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Full text of "North American fauna"

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GIVEX BY 




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U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 

DIVISION OF ORNITHOLOGY AND MAMMALOGY 



NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 



No. 5 



PUBLISHED BY AUTHORITY OF THE SECRETARY OF AGRICULTURE 



[Actual date of publication, July 30, 1H91] 




Results of a Biological Reconnoissance of south-central Idaho 

1. General Results 

2. Annotated List of Mammals, with descriptions of new species 

3. Annotated List of Birds, with description of a new Owl 

By Ih;. i . II Mil Mkki:iam 

4. Annotated List of Reptiles and Batrachians 

By Dm, Lronhako Stkjneger 

Descriptions of a new genus and two new species of North American Mammals 

By Dk. C. Hakt Mkkkiam 



WASHINGTON 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 

i a 9 1 



North American Fauna, No. 5. 



Plate 




/ h 



DWARF SCREECH OWL. 
(Jfegascops fiammeolus idahoensis sabsp.nov: ) 



A.Hnen XCo.Lithncaustic.Bahimnre. 



U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 

DIVISION OF ORNITHOLOGY AND MAMMALOGY 



NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 



jSTo. o 



PUBLISHED BY AUTHORITY OF THE SECRETARY OF AGRICULTURE 



[Actual date of publication, July 30, 1891] 




Results of a Biological Reconnoissauce of south-central Idaho 

1. General Results 

2. Annotated List of Mammals, with descriptions of new species 

3. Annotated List of Birds, with description of a new Owl 

By Dk. C. Hari Mkrriam 

4. Annotated List of Reptiles and Batrachians 

By Dk. Leoxhakd Stkjnkger 

Descriptions of a new genus and two new species of North American Mammals 

By Dk. C. Hakt Mekriam 



WASHINGTON 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 

1891 



U. S. Department of Agriculture, 

March 16, 1891. 
Sir : I have the honor to transmit herewith the manuscript of No. 5 
of North American Fauna. It contains the results of a Biological 
Recounoissance of a part of Idaho, which I had the honor to conduct 
under your instructions during August, September, and October, 1890 ; 
and also descriptions of a new genus and several new species of Xorth 
American mammals. 

Respectfully, 

C. Hart Merriam, 
Chief of Division of 

Ornithology and Mammalogy, 
Hon. J. M. Rusk, 

Secretary of Agriculture. 






1 ' 

/ 



CONTENTS. 



Page. 

Letter of Transmittal m 

Results of a Biological Reconnoissanxe of South-Central Idaho . 1-113 

Prefatory note 1 

Itinerary 1-3 

Personnel 3 

Acknowledgments 3-4 

Introduction 4-5 

General description of the region traversed 5-29 

Snake Plains 5-8 

Birch Creek and Lemhi Valley 8-9 

Salmon River Mountains 9-12 

Life Zones of the Salmon River Mountains 10-12 

Arctic Alpiue zone 10 

Subalpine or Timber-line zone 10-11 

Hudsonian or Spruce zone 11 

Canadian or Douglas Fir zone 11-12 

Little Lost River Valley 12 

Pahsimeroi Valley 12-14 

Pahsimeroi Mountains 14-15 

Round or Challis Valley 15 

Antelope Valley 15 

Big Lost River Valley 15-16 

Valley of Big Wood River 16-17 

Valley at head of Salmon River 17 

Saw Tooth Mountains 17-20 

Birds of Saw Tooth Mountains 19-20 

Brunneau Mountains 21 

Life Zones of Idaho 21-25 

Arctic- Alpine 22 

Sub- Alpine 22 

Hudsonian or Spruce 23 

Canadian or Douglas Fir 23-24 

Neutral or Transition 24 

Upper Souoran 25 

Forest Trees of the Mountains of south-central Idaho 25-27 

Molluscs of south-central Idaho 27 

Effects of water courses on the distribution of species 28 

Origin of the name Market Lake 28-29 

Mammals of Idaho 31-87 

Check List ;. 31-32 

Annotated List, with descriptions of new species 32-87 

Birds of Idaho, annotated list 89-108 

Reptiles and Batrachians of Idaho 109-113 

Descriptions of a new Genus and two new Species of North Ameri- 
can Mammals 115-119 

Description of a new genus and species of Dwarf Kangaroo Rat (Micro- 

dipodopx megacephalus) 115-117 

Description of a new Evotomys from the Black Hills of South Dakota 119 

v 



ILLUSTRATIONS 



Plate I. Colored plate of Dwarf Screech Owl (Megascops flammeolua idahoensis 
subsp. nov.). Frontispiece. 
II. Figs. 1-2, Arvicola riparius (teeth X 10). 

:i-i, Arvicola tnordax sp. nov. Type (teetb x 10). 
5-6, Arvicola nanus sp. nov. Type (teeth X 10). 
7-3, Arvicola macropus sp. nov. Type (teetb x 10). 

III. Figs. 1-2, Arvicola pauperrimus (teeth X 15). 

3-4, Phenacomys orophilus sp. nov. Type (teeth X 1">). 
5-6, Eroiomys idahoensis sp. nov. Type (teeth X L5). 
7-8. Eroiomys brericaudw sp. nov. Type (teetb x 15). 

IV. Fig. 1, Sores idahoensis sp. nov. Type (jaws with toeth X 10). 

2, Sorex dobsoni sp. nov. Type yaws with teeth X 10). 

3, Sorex vagrant similia subsp. nov. Type (jaws with teeth xlO). 

FIGURES IX TEXT. 

Figure 1. Cone of Pinna albieaulia gnawed by Richardson's Squirrel (natural size). 

2. Onychomya brevicaudua (teetb x 15). 

3. Hesperomys crinitm (teeth Xlo). 

4. Lepua idahoensis (skull natural size). 



No. 5. NOETH AMERICAN FAUNA. July, 1891. 



RESULTS OF A BIOLOGICAL REC0NN01SSANCE OF IDAHO, SOUTH OF 
LATITUDE 45° AND EAST OF THE THIRTY-EIGHTH MERIDIAN. MADE 
DURING THE SUMMER OF 18911, WITH ANNOTATED LISTS OF THE 
MAMMALS AND BIRDS. AND DESCRIPTIONS OF NEW SPECIES. 



By Dr. C. Hart Merriam. 



PREFATORY NOTE. 

The preseut paper consists of the results, hastily brought together, 
of a biological recounoissance ot'Southeru Idaho, made during the sum- 
mer and fall of 1890, by the Division of Ornithology and Mammalogy 
of the U. S. Department of Agriculture. 

The information heretofore available relating to the natural history 
of Idaho is so exceedingly scanty that all attempts to map the distri- 
bution of mammals or birds in the West, or to define the boundaries of 
fauual and floral zones, have encountered in this State an insuperable 
barrier, a veritable terra incognita. 

It was for the purpose of breaking down this barrier that I asked 
permission of the Honorable Secretary and Assistant Secretary of 
Agriculture to undertake a biological recounoissance of a part of 
Idaho during the summer of 1890. Permission having been granted, 
the work was done and the results are here briefly recorded. The 
number of birds known from the State is increased from 01 to 158 ; 
and the mammals from 15 to 67. One new owl and twelve new mam- 
mals were discovered and are here described. Much remaius to be 
done, particularly iu the northern part of the State, but enough has 
been accomplished to remove the obscurity previously investing the 
region and to furnish the key to the distribution of life iu Idaho. 

ITINERARY. 

The expedition outfitted at Black foot, Idaho, July 8, 1890, crossed 
Snake River, and proceeded in a westerly direction over the sage plains 
and lava beds to Big Butte ; thence northerly to Big Lost River, which 
was ascended to a point about 13 kilometers (8 miles) north of Arco ; 
thence skirting the southern spur of the mouutain range between Big 
26789— No. 5 \ 1 



2 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. [No. 5. 

and Little Lost River Valleys, the latter was asceuded 24 kilometers 
(15 miles) and crossed to the mountains on the east side ('Lost River 
Mountains') ; returning to the mouth of Little Lost River and crossing 
the sage plains in an easterly direction to the sinks of Big Lost River 
and Birch Creek, Birch Creek was ascended to its headwaters, and the 
low divide was crossed to Lemhi River, which was descended to its 
junction with Salmon River near Salmon City, the most northerly point 
reached. 

Several side trips were made into the Salmon River Mountains from 
Birch Creek and Lemhi Valleys. There being no wagon pass over 
these mountains, it was necessary to return south by means of the same 
valleys and recross the sage plains to the mouth of Little Lost River. 
Little Lost River was then followed to its source and the divide between 
it and Pahsimeroi Valley was crossed. 

A side trip was made to a cluster of high mountains at the sources 
of the Pahsimeroi on the south side of the east end of the valley of the 
same name. This valley was then descended to its junction with Sal- 
mon River, whence, turning south, the valley of Salmon River was 
ascended to Round or Challis Valley ; thence, continuing southward 
through Antelope Valley and across the divide between Antelope Val- 
ley and Thousand Spring Valley to Big Lost River, Big Lost River 
was ascended to its very head, and the divide was crossed to Trail 
Creek, which was descended to its junction with Wood River near the 
town of Ketchum ; Wood River was ascended to its headwaters, and 
the high divide, 2,750 meters (9,000 feet) in altitude, separating it from 
the head of Salmon River, was crossed, and Saw Tooth Lake and 
Mountains were visited. 

Returning from the Saw Tooth Mountains, the route lay thence south- 
erly, following in the main the course of Wood River (which, after it 
enters the sage plains, is called Big Wood or Malade) to a point 6£ kilo- 
meters (4 miles) northwest of the town of Shoshone; thence directly 
south across the lava beds and sage plains to Shoshone Falls in the 
great lava canon of Snake River. The north side of this canon was 
followed down to Payne or Lewis Ferry, where the river was crossed. 

Ascending the bluffs on the south side, a southeasterly direction was 
taken to Castle Canon and Devil Canon ; the latter being found im- 
passable, the course was changed to south aud southwest until inter- 
cepted by a long rauge of unmapped mountains, running from east- 
northeast to west-southwest from Salmon Falls River westerly across 
the headwaters of the Brunueau and extending as far at least as the 
Duck Valley Indian Reservation. The foot of this rauge was followed 
in a westerly direction to Three Creek, one of the headwaters of Bran- 
neau River ; thence turning southerly the range was crossed through 
a pass 2,600 meters (8,500 feet) in altitude between the high peaks 
locally known as Elk Mountain on the east and the Brunneau Moun- 
tains on tilt} west ; descending on the south side. Canon Creek was fol« 



July, 1891.1 BIOLOGICAL RECONNOISSANCE OF IDAHO. 6 

lowed to its junction with Salmon Creek, and the latter to its head- 
waters, whence a low and almost imperceptible divide was crossed to 
the headwaters of Mary River ; Mary Eiver was descended to Cold 
Spring, from which a southeasterly course was taken across the sage 
plains to Humboldt Wells, Nevada (on the Central Pacific Railroad), 
where the expedition disbanded October 17. 

A detailed biological survey was not attended, but a reconnoissance 
was made of about 51,800 myriares (20,000 square miles). Altitudes 
were determined by aneroids and must be regarded as approximate 
only. The aueroids were compared with standard cistern barometers 
at the signal station in Salt Lake City at both ends of the journey, and 
were checked by known elevations of several stations on the lines of 
the Utah Northern and Oregon Short Line railroads. 

PERSONNEL. 

The members of the expedition, in addition to myself, were : Vernon 
Bailey, chief field naturalist; Basil Hicks Dutcher and Clark P. Streator, 
assistants, with one man as cook and teamster. Mr. Bailey acted in 
charge from July 8 until August 23, when relieved by me. On the 
latter date Mr. Streator was sent to Oregon and Washington in order 
to ascertain the relations of the fauna of the Plains of the Columbia to 
that of the Snake Plains. 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS. 

Capt. Charles E. Bendire, Curator of the Department of Oology in 
the U. S. National Museum, has had the kiudness to read the manu- 
script of the bird chapter and has added several species from his own 
unpublished notes, as well as additional information concerning other 
species. 

Mr. Robert Ridgway, Curator of the Department of Birds in the 
National Museum, has rendered important assistance by comparing 
certain subspecies with specimens in the Museum collection. 

Dr. Leonhard Stejneger, Curator of the Department of Reptiles in 
the National Museum, has identified the reptiles and batrachiaus col- 
lected by the expedition, and has prepared an annotated list, which 
will be found at the end of the present report. 

Dr. R. E. C. Stearns has identified the molluscs collected, and Mr. 
Walter Faxon the crayfish. 

Most of the plants mentioned in the report were identified in the field 
by Mr. Bailey and myself. Others were brought back and have been 
determined by Mr. John M. Ilolziuger, AssistautBotauist U. S. Depart- 
ment of Agriculture, who also confirmed many of our field identifica- 
tions. 

The Museum of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 



4 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. I No. 5. 

contains several types of mammals collected by Townsend in Idaho and 
Oregon more than half a century ago and described by Bacbman in 
1839.* Through the courtesy of the officers of the Academy these 
types have been sent me for examination and I have been able to com- 
pare them with specimens collected by us in the same region, thus es- 
tablishing in several instances the identity of species previously in 
doubt or wrongly referred. 

INTRODUCTION. 

Very much less is known of the natural history of Idaho than of 
any other State or Territory in the Union; and no map of Idaho thus 
far published can claim even approximate accuracy. 

In May, 1806, Lewis and Clark, returning from the Pacific to the 
headwaters of the Missouri, crossed tbe northern part of Idaho along 
the course of tbe Clearwater (about latitude 46° 30'). The narrative 
of their travels mentions the Deer, Elk, Moose, Bear, Bighorn, Burrowing 
Squirrel, [tree] Squirrel, Ducks, Pheasants, Buzzards, Hawks, Eagles, 
and Sand hill Craues as observed in the region at present included 
within the boundaries of the State. Nearly 30 years later (in 1834) 
JohnK. Townsend made an overland journey from St. Louis to Oregon, 
in the course of which he crossed the Snake Plains and reached the 
southern spurs of the mountains which extend into the plains from 
the great mountain mass of central Idaho. His narrative mentions the 
Buffalo and other game, and a few of the smaller animals. From 1853 
to 1857 several of the exploring parties of the Pacific Railroad Surveys 
passed through Idaho, but their reports contain nothing relating to the 
natural history of the region, except the occasional incidental mention 
of game. With these exceptions nothing was known to naturalists of 
the animal life of Idaho until 1872, when it was my privilege to accom- 
pany, in the capacity of naturalist, the U. S. Geological Survey of the 
Territories, under the com maud of the late Dr. F. V. Hay den. This 
expedition entered southeastern Idaho from Utah, passed up Malade 
Valley, and continued northward through eastern Idaho to Fort Hall 
and Market Lake (crossing Snake River at Eagle Rock); then, turning 
in an easterly direction, it visited Teton Basin, and, again bearing north- 
ward, followed Henry Fork of Snake River to Henry Lake, and thence 
passed into Montana and the Yellowstone National Park through Tah- 
gee Pass. Returning in October, the expedition reentered Idaho from 
Wyoming south of the Teton Range, revisited Fort Hall, and thence 
moved southward over essentially the same route as that taken on the 
northward march in June and July. During this expedition I collected 
in Idaho fifteen species of mammals and recorded sixty-four species of 

* Journal Acad. Nat. Sci., Phila. , vol. vm, 1839, pp. 57-74, 101-105. 



July, 1691.] BIOLOGICAL RECONNOISSANCE OF IDAHO. 5 

birds, all of which are enumerated with precise localities and dates in 
my oiJQcial report.* 

In 1875 Mr. Robert Rkigway published a list! of five species of birds 
observed by him at ' City of Rocks,' in extreme southern Idaho, when 
attached to the Clarence King expedition as ornithologist. 

In 1877 Capt. Charles E. Bendire published a paper on the ' Birds 
of Southeastern Oregon, 7 in which eighteen species are mentioned that 
were observed by him in Idaho, mainly iu the neighborhood of Fort 
Lapwai.J 

The scanty information above indicated comprises all the records 
heretofore published, so far as I am aware, relating to the mammals and 
birds of Idaho, save the incidental mention of a few species iu notes on 
hunting aud fishing that have appeared in ' Forest and Stream ' and 
1 The American Field.' 

GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF THE REGION TRAVERSED. 

SNAKE TLAINS. 

The Basin of Snake River in Idaho is an undulating, sage-covered 
plain stretching completely across the State in its widest part. It is 
crescentic in shape (with the convexity to the south) and measures about 
GOO kilometers (375 miles) in length by 120 to 100 kilometers (75 to 100 
miles) iu average breadth. Its boundaries on the north and east are 
everywhere sharply defined, consisting of rugged mountains rising 
more or less precipitously from the plain. In several places these 
mountains project southward in parallel ranges, like so many fingers, 
alternating with northward extensions of the plains, which occupy the 
valleys between them. Such valleys are those of Birch Creek and 
Lemhi River, Little Lost River, Big Lost River, and M abide or Big 
Wood River. On the south and west the Snake Plains arc not so well 
defined, passing southward into Utah and Nevada between irregular 
ranges of mountains, and westward aud northwestward into Oregon 
and Washington, where they are continuous with the Malheur Plains 
and Plains of the Columbia. The altitude of the basin along the course 
of Snake River is about 1,800 meters (nearly 0,000 feet) at the eastern 
end and less than 900 meters (3,000 feet) at the western, and its sides 
rise on the north aud south to the altitude of 2,000 or even 2,150 meters 



"Sixth Annual Report U. S. Geological Survey of the Territories, for 1872, 1873. 
Report on the Mammals and Birds of the Expedition, by C. Hart Merriam, pp. (J(»l- 
715. I wan theu a lad of U>, andaboyisb exaggeration of the unreliability of ocular 
evidence led me to the extreme coarse of omitting mention of every species of which 
specimens were not actually brought back to Washington. Nothing is said, there- 
fore, of the deer aud elk, with which our camp was often supplied, or of the turkey 
bnzzard, white pelican, and other birds that were many times observed. 

t Bull. Essex Inst., vn, 1, January, 18?f>, p. 24. Also, 4° Report II. 8. Geological 
Expl. Fortieth Parallel, Clarence King in Charge, vol. IV, L877, pp. 365,366. 

tProc. Boat. Soc. Nat. Hist,., vol. xix, 1877, pp. H)'J-14y. 



6 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. (No. 5. 

(approximately 6,500 to 7,000 feet), forming a broad trough whose gen- 
eral direction is east and west. 

The dominant feature of the Snake River Basin is sage plains — rolling, 
uninterrupted plains, rising so gradually from the bottom of the basin 
as to appear almost level, and stretching away in every direction as far 
as the eye can reach. The plains are every where aridi The few streams 
that reach Snake Eiver by a surface course usually flow in lava chan- 
nels and do not water the region on either side. 

The surface rock which crops out here and there over the sage plains 
proper is dark basaltic lava. It appears in the form of irregular masses 
or beds, extensive lava flows, and in a few instances of broken-down cra- 
ters, the largest of which, Big Butte, rises about 600 meters (2,000 feet) 
above the plain. Some of tbe canons of Big Butte support a growth 
of Douglas fir and Murray pine. The lava flows present great diversity 
of form ; elevated ridges of rough rock irrregularly fissured and with 
jagged edges alternate with smooth, flat domes, suggesting giant bub- 
bles ; nearly level stretches marked by wavelets and ripples which bend 
and double, spread out as if just escaped from a seethiug, tumultuous 
caldron, while in many places the thick crust has fallen in, leaving deep 
pits of circular or elliptical outline, exposing the mouths of dark cav- 
erns that extend to unknown depths and furnish homes to owls and 
bats and a multitude of other nocturnal animals. This black lava or 
basalt overlies an earlier flow of porphyritic trachite, gray in color and 
much less firm in texture. The Great Shoshone Fall, commonly known 
as the 'Niagara of the West,' results from the cutting down of the 
river bed through the hard basalt to the softer trachite below. 

In summer the heat is excessive, the thermometer frequently reach- 
ing 110° in the shade, while in winter the snow covers the ground, and 
icy winds sweep over the plain. The forms of life which inhabit the region, 
therefore, are such as can endure great heat during the season of repro- 
ductive activity, and can avoid the cold of winter by migration or hi- 
bernation; or if they remain active throughout the year they are hardy 
speciesj able to withstand great extremes of temperature and humidity. 

Most of the rivers which flow down through the mountain valleys 
disappear on reaching the plains, and the greater part of the water 
which reaches Snake River does so by subterranean channels. Hun- 
dreds of springs pour their waters into the lava caiions of Snake River, 
usually at or near the bottom, and many of them are of great size. In 
winter their temperature is considerably higher than that of the river. 
Crayfish, identified by Mr. Walter Faxon as Astaous gambellii (Girard), 
abound in these warm springs and are much sought after by raccoons 
(Procyon lotor f ); and a small shell, identified by Dr. R. E. C. Stearns 
as Fluminicola nitttalliana Lea, is exceedingly abundant on stones in the 
same springs. 

It is a common feature of the Snake Plains, as of many other arid 
parts of the West, that the rivers which do not sink cut for themselves 



JuLY,lfe9l] BIOLOGICAL KECONNOISSANCE OF IDAHO. 7 

deep channels with precipitous walls, their present beds being" several 
hundred feet below the general surface level. Of this character are the 
graud lava canons of Snake River itself and many of its tributaries, 
particularly on the south side. As a rule these canons can not be seen 
until their very brinksare reached, and it is not often that they can be 
crossed on horseback. 

The northern boundary of the Snake Plains is formed by the lofty 
mountains of central Idaho, and by that part of the main range of the 
Rocky Mountains which bends directly westward from the Yellowstone 
National Park. Three narrow parallel valleys penetrate the mountains 
of east-central Idaho in a northwesterly direction, carrying slender 
tongues of the sage plaius all the way to Salmon River. 

The soil of the Snake Plains, where not lava or sand, is generally 
alkaline, and the characteristic plants, in addition to the ever present 
sage (Artemisia tridentata), are such Souoran species as Atriplex con- 
fertifolia, Atriplex nuttallii, Artemisia pedatijida, Sarcobatus vermicu- 
latus, Tetradymia canescens, Eurotia lanata, Eriogotnun cernuum tenue, 
several species of Bigelovia, a Malvastrum, and two or three kinds of 
cactus. Artemisia trijida and Purshia tridentata are common in the 
higher levels; and Iva axillaris, a saline species, was found at the sinks 
of Big Lost River. 

The characteristic birds of the sage plains are the Sage Sparrow 
(Amphispiza belli nevadensis), Brewer's Sparrow (Spizellabreiveri), Sage 
Thrasher (Oroscoptes montanus), Burrowing Owl (Speotyto ciniieularia 
hypog(va), Sage Hen (Centrocercus uroplwsianus), and Sharp-tailed 
Grouse (Pedioccetes phasianellus columbianus), though the latter is rare in 
the area traversed. Ravens {Corvus corax sinuatus) and Magpies (Pica 
pica hudsonica) are common in places, and the Canon Wren (Catherpes 
conspersus) was found near Shoshone Falls in the lava canon of Snake 
River. 

The most common diurnal mammals are the Great Basin or Sage 
Chipmunk (Tamias minimus pictus) and a small Spermophile (Spermo- 
philus toivnscndi). Other equally characteristic species are the noctur- 
nal Kangaroo Rat (Dipodops ordii), Pocket Mouse (Perognathns oliva- 
ceus), Grasshopper Mouse (Onychomys leucogaster brevicaudus). Four 
species of Rabbits, namely, the White-tailed and the Black-tailed Jack 
Rabbits (Lepus campestris and L. texianus), the Idaho Pigmy Rabbit 
(Lepus idahoensis), here described for the first time, and the Great Basin 
Cotton-tail (Lcpus sylvaticus nuttalli) are common. Antelope roam 
over the plains in small herds, and Badgers and Coyotes are abundant. 
In the lava canon of Snake River, near Shoshone Falls, the Plateau 
Lynx (Lynx bailcyi), Raccoon (Procyon lotor f), Little Striped Skunk 
iSpilogale saxatilis ."), Dusky Wood Rat (Neotoma ciherea occidental is), 
and Cliff Mouse (Ilesperomys crinitus sp. nov.) are common, and tracks of 
Porcupine (Erethizon epixanthus) were seen. Black-tailed Deer (Garia- 
cus macrotis) inhabit the canon in winter. 



8 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. [No. 5. 

Rattlesnakes (Crotalus lacifer), Horned Toads (Phrynosoma douglasii), 
and small Lizards (Sceloporus graciosus) are common on the Snako 
Plains, and extend north, through the principal sage-covered valleys. 
Two Bull Snakes, provisionally referred to Pituophis catenifer by Dr. 
Stejneger, were collected at Big Butte and Areo, and a single Bascanion 
vetustus at Big Butte. 

Salmon aud Sturgeon ascend Snake River to the Great Shoshone Fall. 
When we crossed the river at Lewis Ferry, October 12, we saw several 
large Sturgeon (Aclpenser transmontanus) tied by the tails to stakes driven 
in the bank. One weighed fully 70 kilograms (L50 pounds), and we 
were told by Mr. Lewis that he sometimes catches individuals weigh- 
ing as much as 300 kilograms (060 pounds). He told us also that the 
fall run of Salmon reached his place about October 1, and that the fish 
that do not die go back iu November. We met a number of Shoshone 
or Bannock Indians on their way to the river to spear Salmon. Some 
of them came all the way from the Lemhi Reservation. 

A kind of Mole Cricket locally known as the Idaho Devil (Stenopalma- 
tus fasciatus) is common on the Snake Plains in October. It is a large 
wingless insect with a great yellow head, powerful jaws, and a banded 
abdomen. I first saw it iu eastern Idaho iu October, 1872, and found it 
common from Shoshone Falls and Lewis Ferry to the headwaters of 
Brunneau River in October, 1890. It lives in burrows in the sage 
plains and its holes resemble those of the small Pocket Mice (Peropna- 
thus olivaceus) iu being cleau cut, going straight down at first, and hav- 
ing no mound at the opening. In crossing the plains during cold 
stormy weather the heads of these curious animals were often seen at 
the mouths of their burrows and many were met with walking about 
among the sagebrush. They walk much, with seeming diguity and 
deliberation, and their tracks may be seen iu every direction. If two 
are held together they immediately bite off one another's legs and inflict 
other serious wounds. They bite a large straw in two at a single nip. 

BIRCH CREEK AND LEMHI VALLEY. 

The most easterly aud longest of the series of parallel valleys which 
penetrate the mountains of east central Idaho is that of Birch Creek 
and Lemhi River. It is 160 kilometers (100 miles) in length by 6 or 8 
kilometers (4 or 5 miles) in average breadth, and may be described as 
a single valley containing two streams which run in opposite directions, 
the divide between them being only a little over 2,130 meters (7,000 
feet). Birch Creek sinks where it enters the Snake River Desert near 
the intersection of latitude 44° and longitude 113° ; the Lemhi empties 
into Salmon River at Salmon City. The eastern boundary of Lemhi 
Valley is formed by the main chain of the Rocky Mountains (here occu- 
pying the boundary line between Idaho and Montana) ; and that of 
Birch Creek Valley by a southern offshoot or ridge of the same which 
terminates abruptly iu a spur known as Rattlesnake Point. The west- 



July, 1891.) BIOLOGICAL RECONNOISSANPE OP IDAHO. 9 

ern boundary of the whole valley is the Salmon River Mountains (the 
southern part of which is sometimes called the 'Lost River Moun- 
tains'). The Salmon River Mountains are much higher and more 
rugged than the Rocky Mountains, the peaks attaining an altitude of 
nearly 3,950 meters (13,000 feet) and being everywhere blotched with 
snow, while those of the latter rarely reach 3,350 meters (11,000 feet) 
and as a rule do not exceed timber line except near Salmon City. 

The vegetation of the valley of Birch Creek and the Lemhi is much 
the same as that of the Snake Plains already described. Sage brush 
(Artemisia tridentata) covers the whole valley and reaches up over the 
foothills to the lower border of the coniferous forests which come down 
from the mountains. Artemisia trifida and Bigelovia graveolens are 
common in places along the higher parts of the valley and sides of the 
foothills. Atriplex confertifolia, Sarcobatus vermiculatits, and Tetradymia 
canescens occur in large patches in the lower levels up to about 1,050 
meters (6,400 feet). This loweror Sonoran zone reaches northward to the 
lava dike at Johnston's Ranch, 16 kilometers (10 miles) south of Nicholia, 
and reappears about 48 kilometers (30 miles) further north, in the upper 
Lemhi Valley, whence it extends down to Salmon River. The inter- 
vening divide rises gradually to the height of a little more than 2,100 
meters (7,000 feet) and is everywhere covered with sage. 

Rattlesnakes (Crotalus) and Horned Toads (Phrynosoma douglassii) 
are common in Birch Creek and Lemhi Valley, though the Rattlesnakes 
seem to be confined to the Sonoran or lower levels. Oroscoptes montanus 
and Ampliispiza belli nevadensis are common ; and ranis atricapillus 
septentrionalis inhabits the willow thickets along the streams. Jjcpus 
campestris, L. lexianus, L. sylraticus nuttalli, and L. idahoensis range 
throughout the entire length of the valley, as does the Sage Chipmunk. 
Rocket Mice inhabit the gravel benches, but Kangaroo Rats extend 
only a short distance up the valley. 

SALMON RIVER MOUNTAINS. 

The above heading has been somewhat loosely applied to various 
masses of mountains in the neighborhood of the upper Salmon River 
in central Idaho. The use of the name is here restricted to the range 
universally known as the Salmon River Range, lying between the Lemhi 
Valley on the east and Salmon River and the Pahsimeroi on the west. 
Its southward continuation (between the valleys of Birch Creek aud 
Little Lost River) is called 'Lost River Mountains' on the Land Office 
map, though there is no break in the range, either in continuity or 
direction, and I would suggest that the name 'Lost River Mountains' 
might be far more appropriately applied to the nameless rauge between 
Big and Little Lost Rivers. Between Birch Creek and Little Lost 
River the range is narrow and culminates in a single ridge of peaks, so 
that the profile is nearly the same from both valleys. Dome Peak is 



10 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. [No. 5. 

tbe highest poiut in the southern part of the range, and Needle Peak* 
only a little lower. Both are nearly 3,950 meters (13,000 feet) in altitude. 
The northern part of the Salmon River Mountains is very much broader 
than the southern aud has no appearance of a range except from the 
valleys of the Lemhi and Pahsimeroi Rivers. Between these valleys 
is a great mass of high mountains culminating in a large number of 
irregularly disposed peaks, many of which exceed 3,650 meters (12,000 
feet) in altitude. The geologic history of the region has not been 
studied, but it is evident that great and violent disturbances have taken 
place. Not only are mountains of granite, carboniferous limestone, and 
lava found in close proximity, but these three kinds of material, formed 
during widely remote periods of time, sometimes exist in actual contact 
in single peaks. Examples of such peaks may be found between the 
heads of Timber Creek and Eight-Mile Canon. Looking west, north- 
west, and southwest from the summit of a high mountain north of Tim- 
ber Creek nothing could be seen but a sea of lofty, rugged peaks heav- 
ily marbled with snow and separated by narrow gulches and deep 
canons. The Pahsimeroi valley was not visible. 

LIFE ZONES OP THE SALMON RIVER MOUNTAINS. 

Arctic Alpine Zone. — Many arctic-alpine plants grow upon the rocky 
summits of these mountains and five species were collected which were 
found by us on San Francisco Mountain, Arizona, in 1889,t namely, 
Oxyriadigyna, Sibbaldia procumbens, Geumrossii,\ Polemonium eonfertum, 
aud Silene acaulis. Dense mats of a dwarf willow (Salix reticulata) 
only 50 to 75 millimeters (2 or 3 inches) in height aud bearing quantities 
of beautiful white wool which the chipmunks were carrying off in large 
mouthfuls, abound below some of the snow banks; Deds of wiry Bryan- 
thus taxifolius border many of the springs, aud Draba alpina occurs here 
and there among the rocks. To these should be added Anemone balden- 
sis, collected by Mr. Bailey on Needle Peak, and Actinella grandiftora, 
collected on a peak near the head of Timber Creek. The birds found 
above timber line are Leucosticte atrata and Anthus pensilvanicus ; prob- 
ably the former belongs to this zone and the latter to the next. Moun- 
tain Goats (Mazama montana) aud Sheep (Ovis canadensis) inhabit the 
summits in summer, but probably belong to the zone below. The 
upward ranges of the Pika (Lagomys princeps) and Marmot (Arctomys 
sp. ?) extend far above timber line. 

Sub-alpine or Timber-line Zone. — The altitude of timber line on the 
Salmon River Mountains varies from 3.050 to nearly 3,350 meters (10,000 
to 11,000 feet), according to slope exposure. The trees which attain 
timber line and constitute the upper forest belt are Pinus albicaulis and 



* Needle Peak is carboniferous limestone. Fossils collected there by Mr. Bailey 
have been determined by Mr. Charles D. Walcott as belongiug to the genus Zaphrentis. 
tN. Am. Fauna No. 3, Sept. 1W90, pp. 7-8. 
{Mr. Holzinger determines this form to be the subspecies humile. 



July, 1891] BIOLOGICAL RECONNOISSANCE OF IDAHO. 11 

Abies subalpina, with an occasional Picea engelmanni. This belt may be 
divided into two zones — Sub-alpine and Hudsonian — as was done in 
treating of the life of San Francisco Mountain, Arizona. In the upper 
or dwarf timber zone the following small plants were found: Arenaria 
biflora carnulosa, Arenaria congesta subcongesta, Aplopappus lyellii, Aplo- 
pappus suffruticosus, Chcenactis douglassi alpina, Delphinium menziesii, 
Heuchera hallii, Pentstemon menziesii, Phleum alpinum, Potentilla nivea 
dissecta, Sedum debile, Senecio aureus compactus, and Soiidago virgaurea 
alpina. Several of these range above timber line. The Titlark (Anthus 
pensilvanicus) probably breeds in this zone. The only characteristic 
mammal obtained is a uew species of Lemming Mouse (Phenacomys 
orophilus), though the Pika (Lagomys princeps) seems to find here its 
center of abundance. The Mountain Goat and Sheep (Mazama montana 
and Ovis canadensis) inhabit both the Sub-alpiue and Arctic-alpine zones 
in summer, but I am inclined to believe that they really breed in the 
former, and therefore should be classed among the species properly 
belonging to this zone. 

Hudsonian or Spruce Zone. — As stated in the previous section, the 
characteristic trees of the Hudsonian or upper timber belt of the Sal- 
mon River Mountains are Pinus albicaulis and Abies subalpina, spar- 
ingly mixed with Picea engelmanni. Another species, Picea alba, occurs 
with them and descends into the lower timber belt also. The altitude 
of the lower border of this zone on the eastern slope of the mountains is 
about 2,750 meters (9,000 feet). Among the small plants fouud in this 
zone on the Salmon River Mountains during the latter part of August 
were: Astragalus Tcentrophyta, Calochortus gunnisoni, Calochortus nitidus, 
Erigeron compositus trifidus, Eriogonum ovalifolium, Gaultheria myrsin- 
ites, Heuchera parv if olia, Saxifraga bronchialis, Senecio canus, aud Silene 
douglasii. Among birds, Clark's Crow (Picicorvus columbianus), the 
Goshawk (Accipiter atricapillus) y Pine Bullfinch (Pinicola enucleator), 
and Pink sided Junco (Junco annectens) are characteristic species. 
Phenacomys orophilus sp. nov., is the only mammal found in this zone 
and not found below. 

Canadian or Douglas Fir Zone. — On the east slope of the Salmon River 
Mountains the lower timber belt occupies the plane between 2,375 and 
2,750 meters (7,800 and 9,000 feet) aud consists chiefly of Pseudotsuga 
douglasii and Pinus murrayana mixed with a variable quantity of Picea 
alba. Small groves of Pojndus tremuloides are scattered here aud there, 
usually occupying drier situations than those in which the conifers 
thrive best. Among the small plants of this zone are Pyrola secunda, 
Rubus nutlcanus, R. strigosus, Vaccinium microphyllum, Arctostaphylos 
uva ursi, aud at least three species of Ribes, one related to R. flori- 
dum, one to R. cereum, and one to R. irriguum. Potentilla fruticosa 
is abundant along the lower part of the zone, but is equally abundant 
in parts of the neutral zone below. Frogs (Rana pretiosa) were com- 



.12 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. [No. 5. 

inon in the marshes; and a Garter Snake (Eutainia vagrans) was col- 
lected. 

Among the birds that breed in the Canadian Zone arc : Tardus audu- 
boni, Begulus calendula, Parus gambeli, Sialia arctica, iSitta canadensis, 
Perisoreus canadensis capitalist Cyanocittastelleri annectens, Spinus pinus, 
Dendroica auduboni, Pendragapus obseurus richardsoni, Bonasa umbellus 
togata, and Bubo virginianas saturatus. The characteristic mammals are 
Neosorex, Evotomys, and Zapus. Many others are common to this and 
the Hudsonian Zone, as the Bears, Wolverine, Marten, Fisher, Weasel, 
Shrews, Arvicolas, Richardson's Squirrel, Gray Ground Squirrel, Flying 
Squirrel, Chipmunk, Porcupine, Snow-shoe Rabbit, Moose, and Black- 
tailed Deer. 

LITTLE LOST RIVER VALLEY. 

The next valley west of and nearly parallel to Birch Creek is that of 
Little Lost River. It is about 70 kilometers (43 miles) in length by 13 
to 1G kilometers (8 or 10 miles) in average breadth, and is walled in on 
both sides by high mountains — the Salmon River Mountains on the east 
and a nameless range on the west, the former separating it from Birch 
Creek Valley, the latter from Big Lost Valley. 

The tongue of the Sonoran Zone which extends up the valley of Lit- 
tle Lost River from the Snake Plains reaches about 5 kilometers (3 
miles) north of the ranch where the post-office of Clyde is now located, 
and is characterized by the presence of the species mentioned as occu- 
pying the same level in the valley of Birch Creek. The head of Little 
Lost Valley expands into a springy basin, into which a spur of the Sal- 
mon River Mountains projects from the north. Little Lost River heads 
northeast of this spur, while to the northwest alow pass (2,050 meters 
or 6,700 feet) connects directly with the head of the Pahsimeroi Valley. 
Tbe pass is grassy and fed by many springs, most of which are sur- 
rounded by clumps of willows. Artemisia trifida is the prevailing sage 
here. 

PAHSIMEROI VALLEY. 

A small stream ('Bullberg Creek') trickles down the northwest side 
of the pass over the divide between the valley of Little Lost River aud 
that of the Pahsimeroi. This stream joins the Pahsimeroi, which in 
turn empties into Salmon River. The axis of Pahsimeroi Valley is more 
nearly east and west than indicated on the Land Office and other maps 
(which represent it as nearly north and south). The valley is about 70 
kilometers (43 miles) in length and is narrowly wedge-shaped, the base 
of the wedge being at the head of the valley, which is about 24 kilome- 
ters (15 miles) in width, while the apex (at the junction with Salmon 
River) is only 2 or 3 kilometers (1 or 2 miles) across. It is hemmed in 
on all sides by high mountains, the highest of which feed and protect 
the headwaters of the Pahsimeroi. Just west of this cluster of lofty 



July, 1891] BIOLOGICAL RECONNOISSANCE OF IDAHO. 13 

peaks is a pass leading south to ; Thousand Spring' Valley, on Big 
Lost River. 

A conspicuous band of timber stretches along the mountains on the 
north side of the valley, but does not come down within 300 meters 
(1,000 feet) of the plain ; above it the bare rocky summits project from 
300 to GOO meters (1,000 to 2,000 feet). About the middle of the valley 
on the south side (the northeast or cold slope) is a springy marsh covered 
with scattering Douglas fir and aspen. The bottom of the valley slopes 
rather steeply to the river, and the Sonoran zone runs up its full length 
to within about 5 kilometers (3 miles) of the divide, where it stops at an 
altitude of about 1,950 meters (0,400 feet). The altitude of the junction of 
the Pahsimeroi with the Salmon is about 1,400 meters (4,000 feet). The 
valley is covered with sage brush (Artemisia tridentata), mixed with 
grease woods (Sarcobatus vermiculatus and Atriplex confertifolia), with 
a sprinkling of Tetradymia caneseens and Opitntia. Some of the fields of 
Atriplex are miles in extent, rivaling those near the sink of Little Lost 
River.* Pocket mice (Perognathus olivaceus) are common on the gravel 
benches; the Great Basin Chipmunk (Tamias minimus pictus) is abundant 
everywhere, and not less than four strongly marked species of rabbits 
inhabit the valley, namely, Lepus texianm, L. campestris, L. sylvatieus 
nuttalli, and the new L. iclahoensis, the type of which was caught on 
the upper part of Pahsimeroi River, near the great bend. Still another 
species (L. bairdi) lives in the adjacent mountains. Coyotes (Canis 
latrans) are very common, and many were seen in the daytime sneaking 
along the edge of the willows, hunting for rabbits. Badgers abound 
throughout the valley, and io some places the large circular disks of 
pebbles which still remain to mark their former diggings are so numerous 
as to cover almost as much ground as the spaces between them. Sage 
Hens in large tiocks were seeu at the head of the valley ; Magpies, 
Bre-wer's Blackbirds, Horned Larks, Meadowlarks, Sparrow Hawks, and 
Vesper Sparrows were common ; a few Turkey Vultures and Mourning 
Doves were seen, and Green-winged Teal, Marsh Hawks, and King- 
fishers were common along the river. A single White-rumped Shrike 
was observed. 

At the time of our visit, September 12 to 18, the lower part of the 
Pahsimeroi River, which averages about 15 meters (50 feet) in width and 
two-thirds of a meter (2 feet) in depth, was full of large Salmon (prob- 
ably Oncorhynchns chouicha), still working upstream. Many of them 
were bruised, others were in excellent condition, and I never saw a liner 

* Iu descending the Pahsimeroi Valley we passed through a tract of Atriplex con- 
fcrlifulia at least 13 kilometers (8 miles) in length. Both this species and Tetradymia 
caneacena are excellent examples of 'social' plants, each covering large areas, often 
hundreds or even thousands of acres iu extent, to the exclusion of most other forms of 
vegetation, and ending abruptly with a sharp line of demarcation. In other places 
they associate together and are mixed with sage-brush (Artemisia tridentata) and 
Sarcobatus vermieulatua. The latter species also is a 'social' plant, hut was uot ob- 
served in such large patches. 



14 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. 



[No. 5. 



Salmon than one we took for our own use. It weighed about 18 kilo- 
grams (40 pounds) and measured l,170 mm (46 inches) in length by 610 mm 
(2 feet) in girth ; its flesh was hard and delicious. 

PAIISIMEROI MOUNTAINS. 

This name is here applied for the first time to a group of lofty, rugged, 
snow-marbled peaks, arranged in the form of a double or triple amphi- 
theater, surrounding the sources of the Pahsimeroi River, and about 
32 kilometers (20 miles) south of the pass between the Little Lost and 
Pahsimeroi Valleys. On the south these same mountains face 'Thou- 
sand Spring Valley,' which is an offshoot from Big Lost River Valley. 
There are two main amphitheaters, facing each other obliquely and 
feeding the two principal heads of the Pahsimeroi — an east and a west, 
of which the latter is the larger. The two forks unite to form the Pah- 
simeroi proper, which flows north about 19 kilometers (12 miles) through 
a nearly straight, terraced caiion, so deep that the trees bordering the 
river do not reach halfway to the top, and then bends abruptly to the 
west, soon taking the course of the main valley. The west fork forks 
again, and successions of beautiful cascades adorn both branches. On 
one of these I found a family of Water Ouzels and discovered their large 
nest of moss in a niche in the rock. The level stretches along both forks 
are bordered b3 r broad thickets of willows, which shelter many Snow- 
shoe Rabbits; and the woody Potentilla fruticosa grows profusely along 
the lower border of the timber, where it is associated with Frasera 
speciosa. The bleak rocky summits of the mountains, the home of many 
Mountain Sheep, rise nearly 900 meters (3,000 feet) above timber line, 
and their precipitous north slopes are marked by enormous banks of 
perpetual snow. Lower down are dark coniferous forests abounding in 
Elk and Black-tailed Deer ; and below these still are thickets of moun- 
tain mahogany (Cercocarpus ledifolius). The prevailing timber is Pseu- 
dotsuga douglasii, Pinus murrayana, and Picea alba, with Pinus albicaulis, 
and Abies subalpina occupying the higher elevations and reaching tim- 
ber line. Pinus flexUis grows sparingly in some places, and Populus 
tremuloides occurs with the Douglas fir below. These forests fairly 
swarmed with Squirrels {Sciurus richardsoni) and Chipmunks (Tamias 
quadrivittatus amcenus) at the time of our visit (September 13-1G). 
Beaver were common in the streams, and small herds of Antelope grazed 
over the non-forested hills. Bleaching skulls and skeletons of the Buf- 
falo attested the former presence of this nearly extinct species. Burrows 
of Spermophiles and Marmots (Arctomys) were found, but the inhabi- 
tants had gone into winter quarters. Colonies of Pikas (Lagomys prin- 
ceps) dwelt in the rock slides high up, and two new species of Arvicola 
were abundant in the springy meadows at and below timber line — one 
a huge species (A, macropus), the largest yet found in America except 
Arvicola (Neo fiber) alleni of Florida; the other a very small species {A. 
nanus), A single Shrew was secured (Sorcw vagrant similis). Blue 



July, 1801] BIOLOGICAL RECONNOISSANCE OF IDAHO. 15 

Grouse (Dendragapus obscurus richardsoni) were common iu the forests 
and willow thickets; Clark's Crows (Picicorvus columbiauus) andTown- 
send's Solitaire (Myadestes townsendi) were numerous in the higher 
levels, and both species of Eegulus were observed. Zonotrichia leuco- 
phrys aud Melospiza lincolni were killed in the willow thickets, and sev- 
eral Kingfishers were seen along the streams. 

ROUND OR CHALLIS VALLEY. 

Round or Challis Valley occupies both sides of Salmon River, and is 
about 13 kilometers (8 miles) long and 9 kilometers (5£ miles) broad. It is 
surrounded by low, rounded mountains, and is continuous to the north- 
ward with the narrow valley of Salmon River, and to the southeast with 
Antelope Valley. Late as was the time of our visit (September 18-21) 
we found a beautiful Mai vast rum in flower near the river. Other char- 
acteristic Souoran plants growing in great abundance in the valley are 
Atriplex confertifolia, Sarcobatus vermiculatus, aud Eurotia lanata. Sage 
brush (Artemisia tridentata) is the prevailing plant at all levels. Kan- 
garoo Rats and Pocket Mice are commou, and both White and Black 
Tailed Jack Rabbits were seen. Muskrats and Ducks abound in the 
sloughs of the river; Wood Rats inhabit the cliffs on its east bank, 
White-footed Mice swarm in the willow thickets, and two kinds of 
Arvicolas are common iu the grassy bottoms. Several Fishhawks and 
Kingfishers, many Magpies and Crows, a few Turkey Buzzards, a 
Great Blue Heron, a Jack Snipe, and a Gull were noted along the river ; 
aud large flocks of Titlarks abounded throughout the valley. 

Several Garter Snakes (Eutainia vagrans) were found in the water in 
small, cold streams emptying into Salmon River a few miles north of 
Round Valley. 

ANTELOPE VALLEY. 

Antelope Valley (altitude about 1,850 meters or 0,100 feet) is about 
10 kilometers (0 miles) long by G kilometers (3i miles) broad, with the 
longest axis nearly north and south, and is continuous with Challis 
Valley on the north. Its eastern boundary is a high rocky range rising 
sharply from the plain and culminating in a single lofty ridge, not 
broken into separate peaks. It is an ideal 'mountain wall.' On the 
west the mountains are rounded and grassy, and are not so high. The 
bottom of the valley is sandy, aud in it were noticed numerous bur- 
rows of Kangaroo Rats. Atriplex confertifolia aud Eurotia lanata were 
conspicuous plants. Antelope Valley is separated from the valley of 
Big Lost River by a divide about 2,225 meters (7,300 feet) in altitude 
at the lowest point. 

UTG LOST RIVER VALLEY. 

The valley of Big Lost River is the largest of the three parallel val- 
leys which penetrate the roouutaius of east-central Idaho from the sage 



16 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. [No. 5. 

plains of Snake River, aud the river from which it takes its name is 
larger than the other two together. The valley is about SO kilometers 
(50 miles) long and ends in a broad, triaugular basin, with the river 
flowiug along its south side and bordered by trees. The west side of 
this basin is crescent-shaped, the south horn of the crescent curving 
westward to the narrow valley of the upper part of the river, the north 
arm containing 'Thousand Spring Valley' and Willow Creek, and 
connecting by a pass 2,225 meters (7,300 feet) in altitude with Antelope 
Valley, and thence with Salmon River at Round or Challis Valley. The 
Sonorau zone occupies the main part of Big Lost Valley aud of Ante- 
lope aud Challis Valleys. Above 'Thousand Spring Valley ' Big Lost 
River flows through a narrow valley or cafiou, with mountains close 
by on both sides. Through the gaps on the south side rugged, snow- 
capped peaks appear. A large branch rises in these mountains. The 
headwaters of Big Lost River are separated from those of Trail Creek 
by a divide more thau 2,440 meters (8,000 feet) in altitude at the lowest 
pass and with much snow in the canons on both sides. Tbe divide is 
covered by a forest of Pinus murrayana, with a few scattering trees of 
Pseudotsuga douglasii and Picea alba. Here we found the Moose Bird 
or Canada Jay, Clark's Crows, and many Richardson's Squirrels and 
Snowshoe Rabbits. In the rock slides were colonies of Pikas (Lago- 
mys) and Gray Ground Squirrels (Tamias cinerascens). 

The descent to the valley of Trail Creek is precipitous. Though the 
date of our crossing was near the end of the hot season (September 23), 
several snowdrifts 9 meters (30 feet) in depth were found, and three 
extensive snow-bridges were observed. These are the remains of huge 
avalanches, and hundreds of large trees were seen which had beeu 
snapped off or torn up by the roots and carried into the bottoms of 
the valleys. Trail Creek Valley contains the largest groves of poplars 
met with during the season. 

VALLEY OF THE BIG WOOD RIVER. 

Wood River rises in high mountains only a few miles distant from the 
ultimate sources of Salmon River, from which it is separated by a divide, 
the lowest pass in which is 2,750 meters (9,000 feet) in altitude. For 
many miles it flows through a narrow valley with high mountains on 
both sides, and with Douglas fir and Murray pine growing down to the 
lowest levels. It was here that a colony of Lagomys was found in a 
rock slide as low as 2,250 meters (7,400 feet), and Sorex, Neosorex, and 
Arvicola were caught in the marshy bottoms. A little lower down the 
river is bordered with groves of aspens (Populus tremuloides) andcotton- 
woods (P. balsamifera) alternating with extended stretches of willow 
thickets. On reaching the neighborhood of the town of Hailey the 
valley begins to widen and the mountains become lower. A few miles 
below it spreads out into the sage plains, the mountains disappear 
altogether, and the river changes its name to Big Wood or Malade. 



July, 1891.] BIOLOGICAL RECONNOISSANCE OF IDAHO. 17 

This river, and Little Wood which finally empties into it, are the first 
streams west of Heury Fork, 210 kilometers (150 miles) distant, which 
succeed in crossing the arid Snake Plains from the north and actually 
reach Snake River. 

VALLEY AT THE HEAD OF SALMON RIVER. 

The valley at the head of Salmon River is a sage-covered basin about 
12 kilometers (7£ miles) in width between the Saw Tooth Mountains on 
the west and a nameless range on the east. It extends in a north aud 
south direction from the sources of Salmon River in northern Alturas 
County to Stanley Basin in western Custer County, and is about 2,135 
meters (7,000 feet) in altitude. The Sage Chipmunk (Tamias minimus 
pictus) is common iu the valley, and Sage Hens (Ceiitrocercus uropha- 
sianu.s), Horned Larks (Otocoris aipestris arenicola), Titlarks (Anthus 
pensilvanicw). and Meadowlarks [Sturnella neglecta) were seen there 
early iu October. The head of Salmon River is separated from the 
headwaters of Wood River by a divide 2,745 meters (9,000 bet) in alti- 
tude at its lowest pass. Forests of Murray pine aud Douglas fir come 
down to the level of the valley on the west side. 

SAW TOOTH MOUNTAINS. 

The Saw Tooth Mountains form the western bouudary of the valley of 
the upper part of Salmon River. They are covered with coniferous 
forests from the very base on the east side to timber line. The princi- 
pal trees are Douglas fir and Murray pine below, and Pinus albicaulis 
and Abies subalpina above, mixed with Picea engelmanni and P. alba. 
The peaks are rocky and jagged, but not so high as those of the Salmon 
River and Pahsiuieroi Mountains. At the east foot of the range are sev- 
eral lakes, known collectively as the 'Red Fish Lakes' because inhab- 
ited by a bright red Salmon called Nerka (Oncorhynchus nerka). One 
of these, Saw Tooth or Alturas Lake, is about 5 kilometers (3 miles) in 
length by 2 (a little over a mile) in breadth, and is surrounded by forests 
of Murray pine with here and there a little Douglas fir. It lies between 
two spurs of the mountains and is about 2,200 meters (7,200 feet) in alti- 
tude. There is a tine sand beach at the head (west end) of the lake, 
bordered by a narrow strip of Murray pine, behind which is an exten- 
sive willow marsh dotted with clumps of pine and fir. 

The narrow valleys and canons west of the lake were almost impass- 
able at the time of our visit because of the fallen timber brought down 
by avalanches during the heavy snows of the previous winter (win- 
ter of 18S9-'90). As a rule each avalanche takes all the trees in its 
path, tearing them up by the roots on the higher mountain sides and 
snapping off their trunks where the snow is drifted in the hollows, car- 
rying them down into the valleys below and piling them up in wild confu- 
sion. In several instances these snow slides not only swept completely 
L'0789— No. 5 2 



18 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. [No. 5. 

across the bottoms of the valleys, but rushed up the opposite sides to a 
height of 200 meters (650 feet) aud deposited there the ruins of the for- 
ests they had destroyed. Miles and miles of the torn and shattered 
trunks of trees fill the valleys and caiions, and ages may pass before 
the barren mountain sides regain a forest covering. 

Along the outlet of the lake are several large flats or parks, some of 
which are covered with grass, others with sage brush. Near the lake 
a blue gentian (Gentiana affinis) was in flower, and Potentilla fruticosa 
was abundant (a few still in flower). Rubus nutkanus was common in 
the forest, as were two species of currant (Ribes), one having bright red 
berries; and service berries (Amelanchier alnifolia), some of exception- 
ally large size, were found in places. High up in the mountains near 
the snow were large beds of the handsome purple Pentstemon MngU in 
full bloom ; and also beds of a yellow Eriogonum, and a few stems of a 
beautiful bright red Gilia related to G. aggregata. Frogs (Rana pre- 
tiosa) were common in the marshes. 

Lynxes, Foxes, Badgers, Black-tailed Deer, Bears, Wolverines, Fish- 
ers, Martens, Weasels, Porcupines, Snow-shoe Babbits, and Flying 
Squirrels inhabit the forests about the lake; Otters, Mink, and Musk- 
rats live along the shores, Beavers in the mountain streams ; Red Squir- 
rels and Chipmunks were extraordinarily abundant everywhere, and 
Pocket Gophers were common in the parks. Numerous burrows of 
Spermophiles and the Gray Ground Squirrel were observed, but the 
season was so late that the animals had gone into winter quarters. The 
marshes and grassy places are inhabited by a water shrew (Neosorex pal- 
ustris), two small shrews (Sorex idahoensis and S. dobsoni, both new), and 
two new species of Arvicola (A. mordax and A. macropns). White- 
footed Mice (Hesperomys leucopus) abound in all sorts of places ; a new 
species of Ked-backed Mouse (Evotomys idahoensis) lives under rotten 
logs in the woods, and a new Lemming Mouse (Phenacomys orophilus) 
makes its home high up in the mountains. Elk roam through the most 
inaccessible parts of the forests, and are said to be common about the 
sources of the Payette. Mountain Goats are common and Sheep less 
common on the summits of the range, where Pikas (Lagomys princeps) 
inhabit the rock slides, and Marmots (Arctomys sp. ?) have their dens. 

The following meat-eating birds were caught in traps set for Martens 
(baited with chipmunks, squirrels, aud birds) : One Goshawk ( Accip- 
iteratricapillus), one Great Horned Owl (Bubo virginianus saturatus), three 
Clark's Crows (Picicorvus colwnbianus), six Rocky Mountain Jays (Per- 
isoreus canadensis capitalis), and four Magpies ( Pica pica hudsonica). We 
were surprised to find the latter species remaining about camp after the 
ground was covered with snow. A flock of Robins was seen several 
times in the pines at the head of the lake, but left with the appear- 
ance of snow. An adult Bald Eagle was seen at the same place Octo- 
ber 1. Great Horned Owls were heard hooting every night, and one was 
caught in a steel trap baited with the head and wings of a duck. Its 



July, 1891.] BIOLOGICAL RECONNOISSANCE OF IDAHO. 19 

stomach contained two Pocket Gophers, one White-footed Mouse, one 
Arvicola, and one new species of Lemming Mouse (Phenacomys orophilus). 

LIST OF BIRDS NOTED IN THE SAW TOOTH MOUNTAINS, AT OR NEAR SAW TOOTH OR AL- 
TURAS LAKE, SEPTEMBER 25 TO OCTOBER 4, 1890. 

Colymbus auritus. Horned Grebe. 

Abundant on the lake; several killed; at least a hundred seen in one 
clay. 

Urinator imber. Loon. 

One seen on the lake near camp October 2. 

Merganser serrator. Red-breasted Merganser. 

Several small flocks seen on the lake. 

Anas boschas. Mallard. 

Common in flocks on the lake ; six killed. 
Anas americana. Baldpate. 

Two shot on the lake. 
Anas discors. Blue winged Teal. 

Two shot on the lake. 
Aythya americana. Redhead. 

One shot on the lake. 

Grus mexicana. Sandhill Crane. 

Several Sandhill Cranes were heard on the big meadow below the 
lake. 

Fulica americana. Coot ; Mud-hen. 

Two shot on the lake. 
Dendragapus obscurus richardsoni. Richardson's Grouse. 

A flock of about forty seen. 
Dendragapus franklini. Franklin's Grouse. 

Said to be tolerably common. 
Circus hudsonius. Marsh Hawk. 

One seen near the lake. 

Accipiter velox. Sliarp-shiuned Hawk. 

Oue seen. 

Accipiter atricaplllus. Goshawk. 

An adult male shot and an immature bird caught in a marten trap. 
Haliaeetus leucocephalus. Bald Eagle. 

A fine adult was seen near camp at the head of the lake October 1. 

Pandion carolinensis. Fish Hawk ; Osprey. 

Seen several times before the snow storm. 

Bubo virginianus saturatus. Dusky Horned Owl. 

One caught in trap and others heard. 
Ceryle alcyon. Kingfisher. 

Common. 
Dryobates villosus hyloscopus. Cabanis's Woodpecker. 

Common at foot of lake. 
Picoides arcticus. Arctic Three-toed Woodpecker. 

One shot at foot of lake, 



20 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA, (No. 5. 

Golaptes cafer. Red- shafted Flicker. 

Several seen. 
Pica pica hudsonica. Magpie. 

Common about the head of the lake. Four caught in marten traps. 
Cyanocitta stelleri armectens. Black-headed Jay. 

Three seen, of which two were shot. 

Perisoreus canadensis capitalis. Rocky Mountain Jay. 

Common. Half a dozen caught in marten traps. 
Corvus americanus. Crow. 

Several seeu about the head of the lake before the storm. 
Picicorvus columbianus. Clark's Crow. 

Common in the mountains. Three caught in marten traps. 
Spinus pinus. Pine Siskin. 

Heard several times. 
Zonotrichia intermedia. Intermediate Sparrow. 

Abundant in bushes everywhere. 

Spizella socialis arizonse. Western Chipping Sparrow. 

One shot at head of lake. 

Junco hyemalis shufeldti. Rocky Mountain J unco. 

Common. 
Junco annectens. Pink-sided Junco. 

Common. 
Melospiza lincolni. Lincoln's Sparrow. 

One caught in an Arvicola trap. 
Dendroica auduboni. Audubon's Warbler. 

Several seen. 

Anthus pensilvanicus. Titlark. 

A few seen. Common in the sage parks below the lake. 
Cinclus mexicanus. Ouzel; Dipper. 

Two seen — one running along the sand beach at head of lake. 
Troglodytes hiemalis. Winter Wren. 

One seen. 

Certhia familiaris montana. Rocky Mountain Creeper. 

One shot and several seen. 

Sitta carolinensis aculeata. Slender-billed Nuthatch. 

One seen. 

Parus gambeli. Mountain Chickadee. 

Common. 
Regulus satrapa. Golden-crowned Kinglet. 

Seen several times. 

Regulus calendula. Ruby-crowned Kinglet. 

A few seen. 

Merula migratoria propinqua. Western Robin. 

A flock staid about the head of the lake before the storm. 

Sialia arctica. Mountain Bluebird. 

Small flocks seeu at foot of lake. 



JuLY,i8Ji.j BIOLOGICAL RECOttNOlSSANCE OF IDAHO. 21 

BRUNNEAU MOUNTAINS. 

This name is applied to an unmapped* range of mountains on or near 
the boundary between Owyhee County, Idaho, and Elko County, Ne- 
vada. The general coarse of the range is ENE. by WSW. On the 
Idaho side it rises abruptly from the plain (base level about 1,850 me- 
ters, or 6,000 feet), and its highest peaks, which are near the headwaters 
of the Brunneau River, attain an altitude of 3,350 to 3,650 meters (11,000 
or 12,000 feet). The altitude of the lowest pass is about 2,600 meters 
(8,500 feet). Many deep canons come out of these mountains and reach 
far into the Snake Plains. At the time of our visit the range was 
entirely covered with snow. Ranchmen living along the Brunneau 
River know the western part of these mountains as the Brunneau Moun- 
tains. Since the eastern part has no name, the whole range is here 
called the Brunneau Range.' The mountains are chiefly bare, particu- 
larly on the Nevada side, though there are some extensive tracts of 
coniferous forests and many groves of aspens, below which is consider- 
able mountain mahogany {Gercocarpus ledif alius). The higher parts of 
the divide are dotted with large patches of Ceanothus velutinus, an ever- 
green shrub, whose bright, deep green foliage contrasts handsomely 
with the snow-covered mountain sides. Elk are said to inhabit these 
mountains, and we found tracks of Deer, Porcupine, aud Weasel on the 
snow in a grove of Abies siibalpina on the north side of the pass. Such 
a storm was raging when we crossed the mountains (October 11) that 
we saw no birds, aud had great difficulty in finding the way. 

LIFE ZONES OF IDAHO. 

It is with considerable reluctance that an attempt is here made to de- 
tine the Life Zones of Idaho, even in a general way. The fact that I did 
not reach the tield until the latter part of August, when most of the 
migratory birds were well on the way south and most of the plants had 
ceased flowering — if indeed they had not disappeared altogether — 
coupled with the circumstance that uo means Mere at hand for precise de- 
termination of altitudes, make the task exceedingly difficult, and it is 
still further complicated by the etfects of slope exposure and aridity. The 
limitations of the zones here announced, therefore, and the assignment 
of species must be regarded as provisional only. The zones recognized 
are the same as those of San Francisco Mountain, Arizona (defined in 
North America Fauna, No. 3, pp. 7-13), namely: Arctic Alpine; Sub- 
Alpine or Timber line; (Central) Hudsouiau or Spruce; (Central) Cana- 
dian or Douglas fir ; Neutral or Transition; and Upper Sonorau. Of 
these, the first four belong to the Boreal Province, which in Idaho con- 
sists of a mixture of species characteristic of the Rocky Mountain and 
Pacific arms or divisions. 



* Bonneville's map of 18;57 shows this rauge as part of a range supposed to reach 
from Wyoming to California. 



22 NOETH AMERICAN FAUNA. [No. 5. 

ARCTIC-ALPINE ZONE. 

(Above timber line.) 

This zone extends from the upper limit of tree growth to the summits 
of the highest peaks, and is characterized by the presence of small but 
often sho wy-flowered Arctic plants. The following species were obtained 
notwithstanding the lateness of the season : 

Actinella grandiflora. Geum rossii humile. 

Anemone baldensis. Oxyriadigyna. 

Bryantlius taxifolius. Polemonium confertum. 

Carex j 'estiva. Salix reticulata. 

Delphinium andersoni. Sibbaldia procumbens. 

Draba alpina. Silene acaulis. 

The breeding season of birds was over before the mountains were 
reached, but young and old Rosy Finches (Leucosticte atrata) were com- 
mon in small flocks above timber line. The mammals known to inhabit 
this zone are Lagomys princeps, Arctomys, sp. — '?, Mazama montana, and 
Ovis canadensis. All of them are found also in the zone below, and 
consequently are not characteristic. The altitude of timber line varies 
from about 3,050 meters (10,000 feet) to nearly 3,350 meters (11,000 
feet) according to slope-exposure. 

SUB- ALPINE OR TIMBER-LINE ZONE, 

(Approximate altitude 3,050 to 3,350 meters, or 10,000 to 11,000 feet). 

This zone comprises the belt of stunted trees extending from the upper- 
most limit of tree growth, however depauperate, to the upper limit of 
full grown, perfect trees; and I am inclined to give it greater vertical 
range than in my report on San Francisco Mountain in which it was 
first defined. The dwarf trees which grow in this zone in central Idaho 
are Abies subalpina and Pinus albicaulis, with an occasional Picea engel- 
manni. The smaller plants observed are : 

Agrostis varians. Juniper as communis. 

Arenaria biflora carnulosa. Pentstemon menziesii. 

Arenaria congesta subcongesta. Phleum alpinum. 

Aplopappus lyellii. Potentilla nivea dissecta. 

Aplopappus suffruticosus. Sedum debile. 

Aster kingii. Selaginella rupestris. 

Cheenaotis douglassi alpina. Senecio aureus compact us. 

Delphinium menziesii. Silene douglassi. 

Heuchera hallii. Solidago virgaurea alpina. 

Titlarks (Anthus pensilvanicus) were common at the upper part of this 
zone and in the zone above. The Mountain Sheep (Ovis canadensis) and 
Mountain Goat (Mazama montana) probably breed here. The most char- 
acteristic small mammals are Phenacomys orophilus, Lagomys princeps, 
and Arctomys, sp. — "? Other species that reach timber line from below 
are Tamias cinerascens, Tamias quadrivittatus amcenus, Arvicola macro- 
pus, Neotoma cinerea (not normally ?), Resperomys leucopus, PJrethizon 
epixanthus, and a weasel provisionally referred to Putorius longicaudus. 



July, 1891.] LIFE ZONES OF IDAHO, 23 

(CENTRAL) HUDSONIAN OR SPRUCE ZONE. 

(Approximate altitude 2,750 to 3,050 meters, or 9,000 to 10,000 feet.) 

This zone extends from the lower limit of the Timber-line Zone to the 
upper border of the Canadian or Douglas fir Zone. Its characteristic 
trees are Pinus albicaulis and Abies subalpina with here and there Picea 
engelmanni. Some of the smaller plants are : 

Astragalus kenlrophyta. Gaultheria niyrsiuites. 

Calochortus gunnisoni. Hcuchera parcifolia. 

Calochortus nitidus. Pentslemon kingii. 

Erigeron compositus trifidus. Saxifrage, bronchialis. 

Eriogonum ovalifolium. Senecio nanus. 
Spiraea (Eriogynia) ca'spilosa. 

Among the birds that breed in the Hudsoniau Zone in Idaho are: 
Accipiter atricapillus, Bubo virginianus saturatus, Goccothraustes vesper- 
Una montana, Juiico annectens (?), Myadestes townsendi, Picicorvus colum- 
bianus, Perisoreus canadensis capitalist and Regulus calendula. 

Among mammals, Phenacomys orophilus and Lagomys princeps appar- 
ently find their normal lower limit here. The mammals which are com- 
mon to this zone and the next below will be mentioned under the latter. 

(CENTRAL) CANADIAN OR DOUGLAS FIR ZONE. 

(Approximate altitude 2,300 to 2,750 meters or 7,700 to ( J,000 feet.) 

This zone extends from the lower border of the fludsouiau to the 
upper border of the Neutral Zone, which latter, in Idaho, consists mainly 
of sage brush. The characteristic trees of the Canadian Zone are Pseu- 
dotsuga douglasii&ud Pinus viurrayana, more or less mixed with Picea 
alba and Populus tremulokles. The low altitude reached by some of 
these trees in springy bogs and along the courses of streams must not 
be taken into account in fixing the lower boundary of this zone, for the 
reason that the water in these mountain springs and streams is very 
cold, often coming but a short distance from melting snowbanks, con- 
sequently lowering the temperature of the soil in which the trees are 
rooted and (by surface evaporation) of the atmosphere to which their 
foliage is exposed. Among the smaller plants of this zone are : 

Arctostaphylos uva-nrsi. liibes cereum. 

Poientilla Jruticosa. Ribee irriguum. 

Pyrola secunda. Btbea floridum. 

Eubua nutkanii8. Vaccinium microphyllum. 

itubus strigosus. Frasera speciosa. 

Among the characteristic birds are : 

Tardus auduboni. Dendroica auduboni. 

J'arus gambeli. Dendragapus obscurus richardsoni. 

Sialia arctica. Dendragapus franklivi. 

Sitta canadensis. Bonasa umbellus togata. 

Cyanocitta stetteri annectens. Jlnbo virginianus saturatus. 

Spinus pinus. 



24 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. [No. 5, 

Many mammals inhabit the Douglas fir Zone in Idaho. Those sup- 
posed to be characteristic are Evotomys idaiwensis, Arvicola mordax>, 
Zapus hudsonius, Neosorex palustris, Sorex dobsoni, 8. idaiwensis, 8, va- 
grans similis, but it is by no means certain that they do not range up 
iuto the Hudsouian. Mammals believed to be common to the Douglas 
fir and Hudsonian Zones are: 

Ursus amerieanus. Erethizon epixanthus. 

Ursus horribilis. Tamias cinerascens. 

Gulo luscii8. Tamias quadririltatus ainwnus. 

Mustela pennanti. Sciurus richardsoni, 

Mustela americana Sciuropterus volans sabrinns. 

Putorius longicauda. Lepus bairdii. 

Arvicola macropus. Alee americanus. 

Arvicola nanus. Cariacus macrotis. 

Arvicola paiiperrimus was found on dry knolls in this zone, but may 
more properly belong to the Neutral Zone. Arvicola riparius inhabits 
wet grassy places in this and the Neutral Zone. 

NEUTRAL OR TRANSITION ZONE. 

(Approximate altitude 1,950 to 2,300 meters orG,400 to 7,500 feet.) 

This zone is notable for what it lacks rather than for what it possesses. 
Its dominant and omnipresent plant is sage brush (Artemisia tridentata), 
but sage brush can not be said to be distinctive of the zone, tor it occurs 
below throughout the Upper Sonoran, and above in the lower part of 
the Douglas fir Zone, where it occupies the dry barren knolls. 

The Neutral Zone lacks the trees of the Canadian Zone and the grease- 
woods of the Sonoran Zone. Its sage plains, therefore, are purer sage 
than elsewhere, though invaded by a few species from above and below 
Artemisia trifida and Bigelovia graveolens are common in places, and 
Frasera speciosa occurs in the foothills of the Pahsimeroi Mountains. 
Gercocarpus ledifolius begins in this zone and extends up into the zone 
above. It is common in the foothills of the Pahsimeroi and Brunneau 
Mountains, but rather rare in the Salmon River Mountains. Potentilla 
fruticosa is common about springy places in this zone and in the Can- 
adian or Douglas fir Zone also. 

If any birds may be said to be characteristic of the Neutral Zone 
they are the Sage Hen (Gentrocercus urophasianus) and Sharp-tailed 
Grouse (Pediocwtes phasianellus columbianus). The characteristic mam- 
mals are believed to be Arvicola pauperrimus, Tamias minimus pictus, 
Spermophilus elegans, and Neotoma cinerea. Arvicola pauperrimus ranges 
up over the dry, sage-covered knolls of the lower part of the Canadian 
Zone, and Tamias minimus pictus follows the sage brush down into the 
Upper Sonoran Zone. 8permophilus grammurus probably belongs to 
the Neutral or Transition Zone, but is not widely distributed. Arvicola 
riparius is common in suitable marshes in this zone but occurs also in 
the zone above. 



July, 1891.) FOREST TREES OF MOUNTAINS OF IDAHO* L 25 

UPPER SONORAN ZONE. 

(Approximate altitude below 1,950 meters or 6,400 feet.) 

The ooly part of the great Sonorau or semi-tropical element that 
reaches Idaho is the upper zone of the Great Plains division of the 
Sonorau Province. This zone occupies the whole of the Snake Plains 
proper and extends up to about 1,950 meters (G,100 feet) in the valleys 
of east-central Idaho. Among its characteristic plants are Atriplex 
confer ti folia, A. cancscens, A. nuttalUi, Sarcobatus vermicnlatus, TetfU- 
dymia canescens, a Malvastrum, a cactus, and perhaps Eurotia Janata 
also. Other plants found in this zone in September and October were 
Uriogonum cernuum tenue, Oryzopsis cuspidata, Iva axillaris, and Bige- 
lovia douglassii, B. tortifolia, B. stenophylla, and B. latifolia. Since 
these Bigelovias were found growing together near Shoshone they must 
be distinct species or have no rank at all. 

Its characteristic mammals are a Kangaroo Eat {Bipodops ordii),. 
Grasshopper Mouse (Onychomys brevicaudus), Pocket Mouse {Pero- 
gnathus olivaceus), Sage Chipmunk (Tamias minimus pictus), Townsend's 
Spermophile {tipermophilus townsendi), and the Idaho Rabbit (Lepns 
idahoensis), though the three last-mentioned species range a little higher 
than the limit here assigned to the zone.* The Black-tailed Jack Rabbit 
(Lepus texianus) may belong to this zone. 

The characteristic birds are the Sage Sparrow (Ampliisjiiza belli 
nevadensis), Brewer's Sparrow {Spizella brewer i), and Sage Thrasher 
(Oroscoptes montanw). Horned Larks (Otocoris alpestris arenicola) are 
common, but occur higher up than the true Sonorau, as is the case with 
the Burrowing Owl and White-rumped Shrike, which species were 
rarely seen in the region traversed. 

FOREST TREES OF THE MOUNTAINS OF SOUTH-CENTRAL IDAHO. 

All the forests explored are coniferous, the only deciduous trees met 
with being the Aspen (Populus tremuloides), one or two species of Cot- 
tonwoods (chiefly Populus balsamifera) which grow in the bottoms along 
the streams, and the Western Birch (lietula occidental) which hardly 
attains sufficient height to be ranked as a tree. Junipers were not 
found except on the extreme southern spur of the mountains between 
Big and Little Lost River Valleys, and in the lava canon of Snake 
River.* 

The coniferous forests which clothe the sides of the mountains every- 
where from an altitude of 2,450 meters (8,000 feet) or less to timber line 
(3,050 to 3,350 meters or 10,000 to 11,000 feet) are divided into two zones, 
an upper and a lower, which meet and overlap at an elevation of about 
2,750 meters (0,000 feet). The characteristic trees of the lower zone are 
the Douglas Fir ( Pseudotsuga douglasii) and Murray Pine [Pinus murray- 
ana). Those of the upper zone are Alpine Fir (.1 hies subalpina), White- 
bark Pine (I'inus albicaulis), and Picea engebnanni. Picea alba is found 

"A Bpecimen from Shoshone Falls in tho Suake River CaQou is identified by Mr. 
Holzinger as Juniperm virginiana. 



26 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. [No. 5. 

scattered through the forest at different elevations, but does not reach 

timber line. 

Pseudotsuga douglasii Carriere. Douglas Fir. 

Douglas Fir is the prevailing tree of the lower or Canadian timber 
zone throughout most of the mountains and is commonly associated 
with Pinus murrayana. On the east side of the Salmon River Range it 
begins at an elevation of 2,300 to 2,400 meters (7,500 to 7,900 feet) and 
runs up to a little above 2,750 meters (9,000 feet). Along some of the 
mountain streams it descends lower into the valleys. Its maximum of 
development is attained at an altitude of about 2,450 meters (8,000 feet). 
Here I measured one tree which 2 meters above ground was more 
than 5 meters (16£ feet) in circumference and about 27 meters (90 feet) 
in height ; another tree in the same neighborhood was 4£ meters (nearly 
15 feet) in circumference, 2 meters above the ground, and 24 meters 
(nearly 80 feet) in height. Many others were nearly as large. 
Pinus murrayana Balfour. Murray Piue ; Black Pine. 

Murray Pine is common throughout the Douglas fir or lower timber 
zone, and in some places is the prevailing tree. This is notably the 
case in the Saw Tooth Mountains, on the east side of which it extends 
from an altitude of 2,150 meters (a little over 7,000 feet) up to about 
2,750 meters (9,000 feet). In the Salmon River and Pahsimeroi Moun- 
tains it forms large forests alternating or mixed with those of Douglas 
Fir. It rarely exceeds 300 millimeters (1 foot) in diameter. The 
branches of this pine are thickly beset with small cones that do not 
fall off when mature. 

Pinus albicaulis Engelruaun. White-bark Piue. 

This singular pine is the dominant tree of the Hudsonian or upper 
timber zone in the Salmon River, Pahsimeroi, and Saw Tooth Moun- 
tains, where it grows from below 2,750 meters (9,000 feet) up to timber 
line. In many places it forms extensive belts in which no other trees 
occur ; in other places it is associated with Abies subalpina and Picea 
engelmanni. On some of the spurs of the Salmon River Mountains Pinus 
albicaulis covers the northeastern slopes while Abies subalpina covers 
the adjacent southeastern slopes. 

Though not a botanist, I am tempted to express the conviction that 
Pinus albicaulis is a perfectly good species, and not a form of Pinus 
flexilis as commonly stated in the books. Its heavy, rounded, purple 
cones with thick scales firmly glued together,* its peculiar bark, and 
even its habit of growth — the trunk splitting up near the ground into 
several parts of nearly equal size — serve to distinguish it at a glance 
from any other pine known to me. 
Pinus flexilis Linnaeus. White Pine. 

Not common in the region traversed; grows sparingly in the Pahsi- 
meroi Mountains. 

"A figure of one of these cones may be found in the article on Richardson's Squir- 
rel, p. 49. 



July, 1891.] BIOLOGICAL RECONNOISSANCE OF IDAHO. 27 

Abies subalpina Eugeluiauu. Sub-Alpiue Fir. 

The Sub-Alpiue fir is common in the Hudsoniau or upper timber zone 
of the mountains of south-central Idaho, ranging from an altitude of 
about 2,750 meters (9,000 feet) to timber line. It is sometimes associated 
with Pinus albicaulis and Picea engelmanni ; in other places it forms 
small forests alone. 

Picea engelmanni (Parry). Engelmann's Spruce. 

Tolerably common in the upper timber zone and usually associated 
with Abies subalpina. 
Picea alba Poiret. White Spruce. 

The spruce provisionally referred to this species is tolerably common 
throughout the lower timber zone of the mountains visited. It does 
not form extensive forests, but is scattered through forests of other 
conifers, chiefly Douglas fir. Professor Sargent, who has examined 
cones collected by us in the Salmon River Mountains, informs me that 
the tree is in some respects intermediate between Picea alba and P. 
engelmanni. 

Populus tremuloides Michaux. Aspen. 

This tree, which is commonly known in the West by the name of 
quakeuasp, aspen, or popple, occurs along many of the streams in the 
bottoms, and forms groves and thickets on the sides of the mountains. 
Populus balsamifera Liumeus. Balsam Poplar. 

Common in some of the bottoms, particularly along Big Wood River, 
where it grows to be the largest deciduous tree observed by us in Idaho. 

MOLLUSCS OF SOUTH-CENTRAL IDAHO. 

The following species were collected by us and have been identified 
by Dr. R. E. C. Stearns : 

Helix (Patula) hemphilli Newc. 
Needle Peak, Lost River Mountains. 

Limnaea lepida Gould. 

Salmon River near Challis. 

Limnaea palustris Mull. 

Salmon River near Challis; also Saw Tooth or Alturas Lake. 

Limnaea adelinae Tryon. 

Salmon River near Challis. 

Planorbis trivolvis Say. 

Saw Tooth or Alturas Lake. 

Physa heteiostropha Say. 

Birch Creek. 

Fluminicola nuttalliana Lea. 

Salmon River near Challis ; and warm springs in Snake River Canon 
near Shoshone Falls. 



28 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. [No. 5. 

EFFECTS OF WATER- COURSES ON THE GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION OF 

SPECIES. 

Mountain streams, in passing down into the plains, exert a twofold 
influence on the distribution of animals and plants. By their constant 
efforts to reach base level, these streams are continually cutting down 
and lengthening the valleys in such a way as to produce gradually 
sloping bottom lands, which penetrate the highlands from the plain 
below, carrying with them narrow prolongations or tongues of the fauna 
and flora of lower levels, which follow the contour lines in a general 
way. 

The second effect mentioned is of an exactly opposite character. The 
low temperature of the water, coming from melting snow-banks or cold 
springs in the mountains, lowers the temperature of the soil support- 
ing the vegetation on its immediate banks, while the evaporation from 
its surface cools the air to which the foliage of such vegetation is ex- 
posed, thus bringing the northern or higher fauna and flora down along 
the immediate course of the stream. 

The length of the stream and steepness of the slope determine 
whether the first or second effect is most pronounced. Eivers having 
long courses over the plains, such as the Missouri and Platte, become 
so thoroughly warmed during their long journey that the second effect is 
inappreciable, while the first is very strongly marked, southern forms of 
life ascending these valleys a hundred kilometers or more beyond their 
usual limit. Short streams, on the other hand, and particularly those 
that head in mountains and have rapid courses, carry northern forms 
many kilometers below their normal limit, but do not afford the same 
facility for the northward extension of southern forms. Streams of 
intermediate character (in the respects indicated) present intermediate 
conditions, and where the two types balance, the northward (or up- 
ward) and southward (or downward) extensions of the life zones are of 
equal length, the latter inclosing the former like the involuted finger 
of a glove. 

ORIGIN OF THE NAME 'MARKET LAKE.' 

Governor Isaac I. Stevens, in his narrative of the Pacific Railroad sur- 
veys carried on under his direction in 1853, makes the following inter- 
esting statement concerning the place known as Market Lake, which, it 
may be added, is now dry and occupied by ranches. Governor Stevens 
says: 

" In years past the bed of this lake was an immense prairie bottom 
or basin, and a favorite resort for game of all kinds ; even, indeed, the 
buffalo have been killed in and near it in large numbers, the evidences 
of which were shown by the skulls of the animals found near the pres- 
ent border of the lake. 

"So abundant, indeed, was the game here that the trappers and moun- 
tain men of that day, who in squads and bauds trapped and hunted in 



July, 1801.] BIOLOGICAL KECONNOISSANCE OF IDAHO. 29 

this wilderness of mountains, always said to each other, when their 
supply of subsistence grew scanty, ' Let us go to the market,' referring 
to this resort of the herds of game ; and they never visited it in vain 
until, by one of those strange freaks of nature in this valley of the Snake 
River, which is fed at many points throughout its length by subterra- 
nean streams, this market was converted into an immense sheet of 
water. It is only accounted for by supposing that the streams making 
down from the Snake River Mouutaius and losing themselves in the 
sand or sage desert of the valley, break forth at or near the latter, which 
is thus fed from year to year by the meltings of the snows and the rains 
from those mountains. In order, therefore, to retain and hand down 
the name of this once favorite resort, and the legend couuected with it, 
Lieutenant Mullan named this sheet of water the Market Lake. 

"Traveling along the bauks of this lake for 8 miles, he left it, aud in 
a short time fell upon the maiu stream of Snake River, which was from 
150 to 200 yards wide and very deep, with high clay banks on either 
side, and bordered with a slight growth of willow." (Pacific R. R. 
Rept., vol. xii, Book 1, 1800, p. 170.) 



MAMMALS OF IDAHO. 



Idaho presents great diversity of physical features, comprising 
immense coniferous forests, ranges of lofty, rugged mountains, fertile, 
grassy valleys, arid sagebrush plains, and alkali deserts, and it is 
about equally divided between the Boreal and Sonorau Life Zones. Its 
mammal fauna is correspondingly rich and varied. Sixty-seven species 
and subspecies of mammals are now known from the State and the 
number will be increased by future explorations. The principal addi- 
tions are likely to come from the bats and arvicoline mice, and except 
in so far as the former group is concerned, the numerical relations of 
the several families are not likely to be disturbed ; hence a statement 
of the number of genera and species in each may be of interest. For 
convenience, subspecies are here treated as species. The boreal group 
Mustelidce leads in genera but not in species, having 8 genera and 9 
species. The family Muridce comes next in number of genera and out- 
ranks the Mustelidce in species, having 7 genera and 13 species, and the 
number of species is likely to be slightly increased. The Sciuridce is 
represented by 5 genera and 10 species ; the Cervldce by 4 genera and 
5 species; the Bovidw by 4 genera and 4 species ; the Ganidw by 2 gen- 
era and 3 specieo ; the Felidcv by 2 genera and 2 species, the Soricidw 
and Leporidce each by 1 genus and 4 species; the Saccomyida- by 2 
genera and 2 species ; the Geomyidcc by 1 genus and 2 species ; the 
Ursidcc by 1 genus and 2 species ; and the following families by 1 genus 
and 1 species each : Hystricida', Zapodidcc, Lagomyidw, Castoridw, Procy- 
onidw. The Vcspcrtilionidw is probably represented by 3 genera and 4 
or 5 species. The genera most largely represented in species are : 
Arvicola, 5 ; Spermophilus, 4 ; Lepus, 4 ; Sorex, 4 ; Tamias, 3. JSo other 
genus has more than 2 species. 

CHECK LIST OF SPECIES AND SUBSPECIES. 



1. Sorex idahoensis sp. nov. 

2. Sorex dobsoni sp. nov. 

3. Sorex vagrans similis snbsp. nov. 

4. Sorex palustris Richardson. 

5. Vespertilio nitidus H. Allen. 

6. Arctomijs sp. ? 

7. Spermophilus columbianua (Ord). 

8. SpermophiliiH armatus Kennicott. 
D. Spermophilus elegana Kennicott. 

10. Spermophilus townsendi Bachman. 



11. Tamias cinerasccm Merriam. 

12. Tamias quadHvittatua amcenus J. A. 

Allen. 

13. Tamias minimus pictus J. A. Allen. 

14. Scinrits richardsoni Bachman. 

15. Sciuroplerus volans sabrinus (Shaw). 

16. Castor canadensis Kuhl. 

17. Onychomys leucogaster brevicaudus 

snbsp. nov. 

18. Iltspcromys crinitus sp. nov. 

31 



32 



NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. 



[No. 5. 



CHECK LIST OF SPECIES AND SUBSPECIES — continued. 



19. Hesperomysleucopus (Rafinesque). 

20. Neotomacinerea (Orel). 

21. Neotomacinerea occidental-is Baird. 

22. Arvicola riparius Ord. 

23. Arvicola macropus sp. nov. 

24. Arvicola mordax sp. nov. 

25. Arvicola nanus sp. nov. 

26. Arvicola pauptrrimus Cooper. 

27. Phenacomys oropldlus sp. nov. 

28. Evotomys idahoensis sp. nov. 

29. Fiber zibet liivus (Linnaeus). 

30. Thomomys clusius Coues. 

31. Thomomys clusius fuscus subsp. nov. 

32. Dipodops ordii Woodhouse. 

33. Perognathus olivacens Merriam. 

34. Eretliizon epixanthus Brandt. 

35. Zapus liudsonius (Zimmermann). 

36. Lugomys princeps Richardson. 

37. Lepus idahoensis sp. nov. 

38. Lepus sylvaticus nuttalli Bachman. 

39. Lepus texianus Woodhouse. 

40. Lepus campestris Bachtnau. 

41. Lepus bairdii Hayden. 

42. A Ice americanus Jardine. 

43. Bangifer caribou (Kerr). 



44. Cervus canadensis Erxleben. 

45. Cariacus macrotis (Say). 

46. Cariacus virginianus macrourus Rafin- 

esque. 

47. Antilocapra americana Ord. 

48. Mazama m ontana Rafinesque. 

49. Ovis canadensis Shaw. 

50. Bison bison (Linnaeus). 

51. Felis concolor Linnaeus. 

52. Lynx baileyi Merriam. 

53. Canis latrans Say. 

54. Canis nubilus Say. 

55. Yulpes macrourus Baird. 

56. Taxidea americana (Boddaert), 

57. Mephitis sp. ? 

58. Spilogale saxatilis Merriam. 

59. Luira hudsonica (Lacepe"de). 

60. Mustela americana Turton. 

61. Mustela pennanti Erxleben. 

62. Gulo luscus (Linnaeus). 

63. Lutreola vison (Schreber). 

64. Putorius longicauda Bonaparte. 

65. Procyon lotor (Linnaeus). 

66. Ursus horribilis Ord. 

67. Ursus americanus Pallas. 



ANNOTATED LIST OF THE MAMMALS OF IDAHO, WITH DESCRIPTIONS 

OF NEW SPECIES. 

Sorex idahoensis sp. nov. Idaho Shrew. 

This tiny shrew, the smallest of the three here described, is common 
in the Salmon River Mountains of Idaho, and was found in the Saw 
Tooth Mountains also. It differs widely from all known species inhab- 
iting the western United States, as pointed out below. 

SOREX IDAHOENSIS sp. nov. 
[Jaws with teeth, PI. IV, Fig. 1.] 
Type No. ftrttJ 9 ad., U. S. Natioual Museum (Department of Agriculture collec- 
tion). From Timber Creek, Salmon River Mountains, Idaho, August 26, 
1890. Altitude about 2,500 meters (8,200 feet). Collected by C. Hart Mer- 
riam and Vernon Bailey. (Original number, 1674.) 
Measurements (taken in flesh). — Total length, 95; tail vertebrae, 40; 
pencil, 6; hind foot, 12. 

General characters. — This shrew presents no striking external pecul- 
iarities. It is about the size of 8. platyrhinus, which seems to be its 
nearest relative. It has no affinities with 8. personatus or vagrans. 

Color. — Upper parts dull sepia brown, darkest over the rump; under 
parts drab-gray, tinged with buffy. Tail bicolor, its upper and lower 
surfaces concolor with the corresponding surfaces of the body, with a 
rather long pencil, which is dusky all round. 

Cranial and Dental characters. — The skull is smaller and lighter than 
that of 8. personatus. The lateral uuicuspidate teeth decrease in size 



July, 1891] 



MAMMALS OF IDAHO. 



33 



uniformly from first to fourth; the fifth is minute but distinctly visible 
from the outside. This is the only species of 8orex yet described from 
anywhere west of the Rocky Mountains, so far as I am aware, in which 
the fourth imicuspid is smaller than the third, in which respect it re- 
sembles 8. platyrhinus of the Eastern States. 

An old nursing' female, with much worn teeth (No. fffrf), from the 
Saw Tooth Mountains, is here referred to this species, but, as pointed out 
by Dobson, it is exceedingly difficult to determine the species of shrews 
when the teeth are much worn. 

Record of specimviui collected of Sorex idahoensis. 



U. S. National 




Museum No. 


o 


Skin. 


Skull. 


"3 
a 

o 


23519 


30937 


IG23 


23523 


30941 


1C24 


23521 


30u:ju 


1G40 


23527 


30945 


-1074 


24273 


31677 


1 1898 



Locality. 



Salmon Eiver Mountains, Idaho . 

....do 

....do 

....do 

Saw Tooth Lake, Idaho 



Date. 






Aug. 23, 1890 

....do 

Aug. 24, 1890 
Aug. 20, 1890 
Sept. 28, 1890 







S 




A 


i- 










M. 






a 




Sex. 


6 


<D 






> 




g 












o 


c3 




H 


H 


cf? 


97 


42 


?•-- - 


97 


40 


9 


94 


38 


? 


95 


40 


9 old.. 


90 


37 



11.5 

11.5 

12 

12 

12 



Type, t Nursing teats : v 



P 2 _ T ~ 



Sorex dobsoni sp. nov. Dobson's Shrew. 

This interesting shrew was captured near Saw Tooth or Alturas Lake 
at the eastern base of the Saw Tooth Mountains in central Idaho, Octo- 
ber 3, 1890, at which time the ground was covered with several inches 
of newly fallen snow. It belongs to the Sorex personatus group, and 
may be known from the following description : 

SOREX DOBSONI * sp. uov. 
[Jaws with teeth, PL IV, Fig. 2.] 

Type No. |f$ff 9 ad. U. S. National Museum (Drpartuieut of Agriculture collec- 
tion). From Saw Tooth or Alturas Lake, Saw Tooth Mountains, Idaho, 
October 3, 1800. Altitude about 2,200 meters "(7,200 feet). Collected by C. 
Hart Merriam aud Vernon Bailey (original number 1929). 

Measurements (taken in fiesh). — Total length, 105; tail vertebne, 47; 
pencil, 4.5 ; hind foot, 12.5. 

General characters. — Similar to 8. personatus in size and coloration, 
but differing in having a somewhat longer tail aud in cranial and dental 
characters. 

Color. — Upper parts uniform dull sepia brown, not darker on the 
rump. Under parts drab-gray slightly tinged with brown. Tail indis- 
tinctly bicolor, concolor with the upper and under surfaces of the body. 

Cranial and Dental characters. — The skull is larger and heavier than 
that of 8. personatus. The first and second unicuspidate teeth are 
largest and subequal; the third and fourth are considerably smaller 

* Named in honor of Dr. (i. E. DoIksou, M. a., P. B. S., etc., the distinguished author 
of 'A Monograph of the [nsectivora.' 

20781)— No. 5 3 



34 



NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. 



INo. 5. 



and nearly subequal, but the third is a trifle smaller than the fourth ; 
the fifth is completely in the tooth row and more than half as large as 
the fourth (when seen from below) and the tip is chestnut, as in all the 
others. Compared with Sorex personatus, its nearest relative, the lat- 
teral uuicuspids are higher ; the first, second, third, and fourth are 
more crowded ; the first and second are larger in- relation to the third 
and fourth ; and the fifth is very much larger. All of these teeth are- 
higher than long, while in 8. personatus the contrary is true The first 
molariform tooth is conspicuously larger than in personatus and its 
principal cusp is directed more obliquely backward. The internal basal 
lobe of the middle incisor is rudimentary ; the external lateral lobe or 
hook is larger than in 8. personatus. 

Record of specimen collected of Sorex dobsoni. 



U. S. National 












8 




Museum No. 


o 








-a 


u 






'a 


Locality. 


Date. 


Sex. 


a 


o 

u 
a 
P- 


• 






o 
=2 


Skin. 


Skull. 


M 








o 


'3 


a 




o 








H 


H 


W 


24274 


31678 


*1929 




Oct. 3, 1890 


? 


105 


47 


12.5 









* Type. 

Sorex vagrans similis subsp. nov. Shrew. 

This is the commonest shrew inhabiting the marshes and borders of 
streams of the Salmon River Mountains, and it was found in the 
Pahsimeroi Mountains also. It is nearly related to S. vagrans of the 
Pacific coast region about Puget Sound, but differs from that species 
as pointed out below. 

SOREX VAGRANS SIMILIS subsp. nov. 
[Jawa with teeth, PI. iv, Fig. 3.] 

Type No. 3 j|§$$ 9 U. S. National Museum (Department of Agriculture collection). 
From Timber Creek, Salmon River Mountains, Idaho, August 26, 18'JO. Alti- 
tude about 2,500 meters (S,200 feet). Collected by Basil Hicks Dutcber 
(original number 1670). 

Measurements (taken in flesh.)— Total length, 111; tail vertebrae, 46; 
pencil, 4 ; hind foot, 13. 

General characters. — Similar to 8. vagrans, but slightly larger, with 
the skull aud mandible conspicuously larger and heavier. 

Color. — Upper parts uniform dull sepia brown slightly tinged with 
very pale rufous. Under parts drab gray slightly tinged with buff. 
Tail bicolor, concolor with upper and lower surfaces of body. 

Cranial and Dental characters. — Compared with 8. vagrans the skull 
is large and heavy (the under jaw in particular is everywhere conspic- 
uously thicker and heavier) and the angular process is longer. The 
base of the third upper unicuspidate tooth does not come down to the 
plane of the bases of the rest of the series. The principal cusp of the 
first molariform tooth is directed more obliquely backward than in 8. 
vagrans ; the mandibular teeth are larger, higher, and more crowded, 



July, 1891.1 



MAMMALS OF IDAHO. 



35 



and the anteroinferior border of the second lateral tooth is einarginate 
or notched for the reception of the posterior part of the preceding tooth. 

Record of specimens collected of Sorex vayrans similis. 



TJ. S. National 
Museum No. 


6 
ft 

"a 
a 
'3d 

'u 

o 


Locality. 


Date. 


Sex. 


■a 

■*» 

b£ 

a 

"o 
H 


i 

u 

k 
H 


o 


Skin. 


Skull. 


a 

a 


23520 
23522 


30938 
30940 


1625 
1045 


Salmon River Mountains, Idaho 

do 


Aug. 23,1890 
Aug. 24,1890 
Aug. 25,1890 
Aug. 26,1890 
do 


? 
? 
J 
9 
? 
9 
i 

d 

? 


102 
110 
112 
111 
105 
110 
112 
117 
100 


39 
48 
47 
46 
45 
47 
47 
50 
44 


12.5 
13 


23520 


30944 1663 
30943 *1«7n 


do 


12 5 


23525 


do 


13 


23524 


30942 
31238 
31312 
31239 
31942 


1682 
1708 
1709 
1723 
1796 


....do ,, 


13 5 


23838 


do 


Aug. 28,1890 
...do 


13 


23908 


do 


12.5 


23839 


do 


Aug. 30,1890 
Sept. 15,1890 


12.5 




Pahsinieroi Mountains, Idaho 


13 



*Type. 

Sorex palustris Richardson. Marsh Shrew. 

This large and handsome shrew is common along the streams and in 
marshy places in many parts of Idaho, and is easily caught in traps 
baited with meat. 

I agree with Dobsou that the genus Neosorex, erected for this (or a 
closely allied) species by Baird, is not based on characters entitled to 
generic recognition, but differ with him iu the opinion that it " can not 
even be considered as representing a subgenus."* 1 regard Neosorex 
as an excellent subgenus. 

Record of specimens collected of Sorex palustris. 



U. S. National 
Museum No. 



Skin. 



23307 
23308 
23474 
23475 
23516 
23517 
23514 
23515 
23518 
24038 
24300 
24302 
24301 
23472 
23473 



Skull. 



30827 

30828 
30892 
30893 
30934 
30935 
30932 
30933 
30936 
31454 
31706 
31768 
31767 
30890 
30891 



Locality. 



1537 
1554 
1570 
1580 
1621 
1622 
1047 
1648 
1664 
1858 
1915 
1918 
1919 
159 
160 



Birch Crook, Idaho 

...do 

...do 

...do 

Salmon llivor Mountains, Idaho 

....do 

...do 

...do 

...do 

Head of Wood River, Idaho 

Saw Tooth Lake, Idaho 

...do 

....do 



Birch Creek, Idaho 
...do 



Date. 



Aug. 5, 
An- 8, 
Aug. 9, 
Aug. 11, 
Aug. 23, 
...do... 
Aug. 21, 
...do... 
Aug. 25, 
Sept. 25, 
Sept. 30, 
Oct. 1, 
Oct. 2, 
Aug. 11, 
Aug. 13, 



1890 
1890 
1890 
1890 
1890 



1890 



1890 
1890 
1890 
1890 
1890 
1890 
1890 



Sex. 



ft... 

?-. 

ft — 

?-•- 
?ad 



149 
140 
151 
159 
162 
158 
164 
156 
174 
152 
158 
145 

i:;r, 

150 
140 



w 

19.5 
18 
19 
18 

20 
20 
20 
20 
20 
20 
20 
20 
20 
17 
18 



* Synopsis of Genera of Soricidae, Proc. Zool. Soc Loud., 181)0,51. 



36 



NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. 



|No. 5. 



Vespertilio nitidus H. Alleu. California Bat. 

A single specimen of a small brown bat, provisionally referred to this 
species, was shot by Mr. Clark P. Streator on Birch Creek, August 10. 
It is a female, and apparently immature. 

Record of specimen collected of Vespertilio nitidus.- 



















A 


n 
































c3 


IS 
















a 










>> 



































-a 






».2 




















6 
ft 


Locality. 


Date. 


Sex. 


.a 






3S 

pi 


3 . 

o a> 
£8 


tn 


g 




t-i 

CD 

a 


IS 

be 




o 


£ a 


cS 














O c3 


05^ 






2 




ca 




,=> 


CO 


a 










'5 






M 

cS 


01 

S 

3 


OS 

e 

r. 


2 


_ti 
2 


.d 


s 

2 


a 


P 


O 
142 






9 im. 


W 
43 


H 
38 


w 

15 


12 


H 
5.2 


w 


35 


H 
7.5 


H 
58 


46 


H 
14.5 


W 


23448 


Birch Creek, Idaho. . . 


Aug. 10, 1890 


10.5 



Arctomys sp. ? Marmot. 

Nearly extinct in the region traversed, though very abundant a year 
or two ago. Only two individuals were seen, and they were above timber 
line in the Salmon Kiver Mountains. One sat at the mouth of a cave 
at an altitude of about 3,350 meters (11,000 feet). It seemed to have a 
narrow red belly and gray back. Eemains of Arctomys are common at 
Big Butte and in the lava beds. The inhabitants attribute their de- 
struction to the severe drought of the past few years. 

In 1872 I collected specimens of an Arctomys on Henry Fork of Snake 
Biver and in the Teton Basin (Nos. 12406 and 12407, U. S. Nat. Mns.). 

Spermophilus* townsendi Bachman. Townsend's Sperinophile. 

Spermophilus toivnsendi Bachman, Journ. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., vol. vni, 1839, pp. 

61-62. (Type from Plains of Columbia near the mouth of Walla Walla River. 

Not of Allen, Monog. Rodentia, 1877, pp. 848-860). 
Spermophilus mollis Kennicott, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1863, p. 158. (Type from 

Camp Floyd, now Fairfield, Utah. This form may prove to he subspecifically 

separable from true townsendi). 

* For several years I have made a special effort to secure series of the Spermophiles 
of the Great Basin and Plains of the Snake and Columbia for the purpose of correct- 
ing synonymy and ascertaining the true status of the species, and have succeeded in 
bringing together in all about 100 specimens. The number would have been at least 
' twice as great but for the inconvenient and seemingly unnecessary haste which these 
animals manifest in going into winter quarters when the summer is little more than 
half gone, thus disappointing the collectors, who, in several instances, reached the 
localities aimed at just too late. 

In addition to the specimens mentioned, which are of excellent quality and accom- 
panied by skulls, I have examined the types of all the species known to inhabit the 
region, namely, Bachman's S. townsendi (in the museum of the Philadelphia Academy 
of Natural Sciences), and Kennicott's mollis, elegans, and armatus (in the U. S. National 
Museum), and also, as stated in another place, have received specimens of S. columbi- 
anus, from within a few miles of the type locality. The conclusions resulting from 
this study were intended to appear first in a revision of the genus, upon which the 
author has been engaged for sometime, but the necessity for naming species in faunal 
lists renders it imperative to forestall the more formal paper by an announcement of 
the general results so far as they relate to the determination of the species. 



July, 1891] MAMMALS OF IDAHO. 37 

Common at Blackfoot and along Big Lost River and Birch Creek, 
and probably throughout the Suake Plains and sage-covered valleys of 
Idaho, as well as the Plains of the Columbia. This Spermophile is silent 
and shy and goes into winter quarters early ; it was not seen after the 
middle of August. Mr. Bailey says: "Those taken were all very fat 
and were excellent eating, the flesh being white, tender, and sweet, 
without unpleasant flavor." 

In 1872 I collected this species at Boss Fork, near Fort Hall, July 3, 
recording it under the name Spermophilus mollis of Kennicott (Sixth 
Annual Kept., U. S Geological Survey Terr., 1872, 1873, p. 664. Speci- 
men No. \l\li S U. S. National Museum). 

It is with great reluctance that I am forced to adopt for this Sper- 
mophile a name which has been in common use for another species since 
1877, but adherence to the rule of priority leaves no ether course open. 
The type of the present species was collected by John K. Townsend, " on 
the Columbia River, about 300 miles above its mouth, in July," and was 
described by Bach man, in 1830, under the name Spermophilus townsend i* 
Nineteen years later Professor Baird based his description " upon the 
original of Bachman's article, in the collection of the Philadelphia Acad- 
emy of Natural Sciences," because " no specimens of this species were 
collected by any of the expeditions" (Mammals of N. Am., 1857, 326). 

In 1863 Bobert Kennicott described a Spermophile from Camp Floyd 
(now Fairfield), on the west side of Utah Lake, Utah, under the name 
Spermophilus mollis (Proc. Pbila. Acad. Nat. Sci., 1863, 157). In 1874 
J. A. Allen placed mollis under townsendi as a subspecies — an arrange- 
ment in which I fully concur, though the habitat given is erroneous 
(Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist., xvi, 1874, p. 293). Three years later, how- 
ever, in his monograph of the group (Monog. N. Am. Rodentia, 1877, 
pp. 848-860), he receded from his former position, accorded full specific 
rank to 8. mollis, and transferred the name toicnsendi (as a subspecies 
of richardsoni) to the animal described by Kennicott in 1863 as S. ele- 
gans. This course is easily explained by the fact that Allen never saw 
the type of townsendi, and was misled by the erroneous measurement 
of its length given by Bachman — " 8 inches 9 lines," which is nearly 
51" ,m (2 inches) too much. The measurements of the hind foot and tail 
(correctly recorded by Bachman as " 1 inch 4 lines and 1 inch" [ap- 
proximately 33"" u and 25" ,ni ] respectively), apply to this species and 
fall far short of the dimensions of the same parts in S. elegans. In 8. 
elegans the hind foot averages about 41 mm and the tail 70""", while 
in 8. totvnsendi the corresponding measurements are 33'" ni and 39" 1 " 1 . 
Through the courtesy of the authorities of the Philadelphia Academy 
of Natural Sciences, I have recently examined and measured the type 
of 8. townsendi, and can not see that it differs in any way from the 
series collected by our party on the Snake Plains of Idaho. The length 
of the hind foot is a fraction less than 33 mm . 



* Jour. Phila. Acad. Nat. Sci., vol. vin, 1839, pp. 61, 62. 



38 



NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. 

Record of specimens collected of Spermophilus iownsendi. 



[No. 5. 



U.S. National 
Museum No. 



Skiu. 



23025 
23063 
23061 
23064 
23066 
23926 
23927 
23332 
23489 
23490 
23024 
23067 
23933 
23065 
23932 
23930 
23931 
23929 
23925 
23928 
23334 
23331 
23333 
23492 



Skull. 



30471 
30509 
30507 
3051C 
30512 
31331 
31332 
30791 
30907 
30908 
30470 
30513 
31338 
30511 
31337 
31335 
31336 
31334 
31330 
31333 
30793 
30790 
30792 
30910 



1419 

1436 

1438 

1440 

1449 

1463 

1486 

1534 

1573 

1576 

3 

33 

43 

44 

46 

47 

48 

51 

53 

54 

90 

117 

130 

162 



Locality. 



Blackfoot, Idaho 

...do 

...do 

...do 

...do 

Big Lost River, Idaho. . 

...do 

Birch Creek, Idaho 

...do 

...do 

Blackfoot, Idaho 

....do 

Big Lost River, Idaho . . 

...do 

....do 

...do 

...do 

...do 

...do 

...do 

Birch Creek, Idaho 

...do 

...do 

...do 



Date. 



July 10, 
July 12, 
July 14, 
July 15, 
July 16, 
July 22, 
July 24, 
Aug. 4, 
Aug. 9, 
Aug. 10, 
July 10, 
July 16, 
July 22, 
....do .. 
....do.. 
....do .. 
....do .. 
July 23, 
....do .. 
....do .. 
Aug. 4, 
Aug. 6, 
Aug. 8, 
Aug. 13, 



1890 
1890 
1890 
1890 
1890 
1890 
1890 
1890 
1890 
1890 
1890 
1890 
1890 



1890 
1890 
1890 
1890 



Sex. 



J3 

u 

a 

4) 

o 
H 


si 

'3 
H 


195 


45 


209 


49 


188 


39 


210 


46 


202 


44 


198 


37 


198 


40 


176 


39 


188 


43 


183 


40 


207 


45 


195 


43 


191 


50 


192 


53 


208 


43 


210 


44 


204 


39 


181 


89 


206 


43 


175 


40 


167 


35 


177 


34 


180 


32 


187 


33 



a 

a 



32 

33.5 

30 

32 

34 

32 

31 

29 

31 

30 

32 

30 

32 

31 

33 

32 

32 

31 

32 

31 

30 

29 

30 

29 



Spermophilus armatus Kennicott. Mountain Spermophile. 

Spermophilus armatus Kennicott, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Pkila., 1863, p. 158 (type 
from foothills of Uinta Mountains near Fort Bridger, Wyoming). 

This species inhabits the Blackfoot Mountains east of the town of 
Blackfoot, on Snake .River, where Mr. Bailey found it common from the 
foothills to the higher parts of the range. The ranchmen living along 
the foothills complain that their crops suffer from its depredations. It 
may occur also in other mountain ranges visited, but had denned up 
before these mountains were reached. Burrows of some species of 
Spermophile abound in the Sawtooth and Pahsimeroi Mountains. The 
local name Picket Pin, by which Spermophiles are known in Idaho and 
other parts of the west, is suggestive of the upright position these ani- 
mals assume when sitting at the mouths of their holes. 

Record of specimen collected of Spermophilus armatus. 



U. S. National 
Museum No. 


6 

"3 
a 

*n 
o 


Locality. 


Date. 


Sex. 


u 

a 

o 
H 


8 

u 
o 
u 
> 

'5 
H 


O 

c2 


Skin. 


Skull. 


13 

a 
5 


23062 


30508 


1435 


Blackfoot Mountains, Idaho 


July 12, 1890 


? 


275 


68 


45 



July, 1891. J 



MAMMALS OF IDAHO. 



39 



Sperniophilus elegans Kcnnicott. Kenuicott's Spermopbile. 

Spermophilus elegans Keuuicott, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1803, p. 158 (type from 

Fort Bridger, Wyoming). 
Sperniophilus richardsoni var. toivnsendi Allen, Monog. Rodentia, 1877, p. 848-j- (not S. 

townsendi ofBachman, 1839). 

Common in the sage brush of the Neutral zone on the sides of Birch 
Creek and Lemhi Valley (just below the Canadian or Douglas fir zone 
and above the Sonoran) ; probably common in many similar localities 
visited, but hibernating so early that it was not observed. The iast 
specimen seen was captured August 22. 

In 1872 I collected this species at Henry Lake and near Teton Canon 
in July and August (Nos. *HH> HHt, \im, HUh TJ. B. Nat. Mas.). 

This species has been long known as 8. toivnsendi, but the name 
toivnsendi was originally applied (by Bachman) to the small gray Sper- 
mopbile of the Plains of the Columbia and Snake Eivers, to which 
species it is here restored. The present species, therefore, requires 
another name, which is found in the 8. elegans of Kennicott. As Ken- 
nicott stated, it u is most nearly related to S. richardsoni," from which 
it may be found to differ subspecifically only. 

Record of specimens collected of Sperniophilus elegans. 



U. S. National 
Museum No. 


6 




a 
3c 


Skin. 


Skull. 


H 

o 


23330 


30789 


1548 


235(H) 


30978 


1591 


23491 


30909 


11G 


23798 


31198 


1007 



Locality. 



Date. 



Birch Creek, Idaho Aug. 7,1890 | 

...do Aus. 12, 1890 

...do. Aug. G.1890 

Lemhi Valley, Idaho | Au-;.19. 1890 j 





-d 


Bj 




be 


« 








Sex. 


o 


fc. 






k 






















H 


H 
70 


,-j 


271 


■ 


2S2 


02 


* 


250 


68 


* 


255 


73 | 



12 
41 

4 'J 



Spermophilus columbianus fOrd). Burrowing Squirrel. 

Arctomys columbianus Ord, " Guthrie's Geog., 2d Am. ed., II, 1815, pp. 292-30:?" (based 
on the 'Burrowing Squirrel' of Lewis and Clark). 

Anisonyx brachiura Rafinesque, Am. Monthly Mag., II, 1817, p. 45 (based on the ' Bur- 
rowing Squirrel' of Lewis and Clark). 

Arctomys brachyura Harlan, Fauna Americana, 1825, pp. 304-306. 

Arctomys (Spermophilus) parryi, var. B. crythrogluteia Richardson, Fauna Boreal i- 
Americana, I, 1820, p. 161. 

Spermophilus parryi var. crythrogluteia Allen, Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist. , XVI, 1874, 
p. 292. 

Spermophilus cmpetra var. erythrogluitvus Allen, Monog. Rodentia, 1877, p. 839. 

"Burrowing Squirrel" Lewis and Clark, Paul Allen ed., 1814, n, pp. 173, 174 (descrip- 
tion), 312 (locality). 

This Sperraophile is abundant in northwestern Idaho and may inhabit 
the northern part of the region traversed by our party, but it goes into 
winter quarters so early that it was not captured. It is common in the 
Clearwater region, living in colonies in the prairies. I have speci- 
mens from Moscow and Grangeville. Mr. Clay McNamee writes me 



40 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. fNo.5. 

from Moscow, Idaho : "These Sperruophiles live in colonies like prairie 
dogs, and are very abundant in this district. Many can be killed within 
the city limits of Moscow in the spring. In making their burrows some 
dirt is thrown out, making a small mouud, generally of a circular form. 
The mounds range from 3 to 10 inches in height. The hole or burrow 
generally goes straight down for 18 inches or 2 feet. The animals when 
disturbed sit up erect like a prairie dog and watch a person until within 
a few yards and then rush into their holes, uttering a series of short 
squeaks or whistles. When one is shot, unless killed quite dead, it is 
almost sure to get away. They hibernate during the winter and fall. 
Nearly all disappear about the 15th of July and remain until the next 
spring. On account of this habit they are called ' Seven sleepers' as 
they stay underground about 7 months. They are very fat when they 
go into winter quarters and are so poor when they come out in the 
spring that they can hardly walk." 

This animal is the ' Burrowing Squirrel' of Lewis and Clark, and the 
synonymy at the head of this article will be a great surprise to most 
mammalogists, for the 'Burrowing Squirrel' has been long believed 
to be a prairie dog (Cynomys), while it now proves to be the ground 
squirrel described by Richardson in 1829 under the name Arctomys 
(Spermopkilus) parryi var. erytlirogluteia, which is the same animal as 
the Spermophilus empetra var. erythroglutwus of Allen, 1877. 

Baird, in 1857, cited Ord's Arctomys columbianus as a questionable 
synonym of his own Cynomys gunnisoni,* with the following explana- 
tion : " Lewis and Clark mention a Burrowing Squirrel from the plains 
of the Columbia which appears to be a Cynomys, and may possibly be 
the same with the species here described," — namely, C. gunnisoni. 

Allen, in 1874, adopted the name Cynomys columbianus for the Pla- 
teau Prairie Dog, under which C, gunnisoni of Baird was given as a 
synonym; and in 1877 he stated: "the name columbianus of Ord 
becomes the only tenable specific designation" for the prairie dog in 
question.! 

Several years ago I began to doubt that any species of Prairie Dog 
occurred on the plains of the Columbia, and subsequent investigation 
satisfied me that my suspicion was well founded. Therefore, in writing of 
the Plateau Prairie Dog in a recent publication, + I discarded the name 
Cynomys columbianus and substituted therefor Cynomys gunnisoni of 
Baird, but did not state the reasons for so doing. Having ascertained 
positively that no Prairie Dog inhabits any part of the Plains of the 
Columbia or the region bordering thereon, I set out to procure series 
of the Spermophiles of the area in the hope of determining the identity 

* Mammals of North America, 1857, p. 335. 
t Monographs of Roclentia, 1877, p. 906. 

\ Report on the Results of a Biological Survey of San Francisco Mountain, Ari- 
zona, N. Am. Fauna, No. 3, September, 1890, pp. 58, 59. 



July. 1891] MAMMALS OF IDAHO. 41 

of the 'Burrowing Squirrel' of Lewis ami Clark, to which the scientific 
uame Arctomys Columbia mis was given by Ord in 1815.* 

The narrative of Lewis and Clark's Expedition t contains the state- 
ment : " We saw many sandhill cranes, and some ducks in the marshes 
near our camp, and a greater number of burrowing squirrels, some of 
which we killed and found them as tender and well flavored as our 
gray squirrels." The context shows that the precise locality to which 
they refer is a camas (called by them ( Quamash ') prairie between the 
forks of the Clearwater or Kooskooskie. I have succeeded in obtain- 
ing a fine series of specimens of the large Ground Squirrel which 
abounds in this region. Most of these specimens were procured in the 
neighborhood of Moscow, not more than 65 kilometers (about 40 miles) 
distant (in a northwesterly direction) from the very spot where Lewis 
and Clark killed their specimens. Others were obtained near Grange- 
ville, a still shorter distance (48 kilometers or about 30 miles south) 
from the type locality. These animals belong to the species gener- 
ally known as a form of Parry's Spermophile (Spermophilus cmpctra 
erythroyluteus). The detailed description of the 'burrowing squir- 
rel' given by Lewis and Clark applies in every particular J to this 
animal, while it does not apply at all to any Prairie Dog or in fact to 
any other known species of North American mammal. It seems ab- 
solutely certain, therefore, that the ' burrowing squirrel ' of Lewis 
and Clark is the present animal, and consequently that the specific 
name columbianus applied to it by Ord in 1815 becomes the only avail- 
able name for the species. 

Stated briefly, the two reasons which render this change imperative 
are, first, that Lewis and Clark's description fits this particular species, 
and second, that no other animal which can by any possibility be made 
to agree with their description inhabits the region. 

In the words of Dr. Allen : " As the whole synonymy of the species 
turns upon Lewis and Clark's description, I quote it in full."§ Lewis 
and Clark's description is as follows : 

" There is also a species of squirrel, evidently distinct, which we have 
denominated the burrowing squirrel. He "inhabits these plains, and 
somewhat resembles those found on the Missouri; he measures I foot 
and 5 inches in length, of which the tail comprises 24 inches only; the 
neck and legs are short; the ears are likewise short, obtusely pointed, 
and lie close to the head, and the aperture larger than will generally be 
found among burrowing animals. The eyes are of a moderate size, the 



* In the second American edition of Guthrie's Geography, a very rare hook. 

t Paul Allen edition, vol. n, 1814, p. 312. 

t The only possihle exception is the length of the tail, which is said to ho only 
2\ inches (about f)3 in '"). As a matter of fact it averages a little over 100""" (4 
inches). The tail may have been unusually short, or the tip may have been broken 
off in the specimen they measured. 

§ Monographs of N. Am. Rodentia, 1877, p. 904. 



42 NOKTH AMERICAN FAUNA. [No. 5. 

pupil black, and tbe iris of a dark sooty brown ; tbe whiskers are full, 
long, and black; the teeth, and, indeed, the whole contour, resemble 
those of the squirrel ; each foot has five toes ; the two inner ones of the 
fore feet are remarkably short, and are equipped with blunt nails; the 
remaining toes on the front feet are long, black, slightly curved, and 
sharply pointed ; the hair of the tail is thickly inserted on the sides 
only, which gives it a flat appearance, and a long oval form ; the tips 
of the hair forming the outer edges of the tail are white, the other 
extremity of a fox red ; the under part of the tail resembles an iron 
gray ; the upper is of a reddish brown; the lower part of the jaws, the 
under part of the neck, legs, and feet, from the body and belly down- 
wards, are of a light brick red ; the nose and eyes are of a darker shade 
of the same color ; the upper part of the head, neck, and body, are of a 
curious brown gray, with a slight tinge of brick red ; the longer hairs 
of these parts are of a reddish white color at their extremities, and fall- 
ing together, give this animal a speckled appearance. These animals 
form in large companies, like those on the Missouri, occupying with their 
burrows sometimes 200 acres of land ; the burrows are separate, and 
each possesses, perhaps, ten or twelve of these inhabitants. There is a 
little mound in front of the hole formed of the earth thrown out of the 
burrow, and frequently there are three or four distinct holes, forming 
one burrow, with these entrances around the base of these little mounds. 
These mounds, sometimes about 2 feet in height and 4 in diameter, are 
occupied as watch towers by the inhabitants of these little communities. 
Tbe squirrels, one or more, are irregularly distributed on the tract they 
thus occupy, at the distance of 10, 20, or sometimes from 30 to 40 yards. 
When any one approaches they make a shrill whistling sound, some- 
what resembling tweet, tweet, tweet, the signal for their party to take 
the alarm, and to retire into their intrenchments. They feed on the 
roots of grass, etc." * 

Tamias cinerascens Merriara. Gray Ground Squirrel. 

Taiuias cinerascens Merriam. N. Am. Fauna, No. 4, Oct., 1890, p. 20 (type from Helena, 
Montana). 

Abundant in the Salmon River, Saw Tooth, and Pahsimeroi Moun- 
tains, living in colonies in rocky places, often above timber line, and 
hibernating early ; not found below the Douglas fir zone. By the mid- 
dle of August this species bad become excessively fat and appeared 
during the hottest days only ; after the first of September it was rarely 
seen. The majority of the specimens obtained still had the red mantle, 
though a number were in various stages of the change from red to gray. 

Two were killed as late as September 23 (a warm day) on the divide 
beween the headwaters of Big Lost River and those of Trail Creek, 
though none had been seen for about three weeks. On a warm after- 
noon two days later (September 25) two more were killed and others 

* Lewis and Clark's Travels, Paul Allen edition, vol. II, 1814, pp. 173, 174. 



July. 1891. J 



MAMMALS OF IDAHO. 



43 



seen in the upper part of Wood River Valley and on the divide be- 
tween the head of Wood River and that of Salmon River. 

In a cafion on the west side of the Lost River Mountains (southern 
continuation of the Salmon River Range) Mr. Bailey met with a colony 
the members of which differ in habits from those previously known, in- 
asmuch as they climb trees. Mr. Bailey says : "They climb trees read- 
ily. We shot several from 6 to 30 feet high in trees, and frequently saw 
them in bushes after berries. They are very fond of ripe gooseberries, 
and eat the seeds of numerous small plants." 

In 1872 I collected this species at Henry Lake, August 10 (No. Hiifj 
U. S. Nat. Mus.). 

Record of specimens collected of Tamias cinerascens. 



TT. S. National 
Museum No. 


6 






a 

H 
"tJD 

o 


Skin. 


Skull. 


23289 


30748 


1497 


23290 


30749 


1498 


23293 


30752 


1499 


2326G 


30722 


1505 


23291 


30750 


1500 


23292 


30751 


1507 


23258 


30714 


1508 


23265 


30721 


1509 


23260 


30710 


1510 


23295 


30754 


1511 


23294 


30753 


1512 


23207 


30723 


1520 


23250 


30715 


1521 


23450 


30868 


1542 


2325:. 


30737 


61 


23204 


30720 


62 


23251 


30707 


63 


23261 


30717 


64 


23257 


30713 


65 


23252 


30708 


66 


23263 


30719 


67 


23250 


30706 


69 


23250 


30712 


70 


23983 


31388 


71 


23262 


30718 


72 


23254 


30710 


73 


23253 


30709 


81 


23269 


30725 


82 


23268 


30724 


83 


23561 


30979 


1583 


23562 


30980 


1584 


23449 


30867 


115 


23563 


30981 


143 


23451 


80860 


144 


23658 


31052 


1608 


23509 


30987 


1009 



Locality. 



Lost River Mountains, Idaho 

...do 

...do 

...do 

...do 

...do 

...do 

...do 

...do 

...do 

...do 

...do 

..do 

...do 

...do 

..do 

...do 

...do 

...do 

...do 

...do 

...do 

...do 

...do 

...do 

...do 

...do 

...do 

...do 

Birch Creek, Idaho 

...do 

...do 

...do 

...do 

Salmon River Mountains, Idaho. 
...do 



Date. 



-a 
a 

W 



July 29, 1890 

...do 

..do 

July 30, 1890 
...do 



...do 

...do 

...do 

...do 

...do 

....do 

July 31, 1890 

...do 

A ng. 0, 1890 
July 28, 1890 
July 29, 1890 

...do 

.."..do 

...do 

July 30, 1890 
July 29, 1890 
July 30, 1890 

...do 

....do 

...do 

...do 

July 31, 1890 
....do 



....do 

Aug. 11, 1890 

...do 

Aug. 6, 18110 
Aug. 11, 1890 

...do 

Aug. 19, 1890 
....do 



9 ad 

?-•- 
d"..- 
9 ad 
9 :id 
V ad 
9 — 
?•-- 
?■•- 
?■•■ 
d".-- 
9 ad 
d ini 
9 ad 
rf... 
? -- 
9... 
cf... 
9... 
</... 
cT.-- 
d... 
?..- 
9... 
cT... 
d ■ 
9... 
cT... 
? •• 

e— 

cT-.. 

?-•- 

d-- 

9-.. 
d •• 



to 

® 
"a 
o 
H 


a 

u 

fit 

(U 

> 

'3 
H 


293 


110 


271 


100 


278 


100 


278 


80 


286 


109 


273 


91 


284 


112 


284 


107 


258 


94 


278 


107 


213 


82 


303 


112 


277 


110 


273 


87 


256 


101 


281 


101 


274 


100 


270 


100 


265 


105 


257 


104 


240 


99 


295 


111 


290 


102 


270 


115 


234 


9.-> 


237 


87 


2G2 


95 


261 


101 


279 


109 


276 


94 


295 


114 


297 


105 


256 


71 


207 


64 


275 


97 


258 


89 



44 

44 

43 

44.5 

42 

44 

43 

45 

42 

46 

40 

44 

44 

40 

47 

44 

44 

45 

44 

44 

45 

45 

44.5 

45 

42 

41 

44 

44 

45 

43 

45 

45 

41 

44 

41 

42 



44 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. 

Record of specimens collected of Tamias cinerascens— Continued. 



[No. 5. 



U. S. National 
Museum No. 


6 

g 
'C 

o 


Locality. 


Bate. 


Sex. 


.a 

So 

a 

<u 

"is 
o 
H 


8 

■V 

u 

> 

'3 
H 

93 
93 
102 
106 
81 
98 
75 
97 
92 


o 


Skin. 


Skull. 


a 
5 


23659 
23660 


31053 
31054 
31055 
31179 
30982 
31680 
31681 
31679 
31682 


1637 
1055 
1671 
1699 
173 
1850 
1851 
1852 
1853 


Salmon River Mountains, Idaho., 
do 


Aug. 23, 1890 
Aug. 25, 1890 
Aug. 26, 1890 
Aug. 27, 1890 
Aug. 19, 1890 
Sept. 23, 1890 
....do 


d 

cf 

? 

cf 

cf 

9 

J 

d 

cf 


265 
275 
290 
292 
263 
282 
255 
290 
258 


44 

43 


23661 


do 


46 


23779 


do 


44 


23564 


.do 


45 


24276 
24277 


Summit, Alturaa Co., Idaho 

.. do 


45 

42 


24275 
24278 


Head of Wood River, Idaho 

do 


Sept. 25, 1890 
...do 


46 
43 











Tamias quadrivittatus amoenus Allen.* Klamath Chipmunk. 

Abundant throughout the Canadian and Hudsonian forests of central 
Idaho, descending as low as the upper part of the sage-covered foot- 
hills, and occuring, though not abundantly, as high as timber line on the 
mountains. Just above timber line in the Salmon Eiver Mountains this 
chipmunk was observed collecting large mouthfuls of the white wool 
from the beds of dwarf willows (Salix reticulata), which are only about 
2 inches in height. In the Saw Tooth Mountains during the early part 
of October it was very abundant and remained active during cold 
weather, even after the ground was covered with snow, running about 
and tunneling in the soft snow after the manner of Eed Squirrels — a 
habit I have never before observed in a Chipmunk. It is an active, 
sprightly animal and climbs trees freely, though rarely going high. Its 
principal food in the region about Saw Tooth Lake at the time of our 
visit (last of September and early October) consisted of the seeds of 
Pinus murrayana, of which I removed not less than 332 from the cheek 
pouches of a single individual. 

Seventy-four specimens of this Chipmunk were collected and brought 
back to Washington — a sufficient series to illustrate many points of 
seasonal, geographic, and individual variation. All the specimens from 
the Saw Tooth Mountains are nearly typical amoenus, and those from the 
Pahsimeroi and Lost Eiver Mountains are fairly referable to the same 
form. Those from the northern Salmon Eiver Mountains show a strong 
tendency to run into luteiventris,] just half of the specimens collected 
having a decided fulvous wash across the belly. Dr. J. A. Allen, to whom 
I submitted the specimens, writes : 

" If No. 23568 [a yellow-bellied specimen] fairly represents the Salmon 
Eiver series, I should not hesitate to label them Tamias quadrivittatus 

* Tamias amoenus Allen, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., in, No. 1, June, 1890, pp. 90-92 
(type from Fort Klamath, Oregon). 

\Tamias quadrivittalus luteiventris Allen, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., in, No. 1, 1690, 
pp. 102-103 (type from Chief Mountain Lake, Montana). 



July, 1891.] 



MAMMALS OF IDAHO. 



45 



luteiventris. On the other hand, I do not see how it is possible to do 
otherwise than to refer the Saw Tooth Lake, the Pahsimeroi Moun- 
tains, the Lost Eiver Mountains, and the Birch Creek series to Tamias 
amcenus. " 

Record of specimens collected of Tamias quadrivittatus amwnus. 



TJ. S. National 
Museum No. 



Skin. Skull. 



31422 
31421 
31420 
31423 
3142G 
31427 
31417 
31419 
31415 
31418 
31425 
31684 
31842 
30485 
30094 
30080 
30693 
30677 
30685 
30679 
30683 
30686 
30678 
30682 
30687 
30681 
30690 
30689 
30676 
30684 
30692 
30688 
30691 
30756 
30761 
30787 
30755 
30877 
30788 
30785 
30784 

30780 

30870 

30883 
30871 



.1860 

1861 

1865 

1866 

1807 

1868 

1869 

1870 

1871 

1872 

1889 

1909 

1917 

145G 

1490 

1491 

59 

74 

75 

76 

77 

78 

79 

80 

1500 

1500 

1502 

1503 

1513 

1514 

1515 

1516 

1517 

1543 

1544 

1545 

1540 

1586 

110 

111 

112 

113 

149 

151) 

151 



Locality. 



Saw Tooth Lake, Idaho . 
...do 



....do. 
....do. 
....do. 
....do. 
....do. 



...do. 
...do. 
...do. 
...do. 
...do. 



...do 

Big Butte, Idaho 

Arco, Idaho 

....do 

....do 

Lost Liver Mountains, Idaho. 

....do 

...do 

...do 

....do 

...do 

...do 

....do 

...do 

...do 

...do 

....do 

...do 

...do 

...do 

....do 

....do 

...do 

...do 

....do 

...do 

....do 

...do 

...do 

...do 

...do 

..do 

....do 



Date. 



Sept. 26, 1890 

...do 

...do 

...do 

....do 

....do 

....do 

....do 

...do 

....do 

Sept. 28, 1890 
Sept. 29, 1890 
Sept. 30. 1890 
July 19, 1890 
July 25, 1890 
July 26, 1890 
July 29, 1890 
July 30, 1890 

....do 

....do 

....do 

...do 

....do 

July 31, 1890 
July 29, 1890 
...do 

...".do 

....do 

July 30, 1890 

....do 

....do 

... do 

...do 

Aug. 6, 1890 

....do 

....do 

...do 

Aug. 11, 1890 
Aug. 6, 1890 

....do 

....do 

...do 

An-. 11,1890 

...do 

....do 



Sex. 



?•-- 

cT... 
?-•- 
d"-.- 

cf--. 
d"".-. 

cf... 
?-•- 
cf--. 
<?•■■ 
cT.-- 
? ad 
cf--- 
?-- 

r. . 

,r... 
?•■- 
cf... 
? -■ 
cf--- 
?... 
cf--- 
? ad 
?-.- 
cf... 
cf.-. 
?•-- 
9 — 
?im 
J... 
cf... 
cf.-- 

?--- 
<s... 
cf... 

< ... 

?— 

?--- 
?--- 
?... 
J... 



195 
203 
213 
212 
195 
202 
195 
195 
185 
194 
210 
210 
202 
209 
213 
216 
207 
195 
192 
197 
200 
201 
202 
201 
213 
204 
208 
205 
207 
210 
19.'. 
212 
200 
211 
210 
213 
190 
210 
212 
187 
209 
210 
211 
207 
211 



80 

80 

88 

92 

84 

88 

78 

78 

73 

80 

87 

90 

80 

93 32. 5 

98 
106 
100 

93 

86 

92 

91 

94 

85 

86 

95 

93 

98 

96 

92 

97 

92 

98 

96 

96 

93 

9."> 

77 



46 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. lNo.5. 

Record <f specimens of Tamias quadriviltatus amcenus — Continued. 



U. S. National 
Museum No. 


6 






a 

M 
'u 

o 


Skin. 


Skull. 


23463 


30881 


152 


23457 


30875 


153 


23454 


30872 


154 


23460 


30878 


155 


23571 


30989 


1610 


23570 


30988 


1611 


23652 


31046 


1639 


23654 


31048 


1640 


23653 


31047 


1641 


23657 


31051 


1642 


23651 


31045 


1643 


23656 


31050 


1651 


23655 


31049 


1652 


23662 


31056 


1653 


23650 


31044 


1654 


23781 


31181 


1703 


23782 


31182 


1704 


23783 


31183 


1705 


23780 


31180 


1706 


23777 


31177 


1722 


23567 


30985 


172 


23566 


30984 


182 


23565 


30983 


183 


23568 


30986 


184 


23788 


31188 


1771 


23895 


31299 


1787 


23898 


31302 


1788 


23896 


31300 


1801 


23993 


31416 


1845 



Locality. 



Lost River Mountains, Idaho . . . 

...do 

...do 

...do 

Salmon River Mountains, Idaho 

...do 

..do 

...do 

...do 

...do 



...do 

...do 

...do 

...do 

...do 

...do 

...do 

...do 

...do 

...do 

...do 

...do 

...do 

Lemhi Valley, Idado 

Pahsimeroi Mountains, Idaho. . . 

..do 

...do 

Head of Big Lost River, Idaho . . 



Date. 



Aug. 11, 1890 

....do 

....do 

... do 

Aug. 19, 1890 

....do 

Aug. 23, 1890 

....do 

....do 

....do 

...do 

Aug. 24, 1890 

....do 

Aug. 25, 1890 

....do 

Aug. 27, 1890 

....do 

....do 

....do 

Aug. 30, 1890 

Aug. 19, 1890 
Aug. 22, 1890 

....do 

....do 

Sept. 4,1890 
Sept, 14, 1890 

....do 

Sept. 15, 1890 
Sept. 22, 1890 



Sex. 



9 
? 
d 
9 

cf 

9 
cf 

cf 

J 

9 

9 
9 

cf 
cf 

9 
9 
9 
9 
9 

cf 

9 
9 
9 
9 

9 
9 

cf 
cf 
cf 



210 
211 
206 
207 
207 
205 
214 
215 
220 
221 
210 
220 
218 
205 
204 
215 
205 
205 
192 
202 
126 
208 
206 
195 
212 
214 
215 
220 
215 



92 

94 
88 
89 
95 
95 
95 
95 

100 
97 
91 

102 
95 
88 
87 
90 
90 
86 
83 
79 
82 
86 
87 
86 
90 
90 
93 
94 
96 



w 



31 

33 

31 

31 

32 

32 

33 

33 

32.5 

32.5 

32.2 

32 

33 

33 

33 

33 

31.5 

32 

31.5 

32 

31.5 

31 

32 

30 

32 

32 

33 

32 

33 



Tamias minimus pictus Allen. Great Basin Chipmunk. 

Tamias minimus pictus J. A. Allen, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., in, No. 1, June, 1890, 

115-116 (type from Kelton, Utah). 
Tamias minimus melannrus Merriam, N. Am. Fauna, No. 4, Oct., 1890, 22 (type from 

Blackfoot, Idaho). * 

Common locally but not evenly distributed throughout the Snake 
Plains of Idaho and the larger sage-covered valleys of the mountains. 
Colonies were observed in the valley of Birch Creek and Lemhi River, 
and in Big Lost, Little Lost, Pahsimeroi, and Round Valleys, and in 
the valley at the headwaters of Salmon River (at the east foot of the 
Saw Tooth Mountains). 

These Chipmunks were often seen climbing about in the sage brush 
and greasewood, feeding on the seeds of Artemisia tridentata and Sar- 

* Additional specimens indicate that this supposed suhspecies really represents a 
peculiar phase of the molt, in which the submarginal black baud has not grown 
out far enough to show the fulvous bases of the hairs. 



July, 1891. 



MAMMALS OF IDAHO. 



47 



cobatus vermiculatus . Specimens killed often bad their cheek pouches 
distended with the seeds of these plants. In the Pabsimeroi Valley 
they came to our camp for crumbs and were such a nuisance we were 
forced to kill them. The species was seen as late as October 4 in the 
valley at the head of Salmon Eiver, at the east foot of the Saw Tooth 
Mountains. 

Record of specimens collected of Tamias minimus pictus. 



U.S. National 
Museum No. 


6 








4 

to 


8 
u 
x> 






cS 

a 
[So 
'S 
O 


Locality. 


Date. 


Sex. 


cs 
o 
H 


U 
<B 

'3 

H 


<2 


Skin. 


Skull. 


a 

H 


23135 


30580 


1420 


Blackfoot, Idaho 


Jnly 11,1890 


<s 


165 


67 


29 


23130 


30575 


1437 


....do 


July 12, 1890 
July 14, 1890 


cf 


195 


92 


32 


23045 


30491 


1439 


...do 




188 


90 


29 


23040 


30486 


1445 


...do 


July 15, 1890 


9 ad.. 


190 


83 


29 


23044 


30490 


1446 


...do 


Jnly 16, 1890 


9 


198 


95 


30 


23012 


30488 
30494 


1447 
1451 


do 


....do 


d 

d ira 


189 


90 
84 


29 


23048 


....do 


July 17,1890 


29 


23047 


30493 


1459 


Big Lost Itivcr, Idaho 


July 21, 1890 


d 


185 


88 


29.5 


23049 


30495 


1460 


...do 


....do 


d 


188 


91 


29.5 


23043 


30489 


1461 


...do 


....do 


9.... 


185 


91 


30 


23046 


30492 


1462 


...do 


...do 


9 


195 


96 


30 


23038 


30484 


1464 


...do 


Jnly 22, 1890 


9 


195 


93 


30 


23041 


30487 


1465 


...do 


... do 


9 


183 


88 


29 


23052 


30498 


1480 


....do 


July 23, 1890 


d 


184 


87 


28 


23053 


30499 
30496 
30497 
31321 


1481 
1482 
1483 
1487 


...do 


do 


d-.... 

d 

d 

cf 


190 
192 
189 
182 


92 
94 
91 
90 


29 


23050 


....do 


do 


29 


23051 


...do 


....do 


29 


2391G 


do 


July 24, 1890 
Aug. 4,1890 


28 


23305 


30764 


1528 


Birch Creek, Idaho 


d 


185 


85 


29 


23309 


30768 
30759 
30763 
30758 


1529 
1530 
1549 
1556 


...do 


do ... 


cf 

9 

d 

cf 


186 
195 
192 
183 


90 
88 
87.5 
85 


30 


23300 


...do 


do 


29 5 


23304 


do 


Aug. 7,1890 
Aug. 6,1890 
Aug. 7, 1890 


30 


23299 


...do 


29 


23303 


30762 


1559 


...do 


d 


188 


85 


29 


23161 


30879 


1587 


....do 


Aug. 11, 1890 


d 


191 


87 


28 


23306 


30705 
31176 


1590 
1734 


...do 


...do . 


d 

9 im.. 
9 im.. 
cf 


189 
202 


85 
93 


28 


23776 




Aug. 31, 1890 
...do 


29 


23778 


31178 
31172 


1735 
1744 


...do 


199 
188 


90 

88 


28 


23772 




Sept. 2,1890 
....do 


29 


23773 


31173 
31175 
31169 
31171 


174". 
1716 
1747 
17G0 


....do 


9 

d 

9 


204 

185 
188 
195 


96 
86 
87 

89 


31 


23775 


....do 


....do 


29 


23769 


....do 


....do 


31 


23771 


...do 


Sept. 3,1890 


27 


23789 


31189 


1770 




Sept. 4,1890 
Sept. 11,1890 


d 

d 


188 


84 


30 


23787 


31187 


1776 


Little Lost Itivcr, Idaho 


188 


85 


29 


23786 


31186 
31185 
31184 


1777 
1778 
1779 

1786 


....do 


....do . . 


d 

9 

9 

9 


190 
198 
182 
186 


83 
85 
82 
86 


29 


237-5 


...do 


do 


30 


23784 


....do 


...do 


29 


23768 


Pahsimri cii Mountains, Idaho 


Sept. 14, 1890 


30 


2::8!>:s 


:ti2'.i7 


1817 


Pahsiineroi Valley, Idaho 


Sept. 16,1800 


9 


198 


85 


30 


23892 


31290 
31298 
81304 


1818 
1819 
1820 


....do. 


...do 


d 

9 

d 


190 
195 
200 


80 
86 

87 


29.5 


23804 


...(•(» 


...do 


30 


23900 


...do 


...do 


31 



48 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. [No. 5. 

Record of specimens collected of Tamias minimus pictus — Continued.. 



U. S. National 
Museum No. 



Skiu. 



23897 
23899 
24001 
23307 
23308 
23208 
23311 
23770 
23774 
23131 
23134 
23129 
231 36 
23128 
23132 
23059 
23055 
23058 
23057 
23056 
23915 
23054 
2323H 
23239 
23324 
23310 
23301 
23464 
23466 
23456 
23458 
23462 
23455 



Skull. 



31168 
31301 
31303 
31424 
30766 
30767 
30757 
30770 
31170 
31174 
30576 
30579 
30574 
30581 
30573 
30577 
30505 
30501 
30504 
30503 
30502 
31320 
30500 
30695 
30696 
30783 
30769 
30760 
30882 
30884 
30874 
30876 
30880 
30873 



1824 

1825 

1826 

1859 

1560 

1564 

1588 

1589 

1743 

1761 

4 

5 

6 

14 

15 

16 

40 

41 

42 

49 

50 

55 

39 

58 

60 

114 

131 

136 

156 

157 

158 

161 

165 

166 



Locality. 



Pahsimeroi Valley, Idaho 

...do 

...do 

Upper Salmon Valley, Idaho. 

Birch Creek, Idaho 

...do 

...do 

...do 

Lemhi, Idaho 

...do 

Blackfoot, Idaho 

...do 

...do 

...do 

....do 

...do 

Bij; Lost Kiver, Idaho 

...do 

...do 

...do 

..do 

...do 

... do 

Arco, Idaho 

Little Lost River, Idaho 

Birch Creek, Idaho 

...do 

...do 

...do 

...do 

...do 

..do 

...do 

...do 



Date. 



Sex. 



Sept. 17, 1890 

.. do 

....do 

Sept. 25, 1890 
Aug. 7,1890 

...do 

Aug. 11, 1890 
....do 

Sept. 2,1890 

Sept. 3,1890 
July 11, 1890 

....do 

....do 

July 13, 1890 

....do 

....do 

July 21, 1890 
July 32, 1890 

....do 

...do 

....do 

July 24, 1890 
July 21, 1890 
July 25,1890 
July 27, 1890 

Aug. 6,1890 
Aug. 8,1890 
Aug. 9,1890 
Aug. 11, 1890 

....do 

....do 

Aug. 13, 1890 
Aug. 14, 1890 
....do 



9 — 
?-'-- 
9 im 

?--• 
9 — 
9.— 

d~- 

9— 

9-- 
? — 

?•■- 
d--- 
?... 
d-~ 
?••• 
d"..- 
9 — 
?••- 
cT-.- 
d--- 
d--- 
?.... 

?■■- 
?--- 

?.... 

?.... 
d~- 

d-... 
d-.- 

d---- 



192 
195 
184 
192 
178 
188 
187 
200 
192 
199 
197 
195 
173 
193 
193 
179 
197 
185 
178 
184 
181 
155 
197 
196 
185 
181 
186 
182 
189 
196 
177 
193 
184 
154 



H 



30 

30 

30 

30 

29 

28 

28 

30 

30.5 

28 

29 

31 

29 

30 

29 

28.5 

30 

29 

29 

29 

29.5 

28 

30 

29 

30 

29 

28 

29 

27 

27.5 

27 

29 

27 

27 



Sciurus richardsoni Bachmau. Richardson's Squirrel. 

Sciurus richardsoni Bachinan, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., vol. vi, 1838, pp. 100, 101 (type 
from mountains at head of Big Lost River, Idaho). 

Richardson's Squirrel is the most conspicuous mammal of the conifer- 
ous forests of central Idaho, and is common from the lower edge of the 
zone of Douglas fir and Murray pine to timber line, where the prevail- 
ing trees are the white-bark pine and alpine fir. It feeds upon the seeds 
of these conifers and also upon those of Picea alba, and the mouths 
of its burrows are often nearly hidden by the piles of scales which 
accumulate about its home. The large seeds of the white-bark pine 
(Pinus albicaulis) are especially sought for, and the peculiar character 
of the cone of this species has given rise to a clever method of gaining 



July, 189].] MAMMALS OF IDAHO. 4 ( J 

access to the seeds. The scales of the cones are very thick ami are 
firtnly glued together, instead of being separate as usual among conifers. 
To reach the seeds the squirrel gnaws a hole iu one side of the cone by 
means of which he extracts all of the seeds, just as our eastern squirrels 
obtain the meats of the larger nuts. A cone thus gnawed is shown iu 
the accompanying figure. Squirrels ordinarily reach the seeds of coni- 
fers by stripping off the scales from the cones. 




Fig. 1. — Cono of White-bark Pino guawo<l by 
Richardson's Squirrel. 

Richardson's Squirrel lives in burrows under decayed logs or among 
the roots of trees, and in nests iu the branches. These nests are made 
of dry grass and other materials, and are usually placed against the 
trunk of the tree. They are probably used in summer only, and resemble 
the summer nests of the common Eastern lied Squirrel (ticiurus hud- 
(jonicus). 

The ordinary note and scolding chipper of this squirrel are nearly 
identical with those of its eastern congener; and in general the habits 
of the two are similar. Our marten traps baited with squirrels, chip- 
munks, mice, and birds, captured Richardson's Squirrel more frequently 
than any other mammal. 

Richardson's Squirrel was discovered by John K. Townsend during 
his overland journey to Oregon in 1834, and was described by Dr. Bach- 
man in 1838, under the name Sciurus richardsoni. The type locality 
given is " the high range of the Rocky Mountains west of the great 
chain"' (1\ Z. S., 1838, 100), which was interpreted by Allen as mean- 
ing the Bitter Root Range (Monog. Rodentia, 1877, 080). Bachman 
states that the label on Townsend's specimen bore the date "August 
115, 1834" (Journal Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., VIII, 1839, p. 07). A critical 
26789— No. 5 1 



50 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. [No. 5. 

examination of Towusend's Narrative shows that on the date mentioned 
he was attempting to eross the high mountains between the headwaters 
of Big Lost River (then known as 'Groddiu's Creek') and Big Wood 
River (then known as the Malade — a name still applied to the lower 
part of the same stream where it crosses the Snake Plains)*. During 
the past season (in September, 1890) I followed part of Towusend's 
route and obtained specimens of the squirrel in question at a point not 
more than a few miles from the spot where his type was secured 5(5 
years previously. Such a specimen is No. Iffyf 2 , U. S. Nat. Museum, 
collected in the mountains at the head of Big Lost River, September 
22, 1890, which may be regarded, therefore, as typical of the species. 
It was described as a very small squirrel — in fact, as the "most diminu- 
tive of all the known species of genuine squirrel in North America" — 
but Professor Baird who examined the type specimen pointed out the 
important fact that it is immature (Mammals of N. Am., 1857, 274, foot- 
note). Tbis type specimen, collected by Townsend more than half a 
century ago, is before me as I write (thanks to Mr. Witmer Stone and 
the authorities of the Philadelphia Academy of Natural Sciences, to 
which institution it belongs), and is matched almost exactly by several 
young specimens, about two-thirds grown, collected by me near the type 
locality. The black terminal part of the tail, which is the chief char- 
acteristic of the species, is not so pronounced in the young as in adults, 
and the tip is broken off in the type (which is mounted) and the remain- 
ing part is somewhat masked by the circumstance that the tail is twisted 
on its own axis, thus mixing the red and black hairs in such a way as 
to conceal the predominance of the latter. Townsend stated that 
"about an inch and three-fourths" of the terminal part of the tail was 
black, and Bachman remarked that the species could always be distin- 
guished " by the blackness of its tail at the extremity." The whiteness 
of the incisors spoken of by Bachman is due to immaturity. (P. Z. S., 
183S, 100.) 

Professor Baird characterized the species correctly when he stated 
that it has a bushy tail, reddish brown along the center, with the ter- 
minal portion glossy black, but he was mistaken in supposing the ani- 
mal to be larger than the Red Squirrel of the East (with which it agrees 
in size) and in crediting it with a " peculiarly cylindrical tail " (Mam- 
mals of North Am., 1857, 273-274). The tail, when full grown, is as flat 
as that of the members of the Sciurus hudsonicus group. 

* This river must not bo confounded with another of the same name, a tributary of 
Bear River ia southeastern Idaho. 



Jtou.UOi.] MAMMALS OF IDAHO. 

Record of specimens collected of Sciurus richardaoni. 



51 



U. S. National 
Museum No. 



Skin. 



Skull. 



23288 

23248 

2S287 

23467 

23468 

23513 L 

23528 

23C17 

23048 

23649 

23610 

23793 

23795 

23794 

23797 [ 

23796 

23529 

23330 

23642 ! 

23045 j 

23044 

23643 

23902 j 

23901 i 

24053 

24052 

24054 

24055 

24051 

24242 

24246 

24243 

24247 

24245 

24244 



30747 
30711 
30746 
30885 
30886 
30949 
30946 
31041 
31042 
31043 
31040 
31193 
31195 
31194 
31197 
31196 
30947 
30948 
31030 
31039 
31038 
31037 
31306 
31305 
31469 
31468 
31470 
31471 
31467 
31640 
31650 
31647 
31G51 
31649 
31618 



Locality. 



1495 
1496 
1541 
1581 
1582 
145 
1612 
1G38 
1672 
1676 
1683 
1707 
1729 
1730 
1774 
1775 
170 
171 
178 
179 
180 
181 
1785 
1797 
1798 
1799 
1800 
1844 
1855 
1.-02 
1863 
18G4 
1881 
1882 
1895 



Lost River Mountains, Idaho 

...do 

Birch Creek, Idaho 

...do 

...do 

.. do - 

Salmon River Mountains, Idaho . 
...do 

.. do 

..do 

...do 

...do 

....do 

...do 

....do 

...do 

....do 

...do 

. ..do 

..do 

...do 

...do 

Tahsiiueroi Mountains, Idaho 

...do 

...do 

...do 

...do 

Head of Big Lost River, Idaho .. 

EeadofWood River, Idaho 

Saw Tooth Lake, Idaho 

...do 

...do 

....do 

..do 

...do 



Date. 



July 29, 1890 

....do 

Aug. 6, 1890 
Aug. 11, 1S90 

... do 

....do 

Aug. 19, 1890 
Aug. 23, 1890 
Aug. 26, 1890 

...do 

... do 

Aug. 27, 1890 
Aug. 30, 1890 

... do 

Sept. 5, 1890 

....do 

Aug, 18, 1890 

...do 

Aug. 22, 1890 

...do 

...do 

....do 

Sept. 14, 1890 
Sept. 15, 1890 

...do 

....do 

....do 

Sept, 22, 1890 
Sept. 25, 1890 
Sept. 26, 1890 

....do 

....do-. 

Sept. 27, 1890 
Sept. 28, 1890 
....do 



Sex. 



cf— . 

?.... 

J.-.. 

?.... 

cf.... 

d--- 

2 im 

2.... 

?.... 

pf ad 

rf .... 

cf.... 

dad. 

cf ad. 

cf.... 

cT..~ 

cf..-. 

?.... 

cf.... 

?.... 
?.... 
d-... 
?.... 

d ad. 

?.... 

?.... 

f ad . 
2 im 
? im 
2 ad. 

■ ad 
cf ad. 
2 ad. 



330 
284 
333 
330 
333 
338 
257 
328 
342 
345 
319 
352 
325 
330 
350 
340 
291 
308 
313 
326 
326 
211 
320 
335 
335 
334 
325 
335 
340 
318 
315 
330 
342 
335 
335 



133 
121 
143 

125 
120 
147 
82 
142 
140 
130 
124 
148 
124 
126 
146 
130 
113 
123 
124 
127 
136 
128 
128 
141 
125 
130 
133 
137 
130 



ti 



51 

50 

51 

47 

50 

51 

48.5 

50 

51 

51 

51 

51 

52 

51 

52 

52 

47 

50 

47 

48 

47 

47 

49 

51 

54 

52 

51 

53 

51 



123 51 

126 51 



136 
138 
130 
130 



Sciuropterus volans sabrinus (Shaw). Iludsonian Plying Squirrel. 
Sciurus sabrinus Shaw, Gcu. ZoOloyy, Mammalia, vol. II, part I, 1801, p. 157. 

These large and handsome Flying Squirrels are common in the Salmon 
liiver and Saw Tooth Mountains and probably throughout the conifer- 
ous forests of Idaho. At Saw Tooth Lake Mr. Basil Hicks Dutcher 
caught three in traps set for marten (baited with birds and chipmunks). 
One moonlight night in early October I heard one gnawing something 
in a pine over our camp, and after nearly breaking my neck to secure 
a .shot finally fired and brought down — not the squirrel, but a large hard 
biscuit he had stolen from our tent. 



52 



NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. 

Record of specimens collected of Sciuropterus volans sabrinus. 



[No. 5. 



TJ. S. National 


6 


Museum No. 


to 




eS 

a 

o 


Skin. 


Skull. 


24271 


31675 


1883 


24270 


31C74 


1901 


24378 


31784 


1913 



Locality. 



Saw Tooth Lake, Idaho 

...do 

...do 



Date. 



Sept. 28, 1890 
Sept. 29, 1890 
Sept.. 30, 1890 







a 




.d 


















a 




Sex. 




a> 






> 




c$ 












O 






H 


H 


? ad.. 


340 


150 


d 


310 


138 


$ im . 


325 


145 



Castor canadensis Kubl. Beaver. 

Beavers are common in suitable places throughout Idaho. We 
found them on Timber Creek in the Salmon Eiver Mountains, on the 
headwaters of the Pahsimeroi, and in the Saw Tooth Mountains. Fresh 
cuttings were observed also in Snake River Canon near Shoshone Falls. 

In 1872 several specimens were trapped in Teton Basin (skulls 12403 
and 12401, U. S. Nat. Mus.). 

Onychomys leucogaster brevicaudus subsp. uov. Idaho Grasshopper Mouse. 

This new subspecies of Grasshopper Mouse is common in most parts 
of the Upper Sonoran zone of Idaho. It may be known by the follow- 
ing - description : 

ONYCHOMYS LEUCOGASTER BREVICAUDUS subsp. uov. 



lection). From Blackfoot, Idaho, July 15, 1800. Collected by Veruou Bailey 
and Basil Hicks Dutcher (original number 1442). 

Measurements (taken in flesh). — Total length, 139 j tail vertebras, 38 ; 
hind foot, 19.5. Ear from crown, 12 (in dry skin). 

General characters. — Similar to O. leucogaster, but smaller, with shorter 
tail and much larger ears. In the type specimen the ears are not quite 
so large as in all the other specimens from the same region. 

Color. — Upper parts drab-gray, washed with pale cinnamon tawny, 
especially over the rump and flanks. Under parts and fore legs pure 
white, the white reaching well up on the sides, as usual in Onychomys. 
Tail whitish, with an ill-defined dark stripe on proximal two-thirds of 
upper surface. In immature, though full-grown, individuals the upper 
parts are mouse-gray, inclining to drab-gray, without the tawny wash. 

Cranial and Dental characters. — Compared with O. leucogaster the skull 
is much smaller, the rostral part is both actually and relatively shorter, 
and the zygomatic arches are shorter and more spreading, particularly 
anteriorly, giving the postrostral part of the skull a squarish appear- 
ance. The last upper molar is smaller than in leucogaster and is a 
cylindrical peg. 



JULY, 1891.] 



MAMMALS OF IDAHO. 



53 




Fig. 2. 



-Trith of Onychomys brevicaudus (type). 
Very much woru. X 15. 



Record of specimens collected of Onychomys leucogaster brevicaudus. 



TT. S. National 
Musi-mil No. 



23107 
2311:. 
23080 
23085 
22997 
2299G 
230G9 



Skin. Skull. 



30552 
305G0 
30532 
30531 
30443 
30442 
30515 



1422 

1434 

1442 

1466 

7 

13 

30 



Locality. 



Blackfoot, Idaho 

...do 

...do 

Big Lost River, Idaho 

Blackfoot, Idaho 

...do 

...do 



July 11, 1890 

July 13, 1890 
July 15, 1890 
July 22, 1890 
July 11, 1890 
July 12, 1890 
July 15, 1890 





J3 


8 




-.1 

a 


.o 


Sex. 




H 




"3 


> 













eS 




H 


H 


c? 


136 


41 


9 


139 


39 


d 


139 


38 


6 


135 


41. 


9 


134 


34 


rf 


130 


30 


d" 


132 


37 



w 



20 

20 

19.5 

19 

18 

19. 5 

19 



Hesperomys crinitus sp. nov. Canon Mouse. 

This new species of Hesperomys belongs to the silky-haired eremicns 
group of the Sonoran Province, the range of which is thus carried about 
500 miles north of its previously known limit. The present species is 
an abundant inhabitant of the lava canons of Snake River, where 
eighteen specimens were captured in a single night among the cliffs and 
masses of basalt at Shoshone Falls. Most of them were taken in traps 
baited with rolled oatmeal. The species may be known from the fol- 
lowing description : 

HESPEROMYS CRINITUS sp. nov. 

Type No. §?;■"<? a( l U.S. National Museum (Department of Agriculture collec- 
tion). From Shoshone Falls, Snake River, Idaho, October 10, 1890. Collected by C. 
Hart Morriam and Vernon Bailey (original number 1945). 

Measurements (taken in flesh). — Total length, 175; tail vertebra', 97; 
hind foot, 21; ear from notch, 21. In dry skin, ear from crown, 10.5; 
from notch, 18.5. 

General characters. — Similar to IT. eremicns in the peculiar silky tex- 
ture of the pelage, bat coloration much darker; hind feet and tail 



54 



NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. 



[No. 5. 



shorter; tail densely haired, with hairs of distal third inuch elongated. 
In true eremicus the tail is nearly naked. Soles haired on posterior third 
instead of entirely naked as in eremicus. Ears large. There is a patch 
of pale fulvous on the breast between the fore legs as in several of the 
subtropical forms of the genus. This patch is sometimes divided in the 
middle. 

Color. — Upper parts pale olive-brown, heavily lined with black on 
tbe back and rump, and strongly suffused with ochraceous buff on the 
sides. Under parts pure white, except the anal region and a patch be- 
tween the fore legs, which are ochraceous buff". Tail sharply bicolor, 
dusky above, whitish below. In immature individuals the pale fulvous 
pectoral and anal patches are indistinct, and in the very young they are 
absent. 




Ftg. 3. — Teeth of Hesperomys crinitus d old 
(type). X 15. 



Record of specimens collected of Hesperomys crinitus. 



TJ. S. National 
Museum No. 


6 
a 
O 


Locality. 


Date. 


Sex. 


s 

o 
H 


8 

Eh 
£> 
CD 

t-t 

> 

'3 
H 


o 
<2 


Skin. 


Skull. 


a 
W 


24248 


31652 
31659 
31655 
31664 
31658 
31665 
31054 
31662 
31657 
31653 
31656 
31661 
31600 


1944 
*1945 
1946 
1947 
1949 
1949 
1950 
1950 
1952 
1953 
1954 
1955 
1956 




Oct. 10,1890 
....do 


d ad.. 
d ad.. 
d ad.. 
d ad., 
cf ad.. 

d 

cf--- 
d im . 
$ ad.. 

$ 

? 

? im . 
$ im 


184 

175 

173 

172. 

174 

167 

172 

152 

180 

175 

180 

165 

163 


97 
97 
95 
94 
93 
90 
95 
74 
97 
92 
97 
88 
85 


21 


24255 


...do 


21 


24251 


....do 


....do 


21 


24260 


do 


...do 


21 


24254 


....do 


....do 


21 


24261 


..do 


do 


21 


24-50 


....do 


do 


21 


24258 


....do 


do 


21 


24253 


....do .. 


....do 


21 


24249 


...do 


....do 


20 


24252 


...do 


... do 


21 


24257 


....do 


....do 


21 


24256 


....do 


...do 


21 











*Tjpe. 



July, 1891. | 



MAMMALS OF IDAHO. 



55 



Hesperomys leucopus (Eafiuesque). White-footed Mouse. 

Abundant throughout the, region traversed, occurring in equal num- 
bers from the Snake Plains to or above timber line on the mountains. 
This species is one of the greatest nuisances the mammal collector has 
to deal with, as it is forever getting into traps set for more valuable 
species. It inhabits all sorts of situations, and in most places far out- 
numbers all other mammals together. When camped on Salmon River, 
in Round Valley, the latter part of September, we saw dozens of them 
every night climbing about among the willows, and heard them rushing 
to and fro among the dead leaves, making almost as much noise as 
rabbits. 

The large series of specimens here referred to this species may be 
found eventually to merit separation into two or three subspecies. 
The largest and handsomest form is the one from the Saw Tooth 
Mountains, which is nearly identical with that from the Salmon River 
Mountains. In these the tail is sharply bicolor, blackish above and 
pure white below. Specimens from the sage plains and valleys have 
the tail indistinctly bicolor. Those from the canon of Snake River are 
smaller and differ somewhat in coloration. 



Record of specimens collected of Hesperomys leucopus. 



IT. S. National 
Musouni No. 


© 

'a 
a 

'C 
O 


Locality. 


Date. 


Sex. 


M 

V 

"3 
o 

H 


a 

CD 

Eh 

o> 
k 

'3 

H 


o 
=2 


Skin. 


Skull. 


13 

a 
3 


23117 
23116 


30562 
30561 
30564 
30554 
30558 
30550 
30557 
30448 
30555 
30556 
30563 
30551 
30559 
30553 

30523 
30517 
30524 
30522 
30527 
30525 
30519 
30528 
30520 
30516 
30529 


1 

2 

1417 

1418 

8 

9 

10 

11 

1421 

12 

1428 

1429 

1430 

18 

19 

31 

1453 

1454 

45 

1468 

1469 

1470 

1471 

1472 

1473 

1474 


....do 


July 10, 1890 
....do 


9 

?.... 

9 

9 

9 

d 

9 .... 
cC... 
d 

9 

9 

9 

d 

d 

V ad . . 
9 ira.. 

</.--. 

9 

9 

9 

9 

9 


175 
16(1 
177 
170 
169 
168 
130 
129 
147 
113 
178 
171 
105 
180 
150 
151 
182 
117 
168 
166 
173 
177 
170 
179 
158 
162 


75 

68 
74 
77 
70 
74 
57 
57 
68 
48 
81 
80 
80 
81 
67 
69 
80 
51 
75 
67 
76 
80 
74 
80 
72 
71 


21 
19.5 


23119 


....do 


....do 


19 


23109 


do 


....do 


19.5 


23113 


...do 


July 11,1890 
...do 


20 


23105 


...do 


20 


23112 


...do 


...do 


19.5 


23002 
23110 


...do 

... do 


..-do . 
...do 


19 
20 


23111 


...do 


July 12, 1890 
....do 


18 


23118 


...do 


20 


23100 


....do 


....do 


20 


23114 


....do 


...do 


20 


23108 


...do 


July 13,1890 
....do 


20 


23205 


...do 


19 


23077 


... do 


July 15, 1890 
July 19, 1890 
....do 


19 


23071 




20.5 


23078 


...do 


19 


2307G 




July 22, 1890 
... do 


21 


23081 


...do 


20 


23079 


...do 


....do 


20 


23073 


....do 


...do 


20 


23082 


...do 


....do 


21 


23074 


..do 


... do 


21 


23070 


...do 


...do 


9 

9 


20 


23083 


...do 


....do 


21.5 



56 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. 

Record of specimens collected of Hesperomys leucopus — Continued. 



[No. 5. 



U. S. National 
Museum No. 



Skin. 



23914 
23072 
23080 
23084 
23068 
23075 
23913 
23912 
23247 
23338 
23335 
23339 
23341 
23343 
23342 
23555 
23554 
23337 
2333G 
23340 
23345 
23344 



Skull. 



23549 
23551 
23679 
23553 
23548 
23552 
23678 
23556 
23828 
23830 
23829 
23827 
23833 
23831 
23832 
23825 
23824 
23820 
23823 
24303 
23821 
23822 
23826 
23911 
23910 
25073 
24043 
24042 



31319 
30518 
30526 
30530 
30514 
30521 
31318 
31317 
30704 
30797 
30794 
30798 
30800 
30802 
30801 
30973 
30972 
30796 

30799 
30804 
30803 



30967 
30969 
31073 
31971 
309G6 
30970 
31072 
30974 
31228 
31230 
31229 
31227 
31233 
31231 
31232 
31225 
31224 
31220 
31223 
31707 
31221 
31222 
3122G 
31315 
31314 



31459 
31458 



1475 
1476 
1477 
1478 
1479 
52 
1488 
56 
1492 
1550 
1557 
1558 
1566 
1567 
1568 
1571 
1572 
132 
133 
134 
135 
1579 
1635 
163C 
1644 
1658 
1659 
1600 
1661 
1662 
1673 
1702 
1715 
1716 
1717 
1726 
1727 
1728 
1749 
1750 
1751 
1752 
1753 
1754 
1767 
1768 
1794 
1795 
1874 
1875 
1886 



Locality. 



Big Lost River, Idaho 

...do 

..do 

...do 

...do 

...do 

...do 

...do 

Arco, Idaho 

Birch Creek, Idaho . . . 

..do 

..do 



.do 

. do 

.do 

..do 

..do 

..do 

..do 

..do 

..do 

Salmon River Mountains, Idaho . . 

..do 

. do 

-do 

.do 

..do 

..do -. 

..do 

..do 

-.do 

.do 

..do 

..do 

.do 

. do 

..do 

Lemhi Indian Agency, Idaho 

do 



.do 
do 

.do 
do 
do 
do 



Pahsimeroi Mountains, Idaho . 

..do 

Saw Tooth Lake, Idaho 

...do 

...do 



Date. 



July 22, 1890 

... do 

....do 

...do 

...do 

July 23, 1890 
July 24, 1890 
....do 

July 26, 1890 
Aug. 7,1890 

....do 

....do 

...do 

Aug. 8, 1890 

....do 

Aug. 9,1890 
....(lo 



...do 

...do 

...do 

....do 

Aug. 10, 1890 
Aug. 23, 1890 
....do ....:.. 

....do 

Aug. 25, 1890 

...do 

...do 

....do 

....do 

Aug. 26, 1890 
Aug. 27, 1890 
Aug. 29, 1890 

...do 

...do 

Aug. 30, 1800 

....do 

...do 

Sept. 2,1890 

.. do 

....do 

....do 



...do 

Sept. 3,1890 

....do 

Sept. 15, 1890 

...do 

Sept. 27, 1890 

... do 

Sept. 28, 1890 



Sex. 


a 

O 

H 


8 

> 

'3 
H 


9 


153 


70 


cf 


108 


78 


cf-.-- 


162 


72 


d 


151 


68 


d 


160 


73 


cf 


165 


73 


9 


184 


89 


9 


174 


72 


9 ad.. 


176 


76 


9 


165 


72 


cf ■--• 


155 


62 


cf 


180 


85 


9 


170 


78 


9 


188 


88 


9----. 


169 


70 


9 


156 


66 


d 


151 


68 


d 


160 


73 


d 


154 


70 


9 


140 


60 


d 


116 


55 


$ .... 


133 


61 


cf.---- 


173 


80 


d 


147 


62 


d 


152 


68 


?--■ • 


170 


75 


d 


162 


72 


9 


174 


77 


j 9 


150 


67 


cfim .. 


150 


63 


9 ad . . 


160 


68 


9ad.. 


170 


79 


9ad.. 


165 


73 


9im .. 


131 


57 


9ad .. 


160 


75 


cfim .. 


148 


66 


9 


158 


66 


d im -- 


131 


59 


d 


170 


79 


d 


170 


80 


d 


158 


71 


d 


165 


74 


d 


151 


70 


9 


163 


75 


cf- --• 


175 


83 


d 


166 


76 


d 


156 


72 


?. ... 


166 


77 


cf 


180 


88 


9 


187 


85 


9 


172 


79 



July, 1891.] 



MAMMALS OF IDAHO. 



57 



Record of specimens collected of Hesperomys leucopus — Continued. 



U.S. National 
Museum No. 



Skin. Skull. 



24041 
24044 
24040 
24388 
24389 
24387 
24385 
24390 
24259 
2426C 
24264 
24265 
24263 
24262 



31457 
31460 
31456 
31794 
31795 
31793 
31791 
31796 
31663 
31670 
31608 
31669 
31667 
31 666 



1887 
1888 
1908 
1922 
1923 
1924 
1925 
1926 
1940 
1957 
1958 
1959 
1960 
1961 



Locality. 



Saw Tooth Lake, Idaho . 
. do 

..do 

..do 

..do 

..do 

..do 

.do 

Shoshone Falls, Idaho.. 

.do 

..do 

..do 

..do 



Bate. 



Sept. 28, 1890 

....do 

Sept. 29, lRf»0 
Oct. 2, 1890 

...do 

....do 

....do 

....do 

Oct. 4, 1890 
Oct. 10,1890 

....do 

...do 

...do 



Sex. 



.do 



9 •-- 
d-... 
'"im . 
cf ad . 
d--.. 
d-.-. 
?.... 

d ad. 
f ad. 
?.... 
c?.... 
9 ini 
d i i ii 





si 






Mi 


,Q 










U 




<B 




> 










O 




H 


H 


105 


78 


155 


67 


144 


62 


178 


84 


175 


85 


175 


89 ' 


173 


CI 


185 


89 


170 


88 


157 


71 


156 


65 


150 


70 


145 


65 


144 


62 



a 

20 

20.5 

21 

22 

22.5 

22.6 

22.5 

22 

12. 5 

20 

19 

20.5 

19 

19 



Neotoma cinerea (Ord). Bushy-tailed Wood Eat. 

" Mus chiereus Ord, Guthrie's Geography, 2d Am. Ed. II, 1815, 292" (Based on the 

description of Lewis and Clark, Paul Allen ed., 1814, vol. I, pp. 289-290; 

type from Great Falls, Montana). 

Common in the cliffs of Birch Creek Valley and in a canon in theLost 
Eiver Mountains. One was caught on a Lagomys slide at timber line in 
the Pahsimeroi Mountains, September 10, in a trap set on a stack of 
Lagomys hay. 

Record of specimens collected of Neotoma cinerea. 



U. S. National 
Museum No. 


d 

a 
Tc 
'H 
O 


Locality. 


Date. 


Sex. 


mi 
c 
S 

"a 
o 
H 


8 

u 
<p 
X* 

'5 

H 


o 
■2 


Skiu. 


Skull. 


a 
H 


23670 


31064 
31062 
31060 
31 063 
30975 
31061 
30976 
30779 
30780 
30781 
3077K 
30777 
3 1466 


163 
1603 
1600 

164 
1597 
1601 
1602 
1526 
1525 
1524 
1504 
1527 
1815 




Aug. 14, 1890 
Aug. 16, 1890 
Aug. 15, 1890 
Aug. 14, 1890 
..do 


d 
9 
d 
d 
d 

9 

9 
9 
d 
d 
d 
9 
9 


400 
380 
382 
365 
378 
317 
327 
105 
397 
370 
332 
306 
315 


175 
103 
163 
155 
165 
142 
144 
182 
176 
105 
145 
136 
100 


47 


23668 


...do 


40 


23666 


...do 


42 


23609 


...do 


46 


23557 


...do 


47 


236C7 


...do 


Aug. 15, 1890 
do 


m 


23558 


....do 


39 


23320 
23321 


Lost Bitot Mountains, Idaho 

...do 


Aug. 1,1890 
.. do 


45 
48 


23322 






45 


23319 
23318 


do 

....do 


July 30, 1X90 
Aug. 1,1890 
Sept. 16, 1890 


44 

42 


24050 


Pahsimeroi Mountains, Idaho 


43 



58 



NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. 



[No. 5. 



Neotoma cinerea occidentalis Baird. Dusky Wood Rat. 

Neotoma occidentalis (Cooper MS.) Baird, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1855, 335 (type 
from Shoal water Bay, Washington). 

Abundant in the black lava canon of Snake Eiver and in the lava 
beds throughout the Snake Plains. The darkest individuals were 
caught at Big Butte and Shoshone Falls and are considerably blacker 
than the type of occidentalis from the Pacific Coast. Specimens from 
lava cliffs on the Lemhi Indian Agency are referable to this form and 
probably came by way of Salmon Eiver and the lower Lemhi. 

The ranges of the light {cinerea) and dark {occidentalis) Bushy-tailed 
Wood Rats meet in Idaho, the former occupying the higher levels and 
extending eastward throughout the Rocky Mountain region to the 
Black Hills of South Dakota; the latter inhabiting the Snake Plains 
and reaching westward to the Pacific. 

Record of specimens collected of Neotoma cinerea occidentalis. 



U. S. National 
Museum No. 


6 

to 

3 

a 
'3d 

O 


Locality. 


Date. 


Sex. 


■a 

a 

cv 

"3 
o 
H 


8 

CD 

s-. 

CD 

► 

'3 

H 


O 

=2 


Skin. 


Skull. 


a 



24557 


31952 
31325 
31324 
30782 
31465 
31464 
31203 
31309 
31308 
31676 
31709 


1967 
1455 
1458 
1493 
1758 
1756 
1757 
1739 
1748 
1841 
1759 




Oct. 11,1890 
July 19, 1890 
July 20, 1890 
July 26, 1890 
Sept. 3,1890 
....do 


9 

d 

9 im . 
cf ad.. 

d 

d 

9 

9 

9 

d 

$- 


355 
390 
295 
386 
397 
404 
353 
337 
350 
380 


152 
170 
98 
176 
164 
178 
150 
147 
156 
160 


43 


23920 




46 


23919 


....do 


39 


23323 




48 


24049 
24048 


Lemhi Indian Agency, Idaho 

....do 


43 
45 


23803 


....do 


...do 


42 


23905 


....do 


Sept. 2,1890 
... do 


40 


23904 


....do 


42 


24272 


Lemhi Indian Agency, Idaho 


Sept. 20, 1890 
Sept. 3,1890 


45 













Arvicola riparius Ord. Common Arvicola. 

In Idaho this species is common in wet meadows in the Neutral and 
Douglas fir zones, where 40 specimens were collected. It was found in 
greatest abundance in Birch Greek and Lemhi Valley, Round or Challis 
Valley, and along the base of the Salmon River and Lost River Moun- 
tains. The species seems to be identical with typical A. riparius of the 
Atlantic States, and the postero-internal prism of the middle upper 
molar is as strongly developed as in the eastern animal (see Plate II, 
Fig. 1). 

Two specimens (Nos. 24014, from Saw Tooth Lake, and 24020, from 
Salmon River near Challis) included in the following table are not true 
riparius and may belong to some other species. 



July, 1891.] MAMMALS OP IDAHO. 

Record of specimens collected of Arvicola riparms. 



59 



TJ. S. National 
Museum No. 



Skin. 



Skull. 



Locality. 



Date. 



Sex. 



23375 
23373 
23374 
23386 
23385 
23384 
23380 
23363 
23376 
23381 
23383 
23377 
23387 
23379 
23362 
23378 
23511 
23513 
23382 
23884 
24021 



30835 
30833 
30834 
30846 
30845 
30844 
30840 
30822 
30836 
30841 
30843 
30837 
30847 
30839 
30821 
30838 
30929 
30931 
30842 
31288 
31437 



24018 


31434 


24017 


31433 


23246 


30703 


23358 


30817 


23360 


30819 


23359 


30818 


23372 


30832 


23364 


30823 


23361 


30820 


23388 


30848 


24031 


31447 


24020 


31436 


24014 


31430 


24027 


31443 


24028 


31444 


24029 


31445 


24030 


31446 


24032 


31448 


24034 


31450 



91 

92 

93 

94 

95 

97 

103 

105 

108 

1538 

1539 

118 

119 

123 

127 

128 

1632 

1649 

1552 

1764 

1836 

1837 

1835 

84 

96 

1578 

120 

124 

125 

126 

104 

1830 

1829 

1891 

1833 

1832 

1838 

1834 

1831 

1839 



Birch Creek, Idaho 

....do 

.-.do 

...do 

...do 

....do 

....do 

....do 

...do 

....do 

...do 

...do 

...do 

...do 

...do 

....do 

Salmon River Mountains, Idaho 

...do 

Birch Creek, Idaho 

Lemhi Indian Agency, Idaho . . . 

Challis, Idaho 

...do 

...do 

Lost River Mountains, Idaho . . . 

Birch Creok, Idaho 

...do 

...do 

...do 

...do 

...do 

...do 

Salmon River, Idaho 

Challis, Idaho , 

Saw Tooth Lake, Idaho 

Challis, Idaho 

...do 

...do 

...do 

...do 

...do 



Aug. 4, 1890 

....do 

....do 

....do 

....do 

...do 

Aug. 5, 1890 

....do 

....do 

....do 

...do 

Aug. 6, 1890 

....do 

do 

Aug. 8,1890 

...do 

Aug. 23, 1890 
Aug. 24. 1890 
Aug. 8,1890 
Sept. 3, 1890 
Sept. 20, 1890 

....do 

....do 

July 31, 1890 
Aug. 4, 1890 
Aug. 10, 1890 
Aug. 6, 1890 
Aug. 8,1890 

...do 

....do 

Aug. 5, 1890 
Sept, 19, 1890 

....do 

Sept. 28, 1890 
Sept. 19, 1890 

...do 

Sept, 20, 1890 
Sept. 19, 1890 

....do 

Sept. 20, 1890 



cf..-. 
cf-.-. 
?.... 
cf.— 
?.... 
cf-.-. 

<?..-. 

cf..... 
cf.— 

cf.--. 

?.... 

rf..-. 

cf-.-. 
?.... 

s.... 

?.... 



•" 


ad. 


cf 


im . 


cf 


im . 


cf 


im . 


cf 


im . 


cf 


im . 


cf 


im . 


9 


im . 


rf 




rf 





9 ad. 

d" 

cf juv. 
9 juv. 
cf juv. 
9 juv. 
cf juv. 
cf juv. 



174 
172 
162 
139 
128 
140 
132 
124 



184 
156 
170 
139 
148 
132 
136 
160 
131 
146 
154 
158 



51 

41.5 

42 

37 
35 
35 
35 
48 
33 
42 
36 
43 



174 49 



154 
128 
116 
114 
116 
137 
133 
116 
142 
132 
160 
174 
118 
11G 
120 
116 
120 
122 



Arvicola macropus sp. nov. Big-footed Arvicola. 

This new Arvicola is the largest species thus far known from North 
America with the single exception of Arvicola (Neofibcr) alleni from 
Florida. It is abundant in the Salmon River, Saw Tooth, and Pahsi- 
meroi Mountains and probably throughout the mountain regions of cen- 
tral and northern Idaho, inhabiting wet meadows and springy places 



60 



NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. 



[No. 5. 



in the higher parks from timber line clown to the bottom of the Cana- 
dian or Douglas fir zone. Its only near relative is A. toicnsendi from 
the Pacific coast region, with which it may be found to intergrade in 
the forests north of the Plains of the Columbia. It may be known 
from the following description : 

ARVICOLA (MYNOMES) MACROPUS sp. nov. 

Type No. §$#§{- $ ad. U. S. National Museum (Department of Agriculture col- 
lection). From Pahsimeroi Mountains, Idaho, September 16, 1890. Col- 
lected by C. Hart Merriam and Vernon Bailey. (Original number 1803.) 

Measurements (taken in flesh). — Total length, 220 ; tail vertebra?, 71 ; 
pencil, 7 ; hind foot, 26. (Dry skin) Ear from crown, 8 ; from notch, 12. 

General characters. — Largest Arvicola known from North America 
except A. (Neofiber) alleni from Florida. Similar to A. townsendi, but 
larger with larger hind feet, much longer hallux, and upper incisors 
much more prominent. In A. townsendi, as pointed out by Baird, the 
tip of the claw of the first toe of the hind foot barely reaches the notch 
between the second and third toes, while in A. macroirus the first toe 
without the claw reaches the same point. Fur very long, soft, and al- 
most woolly. Ears large, showing above fur. 

Color. — Upper parts grayish bister, lined with black- tipped hairs, and 
palest on the sides. Under parts pale ash gray, the plumbeous basal 
fur showing through. Tail, bicolor without sharp line of demarkation : 
dusky above, whitish below. Ankles blackish. Feet dusky (hind toes 
sometimes much lighter than rest of foot). The white around the mouth 
is not so pronounced as in A. toicnsendi. 

Cranial and Dental characters as in most of the western members of 
the subgenus or section Mynomes — the western species, as is well known, 
usually lacking the postero-internal lobe or spur of the middle upper 
molar. Not having a perfect skull of A. toicnsendi before me I am un- 
able to point out cranial differences. 

Record of specimens collected of Arvicola macropus. 



U. S. National 
Museum No. 



Skin. 

23C81 
23682 
23686 
23684 
23C85 
23680 
23688 
23687 
23689 
23683 
23857 



Skull. 



31075 
3107b 
31080 
31078 
31079 
31074 
31082 
31081 
31083 
31077 
31257 



1027 
1628 
1629 
1630 
1631 
1650 
1666 
1667 
1668 
1669 
1719 



Locality. 



Salmon River Mountains, Idaho. 

...do 

...do 

...do 

...do 

...do 

..do 

. .do 

... do 

...do 

...do 



Date. 



Aug. 23, 1890 

...do 

...do 

...do 

...do 

Aug. 24, 1890 
Aug. 25, 1890 

...do 

...do 

Aug. 20, 1890 
Aug. 29, 1890 



Sex. 



cf-.- 

£?.... 

<?.-.; 

?■-- 
9 — 

? im 

J... 
d--- 
cfad 
d" ad 



184 
205 
185 
188 
170 
162 
165 
174 
165 
173 
176 



w 

25.5 

28 
26 
26 
25 
25 
24 
26 

26 
26 



July, 1891.) MAMMALS OF IDAHO, 61 

Eecord of specimens collected of Arvicola macropua — Continued. 



U. S. National 

Museum No. 



Skin. Skull. 



y< 



23888 
23885 
23887 
23886 
23891 
23889 
24628 
23890 
24232 
24235 
24226 
24035 
24228 
24238 
24015 
24023 
24227 
21016 
24229 
24225 
24230 
24401 
24399 



31292 
31289 
31291 
31290 
31295 
31293 
32023 
31294 
31636 
31639 
31630 
31451 
31632 
31642 
31431 
31439 
31631 
31432 
31633 
31629 
31634 
31807 
31805 



1781 
1802 
*1803 
1804 
1805 
1806 
1807 
1808 
1849 
185C 
1857 
1876 
1877 
1878 
1879 
1880 
18S4 
1885 
1896 
1899 
1900 
1911 
1921 



Locality. 



...do 

...do 

...do 

...do 

...do 

...do -. 

...do 

Summit, Alturas County, Idaho 
Head of Wood River, Idaho . . . 

...do 

Saw Tooth Lake, Idaho 

...do 

..do 

...do 

...do 

...do 

...do 

...do 

...do 

...do 

...do 

...do 1 



Date. 



Pahsimeroi Mountains, Idaho Sept. 14, 1890 

. 15, 1890 
, 16, 1890 



Sex. 



Sept. 

Sept. 

...do 

...do 

...do 

...do 

...do 

Sept. 

Sept. 

...do 

Sept. 

...do 

...do 

...do 

...do 

Sept. 

...do 

...do 

Sept. 

..do 

Sept 

Oct 



23, 1890 
25, 1890 



27, 1890 



28, 1890 



29, 1890 



30, 1890 
2, 1890 



if.:. 

d..- 

2 ad 

?... 

d ad 
?... 
d-.. 
$ ad 
d-- 
5>ad 
? im 
tfini 
cfiui 
cT im 
d ad 
?... 
d ■■ 
cf ad 
$ini 
?.... 



195 
180 
220 
180 
178 
178 
202 
186 
190 
245 
200 
242 
168 
128 
132 
142 
205 
162 
174 
195 
190 
185 
184 



a 



28 

27 

26 

25 

25 

24.5 

28 

26 

26 

26 

26 

26 

26 

23 

23 

24 

27 

21 

26 

26 

26 

27 

27 



* Type. 
Arvicola rnordax sp. nov. Cantankerous Arvicola. 

This new Arvicola is common in the marshes bordering the inlet of 
Saw Tooth or Alturas Lake at the east foot of the Saw Tooth Moun- 
tains, and specimens were collected also in the Lembi Indian Agency, 
Salmon liiver Mountains, Lost River Mountains, and at the north foot 
of the Brunneau Mountains. Thirty-live specimens were secured. 

Its nearest relative seems to be J., longicaudus of the Black Hills of 
Dakota, but it differs from longicaudus in having a still longer tail, 
larger hind feet, and much smaller ears, and also in cranial characters 
and coloration. It may be known from the following description: 

ARVICOLA (MYNOMES) MORDAX ap. nov. 

Typo No. :-;j,vi-, J ad. U. S. National Museum (Department of Agriculture collec- 
tion). From Saw Tooth or Alturas Lake, east foot of Saw Tooth Mountains, 
Idaho, September 29, 1890. Collected by C. Hart Merriam and Vernon 
Bailey (original number 1903). 

Measurements (taken in flesh).— Total length, 200; tail vertebrae, 77; 
hairs, 6; hind foot, 22; ear (in dry skin) from crown, 10; from notch, 13. 

General characters. — Similar to A. longicaudus but larger, with larger 
hind feet, longer tail, and smaller ears ; color of upper parts paler; feet 
and uuder sides of tail whitish instead of dusky ; ears nearly naked, 



62 



NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. 



[No. 5. 



slightly overtopping the fur ; hind legs naked for some distance above 
ankles. 

Color. — Upper parts pale grayish bister, conspicuously lined with 
black-tipped hairs, and becoming almost clear gray on the sides. 
Under parts and feet whitish, the plumbeous basal fur showing through 
slightly. Tail bicolor; dark above, whitish below. The gray of the 
sides fades gradually into the white of the belly. Some specimens have 
a rusty tinge on the back. This is most pronounced in No. 23371 from 
the Lost River Mountains. 

Cranial and Dental characters. — Skull similar to that of A. longicaudus 
but with processes and ridges more strongly developed ; nasal bones 
longer and less depressed anteriorly, and audital bullae more inflated. 
The condyloid ramus of the jaw is longer and more vertical than in 
longicaudus, and the angular process is longer. The teeth are as in 
A. longicaudus (see Plate II, Figs. 3, 4). 

Record of specimens collected of Arvicola mordax. 



U. S. x.ational 
Muse -in No. 


6 

c« 

a 

o 


Skin. 


Skull. 


26240 


31644 


1890 


24241 


31645 


1893 


24024 


31440 


1894 


24025 


31441 


1897 


24231 


31635 


*1903 


24013 


31429 


1904 


24012 


31428 


1905 


24019 


31435 


1906 


24033 


31449 


1910 


24398 


31804 


1916 


24237 


31641 


1935 


24234 


31638 


1938 


24233 


31637 


1939 


24554 


31949 


1970 


23245 


30702 


1519 


23371 


30831 


1623 


23860 


31260 


1740 


23861 


31261 


1769 


24026 


31442 


1907 


24236 


31640 


1934 


24239 


31643 


1937 


23512 


30930 


1633 


23859 


31259 


1741 


23858 


31258 


1765 


24022 


31438 


1892 



Locality. 



Saw Tooth Lake, Idaho 

....do 

...do 

....do 

...do 

....do 

....do 

....do 

....do 

...do 

...do 

....do 

....do 

Three Creek, Idaho , 

Lost River Mountains, Idaho 

...do 

Lemhi Indian Agency, Idaho 

....do 

Saw Tooth Lake, Idaho 

...do 

...do 

Salmon River Mountains, Idaho.. 

Lemhi Indian Agency, Idaho 

...do 

Saw Tooth Lake, Idaho 



Date. 



Sept. 28, 1890 

....do 

— do . .* — 

....do ....... 

Sept. 29, 1890 

...do 

....do 

....do 

...do 

Sept. 30, 1890 
Oct. 4, 1890 

....do 

....do 

Oct. 14, 1890 
July 31, 1890 
Aug. 1, 1890 
Sept. 2, 1890 
Sept. 4, 1890 
Sept.29,1890 
Oct. 3,1890 
Oct. 4,1890 
Aug.23,1890 
Sept. 2, 1890 
Sept. 3, 1890 
Sept. 28, 1890 



Sex. 



d 

d 

cTim.. 
d ini.. 
d ad.. 

d 

? ad.. 
9 im.. 

d 

9 ad.. 

d 

9 ad.. 

9 

d 

d 

d 

9 

d ad.. 
9 juv. 
9 juv. 
9 juv. 
9 Jiv- 
d juv. 
d juv. 
d juv. 



180 
182 
156 
152 
200 
180 
181 
156 
160 
174 
160 
174 
154 
178 
180 
162 
168 
180 
136 
144 
145 
146 
121 
149 
114 



M 



23 

22 

21 

21 

22 

22 

22 

21 

21 

21 

22 

22.5 

22 

21 

21 

20.5 

21 

20.5 

20 

21 

22 

21 

19 

20.5 

19 



*Type. 
Arvicola nanus sp. nov. Dwarf Arvicola. 

A dozen specimens of this new Arvicola were trapped on a grassy 
hillside in the Pahsimeroi Mountains at an elevation of about 2,850 
meters (9,350 feet). The species was not met with elsewhere. 



July, 1891.] 



MAMMALS OF IDAHO. 



63 



ARVICOLA (MYNOMES) NANUS sp. nov. 

Type No. |$ffjj <$ ad. U. S. National Museum (Department of Agriculture col- 
lection). From Pahsimeroi Mountains, Idaho (altitude 2,b50"meters or 9,350 
feet), September 1C, 1890. Collected by C. Hart Merriam and Vernon Bailey 
(original number 1809). 

Measurements (taken in flesh). — Total length, 151 ; tail vertebrae, 41; 
hairs, 7.5; hind foot, 18. Ear (in dry skin) from crown, 4; from notch, 
9.5. 

General characters. — Size, small ; one of the smallest species known 
from North America. Ears, small, suborbicular, with large antitra- 
gns and large fossa innominata; upper margin incurved; posterior 
margin sparsely haired. Whiskers short, barely reaching meatus. 
Hiud feet short. Tail slightly more than one-third the length of head 
and body ; well haired, and penicillate. 

Color.— Upper parts pale grizzled bister, conspicuously mixed with 
black-tipped hairs, and becoming ash gray ou the sides. Under parts 
grayish white. Tail bicolor ; above dusky, below whitish. Feet dusky. 

Cranial and Dental characters. — Skull very small ; basilar length of 
Hensel, 22; zygomatic breadth, 14. Muscular impressions strongly 
developed; brain case narrow and high ; jugal bones parallel ; parie- 
tals sub-truncate anteriorly ; nasals ending about on plane of nasal 
branch of prem axillary ; length of incisive foramina less than twice the 
premaxillary symphyses. Teeth as usual in western Mynomes, nor- 
mally lacking the postero-iuternal loop or spur of middle upper molar 
(in one specimen out of the twelve there is an attempt at this loop). 

Record of specimens collected of Arvicola nanus. 



U. S. National 
Museum No. 


d 






3 
a 
« 

O 


Skiu. 


Skull. 


23881 


31285 


1782 


23883 


31287 


1783 


23880 


31284 


1784 


23882 


31286 


1789 


23853 


31253 


•1809 


23852 


31252 


1810 


23851 


31251 


1811 


23854 


31254 


1812 


2387'J 


31283 


1790 


23876 


31280 


1791 


23878 


31282 


1792 


23877 


31281 


1793 


23855 


31255 


1813 


24555 


31950 


1908 


24553 


31948 


L809 


24556 


31951 


1971 



Locality. 



Pahsimeroi Mountains, Idaho 

...do 

...do 

...do 

...do 

...do 

...do 

... do 

....do 

....do , 

...do 

...do 

...do 

Throe Creek, Idaho , 

...do 

...do 



Date. 



|Sept. 14, 1890 

... do 

....do 

Sept. 15, 1890 
Sept. 16, 1890 
....do 

...do 

....do 

Sept. 15, 1890 

...do 

..-.do 

...do 

Sept. 16, 1890 
Oct. 13,1890 

...do 

Oct. 14,1890 



Sex. 



J.... 
? im 
cf.... 

$.... 
cf..-. 

?.... 
cf juv 
cf juv 
cf juv 
? juv 
? juv 

d.... 

cf-.-- 
cf iia 





8 


A 


S 


5 


,fi 


a 


*-> 




fe 






1 


> 






o 


« 


H 


H 


135 


35 


140 


37 


115 


32 


144 


38 


151 


41 


130 


35 


130 


32 


125 


32 


97 


23 


105 


31 


98 


24 


104 


27 


118 


29 


142 


40 


150 


43 


138 


.'ill 



.9 
W 



18 

19 

18 

19 

18 

18 

18 

18 

17 

17 

16.5 

17 

17 

21 

20 

19 



* Type. 



64 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. lNo.5. 

Arvicola pauperrimus Cooper. Pallid Lemming Mouse. 

Arvieola pauperrima Cooper, American Naturalist, vol. n, Dec., 1868, p. 535 (type 

from Plains of the Columbia near Snake River, Washington)- 
f 'Arvicola cartata Cope, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phi)., Jan., 1868, p. 2 (type from 

Pigeon Spring, Mt. Magruder, Nevada, near the boundary between Inyo 

County, California, and Esmeralda County, Nevada). 

This small Arvicola, which may be readily recognized by its whitish 
color, inhabits the barren hills of the Canadian Zone of the Salmon 
Iliver Mountains and may occur in the Neutral Zone also. A female 
and five young were trapped in a dry park on a mountain side at an 
altitude of about 2745 meters (9,000 feet). 

This species was named by Cooper but was not described, though its 
measurements as taken in the flesh were given in a foot-note. Cooper's 
type specimen is still in the U. S. National Museum (No. 3 g S ? f a< *0 but 
is in very poor condition, consisting of an overstuffed skin, badly torn, 
containing the remains of the skull. Fortunately, however, the teeth 
are still preserved, and the feet and tail are attached to the skin. I 
have compared this specimen with those from Idaho and can not find 
any differences of importance. The measurements of the tail and hind 
foot are essentially the same in both, and Cooper's measurements taken 
in the flesh show that the total length was the same.* 

In order to put the characters of this species on record a good speci- 
men is here described : 

No. f f fii 5 ad. U. S. National Museum (Department of Agriculture 
collection). From Salmon Eiver Mountains, Idaho, August 27, 1890. 
Altitude 2,745 metres (9,000 feet). Collected by C. Hart Merriam and 
Vernon Bailey. (Original number 1695.) 

Measurements (taken in flesh). — Total length, 116; tail vertebra?, 20; 
pencil, 7; hind foot, 16. Ear from crown, 5; from notch, 8 (in dry 
skin). 

General characters. — Size small, considerably smaller than its nearest 
relative, Arvicola curtatus ; t ears small, covered with long hairs and 
nearly concealed by the fur; anterior border incurved. Feet broad, 
short, and densely covered with hair; hairs of toes extending beyond 
tips of claws. Tail very short and well haired. Whiskers short, reach- 
ing tips of ears. 

Color. — Upper parts clear gray with a faint tinge of buffy, and finely 
lined with black-tipped hairs. Under parts whitish, changing gradu- 
ally into color of sides. Tail indistinctly bicolor, its upper and lower 
surfaces concolor with corresponding surfaces of body. Feet whitish. 

* On the back of the original label Cooper gives the length of head, and body as 
3.87 inches; tail vertebras .75 inch, making a total of 4. 02 inches, or 117 mm., which 
is just 1 mm. more than in the Idaho specimen. 

tit is possible that Arvicola pauperrima Cooper may prove to be a subspecies of, or 
even identical with, A. curtala Cope from Pigeon Spring, Nevada (Proc. Acad. Nat. 
Sci. Phila., Jan., 1868, p. 2). The latter was described from a very young individual 
(epiphyses not yet aukylosed) and its characters, are uncertain. That it is closely 
related to the present species, is unquestionable, 



July, 18Q1.J 



MAMMALS OF IDAHO. 



65 



Cranial and Dental characters.— Skull small, broad, flat, and depressed 
iuterorbitally ; postorbital processes well developed ; brain case squar- 
ish. In many respects the skull resembles that of Phenacomys orophilus, 
though it lacks the broadly expanded zygomata and other generic char- 
acters of that animal. Each zygomatic arch presents three angles and 
four planes ; the maxillary root stands out at right angles to the axis 
of the skull, or is even directed a little forward, then bends obliquely 
backward, outward, and downward ; then becomes horizontal and par- 
allel to the axis of the skull and is overlapped by the short malar or 
jugal which meets the squamosal root of the arch at a sharp obtuse 
angle. The nasals are very short. The incisive foramina reach a lit- 
tle beyond the anterior plane of the first molars. The teeth present no 
noteworthy differences from those of Arvicola pallidus from North 
Dakota, the number and relations of the prisms agreeing with those 
of the subgenus Chilotus. The characters of their crowns are shown in 
Plate in, Figs. 1, 2. 

Record of specimens collected of Arvicola pauperrimus. 



TJ. S. National 


6 


Museum No. 


fc 












Skin. 


Skull. 


5 


23848 


31248 


1695 


23817 


31247 


1696 


23843 


31243 


1697 


23845 


31245 


1698 


23814 


312)1 


1714 


23840 


31246 


1725 



Locality. 



Salmon River Mountains, Idaho 
....do 

...do 

..do 

....do 

....do 



Date. 



Aug. 27, 1890 

... do 

...do 

...do 

A ug. 29, 1890 
Aug. 30, 1890 







Sex. 


O 




"3 



H 


5 ad . . 


116 


tf itn . 


92 


ef im ■ 


90 


f 1111 . 


80 


, mi 


88 


' iiu . 


92 



16 

15 

14.5 

14.5 

14 

14 



Phenacomys orophilus sp. nov. Mountain Lemming Mouse. 

This interesting animal, which has heretofore escaped observation, 
inhabits the higher parts of the mountains of central Idaho. Speci- 
mens were procured iu a moist meadow at timber line in the Salmon 
River Mountains, and one was taken from the stomach of a Great Horned 
Owl in the Saw Tooth Mountains. In the former locality it lives in 
dense beds of Bryanthus taxifolia and Salix reticulata which border the 
small rippling brooks that come from melting snow banks at an alti- 
tude of about 3,350 meters (11,000 feet). Like Lagomys, which lives in 
adjacent rock slides, it feeds on Geum rossii and doubtless other al- 
pine plants also. 

In my original description of the genus Phenacomys I ventured the 
prediction that it would be found in " Idaho, Washiugtou, and perhaps 
Montana also." Since the publication of that paper Mr. F. W. True 
has described a species from Oregon,* and I now have the pleasure of 
adding one from Idaho, making in all six species of the genus thus far 
described. 

'Phenacomys longicaudus True, Proc. U. 8. National Museum, xiii, No. 826, pp. 303— 
304. Author's separates issued November 15, 1890, 
20789— No. 5 9 



66 



NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 



[NO. 5. 



PHENACOMYS OROPHILUS sp. nov. 

TypeNo. ffflg $ ad. U. S. National Museum (Department of Agriculture col- 
lection). From Salmou River Mountains, Idaho (uear head of Timher Creek, 
altitude 3,200 meters or 10,500 feet), August 28, 1890. Collected hy C. Hart 
Merriam and Vernon Bailey. (Original number 1710.) 

Measurements (taken in flesh). — Total length, 146 ; tail vertebrae, 38.; 
pencil, 3; hind foot, 19. Ear from crown, 10; from notch, 13 (in dry skin). 

General characters. — Size a little larger than Phenacomys intermedins ; 
ears large and conspicuous ; tail small and cylindrical. Whiskers short, 
hardly reaching to ears. Ground color gray as in Arvicola pallidus, but 
darker along the back. 

Color. — Upper parts gray, tinged with buffy and heavily lined with 
black-tipped hairs, particularly along the middle of the back. Under 
parts whitish, the plumbeous basal fur showing through. Tail bicolor, 
its upper and lower surfaces concolor with the corresponding surfaces 
of the body. 

Cranial and Dental characters. — Skull low, broad, and flat, apparently 
much as in P. intermedius. Frontal sulcus shallow. Interparietal nar- 
rowly pentagonal as in P. latinianus (very different from that of P. cela- 
tus). Teeth only half-rooted, growing from persistent pulps except 
(probably) in extreme old age.* The general pattern of the crowns of 
the teeth is similar to that in P. celatus except that the outer loops of 
the last upper molar are very mucli reduced, and the posterior loop of 
the last lower molar is smaller, making this tooth of approximately 
equal breadth at both ends (see Plate in, Figs. 3, 4). 

Record of specimens collected of Phenacomys orophihis. 



U. S. National 
Museum No. 


6 
'A 

"3 
a 
'Ei 
"E 
O 


Locality. 


Date. 


Sex. 


M 

a 

<D 

"3 

O 

H 


8 
u 
,o 

IS 

u 

o 

> 

'3 
H 


4-> 

o 
<2 


Skin. 


Skull. 


P 

W 


23850 


31250 
31256 
31242 
31249 
31947 


1684 
1710 
1713 
1772 


Salmon River Mountains, Idaho .. 
....do 


Aii£. 27, 1890 
Aug. 28, 1890 
Aug. 29, 189U 
Sept. 5, 1890 
Sept. 30, 1890 


? ad.. 




30 
38 
25 
28 


17 


23856 


? ad.. 

cT .--. 
d ad.. 


146 
112 
120 


19 


23842 


....do 


17 


23849 


....do 


18 




Saw Tooth Mountains, Idaho 















Evotomys idahoensis sp. nov. Idaho Red- backed Mouse. 

Ked-backed mice of the genus Evotomys are common in the conifer- 
ous forests of the Boreal zone in Idaho. Six specimens were secured, 
three in the Salmon Eiver Mountains and three in the Saw Tooth 
Mountains. They were usually caught in traps set under rotten logs in 
dry pine or spruce woods, though Mr. Bailey caught one in his hands 

* This is the case also in P. longivaudus, the type specimen of which I have had the 
privilege of examining, through the courtesy of Mr. True. 



July, 1891. 



MAMMALS OF IDAHO. 



67 



in the daytime as it was drinking at the margin of Saw Tooth Lake, 
October 3 (No. 24282). There was snow on the ground at the time. 

While agreeing in a general way, those from the Salmon River Moun- 
tains are smaller, have shorter feet and tails, relatively longer ears, and 
very much larger antitragus than those from the Saw Tooth Mountains, 
and the nasal bones are noticeably shorter. Should these differences 
prove constant the two forms will require separation. The Saw Tooth 
Mountain animal is the one here described. 

EVOTOMYS IDAHOENSIS sp. nov. 
(Teeth, Plate in, Figs. 5, 6.) 



tion). From Saw Tooth or Alturas Lake, east foot of Saw Tooth Mountains, 
Idaho, October 4, 1890. Collected by C. Hart Merriam and Vernon Bailey 
(Original number 1936). 

.Measurements (taken in flesh). — Total length, 153; tail vertebra?, 48; 
pencil, 0.5; hind foot, 20. Ear from crown, 10; from notch, 12.5 (in dry 
skin). 

General characters. — Size and proportions about as in E. galei from 
the mountains of Boulder County, Colorado ; smaller than E californi- 
um ; coloration unique, a well-defined, pale hazel dorsal area as in yalei, 
with ash gray sides as in califomicus. 

Color. — Dorsal area hazel, well defined, darker than in galei but not 
so bright as in gapperi; rest of upper parts dark ash gray tinged with 
bister as iu califomicus f not suffused with ochraceons buff as in gapperi 
and galei. Under parts soiled whitish, the plumbeous basal color of 
the fur showing through. Tail indistinctly bicolor, dusky above, much 
paler below. 

Cranial and Dental characters. — Skull rather narrow, as in gapperi and 
occidentalism with the nasals less strongly deflexed and the frontals nar- 
rower interorbi tally. The last upper molar has three deep reentrant 
angles and four salient angles or loops on each side with a tendency to 
form a fifth on the outer side. The first lower molar has five project- 
ing loops and four deep reentrant angles ou the inner side and four 
projecting loops and three deep reentrant angles on the outside. The 
last lower molar is slightly broader anteriorly than posteriorly. 
Record of specimens collected of Evotomys idahoensis. 



U. S. National 

Museum No. 


c 
"A 




Skull. 


Origina 


Skin. 


24283 


31687 


l!i:;r, 


24282 


31 680 


1931 


24392 


31798 


1920 


23840 


31240 


1732 


23841 


31241 


1712 


23909 


31313 


1701 



Locality. 



Saw Tooth Lake, Idaho 

...do 

...do 

Salmon River Mountains, Idaho 

...do 

* Type. 



Date. 






Oct. 4, 1890 
Oct. :s, 1890 
Oct. 2, 18'J0 
Aug. 31, 1890 
Aug. 29, 1890 
Aug. 27, 1890 





.a 


a 




M 


,o 




a 




Sex. 


c 


e 
















o 


3 




H 


H 


$ ad.. 


153 


48 


d 


138 


42 


$ iiu.. 


128 


38 


cf ini.. 


115 


32 


9 ad.. 


145 


40 


9 ad . . 


142 


37 



20 
20 
19 

18.5 

1!) 

19 



68 



NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. 



[No. 5. 



Fiber zibethicus (Linnaeus). Muskrat. 

Muskrats are common iu Lemhi River and in most of the streams and 
beaver ponds of Idaho. We found them particularly abundant at Saw 
Tooth or Alturas Lake, at the east foot of the Saw Tooth Mountains. 

Record of specimens collected of Fiber sibethicus. 



U.S. National 
Museum No. 


6 

ea 

a 
O 


Locality. 


Date. 


Sex. 


bl) 
□ 
o 

a 
o 
H 


S 

H 
.Q 
O 

u 
> 

'5 
H 


o 


Skin. 


Skull. 


eg 

a 
W 


23868 
24559 


31268 
31954 
31953 
31837 
31480 


1766 
1873 
1902 
1912 
1927 




Sept. 3, 1890 
Sept. 26, 1890 

Sept. 29,1890 
Sept. 30,1890 
Oct. 2, 1890 
Oct, 2, 1890 


d 

? ad.. 
d im . 
? im . 
$ im . 
d im ■ 


580 
580 
540 
506 


258 
260 
242 
240 


78 
83 


24558 


do 


84 


24431 


....do 


84 




....do 






31479 1928 


do 























Thomomys clusius Coues. Pale Pocket Gopher. 

Thomomys clusius Coues, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1875, 138 (type from Bridger 
Pass, Wyoming). 

The common Pocket Gopher of the Snake Plains and the valleys of 
Big Lost River and Birch Creek is here referred provisionally to tbis 
species. Specimens from the foothills east of Blackfoot show a tendency 
to run into the dark form inhabiting the mountains. It may be well to 
state iu connection witb the name here adopted that Bachman's types 
of borealis and townsendi (now in the museum of the Philadelphia Acad- 
emy of Sciences) have been compared with the present species and 
found to be not the same. 

Lewis and Clark noticed hills of the Pocket Gopher along the Clear- 
water iu Idaho in May, 1806, aud described them thus: 

"In many parts of the plain the earth is thrown up into little 
mounds by some animal whose habits most resemble those of the 
Salamander [Geomys tuza Ord]; but although these tracks are scat- 
tered over all the plains from the Mississippi to the Pacific, we have 
never yet been able to obtain a sight of the animal itself" (Lewis and 
Clark's Travels, Paul Allen Ed., vol. n, 1814, p. 273). 

Thousands of persons spend their entire lives in the midst of colonies 
of Pocket Gophers without ever seeing a specimen. At the same time 
the animals are easily caught when one has learned how, as may be 
inferred from the accompanying table, and it may be added that several 
times the number here enumerated could have been captured had we so 
desired, 



July, 1891.] MAMMALS OF IDAHO. 

Record of specimens collected of Thomomys clusius. 



69 



TJ. S. National 
Museum No. 



Skin. Skull. 



23141 
23148 
23918 
24,305 
23917 
23317 
23314 
23315 
23313 
23310 
23312 
23534 
23483 
23535 
23392 
23391 
23389 
23481 
2339(1 
23393 
23394 
23480 
23482 
23478 
23533 
23532 
23479 
23477 
2314U 
23138 
33137 
23143 
23146 
23149 
23147 
23144 
23145 
23151 
23139 



30586 
30593 
31323 



31322 

30776 

30773 

30774 

30772 

30775 

30771 

30952 

30901 

30953 

30852 

30851 

30844 

3C89!) 

30850 

30853 

30854 

30898 

30900 

30896 

3095] 

30950 ! 

30897 

30895 

30585 

30583 

30588 

30591 
30594 
30592 
30589 
30590 



30584 



Locality. 



38 
1457 
1467 
1484 
1485 
1531 
1532 
1533 
1536 
1562 
1563 

] :.; i 

1575 
1577 
98 
99 
100 
101 

102 
106 
108 
109 
129 
137 

13H 

139 

140 
141 
L44.1 

21 
23 
24 



Big Butte, Idaho 

....do 

Big Lost River, Idaho 

...do 

...do 

Birch Creek, Idaho ... 

...do 

...do 

....do 

...do 

....do 

...do 

...do 

...do 

...do 

....do 

... .In 

....do 

.. do 

...do 

...do 

...do 

....do 

.-..do 

...do 

....do 

...do 

....do 

Black foot, Idaho 

....do 

....do 

...do 

...do 

...do 

....do 

....do 

...do 

...do 

....do 



Date. 



July 19,1890 
July 20, 1890 
July 22, 1890 
July 23, 1890 

....do 

Aug. 4,1890 

...do 

....do 

Aug. 5,1890 
Aug. 7,1890 

...do 

Aug. 9,1890 

....do 

Aug. 10, 1890 
Aug. 4, 1890 

....do 

Aug. 5, 1890 

...do 

...do 

....do 

...do 

...do 

Aug. 8, 1S90 
Aug. 9, 1890 

...do 

Aug. 10, 1890 

....do 

....do 

July 15, 1890 
July 11, 1800 

...do 

July 15, 1890 

...do 

....do 

....do 

....do 

July 16, 1890 

...do 

...do 



Sex. 



cf--. 

cf.... 
?... 

?..., 
cf.~. 
cf--- 

V ini 
cf---. 
d ini 

a in; 
?■-- 

?•-- 
cf... 

cf... 

$... 
?... 

cf.-- 
cT... 
9... 
cf... 

cf--- 
9 — 

cf.-. 

?.-- 

?■-- 

cf... 

cf--- 

?•-- 
?•-• 
9-.. 
?•-- 
?•-- 

9... 
cf ad 

9... 
? • 
d... 



195 
187 
168 
173 
179 
162 
161 
150 
104 
187 
172 
188 
188 
174 
171 
155 
159 
160 
160 
158 
172 
177 
179 
161 
164 
161 
165 
162 
189 
176 
177 
175 
174 
171 
178 
194 
183 
180 
170 



H 



23 

23 

22 

22 

24 

22 

21.5 

21. 5 

22 

24 

22 

24 

23.5 

22 

23 

21 

21.5 

21 



22. 6 

23 

22 

23 

22 

24 

23 

23.5 

23 

24 

25 

25 

21 

24 



Thomomys clusius fuscus ailbsp. now Mountain Pocket Gopher. 

The Pocket Gophers inhabiting the mountains of Idaho are very differ- 
ent from those of the sage plains and valleys, being larger and wholly 
different in color. T. clusius from the Snake Plains is whitish, washed 
with pale buffy ochraceous, while the mountain animal is dull chestnut. 
In 40 specimens of the former the hind foot measures from 21 to 21"""; 
in 23 of the latter it varies from 25 to 31""". Where the ranges of the 



70 



NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. 



I No. 5. 



two forms meet there is a tendency to intergrade. This is particularly 
noticeable in specimens from the foothills east of Blackfoot. 

At Saw Tooth Lake fresh hills were thrown up after snowfall in early 
October. 

In 1872 1 secured a specimen in Teton Canon (No. lihHHK ? > tT. S. Nat. 
Mus.). 

THOMOMYS CLUSIUS FUSCUS subsp. nov. 

Type No. tfj^nr, 9 ad.,U. S. National Museum (Department of Agriculture col- 
lection). From mountains at bead of Big Lost River, Idaho, September 23, 
1890. Collected by Basil Hicks Dutcher (Original number, 1847). 

Measurements (taken in flesh). — Total length, 215; tail vertebrse, 72; 
hind foot, 27. Ear from crown, 3 (in dry skin). 

General characters. — Similar to T. elusius, but larger and very much 
darker in coloration, the upper parts being dull chestnut instead of 
buffy whitish. This Pocket Gopher needs no comparison with either 
T. talpoides from Dakota or T. fulvus from Arizona, the small size of its 
fore feet being sufficient to distinguish it at a glance from these species. 

Color. — Upper parts uniform dull chestnut; circle around ear black- 
ish; tail and feet soiled whitish; under parts plumbeous, strongly 
washed with fulvous. 

Record of specimens collected of Thomomys elusius fuscus. 



U. S. National 

Museum No. 


6 
"a 

a 

M 

'E 
O 


Locality. 


Date. 


Sex. 


M 
P 

o 
H 


a 

g 

u 

'3 
H 


"o 


Skin. 


Skull. 


T3 

a 
K 


23673 
24304 


31067 
31708 
31068 
30955 
31065 
30954 
31069 
31066 
31217 
31216 
31215 
31218 
31219 
31671 

31672 
31673 
30700 
30701 
30698 
30699 
30697 
30595 
30587 


1613 
1614 
1615 
1616 
1617 
1618 
1619 
1626 
1656 
1657 
1711 
1762 
1763 
*1847 

1848 

1930 

85 

86 

87 

88 

89 

1448 

■1452 


Salmon River Mountains, Idaho.. 
....do 


Aug. 20, 1890 
....do 


d 

9 

d 

9 

9 

9 

9 

9 

?.— 
9 

9 im.. 

9 

d 

9 

9 

$ im.. 
d.— 

9 

9 -- ■ 

9 

?.... 
d---- 
d im.. 


200 
162 
200 
197 
194 
192 
178 
188 
208 
178 
148 
192 
191 
215 

205 
192 
188 
191 
200 
186 
185 
232 
194 


70 
37 
70 
68 
67 
63 
60 
63 
70 
42 
45 
61 
54 
72 

71 
70 
60 
66 
69 
63 
65 
75 
66 


26 
26 


23674 


....do 


Aug. 21, 1890 
... do 


26.5 


23537 


...do 


25 


23671 


....do 


....do 


25 


23536 


....do 


....do 


25 


23675 


... do 


....do 


24 


23672 


...do 


Aug. 23, 1890 
Aug. 25, 1890 
....do 


25 


23817 
23816 


....do 

....do 


26 
24 


23815 


....do 


....do 


21.5 


23818 




Sept. 3,1890 
do 


25 


23819 


do 


25 


24267 
24268 


Mountains at Head of Big Lost 

River, Idaho. 
....do 


Sept. 23, 1890 
....do 


27 
29 


24269 




Oct. 3, 1890 
July 31, 1890 
....do 


26 


23243 
23244 


Lost River Mountains, Idaho 

...do 


26 

28 


23241 


.do 


....do 


26 


23242 


....do 


...do 


26 


23240 
23150 


....do 


Aug. 1,1890 
July 16, 1890 
July 17, 1890 


26 
31 


23142 


.. do 


26 









*Type. 



July, 1891.1 



MAMMALS OF IDAHO. 



71 



Dipodops ordii Woodhouse. Orel's Kaugaroo Rat. 

A Kangaroo Eat provisionally referred to this species is common 
throughout the Sonoran zone of Idaho, inhabiting sandy places in the 
Snake Plains and its northward prolongations between the mountains. 
It was noticed in Birch Creek and Lemhi Valleys, and in Big Lost, Lit- 
tle Lost, Pahsimeroi, Round or Challis, aud Autelope Valleys. 

Record of specimens collected of Dipodops ordii. 



U. S. National 
Museum No. 



Skin. 


Skull. 


23103 


30518 


. 23099 


30544 


23102 


30547 


23088 


30534 


230.-9 


30535 


23104 


30519 


23098 


30513 


23101 


30546 


23100 


30545 


23092 


30538 


23093 


30539 


23091 


30537 


23090 


30536 


23087 


30533 


23369 


30829 


23370 


30830 


24036 


31452 | 


24037 


31453 i 



141C 
1423 
1424 
1425 
1426 
1427 
1431 
1432 
1433 
1443 
1444 
1450 
22 
28 
1561 
1565 
1840 
1842 



Locality, 



Date. 



Sex. 



Black loot, Idaho July 10,1890 

....do July 11,1890 



...do 

...do 

...do 

.. do 

...do 

...do 

...do 

...do 

...do 

...do 

...do 

...do 

Birch Creek, Idaho. 

...do . 

Challis, Idaho 



...do 

July 12, 1890 

...do 

...do 

July 13, 1890 

...do 

....do 

July 15,1890 

....do 

July 16, 1890 
July 14, 1890 
July 15, 1890 
Aug. 7,1890 
....do 



d 1 ---. 

?.... 
<? ... 
cf-... 
rf.„. 

,<■.... 

cT..-- 
?.... 
?.... 

cr .in v 
d"...- 

cC... 
? ad. 
9-..- 



Sept. 20, 1890 9 ad.. 



do Sept. 21, 1890 9. 



J3 
*J 

ts 

a 

Hi 

« 
O 
H 


V 

> 

'3 
H 


221 


128 


237 


144 


242 


136 


223 


132 


197 


110 


188 


105 


192 


108 


188 


102 


233 


137 


236 


139 


198 


111 | 


184 


101 i 


246 


137 


242 


140 


259 


148 


252 


143 


255 


139 


250 


138 



w 

39 

40 

42 

39 

39 

38 

39 

39 

40.5 

40 

39 

36 

39 

39 

40 

42 

40 

40.5 



Perognathus olivaceus Merriam. Pocket Mouse. 

Perognathus olivaceus Merriam, N. Am. Fauna, No. 1, October, 1889, pp. 15-1(5 (type 
from Kelton, Utah). 

Common throughout the Sonoran zone in Idaho, living in small colo- 
nies in burrows in the gravel benches. Specimens were captured in 
Lemhi Valley near the Indian Agency and near Junction, and in Birch 
Creek Valley at Johnston's ranch 10 kilometers (10 miles) south of Nich- 
olia. Several were trapped in the Pahsimeroi Valley, and others at 
Blackfbot and Big Butte on the Snake Plains. 

All of the Idaho specimens are a little smaller than true P. olivaceus 
from northern Utah. 



72 



NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. 

Record of specimens collected of Perognathus olivaceus. 



[No. 5. 



IT. S. National 




Museum No. 















Skiu. 


SkulL 


o 


22994 


30440 


17 


23097 


30542 


29 


2309G 


30541 


37 


23476 


30894 


1569 


23547 


30965 


1598 


23516 


309G4 


1599 


23834 


31234 


1742 


23837 


31237 


1780 


23836 


31236 


1822 


23835 


31235 


1823 



Locality. 



Blackfoot, Idaho 

...do 

Big Butto, Idaho 

Birch Creek, Idaho 

...do 

...do 

Lemhi Indian Agency, Idaho 

Pahsimeroi Valley, Idaho 

...do 

...do 



Date. 



July 13, 1890 
July 15, 1890 
July 19, 1890 
Aug. 9, 1890 
Aug. 14, 1890 

....do 

Sept. 2,1890 
Sept. 13, 1890 
Sept. 17, 1890 
...do 



Sex. 



cf... 

<$--- 
9 — 

J- - 

cf im 

?;■- 

? ad 
cf.-. 

cT-.- 
$ im 



147 
1G7 
169 
161 
150 
151 
16G 
174 
174 
160 



74 

63 

64 

85 

80.5 

86 

90 

95 

95 

85 



W 



20 

23 

22.5 

21.5 

22 

22 

21 

22 

23 

21.5 



Erethizon epixanthus Brandt. Yellow-haired Porcupine. 

Common throughout the mountaius of central Idaho. In Saw Tooth 
Mountains their guawings were most frequently noticed on Pinus mur- 
rayana, and rather low down. In a canon in the LostEiver Mountains 
Mr. Basil Hicks Dutcher encountered a Porcupine sitting in a shady 
nook under a rocky cliff" screened by undergrowth. The specimen was 
ineserved. A dead Porcupine was found in the sage brush near the 
sink of Birch Creek. Tracks were seen in the canon of Snake River 
near Shoshone Falls, and on the Brunneau Mountains between Idaho 
and Nevada. 

August 10, 1872, I killed a female Porcupine at Henry Lake (skull 
No. 12405, U. S. Nat. Mus.). 

Record of specimens collected of Erethizon epixanthus. 



TJ. S. National 
Museum No. 


6 

'a 
a 

O 


Locality. 


Date. 


Sex. 


"So 
a 

a 
o 
H 


'3 
H 


o 


Skin. 


Skull. 


r3 

a 
W 


23713 


31107 
30625 


1518 
1489 


Lost River Mountains, Idaho 


July 30, 1890 
July 22, 1890 


? 


740 


187 


89 















Zapus hudsonius (Ziramermann). Jumping Mouse. 

Common in moist places along the lower part of the Canadian or 
Douglas fir zone of the Salmon Eiver Mountains, and probably through- 
out the coniferous forests of Idaho. Several were caught in traps set 
for shrews in a marsh bordering a beaver pond. This form differs from 
the common Jumping Mouse of the eastern United States in having the 
skull broader and shorter, and the brain case more highly inflated. The 
buffy ochraceous color of the sides is somewhat paler than in eastern 
specimens and very much paler than in those from the Pacific coast 
region. 



July, 1891.] MAMMALS OF IDAHO. 

Record of specimens collected of Zapns hitdsonius. 



73 



TJ. S. National 
Museum No. 



Skin. 


Skull. 


23538 


30956 


23539 


30957 


23540 


30958 


23799 


31199 


23800 


31200 



1634 
1665 
1675 
1718 
1733 



Locality. 



Salmon River Mountains, Idaho 

...do 

...do 

...do 

...do 



Date. 



Aug. 23, 1890 
Aug. 25, 1890 
Aug. 26, 1890 
Aug. 29, 1890 
Aug. 31, 1890 





fl 


82 




M 


■a 


Sex. 


P 


u 






> 




a 












o 


ei 




H 


H 


1 
? 


231 


140 


? 


222 


134 


d 


222 


135 


rf ad.. 


232 


140 


1 


246 


152 



Lagomys princeps Richardson. Rocky Mountain Pika. 

The Rocky Mountain Pika is common in the rock slides of the Boreal 
Province in Idaho. In the Salmon River, Pahsinieroi, aud Saw Tooth 
Mountains we found it ranging from the Canadian zone to within a 
short distance of the summits of the highest peaks. It was encoun- 
tered most abundantly in the neighborhood of timber line, between the 
altitudes of 3,050 aud 3,350 meters (10,000 and 11,000 feet), perhaps 
because suitable rock slides are most frequent at this elevation. The 
lowest colony discovered in the Salmon River Mountains inhabited a 
mass of volcanic slide rock surrounded by Douglas fir and Murray pine 
on the east slope of the range at about 2,G20 meters (8,000 feet). In 
a narrow' part of the valley of Big Wood River, near its headwaters, 
a few individuals were found in slides as low as 2,255 meters (7,400 feet). 
It was observed also in the mountains between the headwaters of Big 
Lost River and Trail Creek. 

Pikas are noisy little creatures and are not likely to let anyone pass 
near by without making their presence known. Their cry lias been de- 
scribed as a 'bleat' resembling that of a young lamb, but the simile 
is strained. Their ordinary note is eh-eh, spasmodically ejaculated and 
several times repeated. Sometimes it is shriller and more like ee-ee, 
uttered many times in rapid succession. 

They are active, nimble little bodies, springing lightly from rock to 
rock, and running swiftly to and from their feeding grounds, often sev- 
eral hundred feet away. 

Their chief food-plant is a pretty little Arctic-alpine species (Geum 
roHsii) which forms mats of green among the rocks and bears conspicu- 
ous yellow flowers. This is their 'hay,' and they lay up large quanti- 
ties of it for winter use, depositing it in little heaps in the spaces 
between the rocks. These storehouses average about the size of a 
bushel measure and contain, in addition to the leaves aud flowers of 
Geum rossii, a few heads of purple Aster and a golden Senecio. 

The Pikas are very industrious. In early autumn they are constantly 
engaged in carrying hay to their storehouses except when interrupted 
by intruders, at whom they stare aud scold before plunging out of sight 
among the rocks. Soon after silence is restored they reappear, and 



74 



NOETH AMERICAN FAUNA. 



f No. 5. 



their cry may be heard from a hundred points. They crawl out upon 
the rocks and sit motionless for awhile, and if undisturbed soon return 
to their task of laying up food for winter. I have watched them by the 
hour while thus engaged, running rapidly to the side of the slide, gath- 
ering a mouthful of leaves, and returning as swiftly to deposit it in the 
usual place. For such short-legged animals their speed is surprising, 
as well as the long leaps they make from rock to rock, never losing their 
footing. Their movements are not attended by any noise, which cir- 
cumstance is due in part to the lightness of their bodies and in part to 
the dense pad of fur which covers the soles of their feet. 

The Pika probably remains active throughout the winter, during 
which period the great depth of snow covering its home keeps out the 
cold winds and prevents the temperature from falling very low. That 
it does not hibernate is evident from two facts : (1) It lays up large 
storehouses of food for winter use; (2) it does not become fat as winter 
approaches. 

One afternoon, about the 1st of September, Mr. Yernon Bailey and 
I carried our blankets up to a Lagomys slide above timber-line on the 
Salmon River Mountains and spent the night there. As darkness fell 
upon the mountains a storm set in. The wind blew a furious gale and 
rain began falling. Soon the rain changed to hail' and sleet, and finally 
to snow. Much to our surprise we heard the unmistakable cry of the 
Pikas at frequent intervals throughout the night. Whether they are 
usually nocturnal as well as diurnal, or whether the storm set them at 
work to move their storehouses to safer places, we have no means of 
knowing. 

In 1872 I collected this species in Teton Canon near the boundary 
between Idaho and Wyoming (No. Hii£ U. S. Nat. Mus.). 

Record of specimens collected of Lagomys princepa. 



U. S. National 
Museum No. 


d 

■ "3 
g 

'G 
O 


Locality. 


Date. 


Sex. 


M 

n 

o 
H 


o 


Skin. 


Skull. 


<2 

a 
H 


23488 


30906 
30826 
30905 
30902 
30903 
31057 
31058 
31059 
31207 
31208 
31206 
31204 
31212 
31210 


1585 

121 

140 

147 

148 

1679 

1680 

1681 

1685 

1686 

1687 

1688 

1689 

1690 




Aug. 11, 1890 
Aug. 6,1890 
Aug. 11, 1890 
...do 


d 

d 

? ad.. 
$ ad., 
cf ad.. 

d 

? 

d 

d 

d ■--■ 

d 

d 

? (?)-- 
d 


177 
176 
169 
183 
190 
185 
180 
182 
175 
180 
170 
180 
178 
180 


28 


2336C 


...do 


29 


23487 
23484 


... do 

..do 


28 
29.5 


23485 


do 


do 


27 


23663 


...do 


Aug. 26, 1890 
do 


30 


23664 


do 


31 


23665 


...do 


....do 


31 


23807 


do 


Aug. 27, 1890 
do 


31 


23808 


do 


30 


23806 


do 


do 


30 


23804 


...do 


....do 


31 


23812 


do 


do 


30 


23810 




....do 


31 



July, 1891] MAMMALS OF IDAHO. 

Record of specimens collected of Lagomys princeps — Continued. 



75 



U. S. National 
Museum No. 


d 

% 

3 
.3 

o 


Locality. 


Date. 


Sex. 


ti 
a 
i) 

"3 
o 
H 


o 


Skin. 


Skull. 


H 


23813 


31213 
31211 
31209 
31205 
31214 
30961 
30904 
309G2 
309G3 
31455 
31787 
31785 
31786 
30990 


1691 
1692 
1693 
1694 

1731 

174 

175 

176 

177 

1854 

1941 

1942 

1943 




Aug. 27, 1890 
do 


<f 

? 

d 

d" 

9 ad.. 

? 

9 

9 

din.. 

9 

? ad.. 
d"ad.. 
d ad.. 


180 
182 
180 
190 
180 
180 
176 
159 
166 
175 
170 
172 
170 


31 


23811 


....do 


30 


23809 


....do 


... do 




23805 
23814 
23543 


...do 

...do 


....do 

Aug. 30, 1800 
Aug. 19, 1890 

do 


31 
30 
28 
29 


23486 
23544 


... do 

..do 


23545 


...do 


. do 


28.5 

30 

29 

30 

30 


24039 
24381 


Head of Wood River, Idaho 

...do 


Sept. 25, 1890 
Oct. 5, 1890 
do 


24379 


....do 


24380 


...do 


do 




Salmon River Mountains, Idaho 


Aug. 27, 1890 











Lepus idahoensis sp. nov. Idaho Pygmy Rabbit. 

When I first saw this little Eabbit in the field the idea occurred to me 
that it might be Lepus nuttalli of Bachman, described in 1837 from a 
specimen collected on the Snake Plains by Townsend, and believed at 
that time to be " the most diminutive of any species of true hare yet 
discovered." But on returning to the East and examining the type of 
L. nuttalli, which is still in the Museum of the Academy of Natural Sci- 
ences of Philadelphia, I find the latter to be a young Cotton-tail, with 
a "rather long, full tail," pure white beneath, as pointed out by Baird 
and Allen, and I wholly concur in the opinion that it is the young of 
the species afterward described by Bachman (in 1839) as L. artemisia. 
The type locality of L. artemisia is the Plains of the Columbia near 
Walla Walla, a direct continuation of the Snake Plains. 

Geographic Distribution. — Lepus idahoensis inhabits the Sage Plains 
bordering Snake River, in Idaho, and the northward extensions of these 
plains in the Birch Creek and Lemhi Valleys, Little Lost Kiver Valley, 
Pahsimeroi Valley, and Big Lost Kiver Valley. To the south it ranges 
into northern Nevada; and to the west probably into eastern Oregon 
and Washington. 

Habits. — That but half a dozen specimens of this little rabbit were 
secured during more than two months spent in the very center of its 
abundance seemed very strange to us until we learned, near the close of 
the trip, two important facts concerning its habits, namely, that it is 
almost exclusively nocturnal and that it makes its home in deserted 
holes of the Badg3r (Taxulea americana). The only individual I suc- 
ceeded in shooting was killed at the mouth of a Badger hole just at 
daylight, and the specimens trapped were caught at the mouths of old 



76 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. ftfo.5. 

Badger holes which had been partly filled with earth. Had we learned 
these facts earlier we could easily have captured many more. Two or 
three others were caught but were eaten in the traps by Coyotes. 

This Eabbit has very short legs, and in running keeps close to the 
ground, not leaping, as most rabbits do. It was never found away 
from the plains and valleys covered with sage (Artemisia tridentata) 
and Tetradymia canescens. 

LEPUS IDAHOENSIS, ap.nov. 
Type No. If^i $ ad. From Pahsimeroi Valley, Idaho, September 16, 1890. Col- 
lected by Basil Hicks Butcher (Original No. 1816). 

Measurements (taken in flesh by 0. H. M.) — Total length, 290 ; tail, 
15; hind foot, 71. Ear (measured in dry skin) from notch, 42, from 
anterior base, 58. 

General characters. — Size smallest of North American Rabbits, with 
the possible exception of L. cinerascens recently described from southern 
California by Dr. J. A. Allen. Ears short and broadly rounded. Hind 
legs and feet rather short. Tail rudimentary. 

Color. — The material at hand (five specimens) indicates that there 
are two very distinct color phases in this Rabbit, a summer pelade 
(which is also that of the young) somewhat resembling L. sylvaticus, 
and a winter pelage of clear drab-gray, which is unique among Rabbits 
so far as I am aware. 

Winter pelage. — The type specimen (No. 24045, Pahsimeroi Valley, 
Idaho, Sept. 16, 1890) and another taken at the same time and place 
(No. 24047) are in winter pelage except on the head aud neck, which 
parts are changing or still in summer pelage. Another specimen 
(24046 9 ad.), taken near the head of the valley of Big Lost River a 
week later (September 22), has nearly completed the change, the old 
fur remaining on the cheeks and sides of the neck only. In these speci- 
mens, with the exceptions indicated, the color of the head, body, and 
thighs is a uniform pure drab-gray entirely free from any tinge of 
fulvous, and somewhat mixed with black-tipped hairs on the back. 
The nape, spot is small, dull ochraceous buff in color, and wholly con- 
cealed when the ears are laid back. The fore and hind feet are pale, 
dull ochraceous buff. The drab-gray of the upper parts extends well 
down on the sides and encroaches on the under parts, leaving but a 
narrow strip of whitish along the median line of the belly. The pecto- 
ral band is grayish buff. The ears are pale buff inside ; dull bufly- 
ochraceous outside, mixed with gray and black-tipped hairs anteriorly 
and bordered in front with a blackish line. 

Summer and immature pelage. — Similar to the winter pelage but with 
the drab-gray of the upper parts replaced by gray more or less strongly 
suffused with buff and everywhere intimately mixed with black. The 
two pelages really differ much more than indicated by the description. 
The only fully adult specimen procured in complete summer pelage was 
accidentally destroyed. It was killed near Big Butte, Idaho, about 
July 20, 1890. An immature male (No. 23542) taken in Birch Creek 



July, 1891.] 



MAMMALS OF IDAHO. 



77 



Valley, Idaho, August 12, 1890, is nearly full grown and is conspicuous 
for the abundance of black-tipped hairs on the back and sides. The sides 
of tbe belly are strongly suffused with pale buffy ochraceous. A still 
younger individual (jSTo. 23541 9 juv.) collected in the upper Lemhi 
Valley (near Junction) Idaho, August 16, 1890, is very much paler 
above (the black-tipped hairs being inconspicuous) and the under parts 
are washed with buffy. The texture of the pelage is soft and woolly as 
usual in young rabbits. 

Cranial characters. — The skull of Lepus idahoensis, aside from its small 
size, is remarkable for its breadth, shortness, and the flatness of the 
parietal region. The ratio of zygomatic breadth to basilar length of 
Ileusel is 73.8 against 65 millimeters in an average specimen of L. 
sylvaticiis nuttalli from the same locality, and the corresponding ratios 
of breadth of brain case to basilar length are 58.5 and 52. The depres- 
sion of the brain case is best seen from behind, though it is very appar- 
ent from the side also. The foreshortening of the skull is brought about 
chiefly at the expense of the facial portion. The nasal bones are con- 
spicuously short, the ratio of their length to basilar length being 48.4 
against 60 in L. sylvaticiis nuttalli. 





Fig. 4.— Skull of Lepus idahoensis type (nat. size). 

The audital bullae are enormously inflated, being actually as large 
as in L.sylvaticiis nuttalli from the same region. The supraorbital pro- 
cesses are small, slender, and are not in contact with the side of the 
skull posteriorly ; anteriorly they fail altogether or exist as little more 
than spicules. The sulcus on the outer face of the zygomatic arch is 
very shallow and is not fenestrated. The under surface of the basioc- 
ciptal is deeply grooved longitudinally. The palatal bridge extends 
from the plane of the interspace between the first and second lateral 
teeth to the plane of the fourth, or the interspace between the fourth 
and fifth. 

General remarks. — Lepus idahoensis requires comparison with no other 
Kabbit, its small size, short head, apparent absence of tail, and peculiar 
coloration serving to distinguish it at a glance from all previously 
known species. 



78 



NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. 



[No. 5. 



Record of specimens collected of Lepus idahoensis. 



U. S. National 
Museum No. 


d 
a 

"5 

'E 
O 


Skin. 


Skull 


24045 


314G1 


* 1816 


24047 


31463 


1821 


24046 


31462 


1843 


23542 


30960 


1592 


23541 


30959 


1604 



Locality. 



Pabsirueroi Valley, Idaho 

...do 

Dig Lost River Valley, Idaho . 

Birch Greek. Idaho 

Junction, Idaho 



Date. 



Sept. 16, 1890 
Sept. 17, 1890 
Sept. 22, 1890 
Aug. 12, 1890 
Aug. 16, 1890 







8 




,a 


t4 










bD 




Sex. 














cS 












o 


<3 




H 


H 


d ad.. 


290 


15 


— ad.. 


300 


18 


? ad.. 


270 


16 


cfim. 


250 


12 


? im.. 


212 


14 



* Type. 
Lepus campestiis Bachmau. White-tailed Jack Rabbit. 

Tolerably common throughout the greater part of the sage plains, ex- 
tending north throughout the valley of Birch Creek and Lemhi River 
to Salmon City, aud through the Little Lost and Pahsimeroi Valleys to 
Salmon River and Round or Challis Valleys. Fouud also in the valley 
of Big Lost River. 

Record of specimen collected of Lepus campestris. 



U. S. National 
Museum No. 


6 
"A 

"3 
a 
'Sir 
'E 
O 


Locality. 


Date. 


Sex. 


"So 
a 
o 

"3 
o 
H 


8 

<v 
u 
o 

k 

"3 
H 

105 




Skin. 


Skull. 


a 
B 


23715 


31109 


169 




Aug. 16, 1890 


?... 


604 


149 









Lepus texianus Woodkouse. Black-tailed Jack Rabbit. 

Common in most parts of the sage plains and valleys. This species 
was observed in the valley of Birch Creek and Lemhi River, in Little 
Lost River Valley, the Pahsimeroi Valley, Round or Challis Valley, Big 
Lost River and Thousand Spring Valley, and was more common than 
Lepus campestris. 

In September, 1854, Dr. George Suckley found this species "exceed- 
ingly abundant on the left bank of the Boise River." He says : " They 
are so numerous that our command of 60 men subsisted on them for 
nearly a week. In a short ride of an hour's duration to see 30 near to 
the trail was nothing remarkable. The natives (Diggers) make gar- 
ments by sewing many of their skins together. This hare breeds in 
great numbers on the vast sage plains to the south of Boise River, be- 
tween it and Snake River." (Pacific R. R. Reports, Vol. xn, Book n, 
1860, Chap, ii, p. 105.) His subsequent remark that " they are said to 
turn white in winter" evidently refers to the following species (L. cam- 
pestris), which is the only Jack Rabbit known to undergo this seasonal 
change of color. That his previous remarks refer to L. texianus is 
shown by the description, which states that the upper surface of the 
tail and central line of the rump are black. 



July, 1891.] MAMMALS OF IDAHO. 

Eecord of specimens collected of Lepus fexianus. 



79 



U. S. National 
Museum No. 


6 
to 

a 

a 
Jf 

O 


Locality. 


Date. 


Sex. 


"Si 

a 
"3 

O 

H 


9J 
n 
,o 

- 

3 

H 


o 

P 
W 


a 

o 
t< a' 


Skiu. 


Skull. 


O * 

c3 


23922 
23365 


31327 
30825 


1415 
1494 


Arco, Idaho 


July 9,1890 
July 26, 1890 


? ad . . 
cf im . . 


560 

'-'40 


94 
39 


134 
65 


163 

77 



Lepus sylvaticus nuttallii Bachruau. Sage Cotton-tail. 

Common throughout the sage plains and particularly abundant in 
thickets of willows bordering - streams. 



U.S. N 
Muse i 




B 


ecord of specimens collected of Lepus s. 


nuttallii. 








ational 
m No. 


6 

to 

"3 

a 
M 

'£ 

o 


Locality. 


Date. 


Sex. 


"Sc 
a 
e 

"3 

o 
H 

385 
312 
345 


i 

8 
H 

a 
> 

"3 

H 


o 
=2 

P 

K 


a 

o 

«- a 


Skiu. 


Skull. 


o 
Kg 


23900 
23802 


31310 
31202 
31201 
31167 
30506 
31108 
30705 
31166 


1736 

1737 

1738 

1773 

20 

57 

68 

1755 


Lemhi Indian Agency, Idaho 


Sept. 1,1890 
....do 


d 

d 

? 

9 ad.. 


52 

35 
47 


95 
86 
90 


85 
70 


23801 


....do 


do 


71 




Lemhi Valley, Idaho 

Blackfoot, Idaho 

Big Lost River, Idaho 

Lost River Mountains, Idaho 
Lemhi Indian Agenoy.Idaho 


Sept. 5, 1890 
July 13, 1890 
July 24, 1890 
July 29, 1890 
Sept. 2,1890 




23060 


9 










23714 
232-19 


9 ad.. 

9 

9 


370 
295 


50 
35 


94 

78 

















Lepus bairdii llayden. Snow-aboe Rabbit. 

Common in thickets in the Salmon River and Saw Tooth Mountains. 
The first specimen secured was shot by Mr. Bailey on the high divide 
between Trail Creek and the headwaters of Big Lost River September 
22. Several others were secured at Saw Tooth or Alturas Lake in Oc- 
tober. The latter were beginning to change from summer to winter 
pelage. 

Eecord of specimens collected of Lepus bairdii. 



IT. S. National 
Museum No. 


Original No. 


Locality. 


Date. 


Sex. 


.3 

ti 

a 
e 

"a 
o 
H 


8 
£> 

Hi 
9 

"a 

H 


o 

<a 

a 
W 


a 

o 
- a 


Skiu. Skull. 


o 
u 


24430 
24065 
24066 


31836 

31475 
31476 


1846 
1932 
1933 


Big Lost River Valley, Idaho 

Saw Tooth Lake, Idaho 

....do 


Sept. 22, 1890 
Oct. 3, 1890 
....do 


d 

d 

9 


405 
400 
445 


28 
35 
37 


130 

142 
145 


102 

100 

98 











Alee americaiius Jardiue. Moose. 

Occurs in the Salmon River Mountains, but is not common anywhere. 

July 26, 1872, an old cow Moose and two large calves were killed in 
Teton Canon, near the boundary between Idaho and Wyoming, by the 



80 



NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. 



LNcx 5. 



Hay den Survey, and I worked all night long to prepare their skulls so 
that they could be sent out to Fort Hall on pack mules the next day 
(Nos. 12399 and 12400, U. S. Nat. Mus.). 

Cervus canadensis Erxleben. Wapiti ; Elk. 

Common in the Saw Tooth and Pahsimeroi Mountains, and not rare 
in the Salmon Eiver Mountains ; occurs also in the Bruuneau and Elk 
Mountains in extreme southern Idaho, and is said to inhabit the Black- 
foot Mountains. 

In 1872 we found Elk in abundance in the region about Henry Lake. 

Cariacus macrotis (Say). Black-tail Deer ; Mule Deer. 

Common throughout the mountains of Idaho, and in the Bruuneau 
Mountains between Idaho and Nevada. In winter it is common in the 
canon of Snake River, where a hunter killed 11 early in October (near 
Shoshone Falls). 

Cariacus virginianus macrourus (Rafinesqne). Western White-tailed Deer. 

Not observed by our party. Said to be common in some of the wil- 
low bottoms of southern Idaho and in the forests of northern Idaho. 

Rangifer caribou (Kerr). AVoodland Caribou. 

Capt. Charles E. Bendire informs me that Caribou are common in 
northern Idaho and that they occur as far south as the neighborhood of 
Elk City, in Idaho County. A hunter named N. C. Linsley states that 
he and his partner killed 25 Caribou on Pend d'Oreille River during the 
winter of 1888-'89 (Forest and Stream, October 10, 1889, p. 227). 

Antilocapra americana Ord. Antelope. 

Tolerably common on the Snake Plains and found also in considerable 
numbers at the head of Little Lost River (where 32 were seen in one 
herd and many in small bunches), and about the headwaters of the 
Pahsimeroi, in September. A drove of more than 40 individuals was 
seen at the head of Carion Creek, which empties into Salmon Falls 
Creek, in northern Nevada, October 15. 

In 1872 many herds of Antelope were met with along the route of 
the Hayden Survey in eastern Idaho, and hundreds were seen in Teton 
Basin. The following year (1873) an epidemic disease broke out among 
them and the species has never regained its former abundance. Speci- 
mens were collected by me in 1872 on Middle Fork of Snake River 
(August 5), and on Canon Creek (October 4 — Skulls Nos. 12401 and 
12402, U. S. Nat. Mus.). 

Record of specimen collected of Antilocapra americana. 



TJ. S. National 
Museum No. 


6 
!zs 

a 

'u 

O 


Locality. 


Date. 


Sex. 


a 

o 
H 


8 

£ 

o 

u 

CD 

t> 

H 


4 


Skin. 


Skull. 


a 
5 




31278 


1827 


raksirueroi Eiver, Idaho 


Sept. 15, 1890 


$iin. 

















Jilv, 1891.1 MAMMALS OF IDAHO. 81 

Mazama montana Rafinesque. Muuutaiu Goat. 

Common on the higher peaks of the Saw Tooth and Salmon River 
Mountains, and said to be common on the Seven Devils. Seven were 
killed in the Saw Tooth Mountains west of Saw Tooth or Alturas Lake 
during our stay in early October, and fourteen were seen one day by a 
hunter named F. C. Parks. 

Ovis canadensis Shaw. Mountain Sheep. 

Common in the Salmon River and and Pahsimeroi Mountains, and 
occurring, though in smaller numbers, in the Saw Tooth Mountains. 
Said to be common in northern Idaho. 

Bison bison (Linnaeus). Buffalo. 

Bos bison Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., x, 1758, p. 72. 

Bos americanus Gmelin, Syst. Nat., xm, 1788, p. 204. 

Bison americanus Smith, Griffith's Cnvier, Vol. V, 1827, p. 374 (name first used in this 

form by Catesby, "Nat. Hist. Carolina, ir, 1754, App., 20, xxvm ") ; Allen, 

American Bisons, 1876,30 (et auctorum plurimorum). 

Skulls and skeletons of Buffalo were found in the valley of Birch 
Creek and Lemhi River, in Little Lost River Valley, and in the upper 
part of Pahsimeroi Valley, but the species is now extinct in Idaho, 
except when stragglers from the Yellowstone Park wander into the 
adjacent mountains near the boundary lioe between Idaho and Mon- 
tana. 

John K. Townsend, during his overland journey from St. Louis to 
Oregon in 1834, frequently met with small herds of buffalo in south- 
eastern Idaho and along Snake River. Many were killed for food and 
several calves were captured alive, but proved too unruly for pets. 
Under date of July 21, when near the site of old Fort Hall, lie states : 
" The buffalo appear even more numerous than when we came, and 
much less suspicious than common. The bulls frequently pass slowly 
along within a hundred yards of us, and toss their shaggy and fright- 
ful looking heads as though to warn us against attacking or approach- 
ing them." Two days later four or live Indian hunters connected with 
the expedition killed sixty buffalo for the meat, which was dried for 
the journey. A few were found along the northern border of the 
Snake Plains in south central Idaho (Townsend's Narrative, 1839, p. 
96 +. For other interesting records see ibid., pp. 82, 87, 90, 93, 95. 96- 
07, 115). 
Felis concolor Liun&ns. Panther; Mountain Lion. 

Occurs locally throughout Idaho. One was shot in Lemhi Valley in 
1889, while feeding on the carcass of a cow. 

Lynx baileyi Merriam. Platean Wild Cat or Lynx. 

Common in places; particularly abundant in the lava canon of Snake 

River, where a fine specimen was caught, in a trap baited with a duck's 
head and wings. Lynx tracks were seen in the Salmon River and Saw 
Tooth Mountains, but whether <>)' this species is not known. 
26789— No, 5 6 



82 



NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. 

Record of specimens collected of Lynx baileyi. 



[No. 6. 



U. S. National 
Museum No. 


6 

a 

M 

*E- 
O 


Locality. 


Date. 




"So 

a 
o 

15 

o 

•H 


i 

u 

> 

'S3 
H 


4a 

SI 

,° 

a 
S 




Skin. 


Skull. 




24215 


31628 
31555 
31554 
30729 


1966 
1962 
1963 
1595 


Shoshone Falls, Idaho 

do 


Oct. 10,1890 
do 


9 


930 


180 


187 


88 




.do 


....do 
















Aug. 12, 1890 



























Vulpes macrourus Baird. Great-tailed Fox. 

Mr. Bailey saw a skin of a Red Fox at a ranch on tbe lower part of 
Birch Creek, where it was caught. It was in winter pelage and bright 
yellowish in color without trace of cross marks. 

Tracks of foxes were seen in the lower part of Birch Creek Valley 
and in the Saw Tooth Mountains. 

Canis nubilus Say. Timber Wolf. 

Said to be common in northern Idaho. A trapper named N. C. 
Linsley states that he and his partner killed forty wolves near Pend 
d'Oreille River during the winter of 18S8-'S9 (Forest and Stream, Octo- 
ber 10, 1889, p. 227). 

Canis latrans Say. Coyote; Prairie Wolf. 

Abundant throughout the sage plains ; heard howling nearly every 
night, and frequently seen in the daytime, particularly in early morning, 
skulking among the sagebrush or behind clumps of willows bordering 
streams. 

Record of specimens collected of Canis latrans. 



TJ. S. National 
Museum No. 


6 




a 


Skin. 


Skull. 






O 




30726 


1594 




31556 


1964 




31557 


1965 



Locality 



Birch Creek, Idaho . . . 
Shoshone Palls, Idaho 
...do 



Date. 



Auy. 12, 1890 
Oct. 10,1890 
...do 



Sex. 



Lutra hudsonica (Lacejpede). Otter. 

Common along most of the streams and lakes of Idaho, and in the 
canons of Snake River. A female and young were captured on Birch 
Creek. The female weighed about 8£ kilograms (19 pounds avoir- 
dupois) and the young about 4£ kilograms (10 pounds avoirdupois). 
Both were fat. The stomach of the mother contained the head of a 
Mallard Duck (Anas bosckas) and parts of small fish that swarm in the 



JULT, 1891.] 



MAMMALS OF IDAHO. 



83 



creek. The Otter excrement found along the bank consisted almost en- 
tirely of fish scales and bones. 

Record of specimens collected of Lutra hudsonica. 



U. S. National 
Museum No. 


£ 
"A 

~£ 
a 
|3> 

'u 

o 


Locality. 


Date. 


Sex. 


J3 
OS 

a 
a 

"3 
o 

H 


6 

H 

a 

© 

> 

"3 


o 

a 

W 


a 

o 

u 

a 


Skin. 


Skull. 


o 


°4068 31478 


1596 
167 




Aug. 14, 1890 
...do 


? ad.. 
$|im.. 


1,150 
985 


463 
386 


137 
113 


21 


24067 31*77 


do 















Lutreola vison (Schreber). Mink. 

Common along most of the streams. Four were caught on Birch 
Creek. 

Record of specimens collected of Lutreola vison. 



U. S. National 
Museum No. 


6 

"3 
a 
bo 

o 


Locality. 


Date. 


Sex. 


M 

© 

3 
o 
H 


£ 

H 
XI 

<B 

u 
> 

H 






-d 

a 

5 


a 



H 
O 

a 


Skin. 


Skull. 




H 

cS 

W 


23710 
23709 


31104 
31103 
31101 
31102 


1540 
1551 
1535 
1547 


Birch Creek, Idaho 

....do 


Aug. 5,1890 
Aug. 8,1890 
Aug. 5,1890 
Aug. 7,1890 


? 
9 


520 
508 
510 
470 


170 
167 
171 
138 


65 
G6 
61 


14 
12 


23707 


....do 


14 


23708 


....do 


59 13 











Putorius longicauda Bonaparte. Long-tailed Weasel. 

Weasels, provisionally referred to this species, are common in the 
Saw Tooth, Pahsimeroi, and Salmon River Mountains and tracks were 
seen in the Brunneau Mountains. Three were shot in the daytime and 
several were caught in marten traps baited with birds, chipmunks, and 
red squirrels. I met one high up in the Salmon River Mountains, Sep- 
tember 5. He was in pursuit of a Richardson's Squirrel in a damp, 
moss-covered place in a dark spruce forest and stood bolt upright when 
he saw me. I wounded him with my auxiliary and he immediately 
emitted his powerful stench and disappeared in a hole at the root of a 
spruce. 

July 22, 1872, 1 collected a young Weasel in Teton Basin, Idaho (No. 



HtH U. S. Nat. Mus.). 



84 



NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. 
Record of specimens collected of Putorius lonnicauda. 



[No. 5. 



F. S. National 
Museum No. 


a 

o 


Locality. 


Date. 


Sex. 


bJO 

a 

V 

o 
H 


8 
n 

r o 

<D 

s 

> 
H 


o 


Skin. 


Skull. 


=2 
a 
3 


23493 
23676 


30911 
31070 
30977 
31071 
31190 
31192 
31191 
31307 
30620 


122 
168 
1606 
1620 
1720 
1721 
1724 
1814 


Lost River Mountains, Idaho 

do 


Aug. 6,1890 
Aug. 16, 1890 
Aug. 19, 1890 
Aug. 21, 1890 
Aug. 30, 1890 
... do 


d im . 

d 

d 

3 

d im . 
d ad . 

? 

9 


318 
352 
380 
375 
354 
387 
362 
330 


114 
117 
144 
136 
128 
13'< 
132 
113 


39 
39 


23559 
23677 


Salmon River Mountains, Idaho .. 
do 


43 
43 


23790 
23792 


....do 

do 


41 
43.5 


23791 


...do 


.do 


39 


23903 


Pahsimeroi Mountains, Idaho 


Sept. 16,1890 
July 21, 1890 


36 















Mustela americana Turtou. Marten. 

Common in the Salmon River and Saw Tooth Mountains. I caught 
one near Timber Creek in a trap baited with birds. Prospectors in the 
Saw Tooth Mountains complain of the depredations of Marten in carry- 
ing off their meat. 

Record of specimen collected of Mustela americana. 



U. S. National 
Museum No. 


6 

a 
'S 
'C 
O 


Locality. 


Date. 


Sex. 


■a 

a 

o 

*^ 

O 

H 


a 

u 

<D 

u 

CD 
> 

H 


+3 

o 

=2 
a 

a 


a 
is 

o 
u 

o 

a 


Skin. 


Skull. 


o 

a 


23907 


31311 


1700 


Salmon River Mountains, 


Aug. 27, 1890 


d im - 


585 


182 


88 


38 









Mustela pennanti Erxleben. Fislier. 

Rare. A very handsome adult male Fisher was caught near Saw 
Tooth or Alturas Lake by Basil Hicks Dutcher, October 1, in a Marten 
trap baited with Chipmunks (Tamias quadrivittatus). It weighed 4,592 
grams (10 pounds 2 ounces avoirdupois). 

Record of specimen collected of Mustela pennanti. 



U. S. National 
Museum No. 


6 
'A 

"3 

.a 

o 


Locality. 


Date. 


Sex. 




3 

o 
H 


<o 
u 
> 

"es 
H 


o 

a 

a 
W 


a 
is 
o 
o 

a 


Skin. 


Skull. 


o 
a 


24112 


31531 


1914 


Saw Tooth Lake, Idaho... 


Sept. 30, 1890 


cT ad.. 


1,013 


395 


128 


41 



Spilogale saxatilis Merriain. Little Striped Skunk. 

A Little Striped Skunk believed to be this species is common in the 
cauons of Snake River, 



July, 1891.] 



MAMMALS OF IDAHO. 



85 



In 1S72 I secured a skiu at Marsh Valley, in southern Idaho (No. 
11130 U. S. Nat. Mus). 

Mephitis sp. ? Skunk. 

Apparently not common in the region traversed. A dead Skunk was 
found in the Salmon River Mountains but no specimens were caught. 
One was killed by a dog near Saw Tooth Lake in September. 

Taxidea americana (Boddaert). Badger. 

Abundant throughout the Snake River Plains and sage-covered val- 
leys, sometimes ranging up the mountains as high as timber Hue. Bad- 
gers were found in unusual numbers about Timber Creek on the head- 
waters of the Lemhi, and also near the head of the Pahsimeroi, and 
many were observed in the daytime. An old female shot in Birch Creek 
Valley, August 5, by Mr. Bailey, had in her stomach a number of bum- 
ble bees with their comb and young bees, and also a Pocket Gopher 
( Thomomys). Badgers dig out Spermophiles, Chipmunks, Pocket Go- 
phers, and Mice. 

Record of specimens collected of Taxidea americana. 



U. S. National 
Museum No. 


6 

to 

.5 
Tt 
°E 
O - 


Locality. 


Date. 


Sex. 


u 
5 

"a 
'o 

H 


S 

J3 

V 

u 

1) 

k 

'3 
H 



a 

a 


c 

Is 

o 

En 
O 


Skiu. 


Skull. 


S 
a 

■a 

h 

a 
W 


23712 
23 J 1 


3110C 

31105 
31279 


1522 

1555 

1828 


Lost River Mountains, 
Idaho. 


July 31, 1890 

Ang. 5,1890 
Sept. 15, 1890 


? 

9 ad.. 


go 

770 


139 
143 


110 

118 


35 

44 


~ 


Pahsimeroi River, Idaho . .. 

















Gulo hiscus (Linnaeus). Wolverine. 

The dead body of a Wolverine was found near Timber Creek in the 
Salmon River Mountains by Basil Hicks Butcher. The species was 
tolerably common in the Saw Tooth Mountains, where a trapper caught 
live last winter. One was killed on Blackfoot Mountains a few years 
ago, on what has been since known as Wolverine Creek. 

Record of specimen collected of (!ul<> luscus. 



U.S. National 
Museum No. 


d 

to 

a 

3 
M 

'u 

o 


Locality. 


Date. 


Sex. 


bi 
R 

e 

"3 

O 


a 

w 

A 
1) 

u 

0) 

k 

'5 
H 


o 


Skin. 


Skull? 


<2 

a 

3 




30912 




An g. 19, 1890 

























86 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. [No. 5 

Procyou lotor (Linnaeus). Raccoon. 

Raccoons are common in the canons of Snake Eiver, where they feed 
largely on crayfish (Astacus gambelii). 

Ursus horribilis, Orel. Grizzly Bear. 

The Grizzly Bear is common in the Salmon Eiver and Saw Tooth 
Mountains, and is said to occur in the Blackfoot Mountains also. One 
was killed near our camp on Timber Creek in August. 

In 1872 several were seen in Teton Basin and an old female was 
killed in Teton Caiion, July 24 (skull No. 12397, U. S. Nat. Mus.). 
Grizzly Bears are said to be common in northern Idaho. 

John K. Townsend, in the narrative of his overland journey to Ore- 
gon in 1834, frequently speaks of Grizzly Bears and states that three 
were killed and several others seen in one day (July 10, 1834) near 
Blackfoot River. One of those killed had claws "seven inches in 
length," and "the spread of the foot, laterally, was ten inches." They 
were abundant and bold along Snake River, and several were killed. 

Lewis and Clark make frequent mention of Bears in the account of 
their memorable expedition across the continent. During the return 
journey they crossed Idaho along the course of the Kooskooskie (or 
Clearwater) in May and June, 1806. Under date of May 31, when en- 
camped on the lower Clearwater, they made the following important 
entry concerning the Bears of the region : 

" Two men visited the Indian village, where they purchased a dressed 
bear skin of a uniform pale reddish-brown color, which the Indians 
called yackah in contradistinction to hohhost, or the white bear. This 
remark induced us to inquire more particularly into their opinions as 
to the several species of bears ; and we therefore produced all the skins 
of that animal which we had killed at this place, and also one very 
nearly white, which we had purchased. The natives immediately 
classed the white, the deep and the pale grizly red, the grizly dark 
brown, in short, all those with the extremities of the hair of a white or 
frosty color, without regard to the color of the ground of the foil, under 
the name of hohhost. They assured us that they were all of the same 
species with the white bear ; that they associated together, had longer 
nails than the others, and never climbed trees. On the other hand, 
the black skins, those which were black with a number of entire white 
hairs intermixed, or with a white breast, the uniform bay, the brown, 
and light reddish brown, were ranged under the class yackkah, and 
were said to resemble each other in being smaller, and having shorter 
nails than the white bear, in climbing trees, and being so little vicious 
that they could be pursued with safety. This distinction of the Indians 
seems to be well founded, and we are inclined to believe — 

" First. That the white or grizly bear of this neighborhood form a 
distinct species, which moreover is the same with those of the same 
color on the upper part of the Missouri, where the other species are not 
found. 



Jul. Y, 1891] 



MAMMALS OF IDAHO. 



87 



" Second. That the black and reddish brown, etc., is a second species, 
eoually distinct from the white bear of this country as from the black 
bear of the Atlantic and Pacific oceans, which two last seem to form 
only one species. The common black bear are indeed unknown in this 
country, for the bear of which we are speaking, though in most respects 
similar, differs from it in having much finer, thicker, and longer hair, 
with a greater proportion of fur mixed with it, and also in having a 
variety of colours, while the common black bear has no intermixture or 
change of colour, but is of a uniform black." (Lewis and Clark Expd., 
Paul Allen Ed., 11, 1814, 303-304.) 

Becord of specimen collected of Ursus horribilis. 



U. S. National 
Museum No. 


6 

73 

a 

M 

C 


Locality. 


Date. 


Sex. 


"Si 
a 
o 

o 
H 


a 

H 

^> 
<D 

> 

"3 

H 


e 


Skin. 


Skull. 


<2 
-a 

.a 
m 




3127G 


1677 


Salmon River Mountains, Idaho 


Aug. 24, 1890 


cT-- 


1570 


100 





Ursus americanus Pallas. Black Bear. 

Common throughout most parts of Idaho. A large ' Cinnamon' Bear 
was killed near Timber Creek, Salmon River Mountains, while feeding 
on the carcass of a steer. Black Bears are common in the Salmon 
Kiver and Saw Tooth Mountains, where we saw many fresh tracks. In 
1872 a male was killed at Henry Lake by the Haydeu Survey (skull 
No. 12398, U. S. Nat. Mus.). 

Lewis and Clark's remarks on the Black Bear are quoted under the 
preceding species. 

Record of specimens collected of Ursus americanus. 



V. S. National 
Museum No. 


6 
'A 

73 

a 

M 

o 

1593 
L678 


Locality. 


Date. 


Sex. 


tii 

a 

o 
H 


8 
u 

V 

u 
e 

V 

'3 
H 





Skin. 


Skull. 


<2 

T3 

a 

5 




30728 
31277 


Lost River Mountains, Idaho 

Salmon River Mountains, Idaho 


Aug. 1,1890 
A ug. 21,1890 































ANNOTATED LIST OF BIRDS OBSERVED IN IDAHO DURING THE SUM- 
MER AND FALL OF 1890, WITH NOTES ON SPECIES PREVIOUSLY 
RECORDED FROM THE STATE. 

[The nomenclature adopted is that of the American Ornithologists' Union.] 



Colyrnbus auritus. Horned Grehe. 

Abundant on Saw Tooth Lake during the latter part of September 
and early October, moving about the lake in pairs, small companies, 
and large flocks. At least 100 were seen October 1. They were unusu- 
ally free from suspicion, coming so near shore as to be easily killed, and 
GO were counted from camp at one time. 

Urinator imber. Loon. 

One seen on Saw Tooth Lake, October 2. It seemed inquisitive about 
our camp tire and several times came within easy gunshot range. 

Larus (californicus?). Gall. 

1 saw a Gull, believed to be this species, on Salmon River, near Chal- 
lis, September 20. 

Sterna forsteri. Forster'a Tern. 

Not observed by our party. In 1872 I secured a pair of Forster's Terns 
on Marsh Creek, in southern Idaho, June 30. 

Phalacracorax dilophus cincinatus. White-crested Cormorant. 

Several Cormorants, probably this form, were seen at Lewis Ferry, 
on Snake River, October 11. 

Pelecanus erythrorhynchos. White Pelican. 

Not seen by our party. Found at Henry Lake in 1872 by the Ilayden 
Survey, and on Bear River in 1834 by Townsend (Towuseud's Narrative, 
1839, p. 82). The name 'Pelican Lake,' near the southeastern cor- 
ner of the map of Idaho, implies the presence of this species at that 
point. 

Merganser serrator. Red-breasted Merganser. 

Several small flocks seen on Saw Tooth Lake. 
Anas boschas. Mallard. 

Breeds commonly on Birch Creek, where young unable to fly were 
killed the first week in August. Tolerably common on most of the 
streams visited during the latter part of August and throughout Sep- 
tember. Several were shot on Birch Creek and Lemhi River in early 

89 



90 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. lNo.5. 

Septemoer, and six on Saw Tooth or Altnras Lake October 4. There 
were large flocks of ducks on the lake at the time, but we could not be 
sure of the species. 

In 1872 I obtained young Mallards on Henry Fork of Snake River 
the middle of July. Townsend recorded the Black Duck (Anas obscura) 
from southeastern Idaho in 1834, but undoubtedly mistook the female 
Mallard for that species. 
Anas strepera. Gad wall. 

Not found by our party. In 1872 I found the Gadwall at Marsh 
Creek and Market Lake, and procured its eggs at the former locality in 
June. 
Anas americana. Baldpate. 

One shot and several others seen on Lemhi River August 31, and two 
shot on Saw Tooth or Alturas Lake October 2. Three were killed on 
some warm springs in the canon of Snake River, near Shoshone Falls, 
October 9. 
Anas carolinensis. Green-winged Teal. 

Abundant in small flocks along most of the streams in the valleys of 
Birch Creek and Lemhi, Big and Little Lost Rivers, the Pahsimeroi, Big 
Wood, and Salmon Rivers. The Green-winged Teal breeds in the 
small streams in the mountains and moves down into the valleys during 
the latter part of the summer. Fifteen were shot in a few minutes on 
Bullberg Creek, at the head of Pahsimeroi Valley, September 12. When 
wounded they dive among the roots of the willows bordering the 
streams and are hard to find. Three were killed in the canon of Snake 
River, October 10, in a small flock of Blue- winged Teal. 

Anas discors. Bine-winged Teal. 

One was killed near the sink of Little Lost River, July 27. Two 
were shot and others seen on Saw Tooth Lake about October 1, and 
several were shot on the warm springs in the lava caiion of Snake River, 
near Shoshone Falls, October 9-11. 

Anas cyanoptera. Cinnamon Teal. 

Not obtained by our party. June 29, 1872, I collected a nest con- 
taining nine eggs of this species at Marsh Creek, in southeastern Idaho. 

Spatula clypeata. Shoveller. 

Not observed by us, but recorded by Townsend from Bear River, in 
southeastern Idaho, more than half a century ago (Townseud's Narra- 
tive, 1838, p. 82). 
Aythya americana. Redhead. 

One shot on Saw Tooth Lake, September 27. 

Branta canadensis. Canada Goose. 

Not observed by our party. In July 1834, J. K. Townsend found this 
species near Snake River, in eastern Idaho (Townsend's Narrative, 1839, 
99). Geese are common in northern Idaho. 



July, 1891] BIRDS OF IDAHO. 91 

Olor buccinator. Trumpeter Swan. 

Capt. Charles E. Bendire informs me that he found the Trumpeter 
Swan breeding on Henry Lake, Idaho, in 1877. In August of that year, 
during the Nez Perce campaigu, he observed several broods of young on 
the lake and shot two. 

In 1872, when on the Hayden Survey, I procured two Trumpeter 
Swans near Jackson Lake, on Snake River, in Western Wyoming, Sep- 
tember 23 (Nos. 62367 and 62368, U. S. National Museum). 

Ardea herodias. Great Bine Heron. 

Common on Snake Eiver in July and August. Several were seen on 
Birch Creek in August, one on Salmon River, near Challis, September 
20, and another on Snake River in October. 

Grus mexicana. Sandhill Crane. 

Several Sandhill Cranes were heard on a large meadow near the lower 
end of Saw Tooth Lake, September 26. 

In 1872 the species was common along Henry Fork of Snake River 
early in August. Lewis and Clark found it along the Clearwater in 
May, 1806. Capt. Charles E. Bendire informs me that the Sandhill 
Crane breeds on Craig's Mountains, near Fort Lapwai, Idaho, where he 
found young in June, 1871 ; and that he found eggs on an island in 
Snake River, near Old's Ferry, in May, 1877. 

Townsend stated in the narrative of his overland journey to Oregon 
in 1834 that he found the Whooping Crane on Bear River in southeast- 
ern Idaho, but I do not feel justified in inserting the species without 
additional authority. 

Porzana Carolina. Sora. 

One seen and others heard in a marsh on Big Lost River, about 8 
miles above Arco, July 26. 

Fulica americana. Coot. 

Two shot on Saw Tooth Lake, October 2. 

Phalaropus lobatus. Northern Phalarope. 

One shot and another seen by Mr. Basil Hicks Butcher on a small 
alpine lake at timber line in the Salmon River Mountains, September 5. 

Phalaropus tricolor. Wilson's Phalarope. 

Not observed by our party. In 1872 I shot a Wilson's Phalarope in 
Marsh Valley, southeastern Idaho, June 30. 

Recurvirostra americana. Avocet. 

Mr. Dutcher saw a bird on Saw Tooth Lake the latter part of Septem- 
ber which he believed to be an Avocet. 
In 1872 1 found the species on Henry Fork of Snake River in July. 

Himantopus mexicanus. Black-necked Stilt. 

Capt. Chas. E. Bendire tells me he found this species on Snake River, 
near Old's Ferry, in July, 1877. 



92 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. (No. 5. 

Gallinago delicata. Wilson's Snipe. 

One shot and others seen on Salmon River, nearChallis, September 20. 
Ereunetes occidentalis. Western Sandpiper. 

A tiock of fifteen seen and several killed on Big Lost River, near 
Arco, July 25. 
Totanus solitarius. Solitary Sandpiper. 

A few were seen on Lemhi River and Birch Creek, and one on the 
muddy bank of a beaver pond in the Salmon River Mountains. 
Symphemia semipalmata inornata. Western Willet. 

In 1872 I shot a Willet on Henry Fork of Snake River, July 16. It 
breeds abundantly at Great Salt Lake. 
Actitis macularia. Spotted Sandpiper. 

Tolerably common on Birch Creek and Lemhi River. Captain Ben- 
dire found it breeding near Fort Lapwai, Idaho (Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. 
Hist, xix, 1877, 141). 
Numenius longirostris. Long-billed Curlew. 

About the middle of July Mr. Bailey saw three adults and a half- 
fledged .young near the point where the Blackfoot River emerges from 
the mountains. He says that the young was half covered with feathers 
and half down, that it looked like a small ostrich, and ran very fast. 

In 1872 1 found the Long-billed Curlew common in places on the Sage 
Plains from southern Idaho to Henry Fork of Suake River. Captain 
Beudire records it as breeding near Fort Lapwai " on the high and dry 
prairies several miles from the nearest water." (Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. 
Hist., xix, 1877, p. 141.) 
.ffigialitis vocifera. Killdeer. 

Common along Snake and Blackfoot Rivers aud in Lemhi and Birch 
Creek valleys, and also in the valley of Big Wood or Malade River. 
Several were seen about the warm spriugs in the lava canon of Snake 
River, near Shoshone Falls, October 9-11. 
Colinus virginianus. Bob-white. 

The Eastern Quail or Bob-white has been introduced successfully 
near Boise City, Idaho. In the Auk for July, 1885 (p. 315), Dr. Timothy 
E. Wilcox, Assistant Surgeon, U. S. Army, published the following : 

"The Bob White (Ortyx virginianus) has been successfully introduced 
to the Boise Valley, Idaho. Three years since, I found a covey on the 
west side of the Snake River, fifty miles below Boise City, where they 
were first liberated. I never saw coveys so large or numerous as I 
found them about Boise. Cover and food, as well as climate, are all 
favorable." 

In the American Field of February 16, 1889, p. 148, Mr. Newton 
Hibbs, of Boise City, states : 

" Twelve years ago the business men of Boise valley secured a coop 



July, 1891] BIRDS OF IDAHO. 93 

of the little beauties from the East aud gave them the liberty of the 
brushy borders of the wheat fields and the willows along the creeks 
and rivers. They have increased till now they are found in every suit- 
able ground for fifty miles around. The meadows and grainfields are 
bordered by the finest kind of cover. There is no heavy timber in this 
valley ; only cottonwoods and balms on the water courses, with a very 
jungle of briarberry bushes on every hand." 

Dendragapus obscurus richardsonii. Richardson's Grouse ; Blue Grouse. 

Abundant in the coniferous forests of the Saw Tooth, Pahsimeroi, and 
Salmon River Mountains. It was usually found in small flocks, in which 
young birds predominated. This Grouse feeds extensively on a yellow- 
ish-red currant or gooseberry, and was sometimes found on open hill- 
tops engaged in catching grasshoppers. The crops of those killed con- 
tained grasshoppers and a few other insects, berries ot Arctostaphylos 
uva-ursi aud Ribes cereum, besides green leaves of the willow and other 
bushes. 

In 1872 I found this Grouse common along the upper part of Henry 
Fork of Snake River in early August. 

Capt. Charles E. Bendire informs me that the Pacific coast form of 
this Grouse (Dendragapus o. fuUyinosus) occurs in the Boise Mountains 
aud in the foothills of the Wiser Valley Mountains, aud that specimens 
from the mountains near Fort Lapwai may be referred to the same 
form. 
Dendragapus franklini. Franklin's Grouse. 

Said to occur in the Saw Tooth Mountains, where it is known as the 

'Fool Hen,' and to be common in northern Idaho. 
Bonasa umbellus togata. Canadian Ruffed Grouse. 

Several Ruffed Grouse were killed in the Salmon River Mountains, 
near Eight-Mile Canon, September I. The species was not seen else- 
where. 

Pediocaetes phasianellus columbianus. Columbian Sharp-tailed Grouse. 

The only Sharp-tailed Grouse seen during the entire season was killed 
in a flock of Sage Hens near the Lemhi Indian Agency, August 31. 

In 1872 I found it near Fort Hall and on Portneuf aud Snake Rivers. 
Captain Bendire states: "In the winter I have seeu flocks of from one 
to two hundred iu the vicinity of Fort Lapwai, Idaho." (Proc. Bost. 
Soc. Nat. Hist., xix, 1877, p. 139.) 

Centrocercus urophasianus. Sage Grouse. 

Abundant throughout the sage plains and valleys, usually occurring 
in flocks of a dozen or more. This species furnished us with fresh meat 
during the greater part of the trip. While the flesh of the adults was 
usually more or less flavored with sage, the young, as a rule, were free 
from this taste. 

In 1872 1 found Sago Hens common in Teton Basin, along Henry 
Fork of Snake River, aud at Henry Lake, 



94 NOKTH AMERICAN FAUNA. |No.5. 

Zenaidura macroura. Mourning Dove. 

Common everywhere until October ; afterward rarely seen. Three 
nests containing two eggs each were found on the ground near Black- 
foot about the middle of July. 

Cathartes aura. Turkey Vulture. 

Common along Snake Eiver in July ; three seen on Big Lost River, 
near Arco, July 25; common about the sink of Birch Creek during the 
early part of August ; a few seen at the Lemhi Indian Agency, several 
in the Pahsimeroi and Challis Valleys, and others along Snake Biver, 
and thence south into Nevada. 

Mr. Bidgway records this species from 'City of Bocks,' southern 
Idaho, October 3, 1868 (Bull. Essex Inst., vol. vn, 1875, p. 24). 

Circus hudsonius. Marsh Hawk. 

Common along the Lemhi and Birch Creek Valleys, and in the val- 
leys of Little Lost, Pahsimeroi, Salmon, and Snake Bivers. An imma- 
ture male shot in Lemhi Valley September 6 was more than half blue. 
Its stomach contained a Chipmunk (Tamias minimus pictus). Other 
stomachs examined contained remains of Spermophilus townsendi and 
Neosorex. One was seen at Saw Tooth Lake about October 1. 

Capt. Charles E. Beudire found the eggs of this species near Fort 
Lapwai, June 15, 1871 (Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist., vol. xix, 1877, p. 
134). 
Accipiter velox. Sharp-shinned Hawk. 

Tolerably common in the wooded regions. A young male shot in 
the Salmon Biver Mountains, August 28, contained a Black-capped 
Warbler (Sylvania pusilla pileolata). One was seen as late as October 
10 at Shoshone Falls on Snake Biver. 

Accipiter cooperi. Cooper's Hawk. 

A few seen in the mountains and in the valley of Birch Creek and 
the Lemhi. Captain Beudire states that he has found it breeding about 
Fort Lapwai, Idaho (Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist., xix, 1877, 135). 

Accipiter atricapillus. Goshawk. 

Common in the Salmon Biver and Saw Tooth Mountains, where sev- 
eral were killed. One was caught at Saw Tooth Lake in a marten trap 
baited with a Richardson's Squirrel, and one was shot in Birch Creek 
Valley in the act of chasing chickens. 

Buteo borealis calurus. Western Red-tail. 

Common along Big Lost Biver below Arco the latter part of July. 
A number of empty nests were seen iu the cotton woods bordering the 
river, and young of the year were flying about. The stomach of one 
contained a Spermophilus townsendi. Bather rare elsewhere. 

Buteo swainsoni. Swainson's Hawk. 

Rather rare ; one was killed 15 miles below Arco, July 22 ; a pair of 
old birds and a young just out of the nest were found on Birch Cregk 



July,1891.J BIRDS OF IDAHO. 95 

during the early part of August; an adult was observed catching 
grasshoppers on a bluff' near Fort Lemhi in September, and still another 
near the head of the Pahsimeroi. 

In 1872 I found a nest of Swainson's Hawk near Fort Hall, July 9. 
It was in a scrub cedar, and contained one young bird and one egg. 

Aquila chrysaetos. Golden Eagle. 

Two or three Golden Eagles were observed at different times in the 
Salmon Eiver Mountains and in Lemhi and Birch Creek Valleys. 

Haliaeetus leucocephalus. Bald Eagle. 

An adult White-headed Eagle was seen at Saw Tooth Lake, October 
1, and another at Shoshone Falls on Snake Eiver, October 10. 

Falco mexicanus. Prairie Falcon. 

Mr. Bailey found this species breeding in cliffs in the Blackfoot 
Mountains the early part of July, and shot one in the act of chasing a 
chicken in the lower part of Birch Creek August 7 ; its stomach con- 
tained a Horned Lark (Otocoris). A hawk supposed to be this species 
was seen in the upper part of the Pahsimeroi Valley, September 12. 
Several were seen on the lower part of Big Lost River about July 22. 

In Birch Creek Valley they breed on lava cliffs, and were often seen 
chasiug Teal up and down the creek. 

Falco sparverius. Sparrow Hawk. 

Common everywhere, feeding chiefly on grasshoppers. During the 
last week in July these hawks were observed feeding their young in 
the Lost River Mountains. 
Pandion haliaetus carolinensis. Fish Hawk ; Osprey. 

Two or three Fish Hawks were seen flying south along the valley of 
Bircb Creek the latter part of August; several were noticed on Salmon 
Eiver between Challis and the mouth of the Pahsimeroi September 18-20; 
and the species was observed several times at Saw Tooth Lake the last 
week in September. There is a Fish Hawk's nest at Shoshone Falls on 
Snake River. It occupies the summit of a pinnacle of black basalt 
that rises from the water close to the top of the fall, on the south side. 
We were told that the nest was used the past season. 

In 1872 I found a nest of this species on Henry Fork of Snake River, 
and Capt. Charles E. Bendire found a nest near Fort Lapwai in 3870 
(Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist., xix, 1877,131). 

Asio wilsonianus. Loug-eared Owl. 

Mr. Clark P. Streator killed a female Long-eared Owl as she flew from 
a cave in the lava beds west of Blackfoot, July 17. 

In 1872 I shot a female on Devil Creek, June 28. Capt. Charles E. 
Bendire says that this owl at Fort Lapwai, Idaho, occupies old nests 
of Crows, and also breeds in hollow cottonwood trees (Proc. Bost. Soc. 
Nat. Hist., vol. xix, 1877, p. 131). 



96 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. [No. 5. 

Asio accipitrinus. Short-eared Owl. 

Not observed by us. Capt. Charles E. Bendire says of the Short- 
eared Owl: "This species breeds about Fort Lapwai, Idaho, where I 
took two of their nests on May 1 and 6, 1871. Both were found in 
swampy places, and constructed of dry grasses and a few feathers " 
(Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist., vol. xix, 1877, p. 131). 

Megascops flammeolus idahoensis subsp. nov. Dwarf Screech Owl. 

The only specimen procured of this new owl was shot on a mountain 
on the west side of Big Wood River, only a few miles north of Ketchum, 
September 22. It may be distinguished from the Flamtuulated Owl by 
the following description : 

MEGASCOPS FLAMMEOLUS IDAHOENSIS subsp. nov. 
(Plate I, colored.) 

Type No. 119654 $ ad. U. S. National Museum (Department of Agriculture col- 
lection). From Ketchum, Idaho, September 22, 1890. Collected by C. Hart 
Merriam and Vernon Bailey. 

Similar to M. flammeolus, but smaller and paler. Wing, 125 mm ; 
tail, 62 mm (measured from insertion of middle feathers). The back is 
only slightly paler than in flammeolus ; the under parts are very much 
paler, the ground color being white and the vermiculations distant ; 
the black markings are everywhere restricted. The facial ring is bright 
tawny ochraceous, and spreads out above so as to completely encircle 
the eyes ; the cheeks are ash-gray and the chin white. The dusky 
spots in the facial ring are inconspicuous ; in true flammeolus they are 
strongly developed, sometimes forming a black ring which is merely 
tinged with tawny. The black spots on the sides are very much reduced 
in size, and seem to be arranged in a single row. 
Bubo virginianus subarcticus. Western Horned Owl. 

Capt. Charles E. Bendire tells me that he shot this subspecies in 1871 
at Fort Lapwai, Idaho, where it breeds, and also at Fort Sherman, 
CoBur d'Alene Lake, in 1880. 

Bubo virginianus saturatus. Dusky Horned Owl. 

Common in the Salmon River and Saw Tooth Mountains. One was 
caught in a steel trap baited with ducks' heads and wings at Saw Tooth 
Lake, September 30. It could not have been very hungry when it got 
into the trap for its stomach contained two Pocket Gophers ( Thomomys), 
one White-footed Mouse (Hesperomys), one Field Mouse or Vole (Ar- 
vicola), and a new species of Phenacomys. 
Nyctea nyctea. Snowy Owl. 

A mounted specimen of the Snowy Owl was seen at the post-office 
at Birch Creek, and another in a ranch near by. We were informed 
that they were killed there in winter. 

The Hawk Owl (Sumia tylula caparoch) unquestionably breeds in 
northern Idaho. August 11 , 1872, I shot one on Madison River, Mon T 
tana, only a few miles from #}e Idaho boundary. 



July, 1891. J BIRDS OF IDAHO. 97 

Speotyto cunicularia hypogaea. Burrowing Owl. 

Rare. A few were seen near Blackfoot in July, sitting at the mouths 
of old badger holes ; and one was killed at Big Butte, July 18. Its 
stomach contained insects and several small scorpions. 

Iu 18715 I collected specimens of this owl in Malade Valley and Port- 
ueuf Canon, and at Fort Hall. Capt. Charles E. Bendire states that 
they are abundant at Fort Lapwai, Idaho, where he obtained a num- 
ber of their eggs. (Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist., vol. xix, 1877, p. 132.) 

Ceryle alcyon. Belted Kingfisher. 

Common along Snake River and most of the streams visited, and also 
about some of the beaver ponds and the lakes at the east foot of the 
Saw Tooth Mountains. 

Dryobates villosus hyloscopus. Cabanis's Woodpecker. 

Tolerably common in the spruce and fir forests of the Salmon River 
and Saw Tooth Mountains, and in the upper part of Wood River Val- 
ley j a few were seen among the trees along Birch Creek. 

Dryobates pubescens. Downy Woodpecker. 

One seen in some burnt timber in the upper part of Wood River 
Valley. 

Xenopicus albolarvatus. White-headed Woodpecker. 

I am informed by the Rev. Leroy T. Weeks that this handsome wood- 
pecker is a common breeder at Graugeville, near Mount Idaho, not far 
from the western border of Idaho. Captain Bendire has recorded the 
species as breeding in the pine forests of the Blue Mountains in eastern 
Oregon, a locality not far distaut from Graugeville, Idaho. 
Picoides arcticus. Arctic Three-toed Woodpecker. 

A male was shot at Saw Tooth Lake, October 3, by Basil Hicks 
Dutcher. 

Picoides americanus dorsalis. Alpine Three-toed Woodpecker. 

One was shot and several others seen in the Salmon River Mountains. 
Ceophlceus pileatus. Pileated Woodpecker. 

Rare. A fine male Pileated Woodpecker was shot by Mr. Bailey in 
the Salmon River Mountains, near Birch Creek, August 19. No others 
were seen. Rev. Leroy T. Weeks writes me that the species occurs 
near Mount Idaho, but is rare. 

Melanerpes torquatus. Lewis's Woodpecker. 

Not observed during the present season. In 1872 [ found it common 
on Henry Fork of Snake River about the middle of July and secured 
three specimens. J. K. Towuseud found this species along Bear River 
in extreme southeastern Idaho in July, 1834 (Townsend's Narrative, 
1839, p. 82). Capt. Charles E. Bendire tells me that it breeds commonly 
about Fort Lapwai, Idaho. 
2G789— No. 5 7 



98 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. lNo.5. 

Colaptes cafer. Red-shafted Flicker. 

A few were seen along Snake River, near Blaekfoot, in July, and at 
Big Butte, several aloug the lower part of Big Lost River, and many 
in the Lost River Mountaius. A few were seen afterward in the Sal- 
mon River and Saw Tooth Mountains, the latter as late as the first 
week in October. Several were seen in the lava canon of Suake River, 
near Shoshone Falls, October 9-11. 
Phaleenoptilus nuttalli. Poor-will. 

One was killed on the lava beds west of Blaekfoot, July 17, by Mr. 
Basil Hicks Dutcher ; and the species was heard in a caiion in the Lost 
River Mountaius the last week in July. A single individual was seen 
in Birch Creek Valley early in August. 

The first eggs of this species ever discovered were collected by me in 
the western foothills of the Wahsatch Mountains, June 12, 1872. 

Chordeiles virginianus henryi. Western Nightkawk. 

Tolerably common on the sage plains and valleys. Mr. Dutcher found 
a set of eggs uear Blaekfoot, July 14, and a downy young was taken 
at Arco, July 25. , 

Trochilus platycercus. Broad-tailed Hummingbird. 

A female was killed at Big Butte, July 19. 

Trochilus sp. 

A large Hummer, showing much rufous in flying, was seen several 
times along the lower part of Big Lost River and in Lemhi aud Birch 
Creek Valleys. 
Tyrarmus tyrannus. Kingbird. 

Common in July along Snake River, near Blaekfoot, aloug Cedar 
Creek in the Blaekfoot Mountains, and along the lower part of Big Lost 
River. Common along Birch Creek about the middle of August (sev- 
eral seen August 21). 

In 1872 Kingbirds were common at Fort Hall and along Suake River 
and Henry Fork. I found a nest containing nearly fledged young on 
Blaekfoot River, July 12, and one containing three fresh eggs on Snake 
River two days later. 
Tyrannus verticalis. Arkansas Kingbird. 

One seen at Big Butte and several along Big Lost River in July. 

In 1872 I found it common along Devil Creek, in southeastern Idaho, 
and secured two nests containing eggs June 28. 

Capt. Charles E. Bendire says of this flycatcher : 

"At Fort Lapwai, Idaho, this species was very familiar and tame, 
several pairs breeding about the buildings of the post. One pair 
placed its nest on the sill of one of the attic windows of my quarters " 
(Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist., vol. xix, 1877, p. 127). 
Sayornis saya. Say's Phcebe. 

Common in the lower Lemhi Valley. Capt. Charles E. Bendire says 
of Say's Pewee : 

"At Fort Lapwai, Idaho, I found several of their nests about the 



July. 1891.1 BIRDS OF IDAHO. ifJJ 

buildings iii the post, iii fissures of rocks, aud in old Cliff Swallows' 
nests. I have taken their eggs as early as April 17, 1871, containing 
then small embryos " (Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist., xix, 1877, p. 127). 
Contopus borealis. Olive-sided Flycatcher. 

Not observed by our party. In 1872 I shot two Olive-sided Fly- 
catchers in Teton Canon, near the boundary between Idaho and Wy- 
oming, July 27. 
Contopus richardsoni. Western Wood Pewee. 

Found in the Salmon River Mountains during the early part of Au- 
gust. Not seen after the middle of the mouth. This species was col- 
lected by me in Teton Canon, in eastern Idaho, July 27, 1872. 

Empidcnax pusillus. Little Flycatcher. 

One was killed along the lower part of Big Lost River in July, and 
two on Birch Creek in August (August 4, $ ; August 15, 9 ). In 1872 
1 shot one of these flycatchers on Devil Creek, June 28. 

Empidonax wrightii. Wright's Flycatcher. 

One was killed on Birch Creek, August 4. 
Otocoris alpestris areuicola. Desert Horned Lark. 

Abundant throughout the sage plains and valleys. Adult males 
killed in July and August closely resemble the eastern subspecies, 
praticola, but the immature aud spotted young are widely different, 
being very pale, while those of praticola are very dark. 

Pica pica hudsonica. Magpie. 

One of the most abundant and conspicuous birds of Idaho, occurriug 
throughout the sage plains and valleys and extending up into the 
lower part of the Douglas fir zone. A dozen or more were often seen 
together aud it was not unusual to count 20 or even 25 in sight at one 
time. Magpies were common at Saw Tooth Lake after snowfall in 
October, and undoubtedly winter in the neighborhood. Four were 
caught in our marten traps. They feed on carrion when other food 
is scarce, if not by preference. Half a dozen were seen perched on 
the body of a dead salmon in shallow water in Salmon River, near 
the mouth of the Pahsimeroi, September 18. They were hard at work 
tearing off and devouring the flesh. Several were seen in the canon 
of Snake River at Shoshone Falls, October 9-11, and thence south to 
the East Humboldt River, Nevada, every day until October 17, when 
the expedition disbanded. 

In 1872 I fouud Magpies common in Portneuf Canon, at Pocotello, at 
Fort Hall, and on Snake River. 
Cyanocitta stelleri annectens. Long-crested Jay. 

Very rare. One was seen in the Salmon River Mountains, one near 
the Lemhi Indian Agency, one in the upper part of Wood River Val- 
ley, and three were seen and two secured near Saw Tooth Lake. 

In 1872 1 found this jay common in the Teton Basin, near the boun- 
dary line between Idaho and Wyoming. 



100 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. lNo.5. 

Aphelocoma woodhousei. Wooclbouse's Jay. 

Not met with by our expedition. Recorded by Mr. Ridgway as abun- 
dant in cedar and pinon at 'City of Rocks, 'in extreme southern Idaho, 
October 3, 1868 (Bull. Essex. Inst., vol. vn, No. 1, January, 1875, p. 
24). 
Perisoreus canadensis capitalis. Rocky Mountain Jay. 

Tolerably common in the spruce and fir belt of the Salmon River 
Mountains, and also about the divide between Big Lost River and 
Trail Creek. Half a dozen were caught in marten traps in the Saw 
Tooth Mountains. 

In July, 1872, I fouud this jay in numbers in Teton Caiion. 
Corvus corax sinuatus. Raven. 

Common along the lava canon of Snake River, and seen occasionally 
on the Snake Plains and in Birch Creek Valley and the valleys of the 
Pahsimcroi and Salmon Rivers. Two were seen at Castle Rock, on the 
plains south of Snake River, and a number along the north base of the 
Brunneau and Elk Mountains near the boundary between Idaho and 
Nevada. A flock of about 40 Ravens was seen at Humboldt Wells, Ne- 
vada, October 17. 

Mr. Ridgway found Ravens common at ' City of Rocks/ near the 
southern border of Idaho, October 3, 1868 (Bull. Essex. Inst., vn, 1875, 
p. 24). 
Corvus americanus. Crow. 

Common in Lemhi Valley, particularly at a point a few miles north 
of Junction, in August and early in September. A few were seen at 
Saw Tooth Lake the last week in September. Capt. Charles E. Ben- 
dire tells me that Crows breed commonly in the neighborhood of Fort 
Lapwai, Idaho. 

Picicorvus columbianus. Clark's Nutcracker. 

Common in the spruce belt on all the mountains visited. Several 
were caught in marten traps baited with meat. J. K. Townsend met 
with this species in the mountains near Bear River, in the southeastern 
corner of Idaho, in July, 1834. (Townsend's Narrative, 1839, p. 82.) 
Cyanocephalus cyanocephalus. Piiiou Jay. 

Not found by our party. Mr. Ridgway records the Piiion Jay as 
abundant among cedar and pihou at l City of Rocks' in extreme south- 
ern Idaho, October 3, 1868. (Bull. Essex Inst., vol. vn, No. 1, January 
1875, p. 24.) 
Dolichonyx oryzivorus albinucha. Western Bobolink, 

One seen in an oat field in Lemhi Valley August 31. It was in fall 
plumage. 
Molothrus ater. Cowbird. 

A few seen on Big Lost River and Birch Creek, and one at Big Butte. 
Captain Bendire has found it breeding near the Palouse River in north- 
western Idaho. 



July, 1891. 1 BIRDS OF IDAHO. 101 

Xanthocephalus xanthocephalus. Yellow-headed Blackbird. 

A few Yellow-headed Blackbirds were observed near the sinks of Big 
Lost River late in July, and again September 10— on the latter date in 
flocks of Brewer's Blackbird. 

In 1872 I found it breeding in Marsh Valley in southeastern Idaho, 
and secured a nest containing four nearly fresh eggs June 29. The nest 
was in a clump of rushes li meters (about 5 feet) above the water. 
It was composed of dry swamp grass without lining, and presented the 
same appearance inside as out. (Merriam, Hayden's Report for 1872, 
1873, p. 686.) 
Agelaius phoeniceus. Red-winged Blackbird. 

Two were seen by Mr. Bailey July 12 on Cedar Creek in the foothills 
of the Blackfoot Mountains, and a few late in July on Big Lost River, 
above Arco. 
Sturnella neglecta. Western Meadowlark. 

Common throughout the sage plains and valleys, remaining in con- 
siderable numbers until after snowfall in October. Usually heard sing- 
iug in the early morning. 

Icterus bullocki. Bullock's Oriole. 

A pair seen on Snake River, near Blackfoot, about the middle of July, 
and many in the trees bordering Big Lost River, both above and below 
Arco, the latter part of the same month. 

In 1872 I found Bullock's Oriole breeding abundantly along Devil 
Creek in southeastern Idaho. Captain Bendire records it as an abun- 
dant breeder at Fort Lapwai, where he has seen " as many as five occu- 
pied nests on a single small birch tree." (Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist., 
Vol. xix, 1877, p. 122.) 

Scolecophagus cyanocephalus. Brewer's Blackbird. 

Abundant everywhere along the streams and about ranches and min- 
ing camps. Immense flocks, some containing fully a thousand birds, 
were seen in Lemhi Valley early in September. 

Brewer's Blackbird takes the place of the English Sparrow in the 
West, where it is almost invariably found in barnyards and towns, 
picking crumbs in the streets and dooryards with the utmost familiarity. 

Coccothraustes vespertina montana Ridgway. Evening Grosbeak. 

Capt. Charles E. Bendire informs me that he found Evening Gros- 
beaks about the lakes at the headwaters of the Payette River, in the 
mountains of central Idaho, in July, 1877. He saw the old birds car- 
rying food up into the tall pines. 

Pinicola enucleatcr. Pine Grosbeak. 

Breeds in the Salmon River Mountains and doubtless in most of the 
other high mountains of Idaho. An immature bird was shot and another 
seen near Timber Creek, in the Salmon River Mountains, the last week 
in August; and a red male was shot and six others seen September 5, 
near Eight-Mile Canon, in the same range. 



102 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. IN0.5. 

Carpodacus cassini. C*ssin's Purple Finch. 

Oue shot at timber Hue ou the Salmon River Mountains August 29. 
It was in company with a small flock ofLeucostictes. Others were seen 
near the same place. 

Large flocks of a species of Carpodacus were seen feeding on seeds of 
wild sunflowers near the mouth of Little Lost Eiver, September 10. 

Leucosticte atrata. Black Lencosticte. 

Common high up on the Salmon River Mountains. I shot two imma- 
ture birds above timber line August 29, and saw several small flocks of 
young and adults at various times. 

Spinus triatis. Goldfinch. 

A few seen in July about the foothills of the Blackfoot Mountains. 
Common along Birch Creek about the middle of August. 
In 1872 I found this species common at Fort Hall in October. 

Spinus pinus. Pine Siskin. 

A few were found in the Salmon River Mountains and at Saw Tooth 
Lake. 

In 1872 I found Pine Siskins in numbers at First Cottonwood Creek, 
in Teton Basin, in July, and about Henry Lake early in August. 

Rhynchophanes mccownii. McCown's Longspur. 

An immature female was killed at the sink of Birch Creek August 6, 
by Mr. Bailey. 
Passer domesticus. English Sparrow. 

Mr. Clark P. Streator observed English Sparrows in the railroad 
town of Pocotello early in July. They undoubtedly followed the Utah 
Northern Railway from the valley of Great Salt Lake, where a large 
colony has been established for many years. 
Poocaetes gramineus confinis. Western Vesper Sparrow. 

Common in the sage brush along Snake River, in Birch Creek and 
Lemhi Valleys, and in the Pahsimeroi Valley ; seen also in the valley 
at the head of Salmon River, near Saw Tooth or Alturas Lake, about 
the end of September. 

Ammodramus sandwichensis alaudinus. Western Savanna Sparrow. 

Probably breeds in Birch Creek Valley, where three were killed 
August 4 and August 15. A few were seen in Lemhi Valley late in 
August and in early September. 

In 1872 I saw a flock of these sparrows, and shot one, on a small 
gravel island in Snake River, October 8. 

Chondestes grammacus strigatus. Western Lark Sparrow. 

Not common anywhere. A few were observed near the mouth of 
Little Lost River during the latter part of July, and again Septem- 
ber 10. 
Zonotrichia leucophrys. White-crowned Sparrow. 

Rather common in the Pahsimeroi Mountains the middle of Septem- 
ber; adults in full plumage were killed. 



July, 1891] BIRDS OF IDAHO. 103 

Zonotrichia intermedia. Intermediate Sparrow. 

Common during fall migration. Dozens "were shot at Saw Tooth or 
Alturas Lake for marten bait the last week in September and first few 
days of October. Many were seen in the lava caiion of Snake River at 
Shoshone Falls, October 9-11. 

In 1872 I killed a specimen at Fort Hall, October 13. 
Spizella socialis arizonae. Western Chipping Sparrow. 

Tolerably common about the foothills of the Salmon River Mountains. 
Shot one at the head of Saw Tooth Lake, October 2 ; it was in a small 
flock of Juncos and Zonotrichias. 

In 1872 this species was found on Conant Creek and at Fort Hall, in 
July. 
Spizella breweri. Brewer's Sparrow. 

Common in the sage brush along the Snake Plains, and in Birch 
Creek and Lemhi Valleys. 

In 1872 I found a nest of Brewer's Sparrow in a sage brush on Co- 
nant Creek, Idaho, July 21. It contained three nearly fresh eggs. 
Junco hyemalis shufeldti. Rocky Mountain Junco. 

Common in the mountains during migration ; several seen in the 
canon of Snake River near Shoshone Falls, October 9-11. 

Junco annectens. Pink-sided Junco. 

Spotted young were killed high up in the Salmon River Mountains 
about the middle of August, and adults in fall plumage were found 
low down in the Salmon River and Saw Tooth Mountains later in the 
season. 

Amphispiza belli nevadensis. Sage Sparrow. 

Breeds abundantly throughout the sage plains and in the valleys of 
Birch Creek and Lemhi River, and Big and Little Lost Rivers. It was 
particularly numerous along Snake River in October. 

Melospiza lincolni. Lincoln's Sparrow. 

One shot at an altitude of 2,960 meters (9,700 feet) in the Pahsimeroi 
/Mountains, September IG, and one caught in a small trap set for field 
mice (Arvicola) in marsh grass near the head of Saw Tooth Lake, Sep- 
tember 28. 

Melospiza fasciata montana. Mountain Song Sparrow. 

Common on Cedar Creek in the foothills of the Blackfoot Mountains, 
and a few seen along Snake River about the middle of July. Common 
in the willows along the streams in Lemhi and Birch Creek Valleys in 
August and early September ; several seen and one shot in the lava 
canon of Snake River at Shoshone Falls, October 9-11. 

In 1872 I found this Song Sparrow breeding along Henry Fork of 
Snake River, and secured several specimens at Fort Hall, October 12-14. 
Pipilo chlorurus. Green-tailed Towhee. 

Found in the mountains north of Arco and common in the canons of 
the Lost River Mountains. 

In 1872 I found it breeding on Conant Creek, Henry Fork of Snake 
River, and in Teton Basin. 



104 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. lNo.5, 

Habia melanocephala. Black-headed Grosbeak. 

A few pairs were found breeding in the willows along Snake River 
near Biackfoot, and on the lower part of Big Lost River. 

In 1872 I found it breeding along First Cottonwood Creek in Teton 
Basin, and took a nest there containing two fresh eggs, July 22. Cap- 
tain Bendire reports it as breeding at Fort Lapwai, Idaho ( Proc. Bost. 
Soc. Nat, Hist., XIX, 1877, 121). 

Passerina amcena. Lazuli Bunting. 

Not observed by our party during the present season. In 1872 I 
found it common in the undergrowth bordering some of the streams in 
Teton Basin in July. Capt. Charles B. Bendire states that "in the vi- 
cinity of Fort Lapwai, Idaho, it is one of the most common species 
breeding there "(Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist., xix, 1877, 121). 

Calamospiza melanocorys. Lark Bunting. 

Half a dozen were seen in the sage plains west of Biackfoot, July 
17, and three between Big Butte and Big Lost River, July 21. 
Piranga ludoviciana. Louisiana Tanager. 

Two were seen in the Lost River Mountains the last week in July. 

In 1872 I shot a male on Middle Fork of Snake River, August 4, and 
found the species common in Teton Caiion in July. 
Petrochelidon lunifrons. Cliff Swallow. 

Found breeding on the basaltic walls of the caiion of Biackfoot River 
about the middle of July. Also nests on the lava cliffs about 16 kilo- 
meters (10 miles) south of Nicholia, in Birch Creek Valley, and was ob- 
served at several other places before the middle of August. 

In July, 1872, I found this species in numbers at Fort Hall, and 
secured a nest containing two fresh eggs on Ross Fork, July 3. The 
nest was made of mud, and was fastened to the bank of the stream 2£ 
meters (about 8 feet) above the water. 

Chelidon erythrogaster. Barn Swallow. 

Mr. Bailey saw one near the foot of the Biackfoot Mountains July 12, 
and found a pair breeding at the ranch at Big Butte. A few were seen 
nearly every day in August in Birch Creek and Lemhi Valleys. They 
breed at Scott's ranch, near Nicholia, and at the Lemhi Indian Agency. 

During the early part of July, 1872, I found Barn Swallows in num- 
bers at Fort Hall. 

Tachycineta thalassina. Violet-green Swallow. 

Abundant along Snake River and Big Lost River in July. Common 
in Birch Creek Valley until the middle of August; a few seen after- 
ward. 
Clivicola riparia. Bank Swallow. 

Not noted by our party. In July, 1872, I found a colony of Bauk 
Swallows breeding on Henry Fork of Snake River. 

Ampelis garrulus. Bohemian Waxwing. 

Mr. Dwight J. Kenney, of Fort Lemhi, Idaho, states that the Bohe- 
mian Waxwing is common in winter in Lemhi Valley, and reminded me 



July, 1891.] BIRDS OF IDAHO. 105 

of the circumstance that he sent me a specimen for identification sev- 
eral years ago, which fact I well remember. 
Ampelis cedrorum. Cedar Wax wing. 

Capt. Charles E. Bendire tells me that in 1871 he found the Cedar 
Waxwing breeding commonly about Fort Lapwai, Idaho, where he col- 
lected two of their nests June 19, and another June 26. 
Lanius borealis. Northern Shrike. 

The Great Northern Shrike was first seen October 16 near Mary River, 
in northern Nevada. Three individuals were observed on this day, and 
another near Humboldt Wells the day following. The latter was in 
pursuit of a small bird. 

October 12, 1872, I shot a Shrike of this species at Fort Hall, the 
only one seen during the season. 
Lanius ludovicianus excubitorides. White-rumpecl Shrike. 

Rather common along Snake River, near Blackfoot, in July; a few 
seen near Big Butte, along Big Lost River, and at the actual sink of 
Birch Creek. Rare elsewhere. One seen near Eagle Rock, August 
21; one ill Little Lost River Valley September 11, and another in the 
Pahsimeroi Valley September 17. 

October 13, 1872, I shot a White-rumped Shrike at Fort Hall. 

Vireo gilvus swainsoni. Western Warbling Vireo. 

Common in the Lost River Mountains the last week of July, at which 
time the young were just out of the nest. Two were killed near the 
lower edge of the Douglas fir zone in the Salmon River Mountains in 
August. 
Vireo solitarius cassini. Cassin's Vireo. 

Capt. Charles E. Bendire informs me that he found Cassin's Vireo 
breeding at Fort Lapwai, Idaho, in June, 1871. 
Helminthophila celata. Orange-crowned Warbler. 

Mr. Clark P. Streator killed one in the Salmon River Mountaius, 
August 22, and I think I saw several others near the same place. 

Dendroica aestiva. Yellow Warhler. 

Common along Snake River near Blackfoot, and along Big Lost River 
in July ; and in willows along Birch Creek and Lemhi River in August. 

Dendroica auduboni. Audubon's Warhler. 

Bieeds abundantly throughout the Salmon River and Saw Tooth 
Mountains, coming down into the valleys in September. Two were 
seen in the canon of Snake River near Shoshone Falls, October 0-11. 

Geothlypis macgillivrayi. Macgillivray's Warhler. 

Common and breeding in the Lost River Mountains in July; and 
common in Birch Creek Valley about the middle of August. 

Geothlypis trichas occidentalis. Western Yellowthroafc. 

Captain Bendire informs me that the Western Yellowthroat breeds at 
Fort Lapwai, Idaho, where he took a nest with 4 eggs June 18, and 
one with 5 eggs June 23, 1871. 



106 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. [No. 5. 

Icteria virens longicauda. Long- tailed Chat. 

Common in canon of Cedar Creek in the foothills of the Blackfoot 
Mountains about the middle of July, and called Mockingbird by the 
ranchmen (Bailey). 

In 1872 I shot a male on Devil's Creek, June 28. Capt. Charles E. 
Bendire informs me that the Long-tailed Chat breeds commonly in the 
neighborhood of Fort Lapwai, Idaho. 

Sylvania pusilla pileolata. Pileolated Warbler. 

Abundant in the willows along Birch Creek and Lemhi Valley, and 
in the undergrowth in the mountains during the latter part of August. 
Anthus pensilvanicus. Titlark ; Pipit. 

Breeds on the Salmon River Mountains and doubtless also on the other 
high mountains of Idaho. During the latter half of September and 
early October it was the most abundant species on the sage plains, on 
many days outnumbering all other species together. 

Cinclus mexicanus. Dipper ; Water Ouzel. 

Found on many of the mountain streams in the Pahsimeroi and Saw 
Tooth Mountains, and seen also in the lava canon of Snake River in 
October. Several were seen on Trail Creek and on Wood River— one 
within 1£ kilometers (about a mile) of the town of Ketchum. The spe- 
cies was not observed by our party in the Salmon River Mountains, 
though it was said to occur there and to winter along Birch Creek and 
the Lemhi River. It was common on the west Fork of the Pahsimeroi, 
where I found a beautiful nest in a nichein the face of a rock cliff at the 
side of a series of cascades. The nest was a sub globular mass of moss 
with the entrance fronting the stream, and could not be reached from 
any direction. While lunching on Trail Creek one day during the lat- 
ter part of September, an Ouzel was observed wading and diving in the 
rapids. I dipped a cupful of water and tossed it in the air; as it fell 
splashing on the stream he immediately flew to the spot and seemed 
disappointed that the commotion was so soon over. At Saw Tooth 
Lake an Ouzel surprised us by running around the head of the lake* 
on the sand beach. 

Oroscoptes montanus. Sage Thrasher. 

Common throughout the sage-covered plains and valleys. Killed as 
far north as Junction, in Lemhi Valley, and as late as September 7 in 
Birch Creek Valley. 
Galeoscoptes carolinensis. Catbird. 

A few were seen along Snake River near Blackfoot, and in Cedar 
Creek Canon in the foothills of the Blackfoot Mountains, during the 
early part of July (and two specimens were preserved). One was seen 
on Big Lost River about 24 kilometers (15 miles) below Arco the latter 
part of July. 

Salpinctes obsoletus. Rock Wren. 

Common on the rocky summits of most of the mountains visited, and 
occurring lower down wherever suitable rocky places were found. Seen 
in Snake River Canon in October. 



July, 1891.] BIRDS OF IDAHO. 107 

Catherpes mexicanus conspersus. Cafiou Wren. 

Observed in the lava canon of Snake River, near Shoshone Falls, 
early in October. 

Troglodytes aedon aztecus. Western House Wren. 

A nest containing full grown young was found in the bridge over 
Snake River at Blackfoot about July 10. Specimens were obtained 
also on Big Lost River. 

In July, 1872, I found this species common on Henry Fork of Snake 
River, and on Middle Fork, and found its nest in the latter locality 
July 20. " It was in the hollow of a small tree that had broken off 
about 3 meters (10 feet) high and still rested against its stump. The 
nest contained five young birds." (Merriara, Sixth Annual Report, Hay- 
den Survey, 1873, 673-G74.) 
Troglodytes hiemalis. Winter Wren. 

One seen in the Saw Tooth Mountains, October 1. 
Cistothorus palustris. Long-hilled Marsh Wren. 

Common in a patch of cattails in the canon of Snake River at Sho- 
shone Falls early in October; not seen elsewhere. 

October 11, 1872, I shot one of these wrens and saw several others 
in a small marsh near Fort Hall. 
Certhia familaris montana. Rocky Mountain Creeper. 

One shot ami several others seen at Saw Tooth Lake. 
Sitta carolinensis aculeata. Slender-billed Nuthatch. 

One shot at Saw Tooth Lake, and a few seen in the Salmon River and 
Lost River Mountains. 

Sitta canadensis. Red-breasted Nuthatch. 

One shot and two others seen in the Salmon River Mountains near 
Junction. 

Parus atricapillus septentrionalis. Long-tailed Chickadee. 

Common among the willows bordering the small streams in Lemhi 
and Birch Creek Valleys. Captain Bendire tells me that this Chicka- 
dee breeds commonly about Fort Lapwai, Idaho. 
Parus gambeli. Mountain Chickadee. 

Abundant in the Salmon River and Saw Tooth Mountains. 

Regulus satrapa. Golden-crowned Kinglet. 

An adult male was shot and others seen in the Salmon River Moun- 
tains in August. Common among the willows along the lower part of 
the coniferous forest belt of the Salmon River Mountains in Lemhi and 
Birch Creek Valleys during the early part of September; and a few 
were seen in the Pahsimeroi Mountains the middle of September, and 
several in the Saw Tooth Mountains about the 1st of October. 

Regulus calendula. Ruby-crowned Kinglet. 

Common in the Pahsimeroi and Salmon River Mountains during fall 
migration. Probably breeds. A few were seen in the Saw Tooth Moun- 
tains about October 1, and a few in the canon of Snake River, near 
Shoshone Falls, October 9 to 11. 



108 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. I No. 5. 

Myadestes townsendii. Tovrnsend's Solitaire. 

Common in the Pahsirneroi Mountains September 12 to 16, where 
at least a dozen were seen in one day. One was seen in the lava canon 
of Snake Eiver near Shoshone Falls October 10. 

Turdus ustulatus swainsonii. Olive-backed Thrush. 

Not noted by our party. In 1872 I found a nest containing two fresh 
eggs of this species in Teton Basin, July 21. 
Turdus aonalaschkae auduboni. Audubon's Hermit Thrush. 

Not found common anywhere. A few were seen in the spruce forests 
of the Salmon River Mountains in August, and one in the lava caiion 
of Snake River October 9. 

Merula migratoria propinqua. Western Robin. 

Tolerably common in July along Snake River, near Blackfoot, in the 
Lost River Mountains, and on Big Lost River. In August and Sep- 
tember a few were seen from time to time in Lemhi and Birch Creek 
Valleys and in the upper part of Wood River Valley, but it was no- 
where common. A flock remained for several days about the head of 
Saw Tooth or Alturas Lake the last week of September. 

Sialia arctica. Mountain Bluebird. 

Common along the lower edge of the Douglas fir zone and in scat- 
tered cottonwoods along the Salmon River, Lost River, Pahsirneroi, and 
Saw Tooth Mountains, and in the Lemhi and Birch Creek Valleys. A 
few were seen in the Snake Itiver caiion at Shoshone Falls, October 9- 
11. Mr. Bailey saw a flock of 10 at Big Butte about the middle of July, 
and a few along Big Lost River the latter part of the month. Young 
were seen with their parents in Birch Creek Valley August 6. 



ANNOTATED LIST OF REPTILES AND BATRACHIANS COLLECTED BY 
DR. C. HART MERIUAM AND PARTY IN IDAHO, 1890. 



By Leonhard Stejneger. 



A.— REPTILIA. 

Sceloporus graciosus B. & G. 

Two typical males from Blackfoot ami Big Lost Biver ami oue identi- 
cal with these in every respect from the Lemhi Indian Agency were 
collected. 

This species, easily recognizable by its slender form aud thesmalluess 
of its scales, is characteristic of the region in question. 

The material at hand is not sufficient to settle beyond a doubt the 
question whether IS. graciosus and gracilis are absolutely identical. 

The specimens collected are all males. In No. 310 there is hardly a 
trace of blue on the throat, while in No. 314 the whole under side of the 
head is evenly marbled with pale blue ; No. 328 is intermediate both in 
the extent and in the intensity of the blue color. 

List of 8pecimeti8. 



03 o 

. 3 

A v 

. 03 



1G7G8 
1G7G9 
16770 



Collector 
ami No. 



B. &D., 310 

D.,314 

B. &, D., 328 



Sex. 



Locality. 



Blackfoot, Idaho 

Di^ Lost River, Idaho 

Leiulii Indian Agency, 

Idaho. 







13 


,-j 


T3 




A 


3 


















Ml 


j} 




A n 




a 




o 




Date. 


4/ 


.a 


A 


■5 61 




3 


t. 


bt 


a> ^ 
























H 


i-l 


hJ 


OJ 


July 1G, 1890 


130 


11 


7G 


13 


July 21, 1800 


122 


11 


74 


13 


Sept. 3, 1800 


102 


10 


G6 


13 



Remarks. 



'5,400 feet. 



Phrynosoma douglasii (Bell). 

As might be expected, the Horned-toads belong to the typical form, 

that is, the northwestern race which has been called Ph. pygmwa (see 

N. Am. Fauna, No. 3, p. 112). The larger of these specimens collected 

are no pigmies, as the dimensions below show, although not reaching 

the size of Ph. ornatissimum, their nearest ally. They are all of the 

characteristic gray pepper-and-salt color usually found in the typical 

form. 

109 



110 



NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. 

List of specimens. 



I No. 5. 



.2 
* | 

t/j s 


Collector 
and No. 


Sex. 


Locality. 


Date. 


si 

be 

a 

"3 
o 
H 


13 

cs 
o 
si 

o 

WD 

a 
.as 

Hi 


"3 

o 

M 
3 
S 
1-1 


•g 

© 

■a 
'— 




Remarks. 


16771 

16772 

16773 

16774 
16775 


B. &D.,309 

B. & D., 312 - 

B. & D., 313 . 

B. & D., 319 . 
B. &D.,320. 


9 
9 

? 

9 
9 


Blackfoot, Idaho 

....do 

Big Lost River, Idaho. . . 
....do 


July 13, 1890 

July 19, 1890 

....do 

July 21, 1890 
... do 


97 
96 

72 

71 
73 


17 

17 

14 

14 
15 


29 

30 

20 

23 
22 


19 
20 
16 

16 

17 


On black lava 
sand. 

On black lava 
rock. 

On sand in val- 
ley. 

On sand. 

On lava rock. 



Pituophis catenifer (Blaiuv,). 

The two Bull-snakes collected are provisionally enumerated under 
the above name, as the status of the various forms has not yet been 
definitely settled. Unfortunately, our large series of these snakes is 
inaccessible to me at the present writing. I can, therefore, only 
remark that these two specimens have a remarkably short cranium 
and that the dorsal blotches average 55 in front of the anus ; all the 
scale keels of the light spaces are blackish. (U. S. Nat. Mus. No. 
16776 ; Bailey and Dutcher, No. 316, Big Butte, Idaho, July 18, 1890 j 
No. 16777 ; Bailey, No. 315 Arco, Idaho, July 25, 1890.) 
Bascanion vetustus B. & G. 

A single specimen was collected at Big Butte, Idaho, July 19, 1890. 
Seven upper labials, fourth and fifth in contact with lower postorbital. 
(U. S. Nat. Mus. No. 16778; B. & D. No. 318.) 
Eutainia vagrans B. & G. 

The seven Garter-snakes collected all belong to this widely distrib- 
uted species and are comparatively uniform both in scale formula and 
coloration. Nos. 322 aud 325 have a somewhat darker ground color 
above, but No. 334 is scarcely lighter aud has, moreover, the whole 
upper surface of the head nearly black. 

List of specimens . 






16779 
16780 
16781 
16782 
16783 

16784 
16785 



Collector 
and No. 



M. &B., 322. 
M. & B., 325 
B. & D.,321. 
B. & D., 329 . 
B. & D., 333 

B. & D., 332 
B. &.D..334 



Locality. 



Salmon River Mountains, Idaho . 

...do 

Birch Creek, Idaho 

...do 



Aug. 20, 1890 
Aug. 22, 1890 
Aug. 4,1890 
Sept. 8, 1890 
Challis Valley, Idaho Sept. 18, 1890 



Date. 



.. do 

Trail Creek, Idaho. 



Sept. 20, 1890 
Sept. 22, 1890 



















o 


■s 






"3 




a 


a 


t/2 


•ji 


21 


8 


21 


8 


21 


7-8 


21 


8 


21 


8 


21 


8 


21 


8 



Remarks. 



'8,000 feet." 
Do. 

'5, 800 feet." 
'5, 300 feet; caught 
in brook." 



July, 1891. J 



REPTILES AND BATRACHIANS OF IDAHO. 



HI 



Crotalus lucifer B. & G. 

This Rattlesnake, which is characteristic of northern California and 
Nevada, Oregon and Washington, is represented by four specimens 
obtained in the desert, two at Big Butte and two at Little Lost River. 

These specimens are in every way typical and can not be mistaken 
for the following species, of which a specimen was secured at Lemhi 
Indian Agency, the more rounded outline of the head and the numerous 
granules between and adjoining the superciliary scales being quite 
characteristic. 

The specimens are all young, except No. 311, which has quite a re- 
spectable size for this species, the head being about 40 mm long (only 
head and forepart of body preserved). 

List of specimens. 



fc'S 


Collector and 
No. 


Locality. 


Date. 


Remarks. 


16786 


B.&D., 311,338.. 
B. &D..317 


B 


July 19,1890 

July 18, 1890 

Sept, 9, 1890 

....do 




16787 


do 


tie only. 


16788 


B. &D..330 

B.&D..331 






16789 


Little Lost Kiver (mouth of), Idaho. . 





Crotalus confluentus Say. 

The occurrence of a typical example of this species in Idaho is highly 
interesting, and it is quite suggestive that it was obtained in Lemhi 
Valley near the Indian agency, between which locality and Montana, 
where G. confluentus is the characteristic species, there is only a low 
divide, as Dr. Merriam informs me, over which the range of the species 
may be continuous, while to the south there is a divide separating it 
from the range of C. confluentus. 

The present specimen belongs to the typical group of the species, the 
original of which came from the plains of northeastern Colorado near 
the Arkansas River. I have compared numerous specimens from Mon- 
tana and Nebraska, as well as the Idaho specimen here referred to, 
with individuals from the type locality and find them to be in every 
way identical, aud entitled to the name bestowed upon the species by 
Say. (U. S. Nat. Mas. No. 1G791 ; Bailey and Dutcher coll., No. '621 • 
Lemhi lndiau Agency, Idaho, 5,400 feet altitude; September 3, 1890.) 

B.— BATRACHIA. 

? ? Ambystoma * epixanthum Cope. 

I refer a young specimen (No. 337) collected by Dr. Merriam and Mr. 
Bailey a little above Saw Tooth Lake on October 1 to this species with 

"The generic name should be written as above, not Amblystoma. The latter is a 
late and very doubtful emendation by Agassiz; aud Amblystomus as the name of a 



112 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. [No.5. 

considerable hesitation, as I have had no opportunity to examine the 
unique type specimen. It differs considerably both in coloration and 
proportions, but these differences may possibly be attributable to the 
youth of the specimen, or to individual variation. The vomero pala- 
tine teeth can not be made out clearly, but they seem to form one un- 
interrupted series on each side with the anterior ends well forward, in 
fact, anterior to the line through the choanse, or exactly as in the figure 
of A. epixanthum (Gope, Batr. N. Am., p. 98). The head is compara- 
tively broader than in A. macrodactylum, and so is the interorbital space, 
both characters which, according - to Cope, separate A. macrodactylum 
and epixanthum. 

The tongue of the present specimen is remarkably small, a feature 
which has caused me more doubt than any other and which has tempted 
me to describe it as a new species, as Professor Cope in the diagnosis 
of his A. epixanthum expressly says " tongue large." But if the figure 
which he presents (op. cit., p. 98) is only approximately correct, the 
tongue of the latter species is certainly much smaller than in A. ma- 
crodactylum, which is correctly figured on page 96. 

From the measurements given below it will be seen that the tail is 
considerably shorter in the present specimen than in either A. macro- 
dactylum or epixanthum., but by measuring a full-grown and a smaller 
A. macrodactylum I find that the latter has the tail shorter in about 
the same proportions as between Cope's measurements and my own. 

The color of the present species is dull and apparently more like A. 
macrodactylum, but it remains yet to be seen how constant and diag- 
nostic is the bright coloring attributed to A. epixanthum. 

It may not be out of place to remark that the type of the latter species 
was collected on the south side of the Saw Tooth Mountains, and the 
present specimen on the northern slope of the same mountains. 

The dimensions in millimeters are as follows: Total length, 52; 
length to axilla, 14; to groin, 30; to gular fold, 10; width of head, 7; 
of tongue, 3 ; length of anterior limb, 11 ; of anterior foot, 3.5 ; of pos- 
terior limb, 12; of posterior foot, 4.5. (U. S. Nat. Mus. No. 16792.) 

Rana pretiosa B. & G. 

Five specimens from Saw Tooth Lake, the Lemhi Indian Agency, and 
the Salmon River Mountains. The specimens are typical and the lo- 
calities within the known range of the species. 

coleopterous insect, moreover, antedates Ambystoma, which invalidates the use ot the 
emended form according to the A. O. U. code of nomenclature. In Tschudi's original 
paper, which was edited hy Agassiz, Ambystoma occurs four times, hut it was not 
until several years later that the latter offered the amended spelling (cautiously 
adding a " ?," however), as there is apparently no good derivation of Tschudi's 
word. But in this respect it io no worse than many other generic names hotb of 
ancient and modern times. 



July, 1891.] REPTILES AND BATRACHIANS OF IDAHO. 

List of specimens. 



113 



Is 

P3 


Collector and No. 


Locality. 


Altitude. 


Date. 


16793 


Merriaru & Bailey, 323 . 
Bailey &Dutcher,324 
Bailey & Dutcher, 326 . . 
Bailey & D atcher, 335 . . 
Bailey &Dutcher,336 




8,000 ft. 


Aug. 20, 1890 
Do. 


16794 


....do 


16795 




5,400 ft. 
7,200 ft. 


Sept. 3, 1890 
Sept. 28, 1890 
Do. 


16796 




16707 


....do 











2(3789— No. 5 8 



DESCRIPTION OF A NEW GENUS AND SPECIES OF DWARF KANGAROO 
RAT FROM NEVADA (MICROD1PODOPS MEGACEPHALUS), 



By Dr. C. Hart Merriam. 



One of the most remarkable of the many new and interesting mam- 
mals that have been discovered in North America during the past 
few years is the subject of the present article. In external appearance 
it looks like a heavy, thickset pocket mouse of the Perognathus oliva- 
ceus type, with a hydrocephalic head and abnormally large, lurry hind 
feet. Its skull, on the other hand, does not suggest Perognathus at all, 
but resembles the skull of Dipodops, and has the tympanic and mastoid 
regions inflated to a degree surpassing even the extreme condition 
presented by Dipodomys deserti, which species exhibits the maximum of 
inflation heretofore known among mammals. It lacks the large cylin- 
drical, crested- penicillate, four-striped tail of Dipodomys and Dipodops. 
In short, Microdipodops may be described as a Perognathus of the 
olivaceus type, with the skull of a Dipodops; but it is not simply inter- 
mediate between these two genera, for the skull surpasses that of 
Dipodops in the chief peculiarity by which the latter differs from 
Perognathus. 

Six specimens of this remarkable rodent were collected in Nevada 
by Mr. Bailey in October and November, 1890. The precise localities 
are Halleck and Beese Biver. 

MICRODIPODOPS gen. nov. 

Similar to Dipodops, but with tympauo-mastoid inflation carried to a 
still greater extreme. Shelf of palate produced posteriorly to foramen 
ovale, as in Perognathus, instead of ending at plane of last molars with 
a deep fossa on each side, as in Dipodomys and Dipodops. Lateral 
borders of parietals excavated to receive the deeply notched squa- 
mosals, each of which appears on the upper surface of the skull in the 
form of a narrow strip of bone bent in the shape of a V. Zygomatic 
process of maxillary as in Perognathus — not expanded in front of orbit 
as in Dipodomys and Dipodops. 

The mandible lacks the post molar pit of Dipodomys and Dipodops ; 
the angular process is truncated and thickened instead of ending in a 

115 



116 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. [No.5. 

sharp point, and is much shorter than in Perognathus, Dipodomys, or 
Dipodops. 

The enormously inflated mastoids nearly meet along the median line, 
leaving a narrow spicule of bone between them, and project posteriorly 
much further than in Dipodomys or Dipodops. The length of the 
tympano-mastoid inflation in the type specimen is more than 80 per cent, 
of the basilar length of the skull, and the breadth across the inflated 
mastoids is much greater than the basilar length (115 per cent.). This 
great development of the mastoids takes place at the expense of the 
supraoccipital, interparietal, and parietals, which are very much re- 
duced. 

Viewed from below, the audital bullae meet in a symphysis, and the 
tympanic capsules project anteriorly far beyond the plane of this sym- 
physis and beyond the plane of the frontoparietal suture, extend- 
ing along the outer side of the malar bone half way to the end of 
the zygomatic process of the maxillary. The molars are rootless, as in 
Dipodomys and Dipodops. The upper premolar has an anterior prism, 
as in Perognathus. The tail is simple, as in Perognathus; not greatly 
elongated, as in Dipodomys and Dipodops, and lacks the four longitudinal 
stripes always present in the latter genera. There is no trace of the 
conspicuous white band which crosses the thighs to the base of the tail 
in every species of Dipodomys and Dipodops. 

MICRODIPODOPS MEGACEPHALUS gen. et sp. nov. 
Type No. ffihHf. 3 . ad. U. S. National Museum (Department of Agriculture 
collection). From Halleck, Nevada, October 23, 1890. Collected by Vernon 
Bailey. (Original number, 2005.) 

measurements (from dry skin).— Total length, about 150; tail ver- 
tebrae, about 80 ; hind foot, 24; ear from crown, 6 ; from anterior 
base, 9. 

General characters. — Size very much smaller than the smallest known 
species of Dipodomys or Dipodops, and only a trifle larger than Perogn- 
athus olivaceus. Tail not crested-penicillate as in Dipodomys, Dipo- 
dops, and Chcetodipus, but simple, as in Perognathus proper. The tail 
is bicolor, as in Perognathus, lacking the four stripes of Dipodomys and 
Dipodops. Its length only slightly exceeds that of the head and body. 
The ears are completely covered with soft fur. The hind feet are long 
and densely furred on both sides to the very tips of the toes. The 
hallux without the claw reaches the metatarso-phalang'eal articulation of 
the other toes. The fur of the back and sides is long, soft, and silky, 
as in Hesperomys eremicus. 

Color. — Upper parts yellowish brown or clay color, finely mixed with 
black-tipped hairs and slightly tinged with olive; sides from nose to 
thighs suffused with pale ochraceous. Under parts white; the fur 
plumbeous at base and washed with pale ochraceous, except on throat 
and breast, which are white throughout. Feet soiled white, tinged 
with buffy. Tail bicolor; upper part like back, except terminal third. 



July, 1891.] NEW SPECIES OF NORTH AMERICAN MAMMALS. 117 

which is blackish ; under aide pale butty ochraceous. There is a black- 
ish crescent on each side of the face at base of whiskers, and a butty 
patch behind each ear involving the lower base of the ear. 

Cranial characters. — The cranial and dental characters have been 
given so fully in the description of the genus that it is unnecessary to 
repeat them here. The skull is much arched, both antero-posteriorly 
and laterally. The basioccipital is wedge-shaped, and is not cut away 
or emargiuate on the sides. 



DESCRIPTION OF A NEW EVOTOMYS FROM THE BLACK HILLS OF 

SOUTH DAKOTA, 



By Dr. C. Hart Merriam. 



Two specimens of a Red-backed Mouse were collected in the Black 
Hills, South Dakota, in July, 1888, by Vernon Bailey. .One was caught 
under a log in a thicket; the other by a log in the pine timber on top 
of the mountain. Both are adult males and differ from E. gapperi in 
having much shorter tails (in this respect resembling E. daicsoni* from 
the sources of the Liard River, N. W. T.), and in other particulars 
pointed out below. 

EVOTOMYS GAPPERI BREVICAUDUS subsp. uov. 

Type No. £f?J<? ad. Merriain Collection. From Custer, Black Hills, Soutb Da- 
kota, July 21, 1888. Collected by Vernon Bailey. (Original number 111.) 

Measurements (taken in flesh). — Total length, 125; tail vertebrae, 31; 
hairs, 4; hind foot, 19. Ear from crown, 8.5; from notch, 10.5 (in dry 
skin). Another specimen taken at the same locality July 18, 1888 
{No. |f£f $ ad.), measures: Total length, 130; tail vertebrae, 32; hairs, 3; 
hind foot, 20. Ear from crown, 9 ; from notch, 12. 

General characters. — Similar to E. gapperi, but with larger ears and 
shorter tail. The hazel of the dorsal area is not so bright as in gapperi; 
the sides are the same golden brown. 

Color. — Dorsal area dull hazel, lined with black-tipped hairs; rest of 
upper parts pale bister strongly suffused with ochraceous buff on the 
sides; face between the eyes and nose heavily lined with black-tipped 
hairs; under parts white, the plumbeous basal part of the fur hardly 
showing through; tail bicolor, above like the back except the tip, which 
is dusky ; below gray. 

Cranial and Dental characters. — Much as in E. gapperi. 

* Evotomys dawsoni Merriam, Am. Nat., July, 1888, G49-651. 

119 



INDEX. 



Abies subalpina, 11, 14, 17, 21, 22, 23, 25, 26, 27, 48. 
Accipiter atricapillna, 11, 18, 19, 23, 94. 
cooperi, 94. 
velox, 19, 94. 
Aeipenser transmontanus, 8. 
Acknowledgments, 3-4. 
Actinella grandiflora, 10, 22. 
Aetitis inacularia, 92. 
iEgialitis vocifera, 92. 
Agelaius phceniceus, 101. 
Agrostis varians, 22. 
Alee americanus, 4, 12, 24, 32, 79-80. 
Amblystomus, 111. 
Arabystoma epixanthum, 111-112. 
macrodactylum, 112. 
Amelanchier alnifolia, 18. 
Aromodramus sandwichensis alaudinus, 102. 
Ampelis cedrorum, 105. 

garrulus, 104. 
Amphispiza belli nevadensis, 7, 9, 25, 103. 
Anas atnericana, 19, 90. 

boschas, 19, 82, 89-90. 
carol in ensis, 13, 90. 
cyanoptera, 90. 
discors, 19, 90. 
obscura, 90, 
strepera, 90. 
Anemone baldensis, 10, 22. 
Anisonyxbrachiura, 39. 
Antelope, 7, 14, 32, 80. 
Antelopo Valley, description of, 15. 
Anthus ponsilvanicus, 10, 11, 15, 17, 20, 22, 106. 
An tiloeapra americana, 7, 14, 32, 80. 
Apbelocoiiia woodhouse i, 100. 
Aplopappus lyellii, 11, 22. 

suffruticosus, 11, 22. 
Aquilachrvsai'tos, 95. 
Arctomys brachynra, 39. 

columbianns, 39, 40, 41. 
8p. ?, 10, 14, 18,22, 31,36. 
(Spermopbilus) parryi, 39. 

crythrogluteia, 40. 
Arctoataphylo9 uva-nrsi, 11, 23, 93. 
Ardea berodias, 15, 91. 
Arcnaria biflora carnnlosa, 11, 22. 

congesta subeongesta, 11,22. 
Arvicola, Big-footed, 59-01. 

Cantankerous, in, 24, 32, 61-62. 
Common, 24,32,58-59. 
Dwarf. 62-63. 
Arvicola (genus), 31. 



Arvicola alleni, 14, 59, 60. 
curtatus, 64. 
longicaudns, 61, 62. 
macropus, 14, 22, 24, 32, 59-61, 62. 
mordax, 18, 24, 32, 61-62. 
nanus, 14, 24, 32, 62-63. 
pallidus, 65. 

pauperrimus, 24, 32, 64-65. 
riparius, 24, 32, 58-59. 
townsendi. 60. 
Artemisia pedatifida, 7. 

tridentata, 7, 9, 13, 15, 24, 46, 76. 
tritida, 7, 9, 12, 24. 
Asio accipitrinus, 96. 
wilsonianus, 95. 
Aspen, 11, 13, 14, 16, 21, 23, 25, 27. 
Astacus gauibellii, 6, 86. 
Ast»r kingii, 22. 
Aster, Purple, 73. 
Astragalus kentropbyta, 11, 23. 
A triplex eanescens, 25. 

coufertifolia, 7, 9, 13, 15, 25. 
nnttalli, 7, 25. 
Avocet, 91. 

Aj tbya americana, 19, 90. 
Badger, 7, 13, 18, 32, 75, 76, 85. 
Baldpate, 18, 90. 
Bascanion vetustus, 8, 110. 
Bat, California, 31, 36. 
Batrachia, species collected, 111-113. 
Hear, Black, 24, 32, 87. 
Cinnamon, 87. 
Grizzly, 24, 32, 86-87 
Beaver, 14, 18, 31,52. 
Betula occidentalis, 25. 
B»R Lost Kiver Valley, Description of, 15-16. 
Bigclovia douglassii, 25. 

graveolens, 9, 24. 
lati folia, 25. 
stenophylla, 25. 
tortifolia, 25. 
Bigborn (sec Mountain Sheep). 
Birch Creek, Description of, 8-9. 
Birch, Western, 25. 
Birds of Idaho, 89-108. 
Birds of Saw Tooth Mountains, 19-20. 
Bison americanus, 81. 

bison, 4, 14, 20, 32,81. 
Blackbird, Brewer's, 13, 101. 
Bed- winged, 101. 
Yellow-headed, 101. 

121 



122 



INDEX. 



Bluebird, Mountain, 12, 20, 23, 108. 
Bobolink, Western, 100. 
Bob-white, 92-93. 
Bonasa umbellus togata, 12, 23, 93. 
Bos americanus, 81. 

bison, 81. 
Bovidas, 31. 
Branta canadensis, 90. 
Urunneau Mountains, Description of, 21. 
Bryanthus taxifolius, 10, 22, 65. 
Bubo virginianus saturatus, 12, 18, 19, 23, 96. 

subarcticus, 96. 
Buffalo, 4, 14, 28, 32, 81. 
Bullfinch, Pine, 11, 101. 
Bull-snake, 8, 110. 
Bunting, Lark, 104. 

Lazuli, 104. 
Buteo borealis calurus, 94. 

swainsoni, 94-95. 
Buzzard, Turkey, 4, 5, 15, 94. 
Buzzards, 4. 
Cactus, 25. 

Calamospiza melanocorys, 104. 
Calocbortus gunnisoni, 11, 23. 

nitidus, 11, 23. 
Canida?, 31. 
Canis latrans, 7, 13, 32, 76, 82. 

nubilus, 32, 82. 
Carex festiva, 22. 
Cariacus macrotis, 7, 12, 14, 18, 24, 32, 80. 

virginianus ruacrourus, 32, 80. 
Caribou, Woodland, 32, 80. 
Carpodacus cassini, 102. 
Castor canadensis, 14, 18, 31, 52. 
Castoridrt3, 31. 
Catbird, 106. 

Cathartes aura, 4, 5, 15, 94. 
Catherpes niexicanns conspersus, 7, 107. 
Ceanothus velutinus, 21. 
Centrocercus urophasianus, 7, 13, 17, 24, 93. 
Ceophloeus pileatus, 97, 
Cereocarpus ledifolius, 14, 21, 24. 
Certhia farailiaris montaua, 20, 107. 
Cervidae, 31. 

Cervus canadensis, 4, 5, 14, 18, 21, 32, 80. 
Cerylo alcyon, 13, 15, 19, 97. 
Chamactis douglassi alpina, 11, 22. 
ChaJtodipus and Microdipodops compared, 116. 
Cballis Valley, Description of, 15. 
Chat, Long-tailed, 106. 
Check-list of Mammals, 31-32. 
Chelidon erythrogaster, 104. 
Chickadee, Long-tailed, 9, 107. 

Mountain, 12, 20, 23, 107. 
Chilotus, 65. 

Chipmunk, Great Basin, 7, 9, 13, 17, 24, 25, 31, 46-18. 
Klamath, 14, 22, 24, 31, 44-46. 
Sage, 7, 9, 13, 17, 24, 25, 31, 46-48. 
Chondestes grammacus strigatus, 102. 
Chordeiles virginianus henryi, 98. 
Cinclus mexicanus, 14, 20, 106. 
Circus hudsonius, 13, 19, 94. 
Cistothorus palustris, 107. 
Clivicola riparia, 104. 

Coccothraustes vespertina montana, 23, 101. 
Colaptes cafer, 20, 98. 



Colinus virginianus, 92-93. 
Colymbus auritus, 19, 89. 
Contopus borealis, 99. 

richardsoni, 99. 
Coot, 19, 91. 

Cormorant, White-crested, 89. 
Corvus americanus, 15, 20, 95, 100. 

corax sinuatus, 7, 100. 
Cottontail, Sage, 7, 9, 13, 32, 75, 77, 79. 
Cottonwood, 16, 25, 27. 
Cowbird, 100. 
Coyote, 7, 13, 32, 76, 82. 
Crane, Sandhill, 4, 19, 41, 91. 

Whooping, 91. 
Crayfish, 6, 86. 

Creeper, Rocky Mountain, 20, 107. 
Cricket, Mole, 8. 
Crotalus confluentus, 111. 

lucifer, 8,9, 111. 
Crow, Clark's, 11, 15, 16, 18, 20, 23, 100. 

Common, 15, 20, 95, 100. 
Curlew, Long-billed, 92. 
Currant, 18. 

Cyauocephalus cyanocephalus, 100. 
Cyanocitta stelleri annectens, 12, 20, 23, 99. 
Cynouays columbianus, 40. 

gunnisoni, 40. 
Deer, Black-tail, 7, 12, 14, 18, 24, 32, 80. 
Mule, 7, 12, 14, 18, 24, 32, 80. 
Western White-tailed, 32, 80. 
Delphinium andersoni, 22. 

nienziessii, 11, 22. 
Dendragapus franklini, 19, 23, 93. 

obscurus fuliginosus, 93- 

richardsoni, 12, 14-15, 19, 
23, 93. 
Dendroica ajstiva, 105. 

auduboni, 12, 20, 23, 105. 
Devil, Idaho, 8. 
Dipodomys compared with Microdipodops, 115, 

116. 
Dipodomys deserti compared with Microdipodops 

megacephalus, 115. 
Dipodops and Microdipodops compared, 115-116. 

ordii, 7, 25, 32, 71. 
Dipper, 14, 20, 106. 

Dolichonyx oryzivorns albiuucha, 100. 
Dove, Mourning, 13, 94. 
Draba alpina, 10, 22. 
Dryobates pubescens, 97. 

villosus hyloscopus, 19, 97. 
Duck, Baldpate, 19, 90. 
Black, 90. 

Blue- winged Teal, 19, 9( 
Cinnamon Teal, 90. 
Gadwall, 90. 
Green-winged Teal, 90 
Mallard, 19, 82, 89-90. 
Redhead, 19, 90. 
Shoveller, 90. 
Eagle. Bald, 18, 19, 95. 
Golden, 95. 

White-headed, 18,19,95. 
Eagles, 4. 

Elk, 4, 5, 14, 18, 21, 80. 
Empidonax pusillus, 99. 



INDEX. 



123 



Empidonax wrightii, 99. 

Erethizon epixanthus, 7, 12, 18, 21, 22, 24, 32, 72. 

Ereunotes occidentalis, 92. 

Erigeron corapositu? trifidus, 11,23. 

Eriogonnm, Yellow, 18. 

Eriogonum cernnum tenue, 7,25. 

ovalifolium, 11, 23. 
Enrotia lanata, 7, 15, 25. 
Eutainia vagrans, 12, 15, 110. 
Evotoruys, 12. 

californicns, 67. 

dawsoni, 119. 

galei, 67. 

gapperi, C7, 119. 

brevicandus, 119. 

idahoensia, 18, 24, 32, 66-67. 

occidentalis, 67. 
Palco mexicanus, 95. 

sparverius, 13, 95. 
Falcon, Prairie, 95. 
Felidae, 31. 
Felis concolor, 32, 81. 
Fiber zibethicus, 15, 18, 32, 68. 
Fincb, Cassin's Purple, 102. 

Rosy, 10, 22, 102. ' 
Fir, Alpine, 11, 14, 17, 21, 22, 23, 25, 26, 27, 48. 
Douglas, 11, 13, 14, 16, 17, 23, 25, 26, 27, 48. 
Sub-alpine, 11, 14, 17, 21, 22, 23, 25, 26, 27. 
Fisher, 12, 18, 24, 32, 84. 
Flicker, Red-shafted, 20, 98. 
Flmninicola nuttalliana, 6, 27. 
Flycatcber, Little, 99. 

(Hive-sided, 99. 
Wright's, 99. 
Fool Hen, 19, 23, 93. 

Forest Trees of Mountains of Idabo, 25-27. 
Fox, 18. 

Great-tailed, 32, 82. 
Red, 82. 
Frasera speciosa, 14, 23, 24. 
Frog, 11, 18, 112-113. 
Fulica americana, 19, 91. 
O ad wall, 90. 

Galeoscoptes carolinensis, 106. 
Gallinago delicata, 92. 
Gaultberia myrainites, 11,23. 
Gentian, Bine, 18. 
Gentians affinis, 18. 
( M-imn idsB, 31. 
Geomvs tu/.a, ok. 
Geothlypie macgillivrari, 105. 

triobas occidentalis, 105. 
Geum rossii, 65, 73. 

bamile, 10, 22. 
Gilia aggregate (?), 18. 
Goat, Mountain, 10, 11, 18, 22, 32, 81. 
Goldfinch, Ki2. 
Goose, Canada, 90. 
( looseberries, 43. 

Gopher, Mountain Pocket, 32, 69-70. 
Pate Pocket, 32, 68-69, 70. 
Pocket, 18,19,68,70,85,96. 
Goshawk, 11,18,19,23,94. 
Greaeewood, 7, 9, 13,15,25,46-47. 
Grebe, Borned, 19,89. 
Grosbeak, Black-headed, 104. 



Crosbeak, Evening, 23, 101. 

Pine, 11, 101. 
Grouse, Blue, 12, 14-15, 19, 93. 

Canadian Ruffed, 12, 23, 93. 
Columbian Sharp-tailed, 7, 24, 93. 
Franklin's, 19, 23, 93. 
Ricbardson's, 12, 14-15, 19, 23, 93. 
Sage, 7, 13, 17, 24, 93. 
Grus americana, 91. 

mexicana, 4, 19, 41, 91. 
Gull, 15, 89. 

Gulo luscns, 12, 18, 24, 32, 85. 
Habia melanocepbala, 104. 
Halia-etus leucocephalus, 18, 19, 95. 
Hawk, Cooper's, 94. 
Fish, 15, 19, 95. 
Marsh, 13, 19, 94. 
Sharp -shinned, 19, 94. 
Sparrow, 13, 95. 
Swainson's, 94-95. 
Western Red-tail, 94. 
Hawks, 4. 

Helix (Patula) hemphilli, 27. 
Helminthophila celata, 105. 
Hen, Sage, 7, 13, 17, 24, 93. 
Heron, Great Blue, 15, 91. 
Hesperomys crinitus, 7, 31, 53-54. 
eremicus, 53-54, 116. 
leucopus, 15, 18, 19, 22, 32, 55-57, 96. 
Heuchera ballii, 11, 22. 

parvifolia, 11, 23. 
Himantopus moxicanus, 91. 
Hummingbird, Broad-tailed, 98. 

Sp. ?, 98. 
Hystricid.T, 81. 
Lcteria virena longicauda, 106. 
Icterus bullocki, 101. 
Idaho, Birds of. 89-108. 

Forest Trees of, 25-27. 
Life Zones of, 21 jr.. 
Mammals of, 31-87. 
Molluscs of, 27. 

Reptiles and Batrachiana of, 109-113. 
Idaho Devil, 8. 
Introduction, 4-5. 
Itinerary, 1^3. 
1 v:i axillaris, 7, 25. 
Jay, Black-headed, 12, 20, 23, 99. 
Canada, 10. 

Long-crested, 12, 20,23, 99. 
Pifion, 100. 
Rocky Mountain, 12, 18, 20, 23, 100. 

W lhouso's, 100. 

Junco anncc tens, 11,20, 23, 103. 

hyemalis shufeldti, 20, 103. 
Junco, Pink-sided, 11, 20, 23, 103 
Rocky Mountain, 20, 103. 
Juniper, 25. 

Juniperna communis, 22. 
virginiana, 25. 
Killdecr, 92. 
Kingbird, 98. 

Arkansas, 98. 
Kingfisher, Belted, 13, 15, 19,97. 
Kinglet, Golden-crowned, 15,20, 107. 

Ruby-crowned, 12, 15, 20, 23, 107. 



124 



INDEX. 



Lagomyidfe, 31. 

Lagomys, 10, 11, 14, 16, 18, 57, 65, 74-75. 

princeps, 10, 11, 14, 18, 22, 23, 32, 73-74. 
Lanius borealis, 105. 

ludovicianns excubitorides, 13, 25, 105. 
Lark, Desert Horned, 13, 17, 25, 95, 99. 
Larus (californicus ?), 15, 89. 
Lemhi Valley, description of, 8-9. 
Leporidre, 31. 
Lepns (genus), 31. 
artemisia, 75. 

bairdi, 12, 13, 14, 16, 18, 24, 32, 79. 
campestris, 7, 9, 13, 15, 32, 78. 
einerascens, 76. 
idahoensis, 7, 9, 13, 25, 32, 75-78. 
sylvaticus, 76. 

nuttalli, 7, 9, 13, 32, 75, 77, 79. 
texianus, 7, 9, 13, 15, 25, 32, 78-79. 
Leucosticte atrata, 10, 22, 102. 
Leucosticte, Black, 102. 
Life Zones of Idaho, 21-25. 
Arctic Alpine, 22. 
Canadian or Douglas Fir, 23. 
Hudsonian or Spruce, 23. 
Neutral or Transition, 24. 
SubAlpine or Timber-line, 22. 
Upper Sonoran, 25. 
Lininaea adelinse, 27. 
lepida, 27. 
palustris, 27. 
Lion, Mountain, 32, 81. 
Little Lost River Valley, description of, 12. 
Lizards, 8, 109. 
Longspur, McCown's, 102. 
Loon, 19, 89. 

Lutra hudsonica, 18, 32, 82-83. 
Lutreola vison, 18, 32, 83. 
Lynx, 7, 18. 

baileyi, 7, 32, 81-82. 
Lynx Plateau, 7, 32, 81-82. 
Magpie, 7, 13, 15, 18, 20, 99. 
Mahogany, Mountain, 14, 21, 24. 
Mallard, 19, 82, 89-90. 
Malvastrum, 7, 15, 25. 
Mammals of Idaho, 31-87. 

Saw Tooth Mountains, 18. 
Mammals, new species described : 
Arvicola macropus, 59-61. 
mordax, 61-62. 
nanus, 62-63. 
Evotomys gapperi brevicaudus, 119. 

idahoensis, 66-67. 
Hesperomys crinitus, 53-54. 
Lepus idahoensis, 75-78. 
Microdipodops megacephalus, 115-117. 
Onychomys leucogaster brevicaudua, 52-53. 
Phenacomys orophilus, 65-66. 
Sorex dobsoni, 33-34. 

idahoensis, 32-33. 
vagrans similis, 34-35. 
Thomomys clusius f uscus, 69-70. 
Market Lake, origin of name, 28-29. 
Marmot, 10, 14, 18, 36. 
Marten, 12, 24, 32, 84. 
Mazama montana, 10, 11, 18, 22, 32, 81. 



Meadowlark, Western, 13, 17, 101. 
Megascops flammeolus, 96. 

idahoensis, 96 (PI. Frontis- 
piece). 
Melanerpes torquatus, 97. 
Melospiza fasciata montana, 103. 

lincolni, 15, 20, 103. 
Mephitis, sp. 1 32,85. 
Merganser, Red-breasted, 19, 89. 
Merganser serrator, 19, 89. 
Merula migratoria propinqua, 18, 20, 108. 
Microdipodops (new genus denned), 115-116. 

megacephalus, 116-117. 
Mink, 18, 32, 83. 

Mole Cricket, 8. 

Molluscs of south-central Idaho, 27. 

Molothrus ater, 100. 

Moose, 4, 12, 24, 32, 79-89. 

Moose Bird, 16. 

Mouse, Canon, 7, 53-54. 

Cliff, 7, 53-54. 

Field, 96. 

Grasshopper, 7, 25, 52. 

Idaho Grasshopper, 52-53. 

Idaho Red-backed, 66-67. 

Jumping, 12, 24, 32, 72-73. 

Lemming, 11, 18, 19, 22, 23, 32, 65-66. 

Mountain Lemming, 65-66. 

Pallid Lemming, 24, 32, 64-65. 

Pocket, 7, 8, 9, 13, 15, 25, 32, 71-72. 

Red-baeked, 18, 119. 

White-footed, 15, 18, 19, 55-57, 96. 
Mud-hen, 19, 91. 
Muridae, 31. 

Mus cinereus, 22, 24, 32, 57. 
Muskrat, 15, 18, 32, 68. 
Mustela americana, 12, 24, 32, 84. 

pennanti, 12, 18, 24, 32, 84. 
Mustelida;,31. 

Myadestes townsendi, 15, 23, 108. 
Mynomes (Arvicola) macropus, 59-61. 
mordax, 61-62. 
nanus, 62-63. 
Neofiber (Arvicola) alleni, 60. 
Neosorex, 12, 16, 35, 36, 94. 
palustris, 18, 24. 
Neotonia cincrea, 22, 24, 32, 57. 

occidentalis, 7, 32, 58. 
Nighthawk, Western, 98. 
Nunienius longirostris, 92. 
Nutcracker, Clark's, 11, 16, 18, 20, 100, 
Nuthatch, Red-breasted, 12, 23, 107. 

Slender-billed, 20, 107. 
Nyctea nyctea, 96. 
Olor buccinator, 91. 
Oncorhynchus chouicha, 8, 13, 14. 

nerka, 17. 
Onychomys leucogaster, 7, 25, 52. 

brevicaudus, 7, 25, 31, 52 - 
53. 
Opuntia, 13. 
Oriole, Bullock's, 101. 
Oroscoptes montanus, 7, 9, 25, 106. 
Ortyx virginianns, 92-93. 
Oryzopsis cuspidata, 25. 
Osprey, 15, 19, 95. 



INDEX. 



125 



Otocoris, 95. 

alpestris arenicola, 13, 17, 25, 95, 99. 
praticola, 09. 
Otter, 18,32,82-83. 
Ouzel, Water, 14, 20, 106. 
Ovis canadensis, 10, II, 14, 18, 22, 32, 81. 
Owl, Burrowing, 7, 25, 97. 

Dusky Horned, 12, 18, 19, 23, 96. 
Dwarf Screech, 96. 
Hawk, 96. 
Long-eared, 95. 
Short-eared, 96. 
Snowy, 96. 
"Western Horned, 96. 
Oxyria digyna, 10, 22. 
Pahsimeroi Mountains, 14-15. 

Valley, 12-14. 
l'andion haliwtus carolinensis, 15, 19, 95. 
Panther, 32, 81. 
Parus atricapillus septentrionalis, 9, 107. 

gambeli, 12, 20, 23, 107. 
Passer domesticus, 102. 
Passerina amoena, 104. 

Pedioca:tes phasianellus columbianus, 7, 24, 93. 
Pelecanus erythrorhynchos, 5, 89. 
Pelican, White, 5, 89. 
Pentstemon kingii, 18, 23. 

menziessii, 11, 22. 
Perisoreus canadensis capitalis, 12, 18, 20, 23, 100. 
Perognathus, compared with Microdipodops, 116. 
olivaceus, 7, 8, 9, 13, 15, 25, 32, 71-72. 
Personnel of Expedition, 3. 
Petrochelidon lunifrous, 104. 
Pewee, Western Wood, 99. 
Phalacrocorax dilophus cincinnatus, 89. 
Phala'uoptilus uuitalli, 98. 
Phalarope, Northern, 91. 
"Wilson's, 91. 
Phalaropus lobatus, 91. 
tricolor, 91. 
Pheasants, 4. 
Phenacomys (Genus), 65. 
Pbenacorays celatus, 66. 

intermedins. 66. 
latiiuanus, 66. 
longicaudus, 65, 66. 
orophilus, 11, 18, 19, 22, 23, 32, 65-66. 
Phleam alpinum, 11, 22. 
Phoebe, Say's, 98-99. 
Phrynosorua douglasii, 8, 9, 109-110. 
ornatissimum, 109. 
pygnuea, 109. 
Physa heterostropha, 27. 
Pica pica budsouica, 7, 13, 15, 18, 20, 99. 
Picca alba, 11, 14, 16, 17, 23, 25, 27, 48. 

engelmanni, 11, 17, 22, 23, 25, 26, 27. 
Picicorvus columbianus, 11, 15, 18, 20, 23, 100. 
Picket Pin, 38. 
Picoides americanus dorsalis, 97. 

arcticus, 19, 97. 
I'iki, Rocky Mountain, 10, 11, 14, 16, 18, 22, 23, 32, 

57, 05, 73-75. 
Pine, Black, 11, 14, 16, 17, 23, 25, 26, 44. 
M urray, 11, 14, 16, 17, 25, 26, 48. 
White, 14, 26. 
White bark, 10, 11, 14, 17, 22, 23,25,26,27,48-49. 



Pinicola enucleator, 11, 101. 

Pinus albicaulis, 10, 11, 14, 17, 22, 23,25,26, 27,48-49, 
Fig. of cone, 49. 
flexilis, 14, 26. 

murrayana, 11, 14, 16, 17, 23, 25, 26, 44. 
Pipilo chlorurus, 103. 
Pipit, 10, 11, 15, 17, 20, 22, 106. 
Piranga ludoviciana. 104. 
Pituophis catenifer, 8, 110. 
Planorbis ttivolvis, 27. 
Polemonium confertum, 10, 22. 
Pooca-tes gramineus confinis, 13, 102. 
Poor-will, 98. 
Poplar, 16. 

Balsam, 16, 25, 27. 
Popple, 27. 
Populus balsamifera, 16, 25, 27. 

tremuloidea, 11, 13, 14, 16, 21, 23, 25, 27. 
Porcupine, 7, 12, 18, 21, 22, 24, 32, 72. 

Yellow-haired, 72. 
Porzana Carolina, 91. 
Potentilla fruticosa, 11, 14, 18, 23, 24, 

nivea dissecta, 11, 22. 
Prairie dog, 40, 41. 

Plateau, 40. 
Procyon lotor, 6, 7, 32, 86. 
Procyonidas, 31. 
Pseudotsuga douglasii, 11, 13, 14, 16, 17, 23, 25, 26, 

27, 48. 
Furshia tridentata, 7. 
Pntonus longicauda, 22, 24, 32, 83-S4. 
Pyrola secunda, 11, 23. 
Quail, Eastern, 92-93. 
Quakenasp, 27. 

Rabbit, Black-tailed Jack, 7, 9, 13, 15, 25, 32, 78-79. 
Great Basin Cotton-tail, 7, 9, 13, 32,75,77,79. 
Idaho Pygmy, 7, 9, 13, 25, 32, 75-78. 
Sage Cotton-tail, 7, 9, 13, 32, 75, 77, 79. 
Snow-shoe, 12, 14, 16, 18, 24, 32, 79. 
White-tailed Jack, 7, 9, 13, 15, 32, 78. 
Raccoon, 6, 7, 32, 86. 
Rana pretiosa, II, 18, 112-113. 
Rangifer caribou, 32,80. 
Rat, Bushy-tailed Wood, 22, 24, 32, 57. 
Dusky Wood, 7, 32, 58. 
Kangaroo, 7, 9, 15, 25, new genus described 

115-117. 
Ord's Kangaroo, 7, 25, 32, 71. 
Wood, 15. 
Rattlesnake, 8, 9, 111. 
Raven, 7, 100. 

Recurvirostra americana, 91. 
Redhead, 19, 90. 
Regulus calendula, 12, 15, 20, 23, 107. 

satrapa, 15, 20, 107. 
Reptiles collected, 109-111. 
Reptilia, 109-111. 
Rhynchophanes mccownii, 102. 
Ribes, 18. 

cereuin, 11, 23, 93. 
tloridum, 11, 23. 
irriguuin, 11, 23. 
Robin, Western, 18, 20, 108. 
Round Valley, description of, 15. 
Rubus nutkanus, 11, 18, 23. 
strigosus, 11,23. 



126 



INDEX. 



SaccomyidaB, 31. 

Sage, 7, 9, 13, 15, 24, 46, 76. 

Sage Hen, 7, 13, 17, 24, 93. 

Salamander, 68. 

Salix reticulata, 10, 22, 44, 65. 

Salmon, 8, 13, 14. 

Nerka, 17. 
Salmon River Mountains, description of, 9-12. 

life zones of, 10-12. 
Salpinctes obsoletus, 106. 
Sandpiper, Solitary, 92. 
Spotted, 92. 
"Western, 92. 
Sarcobatus vermieulatus, 7, 9, 13, 15, 25, 46-47. 
Saw Tooth Mountains, description of, 17-20. 
birds of, 19-20. 
mammals of, 18. 
Saxifraga bronchialis, 11, 23. 
Sayornis saya, 98-99. 
Sceloporus graciosns, 8, 109. 
Sciuridas, 31. 

Sciuropterus volans sabrinus, 12, 18, 24, 31, 51-52. 
Sciurus budsonicus, 49. 

richardsoni, 12, 14, 16, 24, 26, 31, 48-51, 83, 

94. 
sabrinus, 12, 18, 24, 31, 51-52. 
Scolecopbagus cyanocephalus, 13, 101. 
Seduni debile, 11, 22. 
Selaginella rupestris, 22. 
Senecio, 73. 

aureus compactus, 11, 22. 
canus, 11, 23. 
Service Berry, 18. 
Seven Sleepers, 40. 

Sheep, Mountain, 4, 10, 14, 18, 22, 32, 81. 
Shoveller, 90. 
Shrew, Dobson's, 33-34. 

Idaho, 18, 24, 31, 32-33. 
Marsh, 31, 35. 
"Water, 18, 24. 
Shrews, 12, 14, 18, 34-35. 
Shrike, Great Northern, 105. 

"White-rumped, 13, 25, 105. 
Sialia arctica, 12, 20, 23, 108. 
Sibbaldia procumbens, 10, 22. 
Silene acaulis, 10, 22. 

douglassi, 11, 22. 
Siskin, Pine, 12, 20, 23, 102. 
Sitta canadensis, 12, 23, 107. 

carolinensis aculeata, 20, 107. 
Skunk, 32, 85. 

Little Striped, 7, 32, 84-85. 
Snake, Bull, 8,110. 

Garter, 12, 15, 110. 
Snake Plains, general description of, 5-8. 
Snipe, Jack, 15. 

"Wilson's, 92. 
Solidago virgaurea alpina, 11, 22. 
Solitaire, Townsend's, 15, 23, 108. 
Sora, 91. 
Sorex (genus), 16, 31. 

dobsoni, 18, 24, 31, 33-34. 
idahoensis, 18, 24, 31, 32-33. 
palustris, 31, 35. 
personatus, 32, 33, 34. 
platyrhinus, 32, 33. 



Sorex vagrans, 32, 34. 

similis, 14, 24, 31, 34-35. 
Soricidss, 31. 

Sparrow, Brewer's, 7, 25, 103. 
English, 102. 
Intermediate, 20, 103. 
Lincoln's, 15, 20, 103. 
Mountain Song, 103. 
Sage, 7, 9, 25, 103. 
"Western Chipping, 20, 103. 
"Western Lark, 102. 
"Western Savanna, 102. 
"Western Vesper, 13, 102. 
"White-crowned, 102. 
Spatula clypeata, 90. 
Speotyto cunicularia hypogasa, 7, 25, 97. 
Spermophile, Gray, 39. 

Kennicott's, 24, 31, 36, 37, 39. 
Mountain, 31, 36, 38. 
Parry's, 41. 

Townsend's, 7, 25, 36-38. 
Spermophiles, burrows of, 14, 18. 
Spermophilus (genus), 31. 

armatus, 31, 36, 38. 
columbianus, 31, 36, 39-42. 
elegans,24, 31, 36, 37, 39. 
empetra erythroglutasus, 39, 40, 41. 
grammurus, 24. 
mollis, 36, 37. 

elegans, 36. 
parryi erythrogluteia, 39. 
richardsoni, 37, 39. 

townsendi, 39. 
townsendi, 25, 31, 36-38, 39, 94. 
Spilogale saxatilis, 7, 32, 84-85. 
Spinus pinus, 12, 20, 23, 102. 

tristis, 102. 
Spirasa (Eriogynia) caespitusa, 23. 
Spizella breweri, 7, 25, 103. 

socialis arizonas, 20, 103. 
Spruce, Engelman's, 11, 17, 22, 23, 25, 26, 27. 

White, 11, 14, 16, 17, 23, 25, 27, 48. 
Squirrel, Burrowing, 4, 39-42. 
Eastern Red, 49, 50. 
Gray Ground, 12, 16, 18, 42-44. 
Ground, 40, 41. 

Hudsonian Plying, 12, 18, 24, 31, 51-52. 
Richardson's, 12, 14, 16, 18, 24, 26, 31, 48- 
51, 83, 94. 
Stenopalmatus fasciatus, 8. 
Sterna forsteri, 89. 
Stilt, Black-necked, 91. 
Sturgeon, 8. 

Sturnella neglecta, 13, 17, 101. 
Surnia ulula caparoch, 96. 
Swallow, Bank, 104. 
Barn, 104. 
Cliff, 104. 
Violet-green, 104. 
Swan, Trumpeter, 91. 
Sylvania pusilla pileolata, 94, lOo. 
Symphemia semipalmata inornata, 92. 
Tachycineta thalassina, 104. 
Tamias (genus), 31. 

amoenus, 44-45. 

cinerascens, 16, 22, 24, 31, 42-44. 






INDEX 



127 



Tamias minimus melanurus 46. 

pictus, 7, 9, 13, 17, 24, 25, 31, 46-48, 
94. 
quadrivittatusaracenus, 14, 22, 24, 31, 44-46. 
luteiventris, 44-45. 
Tanager, Louisiana, 104. 
Taxidea aniericana, 7, 13, 18, 32, 75, 76, 85. 
Teal, Blue- winged, 19, 90. 
Cinnamon, 90. 
Green-winged, 13, 90. 
Tern, Forster's, 89. 
Tetradyniia canescens, 7, 9, 13, 25, 76. 
Thomomys borealis, 68. 

clusius, 32, 68-69, 70. 

fuscus, 32, 69-70. 
fulvus, 70. 
talpoides, 70. 
townsendi, 68. 
Thrasher, Sage, 7, 9, 25, 106. 
Thrush, Audubon's Hermit, 12, 23, 108. 

Olive-backed, 108. 
Titlark, 10, 11, 15, 17, 20, 22, 106. 
Toad, Horned, 8, 9, 109-110. 
Totanus solitarius, 92. 
Towhee, Green-tailed, 103. 
Trees of mountain forests, 25-27. 
Trochilus platycercus, 98. 

sp. ? 98. 
Troglodytes aedon aztecus, 107. 

hiemalis, 20, 107. 
Turdus aonalaschkaj auduboni, 12, 23, 108. 

ustulatua swainsonii, 108. 
Tyrannus tyranuus, 98. 
verticalis, 98. 
Uriuator imber, 19, 89. 
TJrsid;e, 31. 

Ursus americanus, 24, 32, 87. 
horribilis, 24, 32, 86-87. 
Vaccinium microphyllum, 11, 23. 
Valley at Head of Salmon River, 17. 
Valley of Big Wood River, 16-17. 
Vespertilio nitidus, 31, 36. 
Vespertilionidoo, 31. 
Vireo, Cassin's, 105. 

Western Warbling, 105. 
gilvus swainsoni, 105. 



Vireo solitarius cassini, 105. 
Vole 96 (see Arvicola). 
Vulpes macrourus, 32, 82. 
Vulture, Turkey, 13, 94. 
Wapiti, 80 (see Elk). 
Warbler, Audubon's, 12, 20, 23, 105. 
Black-capped, 94, 106. 
Macgillivray's, 105. 
Orange-crowned, 105. 
Pileolated, 106. 
Yellow, 105. 
Water Courses, effects on distribution of spe- 
cies, 28. 
Waxwing, Bohemian, 104-105. 

Cedar, 105. 
Weasel, Long-tailed, 22, 24, 32, 83-84. 
Weasels, 12, 18, 21. 
Wildcat, Plateau, 7, 32, 81-82. 
Willet, Western, 92. 
Willow, Dwarf, 10, 22, 44, 65. 
Wolf, Prairie, 7, 13, 32, 76, 82. 

Timber, 32, 82. 
Wolverine, 12, 18, 24, 32, 85. 
Woodpecker, Alpino Three-toed, 97. 

Arctic Three-toed, 19, 97. 
Cabanis's, 19, 97. 
Downy, 97. 
Lewis's, 97. 
Pileated, 97. 
Red-shafted, 20, 98. 
White-headed, 97. 
Wren, Canon, 7, 107. 

Long-billed Marsh, 107. 
Rock, 106. 

Western House, 107. 
Winter, 20, 107. 
Xanthocephalus xanthocephalus, 101. 
Xonopicus albolarvatus, 97. 
Yellow-throat, Western, 105. 
Zaphrentis, 10. 
Zapodidic, 31. 

Zapus hudsonius, 12, 24, 32, 72-73. 
Zenaidura macroura, 94. 
Zonotrichia intermedia, 20, 103. 
leucophrys, 15, 102. 



PLATE II. 
(All magnified about 10 diameters.) 

1,2. Arvicola riparius Ord, $ ad. (No. fjfSH). Birch Creek, Idaho. 

1. Upper molar series. 

2. Lower molar series. 

3,4. Arvicola mordax sp. nov. $ ad. (No. f^fff). Saw Tooth Mountains, Idaho. Type. 

3. Upper molar series. 

4. Lower molar series. 

5,6. Arvicola nanus sp. nov. $ ad. (No. § -j|f§). Pahsimeroi Mountains, Idaho. Type. 

5. Upper molar series. 

6. Lower molar series. 

7,8. Arvicola macropus sp. nov. 9 ad. (No. f^flj). Pahsimeroi Mountains, Idaho. 
Type. 

7. Upper molar series. 

8. Lower molar series. 
128 



North American Fauna, No. 5. 



Plate 




i. ■.'. . Irvlcola riparius < »rd. 
3, I. .1. mordax sp. qov. 



'). 6. .1. nanijLs sp. nov. 
,8. .1. macropus sp. nov. 



PLATE in. 

(All magnified about 15 diameters. ; 

1,2. ArvicolaixiujyerrimusCoopei, 9 ad. (No. J^f^f). Salmon River Mountains, Idaho. 

1. Upper molar series. 

2. Lower molar series. 

3,4. Phenacomys orophilus sp. nov. 9 ad. (No. f-jfff). Salmon River Mountains, 
Idaho. Type. 

3. Upper molar series. 

4. Lower molar series. 

.5,6. Evotomys idahoensis sp. nov. 9 ad. (No. fif-fj). Saw Tooth Mountains, Idaho. 
Type. 

5. Upper molar series. 

6. Lower molar series. 

7,8. Evotomys brevicaudus sp. nov. $ ad. (No. f£$f). Black Hills, Dakota. Type. 
?. Upper molar series. 
8. Lower molar series. 

130 



North American Fauna, No. 5 



Plate II 




I, 2 A rvicola pauperrimus Cooper. 
'■',. i. Phenacomys orophilus sp. nov. 



5, G Evofomys idahoensis sp. nov. 
7. 8. Evotomys brevicaudus sp. nov. 



PLATE IV. 

(All magnified about 10 diameters. ) 

1. Sorex idahoensis sp. nov. 9 ad. (No. f jfff)- Type. Salmon River Mountains, 

Idaho. 

2. Sorex dobsoni sp. nov. 9 (No. fifff). Type. Saw Tooth Mountains, Idaho. 

3. Sorex vagrans similis subsp. nov. 9 ad. (No. f$f ff ). Type. Salmon River Moun- 

tains, Idaho. 

132 



North American Fauna, No. 5. 



Plate IV. 




l. Sorex idahoensis sp. nov. 2. S. dobsoni sp. nov. 

3. $. Migrans eimihs subsp. nov. 



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