calvinist, and was outlawed 
1540, afterwards seeking service under Charles V. His son Hugh and his grand- 
son Charles Ferdinand both served in the Imperial armies ; the latter was the 
father of George von Bertu, who was received into the Austrian nobility 1619, 
and of Josef Carl Maximilian, who entered the Bavarian service and was killed 
as a Colonel under Duke Maximilian in Bohemia 1621. The latter's son Justin, 
Bavarian Councillor of State, became a Catholic ; but his three sons William, 
Jacob, and Justin remained Protestants, and after the Peace of Westphalia were 
obliged to seek refuge in Thuringia under Duke Ernest the Pious, and founded 
the Gotha, Helmershausen, and Weimar branches respectively. Jacob became 
a schoolmaster at Helmershausen, near Ostheim on the Rhine, where he d. 
5 Aug. 1673, leaving a son, George von Bertouch (b. 19 June 1668), who first 
studied law at Jena, but afterwards entered the Danish Service during the 
siege of Ratze 1693, became Lieut.-Gen. in 1740 and Commander of Akershus 
in Norway, and d. 19 Sep. 1743. His youngest but only surviving son, Col. 
Charles Rudolph von Bertouch, was naturalized in Denmark 11 June 1777, 
and had two sons, viz. (1) Ernest Albert de Bertouch, Gentleman of the Bed- 
chamber to Queen Caroline Matilda, and afterwards Minister to Poland, Knight 
of the Dannebrog, Grand Cross of St. Stanislaus (b. 16 Mar. 1745, d. 17 Dec. 
1815), who m. and had issue ; l and (2) Frederick Julian Christian de Bertouch, 
Danish Chamberlain, Capt. of Hussars and Lord of the Manor of Soholt in 
the island of Laaland (b. 23 Apr. 1761, d. 7 Sep. 1831), who by his 1st wife, 
Baroness Margaretha, da. and h. of Paul Abraham, Baron von Lehn, was 
father of (i.) Paul Godske (b. 6 Oct. 1796, d. 6 Oct. 1831), cr. by letters patent 
dated 13 Mar. 1819 BARON VON BERTOUCH-LEHN [Denmark], with rem. to 
the heirs male of his body; and by his 2nd wife, Louise Juliana, da. of His 
Excellency Georg Christoph von Wallmoden, P.C., and his wife the Baroness 
Margaretta von Lehn, of (ii. ) George Hugh, who d. s.p. 1866, (iii. ) Ernest Rudolph, 
cr. BARON BERTOUCH as above, and (iv.) Charles Christian Ferdinand, K.D.D., 
Master of the Chase, b. 3 Sep. 1810, d. s.p. 

BERTOUCH [Denmark 1839]. See de Bertouch, Baron de. 

BETHUNE. Col. Paul Bethune [grandson of Hercules Berthune of Balfour, Secretary 
(sic) to King Charles I., who afterwards became a Major in the Swedish Service], 
was ENNOBLED [No. 1404] in Sweden 1693. 2 Extinct 1800. 3 

DE BIAUDOS-SCARISBRICK. Remy Leon (de Biaudos-Scarisbrick), MARQUESS OF 
CASTEJA (MARQUIS DE CASTEJA) [F.], a Page to King Louis XVIII. in 1814 * 
[descended from a family originally of Beam in Navarre, who followed Henry 
IV. to France, and were cr. Marquesses by him.] ; 5 m. 1835 Eliza Margaret, 
da. and (after the death of her brother in 1856) sole heir of Sir Thomas 
Windsor Hunloke, 5th Bart. [E.], by his wife, the heiress of the Scaris- 
bricks, and he and his wife were authorised by Royal License 31 Jan. 1873 
to assume the additional name of Scarisbrick on succeeding to that estate. 
The Marchioness d. s.p.s. 13 Nov. 1878, when she was succeeded in the estates 
by her husband, who d. s.p.s.l. 11 Aug. 1899, aged 94, when the Scarisbrick 
estates passed, under a deed of settlement, to his son, who has assumed his 
father's name and titles. See p. 11. 

BIRON. Charles Michel Biron, VISCOUNT GONTAULT ST. BLANCHARD, "formerly 
of St. Blanchard in Gascony in the Kingdom of France, but now of Five Fields, 
Pimlico, in the co. of Midx.," was naturalized by royal letters patent of 
George III. 23 May 1797. He was the 2nd son of Armand Alexander (de 
Biron-Gontault), 3rd Marquess of St. Blanchard [F. c. 1675], and was a Capt.- 
Lieut. in the Guards. On the Restoration he returned to France, and d. at 

1 Two of his grandsons (sons of Stanislaus Augustus Poniatowsky von Bertouch, Lieut. - 
Capt. Danish R.N., b. 27 Apr. 1790, d. 23 Oct. 1861), Sophus August Theodor and 
Carl Anton Rudolf, b. 27 July 1825 and 6 Aug. 1827 respectively, emigrated twenty-four 
years ago to South Australia, where they married, and have numerous descendants. 
Berthout genanut Bertouch, &c. 

2 Marryat, ii. 486 ; Donner, p. 20. 3 Sveriges Adel. 

4 See obituary notice in The Times, 15 Aug. 1899. 

5 Ex inform, the present Marquess of Casteja. 



52 THE NOBILITIES OF EUROPE 

Toulouse 26 Jan. 1825. His widow, Marie Louise Josephine (nee de Montault de 
Navattles), had been governess to the children of Louis XVI., and was 14 Oct. 
1826 cr. by Charles X. DUCHESS OF GONTAULT [F.] for life. 1 She d. 6 Aug. 
1862. They had two das. ; the elder m. the Duke of Rohan, and the younger 
(Charlotte Sabine Louise Gabrielle, b. at Five Fields, Pimlico, 8 Oct. 1796) 
m. the Count of Bourbon-Busset. 

BISCHOFFSHEIM. Henry Louis Bischoffsheim, of 7 Graf ton Street, W., and Hyde 
Hall, co. Hereford, Esq., Banker in London, "son of Louis Raphael Bischoffsheim, 
and Amelia Goldschmidt, his wife, b. in Holland 15 Feb. 1829, but domiciled in 
the U.K. since 1849," 2 was 12 Aug. 1867 naturalized as a British subject by a 
Private Act of Parliament, 3 and by decree dated 18 Dec. 1873 was cr. by 
Louis I., King of Portugal, VISCOUNT BISCHOFFSHEIM (VISCONDE DE BISCHOFFS- 
HEIM) for life, " em sua vida." 4 He d. 1908, when the title became extinct. 

BISCHOFFSHEIM [Portugal 1873]. See Bischoffsheim, Viscount de. 

BISCHOFFSHEIM. See de Forest. 

BLAKE. Lieut.-Col. Llewellyn Blake of Ballinafad, co. Mayo, &c., J.P., D.L. 
[eldest surv. son and h. of Maurice Blake of the same, High Sheriff, co. Mayo, 
1838], 5 was 1905 cr. by H.H. Pope Pius X. a COUNT OF THE ROMAN 
STATES as COUNT BLAKE (CONTE BLAKE), with rem. to the heirs male of his 
body. See p. 17. 

BLAKE [P.S. 1905]. See Blake, Count. 

BLANCQUEFORT [F. c. 1666]. See de Durfort, Marquess of. 

BLISS, afterwards BARRETO. Henry Bliss of Brandon Park, co. Suffolk, J.P., 
D.L. [b. 28 May 1809, son of James Aldridge, who on succeeding his uncle, 
Henry Bliss of Brandon Park afsd., Sledale Park, co. Westmoreland, North- 
combe Hall, co. Devon, and Berkeley House, Hyde Park, Lord of the Manor 
of Brandon, D.L., F.R.S.L., who d. 2 Apr. 1845, had assumed (R.L. 2 Apr. 
1845) the name of Bliss], having succeeded to the title and estates in Portugal 
of his cousin the Baron de Alreyo, 6 was by decree of 31 May, confirmed by 
royal letters patent dated 6 June 1855, 7 permitted by Fernando, JSIng Regent 
of Portugal, to succeed under the style of BARON DE BLISS (BARAO DE BLISS) 
on account of his being unable to use and being strictly prohibited from using 
any other surname than Bliss. 8 He afterwards succeeded to the estates in 
Spain of the late Col. Carlo Antonio Barreto, when (in spite of his uncle's will) 
he assumed (R.L. 3 Jan. 1867) the surname of Barreto, and was henceforth 
styled Baron de Barreto, being authorised to use this designation by a 
Portuguese royal decree (Trans/erencia da designaqao do mesmo titulo Bardo 
de Bliss para Barreto) 3 July 1873. 9 He was b. 28 May 1818 and d. ( ), having 

m. 30 Apr. 1868 Catherine Eliza, da. of ( ) Baker, by whom, who d. ( ), he 

had issue, Ernest Victor, the present Baron (see p. 21), Harold Antonio, b. 16 
July 1871, and Carlota Alberta, b. 21 Feb. 1870. 

BLISS [Portugal 1855]. See Bliss, afterwards Barreto, Baron de. 
BLIXENSTJERNA. See Anderson. 

BOGG. James Bogg, a Lieutenant in Col. Capel's Regiment, came to Sweden, and 
was ENNOBLED [No. 521] 1652. He d. s.p. 1761. 10 

1 Titres, Anoblissements et Fairies de la Restauration, 1814-1830, by the Viscount A 
Reverend (Paris, 1901, 6 vols.), iii. 199. 

2 Preamble to Act. 3 30 and 31 V ict. chap. 11. 

4 Reserika das Familias, &c., i. 270. 

5 Catholic Who's Who, 1908. 

6 Burke 's Peerage, 1870 and 1890. I can, however, find no mention of a Baron de 
Alreyo in the Portuguese Peerages. Debrett (1891, p. 833) says: "The first Baron de 
Barreto was sue. by Alreyo, 2nd Baron, who d. 1855, being sue., by royal letters patent, 
by his cousin Henry [Bliss], 3rd Baron, who in 1869 assumed the surname of Barreto." 
In Reserika das Familias Titulares e Grandes de Portugal for 1890, Henry Bliss is called 1st 
Baron, but the Editor adds: "N.B. N&O podemos alcancar mais noticias acerca de 
familia d'este titular e de seus ascendentes ; esperamos fazer mais larga mengao no 
supplemento," a hope which was not fulfilled. 

* Regist. no Arch, da T. do T. de Mercys de D. Pedro V., liv. 3, fl. 192. 

8 Burke* s Peerage. 

9 Resenha das Familias, &c., i. 218. 

10 Marryat, ii. 486 ; Donner, p. 21 ; Sveriges Adel. 



AN ALPHABETICAL LIST 53 

BOILEAU. Charles (Boileau), 5th LORD DE CASTLENAU and ST. CROIX [F. ante 1538] ; 1 
b. at Nismes 10 Feb. 1673 ; sue. his father 17 July 1697, and was a refugee 
in England, and served under the Duke of Maryborough at Blenheim. He 
afterwards established himself as a wine merchant in Dublin. He d. there 
7 Mar. 1733, having made over all right and title to the family possessions in 
France to his younger brother Maurice, 2 by will dated 6 Mar. 1722, prov. P.C.C. 
20 Jan. 1733. He m. in Holland 11 Jan. 1704 Marie Magdalen, da. of Daniel 
Callot d'Escurry, Major in Ruvigny's Regt. of Cavalry, who d. Sep. 1731. 
His son, Simeon Boileau, a merchant in Dublin, was father of four sons, of 
whom Soloman, the eldest, was great-grandfather of Francis William Boileau, 
b. 11 Apr. 1835, the present representative of the Barons Castelnau ; and the 
second, John Peter, was father of the 1st Baronet [G.B.]. 3 

DU Bois DE FERRIERES. Gen. Charles Marie Joseph du Bois, BARON OF THE 
EMPIRE 1810 4 [of a family originally of Braine le Comte in Hainault], was 
14 Feb. 1820 5 cr. by King William I. a BARON OF THE NETHERLANDS as BARON 
DU Bois, with rem. to the heirs male of his body in the order of primogeniture. 
His only son Franciscus Henricus Josephus, 6 2nd Baron du Bois, obtained a Dutch 
Royal License to assume the additional name and title of de Ferrieres 17 Feb. 
1830. He settled in England, and was of Hardwick Hill, near Chepstow, 7 and 
his son Charles Conrad Adolphus, 3rd Baron du Bois de Ferrieres, having 
married at the Parish Church, Bray, 20 Feb. 1851, Anne, da. of William Sheep- 
shanks of Arthington Hall, co. York, was naturalized by Act of Parliament 
12 Aug. 1867. 8 He was M.P. for Cheltenham 1880-85, and d. s.p. Mar. 1908, 
when the title became extinct. 

DU Bois [Netherlands 1820]. See du Bois de Ferrieres, Baron. 

BOLLES. In the Sloane MSS. 9 is a letter from Sir John Bolles, of Scampton, 4th 
Baronet [E. 1628], to Sir Hans Sloane, dated " here atte Scampton Hall, 26 
Aug. 1702," and signed "John Bolles, DUKE OF OAKHAM AND ALENCON, 
Protector to James III." Nothing is known of either title, but as it has been 
suggested that the latter at least was French, they are noted here. Sir John 
Bolles d. unm. 23 Dec. 1714. 10 

BONAR. Count A. E. (sic) Bonar was Lord of the Manor of Kennardington in 
1877. u He was probably the Alfred Guthrie Graham Bonar of the Manor 
of Kennardington, co. Kent, in 1877, who d. 5 Dec. 1886. His will, dated 
7 June 1878, mentions an annuity created by deed 6 Feb. 1850 in favour of 
Rosalie Bonar, who d. 1904. Kennardington was sold 1904/5. 

BONNEMAR [F.]. See Ducarel, Viscount of. 

BORDON. John Bordon of Fordel, a Colonel in the Swedish Service during the 
Thirty Years' War, was ENNOBLED [Sweden No. 522] 1643, and had a grant 
of lands from King Charles X. in 1659. Family extinct 1701. 12 

BOREEL. Sir Jacob Boreel van Hogelanden, 8th Baronet [E.], but a Dutch subject 
[b. at Amsterdam 25 Oct. 1768 ; d. at s'Gravenhage 12 Apr. 1820, being 
descended from Sir William Boreel, Pensionary of Amsterdam, Ambassador 
from the States General to King Charles I., by whom he was 21 Mar. 1645 
cr. a Baronet, and who afterwards received a Royal Warrant from King 
Charles II. while in exile, 28 June 1653, as a Baron of England], 13 was by decree 
of 28 Aug. 1814 admitted to the Knighthood of Holland "benoemd in de 

1 Foster (Baronetage, 1880, p. 50) says that according to the family pedigree he was 
llth Baron Boileau. 

2 In the pedigree in St. Allais' Nob. Univ. de France (vi. 156), the Maurice is in- 
correctly made eldest son. 

3 Agnew, p. 367, and Foster's Baronetage. 

4 Ex inform. M. Bijleveld, editor of the Nederlands 1 Adelsboek ; he is not mentioned 
however in Reverend's Armorial du Premier Empire. 

6 Not 1815, as in Debrett. 

6 Called Augustus in Debrett. 7 Gentleman's Magazine, 1851. 

8 As "Charles Conrad Adolphus Du Bois de Ferrieres, commonly called Baron de 
Ferrieres." 

9 British Museum Add. MSS. 4075, f. 241, indexed p. 377 as John Balles. See also a 
note in The Connoisseur, March 1907, p. 212. 

10 The Complete Baronetage, ii. 48. 

11 Kelly's Directory for Kent, 1878. 

12 Marryat, ii. 486 ; Sveriges Adel. 

13 Burke 's Peerage, &c., 1875-1908; Complete Baronetage, ii. 231. 



54 THE NOBILITIES OF EUROPE 

ridderschap van Holland," with the title of JONKHEER. By a further royal 
decree of 9 Jan. 1821 his brothers Willen Francois and Lucas were also cr. 
JONKHEERS for themselves and their descendants, and 24 Oct. 1868 his cousin 
Theodoor Gustaaf Victor Boreel was received into the Dutch Nobility " ingelijfd 
in den Ned. Adel." l 

BORGETTEO. See p. 46, note 3. 

VON BOTHMER. " Hippolyt Victor Alexander, Count von Bothmer," a Bavarian 
subject, was naturalized in the United Kingdom under that style 31 Dec. 1856. 

DE BOURBEL. Raoul Antoine Henri (de Bourbel), 6th MARQUESS OP BOURBEL- 
MONTPIN^ON (MARQUIS DE BOURBEL DE MONTPINON) [F.], Colonel of the 
" garde de la maison rouge du Roi " in 1791 [great-great-grandson and heir of 
Jacob (de Bourbel), 1st Marquess, who proved his noblesse before M. Barrin 
de la Galissonniere, Intendant de la generality de Rouen, 11 Jan. 1668], 2 fled to 
England during the Revolution, and was naturalized for himself and his heirs 
as " Antoine Raoul Henry, Comte Bourbel, eldest son of Louis Antoine Raoul, 
Marquis de Bourbel-Montpincon, formerly of Dieppe in France, but now of 
Nassau Street in the parish of St. Anne, Soho, co. Midx." by royal letters 
patent 23 May 1797. He returned to France on the Restoration, and d. there 

1825. He had m. at Lewes in Sussex, Mary Anne, da. of ( ) Spence, by whom 

he left an only surviving son, Harold Augustus, 7th Marquess, who entered 
the French Diplomatic Service and d. in America, having m. at the Chapel 
of the British Embassy in Paris and at the Madeleine 1828, Constance Bulkeley, 
who d. at Florence 9 Apr. 1838. His children came to England in 1838, having 

been left under the guardianship of their mother's brother-in-law, ( ) 

Bulkeley of Linden Hill, and since then the family have remained in this 
country. Raoul, the late Marquess, was a Major-General R.E., 3 and his two 
brothers, Harold Henry and Augustus Alfred, had commissions in the 4th 
Dragoon Guards and 10th Hussars respectively. Cecile Aurelie, eldest child of 
the 7th Marquess, was b. at Montpin?on 10 June 1828; m. at Knowle Hill 
Church, co. Berks, 25 Oct. 1850, Capt. Henry Creed, Bombay Horse Artillery, 
and had issue 4 sons and 6 das., of whom the eldest, Augusta Constance Alise, 
m. at Rajkot Church, Kattiawar, India, Henry Faure Southcote Aston, 
Barrister-at-Law, Judge of His Majesty's High Court, Bombay. See p. 10. 

BouRBEL-MoNTPiN^ON [F. a. 1668]. See de Bourbel, Count and Marquess of. 

DE BOURBON. Armand (de Bourbon), 1st MARQUESS OF MIREMONT (MARQUIS DE 
MIREMONT) in Auvergne [F.], [2nd son of Henry (de Bourbon), 2nd Marquess 
of Malauze [F.], by his 2nd wife Henrietta, sister to Louis (de Durfort) Marquess 
of Blancquefort [F.], and Earl of Feversham [E.] ] ; b. 12 July 1655, came to 
England on the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes, was appointed to the 
command of a Regiment of Dragoons by King James II. 1688, and was after- 
wards an A.D.C. to King William, Lieut. -Gen. in the British Army and Col. 
of Miremont's Dragoons, and British Commissioner to the Congress of Utrecht 
9 June 1712. He d. s.p. in his apartment in Somerset House 23 Feb. 1732, in 
his 77th year, and was buried in the family vault in the Savoy. Admn. to 
sister Charlotte de Bourbon, called " Lady Malauze," 28 Feb. following. She 
d. 15 Oct. following. Will, proved by Josias des Bordes, Exr., makes her 
nephew, the Marquess of Malauze, her heir. She was buried with her brother. 4 

DE BOURBON. Louis (de Bourbon), 1st MARQUESS OF LA CASE (MARQUIS DE LA 
CASE) [F.], Ensign in King William's Guards [3rd son of Louis (de Bourbon), 
2nd Marquess of Malauze [F.] named above], came to England on the Revoca- 
tion of the Edict of Nantes in 1685, and was killed at the battle of the Boyne 
12 July 1690, apparently unm. He was buried at St. James's, Westminster. 5 

1 Nederlands' Adelsboek. 

* 11 Jan. 1668 is the date on which it can be proved that the title was officially 
recorded, but there appear good grounds for believing that it was originally conferred on 
Jean de Bourbel by King Henry II., in which case the present Marquess would be 14th in 
succession instead of 9th. 

3 The recognition of the title in this country was renewed on the occasion of the visit 
of King Edward VII. when Prince of Wales to India, in the following letter dated Lieut. - 
Governor's Camp, Benares, 5 Jan. 1875, addressed to the late Marquess, then serving with 
the R.E. : "Lord Suffield [First Lord in Waiting] presents his compliments to the 
Marquis de Bourbel, and begs to inform him that there will be no objection to his 
presentation as Marquis de Bourbel." 

* Agnew, pp. 170-187, St. Evremond. * Agnew, p. 187. 



AN ALPHABETICAL LIST 55 

DE BOURBON. See Brown. 

BOURCHIER. Sir William Bourchier, Constable of the Tower of London and 
Governor of Dieppe, was 10 June 1419 cr. by Henry V. of England, as King 
of France, COUNT OF Eu (COMTE D'Eu) in Normandy, with rem. to the heirs 
male of his body. 1 His son was 30 June 1461 cr. Earl of Essex [E.], and the 
Earldom of Eu [F.] continued united with that title, and afterwards (1540) 
with that of Bath until the death s.p. 16 Aug. 1654 of John (Bourchier), 5th 
Earl of Bath [E.], and de jure 7th Count of Eu [F.], when it became extinct 
by the failure of the male line of the grantee. 2 

BOUBKE. Jean Charles Raymond Bourke, a Gen. of Division in the French Army 
[son of Capt. Richard Bourke, K.S.L., of Lally's Regt., by his wife, Marie 
Jacquette St. John] ; b. at Lorient, Morbihan, 12 Aug. 1772, was cr. a BARON 
OF THE EMPIRE (BARON BOURKE) by Napoleon I. by letters patent 16 Jan. 
1808, Donataire (r. 4000) in Westphalia 17 Mar. following, 3 General of 
Division 25 Aug. 1813, after which he was styled COUNT BOURKE, though never 
so cr. He successfully defended Charlemont against the Prussians 1815. 
K.C.S.L., G.C.L.H., was cr. a PEER OF FRANCE, with rem. to the heirs male of 
his body, by King Louis XVIII. 9 Oct. 1823, and instituted a majorat 3 Apr. 
1824. 4 He d. unm. at the Chateau de Kervergant 29 Aug. 1847, when all his 
honours became extinct. 

BOURKE. Sir Theobald Bourke of Ardnaree, the last Mac William Bourke in Ireland, 
escaped to Spain, where he was cr. by King Philip II. MARQUESS OF MAYO 
(MARQUES DE MAYO). S 

BOURKE. "The present (1827) Sir John Bourke of Glinsk, Bart., having paid a 
visit to Rome with his newly married bride, was cr. * MARCHESE DE BOURKE 
OF THE HOLY ROMAN EMPIRE ' " (sic). 6 He was presumably Sir John Ignatius 
Burke, 10th Baronet [I.], who m. 1st, the sister (d. 1830) of Hughes Ball and 
d. s.p.m. 1845. 

BOURKE. Edmund, Count Bourke, of an Irish family, was naturalized in Denmark 
27 Oct. 1779, and admitted to the rank of COUNT (GREVE) " optages i 
lehnsgrevelig Stand." He was a P.C., K.D., and was Ambassador to Paris, 
and afterwards to Great Britain, and d. s.p. 12 Aug. 1821, 7 leaving his nephew, 
Edward Ferral, his heir. See Ferral. 

BOURKE [F.E. 1808]. See Bourke, Baron. 

BOURKE [H.R.E. ? P.S.]. See Burke, Marquess of. 

BOURKE [Denmark 1779]. See Bourke, Count. 

BOWIER [Netherlands 1821]. See Bowyer, alias Bowier, Jonkheer. 

BOWYER. Hugo Bowier [descended from Ralph Bowyer, son of Sir Thomas Bowyer 
of Bayber Castle, Baronet (sic), who joined the auxiliary force under the Earl 
of Leicester, sent to the Netherlands by Queen Elizabeth in 1585], 8 was 5 ( Sep. 
1821 cr. by King William I. a JONKHEER in the Netherlands, with rem. to 
his descendants. Title still existing. See p. 38. 

BOXALL. Alleyne Alfred Boxall was by H.R.H. Duke Charles Edward (Duke of 
Albany), in accordance with the nomination of his predecessor H.R.H. Duke 
Alfred (Duke of Edinburgh, K.G.), cr. by letters patent of the 8 Sep. 1900 
BARON BOXALL (FREIHERR VON BOXALL) in the Duchy of Coburg, with rem. 

1 Complete Peerage, iii. 292. 

2 The Earls of Bath, however, never used the title of Eu, which was assumed (wrong- 
fully) before 1576 by the heir general of the 3rd Count of Eu (2nd Earl of Essex), Walter 
(Devereux), 1st Earl of Essex of the new creation, and was attributed to his grandson in 
the Act of Restoration of 18 Apr. 1604, which recites that "the said ^Robert, late Earl 
of Essex, before his said attainder, was lawfully and rightly invested . *. . with the name, 
state, place, and dignity of Earl of Essex and Ewe," &c. This assumption ceased on 
the extinction of the male descendants of the said Walter Devereux, 14 Sep. 1646. See 
The Complete Peerage, i. 395. 

3 Armorial du Premier Empire, i. 127. 

* Titres de la Restauration, 1814-30, i. 313. 

5 Burke's Peerage, 1907, p. 1140. 

6 Memoirs of Sir Jonah Harrington, 1827, p. 135. This was doubtless a Papal creation. 

7 Nyte Dansk Adelslexikon, by A. Thiset and P. L. Wittrup (Copenhagen, 1904). 

8 Nederlands' Adelsboek. 



56 THE NOBILITIES OF EUROPE 

to the heirs male of his body, and with the title of Baron or Baroness for all 
his male descendants and their daughters. This dignity he had received the 
previous sanction of Queen Victoria to accept, and he had Royal License for 
himself and the heirs male of his body to assume and use the same in the 
United Kingdom 17 Oct. following. See p. 23. 

BOXALL [S.C.G. 1900]. See Boxall, Baron. 

BOY. Eric Boy [of a Scottish family] served in the English and Dutch Navies and 
afterwards became a Capt. in the Swedish, and was ENNOBLED [Sweden No. 1 128] 
by King Charles XL under the name of Gyldenboij 1688. 1 Extinct. 

BOY. Anders Boij [son of Henry Boy, Commander of a Scottish fortress, and 
Elizabeth Nisbeth], came to Sweden and was Burgomaster of Stockholm 1663, 
being ENNOBLED 1676. 2 Extinct. 

DE BOZAS. Don Joseph (de Bozas), COUNT OF CASTELBLANCO (CONDE DE CASTEL- 
BLANCO) in Spain, was 4 Feb. 1717 cr. by James VIII. DUKE CASTELBLANCO and 
DUKE OF ST. ANDREWS, &c. [S.]. He had issue, 3 but of it nothing is known. 

BRAAM. Jan Andries van Braam, a District Magistrate for British Honduras 
[great-grandson of Jacob Pieter van Braam, Vice- Admiral of Holland (b. 27 Oct. 
1717), whose nephew (the son of his eldest half-brother), ^Egidius van Braam, 
Vice-Admiral of the Netherlands, was cr. by patent, dated at The Hague 
8 July 1816, a JONKHEER], was naturalized as a British subject by a Colonial 
certificate dated at Belize 19 Nov. 1864, 4 and is incorrectly 5 described as a 
JONKHEER in that portion of Burke's Peerage dealing with Foreign titles borne 
by British subjects from 1899 (p. 1617) until his death s.p. 19 July 1904. 

BRACERAS [Spain 1707]. See Heaven, Marchioness of. 

BRAND. John Brand, an Officer in the English Navy, entered the Swedish Service 
1669, and was ENNOBLED [Sweden No. 1145] under the name of Anckarcreutz 
in 1686. 6 His descendants are extinct. 

BRANDT. Jules Gustave Ladislaus Brandt, COUNT BRANICIKI, M.A., Ph.D., 
D.C.L., &c., of the Universities of Konigsberg, Bonn, Munich, and Member 
of the Faculty of the Academy, Paris (known as Professor Brandt) ; d. at 
Baling 24 Nov. 1896. 7 

BRANICIKI [? Poland]. See Brandt, Count. 
BRETHERTON. See Stapleton-Bretherton. 

DE BRIENEN. Baroness Irene de Brienen, da. of the late BARON DE BRIENEN, 
m. 14 Apr. 1904 the Hon. Cyril Augustus Ward, M.V.O. ; Baroness Lily de 
Brienen, da. of a BARON and BARONESS DE BRIENEN, m. 14 Nov. 1905 Capt. 
Cecil Bunbury; and a Baroness Margaret de Brienen resides in London. 

BRINCKMAN. Theodore, BARON BRINCKMAN, a native of Hanover, came to England 
with George I., by whom he was appointed Yeoman of the Guard. He died 
23 Oct. 1741. His 2nd son (Baron), John Richard Brinckman, was naturalized 
by a Private Act of Parliament, 8 and took the oaths 15 Dec. 1740, and was 
grandfather of Theodore Henry Brinckman, otherwise Broadhead, cr. a Bart. 
[U.K.] 30 Sept. 1831. 

BROC. The COMTESSE DE BROC owned the great tithes of Cholsey, co. Berks, 188-. 
BRONT [Two Sicilies 1801]. See Nelson, and Hood, Duke of. 

BROWN. George Brown, "COUNT OF THE HOLY ROMAN EMPIRE, Lieut. -Gen. 
of the armies of His Imperial and Catholic Majesty, Counsellor of War and 
Col. of a Regt. of Infantry," is so described in the Warrant by James III. 
creating him an Earl [I.], with rem. to his brother Ulysses 12 Apr. 1726. 9 
He was father of George, Count of the Holy Roman Empire, b. 1678, a 

1 Marryat, ii. 486 ; Sveriges Adel. 

2 Marryat, ii. 486. 

3 See Ruvigny's Jacobite Peerage, p. 161. 

4 Burke's Peerage. 

5 Ex inform. M. Bijleveld, who remarks this is absolutely incorrect, as has been noted 
inborn- papers. Dutch titles only pass to the direct descendants of the original grantee. 

6 Marryat, ii. 485. 

7 Memoriam notices in The Times. 

8 14 Geo. II., No. 51. Ruvigny's Jacobite Peerage, p. 22. 



AN ALPHABETICAL LIST 57 

distinguished General in the Imperial Service and afterwards Field-Marshal in 
the Russian service and Governor of Livonia, who d. 18 Feb. 1792, 1 leaving 
issue by his wife Helen, da. of Field-Marshal Peter, Count Lacy. 2 

BROWN. Ulysses Brown [younger brother of the above] was a Colonel of Cavalry 
in the Imperial Service, and was made a BARON OF THE EMPIRE by the Emperor 
Charles VI. for his military services. 3 His son Ulysses Maximilian Brown, 
Count of the Holy Roman Empire, Baron of Camus and Mountany, P.C., and 
Field-Marshal in the Imperial Service, was killed at Prague 1757, leaving* issue. 

BROWN. George, BARON BROWN, Governor of Deva in Transylvania, who m. the 
Countess of Rohdt, niece of the Prince of Constance, is mentioned by Ferrar.* 

BROWN [H.R.E. a. 1726]. See Brown, Count. 

BROWN [H.R.E.]. See Brown, Baron and afterwards Count. 

BROWN, alias DE BOURBON. Charlotte Marie Augustine Brown, elder da. of 
Charles Ferdinand [i.e. H.R.H. the Duke of Berry], and Amy, da. of the Rev. 
Joseph Brown, was b. in London 19 July 1808, and, having been naturalized 
in France by a royal ordinance 9 June 1820, was, by letters patent dated 
the following day, cr. by King Louis XVIII. COUNTESS OF YSSOUDUN (COMTESSE 
D'YSSOUDUN) [F.] for life. She m. 28 Sep. 1823 Ferdinand Marie Victor 
Amadeus, Count and Prince of Faucigny-Lucinge, and d. 13 July 1886, when 
her personal honours became extinct. 5 

BROWN, alias DE BOURBON. Louise Marie Charlotte Brown, younger sister of 
the above, was b. in London 19 Dec. 1809, and, having been naturalized in 
France with her sister 9 June 1820, was, by letters patent dated the following 
day, cr. by King Louis XVIII. COUNTESS OF VIERZON (COMTESSE DE VIERZON) 
[F.] for life. She m. 16 June 1827 Athanse Charles Marie, Baron de Charette 
and a Peer [F.], and d. 25 Dec. 1891, when her personal honours became extinct. 6 

BROWN-MILL [F. 1820]. See Browne-Mill, Baron. 
BROWNE. See Browne-Clayton. 

BROWNE-MILL. George Gavin Browne-Mill of Bath, Surgeon, M.D. of Edinburgh 
[son of George Browne, Laird of Priorhill in the parish of Lesmahagow, 
co. Lanark], was 14 Apr. 1820 cr. by letters patent of Louis XVIII. BARON 
BROWN-MILL 7 [F.], with rem. to the heirs male of his body. He was b. 
at Prior-Montagu, co. Lanark, 19 Feb. 1774, and d. s.p. at Bath 1842, having 
taken the additional name and arms of Mill by Royal License 6 Apr. 1803, " out 
of grateful respect to and in compliance with the desire of his friend David 
Mill, of the said city of Bath." 8 His widow d. at Bath before 1880. 9 

BRUCE. Johan Fredrik Bruce, assessor in the Gotha Court of Justice [son of 
Eric Bruce, Inspector of Customs at Helsingfors (d. 1692), and grandson of 
Andrew Bruce, a Major in the Swedish Army (d. at Reval 1644), who was elder 
son of Andrew Bruce of Lynmylne and Blarckhall], was naturalized and 
ENNOBLED [Sweden No. 1954], with his brothers, 1752. 10 Family extinct 1789. 

BRUCE. Rudolf Bruce [son of Robert Bruce, Lieut.-Col. (1630), yr. son of the above 
named Andrew Bruce] was naturalized and ENNOBLED [Sweden No. 745] 1668, 
and introduced into House of Lords 1672. Extinct in the male line. 11 

BRUCE. James [Wilimovitch] Bruce, Field-Marshal of the Russian Armies [of a 
noble Scottish family], was, by letters patent of 18 Feb. 1721, cr. by Peter the 

1 Diet. Nat. Biog. 

2 Ferrar (History of Limerick, p. 348) says : "Gen. and Col. Brown, now (1787) in the 
Emperor's service." In the "Sketch Pedigree of the Family of de Lacy," he is stated to 
have had issue (1) Count John Brown, killed at the siege of Prague ; (2) Count George 
Brown, Governor of Riga, who was at Rathcahill in 1792 ; and (3) a da., ancestor of Count 
Charles Medern of Courland, Ambassador, 1820. 

3 Diet. Nat. Biog. ; Jacobite Peerage, p. 24. 

4 History of Limerick, p. 348. 

5 Titres de la Restauration, i. 305. 6 Ibid. 

7 In the French letters patent the name is spelt Brown, though in the Royal License of 
1803 it is Browne. 

8 London Gazette, 1803, p. 434. 

9 Titres de la Restauration, i. 367. 10 Donner, p. 21. 

11 "Aldsta grenen bosatt i Sodra Amerika ; utgangen i Sverige pa manssidan, 1898." 
Sveriges Ridderslcaps, 1900, p. 119. 



58 



THE NOBILITIES OF EUROPE 



Great a COUNT OF THE RUSSIAN EMPIRE as COUNT BRUCE, with rem. to his 
descendants, and had confirmation of his arms 30 Aug. 1725. 1 Title extinct 
before 29 Mar. 1740. 

BRUCE. Major Gen. Alexander [Romano vitch] Bruce [nephew of the preceding] 
was, by an Imperial Ukase of 29 Mar. 1740, cr. a COUNT OF THE RUSSIAN 
EMPIRE as COUNT BRUCE, with rem. to his descendants. 2 Title extinct 1791. 3 
The Chamberlain Count Basil Valentinovitch Moussine-Pouschkine m. Catherine, 
da. of Gen. Count James Alexandrovitch Bruce, and was authorised by an 
Imperial Ukase of 18 Nov. 1796 to adopt the name of Bruce and to style 
himself COUNT MoussiNE-PouscHKiNE-BRUCE. 4 This latter title is also extinct. 

BRUCE [Russia 1721]. See Bruce, Count. 

BRUCE [Russia 1740]. See Bruce, Count. 

BRUCE. Thomas (Bruce), 2nd Earl of Elgin [S.] and Ailesbury [E.], m. 2ndly, at 
Brussels, 1700, Charlotte suo jure Countess of Essen eux and Baroness of 
Melsbroeck in Flanders, da. and h. of Louis (d'Argentau), Count of Esseneux. 
She d. at Brussels 23 July 1710, aged 31, and was sue. by her only child Lady 
Mary Theresa Charlotte Bruce, who became suo jure Countess of Esseneux and 
Baroness Melsbroeck, who m. 1722 Maximilian Emmanuel, Prince of Homes, and 
had issue. One of her granddaughters was Louisa of Stolberg, and her heir of 
line is Frederick VI., Prince of Salm-Kyrburg. 5 

BRUCE. Charles, COMTE DE BRUCE, of 30 rue St. Dominique, Paris ; m. at Paris 
11 Feb. 1889 the Princess Elizabeth of Croy. 

DE BUCY. Charles Mark (de Longueville-de Bucy), 8th Marquess of Bucy [F.], 
emigrated to England in 1793. [According to Debrett, 6 Claude de Bucy, 
3rd son of Ren6 de Bucy, Lord of Bucy, Gournay, Mountsoult, &c., and a 
direct descendant of the feudal Lords of Bucy (Buciacum), was 1602 cr. 
MARQUESS OF BUCY AND MERVAL (MARQUIS DE BUCY ET DE MERVAL) [F.] by 
King Henry IV. His descendant Charles, 7th Marquess, having m. 1745 
Eleanor, da. and h. of Lord de Longueville, obtained R.L. to add the name 
of de Longueville to his patronymic and to style all future heirs to the Mar- 
quessate " Count de Longueville," and was the father of the 8th Marquess 
named above]. He had m. at Paris 1777 (when he assumed the additional 
name and arms of Rouault) Marie (nee Rouault) suo jure 9th Marchioness of 
Gamaches [F. 1620], &c., and a GRANDEE of the 1st CLASS [Sp. 1722], sister 
and h. of Joachim Valery Theresa Louis, 8th Marquess, &c. (b. 11 May 1753, 
d. s.p. before 3 Nov. 1777), 7 and da. of Charles Joachim (Rouault), 7th Mar- 
quess, &c., Marshal of France [Jean Rouault, 5th Lord of Gamaches, Lord 
Chamberlain to King Charles VII., was 1420 cr. by him BARON D'HERICOURT. 
Joachim, 2nd Baron, was a Marshal of France, and d. 1478. Nicholas, 6th Baron, 
a Lord-in- Waiting to Kings Henry IV. and Louis XIII., was by letters patent 
dated May 1620 (registered in the Paris Parliament 6 Feb. 1643 and " a la 
Chambre des comptes " 17 Sep. 1648) cr. MARQUESS OF GAMACHES (MARQUIS 
DE GAMACHES), with rem. to the heirs of his body. He was also MARQUESS OF 
BEAUCHAMPS and VISCOUNT OF TILLOY. Nicholas Joachim, 2nd Marquess 
(d. 1689), was a K.H.G. His younger son, Charles Jean Baptiste, was COUNT 
OF CAYEU, and sue. his nephew as 5th Marquess 13 Aug. 1704. Jean Joachim 
Baptiste, 6th Marquess, a Brigadier Gen., was also MARQUESS OF CAYEU and 
was father of the 7th Marquess 8 named above], by his wife (m. 23 Jan. 1751), 
Gabrielle Louise Marie, da. and h. of Louis Charles (de La Mothe-Houdancourt), 
2nd Marquess of La Mothe [F. 1700] and a GRANDEE of the 1st CLASS [Sp. 1722] 
[Jean de La Mothe was Lord of Houdancourt before 23 May 1533. Anthony, 
Lord de La Mothe, a Lieut. -Gen. (d. 28 Feb. 1672), is styled MARQUESS OF 
HOUDANCOURT. His son Charles was by letters patent dated Nov. 1700 
(registered before the Paris Parliament 14 Dec. following) cr. by Louis XIV. 
MARQUESS OF LA MOTHE (MARQUIS DE LA MOTHE) [F.], with rem. to ? and 

1 La Noblesse titree de la Russie, p. 43. 

2 Ibid., p. 44. 

3 Dolgorouky's Principales Families de la Russie, p. 170. 

4 La Noblesse titree de la Russie, p. 203. 

6 Ruvigny's Plantagenet Roll, Clarence Vol., pp. 70, 641. 

6 Peerage, 1908, p. 1040. The pedigree, however, given there entirely differs from that 
given in de Magny's Nob. Univ. de France, vol. xix. 

7 When his sister had confirmation of the Grandeeship. Viton de St. Allais, iv. 60. 

8 La Chenaye des Bois, xvii. 754 ; de Magny, xix. Debrett calls him 5th Marquess, and 
omits his son, thus making Marie 6th instead of 9th in succession. 



AN ALPHABETICAL LIST 59 

17 Sep. 1722 l a GRANDEE of the 1st CLASS (GRANDE DE PRIMERA CLASE) 
[Sp.] by Philip V., with rem. to the heirs of his body. He d. 24 Mar. 1728, 
and was sue. by his son, the 2nd Marquess named above, who was made a 
K.H.G. 2 Feb. *1743 and a Marshal of France 17 Sep. 1747, and d. 3 Nov. 
1755]. 2 The Marchioness of Gamaches was beheaded with Queen Marie 
Antoinette 1793, when she was sue. by her son Charles Victor, 10th Marquess, 
who sue. his father as 9th Marquess of Bucy 1798, and was killed at Waterloo. 
The family have since been resident in England. See p. 10. 

BUCY [F. 1602]. See de Bucy, Marquis of. 

BUNSEN. The BARON BUNSEN was for many years Prussian Ambassador at the 
Court of St. James's. He m. Frances, da. and co-h. (with her sister Lady 
Llano ver) of Benjamin Waddington of Llano ver, and had issue a large family, 
of whom Henry George, Ernest, and Mary Charlotte, wife (m. 4 Apr. 1850) of 
John Battersby of Blaise Castle, co. Gloucester, J.P., D.L., settled in England. 
The Rev. Henry George de Bunsen was Rector of Donington and was naturalized 
by a Private Act of Parliament as " son of the Chevalier Charles Bunsen and 
ffrances Waddington, his wife ; b. in Rome, of the Protestant faith," 3 22 Apr. 
1842. 4 He m. 1847 Mary Louisa, younger da. of Abraham Battersby (formerly 
Gray) of Stoke House, co. Gloucester, and had two das. (1) Lilla, wife of the 
Rev. A. Sheringham, Rector of Donington; and (2) Lisa, wife of Cheney Garfit. 
Ernest de Bunsen was of Abbey Lodge, Regent's Park, m. Elizabeth, 3rd da. 
of John Gurney of Ham House, co. Essex, and had issue (1) Sir Maurice de 
Bunsen, P.C., G.C.V.O., K.C.M.G., now H.B.M.'s Ambassador at Madrid; 

(2) Hilda, m. 1st, Hugo von Krause, and 2ndly, Baron Adolf Deichmann ; and 

(3) Marie. Another son of Baron Bunsen was Georg von Bunsen, a member 

of the Reichstag, who m. Emma, da. of ( ) Birkbeck, and whose 2nd son, 

Lothar de Bunsen, has now settled in England. 

BUQUET. Louis Leopold Buquet, K.C.L.H., Gen. of Brigade and Deputy for the 
Vosges 1815-27 [descended from a family of Scottish origin] ; 5 b. at Charmes, 
Vosges, 5 May 1768, was cr. a BARON OF THE FRENCH EMPIRE (BARON BUQUET) 
by letters patent of Napoleon I. 4 Jan. 1810, with rem. to the heirs male of 
his body; Donataire (r. 2000) sur le Trasimene 15 Apr. 1810. His only son, 
Henri Alfred Leopold, 2nd Baron Buquet, K.C.L.H., Deputy for the Meurthe 
1852-70, d. s.p.m. 1 July 1889, when the title became extinct. 5 

BUQUET. Charles Francis Joseph Buquet, K.C.L.H., Gen. of Brigade [younger 
brother of the above] ; b. at Charmes, Vosges, 4 June 1763, was cr. a BARON 
OF THE FRENCH EMPIRE (BARON BUQUET) by letters patent of Napoleon I. 
11 Aug. 1808; Donataire (r. 4000) in Westphalia 17 Mar. previous. His only 
son d. unm., when the title became extinct. 6 

BUQUET [F.E. 1810]. See Buquet, Baron. 
BUQUET [F.E. 1808]. See Buquet, Baron. 

BUSH. William Ernest Bush, British Juror for Chemicals at Antwerp Exhibi- 
tion (1885) and President of Chemical Section and British Representative on 
Supreme Jury of Brussels Exhibition (1888), was by ducal letters patent 
dated 25 Dec. 1889 cr. by the late Duke Ernest II. BARON BUSH (FREIHERR VON 
BUSH) [Coburg-Gotha], with rem. to (?), 7 and received Royal License to use 
the title in the United Kingdom 29 July 1896. He m. 6 Dec. 1899 Clara 
Pauline, da. of Louis Grund Joran of Freefort, Illinois, U.S.A., but d. s.p.m. 
24 July 1903, when the title became extinct. 

BUSH [S.C.G. 1889]. See Bush, Baron de. 

BUTLER. Edmund Theobald Butler, of Clonebough [a Cadet of the House of 
Ormond], 8 a General in the Imperial Army, was by letters patent dated at 

1 Viton de St. Allais, iv. 60. 

2 La Chenaye des Bois, xiv. 634. 

3 Preamble to Act. * 5 and 6 Viet. chap. 42. 
6 Armorial du Premier Empire, i. 153. 

6 Ibid. Query if they were not descended from the family of Becquet. See p. 49. 

7 Burke and Whitaker say, "with remainder to his legitimate descendants," and 
allow the title to his daughter, while Debrett treats it as extinct, which is no doubt correct, 
for there is no reason to suppose that the patent contained any special remainder. The 
term " to his legitimate descendants " is the usual form. See p. 225. 

8 Tascheribiwh der Graflichen Hauser, 1838, p. 123. 



60 THE NOBILITIES OF EUROPE 

Vienna 27 Apr. 1678 naturalized and admitted to the Bohemian " RITTER- 
STANDE," l and three years later, 10 Sep. 1681, was by letters patent, dated 
at Oldenburg, 2 cr. by the Emperor Leopold I. a Count of the Holy Roman 
Empire as COUNT BUTLER OF CLONEBOUGH (GRAF BUTLER VON CLONEBOUGH), 
for himself and his descendants. Title still existing. See p. 29. 

BUTLER. James Butler [of an Irish family which established itself in Livonia 
during the troubles under Charles I.] in 1627 obtained " aussi 1'indigenat en 
Pologne, ou sa descendance s'est conservee jusqu'a nos jours et dont Joseph et 
Antoine Butler recurent de FEmpereur Alexandre I. en 1824, la confirmation 
du titre de Comte, dont cette famille jouissait dans sa premiere patrie." 8 

BUTLER.* Thomas, COUNT BUTLER (GRAF VON BUTLER), m. the Baroness Jane 
Elizabeth, da. of Oliver (Walsh), 1st Baron von Wallis (1642). 5 

BUTLER. Horace George St. Paul Butler [b. 31 June 1898, only son of George 
Grey Butler, Esq., F.R.G.S., J.P., by his wife the Countess Maria, da. and h. 
of Sir Horace St. Paul, 2nd Bart. [U.K.], and 3rd Count St. Paul [H.R.E.]], is 
stated by Burke 6 to have succeeded his mother as 5th COUNT ST. PAUL of 
the Holy Roman Empire. 7 

BYLAND. Francis Louis Byland, COUNT BYLAND, son of Alexander Byland and 
Anna van der Duijn, his wife ; b. at The Hague, of the Protestant faith, 8 was 
naturalized by Act of Parlaiment 1 July 1799. 9 He was presumably a member 
of the family of Bylandt, who were cr. BARONS OF THE HOLY ROMAN EMPIRE 
by the Emperor Rudolph II. 11 Feb. 1596, and COUNTS by the Emperor 
Leopold I. 19 May 1678. 10 



CABRERA. Ramon Cabrera, COUNT OF MORELLA and MARQUESS OF THE TER (CONDE 
DE MORELLA y MARQUES DEL TER), Field-Marshal of Spain and a General 
in the service of Don Carlos VII. ; b. 27 Dec. 1806 ; d. 24 May 1877 ; settled 
in England, and m. 29 May 1850 Marianne Catherine (b. 8 Sep. 1820), only 
child of Robert Vaughan Richards, Esq., Q.C. She survives, and lives at 
Virginia Water. They had issue,; with two das., the elder of whom m. the 
1st Duke Gandolfi [P.S.], and two younger sons, an eldest son and h., Ramon 
Alexander Leopold, present Count of Morella, b. 3 Feb. 1854 ; m. ; s.p. 11 

CAHUN. See Canonhjelm and Gahn. 

CALABRELLA. See Lee. 

CALDWELL. Sir James Caldwell, of Castle Caldwell, co. Fermanagh, 4th Bart. [I. 
1683], having greatly distinguished himself while serving with the Imperial 
armies, was 15 Mar. 1749 cr. by Empress-Queen Maria Theresa, as Duchess of 
Milan, 12 a COUNT OF THE DUCHY OF MILAN by the title of COUNT CALDWELL 
(CONTE CALDWELL), with rem. to the heirs male of his body. His son, Sir John 
Caldwell, 5th Bt., d. s.p.m. 17 June 1830, when his Milanese honours became 
extinct. 13 

CALDWELL [Milan 1749]. See Caldwell, Count. 

1 Taschenbuch der Graflichen Hduser, 1838. p. 123. 

2 Ibid. 

3 Notices sur les Families illustres et Titres de la Pologne (Paris, 1862), p. 231. 

4 There is also in the Empire a family of Buttlar, Grafs von Buttlar, but they seem 
to be of a German family. Elizabeth, da. of Gabriel, Count Buttler of the Kingdom of 
Hungary, m. 22 May 1755 the Hon. John Dormer, a Gen. in the Austrian Service, by 
whom she was mother of the llth Baron Dormer [E.]. See Burke's Peerage, 1907, p. 527. 

5 The Genealogist, N.S., xvii. 220. 

6 Peerage, 1907, p. 2346. 

7 See, however, "The English Counts of the Empire," by J. H. Round, The Ancestor, 
vii. 15-25, and p. 227 of this work. 

8 Preamble to Act. 

9 39 Geo. III., No. 242. 

10 Taschenbuch der Graflichen Hduser. 
1 The Genealogist, N.S., xix. 61. 

18 Playfair's British Family Antiquary, 1811, ix. 164-165. The diploma is registered at 
Vienna in lib. 2, vol. 135, and a copy of the same registered at the Herald's College, 
London, with some letters relative thereto, Reg. L. 27, fol. 160, pursuant to a warrant by 
George II. The patent and other documents are printed in full by Playfair. 

3 This was not a Countship of the Holy Roman Empire, as is often inaccurately stated. 
The letters patent are quite clear on this point. 






AN ALPHABETICAL LIST 61 



CALRY [Sicily 1734]. See Magawly, Count of. 
CALRY [? H.R.E. 1731]. See Magawly, Baron. 

CALVELEY. Sir Hugh Calveley having assisted Henry of Trastamara in dethroning 
his brother, Peter the Cruel, was by him Apr. 1366 cr. COUNT OF CARRION 
(CONDE DE CARRION), i.e. Carrion de los Condes, in Old Castile, to the north of 
Palencia. 1 He d. s.p. 1393, 2 when the title became extinct. 

CAMBERLYN. Jean Baptist Guillaume Camberlyn d'Amougies, K.L.H., K.L.N., 
Judge au Tribunal civil de Gand [descended from John Camberlayn or Chamber- 
lain, an Englishman who was a Col. in the service of Kings Philip III. and 
Philip IV. of Spain 3 ], obtained recognition of his nobility, and was by royal 
decree of 16 Dec. 1818 cr. by King William I. a CHEVALIER [Netherlands], with 
rem. to the heirs of his body according to the order of primogeniture. Still 
existing. See p. 38. 

CAMPAIN. Julian Campain, SEIGNEUR DE ST. JULIAN, living 18 Aug. 1699, claimed 
descent from the English family of that name. 4 

CAMPBELL. Colin Campbell, a Director of the Swedish East India Company, 
and Robert 5 Campbell, of the Swedish East India Company's Service, are 
stated to have been ENNOBLED [Sweden] in 1731 and 1736 respectively, but 
they never took their seats. 6 

CAMPBELL. Ronald MacLeary Laurentz Campbell, Captain Bombay Staff Corps, 
was cr. by Ernest II., Reigning Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, by ducal letters 
patent dated at Gotha 11 Sep. 1882, BARON CRAIGNISH (FREIHERR VON 
CRAIGNISH) [S.C.G.], with rem. to his descendants, and by a Royal License 
dated 4 Jan. 1883 he and the heirs male of his body were granted permission 
to assume and use the title in the United Kingdom. See p. 22. 

CAMPBELL. Edmund Kempt Campbell, Major 7th Prussian Cuirassier Regt. of 
Seydlitz [younger brother of the preceding], was 1 Nov. 1886 cr. by the late 
Duke Ernest II. BARON CAMPBELL OF LAURENTZ (FREIHERR CAMPBELL VON 
LAURENTZ) [S.C.G.], with rem. to his descendants. He was granted per- 
mission to use the title in the United Kingdom by Royal License 14 Feb. 
1887, and was received into the Prussian Nobility by Royal Warrant from the 
Emperor William II., King of Prussia, dated at Berlin 26 Jan. 1889. He is 
married, but has no issue. See p. 22. 

CAMPBELL. See Loudon. 

CAMPBELL OF LAURENTZ [S.C.G. 1886]. See Campbell, Baron. 

CANONHJELM, Jacob Cahun, Major Swedish R.A. 1689 7 [grandson of Walter Cahun, 
who came from Scotland with a troop in the reign of John III. (1569-1592), 
and established a copper foundry at Falun], was ENNOBLED [No. 1202] in Sweden 
1689. Extinct 1740. 8 

CANTILLON. Anthony Sylvain de Cantillon, K.S.L., K.F.S., 9 a Colonel of Hussars 
in the French Service [great-grandson of Capt. James Cantillon of Ballyhigue 
and Belview, co. Kerry, who followed James II. to France], was by letters patent 
dated 18 Nov. 1839 cr. by King Louis Philip BARON DE BALLYHIGUE [F.]. 

CAPE ST. VINCENT [Portugal 1834]. See Napier, Viscount (1833) and Count of. 

CARINOLA [Naples]. See Giustiniani and Bandini, Counts of. 

CARNIDE [PORTUGAL 1871]. See Street, Viscount of. 

CARNOTA [Portugal 1870]. See Smith- Athelstane, Count of. 

CARPIO [Spain 1559]. See Fitzjames, Lord [Castile 1325] and Marquess of the. 

CARRION [Castile 1366]. See Calveley, Count of. 

CASANDOLA [Sicily 1685]. See Navarra, Count of. 

1 The Ancestor, vi. 69. 

2 Diet. Nat. JBiog., viii. 263. 

Nob. deEelgique, 1856, p. 202; 1863, pp. 62-63; 1890, p. 342. 

The Jacobite Peerage, p. 197. 

Marryat (ii. p. 501) calls him Hugh. 

Donner, p. 44. 7 Ibid., p. 11. 

Sveriges Adel. 

See Burke's Heraldic Illustrations, p. 51 ; Jacobite Peerage, p. 15. 



62 THE NOBILITIES OF EUROPE 

CASARRUBIOS DE MONTE [Castile]. See Fitzjames, Count of. 
CASHELTHOMOND [P.S. 1895]. See Ff reach, Marquess of. 
CASSAUX [P.S. 1781]. See Dugout de Cassaux, Marquess of. 

CASSELL. Commendatore COUNT M. HARRY CASSELL, Private Chamberlain to 
H.H. Pope Leo XIII. ; m. at St. Peter's (Italian Church), Hatton Garden, 
15 Aug. 1891, Elizabeth Frances, da. of Mr. John Shevnin, of Denver, U.S.A., 
and widow of Mr. Joseph Farmer, of Denver. 1 

CASSILHAS [Portugal 1824]. See Thornton, Count of. 
CASTELBLANCO [Spain]. See de Bozas, Count of. 
CASTELLO-ALVO [Portugal 1874]. See Alkain, Viscount of. 

DE CAUMONT. Armand Nompar (de Caumont), Marquess of Monpouillon [4th 
but second surviving son of Henry Nompar (de Caumont), 3rd Duke of 
La Force and Peer of France [1637], and the " Lady Margaret Destcodeca de 
Boesse, his mother," 2 of the Protestant faith, were naturalized by Act of 
Parliament 24 Feb. 1692. 3 He was a gentleman of the Chamber to William III., 
Lieut.-Gen. of the Dutch Forces and Governor of Naerden, and d. s.p.m. at 
The Hague 16 Mar. 1701, aged 86. 4 

CAVAGNARI. Major Sir Pierre Louis Napoleon Cavagnari, K.C.B., C.S.I., son of 
General Count Adolphe Cavagnari of the French Army, Equerry to Prince 
Lucien Bonaparte [whose father, descended from the ancient Kalian family 
of Panea, 5 was Private Secretary to Napoleon I.], by his wife Caroline, 3rd 
da. of Hugh Lyons-Montgomery, 8 was naturalized 7 Dec. 1857, 7 entered the 
H.E.I.C.S., and was massacred by the Afghans while British Minister to Cabul, 
3 Sep. 1879. 8 

CAYEU [F.]. See de Bucy, Count and Marquess of. 

CECIL. Philippe Charles Joseph de Cecil [descended from Anthony Cecil, of an 
English family, who settled in the Netherlands before 1684], was 16 June 1824 
cr. by King William I. BARON DE CECIL [Netherlands], with rem. to the heirs 
male of his body. 9 See p. 36. 

CECIL. Julian Laurent Joseph de Cecil [younger brother of the above], was 30 
May 1843 cr. BARON DE CECIL [Belgium] by King Leopold I., with rem. to the 
heirs male of his body. His only son d. unm. 18 Jan. 1870, when the title 
became extinct. 10 

CECIL [Netherlands 1824]. See Cecil, Baron de. 
CECIL [Belgium 1843]. See Cecil, Baron de. 
CECIL-KEARNEY [P.S. 1868]. See Kearney, Count. 
CEDERSPARRE. See Young. 

CEDERSTROM. Baron Olof Rudolf (Rolf) Cederstrom, K.C.L.H. [who m. 25 Jan. 
1899 Madame Adelina Patti], was naturalized as a British subject 27 Dec. 1899. 
He is a second cousin of the 4th and present COUNT CEDERSTROM (GREFVE 
CEDERSTROM) [Sweden No. 135], and a Cadet of the Noble family of Cederstrom, 
who were ENNOBLED by King Charles XI. 8 Aug. 1684, cr. Barons [No. 211] by 
King Frederick 6 June 1731, with the title of Baron for all the male descendants 
of the grantee, and of Baroness for the daughters of all the male descendants, 
and COUNT CEDERSTROM [No. 135] for the head of the family and the heirs male 
of his body in the order of primogeniture by King Charles XIV. 11 May 1819. 11 
See p. 19. 

CERATI [Bavaria 1669]. See Magawly, Count. 

The Times. 2 Preamble to Act. 

3 and 4 William and Mary, chap. 21. 

La Chenaye des Bois, iv. 874. 

Information supplied by Lady Cavagnari for Kalepresanna's Life of Sir L. Cavagnari, 
Cal utta, 1881. 

See Ruvigny's Plantagenct Roll, Exeter Vol., p. 493. 

In the certificate the name is spelt Cavagnare. 

Diet. Nat. Biog. 

Annuaire de la Noblesse de Belgique, by the Baron Isidore de Stein d'Altenstein 
(Brussels, 1875), p. 97. 

10 Ibid., p. 99. 11 Sveriges Ridderskaps. 



AN ALPHABETICAL LIST 63 

DE CETTO. Augustus (de Cetto), 2nd BARON CETTO (FREIHERR VON CETTO), for 
forty years Bavarian Ambassador to the Court of St. James's [son of Anton 
Cetto (b. 7 Mar. 1756, d. 23 Mar. 1847), who was 12 June 1812 cr. by King 
Maximilian I. BARON CETTO (FREIHERR VON CETTO) [Bavaria], with rem. 
to his descendants, and who was descended from a family originally Patricians 
of Como, who settled in Bohemia, where they were admitted to the Ritterstand x 
1703] ; m. Apr. 1831 Elizabeth Catherine, only da. of Col. Thomas Burrowes 
of Dangan Castle, co. Meath, by his wife the Hon. Frances Beresford, da. of 
the 1st Lord Decies [I.], and d. at 6 Hill Street, Berkeley Square, 7 Aug. 1879, 
leaving issue 4 sons. The eldest, Anthony William, Baron Cetto, for many 
years Bavarian Minister to the Vatican, d. s.p. at Borne 14 Feb. 1906. Louis 
Charles Augustus Adrian de Cetto, the second son (b. in London 11 Oct. 1837), 
was naturalized 13 Dec. 1856, and was a Lieut.-Col. R.A. and a J.P; he m. 
20 May 1871 Evelyn Rose, da. of Admiral Sir Alexander Leslie Montgomery, 
3rd Bt. [U.K.], and d. 4 June 1902, leaving issue several children, of whom 
the eldest is the present Baron Cetto (see p. 19). The fourth and youngest 
son, Maximilian Emil de Cetto, a godson of Leopold II., King of the Belgians, 
was also naturalized, and is an officer in the Argyll and Sutherland Highlanders. 

CETTO [Bavaria 1812]. See de Cetto, Baron. 
CHAMPALIMOND-DUFF [Portugal 19]. See Duff, Viscount of. 

CHAMPION. Claude Champion, Lord of Crespigny and BARON and VISCOUNT 
OF HURIEN, bapt. at Conde 17 May 1620 [son and h. of Richard Champion, 
Sieur de la Fleuriere in the parish of St. Quentin, near Tinchebrais, Lower 
Normandy, where his family had been seated for nearly two hundred years, 
who was cr. BARON AND VISCOUNT OF HURIEN (BARON ET VICOMTE D'HURIEN) 
[F.] 2 by his wife (m. 6 Dec. 1617) Margaret (d. at St. Lo 23 Jan. 1682, aged 90), 
da. and h. of Adrian Richard, LORD OF CRESPIGNY (SEIGNEUR DE CRESPIGNY), 
near Aunay, Lower Normandy], came to England on the Revocation of the 
Edict of Nantes 1685, was given a Commission as a Colonel in the British Army, 
and d. 10 Apr. 1695, aged 75. He m. Marie, da. and h. of Peter de Vierville, 
who became suo jure COUNTESS OF VIERVILLE (COMTESSE DE VIERVILLE), near 
Bayeux 3 [F.], and d. 21 June 1708, aged 80. Their 3 sons, Peter, Thomas, 
and Gabriel, are said to have been naturalized 5 Mar. 1690. The eldest d. unm. 
1739, and the second, a Capt. in Hotham's Dragoons, was grandfather of Claude 
Champion de Crespigny, who was cr. a Baronet [U.K.] by George III. 31 Oct. 
1805. 

CHANDLER. Henry John Chandler, dit Thompson, Capt. of Infantry 8 Apr. 1812, 
ret. in 1837 as Chef de Bataillon, K.S.L., K.L.O. ; b. at London 19 Sep. 1786 : 
d. ( ), having been naturalized in France 18 Sep. 1817, and ENNOBLED by 
letters patent 30 June 1830. 4 

CHAPELLE. Alexander (Chapelle), 6th COUNT CIANTUR and llth BARON OF ST. 
JOHN [Malta 1777], is a PATRICIAN and SENATOR OF ROME, those dignities 
having been conferred on his predecessor, Count Gio Antonio Ciantar, as a 
descendant of the Imperial House of Paleologus by the Senate of Rome 4 July 
1744. 

CHAPMAN. A family of English origin [descended from Thomas Chapman, son 
of a Yorkshire farmer, who came to Stralsund 1715, and was appointed by 
King Charles XII. to command a Swedish man-of-war], 5 ENNOBLED [Sweden 
No. 2088] 1787, and introduced into the House of Lords the following year. 
Now extinct in the male line. 6 

CHARLEVAL [F.]. See Law, Marquess of. 

CHASTRE. Claude Louis, 7 COUNT DE LA CHASTRE, " formerly of Paris in the King- 
dom of France, Colonel of a regiment of Loyal French Emigrants in Our Service, 
but now of Charles Street in the Parish of St. Mary-le-bone in the co. of Midx.," 
was naturalized by royal letters patent 23 May 1797. 8 He was eldest son 
and h. of Charles (de La Chatre or Chastre), 5th Marquess of La Chatre [a. 1645], 

1 Tascheribuch der Freiherrlichen Hduser, 1857, p. Ill ; 1907, p. 104. 

2 Burke' s Peerage, &c., 1908, p. 489. 

3 Burke 's Peerage, &c., 1908. 

4 Titres de la Restauration, ii. 85. 

5 Marryat, ii. 487. 

6 i^flJ^/ro'/V/JO Tt<ifJ fl >**<> 



7 In the patent he is called Louis only. 8 Patent Rolls. 



64 THE NOBILITIES OF EUROPE 

Count of Nancay, 1 who with his wife (beheaded 22 July 1794) perished in the 
Revolution. He was b. at Paris 30 Sep. 1745. Col. of Grenadiers 1770, and 
a Lieut.-Gen. 22 May 1792, served with Cond6 and commanded the "Ldgion 
Loyal-emigrant " at Ostend, Furnes, Nieuport, and Menin. On the Restoration 
he was 17 Aug. 1815 made a PEER [F.] by Louis XVIII., and 24 Nov. following 
cr. DUKE OF LA CHATRE (Due DE LA CHATRE), with rem. to the heirs male of 
his body. 2 Ambassador to England 1816, having 6 June that year the following 
crest, viz., a leopard rampant, or, having round its neck a crown of laurel, 
vert, and holding in its paws the standard of the " Loyal-emigrant " Regiment 
granted him by King George III. as a mark of his special esteem. 3 On 31 Aug. 
1817 he was cr. a " DUC-PAIR-HEREDITAIRE," with apparently rem. to his 
heirs male. 4 K.H.G. 30 Sep. 1820. He d. s.p. at the Castle Meudon 13 July 
1824. 

CHATEAUNAY [F.]. See Ducarel, Marquess of. 

CHATELLERAULT [F. 1548]. See Hamilton, Duke of. 

CHATELLERAULT [F.E. 1864]. See Douglas-Hamilton, Duke of. 

CHIOSANICA [Savoy 1636]. See Gandolfi, Count of. 

DE CHOISEUL. Jean Baptist Armand de Choiseul, called Marquess of Choiseul in 
the Kingdom of France, son of Joseph, Marquess of Choiseul and Marie, his 
wife ; b. at Sorry in the Province of Lorraine, of the Protestant faith, 5 was 
naturalized by Act of Parliament 11 Apr. 1791. 6 

CHURCHILL. John (Churchill), 1st DUKE OF MARLBOROUGH [E.], in consideration 
of his eminent services when in command of the allied forces, was 28 Aug. 
1704 cr. by the Emperor Leopold I. a PRINCE OF THE HOLY ROMAN EMPIRE 
(PRINCE CHURCHILL), with the qualification of " Hochgeboren," the patent 
being dated at Vienna 4 Nov. 1705. He was further cr. by the Emperor Joseph 
17 Nov. 1705 PRINCE OF MINDELHEIM, in the District of Suabia, in Bavaria 
[H.R.E.]. This Principality he in 1715 exchanged for that of Nellenburg. 
He d. s.p.m.s. 16 June 1722. The title of Prince of Mindelheim is now claimed 
and assumed by the representative of his younger da. and co-h., the present 
Duke of Marlborough ; but inasmuch as his Grace is neither the heir male nor 
the heir general of the original grantee, his right to this title, failing any special 
and subsequent rem., 7 is not clear. 

CIUDAD RODRIGO [Spain 1812]. See Wellesley, Duke of. 

CLAPERNOU [F.]. See Law, Baron of. 

CLARKE. Henry James William Clarke, Minister of War to the Emperor Napoleon I. 
[son of Col. Thomas Clarke, an Officer in the French Army and a native of 
co. Kilkenny, by his wife Louisa, sister to Henry (Shee), 1st Count Shee [F.] ], 
was 24 Oct. 1808 cr. by that Sovereign COUNT OF HUNEBOURG (COMTE D'HUNE- 
BOURG) [F.E.], with rem. to the heirs male of his body, and the following year 
(15 Aug. 1809) DUKE OF FELTRE (Due DE FELTRE) in the Province of Bellune, 
Italy [F.E.], with the same rem. 8 After the Restoration he was made a PEER 
OF FRANCE by King Louis XVIII. 4 June 1814. 9 The Peerage was made heredi- 
tary 19 Aug. 1815, and he had further confirmation of the " Duche-pairie" 
with rem. to the heirs male of his body, 31 Aug. 1817, when he was made a 
Marshal of France. He d. 28 Oct. 1818. His son, the 2nd Duke of Feltre, 
had confirmation of his Peerage 11 June 1819, but d. s.p. 29 Mar. 1852, when 
all his honours became extinct. The title of Duke of Feltre was, however, 
revived by the Emperor Napoleon III. July 1864, in favour of the Count 
of Goyon, a maternal grandson of Henrietta, Duchess of Fezenzac, da. of the 
1st Duke of Feltre. 10 

1 La Chenaye des Bois, v. 333. 2 Titres de la Restauration. iv. 120. 

3 Herald's College. 

4 His remote cousin succeeded him as Duke of La Chatre, and dying s.p. the family 
became extinct. Reverend, 1890, p. 312. 

5 Preamble to Act. 

6 31 Geo. III., No. 71. The Editor has been unable to place this nobleman in the 
Choiseul pedigree. 

7 The grant of the [original] dignity is in the usual form, which it is considered 
entitles all male descendants to the dignity, as also for their lives (but not with right of 
transmission) the daughters of such male descendants. G. E. C.'s Complete Peerage, v. 
255, note b. 

8 Armorial du Premier Empire, i. 227. 

9 Titres de la Eestauration, ii. 145 ; see also N. and Q., 5th S. (1879), xii. 67, 97. 
10 Almanach de Gotha. 



AN ALPHABETICAL LIST 65 

BROWNE-CLAYTON. Lieut. -Gen. Robert Browne-Clayton [yr. son of Robert Browne, 
of Browne s Hall, co. Carlow], m. Henrietta, da. and h. of Sir Richard Clayton, 
1st Bt., when he assumed the additional name of Clayton, and was 1794 cr. 
a COUNT OF THE ROMAN STATES, with rem. to his heirs being Catholics. 
His only son Richard Clayton Browne-Clayton, of Adlington, &c., d. s.p.m. 
The title of Count was 19 June 1907 confirmed and renewed by Pope Pius X. 
to Raymond Toler Clayton Browne-Clayton, son of Capt. William Browne 
and grandson of William Browne of Browne's Hall, elder brother of the afore- 
said Robert. 

CLEINCHAMPS [F. 1712]. See O'Donnoghue, Marquess of. 

CLERK. William Clerck [son of Andrew Clerk of co. Caithness] came to Sweden 
1607 as Capt. of a Scottish Regiment, and his three sons were all raised to 
the House of Lords (Riddarhus). Richard, the eldest, was an Admiral 
Swedish R.N., was ENNOBLED [No. 433] by Queen Christina 1648, and d. 1668. 
His male issue became extinct 1707. Hans Clerck, member of the Admiralty, 
the 2nd son, was ENNOBLED the same year under No. 442, and was father of 
the celebrated Swedish Admiral, who was cr. a BARON [Sweden No. 82] 1687. 
The title became extinct on the death of his son, the 2nd Baron Clerck, in 1748. 
Thomas, the youngest son, was ENNOBLED [No. 433] 1678. 1 

CLERK. Jacob Clerck, Councillor in the Gotha Superior Court of Justice 1728 
[grandson of Alexander Clerk, a goldsmith in Stockholm under Queen 
Christina 2 ] was ENNOBLED [Sweden No. 1382] by Charles XII. in 1699. 
Extinct 1808. 3 

CLERCK [Sweden 1687]. See Clerck, Baron. 

CLETCHER. Henry Cletzer [son of Thomas Cletcher or Cletzer, an Englishman 
who was Burgomaster of Hamburg and Brukspatron of Nerike, and lent 40,000 
silver dollars to the Swedish Crown during the Thirty Years' War], 4 having 
produced the necessary papers to prove his gentle birth, was ENNOBLED 
[Sweden No. 806] in 1672. Family extinct after 1716. 5 

CLIFFORD. George Clifford [descended from George Clifford (bapt. 27 Aug. 1623), 
an Englishman, who settled in Amsterdam, and m. 24 Oct. 1648 Abigail Bower, 
widow of John Wilcox] was 16 Sep. 1815 cr. by King William I. a JONKHEER 
in the Netherlands. Hte son, Jonkheer Henry Maurice Cornelius Clifford, 
was 12 May 1874 further cr. by King William III. BARON CLIFFORD 
[Netherlands], with rem. to the heirs male of his body in the order of primo- 
geniture, and his brothers Pieter and Gerard George at the same time 
received the Baronial title. 6 Title still existing. See p. 37. 

CLIFFORD. Hon. Thomas Edward Clifford [4th son of Hugh, 4th Baron Clifford 
of Chudleigh [G.B.] ], m. 17 Nov. 1807 Henrietta Philippina, Baroness de 
Liitzow (d. 20 Nov. 1822), da. and h. of Conrad Ignatius William, Baron de 
Lutzow [whose ancestor was 18 Dec. 1643 cr. BARON OF LUTZOW (FREIHERR 
VON LUTZOW) of the Holy Roman Empire by the Emperor Ferdinand III., 
" with right of succession in the female line "], 7 which Barony, by the death 
of the last heir male, Joseph, Baron Lutzow, of this branch of the family, 
devolved upon Laura Mary Clifford, the only surviving da. of the above named 
Henrietta, Baroness Liitzow. 8 She m. 25 July 1853 Ambrose Lisle March- 
Phillipps-de Lisle of Garendon Park, &c., J.P., D.L., by whom she had issue. 
She d. 15 Aug. 1896, when, according to the above statement, the Barony 
devolved upon her grandson and heir, the present Everard March-Phillipps- 
de Lisle of Garendon. 9 

CLIFFORD. The title of COUNT OF THE HOLY ROMAN EMPIRE has been claimed 
by the Lords Clifford [E.] since 24 Nov. 1835, in consequence of the marriage 
(29 Nov. 1786) of Charles, 6th Lord Clifford [E.], with the Hon. (Countess) 
Eleanor Mary (d. 24 Nov. 1835), younger da. and co-h. of Henry, 8th Baron 
Arundell and Count of the Holy Roman Empire, who d. s.p.m. 4 Dec. 1808. 10 

CLIFFORD [Netherlands 1874]. See Clifford, Jonkheer (1815) and Baron. 

COCHRANE. Thomas (Cochrane), 10th EARL OF DUNDONALD [S.], the celebrated 

. 1 Donner, p. 22 ; Sveriges Adel. 2 Ibid., p. 22. 

3 Sveriges Adel. * Marryat, ii. 487. 

5 Sveriges Adel. 6 Nederlands 1 Adelsboek. 

1 Burke's Landed Gentry, 1906, p. 450. 

8 Ibid. 9 See, however, p. 227. 

10 The title is allowed them by Burke, Debrett, and Whitaker ; see, however, p. 227. 

E 



66 THE NOBILITIES 'OF EUROPE 

Admiral, having rendered important naval services to the Emperor Peter I., 
was by him 1824 cr. MARQUESS OF MABANHAM (MARQTTEZ DE MARANHAM) 
[Brazil], with rem. to the heirs of his body. Title still held by his descendant, 
the present Earl of Dundonald. See p. 11. 

COCKLE. George Cockle of Lyon's Lodge, South Kensington, Truro Lodge, Rams- 
gate, and of the Castle of Cerrione, near Saluzzola, Italy, M.A. Camb., F.R.G.S., 
a Barrister- at- Law of the Inner Temple, Major Westmorland Militia [3rd son 
of James Cockle of Great Oakley, co. Essex, the originator of the " Compound 
Antibilious Pills "], was cr. about 1876-77 by the Republic of San Marino 
MARQUESS OF MONTE CARLO (MARCHESE DI MONTE CARLO). He d. s.p.l. 
30 May 1900, when this title became extinct. 

COLE. John Cole of Easthorpe Court, co. Lincoln, became 27 July 1854, by the 
death s.p. of his mother's first cousin, 4th DUKE OF POLIGNANO, &c. [Naples], 
but did not assume the title. He was s. and h. of John Cole, of Easthorpe 
Court afsd., by his wife Mary, da. and sole h. of William Atkin and his wife 
Elisabeth, da. and in her issue (27 July 1854) h. of Gaetano (de Leto), 1st Duke 
of Polignano [The Polignano title was originally conferred upon the family 
of Toraldo. Scipio Mazzella, in his Descrittione del Regno di Napoli, 1 and 
Scipione Ammirato, in his Famiglie Nobili Napolitane, 2 say that the ancestor 
of the family of Toralto [in later times softened into Toraldo], originally called 
Bacu, came from Germany with the Emperor Frederick, who rewarded him 
with much riches, exalted dignities, and also with many castles, from one of 
which, Toralto, situated above Sessa, the cognomen of Toralto was assumed. 
King Alfonso of Aragon [1442-1458] much esteemed the family for their fidelity 
to him during the troubles of his reign, and Ferdinand I. [1458-1494], out of 
great regard for Louis Toralto, a celebrated Captain of the period, cr. him a 
Marshal, as may be seen [1586] upon a monument in the Church of San 
Domenico at Naples, where he died 27 Sep. 1465. Giorgio Toralto, pre- 
sumably his son, m. Margaritta, da. of Marc Antonio Ruffo and sister of the 
Marquess of Catanzaro ; with her he acquired the Marquessate of Badolato 
and other castles. Their son Gasparo took part at the Coronation in 1494 
of King Alfonso II. ; 3 he was an excellent musician and " familiar " of King 
Ferdinand II. [25 Jan. 1494-Oct. 1496], and had Vallecasale, Mola, and Polignano, 
with the title of MARQUESS OF POLIGNANO (MARCHESE DI POLIGNANO), bestowed 
upon him by that monarch. His descendant Gasparo (Toraldo), 4th Marquess 
of Polignano, had two sons who d. s.p., and two das., who consequently became 
co-heiresses ; the eldest of them, Donna Catherina, described as " the most lovely 
woman of her day and surpassing all others in beauty," m. 1st, the Count of 
Misciagno [Misciano, a hamlet of Montoro, near Salerno], and 2ndly, before 
1586, Gio Bernardino Acquaviva, Duke of Nardo ; and the 2nd, Donna Anna 
Toraldo, in 1586 Marchioness of Polignano, carried that dignity and fief soon 
afterwards in marriage to Niccolo Rodolvich, 4 descended from the Counts of 
Savalle in Illyria, who was seised thereof in Aug. 1608. With an heiress of this 
race, the fief passed to Marino Stendardo, who was styled Marquess of Polignano 
in 1648, and through his heiress it again passed to Don Gaetano de Leto, who 
had recognition and a renewal of his title of Marquess of Polignano by the 
Emperor Charles VI. as King of the Two Sicilies 7 May and 20 June 1729. 
This nobleman, in whom were vested the Sicilian Baronies of Capodarso 
(1343 and 1399) and Priolo (1514) and the Marquessate of Rocca-Aspromonte, 
as well as the Lordship of Casiglione, was by letters patent dated at Vienna 5 

26 Aug. 1730 cr. by the Emperor Charles VI. DUKE OF POLIGNANO (DucA DI 
POLIGNANO), with rem. to the heirs of his body in perpetuum. He m. Teresa 
Nicoletta de Raho, suo jure Baroness of Calsaciprani [Sicily] ; and had issue 
a son Philip, 2nd Duke, whose only son Camillo, 3rd Duke, d. unm. at Naples 

27 July 1854, when the title devolved as above on the grandson of his aunt 
Donna Elisabetta de Leto]. James (Edwin-Cole), 6th and present Duke of 
Polignano, obtained recognition of his right to the Dukedom and Marquessate 
25 Apr. 1905, and recorded it in Royal Registry at Naples 5 May following. 6 
See p. 8. 

1 Napoli, 1586, 4to, pp. 597 et seq. 

2 Firenze, 1651, folio. 

3 Calabria filustrata, da Gio Fiore da Cropani, folio, Napoli, 1691. 

4 She seems to have m. also Giovanni Francesco Carafa, who in her right was Marquess 
of Polignano, and d. s.p., but whether he was first or second husband the Editor does not 
know. See Huebner's Gemalogisches Tabellen, 1728, iv. 1094. 

6 Recorded In Titulorum Sexto, fol. Ixv. 
6 No. 7409, vol. 100, fol. 108. 



AN ALPHABETICAL LIST 67 

COMPO MAYOR [Portugal 1812]. See Beresford, Marquess of. 

COMPO MAYOR [? Spain]. See Beresford, Marquess of. 

COMYN. Michael Comyn, Doctor of Medicine of the Faculty of Rheims [b. at Kill- 
farbois, in the Diocese of Killaloe, 1713], was naturalized in France and recognised 
as a NOBLE by letters patent dated Jan. 1755, and d. at St. Quentin 21 Nov. 
1771. His son, Michael Charles Comyn, K.L.H., premier commis et secretaire 
de la Maison du Roi, b. at St. Quentin 3 Dec. 1744, had confirmation of his 
Nobility from King Louis XVIII. 2 May 1817. 1 

CONCRESSAULT [F. 1421]. See Stuart, Lord of. 

CONNOCK. Sir Joseph Connock, 2nd Bart, [grandson of Sir William Connock, 
cr. a Baronet [E.] by James III. 1732], is said to have derived the title of 
COUNT OF ALBY of the Holy Roman Empire from his mother, and to have 
been cr. MARQUESS OF ALBEVILLE [? in Spain]. 2 

CONOLLY, nee BRANCACCIO. Louisa Lucy Margaret Catherine, wife (m. 15 Sep. 
1840) of Charles John Thomas Conolly of Cottles, co. Wilts, and Midford 
Castle, Bath, Esq., J.P., D.L. (b. 12 Sep. 1818, d. s.p. 1871), and da. and h. 
of Nicola Maria (Brancaccio), Marquess of Rivello and Prince of Ruffano 
[Naples 1734] by Margaret, da. of Gulielmo, Baron Dotto de Danli, was 5 June 
1857 cr. by King Ferdinand II. MARCHIONESS OF ST. AGATA (MARCHESA DI SAN 
AGATA) [T.S.]. She d. at Midford 189-, when the title became extinct. 

CONWAY. Jacques (Conway), COUNT OF CONWAY, K.S.L., a Capt. in the Regt. 
of Clare with the rank of Col. by brevet 1 May 1779 [son of Thomas Conway, 
who served with James II., and grandson of Christopher Conway of Dromathan, 
co. Kerry], was b. at Glinbagh, co. Kerry, 1 May 1711, and by an " arret de 
maintenue de noblesse du 16 Mai 1783, Jacques, Comte de Conway et Jacques 
Henri, Baron de Conway, furent authorises a porter les titres de Comte, Vicomte, 
et Baron." His eldest son Thomas, 2nd Count of Conway, K.S.L., was an 
Officer in the French Service, and his 2nd son Jacques Henry, Baron de Conway, 
K.S.L., Brigadier-Gen, in the French Service (b. 1741), m. the da. of Edward 
Copley of York, K.S.L., Marechal-de-Camp in France, Comdt.-Gen. of the Island 
of Guadalope, Comm. of St. Lazarus. 3 

CONWAY. Edward Henry Joseph Conway [descended from Christopher Conway, 
son of Christopher Conway of Dromathan], 4 was by royal decree of 27 Aug. 
1853 cr. by King Leopold I. VISCOUNT OF CONWAY (VICOMTE DE CONWAY) 
[Belgium], with rem. to the heirs male of his body in the order of primogeniture. 
See p. 33. 

CONWAY [F. 1783]. See Conway, Count of. 

CONWAY [Belgium 1853]. See Conway, Viscount. 

COOK. Francis Cook, of the City of London and of Doughty House, Richmond, 
co. Surrey, in England, and of Monserrate, Cintra, in Portugal, Esq., F.S.A., 
head of the well-known firm of Cook, Son, & Co., was by royal decree of 
7 June 1870 cr. by King Louis VISCOUNT OF MONTSERRAT (VISCONDE DE 
MONSERRATE) [Portugal] for two lives. 5 He was afterwards (10 Mar. 1886) 
cr. a Baronet [U.K.]. Title still existing. See p. 17. 

COOTE. A family of this name is mentioned by Marryat 6 in his list of those English 
and Scots who were ENNOBLED in Sweden, but never introduced into House 
of Lords. See p. 43, note 3. 

CORBEIL [Normandy a. 1066]. See Granville, Count of. 

CORRIA [Castile a. 1472]. See Fitzjames, Marquess of. 

CORVO. See Rolfe. 

COSSON. Charles Alexander, BARON DE COSSON, F.S.A. (1 July 1886), F.R.G.S., 
sometime of Pyrcroft, Chertsey, co. Surrey, and now of 77 Via Ghibellina, 
Florence, was formerly Hon. Secretary of the Chertsey Habitation of the 
Primrose League, and is stated to have been a British subject. 7 

1 Titres de la Restauration, ii. 187. 

2 C. S. Gilbert's Historical Survey of Cornwall, 1817 ; Ruvigny's Jacobite Peerage, p. 38. 

3 Nob. de Belgique, 1856, p. 86. 4 See Nob. de Belgique, 1856, p. 87. 
5 Resenlia das Familias, &c., ii. 146. 6 One Year in Sweden, ii. 511. 

7 A Gen. Antoine Alexander Cosson, K.C.L.H. (b. at Lansac 4 Nov. 1766), received a 
donataire (r. 4000) in Westphalia from the Emperor Napoleon I. 17 Mar. 1808, and was 
11 Aug. following cr. Baron de Cosson [F.E.], with rem. to the heirs male of his body. 
The Editor, however, is not aware whether the Baron de Cosson above named is of this 
family, and an application for information has been unsuccessful. 



68 THE NOBILITIES OF EUROPE 

COSTA RICCI. Anselmo Jose, BARON DA COSTA RICCI [Portugal, so cr. 19 May 
1881], an attache of the Portuguese Legation (1894), sometime of 86 Ladbroke 
Grove, London, and afterwards at Whitehall, near Buxton, co. Derby, d. 
8 Apr. 1903. 1 He m. Anna Russell, da. of John Barnes, Esq., M.D., who d. at 
Paris 14 Nov. 1887, aged 58. 2 All their das. m. in this country, viz.: 
Estephania m. Arthur Granville Haworth, Esq., of 201 Gloucester Terrace, W. ; 
Mary Anna m. 28 Apr. 1894 Arthur Pilkington Shaw, Esq., of Whitehall afsd. ; 
Anna Oliphant m. 15 Dec. 1888 Sir Francis Patrick Fletcher Vane, Bt., late 
Scots Guards; Margaritta m. Percy Pugh Goolden Goolden, Esq., of 26 
Gloucester Terrace, W. ; Narciza d'Ornellas m. 15 Dec. 1894 John Gordon 
Nairne, of 48 Sussex Gardens, W., son of the late Mr. Andrew Nairne, Castle 
Douglas; and Emma Julia m. 29 May 1895 Ernest F. Haarbleicher, Esq., 
of 19 Montagu Square, W. 

COTTERELL. ( ) Cotterell was for some time in the service of Charles Louis, Duke 

of Lucca and (afterwards of) Parma, 3 and was one of the three Englishmen 
ENNOBLED by that Prince. 4 He is generally said to have been made a BARON, 
but COUNT seems to have been the actual title conferred, for Agnes Isa Sophia, 
younger da. of Henry, COUNT COTTERELL, m. at St. Helen's Church, North 
Kensington, 21 Aug. 1894, Joseph Robert Hill, I.S.C. 5 

COTTERELL [Parma c. 1854]. See Cotterell, Count. 
COUBERT [F. c. 1677]. See Schomberg, Count of. 
COURT [F.] See de Vicouse, Baron de la. 
DE COURTENAY. See de Salivet. 

COWPER. George Nassau (Cowper), 3rd Earl Cowper [G.B.], having by the death 
of his maternal grandfather, Henry (Nassau-d'Auverquerque), Earl of Grantham 
(to whose estates he succeeded), 5 Dec. 1754, become representative of the 
Counts Nassau of Auverquerque, was by Imperial patent dated at Vienna 
31 Jan. 1778 cr. by the Emperor Joseph II. a PRINCE OF THE HOLY ROMAN 
EMPIRE as PRINCE COWPER (FtiRST VON COWPER), with rem. to the heirs male 
of his body, and on 19 Aug. 1785 he had Royal License for himself and his 
issue to accept and use the title and arms of a Prince of the Holy Roman 
Empire. 6 His male issue failed on the death s.p. of Francis Thomas de Grey, 
5th Prince Cowper [H.R.E.] and 7th Earl Cowper [G.B.], 19 July 1905, when 
his Imperial honours became extinct. 

COWPER [H.R.E. 1778]. See Cowper, Prince. 

Cox. Owen Cox, formerly in the English navy, was Vice- Admiral of Sweden under 
King Charles Gustavus 1659. He greatly distinguished himself off Ebeltofte 
in Jutland by capturing five Danish and one Dutch man-of-war, and for this 
was ENNOBLED [Sweden] 1660 under the name of Sjolow, "Sea-lion," and had 
a grant of arms. 7 Extinct. 

CRAUFURD. Jacob Craufurd [of a Noble Scottish family which came to Sweden 
from Norway with the Jarl af More in the person of Alexander Craufurd of 

1 The Times, 13 May 1903. 

2 Ibid., Nov. 1887. 

3 Burke's Vicissitudes of Families, ii. p. 272. 

4 The two others were Ward and Sebright. 

5 The Times. 

6 " Sacri Romani Imperil Princepes de Cowper," says the patent. In the obituary 
notice in the New London Magazine, Feb. 1790, it is stated that "it is by mistake that he 
was called a Prince of the Holy Roman Empire, for no man can be a Prince of the Empire 
who does not possess the landed territory in the Empire from which he derives his title, and 
a seat in the Diet among the Princes." The Lordship of Mildenheim (sic) in Suabia, which 
was granted to the Duke of Marlborough and erected into a Principality (he being there- 
upon admitted, by his deputy, to sit in the College of Princes), is quoted as an example ; 
it being added, "this never was the case with the late Earl Cowper, who was no otherwise 
a Prince of the Empire, than that his present Imperial Majesty created him a Prince of 
the Milanese, one of his Italian provinces, which is considered as a fief, and consequently a 
branch of the Empire. His Lordship therefore was, strictly speaking, a Prince of Milan 
m the Holy Roman Empire." However this may be, he appears to have obtained this 
great honour at the request of the Emperor's brother Leopold, Grand Duke of Tuscany, the 
Countess being at the time " distinguished by his attachment." See The Complete Peerage, 
ii. 396, note a. 

7 Marryat, ii. 498. 



FELIXIQUIIPRODENS 




ARMORIAL BEARINGS OF 
THOMAS, IST COUNT RICCARDI-CUBITT 



AN ALPHABETICAL LIST 69 

Anachie 1613] 1 was naturalized and ENNOBLED [Sweden No. 743] as Crafoord 
1621, but was not introduced, and this family did not take their seat in the 
Swedish House of Lords till 1668. 2 Family still existing. See p. 39. 

CRESPIGNY. See Champion de Crespigny. 

CROFT. George Croft, " abastado proprietario ; subdito britanico " 3 [b. in Manchester 
15 May 1808, son of Thomas Croft, Esq.], having m. 2 June 1834 Dona Maria 
Luciana (b. 21 May 1810 and d. at Lisbon 21 May 1868), legitimated da. of 
Manuel Jose (d'Oliveira), 1st Baron de Barcellinhos [Portugal 1841], was by 
decree of the 25 Aug. 1870, confirmed by a royal charter dated 30 Aug. follow- 
ing, cr. by Louis I., King of Portugal, VISCOUNT OF GRACA (VISCONDE DA 
GRA$A) for two lives, " em duas vidas." * He d. at Lisbon 26 Jan. 1874, and 
was succeeded by his son, who was confirmed in the title by royal charter 
dated 18 Mar. 1875. 5 See p. 33. 

CROFT. Sir John Croft, 1st Bt. [U.K.], so cr. 17 Dec. 1818, a Portuguese Com- 
missioner attached to the British Mission at Lisbon in 1811-12, and afterwards 
Hon. Charge-d' Affaires there in 1815, having rendered valuable services during 
the Peninsular War by risking his life on several occasions to obtain informa- 
tion for the Duke of Wellington, and in distributing the British Parliamentary 
grant of 100,000 for relieving the Portuguese, was 14 Dec. 1853 6 cr. by 
King Pedro V. BARON OF THE SERRA DA ESTRELLA (BARAO DA SERRA DA 
ESTRELLA) [Portugal], with rem. to (?) and a K.C.T.S. See p. 21. 

CROMARTY [Sweden c. 1751]. See Mackenzie, Count of. 

7 

CROOK. A family of this name is mentioned by Marryat 8 in his list of those English 
and Scots who were ENNOBLED in Sweden, but who never took their seats. 

CUBITT. Thomas Cubitt of Eden Hall, co. Kent [son and h. of Capt. Lewis Cubitt of 
Orr House, near Hastings], was 27 May 1904 cr. by King Victor Emmanuel III. 
a COUNT OF THE KINGDOM OF ITALY as COUNT CUBITT (CONTE CUBITT) for life. 
He had m. 23 Nov. 1893 Fede Maria, only da. and h. apparent of Adolfo (Ric- 
cardi), 3rd Count Riccardi [Sardinia], K.M.L., K.C.I., Equerry to King Victor 
Emmanuel and formerly to King Humbert, Col. Italian R.A., &c., 9 which lady 
was 3 May 1904 cr. by King Victor Emmanuel III. COUNTESS RICCARDI-CUBITT 
(CONTESSA RICCARDI-CUBITT) [Italy], with rem. to the heirs male of her body 
by her said husband. [Filiberto Appiano, an Officer in the Piedmontese R.A., 
having distinguished himself in the campaigns of 1792, 1793, 1794, 1795, and 1796, 
was 2 Apr. 1833 cr. by King Charles Albert, COUNT APPIANO [Sardinia]. He 
was also made a Knight of St. Maurice and St. Lazarus of Savoy, and of the 
Red Eagle of Prussia (2nd Class with Star), a Knight Commander of St. 
Gregory the Great, and a Grand Cross of St. Stephen of Hungary, and was 
sometime Sardinian Ambassador to the Court of Berlin, and having no son 
he obtained a new patent 24 Sep. 1833, with rem. to his da. Teresa and the 
heirs male of her body by her husband Teodoro Riccardi. Their son is Adolfo, 
3rd Count, named above.] Count Cubitt assumed the additional name and 
arms of Riccardi by Royal License 10 Dec. 1904, and by a further Royal License 
dated 16 Dec. 1905 he was authorised by King Edward VII. to assume and 
use the title of Count Riccardi-Cubitt in the United Kingdom. See p. 17. 

CUCHET. See Fleming. 

CUFFE. Sherard John Otway Cuffe, now a Lieut. 4th Batt. Highland Light 
Infantry, has assumed the titles of " 5th Duke of Pleneuf and Marquess of 
Pleneuf and Grainville," as heir to his grandmother. He is the only son of 
Oscar Cuffe (d. v.m.), who was yr. son of Capt. John Otway Cuffe, of Killaghy 

Marryat, ii. 487; Donner, p. '23. 2 Sveriges Ridderskaps. 

Resenha das Familias, &c., ii. 39. 

Regist. no Arch, da T. do T. de Merces de D. Luiz I. 

Resenha das Familias, ii. 39. 6 Ibid., ii. 607. 

CROWE. H. S. Wheatley Crowe, sometime of Youlgrove, near Bakewell, co. Derby, 
author of " In Defence of a King," shortly after February 1905, the date of the publica- 
tion of that work, assumed the designation of " Baron de Montrencie." 

8 One Year in Sweden, ii. 511. 

9 Count Riccardi has the Silver Cross for Military Valour for his conduct at the battle 
of San Martino, 24 June 1859, when, in spite of the fact that he was severely wounded, he 
refused to quit the field and continued urging his troops to the assault. He has also the 
commemorative medals of the battles fought for the independence and unification of Italy. 



70 THE NOBILITIES OF EUROPE 

Castle, co. Kilkenny, by his 1st wife (m. 1857), Caroline Theresa (d. 1889), da. 
and h. of James Watkins, an architect, and grandda. of Thomas Watkins, 
who is said to have m. Caroline Sara Martha, only d. and h. of Edward 
Charles Henry Ralph de Grainville, which E. C. H. R. de Grainville is stated 
by him to have been cr by King Louis XVI. in 1790 MARQUESS OF GRAIN- 
VILLE and DUKE OF PLENEUF, with rem. to the heirs general of his body. 

CUNINGHAM. Thomas Cuningham, Col. Swedish R.A., son of Thomas Cuningham 
of Creall, who became a Merchant in Stockholm, was ENNOBLED [No. 1898] in 
Sweden 1747. He d. s.p. 1759. 1 

CURRIE. Andrew Currie, after being in the Polish service, went to Sweden, where 
he was ENNOBLED under the name of Tressenburg. He was slain at the siege 
of Copenhagen, 1659. 2 

CUSTIS. Jacques Custis, NOBLE OF THE HOLY ROMAN EMPIRE [son of Jean 
Francis Custis (b. at Bruges 5 June 1770 ; d. 8 Oct. 1825), who was great- 
great-grandson of Robert Custis, one of Cromwell's officers who settled in 
Rotterdam, and whose representative was 13 May 1727 ennobled in the Holy 
Roman Empire by the Emperor Charles VI.], b. at Lichtervelde 1804, was 
15 May 1862 received by King William III. as a JONKHEER [Netherlands]. 
He d. s.p. at den Bosch 22 Jan. 1882, when the title became extinct. 3 

CUTLER. A family of this name is mentioned by Marryat 4 in his list of those 
English and Scots who were ENNOBLED in Sweden, but never introduced into 
the House of Lords. 



DALTON. Alexander Dal ton, alias d' Alton, G.O.L.H., K.S.L., a Gen. of Division 
in the French Service [son of ( ) Dalton, Major of an Irish Regiment in 
France], b. at Brivas 10 Apr. 1775, was, by letters patent dated 15 Jan. 1809, 
cr. by the Emperor Napoleon I. BARON D' ALTON of the French Empire. 6 
He d. 20 Mar. 1859, leaving issue. His son and h. Alfred, 2nd Baron 
d' Alton [F.E.], was cr. COUNT D'ALTON by the Emperor Napoleon III., by 
an Imperial Decree of 17 Mar. I860. 6 Title still existing. See p. 32. 

D'ALTON. Edward D'Alton, a Lieut.-Gen. in the Imperial Service and a K.M.T., 
is said 7 to have been cr. a COUNT OF THE HOLY ROMAN EMPIRE by the Empress 
Maria Theresa. He was killed in command of the Imperial troops at the 
siege of Dunkirk, 1793. His eldest son Peter, 2nd Count D'Alton, of Grenans- 
town House, co. Tipperary, a J.P., D.L., and High Sheriff for that co. 1839 
(b. 18 May 1775), d. 21 Mar. 1851, leaving, with other issue by his wife, a da. 
of Lord Trimlestown, Edward, 3rd Count D'Alton, D.L., who d. s.p. 3 Sep. 
1877, when the title is said to have devolved upon his nephew, Henry Eustace. 
See p. 79. 

D'ALTON. Elizabeth Dalton, wife (m. 9 Apr. 1741) of Edmund Nugent of Bally- 
nacorr, co. Westmeath [sister to Christopher d'Alton of Mount d' Alton, a 
COUNT OF THE HOLY ROMAN EMPIRE, of Gen. Richard, Count d'Alton, of the 
German Service, 8 Governor of the Low Countries under Joseph II., and of 
Gen. James d'Alton, and da. of Oliver d'Alton of Mount d'Alton, co. West- 
meath], 9 was, by letters patent dated 14 Apr. 1778, cr. by the Empress Maria 
Theresa a COUNTESS OF THE HOLY ROMAN EMPIRE. She died leaving an only 
son. See Nugent. 

DALTON. Jean Wulfran Dalton, alias d'Alton, Receiver-General of Finances 
1810-14, was, by letters patent of 11 Apr. 1812, cr. a COUNT OF THE FRENCH 
EMPIRE as COUNT D'ALTON (COMTE D'ALTON) avec majorat. He m. 1801 

Marryat, ii. 487 ; Donner, p. 24. 2 Marryat, ii. 499. 

Ex inform. M. Bijleveld. 

One Year in Sweden, ii. 511. 

Armorial du Premier Empire, i. 9, ii. 5. 

Titres de la Restauration, ii. 253. 

Burlce's Peerage, 1840, p. 1089 et seq. ; 1862, pp. 1103. Lieut-Gen. Eichard D'Alton, 
K.C.M.T., and his cousin, Lieut.-Gen. Edward D'Alton, of Grenanstown, co. Tipperary, are 
there both stated to have been cr. Counts of the Empire, and to have had Royal License 
1785. 

8 See note 7. Burkes Peerage, 1840, p. 1094. 



AN ALPHABETICAL LIST 71 

Frances (dite Fanny), da. and in her issue heir of Henry (Shee), 1st Count Shee 
[F.E. 1810], and d. at Paris 24 Oct. 1825. His son Edward, 2nd Count d' Alton 
[F.E.], sue. his maternal grandfather as a PEES, [F.] 26 Jan. 1836, when he 
assumed the title of Count d' Alton- Shee, having been " authorise d, succeder d la 
pairie comtale hereditaire de son a'ieul maternel le Comte Shee et a s'appeler le 
Baron d'Alton-Shee de Lignieres," by a Royal Decree of 11 and 26 Dec. 1815. 1 
See p. 31. 

D' ALTON [H.R.E. 17 .] See Dalton, Count. 

D' ALTON [F.E. 1812.] See Dalton, Count. 

D'ALTON-SHEE [F.E.]. See Dalton, Count. 

D'ALTON [F.E. I860]. See Dalton, Baron (1809), Count. 

DANVERS. Alan Danvers, F.I.D., M.I.E.E. in England and Americafson of Frederick 
Charles Danvers, Registrar and Superintendent of the Record Department, India 
Office], for many years representative and Engineer-in- Chief in Portugal for the 
Edison-Gower-Bell Telephone Coy. of Europe, Ltd., and afterwards Managing 
Director and Chief Electrician in that country of the Anglo-Portuguese 
Telephone Coy., having rendered valuable services to the Portuguese Govern- 
ment, was, in recognition of this, 6 Apr. 1893 cr. a BARON as BARON DANVERS. 
See p. 23. 

D'ARCY. Patrick D'Arcy, a distinguished Mathematician [son of John Darcy of 
Kiltulla, co. Gal way], 2 entered the French Service, and was " Marechal de Camp 
et Armees du Roi, K.S.L., Member of the Academy of Sciences, had a declara- 
tion of the Nobility of his family from Prince Charles Edward 2 Jan. 1747, 
and in Feb. 1756 lettres de naturalisation et de reconnaissance d'ancienne noblesse 
were granted him by King Louis XV. He d. s.p. 18 Oct. 1779, 3 being sue. 
by his cousin, Richard Daniel, Baron and 2nd Count D'Arcy, son of Richard, 
Baron D'Arcy, a Capt. in Lally's Regt. (b. 5 Aug. 1729), who had obtained 
lettres de naturalisation et d'ancienne noblesse Jan. 1758 and the brevet of Col. 
29 Dec. 1777. Family still existing. See p. 30. 

DARCY. Robert (Darcy), 3rd EARL OF HOLDERNESSE and 6th BARON CONYERS [E.], 
m. Frederica, suo jure 4th COUNTESS OF MERTOLA (CONDESSA DA VILLA DE 
MERTOLA), elder da. and co-h. of Meinhardt (Schomberg), 3rd Duke of 
Schomberg (E. and F.], 1st Duke of Leinster [I.], 3rd Count of Mertola (Conde 
da Villa de Mertola) [Portugal 1668], a Count of the Holy Roman Empire, 
and 3rd Count of Coubert and Vitry [F.], when he became jure uxoris COUNT 
OF MERTOLA. He d. 20 Jan. 1722, and she 7 Aug. 1751. Their son Robert, 
4th Earl of Holdernesse and 5th Count of Mertola, d. 19 May 1778, when the 
Earldom became extinct, but the right to the Countship of Mertola devolved 
upon his only da. and h. Amelia, suo jure 9th BARONESS CONYERS [E.] and 
suo jure, de jure 6th COUNTESS OF MERTOLA [Portugal], who m. 29 Nov. 1773 
Francis Godolphin (Osborne), 5th Duke of Leeds [E.], K.G., who then became 
jure uxoris Count of Mertola. See p. 12. 

D'ARCY [F. 1758]. See D'Arcy, Count. 

DARELL. Andrew Darell or Darellian, a Physician in Stockholm [son of a 
naturalized Englishman 4 ] was ENNOBLED [Sweden No. 2068] 1770. Family 
extinct 1843. 5 

DAW. See Dawes. 

DA WES. James Dawes or Daw, Equerry in Ordinary to the Duke of Bourbon, 
Prince of Conde, b. at St. Helens, Isle of Wight, 17 Mar. 1799, was, by letters 
patent 21 Aug. 1828, cr. by King Charles X. a " Baron hereditaire sur institution 
de majorat" as BARON DAWES [F.]. He m. N. Man by, da. of an English 
Admiral, 6 and d. (? s.p.) 23 Nov. 1843. 

DAWES [F. 1828]. See Dawes, Baron. 

DELAFIELD. John Delafield, alias " de la Feld," b. 1637, an Englishman, is stated 
to have entered the Imperial Service, and, having captured a Standard from 
the Turks at the battle of Zenta, to have been (1697) cr. a COUNT OF THE HOLY 

1 Armorial du Premier Empire, i. 10, ii. 5; litres de la Restauration, ii. 253; 
Memoires du Comte d'Alton-Shee, 1826-1848. 

2 Burke's Commoners, iii. 146 ; de Magiiy's Nob. Universel, iii. 153. 

3 Diet. Nat. iog., xiv. 46. 

4 Marry at. 5 Sverigcs Adel. 
6 litres de la Restauration, ii. 286. 



72 THE NOBILITIES OF EUROPE 

ROMAN EMPIRE, with rem. to his descendants for ever. He is further said 
to have been the grandfather of John Delafield of Aylesbury (an ironmonger, 
b. 14 Aug. 1692, bur. 7 Jan. 1737), ancestor of the Delafields in England and 
America, styling themselves Counts de la Feld of the Empire. It appears, 
however, extremely doubtful whether the John Delafield of 1697 ever existed, 
and the grandfather of John Delafield of Aylesbury (the undoubted ancestor 
of the present family) so far from having been a Count of the Empire, 1 is shown 
by Mr. Oswald Barron to have been James Delafield, Yeoman, of Waddesdon, 
where he was bur. 25 Oct. 1674. 

DESERF [Sweden]. See Hamilton, Baron of. 
DESERF [Sweden 1654]. See Hamilton, Baron of. 
DESTRUTT. See Strutt. 
DE WORMS [Austria 1871]. See Worms, Baron. 

DICKSON. Family of Scottish origin, ENNOBLED in Sweden [No. 2340] 1880, cr. 
BARONS 2 1885 [No. 406], and introduced into Swedish House of Lords 1886. 
Title still existing. See p. 37. 

DICKSON [Sweden 1885]. See Dickson, Baron. 

DIGBY. The Countess Ella Geraldine Digby Boycott, of the Convent of the Sacred 
Heart, Roehampton, co. Surrey, spinster, 3 otherwise described as the Countess 
Ella Geraldine Digby, Canoness of the Royal Chapter of St. Anne of Munich,* 
d. at the Convent of the Sacred Heart, Roehampton, 12 July 1905. She 
was b. 4 May 1832, being the eldest da. 5 of Simon Digby of Obertstown, co. 
Kildare, by his wife (m. 9 June 1830) Elizabeth Anne Ella (d. at Pau 28 Feb. 
1900), da. of John Morse of Sprowston Hall, and Bagthorpe, co. Norfolk, and 
sister to John Hall Morse afterwards (R.L. 21 July 1844) Morse-Boycott of 
Sennowe, co. Herts, and was cr. a COUNTESS OF THE PAPAL STATES by Pope 
Pius IX. c. 1865-70. 

DIGBY or DIGBY-BOYCOTT [P.S. c. 1865]. See Digby, Countess. 

DILLON. Francis Dillon of Proudstown, co. Meath, was 22 Aug. 1763 cr. by the 
Emperor Francis I. a KNIGHT OF THE HOLY ROMAN EMPIRE,' and exactly 
four years later, viz. 22 Aug. 1767, a FREE BARON OF THE EMPIRE as BARON 
DILLON, with rem. to Ms descendants male and female for ever, and on the 
24 Apr. 1800 his son and h., John Talbot Dillon, had Royal License from 
George III. for himself and his heirs to accept and use the title in the United 
Kingdom. He d. 1806, leaving a son William Henry, 3rd Baron Dillon, 
K.C.H., a Vice- Admiral R.N., who d. (? unm.) 9 Sep. 1857. 

DILLON. Baron Francis Dillon [2nd son of Francis (Dillon), 1st BARON DILLON 
[H.R.E. 1767] ] was a Lieut. -Gen. and Col. of Cavalry in the Imperial Service, 
and was cr. a BARON OF THE EMPIRE in recognition of his distinguished 
services " on several occasions against the Turks." 7 He d. at Rome 1789, 
leaving issue. His only son Charles, 2nd Baron, was a claimant to the Great 
Chamberlainship of England in 1829, at which time he was apparently unm. 

DILLON. John Dillon of Lismullen, co. Meath, M.P., having devoted himself to the 
removal of the barbarous disabilities which at that time weighed down the 

1 See an article in The Ancestor, xi. pp. 97-128. 

2 Helen Caroline, da. of Baron and Baroness Dickson, d. at Gothenburg 24 Feb. 1893, 
aged twenty- four. TJie Times. 

3 The Times, 24 Aug. 1905. 

4 The Morning Post, July 1905. 

6 The other children were (1) Kenelm Roy, b. 30 Dec. 1830, d. young. (2) Edward Essex, 
Capt. 14th Hussars, b. 12 Aug. 1838, who assumed the additional name of Boycott, but 
afterwards (30 Dec. 1891, The Times) abandoned it. (3) Gertrude Simonette, b. 1 July 
1833, d. 27 Dec. 1838. (4) Mabel, b. 7 April 1835, appointed Superior of the whole 
Order of the Sacred Heart in 1900. (5) Eva Lettice, b. 27 Sep. 1843. These dates of 
birth are extracted from a note-book of his father's by F. A. Morse-Boycott, Esq., to whom 
the Editor is indebted for assistance in identifying this lady. 

6 The diploma is printed in extenso by Joseph Edmondson, Mowbray Herald Extra- 
ordinary, in his Complete Body of Heraldry (London 1780), appended to a dissertation on 
the Order Equestris of the Empire. 

7 See Epitome of the case of the Claim of the Dillon family of Proudstown to the 
Great Chamberlainship of all England by Sir John Joseph Dillon, Knight and Baron S.R.E. 
London, 1839. 



AN ALPHABETICAL LIST 73 



Irish Roman Catholics, and having been instrumental in obtaining liberty for 
them to deal with real property and afterwards in rescinding the law which 
forbade them to keep schools or to educate the youth of their own persuasion, 
was 4 July 1783 cr. by the Emperor Joseph II. a FREE BARON OF THE EMPIRE, 
with rem. to his heirs male and female. 1 On 22 Feb. following he had Royal 
License to accept this honour and to " bear the ensigns of the dignity worn 
by persons possessing the same in Germany," and on the 31 July 1801 he was 
cr. by George III. a BARONET [U.K.], with rem. to the heirs male of his body. 
Titles still held by his descendant. See p. 19. 

DILLON. The Hon. Arthur Dillon, a Lieut. -Gen. in the French Army, and Colonel 
Proprietor of the famous Dillon Regiment, having been 24 June 1721 cr. by 
King James III. and VIII. EARL OF DILLON [S.], was recognised 2 as a COUNT 
[F.] by King Louis XV., and his descendants (who in 1737 succeeded as 
Viscounts Dillon of Costello-Gallen [I.] 1622) continued to use in France the 
style of COUNT DILLON, with the addition of the Christian name in the case 
of younger sons and of das., down to the Revolution, after which period the 
connection of this branch of the family with France ceased. 

DILLON. Robert Dillon, Seigneur de Terrafort in France, heir male of the Dillons 
of Kilcornan, had issue 3 who were cr. or recognised as COUNTS [F.] by King 
Louis XV. with the title of COUNT OF DILLON (COMTE DE DILLON) for the head 
of the family and of Count or Countess before their Christian names for their 
male descendants and their das. The eldest son Theobald, 4 1st Count of 
Dillon, K.S.L., Marechal de Camp 28 Oct. 1816, d. 28 July 1819, leaving an 
only son, Augustus Henry, 2nd Count, who d. s.p. 28 Feb. 1873. Count 
Charles Edward Dillon, "le beau Dillon," the friend of Queen Marie Antoinette, 
and Master of the Wardrobe to the Count of Artois (afterwards Charles X.) 
in 1815, the 2nd son, d. s.p.m. 1839; and the 3rd son, Lieut. -Gen. Count 
Francis Theobald Dillon, K.S.L., K.L.H., was ancestor of the present Count of 
Dillon. 5 See Addenda. 

DILLON. General Count Theobald Dillon, last Colonel Proprietor of the famous 
Dillon Regiment, was massacred at Lille 1792. "His two grandsons are Count 
Arthur Dillon, who m. 1863 Gertrude [Elizabeth Priscilla] Graham of Norton 
Conyers, da. of a Baronet [Sir Bellingham Reginald Graham, 7th Baronet [E.] ] 
and sister of the Marchioness of Donegall [and d. 1889], and Theobald, m. 
Olympe, granddaughter of Baron Ramond, one of the principal members of the 
Legislative Assembly 1791. They are sons of a Military Intendant of whom 
the brother was Lieut.-Col. of the Royal Guards under Charles X. with the 
rank of Colonel." 6 The latter was doubtless the Charles Henry, Count Dillon, 
formerly Page to Charles X. and Colonel of a Cavalry Regiment in the French 
Service, who d. at his residence Boulevard Haussmann from the effects of a 
carriage accident 14 May 1890, aged 82. 7 

DILLON. Chevalier Charles Dillon, K.L.H., French Consul at Melbourne and 
afterwards Resident Superintendent in Annam, was ( ) cr. by Pope ( ) a 
COUNT OF THE PAPAL STATES. He d. at Paris 29 Apr. 1889. 8 

1 The patent recites with the usual copia, verborum, the reasons intuendis humanitatis, 
et tolerantice Christianas juribus, which led his Imperial Majesty to confer this unsolicited 
honour. It is printed in full in Archdale's Lodge's Peerage of Ireland, iv. 148, together 
with the letter granting him Royal permission to accept it. 

2 Saint-Allais' Etat Actual de la Noblesse de France, 1816, has the following list of 
such Dillons as were entitled -to " Us Honneurs de la Cour," in pre-Re volution times : 
Dillon (milord) in 1750 (a)"; Dillon (le Comte de) le 17 Mars 1770 (b) ; Dillon (le 
Chevalier) le 20 Janvier 1774 (c) ; Dillon (la Comtesse Arthur de) le 6 Mars 1785 (d) ; 
Dillon (la Comtesse Robert de) (e). (a} Henry, llth Viscount Dillon, d. 1787. (c) and (d) I 
am not quite certain about these, unless (b) is Theobald, Count Dillon, eldest son of 
Robert of Kilcornan, and (c) his younger brother " le beau Dillon." (d) Probably the 
2nd wife of the Hon. Arthur Dillon, guillotined 1794. (e) Presumably the widow of 
Robert of Kilcornan [grandmother of the Countess of Boigne]. Ex inform. Lieut-Col. 
W. F. Prideaux. 

3 His widow also appears to have obtained such recognition, see note 2. 

4 He must not be confused with the Count Theobald Dillon massacred at Lille 1792. 

5 See also The Plantagenet Roll, Clarence Vol., p. 428, and Essex Vol., Supp., p. 543 ; 
and Burke' s Peerage, 1879, p. 374. 

6 Reverend, 1870, p. 174. 

7 The Times. 

8 Papal Titles in France, p. 24; de Magny, Nob. Univ. de France, xx., xxii. 



74 THE NOBILITIES OF EUROPE 

DILLON OF PROUDSTOWN [H.R.E. 1767]. See Dillon, Baron. 

DILLON [H.R.E. c. 17 ]. See Dillon, Baron. 

DILLON of Lismullen [H.R.E. 1782]. See Dillon, Baron. 

DILLON [F. c. 17 ]. See Dillon, Count of. 

DILLON [P.S. c. 18 ]. See Dillon, Count. 

DIMSDALE. Thomas Dimsdale, M.D., having acquired a great reputation in the art 
of inoculating for the small-pox, was specially invited by the Empress 
Catherine II. to Russia in 1762 for the purpose of inoculating herself and the 
Grand-Duke, her son, which invitation he accepted, and acquitted himself so 
much to the Empress's satisfaction that she cr. him, by letters patent dated 
at St. Petersburg 13 Feb. 1769, a BARON OF THE RUSSIAN EMPIRE as BARON 
DIMSDALE, with the prefix Honourable attached for himself and the eldest 
of his lawful descendants in succession. The 2nd Baron received Royal 
License for himself and his heirs to assume and use the title in the United 
Kingdom 29 July 1813. Title still existing. See p. 19. 

DIMSDALE. Nathaniel Dimsdate, 2nd son of Thomas, 1st Baron Dimsdale [Russia], 
having accompanied his father to Russia, was at the same time as his father 
(13 Feb. 1769) cr. a BARON OF THE RUSSIAN EMPIRE with the title Hon. 
attached for himself and his descendants. He was M.P. for Hertford 1790- 
1804, and d. s.p. 3 July 1811, when the title became extinct. 

DIMSDALE [Russia 1769]. See Dimsdale, Baron. 
DINIZ-SAMUEL [Portugal 1855]. See Samuel, Baron de. 
DONOWAY. See p. 43, note 3. 

DORIA. Adair Andrew Doria, of 25 Old Buildings, W.C., and The Cottage, New 
Road, Shepherd's Bush, W., Barrister- at- Law of Lincoln's Inn, son of the 
Marquess of Spineto, of Cambridge, was living 1885, but apparently d. before 
1889, as his name does not occur in the Law List for that year. 

DORMER. A family of Dormer [descended from the Hon. James Dormer, who settled 
at Antwerp, 8th son of the 5th Baron Dormer [E.], who d. 2 July 1728] were 
LORDS OF BEAUMISTERCOUR and BEEZ in the Netherlands. Extinct in the 
male line 20 June 1805. 1 

DORNBURG [Saxe-Weimar 1851]. See Gordon-Lennox, Countess of. 

DOUGLAS. Archibald (Douglas), 4th EARL OF DOUGLAS [S.], having led a Scottish 
force to assist King Charles VII. against the English, was 19 Apr. 1424 cr. by 
that Prince DUKE OF TOURAINE (Due DE TOURAINE) [F.], with rem. to the 
heirs male of his body, and appointed Lieut. -Gen. of his forces. He was killed 
at Verneuil 17 Aug. 1424. His son, the 5th Earl of Douglas and 2nd Duke 
of Touraine, at the head of a combined force of French and Scots defeated the 
English at Bauge 21 Mar. 1421, for which service he was cr. COUNT OF 
LONGUEVILLE in Normandy and had a grant of the Lordship of Dun-le-Roy 
in Berry. His son William, styled " Duke of Touraine, Earl of Douglas and 
Longaville," was murdered in Edinburgh Castle, together with his only brother, 
24 Nov. 1440, when his French honours became extinct. 2 

DOUGLAS. Sir Robert Douglas [3rd son of Patrick Douglas, Baron of Whit- 
tinghame] entered the service of Gustavus Adolphus in 1631, and rose to the 
rank of Field-Marshal of Sweden and Councillor of State. He was 1651 cr. by 
Queen Christina BARON OF SKALBY (FRIHERR AF SKALBY) [Sweden], and 
18 May 1654 by the same Sovereign, some four weeks previous to her abdica- 
tion (16 June following), COUNT OF SKINNINGE (GREFVE AF SKINNINGE) 
[Sweden No. 1 9], with rem. to the heirs male of his body. He took his seat in 
the House of Lords the same year. 3 Title still existing. See p. 28. 

DOUGLAS. John Douglas or Dougleis, Lieut. -Col. in the Swedish Service [of a 
family who came from Roe in Scotland 1605], was ENNOBLED in Sweden [No. 821] 
1669. His eldest son, Leonard George, d. s.p. 1766* and his male descendants 
became extinct 181 1. 5 

DOUGLAS. Gustaf Otto Douglas, b. 1687, a lif-drabant under Charles XII., was 

1 Nob. de Belgique, 1856. 

2 Balfour Paul's Scots Peerage, iii. pp. 166-172. 

Taschenbuch der Grdflichen Hauser, 1853, 1856, 1907 ; Sveriges Ridderskaps. 
Marry at, ii. 463. 5 Sveriges Adel. 



AN ALPHABETICAL LIST 75 

taken prisoner at Pultowa, and, entering the Russian Service, soon rose to high 
rank, and as COUNT DOUGLAS was Governor of Finland for some time. He 
was living on his estates in 1763, aged 76, but of his " Russian descendants, 
should any exist, we know nothing." x 

DOUGLAS. Charles Joseph de Douglas, K.S.L., Capt. Royal Scots, Premier Con- 
seiller du Corps de la Noblesse des Provinces de Bugey et Valromey [said to 
have been a descendant in the 12th degree from Archibald, Earl of Douglas, 2 and 
presumably son and h. of the Count of Douglas, Col. of the Languedoc Regt., 
K.S.L., who d. at Douai 29 Mar. 1748, aged 44 3 ], was LORD COUNT OF MOUNT- 
REAL (SEIGNEUR COMTE DE MONT-REAL) in Bugey. He had three brothers, 
Capt. Joseph Marie de Douglas, Royal Scots, K.S.L. ; Francis Prosper de 
Douglas, K.S.L., Capt. Languedoc Regt., who m. 1737 Frances Charlotte de 
la Corme, granddaughter of the Governor of Mount-Real in Canada, and had 
issue Louis Archibald and Charles Luke; and the Rev. Peter Valentine de 
Douglas, Deputy to the General Assembly of the French Clergy 1762, and 
afterwards Archdeacon and Vicar-General of Auch. 4 

DOUGLAS. Hugo Sholto Osker George von Douglas of Ralswick, a Member of 
the Royal Prussian Staatsruth, was by diploma, dated at Berlin 15 Nov. 1886, 
cr. a BARON OF THE KINGDOM OF PRUSSIA by King William I., with rem. to 
his descendants, and 2 Dec. 1894 COUNT OF DOUGLAS (GRAF VON DOUGLAS) 
by King William II., with the same rem. 5 See p. 33. 

DOUGLAS [Sweden 1654]. See Douglas, Count of Skinninge, commonly called 
Count. 

DOUGLAS [Prussia 1894]. See Douglas, Baron (1886), and Count of. 
DOUGLAS 6 [Russia]. See Douglas, Count of. 

DOUGLAS-HAMILTON. William Alexander Louis Stephen (Douglas-Hamilton), 12th 
DUKE OF HAMILTON [S.] and 9th DUKE OF BRANDON [E.], and claiming to be 
DUKE OF CH!TELLERAULT [F. 1548] 7 [in consequence of his descent from 
James (Hamilton), 2nd Earl of Arran, who was cr. Duke of Chatellerault by 
Henry II. of France, see p. 94], was " maintenu et confirme, par decret du 
20 Avril 1864, dans le titre hereditaire de Due de Chatellerault, cree par le Roi 
, de France Henri II. en 1548 en faveur de Jacques Hamilton Comte d'Arran." 8 
" Such ' confirmation,' however, appears only to apply to a Peerage cr. 20 
Apr. 1864, for with respect to any Peerage that may in 1548 have been granted 
with or annexed to the duchy, the opinion of Mr. W. B. D. Turnbull, as 
expressed in his ' Factum touching the Restitution of the Duchy of CMtel- 
lerault ' [8vo, Edinburgh, 1843], is doubtless correct, viz., ' that his Grace of 
Hamilton being neither heir male nor heir female [h. of line] has as much right 
to it as he has to the throne of China.' " 9 He d. s.p.m. 16 May 1895, when he 
was succeeded by his kinsman Alfred Douglas, the present Duke. See p. 9. 

DOUGLAS dit SCHOTT. A family of Douglas dit Schott, claiming descent from the 
noble Scottish house, was ENNOBLED in the Low Countries. 10 Of this family 
was Albert Scott, Comte de Douglas, Conseiller de 1'Empereur Sigimond, who 
m. Blanche de Fiesca, da. of the Comte de Lavagna, and had " Barthelemy 
Scott or Schotte, Count de Douglas, Conseiller du due de Milan," ancestor 
of the family in Italy. 11 

DOWNE. See p. 43, note 3. 

D'OYLEY. John Evans D'Oyley [a grandson of a Sir John D'Oyley, who emigrated 
to America, espoused the side of the Colonists, and was made Col. of the 
1st Pennsylvanian Regt. and nominated a Hereditary Member of the Military 

1 Marryat, ii. 463 ; Donner, p. 24. 

2 La Chenaye des Bois, vi. 989. 

3 Gazette des France, 13 Apr. 1748. 4 La Chenaye des Bois. 

5 Taschenbuch der Grdflichen Hduser, 1907, p. 232. 

6 A Hisloire d'ffypolite, Comte de Dugles, by Ramage, was published 1726. 

7 On the Restoration of the Bourbons in 1815, the 10th Duke of Hamilton advanced 
his claim to the Dukedom of Chatellerault, which was, however, opposed on behalf of the 
Abercorn line, the heirs male. His son, having married a cousin of Napoleon III., renewed 
his claim as above. 

8 Bulletin des Lois, 25 Aug. 1864. 

9 G. E. C.'s Complete Peerage, i. 5, note a. 

10 Nob. de Belgique, 1853, pp. 74 et seq. u Ibid. 



7 6 



THE NOBILITIES OF EUROPE 



Order of Cincinnatus by Washington], 1 was, 26 Sep. 1876, cr. by Pope Pius IX. 
MARQUESS D'OYLEY (MARCHESE D'OYLEY) [P.S.], with rem. to the heirs male 
of his body. This was confirmed by Pope Leo XIII. 7 Oct. 1879. See p. 28. 

D'OYLEY [P.S. 1876]. See D'Oyley, Marquess. 

DRUMMOND. John (Drummond), 1st EARL and DUKE OF MELFORT [S.], K.G., K.T., 
Principal Secretary of State and Prime Minister (1689-93) to King James II. 
and VII., with whom he retired to France, was 17 Apr. 1692 2 cr. by King 
Louis XIV. a DUKE of France, as DUKE OF MELFORT (Duo DE MELFORT), 
with rem. to the heirs male of his body, by his 2nd wife, whom failing 
toj the heirs male of his body whatsoever. The 2nd Duke m. 25 May 1707 
Marie Gabrielle, Dowager Duchess of Albemarle [E.], suo jure Countess of 
Lussan and Baroness Valrose [F.], only da. and h. of John (d'Audibert), 
2nd Count of Lussan, &c. [whose father, Jacques (d'Audibert), 6th Lord of 
Lussan (a. 1477) and 3rd Lord of Valrose (c. 1560), had the " terres de Lusan, 
de Valros, de St. Andres d'Olerargues et St. Martin de Carciret " erected into 
a County for himself and his heirs under the title of COUNT OF LUSSAN (COMTE 
DE LUSSAN) by King Louis XIV., by letters patent dated Oct. 1645 3 ], and 
the 3rd Duke inherited these titles on his mother's death, 15 May 1741. The 
6th Duke in 1841 established before the Conse.il d'Etat in France and the 
Tribunal de la Seine his descent from the Earls and Dukes of Perth and Melfort 
and his right of succession to the French honours of Duke of Melfort, 4 Count 
of Lussan and Baron of Valrose, and by an Act of the British Parliament 
28 June 1853, the attainder of his ancestor was reversed and he was restored 
as 14th EARL OF PERTH AND 6TH EARL OF MELFORT, &c. [S.] He died s.p.m.s. 
28 Feb. 1902, when the Dukedom of Melfort [F.] became extinct, and the 
County of Lussan and Barony of Valrose devolved on his only surviving da. 
See p. 12. 

DRUMMOND. John Dromund [son of John Drummond, a Lieut. -Col. in the Swedish 
Service, 1638, who d. 1645] was ENNOBLED in Sweden [No. 445] 1649 in con- 
sideration of his father's services. 5 He was Captain 1676, and Quartermaster- 
General of the Livonian Army 1678. Extinct 1698. 6 

DRURY. George Vandeput Drury, succeeded to the estate of Shotover Park, co. 
Oxford, on the death of his cousin, Thomas James Schutz, 7th Baron Schutz 
of the Empire (1674) (see under Sinoldt dit Schutz), and according to Burke 7 
became BARON DRURY of the Empire. He was living apparently unm. 1840. 

DUCAREL. Gustavus Ducarel of Walford, co. Somerset, is stated 8 to have been 
MARQUESS OF CHATEAUNUY and VISCOUNT OF BONNEMAR (MARQUIS DE 
CHATEAUNUY et VICOMTE DE BONNEMAR) in France. His yr. da. and co-h. 
Harriet (d. 24 Sep. 1813) m. 1807 Charles March-Phillipps of Garendon Park 
and Grace Dieu Manor, Esq., J.P., D.L., M.P., and in Burke 's Peerage for 
1870 9 their son Ambrose Lisle March-Phillipps de Lisle of Garendon is stated 
to have succeeded as Marquess of Chateaunuy and Viscount of Bonnemar. 
Elizabeth, da. and co-h. of a " Gerard Ducarel, Marquis Ducarel, of Chateau 
Muids," m. Archibald Hamilton Foulkes of Coolawinna, co. Wicklow, and 
their only da. and h. Elizabeth d. 14 July 1829, having m. as 1st wife 
21 July 1817 Robert Gun-Cuninghame of Mount Kennedy, co. Wicklow, by 
whom she was grandmother of the present Cornwallis Robert Ducarel Gun- 
Cuninghame of Mount Kennedy. Peter Marie Francis, Count of La Pasture 
fs. and h. of the 2nd Marquess of La Pasture], m. 16 Feb. 1797 Elizabeth, de- 
scribed by Burke as " da. of Gerard Gustavus Ducarel and relict of Hamilton 
Foulkes of the co. Wicklow," and had issue. 

DUDLEY. Sir Robert Dudley, the " so-called base son " of Robert, Earl of 
Leicester [E.], [son of John (Dudley), Earl of Warwick and Duke of Northum- 
berland [E.]], who, if his legitimacy be accepted, was entitled (1588) to 

1 Nob. Univ. de France, by L. de Magny, 1894, xx. 

Viton de Saint- Alais, xx. 144. 

La Chenaye des Bois. 

See Burke' s Peerage, 1902, p. 1196. 

Marryat, ii. 488 ; Donner, p. 25. 6 Sveriges Adel. 

Burke's Peerage, 1840, p. 1091. 

Burke's Landed Gentry, 1906, p. 450. An Adrian Coltee Ducarel, son of James Coltee 
Ducarel, by Mary Jane his wife, b. at Paris, of the Protestant faith, was naturalized by 
Act of Parliament, 1772 [12 Geo. III., No. 70]. 
9 P. 1229. 






AN ALPHABETICAL LIST 77 

the Earldom of Leicester and Barony of Denbigh and (1589) to the Earldom of 
Warwick, and, subject to the attainder (1553), to the Dukedom of Northum- 
berland (1551), Earldom of Warwick (1547), and Viscounty of Lisle (1542) 
[E.], 1 being refused recognition of these honours in England, went to Florence 
about 1608, where he became Grand Chamberlain to the Grand Duchess 
of Tuscany, and having rendered material service to the Grand Duke in the 
draining of the morass for forming the port of Leghorn, obtained from her 
brother the Emperor Ferdinand II., by a diploma dated 8 Mar. 1620, a grant of 
recognition of the title of DUKE OF NORTHUMBERLAND and EARL OF WARWICK 
in the Holy Roman Empire, with rem. to his eldest son [by his then wife, whom 
he is said to have m. about 1608 by Papal Dispensation, though his first 
wife was then living] the illustrious Lord Cosmo and his other children accord- 
ing to priority of birth. He d. 6 Sep. 1649, leaving issue, the male line of which 
failed on the death of the 4th Duke about 1728, 2 when his honours became 
extinct. 

DUFF. ( ) D u ff [whose father was in the British Diplomatic Service, and who 

was descended from a Gen. Duff, a member of a Scottish Catholic family who 
settled in Lisbon, and married a Portuguese lady] was 19 cr. VISCOUNT OF 
CHAMPALIMAND-DUFF (VISCONDE DE CHAMPALIMAND-DUFF) ? for life. He 
d. ( ). 

DUFFUS. See p. 43, note 3. 

DUGOUT DE CASSAUX. John Alexander Dugout de Cassaux, otherwise John 
Alexander Dugout de Cassaux de Roumillac, of the river Salle, in the Island 
of Grenada, W.I., a British subject, was 1 Sep. 1781 cr. by H.H. Pope Pius VI. 
MARQUESS OF CASSAUX (MARCHESE DI CASSAUX) [P.S.], for himself and the 
heirs of his body. 3 

DUMESNIEL. See du Mesniel. 

DUNBAR. Castere Dublar, Body Physician to King Stanislaus of Poland [son of 
Magnus Dublar or Dunbar, a Scottish merchant of Ronneby], who on taking 
orders was called, after the pedantry of the age, de Ronnavia, afterwards cor- 
rupted into Ronnow, and was Parson of Trolle-Ljungby and hid Charles XI. 
from the Danes in 1679, was ENNOBLED [No. 2047] in Sweden 1759. Extinctl787. 4 

DUNCAN. See p. 43, note 3. 

DE DURFORT. Louis (de Durfort), MARQUESS OF BLANQUEFORT (MARQUIS DE 
BLANQUEFORT) [F.], a younger son of Guy Aldonce (de Durfort), Marquess 
of Duras and Blanquefort, Count of Rosenpuiols, Baron of Roth Transilian 
and Landewet [F.], 5 b. at Duras, in Guyenne, was naturalized as Lewis 
Blanquefort by Act of Parliament 31 Oct. 1665, 6 cr. BARON DURAS OF 
HOLDENBY, co.* Northants, 19 Jan. 1673, and having m. Lady Mary, elder da. 
and co-h. of George (Sondes), 1st Earl of Feversham [E.], succeeded to that 
Earldom under the special rem. with which it was cr. 8 Apr. 1676. He d. s.p. 
19 Ap. 1709, when all his honours became extinct. 7 

DUSE. Bengt Duse [son of Peter d'Ewes, who signed the contribution of the 
Nobles in 1561 8 ] was ENNOBLED 9 [Sweden No. 119] by King John 1576, but 
did not take his seat in the House of Lords. His son was introduced 1625. 
Still existing. See p. 38. 

DUWALL. See MacDougall. 

DUWALL [Sweden 1674]. See MacDougall, Baron. 



EBERSTEIN [H.R.E. 1721]. See Schulenberg, Princess of. 

EDEN. A family of British origin [descended from Claus, son of Matthew Eden, 

1 See The Complete Peerage, vii. 88, 89 ; Diet. Nat. Biog., &c. 

2 Ibid. 

3 Patent registered at the College of Arms, London, 8 Dec. 1787. 

4 Marryat, i. 83, ii. 496 ; Donner, p. 45 ; Sveriges Adel. 

5 Preamble to Act, No. 10, 17 Charles II. 

6 Journals of the House of Commons, viii. 623. 

7 G. E. C.'s Complete Peerage, iii. 342. 

8 Marryat, ii. 488. 

9 " Skall vara iitlandsk adelig att" ; Sveriges Ridderskaps, 1907. 



78 THE NOBILITIES OF EUROPE 

a brewer] 1 ENNOBLED in Sweden [No. 617] under the name of Edenberg 1654. 
Extinct 1716. 2 

EDENBERG. See Eden. 

EFFIAT [F. 17 ]. See Law, Marquess of. 

EHRENSPARBE. See Feif. 

ELICHE [Spain]. See Fitzjames, Marquess of. 

ELVAS [? Spain]. See Beresford, Duke of. 

EMANTJEL. Henry Emanuel, of Bond Street and of Hyde Park Gardens, London, 
jeweller, a member of the Devonshire and Whitehall Clubs, b. in England 
in 1831 of Anglo- Jewish parents, sometime (1880-1896) Minister at Paris for 
the Republic of San Domingo, was by Decree of 22 Apr. 1875, confirmed by 
letters patent of 30 Apr. following, cr. by Louis I., King of Portugal, BARON 
OF ALMEDA (BARAO D' ALMEDA) for life, "em aua vida."* He d. s.p.m.s. Jan. 
1898, when the title became extinct. 

ENGLISH. Countess Isabella Jane English, of 8 Ulster Terrace, Regent's Park, 
London, and of Dun Esk, Teignmouth, spinster, d. 2 Sep. 1888.* 

ERESO [P.S. 1899]. See Meller, Count of. 

D'ERLANGER. Rafael Erlanguer, K.C.C.P., Consul-General of Portugal at Frank- 
fort-on-Maine, and also for Sweden and Norway, was, by decree 13 Sep., 
followed by a charter of the 19th November 1859, cr. by King Peter V. BARON 
D'ERLANGER [Portugal] for two lives, " em duas vidas." 5 He was 30 Oct. 
the following year cr. a BARON by the Frankfort authorities, and this title was 
recognised and confirmed in Austria 25 Aug. 1871 and in Prussia 22 May 1872. 
He d. 30 Jan. 1878, leaving issue, and several of the family are now domi- 
ciled in the United Kingdom. The eldest son, Frederick Emile, 2nd Baron 
d'Erlanger, was confirmed in the Portuguese title by a decree of 26 January 
1866, 6 and is a K.C.C.P., G.C.I.C., and a banker. His eldest son, Baron 
Raphael, m. 28 Nov. 1894 Marie Carola Franciska Roselyne, da. of the Right 
Hon. Sir Rowland Blennerhassett, 4th Bt., P.C., and d. v.p. 29 Nov. 1897, 
leaving two das. ; and the second son, Baron Emile Beaumont d'Erlanger, 
of t 6 Hamilton Place, Piccadilly, m. at the Chapelle des R. P. Passionistes, 
Avenue Hoche, Paris, 6 Feb. 1895, Marie Rose Antoinette Catherine de 
Robert d'Aqueria, da. of the Marquess of Rochegude. 

ERSKINE. ( ) Erskein was ENNOBLED [Sweden] 1652, but never took his seat. 7 

ERSKINE. Alexander Erskine [son of Walter Erskine and Anne Forest, who settled 
in Tomerania] was b. in Greifswald 31 Oct. 1598, and entered the Swedish 
Service, was Councillor of War, Swedish Plenipotentiary for the Treaty of 
Munster, 1648, and President of the Swedish Court of Appeal in Pomerania, 
Bremen and Verden, and was ENNOBLED as VON ERSKINE 1643 and cr. BARON 
ERSKINE (FRIHERR VON ERSKINE) by King Charles Gustavus 1655. 8 He d. 
24 Aug. 1656. 

ERSKINE. Alexander Erskine was ENNOBLED [Sweden] 1598. According to Dr. 
Fischer, this family still exists. 9 

ERSKINE. The Hon. James Erskine [5th son of David, 2nd Lord Erskine [U.K.] ] 
was 18 Jan. 1872 cr. BARON ERSKINE (FREIHERR VON ERSKINE) in Bavaria, 
with remainder to his male descendants and their das. 

ERSKINE [Sweden 1655]. See Erskine, Baron. 
ERSKINE [Bavaria 1872]. See Erskine, Baron. 
ESSENEUX [Flanders]. See Bruce, Countess of. 

1 Marryat, ii. 488. 2 Sveriges Add. 

3 Regist. no Arch, da T. do T. Chanc. de D. Luiz /., liv. 29, a fl. 26, v. 

4 The Times, 26 Nov. 1888. 

5 fagist. no Arch, da T. do T., Merces de D. Pedro V., liv. 17, a fl. 90. 

6 Ibid. Mercys de D. Luiz /., liv. 14, a fl. 53. 

7 Marryat, ii. 501. 

8 Donner, p. 25. Marryat, however, says of him : " Alexander Erskin, related to the 
Middletons, Lindsays, Gordons, and Grahams, was for his services as Commissariat to 
Gustavus Adolphus raised to the rank of a baron 1652, but declined, though he is some- 
times styled Baron Erskein." 

9 The Scots in Sweden, p. 260. 






AN ALPHABETICAL LIST 79 

ETCHEGOYEN. Vincent Charles Henry d'Etchegoyen, styled VISCOUNT and after- 
wards COUNT D'ETCHEGOYEN [yr. brother of Louis Charles Daniel d'Etche- 
goyen (d. 10 July 1835), who on inheriting the property of his step-father, 
Lieut.-Gen. Daniel, Count O'Connell, was 27 Sep. 1829 cr. VISCOUNT D'ETCHE- 
GOYEN-O'CoNNELL [F.] for life, and 3rd son of Jean Louis Bernard, dit Baron 
et Comte d'Etchegoyen, of a family originally of Beam, ENNOBLED 1660], 1 
was naturalized as a British subject 14 June 1876. He was b. in Paris 3 Feb. 
1818, was Deputy for the Loir-et-Cher 1850-1, and d. at Richmond 5 Feb. 
1885, 2 leaving issue John Baptist Valentine, Armand Albert John, and Henry 
Mary Paul. 

Eu [F. 1419]. See Bourchier, Earl of. 

EUSTACE. Henry Eustace, Esq. [s. and h. of Lieut.-Gen. Henry Eustace, by the 
Countess Henrietta, da. and in her issue (3 Sep. 1877) h. of Peter, 2nd Count 
d'Alton [H.R.E.], who d. 21 Mar. 1851], became (according to Burke), 3 on the 
death of his uncle Edward, 3rd Count d'Alton [H.R.E.], 4th COUNT D'ALTON 
OF THE HOLY ROMAN EMPIRE. He was living 1879.* 

EVERTON [Lucca 1842]. See Sebright, Baron of. 
EVREUX [F. 1427]. See Stuart, Count of. 

EYRE. Johan Ihre, Professor of Latin at Lund University, author of a Glossarium 
Sviogothicum (1769) [descended from Hans Eyre, a Scot who settled in Gott- 
land in the sixteenth century], was ENNOBLED [Sweden No. 2043] by King 
Adolphus Frederick 1757, and took his seat in the House of Lords 1776. 6 His 
descendant Albrecht Elof Ihre was Minister of State 1841, and was 1843 cr. 
BARON IHRE [Sweden No. 398] by King Charles XIV. 8 The Barony is extinct. 

EYRE. Lewis Eyre [fifth son of Vincent Eyre of Highfield and Newbolt, co. Derby] 
was cr. a COUNT of the Lateran Hall and Apostolic Palace as COUNT EYRE 
(CONTE EYRE) by H.H. Pope Gregory XIV. by letters patent dated at St. Peter's, 
Rome, 3 Mar. 1843, with rem. to the heirs male of his body. 7 His son, the 2nd 
Count Eyre, Archbishop of Glasgow in 1878, d. 27 Mar. 1902, when the title 
became extinct. 

EYRE [P.S. 1843]. See Eyre, Count. 



FAGAN. Charles Fagan [grandson of the Chevalier Christopher Fagan, K.S.L., an 
officer in the French Service, who d. 1816, aged 63], is said 9 to have been cr. 
COUNT OF FAGAN (COMTE DE FAGAN) [F.], and d. 6 Mar. 1813. 

FAGAN [F. 18]. See Fagan, Count of. 

FELTRE [F.]. See Clarke, Duke of. 

FEIF. Casten Feif, Councillor of War 1708 [b. 1661, descended from James Feif, 
a Scottish merchant in Stockholm], entered the Swedish Civil Service and 
became a great favourite with Charles XII., whose flight from Bender he 
planned, and by whom he was ENNOBLED [No. 1405] in 1707 and cr. BARON FEIF 
(FRIHERRE FEIF) [Sweden No. 129] in 1715. He d. 1724. Family extinct 1739. 10 

FEIF. Donat Feif, Chamberlain of the House of Lords [b. 1685, yr. grandson of 
Donald Fyf or Feif, a Scottish merchant in Stockholm], was ENNOBLED 
[Sweden No. 1816] under the name of Alderstolphe 1727. 11 Extinct 1765.* 2 

FEIF. Christopher Feif, Lieut. -Col. in the Swedish Service 1743 [b. 1694, also 
a grandson of Donald Fyfe or Fif above named], was ENNOBLED [Sweden 
No. 1694] under the name of Ehrensparre 1719 for his services in the Norwegian 
Campaign of 1716-18. 13 Extinct 1785. 14 

1 Reverend, 1847, p. 362. 

2 Titres de la Restauration, iii. 16. 

3 Peerage, 1879, p. 1333. 4 Peerage, 1879, p. 1333. 

6 Sveriges Ridderskaps. 6 Donner, p. 12. 

7 JBurke's Peerage, 1849 ; Debretfs Peerage, 1891. 

8 Mention appears in The Times 29 Mar. and 4 Apr. 1904 of "the Baroness Florence 
Mary FABIEN D'HEUREUX " described as a British subject and a native of Trinidad. 

9 Burke's Landed Gentry, i. 363. 

10 Marryat, ii. 482 ; Donner, p. 26 ; Sveriges Add. 

11 Donner, p. 25. 12 Sveriges Add. 
13 Donner, p. 26. 14 Sveriges Adel. 



8o THE NOBILITIES OF EUROPE 

FEIF [Sweden 1715]. See Feif, Baron. 

FEILDING. The title of COUNT OF THE HOLY ROMAN EMPIRE has been claimed 
by the family of Feilding, Earls of Denbigh [E.] and Desmond [I.], it being 
alleged that their original ancestor in England was one Geoffrey, a younger 
son of Geoffrey, Count of Hapsburg, who " served Henry III. in his wars in 
England, and assumed the surname of Felden, Fieldeng, Fyilding, or Filding, 
from his father's pretensions to the dominions of Lauffenburg and Rhein- 
felden." l This magnificent descent, which is said to have been recognised 
by the Emperors of Austria, and which would constitute the Earls of 
Denbigh heirs male of the House of Hapsburg since the death of the Emperor 
Charles VI. , 20 Oct. 1740, has, however, been dealt with by Mr. J. H. Round 
in an article in The Genealogist, 2 wherein he apparently proves it to be in- 
correct. 

FERMOR. Gen. William [Willimevitch] Fermor, an English Officer in the Russian 
Service, having distinguished himself in the Seven Years' War, was 12 June 1758 
cr. by the Emperor Francis I. a COUNT OF THE HOLY ROMAN EMPIRE, for 
himself and his descendants, and by an Imperial order of 14 Sep. following 
he was authorised by the Empress Elizabeth to carry in Russia the title of 
COUNT FERMOR. The title became extinct on the death of his son William, 
2nd Count. 3 His heiress married into the family of the Counts Steinbock. 4 
[Sweden 26 Mar. 1651.] 

FERMOR [H.R.E. and Russia 1758]. See Fermor, Count. 

FERRAL. Edward Ferral [son of ( ) Ferral, by his wife ( ), sister and heir of 
Edmund, Count Bourke, P.C., K.D., see p. 55] was 31 May 1842 cr. by King 
Christian VII. COUNT FERRAL-BOURKE (GREFVE FERRAL-BOURKE) [Denmark], 
with rem. to the heirs male of his body. He d. s.p. 1 July 1868, when the 
title became extinct. 5 

FERRAL-BOURKE [Denmark 1842]. See Ferral, Count. 

FERRIERES [Netherlands 1820]. See du Bois, Baron de. 

FERSEN [Sweden 1674]. See Macpherson, Baron. 

FERSEN [Russia 1796]. See Macpherson, Count. 

FERSEN [Russia 1855]. See Macpherson, Baron. 

FERSEN [Sweden]. See Macpherson, Count of Granhammar (1712), styled Count. 

FFRENCH. Albert Henry de Vreque ffrench [son of Acheson Ffrench and grandson 

of ( ) Ffrench of Castle Monivea by his wife Nicola, da. of Sir Lucius Henry 

O'Brien, 3rd Bart., and aunt of the 12th Lord Inchiquin 6 [L], was 17 June 
1895, in consideration of his being ex parte matris heir apparent of the ancient 
and princely family of O'Brien of Cashelthomond in Italy, cr. by Pope Leo XIII. 
MARQUESS OF CASHELTHOMOND (MARCHESE DE CASHELTHOMOND) [P.S.], with 
rem. to the heirs male of his body. See p. 12. 

FIFE. Daniel Pfeiff, Assessor in the Superior Court of Justice at Abo 1692 7 [de- 
scended from George Fife, called son of a Scottish Viscount 8 ], was ENNOBLED 
[Sweden No. 945] by King Charles XI. under the name of Pfeiff 1678 9 and 
introduced into House of Lords 1680. David Pfeiff, son of the Bishop of 
Revel, and grandson of the above mentioned George Fife, entered the Swedish 
Navy, and afterwards served with Charles XII. at Bender, and was by him 
cr. a BARON (FRIHERR) [Sweden, No. 289] 1772. 10 Still existing. See p. 35. 

FINLAY. Robert Finlaij [descended from Francis Finlaij, a merchant in Moscow, 

1 Burke* s Peerage, 1907, p. 483. 

2 N.S., x. 193-206. 

3 La, Noblesse titree de la Russie. 

* Count Steinbok Fermor was one of the members of a Commission appointed by the 
Emperor to draw up measures for a Constitution to be given to Russia. See The Times, 
26 Nov. 1904. 

Ex inform. H. R. Hiort-Lorenzen. 

Calenclario d'Oro, Anno xii., Rome, 1900. Table facing p. 198. 
Donner, p. 35. 
Marryat, ii. 482. 

Dr. Fischer, p. 263, gives J. J. Pfeif, Bishop of Revel, ennobled the same year. 
10 Sveriges RiddersTcaps. 






AN ALPHABETICAL LIST 81 

son of John Finlay, a Scottish banker in Dublin, who came to Sweden] was 
ENNOBLED [No. 1698] in Sweden 1755. 1 Extinct 1785. 2 

FINNEKUMLA [Sweden 1655]. See Sinclair, Baron of. 

FINSTADT [Sweden]. See Keith, Baron of. 

FISTULATOR. John Fistulator, a Scotsman, went to Sweden, was naturalized and 
ENNOBLED [Sweden No. 1378] under the name of Lagerbielke (" samma ursprung 
m. m., som adeliga atten Lagerbielke ") by King Charles XII. 1698, and became 
Accountant of the Admiralty 1712. His descendant ( ) Lagerbielke was cr. 
BAEON LAGERBIELKE [Sweden No. 254] by King Adolphus Frederick 1766, 
and introduced into House of Lords 1774, and the latter's son, Johan Gustaf 
Lagerbielke, High Admiral of Sweden, was cr. COUNT LAGERBJELKE [Sweden 
No. 115] by King Charles XIII. 1809. Still existing. See p. 31. 

FISTULATOR. Another branch of the same family ("fran Skottland ; hette forut 
Fistulator ") ENNOBLED [Sweden No. 1378] by King Charles XII. 1715, and 
introduced into House of Lords the same year. Still existing. See p. 40. 

FISTULATOR. See Piper. 

FITZJAMES. James (Fitzjames), 1st DUKE OF BERWICK [E.], K.G., K.G.F., K.H.G., 
having retired to France with his father King James II. and VII., and being 
attainted by William of Orange 1695, was naturalized there 17 Dec. 1703. He 
was made a Marshal of France 1706, and was sent to Spain at the head of a 
French army to assist King Philip V., by whom he was appointed Captain- 
General of the Spanish army, and having while in command of the Franco- 
Spanish forces defeated the British under the Marquess of Ruvigny at 
Almanza, 25 Apr. 1707, was 16 Oct. following cr. DUKE OF LIRIA AND XERICA 
(DUQUE DE LIRIA Y DE XERICA) in the province of Valencia and a GRANDEE 
OF THE IST CLASS [Spain], with rem. to the heirs general of his body. On 
his return to France he was 23 May 1710 cr. by Louis XIV. DUKE OF FITZ- 
JAMES (Due DE FITZJAMES), of Warty, on the Oise, in Beauvois [F], with rem. 
to the heirs male of his body by his second wife. He was killed by a cannon 
ball at the siege of Philipsburgh 12 June 1734, when he was sue. in his French 
title, in accordance with the special rem. with which it was cr., by his second 
surviving son (see below), while his English and Spanish honours devolved 
on his eldest son (and only child by 1st wife), James Francis, 2nd Duke of 
Berwick, Liria and Xerica, K.G., K.G.F., who m. 31 Dec. 1716 Catalina (nee 
de Portugal- Colon), 9th DUCHESS OF VERAGUA, 3rd DUCHESS OF LA VERGA, 
9th MARCHIONESS OF JAMAICA, llth COUNTESS OF GELVES, and 10th ADMIRAL 
OF THE INDIES. [The famous Admiral Christopher Columbus (Cristobal Colon) 
was 1493 cr. ADMIRAL OF THE INDIES by Ferdinand and Isabella, and his son 
Diego was 1537 cr. DUKE OF VERAGUA AND LA VERGA and MARQUESS OF 
JAMAICA. The latter's da., Isabella Columbus, m. 1521 George of Portugal 
[son of Don Alvaro, yr. son of the 2nd Duke of Braganza], who was cr. 
COUNT OF GELVES by a charter dated at Barcelona 20 June 1529, and on the 
extinction of the male line of the Columbus family by the death s.p. of the 
3rd Duke of Veragua, his honours devolved on the 6th Count of Gelves.] 
3rd MARCHIONESS OF SAN LEONARDO AND LA MOTA, 6th COUNTESS OF AYALA, 
and 9th LADY DE VILLORIA [Ferdinand de Toledo, a yr. son of the 1st Duke 
of Alba (who d. 1488), was cr. LORD OF VILLORIA, and Anthony Francis, 4th 
Lord, was cr. COUNT OF AYALA. Mariana Theresa, da. and in her issue ( 10 May 
1710) h. of the 3rd Count (by his wife Dona Catherine, d. and h. of Goncalo 
Fajardo, 1st Marquess of San Leonardo and La Mota), m. the 7th Duke of 
Veragua, K.G.F.], 4th MARCHIONESS OF TARAZONA, 10th COUNTESS, llth VIS- 
COUNTESS, and 12th LADY OF MONTEREY, and 16th LADY OF ULLOA [Diego 
Lopez de Zunega was, 22 May 1432, cr. by John II., King of Castile, LORD DE 
MONTEREY. The 2nd Lord was cr. VISCOUNT OF MONTEREY, and his da. 
Theresa, 2nd Viscountess, m. Sancho Sanchez (de Ulloa), 7th LORD DE ULLOA, 
who was 1474 cr. by Henry IV., King of Castile, COUNT OF MONTEREY. Isabella, 
7th Countess, was 17 Aug. 1642 cr. by King Philip IV. MARCHIONESS OF 
TARAZONA, and m. the 3rd Count of Ayala]. Their son, James Francis 
Edward, sue. his father as 3rd Duke of Berwick, Liria and Xerica, &c., in 1737, 
his mother as 10th Duke of Veragua, &c., in 1739, and shortly after became, 
by the death of his mother's distant kinsman, the 6th and last Duke of 
Taurisano 17 , llth MARQUESS OF SARRIA, 14th COUNT OF LEMOS, 12th 
COUNT OF ANDRADE AND VILLALBA, and 20th LORD OF LEMOS AND BARRIA 

1 The Scots in Sweden, by Th. A. Fischer (Edinburgh, 1907), p. 260. 

2 Marryat, ii. 488 ; Sveriges Adel. 

F 



82 THE NOBILITIES OF EUROPE 

[Hermando Gutierrez de Castro was cr. LORD OF LEMOS AND SARRIA by 
Ferdinand II., King of Leon (1157-1188). Beatrice, 7th Lady of Lemos 
and Sarria, m. Pedro Alvarez Osorio, Lord of Cabrera, who was 9 Feb. 
1457 cr. COUNT OF LEMOS by Henry IV., King of Castile. Beatrice, 3rd 
Countess of Lemos, m. Dionis of Portugal (a younger son of the 3rd Duke 
of Braganza), and their son Ferdinand m. the 3rd Countess of Andrade 
and Villalba, and was 1 May 1543 cr. by Charles I. (Charles V.) MARQUESS 
OF SARRIA, with rem. to the heirs of his mother. Francis, 5th Marquess 
of Sarria, who d. 1616, was cr. DUKE OF TAURESANO, but the whole of his issue 
became extinct on the death of the 6th Duke, when that title became extinct, 
while all the others reverted to the 3rd Duke of Berwick as above, as h. to 
Catalina, wife of the 5th Duke of Veragua, and only da. of Fernando Ruiz 
de Castro, yr. son of the 3rd Marquess of Sarria]. He m. 1738 Maria 
Theresa, yr. da. but in her issue (1802) sole h. of Emmanuel Maria (de Silva), 
9th Count of Galve (b. 18 Oct. 1677, d. 7 Oct. 1728) by his wife Maria 
Theresa (nee Alvarez de Toledo), suo jure llth Duchess of Alba, and their 
descendant, Charles Michael, 7th Duke of Berwick, Liria and Xerica, and 
14th Duke of Veragua, &c., became 1802, 14th DUKE and 15th COUNT 
OF ALBA DE TORMES and a GRANDEE OF THE IST CLASS, 15th COUNT OF 
SALVATIERRA and MARQUESS OF CORIA, 12th COUNT OF GALVE and 16th LORD 
OF VALDECORNEJA, 12th DUKE OF HUESCAR and llth COUNT OF LERINO 
[Hernando Alvarez de Toledo, Lord of Valdecornija, was 1439 cr. by King 
John II. of Castile COUNT OF ALBA DE TORMES. Garcia Alvarez, 2nd Count, 
was cr. COUNT OF SALVATIERRA and MARQUESS OF CORIA, and 1465 or 1472 
by King Henry IV. DUKE OF ALBA and a GRANDEE OF THE IST CLASS. 
Ferdinand, 3rd Duke of Alba ("the Duke of Alva "), Viceroy of Naples 1555, 
and Governor of the Netherlands 1567, was cr. 1st DUKE OF HUESCAR. His 
2nd son Diego, who d. 1583, was 1st COUNT OF LERINO, and the latter's son 
Anthony, 2nd Count, sue. his uncle as 5th Duke of Alba. The llth Duchess 
of Alba m. the 9th Count of Galve as above], llth MARQUESS OF VILLANUEVA 
[Frederic (Henri quez), 1st Marquess of Villanueva, was yr. brother of the 
1st Duke of Alcala temp. 1530. Antonia, sister and in her issue h. of the 
3rd Marquess, m. the 6th Duke of Alba], 16th DUKE OF GALISTEO and COUNT 
OF OSSORNO and a GRANDEE OF THE IST CLASS [Gabriel, yr. son of Garcia 
(de Lara Manrique), 1st Count of Castagneda, who d. 1436, was cr. COUNT OF 
OSSORNO and DUKE OF GALISTEO, and a GRANDEE OF THE IST CLASS. On the 
death of Anna, 8th Duchess, s.p., the titles reverted to the 7th Duke of Alba 
as grandson of her aunt, wife of the 2nd Marquess of Villanueva], 12th MARQUESS 
and 21st LORD OF THE CARPIO and a GRANDEE OF THE IST CLASS [Garcia Mendez 
de Sotomayor was 1325 cr. LORD OF THE CARPIO (SENOR DEL CARPIO). Beatrice, 
8th Senora del Carpio, m. Diego Lopez de Haro, Constable of Castile. Their 
grandson, Diego Lopez (de Haro-Sotomayor), 10th Lord del Carpio, was 20 Jan. 
1559 cr. MARQUESS OF THE CARPIO by King Philip II., and the 5th Marquess 
was made a GRANDEE OF THE IST CLASS by King Philip IV. 1631. The 
6th Marquess (afterwards 1645 4th Count-Duke of Olivares) was Prime 
Minister to Philip IV. The 8th Marchioness m. the 10th Duke of Alba], and 
10th COUNT-DUKE OF OLIVARES, 9th MARQUESS OF ELICHE, and a GRANDEE 
OF IST CLASS [Don Pedro de Guzman, yr. son of the 3rd Duke of Medina 
Sidonia, was cr. COUNT OF OLIVARES by Charles I. of Spain (Charles V.). His 
son, the 2nd Count, was apparently 1st MARQUESS OF ELICHE and DUKE OF 
MONTORO. Gasper, 3rd Count, was the famous Minister of Philip IV., by whom 
he was 8 Jan. 1635 cr. DUKE OF SAN LUCAR LA MAYOR and MEDINA DE LAS 
TORRES, with rem. to his illegitimate son. 1 On his death s.p.l. 1645 his 
hereditary titles devolved on the son of his sister, the 6th Marquess of the 
Carpio]. His son, James Francis Louis Paul, 8th Duke of Berwick and 15th 
Duke of Alba, &c., m. 14 Feb. 1844 Maria Frances (nee Portocarrero-Palafox), 
suo jure 9th COUNTESS and 10th LADY OF MONTIJO, llth MARCHIONESS and 
15th LADY OF VILLANUEVA DEL FRESNO, and llth MARCHIONESS OF BAR- 
CARROTA [Alfonso Fernandez Portocarrero was 1st LORD OF VILLANUEVA DEL 
FRESNO, MOGUER, &c. Juan, 5th Lord, was cr. MARQUESS OF VILLANUEVA 
DEL FRESNO and BARCARROTA by Queen Juana. His youngest son Christobel 
was 1st LORD DE MONTIJO, and his son Juan, 2nd Lord, was 13 Dec. 1599 cr. 
COUNT OF MONTIJO by King Philip III., and his descendant, the 8th Count, 
became on the failure of the senior line 9th MARQUESS OF VILLANUEVA DEL 
FRESNO, &c.], 7th MARCHIONESS OF VILDERABANO and 8th COUNTESS and 

1 After this he was always called "el Conde-duque," and in memory of this his 
successors adopted and have retained the style of " Conde-duque de Olivares." 



AN ALPHABETICAL LIST 83 

llth LADY OF FUENTIDUENA [Alvarez de Luna was Prime Minister to John II., 
King of Castile. His eldest son Juan was cr. COUNT OF ESTEBAN DE GORMAZ, 
and his 2nd son Pedro, 1st LORD OF FUENTIDUENA, was ancestor of Antonio, 
4th Lord, who was cr. COUNT OF FUENTIDUENA. The latter's da. and h. Anna, 
2nd Countess of Fuentiduena and 1st MARCHIONESS OF VILDERABANO, m. the 
3rd Count of Montijo], 9th MARCHIONESS OF ALGAVA [Diego de Guzman was cr. 
COUNT OF TEBA. 1 His son Luis, 2nd Count of Teba, was cr. MARQUESS OF 
ARDALES l and ALGAVA, and was grandfather of Agnes, 3rd Marchioness and 
4th Countess, who m. Cristobel Portocarrero (d. v.p. 1641), and was^ mother 
of the 4th Count, of Montijo], 12th DUCHESS and 20th LADY OF PENARANDA 
DE BRACAMONTE, 14th MARCHIONESS and 16th LADY OF THE BANEZA and 
17th COUNTESS OF MIRANDA DEL CASTANOR [Diego Ziifiega (apparently 4th Lord 
of Penaranda) was 9 Feb. 1437 cr. COUNT OF MIRANDA DEL CASTANOR. Pedro, 
5th Count, was 1559 cr. by Philip II. MARQUESS OF THE BANEZA for himself 
and his heirs of the house of Miranda. His only da. d. s.p. 1620, when her 
titles reverted to her cousin, the son of her uncle Juan, who had been 22 May 
1608 cr. by Philip III., DUKE OF PENARANDA DE BRACAMONTE. Maria del 
Carmen, 10th Duchess of Penaranda, d. s.p. 4 Nov. 1829, and was sue. by her 
cousin, the 8th Count of Montijo, grandson of her aunt Maria Josepha de 
Zunega], 15th VISCOUNTESS OF THE PALACES OF VALDUENA [Dona Maria, da. and 
h. of Pedro de Bazan, by his wife Juana de Ulloa, Lady de la Banza, Viscountess 
de la Palacios de Valduerna, m. the 4th Count of Miranda], COUNTESS OF 
CASARUBIOS [Juan de Chaves Chacon, Viscount of the Calzada, 1 Count of 
Casarubios and Santa Cruz de la Sierra, 1 m. 5 Oct. 1659 the 6th Duchess of 
Penaranda], also MARCHIONESS OF VALDUNQUILLO and MIRALLO and four times 
a GRANDEE OF SPAIN OF IST CLASS ; and all these titles merged in the house 
of Fitz james on her death 16 Sep. I860, 2 as did also that of COUNT OF 
SIRUELLA, and GRANDEE OF THE IST CLASS, on the death 27 Nov. 1904 of the 
wife of the 9th Duke of Berwick, she being suo jure 22nd Countess of Siruella 
[Ferdinand de Velasco, yr. brother of the 1st Count of Haro, was 1st LORD 
OF SIRUELLA, and his son Juan was cr. COUNT OF SIRUELLA and a GRANDEE 
OF THE IST CLASS. Eleanor, 3rd Countess, m. Christobel de la Curva, and her 
descendant Josepha, da. and h. of the 13th Count, m. Ferdinando (de Silva), 
13th Count of Cifuentes, who d. 24 Dec. 1749. Their son Juan sue. as 14th 
Count of Cifuentis, and their da. Maria Louisa as 14th Countess of Siruella, 
and was ancestress of the Duchess of Berwick]. Titles still existing. See p. 25. 

FITZ JAMES. Lady Mary Stuart-Fitzjames, da. of the 15th Duke of Alba and 8th 
Duke of Berwick, sue. her father 10 July 1881 as 8th DUCHESS OF GALISTEO 
(DUQUESA DE GALISTEO) [Spain], and her mother 16 Sep. 1860 as 17th MAR- 
CHIONESS OF THE BANEZA, 16th VISCOUNTESS OF THE PALACES OF VALDUERNA, 
and 17th LADY OF THE BANEZA (MARQUESA DE LA BANEZA, VIZCONDESSA DE 
LA PALACIOS DE VALDUERNA, y SENORA DE LA BANEZA) [Spain]. See p. 26. 

FITZJAMES. Lord Hernando Charles Stuart Fitzjames, yr. son of the 16th Duke 
of Alba and 9th Duke of Berwick, sue. his father as DUKE and LORD OF 
PENARANDA DE BRACAMONTE, MARQUESS OF VALDERABANO, and COUNT and 
LORD OF MONTIJO (DUQUE DE PENARANDA DE BRACAMONTE, MARQUES DE 
VALDERABANO, CONDE DE MONTIJO. SENOR DE PENARANDA Y DE MONTIJO). 
See p. 26. 

FITZJAMES. Lord Peter Fitzjames (Don Pedro Fitzjames), Admiral of Spain [yr. 
son of the 2nd Duke of Berwick and Liria], sue. his mother 1739 as MARQUESS 
OF SAN LEONARDO (MARQUES DE SAN LEONARDO) [Spain], but d. s.p., when 
the title passed to his elder brother, the 3rd Duke of Berwick, &c., as above. 

FITZJAMES. Lord Henry Fitzjames (Don Enriquez Fitzjames) [yr. son of the 
7th Duke of Berwick and Liria], sue. his father as 13th COUNT OF GALVE 

1 These titles, as well as those of Countess of Banas, Mora and Ablitas, and Marchioness 
of Osera and Moya, and a Grandee of the 1st Class, passed on the death of the 9th Count 
of Montijo, 15th Jan. 1839, to his younger da. Eugenie, Empress of the French. 

2 The 8th Duke of Berwick is also styled by de Burgos "Conde Modica de Piedrahita, 
de Val de Pero, de Morente y de Colle, Baron de Pinos y Mataplana, de Alcamo, de Cacamo 
y de Calatefimi " ; but these titles do not appear among those of his successors, and the 
Editor is unaware how or in what way he came to bear them. The present Duke of Alba 
and Berwick is also heir presumptive to the Spanish titles of his great-aunt, the Empress 
Eugenie, who is suo jure Marchioness of Ardales, Osera, and Moya, 10th Countess of Teba, 
Banos, Mora and Ablitas, Viscountess of the Calzada, and Grandee of the 1st Class. See 
note 1. 




THE 'NOBILITIES OF EUROPE 

(CONDE DE GALVE) [Spain] 7 Oct. 1838, but d. s.p. 28 Apr. 1882. His widow 
(Countess of Galve) still survives. 

FITZ JAMES. Lord Charles Fitzjames, fifth but fourth surviving son gj: the 1st 
Duke of Berwick (see above), sue. his father as 4th * DUKE OF FITZJAMES (Due 
DE FITZJAMES), of Warty [F.], in accordance with the special rem. with which 
that title was created, and on 4 June 1814 his grandson Edward, 6th Duke, 
K.M., was cr. by King Louis XVIII. a PEER OF FRANCE. Titles still held by 
his descendant. See p. 27. 

FITZJAMES. James Charles Rene de Fitzjames, O.L.H., K.S.L., Marechal de Camp 
[a natural son of James Charles, 5th Duke of Fitzjames [F.] ], was 17 Feb. 
1828 cr. by King Charles X. VISCOUNT FITZJAMES (VICOMTE DE FITZJAMES) 
[F.] for life. He was b. at Paris 16 July 1788, and d. at Oran 30 Nov. 1834, 
when his title became extinct. 2 

FITZJAMES [F. 1710]. See Fitzjames, Duke of. 

FITZJAMES [F. 1828]. See Fitzjames, Viscount. 

FLADGATE. John Alexander Fladgate of Oporto, K.C.C.P. [4th and youngest son 
of Francis Fladgate, b. 1773, d. in England 5 Nov. 1821, by his wife Mary 
(? nee Fladgate), b. 1776, d. in England 13 Jan. 1862], 3 a British subject, and 
proprietor in Alto-Duoro, was by decree of 9 Oct. 1872, confirmed by a royal 
charter dated the 24th of the same month, cr. BARON ROEDA (BARAO DE 
ROEDA) [Portugal]. He m. 29 Aug. 1837 Margaret Collet, da. of Robert 
Dalgleish (? da. of Baron Cottrell), by whom, who was b. 24 Nov. 1817, and d. 
at 106 Elgin Crescent, W., 1 Mar. 1901, aged 83, 4 he had issue three sons and 
seven das. His eldest and only surv. son, Francis Pedro Gauntlett, b. 25 Mar. 

1839, d. at Oporto 11 Sep. 1888, having m. 1864 Laura Luiza, da. of ( ) 

McMaster, by whom he had two children, Maude Victoria, b. 31 Oct. 1865, 
and Vivian, b. 28 May 1872. 5 

FLAHAULT DE LA BILLARDRIE. Margaret (nee Nairne), suo jure BARONESS KEITH 
[I. and U.K.], and de jure 5th BARONESS NAIRNE [S.], m. at Edinburgh, as 
2nd wife, 20 June 1817, Augustus Charles Joseph (de Flahault), 1st Count de 
Flahault de la Billardrie [F.E.], G.C.L.H. [He was descended from Charles 
Cesar (de Flahault), 1st (styled) Marquess of La Billardrie [F.] in Boulonnois, 
G.C.S.L., who d. 23 May 1743, 6 being the son of Charles Francis (de Flahault), 
Count de la Billardrie (d. 1793).] He was sometime A.D.C. to Napoleon, 
being by him cr. a BARON OF THE EMPIRE 2 Nov. 1810, and a COUNT 11 Dec. 
1813. On the Restoration Louis XVIII. made him a PEER 2 June 1815, and 
after the Revolution of 1830, adhering to Louis-Philip, was by him cr. a PEER 
also, 19 Nov. 183 1. 7 He was subsequently Ambassador to Vienna and (1860) 
to St. James. He d. 2 Sep. 1870, leaving five das., of whom the eldest, Emily 
James, suo jure Baroness Nairne [S.], m. 1 Nov. 1843 Henry (Petty-Fitz- 
maurice), 4th Marquess of Lansdowne [G.B.]; and the 3rd, Georgina Gabriella, 
m. 2 Oct. 1871 Charles Jean Marie Felix (de Flahault), Marquess of La 
Valette, who d. 2 May 1881. 

FLEETWOOD. Sir George Fleetwood [6th son of Sir William Fleetwood of Cranford, 
co. Northants, and uncle of George Fleetwood, the regicide, and of Gen. 
Charles Fleetwood, Cromwell's son-in-law] 8 raised a squadron of Horse, with 
which he joined the Swedish Army in Germany 1629, and speedily rose to 
high rank. He was sent by Gustavus Adolphus as his Ambassador to 
Charles I., by whom he was knighted, and on his return to Sweden was 
naturalized 1649, and 1654 cr. BARON OF JALUNDA or BARON FLEETWOOD OF 
JALUNDA 9 (FRIHERR FLEETWOOD AF JALUNDA) [Sweden No. 49], with rem. 

1 The 2nd son James was Duke v.p. on resignation from his father, and d. s.p. 13 Oct. 
1731, being sue. by his next brother Francis, afterwards Bishop of Soissons, who renounced 
the title in favour of his next surviving brother as above. See La Chenaye des Bois, viii. 70. 

2 Titres de la Restauration, iii. 60. 

3 Reseriha das Familias, ii. 450. 4 The Times. 

5 Resenha das Familias, &c. , ii. 450. 

6 La Chenaye des Bois, Diet, de la Noblesse, viii. 77. 

7 Armorial du Premier Empire, ii. 166. 

8 Marryat, quoting from the Swedish records, describes him as son of Sir Miles 
Fleetwood, by his wife, a da. of ( ), by a da. of the Count Gyllenbroke, ii. 478-9. 

He is the Lord Fleetwood frequently mentioned in the records of the period. See 
Noble's Houte of Cromwell, ii. 353 ; Betham's Baronetage, i. 122; also see note to p. 200 
in Burke s Extinct Baronetcies, 1844, and Burke's Commoners, iv. 522. 



AN ALPHABETICAL LIST 85 

to the heirs male of his body, and took his seat in the House of Lords the same 
year. He was afterwards sent as Swedish Ambassador to Cromwell, and d. 
1667, leaving three sons, Gustavus Miles, 2nd Baron Fleetwood, ancestor of 
the present Baron (see p. 34), Baron George William Fleetwood, and Baron 
Joachin Adolphus Fleetwood, who returned to England and was naturalized 
1656. 
FLEETWOOD [Sweden 1654]. See Fleetwood, Baron of Jalunda, styled Baron. 

FLEMING. Jean Louis Cuchet (b. in Geneva 15 Nov. 1779) m. 1st, Seymour 

Dorothea Worsley (who d. at Paris-Passy 9 Sep. 1818), widow of ( ) Fleming, 

and having been naturalized in England was authorised by Royal License 
28 Feb. 1806 to take the name of Fleming. Afterwards he was cr. an here- 
ditary Baron as BARON DE FLEMING [F.], by letters patent of King Louis 
XVIII. 29 Nov. 1821. He d. s.p. His only da., Cesarine Amable Louisa 
Fleming, m. before 1840 Denis Bernard Frederic, Baron de Graff enried-Villars. 1 

FLEMING [F. 1821]. See Fleming, formerly Cuchet, Baron de. 

FLINT or FLINTSTEN. A family [descended from Neils Flint, a Welshman, Col. in 

the Russian Service] ENNOBLED in Sweden [No. 1325] under the name of Flintsten 

1695. Extinct 1733. 2 

FOCK. John Henry (Fock), 2nd Baron de Robeck, K.S.S. [son of Constantino Fock, 
who was cr. BARON FOCK DE ROBECK [Sweden] by Bang Frederic I. in 1750, 
but who apparently never took his seat], 3 served with considerable distinction in 
the Swedish and French armies, and having m. 9 Mar. 1789 Anne, yst. da. and 
eventual sole h. of the Hon. Richard Fitzpatrick, brother of John, 1st Earl of 
Upper Ossory, was naturalized in Great Britain by Act of Parliament 13 July 
following 4 as " John Henry ffock, called Baron de Robeck, son of Jacob 
Constantino, Baron fock, by Catherine Magdelaine Howerd, his wife, b. at 
Westergothland, in the Kingdom of Sweden, of the Protestant faith." 5 The 
3rd Baron was High Sheriff co. Kildare 1834, co. Dublin 1838, and for co. 
Wicklow 1820. His son is the present Baron. See p. 19. 

DE FONBLANQUE. See de Grenier. 

FORATT. Capt. Alexander Foratt [descended from Alexander Forth ? a Capt. in the 
Swedish Service during the Thirty Years' War] was ENNOBLED in Sweden 
[No. 490] 1650. He d. s.p. 1660. 6 

FORBES. Arvid Forbus [eldest son of Ernald Forbes, a Scot descended from 
William Forbes of Forbes, who settled in Sweden], b. at Anas in Finland 7 
1598, entered the Swedish Service, was naturalized as a Noble [Sweden No. 249] 
1638 together with his brother Matthias, became General of Infantry and 
Governor of Pomerania, and, having produced letters signed by King Charles I. 
certifying that he was of noble birth and descended from the race of Thainston, 
Master of Forbes, 8 o was 1652 cr. BARON FORBUS OF KUNGSGARD (FRIHERR 
FORBUS AF KUNGSGARD) [Sweden No. 35]. He d. s.p.m. 1665, when the title 
became extinct. 

FORBES. Jacob Forbes of Lund was 1631 9 cr. a NOBLE [Sweden No. 174] by King 
Gustavus II. His descendant, Otto Magnus Forbes [son of Noble Alexander 
Magnus Forbes] was after the separation of Finland from Sweden enrolled 
in the Finnish Riddarhus [No. 11] 17 Sep. 1818. He d. s.p. 18 July 1831, 
when the family became extinct. 10 

FORBES. Peter Forbes was 1651 cr. a NOBLE [Sweden No. 542] by Queen Christina. 
Extinct 1710. 11 

FORBES. Matthew Forbes, owner of Morsknas and Idlaks in Nyland, Lieut. -Col. 
of the Tavastehus Regt. 1632 12 [younger brother of Arvid, 1st Baron Forbes 



1 Titres de la Restauration, iii. 61. 

2 Marryat ; Sveriges AdeL 



3 The title does not appear in the Ridderhus Rolls in the Sveriges AdeL 

4 29 Geo. III. 

5 Preamble to Act. 

6 Marryat, ii. 489 ; Donner, p. 26 ; Sveriges AdeL 

7 Donner, p. 9. 

8 Marryat, ii. 478. 

9 Fischer's Scots in Sweden, p. 260. 

10 " Angifver att atten i Sverge fullkomligt eller pa manssidan ar utdod." Finland 
Ridderskap, 1897, p. 547. 

11 Sveriges Add, i. 210. 12 Donner, p. 10. 



86 THE NOBILITIES OF EUROPE 

[Sweden 1652], see above] was naturalized and ENNOBLED in Sweden [No. 249] 
1638. Extinct. 1 

FORBES [Sweden 1652]. See Forbes, Baron. 

DE FOREST. Maurice Arnold Bischoffsheim and his younger brother Raymond, 
adopted sons of the late Baron Hirsch [Austria], were 26 Feb. 1899 cr. by 
the Emperor Francis Joseph BARONS OF THE AUSTRIAN EMPIRE as BARON DE 
FOREST and BARON RAYMOND DE FOREST, with rem. to the heirs male of their 
bodies. They assumed the name of de Forest, were naturalized as British 

subjects 1 , and received Royal License to assume and use their titles in 

the United Kingdom 4 Oct. 1900. 

FOREST [Austria 1899]. See de Forest, Baron de. 

FORESTIER. Lieut. -Gen. Gaspard Francis Forestier, K.C.L.H., K.S.L. [of a family 
of Scottish origin], b. at Aix in Savoy 14 Mar. 1767, was cr. a BARON OF THE 
FRENCH EMPIRE as BARON FORESTIER by letters patent 25 Nov. 1813, with 
rem. to the heirs male of his body. He d. s.p. 24 Apr. 1832, when the title 
became extinct. 2 

FORESTIER. Gen. Francis Louis Forestier, O.L.H. [yr. brother of the above], b. at 
Aix 3 Mar. 1776, was 28 Aug. 1810 cr. by the Emperor Napoleon I. a BARON 
OF THE FRENCH EMPIRE as BARON FORESTIER, with) rem. to the heirs male 
of his body. He d. unm. Feb. 1814, when the title became extinct. 3 

FORESTIER. [F.E. 1810]. See Forestier, Baron. 
FORESTIER [F.E. 1813]. See Forestier, Baron. 

FORRESTER. Joseph James Forrester, was by decree of 25 Apr. 1855 cr. by 
Louis I , King of Portugal, BARON FORRESTER (BARO DE FORRESTER) for 
life, " em sua vida." He was b. 21 May 1809, was a K.C.C.P., K.V.V., K.C.I.C., 
K.C.S., K.M.L., and had the 1st Class of the Austrian, Papal, French, and 
Russian Orders of Merit, and " m. afogado na passagem da ponte do Cachao, 
no rio Douro em 1881," having m. 10 May 1836 Elisa (b. 11 Nov. 1811, 
d. 3 Aug. 1847), da. of William Cramp, Director of " alfandegas," co. York, 
and had issue, James, Jos6 James, Elysa, Frank William, William, and 
Ermelinda. 4 

FORRESTER [Portugal 1855]. See Forrester, Baron. 

FORSTER. Richard Forster, " subdito britannico, e negociante da Praca com- 
mercial de Londres," was by decree of 3 Oct. 1878, confirmed by a charter 
24 Oct. following, cr. by Louis I., King of Portugal, BARON FORSTER (BARlo 
DE FORSTER) for life, " em sua vida" 5 No other particulars have been obtained. 6 

FOSTER [Portugal 1878]. See Foster, Baron. 

FOUCHECOUR. See de Salivet. 

FRANKEUN. Family [descended from Rowland Frankelin, an Englishman who 
m. the Polish Princess Patavin, and whose son Henry came to Sweden, and, 
having a talent for languages, was appointed his Chamberlain by King Charles IX. 
and m. Christina, the eldest natural da. of King Eric XIV.], 7 ENNOBLED in 
Sweden 1625. Extinct. 

FRASER. Thomas Fraser [of the family of Lord Lovat] went to Sweden with 
Gen. Jacob Spens' Regt. 8 His son, Major and Commandant Anders Fraser, 
" utmarkte sig vid Rigas belagring 1656 och pa fastningen Cobron," 9 was 
naturalized and ENNOBLED [Sweden No. 725] 22 Dec. 1663, and introduced 
into House of Lords the following year. On the separation of Finland from 
Sweden, the head of the family, Capt. Frederic Wilhelm Fraser, was enrolled in 
the Finnish Nobility [No. 59] 12 Jan. 1820. See p. 39. 

FREMANTLE. Sir Thomas Francis Fremantle, G.C.B., Vice-Admiral of the Blue, a 
distinguished Naval Officer, a participator in the triumphs of Copenhagen and 
Trafalgar, was 29 Nov. 1816 cr. by the Emperor Francis I. a K.C.M.T. and 
a BARON OF THE AUSTRIAN EMPIRE as BARON FREMANTLE (FREIHERR VON 

1 Marryat, ii. 489. 

2 Armorial du Premier Empire, ii. 173. 

3 Ibid. 4 Resenka das Familias, &c., i. 620. 
6 Regist. no Arch. Nac. da T. do T. y Mercfo de D. Luiz J, a fl. 53 v. 

6 Resenha dat Familias, &c., i. 620. 

7 Marryat, ii. 489. 8 Dormer, p. 26. 
9 Finlands Ridderkaps, 1897, p. 146. 



AN ALPHABETICAL LIST 87 

FREMANTLE), with rem. to his descendants. The 2nd Baron received Royal 
License for himself and his heirs to assume and use his Austrian title with 
the accompanying supporters in the United Kingdom 22 Jan. 1822, and was 
cr. 2 Mar. 1874 BARON COTTESLOE [U.K.]. See p. 20. 

FRENCH. Anthony French, a banker of Florence [son of Col. French, of Douras, co. 
Galway, 21st Fusiliers 1 ], was 18 cr. by the Grand Duke of Tuscany BARON 
FRENCH. He m. Catherine Amelia Josephine, eldest da. and co-h. of Joseph 
(Mezzinghi), 1st Count Mezzinghi [P.S.], 2 and had issue a son, Anthony, 2nd 
Baron French, who d. s.p. c. 1903-4, when the title became extinct, and two 
das., Georgina and Biana, now resident in Florence. 

FRERE. The Right Hon. Hookham Frere of Roydon Hall, co. Norfolk, P.C., M.P., 
sometime (1802-1808) H.B.M.'s Minister to Madrid, was 16 Dec. 1809 cr. by 
King Charles IV. VISCOUNT OF THE ALLIANCE and MARQUESS OF THE UNION 
(VISCONDE DE LA ALIANZA Y MARQUES DE LA UNION) [Spain], which honours he 
is said to have received permission to accept from the Prince Regent. 3 He d. s.p. 
7 Jan. 1846, when his titles, no remainder having been specified in the patent, 4 
apparently became extinct. 

FUENTES DE VALDEPERO [Spain ?]. See Fitzjames, Count of. 
FUENTIDUENTA [Castile]. See Fitzjames, Count and Lord. 

G 

GAGE. Henry Gage, b. at Ghent and bapt. at the Church of Notre Dame there 
6 June 1630 [son of Col. Henry Gage, afterwards a Knight and Governor of 
Oxford], was SEIGNEUR DE RYHOVE in the Netherlands and a Major in the 
Spanish Service, and afterwards had a Commission as Col. from King James II., 
27 Sep. 1688. His grandson, Emanuel Philip Gage, 4th Seigneur de Ryhove, 
de Ten Dycke, de la Woestyne, &c., Chamberlain to their I. & A. M.'s, was 
24 June 1756 cr. a COUNT as COUNT GAGE [Belgium]. He was b. at Ghent 
6 June 1727 ; m. 8 Apr. 1754 Marie Madeleine de Spangen, a Dame of the 
Starry Cross, and d. 4 Sep. 1766, leaving issue an only da. 5 

GAGE. Joseph Gage, COUNT GAGE and a GRANDEE OF THE IST CLASS [Spain], 
d. 1742. 6 

GAGE [Belgium 1756]. See Gage, Count. 

GAHN OF COLQUHOUN. Lieut. -Col. Carl Pontus Gahn [descended from the Scottish 
family of Cahun, see Canonhjelm], b. at Falun 1759, was ENNOBLED [Sweden 
2204] by King Charles XIII. under the designation of "Gahn of Colquhoun" 
1809. He became Major-Gen. 1814 and Gen. of Division 1820, and d. s.p. 1825. 7 

GAIRDNER. Robert Gairdner, of the family of Gairden of Leys, a Lieut.-Col. in 
the Swedish Service, was ENNOBLED in Sweden [No. 485] 1650. 8 He was after- 
wards Governor of the Castle of Nyslott in Finland. Extinct. 9 

GALISTEO [Castile 1450]. See Fitzjames, Duke of. 

GALLENGA-HARDWIN. George Hardwin Gallenga-Hardwin, a Capt. in the British 
Army and a J.P. co. Monmouth, b. 1 Mar. 1859 [son of Antonio Carlo Napoleon 
Gallenga of Parma, by his wife Anne, da. and h. of Charles Oliver Plunket 
Johnston, illegitimate son of Oliver, 10th Baron Louth [I.] ], claims to be 
MARQUESS OF IVREA (MARCHESE DI IVREA) in Parma. 10 

GALVE [Castile]. See Fitzjames, Count of. 

GAMACHES [F. 1620]. See de Bucy, Marquess of. 

GANDOLFI or GANDOLFI-HORNYOLD. Peter (Gandolfi), 5th COUNT OF GAZELLI AND 
CHIOSANICA (CONTE DI GAZELLI E CHIOSANICA) [grandson of Nicholas, who was 
invested with the Counties of Gazelli and Chiosanica by Duke Charles Emanuel 
of Savoy 1636, with rem. to the heirs male of his body, which Nicholas 
was the grandson of the John Francis Gandolfi, Lord of Lagneto, a Noble of 
Genoa, who was cr. MARQUESS GANDOLFI by the Emperor Charles V. 29 Aug. 

Ex inform. Sir Francis Vane, Bt. 2 See Burke' s Peerage, 1849, p. 1093. 

See Burke's Landed Gentry, i. 448. 

Ex inform. John Tudor Frere of Roydon, Esq. 

Nob. de Belgique, 1856, pp. 204-206. 

See Lodge's Irish Peerage, v. 320-321. 

Donner, p. 11. 8 Dr. Fischer has 1658. 

Svcriges Adel, i. 206. 10 Fox Da vies' Armorial Families. 



88 THE NOBILITIES OF EUROPE 

1529, with rem. to the heirs male of his body, nephew of Anthony, 2nd 
Marquess, who was cr. MARQUESS OF MELASSI [Melati] AND MONTECRESENZIO 
[Montcrescente] by the Duke of Mantua and Montferrat in 1616, with rem. 
to the heirs of the body of his father, and youngest brother of John Francis, 
Bishop of Alba, who was cr. COUNT OF RICALDONI (CONTE DI RICALDONI) 
in 1620 by the Duke of Mantua and Montferrat with a similar remainder], 
- settled in London 1725, but neither he nor his son was ever naturalized. He 
sue. his cousin, the Archbishop of Cagliari, as MARQUESS GANDOLFI and 
MARQUESS OF MELASSI AND MONTCRESENTE and COUNT OF RICALDONI in 
1771. His descendant Thomas Charles Gandolfi -Horny old, son and h. apparent 
of the 13th Marquess, was 29 Mar. 1895 cr. by Pope Leo XIII. MARQUESS 
(MARCHESE) GANDOLFI [P.S.], with rem. to his heirs male, and 6 May 1899 DUKE 
(DucA) GANDOLFI [P.S.], with a similar rem. All these titles are now held 
by his son. See p. 9. 

GANDOLFI-HORNYOLD. Ralph Vincent Gandolfi-Hornyold [2nd son of the 1st Duke 
Gandolfi [P.S.] ] was 6 May 1899 cr. by brief of Pope Leo XIII. , MARQUESS 
(MARCHESE) GANDOLFI [P.S.], with rem. to his heirs male. See p. 12. 

GANDOLFI-HORNYOLD. Dona Charlotte Mary Gandolfi-Hornyold, only da. of the 
1st Duke Gandolfi [P.S.], was 6 May 1899 cr. by brief of Pope Leo XIII. 
COUNTESS (CONTESSA) GANDOLFI [P.S.], with rem. to the heir to be designated 
by her. See p. 17. 

GANDOLFI [Genoa 1529]. See Gandolfi, Marquess. 

GANDOLFI [P.S. 1899]. See Gandolfi-Hornyold, Marquess (1895) and Duke. 

GANDOLFI [P.S. 1899]. See Gandolfi-Hornyold, Marquess. 

GANDOLFI [P.S. 1899]. See Gandolfi-Hornyold, Countess. 

GARVEY. Dona Maria del Rosario Garvey y Capdepon [of the family of O'Garvey 
del Condado de Mayo en Irlanda, establecida en Jerez la Frontira], 1 wife or 
widow of D. Ramon Maria de San Juan, who d. in Puerto-Real 1871, was 
(apparently) cr. by H.H. Pope ( ) MARCHIONESS OF SANJUAN [P.S.], being 
styled " Marquesa Pontificia de Sanjuan." l Her da. Dona Maria de los 
Dolores de Sanjuan y Garvey m. 21 Mar. 1882 Juan (Perex de Guzman), 7th 
Duke of T'Serclaes de Tilly [Spain], Count of Tilly [H.R.E.], &c. 

GAZELLI [Savoy 1636]. See Gandolfi. Count of. 
GELVES [Castile]. See Fitzjames, Count of. 

GIBSON. Alexander Gilbson [said to have been descended from William Gibson, who 
was sent on a mission from James V. to the Pope, who ENNOBLED him and 
granted him arms] acquired the estate of Neustadter or Przebendowski in Danzig, 
and was cr. BARON GIBSON (FREIHERR VON GIBSON) [Prussia] by King Frederic 
the Great, by letters patent dated at Potsdam 7 Jan. 1777. 2 Burke 3 says 
that Archibald Gibson, merchant in Danzig, 3rd son of Alexander Gibson of 
Durie, " had in Prussia the title of Baron, and his son Baron Alexander Gibson, 
British Consul at Dantzic, d. there 18 Oct. 1811, aged 82." 

GIBSON [Prussia 1777]. See Gibson, Baron. 

VAN GINKELL. See van Reede, otherwise van Ginkell. 

GINKELL [H.R.E. 17]. See van Reede, otherwise Ginkell, Count of. 

GIRACE [Naples 1502]. See Stewart, Marquess of. 

GIRARDIN. Claude Francis Girardin, Sieur de Mont Gerald, a member of the 
Sovereign Council of Martinique, had a declaration of his descent from the 
same branch of the Noble family of Girardin as that to which M. de Vauvray, 
Intendant at Toulon, and his brother, the Marquess of Lery, belonged, 10 Dec. 

GIUSTINIANI. Vincent (Giustiniani), 6th PRINCE and 8th MARQUESS GIUSTINIANI 
(PRINCIPE E MARCHESE GIUSTINIANI) [P.S.] [great-great-grandson of Andrew, 
3rd Marquess Giustiniani, who was cr. PRINCE GIUSTINIANI by Pope Inno- 
cent X. 22 Nov. 1644, with rem. to the heirs male of his body, and great-great- 
great-great-grandson of Vincent Giustiniani, who in consideration of " his 
descent from the Princess Theodora, and of the great victories achieved by 
his family as well on land as on sea," 5 was cr. by Pope Paul V., 22 Nov. 1603, 

1 Annales de Nobliza de Espana, 1887, p. 191. 

2 The Scots in Germany. 3 Peerage, 1908, p. 300. 
4 The Jacobite Peerage, p. 204. 5 Burke 1 s Peerage. 



AN ALPHABETICAL LIST 89 

i MARQUESS GIUSTINIANI [P.S.], with a like rem.], sue. his mother as Count 
Mahony [F. and Sp.] 1789, and his father as Prince Giustiniani [P.S.] 1793, 
and became 29 Nov. 1814, 6th EARL OF NEWBURGH, &c. [S.] by the death of 
his kinsman the 5th Earl, but took no steps to establish his right thereto. 
He d. s.p.m. 1826, when his Papal titles passed to his brother James, Cardinal 
Archbishop of Albano, on whose death, Jan. 1843, they became extinct, and 
the right to the Scottish and Spanish dignities devolved on his only child Prin- 
cess Cecilia Giustiniani, suo jure COUNTESS OF NEWBURGH [S.] and COUNTESS 
O'MAHONY [Spain], who also sue. her mother [Nicoletta, da. and h. of Dominic 
(Grillo) Duke of Mondragone and Count of Carinola in Naples] as Duchess 
of Mondragone and Countess of Carinola 18 . She was naturalized as a 
British subject by Act of Parliament 17 Aug. 1857, 1 and d. 2 Jan. 1877 
leaving issue by her husband, the 4th Marquess Bandini [P.S.]. See Bandini. 

GIUSTINIANI [P.S. 1644]. See Giustiniani, Marquess (1603) and Prince. 
GIUSTINIANI-BANDINI [P.S. 1863]. See Bandini, Prince. 

GLADSTONE. Herbert Gladsten or Gladstone [b. in Dumfries 1600, descended from 
Thomas Gladsten of Dumfries, Governor of Craig in Scotland 1500] came to 
Sweden, and in 1647 became a Colonel and was ENNOBLED [No. 372]. Adam, 
the last of the family, was taken prisoner at Pultowa 1729, and sent to Siberia, 
where he is supposed to have d. s.p.m. 2 Extinct 1859. 

GLEICHEN [S.C.G. 1861]. See Seymour, Countess of. 
GOLDING. See p. 43, note 3. 

GOLDSMID. Sir Isaac Lyon Goldsmid, 1st Baronet [U.K. 1841], K.C.T.S., O.R.B., 
was, by decree of 4 Nov. 1845 and letters patent of 5 Nov. following, cr. by 
Queen Mary IT. BARON GOLDSMID OF THE PALMEIRA (BARAO DE GOLDSMID 
DA PALMEIRA) [Portugal], for himself and his next heir, "era duas vidas," 3 
and he was authorised by Queen Victoria to accept and use this title in 
the United Kingdom by Royal License 6 June 1846. He d. 27 Apr. 1859, 
and was succeeded by his son Sir Francis Henry Goldsmid, 2nd Baron Gold- 
smid, 4 M.P., who d. 2 May 1878, when the limitation named in the original 
patent came to an end. The title, however, appears to have been renewed to 
his nephew and heir, the Right Hon. Sir Julian Goldsmid, 3rd Baronet [U.K.]. 
On his death s.p.m. 7 Jan. 1896 the Baronetcy became extinct, but the 
Barony was again (18 Feb. 1906) revived and renewed in favour of his eldest da. 
and heiress, Violet, wife of Sidney Hoffnung. See under present holders, p. 29. 

GOLDSMID of the Palmeira [Portugal 1845]. See Goldsmid, Baron. 

GOLDSMID of the Palmeira [Portugal 1906]. See Hoffnung-Goldsmid, Baroness. 

GONTAULT ST. BLANCHARD. See de Biron-Gontaut, Viscount of. 

GORDON. Russell Manners Gordon, K.C.V.V. and a Fidalgo Cavalleiro of the Royal 
Household [son of Thomas Gordon of the well known city firm of Cossart and 
Gordon, wine merchants, 6 or of Diego David Webster Gordon 6 ], was b. at 
Funchal, Madeira, and m. by Royal License 15 Sep. 1857, Dona Philomena 
Gabriella (Correa-Brandao Henriques de Noronha). suo jure VISCOUNTESS OF 
TORRE BELLA (VISCONDESSA DE TORRE BELLA) [Portugal], when he became jure 
uxoris VISCOUNT OF TORRE BELLA (VISCONDE DE TORRE BELLA). She, who 
had confirmation by a decree of 11 Sep. 1857, was b. at Belem, by Lisbon, 
18 Mar. 1839, being the da. and h. of Joao (Correa Brandao de Bettencourt 
Henriques de Noronha), 2nd Viscount of Torre Bella (confirmed by decree 
of 14 July 1823), A.D.C. to King Michael I. in 1823 (who d. 7 July 1875), 
and granddaughter of Fernando Jose (Correa Henriques de Noronha), 1st 
VISCOUNT OF TORRE BELLA [Portugal], so cr. by Queen Mary I. 17 Dec. 
1812, P.C., K.C.P., K.T.S., Envoy Extra, and Min. Plen. to the Courts 
of Stockholm, Berlin, Vienna, and Naples, who d. at Naples 31 Oct. 1821, 
by his wife Dona Emilia Henriqueta, Lady of the Order of Malta, da. of Luiz 
(Pinto de Sousa Coutinho), 1st Viscount of Balsemao, and a Grandee (17 Dec. 

1 20 and 21 Viet. chap. 7. 

2 Marryat, ii. 489 ; Dormer, p. 27. 

3 Regist. no R. Arch, da T. do T., Merces de D. Maria II., liv. 25, a fl. 162. 

4 "Nao em registo no Arch, verificacao da 2 vida." Resenha das Familias, ii. 33. 

5 Ex. inform. J. M. Bulloch, Esq. 

6 Re senha das Familias, ii. 682. 




90 THE NOBILITIES OF EUROPE 

1801), 3rd Senhor de Ferrieros e Tendaes (1 Apr. 1784), and 22nd Senhor do 
Morgado de Balsemao (15 Aug. 1315) [Portugal], P.O., K.G.F., G.C.B.A. 1 He 
was cr. by Charles I. COUNT OF TORRE BELLA (CONDE DE TORRE BELLA) 
and d. at Funchal 6 Apr. 1906, aged 77, and was sue. by his son, D. Diogo, 
who had renewal of the titles of Count and Viscount 13 Nov. 1907. 
See p. 32. 

GORDON. John Gordon, Governor of Eger and a Colonel in the Imperial Service 
[son of John Gordon of Milton of Noth, 2nd son of James Gordon of Cairn- 
bannoch, who was 2nd son of Sir William Gordon, first of Gight], 8 having 
taken part in the assassination of Wallenstein, 25 Feb. 1635, was cr. a MARQUESS 
OF THE HOLY ROMAN EMPIRE and Bearer of the Gold Key as High Chamberlain 
to the Emperor. He d. unm. at Dantzig, and was bur. at Delft. His will, dated 
at Lubeck, was the cause of much legal wrangling. 3 

GORDON. See p. 43, note 3. 

GORDON [H.R.E. 1635]. See Gordon, Marquess of. 

GORDON. Henryk de Gordon, MARGRUBIA HUNTIL^EUS, a near relation of the 
King of England [i,e. Lord Henry Gordon, 5th son of the 2nd Marquess of 
Huntly [S.] ], was naturalized under this title in Poland 1658. 4 He is said to 
have been ancestor of the present Marquess Huntly de Gordon, of Warsaw. 5 

GORDONE. "Pietro Gordone, Barone di Camastra, of v. Monte di Pieta, 64, Messina," 
a member of the Istituto Araldico Italiano, 6 was descended from a Scottish 
family who passed from France to Italy, eventually establishing themselves in 
Sicily, where they acquired the title and estate of Camastra. He d. 19 , 
leaving a son. See Addenda. 

GORDON-LENNOX. Lady Augusta Catherine, da. of Charles (Gordon-Lennox), 5th 
Duke of Richmond [E.], Lennox [S.], and Aubigny [F.], being about to marry 
Gen. H.S.H. Prince Edward of Saxe Weimar, P.C., K.P., was the day previous 
to her marriage, viz. 26 Nov. 1851, cr. by the Grand Duke Charles Frederick 
COUNTESS OF DORNBURG (GRAFIN VON DORNBURG) [Saxe Weimar], She, who 
was afterwards by a royal decree [U.K.] recognised as Princess Edward, d. s.p. 
3 Apr. 1904, when her title became extinct. 

GOUVERNET [F.]. See de La Tour du Pin, Marquess of. 
GRACA [Portugal 1870]. See Croft, Viscount of. 

GRACE. Dr. Morgan Grace is stated to have been cr. by H.H. Pope ( ) a COUNT 
OF THE ROMAN STATES.' 

GRACE [P.S. 19]. See Grace, Count. 

GRAINVILLE. See under Cuffe. 

GRANHAMMAR [Sweden 1712]. See Macpherson, Count of. 

GRANT. Capt. Alexander Grant, 84th Regt., m. 7 May 1781 Marie Charles Josephe, 
auo jure 4th BARONESS DE LONGUEUIL [F.], only da. and h. of Charles Jacques 
(le Moyne), 3rd Baron de Longueiiil [whose grandfather, Charles le Moyne, 
K.S.L., a distinguished military commander, was 26 Jan. 1700, in recognition 
of his services in Canada, cr. a BARON OF FRANCE as BARON DE LONGUEUIL 
of Longueiiil in the province of Quebec, Canada, with rem. to the heirs general 
of his body]; and their great-grandson and heir, Charles Colmore (Grant), 
7th Baron de Longueiiil, obtained recognition of his right to the title from 
Queen Victoria 4 Dec. 1880, under the terms of the cession of Canada by 
France 1763, by which all rights and privileges " of what kind soever " should 

1 Resenha das Familias, ii. 682. 

2 Bulloch's House of Gordon, i. pp. 13-19. Grant's Memoirs and Adventures of Sir 
John Hepburn, pp. 188-190. 

3 Scottish N. and Q., Oct. 1900. According to Dr. Fischer, Scots in Germany, p. 113, 
he was made a " Baron," not "Marquess," of the Empire. 

4 Nieskiecki Herbarz Polski, by J. N. Bobrowicz, 1839, iv. 197. 

5 According to the Heraldic Guide (Prewodeich Heraldyczny) by Adam Am. Kosinski 
(pt. iii.), his da. and h. m. John James Gordon, and was mother of Peter Gordon, whose 
son Major-Gen. Francis (d. 1826) was grandfather of Francis, the present Marquess of 
Huntly-Gordon, of Warsaw, but the generations here given are too few. See The Gay 
Gordons, by J. M. Bulloch, pp. 43-58 ; and Aberdeen Free Press, 28 Mar. 1905; Huntly 
Express, 8 Dec. 1905 ; and Daily Chronicle, 16 Aug. 1905. 

6 Calendario d'Oro (Rome, 1900), p. 110. 

7 The Catholic IHio's Who, 1908. 



AN ALPHABETICAL LIST 91 

be reserved and secured to all individuals of French descent to which they had 
been entitled under the sovereignty of the Kings of France. 1 Title now held 
by his brother. See p. 19. 

GRANT. Sir William Keir Grant, previously Grant-Keir and paternally Keir, 
K.C.B., K.M.T., G.C.H., one of the eight British officers who took part in 
the memorable charge at Villiers-le-Couche, 24 Apr. 1794, 2 was 22 Jan. 1831 
cr. by the Emperor Francis I. a BARON OF THE AUSTRIAN EMPIRE, for himself 
and his descendants, 3 and 9 Apr. 1832 he had Royal License for himself and 
his heirs to assume and use this title in the United Kingdom. He was a dis- 
tinguished General, and d. 7 May 1852. The Editor is unaware whether he 
had issue. 

GRANT. Albert Grant [whose patronymic was Wolfsheim (?), or Goldheim (?), 
or (?) ] was b. in Dublin 1830, was M.P. for Kidderminster 1865-1880, gave 
Leicester Square to London at a cost of 30,000, and was 1868 cr. BARON 
GRANT (BARONE GRANT) [Italy] by King Victor Emmanuel II. for services 
rendered in connection with the completion of the Victor Emmanuel Gallery 
at Milan. He afterwards (1885) became a bankrupt, with liabilities 217,000 
and assets 74,000, and d. (? s.p.) 30 Aug. 1899. 

GRANT [Austria 1831]. See Grant, Baron. 
GRANT [Italy 1868]. See Grant, Baron. 

GRANVILLE. John (Granville), 1st Earl of Bath, &c. [E.], so cr. 20 Apr. 1661, had 
Royal License on the 26 Apr. 1661 authorising him and his heirs to use the titles 
of EARL OF CORBEIL, LORD OF THORIGNY AND GRANVILLE (COMTE DE CORBEIL, 
SEIGNEUR DE THORIGNY ET DE GRANVILLE) in Normandy, he being " derived 
in a direct line as heir male to Robert FitzHamon, Lord of Gloucester and 
Glamorgan, &c., who was the son and heir of Hamon Dentatus, Earl of Corbeil, 
Lord of Thorigny and Granville in Normandy, which titles were held before 
Normandy was lost to the Crown of England." 4 

GRANVILLE. Charles, LORD GRANVILLE, afterwards (for two weeks, 22 Aug. to 
4 Sep. 1701) 2nd EARL OF BATH [E.] and CORBEIL [F.], served with the army 
that defeated the Turks before Vienna in 1683, &c., and for his signal services 
was, by charter dated at Lintz 27 Jan. 1684, cr. by the Emperor Leopold I. 
a COUNT OF THE HOLY ROMAN EMPIRE as COUNT OF GRANVILLE (GRAF 
VON GRANVILLE), for himself and his descendants. 5 He d. 4 Sep. 1701, leaving 
an only son, William Henry, 3rd Earl of Bath, &c., who d. 17 May 1711, when 
the Countship of the Empire, as also the Earldom of Bath, became extinct. 6 

GRANVILLE [H.R.E. 1684]. See Granville, Count of. 
GRANVILLE [Normandy a. 1066]. See Granville, Lord of. 

GRAY. Andrew Gray was ENNOBLED in Sweden, but never took his seat in House 
of Nobles. 7 Spens, in a letter to the King dated 1618, mentions that he was then 
raising 25,000 soldiers for the war in Bohemia. 8 

GREIGOR. Gualth Greigh, Assessor of the Superior Court of Justice of Pomerania 
[b. at Wolgast, but of Scottish descent], was ENNOBLED in Sweden under the 
name of Greiggenschildt 1683. 9 

DE GRENIER DE FONBLANQUE. John Martin de Fonblanque, de jure COMTE DE 
FONBLANQUE [F.], K.C. (1844), Barrister-at-Law of the Middle Temple (24 Jan. 
1783), M.P. for Camelford 1802-1806, a personal friend of H.R.H. the Prince of 
Wales afterwards George IV. [eldest son of Jean de Fonblanque (b. 10 Feb. 1726, 

1 BurJce's Peerage; Debrett's Peerage. 

2 See p. 273. 

3 In the Diet. Nat. Biog. (viii. 407) it is stated that he was a Baron in Austria as a 
K.M.T. 

4 Preamble to the Warrant, see G. E. C.'s Complete Peerage, i. 264. 

5 In the history of the Granville Family by the Rev. Roger Granville (1895, p. 365), 
he is stated to have been cr. "a Count of the Holy Roman Empire by the style and title 
of Earl of Lansdowne, to remain and be continued ad infinitum (as is expressed in the 
patent) to the name and family of the Granvilles," with the distinction of bearing their 
paternal coat of arms upon the breast of the Roman Eagle. 

6 This appears to be the second Royal License on record to enable a British subject to 
accept a Foreign Baronial honour. See p. 3. 

7 See p. 43, note 3. 

8 Marryat, ii. 501. 

9 Donner, ii. 28. 



92 THE NOBILITIES OF EUROPE 

d. 1795), who settled in England and was naturalized 17 ,* and who is said to 
have been a great-grandson of Pierre Grenier, 1st SEIGNEUR OF HAUTESERRE, near 
Moissac, and of FONBLANQUE, near Bruniquet, whose grandfather, Jean Grenier, 
Seigneur des Rainsins et des Verreries de Maussens, had his Nobility confirmed by 
decree of M. de Bezons, Intendant of Languedoc, 15 Sep. 1668, being descended 
from the family of Grenier or Garnieri, originally of Sienna in Tuscany, which 
settled in Provence and Languedoc in the thirteenth century, and of which the 
eldest branch is said to have borne the title of Marquess of Juliers], 2 reassumed 
the original surname of " de Grenier " by Royal License 16 May 1828. He d. 
"the Father of the English Bar" 4 Jan. 1857, leaving three sons (1) John 
Samuel Martin, 21st Fusiliers, afterwards a Commissioner in Bankruptcy, 
grandfather of the present Count (see p. 14); (2) Thomas, Viscount de 
Fonblanque (which title he used), K.H., Capt. in the Army and afterwards 
Consul-Gen, for Servia, who m. Jane Catherine, da. of Sir Jonah Barrington, 
K.C., M.P., and had issue ; 3 and (3) Albany William, a well-known writer, &c. 4 

GRENVILLE-MURRAY. Eustace Clare Grenville-Murray, COMTE DE RETHEL D' ARAGON, 
of Her Majesty's Diplomatic Service, d. at 66 Avenue du Bois de Boulogne, 
Paris, 20 Dec. 188 1. 5 

GREY. Sir John Grey, K.G., was 3 Jan. 1419 cr. by Henry V. of England, as King 
of France, COUNT OF TANQUERVIIXE, TANKERVILLE, or TANCARVILLE (COMTE 
DE TANQUERVILLE), in Normandy. His grandson, Richard (Grey), Dominus 
de Powis, 3rd Earl of Tankerville [F.], was summoned to Parliament c. 1461 
as Lord Grey de Powis. Edward, 4th Lord Grey de Powis [E.] and 6th Count 
of Tankerville [F.] d. s.p.l. 1551, when his French title became extinct. 6 

GRIMALDI. Alexander (Grimaldi), 6th MARQUESS GRIMALDI [descended from Luke 
Grimaldi, Lord of Beaufort in Naples, who was 1528 cr. by the Emperor 
Charles V. MARQUESS GRIMALDI [Genoa], with rem. to the heirs male of 
his body], was bapt. at St. Luke's, Genoa, 1 June 1659, and, having been 
Commander of the Spanish forces in Genoa, was after its surrender in 1685 
compelled by an edict of Louis XIV. to leave that place within three days. 
He retired to England, where he m. Dorcas, da. and co-h. of Henry Anderson, 
son and h. of Sir Francis Anderson, by whom he had issue. He d. 28 May 
1732. His descendants have since remained in England. Henry Beaufort, 
10th Marquess Grimaldi, a Clerk in Holy Orders, d. at Sidmouth 11 Sep. 1907, 
aged 76 years, being succeeded by his eldest son, Stacey William Beaufort, 
1 1th and present Marquess Grimaldi, who resides at Durban, Natal. 7 See p. 10. 

GRIMALDI [Genoa 1528]. See Grimaldi, Marquess. 

1 Anthony Fonblanque, son of Francis Fonblanque by Mary his wife, b. at Bruniquet 
in the province of Languedoc, was naturalized by Act of Parliament 14 Apr. 1738 
(31 Geo. II., No. 95). 

2 See an elaborate pedigree certified by de Courcelles 26 Sep. 1823, now in possession 
of Mrs. Arthur Harter (nee de Fonblanque). In the Life of Albany Fonblanque by his 
nephew (p. 2), it is further stated that Pierre de Grenier, having defended the castle of 
Cessenan against the Duke of Montmorency in 1584, his sons received from Henry IV. the 
titles of Count de Hauteserre and de Fonblanque from two fiefs in the Foret de la Gresine, 
near Bruniquet, and that the elder branch of the family became extinct on the death of 
Ce'sar de Grenier, Marquis de Juliers, in 1829. A visitation pedigree of these Greniers 
appears in Pieces fugitives, pour servir d I'Histoire de France, &c., collected and edited by 
[C. de Baschi] Marquess of Aubois (3 vols., Paris, 1759), ii. 148, but no mention appears 
there of their being Lords or Counts of Hauteserre or Fonblanque. La Chenaye des 
Bois (Diet, de la Noblesse, viii. 988), however, gives the pedigree of a family of Gamier, 
descended from Balthazar de Gamier, Premier Consul of Toulon 1469, whose great-great- 
grandson was father of two sons (1) Balthazar, ancestor of the Garniers, Seigneurs de 
Julhians, and (2) Jean, ancestor of the Garniers, Seigneurs de Fonblanque; and the Editor 
cannot help thinking that a mistake has been made in attaching this family to the 
Greniers of Rainsins, rather than to the Garniers of Julhians and Fonblanque. 

3 See Ruvigny's Plantagenet Roll, Essex Vol., Supplement, p. 557. 

4 Diet. Nat. Biog. 

5 See The Times. 

6 G. E. C.'s Complete Peerage, iv. 99. 

7 When the Libro d'Oro (by inscription in which Nobility was acquired) was destroyed 
in 1793, the then King of Sardinia issued letters patent confirming to all male members 
of the inscribed families the title and rank of Marquess, with its attendant privileges, 
thus dispensing with inscription in the Libro d'Oro. Before this the title itself was not 
hereditary, but the right of inscription in the Libro d'Oro was hereditary. Ex inform. 
Rev. (the Marquess) Ernest Craven Grimaldi. 



AN ALPHABETICAL LIST 93 



GUALTERIO. COUNT JOHN BAPTIST GUALTERIO, was shortly before 12 Nov. 1705 
cr. EARL OF DUNDEE [S.] by James III. and VIII. He had a son living 
16 Aug. 1740, when he was an Inquisitor of the Order of Malta. 3 

GUICCIARDINI. " Count Piero Guicciardini," of Florence, was naturalized in the 
United Kingdom under that style 24 June 1858. 

GUISCARD. ( ) MARQUESS OF GUISCARD, late Abbot of Bourlie, was appointed 

to command the Huguenot Brigade in the British Service 1706. 4 

GUROWSKI. Melchior (Gurowski), 3rd COUNT GUROWSKI (GRAF GUROWSKI) 
[Prussia], of the Chateau of Montboron, near Nice, Consul- General of Austria- 
Hungary at Monaco [grandson of Wladislaus Gurowski (b. 1769, d. Feb. 1818), 
a Pole who was, by letters patent dated at Berlin 5 Nov. 1787, cr. by King 
Frederick William II. a COUNT OF THE KINGDOM OF PRUSSIA as COUNT 
GUROWSKI (GRAF GUROWSKI), with rem. to his descendants], 5 m. 5 Apr. 1864 
Diana, da. of Capt. Richard Beaumont, R.N., and was naturalized in the 
United Kingdom 11 Mar. 1857 as "Count Melchior Gurowski de Wezele," 
and again 19 Oct. 1870 after the passing of the Naturalization Act of that 
year. Title still existing. See p. 13. 

GUROWSKI [Prussia 1787]. See Gurowski, Count. 
GUTHRIE. See p. 43, note 3. 

GUTHRIE. George Guthrie, Commissary of State in Bremen [b. 1645, grandson of 
Luther Guthrie, merchant, who in 1657 removed fromMontrose to Stockholm], 
was naturalized and ENNOBLED [Sweden No. 974] 1681. 6 Extinct 1705. 

GYLDENBOIJ. See Boij. 
GYLLENSCHRUF. See Screw. 
GYLLENSKEPP. See Thomson. 

H 

HACKER. Thomas Hacker, Superintendent of Aker's Foundry and of all the 
Powder Mills in Sweden [son of Thomas Hacker (b. 1615), an Englishman 
who settled at Goteborg], was ENNOBLED [No. 1086] by King Charles XI. under 
the name of Hackerskold, 1686. Extinct. 

HACKERSKOLD. See Hacker. 

HAGBEY [Sweden 1689]. See Hamilton, Baron of. 

HALKETT. Sir Hugh Halkett, G.C.H., C.B., sometime a Lieut.-Col. in the British 
Army and afterwards Gen. and Com. -in-Chief of the Hanoverian Army, was 
18 June 1862 cr. by King George V. BARON HALKETT (FREIHERR VON HALKETT) 
[Hanover], with rem. to the heirs male of his body, and with the title of Baron 
for all his male descendants and their issue. 7 This title is still borne by his 
descendants. See p. 21. 

HALKETT [Hanover 1862]. See Halkett, Baron. 

HAMBRO. Charles Joachin Hambro, 8 head of the firm of C. J. Hambro & Co., 
having greatly assisted the Danish Government in the first Sleswig-Holstein War, 
was, by decree of 8 Apr. 1851, followed by letters patent dated 6 Oct. 1851, 
cr. by King Frederic VII. BARON HAMBRO [Denmark], with rem. to that one 
of his male descendants who should from time to time be designated his heir 

1 Patrick Francis GROGAN, formerly Major and Hon. Lieut.-Col. 5th Batt. Rifle Brigade, 
enlisted in the 84th Regt. 1872, and in 1883 made a declaration changing his name to 
*' Francois St. Patrick Vernon de Landre- Grogan de Vernon," and later assumed the titles 
of " COUNT AND MARQUIS DE VEB.NON." 

2 ( ), wife of Francis GROVES, of 78 Upper Gloucester Place, Regent's Park, claims 

to be suo jure VISCOUNTESS DE PANAMA, and uses that title, but an application for in- 
formation has been unsuccessful. 

3 See The Jacobite Peerage, p. 46. 

4 Agnew's French Protestant Refugees, 273. 

5 Taschenbuch der Grdflichen Hauser. 

6 Donner, p. 28. 

7 Taschenbuch der Friehl. Hauser, 1907, p. 284. 

8 Son of Joseph Hambro (d. 3 Oct. 1848) incorrectly styled a Baron in Burke's 
Landed Gentry. 



94 THE NOBILITIES OF EUROPE 

by the then Baron. 1 He had been naturalized as a British subject by Act 
of Parliament 10 Aug. 1843, 2 and was afterwards of Milton Abbey, co. Dorset, 
being ancestor of the Hambros of that place and of those of Hayes Place, 
co. Kent. His eldest son, Charles Joseph Theophilus Hanabro of Milton 
Abbey, J.P., D.L., was M.P. for Weymouth 1868-74. The title is not now used 
by the family. See p. 21. 
HAMBRO [Denmark 1851]. See Hambro, Baron. 

DE HAMEL. Jean Baptist Augustin Bruno de Hamel, Comte de Hamel, was a 
French refugee, and settled in England before 1795. 

DE HAMEL DE MANIN. See de Manin. 

HAMILTON. James (Hamilton), 2nd EARL OF ARRAN [S.], was 5 Feb. 1548/9 
cr. by Henry II. of France DUKE OF CHATELLERAULT in Poitou [F.], "pourlui 
ses hoirs et ay ants cause, & perpetuite," in compliance with the treaty signed at 
Chatillon 27 Jan. 1547, by which the King expressly engaged "a confer er au 
Comte d'Arran le litre, de due, avec duche en ce royaume de France de douze livres 
de rente, pour lui, ses hoirs," &c., and though the duchy was seized by the Parlia- 
ment of Poitiers after Henry's death in 1559, that did not destroy Arran's 
right to the title, for in the treaty of 1560 between England, France, and 
Scotland, it was particularly stipulated that the Scottish " seigneurs, particuliere- 
ment le due de Chdtellerault rentreraient en possession et jouissance de toutes les 
terres, possessions, heritages, estats, et offices, dont Us jouissaient en France avant 
le sixieme Mars 1558, non obstant toutes saisies, dont par ce traite ; Sa Majeste 
consentit par ses Ambassadeurs une pleine et entiere mainlevee," and it is now 
vested in his heir male, the Duke of Abercorn. See p. 8. It has, however, 
been claimed by the Dukes of Hamilton. 3 

HAMILTON. Sir George Hamilton [2nd son of Sir George Hamilton, 1st Bt. [E.] and 
grandson of James, 1st Earl of Abercorn [S.] ], entered the French Service, in 
which he became Marechal de Camp, and was cr. 4 or recognised as a COUNT 
(i.e. COUNT HAMILTON) by Louis XIV. He m. Frances, elder da, and co-h. of 
Richard Jennings of Sandridge, co. Herts, and sister to Sarah, Duchess of 
Marlborough, and d. 1667, leaving issue 3 daughters. His widow re-m. in 
Paris 1679 Richard (Talbot), 1st Duke of Tyrconnell [I.], and d. 6 Mar. 1731. 

HAMILTON. Lieut. -Col. Anthony Hamilton, next younger brother to the above, 
retired to France on the Revolution of 1688, and became a Lieut. -Gen. in the 
French Service, and was recognised as a COUNT ( COUNT ANTHONY HAMILTON) 
in France by Louis XIV. He d. unm. at St. Germains 21 Apr. 1720, aged 74. 
He is celebrated as the author of the Memoirs of [his brother-in-law, Philibert, 
Duke of] Grammont. 

HAMILTON. Hugh Hamilton of Ballygally, co. Tyrone [2nd son of Malcolm Hamilton, 
Archbishop of Cashel], was naturalized 1648 and 1654, cr. BARON HAMILTON DE 
DESERF [Sweden No. 50], and afterwards on the Restoration returning to Ireland 
was 2 Mar. 1660 cr. LORD HAMILTON, BARON OF GLANAWLY, co. Fermanagh [I.]. 
He d. Apr. 1679, leaving, with three das., an only son, William, who succeeded 
him and d. s.p. Feb. 1680, when all his titles became extinct. 

HAMILTON. Malcolm Hamilton [elder son of Capt. John Hamilton of Ballygally, 
who was 3rd son of Malcolm Hamilton, Archbishop of Cashel] entered the 
Swedish Service in 1654, and rose to the rank of General. In 1664 he was 
naturalized and enrolled among the NOBLES of Sweden, and 12 Ap. 1689 was 
cr. by King Charles XI. BARON HAMILTON OF HAGBEY (FRIHERR HAMILTON 
OF HAGBEY) [Sweden No. 99], with rem. to the heirs male of his body. He 
d. 1699, leaving issue. Title still existing. See p. 34. 

HAMILTON. Hugh Hamilton [yr. bro. to Malcolm, 1st Baron Hamilton de Hagbey, 
see above] entered the Swedish Service at the same time as his father, and 

1 Literally elevated into the Danish Nobility, so that the title of Baron after his death 
would descend to his heirs male, "optaget i den danske Friherrestand saaledes, at den 
friherrelege Titel efter hand Dod gaar i Arv til den af bans mendlige Descendenter. " See 
Dcnmarks Adds Aarbog. 

2 6 and 7 Viet. chap. 38. 

3 See Remarks on the Dukedom of Chdtellherault, by the Rev. John Woodward, F.S.A. ; 
The Complete Peerage, i. 407, also i. 5, note a; Burkes Peerage, page 2, note, and 
The Dukedom of Chdtelhcrault, by R. R. Stodart, Lyon Clerk Deputy, Her. and Gen. iv. 
pp. 97-107, v. p. 92. 

* Brydges' Collins, ii. p. 519. 



AN ALPHABETICAL LIST 95 

was a General and Master-General of the Artillery. He was cr. at the same 
time as his brother (12 Ap. 1689) BARON HAMILTON DE HAGBEY, and d. 1724, 
leaving several sons, of whom Gustavus David, Baron Hamilton de Hagbey, 
KNIGHT OF THE SERAPHIM, and Field-Marshal, one of the most distinguished 
Generals in the Swedish Service, was 21 Nov. 1751 cr. COUNT HAMILTON OF 
BARSEBACK [Sweden No. 86], and took his seat in the Swedish House of 
Lords 1752. He d. 1788, leaving several sons. His descendants, all of 
whom bear the title of Count or Countess before their Christian names, are 
very numerous. See p. 29. 

HAMILTON. Louis or Ludovic Hamilton [5th son and the only son by 2nd wife of 
Malcolm Hamilton, Archbishop of Cashel] entered the Swedish Service, and 
in 1654 was cr. BARON HAMILTON OF DESERF [Sweden No. 50]. He m. Anna 
Catharina, da. of Lars Grubbe Stjernfelt, a cousin of King Gustavus Adolphus, 
and had a son Gustavus, Governor of Enniskillen. She re-m. Richard Dunbar 
of Derrygonnelly, by whom she had issue a da. 1 

HAMILTON. The Hon. Sir Alexander Hamilton [5th son of James, 1st Earl of 
Abercorn [S.] ], having settled at the Court of the Elector Palatine Philip 
William, was sent by him as Ambassador to King James II. and VII. He 
afterwards accompanied that Elector's da., the Princess Eleanore Magdaline, 
to Vienna on her marriage (14 Dec. 1676) to the Emperor Leopold II., and was 
by that Prince cr. a COUNT OF THE HOLY ROMAN EMPIRE, and had grants 
of the County of Newburg near Passau, and other estates] in Moravia and 
Hungary. 2 

HAMILTON [F. 166-]. See Hamilton, Count. 

HAMILTON [F. 166-]. See Hamilton, Count Anthony. 

HAMILTON [H.R.E. 1677]. See Hamilton, Count of. 

HAMILTON OF BARSEBACK [Sweden 1751]. See Hamilton, Count. 

HAMILTON OF DESERF [Sweden 1654]. See Hamilton, Baron. 

HAMILTON OF DESERF [Sweden 1654]. See Hamilton, Baron. 

HAMILTON OF HAGBEY [Sweden 1689]. See Hamilton, Baron. 

HAMILTON OF HAGBEY [Sweden 1689]. See Hamilton, Baron. 

HAMILTON. See p. 43, note 3. 

HANMER-CLAYBROOKE. William Anthony Hanmer-Claybrooke [son of Thomas 
Hanmer-Claybrooke, bapt. at Fulham 13 Sep. 1619, son of Thomas Clay- 
brooke and Marie Hanmer dite Chaloner 3 ] obtained a declaration of his 
Noblesse from King James III. 9 Feb. 1702. His son Fran?ois Albert Joseph 
d'Hanmer-Claybrooke, SEIGNEUR DE BETHENCOURT, Membre de la Chambre 
de Noblesse aux Etats du Cambresis (b. 15 Jan. 1699, d. at Cambrai 30 Aug. 
1731), was father of Maximilian Albert Joseph d'Hanmer-Claybrooke, Seigneur 
de Bethencourt, Lieramont, &c., Capt. of the Regt. of Bouffiers (10 Feb. 1745), 
b. at Valenciennes 7 Oct. 1726, who had the Seigneurie of Lieramont erected 
into a BARONY in his favour, with the title of BARON D'HANMER-CLAYBROOKE 
[F.] by letters patent dated July 1778. His son Antoine Albert Joseph, 
2nd Baron d'Hanmer-Claybrooke, Conseiller au parlement de Paris (21 July 
1769), was confirmed in the title of Baron, with rem. to the heirs (male) of his 
body, " sur institution de majorat," by letters patent 10 May 1820; and the 3rd 
Baron had further confirmation of the " titre de Baron hereditaire et transmis- 
sion de majorat, par ordonnance," 23 Aug 1824. Title still existing. See p. 35. 

HANMER-CLAYBROOKE [F. 1778]. See Hanmer-Claybrooke, Baron of. 

HANSON. See Adelskold. 

HAPSBURG. See Feilding. 

D'HARCOURT. Amadeus Louis Charles Francis, COUNT OF HARCOURT [son and h. 
apparent of Charles Louis Hector (d'Harcourt), 4th Marquess of [Harcourt-] 
Olonde [F. a. 1745] and afterwards (31 Aug. 1817) 1st MARQUESS OF HARCOURT 
and a PEER OF FRANCE], was b. at Paris 17 July 1771, served in the British 
Army 1796-1800, sue. his father as 5th Marquess of [Harcourt-] Olonde and 
2nd Marquess of Harcourt 3 June 1820, and d. at " Saint Leonard la Clever, 
comte de Berker," i.e. St. Leonard's, near Windsor, 21 Sep. 1831, having m. 

1 Burke's Extinct Peerage, 1883, p. 259 ; Bnrke's Landed Gentry, i. p. 413 ; Marryat, 
ii. pp. 472, 477. 

2 Brydges' Collins, ii. p. 518. 

3 Titres de la Restauration, ii. 287. 



96 THE NOBILITIES OF EUROPE 

there 12 June 1800 Elizabeth Sophia, da. of Richard Bard Harcourt, a cousin 
of the 1st Earl of Harcourt [G.B.], by whom he had issue (1) William Bernard, 
3rd Marquess of Harcourt and 6th Marquess of Olonde [F.], b. 3 Dec. 1808, 
who inherited St. Leonard's under the will of the 3rd and last Marquess of 
Harcourt [G.B.] 18 June 1830, when he resigned his French honours and 
estates to his younger brother, and d. s.p.m. at St. Leonard's 25 May 1846 ; 
and (2) George Douglas Trevor, 4th Marquess of Harcourt [F.], O.L.H., b. at 
Brighton 4 Nov. 1808, who resumed his French domicile. He was father of 
the present Marquess. 1 

HARCOURT [F. 1745]. See d'Harcourt, Marquess of. 
HARCOURT [F. 1418]. See Beaufort, Count of. 
HARE. See p. 43, note 3. 

HARRIS. James (Harris), 1st EARL OF MALMESBURY, K.B., was authorised by the 
King of Prussia to add to his arms the Black Eagle of Prussia, either quarterly 
or as one of his supporters, 21 Oct. 1789, as a public mark of his esteem and 
regard for his conduct as H.B.M.'s Ambassador at The Hague during the Revolu- 
tion, and in compliance with the written request of the Prince of Orange, who 
8 Oct. previously had permitted him to adopt and use the motto of his house, 
"Je maintiendrai," and he had a Royal License from King George III. to 
accept these honours 9 May 1791. 
2 

HARYETT or HARGETT, alias HOWARD. Elizabeth Anne Haryett or Hargett (so 
described in her death certificate), b. in England, became the mistress of 
Napoleon III. under the name of Howard, and was by him cr. COUNTESS OF 
BEAUREGARD (COMTESSE DE BEAUREGARD), near Versailles [F.E.], and had a 
grant of the castle of that name and 250,000. She m. in 1854 Capt. Clarence 
Trelawny, Austrian Hussars [yst. son of Capt. Harry Brereton Trelawny of 
Shotwick], but they were divorced in 1865, she dying the same year. Her 
son, Martin Howard, was cr. by his father COUNT OF BECHEVET (COMTE DE 
BECHEVET) [F.E.] Jan. 1865, and d. Aug. 1907, leaving issue Richard, 2nd 
Count of Bechevet, and the Countesses Grisile Charlotte and Marianne Josephine 
de Bechevet. 3 

HAY. Henric Hay, Major and Commander of the fortress of Cobron 1682 [son of 
Alexander Hay, who entered the Swedish Service in 1600, and rose to the 
rank of Colonel 4 ], was ENNOBLED [Sweden No. 1187] under the name of Haij 
by King Charles XI. 1689, and introduced in the House of Lords 1693. His 

descendant, ( ) Haij, was cr. BARON HAIJ [Sweden No. 362] by King 

Charles XIV. 1815, and took his seat in the House of Peers 1817. Still existing. 
See p. 35. 

HAY [Sweden 1815]. See Hay, Baron. 

HEATH. John Benjamin Heath, Esq., F.R.S., for upwards of sixty-two years 
Consul-General for Sardinia and afterwards for Italy in London, was 1867 cr. 
by King Victor Emmanuel II. BARON HEATH (BARONE HEATH) [Italy], with 
rem. to the heirs male of his body. Title still existing. See p. 21. 

HEATH [Italy 1867]. See Heath, Baron. 

HEAVEN. Dona Maria Guadalupe Ignacia Antonia, suo jure MARCHIONESS OF 
BRACERAS (MARQUESA DE BRACERAS) [Spain] [Lady of the Order of the Holy 
Sepulchre, da. and h. of Gen. D. Ignacio Ramirez de Arellano, by his wife Dona 
Matilda de Braceras, of Braceras, Santa Colonna, Ayala, Spain, grandda. and 
in her issue heiress of D. Antonio de Braceras, who was 4 Apr. 1707 cr. by 
King Philip V. MARQUESS OF BRACERAS (MARQUES DE BRACERAS), with rem. to 
the heirs general of his body], 5 m. 17 Oct. 1862 Joseph Robert Heaven, Esq., 
when she became a British subject. See p. 11. 

HEAVEN. Francis Joseph Hugh Alexander Heaven [youngest son of Joseph Robert 
Heaven, of the Forest of Birse, co. Aberdeen, by his wife Maria, suo jure 
MARCHIONESS OF BRACERAS [Spain]], b. 15 Apr. 1877, was naturalized as 

1 Titres de la Restauration, iii. 291. 

2 George Douglas Wyatt HARRIES about 1890 assumed the style of " Baron Valdez 
y Valdez." 

3 Daily Telegraph, 4 Nov. 1907. 

* Marryat, ii. 484 ; Donner, p. 28. 5 Ex inform. Count Ramirez de Arellano. 



AN ALPHABETICAL LIST 97 



hood. In Dec. 1902 he was authorised by a royal warrant to quarter the 
royal arms of Navarre in virtue of his legitimate maternal descent from the 
kings of that country, and the following year by letters patent dated at Madrid 
17 July 1903, signed by the King and the " Ministro de Gracia y Justicia," 
was cr. COUNT RAMIREZ OF ARELLANO (CONDE DE RAMIREZ DE ARELLANO), 
a title formerly held by his mother's family, with rem. to the heirs general 
of his body " descendientes legitimos." The Count, who is a G.C.H.S. (10 Jan. 
1905) and G.C.I.C., a Grand Star of Honour and Merit of the Royal Spanish 
Red Cross, and who has the Coronation Medal of Alfonso XIII., the Mariana 
Cross of the Teutonic Order of Austria and the Papal Cross " Pro Ecclesia et 
Pontifici," was appointed by King Alfonso XIII. one of his Chamberlams-in- 
Waiting (Mayordomo de Semana) 10 Jan. 1905. He was also made G.C.S.G. 
by Pope Pius X. Dec. 1906. See p. 33. 

HERBERT. Francis Edmund Herbert [b. 13 Nov. 1696 of an English family which 
had settled in Germany] was 21 Sep. 1715 ENNOBLED in the Empire and 
Austria (" Reichs-und-erbland-osterr ") by the Emperor Charles VI., and his son 
Johann Michael von Herbert was 28 Feb. 1767 cr. by the Archduchess- Empress 
Maria Theresa BARON HERBERT (FREIHERR VON HERBERT) [Austria], for 
himself and his descendants. The title became extinct on the death s.p.m. 
30 June 1856 of Ignez Josef (Herbert), 5th Baron Herbert. 1 

HERBERT [H.R.E. 1767]. See Herbert, Baron. 

HERBERT-RATHKEAL. Peter Philip Herbert-Rathkeal [of a family who left Ireland 
with James II.] was 3 July 1779 cr. by the Archduchess-Empress Maria 
Theresa a BARON OF THE HOLY ROMAN EMPIRE and of AUSTRIA as FREIHERR 
VON HERBERT-RATHKEAL, for himself and his descendants. The male line 
ended with Gabriel, 4th Baron Herbert-Rathkeal, b. 21 Dec. 1832, d. s.p. 

3 Mar. 1889, when the title became extinct. 2 The Baroness Constantia, sister 
of Heinrich Constantin, 2nd Baron, m. Sir John Spencer Smith, H.B.M.'s 
Minister at Constantinople, and d. in Vienna 1829. 

HERBERT-RATHKEAL [H.R.E. and Aust. 1779]. See Herbert, Baron of. 

HERCULES. Ulric Alexander Hercules, Capt. in Swedish Service [b. at Greifswald of 
a Scottish family established there since 1633], was ENNOBLED [Sweden No. 1928] 
1751. 3 

HERICOUT [F. 1420]. See de Bucy, Baron. 
HERMELIN [Sweden 1766]. See Scragge, Baron. 

HERVART. Philibert (Hervart), 1st BARON DE HUNINGUE [F.], commonly called 
BARON HERVART [son of Bartholomew Hervart, Comptroller- General of the 
Finances], was b. 1645, and fled to England after 1685, and was King William's 
Ambassador at Geneva 1690-1702. Governor of the French Hospital on the 
death of the 2nd Marquess of Ruvigny 1720. He d. s.p.s. at Cotteville 30 Apr. 
1721, aged 76, and was bur. in the Parish Church of Holyrood in Southampton. 4 
His sister m. the Marquess of Gouvernet. See under that name. 

HEUSDEN [Netherlands, now Belgium, 1818]. See Trench, Marquess of. 

HIGGINS. See O'Higgins. 

HJELMBERG. See Spalding. 

HOCHEPIED [Hungary 1704]. See Porter and Larpent, Barons. 

HOFFNUNG-GOLDSMID. Violet, wife of Sidney Francis Hofmung-Goldsmid (R.L. 
13 Nov. 1896), formerly Hoffnung, eldest da. and co-h. of Sir Julian Goldsmid, 
3rd Baronet [U.K.], 3rd and last Baron de Goldsmid da Palmeira [Portugal] 
of the 1845 creation, was 18 Feb. 1906 cr. by Charles I. BARONESS GOLDSMID 
OF THE PALMEIRA (BARONEZZA DE GOLDSMID DA PALMEIRA) [Portugal] for 
life. See p. 24. 

HOGG. Family of English extraction ENNOBLED [Sweden No. 1162] by King 
Charles XI. for services in the Civil Service 1689. 5 Extinct before 1716. 6 

1 Freiherrl. Taschenbuch, 1849, p. 195 ; 1905, p. 306. 

2 Ibid., 1853, p. 202 ; 1855, p. 259 ; 1905, p. 306. 3 Donner, p. 45. 

4 See Agnew's Protestant Exiles from France, p. 309. 

6 Marryat, ii. 490. 6 Sveriges Add, i. 248. 

G 



9 8 



THE NOBILITIES OF EUROPE 



HOHENSTEIN. H.S.H. Frances Paul Charles Louis Alexander (of Hohenstein), 2nd 
COUNT OF HOHENSTEIN (GRAF VON HOHENSTEIN) [son of Duke Alexander of 
Wurtemberg by his morganatic wife, the Countess Claudine de Rhedey, who was 
by letters patent dated at Vienna 16 May 1835 cr. by the Emperor Ferdinand I. 
COUNTESS OF HOHENSTEIN (GRAFIN VON HOHENSTEIN) [Austria], with rem. 
to the heirs male of her body], was 1 Dec. 1863 cr. by King William I. PRINCE 
OF TECK (FiiRST VON TECK), near Owen, circle of the Danube, in Wurtemberg, 
with the qualification of DURCHLAUCHT for himself and the heirs male of his 
body. This title was recognised in Austria by letters patent of the Emperor 
Francis Joseph 21/27 Jan. 1864, and 16 Sep. 1871 he was further cr. by King 
Charles I. DUKE OF TECK (HERZOG VON TECK) [Wurtemberg], with the same 
rem. He m. 12 June 1866 H.R.H. the Princess Mary of Great Britain and 
Ireland, and was naturalized as a British subject. See p. 7. 

HOHENSTEIN [Wurtemberg 1835]. See Hohenstein, Count of. 
HOJA [Sweden 1712]. See Spens, Count of. 

HOOD. Alexander Nelson (Hood), 3rd LORD BRIDPORT [I.], sue. his mother Char- 
lotte Mary (nee Nelson), auo jure DUCHESS OF BRONTE [Sicily], in that title 
29 June 1873. See Nelson. The title is now held by his fourth son. See p. 9. 

HOOKE. A BARON DE HOOKE, descended from a family who left Ireland in Crom- 
well's time and settled in the French West Indies, was living at GatteYville 
in Normandy in 1814. 1 

HOOP. James Huup, or Hoop, Capt. in Swedish Service [b. in Stralsund 1619, 
of Scottish extraction], was ENNOBLED [No. 938] under the name of Hupenfelt, 
1678. 2 Extinct 1822. 3 

HOPE. Archibald Hope, Esq., banker, a Director of the Dutch West Indian 
Company 1786 [son of Zachary Hope of Rotterdam (b. there 1711, d. 21 Mar. 
1770), and great-grandson of Henry Hope, who left Scotland about 1660 and 
established himself at Rotterdam], b. at Rotterdam 31 Aug. 1747, was by royal 
decree dated 16 Sep. 1815 cr. ("verheven") a JONKHEER. He d. s.p. at 
s'Gravenhage 7 July 1821, when the title became extinct. 

HftpKEN [Sweden 1771]. See Hopkins, Baron. 

HOPKINS. About 1631 the Germanised family of Hopkins or Hopken, burgesses 
of Bremen, settled in Sweden, declaring themselves to be of an ancient English 
family, which had quitted their native land during the religious persecutions 
of Queen Mary, and had been ENNOBLED by the Emperor Maximilian II. in 

1571. The patent had been lost, but ( ) Hopken succeeded in getting 

himself ENNOBLED among the Swedish Nobility [No. 1414] in 1649. 4 His 
descendant Daniel Nicholas, cr. BARON HOPKEN [Sweden No. 161] 1719, was 
Minister of the Home Dept. 1720, and his son Anders John was cr. COUNT 
OF ULFASO [Sweden No. 89] in 1761. Extinct. 

HOPKINS. Carl Hopken [? of an English family 5 ] was cr. BARON H$PKEN [Sweden 
No. 1771] by King Gustavus III. 1771. Extinct 1872. 

HORNCASTLE. Walter Radcliffe Horncastle, Esq., K.L.H., K.C.C.I., of Cheapside 
in the City of London and of Taymouth House, co. Midx., was 14 Dec. 1895 
cr. by His Most Faithful Majesty King Charles I. VISCOUNT HORNCASTLE 
(VISCONDE DE HORNCASTLE) [Portugal] for life only. He d. 1908, when the 
title became extinct. 

HORNCASTLE [Portugal 1895]. See Horncastle, Viscount. 
HOWARD. See Haryett. 

HOWORTH. John Scott Ho worth, " Subdito Inglez," owner of the important Royal 
Pottery Works at Sacaven, near Lisbon, and the founder of other manufactories 
in Portugal, was held in great esteem and friendship by King Ferdinand II., 
and was by decree of 16 July 1885 cr. BARON HOWORTH OF SACAVEN (BARAO 
HOWORTH DE SACAVEN) by King Louis I. He d. universally respected 
11 Dec. 1903, aged 65. He was uncle of Sir Henry Howorth, M.P> 

HOWORTH OF SACAVEN [Portugal 1885]. See Howorth, Baron. 
HUESCAR [Castile]. See Fitzjames, Duke of. 

1 See O'Callaghan's Irish Brigade, p. 330. 

2 Donner, p. 29. 3 Sveriges Adel. 
4 Marryat, ii. 475. 5 Ibid., ii. 474. 
6 See Obituary Notice in The Times, 12 Dec. 1903. 



AN ALPHABETICAL LIST 99 

HUNEBOURG [F. 1808]. See Clarke, Count of. 

HUNINGUE [F. 16 ]. See Hervart, Baron of. 

HUNTLY-GORDON [Poland 1658]. See Gordon, Marquess of. 

HURIEN [F. 16 ]. See Champion de Crespigny, Baron and Viscount of. 

HYDE. Jean Guillaume Hyde de Neuville, G.C.L.H., K.S.L., G.C.I.C., G.C.T.S., 
Deputy of the Nievre 1815-16 and 1822-30, French Ambassador to the United 
States 1816, to Brazil 1820, at Constantinople 1822, and at Lisbon 1823 [son 
of William Hyde, Seigneur de Neuville, near La Charite, Maitre de forges (b. in 
Scotland 1740, d. in Paris 1790), by his wife (m. 1771) Maria Roger of Neuville, 
and grandson of James Hyde, who came to France and settled at Sancerre (Cher) 
1748], was, in recognition of the part he took at the head of the diplomatic 
body accredited to the Court of Lisbon in re-establishing public order, 
30 Apr. 1823, cr. by King John VI., by royal decree of 13 May 1824, 
COUNT OF BEMPOSTA (CONDE DA BEMPOSTA) [Portugal], with rem. to the heirs 
general of his body for three lives, whom failing to his nephew, Theodore 
Estevao de La Rue St. Leger, A.D.C. to the Marshal Duke of Raguza, the elder 
son of his sister Maria Suzana, wife of Col. Isaac Estevao de La Rue St. Leger, 
K.C.L.H., K.S.L., Director of the French Archives, Minister of Marine and 
of the Colonies 1828-1830. On 20 Jan. 1830 he was cr. by King Charles X. 
BARON HYDE OF NEUVILLE [F.], with rem. to the heirs male of his body, and 
by a royal decree of 11 June 1835 he was further cr. by Queen Mary II. 
MARQUESS OF BEMPOSTA (MARQUEZ DA BEMPOSTA) [Portugal] in con- 
sideration of his good offices in supporting her government, with the same 
rem. as the County. He was b. at La Charite 24 Jan. 1776; d. s.p. at Paris 
28 May 1857, when his French Barony became extinct, while his Portuguese 
honours devolved on his aforesaid nephew, who had (9 July 1834) been cr. 

COUNT OF BEMPOSTA. 1 

HYDE OF NEUVILLE [F. 1830]. See Hyde, Baron. 

HYLTON. Family [descended from John Hylton of Berwick, who went to Sweden 

1632] 2 ENNOBLED [Sweden No. 1524] under the name of Lindsfelt 1717. 

Extinct 1892. 3 



IHRE [Sweden 1843]. See Eyre, Baron. 

ILINSKI. " Count Benedict Ilinski," of Poland, was naturalized in the United 
Kingdom under that style 3 Nov. 1868. 

IRVINE. Alexander Irvine [son of George Irvine of Tulloch, Vice-Governor of 
Calmar Stott under Charles IX.] rose to high Military honours in the Swedish 
Service, and established himself at Irvingsholm in Nerike, being ENNOBLED 
[Sweden No. 308] by Queen Christina 1647 as Irwing. 4 Extinct 1748. 5 

IVREA [Parma]. See Gallenga-Hardwin, claiming to be Marquess of. 



JACKSON. John Jacquenot Jackson, Sieur des Auches, Capt. in the French Army, 
claimed to be a cadet of Jackson of Hickleton, co. York, Bart. [E.]. 6 

JALUNDA [Sweden 1654]. See Fleetwood, Baron. 

JAMAICA [Spain 1537]. See Fitzjames, Marquess of. 

JAMES. Pierre James, Ecuyer, Seigneur de Quirielles in Bourbonnais c. 1500 
[said to be descended from an Irish family, was ancestor of the family of 
James, Lords of Quirielles and afterwards of Frenaudies, who established their 
Nobility 1634 and again 1669. Two branches are now in existence, of whom 
the senior is represented by M. le Baron de James. 7 

JENISON. Francis Jenison of Low Wai worth, co. Durham, Esq., J.P. [son and h. 
of John Jenison of the same, where his ancestors had been seated since the time 
of Henry VIII. , by his wife Elizabeth, da. of Francis Sandford of Twemlow, 

1 Resenha das Familias, 1838, p. 44 ; 1890, i. p. 247. Titres de la Restauration, iv. 37. 

2 Marryat, ii. 492. 3 Sveriges Adel, i. 270. 

4 Marryat, ii. 490 ; Donner, p. 30. 

5 Sveriges Adel, i. 198. 

6 The Jacobite Peerage, p. 195. 7 Reverend, 1891, p. 168. 



ioo THE NOBILITIES OF EUROPE 

co. Salop], 1 sometime an Officer of Dragoons in the British Army, sold Low 
Walworth and retired to the Continent, where he entered the Service of the 
Elector Palatine, by whom he was appointed a Chamberlain 1776. On the 
17 Sep. 1790 he was cr. by the said Elector, as Vicar of the Empire, a COUNT OP 
THE HOLY ROMAN EMPIRE as COUNT OF WALWORTH (GRAF VON WALWORTH), 
for himself and his descendants. He was also at the same time cr. a COUNT OF 
BAVARIA. 2 Francis, 2nd Count of Walworth, K.M., commonly called Count 
Jenison-Walworth (b. at Walworth 8 Feb. 1764), was Grand Chamberlain to 
the King of Wiirtemberg, and Franz Oliver, 3rd Count, was Bavarian Ambas- 
sador to the Court of Naples 1822. Title still existing. See p. 31. 

JENNINGS. Old Anglo-Irish Noble family, naturalized and ENNOBLED in Sweden 
[No. 1874] 1742, and introduced into House of Nobles 1743 [descended from 
Francis Jennings of a Somersetshire family, who in Queen Elizabeth's reign 
settled at Kilbarron, co. Donegal, afterwards establishing himself as a merchant 
in Stockholm. He acquired the lands of Skanellaholm, and erected them into 
a fidei-commis for his descendants, who still possess them]. 3 See p. 41. 

JERNINGHAM. Charles Jerningham, a Gen. in the Imperial Service [3rd son of 
Henry Jerningham, and nephew of the 4th and 5th Baronets [E.] ], 4 was 1777 
cr. 5 by the Emperor Joseph II. a COUNT OF THE HOLY ROMAN EMPIRE as 
COUNT OF JERNINGHAM (GRAF VON JERNINGHAM), for himself and his descen- 
dants. The title became extinct 10 Feb. 1868 by the death of the 2nd Count 
s.p.m. One daughter still survives. See p. 31. 

JERNINGHAM [H.R.E. 1777]. See Jerningham, Count of. 
JODRELL. See Napier. 
JOHNSTON. See p. 43, note 3. 

JORDAN. Edward Bernard Jordan, Major Abo Cavalry [son of Edward Jordan 
who in 1623 had a grant of lands in Ingermanland free of all taxes from Bang 
Gustavus Adolphus in reward for Military services, by the da. of a German 
Prince], 6 was ENNOBLED [Sweden No. 914] as von Jordan by King Charles XI. 
1680. 7 Extinct after 1758. 8 

JULIERS. William (of Juliers), SOVEREIGN COUNT OF JULIERS, brother-in-law to 
Philippa of Hainault, Queen Consort of Edward III., sue. his father Apr. 1329, 
was cr. by the Emperor 21 Aug. 1336 MARQUESS OF JULIERS and a PRINCE OF 
THE EMPIRE. He was Capt. and Vicar-Gen, in France to Edward III., by 
whom he was cr. 7 May 1340 EARL OF CAMBRIDGE [E.]. He was Joint Com- 
missioner to France Sep. 1340 and Aug. 1341, and Chief Comr. Oct. 1346, and 
was English Ambassador to the Emperor Dec. 1345 and Feb. 1349. In 1357 
he was cr. DUKE OF JULIERS IN THE EMPIRE, and d. Feb. 1361, leaving male 
issue, who, however, did not sue. to his English Earldom. 9 



KARR. See p. 43, note 3. 

KAVANAGH. Richard Shanahan, COUNT DE KAVANAGH [son of Brian Shanahan, 
Count de Kavanagh, K.L.H., and of the eldest da. of the late Col. Grant of 
the R.E. Dept., Dublin Castle, descended from John Baptist, Baron of 
Kavanagh, who was cr. a COUNT by the Empress Maria Theresa in 1768], d. s.p. 
Oct. 1882, and was sue. in the title, which descends in the female line (sic), by 
his only sister, who m. 1850 Mr. Brien Boulger. 10 

KAVANAGH [H.R.E. 1768]. See Kavanagh, Count of. 

KEARNEY. Martin de Kearnie [son of the Chevalier James de Kearnie, K.S.L., 
and grandson of John Kearney, Secretary of State to King James II., with whom 
he retired to France] was cr. COUNT DE KEARNIE [F.]. 11 He m. 1741 Lady 

Surtees' Durham, 1823, iii. 321. 
Grdflichen Taschenbuch, 1844, pp. 282-284. 
Marryat, ii. 490. 

Ruvigny's Plantagenet Soil, Essex Vol., Supplement, p. 545. 
Gen. Taschenbuch der deutschen Graflichen Hauser, 1843. 
Marryat, ii. 490. ' Donner, p. 30. 

Sveriges Adel. 

G. E. C.'s Complete Peerage. 
See The Times, 12 Oct. 1882. " U rJce's Peerage, 1902, p. 2037. 



AN ALPHABETICAL LIST 101 

Elizabeth, widow of William Brownlow of Lurgan, M.P., and da. of James, 
6th Earl of Abercorn. 1 He d. s.p. 

KEARNEY. Robert Cecil Joseph Patrick Kearney of Ballinvilla, near Castlebar, 
co. Mayo, J.P., late 97th Regt., of the same family as the preceding, was Nov. 
1868 cr. by H.H. Pope Pius IX. COUNT CECIL-KEARNEY [P.S.], with rem. to 
the heirs male of his body. His only child, the Countess Alice Katharine Irma 
Perceval, in whose memory the Alice Kearney Memorial Lecture Fund was 
founded, d. unm. 1 June 1899. See p. 15. 

KEARNEY [F. c. 1741]. See Kearney, Count of. 
KEARNEY [P.S. 1868]. See Kearney, Count Cecil-. 

KEATINGE. Anne Keatinge, da. of the Right Hon. Richard Keatinge, P.C., Judge 
of the Court of Probate [I.], was 16 Feb. 1875 cr. a COUNTESS as COUNTESS 
KEATINGE (CONTESSA KEATENGE) in the Papal States by H.H. Pope Pius IX. 
She d. unm., when the title became extinct. 

KEATINGE [P.S. 1875]. See Keatinge, Countess. 
KEIR. See Grant. 

KEITH. Andrew Keith, BARON OF DINGTENWALL, went to Sweden from Scotland 
in 1569, and was made Governor of Wadstena. He was afterwards sent on a 
mission to England in 1583. He m. Elizabeth Grip, heiress of Finstadt, and 
was 1580 cr. BARON OF FINSTADT (FRIHERR AF FINSTADT), and afterwards 
appears as " Knight of Finsholm and Baron of Dignewall." He d. s.p. 1597. 2 

KENNY. Jean Louis Bonaventure Kenny, K.L.H., Mayor of Dunkirk, a Member 
of the College electoral and Deputy for the Nord 1815 [grandson of Patrick 
Kenny and Mary Masse], b. at Dunkirk 11 Aug. 1769, was cr. a BARON OF THE 
FRENCH EMPIRE, sur institution de majorat, by letters patent of the Emperor 
Napoleon I. 13 June 1812. 3 His only surv. son, Alexandre Charles, 2nd Baron 
Kenny [F.E.], was 11 Jan. 1823 cr. by King Louis XVIII. BARON DE KENNY 
[F.], with rem. to the heirs male of his body. He d. s.p. before 1856, when all 
his honours became extinct. 4 

KENNY [F.E. 1812]. See Kenny, Baron de. 
KENNY [F. 1823]. See Kenny, Baron de. 

VAN KEPPEL. Arnold Joost van Keppel, BARON VAN KEPPEL and LORD OF VOORST 
in Guelderland, Member of the Knighthoods of Zutphen and of Holland and 
Friesland [descended from Walter, Lord of Keppel in Guelders, who was living 
in 1179], accompanied William of Orange to England, and was 10 Feb. 1697 
cr. EARL OF ALBEMARLE, &c. [E.]. His descendants by birth, Barons van 
Keppel in the Netherlands, have since remained in this country. See p. 18. 

KIELMANSEGGE. Charlotte Sophia jure mariti BARONESS OF KIELMANSEGGE, wife 
of Adolph, 1st Baron von Kielmansegge, Master of the Horse to George I. 
(whose mistress she was), da. of Frantz Emmanuel (of Offlen), Count of Platen 
and Hallermund, was 11 Sep. 1721 cr. COUNTESS OF LEINSTER, &c. [I.] and 
6 Apr. 1722 COUNTESS OF DARLINGTON, &c. [G.B.]. She d. 20 Apr. 1725, leaving 
issue. 

KING. James King, Page to King Charles XL, and his brother, Henry King, a 
lef-drabant in the Swedish Army, were ENNOBLED [No. 810] in Sweden by King 
Charles XI. 1672. James was killed at the capture of Christianstad 1676. 
Family extinct. 5 

KING. Richard (King), 1st LORD EYTHIN [S.], a Royalist Officer, who had in his 
youth served with distinction under Gustavus Adolphus, having been attainted 
by the Scots Parliament 26 July 1644, retired to Sweden, where he was wel- 
comed by Queen Christina, who, in consideration of his past services to the 
Swedish Crown, cr. him a PEER OF SWEDEN under the title of BARON SANSHULT 
in the Parish of Doderhalto, in the district of Calmar. He d. at Stockholm 
9 June 1652, when his honours became extinct. 6 

KINNAIRD. See p. 43, note 3. 

KIRCHBERG [? Germany 1632], See Ruthven, Count of. 

KIRJAN. The MARQUESS OF KIRJAN (MARQUIS DE KERJAN) [? F.] had a certificate 

1 Paul's Scots Peerage, i. 62. * Marryat, i. 419 ; Donner, p. 9. 

3 Armorial du Premier Empire, ii. 360. 

4 Titres de la Restauration, iv. 88. 

6 Marryat, ii. 491. 6 Paul's Scots Peerage, iii. 591. 



102 THE NOBILITIES OF EUROPE 

of the fidelity with which he had served James II. and VII. during three years 
as Capt. of a ship, and had permission to take service where he pleased except 
with the King's enemies, 14 Jan. 1691, from which it would appear that he 
must have been a British subject. 1 

KERJAN [? F.]. See Kerjan, Marquess of. 

KLERKER. Carl Nathaniel Klerck, General in the Swedish Service and Commander- 
in- Chief of the Forces in Finland [descended from Reinhold Klerck, who 
established himself as a merchant at Ystad 1660], 2 was ENNOBLED and adopted, 
"adlad och adopterad " [Sweden No. 2132a], 1780, and introduced into House 
of Peers 1788, and 17/29 June 1809 cr. BARON KLERKER (FRIHERR AF KLERKER) 
[Sweden No. 334]. 3 He d. 1817. The Barony is extinct, but the Noble line 
still exists. 

KLERKER. Baron Gustave Raynal af Klerker [a member of the above family] was 
enrolled as a NOBLE OF FINLAND [No. 22] 25 Jan./6 Feb. 1818. Extinct 
20 Sep. 1868. 3 

KLERKER [Sweden 1809]. See Klerker, Baron. 

KNOWLES. John Knowles was, by decree of 15 Feb. 1866 followed by a charter 
dated 19th of the same month, cr. BARON KNOWLES (BARAO DE KNOWLES) in 
Portugal, but no further particulars appear to be known.* 

KNOWLES [Portugal 1866]. See Knowles, Baron. 

KONARSKI. Major S. P. LUCAS KONARSKI, late 25th Regt. and King's Own Scottish 
Borderers [only son of COUNT ALEXANDER KONARSKI], d. at Torquay 11 Dec. 
1887, aged 44. 5 

KUNGSGARD [Sweden 1652]. See Forbes, Baron of. 

KUSEL. Samuel Selig Kusel, Capt. 3rd Batt. East Surrey Regt. and formerly 
Controller-Gen, of the Egyptian Customs [son of Louis Selig Kusel], was May 
1882 cr. a Bey by H.H. the Khedive in recognition of his services during the 
Egyptian crisis, and by letters patent dated 23 Oct. 1890 BARON KUSEL 
(BARONE KUSEL) [Italy] by King Victor Emmanuel III. ; Royal License for him 
to assume and use this title in the United Kingdom was granted by Queen 
Victoria 8 Feb. 1893. See p. 23. 

KUSEL. Adolph Kusel [son of Selig Kusel] was naturalized as a British subject 
9 Mar. 1867, and was by letters patent dated 23 Oct. 1890 cr. by King Victor 
Emmanuel III. BARON KUSEL (BARONE KUSEL) [Italy], with rem. to ? . He was 
authorised by Royal License 5 Nov. 1892 to assume and use the title in the 
United Kingdom. See p. 23. 

KUSEL [Italy 1890]. See Kusel, Baron. 
KUSEL [Italy 1890]. See Kusel, Baron. 

KUTZLEBEN. Christian, BARON VON KUTZLEBEN, Minister to the Landgrave of 
Hesse-Cassel, 6 m. 1780 Dorothy, 4th da. of Sir Richard Wrottesley, 4th Bt. [E.], 
and had with a da. and a younger son, Baron Charles von Kutzleben of the 69th 
Foot, who d. young s.p. in India, an elder son, William, Baron von Kutzleben, 
Lieut.-Col. 44th Madras N.I., b. 1785, d. at Berhampore, Madras, 10 Oct. 7 1845, 
not 1836. 8 He m. twice, and had one son, William FitzRoy, b. 1816, d. 1817, 
and five das. , one of whom, Mrs. Curtis, nee Baroness Matilda Catherine Alicia 
von Kutzleben, still survives. 

KYNNINMOND. Patrick Kinnimond [b. at Calensh in Scotland, 9 son of William 
Kynninmond of that Ilk in Fife, 10 living 1600], entered the Swedish Service 

1 See The Jacobite Peerage, p. 196. 

2 Marryat, ii. 484 ; Donner, p. 31. 

3 La Noblesse titree de V Empire de Russie, p. 138. 

4 Resenha das Familias, &c., ii. 64. 5 See The Times. 

6 Gentleman's Magazine. 7 West India List, Deaths. 

8 The Wrottesley Family, by Major-Gen, the Hon. George Wrottesley, pp. 353, 408 ; 
The Genealogist, xix. ; The Blood Royal of Britain : Tudor Roll, p. 565 Essex Vol., 
Supp., p. 471. 

9 Donner, p. 30. 

10 Marryat, ii. 491. There was no William Kynninmond of that Ilk, but the father of 
Patrick may have been William, living 12 Aug. 1580, a younger son of Patrick Kynninmond 
of that Ilk and Craighall. Marryat adds that four Colonels of this name all served with 
distinction in Sweden, but their place in the Kynninmond pedigree is not known. 



AN ALPHABETICAL LIST 103 

1624, rose to the rank of Colonel, and was killed at the capture of Prin, being 
ENNOBLED [No. 505] after his death, together with his brother Col. Thomas, by 
King Charles X. 1650. Thomas was constructor and commander of the cele- 
brated Kynninmond Battery, lost an arm at Leipzic, and d. 1658. His only 
son Patrick was killed s.p. at the siege of Stettin 1677. 

KYNNINMOND. Robert Kinninmundt [b. 1647, son of John Kynninmond (b. at 
Krekemia, near Edinburgh, 1 1608), who settled as a merchant in Stockholm 
1629] became tutor to young Count Frederic Stenbock, and was later appointed 
hof junker to Bengt Oxenstjerna on his embassy to Vienna, being ENNOBLED 
[Sweden No. 971] by King Charles XI. 1680. Extinct 1789. 2 



LABERSEN [Germany]. See Schomberg, Baron of. 

LA BOYSSONNADE [F. 1547]. See de Pechels, Baron of. 

LA CAILLEMOTTE [F.]. See de Massue de Ruvigny, Lord and Count of. 

LA CASE [F.]. See de Bourbon, Marquess of. 

LA CHASTRE. See Chastre. 

LACY. Peter Lacy [b. at Kellidy, Ireland, 29 Sep. 1678, yr. son of Pierce Lacy 
and Maria Courtenay 3 and grandson of John Lacy of Ballingarry, co. Limerick] 
served King James at the siege of Limerick, and on its surrender retired to 
France with Sarsfield's troops. After the Peace of Ryswick he entered the 
Service of the Czar Peter, in which he became a Field-Marshal, Governor- 
Gen, of Livonia, and a K.A.N., being 13/24 Aug. 1740 cr. by the Emperor 
Charles VI. a COUNT OF THE HOLY ROMAN EMPIRE as COUNT OF LASCY 
(GRAF VON LASCY), for himself and his descendants, which title by an Imperial 
Ukase of 4 Nov. following he was authorised by the Czarina Ann to 
assume and carry in Russia. 4 He d. 30 Apr./ll May 1751, 5 leaving by his 
wife, the Countess Martha Feuchen de Loeser, five das., who m. respectively 
Major-Gen. Boye, Privy Councillor Lieven, Gens. Stuart, 6 Brown, 7 and von 
Witter, and 2 sons, the elder an officer of Cuirassiers in the Polish Service, 
Royal Chamberlain, and a COUNT OF THE HOLY ROMAN EMPIRE, and the 
younger was the Russian Major-Gen. Maurice Francis Lacy Lascy, b. in St. 
Petersburg 1725, d. 28 Nov. 180 1. 8 The family is now extinct. 

LACY [H.R.E. 1740]. See Lacy, Count. 
LACY [Russia 1740]. See Lacy, Count. 

LA FORET. The MARQUESS DE LA FORET left France with the Count of Roye by 
written permission of Louis XIV. dated 10 May 1683. He was a Major-Gen, 
in the British Army, and appears as such in the list of General Officers dated 
18 June 1690. On the Peace of Ryswick he obtained restitution of his estates, 
and d. a. 1702, leaving an only son whose estates were confiscated on the breaking 
out of the Spanish War of Succession, when he appealed to Queen Anne 1709. 9 

LAGERBIELKE [Sweden 1766]. See Fistulator, Baron. 
LAGERBJELKE [Sweden 1809]. See Fistulator, Count. 
LAGERBORG. See Scragge. 
LAGERGREN. See Laurin. 
LAGERSTROM. See Laurin. 

1 Donner, p. 31. 

2 Marryat, ii. 491 ; Sveriges Add, i. 236. 

3 See a Sketch Pedigree of the Family of De Lacy, and of Gen. Maurice de Lacy of 
Grodno, 1847. 

* La Noblesse titree de V Empire de Russie, p. 159. 

5 Diet. Nat. Biog., xxxi. 384. 

6 Said in the Sketch Pedigree, &c., to have been ancestor of the Counts Stuart of 
Austria. 

7 Field-Marshal George Brown, Count of the Holy Roman Empire, son and h. of that 
Lieut. -Gen. George Brown, Count of the Holy Roman Empire, who was 12 Ap. 1726 
cr. an Earl [I.] by James III. and VIII. See Ruvigny's Jacobite Peerage, p. 2. 

8 Diet. Nat. Biog. The Austrian Gen. Count Maurice Tanner Lacy, who d. 1819, and 
Gen. Maurice de Lacy, Governor of Grodno (b. in Limerick 1739/1740, d. Jan. 1820), are 
said to have been of the same family. 

9 Agnew, p. 296. 



io 4 THE NOBILITIES OF EUROPE 

LALLY. Sir Thomas Arthur Lally, 2nd Bart, and EARL OF MOENMOYNE [I.], G.C.S.L., 
a Jacobite refugee Officer in the French Service, was about 1755 cr.;or recognised 
by Louis XV. as COUNT OF LALLY and BARON OF TOLLENDAL (COMTE DE LALLY 
et BARON DE TOLLENDAL) [F.]. He was afterwards Commander-in-Chief of 
the French Forces in India, but having been taken prisoner by the English 
at Pondicherry, 1761, was tried and beheaded in Paris 1766. This sentence 
was reversed 1778, and his only son, the 2nd Count of Lally, P.C., was 19 Aug. 
1815 cr. by Louis XVIII. MARQUESS OF LALLY-TOLLENDAL (MARQUIS DE 
LALLY-TOLLENDAL) and a PEER [F.]. He d. 11 Mar. 1830, leaving an only da., 
who m. the Count of Aux. 1 

LALLY [F. c. 1755]. See Lally, Count of. 

LALLY-TOLLENDAL [F. 1815]. See Lally, Marquess of. 

LAMB. See p. 43, note 3. 

LAMBAHOF [Sweden 1766]. See Sinclair, Baron. 

LAMBAHOF [Sweden 1771]. See Sinclair, Count of. 

LA MoTTE-HouDANCOURT [Spain 1722]. See Walsh, Count of. 

LA MOTTE-HOUDANCOURT [Spain 1829]. See Walsh, Duke of. 

LA MUSSE. The MARQUESS OF LA MUSSE was a Huguenot refugee in England. 
Quick 2 says : " ' Here (in London) is a Marquess de La Musse, a faithful confessor 
for Christ, having forsaken his estate and embraced the Cross rather than part 
with his religion.' In the half-pay of Lameloniere's was Capt. Samuel Comte 
de La Musse." 3 

LANCIANO [P.S. 1753]. See Bandini, Marquess of. 

LANE Fox. Sackville George Lane Fox, elder son of Sackville Lane Fox (d. 1874) 
by Lady Charlotte Mary Anne Georgiana, only sister and in her issue (4 May 
1859) sole heir of Francis Godolphin Darcy (Osborne), 7th DUKE OF LEEDS 
and llth BARON CONYERS [E.], and de jure 8th COUNT OF MERTOLA [Portugal], 
became on the death of his said uncle 4 May 1859 12th BARON CONYERS [E.] 
and de jure 9th COUNT OF MERTOLA (CONDE DA VILLA DE MERTOLA) [Portugal]. 
He d. 24 Aug. 1888, leaving two das., of whom the elder is the present suo jure 
de jure Countess. See p. 12. 

LANSEGUE [F.]. See de Bardi, Marquess of. 

DE LA PASTURE. Peter Anthony Francis (de la Pasture), 2nd MARQUESS OF LA PAS- 
TURE [son of Peter Francis de la Pasture, Seigneur de Verchoeq, &c., who was 
confirmed in the title of Nobility borne by his ancestor Thomas de la Pasture 
temp. 1304, and 1768 cr. MARQUESS and COUNT OF LA PASTURE (MARQUIS et 
COMTE DE LA PASTURE) [F.], was a musketeer of the King's Guard, and 
emigrated to England 1791, where his descendants have since remained. Title 
still borne. See p. 11. 

LA PASTURE [F. 1768]. See de la Pasture, Marquess of. 

DE LA POER. Edmund James de Poher de la Poer, 4 of Gurteen Le Poer, Esq., J.P., 
D.L., and (1879) co. Waterford, M.P. for Waterford 1866-73, KNIGHT OF MALTA, 
and but for the attainder of 1689 de jure 17th LORD LE POER and COROGHMORE 
[I.] as heir male of the body of Sir Richard Power, so cr. 13 Sep. 1535, with 
rem. to the heirs male of his body, was Private Chamberlain to H.H. Pope 
Pius IX., by whom he was 19 Aug. 1864 cr. COUNT DE LA POER (CONTE DE LA 
POER) [P.S.], with rem. to the heirs male of his body. See p. 15. 

DE LA POER [P.S. 1864]. See de La Poer, Count. 

DE LARA. " Rinaldo Carlo Luigi Ferdinando di Lara, Count d'Albini," an Italian 
subject, was naturalized in the United Kingdom under that style 11 Jan. 1859. 

DE LA ROCHEFOUCAULD. Francis (de La Rochefoucauld), 4th MARQUESS and 7th 

LORD OF MONTANDRE (MARQUIS ET SEIGNEUR DE MONT ANDRE) in Sahl- 

tonge [F.], 2nd son of Charles Louis (de La Rochefoucauld), 2nd Marquess 
of Montandre, by his wife Madeleine Anne, da. of Peter (Pithou), Lord de 
Luyeres], fled to England on the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes, and was 
Lieut. -Col. of Martin's Regiment 15 Feb. 1693. He sue. his elder brother, 

1 See The Jacobite Peerage, pp. 119-121. 

2 Synodicon, 1692. 

3 Agnew's Protestant Exiles from France, p. 314. 

4 He resumed the original form of his name instead of "Power" by Royal License 
14 May 1863. 



AN ALPHABETICAL LIST 105 

Isaac Charles, 3rd Marquess, 15 Aug. 1702 ; was made a Brigadier 1704, Major- 
General 1706; Master General of the Ordnance [I.] 16 Jan. 1728, General 
27 Oct. 1735 ; Capt., Keeper and Governor of Guernsey 1738, and Field-Marshal 
2 July 1739. He d. in his house in Great Brook Street, Grosvenor Square, 
Aug. 9/18, 1739, at 4 P.M., aged about 71. His will, dated London, 4Mar. 1736/7, 
was proved 10 Aug. 1739. He m. Friday 21 Apr. 1710 Mary Anne, only da. 
of Ezekiel, Baron Spanheim (Freiherr von Spanheim), Prussian Ambassador 
to the Court of St. James's. She d. in Lower Grosvenor Street, Dec. 1773 
(not Jan. 1772). 1 

DE LA ROCHEFOUCAULD. Francis (de La Rochefoucauld), 1st COUNT OF ROYE 
(COMTE DE ROYE) [F.], K.E., a Lieut. -Gen. in the French Service and Grand 
Marshal of the Danish Army, a Huguenot refugee in England in 1688 [a younger 
son of Francis (de La Rochefoucauld), 2nd Count of Roucy [F.] of that family, 
by his wife Juliana Catherine, da. of Henry (de La Tour), Duke of Bouillon, 
Prince of Sedan, and Marshal of France (by his wife Isabel of Orange-Nassau)], 
was b. 1633 ; m. 3 June 1656 his cousin Elizabeth, youngest da. of Guy Aldonce 
(de Durfort), Marquess of Duras [F.], and d. at Bath 9 June 1690. His widow 
survived him, and d. in London 14 Jan. 1715, aged 82. They had issue a large 
family. 2 

DE LA ROCHEFOUCAULD. Frederick William (de La Rochefoucauld), COUNT OF 
MARTHON (COMTE DE MARTHON), alias MARTON, originally styled Comte de 
Champagne-Mouton, a French Protestant refugee [4th son of Francis (de La 
Rochefoucauld), 1st COUNT OF ROYE [F.], K.E., above named], was appointed 
Colonel of a Refugee Regiment 10 Aug. 1693, being naturalized by royal letters 
patent 20 Sep. 1694, 3 and cr. about 19 July 1698 EARL OF LIFFORD [I.], but 
no patent followed though he continued to be so styled. He d. (? s.p.) between 
Oct. 1725 and 25 Mar. 1727. 

LARPENT, now DE HOCHEPIED-LARPENT. John James Larpent, Deputy Paymaster 
of the Army [elder son of John Larpent of East Sheen, co. Surrey, by his wife 
Anna Margaretta, elder sister and in her issue (25 Mar. 1828) heir of George 
(Porter), 6th Baron Hochepied [Hungary], M.P. (see under Porter)], assumed 
by Royal License 1 June 1819 the name and arms of de Hochepied in addition 
to and before those of Larpent, and sue. his uncle as BARON HOCHEPIED 25 Mar. 
1828, having been authorized by a Royal License dated 27 Sep. 1819, granted 
to his said uncle, to assume and use the title in the United Kingdom. Title 
still held by his descendant. See p. 19. 

DE LA TOUR DU PIN. Esther, MARCHIONESS OF GOUVERNET [F.], widow of Charles 
(de La Tour du Pin), Marquess of Gouvernet and Seneviere, Seneschal of the 
Valentinois and Diois, and sister of Philibert (Hervart), 1st Baron de Huningue 
[F.] (see that title], was permitted to retire to England after the Revocation of 
the Edict of Nantes 1685, and was naturalized as a British subject by royal 
letters patent dated 16 Jan. 1691. 4 

LAURIN or LARIN. John Laurin, Col. in Swedish Service [son of Lawrence Laurin, 
a native of Scotland, who was Provost in East-Gothland], 5 was ENNOBLED 
[Sweden No. 391] by Queen Christina 1647 under the name of Lagergren, and 
introduced into the House of Lords 1649. Still existing. See p. 39. 

LAURIN. Laurence or John Laurin [son of the Steward over Stegeborg Slott under 
Charles IX.] wrote a chronicle in verse of the Swedish Kings, and was ENNOBLED 
[Sweden No. 926] by King Charles XI. 1678. Extinct 1698. 6 

LAURIN. Magnus Laurin [of the same family as the preceding] was Secretary to 
the Reduction Committee and afterwards Councillor of Regency, and was 
ENNOBLED [Sweden No. 1228] by King Charles XI. 1691, under the name of 
Lagerstrom. His son Magnus, who d. 1795, was one of the most learned men 
of his day. 7 

LAURISTON [F.E. 1808]. See Law, Count of. 
LAURISTON [F. 1817]. See Law, Marquess of. 

LAVAL. Henry d'Albret d'Ully, VISCOUNT DE LAVAL, of the Castle of Gourlencour, 
Picardy, was a Huguenot refugee in England, with his wife and family, and 

1 Agnew, p. 277. 2 Agnew, pp. 169 et seq. 

3 Patent Rolls, 6 William and Mary. 

4 Agnew, p. 309. 5 Donner, p. 32. 

6 Marryat, ii. 491 ; Sveriges Adel. 

7 Marryat, ii. 492 ; Donner, p. 32. 



io6 THE NOBILITIES OF EUROPE 

established himself at Portarlington, where David, Viscount de Laval, was 
living 1755. Robert, last Viscount de Laval, is said by Agnew 1 to have d. unm. 

LA VERGA [Spain]. See Fitzjames, Duke of. 

LAW. John Law of Lauriston, the celebrated financier, b. at Edinburgh 1671, 
passed into France and obtained letters of naturalization from Louis XIV. 
May 1716, and was cr. MARQUESS OF EFFIAT, CHARLEVAL, AND TOUCY, COUNT 
OF VALENCY AND OF TANCARVILLE, LORD OF ST. SUPLIX, ROISSY, GUER- 
MANTES, &c. He d. at Venice 1729, leaving a son and da. who both d. s.p. 

LAW. William Law, styled BARON DE LAURISTON [younger brother of the preceding], 
passed into France with his brother, and was naturalized there May 1716. He 
d. 1752, leaving five children, all born in Paris. The eldest son, John Law, 
styled Baron de Lauriston, K.S.L. (1761), Marechal de Camp (1780), and 
Governor of Pondichery 1764-1766, was father of James Alexander (Law), 
1st Marquess of Lauriston [F.], K.H.G., G.C.S.L., G.C.L.H., G.C.I.C., 
G.C.C.S., &c., one of Napoleon's Generals. He was b. at Pondichery 1 Feb. 
1765, Governor General of Venice 1807, Count of Lauriston (Comte de Lauriston) 
of the French Empire by letters patent of 29 June 1808, with rem. to the 
heirs male of his body (donataires 23 Sep. 1807, 10 May 1808, 17 Mar. 1809, 
and 16 Jan. 1810), 2 Ambassador to Russia 1811. After the first Restoration 
he as " Jacques Alexandre, Baron de Lauriston, Comte de Lauriston et du 
Empire," had confirmation of the title of COUNT for himself and the heirs male 
of his body from King Louis XVIII. 3 Mar. 1815, and 17 Aug. following he 
was made an Hereditary PEER OF FRANCE and cr. MARQUESS OF LAURISTON 
(MARQUIS DE LAURISTON), with rem. to the heirs male of his body by a royal 
decree of 31 Aug. 1817, confirmed by letters patent of 20 Dec. 1817, Marshal 
of France 6 June 1823, and a Minister of State 1824. He d. 11 June 1828. 3 
Title still existing. See p. 27. 

LAW. Major-Gen. James Francis Law de Lauriston, K.S.L. (1752), Commander- 
in-Chief of the French troops in the West Indies [uncle of the 1st Marquess of 
Lauriston], was COUNT OF TANCARVILLE (COMTE DE TANCARVILLE) 4 [F.]. He 
was father of James Law, cr. BARON DE CLAPERNOU, who was Governor of 
Chandernagor, and d. before 1824, leaving issue now established in India. 5 

LAW. Francis Law or Lauw, a distinguished Naval Officer, was ENNOBLED [Sweden 
No. 957] by King Charles XI. 1680 in reward for his gallant naval action against 
the Danes in Calmar Sound, and had a grant of a ship in flames as an augmenta- 
tion to his arms. 6 Extinct. 

LAW. See p. 43, note 3. 

LE CLERE. Charles Le Clere [son of Thomas Le Clere, alias Clear, fondateur de la 
manufacture royale de Brives, of Irish origin], b. at Bourges 26 Feb. 1762, was 
by letters patent dated 3 July 1813 cr. by the Emperor Napoleon I. CHEVALIER 
LE CLERE ET DE L'EMPIRE, and 11 June 1816 by King Louis XVIII. BARON 
LE CLERE [F.], with rem. to the heirs male of his body. 7 See p. 36. 

LE CLERE [F. 1816]. See Le Clere, Baron. 

LEE. Edward Hugh Lee, of Calabrella in Italy, was styled BARON CALABRELLA, 
but whether he was cr. such or merely assumed the title from the estate, which 
was subsequently sold, does not appear. He m. Arabella Henrietta, 4th da. 
and co-h. of Sir Jonah Barrington, M.P., a Judge of the High Court of the 
Admiralty [I.], who m. 2ndly, 13 Sep. 1837, Capt. Vincent Frederick Kennett 
of Dorchester Manor, co. Oxon. 

LEGGE. Henri Alexandre Joseph, COMTE DE LEGGE, b. at Rennes 1813, a Cavalry 
Officer who served in the Franco-German War, and a Member of the National 
Assembly for Finisterre, was of a family " originaire d'Angleterre." 8 

1 Third edition, ii. 296. 

- Armorial du Premier Umpire, iii. 63. 

3 Titres de la Restauration, iv. 231. The 2nd Marquess had confirmation of the title 
of Count 18 Mar. 1829. 

4 This was one of the titles borne by his uncle, the Marquess of Effiat, from whom 
he probably inherited the estate. There does not appear to have been any creation of this 
title, which was presumably a territorial one. 

5 Reverend, 1865, p. 224. 

6 Marryat, ii. 491. 

7 Titres de la Restauration, iv. 252. 

8 Reve'rend, 1874, p. 402. 






AN ALPHABETICAL LIST 



107 



LEIJEL. See Lyell. 
LEIJONANCKER. See Young. 

DE LELIVA. " THEOBALD ALEXANDER, VISCOUNT DE LELIVA," a French subject, 
was naturalized in the United Kingdom under that style 29 Sep. 1870. 

LEMOS [Castile 1457]. See Fitzjames, Count and Lord of. 

LENCK. Jacob Lenck, Capt. of Horse [son of James Lenck, Col. of East-Gotland 
Cavalry, b. 1578], 1 was ENNOBLED [Sweden No. 448] by Queen Christina 1649. 
Extinct 181 1. 2 

LENNOX. Charles (Lennox), 2nd DUKE or RICHMOND [E.] and LENNOX [S.], became 
2nd DUKE OF AUBIGNY and a PEER OF FRANCE (Due D'AUBIGNY et PAIR 
DE FRANCE) on the death of his grandmother, Louise Renee (de Querouaille), 
1st Duchess of Portsmouth [E.] and Aubigny [F.] 14 Nov. 1734. See under de 
Querouaille. The title is still held by his descendant. See p. 8. 

LEOPOLDINA. See under Lowndes. 
LERINO [Castile]. See Fitzjames, Count of. 

LESCHER. Joseph Francis Lescher, of Boyle's Court, near Brentwood, J.P., D.L. 
[of an Alsatian family, said to have been Barons of France by grant of Bang 
Louis XIII., and which settled in England 1778], is stated to have been cr. by 
H.H. Pope Pius X. a COUNT OF THE PAPAL STATES. 3 

LESLIE. Walter Leslie, a Major in the Imperial Service [2nd son of John Leslie, 
10th Baron of Balquhain], 4 having taken a prominent part in the assassination 
of Wallenstein, 25 Feb. 1634, and rendered other important services to the 
Emperor Ferdinand II., was by that monarch's son and successor, Ferdinand III., 
cr. shortly after his accession, 15 Mar. 1637, COUNT OF LESLIE (GRAF VON 
LESLIE) [H.R.E.] and LORD OF NEUSTADT and PITTAU in Bohemia, with rem. 
to the heirs male of his body, whom failing to his brothers William, afterwards 
13th of Balquhain, who predeceased him s.p., and Alexander, afterwards 14th 
of Balquhain, who were at the same time cr. COUNTS OF THE HOLY ROMAN 
EMPIRE. He was afterwards a P.C., Imperial Chamberlain, Governor of 
Sclavonia, Master-General of the Ordnance 1646, Field-Marshal 1650, and 
K.G.F. 1665. He d. s.p. at Vienna 4 Mar. 1667, and was sue. by his nephew 
James Alexander, 1st Count of Leslie (Graf von Leslie) [H.R.E. 1662], the son 
and heir of his brother Alexander. His male issue failed on the death s.p. of 
Anthony, 5th (1637) and 4th (1662) Count of Leslie, 22 Feb. 1812, when the 
title became extinct. 5 

LESLIE. James Alexander Leslie [eldest son of (Count) Alexander Leslie, 14th 
Baron of Balquhain, and nephew of the famous Field-Marshal, Count of Leslie, 
K.G.F.] was 31 May 1662 cr. by the Emperor Leopold I. a COUNT OF THE 
HOLY ROMAN EMPIRE, with rem. to the descendants for ever. 6 He succeeded 
his uncle as 2nd Count of Leslie [H.R.E. 1637] 4 Mar. 1667. See above. 

LESLIE. George Leslie, an eminent Capuchin Friar, under the name of Brother 
Archangel [son of James Leslie of Monymusk by Jean Wood (who re-m. the 
Baron of Torry and had a son)], was commonly called COUNT LESLIE.? 

LESLIE. Francois Leslie Lesley du Clisson, Seigneur de Ricordieres and de la 
Besseliere, Gentleman in Ordinary to His Most Christian Majesty, b. in Anjou, 
had a declaration of his descent from the Noble family of Leslie of Scotland 
from King James VII. 31 Dec. 1692. 8 

LESLIE.' See p. 43, note 3. 

LESLIE [H.R.E. 1637]. See Leslie, Count of. 

1 Marryat, ii. 492. 

2 Sveriges Adel. 

3 Who's Who. 

4 Memoirs of the Leslies, by Col. Leslie, K.H., iii. pp. 241-251 ; Art. Leslie, Allg. 
Deutsche Biographic; The Scots in Germany, p. 115. 

5 The heiress m. into the Princely family of Dietrichstein, who assumed the title of 
COUNT OF PROSKATJ-LERLIE in consequence. They are also now extinct in the male line. 

6 Memoirs of the Leslies, iii. pp. 241-51. 

7 Life by Francis Barrault, Procureur de la Doctrine Chretienne, 2nd edition, 1682 ; 
Sketch by Sir David Dalrymple, Lord Hailes. 

8 See Ruvigny's Jacobite Peerage, p. 195. 

9 William Forbes LESLIE, sometime of 4 York St., Mary-le-bone Road, described 
himself as "Due di Villanda" ; see The Times, 8 May 1888. 



io8 THE NOBILITIES OF EUROPE 

LESLIE [H.R.E. 1662]. See Leslie, Count of. 

LEUVILLE. See Oliver, styled Marquess of. 

LE VASSEUR-COUGNEE. Louis James (Le Vasseur-Cougnee [Coyny]), MARQUESS OP 
PTJISSAR (MARQUIS DE PUISSAR or DES PUISARS) [2nd son of George (Le Vasseur- 
Cougnee), Marquess of Thouras, and Anna his wife, 1 which George was younger 
brother of James, Marquess of Coigners], was a Huguenot refugee in England. 
On 20 July 1685 James Louis, Marquis de Puissar in the Kingdom of France, 
m. in King Henry VII. 's Chapel, Westminster Abbey, Catherine Villiers, sister 
of the 1st Earl of Jersey. He was naturalized by Act of Parliament 24 Feb. 
1692, 2 and was appointed, as " Marquis de Puissar," Col. of the 24th Regt. 1695, 
and as " James Puissar, commonly called Marquis de Puissar," had a grant 
26 Sep. 1697 of several forfeited estates in Ireland, yielding 607 per annum. 
He d. apparently s.p. 1701. His widow m. 2ndly, her cousin the Hon. William 
Villiers, and as " Mrs. Catherine Puissar, now wife of Col. Villiers," had a pension 
of 200 on the Irish establishment 1702. 3 

LEWIS. See p. 43, note 3. 

LICHTON. Robert Lichton, b. 1631 [son of John Lighten, a Scottish soldier who 
was killed before the walls of Witstock, descended from a family raised to the 
rank of Scotch Barons of Ullishaven by King James IV. 151 1], 4 entered the 
Swedish Service, and greatly distinguished himself at the battle of the Sound 
in 1674. He was introduced into the Swedish House of Peers 1661, cr. a BARON 
1675, made a P.C., and cr. COUNT OF ULLISHAVEN (GREFVE AF ULLISHAVEN) 
[Sweden No. 30], though generally called COUNT LICHTON, by King Charles XI. 
in 1687. He d. s.p. Oct. 1692, 5 the King in person attending his funeral. 

LIGHTON. See Lichton. 
LINDSFELT. See Hylton. 

LINSINGEN. William Frederick (Linsingen), COUNT LINSINGEN " of Linsingen in 
and of the Kingdom of Prussia, and Baron Linsingen of the Kingdom of 
Hanover, a Lieut. -Col. in His Majesty's Army, son of Charles, Count and Baron 
Linsingen, by Maria his wife, b. in the city of Hanover, of the Protestant faith," 6 
was naturalized as a British subject by Act of Parliament 8 May 1818. 7 

LIRIA [Spain 1707]. See Fitzjames, Duke of. 

LISLE [P.S. 1902]. See March-Phillipps-de-Lisle, Marquess de. 

LIVINGSTONE. Thomas Livingstone, Lieut.-Col. (1678) [son of George Livingstone 
of Krycksridy in Scotland, who went to Sweden and d. Capt. of a Smaland 
Regiment 1667], was ENNOBLED [Sweden No. 747] by King Charles XI. under 
the name of Livensten 1668. His son, Lieut.-Col. Alexander George Livensten, 
was made prisoner at Pultowa, and d. s.p. 174 1. 8 

LOCKHART. James Lockhart-Wishart of Lee and Carnwath, co. Lanark, K.M.T., 
a General in the Imperial Service and Lord of the Bedchamber to the Emperor 
[son and h. of George Lockhart of Carnwath, by Fergusia, da. and co-h. 
of Sir George Wishart of Cliftonhall], was 25 Mar. 1783 cr. 9 by the Emperor 
Joseph II. a COUNT OF THE HOLY ROMAN EMPIRE as COUNT LOCKHART- 
WISHART (GRAF VON LOCKHART-WISHART), for himself and his descendants, 
and 14 May 1785 King George III. was pleased " to approve and allow to 
James Lockhart-Wishart, Esq., and his heirs, the dignity, title, and armorial 
bearings of a COUNT OF THE HOLY ROMAN EMPIRE." He d. 6 Feb. 1790, 
leaving, with two das., an only son, Charles, 2nd Count Lockhart-Wishart, who 
d. s.p. 4 Aug. 1802, when his honours became extinct. 

Preamble to Act. 

3 and 4 William and Mary, chap. 21. 

Agnew, 3rd edition, 1886, ii. 300. 4 Marryat, ii. 463. 

Donner, p. 33. He used the style of Count and Baron of Ullishaven, Lord of Tervik 



and 



Peraniemi. 



Preamble to Act. 

58 Geo. III. chap. 61. Lieut.-Gen. Charles Christian Linsingen, Lieut.-Gen. 
William, Count Linsingen, and Lieut.-Col. Augustus Henry von Linsingen were officers 
in the King's German Legion during the Napoleonic wars. See Beamish's History of the 
King's German Legion, 2 vols., London, 1837. 
8 Marryat, ii. 492 ; Dormer, p. 33. 

' Burke (Landed Gentry, 1906, p. 1051) says " a Baron and Count," but if so the Barony 
must have been, as is quite probable, conferred at an earlier period. The patent of 1783, 
as also the Royal License of 1785, only speak of the Countship. 



AN ALPHABETICAL LIST 109 

LOCKHART-WISHART [H.R.E. 1783]. See Lockhart, Count of. 
LONGUEVILLE [F. 1421]. See Douglas, Count of. 
LONGUEVILLE [F. c. 1745]. See de Bucy, Count of. 
LONGUEUIL [F. 1700]. See Grant, Baron de. 

DE LORMET. " Charlotte Francoise Augusta Gisberte Ramadier, BARONESS DE 
LORMET, of the Chateau de Meysembrock, Netherlands, only child of the 
Baron Ramadier de Lormet, Colonel du 32eme Regiment de Chasseurs, and 
niece of the Marquis de la Tour Maubourg, French Ambassador in England 
1819," x m. 20 Mar. 1820 Sir Charles Oakeley, 2nd Bt. [G.B.], and d. 2 Oct. 1850. 
He d. s.p.m. 30 June 1829, leaving three das., of whom the eldest, Helena Sarah 
Charlotte, m. 20 Aug. 1838 her cousin-german William Herbert Wodehouse of 
Woolmers Park, D.L., co. Herts, and is said to have succeeded to the title of 
BARONNE DE LORMET on her mother's death. 2 

LOSADA AND LOUSADA [Spain 1759]. See de Lousada, Duke of. 

LOUDON. Gideon Ernest Loudon, the celebrated Austrian Field-Marshal [b. 1716, 
son of a Lieut. -Col. in the Swedish Army, and descended from Sir Matthew 
Campbell of Loudoun, co. Ayr, who d. 1574], 3 was 5 Mar. 1759 cr. by the 
Emperor Francis I. BARON OF LOUDON (FREIHERR VON LOUDON) [Austria], 
together with his brother Johann Reinhold, and his cousins-german Charles 
Gideon and Otho John, with rem. to their descendants. 4 He d. 14 July 1790, 
and was succeeded by his nephew Johann Ludwig Alexander, 2nd Baron 
Loudon, also a distinguished Military Commander. He was ancestor of the 
present Baron (see p. 34). The family were naturalized in Bohemia 26 Sep. 
1829. 5 

VON LOUDON. Baron Gustave von Laudon or Loudon [a descendant of the pre- 
ceding], entered the Russian Service, and was recognised as a Baron in his 
commission as Captain. 6 By decree of the Senat Dirigeant 4 Oct. 1854, con- 
firmed by the Emperor 22 Jan. 1868, the title of BARON was recognised for 
the noble family von Laudon of Livonia, and 15 Nov. following it was confirmed 
to George Raynal Reginald Guedeonovitch von Laudon. 

LOUDON. James Loudon, Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies, b. 1790 
[eldest son of Alexander Loudon, who went to Java with Sir Robert Stopford 
in 1811], was 18 Feb. 1884 cr. by King William III. a JONKHEER [Nether- 
lands], with rem. to the heirs male of his body in the order of primogeniture. 
Title still existing. See p. 38. 

LOUDON [Austria 1757]. See Loudon, Baron of. 
LOUDON [Russia 1854]. See Loudon, Baron. 
LOUDON [Netherlands 1884]. See Loudon, Jonkheer. 

DE LOUSADA. Isaac de Lousada [whose ancestors had become British subjects on 
the cession of the Island of Jamaica to England in 1655] was confirmed in the 
title of DUKE OF LOSADA AND LOUSADA and GRANDEE OF SPAIN OF THE IST CLASS 
(DUQUE DE LOSADA Y LOUSADA Y GRANDE DE ESP ANA DE PRIMIERA CLASE) 

27 May 1848. The title was originally conferred on ( ) de Lousada, Grand 

Chamberlain to Charles III. while King of Naples and Sicily, who on his 
coronation as King of Spain cr. him 17 Oct. 1759 a DUKE AND GRANDEE OF 
SPAIN OF THE FIRST CLASS ( DUQUE Y GRANDE DE ESPANA DE PRIMIERA CLASE). 
This grant was renewed and recorded in the Royal Archives at Madrid 14 Ap. 
1760, with a special remainder to the Duke's cousin and heir male Emmanuel 
Baruh Lousada, of Jamaica, who at the same time was recognised as a Count 
i.e. " granted the coronet of Count" for himself and his heirs, they having 
been entitled to that rank in Italy, their original country. Whether Emmanuel 
survived his cousin is not known, but his son Jacob Baruh Lousada, 2nd or 3rd 

1 BurMs Peerage, 1902, p. 1148 ; Foster. 

2 Burke's Landed Gentry, 1906, p. 1839. Mrs. Wodehouse has courteously informed 
the Editor that she is unable to give any details as to the origin of this title, as her 
grandfather d. in 1806, when her mother was only three, but she adds that the Baron de 
Lormet had an elder brother, the Count de Lormet, Deputy for Languedoc, who d. s.p., 
when that title also devolved upon his niece, her mother, Lady Oakeley. 

3 Dr. Fischer's Scots in Germany. The title is sometimes spelt Loudon and Laudohn. 

4 Freiherrl. Taschenbuck, 1848, p. 217. 

5 Ibid., 1907, p. 477. 

6 La Noblesse titree de la Kussie, p. 163. 



no THE NOBILITIES OF EUROPE 

de jure Duke, settled in London, and was father of Emmanuel Baruh de 
Lousada, who 8 Jan. 1777 obtained a grant of arms in England for himself 
and his father's brother Aaron and their descendants. Emmanuel, who never 
claimed or assumed the title, d.s.p. and was sue. by his cousin Isaac (son of 
Aaron above named), who, as above stated, obtained renewal and confirmation 
in 1848. The title is now borne by his grandson, a Com. R.N. See p. 9. 

DE LOUSADA. D. Francisco de Lousada, styled COUNT FRANCIS DE LOUSADA, 
H.B.M.'s Consul for the States of Rhode Island and Massachusetts [2nd son 
of the 4th Duke of Losada [Spain], see below], was 3 Apr. 1846 cr. by Leopold 
II., Grand' Duke of Tuscany, MARQUESS OF ST. MINIATO (MARCHESE DI SAN 
MINIATO), with rem. to the heirs male of his body. His son, the 2nd Marquess, 
sue. as 3rd Duke of Losada 20 Feb. 1885, and the two titles remain united. 

LOWNDES. Henry Lowndes, manufacturer, of Rio de Janeiro and afterwards of 
47 Old Broad Street, London, E.G., is said to have been cr. VISCOUNT LEO- 
POLDINA 1889 and COUNT LEOPOLDINA 1892 in Brazil. 1 

LUBIENSKI. COUNT Louis Pomian Lubienski [grandson of Count Henry Lubienski 
(b. at Prague 11 July 1793, d. at Warschau 17 Sep. 1833), 4th son of Felix, 
1st Count Lubienski [Prussia 1798] ], was naturalized in the United Kingdom 
18 Nov. 1876, inherited (1892) the estate of Rotherwas, co. Hereford, under 
the will of his kinswoman, Mrs. Bodenham (a grandda. of the 1st Count), 
and assumed by deed poll 10 Dec. 1897 the additional name of Bodenham 
before Lubienski (see p. 14). The Lubienskis belong to the old feudal 
Nobility of Poland, and descend from Hebda Pomian, of the House of Wieniawa, 
a feudal Count temp. 1357, who acquired the seigneurie of Lubna. Stanislaus 
de Lubna-Lubienski, Bishop of Plock, was Vice- Chancellor of the Kingdom, 
Felix de Lubna-Lubienski, grand-nephew of Florian, Count Palatine of Posnania 
and brother of the last Prince Primate, was 1788 a delegate from the Nobility 
to the Four Years' Diet, was afterwards employed on a mission to Frederick 
William II. of Prussia to obtain the release of the Polish political prisoners in 
his hands, 2 and was by that Prince's successor, King Frederick William III., 
cr. 5 June 1798, on the occasion of his coronation, a COUNT OF THE KINGDOM OF 
PRUSSIA as COUNT LUBIENSKI (GRAF VON LUBIENSKI). He took a prominent 
part in the establishment of the Grand Duchy of Warsaw by the Emperor 
Napoleon I. in 1807, and after the re-establishment of the Kingdom under the 
sovereignty of the Czar, by the Treaty of Vienna, had the title of Count con- 
firmed to him by Alexander I. for himself and his descendants. He left four 
sons, three of whom founded the three existing branches of this family. The 
title was confirmed by the Emperor-King Alexander I. 28 June 1844. 

LULLE. Adrian Lulle, son of ( ) Lulle, who came as a prisoner to Sweden during 

the Thirty Years' War, and grandson of Valtin Lulle, Senator of Leipzig, 
descended from a Scottish family " Adlig att /ran Skottland ; hette harstades 
forut Valtinsson," 3 was ENNOBLED [Sweden No. 2057] under the name of 
Adlerstam 4 by King Gustavus III. 1767, and introduced into House of Lords 
1776. Family still existing. See p. 41. 

LUSSAN [F. 1645]. See Drummond, Lord (a. 1477) and Count of. 

LUTZOW [H.R.E.]. See Clifford, and March-Phillipps de Lisle. 

LYELL. David Lyell 5 [descended from Jacob Lyell of Aberbrock who went to 
Sweden with his two brothers in 1638, and became a merchant and brukspatrons 
at Eifkarleby. He afterwards purchased an estate, when he produced docu- 
ments he had obtained from Scotland proving his gentle birth, and d. 1678] ; 
was ENNOBLED [Sweden No. 1531] by King Charles XII. under the name of Leijel, 
1717. Henry Lyell, grandson of the youngest brother, returned to England, and 
was of Bourn, co. Cambridge. 6 His da. Catherine m. 22 Apr. 1783 John Richard 
(West), 4th Earl de La Warr [G.B.]. 

LYNCH. Jean Baptist Lynch, Mayor of Bordeaux, " ancien president aux enquetes 
du Parlement de Bordeaux, conseiller d la Chambre des enquetes de Guyenne (1789), 
conseiller ggnSral de la Gironde," &c. [b. at Bordeaux 3 June 1749, son of Thomas 
Michael Lynch, Chevalier and Seigneur de Sainte-Barbe and Donzac, of an 

See The Times 2 and 9 Jan. and 20 June 1900, and 24 July 1901. 

Notices sur les Families illustres et titrees de la Pologne (Paris, 1862), pp. 101-5. 

Sveriges Ridderskaps, 1908. 

Donner, p. 33. 

The Scots in Sweden, p. 262. 

Marryat, ii. 492. 



AN ALPHABETICAL LIST in 

old family originally from co. Galway, who had confirmation of his Nobility 
in France by letters patent of King Louis XV. Mar. 1755], 1 was cr. by the 
Emperor Napoleon I., by letters patent dated 22 Oct. 1810, COUNT OF LYNCH 
(COMTE DE LYNCH) of the French Empire, 2 and had confirmation of this title 
from Louis XVIII. by letters patent 31 Aug. 18 17, 3 PEER OF FRANCE 17 Sep. 
1815. Being childless, he obtained a new grant from King Charles X. 18 July 
1828, by which the rem. to his Peerage was extended in favour of his cousin, 
Jean Armand Louis, Count of Calvimont-Sainte Marteal, and the heirs male 
of his body. He d. s.p. 15 Aug. 1835, when, his said cousin having predeceased 
him, his honours became extinct. 

LYNCH [F.E. 1810]. See Lynch, Count of. 
LYNCH [F. 1817]. See Lynch, Count of. 

M 

MACCAFFRY. Robert MacCaffry, a General in the Service of Austria, was cr. COUNT 
MACCAFFRY OF KEAN MORE (GRAF MACCAFFRY VON KEAN MORE) [? Austria] 
in 1748. He apparently d. s.p. 

MACCAFFRY. Maximilian Patrik Raphael Georg Ernst MacCaffry (b. at Salzburgh 
12 Jan. 1828, d. at Vienna 11 Feb. 1893), had a renewal (" osterr Genehmigung 
zur Fortfiihrung des Gfntitels ") of the title of COUNT MACCAFFRY OF KEAN 
MORE (GRAF MACCAFFRY VON KEAN MORE) [Austria], for himself and his 
descendants, and with the title of Countess for his three sisters, from the 
Emperor Francis Joseph 20 Dec. 1891. 4 See p. 32. 

MACCAFFRY OF KEAN MORE [? Austria 1748]. See MacCaffry, Count. 
MACCAFFRY OF KEAN MORE [Austria 1791]. See MacCaffry, Count. 

MACCARTHY. Justin MacCarthy [son of Denis MacCarthy-Reagh, who went to 
France from Ireland after the Revolution] was " des lettres patentes du mois de 
Septembre 1776, donnees'par Louis XIV. accorderent la grande naturalisation, 
que lui confera la litre de COMTE et Vadmit aux honneurs de la cour en 1777." 5 He 
m. in England 16 Sep. 1765 Marie Winifred, da. of Nicholas, Baron Tuite de 
Tuitestown, Chamberlain to the King of Denmark, and had issue. His 3rd 
son, Robert Joseph, 3rd COUNT OF MACCARTHY-REAGH (b. 30 June 1770, d. 11 
July 1827) was A.D.C. to the Prince of Conde 1791 ; Marechal de Camp, 4 June 
1815, and a Deputy 1815-1820. His son and heir, Justin Marie Laurent 
Robert, 4th Count, was b. 6 May 1811 and d. s.p. 12 June 1861, when the title 
became extinct. 

MACCARTHY. Justin MacCarthy, of an Irish family settled in San Domingo, pro- 
duced 30 June 1778 "un arret de maintenue du conseild'Etat, rendu en sa faveur 
le 4 Aout 1769." 6 

MACCARTHY. Charles de MacCarthy of St. Croix, W.I., was 27 Apr. 1831 cr. by 
King Frederick VI. COUNT DE MACCARTHY (GREVE MACCARTHY) [Denmark] 
for fife. 7 He d. ( ), when the title became extinct. 

MACCARTHY. " DUQUE (DUGUE) DE MACCARTHY " was appointed Envoy Extra, 
and Min. Plen. from Monaco to Italy 9 June 1898; Via Cavour, 44 Roma. 

MACCARTHY [Denmark 1831]. See MacCarthy, Count of. 
MACCARTHY-REAGH [F. 1776]. See MacCarthy, Count of. 

MACCURTAIN. Florimond Benjamin MacCurtain de Kainlis, " Commissioner des 
querres et sous-intendant militaire," 4 Oct. 1820 [grandson of Cornelius MacCurtain 
of Clare's Regt., and great-grandson of Cornelius MacCurtain of Muckrooa, 
co. Cork], was 28 May 1825 cr. by King Charles X. BARON MACCURTAIN DE 

1 Enregistrees au Parlement de Guyenne, 16 May 1755. 

2 Armorial du Premier Empire, iii. 159. 

3 Titres de la Restauration, iv. 388. 

4 Grdflichen Taschenbuch, 1893, p. 622 ; 1907, p. 538. 

6 Reverend, 1845, p. 233 ; 1869, p. 397. A Count de MacCarthy of Toulouse is 
mentioned in Burke' & Peerage, 1907, p. 2043 ; and a " Catalogue des Livres et Manuscrits 
de Comte MacCarthy, 1815-1822," Paris, is mentioned in a Book-list. 

6 Reverend, 1869, p. 397. 

7 Literally ' ' with the right to bear for his person the title of Count inherited from his 
father." The patent was issued in consequence of a decree of 2 July 1816, but was never 
issued by the Danish Home Office. 



ii2 THE NOBILITIES OF EUROPE 

KAINUS [F.] for life, and 21 Apr. 1830 he had a new patent " autorise a fonder 
au majorat au meme litre transmissible a Vun de ses gendres." l He d. ( ), 
when the title devolved, in a -eordance with the rem. of 1830, on Augustus 
Ralph Cassin. 

MAcCuRTAiN DE KAjNLis [F. 1825]. See MacCurtain, Baron. 

MACDONALD. Alexander Macdonald, Marshal of France [b. at Sancerre, dep. of 
the Cher, 17 Nov. 1765, son of Niel Macdonald, otherwise Niel MacEachan, 
who fled to France after Culloden], was 30 Mar. 1806 2 cr. by the Emperor 
Napoleon I. DUKE OF TARENTE (Due DE TARENTE) in the province of Lecce, 
Italy [F.E.], and by letters patent of 7 July 1809 this title was confirmed to 
him, with rem. to the heirs male of his body. After the overthrow of Napoleon 
he was 4 June 1814 made by King Louis XVIII. a PEER OF FRANCE (PAIR DE 
FRANCE), and by an Ordonnance of 31 Aug. 1817 a "Due-pair hereditaire" 3 
under the same title. Title still existing. See p. 27. 

MACDOUGALL now DUWALL. Maurice MacDougall, a Col. in the Swedish Army 
[eldest son of Albert MacDougall of Mackerston, b. in Scotland 1541, who came 
to Sweden 1594 and d. 14 days before Easter 1646, aged over 100 years, leaving 
nine sons, all of whom served in the Army during the Thirty Years' War], 4 was 
naturalized and recognised as a NOBLE [Sweden No. 241] under the name of 
Duwall 1638. His son James fell at Czenstochova in Poland 1705, when the 
family became extinct. 5 

MACDOUGALL. James MacDougall, Gen. of the Swedish Army in Germany [2nd 
son of the above-named Albert MacDougall], was promised the title of Baron 
by King Gustavus Adolphus, but was shot at Grossglogau 1634. His two sons, 
Jacob (b. 1625), Lieut.-Col., and afterwards (1669) Governor of Osterbotten, and 
Gustavus (b. 1630), Lord of the Bedchamber to Queen Christina and King 
Charles X., Minister to Denmark 1656 and to Richard Cromwell, bearing the 
condolences of Charles XI. on the death of his father, were cr. BARONS [Sweden 
No. 64] 1674, and took their seats 1675. Gustavus was chosen Speaker for 
the Nobles at the Diet at Upsala that year. His son Axel, 2nd Baron Duwall, 
Major-Gen. (1722), resumed the original form of his name, MacDougall, but his 
descendants have resumed the Swedish form of Duwall. 6 See Addenda. 

MACHICO [Portugal 1825]. See Stuart, Count of. 

MACKAU. Armand Louis, Baron de Makau [descended from an Irish family who 
established themselves in Alsace in 1696, and were made NOBLES OF THE HOLY 
ROMAN EMPIRE 1698], was French Minister to the Duke of Wurtemberg in 1788. 
His son Ange Rene Armand, Baron de Makau, G.O.L.H. (b. 19 Feb. 1788, 
d. 25 May 1855), was a Rear- Admiral and PEER OF FRANCE.' See p. 35. 

MACKAY. Cornelius Anne Mackay (b. 1769, d. s.p. 1841) and his younger brother, 
Barthold Johan Christiaan Mackay [sons of JEneas Mackay, a Colonel in the 
Dutch Service, and great-grandsons of the Hon. ^Eneas Mackay, Brig. -Gen. 
and Col., proprietor of the Mackay Dutch Regt. in the service of the States 
General, 2nd son of the 2nd Baron Reay [S.] ], were 20 Feb. 1816 raised to the 
Nobility of the Netherlands with the title of JONKHEER for themselves and 
their descendants by King William I. Six years later, viz. 4 June 1822, they 
were cr. by the same prince BARONS as BARON MACKAY OF OPHEMERT (BARON 
MACKAY VAN OPHEMERT) [Netherlands], with rem. to the heirs male of their 
bodies, and by a royal decree of 17 Mar. 1858 ^Eneas, 2nd Baron Mackay of 
Ophemert, G.C.L.N., Minister of State and Vice- President of the Privy Council, 
and the descendants of his brother received the title of BARON (to be borne before 
their Christian names) for all their male descendants and of BARONESS (to be 
borne in like manner) for all daughters of their male descendants. The former 
sue. his remote cousin as 10th LORD REAY [S.] 2 June 1875, and both titles are 
now borne by his son, who was naturalized in the United Kingdom as " Donald 
James Mackay, called in the Kingdom of the Netherlands Baron Mackay," by 
Act of Parliament 17 May 1877. 8 See p. 20. 

MACKAY [Netherlands 1816]. See Mackay, Jonkheer. 

1 Titret de la Restauration, v. 2. 

2 Armorial du Premier Empire, iii. 163. 

3 Titres de la Restauration, v. 3. 

* Marryat, ii. 479. 5 Sveriget Adel, i. 190. 

6 Donner, p. 14. 

7 R<*v6rend, 1877, p. 375 ; 1894, p. 481 ; 1899, p. 315. 

8 40 and 41 Viet. chap. 1. 



AN ALPHABETICAL LIST 113 

MACKAY OF OPHEMERT [Netherlands 1822]. See Mackay, Baron. 

MACKENZIE. John (Mackenzie), de jure 4th EARL OF CROMARTY [S.], having been 
attainted 20 Dec. 1746 for his share in the '45, went abroad in 1749, and entered 
the service of King Adolphus Frederick, by whom he was 1756 cr. 1 COUNT 
CROMARTY (GREFVE AF CROMARTY) [Sweden]. He d. s.p. at Edinburgh 2 Apr. 
1789, when all his honours became extinct. 

MACKENZIE. Peter Alexander Cameron Mackenzie, of Tarlogie House, co. Ross, 
K.C.C.P., was 14 Jan. 1894 cr. by Dom Carlos I., King of Portugal, VISCOUNT 
OF SERRA LARGO (VISCONDE DE SERRA LARGO) for life, and two years later, 
viz. 11 Jan. 1896, COUNT OF SERRA LARGO (CONDE DE SERRA LARGO) also for 
life. Seep. 16. 

MACKINNON. Sir William Mackinnon of Strathaird, Isle of Skye and Loup, Kilcal- 
monell, co. Argyll, C.I.E., J.P., D.L., was cr. a BARONET [U.K.] 1889, and 

17 Mar. 1892 a BARON OF ITALY as BARON MACKINNON by King Humbert. He 
d. s.p., when his honours became extinct. 

MACKINNON [Italy 1892]. See Mackinnon. 

MACKLEAR [Sweden 1708]. See Maclean, Baron. 

MACLEAN. John [otherwise Hans] MacLean, an Officer in the English fleet [son 
of the Laird of Do wart], 2 settled at Gottenburg, became a merchant there 
1639, and was ENNOBLED [Sweden] by Queen Christina under the name of 
Macklear 1649. Having " rendered some service to the House of Stuart [he] 
was created an English [sic, but query if not Scottish] 3 BARONET as " of 
Do wart " in 1650 by Charles II. during his exile." 4 Administration of the 
goods of " Sir John Macleare, Knt., who d. at Gottenburgh in the Kingdom of 
Sweden, was granted 15 Feb. 1666/7 to bis son, Sir John Mackleare, Baronet." 5 
His son David was 1708 cr. BARON MACLEAN (FRIHERR MACKLEAR) [Sweden 
No. 306] by King Charles XII. Roger, 2nd BARON MACKLEAR, was Minister 
of State to Charles XIII., and d. s.p. 1816, when the title became extinct. 6 

MACMAHON. Charles Laura MacMahon, G.C.S.L., Marechal de Camp in the French 
Service [elder son of Jean Baptist de MacMahon, Lord of Sivry and of Equilly, 
who was admitted " aux etats de Bourgoyne," descended from an Irish family 
who followed James II. to France and were naturalized 1691, by his wife 
Charlotte, da. of Jean (le Belin) Seigneur d'Equilly and of Anne de Morey 
" heritiere de Claude (de Morey), son oncle, Marquis de Vianges et Baron de 
Sully "], inherited the Marquessate of Vianges and Barony of Sully, and was 
5 Nov. 1827 cr. by King Charles X. MARQUESS OF MACMAHON and a PEER 
(MARQUIS DE MACMAHON ET UN PAIR) [F.]. He d. s.p. at Nancy, and was sue. 
by his nephew (in accordance with the royal letters patent of King Charles 

18 July 1828), 7 Charles Marie, eldest son of his younger brother, Lieut.-Gen. 
Maurice Francis de MacMahon, Seigneur d'Equilly and Sivry and Baron 
de Sully (b. 14 Oct. 1754, d. 1831), grandfather of the present Marquess. 8 
See p. 27. 

MACMAHON. Marie Edme Patrice Maurice de Mahon, G.C.L.H., Marshal of France 
[3rd son of Lieut.-Gen. Maurice Francis de MacMahon, Baron de Sully, and 
younger brother of the 2nd Marquess of MacMahon, see above], was 6 June 1859 
cr. by the Emperor Napoleon III., in commemoration of the victory at that 
place, DUKE OF MAGENTA, in the province of Milan in Italy, with rem. ( 1 1 Feb. 
1860) to the heirs male of his body. He was afterwards President of the French 
Republic, and d. 17 Oct. 1893, leaving issue. 9 See p. 27. 

MACMAHON [F. 1827]. See MacMahon, Marquess of. 

MACNAMARA. A family of Irish origin established in Brittany, where they produced 
" ses titres " of Nobility before the Intendant. Lieut.-Gen. de MacNamara, 
G.C.S.L., and a Vice- Admiral, d. 18 Oct. 1756. His younger brother, Capt. 
French R.N. 1746, received the Cross of St. Louis 1742. Albert de MacNamara, 

1 Balfour Paul's Scots Peerage, iii. 82 ; also Marryat, ii. 493 ; Donner, p. 45. 

2 Marryat, ii. 477. 

3 G. E. C.'s Complete Baronetage, iii. 324. 

4 Marryat, ii. 483 ; Stodart's Scottish Arms, ii. 284 ; Otto Downer's Scottish Families in 
Finland and Sweden ( Helsingfors, 1884). No patent, however, of such creation is recorded. 

5 Complete Baronetage, iii. 324. 

6 Marryat ; Sveriges Add. 

1 Titres de la Restauration, v. 6. 

8 Reverend, 1874, p. 38. Almanach de Ootha. 

H 



ii4 THE NOBILITIES OF EUROPE 

Sous- Lieut, in the army of Conde, was made a K.S.L. 1796, " son pere avaifc 
ete cree COMTE par lettres patentes en 1782." ] 

MACNAMARA. " Anne Peele de Nelson, wife of S. G. de MacNamara, b. at Somerdy 
Park, England, 1 Aug. 1797," 2 was by letters patent dated 3 May 1828 cr. 
by King Charles X. COUNTESS OF MACNAMARA (COMTESSE DE MACNAMARA) [F.] 
for life. 

MACNAMARA [F. 1782]. See MacNamara, Count of. 

MACNAMARA [F. 1828]. See MacNamara, Countess of. 

MACNEVEN. William MacNeven of Ballynahown, Doctor of Philosophy and 
Medicine, Professor and " Rector des medicinischen studiums " at the University 
of Prague [b. at Ballynahown 1713, son of Hugo MacNeven of Crannagh 
MacNeven by Honora, da. and h. of Bernard O 'Kelly of Ballynahown], was 
ENNOBLED and admitted to the Bohemian Nobility by letters patent of the 
Emperor Francis I. dated at Vienna 20 Sep. 1753 ; naturalized (bohm Incolat) 
30 Sep. 1755 and 14 Nov. 1767 further cr. by the Emperor Joseph a BARON 
OF THE HOLY ROMAN EMPIRE and of the AUSTRIAN STATES, as BARON MAC- 
NEVTN O'KELLY OF AUGHRIM (FREIHERR MACNEVIN O'KELLY VON AUGHRIM), 
for himself and his descendants. 3 Still existing. See p. 35. 

MACNEVIN O'KELLY OF AUGHRIM [H.R.E. and Austria 1767]. See MacNevin, Baron. 

MACPHERSON or FERSEN. Reinhold Fersen [descended from the Scottish family 
of Macpherson] was 1712 cr. by King Charles XII. COUNT OF GRANHAMMAR 
(GREFVE AF GRANHAMMAR) [Sweden No. 56], with rem. to the heirs male of his 
body. His descendant, Fredrik Axel, Count of Granhammar, but always styled 
in accordance with the Swedish custom COUNT OF FERSEN, b. in Stockholm 1719, 
served with distinction against the Prussians in the Seven Years' War. He 
afterwards became leader of the " Hat " or aristocratic party in the Swedish 
Parliament, and as such steadily opposed Gustavus III. during the Riksdags 
of 1778, 1786, and 1788, and after the coup d'etat of 1789 was imprisoned for a 
short time, and on his'release retired into private life. He d. 1794, being reputed 
the richest man in Sweden. His son, Hans Axel, Count of Fersen (b. in Stock- 
holm 1755) served in his youth in the American War, and after the Revolution 
in France was employed by Gustavus III. in a private Embassy to Louis XVI. 
and Marie Antoinette, to whom he was devoted, and it was he who planned the 
flight of the King and Queen which ended so disastrously at Varennes. After 
their murder he endeavoured to organise a league against France, but fell into 
disgra.ce with Gustavus IV. by advising moderation in home affairs, and was 
killed in the streets of Stockholm by the mob on the false charge of having 
poisoned the Crown Prince Charles Augustus. 4 Title extinct. 

MACSHEEHY. Jean Louis Bernard MacSheehy, Major of Chasseurs [elder 5 son of 
Jean MacSheehy, Conseiller d'Etat et premier medecin to Kings Louis XV. 
and XVI., and Chevalier of the Ordre du Roi (d. 1815), grandson of Capt. Bernard 
MacSheehy of Fitzjames' Regt. (d. 1783), and great-grandson of John MacSheehy, 
who passed into France with King James II., and whose father, Emmanuel 
MacSheehy, was killed at Aughrim 12 July 1691], b. at Paris 4 Dec. 1783, 
Knight of Malta 1788, and of the Military Order of Poland 1808, was cr. a 
CHEVALIER OF THE FRENCH EMPIRE by Napoleon I. after the battle of Wagram 
1809, O.L.H. 17 Mar. 1815, K.S.L. 18, Lieut.-Col. in the Army of Spain 
12 Sep. 1823. He d. ( ), leaving an only child, Marie Virginia Albertine, 
styled COUNTESS MACSHEEHY, Chanoinesse du chapitre des dames nobles de 
Sainte Anne de Munich, b. at Tarascon. 6 

MACSWINEY. Patrick MacSwiney of Paris, banker [only son of Valentine Mac- 
Swiney of Paris, banker, who was b. at Macroom in the province of Munster, 
by his wife, a da. of Count Alexander Konarski, Officer " de Chasseurs polonais," "' 
was Apr. 1896 cr. by Pope Leo XIII. MARQUESS MACSWINEY OF MASHANAGLASS 
(MARCHESE MACSWINEY DI MASHANAGLASS) [P.S.], with rem. to (?). 

1 Reverend, 1869, p. 397. Another branch had their Nobility recognised by "un 
arret de conseil du Roi" 1736, and settled iu St. Dominique, where they established their 
Noblesse 9 Nov. 1741. 

2 Titres de la Restauration, v. 8. 

3 Freiherrl. Taschcnbuch, 1876, p. 456 ; 1880, pp. 465 et seq. 

* See Klinckowstrom's Le Comte de Person et le Cour de France, 1878. 
6 The younger, Patrick Marie, was killed at Trafalgar, 21 Oct. 1805. 

6 Annuaire de la Pairie [F.], 1854, p. 229. 

7 Reverend, 1897, p. 394. 



AN ALPHABETICAL LIST 115 

MACSWINEY OF MASHANAGLASS [P.S. 1896]. See MacSwiney, Marquess of. 

MAGAWLY. Philip Magawly of Calry, Field-Marshal in the Imperial Service [son 
of Henry McAuly of Calry, descended from an ancient Irish family, formerly 
Princes of Calry, of whom Awly III. was addressed as " our well-beloved 
cousin, Awly Macauly, of Calry, Chief of his Clan and Lord of his Nation," in 
a letter from Queen Elizabeth], obtained 1731 recognition as BARON CALRY 
(FREIHERR VON UND zu CALRY) from the Emperor Charles VI., and by letters 
patent dated at Vienna 14 Dec. 1734 was cr. 1 by the same sovereign, as King 
of Sicily, COUNT OF CALRY (CONTE DI CALRY) in "nostri Ulterioris Sicilian 
Regni" for himself and his heirs and successors of both sexes. 2 He m. Mar- 
garet of Este, widow of the last Prince of Correggio, and " d. at Prague while 
Governor of that city, leaving a son Henry, who d. young and unm., and a 
da., the Donna Benedicta Magawly, lady of honour to the Empress, and 
'dame de Vordre de Marie Thfrese,' who d. s.p. 1799, whereupon the title 
reverted to his (the Field-Marshal's) grand-nephew, Patrick Awly Magawly 
of Frankfort, Queen's co.," 3 as 2nd Count. He was " in the early part of his 
life in the service of the Empress-Queen Maria Theresa, and was employed 
to negotiate the marriage of one of the Arch-duchesses (her das.) with the 
Duke of Parma." * His 3rd son, Christopher Henry, was Governor of Riga, 
and was ancestor of the Magawlys now in Russia and Germany. The eldest 
son, Francis Philip, 3rd Count of Calry, was Envoy from Pope Pius VII. to 
the Emperor Napoleon in 1812. He was subsequently Regent of the Duchies 
of Parma, Placentia, and Guastalla, and was Prime Minister for those States 
to the ex-Empress Maria Louisa 1815-1823. He m. 1808 Clara, Countess 
Cerati in her own right, only child of Giuseppe, Count Manzuchini-Guidobono, 
by Fulvia his wife, da. and sole h. of Valeric, 4th Count Cerati [Bavaria] of 
Parma. 5 [Marco Cerati, Citizen of Parma, was 15 Dec. 1450 invested with 
the fief of Viarolo in the Duchy of Parma by Duke Francis Sforza and cr. 
COUNT OF VIAROLO (CONTE DI VIAROLO) " pro se, et filiis, et descendentibus suis 
masculis, et legitimis, et ex legitimo matrimonio lineague masculina natis, et 
nascituris prcedictum" He had with a da. an only son Luca, Bishop of Con- 
stance 1558, on whose death the title presumably became extinct. Gasparo 
Cerati, a descendant of Andrea, uncle of the above-named Marco, was Grand 
Cross of the Constantinian Order of St. George, and was 25 June 1669 cr. by 
Ferdinand, Elector Palatine and of Bavaria, COUNT CERATI (GRAF VON CERATI) 
in Bavaria " tuosque liberos, hceredes, atque successores legitimo ex matrimonio 
natos, et nascituros, et exiis in infinitum descendentes, et descensuros masculos, et 
foeminas deinceps semper, et in perpetuum, in statum, honores, ac dignitates 
Comitum et Comitissarum . . . posuimus, et eueximus, ipso et ipsas." His 
descendant Valerio, 4th Count Cerati, was the grandfather of Clara, 6th 
Countess Cerati, wife of the 3rd Count of Calry as above.] Their son Valerio 
sue. as 4th Count of Calry and 7th Count Cerati, and was grandfather of the 
present Count. See p. 13. 

MAGENTA [F.E. 1859]. See MacMahon, Duke of. 

MAGGIOUNI. COUNT GEORGE MAGGIOLINI, of Her Majesty's Government Service, 
Ceylon [second son of Count Maggiolini Scarampi de Momberelli and Belvedere, 
of Piedmont, Italy, and grandson of the late Mr. Kerrison Harvey, J.P., D.L., 
of Thorpe, co. Norfolk], m. at St. George's, Hanover Square, 23 July 1885, 
Olive Mabel, eldest da. of J. Hume Webster, Esq., J.P., of Chapel Street, Park 
Lane, and Marden Deer Park, Surrey. 6 

MAHONY. James Mahony, VISCOUNT OF OLD CASTLE in Spain, m. Cicely, da. of 
George Weld, who d. 1696. 7 

MAHONY. See O'Mahony. 

1 Burke (Peerage, 1907, p. 2342) says "a Count of the Holy Roman Empire and the 
rank and privileges of a Grandee of Spain " ; but tlie letters patent expressly state that 
he was cr. a Count in the Kingdom of Sicily. 

2 "Ac utriusque sexusfilijs, atque hceredibus successoribus suis legitimis descendentibus 
suis." 

3 Burke' 8 Peerage, 1907, p. 2342. 
* Ibid. 

5 Burke styles her also "Countess of Viarolo and Vicomero," and calls the present 
Count Calry " 16th Count of Viarolo," but this title is not claimed by Count Calry. 
The Vicomero title belonged to another branch of the Cerati family. 

6 See The Times. 

7 See Burke's Landed Gentry, 1906, p. 1776. 



n6 THE NOBILITIES OF EUROPE 

MAIGNIERES [F. 1773]. See O'Heguerty, Count of. 
MAKAU [F.]. See Mackau, Barons de. 
MALAPERT [? F.]. See Thuillier. 

MALORTIE. " Charles, BARON DE MALORTIE," a native of Hanover, was naturalized 
in the United Kingdom under that style 19 Feb. 1877. 

MAN. See p. 43, note 3. 

MANDEVILLE. Eugene Charles Augustus Mandeville, O.L.H., K.S.L., Gen. of 
Brigade (19 Aug. 1813) in the French Service [son of James Mandeville, Capt. 
(1780) in Dillon's Regt.], was by letters patent 17 Dec. 1818 cr. by King 
Louis XVIII. BARON DE MANDEVILLE [F.], with rem. to the heirs male of his 
body. He apparently d. s.p. 28 Jan. 1850. 

MANDEVILLE [F. 1818]. See Mandeville, Baron de. 
i 

MANNERSTAM. See Wislow. 

MARANHAM [Brazil 1824]. See Cochrane, Marquess of. 

MARCH-PHILLIPPS-DE-LISLE. Gerard Lisle March-Phillipps-de-Lisle [younger son 
of Ambrose Lisle March-Phillipps-de-Lisle of Garendon Park] was July 1902, 
on the eve of his marriage with a da. of the 10th Marquess of La Coste- 
MesselieTe, cr. by H.H. Pope Leo XIII. MARQUESS DE LISLE (MARCHESE DI 
LISLE) [P.S.], with rem. to the heirs male of his body. 

MARCH-PHILUPPS-DE-LISLE. See Clifford and Liitzow. 

MARSCOBRUNO. See Watson. 

MARTHON [F.]. See de la Rochefoucauld, Count of. 

MASCALL alias SILVERSTOLPHE. Family of Scottish origin [descended from Andrew 
Mascall, who fled to Sweden in the sixteenth century from religious persecu- 
tions. His son Brynolf becoming priest of Hesselskog, the family assumed 
the name Hesselgren], 2 formerly called Mascall (" hette f drut derstades Mascall " ), 
but in Sweden, Hesselgren (" och i Sverige Hesselgren ") ; ENNOBLED in Sweden 
[No. 1939] 1751, and introduced into House of Nobles 1752. Some members 
write themselves (nagra attemedlemmar) Skrifva sig Silverstolphe. Still 
existing. See p. 41. 

MASON. James Mason, K.C.C.P., Member of the School of Mines of Paris, of the 
Geographical Society of London, Membro da Sociedade dos Architectos Civis 
e Archeologos Portugueze, &c., landed proprietor in England and Portugal 
[son of James Mason, a native of co. Norfolk, and his wife Elizabeth Peowans], 
was b. 24 July 1824, and was cr. by decree of 24 Jan. 1866 BARON POMARAO 
(BARAO DO POMARAO) in Portugal for life, and 7 Dec. 1868 he was further cr. 
VISCOUNT MASON OF ST. DOMINGOS (VISCONDE DE MASON DE SAN DOMINGOS) 
for two lives. 3 He m. 1860 Isabel, da. of Charles Barry, and had issue five 
das. and one son, the present Viscount. 4 See p. 33. 

MASON DE SAN DOMINGOS [Portugal 1868]. See Mason, Viscount of. 

DE MASSUE. Henry (de Massue), 1st Marquess of Ruvigny and Raineval [F.], 
P.C., Lord Deputy General of the Protestant Churches of France at the Court 
of the King and a Lieut.-General of the Royal Armies, a brother-in-law of 
Thomas (Wriothesley), 4th Earl of Southampton, K.G., Lord High Treasurer 
of England, obtained letters of naturalization from Charles II. before Jan. 
1680/1. 5 He was the 3rd son, and after the death s.p. of his elder brothers 
(Maximilian, 2nd Baron de Ruvigny, and John Louis, 3rd Baron and 
1st Viscount of Ruvigny), h. of Daniel (de Massue), 1st Baron de Ruvigny and 

1 DE MANIN. The title of "Count de Manin," or "Count de Hamel de Manin," is 
used by a family of French origin, but the Editor has no particulars. 

2 Marryat, ii. 498 ; Sveriges Ridderskaps. 

3 Resenha das Famttias, ii. 417. 

4 In an article on the South of Spain in The Times of Monday, 31 Aug. 1875, ( ) 

"Mason, proprietor of the San Domingo Copper Mine at or close to Pomaro in Portugal, 
opposite to the Rio Tinto Mines, above the port of Huelva," from which he is said to 
have drawn an annual income of 80,000, is there stated to have been shortly before that 
date cr. by King Louis I. MARQUESS OF POMARO (MARQUEZ DE POMARO) [Portugal], but 
this appears incorrect. 

6 Letter to Lady Rachel Russell of that date. Agnew's French Protestant Refugees, 



AN ALPHABETICAL LIST 117 

afterwards Baron de Raineval [Aubert, Lord of Raineval, near Amiens in 
Picardy, was living 1096, when his son, the Sire de Raineval, joined the 1st 
Crusade. 1 Sir John de Raineval was at the 3rd Crusade, 1 1 88-95 ; 2 Baldwin 
de Raineval was at the sixth, 1220-48 ; 3 and Robert de Raineval took part in 
the seventh, 1 245-58.* Sir Ralph de Raineval, Knt., the 5th and last Lord of 
this line, d. 1198, and was bur. in the Abbey of St. Aubert, near Cambray. 5 
His son-in-law and successor, John I., was a brother of Sir Ralph de Preaux 
who distinguished himself at the battle of Bouvines, and apparently son of Simon 
de Preaux, 1st Seigneur de Pierrepont. 6 This John took the oath of allegiance 
to Philip Augustus at Montdidier 1199 as "Jean de Preaux, Chevalier, Seigneur 
de Raineval, de Pierrepont, de Coutoire, de Thory, de Louvrechy, de la 
Neuville, de Fignieres et de Boussicourt." 7 Ralph, 15th Lord of Raineval, &c., 
P.C., Knight, was Grand Pantler of France and one of the Council of Regency 
during the illness of Charles VI., 1392. 8 He m. 1st, 19 Dec. 1350, Philippa, da. 
of John of Luxemburg, by his wife the Princess Alice of Flanders, 9 and their 
eldest son Valeran, 16th Lord of Raineval, Knight Banneret, succeeded his 
aunt, Jane of Luxemburg, as COUNT OF FAUQUEMBEEGHE. IQ His only son 
d. s.p., and his da, Jane, 18th Lady of Raineval, m. 1387 Baldwin (d'Ailly), 
17th Vidame of Amiens and Lord of Picquigny, P.C., who took the oath to 
Charles VI. as Lord of Raineval and Pierrepont, &c., and had confirmation 
of those titles by letters patent dated at Paris 27 Nov. 1406. 11 Their son 
Ralph, 19th Lord of Raineval and 18th Vidame of Amiens, P.C., was a firm 
adherent of the Duke of Burgundy, and was knighted on the field of battle at 
St. Remy du Pain, 11 May 1412, by his cousin Valeran of Luxemburg, Constable 
of France. 12 He m. (contract dated 30 Nov.) 1413 Jacqueline, Lady of Engle- 
monstier, &c., in Flanders, and of Maubray in Hainault, da. and co-h. of Robert 
(de Bethune), Viscount of Meaux [who was son and h. of John (de Bethune), 
Lord de Vendeuil, by his wife Jane, suo jure Viscountess of Meaux, da. and 
eventual sole h. of Enguerrand (de Coucy), Viscount of Meaux, 2nd son of 
Enguerraud V., Lord and Baron of Coucy, Viscount of Meaux (d. 1321), by 
his wife Christina, da, and h. of William Lindsay of Lamberton, by his wife 
Ada, sister and senior co-h. of John (Baliol), King of Scotland ls ], and by her 
had a large family, 14 of whom only two sons, John and Valeran, need be noted 
here. John sue. as 20th Lord of Raineval and 19th Vidame of Amiens, and m. 
Yolante of Burgundy, a natural da. of Philip the Good, Duke of Burgundy, 
and sister of Charles the Bold, after whom their eldest son Charles, 21st Lord, 
was named. 15 The latter's great grandson, Philibert Emmanuel (d'Ailly), 26th 
Lord of Raineval, &c., and 25th Vidame of Amiens and Lord of Picquigny, 
K.S.M., d. s.p.m. 1 Feb. 1617, when the senior male line of the Ailly became 
extinct. He had m. Louise, suo jure 3rd Countess of Chaulnes, da. and h. of 
Charles (d'Ongnies), 2nd Count of Chaulnes [F. Dec. 1563], 16 K.H.G., and left 

1 La Noblesse de France aux Croisades, by P. Roger, 1845, p. 187. 

2 Ibid., p. 215. 3 Ibid., p. 243. 

4 Ibid., p. 261 ; Charte d'Acre, 1250. 

5 Histoire de Cambray et du Cambresis, by Le Carpentier, 1664, ii. 656. 

6 Histoire de Montdidier, by V. de Beauville, i. 103. 

7 Ibid., i. 493 ; Recueil de Documents inedits concernant la Picardie, iv. p. xxiii. 

8 Anselme's Histoire de la Maison Royale de France, &c., viii. 614 ; La Chenaye des 
Bois, xvi. 750. 

9 Anselme, viii. 615. 10 Ibid., viii. 616. 

11 Recueil de Documents, &c. ; Archives Nationales, p. 15, No. 5349. 

12 Monstrelet's Chronicles, i. 213. 

13 A. du Chesne's Maison de Bethune, Paris, 1639, fol. Anselme, iv. pp. 213, 214 ; vi. 
p. 115 ; viii. pp. 544, 546. Heirs of the Royal House of Baliol [by A. Sinclair], Edinburgh, 
1870. Balfour Paul's Scots Peerage. 

14 The various Ailly pedigrees are very incomplete ; Ralph's children are nowhere fully 
given, and their order is uncertain. As, after the extinction of John's descendants, those 
of Valeran were considered representatives of the House (see La Chenaye des Bois, i. 174 ; 
Haudicquer de Blancourt, p. 6), it seems possible that he was older than both Anthony, 
Lord of Varennes, and Louis, Lord of Fignieres. His uncommon Christian name which 
he was the only member of his family to bear was undoubtedly derived from his great- 
grandfather Valeran de Raineval ; and his place in the pedigree is still further established 
by the fact that his descendants possessed Seigneurial rights at Raineval. As late as 1725 
Violaine de Breau advanced a claim to the Raineval estate as a descendant of Helen d'Ailly, 
Valeran's great-granddaughter. 

15 Picquigny et ses Seigneurs, by F. I. Darsy, p. 58. 

16 Anselme, iv. 336. 



n8 THE NOBILITIES OF EUROPE 

an only da. and h. Charlotte Clara Eugenie, 4th Countess of Chaulnes, 27th Lady 
de Raineval, Picquigny, &c. (b. at the Castle of Chaulnes 26 Apr. 1606, d. at 
Magny 17 Sep. 1681, bur. in the church of Picquigny). 1 She m. 1619, Honor6 
d' Albert, K.H.G., Constable of France [yr. brother of Charles, 1st Duke of 
Luynes], who assumed the additional name and arms of Ailly, and was by 
letters patent dated Jan. and reg. 6 Mar. 1621/2 cr. by Louis XIII. DUKE OF 
CHAULNES and a PEER OF FRANCE, with rem. to the heirs male of his body, 2 
the lordship of Raineval being at the same time or shortly after erected into 
a MARQUESSATE. 3 Charles, their 2nd son, b. 25 June 1625 and presented for 
baptism by the Duke of Buckingham in the name of the King and Queen of 
England, Charles I. and Henrietta Maria, 4 was 2nd Marquess of Raineval, 
and d. s.p. 1647, being sue. by his elder brother Henry Louis, 3rd Marquess 
of Raineval and 2nd Duke of Chaulnes, K.H.G., who m. Frances, Dowager 
Viscountess Turenne, widow of the celebrated Marshal of France, 5 and d. 
21 May 1653, leaving an only da. Magdalen, 4th Marchioness and 30th Lady 
of Raineval, who m. Jan. 1664 John Baptist (de Foix), 1st Duke of Randan 
[F.], and d. 3 Aug. 1665, aged 16, at the birth of her only child, Marie, suo jure 
5th Marchioness, who d. aged 2, 25 July 1667, 6 when Raineval reverted to her 
great-uncle, Charles (d' Albert d' Ailly), 3rd Duke of Chaulnes, K.H.G., 7 who, 
being childless and the last of his family, ceded the Marquessate of Raineval, 
with the Lordships of Thoury, Louvrechy, and Sauvilliers, to Henry (de Massue), 
1st Marquess of Ruvigny, the representative of the junior line of Ailly, 21 Aug. 
1684, 8 and d. s.p. 4 Sep. 1698, when the Dukedom of Chaulnes, as well as all 
the issue of the 1st Duke by the heiress of the senior line of Ailly, became 
extinct. Valeran d' Ailly, the yr. son 9 of the 19th Lord of Raineval, had pro- 
perty at Pierrepont, and was father of Charles, Seigneur de la Mairie and 
Pierrepont, which latter he apparently acquired in right of his 1st wife, Michelle, 
da. of John, Bastard of Mailly [by his wife Helen d' Ailly, da. of the 19th Lord 
of Raineval 10 ], and apparently sister and in her issue h. of Anthony de Mailly, 
who acquired the Seigneurie of Pierrepont from Charles, 21st Lord of Raineval 
and 17th Lord of Pierrepont, 30 June 1507. Charles d' Ailly and Michelle de 
Mailly had an only son Anthony, 20th Lord of Pierrepont, who had with a 
son Hector, who d. s.p., a da. and co-h. Helen d' Ailly, who m. (contract dated 
25 Feb.) 1565, Nicholas de Massue, Seigneur de St. Aubin, 11 who either became in 
her right or was cr. BARON DE RAINEVAL. 12 Their youngest son but eventual 
sole h. was Daniel, 1st BARON DE RUVIGNY, who m. Magdalen, suo jure LADY 
DE LA CAILLEMOTTE, da. and co-h. of John (du Pinot), Lord of Fontaines and 
La Caillemotte, Knight, 13 and had issue, see above'], and was a distinguished 
soldier and statesman. In 1627 he served with the Royal forces at the siege 
of La Rochelle, was made a Major-Gen. 1644, named the same year to com- 
mand the force which it was then proposed to send to the assistance of 
Charles I., 1 * served as A.D.C. to Turenne in the campaign against Conde 
1651, and that same year cr. MARQUESS OF RUVIGNY AND RAINEVAL [F.]. 
On 10 July 1652 he was made a Lieut. -Gen. and appointed Deputy-General of 
the Huguenots 3 Aug. 1653, P.C. before 1661, Envoy to Charles II. from 
Louis XIV. 1660, 1668, and 1669, Ambassador to Portugal 1666, and to the 
Court of St. James's 1674-1676. Acquired the Marquessate of Raineval from 
his cousin the last Duke of Chaulnes 21 Aug. 1684, whereby he became 
7th MARQUESS OF RAINEVAL and LORD OF RAINEVAL, THORY, and LOUVRECHY 
near Montidier, and of SAUVELLIERS near Moreuil, and as such had a decree 
for the re-establishment of the " forked gibbet " at Raineval and Sauvilliers 
25 May 1685. 15 On the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes, Oct. following, he 
retired to England, although Louis XIV. made a special exception in his favour, 
offering him liberty of worship for himself and his household, and d. July 1689. 
Of his children, Peter, Lord de la Caillemotte, the 2nd son, joined the Prince 

Anselme, iv. 272. 2 Ibid., iv. 337. 

It is so described henceforth. 

La Chenaye des Bois (i. 121-2) says that it was his younger brother. 

Ibid., iv. 273. 6 Ibid., iii. 389. 

Haudicquer de Blancourt, Nob. de Picardie (Paris, 1695), p. 7. 

Recueil des Documents, &c., iii. 569. 9 See p. 117, note 14. 

10 Recueil des Documents, &c., iii. 266. 

11 Nobiliaire de Ponthieu, i. 250 ; La Chenaye des Bois, i. 273. 

12 Haag's La France Protestante, vii. 322. 

13 Arrets du Parlement de 1600, Bib. Nat. 

14 Clarendon's History of the Rebellion and Civil Wars in England, x. 2. 

15 Recueil des Documents, &c., iii. 568. 



AN ALPHABETICAL LIST 119 

of Orange in 1688, accompanied him to England, being appointed Colonel of 
one of the four Huguenot Regiments raised by his father, and was killed at 
the battle of the Boyne 12 July 1690. Henry, 2nd Marquess of Ruvigny 
and Raineval, the eldest son, had been appointed Lord-Deputy-Gen, of the 
Huguenots in succession to his father 1679, and Premier fauconnier de M. le 
frere du Roi, 1685, 1 and was permitted to succeed his father in all his estates. 
He was naturalized by Act of Parliament 24 Dec. 1691, having taken the oaths 
30 Nov. preceding, appointed a Major-Gen, in the British Army and Col. of 
a Cavalry Regiment known as Ruvigny 's Horse 1691, cr. BARON PORTARLINGTON 
and VISCOUNT GALWAY [I.], with rem. to the heirs male of his body, 14 Mar. 
1692 ; 2 Lieut. -Gen. of the Forces in Ireland 27 Feb. 1692, Ambassador to 
the Duke of Savoy and Commander-in-Chief of the British Forces there, 1 Dec. 
1693-1696, Lord Justice of Ireland and Commander-in-Chief after 6 Feb. 
1697 to June 1701, cr. EARL OF GALWAY [I.], with the same rem. as the Vis- 
county, 12 May 1697, Gen. of the Dutch Forces and Col. of the Blues 27 June 
1700, Min. Plen. to the Elector of Cologne 1701, General 25 June 1704, and 
Commander-in-Chief of the allied forces in Spain and Portugal 1704-1708, and 
Envoy Extra, and Min. Plen. to the Court of Lisbon and Commander-in-Chief 
of the British Forces in Portugal Mar. 1708 to July 1710, P.C. 1714, Lord Justice 
of Ireland (for a third time) Apr. to Nov. 1715. He d. unm. at the house of 
his cousin, Lady Rachel Russell, at Stratton, 3 Sep. 1720, aged 72, when his 
British honours became extinct, while the French titles devolved on his 
nephew ex sorore, Peter David de Ruvynes, 3rd Marquess, who received the 
thanks of the Confederate and General Council of Berne for his services to the 
Protestant cause at the battle of Willmergen, 1712. 3 He d. 7 Sep. 1752, leaving 
issue David, 4th Marquess, Lieut.-Col. of Dragoons (27 June 1776) in the 
Dutch Service, 4 who d. s.p. 19 Mar. 1796, and John Benjamin, a Captain in 
the Sardinian Service, d. s.p.s. 11 Mar. 1809 aged 82, when the succession 
reverted to the descendants of his next brother, John Louis, Seigneur de 
Bretigny in the Jurat and Cugy, near Montherond (with which fiefs he was 
invested 22 Apr. 1722 5 ), who d. at Lausanne 22 July 1740. He had m. 
Esther Elizabeth, da. of John Louis de Ruvynes, Chatelain of Crissier (Cressy), 
niece and in her issue h. of Sebastian de Ruvynes, Chatelain of Yverdon, who 
had a grant of BRETIGNY and CUGY from their Excellencies of Berne " irre- 
vocably and in perpetuity for ever " for himself and his heirs, in gratitude 
for his faithful services in the past and in the hopes that he would continue 
the same in future, 5 Aug. 1676, 6 and had issue several children, of whom 
(1) Samuel Andrew, a Capt. in the Sardinian Service, was cr. BARON DE REUSSIN 
in Savoy and d. s.p., and (2) Francis Gabriel was a Col. R.E. in the British 
Service.' He m. Frances, da. and h. of Francis d' Ansse, Count of Ponteruzzo in 
Savoy, and was father of Francis Louis, Major and Lieut.-Col. R.A., 8 who was 
killed v.p. at the storming of St. George's, Grenada, 11 June 1796. 9 He left 

1 Nobiliaire de Ponthieu, ii. 352. 

2 G. E. C.'s Complete Peerage, iv. 9. 

3 In a document dated 16 Sep. 1734, in the Editor's possession, appointing his son 
David a Justice of Lausanne, he is styled " Noble et vertueux Pierre David de Ruvynes." 

* Dutch Military Records. 

5 Document in the Editor's possession. 

6 Original grant in Editor's possession. 

7 He enjoyed the friendship of many of the leading men of Iris time. Field-Marshal 
Lord Townshend writes to him 19 May 1774: "His Majesty inquired again of me after 
your services in the last war. I could only at the same time assure him of your readiness 
to repair to your station at the moment you could be useful, and repeat to him what I 
had seen, and the good opinion all our officers of distinction had formed of you by seeing 
you present and active on all occasions . . . it is a justice I owed you, and I hope will be 
of some service whenever events shall call you forth in your own particular line ; " and he 
adds, "I think the firm measures the Ministry have taken with the Colonies, and the 
settlement of the Quebec Government, with the vast country of the Illinois behind the 
other Colonies, will secure the authority of the mother country and their tranquillity." 
He was appointed Chief Military Engineer for directing the mines in North America, 
18 Mar. 1757, and was present at the capture of Quebec ; an original letter from him, dated 
" Camp devant Quebek, 13 Jy. 59," is in the Editor's possession. 

8 See Grant's British Battles by Land and Sea, p. 485. 

9 His two cousins, Henry de Rnvignes, Capt. R.A., and Charles Albert, Lieut. 
39th Regt., predeceased him by a few weeks, the first dying of his wounds at Port au 
Prince 7 June, and the latter as a prisoner in the French camp at Berville, Guadalope, 
7 April preceding. 



i2o THE NOBILITIES OF EUROPE 

three sons; l the eldest, Charles Augustus, Capt. 20th Light Dragoons, a J.P. 
co. Clare, sue. his cousin as 6th Marquess 11 Mar. 1809, and d. s.p.s. 13 Apr. 
1843, when he was succeeded by his brother Lloyd Henry, 7th Marquess, a 
Capt. 62nd Regt. and Foreign Hussars, with which he served through the 
Peninsular War. He assumed the surname " de Massue de Ruvignes," and m. 
at Tralee, 21 Feb. 1816, Georgina, da. and eventual heir of Samuel Morris of 
Ballybeggan and Castle Morris, co. Kerry, Esq., J.P., and niece of Col. Sir 
George Morris, 3rd Buffs, by whom he had issue an only son, Charles Henry 
Theodore Bruce, 8th Marquess, a Col. in the British Army, father of the 
present Marquess (see p. 10) and of Count Philip de Ruvigny. 

MATHEW. Arnold Harris Mathew, sometime a Catholic priest and now claiming 
to be 4th EARL OF LANDAFF [I.], assumed by deed poll 1890 the surname of 
Povoleri, with the title of COUNT, both of which he discontinued in 1894. He 
is the grandson and heir of Major Arnold Nesbit Mathew, of the Bengal Artillery, 
who, there seems good ground for supposing, was the eldest son of the 1st Earl 
of Landaff by his wife Emma, da. of the Marquess (Marchese) Domenico 
Poloveri of Italy. 

MATTEL MARCHESE MATTEI, LL.D., of Capua Palace, Malta, and of the Middle 
Temple, son of the late Major-Gen. Mattei, C.M.G., 2 formerly Comdg. the 
Royal Malta Artillery, m. 16 Feb. 1901 Teresa, 3rd da. of Judge Bag- 
shawe, Q.C. 3 

MAULE. James Maull, Commissary of War [son of a Councillor of Kongelf, who 
is said to have been a cadet of the Panmure family], was ENNOBLED [Sweden 
No. 1510] by King Charles XII. 1716. Extinct. 4 

MAULE. Jacob Maule, Head of the Swedish East India Company at Canton [son 
of James Maule of Glittne, co. Kincardine, a Capt. Swedish E.I.C.S., 1731], 5 
was naturalized and ENNOBLED [Sweden No. 2135] by King Gustavus III. 
1782, and introduced into House of Lords the same year. Still existing. See 
p. 42. 

MAULE. John Mel, Quarter-Master-General in the Swedish Service and Com- 
mander of Carlsberg fortress, which he rebuilt [son of James Maile, burgher 
and shopkeeper of Dieppe, and grandson of Robert Maule of Craigie and 
Catherine Spens, who settled in Dieppe], was ENNOBLED [Sweden No. 682] by 
King Charles XI. 1664. Extinct. 6 

MAY. John William May, Consul-General of the Netherlands in London [descended 
from John May, who was b. at Gillingham 1699 and went to Amsterdam as a 
shipbuilder in 1727], was 14 May 1882 cr. by King William III. a JONKHEER 
[Netherlands], with rem. to the heirs male of his body. The children of both 
his marriages returned to England. 7 

MAY [Netherlands 1882]. See May, Jonkheer. 

MAYO. Marchese Conte Acindino de Mayo, Patrizio romano, napoletano e bene- 
ventano, K.M., G.C.S.G., K.C.C.S., &c., is a member of the Istituto Araldico 
Italiano, 8 and may possibly be of Irish descent. 

MAYO [Spain 16 ]. See Bourke, Marquess of. 

MAZZINGHI. Joseph Mazzinghi [eldest son of Prospero Tommaso Mazzinghi, an 
Italian by birth who settled in England and d. in London 29 May 1776, having 
apparently been naturalized] was b. in London 24 Dec. 1765, and was 18 
Ap. 1834 cr. by Pope Gregory XVI. a COUNT OF THE LATER AN HALL and 
Apostolic Palace in the Papal States, being acknowledged by H.H., as also 

1 They were captured on their way home, and were detained prisoners in Paris by the 
French Convention, but, ultimately being released, the two survivors made their way to 
England and applied for Commissions, being then aged seventeen and sixteen respectively. 
Their application was supported by a letter from H.R.H. the Duke of Kent, who writes 
6 Sep. 1807 "as an old friend of their deceased father," and by a memorial signed by all 
the senior officers of the Royal Artillery, and they were gazetted to Ensigncies without 
purchase 11 Nov. following. 

2 ? Richard Mattei, Cyprus, cr. C.M.G. 1866. Debrett, 1891. 

3 See The Times, m. 22 Jan. 1901 ; and the Landed Gentry, 1906. 

4 Marryat, ii. 493 ; Donner, p. 45. 

5 Marryat, ii. 493 ; Donner, p. 45. 

6 Marryat, ii. 493. 

7 Ex inform. M. Bijleveld. 

8 Calendario d'Oro (Rome, 1900), p. 115. 



AN ALPHABETICAL LIST 121 

by the Grand Duke of Tuscany, representative of the Roman and Tuscan 
Mazzinghis, and as such a Patrician of Florence. He was living, with issue, 
1840, 1 but d. s.p.m. 

MEL. See Maule. 

MELASSI or MELATI [Mantua 1616]. See Gandolfi, Marquess of. 

MELFORT [F. 1692]. See Drummond, Duke of. 

MELLER. Walter Clifford Meller, Esq., M.A., a Scholar of Civil Law of the 
University of Oxford, and a Knight Commander of the Order of the 
Holy Sepulchre, was 16 Apr. 1894, in acknowledgment of his services to the 
Legitimist cause, cr. by Princess Marie Eugenia de Cristoforo-Comnena, as 
" Heir general of the Imperial line of the Emperors of the East," a COUNT 
OF THE HOLY ROMAN EMPIRE and of the Sovereign Principality, with the 
style and title of His EXCELLENCY COUNT OF ERESO (COMES DE ERESO), 
with rem. to the heirs male of his body, whom failing to his second cousin, 
Sherard Alfred Meller of Rushmere, co. Suffolk, Esq., and the heirs male of 
his body. On 11 Feb. 1899 he was further cr. by H.H. Pope Leo XIII. a 
KNIGHT COMMANDER OF THE ORDER OF THE HOLY SEPULCHRE with the title of 
COUNT D'ERESO [P.S.]. See p. 17. 

MELLER. Germain Joseph Meller, President of the Criminal Court of Justice at 
La Poer, b. at Weilweiss 11 Oct. 1764, was cr. a CHEVALIER OF THE FRENCH 
EMPIRE by letters patent 21 Sep. 1810. 2 

MELORT. Mr. 3 Godefridus Andreas Melort van Middelharnis [great-grandson of a 
Servatius Melort, 4 who m. about 1729 at Breda] was 21 Feb. 1841 cr. by King 
William II. a JONKHEER [Netherlands], with rem. to the heirs male of his body. 
His son d. s.p. 1878, leaving a widow, the only surviving member of this 
family. 

MELORT [Netherlands 1841]. See Melort, Jonkheer. 

MELSBROECK [Flanders]. See Bruce, Baroness of. 

MELVILLE. Pieter Melvill, of a noble family of Scottish origin [grandson of John 
Melville, 5 who came to the Netherlands, and m. at Tiel Nov. 1706 Helena de 
Royer, and was killed at Malplaquet 11 Sep. 1709 as Capt. in Argyll's Regt.], 
having produced letters of consent of the head of the family, the Earl of Leven 
and Melville [S.], and of the possessors of Carnbee, Sir James Balfour and Sir 
Robert Anstruther, dated 24 May 1806, was 6 May 1822 cr. by King William I. 
BARON MELVILL VAN CARNBEE [Netherlands], with rem. to the heirs male 
of his body in the order of primogeniture. Still existing. See p. 36. 

MELVILL VAN CARNBEE [Netherlands 1822]. See Melville, Baron. 

MENGDEN. Sophia, COUNTESS OF MENGDEN and BARONESS OF PLETTENBERG, 
da. of George Frederick, Baron Plettenberg, in the Circle of Westphalia, by 
Elizabeth Benigna, his wife, b. at Wittan, in Courland, of the Protestant faith, 6 
was naturalized as a British subject 22 Mar. 1806. 7 

MERCIER. Hon. Honore Mercier of Montreal, M.P., Solicitor, sometime (1885-1891) 
Premier of Quebec, was 1891 cr. by Pope Leo XIII. COUNT MERCIER [P.S.], 8 
with rem. to the heirs male of his body, for his services in passing the 
Jesuit Act, by which the Catholic Church received compensation for certain 
Crown lands which formerly belonged to the Society of Jesus. He d. at 
Montreal 30 Oct. 1894. 9 

MERCIER [P.S. 1891]. See Mercier, Count. 

MERTOLA. See Villa da Mertola. 

1 See Burlce's Peerage, 1840, pp. 1093, 1146. 

2 Armorial du Premier Empire, iii. 220. 

3 i.e. Doctor of Laws. 

* A witty man found out that Melort could have been the corrupt form of " My Lord," 
and the family (of common birth) took hold of this solution, and so the tradition was born 
that their ancestor had been a noble refugee in the time of James II., who had abandoned 
his name after leaving his country with his sovereign, and was commonly addressed as 
" My Lord." Ex inform. M. Bijleveld. 

5 He was 17th in descent from Richard de Melville, who was living 1296, and whose 
son Robert acquired the Barony of Carnbee in Fife. 

6 Preamble to Act. 

7 46 Geo. III., chap. 4. 

8 The Times, 31 Oct. 1894. 

9 Diet. Nat. Biog., Suppl., iii. 161. 



122 THE NOBILITIES OF EUROPE 

MERVAL [F. 1602]. See de Bucy, Marquess of. 

MESANIS. Baron Rudolph de Mesanis (Major), d. in London 26 July 1898, aged 70. 1 

DU MESNIEL. Armand (Dumesniel), MARQUESS or SOMMERY, a French Royalist 
refugee, d. at Bath 13 Apr. 1811, aged 43, and was bur. in the Catholic 
cemetery there, M.I. He was presumably descended from Louis (du Mesniel), 
Seigneur de Sommery, 2 Chevalier, who was Feb. 1687 3 cr. by Louis XIV. 
MARQUESS OF ROCQUEFORT-SOMMERY (MARQUIS DE ROCQUEFORT-SOMMERY 
[F.], and d. 5 Aug. 1737, aged 85, leaving by his wife, Catherine Nicole de 
Taridieu, a son Antoine (du Mesniel), 2nd Marquess of Sommery, Col. of the 
Sommery Regt., who d. at Sommery Castle, Normandy, 6 Nov. 1764, aged 77,* 
having m. 1718 Jeanne Therese, 3rd da. of Louis Carrel, President of the 
Chambre de Comptes of Normandy. She d. at St. Germains in Laye 23 Dec. 1773, 
aged 68. The refugee Marquess had m. Cecile, 5 da. of Victor Maurice de Riquet, 
1st Count of Caraman, by his wife Marianne Chimay d' Alsace, and by her, who d. 
22 May 1847, aged 78, and was bur. at Bath, 6 had at least four children, viz. 
(1) Auguste (Dumesniel), Marquis de Sommery, who d. in London 17 Feb. 1875, 
aged 82, bur. at Bath ; (2) Countess Stephanie Gabrielle de Sommery (eldest 
da.), d. at Green Park, Bath, 3 May 1869, bur. there; (3) Countess Marie 
Cecile Henrietta Louisa de Sommery, b. 17 May 1804, d. at Bath 7 26 Apr. 
1899, bur. there ; 8 and Countess Augustine Cecile Pulcherie, who m. as 2nd 
wife John Lewis (Eyre), 1st Count Eyre [P.S.], and had issue a da. who d. in 
infancy. A Count Cecil de Sommery, nephew of the Countess Cecile de 
Sommery, resided for many years at Bath, and may have been the Count Cecil 
Dumesniel who was found drowned in the St. Lawrence about Apr. 1896. 
Louis (du Mesniel), Marquis de Sommery, d. 29 Oct. 1888, aged 35, bur. at 
Bath. 9 A letter from a Marquis de Sommery, possibly a son of the last, 
appeared in the papers about 1902. 

MESSINES [Portugal 1872.] See Noutel, Viscount of. 

METAXA. Jean Baptist (Metaxa), 7th COUNT METAXA-ANZOLATO [whose ancestor, 
Capt. Anzola Metaxa, for his military achievements and political services to 
the Venetian Republic in the Ionian Islands, Rumelia, and Lavadia, he having 
raised several thousand men at his own expense, 10 was 12 July 1691 cr. by the 
Doge Franciscus Mauriceno a COUNT OF THE VENETIAN REPUBLIC, with rem. 
to the heirs male of his body, and providing that every son and daughter of 
a Count should have the courtesy prefix of Count (descending in perpetuum 
by male inheritance only) or Countess (for life only) to his or her Christian 
name], 11 was recognised as a Count according to the original grant of the 
Venetian Republic by the British Government in the United States of the 
Ionian Islands 3 June 1840. He afterwards settled in England, and was 
naturalized 30 Nov. 1846. Title still existing. See p. 13. 

METAXA-ANGOLATO [Venice 1691]. See Metaxa, Count. 

MEZANGERE [F. 17 ]. See Scott, Marquess of the. 

MILLER. Col. Charles Miller, K.L.H., b. at Aire sur la Lys 24 Jan. 1767, was cr. 
a CHEVALIER OF THE FRENCH EMPIRE by letters patent dated 4 Dec. 1813. 
He d. 26 Jan. 1814, leaving issue. 12 

MINDELHEIM [H.R.E.]. See Churchill, Prince of. 

MINDELLO [Portugal 1845]. See Sartorius, Viscount of the. 

MIRANDA DEL CASTANOR [Castile 1437]. See Fitzjames, Count of. 

1 Daily Papers. He was presumably the Rodolph de Mesanis, a Swiss citizen who was 
naturalized 29 Sept. 1887. 

2 "Mesniel Sommery, le terre et Seigneurie, election de Neufchatel, Bailliage de Caux, 
qui fut unie aux fiefs de Rocquefort, Hattenville, Villy, Launay, la Pommeraye, Hatte- 
villiette et St. Remy." Diet, de la Noblesse, by La Chenaye des Bois et Badier, 3rd ed., 
Paris, 1768, vol. xiii. 

3 By letters patent, registered before the Rouen Parliament 9 Dec. following, and in 
the Chambre des Comptes of Normandy, 1 Feb. 1732. * La Chenaye des Bois. 

5 In Goethal's Diet. Gen. et. Her. des Families Nobles du Royaume de Belgique (iv.) 
her husband is given as Jean-Btienne du Mesnel de Sommery. 

6 M.I. in the Catholic Cemetery at Bath. 

7 Bath Chronicle, 4 May 1899, which states that her grandfather was the constructor 
of the Canal du Midi, the first of the great Southern canals of France. 

8 M.I. in the Catholic Cemetery at Bath. 9 Ibid. 

10 Burke's Peerage. " Debrctt's Peerage. 

12 Armorial du Premier Umpire, iii. 248. 



AN ALPHABETICAL LIST 



123 



MONDRAGONE [Naples]. See Giustiniani and Bandini, Dukes of. 

MONEYPENNY. See p. 43, note 3. 

MONTACUTE. Thomas (de Montacute), 4th EARL OF SALISBURY [E.], K.G., was 
26 Apr. 1419 cr. by Henry V. of England, as King of France, COUNT OF PERCHE 
(COMTE DE PERCHE) in Normandy, " to him and the heirs male of his body 
by the service of rendering to the King each year, at the Castle of Caen, a 
sheathed sword." x He d. s.p.m. 3 Nov. 1428, when his French Earldom became 
extinct. 

MONTANDRE [F.]. See de La Rochefoucauld, Marquess and Lord of. 

MONTEFIORE. BARON MoNTEFiORE, son of the late Sir Moses Montefiore, was 
appointed Italian Consul-Gen, in London. 2 

MONTEREY [Castile]. See Fitziames, Lord (1432), Viscount (1474) and Count 
(1474) of. 

MONTGOMERY. James de Montgomery, SEIGNEUR DE LORGES [said to have been son, 3 
or youngest grandson, 4 of Alexander (Montgomery), 1st Lord Montgomery [S.], 
but who possibly came from Robert 5 his brother], went to France, and was 
much employed on different embassies by Francis I., and, obtaining in 1543 
a grant of the County of Montgomery, became COUNT OF MONTGOMERY ( COMTE 
DE MONTGOMERY) [F.]. His son Gabriel, 2nd Count, had the misfortune to 
kill King Henry II. His direct male line failed 1721 on the death s.p. of 
Nicholas Francis, 8th Count of Montgomery. His next brother James, styled 
Marquess of Montgomery, left an only da. Marie Anne Rose, who m. as 2nd 
wife 1732, Louis Francis, Marquess of Thiboutot, and had issue. The titles 
of Count of Ducey and of Chanteloup, Marquess of Montgomery, and Baron 
of Ecoruche were borne at different times by cadets of this family. 

MONTGOMERY. John Montgomery [one of the 21 children of Robert Montgomery, 
who lost all his possessions in the Revolution of 1707 (sic) 6 ] was sent to Sweden 
by his kinsman Robert Campbell, brukspatron in 1720, and [? his son] Carl Gustaf 
Montgomery 7 was naturalized and ENNOBLED [Sweden No. 1960A] 1 736, 8 taking 
his seat in the House of Nobles 1756, "uppflyttad i fordna riddareklassin 
1786. 9 Hans sonsons son, brukspatronen Robert Nils Germund Montgomery 
blef 1833 agare af Segersjo fideikommiss i Nerike och skref sig till foljd 
daraf Montgomery-Cederhielm af Segersjo." Still existing. See p. 40. 

MONTGOMERY. Jacob David Montgommerie [son of Jacques Montgommerie, 
Baron of Ecoruche, and grandson of Gabriel, Count of Montgommerie] 10 entered 
the Swedish Service as a Lieut.-Col. His descendant, David Christopher 
[b. 1724], was naturalized as a NOBLE [Sweden No. 1960s] under King 
Gustavus III., 12 Jan. 1774, and took his seat in the House of Lords 1776. 
Still existing. 11 See p. 41. 

MONTGOMERY. Carl Georg Montgomery [a descendant of the above-named Jacob 
David Montgommerie] was on the separation of Finland from Sweden enrolled 
in the Finnish House of Peers as a NOBLE [No. 1 34] 28 Jan. 1 8 1 8. His son, Robert 
August Montgomery, b. 29 June 1834, was Professor of Civil Law in the 
University of Helsingfors, and afterwards Procurator-General of Finland. He 
d. s.p. 190-, when the male line of the family in Finland became extinct. 12 

MONTGOMERY [F. 1543]. See Montgomery, Count of. 
MONTIJO [Spain 1599]. See Fitzjames, Count of, also Lord. 
MONTCRESCENTE [Mantua 1616]. See Gandolfi, Marquess of. 

MONTMORENCY-MORRES. An elder branch of the family of the Viscounts of 
Mount-Morres [I.], who are said to have been cr. COUNTS DE MONTMORENCY- 

1 G. E. C.'s Complete Peerage, vii. 36. 

2 The Times, 20 Dec. 1895, quoting the Italic. According to Burke' s Peerage, Sir 
Moses Montefiore d. s.p. 

3 Reverend, 1845, p. 338. 

4 La Chenaye des Bois, xir. 294. 

5 Balfour Paul's Scots Peerage, iii. 430. 

6 Marryat, ii. 493. 

7 Ex inform. M. 0. Vasastjerna. 

8 Sveriges Ridderskaps ; Donner, p. 46. 

9 FinLands Ridderskaps, 1897, p. 294. 

1 Donner, p. 34. u Sveriges Ridderskaps, 1908, p. 717. 

12 Donner , p. 34 ; Finlands Ridderskaps. 



124 THE NOBILITIES OF EUROPE 

MORRES or MARISCO in France 7 July 1673 l (? 1763), 2 and to have been 
naturalized in Austria following the marriage of Herve Montmorency-Morres 
of Rathlin, " chef de la maison ; il est, par droit hereditaire, le vingt-septieme 
Baron de Montemarisco," 3 an Officer in the French and Austrian Services 
(b. 8 Mar. 1767, d. 9 May 1839), with the Baroness Louise Marie Caroline 
Sophie, da. of Wolfgang, Sovereign Baron of Helmstatt-Bishoffscheim, in 
Suabia. The title became extinct 15 Aug. 1892 by the death s.p. of Matthaus, 
Graf von Montmorency-Marisco. See p. 28. 

MONTMORENCY-MARISCO [F. 1673 and H.R.E. 17 ]. See Montmorency-Morres, 
Count of. 

DE MONTOLIEU. David de Montolieu, SEIGNEUR DE ST. HIPPOLYTE in France, a 
French Protestant refugee, came to England with William, Prince of Orange, 
in 1688, and entered the army, becoming a Lieut. -General. For his services 
with the allies in Piedmont he was, by letters patent dated at Vienna 14 Feb. 
1706, cr. by the Emperor Joseph I. a BARON OF THE HOLY ROMAN EMPIRE 
as BARON OF ST. HIPPOLYTE (FREIHERR VON ST. HIPPOLYTE), with rem. to 
his descendants male and female for ever. His male issue became extinct 
on the death s.p.m.s. of his grandson, Lewis (Montolieu), 3rd Baron de St. 
Hippolyte, 20 May 1817. The heir of line of the Barons de St. Hippolyte 
[H.R.E. ] is his great grandda. Constance Maria (nee Hammersley), widow 
of Lieut. -Col. Henry Edward Stopford, and not Lord Elibank, as is often 
erroneously stated. 4 

MONTORO [Spain]. See Fitzjames, Duke of. 
MONT-REAL [F. a. 1748]. See Douglas, Count of. 
MONTRENCIE. See Crowe, p. 69, note 7. 
MONTSERRAT [Portugal 1870]. See Cook, Viscount of. 

MONYPENY. Alexander de Monypeny acquired in 1487 the SEIGNETJRIE OF CON- 
CRESSAULT IN BERRY, from Bernard (Stuart), 4th Lord of Aubigny. He had 
issue an only da. and h. Anne, Lady de Concressault, who m. 1st, John (Stuart), 
Seigneur d'Oizon, by whom she had no issue ; 2ndly, Jean de Montf errand ; 
and 3rdly, Antoine de la Roche Chaudre. 5 

MOORE. James Moore was ENNOBLED [Sweden] 1756, but never took his seat. 6 

MOORE. Arthur John Moore of Mooresfort, co. Tipperary, K.C.S.G., J.P., D.L., 
High Sheriff 1878, and sometime (1874-85 and 1899-1900) an M.P., was 
Chamberlain to H.H. Pope Pius IX., by whom he was 7 Feb. 1879 cr. COUNT 
MOORE (CONTE MOORE) in the Papal States, with rem. to the heirs male of 
his body. Title now held by his son. See p. 15. 

MOORE [P.S. 1879]. See Moore, Count. 

MOREL. " Charles Carew, Count de Morel," of 28 Beaufort Gardens, late Col. 

43rd Light Infantry, m. 15 July 1895 Matilda Sara, widow of Gen. Sir 

Frederick Chapman, G.C.B., and d. 4 Aug. 1899. 7 
MORGAN. Gaspard Guillaume Morgan was ENNOBLED [Sweden], but never took 

his seat. 8 
MORGAN OF FRUCOURT [F. 1818], Count. See O'Heguerty. 

MOBNAY. Carl de Mornay, of a Scottish family, though born in France, entered 
the Swedish Service under Gustavus I., by whom he was cr. towards the end 
of his reign BARON OF WABEND (FBIHEBB AF WAREND) [Sweden]. On the 
Revolution he remained faithful to King Erick, and, returning to Scotland, 
raised a force of Scots with which he landed in Sweden, but, being captured, 
was beheaded 4 Sep. 1574. His only son Johan d. s.p. 1608. 9 

MORO. See Phillips, p. 138, note 6. 

MOTA [Spain ?]. See Fitzjames, Marquess of the. 

MOUNCIE. See Thornton, p. 163, note 4. 

Ordflichen Taschenbuch, 1907, p. 595. 
Ibid., 1893, p. 689. 

Viton de St. Allais' Nob. Universel de France, i. 85. 

Miscellanea Oenealogica et Heraldica, 4th S., pt. 4, p. 160; Agnew's Protestant 
Exiles, 1866, p. 313. 

Stuarts of Aubigny, pp. 44, 50. 6 Donner, p. 46. 

The Times, July 1895 and Aug. 1899. 

Donner, p. 46 ; Marryat, ii. 511. 9 Marryat, i. 417. 



AN ALPHABETICAL LIST 125 

MUELLER. Sir Ferdinand Mueller, K.C.M.G., M.D., Ph.D., F.R.S., the distin- 
guished naturalist and explorer [son of Frederick Mueller, Commissioner of 
Customs at Rostock], naturalized as a British subject 18 , was 13 July 1871 
cr. by King Charles I., on the occasion of the twenty-fifth anniversary of 
his marriage with the Grand Duchess Olga of Russia, BARON OF MUELLER 
(FREIHERR VON MUELLER) [Wiirtemberg], with rem. to the heirs male of his 
body. He d. s.p., when the Barony became extinct. 

MUELLER [Wurtemberg 1871]. See Mueller, Baron von. 

MUIR. Lieut. -Col. Thorsten Myhr [descended from James Muir, who went to Sweden 
in the reign of King John III., and whose son Thorsten Muir or Myhr received 
a grant of Wannas, in abolan from King Charles IX. as a reward for his 
military services] was ENNOBLED [Sweden No. 913] by King Charles XI. 1680. 
He d. 1686, and was bur. in Pargas Church. No member of this family 
having taken his place in the Riksdag since 1734, it is presumed to have 
become extinct. 1 

MURPHY. John Nicholas Murphy of Clifton, Esq., D.L. and (1857) High Sheriff, 
co. Cork, author of " The Chair of Peter " and several other works, was in 
recognition of his literary services cr. 26 Nov. 1883 a COUNT OF THE PAPAL 
STATES as COUNT MURPHY (CONTE MURPHY), with rem. to the heirs male of 
his body. He m. 11 Sep. 1855 Alice, da. of Daniel Leahy of Shanakiel House, 
co. Cork, Esq., D.L., by whom he had an only child, Mary Margaret, who m. 
Apr. 1879 Daniel Cronin Coltsmann of Glew Flask Castle, co. Kerry, D.L., 
and d. 11 Mar. 1895, leaving issue Daniel Francis, b. 19 Aug. 1885, and Alice 
Mary. Count Murphy d. s.p.m. 11 Sep. 1889, when his title became extinct. 
His widow the Countess resides at Clifton, co. Cork. See p. 15. 

MURPHY. William Murphy, COUNT DE MORPHI, an Irishman, and a GRANDEE OF 
SPAIN OF THE IST CLASS, was Private Secretary to the Queen Regent of Spain 
and Chamberlain to Alfonso XIII. Sep. 1894. 

MURPHY [P.S. 1883]. See Murphy, Count. 

MURRAY. Sir Joseph Murray of Melgum, 3rd Baronet [S.], Col. of the Los Rios Regt. 
in the Austrian Service and an Imperial Chamberlain [b. at Tournay 6 Aug. 
1718, son of Robert Murray, a General in the Dutch Service], was made a 
K.M.T. 23 Jan. 1760 for valour at the battles of Brislau and Hochkirchen, 
and 16 Sep. following a BARON AUX PAYS BAS. S The following year he was 
cr. by the Emperor Francis I., by letters patent dated at Vienna 25 Nov. 1761, 
" in which he is styled BARON DE MURRAY ET DE MELGUM," a COUNT OF THE 
HOLY ROMAN EMPIRE 3 as COUNT OF MURRAY (GRAF VON MURRAY), with rem. 
to the heirs male of his body, and 19 Mar. 1783 4 he was cr. COUNT MURRAY 
in the Netherlands. He was Commander-in-Chief of the Forces of the 
States-General 1781-1789, and Governor-General of the Netherlands 19 July 
to 27 Oct. 1787. He d. at Vienna 5 June 1802, leaving, with five das., an only 
son, Sir Joseph Albert Murray, 4th Bt. [S.] and 2nd Count of Murray, a 
Major-General in the Imperial Services. He was b. 26 Aug. 1774, and d. s.p.m. 
6 Feb. 1848, when all his Imperial and Belgian honours became extinct. 5 

MURRAY. Gustavus Murray, Bishop of Westeras and a Knight of Wasa 6 [descended 
from John Murray, b. 1665, who emigrated to Prussia in (sic) Cromwell's 
time, afterwards passing to Sweden, where his son Andrew was made a Doctor 
at the coronation of King Adolphus Frederick], was ENNOBLED in Sweden 
[No. 2216] 1810, and introduced into the House of Lords 1812. Still existing. 
See p. 42. 

MURRAY [Netherlands 1760]. See Murray, Baron of. 

MURRAY [H.R.E. 1761]. See Murray, Count of. 

MURRAY [? Netherlands 1783]. See Murray, Count of. 

MURRAY. See Grenville Murray. 

MYHR. See Muir. 

1 Marryat, ii. 494. 2 Annuaire de la Noblesse de Belgique, 1864, p. 286. 

3 See The Hurrays of Melgum, by Keith W. Murray, F.S.A. ; The Genealogist, N.S., 
xi. 1. It may be noted, however, that this article makes no mention of the creations 
of 16 Sep. 1760 and 19 Mar. 1783, while on the other hand the creation of 25 Nov. 
1761 is ignored in the Noblesse de Belgique. 
, * Nob. de Belgique, 1864, p. 286. 

5 His kinsman Murray of Philiphaugh was served heir male to him by the Sheriff in 
Chancery, Edinburgh, and assumed the Baronetcy [S.] ; Genealogist, N.S., xi. p. 6. 

6 Marryat, ii. 494 ; Donner, p. 46. 



126 THE NOBILITIES OF EUROPE 

N 

NAGLE. Thomas Patrick Nagle, K.C.L.H., Col. of Infantry [b. at Cambray 16 Mar. 
1777, son of Gerard Nagle, ecuyer, Capt. of Lally's Regt., K.S.L., and Marie 
MacSwiney, of an Irish family], was cr. a BARON OF THE FRENCH EMPIRE by 
letters patent 22 Oct. 1810, donataire (r. 6000) near Rome by imperial decree 
15 Aug. 1809, and in the dep. of the Deux Nethes by another decree 1 Jan. 
1812, Gen. of Brigade 1812. He d. 9 Nov. 1822, leaving a son, Jean Marie 
Auguste, 2nd Baron de Nagle, who m., and d. (? s.p.) 17 Dec. 1878. x 

NAGLE [F.E. 1810]. See Nagle, Baron. 

NAIRNE. See p. 43, note 3. 

NAPIER. Sir Charles Napier, Admiral of the Blue, K.C.B., G.C.T.S., K.M.T., K.R.E. 
(Major-Gen, of the Portuguese Navy 10 June 1833 to 15 Oct. 1834), one of the 
most distinguished Admirals of his time, having while in command of her 
fleet been instrumental in placing Queen Mary II. upon the Portuguese throne, 
was by decree of 10 July 1833 cr. by the Regent Dom Pedro, her father, 
VISCOUNT OF CAPE ST. VINCENT (VISCONDE DE CABO DE SAN VICENTE) 
[Portugal]. The following year, having relieved Oporto, he was further cr. 
(17 Apr. 1834) COUNT OF CAPE ST. VINCENT (CONDE DO CABO DE SAN VINCENTE) 
and a GRANDEE OF THE IST CLASS [Portugal], and 7 Dec. 1842 he obtained 
a royal decree altering this title to COUNT OF NAPIER OF ST. VINCENT 
(CONDE DE NAPIER DE SAN VINCENTE). He d. s.p.m. 5 Nov. 1860, leaving an 
only da., the present Countess, who has resumed the title as originally granted 
of Countess of Cape St. Vincent. 2 See p. 14. 

NAPIER OF ST. VINCENT [Portugal 1842]. See Napier, Count of. 

NAVARRA. Joseph Stagno (Navarra), Count della BAHRIA [Malta 1743], claims to 
be a HEREDITARY PATRICIAN OF MESSINA (PATRIZIO MESSINESE) and COUNT 
OF CASANDOLA (CONTE DI CASANDOLA) [Sicily], which latter title was granted 
to his ancestor 6 Jan. 1685 by Charles II., Kong of Spain and Sicily, with rem. 
to his heirs. 3 See p. 13. 

NEAFVE. Jacob Neafve, styled Baron of Methie in Scotland [apparently a member 
of the family of Nevoy or Neway, co. Forfar], 4 went to Sweden in '1579, and 
was naturalized as a BARON [Sweden]. He was Governor of Westmanland and 
Dalarne, 1583, and was afterwards murdered in a popular tumult, being buried 
by his son-in-law in Tuna Churchyard, where there is a monument to his 
memory. He left one son, John, Baron of Marby, who was killed in Stockholm 
1607, 6 and a daughter, Maria, wife of John Skytte. 

NEALE. Stephanus Laurentius, Count Neale, son of John Neale by Ann his wife, 
b. at Surinam, of the Protestant faith, 6 was naturalized by Act of Parliament 
26 Apr. 1751. 7 

NELLENBURG [H.R.E. 1715]. See Churchill, Prince of. 

NELSON. Horatio (Nelson), 1st VISCOUNT NELSON [G.B.], the celebrated Admiral, 
in recognition of his brilliant victories over the French, had, 9 June 1801, 
a grant of the fief of Bronte in Sicily from Ferdinand III., King of the Two 
Sicilies, with the title of DUKE OF BRONTE (DucA DI BRONTE) for himself and 
his heirs, or the heirs of him whom he should nominate 8 and appoint, and he 

1 Armorial du Premier Empire, iii. 313. 

2 According to Murray's Handbook to Southern Italy, p. 193, Sir Charles was also cr. by 
the King of the Two Sicilies COUNT OF PONZA (CONTE DI PONZA) in reward for his gallant 
capture of that island from the French ; and it may be noted that it was under the 
designation of Don Carlos de Ponza that he was appointed to command the Queen's fleet. 

3 Report of the Maltese Commission, 10 Dec. 1877, p. 10. 
* Marryat, i. 420. 

5 Donner, p. 9. 

6 Preamble to Act. 

7 24 Geo. II. No. 71. 

8 " Insuper ad beneficentise nostrie cumulum volentes personem predicti Horatii 
Nelson sicute cupimus honorere oppidum sine terrain ipsam Brontes cum juribus et 
pertenentis suis ex certa nostra scientia et plenitudine potestatis in Ducatum erigimus, 
ac de novo de eadem terra sive oppior ducatum creamus constituimus cum omnibus 
dignitatibus, privelegiis . . . damus et concedimus gratiose ad eo ut tarn ipse quam 
hseredes de suo corpore legitime descendentes, aut ab eo ut infra nominarent, in per- 
petuitas dicti oppido sine terrse Bronte Duces institutentur, sive nominentur ac ab 
omnibus tractentur et repetentur," &c. Extract from patent. 



AN ALPHABETICAL LIST 127 

had Royal License for himself and his heirs to accept and use the said title 
21 Oct. 1806, after which he always signed himself "Nelson and Bronte." He 
d. s.p. at Trafalgar 21 Oct. 1805, when he was sue. by his brother, the 1st 
Earl Nelson, who, dying s.p.m. 28 Feb. 1835, was sue. (according to the law 
of Sicily) in the Dukedom by his only da. and h. Charlotte Mary, suo jure 
DUCHESS OF BEONTE, 1 who m. Samuel (Hood), 2nd Lord Bridport [U.K.], 
See Hood. 

NELSON. See MacNamara. 

NETHERWOOD. William Netherwood, Capt. of a ship passing to Sweden, became 
Hofjunker to Carl Gyllenhjelm, 2 and was naturalized and ENNOBLED [Sweden 
No. 446] by Queen Christina 1649, and took his seat in the House of Lords 
the same year. Family still existing, See p. 39. 

NISBETH. William Nisbeth, Capt. in Swedish Service [son of William Nisbeth 
of Rochell, b. in Scotland 1596, who was Col. of an Upland Regiment in 
the Swedish Army and lies buried in Upsala Church], 3 was naturalized and 
ENNOBLED [Sweden No. 828] by King Charles XI. 1664, and introduced into 
the House of Lords 1675. Still existing. See p. 40. 

NORMAN. See p. 43, note 3. 

NORTHUMBERLAND [H.R.E. 1620]. See Dudley, Duke of. 

NOUTEL. Col. Joaquim Mendes Noutel, of Santa Marinha, K.C.V.V., K.C.B.A., 
O.T.S. [descended from Joao Noutel, Knight of the Order of Christ 11 May 
1756, who was son of William Noutel, a native of London], was 7 Mar. 1872 
cr. VISCOUNT OF MESSINES (VISCONDE DE MESSINES) [Portugal] "em sua vida" 
He was b. 13 Dec. 1796, and d. s.p., when the title became extinct. 

NUGENT. Sir John Nugent of Ballinlough, 3rd Bt. [I.] [b. 5 Apr. 1800, 2nd, but after 
26 Apr. 1843 only surv. son and h. of Sir Hugh O'Reilly, afterwards (11 Sep. 
1812) Nugent, 1st Baronet, so cr. 23 July 1795], was a Major in the Austrian 
Service and Chamberlain to the Emperor, and was adopted as his heir by his 
childless relation Andrew, 1st Count O'Reilly of Ballinlough [H.R.E. and 
Austria 1787], on whose death s.p. 5 July 1832 he became COUNT O'REILLY OF 
BALLINLOUGH, 4 having probably had a renewal of the title in his favour, but 
apparently for his life only. G. E. C. 5 says that he was cr. a COUNT OF THE 
AUSTRIAN EMPIRE, while Burke and Debrett 6 both style him a COUNT OF 
THE HOLY ROMAN EMPIRE without offering any explanation of how he 
acquired that dignity, and all three agree in according the title to his sons, 
the 4th and the 5th and present Baronet, Sir Charles Nugent; but it is to 
be observed that while he appears as GRAF O'REILLY in the Taschenbuch der 
Grdflichen up to 1887 (although he d. 16 Feb. 1854), all mention of this title 
has since that year (when presumably the Editors became aware of his death) 
been omitted from that work. 

NUGENT. Edward Nugent, a Colonel in the Spanish Service [son of James Nugent 
of Dromeny, by Eleanor, da. and h. of Edward Nugent of Bracklyn, and 
grandson of John Nugent of the same, 3rd son of the 1st Earl of Westmeath 
[I.] ], obtained recognition as a Count in the Empire as a Cadet of the Earls 
of Westmeath, under the style of COUNT NUGENT OF BRACKLYN (GRAF NUGENT 
VON BRACKLYN). 7 He m. Marcella, da. of Henry (Nugent), Count of Valdesoto 
[Spain], and d. 1730, and had issue (with a younger son, Oliver of Derrymore, 
who d. s.p.m.) (1) Nicholas, 2nd Count Nugent, d. s.p. 1758, and (2) Count 
Michael Nugent of Bracklyn, d. 1752, father of (1) Oliver, 3rd Count Nugent, 
a Col. in the Imperial Service, who d. s.p. 1791, and (2) John Nugent of Bracklyn 
and Derrymore, who d. 1781, leaving, with a younger son Laval (see next below), 
an elder son and h., Michael Anthony, 8 who was father of John, Count Nugent, 
Chamberlain to the Emperor of Austria, which John (b. 24 June 1796, killed 
at Briscia 17 Apr. 1849) was cr. a COUNT (GRAF VON NUGENT) [Austria] at the 
same time as his uncle, the celebrated Field-Marshal Laval Nugent, by decree 
of 27 Nov. 1847, 9 followed by a patent dated at Vienna 12 Apr. 1848. His 
son is the present Count of Nugent, See p. 32. 

1 Her succession was, however, disputed by the heir to the Earldom. See the case of 
Earl Nelson and Lord Bridport in 8 Beavan's Chancery Reports, p. 547. 

2 Marryat, ii. 494 ; Donner, p. 10. 3 Marryat, ii. 494. 

4 Grdflichen Taschenbuch, 1833-1887. 

5 Complete Baronetage, v. 434. 6 Peerages. 

7 Burke's Peerage, 1890. 8 Burke's Peerage, 1907, p. 2344. 

9 Courtesy titles ceased to be accorded in Austria in 1847. Ex inform. Count Nugent. 



128 THE NOBILITIES OF EUROPE 

NUGENT. Count Laval Nugent, K.G.F., K.C.M.T., G.C. Iron Crown, Commander of 
the White Eagle and of St. Andrew of Russia, Field-Marshal in the Austrian 
Army, b. 30 Nov. 1777 [2nd and younger son of Count John Nugent of Bracklyn 
and Derrymore, see above}, was 12 Apr. 1848 cr. COUNT OF NUGENT (GRAF 
VON NUGENT) [Austria] and a MAGNAT of Hungary, together with his nephew 
John, with rem. to their descendants, by the Emperor-King Ferdinand, and 
21 May 1858 he was further cr. by H.H. Pope Pius IX. PRINCE NUGENT 
(PRINCIPE NUGENT) [P.S.], with rem. to the heirs male of his body. He 
d. 22 Aug. 1862, having m. in 1815 Jane, only da. and h. of Rafael, Duke of 
Riario Sforza, by Beatrix, da. and co-h. of Prince Francis Xavier of Poland 
and Saxony, by whom he had issue. See p. 25. 

NUGENT. Count John Anthony Laval Maria Victor Nugent, son and h. app. of 
the 2nd Count Nugent [Austria] by his 2nd wife, Maria, da. of Anthony, Count 
Pallavicini-Febbia, Marquess of Centurioni, was 28 Feb. 1901 cr. by the 
Emperor Francis Joseph COUNT NUGENT- PALLAVICINI-FEBBIA. See p. 33. 

NUGENT. Christopher James Nugent, COUNT NUGENT OF KILLASONNA [Austria] 
[descended through Sir Ignatius Nugent, who was Knighted by the Emperor 
Charles VI., from the Hon. William Nugent of Killasomia, co. Longford, 
younger son of the 14th Baron Delvin], was A.D.C. to Field-Marshal Prince 
Nugent. He d. 4 Apr. 1885. 1 

NUGENT. Henry Nugent [younger brother of James Nugent of Coolamber, co. 
Longford, and son of Thomas Nugent of the same, descended from James 
Nugent, younger brother of the 13th Baron Delvin] was COUNT OF VALDESOTO 
(CONDE DE VALDESOTO) [Spain] and a General in the Austrian Army. He 
was killed defending Gibraltar for the English 1704, leaving, with a da. 
Marcella, wife of Edward, Count Nugent of Bracklyn, a son Thomas, 2nd 
Count of Valdesoto, who had issue Francis, 3rd Count of Valdesoto, who d. s.p. 
1800, and a da. Theresa, 4th Countess, who m. Count Dahels, but d. s.p., 2 when 
the right to the title devolved on the heir of her aunt, Michael Anthony Nugent 
of Bracklyn (d. 1812), and is now vested [in the present Count Nugent 
[Austria]. See p. 32. 

NUGENT. Walter Nugent [descended from Andrew Nugent of Clonlost, co. West- 
meath, 2nd son of Andrew Nugent of Donore, who was 4th and yst. son of 
the Hon. James Nugent (who d. v.p. 1450), eldest son of Richard, 10th Lord 
Delvin [I.]] 3 was, by Imperial letters patent dated 25 Aug. 1859, (cr. by the 
Emperor Francis Joseph BARON NUGENT (FREIHERR VON NUGENT) in the 
Austrian Empire, with rem. to the heirs male of his body, and with the title 
of Baron or Baroness for all his male descendants and their children. The 
present Baron (see p. 21) received Royal License for himself and his heirs male 
upon whom the title should devolve to assume and use the title in the United 
Kingdom 14 Aug. 1908. 

NUGENT. James Nugent of Ballynacorr, Ballymore, co. Westmeath [descended 
from Lavalin Nugent, 3rd son of James (Nugent), 3rd Lord Delvin [I.] ], is 
stated 4 to have inherited from his mother the dignity of a COUNT OF THE HOLY 
ROMAN EMPIRE (cr. 14 Apr. 1778). 6 He d. in 1810, leaving issue. His 
grandson James, 4th Count Nugent of Ballynacorr, a J.P. and (1838) High 
Sheriff, co. Westmeath, was living, with issue, 1879. 6 

NUGENT. Franois Louis Basile Antoine Aime Nugent, K.L.H. Maitre des 
requetes au Conseil d'Etat [son of Basile Benoit Nugent, an Officer in Walsh's 
Irish Regt., and grandson of Charles Nugent and Marie Cecilie Barnewall '], 
was 23 Mar. 1821 " maintenu dans sa noblesse " by letters patent from King 
Louis XVIII., by whom he was 11 Jan. 1823 cr. COUNT OF NUGENT (COMTE 
DE NUGENT) [F.], with rem. to the heirs male of his body. He had confirma- 
tion for himself and his heirs " sur institution d'un majorat " from King 
Charles X. 17 May 1828. 8 

NUGENT OF BRACKLYN [H.R.E.]. See Nugent, styled Count of. 

1 BurkJs Peerage, 1890, p. 1437 ; 1902, p. 1570. 

2 These particulars are taken from a MS. pedigree in the handwriting of Field-Marshal 
Laval Count Nugent. See Abstammung de Familie Nugent, by Laval, Graf Nugent 
(Stuttgart, 1904). 

3 See pedigree in Burke's Landed Gentry, 1906, pp. 1249-1250. 

4 Burke's Peerage, 1840, p. 1094. 

5 See under D' Alton. 6 Burke's Peerage, 1879, p. 1341. 
7 Titres de la Restauration, v. 26. 8 Ibid. 



AN ALPHABETICAL LIST 129 

NUGENT [Austria 1848]. See Nugent, Count of 

NUGENT [P.S. 1858]. See Nugent, Prince. 

NUGENT OF KIT.LASONNA [Austria]. See Nugent, Count of. 

NUGENT [Austria 1859]. See Nugent, Baron. 

NUGENT [Austria 18 ]. See Nugent, Count of. 

NUGENT OF BALLYNACORR [H.R.E. 1778]. See Nugent, Count of. 

NUGENT [F. 1823]. See Nugent, Count of. 

NUGENT-PALLAVICINI-FEBBIA [Austria 1901]. See Nugent, Count of. 



OAKELEY. See de Lormet. 

O'BRIEN. BARON O'BRIEN, a Gen. in the Austrian Service, m. Antonia, sister of 
the llth Lord Dormer [E.], who d. 1805, leaving issue a da. 1 

O'BYRNE. John Byrne, of Rotterdam and afterwards of Bordeaux, merchant 
[b. in Church Street, Smithfield, 20 June 1725, 3rd son of John Byrne of 
Cabinteely, co. Wicklow, Esq., and grandson of John Byrne of the same, 
High Sheriff, co. Wicklow, 1675, second son of David Byrne and younger bro. 
of Sir Gergory Byrne of Timogue, 1st Bt. [I.], ancestor of Lord de Tabley], 
having established himself at Bordeaux, was naturalized May 1758, and 
by royal letters patent, 2 dated Nov. 1770, was, with his brothers Gregory and 
Daniel, recognised as a NOBLE OF FRANCE, " by name and armorial bearings 
and as issued of ancient nobility," for themselves and " their children and 
posterity, born of lawful marriage," who " shall be recognised, held, and owned, 
as we recognise, hold, and own them, nobles and of noble extraction." He 
m. 1st, Mary, da. of Richard Gernon of Gernon's town, co. Louth, by whom he 

had five sons and one da. ; and 2ndly, ( ), da. of ( ) Laffenof co. Kilkenny, 

by whom he had four sons. His eldest son and h., Richard O 'Byrne, a Noble 
of France, b. 9 Apr. and bapt. at St. Seurin, Bordeaux, 3 11 Apr. 1760, m. in 
the Chapel Xendorhii at Liege, 20 Feb. 1787, Elizabeth (bapt. at Cork, d. at 
Liverpool 27 Jan. 1813, and bur. in St. John's Churchyard there), da. of Richard 
William Stack, of Bath, M.D., and d. at Macan, Bordeaux, 27 June 1802 
leaving two sons and three das., of whom the eldest, Robert O 'Byrne, b. at 
No. 10 Fownes Street, Dublin, 30 Mar. 1789, m. 1822 Martha Troughear, 
da. of Joseph Clark of Norwich, and d. at Herne Bay 14 Sep. 1861, leaving two 
sons (1) William Richard O'Byrne, F.R.G.S., author of "The Naval Bio- 
graphy," b. in the house of Raymond Laborde, Rue St. Thomas, Libourne, 
27 Jan. 1823, and bapt. in the parish church of St. Jean 11 Feb. following, 
sue. to Cabinteely, on the death of his cousin Miss O'Byrne, 31 July 1850; and 
(2) Robert O'Byrne of Lincoln's Inn, Bar.-at-Law, b. in Paris 23 Dec. 1825. 
They both d. s.p.m. 

O'BYRNE. John O'Byrne of Allardstown, co. Louth, and Corville, co. Tipperary, 
J.P., was cr. COUNT O'BYRNE (CONTE O'BYRNE) [P.S.] by H.H. Pope ( ), 
with rem. to the heirs male of his body. The title is now held by his son. 

1 Burke' s Peerage, 1902, p. 483. 

2 These recite " that according to a table of their genealogy drawn up and attested 
by the King-at-Arms of Ireland, authenticated by the Viceroy, Governor-General of the 
same Kingdom, and by two Heralds at Arms of the Heralds' College of England, by a 
Notary of London, and by the late Count of Guerchy, when he was our Ambassador in 
England, they prove eleven degrees of filial descent with the distinction of Esquire ; that 
five Peers of the Kingdom of Ireland, to wit, Lords Westmeath, Netterville, Kingsland, 
Howe, and Trimlestown, by a cer ificate signed by them, attest that the late John O'Byrne 
of Cabinteely, father of the petitioners and Esquire, of the ancient family of the O'Byrnes 
of Ireland, was always known to be a gentleman of the most ancient extraction ; that his 
ancestors heretofore enjoyed, as their descendants do to this day, considerable estates; 
and that his family has at all times been allied to most of the best and most noble 
families of Ireland, and especially to those of the above-mentioned five Peers of the realm ; 
that their uncle Barneval died Lieut. -Col. in Berwick's Regt. ; that Mr. Colclough, also 
their uncle, Captain in the same regiment, died in it of the wounds he received at the 
battle of Fontenoy ; that Gregory Byrne, one of the petitioners, has just left the said 
Berwick's Regiment with the rank of Captain, in which they still have a nephew and four 
cousins with the rank of Officers, &c." See Historical Reminiscences of O'Byrnes, O^Tooles, 
O'Kavanaghs, and other Irish Chieftains, by O'Byrne [William Richard O'Byrne of 
Cabinteely], (printed for private circulation, London, M'Gowan and Co., 1843), pp. 
70-74. 

3 Dates from MS. notes of W. R. O'Byrne's own copy of above-named work. 

I 



1 3 o THE NOBILITIES OF EUROPE 

O'BYRNE [P.S. 18]. See O 'Byrne, Count. 

O'BYRNE-REDMOND. Reginald Pius Rudolph Henry Plantagenet O'Byrne de 
Raymond [eldest son of John Henry, Count O'Byrne-Redmond of Killoughter, 
co. Wicklow, who d. 1867, by Emilia, da. of Gen. Count de Manley], b. 1851, 
was Chamberlain to Leo XIII. , having been previously so to Pius IX. He 
assumed the ancient patronymic de Raymond of his family in 1872. 

O'CLERY. Keyes O'Clery of Darragh House, Kilfmane, co. Limerick, D.L., 
G.C.I.C., K.C.S.G., " The O'Clery," a Chamberlain to H.H. Pope Leo XIII., 
by whom he was May 1903 cr. a COUNT OF THE PAPAL STATES as COUNT 

O'CLERY (CONTE O'CLERY). 1 

O'CLERY [P.S. 1903]. See O'Clery, Count. 

O'CoNNELL. Maurice (O'Connell), BARON O'CONNELL [H.R.E.], Col. in the Austrian 
Service and Chamberlain to the Empress Maria Theresa [son of Maurice 
O'Connell of Tarmons, co. Kerry, and grandson of John O'Connell of Derry- 
nane], b. 1740, d. at Vienna 1831. 2 

O'CONNELL. Gen. Daniel O'Connell, G.C.S.L. [5th son of Daniel O'Connell of 
Derrynane Abbey, co. Kerry], was 1785 3 cr. COUNT O'CONNELL 4 (COMTK 
O'CONNELL) by King Louis XVI. He was b. May 1745, entered the French 
Army as Lieut. Royal Swedish Regt. 1761, served with Clare's Regt. of the Irish 
Brigade 1769, and was appointed Lieut.-Col. Royal Swedish Regt. 1778. He 
was subsequently Col. Comdt. of the Salm-Salm Regt. and a member of the 
Committee to revise the system of infantry tactics in the French Army. After 
the murder of Louis XVI. Count O'Connell retired to England, and was 
appointed Col. 4th Regt. of the Irish Brigade, which command he retained 
until the corps was disbanded. He d. July 1833 at his stepson's chateau, near 
Bois, on the Loire, aged 88, holding the rank of General in the French Army 
and Colonel in the British. 5 

O'CONNELL. Francis Michael O'Connell [son of Francis O'Connell by his wife 
Norah, nee de Montmorency O'Callaghan] was 22 Mar. 1876 cr. by H.H. Pope 
Pius IX. a COUNT OF THE PAPAL STATES (CONTE O'CONNELL), with rem. to the 
heirs male of his body, in recognition of his services to the clergy of Paris 
during the Commune. 6 

O'CONNELL [F. 1785]. See O'Connell, Count. 

O'CONNELL [? H.R.E.]. See O'Connell, Baron. 

O'CONNELL [P.S. 1876]. See O'Connell, Count. 

O'CONNELL-O'CONNOR-KERRY [Austria 1864]. See O'Connor, Baron. 

O'CONNOR. Daniel O'Connor [b. at Tralee, co. Kerry, 1807, son of James O'Connor 
of Tralee by Elizabeth O'Connell], a distinguished Officer in the Imperial 
Service, was 22 Jan. 1864 cr. by the Emperor Francis Joseph BARON (FREIHERR) 
O'CoNNELL-O'CoNNOR-KERRY, 7 for himself and his descendants. He d. unm., 
when the title became extinct. 

O'DONNELL. Gen. Manus O'Donnell or O'Donell, of the Austrian Army, obtained, 
by letters patent dated 11 Nov. 1763, recognition (anerkennung des Gjnslandes) 8 
from the Emperor Francis I. as COUNT O'DONELL OF TYRCONNELL (GRAF 
O'DONELL VON TYRCONNELL), for himself and his heirs, together with his cousins, 
Major-Gen. Henry O'Donnell, Lieut. -Gen. Connell Charles O'Donnell, and 
Major-Gen. John O'Donnell. They were descended from the O'Donnells of 
Tyrconnell, of whom Roderick O'Donnell, Chief of his name, was 27 Sep. 1603 
cr. EARL OF TYRCONNELL [I.], with rem. to the heirs male of the body of himself 
and his brother Caffrey, and with the title of BARON OF DONEGALL [I.] for 
the heir apparent to the Earldom. 9 He fled to France with his only son 14 Sep. 
1607, and d. at Rome 30 July 1608, having been attainted for high treason 
(confirmed 28 Oct. 1614). The only son Hugh was a Page to the Infanta 
Isabella, consort of the Archduke Albert, in whose honour he was generally 
called "Hugh Albert" or "Albert Hugh," and afterwards a General in the 

1 The Editor is unaware whether this title was conferred for life only or with a remainder. 

2 Burke 's Landed Gentry of Ireland, 1904, p. 446. 

3 Harmsworth's Encyclopedia. See The Last Colonel of the Irish Brigade, Count 
O'Connell, &c., by Mrs. (M. A.) O'Connell (London, 1892). 

4 Burke (Landed Gentry of Ireland, 1904, p. 446) says, and a Peer, but this is a mistake. 
See Etchegoyen, p. 79. 

De Magny's Nob. Univ., xii. pt. 2, also xx. and xxii., " Papal Titles in France." 
Taschenbuch der Freiherrl. Hauser, 1866, p. 665. 
Grdflichen Taschenbuch, 1907, p. 622. 
G. E. C.'s Complete Peerage, vii. 443. 



AN ALPHABETICAL LIST 131 

Spanish Service and a KNIGHT OF ALCANTARA, and assumed in spite of the 
attainder the titles of " Earl of Tyrconnell and Donegall, Baron of Lifford, 
Lord of Sligo and Lower Connaught, &c.," l being the CONDE DE TYRCONNELL 
of Spanish history. He d., it is supposed s.p., 2 16 Sep. 1642, " when the male 
issue of his father, the grantee of these honours, and of his father's brother 
(who was in rem. to them) became apparently extinct." The Gen. Manua 
O'Donnell named above d. s.p.m. in Ireland 1793, Connell Charles d. s.p., and 
the only son of John was killed in action while young. Henry m. the Princess 
Leopoldina, da. of Prince Cantacuzene [son of Stephen II., Prince of Wallachia], 
and had issue. His descendant, Maximilian Karl Lemoral, 4th Count O'Donell 
of Tyrconnell, a Major-General in the Austro-Hungarian Army, on 19 Feb. 
1853, when Adjutant to the Emperor Francis Joseph, at great personal risk, 
saved the Emperor's life when Janos Libeny, a journeyman tailor, made an 
attempt to assassinate him. He d. s.p. at Salzburg July 1895, aged 83. His 
younger brother, Count Maurice, had predeceased him 1890, leaving issue 
(1) Henry, 5th Count, father of the present Count (see p. 30); and (2) Count 
Hugo, who m. the Countess Gabrielle von Thurn-Vallesassina, and d. 1904, 
leaving two sons, Counts Douglas (b. 1890) and Maximilian (b. 1892). 

O'DONNELL. Lieut. -Gen. Don Henrique O'Donnell [younger son of Joseph 
O'Donnell, a Lieut. -Gen. in the Spanish Service, elder brother of Henry, 
1st Count O'Donnell [H.R.E. 1763], see above] was one of the Regents of Spain 
during the captivity of Ferdinand VII., and was cr. COUNT OF ABISBAL (CONDE 
DE LA ABISBAL). He d. 1833. His only son Leopoldo, a Capt. in the Royal 
Guards, had shortly before been taken prisoner at the battle of Alsazua, and 
shot by order of Gen. Zumalacarregui. 

O'DONNELL. Leopold O'Donnell [b. in Tenerife 1809, younger son of Lieut.-Gen. 
Carlos O'Donnell (who d. 1830) and nephew of the Count of Abisbal, see above], 
a Christine General, and afterwards Minister of War under Espartero, and 
Prime Minister 1856-1858, was 1847 cr. COUNT OF LUCENA and VISCOUNT OF 
ALIAGA, and 7 Feb. 1860 DUKE OF TETUAN and a GRANDEE, for the successful 
conduct of the war with Morocco. He d. s.p. 1867, being succeeded in the 
Dukedom by his nephew Carlos [son of Gen. Carlos O'Donnell, who was killed 
in action at Echauri 1835]. He had been cr. MARQUESS OF ALTAMIRA 
(MARQUESS DE ALTAMIRA), was Minister of Foreign Affairs, and Ambassador to 
several Courts, and d. 1903, leaving a son, the 3rd and present Duke. See 
Addenda. 

O'DONNELL of Tyrconnell [H.R.E. 1763]. See O'Donnell, Count. 

O'DONNOGHUE. John Florence O'Donnoghue of Glanfliske, K.S.L. [2nd son of 
Owen O'Donnoghue, of Glanfliske, Lord of Kilpernum, co. Cork, " devant 
premier Marechal de logis des gens d'Armes anglais" in the French Service, 
was 1712 cr. by King Louis XIV. MARQUESS OF CLEINCHAMPS AND 
LA RONC^ (MARQUIS DE CLEINCHAMPS ET DE LA RONCE), near Versailles 
[F.]. He m. the Lady Mary Drummond, da. of Edward, Duke of Perth, by 
whom he had, with other issue, a son and h., Jean Joseph (O'Donnoghue de 
Glanfliske), 2nd Marquess of Cleinchamps [F.], K.S.L., Brigadier of the Royal 
Armies and Col. of an Infantry Regt. who d. 1782, leaving issue an only son 
Joseph Ambrose. Conor O'Donnoghue, elder brother of the 1st Marquess, 
was ancestor of the O'Donnoghues of Belgium, Lords of Geldorp and Niel, who 
obtained letters of naturalization from the Emperor Charles VI. 27 July 1716. 3 

O'GARA. Charles O'Gara, Imperial Councillor of State to the Emperor Francis I. and 
Chamberlain and Grandmaster to his sister the Princess Maria Theresa [4th son 
of Lieut.-Col. Sir Oliver O'Gara, 1st Bt. [I.], so cr. by James III. 1727], was cr. 
a COUNT OF THE HOLY ROMAN EMPIRE and a K.G.F. He d. unm. c. 1776. 4 

O'GARA [H.R.E. 17]. See O'Gara, Count. 

O'GARVEY. See Garvey. 

OGILVIE. James Ogilvie, SIEUR DE LA PERRIERE in France [son of John Ogilvie of 
Scotland], had a declaration of his Nobility from King James VII. 16 Sep. 1695. 5 

OGILVIE. Patrick Ogilvie, Lieut.-Col. in the Swedish Service [b. 1606, son of the 
Laird of Balgay], having produced a certified copy of his genealogy and a 
certificate signed by Leslie and Hamilton, was 1642 recognised as a NOBLE 
[Sweden No. 277] by Queen Christina, and admitted to the Riddarhus (House 
of Lords). Extinct 1798. 6 

1 Burke's Extinct Peerage, 1883. 2 Complete Peerage, vii. 443. 

3 Annuaire de la Noblesse de Belgique, 1859, p. 213. 

4 Ruvigny's Jacobite Peerage, p. 136. 5 Ibid., p. 196. 
6 Marryat, ii. 494 ; Donner, p. 35 ; Sveriges Add. 



1 32 THE NOBILITIES OF EUROPE 

OGILVY. Col. George Ogilvy of Mureton [son of Patrick Ogilvy of the same, sixth 
son of James, 5th Lord Ogilvy] was in the Imperial Service, and was com- 
mandant of Spielburg as BARON OGILVY DE MUIRTON, from which place he 
wrote, 27 Aug. 1649, to the 1st Earl of Airlie as his " Chief," informing him that 
he had been admitted to the title of EARL in Germany as a Cadet of the House 
of Airlie. He d. at Vienna 7 June 1661, leaving issue. 1 

OGILVY [H.R.E. 1649]. See Ogilvy, Count of. 

O'GORMAN. Ferdinand O'Gorman of the Chateau de Pixerecourt, near Nancy, 
K.C.P., K.C.S.G., &c., Private Chamberlain to Popes Pius IX. and Leo XIII., 
was ig cr. a COUNT OF THE PAPAL STATES as COUNT O'GORMAN (CONTE 
O'GORMAN). See p. 16. 

O'GORMAN. Ferdinand Albert O'Gorman was cr. by H.H. Pope ( ) a COUNT 

OP THE ROMAN STATES 2 as COUNT O'GORMAN. 

O'GORMAN [P.S. 18 ]. See O'Gorman, Count. 

O'HEGUERTY. Dominick O'Heguerty was 21 June 1773 cr. COUNT OF MAIGNIERES 
(COMTE DE MAIGNIERES) [F.]. His daughter and (apparent) h. Marie Fran- 
coise Anne O'Heguerty m. Jean Baptist Morgan, Ecuyer, Seigneur de Frucourt, 
Doudelauville, &c., and their eldest son Jean Baptist Maur Morgan, K.S.L., 
K.L.H., was cr. " Comte hereditaire sur transmission du titre de son ai'eul 
maternel," by letters patent 29 May 1818, as COUNT MORGAN OF FRUCOURT. S 

O'HiGGiNS. Ambrose Higgins afterwards (1789) O'Higgins, b. of humble parentage 
in co. Meath about 1720, went to South America, and entering the Spanish 
Service, rose to high rank. He became a Major-Gen. 1789 and Viceroy of Chili 
1789, and having rebuilt the city of Osorno, was 1792 cr. by King Charles IV. 
MARQUESS OF OSORNO (MARQUES DE OSORNO), Lt.-Gen. 1794, and Viceroy 
of Peru 1795. He d. s.p.l. at Lima 18 Mar. 1801. His illegitimate son, Don 
Bernardo O'Higgins, " Liberator of Chili," who took the popular side in the War 
of Independence, was President of Congress, and d. 1846.* 

O'KELLY. " COUNT O'KELLY" was appointed Imperial Minister Plen. to Dresden 
shortly before 26 Mar. 1786. 5 

O'KELLY. Dillon John O' Kelly [second son of Festus O' Kelly of Tycooly], an 
officer in the Imperial Service, having eminently distinguished himself on 
many occasions, particularly by his gallant and successful defence of 
Konnopisht Castle in Bohemia, was with his father cr. by the Emperor 
Francis I. a COUNT OF THE HOLY ROMAN EMPIRE, the title being given with 
reversion to Festus as Dillon had no issue. The latter d. in Austria in 1811. 
Count Festus was sue. by his eldest son Connor O' Kelly of Tycooly, ancestor 
of Cornelius Denis O'Kelly, 6th COUNT O'KELLY OF TYCOOLY (see p. 14), 
and of (Count) John Appleyard O'Kelly of Gurtray, co. Galway, J.P. 6 

O'KELLY. Emmanuel Francois O'Kelly, " avocat au conseil souverain de Brabant " 
and afterwards " Conseiller au conseil supreme de Noblesse " [b. at Brussels 
3 Nov. 1763, being descended from John O'Kelly, a Capt. in the English Service, 
who was b. at Galway 30 Dec. 1672 and d. at Brussels 23 Oct. 1738], 7 obtained 
recognition of his NOBILITY [Netherlands] under the name of O'KELLY DE 
GALWAY by a royal decree of 19 Oct. 1824. His son, Jean Prosper Desire 
O'Kelly, " dit COMTE O'KELLY D'AGHRIM, employe au conseil supreme de 
Noblesse a La Haye" d. 29 Jan. 1843. Family still existing. See p. 32. 

O'KELLY [H.R.E. 17]. See O'Kelly, Count. 

O'KELLY OF AUGHRIM. William O'Kelly of Aughrim, " Erbherr auf Cullagh und 
Ballynahown " in Ireland, d. in Vienna 1 Mar. 1751. His niece m. the 1st 
Baron MacNevin O'Kelly von Aughrim. 8 

O'KELLY or O'KELLY- FARRELL. John James O'Kelly [b. 1749, son of Denis 
O'Kelly, afterwards (c. 1740) O'Farrell, an Officer in the Spanish Service (b. 
posthumous at Clonlyon, co. Galway, 1715, son of John O'Kelly of Castle Kelly), 9 

1 Balfour Paul's Scots Peerage, i. 121 ; Scottish Antiquary, vi. 28. 

2 De Magny, xx. xxii., " Papal Titles in France."' 3 Titres de la Restauration, \. 195. 
4 Diet. Nat. Biog. 5 London Gazette, 1786, p. 147. 

6 Burke's Landed Gentry of Ireland, 1904, pp. 459 ct seq. 

7 Nob. de Belgique, 1859, p. 278. A Comte Alphonse Charles Albert O'Kelly de 
Galway was author of Dictionnaire . . . de la Science du Blaton (Bergerac, 1901). 

8 Freiherrl. Taschcnbuch, 1880, p. 466. 

9 The Tribes and Customs of Hy- Many, by John O'Donovan, 1843. 



AN ALPHABETICAL LIST 133 

who went to France in 1756, and obtained letters of naturalization and of 
" ancient nobility " for himself and his children Dec. 1756, and d. at Toulouse 
1761, by his wife Mary, da. of Theobald Dillon] was recognised by King 
Louis XIV. as COUNT O'KELLY (CoMTE O'KELLY) [F.], being admitted to the 
" honneurs de la cour au titre de Comte O' Kelly " Sep. 1776, and rode in the 
King's coach 22nd Oct. following. 1 He was Minister Plen. to the Elector of 
Mayence from Louis XVI. at the outbreak of the French Revolution, 2 and 
left issue, still existing. See p. 30. 

O'KELLY-FARRELL [F. 1776]. See O'Kelly, Count. 

O'KELLY VON AUGHRIM [H.R.E. a. 1751]. See O'Kelly. 

O'KELLY DE GALWAY [Netherlands 1824]. See O'Kelly. 3 

OLD CASTLE [Spain]. See Mahony, Count of. 

OLIVABES [Spain 15 ]. See Fitzjames, Count, styled Count-Duke of. 

OLIVER. James Oliver, afterwards Olivier [eldest son of William Oliver, Governor 
of the Manors of Cranham and Croydon, under Henry IV.], went to France 
in 1440, 4 and is qualified "Seigneur de Bretigny dans I'Isle de France et Pro- 
cur eur du Parlement." His son Jacques Oliver, Ecuyer, Procureur du Parlement, 
was 1st SEIGNEUR DE LEUVILLE, and d. before 5 May 1488. His son Jacques, 
2nd Lord of Leuville and Villemarechal, &c., President of the Parliament of 
Paris 1507, was cr. CHANCELLOR and " Chef du Conseil et du Senat du duche 
de Milan" in 1511 by Louis XII. and named Premier President of the 
Parliament of Paris by Francis I. 20 May 1517. His son Francis, 3rd Lord, 
was CHANCELLOR OF FRANCE 1545. 5 He m. 1538 Antoinette, da. of Nicolas 
de Cerisay, Baron de La Riviere, and d. 30 Mar. 1560. His son Jean, 4th Lord, 
was BARON DU HOMET and DE LA RIVI&RE and a K.S.M., and the latter's 
grandson, Louis, 6th Lord, a Lieut. -Gen. of the Royal Armies, was June 1650 
cr. by King Louis XIV. MARQUESS OF LEUVILLE (MARQUIS DE LEUVILLE) [F.] 
(Reg. in the Parliament of Paris 9 July following). His son Louis, 2nd 
Marquess, d. s.p., when the title passed to his cousin, Louis Thomas, 2nd 
Marquess of Givry [son of Lieut. -Gen. du Bois de Fiennes, cr. MARQUESS OF 
GIVRY [F.] 27 June 1664, and grandson of Pierre du Bois de Fiennes, and his 
wife Frances Oliver, da. and in her issue h. of John, 4th Lord of Leuville], 
who had confirmation as Marquess of Leuville 25 June 1700. He had an 
only da., Antoinette Madeleine, 4th Marchioness of Leuville, who m. 17*5 
the Marquess of Poyane and had an only da. who m. the Duke of Sully. 
Stephen Oliver [3rd son and eventual h. of John Oliver, by his 2nd wife Elizabeth, 
da. and h. of Henry de Lorncourt of Whitehouse and the representative of 
William Olivers of Kingsbridge, co. Devon, 2nd son of William Oliver of 
Cranham and Croydon, first above named] went to France in 1745, established 
his pedigree as heir male of the House of Olivier, Marquesses of Leuville, before 
the King of Arms Hozier, and commenced a process before the Parliament 
of Paris for the estates, but this was stopped by his death in 1750. His 
alleged descendant, William Revidius Oliver, is said to have had " les titres 
et qualities du Marquis de Leuville, deja etablis 1'an 1745 pour le royaume 
de France, sous le regne de Louis XV., lui ont ete de nouveau reconnus 
ofiiciellement pour la Cour d'Espayne ; cette confirmation lui a ete faite depuis 
1'avenement d'Alphonse XII. de Bourbon par son Roi d'armes," 6 but is 
believed to have based his claims on an alleged adoption. He d. s.p. 1908. 

OLIZON [F. c. 1495]. See Stewart, Lord of. 

OLONDE [F. a. 1745]. See d'Harcourt, Marquess of. 

O'MAHONY. Daniel O'Mahony, a Capt. in the Royal Irish Foot Guards [brother 
of Col. Dermod O'Mahony of Rosbrin, co. Cork, who was killed on the side 
of King James at the battle of Aughrim], followed James II. to France and 
greatly distinguished himself at Cremona 1 Feb. 1702, for which he was 
ENNOBLED by Louis XIV. and recognised or cr. COUNT O'MAHONY. He was 
also knighted by James III. In 1704 he passed into the Spanish Service, 
being strongly recommended by Louis XIV. to his grandson Philip V., by whom 
he was in 1710 made a Lieut. -Gen. and cr. a COUNT OF CASTILE 7 in reward 

1 De Magny, xviii. 2 Diet. Nat. Biog., xlii. 75. 

3 The Genuine Memoirs of Dennis O'Kelly, Esq., commonly called Count O'Kelly, were 
published in London 1788. He was a well-known owner of racehorses. See the Diet. 
Nat. Biog., xlii. 75. * Dossier Olivier, Cab. des Titres, Bib. Richelieu. 

5 Blanchard's Hist, des Presidents du Parlement de Paris. 

6 De Magny, 1877, xii. pt. ii. ; Reverend, 1878, p. 373. * N. and Q., 10 S., viii. 148. 



134 THE NOBILITIES OF EUROPE 

for his services while in command of the Spanish forces in Sicily 1709-10. 
He subsequently commanded the Cavalry of the Franco -Spanish forces at 
Taragossa and at Villa Vicosa. He d. at Ocana in Spain Jan. 1714, 1 having 
m. 1st, Cecilia, da. of George Weld of Lulworth, who d. c. 1708 ; and 2ndly, at 
Paris, Charlotte, Dowager Viscountess Clare. By her he had an only daughter, 
but by his 1st wife he left two sons (1) John Joseph, sometimes called James, 
2nd Count O'Mahony, a Lieut. -Gen. in the Spanish Service, Governor of Fort 
St. Elmo and Com. of St. Januarius and Inspector-General of Cavalry in 
Naples, who m. at Paris 22 Dec. 1739 " la fille de Lord Ratlive-Clifford-Darwin- 
water," 2 i.e. Lady Anne, da. of the Hon. Thomas Clifford by his wife Charlotte 
Marie, suo jure 3rd Countess of Newburgh, and died before 1773, leaving an 
only child Cecilia, 3rd Countess Mahony [F. and Sp.], who m. 1757 Benedict, 
5th Prince Giustiniani [P.S.], and d. 1789, leaving, with other issue, a son 
Vincent, 6th Prince Giustiniani, 4th Count Mahony, &c. (see Giustiniani, p. 88) ; 
and (2) Count Demetrius (Dermod) O'Mahony, Ambassador from Spain to 
Austria, who d. s.p. at Vienna 1776. 

O'MAHONY. Barthelemy O'Mahony, Knight of Malta, Commander of St. Louis, 
Lieut. -Gen. of the Royal Armies and Col. Comdg. the Berwick Regiment 
[2nd son of Michael O'Mahony, a grandson of Thadeus O'Mahony, killed at 
the battle of Aughrim 12 July 1691, by his wife Helen, da. of Francis Holies], 
was cr. or recognised as COUNT O'MAHONY [F.]. He m. Marie Louise Henriette 
Monique, da. and h. of Louis, Marquess of Gouy, Lieut. -Gen. of the Royal 
Armies, who was presented to the King and the royal family as COUNTESS 
O'MAHONY 30 Apr. 1788. He had an only son, Marie Yves Arsdne Barthelemy 
Daniel, 2nd Count O'Mahony, Knight of Malta, and sous- Lieut, des Mousque- 
taire noirs. 3 

O'MAHONY [F. 1702]. See O'Mahony, Count. 
O'MAHONY [F. c. 17]. See O'Mahony, Count. 
O'MAHONY [Spain 1710]. See O'Mahony, Count. 

O'MEARA. William O'Meara, O.L.H., K.S.L., Col. of Infantry (6 Jan. 1807) in 
the French Service [b. at Dunkirk 1 Nov. 1764, eldest son of John O'Meara, 
a Capt. in Clare's Regt., and of the Baroness Marie Anne Lynch of the Holy 
Roman Empire], had donataire (r. 8000) sur le Trasimene by imperial decree 
8 Sep. 1808 and in Hanover 15 Aug. preceding, 4 and was 14 Apr. 1810 cr. 
by the Emperor Napoleon I. a BARON OF THE FRENCH EMPIRE as BARON 
O'MEARA, with rem. to the heirs male of his body. Gen. of Brigade, 1812. 
He d. s.p.m. 11 June 1828, when his honours became extinct. 

O'MEARA [F.E. 1810]. See O'Meara, Baron. 

O'MORUGH. Anton Monier, a Scotsman in the Swedish Service, was appointed 
Governor of St. Mauritius, and having proved himself descended from the 
family of O'Morugh, was ENNOBLED [Sweden] under that name. 5 

O'MURPHY. Patrick O 'Murphy, K.C.L.H., Marechal de Camp in the French Army 
(22 May 1825) [b. at Ballyadan, co. Oxford (sic), Ireland, 6 son of Timothy 
O'Murphy], was by letters patent of 25 Apr. 1829 cr. by King Charles X. BARON 
O 'MURPHY, with rem. to the heirs male of his body, and was naturalized in 
France by a royal decree of 13 July following. He d. s.p. at Altenstadt, 
Alsace, 24 Aug. 1844, when the title became extinct. 

O'MURPHY. Cornelius Fleury O'Murphy (b. at St. Potan, Cotes du Nord, 12 Aug. 
1771, d. s.p.) and Jean Baptist O'Murphy (b. at St. Servan 14 May 1774) [sons 
of Cornelius Nicholas O'Murphy, Lieut. French Navy] obtained recognition 
and confirmation of their Noblesse by letters patent 1 Mar. 1821. The present 
representative of the younger, Felix Marie Patrick O'Murphy, an Officer in 
the Papal Army, was b. 13 Feb. 1841, sue. his father 10 Oct. 1886, and m. 
Marie Arsdne Rouault de Colligny, and has issue two children. 7 

O'MURPHY [F. 1829]. See O'Murphy, Baron. 

O'NEILL. Shane (John) O'Neill [said to have been 4th son of Hugh O'Neil, 3rd 
Earl of Tyrone [I., 1 Oct. 1542], the great Irish leader, who was attainted 
28 Oct. 1614, and fled to France and thence to Rome] is stated to have sue. 

1 Diet. Nat. Biog., xlii. 165. 

2 Viton de St. Allais, iii. 69. 3 Ibid., iii. 73. 

* Armorial du Premier Empire, iii. 337. 5 Donner, p. 46. 

litres de la Restauration, v. 269. 7 Ibid., v. 269. 




ARMORIAL BEARINGS OF 
GEORGE O'NEILL, COUNT OF TYRONE 



AN ALPHABETICAL LIST 135 

as 6th Earl of Tyrone on the death of his brother Bryan or John, 1641 ; l and 
to have d. in co. Mayo before 1653. His grandson James, styled 8th Earl, 
left Ireland with James II., and established himself with his son at la Basse 
Pointe in Martinique, where, under the designation of COMTES DE TYRONE, 
his representatives continued to reside. Henry, styled 14th Earl of Tyrone, 
K.C.S.L., the last male of this branch, d. s.p.rn., and by "un pacte de famille 
intervenu d Paris le 14 aoiit 1901, devant McKastler, Notaire, d Paris, Us 
derni&res reprteentantes de la branche dites des Comtes de Tyrone, fixee cl la 
Martinique et en France, Augusta Eugenie Valentine O'Neill de Tyrone, epouse 
du Baron de Bodmann, et Marie Anne Marguerite O'Neill de Tyrone ont pour 
se conformer d une tradition immemoriale, reverse sur la tte du chef de la ligne 
atnee, residant en Portugal, tons les titres et qualifications, entre autres celle de 
Comte de Tyrone, portee, depuis 1542, dans la branche franqaise, qui etait la 
leur et qui se trouve aujourd'hui eteinte dans les males pour suite du dices du 
pere des dites Demoiselles O'Neill de Tyrone" 2 

O'NEILL. Felix O'Neill, styled Chief of his name, emigrated to France after the 
Revolution, and d. as an Officer of the Irish Brigade atMalplaquet 1709. His 
descendants passed into Portugal, where they claimed and used the style of 
Prince of Claneboy, and since 14 Aug. 1901 that of Earl of Tyrone. 3 See p. 28. 

O'NEILL. Henry O'Neill, G.C.V.V., G.C.R.B., G.C.C.I., K.C.L.H., Bacharel 
formado em Direito pela Universidade de Coimbra, Director Geral. honorario 
dos Negocios da Justica ; do Conselho de Sua Magestade, Official-M6r 
honorario da Casa Real, Veador honorario de Sua Magestade a Rainha ; 
Preceptor aposentado de S.S. Altezas, Procurador Geral. da Coroa e Fazenda 4 
[uncle of George (O'Neill), styled 15th Earl of Tyrone, see p. 28], was 28 Dec. 
1876 cr. by Louis I., King of Portugal, VISCOUNT or ST. MONICA (VISCONDE 
DE SANTA MONICA). He was b. 3 May 1821, and d. unm. 6 Nov. 1889, when 
the title became extinct. 

ORCHARTON. John Orcharton, Major of Foot in the Swedish Service, having 
produced a letter from Bang Charles II. recognising his ancient descent and 
right to sixteen quarterings, was admitted as a NOBLE [Sweden No. 681] 
by King Charles XL 1664, and allowed to take his seat in the House of 
Lords. He became a Colonel, and d. 1679. 5 Family extinct after 1690. 6 

O'REILLY. Andrew O'Reilly, a General of Cavalry in the Austrian Service [b. at 
Ballinlough, co. Limerick, 3 Aug. 1742], entered the Austrian Army during 
the Seven Years' War, and having greatly distinguished himself during the 
various campaigns, was 8 Oct. 1787 7 cr. by the Emperor Joseph II. COUNT 
O'REILLY OF BALLINLOUGH (GRAF O'REILLY VON BALLINLOUGH), for him- 
self and his descendants, G.C.M.T. following the Italian Campaign of 1800; 
Governor of Vienna 1809, when it surrendered to Napoleon. He d. s.p. at 
Vienna 5 July 1832, aged 90, having adopted John Hugh, 2nd son of his 
kinsman Sir Hugh O'Reilly, afterwards Nugent, as his heir. 8 See Nugent. 

O'REILLY. Alexander O'Reilly, 8th son of Thomas O'Reilly of Balgarny, was b. 
1722 at Baltrasna, co. Meath, 9 was Generalissimo in the Spanish Service, Capt.- 
Gen. of Andalusia, Governor of Cadiz, Inspector-Gen, of Infantry and Com- 
mander of the Order of Calatrava, and is stated 10 to have been cr. COUNT 
O'REILLY (CONDE O'REILLY) and a GRANDEE OF SPAIN. His son Peter Paul, 
2nd Count O'Reilly, is said to have m. the Countess of Buena Vista [sister of 
the Duke of Baylen], and to have been father of Don Manuel, styled " Count 
O'Reilly, Marquess de Buena Vista, Grandee of Spain, &c.," who is said to have 
succeeded to the Dukedom of Baylen, held by the well-known Gen. Castaiios. 11 
This, however, is totally at variance with the account given in the Spanish 
Peerages. 12 According to them the dignity of a Grandee of the 1st Class, with 

The title was, however, assumed by his cousin. See The Complete Peerage, vii. 451. 

Reverend, 1859, p. 244 ; 1889, p. 160 ; 1897, p. 264 ; 1905, p. 163. 

Ibid., 1889, p. 161; 1897, p. 264. 

Rcseriha das Familias, ii. 529. 

Marryat, ii. 494. 6 Sveriges Adel. 

7 Reitstrap's Armorial General. 

8 Graflichen Taschenbuch, 1833, p. 343 ; 1836, j?. 370 ; Diet. Nat. Biog., xlii. 245. 

9 See a Biography in the Diet. Nat. Biog. , xlii. p. 244 ; where, however, no mention is 
made of his honours. 

10 Burke's Landed Gentry of Ireland, 1904, p. 464. " Burke. 

12 See de Burgos, Blason de Espana, 1853, vol. ii. ; and Bethencourt's Annales de la 
Nolliza de Eapana, 1887, p. 47. 



136 



THE NOBILITIES OF EUROPE 



the title of Duke of Bailen, was conferred on Gen. Don Francisco Javier de 
Castanos 12 July 1833, in reward for his military services, and by a royal decree 
of 31 May 1847 the title was made hereditary. He d. s.p., when he was 
succeeded by Luis Angel (de Carondelet), Baron de Carondelet in the Nether- 
lands, the son of his only sister. 

O'REILLY OF BALLINLOUGH [H.R.E. and Austria 1787]. See O'Reilly, Count. 

O'REILLY [Spain 17]. See O'Reilly, Count. 

O'REILLY. See Nugent. 

O'RouBKE. Count Owen O'Rourke was a well-known General in the armies of 
the Empress Maria Theresa. He was possibly the Owen (Audeonus or 
Eugenius) O'Rourke who was 24 May 1727 cr. by King James III. and VIII. 
BARON O'ROURKE OF CARHA [I.] and 31 July 1731 VISCOUNT OF BREFFNEY 
[I.], 1 having been 18 Apr. 1727 appointed that Prince's Ambassador to the 
Court of Vienna. Count John O'Rourke was a distinguished officer in the 
armies of Russia, Poland and France 1760-80, and another Count Owen 
O'Rourke m. a niece of Gen. de Lacy. 

O'ROURKE. John O'Rourke, a Colonel in the French Service, was Aug. 1773 2 
cr. by King Louis XV. COUNT O'ROURKE (COMTE O'ROURKE) [F.], for himself 
and the heirs male of his body. 

O'ROURKE. Captains John and Cornelius O'Rourke entered the Russian Service 
with the title of Count, and by an Imperial Ukase of 15 Feb. 1760 that title 
was confirmed to them and their descendants. By decree of the Imperial 
Council confirmed by the Emperor Nicholas I. 24 Nov. 1848, the following 
members of this family were authorised to carry in Russia the title of Count : 

(1) Gen. Joseph [Cornelievitch] O'Rourke, with his sons, Major Alexander 
Patrick Felix Cornelius, Lieut. Patrick Anthony Raphael, Lieut. Constantino 
Marcel, Naval Lieut. Michael Lazarus, Nicholas Stephen and Stanislaus Apollon ; 

(2) Cavalry-Capt. Cornelius John Maurice [Gueorguievitch] O'Rourke and his 
sons Eugene Charles Louis, Richard John William, and Rudolph Frederic 
Bernard; and (3) Major- Gen. Waldemar George Raynal O'Rourke and Lieut.- 
Col. Maurice Didier O'Rourke, both sons of George. And by further decrees 
of the Senat Dirigeant of 17 Dec. 1851, 15 July 1857, 3 Oct. 1873, 5 Sep. 1883, 
and 7 Oct. 1885, the following were also recognised as belonging to this family 
and entitled to use in Russia the title of Count (1) Vladimir, Nicholas, and 
Hippolyte, sons of Lieut.-Col. Maurice Didier [Gue"orguievitch] O'Rourke; 
(2) Euvareste, son of Cavalry Capt. Patrick Josefovitch; (3) Nicholas and 
Vladimir, sons of Nicholas Moritsovitch, assesseur de college. 3 

O'ROURKE [F. 1773]. See O'Rourke, Count. 
O'ROURKE [Russia 1760]. See O'Rourke, Count. 

OSBORNE. Francis Godolphin (Osborne), 5th DUKE OF LEEDS [E.], K.G., m. 
29 Nov. 1773 Amelia (nee Darcy), suo jure 9th BARONESS CONYERS [E.] and 
suo jure, de jure 6th COUNTESS OF MERTOLA (CONDESSA DA VILLA DE MERTOLA) 
[Portugal 1668] (see p. 7 1 ), when he became jure uxoris COUNT OF MERTOLA. She 
d. 27 Jan. 1784, and he 31 Jan. 1799. Their only son, George William Frederick, 
6th Duke of Leeds [E.]and 7th Count of Mertola [Portugal], K.G., left an only 
surv. son, Francis Godolphin D'Arcy, 7th Duke of Leeds [E.] and 8th Count 
of Mertola [Portugal], who d. s.p. 4 May 1859, when the Dukedom of Leeds 
passed to his heir male and the right to the Countship of Mertola (as also to 
the Barony of Conyers [E.]) devolved on his nephew and heir general, Sackville 
George Lane Fox. See Lane Fox. 

OSORNO [Spain 1792]. See O'Higgins, Marquess of. 

OSSALINSKY. The Countess Boris Ossalinsky, widow of a Polish nobleman who 
lived for many years at Musgrave Hall, Penrith/where she owned a good deal 
of property, d. at Pembridge Square, Bayswater, Feb. 1901, aged 81. She 
was the da. and heiress of a Yeoman landowner of [? Cumberland] who owned 
Thirlmere Lake and some 850 acres of adjoining land on Armboth Fells. 4 

OSSORNO [Castile c. 1450]. See Fitzjames, Count of. 

O'SULLIVAN. Alphonse Albert Henri O'Sullivan, b. 8 Nov. 1798, was Envoy 
Extrao. and Min. Plen. of Belgium at the Court of Vienna, obtained recog- 

1 Ruvigny's Jacobite Peerage, p. 20 ; also Walker's Hibernian Magazine, 1782, p. 144. 

2 La Noblesse titree de V Empire de Russie, p. 250. 3 Ibid., p. 250. 
4 Ex inform, the Duke of Polignano. 




ARMORIAL BEARINGS OF 
H. E. THE BARON VON PAWEL-RAMMINGEN, K.C.B., K.C.V.O. 



AN ALPHABETICAL LIST 137 

nition of his Nobility from the King of the Netherlands, and was cr. 10 Nov. 
1838 by King Leopold I. BARON O'SULLIVAN DE GRASS DE SEOVAND [Belgium] 
and 15 Oct. 1847 COUNT O'SULLIVAN DE GRASS DE SEOVAND [Belgium]. Still 
existing. 1 See p. 32. 

O'SULLIVAN. James Charles O'Sullivan, dit de Terdick, an Officer in the Grenadier 
Regt. of Los-Rios, and Inspector of Contributions in Brabant, obtained recog- 
nition of his Noblesse by letters patent of Leopold I., King of Belgium, 12 Nov. 
1847. He d. 5 Jan. 1848. 2 

O'SULLIVAN DE GRASS DE SEOVAND [Belgium 1838]. See O'Sullivan, Baron. 

O'SULLIVAN DE GRASS DE SEOVAND [Belgium 1847]. See O'Sullivan, Count. 

OWEN. Hugh Owen [elder son of Col. Hugh Owen, Hussars, K.C.B.A., K.C.T.S. 
(b. in England 27 May 1784, d. 17 Dec. 1860), a British Officer who served in 
the Peninsula War and m. at Oporto 20 Dec. 1820 Dona Maria Ritta (b. at 
Oporto 16 May 1790, d. 25 Mar. 1858), widow of Manuel Velho da Silva and 
da. of Thomaz da Rocha Pinto of Oporto], b. 16 July 1825, was by royal decree 
12 Aug. 1866 cr. by Louis I., King of Portugal, BARON OF THE TOWER OF 
PERO PALHA (BARAO DA TORRE DE PERO PALHA). He m. 24 Feb. 1851 Dona 
Silvia Maria, widow of Francisco Antonio Chichorro do Gama Lobo, da. of 
Major William Nicholas Bull, of the British Army, by his wife Caroline 
Watkyns, and by her, who was b. 3 July 1836 and d. at Monforte 19 Mar. 1877, 
had issue six sons and two das., of whom, however, only two sons (Edward 
Charles, b. 20 Nov. 1854, and Henry Hugh, b. 3 Aug. 1857) and one da. 
(Caroline Mary, b. 21 May 1853, m. 15 Oct. 1879 Dr. Henrique Pinto) survived. 5 



PALACIOS DE LA VALDUERNA [Spain]. See Fitzjames, Viscount of. 

PANAMA. See Groves, p. 93, note 2. 

PARAMA [Spain 1653]. See Walrond, Count of. 

PARAVICINI. James Prior, Baron de Paravicini, d. in London 1869, leaving issue 
3 sons Prior Frederick, b. 1858; Henry Farquhar, b. 1860, m. 25 Dec. 1879 
Alice Elizabeth, widow of Morgan Vane, and da. of H. W. Booth; and Percy 
John de Paravicini, b. 1862, m. 1891 Lady Maria Charlotte Sophia Cholmon- 
deley, and has issue. They have never used the title of Baron. 4 " Rev. the 
Baron de Paravicini " d. at Avening Rectory, Gloucester, 26 Sep. 1897, aged 
81. The Rev. Frederick de Paravicini, Rector of Grateley, Hants, " son of 
the late Baron de Paravicini," m. at St. Mary's Church, Abbotts Ann, 15 Apr. 
1902, Harriet Ella, 3rd da. of the Rev. J. B. Fenwick, Rector of Abbotts Ann, 
Hants. 5 

PARLAND. John Parland was naturalized as a Russian subject and was cr. a 
NOBLE OF RUSSIA by Alexander I. His son John Parland was Capt. in Russian 

Imperial Guards, and m. ( ), da. of William Crawshay of Cyfarthfa Castle, 

and had an only da., Isabel Emily, who m. 1873 Capt. Frederick Cleave Loder- 
Symonds, J.P. of Hinton Manor, Faringdon, Berks. 6 

PATTERSON. Andrew Vincent Patterson of Palacio Foz, Lisbon, an American 
citizen [son of Thomas Patterson, of Cleveland, Ohio, by his wife Anna nee 
Goldsick, both of British origin], was 23 May 1907 cr. by King Charles BARON 
PATTERSON (BARAO DE PATTERSON). See p. 37. 

PATTERSON [Portugal 1907]. See Patterson, Baron. 

PAULIN. Count Paulin was 1706 appointed to command a Huguenot Regiment 

in the English Service, but, together with Lord Lifford, declined to serve under 

the Marquess of Guiscard. 7 

PAWEL-RAMMINGEN. Baron Luitbert Alexander Georg Lionel Alphons von Pawel- 
Rammingen [son and h. of His Excellency Karl Julius August Plato Emil 
von Pawel-Rammingen, b. 12 Dec. 1807, d. 8 July 1886, who was 25 Mar. 

1 Annuaire de la Nob. de Bdgique, 1848, p. 183 ; 1849, p. 209 ; 1887, p. 206. 

2 Ibid., 1848, pp. 183-7. 

3 Reseriha das Familias, ii. 688. 

4 Ex inform. Percy J. de Paravicini. 

5 Stefano Annoni Parravicini, an Italian subject, was naturalized in the United King- 
dom 30 Sep. 1862. 

6 Fox Davies' Armorial Families. 7 Agnew's Protestant Exiles, p. 293. 



138 



THE NOBILITIES OF EUROPE 



1854 cr. by Ernest II. Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha BARON VON PAWEL- 
RAMMINGEN (FREIHERR VON PAWEL-RAMMINGEN), and whose ancestor Konrad 
Pawel had confirmation of his Nobility, together with his nephews, and the 
title and coronet of NOBILITY OF THE HOLY ROMAN EMPIRE, for himself and his 
descendants, from the Emperor Maximilian II. by letters patent dated at 
Prague 20 May 1575] l m. 24 Apr. 1880 H.R.H. the Princess Frederica of 
Great Britain and Ireland and of Hanover, having been naturalized in the 
United Kingdom by Act of Parliament 19 Mar. previously. See p. 18. 
PAWEL-RAMMINGEN [S.C.G. 1854]. See von Pawel-Rammingen, Baron. 
2 

DE PECHELS, now PECHELL. Samuel (de Pechels), 5th BARON OF ST. CRAN BARRE 
and of the BOYSSONNADE [F.] [great-great-grandson of Pierre de Pechels, 
Seigneur de la Boyssonnade, of Montauban in Languedoc, who was 8 Apr. 
1547 cr. by King Henry II. Baron of St. Cran Barr6 and of La Boyssonnade, 3 
with rem. to (?)], fled to England on the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes in 
1685, andd. in Ireland 1732, aged 90. His grandson Lieut.-Col. Paul Pechell, 
de jure 8th BARON, was cr. a Baronet [G.B.] 1 Mar. 1797, and this title is still 
enjoyed by his descendant. See p. 18. 

PENARANDA DE BRACAMONTE [Spain 1608]. See Fitzjames, Duke of. 

PENHAFIRME [Portugal 1853]. See Sartorius, Count of. 

PEPER. See p. 43, note 3. 

PERCHE [F. 1419]. See Montacute, Count of. 

PERCY. Francis Ambroise, COUNT OF PERCY (COMTE DE PERCY), K.S.L., Lieut.- 
Gen. ret., b. 28 Mar. 1768, m. 1821 Josephine de Cheux, and had issue Marie 
de Percy, b. 6 Jan. 1823, m. 26 July 1842 Claude Charles Marie Hestor 
d'Artaud, Comte de la Ferriere. 4 

DE PERRENCOURT DE QUEROUAILLE. Louise Renee de Perrencourt de Querouaille, 
mistress of King Charles II. [who was heir male of the body of Sir John Stuart 
of Darnley, cr. LORD OF AUBIGNY (SEIGNEUR D'AUBIGNY) [F.] 1421], was 
Jan. 1684 cr. by King Louis XIV. DUCHESS OF AUBIGNY (DUCHESSE D'AUBIGNY) 
[F.], with rem.' to Charles Lennox, her illegitimate son by the said King, and 
the heirs male of his body, the Lordship of Aubigny in Berry being erected 
into a Duchy and Peerage in her favour. She had been 19 Aug. 1673 cr. by 
Charles II. DUCHESS OF PORTSMOUTH [E.] for life, and d. at Aubigny 1 Nov. 
1734, when she was succeeded in her French honours by her grandson. See 
Lennox. 

VAN PESTEL. Wilhelm Friedrich van Pestel [said to have been descended from 
Thomas Pestel, "pasteur de la cour de Henri VIII."], 5 was 7 May 1838 cr. 
by King William I. a JONKHEER [Netherlands], with rem. to the heirs male 
of his body in the order of primogeniture. Still existing. See p. 38. 

PESTEL [Netherlands 1838]. See van Pestel, Jonkheer van. 

PFEIFF. See Fife. 

PFEIFF [Sweden 1772]. See Fife, Baron. 

6 

1 Freiherrl. Taschenbuch, 1855, p. 416 ; 1873, p. 484 ; 1882, p. 548. 

2 Col. James Bertrand Payen-Payne, Knight of the Eagle of Este, was about 1896 cr. 
by the Princess Eugenie Cristoforo COUNT OF ZEITEN in the Eastern Empire. He d. ( ), 
leaving issue. 

Charles Paulet Camborne Paynter [son of George William Paynter of Yeovil, M.D.] 
was about 1897 cr. by the Princess Eugenie Cristoforo a COUNT OF THE EASTERN 
EMPIRE as COUNT DE SEGRI, and for some time used that title, but has now discon- 
tinued doing so. 

3 Foster's Baronetage, 1880, p. 457. 

4 ReVerend, 1844, p. 274. 

5 M. Bijleveld, however, remarks: "I don't believe it, and think they are of genuine 
German origin." 



fought in the Revolution of 1830 and afterwards escaped to America,' 
19 July 1895 assumed the title of COUNT DE Mono, and later that of DUKE DE Mono; 
but the Editor has been unable to obtain any particulars as to the nationality or creation 
of this title or of the grounds upon which it was assumed. 



AN ALPHABETICAL LIST 139 

PHILP. William Philp [styled son of the Laird of Fingask and Largo] went to 
Sweden in 1624, became a Lieut. -Col. in the Swedish Service, and having 
produced an autograph letter from King Charles I. certifying his gentle birth 
and lineage, 1 was 1636 recognised by Queen Christina as a NOBLE [Sweden 
No. 242]. 2 Family still existing. See p. 39. 

PICKMAN. Charles Pickman [born in the island of Jersey, son of Richard Pickman 

of Wallenford by his wife, Susanna, da. of ( ) Jones of Farmborg Hall, 

London], Royal Commissioner of Agriculture, Industry, and Commerce in the 
province of Seville, and founder, proprietor, and director of the " Real 
Fabrica de productos ceramicos de La Cartuja de Santa Maria de las 
Caevas," &c., was 24 Sep. 1872 cr. MARQUESS OF PICKMAN (MARQUES DE 
PICKMAN) [Spain] by King Amadeus, with rem. to the heirs of his body. 3 He 
was a G.C.I.C., K.C.C.S., K.C.M.L., K.C.C.P., and d. 4 June 1883. Title 
still existing. See p. 27. 

PICKMAN [Spain 1872]. See Pickman, Marquess of. 
PIEDADE [Portugal 1836]. See Sartorius, Viscount of. 

DE PINON. " Augustin Denis Pinon du Clos, de Valmer, a Capt. in the Lanciers 
de la Garde Roy ale de Charles X., Chevalier de la Legion d'Honneur, Croix 
de Ste. Helene, President of the 'Societe Protectrie des Animaux,' of which 
Society he was one of the founders in France, Mayor for thirty-seven years of 
the Commune of Fontaine le Port" [great-grandson of Simon Pinon, Seigneur 
de St. Simon and Monthuchet, Counsellor in the Parliament of Paris 1636 
and Commissioner of Requests of the Palace, founder of the 4th and (1879) 
only existing branch of this family, who was cr. VISCOUNT OF VALMER (VICOMTE 
DE VALMER) [F.] 1646], 4 was b. 1795 ; m. 1st, Marguerite, 3rd da. of Richard 
Power of Clashmore, M.P., co. Waterford. She d. 1838, and he m. 2ndly, 1847, 
Frances Wyndham, sister to George, 4th Earl of Egremont [G.B.], who d. s.p. 
1870. He d. 1871, and was succeeded by his only son, " Louis Charles Auguste, 
Vicomte Pinon, du Clos, de Valmer," who inherited the lands of Kilmaloo, 
co. Waterford. He m. 1847 Julia Eliza, only da. of Thomas Burslem, Esq., 
of Burslem, co. Stafford, and by her, who d. 1866, had issue two das., Frances 
Augustine and Auguste Marguerite Camille Louisa Eliza. He was living 
1878, and then resident at 60 Gloucester Gardens, Hyde Park, W.* 

PIPER. A family which came to Sweden from Germany [but which is said to 
have been descended from a Scotsman, who, settling in the town of Goteborg 
early in the seventeenth century, was known by the name of Fistulato 
(fistula = Pipe), afterwards Piper], divided into three main branches, 5 the first 6 
(" Tysk att. ; hette afvin forut Piper") 7 was ENNOBLED [Sweden No. 18996] 
by King Charles XL 1679, and cr. BARONS and COUNTS PIPER ("FRIHERRLIG 
och GREFLTG ") [Sweden No. 46] by King Charles XII. 3 Jan. 1698. Still 
existing. See p. 29. 

PIPER [Sweden 1698]. See Piper, Baron and Count. 
PISTOLEKORS. See Scott. 
PLATEN. See Kielmansegge. 
PL^NEUF. See Cuff e. 

PLETTENBERG. See under Mengden, Baroness of. 

PLOWDEN. Conte Carlo Guglielmo Plowden, v. Lucchesi 26, Roma, member of 
the Istituto Araldico Italiano, 8 is probably of English origin. 

PLUNKETT. Jean Alexandre Patrice Joseph Plunkett de Rathmore [grandson of 
Joseph Plunkett of Rathmore, Capt. of Infantry in the Austrian Service and 
Comdt. of Lierre till his death, 31 May 1738, who made a solemn declaration 
that he was " issu en ligne directe de 1'ancienne et illustre maison de Plunkett 
de Rathmore, dans le Comte de Meath, en Irlande, qui a perdu ses biens et 

1 Marryat, ii. 495. 

2 Sveriyes Ridderskaps. 

3 See Annales de la Nobleza de Espaiia, S. F. de Bithencourt, 1887, p. 293 ; 1886, 
p. 253. 

4 SurJce's Peerage, 1879, p. 1347. 

5 The family of Livencrone in Denmark are also descended from the Pipers. Marryat, 
ii. 467. 

6 To this belonged the Count Piper known to all admirers of Charles XII. 

7 Sveriges Ridderskaps. 

8 Calendar d'Oro (Rome, 1900), p. 120. 



HO THE NOBILITIES OF EUROPE 

sa fortune pour le unit6 de la religion et du roi legitime," being son of Patrick 
Plunkett, who followed James II. and VII. to France] was 8 July 1816 cr. by 
King William I. BAKON PLUNKETT OF RATHMORE (BARON PLUNKETT VAN 
RATHMORE) [Netherlands]. He was a member of the "Ordre equestre" in 
Brabant, and d. 21 Nov. 1846, leaving issue a son, Goswin Charles Patrick, 
2nd Baron, living 1849, and 3 das. 1 

PLUNKETT. Thomas, BARON PLUNKETT, Gen. -Major in the Imperial Service, a 
native of the Netherlands, was cr. a K.M.T. 4 Dec. 1758 for his conduct at 
the battle of Kollin. He d. 1779. 2 

PLUNKETT. George Noble Plunkett, of Dublin, Esq., Barrister- at- Law, author of 
various historical works, was 1884 cr. by H.H. Pope Leo XIII. a COUNT OF 
THE PAPAL STATES, as COUNT PLUNKETT (CONTE PLUNKETT), with rem. to the 
heirs male of his body. See p. 16. 

PLUNKETT OF RATHMORE [Netherlands 1816]. See Plunkett, Baron. 

PLUNKETT [P.S. 1884]. See Plunkett, Count. 

POMAR [P.S. 1879]. See Sinclair, Duchess of. 

POMARAO [Portugal 1866]. See Mason, Baron of. 

PONZA [Two Sicilies]. See Napier, said to have been Count of. 

PORCELLI. Alfredo Salvator Ruggiero Andrea (Porcelli), BARON PORCELLI OF ST. 
ANDREA (BARONE PORCELLI DI SANT' ANDREA), K.M.L., K.C.I., a Colonel in 
the Italian Army and Inspector of the Royal Palace at Caserta 1867-70 
[descended from the ancient Provengal family of Porcellets, whose chief seat was 
at Aries, and which is stated to have been descended from Count Diego Porcellos 
of Castile, whose descendant Raynulphe de Porcellet, one of the chief Barons 
of Provence, emigrated first to Florence and then (c. 1171) to Gubbio, and 
became a noted Ghibelline leader. He was ancestor of the two principal 
branches, the elder known as Porcelli di Carbonana, which became extinct oh 
the death of Count Domenico Porcelli-Rafaelli of Gubbio in 1886, and the 
younger as Porcelli di St. Andrea from the island fortress in Umbria formerly 
held in feudo by them, who established themselves in Calabria and Sicily in the 
eighteenth century], m. at Palermo 2 Apr. 1848 Anne Sarah, da. of Reginald 
George Macdonald of Clanronald by his first wife the Lady Caroline Anne 
Edgcumbe, and had issue who settled in England. See p. 18. 

POVOLERI. See Mathew. 

PORTER. Lieut.-Gen. George Porter, M.P. for Stockbridge, and Col. 103rd Regt. 
[2nd but only surv. son of Sir James Porter, F.R.S., H.B.M.'s Ambassador at 
the Ottoman Porte 1745-1762, and afterwards Minister to the Court of Brussels, 
by his wife Baroness Clarissa Catharine, eldest da. and in her issue (6 Feb. 
1819) sole h. of Baron Elbert de Hochepied, Ambassador from the States 
General to the Porte, 2nd son of Daniel John de Hochepied, Minister from 
the States General to the Porte in 1698, who having been instrumental in 
arranging the Peace of Carlo witz, 26 Jan. 1698, and obtaining the release of 
many Christian slaves from Turkish servitude, was by letters patent under 
the Great Seal of Hungary, dated at Vienna 8 Apr. 1704, cr. by the Emperor- 
King Leopold I. a BARON and MAGNAT [Hungary], with rem. to his descendants 
male and female], became by the death of his cousin-german, Hugo Balthazar 
Samuel George, 6th Baron Hochepied, 6 Feb. 1819, representative of the junior 
branch of this family, whereupon he assumed by Royal License 6 May 1819 
the surname and arms of de Hochepied and obtained by another Royal 
License dated 27 Sep. 1819 permission for himself and his two nephews John 
James and George Gerard Larpent to bear the title of BARON DE HOCHEPIED 
[Hungary] in the United Kingdom. He d. s.p. 25 Mar. 1828, when he was 
sue. by the son of his sister, his aforesaid nephew, John James Larpent. See 
Larpent. 

PORTEUS. See p. 43, note 3. 

POTT. A family descended from John Pott, Lieut.-Col. in Hugo Hamilton's Regt., 
was ENNOBLED in Sweden under the designation of Armlod in 1649. Extinct. 3 

PRESTON. The Hon. James Philip Preston [2nd son of the 10th Viscount Gor- 
manston[L] ] " fut recu le 19 Oct. 1784, pair de la noble salle de Curange puis 
inscrit dans la noblesse des Pays-Bas avec le titre de Comte transmissible par 

1 Nob. de Belgique, 1849, pp. 179-183. 

2 Ibid., 1864, p. 283. 3 Marryat. 



AN ALPHABETICAL LIST 141 

ordre de primogeniture, et fit partie de 1'ordre equestre du Limburgh, a la 
primiere nomination des membres de ce corps 1816." He d. at Schoonbeck, 
Limburg, 25 Apr. 1823. His son Edward Louis, 2nd Count of Preston, b. at 
Liege 13 Sep. 1783, celebrated his 100th year 13 Sep. 1883. 1 

PRESTON [Netherlands 1784]. See Preston, Count of. 

PRIMROSE. Henry Primrose, Major of Infantry [son of John Primrose, otherwise 
Primeroos, a merchant in Stockholm], having proved his descent, was ENNOBLED 
[Sweden No. 640] by Queen Christina 1653. He d. s.p.m. 1669. 2 

PROFUMO. Joseph (Profumo), 3rd BARON PROFUMO [son and h. of Pietro, 2nd 
Baron Profumo, sometime principal secretary to Count Cavour, and grandson 
of Antonio Profumo, Cavaliere, Commendatore, a Member of the Senate, 
President of the Tribunal of Commerce, and three times Syndic of Genoa, 
who was 30 Nov. 1843 cr. by King Charles Albert BARON PROFUMO (BARONE 
PROFUMO) [Sardinia], with rem. to the heirs male of his body], came to England 
in 1850 to complete his education and settled here, being naturalized as a 
British subject 30 Sep. 1885. See p. 21. 

PROFUMO [Sardinia 1843]. See Profumo, Baron. 

PUISSAR [F. a. 1685], See Le Vasseur-Cougnee, Marquess of. 

DE PULLY. William Enguerrand, COUNT DE PULLY, of Elton, co. Notts, b. 1823, 
eldest son of the Count de Pully of Belabre, France, by Mary, sister of William 
Fletcher Norton of Elton, sue. his uncle in that estate 1866, and was naturalized 
in the United Kingdom as " Enguerrand, Compte de Pully," 14 May 1867. He 
sold Elton in 19 to Lord Grantley. 

Q 

QUARLES. William Quarles [descended from William Quarles, Lord of the Barony 
of Quarles, who came in 1420 from Scotland and settled in Northamptonshire, 
where he m. Catherine Ufford of the family of the Earls of Suffolk, and great- 
grandson of John Quarles, b. in London 1594, a Gentleman of the Privy 
Chamber to the Princess Elizabeth, afterwards Queen of Bohemia, who came to the 
Netherlands with her court 1625, and settled in Rotterdam, where he d. 12 May 
1662, having m. there 31 Oct. 1628 Petronella, da. of Gerard van Berckel, 
who d. there 1 Dec. 1648] was by letters patent of the Emperor Charles VI., 
dated 14 Oct. 1751, cr. a BARON OF THE HOLY ROMAN EMPIRE as BARON 
QUARLES OF QUARLES (FREIHERR QUARLES VON QUARLES), with rem. to the 
heirs male of his body. His son Pierre Guillaume Louis, 2nd BARON QUARLES 
DE QUARLES, was ENROLLED among the Dutch Nobility under the same title 
16 Sep. 1815. Title still existing. See p. 34. 

QUARLES. Mr. Willen Quarles van Ufford, b. 1751, d. 1826 [descended from 
Loderwyk Quarles van Ufford, yr. brother of William, 1st Baron Quarles of 
Quarles [H.R.E.], see above], was 16 Sep. 1816 cr. by King William I. a 
JONKHEER [Netherlands], for himself and his descendants. Title still existing. 
See p. 38. 

QUARLES VON QUARLES [H.R.E. 1751], See Quarles, Baron. 
QUARLES VAN QUARLES [Netherlands 1815]. See Quarles, Baron. 
QUARLES VAN UFFORD [Netherlands 1816]. See Quarles, Jonkheer. 
DE QUEROUAILLE. See de Perrencourt. 

DU QUESNE. Henry (du Quesne), 2nd MARQUESS DU QUESNE [F. 1648], a Capt. 
in the French R.N. [son and heir of the celebrated French Admiral, Abraham 
(du Quesne), 1st Marquess du Quesne, 3 who, as a special mark of his esteem 
and in recognition of his great services, had a grant from Louis XIV. of 
300,000 livres to purchase the estate of Bouchet, near Estampes, which was 
erected by letters patent dated May 1648 into a MARQUES SATE for himself and 
his descendants under the name of DU QUESNE, and who d. in Paris 2 Feb. 

1 Noblesse de Belgique, 1868, pp. 290-295 ; 1884. A copy of Debrett's Peerage for 1814, 
"with book tickets of the Comte de Preston," was advertised for 6s. 

2 Donner, p. 36. Marryat (ii. 495) says that it was the father John who was ennobled 
in 1650. 

3 On the monument erected to his memory by his son at Aubonne, in Berne, he is 
described as " Abraham du Quesne, Marchionis, Baronis, Dominique [sic] du Quesne, de 
Walgrand, de Quervicard, d'Indrette, &c." 



142 THE NOBILITIES OF EUROPE 

1688], was a Huguenot refugee in England, and was appointed Lieut, and 
Lieut.-Col. 1st Troop of Horse Grenadier Guards 1718. He d. unm. at Geneva 
11 Nov. 1722. He had three brothers, Capt. Abraham du Quesne, French R.N., 
who d. a refugee in England, leaving a son Gabriel de jure 3rd MAEQUESS, 
who in 1725-6 was Commissioner of Fortifications in the British Service at 
Port Royal, Jamaica, and was living 1735 in Old Bond Street, London, having 
m. Elizabeth, da. of Sir Roger Bradshaugh, Bt., by whom he had a son, the 
Rev. Thomas Roger du Quesne, Prebendary of Ely and Vicar of East 
Tuddengam, co. Norfolk, who d. s.p. 1793, aged 76 ; Isaac du Quesne, a French 
Naval Officer, d. in Paris 1745 ; and Count Jacob du Quesne, Capt. French R.N., 
who m., and d. at San Domingo 1740. 1 

DU QUESNE [F. 1648]. See du Quesne, Marquess. 

R 

RAINEVAL [F. 1622]. See de Massue de Ruvigny, Marquess of. 

RAM. See p. 43, note 3. 

RAMADIER DE LORMET. See de Lormet. 

RAMIREZ DE ARELLANO [Spain 1903]. See Heaven, Count of. 

RAMSAY. Major-Gen. John Ramsay, who served first in France, went to Sweden 
and produced proofs of his Nobility from Bishop David of Brechin 1623, 2 
and was naturalized and admitted as a NOBLE [Sweden No. 215] by Queen 
Christina 14 July 1634, and introduced into House of Lords the following 
year. His five sons all fell in action in the Swedish Service. His descendants 
" Dennes sonsons sonson " Generallojtnanten och landshofdingen Anders 
Henrik Ramsay was 3 Nov. 1766 cr. a BARON (FRIHERR RAMSAY) [Sweden] 
by Adolphus Frederick. This title is extinct. The noble line survives, however, 
and after the separation its representative, Frederic Adolph Ramsay [b. 23 Jan. 
1777, son of Major Christian Wilhelm Ramsay] was ENROLLED in the Finnish 
Riddarhus [No. 17] 7 Feb. 18 18. 3 

RAMSAY. Ledamoten af Rikskonseljen, Generaladjutanten Anders Edvard Ramsay, 
a distinguished Officer [a Cadet of the above family], was 7 Sep. 1856 cr. by the 
Grand-Duke Alexander II. BARON RAMSAY (FRIHERRE RAMSAY) [Finland 
No. 40], with rem. to the heirs male of his body, and took his seat in the 
Finnish House of Nobles the following year. 4 His son George Edward, 2nd 
Baron Ramsay, Major-General, served in the Turkish War of 1877 as Com- 
mander of the Finnish Guards Battalion during Gen. Gurko's passage across 
the Balkans, and is at present Commander-in-Chief of the Finnish Army. 5 

RAMSAY [Sweden 1766]. See Ramsay, Baron. 
RAMSAY [Finland 1856]. See Ramsay, Baron. 
READING. See p. 43, note 3. 

REDING. Family originally of English origin, settled in Switzerland and Bavaria 
[of whom was Rudolph Reding, landmann of Schwitz in 1375], cr. BARONS OF 
THE HOLY ROMAN EMPIRE 21 Sep. 1688. Aloys Reding, Baron de Reding de 
Biberegg, landmann of Schwitz, was cr. COUNT DE REDING DE BIBEREGG [F.] by 
letters patent dated 19 Jan. 1818. 6 See p. 31. 

REDING OF BIBEREGG [F. 1818]. See Reding, Count. 

REDING OF BIBEREGG [H.R.E. 1688]. See Reding, Baron. 

REEDE. See p. 43, note 3. 

VAN REEDE. Godert (van Reede), BARON VAN REEDE, commonly called BARON 
VAN GiNKEL, 7 of Amerongen in the province of Utrecht, a member of the 
House of Nobles of that province, and a Gen. of Cavalry in the Service of the 
States General [son of the Baron of Amerongen and b. at Utrecht 8 ], accom- 

1 La Chenaye des Bois, xvi. 611. 

2 Marryat, ii. 

3 Ex inform. M. 0. Wasastjerna. 

4 "Blef 1856 7/9 upphojd i friherrlig vardighet och 1857, introducerad under n:o40." 
Findlands Ridderskaps, 1897, p. 349. 

5 Donner, p. 14. 

6 Titres de la Restauration, vi. 37. 

7 He was naturalized as Baron de Ginkel, and is so styled in the patent cr. him Earl 
of Athlone. 

8 Preamble to Act of Naturalization. 



AN ALPHABETICAL LIST 143 

panied William of Orange to England, and was appointed Lieut. -Gen. and 
Commander-in-Chief of the Army in Ireland ; being naturalized by Act of 
Parliament 24 Feb. 1692, 1 and 4 Mar. following cr. BARON OF AUGHRIM, co. 
Galway, and EARL OF ATHLONE, co. Roscommon [I.], with rem. to the heirs male 
of his body. He was subsequently Commander-in-Chief of the Allied Armies 
in Flanders, and Veldt-Marshal of the Armies of the States General, and d. at 
Utrecht 11 Feb. 1702/3. His descendants, though Irish Peers, continued to 
reside in Holland, where they were members of the Utrecht College of Nobles, 
and were never naturalized as British subjects, although Frederick Christian 
Bhynhart, 6th Earl of Athlone [I.], Baron von Ginkell [Netherlands], when he 
accompanied the Stadtholder to England, was allowed 10 Mar. 1795 to take 
his seat in the Irish House of Lords. 2 This same Earl of Athlone (b. 1743, d. 
1808) is stated to have been cr. a COUNT OF THE HOLY ROMAN EMPIRE. 3 
The male line of the family became extinct 21 May 1844, on the death of 
William Gustavus Frederick, 10th Earl of Athlone [I.], 5th COUNT [H.R.E.], 
and BARON [Netherlands] GINKELL, when all his honours became extinct. 

RETHEL D'ARAGON. See Grenville-Murray, Count of. 

REUTER. Paul Julius Ruyter or Reuter, founder of Reuter's News Agency, a 
Prussian subject, was naturalized in the United Kingdom 17 Mar. 1857, and 
was by letters patent dated 7 Sep. 1871 cr. by Duke Ernest II. BARON REUTER 
(FREIHERR VON REUTER) [S.C.G.], with rem. to all his male descendants and 
their issue. He obtained Royal License to use the title in the United Kingdom 
7 Nov. 1891. See p. 22. 

DE REUTER [S.C.G. 1871]. See Reuter, Baron. 

DE RIBERA. Paul Montalto (de Ribera), 6th BARON OF SAINT PAUL (BARONE DI 
SAN PAOLINO) [Sicily] [a descendant of Matteo de Ribera, who was 16 July 
1638 cr. by the President and Capt. -General of Sicily in the name of Philip IV., 
King of Spain and Sicily, BARON OF ST. PAUL (BARONE DI SAN PAOLINO) in 
Sicily, with rem. to the heirs male of his body, sue. his cousin as 4th Baron of 
Benuarrat [Malta 1737], when he became a British subject. Both titles are 
now held by his descendant. See pp. 18, 213. 

RICALDONI [Mantua 1620]. See Gandolfi, Count of. 

RICE. James Rice [grandson of Dominick Rice of Ballymacdoyle by his wife 
Ellen, 4 da. of John Fagan of Feltrim, co. Dublin (who d. 1683)] was a COUNT 
OF THE HOLY ROMAN EMPIRE. S 

RIVAROLA. COUNT FRANCIS RIVAROLA, Major-General in the Army and Col. of the 
Royal Malta Fencible Regiment, had Royal License from Queen Victoria to 
accept and wear in the United Kingdom the insignia of a Knight Commander 
of SS. Maurice and Lazarus 6 9 Aug. 1839. 7 

ROBECK [Sweden 1750], See Fock, Baron de. 

ROBERTSON. James Robertson [son of Patrick Robertson of Struan and Elizabeth 
his wife], went to Sweden in 1615, and was appointed Court Physician to 
Gustavus Adolphus. In 1630 he obtained letters from King Charles I. 
certifying the Nobility of his family in Scotland, and in 1635 he was accordingly 
recognised as a NOBLE [Sweden No. 231] and admitted into the House of Lords. 
His son d. s.p. after 1660, when the family became extinct. 8 

DE ROBILLARD. Josias (de Robillard), SEIGNEUR DE CHAMPAGNE in Saintonge, 
Chevalier, a Huguenot refugee, came to England as an Officer in the Prince 
of Orange's Army 1688, and d. at Belfast 1689. He m. Marie, da. of Casimir 
(de la Rochefoucauld), Lorddes Touches, who d. at Portarlington 14 Feb. 1730, 
and had issue 3 sons and four das. 9 

AF ROBSAHM. See Robson. 

ROBSON. Family of Scottish origin [said to be descended from James Robson, who 

1 3 'and 4 William and Mary, chap. 21. 

2 G. E. C.'s Complete Peerage, i. 179. 

3 Ibid. 

4 Burke's Landed Gentry of Ireland, 1904, p. 177. 

5 Ibid. 

6 A Countess Riverola resides at 89 "West Cliff Road, Ramsgate, but an application for 
information has been unsuccessful. 

7 London Gazette. ' 

8 Marryat, ii. 495 ; Donner, p. 36. 9 Agnew, p. 177. 



H4 THE NOBILITIES OF EUROPE 

fled from Scotland in Queen Mary's time and amassed a large fortune by 
mining in Sweden x ] ENNOBLED [Sweden No. 2265] by King Charles XIV. 
in 1818, under the designation of " AT ROBSON," and introduced into House 
of Nobles 1819. Still existing. See p. 42. 

ROBSON. Major Carl Reinhold Robson [b. 1788, of the same family as the pre- 
ceding] was ENNOBLED [Sweden No. 2281] by King Charles XIV. in 1818 under 
the name " AF ROBSAHM " 2 He d. s.p.m. 1860. 

ROCQUEFORT [F. 1687]. See du Mesniel, Marquess of. 

ROEDA [Portugal 1872]. See Fladgate, Baron of. 

VON ROEMEB. Karl William, BARON VON ROEMER, of Stuttgardt, British subject, 3 
d. ( ). His widow, Baroness Clementina von Roemer, 3 was of Sandrock, 
St. Helen's, Hastings, and d. 2 May 1889, her will being proved by (among 
others) Charles Henry von Roemer, Esq., son, 13 Aug. 1889.* The said Charles 
Henry von Roemer, only son, m. at Seddlescomb Church, 4 Aug. 1886, Mary 
Catherine, only da. of B. H. Combe, Esq., of Oaklands, Battle, 5 and the wife 
of Baron C. H. von Roemer had a son b. at 32 Weymouth Street, Portman 
Place, 27 May 1887. 6 

ROLF. " Frederick, BARON CORVO " was the style for some time assumed by Mr. 
Frederick William Serafino Austin Lewis Mary Rolf, and was the Tekhnilcnyn 
(trade-name) under which he published certain works of art and letters. 
He has, however, now discarded this designation. 7 

RONCE [F. 1712]. See O'Donnoghue, Marquess of the. 

R5NNOW. See Dunbar. 

ROOKE. Family of English origin [descended from ( ) Rooke, who went to 

Sweden with Gen. Leslie's troop in Gustavus Adolphus' reign] 8 ENNOBLED 
in Germany by the Emperor Francis I. 1773 and naturalized and ENNOBLED 
[Sweden No. 2096] by King Gustavus III. under the designation of von Rook 9 
1773 and introduced into House of Lords 1776. The male line is extinct, 10 
but daughters of the last representative still survive. 

ROSENTWIST. See Twist. 

Ross. General War Commissioner Alexander Ross of the Danish Army [whose 
mother was of the Scottish Noble family of Ross of Balnagown] u was ENNOBLED 
[Denmark] by letters patent of King Christian VII. 12 June 1782. Family 
still existing. See p. 42. 

Ross. Herman Ross [son of Isaac Ross, a Judge at Osterbotten, descended from 
William Ross, a Scottish merchant in Wasa under Gustavus Adolphus] was 
cr. a NOBLE [Finland] by the Emperor-Grand-Duke Alexander I. 1819, but 
did not trouble to take his seat in the House of Peers. 12 

ROTHSCHILD. Nathan Meyer Rothschild, afterwards de Rothschild of Frankfort 
and London, banker (b. 19 Sep. 1777), was naturalized in the United Kingdom 

1 Marryat, ii. 497 ; Donner, p. 11. 

2 Sveriges RiddersTcaps, 1854, p. 567. 

3 Preamble to the Act of Parliament re -naturalizing his da. Justina Clementina von 
Roemer, otherwise Boeheim (b. at South Lambeth 10 Dec. 1852), sometime wife of 
Constantine Baron von Giittlingen, and afterwards of Richard Boeheim, 25 Aug. 1894 ; 
57 and 58 Viet, No. 281. 

* The Times, 7 Oct. 1889. 

5 The Times, Aug. 1886. 

6 Ibid. 

7 The choice of this style was somewhat unfortunate, inasmuch as it is the title of a 
well-known Portuguese family, Manuel Elvares do Souto Guedes da Silva, K.C.C.P., 
having been cr. Baron Corvo (Barao do Corvo) by Maria II. 27 July 1852, and his 
son Manuel Albes having had this title renewed and confirmed to him by decree of 
28 Dec. 1871, followed by a charter of 16 May 1872 (Rtgist. no Arch, da T. do T. Chancd. 
de D. Luiz I., liv. 20, fl. 244 v.). 

8 Marryat, ii. 496. 

"Skall harstamma fran England; hette fdrut Rook; tysk adel med namnet 
von Rook." 

10 " Utgangen p& manssidan 1889." 

11 " Hvis moder var af den skotske Adelsskegt Ross af Balnagown." DanmarTcs Adels 
Aarbog, 1906, p. 372. 

12 Donner, p. 37. See also p. 237 of this work, note 1. 



AN ALPHABETICAL LIST 145 

by letters patent of denization dated 12 June (44 Geo. III.) 1804, and by 
imperial letters patent dated at Vienna 29 Sep. 1822 was cr. by the Emperor 
Francis I. BARON ROTHSCHILD (FREIHERR VON ROTHSCHILD) [Austria], with 
rem. to his male descendants and their issue. Still existing. See p. 20. 

ROTHSCHILD [Austria 1822]. See Rothschild, Baron. 

DE ROTTENBURGH. Lieut.-Gen. Sir Francis de Rottenburgh, called Baron de 
Rottenburgh, 1 had an only da. Fanny, m. 22 Jan. 1827 Lord William Paget. 
George Frederick, Baron de Rottenburg, C.B., a Mil. Knt. of Windsor, Col. 
100th Regt., b. 1807, d. 11 Feb. 1894; his wife d. 15 July 1891. 2 

ROUAULT. See de Bucy. 

ROYE [F.]. See de La Rochefoucauld, Count of. 

RUMFORD [H.R.E. 1790]. See Thompson, Count of. 

RUSHBROOKE. Capt. William Henry Rushbrooke, of Cosford, co. Surrey, and 
Whitepoint, co. Cork, J.P. [eldest son of Comm. William Henry Rushbrooke, 
R.N., who was second son of Col. Robert Rushbrooke of Rushbrooke Park, 
co. Suffolk, M.P., J.P., D.L., of a very old Suffolk family] was 20 July 1892 
cr. by H.H. Pope Leo XIII. a COUNT OF THE PAPAL STATES as COUNT RUSH- 
BROOKE (CONTE RUSHBROOKE) for life, in recognition of services in connection 
with the restoration of Queenstown Cathedral. See p. 16. 

RUSHBROOKE [P.S. 1892]. See Rushbrooke, Count. 

RUSSELL. Thomas John Russell, heir male of the Barons of Killough, co. Down, 
was by letters patent dated 22 Aug. 1862 cr. by H.H. Pope Pius IX. a Count 
of Rome as COUNT RUSSELL (CONTE RUSSELL) [P.S.], with rem. to the heirs 
male of his body. The title is now held by his son. 3 See p. 15. 

RUSSELL [P.S. 1862]. See Russell, Count. 

RUSTANO [P.S. 1753]. See Bandini, Marquess of. 

RUTHERFORD. Robert Rutherford, Russian agent in Livorno and Tuscany, was 
by an Imperial Ukase of 6 Feb. 1777 cr. by the Empress Catherine II. a 
BARON OF THE RUSSIAN EMPIRE as BARON RUTHERFORD, with rem. to his 
descendants, and had at the same time confirmation of his Arms. 4 

RUTHERFORD [Russia 1777]. See Rutherford, Baron. 

RUTHVEN. Sir Patrick Ruthven, Governor of Ulm and a Lieut.-Gen. in the Swedish 
Service under Gustavus Adolphus, by whom he was knighted 23 Sep. 1627, 
was Apr. 1632 cr. COUNT OF KIRCHBERG (GRAF VON KIRCHBERG) in Germany. 5 
He was afterwards 27 Mar. 1642 cr. EARL OF FORTH [S.] and 27 May 1644 
EARL OF BRENTFORD [E.]. He d. s.p.m. 2 Feb. 1651, when all his honours 
became extinct. 

DE RUTZEN. Charles Frederick (de Rutzen), BARON DE RUTZEN, was of Slebeck 
Park, co. Pembroke, and was presumably a British subject, but the origin 
or nationality of his title is unknown to the Editor. He has at least two 
surviving sons, Rudolph William Henry Erard, Baron de Rutzen, of Slebeck 
Park, B.A. Camb., Barrister Inner Temple, 1864, a J.P. and (1895) High 
Sheriff, co. Pembroke, who sue. his elder brother in the title 1890, 6 and Sir 
Albert de Rutzen, B.A., J.P., D.L., Chief Magistrate of the Metropolitan Police 
Courts since 1901. 

RUVIGNY [F. 1651]. See de Massue, Marquess of. 

DE RUVYNES. See de Massue de Ruvigny. 



SACAVEN [Portugal 1885]. See Howorth, Baron Howorth of. 

SADLER. Philip Sadler was ENNOBLED [Sweden] 1640, but never took his seat. 

See p. 43, note 3. 
SAINT ANTHONY. Francis Platamone, COUNT SAINT ANTONIO, 2nd son of the Duke 

of Cannizzarro and Rosalio Moncada Larderia, Duchess of Cannizzarro, his 

1 Burke's and Foster's Peerages. 

2 See The Times, July 1891, 12 Feb. 1894, &c. 

3 Burke's Peerage, p. 2043. * La Noblesse titree de la Russie, p. 250. 

5 G. E. C.'s Complete Peerage, ii. 19. It is not stated by whom he was cr., however. 

6 Watford's County Families. 



146 THE NOBILITIES OF EUROPE 

wife, b. at Palermo, of the Protestant faith, 1 was naturalized as a British 
subject by Act of Parliament 4 May 18 14. 2 

ST. BAUSSANT [Lorraine 1723]. See de Thierry, Baron of. 

ST. CLAIR. Charles Ferdinand, BARON DE ST. CLAIR, K.L.H., a noted French 
Officer, was Col. of Cavalry in 1820, and in his book " Aux bords du Rhin, 
dans 1'armee de Conde, en Angleterre, aux Antilles, en Hollande, en Egypte, 
en Italie, en Espagne, en Portugal, en Russie et en Allemagne," states that 
he was the son of " Charles Gedeon, Baron de St. Clair, Colonel Commandant 
le regiment royal Suedois, 3 qui apres avoir consacre sa vie au service des rois 
de France, fut sacrifie a Dijon le 29 Janvier 1793 ; victime de son devouement 
pour Louis XVI.," and the grandson of Jean, Sire de St. Clair, who had to/ leave 
Scotland after the '45. 

ST. CRAN BARRE [F. 1547]. See de Pechels, Baron of. 

ST. ESTEBAN DE GoRMAZ [Spain]. See Fitzjames, Count of. 

ST. GEORGE. Alexander Henry Augustus John, COUNT DE ST. GEORGE, " son 
of Gabriel Henry, Count de St. George, and Caroline his wife, b. at Chardonnay, 
Canton de Vaud," and a Protestant, 4 was naturalized as a British subject by 
Act of Parliament 19 July 1839. 5 

ST. GEORGE. BARON, one of the titles borne by Bernard (Stuart), LORD D'AUBIGNY, 
DUKE OF TERRANUOVA. 

ST. HIPPOLYTE [H.R.E. 1706]. See de Montolieu, Barons of. 

ST. JOHN [P.S. 18 ]. See Garvey or O'Garvey, Marchioness of. 

ST. LEONARDO [Spain]. See Fitzjames, Marquess of. 

ST. MINIATO [Tuscany 1846]. See de Lousada, Marquess of. 

ST. MONICA [Portugal 1876]. See O'Neill, Viscount of. 

ST. PAUL (SAN PAOLINO) [Sicily 1638]. See de Ribera, Baron of. 

ST. PAUL. Horace Saint Paul of Ewart Park, co. Midx., and Chertsey, co. Surrey 
[son and h. of Robert Paul of Ewart Park, co. Midx., Esq., J.P., D.L., F.R.S., 
whose widow assumed (Act Parl. 29 Jan. 1768) the additional surname of 
Saint before Paul], having served with great distinction in the Imperial Armies 
during the Seven Years' War, was 20 July 1759 cr. by the Emperor Francis I. 
a COUNT OF THE HOLY ROMAN EMPIRE as COUNT OF ST. PAUL (GRAF VON 
ST. PAUL), for himself and his descendants; and his children, Horace David 
Cholwell, 2nd Count, Count Henry Heneage, Count Charles Maximilian, and 
Countess Anna Maria, had Royal License 7 Sep. 1812, for themselves and for 
their descendants " upon whom the dignity of Count of the Holy Roman 
Empire shall have devolved or shall devolve in virtue of the imperial letters 
patent," to avail themselves of the said honour, assume and use the title 
thereof in the United Kingdom, and bear the armorial ensigns annexed thereto. 
The said 2nd Count was cr. a Baronet [U.K.] 17 Nov. 1813, and his only son, 
the 3rd Count, Sir Horace St. Paul, 2nd Bt., d. s.p.m. 1891, when the Baronetcy 
became extinct, as did also presumably the Countship of the Empire. He 
left an [only da., Countess Maria St. Paul, who m. 19 Jan. 1893 George Grey 
Butler/Esq., F.R.G.S., J.P., and d. 26 Apr. 1901, leaving issue. See Butler. 

ST. PAUL [H.R.E. 1759]. See St. Paul, Count of. 
ST. QUENTIN [F. c. 1470]. See Stuart, Lord of. 

DE SALES. Fenwick Bulmer de Sales la Terriere, Capt. 18th Hussars, Knight of 
the Medjidie, b. 1856 [only son of Fenwick de Sales la Terriere], claims to be 
Count of Sales de St. Salvy, of Bonneval in Albigeois, province of Languedoc.' 

DE SALIS, now (R.L. Dec. 1835) FANE DE SALIS. Jerome (de Salis), 2nd COUNT OF 
SALES [son and h. of Peter de Salis of Soglio in the Grisons (whose ancestors 
had been cr. Hereditary Knights by Pope Pius V. 1571), Minister Plen. and 
Envoy Extraor. from the Grisons to Queen Anne in 1709, who was 12 Mar. 1748 
cr. by the Emperor Francis I. a COUNT OF THE HOLY ROMAN EMPIRE as COUNT 

1 Preamble to Act. 

2 54 Geo. III., chap. 10. 

3 He was apparently a different person from the Charles Gedeon, Baron Sinclair 
[Sweden], who was also Col. of this Regiment, but had no issue. See p. 152. 

4 Preamble to Act of Parliament. 

6 2 and 3 Viet., chap 61. 6 Armorial Families, p. 741. 



AN ALPHABETICAL LIST 147 

OF SALIS (GRAF VON SALIS), with rem. to the heirs male of his body and the 
title of Count for all his male descendants and of Countess for their daughters 
for life], was naturalized by Act of Parliament 24 Mar. 1730. His grandson 
Jerome, 4th Count, obtained Royal License for himself and his descendants 
to use the title in the United Kingdom 4 Apr. 1809. See p. 13. 

SALIS-SOGLIO [H.R.E. 1748]. See de Salis, Count of. 

DE SAM VET. " Jean Franois Louis Marie Marguerite de Salivet de Courtenay, 
COUNT DE FOUCHECOUB and DE SAUVET, VISCOUNT DE BLOMCHAMPS AND DU 
BOIBE, son of Jean ffran^ois Ignace de Salivet de Courtenay, Count de 
ffouchecour, and Marie Marguerite [Sebastian] his [1st] wife, b. at Castle of 
ffouchecour inffranche comte, professing the Protestant faith," was naturalized 
by Act of Parliament 20 May 1812. 1 He belonged to a family originally of 
Besancon ENNOBLED 1531, of whom Francis Marquis took the name of de 
Salivet in accordance with the will of an uncle. His descendant, Claude Francis 
Marquis, dit de Salivet, acquired the terre of Fouchecourt some time in the 
latter half of the seventeenth century, and was grandfather of the John Francis 
Ignatius named above. 2 

SALMON. A family of this name was ENNOBLED [Sweden] 1745, but never took their 
seat. See p. 43, note 3. 

SALTEB. Joao Antonio Salter-de-Mendonca, P.C., K.C.P., Secretary of State to 
King John VI. [b. 15 Aug. 1746, only son and h. of George Salter-de-Mendonca, 
a Gentleman of the Royal Household, and third in descent from Antonio 
Salter, K.C.P., by his wife Antonia, da. and h. of Vasco Nabo de Mendonca, 
Fidalgo da Casa Real, which Antonio, bapt. at Santa Maria Magdalena, Lisbon, 
21 Oct. 1652, was the son of Edward Salter, "Fidalgo da Casa Real de Inglaterra," 
who settled in Portugal with his father John 3 ], was by a decree of 13 May 1819, 
followed by a charter of 22 June 1820, cr. by King John VI. VISCOUNT OF 
AZUBABA (VISCONDE D'AZUBABA) [Portugal], for himself and his next heir, 
" em duas vidas." * He d. s.p.s.l. 14 June 1825. He had two illegitimate children, 
Jorge (b. 20 May 1804) and Helena Carolina (b. 5 Apr. 1806), who were 
legitimated by an Alvard of 6 Feb. 1809, and the former of whom, by a 
resolution of 9 Nov. 1824, followed by a charter of 12 Apr. 1825, was named 
successor to his father's title. 5 He was a K.C.P., and Col. of the Lisbon 
Militia, and d. s.p. 10 Dec. 1872, having m. 22 Sep. 1839 Donna Maria 
Henriqueta, 2nd da. of Jose Sebastio (de Saldanha-Oliveira), 1st Count of 
Alpedrinha [Portugal 1854], who survived him, and was living in 1889. 

SALVATIEBBA [Castile a. 1472]. See Fitzjames, Count of. 

SAMUEL. Denis Samuel, of London, banker, K.C.R.B., " subdito de S.M. 
Britannica," 6 was by decree of the 14 Sep. 1855, confirmed by letters patent 
of 27 Nov. following, cr. by the King Regent, Ferdinand II., in the name 
of his son, King Peter V., BABON DENIS SAMUEL (BABAO DE DINIZ SAMUEL) 
[Portugal] for life, " em sua vida." He was b. 1 Oct. 1782, m. 10 Dec. 1834 
Amelia, da. of S. M. Samuel, and d. 10 Aug. 1860, when the title became 
extinct. He had issue Arthur Samuel, b. 31 Jan. 1837 ; Frank Denis (see 
next entry) ; and Louisa Esther, wife of the 2nd Baron de Worms. His widow, 
the Baroness Diniz Samuel, m. 2ndly, 28 Nov. 1872, the 6th Earl of Orkney [S.], 
and d. 11 Nov. 1890, aged 78. 

SAMUEL. Frank Denis Samuel, of 2 Portland Place, W., a Deputy-Lieut, for the 
Tower Hamlets, and sometime a Cornet in the Royal Bucks Yeomanry 
Cavalry [2nd son of Baron Diniz Samuel above named], was by decree of 
10 May 1865, confirmed by letters patent dated at Lisbon 13 May following, 
cr. by King Louis I. BABON SAMUEL DE VAHL (BABAO SAMUEL DE VAHL) 
[Portugal] for life. He d. unm. 10 Apr. 1877, when the title became extinct. 

SAMUEL DE VAHL [Portugal 1865]. See Samuel, Baron. 

SANDEMAN. William Glas Sandeman of Oporto [yr. son of Thomas Glas Sandeman, 
merchant and landed proprietor of Oporto, b. at Perth 13 Mar. 1789, d. at 

1 52 Geo. III., No. 259. 

2 Viton de St. Allais, xvi. 348. 

3 A brother of Admiral Edward Salter, R.N. Resenha das Familias, &c., i. 191. 

4 Ibid., i. 194. 

5 Regist. no Arch, da T. do T., Merces de D. Joao VI. , liv. 20, fl. 43. 

6 Resenha das Familias, &c., i. 518. 



148 THE NOBILITIES OF EUROPE 

his palace on the Campo dos Martyres da Patria 6 Jan. 1870, by his wife 
(m. 19 Feb. 1829) D. Ermelinda Julia (b. 5 June 1805, d. 9 May 1875), 2nd da. 
of Antonio Bernardo de Brito e Cunha (who was executed by order of King 
Michael I. in one of the squares of Oporto 7 May 1829), and grandson of John 
Glas Sandeman, of an old Fifeshire family J ] was by decree of 8 Mar. 1883 
cr. by Louis I. BARON SANDEMAN (BARAO DE SANDEMAN) for life. He was 
b. 26 Feb. 1843, and d. unm. 31 Dec. 1894. His elder brother, Thomas Glas 
Sandeman, had renewal of the title in his favour 29 Nov. 1895, but does not 
use it. See p. 22. 

SANDEMAN [Portugal 1883]. See Sandeman, Baron. 

SANSHULT [Sweden c. 1645]. See King, Baron. 

SAEKIA [Spain 1543]. See Fitzjames, Marquess of. 

SARTORIUS. Admiral Sir George Rose Sartorius, G.C.B., R.N., a distinguished 
Naval Officer who served under Nelson at Trafalgar [eldest son of Col. John 
Conrad Sartorius, a Cavalry Officer in the service of the Duke of Wiirtemberg 
and afterwards of Engineers in the H.E.I.C.S., b. at Thionville in Alsace 
1746, d. at Cananor 1802, by his wife (m. 1789) Annabella (b. 1767), da. of 
George Rose, and grandda. of Vice-Admiral Harvey], was b. in Bombay 
9 Aug. 1790, and having entered the service of Mary II., was appointed 
Hon. Vice-Admiral of her fleet. This he reorganised, and having blockaded 
Lisbon and defeated the King, Michael, was by royal decree 1 Dec. 1836 
cr. by the Regent D. Pedro VISCOUNT OF PIEDADE (VISCONDE DA PIEDADE) 
for life. By another decree of 8 July 1845 he received the title of VISCOUNT 
OP MINDELLO (VISCONDE DO MINDELLO), and on 19 Aug. 1853 was further cr. 
COUNT OF PENHAFIRME (CONDE DE PENH A FIRME), both for life. He was also 
a G.C.B.A. and K.C.T.S., and d. at Lymington, co. Hants, 15 Apr. 1885, leaving 
issue 3 sons and 3 das. Major-Gen. Euston Henry Sartorius, V.C., C.B., the 
3rd son, had renewal of the title by letters patent dated 20 June 1903 for 
life. See p. 14. 

DE SATGE. Oscar James [? Joseph] de Satge, 2 BARON DE THOREN, " son of Count 
de Satge, Baron de Thoren, and ffrances Balalus or St. Fran, his wife, b. at 
Ille in the Dept. of the Eastern Pyrenees, a Protestant," 3 was naturalized 
as a British subject by Act of Parliament 28 July 1836. 4 Oscar William de 
Satge de Thoren, eldest son of the Baron de Thoren, was Major 45th and 38th 
Regts., and d. 16 Sep. 1900. 5 Emily Frances, yr. da. of Capt. the Hon. 
(Anthony) Henry Ashley [E. of Shaftesbury Coll.], m. 20 Aug. 1885 Henri 
de Satge of Hartfield, Malvern Wells, 3rd son of the 15th Viscount de Satge 
de St. Jean of Chateau Castelnau, France. 

SCHOMBERG. Frederic Armand (von Schomberg, afterwards de Schomberg), COUNT 
OF SCHONBERG (GRAF VON ScHONBERG) in the Diocese of Treves, in the Holy 
Roman Empire, BARON OF LABERSEN AND ALTDORFF in Germany, 6 having 
served in the Dutch and French Armies, entered the Portuguese Service 
1660, and, having materially assisted in the establishment of that country's 
independence, was 31 Mar. 1668 " por carta mandada passar por El-Rei 
D. Affonso VI." cr. COUNT OF THE TOWN OF MERTOLA ( CONDE DA VILLA 
DE MERTOLA), with rem. to the heirs of his body "de juro e herdado"" 1 
He also received a pension of 5000 per annum. In 1673 he returned 
to France, and was appointed a Lieut. -Gen. and was c. 1677 cr. by 
King Louis XIV. COUNT OF COUBERT AND VITRY (COMTE DE COUBERT 
ET DE VITRY) in Brie [F.], 8 and afterwards DUKE OF SCHOMBERG (Due 
DE SCHOMBERG) and a Marshal of France. On the Revocation of the Edict 
of Nantes 1685, he retired to England, where he was naturalized 9 Ap. 1689, 
made a K.G., and 10 Apr. 1689 cr. BARON TEYES, EARL OF BRENTFORD, co. 
Midx., MARQUESS OF HARWICH, and DUKE OF SCHOMBERG. He d. 1 July 

1 See Burke's Landed Gentry, 1908, p. 1472 ; and a Genealogical Account of the 
family by Lieut-Col. John Glas Sandeman, M.V.O., F.S.A. 

2 In the Commons' Journals the name is spelt " Satze." 

3 Preamble to Act of Naturalization. 

4 6 and 7 William IV., chap. 53. 

6 Genealogical Magazine, 42, p. 274. 

6 The Complete Peerage, vii. 80-83. In Familias Titulares de Portugal, ii. 744, he is 
styled " Conde Schcenberg, Barao de Laberchem, Senhor de Cubert." 

7 V. Chanc. de El-Rei D. Pedro II. , livros e documentos do eonselho de guerra existentes 
no Real Archivo da Torre do Tombo. 

8 The Complete Peerage, vii. 81. 



AN ALPHABETICAL LIST 149 

1690, being sue. in his foreign honours by his eldest surviving son, Frederic, 
who d. s.p. soon after 1700 and before 17 19, 1 and in the English (under the 
special rem. with which they were conferred) by his youngest son Charles 
(naturalized 25 Apr. 1691), 2 who d. s.p. 17 Oct. 1693, when they devolved upon 
the 2nd surviving son, Meinhart, Duke of Leinster, Earl of Bangor and Baron 
Tara [I.], so cr. 3 Mar. 1691 (naturalized 24 Feb. 1692), 3 who sometime before 
1719 also inherited all the foreign honours from his eldest brother. He d. s.p.m.s. 
5 July 1719, when his Irish titles and the French Dukedom became extinct, 
and his English (limited to heirs male of the 1st Duke) and German honours 
dormant, while the right to the Countship of Mertola [Portugal] and also pro- 
bably to those of Coubert and Vitry [F.] devolved on his elder da. and co-h., 
Frederica, wife of Robert (Darcy), 3rd Earl of Holderness. See Darcy. 

SCHOMBERG [H.R.E.]. See Schomberg, Count of. 
SCHOMBERG [F. 16 ]. See Schomberg, Duke of. 

SCHRODER. John Henry Schroder, of the city of Hamburgh, merchant (b. 8 Dec. 
1784), was by diploma dated 26 Dec. 1868 cr. by King William I. BARON 
SCHRODER (FREIHERR VON SCHRODER) [Prussia], with rem. to the heirs male 
of his body and with the prefix of Baron (or Baroness) for all his male descendants 
and their daughters. He was naturalized as a British subject 4 Nov. 1864, 
and d. 28 June 1883. His eldest son was cr. a Baronet [U.K.] 8 Dec. 1892, 
and his 3rd son, Baron William Henry von Schroder, was naturalized 30 Apr. 
1875, and was authorised to use his title of Baron in the United Kingdom by 
Royal License 13 May 1890. See p. 22. 

SCHRODER. Rudolph Bruno Schroder, of 35 Park Street, W., and of Heath Lodge, 
Englefield Green, a partner in the firm of Messrs J. Henry Schroder & Co., 
of London, was 27 July 1904 cr. by H.I.M. William II., German Emperor, 
King of Prussia, BARON SCHRODER (FREIHERR VON SCHRODER) [Prussia], for 
himself and his heirs. 4 See p. 24. 

SCHRODER [Prussia 1868]. See Schroder, Baron. 
SCHRODER [Prussia 1904]. See Schroder, Baron. 

SCHULENBERG. Ermengard Melosine, BARONESS VON DER SCHULENBERG in Germany, 
mistress of King George I., was naturalized by Act of Parliament 16 June 1716. 
She was da. of Gustavus Adolphus, Baron von der Schulenburg, P.C. to the 
Elector of Brandenburg, by his wife Petronelle Oddie de Schwenken, 5 and/ 
sister to Frederic Achatius, Count von de Schulenburg and Hedlen, was b. at 
Emden in the Duchy of Magdebourg, and was cr. DUCHESS OF MUNSTER, &c. 
[I.], 16 July following, and of Kendal, &c. [G.B.], 19 Mar. 1719, and later 
PRINCESS OF EBERSTEIN (FURSTIN VON EBERSTEIN) [H.R.E. ], and d. 10 May 
1743, when all her honours became extinct. 

SCHUTZ. See Sinoldt. 

SCICLUNA. ( ) Scicluna of Malta, was cr. MARQUESS SCICLUNA (MARCHESE 

SCICLUNA) [P.S.]. Title now held by his son, who resides in Malta. See p. 12. 

SCICLUNA [P.S. 18 ]. See Scicluna, Marquess. 

SCOTT. Sir William Scott, 1st Baronet [E.], so cr. 9 Aug. 1653, retired to France 
during the usurpation of Cromwell, and was naturalized there and acquired 
(for 80,000 livres) the important post of Secretaire du Roi and the Lordships of 
the M6zangere, Bosheville, and Gaillon in Normandy, and " was admitted into 
the French Nobility " by the King of France. His grandson, Sir William 
Scott, 3rd Bt. and Lord of La Mezangere, was of the Royal Council and 
President of Accounts, Aids, and Finances in Normandy, and was cr. MARQUESS 
OF THE MEZANGERE (MARQUIS DE LA MESENGERE) [F.]. His son, Sir William, 
2nd Marquess, sue. him in 1733, and was living in 1741. He is supposed to 
have d. unm. c. 1775. 6 

SCOTT. Otto Yxkiills [descended from George Scott, a Scotsman who went to 
Sweden in 1600, and had a grant of lands in Finland from Gustavus Adolphus 

1 The Complete Peerage ; see a note by Arthur Schomberg of Send, co. Wilts. 

2 Patent Rolls, 3. 

3 3 and 4 William and Mary, chap. 20. 

4 Taschenbuch der Freih., 1907, p. 734. 

5 Preamble to Act of Parliament. 

6 Wooton's Baronetage, 1741 ; Kimber's Baronetage, 1771 ; G. E. C.'s Complete Baro- 
netage, iii. 14-15 ; La Chenaye des Bois, xviii. 463. 



150 THE NOBILITIES OF EUROPE 

1630] was ENNOBLED [Sweden No. 321] by Queen Christina 22 Jan. 1645 * 
under the name of Pistolkors. He served for forty-four years in the Polish 
wars and against the Russians. 2 On the separation of Finland the then 
representative, Major John Conrad Pistolekors, was enrolled among the NOBLES 
of Finland [No. 30] 29 Jan. 1818. 3 Family still existing. See p. 39. 

SCOTT. Col. Jacob Scott [probably descended from James Scott, Colonel of the 
Norland Regt. who was killed 1634, and whose son James Scott, Col. of a 
Cavalry Regt., was Ho f- junker to Charles Gustavus and d. 1641] was ENNOBLED 
[Sweden No. 499] by Queen Christina 1650. Extinct. 4 

SCRAGGE. Olaf Scragge [descended from Simon Scragge, a Scotsman who entered 
the service of Gustavus Vasa and settled in Wermland 5 ], a distinguished 
linguist, became secretary to de la Gardie, and accompanied the Swedish 
Army to Livonia 1700, being ENNOBLED [Sweden No. 1391] by King Charles XII. 
1703, under the designation of Hermelin, 6 " Ermine," a sobriquet which he had 
acquired while a student at Upsala. He was taken prisoner at the battle of 
Pultowa, 8 July 1709, and d. in captivity in Russia. His son Charles was 
1766 cr. BAKON HERMELIN (FRIHERR HERMELIN) [Sweden No. 272] by King 
Adolphus Frederick, and took his seat in the House of Lords 1776. 7 Still 
existing. 8 See p. 35. 

SCRAGGE. Lieut. -Cols. Olof and Daniel Skragge [of the same family as the pre- 
ceding] were ENNOBLED [Sweden No. 1620] by Queen Ulrica under the name 
of Lagerborg 23 June 1719, and introduced the following year. 9 Frederic 
William Lagerborg, their representative, on the separation of Finland from 
Sweden, was received into the Finnish Nobility [No. 105] on 29 Jan. 1818. 
See Addenda. 

SCREW. Nils Screw or Schrue [descended from James Screw, a Scotsman, who 
was a Lieut. -Col. in the Swedish Service] was ENNOBLED [Sweden No. 1516] 
by King Charles XII. for naval services, under the name of "Goldenscrew," i.e. 
Gyllenschruf, 1717. Extinct 1862. 10 

SEBRIGHT. Charles Sebright [b. at Everton, co. Aberdeen, 1807; and descended 
from a family of English extraction, who originally spelt their name Sevright, 
and who had been settled in Aberdeen for some generations] entered the 
service of Charles Louis, Duke of Lucca (afterwards Duke of Parma) in 1835, 
was for some time Equerry and Secretary to that Prince, and having in 1842 
been appointed H.B.M.'s Resident at Cephalonia in the Ionian Islands, was 
on leaving his service cr. by him, to mark his high sense of his faithful services, 
BARON OF EVERTON (BARONE DI EVERTON) in the Duchy of Lucca. He was 
British Resident at Santa Maure 1849, cr. a K.C.M.G. 1864, and appointed 
Consul-General for the Ionian Islands 1870. He was still living 1880, having 
m. 1st a lady called by Foster "Marie, Baroness d'Everton," and 2ndly, 30 Oct. 
1871, Georgina Mary, da. of Sir John William Pitt Muir-Mackenzie, Bt., who 
d. 10 Jan. 1874. He had apparently no issue. 11 

SEGESSER. Henry Segesser of Lucerne [descended from Hans Ulic Segesser, of 
Mellingen, who was ENNOBLED by the Emperor Frederick IV. 26 Sep. 1442] 
m. 2ndly, 22 Oct. 1857, Mary Ann, 3rd da. and co-h. of Capt. Joseph Wynn, 
58th Regt., and had issue now resident in this country and British subjects. 12 

SEGRI. See Paynter, p. 138, note 2. 

SELBY. Charles Joseph Selby of Bcekkeskov [b. 24 Oct. 1755, who " udletde sin 
Herkomst fra en gammel engelsk Adelsslcegt," 3rd son of Thomas Selby of 

1 Finlands Ridderskaps, 1897, p. 337. 

2 Marryat, ii. 495 ; Donner, p. 37. 

3 Ex inform,. M. Oscar Vasastjerna. 

4 Marryat, ii. 496 ; Donner, p. 37. 
6 Marryat, ii. 483 ; Donner, p. 11. 

6 "Gammal vermlandsk att, ursprvmgligen fran Skottland, derifran den kom till 
Norge ; hette forut Skragge och afven Hermelin." 

7 Sveriges Ridderskaps. 

8 The noble Swedish families of Skraggenskjold, 1652, and Skraggenstjerna are also 
descended from this family. Donner, p. 11. 

Finlands Adels- Kalender, 1897, p. 267 ; Donner, p. 11. 

10 Marryat, ii. 489 ; Donner, p. 37 ; Sveriges Adel. 

11 Burke' s Peerage, 1860-1870; Foster's Baronetage, &c., 1880, p. 690; Burke's 
Vicissitudes of Families, remodelled ed., ii. 

12 Burke's Peerage, 1902, p. 2045. 



AN ALPHABETICAL LIST 151 

Biddlestone, co. Northumberland *] settled in Denmark, and was 2 Dec. 1796 
cr. 2 by King Christian VII. BARON SELBY (FRIHERRE SELBY) [Denmark], with 
rem. to the heirs male of his body. He was Major of the South Zealand 
Fencibles 1801, and Chamberlain to King Frederick VI. 1808. His son Charles 
Borre, 2nd Baron de Selby, K.D., Lord of the Manor of Oorupgaard in the 
Island of Falster and Chamberlain to the King, b. 31 Aug. 1778, d. s.p.m. 
30 July 1849, when the Barony became extinct. He had issue one son, who d. 
unm. 1843, and seven das., of whom only the sixth, Baroness Caroline, b. 18 Oct. 
1824, now survives. She m. 18 Oct. 1863 George Joachin Quaade, who had 
m. 1st, 14 Nov. 1851, her youngest sister, the Baroness Caroline Amalie (b. 
18 Oct. 1824, d. 5 Oct. 1862). Baron Nicholas Tuite Selby, younger son 
of the 1st Baron, was a Cavalry Officer in the Austrian Army and Lord of the 
Bedchamber to the Emperor. He left an only da., Ernestine Wilhelmina 
Caroline, Lady of the Manor of Guldenstein in Holstein, who m. her cousin, 
Frederick von Bulow. 

SELBY [Denmark 1796]. See Selby, Baron. 
SERRA DA ESTRELLA [Portugal 1853]. See Croft, Baron of the. 
SERRA LARGO [Portugal 1896]. See Mackenzie, Count of. 
SERRA LARGO [Portugal 1894]. See Mackenzie, Viscount of. 
SERRANT [F. 1755]. See Walsh, Count of. 

SETON. George Seton, of a noble family of Scottish origin, was naturalized in 
Sweden and recognised as a NOBLE [No. 2139] 1785 ; introduced into Swedish 
House of Lords 1786. 3 Still existing. See p. 42. 

SETON. Sir Alexander Barren [b. in Scotland 1738] was naturalized as a NOBLE 
[Sweden] under the name of Seton 1785. 4 

SETON. See p. 43, note 3. 

SETON OF ANDRIA. The style of "Baron Seton of Andria" in Italy is used by 
James Seton, Esq., who also claims the Earldom of Dunfermline [S.] 1605, 
alleging that the 4th and last Earl left a da. Grizel, from whom he is descended, 
and that the destination of the Peerage [S.] was altered from heirs male to 
heirs general by a Royal letter of 1620. 6 

SEYMOUR. Lady Laura Wilhelmina Seymour [da. of Admiral Sir George Francis 
Seymour, G.C.B., G.C.H., and sister to Francis George Hugh, 5th Marquis of 
Hertford [G.B.] ], being about to contract marriage with Vice-Admiral H.S.H. 
Prince Victor of Hohenlohe-Langenburg, was 14 Jan. 1861 cr. by the late 
Reigning Duke Ernest II. COUNTESS OF GLEICHEN (GRAFIN VON GLEICHEN) 
[Saxe-Coburg-Gotha], with rem. to the heirs male of her body. See p. 15. 

SFORZA-CESARINI. His Excellency Don Lorenzo, DUKE SFORZA-CESARINI, PRINCE 
SAVELLI PERETTI MONTALTO BOADELLA CABRERA, "son of Don ffrancisco, 
Duke Sforza-Cesarini, by the Duchess Geltende Conte, his wife, b. at Rome 
and professing the Catholic faith," 6 was naturalized as a British subject by 
Act of Parliament 4 June 1840. 7 

SHARPE. See p. 43, note 3. 

SHEE. Gen. Eugene Redmond Shee, O.L.H., K.S.L. [b. at Rathduff in Ireland 
29 Mar. 1775], was cr. BARON DE SHEE OF THE FRENCH EMPIRE 14 Feb. 1810, 
donataire (r. 6000) sur Rome by decrees of 8 Dec. 1808 and 15 Aug. 1809. He 
d. 14 Aug. 1849, leaving one son, Michael Richard Henry, 2nd Baron Shee, a 
Cavalry Capt., b. at Dublin 18 Aug. 1802 ; d. (? unm.) 19 Nov. 1868. 8 

SHEE. Col. Henri Shee, Councillor of State and a Senator 7 Feb. 1810 [b. at 
Landrecies, Nord, son of Capt. William Shee, of Lally's Regt., of an Irish 
family], was 14 Apr. 1810 cr. a COUNT (COUNT SH&E) OF THE FRENCH EMPIRE 
by letters patent, donataire (r. 4000) in Hanover, by Imperial decree 3 Dec. 
1809, 9 PEER OF FRANCE 4 June 1814, with rem. to the heirs male of his 

1 Burke's Landed Gentry. 

2 "Blev ved aabent Brev af 2 Dec. 1796, optagen i den danske Friherrestand " 
literally, was by open letter (i.e. a letter of the King's published in the papers) received 
into the Danish Nobility. Danmarks Adels Aarbog, 1906, p. 403. 

3 Sveriges Add. ,, 4 Donner, p. 46. 

5 Balfour Paul's Scots Peerage, iii. 375. 

6 Preamble to Act. 7 3 and 4 Viet., chap. 46. 

8 Armorial du Premier Empire, iv. 248. 

9 Ibid., iv. 247. 



152 THE NOBILITIES OF EUROPE 

body 19 Aug. 1815, K.C.L.H., K.S.L. He d. s.p.m.s. 3 Mar. 1820, having 

by a royal ordinance 11 Dec. 1815 obtained " la transmission de sa pairie 
hereditaire a son gendre ou 1'aine de ses petits-enfants." 1 See Dalton. 

SHEE. Frances (Fanny) Shee was cr. BARONESS DALTON SHE DE LINIERES by 

a Royal Ordinance 26 Dec. 1815 ; she d. at Paris 11 Nov. 1832. 2 See p. 70. 

SHEE [F.E. 1810]. See Shee, Count. 

SHEE [F.E. 1810]. See Shee, Baron. 

SHERLOCK. John Sherlock, 2nd son of the late Thomas Sherlock, of Laurel Lodge, 
Dundrum, and brother of the late Sergeant Sherlock, a COUNT OF THE HOLY 
ROMAN EMPIRE (? PAPAL STATES) and Chamberlain to Popes Pius IX. and 
Leo XIII., d. at Rahan Lodge, Tullamore, 10 June 1886. 

SHERLOCK [P.S. 18]. See Sherlock, Count. 

SHIRLEY. Sir Robert Shirley [3rd son of Sir Thomas Shirley of Sussex] was cr. 
for his services a COUNT or THE HOLY ROMAN EMPIRE by the Emperor 
Rudolph. He afterwards went to Persia, where he m. the Lady Teresa, 
sister to one of the Queens of Persia, and came to England as Persian 
Ambassador in 1612, where a son was born to him, the Queen and Prince Henry 
standing sponsors. He returned to Persia 16 13. 3 

SHIRLEY [H.R.E. a. 1612]. See Shirley, Count of. 
SHUTE. See p. 43, note 3. 
SILFVERSTOLPHE. See Mascall. 

SINCLAIR. Francis Sinclair, a Colonel in the Swedish Army [said to have been son 
of John, 2nd son of John Sinclair of Seba and Brobster], was ENNOBLED [Sweden 
No. 444] by Queen Christina 1649. He d. 1666, being sue. by his son, Col. 
James Sinclair, whose son Capt. James d. s.p. 1683. * 

SINCLAIR. John Sinclair [elder son of William Sinclair of Seba and Brobster, 
who was 3rd son of John Sinclair of the same above named] went to Sweden 
with his brother in 1641, and was naturalized and ENNOBLED [Sweden No. 626] 
by King Charles X. 1655. 5 He was killed as Col. of an Infantry Regt. at 
Neumosk. His descendants established themselves in Germany, and the male 
line failed on the death of his grandson Lewis at Strasburg in Alsace 1733. 
He left an only da., who m. Adam, Count of Lewenkaupt, Marechal de Camp 
in the French Service. 6 

SINCLAIR. David Sinclair [younger brother of the preceding, whom he accom- 
panied to Sweden 1641] was naturalized and ENNOBLED [Sweden No. 626] by 
King Charles X. 1655. He was Col. of a Cavalry Regt., and was killed at 
the battle of Warsaw 1656. His son, Major-Gen. William Sinclair, was 1655 
cr. BARON OF FINNEKUMLA (FRIHERR AF FINNEKUMLA) in Westergothland 
[Sweden] by King Charles XII. The male line failed on the death of 
Charles Gideon (Sinclair), 4th and last Baron of Finnekumla, Grand Cross of 
the Sword, Knight of the White Falcon of Saxony, Gen. of the Swedish 
Armies, and Gen. -in-Chief of the Royal Artillery in the Swedish Service and 
Col. of the Royal Swedish Regt. in the French, a celebrated soldier, who d. s.p. 
1803, when the title became extinct. 7 

SINCLAIR. Andrew Sinclair [said to have been grandson of James Sinclair, Baron 
of Randal, 4th son of John Sinclair of Seba and Brobster above named] went 
to Sweden 1635, attained the rank of Colonel, was Governor of Thorn, and 
was ENNOBLED [Sweden No. 965] by King Charles XI. 2 Oct. 1680. He was 
grandfather of Col. Frederic Charles Sinclair of Lambahof, Ostergotland, G.C. of 
the Sword, knight of the Seraphim (1774), a Senator (1769), Governor-Gen, 
of Pomerania, who was cr. BARON LAMBAHOF (FRIHERR AF LAMBAHOF) 
[Sweden No. 270] by King Adolphus Frederic 6 Oct. 1766, and COUNT SINCLAIR 
OF LAMBAHOF (GREFVE AF LAMBAHOF) [Sweden No. 95] by King Gustavus III. 

1 Titres de la Restauration, vi. 257. 

2 Ibid., ii. 253. 

3 Rapin's Hist, of England (1729), ix. 338. 

4 The Saint Clairt of the hies, by Roland W. Saint Clair, Auckland, N.Z., 1898, 
p. 317. 

6 When he adopted for arms a white rose in the centre" of St. Andrew's Cross. 
Marryat, ii. 475. 

6 The Saint Clair s of the Islet, p. 318. 

7 Ibid., pp. 318, 471. 



AN ALPHABETICAL LIST 153 

15 Oct. 1771, and took his seat in the House of Lords (Riddarhus) 1776. 1 Still 
existing. See p. 30. 

SINCLAIR. Marie, Countess of Caithness [S.], wife of the 14th Earl (who d. 1881), 
and relict of H. E. Gen. the Count of Medina Pomar (d. 1868), and only 
surviving da. of Don. Jose de Mariategui, was cr. 13 June 1879 by Pope Leo XIII. 
DUCHESS OF POMAR [P.S.] for life, he having a few years previously conferred 
the like dignity, i.e. Duke of Pomar, on her son on his coming of age 23 Sep. 
1875. 2 She was b. 1830, and d. s.p. in Paris 2 Nov. 1895, 3 when the title became 
extinct. 

SINOLDT dit SCHUTZ. Louis Justus Sinoldt dit Schutz [2nd but after 1680 eldest 
surviving son and h. of John Helwig Sinoldt dit Schutz, P.C., Chancellor to 
the Duke of Brunswick, who was by patent dated 27 Mar. 1674 cr. by the 
Emperor Leopold a BARON OF THE HOLY ROMAN EMPIRE, with rem. to " the 
heirs of his body, lawfully begotten, male and female, for ever "] 4 came to 
England as Minister Plen. from the Duke of Hanover to the Court of St. 
James's andd. there 1709. His children (some of whom were born in England) 
settled there on the accession of the House of Hanover. The eldest son d. s.p., 
and the 2nd son, Baron Augustus Schutz, was Master of the Robes and Privy 
Purse to George II. He m. Miss Penelope Madan, and had 5 sons and 3 das., 
all of whom, except the eldest son and the youngest da., died s.p. The son 
was father of Thomas James Schutz, of Shotover Park, co. Oxford, who d. s.p., 
and the da., Baroness Mary, m. Sir George Vandeput, Bt., who d. 1784, leaving 
an only da. and h., Frances, who m. Richard Vere Drury and was mother of 
George Vandeput Drury, who is said to have succeeded his cousin in the 
Barony. See Drury. 

SiNOLDT-ScHUTZ [H.R.E. 1674]. See Sinoldt, Count. 
SIRUELA [Castile]. See Fitzjames, Count of. 
SJOLOW. See Cox. 

SKALBY [Sweden 1651]. See Douglas, Baron of. 
SKINNINGE [Sweden 1654]. See Douglas, Count of. 

SLATIN. Sir Rudolf Karl Slatin, K.C.V.O., C.B., K.F.J., K.M.L., K.D., a Major- 
Gen, in the British Army and a Pasha in Egypt, was 25 Oct. 1906 cr. by the 
Emperor Francis Joseph a BARON OF THE AUSTRIAN EMPIRE as BARON SLATIN 
(FREIHERR VON SLATIN), with rem. to the heirs male of his body. See p. 24. 

SLATIN [Austria 1906]. See Slatin, Baron. 

SMITH. Jons Schmidt [son of Peter Smith, Capt. in the Swedish Service, who 
d. as Vice-Governor of Abo] was ENNOBLED [Sweden No. 289] by Queen 
Christina 1640, under the designation of Rosenschmit, i.e. " The Rosy Smith." 5 
Extinct. 

SMITH. A family of this name was ENNOBLED [Sweden] 1574, but never took their 
seat. See p. 43, note 3. 

SMITH-ATHELSTANE. John Smith-Athelstane, Esq. [3rd son of Michael Athelstane- 
Smith (b. 4 Mar. 1762, d. 3 Oct. 1831), by his wife (m. 18 May 1803) Sarah, 
da. of James Walton of Warley-in-Sowerby, co. York (b. at Warley 14 Oct. 
1767, d. 13 Nov. 1849), and grandson of Benjamin Smith of Bishopton, co. 
Durham, by Anne, da. of the Rev. Thomas Athelstane of co. York 6 ], b. 9 May 
1813, author of "The Memoirs of the Marquess of Pombal," was by decree 
dated 9 Aug. 1870 cr. by Louis L, King of Portugal, COUNT OF CARNOTA (CONDE 
DA CARNOTA) for life, " em sua vida." He m. 30 Apr. 1850 Ann Tilby, of a 
Leicestershire family. She d. 7 Nov. 1856. 

SMITH DE VASCONCELLOS. The family of Smith de Vasconcellos, Barons of Vascon- 
cellos [Portugal], so cr. 9 Apr. 1869, are descended from Jose Ignacio Paes Pinto 
de Sousa e Vasconcellos, of Louza, living 1825, and his wife Maria Martha 
Smith. 7 

1 The Saint Glairs of the Isles, pp. 319-20 ; Sveriges RiddersTcaps. 

' ' There is no other name better known and remembered in Swedish History, [still 
living in the minds and hearts of the people." Ex inform. Mr. Bergram. 

2 Debrett's Peerage, 1891. 3 Paul's Scots Peerage, ii. 358. 

4 Surge's Peerage, 1850, p. 1091. 

5 Marryat, ii. 496 ; Donner, p. 37. 

6 Resenha das Familias, i. 363. 7 Ibid., ii. 723. 



154 THE NOBILITIES OF EUROPE 

SOLIGNAC. Jean Baptiste Eugene (Solignac), 2nd BARON SOLIGNAC, Capt. d'fitat 
Major and Chamberlain to Napoleon III. [son and h. of Jean Baptiste, 1st 
Baron Solignac [F.E.], so cr. by Emperor Napoleon I. 1 20 Dec. 1808, G.O.L.H., 
K.S.L., a General of Division (17 Nov. 1808) in the French Service, and 
afterwards (1833) Grand Marshal "et general en chef au service du Portugal," 
who d. 10 Nov. 1850], d. at Leslie Court, co. Glouc., 1 Mar. 1894, having m. 
N. Wilton, and had a son, John Baptist Louis Anatole Eugene (de Solignac), 
3rd Baron Solignac [F.E.], of Leslie Court, co. Gloucester, a British subject, 
who d. at Fischer's Hotel, Clifford Street, W., 24 Oct. 1906. 2 

SOLIGNAC [F.E. 1808]. See Solignac, Baron. 

SOMMERY [F. 1687]. See du Mesniel, Marquess of Rocquefort. 

SONNENBERG. " Col. J. Baron de Sonnenberg, of the Regiment of Roll," was 
appointed a Major-General in the Army 4 June 1814. 3 

SOUTELLINHO [Portugal 1896]. See Tait, Baron of. 

DE SOUZA. Sir Walter Eugene de Souza [4th son of Lawrence de Souza, Esq.], 
b. 1847, was Consul for Portugal at Calcutta 1870-8, and Consul-Gen. 1878-84, 
a County Councillor for London, a COUNT OF THE HOLY ROMAN EMPIRE (sic 
? Papal States), an Hereditary Knight of the Golden Spur, K.L.H., K.C.C.P., 
K.C.V.V., and Officer of Public Instruction in France, Knighted for charities 
instituted and established by him 1879.* He d. before 1907. 

SOUZA [P.S. 18 ]. See de Souza, Count de. 

SPALDING. John Spalding [son of George Spalding of the Lancashire family], 
Deputy Burgomaster at Goteborg 1667] was ENNOBLED [Sweden No. 910] in 
1678 with his brothers and sisters 5 under the designation of Spaldencreutz. 
His descendants became extinct 1741, but three other branches of this family 
have been ENNOBLED in Sweden under the separate designation of Adlersparre, 
Hjelmberg [adopted], and Spalding (Spaldencreuz). The first (Adlersparre) were 
cr. NOBLES (No. 1988) 1757, and introduced 1773, and Major-Gen. George 
Adlersparre was 1816 cr. BARON and COUNT (BARON o GREFVE) ADLERSPARRE 
[Sweden No. 130], and took his seat 1818. The second were ENNOBLED [No. 1454] 
under the name of Hjelmberg 1711, and failed 1762; and the third, ENNOBLED 
[No. 1986] 1756, and introduced 1773, became extinct in the male line 1848. 6 

SPENS. Jacob Spens, Ambassador from King James I. and VI. to the Swedish 
Court in 1610, afterwards entered the service of King Gustavus Adolphus, by 
whom he was sent on a mission to England 1611. On his return the following 
year he was appointed by King James to mediate between Sweden and 
Denmark, and having re-entered the Swedish Service, was 1615 appointed an 
Aulic Councillor and 28 Apr. 1622 cr. a BARON [Sweden No. 9]. In 1624 he 
was Gen. of the Anglo-Scottish troops in the Swedish Service, was on several 
missions to England, and on his return in 1627 brought the Garter for the 
Swedish Monarch. In 1629 he was appointed Minister to the Court of St. 
James's. His grandson Jacob, 3rd Baron Spens, P.C. (1710), a General in the 
Swedish Army, greatly distinguished himself in the Russian War, and was 20 
Feb. 1712 cr. by King Charles XII. COUNT OF HOJA (GREFVE TIL HOJA) 7 
[Sweden No. 54], for himself and his descendants, taking his seat in the House 
of Lords 1719. Title still existing. See p. 29. 

SPENS [Sweden 1622]. See Spens, Baron. 

SPENS [Sweden 1712]. See Spens, Count of Hoja, now called Count. 

SPERLING. Joachin Sperling, Field-Marshal Royal of Sweden, was cr. a COUNT 
[Sweden No. 28] 1687 8 and d. 1691. His grandson Henry Sperling, b. 22 Mar. 
1659, came to England and settled at Chigwell, co. Essex, being naturalized by 
Act of Parliament as " Henry Sperling, son of George Sperling and Anna his 
wife, b. at Dunkirk, of the Protestant faith." 9 His representative is the present 
Charles Brogden Sperling of Dynes Hall, co. Essex, J.P., D.L. 10 

SPINETO [?]. See Doria, Marquess of. 

Armorial du Premier Empire, iv. 256. 

Daily Papers. 3 London Gazette, 1814, p. 2003. 

Debrctt's Peerage, 1891. 
Marryat, ii. 498. 

The Scots in Sweden, p. 261 ; Sveriges Add, i. 294. 
As he always signed himself. Marryat, ii. 468 ; Donner, p. 38. 
Sveriges Adel, i. 146. 9 7 William III., No. 7. 

10 Burke's Landed Gentry, 1906, p. 1562. 



AN ALPHABETICAL LIST 155 

SQUILAZZO [Naples 1495]. See Stuart, Marquess of. 

STACPOOLE. George Stacpoole of Violet Hill, co. Dublin, was 21 July 1818 cr. 
by King Louis XVIII. COUNT OF STACPOOLE (COMTE BE STACPOOLE) [F.], 
with rem. to the heirs male of his body, and with the title of VISCOUNT OF 
STACPOOLE (VICOMTE DE STACPOOLE) for his eldest son and heir. The 2nd 
Count of Stacpoole was 1825 cr. MARQUESS OF STACPOOLE (MABCHESE m 
STACPOOLE) [P.S.] by Pope Leo XII. and 1830 DUKE OF STACPOOLE (DucA 
DI STACPOOLE) [P.S.] by Pope Gregory XVI., with the same rem. as the 
French honours. These titles are still held by his descendant. See p. 9. 

STACPOOLE [F. 1818]. See Stacpoole, Viscount and Count of. 
STACPOOLE [P.S. 1825]. See Stacpoole, Marquess of. 
STACPOOLE [P.S. 1830]. See Stacpoole, Duke of. 

STAPLETON-BRETHERTON. Mary Stapleton-Bretherton, of the Hall, Rainhall, co. 
Lancaster, and Lackham, co. Wilts, widow of the Hon. Gilbert Stapleton, 
was 20 June 1873 cr. by H.H. Pope Pius IX. MARCHIONESS STAPLETON- 
BRETHERTON (MARCHESA STAPLETON-BRETHERTON) [P.S.]. She was the da. 
and h. of Bartholomew Bretherton, of Rainhall, Esq., m. 1st Mar. 1829 William 
Gerard, Esq., brother of the 12th Bt. [E.], who d. s.p. Oct. 1844; and 2ndly, 
19 July 1848, Gilbert Stapleton aforesaid, brotherof the 8th Lord Beaumont [E.], 
who d. s.p. 16 Dec. 1856. She assumed the surname of Stapleton-Bretherton 
by Royal License 16 June 1869, and d. s.p. 22 Dec. 1883, when the title became 
extinct. 

STAPLETON-BRETHERTON [P.S. 1873]. See Stapleton-Bretherton, Marchioness. 

DE STEIN. Caroline Ernestine Frederica Sophia, BARONESS DE STEIN of Nordheim, 
" in the Canton of the immediate Imperial Nobility of Germany, Rhau-Werra 
in the circle of ffranconia," wife of Joseph Mellish of Charles Street in the 
parish of St. Mary-le-Bone, co. Midx., Esq., and one of the das. of Dieterich 
Philip Augustus, Baron de Stein, by Susette Elizabeth Wilhelmina, Baroness 
de Stein, his wife, formerly Baroness de Tann, b. at Voelkershausen in the 
said circle of ffranconia, 1 was naturalized as a British subject by Act of 
Parliament 27 June 1805. 2 

STERN. ( ) Stern was by royal decree of the 29 July 1864 cr. by King Louis I. 

BARON DE STERN (BARAO DE STERN) [Portugal] ? for life. He d. ( ), being 
succeeded by his son David, 2nd BARON DE STERN, " subdito britanico e 
banqueiro em Londres," who was 3 14 Jan. 1870 advanced to a Viscounty as 
VISCOUNT DE STERN (VISCONDE DE STERN) [Portugal] for two lives, " em duas 
vidas" * He was b. Mar. 1807, m. 1841 Sophia (b. Dec. 1822), da. of Aaron 
Asher Goldsmid, and had issue (1) Sydney James, 2nd Viscount Stern, b. Feb. 
1844, who was 19 July 1895 cr. BARON WANDSWORTH [U.K.] ; (2) Sir Edward 
David Stern, of Fan Court, Chertsey, b. July 1854 ; (3) Helena Caroline; and 
(4) Alice Theresa. See p. 17. 

STERN. Herman Stern, of 4 Hyde Park Gate, W., and Angel Court, Throgmorton 
Street, was 15 May 1865 cr. by King Louis I. BARON DE STERN (BARAO DE 
STERN) [Portugal]. 5 He d. 20 Oct. 1887, when he was succeeded by his only 
son Herbert, 2nd Baron de Stern, who was 31 July 1905 cr. a Baronet [U.K.], 
and 28 Dec. following Baron Michelham [U.K.]. See p. 21. 

DE STERN. [Portugal 1870]. See Stern, Viscount 

DE STERN [Portugal 1864]. See Stern, Baron. 

DE STERN [Portugal 1865]. See Stern, Baron. 

STEWART. William Stewart, Capt. of the Scots Men-at-arms in the French Service 
[2nd son of the 1st Earl of Lennox [S.] and elder brother of the 5th Lord of 
Aubigny [F.] ], was LORD OF OIZON AND GREY (SEIGNEUR D'OIZON ET DE GREY) 
in France. He d. s.p. before 1503, when he was succeeded by his youngest 
brother John, who served in the Italian wars and became " Premier Homme 
d'Armes" of France 1505-8. He d. s.p. 1512. 6 These two brothers are fre- 

1 Preamble to Act. 

2 45 Geo. III., chap. 80. 

3 Ex inform. Lord Wandsworth. In the Portuguese Peerages it is said to have been 
his grandfather, the first Baron, who was cr. a Viscount, and not his father. 

4 Resenha das Familias, ii. 637. 

5 V. Archivo fferaldico-Genealogico, a pag. 251, no. 1002. 

6 The Stuarts of Aubigny ; Balfour Paul's Scots Peerage, v. 350-5. 



156 



THE NOBILITIES OF EUROPE 



quently met with under the designation of LORD OLIZEN (MONSEIGNETJR 
D'OLIZEN), hence their insertion here. 

STEWART. James (Stewart), 4th DUKE or LENNOX [S.] and afterwards (8 Aug. 
1641) 1st DUKE OFRICHMOND : [E.], K.G., was Jan. 1 or June 2 1632 cr. a GRANDEE 
OF SPAIN of the 1st CLASS. He d. 30 Mar. 1655, leaving a son Esme, 4th Duke 
of Lennox, &c., who d. unm. 10 Aug. 1660, and a da. Mary, who m. Sep. 1664 
Richard (Butler), Earl of Arran [I.], andd. s.p. July 1667, when the Grandeeship 
of Spain became extinct. 

STEWART. Simon Styfvort or Stewardt [son of Robert Stewart of Couccars, co. 
Ayr] went to Sweden as Capt. of a ship 1616, and producing a letter from King 
Charles I. dated Holyrood House, 27 Sep. 1633, declaring him to be his own 
kinsman and 6th in descent from John Stewart, Lord of Darnley and Renfrew, 
was admitted a NOBLE [Sweden No. 205] by Queen Christina 1634. He became 
an Admiral, and d. 1646. 3 Family extinct that year. 4 

STEWART. See Stuart. 

VON STIEGUTZ. Frederick Ludwig (von Stieglitz), 3rd BARON VON STIEGLITZ [H.R.E.], 
of the Glen, co. Armagh, and of Tasmania, a native-born subject of Ireland 
[" grandson and lineal representative of Christian Ludwig von Stieglitz, upon 
whom the Emperor Joseph II. conferred the title of BARON OF THE HOLY 
ROMAN EMPIRE 15 Dec. 1765 "], is included by Burke 1860 among those British 
subjects having foreign titles of Nobility, but was omitted before 1864. 5 He m. 
14 Apr. 1859 Hester Anne, sister of the late Stewart Blacker of Carrickblacker, 
co. Armagh, J.P., D.L. She d. s.p. 1897. 6 

STJERNCREUTZ. See Tait. 

STJERNSTEDT [Sweden 1719]. See Thersleff, Baron. 

STREET. Joseph Street (Jose Street d'Arriaga e Cunha) of Carnide, Fidalgo da 
Casa Real, K.C.C.P., Bachelor of Philosophy of the University of Coimbra, 
sometime a Cadet in the 1st Cavalry Regt. [son of Guilherme Street of Carnide, 
grandson of Guilherme Street of the Island of Fayal and great-grandson of 
John Street, " oriundo de Paes de nagao britannica," and his wife D. Josepha 
dos Ramos da Silveira Borges, a native of the Island of Fayal 7 ] was by decree 
of 17 May 1871 cr. by Louis I., King of Portugal, VISCOUNT OF CARNIDE 
(VISCONDE DE CARNIDE) for life, " em sua vida," and by a decree of 27 Mar., 
followed by a charter of 18 Apr. 1872, the title was renewed " para seu filho 
primogenito Guilherme." He m. in London Joanna Caroline, da. of John 
Sterman, a British subject, and had issue a son Guilherme, 2nd Viscount of 
Carnide, b. 13 Oct. 1835, K.C.C.P., sometime 1st Secretary of Portuguese 
Legation at Madrid. Title confirmed to him by decree 27 Mar. 1872, and by a 
charter of 18 Apr. following. 8 

STRICKLAND. Sir Gerald Bologna Bonici Strickland, K.C.M.G., 6th COUNT DELLA 
CATENA [Malta 1745], is a HEREDITARY KNIGHT OF THE HOLY ROMAN EMPIRE 
as a descendant through his mother of Massimiliano Balzano, Uditore of the 
Religious Order of St. John, on whom this dignity was conferred by the 
Emperor Leopold I. by letters patent dated at Vienna 19 Nov. 1698. 9 

STRUTT. The family of Destrutt, Marquesses of Tracy [F.] and Counts of the 
French Empire (28 Apr. 1808), and finally Counts and Peers of France 
(3 Aug. 1824), are said to be descended from a Scottish Archer, Thomas 
Strutt, who went to France, and m. 5 Sep. 1476 Agnes le Roy, who brought 
him the Seigneurie of Assay. 10 His descendants acquired the Seigneurie of 
Tracy by marriage 18 Oct. 1586, and were afterwards styled Marquesses of 
Tracy. 11 Victor, Marquess of Tracy, Col. of Infantry, O.L.H., Minister of 
Marine (20 Dec. 1848), m. Sarah, widow of Gen. Baron Letort (who was killed 
at Waterloo), and grandniece of Isaac Newton. 12 

1 G. E. C.'s Complete Peerage, vi. 359. 

2 Balfour Paul's Scots Peerage, v. 360. 

3 Marryat, ii. 499 ; Douner, p. 39. 

4 Sveriges Add. 5 Peerage, 1860, p. 1116. 

6 Landed Gentry of Ireland, 1904, p. 38. 

7 Resenha das Familias, &c., i. 361. 

8 Regist. no Arch. Nac., Merces de D. Luiz /., liv. 25, fl. 30. 

9 Report of the Maltese Commission, 10 Dec. 1877. 

10 Titres de la Restauration, ii. 373. 

11 La Chenaye des Bois, vii. 607. 

13 Titres de la Restauration, ii. 374 ; Reverend, 1851, p. 384. 



AN ALPHABETICAL LIST 157 

STUART. Sir John Stuart of Darnley, having greatly distinguished himself at the 
.victory of Beauge 22 Mar. 1421, over the English, had a grant of the Lord 
ship of Concressault in Berry * from King Charles VII., whereby he became 
LORD DE CONCRESSAULT (SEIGNEUR DE CONCRESSAULT), and shortly after- 
wards 26 Mar. 1423 2 of the Lordship of Aubigny, also in Berry, whereby he 
became LORD D'AUBIGNY (SEIGNEUR D'AUBIGNY) [F.]. He afterwards had a 
grant of the COUNTY OF EVREUX in Normandy, by letters patent Jan. 1426/7, 3 
but never appears to have assumed that title, and in Feb. 1427/8 was per- 
mitted 4 to quarter the Royal Arms of France with his paternal coat. His 
2nd son John, 3rd LORD OF AUBIGNY, was one of the original KNIGHTS OF 
ST. MICHAEL, 1469. Bernard (Stewart), 4th LORD D'AUBIGNY [F.], the famous 
Marshal d' Aubigny of the Italian wars of Charles VIII. and Louis XII., 
was early in 1495, after the conquest of Naples by Charles VIII., appointed 
Governor of Calabria, with the title of MARQUESS OF SQUILAZZO and COUNT 
OF ACRI (MARCHESE DI SQUILAZZO e CONTE DI AcRi). 5 He was afterwards 
(1501) Governor of Naples, and having defeated the Spaniards at Terranuova 
25 Dec. 1502, and again at Girace shortly afterwards, was cr. by Louis XII. 
of France, as King of Naples, DUKE OF TERRANUOVA and MARQUESS OF GIRACE 
(DucA DE TERRANUOVA e MARCHESE DI GIRACE). 6 He was also Great Con- 
stable of Sicily and Naples and COUNT OF VANASSAC 7 and BARON DE ST. GEORGE, 8 
but whether these were Neapolitan or French titles is not clear. He m. 
2ndly, c. 1487, Anne, da. and h. of Guy (de Maumont), Seigneur de St. Quentin 
and j.u. Count of Beaumont le Roger by his wife Jeanne, 1st COUNTESS OF 
BEAUMONT LE ROGER [F.] by grant from King Louis XI. 16 Nov. 1470, 9 and 
sometime after that date became jure uxoris COUNT OF BEAUMONT LE ROGER 
and LORD OF ST. QUENTIN (COMTE DE BEAUMONT-LE-ROGER ET SEIGNEUR 
DE SAINT QUENTIN) [F.]. He d. on a visit to Scotland 15 June 1508, leaving 
two das., Guyonne (by 1st wife), who inherited the right to his Neapolitan titles 
and m. Philip de Brague, Seigneur de Luat, and had issue, and Anne (by 2nd 
wife), suo jure Countess of Beaumont-le-Roger and Lady of St. Quentin, who m. 
a. 1499 her cousin, Robert Stewart, who became in her right 5th Lord of 
Aubigny and Count of Beaumont-le-Roger, &c., but d. s.p. before 1527, for 
on 15 June 1527 Robert, Lord Aubigny, had a new grant of the LORDSHIP and 
COUNTY OF BEAUMONT-LE-ROGER from King Francis I. for himself and his 
2nd wife and their heirs. 10 He became a Marshal of France, and d. s.p. 1543, 
when the title of Count of Beaumont became extinct, while the Lordship of 
Aubigny devolved on his great-nephew John, 3rd son of the 3rd Earl of Lennox 
[S.]. His descendants continued to enjoy the title and lands, being known 
in England as LORDS AUBIGNY, until the death s.p. 12 Dec. 1672 of Charles 
(Stuart), 6th DUKE OF LENNOX [S.], 12th LORD OF AUBIGNY [F.], when the 
male issue of Sir John Stuart became extinct, with the exception of King 
Charles II. and the Duke of York, the former of whom claimed the succession ; 
but it being objected that a King of England was disqualified, a compromise 
was arrived at by the erection of the lands into a Duchy in favour of Louise 
de Querouaille and the heirs male of her body by the King. See de Querouaille. 

STUART. Anders Stuart (d. 1679) and his brother David (b. 1595), both Lords of 
the Bedchamber to Queen Christina, were recognised NOBLES [Sweden No. 86] 
1625, and appear in the first list of the Swedish House of Lords (Riddarhus) 
18 Jan. 1626. 11 They were sons of John Stuart, Cadet of Ochiltree, a Scottish 
Officer in the Swedish Service, who, having produced letters from the Lord 
Chancellor of Scotland attesting his noble birth, was admitted a NOBLE 
[Sweden] and had large grants of land in Sudermania from King Charles IX., 
1600-1611. Extinct. 12 

1 The Stuarts of Aubigny, by Lady Elizabeth Cust ; Balfour Paul's Scots Peerage, 
v. 360. 

2 Ibid. 3 Ibid. 4 Ibid. 

5 Stuarts of Aubigny, p. 32. 

6 Ibid., p. 35. 

7 Ibid., p. 45. 

8 Ibid., p. 63. La Chenaye des Bois (Diet, de la Noblesse, xiii. 462) calls him 
"Marquis de Livau et d'Esquiletazza, " and a contemporary poem is inscribed to "the 
Lord Bernard Stuart, Lord of Aubigny, Erie of Beaumont roger and boiiaffre," &c. 

9 Stuarts of Aubigny, p. 44 ; La Chenaye des Bois has 17 Nov. 1469. 

10 Ibid., p. 60. 

11 The name of Unge Anders Stuart also appears in the same list, and they all sign 
themselves M.P. Marryat, ii. 482. 

12 Marryat, ii. ; Donner, p. 39. 



'58 



THE NOBILITIES OF EUROPE 



STUAKT. Gen. Carl Magnus Stuart, Tutor and Gentleman-in-Waiting to King 
Charles XII. [descended from Anders Stuart, a Col. in the Swedish Service, 
who was Envoy to Russia 1611], commanded the Swedish invasion of Zeeland 
1700, and was cr. BARON STUART [Sweden No. Ill] by that King 1703. He d. 
6 Dec. 1705, leaving a son Charles, 2nd Baron Stuart, whod. s.p. 1742, when the 
Barony became extinct. 1 The noble line still exists. See Addenda. 

STUART. Don Jacobo Enrico de Bove Stuardo, so styled, living at Naples in 1669, 
claimed to be a son of Charles II. by " Donna Maria Stuardo della famiglia 
delle Baroni di S. Marzo," and to have been b. in Jersey 1646. He m. Donna 
Theresa Corona, and was father of " Prince Don Giacomo Stuardo," whose 
"rights " were recognised at Naples 1715, and who was living there in great 
poverty 1747. 2 

STUART. Sir Charles Stuart, G.C.B., P.C., who had been Envoy to Portugal in 
1810, was by decree of 21 Nov. 1825 granted a pension of 4,000,000 reis, 
and the following day cr. COUNT OF MACHICO (CONDE DE MACHICO) in Madeira 
[Portugal]. He was further cr. 1 May 1826 MARQUESS OF ANGRA (MARQUEZ 
D'ANGRA) [Portugal] 3 and 22 Jan. 1828 BARON STUART DE ROTHESAY in 
the United Kingdom. He d. 6 Nov. 1845, when his British honours became 
extinct ; but the right to his Portuguese titles devolved on his elder da. Char- 
lotte, Countess Canning, who d. s.p. 18 Nov. 1861, when she was sue. by her 
younger sister Louisa, Marchioness of Waterford, who dying s.p. 12 May 1891, 
they became extinct. 

STUART. Gen. Sir John Stuart, Commander-in- Chief of the British Forces in Naples, 
having inflicted a severe defeat on the French under General Regnier at 
Maida on the Calabrian coast 4 July 1806, was cr. by King Ferdinand IV. 
COUNT OF MAIDA (CONTE DI MAIDA), in Calabria [Naples], ? with rem. to the 
heirs of his body. He was afterwards (3 Jan. 1815) made a G.C.B. and a 
KNIGHT OF ST. JANUARTUS, which latter order he received Royal License to 
wear 16 Dec. 1814. He d. 2 Apr. 18 15.* 

STUART. Alexander Stuart, Councillor of State, Director of the Principal Archives 
of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs [a descendant of the Swedish branch], was 
by Ukase of the Emperor to the Senat Dirigeant 16 Feb. 1894 authorised (on 
his request) to carry in Russia, for himself and his descendants, the title of 
Baron, with which his father, Theodore Stuart, had been admitted to the 
Service of Russia. 5 

STUART. See p. 43, note 3. 
STUART [Sweden 1703]. See Stuart, Baron. 
STUART [Russia 1894]. See Stuart, Baron. 
STUART-FITZJAMES. See Fitzjames. 

STUBBS. Lieut.-Gen. Thomas William Stubbs, G.C.B.A., K.C.T.S., a distinguished 
British Commander in the Peninsular War, who afterwards entered the 
Portuguese Service, was 18 Dec. 1833 cr. BARON OF VILLA NOVA OF GAIA 
(BARAO DE VILLA NOVA DE GAIA) in Portugal, and 20 May 1835 advanced to 
a VISCOUNTY under the same designation. He was b. at Basingstoke, co. 
Hants, 7 June 1776, and d. 27 Apr. 1844, having m. 23 Jan. 1799 Joanna 
Candida (b. 4 Sep. 1780), da. of Manuel Jose Barbosa by his wife Theresa Clara 
nee de Seixas, and had issue Thomas Guilherme, b. 1 Sep. 1799, and Joanna 
Candida, b. 26 June 1820 ; m. 1st, 1 Oct. 1843, Antonio Jacintho de Castro 
Ribeiro, who d. 5 Sep. 1857 ; 2ndly, Francisco de Paula Barros e Quadros, 
Mar6chal de Camp ; and 3rdly, Jose Joaquim dos Reis e Vasconcellos, P.C., &c. 6 

SULLY [F.]. See MacMahon, Baron de. 

SULYARD. Gerard Sulyard [son of Lieut. -Col. Thomas Sulyard, who followed King 
James II. and VII. to France] inherited the title of BARON LIEFDAEL from his 

1 Manyat, ii. ; Donner, p. 39. 

2 Add. MSS. 20646 British Museum ; Duffus Hardy's Venetian MSS. ; and Balfour 
Paul's Scots Peerage, i. 30. 

3 Resenha das Familias, &c., ii. 104. 

4 Diet. Nat. Biog.. Iv. p. 100. It is not stated whether he was married. 

5 La Noblesse titree de la Russie, p. 280. 

6 Resenha das Familias, &c. , ii. 746. 



AN ALPHABETICAL LIST 159 

uncle, Baron Liefdael of Brabant, and also the estates and arms of that family. 
He was Major of a Scottish Regt. in the Dutch Service, was b. 1692, d. 1730, 
and left 2 sons, Guillaume Sulyard, Baron Liefdael, and Roger Sulyard, Baron 
Liefdael. 1 

SUTHERLAND. Richard Sutherland, Banker to the Emperor [of Scottish family], 
was by an Imperial Ukase of 7 July 1788 cr. a BARO:, OF THE RUSSIAN 
EMPIRE, for himself and his descendants. Extinct. 2 

SUTHERLAND [Russia 1788]. See Sutherland, Baron. 

SWAINE. Henry Joseph Swaine [b. in London 10 Sep. 1797] was ENNOBLED by 
George II.," DUKE OF SAXE MEININGEN, by letters patent dated at Hild- 
burghausen 28 Oct. 1858, and sixteen years later, 29 Nov. 1874, was cr. by King 
Maximilian II. BARON SWAINE (FREIHERR VON SWAINE) [Bavaria], with rem. to 
the heirs male of his body. His eldest son, the 2nd Baron Swaine, m. 2 Sep. 
1862 the Princess Ernestine of Lowenstein-Wertheim-Freudenberg, but d. s.p., 
when he was succeeded by his nephew, the 3rd and present Baron. See p. 37. 

SWAINE [Bavaria 1874]. See Swaine, Baron. 

SWINBURNE. Robert Swinburne [b. 1763, 2nd son of Sir Edward Swinburne, 
5th Bt. [E.] ] was a Gen. in the Austrian Service and Governor of Milan, and 
was 12/28 May 1863 cr. 3 by the Emperor Francis Joseph BARON SWINBURNE 
(FREIHERR VON SWINBURNE) [Austria]. He d. leaving, with a da., an only 
son, Edward Robert Francis Felix, 2nd Baron Swinburne, a Major in the 
Austrian Service and Chamberlain to the Emperor, b. 29 Dec. 1825, d. at 
No. 1 Schlosslgasse, Vienna VIII., 25 June 1907, 4 when the title became 
extinct. 

SWINBURNE [Austria 1863]. See Swinburne, Baron of. 



TAAFFE. Francis (Taaffe), 3rd EARL OF CARLINGFORD [I.], became when young 
Page of Honour to the Emperor Ferdinand, and was above thirty years in 
the Imperial Service, being Chamberlain, Councillor of the State and of the 
Cabinet, and finally Marshal to the Emperor, under the designation of COUNT 
TAAFFE, though it is uncertain whether he was cr. a COUNT OF THE HOLY 
ROMAN EMPIRE, or whether this designation was merely a recognition of his 
Irish rank ; K.G.F. in Spain. On the death of his brother on the side of Bang 
James at the Boyne, 2 July 1689, so highly was he esteemed by the various 
crowned heads of Europe, that he was specially exempted from attainder by a 
special clause in the Act of Parliament 1 Wm. and Mary. He d. s.p. Aug. 1704. 5 

TAAFFE. Nicholas (Taaffe), 6th VISCOUNT TAAFFE [I.], in 1738 was a Field-Marshal 
in the Imperial Service, and obtained the Golden Key as Chamberlain from 
the Emperor Charles VI., by whom he was cr. a COUNT OF THE HOLY ROMAN 
EMPIRE as COUNT TAAFFE (GRAF VON TAAFFE). His descendants have con- 
tinued to reside in Austria, where they have filled the highest posts, the late 
Count having been for many years (1879-93) Prime Minister of the Empire, 
but their right to their Irish honours was recognised bv the Committee for 
Privileges of the House of Lords 17 Aug. 1860. See p. 14. 

TAAFFE [H.R.E. 17]. See Taaffe. 

TABUTEAU. Augustus Tabuteau [son of Stephen Tabuteau, b. 10 Dec. 1669, who 
fled from France with his parents on the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes, 
18 Oct. 1685, and settled in Holland] was b. at Amsterdam 23 Apr. 1696, and 
settled in England, where he was naturalized 20 Feb. 1721, being ancestor of 
the Irish family of this name long established at Tullamore, King's Co., and 
of whom numerous descendants still survive in England, Ireland, and New 
Zealand. From " seals, monograms bearing a coronet, and statements in old 
letters, it would appear that he considered himself entitled to the French 
title of MARQUIS DE MONSEREAU, but all authentic records and claims to the 
title have been lost." 6 

1 The Genealogist, iv. 232. 2 La Noblesse titree de la Russie, p. 281. 

3 Freiherr. Taschenbuch, 1907, p. 809. 

4 The Times, 2 Nov. 1907. 

5 Burke's Peerage, 1907, p. 1616. 

6 Extract from Pedigree drawn up for Oliver Tabuteau by T. 0. Yates. 



160 THE NOBILITIES OF EUROPE 

TAGLIAFERRO. Girolamo Tagliaferro, a banker in Malta, was Apr. 1892 cr. by 
Pope Leo XIII. COUNT TAGLIAFERRO [P.S.], with rem. to the heirs male of 
his body. See p. 16. 

TAGLIAFERRO [P.S. 1892]. See Tagliaferro, Marquess. 

TAIT. Alfred Welby Tait, of Oporto, Esq., a British subject [son of William 
Auther Tait of Oporto, of a British family, settled there since 1840, 1 by his 
wife Dorothy, da. of George Chaster of Yorkshire], was 11 June 1896 cr. by 
Charles I. BARON DE SOUTELLINHO (BARAO DE SOUTELLINHO) [Portugal] for 
life. See p. 23. 

TAIT. Johan Tait, Major of Dorpat [descended from Henning Tait of Perno in 
Scotland, who went to Sweden and accompanied Berger Jarl, the founder of 
Stockholm, on a military expedition to Finland 1250], 2 was ENNOBLED [Sweden 
No. 436] by Queen Christina 1648, under the name of Stjerncreutz, and intro- 
duced into House of Lords 1649. Still existing. See p. 39. 

TALBOT. The Hon. Fanny Gabriella Talbot, Canoness of the Royal Order of St. 
Anne of Bavaria [2nd da. of Richard Talbot of Malahide Castle, co. Dublin, 
by his wife Margaret, suo jure 1st BARONESS TALBOT OF MALAHIDE [I.] ], was 

cr. a COUNTESS OF THE AUSTRIAN EMPIRE 3 by the Emperor ( ). She d. 

unm. 28 Apr. 1850, when the title became extinct. 

TALIACARNE. Andrea Luigi (Taliacarne), MARQUESS TALIACARNE, of Levanto, near 
Genoa * [son and h. of Francesco, Marchese Taliacarne, and his wife Donna 
Barbara, da. of the Marchese Brignole and granddaughter of the last Doge 
of Venice], 5 was Italian Minister to the King of Portugal, and d. Nov. 1867. 
He m. Sep. 1856 Elizabeth Anne, da. of David Albemarle Bertie Dewar of 
Doles, co. Hants. 6 His only son, Arthur Bertie James, Marquess of Taliacarne, 
d. at Wanganui, N.Z., 3 Sep. 1892, aged 33, 7 leaving issue. 

TANCARVILLE [F. 1419]. See Grey, Count of. 
TANCARVILLE [F.]. See Law, Count of. 
TARAZONA [Spain 1642]. See Fitzjames, Marquess of. 
TARENTE [F.E. 1806]. See Macdonald, Duke of. 

TASKER. Helen Anne Tasker, of Middleton Hall, Brentwood, and Hill Place, 
Upminster, both in co. Essex, and of Kendal Villa, Hammersmith, co. Middle- 
sex 8 [only da. of Joseph Tasker (who d. 1861 seised of Middleton Hall, and 
other estates in Shenfield and Brentwood, co. Essex) by his wife Anne, daughter 
of John Sanger of Oxford Street, London], 9 was about 1870 cr. by Pope Pius IX. 
COUNTESS TASKER (CONTESSA TASKER) [P.S.]. She d. unm. 3 Jan. 1888, 10 
when the title became extinct. 

TASKER [P.S., c. 1870]. See Tasker, Countess. 

TAYLOR. Isidore Justin Severin Taylor, G.C.L.H., Lieut. Royal Guards 1817 
[b. at Brussels 15 Aug. 1789, grandson of John Taylor and Anne Ridgeway n ] 
was 28 May 1825 cr. by Charles X. BARON TAYLOR [F.] ? for life. He was 
afterwards Member of the Academy of the Beaux Arts 1847, Inspector-Gen, 
of the Imperial Museum, a Senator of the Empire 6 May 1869, and on 
4 May 1870 he had letters patent of the Emperor Napoleon III. confirming 
him in the title of BARON TAYLOR [F.E.], with rem. to the heirs male of his body. 12 
He d. in Paris 1879, leaving issue. See Addenda. 

TAYLOR [F. 1825]. See Taylor, Baron. 
TAYLOR [F.E. 1870]. See Taylor, Baron. 

1 This family was resident in France from the end of the 16th century till the end of 
the 18th, but returned to England about 1784, and obtained a grant of arms there. 
Donner, p. 6. Dr. Fischer mentions (p. 263) an H. Teet ennobled 1652. 
Eurke's Peerage, 1907, p. 1618. 
Burke's Family Records. 

Foster's Noble and Gentle Families, &c. , ii. 550. 
Ruvigny's Plantagenet Roll: Essex Vol., p. 139. 
The Times. 

The Times, Feb. 1888. 
Ex inform, the Duke of Polignano. 

10 Notice in The Times, wherein, however, she is incorrectly described as a "Countess 
of the Holy Roman Empire." 

11 Reverend, 1870, p. 441. 

12 Titres de la Restauration, vi. 327. 



AN ALPHABETICAL LIST 161 

TECK [Wiirtemberg 1871]. See Hohenstein, Prince (1863), and Duke of. 

TEISSIER. James Teissier, Esq., J.P. co. Surrey, was by letters patent dated 
4 Dec. 1819 cr. by King Louis XVIII., with permission of H.B.H. the Prince 
Regent, afterwards George IV., BARON DE TEISSIER [F.], with rem. to the heirs 
male of his body. He was descended from Stephen de Teissier, a French 
Protestant refugee, who was naturalized by Act of Parliament 1714, and was 
cr. as above by a special rare exercise of the royal prerogative of the Crown 
in consideration, as the patent recites, of the kindness shown by his father 
Lewis de Teissier of Woodcote Park, Epsom, during the French Revolution 
to French subjects, and also in acknowledgment of the loyalty of the head 
of the family. Jean Antoine (de Teissier), 3rd Baron de Marquerittes [F.], who 
was guillotined 20 May 1794. 1 The 5th Baron received Royal License, for him- 
self and the heirs male of his body upon whom the baronial title and dignity 
should devolve, to assume and use the title in the United Kingdom 16 Sep. 
1905. See p. 20. 

TEISSIEB [F. 1819], See de Teissier, Baron de. 

TELEKI DE SZEK. "Alexander, COUNT TELEKI DE SZEK," a Transylvanian, was 
naturalized in the United Kingdom 18 Nov. 1856. 

TERRANUOVA [Naples 1502]. See Stewart, Duke of. 
TERRE NOVE. See Terranuova. 

TESTAFERRATA. Noble Mariano Testaferrata was cr. a PATRICIAN OP MESSINA 
for himself and his descendants by the Senate of that city 20 Dec. 1553 
(diploma registered at Messina 17 Apr. 1554, and recorded in the Civil Acts 
of the Inquisitorial Office at Malta 27 Aug. 1689); and his descendant Paul 
Testaferrata sue. his uncle Monsignor Don Leonardo Abela, Bishop of Sidonia, 
as a PATRICIAN OF ROME, that dignity having been conferred on the said 
Bishop and his brothers Placido and Alessandro Abela, and his three nephews 
ex sorore, Pietro di Ferro, Ascanio Sudo, and Paolo Testaferrata, and their 
descendants for ever, by the Senate of Rome 11 June 1590 (registered in 
the Civil Acts of the Inquisition of Malta 26 Aug. 1689) ; and these honours are 
now held by his descendants, among whom are the Barons of Gomerino [Malta]. 
Giacomo Testaferrata de Robertis, another descendant of the above-named 
Mariano, was cr. a HEREDITARY KNIGHT OF THE HOLY ROMAN EMPIRE by 
the Emperor Ferdinand III. 6 Nov. 1637, and a PATRICIAN OF ROME 6 July 
1674 ; and these honours are now enjoyed by his descendants, among whom 
are the Marquesses of St. Vincent, Casar de Sain, Testaferrata Olivier, the 
Baron Tabria, &c. &c. 

TETUAN [Spain 1859]. See O'Donnell, Duke of, p. 174. 

THARMOTT. James Tharmott [son of James Tharmott, who came to Sweden from 

Scotland] was an officer in Charles XL's " Lif Drabants," and was ENNOBLED 

[Sweden] by that King 1697. Extinct. 2 

THELLUSSON. Peter Thellusson [son of Isaac de Thellusson for sixteen years 
Ambassador from Geneva to the Court of Louis XIV., a direct descendant of 
Frederick de Thellusson, Seigneur de Flescheres, Baron St. Saphorin 1328 3 ], 
established himself in London, where he accumulated an immense fortune as 
a merchant, and afterwards purchased the Manor of Broadsworth, co. York, 
and was M.P. for Malmesbury. He d. 27 July 1797. His eldest son Peter 
Isaac was 1 Feb. 1806 cr. Baron Rendlesham [I.], which title is still held by 
his descendants. 

THERSLEFF. John Stjernstedt, J.P. Viborg 1680 [grandson of John Thersleff, who 
came from Scotland 1600, settled in Finland, and was Dean of Viborg], 4 was 
ENNOBLED [Sweden] by King Charles XII. 1697 and cr. BARON |>TJERNSTEDT 
[Sweden No. 145] by the same King 17 19. 5 He d. Governor of Abo. Family 
still existing. See p. 175. 

THIERRY. Charles Philip Hypolite (de Thierry), 5th BARON DE ST. BAUSSANT, 
commonly called Baron de Thierry, Knight [son of Charles (de Thierry), 
4th Baron de St. Baussant, Knight, Capt. of Artillery in the French Service 
and great-grandson of Jean Baptist (de Thierry), 1st BARON OF SAINT BAUSSANT 
in Lorraine " par erection du 9 Nov. 1723," 6 " doyen des conseillers du bailliage 

1 JBurJce's Peerage. 2 Marryat, ii. 499. 

J Foster's Peerage, 1880, p. 533. * Marryat, ii. 484. 

5 Dormer, p. 40 ; Sveriges Ridderslcaps, 

6 Julian de Courcelles, iv. 181-184. 



1 62 THE NOBILITIES OF EUROPE 

de St. Mihiel," the said Jean Baptist being himself the great-grandson and heir 
of Jean Thierry, Seigneur de St. Baussant, Advocate and afterwards " conseiller 
en la cour souveraine des grands jours de Saint Mihiel," a native of Etain who 
was ENNOBLED, together with his brothers and uncle, by the Emperor Rudolph 
by letters patent dated at Prague 1606, and confirmed by Henry, Duke of 
Lorraine, by letters patent dated at Nancy 26 Mar. 1613], 1 b. at Brussels 
13 Apr. 1793, 2 having for sponsor the Count of Artois, afterwards King 
Charles X., served for a short time in the British Army and afterwards in the 
Diplomatic Service ; matriculated from Magdalen Hall, Oxford, 26 May 1819, 
aged 25, and passed to Queen's College, Cambridge, 8 June 1820, where he met 
two Maori Chiefs, and formed the idea of founding an empire in New Zealand. 
He accordingly went there, but being opposed by the British authorities, and 
being destitute of supplies, his party dispersed, and he ended by settling down 
as a colonist. He died at Auckland 8 July 1864, 3 " a poor man, but much 
respected as an old colonist." 4 He m. Emily Rudge, 5 and had issue. Two 
of his brothers, Louis de Thierry, Chevalier, and Francis Charles de Thierry, 
Chevalier, were in the British Service, the former in the Army and the latter 
in the Navy. His sister, Antoinette Suzanne Caroline, m. 1st, Charles Peter 
Anthony Henry, Viscount of Frotte, a Captain in the British Army, who d. 
8 July 1813 ; and 2ndly, in London, 5 Jan. 1821, Francis Cardozo Perreira Pinto 
Taveira, a Portuguese gentleman, and had issue by her first husband Georgina 
de Frotte, b. 26 Mar. 1809. 6 

THIERRY DE SABONNIERS. Samuel de Pechels, of Montauban in Languedoc, a 
Huguenot refugee in England, is said 7 to have m. the Marchioness Thierry 
de Sabonniers. 

THOMGEUS or THOME. See Adelskold. 

THOMPSON. Sir Benjamin Thompson, Lieut. -Col. Bang's American Dragoons, and 
sometime (1780-1) Under Secretary of State for the Colonies, an American 
Royalist Officer [b. at North Woburn, Mass., U.S.A., 26 Mar. 1753, son of 
Benjamin Thompson of Massachusetts], came to England after the conclusion 
of Peace with the States, was knighted by King George III. 23 Feb. 1784, and 
had a grant of arms 31 May following. Shortly afterwards he had permission 
to enter the service of the Elector Palatine of Bavaria, by whom he was 
appointed Col. of a Cavalry Regiment and an A.D.C. In 1786 he was made 
a Knight of Stanislaus by the King of Poland, two years later the Elector 
made him a P.C. and Major-General of Cavalry, and finally, in the interval 
between the death of the Emperor Joseph I. (20 Feb. 1790) and the coronation 
of the Emperor Leopold II. (30 Sep. following), he was, in recognition of his 
eminent services, 8 cr. by the same Prince, as Vicar-General of the Empire, a 
COUNT OF THE HOLY ROMAN EMPIRE as COUNT OF ROMFORD (GRAF VON ROM- 
FORD),' with rem. to his daughter. 10 He afterwards returned to England and 
devoted himself to utilitarian, social, and domestic reforms, spent his fortune 
in the encouragement of scientific research in England and the United States, 
being the first to demonstrate that heat is a mode of motion, and founded the 
Royal Institution in 1799. He d. at Auteuil 25 Aug. 1814. His only da. and 
h., Sarah, Countess of Rumford, founded the Rolfe and Rumford Asylum for 

nr motherless girls at Concord, formerly Rumford, in New Hampshire, and 
mm. 2 Dec. 1852, when the title became extinct. 

THOMSON. Thomas Thomson, a Colonel in the Swedish Army 1629 [son of William 
Thomson and Anne Stuart], was ENNOBLED [Sweden No. 299] 1642 by Queen 
Christina. Extinct. 11 

1 Which recite " qu'il est issu de noblesse, du cdt6 de sa mdre-grande, nomine 1 e 
demoiselle Marie Beufoin, fille de Nobles conjoints Regnault Beufoin, prevot de Saint 
Mihiel, et Demoiselle des Ancherins." 

2 Julian de Courcelles, Nob., iv. 181-184. According to the Diet. Nat. Biog. he was b. 
in Somerset. 

3 The New Zealander. 4 Diet. Nat. Biog. 

6 de Courcelles. 6 Ibid. 

7 Burke 1 s Peerage, 1837, p. 752. 

8 His memory is still preserved in Munich by the English Garden there, which he laid 
out, and in which a monument was erected to him by the grateful citizens. 

9 He selected his title from the village of that name, now called Concord, in New 
Hampshire. 

10 See his life in vol. v. of the works of Count Rumford, published by the American 
Academy of Arts and Sciences. 

11 Marryat, ii. 499 ; Donner, p. 40. 



AN ALPHABETICAL LIST 163 

THOMSON. William Thomson, sometime an Officer in the English Navy, and after- 
wards in the Swedish, and Captain of Charles XL's yacht [son of John Thomson, 
Commander of Orebro Slott, by a sister of one of the Clercks], 1 [was ENNOBLED 
[Sweden No. 902] by King Charles XI. under the name of Gyllenskepp 1676. 
Family still existing. See p. 40. 

THOREN. See de Satge, Baron de. 

THORIGNY [Normandy a. 1066]. See Granville, Lord of. 

THORNTON. The Right Hon. Sir Edward Thornton, P.C., G.C.B., G.C.T.S., " Sr. 
usufructario das Terras Novas, denominadas da Patriarchal, sitas nas lezirias 
do Riba-Tego, e pertencentes ao antigo Almoxarifado da villa d'Azambuja," 
for many years H.B.M.'s Envoy Extra, and Min. Plen. to John VI., King of 
Portugal and Brazil, was by decree of 13 May 1824, and royal letters patent 
of the same date, cr. by that Prince COUNT OF CASSILHAS (CONDE DE 
CACILHAS) [Portugal] for three lives, " em tres vidas, para se verificarem em 
linha recta e legitima da sua descendencia," 2 and had Royal License from King 
George IV. to assume and use the title in the United Kingdom 10 Oct. 1825. 
His son, the Right Hon. Sir Edward Thornton, P.C., G.C.B., 2nd Count of 
Cassilhas, had confirmation by decree of 2 Dec. 1853, followed by letters 
patent of 13 Oct. 1858. 3 He was British Ambassador at Washington and 
sometime Minister to Brazil, and d. 26 Jan. 1906, when he was succeeded 
by his grandson, the present Count. See p. 14.* 

THTJILLIER. The title of Baron de Malapert is given by Debrett 5 to the Thuillier 
family. The Thuilliers left France on the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes 
in 1685, and settled in Geneva. Jean Antoine Thuillier, who was b. in Geneva, 
m. there in 1758 a Baroness de Malapert, and their eldest son, John Peter of 
Cadiz, came to England, and m. about 1787 an English lady, Julia Burrow, 
by whom he had five sons and six daughters. Gen. Sir Henry Edward Landor 
Thuillier, father of Col. Sir Henry Ravenshaw Thuillier, was the youngest of 
this family. Sir H. R. Thuillier informs the Editor that the " de Malaperts 
were German Barons of Amiens," but that he has no idea when the title was 
created or who the representative of the original grantee is. He adds that 
the pedigree of the Thuillier family in the Archives of the Chancellerie d'Etat 
of Geneva dates back to 1560. 

TILLOY [F. c. 1620]. See de Bucy, Viscount of. 

TINDAL. Gen. Ralph Dundas Tindal, K.C.L.H., Adjutant-General of the Imperial 
Guards [b. at Deventer, Holland, 24 Feb. 1773, son of Daniel Tindal, alias 
Tyndal, who came from Scotland, and d. a Col. in the service of the States 
General], was by letters patent dated 12 Apr. 1813 6 cr. by the Emperor Napoleon 
a BARON OF THE FRENCH EMPIRE as BARON TINDAL (BARON DE TINDAL), and 
two years later, 16 Sep. 1815, on the establishment of the Dutch Kingdom, 
BARON TINDAL [Netherlands] by King William I., with rem. to the heirs 
male of his body in order of primogeniture. 7 Title still existing. See p. 35. 

TINDAL [F.E. 1813]. See Tindal, Baron of. 
TINDAL [Netherlands 1815]. See Tindal, Baron. 
TINGWALL. See Anckarsparre. 
TOLLENDAL [F.]. See Lally, Baron of. 

TONGE. Henry Asheton Tonge, of the Chateau de Ragotin, Avranches, Manche, 
sometime an Officer in the British Army [fourth son of James Fletcher Tonge, 
of Tonge], having returned to live in France, has changed his name to 
de Tonge, and assumed the style and title of BARON DE TONGE, such being, 
as he maintains, the rank held by his ancestors before they came to England. 

TORRE BELLA [Portugal 1812]. See Gordon, Viscount of. 
TORRE BELLA [Portugal 189-]. See Gordon, Count of. 

1 Marryat, ii. 490. 

2 Regitt. no Arch, da T. do T., Merces de D. Jodo VI. 

3 Regist. no Arch, da T. do T., Mercys de D. Pedro 7., liv. 14, fl. 192. 

4 An "Amede'e Thornton," styled "Baron de Mouncie," was living 1889. See The 
Times 17 Oct. 1889, 22 Jan. 1890, &c. 

5 Peerage, 1907, p. 1036. 

6 Donataire (r. 6000) sur les de"partements du Taro et de 1'Arno by imperial decree 
of 1 Jan. 1812. Armorial du Premier Empire, iv. 313. 

7 Nederlandi Adelsboek. 



1 64 THE NOBILITIES OF EUROPE 

TORRE DE PERO PALHA [Portugal 1866]. See Owen, Baron of. 

TORRES VEDRAS [Portugal 1811]. See Wellesley, Marquess of. 

TOUCY [F.]. See Law, Marquess of. 

TOURAINE [F. 1424]. See Douglas, Duke of. 

TRACY [F. c. 1600]. See Strutt, Marquess of. 

TRAILL. See p. 43, note 3. 

TRANCOZO [Portugal 1811]. See Beresford, Count of. 

TRAVERS. "Count J. Travers" died before 17 Sep. 1885, when The Times con- 
tained an announcement relating to some documents left by him. 

TRENCH. Richard le Poer (Trench), 2nd EARL OF CLANCARTY [I.] and 1st Viscount 
Clancarty [U.K.], G.C.B., G.C.H., was British Ambassador to the Hague 
1813-1815, and again 1817-1818, and was 18 July 1818 cr. by King William I. 
MARQUESS OF HETTSDEN (MARRIES VAN HEUSDAN) [Netherlands], with rem. 
to the heirs male of his body. On 16 Aug. 1824 he obtained a Royal License 
for himself and his heirs to bear the title within the United Kingdom. On 
the separation of Holland and Belgium this title was taken over by the latter 
country. Title still held by his heir. See p. 11. 

TRESSENBURG. See Currie. 

TWIST or Twiss. John Twist or Twiss came from England, was Councillor at 
Lubeck, and settled at Helsingborg, being ENNOBLED [Sweden No. 1330] 1695 
by King Charles XI. and introduced 1697 as " Rosentwist til Hanaskog," 
the name of his estate in Skane. 1 Family still existing. See p. 40. 



UDNIE. Peter Udnie [son of William Udnie of Tillery, co. Aberdeen] went to 
Sweden 1634, and was a Corporal in the "Noble Standard Corps," and having 
produced a certificate that he belonged to the Baronial Family of Udnie of 
Bomaledie Lyst, was naturalized as a Noble [Sweden No. 375] 1647. Extinct 
after 1669. 2 

ULFASA [Sweden 1761]. See Hopkins, Count of. 
ULLISHAVEN [Sweden 1686]. See Lichton, Count of. 
ULLOA [Castile]. See Fitzjames, Lord. 
UNION [Spain 1809]. See Frere, Marquess of the. 

URQUHART. John Urquhart or Urqvard of Cromartie, Craigstown, and Meldrum, 
Lieut. -Col. Royal Swedish Life Guards (" Lif-Drdbants "), commanded the Dyke 
of Kinnimond Battery and married his Colonel's daughter, Isabella, 3 being 
ENNOBLED [Sweden No. 423] by Queen Christina 1648. Now extinct. 



VAHL [Portugal 1865]. See Samuel, Baron Samuel of. 
VALDECORNEJO [Castile]. See Fitzjames, Lord of. 
VALDENABANO [Spain]. See Fitzjames, Marquess of. 
VALDERONDA [Spain 1653]. See Walrond, Count of. 
VALDESOTO [Spain 17 ]. See Nugent, Count of. 
VALDEZ. See Harris, p. 96, note 2. 
VALENCY [F.]. See Law, Count of. 
VALLADO [Spain 1653]. See Walrond, Marquess of. 
VALMER [F. 1646]. See de Pinon, Viscount of. 
VALROSE [F. c. 1560]. See Drummond, Baron of. 
VARANO [P.S. 1721]. See Bandini, Lord of. 

VAUDES. Alexandre de Vaudes, " commonly called Compte (sic) de Vaudes, son 
of Alexandre ffrancois de Vaudes and Ann du Mont his wife, b. at Bayeux 

1 Marryat, ii. 496. 

2 Marryat, ii. 500 ; Dormer, p. 41 ; Sveriges Add. 

3 Marryat, ii. 500. 



AN ALPHABETICAL LIST 165 

in Normandy, of the Protestant faith," l was naturalized by Act of Parlia- 
ment 3 June 1802. 2 

VAUGHAN. " Baroness Vaughan " is the title used by a lady who is reputed to be 
the morganatic wife of King Leopold II. of Belgium, who Nov. 1907 settled 
a sum of 1,200,000 on the child of this connection. 3 

VON VELTHEIM. Baron Heinrich von Veltheim, 9th Lancers [3rd son of Baron 
Ludulph von Veltheim of Schloss Ostrau, Saxony], m. at St. Mary's, Twyford, 
9 May 1891 Julie Jeannette, 4th da. of the late N. Heydemann, Esq., of Bradford, 
Yorks, and of Mrs. Heydemann of Grove Hall, Twyford, Berks. 4 

VENASSAC [?]. See Stuart, Count of. 

VEBAGUA [Spain 1537]. See Fitzjames, Duke of. 

VERNON. See Grogan, p. 93, note 1. 

VIANGES [P.]. See MacMahon, Marquess of. 

VIAROLO [Parma 1450]. See Magawly, sometimes styled Count of. 

VICKE [Belgium a. 1674]. See White, Baron of. 

DE VICOUSE. Guy (de Vicouse), BARON DE LA COURT, a Huguenot refugee in 
England, was Governor of the French Hospital 1722-1728. He was a sub- 
scriber to the first edition of Rapin's History, and Rapin's biographer states 
that his French title was Baron Vigose de la Cour, and that he was a 
descendant of Ramond de Vicose, Councillor and Secretary of State to 
Henry IV. A Guy Vicouse, possibly his son, was Director of the French 
Hospital 5 July 1732.^ 

VICQUE. See Vicke. 

VICTORY [Portugal 1812]. See Wellesley, Duke of the. 

VIERVILLE [P.]. See Champion, Count of. 

VIERZON [F. 1820]. See Brown, alias Bourbon, Countess of. 

VILLALBA [Castile]. See Fitzjames, Count of. 

VILLA DE MERTOLA [Portugal 1668]. See Schomberg, Count of the. 

VILLANDA. See Leslie, p. 107, note 9. 

VILLA NOVA DE GAIA [Portugal 1833]. See Stubbs, Baron of. 

VILLANUEVA DEL FRESNO [Spain a. 1516]. See Fitzjames, Marquess of, also Lord 
[Castile]. 

VILLANUEVA DEL Rio [Spain c. 1550]. See Fitzjames, Marquess of. 
VILLAR D'ALLEN [Portugal 1866]. See Allen, Viscount of. 

DE VILLE. Henry Alexander (de Lossy), Baron de Ville [descended from ( ) de 

Lossy, who was 17 Jan. 1788 cr. Baron de Ville in the Belgian Provinces by the 
Emperor Joseph II.], was naturalized in the United Kingdom 17 Aug. 1888, and d. 
at Crowborough Warren, Sussex, 30 Jan. 1895, aged 52, leaving issue. See p. 19. 

VILLIERS. Thomas (Villiers), 1st Earl of Clarendon [U.K.], having been British 
Ambassador to the Court of Berlin in 1782, is said 6 to have been " created 
a BARON OF THE KINGDOM OF PRUSSIA by his Prussian Majesty, an honour 
which his Lordship was permitted under the sign-manual of his own sovereign 
to enjoy," and his descendant, the present Earl of Clarendon, is, according 
to Debrett, 7 Baron Villiers in Prussia. This title is not mentioned in the 
Taschenbuch der Freiherrlichen Hauser, and Lord Clarendon disclaims it. 8 His 
ancestor the 1st Earl had a Royal License, dated St. James's, 16 July 1782, 
from George III., "to accept the honour of bearing the Prussian Eagle as a 
mantle to his arms an honour conferred on his Lordship by his Prussian 
Majesty, in testimony of his remembrance and esteem," 9 and this was 
apparently the origin of the mistake. 

Preamble to Act. 2 42 Geo. III., No. 234. 

Daily Telegraph, 4 Nov. 1907. 

The Times. 

Agnew, 3rd edition, ii. 301. 

Eurke's Peerage, 1907, p. 353 ; Debrett's Peerage, 1907, p. 436. 

Peerage, 1907, p. 1047. 

8 In a letter to the Editor. 

9 London Gazette of that date, Morning Chronicle and London Advertiser. 17 July 
1782. 



1 66 THE NOBILITIES OF EUROPE 

VILLORIA [Castile]. See Fitzjames, Lord. 
VIMIEIBA [Portugal 1811]. See Wellesley, Count of. 

VIKAZELL. The BARON DE VIRAZELL, " residing in Ireland," was put down for a 
pension of 100 per annum, 1715. 1 

DE VIRTE. " Jean Thomas Antonio Leopold de Virte [in the Kingdom of Italy 
styled Baron Jean Thomas Antonio Leopold de Virte de Rathsamhausen 
(Ehenweyer)] " was naturalized in the United Kingdom by a Private Act of 
Parliament 11 June 1877, together with his wife Margaret and Emma Maria 
Louisa Isabella, their daughter. 

DE VISMES. Gerard de Vismes of Normandy, who on the extinction of the senior 
line of his family [who were descended from the Sovereign Counts of Ponthieu 
and Vismes] had become COUNT DE VISMES, retired to England on the Revo- 
cation of the Edict of Nantes, and his descendants have since remained 
there. Elisee William, Count de Vismes, Col. Coldstream Guards (d. 1840), 
established the Nobility of his family, and was recognised as Comte de 
Vismes by the French Government. 2 See p. 12. Cadets have used the title of 
Viscount and Baron de Vismes, and the head of the House that of Prince. 3 

VISMES [F. feudal]. See de Vismes, Count of. 

VITRY [F. 167-]. See Schomberg, Count of. 

VITUS. See White. 



W 

4 

WALKER. Family [descended from Elias Walker, who was much employed by 
Charles XL, and whose ancestor David Walker, a merchant in Grefle, came 
from Scotland in John III.'s time] 5 ENNOBLED [Sweden No. 1728] by Queen 
Eleanor 1720. Extinct 1733. 

WALKINSHAW. Clementina Walkinshaw [youngest of the 10 das. of John Walkin- 
shaw of Camlachie and Barrowfield, co. Lanark] was before 22 July 1760 cr. 
by the Emperor Francis I. COUNTESS OF ALBERSTROF (GRAFIN VON ALBERSTROF) 
[H.R.E.]. She was mistress of Charles III. (Prince Charles Edward), by 
whom she was mother of Louisa, Duchess of Albany [S.], and d. unm. at 
Friburg Nov. 1805, when the title became extinct. 6 

WALL. Angelique Michel Joseph Ulrick Wall, K.C.S.L., Marechal de Camp (30 Aug. 
1814), A.D.C. to the King (1813) [b. at Sainte Sabine, C6te d'Or, 20 Aug. 1768, 
descended from an English family originally of co. Northampton, and son 
of Patrick Wall, Seigneur de St. Sabine, dit le Comte de Wall, Baron de 
Santour j.u., G.C.S.L., Marechal de Camp (25 July 1762) and Lieut. -Gen. 
(5 Dec. 1781), Governor of Paris], was by letters patent of the 11 Dec. 1829, 
" sur institution d"un majorat," cr. by King Charles X. a Hereditary Count by 
the style of COUNT OF WALL (COMTE DE WALL) [F.]. He d. 10 June 1838, 
leaving issue. The title is still held by his descendants (see p. 31). His son 
was " confirme dans la transmission des titre et majorat" 9 Mar. 1836. 7 

WALL. Balthazar Franois de Wall, dit LE MARQUIS DE BALLYNAKILLY, Governor 
of Ham, d. 23 Aug. 1754. His widow, Jeanne Gabriella Catherine de Vaudrey, 
Dame de Santour, &c., m. 2ndly, Lieut. -Gen. Patrice de Wall, dit le Comte 
de Wall, G.C.S.L., Governor of Paris. 8 See above. 

WALL [F. 1829]. See Wall, Count of. 
WALLIS [? H.R.E. 1642]. See Walsh, Baron of. 
WALLIS [H.R.E. 1752]. See Walsh, Count of. 
WALLIS [H.R.E. 1724]. See Walsh, Count of. 

1 Agnew, p. 314. 

2 Burke's Peerage, 1864-77 ; 1902, p. 2048 ; 1908, &c. 

3 See Annuaire de la NoUesse de France, by Borel d'Hautereve, 1865. 

4 A "BARON DE WAGSTAFFE " was living in London 1897, being then a Director of the 
Pneumatic Tube Machine Co. , Ltd. 

6 Marryat. 

6 Jacobite Peerage, p. 5. 

7 Titres de la Restauration, vi. 465-67. 

8 Ibid., vi. 466. 



AN ALPHABETICAL LIST 167 

WALLIS [H.R.E. 1767]. See Walsh, Count of. 

WALLIS OF BUDWITZ [Bohemia 1735]. See Walsh, Count of. 

WALLIS OF KOLESCHOWITZ [Bohemia 1706], See Wallis, Count of. 

WALROND. Humphrey Walrond of Sea, co. Somerset, a distinguished Royalist 
Commander, retired to Barbados, of which he was made Governor and President, 
and was 5 Aug. 1653 cr. MARQUESS OF VALLADO and COUNT OF PARAMA AND 
VALDERONDA (MARQUES DE VALLADO, CONDE DE PARAMA Y VALDERONDA) 
and a GRANDEE of the 1st CLASS [Spain] by King Philip IV. These titles 
are still held by his descendant, who, however, does not use them. See p. 10. 

WALSH. Patrick Mark Walsh, styled Chevalier Walsh [2nd son of Philip Walsh of 
St. Malo, and elder brother of the 1st Earl Walsh [I.] and of the 1st Count 
of Serrant [F.] ], was of St. Malo, where he was bapt. 13 Oct. 1701. His issue 
were recognised as NOBLES [F.] by King Louis XV. 15 Aug. 1754, and bore 
the designation of CHEVALIER WALSH DE CHASSENON, from an estate in Poitou, 
which they purchased for 290,000 Uvres tournois 4 May 1776. The male line 
became extinct 26 June 1813. 1 

WALSH. The descendants of Anthony Vincent (Walsh), 1st EARL WALSH [I.], 
so cr. by King James III. and VIII. 20 Oct. 1745, remained in France, 
where they were known as Counts Walsh ; the younger sons and daughters 
carrying the courtesy prefix of Count and Countess, or Viscount and Vis- 
countess, before their Christian names. They became extinct in the male line 

26 Oct. 1884. 2 

WALSH. Francis James Walsh [4th son of Philip Walsh of St. Malo and younger 
brother of the two last named] obtained, with his brothers Patrick, Mark, and 
Philip, recognition of his NOBILITY [F.] from King Louis XV. 15 Aug. 1754, 
and was by him shortly afterwards, viz. Mar. 1755, cr. COUNT OF SERRANT 
(COMTE DE SERRANT) in Anjou, with rem. to ( ), the patent being registered 
first at Angers 9 July, at the Parliament of Paris 16 July, at the " Cour des 
Aides " 30 July, and at the " Greffe de la Senechaussee d* Angers " 5 Sep. 
same year. His son, Anthony Joseph Philip, 2nd Count of Serrant, a Brig.- 
Gen. in the French Army, was 15 Aug. 1810 cr. by the Emperor Napoleon I. 
a COUNT OF THE FRENCH EMPIRE, with rem. to the heirs male of his body. 
This last title became extinct on the death of his last male descendant, the 
6th Count of Serrant, 11 Apr. 1894, while the County of Serrant (1755) devolved 
on the junior branch, founded by Col. Count Charles Edward Joseph Augustus 
Walsh, K.S.L., and which had used the courtesy title of Viscount of Serrant 
(VicoMTE DE SERRANT). 3 Several members of this family, who all bore the 
courtesy title of Count before their Christian names, served in the British 
Army after the Revolution. 4 See p. 30. 

WALSH. Count Olivier Ludovic Charles Robert Walsh, styled MARQUESS OF WALSH- 
SERRANT [younger brother of the 3rd and 4th Counts of Serrant], b. in London 

27 Aug. 1797, m. at Le Fayal, Oise, 23 Mar. 1824 Elizabeth, da. and h. of ( ), 

Marquess of Hericy, a descendant of Charles, Count of La Mothe-Houdan- 
court, a GRANDEE of the 1st CLASS [Spain], so cr. 17 Sep. 1722 5 ], and ( ) became 
jure uxoris COUNT OF LA MOTHE-HOUDANCOURT and a GRANDEE OF SPAIN 
of the 1st CLASS. 6 On 18 Aug. 1829 he was cr. by King Ferdinand VII. DUKE 

OF LA MOTHE-HOUDANCOURT (DUQUE DE LA MOTHE-HOUDANCOURT [Spain], 

with rem. to the heirs general of his body, 7 and 18 Aug. 1829 he was further 
cr. by Louis Philip, in error, 8 DUKE OF WALSH-SERRANT (Due DE WALSH- 

1 The Family of Walsh, by V. Hussey Walsh ; The Genealogist, N.S., xvii., pp. 36 
ft seq. 

2 Ruvigny's Jacobite Peerage, p. 183. 

3 The Genealogist, N.S., xvii., pp. 91 ct seq. 

* Count Alfred Isidore Walsh [son of Count Philip Walsh, K.S.L., a Major in the 
Irish Brigade, first in the French Service and afterwards in the British, 3rd son of the 
first Count of Serrant], a Lieut, in the 15th Regt., m. 26 June 1819 Stella Eloisa, da. 
of Philip Dormer Stanhope and granddaughter of Charles Stanhope by his wife (m. 
14 July 1745) Catherine Margaretta, sister of Thomas Cope Freeman of Abbot's Langley, 
co. Herts, and 14 Feb. 1823 assumed the name of Walsh-Freeman under the will of 
Frances, widow of Admiral Allen and da. of the aforesaid T. C. Freeman. Count Alfred 
Isidore Walsh-Freeman, d. s.p.m. 19 Dec. 1862. 

5 See p. 59. 

6 The Genealogist, N.S., xvii. 94-95. _ 7 Ibid. 

8 It was intended to recognise him as a Duke [F.] under the same title as his Spanish 
Dukedom, but by an error in the patent he was given the title of Duke of Walsh -Serrant. 



1 68 THE NOBILITIES OF EUROPE 

SERRANT) [F.], with rem. to the heirs male of his body. He d. s.p.m.s. 17 Nov. 
1842, when his French Dukedom became extinct, while his Spanish honours 
devolved on his three daughters in succession. The eldest and second died 
unm. 31 May 1849 and 16 Oct. 1866 respectively, and the third, Alice Marie, 
suo jure 4th DUCHESS OF LA MOTHE-HOUDANCOURT, &c. [Spain], m. Count 
Artus de Coss6 Brissac, and d. 21 Jan. 1895, leaving two das., Marie Augustine 
Elizabeth, suo jure 5th DUCHESS, wife of Baron Brusle de Valsuzenay, by whom 
she was divorced 1900, when she appears to have resigned the title to her 
sister Elizabeth Jane Theresa Marie, who m. 27 June 1883 Count Renaud de 
Moustier, now jure uxoris 6th DUKE or LA MOTHE-HOUDANCOURT [Spain]. 1 

WALSH. Major-Gen. Oliver Walsh, Col. Proprietor of the Wallis Regt. of Infantry 
in the Austrian Army [son of Richard Walsh of Carrickmayne, a Colonel in 
the Imperial Service], was 1642 cr. by the Emperor Ferdinand III. BARON 
OF WALLIS [?], with rem. to (?) the heirs male of his body, and was admitted 
to the Bohemian Herrenstand 28 June 1645, and to that of Moravia 1650. 
He d. 22 June 1667. His grandson, George Oliver, 3rd Baron Wallis, Col. 
Proprietor of the Alt Wallis Regt. 1707, was 13 Mar. 1706 cr. by the Emperor- 
King Joseph I. COUNT WALUS OF KOLESCHOWITZ (GRAF WALUS VON KOLE- 
SCHOWITZ) [Bohemia], with rem. to the heirs male of his body. He was 
afterwards Field-Marshal of the Imperial Armies and Governor of Servia (1739). 
On 13 Aug. 1752 he was further cr. by the Empress Maria Theresa a COUNT OF 
THE HOLY ROMAN EMPIRE (GRAF VON WALLis), 2 with a like rem. All these 
titles are still held by his descendant. See p. 30. 

WALSH. BARON FRANCIS ERNEST VON WALSH, Capt. in the Wallis Regt. and a 
Chamberlain to the Emperor [2nd son of Oliver, 1st Baron Wallis (1642)], 
obtained the Hungarian Indigenat 25 July 1688, and d. 12 Dec. 1702. His 
eldest son, Field-Marshal Baron Franz Wenzel von Wallis, K.G.F., Master of 
the Ordnance and Commander-in-Chief in Bohemia 1746 and in Hungary 
1768-1770, was 14 July 1724 cr. by the Emperor Charles VI. a COUNT OF 
THE HOLY ROMAN EMPIRE (GRAF VON WALLIS), with rem. to the heirs male 
of his body, and 10 May 1735 COUNT WALLIS OF BUDWITZ (GRAF WALLIS 
VON BUDWITZ) [Bohemia]. He d. 24 Feb. 1774. His grandson Joseph, 
3rd Count of Wallis, P.C., K.G.F., K.C.S.H., Chancellor of the Exchequer 
(HoTcfammer Prdsident), President of Bohemia, &c. (d. 18 Nov. 1817), was 
offered the title of Prince, but declined it. 3 See p. 29. 

WALSH. Edward Walsh [a cadet of the family of Walsh of Carrickmines] is said * 
to have been cr. BARON WALUS (FREIHERR VON WALLIS) [? H.R.E.]. His 
eldest son Alexander, 2nd Baron, Col. of Count George Oliver von Wallis's 
Regt. (19 Mar. 1744), was 6 Feb. 1767 cr. a COUNT OF THE HOLY ROMAN EMPIRE 
(GRAF VON WALUS), with rem. to the heirs male of his body, at the same time 
as his two cousins. 5 He d. s.p.m., when his title became extinct. 

WALSH. Lucas von Wallis, a Capt. in the Imperial Service, b. 1684 [yr. brother of 
Edward Baron Wallis, last named], was father of three sons, of whom the 
eldest Philip, and the youngest Robert, Col. of the Colloredo Regt., were 
6 Feb. 1767 cr. COUNTS OF THE HOLY ROMAN EMPIRE by the Emperor Joseph II., 
with rem. to the heirs male of their bodies. The second son Patricius Olivier 
von Wallis, P.C., K.M.T., Col. Prop. 35th Regt. and (1775) Imperial Commis- 
sioner for Bohemia, d. (apparently) unm. 14 Nov. 1787. 6 

WALSH [F.E. 1810]. See Walsh, Count of. 

WALSH. See Wallis. 

WALSH-SERRANT [F. 1829]. See Walsh, Duke of. 

WALWORTH [H.R.E. and Bavaria 1790]. See Jenison, Count of. 

WARD. Thomas Ward, originally Groom and afterwards Master of the Horse and 
Minister of the Household and of Finance to Charles Louis, Duke of Lucca 
[b. at Howley, co. Yorks, 9 Oct. 18 10, 7 of humble parentage], 8 having rendered 
material assistance to the Duke by arranging a dispute with Tuscany and 
concluding a treaty with that State for the acknowledgment of the Lucchese 

1 The Genealogist, N.S., xvii. 95. 2 Ibid., pp. 217 et seq. 

3 Ibid., xviii., pp. 79 et seq. 

Ibid., p. 85. 

The Genealogist has "brothers," obviously an error. 

Ibid., xviii. 84-85. 

Burkc's Peerage, 1849, p. 1098 ; the Diet. Nat. Biog. has 1809. 

Diet. Nat. Biog., lix. 341. 



AN ALPHABETICAL LIST 169 

public debt as well as a Customs Union between the two Governments, was 
21 June 1847 ENNOBLED and cr. a BAEON or THE DUCHY OF LUCCA as BARON 
WARD, with rem. ( ? ), and a Knight of St. Louis of Lucca, 1st Class. He was 
also made a Knight Commander of St. Joseph of Tuscany by the Grand Duke. 
In 1847, on the accession of Duke Charles Louis to the throne of Parma, he 
was on a mission to Florence to superintend the transfer of Lucca to Tuscany, 
and on his return to Parma became the Duke's Prime Minister and a Senator, 
Grand Cross of the Constantinian Order of St. George of Parma 1848, and 
the same year, having brought to a pacific termination a dispute between 
Tuscany and Modena, he was cr. a NOBLE OF TUSCANY, with the title of BARON, 
and a G.C. of St. Joseph. Later in the year he was Ambassador to Spain, 
and afterwards to Austria, being made a G.C.C.S. and K.I.C. A. by the Sovereigns 
of those States. On the accession of Duke Charles III. of Parma, 20 May 1849, 
he was sent as Min. Plen, to Vienna, and was cr. by the Emperor Francis Joseph 
a BARON OF THE AUSTRIAN EMPIRE as BARON WARD (FREIHERR VON WARD) 
for himself and his descendants, and afterwards he was on a mission to England. 1 
After the assassination of Duke Charles he was (27 Mar. 1854) dismissed from 
all his offices, and retired to Vienna, where he d. 5 Oct. 1858. He m. Louisa 
Genthner, and had issue 2 (1) Charles Louis, 2nd Baron Ward, 3 b. 22 Apr. 1843 ; 
(2) Thomas, b. 15 Jan. 1848; (3) Mary Theresa, b. 28 July 1845, d. at Vienna 
17 July 1849; and (4) Elizabeth Margaret, b. 9 July 1849. 

WARD. Reginald Henshaw Ward, of Fulwell Park, Twickenham, and Lord of the 
Manor of North Scarle, co. Lincoln [son of Andrew Henshaw Ward, Esq., of 
Boston, U.S.A.], was on 14 Jan. 1902 cr. by Pope Leo XIII. a HEREDITARY 
COUNT OF THE PAPAL STATES as COUNT WARD, with rem. to the heirs male 
of his body. He is a Grand Cross of Charles III. of Spain, and of Villa Vicosa 
of Portugal, &c. 

WARD [Lucca 1847]. See Ward, Baron. 
WARD [Tuscany 1848]. See Ward, Baron. 
WARD [Austria 1849]. See Ward, Baron. 
WARD [P.S. 1902], See Ward, Count. 

WARDLAW. John Wardlaw [son of George Wardlaw of Pitreavie, lord of " Tatilk," 
b. 1600, who went to Sweden, and was appointed by Gustavus Adolphus 
keeper of the imperial prisoners 1628. He was afterwards Lieut. -Col. Royal 
Life Guards, and m. Anne Forbes of Aberdeen] was naturalized as a NOBLE 
[Sweden No. 951] by King Charles XI. 1680. Extinct 17 17. 4 

WAREND [Sweden]. See de Mornay, Baron of. 

WARREN. Edward Warren of Seatown and Bellagmoor, b. 12 May 166-, an Officer 
in the Royal Service, followed King James II. to France, and after the Peace 
of Ryswick passed into the service of the Duke of Lorraine, and established 
himself at Nancy with his family, and had 1 Feb. 1703 " la concession pour trente 
ans, de Ventreprise generate des poudres et salpetres de Lorraine." He was 
naturalized in Lorraine 25 Dec. 1712, and obtained recognition of his NOBILITY 
by an arrgt of 31 July 1726. He d. 26 Oct. 1733. His son Edward, b. in 
London 29 Nov. 1697, served as Directeur- general des poudres et salpdtres. In 
1737 he followed Duke Francis to Florence, where he was named Col. of 
Artillery and Engineers, and Comdt. of the Palaces of Florence, &c., and d. 21 
June 1760. His 3rd son but eventual h., Henry Hyacinthe, a Major in the 
Imperial Service, returned to Nancy 1770, and obtained confirmation of the 
" privileges de Noblesse par arret de la chambre du comptes de Lorraine " 4 Jan. 
177 1, 5 and from the King of France "la reconnaissance officielle de sa Noblesse, 
pour tenir en France le rang qui lui etait du 7 Jan. 1771." 6 His elder son, Patrick 
Leopold Edward de Warren, Capt. in Dillon's Regt., passed into the British 
Service after 1792, and d. s.p. in Jamaica 9 Sep. 1796; and the 2nd, John 

1 He impressed Palmerston so with his tact and sagacity, that he declared him to be 
one of the most remarkable men of his age. Diet. Nat. Biog. 

2 Burke, 1849. See also the same author's Vicissitudes of Families, remodelled ed. 
1869, vol. i. 238-286, and an aupreciative article entitled "Ward, the Cavour of Abso- 
lutism," in Temple Bar for Dec. 1897. 

3 BurJce's Peerage, 1864. The title had been omitted by 1868, and is presumably 
extinct. 

4 Marryat, ii. 500 ; Donner, p. 41 ; Sveriges Adel. 

5 Ex inform. Count Edward de Warren. 

6 ReVerend, 1905, p. 143. 



170 THE NOBILITIES OF EUROPE 

Baptist Francis James, celebrated in the monde savant under the title of 
Chevalier de Warren, emigrated 1792, and became Capt. 33rd Regt. in the 
British Service. He returned to France on the Restoration, and had his 
Nobility, with the title of COUNT OF WABBEN (COMTE DE WABBEN) [F.] recog- 
nised by King Louis XVIII. 28 Mar. 1816. He d. 9 Feb. 1830, leaving a son, 
Francis Patrick Edward, 2nd Count of Warren, K.L.H., K.F.J., a well-known 
author, who was b. at Madras 8 June 1811, and was for some time an Officer 
in the British Service. 1 Title still existing. See p. 31. 

WABBEN. Rene de Warren [eldest son of Count Anselme Stanislas Firmin Leon 
de Warren, b. 20 Dec. 1831, younger son of Francis Patrick Edward (Warren), 
2nd Count of Warren [F.] ], was by Pontifical brief of the 27 June 1900 cr. 
DUKE OF WABBEN (DucA DE WABBEN) [P.S.] by H.H. Pope Leo XIII., with 
rem. to the heirs male of his body. 2 See p. 27. 

WABBEN [F. 1815]. See Warren, Count of. 
WABBEN [P.S. 1900]. See Warren, Duke of. 
WABWICK [H.R.E. 1620]. See Dudley, Count of. 

WASHINGTON. Sir James Washington [b. 1788 ; d. 5 Aug. 1848, of an English 
family], a Lieut. -Gen. in the Bavarian Army and Chamberlain to King Louis I., 3 
was 8 Dec. 1829 cr. by that Prince BABON OF WASHINGTON (FBEIHEBB VON 
WASHINGTON) [Bavaria], for himself and his descendants. 4 His son Maxi- 
milian, 2nd Baron Washington, P.C., G.C.M., a Member of the Upper House 
of the Austrian Reichsrath, 5 m. 15 Aug. 1855 the Duchess Frederica of 
Oldenburg, and d. 5 July 1903, leaving issue. See p. 36. 

WASHINGTON [Bavaria 1829]. See Washington, Baron of. 
WATEBLOO [Netherlands 1812]. See Wellesley, Prince of. 

6 

WELLESLEY. Arthur (Wellesley), 1st Duke of Wellington [G.B.], K.G., K.G.F., 
K.H.G., &c., was 13 May 1811 7 cr. by King John VI., in commemoration of 
his brilliant victory over the French at that place 21 Aug. 1808, COUNT OF 
VIMIEIBA (CoNDE DE ViMiEiBA) [Portugal], and had Royal License from King 
George III. to use the title in the United Kingdom 18 Oct. following. A 
few months later (27 Dec.), having the previous year carried out the forti- 
fications of Torres Vedras, extending from the Tagus to the sea, thus barring 
the access of the French to Lisbon, he was advanced to a Marquessate 
as MABQUESS OF TOBBES VEDBAS (MABQUEZ DE TOBBE VEDBAS) [Portugal]. 
The following year, having captured (19 Jan. 1812), after an eleven 
days' siege, the important fortress of Ciudad Rodrigo, he was twelve days 
later (viz. 31 Jan.) cr. DUKE OF CIUDAD RODBIGO and a GBANDEE 
of the 1st CLASS (DUQUE DE CIUDAD RODBIGO y GBANDE DE ESPANA de 
PBIMEBA CLASE) [Spain], with rem. to the heirs general of his body, and 
17 Dec. 8 following DUKE OF THE VICTOBY' (DUQUE DA VITOBIA) [Portugal]. 
Finally, having in command of the Allies inflicted the crushing defeat of 

1 Reverend, 1864, pp. 181-190. 

2 Ibid., 1905, p. 143. 

3 He concluded, with the Duke of Wellington, the treaty between Great Britain and 
Bavaria, which was signed at Brussels 7 June 1815. The present Baron Washington, in 
a letter to the Editor, says, "la plume avec laquelle [this treaty of subsidy] etait signe 
gardee dans une caisse de vermeil, sur laquelle cst engrave le fait se trouve encore dans ma 
possession." 

4 Taschenbuch der FreiherrL Hauser, 1857, p. 822. 

5 Times, 6 July 1903. 

6 WATSON. John William Watson, described as "the MARQUESS OF MARSCOBRUNO, " 
was found lying dead near his bed at the Pomme d'Or Hotel, Jersey, Feb. 1906. The 
evidence at the inquest is said to have shown that he was a native of Newark, that 
he was formerly a Civil Engineer, had been decorated with the Legion of Honour, 
and had received a title from the Austrian Government for political services. See The 
Star, 27 Feb. 1906. 

7 Resenha das Familias, &c., ii. 732. In the Complete Peerage the date is given 
as 18 Oct. 

8 The Complete Peerage has 18th. 

9 A title doubtless chosen in commemoration of his repeated victories over the 
French, among which, however, that of Vittoria, from which this title is generally sup- 
posed to have been taken, must not be reckoned, as it was not fought until 21 June 
the following year. 



AN ALPHABETICAL LIST 



171 



Waterloo on Napoleon 18 June 1815, he was 18th July following cr. by King 
William I. PRINCE OF WATERLOO (PRINS VAN WATERLOO) [Netherlands], with 
rem. to the heirs male of his body. All these titles are still held by his de- 
cendant (see p. 7), but since the separation of Belgium from the Netherlands 
the Waterloo title has become Belgian. 

WEMYSS. Col. Cornelius Wemyss [a cadet of the family of Caskieberran], an Officer 
in the Venetian Service 1620, was 1630 cr. a BARON by the Duke of Mantua 
for his military services. He d. Apr. 1676, aged 84, leaving issue. His eldest son 
Francis, 2nd Baron Wemyss, was a distinguished soldier, being General Engineer 
in the Imperial Service, and 5 Aug. 1676 addressed a communication to the 
2nd Earl of Wemyss relative to the ancestry of his family in Scotland. A 
"Borebrief," in which, however, the genealogical details are very incorrectly 
given, was granted him by King Charles II. 1 May 1677. He was cr. a COUNT 
(? COUNT OF WEMYSS OF THE HOLY ROMAN EMPIRE) between 17 Dec. 1676, when 
he replies as Baron Wemyss to a letter from Lord Burntisland, and 3/13 June 
1677, when B. Skelton, the British Envoy at Vienna, testifies to the high standing 
of Count Wemyss in reply to an inquiry which Lord Burntisland had addressed 
to him relative to the character of "his cousin, Francis, Lord Wemyss of 
Vienna." He d. s.p.m., but his brother had issue. 1 

WESSLO. Adam Wesslo, J.P. [descended from John Wesslo, a Scottish merchant 
in Uddevalla], was ENNOBLED [Sweden] 1805. 2 

WHETTNALL. Charles Whettnall [only child of Thomas Whettnall, b. at Wrexham 
7 Feb. 1780, of an old family in co. Denbigh, of which the pedigree certified 
by Sir William Betham, Ulster, and George Harrison, Windsor Herald, is in 
the Herald's College], b. in the parish of St. George's, Hanover Square, 28 Nov. 
1811, was 16 July 1851 3 cr. BARON WHETTNALL by letters patent of Leopold I., 
King of Belgium. He was still living 1864,* when he had two sons, Edouard, 
b. at Liege 16 July 1839, and Edmond, b. there 1 Nov. 1843. See p. 36. 

WHETTNALL [Belgium 1851]. See Whettnall, Baron. 

WHITE. Dominick Whyte or Vitus of Limerick, having greatly distinguished 
himself at the battles of Tourenne and Tournay, was 1513 cr. by the Emperor 
Maximilian BARON ALBY (FREIHERR VON ALBI) OF THE HOLY ROMAN EMPIRE, 
for himself and the heirs male of his body, with the title of Baron or Baroness 
for all his male descendants and their issue. The original patent is still at 
Brussels, and is attested by letters from King Henry VIII. to the Emperor. 5 
His descendant, Sir Dominick White, 6th Baron of Alby [H.R.E.], Sheriff 
(1628) and Mayor (1636) of Limerick, was Aug. 1658 cr. COUNT OF ALBY (GRAF 
VON ALBY) by the Emperor Leopold, with the same rem. His eldest son, Sir 
Richard White (Don Ricardo), 2nd Count of Alby, served in Spain, where he was 
knighted, and d. s.p. in London between 8 Sep. 1698 and 3 June 1699, 6 when 
his titles devolved on his nephew and heir male, the 2nd Marquess of Albe- 
ville [F.] (see next entry), on whose death s.p. 1710 the direct male of the family 
became extinct. 7 

WHITE, alias VITUS. Sir Ignatius White (i.e. Count Ignatius d'Alby), a Col. of 
Horse [2nd son of the 1st Count of Alby (H.R.E.), see above], for many years 
Envoy of Charles II. at Brussels, and subsequently at Madrid, was in or before 
1674 8 BARON DE VICKE in the Netherlands, being as " Ignatius Vitus, Baron 
of Vicque," made a D.C.L. of Oxford 27 June 1674. On 29 June 1677 he was cr. 
a Baronet [E.] by King Charles II., and shortly afterwards (20 Aug. 1677), being 
then a P.C. and Secretary of State [I.], MARQUESS OF ALBEVILLE (MARGRAF 
VON ALBEVILLE) [H.R.E.] by the Emperor Leopold I., with rem. to the heirs 
male of his body, a creation which, under the Earl Marshal's warrant, 30 Oct. 
1686, was registered in the College of Arms, London, together with a recital 
that Charles II. had, by Royal Signet, 7 Apr. 1679, allowed " the Right Hon. 
Sir Ignatius White, alias d'Alby, Knight Baronet of the Kingdom of England 
and Baron de Vique [i.e. Baron de Vicke in Belgium], now Marquis d'Albyville 
and Knight, Baron, Count, and Marquis of the [Holy Roman] Empire, to 

Eraser's Wemyss Book, i. 303 ; iii. 257-87 ; Paul's Scots Peerage, iii. 280. 

Donner, p. 42. 

Annuaire de la Noblesse de Belgiquc, 1864, p. 271. 4 Ibid. 

Abbe McGeoghegan's Hist, of Ireland, chap. xvii. p. 267. 

G. E. C.'s Complete Baronetage, iv. 86, note b. 

See, however, R. G. Maunsell's Family of Maunsell (1903), pp. 143-5. 

G. E. C.'s Complete Baronetage, iv. pp. 86-88. 



172 THE NOBILITIES OF EUROPE 

receive honours from any King at amity with His Majesty." x He was Ambas- 
sador to the Hague 1686, and afterwards, accompanying King James II. to 
France, was his Secretary of State [I.] till his death at St. Germains 21 Aug. 
1694. 2 He was succeeded by his apparently only surviving son, Sir James 
White, 2nd Baronet [E.], Marquess of Albeville [H.R.E.], and Baron de Vicke 
[Belgium], who also before 3 June 1699 sue. his uncle as 3rd Count (1658) and 
8th Baron (1513) of Alby [H.R.E.]. He was killed at the battle of Villa 
Vicosa in Spain, 10 Dec. 1710, apparently s.p., though, according to some, it 
is alleged that he had a son whose male issue still survives. 3 In a document 
among the Stuart Papers at Windsor, dated June 17 12,* his sisters, then with 
their mother in the service of the Queen of Spain and the Prince of the 
Asturias at Madrid, are stated to be the sole heirs of their father and grand- 
father, and in a further declaration, dated 12 Apr. 1726, 5 Charlotte Whyte 
is referred to as " Countess of Alby and Marchioness of Albeville of the Empire, 
Lady of Honour to the Queen of Spain and the legitimate da. to the late Sir 
Ignatius Whyte of Ireland, Baronet of England, Count of Alby and Marquis 
of Albeville, late Ambassador to Holland, &c., and now wife of the Sieur 
Antoine Sartine, Knight of St. Michael and Count of Alby and Marquess of 
Albeville in right of his marriage." Another daughter 6 m. Gen. Lacy, Comdg. 
the Regt. of Ultonia or Ulster in Spain 1732, and had a son, Capt. Gen. of 
Artillery to their Catholic Majesties, and two das., the elder of whom m. Gen. 
Count Brown, 7 and the younger the Marquess Comada, of the ancient family 
of Terry. 8 Yet a third daughter of the 1st Marquess of Albeville apparently 
m. Sir Timon Connock, son and h. app. of Sir William Connock, Bt. 9 It is 
at all events certain that this Timon m. before 21 Mar. 1707 one of the Maids- 
of-Honour to Queen Mary of Modena, 10 and that their son and h. Sir Joseph 
Connock, 2nd Bt., is said to have inherited the title of Count d'Alby of the 
Empire from his mother, and to have been cr. Marquess d' Albeville. 11 

WHITE. Sir Andrew White, otherwise COUNT ANDREW D'ALBY [brother to the 1st 
Marquess of Albeville [H.R.E. ], see preceding notice], was naturalized in France, 
and cr. 12 COUNT OF ALBI (COMTE D'ALBI) there by King Louis XIV., P.C. by 
King James II. 27 Sep. 1686. He d. in London, and was bur. at St. Margaret's, 
Westminster, 15 Dec. 1687. He m. Anastasia, da. of Sir James Walsh, Bt., 
and had a da. Christina Mary, one of the " English Ladies of Pontoise," Abbess 
of the Convent at Ypres, which was endowed by Queen Mary of Modena for 
the das. of such as followed her husband's fortunes in Ireland and France. 13 

WILDMAN. See p. 43, note 3. 

WILLIAMSON. Magnus Gabriel Williamson, alias Willemsens, Colonel in Nils 
Gyllenstjernas' Regiment, having produced proofs of his Nobility from Scotland, 
was admitted a NOBLE [Sweden No. 949] by King Charles XI. 1680. Extinct 
after 1747. 1 * 

WILSON. Gen. Sir Robert Thomas Wilson, Governor of Gibraltar, M.P. [b. 17 Aug. 
1777, son of Benjamin Wilson the portrait painter], one of the most distin- 
guished soldiers of the Napoleonic wars, is sometimes said, but apparently 
erroneously, to have been a COUNT OF THE HOLY ROMAN EMPIRE. He was 
a Knight or Grand Cross of most of the chief Continental orders, being 
honoured by all the Allied Sovereigns but his own. 15 In 1804 he was one 
of the eight officers cr. K.M.T.'s for their gallantry at Villiers-le-Couche, by 

1 Kegisters, College of Arms, London. 2 St. Germains Registers. 

3 See R. G. Maunsell's Family of Maunsell, where the pedigree of this alleged son's 



4 Ruvigny's Jacobite Peerage, p. 206. 

5 Ibid., p. 207. 6 Family of Maunsell, p. 146. 

7 Probably George, 1st Earl Browne [I.], so cr. by King James III., and a Count of the 
Empire. His son, Field-Marshal the 2nd Earl Browne, m. a da. of Field-Marshal Peter, 
Count Lacy, who in this case will have been his cousin-german. 

8 Family of Maunsell. 

9 So cr. by James III. 22 Feb. 1732 ; The Jacobite Peerage, p. 37. 

10 Ibid., p. 37. 

11 Gilbert's Historical Survey of Cornwall, 1817, where the family is said to be still 
in existence. 

12 Query if this was not merely a recognition in France of his Imperial title. 

13 O'Callaghan's History of the frish Brigade, p. 237 ; The Herald and Genealogist, 
iii. 413 ; and the Family of Maunsell, p. 145. 

14 Marryat, ii. 500 ; Donner, p. 42 ; Sveriges AdeL 

15 Diet. Nat. Biog., Ixii. 129. 




ARMORIAL BEARINGS OF 
GEORGE, 2ND BARON DE WORMS 



AN ALPHABETICAL LIST 173 

which he may have become * a BARON OF THE HOLY ROMAN EMPIRE, and in 
the Dictionary of National Biography 2 it is stated that they all had Royal 
License (2 June 1802) from King George III. to accept this Order, " with the 
rank of Baron of the Holy Roman Empire and of Knighthood attached ; " 
but in the notice which appeared in the London Gazette of that date granting 
them permission to accept and wear the Order, no reference to the Barony of 
the Empire occurs. He died 9 May 1849, leaving 7 sons and 6 das., and was 
bur. in Westminster Abbey. 

WILSON. See p. 43, note 3. 
WINNE. See p. 43, note 3. 

WISLOW. John Wislow, Vice-Governor of Christianstad, and afterwards Governor 
and Lagman of Calmar [third in descent from John Wislow, who went to 
Sweden and set up a store at Uddevalla], 3 was ENNOBLED [Sweden No. 2182] 
by King Gustavus IV. under the name of MANNERSTAM 1805. He d. 1832. 
Extinct 185 1. 4 

WODEHOUSE. See de Lormet. 

WOGAN. Emile Tannequy de Wogan, BARON DE WOGAN [F.], is the representative 
of Sir Charles Wogan, who was cr. a Baronet [I.] by James III. 1719, and 
Roman Senator 13 June 1719 by the Pope for his services in effecting the 
release of James's affianced Queen, the Princess Clementina. 5 See p. 37. 

WOOD. Paul Wood, alias Wudd [son of Richard Wood, Councillor at Thorshalla 
early in the seventeenth century], 6 entered the " Noble Standard Corps," 
and was later appointed Royal Equerry, being ENNOBLED [Sweden No. 356] 
by Queen Christina 1646. Extinct 1706. 7 

DE WORMS. Solomon Benedict Worms, Esq., son of Benedict Worms of Frankfort- 
on-the-Main, was by imperial letters patent, dated at Vienna 23 Apr. 1871, cr. 
by the Emperor Francis Joseph BARON DE WORMS (FREIHERR VON WORMS) 
[Austria], for himself and his descendants, and was naturalized in the United 
Kingdom under that style 18 May 1874. He received Royal License for 
himself and his heirs to assume and use the title in the United Kingdom 10 
Aug. 1874. Title still existing. See p. 22. 

WREM. Jose Zuzarte Wrem, K.C.C.P., K.T.S., K.C.I.C., K.C.C.S., Portuguese 
Consul at Barcelona [elder son of Caetano Zuzarte Wrem, K.C.C.P., K.T.S., 
K.V.V., K.C.I. C., O.R.G., Portuguese Consul at Barcelona (b. at Lisbon 25 Jan. 
1820, d. 11 Dec. 1883), by his wife Virginia (b. in Cadiz Oct. 1823), da. of 
Francesco Marti of Cadiz, and grandson of Diogo Wrem, " natural d'lngla- 
terra," and his wife Marianna Zuzarte, of Lisbon], 8 was 7 Dec. 1888 cr. VISCOUNT 
WREM (VISCONDE DE WREM) in Portugal. See p. 33. 

WREM [Portugal 1888]. See Wrem, Viscount. 

WRIGHT. George Henric Wright, Governor of Savolaks and Karelen [descended 
from George Wright, of noble Scottish extraction, who went to Sweden during 
the usurpation of Cromwell and settled at Narva 9 1650] was ENNOBLED [Sweden 
No. 2077] 10 with his brother Jonas Mauritz under the name of "VON WRIGHT " 
by King Gustavus III. 19 Sep. 1772, and took his seat in the House of Lords 
1776. Still existing. See p. 41. 

WRIGHT. George Detlof von Wright [b. 5 July 1806, son of Gustavus Frederic 
von Wright, a member of the above family] was, upon the separation of Finland 
from Sweden, enrolled among the Finnish Nobles 26 Jan. 1818 1X under No. 149, 
together with Major Henric Magnus von Wright [b. 16 Nov. 1771, son of Capt. 
Jonas Mauritz von Wright] and his four sons Magnus (b. 13 June 1805), Wilhelm 
(b. 5 Apr. 1810), Frederic (b. 20 Feb. 1811), and Adolph (b. 6 Sep. 1815). 12 
Family still existing. See p. 41. 

WYLIE. James [Vassilievitch] Wylie, Councillor of State, First Surgeon to H.I.M. 
the Emperor Alexander and Inspector- General of his Armies, had Royal License 
to accept and view the Insignia of the Russian Order of St. Vladimir 20 Mar. 

1 See p. 273. 2 Vol. Ixii. 126. 3 Marryat, ii. 493. 

4 Sveriges Adel, i. 304. 5 The Jacobite Peerage, pp. 186-189. 

6 Marryat, ii. 500 ; Donner, p. 42 ; Sveriges Adel. 7 Ibid. 

8 Resenha das Familias, ii. 777. 

9 Donner, p. 42 ; Marryat, ii. 500. 10 Sveriges Ridderskaps. 

11 Firdands Ridderskaps, 1897, p. 535. To the Finnish branch belonged the three- 
brothers, William, Magnus, and Ferdinand von Wright, all well-known artists, the latter 
especially being a celebrated animal-painter. 

12 Ex inform. M. Oscar Vasastjerna. 



i/4 THE NOBILITIES OF EUROPE 

1807, and shortly afterwards (viz. 6 June) was, at the special request of the Czar 
Alexander I., 1 cr. a BARONET [G.B.], and by an Imperial decree of 2 Feb. 1824 
he was recognised as a BARONET OF THE RUSSIAN EMPIRE. Z He was after- 
wards a P.O. to the Emperor, and by decree of the Senat Divigeant 26 Aug. 
1847 was confirmed in the title of Baronet and entered on the Books of the 
Russian Noblesse. 2 He d. s.p. at St. Petersburg 2 Mar. 1854. 

X 

XERICA [Spain 1707]. See Fitzjames, Duke of. 

Y 

YOUNG. Daniel Young, a great cloth and stuff manufacturer in Charles XL's 
time [" grandson of an English Vice-Admiral of Scottish descent," 3 Baronets 
of Scotland], 4 became Councillor of the Board of Trade ; was ENNOBLED 
[Sweden No. 778] by King Charles (Gustavus) XI. under the name of 
Leijonancker 1666, and took his seat in the House of Lords 1668. He d. 1688, 
leaving 32 children. 5 Family still existing. See p. 40. 

YOUNG. Klas Young, Lieut. -Col. Kronoborg's Regt. 1705 [son of Klas Young, 
of noble Scottish descent, who went to Sweden and was a Lieut. 1652], was 
naturalized as a NOBLE [Sweden] 1707, andd. s.p.m. a prisoner at Moscow 17 10.' 

YOUNG. Peter Young or Youngh, Lieut.-Col. Nyland's Dragoons 1739 [son of 
Arvid Young, who was a Lieut, of the Admiralty 1658 and afterwards a Burgher 
of Boras], was ENNOBLED [Sweden 1511] under the name of Cedersparre 1719. 
Dormer 7 says that the family still exists in Sweden and Finland, but it does 
not appear in the Peerages of those countries, and according to the Sveriges 
Adel it became extinct 1753. 

YOUNG. See p. 43, note 3. 

YSSOUDUN [F. 1820]. See Brown, alias de Bourbon, Countess of. 



ZEEDTS. Samuel Zeedts, a Col. in Charles XII. 's army [having come from Scotland], 
was ENNOBLED [Sweden No. 1437] 1707. He d. s.p. 1717, 8 and the family 
became extinct sometime after 1738. 9 

ZEITEN. See Payne, p. 138, note 2. 

ZORRI. "James, Count Zorri," an Austrian subject, was naturalized in the United 
Kingdom under that style, 3 July 1860. 



ADDENDA 

Page 17, after line 40, insert 

19 Jun. 1907. Raymond Toler Clayton (Browne-Clayton), COUNT (CONTE) CLAYTON- 
BROWNE [P.S.] ; b. ( ) ; had confirmation as above from H.H. 
Pope Pius X. of this title, originally conferred on his family in 1794. 

Page 17, after line 52, insert 

14 Dec. 1895. Walter Radcliffe (Horncastle), 1st VISCOUNT HORNCASTLE (VISCONDE 
DE HORNCASTLE) [Portugal], K.L.H., K.C.V.V., G.O.L.S., &c., J.P. 
co. Midx., a Member of the Court of Common Council, Chief Commoner 
of the Corporation of the City of London, and 1st Mayor of Hackney 
1901 ; b. 9 Feb. 1850 ; cr. as above for life only ; m. 19 Mar. 1878 
Henrietta, da. of Richard Beckford Govey ; and had issue. He d. 
14 Jan. 1908, when the title became extinct. Viscountess Horncastle 
survives. 

Page 25, after line 22, insert 
7 Feb. 1860. Juan (O'Donnell), 3rd DUKE OF TETUAN and a GRANDEE of the 

1 Diet. Nat. Biog., Ixiii. 236. 

2 La, Noblesse de VEmpire de Russie, p. 339. 3 Marryat, ii. 492. 
4 Sveriges Ridderskaps. 6 Manyat, ii. 492. 6 Donner, p. 43. 

7 P. 43. 8 Donner, p. 44. Sveriges Adel. 



AN ALPHABETICAL LIST 175 

1st CLASS, 3rd COUNT OF LUCENA and VISCOUNT OF THE AUAGA 
(1847), and 2nd MARQUESS OF ALTAMIRA (18) (DUQUE DE TETUAN 
y GRANDE DE PRIMERA CLASE, MARQUES DE ALTAMIRA, CONDE DE 
LUCENA y VISCONDE DE LA ALIAGA) [Spain] ; b. in Madrid 1864 ; 
sue. his father 9 Feb. 1903 ; m. and has issue. 
Heir : Juan, Marquess of Altamira (son). 

Page 30, after last line, insert 

17 . Edward Marie George (Dillon), 5th COUNT DILLON (CONTE DE DILLON) 
[F.], Lieut. 16th Chasseurs a Cheval, French Army; b. at the Castle 
of Savigny-les-Beaune, Cote d'Or, 23 Aug. 1874; sue. his father 11 
July 1895 ; unm. 

Heir : Count Augustus Marie Justin Dillon, Lieut, of Infantry 
French Service (brother), b. at Troyes 12 July 1875. 

Page 31, after line 35, insert 

1816. Rudolf (Adlersparre, originally Spalding), 3rd COUNT and BARON 
(GREFVE o FRIHERR) ADLERSPARRE [Sweden No. 130], Knight of the 
North Star, &c. ; b. 21 Aug. 1819 ; sue. his brother 1889 ; m. 6 Oct. 

1846 Ida Amalia, da. of ( ) Broms, but has no issue. 

Heir : None. 

Page 34, after line 17, insert 

1674. Adalbert Fridolf Magnus (Duwall, originally MacDougall), -th BARON 
(FRIHERR) DUWALL [Sweden No. 64] ; b. 30 July 1840 ; unm. 
Heir : None. 

Page 34, after line 37, insert 

1719. Samuel Fredrik August (Stjernstedt, originally Thessleff), -th BARON 
(FRIHERR) STJERNSTEDT [Sweden No. 145], a Royal Chamberlain, 
Knight Commander of the Orders of the North Star and Wasa, and 
of Charles III. of Spain, &c. ; b. 1 Aug. 1844 ; sue. his father ( ) ; 
m. 17 June 1873 Baroness Viveka, elder da. of Carl (Gyllenstierna), 
-th Baron Gyllenstierna af Lundholm [Sweden 1569, No. 3] ; and 
has issue. 

Heir : Baron Johan Carl Stjernstedt, Lieut. Svea Artillery (son), 
b. 30 June 1874 ; is m. 

Page 36, after line 26, insert 

28 May 1825. Felix (Taylor), 2nd BARON TAYLOR [F.] ; b. ( ) ; sue. his father 

6 Sep. 1879. 
Heir : ? 

1 . Andrea (Gordon), -th BARON CAMASTRA (BARONE DI CAMASTRA) 

[Sicily] ; b. ( ) ; sue. his father 190-. 
Heir: ? 

Page 39, after line 8, insert 

1625. Carl Anders Stuart, NOBLE OF SWEDEN [No. 86] ; b. 2 Oct. 1870 ; 

m. 1892 Anna Martina, da. of ( ) Persson ; and has issue. 

Heir : Carl Jakob (Jacques) Stuart (son), b. 15 Jan. 1895. 

Page 40, after line 40, insert 
23 Jun. 1719. Carl Hjalmar Lagerborg (originally Skragge), NOBLE OF FINLAND 

29 Jan. 1818. [No. 105], formerly of Sweden [No. 1620], Knight of St. Vladimir, &c. ; 

b. 11 Oct. 1842; sue. his father ( ) ; m. 1870 Baroness Gertrud 
Maria, da. of Major-Gen. Baron Gustaf von Kothen [Finland No. 16], 
and by her, who d. 1900, had issue. 

Heir : Rolf Heribert Hjalmar Lagerborg, M.D. Paris (son), b. 26 Apr. 
1874; ism. 

Page 41, after line 27, insert 

1757. Bengt John Albrecht Ihre (originally Eyre), NOBLE OF SWEDEN 
[No. 2043], Lieut. Norrlands Dragoons, &c. ; b. 24 May 1867 ; 

m. 26 June 1898 Tuttu Sigrid Helena, da. of ( ) Bjorkenheim, of 

Finland ; and has issue. 

Heir : Hans Axel Albrecht Ihre (son), b. 5 July 1899. 

Page 43, after line 10, insert 
ABISBAL [Spain a. 1833]. See O'Donnell, Count of the. 

Page 44, after line 17, insert 
ALIAGA [Spain 1847]. See O'Donnell, Viscount of the. 



i 7 6 



THE NOBILITIES OF EUROPE 



Page 44, after line 43, insert 

ALTAMIRA [Spain 186-]. See O'Donnell, Marquess of. 
Page 45, after line 21, insert 

ANJOU [F. 1424]. See Plantagenet, Duke of. 
Page 70, after line 13, insert 

CURZON. Sir Robert Curzon, Governor of Hammes Castle near Calais in 1499 
[great-grandson of Henry, 2nd son of John Curzon of Kedleston, co. Derby], 
having served in the Turkish War under the Emperor Maximilian, was by him 
cr. a BARON OF THE HOLY ROMAN EMPIRE in 1500. In Camden's History of 
Queen Elizabeth* it is stated "that King Henry the Eighth did congratulate 
Robert Curzon (whom for his military valour the Emperor Maximilian the 
First had created a Baron of the Sacred Empire) and enrolled him among the 
Barons of England, granting him a yearly pension to maintain his dignity," 
and this statement is repeated by Collins. 2 He is not mentioned in Dugdale, 
and was never a Peer of England, though styled LORD CURZON as a Baron of 
the Empire. He was, with five others, proclaimed a traitor in Nov. 1501, as 
a Yorkist conspirator, but was afterwards taken into the highest favour, was 
granted a pension ; and entertained Queen Katherine of Aragon in 1517, as also 
Henry VIII. himself in 1522 at his house at Ipswich. He d. s.p. His will, 
dated 31 Oct. 1534, was proved Mar. 1534/5 at Hoxne by Margaret, his widow. 3 

Page 1 10, after line 38, insert 
LUCENA [Spain 1847]. See O'Donnell, Count of. 

Page 116, after line 1, insert 
MAINE [F. 1424], See Plantagenet, Count of. 

Page 122, after line 48, insert 

MOHUN. Sir Reginald Mohun, Moun, or Moyun, Lord of Dunster, co. Somerset 
[gt.-gt.-gdson of Reginald de Mohun, Earl of Somerset or Dorset (ft. 1141)], 
founded in 1146 the Abbey of Newenham, at Axminster in Devonshire, which 
foundation was confirmed by Pope Innocent IV. the following year; and "a 
curious legend records that the Pope, on his appearing at the papal court at 
Lyons, presented him with a rose, or other flower, of gold, and asked him of 
what degree he was. Reginald replied that he was a plain knight bachelor, 
on which the Pope said that, as such a gift could be made only to kings, dukes, 
or earls, Reginald should be EARL OF ESTE ' or SOMERSET, and to maintain his 
title granted him two hundred marks a year, and created him a Count Apostolic, 
with power to appoint public notaries. 4 It is certain that he bore as his arms 
a dexter hand holding a fleur-de-lys and habited in a maunch 5 and sometimes 
styled himself EARL OF SOMERSET ; he did not, however, hold an English 
earldom." 6 In Camden's History of Queen Elizabeth 7 it is stated " that 
Henry III., King of England, readily acknowledged Reginald Mohun, for Earl 
of Somerset, though created by the Bishop of Rome by his Apostolick Authority " 
a statement which appears very doubtful. He d. 20 Jan. 1257 or 1258, leaving 
issue. 

Page 131, line 25, after " Zumalacarregui " add 

The title devolved, under a special remainder, on his eldest brother, Joseph 
O'Donnell, who d. s.p.m. 1836, and was sue. by his eldest da., the wife of the 
Marquess of Claramonte [Spain]. She was sue. by her younger son, ( ), 
4th Count of the Bisbal, who d. s.p. 1873, aged 41, when the title reverted to 
his eldest brother, who had previously sue. his father in the Marquessate, in 
which the Bisbal title has since continued merged. 

Page 139, after line 43, insert 

PLANTAGENET. John (Plantagenet), Duke of Bedford, K.G., Regent of France, was 
21 June 1424 cr. by his nephew Henry [VI., King of England, as] King of 
France, DUKE OF ANJOU, COUNT OF MAINE, and a PEER [F.], with rem. to the 
heirs general of his body. 8 He d. s.p. 14 Sep. 1435, when all his honours 
became extinct. 

1 Fourth ed., 1688, p. 527. 2 Peerage (Brydges' ed.), vii. 296. 

3 Ex inform. G. E. Cokayne, Esq. See also an article by John Glyde in the Suffolk 
Institute of Archeology, ix. * Fuller, Church History, ii. 178-180. 

5 Lyte, Dunster and its Lords, p. 24. 

6 Diet. Nat. Biog., xxxviii. 111. 7 Fourth ed., 1688, p. 527. 
8 The patent is printed in extenso by Anselme, iii. 323. 



FRANCE 



ALL distinctions of birth were abolished at the time of the first Revolution 
by a decree of 4 Aug. 1789, and titles of Nobility (qualifications nobiliaires} 
were proscribed by decrees of 19 June 1790 and 27 Sep. 1791. After the 
establishment of the first Empire (18 May 1804), Napoleon, by the Senatus 
Gonsulte of 14 Aug. 1806, and an Imperial decree of 1 March 1808, instituted 
a new Nobility, 1 but did not restore the old. On the first Restoration 
Article LXXI. of the Constitutional Charter, granted by Louis XVIII. 4 June 
1814, declared 

" La noblesse ancienne reprend ses litres ; le nouvelle conserve les siens. 
Le roi fait des nobles a volante ; mais il ne leur accorde que des rangs et les 
honneurs sans aucune exemption des charges et des devoirs de la societe" 

The decree of the 13 Mar. 1815 issued at Lyons by Napoleon again abolished 
the feudal Nobility, suppressed all feudal titles, and recognised only those 
of the Empire, but reserved to the Emperor the right to confer Imperial 
titles on the representatives of the old Nobility ; but the second Restoration 
(3 July 1815) restored the provisions of the Charter of 1814, and with it the 
old Nobility. The Revolution of 30 July 1830 left the Nobility alone, though 
Article I. of the new Constitution began by re-affirming that 

" Tous les Francais sont egaux devant la loi, quels que soient tfailleurs 
leurs litres et leur rangs " / 

but after the Revolution of 24 Feb. 1848 the Provisional Government at 
once (29 Feb.) issued an edict declaring that 

" Tous les anciens litres de noblesse sont dbolis ; les qualifications qui 
s'y rattachaient sout interdites ; elles ne peuvent etre prises publiquement ni 
figurer dans un acte public quelconque " / 

and Article X. of the Constitution of Sept. following decreed 

" Sont dbolis a tou jours tous litres nobiliaires, toute distinctions de naissance t 
classe, ou caste.''' 

Within four years, however, the decree of 29 Feb. 1848 was repealed by 
another of the Prince President, dated 24 Jan. 1852, and after his assumption 
of the Imperial dignity various edicts were issued for the protection of the 
Nobility. The law of 28 May 1858 confirmed Article CCLIX. of the Penal 
Code, which imposed a fine and imprisonment on any one illegally assuming 
a title, decoration, or rank not belonging to them, and a decree 8 Jan. 1859 
established the Conseil du Sceau des litres. After the fall of the Empire, 

1 A decree of 4 June 1809 provided that the son of a Duke Grand Dignity of the 
Empire should have the title of Duke, the son of a Duke that of Count, and the son of a 
Count that of Baron ; and one of 3 Mar. 1810, that the younger sons of Dukes should have 
that of Chevalier, &c. 

177 M 



178 THE NOBILITIES OF EUROPE 

4 Sept. 1870, titles ceased to be conferred, and the Conseil du Sceau was 
suppressed by President Thiers, and its duties transferred to a Commission 
of Administration in the Ministry of Justice, 10 Jan. 1872. 
The French titular Nobility therefore to-day consists of 

1. The Dukes, Marquesses, Counts, Viscounts, and Barons whose honours 

date from pre-Revolution days. 

2. The Princes, Dukes, Counts, Barons, and Knights of the Empire 

cr. by Napoleon I. between 18 May 180411, Ap. 1814, and 20 
Mar. June 1815. 

3. The Dukes, Marquesses, Counts, Viscounts, and Barons created during 

the Restoration ; and 

4. Those created by Louis Philip 9 Aug. 183024 Feb. 1848. 

5. The Princes, Dukes, Counts, Barons, and Knights of the second Empire 

created by Napoleon III. 22 Nov. 18524 Sep. 1870. 

Next year it is hoped to treat more fully of the French Nobility. 

The Peerage in France was never synonymous with the Nobility as in 
England. Originally there were only twelve PEERS OP FRANCE, viz. six 
ecclesiastical, the DUKE ARCHBISHOP OF RHEIMS, the DUKE BISHOPS OP 
LAON and LANGRES, and the COUNT BISHOPS OF BEAUVAIS, CHALONS, and 
No YON ; and six temporal, the DUKES OF BURGUNDY, GUIENNE, and 
NORMANDY, and the COUNTS OP CHAMPAGNE, TOULOUSE, and FLANDERS ; 
and so they continued down to the reign of Philip Augustus. It was before 
them that John of England, as Duke of Normandy, was summoned to appear 
to answer for the murder of Prince Arthur. His forfeiture reduced the 
number to eleven, and as other of the great fiefs were re-united to the Crown, 
the Kings gradually began to erect other Counties and Duchies into Peerages. 
At first these were only conferred on Princes of the Blood. The first French 
subject who was created a Peer was Artus (Gouffier), Duke of Roanne, 8 Apr. 
1519, but he died a few days after 7 May, following, before his investiture, 
and the letters patent not having been registered the Peerage lapsed. It 
was not until thirty- two years later (July 1551) that another subject, the 
Constable Montmorency, was raised to the Peerage. The following is a 
chronological list of the French Peers before the Revolution, with the years 
of their creation : The Duke of Anjou, 1297 ; the Count of Artois, 1297 ; 
the Duke of Brittany, 1297; the Counts of Poitou, 1315; La Marche, 1316; 
Evreux, 1316 ; Angouleme and Mortain, 1317 ; Estampes, 1327 ; and 
La Marche, 1327 ; the Duke of Bourbon, 1327 ; the Counts of Beaumont- 
le-Roger, 1328 ; and Maine, 1331 ; the Duke of Orleans, Count of Valois, 1 
1344 ; the Counts of Nevers and Rethel, 1347 ; Mante, 1353 ; and Magon, 
1359 ; the Dukes of Anjou, 1360 ; Berry and Auvergne, 1360 ; Touraine, 
1360 ; and Burgundy, 1363 ; the Count of Poitou, 1369 ; the Baron of 
Montpellier, 1371 ; the Counts of Valois, 1386 ; and Perigord, 1399 ; the 
Duke of Chateau-Thierry, 1400 ; the Count of Soissons, Baron of Coucy, 
1404 ; the Duke of Nemours, 1404 ; the Count of Rethel, 1405 ; the Duke 
of Valois, 1406 ; the Chatelain of Mortagne, 1407 ; the Count of Mortain, 
1407 ; the Dukes of Alen9on, 1414 ; and Touraine, 1416 ; the Duke of 
Anjou, Count of Maine, 2 1424 ; the Counts of Mayon and Auxerre, 1435 ; 
Eu, 1458 ; Foix, 1458 ; and Nevers, 1459 ; the Dukes of Berry, 1461 ; 
Nemours, 1461 ; Normandy, Count of Mortain, 1465 ; and Guienne, 1469 ; 
the Count of Villefranche, 1480 ; the Duke of Valois, 1498 ; the Count of 
Nevers, 1505 ; the Count of Soissons Baron of Coucy, 1505 ; the Dukes 

1 When two titles are given, both were erected into Peerages. 

2 John, Duke of Bedford, so created by his nephew, Henry VI. of England, see p. 181. 



FRANCE 179 

of Nemours, 1507 ; Valois, 1516 ; Nemours, 1524 ; Guise, 1527 ; Mont- 
pensier, 1538-39 ; Aumale, 1547 ; Montmorency, 1551 ; Nevers, 1566 ; 
Penthievre, 1569 ; Mercceur, 1569 ; *Uzes, 1572 ; Mayenne, 1573 ; Rethel, 
1573 ; St. Fargeau, 1575 ; Joyeuse, 1581 ; Epernon, 1581 ; Piney-Luxem- 
burg, 1581; *Elboeuf, 1581; Retz, 1581; Hallwin, 1587; Montbazon, 
1588 ; Ventadour, 1589 ; *Montbazon, 1594 (with precedence of 1588) ; 
*Thours, 1595 ; Beaufort, 1597 ; Vendome, 1598 ; Biron, 1598 ; Aiguillon, 
1599; Rohan, 1603; *Sully, 1606; Fronsac, 1608; Montpensier, 1608; 
Damville, 1610; Hallwin, 1611; Lesdiquieres, 1611; Bellegarde, 1611; 
*Brissac, 1611; Chevreuse, 1612; Chateauroux, 1616; *Luynes, 1619; 
and Chaulnes, 1621-22; the Archbishop of Paris, 1622; the Dukes of 
Orleans, 1626; Valois, 1630; *Richelieu, 1631; La Valette, 1622; La 
Rochefoucauld, 1622 ; Montmorency, 1633 ; Retz, 1634 ; *Fronsac, 1634 ; 
Aiguillon, 1634; St. Simon, 1635; La Force, 1637; Valentinois, 1642; 
La Rocheguyon, 1663; *Tresmes, 1648; *Chabot, now Rohan-Chabot, 
1648; *Mortemort, 1650; Cceuvres-Estrees, 1648; *Gramont, 1648; 
*Villeroy, 1651 ; Poix-Crequy, 1652 ; *Albret and Chateau Thierry, 1652 ; 
Verneuil, 1652; Bourbon, 1661; Orleans, Chartres, and Valois, 1661; 
*Piney-Luxemburg, 1661 ; Randon-Foix, 1661 ; La Meilleraye, 1663 ; 
Rethelois-Mazarini, 1663 ; *St. Aignan, 1663 ; *Noailles, 1663 ; Coislin, 
1663 ; Montausier, 1664 ; Choiseul, 1665 ; *Aumont, 1665 ; La Ferte- 
Senneterre, 1665 ; Roanne, 1667 ; Vaujour La Valliere, 1667 ; Penthievre, 
1668; Nemours, 1672; *Bethune-Charost, 1672; *St. Cloud, 1674; and 
*Aubigny, 1684 ; * the Count of Eu, 1694 ; the Dukes of Damville, 1694 ; 
Montpensier, 1695 ; Aumale, 1695 ; Penthievre, 1697 ; Chateau Villain, 1703 ; 
Guise, 1704 ; Boufflers, 1708 ; and Villars, 1709 ; the Duke of Alen9on and 
Angouleme, Count of Ponthieu, 1710 ; the *Dukes of Harcourt, 1710 ; 
*FitzJames, 1710; Autin, 1711; Rambouillet, 1711; *Chaulnes, 1711; 
*Rohan-Rohan, 1714; Joyeuse, 1714; Hostun, 1715; *Valentinois, 1715; 
*Villars-Brancas, 1716; *Nevers, 1720; *Biron, 1723; Levis, 1723 ; 2 
La Valliere, 1723; *Aiguillon, 1731; *Fleury, 1736; *Coigny, 1747; 
*Duras, 1755 ; *La Vauguyon, 1758 ; *Choiseul, 1758 ; *Choiseul-Praslin, 
1762 ; *La Rochefoucauld, 1762 ; and *Clermont-Tonnere, 1775. 3 

In 1789 the Peerage of France consisted of (1) the Princes of the Blood, 
(2) the legitimated Princes, (3) seven spiritual Peers, and (4) thirty-nine 
temporal Peers. They shared the fate of the rest of the Nobility, and were 
abolished at the Revolution. On the Restoration of Louis XVIII., however, 
a new House of Peers was established, it being enacted by Article XV. of 
the Constitutional Charter of 4 June 1814 that " the Legislative power is 
exercised collectively by the King, the Chamber of Peers, and the Chamber 
of Deputies ; " and Articles XXVII., XXVIII., XXX., and XXXIII. provided 
respectively (1) The King nominates the Peers ; their number is unlimited ; 
they may be nominated for life or rendered hereditary as the King pleases ; 
(2) Peers enter the House at twenty-five, and have a deliberative voice at 
that of thirty ; (3) Princes of the Blood are Peers by right of birth ; and 
(4) Peers can only be judged by their Peers. The same day the King 
nominated 154 Nobles for life to compose the first House. Napoleon on his 
return from Elba immediately (13 Mar. 1815) dissolved both Houses of 
Parliament, but by Articles II., III., and IV. of the " Additions to the Con- 
stitution of the Empire," 22 Apr. following, instituted two other Houses, the 

1 The patent was not registered until 1777. 

2 Up to this date the list of Peerages is complete, but the Editor has only been able to 
obtain particulars of those created after 1723 which were existing in 1789. 

3 Those marked with an asterisk are the 39 temporal Peers existing at the outbreak 
of the Revolution. 



i8o THE NOBILITIES OF EUROPE 

first to be called the Chamber of Peers, and of which the first members were to 
be nominated by himself, for them and their male descendants irrevocably, 
in the order of primogeniture, the number being unlimited. 

With Waterloo and the return of Louis the Constitutional Charter of 
1814 once more came into force ; but 28 Peers, having accepted seats in 
Napoleon's House, were declared (24 July 1815) to have forfeited their Peerages 
and their names were removed. On 17 Aug. following 93 more Peers were 
nominated, and two days later the Peerage was made hereditary, Article I. 
of the Koyal ordinance of 19 Aug. declaring that 

" La digniU de pair est et demeurera hfreditaire, de mdle en mdle, par ordre 
de primogeniture, dans la famille des pairs qui composent actuellement notre 
Chambre des Pairs" 

This was, however, somewhat modified 25 Aug. 1817, a Royal ordinance 
of that date obliging the Peers to constitute a majorat 1 in order to render 
their title hereditary. Under the Orleans monarchy the Peerage was once 
more (1831) changed from an hereditary one into one for life, and though 
the Crown preserved the right of nominating its members, it could only select 
them from certain classes, 2 and with its overthrow it was finally abolished. 

PRINCIPAL FRENCH PEERAGES 

Histoire Gdndalogique et Chronologique de la Maison Royale de France, 
des Pairs, Grand Officiers de la Couronne et de la Maison du Roy ; et des 
anciens Barons du Royaume, &c., by P. Anselme. 9 vols. 3rd edition. 
Paris, 1726. 

Armorial Gdnfral de la France, by Hozier. 9 vols. Paris, 1738. 

Dictionnaire de la Noblesse, &c., by Aubert de la Chenaye des Bois et 
Badier. 19 vols. 3rd edition. Paris, 1863. 

Nobiliaire Universel de France, by N. Viton de St. Allais. 21 vols. Paris, 
1814-43. A new edition. Paris, 1872-77. 

Dictionnaire Universel de la Noblesse de France, by J. B. P. Jullien de 
Courcelles. 5 vols. Paris, 1820-22. 

Archives GJnealogiques et Historiques de la Noblesse de France, &c., by 
P. L. Laine. 11 vols. Paris, 1828-50. 

Annuaire de la Pairie et de la Noblesse de France et des Maisons Souveraines 
de VEurope, edited first by M. Borel d'Hautereve, and now by Viscount 
A Reverend. Paris, 1843, and annually since. 

Armorial du Premier Empire. litres, Majorats, et Armoiries concjdtfs 
par NapoUon I., by Viscount A Reverend. 4 vols. Paris, 1894. 

litres, Anoblissements et Pairies de la Restauration, 1814-1830, by Viscount 
A Reverend. 6 vols. Paris, 1901. 

BRITONS ENNOBLED IN FRANCE 

By Henry [V. of England as] King of France 

Thomas (Beaufort), Duke of Exeter cr. Count of Harcourt ... 1 Jul. 1418 

Sir John Grey, K.G cr. Count of Tancarville . . 3 Jan. 1419 

Thos. (Montacute), 4th E. of Salisbury cr. Count of Perche .... 26 Apr. 1419 

Sir William Bourchier cr. Count of Eu 10 Jun. 1419 

1 These were suppressed 9 May 1835. 

2 In order to pass this through the House of Peers the Government were obliged to 
create thirty-six new ones, all the Peerages granted by Charles X. having previously 
(7 Aug. 1830) been declared null and void. 



FRANCE 



181 



By King Charles VII. 1422-1461 



Archibald, Master of Douglas 
Sir John Stuart of Darnley . 
Sir John Stuart of Darnley 
Archibald, 4th E. of Douglas . 
John (Stuart), L. of Aubigny . 



cr. Count of Longueville 

cr. Lord of Concressault 

cr. Lord of Aubigny . 

cr. Duke of Touraine 

cr. Count of Evreux . . 



1421 
1421 

26 Mar. 1423 

19 Apr. 1424 

Jan. 1427 



John, Duke of Bedford . . 

John, 6th Lord Beaumont . 
John, 6th Lord Beaumont . 



By Henry [VI. of England as] King of France 

Duke of Anjou, ] 

Count of Maine . . . > 21 Jun. 1424 

Peer of France . . . . ) 
cr. Count of Boulogne ... 27 Jul. 1436 
cr. Viscount of Beaumont . 18 Jan. 1441 



r 

(cr. 



By King Charles VIII. 1483-1498 
Bernard Stuart, 4th Lord Aubigny . j.u. Count of Beaumont-le-Roger c. 1487 



By King Louis XII. 1498-1515 
Hon. William Stuart cr. Lord of Oizon and Grey 



a. 1503 



By King Francis I. 1515-1547 

Robert (Stuart), Lord of Aubigny . cr. Count of Beaumont-le- 
Roger 15 Jun. 1527 

James Montgomery cr. Count of Montgomery . . 1543 



By King Henry III. 1574-1589 



James (Hamilton), 2nd E. of Arran 
( ) Strutt or d'Estrutt . . 



cr. Duke of Chatellerault 
cr. Marquess of Tracy . 



5 Feb. 1584 
c. 1600 



By King Louis XIV. 1643-1715 



Sir George Hamilton .... 
Louis Oliver, 6th Lord of Leuville 

Louise de Querouaille .... 

Sir (Count) Andrew White . . 
Lieut.-Col. Anthony Hamilton . 
John (Drummond), E. of Melfort 
Gen. Daniel O'Mahony 
James, Duke of Berwick . 
John Florence O'Donnoghue . . 



rec. Count Hamilton .... 

cr. Marquess of Leuville . . Jun. 1650 

/Duchess of Aubigny . . . Jan. 1673 

\Peer of France .... Jan. 1684 

cr. Count of Alby ... a. 27 Sep. 1686 

rec. Count Hamilton .... a. 1689 

cr. Duke of Melfort . . . .17 Apr. 1692 

cr. Count Mahony .... 1702 

cr. Duke of Fitz James . . . 23 May 1710 

cr. M. of Cleinchamps and La 

Ronce . . 1712 



By King Louis XV. 1715-1774 

John Law cr. M. of Effiat, Charleval, and 

Toucy, C. of Valency and 
Tancarville 

William Law rec. Baron of Lauriston . 

Hon. Arthur Dillon rec. Count Dillon 

Sir William Scott, 3rd Bt cr. Marquess of Mesangere . . 

Francis Csesar d'Anstrude . . . . cr. Baron of Anstrude . . . 

Martin Kearney cr. Count Kearney 



. inh. 



/Count of Lussan (1645) 



James, 3rd Duke of Melfort . . . ""<^ B aron of Valrose (c. 1560) . 

( ) Douglas, Col cr. Count of Mont Real 

Patrick Mark Walsh cr. Chevalier de Chassenon . . 

/Count of Lally 



Sir Thomas Arthur Lally, Bt. 



\Baron of Tollendal 



c. 1716 
c. 1716 
c. 1721 
a. 1733 
Aug. 1737 
c. 1741 

15 May 1741 
a. May 1748 
15 Aug. 1754 

c. 1755 



182 



THE NOBILITIES OF EUROPE 



Michael Comyn 


. cr. 


Noble 


. . Jan. 1755 


Francis James Walsh . . . 


. cr. 


Count of Serrant . 


. . Mar. 1755 


Thomas Michael Lynch, Knt. 


. cr. 


Noble 


. . Mar. 1755 


Gen. Patrick d'Arcy .... 


. . cr. 


Count d'Arcy . 


. . Feb. 1758 


Richard d'Arcy 


. cr. 


Baron d'Arcy . . . 


. . Feb. 1758 


Sir Francis Wogan .... 


. cr. 


Baron de Wogan . 


. . Feb. 1764 


John O'Byrne , 


. . cr. 


Noble 


. . Nov. 1770 


Gregory O'Byrne 


. cr. 


Noble 


. . Nov. 1770 


Daniel O'Byrne 


, . cr. 


Noble 


. . Nov. 1770 


Dominick O'Heguerty . . 


. cr. 


Count of Maignieres . 


. . 21Jun. 1773 


Col. John O'Rourke 


. cr. 


Count O'Rourke . 


. . Aug. 1773 


Robert Dillon of Terrafort . . 


. rec. 


Count Dillon . . . 




(Jen. Theobald Dillon . . . . 


. rec. 


Count Dillon . . . 





By King Louis XVI. 10 May 177421 Jan. 1793 

Justin MacCarthy cr. Count MacCarthy Reagh . Sep. 

John James O'Kelly cr. Count O'Kelly-Ferrell . . Sep. 

Maximilian A. J. Hanmer-Clay-\ /Baron d'Hanmer-Clay- 

brooke J \ brooke Jul. 

( ) Macnamara cr. Count Macnamara . . . 

James Conway cr. Count, Viscount, and Baron 

de Conway 16 May 

Gen. Daniel O'Connell . cr. Count O'Connell . 



Barthelemy O'Mahony cr. Count O'Mahony . 

Charles Ferdinand Sinclair cr. Baron of St. Clair 



a. 30 Apr. 



1776 
1776 

1778 
1782 

1783 
1785 
1788 



By the Emperor Napoleon I. 18 May 180411 Apr. 1814 



Marshal Alexander Macdonald . . 
Gen. John Chas. Raymond Bourke . 
James Alex. (Law), B. de Lauriston . 
Gen. Chas. Francis Joseph Buquet . 
Henry James William Clarke . . 
Major John Louis B. MacSheehy 
Gen. Alexander Dalton .... 
Henry J. W. (Clarke), C. of Huneburg 
Gen. Louis Leopold Buquet . 
Gen. Eugen Redmond Shee . . . 

Col. Henry Shee 

William O'Meara 

Anthony J. P. (Walsh), 2nd C. of 

Serrant 

Gen. Francis Louis Forestier . 

Germain Joseph Meller 

John Baptist Lynch 

Col. Thomas Patrick Nagle . . . 
Francis C. M. E. L., 2nd B. Anstrude 

John Wulfran Dalton 

John Louis Bonaventure Kenny 
Lieut. -Gen. Gaspard Francis Fores- 

1 tier 

Col. Charles Miller 



cr. Duke of Tarente . 

cr. Baron Bourke 

cr. Count of Lauriston . 

cr. Baron de Buquet . 

cr. Count of Huneburg . 

cr. Chevalier MacSheehy 

cr. Baron d' Alton 

cr. Duke of Feltre . . 

cr. Baron de Buquet . 

cr. Baron Shee . . . 

cr. Count Shee . . . 

cr. Baron O'Meara 



30 Mar. 1806 
16 Jan. 1808 
29Jun. 1808 
11 Aug. 1808 
24 Oct. 1808 
1809 

15 Jan. 1809 
15 Aug. 1809 
4 Jan. 1810 
14 Feb. 1810 
14 Apr. 1810 
14 Apr. 1810 



cr. Count Walsh 15 Aug. 1810 

cr. Baron Forestier .... 28 Aug. 1810 

cr. Chevalier 21 Sep. 1810 

cr. Count of Lynch .... 22 Oct. 1810 

cr. Baron Nagle 22 Oct. 1810 

cr. Baron d' Anstrude . . . 22 Apr. 1811 

cr. Count d' Alton 11 Apr. 1812 

cr. Baron Kenny 13Jun. 1812 



cr. Baron Forestier 
cr. Chevalier . . 



25 Nov. 1813 
4 Dec. 1813 



By King Louis XV I II. 3 May 181419 Mar. 1815 



Edward, 6th Duke of Fitzjames . . 
Alex. (Macdonald), D. of Tarente . 
Henry J. W. (Clarke), D. of Feltre . 
Henry (Shee), Count Shee .... 
James Alex. Law, C. of Lauriston . 



cr. Peer of France 

cr. Peer of France 

cr. Peer of France 

cr. Peer of France 

cr. Count of Lauriston 



4 Jun. 
4 Jun. 
4 Jun. 
4 Jun. 
3 Mar. 



1814 
1814 
1814 
1814 
1815 



By the Emperor Napoleon I. 20 Mar. June 1815 
Charles Le Clere . cr. Chevalier 



3 Jul. 1815 



FRANCE 



'83 



By King Louis XVIII. 3 July 181516 Sep. 1824 



James A. (Law), C. of Lauriston 
Trephine Lally, 2nd C. of Lally . 

John Baptist, Count Lynch . , 
Frances Shee . cr. 



cr. Peer of France .... 
cr. Marquess of Lally-Toilen- 



dal, Peer of France 
cr. Peer of France 



17 Aug. 1815 

19 Aug. 1815 
17 Sep. 1815 



Baroness Dalton-Shee de 

Linieres 26 Dec. 



cr. Count of Warren 
cr. Baron Le Clere 
cr. Noble . . . 



cr. Count of Lynch 



28 Mar. 
11 Jun. 
2 May 
31 Aug. 



1815 
1816 
1816 
1817 
1817 



John Baptist Francis Jas. Warren . 

Chevalier Charles Le Clere 

Michael Charles Comyn .... 

John Baptist, Count Lynch . . . 

James A. (Law), 1st Count of Lauris- 
ton cr. Marquess of Lauriston . .31 Aug. 1817 

Alex. (Macdonald), D. of Tarente . cr. Duke of Tarente ... 31 Aug. 1817 

Aloys, Baron Reding de Bibereggl /Count de Reding de Bibe- 

[H.R.E.] / cr -\ regg 19 Jan. 

- ( Count of Stacpoole . 

George Stacpoole cr.| Viscount of Stacpoole 



Eugene Chas. Aug. Mandeville . . cr. 

James Teissier cr. 

George Gavin Browne-Mill . . . cr. 
Anthony A. J., 2nd B. d'Hanmer- 

Claybrooke cr. 

Charlotte Maria Augusta Brown 
Louise Mary Charlotte Brown . . 
Francis Louis B. A. A. Nugent . 
Cornelius Fluery O 'Murphy . . . 
John Baptist O'Murphy .... 
John L. Fleming, formerly Cuchet . 
Alexander Charles, 2nd B. Kenny . 
John C. R. Raymond, Baron Bourke 

Gen. Charles Laura de MacMahon 



Baron de Mandeville 
Baron de Teissier 
Baron Brown-Mill 



21 Jul. 
17 Dec. 
4 Dec. 
14 Apr. 



Baron d'Hanmer-Claybrooke 10 May 



cr. Countess of Yssoudun . 
cr. Countess of Vierzon . . 
cr. Count of Nugent . . . 

cr. Noble 

cr. Noble 

cr. Baron de Fleming 
cr. Baron de Kenny . 
cr. Peer of France . . . 
/Marquess of Vianges 



10 Jun. 
10 Jun. 
23 Mar. 

IMar. 

IMar. 



1818 

1818 
1818 
1819 
1820 

1820 
1820 
1820 
1821 
1821 
1821 



29 Nov. 1821 

11 Jan. 1823 

9 Oct. 1823 



\Baron de Sully 



By King Charles X. 16 Sep. 182430 July 1830 



Florimond Benjamin MacCurtain . 
Isidore Justin Severin Taylor . . 
Charles L. (MacMahon), M. of 

Vianges 

James Dawes, or Daw 

James Charles Rene Fitzjames . . 
Anne Peele Nelson, wife of S. G. 

MacNamara 

John Baptist, Count Lynch . . . 
Charles L., M. of MacMahon . . . 

Patrick O'Murphy 

Oliver L. C. R. (Walsh), 1st Duke of 

La Mothe-Houdancourt [Sp.] . . 
Gen. Angelique Michael J. U. Wall . 
John W. (Hyde), C. of Bemposta 

[Port.] 

Capt. H. J. Chandler alias Thompson 



cr. B. MacCurtain of Kainlis . 

cr. Baron Taylor 

f Marquess of MacMahon 
cr ' \Peer of France .... 

cr. Baron Dawes 

cr. Viscount Fitz James . 

cr. Countess of MacNamara . 

/Count of Lynch .... 

' r ' \Peer of France, with sp. rem. 

cr. M. of MacMahon, with sp. 

rem 

cr. Baron O'Murphy .... 

cr. Duke of Walsh-Serrant 
cr. Count of Wall . . 

cr. Baron Hyde of Neufville . 
cr. Noble 



28 May 1825 
28 May 1825 

20 Nov. 1827 

21 Aug. 1828 

17 Feb. 1828 

3 May 1828 

18 Jul. 1828 

18 Jul. 1828 
25 Apr. 1829 

18 Aug. 1829 
11 Dec. 1829 

20 Jan. 1830 
30 Jun. 1830 



By King Louis Philip. 9 Aug. 183024 Feb. 1848 



Florimond B., B. MacCurtain of K. . cr. B. MacCurtain of Kainlis, 

with sp. rem 21 Apr. 1831 

Col. Anthony Sylvain de Cantillon . cr. Baron de Ballyhigue . . 18 Nov. 1839 



184 



THE NOBILITIES OF EUROPE 



By the Emperor Napoleon III. 22 Nov. 1852 4 Sep. 1870 

Marshal M. E. M. MacMahon . . cr. Duke of Magenta ... 6 Jun. 1859 

Alfred, 2nd Baron d' Alton [F.E. 1809] cr. Count d' Alton .... 17 Mar. 1860 

Eliza Anne Haryett or Hargett . . cr. Countess of Beauregard 

William, 12th D. of Hamilton [S.], &c. cr. Duke of Chatellerault . . 20 Apr. 1864 

Isidore J. S., Baron Taylor . . . cr. Baron Taylor, with sp. rem. 4 May 1870 



FRENCH NOBLES WHO HAVE BECOME BRITISH SUBJECTS 

Louis (de Durfort), Marquess of Blancquefort .... naturalized 31 Oct. 1665 
Henry (de Massue), Marquess of Ruvigny and Raineval naturalized a. Jan. 1680 
Frederick (de Schomberg), Duke of Schomberg, &c. . . cr. a Peer 10 Apr. 1689 
Esther (de La Tour du Pin), Marchioness of Gouvernet . naturalized 16 Jan. 1691 

Count Charles de Schomberg naturalized 25 Apr. 1691 

Margaret, Duchess of La Force naturalized 24 Feb. 1692 

Armand Nompar (de Caumont), Marquess of Monpouillan naturalized 24 Feb. 1692 
Louis James (Le Vasseur-Cougnee), Marquess of Puissar naturalized 24 Feb. 1692 
Frederick William (de La Rochefoucauld), Count of 

Marthon naturalized 20 Sep. 1694 

Armand (de Bourbon), Marquess of Miremont . . . 

Louis (de Bourbon), Marquess of La Case 

( ), Marquess of Guiscard 

( ), Marquess of La Foret 

Francis (de La Rochefoucauld), Marquess of Montrande 

Henry (du Quesne), Marquess du Quesne 

( ), Marquess of La Musse 

Claude Champion de Crespigny 

Francis (de La Rochefoucauld), Count of Roye . 

( ), Count Paulin 

Gerard (de Vismes), Count of Vismes 

Henry (d'Aldret d'Ully), Viscount de Laval ..... 
Nicholas Simon, Viscount of Alzac de Gerac .... 

Guy (de Vicouse), Baron de la Court . 

Jos'ias (de Robillard), Lord of Champagne 

John Anthony, Baron de Berni&re 

Charles (Boileau), Lord of Castelnau and St. Croix . . 

Philibert (Hervat), Baron de Huninge 

Samuel (de Pechels), Baron de St. Cran Barre and La 

Boyssonnade 

Armand (du Mesniel), Marquess of Rocquefort-Sommery . 
Charles Mark (de Bucy), Marquess of Bucy and Gamaches 
Peter A. F. (de Lapasture), Marquess of La Pasture . 
Ralph A. H. (de Bourbel), Marquess of Bourbel-Mont- 

pingon naturalized 23 May 1797 

Armand, Marquess of La Belinage naturalized 23 May 1797 

Charles Michael (Biron), Viscount Gontault St. Blanchard naturalized 23 May 1797 
Claude, Count [and afterwards Duke] of Chatre . . . naturalized 23 May 1797 
Charles W. H. (de Thierry), Baron de St. Baussant . . 

Alexander, called Count of Vaudes naturalized 3 Jun. 1802 

Amadous L. C. F. (de Harcourt), Marquess of Harcourt . 

Oscar James (de Satge), Baron de Thoren naturalized 28 Jul. 1836 

Peter Louis Napoleon Cavagnari naturalized 7 Dec. 1857 

Euguerrand, Count de Pully naturalized 14 May 1867 

Theobald Alexander, Viscount de Leliva naturalized 27 Sep. 1870 

Remy Leon (de Biaudos), Marquess of Castija .... domiciled 31 Jan. 1873 
Vincent Charles Henry, styled Count d'Etchegoyen . . naturalized 14 Jun. 1876 




SWEDEN AND THE SWEDISH NOBILITY 



THE Swedish Nobility may be said to have originated in the reign of 
Bang Magnus I. Ladulas [1279-1290]. That King having married the 
Princess Hedwiga of Holstein, at her suggestion formally instituted in 1290 
the F raise (i.e. Freed), by which all those who in time of war could furnish 
a man and horse for the service of the Crown were freed from the payment 
of taxes. From this time it gradually became the custom for the King to 
give the Fralse, at the conclusion of each war, a signed document as evidence 
of their exemption from taxation, and after a lapse of time these documents 
came to be regarded as necessary proofs of Nobility, and so arose a " parch- 
ment " Nobility. The earliest of these patents preserved at Stockholm is 
that of Peter Knagh, granted by the Regent Sten Sture 1483. 1 Titles, 
however, were not introduced before the reign of Eric XIV. [1560-1568], 
son of the great Vasa. That monarch, hoping to marry Queen Elizabeth, 
at his coronation, 1561, created three COUNTIES in favour of the three 
great houses of Sture, Roos, and Brade, and nine BARONIES, among the 
recipients of which figure the historic names of Lejonhufvud, Bonde, Sten- 
bock, and Oxenstjerna, though these patronymics, assigned by history to 
their descendants, did not come into use until long afterwards, the newly 
made Nobles continuing to be known as " Peter son of Eric," &c. Charles 
IX. [1600-1611] created his son and heir, Gustavus, GRAND DUKE OF FINLAND 
and DUKE OF ESTHONIA and WESTMANLAND, and was the first to suggest 
that the Nobles should adopt some fixed surname ; but it was not until the 
reign of his son, Gustavus (Adolphus) II. [1611-1632], that family names 
came into general use. King Charles IX. appointed a commission of twelve 
Knights, whose duty it was to visit the Fralsejord (freed lands) and determine 
the number of men-at-arms to be furnished by each estate, and Gustavus 
Adolphus, finding the royal revenues much curtailed by this general 
exemption from taxation, ordered that each Noble should produce his parch- 
ments, and that, if his lands proved insufficient to support the number of 
men-at-arms required, he should lose his privileges and be " disennobled." 
It was King Gustavus Adolphus who first instituted in 1624 the "RiD- 
DARHUS," or " House of Nobles," composed of the head of each Noble 
family, on whose books all those entitled to a seat were to inscribe their 
names, and rendered it obligatory on each newly created Peer to be intro- 
duced i.e. take his seat. 2 A number was assigned to each family on their 
introduction, each class having its own numbering. Brade was the first 
Count to take his seat, and Oxenstjerna the first Baron. Both these families 
still exist, and the head of each is respectively the PREMIER COUNT and the 
PREMIER BARON of Sweden. Count and Baron are the only two titles known 
in Sweden ; and though for a long time all families enjoying them derived 
their titles from the Counties and Baronies possessed by them, they con- 
tinued to be known by their surnames and not by their territorial titles, 

1 One Year in Sweden, by Horace Marryat. 2 vols. London, 1862. 

2 A Noble absent for a space of three years from Sweden could not take his place in 
the Diet until he had paid his taxes for that period. In his unavoidable absence, however, 
he might appoint his next heir to represent him. Marryat, i. 406. 

185 



1 86 THE NOBILITIES OF EUROPE 

the case of Peter Brade, who invariably styled himself " Peter, Count of 
Wisingborg," and not Count Brade, being quoted as a solitary exception. 
Queen Christina [1632-1654] wished to introduce that of DUKE, and offered 
to confer that title on the Chancellor Axel Oxenstjerna and on Count Peter 
Brade, hoping thereby to induce them to agree to the nomination of Count 
Nils Thott to the succession after Charles Gustavus should the latter have 
no male issue. Both nobles, however, refused, begging Her Majesty rather 
to do away with titles altogether, andl et the Nobility remain as it formerly 
was, and the Ducal title is only borne by Princes of the Blood. After the 
Danish War of 1679 the finances of Sweden were in utter confusion. So 
many of the Crown lands had been given away to Nobles, that the revenue 
was not nearly large enough to cover the necessary expenditure, and the 
administration could not be carried on without a system of crushing taxa- 
tion. King Charles XI. [1660-1697] l therefore in 1680, with the sanction 
of the Diet, ordered that the fourth part of all the Crown lands given during 
the previous thirty years should be restored. This, however, was only the 
beginning. Charles, having swamped the House of Lords by creating 200 
Nobles in the course of a year, soon extended the process of reduction, as it 
was called, and it was carried on with ruthless severity. By this measure 
some of the foremost families in Sweden were ruined, and the Crown was 
made almost independent of the Diet, for it recovered no less than ten 
Counties, seventy Baronies, and many small estates. 2 With the Reduc- 
tion ended the chief glory of the great Swedish Nobility, though they recovered 
a great deal of power during the wars of Charles XII. Queen Ulrica Eleanor 
[1718-1720] once more tried to swamp the House of Peers by creating a 
batch of 300, but without accomplishing her object. King Adolphus 
Frederick [1751-1771] again broke the power of the Nobility at the time 
of the alleged conspiracy which ended in the execution of Count Brade, and 
their political influence was finally overthrown by Gustavus III. [1771-1792] 
in August 1772, though they retained many privileges until the commence- 
ment of the nineteenth century. Formerly the Diet was divided into four 
Houses, the Nobles, Clergy, Burghers, and Peasants; but the Constitution 
of 22 June 1866 substituted two Chambers, and though the Eiddarhus still 
exists it has since that date ceased to be one of the Houses of Parliament. 
Article XXI. settled the status of the Nobility as follows : 

"21. Le Roi a le droit de confer er la noblesse 3 aux hommes qui, par leur 
fid^lite, leur valeur, leur vertu, leur science, leur service et leur zele, auront, 
particulierement bien mfrite du Roi et du Royaume. Le Roi pourra de meme, 
en recompense de grands et Jminents services, conferer a des nobles le rang de 
baron et aux barons celui de comte. Le noblesse et les litres de baron et de comte 
qui seront confers par la suite ne pourront appartenir qu'a celui qui aura ete 

1 It was this King who in 1666 settled the order of precedence in Sweden. 

2 Encyclopaedia Britannica, xxii. 750. 

3 This right has been very seldom exercised of late years. Professor Fahlbeck says 
[La Constitution Sutdoise, Paris, 1905, p. 70], that only 17 creations have taken place 
since the accession of Charles XV. in 1859 public opinion being against it. He gives 
the following interesting figures concerning the state of the Nobility on 1 Jan. 1895, 
which he says then consisted of 717 families, numbering 13,105 persons, viz. 6015 males 
and 7090 females, and amounted to 0*27 per cent, of the total population. The adult 
males were divided as follows: Officers in the Army and Navy, 1054 ; civil, judicial, and 
ecclesiastical functionaries, 760 ; landed proprietors, 806 ; engaged in commercial and 
mercantile pursuits, 521 ; liberal professions, professors, doctors, &c., 207 ; workers, 238 ; 
students, &c., 228. It must be remembered that of the above 717 families only 197 were 
titled, and that to draw any comparison between these figures and those relating to the 
nobility of the United Kingdom, it would be necessary to add to the latter all the 
armigerous families, who, though not counted as nobles in this country, in reality answer 
to the untitled nobility of foreign countries. 



SWEDEN AND SWEDISH NOBILITY 187 

anobli ou eleve en titre, et apres sa mort, en ligne directe descendante, a Vaine 
de ses descendants males de branche ainee, apres ^extinction de celle-ci au plus 
proche heritier mdle du chef de la famitte, dans la branche ainee survivante, 
et ainsi de suite. Si la noblesse passe par heredite a quel qu'un qui Va de'ja 
recue lui-meme ou qui en a he'rite dans une succession plus proche, sa propre 
noblesse cessera, a moins qu'elle ne soit d'un rang superieur, au quel cas la 
noblesse du chef de famille pessera d la branche la plus proche ; s'il rfen existe 
pas, la ligne sera eteinte. Si quel qu'un est declare dechu de la noblesse, elle 
passera a celui qui d'apres les regies ci-dessus en est le plus proche heritier. 
Le reglement de Vordre de la noblesse, qui sera arrete de concert par le Roi 
et de la noblesse, prescrira le mode de reunion de la noblesse pour decider 
des affaires communes" 

The total number of Peers created who have taken their seats in the 
Kiddarhus is 2892, 1 viz. 142 Counts, beginning with Brade [No. 1], cr. 1561, 
and ending with von Saltza [No. 142], cr. 1843 ; 406 Barons, of whom the 
first was Oxenstjerna of Eka andLindo [No. 1], cr. 1561, and the lastDickson 
[No. 406], cr. 1885 ; and 2344 untitled Nobles, the Premier being Lilliehook 
of Fardala [No. 1], admitted 1625, and the last Hedin [No. 2344], cr. 1902. 
Of these 59 Counts, 138 Barons 2 and some 535 Nobles 3 still survive. In 
the case of Barons the title descends to all the male descendants of the 
grantee, and their daughters; that of Count sometimes descends in like 
manner, but in other cases is borne by the head of the family only and the 
heirs male of his body in the order of primogeniture according to the 
remainder with which the title was conferred. Daughters, though they 
carry the courtesy title of Countess or Baroness, as the case may be, pre- 
fixed to their Christian names in the same manner that daughters of British 
Dukes, Marquesses, and Earls have that of " Lady," lose their title on 
marriage, and cannot transmit it to their descendants. 

The following is a complete list of the Counts and Barons now existing, 
with the dates of their creation, and the number under which they took 
their seat : 

Adlercreutz [No. 125], 1814; Adlersparre [No. 130], 1816; Barck 

1 Marryat, writing in 1862, says that the total number of families who were ennobled 
and introduced was 2334 ; but he must have overlooked the fact that each class had its 
own numbering, for this was the number of the untitled nobles who had been intro- 
duced up to that year, the family of Bohnstedt being introduced under that number in 1861. 
He estimates the number then existing as 980, including those belonging to the lost 
provinces, Finland, Livonia, &c., and adds that the number who took their seats in the 
last Diet scarcely exceeded 400. In addition to the number of creations given above 
(2892), must be named a small number conferred between 1561 and 1625, and which 
became extinct before the institution of the Kiddarhus in the latter year, and those con- 
ferred on families who never took their seat, and which consequently lapsed. Professor 
Fahlbeck gives the exact number as 3033. A considerable number of years sometimes 
elapsed before a Peer or his heir was introduced. For instance, though the Craufords were 
ennobled in 1621, they were not introduced until 1668 (see p. 190). The number was given 
on the introduction, and the precedence dated from that year. 

2 It must not be assumed that the other 268 are all extinct, for many are merged in 
Counties. The same remark applies in the case of the untitled Nobles. 

3 It is difficult to arrive at the exact number owing to the system adopted in the 
Sveriges Ridderskaps of dividing up those families who have been created successively 
Nobles, Barons, and Counts. Thus the head of the Cederstrom family is entered in his 
proper place as a Count, while all the other members of the family who have the courtesy 
title of Baron appear under a separate entry, though the actual Barony itself has since 
1819 been merged in the County. In other cases there are three entries for the same 
family ; but as the Sveriges Ridderskaps gives no account of the past genealogy of the 
various houses, it is impossible to say whether it is the head of the family who has been 
advanced a step or whether it is a cadet. As only the heir male of the grantee has a seat 
in the house, in the first case the two would have merged, while in the second they would 
constitute two distinct Peerages. 



1 88 THE NOBILITIES OF EUROPE 

[No. 81], 1731 ; Barnekow [No. 128], 1816 ; Beck-Friis [No. 104], 1791 ; 
Bielke [No. 29], 1687 ; Bjornstjerna [No. 140], 1826 ; Bonde af Bjorno 
[No. 41], 1695 ; Brade [No. 1], 1561 ; Cederstrom [No. 135], 1819 ; Creutz 
[No. 68], 1719 ; Cronhjelm af Flosta [No. 55], 1712 ; Cronhielm af Hakunge 
[No. 69], 1719 ; Cronstedt af Fullero [No. 83], 1731 ; de la Gardie [No. 3], 
1615 ; Douglas [No. 19], 1654 ; Ehrensvard [No. 113], 1771 ; von Engestrom 
[No. 121], 1813 ; von Essen [No. 118], 1809 ; Falkenberg af Balby [No. 97], 
1778; Frolich [No. 49], 1706; Gyldenstolpe [No. 35], 1.690; Hamilton 
[No. 86], 1751 ; von Hermansson [No. 90], 1771 ; Horn af Aminne [No. 92], 
1772 ; Hard [No. 78], 1734 ; Railing [No. 91], 1771 ; Klingspor [No. 107], 
1799 ; Lagerberg [No. 75], 1731 ; Lagerbjelke [No. 115], 1809 ; Lewenhaupt 
[No. 2], 1568 ; Liljencrantz [No. 120], 1812 ; Lowen [No. 84], 1751 ; Lowen- 
hielm [No. 87], 1762 ; Morner af Morlanda [No. 60], 1716 ; Oxenstierna 
af Korsholm och Wasa [No. 8], 1651 ; Piper [No. 46], 1698 ; Posse [No. 51], 
1706 ; Ridderstolpe [No. 119], 1800 ; von Rosen [No. 85], 1751 ; von Saltza 
[No. 742], 1843 ; Sandels [No. 124], 1815 ; von Schwerin [No. 94], 1766 ; 
von Seth [No. 88], 1762 ; Sinclair [No. 95], 1771 ; Sparre af Sofdeborg 
[No. 66], 1719; Spens [No. 54], 1712; Stackelberg [No. 100], 1763; von 
Stedingk [No. 117], 1809 ; Stenbock [No. 12], 1651 ; Stromfelt [No. 106], 
1799 ; Taube af Kuddinge [No. 62], 1719 ; Taude af Odenkat [No. 112], 
1734 (introduced 1802); Thott [No. 114], 1807; af Ugglas [No. 105], 1799 ; 
Wachtmeister af Johannishus [No. 25], 1687; Wirsen [No. 139], 1826; 

Wrangel [No. 99], 1778 ; Wrangel af Sauss [No. 93], 1751. Adelsward 

[No. 249], 1770 ; Akerhielm af Blombacka [No. 232], 1751 ; Akerhielm af 
Margrethelund [No. 205], 1731 ; Alstromer [No. 302], 1778 ; Armfelt [No. 
213], 1731 ; Baner [No. 22], 1651 ; Bennet [No. 154], 1719 ; Bildt [No. 404], 
1864 ; von Blixen [No. 258], 1772 ; Boije af Gennas [No. 294], 1771 ; Bonde 
[No. 20], 1802 ; Brauner [No. 320], 1731 ; Carpelan [No. 310], 1790 ; Creutz 
[No. 48], 1654 ; d'Albedyhll [No. 183], 1720 ; De Geer af Finspang [No. 312], 
1797 ; De Geer af Leufsta [No. 253], 1773 ; Dickson [No. 406], 1885 ; 
Djurklou [No. 234], 1751 ; Duwall [No. 64], 1674 ; von Diibeft [No. 135], 
1718 ; von Diiben [No. 139], 1719 ; Ehrenborgh [No. 366], 1817 ; Ehren- 
krona [No. 210], 1731 ; Ehrensvard [No. 267], 1764 ; Ericson [No. 403], 
1860 ; von Essen [No. 158], 1719 ; Falkenberg af Trystrop [No. 255], 1723 ; 
Falkengren [No. 239], 1771 ; Fleetwood [No. 49], 1654 ; Fleming af Liebe- 
litz [No. 17], 1651 ; Fock [No. 304], 1778 ; Fock [No. 354], 1815 ; von 
FriesendorS [No. 200], 1705 ; Funck [No. 189], 1723 ; Fagerskiold [No. 97], 
1692 ; von Gedda [No. 202], 1730 ; Gripenstedt [No. 402], 1860 ; Gyllenhaal 
[No. 388], 1837 ; Gyllenhaal [No. 396], 1843 ; Gyllenkrok [No. 195], 1727 ; 
Gyllenstierna af Lundholm [No. 3], 1569 ; Haij [No. 362], 1815 ; Hamilton 
af Hageby [No. 99], 1689 ; Hermelin [No. 272], 1766 ; Hierta [No. 250], 
1771 ; Hierta [No. 381], 1832 ; Hochschild [No. 391], 1839 ; Hummerhielm 
[No. 114], 1705 ; von Hopken [No. 161], 1719 ; Kantzow [No. 376], 1821 ; 
Kinckowstrom [No. 262], 1759 ; Klingspor [No. 257], 1771 ; af Klinteberg 
[No. 359], 1815 ; von Knorring [No. 177], 1720 ; Koskull [No. 184], 1720; 
Kruuse af Verchou [No. 76], 1679 ; Kurck [No. 16], 1651 ; von Kohler 
[No. 167], 1719; Lagerbring [No. 358], 1815; Lagerfelt [No. 245], 1766; 
Lagerheim [No. 326], 1807; Lagerheim [No. 341], 1812; Lagerstrale 
[No. 369], 1817 ; Leijonhielm [No. 142], 1719 ; Leijonhufvud [No. 26], 
1651 ; Leuhusen [No. 140], 1719 ; von Liewen [No. 45], 1653 ; Lilliecreutz 
[No. 215], 1735 ; Liljencrantz [No. 297], 1777 ; Lovisin [No. 88], 1687 ; 
Lybecker [No. 719], 1707 ; Lowen [No. 276], 1766 ; Manderstrom [No. 246], 
1771 ; Mannerheim [No. 277], 1768 ; Marcks von Wiirtemberg [No. 263], 
1759 ; Morner af Morlanda [No. 62], 1674 ; Nauckhoff [No. 343], 1838 ; 
Nordenfalk [No. 390], 1813 ; Nordenskjold [No. 357], 1815 ; Nordenskold 



SWEDEN AND SWEDISH NOBILITY 189 

[No. 394], 1841 ; Nordenskiold [No. 405], 1880 ; Ornskold [No. 284], 1771 ; 
von Otter [No. 150], 1719 ; Oxenstierna af Eka och Lindo [No. 1], 1561 ; 
von Paykull [No. 370], 1818 ; Palmqvist [No. 123], 1711 ; Palmstierna 
[No. 220], 1747 ; Peyron [No. 392], 1841 ; Pfeiff [No. 289], 1772 ; von 
Platen [No. 313], 1797 ; von Platen [No. 364], 1815 ; von Plomgren [No. 371], 
1818 ; Posse af Saby [No. 57], 1673 ; Kaab [No. 286], 1771 ; Ramel [No. 295], 
1771 ; Rappe [No.' 287], 1771 ; Rehbinder [No. 77], 1680 ; Reuterskjold 
[No. 377], 1826 ; Ribbing af Zernawa [No. 40], 1654 ; Ridderstolpe [No. 228], 
1751 ; von Rosen [No. 290], 1772 ; Rosenblad [No. 323], 1809 ; von Roxen- 
dorff [No. 243], 1762 ; Rudbeck [No. 282], 1771 ; Rudenschold [No. 227], 
1747 ; Ralamb [No. 59], 1674 ; Sack [No. 170], 1719 ; von Saltza [No. 260], 
1755 ; af Schmidt [No. 393], 1841 ; von Schulzenheim [No. 380], 1830 ; 
von Schwerin [No. 133], 1717 ; Silfverschiold [No. 283], 1771 ; Silfversparre 
[No. 330], 1809; Sjkoldebrand [No. 373], 1819; Sparre [No. 11], 1647; 
Stackelberg [No. 192], 1727 ; Steel von Holstein [No. 155], 1719 ; von 
Stedingk [No. 316], 1800 ; von Stedingk [No. 342], 1811 ; Stierncorna 
[No. 166], 1719 ; Stierneld [No. 236], 1751 ; Stjernstedt [No. 145], 1719 ; 
Stromfelt [No. 105], 1696 ; Tamm [No. 395], 1843 ; Taube af Odenhat 
[No. 110], 1692 ; Tersmeden [No. 338], 1809 ; Thott [No. 301], 1778 ; Toll 
[No. 314], 1813 ; Trolle [No. 360], 1816 ; Uggla [No. 69], 1676 ; von 
Vegesack [No. 379], 1802 ; af Wetterstedt [No. 327], 1806 ; Wrangel af 
Lindeberg [No. 41], 1654 ; Wrangel af Sauss [No. 279], 1771 ; Wrangel 
von Brehmer [No. 268], 1765 ; Wrede af Elima [No. 44], 1653 ; Vult von 
Steijern [No. 384], 1832. 

The following table, compiled by Professor Fahlbeck, the great authority 
on the Swedish Nobility, 1 shows at a glance the state of the Peerage in 1891. 



Period of 
Creation. 


Relative 
Antiquity. 


Counts. 


Barons. 


Untitled 
Nobles. 


before 1591 


over 300 old 


2 


2 


35 


1591-1615 


300-276 


1 




3 


1616-1640 


275-251 






22 


1641-1665 


250-226 


3 


ii 


65 


1666-1690 


225-201 


3 


9 


74 


1691-1715 


200-176 


6 


7 


43 


1716-1740 


175-151 


12 


27 


79 


1741-1765 


150-126 


6 


12 


55 


1766-1790 


125-101 


9 


27 


61 


1791-1815 


100-76 


14 


21 


36 


1816-1840 


75-51 


5 


15 


37 


1841-1865 


50-26 


1 


9 


16 


1866-1890 


25-0 


... 


2 


2 






62 2 


142 3 


528 



The great military and commercial position occupied by Sweden during 
the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries naturally attracted many foreigners 
to her service, and over 200 British families have been enrolled in the Swedish 
Peerage, which still includes 7 Counts, 9 Barons, and 28 untitled Nobles of 
Anglo-Scottish descent. 4 

1 See Sveriges Add, p. 120. 

2 Three of these, Diicker [No. 61, 1719], Horn af Rantzien [No. 70, 1719], and Snoilsky 
[No. 133, 1771], have since become extinct in the male line. 

3 Four, von Diiben [No. 135], von Rosen [No. 397], and two others, have since become 
extinct. 

4 See pp. 6, 28-42, and 175. 



190 THE NOBILITIES OF EUROPE 

SWEDISH PEERAGES AND KNIGHTAGE 

Sveriges Ridderskaps och Adels Kalendar, Stockholm, published annually 
since 1854, and edited first by Gabriel Anrep and now by Adam Lewen- 
kaupt. 

Sveriges Adel, by P. E. Fahlbeck. 2 vols. Lund, 1902. 

Kungl Svenska Riddarecordnarna [Swedish Knightage], by R. Sodermark. 
Stockholm, 1907. 

BRITONS ENNOBLED IN SWEDEN 1 
By King Eric XIV. 29 Sept. 156030 Sept. 1568 

Name. Title. No. Date. 

( ) Smith cr. Noble 1574 

Charles de Mornay cr. Baron of Warend . . . 

By King John III. 10 July 156917 Nov. 1592 

Bengt Duse or d'Ewes cr. a Noble 119. 1576 

Andrew Keith cr. Baron of Finstadt . . . 1580 

Jacob Neafve cr. Baron of Marby .... c. 1580 

By King Sigismund. 17 Nov. 15926 Feb. 1604 
Alexander Erskine cr. Noble 1598 

By King Charles IX. 29 Mar. 160430 Oct. 1611 
John Stuart cr. Noble 



By King Gustavus II. 30 Oct. 161116 Nov. 1632 

Jacob Crauford cr. Noble Crafoord . . 743. 2 1621 

Jacob Spens cr. Baron Spens .... 9. 28 Ap. 1622 

( ) Frankelin cr. Noble 1625 

Unge Anders Stuart cr. Noble 86. 1625 

G. Stuart cr. Noble 86. 1625 

David Stuart cr. Noble 86. 1625 

Jacob Forbes of Lund cr. Noble 174. 1631 

By Queen Christina. 16 Nov. 163216 June 1654 

Simon Stewart cr. Noble Styfvort . . 205. 1634 

Major-Gen. John Ramsay . . . . cr. Noble 215. 14 Jul. 1634 

James Robertson cr. Noble Robertsson . 231. 1635 

William Philp cr. Noble 242. 1636 

Col. Maurice MacDougall . . . . cr. Noble Duwall ... 241. 1638 

Arvid Forbes cr. Noble 249. 1638 

Mathias Forbes cr. Noble 249. 1638 

John Smith cr. Noble Rosenschmidt 289. 1640 

( ) Morgan cr. Noble 1640 

Philip Sadler cr. Noble 1640 

1 The above list is compiled from the Rolls of the Riddarhus contained in Fahlbeck's 
Sveriges Adels. Certain other names after which no number is given are added from 
Marryat's One Year in Sweden, Donner's Scottish Families in Finland and Sweden, 
Dr. Fischer's Scots in Sweden, &c. As they are not given in Fahlbeck's work, they 
presumably never took their seats. 

2 The number is that under which each family was introduced into the House of 
Nobles. The Craufords did not take their seat until 1668, which accounts for the 
apparent discrepancy in the numbering. 



SWEDEN AND SWEDISH NOBILITY 191 



Name. 


Title. 


No. 


Date. 


Lieut. -Col. Patrick Ogilvie . . . 


cr. Noble Ogilwie . . 


277. 


1642 


Col. Thomas Thomson 


cr. Noble 


299. 


1642 


John Bordon of Fordel 


cr. Noble 


522. 


1643 


Alexander Erskine 


cr. Noble von Erskine . 




1643 


Richard (King), 1st L. Evthin [S.] . 


cr. Baron Sanshult . . 


. 


c. 1645 


Otto Yxhiills Scott 


cr. Noble Pistolekors 


321. 


22 Feb. 1645 


Paul Wood 


cr. Noble Wudd . . . 


356. 


1646 


Herbert Gladstone 


cr. Noble Gladsten . . 


372. 


1647 


Alexander Irvine 


cr. Noble Irwing . . . 


308. 


1647 


Peter Udnie 


cr. Noble 


375. 


1647 


( ) Laurin 


cr. Noble Lagergreen 


391. 


1647 


Major-Gen. William Barclay . . 


cr. Noble Barclaij . . 


562. 


1648 


Lieut. -Col. John Urquhart . . . 


cr. Noble Urqvard . . 


423. 


1648 


Adm. Richard Clerk 


cr. Noble Clerck . . . 


433. 


1648 


John Tait 


cr. Noble Stjerncreutz . 


436. 


1648 


John Clerk 


cr. Noble Clerk . . . 


442. 


1648 


John Drummond 


cr. Noble Dromund . . 


445. 


1649 


( ) Hopkins 


cr. Noble von Hopken 


1414. 


1649 


( ) Lenck 


cr. Noble 


448. 


1649 


Sir John MacLean, Bt 


cr. Noble Macklear . . 


513. 


1649 


Capt. William Netherwood 


cr. Noble 


446. 


1649 


( ) Pott 


cr. Noble Armlod . . 


. 


1649 


Col. Francis Sinclair 


cr. Noble 


444. 


1649 


Robert Gairdner 


cr. Noble 


485. 


1650 


Capt. Alexander Foratt .... 


cr. Noble 


490. 


1650 


Col. Patrick Kynninmond 


cr. Noble Kinnimond 


505. 


1650 


Col. Thomas Kynninmond 


cr. Noble Kinnimond 


505. 


1650 


Jacob Scott of Craighall .... 


cr. Noble 


499. 


1650 


Sir Robert Douglas 


cr. Baron of Skalby . 


. 


1651 


Peter Forbes 


cr. Noble 


542. 


1651 


James Bogg 


cr. Noble 


521. 


1652 


( ) Erskine 


cr. Noble 




1652 


Arvid Forbes (Forbus) (249) . . . 


cr. Baron of Kungsgard 


35. 


1652 


Major Henry Primrose .... 


cr. Noble 


640. 


1653 


Sir R. Douglas, Baron of Skalby 


cr. Count of Skinninge . 


19. 


18 May 1654 


( ) Eden 


cr. Noble Edenberg . 


617. 


1654 


Sir George Fleetwood 


cr. Baron of Jalunda 


49. 


1654 


Hugh Hamilton. Lord Glanawly 


cr. Baron of Deserf . . 


50. 


1654 


Ludovic Hamilton 


cr. Baron of Deserf . . 


50. 


1654 


By King Charles (Gustavus 


) X. 16 June 165423 


Feb. 


1660 


Alexander Erskine 


cr. Baron Erskine . . 




1655 


John Sinclair 


cr. Noble 


626. 


1655 


David Sinclair 


cr. Noble 


626. 


1655 


Major-Gen. William Sinclair (626) . 


cr. Baron of Finnekumla 


. 


1655 


Andrew Currie 


cr. Noble Tressenburg . 





a. 1659 


By King Charles XI. 


23 Feb. 166015 Apr. 


1697 




Owen Cox 


cr. Noble Sjolow . . . 




1660 


Robert Lichton 


cr. Noble 




1661 




cr. Noble 


725. 


22 Dec. 1663 


Major John Orcharton 


cr. Noble 


681. 


1664 


John Maule 


cr. Noble Mel .... 


682. 


1664 


Capt. William Nisbeth 


cr. Noble 


828. 


1664 


Gen. Malcolm Hamilton ... 


cr. Noble 




1664 


"Daniel Vonng 


cr. Noble Leijonancker . 


778. 


1666 


John Belfrage 


cr. Noble 


782. 


1666 


Alexander Anderson 


cr. Noble Andersson 


738. 


1668 


Rudolph Bruce 


cr. Noble 


745. 


1668 


Lieut.-Col. Thomas Livingstone . 


cr. Noble Livensten . . 


747. 


1668 


Lieut. -Col. John Douglas . . . . 


cr. Noble Douglies . . 


821. 


1669 


Henry Cletcher 


cr. Noble Cletzer . . . 


806. 


1672 


James King 


cr. Noble 


810. 


1672 


Henry King 


cr. Noble 


810. 


1672 



192 



THE NOBILITIES OF EUROPE 



Name. 


Jgptle. 


No. 


Date. 


Lieut. -Gen. Otho William Macpher- 








son 


cr. Baron von Fersen 


63. 


4 Nov. 1674 


Capt. Herman Macpherson 


cr. Baron von Fersen 


63. 


4 Nov. 1674 


Gen. Fabien Macpherson .... 


cr. Baron von Fersen 


63. 


29Nov 1674 


Lieut. -Gen. John Macpherson 


cr. Baron von Fersen 


63. 


29 Nov. 1674 


Lieut. -Col. Jacob MacDougall . . 


cr. Baron Duwall . . . 


64. 


1674 


Gustavus MacDougall 


cr. Baron Duwall . 


64. 


1674 


James Bennet 


cr. Noble .....' 


831. 


1675 


Robert Lichton 


cr. Baron 




1675 


Capt. William Thomson .... 


cr. Noble Gyllenskepp . 


902. 


1676 


Andrew Boy 


cr. Noble 




1676 


Thomas Clerk 


cr. Noble Clerck . 


433. 


1678 


John Spalding 


cr. Noble Spaldencreutz 


910. 


1678 


Lawrence or John Laurin .... 


cr. Noble Laurin . 


926. 


1678 


Capt. James Hoop 


cr. Noble Hupenfelt . . 


938. 


1678 


Daniel Fife 


cr. Noble Pfeiff . . . 


945. 


1678 


( ) Piper 


cr. Noble 


18996. 


1679 


< ) Piper 


cr. Noble 


1899 c. 


1679 


Lieut.-Col. Thorsten Muir .... 


cr. Noble Myhr 


913. 


1680 


Edward Berner Jordan .... 


cr. Noble von Jordan 


914. 


1680 


Col. Magnus Gabriel Williamson 
John Wardlaw 


cr. Noble Willemsens 
cr. Noble Wardlau . . 


949. 
951. 


1680 
1680 


Francis Law 


cr. Noble Lauw 


957. 


1680 


Andrew Sinclair 


cr. Noble 


965. 


2 Oct. 1680 


Robert Kynninmond 


cr. Noble Kinninmundt 


971. 


1680 


George Guthrie 


cr. Noble 


974. 


1681 


Gualth Greigor 


cr. No. Greiggenschildt . 


. 


1685 


Thomas Hacker 


cr. Noble Hackerskold . 


1086. 


1686 


John Brand 


cr. Noble Anckarcreutz 


1145. 


1686 


Robert Lichton 


cr. Count of Ullishaven 


30. 


1687 


Admiral Clerk 


cr. Baron Clerk 


82. 


1687 


Capt. Eric Boy 


cr. Noble Gyldenboij 


1128. 


1688 


Gen. M. Hamilton, Noble .... 


cr. Baron of Hagbey 


99. 


12 Ap. 1689 


Hugh Hamilton 


cr. Baron of Hagbey 


99. 


12 Ap. 1689 


< )Hogg 


cr. Noble 


1162. 


1689 


Major Henry Hay 


cr. Noble Haij 


1187. 


1689 


Major Jacob Cahun 


cr. Noble Canonhjelm . 


1202. 


1689 


Magnus Laurin 


cr. Noble Lagerstrom 


1228. 


1691 


Thomas Anderson 


cr. Noble Blixenstjerna . 


1277. 


1693 


Col. Paul Bethune 


cr. Noble Bethun . . 


1404. 


1693 


( ) Flint 


cr. Noble Flintsten . 


1325. 


1695 


John Twist or Twiss 


cr. Noble Rosentwist 


1330. 


1695 



By King Charles XII. 16 Apr. 169711 Dec. 1718 



James Tharmott 

James Thersleff 

( ) Piper, Noble, No. 18996 . 

John Fistulator 

Jacob Clerk 

Gen. Charles Magnus Stuart . . 

Olaf Scragge 

Casten Fife 

Col. Samuel Zeedts 

Lieut.-Col. Klas Young 

Sir David MacLean, Bt. Noble, 513 

( ) Spalding 

Jacob, 3rd Baron Spens (1622) . 
Reinhold Macpherson .... 
Casten Fife, Noble No. 1405 . . 

( ) Fistulator 

James Maull 

Lieut.-Col. Peter Young 

Nils Screw 

( )Hylton 

David Lyell 



cr. Noble 

cr. Noble Stjernstedt . . . 

/Baron Piper 

cr ' \Count Piper ... 46. 
cr. Noble Lagerbielke . 1378. 
cr. Noble Clerk . . . 1382. 
cr. Baron Stuart . . . 111. 
cr. Noble Hermelin . .1391. 
cr. Noble Feif .... 1405. 

cr. Noble 1437. 

cr. Noble 

cr. Baron Maclean . . 306. 
cr. Noble Hjelmberg . 1452. 
cr. Count of Hoja . . 54. 
cr. C. of Granhammar . 56. 
cr. Baron Feif . . . .129. 
cr. Noble Lagerbielke . 1378. 

cr. Noble 1510. 

cr. Noble Cedersparre . 1511. 
cr. Noble Gyllenschruf . 1516. 
cr. Noble Lindsfeldt . . 1524. 
cr. Noble Lijell . . . 1531. 



3 Jan. 



20 Feb. 



1697 
1697 

1698 
1698 
1699 
1703 
1703 
1705 
1707 
1707 
1708 
1711 
1712 
1712 
1715 
1715 
1716 
1716 
1717 
1717 
1717 



SWEDEN AND SWEDISH NOBILITY 



193 



By Queen Ulrica Eleanom. 11 Dec. 1718 



Name. 

James Thersleff, Noble cr. 

William Bennet, Noble, No. 831 
David Nicholas Hopkins, Noble, 141 4 
Lieut. -Col. Christopher Feif . . . 
Lieut.-Col. Olof Scragge .... 
Lieut. -Col. Daniel Scragge . . . 



Title. 

Baron Stjernstedt 
cr. Baron Bennet . . 
cr. Baron Hopken 
cr. Noble Ehrensparre 
cr. Noble Lagerborg . 
cr. Noble Lagerborg . 



No. 

145. 

154. 

161. 
1694. 
1620. 
1620. 



Date. 

1719 

2Jun. 1719 
1719 
1719 

23Jun. 1719 
23Jun. 1719 



By King Frederic I. 2 Apr. 17205 Apr. 1751 

( ) Walker ........ cr. Noble von Walcker . 1728. 

Gaspard William Morgan .... cr. Noble 

Donat Feif cr. Noble Adlerstolpe . 1816. 

Colin Campbell, Director E.I. Co. . cr. Noble 

Charles Gustavus Montgomery . . cr. 

Robert Campbell cr. 

( ) Jennings cr. 

( ) Salmon cr. 

Col. Thomas Cuningham cr. 

James Moore . cr. 



Noble 1960 a. 

Noble 

Noble 1874. 

Noble 

Noble 1898. 

Noble 



1720 
1720 
1727 
1731 
1736 
1736 
1742 
1745 
1747 
1750 



By King Adolphus Frederick. 6 Apr. 175113 Feb. 1771 



Gustavus David, 2nd B. Hamilton 

of Hagbey (No. 99) 

Ulric Alexander Hercules .... 

( ) Mascall 

John Frederic Bruce 

Robert Finlay 

John, 4th E. of Cromarty [S.j . . 

James Moore 

{ )Spalding 

( ) Spalding 

Professor John Eyre 

Castere Dunbar 

Anders John, 2nd B. Hopken, No. 

161 

( ) Fistulator or Lagerbielke, No. 

1378 

Col. Frederick Carl Sinclair . . . 
Chas. Scragge, Noble No. 1391 . . 
Gen. Andrew Henry Ramsay, Noble, 

No. 215 

Adrian Lulle 

Andrew Darell 



cr. Count of Barseback . 86. 

cr. Noble 1928. 

cr. Noble Silverstolphe . 1939. 

cr. Noble de Bruce . . 1954. 

cr. Noble Finlaij . . . 1698. 

cr. Count Cromarty .... 

cr. Noble 

cr. Noble Spaldencreutz 1986. 

cr. Noble Adlersparre . 1988. 

cr. Noble Ihre .... 2043. 

cr. Noble Ronnow . . 2047. 

cr. Count of Ulfaso . . 89. 

cr. Baron Lagerbielke . 254. 

cr. Baron of Lambahof . 270. 

cr. Baron Hermelin . . 272. 

cr. Baron Ramsay .... 

cr. Noble Adlerstam . . 2057. 

cr. Noble af Darelli . . 2068. 



21 Nov. 1751 
1751 
1751 
1752 
1755 
1756 
1756 
1756 
1757 
1757 
1759 

1761 

4 Nov. 1766 

6 Oct. 1766 

1766 

3 Nov. 1766 
1767 
1770 



By King Gustavus III. 13 Feb. 177120 Mar. 1792 



Frederick (Sinclair), B. Lambahof . cr. Count 

Charles Hopkins cr. Baron 

David Fife or Pfeiff, Noble, No. 945 cr. Baron 

George Henric Wright cr. Noble 

Capt. Jonas Maurice Wright . . . cr. Noble 

John Christian Thomee (Hanson) . cr. Noble 

( ) Rooke cr. Noble 

Jacob David Montgomery . cr. Noble 

( ) Young cr. Noble 

Gen. Charles Nathaniel Klerck . . cr. Noble 

James Maule, Councillor of War . cr. Noble 

George Seton cr. Noble 

Sir Alexander Barron cr. Noble 

( ) Chapman cr. Noble 



of Lambahof . 95. 15 Oct. 



von Hopken 
Pfeiff . . 
von Wright 
von Wright 
Adelskold . 
von Rook . 



. 280. 

9CQ 

! 2077! 19 Sep. 
. 2077. 19 Sep. 
. 2029. 
. 2096. 
.19606. 12 Jan. 



af Klerker . 



.2132 a. 
. 2135. 
. 2139. 



Seton 



2088. 



1771 
1771 
1772 
1772 

1772 
1773 
1773 
1774 
1776 
1780 
1782 
1785 
1785 
1787 



194 THE NOBILITIES OF EUROPE 

By King Gustavus IV. 20 Mar. 179213 Mar. 1809 

Name. Title. No. Date. 

( ) Tingwall cr. Noble Anckarsparre 2180. 1802 

John Wislow, Gov. of Calmar . . cr. Noble Mannerstam 2182. 1805 

By King Charles XIII. 13 Mar. 18095 Feb. 1818 

Adm. John Gustavus Fistulator, 

2nd B. Lagerbielke, No. 254 . . cr. Count Lagerbjelke . 115. 29 Jun. 1809 
Gen. Charles N. Klerker, Noble, No. 

2 132 a cr. Baron af Klerker . 334. 29 Jun. 1809 

Charles Pontus Cahun or Gahn . . cr. Noble Gahn of Col- 

quhoun .... 2204. 1809 

Adam Wesslo . . cr. Noble Mannerstam . . . 1809 

Gustavus Murray, Bishop of Wes- 

teras cr. Noble 2216. 1810 

Major-Gen. George Adlersparre \ /Baron Adlersparre . 

(Spalding) ] cr ' \Count Adlersparre . 130. 1816 

( ) Hay, Noble, No. 1187 . . . cr. Baron Haij . . . 362. 1817 

By King Charles XIV. 5 Feb. 18188 Mar. 1844 

( ) a f Robson cr. Noble af Robson . . 2265. 1818 

Charles Reinhold Robson . . . . cr. Noble af Robsahm . 2281. 1818 

By King Oscar II. 18 Sep. 18728 Dec. 1907 

Albert Elof Ihre (Eyre), Min. of 

State cr. Baron Ihre . . . . 398. 1843 

( ) Dickson cr. Noble 2340. 1880 

( ) Dickson, Noble, No. 2340 . . cr. Baron Dickson . . 406. 1885 



SWEDISH NOBLES WHO HAVE BECOME BRITISH SUBJECTS 

John Henry (Fock), 2nd Baron de Robeck (1750) . . naturalized 13 Jul. 1789 
Baron Olof Rudolph (Rolf) Cederstrom (1731) . . . naturalized 27 Dec. 1899 



THE NETHERLANDS 

THE DUTCH NOBILITY, PAST AND PRESENT 

As the present Kingdom of the Netherlands consists of eleven provinces, 
which enjoyed almost entire freedom and self-government till 1814, the 
history of the Nobility before that time is one by itself, for each province 
separately. In each of these there were in the early Middle Ages a number 
of feudal lords, who often were just as powerful and sometimes even more 
so than the rulers themselves. These rulers were the Count of Holland 
and Zeeland, the Dukes of Gelderland and Brabant, the Bishop of Utrecht, 
who at the same time was Lord of Overyssel, Drenthe, and Groningen. The 
present province of Lirnburg belonged to the different surrounding powers, 
such as the Dukes of Gelderland and Cleves, the Bishop of Liege, &c., while 
the present province of Friesland practically remained independent till the 
reign of the Emperor Charles the Fifth, although the Counts of Holland 
styled themselves Lords of Friesland. 

Towards the end of the thirteenth century the towns became more 
powerful, and frequently helped their Sovereigns against the unruly lords 
in exchange for privileges and for protection of their trade, and after a time 
many of the lesser nobles settled within the city walls, whither the younger 
sons of t> Q great feudal lords soon followed them. There they gradually 
secured appointments as magistrates, together with the merchants who had 
grown rich in that renowned time of prosperous trade in Western Europe. 

In the middle of the fourteenth century the whole country was set aflame 
by serious quarrels among the feudal lords themselves. These quarrels 
lasted for more than a century, during which the country was ravaged by 
the various parties, and many old families and their castles were absolutely 
ruined, while those who were left had lost much of their wealth and influ- 
ence. On the other hand, the power of the Sovereigns had been steadily 
growing, especially that of the Dukes of Burgundy, who gradually acquired 
either by conquest or inheritance the various provinces forming the present 
Kingdom of the Netherlands. On the 26 July 1581 King Philip II. 
of Spain, the heir of the Burgundian Princes, was formally abjured by 
the States General (composed of representatives of the seven provinces) 
as Count and Duke of Holland, Zeeland, Gelderland, Utrecht, Overyssel, 
Friesland, and Groningen, the " Republic of the seven United Provinces," 
and the new state of affairs left a great part of the executive and legis- 
lative power in each province to the " Ridderschap " or College of 
Nobles, which consisted of the representatives of those families of the old 
feudal Nobility, still existing. They rarely outnumbered twenty for each 
province, and, as of course no new creations took place, their number gradually 
decreased by the extinction of the male line of different families. In 1798 
the Revolution did away with their power, and it was not before 1814, when 
William of Orange, son of the last Stadtholder, became (30 Nov. 1813) 
Sovereign Prince and (16 March 1815) King of the Netherlands, that they 
were again appointed, though in another form. Their power was not of 

195 



196 



THE NOBILITIES OF EUROPE 



much influence in government affairs, and the constitution of 17 March 1848 
abolished them for good. 

In olden times no other title existed but that of Knight (Bidder). It 
was only bestowed upon those nobles who had earned it by courage or 
valour in battle. The other male members of these old feudal families 
were styled JONCKER, the ladies JONCFROU. The Burgundian Sovereigns 
and the German Emperors, however, began to confer titles on city magis- 
trates who had rendered them good services, even if they were not of noble 
descent. At the same time (early in the beginning of the fifteenth century) 
the four chief families of Holland, as well as of Gelderland, obtained the 
privilege of having their property proclaimed a free lordship or " ban 
nerheerlykheid," and they adopted henceforth the title of BARON. Of these 
eight families, only two still exist the van Wassenaers in Holland and 
the van Heeckerens in Gelderland. Towards the close of the sixteenth 
century their example was followed by all the still existing old feudal 
families. Though, as already stated, new titles were not conferred during 
the time of the Republic (1581-1795), many foreign Princes knighted or 
ennobled Dutchmen, in recognition of their services in diplomacy or for the 
loan of funds. Thus the following families obtained British Baronetcies 
Boreel, 1 21 March 1645 ; van den Brande, 9 June 1699 ; van Colster, 28 Feb. 
1645 ; Gans, 29 June 1682 ; Huyssen van Kattendyke, 2 10 March 1616 ; 
Kievit, otherwise Speelman, widow, 9 September 1686 ; de Neufville, 2 18 
March 1709; Pauw, 2 19 October 1613; Speelman, 1 9 September 1686 ; 3 
Tromp, 23 March 1675 ; and Tulp, 23 April 1675. The Kings of France, 
Sweden, and Denmark, and last, but not least, the German Emperors also 
favoured many a rich merchant's family with these marks of distinction, 
or born noblemen with a higher title. The Revolution of 1798 brought the 
French armies, and with them the cry of those days, " Freedom, Equality, 
and Community," and all titles were abolished, Article III. of the Constitu- 
tion of that year decreeing that " All members of the community have the 
same claim to its advantages, no matter their birth, riches, or rank." King 
Louis (Bonaparte) (5 March 1806 1 July 1810), following his brother's 
example, however, in his new Kingdom of Holland, restored Nobility, and a 
Royal decree of 22 April 1809 provided (Art. I.) the law admits a constitu- 
tional Nobility in the kingdom, and (Art. II.) the Nobility is composed of the 
old Nobles, whose families lived as such during former states of affairs, after 
having obtained Royal confirmation, and of those on whom the King shall 
bestow new titles. King Louis' stay in Holland, however, proved too short 
to allow a proper reconstruction of the Nobility. A few court favourites 
were ennobled, their titles being attached to the name of a town or castle, 

1 These families still exist. 

2 The branch which received the title of Baronet is extinct, though other lines survive. 

3 The following interesting note is given concerning this family in G. E. C.'s 
Complete Baronetage (iv. 144) : " The meaning of the words Jorikheer and Jonkvrouwe, as 
also the position of the Speelman family in their native country, is thus elucidated : 
' When, in 1817, a Bill was passed for the regulation of the Nobility in the Netherlands, 
lists of names were published by the Government, including the names of all persons who 
were incorporated into the Dutch Nobility. Those persons [to] whom were given no 
special title (Count or Baron) had to bear the predicate Jonkkeer, or for the females 
Jonkvrouwe. This predicate is always put before the Christian names. It is generally 
abbreviated and put thus, Jkr. and Jkvre. In 1817 Cornelis Jacob Speelman [the 3rd and 
then Baronet] established his rights with regard to the Dutch Nobility, and his name was 
included in the first list of names of Nobles published by the Government ; [accordingly] 
since that time all the descendants bear the predicate of the Dutch Nobility. Thus, since 
1817, all the male descendants have before their Christian name Jonkheer, or by abbreviation 
Jkr., and the female descendants Jonkvrouwe or Jkvre.' Ex inform. G. W. Gray from 
information supplied by Sir Helenus M. Speelman, 6th Bt." 



THE NETHERLANDS 197 

as Twent, Graaf van Rosenburgh (1809), Verhuel, Graaf van Zevenaar 
(2 April 1810), and de Winter, Graaf van Huessen (4 May 1810) ; and after 
his departure, when Holland was annexed to France (9 July 1810- 
30 November 1813), some few Dutchmen (mostly military officers) were 
created Baron or Comte de V Empire by the Emperor Napoleon. It was not 
before the return of the House of Orange that these matters were seriously 
treated ; but as soon as King William had the opportunity, ample measures 
were taken to put in order the long neglected state of affairs relating to the 
Nobility of the country. By a Royal decree of 24 June 1814 the High 
Council of Nobility was instituted, to give all advice the Sovereign might 
require in the affairs of the Nobility, and to keep the rolls and archives 
relating to them, while two points of special importance had already been 
provided for in the fundamental law or Constitution of 29 March preceding. 
These were : 

1. It is forbidden to accept or to bear foreign titles of Nobility. 

2. Only the Sovereign can confer titles. 

That same summer, the admission to the RIDDERSCHAPPEN (House of 
Nobles) took place for those who could prove that their families had belonged 
to the old ones, but, besides several with foreign titles, many slipped in 
whose descent afterwards proved to be quite different from what they had 
declared it to be in 1814. If no higher title was bestowed or recognised, 
these members were to bear the hereditary predicate of JONKHEER for the 
men and of JONKVROUW for their daughters, a Jonkheer's wife having 
no mark of distinction. The old feudal families in general obtained the 
title of BARON or BARONESS for all their descendants. This was also the 
case with the Barons of the Holy Roman Empire, while those who had 
been Counts or Knights of the Holy Roman Empire were received as 
such. As it was King William's wish to have a good attendance of 
noblemen in every province, and the still surviving families proved few 
in number, especially in the north of the kingdom, His Majesty knighted 
several of the Generals who had distinguished themselves in the late war, 
and subsequently the representatives of those families who could prove 
that they had held appointments as magistrates in the principal cities 
during two hundred years at least. By their great wealth and influence 
their daughters had often, already for more than a century, intermarried 
with the nobility, thus saving many an old name and castle from utter ruin, 
and they were often considered not much less than the old families them- 
selves. These two named categories generally were created JONKHEEREN 
or BARONS, the latter title passing to the eldest son only, and for the other 
children the predicate of Jonkheer and Jonkvrouw. In the same way the 
title of RIDDER (KNIGHT) was given to the head of those magistrate- 
merchant families which had received the title of Baronet or Chevalier from 
the British and French monarchs in the seventeenth century. The principal 
persons who had brought about the founding of the Kingdom were rewarded 
with the personal title of COUNT, which title was afterwards sometimes 
bestowed on those officers who distinguished themselves in the Dutch Colonial 
Wars. The titles of Viscount, Marquess, Prince, 1 and Duke had never been 
known in our country, and these titles were not introduced now. I must 
except, however, the creations of the Duke of Wellington on 18 July 1815 
as PRINCE OF WATERLOO (PRINS VAN WATERLOO) and of the Earl of Clan- 

1 This title, with the one exception noted above, has always been confined in Holland 
to Princes of the blood. The only other creation of a Prince is that of Duke Henry of 
Mecklenburg, who, on the occasion of his marriage with Queen Wilhelmina, was naturalized 
23 Jan. 1901, and,cr. Prince Consort of the Netherlands with the title of Royal Highness 
7 Feb. following. 



198 THE NOBILITIES OF EUROPE 

carty three years later (18 July 1818) as MARQUESS OF HEUSDEN (MARKIES 
VAN HEUSDEN), which titles, however, are no longer considered as Dutch, 
as the large annuities connected with them were brought on the Belgian 
Budget, after the final separation of the two countries. On 26 August 
1814 the Ridderschappen of the various provinces were restored, and had 
confirmation of their part in the election of the State Assemblies, with the 
right to a certain number of seats in them. These latter corporations still 
exist, and form the government of the province and choose the members of the 
First Chamber of the States General. They depute some of their members 
for the daily government, and only as a rule assemble four times a year. 
This state of affairs continued till 1848, but the Constitution of 17 March 
that year did away with the Eidderschappen as political bodies, simply by 
not speaking of them as a constituting power. They, however, remained 
as private societies, and still exist in Gelderland, North Brabant, Overyssel, 
and Utrecht. The democratic Constitution of 1848 also meant the end of 
the official power of the Nobility. Titles have, however, naturally continued 
to give a strong prerogative in gaining positions at Court or in Diplomacy, 
although this influence is diminishing at present. For the rest, titles are 
now but a mere decoration, and only very few people know who have the 
right to bear them, and who not ; so mistakes frequently occur even in 
semi-official accounts and records, and the law of 1814 " to give due honour 
to noblemen " and imposing a fine of a pound of fine gold or 525 florins (44) 
is never put into practice now. Orders of Knighthood in the Netherlands 
have never given the right to bear a title or predicate, like they do in Britain, 
Austria, and Italy. 

The present Dutch peerage consists of 23 Counts, 143 Barons, 8 Bidders, 
and 239 Jonkheeren a total of 413. Of the Counts, fourteen have the title 
for all their male descendants and their daughters, six have the title of Count 
for the head of the house and of Baron or Baroness for the other members 
of the family, one the title of Count for the head of the house and of Jonk- 
heer for the other members, and two that of Count for the head of the house 
and of Baron or Jonkheer for the other members according to their relation- 
ship to him ; of the Barons, eighty-five have the title for all the members 
of their family, one has that of Baron for the head and of Bidder for the 
other members, and fifty-seven have that of Baron for the head and that of 
Jonkheer for the other members, and of the Bidders one has the title for all 
the members of his family, while in the case of the other seven this title is 
limited to the head of the house, the other members having that of Jonkheer. 

One of the most remarkable families in the Netherlands is that of Schim- 
melpenninck, which came to Gelderland in the Middle Ages, and of which 
the senior branch bears the title of Baron Schimmelpenninck van der Oye. 
A cadet of this family towards the middle of the seventeenth century 
entered the civic service of one of the smaller towns in the Eastern Provinces. 
His descendant, Rutger Jan Schimmelpenninck, was an eminent politician, 
and was Grand Pensionary (Raadpensionaris) of the Batavian Republic, 
26 April 1805 to 5 June 1806. King William made his eldest son a 
Count, with remainder to the heirs male of his body, and his grandson 
and godchild, Rutger Jan, second Count Schimmelpenninck, obtained the 
title of Count and Countess for all his male descendants and their 
daughters in 1874, when King William III. celebrated the twenty-fifth 
anniversary of his accession. So at present we have (1) the Counts 
Schimmelpenninck; (2) the Barons Schimmelpenninck van der Oye; (3) 
the Jonkheeren Schimmelpenninck, descended from the first Count's 
younger sons ; (4) the Schimmelpenninck not belonging to the Nobility, 
descendants of the first Count's uncles. 



THE NETHERLANDS 199 

There are three ways of being received into the Dutch Nobility and 
entered on the Koll of the College of Nobles : 

1. By recognition of title, for those families which can prove their descent 

from the Dutch feudal Nobles. The last case was that of van La wick 
in 1897. 

2. By incorporation, when the applicant must show that his family 

belonged to the Nobility of a foreign country in which Dutch titles 
are recognised, and that he is now settled permanently in the Nether- 
lands. Dutch titles not being recognised in the United Kingdom, 
British families cannot be received into the Dutch Nobility, but can 
be ennobled after being naturalized as Dutch subjects. 

3. By ennobling members of those families which have held appoint- 

ments as magistrates of the principal cities for over two hundred 
years. 

4. By the Sovereign's Grace. This very rarely happens nowadays. 

Since 1814, 518 families have been entered on the rolls. As far as we 
can trace them backwards, they seem to be : 

287 of Dutch origin. 12 of British origin. 

105 of German origin. 3 of Danish origin. 

57 of Belgian origin. 3 of Spanish origin. 

32 of French origin. 2 of Swedish origin. 

15 of Swiss origin. 2 of Italian origin. 

As the former list indicates, many of these families are now extinct. 

BIJLEVELD. 

VOORSCHOTEN, HOLLAND, 

April 1908. 



DUTCH PEERAGE 

Netherlands' Adelsboek, edited by M. Bijleveld, Baron Creutz, Jhr. Wittert 
van Hoogland, M. Bloys van Treslong Prins, Jhr. de Savornin Lohman, 
and Jhr. Hora Siccama, and since 1904, also by Baron de Crassier and 
M. Wijnaendts van Kesandt. T. P. van Stoekum, The Hague. Published 
annually since 1903. 

BRITONS ENNOBLED IN HOLLAND 
By William I. 6 Dec. 18137 Nov. 1840 

Sir Jacob Boreel, 8th Bt. [E. 1645] . cr. Jonkheer 28 Aug. 1814 

Arthur (Wellesley), 1st D. of Wel- 
lington [U.K.] cr. Prince of Waterloo ... 8 Jul. 1815 

Ralph Dundas (Tindal), 1st B. Tin- 

dal [F.E. 1813] cr. Baron Tindal 16 Sep. 1815 

Peter William Lewis (Quarles), 2nd 

B. Quarles [H.R.E. 1751] . . . rec. B. Quarles de Quarles . . 16 Sep. 1815 

George Clifford and his brother . . cr. Jonkheer 16 Sep. 1815 

Archibald Hope cr. Jonkheer 16 Sep. 1815 

Cornelius Anne Mackay . . . . cr. Jonkheer . . . . . . 16 Sep. 1815 

Louis, John Philip, James John, and 

Peter Nicholas Quarles van Ufford cr. Jonkheers 16 Sep. 1815 

Peter Melville cr. Jonkheer 16 Sep. 1815 

Berthold John Christian Mackay . cr. Jonkheer 20 Feb. 1816 



200 THE NOBILITIES OF EUROPE 

Sir Cornelius Jacob Speelman, 3rd 

Bt. [E. 1686] rec. Jonkheer 27 Sep. 1817 

Richard Le Poer (Trench), 2nd E. 

of Clancarty [I.] cr. Marquess of Huesden . . 18 Jul. 1818 

Hugh Bowyer cr. Jonkheer 5 Sep. 1821 

Peter Melvill cr. B. Melvill of Carnbee . . 6 May 1822 

Jhr. Cornelius Anne Mackay . cr. B. Mackay of Ophemert . 4 Jun. 1822 

William Frederick van Pestel . . cr. Jonkheer 7 May 1838 

By William II. 1th Nov. 184017 Mar. 1849 

Godfrey Andrew Melort . . . . cr. Jonkheer 21 Feb. 1841 

By William III. 17 Mar. 184923 Nov. 1890 

James Custis [Noble H.R.E. 1727] . rec. Jonkheer 15 May 1862 

Jhr. Henry Maurice Cornelius Clif- 
ford (1815) cr. Baron Clifford 12 May 1874 

John William May ^ cr. Jonkheer 14 May 1882 

James Loudon, Gov.-Gen. E. Indies cr. Jonkheer 18 Feb. 1884 



DUTCH NOBLES WHO HAVE BECOME BRITISH SUBJECTS 

Bentinck, Barons Bentinck [Guel- 

ders 1233] cr. English Peers 9 Apr. 1689 

Van Reede, Barons van Reede or * 

Ginkel [Utrecht] naturalized 24 Feb. 1692 

Van Keppel, Barons van Keppel 

[Guelders] cr. English Peers 10 Feb. 1697 

Du Bois, Barons du Bois de Ferrieres 

(1820) [Hainault] naturalized 20 Aug. 1867 

Mackay, Barons Mackay of Ophe- 
mert (1822) (Lord Reay) . . . naturalized 17 May 1877 



DENMARK 



TITLED Nobility was unknown in Denmark before 167 1, 1 when the power 
of the old Nobility having been broken by the introduction of the autocracy 
and by the abolition of the old State Council, King Christian V., by a decree 
of the 25 May 1671, instituted a new Nobility with the titles of COUNT and 
BARON, in order to create a similarity between Denmark and the Western 
Powers, and at the same time to strengthen the authority of the Crown. 
He accordingly erected thirty-one estates 2 into COUNTIES and BARONIES, 
according to their size and rental, with the title of COUNT or BARON for 
their then holders and their descendants, upon whom the said estates were 
strictly entailed, according to the law of primogeniture. At first only the 
owners of landed property of a certain size could obtain the title of Count 
or Baron, but after a while these titles came to be conferred without regard 
to the possession of land. Th addition to the Counts and Barons, other 
families have from time to time been ennobled or received into the Danish 
Nobility by Letters Patent, but without any title being granted. The title 
of VISCOUNT is quite unknown in Denmark, but that of DUKE has been given 
on one occasion, the exception being in favour of filie Louis, Count and 
afterwards (1820) Duke Decazes [F.], who, in consideration of his connection 
with the old reigning Dukes of Glucksbjerg, was 14 June 1818 created 
Duke of Glucksbierg (Hertug af Glucksbjerg) ; and that of MARQUESS on 
two occasions, Hugo Octavius Accoramboni and Francisco di Ratta, Senator 
of Bologna, being created Marquess of Lister (Markgrever af Lister) 22 April 
1709, and Marquess of Mandal (Markgrever af Mandal) 24 Nov. 1710, 
respectively. Their issue is, however, now extinct. 

The following are the seventeen Counties and the fourteen Baronies now 
existing 3 in Denmark, with the names of the families possessing them, 4 and 
the dates of their creation, viz. : Counties 1. Brahesminde (Bille, 9 May 
1798) ; 2. Bregentved (Moltke, 31 Mar. 1750) ; 3. Christiansholm (Raban, 
16 Apr. 1734) ; 4. Christiansssede (Reventlow, 25 Jul. 1729) ; 5. Friisenborg 
(Vind, 6 Aug. 1772) ; 6. Gyldensteen (Bernstorfi, 8 Apr. 1720) ; 7. Holstein- 
borg (Holstein, 1 Jan. 1708) ; 8. Hardenberg (Haugwitz, 13 Dec. 1815) ; 

1 Though no titles in Denmark date before this year, the nobility of many of the 
Danish Peers dates from a much earlier date, for, possessing the land as they did, the heads 
of many of the old feudal families were among the first to receive the new titles of Count 
and Baron, and the representatives of many others, who at first refused to accept them, 
have since done so. Though much of their cower had been broken by the Revolution^ 
1660, which made the Crown hereditary andmbsolute, the new irability obtained many new 
privileges which had not been enjoyed by the old. Ed. 

2 Of these only eleven were possessed by Danes ; the rest belonged to families of 
German origin. Ed. 

3 The number of extinct Counties is seven, and of extinct Baronies fourteen. Ed. 

4 Though all these families derive their titles from their estates, the use of territorial 
titles is practically unknown in Denmark ; thus the Billes, Counts of Brahesminde, are 
styled Count Bille ; the Moltkes, Counts of .Bregentved, Counts Moltke, &c. In some 
cases, however, the name of the territory is attached to the surname ; thus the family 
of Danneskjold, Counts of Sams0e, are styled Counts 'Danneskjold-Sams^e. &c. 



202 THE NOBILITIES OF EUROPE 

9. Knuthenborg (Knuth, 19 Apr. 1714) ; 10. Langeland (Ahlefeldt, 20 Jun. 
1672) ; 11. Ledreborg (Holstein, 23 Mar. 1746) ; 12. Lerchenborg (Lerche, 

26 May 1818) ; 13. Lindenborg (Schimmelmann, 18 Jun. 1781) ; 14. Mucka- 
deU (Schaflalitzky, 26 Nov. 1784) ; 15. Roepstorfi (Petersdorfi, 4 Apr. 1810) ; 
16. Sams<e (Danneskjold, 31 Dec. 1677) ; and 17. Wedellsborg (Wedell, 
11 Dec. 1672). Baronies. I. Adelersborg (Zytphen, 9 Sep. 1785) ; 2. Brahe- 
troUeborg (Reventlow, 2 Feb. 1672) ; 3. Gauno (Reedtz, 25 Oct. 1805) ; 
4. Guldborgland (Rosenorn, 17 Sep. 1784) ; 5. Holckenhavn (Hoick, 

27 May 1672) ; 6. Holstenshus (Berner, 15 Jun. 1779) ; 7. Juellinge (Vind, 
10 Dec. 1672) ; 8. Lehn (Rosenorn, 7 Feb. 1781) ; 9. Lovenborg (Loven- 
skjold, 25 Nov. 1773) ; 10. Schelenborg (Juel, 12 Mar. 1680) ; 11. Stampen- 
borg (Stampe, 11 Feb. 1809) ; 12. Sonderkarle (Bertouch, 13 Mar. 1819) ; 
13. Wilhelmsborg (Gyldenkrone, 18 Sep. 1673) ; and 14. Zeuthen (Schulin, 

28 Jun. 1843). 1 Of the other twenty families possessing the title of Count, 
and the thirteen possessing that of Baron, a few (Blixen, Brockenhuus, 
Plessen, Rantzau, Rosenkrantz, Schulin, and Skeel) are owners of ancestral 
mansions, but most of them are without any landed property in Denmark. 
The following Danish Counts and Barons now reside abroad, viz. : Counts 
Ahlefeldt, Blome, Brockdorff, Brockdorfi-Ahlefeldt, Ferribuckner, Lunzi, 
Reventlow-Criminil Schack, and Wedel-Jarlsberg, and Barons Bertouch, 
Bretton, Hambro, Heintze, Hobe, Liliencron, Schulenburg, Stenzlin, and 
Thienen. There are also 159 existing untitled noble families, of whom, 
however, forty-six belong to the lost provinces or reside abroad. Among 
foreigners who have received the title of Count in Denmark may be named 
two Englishmen, Edward Ferral, created Count Ferral-Bourke on 31 May 
1842, and who died 1 July 1868 without issue, and Charles de MacCarthy, 
who on 27 April 1831 was endowed with the title of Count for his own life. 
In the case of Counts, only the head of the family and his eldest son and 
his eldest daughter, provided she is his first-born child, carry the title of 
Count and take precedence at Court as such ; all the other children have 
the title of Baron (or Baroness) before their Christian name, and take pre- 
cedence as such only. In a few cases, however, some families have obtained 
by a special Royal Warrant the title of Count (or Countess) for all their 
members both male and female ; but in one family, that of the Counts 
Raben, the younger sons and the daughters have no title. Families with 
the title of Baron bear this same title for all their members, with the 
exception of the families of Berner and Hambro, who have only the title 
of Baron for the head of the house. The title of Count and Baron can in 
Denmark never be inherited through the female line ; if an estate with the 
title of Count or Baron attached descends to an heiress by the extinction 
of the male line of the family, a special Royal grant is required before her 
children can take the title. By the constitution of 5 June 1849 the Danish 
Nobility were deprived of all their privileges, with the exception of their 
titles and of the right of nomination for their daughters in the various 
convents for noble ladies. 



H. R. HIORT-LORENZEN. 



ROSKILDE, 

29 May 1908. 



1 Two other Counties, Schackenborg, cr. 23 June 1676, and Revenstow, cr. 3 Oct. 
1685, both in Schleswig, now count as Prussian since the annexation of that province, 
23 Aug. 1866. Ed. 



DENMARK 203 

DANISH PEERAGES AND KNIGHTAGE 

Danmarks Adels Aarbog, edited by H. E. Hiort-Lorenzen, Councillor of 
State, and A. Thiset, Koyal Archiviste. Copenhagen. Published annually 
since 1884. 

Nyt Dansk AdelslexiJcon fortegnelse over Dansk adel i forted og hutid, 
Udgivet af foreningen til udgivelse af Danmarks Adels Aarbog, by A. Thiset 
and P. L. Wittrup. Copenhagen, 1904. 

De Kgl Danske Ridderordener, by H. F. Grandjean. Copenhagen, 1903. 



BRITONS ENNOBLED IN DENMARK 

By Christian VII. 14 Jan. 176613 Mar. 1808 

Edmund, Count Bourke .... nat. as a Count 27 Oct. 1779 

Gen. Alexander Ross of Balnagown cr. a Noble 12 Jun. 1782 

Charles Joseph Selby cr. Baron Selby 2 Dec. 1796 

By Frederick VI. 13 Mar. 18083 Dec. 1839 
Charles MacCarthy cr. Count of MacCarthy . . 27 Apr. 1831 

By Christian VIII. 3 Dec. 183920 Jan. 1848 
Edward Ferral cr. Count Ferral-Bourke . .31 May 1842 



DANISH NOBLES WHO HAVE BECOME BRITISH SUBJECTS 

Hambro, Barons Hambro (1851) naturalized 10 Aug. 1843 

DeBertouch, Barons de Bertouch (1839) domiciled 1847 



BELGIUM 



THE Belgian Nobility consists of Princes, Dukes, Counts, Viscounts, Barons, 
Knights, and untitled Nobles, and owes its legal existence to Article LXXV. 
of the Constitution of 7 Feb. 1831, which declares : 

" Le Roi a le droit de confer er des titres de Noblesse sans pouvoir jamais 
y attacker aucun privilege" 

BELGIAN PEERAGES 

Dictionnaire genealogique et heraldique des families nobles du Royaume 
de Belgique, by Felix Victor Goethals. 4 vols. Brussels, 1849-52, with a 
Table alphabetique, by Alphonse, 1883. 

Annuaire de la Noblesse de Belgique, originally edited by Baron Isidore 
de Stein d'Altenstein. Brussels, 1847, and annually since. 

BRITONS ENNOBLED IN BELGIUM 

By the Emperors 

Emanuel Philip Gage cr. Count of Gage .... 24 Jun. 1756 

Sir Joseph Murray, 3rd Bt. [S.] . . cr. Baron Murray .... 16 Sep. 1760 

Sir Joseph Murray, 3rd Bt. [S.] . . cr. Count of Murray .... 19 Mar. 1783 

Hon. James Philip Preston . . . cr. Count of Preston . . . .19 Oct. 1784 

By the Dutch King, William I. 6 Dec. 18134 June 1831 

Arthur, 1st D. of Wellington [U.K.] cr. Prince of Waterloo . . . 8 Jul. 1815 
John Alex. Patrick Joseph Plunket cr. Baron Plunket of Rath- 
more 8 Jul. 1816 

Richard, 2nd E. of Clancarty [I.] . cr. Marquess of Heusden . . 18 Jul. 1818 

John Baptist William Camberlyn . cr. Chevalier d'Amougies . . 16 Dec. 1818 

Emanuel Francis O'Kelly . . . . cr. Noble 19 Oct. 1824 

Philip Charles Joseph Cecil . . . cr. Baron Cecil 16 Jun. 1824 



By King Leopold I. 4 June 183110 Dec. 1865 

Alfonso Albert Henry O'Sullivan . cr. B. O'Sullivan de Grass de 

Seovand 10 Nov. 1838 

Julian Lawrence Joseph Cecil . . cr. Baron Cecil 30 May 1843 

B. O'Sullivan de Grass de Seovand . cr. Count O'Sullivan de Grass 

de Seovand 15 Oct. 1847 

James Charles O'Sullivan . . . . cr. Noble 12 Nov. 1847 

Charles Whettnall cr. Baron Whettnall . . . . 16 Jul. 1851 

Edward Henry Joseph Conway . . cr. Viscount of Conway ... 27 Aug. 1853 

BELGIAN NOBLE WHO HAS BECOME A BRITISH SUBJECT 

Henry Alexander (de Lossy), Baron 

de Ville [1788] naturalized 17 Aug. 1888 

204 



ITALY 



THE Italian Nobility includes, besides those Nobles created by the Sove- 
reigns of the House of Savoy since the establishment of the Kingdom of 
Italy, 17 March 1861, those created by (1) the German, French, and Austrian 
Emperors as Kings of Italy (Lombardy) ; (2) the Kings of Naples, Sicily, 
and Sardinia ; (3) the Grand Dukes of Tuscany and Milan ; (4) the Dukes of 
Modena, Parma, and Lucca ; (5) the Doges of Venice and Genoa ; and (6) the 
Senates of Rome, Pisa, Messina, &c. ; and the titles differ considerably both as 
to the method of creation and as to the principle of their descent, for generally 
speaking, while the Neapolitan and Sicilian titles followed the Frankish law 
by which a fief or title descended to the one heir-at-law of the grantee 
exclusively and not to all his other descendants, many of those in the Northern 
States which formed part of the Kingdom of Italy in the Holy Roman Empire 
devolved according to the feudal laws ad usum Longobardorum which obtained 
in the German lands of the Empire, and by which fiefs with the dignities 
attached were devisable, so that they descended equally to all the grantees' 
male descendants and (for life) to their daughters. Many of the Roman, 
Neapolitan, and Sicilian Nobles, however, of their own will conferred on their 
cadets minor titles vested in themselves, without regard to the limitations 
with which those titles had been conferred. This transference of titles 
was prohibited by an edict of the Royal Consulta Araldica of Italy in 1902, 
and titles assumed by cadets are no longer recognised. The purchase of a 
Duchy, County, or Barony does not confer that title on the holder, as is 
sometimes supposed in this country; but the last holder of a feudal title 
can adopt an heir to his title, though such adoption must be duly registered 
before the proper Courts and have the Royal sanction, and the fees are very 
heavy. Another year it is hoped to deal at length with the Italian Nobility. 



ITALIAN PEERAGES 

Celebri Famiglie Italiane, by Count Pompeo Litta [continued by 
L. Passerini Orsini de Rilli, F. Odorici, F. Stefani]. 11 vols. Milan and 
Turin, 1819-99. 

Celebri Famiglie Italiane, 2nd Series. Turin, 1902, in progress. 

Annuario delta Nobilta Italiana. Pisa, 1879, and annually since. 

BRITONS ENNOBLED IN ITALY 1 

By Louis [XII. King of France as], King of Naples 

Bernard Stuart, 4th L. Aubigny . . cr 

Bernard Stuart, 4th L. Aubigny. . cr.j^^^^ ' 



1 The following also appear to be Italian titles borne by families of British descent : 
Baron Acton, Vice- Admiral Italian R.N. ; Baron Montefiore ; Count Bentivoglio-Middleton 
of Rome, 1895 ; Pietro Gordon, Baron de Camastra ; Reginald Pius Rudolph Henry Planta- 
genet, Count O'Byrne-Redmond. 

205 



206 



THE NOBILITIES OF EUROPE 



By Charles III. (Emperor Charles VI.), King of Naples and Sicily. 

1720-1735 

Philip Magawly, Field-Marshal . . cr. Count of Calry .... 14 Dec. 1734 

By the Empress Maria Theresa as Duchess of Milan 
Sir James Caldwell, 3rd Bt. . . . cr. Count Caldwell .... 15 Mar. 1749 



By Ferdinand IV., King of Naples and Sicily. 17591815 



Horatio, Lord Nelson cr. Duke of Bronte 

Gen. Sir John Stuart cr. Count of Maida 



9Jun. 1801 
Jul. 1806 



By Charles Louis, Duke of Lucca 

Charles Sebright cr. Baron of Everton 

( ) Cotterell cr. Count Cotterell . 

Thomas Ward . cr. Baron Ward 



1842 
21Jun. 1847 



By Leopold II., Grand Duke of Tuscany. 18 June 182429 Jan. 1870 



Francis de Lousada cr. Marquess of St. Miniato 

Thomas Ward cr. Baron Ward . . . ; 

Anthony French cr. Baron French .... 



3 Apr. 1846 

1848 



By Ferdinand II., King of the Two Sicilies. 8 Nov. 183022 May 1859 

fMarquess of Polignano 
John Cole inh. 



Louisa, wife of C. J. T. Conolly 



(1496) 

J Duke of Polignano (1730) . 
t Baron of Casaciprani . . 27 Jul. 1854 
cr. Marchioness of St. Agata . 5 Jun. 1857 



By King Victor Emmanuel II. 17 Mar. 18619 Jan. 1878 



John Benjamin Heath cr. Baron Heath 

Albert Grant cr. Baron Grant 



1867 
1868 



By King Humbert. 9 Jan. 187829 July 1900 



Capt. Samuel Selig Kusel . 

Adolph Kusel 

Sir William Mackinnon, Bt. 



cr. Baron de Kusel . 
cr. Baron de Kusel . 
cr. Baron Mackinnon 



. 23 Oct. 1890 

. 23 Oct. 1890 

17 Mar. 1892 



By King Victor Emmanuel III. 29 July 1900 

Fede, wife of Thomas Cubitt . . . cr. Countess Riccardi-Cubitt . 3 May 1904 
Thomas Cubitt cr. Count Riccardi-Cubitt . . 27 May 1904 



ITALIAN NOBLES WHO HAVE BECOME BRITISH SUBJECTS 

Grimaldi, Marquesses Grimaldi [Genoa 1528] .... domiciled since 1685 

Gandolfi, Marquesses Gandolfi [Genoa 1529], &c. . . . domiciled since 

Francis Platamone, Count St. Anthony naturalized 4 May 1814 

Alexander H. A. J., Count of St. George naturalized 19 Jul. 1839 

Lorenzo, Duke Sforza-Cesarini, &c naturalized 4 Jun. 1840 

Metaxa, Counts Metaxa-Anzolato [Venice 1691] . . . naturalized 30 Nov. 1846 

Bandini, Dukes of Mondragone [Naples] naturalized 17 Aug. 1857 

Count Piero Guicciardini, of Florence naturalized 24 June 1858 

Rinaldo C. L. F. de Lara, Count d'Albini naturalized 11 Jan. 1859 

Andrew Louis, Marquess Taliacarne [Venice] .... naturalized a. 1867 

Baron John T. A. L. de Virte de Rathsamhausen . . naturalized 1 1 June 1877 

Profumo, Barons Profumo [Sardinia 1843] naturalized 30 Sep. 1885 



THE PAPAL NOBILITY 



THE Papal Nobility consists of Princes, Dukes, Marquesses, Counts, and 
Barons created by the Popes as Sovereigns of the States of the Church ; and 
though these were annexed to the Kingdom of Italy 1870, the Pope is still 
recognised as a reigning Sovereign, and as such his power to create titles 
remains. The titles are generally conferred with remainder to the heirs 
male of the body of the grantee being Catholics, though a few are granted 
for life only. Comparatively few British subjects have received Papal 
titles, though a considerable number have been conferred on Frenchmen. 1 
In a future edition it is hoped to deal at length with the Papal Peerage. 

BRITONS ENNOBLED IN THE PAPAL STATES 

By Pope Pius VI. 15 Feb. 177529 Aug. 1799 
John Alexander Dugout de Cassaux cr. Marquess of Cassaux . . 1 Sep. 1781 



By Pope Leo XII. 28 Sept. 182310 Feb. 1829 
Richard, 2nd Count of Stacpoole[F.] cr. Marquess of Stacpoole . 



1825 



By Pope Pius VIII. 31 Mar. 182930 Nov. 1831 
Richard, M. of Stacpoole (1825) . . cr. Duke of Stacpoole . . . 



1830 



By Pope Gregory XVI. 2 Feb. 18311 June 1846 

Joseph Mazzinghi cr. Count Mazzinghi . . . . 18 Apr. 1834 

Lewis Eyre cr. Count Eyre 3 Mar. 1843 



By Pope Pius IX. 16 June 18467 Feb. 1878 



Laval, 1st Count Nugent [Austria] . 

Thomas John Russell 

Sigismund, 5th M. Bandini [P.S.] . 
Edmund James de Poher de la Poer 

Ella Geraldine Digby 

Robert Cecil Joseph P. Kearney 

Helen Anne Tasker 

Mary Stapleton-Bretherton . . . 



Anne Keatinge .... 
Emmanuel Scicluna . 
Francis Michael O'Connell . 
John Evans d'Oyley . . 



cr. Prince Nugent . . . .21 May 1858 
cr. Count Russell of Killough . 22 Aug. 1862 
cr. Prince Giustiniani-Bandini 17 Jan. 1863 
cr. Count de la Poer ... 19 Aug. 1864 
cr. Countess Digby-Boycott . 
cr. Count Cecil Kearney . . Nov. 1868 
cr. Countess Tasker .... 1870 
cr. Marchioness Stapleton- 
Bretherton 20 Jun. 1873 

cr. Countess Keatinge ... 16 Feb. 1875 

cr. Marquess Scicluna . . . 1875 

cr. Count O'Connell .... 22 Mar. 1876 

cr. Marquess d'Oyley ... 26 Sep. 1876 



1 See Armorial des Dues, Princes, Marquis, Barons et Comtes Remains en France, 
cree de 1815-1890, et des Titres Pontificaux confe'res en France par les Papes, Souverains 
du Oomtat Venaissin, by L. de Magny (Paris). Up to 1789 the Popes were also Sove- 
reigns of the Yenaissin, and as such erected the terres of Bauraes, Caderousse, Caumont, 
Gadayne, &c., into Duchies, and these creations were recognised by the French Kings. 
Napoleon III. confirmed 14 Papal titles of Count conferred on Frenchmen, and Marshal 
MacMahon, while President of the Republic, confirmed five others granted by Pope 
Pius IX. 

207 



208 THE NOBILITIES OF EUROPE 

By Pope Leo XIII. 20 Feb. 187820 July 1903 

Anthony John Moore cr. Count Moore 7 Feb. 1879 

Marie, Countess of Caithness . . . cr. Duchess of Pomar . . .13 Jun. 1879 

John Nicholas Murphy cr. Count Murphy .... 26 Nov. 1883 

George Noble Plunkett cr. Count Plunkett .... 1884 

Hon. Honor6 Mercier, M.P. . . . cr. Count Mercier .... 1891 

Girolamo Tagliaferro cr. Count Tagliaferro . . . Apr. 1892 

Capt. William Henry Bushbrooke . cr. Count Rushbrooke ... 20 Jul. 1892 

Thomas Charles, 14th M. Gandolfi . cr. Duke Gandolfi .... 29 Mar. 1895 

Albert Henry de Vreque Ffrench . cr. Marquess of Cashelthomond 17 Jun. 1895 

Patrick MacSwiney cr. Marquess MacSwiney of 

Mashanaglass .... Apr. 1896 

Walter Clifford Meller cr. Count of Ereso . . . .11 Feb. 1899 

Ralph Vincent Gandolfi-Hornyold . cr. Marquess Gandolfi ... 6 May 1 899 

Charlotte Mary Gandolfi-Hornyold . cr. Countess Gandolfi . . . 6 May 1899 

Ren6 Warren cr. Duke of Warren .... 27 Jun. 1900 

Reginald Henshaw Ward . . . . cr. Count Ward 14 Jan. 1902 

Gerard Lisle March-Phillipps de 

Lisle cr. Marquess de Lisle . . . Jul. 1902 

By Pope Pius X. 4 Aug. 1903 

Keyes O'Clery cr. Count O'Clery 1903 

Lieut.-Col. Llewellyn Blake . . . cr. Count Blake 1905 

R. G. Clayton Browne-Clayton . . cr. Count Clayton-Browne . . 19 Jun. 1907 

The following are also understood to have been Papal creations, but the 
Editor has been unable to obtain the dates or other particulars. 



Charles Dillon cr. Count Dillon .... 

Isabella Jane English cr. Countess English . . . 

Maria del Rosario O'Garvey . . . cr. Marchioness of San Juan 

Ferdinand O'Gorman cr. Count O'Gorman . 

Ferdinand Albert O'Gorman . cr. Count O'Gorman . . . 

Sir Walter Eugene de Souza cr. Count Souza .... 

Joseph Francis Lescher . cr. Count Lescher 

John O'Byrne cr. Count O'Byrne . . . 

John Sherlock cr. Count Sherlock . 

M. Henry Cassell cr. Count Cassell .... 

Sir John Bourke of Gliiisk, Bt. . . cr. Marquess of Bourke . 



ROMAN NOBLE WHO HAS BECOME A BRITISH SUBJECT 
Bandini, Marquesses Bandini [P. S. 1753] ..... naturalized 17 Aug. 1857 



THE PEERAGE OF MALTA 

HOLDERS OF TITLES OF NOBILITY IN MALTA RECOGNISED 
BY THE BRITISH GOVERNMENT 

MALTA was recovered from the Arabs by Roger, Count of Sicily, 1090, and 
remained part of that Kingdom until 1530, when the islands were granted 
to the Knights of the Order of St. John of Jerusalem as a noble, free, and 
absolute fee (feudum nobile, liberum et francum) by the Emperor Charles V. 
as King of Sicily Ultra, 1 by a patent dated at Castelfranco 24 May 1530, 
under the Royal Seal of that Kingdom. The Grand Masters of the Order, 
who governed the islands under this grant as Sovereign Princes, were twenty- 
eight in number. It does not appear that the first twenty Grand Masters 
from 1530 to 1707 ever created new titles of nobility ; it appears only that 
they renewed several grants which had previously become extinct. Grand 
Master Lascaris, in fact, granted again in 1646 the title of " Barone di 
Budack," which had been extinguished. The creation of titles of Nobility 
was certainly an indisputable right of the Grand Masters, for on the territory 
subject to their jurisdiction they exercised all the power inherent in a real 
and full sovereignty. In 1710, however, under the Grandmastership of 
Fr. D. Raimondo Perellos y Roccafull, the Grand Masters began to create 
Nobles by patent, but conferring only upon them the title of Barons. Two 
patents were granted by the aforesaid Grand Master Perellos, one on the 
24th December 1710, by which he created the Barony of Gomerino, and 
the other on the 23rd April 1716, by which the Barony of Budack was con- 
ferred on Gio Pio de Piro. At a later period, Grand Master Fr. D. Antonio 
Manoel de Vilhena, who governed the Principality from A.D. 1722 to A.D. 1736, 
issued four other patents, creating four Barons, but two of these titles are 
now extinct. His successor, Fr. D. Raimondo Despuig, conferred two 
other titles of Baron, on the 2nd June 1737 and on the 18th August of the 
same year. Grand Master Fr. D. Emmanuel Pinto de Fonyeca created 
two titles of count, on the 16th May 1743, and on the 20th January 1745; 
and lastly, Grand Master Fr. Don Emmanuel de Rohan signed eleven 
diplomas, from 1775 to 1796, conferring upon several noblemen the titles of 
Baron, Count, and Marquess respectively. The list which follows is compiled 
from the Reports of the Commission appointed to inquire into the Claims 
of the Maltese Nobility, and laid before both Houses of Parliament 1878, 
1883, and 1888. The Commissioners add, however, that they do not mean 
to infer that no other titles were granted by the Grand Masters besides the 
twenty-one they enumerate, and state, " on the contrary, we do not hesitate 
to affirm that several other titles were at different times created, some of 
which have been determined by the death without issue of their holders, 
whilst others were granted to the applicants to hold to themselves alone. 
Other titles of which we have no notice may perhaps also exist, but we are 
only called upon by our instructions to consider such claims as have been 
referred." 2 On 12 June 1798 Malta was captured by Bonaparte and annexed 

1 i.e. the island of Sicily. 2 Report, 10th Dec. 1877, p. 7, par. 22. 

209 o 



2io THE NOBILITIES OF EUROPE 

to the French Republic, and by Article V. of an order issued by him 
28th Praireal, Year 6, it was " prohibited to whomsoever to bear feudal 
titles," and by a further order issued by Bosredon Ransijat, President of 
the Government Commission, 6 July following, it was enacted that "all 
honorary titles should be burnt on the 14th of that month, and that every 
holder of a title should carry his patents to the foot of the Liberty Pole 
(Arbre de la Liberti)" The French rule only lasted until 5 September 1800, 
when, the Maltese having offered the sovereignty of the Islands to George III., 
they were taken possession of by the British, and by Article VII. of the 
Treaty of Paris, 30 May 1814, it was provided that " the Island of Malta 
and its dependencies shall belong, in full possession and sovereignty, to His 
Britannic Majesty." 

The present article deals only with titles officially recognised both in Malta 
and the United Kingdom. An article in the Treaty of Quebec, guaranteeing 
to French Canadians respect for their laws, religion, and privileges, set a 
precedent to the leaders of the successful revolution of the Maltese against 
Napoleon. The Maltese asked for the same consideration in their subse- 
quent negotiations with their co-belligerents (the British) when the question 
arose who was to be the next recognised Sovereign of Malta. The " Privi- 
leges " of the Maltese were accordingly guaranteed, and the laws enacted 
by Napoleon abolishing all titles of Nobility were declared to have no 
effect as soon as the possessions of the Grand Masters passed to the British 
Crown. 

But many years elapsed before it was admitted that the guarantee of 
the privileges of the Maltese involved the recognition of Maltese titles at 
the British Court. On the occasion of the first visit in 1877 of the present 
King (then Prince of Wales) to Malta, the Nobles claimed to present an 
address to His Royal Highness, which was resisted by the local bureau- 
cracy. On an appeal to the Imperial Government a Royal Commission, 
composed of two judges, was appointed to report on the legal status of 
the Maltese Titles, and on the lawful holders thereof. 

These Commissioners had to face the difficulty that for more than two 
generations the strict supervision exercised by the Sovereign Order of Saint 
John over such matters had been relaxed, that some Maltese in high official 
positions desired to ignore the Nobility, and that some of the Nobles aimed, 
through social and official influence, to obtain a place not due to them under 
the laws and privileges obtaining under the Grand Masters of Malta. The 
Commissioners made references of Maltese and Sicilian Peerage Law, but 
do not appear to have realised that that of England, on which they were 
grafting a new branch, was derived from the same Norman origin as that 
of Sicily, and was therefore deserving of special attention. 

The Commissioners found that the Grand Masters of Malta were 
Sovereign, and therefore entitled to grant titles. The Emperor Charles V., 
in making over Malta* to the Knights, would have preferred his grantees 
to be suzerains rather than Sovereigns. In either case the grant of titles 
would have been constitutional, but the point is now of no importance, 
because the transition from suzerainty to sovereignty is narrow, and depends 
on recognition by other Powers, and on the shaking off of habitual obedience 
to outside authority. After the battle of Lepanto the Knights were recog- 
nised as Sovereign Allies, even by the Spaniards, and the Grand Masters 
did not grant titles till after that date. 

It does not appear, according to the Report of the Commissioners, that 
any titles of Nobility now claimed existed in Malta as titles created by grant 
or patent before the advent of the Knights ; there were possessors of land 
in Malta who held by military tenure, under the Kings of Sicily. But 



THE PEERAGE OF MALTA 211 

mere military tenure, even by tenants in capite, whether in England 
or Sicily, did not, and does not, constitute a privilege of Peerage. The 
Grand Masters upheld the correct view of Peerage Law, by practically creating 
a new title as a recognition of established custom, in a case where a holder 
of land by military tenure had vulgarly come to be known as a Baron, and 
the Sovereign had been induced to acquiesce. Large landowners in Sicily 
were often called " Barons " without any justification, and obsequious 
lawyers and officials habitually called their clients as they desired to be 
addressed. Whereas land could come into the possession of illegitimate 
children or be willed away, on the other hand the right to a title of Nobility 
could only descend by primogeniture, i.e. under a system of succession 
identical in principle to that under which the Crown devolves. It appears 
that although, according to strict Peerage Law, no titles are traceable in 
Malta created by an existing patent of Nobility previous to the rule of 
the Grand Masters, titles having their legal foundation in a recognition by 
the Grand Masters have been ante-dated, for purposes of precedency, to 
coincide with the date of grants of land under a military tenure inferior 
to baronial tenure. 

The Grand Masters, at first, in accordance with the Feudal principles 
to which they were attached, began to grant titles in connection with con- 
siderable estates, settled to devolve on the grantees and their heirs by 
primogeniture, inseparably from the title. Examples of these really feudal 
Maltese titles are that of Baron of " Ghariexem and Tabia," 1638 (Sant), 
Baron of " Gomerino," 1710 (Testaferrata-Abela), Baron of "Budack" (De 
Piro), 1716, Count " Delia Bahria," 1743 (Stagnio), and Count " Delia 
Catena " " Territorii seu Tenutae della Catena 1 sive delli Mori " (Strickland). 

The Grand Masters later on began to grant titles with respect to lands 
which belonged to the Sovereign, not to the grantee, and which the Sovereign 
continued to keep for himself. These also are Maltese Feudal Titles, 
though not of the same class. 

Finally the Grand Masters allowed some holders of Foreign Titles, by 
Sovereign permission, to bear their Foreign Titles in Malta, provided such 
permission were duly recorded in the Chancery of the Order or in the High 
Court. In a similar manner, the King has recently permitted some Foreign 
Titles to be borne in England and to have a place in the official lists of Court 
functions. But the Grand Masters always drew the line at Papal Titles, 
and the British Government has carefully upheld this rule in Malta. 

The Grand Masters established that precedence, amongst those entitled 
to bear a title, should be in accordance to the date of creation, irrespective 
of the nominal dignity, and of the circumstance whether the title was really 
Maltese and Feudal, or merely imported. 

The facility with which, in Malta, notaries and other complacent persona 
designated persons as they desired to be addressed, the custom of the country 
people to call any large landowner " Baron " without reference to legal 
authority, the assumption by younger branches of the title of the eldest 
son, an abuse which the Grand Masters never allowed, but which, in 
the eighteenth century, British officials had not had the authority to 
check, embarrassed the task of the Royal Commissioners appointed in 
1877. 

Another difficulty the Commissioners had to grapple with was the fact 

1 In the Report of the Royal Commission the word "Catena" is wrongly spelt 
" Catene " (probably from misunderstanding a contracted Latin genitive). The original 
in the Government Archives is "Catena," and so have the lands been called to this 
day. They were once also called Delli Mori (mulberries, in Italian), the lands having 
been planted with mulberries on an attempt to introduce the silkworms. 



212 THE NOBILITIES OF EUROPE 

that titles which the Grand Masters had granted for life only, had con- 
tinued to be used by descendants. 

Every possible point seems to have been stretched by the Commissioners 
to report in favour of claims, and to date back the antiquity of real 
or presumed grants or formal recognitions. No English Peerage autho- 
rity would admit the claims which the Commissioners disallowed. The 
Colonial Office could not, in response to clamour and persistent political 
and other influence, ask the Commissioners, who were judges, to reconsider 
the rejected claims. 

It was therefore decided to establish an official authority in Malta, 
to be called the " Committee of Privileges of the Maltese Nobility," with 
functions described officially as being analogous to those of the Committee 
of Privileges of the House of Lords. 

This Committee recommended four of the claims rejected by the judges. 
It elects its members once a year ; and no title, in the case of succession 
on a death, is now provisionally recognised by the Government till the 
Committee of Privileges has reported. 

All these recognitions by the Government are made subject to any 
subsequent decision of a competent Court of Law. In his despatch of 
April 30, 1878, the Secretary of State laid down : " It is only necessary to 
point out to you that no public officer, not even a Secretary of State, has 
the power of conferring titles of honour, for which the personal sanction 
of Her Majesty is necessary ; and even assuming such acts to have been 
done by British officials, with full knowledge that the titles were non-existent, 
their want of power would prevent these acts of supposed recognition from 
having the slightest effect." The pedigrees and the right to bear two of 
these titles have already been investigated and decided upon by the 
Judicial Committee of the Privy Council, and it is not impossible that the 
others may call for similar investigation, and that questions of precedence 
inter se, and of dates of legal " creation," may be brought before the same 
tribunal, on some Special Reference, or may be dealt with in England on 
a Petition of Right. 

Although the correct designation of members of the Maltese Nobility 
is by their territorial titles, and although such designation as " Baron of 
Gomerino " and " Baron of Budak " are commonly used, it is also common 
practice to add the titles to the family name, e.g. Baron Testaferrata-Abela 
or Baron de Piro-Gourgion, and to use either, or both, methods promis- 
cuously. In some cases the holder of a primogenitura to which a title is 
attached can nominate a younger son in place of the eldest, and in some 
other cases the title can be disposed of by will within the family. Here 
follows a classification of the Titles of Nobility in Malta recognised by the 
Crown, the date preceding each indicating the official order at present 
obtaining : 



CHRONOLOGICAL TABLE OF MALTESE TITLES 

BY Louis, KING OF AEAGON AND SICILY 

4 Jan. 1350. BARON OF DIAR-IL-BNIET (BARONE DI DIAR-IL-BNIET). 
Francesco Gatto, " Miles," was by a privilegium given at 
Messina on the afore-named date, granted the Fief of Diar-il- 
Bniet in Malta for himself and the heirs of his body. Lancea, 
2nd holder, had confirmation from King Frederick sub militari 
servitio unius equi alforati curies nostrce perinde prcestando 



THE PEERAGE OF MALTA 21 



3 



12 Nov. 1372 ; and Francesco, 3rd holder, was again confirmed 
in the grant by King Martin at Catania 14 Feb. 1397, and 
by a further privilegium given at the same place 15 Apr. 1404 
he had confirmation of the Fief of Bucana (cr. 4 Nov. 1372). 
He is also said to have been created Baron of Cheniscia 1397. 1 
The titles of Baron of Diar-il-Bniet and Bucana were recog- 
nised by the British Government 30 Apr. 1878, and allowed 
to Maria Theresa Damico, as 19th Baroness, she being held to 
be heir general of the original grantee. She d. s.p. 1880, when 
she was succeeded by her niece, Maria Francesca Carmen Maria 
Theresa (Sceberras-Trigona-d'Amico-Inguanez), 16th Baroness 
of Castel-Cicciano [Naples 1560], as 20th Baroness. She has 
precedence as the Premier Noble of Malta. This title is not, 
however, derived from a Patent of Nobility, but is based on 
the assumption that the tenure of even a small parcel of land 
by military service constituted a Sicilian Barony. 



BY FREDERICK, KING OF ARAGON AND SICILY 

4 Nov. 1372. BARON OF BUCANA (BARONE DI BUCANA). A Fief granted by 
a privilegium given in Malta on this date to Guglielmo Murina 
and his descendants. It passed to the 3rd Baron of Diar-il- 
Bniet, who had confirmation thereof the 15 Apr. 1404, and 
with whose descendants it has since remained, being recog- 
nised by the British Government 30 Apr. 1878. See above. 

12 Nov. 1372. BARON OF GHARIEXEM AND TABIA (BARONE DI GHARIEXEM E 
TABIA). Fief granted to Enrico de Sosa, who d. s.p., when it 
reverted to the Crown. 

BY JOHN, KING OF SICILY 

28 Jun. 1416. BARON OF GHARIEXEM AND TABIA. Fief granted to Stefano 
lo Blundo, who d. s.p., when it again reverted to the Crown. 

BY GRAND MASTER FR. GIOVAMPAOLO LASCARIS DE CASTELLAR 

16 Apr. 1638. BARON OF GHARIEXEM AND TABIA. A Fief confirmed to 
Giacinto Cassia, with rem. to his descendants for ever. Pietro, 
3rd Baron, d.s.p.m. 1687, and was sue. by his daughter, 
Domenica, wife of Stanislao Xara. Her grandson Stanislao, 
6th holder, d.s.p. 1797, and was sue. by his niece Chiara 
Felicita, wife of the 3rd Count Sant (see Foreign Titles in 
Malta). The title was recognised by the British Government 
30 Apr. 1878, and allowed to her grandson Giovanni Fran- 
cisco, 5th Count and 9th Baron of Ghariexem and Tabia, and 
is now held by the latter's grandson, Francisco Giuseppe 
(Sant), 7th Count and llth Baron, commonly called Count 
Sant-Cassia. 

22 Dec. 1646. BARON OF BUDACK (BARONE DI BUDACK). Title granted by 
Patent of this date to Silvestro Fiteti, who dying s.p., it re- 
verted to the Principality. 

1 Debrett's Peerage, 1907, p. 1019. 



214 THE NOBILITIES OF EUROPE 

BY GRAND MASTER FR. D. RAIMONDO PERELLOS Y KOCCAFULL 

24 Dec. 1710. BARON OF GOMERINO (BARONE DI GOMERINO). Title granted 
by Patent to Paolo Testaferrata and Beatrice Cassia his wife, 
with rem. to such of their legitimate descendants as each 
holder of the title should name in perpetuum, and in failure 
of such nomination then to their first-born descendant in the 
order of primogeniture : " Prcefatos Paulum et Beatricem et post 
eosdem, omni futuro tempore et in perpetuum, unum ex omnibus 
et singulis eorumdem successoribus de suis corporibus legitime 
et naturaliter descendentibus, semper Baronis Gomerini titulo 
decor amus et insignimus, et bar ones creamus et constituimus. . . . 
Tribuentes iisdem Paulo et Beatrici omnibusque ac singulis 
aliis qui omni futuro tempore ac in perpetuum titulo ac pre- 
rogativa Baronis Gomerini fruentur, facultatem nominandi et 
eligendi unum ex dictis eorum descendentibus sive marem sive 
foeminam, ad ipsorumet libitum et beneplacitum, pro hujusmodi 
titulo Baronis Gomerini consequendo et adipiscendo, dictaque 
nominatione et electione minime facta, ex tune censeatur per 
eosdem eorumque singulos barones, nominatus et electus ipsorum 
Primogenitus, nisi erit ad Sacros Ordines promotus et in 
Religione professus et in defectu marium fcemina primo- 
genita. ..." Gomerino was originally granted as a Noble 
fee by Frederick, King of Sicily, to Guglielmo Surdo, and 
after having been purchased by Grand Master Fr. Giovanni 
La Valette, was again conferred in allodium by Grand Master 
Fr. Alofio de Wignacourt to Gio Maria Cassia, from whom 
it passed to the above-named Beatrice. Title recognised by 
the British Government 30 Apr. 1878, and now held by Ugo 
(Testaf errata- Abela), 8th Baron, C.M.G., fifth in male descent 
from the original grantee. 

23 Apr. 1716. BARON OF BUDACK (BARONE DI BUDACK). Title granted to 
Gio Pio de Piro, with the same rem. as the preceding, recog- 
nised by the British Government 30 Apr. 1878, and now held 
by Giuseppe de Piro (Gourgion) as -th Baron, but his descent 
is unknown to the Editor. 

BY GRAND MASTER ZONDADARI 

10 Jan. 1722. COUNT CIANTAR-WZZINI-PALEOLOGO (CONTE CIANTAR-WZZINI- 
PALEOLOGo). 1 The date and manner of the creation of this 
title is unknown. Ignazio Wzzini-Paleologo was addressed 
by Grand Master Zondadari as " Mag. Fideli Nobis dilecto 
Comiti Wzzini " in a letter dated 10 Jan. 1722, and from 
this date forward there is evidence to show that his heirs 
have been constantly and unquestionably in possession of the 
title of Count. Theodora, da. and h. of the above-named 
Count Wzzini, m. Antonio Ciantur, and their descendant 
Giorgio Serafino, 5th Count, K.C.M.G., was recognised as such 
by the British Government 30 Apr. 1878. He d. s.p. 1887, 
and was sue. in the Barony of St. John, which had been con- 
ferred on the 3rd Count 1777, though apparently not in the 
Countship, by his nephew. See St. John. 

1 In the Report this is included as one of the Foreign Titles recognised in Malta, but as 
it owes its existence to a recognition by one of the Grand Masters, it is here included 
among the Maltese Titles proper. 



THE PEERAGE OF MALTA 215 

BY GRAND MASTER FR. D. ANTONIO MANOEL DE ViLHENA 1 

12 Jun. 1725. BARON OF THE MARSA (BARONE BELLA MARSA). Title con- 
ferred on Noble Ferdinando Castelletti, with rem. to such of 
his male and female children and successors as the holder of 
the title in perpetuum should appoint. He d. s.p., when the 
title became extinct. Revived 4 Dec. 1753. 

14 Jun. 1726. BARON OF SAN MARCIANO (BARONE DI SAN MARCIANO) IN 
Gozo. Title conferred on Diego Antonio Galea Ferriol, and 
on such of his descendants as each holder of the title should 
name in perpetuum, and in the failure of such nomination on 
the first-born descendant. Title allowed by British Govern- 
ment 30 Apr. 1878 to Pietro Paolo Galea, the heir male of 
the original grantee, and now held by Calcedonio (Galea), 
-th Baron. 

11 Dec. 1728. BARON OF TABRIA (BARONE BELLA TABRIA). Title conferred 
on Noble Isidore Viani, with the same rem. as the preceding. 
Giovanni, 2nd Baron, d. s.p.m., and was sue. by his da. Anna, 
3rd Baroness, who m. Mario Testaferrata. Recognised by 
British Government 30 Apr. 1878, and now held by Luigi 
Rosario (Testaferrata-Morini-Viani), 7th Baron, who sue. his 
mother's brother. 

BY GRANB MASTER FR. RAIMONBO DESPUIG 

2 Jun. 1737. BARON OF CULEJA or QLEJJGHA (BARONE BELLA CULEJA or 
QLEJJGHA). Title conferred on Noble Ignazio Bonnici, with 
the same rem. as the preceding. Recognised by British 
Government 30 Apr. 1878, and then allowed to Vincenza 
(nee Bonici), wife of Pietro Paolo Galea, Baron de San 
Marciano (who d. s.p. 1884), and elder da. and h. of Ignazio 
(Bonici), 3rd Baron della Culeja. She d. 1891, when the 
title passed to her nephew Emmanuel, 6th Marquis of San 
Vincenzo-Ferreri (son of the 5th Marquis by Eugenia, yr. da. 
and co-h. of the 3rd Barone della Culeja), and is now held by 
his son, the 7th Marquis, as 6th Baron. 

18 Aug. 1737. BARON OF BENUARRAT (BARONE BI BENUARRAT). Title con- 
ferred on Noble Saverio Gatto, with the same rem. as the 
preceding. Recognised by British Government 30 Apr. 1878, 
and now held by Giuseppe (Attard-Montalto), 7th Baron, as 
heir general of the original grantee. He is also 9th Baron of 
St. Paul (Barone di San Paolino) in Sicily (16 July 1638), but 
that, being a Foreign Title never recorded in Malta, is not 
recognised by the British Government. 

BY GRANB MASTER FR. D. EMMANUEL PINTO BE FONECA 

16 May 1743. COUNT OF THE BAHRIA (CONTE BELLA BAHRIA). Title con- 
ferred on Don Ignazio Muscati Falsone Navarra, with rem. 
to his descendants and successors, the title being annexed to 
the possession of the lands : " Te Dnum Ignatium Muscati 

1 In the Report of 10th Dec. 1878 he is said to have "issued four patents creating 
four Barons, but two of these titles are now extinguished." Only the names of the above 
three are, however, given. 



2i 6 THE NOBILITIES OF EUROPE 

Falsone Navarra tuosque filios, hceredes, et successores etiam 
extraneos, comitem et comites Territorii sen Tenutce della Baliria 
positcs in hoc Nostra Insula a Te et antecessoribus tuis jure 
pkni dominii et proprietatis possesses constituimus et in per- 
petuum creamus, dictamque tenutam sen territorium, illiusque 
membra et districtum in feudum nobilem sub titulo comitis 
erigimus atque extollimus" Recognised by the British 
Government 30 Apr. 1878, and allowed to Antonio Stagno 
Navarra Muscati of Messina, a descendant in the female line 
of the original grantee, and now held by Giuseppe St. Agno 
(Navarra), -th Count, who is the Premier Count of Malta. 

20 Jan. 1745. COUNT OF THE CATENA or OF THE MORI (CONTE DELLA CATENA 
or DELLI MORI). Title conferred on Pietro Gaetano Perdi- 
comati Bologna, with the same rem. as the last : " Te supra- 
dictum Dominum Petrum Cajetanum Perdicomati Bologna 
tuosque filios jam natos vel nascituros, hwredes et successores 
primogenitos et etiam extraneos, Comitem et Comites Territorii 
sen Tenuto3 della Catene hodie vero delli Mori appellati, positi 
in hac Nostra Insula a te et antecessoribus possessi jure pleni 
dominii et proprietatis, nee non Primogeniture masculines 
ordinatce per bon mem canonicum Don Alessandrum Perdi- 
comati Bologna . . . in feudum nobilem sub titulo comitis erigi- 
mus atque extollimus" Recognised by the British Govern- 
ment 30 Apr. 1878, established by a judgment of the Lords 
of the Privy Council in 1883, and now held by Sir Gerald 
Strickland of Sizergh Castle, Westmorland, 6th Count, K.C.M.G., 
Governor of Tasmania, as heir general of the grantee. Sir 
Gerald is also an Hereditary Knight of the Holy Roman 
Empire (19 Nov. 1698), but these knighthoods have no official 
recognition. 

1745. MARQUESS TESTAFERRATA-OLIVIER (MARCHESE TESTAFERRATA- 
OLIVIER). Pandolfo Testaf errata-Oliver, 1 Col. of the Royal 
Regt. of Veterans [2nd son of Enrico (Testaf errata), 2nd Mar- 
quess of St. Vincent-Ferreri [Naples 1716 and Malta 1725] 
and Marquess Testaf errata [Sicily 1717] ], having had the title 
of Marquess accorded him by Grand Master Fr. Raimondo 

1 The title of Marquess was assumed by all the descendants of Mario Testaferrata, 
1st Marquess of St. Vincent-Ferreri [Naples 1716] under the erroneous supposition (quite 
inapplicable to Malta under the laws of the Grand Masters) that Victor Amadeus, King 
of Sicily and Duke of Savoy, in creating the aforesaid Mario Testafarrata a Marquess 
13 July 1717, was acting as Duke of Savoy and not as King of Sicily, and consequently 
that the remainder specified in the patent conferring the title of Marquess on all his 
descendants natural and legitimate successively (successivamente) was according to the 
feudal laws ad usum Longobardorum, which obtained in Germany, Lombardy, and many 
parts of Italy, including the Duchy of Savoy, and by which fiefs with the dignities 
attached were devisable, so that they descended equally to all the holder's children and 
other descendants. Accordingly all the members of the family, with the exception of 
the then head (who presumably alone had a real right in the matter) entered into a 
family compact (patto di famiglia) 10 Sep. 1772, by which not only the males but the 
daughters and their descendants were admitted to bear all the titles belonging to the 
family, that of Marchese di Testaferrata itself included : " Prefati quoque Dni contrahentes 
pro se et suis, convenerunt et conveniunt quod tarn memoratus Dnus Don Gilbertus, ac suijilii 
et descendentes in infinitum, quam preti Dni Don Daniel, Don Pandidphus, et Donna 
Asteria eorumque filii et descendentes in infinitum, reciproce ac unite uti possint titulis 
omnibus honorificia atque nobilibus familice competcntibus, ac segnantur titulis Marchionatus 
Sancti Vincentii Ferreri et Marchionatus de Testaferrata et Equitis Sacri Romani Imperii, 



THE PEERAGE OF MALTA 217 

Despuig in an official document dated 1745, and it having 
been shown that both he and his immediate male descendants 
had been repeatedly and constantly recognised as Marquesses, 
the title of Marquess Testaferrata Olivier was allowed by the 
British Government 11 May 1883 to Giovanni Paolo Testa- 
ferrata- Olivier for himself and the heirs male of his body. It 
is now held by the latter' s son, Louis (Testaferrata-OHvier), 
5th Marquess, who is also an Hereditary Knight of the Holy 
Roman Empire. This is a case of a title of " Marquess," 
which, according to the law under the Grand Masters, could 
only be held by one member of the family, being split up 
so as to be enjoyed by more than one branch, with the 
acquiescence of the British Government. 

1749. MARQUESS CASSAR DE SAIN (MARCHESE CASSAR DI SAIN). 
Gilberto Testaferrata, 1 Page of Honour to Elizabeth Furnese, 
Queen Consort of Spain [yr. son of Mario (Testaferrata), 
1st Marquess of St. Vincent-Ferreri [Naples 1716 and Malta 
1725] and Marquess Testaferrata [Sicily 1717], by his 2nd wife 
Elizabetha, nfo Castelletti], having had the title of Marquess 
accorded him by Grand Master Fr. Raimondo Despuig in an 
official document dated 1749, and it having been shown 
that both he and his immediate male descendants had 
been repeatedly and constantly recognised as Marquesses, 
his descendant and heir male, Lorenzo [yr. but only surviving 
son and h. of Filippo Giacamo, who having inherited the 
primogenitures of Cassar Desain (which had, however, no con- 
nection with the title), had 1848 assumed that surname for 
himself and heirs], was recognised as a Marquess under the 
title of Marquess Cassar Desain for himself and the heirs 
male of his body by the British Government 11 May 1883, 
subject to the decisions of competent Courts of Law. The 
Maltese Courts, 28 Apr. 1885, non-suited another claimant. 
Now held by Riccardo Georgio Eugene Rhenier de Branche- 
fort Testaferrata (Cassar-Desain) as 9th Marquess. He is an 
Hereditary Knight of the Holy Roman Empire. This is 
another instance of the British Government having allowed 
the original Marquessate of the Testaferrata family to be 
enjoyed by a junior branch. 

Eim copia uni alteri consignare debet, aliisque juribus etiam patronatus simplicis 
ice competentibus et non aliter." There is, however, ample evidence to prove that 
r Amadeus in creating this title was acting as King of Sicily ; he himself declares 
that in conferring the title he "avails himself of his Royal authority." The patent was 
registered, and not simply recorded in the Registry of the Privileges of the Kingdom of Sicily 
(Reg in Reg Privil. Regn. Sicil., fol. 180, No. 1), and not in that of the Duchy of Savoy, 
and the concluding words of the patent, "Given at Chambery, on the 13 July in the 
fourth year of our reign," clearly show that he did not grant the title either as Duke 
of Savoy or as Vicar of the Empire, for his succession to the throne of Savoy took place 
in 1775, that is twenty-two years previous to the said grant, but as King of Sicily 
which had been ceded to him by the Treaty of Utrecht 11 Nov. 1713, that is four years 
before he conferred the title in question. The title was granted therefore ad usum 
Francorum, such as existed in the kingdoms of Naples and Sicily, by which a fief 
or title descended to the one heir at law of the grantee exclusively, and not to all his 
other descendants, and this was upheld by the Court of Appeal 8 January 1886, which 
declared the then Marquess of St. Vincent-Ferreri to be the only person entitled to the 
dignity of Marquess Testaferrata conferred on his ancestor in 1717. Other alleged 
decisions to the contrary require examination in the original. 
1 See preceding note. 



2i8 THE NOBILITIES OF EUROPE 

4 Dec. 1753. BARON OP THE MARSA (BARONE BELLA MARSA). Title revived 
and conferred on Noble Giovanni Antonio Azopardi Castel- 
letti, with rem. to such of his children of both sexes as the 
holder of the title should appoint. He d. s.p., when this title 
for a second time became extinct. Eevived 10 Mar. 1775. 

BY GRAND MASTER FR. EMMANUEL BE ROHAN 

10 Mar. 1775. BARON OP THE MARSA (BARONE BELLA MARSA). Title con- 
ferred on Noble Gio Francesco Dorell Falzon, with rem. to the 
heirs male of his body : " Tibi Magnifico ac Nobili D. Joanni 
Francesco Dor el Falzon tuisque descendentibus masculis tribuimus 
concedimus et donamus, hujusmodique Baronis titulo insignimus, 
ac Baronem dicti feudi della Marsa constituimus, et ita nominari 
posse et debere. . . ." He d. s.p., when the title became for 
a third time extinct. It was, however, claimed in 1878 by the 
Marchesa Maria Francisca, widow of the Marchese Filippo 
Apap, as the only surviving da. of Paolo Sceberras, the nephew 
ex sorore and testamentary heir of the grantee, but she not 
being within the rem. with which the title was granted, her 
claim was disallowed by the Commission appointed to inquire 
into the claims of the Maltese Nobility. 

23 Jul. 1777. BARON OF BULEBEN (BARONE BI BULEBEN). Title granted to 
Noble Gaetano Azzopardi for himself : " Tibi nobili Cajetano 
Azzopardi tribuimus, concedimus et donamus hujusmodi titulo 
insignimus ac Baronem dicti feudi ' ta Buleben ' constituimus, 
et ita nominari posse et debere atque uti, frui ac gaudere 
omnibus et singulis. . . ." Subsequent rescripts, however, of 
the 25 Apr. 1778 and 10 Aug. 1788 are held to have extended 
the rem. to such of his sons and male descendants as might 
for the time being be the holder of the primogenitura, and the 
title was recognised by the British Government 11 May 1883, 
and is now held by Filippo Giovanni ( Azzopardi- Zamitt), 
6th Baron, as heir male of the grantee. 

6 Sep. 1778. MARQUESS OF ST. GEORGE (MARCHESE BI SAN GEORGIO). Title 
granted by patent to Noble Carlo Antonio Barbaro, LL.D., 
a Venetian Patrician, for life, but by a rescript of 2 Jan. 1779 
extended to the son of the original grantee, and by another 
of 5 June 1792 to all his descendants (? in the order of primo- 
geniture) in perpetuum. Recognised by British Government 
30 Apr. 1878, and now held by Georgio Crispo (Barbaro), 
5th Marquess, as heir male of the original grantee. He is 
the Premier Marquess of Malta, and is also a Patrician of 
Venice, though the latter title is not recognised by the British 
Government. 

23 Oct. 1783. COUNT OF BEBERRUA (CONTE BI BEBERRUA). Title conferred 
on Luigi Gatt for himself only, without any rem. being 
specified. The claim of Nicolo Gatt, LL.D., only surviving 
son of the grantee, was disallowed by the Commission of 1877, 
nevertheless the title was placed on the list by the British 
Government 11 May 1883, 1 and is now held by Antonio 
(Caruana-Gatto), 3rd Count, a grandson of the original grantee. 

1 The Commissioners reporting that "all feuds are of their own nature perpetual, 
inheritable to the male descendants of the grantee ; the fact that no words in the 



THE PEERAGE OF MALTA 219 

15 Oct. 1785. MARQUESS OF THE FIDDIEN (MARCHESE DEL FIDDIEN). Title 
conferred on Salvatore Angelo Mallia-Tabone for himself 
only, but by a rescript of the 15 June 1793 extended " fiat 
pro primogenitis maribus tantum" Kecognised by the 
British Government 30 Apr. 1878, and now held by Giovanni 
(Mallia-Tabone), 4th Marquess, as heir male of the grantee. 

13 Nov. 1790. MARQUESS OP THE TAFLIA (MARCHESE BELLA TAFLIA). Title 
conferred on Saverio Alessi, with rem. to his descendants. 1 
Recognised by the British Government 30 Apr. 1878, and now 
held by Frederick (Sedley), 4th Marquess, as heir general of 
the grantee, his mother having been da. and in her issue 
(1903) heir of the 2nd Marquess. 

7 Jan. 1792. COUNT OF GHAIN TOFFIEHA (CONTE DI GHAIN TOFFIEHA). 
Title conferred on Ferdinando Teuma Castelletti by a rescript 
of the above date, with rem. to his descendants. Recognised 
by British Government 30 Apr. 1878, and now held by the 
Rev. Francisco Saverio Teuma (Castelletti), -th Count. 

1 Dec. 1792. MARQUESS OF GNIEN-IS-SULTAN (MARCHESE DI GNIEN-IS- 
SULTAN). Title conferred by letters patent on Noble Filippo 
Apap, with rem. to the heirs male of his body, whom failing 
to his first-born female descendants : " Prcedictum Marchionis 
Pheudi Gnien Is-sultan titulum. . . . Tibi Magnifico Philippo 
Apap, tuisque descendentibus masculis legitimis et naturalibus 
ipsisque deficientibus, foemina majori natu, tribuimus, concedimus 
et donamus, ac te Marchionis hujusmodi titulo decoramus" 
Recognised by British Government 30 Apr. 1878, and now 
held by Paolo Nicolo (Apap-Pace-Bologna), 5th Marquess, as 
heir male to the grantee. 

30 Dec. 1794. BARON OF THE GRUA (BARONE DELLA GRUA). Title conferred 
by a diploma of this date on Magnifico Saverio Carbott Testa- 
ferrata, with rem. to his sons and male descendants in the 
order of primogeniture : " Tibi tuisque filiis et descendentibus 
masculis de primogenito in primogenitum tribuimus et con- 
cedimus . . . et te hujusmodi Baronis titulo decoramus. ..." 
Saverio Carbott Montalto, 3rd Baron, d. s.p.m., leaving an 
only da., Giovanna Carbott Montalto, mother of Nicola Maria 
Deucata Carbott Asciak, to whom the title was allowed by 
the British Government 30 Apr. 1878. 2 Now held by Paolo 
Borg (Carbott), -th Baron. 

patent direct the inheritance does not make the grant endure for the lifetime of the 
grantee only, but it lawfully endures for all the male issue de primogenito in primogenitum 
in infinitum, according to the recognised feudal custom, admitted also by local juris- 
prudence." The Commissioners do not appear to have realised that every Fief or Feud 
is not a Barony. There are numerous decisions in English Peerage Law showing that to 
hold even in capite from the Crown by military tenure did not constitute a Barony, 
unless the tenure was declared to be that of a Barony. Small military tenures not 
Baronies were common all over England. 

1 The Commissioners remark, 10 Dec. 1877, p. 17 : "In this grant a singular circum- 
stance is noticeable. The patent of creation bears out that the title is inheritable by the 
grantee's descendants ; but it is not therein provided whether it should be enjoyed by all 
the said descendants simultaneously, or by only one of them under the rule of primo- 
geniture : " Tibi Magnifico ac Nobili Xaverio Alessi tuisque legitimis descendentibus 
tribuimus, concedimus, et donamus ac de Marchionis hujusmodi titulo decoramus, nee non 
ita, nominari posse ac debere . . . " 

2 The Commissioners reporting that it was " a settled point of jurisprudence that 
the appellation of male descendants includes not only the sons issuing from the male 
line (masculi ex masculis), but also those issuing from the female line (masculi cxfceminis), 



220 THE NOBILITIES OF EUROPE 

6 Jun. 1795. COUNT OF THE SENIA (CONTE BELLA SENIA) in the Marsa 
District. Title granted by patent of this date to Vincenzo 
Fontani, with rem. to the heirs male and female of the grantee : 
" Nobili Puero Vincentio Fontani Crespi, te tuosque descendentes 
comitem et comites territorii seu possessionis dictce ta Senia 
positce in hac nostra insula, in loco delta Marsa, tuosque 
utriusque sexus filios et descendentes, comitem et comites prwfati 
territorii sive possessionis ' ta Senia ' dicimus et nominamus." 
Recognised by the British Government 30 Apr. 1778, and then 
allowed to Luigi (Fontani), 2nd Count, son and heir of the 
grantee. He d. 17 Aug. 1886, and the title was allowed to 
his son Vincenzo 27 Jan. 1887. 

4 Jun. 1796. MARQUESS OF GHAIN KAJET (MARCHESE DI GHAIN KAJET). 
Title conferred by patent of this date on Noble Gerolamo 
Delicata, with rem. " tuisque descendentibus primogenitis legitimis 
et naturalibus tribuimus concedimus, et donamus" Recognised 
by the British Government 30 Apr. 1878, and allowed to 
Gaetano (Delicata), 3rd Marquess, who d. s.p.m. The title 
is at present in abeyance between his two das. 

FOREIGN TITLES INCORPORATED IN THE 
MALTESE PEERAGE 

1560 [a. 30 BARON OF CASTLE CICCIANO (BARONE DI CASTEL-CICCIANO) 
Apr. 1725]. [Naples]. 1 Francesco Mego was 1560 cr. by King Philip I. 
(II. of Spain) Baron of Castle Cicciano in Naples, with presum- 
ably rem. to the heirs general of his body. Beatrice (Cassia), 
9th Baronessa di Castel-Cicciano, and her husband Paolo 
(Tastaferrata), 1st Baron of Gomerino [Malta 1710], by a deed 
of donation 8 Feb. 1695 transferred the title to their eldest son 
Fabrizio : " Baroniam et Jurisdictionem Criminalem, Civilem, et 
Mixtam Castri Cicciani Provincice Terrce Laboris Regni Neap is 
scilicet cum cognitione primarum causarum civilium, criminalium, 
et secundarum causarum civilium, criminalium et commixtarum, 
mero mixtoque imperio ac gladii potestate, componendi delicta 
pcenasque committendi, &c. . . ," which donation received the 
Royal assent of Charles II., King of Naples and Sicily (King 
of Spain), 11 July following. This title was recognised in 
Malta in the person of this Fabrizio before 30 Apr. 1725 by 
Grand Master Manoel de Vilhena, being specially excepted 
from the provisions of his Prammatica of that date. Fabrizio 
d. s.p.m., when his brother sue. to the Barony of Gomerino, 
and his da. Clara, wife of Michele Scebarras, became llth 
Baroness of Castle Cicciano. Title recognised by the British 
Government 30 Apr. 1878, and now held by Maria Francesca 
(Scebarras-Trigona-d'Amico-Inguanez), 16th Baroness, who has 
also sue. to the Baronies of Diar-il-Bniet and Bucana. See 
under those titles. 

unless some other expression occurs in the deed of grant which controls the meaning of 
that term, as, for instance, when the grantor limited his grant to such among the male 
descendants as should belong to the male line (descendentes masculi ex linea ma&cuLina}, &c. 
1 This is the only Foreign Title in Malta which ranks with the Maltese Titles, Grand 
Master Despuig having by a special command in 1725 declared the then Baron to be 
entitled to the same honours and distinctions which were due to the highest functionaries 
of the island, and to Marco Antonio Inguanez, a Maltese Baron. 




ARMORIAL BEARINGS OF 
DANIEL, 7 TH MARQUESS OF ST. VINCENT-FERRERI 



THE PEERAGE OF MALTA 221 

10 Nov. 1716. MARQUESS OP ST. VINCENT-FERREEI (MARCHESE DI SAN 
[9 Jul. 1725.] VINCENZO-FERRERI) [Naples]. Mario Testaferrata was by 
letters patent of Philip V., King of Spain and the Two 
Sicilies, cr. 10 Nov. 1716 Marquess of St. Vincent- Ferreri in 
his Kingdom of Naples, with rem. to ths heirs general of his 
body, and this title was recognised and acknowledged in 
Malta by Grand Master Manoel de Vilhena, who ordered 
(9 July 1725) and commanded that Don Mario Testaferrata, 
as Marchese di San Vincenzo-Ferreri, and his descendants 
should be excepted from the provisions of his Prammatica 
of 30 Apr. preceding. Recognised by the British Govern- 
ment 30 Apr. 1878 (confirmed by Court of Appeal 1884), and 
now held by Daniele (Testaferrata-Bonici), 7th Marquess, who 
is also 6th Baron of the Culeja [Malta 1737]. See that title. 
The 1st Marquess was also, by letters patent dated at 
Chambery 13 July 1717, cr. by Victor Amadeus, King of 
Sicily and Duke of Savoy, a Marquess (Marchese di Testa- 
ferrata) [Sicily], but this title was never recognised or recorded 
in Malta, and, though vested in the present Marquess, is not 
recognised by the British Government, though his succession 
to the title was established by the Court of Appeal 8 June 
1886. 1 

19 Oct. 1718. COUNT PREZIOSI (CONTE PREZIOSI) [Sicily]. Giuseppe Preziosi 
[20 Jun. 1720.] was 19 Oct. 1718 cr. by Victor Amadeus II., King of Sicily, 
Duke of Savoy, Count Preziosi, with rem. to his legitimate 
male descendants in lawful wedlock begotten, whether born 
or to be born, 2 and this title was regularly registered in a 
record of the Cancelleria, in consequence of a rescript of the 
Grand Master, dated 20 June 1720. Recognised by the 
British Government 30 Apr. 1878, and allowed to Amadeo, 
5th Count, the heir male of the original grantee. Now held 
by his son Robert (Preziosi), 6th Count. 

8 Jul. 1720. COUNT OF MOUNT ALTO (CONTE DI MONT' ALTO) [Parma]. 
Bernardo Piscopo was, by letters patent given at Piacenza 
8 July 1720, cr. by Francis (Farnese) I., Duke of Parma, Count 
of Mount Alto, having at the same time a grant of the Fief 
of that name. Subsequently, having no issue, he obtained 
19 Sep. 1724 an extension of the rem. in favour of Felice 
Manduca Piscopo, his grandnephew, or of such one of the 
brothers of the said Felice as he might designate his heir, and of 
their legitimate male descendants. He d., having nominated as 
his heir the said Felice, who became 2nd Count and d. s.p.m. 
14 May 1775, when the title is held to have become extinct. 
It was claimed in 1877 by Monsignor Salvatore Manduca 
Piscopo Macedonia, son of Paolo and grandson of Salvatore 
Manduca, yst. brother of the 2nd Count, but his claim was 
disallowed by the Commissioners, who held that the title was 
limited to the descendants of the grandnephew who was 
named in the will of the 1st Count. It is not clear from the 
Report of the Commission when this title was recognised in 
Malta. See under 28 Dec. 1776. 

1 See note 1, p. 216, as to this title. 

2 The title of Count was assumed by all his descendants on the same grounds that the 
title of Marquess was assumed by all the descendants of Mario Testaferrata (see note 1, 
p. 216), but the title was held to belong to his senior representative for the time being only. 



222 THE NOBILITIES OF EUROPE 

6 Nov. 1742. MARQUESS DE PIRO (MARQUES DE PIRO) [Castile]. Barone Gio 
Pio de Piro, Patrician of Rome (11 June 1590), was by letters 
patent dated 6 Nov. 1742 cr. by Philip V., King of Spain, 
VISCOUNT OF CARTELY (VISCONDE DE CARTELY), and by 
further letters patent dated the same day, by which the title 
of Viscount of Cartely was ordered to be suppressed, 1 MAR- 
QUESS OF PIRO, with rem. of the latter title to his heirs and 
successors. 1 This title was duly recognised in Malta, being 
registered in the books of the CanceUeria and of the Court 
della Castellania, and was recognised by the British Govern- 
ment 30 Apr. 1878, and allowed to Savereo (de Piro), 5th 
Marquess, who had by a Royal decree of 4 Dec. 1864 obtained 
from Alfonso XII., King of Spain, a renewal and confirmation 
of the title in his favour, but without prejudice to third 
parties. Now held by Giuseppe Lorenzo, 6th Marquess, C.M.G., 
a son of the last. The 1st Marquess is also stated 2 to have 
been cr. " Baron of Budak " by King Philip V. 1742, but no 
mention of this title occurs in the Report of the Commission, 
which also disallowed the title of " Count of Piro," said to 
have been cr. at the same time. 

29 Jan. 1770. COUNT OF PAUSIER (GRAF VON PAUSIER) [Germany]. Giorgio 
Fournier was by letters patent dated 31 Mar. 1768 cr. by the 
Empress Maria Theresa BARON FOURNIER in her Kingdom 
and Provinces of Germany : " Te supradictum Georgium 
Fournier in numerum, consortium, ccetum, ordinem, atque 
Baronum dignitatem assumimus, teque una cum filiis tuis atque 
posteris virilis sexus, ex legitimo thoro natis atque nascituris 
in infinitum, primogeniali ordine semper servato, Baronem ac 
Barones Regnorum et Provinciarum nostrarum facimus, nomi- 
namus atque creamus ; " and by another patent, dated at Vienna 
29 Jan. 1770, Count of Pausier, 3 with rem. to his descendants 
of the male sex in the order of primogeniture : " Teque una 
cum filiis tuis atque posteris virilis sexus, ex legitimo thoro natis 
atque nascituris, in infinitum, primogeniali ordine servato, 
Comitem ac Comites Regnorum et Provinciarum nostrarum, 
facimus, nominamus atque creamus" The Barony was never 
recognised in Malta, but the County was duly registered in the 
CanceUeria and in the High Court of the Castellania, 17 . 
Lazzaro, 2nd Count, d. s.p.m., when the male issue of the 
grantee became extinct ; nevertheless the title of Count was 
placed on the list by the British Government 30 Apr. 1878, 4 

1 " Wherefore you having selected the title of Marquess of Piro, and in order that 
your person and family may be further honoured and ennobled, it is my will that you 
the aforesaid Baron Don Gio Pio de Piro, your heirs and successors for the time being, 
in perpetuum and for ever, may name and style yourself, and be named and styled, as 
I do hereby create you, Marquess of Piro. And whereas under the Ordinance of His 
Majesty Philip IV., whom God may receive into heaven, any person who is to be raised 
to the dignity of Marquess or Count must be previously created Viscount, which title is to 
be subsequently suppressed ; wherefore we, by letters patent bearing the same date as 
these presents, have granted unto you the title of Viscount of Cartely, which, in accord- 
ance with the said Ordinance, must be suppressed and cancelled in my Secre"tairerie of 
Grace and Justice of the Kingdom of Castille." (Extract from Letters Patent.) 

2 Debrett's Peerage, 1907, p. 1018. 

3 Debrett has "Count Fournier" and "Baron Pausier." 

4 It is difficult to understand why this title was recognised, for, unlike that of Count 
Sant, which was granted the same year, it is expressly limited to the heirs male of the 
grantee. However, the then Secretary of State wrote 30 April 1878 : " In this case, if 



THE PEERAGE OF MALTA 223 

and allowed to Lazzaro Sant, as son and heir of Count 
Baldassare Sant by Aloysia, only da. and heir of the 2nd Count. 
The 5th Count d. 1903, leaving 3 sons and 2 das., but, according 
to Debrett, the title has not been assumed since his death. 

22 Dec. 1770. COUNT SANT (CONTE SANT) [Italy]. Giovanni Francesco Sant 
was by patent dated 22 Dec. 1770 cr. by the Empress Maria 
Theresa Count Sant in her Italian provinces, i.e. the Kingdom 
of Italy (Lombardy) attached to the Imperial Crown, with rem. 
to the heirs male of his body : " Teque una cum filio tuo primo- 
genito Joanni Francisco Salvatori, et ab hoc, eodem nascendi 
ordine, descendentibus virilis sexus ex legitimo thoro natis 
atque nascituris, in infinitum, Comitem ac Comites nostrarum 
in Italia Provinciarum facimus, nominamus, atque creamus," 
whom failing to the son of the surviving female descendant, 
" Addentes hanc gratiam specialem, ut si aliquando stirpem 
masculinam familice tuce extingui contingat, Comitis titulus et 
dignitas ad Primogenitum ex ultima fcemina generis tui super- 
stite natum vel nasciturum, qui gentis tuce cognomen assumit 
ejusque posteros modo antedicto, servatoque semper ordine primo- 
geniali transeat ; " and this title was duly registered in the 
Cancelleria in Malta, and was recognised by the British Govern- 
ment 30 Apr. 1878. Giovanni Francesco, 3rd Count, m. the 
7th Baroness of Ghariexem and Tabia [Malta 1638] ; and the 
two titles have since remained united. See under Ghariexem. 

28 Dec. 1776. COUNT OF MOUNT ALTO (CONTE DI MONT' ALTO) [Parma]. 
Salvatore Manduca, brother and heir of Felice (Manduca), 
2nd Count of Mount Alto [Parma 1720] (who d. s.p.m. 14 May 
1775), obtained by a rescript of 28 Dec. 1776 a renewal of this 
title in favour of himself and his male descendants from 
Ferdinand I., Duke of Parma, Piacenza, and Guastalla. The 
title was not recorded in Malta, and was disallowed by the 
Commissioners 30 Apr. 1878, but was nevertheless placed 
on the list by the British Government 188-, and allowed 
to Monsignor Salvatore, Domestic Chaplain to the Pope, 
Protonotary Apostolic, Canon of Malta, President of the 
Assembly of Nobles, and a Member of the Committee of Privi- 
leges, and is now held by his nephew Francesco (Manduca- 
Piscopo-Macedonia), 4th Count. 

16 Jul. 1777. BARON OF ST. JOHN (BARONE DI SAN GIOVANNI) [Sicily]. Dr. 
Vincenzo Abela was by patent dated at Messina 20 Aug. 1657 
cr. by the Viceroy of Sicily BARON OF ST. JOHN, with rem. to 
the heirs of his body. He d. s.p., when the title became 
extinct. 1 It was, however, revived by Ferdinand I., King of 

the patent had issued in Malta or in Sicily, I gather that the claim would have been 
allowed under the rules of feudal law recognised in those States, and therefore, without 
offering any opinion as to the strict legal effect which toould be given to the patent at Vienna, 
and without prejudice to any future legal decision upon its meaning, should it ever be called 
in question in a Court of Law, I feel that I may reasonably permit the claimant and his 
successors, for the purposes of precedence, to take the place to which they would be 
entitled under the principles of legal interpretation applicable to the grant if it had 
emanated in 1770 from the Sicilian or Maltese sovereign authority." 

1 The Report of the Commissioners, 10 Dec. 1877, p. 46, par. 223. Debrett, however, 
says that he had a son, Rev. Gio Domenico, 2nd Baron, and a daughter Angelica, 3rd 
Baroness, ancestress of Maria Generosa, wife of Count Ignazio Wizzini and grandmother of 
the above-named Serafino. 



224 THE NOBILITIES OF EUROPE 

the Two Sicilies, by letters patent dated at Palermo 16 July 
1777, and conferred on Serafino, 3rd Count Ciantar, with rem. 
to his descendants. This title was duly registered in the 
Cancelleria in Malta 17 , and was recognised by the British 
Government 30 Apr. 1878. Now held by the Hon. Alessandro 
(Chapelle), 4th Baron, who is also 6th Count Ciantar, other- 
wise Chapelle. See that title. 



THE NOBILITY IN THE GERMAN LANDS OF 
THE HOLY ROMAN EMPIRE 



IN early times the Emperor was the sole fountain of honour in Germany. 
As the successor of the Csesars he was in theory the secular lord of the 
World, and as such conferred Royal Crowns and granted Coats of Arms. 
The possession of this same Imperial Crown, however, constantly necessi- 
tated the absence of the Emperor for long periods from his German 
Kingdom, and so arose the custom of appointing a Vicar of the Empire 
(Reichsvikar) for Germany during his absence in Italy, with the right to 
create Nobles and make Knights. In 1482 Conrad, Archbishop Elector of 
Mayence, was appointed by the Emperor Sigismund, and in 1522 Charles V. 
made his brother Ferdinand his Vicar for Germany during his absence, with 
the right to create " Counts, Barons, Lords (Herren), Nobles, Doctors, 
Knights, and Armigers ; " * and later on the Vicariate was confirmed to the 
Electors Palatine of the Rhine for the countries of the " Frankish law," and 
to the Electors of Saxony for the countries of " Saxon law," and regular 
use of the right to confer honours was made by these Princes in the interval 
that elapsed between the death of an Emperor and the coronation of his 
successor. So long as the Holy Roman Empire lasted, the sovereigns of 
the various States which formed the German Kingdom 2 had not as such 
the right to confer titles, 8 though this right was sometimes conferred on 
them by special grants from the Emperors. One of the first acts of 
Frederick (of Hapsburg) IV. [1440-1493] after his coronation as Emperor 
at Rome 19th March 1452, was to confirm the Archducal title to his own 
family and to invest the Archduke of Austria with privileges greater than 
those possessed by any other Prince of the Empire, one of these privileges 
being the right to grant letters of legitimation and to create Counts, Barons, 
and other titles. In 1500 Frederick's son and successor, the Emperor 
Maximilian I., conferred on Frederick the Wise, Elector of Saxony, the right 
to grant arms, but not titles, within his duchy, and a few years later the 
same right was conceded to all the Counts Palatine. 

By about the middle of the seventeenth century two classes of Counts 
Palatine had sprung into existence, the " Comites Palatini minores " and 

1 See "The Right to Bear Arms in Germany," by 0. "W. V. de P. Brunstorff, The 
Genealogical Magazine, vii. pp. 109-117 and 150-158. 

2 The Kings of Bohemia and Prussia must be excepted, since neither of those 
countries was, strictly speaking, included in the Empire, though the King of Bohemia 
was an Elector as Grand Butler of the Empire and the King of Prussia as Marquess of 
Brandenburg. Ed. 

3 We find, however, that the Electors and other Princes gradually assumed the right 
to recognise or not to recognise the honours conferred on their subjects by the Emperor. 
Frederic William, the Great Elector of Brandenburg, for example, issued the following 
order in 1654 : "Although we have no right to -prescribe to His Imperial Majesty to 
whom or to whom not he should grant any nobiliary distinctions, we shall make it 
subject to our pleasure how far we shall allow to make use of such privileges in our 
territories to persons who do not merit such distinctions, and have obtained them only 
through money." 

225 p 



226 THE NOBILITIES OF EUROPE 

the " Comites Palatini majores." The lawyers are somewhat vague about 
the distinction. " Majorem comitivam we call," says some authority, " where 
the holder of the office is either a Prince, Count, or Baron, but minorem 
comitivam such as is given to Doctors, Noblemen, and others." x It seems, 
however, safer to make the distinction according to the rights attached 
to the office, and to call majores those who had not only the right to grant 
arms, but also titles of Nobility, and where the office was hereditary, with 
the right to create other Counts Palatine, like the Comitive of the Princes 
of Liechtenstein (1633 or 1654), of the Barons of Schonborn (1663), of the 
Princes of Schwarzenberg (1671), of the Counts of Konigseck (1675), of the 
Barons of Ingelheim (1680), of the Princes of Schwarzburg-Sondershausen 
(1691), of the Princes of Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt (1710), of the Counts of 
Bunau (1745), of the Counts of Waldburg-Zeil (1745), of the Princes of 
Furstenberg (1770), and of others. 

On the dissolution of the Empire 6 Aug. 1806, all the rights formerly 
belonging to the Emperors became vested in the Sovereigns of the various 
principalities into which Germany was divided, though fifty-eight of the 
smaller Princes had been previously, or were shortly afterwards, deprived of 
their territories by Napoleon. 2 The Congress of Vienna [8 Oct. 1814 to 
9 June 1815] recognised the sovereignty of the then existing forty States of the 
old German Kingdom, but left the question of the dispossessed Princes to be 
settled by the Diet of the new German Confederation. This was done 18 Aug. 
1825, a resolution of that date declaring that " Les Souverains et les villes 
libres d'Allemagne, sont tombtfs d'accord pour qu'il jut accorde aux families 
mtfdiatisees, ci-devant co-etats de PEmpire germanique un rang et un litre 
conformes cfc leur droit d'egalite de naissance avec les maisons souveraines et 
pour qu'il fut confere" aux princes 3 la qualification de Durchlaucht (Serene 
Highness) " ; and a further resolution of 13 Feb. 1829 confirmed the title 
of Erlaucht (Illustrious Count) to the Countly Families. All these media- 
tised families still exist, with the exception of those of Dietrichstein and 
Wallmoden, which are extinct in the male line, their heads being recognised 
as equals by the reigning Sovereigns. Of the forty States existing in 1815, 
twenty-nine still survive, and their Sovereigns confer titles, the formation 
of the German Empire under the presidency of the King of Prussia by 
certain of them not interfering with the Sovereign rights of the various 
contracting Powers within their own States. It must be remembered, how- 
ever, that since 1806 the titles conferred are not those of the Holy Roman 
Empire, but of Austria, Prussia, Bavaria, &c., as the case may be. Though 
the lands of the old German Kingdom are now divided into three distinct 
political organisations, the Austrian and German Empires, and the Grand- 
duchy of Luxemburg, the titles conferred by their respective Sovereigns are, 
for the sake of convenience, here grouped together. The titles in the Empire 

1 Many of these appointments were for life only, such as that of the celebrated 
mathematician, Peter Apianus, as a Count Palatine, with the right to grant arms by 
Charles V., 1541. Several cases are given in Branstorff s article already referred to. 

2 These were the Princes of Auersperg, Bentheim, Colloredo-Mannsfeld, Dietrichstein, 
Esterhazy of Galantha, Fugger, Furstenberg, Hohenlohe, Isemburg, Khevenhiiller-Metsch, 
Leiningen, Leyen, Lobkowitz, Lowenstein-Wertheim, Metternich-Winneburg, Oettingen, 
Orsini- Rosenberg, Salm-Salm, Salm-Horstmar, Salm-Reifferscheidt, Sayn- Wittgenstein, 
Schb'nburg, Schwarzenberg, Solms, Starhemberg, Thurn and Taxis, Trauttmansdorf, Wald- 
burg, Wied and Windisch-Graetz ; the Dukes of Arenberg, Croy and Looz-Corswarem ; and 
the Counts of Bentinck, Castell (Bavarian Princes, 7 March 1901), Erbach, Giech, Goertz 
otherwise Schlitz, Harrach, Koenigseck-Aulendorf, Kuefstein, Leiningen- Westerburg, Neip- 
perg, Ortenburg, Pappenheim, Platen-Hallennund, Piickler-Limpurg, Quadt-Wykradt,Reeh- 
berg-Rothenloewen, Rechteren-Limpurg, Schaesberg, Schonborn, Stadion, Stolberg (Prussian 
Princes, 22 Oct. 1890), Toning, Waldbott-Bassenheim, Wallmoden and Wurmbrand. 

3 The Dukes are ranked as Princes. 



THE HOLY ROMAN EMPIRE 227 

were those of Prince, Duke, Marquess (Markgraf, i.e. Count of the [Frontier] 
Marches), Langraf (i.e. Count of a Province), Burgraf (i.e. Count of a Castle 
or Fort), Count, &c., but there were several degrees of each. 1 

Considerable divergence of opinion exists, especially in the United 
Kingdom, as to the devolution of Imperial Titles. They were conferred on 
the grantee) with remainder to his descendants of both sexes for all time. 
This is very generally held to create a dignity inheritable by heirs general, 
which view has in this country been accepted by the Crown, 2 and some have 
even maintained that this remainder includes every descendant of the 
original grantee, those through daughters equally with those through sons, 
a view which would render it very difficult for any one to avoid being either 
a Prince, Count, or Baron of the Empire. The expression, however, to his 
" descendants of both sexes " here only means descendants of his own 
family, the principle of an Imperial grant being the ennobling alike of 
every member of the family descended from the grantee but not the 
ennobling of other families descended from him through daughters. As 
G. E. C., referring to the princely title conferred on the Duke of Marlborough, 
says : 3 " The grant of that dignity is in the usual form, which, it is con- 
sidered, entitles all male descendants to that dignity, as also for their lives 
(but not with the right of transmission), the daughters of such male de- 
scendants ; " and that this is the interpretation placed upon this remainder 
in the countries of the Empire itself is beyond all doubt. 



GERMAN PEERAGES 

Almanack de Goiha. Gotha, annually since 1787. 

Goihaisches Genealogisches Taschenbuch der \deutschen] Grdflichen Hduser. 
Gotha, annually since 1825. 

Gothaisches Genealogisches Taschenbuch der Freiherrlichen Hduser. Gotha, 
annually since 1848. 

Gothaisches Genealogisches Taschenbuch der Uradeligen Hduser. Gotha. 

Jahrbuch des Deutschen Adels, &c. Berlin, 1896 et seq. 

BRITONS ENNOBLED IN THE HOLY ROMAN EMPIRE 
By the Emperor Maximilian I. 149312 Jan. 1519 

Sir Robert Curzon cr. Baron Curzon 1500 

Dominick White cr. Baron of Alby ..... 1513 

By the Emperor Rudolph II. 12 Oct. 1576 10 Jan. 1612 

Sir Thomas Arundell cr. Count of Arundell ... 14 Dec. 1595 

Sir Robert Shirley cr. Count of Shirley .... a. 1612 

By the Emperor Ferdinand II. 20 Mar. 161915 Feb. 1637 

Sir Robert Dudley cr. Count- of Warwick, Duke of 

Northumberland ... 8 Mar. 1620 
Patrick, E. of Forth [S.] and Brent- 
ford [E.] cr. Count of Kirchberg . . . Apr. 1632 

Col. John Gordon cr. Marquess of Gordon . . . 1635 

1 See Seldon's Titles of Honour. 

2 See the case of Baron de Hochepied, p. 140 ; of the Count of Pausier, p. 220. 

3 Complete Peerage, v. 255, note 6. 



228 THE NOBILITIES OF EUROPE 

By the Emperor Ferdinand III. 15 Feb. 16372 Apr. 1658 

Major Walter Leslie cr. Count of Leslie . . . .15 Mar. 1637 

Col. George Ogilvy of Mureton . . cr. Count of Ogilvy . . . a. 27 Aug. 1649 

Sir Dominick White, 6th B. of Alby . cr. Count of Alby .... Aug. 1658 

By the Emperor Leopold I. 2 Apr. 16585 May 1705 

James Alexander Leslie . . . . cr. Count of Leslie . . . .31 May 1662 

Francis, 2nd Baron Wemyss . cr. Count of Wemyss ... 1677 

Hon. Sir Alexander Hamilton . . cr. Count of Hamilton ... 1677 

Sir Ignatius White, Bt., C. of Alby . cr. Marquess of Albeville . . 20 Aug. 1677 

( ) Butler cr. Count of Butler .... 10 Sep. 1681 

Charles, Lord Granville cr. Count of Lansdowne . . 27 Jan. 1684 

Rudolph Reding cr. B. Reding von Biberegg . 21 Sep. 1688 

Francis, 3rd E. of Carlingford . . rec. Count Taaffe 

John, 1st D. of Marlboro ugh . cr. Prince Churchill .... 28 Aug. 1704 

By the Emperor Joseph I. 5 May 170517 Apr. 1711 

John, 1st Duke of Marlborough . . cr. Prince of Mindelheim . .17 Nov. 1705 

Col. Edward Nugent rec. Count Nugent of Bracklyn 

David de Montolieu cr. Baron of St. Hippolyte . 14 Feb. 1706 

By the Emperor Charles VI. 17 Apr. 171120 Oct. 1740 

Francis Edmund Herbert . cr. Noble 21 Sep. 1715 

Ermengarde Melosine, Duchess of 

Kendal [G.B.], &c cr. Princess of Eberstein . . 1 Jan. 1723 

Baron Francis Wenzel Walsh, F.M. . cr. Count of Wallis .... 14 Jul. 1724 

Gen. George Brown cr. Count Brown . . . a. 12 Apr. 1726 

( ) Custis cr. Noble 13 May 1727 

James Rice cr. Count Rice 

Col. Ulyssis Brown cr. Baron Brown a. 1730 

Ulyssis, Baron Brown, Field-Marshal cr. Count Brown 

Philip Henry Magawly, Field- 
Marshal cr. Baron of Calry .... 1731 

Hon. William Bentinck . . . . cr. Count of Bentinck . . .29 Dec. 1732 

Edward Walsh cr. Baron von Wallis 

Nicholas, 6th Viscount Taaffe . . rec. Count Taaffe ..... c. 1738 

Field-Marshal Peter Lacy . . . . cr. Count of Lacy 13 Aug. 1740 

By the Emperor Francis I. 15 Sep. 174518 Aug. 1765 

George Oliver, 3rd Baron Walsh . cr. Count of Wallis . . . .13 Aug. 1752 

Gen. William Fermor cr. Count of Fermor .... 1 Jun. 1758 

Field-Marshal Gideon Ernest von 

Loudon cr. Baron von Loudon ... 22 Feb. 1759 

Reinhold John von Loudon . . . cr. Baron 22 Feb. 1759 

Charles Gideon von Loudon . . . cr. Baron 22 Feb. 1759 

Otho John von Loudon cr. Baron 22 Feb. 1759 

Horace St. Paul cr. Count St. Paul .... 20 Jul. 1759 

Clementina Walkinshaw . . . . cr. Countess of Alberstrof . a. 22 Jul. 1760 

Sir Joseph Murray, 3rd Bt. . . . cr. Count of Murray . . . 25 Nov. 1761 

Gen. Manus O'Donnell cr. Count O'Donnell of Tyr- 

connell 11 Nov. 1763 

Francis Dillon of Proudstown . . cr. Knight 22 Aug. 1763 

By the Emperor Joseph II. 18 Aug. 176520 Feb. 1790 

Alexander, 2nd Baron Wallis . . . cr. Count of Wallis .... 6 Feb. 1767 

Philip Walsh cr. Count of Wallis .... 6 Feb. 1767 

Robert Walsh cr. Count of Wallis .... 6 Feb. 1767 

William MacNeven cr. Baron MacNeven O'Kelly 

of Aughrim 14 Nov. 1767 

Francis Dillon of Proudstown . . cr. Baron Dillon 22 Aug. 1767 



THE HOLY ROMAN EMPIRE 229 

John Baptist Kavanagh . . . . cr. Count of Kavanagh . . . 1768 

Gen. Charles O'Gara cr. Count O'Gara 

Gen. Owen O'Rourke cr. Count O'Rourke .... 

Dillon John O'Kelly cr. Count O'Kelly of Tycooly . 

Lieut. -Gen. Baron Francis Dillon . cr. Baron Dillon 

Gen. Charles Jerningham . . . . cr. Count of Jerningham . . 1777 
George Nassau, 3rd Earl Cowper . cr. Prince of Cowper . . .31 Jan. 1778 
Elizabeth (nee Dalton), wife of cr. Countess Nugent of Bally- 
Edmund Nugent nacorr 14 Apr. 1778 

Lieut. -Gen. Edward Dalton . . . cr. Count d' Alton 

Christopher Dalton cr. Count d' Alton 

Richard Dalton cr. Count d' Alton 

Peter Philip Herbert cr. Baron Herbert-Rathkeal . 3 Jul. 1779 

John Dillon of Lismullen, M.P. . . cr. Baron Dillon 4 Jul. 1783 

James Lockhart-Wishart . . . . cr. Count Lockhart-Wishart . 25 Mar. 1785 

Gen. Andrew O'Reilly cr. C. O'Reilly of Ballinlough . 8 Oct. 1787 

By Charles Theodore, Elector Palatine, as Vicar of the Empire. 
20 Feb. 30 Sep. 1790 

Gen. Sir Benjamin Thompson . . cr. Count of Rumford . . . 1790 

Francis Jenison cr. Count of Walworth ... 17 Sep. 1790 



By the Emperor Leopold II. 30 Sep. 17907 Jul. 1792 

>unt o 
Morres 



Harve de Montmorency-Morres ofl ("Count of Montmorency- 
Rathlin f rec '\ 



By the Emperor Francis II. 7 Jul. 17926 Aug. 1806 

Lady Elizabeth Berkeley, wife of 

the Margrave of Brandenburg . cr. Princess of Berkeley . . 20 Feb. 1801 

IN AUSTRIA 

By the Archduke Charles (Emperor Charles VI.). 17 Ap. 171120 Oct. 1740 
Francis Edmund Herbert . . . . cr. Noble 21 Sep. 1715 

By the Archduchess Maria Theresa. 20 Oct. 174029 Nov. 1780 

Gen. Robert MacCaffry .... cr. C. MacCaffry of Kean-More 1748 

Gideon Ernest London, F. -Marshal . cr. Baron von Loudon ... 5 Mar. 1759 

John Michael Herbert cr. Baron Herbert .... 28 Feb. 1767 

William MacNeven cr. Baron MacNevin O'Kelly 

of Aughrim 14 Nov. 1767 

Peter Philip Herbert cr. Baron Herbert Rathkeal . 3 Jul. 1779 

By the Emperor Francis I. 11 Aug. 18042 Mar. 1835 

Adm. Sir Francis Thomas Fremantle cr. Baron Fremantle . . . 29 Nov. 1816 

Nathan Meyer Rothschild . . . cr. Baron Rothschild ... 29 Sep. 1822 

Gen. Sir William Keir Grant, K.C.B. cr. Baron Grant 22 Jan. 1831 

Sir John Nugent, 3rd Bt cr. Count 1832 

By the Emperor Ferdinand I. 2 Mar. 18352 Dec. 1848 

Field-Marshal Laval Nugent . . . cr. Count Nugent . . . . .27 Nov. 1847 
John Nugent cr. Count Nugent 27 Nov. 1847 

By the Emperor Francis Joseph. 2 Dec. 1848 

Thomas, Baron Ward [Lucca] . . cr. Baron Ward 1849 

Hon. Fanny Gabrielle Talbot . . cr. Countess Talbot . . . a. 28 Apr. 1850 
Walter Nugent cr. Baron Nugent .... 25 Aug. 1859 



230 THE NOBILITIES OF EUROPE 

Gen. Robert Swinburne cr. Baron Swinburne . . .12 May 1863 

Daniel O'Connor cr. Baron O'Connell O'Connor- 
Kerry 22 Jan. 1864 

Solomon Benedict Worms . . . cr. Baron Worms .... 23 Apr. 1871 
Maximilian Patrick George Ernest \ /Count MacCaffry of Kean 

MacCaffry f cr '\ More 20 Dec. 1891 

Maurice Arnold de Forest . . . . cr. Baron de Forest .... 26 Feb. 1899 

Raymond de Forest cr. Baron Raymond de Forest 26 Feb. 1899 

Count John Anthony Laval Nugent cr. Count Nugent- Pallavicini- 

Febbia 28 Feb. 1901 

Sir Rudolf Karl Slatin, K.C.M.G. . cr. Baron Slatin 25 Oct. 1906 

IN PRUSSIA 

By King Frederick II. (the Great). 31 May 174017 Aug. 1786 
Alexander Gibson cr. Baron Gibson 7 Jan. 1777 

By King William I. 2 Jan. 18619 Mar. 1888 

John Henry Schroder cr. Baron von Schroder ... 26 Dec. 1868 

Capt. Francis Charles Annesley . . cr. Noble 

Hugo Sholto Oscar George Douglas cr. Baron von Douglas . . .15 Nov. 1886 

By King William II. 15 June 1888 

Hugo S. O. G., 1st Baron Douglas . cr. Count of Douglas ... 2 Dec. 1894 
Rudolph Bruno Schroder . . . . cr. Baron von Schroder ... 27 Jul. 1904 

IN BAVARIA 
By King Louis I. 13 Oct. 182521 Mar. 1848 

Lieut.-Gen. Sir James Washington . cr. Baron von Washington . 8 Dec. 1829 
Valerio (Magawly), 4th C. of Calry 

[Sicily 1734] inh. Count Cerati (1669) . . . 18 

By King Maximilian II. 21 Mar. 184810 Mar. 1864 

Hon. James Erskine cr. Baron von Erskine ... 18 Jan. 1872 

Henry Joseph Swaine cr. Baron von Swaine ... 29 Nov. 1874 

IN HANOVER 

By King George V. 18 Nov. 185112 June 1878 
Gen. Sir Hugh Halkett cr. Baron von Halkett ... 18 Jun. 1862 

IN WURTEMBERG 

By King Charles I. 25 June 18646 Oct. 1891 
Sir Ferdinand Mueller, K.C.M.G. . cr. Baron von Mueller ... 13 Jul. 1871 

IN SAXE-WEIMAR 

By Duke Charles Frederick. 14 June 18288 July 1853 

Lady Augusta Catherine Gordon- 
Lennox cr. Countess of Dornburg . . 26 Nov. 1851 



THE HOLY ROMAN EMPIRE 



231 



IN SAXE COBURG GOTHA 
By Duke Ernest II. 29 Jan. 1844 22 Aug. 1893 

Lady La'ira Wilhelmina Seymour . cr. Countess of Gleichen 

Paul Julius de Reuter cr. Baron de Reuter . . . 

Ronald MacLeary Laurentz Camp- 
bell cr. Baron von Craiernish 



Edmund Kempt Campbell 



William Ernest Bush cr. Baron de Bush 



14 Jan. 1861 
7 Sep. 1871 

11 Sep. 1882 



-. B. Campbell of Laurentz . 1 Nov. 1886 



25 Dec. 1889 



By nomination of H.R.H. Duke Alfred, Prince of Great Britain and Ireland, &c. 
22 Aug. 189330 Jul. 1900 

Alleyne Alfred Boxall cr. Baron Boxall 8 Sep. 1900 



GERMAN NOBLES WHO HAVE BECOME BRITISH SUBJECTS 



Frederick Armand, Count of Schomberg [H.R.E.] . . . 
Ermengard Melosine, Baroness Schulemberg .... 

Jerome, Count of Salis-Soglio [H.R.E. 1748] 

Baron John Richard Brinckman [Hanover] 

Stephen, Count Neale 

Christian, Baron von Kutzleben [Hesse Cassel] 

Caroline E. F. S., Baroness von Stein 

Sophia, Countess of Mengden and Baroness Plettenberg 

Francis, Baron de Rottenburgh 

Charles, 1st Count von Alten [Hanover 1815] . . . . 
William Frederick, Count von Linsingen [Prussia] and 

Baron Linsingen [Hanover] 

Gaspar Peter Elias, Baron de Arabet [Austria 1789] . 
Gustavus Theodore Anthony, Count Batthyany . . . 

Rev. (Baron) Henry George de Bunsen 

Baron Louis C. A. A. de Cetto [Bavaria 1812] . . . 
Hippolyt Victor A., Count von Bothmer, Bavaria . . 
Melchior, 3rd Count Gurowski [Prussia 1787] .... 

Count Carlo Arrivabene, Austria 

James, Count Zorri, Austria 

Francis, 1st Duke of Teck [Wiirtemberg 1864] .... 
Louis Alexander, 2nd Prince of Battenburg [Hesse 1858] 
Solomon Benedict, 1st Baron de Worms [Austria 1871] . 
Count Louis Pomian Lubienski [Prussia 1798] . . . 

Noble Henry Segesser [R.H.E. 1442] 

Charles, Baron de Malortie, Hanover 

Liutbert A. G. L. A., Baron Pawel-Rammingen [S.C.G. 

1854] 



naturalized 
naturalized 
naturalized 
naturalized 
naturalized 
naturalized 
naturalized 
naturalized 
naturalized 
naturalized 



9 Apr. 1689 
16Jun. 1716 
24 Mar. 1730 
15 Dec. 1740 
26 Apr. 1751 

27Jun. 1805 
22 Mar. 1806 



naturalized 


8 May 1818 


naturalized 


3 Jul. 1835 


naturalized 


27 Jul. 1838 


naturalized 


22 Apr. 1842 


naturalized 


13 Dec. 1856 


naturalized 


31 Dec. 1856 


naturalized 


11 Mar. 1857 


naturalized 


28 Apr. 1859 


naturalized 


3 July 1860 


naturalized 




naturalized 


30 Sep. 1868 


naturalized 


18 May 1874 


naturalized 


18 Apr. 1876 


naturalized 




naturalized 


19 Feb. 1877 



naturalized 19 Mar. 1880 



SPAIN 



THE Spanish Nobility will be dealt with in a future issue, but here it 
may be remarked that in Spain all titles have to be registered, and that 
severe penalties are imposed for their illegal assumption. 

SPANISH PEERAGES 

Blason de Espana, Libro de Oro de su NoUeza, by D. A. de Burgos. 
6 vols. Madrid, 1853. 

Annales de la Nobleza de Espana, by D. F. Fernandez de Bethencourt. 
10 vols. Madrid, 1880-90. 

BRITONS ENNOBLED IN SPAIN 

Sir Hugh Calveley ...... cr. Count of Carrion . . . Apr. 1366 

Sir Theobald Bourke ..... cr. Marquess of Mayo . . . Philip II. 

James, 4th D. of Lennox and Rich- 

mond .......... cr. Grandee of 1st Class . . Jan. 1632 

( Marquess of Vallado 
Col. Humphrey Walrond . . . . cr. \ C. of Parama and Valderonda 

( Grandee of 1st Class . . 5 Aug. 1653 

James Mahony ....... cr. Viscount of Oldcastle . . a. 1696 

Henry Nugent ..... cr. Count of Valdesoto . 

James, 1st Duke of Berwick. . r. { g^ 1*^ ; 16 Oct. 1707 
Gen. Daniel O' Mahony . . . . cr. Count O 'Mahony ... 1710 



James Francis, 3rd D. of Berwick . ink. Duke of Veragua, &C. 1 . . 1739 

James Francis, 3rd D. of Berwick . ink. Marquess of Sarria, &C. 1 . 
Alexander O'Reilly ...... cr. Count O'Reilly .... 

Ambrose O'Higgins ...... cr. Marquess of Osorno . . . 1789 

Charles Michael, 7th D. of Berwick, 

&c ............ ink. Duke of Alba de Tormes, 1 &c. 1802 



Bt.Hon.Hookha m Frere,P.C., M .P. or. j e ! 16De, 1809 



Sir William Can* Beresford . . . cr. Duke of Elvas .... 1 Si- 

Arthur, Duke of Wellington . . . cr. \ J? uke f Ciudad Rodrigo . 

1 Grandee of 1st Class . .31 Jan. 1812 

rminf niiVAT- T C ft Wolah /.* S D - f La Mothe-Houdancourt 

>liver L. C. R. Walsh . " } Qrandee of lgt c^ . . 18 Aug. 1829 

Lieut.-Gen. Henry O'Donnell . . . cr. Count of the Abisbal . . a. 1833 

Gen. Leopold O'Donnell . . . . cr. Viscount of Aliaga . . . 

Count of Lucena .... 1847 



Isaac de Lousada rec. 

Marshal Leopold O'Donnell . . . cr. 



D. of Losada and Lousada 
Grandee of 1st Class . . 27 May 1848 
Duke of Tetuan .... 
. Grandee of 1st Class . . 7 Feb. 1860 
James, 9th Duke of Berwick . . ink. M. of Villanueva del Fresno, 

&C. 1 16 Sep. 1860 

Charles O'Donnell cr. Marquess of Altamira . . 18 

1 See p. 81. 
232 






SPAIN 



2 33 



( Marchioness of the Baneza 
Lady Mary Stuart Fitzjames . ink. < Vctss. of the Palaces of Valduerna 

( Lady of the Banza ... 16 Sep. 1860 

Charles Pickman cr. Marquess of Pickman . . 24 Sep. 1872 

Francis Joseph Hugh Alex. Heaven cr. Count Ramirez of Arellano 17 Jul. 1903 



SPANISH NOBLES WHO HAVE BECOME BRITISH SUBJECTS 

Joseph de Bozas, Count of Castel- 

blanco cr. D. of Andrews [S.] ... 4 Feb. 1717 

Charles Victor, Marquess of Bucy [F.], 

Grandee of Spain naturalized 

Maria G. I. A., 4th Marchioness of 

Braceras by marriage 17 Oct. 1862 

Marshal Ramon Cabrera, Count of 

Morella and Marquess of the Terr naturalized 




RUSSIA 



TITLES were first introduced into Russia by the Czar Peter the Great. 
Originally Russia was divided into a great number of small principalities, 
which were all possessed by descendants of Ruric, the founder of the first 
Russian dynasty, and they formed the only Nobility ; but after the Grand 
Duke of Moscow, John III. [1440-1505], had thrown ofi the Tartar yoke 
and proclaimed himself Czar of All the Russias in 1547, he compelled the 
appanaged Princes of his house to cede their principalities and to accept 
instead private estates. To strip their collaterals, however, was not enough 
for the Moscow dynasty ; they foresaw that, to prevent their becoming rivals 
for the sovereignty in the future, they must confound them with the Moscow 
aristocracy, consisting of the Boyards and other officers of their own Court, 
and for this purpose two expedients were devised by John III. 1 A genea- 
logical register (rodoslovno'ia knega) was instituted, wherein were inscribed 
on a level with the princely houses the families of the Boyards of Moscow. 2 
This book was copied again under John IV. [1530-1584], two families, those 
of Adashefi and Guedemine, 3 being then added. The second measure went 
still further, for it decreed that henceforth rank was to be considered accord- 
ing to the dignity held by the father, grandfather, or ancestors of each noble, 
either at the court or in the army. This law, called Mestnichestvo, which 
remained in force until 1682, rendered the dignity of Boyard practically 
hereditary, and completed the fusion of the Princely and Boyard families. 
Under the Czar Theodore [1676-1682], elder brother of Peter the Great, the 
Mestnichestvo was abolished, 4 and, by the law of 12 January 1682 equal 
rights were bestowed on all Russian noblemen, without regard to their 
titular rank or origin. At the same time the ancient genealogical register 
was again copied for the last time, and, being bound in red velvet, came to 
be known as the Velvet Book (barhatnaw, knega). This " Golden " Book of 
the Russian Nobility, together with those which contain the names of the 
Nobles created since, is now preserved in the Heraldic Office of the Senate 
at St. Petersburg. At the time of the final copying, many of the great 
Boyard families who had risen since the reign of John IV., such as the 
Naryshkines, Apraxines, &c., endeavoured to have their names inscribed 
therein, but without success, notwithstanding their close relationship to the 
Romanofls, the then reigning dynasty. 5 Peter the Great [1689-1725], the 
brother and successor of Theodore, however, met this demand, as already 
stated, by introducing the custom of conferring the title of Prince, Count, 
and Baron. Before his reign the first had been confined exclusively to the 

1 Dolgorouky's Les Principles Families de la Russie. 

2 The Romanoffs, ancestors of the present dynasty, Scheremeteffs, Saltykoffs, Ples- 
cheieffs, Boutourlines, Sabouroffs, Samarines Kalycheffs, &c. 

3 Founder of the Lithuanian dynasty called the Jagiellos. 

4 On the day this law was abolished the minutes relating to the disputes about pre- 
cedence between the different families (but not their titles, as is sometimes erroneously 
stated) were burnt. Copies of these minutes, however, are still preserved in the archives 
of the Kremlin at Moscow. 

6 The reigning Czar Theodore had married Martha, a sister of the Boyard Peter 
Apraxine, one of those whose request was refused. He was afterwards (15 July 1707) 
cr. a Count. 

234 



RUSSIA 



235 



descendants of Kuric and Guedemine, and the two last were quite unknown. 
The first Kussians to bear the title of Count were Alexander Danilovitch 
Menschekov (Menshikoff), the Minister and favourite of the Czar Peter, 
and Admiral Field-Marshal Theodore Alexandrovitch Golovine, on whom 
the Emperor Leopold I. conferred the dignity of COUNTS OF THE HOLY 
ROMAN EMPIRE, 5/16 Nov. 1701. Menschekov was afterwards, 19/30 Jan. 1705, 
created by the same Sovereign a PRINCE OF THE HOLY ROMAN EMPIRE, 
and finally, on 30 May 1707, Peter the Great made him a PRINCE OF THE 
RUSSIAN EMPIRE by the style of PRINCE OF IJORA, and with the title of 
" Serene Highness " for himself and his descendants, he being the first 
Prince created in Russia. The first Russian Count was Field-Marshal Boris 
Scheremetefi, the descendant of a famous Boyard family, who was created 
in 1706, and the first Baron was the Vice-Chancellor Schafiroff, created in 
1717. 1 Peter I. also introduced armorial bearings into Russia, and 12 Jan. 
1722 established a House of Nobles, at the head of which he placed a Herald- 
Marshal, and he further decreed that all persons in the service of the State, 
who occupied a certain rank in the hierarchy, and all officers in the army 
and navy, without distinction, acquired by right hereditary Nobility. The 
Emperor Paul commenced an official Armory for inscribing the arms of the 
Nobility, and Catherine II. instituted in each province an Assembly of the 
Deputies of the Nobility, composed of a Deputy for each district and pre- 
sided over by a Marshal, called the Marshal of the Province, whose duty 
it was to keep a Book of six parts, in which were inscribed respectively : 
(1) Untitled Gentlemen ennobled by Diploma or Letters Patent; (2) the 
Military Nobility ; (3) the Civil Nobility ; (4) the Nobility of foreign origin 
and with foreign titles ; 2 (5) the Princes, Counts, and Barons created by 
Letters Patent; and (6) the ancient Princes and Nobles, whose ancestors 
were inscribed in the original Velvet Book. 

Although by the law of 1682 all Russian Nobles enjoy equal privileges, 
they are divided into five classes, viz. : (1) Princes ; (2) Counts ; (3) Barons ; 
(4) Gentlemen ennobled before the reign of Peter I. ; (5) Gentlemen ennobled 
since the reign of Peter I. 

As to the number of Nobles in Russia, the following figures are taken 
from the last edition (1859) of Prince Peter Dolgorouky's book. 





Existing. 


Extinct. 


Total. 


1. Princely Houses descended from Ruric .... 
2. Princely Houses descended from Guedemine . . 
3. Princely Houses of foreign origin recognised as 


41 
4 

11 


78 3 


119 
4 

11 


4 Princes created by Letters Patent 


16 


5 


21 


5. Counts 


64 


38 


102 


6 Barons 


9* 


9^ 


18 


7. Untitled families inscribed in Velvet Book . . . 
8. Foreign princely families resident in Russia . 
9 Counts of the Holy Roman Empire 


43 

9 
3 6 


4 


43 

9 

7 










Total 


200 


134 


334 











1 Dolgorouky. 

2 All Foreign Nobles are inscribed on the books of the Russian Nobility as untitled 
Nobles, but are allowed to use their titles. 

3 Of these 65 were extinct before the reign of Peter I. 

4 Dolgorouky has 8, as he includes Dimsdale as extinct. 

5 Four others are merged in counties. 

6 Viz. Golovine 1701, Zouboff 1793, and Markoff 1796. 



236 THE NOBILITIES OF EUROPE 

The Nobilities of Poland and Lithuania, Livonia, Courland, and Esthonia, 
Georgia, Astrakhan and of Crim-Tartary are now included in the Russian 
Empire, but will be treated of separately in future issues. 



RUSSIAN PEERAGES 

Annuaire de la Noblesse de Russie. St. Petersburg, 1889, 1892, and 1900. 

La Noblesse titree de V Empire de Russie, by Dr. R. J. Ermerin. Sorau, 
1892. 

Les Principales Families de la Russie, by Prince Peter Dolgorouky. 
2nd edition, Berlin, 1859. 



BRITONS ENNOBLED IN RUSSIA 

By the Emperor Peter I. 168928 Jan. 1725 

Field-Marshal James [Wilimovitch] 

Bruce .......... cr. Count of Bruce .... 18 Feb. 1721 

By the Empress Anne. 31 Jan. 173029 Oct. 1740 

Major-Gen. Alexander [Romano - 

vitch] Bruce ....... cr. Count of Bruce .... 29 Mar. 1740 

Field-Marshal Peter Lacy .... rec. Count of Lacy .... 4 Nov. 1740 

By the Empress Elizabeth. 6 Dec. 1741 5 Jan. 1762 

Gen. William Fermor ..... rec. Count Fermor . . . .12 Jun. 1758 
Capt. Count John O'Rourke . . . rec. Count O'Rourke .... 15 Feb. 1760 
Capt. Count Cornelius O'Rourke . rec. Count O'Rourke .... 15 Feb. 1760 

By the Empress Catherine II. 14 July 176217 Nov. 1796 

Thomas Dimsdale, M.D ..... cr. Hon. Baron Dimsdale . .13 Feb. 1769 

Nathaniel Dimsdale ...... cr. Hon. Baron Dimsdale . . 13 Feb. 1769 

Robert Rutherford ...... cr. Baron Rutherford ... 6 Feb. 1777 

Richard Sutherland ...... cr. Baron Sutherland ... 7 Jul. 1788 

By the Emperor Alexander I. 24 Mar. 18011 Dec. 1825 

Michael Barclay, Field-Marshal . . cr. Count Barclay of Tolly . 23 May 1813 
Michael Barclay, Field-Marshal . . cr. Prince Barclay of Tolly . 30 Aug. 1815 
Sir James Wylie, 1st Bt. [U.K.], P.C. rec. Baronet ...... 2 Feb. 1824 

By the Emperor Nicholas I. 1 Dec. 18252 Mar. 1855 
George William Barclay . ^ 



...... ">- * 

John Barclay ........ J 

George Raynal Reginald von Laudon cr. Baron von Laudon ... 15 Nov. 1854 

By the Emperor Alexander III. 13 Mar. 18811 Nov. 1894 
Baron Alexander Stuart . rec. Baron Stuart . , 16 Feb. 1894 



FINLAND 



THE Finnish Nobility may be said to date from the establishment of 
the Grand Duchy of Finland under the Czar Alexander I. in 1809. Before 
that date there was no distinct Finnish nobility, the country being part 
of Sweden and the representatives of the four Estates of the province 
attending the Swedish Parliament in Stockholm. After the separation, the 
seat of government, as far as Finland was concerned, was of course removed 
from Stockholm, and one of the first Acts of the Emperor- Grand-Duke 
Alexander was to summon a Diet to meet at Borga 13/25 March 1809, 
and two days later he signed the Act of Assurance by which he guaranteed 
to observe the Constitution established by the Form of Government of 
21 Aug. 1772, modified by the Acts of Union and Security of 21 Feb. and 
3 Apr. 1789. The Diet formerly consisted of the Nobles and representatives 
of the Clergy, Burgesses, and Peasants, who each met in a House of their 
own, but by the Constitution of 20 July 1906, a single Chamber of 200 
deputies, elected by direct and proportional suffrage, has been substituted ; 
and though the Riddarhus still exists, its only remaining function is now 
to apportion the pensions from its funds to the poorer members of those 
families inscribed on the Rolls. Seventy Nobles attended the Diet of Borga, 
and the Finnish House of Lords or College of Nobles was composed of the 
heads of those families who had been inscribed on the Rolls of the House 
since 1818, when the House was formally constituted. 1 The total number 
of Peers in that year was 187, consisting of 2 Counts, 22 Barons, and 163 
untitled Nobles. By 1897 the number of families inscribed on the roll had 
increased to 344 (1 Prince, 11 Counts, 61 Barons, and 271 untitled Nobles), 
and in 1900 it stood at 348, viz. 1 Prince, 11 Counts, 62 Barons, and 274 
untitled Nobles. Of these, however, a number had become extinct, and a 
writer in 1894 2 says that the number of Peers then existing was only 237, 
of whom 7 were Counts and 50 Barons. Originally confined to landed 
proprietors and a few soldiers and government officials, the Peers now 
include men of science, journalists, successful business men, and others 
who, as in Britain, have been ennobled by their Sovereigns. Only the head 
of the family has the right to a seat in the College of Nobles, although in 
certain cases he can be represented by the next member of his family in 
the order of primogeniture, or by a member of another Noble house, to 
whom he may delegate his right by power of attorney. 3 The title of Count 

1 Professor Otto Donner, of the University of Helsingfors, to whom the Editor is much 
indebted for his kind assistance, writes : "After the meeting of the Diet at Borga 1809, 
the intention was to summon the Estates from time to time. As a consequence of this 
intention, the Finnish College of Nobles (Riddarhus) was founded in 1818, in order to 
ascertain which families had a right to be represented among the Nobility in the Diet. 
Due to political considerations in Russia, however, the Finnish Diet was not summoned 
again till 1863, and the result of that was that several families who had previously been 
ennobled did not seek registration, especially as such registration entailed no inconsiderable 
costs. This is probably also the explanation why neither the third branch of the Forbes 
family (see my Sketch of the Scottish Families, p. 10), nor the celebrated Ross family 
(p. 37), which was nobilized in 1819, applied for immatriculation on the Rolls." 

2 Mechelin's Finland in the Nineteenth Century (1894), p. 110. 3 Ibid. 

237 



238 



THE NOBILITIES OF EUROPE 



and Baron is frequently borne by all the male descendants of the grantee 
and their children, according to the remainder with which the title was 
created, but daughters cannot transmit the title to their children, Finnish 
titles never descending through females. The population of Finland in 
1903 was 2,851,000. 



FINNISH PEERAGE 



Storfurslendomet Finlands Ridderskaps och Adels Kalender. Edited by 
Oscar Wasastjerna. Helsingfors : published annually since 1897. 1 



BRITISH FAMILIES ENNOBLED IN FINLAND 2 



Name. 

Otto Magnus Forbes 

Frederic Adolph Ramsay .... 

Baron Gustave Raynal of Klercker 

Johan Conrad Pistolekors (originally 
Scott) 

Frederic William Lagerborg (origi- 
nally Scragge) 

Carl Georg Montgomery .... 

Georg Detlof Wright 

Herman Ross 3 

Frederic Wilhelm Fraser .... 

Gen. Anders Edvard Ramsay . . 



Title. No. 

enrolled 11. 

enrolled . 17. 



cr. Baron of Klercker 



22. 



Date. 

17 Sep. 1818 
7 Feb. 1818 
(25 Jan. 



\/6 Feb. 1818 

enrolled 30. 29 Jan. 1818 

enrolled 105. 26 Jan. 1818 

enrolled 134. 28 Jan. 1818 

enrolled 149. 26 Jan. 1818 

ennobled 1819 

enrolled 59. 12 Jan. 1820 

Baron Ramsay . . 40. 7 Sep. 1856 



1 See also Der Adel Schwedens (und Finlands), by Professor P. E. Fahlbeck (Jena, 
1903), and the same author's Sveriges Adel, ii. 61-73. 

2 For these particulars the Editor has to thank Mr. Oscar Wasastjerna, Genealogist to 
the Riddarhus, and Editor of Finlands Ridderskaps. 

3 See p. 237, note 1. 



PORTUGAL AND THE PORTUGUESE 

NOBILITY 1 



THE Nobility of Portugal consists of Dukes, Marquesses, Counts, Viscounts, 
and Barons : the first three titles carry with them the rank of Grandee of 
the Kingdom, but Viscounts and Barons are only Grandees if specially 
created as such. 

In olden times the only title was that of Rico Homem, which means 
" powerful and great." This celebrated dignity is first heard of in Spain 
in the times of the Gothic Kings, and at first seems to have been used 
to designate the members of the Royal House, but was afterwards extended 
to those who distinguished themselves in war. From the Gothic Kings 
it passed to the Kings of Portugal, Castile, and Aragon. They ranked 
next to the King, and had so many prerogatives that the Kings did not 
take any action without first consulting them. The dignity was conferred 
with great ceremony, the grantee being invested with a banner and a 
kettle the banner indicating their authority to raise soldiers on their 
lands, and the kettle their ability to keep them. Among them, some were 
distinguished as Ricos Homens de Sangue, but they all equally enjoyed 
the privilege of Grandeeship, which consisted of remaining covered, and of 
sitting in the presence of the King ; and it gradually became the custom for 
the wives to assume the dignity of their husbands, and to be designated 
Ricas Donas, and for daughters in the absence of sons to succeed to the 
title of Rica Dona. 

There was also another dignity, that of Infancao, but whether higher 
or inferior to Rico Homem is a disputed point. Some writers consider 
the dignity so high, as only to belong to the grandchildren of the 
Kings that is, to the children of the Infantes ; but as there are instances 
of the dignity of Rico Homem being conferred on Infancaos, this seems 
improbable, and it seems possible that it was a title borne by the second 
sons of the Ricos H omens. z 

The title of Rico Homem disappears after the reign of Alphonso V. The 
last recorded creation is that of Nuno Martins da Sylveira, Escrivad da 
Puridade and Coudel Mor to that King 1 July 145 1. 3 Alphonso and his 
immediate successors endeavoured to bring the Nobility more under their 
power by appointing them officers of the Royal Household, and accordingly 
divided the Nobility into two orders, each consisting of three degrees. The 
first order consisted of Mo$o Fidalgos, Fidalgos Escudeiro, and Fidalgo 
Cavalleiro; the second of the Escudeiro Fidalgos, Moco da Camara, and 
Cavalleiro Fidalgos. A small pension was attached to each. 

1 The Editor is greatly indebted to Mr. T. Glas Sandeman for the loan of his valuable 
collection of Portuguese 'heraldic and genealogical works, without which the preparation 
of this article would have been impossible. 

2 De Sousa's Memorias dos Grandes de Portugal, p. xiii. 

3 Ibid., p. xiv. 

239 



240 THE NOBILITIES OF EUROPE 

Of the modern titles of Nobility, that of Count was for a long time the 
only one known in Portugal, and it first occurs in 1298 (1336 era) King 
Denis, by a charter dated at Santaren 8th May that year, conferring the 
dignity with the County of Barcellos on Dom AfEonso Sanches. The con- 
nection of King John I. with the Crown of England led him to imitate 
Edward III., and he conferred the title of Duke on his sons, the Infantes Dom 
Pedro and Dom Enriques, creating the first Duke of Coimbra and the second 
of Vizeu in the year 1415, in commemoration of the glorious expedition to 
Ceuta. His grandson, King Alphonso V., created his uncle, the Senhor Dom 
Afionso, Duke of Braganza 30 Dec. 1442, and his brother, the Infante Dom 
Fernando, Duke of Beja in 1452. The title of Marquess first occurs in 1451, 
in which year the same King conferred the title of Marquess of Valentia on 
the son and the heir apparent of the Duke of Braganza. All these titles carry 
with them the right of Grandee, and the sons and daughters of Dukes by 
charter of Alphonso V. had the same rank attached, which was also con- 
ferred by him on the Grand Priors of the Crato of the Order of Malta, and 
on the Archbishops and Bishops of the Kingdom and Colonies (das Con- 
quistas), as also on the titular Bishops without dioceses who were appointed 
by the King. King John V., by a decree of 17 Feb. 1717, conceded the 
Patriarch of Lisbon the same honour and prerogatives, which were also con- 
ceded to the Cardinals, &C. 1 

Titles in Portugal were never hereditary in the same sense as in England, 
Spain, &c. 2 They are now generally conferred for life only, though a few 
are still occasionally granted for two or three lives, but each successor, even 
in the cases of those titles originally granted de jure e herdade, has to obtain 
verification before he can take up the title, much in the same manner that 
an English Peer has to obtain his writ of summons before taking his seat in 
the House of Lords. Formerly all titles carried with them a grant from the 
Eoyal Treasury called Assintamentos, and this made the Kings very careful 
in conferring titles, and doubtless accounts for the very small number created 
by the early Sovereigns. The total number of creations up to June 1890 
appears to have been 1268, 3 of which number nearly two- thirds, viz. 805, 
were conferred by Queen Mary II. and her son, the late King Louis ; 573 
were still existing at that date; 4 112 were merged in, or united with, other 
titles ; and 583 were extinct. 

The following Table, p. 241, shows at a glance the number of titles con- 
ferred by each sovereign, and the relative antiquity of those now existing : 

1 It was this same King John V. who, by an Alvara dated 8th July 1736, created 
three Secretaries of State, appointing Pedro da Mota e Sylva, who had been Ambassador 
at Rome, Secretary of State for the Kingdom ; Antonio Guedes Pereira, Ambassador at 
Madrid, Secretary of State for the Navy and Colonies (da MarinJia e Conquistas) ; and 
Marco Antonio de Azevedo Coutinho, previously Ambassador in England, Secretary of 
State for Foreign Affairs and War (dos negocios Estrangeiros e da Guerra). 

2 The absence of the hereditary principle has prevented that accumulation of titles in 
one family which has been such an abuse in Spain. When two titled families became 
united by a marriage, the heir generally obtained renewal of the older title and the other 
was allowed to lapse, though in some cases it was renewed to a younger son. 

3 This does not, of course, include renewals, provided such renewals were in favour 
of the heir who would have succeeded had the title been hereditary. Titles originally 
granted for life were, as a fact, constantly renewed generation after generation to the 
successive heirs of the original grantee, but such renewals are not here reckoned as new 
creations. 

4 Only 57 of these dated from pre-Revolution days. The great majority of the old 
nobility adhered to Don Miguel, and their heirs refusing to apply to the existing govern- 
ment for the necessary verification on succession, most of the older titles have become 
extinct, or rather dormant. 



PORTUGUESE NOBILITY 



241 



TABLE OF PORTUGUESE TITLES 

SHOWING THE NUMBER CONFERRED BY EACH SOVEREIGN, ETC. 



OVEREIGNS. 


DUKES. 


MARQUESSES. 


COUNTS. 


VISCOUNTS. 


BARONS. 


Total Number Created 
in each Reign. 


1 
M 


i 

i 


n 

a 

i 


1 


Existing. 


I 


Extinct. 
Total. 


Existing. 


Merged. 


Extinct. 


1 


Existing. 


1 


Extinct. 


I 


Existing. 


f 


Extinct. 


1 


,1279-1325 . . 
I., 1357-1367 . . 




















4 
1 
8 
1 


4 
1 
8 
1 
4 






















4 
1 
8 
2 
6 
34 
5 
10 
12 
1 
1 
10 
16 
23 
17 
26 
5 
15 
18 
81 
68 
72 

266 
80 
539 
13 


















land I., 1367-1383 
ce, 1383-1385 . . 
.,1385-1433 . . 
nsoV., 1438-1481 
[I 1481 1495 . 


1 





i 

2 

2 

1 


1 
2 
3 
1 























































4 



















1 


1 
2 
1 


3 
1 

2 
1 


1 
1 
1 
1 


1 

1 

1 


24 
2 
7 
4 

1 

8 
10 
11 

q 

10 
3 
5 


26 
3 
8 
6 
1 
1 
9 
12 
16 
10 
14 
4 






1 


1 




1 





1 


inuel I., 1495-1521 
[II., 1521-1567 . 
ian 1567-1578 . 
























1 


4 


5 







































II 1578-1580 . 


































I., 1580-1598 . . 
II., 1598-1621 . 
III., 1621-1640 ^ 
tV., 1640-1656 . 
nsoVI.,1656-1683 
II 1683-1706 




.. 


1 
4 


1 
4 










1 

2 
1 


" 

1 

2 









































1 


2 


1 

2 


2 


i 


6 
4 
5 
1 
3 
2 
5 
2 


6 

4 
8 
1 
7 
5 
12 
4 
















1 

11 .. 


2 


1 

3 




1 




1 


7., 1706-1750 . . 
i 1750-1776 . . 







2 


2 


3 
3 
4 
1 


3 
1 


1 










1 


1 


6 
5 

7 


1 

6 

4 


4 
14 
11 
5 

9 

3 
17 


11 
25 
22 
5 
35 
7 
81 
4 








9 






I., 1776-1816 . . 
fl., 1816-1826 . 


1 





2 


3 


5 
5 

24 
20 
227 
6 


2 

1 

10 
3 
23 


13 
13 
1 
49 
21 
59 


20 
19 
1 

83 
44 
309 
6 


4 

36 
6 

88 
1 


2 

8 
2 
15 


19 
19 
1 
88 
17 
35 


21 
23 
1 
132 
25 
138 
1 


el I., 1828-1833 . 
I., 1826-8, 1833-53 
V., 1853-1861 . . 








.. .. 

4 i .. 


2 
1 

1 


6 
1 
3 
1 


3 

5 
1 


1 


6 10 

3 ! 3 

1 
3 | 8 

.. 1 


21 
4 
63 
4 


5 

" 
1 


.,1861-1889 . . 
s I., 1889 to June 

Is existing . . 


1 




9 




22 








119 








im 








1?") 








573 
112 
583 
1268 


2 




8 


4fi 






33 








40 








?9 






extinct . . . 
d Totals . . . 




. 25 


171 








161 


489 


.. 


.. 


180 


344 


36 




.. .. 


76 








323 







ag Philip created 5 Dukes, 7 Marquesses, and 10 Counts after the Revolution of December 1640, but these titles 
recognised in Portugal, 
ese figures do not include those titles conferred by this King in exile. 



242 THE NOBILITIES OF EUROPE 

The sons and daughters of Portuguese Nobles have no title, 1 except that 
of Dom or Donna, before their Christian names, but this designation, like 
that of Esquire in England, has long since lost its former significance. 

The question of precedence was first regulated by the Cortes which 
assembled at Coimbra in 1472, when it was settled according to the relation- 
ship of each noble to the King, those related through males taking pre- 
cedence of those through females. Under John III., however, it was settled 
(29 June 1556) that all precedence should be according to the antiquity of 
the title alone ; but Alphonso VI. enacted (24 Apr. 1657) that those nobles to 
whom the King gave the honour of Eelationship (Honra de Parentes) should 
have a decree (Alvara) granting them special precedence. 

In the old Cortes the Nobles sat with the clergy and the representatives 
of the cities, &c. ; but the Constitutional Charter of 29 Apr. 1826, granted by 
Peter IV., provided for a hereditary HOUSE OF PEERS, of whom the first 
members were to be nominated by the King. The dignity of a Peer of the 
Realm was not, however, as in England, attached to a title, but was a 
separate dignity, and was not necessarily conferred on the holder of one ; 
indeed, as Peerages were hereditary, while titles were not, it constantly 
happened that a son succeeded to his father's Peerage without having renewal 
of his title, 2 but he could not take his seat until he had proved that he had 
taken certain degrees at one of the Universities, and paid so much in taxes. 
The Constitutional Charter of 1826, though modified 3 July 1852, and again 
23 Nov. 1859, remained in force until 1885 ; but by the Charter of 24 July 
that year it was enacted that all hereditary Peerages should cease, except 
in the case of Princes of the Blood, with the present holders, and that when 
all the hereditary Peerages had thus lapsed, the House of Peers should be 
composed of (1) the Princes of the Blood ; (2) the twelve Bishops of the 
Continental Dioceses ; (3) a hundred legislative Peers, appointed by the 
King for life, and (4) fifty elected every new Parliament by the Deputies of 
the Lower House. A further modification occurred 25 Sep. 1895, when 
the elective branch was abolished, and the number of life Peers was re- 
duced to ninety. 



PORTUGUESE PEERAGES, ETC. 

Historia Genealogica da Casa Real Portuguesa, by Antonio Caetano de 
Sousa. 19 vols. in 20. Lisbon, 1735-49. 

Memorias H^storicas e Genealogicas dos Grandes de Portugal, &c. . . . atj 
o anno de 1754, by D. Antonio Caetano de Sousa, C.R. 2nd edition. 
Lisbon, 1755. 

Resenha das Familias Titulares do Reino de Portugal, acompanhada das 
Ncticias Biographicas de Alguns individuos das mesmas familias. Lisbon, 1838. 

Memorias Historico Genealogicas dos Duques Portuguezes do Seculo XIX., 
published by the Royal Academy of Sciences of Lisbon. 1883. 

Resenha das Familias Titulares e Grandes de Portugal, by Albano da 
Silveira Pinto, continued by the Viscount de Sanches de Baena, K.M., &c. 
Lisbon, 1880-1890. 

1 If the family possessed a second title, the eldest son generally obtained renewal of 
it during his father's lifetime. 

2 By a decree of 28 Sep. 1835 the Honours of a Grandee of the Realm were conceded 
to each Peer who chose to apply for the same. The Viscount of Porto Covo de Bandeira 
(1825) and Sebastiao Xavier Botelho [grandson and h. of the 4th and last Count of St. 
Michael (1633)] were the first to take advantage of this decree being both made Grandees 
10 June 1837. 



PORTUGUESE NOBILITY 



243 



BRITONS ENNOBLED IN PORTUGAL 



By Queen Mary I. 

Arthur, 1st D. of Wellington [U.K.] 
Gen. Sir William Carr Beresford 
Arthur, 1st D. of Wellington [U.K.] 
Arthur, 1st D. of Wellington [U.K.] 
Gen. Sir William Carr Beresford 



24 Feb. 177720 Mar. 1816 

cr. Count of Vimieira . . . 
cr. Count of Trancoso . . . 
cr. Marquess of Torres Vedras 
cr. Duke of the Victory ... 
cr. Marquess of Campo Mayor 



13 May 1811 
13 May 1811 
27 Dec. 
17 Dec. 
17 Dec. 



1811 
1812 
1812 



By King John VI. 20 Mar. 181610 Mar. 1826 

John Anthony Salter-de-Mendonga . 
Sir Edward Thornton, P.C., G.C.B. . 
John William Hyde de Neuville 
Charles, Lord Stuart de Rothesay . 



cr. Viscount of Azurara 

cr. Count of Cassilhas 

cr. Count of Bemposta 

cr. Count of Machico 



13 May 1819 
13 May 1824 
13 May 1824 
22 Nov. 1825 



By King Peter IV. (on behalf of his daughter). 10 Mar. 18262 May 1826 
Charles, Lord Stuart de Rothesay . cr. Marquess of Angra ... 1 May 1826 



By Queen Mary II. 

Adm. Sir Charles Napier .... 
Lieut. -Gen. Thomas William Stubbs 
Adm. Sir Charles Napier .... 
Lieut. -Gen. Thomas William Stubbs 
John William Hyde de Neuville . 
Adm. Sir George Rose Sartorius . 
Ermelinda de Almeida, nee Allen . 
Adm. Sir Charles Napier .... 
Adm. Sir George Rose Sartorius . 
Sir Isaac Lyon Goldsmid, Bt. 
Adm. Sir George Rose Sartorius . 



22 Sep. 183315 Nov. 1853 

cr. Vise, of Cape St. Vincent . 10 Jul. 1833 

cr. B. of Villa Nova de Gaia . 18 Dec. 1833 

cr. Count of Cape St. Vincent 17 Apr. 1834 

cr. V. of Villa Nova de Gaia . 20 May 1835 

cr. Marquess of Bemposta . .11 Jul. 1835 

cr. Viscount of Piedade ... 1 Dec. 1836 

cr. Baroness of Regaleira . . 7 Nov. 1840 

cr. Count Napier of St. Vincent 7 Dec. 1842 

cr. Viscount of Mindello . . 8 Jul. 1845 

cr. Baron Goldsmid of Palmeira 4 Nov. 1845 

cr. Count of Penhafirme . .19 Aug. 1853 



By King Peter V. 15 Nov. 185311 Nov. 1861 



Sir John Croft, Bt 

Ermelinda de Almeida, nee Allen 
Joseph James Forrester 

Henry Bliss 

Denis Samuel 

Russell Manners Gordon 



Ralph Erlanger 



cr. B. of the Serra de Estrella 
cr. Viscountess of Regaleira . 
cr. Baron Forrester .... 

cr. Baron Bliss 

cr. Baron Diniz Samuel . 
j.u. Viscount of Torre Bella 

(1812) 

cr. Baron Erlanger .... 



14 Dec. 1853 

15 Apr. 1854 
25 Apr. 1855 

6Jun. 1855 

14 Sep. 1855 

15 Sep. 1857 
13 Sep. 1859 



By King Louis I. 11 Nov. 186119 Oct. 1889 



( ) Stern 

Frank Denis Samuel 

Herman Stern 

Alfred Allen 

James Mason 

John Knowles 

Col. Hugh Owen 

James Mason 

David, 2nd Baron Stern ( 1864) . 

Sir Francis Cook, Bt 

John Smith Athelstone .... 

George Croft 

Joseph Street 

Joachim Mendes Nautel 
Capt. John Moore Cole Airey, R.N. 
John Alexander Fladgate . . . 
Henry, Baron Bliss ( 1855) . . . 
Henry Louis Bischoffsheim 
Joseph Charles Alkain .... 
Henry Emanuel 



cr. Baron Stern 29 Jul. 1864 

cr. Baron Samuel Vahl ... 10 May 1865 

cr. Baron Stern 15 May 1865 

cr. Viscount of Villar d' Allen . 13 Jan. 1866 

cr. Baron of Pomarao ... 24 Jan. 1866 

cr. Baron Knowles .... 15 Feb. 1866 

cr. B. of the Torre de Pero Palha 12 Aug. 1866 

cr. Vise. Mason of St. Domingo 7 Dec. 1868 

cr. Viscount Stern .... 17 Jan. 1870 

cr. Viscount of Montserrat . 7 Jun. 1870 

cr. Count of Carnota ... 9 Aug. 1870 

cr. Viscount of Graca ... 25 Aug. 1870 

cr. Viscount of Carnide . . . 17 May 1871 

cr. Viscount of Messines . . 7 Mar. 1872 

cr. Viscount Airey .... 25 Apr. 1872 

cr. Baron Roeda ..... 9 Oct. 1872 

cr. Baron Barreto .... 3 Jul. 1873 

cr. Viscount Bischoffsheim . 18 Dec. 1873 

cr. Viscount of Castello-Alvo . 6 Aug. 1874 

cr. Baron AlmSda .... 22 Apr. 1875 



244 THE NOBILITIES OF EUROPE 

Sir Francis Tress Barry, Bt. . . . cr. Viscount Barry .... 23 Nov. 1876 

Henry O'Neill cr. Viscount of St. Monica . . 28 Dec. 1876 

Richard Forster cr. Baron Forster 3 Oct. 1878 

William Glas Sandeman . . . . cr. Baron Sandeman .... 8 Mar. 1883 

John Scott Ho worth cr. Baron Howorth of Sacaven 16 Jul. 1885 

Joseph Zuzarte Wrera cr. Viscount Wrem .... 7 Dec. 1888 

By King Charles I. 19 Oct. 18891 Feb. 1908 

Alan Danvers cr. Baron Danvers .... 6 Apr. 1893 

Russell Manners Gordon, j.u. Visct. 

of Torre Bella (1812) cr. Count of Torre Bella . . 

Peter Alexander Cameron Mackenzie cr. Viscount of Serra Largo . 14 Jan. 1894 

Walter Radcliffe Horncastle . . . cr. Viscount Horncastle . . 14 Dec. 1895 

P. A. C. (Mackenzie), V. Serra Largo cr. Count of Serra Largo . . 11 Jan. 1896 

Alfred Wilby Tait cr. Baron Soutellinho ... 11 Jun. 1896 

Major-Gen. Euston Henry Sartorius cr. Count of Penhafirme . . 20 Jun. 1903 

Violet Hoffnung, nee Goldsmid . . cr. Vctess. Goldsmid of Palmeira 18 Feb. 1906 

( ) Duff cr. Viscount Champalinand-Duff 

Andrew Vincent Patterson . . . cr. Baron Patterson .... 23 May 1907 



CHRONOLOGICAL TABLE OF PORTUGUESE TITLES 1 

By King Denis. 20 Mar. 12797 Jan. 1325 

8 May 1298. COUNT OF BARCELLOS (CONDE DE BARCELLOS), Affonso Sanches. 

Revived 15 Oct. 1304. 

15 Oct. 1304. COUNT OF BARCELLOS ( CONDE DE BARCELLOS), Dom Martim Gil de 
Sousa, uncle of King Alphonso IV. Revived 1 Mar. 1314. 

1 Mar. 1314. COUNT OF BARCELLOS (CONDE DE BARCELLOS), Dom Pedro Affonso, 
natural son of King Denis. Revived 10 Oct. 1357. 

7 May 1318. COUNT OF ALBUQUERQUE (CONDE DE ALBUQUERCQUE), Affonso 
Sanches, natural son of King Denis. He m. Dona Thereza, da. of 
Dom Joao Affonso de Menezes, Rico-homen, Count of Barcellos and 
Lord of Albuquerque, and d. 1326. His descendants settled in Castile. 

By King Peter I. May 1357 8 Jan. 1367 

10 Oct. 1357. COUNT OF BARCELLOS (CONDE DE BARCELLOS), Dom Joao Affonso, 
Standard-Bearer (Alferes-m6r) of Portugal. Revived 12 July 1371. 

By King Ferdinand. 8 Jan. 136729 Oct. 1383. 

5 Jan. 1370. COUNT OF OUREM (CONDE DE OUREM), Dom Joao Affonso, by charter 
dated at Santarem. 

1 Jun. 1371. COUNT OF VIANNA DA Foz DO LIMA [? or Viana de Caminha] (CONDE 
DE VIANA DA Foz DO LIMA), Dom Alvaro Pirez de Castro, 1st Con- 
stable of Portugal [brother of the Queen Dona Ignez de Castro], 
"em sua vida." He was afterwards (before 9 July 1377) cr. Count 
of Arrayoles (see that title), and d. before 1384, when his honours 
became extinct. His grandson Dom Alvaro Pires de Castro was 
21 May 1460 cr. Count of Monsanto. 

12 Jul. 1371. COUNT OF BARCELLOS (CONDE DE BARCELLOS), Dom Joao Affonso 
Tello de Menezes, 1st Count of Ourem (1370), Grande Valedo to King 

1 De Sousa (Mem. Hist, e Gen. dos Grandes de Portugal, p. 711) enumerates the 
following feudal Counts mentioned in early times, who, however, were more in the nature 
of Governors of provinces: "Don Henrique, Conde de Portugal, D. Martim Ponce, D. 
Mendo, conde chamado de Sousao, D. Payo Meniz, no tempo de El Key Sancho I., D. 
Rodrigo Forjaz, Tronco de Pereiras, Don Sizinando, que governou de Coimbra [a renegade 
Arab Wazir made Count of Coimbra by Garcia, King of Galicia, 1065], D. Sueiro Mendes, 
no tempo de El Key D. Sancho I. e outros." Nuno Mendes was made Count of Oporto 
by the King of Galicia 1068. 



PORTUGUESE NOBILITY 



245 



Peter I. He d. 1381, leaving a son and heir, who was cr. Count of 
Viana a. 1439. Revived 8 Oct. 1385. 

31 Jul. 1375. COUNT OF NEIVA AND FARIA (CONDE DE NEIVA E FABIA), Dom 
Gonc,alo Telles de Menezes, 1st Senhor de Cantanhede [younger 
brother of the 1st Count of Barcellos (1371) and Mayorga], by charter 
dated at Santarem. All his estates were afterwards declared for- 
feited to the Crown, and the titles were incorporated in the House 
of Braganza, in which they have since continued. His descendant, 
the 7th Senhor de Cantanhede, was cr. Count 1479. 
c. 137-. COUNT OF CEA or CEYA AND CINTRA (CONDE DE CEA E CINTRA), Dom 

Henrique Manoel de Vilhena. Extinct. 

a. 9 Jul. 1377. COUNT OF ARRAYOLES (CONDE DE ARRAYOLES), Dom Alvaro Pirez de 
Castro, 1st Count of Vianna (1371) and Constable of Portugal. The 
exact date of the creation of this title, sometimes given as 1 July 
1371, is not known. Dom Alvaro had a grant of the land of Arrayoles 
and Pavia from King Ferdinand 4 Nov. 1371, but no mention of any 
title occurs in this charter, but in a subsequent one, dated at 
Santarem 9 July 1377, granting him the castle of Coimbra, he is 
expressly styled Count of Arrayoles. He afterwards had a grant of 
the town of that name 5 May 1384. He was apparently dead before 
the following 30 Aug. 1384, when Arrayoles was granted to Fernando 
Alvares Pereira. 

1381. COUNT OF OUREM (CONDE DE OUREM), Joao Fernandes Pereira. 
Revived 20 Aug. 1385. 

13 . COUNT OF GIJON (CONDE DE GIJON), ( ) Noronha. Extinct. 

By Queen Beatrice [Consort of John I. of Castile]. 29 Oct. 13836 Apr. 1385. 

c. 1384. COUNT OF MAYORGA (CONDE DE MAYORGA), Dom Joao Affonso Tello 
de Menezes, Count of Ourem (1370) and Barcellos (1371) by John, 
King of Castile, " quando se passou aquelle Reyno." 

1387. DUKE OF VALE^A DE CAMPOS (DUQUE DE VALE^A DE CAMPOS), 
Infant Dom Joao, 2nd surv. son of King Peter I. by the King of 
Castile after his wife's expulsion from Portugal. 

By King John I. 6 Apr. 138514 Aug. 1433 

20 Aug. 1385. COUNT OF OUREM ( CONDE DE OUREM), Dom Nuno Alvares Pereira, 
Constable of Portugal. He was afterwards (8 Oct. following) cr. 
Count of Barcellos. See that title. 

30 Aug. 1385. COUNT OF ARRAYOLES (CONDE DE ARRAYOLES), Fernando Alvares 
Pereira, brother of the Constable, to whom the County was granted 
on his death. 

8 Oct. 1385. COUNT OF BARCELLOS (CONDE DE BARCELLOS), Dom Nuno Alvares 
Pereira, 1st Count of Ourem (1385), Constable of Portugal. On his 
brother's death he had a grant of the County of Arrayoles, whereby 
he became apparently 3rd Count. 1 He d. s.p.m., and his only da. 
and h., Dona Beatrix, 4th Countess of Arrayoles and 2nd Countess 
of Barcellos and Ourem, m. Dom Affonso of Portugal, natural son 
of King John I., afterwards (30 Dec. 1442) 1st Duke of Braganza, 
in which title those of Barcellos, Arrayoles, and Ourem have since 
continued merged, being now vested in the King of Portugal. By 
a charter dated at Lisbon 4 June 1449, King Alphonso V. renewed 
the title de jure e herdade, and decreed that the Dukes (or Duchesses) 
of Braganza should be styled Count (or Countess) of Barcellos from 
birth : " A quantos esta carta virem fazemos saber que consirando nos 
o grande diuido que com nosco ha dom Affonso filho d'el-rey dom Joham 
meu avoo da gloriosa memoria meu muyto amado e presado tio duque de 
braganqa e conde de barcellos e sua bomdade e lealdade e os muytos e 
grandes servifos que nos feito tern e a nosos Reynos E ao diante esperamos 
aveer dell e de seus deqemdemtes Receber querando Ihe galardoar em 
alguma parte co mereece como a aboo Rey e altros primcepes pertence 
fazer a semelhantes pessoas de nosso moto proprio poder absoluto que nos 
Deus deu queremos E outorgamos-lhe deste dia para para todo sempre 

1 See p. 247, note 4. 



246 



THE NOBILITIES OF EUROPE 



por memoria delle que aquelle que delle decemder que herdeyro for em suas 
terras tanto que o dito men tio deste mundo falecer loguo sem mais outra 
solenidade nem cerimonia seia e se chame duque de braganca e conde 
de barcellos E assy dhy em diante tamto que o decemdente do dito meu 
tio quo o dito ducado e comdado tiver se finar logo o sen filho mayor que 
esto soceder seia E se chame duque e conde como dito he e vindo o caso 
que Deus defenda que hy nom aja baram sen decemdente a nos praz que 
a filha decendemte delle que sobceder as ditas terras segundo a forma 
de suas doacoes seja duquesa e comdessa dellas pella deta guisa Em 
testemunho dello Ihe mandamos dar esta nossa carta asynada per nos e 
assellada do nosso sello de chumbo damte a nossa muy nobre e sempre 
leal cidade de Lixboa," &C., 1 and Dom Joao, son and h. app. of the 
5th Duke of Braganza, was 4 Aug. 1562 cr. by King Sebastian Duke 
of Barcellos. See that date. 

8 Nov. 1401. COUNT OF FARIA AND NEIVA (CONDE DE FARIA E NEIVA), Dom 
Affonso of Portugal, Count of Barcellos (1385), &c. He was cr. Duke 
of Braganza 1442, in which title the Counties have continued merged, 
being now vested in the Royal House. 

1415. DUKE OF VIZEU (DUQUE DE VIZEU), the Infante Dom Henrique, 
Grand Master of the Order of Christ, 2nd son of King John I. He 
was a K.G., and d. s.p. 13 Nov. 1460. He had adopted for h. his 
nephew the Infant Dom Fernando, 1st Duke of Beja (1457) [2nd son 
of King Edward], who accordingly became 2nd Duke of Vizeu. He 
was 5th Constable of Portugal and d. 8 Sep. 1470, being sue. by his 
son Senhor Dom Joao, 3rd Duke of Vizeu, 2nd Duke of Beja, and 
6th Constable, who d. s.p. 1472 and was sue. by his next brother 
Senhor Dom Diogo, 4th Duke, &c. He was slain s.p.l. 2 by his brother- 
in-law, King John II., 22 Aug. 1482, when his honours devolved on 
his yst. brother, Dom Manoel, 5th Duke, who became King 25 Oct. 
1495. The Beja title was revived 5 Aug. 1527. 

4/11 Sep. 14 15. DUKE OF COIMBBA (DUQUE DE COIMBRA), the Infant Dom Pedro 
[4th son of King John I., by his wife Philippa of Lancaster, da. and 
co-h. of John (of Gaunt), Duke of Lancaster [E.]]. He was b. at 
Lisbon 9 Dec. 1392, being styled " de Lencastre " in memory of his 
mother, and this name was assumed by his descendants. He was 
Regent for his nephew, Alphonso V., but was slain by him, at the 
instigation of the Duke of Braganza, 20 May 1449. He was sue. 
by his yr. son 3 Dom Jorge, who m. Charlotte, da. of John III., King 
of Cyprus, was Regent of that kingdom, and d. s.p. 1457. Title 
revived 29 Sep. 1495. 

By King Alphonso V. 18 Sep. 143828 Aug. 1481 

a. 1439. COUNT OF VIANA OF THE MINHO (CONDE DE VIANA DO MINHO), or 
VIANA DE CAMINHO, Dom Joao Affonso Tello de Menezes [son of 
Dom Jo,o Affonso Tello de Menezes, Count of Ourem (1470) and 
Barcellos (1471)]. He was sue. by his son Dom Pedro, 2nd Count, 
Capt. of Ceuta, who was a. 22 Nov. 1439 cr. Count of Villa Real, and 
d. s.p.m.l. 22 Nov. 1439. His da. sue. as Countess of Villa Real 
(see that title), and his natural son Dom Duarte de Menezes, P.C. 
(legitimated by decree of 15 Mar. 1424), had 6 July 1460 renewal as 
3rd Count of Viana. He was Gov. and Capt. -Gen. of Alcacere and 
Alferes-m<5r to King Edward, and afterwards to Alphonso V., and 
was killed in Africa 20 Jan. 1464, when the Viana title came to an 
end. One of his sons was cr. Count of Valen9a 30 July 1464, and 
Louie, (a. 1464), a >.d another Count of Tarouca 24 Apr. 1499. 

a. 22 Nov. 1439. COUNT OF VILLA REAL (CONDE DE VILLA REAL), Dom Pedro (de 
Menezes, 2nd Count of Viana (a. 1439, see that date). His da. Dona 
Brites sue. as 2nd Countess of Villa Real, and m. Dom Fernando de 
Noronha, 2nd Count jure uxoris, and was mother of Dom Pedro (de 
Menezes), 3rd Count, who was 1 Mar. 1489 cr. Marquess of Villa Real. 
See that date. 

1 Regist. no Arch, da T. do T., liv. 2 dos Misicos, fl. 204, v. 

2 His natural son succeeded him as 8th Constable. 

3 The elder Dom Pedro, Constable of Portugal, was proclaimed King of Aragon by the 
Catalonian rebels, but was defeated, and d. s.p. 30 June 1466. 



PORTUGUESE NOBILITY 



247 



1440. COUNT OF MARIALVA (CONDE DE MARIALVA), Alvaro Gongalves 
Coutinho (or Dom Vasco Coutinho), Meirinho-mor of the Kingdom. 
He was killed at the capture of Tangiers, Jan. 1464, and the title 
was renewed to his son, Dom Goncalves, 2nd Count, by charter dated 
at Cintra 8 Apr. 1465. He was sue. by his son Dom Joao, 3rd Count, 
who m. D. Catharina, 4th da. of the 1st Duke of Braganza (1442), 
and was killed at the conquest of Arzila 1471, being sue. by his brother 
Dom Francisco, Senhor de Castello Rodrigo, 4th Count, who m. the 
2nd COUNTESS OF LOUL^ (a. 1464), and d. 1532, leaving an only da., 
Dona Guiomar, 5th Countess, wife of the Infant Dom Fernando, Duke 
of Guarda (1530). On her death Marialva passed to Dom Fernando 
Coutinho, son of Dom Diogo, a younger son of the 2nd Count, who 
assumed the title, but does not appear to have had confirmation. 
His son Dom Francisco continued the claim as 7th Count, and was 
killed at Alcacer 1578, leaving a son Dom Manuel Coutinho, Senhor 
da Torre do Bispo e do Morgado de Medelo [? 8th Count], whose da. 
and h., Dona Catharina, m. 1635 the 3rd Count of Cantanhede (1480), 
who was 11 June 1661 cr. Marquess of Marialva. 

30 Dec. 1442. DUKE OF BRAGANZA (DUQUE DE BRAGANZA), Dom Affonso of Portugal, 
jure uxoris 4th Count of Arrayoles (a. 1377) and 2nd Count of 
Barcellos (1385) and Ourem (1385), de jure e herdade. He d. 1461, 
being sue. by his 2nd x but eldest surv. son Dom Fernando, 2nd Duke, 
who had been cr. Marquess of Villa Vicoza 25 May 1455. He d. 
1 Apr. 1478, sue. by his son Dom Fernando II., 3rd Duke, cr. Count 
of Guimaraes 29 Sep. 1463, and Duke of Guimaraes 23 Nov. 1470, 
who was beheaded 21 June 1483 ; sue. by his son Dom Jayme, 
4th Duke, Admiral of the Fleet, who d. 20 Sep. 1532. His son Dom 
Theodosio I. sue. him as 5th Duke of Braganza but not as Duke of 
Guimaraes, 2 and d. 20 Sep. 1563 ; sue. by his son Dom Joao I., 
6th Duke, who was cr. Duke of Barcellos 4 Aug. 1562, and, marrying 
Catherine, 3 elder sister and co-h. of Senhor Dom Duarte, 4th Duke 
of Guimaraes (1537) and Constable of Portugal, had confirmation as 
Constable jure uxoris. He d. 22 Feb. 1583, sue. by his son Dom 
Theodosio II., 7th Duke, who d. 29 Nov. 1630, and was sue. by his 
son Dom Joao II., 8th Duke of Braganza, also 3rd Duke of Barcellos 
(1562), 7th Marquess of Villa Vicoza (1455), llth Count of Arrayoles 
(1371), 9th Count of Ourem (1385), Barcellos (1385), and Faria and 
Neiva (1401), and 6th Count of Guimaraes (1463), 4 who had con- 
firmation as 5th Duke of Guimaraes (1470), 4 June 1638, and two 
years later was proclaimed King of Portugal as John IV., when all 
his honours became merged in the Crown, and have since so con- 
tinued. The title of Duke of Braganza is that now borne by the 
heir to the throne. 

9 Oct. 1446. COUNT OF ODEMIRA (CONDE DE ODEMIRA) or MIRA, Dom Sancho 
de Noronha, P.C., Governor of Ceuta ; sue. by his da. Dona Maria, 
2nd Countess, who m. 1465 Dom Affonso (of Portugal), 1st Count of 
Faro, &c. (1469) [younger son of the 2nd Duke of Braganza] ; sue. 
by their son Dom Sancho, 3rd Count ; sue. by his grandson Dom 
Sancho, 4th Count ; sue. by his son Dom Affonso, 5th Count, who 
d. in Africa 1578 ; sue. by his son Dom Sancho, 6th Count, d. 1643 ; 
sue. by his very distant cousin, 5 Dom Francisco de Faro e Noronha, 
7th Count, who had renewal de jure e herdade 9 July 1646, and d. 
s.p.m.s. at Lisbon 15 Mar. 1661, when the title became extinct. 
His da. and h., Dona Maria, m. 1st the 8th Count of Feira (1515); 
2ndly, the 1st Duke of Cadaval (1648). 

17 Dec. 1448. COUNT OF ATTOUGUIA (CONDE DE ATTOUGUIA) in the province of 
Estremadura, Alvaro Goncalves de Attayde, of one of the oldest 
families in the kingdom. Dom Luiz, 3rd Count, d. s.p., and was sue. 
by his heir of line, Joao Gon9alves de Camera [descended from Joao 

1 See 11 Feb. 1451. 

2 See 1537. 

3 It was through this marriage that the Braganzas acquired their claim to the Crown. 

4 This is the numbering according to Portuguese writers, but the Editor is unaware 
why the Arrayoles succession is reckoned from the first creation of that title, while the 
opposite is tie case with Ourem and Barcellos. 

6 Historict de Casa Real, ix. 681. 



248 THE NOBILITIES OF EUROPE 

Gongalves Zarco, discoverer of Madeira 1419, who was made 
Hereditary Captain of the Citadel of the Funchal], as 4th Count; 
sue. by his son Dom Luiz de Attayde, 5th Count ; sue. by his son 
Dom Jeronymo, 6th Count, P.C., Governor of the Brazils (14 Dec. 
1652), d. 16 Aug. 1665 ; sue. by his son Dom Manoel Luiz, 7th Count, 
killed s.p., as Lieut. -Gen. of Cavalry at Montes Claros ; sue. by his 
brother Dom Luiz Peregrine, 8th Count, d. 6 Oct. 1689 ; sue. by his 
son Dom Jeronymo Casimiro, 9th Count, P.C., d. 30 Nov. 1712 ; 
sue. by his son Dom Luiz Peregrine, 10th Count, P.C., Gov. and 
Capt.-Gen. of the Bahia ; sue. by his son Dom Jeronymo, llth Count, 
who had confirmation of the title 3 Dec. 1750. Extinct before 1839. 

17 Nov. 1450 COUNT OF ABRANTES (CONDE DE ABRANTES), Dom Lopez de Almeida, 
or Senhor de Abrantes, P.C. The last Count of this creation was Dom 

31 Oct. 1471. Miguel de Almeida, P.C. to John IV. and Mordomo-mor to Queen 
Louisa. Revived 12 Nov. 1645. 

11 Feb. 1451. MARQUESS OF VALEN^A (MARQUEZ DE VALENA), in the province 
of the Minho, Dom Affonso, styled Count of Ourem, eldest son and 
h. app. of the 1st Duke of Braganza (1442). He d. v.p., s.p.L, when 
the title became extinct. It was, however, revived 10 Mar. 1716 
with the precedence of 1451 in favour of his descendant, the 8th Count 
of Vimioso (1516). 1 

25 May 1455. MARQUESS OF VILLA VICOSA (MARQUEZ DE VILLA VICOZA), Dom 
Fernando, styled Count of Arrayoles, 2nd son of the 1st Duke of 
Braganza (1442). He sue. as 2nd Duke of Braganza 1461, in which 
title the Marquessate has since continued merged. 

a. 18 Feb. 1457. DUKE OF BEJA (DUQUE DE BEJA), the Infant Dom Fernando, 
5th Constable of Portugal [2nd son of King Edward]. He sue. his 
uncle as 2nd Duke of Vizeu (1415) in 1460, when the Beja title de- 
volved on his son and h., Dom Joao. He sue. as 3rd Duke of Vizeu, 
and d. s.p. 1472, when he was sue. in both titles by his brother, Dom 
Diogo, who had confirmation 10 Aug. 1480. He was slain s.p.l. 1482, 
being sue. by his brother, afterwards King Emmanuel. Beja title 
revived 5 Aug. 1527. 

21 May 1460. COUNT OF MONSANTO (CONDE DE MONSANTO), Dom Alvaro Pires de 
Castro. He m. Dona Izabel da Cunha, da. of Dom Affonso, Senhor 
de Cascaes [son of the Infant Dom Joao and grandson of King 
Peter I.], and was sue. by his son Dom Joao, 2nd Count, who d. s.p. ; 
sue. by his sister Dona Joanna, 3rd Countess, who m. Dom Joao de 
Noronha [3rd son of the 2nd Count of Villa Real (1439)], and was 
gt.-gt. -grandmother of Dom Alvaro Pires (de Castro-Noronha), 6th 
Count, P.C., Alcaide-mdr of Lisbon, Ambassador to the Court of Louis 
XIV., who was 19 Nov. 1643 cr. Marquess of Cascaes. See that date. 
6 Jul. 1460. COUNT OF VIANNA DE CAMINHA (CONDE DE VIANNA DE CAMINHA), 
Dom Duarte de Menezes, P.C., Alferes-mdr (Standard-Bearer), natural 
son of the 2nd Count (a. 1439). See that date. 

29 Sep. 1463. COUNT OF GUIMARAES (CONDE DE GUIMARAES), Dom Fernando, son 
and h. app. of the 2nd Duke of Braganza (1442). He was cr. Duke 
of Guimaraes 1470, and sue. as 3rd Duke of Braganza in 1478, and 
the County has since continued merged in that title. 

20 Jul. 1464. COUNT OF VALENCA (CONDE DE VALENA), Dom Henrique de Menezes 
[son of the 3rd Count of Vianna (a. 1439). He was also Count of 
Louie. See next entry. 

a. 1464. COUNT OF LOULE (CONDE DE LOULE), in the Algarves, Dom Duarte 
(de Menezes), 1st Count of Valenca (1464). See above. He was 
Hereditary Capt. of Alcacere, Cequer, and Arzile in Africa, Alferes- 
m<5r to Alphonso V., and Senhor de Caminha; m. Dona Guiomar, 
3rd da. of the 2nd Duke of Braganza (1442), and d. 20 Jan. 1464, 
leaving a da. and h., D. Brites, 2nd Countess of Louie, who m. the 
4th Count of Marialva (1440), when the Loul6 title came to an end. 

21 Dec. 1466. COUNT OF ATALAYA (CONDE DE ATALAIA), in the province of Estre- 

madura, Dom Pedro Vaz de Mello, Senhor da Villa de Atalaia 
e Casranheira, Governor of the Casa do Civil. Revived 17 July 1583. 

22 May 1469. COUNT OF FARO (CONDE DE FARO) or Farao, in the Algarves, Dom 

Affonso, 3rd son of the 2nd Duke of Braganza (1442). He was after- 

1 See 2 Feb. 1516 and 10 Mar. 1716. 



PORTUGUESE NOBILITY 249 

wards (28 Apr. 1479) cr. Count of Aveiro, and became Count of 
Odemira (1446) j.u. by his marriage (1465) with Dona Maria, 2nd 
Countess. He d. 1483, when his own honours became extinct, while 
the County of Odemira devolved on his son. 

29 Dec. 1469. COUNT OF MACARELLOS AND ST. JOHN DA Foz (CONDE DE MACARELLOS 
E S. JOAO DA Foz), Joao Rodrigues de Sa, Alcaide-mor of Oporto, 
Hereditary Camareiro-mor [descended from Joao Rodriques de Sa, 
Camareiro-mor to King John I., 1st Senhor de Barreiro e Sevdr 
29 Mar. 1384, which lordships were confirmed to his descendant 
de jure e herdade 18 Feb. 1436]. 

23 Nov. 1470. DUKE OF GUIMARAES (DUQUE DE GUIMARSES), Dom Fernando, 

1st Count of Guimaraes (1463), son and h. app. of the 2nd Duke of 
Braganza (1442). He sue. as 3rd Duke of Braganza 1478, when 
the Guimaraes title devolved on his son and h., Dom Jayme, who 
became 4th Duke of Braganza 1483, and d. 1532, when the Dukedom 
of Guimaraes became extinct. Revived 1537 in favour of his son- 
in-law. 

24 Oct. 1471. COUNT OF PENELLA (CONDE DE PENELLA), Dom Affonso de Vascon- 

cellos [grandson of Dom Affonso, Senhor de Cascaes, illegitimate son 
of the Infant Dom Joao, by his 2nd wife Dona Maria, da. and h. of 
Joanne Mendes de Vasconcellos]. He d. 1 Nov. 1480, and was sue. 
by his son Dom Joao, 2nd Count, Vedor da Fazenda to King John II., 
P.C. 1539. He had issue 4 sons and 6 das., but the title apparently 
became extinct on his death. 

15 Apr. 1472. MARQUESS OF MoNTEMdR THE NEW (MARQUEZ DE MONTE-MOR o 
Novo), Dom Joao, 6th Constable of Portugal [3rd son of the 2nd Duke 
of Braganza (1442)]. He d. s.p. 30 Apr. 1484, when the title became 
extinct. 

25 Sep. 1472. COUNT OF ARGANIL (CONDE DE ARGANIL), Dom Joao Galvao, Prior 

of Santa Cruz of Coimbra, and Bishop of the Diocese, for himself and 
his successors in the Bishopric : " Que considerando n6s os grandes, 
e muitos estremados serviqos, que temos recebido de D. Joao Galvao, 
Bispo de Coimbra, do nosso conselho, e em especial em aftlhada da nossa 
villa, e cidade de Arzila, e Tangere, nas paries de Africa, &c. . . . Que 
elle dito Bispo, e por seu respeito, e memoria, todos seus successores, 
de tudo o que gostio os outros condes de nossos Reynos" 

27 Apr. 1475. BARON OF THE TOWN OF ALVITO (BARAO DA VILLA DE ALVITO), Dom 
Joao Fernandez de Silveira, j.u. 5th Senhor de Alveto (1387) and Oriola 
(1419), de jure e herdade para sempre, sem carecer de mais licenca 
regia, being the 1st Baron created in Portugal : " D. Affonso . . . 
fasemos saber que considerando como ho doutor Johdo Ferz da Silveira 
do nosso conselho e escrivam que hora he da puridade, chanceller mor 
e vedor da fazenda do principe meu . . . filho, ao g l o nos com os d s 
carregos demos . . . nos tern feito mui tos e estremados serviqos asy em 
continuo exercicio da administracdo e regimento da justica da nossa 
caza da sopricacdo de que por muitos tempos por nds foi regedor . . . 
como em muitas embaixadas em que ho mandamos per desvairadas 
partes do mundo aos padres santos Reys princepes e senhorios. . . . 
E asy mesmo nos servio grandemente e com muitos homens e despesa 
na tomada das nossas cidades de Tanjere e Villa d'Argilla. . . . Temos 
pr. bem e nos praz que todallas terras que hora elle de n6s tern, as quaes 
elle ouve per dote e casamento de D. Maria de Souza sua m 6 * a quern 
a heranga deltas pertencia, sejam feitas baronia daqui em diante para 
sempre. ... E asy m mo queremos . . . que elle se intitule e chame 
barao da villa d'Alvito que he a principal villa e cabeqa das ditas terras. 
E asy mismo a dita m 6 *. . . . E dhy em diante todollos seus ditos 
descendentes . . . sem mais pera ello nenhum delles averem de requerer 
outra carta nem licenca." . . . He m. 2ndly, D. Maria, da. and h. of 
Diogo Lopez Lobo, 4th Senhor de Alvito (May 1387), and Oriola 
(12 June 1419), and was sue. by his son Dom Diogo Lobo da Silveira, 
2nd Baron ; sue. by his son Dom Rodrigo, 3rd Baron, who d. 25 Dec. 
1559. His great-grandson Dom Joao, 6th Baron (d. 1654), was sue. 
by his son Dom Luiz, 7th Baron, who had been 16 Sep. 1653 cr. Count 
of Oriola "em sua vida." He d. 2 Sep. 1654, and was sue. by his 
eldest son Dom Joao, 8th Baron, d. 1658 ; sue. by his next surv. 
brother Dom Vasco, 9th Baron, who had had renewal of the County 



250 THE NOBILITIES OF EUROPE 

of Oriola, in which the Barony has since continued merged. 
See 1653. 

4 May 1476. VISCOUNT OF VILLA NOVA DA CERVEIRA (VISCONDE DE VILLA NOVA 
DA CERVEIRO), in the province of the Minho, Dom Lionel de Lima, 
Alcaide-mor of Ponte de Lima, &c. [descended from an old Spanish 
family who passed into Portugal in the reign of King Ferdinand]. 
His descendant, Dom Francisco, 5th Viscount, left an only da., 
D. Ignez, who m. Luiz de Brito, and had confirmation as 6th Viscoun- 
tess from King John III. 1546 ; sue. by her son Dom Lorengo, 7th 
Viscount, P.O., who was cr. a GRANDEE 10 Dec. 1623; sue. by his 
6th son Dom Diogo, 8th Viscount, P.C., d. 24 Apr. 1685 ; sue. by his 
son Dom Manoel, 9th Viscount, d. 13 Mar. 1662 ; sue. by his brother 
Dom Lorenco, 10th Viscount, d. 20 Dec. 1666 ; sue. by his brother 
Dom Joao Fernandes, llth Viscount, d. 24 Feb. 1694; sue. by his 
son Dom Thomaz, 12th Viscount, who m. the Countess Mary of Hohen- 
lohe ; sue. by his da. and h., Dona Maria Xavier, 13th Viscoun- 
tess, who m. 28 Oct. 1720 Thomaz Telles da Silva [2nd son of 
the 2nd Marquess of Alegrete (1795)], and d. 5 July 1730 ; sue. by her 
son Dom Thomaz Xavier, 14th Viscount, who had confirmation 
3 Sep. 1750, and was 17 Dec. 1790 cr. Marquess of Ponte de Lima, 
in which title the Viscounty continued merged. 

21 Jul. 1476. COUNT OF OUVENCA. (CONDE DE OLIVENA), Rodrigo Affonso de 
Mello, Senhor de Ferreira, Guarda-mor to King Alphonso V. and 
Governor of Tangiers, " em sua vida." He d. s.p.m., when the title 
became extinct. His younger da. Dona Felippa m. Senhor Dom 
Alvaro [4th son of the 2nd Duke of Braganza], and their son Dom 
Rodrigo was cr. Marquess of Ferreira 13 June 1535. 

24 Aug. 1476. COUNT OF PENAMACOR (CONDE DE PENAMACOR), Dom Lopo de 
Albuquerque, Camareiro-mor to King Alphonso V. (2 Sep. 1471), 
whom he accompanied to France. He was afterwards Ambassador 
to Rome, and was given by the King the title of Excelente Senhor. 
He d. at Seville, when the title became extinct. 

1 Jan. 1478. COUNT OF ABRANCHES (CONDE DE ABRANCHES). Title recognised 
and confirmed in Portugal to Dom Fernando de Almada, son and 
h. of Dom Alvaro Vasques de Almada, who was 4 Aug. 1445 x cr. 
Count of Abranches [F.] by Henry [VI. of England], King of France. 
Extinct, but revived 4 May 1793. 

c. 28 Apr. 1479. COUNT OF AVEIRO (CONDE DE AVEIRO), Dom Affonso (of Portu- 
gal), 1st Count of Faro (1469). He afterwards became j.u. Count of 
Odemira (1446), and d. 1483, when the Aveiro title became extinct. 

15 Jul. 1480. COUNT OF CANTANHEDE (CONDE DE CANTANHEDE), Dom Pedro de 
Menezes, 7th Lord of Cantanhede. He was sue. by his son Dom 
Pedro, 2nd Count, d. 25 Jan. 1644 ; sue. by his son Dom Antonio 
Luiz, 3rd Count, who m. the heiress of the Counts of Marialva (1440), 
and was 11 June 1661 cr. Marquess of Marialva, in which title that 
of Cantanhede continued merged until both became extinct. 

. COUNT OF MONCORVO (CONDE DE MONCORVO), Ruy Pereira. He after- 
wards had the title changed to that of Count of St. Mary. See next 
entry. 

. COUNT OF THE TERRA OF ST. MARY (CONDE DA TERRA DE SANTA 

MARIA), Ruy Pereira, in exchange for his former title of Count of 
Moncorvo. Later the title was changed to that of Feira. See next 
below. 

. COUNT OF THE FEIRA (CONDE DA FEIRA), Ruy Pereira, previously 

Count of St. Mary's. Extinct on his death. 

. COUNT OF CAMINHA (CONDE DE CAMINHA), Pedro Alvares Sottomayor : 

"da casa dos Senhores de Sottomayor em Galliza, onde era Visconde 
de Tuy, o qual seguio em Portugal o partido da Excellente Senhora, 
fez Conde de Caminho" &c. 2 

1 Almanack de Portugal, 1856, p. 110. 2 Hist. Gen. da Casa Real, iii. 29. 



PORTUGUESE NOBILITY 251 

By King John II. 28 Aug. 148125 Oct. 1495 

1485. COUNT OF VILLA NOVA OF PORTIMAO (CONDE DE VILLA NOVA DE 
? 28 May 1504. PORTIMAO), Dom Martinho de Castellobranco, Senhor de Villa 
1 Jan. 1508. Nova, &c. ; sue. by his son Dom Joao, Senhor de Villa Nova, &c., 
4 Jun. 1516. P.C., Governor of the Algarves, whose son Dom Manuel, P.O., had 
renewal of the title, and d. 20 Sep. 1626, leaving an only da. and h., 
Dona Maria de Vilhena, 3rd Countess. She m. the 3rd Count of 
Sortelha (1527), and had an only child Dona Magdalena, who m. the 
2nd Count of Figueird (a. 1653). Their 2nd son Dom Luiz de Len- 
castre had renewal of the title of Villa Nova de jure e herdade 5 Nov. 
1688, and d. 1 Jan. 1704 ; sue. by his son Dom Pedro, 5th Count, 
who had confirmation 5 Feb. following, and m. 29 Oct. 1711 Dona 
Maria Sophia, da. of Rodrigo Annes (de Sa), 3rd Marquess of Fontes 
(1659) and 1st of Abrantes (1718). His eldest da. Dona Isabel 
m. 29 May 1735 Manoel de Tavora, K.M. [3rd son of the 2nd Count 
of Alvor (1754)], and d. v.p. 26 Feb. 1742, leaving an only son Dom 
Jose Maria (b. 13 Feb. 1742), who sue. his grandfather as 6th Count. 
He d. ( ) leaving a son and h. Dom Pedro, 7th Count, who sue. as 
3rd Marquess of Abrantes, in which title the County continued merged 
until the death of the 5th Marquess, s.p., 2 Sep. 1847, when the Mar- 
quessate became extinct, while the County devolved on his brother 
Dom Jose Maria. He d. 28 Feb. 1870, and was sue. by his son Dom 
Joao, llth and present Count. 

6 Mar. 1486. COUNT OF BORBA (CONDE DE BORBA), Dom Vasco Coutinho. On 
2 June 1500 he obtained a new patent changing the title to that of 
Count of Redondo, which see. 

1 Mar. 1489. MARQUESS OF VILLA REAL (MARQUEZ DE VILLA REAL), Dom Pedro 
(de Menezes), 3rd Count of Villa Real (a. 1439) and 3rd Capt. of 
Ceuta. He m. Dona Brites, da. of the 2nd Duke of Braganza (1442), 
and d. 1499. His son Dom Fernando, who had been v.p. cr. Count of 
Alcoutim (1496) and Valen9a (1499), sue. him in all his honours 
except the County of Ourem, which King Emmanuel restored to the 
House of Braganza 1496. He d. 1523, sue. by his son Dom Pedro, 
3rd Marquess, &c., who m. Dec. 1519 Dona Brites, da. and h. of 
Dom Affonso, Constable of Portugal [a natural son of the 4th Duke 
of Vizeu (1415)], and was sue. by his son Dom Miguel, 4th Marquess, &c., 
who d. s.p. ; sue. by his brother Dom Manoel, 5th Marquess, who 
had renewal de jure e herdade 12 July 1552, and was 28 Feb. 1585 
cr. Duke of Villa Real, in which title all his honours became merged. 

11 Aug. 1493. COUNT OF GAZA (CONDE DE GAZA) or GUASAVA, in Africa, Dom 
Reynaldo de Xatio Uriao, P.C., Baron de Longuy in Champagne. 

29 Sep. 1495. l DUKE OF COIMBRA (DuQUE DE COIMBRA), Dom Jorge, legitimated 
son of King John II., by Dona Anna de Mendonga, as 3rd Duke 2 
" em sua vida." He d. 22 July 1550. His eldest son had been 
(1 Jan. 1547) cr. Duke of Aveiro. The Coimbra title continued 
dormant until 21 Feb. 1867. 

By King Emmanuel I. 25 Oct. 149513 Dec. 1521 

15 Nov. 1496. COUNT OF THE TOWN OF ALCOUTIM (CONDE DE VILLA DE ALCOUTIM), 

13 Jun. 1497. Dom Fernando de Menezes, son and h. app. of the 1st Marquess of 

Villa Real (1489), de juro para os primogenitas. He was further cr. 

Count of Valen9a 1499, and sue. as 2nd Marquess of Villa Real the 

same year, in which title that of Alcoutim continued merged. 

6 Feb. 1498. COUNT OF PORTALEGRE (CONDE DE PORTALEGRE), Dom Diogo da 
Sylva de Menezes, de jure e herdade, na sua descendencia masculina. 
Dom Manrique (? Henrique) (da Sylva), 6th Count, was 20 Jan. 
1625 cr. Marquess of Gouvea. His son Dom Joao, 2nd Marquess 
and 7th Count, d. s.p. 1686, when both titles became extinct. The- 
Marquessate was renewed to his sister's grandson, 1714. 

1 In Hist. Gen. da Casa Real, v. 55, the date is given as 16 May 1509, but see the same 
work, xi. 6. 2 See 1415. 

(To be continued.) 



PART II 

FOREIGN ORDERS OF KNIGHTHOOD 
AND THEIR BRITISH HOLDERS 
PAST AND PRESENT 



FOREIGN ORDERS OF KNIGHTHOOD 
AND THEIR BRITISH HOLDERS 



No British subject is allowed to wear the Insignia of any Foreign Order 
without first obtaining His Majesty's permission, and such permission, when 
accorded, does not now authorise the assumption of the Knightly style. 
Formerly the case was different. In the Middle Ages it was a common 
practice for Sovereigns and Princes to dub each other Knights, much as they 
were afterwards, and are now, in the habit of exchanging the stars and ribbons 
of their Orders. 1 Henry II. was knighted by his great-uncle David I., 
Alexander III. of Scotland by Henry III. of England, Edward I. by 
Alphonso X. of Castile, Ferdinand I. of Portugal by Edmund (of Langley), 
Duke of York ; 2 and long after the military importance of Knighthood had 
disappeared, what may be termed its cosmopolitan character was maintained. 
Writing in 1658, Mr. Justice Doddridge lays it down as a principle of law, 
in which he is supported by all the older authorities, that " the highest and 
the lowest dignities are universal, for if the King of a foreign nation came 
into England, by leave of the King of this Realm (as it ought to be), in this 
case he shall sue and be sued by the name of a King, so shall he be sued by 
the name of a Knight wheresoever he received that degree of dignity, but 
otherwise it is as of a Duke, Marquess, Earl, or other title of honour given 
by any foreign King. . . . Therefore though a Knight receive his Dignity 
of a foreign Prince, he is so to be styled in all legal proceedings within 
England." 3 It is true that de Vicquefort relates that Sir Nicholas Clifford 
and Sir Anthony Shirley, two Officers of the auxiliary force sent by 
Elizabeth to assist Henry IV. of France, were upon their return to England 
committed to prison for daring to accept the Order of St. Michael without 
the Queen's permission, and peremptorily ordered to return the collars of 
the Order to the French King. 4 There are, however, many instances of the 
official recognition of the status of foreign Knighthoods by British Sovereigns. 
Thus, in 1792, when, at the request of Gustavus IV. of Sweden, George III. 
invested Sir Sidney Smith with the Grand Cross and Collar of the Swedish 
Order of the Sword, it was expressly announced that he " was not knighted 
on this occasion, that ceremony having been performed by his late Swedish 
Majesty ; " 5 and down to 1810 any Knight duly dubbed abroad was fully 

1 Encyclopaedia Britannica, 9th ed., xiv. 124. 

2 Spelman, De, Milite Dissertatio (Posthumous Works), p. 181. 

3 His Law of Nobility and Peerage (London, 1658), p. 129. 

4 The Ambassador and His Functions, p. 354. According to him, it was on this 
occasion that Elizabeth declared that "as a virtuous wife should have no glance but for 
her own spouse, so should faithful subjects keep their eyes at home, and not gaze upon 
foreign crowns ; " adding, ' ' I will not have my sheep marked with a strange brand, nor 
suffer them to follow the pipe of a strange shepherd." Camden, however, relates the 
same incident in connection with Lord Arundell's Countship of the Empire. Christina of 
Sweden took up somewhat the same position when she declined to allow the Prince Palatine 
to receive the Order of the Garter, or the Count de la Gardie to be made a Prince of the 
Empire. 

5 London Gazette, 19 May 1792. 

255 



256 THE NOBILITIES OF EUROPE 

accepted in Britain, 1 and had the title of "Sir." But in that year the 
propriety of this practice was raised in the case of Sir Henry Clements 
Thompson, a Captain R.N., who had received, with George III.'s consent, 
the Swedish Order of the Sword, but who was appointed by the Lords of 
the Admiralty to the command of a ship as " Henry Clements Thompson, 
Esquire." The case was referred for the consideration of the College of 
Arms, where the views were much -divided; but the majority decided to 
report that the acceptance of a Foreign Order, under such circumstances, 
did not confer the title or rank so claimed. 2 

Only the previous year the direct contrary had been ruled by the highest 
authority in the land, Lord Ellenborough, who, in overruling the objection 
of defendant's counsel in a case for an assault on the Rev. Sir Robert Peat, 
that the plaintiff, not having been Knighted by the King, had no right to 
the application of " Sir," declared " that the Order of Knighthood having 
been confirmed by patent from the King of England, no doubt whatever 
could be entertained respecting its validity. The King is the Fountain of 
Honour, and no one ever doubted the Knighthood of Sir Sidney Smith, 
with many others, whose rank had been confirmed by the King." The 
decision arrived at by the Heralds' College has, however, remained in force ; 
and, by certain regulations issued that year, it was enacted that before a 
British subject could accept any Foreign Order of Knighthood he must 
obtain permission by a warrant under the Royal Sign-Manual directed to 
the Earl-Marshal of England ; and by further regulations, issued in 1812 and 
March 1813, 3 it was provided that no permission of the kind would be granted 
" unless the Foreign Order shall have been conferred in consequence of active 
or distinguished service before the enemy either at sea or in the field," or 
unless the person receiving it shall have been "actually and entirely" 
employed beyond the British dominions " in the service of the foreign 
Sovereign by whom the Order is conferred ; " and that such permission when 
granted should not authorise " the assumption of any style, appellation, 
rank, precedence, or privilege appertaining to a Knight- Bachelor of the 
United Kingdom." These Regulations were repeated and amplified 6 Dec. 
1823, 10 May 1855, and 23 June 1898. 4 The last are those now in force, and 
they are given in full below. Before the nineteenth century the number of 
Britons who received Foreign Orders was very small, and the first Royal 
License on record to enable a British subject to accept one is that granted 
to Samuel Bentham 16 July 1789, authorising him to accept and wear the 
Insignia of the Order of St. George of Russia. 

REGULATIONS NOW IN FORCE RESPECTING FOREIGN 

ORDERS 

1. No Subject of His Majesty shall accept a Foreign Order from the Sovereign 
of any Foreign Country, or wear the Insignia thereof, without having previously 
obtained His Majesty's permission to that effect, signified by a Warrant under 
His Royal Sign-Manual. 

2. " Unless the Foreign Decoration shall have been conferred in consequence 
of active and distinguished Service, either at Sea or in the Field, such permission 
will not be given to any subject of His Majesty, except in the following cases, if 
recommended specially by the Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs : 

" (1) The Chief of a Complimentary Mission from His Majesty. 

" (2) A Military or Naval Attache on the termination of his appointment. 

1 Ency. Brit., xiv. 125. 

2 A Concise Account of the Several Foreign Orders of Knighthood, &c. } by Nicholas 
Carlisle, F.S.A. (London, 1839), p. xxi. 

3 Ibid. 4 London Gazette. 



FOREIGN ORDERS OF KNIGHTHOOD 257 

" (3) Any person, not at the time in the service of His Majesty, who has rendered 
valuable service to the Sovereign bestowing the Order outside His Majesty's dominions, 
or in an Embassy or Legation of that Sovereign in this country." 

3. The intention of a Foreign Sovereign to confer upon a British Subject the 
Insignia of an Order must be notified to His Majesty's Principal Secretary of State 
for Foreign Affairs, either through the British Minister accredited to the Court of 
such Foreign Sovereign, or through His Minister accredited at the Court of His 
Majesty. 

4. If the service for which it is proposed to confer the Order has been performed 
during War, the Notification required by the preceding Clause must be made not 
later than two years after the exchange of the Ratifications of a Treaty of Peace. 

If the service has been performed in time of Peace, the Notification must be 
made within two years after the date of such service. 

5. After such Notification shall have been received, His Majesty's Principal 
Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs shall, if the case comes within the conditions 
prescribed by the present Regulations, and arises from Naval or Military Services 
before the Enemy, refer it to His Majesty's Principal Secretary of State for the 
War Department, previously to taking His Majesty's pleasure thereupon, in order 
to ascertain whether there be any objection to His Majesty's permission being 
granted. 

A similar reference shall also be made to the Commander-in- Chief if the applica- 
tion relates to an Officer in the Army, or to the Lords of the Admiralty if it relates 
to an Officer in the Navy. 

6. When His Majesty's Principal Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs shall 
have taken the King's pleasure on any such application, and shall have obtained 
His Majesty's permission for the person in whose favour it has been made to accept 
the Foreign Order, and wear the Insignia thereof, he shall signify the same to His 
Majesty's Principal Secretary of State for the Home Department, in order that 
he may cause the Warrant required by Clause 1 to be prepared for the Royal Sign- 
Manual. 

When such Warrant shall have been signed by the King, a Notification thereof 
shall be inserted in the Gazette, stating the service for which the Foreign Order 
has been conferred. 

7. The Warrant signifying His Majesty's permission may, at the request and 
at the expense of the person who has obtained it, be registered in the College of 
Arms. 

8. Every such Warrant as aforesaid shall contain a Clause providing that His 
Majesty's license and permission does not authorise the assumption of any style, 
appellation, rank, precedence, or privilege appertaining to a Knight-Bachelor of 
His Majesty's Realms. 

9. When a British subject has received the Royal permission to accept the 
Decoration of a Foreign Order, he will at any future time be allowed to accept 
the Decoration of a Higher Class of the same Order, to which he may have become 
eligible by increase of rank in the Foreign Service, or in the Service of his own 
country ; or any other distinctive mark of honour strictly consequent upon the 
acceptance of the original Decoration, and common to every person upon whom 
such Decoration is conferred. 

10. The preceding Clause shall not be taken to apply to Decorations of the 
Guelphic Order, which were bestowed on British subjects by His Majesty's prede- 
cessors, King George IV. and King William IV., on whose heads the Crowns of 
Great Britain and of Hanover were united. 

Decorations so bestowed cannot properly be considered as rewards granted by 
a Foreign Sovereign for services rendered according to the purport of Clause 2 of 
these Regulations. They must be rather considered as personal favours bestowed 
on British Subjects by British Sovereigns, and as having no reference to services 
rendered to the Foreign Crown of Hanover. 

FOEEIGN OFFICE. 



258 THE NOBILITIES OF EUROPE 

SOVEREIGN MILITARY ORDER OF ST. JOHN OF 
JERUSALEM OR MALTA 

(Contributed by the Earl of Ashburnham, President of the 
Association of Knights in the British Empire) 

Founded A.D. 1023. The Grand Master, who resides in Rome, has the 
style of Most Eminent and Most Reverend Highness, and is ex officio a Prince 
in the Austrian Empire. The Council of the Grand Master is composed of 
delegates from the four Grand Priories. The " Langues " or languages 
existing l at the present day are 1st, the Language of Italy, comprising the 
Grand Priories of Rome, Lombardy-Venetia, and the Two Sicilies ; 2nd, the 
Language of Germany, consisting of the Grand Priory of Bohemia. Besides 
the Languages, there exist the following " Associations " of Knights the 
Rheno-Westphalian, Silesian, British, Spanish, French, and Portuguese, each 
under the administration of a President, and there are also a certain number 
of Knights not included in any of the aforesaid Languages or Associations. 
The Order consists of : 

(1) The Knights of Justice, who are required to furnish proofs of noble 
descent. These are divided into Professed Knights, who have taken vows 
of celibacy, and Non-professed Knights, who are free to marry, but upon 
marriage cease to be Knights of Justice. The Professed Knights in Italy and 
Austria, where the Order is still in possession of its ancient endowments, are 
eligible to its " Bailiwicks " and " Commanderies," many of which are of 
considerable value, and on attaining which the Knights are styled " Bailiffs " 
or " Commanders," as the case may be. 

(2) Knights of Honour and Devotion, who are also required to prove 
noble descent, but may be married. Knights of Justice, on their marriage, 
may be received into this class. 

(3) Knights of Magistral Grace, a class of recent origin, into which 
persons may be admitted by the Grand Magistery at its discretion, without 
furnishing any proofs of noble descent. 

(4) Doaats of Justice. These are not Knights, and are not required to 
produce proofs of nobility ; they must be unmarried. 

(5) Donats of Devotion, the same, but may be married. 

There are also ecclesiastics attached to the Order under the titles of 
Conventual Chaplains and Chaplains of Magistral Obedience. 

" BailifE Grand Cross of Honour and Devotion " is a modern dignity, con- 
ferred at the pleasure of the Grand Magistery on Princes of royal blood, and 
persons of distinction in the Order or outside of it. It bears to the dignity of 
the professed Bailiff the same relation as the Cross of Devotion bears to that 
of Justice. 

The profession of the Roman Catholic faith is required by the Statutes 
of all candidates for the Order. This condition is, however, sometimes dis- 
pensed with in favour of illustrious personages, as in the cases of the late 
Prince Consort, and of the reigning Sovereign, King Edward VII. 2 

The decoration of the Order, for all classes except Donats, consists of a 
Cross of eight points in white enamel, having gold fleur-de-lis in the angles 
surmounted with the Sovereign Crown of the Order and a trophy of arms. 3 

1 The property of the Order in England was annexed to the Crown by an Act of 
Parliament, 1 Eliz. c. 24. 

2 The Emperor Paul L of Russia was even elected Grand Master 27 Oct. 1798. 

3 In the Grand Priory of Bohemia the double eagle of Austria is substituted for the 
fleur-de-lis. 



FOREIGN ORDERS OF KNIGHTHOOD 259 

It is worn by Bailiffs and Grand Crosses depending from a broad black 
watered ribbon from the right shoulder, and by other classes from a narrower 
ribbon of the same colour round the neck. Professed Knights also wear on 
the left breast the same cross without the fleur-de-lis, the crown, or the 
trophy. This cross should strictly be of white linen, but is generally imitated 
in white enamel. Donats wear the cross minus one of its four branches. 

The uniform for all classes is a scarlet tunic with gold epaulettes and 
white trousers ; the tunic is faced with white for Knights of Justice, black 
for Knights of Devotion and of Magistral Grace, and green for Donats. 
Bailiffs on state occasions wear over the tunic a surcoat of cloth of gold, 
having displayed upon it the linen cross of profession ; Knights Grand Cross 
of Devotion wear a similar surcoat without the cross. 



President of the British Association : 
Bertram, Earl of Ashburnham. 

Vice-President : 
William Henry John, Lord North. 



Date when 
Conferred. 



KNIGHTS OF JUSTICE (K.M.) 



21 Mar. 

18 Oct., 
27 Jun. 

19 Oct. 
5 Feb. 

14 Dec. 

24 Apr. 
18 Mar. 



1752 
1761 
1774 
1775 
1777 
1777 
17 
1786 
1788 



1799 
18 

18 

18 
18 
18 
IS- 
IS 



t( ) (Gualterio), 2nd Earl of Dundee. 1 

f James Dillon, Col. of the Dillon Regiment. 8 

JEdward Henry de Fitzjames. 3 

fMaurice de MacMahon. 3 

fBarthelemy, Comte 1'O'Mahoni. 3 

fBarthelemy 1'O'Mahoni. 3 

f Louis Edward Geneviere Drummond de Melfort. 3 

JEdward de Fitzjames. 3 

f Charles Francis Law de Lauriston. 3 

fEugene Charles O' Sullivan. 

jMarie Yves Arsene Barthelemy Daniel 1'O'Mahoni. 3 

fCharles Jerningham, an Officer in French Service. 4 

tField-Marshal Count Michael von Wallis [Walsh]. 

t Joseph Marie, 7th Count Wallis [Walsh] of Biidwitz. 

t Anthony Marie Marcellus O'Hara, Lieut. -Col. Bellosersky Regt. in 

Russian Service. 5 
fCapt. Sir Home Riggs, R.N. 6 
{Admiral Sir William Sidney Smith, G.C.B. 

fRight Hon. Sir William Johnstone Hope, P.C., G.C.B., Vice- 
Admiral of the White. 7 

Major Sir W. H. Tonkin. 8 
[Sir Richard Lawrence. 
hSir Home Popham. 
'Sir Joshua Colles Meredith. 

Edward Francis Joseph, llth Viscount Taaffe, K.G.F. 



1 Living 1740. See The Jacobite Peerage, p. 46. 

2 Killed at Fontenoy, 30 Apr. 1745. 

3 See a list of French Knights received into the Order between 1700 and 1839 in Viton 
de St. Allais' Nobiliaire Universel de France, 1839, xx. 244-342. 

4 Died 25 Nov. 1814, 3rd son of Sir George Jerningham, 5th Bart. 

5 Burke's Landed Gentry of Ireland, p. 457. 

6 So created by the Czar Paul as Grand Master. He had Royal License from George III. 
28 Sep. 1799 (London Gazette, p. 979) to wear the insignia of a Knight and Commander of 
Malta in the United Kingdom. 

7 See Carlisle's Concise Account of the several Foreign Orders of Knighthood, \%3$, p. 211 n. 

8 Russian Vice-Consul at Teignmoutli and Exeter. 



260 



THE NOBILITIES OF EUROPE 



Date when 
Conferred. 



KNIGHTS OF JUSTICE (KM.) continued 



18 Jun. 
27Jun. 

5 Feb. 
22 Jun. 

7 Dec. 

7 Dec. 

18 Jan. 

19 Jan. 

20 Jan. 

21 Jan. 

22 Jan. 
18 Jan. 



1858 
1859 
1870 
1870 
1872 
1872 
1874 
1874 
1874 
1874 
1874 
1876 



tSir George Bowyer, 7th and 3rd Bt. 
fJohn James Watts. 
fJohn de Sonnentag de Navilland. 
fHenry, 9th Lord Beaumont. 1 
fDavid Latouche Colthurst. 1 

Sir George Errington, 1st Bt. (1885). 1 
fCharles, 1st Duke Gandolfi. 1 

Alfred Joseph Horny old. 1 
fHon. Edward Ignatius Arundell. 

Bertram, 5th Earl of Ashburnham. 1 2 
fEdmund, 1st Count de la Poer. 1 
f James Errington. 



14 Jun. 1881 
26 Nov. 1888 
25 Jan. 1890 
12 Mar. 1893 



KNIGHTS GRAND CROSS (G.C.M.) 

fH.R.H. Albert, Prince Consort. 

His Majesty, King Edward VII. 
fGeorge Arthur Hastings, 7th Earl of Granard, K.P. 

Bertram, 5th Earl of Ashburnham. 
fHis Eminence Herbert, Cardinal Vaughan. 



23 Oct. 1834 
19 Feb. 1836 
14 Mar. 1836 
22 Apr. 1839 

2 Sep. 1839 

8 Feb. 1840 

7 Aug. 1840 

9 Sep. 1847 
2 Apr. 1851 

16 Apr. 1852 

8 Jan. 1853 
IDec. 1857 

21 Jan. 1858 

17 Oct. 1861 

24 Jan. 1862 

18 Feb. 1862 

17 Mar. 1862 
24 Feb. 1863 

4 Mar. 1864 

8 Jun. 1865 
2 Nov. 1865 

27 Jan. 1866 
6 Apr. 1869 

28 May 1869 

9 Apr. 1870 
12 May 1870 

18 Jun. 1872 
18 Jan. 1875 
16 Apr. 1875 
16 Apr. 1875 
21 May 1875 



KNIGHTS OF DEVOTION (K.M.) 

tCount Charles O'Hegerty. 

fCount John Taaffe. 3 

fThomas Stewart. 

fHenry Drummond. 

f Joseph Lawrence MacCarthy. 

fJohn Joseph Webbe-Weston. 

fErnest Augustus Guthrie Graham Bonor. 

fCount Augustus Henry Dillon. 

fSigismund, 1st Prince Giustiniani-Bandini, 7th Earl of Newburgh.* 

f Abel Testaferrata. 

tBertram Arthur, 17th Earl of Shrewsbury. 

fCount Gilbert Nugent de Laval. 

f Arthur Augustus O' Sullivan de Grass de Seovand. 

fSir Henry Richard Paston-Bedingfeld, 6th Bt. 

fWilliam Bernard, 12th Lord Petre. 

fFrederic Charles Thynne. 

fMonsignor David Moriarty. 

Melchior Dudley, 2nd Count Gurowski de Wezere. 

John Mary O'Byrne of Corville. 
fCharles Cavendish. 

Count Richard Nugent. 
fMonsignor Francis Kerril Amherst. 

Thomas St. George Armstrong. 

tGeorge Arthur Hastings, 7th Earl of Granard, K.P. 5 
fCharles de la Barre Bodenham. 
fSir Gerard Dalton Fitzgerald, Bt. 

Monsignor the Hon. Edmund Stonor. 

Edward Southwell Trafford. 

Count Robert O 'Gorman. 

Count Gaetan O 'Gorman. 

William Henry John, llth Lord North. 



1 Subsequently became a Knight of Devotion in consequence of marriage. 

2 Grand Cross 1890. 

3 Apparently Count [the Hon.] John Nicholas Taaffe, younger brother of the 7th 
Viscount Taaffe, Count of the Holy Roman Empire. He belonged to the Roman Grand 
Priory, not being a British subject, though the son of an Irish Peer. He was the author of 
a History of the Order in 4 vols., London, 1852. 

4 A member of the Roman Grand Priory. Naturalized as a British subject 1857. 

5 Grand Cross 1888. 



FOREIGN ORDERS OF KNIGHTHOOD 261 



Date when 
Conferred. 



KNIGHTS OF DEVOTION (KM.) continued 



4 Jun. 1877 fLawrence Anthony, 8th Marquess Cassar de Sain, C.M.G. 1 
20 Nov. 1877 Joseph Lawrence, 6th Marquess of Piro, C.M.G. 

22 Mar. 1879 fRobert Percy Ffrench. 
15 Feb. 1890 Alfred Thomas Townshend, 5th Baron Braye. 

4 Dec. 1893 Ulric Edmund Emanuel Charlton. 
12 Dec. 1895 Edmund Francis Riddell. 

19 Dec. 1896 Joseph, Baron of Budack, commonly called Baron de Piro 
Gourgion. 1 

14 Feb. 1900 Alphonso Otho, 2nd Duke Gandolfi. 2 
30 Nov. 1906 f James Gumming Dewar. 

11 Dec. 1906 f Alexander George Fullerton. 

CONVENTUAL CHAPLAINS 

28 May 1861 fMost Rev. Charles Eyre. 
17 Nov. 1862 fMonsignor Edward Hearn. 
7 Dec. 1876 Right Rev. Patrick Fenton. 

CHAPLAINS OF MAGISTRAL OBEDIENCE 

15 Feb. 1861 ifRight Rev. James Laird Patterson. 

6 Mar. 1869 |f Anthony Ball. 

LADIES DECORATED WITH THE CROSS OF DEVOTION 

7 Mar. 1861 flda Harriet Augusta, Countess of Gainsborough. 

15 Mar. 1862 JMary Theresa, Lady Petre. 

16 Aug. 1863 f Euz abeth, Marchioness of Londonderry. 
22 May 1874 Mary Frances, Countess of Granard. 

16 Jun. 1880 fMary Augusta, Lady Holland. 
4 Jan. 1900 Frederica, Lady North. 

KNIGHTS OF MAGISTRAL GRACE 

22 Nov. 1860 fRobert Monteith. 

8 Jun. 1869 fJohn Cashel Hoey. 

7 Dec. 1876 fSir John Pope Hennessy, K. C.M.G. 
7 Mar. 1888 Joseph Monteith. 

DONAT OF DEVOTION, IST CLASS 

11 Jun. 1885 fCharles Alban Buckler. 
31 Jan. 1906 Charles Morgan. 



THE ORDER OF THE HOLY GHOST 

(L'Ordre du Saint Esprit) 

This was the principal French Order, ranking with the Garter, Golden 
Fleece, &c. Instituted by King Henry III. 30 Dec. 1578, in commemoration 
of Whitsunday, that being the day on which he had been born in 1551, on 
which he had been elected King of Poland in 1573, and on which he had suc- 
ceeded his brother as King of France 1574. Remodelled by King Henry 
IV. 1590. Limited to one hundred Knights, a number never exceeded. 3 

1 Peers of Malta. 

2 Had Royal License to wear the Order in the United Kingdom 18 Dec. 1902. 

3 According to the French papers of 26 Mar. 1861, the death of the Duke of Luxem- 
burg that year reduced the number of Knights to three, of whom only one, the Chancellor 
Pasquier, was then resident in France. The ' ' deux autres possesseurs de cet ordre encore 
vivants sont : le Comte de Chambord (par droit de naissance) et le Due de Nemours, qui, 
selon 1'usage, le recut le jour de sa premiere communion des mains du Roi Charles X." 



262 THE NOBILITIES OF EUROPE 

It carried with it the Order of St. Michael, 1 and together with it formed 
"les ordres du Roi," being known as "le Cordon bleu." Knights were 
required to be Catholics, a^d to be able to prove nobility of three descents 
on the father's side. On the Revolution it was abolished by a special decree 
of the National Convention though King Louis XVIII. continued to confer 
it occasionally while in exile, and on his Restoration in 1814 it was formally 
revived only to be abolished again at the Revolution of 1830. 

BADGE. A Cross of eight points, enamelled green, with a border of white ; 
on the centre, enamelled crimson, a Dove, the emblem of the Holy 
Ghost, argent, bill and feet gules ; in the four angles as many fleur- 
de-lis of gold, and the eight points terminated with as many brilliants. 
On the reverse is the image of the holy Archangel St. Michael treading 
under foot the dragon. 

STAR. The same in silver. 

COLLAR. Three alternate links 1st, a gold helmet with plume of white 
feathers, surrounded with arms and military trophies in red, white, 
and blue ; 2nd, a flame of gold, terminating in eight points, in the 
middle a fleur-de-lis gules ; 3rd, the letter H, signifying the name of 
the founder, surmounted by a royal crown, the whole surrounded 
with a celestial glory. 

MOTTO." Benoist St. Esprit." 



Date when 
Conferred. 


KNIGHTS (K.H.G.) 


3Jun. 1724 

2 Feb. 1746 2 
1814 
24 Apr. 1814 
27 Nov. 1815 
1825 
18 

18 Nov. 1897 


t James, 1st Duke of Berwick and Fitzjames, K.G., Marshal 
France. 
fCharles, 9th Earl of Thomond, Marshal of France. 3 
fGeorge, Prince of Wales, afterwards King George IV. 
t William, Duke of Clarence, afterwards King William IV. 
t Arthur, 1st Duke of Wellington, K.G., Field-Marshal, 
f James, -th Duke of Fitzjames. 
fTrophime Gerald, 1st Marquess of Lally-Tollendal, Peer 
France, P.O.* 
Bertram, 5th Earl of Ashburnham. 6 


of 

of 



1 Hence it was the custom for the King, either the day before the investiture or the same 
morning, to bestow on those nominated for this Order that of St. Michael, if they did not 
already possess it. 

2 He was instituted at the Chapel of Versailles, 1 Jan. 1747. 

3 He succeeded his father as 6th Viscount Clare and his cousin as Earl of Thomond, 
but his grandfather, the 3rd Viscount, having been attainted for his adherence to King 
James, 1691, he was not recognised as such. He, however, assumed the title, and was hence- 
forth known as the "Marechal Comte de Thomond." See The Complete Peerage, ii. 264. 

4 Grand Treasurer of the Order. 

5 So created by the Duke of Madrid as Head of the Royal House of Bourbon and heir 
of the founder of the Order. An analogous case is that of the Kings of Spain, who confer 
the Burgundian Order of the Golden Fleece as heirs of Philip the Good, Duke of Burgundy, 
founder of that Order. It is to be observed that the present Duke of Orleans surmounts 
with the collar of the Holy Ghost the arms which, in defiance of all heraldic laws, he bears 
without the proper difference, but it is not known whether he or his late father have ever 
claimed the right to confer it. In addition to Lord Ashburnham, the Duke of Madrid has 
made the following appointments : Their Royal Highnesses the Princes James and Alfonso 
4 Nov. 1894 ; Don Enrique (de Aquilera y Gamboa), Marquess of Cerralbo, formerly his 
representative in Spain, 8 Dec. 1896 ; Count Urbain de Maille, his representative in France, 
1897 ; and Don Tirso (de Olazabal), Count of Arbelaiz, 25 Nov. 1907 ; and these six are 
the only persons who have received it since the death of the Count of Chambord (King 
Henry V), 24 Aug. 1883. 



FOREIGN ORDERS OF KNIGHTHOOD 263 

THE MILITARY ORDER OF ST. JAMES OF COMPOSTELLA 

(Orden de Santiago de Compostella) 

One of the four great Military Orders of Spain, instituted by Bull of Pope 
Alexander III. 5 July 1175, and confirmed 12 May 1522. Three Classes. 

BADGE. On a gold oval escutcheon, enamelled white with red border, edged 
gold, a red enamelled Sword with a fleur-de-lis hilt, edged gold, the 
escutcheon surmounted by a helmet, &c. 

RIBBON. Red. 



Date when 
Conferred. 



1607 
1607 
1617 

1624 
1625 
1645 

1646 
1648 

1702 

1702 

1704 
1706 

1706 
1706 

1709 
1709 
1710 



KNIGHTS OF BRITISH BIRTH OR ORIGIN 

(Received between 1500 and 1837, 1 with the year of 

their admission and place of birth) 



fWalter Burke 2 (Gualtero de Burgo y Biat. Belleque [Belleck, GO. 

Mayo], Irlanda). 
fDaniel O'Sullivan (Daniel O'Sulliban y O'Sulliban. Birhaven 

[Beerhaven, co. Cork], Irlanda). 
fDaniel O'Sullivan (Daniel O'Sulliban Bearra y O'Brien, senor de 

Birhaven y Estados de Bearra y Beautri. Birhaven, Irlanda). 
fWilliam Burke 3 (Guillermo del Burgo y Torenton. Britar, Irlanda). 
fGerald Geraldine (Geraldo Geraldino Suini. Irlanda). 
fPatrick Geraldine (Patricio Geraldino y O'Conor. Rahanan, 

Irlanda). 
fOliver Geraldine (Oliverio Geraldin y Dilon. Balentoxar \Ballin- 

togher], Irlanda). 
f James Fanin (Diego Fanin y Cantuel, Capit&n de Caballos. 

Balingarri, Irlanda). 
f Toby Burke * (Tobias de Burgo y O'Brien. Limerick, Irlanda). 
f Patrick Terry (Patricio Terri y Rouan [Itonan], Capitan de Caballos- 

Corazas, de nacion irlandes. Limbrick). 
fMatthew O'Callaghan (Mateo O'Calagan y Pour, Capitan de 

Dragones. Carigedrehed, Irlanda). 
fThomas Barry (Tomas Barry y de Barry, Capitan de Dragones. 

Corque [Cork], Irlanda). 
fDenis O'Brien (Dionisio de O'Brien y Barry. Pelieque, Irlanda). 
Sir Daniel O'Carroll of Beagh, 1st Bt. (Daniel Carol y O'Crean, 

Capitan de Dragones irlandesa. Corax, Irlanda). 
f Julian McCarty (Julian Macarty y Macarty, Capitan de Caballos de 

Regimiento de Osuna. Cnoc Knos [Knocknanois]). 
fDominic O'Heine (Domingo O'Heine y Oshasnessy, Capitan de 

Dragones irlandeses. Cahererrellan, Irlanda). 
fJerome Begg (Jeronimo Begg y Wesley, Coronel Commandante 

del 2 Battalion de Real Artilleria. Dublin). 



1 See " Indice de Pruebas de los Caballeros que han Vestido el Hdbito de Santiago. 
Disde el And 1501. Hasta la Frecha," por D. Vicente Vignan, Jefe del Archive Histdrico 
Nacional de la R.A. de la Historia e D. Francisco R. de Uhagdn, Ministro del Tribunal de 
los Ordenes de la R.A. de la Historia. Madrid, C. de San Francisco 4, 1901. 

2 Son of Theobald Burke of Belleck, who was cr. Marquess of Mayo by Philip II. 

3 Mr. G. D. Burtchaell writes: "This William must, I think, be a son of Edmund, 
5th Lord Bourke, Baron of Castleconnell, by his 2nd wife Margaret, da. of Sir George 
Thornton, Provost-Marshal of Munster, and widow of Donogh O'Brien of Carrigogunell, 
and was not unlikely to have been born at Brittar. But in the funeral entry of this Lord 
Bourke, who d. 6 March 1638, his 2nd wife is said to have had no issue, besides which he 
had a son William by the first marriage. Nevertheless it may have been thought desirable 
to suppress the fact that there was a son in the Spanish Service, or perhaps it was only 
intended for no surviving issue. 

4 He had a certificate of his descent from the family of Clanricarde from King James 
Aug. 1702. He was afterwards (16 Apr. 1705) that Prince's Minister to the Court of 
Madrid, and was by him cr. Baron Bourke [I.] 3 Feb. 1727. See Ruvigny's Jacobite Peerage. 



264 



THE NOBILITIES OF EUROPE 



Date when 
Conferred. 



1711 

1712 

1712 
1713 

1714 
1727 

1727 
1729 

1736 
1737 
1739 
1739 

1744 
1749 

1752 
1756 
1759 

1762 
1763 
1763 
1768 
1768 
1770 
1772 



KNIGHTS OF BRITISH BIRTH OR ORIGIN continued 



flit. -Gen. Daniel O'Mahony x (Daniel Mahoni y Moriarti, Teniente 

General de los Ejercitos de S.M., Coronel de un Regimiento 

de Dragones irlandeses, Govornador de la Ciudad y Castillo 

de Cartagena, electo Comendador del Aceuchal. Couliercorane, 

Irlanda). 
f Stephen Terry (Esteban Terri y Rouan, Capitan de Dragones. 

Limbrick [Limerick], Irlanda). 
t William Terry (Guillermo Tern y Rouan. Limbrick [Limerick]). 
f Stephen Burke (Esteban de Burke y Linzi, Capitan de Infanteria 

irlandesa. Castel-Hacquet [Castle Hackett], Irlanda). 
fMelesius MacSwinny (Milesio Macsuini y O'Brien. Macrue [Macroori], 

Irlanda). 
fEdmund Tobin (Edmundo Tovin y Grifet, primer Teniente de 

Guardias Walonas. Vallidavid [Ballydavid, co. Tipperary], 

Irlanda). 
f James Tobin (Diego Tovin y Cduyer, Capitan Comandante de 

Regimiento de Watefort. Vallidavid, Irlanda}. 
f William Lacy (Guillermo de Lacy y de Lacy, Coronel del Regimiento 

de Infanteria irlandesa de Ultonia. Brury, Condado de Limerig 

[Bruree, co. Limerick], Irlanda). 
f Reginald Macdonell (Reynaldo Macdonell y Barry de Derryloun, 

Capitan en el Regimiento de Infanteria de Irlanda, electo 

Comandador de Palomas. Burgos). 
fRichard Wall (Ricardo Wall y Devreux, Capitan del Regimiento de 

Dragones de Batavia con grado coronel, oriundo de Irlanda. 

Nantes, Francia). 
fBernard O'Conor Failghe (Bernando O'Conor Phali Stoakes, 

Teniente Coronel en el Regimiento de Infanterfa de Irlanda. 

Strasburgo). 
fTbadeus O'Conor Failghe (Tadeo O'Conor Phaly y Stoakes, Sargento 

Mayor del Regimiento de Infanteria de Irlanda. San German 

[St. Germains]). 
fFrancis Lacy (Francisco Lacy y de Withe, Capitan del Regimiento 

de Ultonia. Barcelonia). 
fWilliam Nangle (Guillermo Nangle y Goold, Capitan del Regimiento 

de Caballeria de Borbon y Coronel graduado. Dingle, en el 

Condado de Kerry, Irlanda). 
fJohn O'Brien (Juan O'Brien y O'Conor, Brigadier de los Reales 

Ejercitos y Capitan de la Brigada de Carabineros Reales. 

Malaga). 
|Demitrius O'Mahony ( Demit rio Mahoni y Weld, Brigadier de los 

Reales Ejercitos y Coronel de Regimiento de Dragones de 

Pavia. San German de Laye, Francia). 
fDavid Lacy (David de Lacy y Gould, Capitan de Granaderos de 

Regimiento de Infanteria de Ultonia. Latuch, Provincia de 

Mamonia, Irlanda). 
fJohn Garland (Juan Garland y Withe, Capitan de Infanteria e 

Ingeniero Ordinario. Dublin). 
f John Nugent (Juan Nugent y Petit, Capitan de Infanteria de 

Regimiento de Hibernia. Rossagh, Irlanda). 
fEdward Wall (Eduardo Wall y Porcell, Coronel de Reales Ejercitos. 

Clochla, Irlanda). 
fEdmund Lynch (Edmundo Linch y Linch, Teniente de Navio de la 

Real Armada. Galway, Irlanda). 
fDemitrius MacEgan (Demitrio Mac-Egan y Macmanus, Capitan 

del Regimiento de Infanteria de Asturias. Tortosa). 
fNicholas Wolfe (Nicolas Woulfe y Ayluard, Capitan de Granaderos 

Provinciales. Puerto de Santa Maria, Cadiz). 
t Michael Knaresborough (Miguel Knaresbrough y Nagle, Coronel 

graduado y Capitan del Regimiento de Infanteria de Ultonia. 

Dungarban [Dungarvan, co. Kilkenny], Irlanda). 



1 See N. and Q., 10th Ser., viii. 148. 




THE SAXE ERNESTINE FAMILY ORDER 



FOREIGN ORDERS OF KNIGHTHOOD 265 



Date when 
Conferred. 



1772 
1772 
1772 
1772 
1773 
1775 

1777 

1786 
1786 
1787 

1789 
1789 

1789 
1803 
1803 

1815 
1830 



KNIGHTS OF BRITISH BIRTH OR ORIGIN continued 



fDenis O'Kelly (Dionisio O' Kelly y Burke, Capitan Ingeniero 

Ordinario. Leisduff, Provincia de Canada, en Irlanda). 
fJohn O'Kelly (Juan O'Kelly y O'Reilly, Capitan de Infanteria. 

Barcelona). 
fWilliam Vaughan 1 (Guillermo Vaughan y Jones, Coronel de 

Regimiento de Infanteria de Ibernia. Monmouih, Inglaterra). 
f Augustus Wall (Agustin Wall y Morrison, Teniente del Regimiento 

de Infanteria de Ultonia. Dumgarban, Irlanda). 
fJames Barry (Diego Barry y Duigin, Capitan de Regimiento de 

Infanteria de Irlanda. Callan, Irlanda). 
fHenry Reginald Macdonell (Enrique Reinaldo Macdonell y de 

Gonde, Teniente del Regimiento de Irlanda de Ultonia. 

Pontevedra). 
(Lawrence O'Kelly (Lorenzo O'Kelly y O'Reilly, Teniente del 

Regimiento de Infanteria de Voluntarios de Aragon. Barce- 
lona). 
fFelix O'Neill (Felix O'Neille y Varela Sarmiento, Teniente de 

fragata de la Real Armada. Balaguer, Lerida). 
fJohn O'Neill (Juan O'Neille y Varela Sarmiento, Capitan de 

Regimiento de Infanteria de Ultonia. Pamplona). 
fTerence O'Neill (Terencio O'Neille y Varela Sarmiento, Capitan 

de Regimiento de Infanteria de Hibernia. Jaca, Huesca). 
fJohn O'Kindelan (Juan O'Kindelan y O'Regan. Pontevedra). 
fSebastian O'Kindelan (Sebastian O'Kindelan y O'Regan, Capitan 

del Regimiento de Infanteria de Irlanda. Ceuta). 
fJohn Alexander O'Reilly (Juan Alejandro O'Reilly y Fitzsimons. 

Tullistrum, Irlanda). 2 
fPeter Anthony Throckmorton (Pedro Antonio Trokmorton Tacon y 

Trujillo y Paniagua. Cartagena, Murcia). 
fLeo Michael Throckmorton (Lino Miguel Trokmorton y Tacon y 

Trujillo y Paniagua. Cartagena, Murcia). 
f Michael Gordon (Miguel de Gordon y Urguijo. Orduna, Vizcaya). 
f Joseph Richard O'Farrell (Jose Ricardo O'Farril y Arredondo. 

Habana). 



THE SAXE ERNESTINE FAMILY ORDER 

(Herzoglich Sachsen-Ernestinischer Haus-Orden) 

This Order, originally founded in 1690 by Frederick I., Duke of Saxe 
Altenburg and Gotha, eldest son of Duke Ernest the Pius, as the " ORDER 
OF GERMAN INTEGRITY " (ORDEN DER DEUTSCHEN REDLICHKEIT), with the 
motto " Fideliter et Constanter" was revived 25 Dec. 1833 by Frederic, Duke 
of Saxe Altenburg, Ernest I., Duke of Saxe Coburg and Gotha, and Bernard, 
Duke of Saxe Meiningen, in honour of Ernest the Pius, Duke of Saxe Gotha, 
and in memory of the branch of Saxe Gotha Altenburg which became 
extinct in 1826. Statutes of 13 Feb., 24 Mar., and 15 Apr. 1864; 14 Aug. 
2 Sep., and 17 Sep. 1889 ; 20 Dec. 1897, and 8 Jan. 1898. 

The Grand Masters are the Dukes of Altenburg, Coburg and Gotha, and 
Meiningen, and the Order consists of four classes, viz., Knights Grand 
Cross (Grosskreuze) ; Commanders of the 1st Class (Comthure erster Klasse) ; 
Commanders of the 2nd Class (Comthure zweiter Klasse); and Knights 

1 Third son of John Vaughan of Courtfield, by his second wife Elizabeth, da. of Philip 
Jones of Llanarth. He was attainted for his share in the '45, and was exempted from the 
Act of Indemnity of 1747. He afterwards rose to the rank of General in the Spanish 
service. Burke, Landed Gentry, 1906, p. 1717. 

a Afterwards a Count, see p. 135. 



266 



THE NOBILITIES OF EUROPE 



(Eitter). Besides these classes, a Cross of Merit (das Verdienstkreuz) and a 
Medal of Merit (die Verdienst-Medaille), both of silver, are attached to the 
Order. All the Princes of the Ernestine branch of the House of Saxony 
are Knights Grand Cross, and the Grand Cross of the Order confers the rank 
of Nobility. The number of Commanders of the 1st Class is limited to 
twelve, that of Commanders of the 2nd Class to eighteen, and that of 
Knights to thirty-six. The Order is not often conferred on foreigners. 

BADGE. A gold Maltese Cross of eight points, enamelled white, on each 
point a gold knob, surmounted by a crown of gold ; between the 
arms of the cross a lion passant guardant or. On the upper arm 
is placed the cipher of the Duke who confers the Order. 

Obverse. On a centre of gold the bust of Duke Ernest the Pius, sur- 
rounded by a blue enamelled band edged gold, bearing the motto 
" Fideliter et Constanter," the band being encircled with a wreath of 
oak, vert, 1 banded or, within a gold ring. 

Reverse. On a shield the Saxon arms, viz. : Barry of ten, or and sable, 
a bend treflee vert, all within a blue enamelled band edged gold, 
bearing the date when the Order was revived, " 25 December 1833," 
encircled as on the obverse. 

STAR. Eight radiating points alternately of gold and silver, on a centre 
of gold ; a green rue crown, surrounded by a blue enamelled band, 
edged gold, bearing the motto " Fideliter et Constanter." 

RIBBON. Dark-red watered silk, with two narrow green stripes. 



Pate when 
Conferred. 



KNIGHTS GRAND CROSS (G.C.S.E.) 
(Grosskreuz) 



His Majesty King Edward VII. 2 
H.R.H. George, Prince of Wales. 2 
H.R.H. Arthur, Duke of Connaught and Strathearn. 2 
H.R.H. Prince Arthur of Connaught and Strathearn. 2 
1 Aug. 1897 fLord Edward William Pelham Clinton, G.C.V.O. 



Date of 
Royal License. 





KNIGHT COMMANDERS (K.C.S.E.) 






( Komturkreuz ) 








IST CLASS 










j-1846. Right Hon. Lord George William Russell, 


26 Apr. 


1841 






G.C.B. 






19 Sep. 


1888 


Sir Henry Felix Woods, K.C.V.O. 3 






26 Nov. 


1893 


Right Hon. Sir Spencer Cecil Brabazon Ponsonby 










Fane, P.C., G.C.B. 










2ND CLASS 






3 May 


1892 


Edmund Kempt, 1st Baron Campbell of Laurentz. 






8 Sep. 


1900 


Augustus Debonnaire John, 9th Lord Monson. 


27 Sep. 


1900 


8 Sep. 


1900 


Alleyne Alfred, 1st Baron Boxall. 


27 Sep. 


1900 


8 Sep. 


1900 


Sir Henry White. 


1 Oct. 


1900 


11 Jul. 
19 Sep. 


1902 
1906 


Col. Arthur Balfour Haig, C.V.O., C.M.G. 
Col. Frederic John Arthur Trench, C.V.O., D.S.O. 


1 Oct. 


1906 



1 When presented to a foreigner the wreath of oak is omitted. 2 By birth. 

3 At the request of the late Duke Alfred (then Duke of Edinburgh), in recognition 
of Sir Henry's services as a Special Aide-de-Camp when attached to his suite by the Sultan, 
during his two visits to Constantinople while Comraander-in-Chief of the British 
Mediterranean Fleet. 



FOREIGN ORDERS OF KNIGHTHOOD 267 



Date when 
Conferred. 


KNIGHTS (K.S.E.) 
(Ritterkreuz) 


Date of 
Royal License. 


6 Dec. 1892 


tl846. Right Hon. Lord George William Russell, 
G.C.B.i 
j-1903. William Ernest, 1st Baron Bush. 





THE ORDER OF THE ELEPHANT OF DENMARK 

(Elefantordenen) 

This is the principal Danish Order, and ranks high among the European 
Orders of Knighthood. Its origin is unknown, but it was revived by King 
Christian I. between 1458 and 1462. It was entirely remodelled by King 
Christian V. 1 Dec. 1693, who granted the Statutes now in use. It consists 
of one Class (Knights), and is only conferred on Members of Royal Families 
and of the higher Noblesse. 

BADGE. A White Elephant, tusked or clothed azure, on his back a castle 
embattled gules, thereon a cross of diamonds, a negro ppr. with white 
turban, sitting upon the neck of the elephant and having in his hand a 
spur or. 

COLLAR. Gold, composed of four elephants with blue housings, and towers 
alternately. 

STAB. Silver, of eight clusters of rays with round knobs on the points ; on 
a centre gules, a cross of brilliants, within a band or, charged with a 
laurel wreath argent on the inside edge. 

RIBBON. Light blue. 

MOTTO. " Magnanime Pretium." 

Sovereign : 
His Majesty Frederick VIII., King of Denmark. 



Date when 
Conferred. 



27Jul. 1815 

27Jul. 1815 

16 Nov. 1863 

2 Aug. 1873 

16 Nov. 1878 

11 Oct. 1885 

17 Nov. 1905 



KNIGHTS (K.E.) 
(Riddere af Elefantin, R.E.) 



fH.R.H. George, Prince of Wales, afterwards George IV. 
t Arthur, 1st Duke of Wellington, K.G. 

His Majesty King Edward VII. 

H.R.H. Arthur, Duke of Connaught and Strathearn, K.G. 

H.R.H. Ernest Augustus, 3rd Duke of Cumberland and Teviot- 
dale, K.G. 

H.R.H. George, Prince of Wales, Duke of Rothesay, K.G. 

H.R.H. George William, Earl of Armagh (Duke of Brunswick). 



THE ORDER OF THE DANNEBROG OF DENMARK 

(Danebrogs Ordenen) 

The Dannebrog is the second Danish Order, and is said to have been 
founded by King Waldemar II. in 1219. It was revived and confirmed by 
King Frederic III. 12 Oct. 1671, and received its Statutes from his successor, 

1 For services in the field. He was afterwards made K.C.S.E. while Ambassador 
at Berlin. 



268 



THE NOBILITIES OF EUROPE 



Christian V., 1 Dec. 1693. By royal decree of 28 June 1808 King Frederic VI. 
divided the Order into four classes, which were reduced to three by 
Christian VIII. 21 Feb. 1842, but were afterwards again increased to four. 
BADGE. An oblong gold Cross, enamelled white, with red border, surmounted 

by the King's initials crowned with a royal Crown, the latter also 

placed in each angle of the Cross in gold. 
Obverse. On the centre a crowned W (Waldemar), and upon the four arms 

of the Cross the words " Gud - og - Kon - gen " (God and the King). 
Reverse. In the centre of the crowned W and on the points, the dates of 

the foundation and restoration of the Order 1219, 1671, 1808. 

COLLAR. Gold. The monograms of Christian V. and Waldemar, regally 
crowned and alternating with the Cross of the Order. 

STAR. A silver radiating Star of eight principal points, with round knobs on 
each point, having in the centre the Badge without the Crown. 

RIBBON. White with crimson edges. 

MOTTO. " Pietate et Justitiae " and " Gud og Kongen." 

Sovereign : 
His Majesty Frederick VIII., King of Denmark. 



Date when 
Conferred. 



GRAND COMMANDER 
(Storkommandorer, S.Kmd. 



Date of 
Royal License. 



9 Sep. 1901 His Majesty King Edward VII. 



25 Apr. 1865 
14 Oct. 1879 

21Jun. 1887 
10 Mar. 1888 
10 Mar. 1888 
27 Sep. 1891 

27Jul. 1893 
22Jul. 1896 

1902 

9Jul. 1902 
20 Oct. 1903 
12 Mar. 1904 

8 Apr. 1904 

9 Sep. 1905 

9 Sep. 1905 
19 May 1906 



KNIGHTS GRAND CROSS (G.C.E.D.) 

(Storkors af Danebrog, S.K.) 

t Francis Thomas de Grey (Cowper), 7th Earl Cowper. 
Gen. the Right Hon. Sir Dighton Macnaghten 

Probyn, G.C.V.O., K.C.B. 

Archibald Brabazon Sparrow, 4th Earl of Gosford. 
James, 2nd Duke of Abercorn, K.G., P.C. 
Charles, 5th Baron Suffield, P.C., G.C.V.O., &c. 
Vice-Admiral Sir Henry Frederick Stephenson, 

G.C.V.O., K.C.B. 1 
Francis, 1st Lord Knollys, G.C.V.O., K.C.B., &c., 

His Majesty's Private Secretary. 
Major-Gen. Sir Stanley de Astel Calvert Clarke, 

G.C.V.O., &c. 

Joseph, 1st Baron Lister, P.C. 2 
Lloyd, 4*th Baron Kenyon. 
Sir John Williams, 1st Bt., K.C.V.O. 
Right Hon. Sir (William) Edward Goschen, P.C., 

G.C.V.O., &c. 

Sir Francis Henry Laking, 1st Bt., G.C.V.O. 
Vice-Admiral Sir Arthur William Moore, K.C.B., 

K.C.V.O., &c. 

Admiral Sir Arthur Knyvet Wilson, G.C.V.O., &c. 3 
Charles Robert, 1st Viscount Althorp, P.C., Lord 

Chamberlain* * 



10 Sep. 1906 



1 Has permission to wear the insignia of this Order ; see Navy List. 

2 On the occasion of the Jubilee of his entrance into the Medical Profession in 1852. 
The insignia was handed to him by H.M. the Queen on her return from a visit to Copen- 
hagen. 

3 Insignia in diamonds. 

4 On the occasion of his Mission to represent His Majesty at the funeral of the late 
King of Denmark. 



FOREIGN ORDERS OF KNIGHTHOOD 269 



Date when 
Conferred. 



19 May 1906 



19 Nov. 
8 Jun. 
8 Jun. 



1906 
1907 
1907 



8 Jun. 1907 



8 Jun. 
8 Jun. 



1907 
1907 



8 Jun. 1907 
8 Jun. 1907 

22 Apr. 1908 



KNIGHTS GRAND CROSS (G.C.E.D.) continued 



Paul Sanford, 3rd Baron Methuen, G.C.B., K.C.V.O., 

&c. 

Gen. Sir Julius Augustus Robert Raines, G.C.B. 
Richard Maximilian, 2nd Baron Acton. 
Horace Brand, 1st Baron Farquhar, G.C.V.O., 

Master of the Household. 
Lt.-Gen. Sir John Denton Pinkstone French, 

G.C.V.O., K.C.B., &c. 
Granville George, 3rd Earl Granville. 
Hon. Sir Alan Vanden-Bempde-Johnstone, K.C.V.O., 

H.B.M.'s Envoy Extraor. and Min. Plen. at 

Copenhagen. 

Gen. Sir Arthur Henry Fitzroy Paget, K.C.V.O., &c. 
Osbert Cecil, 6th Earl of Sefton, P.C., Master of the 

Horse. 

Richard George Penn, 4th Earl Howe, G.C.V.O. 
Sir Robert Hart, Bt., G.C.M.G. 



Date of 
Royal License. 



31 Aug. 1908 



25 Apr. 1865 

21 Nov. 1896 
16 Feb. 1901 

22 Sep. 1901 
18 Apr. 1902 

9Jul. 1902 

29Jul. 1902 

1 Nov. 1902 

14 Nov. 1903 
8 Apr. 1904 

8 Apr. 1904 

9 Sep. 1905 
9 Sep. 1905 
8 Jun. 1907 
8 Jun. 1907 
8 Jun. 1907 
8 Jun. 1907 
8 Jun. 1907 



KNIGHT COMMANDERS, IST CLASS (K.C.E.D.) 
(Kommand^>rers af Danebrog, Iste Grad. K^D.) 

Right Hon. (Anthony) Evelyn Melbourne Ashley, 

P.C. 

Sir William Henry White, K.C.B. 
Col. Sir Robert Nigel Fitzhardinge Kingscote, 

G.C.V.O., K.C.B., &c. 
Col. Sir Arthur Davidson, K.C.V.O. 
Col. John Fielden Brocklehurst. 
Major-Gen. John Palmer Brabazon. 
Major-Gen. Sir Rudolf Carl Slatin, Pasha. 
Rear-Adm. the Hon. Sir Hedworth Lambton, 

K.C.V.O. 
Capt. Sir Archibald Berkeley Milne, 2nd Bt., 

K.C.V.O. 
Capt. the Hon. Seymour John Fortescue, C.V.O., 

C.M.G., R.N., Equerry to His Majesty. 
Hon. Sidney Robert Greville. 
Rear-Adm. Sir Richard Poore, 4th Bt. 
Rear-Adm. Alfred Leigh Winsloe. 
Lt.-Col. Sir Charles Arthur Andrew Frederick, C.V.O 
Sir Edward Richard Henry, K.C.V.O. 
Commodore Colin Richard Keppel. 
Major-Gen. Sir J. Stopford. 
Right Hon. Sir William Purdie Treloar. 



KNIGHT COMMANDERS, 2ND CLASS (K.C.E.D.) 
(Kommand<j>rers af Danebrog, 2den Grad. K. 2 D.) 

21 Dec. 1878 Capt. Edmond Henry St. John Mildmay. 

14 Oct. 1879 Adm. Lord Charles William de la Poer Beresford, 

G.C.V.O., K.C.B. 
1879 Sir Joseph Lister, now Lord Lister. 1 

14 Oct. 1879 Sir Allen William Young, C.V.O., &c. 

Alfred Louis Crowe, Esq., Danish Consul at Patras. 16 Aug. 188 

21 Jun. 1887 Major Lord Henry Arthur George Somerset. 

25 Feb. 1893 Sir Albert Kaye Rollit, LL.D. 

27 Jul. 1893 Capt. George Lindsay Holford, C.V.O. 

24 Jun. 1895 Sir John Cameron Lamb, C.B., &c., Director Tele- 
graph Dept. 



1 Grand Cross 1902. 



270 



THE NOBILITIES OF EUROPE 



Date when 
Conferred. 



26Jul. 1897 
3 Nov. 1900 
9Jul. 1902 
9Jul. 1902 

20 Oct. 1903 
30 Oct. 1903 
10 Dec. 1903 

8 Apr. 1904 

21 Sep. 1904 
13 Oct. 1904 

13 Oct. 1904 
23 Jan. 1906 

14 Aug. 1906 

30 Sep. 1906 

9 Nov. 1906 
9 Nov. 1906 

16 Nov. 1906 

8Jun. 1907 
8Jun. 1907 
8Jun. 1907 

8Jun. 1907 

8Jun. 1907 

8Jun. 1907 

8Jun. 1907 

8Jun. 1907 

8Jun. 1907 



22 Apr. 1908 

22 Apr. 1908 

19 



KNIGHT COMMANDERS, 2ND CLASS (K.C.E.D.) 
continued 



Date of 
Royal License. 



Commander William Gordon Gumming. 

Sir John Denison-Pender, K.C., K.C.M.G. 

Commander Sir Charles Leopold Cust, 3rd Bt. 

Col. Sir Henry Knollys, K.C.V.O. 

Sir Alan Reeve Manby, M.V.O., &c. 

Rev. Frederick Alfred John Hervey, C.V.O. 

Capt. Arthur Wartensleben Ewart, Naval Attache at ! 22 Feb. 1904 

Copenhagen. 
Lt.-Col. Frederick Edward Grey Ponsonby, C.V.O., 

C.B. 

Lt.-Col. Nathaniel Walter Barnardiston, M.V.O. 
Major John Henry Verinder Crowe, R.A. 1 
Lt.-Col. George Francis Milne. 
Major Edmund Stuart Eardley Wilmot Eardley- 

Russell. 1 
Hon. Arthur Henry John Walsh, Gentleman in 

Waiting. 

Hon. Sidney George Holland. 
Lt.-Col. George Victor Dauglish. 1 
Col. the Hon. Henry Yarde-Buller. 
John Ardron, C.B., late Principal Assistant Secretary 

to the Postmaster-General. 
James Bell, Esq., C.B., Town-Clerk, London. 
Capt. Richard George Tyndall Bright, C.M.G. 
Lt.-Col. the Hon. Col. Sir Theodore Francis Brinck- 

man, 3rd Bt. 

Sir Thomas Boor Crosby, M.D., Sheriff of London. 
Sir William Henry Dunn, Sheriff of London. 
Walter Hayman Pitman, Esq. 

Adrian D. Wilde Pollock, Esq., City Remembrancer. 
Sir William Jameson Soulsby, C.B., C.I.E. 
Alfred George Temple, Esq., Director Guildhall 

Gallery. 
Sir Melville Leslie Macnaghten, Chief of Criminal 

Investigation Dept. 
Charles Stuart Leckie, Esq., Danish Consul-Gen. 

for Siam. 
John Charles Tudor Vaughan, Esq., 1st Sec. 

H.B.M.'s Legation in Copenhagen. 
Capt. Philip Wylie Dumas, R.N., Naval Attache 

at Copenhagen. 

William John Archer, Esq., C.M.G., Siamese Lega- 
tion. 2 



lOJun. 1907 



IDec. 1898 



22 Jun. 1808 



7 Sep. 
30 Apr. 
12 May 

11 Oct. 
21 May 

28 Jun. 
10 Dec. 



1865 
1870 
1871 

1887 
1892 

1893 
1894 



COMPANIONS (C.D.) 
(Ridder. R.D.) 

Thomas Parker Watson, Engineer. 
fEneas, 9th Baron Reay. 

L. H. Moorsom, Esq., Surveyor-General, Hong- 
Kong. 

Capt. the Hon. Sidney Robert Greville, C.V.O. , 
Private Secretary to H.M. Queen Alexandra. 

R. M. Hudson, Esq., Danish Vice-Consul, Sunder- 
land. 

John Francis Sykes Gooday, Esq., Director G.E.R. 

Henry Pattinson, Esq., Danish Consul, Hull. 



Has permission to wear insignia of this Order ; see Army List. 

For valuable services on the occasion of the visit of the King of Siam to Denmark 



FOREIGN ORDERS OF KNIGHTHOOD 271 



Date when 
Conferred. 



IMay 1895 

24Jun. 1895 

7 May 1896 

27Jul. 1896 

3 Nov. 1900 

16 Apr. 1901 

23 Sep. 1901 

15 Apr. 1902 
9Jul. 1902 
9Jul. 1902 

9 Oct. 1902 

2 Sep. 1903 

19 Apr. 1904 

28 Sep. 1904 

7 Oct. 1905 

9 Oct. 1906 

9 Nov. 1906 

8Jun. 1907 

8Jun. 1907 

8Jun. 1907 

8Jun. 1907 

8Jun. 1907 

8Jun. 1907 

10 Sep. 1907 

22 Apr. 1908 

22 Apr. 1908 
22 Apr. 1908 



COMPANIONS (C.D.) continued 



Date of 
Royal License. 



Sir John Furley, C.B., St. John's Ambulance. 

Philip Benton, Esq., Telegraph Dept. 

Major the Hon. Derek William George Keppel, 

C.M.G., &c. 

Hon. Henry Julian Stonor, M.V.O. 
F. C. Smith, Esq., Danish Consul, Nagasaki. 
William Groom, Esq., Danish Vice-Consul, Harwich. 
William Leslie Melville (now Sir W. L. Melville), 1 

M.V.O., Police Inspector. 

Capt. Bryan Godfrey Godfrey-Faussett, M.V.O. 2 
Lt.-Col. Nathaniel Walter Barnardiston, M.V.O. 
Lieut. Charles Elphinstone Fleeming Cunninghame 

Graham, M.V.O., R.N. 2 
Lieut. Basil Vernon Brooke, R.N. 
John R. L. Cridland, Esq. 
Hon. Reginald Lister, C.V.O. 
B. S. Green, Esq. 

Professor Charles Waldstein, Litt.D., Ph.D., L.H.D. 
Capt. Charles C. Cobbe, R.N. 
Capt. Robert MacDouall, R.N. 
Cuthbert F. Corbould-Ellis, Esq. 
Charles Dyer, Esq., Mayor of Plymouth. 
William Forbes, Esq. 
Neil Forsyth, Esq., M.V.O. 

Patrick Quinn, Esq., Superintendent of Police. 
Capt. William Webster, R.N., M.V.O. 
William George Watson, Esq. 
Lionel Charles Liddell, Esq., H.B.M.'s Consul, 

Copenhagen. 

Lionel St. Aubyn, Esq., Mil. Attache at Copenhagen. 
Rev. Mortimer Egerton Kennedy, M. A., M.V.O., 

Chaplain at British Legation. 



27 Jun. 1907 



The following have also this Order, but the Editor is unaware of their rank in 
the same and of the dates when they received it. 



27 Nov. 1832 
1895 



fCharles Borre, 2nd Baron Selby. 

fSir Richard Dobson, M.D. 

{Nicholas Carlisle, Esq., K.H., D.C.L., Secretary to 
the Society of Antiquaries of London. 

fSir Henry Charles Fischer, K.C.M.G. 
William Henry Stone, Esq., Foreign Sec. in the 
Dept. of Communications of Japan, on the 
occasion of the visit of H.R.H. Prince Walde- 
mar to Japan. (Cross of Commander.) 
Charles Armstrong, Esq., for services as Consul of 
Denmark at Ponce (Knt.). 



17 Jan. 1903 



18 Sep. 1903 



THE IMPERIAL MILITARY ORDER OF MARIA THERESA 
(Der Maria-Theresia-Orden) 

Founded 13 May 1757 by the Emperor Francis I. as a reward for Mili- 
tary Service. Statutes of the 12 December 1758, 15 October 1765, 
12 December 1810, 21 October 1878, 11 February 1886, and 3 March 1895. 
It originally consisted of only two classes Grand Crosses and Knights 
(Grosskreuzen und Rittern) ; but the Emperor Joseph II. added two classes 

1 Knight Commander, 2nd Class, 19. 

2 Has pennission to wear insignia of this Order ; see Navy List. 



2 7 2 



THE NOBILITIES OF EUROPE 



15 Oct. 1765, dividing the Order into Grand Crosses, Commanders, and 
Knights of the 1st and 2nd Class. The number was reduced to three (the 
last class being suppressed) 3 Mar. 1895. 1 

BADGE. A gold cross pattee moline, enamelled white, edged gold. 

Obverse. In a circular centre, the arms of Austria, viz. : Gules, a fess 
argent, within a white band, edged gold, and inscribed " Fortitudini " 
in gold letters. 

Reverse. In a centre, enamelled white, the monogram MTF in gold, 
surrounded by a wreath of laurel, green. 

STAB. A cross pattee moline, silver, resting on a wreath of laurel and 
encircled with a gold chain, having a centre as Badge. 

KIBBON. White watered silk, with broad red edges. 



Date when 
Conferred. 



KNIGHT GRAND CROSS (G.C.M.T.) 



f Arthur, Marquess of Wellington, K.G. 2 



Date of 
Royal License. 



4 Mar. 1814 



4 Jan. 1814 



2 Aug. 1815 
2 Aug. 1815 



KNIGHT COMMANDERS (K.C.M.T.) 

fl849. Gen. Sir Robert Thomas Wilson. 3 

f 1819. Vice-Adm. Thomas Francis Fremantle, R.N., 

G.C.B. 4 
f!854. Henry William, 1st Marquis of Anglesey, 

G.C.B. 
f!842. Rowland, 1st Viscount Hill, G.C.B. 



4 Mar. 1814 
23 May 1814 



4 Dec. 1758 
23 Jan. 1760 

1 Oct. 1761 



KNIGHTS (K.M.T.) 

f!779. Thomas, Baron Plunket, Major-Gen. 5 

J1802. Joseph, 1st Count Murray de Melqun, Col. of 

Los Rios Reg. 6 
j-1787. Col. Patrick Oliver von Wallis, P.C., 35th 

Regt. 7 
f James Lockhart Wishart, Count of the Holy Roman 

Empire. 

fl793. Edward, Count Dalton, Lieut.-Gen. 8 
fSir James Williams, Col. in the Austrian Service 

and Commander of the Imperial Flotillas 

on the Adriatic, the Italian Lakes, and the 

Danube, in 1796 and 1799. 



14 May 1785 



1 By article 37 of the Statutes of 12 Dec. 1758, it was decreed that " Denjenigen 
Grosskreuzen und Rittern, welche es begehren, der Herrenstand, nahmlich das Baronat 
ertheilet, und das gewohnliche Diplom unentgeldlich ausgefertiget werden," which has 
given rise to the statement so often made in English works that all Knights become 
Barons of the Empire. 

2 " In testimony of the high sense which the Emperor entertains of his distinguished 
merits and brilliant achievements." 

3 "In testimony of the Emperor's esteem and the high sense which he entertains of 
his merits and his services in the common cause, and of the valour displayed by him 
upon every occasion." 

4 "In testimony of the high sense which the Emperor of Austria entertains of 
distinguished gallantry and conduct displayed by him (in co-operation with the Imj 
Troops) on the coast of the Adriatic." 

5 "For conduct at the battle of Kollin." Nob. de JBelgique, 1864, p. 283. 

6 "For bravery at the battle of Hochkirchen. " Ibid. 

7 For capture of Schweidnitz. 

8 Burke 's Peerage, 1843. 



FOREIGN ORDERS OF KNIGHTHOOD 273 



XSeSd? KNIGHTS (KM.T.)-contmu e d 


Date of 
Royal License. 


7 Nov. 1800 
1 Nov. 1800 
7 Nov. 1800 
7 Nov. 1800 

7 Nov. 1800 
7 Nov. 1800 
7 Nov. 1800 
7 Nov. 1800 

1813 


|Major William Aylett, Lieut.-Col. in the Army. 1 
fCapt. Robert Pocklington,late Major 15th Dragoons. 1 
fCapt. Edward Michael Ryan, Major in the Army. 1 
f Lieut. Thomas Granby Calcraft, Lieut.-Col. 3rd 
Dragoon Guards. 1 
jLieut. William Keir (now Grant), Major 6th 
Dragoon Guards. 1 
f Lieut. Charles Burrell Blount, late Capt. 15th 
Light Dragoons. 1 
fCornet Edward Gerald Butler, Major 87th Regt. of 
Foot. 1 
f Cornet Robert Thomas Wilson, Major in Hompesch's 
Regt. of Mounted Riflemen. 1 z 
f 1807. Sir Thomas Louis, Rear- Admiral R.N. 3 
fMichael, Prince Barclay de Tolly. 
J1820. Sir Granby Thomas Calcraft, Major-Gen, in 
the Army, and Lieut.-Col. 3rd Regt. of Dra- 
goon Guards. 


2Jun. 1801 
2Jun. 1801 
2Jun. 1801 
2Jun. 1801 

2Jun. 1801 
2Jun. 1801 
2Jun. 1801 
2Jun. 1801 

9 Apr. 1814 



1 On the 24th April 1794, they, with two squadrons of the 15th Light Dragoons, 
and two squadrons of Leopold's Hussars, mustering altogether under 300 sabres, attacked 
and routed a very superior French force at Villiers-en-Couche, thereby preventing the 
capture of the Emperor Francis II., whom the French were endeavouring to intercept on 
his way from Valenciennes to Catillon. In ccmmemoration of this magnificent charge, 
undertaken with the full knowledge of the danger incurred and of the object to be 
attained, the Emperor caused nine commemorative gold medals to be struck, the only 
impressions, one to be deposited in the Imperial Cabinet and the others to be bestowed 
upon the eight British officers who had taken part in it. George III. gave permission 
for them to be worn "as an honorary badge of their bravery in the field," and in 1800 
the following letter was received by Lieut.-Col. Aylett from Lord Minto, the British 
Ambassador at Vienna : 

"VIENNA, 7 Nov. 1800. 

"SiR, I have received from his Excellency Baron Thugut, eight Crosses of the Order 
of Maria Theresa, which the Emperor has been pleased to confer on yourself and seven 
other officers of the Fifteenth Light Dragoons, who distinguished themselves in a most 
gallant action near Villiers-en-Couche on 24th April 1794. 

"His Imperial Majesty had already testified the high sense he entertained of the 
brilliant and important service which our regiment performed on that occasion by pre- 
senting the officers engaged with a medal, struck for the purpose of commemorating 
that brilliant action, and affording to those who achieved it a lasting testimony of his 
approbation and gratitude. It was deemed worthy at the time of the Cross of Maria 
Theresa, but at that period a doubt was entertained whether this order could be conferred 
on foreigners ; that difficulty being now removed, His Imperial Majesty avails himself 
with pleasure of the occasion to evince his high esteem for the regiment, as well as his 
regard for the individuals, by investing with this order of merit gentlemen who have 
proved themselves so worthy to wear it. In transmitting to you these crosses, to be 
distributed to the officers for whom they are destined, I cannot omit the opportunity of 
expressing the satisfaction I have experienced from the share which my situation here has 
afforded me in a transaction which, while it does honour to the liberality of His Imperial 
Majesty, throws so much lustre on the corps, and on those who are immediately 
concerned, and reflects at the same time credit on the country to which they belong. 
I have, &c. MINTO." 

" By the Statutes of the Order all Knights are created Barons of the Empire, and the 
Emperor granted the British Knights as supporters an Austrian Hussar of Leopold and 
a soldier of the 15th Light Dragoons." Bath Chronicle. According to the Diet. Nat. 
JSiog. the Royal License allowed them to accept the Cross, "with the rank of Baron of 
the Holy Roman Empire, and of Knighthood attached, " but this statement is incorrect. 

2 He lost his cross of Maria Theresa at the storming of the grand redoubt at Dresden, 
26th August 1813, where he was the first to mount the parapet, hearing of which the 
Emperor presented him with another, which was sent him with a complimentary letter 
from Count Metternich, dated Toplitz, 24th September 1813. 

3 " For services in the reconquest of Naples from the French." 



274 



THE NOBILITIES OF EUROPE 



Date when 
Conferred. 


KNIGHTS (K.M.T.) continued 


Date of 
Royal License. 




t Charles Rowley, Capt. H.M.S. Eagle. 1 
j-1828. Sir William Hoste, 1st Bt., K.C.B., late Capt. 


23 May 1814 
23 May 1814 




H.M.S. Bacchante. 1 






tFairfax Moresby, Commander of H.M.'s Sloop 


23 May 1814 




Weazle. 1 






f!843. John, llth Earl of Westmorland. 2 


7Jun. 1814 




j-1864. George, 3rd Earl Cadogan, Admiral R.N. 3 


22 Jul. 1814 


2 Aug. 1815 


J1846. Lieut. -Gen. Sir William Henry Clinton, 






G.C.B. 4 




2 Aug. 1815 


fMajor-Gen. Sir James Kempt, K.C.B. 4 




2 Aug. 1815 


tMajor-Gen. Sir Edward Barnes, K.C.B. 4 




2 Aug. 1815 


j-1842. Major-Gen. Lord Edward Somerset, G.C.B. 4 




2 Aug. 1815 


fCol. Sir John Elley, K.C.B., R.H.G. 4 




2 Aug. 1815 


fCol. Thomas Reynell, 71st Regt. 4 




2 Aug. 1815 


j-Col. Sir Andrew Barnard, K.C.B., 95th Regt. 4 




2 Aug. 1815 


j-1853. Col. the Hon. Alexander Abercromby, Cold- 






stream Guards. 4 




2 Aug. 1815 


tCol. Sir George Adam, R.A. 4 


25 May 1820 


2 Aug. 1815 


fCol. Sir Colin Campbell, Coldstream Guards. 4 


25 May 1820 


2 Aug. 1815 


j-Col. Sir John Colborne, K.C.B., 22nd Regt. 4 




2 Aug. 1815 


fCol. Alexander Woodford, Coldstream Guards. 4 




2 Aug. 1815 


f 1837. Col. the Hon. Frederick Ponsonby. 4 




2 Aug. 1815 


fCol. Felton B. Harvey, 14th Light Dragoons. 4 




2 Aug. 1815 


fCol. Carmichael Smith, R.E. 4 




2 Aug. 1815 


f Lieut. -Col. James McDonnell, Coldstream Guards. 4 




2 Aug. 1815 


t!860. Lieut.-Col. Sir Robert Hill, R.H.G. 4 




2 Aug. 1815 


f!855. Lieut.-Col. Lord Fitzroy Somerset, K.C.B. 4 5 


4 Apr. 1816 


2 Aug. 1815 


f Lieut. -Col. Robert Dick, 42nd Regt. 4 




2 Aug. 1815 


tLieut.-Col. Sir Neil Douglas, K.C.H., C.B. 4 


7 Nov. 1831 


2 Aug. 1815 


f!853. Alexander George, 16th Lord Saltoun, Lieut.- 






Col. 4 




8 Oct. 1815 


fMajor-Gen. Sir John Bvng. 4 




8 Oct. 1815 


f!853. Major-Gen. Sir Frederick Adam, G.C.B. 4 


15 Sep. 1828 


8 Oct. 1815 


fMajor-Gen. Sir Denis Pack. 4 




8 Oct. 1815 


t Major-Gen. Sir Hussey Vivian. 4 






j-1835. Capt. James Black. 






f Lieut. -Gen. John, Lord Stafford. 




Dec. 1840 


fVice-Adm. Sir Charles Napier. 4 


ISJun. 1847 



" In testimony of the high sense which the Emperor of Austria entertains of their 
distinguished gallantry and services (in co-operation with the Imperial Troops) on the 
coast of the Adriatic." 

2 Lieut-Col. 63rd Regt. of Foot, and lately employed on a particular service at the 
Headquarters of the Imperial Austrian Armies. " As a signal testimony of the high 
sense which His Majesty the Emperor of Austria entertains of the services rendered by him 
to the cause of Europe, while employed with his armies." 

"In testimony of the high sense which the Emperor of Austria entertains of the 
distinguished gallantry displayed by him (in co-operation with the Imperial Troops) on 
the coast of the Adriatic." 

4 "In testimony of His Imperial Majesty's approbation of their services and conduct, 
particularly in the late battle in the Netherlands." Despatches from the Duke of 
Wellington, dated Headquarters, Paris, 2 Aug. 1815, and 8 Oct. 1815. 

5 Afterwards Field-Marshal Lord Raglan. 



FOREIGN ORDERS OF KNIGHTHOOD 275 

THE EOYAL MILITARY ORDER OF ST. FERDINAND OF SPAIN 

(La Orden Real e Militar de San Fernando) 

The National Order of St. Ferdinand was instituted by the General Cortes 
by a decree dated at Cadiz 31 Aug. 1811, as a reward for Military Merit. 
King Ferdinand VII. changed the style to The Military and Royal Order 
of St. Ferdinand * 19 January 1815, and by a decree of 10 July following 
assumed the Sovereignty of the Order, which he divided into five classes 
the first to include officers of the rank of Colonel and below; the second, 
officers of the same rank who should have distinguished themselves ; the 
third, Generals ; the fourth, Generals who should have distinguished them- 
selves ; and the fifth, Generals who have commanded armies. The last are 
the Knights Grand Cross, and have the title of Excellency. 

The Order is governed by a Chapter composed of the Grand Crosses 
and Knights resident at Court, at which the senior Grand Cross presides 
in the absence of the King. A service is held on St. Ferdinand's Day, and 
a mass for the deceased Knights on the following day. 

New Statutes were granted 18 May 1862. 

BADGE. A gold Maltese Cross, enamelled white, having gold knobs on the 
points, the cross resting upon a green enamelled laurel wreath, and 
suspended from another for the first and second class. The laurel 
wreath is omitted for the others. 

Obverse. On a white circular centre, surrounded by a blue band inscribed 
" Al merito militar," the figure of St. Ferdinand in royal robes. 

Reverse. The same, only the band inscribed " La Patria." 
STAR. Same as Badge, without wreath. 
RIBBON. Red watered silk, with two narrow yellow lines. 



Date when 
Conferred. 



11 Apr. 1812 



KNIGHTS GRAND CROSS (G.C.F.S.) 
(Gran Cruz) 



? 1813 



Arthur, 1st Duke of Wellington. 

Lieut.-Gen. William Carr, Lord Beresford, 2 P.O., 

G.C.B. 
Col. Sir Samuel Ford Whittingham, Lieut.-Gen. 

Spanish Army. 3 

KNIGHTS, IST CLASS (K.F.S.) 
(Caballeros de l a Classe) 

Lieut.-Gen. Sir Stapleton Cotton, Bt., afterwards 

Viscount Combermere. 
Arthur Goodall W T avell, Col. Spanish Army. 4 



Date of 
Royal License. 



24Jul. 1815 
3 Nov. 1815 



16 Feb. 1818 



1 Its title was, however, again changed to The National and Military Order, &c., in 
1836, on the restoration of the democratic Constitution of 1812. 

2 " In testimony of the high sense which His Catholic Majesty entertains of the signal 
services rendered by him in the field, as a Captain-General of the Spanish armies during 
the Peninsular War." . 

3 As a signal testimony of His Catholic Majesty's approbation of the distinguished 
services rendered by him in the action at Castalla, 13 Apr. 1813. 

4 "In testimony of the sense which His Catholic Majesty Ferdinand the Seventh, 
King of Spain, entertains of the distinguished intrepidity displayed by him in action 
with the enemy, more especially on the night of the 16th of June 1811, during the siege 
of Tarragona, in an assault against the trenches occupied by the enemy. ' 



276 



THE NOBILITIES OF EUROPE 



Date when 
Conferred. 



KNIGHTS, IST CLASS (K.F.S.) continued 



Date of 
Royal License. 



1836 



James, 4th Earl Fife, K.T., Major-Gen. Spanish 

Service. 1 

Col. Edward Kent Strathearn Murray. 2 
Lieut.-Col. Claudius Shaw, R.A. 3 
Duncan McDougall, Brig. -Gen. Spanish Service. 4 
Major Sir John Gaspard Le Marchant, K.C.B., 

G.C.M.G., Brig. -Gen. Spanish Service. 5 
John Kinloch, Brig.-Gen. Spanish Service. 6 
Col. De Lacy Evans, Lieut.-Gen. Spanish Service. 7 
Lieut.-Col. Charles Chichester, Brig. Spanish Service. 8 
Capt. East Apthorp, 2nd Regt. Madras N.I. 9 
Capt. William Ferguson Beatson, 54th Regt. Bengal 

N.I., late Lieut.-Col. Spanish Service. 10 
Lieut. Robert Caiman, 40th Regt. Madras N.I., 

late Lieut.-Col. Spanish Service. 11 
Capt. Richard Basset, R.N. 12 
Capt. Hickman Rose Kirby, 4th N.I., 13 late Col. 

British Auxiliary Legion. 
Lieut. Edward William Crofton, R.A. 14 
Lieut. Edward Walter Crofton, R.A. 
Lieut. George Drought Warburton, R.A. 15 
Charles William Thompson, Ensign 81st Foot. 16 
Lieut. George Edward Turner. 17 



27 Feb. 1818 



7 Dec. 1836 
7 Dec. 1836 



15 Feb. 

4 Mar. 

IMay 
17 Jul. 
11 Sep. 



1837 
1837 
1837 
1837 
1837 



9 Oct. 1837 

29 Jan. 1838 
12 Mar. 1838 

8 Nov. 1838 

8 Nov. 1838 

26 Dec. 1838 

11 Mar. 1839 

16 Oct. 1839 



1 "In testimony of the sense which His Catholic Majesty entertains of the highly 
distinguished intrepidity displayed by his Lordship during the Peninsular War, and more 
especially his active and zealous services during the memorable siege of Cadiz, where, 
assisting in defence of the Castle of Matagorda against the enemy, he was severely 
wounded." 

2 "For distinguished gallantry on 1 Oct. 1836." See letter from Col. J. W. Woolridge, 
A.D.C. to Sir De Lacy Evans, quoted in a History of the Family of Sheet, &c., by one 
of them, 1906, p. 171. 

3 " For meritorious conduct generally, and particularly on the 28th May 1836." 

4 " In approbation of his conduct while in the actual service of Spain." 

5 " In approbation of his conduct while in the actual service of Spain." 

6 "In testimony of the Queen Regent's approbation of his services, especially at the 
battle of Arlaban, on the 16th and 17th of January 1836." 

7 "In testimony of the Queen Regent's approbation of his services at the battle of 
Arlaban on the 16th and 17th of January 1836, and before St. Sebastian on the 5th of 
May following." 

8 "In testimony of the Queen Regent's approbation of his conduct in the actions of 
Arlaban on the 16th and 17th of January 1836, and of Ayeta on the 5th of May in 
the same year." 

9 "In testimony of Her Catholic Majesty's royal approbation of his services in 
her cause." 

10 "In testimony of the Queen Regent's approbation of his conduct in the actions 
on the 28th of May and the 6th July 1836 while attached to the British Auxiliary 
Legion." 

11 "In testimony of the Queen Regent's royal approbation of his conduct in the 
action of the 5th of May 1836." 

12 "In testimony of the Queen Regent's approbation of his services in raising the siege of 
Bilbao, and in the various actions that took place subsequently on the Cantabrian Coast." 

13 "On account of the important services rendered by him in the action of the 6th of 
June 1836." 

14 "In testimony of Her Catholic Majesty's royal approbation of their services during 
the action of Lucena on the 19th of November 1837." 

15 "In testimony of Her Catholic Majesty's royal approbation of his services in the 
various field actions which took place from the siege of Bilbao in June 1835 to the 
4th of May 1837." 

16 A Captain in the Spanish Service. " In testimony of Her Catholic Majesty's royal 
approbation of his services in the action before San Sebastian on the 5th of May 1836." 

17 For services in the field while attached to Lieut.-Col. William Wylde, R.A., British 
Commissioner with Headquarters, Spanish Army, and especially for conduct in operations 
in Navarre in April and May last. 



FOREIGN ORDERS OF KNIGHTHOOD 277 



Date when 
Conferred. 


KNIGHTS, IST CLASS (K.F.S.) continued 


Date of 
Royal License. 




Com. Charles Anstruther Barlow, R.N. 1 


23 Dec. 1839 




Lieut. George William Roper Yule, R.M. 2 


26 Mar. 1840 




Capt. John O'Meara, 3rd Dragoon Guards. 3 


27Mav 1840 




Lieut. Robert Hackings, R.M. 4 
Col. William Lockyer Freestun, 93rd Regt. 5 
Horatio Beckham, Capt. 43rd Regt. 6 


6 Aug. 1840 
14 Aug. 1840 
24 Sep. 1840 




Thomas Philip Le Hardy, Com. R.N. 7 


10 Nov. 1840 




Major Edward Vicars, R.E. 7 


1 Feb. 1841 




Lieut.-Col. Ralph Carr Alderson, R.E. 8 


26 Feb. 1841 




Lieut. William Harrison Askwith, R.H.A. 9 


26 Feb. 1841 


! Col. Richard John James Lacy, R.A. 10 


11 Mar. 1841 




George Gustavus Charles William du Platt, Capt. 
R.E., K.H. 11 


26Jul. 1841 


' 


Simon Pepper Joyce, Lieut. 50th Regt. 12 
George Frederick Augustus Ruxton, Ensign 89th 


13 Sep. 1841 
28 Dec. 1841 




Regt. 13 






Joseph Clayton Jennyns, 15th Hussars. 14 


20 Jan. 1842 




Lieut.-Col. Hon. Robert Fulke Greville. 15 


30 Nov. 1842 




Lieut.-Col. Charles Townley, British Auxiliary 
Legion. 


27Jun. 1843 




Lieut. Collingwood Dickson, R.A. 16 


1 Jul. 1843 




?Robert Cannon, Col. in Spanish Service. 


5 Feb. 1848 



KNIGHTS 2ND CLASS (K.F.S.) 
(Caballeros de 2* Classe) 

Col. Anthony Sylvain de Cantillon, afterwards (1839) ! 

Baron de Ballyhigue [F.]. 
Major Edward Brackenbury. 17 
Capt. William Considine, Col. Spanish Service. 18 
Capt. William Ellis, 45th N.I. 19 
Graves Chamnev Swan, Capt. Spanish Service. 20 
William Wylde, Lieut.-Col. R.A. 21 
William Frederick Lapidge, Capt. R.N. 22 



19 Dec. 
7 Dec. 
i 17 Apr. 
i 22 Feb. 
24 Mar. 
3 Apr. 



1828 
1836 
1837 
1838 
1838 
1838 



For services from siege of Bilbao to 4 May 1837. 

For services from 10 Mar. 1836 to 8 Nov. 1837. 

Lieut.-Col. British Auxiliary Legion. 

For services from 10 May to Nov. 1837. 

" For conduct before the enemy in the field." 

" For actions from 31 May to 6 June 1836 on heights of San Sebastian." 

" For services at siege of Bilbao and in actions from June 1835 to 4 May 1837." 

For distinguished conduct in the action on the heights of Useras, 17 July 1839. 

For actions at Muniasa, 7 June 1838, and between Cortes and Segora, 23 Mar. 1839. 

10 For actions at and capture of castle and forts of Tales, Aug. 1839 ; siege and cap- 
ture of Aliaga, April 1840 ; and afterwards as British Commissioner with Headquarters, 
Spanish Army. 

11 " While attached to the Army of Catalonia, 1839-40." 

12 "At San Sebastian, 5 to 31 May 1835." 

" In actions of 29 and 30 April and 1st May 1839 at Bridge of Belascoain." 
1 "While serving with British Auxiliary Legion." 

15 Lieut.-Col. British Auxiliary Legion. " Services before St. Sebastian, Jan. 1835." 

16 " For services at Morella and Berga, 1840."; 

17 " For his meritorious conduct during the War of Independence in Spain." 
8 "In approbation of his conduct while in the actual service of Spain." 

19 A Lieut-Col, in Spanish Service. " In testimony of Her Catholic Majesty's appro- 
bation of his conduct in the action of Ayeta on the 5th of May 1836." 

20 "In testimony of the royal approbation of his conduct at the action of Ayeta on the 
5th of May 1836." 

21 "In testimony of the royal approbation of his services in the operations undertaken 
for raising the siege of Bilbao and also in the action before St. Sebastian on the 1st of 
October 1836." 

52 "On account of the services which he has rendered on different occasions on the 
coast of Spain." 



2 7 8 



THE NOBILITIES OF EUROPE 



Date when 

Conferred. 



KNIGHTS, 2ND CLASS (K.F.S.) continued 



Date of 
Royal License. 



Capt. William Honyman Henderson, R.N. 1 

Col. John Owen, R. Marines, C.B., K.H. 2 

Capt. Sir Maurice Charles O'Connell, 28th Regt. 

Brig. British Auxiliary Legion. 
Lieut.-Col. Walter Powell, R. Marines. 3 
Capt. James Nisbet Colquhoun, R.A. 4 
Robert Cannon, Col. Spanish Service. 
Col. Claudius Shaw, R. A., British Auxiliary Legion. 5 



24Jun. 1839 
11 Mar. 1840 
27 May 1840 

22 Jul. 1841 

20 Nov. 1840 

5 Feb. 1848 



KNIGHTS, 3RD CLASS (K.F.S.) 
(Caballeros de 3* Classe) 

Col. Sir Samuel Ford Whittingham, Lieut.-Gen. 

Spanish Armies. 6 
Sir Philip Keating Roche, Lieut.-Col. in the British 

Army, and Lieut.-Gen. in the Spanish Service. 7 
Joshua Crosse, Capt. 36th Regt. of Infantry. 8 
Major Sir John Gaspard Le Marchant, K.C.B., 

G.C.M.G., Brig.-Gen. Spanish Service. 9 
Lieut. Charles Shaw. 10 
Lieut.-Col. Charles Chichester, Brig.-Gen. Spanish 

Service. 11 

Hon. Swynfen Thomas Carnegie. 12 
Richard L. Evans, C.B., Brig.-Gen. British Auxiliary 

Legion. 13 

SirJahleel Brenton,Bt.,K.C.B., Rear- Admiral R.N. 14 
Richard Charles Steele, Capt. R.M.A. 15 
Second-Lieut. Duncan Blanckley Shaw, R.A., 

British Auxiliary Legion. 16 



9 May 1815 



15 Mar. 1816 
30 Jul. 1819 
7 Dec. 1836 

21 Feb. 1837 
3 Apr. 1838 

14 Sep. 1838 
Aug. 1841 



" For services from the siege of Bilbao, June 1835 to 4 May 1837." 
"For services in actions from 10 May 1836 to Nov. 1837." 



3 "For services from the first siege of Bilbao, June 1835, to Nov. 1837." 

4 " For services from siege of Bilbao and actions up to 4 May 1837." 

5 " For the assault and occupation of Pueblo and the capture of Yrun on 16 and 
17 May 1837." Carlisle's Foreign Orders of Knighthood, 1839, p. 416. 

6 " In approbation of the recommendation of the Supreme Council of War, according 
to the Institutes of the said Order, and in testimony of the high sense which His Catholic 
Majesty entertains of the military services rendered by him before the enemy in the 

7 " In testimony of the sense which Her Catholic Majesty entertains of the intrepidity 
displayed by him in several actions with the enemy in the Peninsular War." 

"In testimony of Her Catholic Majesty's approbation of his distinguished services 
with the intrepid Marine Battalion, which saved the artillery and the whole Spanish army 
at Ernani." 

"In approbation of his conduct while in the actual service of Spain." 

"In approbation of his conduct in the action of Ayeta on the 5th of May 1836, 
while in Her Catholic Majesty's actual service, and also for his conduct in many actions." 

" In testimony of the approbation of the Queen Regent of Spain of his distinguished 
services at the siege and capture of Iran in May 1838, and in the action of the 1st of 
October 1836." 

" In testimony of the Queen Regent of Spam's approbation of his services in the 
various actions which took place from the siege of Bilbao in June 1835 to the 4th of May 
1837." 

13 "For service at the action of 11 July 1836." 

14 Carlisle, p. 416. 

15 ' ' For his distinguished services with the intrepid Marine Battalion, which saved the 
artillery and the whole Spanish army at Ernani." Carlisle, p. 416. 

i "For meritorious conduct generally, and for distinguished gallantry during the 
pcorations at Hernani and Yrun from 14th to 17th May 1837." Carlisle, p. 417. 



FOREIGN ORDERS OF KNIGHTHOOD 279 



Date when 
Conferred. 


CROSS OF ST. FERDINAND 


Date of 
Royal License. 


May 1836 


Hon. Frederick Thomas Pelham, Com. R.N. 
(laurelled Cross). 1 
George Thomas Gordon, Com. R.N. 2 
Townsend Gun Morris, Ensign 4th Regt. 3 
Edward Owen Jones of Nass. 4 
Adm. Sir Thomas Lewis, 1st Bt. 5 
Don Guillermo Walsh, Col. Cuirassiers of the Royal 
Guard. 6 


9 Aug. 1839 

23 May 1843 
26 Apr. 1841 



CROSS OF ST. FERDINAND GRANTED BY DON CARLOS V. 
1837 | Capt. George John Thomas Merry, 1st Class. 7 | 

CROSS OF ST. FERDINAND GRANTED BY DON CARLOS VII. 
c. 1873 | Henry Glass, 8 Sec. to London Carlist Committee. | 



"For services while commanding H.M.'s sloop Tweed on north coast of Spain." 

" For services at the siege of Bilbao from June 1835 to 4 May 1837." 

" For conduct in the field, 1836-7." 

Burke's Landed Gentry. 

Peerages. 

The Genealogist, N.S., xviii. 86. 

"For services rendered at the battle of Huesca 24th May 1837, where his battalion 
Los Guias de Alava lost 14 officers killed and wounded out of 26." Capt. Merry adds: 
" I was a prisoner of war at the time the diploma was issued and lost, for it never reached 
my hands. A duplicate of it was sent to me by the Carlist Minister of War, dated 
14th January 1842, from Bourges in France, which I now have. A cross for the battle 
of Huesca, and one for the battle of Villar de Los Navarros fought in Lower Aragon, 
24 Aug. 1837, was granted to all who were present on those occasions, of whom I was one." 
The designs are shown on Plates Nos. 8 and 19 in Elvin's Handbook of the Orders of Chivalry. 
Besides the Order of St. Ferdinand, Captain Merry has received the 1st Class of the 
Orders of Isabella the Catholic, 4th June 1849, and of San Hermenegildo, 27th March 1854, 
from Don Carlos VI., and of Charles III. of Spain, 4th November 1875, from Don 
Carlos VII. ; the Silver Cross of Charles VII., for officers who remained faithful to the 
Carlist cause in times of adversity, by diploma dated at Venice September 1882 ; and 
finally the Grand Cross of Isabella the Catholic, conferred on him by Don Carlos VII. 
on his 88th birthday, 27th August 1904. Under the precepts of the Order of San 
Hermenegildo it can only be granted to officers of ten years' seniority, and then only 
for actual personal service to the King himself; and, with the exception of the great 
Duke of Wellington and Lord William Beresford, Captain Merry is the only Englishman 
who has ever obtained it. His personal service consisted, as he writes, 20 Aug. 1908, 
' ' in my having the King's private and most important papers committed to my care in 
London for over five years ; I kept them for security in a box under my bed, and when 
I returned them in safety to His Majesty at Naples in the spring of 1854, I was rewarded 
with the Order in question. More than one attempt was made by the ' enemy ' to 
obtain possession of the papers, but while with me they were in safe keeping." He adds : 
" My Carlist services commenced on 9th November 1834, and I have never been idle in 
the cause since. Under the Royal Orders of Don Carlos V., VI., and VII., I am entitled 
to double time for the war and the ; Immigration,' so I told His Majesty when I last saw 
him in London, that in the event of his going to Madrid I should claim about 150 years' 
service. That is a 'record,' I should think." 

8 "For services at the siege of Mauressa, where he was severely wounded." 



a8o 



THE NOBILITIES OF EUROPE 



THE KOYAL ORDER OF ST. OLAF OF NORWAY 

(St. Olavs Ordener) 

Founded 21 Aug. 1847 by King Oscar I. Five Classes. The only 
Norwegian Order of Knighthood. 

BADGE. A Maltese Cross enamelled white, edged gold, with gold knobs no 
the points ; in the angles of the Cross the Gothic letter " " crowned 
gold. The Cross surmounted by a gold Crown. 

Obverse. On a Circle gules within a band azure edged or, a lion rampant 
ppr. crowned or, holding in his front paws a battle-axe, the handle of 
which extends to his hind legs, argent. 
Reverse. Inscribed " Ret og Sandhed." 

STAR. Silver, of eight principal points of clustered rays, in the centre the 
badge, without the crown. 

RIBBON. Red, with a blue and white border. 

When conferred for military services, the Badge has two swords in saltire 
between the Cross and the Crown. 

Sovereign : 
His Majesty Haakon VII., King of Norway, K.G. 






Date when 
Conferred. 



KNIGHTS GRAND CROSS WITH COLLAR 

(Storkors med Kjoede) 



3 Jan. 1874 
22Jun. 1906 
13 Nov. 1906 

13 Nov. 1906 
13 Nov. 1906 
13 Nov. 1906 



His Majesty King Edward VII. 

H.R.H. George, Prince of Wales, K.G. 

H.R.H. Arthur, Duke of Connaught and Strathearn, 

K.G. 

H.R.H. Prince Arthur of Connaught, K.G. 
John Douglas, 2nd Duke of Argyll, K.T. 
Alexander William George, 1st Duke of Fife, K.T. 



Date of 
Royal License. 



KNIGHTS GRAND CROSS (G.C.S.O.) 

(Storkors) 



14 Dec. 1905 
13 Nov. 1906 

13 Nov. 1906 
13 Nov. 1906 
13 Nov. 1906 
13 Nov. 1906 
13 Nov. 1906 
13 Nov. 1906 
13 Nov. 1906 
13 Nov. 1906 


Admiral Sir Arthur Moore, K.C.B., K.C.V.O., &C. 1 
Arthur Robert, 1st Viscount Althorp, P.C., Lord 
Chamberlain of the Household. 
Edward Arthur, 1st Lord Colebrooke, C.V.O., a Lord 
in Waiting. 
Major-Gen. Sir Henry Peter Ewart,G.C.V.O., K.C.B., 
Crown Equerry. 
Horace Brand, 1st Lord Farquhar, G.C.V.O., 
Master of the Household. 
Gavin George, 2nd Lord Hamilton of Dalzell, a Lord 
in Waiting. 
Sir Arthur James Herbert, K.C.V.O., H.B.M.'s 
Minister Plen. at Christiania. 
Francis, 1st Lord Knollys, G.C.V.O., K.C.B., &c., 
His Majesty^s Private Secretary. 
Gen. the Right Hon. Sir DightonMacnaghten Probyn, 
P.C., G.C.V.O., K.C.B. 
Osbert Cecil, 6th Earl of Sefton, P.C., Master of the 
Horse. 


5 Feb. 1906 



He commanded H.M.S. Caesar, which escorted King Haakon to Norway 1905. 



FOREIGN ORDERS OF KNIGHTHOOD 281 



Date when 
Conferred. 



29 Apr. 1908 
29 Apr. 1908 
29 Apr. 1908 

29 Apr. 1908 
21 Jun. 1908 



KNIGHTS GRAND CROSS (G.C.S.O.)-continued 



Richard George, 4th Earl Howe, G.C.V.O., Lord 

Chamberlain to Queen Alexandra. 
Right Hon. the Hon. Sir Charles Hardinge, P.C., 

G.C.M.G., G.C.V.O., &c. 
Major-Gen. Sir Stanley de Astel Calvert Clarke, 

G.C.V.O., C.M.G. 

Sir Francis Henry Laking, 1st Bt., G.C.V.O., M.D. 
Adm. Lord Charles Beresford, G.C.V.O., K.C.B. 



Date of 
Royal License. 



13 Nov. 
13 Nov. 
13 Nov. 
13 Nov. 

13 Nov. 
13 Nov. 

13 Nov. 
13 Nov. 

24 May 
24 May 

Nov. 
29 Apr. 



1906 
1906 
1906 
1906 

1906 
1906 

1906 
1906 

1907 
1907 

1907 
1908 



21Jun. 1908 



21 Jun. 
21 Jun. 



1908 
1908 



KNIGHT COMMANDERS IST CLASS (K.C.S.O.) 
(Kommandor af 1 Klasse) 

Right Hon. Sir William Treloar, Lord Mayor of 

London, 1906-7. 
Sir Robert Cranston, K.C.V.O., Lord Provost of 

Edinburgh, 1903-6. 
Sir William Bilsland, 1st Bt., Lord Provost of 

Glasgow. 
Lt.-Col. Sir Charles Arthur Andrew Frederick, Master 

of the Royal Household. 

Capt. the Hon. Seymour John Fortescue, C.V.O. 
Col. Sir Henry Knollys, K.C.V.O., Private Secretary 

to H.M. the Queen of Norway. 
Major-Gen, the Hon. Sir Frederick Stopford. 
Sir Walter Vaughan Morgan, late Lord Mayor of 

London. 1 

Admiral Sir Clements Markham, K.C.B. , F.R.S. 
Right Hon. Sir George Taubmann Goldie, P.C., 

K.C.M.G. 

Sir William Randal Cremer, M.P. 
Lt.-Col. Frederick Edward Grey Ponsonby, C.V.O., 

C.B., Equerry to H.M. the King. 
Vice- Adm. Sir Archibald Berkeley Milne, 2nd Bt., 

K.C.V.O. 

Rear- Adm. Sir Percy Moreton Scott, K.C.V.O., C.B. 
Rear- Adm. Francis John Foley, R.N. 



KNIGHT COMMANDERS, 2ND CLASS (K.C.S.O.) 
(Kommandor af 2 Klasse) 



21 Jan. 1888 

21 Jan. 1888 
23Jul. 1902 
14 Dec. 1905 
13 Oct. 1906 
13 Nov. 1906 
13 Nov. 1906 
13 Nov. 1906 
13 Nov. 1906 
13 Nov. 1906 
13 Nov. 1906 
13 Nov. 1906 

24 May 1907 

29 Apr. 1908 
29 Apr. 1908 


Everard Alexander, 2nd Baron Hambro, J.P., D.L., 
K.C.V.O. 
E. Rawlings, Esq., Banker. 
Major A. Hay. 
Capt. Archibald Peile Stoddart, R.N. 
Col. Nathaniel Walter Barnardiston, M.V.O. 2 
Sir Alfred Scott-Gatty, F.S.A., Garter King of Arms. 
Col. Henry Albert Barclay, C.V.O., A.D.C. 
Col. the Hon. Cecil Edward Bingham, M.V.O. 
Capt. Cuthbert Godfrey Chapman, R.N., M.V.O. 
Capt. William Blewett Fawckner, R.N. 
Capt. Henry Holland Torlesse, R.N. 
Capt. Arthur Vaughan Hanning Vaughan Lee, 
R.H.G. 
Dr. Scott-Keltie. 
William John Archer, Esq., C.M.G. , Councillor of 
the Siamese Legation in London. 
Capt. the Hon. Victor Albert Stanley, M.V.O., R.N. 
Lt.-Col. the Hon. Henry Yarde-Buller, D.S.O. 


7Jul. 1907 
20 Jan. 1908 



1 Given by King Haakon personally. 

2 On termination of appointment as Military Attache at Christiania. 



282 



THE NOBILITIES OF EUROPE 



Date when 
Conferred. 



12 Sep. 1862 

13 Jan. 1863 

3 Jul. 1875 
1 Dec. 1898 

IDec. 1898 

20 Jan. 1900 

4 May 1901 

12 Nov. 1904 

21 Jan. 1905 
4 Feb. 1905 

13 Nov. 1906 
13 Nov. 1906 

13 Nov. 1906 
13 Nov. 1906 

13 Nov. 1906 
13 Nov. 1906 

13 Nov. 1906 
13 Nov. 1906 
13 Nov. 1906 
13 Nov. 1906 

13 Nov. 1906 



13 Nov. 1906 
13 Nov. 1906 
13 Nov. 1906 
13 Nov. 1906 
13 Nov. 1906 

13 Nov. 1906 
24 May 1907 
24 May 1907 



KNIGHTS, IST CLASS (K.S.O.) 
(Ridder af 1 Klasse) 



J. Farrer, Esq. 

L. Linden, Esq., Sekreter ved verdensud- stilling en i 

London. 

Nicholas Triibner, Esq., Publisher. 
Hon. William John Borlase Warren-Venables- 

Vernon, J.P., D.L. 
Capt. Frederic George Jackson. 1 
George Theodore Temple, Esq., F.R.G.S., Lieut. 

R.N. 2 
Edmund Gosse, LL.D., Librarian to the House of 

Lords. 
Ole Theodor Clsen, Esq., D.Sc., F.L.S., F.R.A.S., 

F.R.G.S. 

H. F. Dessen, Esq., Merchant. 
George Robert Sims, Esq. 
Edward Douglas, 2nd Baron Loch, M.V.O. 
Sir (Henry) George Smallman, Alderman and ex- 
Sheriff of London. 

Sir Thomas Boor Crosby, M.D., Sheriff of London. 
Frank Reginald Beck, Esq., M.V.O., H.M.'s Agent 

at Sandringham. 

James Bell, Esq., C.B., Town-Clerk, London. 
Sir (Thomas) Vansittart Bo water, ex-Sheriff of 

London. 

Sir William Henry Dunn, Sheriff of London. 
Capt George Darell Jeffreys, J.P., Grenadier Guards. 
Capt. Harold T. Hanson. 
Sir Horace Brooks Marshall, ex-Sheriff of London 

and Chairman of Committee, M.A., LL.D. 
Major Charles Derick Seymour. 
H. Barker, Esq. 

KNIGHTS, 2ND CLASS (K.S.O.) 
(Ridder af 2 Klasse) 

Sir William Jameson Soulsby, C.B., C.I.E., Private 
Secretary to the Lord Mayor of London. 

Adrian D. Wilde Pollock, Esq., City Remem- 
brancer. 

Capt. Daniel Hickey, M.V.O. , Superintendent 
Royal Mews, Windsor. 

Capt. John Nicholas, M.V.O., Superintendent 
Royal Mews, Buckingham Palace. 

Capt. William Webster, M.V.O., Clerk Comptroller 
Lord Steward's Dept. 

O. G. Holmden, Esq. 

Milne, Capt. S.S. Eclipse of Dundee. 

Adams, Capt. S.S. Diana of Dundee. 



Date of 
Royal License. 



12 Dec. 1900 
6Jun. 1900 



11 Jan. 1907 



22 Nov. 1906 



THE PONTIFICAL ORDER OF ST. GREGORY THE GREAT 

Founded by Pope Gregory XVI. 1 Sep. 1831. By the Statutes of the 
Order, granted 30 May 1834, it consists of four Classes, viz. Knights Grand 
Cross of the 1st Class, Knights Grand Cross of the 2nd Class, Commanders, 
and Knights. 

BADGE. A Maltese Cross, enamelled red, edged gold and having gold knobs 
on the points, surmounted when conferred for military services by 

1 For services in connection with the Nansen Expedition. 

2 For services in surveying Norwegian Coast. 



FOREIGN ORDERS OF KNIGHTHOOD 283 

a gold military trophy, and when conferred for civil services by a 

green laurel chaplet. 
Obverse. On a blue enamelled circular centre, surrounded by a gold 

band inscribed " S. Gregorius Magnus," the bust of St. Gregory in 

gold. 
Reverse. On a blue enamelled circular centre, surrounded by a gold 

band inscribed " Gregorius XVI., P.M., Anno I.," the Motto in gold 

" Pro Deo et Principe." 

STAR. Silver, of eight principal points of clustered rays, on the centre the 
Badge of the Order without the trophy or chaplet. 

RIBBON. Red watered silk with yellow borders. 



Date when 
Conferred. 


KNIGHTS 


GRAND 


CROSS 


(G.c.s.a) 



1891 
Dec. 1906 



2 Dec. 1861 
1891 

a. 1883 
6 Nov. 1905 

a. 1883 



f John Patrick, 3rd Marquess of Bute, K.T. 
f Sir George Bowyer, 3rd Bt. 
fGeorge Arthur Hastings, 7th Earl of Granard. 
fHon. Honore Mercier, Count Mercier, M.P. 

E. Granville Ward. 

Charles Ermolao Zimmermann-Barbaro. 

Francis Joseph Hugh Alexander (Heaven), 1st Count Ramirez de 
Arellano. 

KNIGHT COMMANDERS (K.C.S.G.) 

James Brand. 

Sir Joseph Carbone, G.C.M.G., K.C.V.O. 

William Donovan. 

Sir Hubert Jerningham, K.C.M.G. 

John Liddell. 

Hon. Daniel O'Connor. 

j-1908 Hon. James Tisdall Woodroffe. 

Sir Westby Percival, K.C.M.G. 

j-1908 Sir Joseph Percival Pickford Radcliffe, 3rd Bt. - 

Sir Charles Santley. 

Hon. Joseph Sheehyn. 

Ferdinand, Count O'Gorman. 

Lieut.-Col. Thomas Joseph O'Reilly, C.M.G. 
fArthur John, 1st Count Moore. 

John Thomas Selby. 

fHonore, Count Mercier, Premier of Quebec. 
fSir John O'Shanassy, K.C.M.G. 

Lieut.-Col. James Walker Bernard, R.A. 

Anthony Colling Brownies, M.D., M.R.C.S.Eng. 

William Osborne Christmas. 

Hon. John Meagher, of Bathurst, N.S.W. 

KNIGHTS (K.S.G.) 

fJohn Stuart of Ballachin, J.P., D.L. 
G. M. Arnold. 
James Britten. 
Alderman J. Carus. 
Sir Francis Richard Cruise, M.D. 
Lister Drummond. 
Valentine Dunford. 
Archibald C. Dunlop. 
Dr. Vincent F. Eck. 
Edward Fullen. 
William A. Garratt. 
John Boya Harvey. 



284 



THE NOBILITIES OF EUROPE 



Date when 
Conferred. 



KNIGHTS ( K. S. G. ) continued 



22 Dec. 1872. 



1890 



6 Dec. 1906 



Aug. 1908 



James J. Hicks. 

Richard Holden. 

John George Kenyon (Mil.). 

Thomas G. King. 

Major-Gen. Victor Law. 

Patrick, Marquess MacSwiney. 

Charles Robertson. 

Charles J. Munich. 

Austin Gates. 

Keyes, Count O'Clery (Mil.). 

Thomas Joseph O'Reilly, C.M.G. (Mil.). 

W. Humphrey Page. 

George Whitlaw. 

Hon. Alexander Wilmot. 

J. Readie. 

John St. Lawrence. 

John Marks. 

Henry Blount. 

Sir William St. John Carr. 

Dr. G. Cox, of Lourdes. 

O'Loughlin. 1 



THE SACRED MILITARY ORDER OF THE HOLY SEPULCHRE 

The Order of the Holy Sepulchre is said to have been founded by Geoffrey 
of Bouillon during the First Crusade, and, as its name implies, was a military 
order for the recovery and protection of the Holy Sepulchre. It was con- 
firmed by Pope Benedict XIV. 7 Jan. 1746, and was divided into three 
Classes Grand Crosses, Commanders, and Knights by Pope Pius IX. 24 
January 1868. It is conferred in the name of the Pope by the Latin Patriarch 
of Jerusalem. 
BADGE. A gold Cross potent, enamelled red, edged gold, cantoned with a 

like cross in each angle, and surmounted by a royal crown. 
STAB. A Star of eight principal points of clustered silver rays, in the centre, 

a cross cantoned as the badge, but without the crown, surrounded by 

two laurel branches, gold. 
RIBBON. Black. 
MOTTO. " Beau scant." 



Date when 
Conferred. 



KNIGHTS GRAND CROSS (G.C.H.S.) 



10 Jan. 1905 
15Jun. 1908 



11 Feb. 1899 



fHenry, 9th Lord Beaumont, 
fjohn Patrick, 3rd Marquess of Bute, K.T. 
Charles Ermolao Zimmermann-Barbaro. 
Francis Joseph Hugh Alexander (Heaven), 

Arellano. 

Rudolph Robert Basil Aloysius Augustine, 9th Earl of Denbigh 
and Desmond. 



1st Count Ramirez de 



KNIGHT COMMANDERS (K.C.H.S.) 

Alphonse Charles Albert, Count O'Kelly of Galway. 
fMost Rev. Charles Peter, 2nd Count Eyre. 
Walter Clifford Meller, Count d'Ereso. 



1 To whose munificence the new Church of St. John the Evangelist, Kilkenny, 
erection. Catholic Times, 7 Aug. 1908. 



FOREIGN ORDERS OF KNIGHTHOOD 285 



Date when 
Conferred. 



KNIGHT COMMANDERS (K.C.H.S.) continued 



Samuel Bingham. 
f Capt. James Gumming Dewar. 
Joseph, 2nd Marquess Scicluna. 

LADY OF THE ORDER 
Mary Guadalupe, 4th Marchioness of Braceras. 



THE ORDER OF THE CHRYSANTHEMUM 

The highest Japanese Order, founded by the Emperor Mutsuhito 
27 Dec. 1876. One Class. 

BADGE. A red enamelled centre, representing the Sun, from which issue 
thirty-two white enamelled double-pointed rays, edged gold, resting 
on a wreath of Chrysanthemums, with green leaves having gold veins, 
suspended by a gold ring from a Chrysanthemum enamelled yellow. 

STAR. Same as Badge, except that the leaves are veined silver instead 
of gold. 

RIBBON. Broad crimson, bordered purple. 



Date when 
Conferred. 



COLLAR 



His Majesty King Edward VII. 

GRAND CORDON (G.C.C.J.). 
H.R.H. the Prince of Wales, K.G. 
H.R.H. the Duke of Connaught, K.G. 
H.R.H. Prince Arthur of Connaught, K.G. 



THE ORDER OF THE PAWLONIA 

Instituted in honour of the Sacred Flower of Japan by the 
Emperor Mutsuhito 3 Jan. 1888. One Class. 



Date when 
Conferred. 


KNIGHT (K.P.J.). 


Date of 
Royal License. 


15 May 1907 


Frederick Sleigh, 1st Earl Roberts, K.G., Field- 
Marshal. 





THE ORDER OF THE CROWN OF JAPAN 

Instituted by the Emperor Mutsuhito 3 Jan. 1888, for Ladies only. 

Six Classes. 



Date when 
Conferred. 



MEMBERS IST CLASS 



Date of 
Royal License. 



1905 



Her Majesty Queen Alexandra. 

H.R.H. the Princess Victoria Mary of Wales. 

H.R.H. Louise Margaret, Duchess of Connaught. 

MEMBERS CTH CLASS 
Mrs. (Teresa Eden) Richardson. 1 
Mrs. M. McLean. 



11 Jul. 1905 



1 For assisting and comforting the sick and wounded soldiers in the Japanese Military 
Hospital during the war. 



a86 



THE NOBILITIES OF EUROPE 



THE OKDER OF THE RISING SUN OF JAPAN 1 

Instituted by the Emperor Mutsuhito 10 Apr. 1875 as a reward for Civil 
or Military Merit, and divided into Eight Classes after the 
manner of the Legion of Honour. 

BADGE. The Sun enamelled red, from which issue thirty-two double-pointed 
rays of gold and white enamel. It is worn suspended from three 
blossoms and a leaf of the Pawlonia, the Imperial flower, in green and 
lilac enamel, for all but the Eighth Class, for whom the Kini leaf takes 
the place of the Pawlonia. 

STAR. Same as Badge, only with silver rays. 
RIBBON. White, with red borders. 



Date when 
Conferred. 



RISING SUN, IST CLASS KNIGHTS 
GRAND CROSS (G.C.R.S.). 



Date of 
Royal License. 



1904 



1905 

1906 
1906 

30 Nov. 1907 

30 Nov. 1907 
30 Nov. 1907 
30 Nov. 1907 
30 Nov. 1907 



Vice- Admiral Sir Albert Hastings Markham, K.C.B. 
Admiral Sir Cyprian Arthur George Bridge, G.C.B. 2 
Sir Robert Hart, 1st Bt., G.C.M.G. 
Gen. Sir William Gustavus Nicholson, K.C.B. 
Hallam, 2nd Lord Tennyson, P.C., G.C.M.G. 
Right Hon. Sir Edmund Barton, P.C., G.C.M.G. 
Sir Claude Maxwell MacDonald, G.C.M.G., H.B.M.'s 

Ambassador at Tokio. 
Admiral Sir Gerard Henry Uctred Noel, K.C.B., 

K.C.M.G. 2 
Algernon Bertram, 1st Lord Redesdale, G.C.V.O., 

K.C.B. 
Admiral of the Fleet Sir Edward Hobart Seymour, 

G.C.B., G.C.V.O. 2 

Gen. Sir Thomas Kelly-Kenny, G.C.B., G.C.V.O. 
Admiral Sir Archibald Lucius Douglas, G.C.V.O., 

K.C.B. 2 

Right Hon. Sir Ernest Mason Satow, P.C., G.C.M.G. 
Lt.-Gen. Sir O'Moore Creagh, K.C.B., V.C. 
Charles Robert, 1st Viscount Althorp, P.C., Lord 

Chamberlain. 

Osbert Cecil, 6th Earl of Sefton, P.C. 
Horace Brand, 1st Lord Farquhar, G.C.V.O. 
Douglas B. M. R., 5th Duke of Montrose, K.T. 
Frederick Arthur, 16th Earl of Derby, K.G. 



2ND CLASS 

William John Armstrong, Esq. 
John Mathews James, Esq. 
Montague Kirkwood, Esq. 
Major-Gen, (now Sir) O'Moore Creagh. 3 
J. Westlake, Esq. 
T. E. Holland, Esq. 



30 Mar. 1896 



1 The following lists of British holders of the Orders of the Rising Sun and Sacred 
Treasure are founded on ones supplied by the Japanese Bureau of Decorations (Shokun- 
kioku) through the British Embassy in Tokio. Unfortunately the dates when the order 
was conferred were not given, but the Editor has been able to add them in some cases, 
and he has made every effort to render the list as correct as possible, though, in many 
cases, it is next to impossible to actually transliterate from the Japanese Katakana the 
name of the recipient if it is of an unusual nature or the translator is not acquainted 
beforehand. 

2 Has permission to wear the insignia of this order ; see Navy List. 

3 1st Class 190 . 



FOREIGN ORDERS OF KNIGHTHOOD 287 



Date when 
Conferred. 



1904 



1906 

21 Aug. 1906 
15 May 1907 

30 May 1907 
30 May 1907 
30 May 1907 



RISING SUN, 2ND CLASS confirmed 



5 Oct. 1888 



1902 



1904 



fCol. the Hon. Sir William James Colville, K.C.V.O. 
Rear-Adm. Swinton Colthurst Holland, F.R.G.S. 
Capt. Ernest Charles Thomas Troubridge, R.N., 1 

C.M.G., M.V.O. 
Lieut-Gen. Sir Edward Thomas Henry Hutton, 

K.C.M.G., C.B. 
Sir Alexander Conder Stephen, K.C.M.G., K.C.V.O., 

C.B. 

Capt. William Christopher Pakenham, R.N., C.B. 2 
William Henry Stone, Esq. 
Admiral George Neville, C.V.O. 
Sir Walter Vaughan Morgan, 1st Bart. 
Rear-Adm. Hon. Stanley CecilJames Colville, C.V.O., 

C.B. 
Col. Douglas Frederick Rawdon Dawson, C.V.O., 

C.M.G., H.MSs Master of the Ceremonies. 
Col. Sir Arthur Davidson, C.V.O., C.B., Equerry- 

in- Waiting to the King, &c. 
Col. Sir Charles Arthur Andrew Frederick, C.V.O. 

3RD CLASS 

Henry Dyer, Esq. 
William Walter Cargill, Esq. 
William Pole, Esq. 
Albert Richard Brown, Esq. 
Dr. Edward Dyeballs. 
John Mathews James, Esq. 
John Frederick Lowder, Esq. 
f Lieut. -Col. and Maj.-Gen. H. Spencer Palmer. 
Percival Osborne, Esq. 
William Gowland, Esq. 
Montague Kirkwood, Esq. 
fSir Edwin Arnold. 
Arthur Diosy, Esq. 
William Anderson, Esq., Physician Naval Hospital, 

Japan. 

John Milne, Esq. 
P. Watts, Esq. 

Col. Sir Walter Henry Wilkin, K.C.M.G. 
Sir Albert Kay Rollit, LL.D. 
Thomas R. Sherventon, Esq. 
Sir Joseph Cockfield Dimsdale, 1st Bt., P.O., 

K.C.V.O., Lord Mayor of London, 1901-2. 

Cameron, Esq. 

Bt.-Col. Arthur Gillespie Churchill. 3 

Thomas Henry James, Esq., Lieut. R.N. 

William Hutchison, Esq. 

Sir Marcus Samuel, 1st Bt. 

John Dunn, Esq. 

Alfred E. Hippesley, Esq., Commr. of Imp. Chinese 

Maritime Customs. 4 
Francis Edward Taylor, Esq., Comr. of Imp. Chinese 

Maritime Customs. 4 

Major-Gen. John Charles Hoad, C.M.G. 5 
Col. the Hon. Sir Malcolm Donald McEacharn, Lord 

Mayor of Melbourne, 1903. 



Date of 
Royal License. 



4Jun. 1904 



18 Apr. 1906 

19 Oct. 1906 



24Jul. 1882 
22 Jan. 1884 



8 Aug. 1887 

16 Jan. 1888 

5 Jan. 1888 

14 Jan. 1889 



ISJun. 1898 
5 Mar. 1896 



12 Jun. 1903 

29 May 1905 
3 Apr. 1906 



1 On termination of appointment as Military Attache at Tokio. 

2 On termination of appointment as Naval Attache at Tokio. 

3 On termination of appointment as Military Attache at Tokio. 

4 For valuable services in connection with the negotiations for the Supplementary 
Treaty of Commerce and Navigation between China and Japan, 8 Oct. 1903. 

5 Australian Military Attache with Japanese Army, 1904. 



2 88 



THE NOBILITIES OF EUROPE 



Date when 
Conferred. 



RISING SUN, 3RD CLASS continued 



Date of 
Royal License. 



1907 
1907 

30 May 1907 
30 May 1907 
30 May 1907 



1901 



1894 



Col. William Apsley Smith, R.A., C.B. 1 

Sir John Pound, 1st Bt., Lord Mayor of London, 

1904. 

Col. Richard Bannatine-Allason, R.A., C.B. 1 
Col. John Walter Graham Tulloch, C.B. 1 
Col. William Henry Birkbeck, C.B., C.M.G. 1 
Capt. Herbert Whitmore Savory, R.N., M.V.O. 
Capt. Robert Nelson Ommaney, R.N. 
Capt. Edward George Shortland, R.N. 
Capt. William Lowther Grant, R.N. 
Capt. Lionel Grant Tufnell, R.N., C.M.G. 
Capt. Henry Holland Torlesse, R.N. 
Engineer Capt. John Hughes Adams, R.N. 
Robert Follett Synge, Esq. 
W. M. Cox, Esq. 

A. Allan Shand, Esq. 

B. Morgan, Esq. 
George Gray Ward, Esq. 2 

Col. Charles Vernon Hume, M.V.O., D.S.O. 1 

Capt. John Arthur Tuke, R.N. 1 

Sir Hugh Montagu Allan, C.V.O. 

Charles M. Hayes, Esq. 

Sir William Purdie Treloar, 1st Bart., Lord Mayor 

of London, 1906. 
Col. Thomas Edward Vickers, C.B., Chairman 

" Vickers." 
Alfred Fernandez Yarrow, Esq., Chairman 

" Yarrow." 

4ra CLASS 

Frederick Marshall, Esq. 

Albert Richard Brown, Esq. 

Arthur Stanhope Aldrich, Esq. 

William Henry Stone, Esq. 3 

Percival Osborne, Esq.* 

William Gowland, Esq. 6 

Robert McLagan, Esq. 

Lieut. Albert George Sidney Hawes, R. M.L.I. 

John Mathews James, Esq. 

Josiah Conder, Esq. 

John Frederick Lowder, Esq. 4 

Frank Robert Story, Esq. 

Robert Henry Smith, Esq. 

Walter Finch Page, Esq. 

Thomas Henry James, Lieut. R.N. 4 

Thomas Alexander, Esq. 

John Milne. 4 

James M. Dickson, Esq. 

Comr. Stewart Lane Mount joy Squire, R.N. 5 

Archibald Francis Macnab, R.N. 

Cargill G. Knott, Esq. 

John Francis Allan. 

Alexander Marks, Esq. 

J. J. Mahlmann, Esq. 

Sir William Jameson Soulsby, C.B., C.I.E. 

Charles Dickinson West, Imp. Univ. Japan. 

John Moore, Esq. 



19 Oct. 1906 



15 Jan. 
17 Sep. 
17 Sep. 
17 Sep. 

16 Feb. 
16 Feb. 



1881 
1883 
1883 
1883 
1884 
1884 



27 Mar. 1884 
12 May 1884 
17Jul. 1884 
16 Aug. 1886 

27 Sep. 1886 
23 May 1887 
15 Apr. 1889 

29 May 1895 

28 Sep. 1891 
28 Sep. 1891 

1 Oct. 1891 
30Jun. 1892 



7 Jan. 1897 



1 Have permission to wear the insignia of this order ; see Army and Navy 
respectively. 

2 For services rendered in connection with the completion of direct communication 
across the Pacific. 

3 2nd Class 190 . 4 Now 3rd Class. 

5 Has permission to wear the insignia of the Order ; see Army and Navy Lists. 






FOREIGN ORDERS OF KNIGHTHOOD 289 



Date when 
Conferred. 



15 May 1907 
30 May 1907 
30 May 1907 

30 May 1907 
30 May 1907 
30 May 1907 
30 May 1907 
30 May 1907 
30 May 1907 
30 May 1907 
30 May 1907 
30 May 1907 
30 May 1907 
30 May 1907 
30 May 1907 



RISING SUN, 4ra CLASS continued 



William Kinninmond Burton, Esq. 

Alexander Joseph Hare, Esq., Professor Imperial 

University, Japan. 
William Benjamin Mason, Esq. 
A. Allan Shand, Esq. 1 
Harry P. Gordon, Esq. 
J. Langdon Parsons, Esq. 

Lieut. -Col. Alfred Woodrow Stanley Wingate, I.S.C. 2 
Major E. Peach. 
J. H. Longford, Esq. 

David Jackson, Esq. C Officials of the Hong- 

Thomas Summers Barker, -| Kong and Shanghai 

Esq. |^ Banking Corporation. 

Lieut. Edward Louis Dalrymple Boyle, R.N. 
Hugh H. Payntel, Esq. 
J. F. Lea, Esq. 
S. W. A. Armstrong, Esq. 
Edward William Lloyd, Esq. 
W. A. Burns, Esq. 
E. W. Atkinson