(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "North American fauna"

Accessions 



gA_ ^k Saelf ? 




W&~ ' ffV ; ft. 

,<>. HD.'-'Ori'.V.v.fi, S'Js** 







*Y 



O "*>' 




U.S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 

DIVISION OF ORNITHOLOGY AND MAMMALOGY 



NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 

:n"o. 7 

PUBLISHED BY AUTHORITY OF THK SECRETARY OF AGRICULTURE 
[Actual date of publication, May 31, 1893] 




THE DEATH VALLEY EXPEDITION 

A BIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF PARTS OF CALIFORNIA, NEVADA, 
ARIZONA, AND UTAH 



:p.a.:rt ii 



1. Report on Birds. By A. K. Fisheh, M. D. 

2. Report on Reptiles and Batrachians. By Leonhard Stejxeger 

3. Report on Fishes. By Charles H. Gilbert, Ph. D. 

4. Report on Insects. By C. V. Riley, Ph. D. 

5. Report on Mollusks. By R. E. C. Stearns, Ph. D. 

(5. Report on Desert Trees and Shrubs. By C. Hart Merriam, M. D. 

7. Report on Desert Cactuses and Yuccas. By C. Hart Merriam. M. I). 

8. List of Localities. By T. S. PALMER 



WASHINGTON 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 

1S93 



U.S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 

DIVISION OF ORNITHOLOGY AND MAMMALOGY 



NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 

ISTo. 7' 

PUBLISHED BY AUTHORITY OF THE SECRETARY OF AGRICULTURE 
[Actual date of publication, May 31, 1893] 




THE DEATH VALLEY EXPEDITION 

K BIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF PARTS OF CALIFORNIA, NEVADA, 
ARIZONA, AND UTAH 



:p_^:r/t ii 



1. Report on Birds. By A. K. Fisher, M. D. 

2. Report on Reptiles and Batrachians. By Leonhard Ste.jxe<;er 

3. Report on Fishes. By Charles H. Gilbert. Ph. D 

4. Report on Insects. By C. V. Riley, Ph. D. 

5. Report on Mollusks. By R. E. ('. Stearns, Ph. D. 

(5. Report on Desert Trees and Shrubs. By C. Hart Mekeiam, M. D. 

7. Report on Desert Cactuses and Yuccas. By C. Hart Meeelym, M. D. 

8. List of Localities. Bv T. S. Palmer 



WASHINGTON 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 



1893 



I 1, 



LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL, 



U. IS. Department of Agriculture, 

Washington, D. C, December 28, 1892. 
Sir : I have the honor to transmit herewith the manuscript of North 
American Fauna, No. 7, consisting of Part n of the report on the results 
of the Death Valley Expedition, a biological survey of southern Cali- 
fornia, southern Nevada, and parts of Utah and Arizona, carried on by 
your authority in 1891. It consists of the special reports on birds, rep- 
tiles, batrachians, fishes, molluscs, insects, and the desert shrubs, cac- 
tuses, and yuccas, and is accompanied by a list of localities. 

Part I, comprising the general report (itinerary, description of the 
region, and discussion of life zones) and the report on mammals, is not 
yet ready for the ijress. 

Eespectfully, 

C. Hart Merriam, 
Chief of Division of 

Ornithology and Mammalogy. 
Hon. J. M. Rusk, 

Secretary of Agriculture. 

H 



CONTENTS. 



PAGE. 

Report on Birds. By A. K. Fisher, M. D 7-158 

Report on Reptiles and Batrachians. By Leonbard Stejneger 159-228 

Report on Fishes. By Charles H. Gilbert, Ph: D 229-234 

Report on Insects. By C. V. Riley, Ph. D., S. W. Williston, P. R. Uhler, and 

Lawrence Brnner 235-268 

Report on Mollusks. By R. E. C. Stearns, Ph. D 269-283 

Report on Desert Trees and Shrnbs. By C. Hart Merriam, M. D 285-343 

Report on Desert Cactuses and Yuccas. By C. Hart Merriam, M. D 345-359 

List of Localities. By T. S. Palmer 361-384 



ILLUSTRATIONS. 



Frontispiece: Mohave Desert, California, showing tree yuccas. 
Plate I. 1, Sceloporus clarlcii; 2, S. magister; 3, S. zoster omus; 4, S. orcuiti: 5, S. 
boulengeri; 6, S. floridanus. 
II. 1, Phrynosoma cornutum; 2, P. blainvillii; 3, P. goodei; 4, P. plat y rhinos. 

III. 1, Xantusiavigilis; 2, SalvadorahexaJepis; 3, Bufo halophilus; 4, B. boreas 

nelsoni, subsp. nov. ; 5, Rana fisheri. sp. nov. 

IV. Sauromalutt ater. 

V. Empetrichthys merriami gen. et. sp. nov. 
VI. 1, Rhinichthys nevadensis sp. nov.; 2, B. velifer sp. nov. 
VII. Opuntia acanthocarpa. 
VIII. Opuntia acanthocarpa. 
IX. Opuntia tvhipplei. 
X. Opuntia parryi. 
XI. Opuntia rutila. 
XII. Yucca baccata. 

XIII. Yucca arborescens. 

XIV. Yucca macrocarpa. 

FIGURES IN TEXT. 

Fig. 1. Amnicola micrococcus, page 277. 

2. Fluminicola merriami, page 282. . 

MAPS. 

Map 1. General route map of the expedition. 

2. Lower division of the Lower Sonoran zone. 

3. Distribution of LeConte's thrasher (Harporhynchus lecontei). 

4. Distribution of the creosote bush (Larrea tridentata). 

5. Distribution of the tree yucca (Yucca arborescens). 



No. 7. NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. May, 1893. 



REPORT ON THE ORNITHOLOGY OF THE DEATH VALLEY EXPEDITION 
OF 1891, COMPRISING NOTES ON THE BIRDS OBSERVED IN SOUTHERN 
CALIFORNIA, SOUTHERN NEVADA, AND PARTS OF ARIZONA AND UTAH. 



By A. K. Fisher, M. D. 



The present report includes an enumeration of all the birds observed 
throughout the region traversed by the different members of the expe- 
dition. It was considered advisable to unite all the observations in 
one general report rather than attempt to treat of the avifauna of 
special localities in a number of separate papers. At the same time a 
few local lists may be found under particular areas in Part I. 

A number of side trips were made to special localities by small parties, 
which not only materially increased the observations on the birds 
already met with, but also added a number of species to the list. Among 
these trips may be mentioned one made by Dr. Merriam and Mr. Bailey, 
who extended their observations as far east as St. George, Utah. 
They were thereby enabled to add valuable notes on several of the birds 
of the Great Basin not seen elsewhere. After the main party had dis- 
banded in the fall, a trip was made by Mr. Nelson along the coast from 
San Simeon to Carpenteria, and one to Monterey by Mr. Bailey, which 
resulted in partially filling up a wide gap among the water birds. 

Owing to the unusual interest shown in matters relating to Death 
Valley, and to the entire absence of reliable information concerning the 
species inhabiting this area, it seemed best to append a special list of 
the birds observed there, with brief annotations. This list is believed 
to be reasonably complete, since the valley was visited by one or more 
members of the expedition every month except May, from January to 
June inclusive. A list of the species found in Owens Valley is added 
for comparison. (See pp. 150-158.) 

The known ranges of a number of species were much extended by the 
expedition, notably in the cases of Oreortyx pictus plumiferus, Dryobates 
scalaris bairdi, Chordeiles texensis, Pyrocephalus rubineus mexicanus, 
Calypte costce, Icterus parisorum, Leucosticte tephrocotis, Junco hyemalis 
thurberi, Spizella atrigularis, Peuccea cassini, Harporliynchus leeontei, 
and a few others ; and the distribution of many better- known species 
was more definitely determined. 



8 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. [No. 7. 

The known range of tlie plumed quail (Oreortyx pietitf, plumiferus) was 
carried eastward from the eastern slope of the Sierra Nevada to Mount 
Magruder, Nevada, and to all the desert ranges of southern California 
west of Death Valley. This valley apparently limits the distribution of 
this bird on the east, as the species was nowhere seen in the Grapevine 
or Charleston mountains, although both ranges are well timbered and 
bear brush which might afford suitable food and shelter. 

Baird's woodpecker (Dryobates scalaris bairdi) was quite common 
among the tree yuccas on the Mohave Desert at Hesperia, and its range 
was extended northward to Vegas Valley, Nevada, and the valley of 
the Santa Clara, in southwestern Utah, by Dr. Merriam. The vermilion 
flycatcher also was secured in the same valley, though previously un- 
known north of Fort Mohave, Ariz. The Texas nighthawk (Ghordeiles 
texensis) was found to be a common summer resident in all the valleys 
east of the Sierra Nevada from Owens Valley, California, to St. George, 
Utah, where Dr. Merriam secured the eggs. It was taken also in the 
San Joaquin Valley, California, near Bakersfield. Scott's oriole {Icterus 
parisorum) is another species whose range was carried northward from 
a short distance above our southern border in California to about lati- 
tude 38°, where it was common in places among the tree yuccas, and 
also on the slopes of some of the desert ranges as high as the junipers 
and piiions. Along the northern line of distribution it was found in 
Nevada at the Queen mine in the White Mountains, at Mount Magru- 
der, and in the Juniper Mountains, and in Utah in the Beaverdam Moun- 
tains. Costa's humming bird (Calypte costce) was very common wher- 
ever water occurred throughout the desert region, ranging northward 
nearly to latitude 38°, and eastward to the Beaverdam Mountains, 
Utah. Its nest was frequently found in the low bushes and cactuses on 
the hillsides near springs and streams. 

The discovery that the gray-crowned finch (Leucosticte tephrocotis) 
breeds in the southern Sierra and in the White Mountains is especially 
interesting both because its breeding range was previously unknown, 
and because no species of the genus had been recorded from the Sierra 
Nevada south of about latitude 40°, while the present species was com- 
mon nearly to the 36th parallel. 

Most satisfactory results were accomplished in working out the dis- 
tribution of Thurber's junco (Junco hyemalis thurberi), a recently de- 
scribed race whose range was not definitely known. In the Sierra 
Nevada it was common from the Yosemite Valley, the most northern 
point visited by any member of the expedition, to the southern end of 
the range, and in the desert ranges eastward to the Grapevine and 
Charleston mountains, where its place was occupied, in winter at least, 
by its more eastern representative, Shufeldt's junco. The little black- 
chinned sparrow (Spizclla atrigularis) was found to be not an uncom- 
mon summer resident on the slopes of several of the desert ranges and 
also on the east slope of the Sierra Nevada as far north as Independ- 



MAYJ893] BIRDS OF THE DEATH VALLEY EXPEDITION. 9 

ence Creek in Kearsarge Pass. This was a great surprise, as hereto- 
fore the species has been recorded within our limits only along the 
southern border, and its presence was not suspected until a specimen 
was taken iu the Panamint Mountains in April. 

LeConte's thrasher (Harporkynchus lecontei), contrary to our expecta- 
tions, was a common resident throughout the principal desert valleys 
from Owens Valley at the east foot of the Sierra Nevada across south- 
ern California and Nevada to southwestern Utah, where it was found 
nearly to the summit of the Beaverdam Mountains. Northward it was 
observed in Owens Valley almost to Benton, a short distance south of 
the 38th parallel. It was also taken by Mr. Nelson in the southern part 
of the San Joaquin Valley, California, about Bueua Vista Lake. 

The bird life of a region is materially affected by various agencies, 
such as changes in the character of the country brought about by the 
destruction of forests, the drying up of springs and water courses, and 
other causes. But in the High Sierra the sheep industry is doing more 
than anything else to make that region uninhabitable for certain species 
of birds and also for other forms of life, as long since pointed out by 
Mr. Henshaw (Appendix JJ, Annual Report of the Chief of Engineers 
for 1876, p. 225). During the summer the sheep almost totally destroy 
all the smaller plants and shrubs which, except in the wet meadows, 
do not grow again until the following spring. The writer has walked 
for miles along the hillsides where these animals had recently grazed 
without seeing a plant of any description save the larger woody shrubs. 
That the destruction of vegetation by sheep in this region is a potent 
cause of the scarcity of ground-inhabiting birds is evident by contrast 
to anyone visiting the national parks where no sheep are allowed to 
graze and where the vegetation is consequently uninjured and many 
species of birds abundant. 

One member of the expedition, Mr. Vernon Bailey, traversed the 
Virgin Valley in southwestern Utah and eastern Nevada and the 
Detrital and Sacramento valleys, Arizona, during the winter of 18SS-'89. 
His notes on several of the birds observed are incorporated in the 
present report. 

With few exceptions it was thought better not to include matter 
from published reports partially cohering the same region, since most 
of this material has been republished already in Mr. Belding's Land 
Birds of the Pacific Coast District. 

In the following report 290 species and subspecies of birds are dwelt 
upon at greater or less length. The nomenclature adopted is that of 
the American Ornithologists' Union. 

The writer wishes to extend his sincere thanks to all members of the 
expedition who assisted in collecting specimeus or information for the 
present report. He wishes also to acknowledge the kindness of Mr. L. 
Belding, who furnished data on certain birds observed by him during a 
short trip to the Yoseniite National Park in June, 1891. In all important 
instances credit is given to the observer under the head of each species. 



10 



NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. 



[No. 7. 



Without this substantial help, so freely given, little more than a frag- 
mentary report would have been possible. 



LIST OF BIRDS. 



1. JEchmophorus occidentalis. 


51. 


2. Colymbus nigricollis californicus. 


52. 


3. Podilymbus podiceps. 


53. 


4. Urinator imber. 


54. 


5. Urinator pacifcus. 


55. 


6. Urinator lumme. 


56. 


7. Uria troile californica. 


57. 


8. Larus glaucescens. 


58. 


9. Larus califomieus. 


59. 


10. Larus delawarensis. 


60. 


11. Larus heermanni. 


61. 


12. Larus Philadelphia. 


62. 


13. Sterna maxima. 


63. 


14. Phalacrocorax dilophus albocUiaius. 


64. 


15. Phalacrocorax penicillatus. 


65. 


16. Phalacrocorax pelagicus resplendens. 


66. 


17. Pelecanus erythrorhynchos. 


67. 


18. Pelecanus californicus. 


68. 


19. Merganser americanus. 


69. 


20. Merganser serrator. 


70. 


21. Jwfls boschas. 


71. 


22. ^in«s strepera. 


72. 


23. ^?ms americana. 


73. 


24. ^»«8 carolinensis. 


74. 


25. Jmas discors. 


75. 


26. J««s cyanoptera. 


76. 


27. Spatula clypeata. 


77. 


28. Dafila acuta. 


78. 


29. Aythya americana. 


79. 


30. Aythya vallisneria. 


80. 


31. Aythya collaris. 


81. 


32. Glaucionetta clangula americana. 


82. 


33. Charitonetta albeola. 


83. 


34. Hi8trionicu8 histrionicus. 


84. 


35. Oidemia americana. 


85. 


36. Oidemia perspicilla ta. 


86. 


37. Erismatura rubida. 


87. 


38. C7i.en hyperborea. 


88. 


39. Anser albifrons gambeli. 


89. 


40. Branta canadensis hutchinsii. 


90. 


41. Branta canadensis occidentalis. 


91. 


42. Dendrocygna fnlva. 


92. 


43. Plegadis guarauna. 


93. 


44. Botauru8 lentiginosus. 


94. 


45. Ardea hwodias. 


95. 


46. Ardea cgretta. 


96. 


47. Ardea virescens. 


97. 


48. Nycticorax nycticorax ncevius. 


98. 


49. Gr«s canadensis. 


99. 


50. Ballus virginianus. 


100. 



Porzana Carolina. 

Fulica americana. 

Phalaropus tricolor. 

Becurvirostra americana. 

Himantopus mexicanus. 

Gallinago delicata. 

Tringa minutilla. 

Ereunetes occidentalis. 

Calidris arenaria. 

Limosa fedoa. 

Totanus melanoleucus. 

Symphemia semipalmata inornata. 

Heteractitis incan us. 

Aeiitis macularia. 

Numenius longirosfris. 

Numenius hudsonicus. 

Charadrius squatarola. 

Aigialitis vocifera. 

JEgialitis nivosa. 

JEgialitis montana. 

Oreortyx piclus plumiferus. 

Callipepla californica. 

Callipepla californica vallicola. 

Callipepla gambeli. 

Dendragapus obscurus fuliginosus. 

Cen trocercus urophasia n us. 

Columba fasciata. 

Zenaidura macroura. 

Pseudogryphus californianus. 

Cathartes aura. 

Elanus leucurus. 

Circus hudsonius. 

Accipiter velox. 

Accipiter cooperi. 

Accipiter atricapillus siriatulus. 

Buteo borealis calurus. 

Buteo lineatus elcgans. 

Buteo swainsoni. 

Archibuteo ferrugineus. 

Aquila chrysabtos. 

Haliatctus leucocephalus. 

Falco mexicanus. 

Ealco peregrinus anaium. 

Falco columbarius. 

Falco sparrerius descrlicolns. 

Pandion haliaclus carolinensis. 

Strix pratincola. 

Asio wilsonianus. 

Asio accipitrinus. 

Syrnium occidentale. 



May, 1893.] 



BIRDS OF THE DEATH VALLEY EXPEDITION. 



11 



LIST OF BIRDS— Continued. 



101. Megascops asio bendirei. 155. 

102. Bubo rirginianus subarcticus. 156. 

103. Speotyto cunicularia hypogwa. 157. 

104. Geoeoccyx California)) us. 158. 

105. Coccyzus americanus occidentalis. 159. 

106. Ceryle alcyon. 160. 

107. Dryobates villosus hyloscopus. 161. 

108. Dryobates pubescens gairdnoii. 162. 

109. Dryobates scalaris bairdi. 163. 

110. Dryobates nuttallii. 164. 

111. Xenopicus albolarratus. 165. 

112. Sphyrapicus varius nuchalis. 166. 

113. Sphyrapicus ruber. . 167. 

114. Sphyrapicus thyroideus. 168. 

115. Ceophleeus pileatus. 169. 

116. Melanerpes formicirorous bairdi. 170. 

117. Melanerpes torquatus. 171. 

118. Melanerpes uropygialis. 172. 

119. Colaptes cafer. 173. 

120. Phalainoptilus nuttalli. 174. 

121. Phalcenoptilus nuttalli calif ornicus. 175. 

122. Chordeiles rirginianus henryi. 176. 

123. Chordeiles texensis. 177. 

124. Cypseloides niger. 178. 

125. Chaztura vauxi. 179. 

126. Aeronantes melanoleucus. 180. 

127. Troehilus alexandri. 181. 

128. Calypte costw. 182. 

129. Calypteanna. 183. 

130. Selasphorm platycercus. 184. 

131. Selasphorus rvfus. 185. 

132. Stellula calliope. 186. 

133. Tyrannus tyravnus. 187. 

134. Tyrannus vertiealis. 188. 

135. Tyrannus vociferous. 189. 

136. Myiarchus cinerascens. 190. 

137. Sayornis saya. 191. 

138. Sayornis nigricans. 192. 

139. Contopus borealis. 193. 

140. Contopus ricliardsonii. 194. 

141. Empidonax difficilis. 195. 

142. Empidonax pu sill us. 196. 

143. Empidonax liammondi. 197. 

144. Empidonax wrightii. 198. 

145. Pyrocephalus rnbineus mexicavus. 199. 

146. Otocoris alpesfris arcnicola. 200. 

147. Otocoris alpestris chrysolcema. 201. 

148. Pica pica hudsonica. 202. 

149. Pica nuttalli. 203. 

150. Cyanocitta stellcri. 204. 

151. Cyanocitta stelleri frontalis. 205. 

152. Apbelocoma woodhousci. 206. 

153. Aphelocoma californica. 207. 

154. Corvus corax sinuatus. 208. 



Corvus americanus. 

Picicorvus cohunbianus. 

Cyanocephalus cyanocephalus. 

Molothrus ater. 

Xanthocephalus xanthocephalus. 

Agelaius phceniceus. 

Agelaius gubernatov. 

Sturnella magna neglecta. 

Icterns parisorum. 

Icterus bullocki. 

Scolecophagus cyanocephalus. 

Coccothraustes vespertin us. 

Pinicola enucleator. 

Carpodacus purpureus calif ornicus. 

Carpodacus cassini. 

Carpodacus mexican us fron ta lis. 

Loxia curvirostra stricklandi. 

Leucosticte tephrocotis. 

Leucosticte atrata. 

Spin us tristis. 

Spin us psaltria. 

Spin us j)saltria arizonis. 

Spin us laivrencei. 

Spinus pinus. 

Poocaztcs gramineus confinis. 

Ammodramus sand'.cichensis al uadinus. 

Ammodramus sandwichensis bryanti. 

Chondestes grammacus strigatus. 

Zonotrichia leucophrys. 

Zonotrichia leucophrys intermedia. 

Zonotrichia leucophrys gambeli. 

Zonotrichia coronata. 

Zonotrichia albicollis. 

Spizella monticola ochracea. 

Spizella socialis arizonos. 

Spizella breweri. 

Spizella atrigularis. 

Junco hyemalis. 

Junco hyemalis shufeldti. 

Junco hyeinalis thurberi. 

Junco pinosus. 

Amphispiza bilineata. 

Amphispiza belli. 

Amphispiza belli nevadensis. 

Peucwa cassini. 

Peuca>,a ruficeps. 

Melospiza fasciata fallax. 

Melospiza fasciata m on ta n a. 

Melospiza fasciata heerm anni. 

Melospiza fasciata guttata. 

Melospiza fasciata rufina. 

Melospiza fasciata gram inea. 

Melospiza lincolni. 

Passtrella iliaca unalaschcensia. 



12 



NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. 



[Xo. 7. 



LIST OF BIRDS— Continued. 



209. 
210. 
211. 
212. 
213. 
214. 
215. 
216. 
217. 
218. 
219. 
220. 
221. 
222. 
223. 
224. 
225. 
226. 
227. 
228. 
229. 
230. 
231. 
232. 
233. 
234. 
235. 
236. 
237. 
238. 
239. 
240. 
241. 
242. 
243. 
244. 
245. 
246. 
247. 
248. 
249. 



Passerella iliaca megarhyncha. 
Passerella iliaca schistacea. 
Pipilo maculatus megalonyx. 
Pipilo maculatus oregonus. 
Pipilo chlorurus. 
Pipilo fuscus mesoleucus. 
Pipilo fuscus crissalis. 
Pipilo aberti. 
Habia melanocephala. 
Guiraca cwrulea eurhynclia. 
Passerina amcena. 
Calamospiza melanocorys. 
Piranga ludoviciana. 
Piranga hepatica. 
Progne suMs hesperia. 
Petroclielidon lunifrons. 
Chelidon erythrogaster. 
Tachycineta bicolor. 
Tachycineta thalassina. 
Clivicola riparia. 
Stelgidopteryx serripennis. 
Ampelis cedrorum. 
Phainopepla nitens. 
Lanins ludoricianus excubitorides. 
Vireo gilvus swainsoni. 
Vireo solitarius cassinii. 
Yireo solitarius plumbeus. 
Vireo bellii pusillus. 
vicinior. 



Helminthophila lucice. 

Helminth ophila ruficapilla gutturalit 

Helminthophila celata luiescens. 

Dendroica cestiva. 

Dendroica anduboni. 

Dendroica nigrescens. 

Dendroica townsendi. 

Dendroica occidentalis. 

Seiurus noveboracensis notabilis. 

GeothJypis macgillivrayi. 

Geothlypis trichas occidentalis. 

Icteria virens longicauda. 



250. Sylvania pusilla pileolata. 

251. Anthus pennsylvanicus. 

252. Cinclus mexicanus. 

253. Oroscoptes montanus. 

254. Mimus polyglottos. 

255. Harporhynchus redivivus. 

256. Harporhynchus lecontei. 

257. Harporhynchus crissalis. 

258. Heleodytes brunneicapillus. 

259. Salpinctes obsoletus. 

260. Catherpes mexicanus conspersus. 

261. Thryothorus btwicMi spilurus. 

262. Thryothorus beivickii bairdi. 

263. Troglodytes action aztecus. 

264. Cistothorus 2)alustris paludicola. 

265. Certhia familiaris occidentalis. 

266. Sitta carolinensis aculeata. 

267. Sitta canadensis. 

268. Sitta pygmaa. 

269. Parus inornatus. 

270. Parus inornatus griseua. 

271. Parus gambeli. 

272. Parus rufescens neglectus. 

273. C hama'a fasciata henshawi. 

tfli. Psaltriparus minimus calif or nicus. 
2Ho. Psaltriparus plumbeus. 

276. Auriparus fiaviceps. 

277. Begulus satrapa olivaceus. * 

278. Begulus calendula. 

279. Polioptila cwrulea obscura. 

280. Polioptila plumbea. 

281. Polioptila californica. 

282. Myadestes townsendii. 

283. Turdus ustulatus. 

284. Turdus ustulatus swainsonii. 

285. Turdus aonalaschlcr. 

286. Turdus aonalaschlcw anduboni. 

287. Merula migratoria propinqua. 

288. Hesperocichla nwvia. 

289. Sialia mexicana. 

290. Sialia arctica. 



.ffichmophorus occidentalis. Western Grebe. 

The western grebe was seen only in the San Joaquin Valley, where 
Mr. Nelson observed a few at Bnena Vista Lake, in October. 

Colymbus nigricollis californicus. Eared Grebe. 

The eared grebe was found in most of the larger ponds or lakes 
throughout the region visited by the expedition. At Owens Lake, 
Calif., large flocks were seen as late as the middle of June. Hundreds 
of dead ones were observed along the shore, where they were drifted 
by the wind. The writer counted the bodies found within the limits 
of a given distance, and estimated the total for the entire lake shore 






Mat,1893.] BIRDS OF THE DEATH VALLEY EXPEDITION. 13 

as 35,000. Ooe of two causes, or both combined, must account for the 
death of so many. Either the water, which is saturated with salt and 
soda, is in some way injurious to them, or remaining to search for 
proper food, which does not exist in the lake, they become so weak from 
innutrition as to be unable to fly and die of starvation. 

The mortality observed is not unusual, but seems to be of regular oc- 
currence. Mr. Nelson, while camped at Keeler, in December, 1890, re- 
ported large numbers of dead grebes along the shore, and further stated 
that a light wind, blowing in shore, brought in half a dozen or more 
recently dead and excessively emaciated birds. 

A specimen was secured on the reservoir at Furnace Creek, Death 
Valley, by Mr. Bailey April 11, and another on Pahranagat Lake, where 
many others were seen, May 24. Mr. Nelson saw a single individual in 
a glacier lake at the head of San Joaquin River, which was more likely 
the horned grebe; Mr. Stephens found several at Little Owens Lake, 
May 6-11; and Mr. Palmer observed eight or ten pairs, in full breed- 
ing plumage, on Elizabeth Lake July 2, and several on Crane Lake, near 
Gorman Station, Calif., June 28. Mr. Nelson saw the species at Buena 
Vista Lake, in the San Joaquin Valley, in October, and found it com- 
mon along the coast south of San Simeon in November. 

The horned grebe (Colymbiis auritus) may have been associated with 
the present species in some localities, but it was not identified. 

Eecord of specimens collected of Colymuus nigricollis califomicus. 



Collect-] q 
or's No. &ex ' 


Locality. 


Date. 


Collector. 


Remarks. 


i J 

! « 




Apr. 11, 1891 
June 2, 1891 


V. Bailey 




T. S. Palmer 









Podilymbus podiceps. Pied-billed Grebe. 

A few dabchicks were seen by Mr. Nelson along the coast between 
San Simeon and Carpenteria, in November. 
Urinator sp. ? 

Mr. Nelson reported loons as common along the coast south of San 
Simeon in November. No adults were observed, all the birds being in 
immature plumage and remarkably unsuspicious. It is probable tiiat 
the above note includes two and possibly three species, namely, the 
Pacific, red-throated, and common loons. 
Uria troilecalifornica. California Murre. 

The California murre was found by Mr. Bailey to be common along 
the shore at Monterey, Calif., where a female was secured October 5. 
Larus glaucescens. Glaucous -winged Gull. 

Mr. Nelson found this species common along the coast of California 
south of San Simeon in November. 
Larus californicus. California Gull. 

Mr. Nelson saw three gulls of this species flying up Owens River, 
California, o|)posite Lone Pine, in December, 1800. Along the shores 



14 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. [No. 7. 

of Owens Lake from one to half a dozen were seen almost every day 
through December. A specimen shot on December 28 had its craw full 
of duck meat and feathers, and from the actions of its associates when 
a duck was shot it was evident that they prey upon such game, since 
the lake affords little other food. 

The same observer saw a number of gulls of this species at Buena 
Vista Lake, in the San Joaquin Valley, in October, and found it com- 
mon along the coast from San Simeon to Carpenteria, November 4 to 
December 18, 1891. 
Larus delawarensis. Ring-billed Gull. 

Mr. Nelson observed the ring-billed gull a few times at Owens Lake, 
and secured two specimens at a pond abounding in small fish near Lone 
Pine, in December, 1890. He found it rather common along the coast 
from San Simeon to Carpenteria, November 4 to December 18, 1891. 
Larus heermanui. Heermann's Gull. 

Common along the coast from San Simeon to Carpenteria, November 
4 to December 18, 1891. 
Larus Philadelphia. Bonaparte's Gull. 

Mr. Nelson saw one immature bird on a small lake near Lone Pine 
the last of December, 1890, and found a few along the coast from San 
Simeon to Carpenteria, November 4 to December 18, 1891. 
Sterna maxima. Royal Tern. 

A large tern, which Mr. Nelson reported as this species, was very 
common about the bays and inlets along the coast south of San Simeon. 
Phalacrocorax dilophus albociliatus. Farallone Cormorant. 

Mr. Nelson reported this cormorant as common along the coast from 
San Simeon to Carpenteria, November 4 to December 18. 
Phalacrocorax penicillatus. Brandt's Cormorant. 

Common in the same place. 
Phalacrocorax pelagicus resplendens. Baird's Cormorant. 

Noted by Mr. Nelson at Santa Barbara. 
Pelecanus erythrorhynchos. White Pelican. 

Mr. Stephens saw a flock of white pelicans sailing high in the air, 
midway between Haway Meadows and Olancha, at the southern end of 
Owens Lake, May 15. Mr. Palmer found the wings and shoulder gir- 
dle of one of these birds at Crane Lake, near Old Forfc Tejon, July 2, 
and saw an individual on a small lake at Lone Pine, August 23. 

Mr. Nelson saw the species at Buena Vista Lake, in the San Joa- 
quin Valley, in October, and observed a large flock on Morro Bay in 
November. 

Pelecanus californicus. California Brown Pelican. 

Brown pelicans were common about San Francisco Bay and outside 
of the Golden Gate during the latter part of September. Mr. Bailey 
found them numerous at Monterey, September 28 to October 9, and Mr. 



Mat, 1893.] BIRDS OF THE DEATH VALLEY EXPEDITION. 15 

Nelson found them abundant all along the coast from San Simeon to 
Carpenteria, November 4 to December 18. 
Merganser americanus. Merganser. 

A flock of a dozen or more sheldrakes was seen at Soda Springs 
(locally known as Kern liiver Lakes), in the Sierra Nevada the first 
week in September, and a specimen shot there by Mr. Bailey August 
15, belongs to this species. 
Merganser serrator. Red-breasted Merganser. 

A few red-breasted mergansers, according to Mr. Nelson, were liv- 
ing hi the lakes near Lone Pine in December, 1890, and the remains of 
one were found on the shore of Owens Lake in June. Dr. Merriam shot 
an adult male in a small pond in Vegas Wash, Nevada, May 2, saw 
a pair at the Bend of the Colorado, May 3, and noted three females at 
the mouth of Beaverdam Creek, Arizona, May 9 and 10. 
Anas boschas. Mallard. 

The first mallard seen was a fine adult male, which was secured as 
it arose from one of the irrigating ditches in the alfalfa field at Furnace 
Creek, in Death Y alley, January 23. Mr. Nelson noted several small 
flocks at Saratoga Springs, at the south end of the valley, early in Feb- 
ruary, and a few in Yegas Wash, Nevada, March 3-6. At Ash Mead- 
ows, Nevada, this duck was not uncommon, and a number were secured 
for the mess during the first three weeks in March. Dr. Merriam saw 
a pair of mallards and several single birds in Pahranagat Yalley, Ne- 
vada, May 22-26, and Mr. Stephens noted a few in Oasis Yalley, Nevada, 
March 15-19. In Owens Valley, California, Mr. Nelson found it spar- 
ingly about the lakes at Lone Pine in December, 1890; Mr. Stephens 
saw males and females at Little Owens Lake, May 6-11, and was con- 
fident that it bred in the meadows about Olancha, at the foot of Owens 
Lake, May 16-23. Dr. Merriam shot two and saw others in a small 
tule pond in Kern Valley, California, June 22, and the writer saw sev- 
eral at the same place July 13. At Walker Basin, California, several 
females were seen with their broods of young. A specimen of the lat- 
ter in the down, secured July 13, had its stomach distended with grass- 
hoppers, which insects were abundant every where in the neighborhood 
of the sloughs. 

At Bakersfield, in the San Joaquin Valley, a flock of nearly full- 
grown birds was flushed from one of the old water ditches on July 19. 
At a small pond near Trout Meadows, in the Sierra Nevada, Mr. Bailey 
saw a fiock of ten individuals about the middle of August, and on Sep- 
tember 7 he and the writer saw a flock containing six birds at the 
same place. Mr. Nelson saw the species at Buena Vista Lake in Octo- 
ber, and along the route from San Simeon to Carpenteria, in November 
aud December. 
Anas strepera. Gadwall. 

The gadwall did not begin to arrive at Ash Meadows, Nevada, until 
about March 8, from which time until March 21, when the party left 



16 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. [No.7. 

the vicinity, it increased gradually in numbers and furnished, together 
with many of the other ducks, an agreeable change in the fare. Mr. 
Nelson found the species in small numbers in the bays and creeks be- 
tween San Simeon and Carpenteria, Calif., in November and Decem- 
ber. 
Anas americ ana. Baldpate; Widgeon. 

The spring flight of widgeons began at Ash Meadows, Nevada, about 
March 8, where they soon became common in the small ponds and 
sloughs. This was the only locality where the species was at all com- 
mon. 

Mr. Nelson reported two or three seen and one killed at Saratoga 
Springs, Death Valley, California, early in February; a single bird 
killed in Pahrump Valley, Nevada, the middle of the same month, and 
one seen in Vegas Wash, Nevada, about the middle of March. Dr. 
Merriam mentioned one shot at Furnace Greek in Death Valley, April 
8. Mr. Nelson noted a few widgeons in the bays and creeks between 
San Simeon and Carpenteria, Calif., in November and December. 

Anas carolinensis. Green-winged Teal. 

Small flocks of green- winged teal were seen at Furnace Creek, Death 
Valley, January 23 to February 4. They were found either at the reser- 
voir or in the irrigating ditches which flow through the alfalfa field. 
At Ash Meadows, Nevada, the species was very common, occurring in 
flocks which varied in size from a few individuals to several hundred 
birds. 

Mr. Nelson found it common at Saratoga Springs, in the southern 
end of Death Valley, early in February, at Pahrump Ranch, Nevada, 
February 12-28; and saw small flocks about the large springs in Pah- 
rump and Vegas valleys, March 3-16. 

At Hot Springs, Panamint Valley, the writer saw awing of this spe- 
cies April 20, and Mr. Nelson saw a specimen at the same place m 
January. The latter observer found it common at Buena Vista Lake 
in the San Joaquin Valley, California, in October, and between San 
Simeon and Carpenteria in November and December. 

Anas discors. Blue-winged Teal. 

The blue-winged teal was met with in two localities only. Mr. Steph- 
ens recorded seeing a small flock at Little Owens Lake, May 6-11; and 
the writer shot an individual out of a mixed flock of cinnamon and 
green- winged teal at Ash Meadows, Nevada, March 20. 

Anas cyanoptera. Cinnamon Teal. 

The cinnamon teal is a common species in suitable localities through- 
out the desert regions of the southern part of the Great Basin. It was 
first observed at Ash Meadows, Nevada, March 18, at which date a few 
were found in mixed flocks, and a little later considerable numbers 
came in, both in flocks by themselves and associated with other ducks. 
Mr. Nelson observed a female near Jackass Spring, in Cottonwood 



May, 1893] BIRDS OF THE DEATH VALLEY EXPEDITION. 17 

Canon, Panamint Range, June 1. Mr. Stephens saw several about the 
ponds at Grapevine Spring, California, April 1-1, and one was secured 
at Hot Spring, Panamint Valley, April 17. On the last trip to Death 
Valley Mr. Bailey secured a female in the reservoir at Furnace Creek, 
June 19. It was undoubtedly a pensioner, as its ovaries were unde- 
veloped. Daring the spring- and early summer Dr. Merriam found this 
duck breeding at numerous warm springs and alkali ponds throughout 
the districts visited in the Lower Sonoran zone in southern Nevada and 
southwestern Utah, and at Little Owens Lake, California. A female 
was killed in a patch of fine watercress in Upper Cottonwood Spring 
at the east base of the Charleston Mountains, Nevada, April 30; a flock 
of twenty-two was seen at Vegas Spring, Nevada, May 1, and many 
were noted in Vegas Wash, May 2. It was seen also in the lower 
Santa Clara Valley, Utah, May 11-15, and was common throughout 
Pahranagat Valley, Nevada, May 22-26, where it was breeding in the 
marshes. 

Record of specimens collected of Anas cijanoptcra. 



Collect- 
or's No. 


Sex. 


Locality. 


i 
Date. Collector. 


Remarks. 


134 


cf ad A<»Vi Meadows, Nevada 


Mar. 20, 1891 \.K. Fisher 

June 19, 1891 i V. Bailey | Furnace Creek. 

1 I 



Spatula clypeata. Shoveller. 

At Lone Pine and Owens Lake, California, Mr. Nelson reported the 
shoveller as a common species, and at the latter place found it feeding 
extensively on the larva? and pupa? of a small fly (Uphydra Mans) which 
abounds in the lake. The remains of a large number of these birds 
were seen about the lake in June. A flock of four was seen on the 
reservoir at Furnace Creek, in Death Valley, the latter part of January, 
aud the species was common at Ash Meadows, Nevada, where a number 
were killed early in March. Mr. Palmer found a pair breeding in a 
pond near Gorman Station, the last of June. 

Dafila acuta. Pintail. 

The sprigfail was common at Ash Meadows, Nevada, during the first 
two weeks in March, and many were killed for the mess. Mr. Nelson 
reported a number seen and some killed at Saratoga Springs, at the 
south end of Death Valley, February 1, and several seen in Vegas 
Wash, Nevada, March 3-10. 
Aythya americana. Kedhead. 

The redhead was common at Ash Meadows, Nevada, during the first 
half of March, and together with the mallard, pintail, widgeon, aud gad- 
wall furnished considerable food for the party. 

Mr. Nelson saw one in Vegas Valley, Nevada, in March, and Mr. 
Stephens another at Little Owens Lake, California, early in May. 
12731— No. 7 2 



18 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. [No. 7. 

Aythya vallisneria. Canvashack. 

Ash Meadows, Nevada, was the only place where canvasback ducks 
were met with; a few were killed there early in March. 

Aythya collaris. Ring-necked Duck. 

The ring-necked duck was found only at Ash Meadows, Nevada, in 
March, where several in fine adult plumage were shot. 
Glaucionetta clangula americana. Golden-eye. 

Mr. Nelson saw a few whistlers on the lakes at Lone Pine in Decem- 
ber, 1890, the only individuals of this species seen. 
Charitonetta albeola. Bufflehead. 

Mr. Nelson reported a fewbuffle headed ducks about the ponds atLone 
Pine, California, in December, 1890. 
Histrionicus histrionicus. Harlequin Duck. 

None of our party saw this species. Mr. Belding, who has been so 
fortunate as to see a few each year, saw a pair in May, near Crocker*, 
which is about 20 miles northwest of the Yosemite Valley. 
Oidemia americana. Scoter. 

Mr. Nelson found this scoter not very common at Morro Bav, Cali- 
fornia, in November. 
Oidemia pei spicillata. Surf Scoter. 

The surf scoter was very common at Morro Bay, California, where 
Mr. Nelson found mainly immature birds. 
Erismatura rubida. Ruddy Duck. 

The ruddy duck was first met with at Ash Meadows, Nevada, where 
a few were killed about the middle of March. Three were seen and 
secured in the reservoir at Furnace Creek, Death Valley, March 22. 
Mr. Stephens saw it about the ponds at the ranch at Grapevine Spring, 
California. April 1-4; and Dr. Merriam observed it in Pahranagat 
Valley, Nevada, May 22-26. IS ear the western border of the Mohave 
Desert in California Mr. Palmer found several in bright plumage on 
Elizabeth Lake, July 2; one on a pond near Gorman Station on the 
same day; and several on Castac Lake, July 10. It was probably 
breeding at all three of these places. 
Chen hyperborea. Lesser Snow Goose. 

A flock of snow geese was seen by Mr. Nelson about Morro Bay in 
November, 1891. Mr. Bailey found this species common in flocks in 
Virgin Valley, where it was first observed near Bunkerville, Nev., Jan- 
uary 23, 1889. They frequented the shores of Virgin Bi ver, where they 
fed on the bleached stems and tender roots of a small club-rush. The 
gullets of two individuals secured contained nothing except the re- 
mains of this plant. 
Anser albifrons gambeli. White-fronted Goose. 

A white-fronted goose remained several days in company with four 
Canada geese during the latter part of March in the alfalfa field at 
Furnace Creek, Death Valley, California., 



Mat, 1893.] 



BIRDS OF THE DEATH VALLEY EXPEDITION. 



10 



Branta canadensis hutchinsii. Hutchin's Goose. 

Very few geese were heard or seen during the time the expedition was 
in the field. Mr. Nelson reported hearing a flock which passed over 
the camp at Lone Pine, in Owens Valley, late one evening in Decem- 
ber, 1890, and another on the east slope of the Charleston Mountains, 
Nevada, March 3-16, 1891. At Furnace Greek ranch, Death Valley, four 
Canada geese and one white-fronted goose remained in the alfalfa 
field for several days during the latter part of March. Tbe above 
records may apply to the white-cheeked goose (Branta c. occidentalis). 
Mr. Nelson saw a few Hutchin's geese at Buena Vista Lake, in the San 
Joaquin Valley, California, in October, and shot a pair near San Simeon. 
Others were seen at different points along the coast, although nowhere 
common. 
Dendrocygna fulva. Fulvous Tree Duck. 

Owens Valley, California, was the only locality where this species was 
observed. Mr. Stephens found it quite common and unsuspicious at 
Little Owens Lake, where he secured a pair, May 8. He also saw a 
flock of a dozen or more at Ash Creek, near the southern end of Owens 
Lake, June 1. 

Record of specimens collected of Dendrocygna fulva. 



Collec- 
tor's No. 



Sox. 



Locality. 



Date. 



Collector. 



Remarks. 



Little Owens Lake, California 
do 



May 8, 1891 
...do 



F. Stephens 
do 



Plegadis guarauna. White-faced Glossy Ibis. 

Mr. Stephens saw a small flock of the glossy ibis at Little Owens 
Lake, May 0-11, and observed one at a springy place at Haway Meadows 
May 12-14. At Furnace Creek, Death Valley, the wings and tail of a 
specimen which had been killed near a ditch in the alfalfa field were 
seen at the ranch. 
Botaurus lentiginosus. Bittern. 

The bittern was not uncommon at Ash Meadows, Nevada, during the 
first three weeks in March, where it was seen in the marshes along the 
irrigating ditches or by the larger springs, in which places small fish were 
abundant. Dr. Merriam saw several in Pahranagat Valley, Nevada, 
May 22-20, where it undoubtedly bred. In Owens Valley Mr. Stephens 
found it at Alvord June 20-28; at Bishop, June 30, and Mr. Nelson shot 
one near Lone Pine in December, 1890. The latter observer saw the 
species at the head of Morro Bay, California, and at a small lake near 
San Luis Obispo in November of the following year. 

Ardea herodias. Great Blue Herou. 

Ill California, great blue herons were not uncommon at Bakersfield, 
in the San Joaquin Valley, where they were seen flying back and forth 
from the river to their resting grounds, July 17-20. At the following 



20 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. [No. 7. 

places single individuals were seen : At a small lake near Lone Pine, 
December, 1890; at Tejou ranch, near the mouth of the Pass, July 13; 
at Little Owens Lake, June 20; at Kernville, July 12, and at Soda 
Springs, September 7. Mr. Nelson found the species common in the 
San Joaquin Valley wherever the streams or lakes furnish it proper 
surroundings. He reported it common on the coast between San 
Simeon and Carpenteria, and saw a few near San Luis Obispo and be- 
tween Carpenteria and Santa Paula in November and December. 

Ardea egretta. Egret. 

A white egret was seen by Dr. Merriam at a little pool of muddy 
water between the south end of Panamint Valley and Lone Willow 
Spring, California, April 24; and another at the Great Bend of the 
Colorado, May 4. The latter was on the Arizona or east side of the 
river, opposite the mouth of Vegas Wash. Mr. Nelson saw several 
about Morro Bay, California, in November. 

Ardea virescens. Green Heron. 

The green heron was not uncommon along the river, sloughs, and old 
ditches near Bakersfield, in the San Joaquin Valley, California, July 
17-20; one was seen at Elk Bayou, near Tulare, in the same valley, 
July 22; and Mr. Stephens saw one at Little Owens Lake, California, 
May 6-11. 
Nycticorax nycticorax neevius. Black-crowned Night Heron. 

As a matter of course, night herons were rare in a region where streams 
and lakes containing fish were almost absent. Dr. Merriam saw an 
adult April 7, resting on a rock near the road in Windy Gap, between 
Panamint and Death valleys. Several were seen by him on a small 
alkaline pond at the west end of the Mohave Desert (Antelope 
Valley), June 28, and one in northwestern Arizona (where Beaverdam 
Creek joins the Virgin), May 9. Mr. Stephens saw several at Little 
Owens Lake May 6-11, and Mr. Palmer saw one at Crane Lake, at 
the west end of the Mohave Desert, June 28, and again July 2. Mr. 
Bailey shot an immature specimen near the reservoir at Furnace 
Creek, Death Valley, June 19. Its stomach contained two carp about 
5 inches long. At Keeler, in Owens Valley," one was observed near a 
small fresh-water pond not far from the lake, June 26. At Walker 
Basin several were seen flying over toward their feeding grounds, and 
one was observed at the edge of a slough July 13-16. 

At Bakersfield, in the San Joaquin Valley, the species was common 
July 17-20, and at Morro Bay, on the coast, in November. 

Grus canadensis. Little Brown Crane. 

A little brown crane was seen for several days around the fields and 
marshes at Ash Meadows, Nevada, and finally was secured March 10. 
It was a female, and proved to be very good eating. The stomach con- 
tained small bulbous rootlets, foliage of young plauts, and a quantity 



May, 1893.] 



BIRDS OF THE DEATH VALLEY EXPEDITION. 



21 



of barley, which it had picked up from the place where the horses had 
been fed. 

Note. — Mr. Nelson saw four birds at Lone Pine, in Owens Valley, 
December, 1890, which he thought were whooping- cranes, and saw a 
flock of seventeen sand-hill cranes at the Bend of the Colorado in 
March. In both cases the birds were too far off for positive identifi- 
cation, and as the region is out of the known range of the former spe- 
cies, it is probable th at some other large bird was mistaken for it. 

Rallus virginianus. Virginia Rail. 

Mr. Nelson reported the species as common at Saratoga Springs in 
I )eath Valley, where Mr. Bailey caught a specimen in a trap February 3. 
One was seen at Ash Meadows, Nevada, about the middle of March, 
and the species was not uncommon at Lone Pine in Owens Valley, where 
two were secured June 7-10. Mr. Nelson saw one at the head of Morro 
Bay, Calif., in November. Dr. Merriam frequently heard a rail among 
the tules and reeds in Pahrauagat Valley, Nevada, May 26, but was un- 
able to say whether it was this species or the sora. 

Record of specimens collected of Rallus virginianus. 



Col- 
lector's 
No. 


Sex. 


Locality. 


Date. 


Collector. 


Remarks. 




9 

d juv. 
cfjuv. 


Death Valley, Calif 


Feb. 3, 1891 
Juue 7, 1891 
June 10, 1891 


V. Bailey 


Saratoga Springs. 


310 




A. K. Fisher 

do 


326 




Do. 











Porzana Carolina. Sora. 

A sora rail was seen at Ash Meadows, Nevada, March 10; one at 
Grapevine Spring, California, the first part of April; and another at 
Little Owens Lake, early in May. No others were seen. 

Pulica americana. Coot. 

Coots were common at a number of places where tule marshes occurred. 
A number were seen in the Mohave Desert, along the edge of the Mo- 
have River at Victor, early in January. In Death Valley it was found 
common at Saratoga Springs about February 1, and again in the lat- 
ter part of April. At Ash Meadows, Nevada, it was common during 
the first three weeks in March, and a few were seen in Vegas Wash, 
early in the month. In Owens Valley, Mr. Stephens found it common 
at Little Owens Lake, May 6-11, and at Ash Creek, on the southwestern 
side of Owens Lake, the first of June. At Lone Pine it was common 
on the lakes in December, 1890, and at a lake south of the same place, 
August 23, 1891. A pair with their young was seen in a small pond, 
June 5. In Nevada, Dr. Merriam observed the species in the marshes 
in Vegas Wash, May 2; in the valley of the Muddy, May 6; and in 
Pahrauagat Valley, May 24. At the west end of the Mohave Desert, 
in California, Mr. Palmer found coots common on Elizabeth Lake, July 
2 ? and saw several on Crane Lake and on ponds near Gorman Station, 



22 



NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. 



[No. 7. 



June 29. Mr. Bailey found it numerous in fresh- water ponds at Mon- 
terey. 

Several were seen at Soda Springs or Kern Eiver Lakes, in the Sierra 
Nevada, September 7. Mr. Nelson found it abundant in the lakes and 
along the streams in the San Joaquin Valley, October 5-27, and along 
the coast. At San Simeon, he saw a group sunning themselves on a 
strip of sandy beach just above the reach of the incoming rollers. 

Phalaropus tricolor. .Wilson's Pkalarope. 

Mr. Bailey shot an adult male near the overflow of a ditch in the alfalfa 
field at Furnace Creek ranch, Death Valley, June 19, and Mr. Stephens 
secured two at Alvord, in Owens Valley, June 27. 

Record of specimens collected of Phalaropus tricolor. 



Col- 
lector's 
No. 


Sex. 


Locality. 


Date. 


Collector. 


Remarks. 




d 


Death Valley, Calif 


June 19, 1891 
June 27, 1891 
do 


V. Bailey 

F. Stepiieus 

do 




122 






123 




Do. 













Recurvirostra americana. Avocet. 

Avocets were found in a few places both east and west of the Sierra 
Nevada. A flock of eighteen was seen at Ash Meadows, Nevada, March 
15, and most of them secured. Mr. Stephens saw a small flock at 
Little Owens Lake, California, May 6-11, and the writer saw seven 
standing at the edge of a bar in Kern Eiver, below Kernville, Calif, 
July 13. Mr. Nelson found it sparingly about the lakes at Lone Pine, 
in December, 1890; at Buena Vista Lake, in the San Joaquin Valley, in 
October; saw one individual at the head of Owens Valley in July; and 
a few at Morro Bay in November. Dr. Merriam saw a dozen or more 
at the northwestern end of Owens Lake, June 19. 

Himantopus mexicanus. Black-necked Stilt. 

Near the west end of the Mohave Desert, in California, Mr. Palmer 
saw sixteen black-necked stilts at Elizabeth Lake, July 2, and three 
at Castac Lake, July 10. No others were seen during the entire season. 

Gallinago delicata. Wilson's Snipe. 

Wilson's snipe were seen in a few localities, both in California and 
Nevada. 

Mr. Nelson saw several in marshy spots near Owens Eiver at Lone 
Pine, Calif, until the latter part of December, 1890, when a fall in 
temperature drove them away. Mr. Stephens saw one at Grapevine 
Spring, California, April 1; a number at Little Owens Lake, May 
6-11; and one at Furnace Creek, Death Valley, April 11. 

Mr. Bailey flushed one at Besting Springs, California, February 16, 
and Mr. Nelson saw several near Cottonwood Spring at the east foot of 
the Charleston Mountains early in March. At Ash Meadows, Nevada, 



May, 1893] BIRDS OF THE DEATH VALLEY EXPEDITION. 23 

a number were seen and one killed March 16. Mr. "Nelson saw one at 
the head of the Canada de las Uvas and another at Buena Vista Lake, 
California, in October, and found the species not common, but generally 
distributed along the coast marshes between San Simeon and Carpen- 
teria in November and December. 

Tringa minutilla. Least Sandpiper. 

Least sandpipers were seen in a few places only. Mr. Nelson reported 
the species as common on the shores of Owens Lake in December, 1890, 
and along the coast from San Simeon to Carpenteria the following 
autumn. Two small flocks were seen about an alkaline pond at Hot 
Springs in Panammt Valley, and a specimen was secured April 22. 
Near Bakerslield one was flushed from an old irrigating ditch July 19, 
and Mr. Nelson saw several near a small pond on the east side of Mount 
Pinos, in the latter part of October. 

Ereunetes occidentalis. Western Sandpiper. 

The western sandpiper was seen in a few localities only. Dr. Merriam 
shot a specimen out of a flock of four in the Virgin Valley, Nevada, 
just below the mouth of the Muddy, May 6, and Mr. Stephens found 
the species rather common along the shore of Little Owens Lake, Cali- 
fornia, May 6-11. The writer found several in company with snowy 
plovers, at Keeler, on the shore of Owens Lake the 1st of June. Mr. 
Nelson reported it as common along the shores of Morro Bay in Novem- 
ber. 

Calidris arenaria. Sanderling. 

Mr. Bailey secured a specimen of this wader at Monterey, Calif., 
October 3. 

Limosa fedoa. Marbled Godwit. 

Mr. Nelson reported this godwit as common at Morro Bay, on the 
coast of California, in November. 

Totanus nielanoleucus. Greater Yellow-legs. 

Mr. Nelson reported several small parties of greater yellow-legs about 
the ponds at Lone Pine, Calif, in J>eceinber, 1890, and found the spe- 
cies common at Morro Bay the following November. 

Symphemia semipaimata inornata. Western Willet. 

Mr. Nelson found the willet common at Morro Bay, Calif., in No- 
vember. 

Heteractitis incanus. Wandering Tattler. 

The wandering tattler was common at Monterey, where Mr. Bailey 
secured a specimen October 3. 

Actitis macularia. Spotted Sandpiper. 

This species was not rare near the permanent streams. Dr. Merriam 
found it along several of the water courses in the southern part of the 
Great Dasin, where two were found at the Great Bend of the Colorado 



24 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. [No. 7. 

Eiver in Nevada, May 4; several along Beaverdam Creek, northwest- 
ern Arizona, May 10; many in Pahranagat Valley, Nevada (where the 
species was breeding), May 24; and one in Oasis Valley, Nevada, June 1. 
Mr. ISelson saw a single individual on Willow Creek Canon, in the 
Pauamint Mountains, May 22; and observed the species at the head of 
Owens River and on the western slope of the Sierra Nevada, but found 
it nowhere common. Mr. Belding saw it at Mirror Lake, in the Yosemite 
Valley. The writer saw it along Kern Biver, near Kernville, July 11- 
12, and at Soda Springs or Kern Biver Lakes September 5. Mr. Bailey 
found it common around the fresh-water pools at Monterey early in 
October. 

Numenius longirostris. Long-billed Curlew. 

Mr. Nelson saw four sickle-billed curlews on the shore of Owens Lake 
December 27, and subsequently Mr. Bailey saw a flock of about a dozen. 
Mr. Stephens observed one near Ash Creek, on the same lake, the last 
of May. 

Numenius hudsonicus. Hudsonian Curlew. 

In California Mr. Nelson found the hudsonian curlew at Buena Vista 
Lake in the San Joaquin Valley in October, and found it common at 
Morro Bay in November. 

Charadrius squatarola. Black-bellied Plover. 

The only record of the black-bellied plover was a male secured by Mr. 
Bailey at Monterey, Calif., October 3. 

.ZEgiaiitis vocifera. Killdeer Plover. 

The killdeer plover is the commonest wader in the desert regions 
and occurs wherever there is water enough to form marshy places in 
the vicinity of streams or springs. Br. Merriam found it particularly 
abundant at Hot Springs, in Panamint Valley, Calif., April 20-25; at 
the junction of Beaverdam Creek with the Virgin Biver, Arizona, M;iy 
9; along the Santa Clara Biver near its junction with the same river, 
in southwestern Utah, May 11-15; at Willow Spring, in the western 
part of the Mohave Desert, June 26; at Owens Lake, June 19, and in 
Kern Valley, California, June 22. In Nevada he found it also, though 
in less abundance, at Vegas Spring, May 1; at the Bend of the Colo- 
rado Biver, May 4; at Bunker ville, in the Virgin Valley, May 8; in 
Pahranagat Valley and at Pahranagat Lake, May 22-20; 

The writer first observed it at Furnace Creek ranch, Death Valley, 
in the latter part of January, where it was noisy on moonlight nights; 
Dr. Merriam observed it at the same place about the middle of April; 
and Mr. Bailey and the writer found it not uncommon on their last 
trip to the Valley, June 19-22. One was seen by the latter observer 
at Besting Springs, California, February 16, and a number at Ash 
Meadows, Nevada, during the first three weeks of March. Mr. Nelson 
saw a few solitary individuals about the ranch in Pahrump Valley, 



May, 1893.] BIRDS OF THE DEATH VALLEY EXPEDITION. 



25 



February 12-28 ; also at the ranch in Vegas Valley, and thence down 
the Vegas Wash as far as water occurred, March 3-16. In Owens Val- 
ley the same observer found it sparingly distributed along Owens 
Eiver and on the shore of Owens Lake in December, 1890, and the 
writer found it not uncommon in the same valley, both at Keeler and 
Lone Pine, June 3-15. In other parts of the valley Mr. Stephens found 
it at Little Owens Lake, May 6-11 j Ha way Meadows, May 12-14; 
Olaucha, May 16-23 ; Ash Creek, May 30 to June 3 ; Alvord, June 26-28 ; 
Bishop, June 30 to Julyl; Morans, July 4-7; and at Benton, July 9-10. 
He also found it rather common in Oasis Valley, Nevada, March 15-19 ; 
and at Grapevine Spring, California, April 1-4. In the Sierra Nevada 
Mr. Nelson fouud the killdeer at the head of Owens River up to an 
altitude of 2,440 meters (8,000 feet), and on the western slope from the 
San Joaquin Valley up into the Tosemite as high as 1,220 meters 
(4,000 feet); Mr. Stephens found it common atMenache Meadows, May 
24-26; and Mr. Dutcher saw one on Big Cottonwood Creek about half 
a mile below his meteorological camp, September 11. Near the west end 
of the Mohave Desert Mr. Palmer saw the species at Elizabeth Lake, 
July 2, and near Crane Lake, June 29. The writer saw killdeers on the 
eastern slope of Walker Pass, July 1, and Mr. Bailey on the western 
slope the following day. Several were seen at the South Fork of Kern 
River, July 3-10; at Kernville, July 11-13; at Walker Basin, July 
13-16; and at Bakersfield, in the San Joaquin Valley, July 17-20. At 
Three Rivers, California, in the western foothills of the Sierra, the 
killdeer plover was common July 25-30, and on the return trip Sep- 
tember 14-17. 

Mr. Bailey found it common at Monterey, Calif, September 28 to 
October 9; and Mr. Nelson reported it as common and generally distrib- 
uted in the San Joaquin Valley, about San Luis Obispo, and along 
the coast from San Simeon to Carpenteria and Santa Paula, in Novem- 
ber and December. 



Record of specimens collected of jEgxalitis vocifera. 



Col- 
lector's 
No. 


Sex. 


Locality. 


Date. Collector. 


Remarks. 


122 


? 
d 




Mar. 10, 1890 A . K . Fisher 

June 19, 1891 V. Bailey 






Death Valley. Calif 











.ffigialitis nivosa. Snowy Plover. 

This handsome little plover was observed by the writer on the shores 
of Owens Lake, near Keeler, May 30 to June 4, where it was common 
in small flocks of five or ten on the alkaline flats which border the 
lake. Like most other birds in the vicinity, it fed extensively, if not 
exclusively, on a species of small fly (Mphydra hums Say), which was 
found in immense masses near the edge of the lake. Many of these 
swarms of flies were four or five layers deep and covered an area of 15 



26 



NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. 



["No. 7. 



or 20 square feet. Some idea can be formed of the inexhaustible sup- 
ply of food which this insect furnishes for birds when it is known that 
colonies of equal size occurred at close intervals in suitable localities all 
around the lake, which has a shore line of between 40 and 50 miles. 

The species was evidently breeding at the time, but no eggs or young 
were found. The birds were tame and unsuspicious, and allowed a 
person to approach within a few yards before taking wing, and if not 
too closely pressed would run along ahead of the observer. As Mr. 
Nelson found the species at this same place December 27, 1890, it is 
undoubtedly a resident in Owens Valley. 

Mr. Bailey found this plover numerous on the beach at Monterey, 
Calif., September 28 to October 9. 

Record of specimens collected of JEgialitis nivosa. 



Col- 




lector's 


Sex. 


Xo. 




276 


cT 


277 


d 


278 


d 



Locality. 



Keeler, Inyo County, Calif. 

do ..\ .' 

do 



Date. 



June 1, 1891 

...do 

...do 



Collector. 



A. K. Fisher 

...do 

...do 



Remarks. 



iEgialitis montana. Mountain Plover. 

According to Mr. \Nelson, mountain plovers were common in flocks 
in October at several places on the open grassy plains in the San Joa- 
quin Valley, Calif. 

Oreortyx pictus plumiferus. Plumed Quail. 

The known range of the mountain quail was considerably extended 
by the field work of the expedition. In Cajon Pass, in the San Ber- 
nardino Mountains, a small band was seen and an individual secured 
January 2. In the Panamint Mountains a feather was found in John- 
son Caii on, and a pair or so of the birds seen April 6. The Indians, as well 
as some of the inhabitants of Panamint, knew the bird well, and stated 
thatitwas common in manyparts of the mountains. Dr.Merriam andMr. 
Bailey saw it among the junipers on the north slope of Telescope Peak, 
April 17-19, and Mr. Nelson found it a common breeding species among 
the piiions on Willow Creek, Mill Creek, and in Cottonwood Caiion, in 
the more northern part of the range. Death Valley, with the barren, 
treeless range immediately to the east, prevents the extension of the 
species in that direction as effectually as it does the valley quail. In 
the Argus Eange the plumed quail was common. Mr. W. C. Burnett saw 
a pair at the summit of Shepherd Canon, and above Maturango Spring 
the males were heard throughout the day uttering their not unpleasant 
call notes. At Searl's garden, which is near the southern end of this 
range, Mr. Stephens heard that they came down into the garden in 
summer. In the Coso Mountains the species was still more common 
among the piiions, where several specimens were secured during the 
latter half of May. In the Inyo Range it was reported as not uncommon 



Mat, 1893.] BIRDS OF THE DEATH VALLEY EXPEDITION. 



27 



at Cerro Gordo, and Mr. Nelson found it common among the nut pines 
along- Waucoba Creek the last of June. On Mount Magruder, Nevada, 
Dr. Merriam found it common and breeding June 4-9. On this mount- 
ain the plumed quails were distributed in pairs, a pair occupying the 
chaparral on each hillside among the pifions. 

In the Sierra Nevada Mr. Stephens heard them west of Little Owens 
Lake, May 6-11 ; at Menache Meadows at an altitude of 3,050 meters 
(10,000 feet), May 24-26; at Independence Creek, where young were 
seen near the mouth of the canon, June 18-23; and at Bishop Creek 
August 4-10. Mr. Nelson found the mountain quail common at the 
head of Owens Kiver and on the headwaters of the San Joaquin .River 
on the opposite slope. On the western slope of Walker Pass we found 
it common among the chaparral in the canons, where it was associated 
more or less with the valley quail, which was abundant there. At 
Walker Basin a flock was seen on the hillside above the valley on July 
14. In the Sierra Liebre Dr. Merriam saw one near Alamo ranch 
June 30, and Mr. Palmer found it common on Frazier Mountain, where 
half- grown young were found July 9. In the southern Sierra Nevada 
it was common in the Sequoia National Park, and especially near the 
openings, and coveys of half-grown young were seen every day during 
the first week in August. It was common also at Horse Corral Mead- 
ows August 9-13. A flock was seen at Big Cottonwood Meadows 
August 26, and another at Bound Valley, 12 miles south of Mount 
Whitney, August 28. At the latter place birds were running about 
among the bare rocks above timber line. At Soda Springs, or Kern 
Biver Lakes, small flocks were seen and several individuals taken 
September 3. A number were observed around Mineral King the 
first part of August, and again in September. In the coast ranges Mr. 
Nelson found the plunied quail common near La Panza the last of 
October, and in the mountains back of San Simeon in November. 

Record of specimens collected of Oreortyx pictus plumiferus. 



Col- 
lector's 

No. 


Sex. 


Locality. 


Date. 


Collector. 


Eemarks. 


17 


d ad. 

? 

d 

d 

d 

d 

d 

d 

9 

cf.inv. 

cfjuv. 

d 




Jan. 2,1891.. 
May 13, 1891. 
.../do 


A. K. Fisher. 
E. W. kelson. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 
A. K. Fisher. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 
V. Bailey. 






Pananiint Mountains, Calif 

do 






do 


May 17, 1891. 
May 21,1891. 
May 13, 1891. 
May 23, 1891. 
May 27, 1891. 

....fdo! 






do 




234 






247 






265 


do 




266 


do 




361 


Walker Pass, Calif 


July 3, 1891. 
.....clo 




362 


do 






Soda Springs, Kern River, Calif . 


Aug. 12,1891. 





Callipepla californica. California Quail. 

The only places from which the typical California quail was recorded 
are Monterey and Boulder Creek on the coast of California, where Mr. 
Bailey found it common during the first part of October. 



28 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA, [No; 7. 

Callipepla californica vallicola. Valley Quail. 

The valley quail was found abundantly in many places, and its east- 
ern range in southern California was carefully and definitely mapped. 
As might be expected, it was found at every point west of the Sierra Ne- 
vada visited by members of the expedition. To the east of this range, 
and the ranges forming its southern continuation, the species was com- 
mon out to the edge of the Mohave Desert and Salt Wells Valley, and all 
through Owens Valley as far north at least as Benton, where both Mr. 
Nelson and Mr. Stephens found it. It was common along the western 
base of the White Mountains and in the Inyo, Coso, Argus, and Pana- 
mint mountains. In the latter range its eastern distribution ends — 
Death Valley, with the barren, treeless mountains beyond forming a 
complete barrier to its further extension. The valley quail was not 
found in the Grapevine Mountains, in Panamint or Saline valleys, or in 
the Mohave Desert proper, though around the edges of this desert it was 
seen on the south at the summit of Cajon Pass, on the north at Lone 
Willow and Leach Point springs, and on the west at Willow Spring 
and Antelope Valley. The easternmost limits of its range are the San 
Bernardino Mountains on the south side of the Mohave Desert, and 
Leach Point Spring on the north side. The latter locality is only a 
short distance west of the extreme south end of Death Valley. Here 
Dr. Merriam shot specimens April 25. 

In the Panamint range it was common in Johnson and Surprise 
Canons, and Mr. Nelson found it in Cottonwood, Mill Creek, and Wil- 
low Creek canons. 

In the Argus Range this quail was common in Shepherd Canon, at 
Maturaugo Spring and at other places visited. In the Coso Mountains 
it was found to range from the lowest part of the valley up through the 
canons to the tops of the high peaks, where it was quite closely 
associated with the mountain quail (Oreortyx) during the breeding sea- 
son. In the Inyo Mountains, Mr. Nelson found it on the east slope at 
Hunter's arastra and Waucoba Creek, and along the west slope up to 
the pifions. At Lone Pine, in Owens Valley, young, just able to fly, 
were seen June 4-15, and at Walker Pass, flocks containing a hundred 
or more on July 1-2. These flocks were composed of several families, 
as they contained from ten to fifteen adults and young that varied in 
size from those just hatched up to half-grown birds. At the west 
slope of Walker Pass, the valley quail was again found ranging above 
the lower limit of the mountain quail. At Three Rivers, in the west- 
ern foothills of the Sierra Nevada, these quails, both adult andyoung > 
were found in the oaks feeding on the young acorns July 25-30. 

Throughout the San Joaquin Valley, Mr. Nelson found it common 
about ranches, along water courses or near springs. It was excessively 
abundant at some of the springs in the hills about the Temploa Moun- 
tains and Carrizo Plain. In the week following the expiration of the 
close season, two men, pot-hunting for the market, were reported to 



Mxr, 1803.] BIRDS OF THE DEATH VALLEY EXPEDITION. 



29 



have killed 8,400 quail at a solitary spring in the Temploa Moun- 
tains. The men built a brush blind near the spring, which was the 
only water within a distance of 20 miles, and as evening approached 
the quails came to it by thousands. One of Mr. Nelson's informants 
who saw the birds at this place stated that the ground all about the 
water was covered by a compact body of quails, so that the hunters 
mowed them down by the score at every discharge. The species was 
common along the coast from San Simeon to Carpentaria and Santa 
Paula, in November and December. 

Record of specimens collected of Callipepla californica vallicola. 



Col- 




lector's 


Sex. 


ISO. 




16 


cTad. 


65 


9 




9 


140 


S 




d 




2 




? juv. 




d 




d 


185 


d 


244 


d 


245 


? 




JUV. 


72 


d juv. 


357 


9 .juv. 


358 


d juv. 


350 


? juv. 


376 


? juv. 


377 


d juv. 


404 


d im- 



Locality. 



Date. 



Cajon Pass, Calif Jan. 1, 

Lone Willow Spring, Calif Jan. 16, 

do Jan. 17, 

Pananiint Mountains, Calif .... Mar. -6, 

do Apr. 10, 

do do .. 

do June 13, 

Argus Range, Calif Jan. 2, 

do do .. 

do Api. 27, 

Coso Mountains, Calif May 21, 

, do do .. 

Inyo Mountains, Calif July 1, 

Owens Lake, Calif : June 3, 

Walker Pass, Calif : July 1 , 

do ' do . . 

do ' do . . 

Kern River, Calif ! July 5, 

do I do .. 



1801 
1801 
1801 
1801 
1801 



1801 
1801 



1801 
1891 



1801 
1891 
1801 



Three Rivers, Calif | July 28, 



1801 
1891 



Collector. 



A. K. Fisher . 
....do 

E. W. Kelson 

A. K. Fisher . 

E. W. Nelson 

-.-.do 

....do 

V. Bailev 

....do..: 

A. K. Fisher . 

....do 

....do 

E. W. Nelson 

F. Stephens. . 
A. K. Fisher. 

....do 



. . . .do 

....do 
....do 



Remarks. 



Johnson Canon. 
Surprise Canon. 
Do. 

Shepherd Canon. 
Do. 
Do. ' 



South Fork. 



Callipepla gambeli. Gambol's Quail. 

Gambel's quail is essentially a desert bird, though rarely found at any 
great distance from water. It was first observed in winter by our party 
at Furnace Creek, in Death Valley, where it was reported to have been 
introduced by the Borax Company from Eesting Springs. A few young- 
were seen here June 10-21 by Mr. Bailey and the writer, and a female 
shot for a specimen had an egg in the lower part of the oviduct. At 
Besting Springs, California, which is in the Amargosa Yalley, it was ex- 
cessively abundant in February and furnished considerable food for the 
party. It was so common among the mesquite and other brush that steel 
traps set for diurnal mammals were often sprung by it, and in a few in- 
stances quail were found in traps set in pouched gopher holes. A few 
were seen at Ash Meadows, Nevada, in March. At the ranch in Pahrump 
Yalley, Nevada, it was fully as abundant as at Besting Springs and was 
considered a great nuisance by the proprietor of the place, owing to the 
damage it does to the crops. Mr. Nelson, who was alone in camp for 
several days in this locality, gives the following notes on its habits: 
"I noticed that when a flock of quail came to feed on grain left by the 
horses, an old male usually mounted the top of a tall bush close by and 
remained on guard for ten or fifteen minutes, then, if everything was 



30 



NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. 



[No. 7. 



quiet, he would fly down among his companions. At the first alarm 
the flock would take to the bushes, running- swiftly, or flying when hard 
pressed. They roosted in the dense bunches of willows and cotton- 
woods growing along the ditches. As a rule the birds walked under 
the roosting place and flew up one or two at a time into the tree or 
bush, though sometimes they flew into the tree from a distance. When 
feeding they have a series of low clucking and cooing notes which are 
kept up almost continually." 

Dr. Merriam found Gambel's quail abundant below Mountain Spring, 
in the southern part of the Charleston Mountains, Nevada, April 29-30, 
and shot several at Upper Cottonwood Springs, at the east base of the 
same mountains, April 30. He contributes the following notes concern- 
ing its presence in eastern Nevada, northwestern Arizona, and south- 
western Utah : In Nevada it was common at the Great Bend of the 
Colorado, May 4, where several sprung traps set for small mammals ; 
in the Valley of the Virgin and Lower Muddy it was not only abundant 
but so unwary that it ran along in front of the horses in considerable 
numbers, early in May; it was tolerably common in the southern part 
of Pahranagat Valley, May 22-26, but shy and difficult of approach. 
At the mouth of Beaverdam Creek, northwestern Arizona, and thence 
up over the Beaverdam Mountains, Utah, it was exceedingly abundant 
as it was also in the Santa Clara Valley, Utah, May 11-15, and a few 
were found as far north as the Upper Santa Clara Crossing. The spe- 
cies is said to reach Shoal Creek at the south end of the Escalante 
Desert occasionally, but is rare there. 

Record of specimens collected of Callipcpla gambeli. 



Col- 
lector's 
No. 



102 

1U4 



28 



Sex. 



d 
d 
9 
9 
d 
9 a 

cfad 
d 



Locality. 



Death Valley, Calif.. 
do 



.(Id. 

.do. 

.do. 
.do. 



Resting Springs, Calif. 
do 

Pahrurup Valley, Nov . 
Ash Meadows, Nev . . . 



Date. 



Jan. 24,1891 

....do 

....do 

....do 

June 19,1891 

....do 

Feb. 8,1891 
....do 

Feb. 15,1891 
Mar. 4, 1891 



Collector. 



A. K. Fisher 

...do 

...do 

...do 

V.Bailey.... 

do 

A. K. Fisher 

...do 

T. S. Palmer . 
F. Stephens . 



15 cm arks. 



Furnace Creek. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 



Dendragapus obscurus fuliginosus. Sooty Grouse. 

The Sooty Grouse was nowhere common, and the only ones seen out- 
side of the Sierra Nevada Avere one by Mr. Nelson in the upper part 
of the White Mountains, in July, and a pair by Mr. Stephens at the 
Queen mill, Nevada, in the same mountains, July 11-16. 

On the eastern slope of the Sierra, one was seen by Mr. Stephens 
at Menache Meadows, the latter part of May; another on Independ- 
ence Creek about the same time; one adult and two broods, at Bishop 
Creek, August 4-10; and it was found sparingly at the head of 



Mat, 1893.] 



BIRDS OF THE DEATH VALLEY EXPEDITION. 



31 



Owens Biver, in the latter part of July. In the Sequoia National Park 
a few were seen both at the saw mill and at Halsted Meadows. At 
Horse Corral Meadows a flock of ten or fifteen was seen and two secured, 
August 11. Several were seen in Kings River Canon about the mead- 
ows, August 13-16; at Big Cottonwood Meadows throughout the sum- 
mer; and grouse were not uncommon near timber line, at Mineral King 
and vicinity, during August and first half of September. Mr. Nelson 
found a few about the summit of Mount Piiios in October. 

Record of specimens collected of Dendragapus obsenrus fuligiuosus. 



Col- 
lector's 
No. 


Sex. 


Locality. 


Date. 


Collector. 


Ilomarks. 


146 
147 


9 ,iuv. 

2 juv. 
$ im. 
? ad. 
d ad. 
d ad. 


Sierra Nevada Calif 

do 


Aug. 7, 1891 
do 


du 


Bishop Creek. 
Do. 


150 


do 


Aug. 9, 1891 


do 


Do. 


151 




do 


Do. 


160 


do 


Auff.23, 1891 


. do 




10 


do 


July 6, 1891 


B. H. Dutclier.. 








[Meadows. 



Centrocercus urophasianus. Sage Grouse. 

On Mount Magruder, on the Nevada side of the boundary line between 
California and Nevada, many piles of sage hens' excrement were found 
among sage brush on the main peak, by Dr. Merriam and Mr. Bailey. 
They were told by a inspector that sage hens used to be common on 
the mountain, but are very scarce now, having been killed off a few 
winters ago by unusually deep snow. At the head of Owens Eiver, on 
the eastern slope of the Sierra Nevada, Mr. Nelson found this bird 
ranging in among the lower border of the pines (Pinusjeffreyi,) where he 
saAv numerous tracks. Near Mammoth Pass also he found it common 
among the sage brush at about 2,450 meters (8,000 feet) altitude. The 
same observer stated that the sage hen was a common species in the 
northern half of the White Mountains up to 3,050 meters (10,000 feet) 
altitude, where he killed a half-grown bird from a large covey. Mr. 
Stephens learned from the miners at the Queen mine, Nevada, that this 
grouse occurred in the gulches around the mines. 

Columba fasciata. Band-tailed Pigeon. 

At Three Bivers, in the western foothills of the Sierra Nevada, Cali- 
fornia, Mr. Palmer saw three band-tailed pigeons among the oaks the 
last of July, and the species was reported to be quite common in the 
barley stubble of a neighboring ranch. Mr. Nelson found it common 
among the oaks in the Tehachapi and Temploa mountains, and saw a 
few about San Luis Obispo during the last of October. Along the 
route from San Simeon to Carpenteria it was abundant among the oaks 
in November. Flocks of from 10 to a 100 were feeding on the berries 
of Arbutus menziesii as well as upon acorns. He saw a few flocks be- 
tween Carpenteria and Santa Paula during the last part of December. 



32 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. [No. 7. 

Zenaidura macroura. Mourning Dove. 

After the spring migration set in, the mourning dove was a common 
species all through the desert region wherever water occurred. There 
was no bird that indicated the close proximity of water with more cer- 
tainty than the dove, and wherever it was found congregated in any 
numbers water was confidently looked for. The three following records 
are the only ones which indicate its presence in the region during the 
winter: Two were seen drinking from a stream at San Bernardino^ 
Calif., December 28, 1890 ; one was seen near the roadside at Lone Pine 
in the same month, and a single individual was found at Furnace Creek 
in Death Valley, the latter part of January. Migrants were first ob- 
served at the last-mentioned place April 9-12, and at Hot Springs, in 
Panamint Valley, April 21. At Lone Willow Spring Dr. Merriam saw 
several April 24, and at Leach Point Spring he observed large num- 
bers as they came to the water to drink, and fifteen were secured for food 
the evening of April 25. In Ainargosa Canon and at Besting Springs 
they were seen April 27. Mr. Nelson found it exceedingly abundant 
in the vicinity of springs and streams in the Panamint and Grapevine 
mountains, where it ranged well up among the pifions. He found them 
more sparingly at the head of Owens Biver, in the Sierra Nevada, on 
both slopes of the Inyo Mountains, and up to the pifions in the White 
Mountains. They were nesting in various situations, some on the 
ground sheltered by a bush, others on horizontal branches of cotton- 
woods, willows, or pifions, and one he found in a small cup-shaped de- 
pression on the top of a tall granite boulder C feet from the ground. 
Doves were very common in the Argus Range in Shepherd Canon and 
at Maturango Spring, where they filled in very nicely the shortcomings 
of the mess. In the Coso Mountains the species was just as abundant 
and occurred up through the canons to the summit of the range. 

Dr. Merriam contributes the following records for eastern Nevada, 
northwest Arizona, and southwest Utah : In the Charleston Mountains, 
Nevada, it was seen both at Mountain Spring, and at the Upper Cotton- 
wood Springs at the east foot of the mountains, April 30 ; at Vegas ranch, 
May 1; abundant in Vegas Wash and at the Bend of the Colorado, 
May 2-4; in the valley of the Muddy and Virgin it was common May 
7-8; in the Juniper Mountains dozens came to Sheep Spring to drink, 
the evening of May 18; at Pah roc Spring it was very abundant May 
20-22; in Pahranagat Valley it was common and unusually tame May 
22-26; at Quartz Spring, on the western slope of the Desert Mountains, 
it fairly swarmed on the evening of May 22, there being no other water 
for many miles in any direction ; in Oasis Valley it was abundant June 
1, feeding on seeds of the bunch grass (Oryzopsis cuspidata), and was 
common on Mount Magruder June 4-9. At the mouth of Beaverdam 
Creek in northwestern Arizona doves were excessively abundant May 
9-10, and were common throughout the juniper belt of the Beaverdam 
Mountains, Utah, May 10-11. In the Santa Clara Valley, Utah, they 
were likewise abundant May 11-15. 



May, 1893. 



BIRDS OF THE DEATH VALLEY EXPEDITION. 



33 



Iii Owens Valley, California, the species was abundant from one end 
to the other. At Lone Pine, during the first part of Juue, quantities of 
nests, one of which contained three young, were found in the willow 
and cottonwood groves. During the last trip to Death Valley, Mr. 
Bailey and the writer found it common in the Panamint Mountains, 
and saw four at Furnace Creek June 19-21. 

In the Sierra Nevada doves were common in Walker Pass July 1-3 ; 
along the valley of Ke^n River, July 3-13; at Walker Basin, July 
13-16 ; at Bakersfield, in the San Joaquin Valley, July 17-20 ; at Three 
Rivers in the western foothills, and along the Kaweah below the pines, 
the last of July. In the High Sierra Mr. Palmer saw a pair in Kings 
Biver Caiion, August 14; Mr. Dutcher shot one and saw others at Big 
Cottonwood Meadows early in September; and it was seen at Soda 
Springs and Trout Meadows about the same time. In the Caiiada 
de las Uvas, California, it was abundant at Old Fort Tejon in June 
and July, and Mr. Stephens found it rather common at Reche Caiion, 
near San Bernardino, September 22-26. Mr. Nelson reported it as 
common in the San Joaquin Valley in October, and saw a few along 
the coast from San Simeon to Carpenteria, and at Santa Paula, in Novem- 
ber and December. 

Mourning doves furnish a large amount of food to the Indians dur- 
ing the spring and summer. Before migration commences the Indians 
build rude huts of brush, grass, and weeds, in which to secrete them- 
selves, near the springs and streams. Loopholes are made on the 
sides toward the water, through which arrows are shot at the birds as 
they alight to drink. 

Record of specimens collected of Zenaidura macronra. 



Col- 
lector's 
No. 


Sex. 


Locality. 


Date. 


Collector. 


Remarks. 


299 


2 juv. 


Owens Valley, Calif 


June 6, 1891. 
do 


A.K.Fisher.... 
do .. 




300 




I)o 













Pseudogryphns californianus. California Vulture. 

It was with considerable surprise and pleasure that we found the 
California vulture still tolerably common in certain localities west of 
the Sierra Nevada, in California. Mr. Palmer reported seeing one fly- 
ing above Frazier Mountain July 9, and while on his way to Tejon 
ranch, July 11, saw three others soaring overhead in company with tur- 
key buzzards, and stated that it was an easy matter to distinguish the 
two species. 

On July 16, about 3 miles from Walker Basin, on the road leading to 
Bakersfield, in the San Joaquin Valley, Mr. Bailey and the writer saw 
one of these vultures in company with the turkey buzzards flying about 
the carcass of a cow. The white on the underside of its wings was 
plainly visible. 

12731— No. 7 -3 



34 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. [No. 7. 

At San Emigdio and the adjacent footliills Mr. Nelson found it 
quite common in October, and was told that it became very numerous 
there in winter. He also found it common along the coast near San 
Simeon, and in the Santa Ynez Mountains. In all these places it was 
shy and difficult of approach. On the pass at the head of Owens 
River, July 24, and on the trail above Lone Pine, August 27, Mr. Nel- 
son saw solitary birds which he thought belonged to this species. 

Cathartes aura. Turkey Vulture. 

The turkey buzzard was seen in various localities, both in the desert 
and in the mountain regions, but was nowhere common. It was first met 
with in Death Valley, where a few were seen during the latter part of 
March. Dr. Merriam saw a number sailing over the Mohave Desert 
March 29 and 30, and saw several congregated about a dead horse at 
Furnace Creek, Death Valley, April 11. He saw one in Emigrant 
Canon in the Panamint Mountains about the middle of April, and 
another at Hot Springs, in Panamint Valley, April 20. Mr. Nelson saw 
a few over Mesquite Valley, and in the Grapevine Mountains in May; 
found it sparingly in the Inyo Mountains, from the valley to the sum- 
mit, in the latter part of June, and in the White Mountains in July. 

In the Argus Kange the writer saw it in Shepherd Canon and at 
Maturango Spring, in the latter part of April and first part of May; a 
few were found atCoso the latter part of May, and around Owens Lake 
and Lone Pine in June. The species was noted all through Owens Val- 
ley, from the southern part to the upper end, and at the base of the 
White Mountains. On the last trip to Death Valley some were seen at 
Furnace Creek, June 19-21. 

In the Sierra Nevada it was seen at Kernville, along the valley of tl\e 
Kern Kiver, and in Walker Basin in July; and in the High Sierra at 
Horse Corral, Big Cottonwood, and Whitney meadows, in August. 

It was seen at Old Fort Tejon, and in Tehachapi Valley, California, 
in June, by Dr. Merriam and Mr. Palmer. In the San Joaquin Valley 
it was seen at various x>laces from Bakerslleld to Visalia and Three 
Rivers. Mr. Bailey saw it at Monterey the last of September; and Mr. 
Stephens at Reche Canon, near San Bernardino, about the same date. 
In Nevada Dr. Merriam saw it in Vegas Wash, May 3; in the Virgin 
Valley, May 8; Pahranagat Valley, May 22-20; Ash Meadows, May 30; 
and a few on Mount Magrucler, June 4-8. In the Santa Clara Valley, 
Utah, it was rather common, May 11-15. 

Mr. Nelson found it common in the San Joaquin Valley, in the Te- 
hachapi Mountains, and along the route from San Simeon to Carpen- 
teria about the end of the year. 

Elanus leucurus. White-tailed Kite. 

Mr. Nelson found the white-tailed kite rather uncommon about San 
Luis Obispo, where he shot a specimen and saw others in November, 
The species was not seen elsewhere. 



Mat, 1893.] BIRDS OF THE DEATH VALLEY EXPEDITION. 35 

Circus hudsonius. Marsh Hawk. 

Wherever there was sufficient water to form considerable areas of 
marsh land, the marsh hawk was pretty certain to be observed. An 
adult male was secured at Furnace Creek in Death Valley, January 29; 
several were seen at Besting Springs in February; and the species was 
not uncommon at Ash Meadows, Nevada, in March. 

In Nevada Mr. Nelson found it common in Pahrump and Vegas valleys 
in February and March, especially about the ranch in the former place, 
and Mr. Stephens reported an unusual preponderance of birds in the 
blue plumage in Oasis Valley about the middle of March. Dr. Mer- 
riam saw one in Oasis Valley, June 1; both blue and red birds at Ash 
Meadows, May 30, and in Pahranagat Valley May 22-26; he shot a male 
in Meadow Creek Valley May 19, and saw several in the Lower Muddy 
and Virgin valleys May 6-8. 

In California marsh hawks were common in a number of places through- 
out Owens Valley in winter as well as during the breeding season, and 
were doubtless attracted by the vast number of meadow mice (Arvicolce) 
which swarm through the wet meadows and marshes. 

Marsh hawks were common along the South Fork of Kern River, 
where they were seen often through the day skimming over the alfalfa 
fields and marshes, and in the High Sierra a few were seen at Whitney 
and Big Cottonwood meadows. At the west end of the Mohave Desert 
Dr. Merriam saw one near Gorman ranch, June 28; Mr. Bailey found it 
at Monterey in September, and Mr. Nelson reported it as common in the 
San Joaquin Valley and around Carpenteria later in the fall. 

Accipiter velox. Sharp-shinned. Hawk. 

We found this species nowhere as common as it is in most of the 
Eastern States; the total number seen by members of the party, both 
during migration and in the breeding season, being less than could be 
seen in southern New York on any day in early September. 

The writer saw two at the ranch at Furnace Creek, Death Valley, in 
the latter part of January; Mr. Nelson observed one at Bennett Wells 
in the same valley about the same time; and Dr. Merriam saw two at 
the former place, April 11. The species was seen at Besting Springs, 
California, the first week in February. In Nevada it was observed at 
Ash Meadows early in March; Mr. Nelson saw several and killed one at 
the ranch in Pahrump Valley February 12-28; and saw it among the 
mesquite thickets on his route from Ash Meadows to the Bend of the Col- 
orado, March 3-16. Dr. Merriam saw one at Vegas Wash May 2; one 
at the Bend of the Colorado River, Nevada, May 4; one at the west 
side of the Beaverdam Mountains, Utah, May 10. 

In California he saw one in Owens Valley about the middle of June, 
and one in Kern Valley, June 22. At Hot Springs, in Panamint Val- 
ley, Mr. Nelson shot a specimen early in January, and Dr. Merriam saw 
two during his stay, April 19-21; one in Emigrant Canon, in the 



36 



NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. 



[No. 7. 



Panamint Mountains, April 14; and another on the north side of Tele- 
scope Peak, April 18 ; and the writer saw one in Surprise Canon, April 20. 

Mr. Nelson saw the species once or twice in the piflon belt along 
Waucoba Creek, in the Inyo Mountains, in the latter part of June; and a 
few in the foothills on the west slope of the Sierra Nevada, in August. 
Mr. Bailey and the writer observed two or three on the western slope of 
Walker Pass in the same range July 2-3; one was observed in Kings 
Eiver Canon, August 15; and another at Three Fivers in the western 
foothills, September 13. Mr. Koch secured a pair near their camp in 
Cottonwood Meadows July 30; Mr. Palmer reported seeing two at Old 
Fort Tejon ; and Mr. Bailey found it not uncommon at Whitney Meadows 
and at Soda Springs, in August. 

Mr. Stephens saw one at Grapevine Spring, California, the first week 
in April; one at Olancha, at the southern end of Owens Lake, the third 
week in May, and one at Bishop Creek, early in August. Mr. Bailey 
saw several at Monterey, during the first week of October. Mr. Nelson 
found it common in the San Joaquin Valley between Bakersfield and 
San Emigdio in October, and saw a few along the coast from San Sim- 
eon to Carpenteria and Santa Paula in November and December. 

Record of specimens collected of Accipiter velox. 



Col- 
lector's 
No. 


Sex. 


Locality. 


Date. 


Collector. 


Remarks. 


22 


cf ad. 
? ad. 




July 30, 1801 
do 


B. H. Dutcher . . 
do 




23 


...do 


Meadows. 
Do. 













Accipiter cooperi. Cooper's Hawk. 

This hawk was even more rare than the sharp-shinned, as scarcely 
two dozen were seen during the time the expedition was in the field. 
In Cajon Pass in the San Bernardino Mountains, on January 2, the 
writer decoyed one by imitating the squealing of a mouse; one was seen 
at Hesperia on the Mohave Desert, January 4; one or two at the 
ranch at Furnace Creek, Death Valley, the latter part of the same 
month, and a few were seen at Ash Meadows, Nevada, during the first 
half of March. Mr. Stephens saw one which had been killed at Searl's 
garden, on Borax Flat, April 23-2G, and one at Bishop Creek, in Owens 
Valley, the first week in August. 

In the Sierra Nevada Mr. Nelson noted the species on the divide be- 
tween the Merced and San Joaquin rivers; Mr. Bailey saw oue on the 
Kaweah Eiver; two at Whitney Meadows; the writer saw one at the 
latter place September 2, and secured a specimen at Three Eivers, in 
the western foothills, July 28. Its stomach contained the remains of a 
Beechey's spermophile. 

Mr. Nelson found a few among the oaks in the lower part of the 
Tehachapi and Temploa mountains in October, and along the route be- 
ween San Simeon and Carpenteria in November, 



May, 1893.] BIRDS OF THE DEATH VALLEY EXPEDITION. 37 

Accipiter atrioapillus striatulus. Goshawk. 

No specimens of this handsome and daring hawk were taken by any 
member of the expedition. Mr. Nelson stated that a hawk flew over his 
camp at Lone Pine, Owens Valley, in December, 1890, which he thought 
belonged to this species, and Mr. Bailey is quite certain he saw an in- 
dividual among the sequoias on Kaweah River, and another at Soda 
Springs, or Kern River Lakes. 

Buteo borealis calurus. Western Rod-tail. 

The western red-tail was observed at most localities visited by mem- 
bers of the expedition in California, Nevada, and Utah. It was seen 
on the Mohave Desert near Victor, early in January, several were ob- 
served in Death Valley between Benuett Wells and Saratoga Springs 
about the 1st of February, and one at the former place in Death Valley, 
on June 21. 

At Resting Springs. California, a fine specimen was secured, and others 
seen early in February. In Nevada it was noted at Ash Meadows, in 
Pahrump Valley, in Vegas Wash, at the Bend of the Colorado, at Pah- 
roc Spring, in Pahranagat Valley, in Oasis Valley, at Mount Magruder, 
and on the Charleston and Grapevine mountains. On Mount Magruder 
one was shot by Dr. Merriam as it swooped to pick up a wounded dove, 
June 7, and another at the mouth of Beaverdam Creek, Arizona, May 
9. The stomach of the latter contained a ground squirrel (Spermophilus 
tereticaudus). Several were seen in the Santa Clara Valley, Utah, about 
the middle of May. 

In the Panamint Mountains, California, Dr. Merriam observed it in 
Emigrant Canon about the middle of April, and Mr. Bailey and the 
writer saw one soaring over the summit of Telescope Peak on June 23 
and later in the day the former observer killed one near the 'char- 
coal kilns.' Its stomach contained one pocket gopher (Thomomys), two 
large lizards (Cnemidophorus tigris and Sauromalus ater), five grasshop- 
pers, and oue sand cricket (Stenopalmatw). In the northern part of the 
same mountains Mr. Nelson noted a few, and also in the White and 
Inyo mountains from the upper limit of the pines down to the valleys. 
In the Argus Range individuals were seen at Shepherd Canon and 
Maturango Spring; and near the road to Lookout Mountain an adult 
was seen on June 25, beating back and forth over the rocky hillside, 
evidently hunting for the large lizards known as ' chuck- wallas ' (Sau- 
romalus ater), which were common in the locality. 

It was observed in the Coso Mountains, and in Owens Valley it was 
found at a number of places, both in winter and summer. It was seen 
at Old Fort Tejon, Walker Pass, Walker Basin, South Fork of Kern 
River, and in the High Sierra at Sequoia National Park, Horse Corral, 
Cottonwood, and Whitney meadows, and Round Valley. 

In the San Joaq uin Valley it was observed at Bakersfield and Visalia. 
Mr. Bailey saw it at Monterey, and Mr. Stephens at Reche Canon near 
San Bernardino. Mr. Nelson saw it everywhere about the Tehachapi 



38 NOETH AMERICAN FAUNA. [No. 7. 

and Temploa mountains and found it coonnon all along the coast from 
San Simeon to Santa Paula in November and December. 
Buteo liueatus elegans. Red-bellied Hawk. 

This species was observed mainly in the San Joaquin Valley, where 
one was seen near an irrigating ditch at Bakersiield, July 18, evidently 
watching for frogs. At Visalia a fine adult was seen among the oaks, 
July 22, and at the same place on September 17 and 18 the species 
was not uncommon. Mr. Nelson reported it as abundant among the 
oaks on Kings River at the base of the foothills in August, and saw it 
near the Mission of Santa Ynez and in Gaviota Pass, in November. 

Buteo swainsoiii. Swainson's Hawk. 

Swainson's hawk is apparently a rare species in the region traversed 
by the expedition. Mr. Nelson saw a number on the western foothills 
of the Sierra Nevada, and Dr. Merriam shot an adult male on Kern 
River near Kernville, June 23. Its stomach contained one grasshop- 
per. Several were seen catching grasshoppers in the Canada de his 
Uvas, California, June 28-29. At Walker Basin, California, Mr. 
Bailey and the writer saw a number, and on July 15 the latter observer 
killed an adult female whose stomach contained about fifty grasshop- 
pers. In Walker Basin a species of grasshopper, which Prof. C. V. 
Riley kindly identified for the writer as Camnula pellucida, was very 
abundant. In many places a large part of the vegetation ordinarily 
available as food for these insects was dried up and had lost much of 
its original nutritive properties, so they had to seek elsewhere for sub 
sistence. This they found in the form of fresh horse droppings which 
were strewn along the roads and in the corrals. Wherever this sub- 
stance occurred vast numbers of grasshoppers congregated in a strug- 
gling mass, each individual striving to reach the interior of the throng 
so as to partake of the food. Not only the hawks, but most other birds 
in the valley, including ducks, ravens, woodpeckers, and sparrows, fed 
almost exclusively on the grasshoppers. 

Archibuteo ferrugineus. Ferruginous Rough-leg. 

Very few squirrel hawks were seen by the expedition, Mr. Nelson 
secured a specimen at Pahrump ranch, and saw others in Vegas and 
Pahrump valleys and Vegas Wash, March 3-16. A few were seen at 
Ash Meadows, Nevada, about the same time, but none were secured. 
Dr. Merriam saw a pair circling over the summit of the highest peak 
of Mount Magruder, Nevada, June 8, and several times afterward saw 
them hunting in company in the nut pine groves of the same moun- 
tains. 

Aquila chrysaetos. Golden Eagle. 

The golden eagle was observed sparingly in a number of widely sepa- 
rated localities by different members of the expedition. One was seen 
at Ash Meadows, Nevada, March 18, circling over a shallow pond in 
which a large number of ducks were feeding. Mr. Nelson saw several 



Mat, 1893.] BIRDS OF THE DEATH VALLEY EXPEDITION. 39 

in Vegas Valley and about the Charleston Mountains, Nevada, March 
3-16, and Dr. Merriani saw three among the tree yuccas on the east 
side of Pahrump Valley, April 29, and one on the Charleston .Mountains 
the following day. One was seen in the Juniper Mountains May 19, 
and another at Oasis Valley the 1st of June. In California Dr. Mer- 
riam observed a pair in Owens Valley, June 10-19, and he and Mr. 
Palmer saw one near Alamo ranch, in the Sierra Liebre, June 30. 
According to the Indians, this eagle breeds rarely in the higher por- 
tions of the Grapevine. Panamint, Inyo, and White mountains. 

In the main Sierra Nevada one was seen on the east slope of Walker 
Pass, July 2; a pair on the South Fork of the Kern River, July 3-11; 
one near Little Cottonwood Creek, August 23; a number in Whitney 
Meadows; and several at and above timber line near Mineral King, 
September 8-11. At the latter place they probably fed on woodchucks 
(Arctomys) and grouse (Dendragapus). 

Haliaeetus leucocephalus. Bald Eagle. 

Two adult bald eagles were seen sitting on a dead mesquite at Ash 
Meadows, Nevada, about the middle of March. They were the only 
ones noted during the season. 

Falco mexicanus. Prairie Falcon. 

Prairie falcons were seen in a number of localities throughout the 
desert regions as Avell as among the mountain ranges of southern Cali- 
fornia and Nevada. In Death Valley, between Bennett Wells and 
Furnace Creek, one was seen January 22, and at the latter place one 
was shot from its perch on a haystack where it sat watching a flock 
of Gambol's quail, January 27. and another was ^een in summer on 
June 20. One was secured at Resting Springs in the Amargosa Desert, 
February 12, and another at Ash Meadows, Nevada, March 10. At 
the latter place, where ducks were abundant, this falcon was seen on 
several occasions to chase single birds, which escaped by dropping in 
the water among the tides. Mr. Nelson saw a number in Pahrump 
and Vegas valleys. Nevada, and at the Bend of the C< >1< >rado. and one was 
seen on a cliff in Vegas Wash eating a duck. In the Panamint Moun- 
tains one was shot from the top of a cut bank at the mouth of Johnson 
Canon, March 20; others were seen in Emigrant ('anon, April 14-15, 
and in the higher mountains near Telescope Peak, April 17-19. Mr. 
Nelson found it sparingly about the bases of both the Panamint and 
Grapevine ranges, where old nests were found on the cliffs. In Nevada 
Dr. Merriam saw it on Mount Magruder, June 8; in Pahranagat Valley, 
May 22-20 (breeding in both the Pahranagat and Hyko mountains), 
and in the Virgin Valley near Bunkerville, May 8. In the Lower 
Santa Clara Valley, Utah, he saw a pair several times about the cliffs 
a short distance from the village of St. George, May 11-15. 

In Panamint Valley it was seen at Hot Springs April 20, and in the 
lower end of the valley, January 12. A female was seen in the Coso 



40 



NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. 



[No. 7. 



Mountains chasing doves, May 19. In Owens Valley the species was 
seen at a number of localities, and undoubtedly breeds in both the 
Inyo range and the Sierra Nevada. On the eastern slope of Walker 
Pass a pair of these falcons were seen flying along the hillsides where 
quail were abundant. 

In the High Sierra a specimen was shot at Big Cottonwood Meadows, 
August 26; one was seen at Whitney Meadows in the same month, 
and another at the summit of the pass at the head of Kings River. Mr. 
Palmer noted the species at Old Fort Tejon, June 28; Mr. Nelson saw 
it occasionally in the San Joaquin Valley, October 5-27 ; and saw several 
along the route from San Simeon to Santa Maria in November, and a 
few at Canada de las Uvas and up to the summit of the Temploa Moun- 
tains. 

Record of specimens collected of Falco mexicanus. 



Col- 




lector's 


Sex. 


No. 






<f 


83 


d 


110 


d 


131 


9 


141 


d 



Locality. 



Pannmint Valley, Calif... 

Death Valley, Calif 

Resting Springs, Calif 

Ash Meadows, Calif 

Panaimnt Mountains, Calif 



Date. 



Jan. 12, 1891. 
Jan. 27, 1891. 
Feb. 12, 1891. 
Mar.16, 1891 
Mar .25, 1891 



Collector. 



E. W. Nelson 
A. K. Fisher. 

...do 

...do 

...do 



Remarks. 



Furnace Creek. 
Johnson Canon. 



Falco peregrinus anatum. Duck Hawk. 

The only true duck hawk seen by the expedition was observed by 
Mr. Nelson near the coast west of San Luis Obispo, in November. 

Falco columbarius. Pigeon Hawk. 

The only records of the pigeon hawk made by the expedition are the 
following, all in California : Two seen by Mr. Stephens at Little Owens 
Lake early in May; the remains of one found by the writer near the 
reservoir at Furnace Creek, Death Valley, June 21; a few seen on the 
coast by Mr. Nelson between San Simeon and Carpenteria in Novem- 
ber, and one in the Ojai Valley, Ventura County, in December. 
Falco sparverius deserticolus. Desert Sparrow Hawk. 

The sparrow hawk was common in but few places and was nowhere 
numerous as a summer resident. In Nevada it was not observed except 
at Ash Meadows, and in Pahrump and Vegas valleys, where it was found 
in March. 

In California one was seen in Cajon Pass in the San Bernardino 
Mountains, January 1, and another, March 30. In Death Valley it was 
seen at Mesquite Well, January 21, Bennett Wells at the same date, and 
again about the middle of April; a pair among the cotton woods at 
Furnace Creek, March 22, and one in Mesquite Valley, April 12. 

In thePanamint Mountains, Dr. Merriam saw one in Emigrant Canon, 
April 14, another on the north side of Telescope Peak, April 17-19, and 
Mr. Nelson found it rare in this range as well as in the Grapevine range 
in May. He found a pair nesting at the summit of the divide at the 
head of Cottonwood Creek in the former range, and a few in the Inyo 



May, 1893.] BIRDS OF THE DEATH VALLEY EXPEDITION. 



41 



Mountains from the upper edge of the piiion belt up to the summit. Iu 
the hitter range a pair occupied a cavity iu a dead Pinus flexilis on the 
divide east of Lone Pine. Dr. Merriam saw a male on the summit of the 
White Mountains between Deep Spring- Valley and Owens Valley, June 
9, and Mr. Nelson saw the species in the same mountains and on 
the plateau at head of Owens Valley the following month. 

In the Argus range, above Maturango Spring, a male was seen with 
a snake in its talons, which was carried to a height of several hundred 
yards and dropped, for what reason was not evident. 

In Owens Valley the sparrow hawk was common at Lone Pine in 
December, 1890, and was found sparingly in the summer from Little 
Owens Lake to the. head of the valley in the White Mountains. It was 
seen along the South Fork of Kern River, July 3-10; at Kern ville, July 
11-12, and was common in Walker Basin, where it was feeding on grass- 
hoppers, July 13-16. 

Mr. Palmer found it common on Peru Creek and in Castac Canon, near 
Newhall, June 30, and iu San Francisquito Pass, July 1. In the High 
Sierra it was seen at Menache Meadows, May 24-26 ; was common at 
Big Cottonwood Meadows during the summer; common at Whitney 
Meadows from below timberline to some distance above it during the 
last of August; at Pound Valley, 12 miles south of Mount Whitney 
August 28; at Soda Springs or Kern River Lakes, early in September; 
and along the Kaweah River in August. Mr. Bailey found it common 
at Monterey, September 28 to October 9, and Mr. Stephens at Reche 
Canon, September 22-24. 

Mr. Nelson found it common in the San Joaquin Valley October 5-27 
and abundant along the route from San Simeon to Carpenteria and 
Santa Paula in November and December. 

It was common near San Luis Obispo, where one was seen with a 
small snake in its talons. It was sitting on a feiice post eating the 
snake, and when startled flew off, carrying the reptile. 



* Record of specimens collected of Falco sparverius deseriicolus. 



Col- 
lector's 
No. 


Sex. 


Locality. 


Date. 


Collector. 


Remarks. 


33 
428 


d 
d 


Sierra Xevada, Calif. 
do 


Aug. 12, 1891 
Aug. 28, 1891 


B. H.Dntcher 

A. K. Fisher 


T.ig Cottonwood Meadows. 
Round Valley. 



Pandion haliaetus carolinensis. Osprey. 

The fish hawk was observed by Dr. Merriam in two localties, Death 
Valley, California, and Pahranagat Valley, Nevada. In the former 
place a single individual was seen at Furnace Creek just before dark 
on April 10. In Pahranagat Valley he saw several at the lake May 
24, and in the evening of the same day shot one by mistake for an owl, 
as it hovered over the camp tire after dark. 



42 



NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. 



[No. 7. 



At Furnace Creek a specimen was nailed upon the side of the house 
at the ranch, where it was killed a year or so before our arrival. 

Strix pratincola. Barn Owl. 

The only barn owl found east of the Sierra Nevada was a dead one 
seen by Mr. Stephens at Alvord, the last of June. Dr. Merriam and 
Mr. Palmer found the species abundant at Old Fort Tejon the latter 
part of June, where a family of young, in one of the large oaks near 
camp, proved a great nuisance on account of the hissing and shrieking 
which was kept up all night. The old birds were seen flying in and 
out among the large oaks on several occasions, as if in pursuit of bats. 
It is altogether likely that they were tlius occupied, as the remains of 
this mammal have been found repeatedly among their stomach contents, 
both in Europe and this country. A pouched gopher and a chipmunk, 
left on the table, disappeared one night, probably through the agency 
of these birds. 

On the South Fork of the Kern River Mr. Bailey secured two speci- 
mens July 4, and the species was common at Bakersfield and Visalia, 
in the San Joaquin Valley, in the latter part of July. Dr. Merriam 
found it common in the old mission of San Luis Key, in San Diego 
County, and Mr. Stephens saw one in Beche Caiion, near San Bernar- 
dino. Mr. Nelson found it very common about San Emigdio, Morro 
Bay, and San Luis Obispo in October and November. 

Record of specimens collected of Strix pratincola: 



Col- 
lector's 
No. 



Sex. 



Locality. 



Date. 



Collector. 



Remarks. 



402 



Keru River, Calif 

<lo 

Visalia, Calif 



Julv 4. 1891 . 

...do 

July 23. 18.il 



V. Bailev ... 

do..... 

A. K. Fisher 



South Fork. 

1)0. 



Asio wilsonianus. Long-eared Owl. 

The long-eared owl was seen at a few places only. Mr. Nelson found 
a flock of eight living in a willow patch at Pahrump ranch, Nevada, 
February 12-28. All were flushed in an area less than 50 yards in 
diameter, and each bird had evidently occupied the same place for a 
considerable time, as the little groups of several dozen pellets plainly 
showed. Mr. Bailey secured a specimen at Bakersfield, in the San 
Joaquin Valley, July 18, and another near timber line north of Mineral 
King in the Sierra Nevada, September 9. 

Asio accipitrinus. Short-eared Owl. 

Several short-eared owls were seen at Ash Meadows, Nevada, during 
the early part of March, and Mr. Stephens shot a specimen in Temecula 
Canon, San Diego County, California, January 30. 
Syrnium occidentale. Spotted Owl. 

This species was not met with by any member of our expedition, 
though the type came from Old Fort Tejon, California, where it was 
obtained March 6, 1858, by John Xantus. 



May, 1893.] BIRDS OF THE DEATH VALLEY EXPEDITION. 



43 



Megascops asio beudirei. California Screech Owl. 

No screech owls were seen or heard east of the Sierra Nevada in 
California. On the ridge above Walker Basin one was flushed from 
among the oaks July 14, but was not secured. At Bakersfield, in the 
San Joaquin Valley, the species was common and was heard at short 
intervals from dark to daylight, and Mr. Bailey secured a specimen 
about midnight of July 19, as it sat in the moonlight on a low limb over 
his bed. At Visalia, in the same valley, it was heard commonly among 
the big oaks July 22-24, and again September 17 and 18. 

Mr. Kelson heard screech owls in different parts of the San Joaquin 
Valley in October, and along the route from San Simeon to Carpen- 
teria and Santa Paula in November and December. • 

Record of specimens collected of Megascops asio bendirci. 



Col- 

lector's 

No. 


Sex. 


Locality. 


Date. 


Collector. 


Remarks. 


399 


d 

9 




July 20, 1891. 
Julv 24. 1891. 


A. K.Fisher 

do 




403 










1 





Bubo virginianus subarcticus. Western Horned Owl. 

Great horned owls were often heard and occasionally seen at differ- 
ent localities in California and Nevada — in the latter State at Ash 
Meadows and in the Grapevine and Charleston mountains. 

In California, in the Panamint Mountains, it was heard almost nightly 
in Johnson and Surprise canons during the first half of April, and by 
Dr. Merriam in Emigrant Cation about the same time. In the Argus 
Range at Shepherd Canon an individual on several occasions was seen 
to fly from a certain ledge, where it probably had young; and at Matu- 
rango Spring one was flushed from among some boulders on May 7. 
It was heard all along the South Fork of the Kern River, July 3-11 , and 
at Walker Basin, where two started from a rocky ledge among the hills, 
and one secured, July 14. Its stomach contained the remains of a 
wood rat (Xeotoma) and a scorpion. In the San Joaquin Valley the 
species was heard at Bakersfield and Visalia in the latter part of 
July, and in the High Sierra at Sequoia National Park, Horse Corral 
and Whitney meadows, Soda Springs, and along the Kaweah River, in 
August and September. 

Mr. Bailey heard it at Monterey, September 28 to October 9, and Mr. 
Stephens at Reche Canon, September 22-21. Mr. Nelson heard great 
homed owls in the Tehachapi and Temploa mountains, in the San 
Joaquin Valley, and secured a specimen near San Luis Obispo. 

Eecord of specimens obtained of Bubo virginianus subarcticus. 



Col- 
lector's 
No. 



Sex. 



ira. 

9 



Locality. 



Date. 



Collector. 



Soda Springs, Kern River, Calif. 
San Luis Obispo, Calif 



A.ug.13,1891 V. Bailey 

Nov. 20, 1891 E. W. Neison . 



Remarks. 



Fragments. 



44 



NOETH AMERICAN FAUNA. 



[No. 7. 



Speotyto cunicularia hypogaea. Burrowing Owl. 

The burrowing owl was not met with in any great numbers east of the 
Sierra Nevada in California or in Nevada. In the latter State several 
were seen in Ash Meadows, and one was caught at the mouth of the 
hole of a kangaroo rat (Dipodomys deserti) in Oasis Valley in March. 
In California several were seen about badger holes at Daggett, on the 
Mohave Desert, January 8-10; a few at Granite Wells January 15 
and April 5, and a pair at Lone Willow Spring April 25. Mr. Bailey 
saw a pair at Bennett Wells, in Death Valley, June 21. A pair was 
seen in Coso Valley, below Maturango Spring, May 11. In Owens 
Valley one was seen at Lone Pine June 11 ; a pair with young at Al- 
vord June 2G-29; one at Morans July 4-7, and a few at the head of the 
valley, near the White Mountains, in July. Mr. Stephens saw it at va- 
rious places in Salt Wells Valley, where it probably was breeding, May 
1-5, and Mr. Bailey and the writer found it common at Indian Wells, 
in the same valley, July 1. A pair was seen on the eastern slope of 
Walker Pass July 1, where one was caught in a trap the following 
morning. A number of times burrowing owls were caught in steel 
traps set at the holes of badgers, foxes, spermophiles, and kangaroo 
rats. 

Dr. Merriam and Mr. Palmer saw several pairs with full-grown 
young in the upper part of the Canada de las Uvas and near Gorman 
Station, at the west end of Antelope Valley, during the latter part of 
June and the first week of July. They were living in the burrows of 
Beechey's sperinophile and were catching grasshoppers in the day- 
time. They saw the species also at Caliente June 24, and in Teha- 
chapi Valley June 25. At Bakersfield, in the San Joaquin Valley, and 
on the dry plains between Bakersfield and Visalia it was abundant, 
and as many as a dozen or fifteen were often in sight at once, perched 
on the mounds in front of the burrows, or on the tops of the telegraph 
poles. 

Mr. Nelson found it generally distributed in the lowlands bordering 
the coast, between San Simeon and Carpenteria. 

Record of specimens collected of Speotyto cunicularia hypogcea. 



Col- 
lectors' 
No. 


Sex. 


Locality. 


Date. 


Collector. 


Kern arks. 


48 


9 

rf 


Dn egett, Calif 


Jan. 10,1891 
do 


A. K. Fisher.... 
do 




4!) 


do 


Do. 


7 


? 


do 


Feb. 7, 1891 
Jan. 15,1891 
Sept. 9, 1891 
June 20, 1891 

July 2.1S91 
Mar. 10, 1891 


F. Stephens 

A. K. Fisher 

F. Stephens 

do 


Do. 


62 
163 

120 


cf 

? 

d 

$ ira . 

d 


Granite Wells, Calif 

Mojave, Calif 

Owens Valley, Calif 


Do. 
35 miles northeast. 






V. Bailey 




31 













Geococcyx californianus. Road-runner. 

The road-runner or chaparral cock is tolerably common in many of 
the desert and foothill regions visited by members of the expedition, but 



May, 1893.] 



BIRDS OF THE DEATH VALLEY EXPEDITION. 



45 



on account of its more or less retiring habits comparatively few were 
seen, though their tracks were common. In Nevada it was very common 
among the sand dunes and mesquite patches at Ash Meadows, as well 
as in Vegas Valley and at the Bend of the Colorado, in March, and 
Mr. Stephens heard it in Oasis Valley. 

In California the species is resident in Death Valley, as its numerous 
tracks seen around the mesquite and other thick growths at Furnace 
Creek during January and in June conclusively demonstrate. 

At Resting Springs in the Amargosa Desert, where it was tolerably 
common, Mr. Bailey caught one in a steel trap, February 12, and Mr. 
Nelson found indications of its presence in Mesquite and Saline valleys. 
In Owens Valley it was very common, judging from the tracks; Mr. 
Nelson found it common and secured a specimen at Lone Pine in 
December, 1890; and Dr. Merriam saw one three miles south of that town, 
Juue 18, and others at the lower end of the valley on the following day. 
He saw one in Walker Pass June 122, and Mr. Bailey secured a specimen 
in the same place July 3. Several were seen along the South Fork of 
Kern River and at Kernville, June 22-23 and July 3-13, and near 
Alamo ranch in the Sierra Liebre, June 30. Dr. Merriam saw two near 
the north end of Cajon Pass in the San Bernardino Mountains, March 
29, and found it common in the southern part of San Diego county in 
Escondido and San Marcos valleys, where it was breeding in patches of 
branching cactus. 

In the Canada delasUvas, Mr. Palmer saw one near Casta c Lake July 
9, and shot one the following day at Old Fort Tejon. In the San Joaquin 
Valley tracks were seen frequently in the river bottoms and along 
the borders of thickets near Bakersfield in July, and Mr. Nelson found 
it common about the foothills at the south and west sides of the valley, 
October 5-27. The same observer found it along the coast from Morro 
to Carpenteria in November, and Mr. Bailey at Monterey, September 
28 to October 9. 

Record of specimens collected of Gcocoecyx californiamis. 



Col- 
lector's 
No. 



■ Sex. 



Locality. 



Resting Springs, Calif 

Walker Pass, Calif 



Date. 



Feb. 12, 1891 
July 3, 1801 



Collector. 



V. Bailey. 
...do..... 



Eemarks. 



Coccyzus americanus occidentalis. California Cuckoo. 

At Furnace Creek ranch in Death Valley, a cuckoo was seen among 
the willows at the edge of the reservoir about sunrise on June 20, and 
later in the day Mr. Bailey succeeded in securing it (an adult female). 
In the San Joaquin Valley the species was common at Bakersfield July 
17-20, and was heard several times at Visalia among the live oaks July 
22-25. In Owens Valley, Mr. Stephens saw one August 11, two miles 
west of Bishop. No others were recorded, 



46 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. [No. 7. 

Ceryle alcyon. Belted Kingfisher. 

A kingfisher was seen at San Bernardino, Calif., December 29, 1800. 
The species was not again met with until the party reached Ash 
Meadows, Nevada, where a few were seen along the streams during the 
early part of March. One was seen by Mr. Burnett at Furnace Creek, 
Death Valley, flying about the reservoir, April 15. Dr. Merriam saw 
one at Hot Springs, Panamint Valley, April 20, and another in Vegas 
Wash, Nevada, near the Colorado, May 2. 

At Lone Pine, in Owens Valley, it was not uncommon along the river, 
and Mr. Stephens noted it at Alvord, in the same valley, the last of 
June. In the Sierra Nevada it was not uncommon at Soda Springs or 
Kern Eiver lakes, the first of September, and was noted at Three Kivers, 
in the western foothills, about the middle of the month. Mr. Nelson 
observed it at the head of the Merced and San Joaquin rivers, and later 
saw a few individuals along the Kern Eiver, in San Joaquin Valley, in 
October, and along the streams flowing into the sea between San 
Simeon, Carpenteria, and Santa Paula, in November and December. 
Mr. Bailey found it common at Monterey September 28 to October 9. 
Dryobates villosus hyloscopus. Cabanis's Woodpecker. 

Cabanis's woodpecker was found nowhere common in California, and 
was not observed at all in Nevada. One was seen above Johnson CaTion 
in the Panamint Mountains, April 18; Dr. Merriam observed several on 
the north side of Telescope Peak in the same range, April 17-10, and Mr. 
Nelson found the species very rare in the northern part of the Panamint 
and Grapevine Mountains during May and the first part of June. In 
the Coso Mountains it was seen on several occasions during the last 
half of May; in the upper part of the Inyo Kange a few were seen the 
last of June; and others on the summit of the White Mountains June 0. 

In the Sierra Nevada a few were seen on the cast slope, at the head 
of Owens Eiver, in July; several at Bishop Creek August 4-11; and 
the species was rather common at Menache Meadows May 21-26. Several 
were seen on the western slope of Walker Pass July 2; a number along 
the valley of Kern Eiver July 3-10; and they were not uncommon in 
Walker Basin, from the bottom of the valley to summit of the ridge, 
July 13-16. Several were seen in the Sequoia National Park during 
the first week in August; a few at Horse Corral MeadoAvs August 0-13; 
one was observed in Kings Eiver Canon August 15; the species was 
common at Big Cottonwood Meadows through the summer, at Whitney 
Meadows September 1, and several were noted from timber line down 
to below Mineral King September 10-13. 

In the Canada de las Uvas Mr. Palmer saw one or two back of Old 
Fort Tejon July 6, and a number near the summit of Frazier Mountain 
July 9. 

At Monterey Mr. Bailey found a race of the hairy woodpecker, prob- 
ably the present subspecies, common from September 28 to October ; and 
Mr. Nelson found it sparingly at Mount Pihos in October, and in the moun - 
tains between San Simeon and Carpenteria November 4 to December 18. 



May. 1893.] 



BIRDS OF THE DEATH VALLEY EXPEDITION. 



47 



Record of specimens collected of Dryobates villosus hyloscopus. 



Col- 




lector's 


Sex. 


No. 






d ad. 


365 


$ im. 


375 


d im. 


143 


2 im. 


30 


d im. 


31 


im. 



Locality. 



White Mountains, Calif . 

Walker Pass, Calif 

Kern River, Calif 

Sierra Nevada, Calif 

do 



.do. 



Date. 



June 9, 1891 
July 2.1891 
July 5. 1S91 
July 27,1891 
Aug. 11, 1891 

....do 



Collector. 



V.Bailey 

A. K. Fisher . . 

...do 

F. Stephens.. . 

B. H. Dutcher 

...do 



Remarks. 



South Fork. 

Big Cottouwood 
Meadows. 
Do. 



Dryobates pubescens gairdnerii. Gairdner's Woodpecker. 

Dr. Merriam shot a specimen of this species on the north side of Te- 
ll achapi Pass, California, a few miles below the summit, June 25. Mr. 
Nelson found it rare in the piiion belt of the Panamint and Grapevine 
mountains May 4 to June 15, and reported a few seen near San Luis 
Obispo the last of October. These are the only records we have for 
the species. 

Dryobates scalaris bairdi. Baird's Woodpecker. 

The known range of this woodpecker was extended considerably by 
the observations of the expedition. In the Mohave Desert it was not 
unconiiiion among the giant yuccas at Hesperia, east of Cajon Pass, 
where a pair was secured January 4 and 5. Dr. Merriam saw one at 
the Upper Cottonwood Springs at the east base of the Charleston 
Mountains, Nevada, April 30, one in Vegas Wash May 2, another 
near the mouth of the Santa Clara, Utah, May 14, and shot an adult 
male and saw others in the cotton woods where Beaverdam Creek joins 
the Virgin in northwestern Arizona, May 9. 

In 1889 Mr. Bailey found it common in the timber along the Santa 
Clara in January, among the yuccas at Dolan and Mud springs in 
Detrital Valley, Arizona, in February, and in the river bottom at Port 
Mohave in March. 

Record of specimens collected of Dryobates scalaris bairdi. 



Col- 
lector's 
No. 


Sex. 


Locality. 


Date. 


Collector. 


Remarks. 




d 
? 




May 9,1891 
Jan. 4,1891 
Jan. 5,1891 


C. Hart Merriam. . 

A.K.Fisher 

do 




31 






41 













Dryobates nuttallii. Nuttall's Woodpecker. 

This species was first observed in Cajon Pass in the San Bernardino 
Mountains, Calif., where a fine adult male was secured January 2. Mr. 
Palmer saw several at Old Fort Tejon, July 1, and Dr. Merriam 
secured a specimen between Walker Basin and Caliente, June 24. 
In the Sierra Nevada several were seen on the western slope of Walker 
Pass, July 2 — 13; it was not uncommon along the valley of Kern River 



48 



NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. 



[No. 7. 



July 3-13; was commou at Walker Basin, July 13-16; and at Three 
Rivers it was not uncommon, and was. found along the East Fork of the 
Kaweah River as high as the lower edge of the conifers. It was seen on 
several occasions at Bakersfield, in the San Joaquin Valley, July 17-20; 
and Mr. Nelson saw several around San Emigdio, and a few along the 
coast from San Simeon to Carpeuteria in November and December, 1891. 

Record of specimens collected of Dry ol) ales nuttallii. 



Col- 
lector's 
No. 


Sex. 


Locality. 


Date. 


Collector. 


Remarks. 


20 
3U6 




Cajon Pass, Calif 

Walker Pass, ( lalif 


Jan. 2, 1891 
July 2, 1891 


A. K. Fisher 

do 













Xenopicus albolarvatus. White-headed Woodpecker. 

The white-headed woodpecker was rather common in the higher parts 
of the Sierra Nevada, in California. Mr. Nelson noted a few at the 
head of Owens River, and found it common on the divide between the 
Merced and San Joaquin rivers, on the western slope. In the Sequoia 
National Park it was common, going in pairs and frequenting the more 
open pine woods. Several were seen at Horse Corral Meadows, August 
9-13, and in Kings River Canon, August 15. 

It was seen also at Big Cottonwood Meadows, August 26; at Whitney 
Meadows the last of August; at Soda Springs or Kern River Lakes, 
September 3; and along the East Eork of the Kaweah River, from the 
lower edge of the pines to and above Mineral King, the last of July and 
September 13-14. Mr. Palmer saw one in Tejon Pass, July 12, and Mr. 
Nelson observed several near the summit of Mount Pinos, in October. 

Record of specimens collected of Xenopicus albolarvatus. 



Col- 
lector's 
No. • 


Sex. 


Locality. 


Date. 


Collector. 


Remarks. 




? 




July 30, 1891 
Aug. 6,1891 


V. Bailey 


East Fork of 


408 


do 


A. K. Fisher 


Kaweah River. 

Sequoia National 
Park. 



Sphyrapicus varius nuchalis. Red-naped Sapsucker. 

The single record of this woodpecker is a male, killed by Mr. Nelson 
among the pinons on the west slope of the mountains northwest of 
Charleston Peak, Nevada, February 12, 1891. 
Sphyrapicus ruber. Red-breasted Sapsucker. 

The red- breasted woodpecker was not met with east of the Sierra 
Nevada. Mr. Palmer secured a specimen at Halsted Meadows, in the 
Sequoia National Park, where it was not uncommon, August 3. It was 
common at Horse Corral Meadows, around the edges of clearings and 
in the willow clumps, August 9-13; was seen at Soda Springs or Kern 



Mat, 1893.] 



BIKDS OF THE DEATH VALLEY EXPEDITION. 



49 



River Lakes by Mr. Bailey and the writer in August and September; 
and on the Kaweak River, below the pines, September 12. Mr. Kelson 
noted it at the head of Owens River and on the western slope, where it 
was rather more common. He also saw a few at Mount Pinos about 
the middle of October, and Mr. Palmer saw a few in Tejon Pass, July 12. 

Record of specimens collected of Sphyrapicus ruber. 



Col- 
lector's 
No. 


Sex. 


Locality. 


Date. 


Collector. 


Remarks. 


140 


d 
dad. 

dim. 

cfim. 




Julv 24.1891 
Aug. 12, 1891 

do 


F. Stephens 

A. K. Fisher 

do 




412 


do 




413 


do 


Meadows. 
Do. 




..do 


do 


V. Bailev 













Sphyrapicus thyroideus. Williamson's Sapsuckcr. 

Williamson's woodpecker is not uncommon in a number of places in 
the Sierra Nevada, in California. Mr. Nelson saw one at the head of 
Owens River, and a few on the western slope opposite that place. 
Several were seen at Horse Corral Meadows, August 11-13; at Whitney 
Meadows about September 1; and the species was common at Big 
Cottonwood Meadows, August 25-27, where Mr. D atelier killed several 
earlier in the season. It was noted at Soda Springs or Kern River 
Lakes, early in September; at Mineral King, the last of July and the 
second week in September, and was seen once on Mount Pinos about 
the middle of October. 

Record of specimens collected of Sphyrapicus thyroideus. 



Col- 
lector's 
No. 


Sex. 


Locality. 


Date. 


Collector. 


Remarks. 


410 


d 

im. 
dim. 

dim- 
im. 

d 
dim. 


Sierra Nevada, Calif 

do 


Aug. 11, 1891 

Aug. 2, 1891 
Aug. 4, 1891 

do 


A.K.Fisher 

V. Raiiey 

B.H.Datclior... 

i\o 


Horse Corral 
Meadows. 


27 


...do 




28 


do 


Meadows. 
Do. 


29 


...do 


...do 


do 


Do. 


423 


...do 


An-. 2(5, 1891 
Aug. 21, 1891 


A. K. Fisher 

F. Stephens 


Do.. 


156 


do 











Ceophlceus pileatus. Pileated Woodpecker. 

This handsome woodpecker was not observed except in the Sierra 
Nevada, in California, where Mr. Nelson found it common at an altitude 
of about 1980 meters (6,500 feet) in the Mariposa grove of big trees near 
Wawona and along the Merced River. The writer heard it a number of 
times in the Sequoia National Park early in August, and Mr. Palmer 
saw a pair in Kings River Canon, August 14. 
Melanerpes formicivonxs bairdi. California Woodpecker. 

The California woodpecker was not seen east of the western slope of 
the Sierra Nevada. Dr. Merriam found it in Walker Basin June 21; in 
12731— No. 7 4 



50 



NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. 



[No. 7. 



Tehachapi Pass, June 25; and in the Canada de las Uvas, where it was 
breeding abundantly, June 28-29. At Three Rivers, in the foot hills, 
the species was common July 25-30, and September 14-17, at which time 
it was feeding on acorns. 

In Walker Basin the writer saw several families along a fence row 
where they were feeding on grasshoppers, July 13-16, and on the 14th 
the species was common among the pines on the ridge above the valley. 

All along the road between Tulare and Visalia in the San Joacpiin 
Valley, this woodpecker was common among the oaks, July 22-24. As 
many as ten individuals were seen in one tree. 

Mr. Nelson found it common and generally distributed among the oaks 
in the Sau Joaquin Valley, and along the route from San Simeon to Santa 
Paula, during the last three months of the year. 

Becord of specimens collected of Mclanerpes for mici corns bairdi. 



Col- 
lector's 
No. 


Sex. 


Locality. 


Date. 


Collector, 


Ecmarks. 


389 
401 




Walker Basin, Calif 


June 14, 1891 
July 23, 1891 


A. "K. Fisher 

do 













Melanerpes torquatus. Lewis's Woodpecker. 

This woodpecker was quite common in Walker Basin, where it was 
seen June 24 and July 13-16. The birds were stationed along the fence 
rows and on trees, from which they made frequent excursions to the 
ground to capture grasshoppers. The stomachs of a number examined 
contained nothing but the remains of this insect. 

It was seen by Dr. Merriam and Mr. Palmer near Old Fort Tejon, in 
the Canada de las Uvas, the latter part of June. Mr. Nelson saw one 
on the plateau at the head of Owens Valley in July and on the east 
slope of the Sierra at the head of Owens River in the latter part of July. 
At Three Rivers, in the western foothills, it was common among the 
oaks September 12-17. 

Record of specimens collected of Mclanerpes torquatus. 



Col- 
lector's 
No. 


Sex. 


Locality. 


Date. 


Collector. 


Remarks. 


388 


im 

im 
d im 
9 ad 


Walker Basin, California 

do 


July 13, 1891 
do 


A.K. Fislicr 

V.Bailey 






.do 


.. do 


do ..'. 






do 


...do ... 


...do 















Melanerpes uropygialis. Gila Woodpecker. 

A specimen of this woodpecker was taken by Mr. Bailey near Fort 
Mohave, Ariz., in March, 1889. 
Colaptes cafer. Red-shafted Flicker. 

The red-shafted flicker was seen in many places, though it was com- 
paratively rare over the greater part of the country traversed. 



May, 1893.] BIRDS OF THE DEATH VALLEY EXPEDITION. 51 

In Nevada, Mr. Nelson saw this woodpecker in Pahrump and Vegas 
valleys during the latter part of February and first of March. Mr. 
Stephens observed it in the Grapevine Mountains March 20-26 and 
found it common at the Queen mine July 11-16. Dr. Merriam saw two 
in the nut pine zone on Mount Magruder June 6, and the writer shot an 
individual, the only one seen, at Ash Meadows, March 2. At Pahrump 
ranch, Mr. Nelson saw where one bad drilled four holes through the 
boards in the gable end of a building used as a granary, and each time 
a piece of tin had been placed over the hole. When he was there, the 
bird had just completed a fifth hole, close to the others. 

In California, it was common just outside of the town of San Bernar- 
dino the last of December, 1890, and was observed in Cajon Pass Jan- 
uary 1-2. At Hesperia, in the Mohave Desert, a number were seen 
among the tree yuccas January 3-4. 

Mr. Nelson found the sj)ecies in the Inyo Mountains the latter part 
of June, and stated that it occurred wherever there was moisture 
enough to support a growth of the higher pines in the mountains or of 
cottonwoods in the valleys. He also found it common from the head of 
Owens Valley up to timber line in the White Mountains in July. Dr. 
Merriam saw a red-shafted flicker at Furnace Creek, in Death Valley, 
April 10, among the willows aud mesquite; one at Hot Springs, Pana- 
mint Valley, about April 20, and another in the Panamint Mountains a 
few days earlier. In the Argus Range, the writer saw one at Maturango 
Spring May 14, several in the Coso Mountains during the latter part 
of the same month, and a number in the higher portions of the Pana- 
mint Mouutains the last week in June. In Owens Valley, it was seen 
by Mr. Nelson at Lone Pine, in December, 1890, and by Mr. Stephens 
at Independence Creek, Bishop Creek, and Benton during the summer. 

This woodpecker was not uncommon in Walker Pass, along the val- 
ley of the Kern River, at Kernville, aud in Walker Basin during the 
first half of July. On the High Sierra it was seen in the Sequoia Na- 
tional Park the first week in August; at Horse Corral Meadows Au- 
gust 9-13; in Kings River Canon August 13-16; at Menache Meadows 
May 24-26; at Big Cottonwood Meadows June 15 to September; at 
Whitney Meadows the last of August; Soda Springs or Kern River 
Lakes, August and first part of September; and at Mineral King and 
down the west slope to Three Rivers in the foothills during the first 
two weeks in September. 

Dr. Merriam saw it in the Canada de las Uvas June 28-29, and the 
writer observed it at Bakersfield July 17-20. Mr. Bailey recorded the 
species from Monterey September 20 to October 9, aud Mr. Nelson 
reported it common in the Tejon Mountains, in the San Joaquin Valley, 
at San Luis Obispo, and along the route between Sau Simeon and Car- 
pentaria during the fall and early winter. 

Phaleenoptilus nuttalli. Poor-will. 

The poor-will was common in a nrmber of localities visited by the 



52 



NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. 



[No. 7. 



expedition. In Death Valley a specimen was obtained at Bennett 
Wells January 28, another at Saratoga Springs February 4; and the 
species was seen and heard by Dr. Merriam at Furnace Creek April 
10, and in Mesqnite Valley April 13. One was seen in the Funeral 
Mountains March 21. At Ash Meadows, Nevada, one or two were 
seen and others heard during the first part of March. In Nevada Dr. 
Merriam found it common on Mount Magruder June 4-9, where he saw 
and heard one or more every evening and obtained a specimen. On 
Gold Mountain he heard it at the deserted mining camp June 3, in 
Pahranagat Valley May 22-26, at Sheep Spring in the Juniper Moun- 
tains, May 18, and at Vegas ranch May 1. In Utah he heard it along 
Shoal Creek, near the Escalante Desert, May 17. 

Mr. Nelson found the species in the Panamint and Grapevine moun- 
tains, where it was a rare breeder in the sage-brush belt. He saw and 
heard a few from the bottom of Saline Valley up to the pinons in the 
Inyo Mountains, found itas high as2,650 meters (8,700 feet) in the White 
Mountains, and also on the plateau at the head of Owens Valley. In 
Owens Valley a specimen was taken at the mouth of the canon at Lone 
Pine, June 12; Mr. Stephens saw two at Olancha May 16-23, and others 
at Independence Creek June 18-23, and at the Queen mill and mine, 
Nevada, July 11-16. The same observer saw one at Borax Flat, near 
the southern end of the Argus Range, the last of April. Mr. F. W. 
Koch collected two fresh eggs May 6 above Maturango Spring, where 
it was common. At Coso it was heard or seen every evening during 
the latter half of May. It was common at Hot Springs in Panamint 
Valley, April 10-25; and at Wild Eose Spring, in the Panamint Moun- 
tains, June 25. 

Record of specimens collected of Phalcenoptilus nutlalli. 



Col- 
lector's 
No. 


Sex. 


Locality. 


Date. 


Collector. 


Eomarka. 




? 
d 
d 
? 
J 

9 


Death Valley, Cali f 


Jan. 28, 1891 
Feb. 14, 1891 
May 22, 1891 
Juiie 12,1891 
Apr. 1,1891 
Juue 4, 1891 


E. W. Nelson .... 
do 


Bennett Wells. 




do 

Coao Mountains, Calif 


Saratoga Springs. 


246 


A. K. Fisher 

do 


41 


Grapevine Mountains, Calif 


F. Stephens 

C. Hart Merriam - . 


Grapevine Spring. 









Phalaenoptilus nuttalli californicus. California Poor- will. 

This race of the poor-will was common in Kern Valley, where Mr. 
Bailey secured a specimen July 8. One was. seen on the road from 
Kaweah to the Sequoia National Park July 31. It would await until 
the horse nearly stepped on it, then fly ahead some distance and alight 
on the road again, which manceuver it repeated several times. Mr. 
Bailey saw a poor-will at Trout Meadows in the High Sierra, which 
probably belonged to this race. Dr. Merriam shot one at Twin Oaks, 
at the foot of the Granite range, in San Diego County, July 10, where 



May, 1893.] 



BIRDS OF THE DEATH VALLEY EXPEDITION. 



53 



several wore observed to alight in the same place every evening in a 
dusty road under the spreading branches of a live- oak tree. 

Record of specimens collected of Phalcenoptihts nuttalli calif ornieus. 



Col- 
lector's 
Xo. 



Sex. 



Locality. 



Kern River, Calif 

Twin Oaks, San Diego County, 
Calif. 



Date. 



July 8,1891 
July 10, 1891 



Collector. 



V. Bailey 

C. Hart Merriam.. 



Remarks. 



South Fork. 



Chordeilea virginianus henryi. Western Nighthawk. 

It is a source of great regret that specimens of nighthawks were not 
secured at the various places where they were found by the members 
of the expedition. This neglect makes it impossible to properly sepa- 
rate the range of the present from that of the following species in the 
region under consideration. 

The only specimen of the western nighthawk secured was one col- 
lected by the writer in Death Valley, at Furnace Creek, June 19. At 
this place the nighthawks began to fly just after sunset and were very 
common over the alfalfa fields at the ranch. Nighthawks supposed to 
belong to this species were seen in Pahranagat Valley, Nevada, May 
22-26, on Mount Magruder, Nevada, June 4-8, and in the High Sierra, 
at Trout, Whitney, and Big Cottonwood meadows, during the summer 
and autumn. 
Chordeiles texensis. Texas Nighthawk. 

Fortunately, a larger number of specimens of this night-hawk was 
taken than of the preceding species, though not enough to enable the 
satisfactory mapping of its distribution in California and Nevada. 

The Texas nighthawk was a very common breeder in most parts of 
Owens Valley, where it occurred as far north at least as Bishop. Around 
Owens Lake and Lone Pine large numbers were observed every night, 
and at the former place many were seen skimming close to the water 
in pursuit of a small fly (Ephydra Mans), which was swarming, on and 
near the shore. 

The species was not uncommon along the South Fork of the Kern 
River, where Mr. Bailey secured a specimen July 8, and at Bakersfield, 
in the San Joaquin Valley, where several were seen and one secured 
about the middle of the month. 

Dr. Merriam saw it during the breeding season in Oasis Valley and 
Ash Meadows, Nev., and at other points in the Amargosa Desert, and 
also in the Mohave Desert, in California. He saw one at Saratoga 
Springs at the south end of Death Valley, April 26, and two at Besting 
Springs in the Amargosa Desert, April 27. He found it common at the 
mouth of Beaverdam Creek, Arizona, May 9, and secured two fresh eggs 
at St. George, in the Lower Santa Clara Valley, Utah, May 13. Another 
was shot in the Virgin Valley, near the eastern boundary of Nevada, 
May 8. Nighthawks which probably belonged to this species were 
seen in Pahrump and Vegas valleys, Nevada, and Saline Valley, Cali- 



54 



NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. 



[No. 7. 



foruia. This nighthawk had the habit of alighting on the dusty roads, 
just at dusk, where it sat motionless for a time, though in a few in- 
stances it was observed to make a series of hopping nights, alighting 
at short intervals for a moment only. 

Becord of specimens collected of Chordeiles texensis. 



Col- 




lector's 


Sex. 


No. 






d 


125 


V 


319 


d 


327 


¥ 


335 


V 


336 


J 




V 


285 


V 


69 


d 




d 


398 


V 



Locality. 



Beavcrdam Creek, Ariz. 

Owens Valley, Calif. 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

Kern Ri ver, Calif 

Bakeraneld, Calif 



Date. 



May 10, 
June 29, 
June 8, 
June 10, 
June 12, 
....do .. 
June 13, 
June 2. 
May 31, 
Jul'y 8, 
July 19, 



1891 
1891 
1891 
1891 
1891 



1891 

1891 
1891 
1891 
1891 



Collector. 



V.Bailey 

F. Stephens 

A K. Fisher 

...do 

...do 

...do 

C. Hart Merriam 

A. K. Fisher 

F. Stephens 

V.Bailey 

A.K.Fisher.... 



Remarks. 



Bishop. 
Lone Pine. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 
Keeler. 
Ash Creek. 
South Fork. 



Cypseloides niger. Black Swift. 

The black swift was first observed at Owens Lake near Keeler, Calif., 
where a number were seen flying back and forth over the salt meadows 
on May 31. On June 2, twenty or more were seen feeding over the 
same meadow and five specimens were collected. From the condition 
of the ovaries of the female secured, it was evident that the eggs had 
been laid. When the flock left the marsh, it rose high in the air and 
went in the direction of the cliffs in the Inyo Mountains, near Cerro 
Gordo, where a colony evidently was breeding. Near the upper end of 
the lake, and about 6 miles north of Keeler, several were seen on June 
4 and again on June 15. At Lone Pine, five passed over camp early 
on the morning of June 7, and a number were seen at the mouth of the 
cation above the town June 12. Dr. Merriam saw a number and secured 
one at the north end of Owens Lake, June 12, and saw half a dozen at 
Olancha, at the south end of the lake, June 20. Mr. Stephens saw a 
dozen or more at the latter place May 23 and secured two June 4. On 
the former date they were flying high out of range, in company with 
white-throated swifts aud white-bellied swallows. The same observer 
saw this species at Independence Creek, June 20, and at Bishop Creek, 
August C. 

On the South Fork of Kern River three swifts were seen which un- 
doubtedly belonged to this species, and on several occasions black swifts 
were seen in Kings River Caiion, August 13-16. 

Record of specimens collected of Cypseloides niger. 



Col- 
lector's 
No. 


Sex. 


Locality. 


Date. 


Collector. 


Remarks. 


279 
280 


d 
d 
d 
9 
? 
cf 
d 
d 


Keeler, Inyo County, Calif 


June 2, 1891 
do 


A. K.Fisher 

do ... 




281 


dr. 


do 


do 




282 


do 


...do ... 


do .. 






do 


.. do 


T. S. Palmer 

C. Hart Merriam ... 




73 


Owens Lake, Calif 

do 

do 


.1 line 12, 1891 
.lime 4, 1891 
....do 




74 




Do. 













May, 1893.] BIRDS OF THE DEATH VALLEY EXPEDITION. 55 

Chaetura vauxii. Vaux's Swift. 

Vaux's swift was seen a few times ouly in the valleys on each side 
of the Sierra Nevada. Mr. Stephens saw it nearly every day and se- 
cured a specimen at Olaucha, near the south end of Owens Lake, where 
it was migrating. May 16-23. 

Mr. Belding saw large flocks in the Yosemite Valley. The writer 
saw a few at Three Rivers, in the western foothills of the Sierra, Sep- 
tember 13-14, and at Visalia on September 18. 

Aeronautes nielanoleucus. White-throated Swift. 

White-throated swifts were common at a number of places in the 
desert valleys and ranges daring the spring and summer. In Johnson 
Canon, in the Panamint Mountains, Calif., Mr. Palmer saw one March 26, 
and Mr. Nelson secured one near the same place, April 12. The latter 
observer found the species to be a common summer resident in por- 
tions of the Panamint and Grapevine mountains visited. The last of 
May he saw them going in and out of crevices in the steep walls above 
Willow Creek, and in June found them frequenting the cliffs in Cotton- 
wood Canon, 750 meters (2,500 feet) above Salt Wells, and observed them 
about the cliffs in Boundary Canon in the Grapevine Range. They were 
frequently seen in the morning and evening hunting over Saline Valley. 
In the Paniniiut Mountains north of Telescope Peak, Mr. Bailey and 
the writer saw several hundred of these swifts flying back and forth 
over a hillside, and a few above the summit of the peak, June 23. The 
males uttered at short intervals a series of notes which, when a num- 
ber joined in the performance, produced a not unpleasant impression. 
In Death Valley Dr. Merriam saw a flock at Mesquite Wells, April 8; 
Mr. Burnett saw individuals flying over the reservoir at Furnace Creek, 
April 15 ; and the writer killed a number of specimens at the latter 
place, June 20. In the Argus Range swifts were seen in Shepherd 
Canon the last of April, and along the divide above Maturango Spring 
during the first half of May. 

In Nevada Dr. Merriam saw several at Pahroc Spring, May 22 ; at Ash 
Meadows, May 30; and in Oasis Valley and the upper part of Amargosa 
Desert, June 1, when they were observed in aerial coition. In Utah Dr. 
Merriam saw several small flocks in the Lower Santa Clara Valley, May 
11-15. Mr. Nelson found it breeding in the Inyo Mountains, Calif., June 
24-July 4, and sparingly in the White Mountains in July. White- 
throated swifts were common in many places in Owens Valley, espe- 
cially about the meadows at Owens Lake and at the mouth of the canons. 
Along the South Fork of the Kern River they were tolerably common 
the first week in July, and a few were seen flying over the Sequoia 
National Park the first week in August. Mr. Nelson found them at the 
head of Owens River; also along all the streams visited on the western 
slope of the Sierra, and in the Yosemite Valley up to timber line. They 
bred everywhere in crevices in the canon walls. He saw several flocks 
in the Ojai Valley in December. 



56 



NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. 



[No. 7. 



Record of specimens collected of Aeronautes melanoleucus. 



Col- 




lector's 


Sex. 


No. 






9 


43 


V 


345 


9 


346 


9 


347 


9 




d 


95 


d 



Locality. 



Date. 



Collector. 



Remarks. 



Panamint Mountains, Calif 

Death Valley, Calif 

do .: 

do 

do 

Keeler, Calif 

Owens Lake, Calif 



Apr. 11,1891 
Apr. 9,1891 
June 20, 1891 

....do 

...do 

June 2, 1891 
June 12, 1891 



E. W. Nelson 

F. Stephens. 
A. K. Fisher 

do 

....do 

T. S. Palmer 
F. Stephens. 



Furnace Creek. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 

Olaneha. 



Trochilus alexandri. Black-cliiiincd Hummingbird. 

The black-chinned hummingbird is common in Owens Valley, Cali- 
fornia, where it was found at the following- localities: At Lone Pine a 
number of specimens were secured in June; At Olaneha Mr. Stephens 
found it common, May 1G-23; at Ash Creek, May 30- June 3; a few at 
Independence Creek, June 18-23; Alvord, June 2G-2S; and young of 
the year were common at Fish Slough, July 2-3. At Olaneha he 
secured a very interesting specimen which in its specific characters was 
intermediate between this species and Costa's hummer, and was prob- 
ably a hybrid. He fonnd a nest containing three eggs in an orchard 
at the same place, May 16. Mr. Nelson found it common on both slopes 
of the Inyo Mountains from the valleys up to the piflons, wherever 
there was water enough to produce a growth of willows and other de- 
ciduous trees. In Walker Basin, where it was not common, Mr. Bailey 
secured a specimen, July 14, and another was taken at Bakersfield in 
the San Joaquin Valley, July 1 0. At Old Fort Tejon Mr. Palmer 
secured an immature bird in July, which he referred to this species. 

Dr. Merriam saw several and secured two at the mouth of Beaver- 
dam Creek, Arizona, May 9, and found the species common in the Lower 
Santa Clara Valley, Utah, where four nests containing fresh eggs were 
found, May 11-14. All the nests (one of which contained three eggs) 
were placed on low branches of cottonwoods, generally within easy 
reach from the ground. 

Record of specimens collected of Trochilus alexandri. 



Col- 
lector's 
No. 


Sox. 


Locality. 


Date. 


Collector. 


Remarks. 




9 
d 

9 
d 

d 
d 
9 
d 
d 
d 




Mav 11,1891 
Mav 9,1891 
May 16, 1891 
May 20, 1891 

June 10, 1891 
July 14.1891 
July 19,1891 
Julio 7,1891 

do 


C. Hart Merriam. . 
V. Bailey 






Beaver dam Creek, Ariz 




58 


F. Stephens 

....do 

. do 


Olaneha, set 3 eggs. 


65 




80 


do 






Walker Basin, Calif 


V. Bailev 




400 
311 


Bakersfield, Calif 


A. K. Fisher 

....do 

do 




ol2 


do .....: 


Do. 


314 


do 


June 8, 1891 


...do 


Do. 











Calypte costae. Costa's Hummingbird. 

Costa's hummingbird is the common species of the desert valleys 
and mountains of southern California and Nevada. One was seen at 



Mat, 1893.] BIRDS OF THE DEATH VALLEY EXPEDITION. 57 

Besting Springs in the Amargosa Desert, California, February 13; a 
number were seen in the Funeral Mountains March 22; at Furnace 
Creek, Death Valley, April 12; and in Emigrant Cauon, in the Pana- 
mint Mountains, April 14. It was common in Johnson and Surprise 
canons, where it was seen near all the springs and streams during 
April, and in the latter canon a half-completed nest was found April 
19. Several were seen at Hot Springs in Panamint Valley, April 19-25, 
and at Leach Point Spring April 25. Costa's hummingbird was the 
only species met with by Mr. Nelson in the Panamint and Grapevine 
Mountains, where he found it a common breeder, during May and June. 

In Nevada, Dr. Merriam found it tolerably common on Mount Ma- 
grader June 4-8; in Pahranagat Valley May 22-25 ; at Mountain Spring, 
Charleston Mountains, and at Upper Cottonwood Springs at the east- 
ern base of these mountains, April 30. In Vegas Wash he found a 
nest containing two full -fledged young May 3; at the Bend of the Colo- 
rado one containing two fresh eggs May 4; and at Bitter Spring in 
the Muddy Mountains, another containing two fresh eggs, May 5. Mr. 
Nelson saw one in Vegas Wash, Nevada, March 10 ; and Mr. Stephens 
reported it from the Grapevine Mountains and Oasis Valley from the 
middle to the latter part of the month. Dr. Merriam found it common 
among the junipers on the eastern side of the Beaverdam Mountains, 
Utah, May 11. 

In the Argus Range, California, the species was very common at 
Maturango Spring, and in Shepherd Canon, where several nests were 
found in the low bushes along the edges of the cation. Those contain- 
ing two fresh eggs each were taken April 27, April 28, and May 7, 
and one containing full-fledged yoang, April 27. At Coso the species 
was very abundant and several of its nests were found. Various kinds 
of plants were used as nesting sites, though the branchiug cactus 
(Opuntia echinocarpa) was most commonly chosen. Usually the struc- 
ture was placed on the top of a lower branch, a foot or so from the 
ground, and under an overhanging mass of thick spiny branches, which 
formed a protection for the parent bird from the sun and weather, as 
well as its enemies. At Coso one of these hummers was seen on a bright 
moonlight evening hovering about a bunch of flowers, and was heard 
again later in the same night. During our last trip to Death Valley 
Mr. Bailey saw one at Furnace Creek June 19, and the species was 
abundant all through the Panamint Mountains. Just at daylight on 
the morning of June 25, before the shadow had risen out of Wild Rose 
Canon, a Costa's hummingbird came and hovered within a foot of our 
camp fire, probably mistaking it from the distance for a bunch of bright 
flowers. It was observed on several occasions that any bright-colored 
object placed in a conspicuous position attracted this bird. In Owens 
Valley this hummingbird was more or less common, especially along 
the eastern slope of the Sierra Nevada, where it was associated with 
the black-chinned hummer. Several were seen on the eastern slope of 
Walker Pass July 1, and in Reche Cauon September 22-24. 



58 



NOKTH AMERICAN FAUNA. 



[No. 7. 



The male Costa's hummingbird has a peculiar habit, probably 
closely associated with the season of courtship, of flying" up in the 
air to a considerable height and then swooping down with great ve- 
locity until near the ground, when it rises to its former position, to 
repeat the manceuver fifteen or twenty times before settling on some 
perch to rest. The course taken by the bird forms a parabolic curve, 
and when on the descent a booming, rushing noise is made, which can 
be heard at a considerable distance. 

Record of specimens collected of Calypte cost(B. 



Col- 




lector's 


Sex. 


No. 




59 


cf 


C8 


9 


130 


d 


155 


d 


163 


a 


166 


d 


167 


d 




j 




d 




d 




d 




d 




9 




2 


192 


9 


191 


djuv. 


204 


9 


268 


9 




d 




d 




d 



Locality. 



Date. 



Collector. 



Remarks. 



Owens Valley, Calif. 



.do. 



Panamint Mountains, Calif. 

do 



.do. 
.do. 
.do . 
.do. 

.do. 



.do 

.do. 



Argus Range, Calif . 



,do. 



Coso Mountains. Calif 

Ash Meadows, Nov 

Charleston Mountains, Nov. 
Panaca, Nev 



May 20, 1891 



May 31, 1891 

Mar. 26, 1891 
Apr. 14, 1891 
Apr. 16,1891 
Apr. 20, 1891 

do 

Mar. 27,1891 
Mar. 28, 1891 
April 4, 1891 
Apr. 11,1891 
Apr. 14,1891 
May 12,1891 
May 23,1891 



Apr. 29,1891 



do 

May 7, 1891 



May 28,1891 
M^y 30, 1891 
Apr. 30,1891 
May 19, 1891 



F.Stephens. 



. do . 



A. K. Fisher.. 

do 

do 

do 

do 

E. W. Nelson. 
do 



.do. 
.do. 
do. 

.do. 
.do. 



A. K. Fisher. 



.do. 

.do. 



do... 

V. Bailey 
....do — 
do... 



Olancha. Hybrid be- 
tween T. costce and 
T. alexandri. 
Ash Creek. Parent 
of nest and eggs. 
Johnson Cation. 
Surprise Canon. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 
Johnson Canon. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 
Surprise Canon. 

Willow Creek. Par- 
entof nest and eggs. 

Shepherd Canon. 
Parent of No. 191. 

Shepherd Canon. 

Shepherd Canon. 
Nest and eggs. 

Nest and eggs. 



Calypte anna. Anna's Hummingbird. 

A large hummer was seen in the Oajon Pass in the San Bernardino 
Mountai ns on January 2, which was probably this species. Mr. Stephens 
saw a number, mostly immature males, on the side of Eeche Canon, 
September 22-24; Mr. Bailey found the species common at Monterey, 
where he secured specimens October 3 and 6, and Mr. Nelson found it 
common at Morro Bay, and saw a few south of that place in November. 

Record of specimens collected of Calypte anna. 



Col- 
lector's 
No. 


Sex. 

d 
d 


Locality. 


Date. 


Collector. 


Remarks. 






Oct. 3, 1891 
Oct. 6, 1891 


V. Bailey 






do '.'. 















Selasphorus platycercus. Broad-tailed Hummingbird. 

The broad-tailed hummer was found by Dr. Merriam at Sheep Spring 
in the Juniper Mountains, Nevada, where an adult male was secured 
and many others seen May 19. Mr. Nelson reported it as common on 



Mat, 1893.] BIRDS OF THE DEATH VALLEY EXPEDITION. 59 

the western slope of the Sierra Nevada, California, opposite the head 
of Owens River, and Mr. Palmer secured a specimen in the Sequoia 
National Park August 4. 

Selasphorus rufus. Rufous Hummingbird. 

The Rufous hummingbird was seen only in the Sierra Nevada, in 
California. Mr. Nelson found it common at the head of Owens River, 
and on the western slope from timber line down into the Yosemite Val- 
ley. While crossing the divide between the heads of the San Joaquin 
and Merced rivers he saw a number of these birds crossing from the 
latter to the former river. The species was common in the Sequoia 
National Park, where a specimen was taken August 4; and at Horse 
Corral Meulows August 9-13; one was seen in Kings River Canon 
August 15, and one at Kearsarge Pass August 18. 

At Mineral King it was common from above timber-line down to the 
lower part of the pines early in August and again in September. It 
was unusually common on the south side of Farewell Gap, on Septem- 
ber 8, where large numbers were observed flying about in the attempt 
to dry and warm themselves, after a cold rain and hail storm. 
Stellula calliope. Calliope Hummingbird. 

None of our party obtained this hummingbird. Mr. Belding observed 
it at Crocker's, near the Yosemite Valley, in May 1891, and Dr. W. J. 
Hoffman reported it from Owens Valley, where it was found breeding 
in July. "One nest with eggs was found perched over and within a 
short distance of a noisy mountain stream, where it was no doubt fre- 
quently subjected to the dashing spray" (Bull. U. S. Geol. and Geog. 
Sur., Hayden, VI, 1881, 237). 

Mr. Henshaw saw a single individual in the Tej on Mountains, August 
17, 1875. 
Tyrannus tyrannus. Kiugbird. 

At Olancha, near the southern end of Owens Lake, Mr. Bailey and the 
writer saw a common kiugbird, June 29. It was so near that identi- 
fication was positive. The Arkansas flycatchers seemed to be ill dis- 
posed towards the stranger and were chasing and diving at it whenever 
it took wing. 

Tyrannus verticaiis. Arkansas Kingbird. 

The Arkansas flycatcher was common in most of the valleys traversed 
by the expedition. In California one was seen at Raymond Well, in 
Salt Wells Valley, and another in the Coso Valley, May 1, in which 
latter place it became common a few days later. Mr. Nelson saw a few 
in Panamint, Saline, and Mesquite Valleys, in May and June; near the 
valleys on both slopes of the Inyo Mountains, the last of June; and at 
the head of Owens Valley, near the White Mountains, in July. In 
Owens Valley, it was common at Lone Pine, where many young were 
seen June 4-15; at Olancha, June 29; at Big Pine, June 2<i-28; and 
more or less common at various other places in the valley throughout 



60 



NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. 



[No. 7. 



the summer. Dr. Merriam found it breeding commonly in the tree 
yuccas in Antelope Valley at the west end of the Mohave Desert, June 
26-27, and saw one at Resting Springs in the Amargosa Desert, April 
27. At Walker Pass a pair was seen on the east slope July 1, and the 
species was common on the west slope the following day. It was com- 
mon also along the valley of Kern River July 3-13 ; at Walker Basin, 
July 13-16; at Bakersfield, in the San Joaquin Valley, July 17-20, and 
at Three Rivers and along the lower part of the Kaweah River, the last 
of July. Mr. Palmer found it abundant at Old Fort Tejon in July, and 
Mr. Nelson saw several near Nordhoff the last of December. 

In Nevada, Dr. Merriam saw it on Gold Mountain, June 3; found it 
tolerably common in Pahranagat Valley May 22-26; in Meadow Creek 
Valley, May 19; in the Valley of the Virgin near Buukerville, May 8; 
at the Bend of the Colorado, May 4; at Vegas Ranch, May 1; and at 
Yount's ranch in Pahrump Valley, April 29. In the Lower Santa Clara 
Valley, Utah, he found it breeding and tolerably common, May 11-15. 



Record of specimens collected of Tyrannus vcrticalis. 



Col- 
lector's 
No. 


Sex. 


Locality. 


Date. 


Collector. 


Remarks. 




d 
9 
d 
d 
d 
? 




May 1, 1891 
May 7, 1891 
May 11, 1891 
June 6. 1891 
June 12, 1891 
do 


C. Hart Merriam . 
do 




205 




Maturango Spring. 
I)o. 


225 


....!. do ...'... 


304 


Owens Valley, Calif 

do .! 


do 




91 


F. Stephens 

do 




92 


do 


Do. 













Tyrannus vociferans. Cassin's Kingbird. 

Dr. Merriam found this flycatcher breeding commonly among the 
live oaks at Twin Oaks, in western San Diego County, in the early 
part of July and secured a specimen July 10. One was seen at San 
Bernardino January 1. 
Myiarchus cinerascens. Ash-throated Flycatcher. 

The ash-throated flycatcher is a common resident of the desert re- 
gions of southern California, Nevada, Utah, and northern Arizona, and 
is common also west of the Sierra Nevada. In California it was first 
seen in Panamint Valley, at Hot Springs, where it arrived April 22 and 
became common almost immediately. In the Argus Range it was com- 
mon in Shepherd Canon and at Maturango Spring, where it was seen 
along the hillsides, hovering over the flowers in search of small moths 
and other insects, during the first half of May. At Coso several pairs 
were seen, and an individual was observed to devote considerable time 
to examining the open end of a 2-inch water pipe, which protruded 
from the side of an old building, evidently with an idea of using it for 
a nesting site. Mr. Nelson found it a widely distributed species, breed- 
ing from the bottom of Mesquite, Panamint, and Saline valleys, up to 
at least 2,130 meters (7,000 feet) in the Panamint and Grapevine moun- 



May, 1893.] 



BIRDS OF THE DEATH VALLEY EXPEDITION. 



61 



tains, where it appeared to be equally at home on the open slopes of 
the valleys, among the mesquite and larrea bushes, or in the mountains, 
in the midst of a tolerably abundant growth of piiions. He found it 
breeding as high as the upper border of the pinons in the Inyo Moun- 
tains the last of June. 

In Nevada Dr. Merriam saw it in the tree yuccas on the east side of 
Pahrump Valley, April 29; at the Bend of the Colorado, May 4; near 
Bunkerville, in the Valley of the Virgin, May 8; on the west slope of 
the Juniper Mountains, May 19 ; in Pahranagat Valley, May 23 ; on the 
Timpahute Mountains, May 26; found it common among the yuccas in 
Indian Spring Valley, May 28; on the south side of Gold Mountain, 
June 3; and tolerably common and evidently breeding among the nut 
pines on Mount Magruder, June 4-8. In Utah he found it breeding 
commonly in the Santa Clara Valley, May 11-15, and among the tree 
yuccas on the west side of the Beaverdani Mountains, May 10. In 
northwestern Arizona he saw several at the mouth of Beaverdam 
Creek the same day. On the summit connecting the White and Inyo 
mountains, in California, several were seen on June 9. 

At Furnace Creek, Death Valley, a pair of these birds was seen just 
above the ranch at the mouth of the canon, June 21, and the species 
was not uncommon in the Panamint Mountains up to an altitude of 
more than 2,450 meters (8,000 feet). In Owens Valley it was not un- 
common at Lone Pine, June 4-15 ; at Olancha, May 16-23 ; at Ash Creek, 
May 30- June 3; and at Benton, July 9-10. 

It was seen among the tree yuccas in Walker Pass, June 22 and July 
2-3; was common in the valley of the Kern, July 3-13; abundant in 
Walker Basin, June 24 and July 13-16; in Tehachapi Pass, June 25; 
and in the Canada de las Uvas, June 28. A few were seen among the 
live oaks in the Granite Kange in the western part of San Diego 
County, July 1-10. It was common at Bakersfleld, July 17-20, and at 
Three Rivers, July 25^30. 

Record of specimens collected of Myiarchus cinerasccns. 



Col- 
lector's 
No. 


Sex. 


Locality. 


Date. 


Collector. 


Remarks. 




d 
d 
d 
9 


Pai 




Apr. 22, 1891 
Apr. 23, 1891 
June 6,1891 
June 13, 1891 


C. 

A 

F 


Hart Merriam . . 

K. Fisher 

.do 


Uot Springs. 
Do 


181 


..do 


305 


Ow 






101 


..do :.' 


Stephens 











Sayornis saya. Say's Phccbe. 

Say's phoebe is a common species throughout the desert regions, and 
was also found west of the Sierra Nevada. It was common in the vicin- 
ity of Owens Lake in December, 1890; was seen near Daggett, in the 
Mohave Desert, January 10, 1891, and at Lone Willow Spring, January 
15. In Death Valley, it was observed at Bennett Wells and Furnace 
Creek the latter part of January; again, April 9-12 and June 19-22. 



62 



NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. 



[No. 7. 



In Nevada it was observed at Ash Meadows in March, sparingly in 
Pahruinp and Vegas valleys, and thence down to theBeudof the Colo- 
rado, and was rather common and mating in Oasis Valley in the same 
month. Dr. Merriam found it in Fish Lake Valley, June 8 ; on the north 
slope of Gold Mountain, June 3; at the east end of Grapevine Cahou, 
June 2, where a nest was observed in an old well at an abandoned min- 
ing shaft known as Thorp's mill; in Ash Meadows, where a nest was 
found in an old adobe, May 30; in Pahranagat Valley, May 22-20; at 
Pahroc Spring, May 22; at the Bend of the Colorado, May 4; and in 
the Virgin Valley near Bunkerville, May 8. He saw two at the mouth 
of Beaverdam Creek, Arizona, May 9-10, and in Utah found it common 
in the lower Santa Clara Valley, breeding along the cliffs near St. 
George, May 10-11, and among the jnnipers on the eastern slope of the 
Beaverdam Mountains, May 10-11. 

In the Panamint Mountains the species was not seen in Johnson 
Caiion, but was common in Surprise Canon, where a nest and eggs was 
found April 19, and also at Hot Springs, in Panamint Valley, April 20-25. 
Mr. Nelson found it commonly distributed in the bottoms of Saline, Pana- 
mint, andMesquite valleys, ranging up in the Panamint and Grapevine 
mountains. He found the species breeding in various sheltered places, 
such as holes in clay banks, niches in rocky ledges, sides of old walls, 
and in crevices in deserted mining shafts. In the Argus Range it was 
common in Shepherd Canon and at Maturan go Spring, and at Coso a nest 
containing three nearly grown young was found in one of the deserted 
buildings the last of May. The species was found in the Inyo Range 
up to and among the piiions, and was a rather common breeding species 
in Owens Valley. 

Several were seen in Walker Pass, July 1-3. Say's phoebe was com- 
mon through Kern River Valley, July 3-13, and occurred in Walker Basin 
in about equal numbers with the black phoebe, July 13-16. One was 
seen at timber line near Mineral King, September 10, and the species 
was observed along the route to Three Rivers, September 12-16. Mr. 
Bailey found it common at Monterey, September 28 to October 9, and 
Mr. Stephens at Reche Canon, near San Bernardino, September 22-24. 

Mr. Nelson found it common and generally distributed along the 
coast from San Simeon to Carpenteria and Santa Paula, in November 
and December, and sparingly in the San Joaquiu Valley, October 5-27. 

Record of specimens collected of Sayornis soya. 



Col- 




lector's 


Sox. 


No. 




71 


d" 


76 


cf 




? im. 


12 


2 


257 


cf.jnv. 


102 


d im. 



Locality. 



Death Valley, Calif... 

do ' 

do 

Daggett, Calif 

Coso, Mountains, Onlif 
Owens Valley, Calif — 



Date. 



Jan. 24,1891 
Jan. 25.1891 
June 10, J 8102 
Fob. 8,1891 
May 2(5,1891 
June 15,1891 



Collector. 



A. K. Fisher 

...do 

V.Bailey 

F. Stephens . 

A. K. Fisher 
F. Stephens . 



Remarks. 



Furnace Creek. 
Do. 
Do. 



Olancha. 



May, 1893.] 



BIRDS OF THE DEATH VALLEY EXPEDITION. 



63 



Sayornis nigricans; Black Phoebe. 

The black phoebe was rare in the desert regions east of the Sierra 
Nevada, though more or less common west of this range. At San Ber- 
nardino one was seen among some willows, associated with other birds, 
December 28, 1890. It was seen in Cajon Pass, March 30 ; at Furnace 
Creek, Death Valley, April 12; at Hot Springs, in the Panamint Val- 
ley, April 22; and in the Argus Eange, at Shepherd Canon, April 27. 
Mr. Stephens found a pair apparently breeding at Little Owens Lake 
the first week in May, and an immature individual at Bishop Creek, 
August 4-10. On the western slope, it was common along the valley 
of Kern River, near the water, July 3-13; common aud in about equal 
numbers with Say's phcebe, at Walker Basin, July 13-16; common in 
the Canada de las ITvas, June 28-29; and in the Sierra Liebre, June 
30. It was common at Bakersfield, in the San Joaquin Valley, in July; 
at Three Rivers, in the foothills, July 25-30 and September 13-16; and 
in Kings River Canon, August 13-16. Mr. Bailey saw one at timber 
line near Mineral King, August 4, and found it common at Monterey, 
September 18 to October 9. Mr. Nelson observed it commonly about 
San Emigdio, sparingly along the southern and western sides of the 
San Joaquin Valley, commonly and in about equal numbers with Say's 
phcebe along the coast from San Simeon to Carpentaria, and not numer- 
ous between Carpenteria and Santa Paula, in November and December. 
Contopus borealis. Olive-sided Flycatcher. 

The olive-sided flycatcher was found nowhere common. Mr. Nel- 
son observed it migrating in considerable numbers at the head of Wil- 
low Creek in the Panamint Range, during the third week in May. The 
same observer found it on the east side of the Sierra Nevada, at the 
head of Owens River, from an altitude of 2,500 to 2,900 meters (8,200 
to 9,500 feet), and on the west slope up to 3,050 meters (10,000 feet). 

In the Sierra Nevada Mr. Stephens found it at Menache Meadows, 
May 24-26; Mr. Dutcher secured two specimens and reported it as 
more or less common at Big Cottonwood Meadows; and Mr. Bailey 
saw several at an altitude of about 2,650 meters (8,700 feet) near Min- 
eral King, and secured a brood of young just able to fly, August 4. 

The writer secured a specimen in the Coso Mountains, California, 
May 23 ; Dr. Merriam observed one on the south side of Gold Moun- 
tain, Nevada, June 3; and Mr. Palmer saw one near the summit of 
Frazier Mountain, California, July 9. 

Record of specimens collecttd of Contopus borealis. 



Col- 

lector's 

No. 


Sex. 


Locality. 


Date. 


Collector. 


Kemarks. 


248 


9 

d 
d 

im 


Panamint Mountains, Calif 


May 21.1891 
May 23, 1891 
Julie 23, 1891 

Aug. 4,1891 
do 


E. W. Nelson... 

A. K. Fislier 

B. H. Dutcher.. 

do 




8 




Big Cotton -wood 


26 


do 


Meadows. 
Do. 




...do 


V. Bailey 

do 






do 


...do 


Do. 













64 



NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. 



[No. 7 



Contopus richardsonii. Western Wood Pewee. 

The western wood pewee was a common species in many of the locali- 
ties visited. Mr. Nelson found it a rather common breeding bird in 
Cottonwood, Willow Greek, and Mill Creek canons in the Panamint 
Mountains, Calif., and saw it also in the Grapevine Mountains, Nevada. 

In Coso Valley, California, it first appeared May 10, and by May 25 
was common in the Coso Mountains. It was common all through Owens 
Valley, and on the White Mountains. At Keeler, on the east side of 
Owens Lake, it was not uncommon the 1st of June. One day when the 
wind was very high, a number were seen sitting on the bare alkaline 
flats near the lake, where they were picking up from the ground the 
flies which swarmed there, as grain-eating birds do seeds. On the 
summit of the divide in the White Mountains, between' Deep Spring- 
Valley and Owens Valley, Dr. Merriam killed two June 9. At Old 
Fort Tejon it was common about the 1st of July. 

It was common in Walker Pass, where a nest was observed, July 2; 
at Kernville, July 11; Walker Basin, July 13-16; and atBakersfield, in 
the San Joaquin Valley, July 17-20. In the High Sierra it was not 
uncommon in the Sequoia National Park, the first week in August; at 
Horse Corral Meadows, August 9-13; Kings Biver Canon, August 
13-16; Big Cottonwood Meadows, during the summer; at Mehache 
Meadows, May 24-26; and was common along the Kaweah Biver from 
Mineral King down to Three Bivers, in September. 

In Nevada, Dr. Merriam saw it among the cottonwoods at Vegas 
ranch, May 1; at Pahranagat Valley, May 23 (common); at Oasis 
Valley, June 1; and on Mount Magrnder, June 8. He also saw the 
species at the mouth of Beaverdam Creek, Arizona, May 10. 

Record of specimens collected of Contopus richardsonii. 



Col- 
lector's 
No. 


Sex. 


Locality. 


Bate. 


Collector. 


Remarks. 


251. 


$ 
d 

? 
? 
d 
d 


Coso Mountains, Calif 


May 24, 1891 
June 19, 1891 

June 12, 1891 
June 9, 1891 

do. 
June 4, 1891 


A. TC. Fisher 

B. H. Duteher .... 

F. Stephens 

V. Bailey 


Big Cottonwood 


89 




Meadows. 


do 






....do 








do 













Empidonax difficilis. Western Fly catcher. 

The western flycatcher was seen in a few localities only. Dr. Mer- 
riam secured an adult male at Ash Meadows, Nevada, May 30, and a 
female at Mount Magrnder in the same State, June 5. Mr. Palmer re- 
ported the species as common and secured one at Old Port Tejon, July 6. 
Mr. Nelson saw it along the San Joaquin Eiver in August, but does not 
state how common it was. 



May, 1803.] BIRDS OF THE DEATH VALLEY EXPEDITION. 65 

Record of specimens collected of Empidonax difficilis. 



Col- 
lector's I Sex. 
No. 



Locality. 



Date. 



Collector. 



Remarks. 



efad. 



Ash Meadows, Nov 

Mount Magruder, Nev . 



May 30, 1891 
June 5, 18'Jl 



V. Bailey 

('. Hart Merriam. 



Empidonax pusillus. Little Flycatcher. 

Iii a few localities the little flycatcher was not rare. Dr. Merriam 
found it tolerably common where Beaverdam Creek joins the Virgin 
River in northwestern Arizona, May 9, and in Pahranagat Valley, 
Nevada, May 22-26. 

In Owens Valley, California, Mr. Stephens found it a rather common 
migrant at Olancha, May 1G-23, and the writer secured two specimens 
in a willow thicket along Owens River, at Lone Pine, June 11. Mr. 
Palmer shot one near Old Fort Tejon July 3, and Mr. Nelson saw a few 
among the willows along streams from 2,910 to 2,900 meters (9,000 to 
9,500 feet) altitude, in the White Mountains, in the same month. 

Record of specimens collected of Empidonax pusillus. 



Col- 
lector's 
No. 


Sex. 


Locality. 


Date. 


Collector. 


Remarks. 


77 
90 


d 
2 
? 
d 
d 


Pahranagat Valley. Nev 

Owens Valley, Calif 

do 

do 

do 


May 23, 1891 
June 9, 1891 
June 12, 1X91 


C. Hart Merriam . . 

F. Stephens 

do 


Olancha. 
Do. 


333 

334 


June 11, 1891 
do 


A. K. Fisher 

do 


Lone Pine. 
Do. 









Empidonax hammondi. Hammond's Flycatcher. 

Hammond's flycatcher was seen in two localities only. In the Argus 
Eange several were seen and two secured among the pinons above 
Maturango Spring on May 8. Dr. Merriam secured a specimen in Pah- 
rauagat Valley, Nevada, May 23. 

Record of specimens collected of Empidonax hammondi. 



Col- 
lector's 
No. 


Sex. 


Locality. 


Date. 


Collector. 


Remarks. 


208 
2U9 


9 
9 


Argus Range, Calif 

do ..." 

Pahrauagat Valley, Nev 


May 8, 1891 
do 


A. K. Fisher 

dn 


Maturango Spring. 




May 23, 1891 C. Hart Merriam.. 





TJmpidonax wrightii. Wright's Flycatcher. 

Wright's flycatcher was the only one of the small flycatchers found 
in winter in any of the region traversed. Mr. Nelson tecured a speci- 
men at Hot Springs in Panamint Valley, January 3, and the writer ob- 
tained one in the same place April 22. A specimen was secured among 
the willows at the edge of the reservoir at Furnace Creek, Death Val- 
12731— No. 7 5 



66 



NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. 



[No. 7. 



ley, February 1, and two small flycatchers, probably this species, were 
seen there about the middle of April. 

A specimen was secured in the Argus Range, at Maturango Spring, 
May 5, and another was seen in Shepherd Canon a few days before. 
In Owens Valley Mr. Stephens found the species at Olancha about 
the middle of May, and at Bishop Creek August 4-10. In the High 
Sierra it was seen at Big Cottonwood Meadows, August 29; at Whit- 
ney Meadows, August 20; and at Kern River Lakes or Soda Springs, 
September 5. Dr. Merriam secured a specimen in the Virgin Valley in 
eastern Nevada, May 6. 

Record of specimens collected of Empidonax wrighUi. 



Col- 




lector's 


Sex. 


No. 






d 


95 


V 


180 


d 


50 


? 


198 


s 




¥ 




irn. 



Locality. 



Date. 



Panamint Valley, Calif 

Death Valley. Calif 

Panamint Valley. Calif 

Argus Range, Calif 

.....do 



St. Thomas, Nev 

Sierra Nevada, Calif . 



Jan. 3, 1891 
Feb. 1, 1891 
Apr. 23, 1891 
Apr. 20, 1891 
May 5,1891 
May 12, 1891 
May 6,1891 
Aug. 20, 1891 



Collector. 



Remarks. 



E.W.Nelson .. 

A. K. Fisher Furnace Creek. 

do Hot Spring. 

F. Stephens I 

A. K. Fisher ! Maturango Spring, 

T.S. Palmer ' Do. 

V. "Bailey 

...do I Whitney Meadows. 



Pyrocephalus rubineus mexicanus, Vermilion Flycatcher. 

Dr. Merriam shot an adult female of this species at St. George, in 
the Lower Santa Clara Valley, Utah, May 13. She was killed in an 
orchard at Dodge Spring, about a mile from the settlement, and con- 
tained large ova nearly ready for the shell. This record extends the 
known range of the species very materially, since it had not previously 
been recorded north of Fort Mohave, Arizona, 
©tocoiis alpestris arenicola. Desert Horned Lark. 

So far as specimens go, this race of the horned lark was the only one 
found breeding east of the Sierra Nevada in the region traversed by 
the expedition. A flock of twenty or more was seen at Hesperia, in the 
Mohave Desert, January 4, and the subspecies also was seen in the same 
desert at Daggett January 8-10, and Granite Wells January 13-15. 
Dozens were seen by Dr. Merriam, who traveled over the same ground 
during the latter part of March and first week in April. In January 
Mr. Nelson saw about one hundred at the southern end of Panamint 
Valley. Horned larks were not seen at any time in Death Valley. 

In Nevada they were common at Ash Meadows, in the plowed 
fields and sand plains, and about the middle of March had mated and 
were preparing to nest. In Pahrump and Vegas valleys Mr. Nelson 
found small parties in February and March. Dr. Merriam found it 
common in Meadow Creek Valley May 19; in Desert and Pahroc val- 
leys May 20-22; in the valley between Gold Mountain and Mount 
Magruder June 4, where it was common and two nearly full grown 
young were shot; on Mount Magruder, June 4-8, where it was common 
On the sage plain on tox) of the mountain. In Utah, it was not seen in 



Mat, 1893.] 



BIRDS OF THE DEATH VALLEY EXPEDITION. 



67 



the Santa Clara Valley, but several were observed in Mountain Meadows 
May 17. 

In tlie north end of Panamint Valley, Mr. Nelson saw several the last 
of May, and others on the high tableland between Saline and Panamint 
vallej^s, in May and June. Dr. Merriam found it common in the sage 
brush north of Telescope Peak, April 15. Horned larks were found 
during the breeding season in the sage plains on the Inyo and White 
mountains, and in Saline and Deep Spring valleys. Below Maturango 
Spriug, in Coso Valley, it was quite common May 11, and others 
were seen along the valley as far north as Darwin. In Owens Valley, 
the subspecies was found as a summer resident from the lower to the 
upper end. Mr. Palmer found it very abundant in Antelope Valley, 
and a few near Gorman Station the last of June. 

Record of sjyecimens collected of Otocoris alpestris arenicola. 



Col- 
lector's 
No. 



Sex. 



Locality. 



Date. 



Collector. 



Remarks 



227 

228 

229 

8 

52 

53 

51 

55 

56 

57 



51 
126 
136 



70 
83 
270 
271 
288 
289 
290 
153 
154 
135 
136 



d 
d 
d 
? 
cf 
cf 
cf 
d 
d im. 



cf im. 

? 

d 

? 

d 

? 

d 

? 

d 

? 

5 ,)UT. 

im. 

9 

cf 

d m 

d 
d 



Coso Valley. Calif 

do...'. 

tlo 

Moiiave Desert. Calif. 

do 

do 



May 11, 1891 

ilo 

....do 

Feb. 7, 1891 
Jan. 13,1891 
....do 



.do 
.do 
.do 
.do 
.do 
.do 



....do 

...do 

....do. 

....do 

Apr. 25, 1891 
June 27, 1891 



Salt Wells Valloy, Calif Apr. 29, 1891 

Ash Meadows, Nev j Mar. 14. 1891 

do I Mar. 19,1891 

do I do 

Palirunip Valley, Nev ' Feb. 17,1891 

do do 

Indian Spring Valley, Nev. May28,189i 

Panaea, Nev May 19, 1891 

Gold Mountain Valley, Nev. Juiie 4,1891 



do 

Mount Pinos, Calif 

Owens Valley, Calif 

do ' 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

White Mount .ins. Calif ... 
Darwin. Calif 

('ipso Valley, ! lalif 

do 



....do .. 
Oct. 16, 
June l. 
June 10, 

Ma\ ill. 
June 1. 
June 2, 
....do .. 
. I unc :;, 
Aug. 16, 

....do .. 
.Inly 20, 
July 21, 
•Inly 12, 
May ."> 
May 11, 
. . . .'do . . 



1891 

1891 

ism 

1891 
1891 

1891 



1891 
1891 



1891 
1891 
1891 
1891 
1891 



A. K. Fisher . 

...do 

...do 

F. Stephens. . 
A. K. Fisher . 
...do 



do 

do 

do 

do 

Bailey. ... 

S. Palmer. 



F. Stephens 

A. K. Fisher 

...do 

E. W. Nelson... 

...do 

...do 

V. Bailey 

...do... 

C. HartMerriam 



...do 

E. W. Nelson . . 

F. Stephens 

— do 

A. K. Fisher .. . 

...do 

...do 

...do 

...do 

F.Stephens-... 
...do 

...do 

...do 

E. W. Nelson .. 
A.K.Fisher... 
T. S. Palmer ... 
...do 



Daggett. 

Granite Wells. 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 
Leach Point Valloy. 
25 miles southwest of 
Mojavc. 
Borax Flat. 



Valley between Gold 
Mountain and 
Mount Magruder. 

San Rafael Mountains. 
Ash Creek. 
< Hancha. 
Keoler. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 
Casa Diablo Spring. 

Do. 



Maturango Sprint 
Do. 



Otocoris alpestris chrysolaema. Mexican Horned Lark. 

Mr. Nelson obtained a number of specimens of this race at Keelcr, on 
the shore of Owens Lake, December 28, 1800, though specimens tali en 
at the same place during the breeding season are referable to areni- 
cola. Mr. Stephens took one in the Panamint Mountains in April. 



68 



NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. 



[No. 7. 



and Mr. Bailey secured a specimen at Kernville, where the subspecies 
was common, July 13. The birds seen by Mr. Nelson in the San 
Joaquin Valley and in the vicinity of the Canada de las Uvas proba- 
bly should be referred to this race. He found it excessively abun- 
dant on the San Joaquin Plain, where it is locally known as the i wheat 
bird' in the grain districts, owing to its habit of following the farmer 
and eating the newly-sown wheat ac seeding time. 

Record of specimens collected of Otocoris alpestris chrysohvma. 



Col- 
lector's 
No. 



Sox. 



Locality. 



Date. 



Collector. 



Remarks. 



1! 



Panamint Mountains, Calif 

Kernville, Calif 

Owens Valley, Calif 

do 



Apr. 15,1891 
July 13, 1891 
Dec. 28, 1890 
....do 



.do. 
.do. 
.do. 
.do. 
.do. 



.do 

.do 

.do 
.do 

-do 



JF. Stephens 5,200 feet altitude. 

V. Bailev 



W. Nelson . 
...do 



.do 
.do 
.do 

.do 
.do 



Kceler. 

Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 



Pica pica hudsonica. Black-billed Magpie. 

Mr. Bailey saw three individuals of this species 10 miles east of 
Toquerville, Utah, December, 31, 1888. The black-billed magpie was 
not seen by the expedition, but is known to be a common resident in 
the neighborhood of Carson, in western Nevada. 
Pica nuttalli. Yellow-billed Magpie. 

The Yellow- billed magpie is common in a number of places west 
of the Sierra Nevada, in California. At Visalia, several were seen 
among the oaks, July 23, as well as along the route from that place to 
Three Rivers, July 25. Near Cottage post-office, in Tulare County, 
about half-way between these two places, the species was common Sep- 
tember 17. 

Mr. Nelson found it common in the foothills of the Sierra Nevada, in 
August; and also among the oaks from La Panza to San Luis Obispo, 
October 28 and November 3; and from the latter place to the Santa 
Ynez River, beyond which places it was not noted. 
Cyanocitta stelleri. Steller's Jay. 

Steller's jay was met with along the coast of California, in two lo- 
calities only. Mr. Bailey found it common in the thick woods in the 
vicinity of Monterey, where he secured a pair, October 1; and Mr. Nel- 
son observed a few in the mountains near San Simeon in November. 

Record of specimens collected of Cyanocitta stelleri. 



Col- 
lector's 

No. 


Sex. 


Locality. 


Date. 


Collector. 


Remarks. 








Oct. 1. 1891 
.. .do 


V.Bailey 

....do 






do 















May, 1893.] 



BIRDS OF THE DEATH VALLEY EXPEDITION. 



69 



Cyanocitta stelleri frontalis. Blue-fronted Jay. 

The blue-fronted jay was not found in the desert ranges, although 
it was common in many places along the east slope of the Sierra Nevada, 
in California. Mr. Nelson found it common at the head of Owens River 
at an altitude of from 2,500 to 2,900 meters (8,200 to 9,500 feet), and Mr. 
Stephens found it at Bishop Creek, August 4-10, and at Menache Mead- 
ows, May 24-20. The writer secured one among the pines above Walker 
Basin, July 14; found it common in Sequoia National Park the first 
week in August; at Horse Corral Meadows, August 9-13; in Kings 
River Canon, August 13-16; and Big Cottonwood Meadows, Round Val- 
ley, and Whitney Meadows, the last of the month. It was very common 
among the sugar and yellow pines at Soda Springs or Kern River 
Lakes, the first week in September. Mr. Dutcher found it common dur- 
ing the breeding season at Big Cottonwood Meadows, and Mr. Bailej^ 
and the writer found it common at Mineral King and down along the 
Kaweah River to the lower limit of the pines, in September. Mr. 
Palmer reported it common on Prazier Mountain, near Old Fort Tejon 
July 0. 

Record of specimens collected of Cyanocitta stelleri frontalis. 



Col- 
lector's 
No. 


Sex. 


Locality. 


Date. 


Collector. 


Remarks. 


75 


d 
d 
im. 

d im. 

9 

d im. 

$ 




June 7, 1891 V. steiih.-iis. 


Altitude 4 000 feet 


141 


Sierra Nevada, Calif 

do 


■Tiilv 25. 1891 
July 12, 1891 

Aug. 3,1891 

July 14, 1891 
Aug. 7,1891 

Sept. 3,1891 


do 




17 


B. H. Dutcher. 

E. W. Nelson 

A. K. Fisher 

....do 






do 


Meadows. 


390 


Walker Basin, Calif. 


River. 


409 


Sierra Nevada, Calif 

do 


Sequoia National 
Part. 

Soil a Springs. 


434 


do 









Aphelocoma woodhousei. Wopjlhouse'a Jay. 

Woodhouse'sjay was found on all the desert ranges which furnish a 
growth of pifion or junipers. In California it was observed in the 
White Mountains, Inyo, Argus, Coso, and Panamint ranges; in Ne- 
vada, in the Charleston, Grapevine, Juniper, and Pahroc mountains, 
and in Utah, in the Beaverdam Mountains. In the latter part of June, 
young which were able to fly were found among the willows along the 
streams in the Panamint Mountains, north of Telescope Peak. 

Record of specimens collected of Aphelocoma woodhousei. 



Col- 
lector's Sex. 
Xo. j 


Locality. 


Date. 


Collector. Remarks. 


39 
147 

172 


d 
9 
d 
9 

9 im. 
9 im. 

im. 


Grapevine Mountains, Nov. 
Panamint Mountains, Calif. 
do 


Mar. 24.1891 
Mar. 29. 1891 
Apr. 20, 1891 


F. Stephens 

A. K. Fisher 

do 


Johnson Canon. 


173 


do 


. do . 


Do 


355 


do 


June 23, 1891 
do 


do 




356 


do 


do . 






Inyo Mountains, Calif 

White Mountains, Calif .... 


June 27, 1891 
July 8,1891 


E. W. Nelson 

do 











70 



NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. 



[No. 7. 



Aphelocoma californica. California Jay. 

The California jay was not found east of the Sierra Nevada, it being- 
replaced in the desert ranges by Woodhouse's jay. Although abun- 
dant on the west slope of the main Sierra, it was common in few places 
on the east side. Mr. Stephens found it rather common on the latter 
slope at Independence Creek, June 18-23; at Menache Meadows, May 
24-26; and Mr. Nelson, at the head of Owens River, in the latter part 
of July. 

The species was common in Cajon Pass in the San . Bernardino 
Mountains, January 2-3, where it was seen and heard among the chapar- 
ral at all times of the day. Dr. Merriam found it common in the Sierra 
Licbre, San Bernardino, Tejon, and Tehachapi ranges, as well as in 
the southern Sierra from Walker Pass southward. It was tolerably 
common on the west slope of Walker Pass, June 21 and July 2-3; in 
the valley of Kern River, June 21-22 and July 3-13; thence south- 
ward to Havilah and Caliente, June 23-24; and was abundant and 
noisy at Old Fort Tejon late in June and early in July. 

Dr. Merriam found it common in the coast ranges south of the San 
Bernardino plain, and in large numbers in the Granite Range between 
Twin Oaks and Escondido, Calif., early in July. 

In the San Joaquin Valley it was common at Visalia and up along 
Kaweah River to the lower edge of the pines, in August and Septem- 
ber, and a few were seen in the Sequoia National Park during the first 
week of August. Mr. Bailey found it common in the brush and open 
woods at Monterey, Calif., September 28 to October 9. 

Mr. Nelson reported this jay as abundant in the Tejon and Temploa 
mountains and around San Luis Obispo in October, and along the route 
from San Simeon to Carpenteria and Santa Paula, in November and 
December. 

Record of specimens collected of Aphelocoma californica. 



( !ol 

lector's 
No. 


Sex. 


Locality. Date. 


Collector. 


Remarks. 


62 


? 
d 
V im. 


Owens Valley, Calif May 2!}, 1891 

Walker Pass, Calif 1 July 3,1891 

ilo „.| July 2,1891 

Kern River, Calif | July 9, 1891 

1 


F. Stephens 

V. Bailey 


Olancha. 


363 


A. K. Fisher 

do 











Corvus corax siuuatus. Raven. 

Ravens were seen in more or less abundance in most, if uot all, of 
the localities visited by members of the expedition, from above timber 
line on the High Sierra to the bottom of Death Valley and the other 
desert valleys, and undoubtedly breed in all the desert ranges of 
southern California and Nevada-. Ravens were seen in Cajon Pass in 
the San Bernardino Mountains, and on the Mohave Desert during the 
first week in January. At Daggett fifty or more remained about the 



May, 1893. 



BIRDS OF THE DEATH VALLEY EXPEDITION. 



71 



slaughter house feeding on the refuse. In Death Valley they were ob- 
served by every party that visited the place from the first week in Jan- 
uary to the last in June. In the Coso Mountains, two adults with their 
five young were seen flying high in the air May 25, the old birds being 
readily distinguished by their worn primaries. 

In Nevada they were common at Ash Meadows and Pahrump Valley, 
and at the latter place a pair was secured the last of February. Dr. 
Merriam observed one, together with a large nest, on the shelf of a 
high cliff in Vegas Wash, May 3. He found ravens tolerably common 
about the Bend of the Colorado, May 4, and saw several in the Valley 
of the Virgin, near Bunkerville, May 8; others in the Juniper Moun- 
tains, May 19; in Desert Valley, May 20, and in Pahranagat Valley, 
May 22-20. In Utah he found several pairs in the Lower Santa Clara 
Valley, May 11-15, and thence northward to Mountain Meadows, where 
several were seen May 17. 

Ravens were common all through Owens Valley. At Walker Basin 
flocks of several hundred were observed every day flying about the 
fields and roads, feeding on the grasshoppers which occurred in vast 
numbers there. All the specimens shot had nothing in their stomachs 
except the remains of these insects. Dr. Merriam and Mr. Palmer ob- 
served large numbers catching grasshoppers in the western part of the 
Mohave Desert, known as Antelope Valley, June 27-28, and near Gor- 
man Station no less than forty-four were seen catching grasshoppers 
on the grassy hillsides at one time. 

In the High Sierra ravens were seen at Menache, Whitney, and Big 
Cottonwood meadows, and at the head of Owens River. Mr. Nelson 
saw a few about Mount Pinos and at Buena Vista Lake in October, and 
found them sparingly along the route from San Simeon to Carpenteria 
and Santa Paula, in November and December. 

Record of specimens collected of Comix corax sinualua. 



Col 

lector's 

No. 


Sex. 


Locality. 


Pate. 


Collector. 


Remarks. 


113 


9 
9 


Lone Willow Spring, Calif 


Jan. 14,1801 

Feb. 24,1891 

..do 


E. W. Nelson 

A. K. Fisher 
do 




114 


do '. 















Corvus americanus. Crow. 

At one place only was the common crow seen by any member of the 
expedition east of the Sierra Nevada. In Pahrmnp Valley, Nevada, a 
flock of crows kept around the ranch during February and March. 

At Bakersfield, in the San Joaquin Valley, crows were common along 
the river bottoms, in flocks of from five to fifty, July 17-20. Crows 
were observed among the oaks at Visalia, July 23, and a flock of about 
one hundred was seen and a specimen secured near Three Rivers, the 
latter part of the same month. Dr. Merriam saw a flock of half a 



72 



NOKTH AMERICAN FAUNA. 



[No. 7. 



dozen in Tehaehapi Valley, California, June 25, and Mr. Palmer 
found tliem common at Tejon ranch, where they were feeding on figs, 
early in July. At Monterey, Mr. Bailey heard them cawing* in the 
grounds of the Hotel Del Monte, September 28 to October 9. Mr. Nel- 
son found crows common in the San Joaquin Valley in October, along 
the route from San Simeon to Carpentaria, and in the Ojai Valley in 
November and December. 
Picicorvus columbianus. Clarke's Nutcracker. 

Clarke's crow was common in the High Sierra in California, as well 
as in a few of the higher desert ranges to the eastward. It was 
numerous about the camp in the Charleston Mountains, Nevada, in Feb- 
ruary. In the Panamint Mountains, California, a solitary individual 
was seen near the top of the ridge south of Telescope Peak, April 2, 
and on the north slope of the same peak several were heard, June 23. 
A pair was seen later in the same day which, from their actions, 
appeared to be parent and young. Mr. Nelson found it rather common 
among the Pinus flexlUs on the Inyo Mountains, and in the same belt 
of the White Mountains as well as on the plateau at the head of Owens 
Valley; and Mr. Stephens reported it common at Queen mine, in the 
White Mountains, Nevada, July 11-16. Along the eastern slope of the 
Sierra, it was abundant at Menache Meadows, May 24-26; at Kear- 
sarge Pass, June 18-23; at Bishop Creek, August 4-10; and from 2,450 
meters (8,000 feet) altitude to timber line at the head of Owens Eiver 
the latter part of July; at Big Meadows and Horse Corral Meadows it 
was seen August 8-13; in Big Cottonwood Meadows it was very com- 
mon all summer; at Bound Valley, 12 miles south of Mount Whitney, 
August 28; and along the route from Soda Springs or Kern River 
Lakes to Mineral King, early in September. Mr. Nelson found it 
numerous among pinons on Mount Piiios the later part of October. 

Record of specimens collected of Picicorvus columbianus. 



Col- 
lector's 
No. 


Sex. 


Locality. 


Date. 


Collector. 


Remarks. 


C3 

421 


d 
d 

9 


Sierra Nevada, Calif 

do 


May 27, 1831 

Aug. 28, 1891 

Aug. 28, 1891 
Sept, 4,1891 


A. K. Fisher . . . 
do 


Summit Meadows, near 
Olanclia Peak. 

Big Cottonwood Mead- 
ows. 

Round Valley. 

Soda Springs, Kern 
ltiver. 


430 


do 




do 


do 







Cyanocephalus cyanocephalus. Pinon Jay. 

The pinon jay is more or less common on all the desert ranges of 
southern California and Nevada which are high enough to support a 
growth of pinons (Pinus monophylla), and was found iu a few places on 
the Sierra Nevada, though in limited numbers. Mr. Nelson found it 
breeding in the pinon belt in the Panamint, Inyo, White, and Grape- 
vine mountains, and Mr. Stephens saw a flock of a hundred or more in 
the latter range toward the end of March. 



May, 1893. 



BIRDS OF THE DEATH VALLEY EXPEDITION. 



73 



The writer found it common in the Argus Range above Maturango 
Spring. The stomach and gullet of one shot at this place about the 
middle of May contained the kernels of the pine nut, which it evidently 
had picked up from the ground, as some of them had already sprouted. 
The species was common on the Coso Mountains the last half of May. 
Dr. Merriam saw it on Mount Ma grader and Gold Mountain, Nevada, 
early in June; in the Juniper Mountains, near the boundary between 
Nevada and Utah, May 18-19, and in the juniper belt on the east slope 
of the Beaverdam Mountains, in Utah, May 11. 

Mr. Palmer saw a single bird in the Charleston Mountains among the 
tree yuccas, February 14. 

In the Sierra Nevada Mr. Nelson saw it at the head of Owens River, 
though it was not numerous, and Mr. Stephens observed it at Bishop 
Creek, August 4-10, and noted one individual at Benton, July 9-10. 

Record of specimens collected of Cyanoceplialus cyanoccphalus. 



Col- 




lector's 


Sex. 


No. 




201 


rf 


206 


d 


207 


d 


233 


V 


249 


* 



Locality. 



Argus Range, Calif 

do 

do 

do 

Coso Mountains. Calit 



Date. 



May 6,1891 
Mav 8,1891 

....do 

May 12, 1891 
May 23, 1891 



Collector. 



A. K. Fisher. 

...do 

...do 

...do 

... do.. ....... 



Remarks. 



Maturango Spring. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do, 



Molothrus ater. Cowbird. 

Dr. Merriam saw several cowbirds in the Lower Santa Clara Valley, 
Utah, May 11-15, and a few in Pahranagat Valley, Nevada, May 22-20. 
The writer shot an adult male at Furnace Creek, Death Valley, June 
20, which w T as the only one seen there. 

Xanthocephalus xanthocephalus. Yellow-headed Blackbird. 

Yellow-headed blackbirds were seen sparingly at a number of locali- 
ties. Mr. Bailey secured a specimen at Bennett Wells in Death Val- 
ley, April 1, and an individual came and alighted on the wagon while 
the party was at Darwin, in the Coso Valley, May 5. Di. Merriam 
saw a few about the spring at Yount's ranch in Pahrump Valley, Ne- 
vada, April 29, and a number in the valley of the lower Muddy, May 
0. Others were seen by him in Meadow Creek Valley, Nevada, near 
Panaca, May 19, and the species was said to breed in Pahranagat Val- 
ley, though he did not see it there, May 22-26. In the Lower Santa 
Clara Valley, Utah, it was tolerably common about the junction of the 
Santa Clara with the Virgin, May 11-15. In Salt Wells Valley, Mr. 
Stephens saw a small flock at Eaymond Well, and at Borax Flat 
the last of April and first of May. At Lone Pine, in Owens Valley, 
one was seen among a flock of redwings in December, 1890. A num- 
ber were observed in June, and several small flocks among the tules 
and along the fence rows, August 22. The species was seen sparingly 
at Bakersfield, in the San Joaquin Valley, July 17-20. 



74 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. 

Record of specimens collected of Xanthocephalus xanthocepltalus. 



[No. 7. 



Col- 
lector's 
No. 


Sex. 


Locality. 


Date. 


Collector. 


Remarks. 


325 


d ad. 


Death Valley, Calif 


Apr. 1,1891 
June 9, 1891 


V. Bailey 

A. K.i'isher 


Bennett Wella. 






' 


' 



Agelaius phceniceus. Red-winged Blackbird. 

The red- winged blackbird is probably resident in most if not all of 
the tule marshes in southern California and Nevada. A small tioek 
of eight or ten individuals was seen at Furnace Creek, Death Valley, 
daring the latter part of January; a single specimen was secured at 
Resting Springs, California, in February. In Nevada a large flock 
was found during March around the corral of Mr. George Watkins, at 
Ash Meadows, where the birds fed upon grain left by the stock. Mr. 
Nelson stated that several hundred of these birds came to roost each 
night in the tules growing near the main spring at Pahramp Ranch, 
February 1 2-28. Mr. Stephens found it common ia Oasis Valley, March 
15-19, and at Grapevine Spring, California, the first week in April. Dr. 
Merriam saw it at Yount's ranch, in Pahramp Valley, April 29, and 
at the Bend of the Colorado, May 4. He found it breeding abundantly 
in the valley of the Muddy, in eastern Nevada, May 0; in Meadow 
Creek Valley, near Panaca, May 19; in Pahranagat Valley, May 23 
and 24; in Oasis Valley, June 1; along the Santa Clara and Virgin, 
near St. George, Utah, May 14, and saw a few at the west end of Ante- 
lope Valley, near Gorman Station, California, June 28. 

At Hot Springs, in Panamint Valley, Calif., several were seen April 
20-24. In Owens Valley, Mr. Stephens found the species not common 
at Little Owens Lake, May 0-11; at Olancha May 10-23; abundant 
at Alvord, June 20-28; common at Bishop, June 30; at Fish Slough, 
July 2-3; at Morans, July 4-7; at Benton, July 9-10, and a few at 
Haway Meadows, May 12-14; and on the meadow at Bishop Creek, 
August 4-10. Mr. Nelson observed it at the head of Owens River up to 
an altitude of 2,130 meters (7,000 feet) daring the latter part of July, 
and found it abundant about the farms at Lone Pine, in Owens Valley, 
December, 1890, where the writer saw numbers which were breeding in 
the tule marshes, the following June; The same observer also found it 
common along the South Fork of the Kern River, California, July 3-11; 
and Bakersfield, in the San Joaquin Valley, July 17-20. 

Mr. Bailey saw flocks of redwings at Monterey, September 28 to 
October 9. Mr. Nelson found this species common and associated with 
A. gubemator about Buena Vista Lake in the San Joaquin Valley; in 
the wet places near San Fmigdio, and along the coast between San 
Simeon and Carpenteria. 



May, 1893.] BIRDS OF THE DEATH VALLEY EXPEDITION. 75 

Record of specimens collected of Agelaius phw ulceus. 



Col- 




lector's 


Sex. 


No. 




138 


d 




d ad. 


111 


d ad. 


303 


d 


317 


d 


118 


d 


124 


9 




8 



Locality. 



Asli Meadows, Nev 
do 



Resting Springs, ( 'alii'. 
Owens Valley, Calif. 



Date. 



Mar. 18, 1831 

...do 

Feb. 14,1891 
June 0,1891 

do ." June 8.1891 

do June 26, 1891 

do Fune 28, 1891 

Fresno, Calif Sept. 25, 1891 



Collector. 



A. K. Fisher. 

E. W. Nelson 
A. K. Fisher. 

....do 

....do 

F. Stephens . 
....do 

V. Bailey 



Remarks. 



Lone Tine. 

Do. 
Alvm'd. 
Do. 



Agelaius gubernator. Bicolored Blackbird. 

A.ciiougli this species was common, if not abundant, in some locali- 
ties west of the Sierra Nevada, one specimen only was collected during 
the season, and this was shot by Mr. Stephens at Olancha, at the 
southern end of Owens Lake, California, June 11. 

Mr. Nelson found a few in the Ojai Valley in December; found it com- 
mon and associated with the common redwing on the border of Bueria 
Yista Lake in the San Joaquin Valley, near San Luis Obispo, and along 
the route from San Simeon to Carpenteria, in November and December. 

Mr. Bekling recorded it from the Yosemite Valley. 

Stumella magna neglecta. Western Meadowlark. 

The meadowlark is a more or less common resident in most of the 
valleys in the desert region, as well as in those west of the Sierra 
Nevada. It was common and singing at San Bernardino, December 
28-29, 1890, and was seen in Cajon Pass, January 1. In Death Valley it 
was not uncommon at Bennett Wells, near the old Eagle borax works, at 
Saratoga Springs, and at Furnace Creek, where it was common in the 
alfalfa fields the last of January. On the last trip to the valley Mr. 
Bailey and the writer found it not uncommon at Furnace Creek, June 
19-21. The meadowlark was not uncommon at Resting Springs in the 
Amargosa Desert, the first half of February and April 27, and was 
common about the ranches at Ash Meadows and in Palirump and 
Vegas valleys, Nevada, in March. In the same State Dr. Merriam 
found it common in tbe sage-covered plateau of Mount Magruder, June 
5-8; and in Oasis Valley, where it was abundant and singing in great 
numbers in the early evening, June 1. He also found it abundant and 
musical in Pahranagat Valley, May 22-26; along the valleys of the 
Virgin and lower Muddy May 6-8, and at Ash Meadows, May 30. In 
Utah it was common in alfalfa fields along the Lower Santa Clara, near 
its junction with the Virgin, May 11-15; thence northerly to Mountain 
Meadows and the Escalante Desert, May 17; and one was seen on the 
western side of tbe Beaverdam Mountains, May 10. 

In California Mr. Nelson observed a few pairs breeding on the table- 
land between Saline and Panamint valleys, at the base and among the 
pinons of the Inyo Mountains, and on the plateau at the head of Owens 
Valley, at the base of the White Mountains. In the Coso Valley and 



76 



NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. 



[No. 7. 



Mountains it was rare, only a few individuals being seen in May. It 
was common all through Owens Valley and on the lower part of the 
eastern slope of the Sierra Nevada. It was common all along Kern 
River Valley, July 3-13; at Walker Basin, July 13-16; in Tehachapi 
Valley, June 25; at Old Fort Tejon the last of June; and at Bakersfield, 
in the San Joaquin Valley, July 17-20. Mr. Bailey found it in flocks 
consisting of several hundred individuals at Monterey, September 28 
to October 9, and Mr. Nelson reported it as common in the San Joaquin 
Valley, October 5-27, and along the route from San Simeon to Carpen- 
teria and Santa Paula in November and December. 



Record of specimens collected of Stumella magna neglect: 



Col- 




lector's 


Sex. 


No. 




98 


cf 


69 


9 


84 


d 




d 


79 


d 



Locality. 



Resting Springs. Calif. . 

Death Valley, Calif 

do .. 

do 

Owens Lake, Calif 



Date. 



Feb. 6,18S1 
.Tan. 2:!, 189] 
Jan. 28,1891 
June 19, 1891 

June 9,1891 



Collector. 



A.K. Fisher 

...do 

...do 

V. Bailey... 
F. Stephens . 



Remarks. 



Furnace Creek. 
Do. 
Do. 



Icterus parisorum. Scott's Oriole. 

Scott's oriole is one of a number of birds whose known range has 
been greatly extended by the observations of the different members of 
the expedition. It was first observed at the summit of Shepherd Canon 
in the Argus Range, Calif., May 1. All along the western slope of this 
range and in Coso Valley it was common, and males were in full song. 
On May 5 a female was secured, which contained an egg in the oviduct, 
and on May 7 a nest containing two eggs was found. It was placed 
on the lower side of a branch of a tree yucca about 8 feet from the 
ground, and was firmly attached to the bayonet-shaped leaves of the 
tree by threads of plant fiber and tough grasses. A number .of old 
nests were seen in many places through the valley. In the Coso 
Mountains it was also common up to the summit among the yuccas, 
junipers, and pinons, where, on May 27, a nest containing an egg and 
three young was found in a yucca in Mill Canon. 

Mr. Nelson found it breeding in the Inyo, Panamint, and Grapevine 
mountains in the pifion belt. On the eastern slope of the Inyo Moun 
tains, near Cerro Gordo, one was noted on June 15. On both slopes of 
the Panamint Mountains, near Cottonwood Canon, he found it ranging 
from the yucca belt up to the summit of the divide, and in the Grape- 
vine Mountains found it among the pinons. Everywhere he found it 
in pairs, the males singing from the tops of pinons. Above the 'charcoal 
kilns' in Wild Rose Canon in the Panamint Mountains, Mr. Bailey 
and the writer saw the species and heard the males singing, June 
24-25. Mr. Stephens heard it near the Queen mine in the White Moun- 
tains, Nevada, July 11-16. In the same State Dr. Merriam secured 
specimens in the Charleston Mountains April 30, and in the Juniper 



May, 1893. 



BIRDS OF THE DEATH VALLEY EXPEDITION. 



77 



Mountains, east of Panaca, May 19, when several pairs were seen 
mating. On Mount Magruder, Nevada, he found it tolerably common 
among the nut pines, where the birds seemed to be hunting for nesting 
sites, and were very difficult to approach. Several fine specimens 
were taken there June 4-11. The same observer found the species in 
the juniper belt of the Beaverdam Mountains, in Utah, May 10-11. In 
Walker Pass, on the east slope of the Sierra Nevada, several were 
seen and one shot among the yuccas June 21, and another on the west- 
ern sk>i)e of the same pass in a Finns sabiniana July 2. 

Record of specimens collected of Icterus partsorum. 



Col- 
lector's 
No. 



Sex. 



Locality. 



Date. 



Collector. 



Remarks. 



196 



243 
261 



9 
d 

d 
d 
? 
9 
d 

im 

? 
9 
d 
d 



Argus Range, Calif. 

......do....... 

do 



Coso Mountains, Calif 

do 

Panamint Mountains, Calif. 

do 

Walker Pass, Calif 

Charleston Mountains, Nov. 

Mount Magrmler, Nov 

do 

do 



May 5,1891 
.May 9, 1891 
May 11,1891 
May 21,1891 
May 27,1891 
May 8, 1891 
May 12,1891 
June 21, 1891 
Apr. 30, 1891 
June 4,1891 

....do 

June S, 1891 



A.K.Fisher 

T. S. Palmer 

...do , 

A. K. Fisher 

...do 

E. W. Nelson 

...do 

C. Hart»Merriain 

...do 

...do 

...do , 

...do 



Mattiraugo Spring 
Do! 



Icterus bullocki. Bullock's Oriole. 

Bullock's oriole was tolerably common in several localities, where 
streams large enough to nourish a more or less extensive growth of trees 
were found. In Owens Valley it was common at Lone Pine, where a 
number of nests were observed in the willows, and several specimens 
secured, June 4-15. In the same valley, Mr. Stephens saw a solitary 
male at Little Owens Lake the first week in May; at Haway Meadows 
May 12-14; found the species rather common at Olancha May 10-23; 
comnfon and a nest containing young at the mouth of the canon at In- 
dependence Creek June 19; not common at Bishop, Fish Slough, and 
Morans July 1-7; and Benton July 9-10. Dr. Merriain saw one among 
the cottonwoods at Furnace Creek in Death Valley about the middle 
of April ; in the Amargosa Canon, and at Resting Springs, April 27. In 
Nevada, he saw it at Vegas Ranch, May 1; in the Valley of the Virgin 
and lower Muddy, May 0-8, and in Meadow Creek Valley, near Pan- 
aca, May 19. He found it tolerably common also in the Lower Santa 
Clara Valley, Utah, where it was breeding, May 11-15. On the western 
slope of the Sierra Nevada it was seen in Walker Pass, July 2; was 
common along the valley of the Kern June 22-23 and July 3-10; at 
Walker Basin July 13-10; and at Bakersfield July 17-20. It was 
common at Old Fort Tejon, and was seen in other parts of the Canada de 
las Uvas in June and July. Mr. Nelson saw it in the Yosemite Val- 
ley, and Mr. Bailey, along the Kaweah River, in August. 



78 



NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. 
Record of specimens collected of Icterus bullocki. 



[*< o.7. 



Col- 




lector's 


Sex. 


No. 






d 


297 


d 


298 


d 


309 


d 


322 


cfad 


323 


cT" 


324 


9" 


87 


S 




? 



Locality. 



Death Valley, Calif. . 

Owens Valley, Calif. 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

Walker Pass, Calif. . 



Date. 



April 7, 1891 
June j, 1891 

...do 

June 7, 1891 
June 9,1891 

....do 

... do 

June 12, 1891 
July 3,1891 



Collector. 



Romarta. 



V. Bailey 

A. K. Fisher. . . 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

F. Stephens 

V. Bailey 



Lone Pine. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 
Owens Lake. 



Scolecophagus cyanocephalus. Brewer's Blackbird. 

Brewer's blackbird was not a common species in many localities vis- 
ited by tlie expedition, either in the desert region or among the moun- 
tains. At San Bernardino a number of flocks were seen, together 
with redwings, December 29, 1890. A few individuals were found about 
the ranch at Furnace Greek, in Death Valley, in the latter part of Jan- 
uary, and at Besting Springs, in the Amargosa Desert, early in Feb- 
ruary. 

In Nevada a few were seen at Ash Meadows and in Pahrump and 
Vegas valleys, where they kept about inclosures and out-houses, in 
March. Dr. Merriam found it in the same valleys April 29-30; at 
the Bend of the Colorado May 4; at Bunkerville in the Virgin Valley, 
May 8; in Meadow Creek Valley near Panaca, May 19; and in Pah- 
ranagat Valley May 22. A few were seen at Hot Springs, in Panamint 
Valley, April 20-25; in Saline Valley the latter part of June, and on 
the plateau at the foot of the White Mountains in July. In Owens Val- 
ley it was common at Olancha June 29; at Alvord June 26-28; at Mor- 
ans July 4-7; at Benton July 9-10; rather common at Bishop Creek 
August 4-10; and a few were seen at Little Owens Lake May 0-11; at 
Haway Meadows May 12-14; and at Ash Creek May 30 to June 3. 

In the High Sierra it was common at Menache Meadows May 24-26; at 
the head of Owens Biver the latter part of July; at Whitney Meadows, 
where Mr. Nelson saw a flock of twenty or more sitting on the backs 
of sheep, August 30. A dozen or fifteen were seen at Trout Meadows 
September 7, and it was found breeding at Big Cottonwood Meadows 
during the summer. It was common in Walker Pass July 2; along 
the valley of the Kern July 3-13; at Walker Basin, where it was 
feeding on grasshoppers, July 13-16; and at Bakersheld, in the San 
Joaquin Valley, July J7-20. Dr. Merriam saw many catching grass- 
hoppers in Antelope Valley, at the west end of the Mohave Desert, 
June 27; found the species common in the Canada de las Uvas June 
27-28; and saw a few in the San Marcos Valley, San Diego County, 
July 1-10. 

Mr. Bailey found it common at Monterey September 28 to October '.»; 
aud Mr. Nelson saw flocks in San Joaquin Valley, and found it gen- 



M.w. 1893.] 



BIRDS OF THE DEATH VALLEY EXPEDITION. 



9 



erally distributed along the route from Sail Simeon to Carpeuteria, in 
November and December. 

Record of specimens collected of Scoleeophagits cyanocephalus. 



Col- 
lector's 
No. 


Sex. 


.Locality. 


Date. 


Collector. 


Remarks. 


77 
82 


9 
9 


Death Valley, Calif 

do :. 


Jan. 25.1891 
Jan. 27,1891 


A.K.Fisher 

do ..i 


Furnace Creek. 
Do. 











Coccothraustes vespertinus moiitanus. Western Evening Grosbeak. 

The evening grosbeak was seen but once by the expedition. Mr. 
Bailey saw a small flock at Auburn, Calif., and secured two specimens 
October 22. 

Record of specimens collected of Coccothraustes rcspcrtinus montanus. 



Col- 
lector's 
No. 



Sex. 



Locality. 



Date. 



cf Auburn. Tlacer Co., Calif Oct. 22, 1891 

$ do I do 



Collector. 



V. Bailey. 
...do ..... 



Remarks. 



Pinicola enucleator. Pine Grosbeak. 

Mr. Nelson saw a tine adult male pine grosbeak in brilliant plumage 
on the head of the San Joaquin River July 30. This individual was 
the only one seen during the year. 

Carpodacus purpureus californicus. California Purple Finch. 

Not obtained by any member of the expedition. Mr. Henshaw secured 
a siugle specimen near Mount Whitney, Calif., October 10, 1875. 
Carpodacus cassini. Cassin's Purple Finch. 

Cassius purple finch was seen only in the higher parts of the White 
and Inyo mountains, and in the Sierra Nevada. Mr. Nelson saw two 
pairs in the Pirvm flexilis belt on Waucoba Peak, in the Inyo Mountains, 
during the latter part of June, and secured two specimens at about 2,650 
meters (8,700 feet) altitude in the White Mountains July 7. The same 
observer found it very abundant on the eastern slope, from 2,500 to 
2,900 meters (8,200 to 9,500 feet) at the head of Owens River, and also 
at the head of the San Joaquin River, on the western slope. 

It was also observed or secured at the following places in the High 
Sierra : at Horse Corral Meadows, August 11 ; at Cottonwood Meadows 
during the summer and as late as September 1; at Round Valley, 
which is 12 miles south of Mount Whitney, August 26-28; at Menache 
Meadows May 21-26; at Whitney Meadows the latter part of August, 
and near Mineral King during the latter part of August and early 
September, 



80 



NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. 
Record of specimens collected of Carpodacus cassini. 



[No. 7. 



Col- 




lector's 


Sex. 


No. 






d im. 




d 


137 


d 




d im. 


1 


d 


7 


d 


420 


? im. 


432 


d im. 




d im. 



Locality. 



Wliito Mountains, Calif 

do 

Sierra Nevada, Calif. 

do 



.do 

.do 

.do 
.do 
.do 



Date. 



July 7,1891 

....do 

July 22, 1891 
Aug. 11, 1891 

June 19, 1891 

June 23. 1891 
Aus. 2 J, 1891 
Aug. 30. 1891 
Aug. 1,1891 



Collector. 



E. TV. Nelson. 
...do 

F. Stephens . . 
T. S. Palmer. . 

B. H. Dutcher 

...do 

A. K. Fisher.. 

...do 

V. Bailey 



Item arks. 



Horse Corral Mead- 
ows. 
Big Cottonwood 
Meadows. 
Do. 
Do. 
Whitney Meadows. 
East Fork of Kaw- 
eah River, Calif. 



Carpodacus mexicanus frontalis. House Finch. 

The house finch was found wherever water was present in all locali- 
ties visited by the expedition, except in the higher mountains among 
the pines, and undoubtedly bred wherever found. There was no other 
species of bird, with the possible exception of the dove, whose presence 
was so indicative of the nearness of water as the one under considera- 
tion. The writer never saw it more than a few hundred yards from 
water, except when flying high overhead. 

After leaving Daggett on the Mohave Desert, Calif., house finches 
were seen at all the springs or water holes on the road to Death Valley. 
At Granite Wells flocks were found about the water at all times of 
day. In Death Valley a few were seen at Bennett Wells and between 
that place and Furnace Creek during the latter part of January. Dr. 
Merriam saw it at the latter place about the middle of April, and Mr. 
Bailey and the writer found it at both places on their last trip to the 
valley, June 19-22. 

In the Pauamint Mountains it was abundant in Johnson, Surprise, 
and Emigrant canons, in April; at Willow Creek and Cottonwood 
Creek, in May; aud in Wild Rose and Death Valley canons, in June. 
In the Argus Range, the species was very abundant in Shepherd Canon 
and at Maturango Spring, where it bred commonly, as it did in the 
Panamint Mountains. 

As many as a dozen nests were found from April 25 to May 1, in 
various situations. A few were placed in crevices in the rocky sides 
of the caiion, while the majority were in bushes on the sloping hillsides, 
from one to several feet above the ground. The nests among the rocks 
were more compact, as they contained a larger amount of lining than 
those in the bushes, which in many cases were very loosely put together. 
The full complement of eggs in the different nests was four, five, and 
six. The species Avas common in the Coso, Inyo, and White mountains. 
It was everywhere common in Owens Valley from the lower to the upper 
part. In this valley, both at Independence and Lone Pine, the species 
was found to be very destructive to the ripened peaches during the 
middle of August. Flocks of birds occurred iu the orchards, and in some 



May, 1893.] 



BIRDS OF THE DEATH VALLEY EXPEDITION. 



81 



places hardly an example of the ripe fruit could be found which was 
not more or less mutilated. A number of birds shot in the peach or- 
chards at Lone Pine had little except the pulp of this fruit in their gul- 
lets or stomachs. It was known as the 'peach bird.' 

It was common all along the route from Walker Pass, through the 
valley of Kern River, Walker Basin and Bakersneld to Visalia, June 
21-23, and July 1 to 23, and at Old FortTejon late in June and early in 
July. It was seen at Ash Meadows and Pahrump Valley, Nevada, in 
March. In the same State, Br. Merriam noted it among the cotton- 
woods at Yount's ranch in Pahrump Valley, April 29; at Mountain 
Spring, in the Charleston Mountains, and at Upper Cottonwood Springs 
near the east base of these mountains, April 30; near the summit of 
the Timpahute Mountains in tree yuccas, May 20; at Quartz Spring, on 
the west side of the Desert Mountains, May 27; at the Bend of the 
Colorado, May 4, and on Gold Mountain where a young one just able to 
fly was caught June 3, at an altitude of about 1,080 meters (G,500 feet). 
It was common in Tule Canon June 4, and thence up to the plateau on 
top of Mount Magruder. In Arizona, he found it common at the 
mouth of Beaverdam Creek, May 0-10; in Utah, in the juniper belt of 
the Beaverdam Mountains, May 10-11, and at St. George, in the Lower 
Santa Clara Valley, May 11-15, where it was called ' peach bird ' by 
the Mormons. Two nests were fouud at St. George, one in a cotton- 
wood and the other in an arborescent ( actus. 

Mr. Nelson found the species in small numbers in the Canada de las 
Uvas, at San Emigdio Creek, and in the Temploa Mountains, and rather 
common about the ranches in the San Joaquin Valley in October. It 
was common along the route from San Simeon to Carpentcria, among 
the farms along the coast, and not uncommon between the latter place 
and Santa Paula in November and December. 



Record of specimens collected of Carpodaeus mexiceums frontalis. 



Col- 




lector's 


Sex. 


No. 




45 


d 


13 


d 




d 


158 


d 


159 


V 


187 


V 


231 


d 


232 


d 




d 




d 


348 


¥ 



LocalHy. 



Dai 



Dato. 



^t, Calif Jan. 9,1891 

Tdo Feb. 8,1891 

rauamint Mountains, Calif . . Mch. 28, 1891 

do ' Apr. 13,1891 

do ....do 

Aru'us Raugo, Calif I Apr. 27,1891 

.do ' ' May 12, 1891 

do do 

do do 

do do 



Collector. 



A. K. Fisher . 
F. Stephens . . 
E. W. Nelson. 
A. K. Fisher . 

...do 

...do 

...do 

...do 

T. S. Palmer. . 
..do 



Death Valley, Calif I June 21, 1891 A. K. Fisher .. 



Remarks. 



Johnson Canon. 
Surprise Caliou. 

Do. 
Xest ami eggs. 
Maturaiigo Spring 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 
Furnace Creek. 



lioxia curvirostra stricklandi. Mexican Crossbill. 

Crossbills were uncommon and seen only in the Sierra Nevada. At 

Big Cottonwood Meadows Dr. Merriam saw them just below timber line 

June 18, and towards the end of the season Mr. Dutchcr saw a few and 

shot a pair. Mr. Nelson saw some on the west slope opposite the head 

12731— No. 7 G. 



82 



NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. 



[No. 7. 



of Owens River in August. At Horse Corral Meadows a noisy flock 
passed our camp August 12. Mr. Bailey saw the species at Whitney 
Meadows, and it was heard at Soda Springs or Kern River Lakes, Sep- 
tember 5. 

Record of specimens collected of Loxia curvlroslra stricMandi. 



Col- 
lector's 

No. 


Sex. 


Locality. 


Date. 


Collector. 


Remarks. 




9 


Siena Nevada, Calif 

do 


Aug. 20. 1891 
Aug. 28, 1891 
Aug. 22, 1891 


V. Bailey 

flo 


WhitneyMeadows. 


34 


...,lo 


B. H. Butcher.... 


Big Cottonwood 








Meadows. 



Leucosticte tephrocotis. Gray-crowned Leucosticte. 

A very interesting discovery made by the expedition was that 
the gray-crowned finch is a common summer resident in the higher 
portions of the White Mountains and the Sierra Nevada in eastern and 
southern California. The knowledge that this bird breeds as stated, 
makes its distribution in relation to the other species of the genus a 
little more clear. 

In the Rocky Mountain region Lcncosticte atrata is the northern and 
L. australis the southern representative, just as Leucosticte t. littoralis 
is the northern race of L. tephrocotis of the'more western range. 

Mr. Nelson found the gray crowned finch breeding abundautly on 
the White Mountains, the only range except the Sierra Nevada on 
which the species was seen. 'It was found above timber line about the 
bases of the main peaks at an elevation from 3,350 to 3,050 meters 
(11,000 to 12,000 feet). He found the birds easy of approach as they 
were feeding on seeds and insects about the border of the melting 
snowdrifts. 

. The warm west wind coming from over Owens Valley brought many 
insects which became benumbed by the cold and fell on the snowdrifts. 
These the birds devoured eagerly, and Mr. Nelson saw them pursue 
and tear to pieces several grasshoppers on the surface of the snow. 
The condition of the skin on the abdomen showed that they were 
incubating and that both sexes shared in this labor, lie noticed when 
skinning the birds that they had a double craw. One located in the 
usual place and the other in the form of a double gular sac divided by 
a median constriction. The latter when full hangs down like a lobe of 
bare skin outside of the feathers. 

In the Sierra Nevada the same observer saw the species about tim- 
ber line at the head of Owens River on the eastern slope, and at the 
same altitude on Kern, Kings, and Kawrah rivers on the western slope. 
Mr. Stephens found it abundant about the lakes at the head of Inde- 
pendence Creek, where it was breeding June 18-23, and also saw three 
above timber line at Menache Meadows, May 24-2(5. Mr. Du.tch.er saw 
several flocks and secured a few specimens at and above nimber line at 



May, 1893.] BIRDS OF THE DEATH VALLEY EXPEDITION. 



83 



Big Cottonwood Meadows, during the summer. Mr. Bailey found it 
common all along timber line and down among the Pinus balfouriana at 
Whitney Meadows. The writer did not see the species until August 18, 
when a nock of forty or more was seen on the west side of the Kear- 
sarge Pass. Later in the day, during a snow storm, a flock was seen 
just below timber line on the east side of the Pass, and five specimens 
secured. The bad weather seemed to make them restless and hard to 
approach. At Bound Valley, 12 miles south of Mount Whitney, the 
species was again seen just above timber line, August 28, and on the 
ridge north of Mineral King large flocks were seen September 8-11. 

Record of specimens coltected of Leueosticte tephrocotis. 



Col- 
lector'a 

No. 


Sex. 


Locality. 


Date. 


Collector. 


Remarks. 




d 
d 
d 
d 
d 
d 
d 
d 
d 
d 
d 
d 
d 
d 
d 
d 
9 
9 
9 
9 
? 
9 
9 

d 

9 ira 
9 im 

■ d 

9 
9 
d 
iru 

d 

9 im 
d im 

9 im 

d 


White Mountains, Calif. . 
do 


July 15, 1891 

....do 


E. W. Nelson 
do 






do 


....do 


... do 






do 


....do 


.. do 






do 


....do 


.. do 






do 

do 

do 


....do 


do 






....do 


do 






do 


do 






do 


do 


do 






do 


....do 


do 






do 


....do 


...do 






do 


do 


.. do 






do 


....do 


do 






do 


do 


.. do 






do 


do 


.. do 






......do 


do 


...do . 






do 


do .. 


do 






do 


do 


do 






do 


do 


.. do 






do 


do 


do 






do 


do 


.. do 






do 


do 


...do 




417 


Sierra Nevada. Calif 

do 


July 25, 1891 

Aug. 18, 1891 
do 


E. W. Nelson 

A. K. Fisher 

. do 


Summit of Mammoth 

Pass, Cal. 
Kearsarge Pass, 

11,000 feet altitude. 
Do 


418 


do 


419 


do 


do ... 


. do 


Do 


112 


do 


June 22, 1891 
do 


F. Stephens 

do 


Independence Creek, 
10.000 feet. 
Do 


113 


do 


114 


do •- 


do 


.. do 


Do 


115 


do 


do ... 


do 


Do 


19 


do 


July 30, 1891 

Aug. 2,1891 
Aug. 20, 1891 

Aug. 28, 1891 

Aug. 23, 1891 
Aug. 7,1891 


B.H. Dutcher.... 
...do .. 


Big Cottonwood Mead- 
ows. 
Do. 


25 


do 




do 


V. Bailov 


Do 


429 


do 


A. K. Fisher 

F. Stephens 

V. Bailey 


Bound Valley, above 

timber line. 
Olancha Peak, 12,000 

feet altitude. 


161 


do 




do 








feet altitude. 



Leueosticte atrata. Black Leueosticte. 

Mr. Bailey secured one specimen of this species at St. George, 
Utah, January 21, 1889. It was feeding alone on a rocky hill, among 
low brush. 



Spinus tristis. Goldfinch. 

A common species throughout southern California, though not re- 
corded by any member of the expedition. 



84 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. [No. 7. 

Spinus psaltria. Arkansas Goldfinch. 

The Arkansas goldfinch was observed in a number of localities 
throughout the mountain and desert regions visited. At San Bernar- 
dino a flock of eight or ten was seen feeding on the seeds of a wild sun- 
flower, December 28, 1890. Small flocks were seen in Cajon Pass, Jan- 
nary 2, again March 20-30, and in the cotton woods bordering the Mohave 
River near Victor, March 30. 

In Nevada, it was not uncommon at Ash Meadows in March; at 
Queen station and mill in the White Mountains, July 11-16. Dr. 
Merriam found it at Upper Cottonwood Springs at the east base of the 
Charleston Mountains, April 30; at the Bend of the Colorado River, 
May 4; and iu Pahranagat Valley, where it was breeding commonly, 
May 23. At the mouth of Beaverdam Creek, Arizona, and on the west 
side of the Beaverdam Mountains, Utah, he saw several May 9-10. As 
no specimens were taken for identification, the Arizona and Utah rec- 
ords may apply to Spinus psaltria arizonce. 

In the Panimint Mountains it was common in Johnson and Surprise 
canons, and in the latter place Mr. Albert Koebele found a nest, just 
completed, April 23. In the same mountains Mr. Nelson found it a com- 
mon breeding species in Cottonwood, Mill Creek, and Willow Creek 
canons. In the Argus Range it was common in Shepherd Canon, 
where a nest and four eggs were taken April 27, and at Maturango 
Spring the first half of May. At Coso Mountains a few were seen 
along the streams in the canons, the last of May. 

Mr. Nelson found it common in the Grapevine Mountains, and rather 
common in the Inyo Mountains, in willow patches along the streams 
up to the pinons, the latter part of June. Goldfinches were common 
at the head of Owens River, abundant in the Yosemite, and from the 
base up to the nut-pines in the White Mountains. The were more or 
less common in Owens Valley from the lower end, at Little Owens 
Lake, northward to Benton and the foot of the White Mountains. A 
few were seen in Walker Pass, July 2-3 ; the species was common along 
the South Fork of Kern River, July 3-10; in Walker Basin, July 13-16; 
and at Bakcrsfield, in the San Joaquin Valley, July 17-20. In the High 
Sierra Dr. Merriam saw the species near Big Cottonwood Meadows, 
June 18, and the writer observed a flock near the abandoned sawmill 
in Sequoia National Park, August 1. 

Mr. Palmer reported it common at Old Fort Tej on during the first half 
of July ; Mr. Stephens found it rather common at Reche Canon Septem- 
ber 22-21, and Mr. Bailey saw it in flocks at Monterey September 28 
to October 9. 

It was common at Three Rivers July 25-30, and along the route from 
Mineral King to that place September 12-15. 

Mr. Nelson found it common and generally distributed betweeu San 
Simeon and Carpenteria and Santa Paula, in November and December. 



May. 1893.1 



BIRDS OF THE DEATH VALLEY EXPEDITION. 



85 



Record of specimens collected of Spinus psaltria. 



Col- 
lector's S< x:. 
Xo. 



7 
188 

193 
2:7 
368 

371 



Locality. 



Date. 



San Bernardino, Calif ! Dec. 28, 1890 

Argus Range, Calif April27, 1891 

do A.pril29, 1891 

do May 13, 1891 

Walker Pass, Calif July 3,1891 

Kern River, Calif July 4,1891 

Pahranagat Valley. Nevada ... May 23,1891 
Santa Clara, TJtau May 11,1891 



Collector. 



Remarks. 



A. K. Fisher 

■ --■do Shepherd Canon, 

nesl and 4 eggs. 

do Shepherd Canon. 

do Maturaugo Sprinjr. 

....do 

do .South Fork. 

C. liar; Miiiiain . 

V. Bailey 



Spinus psaltria arizonae Arizona Goldfinch. 

This subspecies was found breeding in great abundance in the 
Lower Santa Clara Valley, Utah, by Dr. Merriam. Five nests with 
fresh eggs were found, and one with eggs nearly ready to hatch. May 
11-15. In California Mr. Bailey secured a specimen from a flock 
at Three Eivers, in the western foothills of the Sierra Nevada, Sep- 
tember 15. 
Spinus lawrencei. Lawrence's Goldfinch. 

Dr. Merriam reported Lawrence's goldfinch as common in the Canada 
de las Uvas, June 28-29, and in the Granite Range in western San 
Diego County, July 1-10. Mr. Palmer saw a male near Old Fort Tejon, 
June 30, and shot one in the cafion July G. A specimen was secured 
in Walker Basin July 16, and an individual was seen among the oaks 
above it, July 14. These are all the records we have for the species. 
Spinus pinus. Pine Siskin. 

At two places only was this species seen by members of the expedi- 
tion, both in the High Sierra in California. Mr. Nelson saw it at the 
head of the San Joaquin River, in August, and the writer observed a 
flock of a dozen or fifteen near timber line above Mineral King, Sep- 
tember 10. The birds were feeding upon seeds on or near the ground, 
and when flushed alighted on a pine branch within a few feet of the ob- 
server. 
Poocaetes gramineus confinis. Western Vesper Sparrow. 

The vesper sparrow was seen in comparatively few places on either 
side of the Sierra Nevada. At Ash Meadows, Nevada, it was not un- 
common in migration March 10, and a fe^v were seen by Mr. Bailey at 
Vegas Ranch, March 10-13. 

Mr. Nelson found a few among the sage brush above the pifions in 
the Inyo Mountains, in June; not uncommon on the White Mountains, 
and on the plateau at the head of Owens Valley, in July; and common 
at the head of Owens River, in the same month. Dr. Merriam found 
the species at Mountain Meadows, Utah, May 17. A single specimen 
was seen near Visalia, Calif., September 17, a few near the lower end 
of the Canada de las Uvas and San Emigdio Canon, and on the Carrizo 
Plain, in San Joaquin Valley, in October. 



86 



NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. 



[No. 7. 



Ammodramus sandwichensis alaudinus. Western Savanna Sparrow. 

This little sparrow was found nowhere common, though it breeds 
sparingly in various localities throughout the desert regions. The 
writer found it not uncommon in the alfalfa fields at Furnace Creek, 
Death Valley, in the latter part of January, and Dr. Merriam found 
a few at the same place April 9-12, but Mr. Bailey and the former 
observer did not detect it on their last trip to the valley, June 19-1*2. 
Mr. Nelson found a few at Saratoga Springs, in the lower end of the 
valley, late in January. A few were seen at Resting Spring, Cali- 
fornia early in February; a number of specimens were secured in the wet 
meadows at Ash Meadows, Nevada, during the first three weeks of 
March; and Mr. Nelson found it not uncommon about wet ground in 
Pahrump and Vegas valleys and in Vegas Wash March 3-16. Dr, 
Merriam shot one at the Great Bend of the Colorado May 4; one in 
Meadow Creek Valley, Nevada, May 19, and a number in Pahranagat 
Valley, Nevada, May 22-20. 

In Owens Valley the writer found it not uncommon and breeding 
among the salt grass at Owens Lake May 30 to June 1, and at Lone 
Pine June 4-15: and Mr. Stephens found it not uncommon at Olancha, 
May 10-23; Alvord, June 20-28; and Morans, July 4-7. 

A pair was seen by Mr. Nelson at the head of Owens Valley near 
the White Mountains about the middle of July, and by the writer at 
Three Rivers, in the western foothills, September 10. It was common 
along the coast from San Simeon to Santa Barbara, and a few were seen 
near Carpenteria in December. 

Record of specimens collected of Ammodramus sandwichensis alaudinus. 



Col- 




c tor's 


Sox. 


No. 






? 




d 




d 




V 


119 


V 


120 


V 


129 


¥ 




d 


106 


d 




V 


79 


V 


91 


d 


92 


d 


179 


9 


SJ83 


V 


291 


d 


01 


d 


88 


d 


10.1 


9 


292 


d 




V 



Locality. 



Date. 



GreatBendof Colorado River, KTev May 4,1891 

Paurump Valley, Nev Feb. 17,1891 

Ash Meadows, Nev Mar. 4,1891 

do do 

do Mar. 8,1881 

do Mar. 9,1891 

do I Mar. 15,1891 

do ! Mar. 19, 1891 

Resting Springs, Calif I Feb. 11,1891 

Death Valley, Calif Jan. 31, 1891 

do Jan. 26, 1891 

do- I Jan. 31,1891 

do ! do 

Panamint Valley, Calif .. .' ' Apr. 23,1891 

Owens Valley, Calif June 2,1891 

do ' June 3, 1891 

do May 22,1891 

do June 12, 1891 

do June 15,1891 

do June 5,1891 

Fresno, Calif Sept, 25, 1891 



Collector. 



Remarks. 



Hart Merriam. . 

W. Kelson . . 

.do 

.do 

. K. Fisher — 

do 

.do 

W. Nelson .. 
. X. Fisher... 

W. Nelson Saratoga Spring 

K. Fisher Furnace CreekT 

.do | Do, 

do | Do. 

.do Hot Springs. 

-do Keeler. 



.do 

Stephens. .. 

.do 

.do 

K.Fisher.. 

W. Nelson. 



Do. 

( •hineha, 

Do. 

Do. 
Lone Pine. 



Ammodrarrms sandwichensis bryanti. Bryant's Marsh Sparrow. 

Mr. Nelson found Bryant's sparrow common along the coast from 
Santa Barbara to Carpenteria during the first half of December. 



May, 1893.] BIRDS OF THE DEATH VALLEY EXPEDITION. 87 

Record of specimen collected of Ammodranius sandwichensis bryanti. 



Col- 
lectors 
No. 



Sex. 



Locality. 



C npent< n i Calif 

do 

do 



Dec. 18, 1891 

...do 

...do 



Collector. 



Remarks. 



E. W.Nelson 

...do 

...do 



Chondestes grammacus strigatus. Western Lark Sparrow. 

The western lark sparrow is a characteristic inhabitant of the Upper 
Sonoran and Transition Zones and was not found in the Lower Sonoran 
Zone, except west of the Sierra Nevada, and during migration. It was 
a common species in Owen's Valley from the lower end northward, and 
was breeding wherever found. The writer found it abundant along the 
South Fork of Kern River, at Kernville, and in Walker Basin during 
the first half of July. In the San Joaquin Valley it was abundant at 
Bakersfleld, and all along the route to Visalia, duly 17-23, and at Three 
Rivers, July 25-30 and September 14-17. 

Dr. Merriam furnished the following notes on the species: "In Ne- 
vada it was common throughout the sage brush on the rolling plateau 
that forms the northward continuation of the Juniper Mountains, May 
18, and in Desert and Pahranagat valleys, May 20-20. In Pahranagat 
Valley it was particularly abundant, breeding and in full song. It was 
common in the north part of Oasis Valley, June 1, but was not observed 
at the southern end of this valley. On Mount Magruder a few were 
seen in the sage brush June 5. Others were found at Mountain Spring 
in the Charleston Mountains and at Upper Cottonwood Springs at the 
east base of these mountains, April 30; and in the Valley of the Muddy, 
May 6. Several were seen in the lower edge of the junipers on both 
sides of the Beaverdam Mountains in southwestern Utah, May 10 and 
11. It was found also in the Santa Clara Valley, Utah, May 11-15, 
and was common in Mountain Meadows, Utah, May 17. In Owens 
Valley, California, it was common in the sage brush of the Upper So- 
noran Zone, June 10-19, and in Antelope Valley at the west end of the 
Mohave Desert, June 27-28. On the west slope of the Sierra Nevada 
it was abundant in the valley of Kern River, where full-grown young 
were conspicuous, June 22-23. It was seen in the Tehachapi Valley, 
June 25, and in the Canada de las Uvas, June 28-29, where full-grown 
young were common." 

Mr. Nelson found it rather common in the Canada de las Uvas and 
San Emigdio Canon, at various places in San Joaquin Valley and 
about the borders of the foothills, in October, and in the more open 
country along the route from San Simeon to Carpentaria, in November 
and part of December. 



NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. 
Record of specimens collected of Chondestes grammacus strigatas. 



[No. 



Col- 
lector's 
No. 


Sex. 


Locality. 


Date. 


Collector. 


Remarks. 


307 


9 

J 

9 


Owens Valley, Calif 


June 6, 1891 
do 


A. K. Fisher 

do 




308 




Do. 


320 


...do... 


Juno 9, 1891 


do 


Do. 











Zonotrichia leucophrys. White-crowned Sparrow. 

The white-crowned sparrow was a common summer resident in the 
Sierra Nevada and White Mountains, but was not found in any other 
locality, even as a migrant — at least specimens were not taken else- 
where. There is uncertainty as to the race which breeds among the 
piilons in the Inyo Mountains, as no specimens were collected there. 
Mr. Nelson found the white-crowned sparrow on the plateau at the head 
of Owens Valley, and thence up to near timber line in the White Moun- 
tains, and Mr. Stephens saw it at the Queen mill and mine, Nevada, in 
the same range, July 11-16. Along the eastern slope of the Sierra it was 
commou at the head of Owens River, the last of July ; rather common at 
Menache Meadows, May 24-26; Onion Lake on Independence Creek, 
June 18-23; and at Bishop Creek, August 4-10. Mr. Dutcher found it 
very common among the willows at Big Cottonwood Meadows, where 
nests were taken. Mr. Palmer saw a nest containing three eggs near 
Mount Silliman, August 7, and Mr. Belding found the species in the Yo- 
semite. White-crowned sparrows were common in flocks at Whitney 
Meadows, September 1, Farewell Gap, September 8, and from timber 
line above Mineral King down along the Kaweah River to below the 
pines, September 10-12. 

Record of specimens collected of Zonotrichia leucophrys. 



Col- 
lector's 
No. 


Sex. 


Locality. 


Date. 


Collector. 


Remarks. 


148 
116 


7 

9 
d 
d 
9 

9 
d 

cfim 


do 


Aug. 8,1891 
June 22, 1891 

July 31, 1891 
July 10,1891 
Aug. 26, 1891 
July 7,1891 

July 13, 1891 
July 19, 1891 
Aug. 25, 1891 


I\ Stephens 

do 


Bishop Creek. 




do 


V. Bailev - 


Creek. 


1C2 


White Mountains 

do 


E. W. Nelson 
B. H. Dutcher.... 
do 


Mulkey Meadows, 




do :. . 


Meadows. 
Do 




do 


do 


Do 


422 


do 


A. K. Fisher 


Do 









Zonotrichia leucophrys intermedia. Intermediate Sparrow. 

The intermediate sparrow was found as a migrant or winter resident 
only, through the desert regions, where it was often abundant among 
the mesquite or other thickets. In Cajon Pass it was very common Jan- 
uary 1-2, and again March 30. In the Mohave Desert it was common 
at Hesperia January 4, and about Stoddard Wells January 0. In 
Death Valley it was commou about Furnace Creek ranch the last of 



MAY.1S93.] 



BIRDS OF THE DEATH VALLEY EXPEDITION. 



89 



January and April 9-12, and at Besting Springs the first half of Feb- 
ruary and April 27. At the latter place the flocks became very tame 
and came into camp to pick up the crumbs. 

It was common about the ranch and among- the mesquite at Ash 
Meadows, ISTev., during the greater part of March, and Mr. Nelson 
found it abundant at Pahrump and Vegas ranches and among the juni- 
pers in the Charleston Mountains during the same month. Dr. Merriam 
found it common at Leach Point Spring, Calif., April 25; at Mountain 
Spring in the Charleston Mountains. New, April 30; in the Valley of 
the Virgin near P>unkerville, May 8, and a few tardy migrants in 
Pahranagat Valley May 22-26. In the Santa Clara Valley, Utah, the 
subspecies was still tolerably common May 11-15. In the Panamint 
Mountains it was common in Johnson, Surprise, and Emigrant canons 
in April, and Mr. Nelson found a few late migrants on Willow Creek 
the last of May. The sparrow was abundant among the mesquite at 
Hot Springs, Panamint Valley, April 20-25; a few were seen at Searl's 
garden, near the south end of the Argus Kange, about the same time, 
and a few in Shepherd Canon as late as May 1. In the latter place Mr. 
Nelson reported it very common in January. Mr. Stephens found it 
rather common in the lower end of Oasis Valley, New, March 15-10, and 
at Grapevine Spring, Calif., April 1-1. 

A few were observed by Mr. Nelson about the Canada de las TTvas 
and San Emigdio Canon in October, and along the coast from San 
Simeon to Carpeuteria in November and December. 

Record of specimens collected of Zonotrichia leneophrtjs intermedia. 



Col- 




lector's 


Sex. 


No. 




26 


$ ira. 


27 


? 


38 


d 


6 


d 


68 


9 


67 


d 


81 


d im. 


105 


9 


123 


d 


137 


? 




? 




d 




d 




d 




2 




9 




d 


43 


2 




? 



Locality. 



C.tjou Pass, Calif 

do 

Hesperia, Calif 

Daggett, Calif 

Death Valley. Calif 

do 

do 

Resting; Springs, Calif 

Ash Mo tdows, Calif 

do \. 

Panamint Mountains, Calif .. 

do 

do 

Panamint Valley, Calif 

do : 

do 

do 

Argus Range, Calif 

Carpeuteria, Calif 



Date. 



Jan. 2,1891 

...do 

Jan. 4,1891 
Feb. 7,1891 
Jan. 23,1891 

...do .: 

Jan. 27,1891 
Felt. 10, 1891 
Mar. 11,1891 
Mar. 19. 1 S31 
Mar. 29,1891 

....do 

....do 

Apr. 22. 1S91 
Apr. 23,1891 

do 

Apr. 14,1891 
Apr. 22.1891 
Dec. 18,1891 



Collector. 



Remarks. 



A. K. Fisher . 



do 

Stephens 

. K. Fisher i Furnace Crco'.:. 

.do Do. 

do Do. 

.do 

.do 

.do 

W . Xelson Johnson Canon. 

.do Do. 

.do Do. 

.do Rot Spring. 

.do i Do. 

.do ; Do. 

. Bailey Emigrant Spring 

Stephens | Borax Flat. 

. W. ^Nelson 



Zonotrichia leucophrys gambsli. Gambel's Sparrow. 

Gambel's sparrow was not met with east of the Sierra Nevada, and on 
the western side as a migrant only. Mr. Bailey found it abundant 
at Monterey the first week in October, and Mr. Nelson reported it 
common in the San Joaquin Valley wherever a vigorous growth of 
bushes or weeds afforded attractive shelter. Along the route from 



90 



NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. 



[Xo. ' 



San Simeon to Carpentaria and Santa Paula it was abundant during 
November and December. 

Zonotrichia coronata. Golden-crowned .Sparrow. 

The golden-crowned sparrow was found by Mr. Nelson to be abundant 
and generally distributed along the coast from San Simeon to Oarpen- 
teria and Santa Paula during November and December. This is the 
only region where the species was noted. 

Zonotrichia albicollis. White-throated Sparrow. 

Mr. Nelson secured a male specimen of the white-throated sparrow 
at the mission of Santa Ynez, December G, 1891, which makes the fourth 
record for California. 
Spizella monticola ochracea. Western Tree Sparrow. 

The only place where the tree sparrow was seen was Pahrump ranch, 
Nevada, Avhere Mr. Nelson found quite a number in the willow thickets, 
the latter part of February. They appeared cpiite suddenly one morn- 
ing before a storm, which filled the valley with rain and covered the 
mountains with snow. 
Spizella socialis arizonae. Western Chipping Sparrow. 

The chipping sparrow was not found to be a common migrant in the 
valleys, though it was more or less common as a summer resident in the 
mountains, from the pifions and junipers up to and among the other coni- 
fers. A number were seen in the cultivated fields about San Bernardino, 
December 28-29, 1890. Mr. Nelson saw a few on the Panamint Moun- 
tains the latter part of May and found the species breeding on the Grape 
vine Mountains, June 10-11. A few were seen about Maturango Spring, 
where the males were in full song, May 13-14. The species was found 
up to timber line in the White Mountains, and was common at the head 
of Owens Kiver, in the Sierra Nevada. Dr. Merriam found it on the 
north slope of Telescope Peak in the Panamint Mountains, April 17-19; 
among the junipers in the Juniper Mountains, Nevada, May 18; and 
among the pifions on Mount Magruder, Nevada, June 5. In Walker Basin 
it was common among the pines above the valley, July 14, and Mr. 
Palmer found it quite common at Old Fort Tejon about the same time. 
In the High Sierra it was common in the Sequoia National Park the 
first week in August; at Horse Corral Meadows, August 9-13; in Big 
Cottonwood Meadows during the summer and fall; at Whitney Mead- 
ows, the first week in September ; at Mineral King, near timber line, 
September 9-11; and along the Kaweah River, from Mineral King to 
the valley, September 11-13. 

Record of specimens collected of Spizella sociailis arizoiuv. 



Col- 
lector's 
No. 


Sex. 


Locality. 


Date. 


Colletcor. 


Kim arks. 


1 
108 


d 
9 
d mi. 


San Bernandino, Calif 

Sierra. Nevada, Calif 

do 


Dec 28,1890 
Aug. 22, 1891 
Aug. 29, 1891 


A. K. Fisher.... 

F. Stephens 

V.Bailey 


Olancha Peak. 
Whitney Meadows. 







May. 1803.] BIRDS OF THE DEATH VALLEY EXPEDITION. 91 

Spizella breweri. Brewer's Sparrow. 

Brewer's sparrow was a common species throughout the desert re- 
gions during- migration, and bred in most of the mountain ranges 
among the sagebrush. A number were seen in Vegas Wash, March 
10-13, and the species arrived at Ash Meadows, Nevada, March 17. 
Mr. Nelson reported it as a common breeding species among the sage, 
both in the Panamint and Grapevine mountains, during the latter part 
of May and first of June. Many of its nests were found, usually con- 
taining four eggs, and built in a sage bush a couple of feet from the 
ground. On the north side of Telescope Peak Dr. Merriam found it 
common among the sage, April 17-19, and Mr. Bailey and the writer 
observed it near the same place, June 22-25. It was not uncommon 
at Hot Springs, in Panamint Valley, April 20-23; several were seen at 
Leach Point Spring, April 25; and one was shot in the northwest arm 
of Death Valley, April 13. 

In Nevada Dr. Merriam found it tolerably common in parts of Pah- 
rump Valley, April 29, and at Mountain Spring, in the Charleston 
Mountains, April 30. He reported it as common in the sage brush on the 
plateau of the Juniper Mountains; in Pahranagat Valley, May 22-20; 
on Gold Mountain, June 3; in Tule Canon, June 4; and thence up to 
the summit of Mount Magruder, where it was the commonest bird on 
the sage plateau, June 4-11, breeding abundantly, and exteuding 
thence northerly into Fish Lake Valley. 

In Utah Dr. Merriam did not see it in the low St. George Valley, 
but found it common in the upper part of the Santa Clara Valley, May 
16, beginning with the sagebrush about 8 miles north of St. George 
and continuing northward to Mountain Meadows and the Escalaute 
Desert, where several nests were found, May 17. In the Beaverdam 
Mountains it was tolerably common throughout the sage and junipers, 
May 10. 

Beturning to California,, in the Argus Range, the species was com- 
mon in Shepherd Canon, and was breeding commonly at Maturango 
Spring, from the summit of the range to the bottom of Coso Valley, 
early in May. In the Coso Mountains it was common, and a number 
of nests containing eggs were found during the latter part of May. Mr. 
Nelson found the species rather common in the Inyo Mountains, from 
the sage up to the summit in the White Mountains, and at the head 
of Owens River in the Sierra Nevada. In Owens Valley it was com- 
mon throughout the summer, especially along the eastern slope of the 
Sierra Nevada, where Mr. Stephens noted it in a number of places, 
even as high as Menache Meadows. It was common on the western 
slope of Walker Pass, June 21 and July 2-3, and in Kern River Val- 
ley, June 22-23 and July 11-13. Mr. Palmer reported it as tolerably 
common in the sagebrush among the piuons at Old Fort Tejon, July 9. 



92 



NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. 
Record of specimens collected of Spizella hrcweri. 



[No. 7. 



Col- 




lector's 


Sex. 


No. 




130 


d 




rf 




9 


4G 


cf 


203 


cf 


213 


cf 


81 


9 


105 


cf i«i 



Locality. 



Ash Meadows, Nev 

.....do 

Panamint Valley, Calif 

Panamint Mts.. Calif 

Arg'^i Range, Calif 

do 

Owens Lake, Calif 

do 



Date. 



Mar. 17,1801 
Mar. 18, 1801 
Apr. 22, 1891 
Apr. 10, 1891 
May 6,1891 
May 8,1891 
June 10, 1891 
J une 15, 1891 



Collector. 



A. K. Fisher 
LAV. kelson 

...do 

F. Stephen s. 
A.K.Fisher 

...do 

F. Stephens. 
....do 



Remarks. 



Hut Springs. 

Maturango Springs. 
Do. 



Spizella atrigularis. Blaclc-chjnnctl Sparrow. 

The black-ckinued sparrow is one of a number of species whose 
known range was much extended by the observations of the expedi- 
tion. It was first observed in Johnson Canon in the Panamint Range, 
where an adult male was seen among the junipers, April 0. In Sur- 
prise Canon, of the same rauge, the species was first seen April 15, 
when two specimens were secured, and subsequently it became common. 

The song, which was frequently heard, resembles closely that of the 
Eastern field sparrow (Spizella gusilla). At Maturango Spring, in the 
Argus Range, a male was seen among the sage (Artemisia tridentata) 
on May 12, and a female was secured among the willows near the 
spring, which had an egg in the oviduct, almost ready for expulsion, 
May 15. In the Coso Mountains the species was not uncommon, 
and on May 27 a female with her nest and three eggs was secured. 
The nest was situated in a small bush about two feet from the ground, 
on a gradually sloping hillside bearing a scattered growth of pifion. 

On the west side of Owens Valley Mr. Stephens heard several sing- 
ing on Independence Creek, near the Eex Monte mill, and secured a speci- 
men June 20. On the western slope of Walker Pass a specimen was 
secured in one of the canons, as it was washing at a pool, July 3, and 
at Walker Basin an immature bird was shot on the ridge above the 
valley, July 14. 

Record of specimen collected of Spizella atr'u/iilaris. 



Col- 
lectors 
No. 


Sex. 


Locality. 


Date. 


( lollcctor. 


Remarks. 


160 
161 


cf 
d 
9 
9 
9 

cf 
9 
cf 
cf 


Panamint Mountains, Calif. 

do 

do 


Apr. 16,1891 
Apr. 15,1891 
....do 


E. W. Nelson 

A. K. Fisher 

do 


Surprise Canon. 
Do. 
Do. 


241 


May 15,1891 
May 27,1891 
ilo 


....do 

....do 

do 


Maturango Spring. . 
.Nest and eggs. 


259 
260 


do 


360 


Walker Tass, Cailf 


July 3, 1891 
July 14,1891 
June 20, 1891 


....do 

....do 

F. Stephens 




392 
109 


Walker Basin, Calif 

Independence Creek, Calif.. 


Owens Valley. 



Junco hycmalis. Slate-colored Junco. 

A specimen of the common eastern jnnco was secured by the writer in 
Johnson Canon in the Panamint Range, April :>, and another was seen a 



May, 1893.1 



BIRDS OF THE DEATH VALLEY EXPEDITION. 



93 



day or two later in the same locality. Mr. Bailey took one near Fort 
Mohave, Ariz., March 1, 1889* 

Junco hyemalis shufsldti. Shufeldt's Juuco. 

A specimen collected in the Charleston Mountains and another in 
the Grapevine Mountains, Nevada, in March, belong to this race. 
Whether the species remains in these ranges to breed, or passes further 
east for that purpose, it is impossible to say, as no specimens were col- 
lected there later in the season. 



Record of specimens collected of Junco hyemalis shufeldli. 



Col- 
lector* 
No. 



35 



Sex. 



Locality. 



Charleston Mountains, Nev .. 
Grapevine Mountains, Nev . . 



Date. 



Collector. 



Mar. 7,189] V.Bailey. 
Mar. 21,1891 F. Stephens 



Remarks. 



Junco hyemalis thurberi. Tliurber's Jttnco. 

Thurber's junco was a common species in many places throughout 
the desert region of southeastern California, and bred commonly in most 
of the desert ranges, as well as in the Sierra Nevada. It was very com- 
mon in Cajon Pass in the San Bernardino Mountains, January 2, and sev- 
eral were seen there March 30. Mr. Nelson found juncos common at Lone 
Pine, in the canons at the foot of the Sierra Nevada, also in Surprise 
Canon of the Panamint, and Shepherd Canon of the Argus range, in 
December and early January. The individuals which he found in con- 
siderable numbers at Pahrump ranch, and in the Charleston Mountains, 
in February and March, may or may not have been wholly or in part 
referable to this form, as a single specimen collected in the Charleston 
Mountains belongs to the more eastern race, shufeldti. The same may 
be said of the few pairs of birds he found breeding near the summit of 
the Grapevine Mountains, in June, as no specimens were collected at 
that time. It was common in Johnson and Surprise canons, in the 
Panamint range, during the first half of April; Dr. Merriam saw many 
on the north base of Telescope Peak, April 16-19, and Mr. Bailey and 
the writer saw it from the summit of that peak down to below the ' char- 
coal kilns', in Wild Rose Canon, June 23. It was tolerably common 
among the piuons in the Argus range, where specimens were secured 
during the first half of May, and Mr. Palmer saw one in the Coso Moun- 
tains May 27, and others at Cerro Gordo, in the Inyo range, May 31. 
Mr. Nelson found it sparingly among the Pinus flexilis in the latter 
range the last of June, and not common in the White Mountains in 
July. Mr. Stephens found it not common from the Bex Monte mine to 
timber line in Independence Canon, June 18-23; at Queen mine, White 
Mountains, Nevada, July 11-16; common at Bishop Creek, August 1-10, 
and Menache Meadows, May 24-26. Juncos were common on the 
ridge above Walker Basin, July 11, and Mr. Palmer saw three back of 



94 



NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. 



[No. 7. 



Old Fort Tejon July 6, which had probably descended from the moun- 
tains where they were common among the pines duly 9. Mr. Nelson 
reported this species as abundant at the head of Owens River, where 
he found a nest containing four eggs nearly ready to hatch, July -55. 
On the western slope it was also common. On the upper Merced he 
found two nests on August 3, one containing a young bird and three 
eggs nearly ready to hatch, and the other three fresh eggs. The first 
mentioned nest was nicely hidden under a projecting spruce root on 
the side of a small gully, and the latter was placed in a clump of aspens 
at the base of a small sapling, was strongly made, and was lined with 
the long hairs of the porcupine. 

Juncos were very common in the Sequoia National Park during the 
first week of August. One nest with three eggs was found, and young 
as large as their parents were seen. They were common at Horse Cor- 
ral Meadows August 9-13, Big Cottonwood Meadows and Bound Valley 
the last of August, and at Whitney Meadows and Mineral King early 
in September. Mr. Dutcher found them abundant at Big Cottonwood 
Meadows where he discovered several nests, and Mr. Bailey observed 
them on the Kaweah River from the lowest conifers to above timber- 
line. A nest with young was found among the giant redwoods July 29. 

Mr. Nelson reported the species as common on high ground along 
the route from San Simeon to Carpenteria in November and December; 
it was also common on the route from La Pauza to San Luis Obispo 
October 28 to November 3; and a few were seen at Santa Paula the last 
of December. 

Record of specimen? collected of Junco hyemalis ilmrberi. 



Col- 




lector's 


Sex. 


No. 






9 




d 


149 


d 


170 


9 




d 


353 


d 


202 


d 




d 




9 


111 


9 


133 


d 




d 


22 


d 




2 


5 


d 




9 


37 


d 


38 


? 


414 


9 art. 


144 


d im. 




d 




9 




d 



Locality. 



Panamint Mountains, Calif. 
do 



-do 

.do 
.do 



Argus Range, Calif . 

.....do 

do 

Owens Valley, Calif. 



White Mountain.' 

, do 

Cajon Pass, Calif — 
Sierra Nevada, Calif 
do 



Calif. 



..do 
..do 
..do 
..do 

..do 
..do 
..do 



San Emigdio Canon, Calif- 



Date. 



Mar. 28, 1891 

....do 

Apr. 2,1891 
Apr. 19, 1891 

....do 

June 23, 1891 
May 0, 1891 
May 9, 1S91 

....'do 

June 21, 1891 

July 13, 1891 
July 14, 1891 
Jan. 2,1891 
Aug. 7,1891 
June 19, 1891 

July 7, 1891 
Sept. 14, 1891 

....do 

Aug, 12, 1891 

July 27, 1891 
July 22,1891 
July 25. 1 Sill 
Oct. 18,1891 



Collector. 



W.Nelson.. 

.do 

K. Fisher .. 
.do 

W.Nelson.. 
K. Fisher .. 

.do 

S. Palmer .. 

.do 

Stephens .. 



.do 

W. Nelson . 
K. Fisher .. 

Bailey . 

H. Dutcher. 



.do 

.do 

.do 

. K. Fisher 



Stephens. . 
W. Nelson 

.do 

.do 



Remarks. 



Johnson Canon. 

Do. 

Do. 
Surprise Canon. 

Do. 
Coal kilns. 
Maturango Spring. 

Do. 

Do. 
Independence 

Creek. Sitting. 
10,000 feet altitude. 



Mineral King. 
Big Cottonwood 
Meadows. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Horse Corral Mead- 
ows. 



Nest and eggs. 



May, 1893.] BIRDS OF THE DEATH VALLEY EXPEDITION. 95 

Junco pinosus. Poiut Pinos Junco. 

This species has been described by Mr. Leverett M. Loomis since the 
return of the expedition. Juncos which were seen at Monterey by Dr. 
Merriam and Mr. Bailey undoubtedly belong to this species. 

Amphispiza biliueata. Black-throated Sparrow. 

The black-throated desert sparrow is one of the most abundant and 
characteristic birds of the Lower Sonoran /one, in which it breeds 
abundantly. The writer first observed the species in the Funeral 
Mountains, at the summit of Furnace Creek Canon, on March 22, while 
on the return trip to Death Valley from Ash Meadows, Nevada. The 
four or five males which were seen evidently had just arrived, as Mr. 
Bailey and Mr. Nelson, who had passed over the same route a few days 
before, saw none. The bird was common on both slopes of the Paua- 
mint Mountains, in Johnson and Surprise canons, during' the first three 
weeks of April, where it was in full song most of the time. It was 
common in the Argus range from the valley to the summit. In Coso 
Valley, below Maturango Spring, Mr. Palmer and the writer found 
several nests. On May 12 two were discovered, one containing three 
young and the other four eggs, and on May 13 a nest was found just 
completed. In the Coso Mountains this sparrow was common, and its 
nest was found in various kinds of bushes, though the branching cac- 
tus (Opuntia echinocarpa) seemed to be the most common site. A nest 
containing eggs was found near the road between Darwin and Keeler 
as late as May 30. 

When Mr. Bailey and the writer returned to Death Valley in the 
latter part of June, they did not find this bird in the valley proper, but 
found it a few hundred feet above, in Death Valley Canon, and all 
through the Panamint Mountains. The same observers found it com- 
mon both on the east and west slope of Walker Pass, in the Sierra 
Nevada, on July 1-3, and the former saw several on the South Fork of 
the Kern River July 3-10. 

Dr. Merriam furnishes the following notes on the species as observed 
by him on the trip to and from St. George, Utah: "In California it was 
common on the Mohave Desert, between the mouth of Cajou Pass and 
Pilot Knob, in the early part of April; and at the west end of the desert 
(Antelope Valley) June 27, and was found also near Lone Willow 
Spring, in Windy Gap, in Death Valley, in Emigrant Cafion, and in 
Leach Point Valley. In Owens Valley, California, it was common in the 
Lower Sonoran zone where it ranges north on the east side of the val- 
ley as far as Alvord, and was found in Deep Spring Valley, Nevada (June 
9). In Nevada it was common also in Pahrump Valley (the commonest 
sparrow April 29), in Vegas Valley, at the Great Bend of the Colorado 
(where a nest containing two fresh eggs was collected May 4), along the 
Virgin River Valley (nests containing fresh eggs found at Bunkerville 
early in May), in Desert Valley just east of the Pahroc Mountains 
(May 20), on the plain below Pahroc Spring (May 22), in Pahranagat 



96 



NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. 



[No. 7. 



Valley (May 23-28), in Indian Spring Valley, where a nest containing 
three eggs was found in a bush of Atriplex canescens May 28, and at 
the extreme west end of this valley, where it slopes down toward the 
Aniargosa Desert, young just able to fly were secured May 29. It was 
tolerably common on the Aniargosa Desert, but rare in Oasis Valley 
(one seen Juue 1). On Sarcobatus Flat, at the mouth of Grapevine 
Canon, a few were seen June 2, and a few were seen on both sides of 
Gold Mountain (where young nearly full-grown were secured June 3). 
It was common in Tule Canon, at the extreme north end of the north- 
west arm of Death Valley, June 4, though it does not reach the sage 
plain of the Mount Magruder plateau. It reappears, however, a short 
distance below Pigeon Spring on the northwestern slope of Mount Ma- 
gruder, and ranges thence across Fish Lake Valley (June 8). In south- 
western Utah it was found on both slopes of the Beaverdam Moun- 
tains, ranging up into the junipers slightly above the upper limit of 
the lower division of the Lower Sonoran zone. In the Lower Santa 
Clara Valley, Utah, it is abundant, breeding in the greasewood bushes 
(Atriplex) and in the branching cactuses (Opuntia cchinocarpa), where 
several nests were found containing two or three fresh eggs each (May 
11-15)." 

Mr. Nelson found it breeding from the middle of the sage brush belt 
on the slopes of the Panamint, Grapevine, Inyo, and White mountains, 
down into Panamint, Mesquite, Saline, and Owens valleys. Mr. 
Stephens found it common near the lower end of the Argus Range, at 
Borax Flat, April 28-30; and in Owens Valley, at Little Owens Lake, 
May 6-11; at Haway Meadows, May 12-14; at Olancha, May 10-23; at 
Morans, July 4-7, and at Benton July 9-10. 

Record of specimens collected of Amphispiza bilineata. 



Col- 
lectors' 
No. 


Sex. 


Locality. 


Date. 


Collector. 


Remark. 


162 
171 


rf 

9 

9 

rf 

9 

ct hn. 

9 juv. 

9. juv. 

juv. 

cf juv. 


PanamintMountains, Calif 

do 


Apr. 15, 1891 
Apr. 20, 1891 
Apr. 27, 1891 
Juue 11, 1891 
May 11, 1891 
June 9,1891 
Jnly 6,1891 
May 29,1891 
June 3,1891 
June 4,1891 


A.K.Fisher 

do 


Surprise Caiion. 
Do. 


189 




do 




332 




...do .. 








T. S. Palmer 

...do 






. ...do 




127 


F. Stephens 






Amarposa Dpsert, Nov 






C. Hart Merriam. . 
do 



















Amphispiza belli. Bell's Sparrow . 

Mr. Nelson found Bell's sparrow abundant in the bushes of the arid 
district bordering the southern and western sides of Buena Vista Lake, 
in San Joaquin Valley, during October. 

Amphispiza belli nevadensis. Sage Sparrow. 

The sage sparrow is one of the few birds characteristic of the sage 
plains of the Upper Sonoran and Transition zones, but does not breed 



mat.1893.] birds of the death valley expedition. 97 

in the Lower Sonorau zone, though it winters in this zone and passes 
through it in great numbers during migration. 

In winter it was common along the entire route of the expedition. It 
was seen at Gajon Pass in the San Bernardino Mountains, January 2, 
and on the Mohave Desert, at Hesperia, in flocks of from ten to twenty, 
January 4-5; at Victor, Stoddard Wells, and Daggett, January G-10; 
at Granite Wells, January 13-15; at Lone Willow Spring, January 
15-10. It was found in Death Valley from the lower end to Furnace 
Creek, January 21 to February 4; at Eesting Springs, February 0-17, 
and at Ash Meadows, Nevada, the first three weeks in March. 

Mr. Stephens found it common in Oasis Valley, Nevada, March 15-19; 
not common at Grapevine Spring, California, Ai)ril 1-4; and Mr. Nelson 
found it everywhere common in Pahrump Valley about the ranch, and 
along the route down through Vegas Valley and Wash, to the Bend of 
the Colorado, March 3-1(5. Dr. Merriam saw a few in tree yuccas on 
the Mohave Desert near the mouth of Cajon Pass, March 30, and a 
number near Daggett, April 4-6. He noted the species at Windy Gap, 
April 7; in Death Valley, near Bennett Wells, April 0-12; inMesquite 
Valley, April 13; Emigrant Canon, in the Pauamint Mountains, April 
14 and 15, and found it common in Perognathus Flat, April 15. Per-* 
oguathus Flat is a high basin in the Pauamint Mountains, at the lower 
edge of the Upper Sonorau zone, and the species may remain there to 
breed. At the mouth of Johnson Canon, in the Pauamint Mountains, 
the writer saw this species March 25, and Mr. Bailey saw one in 
Wild Bose Canon, near the ' charcoal kilns,' in the same mountains, 
June 25. At Hot Springs, in Pauamint Valley, a few were seen in 
Atriplcjc bushes by Dr. Merriam, April 10-21, and one was seen at Leach 
Point Spring, April 25. He did not find it in the Lower Santa Clara 
Valley near St. George, Utah, but met with it in great abundance in 
passing north from this valley towards the Escalante Desert. It was 
one of the most characteristic birds at the upper Santa Clara Cross- 
ing, Utah, May 17, thence northward through Mountain Meadows to 
the Escalante Desert and Shoal Creek, and westerly across the low 
rolling plateau of the Juniper Mountains to Meadow Creek Valley, 
Nevada. It was common also in Desert Valley, Nevada, and in the 
neighboring Pahroc Mountains, May 20-21. A few were seen in the 
sage plain on Mount Magruder plateau, Nevada, June 5, and in the sage 
brush in Owens Valley, June 10-10. In this valley Mr. Stephens found 
it not common at Ash Creek, May 30-June 3; at Morans, July 4-7; and 
common at Olancha toward the mountains and breeding; at Independ- 
ence Creek, June 18-23; at Benton, July 0-10; and was seen at Bishop 
Creek, August 4-10. Mr. Nelson found it common at the head of 
Owens River the latter part of July; on both slopes of the Inyo Moun- 
tains, from the valleys up to the middle or upper part of the pifion 
belt, June 24-July 1; and common in the White Mountains, up to the 
middle of the same belt. He did not find it in the north end of the Paua- 
12731— No. 7 7 



98 



NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. 



[No. 7. 



mint Mountains nor in Saline Valley, but noted it on the eastern slope 
of the Panamint Mountains, in Cotton-wood Greek, and thence down to 
Mesquite Valley, and also in the Grapevine Mountains, May 4 to June 
15. Mr. Nelson reported the sage sparrow as very common along the 
route from Lone Pine to Keeler, and through the Coso and Panamint 
valleys to Lone Willow Spring, and thence to Death Valley, during 
December 1890, and January 1S91. 

The specimens collected along the east slope of the Sierra Nevada 
in Owens Valley are almost intermediate, both in size and color, be- 
tween Am/phispiza belli and Amphispiza belli nevadensis. 

Record of specimens collected of Ampliispiza belli nevadensis. 



Col- 
lector' 
No. 



36 
42 
43 
4G 
47 

3 

4 
5 
10 
11 
58 
63 
66 
80 
112 
27 



Sex. 



2 



31 


d" ad 


52 


cT 


84 


d 


m; 


d 


97 


9 


98 


9 


90 


? 




mi. 



Locality. 



Hesperia, Calif 

do 

Victor, Calif 

Stoddard Wells, Calif. 

Daggett, Calif 

.....ti^ 



Date. 



.do. 

.do. 
.do. 
.do. 
.do. 
.do. 



Granite Wells. Calif 

Lone Willow Spring, Calif.. 

Death Valley, Calii 

do 

Resting Springs, Calif 

12-mile Spring Calif 



Mountain Meadows. Utah . 

Owens Valley, Calif 

Salt Wells Valley. Calif... 

Owens Valley, Calif 

do : 

do 

do 

do 

Sierra Nevada, Calif 



Jan. 4, 
...do.. 
Jan. 6, 
i Jan. 7, 
I Jan. 9, 
I.... do.. 
| Feb. 6, 
I... .do.. 
| Feb. 7, 

do .. 

| Feb. 8, 
I. ...do.. 
I Jan. 13, 
Jan. 10, 
Jan. 21, 
Jan. 27. 
Feb. 17, 
Feb. 21, 

May 17, 
June 1 1, 
May 1, 
June 10, 
June 13, 
..'..do.. 
....do.. 
....do .. 
Ausr.20, 



1801 



Collector. 



A. K. Fisher . 
....do 



1891 
1801 
1891 



...do 
...do 



1891 
1891 



F. Sleiihens . 
....do 



1801 



1S01 
1891 
1891 
1891 

1S01 
1801 

1891 
181)1 
1891 
1891 
1801 



....do 

...do 

....do 

...do 

A. K. Fisher . 
....do 



....do 

....do 

...do 

F. Stephens. 



V. F.ai'oy ... 
A. K. Fisher 
F. Stephens. 

...do 

...do 

...do 

...do 

...do 

V.Bailey... 



Remarks. 



Mohave Desert. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 

Furnace Cieek. 
D... 

North of Resting 
Springs. 

Lone Fine. 

Olancha. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 
Whitney Meadows. 



Peucaea cassini. Cassia's Sparrow. 

The only specimen of this species noted during the entire expedition 
was shot by Dr. Merriam in Timpahute Valley, Nevada, May 26. It 
was an old male in worn breeding plumage, and attracted his attention 
by flying up from the desert brush and singing in the air. 
Peucaea rcificeps. Rufous-crowned Sparrow. 

An immature specimen of this sparrow was secured on a rocky hill- 
side on the South Fork of Kern River, California, July 8. Mr. Palmer 
saw one on the west fork of Castac Canon June 30, and Mr. Stephens 
saw several migrants in Heche Canon, near San Bernardino, Calif., 
September 22-24. These are all the records we have of the speeis. 
Melospiza fasciata fallax. Desert Song Sparrow. 

The writer did not meet with this race, and quotes the following from 
Dr. Merriam's notes : 

"The desert song sparrow was not found anywhere in California, but 



May, 1S93. 



BIRDS OF THE DEATH VALLEY EXPEDITION. 



99 



was common in suitable valleys in southeastern Nevada, south- 
western Utah, and northwestern Arizona. It was found in the valley 
of the Muddy near St. doe, Nev., May 7, and was a common breeder in 
Pahranagat Valley. Nevada, May 23. A specimen was shot and others 
seen at the mouth of Beaverdam Creek, Arizona, May 9, and it was 
common in the Lower Santa Clara Valley near the junction of the 
Santa Clara and Virgin, May 11-15, where a nest was found near a 
marshy meadow." 

Record of specimens collected of Melospiza fasciata fallax. 



Col- 
lector's 
No. 



Sex. 



Locality. 



Date. 



Collector. 



Remarks. 



Paliranngat Valley, Nev. 
Bearerdaui, Ariz 



May 23, 1891 
May 9,1891 



C Hart Merrinm. 
...do 



Melospiza fasciata montana. Mountain Song Sparrow. 

This song sparrow was tolerably common about the ranch at Furnace 
Creek, and among the reeds at Saratoga Springs, in Death Valley, in 
January, but was not seen at the former place in June. It was quite 
common at Resting Springs in the Amargosa Desert, February 6-17, 
and at Ash Meadows, Nevada, in March. Mr. Nelson found it common 
along the willow-grown banks of the ditches in Pahrump and Vegas 
valleys, and Mr. Stephens found it rather common in the lower end of 
Oasis valleys, March 15-19. Mr. Bailey reported it abundant at St. 
George, Utah, in January, 1889. 

Record of specimens collected of Melospiza fasciata montana. 



Col- 
lector's 
No. 


Sex. 


Locality. 


Date. 


Collector. 


Eemarks. 




d 

2 
2 
2 
2 
d 
2 
2 


Death Valley Calif 


Feb. 3, 1891 
Jan. 25,1891 
Mar. 4,1891 
Mar. 9,1891 
Mar. 15.1891 
Mar. 16,1891 
do 


E.W.Xelson 

A. K. Fisher 

do 


Saratoga Springs. 


78 


do 


117 






118 


do 


. do 




128 


do . 


do 




33 




F. Stephens 

do 




31 


...do 






Pahrump Valley, Key 

do .' 


Mar. 4,1891 
do 


E.W. Nelson 

do 








Mar. 12. 1891 


...do 













Melospiza fasciata heermanni. Heermann's Song Sparrow. 

This Californian subspecies was quite common at San Bernardino, 
where it was singing in the brush along streams, December 28-29, 1890. 
It was tolerably common in suitable localities in Owens Valley, along 
the South Fork of Kern River, July 3-10, and was heard singing 
at Kernville July 11-13. At Walker Basin it was seen along the 
sloughs, Jjflly 13-16, and at Bakersfield it was common along the river 
bottom, July 17-20. Mr. Palmer found it common near Old Port Tejon 



100 



NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. 



[No. 7. 



early in -July; Mr. Nelson observed it commonly in the Canada de las 
Uvas and in San Emigdio Canon the last of October ; and along the route 
from La Paiiza to San Luis Obispo, October 28 to November 3. 

Record of specimens collected of Melospiza fasciata heermanni. 



Col- 
lector's 
No. 



396 
378 



119 

67 
295 
302 
321 



Sex. 



d 
? 

9 ad 
? im 

d im 

d 
d 
d 
d 
d 



Locality. 



San Bernardino, Calif 

Sail Emigdio Canon, Calif. 

Bakerslield, Calif 

Kern River, Calif 



.do. 



Owens Vallev, Calif. 

do 

do 

do 

do 



Date. 



Dec. 28,1890 
Oct. 22.1891 
July 19,1891 
July 5,1891 

July 4,1891 
July 26, 1891 
May 30,1891 
June 5.1891 
June 6,1891 
June 9, 189i 



Collector. 



A. K. Fisher 

E. W. Kelson 
A. K. Fisher 
...do 

V. Bailey . . . 

F. Stephens. 
. . . -do 

A. K. Fisher 

....do 

....do 



Remarks. 



25 miles above 
Kernville. 

Do. 
Alvord. 
Ash Creek. 
Lone Vine. 

Do. 

Do. 



Melospiza fasciata guttata. Rusty Song Sparrow. 

Mr. Bailey secured a specimen of this song sparrow at Santa Clara, 
Utah, January 13, 1889. It was undoubtedly an accidental straggler 
from the northwest coast. 

Melospiza fasciata rufina Sooty Song Sparrow. 

Mr. Bailey took a specimen of this subspecies at Boulder Creek, 
California, on October 13, 1891, and stated that it Avas common there. 

Melospiza fasciata graminea. Santa Barbara Song Sparrow. 

Specimens of this new race, indistinguishable from Mr. Townsend's 
type, were taken by Mr. Nelson at Morro and Carpenteria, Calif. He 
found them common near the streams and wet places along the coast, 
and a few as far inland as Santa Paula. Whether it is a resident or a 
migrant from the Santa Barbara Islands, can not be decided at present. 

Eccord of specimens collected of Melospiza fasciata graminea. 



Col- 
lector's 
No. 



Sex. 



Locality. 



Carpenteria, Calif . 

do 

Morro, Calif 



Date. 



Dee. 18, 1891 
....do 

Nov. 8, 1891 



Collector. 



E. W. Nelson 

...do 

...do 



Remarks. 



Melospiza lincolni. Lincoln's Sparrow. 

A few Lincoln's sparrows were seen at Ash Meadows, Nevada, and 
Mr. Nelson found it common in wet places among bushes at Vegas 
ranch and in Vegas Wash in March, where Dr. Merriam again saw it 
May 1. It was not uncommon in Johnson and Suprise canons in the 
Panamint Range, April 1-20. The species was common at Hot Springs 
in Panamint Valley, April 1*0-23, and a few were seeu in Shepherd 
Canon, in the Argus Range, the last of April. Mr. Stephens found it 



May, 1893.] BIRDS OP THE DEATH VALLEY EXPEDITION. 



101 



breeding-, but not commonly, at Independence Creek, June 18-23, and 
the writer saw several in tlie high grass at Horse Corral Meadows, 
August 9-13. Mr. Belding found a pair breeding in the meadow at 
Orockers, near the Yosemite Valley, in May, and Mr. Bailey saw a few 
at Monterey, September 28 to October 9. 

Record of specimens collected of Melospiza lincolni. 



Col- 
lector's 
No. 


Sex. 


Locality. 


Date. 


Collector. 


Remarks. 


154 

175 


? 
9 
? 
J 
¥ 


Panamint Mountains, Calif 

do 


Mar. 27, 1801 
Apr. 11, 18'J1 
Apr. 21,1891 
Apr. 22,1891 
Juue22,1891 


E. W. Kelson 

A. K. Fisher 

do 


Johnson Canon. 

Do. 
Hot Springs. 

Do. 


177 


do 


do 


117 















Passerella iliaca iinalaschcensis. Townsend's Sparrow. 

Townsend's sparrow was not uncommon in Cajon Pass in the San 
Bernardino Mountains January 2. It was not reported again until Mr. 
Bailey found it common at Monterey, September 28 to October 9. Mr. 
Nelson found it common and generally distributed wherever thickets 
occurred along the coast from San Simeon to Carpenteria, November 
4 to December 18. 



Record of specimens collected of Passerella iliaca unalascheensis. 



Col- 
lector's 
No. 


Sex. 


Locality. 


Date. 


Collector. 


Remarks. 


21 


3 


Ca.jon Pass, Calif 


Jan. 2. 1891 
Nov. 8,1891 


A. K. Fisher ... 
E. W. Nelson . . 











Passerella iliaca megarhyncha. Thick-billed Sparrow. 

The thick-billed sparrow was found commonly in a number of places 
in the High Sierra. Mr. Nelson reported it as rather common at the 
head of Owens River, and on the western slope, in July and August. 
Mr. Stephens saw it among the thickets at Menaehe Meadows May 
24-2G; found it common at Independence Creek, where young were 
taken June 20; and at the lake on Bishop Creek August 4-10. In the 
Sequoia National Park it was common, and several broods of young- 
just able to fly were seen the first week in August. On the East Fork 
of the Kaweah River Mr. Bailey found it breeding from the lower edge 
of the conifers up to where Finns monticola grows. It was seen at 
Horse Corral Meadows, August 9-13 : at Whitney Meadows and Soda 
Springs or Kern River Lakes, the last of August; at Mineral King, 
September 8-11, and on the brushy hillsides about the Caiiada de las 
Uvas and San Emigdio, October 14-28. 



102 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. 

Record of specimens collected of Passerella iliaca megarhyncha. 



| No. 7. 



Col- 
leclor's 

No. 


Sex. 


Locality. 


Date. 


Collector. 


Remarks. 


01 
308 


9 

9 

Vim. 
d 
cfim. 


Sierra Nevada, Calif. . 
. .do 


May 27,1S31 

Jnne20,189J 
Julv i$0, 1891 
Aug. 0.1891 
Aug. 11, 1831 


F. Stephens 

do 

V. Bailey 

A. K. Fisher 

do 


Summit Meadow, near Olau- 

cha Peak. 
Independence Creole. 
East Fork of KaweTih River. 
Sequoia National Park. 


407 
411 


do 

do 

do 











Passerella iliaca schistacea. Slate-colored Sparrow. 

The slate-colored sparrow was not uncommon , according', to Mr. Nel- 
son, about the heads of streams on the eastern slope of the White 
Mountains, where a specimen was taken, July 14. A few were seen 
in Johnson and Surprise canons, in the Panamint Mountains, where a 
specimen was taken in the former canon, March 28. This sparrow was 
not detected elsewhere by members of the expedition. 

Record of specimens collected of Passerella iliaca schistacea. 



Col- 
lector's 
No. 


Sex. 


Locality. 


Date. 


Collector. 


Remarks. 




n 

d 


Panamint Mountains, Calif.... 
White Mountains, Calif 


Mar. 28, 1891 
July 14,1891 


E. W, Nelson 

do 


Johnson Canon. 









Pipilo maculatus megalonyx. Spurred Towhee. 

The spurred towhee is common over much of the Great Basin, and 
also in California west of the Sierra Nevada. Mr. Nelson reported 
it as common among the junipers on the Charleston Mountains in 
the early part of March. A pair was seen in one of the canons in the 
Coso Mountains, May 23, and subsequently Mr. Palmer saw others in 
the brush along the streams. Mr. Nelson found a few at Lone Pine 
in Owens Valley, in December, 1890, and the writer saw a few in 
the brush along the river at the same place, June 11. Dr. Merriam 
found it common in the northern part of the valley on the latter date. 
Mr. Stephens reported it as common in the lower part of the canon at 
Independence Creek, where young were seen June 18-23; as not com- 
mon among the pinons at Benton, July 9-10; he also saw three at Bishop 
Creek, August 4-10. In the Panamint Mountains, Mr. Nelson saw it 
in Surprise Canon in December, 1890, and found it sparingly in the 
vicinity of water, where thickets of willows and rose bushes afforded 
it shelter, in both this range and the Grapevine Mountains during I lie 
latter part of May and the first of June. The same observer found a 
few in the Inyo Mountains among the pinons at Hunter's arastra, and 
again in willows bordering the creek near Waueoba Peak, the latter 
part of June; found it rather common on the west slope 0.f the Sierra, 
mainly along streams; and found a few in the upper parts of the 
streams in the White Mountains. 



May, 1893.1 



BIRDS OF THE DEATH VALLEY EXPEDITION. 



103 



In ^Nevada, Dr. Merriam found it in the following localities: At 
Mountain Spring in the Charleston Mountains, April 30; in the Juni- 
per Mountains May 19, where it was common throughout the scrub oak 
and juniper down to the very edge of Meadow Creek Valley near 
Panaca; at Tule Canon and on Mount Magruder, where it was abun- 
dant and a full-fledged young was shot, June 5. In Utah, he found it 
common among the junipers on the Beaverdam Mountains, May 11, 
and saw a number between the Upper Santa Clara Crossing and 
Mountain Meadows, in thickets of Amelanchier and scrub oak, May 17. 

On the western slope of Walker Pass, in California, it was common 
July 2 and 3; along the South Fork of the Kern, July 3-10; on the hill- 
sides in chaparral at Walker Basin, July 13-10; and at Bakersfleld in 
the San Joaquin Valley, July 17-20. 

Mr. Bailey reported it as common below the conifers on the Kaweah 
River the last <»t' -Inly, and Dr. Merriam found it common in the 
Granite Range in western San Diego County, July 1-10. 

Record of specimens collected of ripilo maculaius megalonyx. 



Col- 
lector's 
No. 


Sex. 


Locality. Date. 


Collector. 


Remarks. 




d 
d 

im. 
d 

d ail. 
d im. 


Mountain Meadows, Utah May 17,1891 

Charleston Mountains, Nev Mar. 7,1891 

Mount Magruder, Nev June 5, 1891 

Grapevine Mountains, Nov Mar. 21, 1891 

Loue Pine, Calif June 11, 1801 

Kern River, Oalif , Julj 5, 1891 


C. Hart Merriam. . 

v. Bailey 

do ' 




30 

374 


1'. Stephens 

A. K. Fisher 

....do 


( hvens Valley. 
South Fork." 



Pipilo maculatus oregonus. Oregon Towliee. 

Mr. Nelson found the Oregon towhee sparingly along the coast of 
California from La Panza to San Luis Obispo the last of October; be- 
tween San Simeon and Carpenteria November 4 to December 18, and 
common between the latter place and Santa Paula December 18 to Jan- 
uary 4. 

Pipilo chlorurus. Green-tailed Towliee. 

The green-tailed towhee is a common summer resident in the moun- 
tain ranges visited by of the expedition. It was first observed in Johnson 
Canon on the east slope of the Panamint Mountains, April 12, but 
was not seen in Surprise Canon on the west slope during the fol- 
lowing fortnight. In May and June Mr. Nelson found it common 
among the sage brush on the Panamint and Grapevine mountains, 
where it was associated with Brewer's sparrow. It was most numer- 
ous among the rank growth of vegetation along small streams and 
about spriugs, though it was not uncommon on the high benches among 
the Artemisia tridentata. On Willow Creek, May 24, he found a nest 
containing four eggs which was placed in a sage bush 15 inches from the 
ground. It was composed externally of rather coarse plant stems, and 
lined with fine fibrous rootlets and horsehair. On the north slope of 



104 



NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. 



[No. 7. 



Telescope Peak, it was common as high as the upper limit of the sage 
brush, June 22-25. 

In tbe Argus Eange, it was common in Shepherd Canon, where num- 
bers were migrating the last week in April, and at Maturango Spring 
among the willows and other vegetation at the spring the first two 
weeks in May. Among the Coso Mountains it was very common along 
the streams and on the slopes among the sage and pinons, where the 
males often were heard singing from their perches on the tops of 
some dead brush or trees, the latter part of May. Dr. Merriam saw 
it on the northward continuation of the Kingston Eange, between 
the Amargosa Desert, California, and Pahrump Valley, Nevada. He 
found it also in the following localities in Nevada : Tolerably common, 
in the Charleston Mountains, April 30; at the Bend of the Colo- 
rado, May 4; very abuudauton Mount Magruder, where it was breed- 
ing from the upper part of Tule Canon up to 2,600 meters (8,500 
feet) or higher, and where a dozen or more were often seen at one time, 
singing from the tops of sage brush and nut pines, and they were heard 
singing several times at night; a few were seen in the Juniper Moun- 
tains, May 19; in the Beaverdam Mountains, Utah, he found them 
tolerably common among the junipers, May 10-11, and in the Santa 
Clara Valley, Utah, May 11-15. 

Mr. Nelson found the species from among the pinons up to the summit 
in the Inyo Mountains the latter part of June, and in the White Moun- 
tains and on the plateau at the head of Owens Valley, in July. Along 
the eastern slope of the Sierra Nevada it was common at the head of 
Owens Biver the last of July; at Independence Creek, where a nest 
containing two eggs just ready to hatch was found at the Bex Monte 
mill, June 18-23; at Bishop Creek, August 4-10; not common at Ben- 
ton, July 9-10; and atMenache Meadows where it occurred nearly to 
timber line, May 24-26. The species was seen at Walker Pass, July 
2; at Soda Springs or Kern Biver Lakes, September 3; and was com- 
mon in the Sequoia National Park, during the first week of August; 
and in the vicinity of Mineral King, the last of August and 1st of 
September. Mr. Dutcher saw a few at Big Cottonwood Meadows dur- 
ing the summer, and Mr. Palmer found it common on Frazier Mountain 
among the pines, July 9, and in Tejon Pass, July 12. 



Record of specimens collected of Fipilo chlornrus. 



Col- 




lector's 


Sex. 


No. 




186 


d 


230 


9 


258 


d 


110 


9 


134 


d 



Locality. 



Argus Range, Calif 

do 

Coso Mountains, Calif. 
Owens Valley, Calif . . . 
White Mountains. Nev 



Date. 



Apr. 27, 1891 
May 12,1891 
May 27,1891 
June 20, 1891 
July 14, 1891 



Collector. 



fccinarks. 



A. K. Fisher \ Shepherd Canon. 

...do ' Maturango Spring. 

...do ! 

F. Stephens ! Independence Creek, 

do ' Queen mine. 



May. 1893.] 



BIRDS OF THE DEATH VALLEY EXPEDITION. 



105 



Pipilo fuscus mesoleucus. Canon Towhee. 

Mr. Bailey found the canon towhee abundant among the hills at 
Mineral Park, in western Arizona, during the middle of February, 1889, 
and later in the same month saw a few near Fort Mohave. 

Pipilo fuscus crissalis. California Towhee. 

The California towhee was common among the chaparral in a number 
of localities west of the Sierra Nevada. At Cajoii Pass, in the San 
Bernardino Mountains, it was very common from the lower part of the 
valley, well up on the divide among the oaks, January 2-3, and Dr. 
Merriam found it abundant at the same place, March 29-30. It was 
common on the western slope of Walker Pass, July 2-3; along the val- 
ley of the Kern Biver, July 3-13, and abundant in Walker Basin, July 
13-1G. Mr. Palmer reported it as abundant at Old Fort Tejon in July; 
Mr. Stephens at Reche Canon, September 22-24, and Mr. Nelson as very 
abundant in the western foothills of the Sierra Nevada in August. It 
was common at Three Bivers, July 25-30, aud September 12-15, and 
Mr. Bailey noted it along tbe East Fork of the Kaweah Biver nearly 
up to the lower edge of the pines. The same observer found it common 
at Monterey the first week in October; Mr. Nelson reported it as 
abundant among the brush along the western edge of the San Joaquin 
Valley in October, and along the coast from San Simeon to Carpenteria 
and Santa Paula in November and December. 

Record of specimens collected of Pipilo fuscus crissalis. 



Col- 
lector's 
No. 



IS 
40 
364 



Sex. 



9 

d 

f 

? ad. 

Ini. 
9 im. 
d ad. 

d 



Locality. 



San Bernardino, Calif. 
do 

Argus Range. Calif . . . 
Walker Pass, Calif... 



.do 



.,1... 



Kern lliver, Calif 

Ventura Itiver, Calif. 



Date. 



Jan. 1. 1891 

...do 

Apr. 25,181)1 
July 2,1891 
July 3,1891 
....do 



Collector. 



A. K. Fisher 

...do 

F. Stephens . 

A. K. Fisher 
V. Bailey .... 
.do 



Remarks. 



Searl's Garden. 



July 4, 1891 I A. K. Fisher ! South Fork. 

Dec. 20, 1891 E. W. Nelson I 



Pipilo aberti. Abert's Towhee. 

The westernmost locality at which Dr. Merriam and Mr. Bailey saw 
Abert's towhee is the Bend of the Colorado Biver, in Nevada, where 
it was common, and a full grown young was secured, May 4. Thence 
northward they found it common in the valleys of the Virgin and 
lower Muddy, May 6-S, where Beaverdam Creek joins the Virgin in 
northwestern Arizona, May 9-10, aud in the Lower Santa Clara Val- 
ley, Utah, near St. George, May 11-15, where it was breeding com- 
monly. 



Habia melanocephala. Black-headed Grosbeak. 

The black-headed grosbeak was first observed in Shepherd Canon in 
the Argus Bange, where a specimen was secured April 26. A week 



106 



NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. 



pro. 7. 



later it was common among the willow patches at Maturango Spring 
and among the tree yuccas at the western base of the range. In the 
Coso Mountains several were seen in the canons during the latter part 
of May. Mr. Nelson found it a common breeding bird both in the 
Panamint and Grapevine mountains, and the writer saw a tine male in 
full song at the ' charcoal kilns ' in Wild Rose Canon, north of Tele- 
scope Peak, June 23. In Owens Valley Mr. Stephens found it rather 
common at Olancha, May 1G-23; not common at Ash Creek, May 3D to 
June 3, and saw one male at Independence Creek, June 18-23. Mr. 
Nelson found it sparingly among the willows in the Inyo Mountains, 
June 24 to July 5, and along the western slope of the Sierra Nevada in 
August. Mr. Bailey reported this grosbeak as common among the 
pines along the East Fork of the Kaweah River, July 25 to August 10. 
It was observed on the western slope of Walker Pass, June 21; was 
common in Kern Valley, June 22-23 and July 3-10; on the ridge above 
Walker Basin, July 14; in the Sierra Liebre, June 30; and in Canada 
de las Uvas, June 28-29. 

In Nevada Dr. Merriam found a pair breeding in a thicket near Log 
Spring on Mount Magruder, June 8; saw it in Oasis Valley, June 1; 
in the valley of the Virgin near Bunker ville, May 8; and found it 
common in Pahranagat Valley, where it was singing in the tall cot- 
tonwoods, May 22-2G. In Utah he found it breeding plentifully along 
the Lower Santa Clara River, May 11-15. 

Record of specimens collected of Jlabia mehmocephala. 



Col- 
lector's 
No. 


Sex. 


Locality. 


Date. 


Collector. 


Remarks. 


184 
240 




Argns Range, Calif 

T do...... 


Apr. 20,1801 
May 14, 189] 
May 15. 1891 


A. K. Fisher 

....do 


Shepherd < !auon. 
Matnrango Spring. 
Do. ' 




do .. 


T. S. Palmer 









Guiiaca caerulea eurhyncha. Western Blue Grosbeak. 

The blue grosbeak is tolerably common in many of the valleys of Cali- 
fornia and Nevada. In Nevada, Dr. Merriam found it breeding com- 
monly in Pahranagat Valley, May 22-20, and along the Lower Muddy 
and Virgin rivers, May 7 and 8. He saw several where Beaverdam Creek 
joins the Virgin River in northwestern Arizona, May 0-10, and found 
the species common in the Lower Santa Clara Valley, Utah, May 11-15. 
Several were seen in the Canada de las Uvas, California, June 28-29. 
At Lone Pine, in Owens Valley, it was quite common among the fruit 
orchards and thick growth along streams, where two young just out of 
the nest were secured, June 14. Mr. Stephens found it more or less 
common in the same valley, at Olancha, May 10-23; Ash Creek, May 
30 to June 3; Alvord, June 20-28; and at Morans, July 4-7. Mr. Bailey 
secured an adult male at Furnace Creek ranch, Death Valley, June 19, 



May. 1893.] 



BIRDS OF THE DEATH VALLEY EXPEDITION. 



107 



and Mr. Nelson saw the species in Saline Valley the latter part of the 
same mouth. Blue grosbeaks were very common along- the South Fork 
of the Kern, where they frequented the oat fields and the thick vege- 
tation in the river bottoms, July 3-10. They were also common at 
Kernville, July 11-13; at Walker Basin, July 13-16 j and at Bakers- 
field in the San Joaquin Valley, July 17-20. 

Becord of specimens collected of Giiiraea ccerulea eiirhijncha. 



Col- 


, 


lector's 


Sex. 


No. 






d 




? 




•J" 




d 




d 


313 


d 


31G 


j 


338 


9 Juv 


.",39 


? juv 


66 


d 


85 


? 


93 


d 


101 


? 


1^1 


d 


373 


d 


379 


d art 


384 


d ad 



Bocality, 



St. George, Utah .... 
Beaverdain. Ariz . . . 
Bnnkerviile, Nev .... 
Death Valley, Calif . 
Owens Valley, Calif. 
rto 



.rto. 
.rto. 
.rto. 
.rto. 



rto 

rto 

rto 

rto 

Kern River, ( 'al it'. 

rto 

rto 



Date. 



May 
May 

May 
June 
.Juno 
.1 cine 
June 
.1 une 
....(!•. 
May 
June 
June 
Jane 
June 
July 
July 
July 



1891 
1-'.)1 
1891 
1891 
1891 
J 891 
1891 
1891 



1891 
1891 
1891 
1891 

1S91 
1891 
1891 
1891 



Collector. 



V. Bailey 

...rto... 

C. Ilarl Merriatn. 

V. Bailey 

T.S. 1 'a liner 

A. K. Fisher 

...rto 

...rto 

...do 

F. Stephcna 

....do 



.do 



...do 

...do 

A. K. Fisher . . 
...do 



.do 



Remarks. 



Furnace Creek. 
Lone Piue. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 
Asli ('reek. 
Olancha. 

Do. 

Do. 
Alvorrt. 
South Fork. 

Do. 

Do. 



Passerina amcena. Lazuli Bunting. 

The lazuli bunting is a common breeder in many places in the Great 
Basin wherever there is sufficient water to produce a growth of willow 
or other thickets suitable for nesting sites. 

In Nevada, Dr. Merriam found it breeding commonly on Mount Ma 
grader, and in the thickets in Tide Canon, June 4-8; in I'ahranagat 
Valley, May 22-20, and saw a few in the Juniper Mountains, May 18, aud 
in Oasis Valley, June 1. He found it common at the Bend of the Col- 
orado, May 4, and at a few points in the valleys of tlie Muddy and Virgin 
rivers, May 7-8. In the Santa Clara Valley, Utah, it was an abundant 
breeder, May 11-15. 

The writer first met with the species at Coso, Calif., where a male was 
secured May 25. At Furnace Creek, Death Valley, a female was 
secured in the brush near the ranch, June 19, and the species was com- 
mon in Wild Rose Canon in the Panamint Mountains, June 24 and 25. 
Mr. Kelson found it common in both the Panamint and Grapevine 
mountains, wherever willow thickets occurred. It was nesting in Mill 
Creek, Willow Creek, and Cottonwood canons in the former, and in 
W< » >d Canon in the latter range of mountains. The same observer found 
it from the bottom of the valley up to the pinons in the Inyo Mountains; 
at the head of Owens Valley, near tbe White Mountains, and along 
borders of streams from the foothills up to 2,450 meters (8,000 feet) alti- 
tude at the head of Owens River. In Owens Valley it was common about 
the orchards at Lone Piue in June; and Mr. Stephens saw several at 



108 



NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. 



[No. 



Olancha, May 16-23; found it common at Ash Creek, May 30-Jmie :>; 
at Morans, July 4-7; abundant in the lower part of the canon of In- 
dependence Creek, June 18-23; not common at Alvord, June 20-28; at 
Benton, July 9-10; at Queen station in the White Mountains, Nev., 
June 11-16; and saw a male at about 2,450 meters (8,000 feet) altitude, 
at Bishop Creek, August 4-10. Mr. Palmer secured a specimen at 
Horse Corral Meadows, August 11, and saw another in Kings River 
Canon, August 15; and Mr. Bailey saw two at 2,450 meters (8,000 feet) 
altitude on the Kaweah River, about the same time. Mr. Palmer found 
it common at Old FortTejon, where a nest containing three fresh eggs 
was found in a willow tree G feet from the ground, July 4. The species 
was common along the valley of the Kern, July 3-13; at Walker Basin, 
July 13-10; and at Bakersfield in the San Joaquin Valley, July 17-20. 

fiecord of specimens collected of Passcrina amcena. 



Col- 
lector's 
Mo. 


Sex. 


Locality. 


Date. 


Collector. 


Keiuarks. 


256 


d 
d 

9 


Coso, Coso Mountains, Calif 


Mav 25, 1891 
June 6, 1891 
J une 19, 1891 


A. K. Fisher 

do 




341 


Death Valley Calif 


do 













Calamospiza melanocorys. Lark Bunting. 

A few miles north of Pilot Knob on the Mohave Desert, California, 
a lark bunting was killed by Mr. F. W. Koch April 0, and two others 
were seen by Dr. Merriam. One was shot in Pahrump Valley, Nevada, 
April 29, by Mr. Bailey. No others were observed by any members of 
the expedition. 

Piranga ludoviciana. Western Tanager. 

The western tanager was found commonly in many places during 
migration, and sparingly during the breeding season. The first indi- 
vidual observed was secured by Dr. Merriam in Surprise Canon in the 
Pauamint Mountains, California, April 23. When first seen it was in 
hot pursuit of a large beetle, which it failed to capture. At Maturango 
Spring in the Argus Range, a large flight of these tanagers occurred 
on May 4, where as many as a dozen males were seen at one time. 
From this date until the time of leaving, the middle of May, it was 
common among the willows in the vicinity of the spring. In the Coso 
Mountains a pair was seen near the top of the ridge, where they were 
evidently hunting for a nesting site, May 23. Mr. Nelson found it a 
rather common breeding species among the pifions on Willow Creek in 
the Pauamint Mountains, and also in Mill Creek and Cottonwood canons, 
though in smaller numbers, during the last of May. 1 fe saw none in the 
Grapevine Mountains. 

Dr. Merriam saw two males of this species and one hepatic tanager in 
a tall cottonwood at the point where Beaverdam Creek joins the Virgin 



Mav, 1893. 



BIRDS OF THE DEATH VALLEY EXPEDITION. 



109 



River, in northwestern Arizona., May 9. He saw many males in the 
Lower Santa Clara, Valley, Utah, May 1L-14; six males in the Juniper 
Mountains, Nevada, May 18, and several in Pahrauagat Valley, May 
22-20. 

At Keeler, early in June, an individual alighted for a few moments 
on the wagon during a gale. In the same valley a few were seen 
and two secured at Lone Pine, June 0-8; Mr. Stephens reported it a 
rather common migrant at Olancha May 10-23; not common at Bishop 
August 4-10, and rather common at Meuache Meadows May 24-20. Mr. 
Nelson found it at the head of Owens River the latter part of July; 
several were seen among the hills above Walker Basin July 14, and 
several were observed in the Sequoia National Park during the first 
week of August. Mr. Palmer saw one in Tejon Pass July 12. 

Record of specimens collected of Piranga hidoviciana. 



Col- 




lector's 


Sex. 


No. 






cf 


195 


d 


220 


d 


221 


d 


222 


d 


250 


d 


306 


9 


315 


d 


71 


d 


145 


d 



Locality. 



Panamint Mountains, Calif. .. 

Argus Range, Calif 

..... do 

do 

do 

Coso Mountains, Calif 

Owens Valley, Calif 

do ' 

do 

Sierra Nevada, Calif 



Date. 



Apr. 23, 1891 
Mav 4, 1891 
May 10, 1891 

....'do 

. . . do 

Mav 2::, 1891 
Juiie 6,] 891 
June 8,1891 
June 1,1891 
July 27, 1891 



Collector. 



Remarks. 



C. If art Merriam. 

A. K fisher 

do 



-do 
.do 



.do 



F. Stephens. 

do 



Surprise Canon. 
Maturango Spring 

1)0. 

Do. 
Do. 

Lone Tine. 

Owens Lake. 



Piranga hepatica. Hepatic Tanager. 

The only individual of this species observed during the entire season 
was seen by Dr. Merriam in a eottonwood at the point where Beaver- 
dam Creek empties into the Virgin in northwestern Arizona, May 9. 
Two adult male western tanagers (P. ludoviciana) were in the same 
tree, and both species were probably migrating. 

Progne subis hesperia. Western Martin. 

A colony of martins was found breeding at Old Fort Tejon in the 
Canada de las Uvas, California, June 28, 1891, by Dr. Merriam and 
Mr. Palmer. They were nesting in woodpeckers' holes in the large oaks 
in front of the old fort, where three were killed. Mr. Belding noted 



the species at Crocker's, 
May. 



!1 miles northwest of the Yosemite Valley, in 



Record of specimens collected of Progne subis hesperia. 



Col- 
lector's 
No. 



Sex. 



d ad. 
d ini. 
d im. 



Locality. 



Date. 



Old Fort Tejon, Calif. 

do....! 

do 



J mi e 28, 1891 

.do 

■ do 



Collector. 



C. Hart Merriam 

do 

do 



Remarks. 



110 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. [No. 7. 

Petrochelidon lunifrons. Cliff Swallow. 

This widely distributed .species was found breeding in various locali- 
ties visited by the expedition. In Nevada Dr. Merriam found a colony 
breeding in the canon at the lower end of Vegas Wash, May 3, and saw 
several at the Bend of the Colorado, May 4; he found it common in 
Pahranagat Valley, May22-2G, and in Oasis Valley, June 1. In Utah 
he saw a colony which was breeding near St. George, in the Lower Santa 
Clara Valley, where many nests were found on the red sandstone cliffs 
a mile or two from the settlement. 

The cliff swallow was common in Owens Valley, California. It was 
seen along the edge of the lake at Keeler, May 30-June 4; at the mouth 
of the canon above Lone Pine, June 12; and Mr. Stephens found it 
common at Haway Meadows, May 12-14; abundant at Olancha, May 
16-23; at Ash Creek, May 30 to June 3; breeding in thccafion at Benton, 
July 9-10 ; and not common at the Queen mine, Nevada, July 11-1G. Mr. 
Nelson saw it on Willow Creek in the Panamint Mountains, the last of 
May, and found it at the head of Owens River, in the Sierra Nevada, 
up to 2,100 meters (7,000 feet) altitude. It was common in Kern Val- 
ley, July 3-13, and in Walker Basin, July 13-16. At the latter place a 
number of nests were found fastened against the ceiling and walls of 
the rooms in several of the deserted buildings. Dr. Merriam found it 
breeding commonly at Kernville, under the eaves and piazzas of houses, 
June 23, and m the Canada de las Uvas, under the eaves of Old Port 
Tejon, June 28-29. 

At Twin Oaks, in western San Diego County, he was shown a largo 
sycamore tree on the outside of which these swallows used to fasten 
their nests, and was told that after heavy rains the nests were fre- 
quently washed down in great numbers. The species was common at 
Bakersfield, in the San Joaquin Valley, July 17-20, and Mr. Stephens 
found it not uncommon at Reche Canon, near San Bernardino, Sep- 
tember 22-24. 

Chelidon erythrogaster. Barn Swallow. 

The barn swallow was found nowhere common except in Owens Val- 
ley, California. It was first seen at Ash Meadows, Nevada, where two 
were noted, March 19. In the same State, Dr. Merriam saw one at 
Mount Magruder, June 8; one in Oasis Valley, June 1; a number in 
Pahranagat Valley, May 22-26, where it was doubtless breeding, and 
several near Bunkerville, in the Virgin Valley, May 7-8. He saw a sin- 
gle bird near St. George, in the Lower Santa Clara Valley, Utah, about 
the middle of May. 

Mr. Nelson saw it as a migrant on the divide between Panamint and 
Saline valleys, the last of May, and at the head of Willow Creek, in 
Hie Panamint Mountains, about the same time. He saw barn swallows 
at the head of Owens Valley in the White Mountains, at the head of 
Owens Pviver ; and also in the Yosemite Valley. Mr. Stephens found it 



Mat, 1893.] BIRDS OP THE DEATH VALLEY EXPEDITION. Ill 

common all through Salt Wells and Owens valleys, and the writer 
found it common in the latter valley at Reeler, near Owens Lake, and 
at Lone Pine, in June. At Keeler a male was noticed every day during 
our stay. He sat for hours on a wire in front of the signal station and 
produced a series of notes which were well worth the title of a song. 
The sounds were more or less disconnected, but the writer does not 
remember hearing so perfect a song from any swallow, and as Mr. Bick- 
nell states (Auk, Vol. I, 1884, p. 325) the notes suggest those produced 
by the marsh wren. 

Tachycineta bicolor. Tree Swallow. 

White- bellied swallows were seen in a few places during migration. 
Several were seen at Ash Meadows, Nevada, March 12, and a number 
near the Colorado River, March 10-13. At Furnace Creek, Death Val- 
ley, it was common about the reservoir, March 23-24, and again the 
middle of April. A few were seen in Johnson Canon in the Panamint 
Range, April 4, and Mr. Nelson observed stragglers at the head of 
Willow Creek in the same range, the last of May. 

Tachycineta thalassina. Violet-green Swallow. 

The violet-green swallow is a common summer resident among the 
mountains and was frequently seen in the neighboring valleys while 
searching for food. Two or three were seen near the upper end of 
Vegas Wash, Nevada, March 10, and many were observed in Death 
Valley, at Furnace Creek, April 10, and at Saratoga Springs, near the 
south end, April 26. In Nevada, Dr. Merriam found it common in 
Pahranagat Valley, May 22-26, saw it on Mount Magruder, June 8, and 
in Oasis Valley, June 1. In Utah it was common in the Lower Santa 
Clara Valley, May 11-15. Mr. Nelson found it a common species in 
the Panamint and Grapevine mountains, where it bred in the crevices 
of the lofty cliffs, from the summits down to the border of the sur- 
rounding valleys. In the former range violet-green swallows were 
common, and a specimen was secured on the summit of Telescope Peak, 
June 23. In the Argus Range it was common about the summit above 
Maturango Spring, May 12-14, and at Coso, four or five came about 
camp, May 28. 

Mr. Nelson saw the species from the lower part of Saline Valley to 
the summit of the Inyo Mountains, in June; up to timber line in the 
White Mountains, in July, and at the heads of Owens and Merced 
rivers, in the Sierra Nevada, in July and August. In Owens Valley 
this swallow was common about the lake at Reeler aud at Lone Pine 
during the first half of June. At the latter place it was seen flying 
about in company with the cliff swallows, white-throated and cloud 
swifts, at the mouth of the canon, and with the barn swallows over the 
meadows and marshes. Mr. Stephens found it more or less common in 
other parts of the valley. It was common aloug the valley of Rem 



112 



NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. 



[No. 7. 



River, July 3-13; in Walker Basin, July 13-10, and along' the route to 
Bakersfield, July 10-20. Dr. Merriam and Mr. Palmer found it abundant 
at Old Fort Tejon, where it was breeding in the oaks and crevices of 
the adobe buildings; it was very common about the summit of Frazier 
Mountain, July 9, and at the summit of Tejon Pass, July 12. In the High 
Sierra it was common about the openings at Horse Corral Meadows, Au- 
gust 9-13; in Kings River Canon, August 13-10 ; Big Cottonwood Mead- 
ows, August 25-20; at Soda Springs or Kern River Lakes, September 3, 
and above timber line at Mineral King, and along the route from that 
place to Three Rivers in the western foothills, September 10-13. Mr. 
Bailey found the species numerous at Monterey, September 28 to Octo- 
ber 9, and Mr. Stephens saw several at Reche Canon, September 22-2-1. 

Record of specimens collected of Tachycineta thalassina. 



Col- 
lector's 
No. 


Sox. 


Locality. 


Date. 


Collector. 


Remarks. 


209 
272 


? 

9 

cT 
J 
2 
d 


Coso, Coso Mountains, Calif 

Keeler Inyo County, Calif 

. do 


May 28, 1891 
Juno 1,1891 
do 


A. K. Fisher 

do 




293 


...do 




286 


. ilo .. 


June 2, 1891 


....do 




287 


...do 


do 


do 




354 


Panamint Mountains, Calif 


June 23, 1891 


....do 


Telescope Peak. 



Clivicola riparia. Bank swallow. 

Bank swallows were seen in two places only by members of the 
expedition. Mr. Nelson saw a few in company with rough- winged 
swallows at the Bend of the Colorado, in Nevada, about March 10. 
Mr. Stephens found it common at Alvord, in Owens Valley, where they 
were breeding in the banks along the sloughs, June 20-28. 

Stelgidopteryx serripemiis. Rough-winged Swallow. 

The rough-winged swallow was tolerably common in a number of the 
desert valleys, where it was a summer resident. It was first seen at 
Ash Meadows, Nevada, March 10, and in Vegas Wash, near the Bend 
of the Colorado River, March 10-13. A specimen was secured at Hot 
Springs, in Panamint Valley, April 22, and Mr. Nelson observed a few 
migrants along Willow Creek, in the Panamint Mountains, the last of May. 
Dr. Merriam saw this swallow at Saratoga Springs in Death Valley, 
April 20 ; at the Bend of the Colorado River, May 4 ; in the Valley of the 
Virgin near Bunkerville, Nevada, May 8; and in Pahranagat Valley 
Nevada, where it was tolerably common and doubtless breeding, May 
22-20. He found it common where Beaverdam Creek joins the Virgin 
in northwestern Arizona, May 9-10, and the commonest swallow in the 
Santa Clara Valley Utah, May 11-15. In Owens Valley a pair was 
seen about a pond at Lone Pine, June 8, and others were observed at 
Big Pine June 10. At Furnace Creek. Death Valley, several were se- 
cured about the reservoir June 19-21, and a number were seen in Kern 
River Valley June 22-23. 



May, 1893.] BIRDS OF THE DEATH VALLEY EXPEDITION. 

Record of specimens collected of Stelgidopteryx aerripeanis. 



113 



Col- 
lector's 
No. 


Sex. 


Locality. 


Date. 


Collector. 


Remarks. 


176 


a 




Apr. 22, 1891 
June 19, 1891 
do 


A. K. Fisher . . 
do 


Hot Springs. 


340 


Death Valley Calif 






V. Bailey 


Do. 











Ampelis cedrorum. Cedar Waxwing. 

The only cedar birds observed during the entire trip were two seen 
at Lone Pine, in Owens Valley, June 14, and a flock of five, at Three 
Elvers, Tulare County, September 15. At the former place they were 
feeding on mulberries, which were cultivated along one of the irrigating 
ditches of a fruit ranch. This berry, when it can be obtained, seems 
to be their favorite food, and one which they will take in preference to 
any other. Among the Creoles of Louisiana the knowledge of this fact 
has given rise to the name ofmurier for the cedar bird in that locality. 

At Three Rivers the specimens secured were gorged with a small 
wild grape (Vitis calif or idea), which was ripening in abundance in the 
low thickets along the streams. 
Phainopepla nitens. Pliainopepla. 

This species is a characteristic bird of the Lower Sonoran zone, where 
it remains throughout the year. Several were seen among the mes- 
quite at Hot Springs in Panamint Valley, in January, and a fine male 
was secured at the mouth of Surprise Canon, not far from the above 
place, April 23. Its stomach was filled with the berries of the mistle- 
toe, which is a parasite onthemesquite. Several were seen at Resting 
Spring in the Amargosa Desert, about the middle of February, feeding 
on the same berries, which appear to be their principal food. 

An adult male was seen at Maturango Spring in the Argus Range, 
May 10, and one or two were observed at Coso the latter part of May. 
Mr. Nelson found it rather common in the lower part of Vegas Valley 
and upper part of Vegas Wash and very abundant in the lower part 
of the Wash, near the Colorado River, in March. It was seen by Dr. 
Merriam at Mountain Spring in the Charleston Mountains, April 30, 
and was common in the Lower Santa Clara Valley, Utah, June 11-15, 
where several pairs were breeding in the village of St. George. An 
adult female was seen by Mr. Stephens at Morans, in Owens Valley, 
July 4-7, and Mr. Nelson found it rather common in the western foot- 
hills of the Sierra Nevada, between the San Joaquin and Merced rivers 
in August. One was seen in the chaparral above Kaweah, July 25, 
and another July 30. 

At Kernville the species was abundant in cafions above the village 
July 11-13, where as many as a dozen were seen at once, some sitting 
on the tree tops, while others were busily engaged in capturing winged 
insects after the manner of the cedar bird. 
12731— No. 7 & 



114 



NOETH AMERICAN FAUNA. 



[No. 7. 



Dr. Merriara met witli unusual numbers among the live oaks and 
chaparral between Kernville and Havilah, June 23; saw many in 
Walker Basin June 24, and several in Tehachapi Pass June 25. He 
also noted it as common in the Sierra Liebre June 30, and in the 
Granite Range, in western San Diego County, July 1-10. 

Mr. Palmer saw several in the San Francisquito Pass, north of New- 
hall, July 1, and Mr. Kelson found it common among the pifions a few 
miles west of the Canada de las Uvas, the middle of October. 

Mr. Bailey found a nest containing three fresh eggs in a mesquite, near 
Port Mohave, Ariz., March 4, 1889, and one containing young, several 
days old, February 28. 

Record of specimens collected of Phainopepla nitens. 



Col- 
lector's 
No. 


Sex. 


Locality. 


Date. 


Collector. 


Remarks. 


10!) 
183 


? 
d 


Resting Springs, Calif 

Pananmit Mountains, Calif... 


Feb. 12, 1 Sill 
Apr. 23, 1891 


A. K. Fisher 

..do 


Surprise Canon. 





Lanius ludovicianus excubitorides. White-rumped Shrike. 

The white-rumped shrike is very generally distributed over the 
greater part of the desert region of southern California and Nevada. 
From its habit of associating in pairs and not congregating in flocks, 
it is seldom common in the sense that other birds are, though a consid- 
erable number may be seen in the course of a day's ride through suit- 
able localities. It is especially partial to the country covered by tree 
yuccas and seldom builds its nest in other growths where these abound. 
Many old as well as new nests were found which were so well protected 
by the strong, bayonet-like leaves of this plant that it was with diffi- 
culty they could be reached. The species was tolerably common at 
Hesperia in the Mohave Desert, January 4-5, and at Granite Wells, about 
the middle of January. At Furnace Creek and Saratoga Springs, in 
Death Valley, several were seen the last of January. 

At Resting Springs, California, a number were seen each day during 
the first half of February, and at Ash Meadows, Nevada, in March. 
It was not uncommon in Vegas Valley, Nevada, where Mr. Nelson 
found a small Perognathus and lizard impaled on thorns by it. In Coso 
Valley, California, the writer observed a number of insects and lizards 
fastened on the sharp-pointed leaves of the yuccas. In the latter place 
several nests containing eggs were found in the tree yuccas during the 
first half of May, and one near Darwin, in the north end of the val- 
ley, June 17. In the Coso Mountains shrikes were in sight most of the 
time, and a nest containing four young was found May 27. Four other 
young, just able to fiy, were seen on the same date. 

In Nevada Dr. Merriam found a nest containing six eggs on the east 
slope of the Pahranagat Mountains, May 26. It was so placed in a fork 
of a tree yucca that although easily seen it could uot be reached from 



May, 1893.] 



BIRDS OF THE DEATH VALLEY EXPEDITION. 



115 



any direction. He found the species at Mountain Spring in the 
Charleston Mountains, April 30; in Desert Valley, May 20; in the 
Juniper Mountains, May 18-19; and on Gold Mountain, among- the 
yuccas on the south slope, June 3. On Mount Ma grader several were 
seen in Tule Canon, and thence up to an altitude of 2,450 meters (8,000 
feet) in the nut pines, where it evidently was breeding, June 4-8. In 
Utah it was seen in the Santa Clara Valley near St. George, May 11-15; 
at Mountain Meadows, May 17; and among the tree yuccas on the 
south slope of the Beaverdam Mountains, May 10. Several were seen 
in the nut pines on the While and Inyo mountains, California. 

In Owens Valley the species was quite common and numbers of 
young birds were seen about the orchards and roadsides in June. Mr. 
Kelson found it breeding in thePanamint, Grapevine, Inyo, and White 
mountains and the adjacent valleys, and Dr. Merriam saw several in 
the clumps of mesquite, in Death Valley and Mesquite Valley, April 8-18 

It was common in Kern River Valley, Walker Pass, and Walker 
Basin, and in the San Joaquin Valley between Bakersfield and Visalia. 
It is a question whether the individuals seen by the writer at San Bern- 
ardino, December 27-30, 1890; by Dr. Merriam in the southern part of 
San Diego County, July 1-10, and by Mr. Nelson along the route from 
San Simeon to Carpentaria and Santa Paula should not be referred to 
the California shrike (Lanius ludovicianus gamheli). 

Record of specimens collected of Lanius ludovicianus excubitorides. 



Col- 




lector's 


Sex. 


No. 




37 


rf 


61 


d 


97 


? 


116 


d 


26 


9 


262 


rf.jtiv. 


263 


9.JUV. 


264 


2.) 'iv. 


296 


cfjuv. 


56 


? 


57 


rfjUV. 


106 


? 



Locality. 



Date. 



Collector. 



Remarks. 



Hesperia, Calif 

Granite Wells, Calif 

Death Valley, Calif 

Ash Meadows, Nev 

Twelve-mile Spring, Calif. 

Coso Mountains, Calif 

do 

do 

Owens Valley, Calif 

do 

do 

do 



Jan. 4, 1891 
.Tan. 15, 1891 
Feb. 3, 1891 
Mar. 4, 1S91 
Feb. 21, 1891 

May 27, 1891 

...do 

....do 

Juno 5,1891 
May 13, 1891 

...do 

June 19, 1891 



A.K.Fisher 

...do 

...do 

...do 

F. Stephens. 

A. K. Fisher 

...do 

...do 

...do 

F. Stephens.. 

— do 

...do 



Mohave Desert. 

Do. 
Furnace Creek. 

North of Resting 
Springs. 



Lone Pine. 
Haway Meadows. 

Do. 
Independence Creek 



Vireo gilvus swainsoni. Western Warbling Virco. 

The warbling vireo was seen with very little regularity and was com- 
mon in few localities visited by the expedition. In Owens Valley Mr. 
Stephens saw one among the willows at Haway Meadows, May 13; 
found it common and migrating at Olancha, May 16-23; common in the 
lower part of the canon of Independence Creek, June 18-23; and heard 
several among the willows at the Queen mine in the White Moun- 
tains, Nevada, July 11-16. At Coso one was seen among the willows 
and rose bushes bordering a spring, May 23, and two were secured 
at the same place the following day. Dr. Merriam shot a specimen in 
worn breeding-plumage at Ash Meadows, Nevada, May 30, and saw a 



116 



NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. 



[No. 7. 



pair at Kernville, in Kerii Riv.er Valley, June 23. It was not uncom- 
mon among the hills above Walker Basin, July 14, and Mr. Nelson 
noted a few at the head of Owens River the latter part of the month. 
Mr. Palmer found it common at Old FortTejon, where a nest containing 
four eggs, just ready to hatch, was discovered in a willow 10 or 12 feet 
from the ground, July 4. 

Record of specimens collected of Virco gilvus swainsoni. 



Col- 
lector's 
No. 



252 
253 



Sex. 



Locality. 



Date. 



Coso, Coso Mountains, Calif. 
do 



May 24, 1891 
....'do 



Collector. 



A. K. Fisher. 
...do 



Remark:}. 



Vireo solitarius cassinii. Cassin's Vireo. 

Cassin's vireo was observed in a number of places in the Sierra Nevada 
and sparingly in some of the other ranges. Dr. Merriam took a speci- 
men in worn breeding-plumage, June 28, at Old Fort Tejon, intheCafi- 
ada de las Uvas, California, the type locality of the species. AtMatu- 
rango Spring, in the Argus Range, a specimen was taken among the 
pifions, May 8. Mr. Nelson found it common at the head of Owens River 
and Dr. Merriam shot one among the junipers at Sheep Spring in the 
Juniper Mountains, Nevada, May 19. It was observed among the pines 
above Walker Basin, July 14; was common in the Sequoia National 
Park during the first week in August; was seen at Horse Corral Mead- 
ows, August 11; common at Kings River Canon, August 13-16; and 
one was secured at Big Cottonwood Meadows, September 5. 

Record of specimens collected of Vireo solitarius cassinii. 



Col- 
lector's 
No. 


Sex. 


Locality. 


Date. 


Collector. 


Remarks. 


210 

303 
157 


d 1 
? 

? 
$ mi. 


Juniper Mountains. Nev ... 

Argus Range, Calif 

Old FortTejon, Calif 

Walker Basin, Calif 

Sierra Nevada, Calif 


May 19.1801 
May 8.1891 
Jm'u'28, J 891 
July 14,1801 
Aug. 22, 1891 


C. Hart Merriam. . 

A. K. Fisher 

T. S. Palmer .... 

A.K.Fisher 

F. Stephens 


Maturango Spring. 
Olancha Peak. 



Vireo solitarus plumbeus. Plumbeous Virco. 

The only specimen of this vireo taken on the expedition was a male 
secured by Dr. Merriam at Sheep Spring in the Juniper Mountains, 
Nevada, May 19, 1891. It was in full song and was shot in the same tree 
in which a Cassin's vireo was killed a few minutes before. 

Vireo bellii pusillus. Least Vireo. 

The least vireo is a tolerably common summer resident in Owens 
Valley, where at Lone Pine adult and young were secured in June; it 
was seen by Mr. Stephens at Olancha, May 16-23, and at Bishop Creek, 
August 4-10. A specimen was secured at Furnace Creek, Death Valley, 



May, 1893.] 



BIRDS OF THE DEATH VALLEY EXPEDITION. 



117 



June 20, and the species was not uncommon in the canon above the 
ranch the following day. West of the Siena Nevada, it was com mo u 
at Bakersfield, in the San Joaquin Valley, July 17-20. 

Record of specimens collected of Vireo bclliipusillus. 



Col- 




lector's 


Sex. 


No. 






J 


343 


d" 


351 


J 


318 


9 


3'J8 


?juv. 


397 


d 



Locality. 



Date. 



Collector. 



Ash Meadows. Nev May 30.1S91 

Death Valley, Calif. June 20, 1891 

do ) line 21. 189 i 

Owens Valley, Calif .June 8,1891 

do i .1 :me 11, 1891 

Bakersiield. Calif. July 19, 1891 



V. Bailey 

A. K. Fisher 

...do 

...do 

...do 

...do 



Kcmarks. 



Furnace < Ireck. 

Do. 
Lone Pine. 

Do. 



Vireo vicinior. Gray Vireo. 

Mr. Nelson found this vireo rather common in the Grapevine Moun- 
tains, Nevada, where he secured a.specimen June 8. In Wood Canon, 
he saw several among the piiions, and on June 10 observed one carry- 
ing - material for its nest. This is the only locality at which the bird 
was found. 



Helminthophila luciae. Lucy's Warbler. 

This rare warbler breeds in the Lower Santa Clara Valley in south- 
western Utah, where two specimens were shot by Dr. Merriam, May 
11 and 13, the former in cottonwoods along the Santa Clara River 
and the latter at a small pond near the village of St. George. 

Record of specimens collected of Helmintliophila lucicc. 



Col- 
lector's 
Xo. 



Sex. 



Locality. 



Date. 



Santa Clara, Utah .May 11 , 1891 

St. George, Utah May 16, 1891 



Collector. 



C. Hart Merriam . 
...do 



Remarks. 



Helminthophila ruficapilla gutturalis. Calaveras Warbler. 

The Calaveras warbler, with the exception of a pair seen in Shepherd 
Canon in the Argus Range, California, April 29, was seen only in the 
Sierra Nevada. It was common in the Sequoia National Park during 
the first week of August, and a few were seen at Round Valley, 12 miles 
south of Mount Whitney, August 28. Mr. Nelson found it common at 
the head of Owens River and also on the western slope in the Yosem- 
ite Valley, in July and August. 

Record of specimens collected of Helminthophila ruficapilla gutturalis. 



Col- 
lector's 
No. 


Sex. 


Locality. 


Date. 


Collector. 


Remarks. 


194 
405 


9 


Argus Range, Calif 


April 29, 1891 
Aug. 4,1891 


A. K. Fisher 

do 


Shepherd Canon. 
Sei|iioia National 
Park. 









118 



NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. 



[No. 7. 



Helminthophila celata lutescens. Lutesceut Warbler. 

This active little warbler was found to be abundant in a few places 
during- migration. At San Bernardino one was seen on the border of 
a stream, December 29, 1890. In tbe Panamint Mountains it was seen 
in Johnson Canon, April 12; by Mr. Nelson among the willows at the 
heads of Willow and Mill creeks, the last of May; and by Mr. Bailey 
and the writer near the ' charcoal kilns' at the head of Wild Rose Canon, 
June 23. In the Argus Range, it was common both in Shepherd 
Canon and at Maturaugo Spring the first half of May. Mr. Stephens 
saw a few migrating by Little Owens Lake, May 6-11; and at Haway 
Meadows, May 12-14. 

It was common along the South Fork of the Kern, July 3-10. In 
the High Sierra it was abundant in the Sequoia National Park, the first 
week in August; common at Horse Corral Meadows, August 9-13; at 
Bound Valley, 12 miles south of Mt. Whitney, August 28; and at Min- 
eral King, September 10-11. Mr. Nelson found it common at the head 
of Owens River and in the Yoseinite Valley in July and August. 

Record of specimens collected of Helm'miliophila celata lutescens. 



Col- 
lector's 

No. 


Sex. 


Locality. 


Date. 


Collector. 


Remarks. 


215 
21C 


? 
d 
d 

d im 
d im 

? im 


Argus Range, Calif 

....T.do ...... 


May 8, 1801 
May 9, 1891 

(lo . 


A. K. Fisher 

flo 


Maturaugo Spring. 
Do. 


217 


do 


...do ... 


Do. 




Panamint Mountains, Calif. 
Sierra Nevada, Calif 

do 


June 24. 1891 
Aug. 3, 1891 

Aug. 22, 1891 


Y. Bailey 




159 


E. W. Nelson 

F. Stephens 


South Fork Mercod 
River. 









Dendroica aestiva. Yellow Warbler. 

The yellow warbler was tolerably common in a number of localities 
visited by members of the expedition. Mr. Nelson found it a rather 
common breeding species among the willows along Willow Creek, Mill 
Creek, and Cottonwood Creek canons in the Panamint Mountains, and 
noted a few in Wood Canon in the Grapevine Mountains. The same 
observer found it common at the head of Owens Valley at the base of 
the White Mountains and up to 2,600 meters (8,500 feet) altitude at 
the head of Owens River, in the Sierra Nevada. The writer first ob- 
served the species at Coso, where an adult male was seen busily en- 
gaged catching insects among some willows and rose bushes on the 
evening of May 24 and the following morning. 

At Lone Pine, in Owens Valley, yellow warblers were common among 
the orchards and shade trees, June 4-15. In the same valley, Mr. 
Stephens found it common at Independence Creek, June 18-24; not com- 
mon at Benton, July 9-10, and the Queen mill, Nevada, July 11-1G, and 
saw two or three individuals in the cotton woods at Moraus, July 4-7. 

In Nevada, Dr. Merriam shot a male in Pahrump Valley, on a soli- 
tary mesquite bush at a small spring six miles south of Youut's ranch, 



May, 1893.] 



BIRDS OF THE DEATH VALLEY EXPEDITION. 



119 



April 29. He saw others at Upper Cottonwood Springs, at the east base 
of the Charleston. Mountains, April 30; at Vegas ranch, May 1; at the 
Bend of the Colorado Elver, May 4; in the valley of the Virgin and 
Lower Muddy, May 6 and 8, and on Mount Magruder, June 4-8. In 
Pahranagat Valley it was breeding commonly, May 22-26, this being the 
only locality in Nevada at which he observed it in any numbers. He 
found it common where Beaverdam Creek joins the Virgin in north- 
western Arizona, May 10, and breeding plentifully in the Lower Santa 
Clara Valley, Utah, near St. George, May 11-15. Mr. Palmer found it 
very common at Old Fort Tejon the first of July. All through Kern 
Valley, Walker Basin, and at Bakersfteld, in the San Joaquin Valley, 
this warbler was common in the willows along the streams during the 
first three weeks of July, and sparingly in the latter valley as late as 
October. 

Record of specimens collected of Dendroica cestiva. 



Col- 




lector's 


Sex. 


No. 




293 


d 


94 


d 


128 


? 


129 


tfjuv 



Locality. 



Owens Valley, Calif . 

do : 

do 

do 



Date. 



June 5,1891 
June 12, 1891 
July 9,1891 
...do 



Collector. 



A.K. Fisher 
F. Stephens. 

...do 

...do 



Remarks. 



Lone Pine. 
Olancha. 

Benton. 
Do. 



Dendroica auduboni. Audubon's Warbler. 

The western yellow-rumped warbler was common as a migrant in 
various localities and not uncommon as a breeder in some of the moun- 
tain ranges. At San Bernardino a llock was seen in a clump of wil- 
lows, and a number associated with chipping sparrows were seen glean- 
ing insects from a field of early cabbage, December 28, 1890. A few 
were found among the willows bordering the reservoir at Furnace 
Creek, Death Valley, California, during the latter part of January, and 
again on April 10, and a single one was seen at Ash Meadows, Nevada, 
March 21. It was not uncommon at Hot Springs in Panamint Valley, 
April 20-23, and at Maturango Spring, in the Argus range, the first 
half of May. 

In Nevada Audubon's warbler was seen by Mr. Nelson at Pahrump 
and Vegas ranches in February and March; and by Dr. Merriam in 
Pahrump Valley at Yount's Ranch, April 28-29; at Mountain Spring in 
the Charleston Mountains, and at Upjier Cottonwood Springs at the 
east base of these mountains, April 30. In Utah a few were observed 
still lingering in the Santa Clara Valley, May 11-15, though the bulk 
of the species had gone into the mountains before this date. 

In California Mr. Nelson saw a few migrants the last of May among 
the piflons at the head of Willow Creek in the Panamint Mountains, 
though none were seen later by him in these or in the Grapevine Moun- 
tains. The same observer saw a few in the Inyo Mountains from the 



120 



NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. 



[No. 7. 



upper edge of the pinon belt to the summit of the range, June 24 to July 
4j and sparingly in the White Mountains a little later. It was common 
at the head of Owens Biver, from 2,500 to 2,900 meters (8,200 to 9,500 
feet) altitude) and also on the west slope in the Yosemite Valley and 
on the head of the Merced River. In Owens Valley it was observed at 
Lone Pine in December, 1890, and at Little Owens Lake, May 6-11. 

Along the east slope of the Sierra Nevada it was seen at Independ- 
ence Creek, where it was probably breeding, June 18-21; at Bishop 
Creek August 4-10; at Menache Meadows May 24-26; and at Big Cot- 
tonwood Meadows during the summer and early fall. 

It was common at Horse Corral Meadows August 10, and along the 
Kaweah Biver, where it was breeding, from 2,130 meters (7,000 feet) 
altitude up to timber line during the first part of August. Mr. Palmer 
found it rather common on the summit of Frazier Mountain, near Old 
Port Tejon, on July 9. Mr. Nelson found it common at San Luis Obispo, 
Santa Paula, Carpenteria, and in the San Joaquin Valley in November 
and December, 1891. 

llecord of specimens collected of Dendroica auduboni. 



Col- 
lector's 
No. 


Sex. 


Locality. 


Date. 


Collector. 


Kemarks. 


2 
90 
2 

3 


? im. 

d 
d 


San Bernardino, Calif 

Death Vallev, Calif 

Sierra Nevada, Calif 

do 


Dec. 28,1890 
Feb. 1, 181U 
June 19, 1891 

do 


A. K. Fisher 

...do 

B. H. Dutcher • 

do 


Furnace Creels. 
Big Cottonwood 

Meadows. 
do 


12 O 


do 

. do 


July 7,1891 
July 20, 1891 


do 


...do .. 


142 


d 







Dendroica nigrescens. Black-throated Gray Warbler. 

The black-throated gray warbler was first observed among the pifions 
above Maturango Spring, in the A.rgus Bange, California, where a 
female was secured May 8, containing a large egg in the oviduct, and 
on the following day one was seen carrying nesting material in its beak. 
Mr. Nelson saw a few in the Panamint Mountains among the pifions on 
Willow Creek the last of May, and found them breeding among the 
same trees in the Grapevine Mountains. Above the 'charcoal kilns' in 
Wild Bose Canon in the Panamint Mountains, males were heard sing- 
ing by Mr. Bailey and the writer June 25. This warbler was found 
breeding in the Inyo and White Mountains and in the Sierra Nevada, 
at the head of Owens Biver. Dr. Merriam shot one at Sheep Spring in 
the Juniper Mountains, Nevada, May 19, and two in the nut pines on 
Mt. Magruder, June 5. Mr. Bailey saw a few among the pines on the 
Kaweah Biver the last of July, and the writer saw one on the Hockett 
trail near Little Cottonwood Creek, August 23, and secured a .specimen 
at Three Bivers, September 14. 

Mr. Nelson reported a few as seen along the coast from San Simeon 
to Carpenteria, Calif., November 4 to December 18. 



May, 1893.] BIRDS OF THE DEATH VALLEY EXPEDITION. 



121 



Record of specimens collected of Dendroica nigrescens. 



Col- 
lector's 
No. 


Si-x. 


Locality; 


Date. 


Collector. Remarks. 




d 

9 

d 
9 
9 
9 
9 
9 
d 
d 
9 




May 9, 1891 


T. S. Palmer 


Maturango Spring. 




... 1 "! ( io"." 1 :... 1. .::::::::::: 

<lo 

do 

do 


do 


211 
212 


Mav 8, 1891 
do 


A. K. Fisher 
do 


Do. 
Do. 


238 


Mav 13, 1891 
'do 


do 


Do. 


239 


do 


....do 


Do. 


435 




Sept. 14, 1891 
July 11,1831 
May 19,1891 
June 5, 1891 
do 


....do 


132 








J miiper Mountains. Nev 

Mount Magruder, Nev 


C. Hait Merriam. . 

V Bailey 

C. Hart Merriam.. 


r 











Dendroica townsendi. Townsend's Warbler. 

Townsend's warbler was first noted on the ridge above Maturango 
Spring in the Argus Range, California, where a male in full song was se- 
cured, and others seen among the pifions May 6. From this date until the 
departure of the party, May 15, the species was not uncommon, though 
there was no evidence of its intention to remain and breed, as in the 
case of the black-throated gray warbler. One was seen at Coso on May 
19, and Mr. Stephens saw a small flock migrating among the creosote 
bushes northeast of Little Owens Lake, the secoud week in May. 

In the Sierra Nevada Mr. Nelson saw two or three on the South Fork 
of the Merced River August 9. They were in company with a large 
number of other small birds of several species, gleaning insects from 
among the lower branches as they passed from tree to tree. On the 
coast Mr. Bailey found it common at Monterey September 28 to October 
9, and Mr. Nelson saw it, though very sparingly, at Morro Bay and south- 
ward. 

Record of specimens collected of Dendroica townsendi. 



Col- 




ctor's 


Sex. 


No. 




200 


d 


219 


9 


226 


d 




d 




9 



Locality, 



Date. 



Argus Range. Calif May * 6. 1891 

.do...! May 9,1891 

do : May 11.1891 

Monterey, Calif Oct. 5,1891 

Morro ..* ! Not. 8,1891 



Collector. 



A.K. Fisher 

...do 

...do 

V. liailev 

E.W.Nelson 



Remarks. 



Maturango Spring 
Do. 
Do. 



Dendroica occidentalis. Hermit Warbler. 

This rare warbler was first seen among the pifions in the Argus Range, 
above Maturango Spring, where a pair was observed and a female se- 
cured May 6. The following day another was seen. Mr. Nelson saw a 
few among a migrating flock on the South Fork of the Merced, near 
Wawona, August 9. Mr. Palmer saw one in a mixed flock of warblers 
at Halsted Meadows, iu the Sequoia National Park, August 7, and the 
writer secured a specimen at Horse Corral Meadows August 13. Mr. 
Beldiug saw migrants at Crocker's, 21 miles northwest of Yosemite Val- 
ley, in May. 



122 



NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. 

Record of specimens collected of Dendroica occidentalis. 



[No. 7. 



Col- 
lector's 
No. 


Sex. 


Locality. 


Date. 


Collector. 


Remarks. 


199 
415 


? 
$ mi. 


Argus Range, Calif 

Sierra Nevada, Calif 


May C, 1891 
Aug. 13, 1891 


A. K. Fisher 

do 


Maturango Spring. 






ows. 



Seiurus noveboracensis notabilis. Grhm ell's Water-Thrush. 

The only individual of this species obtained by the expedition was an 
adult male secured by Dr. Merriain and Mr. Bailey at the eastern edge 
of the Santa Clara settlement, in the Lower Santa Clara Valley, Utah, 
May 11, 1891. 

Geothlypis macgillivrayi. Macgillivray's Warbler. 

This warbler was first observed in Shepherd Canon in the Argus 
Range, California, April 27, and afterwards at Maturango Spring, 
where it was common among the willow thickets. At Coso, the species 
was common in the shrubbery about the springs and along the canons 
to the summit of the range, the latter part of May. Mr. Nelson found 
it a rather common migrant along the upper part of Willow and Mill 
Creeks in the Panamiut Mountains during the last week of May. 
After this date comparatively few were seen, and these only within the 
sage belt along the willow-grown banks of springs and streams. A 
few were seen also in Wood Canon in the Grapevine Mountains. In 
the Sierra Nevada, Mr. Nelson found it at the head of Owens 
River, though not common. Mr. Stephens saw a female accompanied 
by young at Bishop Creek, August 4-10; Mr.'Dutcher secured speci- 
mens at Big Cottonwood Meadows, where the writer saw it August 2G; 
and several were seen in the Sequoia National Park during the first 
week in August. 

In Nevada Dr. Merriain found Macgillivray's Warbler common in 
Pahranagat Valley, May 22-26, immediately after a severe snowstorm, 
and thought it did not breed in the valley. He saw a single individual 
on Mount Magruder, Nevada, June 8, and Mr. Nelson found a few at 
the heads of streams on the east slope of the White Mountains. 

Record of specimens collected of Geothlypis macgillivrayi. 



Col- 
lector's 
No. 


Sex. 


Locality. 


Date. 


Collector. 


Remarks. 


218 
254 


? 
? 


Argus Mruuitains, Calif 

Coso. Coso Mountains, Calif.. 
do 


May 9,1891 
May 24,1891 
May 25, 1891 

May 28, 1891 


A. K. Fislier 

do 


Maturango Spring. 


255 


do 




267 


...do 


do 













May, 1S03.] 



BIRDS OF THE DEATH VALLEY EXPEDITION. 



123 



Geothlypis trichas occidentalis. Western Yellow-throat. 

The western yellow throat was common in only a few localities vis- 
ited by the expedition. At San Bernardino, Calif., it was tolerably 
common along the streams and in the thickets, December 28-29, 
1890. It was seen in Surprise Canon in the Panamint Mountains, 
April 1G, and was not uncommon at Hot Springs in Panamint 
Valley, April 20-25. Mr. Nelson found a few during the latter part of 
May in the willows on. Mill and Willow creeks in the Panamint Moun- 
tains, but observed none in the Grapevine Mountains. He saw a few 
at Hunter Canon on the east slope of the Inyo Mountains, and also 
among some willows in Saline Valley. In Owens Valley it was a. tol- 
erably common summer resident from Little Owens Lake up to the 
head of the valley at the base of the White Mountains. In Death 
Valley the species was not uncommon in Furnace Creek Cafion and at 
Bennett Wells, June 19-21. 

In Nevada, Dr. Merriam found it tolerably common and breeding in 
Pahranagat Valley, and saw it at Vegas Eanch, May 1, and along the 
Lower Santa Clara in Utah, May 11-15. 

It was common along the South Fork of the Kern Liver, California, 
July 3-10; at Kernville, July 11-13; in Walker Basin, July 13-10, and 
at Bakersfield in the San Joaquin Valley, July 17-20. 

On the coast of California Mr. Nelson found it, though in limited 
numbers, at the head of Morro Bay, and thence southward. 

Record of specimens collected of Geothlypis trichas occidentalis. 



Col- 
lector's 
No. 


Sex. 


Locality. 


Date. 


Collector. 


Remarks. 


8 


$ im. 
d 

d 
d 
9 




Dec. 28,1890 
Apr. 21,1891 
June 21, 1891 
June 9,1891 
June 10,1891 


A. E. Fisher 

do 




174 


Panamint Valley, Calif 

Death Valley, Calif 


Hot Springs. 


35'J 


do 


78 




F. Stephens 




82 















Icteria virens longicauda. Long-tailed Chat. 

• Owing to the lack of suitable localities for nesting the yellow-breasted 
cliat was found sparingly in most of the region traversed by the expe- 
dition. It was moderately common in Owens Valley, at Lone Pine, 
June 4-15, and Mr. Stephens found it in the same valley, though not 
commonly, at Olancha, May 16-23; at Ash Creek, May 30-June 3; at 
Independence Creek, June 18-23, and at Morans, July 4-7. Mr. Nelson 
saw and heard one, which sang in the evening and the greater part of 
the night of May 22, near his camp on Willow Creek in the Panamint 
Mountains, and observed others in the Inyo Mountains, from Hunter's 
arastra down to the bottom of Saline Valley, during the latter part of 
June. At Furnace Creek, Death Valley, chats were tolerably common 
at the ranch and in the canon above it, June 19-21. At Kernville, 
Calif., and along Kern Valley, chats were common June 22-23, and 



124 



NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. 



[No. 7. 



July 11-13; in Walker Basin, July 13-1G, and several were seen in the 
Canada de las TJvas June 28, 29. At Bakersfiehl, in the San Joaquin 
Valley, it was seen or heard every day from July 17-20. 

In Nevada, Dr. Merriain found it in the lower part of Vegas Wash, 
May 3; at the Bend of the Colorado, May 4; in the valleys of the Vir- 
gin and Muddy, May 6-8; and in Pahranagat Valley, as a common 
breeder, May 22-2G. In the Santa Clara Valley, Utah, it was a toler. 
ably common breeder, May 11-15. 

Eecord of specimens collected of Icteria virens longicaufta. 



Col- 
lector's 

No. 


Sox. 


Locality. 


Date. 


Collector. 


Remarks. 


294 cf 




Juno 5,1891 
June 21, 1891 


A.K.Fisher 

do 




Death Valley, Calif 















Sylvania pusilla pileolata. Pileolated Warbler. 

The black-capped warbler was first seen in Surprise Canon in the 
Panamint Mountains, April 17, and Mr. Nelson found it rather common 
among the willows at the head of Willow, Mill, and Cotton wood 
creeks in the same mountains the last of May, after which time he did 
not see it there. A few were -seen in the Argus Range in Shepherd 
Canon, April 27, and the species was common about Maturango 
Spring, in the willows and rosebushes during the first half of May. It 
was seen in the Coso Mountains in the bottom of the caiions among 
the shrubbery, the last of May, and at the head of the streams in the 
White Mountains, in July. Mr. Stephens found it migrating in Salt 
Wells Valley, May 1-5; at Little Owens Lake, May 6-11; at Olancha, 
May 16-23 ; and in Recke Canon, September 22-24. In the High Sierra 
it was seen in the Sequoia National Park the first week in August; at 
Horse Corral Meadows, August 9-13; at the head of Owens River and 
on the western slope opposite, in July and August; at Big Cotton- 
wood Meadows, during the summer; at Bound Valley, 12 miles south 
of Mount Whitney, the last of August; and north of Mineral King, 
September 10-11. 

In Nevada, Dr. Merriain saw it at a large spring in Pahrump Valley, 
April 29; at Mountain Spring in the Charleston Mountains, April 30; 
at Upper Cottonwood Springs at the east base of these mountains, the 
same day; at Vegas ranch, May 1; at the Bend of the Colorado, May 
4; and in the Valley of the Virgin and Lower Muddy, May 6. 

Eecord of specimens collected of Sylvania pusilla pileolata. 



Col- 
lector's 
. No. 


Sex. 


Locailty. 


Date. 


Collector. 


Remarks. 


190 


? 


A rgua Range, Calif 


Apr. 27. 1891 
Slay 10.1891 
J uly 7, 1891 


A.K.Fisher 

....do 

B. H. Dulcher .... 


Shepherd Canon. 
Maturango Springs. 
]'. i g (' lit t on wood 
Meadows. 


13 





May, 1893. 



BIRDS OF THE DEATH VALLEY EXPEDITION. 



125 



Anthus pensilvauicus. Titlark. 

The titlark was found as a winter resident in suitable localities in 
southern California and Nevada. 

In California Mr. Nelson saw a few at Lone Pine, and found it very 
common along the shore of Owens Lake in December, 1890; he also 
saw a few at Hot Springs, Panamint Valley, in the early part of Jan- 
uary, where the writer secured a specimen, April 22, 1891. At San 
Bernardino several flocks were seen in a wet meadow bordering a 
stream, on December 28, 1890. In Death Valley a flock of twenty or 
more was always to be found in the alfalfa fields at Furnace Creek, and 
a few were observed at Saratoga Springs during the latter part of 
January. Dr. Merriam saw two in the Mohave Desert on the sand 
beach bordering the Mohave Eiver at Victor, March 30. At various 
places in the San Joaquin Valley Mr. Xelson found it congregated in 
small flocks in October, and common in fields and along the coast from 
San Simeon to Carpenteria, in November and December. 

In Nevada the species was common at Ash Meadows in flocks on the 
wet marshes and plowed fields during the first three weeks of March, 
and Mr. Nelson found it not uncommon about wet ground in both Vegas 
and Pahrump valleys, and near the upper end of Vegas Wash about 
the same time. 

Record of specimens collected of Antlms pensihanicnis. 



Col- I 
lector's Sex. 
No. 


Locality. 


Date. 


Collector. 


Remarks. 


6 
89 


d 
? 
9 
? 


San Bernardino, Calif 

Death Valley Calif 


Dec. 28,1890 
Jan. 30. 1891 


A. K. Fisher 

do 




90 


do .! 


do. ' 


do 


Do. 


182 


Panamint Valley, Calif ' Apr. 23, 1891 ....do 


Dot Springs. 



Cinclus mexicanus. Water Ousel. 

The dipper or water ousel was seen only along the streams of the 
Sierra Nevada, in California. In December, 1890, Mr. Nelson saw one 
on Owens Eiver at the mouth of Lone Pine Creek. The writer first 
observed the species on the South Fork of Kern Eiver, where a 
specimen was secured July 7 as it was flying from boulder to boulder 
in a rapid portion of the stream. It was seen at Horse Corral Meadows 
August 9-13, and was common- in Kings Eiver Canon August 13-10. 
At the latter place an old nest was discovered in the eroded end of a 
drift log which huug out over a waterfall. The dipper was met with by 
Mr. Nelson at the head of Owens Elver and in the Yosemite Valley, 
and by Mr. Stephens at Bishop Creek. It was common in the high 
mountains along the streams in Big Cottonwood and Whitney Meadows, 
where specimens were secured. Mr. Palmer observed one at an alti- 
tude of about 3,500 meters (11,000 feet) in Langley Meadow September 
10. 



126 



NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. 

Record of specimens collected of Cinclus mexicanus. 



[No. 7. 



Col- 
lector's 
No. 


Sex. 


Locality. 


Date. 


Collector. 


Remarks. 


381 


im. 
d 
d 

d 

d 




July 7, 1891 
Aug. 31, 1891 
July 8, 1891 

Aug. 2,1891 
Aug. 1-1, 1891 


A. K. Fisher 

. . . do 


South Fork 


433 


"Whitney Meadows. Calif. . . . 
Sierra Nevada, Calif 

do 




15 
24 


B, 11. Duteher 
do 


Big Cottonwood 
Meadows. 
Do. 


41G 


Kings River Canon, Calif. . . 


A. K. Fisher 





Oroscoptes montanus. Sage Thrasher. 

The sage thrasher is a characteristic inhabitant of the sage plains, 
occurring in company with the sago, sparrow (Amphispiza belli ncva- 
densis), Brewer's sparrow (Spissella brewcri), and the lark sparrow 
( CItondcstes grammacus strigatus). It was not found in the lower valleys 
except as a winter resident. A flock of six or eight was seen at Hes- 
peria in the Mohave Desert, January 4, and about an equal number 
at Granite Wells, January 13-15. One was observed at Mesquite Well 
in Death Valley, January 20. Mr. Nelson saw about half a dozen 
in the sage brush on the divide between Willow and Cottonwood 
creeks in the Panamint Mountains, where they seemed to be breeding 
during the last of May. Dr. Merriam found the species common 
among the sage brush north of Telescope Peak April 15. A pair was 
observed in Coso Valley, below Maturango Spring, May 11, and Mr. 
Nelson reported the species common in the same place in January. 

In Nevada a few were noted at Ash Meadows in March, and Mr. 
Nelson found them in both Pahrump and Vegas valleys. Dr. Mer- 
riam found them common in the sage brush on the rolling plateau of 
the Juniper Mountains, May 18; in the valley between Gold Mountain 
and Monut Magruder, June 4; and on Mount Magruder plateau, June 
5-8, where a nest containing two fresh eggs was found in a sage bush, 
June 8. In the Santa Clara Valley in southwestern Utah, they were 
not found near St. George, but were seen first on May 15, about 8 
miles northwest of that place where the sage brush begins. A few 
miles further north, at the upper Santa Clara Crossing, they were 
one of the most abundant birds, May 17; and at Mountain Meadows, 
Utah, where they were common, he shot an adult male sitting on a 
nest containing four fresh eggs. May 17. Mr. Nelson found them spar 
ingly among the pin on s in the Inyo Mountains, California, the latter part 
of June; saw a few on the White Mountains and found them rather 
common about the head of Owens Valley, in July. He reported them 
as common up to 2,450 meters (8,000 feet), at the head of Owens River. 
Mr. Stephens saw several at Morans, July 4-7; found them common at 
Benton, July 9-10; and at Queen mine, in the White Mountains, 
Nevada, where a few were heard singing, July 11-10. 



May, 1893.] BIRDS OF THE DEATH VALLEY EXPEDITION. 

Record of specimens collected of Oroscoptes montanus. 



127 



Col- 




lector's 


Sex. 


No. 




34 


d 


51 


d 


CO 


d 


45 


d 


130 


d 


30 


d 




d 




d 



Locality. 



Date. 



Collector. 



Remarks. 



Hesperia, Calif 

Granite Wells, Calif 

do 

Coso Valley. Calif 

Panarhint Mountains, Calif 

Owens Valley, Calif 

Ash Meadows, Nev 

St. George, Utah 

Mountain Meadows, Utah . 



Jan. 4, 1801 
Jan. 14,1891 

....do 

May 12,1891 
Apr. 15, 1891 
July 9,1891 
Mar. 11,1891 
May 16.1891 
May 17, 1891 



A. K. Fisher 

....do 

...do 

T. S. Palmer 

F. Stephens 

....do 

....do 

V. Bailey 

0. Hart Merriam . . 



Benton. 



3,800 feet altitude. 
Nest and eggs. 



Mimus polyglottos. Mocking Bird. 

The mockingbird was found sparingly in tlie desert regions of Cali- 
fornia, and was more or less common in similar localities in Nevada, 
Utah, and Arizona. It was common about San Bernardino, Calif., 
and in Cajon Pass the first of January and the latter part of March. 
In Death Valley, one was seen at Saratoga Springs in tlie latter part 
of January, .and others in various other parts of the valley proper and 
in the northwest arm (Mesquite Valley), April 8-13, but was not seen 
anywhere in the valley during the trip of June 19-21. It was found 
at Hot Springs in Pan am hit Valley, April 20-24, and was tolerably 
common among the yuccas in Coso Valley and Mountains, throughout 
May. Mr. Nelson found it through the north end of the PanamintMoun- 
tains from the divide between Cottonwood and Willow creeks down to 
the botton of Mesquite and Saline valleys. In the Grapevine Moun- 
tains it ranged up to the base of the main summits, at an altitude of 
2,450 meters (8,000 feet). The same observer found it common as high 
as the lower edge of the pinons in the Inyo Mountains, to 2,370 meters 
(7,800 feet) at the head of Owens River in the Sierra, and a few from 
the head of Owens Valley up to 2,430 meters (8,000 feet) in the White 
Mountains. 

In Nevada, Dr. Merriam found Mocking Birds in Tide Canon, at the 
extreme northern end of the northwest arm of Death Valley, June 4; on 
the southern slope of Gold Mountain, among the tree yuccas, June 3; 
in Oasis Valley, June 1; in the Timpahute Mountains, May 20 (among the 
tree yuccas) ; in Pahranagat Valley, May 22-26 (common and breeding) ; 
at Pahroc Spring, May 20-22; in Meadow Creek Valley, May 10; in 
the valleys of the Mnddy and Virgin, May 6-8 (common); at the Bend 
of the Colorado May 4; in Vegas Valley and Wash, April 30-May 3; 
and in Pahrump Valley, April 28-29 (several in the tree yuccas on east 
side of valley). In Utah, he found them common in the Lower Santa 
Clara Valley, May 11-15, and abundant on both sides of the Beaver- 
dam Mountains, May 10-11. 

They were tolerably common in Owens Valley, Calif., where they were 
seen at Little Owens Lake, Keeler, and Lone Pine. A pair was seen on 
the eastern slope of Walker Pass, July 1, and another at Walker Basin, 



128 



NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. 



[No. 7 



July 15; they were common at Bakersfield, July 17-20; iu Tehaehapi 
Pass, June 25, aud a few were observed around Visalia in July. Sev- 
eral were seen iu Reclie Canon, by Mr Stephens, September 22-24; and 
a male by Mr. Nelson at Santa Paula, during the last of December. 

Harporhynchus redivivus. California Thrasher. 

The California thrasher is a bird of the chaparral and -was not found 
in the desert regions east of the Siena Nevada. At San Bernardino 
the writer saw one December 29, 1890, aud Mr. Stephens reported the 
species rather common in Heche Canon near the same place, Sep- 
tember 22-21, 1891. A pair was seen at Cane Brake ranch on the 
western slope of Walker Pass, July 3, and several at Kernville, where 
two were secured July 12. A number were seen iu Walker Basin, July 
13-16, and Dr. Merriam found the species common between that place 
and Caliente June 24; in the Canada delas XJvas June 28-29; and in 
the Sierra Liebre June 30. In the latter range it passes over the 
divide and occurs in the chaparral on the north slope, close to the 
edge of the Mohave Desert. Several were seen at Bakersfield, in the 
San Joaquin Valley, July 17-20. Mr. Bailey saw a pair in the oak 
brush just below the edge of the conifers on the Kaweah River, and 
others at Boulder Creek; and Mr. Nelson found them common along the 
coast, from Morro to Santa Paula, during November and December. 

Record of specimens collected of Harporhyneluis redivivus. 



Col- 
lector's 
No. 


Sex. 


Locality. 


Dato. 


Collector. 


Remarks. 


38G 


$ iin. 

? 




July 11, 1891 
;io 


A. K. Fisher 

V. Bailey 








165 




Sept. 15, 1801 


F. Stephens 











Harporhynchus lecontei. LeConte's Thrasher. 

Le Conte's thrasher is a characteristic bird of the deserts of south- 
eastern California and southern Nevada and Arizona, where it was 
found in all the Lower Sonoran valleys east of the Sierra visited by 
the expedition. It is not a migratory species and probably remains in 
the vicinity of its summer home the entire year. This statement is 
strengthened by the fact that in most places where the species was 
found old nests were also observed. These were placed in arborescent 
cactuses, mesquite, or other thorny shrubs. 

This thrasher was first seen by us not far from Victor, in the Mohave 
Desert, California, January 7, and a number were noticed between 
Daggett and Granite Wells, January 8-13 and April 4-6. In Death 
Valley, a pair was seen at Bennett Wells January 21, others about the 
middle of April, and a pair with five young on June 21; at Furnace 
Creek one was seen the last ot January. At Besting Springs the spe- 



Mat, 1893.] BIRDS OF THE DEATH VALLEY EXPEDITION. 129 

cies was very common among the mesqnitc, where the males were fre- 
quently heard singing from their perches on the uppermost branches, 
February 6-17. 

In Nevada it was common at Ash Meadows in March, and Mr. Nel- 
son found it in Pahrump Valley, at the western base of the Charleston 
Mountains. East of Pahrump Valley Dr. Merriam saw several April 
29, and a full-grown young was shot among the yuccas. He killed 
one in Vegas Valley May 1, and found the species tolerably common in 
the valley of the Virgin and Lower Muddy. A nest was found in a 
branching cactus (Opuntia echinocarpa) on the mesa between these 
rivers, and, although the parent bird was on the nest, no eggs had been 
laid. In southwestern Utah it was found on the west side of the 
Beaverdam Mountains almost to the summit of the range, keeping in 
the tree yuccas and arborescent cactuses with the cactus wren. 

At Hot Springs, in Panamint Valley, California, it was seen the 
last of April, and in Coso Valley and Mountains through May. It is 
common in Owens Valley, from Little Owens Lake, where Mr. Stephens 
found a nest and three eggs and a brood of nearly grown young, to Ben- 
ton, where both he and Mr. Nelson saw it. Mr. Stephens found it 
common in Salt Wells Valley, where nests and young were observed. 
In Walker Pass it was common among the tree yuccas on the east side, 
and Dr. Merriam saw several on the west slope, about I miles from 
the summit, June 22-23. He found it common throughout the western 
tongue of the Mohave Desert, where a nest containing two half-grown 
young was found in a branching cactus {Opuntia echinocarpa) June 27. 

In the San Joaquin Valley Mr. Nelson found it common about the 
southern and western sides of Buena Vista Lake, and thence west and 
northwest for 15 to 18 miles toward the base of the Temploa Mountains. 
This was the actual range in which he noted the species, though it un- 
doubtedly occupied much more territory in the vicinity, where the low 
growth of desert bushes and sandy arroyos near the lake formed a 
congenial home. 

LeConte's thrasher is a sly, skulking species, quite difficult to col- 
lect, and when running about among the desert shrubbery closely 
resembles the road-runner in form and actions. 

The song of this species like that of the other members of the genus 
is sweet and variable, and in many respects rivals that of the mocking- 
bird in musical elegance. In many places throughout its range the 
young (just before they leave the nest) are regularly hunted by both 
whites and Indians for the purpose of making cage birds of them. 

At Keeler, in Owens Valley, Mr. II. E. Wilkinson, meteorological 
observer, had one which was allowed the freedom of the house. It was 
very tame and would allow itself to be caught and placed in the cage 
for the night. One of its favorite amusements was to sit on the win- 
dow sill and catch the flies which were moving on the panes. 
12731— No. 7 9 



130 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. 

Record of specimens collected of Harporhynehus lecontei. 



[No. 7. 



Col- 




lector's 


Sex. 


No. 




19 


d 


20 


d 


23 


d 




d 


121 


d 


133 


d 




J 




9 




d ,Hiv- 




2 iui. 




d 


29 


d 




d 


164 


9 


53 


d 


284 


d im. 




? . 


126 


d im- 




9 




cf 




d 


44 


d 




d juv. 




d juv. 




$ im. 




d 


17 


9 


16 


9 


99 


9 


.100 


9 


101 


d 


107 


9 



Locality. 



Resting Springs, Calif 

do" 

Twelve-mile Spring, Calif. 

Ash Meadows, Nev 

do 

do 

Pahrump Valley, Nev 

do 

do 

Vegas Valley. Nev 

Beaverdam " Mountains, 
Utah. 

Table Mountain, Nev 

Buena Vista Lake, Calif . . - 

Hesperia, Calif 

Salt Wells Valley, Calif... 

Owens Valley, Calif 

do 

do 



Coso Mountains 

...do 

Panamint. Valley, Calif 

Daggett, "Calif 

Mohave Desert, Calif . . 

do 

Death Valley, Calif.... 

do 

Garlick Springs, Calif. 

do 

Resting Springs, Calif. 

do 

do 

do 



Date. 



Feb. 14,1891 
...do 

Feb. 20,1891 

Mar. 19, 1891 
Mar. 10,1891 
Mar. 19, 1891 
Feb. 11,1891 

....do 

Apr. 29, 1891 
May 1,1891 
May 10, 1891 

May 6,1891 
Oct". 26,1891 
Sept, 15, 1891 
May 4, 1891 
June 2,1891 
Dec. 27,1890 
July 3,1891 

Dec. 31,1890 

....do 

Jan. 10,1891 
Jan. 7, 1891 
June 27, 1891 

....do 

June 21, 1891 
Jan. 30,1891 
Feb. 10,1891 

....do 

Feb. 7,1891 

...do 

....do 

Feb. 11,1891 



Collector. 



F. Stephens 

...do 

...do 



E. W. Nelson 

A. K. Fisher 

...do 

E. W. Nelson 

...do 

C. Hart Merriam. 

...do 

...do 



Stephens . 
W. Nelson - 
Stephens . . 

do 

Tv. Fisher . 
W.Nelson. 
Stephens. . 



W.Nelson. 
Bailey .... 

do ..'. 

K. Fisher . 
S. Palmer . 

do 

Bailey 

W. Nelson. 
Stephens . . 

do 

K. Fisher . 

do 

do 

do 



Remarks. 



North of Resting 
Springs. 



Amargosa Desert. 
San Joaquin Valley. 



Keeler. 

Lone Pine. 
22 miles north 
Bishop. 



of 



Willow Spring. 
Do. 

Bennett Wells. 
Saratoga Springs. 



Harporhynchus crissalis. Crissal Thrasher. 

The crissal thrasher was not found in the Mohave or Amargosa 
deserts, nor in Death, Panainint, or other valleys west of the Charles- 
ton Mountains, where LeConte's thrasher is so common. Dr. Merriam 
found it from Vegas Valley, Nevada, eastward. He observed it in the 
valley of the Virgin, near St. Joe, Nev., May 7, and near Bunker- 
ville, May 8; and found it a common breeder in the Lower Santa Clara 
Valley, Utah, where a nest containing two fresh eggs was discovered 
in a bush of Atriplex torreyi, about 3 feet above the ground, May 
16. Mr. Nelson also found a nest containing three eggs, at Cottonwood 
Spring, at the east base of the Charleston Mountains, March 8. The 
bird was shot from the nest, which was placed partly on one of the 
large branches of a desert willow (Chilo})*!* saligna) and partly on top 
of an Atriplex canescens bush growing under it. The structure was 
formed externally of coarse twigs, a few inches long, and lined with 
hemp-like strips of bark from a plant growing in the vicinity. 

Heleodytes brunneicapillus. Cactus Wren. 

The cactus wren is an abundant and characteristic bird of the 
Lower Sonoran Zone, breeding wherever there are suitable forests of 
tree yuccas or arborescent cactuses, and sometimes in other forms of 
spiny vegetation, as the desert acacia (Acacia greggii). It was first 



Mat, 1893] BIRDS OF THE DEATH VALLEY EXPEDITION. 131 

seen in the Mohave Desert, atHesperia.a few miles from the summit of 
Cajon Pass, where the males were singing' from the tops of the tree 
yuccas, January 4-5. Mr. Stephens found a nest containing four fresh 
eggs in a 'cholla' (cactus) in Salt Wells Valley, about 8 miles north of 
Indian AY ells, the 1st of May, and saw the species sparingly in Owens 
Valley, a few miles north of Little Owens Lake. In the Coso Valley, 
and at Coso in the mountains of the same name, Mr. Palmer and the 
writer found this species among the tree yuccas, and the former observer 
found a number of old nests during the first half of May. In the 
early part of July, the species was very common in Walker Pass, 
where as many as half a dozen were seen in one yucca, and at the 
South Fork of the Kern Elver it was found to be common wherever 
yuccas occurred. Mr. Nelson found it rather common about the ranch 
in Vegas Valley, Nevada, and still more numerous among themesquite 
in Vegas Wash near the Colorado Eiver, where the birds were in full 
song, March 10. 

Dr. Merriam furnished the following notes on this species: "In the 
Mohave Desert. California, many nests were found in tree yuccas 
between Cajon Pass and Pilot Knob, the first week in April, but none 
of them contained eggs. The species reaches the extreme western 
end of the desert (Antelope Valley), and a few were seen in yuccas 
and sage-brush in a wash leading south from Gorman ranch toward 
Peru Creek, June 30. 

"From the Mohave Desert the cactus wren extends up the wash leading 
to Tehachapi Basin, where it was tolerably common in the yuccas and 
'chollas 1 below Cameron. In Walker Pass, it ranges from the east or 
Mohave Desert side completely across the Sierra to the valley of Kern 
River, where it is abundant in groves of tree yuccas and in 'chollas' 
down to 820 meters (2,700 feet) altitude, and where dozens of their 
large nests were seen in the cactuses, June 22. In Nevada two nests 
were found in Acacia greggii at Bitter Springs in the Muddy Moun- 
tains, May 5; both had been used the present season, and one con- 
tained an addled egg. The species was common on the high mesa 
between the Muddy and Virgin rivers, May 7, where nearly every 
branching cactus contained the remnants of a nest, but all the young 
had hatched and flown away. In the Beaverdam Mountains, in south- 
western Utah, they were common in yuccas and cactuses up to 1,1.50 
meters (3,800 feet) on the west slope. In the Lower Santa Clara Val- 
ley, Utah, near St. George, they were common, breeding in the arbo- 
rescent cactus, May 11-15. This valley is the extreme northeastern 
limit of distribution of the species. In Southern California, on the 
coast slope, it is abundant on the San Bernardino Plain, and thence 
southward. Many were seen in the Santa Clara Valley at its junction 
with Castac Creek, June 30, where its nests were conspicuous in the 
tall cactus (Opuntia bernardina)." 



132 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. 

Record of, specimens collected of Helcodytcs brunneicapillus. 



[No. 7. 



Col- 
lector's 
No. 



32 
33 

380 



Sex. 



Locality. 



Hespcria, Calif... 

do 

Kern River, Calif. 



Jan. 4, 1891 

....do 

July 6,1891 



Collector. 



A. K. Fisher 

...do 

....do 



Remarks. 



South Fork. 



Salpinctes obsoletus. Rock Wren. 

The rock wren was seen wherever there were bare rocks suited to its 
wants, from the lowest valleys to above timber line on the highest 
mountains. It was seen at Granite Well in the Mohave Desert, Jan- 
uary 13; at Lone Willow Spring, January 17; at Mesquite Well, in 
Death Valley, January 20; and in Furnace Creek Canon, in the Funeral 
Mountains, February 5. In the Panamint Mountains, it was common 
in Johnson, Surprise, and Emigrant canons in April, and Mr. Nelson 
found it common and widely distributed along Cottonwood Canon, 
where young, following their parents, were seen during the last of May. 
In the latter part of June several were seen in Death Valley Canon, a 
few hundred feet above the valley, and thence to the summit of Telescope 
Peak, where a family of six or eight were seen among the loose rocks. 

In Nevada this wren was not uncommon at Ash Meadows, in Oasis 
Valley, and in the Grapevine Mountains in March, and in the latter 
mountains was breeding commonly in May. Mr. Nelson found it 
sparingly at various places in Pahrump Valley and along the route to 
the Bend of the Colorado in March. Dr. Merriam found it common in 
Tule Canon, and thence up to the summit of Mount Magruder, in 
rocky places, June 4-9; on Gold Mountain, June 3; in Pahranagat 
Valley, May 22-26; and in the Pahroc Mountains, near Pahroc Spring, 
May 21-22. In Utah, he reported it common along the cliffs of the 
Santa Clara Valley, May 11-15; at the Upper Santa Clara Crossing, 
May 10; and saw two pairs in the junipers in the Beaverdam Moun- 
tains, May 11. 

In Shepherd Canon and at Maturango Spring, in the Argus Range, 
California, it was common during the first half of May, and in the 
canons in the Coso Mountains during the latter part of the month. 
Mr. Nelson found it ranging from the bottoms of the valley to the 
summit of Inyo and White mountains and to timber line at the head 
of Owens River. In the former range, at Cerro Gordo, Mr. Palmer 
found young just out of the nest, May 31. The species was common 
and well distributed in Owens Valley from the lower end of Owens 
Lake to the upper part, at the base of the White Mountains. It was 
common along the western slope of Walker Pass, along Kern River 
Valley and below Old Fort Tcjon, in the Canada do las Uvas. In the 
High Sierra it was common at Big Cottonwood Meadows during 
the summer, and one was seen at Round Valley, 12 miles south of 
Mount Whitney, above timber line, August 28, and one at Whitney 
Meadows about the same time. 



may 1893.] BIRDS OF THE DEATH VALLEY EXPEDITION. 133 

Record of specimens collected of Salpinctes obaolctus. 



Col- 
lector's 
No. 


Sex. 


Locality. 


Date. 


Collector. 


Remarks. 


64 

275 
330 


d 
d 
rfjuv. 

2 
d 


Daggett, Calif 

Lone Willow Spring, Calif 

do 

Grapevine Spring, Calif 


Feb. 7. 1891 
Jan. 17,1891 
June 1,1891 
Jane 11,1891 
April 2, 1891 


F. Stephens 

A. K. Fisher 

...do 

do 


Mohave Desert. 
Keeler. 


42 


F. Stephens 





Catherpes mexicanus conspersus. Canon Wren. 

The canon wren was found in a number of the mountain ranges vis- 
ited by the expedition in California and Nevada. In a few places in 
the Panamint Mountains it was common, but in no other of the desert 
ranges was it found in any numbers. We first observed it in Furnace 
Creek Canon in the Funeral Mountains, on our way to the Amargosa 
Desert early in February, and again on the return trip in the latter 
part of March. Mr. Bailey saw one at Saratoga Springs in the south- 
ern end of Death Valley, in February. In Johnson and Surprise canons, 
in the Panamint Range, it was common, and males were heard singing 
at all times of day during the first half of April. A few were seen by 
Mr. Nelson ou the east or Saline Valley side of the Inyo Mountains in 
the latter part of the same month. In the Argus Range it was seen in 
Shepherd CaTion in January and April, and at Lookout iu the latter 
part of June. Dr. Merriam found it among the cliffs in the juniper 
belt on both sides of the Beaverdam Mountains, in southwestern Utah, 
May 10-11. He also found it breeding along the cliffs in the Lower 
Santa Clara Valley, Utah, May 11-15, and at the Upper Santa Clara 
crossing, May 10. Two w*ere seen iu the Pahroc Mountains, near Pah- 
roe Spring, Nevada, May 22. In the northern part of the range, and 
in the Grapevine Mountains, Nevada, Mr. Nelson did not find it com- 
mon during May and early June. 

The following notes may refer wholly or in part to the present race 
of the canon wren, or to the California coast form (punctidatus), as no 
specimens were preserved for identification. Several were seen along 
the South Fork of Kern River, and nearKernville, Calif, in early July. 
Dr. Merriam saw several iu the Canada de las Uvas, and heard it in 
the canon of Peru Creek below Alamo ranch, in the Sierra Liebre, June 
30. A few were seen at Three Rivers, Tulare County, in the western 
foothills of the Sierra, July 25-29, and September 17, and in the Se- 
quoia National Park, at Halsted Meadows, August 6. Several were 
seen by Mr. Palmer at Michigan Bluff, Placer County, the last week 
in September. 



134 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. 

Record of specimens collected of Catlierpes mexicanus conspcrsus. 



[No. 7. 



Col- 




lector's 


Sex. 


No. 






? 




J 




V 


143 


d 


150 


¥ 


157 


J 


165 


d 



Locality. 



Panamint, Calif 

Panamint Mountains, Calif 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 



Date. 



Jan. 10,1891 
Mar. 30, 1891 
Mar. 28, 1891 

...do 

Apr. 13, 1891 

...do 

Apr. 18, 1891 



Collector. 



V. Bailey 

E. W. Nelson 

— ^o 

A. K. Fisher . 

...do 

...do 

...do 



11 em ark 8. 



Johnson Canon. 

Do. 

Do. 
Surprise Canon. 

Do. 

Do. 



Thryothorus bewickii spilurus. Vigors's Wren. 

A specimen taken at San Bernardino, December 29, 1890, although 
not typical of this race, resembles it more closely than it does any other. 
The bird which Mr. Bailey saw commonly at Monterey was undoubt- 
edly this subspecies. Mr. Nelson found a form of Bewick's wren which 
probably belongs to this race common at San Luis Obispo, the last of 
October, in the Tejon and Temploa mountains about the same time, 
and along the route from San Simon to Carpenteria and Santa Paula 
during November and December. 

Thryothorus bewickii bairdi. Band's Wren. 

The white- throated wren was more or less common in various places 
visited by the expedition. One was seen among the tree yuccas at Hes- 
peria, in the Mohave Desert, January 4. In Death Valley a specimen was 
secured at Furnace Creek January 31, and a few individuals were seen 
among the mesquite thickets at Bennett Wells, and between that place 
and Saratoga Springs, about the same time. A few were seen at Best- 
ing Springs in the Amargosa Desert, in February. 

In the Panamint Mountains it was seen in Johnson Canon, early in 
April; by Dr. Merriam in Emigrant Canon, April 14-15; on the north 
sideof Telescope Peak, April 17-19, and by Mr. Nelson in Surprise Canon, 
in January. In the Argus Bange a few were seen in Shepherd Canon 
in January, and a specimen was secured at Maturango Spring May 
13. In the Coso Mountains a family in which the young were full 
grown and able to fly was seen in one of the canons, May 23. Dr. 
Merriam saw many on the summit of the White Mountains, between 
Deep Spring and Owens valleys, where young were following their par- 
ents about among the pinon and juniper, June 9. Mr. Nelson found it 
common at Lone Pine in December, 1890, and two or three were seen 
in Walker Pass, July 2-3. The species Avas common along the South 
Fork of Kern Biver to Kernville, July 3-13, and Mr. Palmer saw one 
in Kings Biver Canon in August. Mr. Stephens saw it at the Queen 
mine in the White Mountains, Nevada, July 11-16. 

In Nevada, several were seen at Ash Meadows, Pahrump and Vegas 
valleys, and in the Grapevine Mountains, in March. In the Santa Clara 
Valley, Utah, one was shot and several others seen, May 11-1(1, and an 
old nest was found in a hole in a cottouwood, about 3 feet above the 
ground. 



May, 1893.] 



BIRDS OF THE DEATH VALLEY EXPEDITION. 



135 



Record of specimens collected of Thryothoras bewickii bairdi. 



Col- 
Lector's 

No. 


Sex. 


Locality. 


Date. 


Collector. 


Remarks. 


12 
94 


5 

d 

d 

d 

d 

9 juv. 

d 


Sau Bernardino, Calif 

Death Valley. Calif 

Argus Range, Calif 

Resting Springs, Calif 

"White Mountains, Calif.... 

<lo 

Santa Clara, Utah 


Dec. 29, 189i> 

Jan. 31,1891 
May 13,1891 


A. K. Fisher 

....do 


Resembling closely 
spilurus. 


2:)c 


....do 




21 


Feb. 17. 1891 
June 9. 1891 

....do.. 

.May 11,1891 


F. Stephens 

V. Bailey 






....do ...' 






C.Hart Mcrriam.. 





Troglodytes aedon aztecus. Western House Wren. 

The western house wren was not seen in many localities, though 
when found it was not an uncommon species. A few were seen at Ash 
Meadows, N-ev., about March 20. Specimens taken at San Bernardino, 
Calif., in the latter part of December, 1890, were intermediate between 
this race and Parkman's wren of the northwest coast region. In the 
Pananiint Mountains it was hist observed in Johnson Canon, April 12, 
in Suprise Canon a little later, and in Emigrant Canon April 14-15. A 
few were seen in an alfalfa held at Grapevine Spring, on the western 
slopeof the Grapevine Mountains, the first week in April, and in Shepherd 
Canon, in the Argus Range, the last week of the month. Mr. Stephens 
found it rather common at Searl's garden, near the south end of the 
same range, April 23-26; at Bishop Creek, in Owens Valley, August 4- 
10, and among the brush on the side of Heche Canon, September 22- 
24. Several were seen along the South Fork of Kern River, July 3-10 
and among the oaks above Walker Basin, July 14. Mr. Palmer found the 
house wren abundant at Old Fort Tejon early in July, and Mr. Nelson 
saw several in the Canada de las Uvas and along San Emigdio Creek 
about the middle of October. In the High Sierra, Mr. Nelson saw it at 
the head of Owens Biver, and on the west slope down into the Yosemite 
Valley. It was common in the Sequoia National Park during the first 
week in August; at Horse Corral Meadows, August 9-13; near tim- 
ber line in Bound Valley, 12 miles south of Mount Whitney, August 28* 
Mineral King, September 9-10; and at Three Rivers, in the western 
foothills of the Sierra, September 14. 

Record of specimens collected of Troglodytes aedon aztecus. 



Col- 
lector's 
No. 


Sex. 


Locality. 


Date. 


Collector. 


Remarks. 


3 
4 


d 

? 
d 
d 
■ d 
cfim 
9im 
? 


do 


Dec. 28,1890 
do 


A. K. Fisher 

.. do 


Inclining toward 
parkmanii. 
Do. 
Johnson Canon. 




Panamint Mountains, Calif. 
Kern River, Call f 


Apr. 11,1891 
July 4.1891 


E.W.Nelson 

V. Bailey 


139 


Sierra Nevada, Calif 

do 


July 30,1891 
July 22,1891 
Auk'. 21,1891 
Au-. 27,1891 


E. W. Nelson 

F. Stephens 

..do .. 


San Joaquin River. 


155 


do 


Olancha Peak. 
Round Valley, 12 

miles south Mount 

Whitney. 


424 


do 


A. li. Fisher 







136 



NOETH AMERICAN FAUNA. 



[No. 7. 



Cistothorus palustris paludicola. Tule Wren. 

The long-billed marsh wren was common in a number of places where 
tules and other rank vegetation occurred along the streams, lakes, or 
marshes. In Death Valley a few were seen at Furnace Creek and Ben- 
nett Wells, and a considerable number at Saratoga Springs during the 
latter part of January. Dr. Merriam found it common at the latter 
place among the reeds April 20. In Owens Valley Mr. Nelson found 
it at Keeler and Lone Pine in December, 1890, and Mr. Stephens re- 
ported it common at Little Owens Lake May 6-11. In Nevada it was 
common in Pahrump, Vegas, and Oasis valleys, and not uncommon at 
Ash Meadows in March. Dr. Merriam also found it common in the 
valley of the Muddy May 6, in Pahranagat Valley May 23, breeding 
in the tules, and Mr. Stephens saw several at Grapevine spring 
April 1-4. 

Record of specimens collected of Cistothorus palustris paludicola. 



Col- 
lector's 
No. 


Sex. 


Locality. 


Date. 


Collector. 


Remarks. 


93 

132 


? 


Heath Valley, Calif 


Jan. 31.1891 
Mch. 18,3891 


A. K. Fisher 

Jo 


Furnace Creek. 









Certhia familiaris occidentals. California Creeper. 

The tree creeper was seen nowhere except in the High Sierra. Mr. 
Palmer and the writer saw it at the deserted Kaweah sawmill in the 
Sequoia National Park, and at other places in the same general region, 
the first week in August, and at Horse Corral Meadows a week later. 
Mr. Nelson found it at the head of Owens River and in the Yosemite 
Valley, and Mr. Dutcher at Big Cottonwood Meadows. The writer 
saw it at the latter place and also at Whitney Meadows and Soda 
Springs about the 1st of September. Mr. Nelson observed a few at 
Mount Pihos in October. 

Sitta carolinensis aculeata. Slender-billed Nuthatch. 

In California the slender-billed nuthatch was seen among the pines 
on several of the mountain ranges and in the oaks west of the Siena 
Nevada. In the Panamint Mountains it was not uncommon in John- 
son and Surprise canons among the pinons, where a pair was seen 
hunting for a nesting site April 20. Dr. Merriam saw several among 
the junipers on the north side of Telescope Peak April 17-10, and Mr. 
Bailey and the writer heard and saw it near the same place June 23- 
21. A pair was seen among the pifions above Maturango Spring May 
13; Mr. Nelson found it at the head of Owens River, and on the west- 
ern slope opposite, in July and August; and Mr. Stephens heard it near 
Queen station, Nev., July 11-16. Dr. Merriam saw one among the live 
oaks between llavilah and Walker Basin, June 24, one in Tehachapi 
Pass June 25, and Mr. Palmer reported the species as common at Old 



Mat, 1893.] 



BIRDS OF THE DEATH VALLEY EXPEDITION. 



137 



Fort Tejon the first week in July. The writer found it rather common 
in the Sequoia National Park during the first week in August, at Horse 
Corral Meadows August 9-13, in Kings River Canon August 13— 1<J. 
and in Round Valley, 12 miles south of Mount Whitney, and Whitney 
Meadows the last of the month. At Three Rivers, in the western foot- 
hills of the Sierra, it was common among the oaks July 25-30; Mr. 
Bailey saw it along the Kaweah River up to timber line in August; 
Mr. Dutcher found it a common summer resident at Big Cottonwood 
Meadows, and Mr. Stephens reported it as rather common at Menache 
Meadows May 24-26. Mr. Nelson saw it from the Canada de las Uvas 
to the head of San Emigdio Canon the last of October, and in the 
mountains near San Simeon in November. 



Record of specimens collected of Sitta carolinensis aeuleata. 



Col- 
lector's 
No. 


Sex. 


Locality. 


Date. 


Collector. 


Eemarks. 


352 

427 

20 


9 


PanamintMountains, Calif. . 
Sierra Nevada, Calif 

...do 


June 23, 1891 
Aug. 27, 1891 

July 30, 1891 


A..K. Fisher 

...do 

B. H. Dutcher 


Till scope Peat. 

Pouud Valley, 12milea 
south Mount Whit- 
ney. 






Meadows. 



Sitta canadensis. Red-bellied Nuthatch. 

The red bellied nuthatch was not seen in the mountain ranges east of 
the Sierra Nevada in California. It was common in the Sequoia National 
Park and Horse Corral Meadows, where it was often heard or seen dur- 
ing the first half of August. Mr. Nelson saw a few on the western slope 
of the mountains opposite the head of Owens River, and the writer found 
it common among the flocks of migrants in Round Valley, 12 miles south 
of Mount Whitney, August 27-28, and at timber line above Mineral King- 
September 9-11. On the coast Mr. Bailey reported the red-bellied 
nuthatch as common at Monterey September 28 to October 9. 



Record of specimens collected of Sitta canadensis. 



Col- 
lector's 
No. 


Sex. 

? 
? 


Locality. 


Date. 


Collector. 


Eemarks. 


40G 
431 


Sierra Nevada, Calif 

do 


A us- 4,1891 
Aug. 28, 1891 


A. K. Fisher 

do 


Sequoia National 
Park. 

Round Valley, 12 miles 
south Mouut Whit- 
ney. 







Sitta pygmaea. Pygmy Nuthatch. 

The only locality east of the Sierra Nevada where this nuthatch was 
met with was the Charleston Mountains, Nevada, where Mr. Palmer and 
Mr. Nelson found it common in February high up among the fox-tail 
pine (Pinus aristata). Mr. Stepheus found it not uncommon nearly 



138 



NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. 



[So. 7. 



up to timber line tit Menache Meadows, ( lalif., May 24-2G, and a few at 
Bishop Creek August 4-10. Mr. Palmer reported it common among 
the pines at the summit of Frazier Mountain July 9; near the summit 
of Tejon Pass July 12; and Mr. Duteher saw it frequently at Big Cot- 
tonwood Meadows during the summer. The pygmy nuthatch was not 
uncommon among the pines on the ridge above Walker Basin July 14, 
among the sequoias on the Kaweah River the first of August, at the 
Sequoia National Park about the same date, and at Big Cottonwood 
Meadows and Round Valley the last of the month. 

Record of specimens collected of Sitta pygnwa. 



Col- 
lector's 
No. 


Sex. 


Locality. 


Date. 


Collector. 


Remarks. 


10 
32 


d 
d 


Sierra Nevada, Calif 

do 


July 1,1891 

Aug. 11, 1891 
Aug. 24, 1891 
Aug. 9, 1891 
July 14, 1891 
Aug. 27, 1891 

....do 


B. H. Duteher 
....do 


Big Cottonwood 
Meadows. 
Do. 


35 


do 


do 


Do. 


15° 


9 

? im. 

d 

d 


do . 


F. Stephens 

A.K. Fisher 

do 




391 


Walker Basin, Calif 

Sierra Nevada, Calif 

do 


Round Valley, 12 
miles south of 
Mount Whitney. 
Do. 


426 


....do 













Parus inornatus. Plain Titmouse. 

The plain titmouse was first met with in the Sierra Nevada in Cal- 
ifornia. It was not uncommonon the western slope of Walker Pass, where 
a specimen was taken July 3, and the birds seen elsewhere in the Sierra 
Nevada may probably be correctly referred to this species. It was com- 
mon along the valley of the Kern July 3-13; in Walker Basin, July 
13-16; and at Three Rivers in the western foothills of the Sierra, July 
25-30, and September 13-15. Dr. Merriam saw the species in the Tejon 
Mountains, where it was common in the Canada de las Uvas, June 28-29, 
and Mr. Nelson saw it at Mount Pihos the last of October, in the hills 
along the route from La Panza to San Luis Obispo, and sparingly from 
the sea to the summit of the hills between San Simeon and Carpentaria, 
in November and December. 

A specimen taken by the writer in Cajon Pass January 2, although 
not typical inornatus^ was nearer it than griseus. 

Record of specimens collected of Parus inornatus. 



Col- 
lector's 
No. 


Sex. 


Locality. 


Date. 


Collector. 


Remarks. 


25 


d 
$im. 




Jan. 2, 1892 
July 3, 1891 


A. K. Fisher 

...do 


Not typical. 


367 




Western slope. 







Parus inornatus griseus. Gray Titmouse. 

The gray titmouse was seen in most of the desert ranges. In the 
Charleston Mouutains, Nevada, it was common among the junipers in 



May, 1893.] 



BIRDS OF THE DEATH VALLEY EXPEDITION. 



139 



March. In the Panamint Mountains, California, it was seen in John- 
son and Surprise canons among- the pinons and junipers in April, and 
Dr. Merriam found it common north of Telescope Peak, where a female, 
containing eggs nearly ready to be deposited, was killed, April 17-19. 
The writer saw a few at the same place June 22. Mr. Nelson noted it 
sparingly among the pinons on the Panamint, Grapevine, Inyo, and 
White mountains during the breeding season. Along the eastern slope 
of the Sierra Nevada a few were seen at the head of Owens River, and 
at Benton, in July. 

Iiecori of specimens collected of Par us inornatus griseus. 



Col- 
lector's 
No. 


Sex. 


Locality. 


Date. 


Collector. 


Remarks. 


47 
145 

146 


? 
9 

? 
d 


Panamint Mountains, Calif 

do 

do 


Apr. 18.1891 : F. Stephens 

Mar. 28, 1891 A. K. Fisher 


Johnson Canon. 
Do 


168 


do 


Apr. 19. 1891 
Mar. 7,1891 


:::'do".:::::::::' 


Surprise Canon. 




Charleston Mountains, Nev 


V. Bailey 









Parus gambsli. Mouutaiu Chickadee. 

The mountain chickadee was seen on all the mountains which sup- 
port a growth of pines. In Nevada Mr. Palmer reported it common 
about the camp in the Charleston Mountains in February, and Mr. 
Stephens found a few in the Grapevine Mountains in March. Dr. Mer- 
riam found it breeding on Mount Magruder, high up among the nut 
pines, June 5-11, and Mr. Stephens saw several at the Queen mine 
in the White Mountains, July 11-16. 

In the Panamint Mountains, California, it was tolerably common in 
Johnson and Surprise canons in April. Dr. Merriam found it com- 
mon near Telescope Peak about the middle of the month, though Mr. 
Nelson reported it as apparently rare among the pinons in the northern 
end of the range as well as in the Grapevine Mountains in June. At 
the * charcoal kilns' near the head of Wild Rose Canon, the writer 
noted it as quite common and found a nest with young June 21. 

It was not uncommon in the Argus Range, where a nest containing 
eight fresh eggs was found in a pinon on the ridge above Maturango 
Spring, May 14. The nest, which was composed of tine grass and hair, 
was placed in an eroded cavity behind the end of one of the lower limbs 
which had been partially torn and twisted from the trunk by heavy 
snow or violent wind. It was perfectly concealed and would never have 
been discovered had the bird remained quiet when the writer accident- 
ally struck the drooping branch. Mr. Nelson reported it as breeding 
sparingly from the lower edge of the pinons up to the summit in the 
Inyo Mountains and to timber line in the White Mountains. This 
chickadee was common at the head of Owens River, and Mr. Stephens 
noted it as rather common at Independence Creek, June 18-23; at Men- 
ache Meadows, May 21-26; several at Bishop Creek, August 4-10. Mr. 



140 



NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. 



[No. 7. 



Palmer found it common on Frazier Mountain July 9, sparingly at Tejon 
Pass, July 12; and Mr. Nelson reported it common on Mount Pifios the 
last of October. In the High Sierra it was common in the Sequoia National 
Park the first week in August; at Horse Corral Meadows, August 9-13; 
at Round Valley, 12 miles south of Mount Whitney, August 27-28; Big 
Cottonwood Meadows during the summer; and at Whitney Meadows 
and Mineral King the last of August and first of. September. Mr. 
Palmer saw one at an altitude of 3,900 meters (13,000 feet) near the head 
waters of the Kern River, September 1. 

Record of specimens collected of Tarns gambeli. 



Col- 
lector's 
No. 


Sox. 


Locality. 


Dale. 


Collector. 


Item arks. 


40 
142 
151 


d 
d 


Grapevine Mountains, Nev. . 
Panamint Mountains, Calif. 
do 


Mar.21,1891 
Mar. 28, 1891 

April (i, 1891 
April 9, 18D1 
M:iv 7, 1X1)1 
tl uly 12, 1891 


F. St opiums 

A. K. Fisher 

do 


Johnson Canon. 
Do. 


152 


d 
d 

d 


...do 


do 


Do. 






T. S. Palmer 

E. W. Nelson 






White Mountains, Calif 





Paras rufescens neglectus. California Chickadee. 

Mr. Bailey found the California chickadee common at Boulder Creek, 
California (north of Monterey Bay), where he secured a specimen Octo- 
ber 14, 1891. 

Chamasa fasciata henshawi. Pallid Wren-Tit. 

This interesting little bird was first met with by Mr. Bailey and the 
writer at Kernville, Calif., on July 11, where specimens were secured. 
It was common there, as it was \\\q following week in Walker Basin. Mr. 
Nelson saw a few in the foothills between the Merced and San Joaquiu 
rivers; Mr. Palmer heard a number among the chamisal in the San 
Francisquito Pass, July 1, and Mr. Stephens heard several in Ecche 
Canon, near San Bernardino, September 22-21. Mr. Bailey reported 
it common along the Kaweah River in the thick chapparal below the 
pines. Mr. Nelson found the ground-tit common in the thickets on the 
sand dunes along the coast between San Simeon and Carpenter'a, and 
on the bushy hillsides between the latter place and Santa Paula, in 
November and December. Dr. Merriam reported it as a common 
breeder in the coast ranges of San Diego County, where he found it in 
March and again in July. 

• 

Record of specimens collected of Chamcea fasciata henshawi. 



Col- 
lector's 
No. 


Sex. 


Locality. 


Date. 


Collector. 


Remarks. 


385 


d 

9 

d 




Julv 11,1891 
do . 


A. K. Fisher 

V Bailey 






do 




1G7 




Sept. 23, 1891 
Nov. 8,1891 


K. Stephens 

E. W. Nelson 


Uecho Cation. 













May, 1803. 



BIRDS OF THE DEATH VALLEY EXPEDITION. 



141 



Psaltriparus minimus californicus. California Bush-Tit. 

The California bush-tit is common in the coast region, on the western 
slope of the Sierra Nevada, and sparingly on the eastern slope of the 
same range. Mr. Stephens found it tolerably common in the lower part 
of the canon at Independence Creek, where a nest containing young 
was found, June 10-23; and saw a small flock at Bishop Creek, August 
4-10. Individuals were seen on the western slope of Walker Pass, 
July 2-3, and Dr. Merriam found it common in the chaparral from 
Kernville to Havilah, and thence to Walker Basin and Caliente, June 
23-21, and in the Canada de las Uvas, June 28-29. It was common at 
Three Eivers in the western foothills, in flocks of 25 or more, July 25-30, 
and Mr. Bailey reported it common along the Kaweah River up to 
the conifers, about the same time. The latter observer found a species 
of bush-tit common at Monterey, the first of October; Mr. Stephens saw 
two flocks at Reche Canon, September 22-21; and Br. Merriam noticed 
it near the coast in San Diego County in July. Mr. Nelson reported 
it common along the coast in small flocks in thickets and on bushy hill- 
sides, from San Simeon to Carpenteria, in November and December. 

Record of specimens collected of Psaltriparus minimus californicus. 



Col- 
lector's 
Ko. 


Sex. 


Locality. 


Date. 


Collector. 


Remarks. 


70 
300 


? 


Owens Valley, Calif 

Walker Pass', Calif 


.Tunc 8,1891 
July 3,1891 


F. Stephens 

A. K. Fisher 


Olancha. 
Western Slope. 







Psaltriparus plumbeus. Lead-colored Bush-Tit. 

The lead-colored bush-tit is common in a number of the desert ranges 
visited. In Nevada Mr. Stephens found it rather common in the Grape- 
vine Mountains in March, and saw one flock at the Queen mine in the 
White Mountains in July. Dr. Merriam found it high up on Mount 
Magruder in the nut pines, June 5-9, among the junipers in the Ju- 
niper Mountains May 19, and common in the Beaverdam Mountains, 
Utah, May 11. A few were seen by Mr. Stephens at Twelve Mile.Spring, 
near Resting Springs, Calif., in February. In the Panamint Mountains 
it was observed daily in Johnson and Surprise Cations in April, in small 
flocks on the north side of Telescope Peak April 17-19, and among the 
sage in the northern part of the range, as well as in the Grapevine 
Mountains May 4 to June 15. Mr. Nelson found a few among the pifi- 
ons near Waucoba Peak in the Inyo Mountains the last of June, and a 
few on the eastern slope of the White Mountains among the same kind 
of trees in July. 



142 



NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. 



[NO. 7. 



Record of specimens collected of Psaltriparus plumbeus. 



Col- 




lector's 


Sex. 


No. 






rf 




« 


38 


V 


24 


¥ 


25 


V 


144 


V 


153 




.109 




131 


?im. 



Locality. 



Juniper Mountains, Nev 

Mount Magrnder, Nev 

Grapevine Mountains, Nev . 

Kestins Springs, Calif 

do 

Panainint Mountains, Calif. 

do. 

do. 



Owens Valley, Nev 



Date. 



May I", 1801 
June 5, 1891 
Mar. 24, 1891 
Feb. 21,1891 

...do 

Mar. 28,1891 



Collector. 



C. Hart Merriam . . 

V. Bailey 

F. Stephens 

...do 

...do 

A. K. Fisher 



Remarks. 



Johnson Canon. 

Apr. 9,18911 do... Do. 

Apr. 19, 1891 do Surprise Canon. 

July 11, 1891 F.Stephens Queen station. 



Auriparus flaviceps. Yellow-headed Tit. 

The verdin is a characteristic bird of a large part of the Lower Sono- 
raii zone. The most western locality at which it was observed by the 
expedition was Resting Springs, near the Amargosa River, Calif., where 
a male was shot by Mr. Stephens February 13, 1891. Here the yellow- 
headed tit was common in February, and it was seen every day among 
the mesqnit thickets, and its nests were frequently found. As is the 
case with several other members of the family, the old nests, after being 
relined with feathers and hair, are used for winter homes. East of this 
point it was found wherever suitable thickets exist, all the way to Utah. 
Many nests were found in bashes of JPluchea borealis at the Great Bend 
of the Colorado, Nev., by Dr. Merriam. These nests were usually about 
five feet above the ground, and, with the exception of one containing 
three eggs nearly ready to hatch, were still empty. Other nests were 
observed along the Virgin River and the lower part of the Muddy May 
7-10, and at Beaverdam Creek, Ariz., May 9-10; and a single nest was 
discovered near the junction of the Santa Clara with the Virgin in 
southwestern Utah May 14. 

Regulus calendula. Ruby-crowned Kinglet. 

The ruby-crowned kinglet was a common migrant or winter resident 
in the valleys visited, and occurred sparingly as a summer resident in 
the higher mountains. In Nevada a few Avere seen at Ash Meadows in 
March; in Pah rump Valley Mr. Nelson found it common among the 
willows at the ranch in February; Mr. Stephens observed it in full 
song in Oasis Valley in March; not uncommon in the Grapevine Moun- 
tains in the same month, and Dr. Merriam shot one at Mountain Spring, 
in the Charleston Mountains, April 30. 

At San Bernardino, Calif., it was numerous in the bushes along the 
streams December 28-29, 1890, and on the slopes in Cajon Pass Jan- 
uary 2. A few were seen at Furnace Creek, Death Valley, about the 
first of February and again April 9-12. In the Panainint Mountains 
this kinglet was common in Johnson and Surprise canons, and toler- 
ably so in Emigrant Canon in April. It was common at Hot Springs, 
in Panainint Valley, April 20-25, and was observed in Shepherd 
Canon, in the Argus Range, later in the month. Mr. Nelson saw a 



May, 1893.] BIRDS OF THE DEATH VALLEY EXPEDITION. 143 

few at the heads of streams on the eastern slope of the White Moun- 
tains, and reported it common at the head of Owens Eiver and on 
the western slope of the Sierra Nevada. It was common at timber 
line at Round Valley, 12 miles south of Mount Whitney, August 28j 
in the San Joaquin Valley in October; and along the route from San 
Simeon to Carpentaria and Santa Paula in November and December. 

Regulus satrapa olivaceus. Western Golden-crowned Kinglet. 

The only record of this kinglet made by the expedition was of one 
seen by Mr. Nelson near San Luis Obispo about the first of November. 
Mr. Belding reports it as rare at Crocker's, 21 miles northwest of the 
Yosemite Valley. 

Polioptila caerulea obscura. Western Gnatcateher 

Blue-gray gnatcatchers were common in a number of scattered local- 
ities. At San Bernardino, a small flock associated with other birds 
was seen December 28, and again on the following day. Several were 
seen at Daggett, January 8-10, and one was secured at Furnace Creek, 
Death Valley, January 24. The species was common in the Panamiut 
Mountains, in both Johnson and Surprise canons, in April, and at Hot 
Springs in Panamiut Valley, among the mesquite, April 20-25. Mr. 
Nelson found it breeding in both the Panamiut and Grapevine moun- 
tains. At Willow Creek, in the former range, he found a nest con- 
taining five eggs, May 19, and another containing three eggs, May 
24. Both nests were placed within 3 feet of the ground, and were 
neat, compactly built structures, with deep cup-shaped depressions, 
more or less contracted at the rims. A few individuals were seen 
in the Argus Range, at Maturango Spring, the first half of May, 
and in the Coso Mountains during the latter part of the same month. 
Mr. Nelson saw a single bird in a mesquite clump in Saline Valley, a 
few in the sage near Waucoba Peak, in the Inyo Range, the last of 
June, and in the White Mountains in July. He saw a few in the west- 
ern foothills of the Sierra Nevada in August, and on the east slope Mr. 
Stephens found it uncommon in the lower part of the canon of In- 
dependence Creek, in June. One was seen on the western slope of 
Walker Pass, July 3; it was common in the hills above Walker Basin, 
July 14; along the Kaweah, below the conifers, in August and Sep- 
tember; and Mr. Palmer saw one in Kings River Canon, August 13. 
On Mount Magruder, Nevada, Dr. Merriam shot a pair June 7, and re- 
ported the species as tolerably common in the lower part of the pifions. 
He found it breeding commonly in the Santa Clara Valley, Utah, Maj 
11-15, and in the junipers on the Beaverdam Mountains, May 10-11. 
Mr. Nelson found it common in the thickets along the coast from 
Mono, Calif., to Carpenteria, November 4 to December 18, and rather 
common from Carpenteria to Santa Paula, the last of the year. 



144 



NOKTII AMERICAN FAUNA. 

Record of sjiecimens collected of Polioptila ccvrulca obscura. 



[No. 7. 



Col- 
lector's 
No. 


Sex. 


Locality. 


Date. Collector. 


Remarks. 


9 


d 
d 




Dec. 28,1890 A. K. Fisher 




10 


...do 




11 


do 


Dec. 29,1890 
Jan. 10,1891 
Jan. 24,1801 
Apr. 16,1891 
May 8, 1891 
Apr. 22,1891 
Dec. 6, 1891 
May 10.1891 


do 




50 
70 


d 

d 
d 
d 
? 
d 


Daggett, Calif 

Death Valley Calif . 


....do 

. . do 


Mohave Desert. 


l(i<l 


Pauamint Valley, Calif 

Ar^us Range, Calif 

Pauamint Valley, Calif 

Mission Santa Ynez, Calif.... 


...do 


Hoi Springs' 
Mnturango Spring, 
licit Springs. 


214 


....do 

E. W. Nelson 

....do 

V.Bailey 









Polioptila plumbea. Plumbeous Gnatcatcher. 

This gnatcatcher was common at Resting Springs, near the Amar- 
gosa River, California, in February, where a number of specimens were 
secured. In Vegas Valley, Nevada, Mr. Nelson and Mr. Bailey saw 
several and seemed one, March 13. At Bunkerville, Nev., Mr. Bailey 
secured an adult male, May 9. The. species may have been seen in 
other places, but was not distinguished from the blue-gray gnatcatcher, 
In March, 1889, Mr. Bailey found it common at Fort Mohave, Ariz. 

Record of specimens collected of Polioptila 2>li<»ibca. 



Col- 
lector's 
No. 


Sex. 


Locality. 


Date. 


Collector. 


Remarks. 


103 


2 
? 
9 
? 
d 




Feh. 8, 1891 

Pel). 1", ism 


A. K. Fisher 












do 


do 


....do..'. 








.Mar. 13,1891 
May 9,1891 


...do 








...do ... 













Polioptila califoinica. Black-tailed Gnatcatcher. 

The only place where the Galifornian gnatcatcher was observed was 
Reche Canon, near San Bernardino, where Mr. Stephens found it 
common, September 22-24. 

Myadestes townsendii. Townsend's Solitaire. 

Townsend's solitaire was found nowhere common by the expedition. 
In Cajon P ass, California, several were observed and two secured, 
January 2. One was shot at Lone Pine, in Owens Valley, in Decem- 
ber, 1890, and others were seen at Hot Springs, Panamint Valley, in 
January. 

In the Panamint Mountains, a few were seen in Johnson and Sur- 
prise canons, in April. Mr. Nelson found a few among the pifions 
about the head of Willow Creek, the 1st of May, and the writer saw a 
family in Death Valley Gallon, June 22. In the Sierra Nevada, Mr. 
Nelson found it sparingly on the western slope opposite the head of 
Owens River ; Mr. Stephens secured the young at Bishop Creek, the 1st 
*of August ; Mr. Bailey saw one among the sequoias and another among 



May, 1893.] 



BIRDS OF THE DEATH VALLEY EXPEDITION. 



115 



the Pinus monticola on the Kaweah River; a few were seen in the 
Giant forest, August 3 j and several at Trout Meadows, September 7. 
Mr. Belding found a nest and four eggs, June 4, near Crocker's, on the 
Big Oak Flat and Yosemite Valley stage road. It was placed in a 
nearly perpendicular bank of a gold mine, within a short distance of 
the hoisting works, which were in constant use. 

In Nevada Townsend's solitaire was not uncommon among the cedars 
On the Charleston Mountains in March, and a specimen was secured in 
Oasis Valley, March 15, the only one seen there. 

Record of specimens collected of Myadestes townsendii. 



Col- 
lector's 
No. 



Sex. 



Locality. 



Date. 



Collector. 



Remarks. 



23 
24 

148 
32 

149 



$ ! Cajon Pass, Calif Jan. 2. 1891 A. K. Fisher . 

? do do do 

tf Panamint Mountains. Calif . . Mar. 31. 1891 do 

Oasis Valley. Nev.... Mar. 15,1891 F. Stephens . 

d im. Sierra Nevada, Calif Aug. 8, 1891 do 



Johnson Cafion. 

Bishop Creek: al- 
titude, 9,000 feet. 



Turdus ustulatus. Russet-backed Thrush. 

A female russet backed thrush was shot by the writer at Maturango 
Springs, California, in the Argus Eange, May 15, 1891, the only one 
observed there, and Mr. Stephens saw one at Olancha, in Owens Val- 
ley, about the same time. 

Turdus ustulatus swainsonii. Olive-backed Thrush. 

Mr. Belding reported this thrush as common in the Yosemite Valley, 
California, in June, and Mr. Nelson secured a female on the northern 
end of the Panamint Mountains, May 18. 

Turdus aonalaschkee. Dwarf Hermit Thrush. 

The dwarf thrush was seen only during migration. Several were 
seen in Johnson Canon, in the Panamint Eange, California, where a 
specimen was secured March 28. In the Argus Eange, it was not un- 
common in Shepherd Canon the last week in April, and at Maturango 
Spring one was secured May 8. Mr. Dutcher shot another at Big Cot- 
tonwood Meadows September 11, which was probably a migrant, as the 
summer resident was audubonu or at least what the committee on no- 
menclature of the American Ornithologists' Union consider Audubon's 
thrush. 

Mr. Bailey found the dwarf thrush common at Monterey the first of 
October, and Mr. Nelson observed it commonly in the vicinity of San 
Luis Obispo the last of the month, and along the route from San Simeon 
to Carpenteria and Santa Paula in November and December. 
12731— No. 7 10 



146 



NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. 
Record of specimens collected of Tardus aonalasclilcce. 



[No. 7. 



Col- 
lector's 

No. 


Sex. 


Locality. 


Date. 


Collector. 


Remarks. 


3G 


9 » 

o" 

? 


Panamint Mountains, Calif. 
Sierra Nevada, Calif 


Mar. 23, 1891 
Sept. 11, 1891 

Oct. 6, 1891 
Nov. 10, 1891 
do 


E. W. Nelson 

B. H. Dutelior.... 

V. Bailey 


Johnson Canon. 

Wi'j: Cottonwood 
Meadows. 






E. W. Nelson 1 




,lo 


do 













Turdus aonalaschkae auduboni. Audubon's Hermit Thrush. 

A race of the dwarf thrush, named Turdus sequoiensis by Mr. Belding, 
hut which the committee on nomenclature of the American Ornitholo- 
gists' Union decided to be not different from auduboni of the Pocky 
Mountain region, is a summer resident in the Sierra Nevada, and prob- 
ably in some of the desert ranges, though this is not certain, as speci- 
mens were not taken in the latter in summer. This applies to the rec- 
ords of individuals seen at Willow Creek in the Panamint Mountains, 
during the latter part of May, and on the east side of Waucoba Peak, 
in the Inyo Mountains, in June. In the Sierra Nevada Mr. Dutcher 
found the species common during the summer at Big Cottonwood 
Meadows, and Mr. Nelson reported it as abundant at the head of Owens 
Eiver and on the San Joaquin River. Mr. Stephens heard a thrush 
above the Queen mine in the White Mountains, Nevada, July 11-10; 
saw the species at Bishop Creek August 4-10, and about the lakes on 
Independence Creek June 18-23. Mr. Belding found it in the Yosemite 
Valley in June. 

Iiccord of specimens collected of Turdus aonalaschJcce auduboni. 



Col- 
lector's 
No. 


Sex. 


Locality. 


Date. 


Collector. 


Remarks. 


9 


J 

9 




June 23, 1891 

July 11,1891 
July 10,1891 
July 23,1891 


B. H. Dutcher 

...do 


Big Cottonwood 
Meadows. 


16 


do. ... 




White Mountains, Calif 


E. W. Nelson 

do 













Merula migratoria propinqua. Western Robin. 

The robin is a rather rare bird in the desert regions, even during 
migration and in winter. In Nevada several were seen at Ash Mead- 
ows in March. Mr. Palmer found it rather common from the valley up 
to the pifions on the west side of the Charleston Mountains in February, 
and Mr. Nelson saw it about the ranches in Pahrump and Vegas val- 
leys, and in Vegas Wash, in March. Dr. Merriam saw it on Mount Ma- 
gruder June 8, and in Utah, at Mountain Meadows, May 17. In Cali- 
fornia a few were seen at Furnace Creek, Death Valley, the latter part 
of January, and again on April 10. Several were observed at Besting 
Springs, in the Amargosa Desert, the first half of February. A few 
robins were seen about a spring in Johnson Canon, in the Panamint 



May, 1893.] 



BIRDS OF THE DEATH VALLEY EXPEDITION. 



147 



Range, in April. Dr. Merriam saw several in the junipers in the same 
mountains April 16-19, and Mr. Kelson a few at the head of Wil- 
low Creek early in May, after which time none were seen. Several 
were seeen in the Argus Range, above Maturango Spring, the first 
half of May. Mr. Nelson found it in the Inyo Mountains among Pinus 
fiexilis and P. aristata, and in the White Mountains from the pifions 
up to 10,000 feet. In the Sierra Nevada robins were common in many 
places. Mr. Nelson found them common at the head of Owens River, 
on the east slope, and in the Yosemite Valley, on the west slope of 
the Sierra, in July and August. Mr. Stephens found them common 
at Independence Creek, where a nest and four young was found at the 
edge of the creek June 18-23; at Bishop Creek, where they were feed- 
ing on a red berry locally known as buffalo berry, August 4-10, and 
at Monadic Meadow, nearly to timber line, May l'4-20. They were 
common also at Big Cottonwood and Whitney meadows; among the 
pines above Walker Basin July 14, in the Sequoia National Park, 
among the pines and firs, and in the meadows, the first week in Au- 
gust; at Horse Corral Meadows, August 9-13; in Kings River Canon, 
August 13-16, and near Mineral King September 9-12. In the west- 
ern foothills of the Sierra they were seen as early as July 30 at Three 
Rivers, and Mr. Nelson found a few in the San Joaquin Valley October 
5-27; reported them as common about San Luis Obispo October 28 to 
November 4, and found them generally distributed along the route from 
San Simeon to Carpenteria and Santa Paula in November and Decem- 
ber. 

Record of specimens collected of Merula migratoria propinqua. 



Col- 
lector's 
No. 


Sex. 


Locality. 


Date. 


Collector. 


Remarks. 


85 
1U8 


d 
d 
d 
?juv. 


Death Valley, Calif 

Resting Springs, < lalif 

Pananiint Mountains, Calif. 
Owens Valley, Calif 


.fan. 2!), 1891 
Feb. 11,1891 
Mar. L'8, 18!)1 
June 19, 1891 


A. K. Fisher 

....do 


Furnace Creek. 


107 


E. W. Nelson 

F. Stephens.: 


Johnson Cafion. 
Independent! 1 i eels 



Hesperocichla naevia. Varied Thrush. 

Mr. Bailey saw several varied thrushes and secured a specimen at 
Monterey, Calif., the first week in October; he also found it common at 
Boulder Creek, Santa Cruz County, and at Auburn, Placer County, 
during the latter part of th.% month. Mr. Nelson observed a few in the 
lowlands about San Simeon, and found it common from Santa Maria 
south to Carpenteria and Santa Paula, where it was particularly nu- 
merous among the trees along the streams and in the canon. 







Record of specimens co 


1 lifted of JTespcrocichla noevia. 


Col- 
lector's 
No. 


Sex. 


Locality. 


Date. 


Collector. 


Remarks. 




9 
d 


Monterey, Calif 


Oct. 5.1891 
Oct. 12,1891 


V.Bailey 

....do .:.... 






Boulder Creek, Calif 













148 



NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. 



I No. 7. 



Sialia mexicana. Western Bluebird. 

The western bluebird was common in a number of places. At San 
Bernardino a flock of twenty or more was seen December 29, 1890; in 
Cajon Pass, March 30; in the cottonwoods bordering' the Mohave 
River at Victor, the same day, and at Granite Wells January 13. 
Mr. Nelson found the species common near Hot Springs, in Panainint 
Valley, California, in January, and a few at Pahrump and Vegas ranches 
in Nevada, in February and March. Dr. Merriam saw several small 
flocks on the north sids of Telescope Peak, in the Panamint Mountains, 
April 17-19, and Mr. Nelson found it on the western slope of the Sierra 
Nevada in August. It was very common along the South Fork of 
the Kern River, July 3-10; in Walker Basin, from the valley to the 
summit of the ridge, July 13-16, and in the Canada de las Uvas, June 
28-29. In the High Sierra it was not uncommon at Sequoia National 
Park during the first week of August; was common in Horse Corral 
Meadows and Kings River Canon August 9-16, and was observed at 
Big Cottonwood Meadows and at the head of the Kaweah River later 
in the season. In the western foothills of the Sierra, at Three Rivers, 
it was common July 25-30 and September 12-16 ; and at Monterey, Sep- 
tember 28-October 9. Mr. Nelson saw a few in various parts of the 
San Joaquin Valley in October, and found it common along the route 
from San Simeon to Carpenteria and Santa Paula in November and 
December. 



Becord of specimens collected of Sialia mexicana. 



Col- 




lector's 


Sox. 


No. 




13 


9 


14 


d 


15 


d 




d 


370 


9.1UV. 


39 


d 



Locality. 



San Bernardino, Calif 

do 

do 

Charleston Mountains, Xev 

Kern River. Calif 

Sierra Nevada, Calif 



Date. 



Dec. 29, 1890 

....do 

....do 

Feb. 13,1891 
July 4,1891 
Sept. 14. 1891 



Collector. 



A.K.Fishei . 

....do 

...do 

E. W. Nelson 

A. K. Fisher . 

B. H. Butcher 



Remarks. 



South Fork. 
Mount \\ hitney. 



Sialia arctica. Mountain Bluebird. 

The mountain bluebird is more or less common in the desert valleys 
during the winter, and breeds in the higher ranges among the pines. 

At Granite Wells, in the Mohave Desert, a number were seen Jan- 
uary 13-14. Unlike the western bluebird, this species was wary and 
difficult of approach. It is not evident what causes this shyness, un- 
less, perhaps, contact with the Indian, that ruthless and inveterate 
enemy to animal life, who attacks every bird throughout the year, no 
matter how small or in what condition, killing the mother of a de- 
pendent brood with as much eagerness as a fattened buck in season. 

In Death Valley a flock was seen at Mesquite Well, January 21. It 
was common at Bennett Wells and Saratoga Springs, and at Furnace 
Creek, associated with titlarks and savanna sparrows in the alfalfa 
fields, the last of January. Several were seen at Resting Springs, in 



May. 1893.] 



BIRDS OF THE DEATH VALLEY EXPEDITION. 



149 



the Amargosa Desert, in February. Dr. Merriam saw a pair at Moun- 
tain Meadows, Utah, May 17. In Nevada lie found several in the 
juniper forest on the Juniper Mountains. May 18: on the Pahroc 
Mountains, May 21-22, and on Mount Magruder, June 1-8. In the 
latter locality this bluebird was breeding among the nut pines, where 
it was tolerably common. Several were seen at Ash Meadows, and 
among the cedars on the Charleston Mountains, in March, and in Pah- 
rump Valley, near the ranch, in February. Mr. Stephens found it not 
common in the Grapevine Mountains in March, and Mr. Nelson saw a 
few pairs about the summit of the peak and among the pinons, where 
they were apparently breeding, June 10-11. In the Panainint Moun- 
tains, California, Dr. Merriam saw several pairs at the north base of 
Telescope Peak, April 17-19, and Mr. Bailey and the writer found 
a number among the pines (Phi us aristata and P. flexiUs)^ near the sum- 
mit of the same peak, June 23. It was not uncommon in the Argus 
Eange above Maturango Spring during the first half of May, and a pair 
was seen on the summit of the Coso Mountains, May 23. Mr. Nelson 
found it not uncommon in the Inyo Eange above the pinons in June; 
a few among the upper pinons in the White Mountains in July, and 
at the latter place Dr. Merriam saw a number of males June 9 — the 
females evidently were sitting. In Owens Valley, according to Mr. 
Nelson, it was common in winter, and Mr. Stephens found it more or 
less common above this valley along the eastern slope of the Sierra 
Nevada up to timber line at Menache Meadows, May 21-2(3 ; at the lakes 
on Independence Creek, June 23; among the pinons at Benton, July 
9-10, and at the lake on Bishop Creek, August 4-10. Mr. Nelson re- 
ported it generally distributed up to timber line at the head of Owens 
Eiver the last of July, but nowhere common, and Mr. Stephens found 
it common at the Queen mine in the AVhite Mountains, Nevada, July 
11-16. Mr. Bailey saw a few on the western slope of Walker Pass, 
July 3, found it common at timber line near the head of the Kaweah 
Eiver, in August, and at Whitney Meadows in September. Mr. 
Dutcher found it a common summer resident at Big Cottonwood Mead- 
ows and vicinity, aud Mr. Nelson saw a few on the high ridge near San 
Luis Obispo, and in the mountains along the coast from San Simeon to 
Carpentaria in November and December. 

Record of specimens collected of S> alia arctica. 



Col- 
lector's 
No. 


Sex. 


Locality. 


Date. 


Collector. 


Remarks. 


59 

87 
88 
14 
15 


d 
d 
d 
d 
d 
d 
? 
9 


Granite Wells, Calif 

Death Valley, Calif 

do ....: 

do 

Garlick Spring. Calif 

Ash Meadows, Nev 

Grapevine Mountains. Nov. 
Argus Kan^e. Calif 


. Jan. 14, rS91 
.' Jan. 2ii. 1891 
. Jan. 30, 1891 

. ....do 

Feb. 10, 1801 


A. K. Fisher 

E. W. Nelson 

A. K. Fisher 

....do 

F. Stephens 

do . 


Bennett Wells. 
Furnace Creek. 
Do. 


325 

.'(7 

235 


Mar. i:;. 1891 
. Mar. 21, 1891 
. May 13, 1891 

1 


A. K. Fisher 

A. K. Fisher 


Maturango Spring. 



150 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. [No. T. 

LIST OF BIRDS OBSERVED IN DEATH VALLEY, CALIFORNIA. 

1. Colymbus nigricoUis calif or nicus. Eared Grebe. 

A specimen was secured at Furnace Creek April 10. 

2. Anas boschas. Mallard. 

One was secured at Furnace Creek in January. 

3. Anas americana. Baldpate. 

The species was secured at Saratoga Springs and Furnace Creek in January. 

4. Anas carolincnsis. Green-winged Teal. 

Common at Furnace Creek and Saratoga Springs in January. 

5. Anas cyanoptera. Cinnamon Teal. 

At Furnace Creek flocks were seen in March, and one female secured June 19. 

6. Spatula clypeata. Shoveller. 

A small flock seen at Furnace Creek in January. 

7. Dafila acuta. Pintail. 

Seen and secured at Saratoga Springs in February. 

8. Erismatnra rubida. Ruddy Duck. 

A small flock was seen at Furnace Creek March 22. 

9. Anser albifr on s gambeli. White-fronted Goose. 

One was seen with the following subspecies. 

10. Branta canadensis (subspecies?) 

Four were seen at Furnace Creek in the latter part of March. 

11. Plegadis guarauna. White-faced Glossy Ibis. 

The remains of one were seen at the ranch at Furnace Creek. 

12. Nycticorax nycticorax nwvius. Night Heron. 

An immature specimen was secured at Furnace Creek June 19. 

13. Eallus virginianus. Virginia Rail. 

Common at Saratoga Springs in February. 

14. Fulica americana. Coot. 

Common at Saratoga Springs iu February and April. 

15. Phalaropus tricolor. Wilson's Phalarope. 

One specimen was secured at Furnace Creek June 19. 

16. Gallinago delicata. Wilson's Snipe. 

One seen at Furnace Creek April 11. 

17. JEgialitis vocifera. Killdeer. 

Not uncommon; found at Furnace Creek iu January, April, and June; breeds. 

18. Callipepla gambeli. Gambel's Quail. 

Common at Furnace Creek ranch. Introduced. 

19. Zenaidura macroura. Mourning Dove. 

Not uncommon; breeds. 

20. Caihartes aura. Turkey Buzzard. 

Not uncommon; seen in March, April, and June. 

21. Circus hudsonius. Marsh Hawk. 

One was secured at Furnace Creek iu January. 

22. Accipiter velox. Sharp-shinned Hawk. 

Seen at Furnace Creek and Bennett Wells in January and April. 

23. Accipiter cooperi. Cooper's Hawk. 

Seen at Furnace Creek in January. 

24. Buteo borealis calurus. Western Red tail. 

Seen at Furnace Creek and Bennett Wells in January, and at the latter place in 
June. 

25. Falco mexican us. Prairie Falcon. 

Seen at Furnace Creek in January and June. 

26. Falco columbarius. Pigeon Hawk. 

Remains of one found at Furnace Creek. 



May,1893.] BIRDS OF THE DEATH VALLEY EXPEDITION. 151 

27. Falco sparverim deserticolus. Desert Sparrow Hawk. 

Seen at Mesquite Wells, Bennett Wells, and Furnace Creek in January, March, 
and April. 

28. Pandion haliaetus earolinensis. Osprey. 

One was seen at Furnace Creek April 10. 

29. Speotyto cunicularia hypogcea. Burrowing Owl. 

A pair was seen at Bennett Wells June 21. 

30. Geococcyx calif ornianas. Road-runner. 

Common resident. 

31. Coceyzus americanus occidentalis. California Cuckoo. 

One secured at Furnace Creek June 20.. 

32. Ceryle alcyon. Kingfisher. 

One seen at Furnace Creek April 15. 

33. Colaptes cafer. Red-shafted Flicker. 

One was seen at Furnace Creek, April 10. 
31. Phalcenoj)t>lus nuttalli. Poor-will. 

Secured at Bennett Wells Jauuary 28, at Saratoga Springs February 4, and 
seen at Furnace Creek April 10. 

35. Chordeiles virginianus henryi. Western Nighthawk. 

A specimen was secured at Furnance Creek Juue 19. 

36. Chordeiles texensis Texas Nighthawk. 

Seen at Saratoga Springs April 26. 

37. Aeronautes melanoleucus. White-throated Swift. 

Common at Furnace Creek in April and June. 

38. Calyple costce. Costa's Hummingbird. 

Seen at Furnace Creek April 12 and again June 19. 

39. Myiai'dhus cinerascens. Ash-throated Flycatcher. 

A pair was seen in Furnace Creek Canon June 21. 

40. Sayornia saya. Say's Phoebe. 

Not uncommon resident. 

41. Sayoniis nigricans. Black Phcehe. 

It was seen at Furnace Creek April 12. 

42. Empidonax wrightii. Wright's Flycatcher. 

A specimen was taken at Furnace Creek February 1. 

43. Corvus corax sinualus. Raven. 

Resident. 

44. Molotlirus ater. Cowhird. 

One was secured at Furnace Creek June 20. 

45. Xanthocephalus xanthocephalus. Yellow-headed Blackbird. 

One was secured at Beunett Wells April 1. 

46. Agelaius phwniceus. Red-winged Blackbird. 

A nock was seen at Furnace Creek the latter part of January. 

47. Sturnella magna neglecta. Western Meadowlark. 

A not uncommon resident. 

48. Icterus bulloelci. Bullock's Oriole. 

One was observed at Furnace Creek about the middle of April. 

49. Scolecophagus cyanoccphalus. Brewer's Blackbird. 

A few Avere seen at Furnace Creek in January. 

50. Carpodacus ntexieanus frontalis. House Finch. 

Not uncommon resident. 

51. Ammodramus sandwich en sis alaudinus. Western Savanna Sparrow. 

Xot uncommon at Furnace Creek in January and April. 

52. Zonotrichia leucophrys intermedia. Intermediate Sparrow. 

Common at Furnace Creek in January and April. 



152 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. [No. 7. 

53. Spizella hreweri. Brewer's Sparrow. 

One was seen in Mesquite Valley April 13. 

54. Amphispiea bilineata. Black-throated Sparrow. 

Seen on June 22 in the Panamint Mountains just above the valley. 

55. Amphispiza belli nevadensis. Sage Sparrow. 

Common winter resident. 

56. Melospiza fasciata montana. Mountain Song Sparrow. 

Common winter resident at Furnace Creek and Saratoga Springs. 

57. Guiraea ccerulea eurhyncha. Western Blue Grosbeak. 

One was secured at Furnace Creek, June 19. 

58. Passerina amcena. Lazuli Bunting. 

A female was secured at Furnace Creek, June 19. 

59. Tachycineta bicolor. Tree Swallow. 

Common at Furnace Creek in March and April. 

60. Tachycineta thalassina. Violet Green Swallow. 

Observed at Furnace Creek and Saratoga Springs in April. 

61. Stelgidopieryx serripennis. Rough-winged Swallow. 

A not uncommon summer resident. 

62. Lanius ludovicianm excubitorides. White-rumped Shrike. 

Seen at Furnace Creek and Saratoga Springs in January. 

63. Yireo belli pusill us. Least Vireo. 

A not uncommon summer resident. 

64. Dendroica auduboni, Audubon's Warbler. 

Seen at Furnace Creek in January and April. 

65. Geothlypis trichas occidentalis. Western Yellow-throat. 

A not uncommon summer resident. 

66. Icteria virens longicaudq. Long-tailed Chat. 

A not uncommon summer resident. 

67. Anfhus pensilvanicus. Titlark. 

Winter resident. 

68. Oroscoples montanus. Sage Thrasher. 

One seen at Mesquite Well in January. 

69. Mimus polyglottos. Mockingbird. 

Observed in January and April. 

70. Harporhynchua lecontei. Le Conte's Thrasher. 

An uncommon resident; seen at Saratoga Springs, Bennett Wells, Furnace 
Creek, and in the northwest arm or Mesquite Valley. 

71. Sulphides obsolctus. Rock Wren. 

One was seen at Mesquite Wells in January; breeds in the mountains just 
above the valley. 

72. Catherpes mexicanus conspersus. Canon Wren. 

One was seeu at Saratoga Springs in February. 

73. Thryothorus bewickii bairdi. Baird's Wren. 

Seen at Furnace Creek, Benuett Wells, and Saratoga Springs in January. 

74. Cistothorus palustris paludicola. Tule Wren. 

Seen at Furnace Creek, Bennett Wells, and Saratoga Springs in January. 

75. Regulu8 calendula. Ruby-crowned Kinglet. 

Seen at Furnace Creek in February and April. 

76. Polioptila ccerulea obscara. Western Gnatcatcher. 

One. secured at Furnace Creek, January 24. 

77. Merula migratoria propinqua. Western Robin. 

A few were seen at Furnace Creek in January. 

78. Sialia arctica. Mountain Bluebird. 

A common winter resident. 



Mat,18931 BIRDS OF THE DEATH VALLEY EXPEDITION. 153 

LIST OF BIRDS FOUND IN OWENS VALLEY, CALIFORNIA. 

1. Colymbua nigricollia cali/ornicus. Eared Grebe. 

Abundant on Owens Late; breeds at the smaller lakes. 

2. Larus cali/ornicus. California Gull. 

Seen in December, 1890. 

3. Larus delawarensis. Ring-billed Gull. 

Seen at Lone Pine and Owens Lake in December, 1890. 

4. Larus Philadelphia. Bonaparte's Gull. 

One seen at Lone Pine, about the same time as the other gulls. 

5. Pelecanus erylhrorhynchos. White Pelican. 

A flock was seen at Haway Meadows in May and an individual at Loue Pine in 
August. 

6. Merganser serrator. Red-breasted Merganser. 

Seen at Lone Pine and Owens Lake in winter. 

7. Anas bosehas. Mallard. 

Not uncommon; probably breeds. 

8. Anas discors. Blue-winged Teal. 

Seen at Little Owens Lake in May. 

9. Anas cyanopfera. Cinnamon Teal. 

Seen at Little Owens Lake ; breeds. 

10. Spatula clypeata. Shoveller. 

Common during migrations. 

11. Ay thy a amerieana. Redhead. 

One was seen at Little Owens Lake in May. 

12. (ilaucionetta clangula amerieana. Golden-eye. 

Seen at Lone Pine, in December, 1890. 

13. Charitonetta alheola. Bnffle-head. 

Seen at Lone Pine in December, 1890. 

14. Branta canadensis (subspecies?). 

A flock heard at Lone Piue in December. 1890. 

15. Dendrocygna fnlra. Fulvous Tree Duck. 

Breeds at Little Owens Lake. 

16. Plegadis guarauna. White-faced Glossy Ibis. 

Seen at Little Owens Lake in May. 

17. Boiaurus lentiginosus. Bittern. 

Seen at Lone Pine in winter, and at Alvord and Bishop in summer. 

18. Ardea herodias. Great Blue Heron. 

Seen at Lone Pine, and at Little Owens Lake in June. 

19. Ardea virescens. Green Heron. 

Seen at Little Owens Lake in May. 

20. Nycticorax nycticorax navius. Night Heron. 

Not uncommon in the valley. 

21. Ilallus rirginianus. Virginia Rail. 

Breeds at Lone Pine. 

22. Porzana Carolina. Sora. 

Seen at Little Owens Lake early in May. 

23. L'uliea amerieana. Coot. 

Common ; breeds. 

24. Phalarupus tricolor. Wilson's Phalarope. 

Two specimens were secured at Alvord, June 27. 

25. Jiccurrirostra amerieana. Avocet. 

Seen at Little Owens Lake in May, 1891, at Owens Lake in June, at the 
north end of the valley in July, and Lone Pine in December, 1890. 



154 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. [No. 7. 

26. Gallinago delicata. Wilson's Snipe. 

Seen at Lone Pine in winter. 

27. Tringa viinutilla. Least Sandpiper. 

Common at Owens Lake in December, 1890. 

28. Ereunetes occidentalis. Western Sandpiper. 

Secured at Owens Lake in June. 

29. Totanus melanoleuous. Greater Yellow-legs. 

Seen at Lone Pine in December. 

30. Numenius longirostris. Long-billed Curlew. 

Seen at Owens Lake in December and Juno. 

31. Mgialitis vocifera. Killdcer. 

Common; breeds. 

32. jEgialitis nivosa. Snowy Plover. 

Not uncommon at Owens Lake, where it is a resident. 

33. Oreortyx pictus plumiferus. Plumed Quail. 

Common along tbe eastern slope of the Sierra Nevada. 

34. Callipepla ealifomica vallicola. Valley Quail. 

Common resident. 

35. Zenaidura macroura. Mourning Dove. 

Abundant breeder. 

36. Calhartes aura. Turkey Buzzard. 

Seen all through the valley. 

37. Circus hudsonius. Marsh Hawk. 

Not uncommon; breeds. 

38. Accipiter velox. Sharp-shinned Hawk. „. 

Seen at Olaucha and Bishop Creek in the latter part of May and first part of 
August. 

39. Accipiter cooperi. Cooper's Hawk. 

Seen at Bishop Creek in August. 

40. Accipiter atricapillus striatulus. Goshawk. 

A hawk thought to be this species was seen at Lone Pino in December. 1890. 

41. Buteo horealis calurus. Western Red-tail. 

Resident; more or less common. 

42. Aquila ckrysalitos. Golden Eagle. 

A pair was seen in June. 

43. Falco mexicanus. Prairie Falcon. 

Not uncommon; undoubtedly breeds in the neighboring mountains. 

44. Falco colambarius. Pigeon Hawk. 

Seen at Little Owens Lake. 

45. Falco sparverius deserticolns. Desert Sparrow Hawk. 

A more or less common resident throughout the valley. 

46. Sirixpratincola. Barn Owl. 

The remains of one were found at Alvord. 

47. Speotyto cunicularia liypogcea. Burrowing Owl. 

A not uncommon resident. 

48. Geococcyx eali/ornianus. Road-runner. 

A common resident. 

49. Coccyzus americanus occidentalis. California Cuckoo. 

One seen at Bishop, August 11. 

50. Cerylealcyon. Kingfisher. 

Not uncommon ; breeds. 

51. Dryohates rillosus hyloscopus, Cabanis's Woodpecker. 

Seen at Bishop Creek in A.ugust. 

52. Mclanerpes torqaalus. Lewis's Woodpecker. 

One seen at the head af the valley in .Inly. 



May. 1893.] BIRDS OF THE DEATH VALLEY EXPEDITION. 155 

r >o. Colaptes ca/er. Red-shafted Flicker. 
A not uncommon resident. 

54. PJialcenoptilus nuttalli. Poor-will. 

Not uncommon; breeding throughout the valley. 

55. Chordeiles texensis. Texas Nighthawk. 

A common summer resident. 

56. Cypseloidcs niger. Black Swift. 

Common; breeds in the mountains on each side of the valley. 

57. Chat ura vauxii. Vaux's Swift. 

Seen at Olancha about the middle of May. 

58. Aeronautea melanoleucus. White-throated Swift. 

A common summer resident. 

59. Trochilus alexaudri. Black-chinned Humming Bird. 

A common summer resident. 

60. Calypte cosia. Costa's Humming Bird. 

A common summer resident. 

61. Tyrannus vcrticalis. Arkansas Kingbird. 

A common summer resident. 

62. Tyrannus tyrannus. Kingbird. 

One was seen at Olancha, June 29. 

63. Myiarchua cinerascens. Ash-throated Flycatcher. 
A not uncommon summer resident. 

64. Sayornis saya. Say's Phoebe. 

A not uncommon breeding species. 

65. Sayornis nigricans. Black Phoebe. 

Seen and apparently breeding at Little Owens Lake and Bishop Creek. 

66. Contopus richardsoni. Western Wood Pewee. 

A common summer resident. 

67. Empidonax pu sill us. Little Flycatcher. 

Seen at Olancha in May, and at Lone Pine June 11. 

68. Empidonax wrightii. Wright's Flycatcher. 

Found at Olancha in May, and at Bishop Creek in August. 

69. Otocoris alpestris arenicola. Desert Horned Lark. 

A common summer resident. 

70. Otocoris alpestris chrysolcema. Mexican Horned Lark. 

Found at Owens Lake in December, 1890. 

71. Cyanocitta stclhri frontalis. Blue-fronted Jay. 

Seen at Bishop Creek in August. 

72. Aplielocoma californica. California Jay. 

Found on the east slope of the Sierra Nevada. 

73. Corvus corax sinuatus. Raven. 

Resident. 

74. Picicorrus cohnnbianus. Clarke's Nutcracker. 

Observed at the head of the valley and Bishop Creek. 

75. Cyanocephalus eyanocephalus. Pinon Jay. 

Seen at Benton and Bishop Creek. 

76. Xanthoeephalus xanlhoeephalus. Yellow-headed Blackbird. 

A not uncommon resident. 

77. Agelaius phoeniceus. Red-winged Blackbird. 

A common resident. 

78. Agelaius gubernator. Bicolored Blackbird. 

A specimen was secured at Olancha, June 11. 

79. Sturnella magna ncglecta. Western Meadowlark. 

A common resident. 



156 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. [No. 7. 

80. Icterus bullocki. Bullock's Oriole. 

A common summer resident. 

81. Scolecophagits cyanocephalus. Brewer's Blackbird. 

A common summer resident. It may be a resident. 

82. Carpodaeus mexieanns frontalis. House Finch. 

A common resident. 

83. Sjnnus psaltria. Arkansas Goldfinch. 

A common summer resident. 

84. Pooccetes gramineus confinis. Western Vesper Sparrow. 

Not uncommon at the head of the valley. 

85. Ammodramns sandwichensis alaudinus. Western Savanna Sparrow. 

A not uncommon resident. 

86. Chondestes yrammacus strigatus. Western Lark Sparrow. 

A common summer resident. 

87. Zonotrichia leucophrys. White-crowned Sparrow. 

Observed along the east slope of the Sierra Nevada, where it breeds higher up. 

88. Spizella breweri. Brewer's Sparrow. 

A common summer resident. 

89. Spizella atrigularis. Black-chinned Sparrow. 

Secured at Independence Creek on the east slope of the Sierra Nevada. 

90. Junco hyemdlis thurberi. Thurber's Junco. 

Winter visitant in the valley; breeds on the east slope of the Sierra Nevada. 
91 Amphispiza bilineaia. Black-throated Sparrow. 
A common summer resident. 

92. Amphispiza belli nevadensis. Sage Sparrow. 

A not uncommon resident. 

93. Melospiza fasciata heermanm. Heermann's Song Sparrow. 

Tolerably common resident. 

94. Melospiza lincolni. Lincoln's Sparrow. 

Found breeding at Independence Creek, on the east slope of the Sierra Nevada. 

95. Passerella iliaca megarhyncha. Thick-billed Sparrow. 

Found in the same place as the preceding species. 

96. Pipilo maculatus megalonyx. Spurred Towhee. 

A not uncommon resident. 

97. Pipilo chlorurus. Green-tailed Towhee. 

A common summer resident in the upper end of the valley. 

98. Habia melanocephala. Black-headed Grosbeak. 

Seen at Olancha and Ash Creek in May, and Independence Creek in June. 

99. Guiraca cwrulea eurhyncba. Western Blue Grosbeak. 

A common summer resident. 

100. Passerina ameena. Lazuli Bunting. 

A common summer resident. 

101. Piranga ludoviciana. Western Tanager. 

A not uncommon summer resident. 

102. Petrochelidon lunifrons. Cliff Swallow. 

A common summer resident. 

103. Chelidon erythrogasler. Barn Swallow. 

A common summer resident. 

104. Tachycinela thahmina. Violet Green Swallow. 

A common summer resident. 

105. Clivicola riparia. Bank Swallow. 

Common at Alvord the last of June, where it was breeding. 

106. Stelgidopteryx serripennis. Rough-winged Swallow. 

A not uncommon summer resident. 



May, 1893.] BIRDS OF THE DEATH VALLEY EXPEDITION. 157 

107. Ampelis cedrorum. Cedar Bird. 

A pair was seen at Lone Pine Judo 14. 

108. Phainopepla nitens. Phainopepla. 

One was seen at Morans in July. 

109. Lanius tudovicianus excubitorides. White-ruruped Shrike. 

A common resident. 

110. Virco gilvua sicainsoni. Western Warbling Vireo. 

A not uncommon summer resident. 

111. Vireo belli pusillus. Least Vireo. 

A not uncommon summer resident. 

112. Helminthophila celata lutescens. Lutescent Warbler. 

A few migrants were seen at Little Owens Lake in May, 

113. Dendroica cegtiva. Yellow Warbler. 

A common summer resident. 

114. Dendroica auduboni. Audubon's Warbler. 

Occurs in winter, and. probably breeds on Independence and Bishop creeks. 

115. Dendroica townsendi. Townsend's Warbler. 

Migrants were seen at Little Owens Lake. 

116. Geothlypis macgillivrayi. Macgillivray's Warbler. 

Found with young at Bishop Creek in August. 

117. Geothlypis trichas occidentalis. Western Yellow-throat. 

A common summer resident. 

118. Icteria rirens longicauda. Long-tailed Chat. 

A common summer resident. 

119. Sylvania pnsilla pileolata. Pileolated Warbler. 

A not uncommon migrant. 

120. An thus pensilvanicus. Titlark. 

A common winter resident. 

121. Cinclus inexicanus. Water Ousel. 

Follows down the streams into the valley in winter. 

122. Oroscoptes montanus. Sage Thrasher. 

Breeds commonly in the upper part of the valley. 

123. Mimus polyglottos. Mockingbird. 

A not uncommon resident. 

124. Harporhynehus lecontei. LeConte's Thrasher. 

A common resident. 

125. Hehodytes brunneicapillu8. Cactus Wren. 

Breeds in the southern end of the valley. 

126. Salpinctes obsoletus. Rock Wren. 

A common resident. 

127. Thryothorns bewickii bairdi. Baird's Wren. 

Common at Lone Pine in December, 1890. 

128. Troglodytes a'e'don aztecus. Western House Wren. 

Seen in migrations and probably breeds on the eastern slope of the Sierra Nevada. 

129. Cistothorus palustris paludicola. Tule Wren. 

A not uncommon resident. 

130. Pants gambefi. Mountain Chickadee. 

Rather common along the eastern slope of the Sierra Nevada. 

131. Psaliriparus minimus calif milieus. California Bush-Tit. 

Seen on Independence and Bishop creeks. 

132. Poliojrtiht ccerula obscura. Western Gnatcatcher. 

Seen at Independence Creek in June. 

133. Myadestes townsendii. Townsend's Solitaire. 

Seen at Lone Pine in December, 1890. 



158 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. [No. 7. 

134. Turdus ustulatus. Russet-backed Thrush. 

One seen at Olancha about the middle of May. 

135. Turdus aonalaschJcce au&uboni. Audubon's Hermit Thrush. 

Breeds on Independence and Bishop creeks. 
13(3. Mcrula viigratoria propinqua. Western Robin. 

Common summer resident along the eastern slope of the Sierra Nevada. 
137. Sialia arciica. Mountain Bluebird. 

Common! along the eastern slope of the Sierra NeA r ada. 



ANNOTATED LIST OF THE REPTILES AND BATKACTTTANS COLLECTED BY THE 
DEATH VALLEY EXPEDITION IN 1891, WITH DESCRIPTIONS OF NEW SPECIES. 



By Leonh-ard Stejneger, 

Curator of the Department of Reptiles and Batrachians, U. S. National Museum. 

With field notes by Dr. C. Hart Merriam. 



Since the days of the great western surveying expeditions, the 
United States Exploring Expedition (Wilkes'), the United States and 
Mexican Boundary Survey, the various Pacific Railroad surveys, and 
Wheeler's Survey West of the one-hundredth Meridian, no collection of 
North American reptiles and batrachians has been made equaling or 
even approaching that brought home by the Death Valley Expedition. 
In the extent of the series of many species it stands unrivaled, and in 
the accuracy and detail of its labeling it surpasses them all. To this 
point particularly it is desired to call attention. Many of the speci- 
mens of the older collection have the localities very vaguely indicated, 
as 'California;' 'From San Diego to El Paso;' in others, detailed locali- 
ties are given, but in such a way that in many cases it is impossible 
to identify them; in others, the labels have been changed, and errors 
resulted; others again were never labeled, or the labels were lost. In 
the collection of the Death Valley Expedition all the nine hundred 
specimens are individually and fully labeled; altitudes are frequently 
given, and there is not the slightest doubt as to the correctness of the 
statement attached to each and every specimen. 

Furthermore, the collection is particularly noteworthy as it is the 
first attempt in this couutry on a similar scale to gather the herpeto- 
logical material together according to a rational plan and with a defi- 
nite purpose in view. The result is a fine series of specimens, unique 
in its completeness with respect to geographic localities within the area 
explored by the expedition, a tract of almost 100,000 square miles, com- 
prising a number of nearly parallel desert valleys separated by in- 
tervening barren mountain ranges. The effort of the expedition to 
collect every species in all the characteristic localities from California 
to Utah and Arizona resulted in a material by which it has been pos- 
sible in many instances to follow the geographic variation in its various 

159 



160 



NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. 



[Xo. 7. 



directions. The present report does not pretend to exhaust this mate- 
rial, which will yield more definite results when the adjoining territory 
shall have been searched as thoroughly and as intelligently as that 
covered by the present expedition. 

With a material so well calculated to show the amount of individual 
variation within many species, and to determine the geographical dis- 
tribution of others, the author was enabled to settle many a vexed 
question and to point out many a nice distinction where some of his 
colleagues had failed, chiefly from lack of suitable material. If, there- 
fore, he has succeeded in somewhat advancing our knowledge of North 
American herpetology, thanks are principally due to Dr. 0. Hart Mer- 
riam, the untiring organizer and leader of the expedition, and to the 
zeal and intelligence of his assistants who evidently spared no effort 
to make the expedition a success. Personally I have to thank Dr. Mer- 
riam for the privilege of working up such a valuable and interesting 
material. 

Dr. Merriam has contributed field notes on many of the species, with 
special reference to geographic distribution and food habits. These 
notes are given in brackets over his initials at the end of the text 
relating to each species. 

LIST OF SPECIES. 

A. REPTILIA. 



I.— TESTUDINES. 

TESTUDINTD.E. 

1. Gopherus agassizii (Cooper). 2. Clemmys marmorata (B. & G.). 

II.— SQUAMATA. 
1. Sauri. 

EUBLEPHARID.E. HeLODERMATID^E. 



3. Coleonyx variegatus (Baird). 

IGUAXID.E. 

4. Dipsosaurus dorsalis (B. & G). 

5. Crotaphytus bailey i Sbejn. 

6. Crotaphytus wislizenii B. & G. 

7. Crotaphytus silus Stejii. 

8. Callisaurus ventralis (Hallow.). 

9. Sauromalus ater Dam. 

10. Uta stansburiana B. A <J. 

11. Uta graciosa (Hallow.). 

12. Sceloporus magister Hallow. 

13. Sceloporus graciosus B. & G. 

14. Sceloporus bi-seriatus Hallow. 

15. Sceloporus occideiitalis B. & G. 

16. Phrynosoma blainvillii Gray. 

17. Phrynosoma platyrhiuos Girard. 



18. Heloderma suspectum Cope. 

Anguid.e. 

19. Gerrhonotus scincicauda (Skil- 

tou). 

20. Gerrhonotus scincicauda palmeri 

Stejn. 

21. Gerrhonotus burnettii Gray. 

Xantusiid-E. 

22. Xantusia vigilis Baird. 

TEJIDjE. 

23. Cnemidophorus tigris B. & G. 

24. Cnemidophorus tigris undulatus 

(Hallow.). 



May,1893.] REPTILES OF THE DEATH VALLEY EXPEDITION. 



161 



SCINOirWE. 

25. Eumeces skiltonianus 15. & G. 

2. Serpentes. 

LKL'TOTYrilLOPID-i:. 

26. Rena humilis B. & G. 

BoiDiE. 

27. Charina pluinbea B. & G. 

Natricidjs. 

28. Diadophis pulchellus B. & G. 

29. Lampropeltis boylii (B. & G.). 

30. Hypsiglena ochrorhy nchus Cope. 

31. Salvadora grahamiae hexalepis 

Cope. 

32. Pituophis catenifer (Blainv. ). 

33. Pituophis catenifer deserticola 

Stejn. 

34. Bascanion flagellum frenatum 

Stejn. 

35. Bascanion laterale (Hallow.). 

36. Bascanion tceniatum (Hallow.). 

37. Thamnophis infernalis (Blainv.). 

38. Thamnophis elegans (B. & G). 

39. Thamnophis hammondii (Kenn.). 

40. Thamnophis vagrans (B. &, G). 

41. Thamnophis parietalis (Say). 



Crotalid.k. 

42. Crotalus tigris Kenn. 

43. Crotalus cerastes Hallow. 

44. Crotalus lucifer B. & G. 

B.— BATRACHIA. 

Anura. 

BUFONID E. 

45. Bufo punctatus B. & G. 

46. Bufo halophilus B.& G. 

47. Bufo boreas nelsoni Stejn. 

48. Bufo lentiginosus woodhousii 

(Gir.). 

SCAPHIOPODIDiE. 

I 

49. Scaphiopus hammondii Baird. 

Hylid.k. 

50. Hyla regilla B. & G. 

Ranid.k. 

51. Rana draytonii B. & G. 

52. Rana aurora B. & G. 

53. Rana pretiosa B. &. G. 

54. Rana boylii Baird. 

55. Rana fisheri Stejn. 

56. Rana pipiens brachycephala 

(Cope). 



A.— REPTILIA. 



Order I. TESTUDINES. 



Family Testudinid^e. 
Gopherus agassizii (Cooper). 

The characters pointed out for this species by Mr. F. W. True (Proc. 
U. S. Nat. Mus. IV, p. 440) I have found to hold in the additional speci- 
mens before me, and there is no difficulty in distinguishing- it from 
Gopherus polyph emus,. much less from G. berlandieri. The fact that a 
specimen named Xerobates berlandieri (No. 10412) is recorded in Yar- 
row's Catalogue of Reptiles and Batrachians in the IT. S. National 
Museum (Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., No. 24, p. 38), as from Fort Yuma, Cal., 
need not disturb anybody, as it is in reality a G. agassizii, and is re- 
corded as such by True (torn, cit., p. 447). 

This species was originally described "from the mountains of Cali- 
fornia, near Fort Mohave" (Cooper, Proc. Calif. Ac. Nat. Sc, II, p. 121), 
and the National Museum has since received specimens from Fort 
Yuma (exact locality ?). Dr. Cooper (I. c.) adds that " broken shells are 
frequent on the higher parts of the mountains west of the Colorado, 
where the Pah-Utes eat them." 
12731— No: 7 11 



162 



NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. 



[No. 7. 



The present expedition, therefore, not only extends the known range 
of this species considerably within California, but shows for the first 
time that it occurs in Nevada as well. The young one from Pahrump 
Valley has the carapace only 47 lum long, and the plastron is quite soft, 
while the length of the carapace collected at the Bend of the Colorado 
is no less than 290 mm . 

[This tortoise is remarkable among American species for its power 
of living in the arid deserts of the Lower Sonoran zone, far away from 
water. It is tolerably common in the Mohave Desert, California, where 
one was caught between Daggett and Pilot Knob, April 24, and 
another at Leach Point Valley April 25. Two were found in Pahrump 
Valley, Nevada, where it is so much sought after by Pah-Ute Indians 
and coyotes that it is rather scarce. At the Great Bend of the Col- 
orado many unusually large shells were found about an old Indian en- 
campment, where they had been left after the bodies had been eaten. — 
C. H. M.l 

List of specimens of Gopherus agassizii. 



U.S. 
Nat. 
Mus. 
No. 



18642 
18643 
18644 
18645 
19254 



Sex 
and 
age. 



juv. 
ad. 
ad. 
ad. 
ad. 



Locality. 



Pahrump Valley, Nev 

do 

Bend of Colorado River, Nev 

Daggett, Calif , 

Leach Toint Valley, Mohave Desert, 
Calif. 



Alti- 
tude. 



Feet. 



Date. 



Apr. 29 

Mar. — 

May — 

Jan. 9 

Apr. — 



Collector. 



Bailey . . 
Fisher . . 
Merriani 
Fisher . . 
Bailey . . 



Remarks. 



Alcohol. 

Shell. 

Carapace. 

Do. 
Alcohol. 



Clemmys marmorata (B. & G.). 

The only specimen brought home by the expedition is a young one 
(No. 18641) collected by Dr. Fisher, July 5, in the South Fork* of Kern 
River, 25 miles above Kernville, Calif. It is slightly smaller, but other- 
wise closely resembles Figs. 8 and 9, PI. xxxn, in the atlas of the 
herpetology of the United States Exploring Expedition. 

[Dr. A. K. Fisher obtained this turtle and saw many on the South 
Fork of Kern Eiver, about 25 miles above Kernville, early in July, and 
Mr. Palmer and I saw half a dozen in a small pond 2 or 3 miles above 
the forks of the Kern June 25.— C. H. M.] 

Order II. SQUAMATA. 

Suborder I. SA URL 

Family Eublephaeid^e. 

Coleonyx variegatus (Baird). 

I am not prepared to unite most of the American species formerly re- 
ferred tothegenus Goleonyx, with the East Indian Eublepharis&a recently 
proposed by Mr. Bouleiiger (Cat.. Liz. Br. Mus., i, 1885, p. 230). The 



May, 1893.] REPTILES OF THE DEATH VALLEY EXPEDITION. 163 

relative size of the claw sheaths is hardly of such importance as to 
justify a generic arrangement which would place the American forms in 
two genera, one of which would include the species found only in the 
East Indies. The presence or absence of enlarged chin shields seems 
to me a much more important character, and is far more satisfactory, 
since it effectually separates the American from the Indian species. 

The three genera, by Boulenger referred to the family Eublephari- 
dee, would then stand thus : 



C Eublepharis 
Digits lamellar infenorlyJ gg£* *H J 



IcAmSa). j No cMn 8hieldfl - 

The genus Goleonyx would then contain four species, as follows: 

a 1 Claw sheaths very large Coleonyx elegans 

a 2 Claw sheaths small 

6 1 Back with enlarged tubercles Coleonyx dovii 

6 9 Back uniformly granular 

c 1 Snout elongate Coleonyx variegatus 

c 2 Snout short Coleonyx brevis 

Boulenger (I. c.) recognizes two species of the G. variegatus type, one 
with the snout elongate, while in the other it is shortened. The former 
he gives a new name, E. fasciatus, and retains the name given by 
Baird for a specimen from Texas. It should be remarked that all his 
material consisted of two specimens, one from Texas, the other from 
Yentanas, Mexico. 

I have examined twelve specimens with the result that there is an 
appreciable difference, as indicated by Boulenger, between five Texan 
specimens, on the one hand, and seven specimens from Arizona and 
California, on the other, and the latter agree so well with Boulenger's 
description of his Eublepharis fasciatus that I have no doubt about the 
identity of the Mexican specimen and those from Arizona and Cali- 
fornia. But it will be observed that Prof. Baird's type of G. variegatus 
came from the Colorado Desert, in southern California, and that con- 
sequently Boulenger's E. fasciatus is a synonym only, while it is the 
Texan form, with its short snout, less developed anterior nasals, and 
more numerous labials, which will have to be named. This form I 
would propose to call Goleonyx brevisA 

The synonymy of the two forms would then stand as follows : 
Coleonyx variegatus. 

1859. Stenodactylus variegatus Baird, Proc. Phila. Acad., 1858, p. 254 (type No. 3217, 
Colorado Desert). Id., Mex. Bound. Surv. Eept., n, pp. 12, 34 (part), pi. 
xxiii, figs. 9-18 (type from Colorado Desert) and figs. 19-27 (male from Ft. 
Yuma, 1859). 

* Hemitheconyx, nom. nov., for Psilodactylus Gray, 18G4, nee Psilodactylus Oken, 
1816. Type Hemitheconyx caudicinctus (Dum.). 

tType, U. S. Nat. Mus., No. 13627 j Helotes, Bexar Co., Texas; Marnock coll. 



164 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. [No. 7. 

1866. Colconyx variegatus Cope, Proc. Pliila. Acad., 1866, p. 310. Id., ibid., 1867 (p. 

85) (Owens Valley, Calif.). 
1885. Eublepharis fascial us Boulcriger, Cat. Liz. Br. Mus., I, p. 231 ( Vcntanas, Mexico). 
Coleonyx brevis. 
1859. Stenodactylus variegatus Baird, Mox. Bound. Surv. Rept. u, pp. 12-34 (part) pi. 

XXIV, rigs. 11-19 (Jun. from Live Oak Creek, Texas). 
1880. Coleonyx variegatus ( 'ope, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., No. 17, p. 13 (Texas) (nee Baird). 
1885. Eublepharis variegatus Boulenger, Cat. Liz. Br. Mus. I, p. 233 (Texas) (nee 

Baird). 

The only specimen brought home by the expedition is a young one 
(No. 18620) collected by Mr. Bailey, January 23, on the east side of 
Death Valley, opposite Bennett Wells, about 50 feet above the salt flat. 
This is within the known range of this species, which extends east to 
Tucson, Ariz., north to Owens Valley, California, and west across the 
Colorado and Mohave Deserts to Mohave Station. 

Family Iciuanid^. 

Dipsosaurus dorsalis (B. & G.). 

The sixteen specimens brought home by the expedition extend our 
knowledge of the geographical distribution of this species materially. 
We knew in a general way that it inhabits southern California and Lower 
California, but very few records of exact localities have ever been given. 
We now find that it occurs in the whole Death Valley region, extend- 
ing north into Owens Valley, as high as 4,100 feet above the sea, and 
east to Callville, on the Great Bend of the Colorado, Nevada, making 
with the specimen from the Amargosa Desert, Nevada, the first record 
of the species in that State, so far as I know. 

This species then ranges from Cape St. Lucas along the gulf coast of 
Lower California to the Colorado and Mohave deserts. To the east it 
extends at least as far as the Colorado Biver, but how far beyond is 
not known. Its northern range is indicated above.* 

It is interesting to note that this species is a vegetable eater, as Dr. 
Merriam's subjoined notes show. 

[This remarkable lizard, which in general form suggests the ancient 
Saurians, is more strictly limited to the torrid Lower Sonoran Zone 
than any other species, not excepting the gridiron-tail (Callisaurus 
ventralis). It ranges across the Lower Sonoran deserts of the Great 
Basin from the Mohave Desert and Death Valley to the Great Bend 
of the Colorado Biver, and thence northerly in eastern Nevada through 
the lower part of the valleys of the Virgin and Muddy, always keeping 

* There is a record which would seem to indicate the occuiTence of Dipsosaurus 
dorsalis on the west slope of the Sierra Nevada in California, inasmuch as the 
smaller specimen brought home by Dr. Heermann is said to have been collected be- 
tween" Kern River and theTejon Pasa"(Pac. R. R. Rep., x, 1853, Williamson's route, 
p. 8), but it must not be forgotten that Lieut. Williamson's parties on that expedition 
were repeatedly on the slope toward the desert, and there is not the slightest prob- 
ability that the specimen in question was collected on the valley slope. 



May, 1803.] REPTILES OF THE DEATH VALLEY EXPEDITION. 



165 



witkiu the Larrea belt. In western Nevada it reaches its northern 
limit in the Amargosa Desert, and was not found in Oasis Valley or 
Indian Spring Valley. In the northwest arm of Death Valley it does 
not range northward beyond Grapevine Canon, and in Owens Valley 
was not found much north of the lake. It is a strict vegetarian, feed- 
ing on buds and flowers, which it devours in large quantities. No in- 
sects were found in any of the stomachs examined ; some contained 
beautiful boquets of the yellow blossoms of acacia, the orange mal- 
vastrum, the rich purple Dalea, and themesquite (Prosopis julijiora); 
others coutained leaves only. — 0. H. M.] 

List of specimens of Dvpsosaurus dorsalis 



U.S. 




Nat, 


Sex and 


Mus. 


age. 


No. 




18345 


d ad. 


18346 


juv. 


18347 


JUV. 


18348 


ad. 


18349 


JUV. 


18350 


JUV. 


18351 


ad. 


18352 


ad. 


18353 


ad. 


18354 


ad. 


18355 


ad. 


18356 


ad. 


18357 


ad. 


18358 


ad. 


L8359 


JUV. 


18360 


ad. 



Locality. 



Callville, Great Beud of Colorado, Nev. 

do 

do 

Amargosa Desert, Nev 

Amargosa River, Calif 

do 

3 miles oast of Owens Lake, Calif. . . . 

Panamint Valley, Calif 

do 

Mohave Desert, Leach Point, Valley, 
Calif. 

Borax Flat Water Station, Calif 

Mesquite Valley, Calif 

Bennett Wells,' Calif 

do 

Furnace Creek, Death Valley. Calif . . 
Owl Holes, Death Valley, Calif 



Alti- 
tude. 



Feet. 



4,100 
3,300 



2,100 



Date. 



May 4 
....do... 
...do... 
May 31 
Apr. 27 
....do... 
June 26 
May 15 
Apr. 24 
Apr. 25 



Apr. 
Apr. 
Apr. 
Apr. 



June 21 
Apr. 26 



Collector. 



Merriam 
Bailev . - . 
...do'.... 
Merriam 
Bailey ... 
Merriam . 
Bailey . . . 
Nelson... 
Bailey ... 
Merriam . 

Stephens 
Bailey . . 

do 

...do ... 
Fisher . . 
Merriam 



Remarks. 



Crotaphytus baileyi Stejn. 

The great number of specimens brought home by the expedition 
fully bear out the characters assigned by me in originally establishing 
tbis species (N. Am. Fauna, No. 3, 1890, p. 108). 

When publishing the map {op. cit. PI. xiii) showing localities from 
which specimens of G. baileyi and collaris had been examined, I was 
unable to point out any single definite locality in California, the only 
certain Californian specimen seen by me hailing from the 'Mohave 
Desert.' The specimens hereafter enumerated would till quite a gap 
if plotted on that map. 

In spite of the fact that this species, in certain localities at least, 
ascends the mountains as high as 5,600 feet, it does not occur anywhere 
within the interior valley of California, nor does it pass bej r ond the 
San Bernardino Range; in fact it does not seem to reach the coast any- 
where; it is evidently an inland desert form. 

[Bailey's ring-necked lizard does not inhabit the Larrea belt of the 
Lower Sonoran zone, but is common in suitable places in the Upper 
Sonoran, whence it descends a short distance into the Grayia belt. 
It lives among rocks, frequently in canons, and is commonest in the 



166 



NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. 



[No. 7. 



desert ranges. In the Panamint Mountains, California, it was found 
in Surprise Canon, in Emigrant Canon just above the Larrea (alti- 
tude 1,400 meters, or 4,600 feet), and in the basin above Wild Eose 
Spring (at an altitude of l,580meters, or 5,200 feet). In the White Moun- 
tains it was secured in the canon leading from Deep Spring Valley up 
over the pass (altitude 1,700 meters, or 5,600 feet), and also high up on 
the west slope, always among rocks; and Mr. Nelson collected it in the 
Inyo Mountains. Dr. Fisher and Mr. Palmer obtained specimens in the 
Argus Mountains and in Coso Valley. In Nevada it was rather com- 
mon on the west slope of the Charleston Mountains below Mountain 
Spring, and was found also in Oasis Valley, at Quartz Spring at the 
west foot of the Desert Mountains (altitude 1,520 meters or 5,000 feet); 
in the Juniper Mountains along the boundary between Nevada and 
Utah (altitude 1,830-2,040 meters, 6,000-6,700 feet), and in the upper 
part of Pahranagat Valley. 

In Utah, a very dark form was found in company with a black form 
of Sceloporus Mseriatus on the black lava rock in Diamond Valley be- 
tween St. George and the Upper Santa Clara crossing. — C. H. M.] 

List of specimens of Crotajphytus baileyi. 



U.S. 

Nat. 
Mas. 
No. 


Sex 
and 
age. 


Locality. 


Alti- 
tude. 


Date. 


Collector. 


Remarks. 


18319 
18320 


d 

9 

9 

9 adol. 

d 

d 

d adol. 

d adol. 

d 

9 

d 

d 
9 

d 

d 
9 
9 
cf 

d 
d 

d adol. 
9 adol. 
? adol. 

d adol. 

d 
d 


Diamond Valley, Utah, 10 miles north- 
west of St. George. 


Feet. 
4,800 

4,800 
4,800 


May 16 
....do ... 


Merriam. ... 
do 


On lava rock. 
Do. 


18321 


do 


....do ... 


do 


Do. 


18322 




June 1 
May 28 

May 28 

April 28 


....do 

....do 

Bailey 

....do 

do ... 




18323 
18324 
18325 


Desert Mountains, Quartz Spring, 

Nev. 
Juniper Mountains (25 miles east 

of Panaca), Nev. 


5, 000 
6,200 


In junipers. 


18326 








18327 
18328 


White Mouu tains, Deep Spring Val- 
ley Slope, Calif. 


5,600 

5,600 
4 600 

5,000 


June 9 
do ... 


Merriam 

do 




18329 
18330 


Emigrant Canon, Calif., Panamint 
Mountains. 


....do ... 

May 17 

Mar. 25 
May 11 

April 27 


Stephens 

Nelson 

Fisher 

do 




18331 


Death Valley, 5 miles from Bennett 
Wells; Calif 




18332 

18333 
18334 


Coso Valley, near Maturan^o Spring, 

Calif. 
Argus Range, Shepherd Canon, Calif. 






18335 


do 




do ... 


do , 




18330 

18337 
18338 

18339 


Argus Range, Maturango Spring, 

Calif. 
Argus Range, Searl's Garden, Calif... 
Panamint Mountains, Willow Creek, 

Calif. 
do 


2,000 
4,500 

4, 500 
4,500 
4,900 

5,000 
5,000 


May 3 

April 28 
May 19 

do ... 


....do 

Stephens ... 
Nelson 

do 




18340 


do 


do .. 


do 




18341 
18342 
18343 
18344 


Panamint Mountains, Mill Creek 

Calif. 
PanamintMountains, Surprise CaBon, 

Calif. 
Panamint Mountains, 3 miles above 

Wild Rose Spring, Calif. 


May 15 

April 23 

April 16 

. do 


....do 

Stephens . . . 
do 















May, 1893.] KEPTILES OF THE DEATH VALLEY EXPEDITION. 167 

Crotaphytus wislizenii B. & G. 

Evidently one of the commonest lizards in all the desert localities 
visited by members of the expedition, as the subjoined list of speci- 
mens will show. The relative distribution of this species, as compared 
with G. silus, will be discussed under the latter. 

Some of the females when received showed strong traces on the un- 
der side, particularly on the tail, of a vivid scarlet color, which had a 
very curious superficial appearance, as if caused by loosely adherent 
particles of dry color. It has faded entirely out of all the specimens 
in alcohol. Dr. Merriam has recorded detailed observations on this 
- point in the accompanying note. 

The ferocity and greed of this species is well illustrated by several 
of the specimens caught. Thus the stomach of a young male (No. 18291) 
was found to contain two full-grown lizards, Uta stansburiana, while an 
adult female (No. 18276) when opened gave up one fall-grown horned-toad, 
Phrynosoma platyrhinos, besides remnants of a grown specimen of her 
own species ! 

[The leopard lizard is abundant in most, if not all, of the Lower 
Sonoran deserts of the Great Basin from southern California eastward 
across southern Nevada to Arizona and southwestern Utah. While 
properly belonging to the Lower Sonoran zone, it ranges up a certain 
distance into the Upper Sonoran, occurring further north and higher 
on the mountain sides than either Callisaurus or Dipsosaurus, and 
usually a little higher even than Cnemidophorus. 

It was found in abundance in all of the Lower Sonoran deserts trav- 
ersed, from the Mohave Desert, Panammt and Death Valleys, Ash 
Meadows, the Amargosa Desert, Indian Spring, Pahrump, and Vegas 
valleys to the Great Bend of the Colorado, and thence northerly through 
the valleys of the Virgin and Muddy across the northwest corner of 
Arizonato the Santa Clara Valley in Utah, and Pahranagat and Meadow 
Creek Valleys in Nevada. The upper limit of its range was not 
reached except in a few places, as indicated by the following localities: 
It was abundant throughout Antelope Valley, at the extreme west end 
of the Mohave Desert, ranging thence northerly through the wash or 
open canon leading to Tehachapi Valley. (It was not seen in Teha- 
chapi Valley, which is not strange, as a sharp, cold wind blew the 
only day we were there.) It ranges completely over Walker Pass 
(altitude of divide 1,550 meters, or 5,100 feet) and is common in Owens 
Valley, ranging as far north at least as Bishop Creek, and as high as 
1,980 meters (6,500 feet) along the west slope of the White and Inyo 
Mountains (opposite Big Pine). On the east side of the White Moun- 
tains it is common in Deep Spring and Pish Lake valleys, and was 
found on the northwest slope of Mount Magruder (below Pigeon Spring) 
as high as 1,980 meters (6,500 feet). It was seen at the same elevation 
in Tule Canon, but does not reach the Mount Magruder plateau (alti- 
tude about 2,450 meters, or 8,000 feet). Coming up through Grapevine 
Canon from the northwest arm of Death Valley it spreads over Sarco- l 



1G8 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. [No. 7. 

batus Flat, and ascends the south slope of Gold Mountain a little 
higher than the creosote bush (Larrea), which stops at about 1,640 
meters (or 5,400 feet) on the most favorable southwest exposures. It 
is common in Oasis Valley (coming in from both Sarcobatus Flat and 
the Amargosa Desert), and doubtless ranges over most of the Ralston 
Desert. It was found on the Desert, Timpahute and Pahranagat 
Mountains, as well as the intervening deserts, and on Pahroc Plain, 
and thence easterly across Meadow Creek Valley and the Juniper 
Mountain plateau (along the boundary between Nevada and Utah) to 
the Escalante Desert in Utah, and thence southerly through the sage 
brush to Mountain Meadows -and the Santa Clara Valley. It was com- 
mon on the Argus and Panamint mountains, and on the latter was 
taken as high as 1,610 meters (5,300 feet) near Wild Rose Spring, and 
may range higher. 

Crotaphytus wislizenii, in company with two other Great Basin lizards 
(Cnemidophorus tigris and Uta stansburiana), two desert birds (Har- 
porhynchus lecontei and Campylorhynchus brunneicapillus), the antelope 
or white-tailed squirrel (Spcrmophilus leucnrus), and a number of desert 
plants (among which may be mentioned the tree yucca, Yucca arbores- 
cenSj Tetradymia spinosa, T. comosa, Lycium andersoni, L. cooperi, 
Hymenoclea salsola, Eriogonum fasciculatum, and Ephedra nevadensis) 
passes over the low summit of Walker Pass (altitude 1,550 meters, or 
5,100 feet), and descends westerly to Kern Valley on the west slope of 
the Sierra. From Kern Valley Crotaphytus wislizemi ranges southward 
to Havilah, if not to Walker Basin. 

The leopard lizard is chiefly a vegetarian, feeding on the blossoms 
and leaves of plants; but is also carnivorous, devouring the smaller 
lizards, horned toads, and even its own kind, besides large numbers of 
insects, as determined by the examination of many stomachs. In the 
Argus Range Dr. Fisher surprised one in the act of swallowing a 
scaly lizard (Sceloporus) two-thirds its own size. 

In many lizards, as well known, the male assumes a special coloration 
during the breeding season. The present species is a notable excep- 
tion, the male remaining the same, while the female undergoes a remark- 
able change. The whole under surface and sides of the tail become 
deep salmon or even salmon red, and the sides of the body assume the 
same color, either uniformly or in blotches. The red markings on the 
sides usually begin as spots, which soon unite to form transverse 
stripes. The central part of the back is not affected by the change, 
and the dark markings on the sides remain distinct. None were seen 
in this condition until May 20, when the first red one was found on 
Pahroc Plain, Nev., but dozens were seen afterwardiu Pahranagat Valley, 
Indian Spring Valley, the Armagosa Desert, Tide Canon, and numer- 
ous other localities. The change does not take place till late in the 
development of the egg. Many pairs were observed in copulation in 
Diamond and the Upper Santa Clara Valleys, Utah, and thence north- 



May, 1893.] REPTILES OF THE DEATH VALLEY EXPEDITION. 



169 



ward to Mountain Meadows and the Escalante Desert, and westerly 
across the Juniper Mountains to Meadow Creek Valley from May 17 
to 19, but no trace of the red coloration had appeared. The red indi- 
viduals were always found to contain large eggs, generally measuring 
from 12 to 15 ,nm in length, with the coriaceous shell already formed. — 
C. H. M.] 

List of specimens of Crotaphytus ivislizenii. 



U.S. 




Nat. 


Sex anil 


Mus. 


age. 


No. 




18258 


d 


18259 


d 


18260 


d 


18261 


9 


18262 


9 


18263 


9 


18264 


9 


18265 


d 


18266 


9 


18267 


d 


18268 


d 


18269 


d 


18270 


9 


18271 


9 


18272 


d 


18273 


9 


18274 


9 


18275 


9 


18276 


9 


18277 


d 


18278 


d 


18279 


d 


18280 


9 


18281 


9 


18282 


9 


18283 


d 


18284 


d 


18285 


d 


18286 


d jun. 


18287 


d 


18288 


9 .i"n. 


18289 


9 


18290 


d jun. 


18291 


d jun. 


18292 


d 


18293 


9 


18294 


d 


18295 


d 


18296 


d 


L8297 


d 


18298 


d 


18299 


9 


18300 


• 9 


18301 


d jun. 


18302 


d 


18303 


9 


18304 


9 jun. 


18305 


9 


18306 


d 


18307 


9 


18308 


d 


18309 


9 



Locality. 



St. George, Utah 

10 miles northwest of St. George, Utah 

Mountain Meadows, Utah ... .. 

do 

do 

do 

Pauaca, Nev 

Vegas Valley, Nev 

Tale Canon," Mount Magruder, Nev . 

Quartz Spring, Nev 

Aniargosa Desert, Nev 

Sarcobatus Flat, Nev 

East foot of Charleston Mountains 

(Cottonwood Springs), Nev. 

Grapevine Mountains, Nev 

Timpahute Mountains, Nev 

do 

Indian Spring Valley, Nev 

do 

Pahrump Valley, Nev 

do ' ." 

do 

Pahranagat Valley, Nev 

do 

Pahranagat Mountains, Nev 

Oasis Valley, Nev 

Darwin, Calif 

Panamint Valley, Calif 

Panamint Mountains, Wild Rose 

Spring, Calif. 

do 

Panamint Mountains, Cottonwood 

Canon, Calif. 

do 

do 



Alti- 
tude. 



Feet. 



Garlick Spring, Calif 

Death Valley (Saratoga Spring) Calif. 

Argus Range, Shepherd Canon, Calif . 

Owens Valley, Independence, Calif 

Mohave Desert, Southern Pacific 
Railroad, Calif., 2 miles below Cam- 
eron. 

Mohave Desert, 15 miles east of Mo- 
have, Calif. 

Mohave Desert, north base of Granite 
Mountain, Calif. 

Havilah, Calif 

Kernville, Calif 

Colorado Desert. Palni Spring, Calif . . 

Coso, Calif 

do 

Panamint Mountains (Emigrant 
Spring), Calif. 

Saline Valley, Calif 

do ....: , 

Owens Valley, 20 miles west of 
Bishop, Calif. 

Lone Pine, Calif 

do 

do 

do 



4.600 
4,800 



4,800 



5.300 
4. 900 



6,200 



4,400 

4,000 
2,300 
4,500 



Date. 



May 13 
May 16 
May 17 
....do ... 
....do... 
...do ... 
May 19 
May 2 
June 5 
May 28 
May 31 
June 2 
Apr. 30 



June 10 

May 26 
...io... 

May 28 

May 29 

Apr. 29 

. . . .do . . . 

Apr. 28 

May 23 

Mav 25 

May 26 

June 1 

May 29 

Apr. 24 

Apr. 16 

...do ... 

May 26 

...do ... 
June 14 



Mar. 14 

Mar. 8 

Apr. 28 

June 14 

J aue 26 



Sept. 11 

Apr. 5 

June 24 

June 23 

Sept. 27 

May 28 

Mav 19 

Apr. 14 

June 30 

May 22 

July 3 

June 8 

June 5 
....do ... 

June 6 



Collector. 



Bailey ... 
...do'.... 

Merriam 

...do .... 
...do .... 
...do .... 
Bailey . . . 
...do'.... 
Merriam. 
...do .... 
...do .... 
Bailey . . . 
...do.... 



Nelson. .. 
Bailey ... 
...do*.... 
Merriam. 
...do .... 
Bailey . .. 
...do.... 
Merriam. 
Bailey . .. 
...do.... 
Merriam . 
...do .... 
Palmer . . 
Merriam . 
Bailey ... 



...do .. 
Nelson. 



.do 
.do 



Palmer 

...do 

Fisher 

Palmer 

Merriam. . . 



Stephens . . 
Merriam. . . 



....do.... 
Palmer .. 
Stephens 
Fisher . . . 

Palmer . . 
Bailey... 



Nelson . . . 
....do .... 

Stephens 



Fisher . 
...do .. 
Palmer 
...do .. 



Remarks. 



3, 900 feet 
above Salt 
Wells. 



170 



NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. 



[No. 7. - 



Crotraphytus silus Stejn. 

Nine additional specimens from the San Joaquin Valley confirm the 
distinctness of this species. 

In addition to the very strongly marked proportional differences in 
the head pointed out in the original description (1ST. Am. Fauna, No. 3, 
p. 105,) it is now found that the coloration is also essentially different. 
In G. silus the rounded dorsal spots are larger, especially the two 
median rows, so that of the latter there is only one longitudinal series 
between the light cross-bauds. The latter are very broad and distinct 
and do not seem to disappear as the animal grows larger. In some 
specimens the interspaces between the light bauds are solidly dark, 
the spots indicated ouly by somewhat ill-defined patches of saturated 
ferrugineous. 

This species seems to be closely restricted to the San Joaquin Val- 
ley, while the typical G. icislizenii reaches the west slope of the Sierra 
Nevada through Walker Pass, the summit of which is only 5,100 feet 
in altitude aud, therefore, not above the vertical range of the species. 
This fact is demonstrated by two specimens brought home by the 
expedition, viz, No. 18298 which was collected by Mr. Palmer at Kern- 
ville, June 23, and No. 18297 collected by Dr. Merriam at Havilah, June 
24. Kernville and Havilah are on the west slope of tlie Sierra, and the 
specimens from both are undoubted G. wislizenii both as to proportions 
and coloration. If we were ever to find intermediate forms between the 
two species, specimens from these localities would be expected to fur- 
nish them, but it is a significant fact that they are as typical as any of 
the specimens collected outside of the great interior valley of California. 

List of specimens of Crolaphytus silus. 



U.S. 
Nat. 
Mus. 
No. 



18310 
18311 
18312 
18313 
18314 
18315 
18316 
18317 
18318 



Sex 
and 



d 
d 

d 

9 .iuv. 
d juv, 
9 jnv. 
d juv. 
9 Juv. 

9 



Locality. 



Alti- 
tude. 



Feet. 



Tejon Ranch, Calif 

5 miles north of Rose Station. Calif. .. 

do 

Poso, Calif I 

Bakersfield, Calif I 

do | 

do i 

do I 

Pampa, Calif 



Date. 



July 13 
Oct. 13 
...do .... 
Oct. 10 
July 17 
Oct, 11 
...do... 
...do ... 
July 16 



Collector. 



Palmer 

Nelson . 
....do .. 
....do .. 

Bailey . 

Nelson. 
....do.. 
....do.. 

Bailey . 



Remarks. 



Callisaurus ventralis (Hallow.). 

The large series of this interesting species brought home by the ex- 
pedition has not only filled up gaps in our knowledge of its distribu- 
tion, but has also afforded enough material to decide beyond a doubt 
the question as to the specific difference between the present form and 
typical Gallisaurus draconoides Blainv. The differences are numerous 
and are found both in structure and coloration. Moreover, after an 
examination of about 200 specimens I can affirm that the characters 



May, 1893.] REPTILES OF THE DEATH VALLEY EXPEDITION. 171 

;nv constant and that the two forms do not intergrade. ThatBoulenger 
(Cat. Liz. Br. Mus., n, 1885, p. 206) failed to appreciate the difference 

is probably due to the fact that lie. had only two specimens of one 
species, probably G. ventralis, before him. 

As to the geographical distribution of the two species it may be stated 
that G. draconoides is restricted to the very southern extremity of the 
Lower California peninsula — that is, to the zoo-geographical district 
which has been termed the Cape Begion, or Cape St. Lucas Region. 

While this species, therefore, is of a very limited range, G. ventralis 
ranges over a comparatively large area, comprising, so far as known, 
the northern portion of Lower California; the coast of Sonora, Mexico, 
at least as far south as Guaymas; the desert regions of southern Cali- 
fornia; southern Arizona as far east as Camp Apache and Fort Buch- 
anan, at least; southern and western Nevada as far north as Pyramid 
Lake; southern Utah, where it is restricted to the Lower Santa Clara 
Valley. * 

It can be asserted with confidence that Gallisaurus ventralis does not 
occur anywhere within the interior valley of California, not even in 
Walker Basin. Nor is there any evidence to show that it occurs any- 
where southwest of the San Bernardino range, within the boundary of 
the State of California. 

[The gridiron-tailed lizard is the most characteristic reptile of the 
Lower Sonoran deserts of southern California, southern Nevada, south- 
western Utah, and Arizona, where it is almost universally distributed 
and very much more abundant than any other species. It inhabits the 
open deserts and runs with great swiftness over the sand and gravel 
beds, carrying its tail curled up over its back as if afraid to let it touch 
the hot surface of the earth. It starts off at full speed, as if fired from 
a cannon, and stops with equal suddenness, thus escaping or eluding its 
euemies, the coyotes, hawks, and larger lizards. When running it 
moves so swiftly that the eye has difficulty in following, and when at 
rest its colors harmonize so well with those of the desert that it can 
hardly be seen. The basal half of its tail is transversely barred under- 
neath, and the bars are broad and distaut, suggesting the name here 
applied to the species in lieu of a better one. During the breeding 
season the males develop a conspicuous patch of metallic greenish-blue 
on the sides of the body and have the power of inflating a pinkish sac 
under the chin. 

The attitude of this lizard when at rest differs from that of most 
others in that the knees and elbows stand out at right angles from the 
body and are elevated to such a degree that they nearly reach the 
plane of the back. Like many other species, it has an odd habit of per- 



* Some authors even include Texas in the geographical distribution of this species 
(and genus), but with no foundation in facts. I am not aware of an authentic record 
of its having been collected inNew Mexico. The type came from what was then 'New 
Mexico, ' hut in those days that included Arizona as well. 



172 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. [No. 7. 

forming a singular gymnastic exercise, consisting in rapidly dropping 
and elevating the body with the knees held stiff at rigid angles to the 
trunk. 

This species feeds on insects and the blossoms and leaves of plants 
in about equal proportion; at least such was the case in the large num- 
ber whose stomachs were examined. 

The gridiron-tailed lizard is common throughout the Mohave Desert 
proper, but does not reach the extreme western end of the desert in 
Antelope Valley, which, owing to its greater altitude, passes out of the 
Lower Sonoran zone, it was last seen in this direction about 10 miles 
east of Liebre ranch. In the wash leading from the Mohave Desert to 
Tehachapi Valley it was seen up to 1,030 meters (3,400 feet) and may 
range higher. It is common in the Lower Sonoran zone at the south 
end of Owens Valley, and ranges up on the warm east side of the val- 
ley as far as Big Pine. It is common throughout Panamint and Death 
valleys and in the Amargosa Desert. In Nevada it inhabits the deserts 
of the southern part of the State, from Ash Meadows easterly across 
Pahrump and Vegas valleys to the Great Bend of the Colorado, where 
it is very common, and ranges north through the valleys of the Virgin 
and Lower Muddy (where it is abundant) to Pahranagat and Meadow 
Creek valleys. In western Nevada it comes through Grapevine Canon 
(from the northwest arm of Death Valley), ranges easterly over 
Sarcobatus Flat, and ascends the warm south slope of Gold Mountain, 
with Larrea, to about 1,040 meters (5,400 feet). In Utah it is common 
in the Lower Santa Clara Valley, but does not range up into the sage- 
brush or Upper Sonoran Zone of the upper part of the valley. 

In Desert Valley, just east of the Pahroc Mountains, a form of this 
species was found which seems to be subspecifically distinct from the 
ordinary type. It is much shorter and broader, with a shorter tail, and 
is bluish-gray in color. It may be the same as the animal inhabiting 
the desert at Pyramid Lake, Nevada, which point is about two degrees 
further north than Desert Valley, though in the same zoological sub- 
zone, for the low altitude of a series of narrow and irregular deserts in 
western Nevada carries this zone much further north than elsewhere. 
These specimens suggest the existence of a form peculiar to the upper 
division (or Orayia belt) of the Lower Sonoran Zone, Callisaums cen- 
tralis proper being closely restricted to the lower division (or Larrea 
belt) of the same zone. — O. II. M.J 



Mat.1893.] reptiles of the death valley expedition. 173 

List of .specimens of Gallisaurus ventralis. 



U.S. 
Nat. 
Mus. 
No. 



18207 
18208 

18209 
18210 
18211 
18212 
18213 
18214 
18215 
18216 
18217 
18218 
18219 
18220 
18221 
18222 

18223 
18224 
18225 
18226 
18227 
18228 
18229 

18230 
18231 
18232 
18233 
18234 



Sex and 
age 



18362 



d 

2 
2 
? 
d 
d" 
d 
2 
9 
d 
d 
d 
d 
2 
d juv. 
d 

d 
d juv. 
cf juv. 

9 

d 
d 
d 

cf juv 

cf juv. 

9 juv. 

9 

d 



18235 


d 


18236 


d 


18237 


d 


18238 


d 


18239 


9 


18240 


d juv. 


18241 


d 


18242 


cf juv 


18243 


d Juv 


18244 


2 juv 


18245 


d 


18246 


d 


18247 


2 


18248 


9 ad. 


18249 


d 


18250 


d 


18251 


d 


18252 


2 ad. 


18253 


d juv 


18254 


d 


18255 


2 


18256 


2 


18257 


2 


18361 


2 



Locality. 



Alti- 
tude. 



2 juv. 



Death Valley (Bennett Wells) Calif. 
do 



Feet. 



.do 
.do 
.do 
.do 
.do 



Death Valley, Furnace Creek, Calif. . 
Argus Range, Shepherd Canon, Calif 

Panaraint Valley, Calif , 

do , 



do 

do 

do 

do 

Death Valley (Saratoga Springs), 
Calif. 

do 

do 
do 



Date. 



Apr. 
Apr. 
Apr. 
Jan. 
Apr. 
Mar. 1 
Jan. 
June 
Apr. : 
Apr. : 
....do . 
...do 
...do . 
...do- 
...do. 
Mar. 



Owens, Lake, Olancha, Calif I 3, 700 



Water Station, Borax Flat, Calif 

Garlick Springs, Calif 

Panamint Mountains (Emigrant 

Spring), Calif. 

do 

Funeral Mountains, Calif 

do 

Owens Valley (Lone Pino), Calif 

Cameron, 8 miles northwest Mohave, 

Calif. 

Saline Valley, Calif 

Sarcobatus Flat, Nev 

do 

Amargosa River, Nev 

do 

Amargosa River, Calif 

Ash Meadows, Nev 

do 

do 

do 

Great Bend of Colorado (Callville), Nev 

do 

do 

do 

Pahranagat Valley, Nev 

do « 

do 

do 

do 

Pahrump Valley, Nev 

do .' 

Desert Valley, Nev 

Gold Mountain. Nev 

Mohave Desert, Calif., Leach Point 

Valley. 
do. 



2, 200 



....do ... 
Feb. 2 
....do ... 
Ma? 19? 
Apr. 22 
Mar. 14 
Apr. 14 



...do... 
Feb. 

...do ... 

Juno 6 

( June 26 



2,500 
4,400 
4,61)0 



5,300 

6,000 



Jan. 30 
June 2 
...do... 
Mar. 21 
....do... 
Apr. 27 
Mar. 20 
Mar. 18 
Mar. 4 
....do... 
May 4 
. . . .do . . . 
....do... 
....do... 
May 23 
....do... 
....do... 
....do... 
....do... 
Apr. 29 

do ... 

May 21 
J une 3 
Apr. 25 



Collector. 



.do 



Bailey ... 
...do.... 
...do .... 
...do .... 
...do .... 
Nelson... 
...do .... 
Fisher... 
...do .... 
Merriam. 
...do .... 
Fisher ... 
Bailey . . . 
...do.... 
...do .... 
Palmer .. 



...do .... 
Bailey . . . 

Stephens 
...do .... 
Palmer . . 
Bailey . . . 



...do.. 
Nelson. 
...do .. 
Palmer 
...do .. 



Nelson . . . 
Merriam. 
Bailey ... 
Fish.'-r... 
...do .... 
Bailey ... 
] lsli 1 
...do.... 
Nelson .. 
...do.... 
...do.... 
...do.... 
...do.... 
...do.... 
Bailev . - - 
...do"...". 
Merriam . 
...do.... 
...do.... 
Bailey ... 
Merriam. 
...do.... 
Bailey ... 
...do 



.do 



Remarks. 



Sauromalus ater Dum. (PI. iv). 

It is quite gratifying to find in the large series of this species collected 
by the expedition all the diagnostic characters verified, which I indi- 
cated at the time I separated the large Sauromalus hispid us from the 
present species (Proc U. S. Nat. Mas., xiv, 1891, pp. 400-411). This 
series also fully confirms my assumption that the largest of the speci- 
mens then at my command were fully adult. Some of the specimens 
of the Death Valley Expedition are somewhat larger than the largest 
specimens heretofore recorded, measuring in total length 415 ,mn and 
over (exact length not ascertainable as the tip of the tail of the largest 



174 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. [No. 7. 

specimen had evidently been lost by the animal when alive), and yet 
there is no approach whatever towards the distinctive characters of 
8. hispid us. 

There is great individual variation in the coloration of this species, 
especially in the amouut of black on the lower parts and in the dark 
cross bars on the upper surface, and although the latter are particu- 
larly well developed and defined in the young specimens, several of the 
older ones are by no means deficient in this respect. It is a curious 
fact, however, that the distinctness — or even the presence or absence — 
of these cross bars, especially on the tail, is changeable in the same in- 
dividual and apparently dependent upon the intensity of the light to 
which the animal is exposed, an observation which I was able to make 
on a specimen which was sent to Washington alive. 

I am informed that observations in the field show this species to be 
a vegetable eater as has already been demonstrated for the 8. hispidus. 

Beyond rather vague statements as to the general distribution of the 
present species very little exact information in regard to its range has 
been published. It is evident that the localities from which the expe- 
dition brought home its specimens — almost four times as many as in 
any museum before — form the center of the geographical range of the 
'chuck-walla.' From here it extends southward along the Colorado 
Eiver for an unknown distance, ranging westward into the Colorado 
Desert, and eastward along the Gila into Arizona. Dr. Merriam has 
now for the first time definitely demonstrated its occurrence in south- 
ern Nevada and southwestern Utah. 

[The ' chuck-walla,' by which name this remarkable lizard is univer- 
sally known to both Indians and whites (except the Mormons), inhabits 
many of the Lower Sonoran Desert ranges in the southern part of the 
Great Basin from the Mohave and Colorado Deserts easterly across 
southern Nevada to Arizona, and north to the southwestern corner of 
Utah. It is the largest lizard of the desert region except the Gila 
monster (Heloderma), which only slightly exceeds it in size. The broad 
body is black or blackish, and the large blunt tail is usually marbled 
with white or entirely white. It was generally found on lava or other 
dark rocks with which its coloration harmonizes. It is a vegetarian, 
feeding entirely, so far as our observations go, on the buds and flowers 
of plants, with the addition sometimes of a few leaves. It is much 
prized by the Panamint Indians as an article of food. A number were 
eaten by members or our expedition, and their flesh was reported to be 
tender and palatable. 

Specimens were secured in the Panamint Bange, the Amargosa Canon, 
on a lava knoll on the west side of Pahrump Valley, Calif., and in the 
Lower Santa Clara Valley in Utah. In the latter locality, they are com- 
mon both along the canon of the Lower Santa Clara and among the red 
sandstone cliffs near the village of St. George, and are called 'alligators' 
by the Mormons. Dr. Fisher found them in considerable numbers in the 



May,1893.J REPTILES OF THE DEATH VALLEY EXPEDITION. 



175 



Argus Kange, west of Panamint Valley, and examined, a number of 
stomachs, in which he found the following plants (either flowers or 
foliage or both): Dalea fremontii, Leptosyne bigelovii, AmsincMa tessel- 
latdj Lotus, Sphcuralcea munroana, and Ephedra viridis. — C. H. M.] 

List of specimens of Sawomalus ater. 



U.S. 
Nat. 
Mus. 


Sex 
and 


No. 


age. 


18621 


d 


18622 


d 


18623 


?aJ. 


18624 


ad. 


18625 


ad. 


18626 


ad. 


18627 


JUV. 


18629 


d 


18630 


ad. 


18631 


d 


18632 


d 


18633 


d 


18634 


d 


18635 


9 


18636 


ad. 


18637 


ad. 


18638 


ad. 


18639 


ad. 



Locality. 



Santa Clara Cafion, Utah 

St. George, Utah 

do , 

Pahrurup Valley, Nev 

Amargosa River, Calif. . . 

Lookout, Inyo County, Calif 

Death Valley, Furnace Creek, Calif.. 
Panamint Mountains, Willow Creek, 
Calif. 

do 

Argus Range, Shepherd Canon, Calif . 
do 



.do 
.do 
.do 
.do 
.do 
.do 
.do 



Alti- 
tude. 



Feet. 



4,500 



Date. 



May 11 

May 13 

May 14 

Apr. 28 

Apr. 27 

Mar. 27 

Mar. 22 

May 19 

Apr. 21 

Apr. 29 
...do.... 
...do.... 

Apr. 26 

Apr. 23 



Apr. 
Apr. 
Apr. 



Collector. 



Bailey . . . 

Merriam. 
....do.... 
....do.... 
....do.... 

Bailey . . . 

Fisher... 

Nelson... 



Coville 
Fisher . 
...do.. 
...do.. 
...do.. 
...do .. 
•...do.. 
...do.. 
...do .. 
...do.. 



Remarks. 



Skin. 



Uta stansburiana B. & G. 

The regions visited by the expedition falling within the known range 
of this species one can hardly wonder at the magnificent series sent 
home. 

With the material already at hand it should now be possible to set- 
tle all questions as to individual and geographical variation within the 
species. The task of handling this material, however, is too great to be 
attempted in the present connection and must be reserved for some 
future occasion. 

[This tiny brown shouldered lizard is common over nearly the whole 
of the desert region traversed by the expedition, from California to Utah 
and Arizona and occurs also on the west slope of the Sierra Nevada, 
as the subjoined list of localities shows. Whether the form inhabiting 
the upper San Joaquin Valley is identical with that from the deserts 
of the Great Basin remains to be seen. 

Uta stansburiana is common throughout the Mohave Desert, ranging 
westward to the extreme west end of Antelope Valley and down through 
the Canada de las Uvas to Old Fort Tejon. It ranges also over Walker 
Pass and down into Kern Valley. It is common in Owens Valley, 
and thence easterly in the Coso Mountains, Panamint Valley and 
Mountains, Death Valley, the Amargosa Desert, Ash Meadows, Pah- 
rump and Vegas Valleys, and at the Great Bend of the Colorado, 
whence it ranges northerly in the valleys of the Virgin and Muddy to 



17G 



NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. 



[No. 7. 



the Santa Clara Valley in southwestern Utah, and Pahranagat Valley, 
Nevada. In western Nevada it was not found north of Sarcobatus 

Flat.— C. H. M.] 

List of specimens of Uta stansburiana. 



U.S. 
Nat. 
Mus, 
No. 



Sex and 



18508 
18509 
18510 
18511 
18512 
18513 
18514 
18515 
1851G 
18517 
18518 

J 8519 

18520 

18521 

18522 

18523 

18524 

18525 

18520 

18527 

18528 

18529 

18530 

18531 

18532 

1853:; 

18534 

18535 

18530 

18537 

18538 

18539 

18540 

18541 

18542 

18543 

18544 

18545 

1854G 

18547 

18548 

18549 

18550 

18551 

18552 

18553 

18551 

1S555 

18550 

18557 

18558 

18559 

18560 

1S501 

18562 

18503 
18504 
18505 
185GG 
18567 
1 8568 
18569 

18570 
18571 
18572 

18573 

1 8574 
18575 
18570 



d 

d 
d 
9 
? 
9 
9 
9 
9 
d 
d 

9 
d 
d 
d 
9 
d 

9 

d 

d 

9 

d 
d ii'i- 

9 

9 

9 

9 
9 juv, 

d 

9 

d 

d 

9 

d 

d 

d 

d 

d 

d 

d 

d 

d 

9 

9 

9 

d 

9 

d 

d 

d 

d 

d 

9 

9 

9 

d 

d 

d 

9 

9 
f 

9 

ad. 

d 

d 
9 
9 
d 



Locality. 



St. George, Utah 
do 



do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

Virgin River. Nev 

Charleston Mountains, Mountain 
Spring, Nev. 

do 

Pahrunip Valley, Nev 

do 

do 

do 

Pahranagat Valley, Nev 

Vegas Valley, Nev 

do i 

Ash Meadows, Nev 

do 

.r...do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

Death Valley, Calif 

do ..... 

do 

do 

Death Valley, near Salt Wells, Calif.. 
Deatli Valley, Bennett Wells, Calif. .. 
do ....'. 



Alti- 
tude. 



Feet. 

3, 000 



5,600 



1,800 
1,890 



Date. 



.do 
.do 
.do 
.do 
.do 
.do 
.do 
.do 
.do 
.do 



Deatli Valley, Mesquite Well, Calif. 

do ....'. 

Death Valley, Furnace Creek, Calif 
do....:. 



.do 
.do 
.do. 
.do 



Funeral Mountains, Calif 

do 

Deatli Valley, Saratoga Springs, Calif. 
do '. 



May 

...do . 

...do . 

May 

...do . 

May 

. . .(in . 

...do. 

...do. 

May 

Apr. 

...do. 

Feb. 

Feb. 

Apr. 

Apr. 

May 

Mar. 

...do. 

Mar. 

Mar. 

Mar. 

Mar. 

Mar. 

Mar. 

Mar. 

Mar. 

Mar. 

...do. 

Jan. 

...do. 

Mar. 

...do. 

Jan. 

Jan. 

...do. 

...do.. 

...do. 

. . .do . 

Jan. 

Jan. 

Jan. 

...do. 



.do 
.do 
.do 
do 



2, 100 



Resting Springs, Calif 

Boras Flat, Wain- Station, Calif 

Pa nam in I Mountains, JohnsouCafion, 

Calif. 
do do 

do | 5,000 Mac. 

do j 5, 500 | Apr. 

do I 0,000 I Mar. 



i Jan. 
! Apr. 

Jan. 

...do 

Feb. 

Jan. 

Jan. 

Jan. 

Jan. 

Apr. 

Feb. 

...do 

Feb. 

Jan. 

...do 

. .do 

Feb. 



Feb. 

A|>r. 
Mar. 



Collector. 



Bailey 

. . .do 

Merriam 

...do 

...do 

...do 

Bailey 

...do 

....do 

...do 

Merriam 



...do 

Nelson 

Palmer 

Merriam . . . 

Bailey 

Merriam 

Bailey 

....do 

Nelson 

....do 

....do 

Fisher 

....do 

....do 

....do 

....do 

Stephens... 

...do 

Bailey 

...do 

Nelson 

...do - 

Bailey 

Palmer 

....do 

Fisher 

....do 

....do 

Nelson 

...do 

....do 

...do 

...do 

Bailey 

...do 

Fisher 

....do 

Palmer 

....do 

....do 

Fisher 

....do 

Stephens - 

Nelson 

....do 

Bailey 

....do 

....do 

..:.do 

Nelson 

....do 

Fisher 

Stephens . 

Fisher 



Remarks. 



...do .. 
...do .. 
Nelson 

...do .. 



Mat, 1893.] REPTILES OF THE DEATH VALLEY EXPEDITION. 
List of specimens of Uta slansbiiriana — Continued. 



177 



U.S. 




Nat, 


Sex and 


Mus. 


age. 


No. 




18577 


d 


18578 


tf 


18579 


d 


18580 


9 


18581 


9 


18582 


d 


18583 


9 


18584 


J 


18585 


9 


18586 


d 


18587 


d 


18588 


9 


18589 


d 


18590 


cf 


18591 


d 


18592 


d 


18593 


d 


18594 


d 


18595 


d 


18596 


d 


18597 


d 



Locality. 



Alti- 
tude. 



Date. 



Collector. 



Remarks. 



Panamint Valley, Calif 

do 

do 

, do 

do 

Coso Mountains, Coso, Calif 

Panamint Mountains, Emigrant 

Spring, Calif. 
Moliave Desert, Leach Point Spring, 

Calif. 

Keeler, Calif 

FortTejon, Calif 

do 

Antelope Valley, Liebre Ranch, 

Calif. 

"Walker Pass (west slope), Calif 

Roses Station, Calif 

Kernville, Calif 

do 

Kern River, South Pork, Calif 

Fresno, Calif 

do 

Lone Pine, Calif 



Caliente, Calif. 



Feet. 



1,575 
1,575 



Jan. 5 

Jan. 12 
...do.... 

Jan. 5 

Apr. 20 

May 22 

Apr. 14 

Apr. 25 

June 3 
June 28 
...do .... 
...do.... 



Bailey . 
...do.. 
...do.. 
...do . 

...<h> ., 
Fisher 
Bailey . 

...do . 



Fisher . . . 
Merriam. 
...do .... 
...do .... 



4,600 



2,700 
'7,000 



July 3 
Oct, 13 
June 23 
...do.... 
July 9 
Sep. 23 
...do.... 
Dec. 19 

June 24 



Bailoy . 
Nelson . 
Palmer 
...do .. 
Bailey . 

do . . 

...do.. 
...do .. 



Palmer 



Lone Pine 
Canon. 



Uta graciosa (Hallow.). 

The known range of this well-named species has been considerably 
extended by the few specimens brought home by Dr. Merriam, inas- 
much as it carries it into Nevada, the first record for that State. 

Uta graciosa has a very peculiar and considerably restricted distri- 
bution, for the only definite localities so far recorded show it to be an 
inhabitant of a narrow strip of country on both sides of the Colorado 
River, probably from its mouth up to the beginning" of the Great Canon, 
and, as now shown, some distance up the Virgin River. 

[This slender and agile lizard was not seen in any of the deserts of 
southern California or Nevada, except in extreme eastern Nevada, 
where it was common at the Great Bend of the Colorado; thence 
northward it was fouud in a few places in the valley of the Virgin as 
far north as the Mormon town of Bunkerville, a few miles from the 
northwestern corner of Arizona. It was never seen on the open desert 
but usually on mesquite trees and the faces of cliffs, over which it moves 
with grace and agility. — C. H. M.] 

List of specimens of Uta graciosa. 



U.S. 
Nat. 
Mus. 
No. 


Sex and 
age. 


Locality. 


Alti- 
tude. 


Date. 


Collector. 


Remarks. 


18505 


d 
d 

d 




Feet. 


May 8 
May 4 

...do .... 


Bailey 

Merriam 

....do 




18506 
18507 


Callville, Nev. (Great Bend of Colo- 
rado) . 
do 



















12731— No. 7- 



-12 



178 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. [No. 7. 

Sceloporus magister (Hallow.). (PI. I, fig. 2.). 

The curious fate of Sceloporus marmoratus, or variabilis, in herpet- 
ological literature, as recently pointed out by me (Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 
xiv, 1891, p. 185, seq.), is equaled, if not surpassed, by that of the 
present species and Sceloporus clarMi. 

The latter species was established in 1852 by Baird and Girard upon 
specimens from 'Sonora' (i. e., Arizona). Two years later, Mr. Hallo- 
well described another large specimen of Sceloporus from the vicinity of 
Fort Yuma as S. magister. With the material at hand then, and con- 
sidering the insufficiency of the descriptions, it is hardly to be won- 
dered at that Baird and Girard subsequently adduced Hallowell's name 
S. magister as a synonym to S. clarMi, or that they have been followed 
in this course by all subsequent herpetologists, with the possible ex- 
ception, perhaps, of Hallowell himself, who, in 1859 still retains the 
name S. magister. They are, however, undoubtedly good species, as 
will be shown further on. 

One of the more recent authors to monograph the genus, Mr. Bocourt, 
in 1871, seems to have recognized the difference between the two, as he 
thinks S. clarMi related to S. formosus, and S. magister to spinosus or 
acantliinus, but beyond these vague suggestions, there is nothing to 
indicate that he ever had the opportunity to examine specimens of 
either. 

In 1875 S. clarMi is recognized by Cope, Coues, and Yarrow, in their 
various publications, and zosteromus is made a subspecies of S. clarMi, 
but not even that much recognition is given S. magist er. In Yarrow's 
Catalogue and Check list of 1883 there is no change. 

In Cope's 'Synopsis of the Mexican Species of the Genus Sceloporus^ 
published in 1885, there is a decided inclination towards lumping several 
of the North American forms (see for instance the synonymy of S. undu- 
latus), but one is hardly prepared to find S. zosteromus raised to a dis- 
tinct species again and to the total abandonment of S. clarMi. True, 
the paper by its title refers only to Mexican species, but as it includes 
several species confined to the United States it seems evident that the 
species occurring in North America were also intended to be included. 

But in the same year we meet a decided novelty, as Mr. Boulenger, 
in the second volume of his Catalogue of the Lizards in the British 
Museum, makes S. clarMi a subspecies of S. spinosus, with the following 
synonymy: S. magister Hall.; S. floridanus Baird, and S. thayerii 
Bocourt (nee. B.& G.) ! And in addition he remarks : " This form appears 
to be completely linked with S. uudulatus." Before proceeding further 
I will note here that at least his specimen a, from the ' Colorado Bot- 
tom,' is true S. magister, and that possibly he has not seen S. clarMi, 
under which name this specimeu was probably sent to the British 
Museum by the Smithsonian Institution. 

The last monographer of the genus, Dr. Giiuther, in the reptile volume 
of Biologia Central! Americana (February, 1890), finally includes both 



May, 1893.] REPTILES OF THE DEATH VALLEY EXPEDITION. 17D 

clarkii and magister as unconditional synonyms of 8. spinosus, evidently 
because he found a " want of agreement between the number of pores 
and the distribution of the species." However, had he first separated 
clarkii and magister by their proper characters which are not to be 
found in the number of femora] pores, he could not have missed the 
agreement looked for. 

I must myself plead guilty of having confounded 8. darkii and 8. 
magister, misled, as I was, by the almost unanimous verdict of herpe- 
tologists. If there was a settled question in regard to the Scelopori, 
I thought surely to have it in the identity of these two names. I re- 
garded no identification more secure than that of the specimens col- 
lected by Dr. Merriam in the Grand Caiion of the Colorado as S. clarkii * 
As a matter of fact, however, they are 8. magister. 

That I was finally undeceived is principally due to Mr. P. L. Jouy, 
who, while collecting for the National Museum near Tucson, southern 
Arizona, in 1891, had the good fortune to observe both species alive. 
In sending the specimens, he wrote me that he had undoubtedly two 
species which he could distinguish not only by their color when alive, 
but also by their habits and the different localities which they fre- 
quented, one being shy and agile, the other fearless and sluggish; one 
found only on the mesa and on the ground, the other near the river, 
and chiefly on trees and bushes. Not being able, upon a cursory ex- 
amination, to find any tangible character, I wrote back that there was 
only one big 8celoporus and 8. clarkii was its name. Upon his return, Mr. 
Jouy again brought up the question, and as he was so very persistent, 
I promised him to examine all the material carefully, a promise made 
more to please him than because I expected a different result. I went 
to work and it just so happened that the first two specimeus which I 
picked up belonged each to a different species. My eye at the very 
first glance hit upon the most distinctive character which separates the 
two, viz, the difference iu the spiny scales which protect the ante- 
rior border of the ear opening, a difference which is quite apparent 
upon an examination of the accompanying figures (PI. I, figs. 1 and 2). 
The constancy of the character was soon verified in a large series of 
specimens, as well as the concomitancy of the presence or absence of 
dusky cross markings on the dorsal aspect of the forearm and hand. 

It would have been difficult to ascertain the correct names of the two 
species from the published descriptions, but the types of both 8. clarkii 
and 8. magister are still in the collection, and fortunately they belong 
respectively to the two species. 

Upon plotting on a map the various localities from which I have 
examined specimens (about forty), it was shown that the two species 
inhabit different areas, and that the habitats come together and partly 
overlap in southeastern Arizona, notably around Tucson. But here 

* North American Fauna, No. 3, p. 110. 



180 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. [No. 7. 

it is useful to remember Mr. Jouy's observation that the two species 
live apart in separate localities. 

Sccloporus magister, according to this, inhabits the desert region of 
southern California, as verified by numerous examples brought home 
by the Death Valley Expedition' and enumerated hereafter. Material 
from the same source shows that it penetrates into southern Nevada, 
and easterly into southwestern Utah, while Dr. Merriam, duriug his 
San Francisco Mountain Expedition in 1889, demonstrated its occur- 
rence in the Grand Canon of the Colorado. The most northern locality 
from which the species has been brought, and which has never before 
been recorded, I believe, is the Big Bend of the Truckee River in Ne- 
vada, at 'Camp 12' of King's expedition, where numerous specimens 
were collected by Mr. Robert Ridgway. Eastward it has been found 
in the deserts of southern Arizona as far as Fort Yerde and Tucson. 

Sccloporus clarMi, on the other hand, within the United States, seems 
confined to southeastern Arizona, whence it is found southward into 
Mexico for an unknown distance, probably confined to the western 
slope of the Sierra Madre, for it is pretty certain that S. clarMi and all 
its allied forms, or species, are confined to the western slope of the 
continent. 

The map used for plotting the distribution of the two species was 
the summer 'Rain- chart of the United States' by Charles A. Schott 
(published by the Smithsonian Institution in 1S68) and the coincidence 
of the dividing line between the two species with the isohyetal line of 
6 inches seems to be more than accidental. 

Farther south in Mexico we find the typical S. clarMi replaced by a 
nearly related form, which, as it has received no name before, we may 
call 8. boulengeri;* Boulenger's 8. spinosus being in part this form. 

Still farther south we have another modification of the same type in 
Sccloporus acantMnus Boc, with its excessively long points to the dorsal 
scales. The locality whence came the type is St. Augustine, on the 
west slope of the volcano of Atitlan, Guatemala. 

Sccloporus magister has also representative forms toward the south. 
A very distinct species, but apparently of rather restricted distribu- 

* Sceloporus boulengeri, sp. nov., Plate I, figs, ba.-c. 

Diagnosis. — Similar to S. clarlcii but with fewer femoral pores; ear spines com- 
paratively short and broad; interparietal very broad. 

Habitat. — Mexico, west coast from Mazatlan to Guaymas. 

Type. — U. S. Nat. Mus.,No. 14079; Presidio, about 50 miles from Mazatlan, Sinaloa, 
Mexico; A. Forrer, coll. 

In the width of the interparietal the present form agrees with S. zostcromits, but 
the latter has nearly twice as many femoral pores, and its ear spines are long, nar- 
row, and numerous. 



May, 1893.] REPTILES OP THE DEATH VALLEY EXPEDITION. 181 

tion, of which specimens have come to hand only quite recently, is Sce- 
loporus oreutti* The only specimens seen have come from San Diego 
County, Southern California, and the only exact locality known is the 
Milquatay Valley, which Mr. C. R. Orcutt, who collected the specimens, 
and in whose honor the species is named, informs me "is just bordering 
the Mexican boundary, 50 miles east of San Diego by wagon road." 
It probably penetrates some distance south into the northern part of 
Lower California, in the southern portion of which its place is taken 
by 8. zosteromusA This species is closely allied to 8. magister. 8. 
eJarJcii, on the other hand, is more different from the latter than the 
latter is from S. zoster omits. 

I have above alluded to Mr. Boulenger having made 8. floridanus a 
synonym of his S. spinosus var. clarleii. Cope, on the other hand, makes 
it a synonym of 8. undulatus (Proc. Am. Philos. Soc, xxn, 1885, p. 398), 
but both are wrong, as an examination of the type specimen clearly 
proves. The fig. 6 on Plate I from this specimen shows that it has noth- 
ing to do with 8. clarleii, or any species of the group to which the latter 
belongs. On the other hand, the size of the dorsal scales easily distin- 
guishes it from 8. undulatus. It is in fact the same form which occurs 
all through southern Texas and which has commonly been called 8. 
spinosus. It is fairly separable from the true Mexican 8. spinosus by 
the greater number of femoral pores. The form occurring within the 
United States will therefore stand as Sceloporus floridanus, or 8. spino- 
sns floridanus (notwithstanding the fact that it does not occur in the 
peninsula of Florida) if the number of femoral pores should be found to 
intergrade. The most eastern point where this form has been found is 
Pensacola, Fla.; hence the name. It is needless to add that 8. thayeri 
B. & G. does not belong here; on the other hand, the specimens so 
described and figured by Bocourt certainly do. 

*Sceloporus oreutti sp. nov., plate I, figs. 4a-c. 

Diagnosis.— Similar to Sceloporus magister, but dorsal scales smaller, seven iu a bead 
length, very obtusely keeled and tbe spiny point scarcely protruding beyond tbe 
rounded outline; no nucbal collar; back with cross-bands of dark and paler brown, 
tbe dark bands being broader tban tbe pale ones; wbole underside pale grayish 
blue, without definite patches, the large males with the blue somewhat darker on 
throat, flanks, and thighs. 

Locality. — Milquatay Valley, San Diego County, Calif. 

Type.— U. S. Nat. Mus., No. 16330; Charles R. Orcutt, coll.; January 5. 1890. 

Although manifestly related to S. magister, this is perhaps the most distinct-look- 
ing species of the whole group, the comparative smoothness of the back and the very 
peculiar coloration being quite notable. The under surface is particularly remark- 
able when compared with the allied species, it being in fact unique among all the 
Scelopori which I have examined. It is quite probable, however, that the blue in 
the old males may deepen and darken as the season advances. 

The constancy of the species canbe vouched for, as I have examined ten specimens, 
eight of which are now before me, and they are all alike. 

t Plate I, fig. 3, shows some of the more essential characters of this species for 
comparison with the allied forms. 



182 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. [No. 7. 

It will thus be seen that — oven looking apart from 8. Jwrridus — we 
find ourselves compelled to recognize at least six distinct forms, or spe- 
cies, where so high an authority as Prof. Gunther as late as 1890 has 
admitted only one. This different result is chiefly due, however, to 
the much more abundant material at my command, for while the her- 
petologists of the British Museum had scarcely more than 30 specimens 
to draw conclusions from, I am fortunate enough to have before me 
nearly 200 specimens, mostly from well authenticated localities, upon 
which to base the above results. 

[Thelarge scaly lizard known as Sceloporus magister is a Lower Sonorau 
species ranging across the southern deserts and desert ranges of the Great 
Basin from California to Arizona and southwestern Utah. Unlike most 
of the lizards inhabiting the same region, it does not run about on the 
open desert, but lives on the tree yuccas, the ruins of stone or adobe 
dwellings, the nests of wood rats, and other objects that afford it shelter 
and protection. At the mouth of Beaverdam Creek in northwestern 
Arizona it was common among cottonwood logs and dead leaves ; in 
Pahranagat Valley it was abundant about the ruins of stone houses 
and along the faces of cliffs; in the Mohave Desert and other localities 
it is common on the tree yuccas, where it was often found on the very 
summits of the highest branches, and where it was rather wary and 
difficult of capture without a gun. 

In California it occurs throughout the Mohave Desert, ranging as far 
west as the tree yuccas in Antelope Valley and Walker Pass, and 
thence easterly in Owens Valley, Borax Flat, and the Argus and Pana- 
mint mountains. 

In Nevada it was found on the Grapevine Mountains, in Ash Mead- 
ows, in Pahrump Valley at the foot of the Charleston Mountains, in 
Vegas and Indian Springs valleys, in Pahranagat Mountains and Val- 
ley, at the Great Bend of the Colorado Biver, and in the valley of the 
Virgin. 

In Arizona it was abundant at the point where Beaverdam Creek 
joins the Virgin. 

In Utah it was common in the Lower Santa Clara or St. George 
Valley. 

Sceloporus magister is a mixed feeder, both insects and flowers being 
found in the stomachs examined. At the Great Bend of the Colorado, 
Nevada, and St. George, Utah, stomachs were opened that contained 
insects only. One from the latter locality contained a large goldsmith 
beetle.— C. H. M.] 



May, 1803.] REPTILES OF THE DEATH VALLEY EXPEDITION. 183 

I. is/ of specimens of Sceloporus magister. 



tr.s. 




Nat, 


Sex and 


Mils. 


ago. 


No. 




J 8096 


9 . 


18097 


d 


18098 


9 


18099 


? 


18100 


9 ,iuv. 


18101 


d j«v- 


18102 


9 


L8103 


d 


18104 


d 


18105 


d 


18106 


d j«v. 


18107 


d 


18108 


d 


18109 


d 


18110 


d jnv. 


18111 


d juv. 


18112 


d 


18113 


d 


18114 


d 


18115 


d 


18116 


d 


18117 


d 


18118 


d 


18119 


9 juv. 


18120 


9 


18121 


9 


18122 


9 


18123 


d 


18124 


d 


18125 


d 


18126 


d 


18127 


d 


18128 


9 


18129 


9 


18130 


9 


18131 


d 


18132 


9 j>w. 


18133 


d 



Locality. 



Pahranagai Valley. Nev. 
do.. 



.do. 

.do. 
.do. 
.do. 



Pahranagat Mountains, Nev 

Pahrnmp Valley, Nev 

Callville, Nev .'. 

A sh Meadows, Nev , 

do 

Vegas Valley, Nev 

Indian Spring Valley. Nev.. 

do 

Grapevine Mountains, Nev . 



Bunkerville, Nev 

St. George, Utah 

do 

Diamond V alley, 10 miles north of 
St. George, Utah. 

do 

Panamint Mountains, Cottonwood 
Canon, Calif. 

d<> 

Panamint Mountains, Willow 
Creek, Calif. 

do 

Walker Pass, Calif 

do 

do 

Mohave, Mohave Desert, Calif 

Near Mohave, Mohave Desert, Calif . 

do 

do 

Mohave Desert, near base <>f Gran- 
ite Mountains, Calif. 

Argus Range, Shepherd Canon, 
Calif. 

do 

Argus Range, Searl's Garden, 
Calif. 

Owens Valley (Lone Pine), Calif . . 

do 

Columbus, Nev 



Alti- 
tude. 



Feet. 



4,100 



5,000 



4,800 
4,800 



3. 900 
3,800 

4,600 

4,000 
4,000 
4,000 



3, 000 



Date. 



May 23 
...do.. .. 

...do .... 
...do .... 
...do .... 
May 25 
May 26 
Apr. 29 
May 4 
Mar. 16 
Mar. 20 
May I 
Ma'v 29 
...do ... 
June 8 



Mav 8 

May 12 

Ma'v 13 

May 16 

May 16 
June 14 

Mav 29 
May 22 

May 17 
July 2 
July 1 
...do .... 
June 26 
...do .... 
...do --- 
Apr. 6 
Apr. 25 



Apr. 29 

Apr. 27 
Apr. 24 

June 11 
June 12 
Dec. '90 



Collector. 



Merriam 
...do ... 
...do ... 
Bailey . . 
Merrian 
Bailey .. 
Merriam 
...do... 
Bailey .. 
Nelson . 
Palmer . 
Bailey . . 
Merriam 
Bailey-. 
Nelson . 

Merriam 
Bailey . . 
— do ... 

Merriam 

...do... 
Nelson.. 

...do ... 
...do ... 

.. do... 
Bailey .. 
...do... 
... do ... 
Palmer . 
Merriam 
...do ... 
...do ... 
Bailey . . 

Fisher.. 

...do ... 

Stephens 

Fisher . . 
...do ... 
Bailey . . 



Remarks. 



Yucca belt. 



4,000 feet above 
Salt Wells, 
Mesquite Val- 
ley. 



Lava rock. 

Do. 
4,400 feet above 
Salt Wells. 



On rocks. 



Sceloporus graciosus B. & G. 

The size of the dorsal scales in this species is very variable, the num- 
ber of scales in a head length varying from eleven to sixteen. Both ex- 
tremes are represented in the present collection. In the two smallest 
specimens the numbers are fifteen and sixteen; in a slightly larger one 
from Mount Ma gruder, Nevada, there are fourteen; in two full-grown 
specimens from the same locality, thirteen and twelve; one from the 
east slope of the High Sierra west of Lone Pine, Calif, (altitude 8,000 feet), 
has also twelve; and in a couple from the Juniper Mountains, Nevada 
altitude 6,700 feet), the number of scales in a head length is only eleven. 
From this it might be supposed that the difference in the ratio between 
the head and the dorsal scales depended upon age, but in the types of the 
species (U. S. Nat. Mus. 2877, Great Salt Lake, Utah, Capt. Stansbury 
coll.), which are fully as small as the smallest specimens mentioned 



184 



NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. 



[No. 7. 



above with fifteen and sixteen scales to the head length, the number is 
only twelve, while in two full-grown males from Fort Klamath, Oregon 
(U. S. Nat. Mus. Nos. 15437-15438, Dr. Merrill, coll.), there are fifteen 
and fourteen, respectively. 

[This species, which is a characteristic inhabitant of the Upper So- 
noran and Transition zones in northern Nevada, eastern Oregon, and 
Idaho, was very abundant on the sage-covered plateau of Mount Ma- 
gruder at an altitude of about 2,450 meters (8,000 feet) ; in the sage 
l>lains on top of the White and Inyo mountains near the boundary be- 
tween California and Nevada; and on the east slope of the Sierra Ne- 
vada west of Owens Valley (at 2,450 meters, or 8,000 feet). It was com- 
mon also among the sage and juniper on the Juniper Mountains along 
the boundary between Nevada and Utah. 

Sceloporus graciosus is generally found in company with such Tran- 
sition Zone species as the sage thrasher {Oroscoptes onontanus), Brewer's 
sparrow (Spizella brewer i), the Nevada sage sparrow (Amphispiza belli 
nevadensis), the sage plains chipmunk (Tamias minimus pictus), the sage 
brush pocket mouse (Perognathus olivaceus), and the sage plains sper- 
mophile (SpermopMlus mollis). — O. II. M.] 

List of specimens of Sceloporus graciosus. 



U.S. 
Nat. 
Mus. 
No. 



18134 
18135 
1813<i 
18137 
18138 

18139 
18140 



18141 



Sox 
ami 
Aye. 



Locality. 



Mount Magruder, Nev 

'."'.'. "do .'.'.'.'.'.'. ......'. ....... \V".V.Y. 

Juniper Mountains, Nev 

Juniper Mountains (Sheep Spring, 15 

miles east of Panaca), Nev. 
High Sierra, west of Lone Pine, Calif 
Panamint Mountains, Willow Creek, 

Calif. 



(?) 



Alti- 
tude. 



Feet. 

8,000 

8, 000 

8,000 

C.700 

6,700 

8,000 
6,400 



Date. 



June 6 

..do 

..do 

May 19 

..do. ... 

June 18 
May 12 



(?) 



Collector. 



Merriam. 
...do.... 
Bailey . . . 
Merriam. 
Bailey . . . 

Merriam. 

Nelson... 



(?) 



Remarks. 



Sage Plain. 

Bo. 

Bo. 
In junipers. 



(*) 



♦Without label, but with the following note by Mr. Charles W.Richmond: "Rec'd July 2, 1891, with 
specimens from Grapevine Mountains, Lone Pine, etc." 

Sceloporus bi-seriatus Hallow. 

The great majority of Scelopori brought home by the expedition be- 
loug to this form, which in t]\e region visited seems to occur every- 
where above the desert belt at least up to 8,000 feet altitude. 

I can discover no difference between the examples from the moun- 
tains inclosing the Valley of California and those from the isolated 
desert ranges to the east, except that male specimens with the white 
of the under surface replaced by black are more common from the lat- 
ter localities. 

Among the localities from which specimens were brought are the 
type localities of Hallowell's bi-seriatus, with its several color varieties, 
of Baird's longipes, of Cope's smaragdinus, and of Boulenger's bocourlii; 



May, 1893.] REPTILES OF THE DEATH VALLEY EXPEDITION. 185 

and with the actual types of Baird and of Cope, and with specimens 
before me out of the same bottles upon which Boulenger founded his 
variety, I have no hesitation in pronouncing all these names synony- 
mous, and in asserting that Bocourt's 8. biseriatus is the same as Hal- 
lo well's. Boulenger's bocourtii, however, is somewhat composite, as I 
do not believe that the Monterey specimens, at least, belong to it. I 
have no doubt that they are referable to S. occidentalism with which the 
present form is easily confounded, on account of the fact that both 
differ from typical 8. undulalus in the females having the blue patches 
almost as well developed as the males.* 

[Sceloponts biseriatus is one of the few lizards inhabiting both the 
desert ranges of the Great Basin and the interior valley of California. 
Specimens were obtained at frequent intervals all the way from the Upper 
San Joaquin Valley, in California, to the Upper Santa Clara Valley, in 
Utah, about 10 miles northwest of St. George. On the east side of the 
Great Divide, in California, it was obtained on the Panainint, Argus, 
Coso, White, and Inyo mountains, and at the east foot of the Sierra in 
Owens Valley (on Independence Creek). On the west side of the Great 
Divide it was common on the west slope of Walker Pass and thence 
down into Kern Valley to the neighborhood of Kernville, and southerly 
along the west slope of the Sierra to Havilah and Walker Basin, and 
northerly to Three Bivers. It was common also in the Caiiada de las 
Uvas, and in the Upper San Joaquin Valley, where specimens were col- 
lected at Kern Lakes, Tulare, and Fresno. In Nevada it was collected 
on the Charleston Mountains (near Mountain Spring), on Mount Magru- 
der, in the Juniper Mountains, and in the Grapevine Mountains. 

A black form (having the belly intensely blue-black) was found on 
black lava rock in Diamond Valley, Utah; on the Charleston Moun- 
tains (near Mountain Spring), Nevada, where it was found both on 
rocks and on juniper trees, and on the White Mountains, near the east- 
ern boundary of California. In the latter locality it was common on 
the summit of the divide near the road between Deep Spring and Owens 
valleys, where it was frequently seen on and among light colored rocks, 
which made it unusually conspicuous. It is entirely possible, however, 
that this very striking contrast is a protection, causing the lizard to re- 
semble the dark cracks in the rocks when viewed from above by pass- 
ing hawks.— C. H. M.J 

*Yarrow's S. undulatus thayeri (Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 24, p. 60) consists mainly of 
S. U-seriaius, but also to some estent'of S. occidentalis. To the latter are also refera- 
ble Cope's specimens similarly named in Proc. Phil. Ac, 1883, p. 28, and probably 
torn, cit., pp. 23 and 27. 



186 



NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. 
JAM of specimens of Sceloporu&biseriatus. 



[No. 7. 



U.S. 
Nat. 
Mus. 
No. 


Sex 
and 
age. 


Locality. 


Alii- 
tude. 


Date. 


Collector. 


Remarks. 


18147 


d 
d 
d 
d 
d 
9 juv. 

9 ,i uv - 
d 

d 

d 

d 
d 
d 
d 
d 
9 
d 
d 
d 
d 
9 
9 ad. 
d 
d 
d 
9 
d 
9 
d 

d 
d 
d 
d 
9 
d 
9 ad. 
9 
9 

? ad. 
9 
d 
d 

juv. 
d 

9 
d 
9 
d 
d 
d 
9 

d 

d 
d 
9 
d 
9 
d 

9 
d 




Feet. . 

8,000 

6,000 

6, 000 

6,000 

6.000 

6,000 


Apr. 19 
Apr. 4 
..do 


Nelson 

....do 

do 




18148 


do 




18149 


do 




18150 


do 


Apr. 3 
..do 


....do 

do 




18151 


do 




18152 


do 


..do ... 


...do . . 




18153 


do 


Mar. — 
Mar. — 
May 19 

Mar. 31 

..do 


....do 

....do 

....do 

Fisher 

do 




18154 


do 


*C, 000 
4,500 




18155 
18156 
18157 


Panamint Mountains, Willow Creek, 

Calif. 
Panamint Mountains, Johnson Canon, 

Calif. 
do...'. 




18158 


do 




Apr. 11 
Apr. 2 
Apr. 4 
Apr. 10 
Apr. 4 
May 18 
May 23 
May 21 
May 20 


....do 

....do 

....do 

....do 

....do 

....do 

....do 

....do 

....do 

do 




18159 


do 






181G0 


do 






18161 


do 






18162 


do 






18163 








18164 


do 






18165 


do 






18166 


do 






18167 


do 






18168 


do 




do . . . 


do 




18169 


Old Fort Tejon, Calif 




June 28 
. . do 


Palmer 

Merriani 

Palmer 

....do 

....do 

....do 

Fisher 

...do 




18170 


do 






18171 


do 




June 29 
July 3 
July 5 
July 8 
July 7 

June 23 
..do 




18172 


do 






18173 


do 






18174 


do 






18175 
18176 


South Fork Kern River, 25 miles 

above Kernville, Calif. 
Kernville, Calif 






18177 


do 






18178 
18179 


South Fork Kern River, Calif 

Walker Basin, Calif 


2,750 


July 7 

July 14 

do .... 


Fisher 

...do 




18180 


do 






18181 


Havilah, Calif 




June 24 
do 


Palmer 

...do 




18182 


do 






18183 


do 




.do 


Merriani 

Palmer 

.do 




18184 
18185 


Fresno County, Horse Corral Meadow, 

Calif. 
do 




Aug. 11 
do 




18186 


do 




..do 


Fisher 

...do 

Nelson 

...do 




18187 


Walker Pass (West Slope;, Calif 




July 7 
Oct, 14 
. do 




18188 


Canada de las Uvas, Calif 






18189 


do 






18190 


White Mountains, Calif 


8,000 


June 9 
Aug. 15 
July 28 
July 21 
July 29 
..do" 
May 7 
June 21 

Apr. 30 

do 


Merriam 

Bailey 

Fisher 

Bailey 

Nelson 

Fisher 

Stephens . . . 

Bailey 

...do 




18191 


Soda Springs, Kern River, Calif 




18192 


Three Rivers, Calif 






18193 


Tulare, Calif 






18194 
18195 


Kaweah River, East Fork, Calif 

San Joaquin River, Calif 


5,600 
7,600 




18196 


Argus Range, Shepherd Cafion, Calif. . 




18197 
18198 
18199 


East Slope High Sierra, Independ- 
ence Creek, Calif. 

Charleston Mountains, Mountain 
Spring, Nev. 


6,000 

5,600 

5,600 
5,600 
5,600 




18200 


do 


..do 
do .. 


Merriani 

...do 




18201 


do 




18202 




June 5 
.do..... 


...do 

...do 




18203 


do 






18204 
18105 


Juniper Mountains, 12 miles east of 
Panaca, Nov. 


6,700 

6,400 
4,800 


May 19 

June 10 
May 16 


Bailey 

Nelson 

Bailey 




18206 


Ten miles west of St. George, Utah. . 


On lava rock. 



* About. 



Sceloporus occidentalis B. & G. 

The Monterey specimens enumerated below belong to the present form 
of 8. undulatus. The status of these two forms relative to each other 
has not been settled yet, nor has the material necessary for such a 



Mat, 1893.] REPTILES OP THE DEATH VALLEY EXPEDITION. 



187 



settlement been accumulated so far in any museum, 
stances nothing is gained by using a trinominal. 



Under these circum- 



List of specimens of Sceloporus oecidentalis. 



U.S. 
Nat. 
Mus. 
No. 



18143 
18144 
18145 
1814G 



Sex 

and 

Age. 



d 

d"juv. 



Locality. 



Mimtriev, Calif. 

do... 

do 

do 



Alti- 
tude. 



Feet. 



Date. 



Oct. 6 
Oct. 3 

Sept. - 29 
Sept. 30 



Collector. 



Bailey 
...do.. 
...do.. 
...do.. 



Remarks. 



Phrynosoma blainvillii Gray. 

That authors with only specimens of either Ph. blainvillii or Ph. corona- 
tum before them should consider both species synonymous is perhaps not 
to be wondered at, but a confusion of them, with both at hand, is not so 
easily explained. The differences are marked, numerous, and constant, 
and moreover, are easily expressed. The two species inhabit two 
well-separated zoological faunas, for while P/t. coronatum appears to 
be restricted to the Cape region of Lower California — that is to say, to 
the comparatively small mountainous area at the extreme southern end 
of the peninsula, on which are located Cape St. Lucas, La Paz, and 
San Jose del Cabo — Ph. blainvillii is restricted, so far as we know, to 
Upper California. How far down the peninsula the latter species 
descends we do not know, and whether there is any other gap between 
the two species than the low, sandy plains to the north of the Cape re- 
gion remains to be seen ; but it is somewhat significant that Cerros 
Island, about halfway down the peninsula, is inhabited by a third 
species,* more nearly related to Ph. blainvillii than to Ph. coronatum. 

The title of the Californian species to the name Phrynosoma blain- 
villii Gray is at present not entire ly beyond a suspicion. The facts in 
the case are as follows : 

In the 'Zoology of Capt. Beechey's Voyage' (published in 1839), J. 
E. Gray (p. 96), shortly and insufficiently characterized a new species 
of Phrynosoma from 'California' as Ph. blainvillii without stating the 
source of the specimen or whether more than one specimen served 
as a basis for his description. The text is accompanied by a wretched 
figure (PL xxix, fig. 1). The description gives no clew to the ideu tity 
of the species, but were I to go by the figure alone, I should unhe si- 

*Phrynosoma cerroense, sp. nov. 

Diagnosis. — Nostrils excessively large, pierced in the line of canthus rostralis; 
gnlar scales enlarged, in several longitudinal rows; ventral scales smooth; along 
and slender spine between the sublabial rictal spine and the lower end of the ear; 
medium occipital spine reduced to a tubercle; no row of spines between eye and 
temporal spines; lower peripheral spine row obsolete and only indicated by a few 
scattered small spines. 

Hauilat. — Cerros Island, Pacific coast of Lower California. 

r Type. — U. S. National Museum, No. 11,977; L. Belding coll. 



188 NORTH AMERICAN I^AUNA. [No. 7. 

tatingly refer it to the Upper California!) species, bad as the figure 
is, and not to Ph. coronatum from Cape St. Lucas. However, in his 
1 Catalogue of the Specimens of Lizards in the British Museum ' ( 1845), 
Gray himself identifies his species with Ph. coronatum and states in so 
many words that his Ph. blainvillii was based upon a specimen presented 
by Prof. De Blainville (see also his statement in the introduction, p. v., 
that "the specimens presented by M. De Blainville may be regarded 
as the types of the species described by that professor in the Wouveaux 
Memoir es du Museum)." In addition he enumerates three more speci- 
mens from 'California.' This would seem to settle the case in favor 
of making Ph. coronatum and Ph. blainvillii synonymous, but there are 
yet two possibilities. First, it must be remembered that Botta, whose 
collection was the basis of De Blainville's description, evidently col- 
lected both at the Cape St. Lucas (where he obtained Callisaurus dra- 
conoides, Cyclura acanthura, Coluber vejtebralis), and also further north 
in Upper California, probably near San Diego (where he secured Coluber 
catenifer; C. inf emails ) C. calif or niae). It is, therefore, quite possible 
that he collected horned-toads at both places, and that the young speci- 
men presented to the British Museum in reality was different from Ph. 
coronatum. Whether this be the case could easily be settled in the British 
Museum, where the specimen is still preserved. In the second place, it 
is possible that Gray had figured one of the other specimens then in the 
British Museum, and that the specimen figured belongs to the Upper 
Californian species. If that be the case the name Ph. blainvillii 
would stick to the latter no matter which specimens Gray subsequently 
might designate as the type. 

There is some additional inferential evidence which tends to corrobo- 
rate this opinion, viz, that Boulenger with the above specimens before 
him and additional specimens from Monterey refers them all to one 
species (Cat. Liz. Brit. Mus., n, 1885, pp. 243, 244), as it seems but little 
probable that he should have failed to appreciate the great difference, 
had both species been represented in his series. 

The geographical distribution of Ph. blainvillii includes the interior 
valley of California as well as the entire western slope of the various 
coast ranges, but it is not found, so far as I know, anywhere in the 
true desert region. It is true that Yarrow's Catalogue (Bull. U. S. Nat. 
Mus., No. 24, 1883, p. 70) enumerates two specimens as having been 
collected by Dr. Loew in the Mohave Desert, but I have good reasons 
for asserting that the locality is in all probability erroneous. In the 
original entry of No. 8047 only one specimen is registered, while the 
bottle now contains three specimens so numbered, a fact which throws 
discredit upon the whole entry; and as Dr. Loew collected near Santa 
Barbara and at Santa Cruz Island in June, 1875, as shown by the 
records, the probability is that the specimens in question came from 
one or both of those localities. 

It is to Ph. blainvillii that the published accounts about ejecting 



May, 1893.] REFTILES OF THE DEATH VALLEY EXPEDITION. 189 

blood from the eyes should be credited, and one of the specimens in the 
collection brought home (No. 18452) is the offender who gave rise to 
Dr. O. P. Hay's entertaining article (Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., xv, 1892, 
pp. 375-378) on this subject. It transpired afterwards that this speci- 
men had been sent me alive for the very reason that it had been eject- 
ing blood repeatedly when caught. The letter from Mr. Bailey accom- 
panying the specimen turned up long after Dr. Hay's experience with 
the animal, and it is to the following effect: 

Kernvjxle, Cal., July 11, 1891. 
Dear Sir : I caught a horned toad to-day that very much surprised Dr. Fisher 
and myself hy squirting hlood from its eyes. It was on smooth ground and not in 
brush or weeds. I caught it with my hand and just got my fingers on its tail as 
it ran. On taking it in my hand a little jet of hlood spurted from one eye a dis- 
tance of 15 inches and spattered on my shoulder. Turning it over to examine the 
eye another stream spurted from the other eye. This he did four or five times from 
both eyes until my hands, clothes, and gun were sprinkled over with fine drops of 
bright red blood. I put it in a bag and carried it to camp, where, about four hours 
later, I showed it to Dr. Fisher, when it spurted three more streams from its eyes. 
One of the same species that I caught July 2 evidently did the same, as I found its 
head covered with blood when I caught it, but supposed it was injured in the 
weeds. It seems so strange that I send the horned toad to you alive. 

Vernon Bailey. 

The specimen upon its arrival was handled a great deal, but gave 
no evidence of its blood-squirting tendencies until the beginning of 
August, when it resented Dr. Hay's handling it somewhat roughly in 
the manner related. In order to give the entire history of this animal, 
I reprint Dr. Hay's account as follows : 

"About the 1st of August it was shedding its outer skin, and the 
process appeared to be a difficult one, since the skin was dried and 
adhered closely. One day it occurred to me that it might facilitate 
matters if I should give the animal a wetting; so, taking it up, I carried 
it to a wash-basin of water near by and suddenly tossed the lizard into 
the water. The first surprise was probably experienced by the Phry- 
nosoma, but the next surprise was my own, for on one side of the basin 
there suddenly appeared a number of spots of red fluid, which resem- 
bled blood A microscope was soon procured and an 

examination was made, which immediately showed that the matter 
ejected was really blood. 

"The affair now became very interesting. Just where the blood 
came from I could not determine with certainty, the whole thing hav- 
ing happened so suddenly and unexpectedly; yet the appearance 
seemed to indicate that the blood came from the region about one of 
the eyes. There appeared to be a considerable quantity of the blood, 
since on the sides of the vessel and on the wall near it I counted ninety 
of the little splotches. A consultation was had with Mr. Stejueger 
the next day with regard to the propriety of dashing the animal into 
the water again to discover, if j)ossible, where the blood came from. 



190 



NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. 



[No. 7. 



It was thought, however, that such blood-lettings must be somewhat 
exhausting, aud that it would be better to allow the animal a day to 
recuperate. While talking I picked up the lizard and was holding it 
between my thumb and middle finger, and stroking its horns with my 
fore-finger. All at once a quantity of blood was thrown out against 
my fingers, and a portion of it ran down on the animal's neck; and this 
blood came directly out of the right eye. It was shot backward and 
appeared to issue from the outer canthus. It was impossible to deter- 
mine just how much there was of the blood, but it seemed that there 
must have been a quarter of a teaspoonful. I went so far as to taste 
a small quantity of it, but all that I could detect was a slight musky 
flavor." 

[The fact that horned toads at times eject blood from their eyes is 
well known in the West, and is by no means confined to the present 
species. I have been aware of the habit for many years. 

Phrynosoma blainvillii is the horned toad of the interior valley and 
coastal slopes of California. Specimens were obtained by our expedi- 
tion on the west slope of the Sierra Nevada in Walker Pass, in Kern 
Valley, Walker Basin, and at old Fort Tejon in the Canada de las 
Uvas; and others were collected at Bakersfield and Fresno in the 
San Joaquin Valley, and on Carrizo Plain. — C. H. M.] 

List of specimens of Phrynosoma blainvillii. 



U.S. 




Nat, 


Sex and 


Mus. 


age. 


No. 




18446 


d 


18447 


? 


IK 448 


d 


18449 


d 


18450 


2 


18451 


? 


18452 


d 


1845:! 


rT.jun. 


18454 


cf juv. 


18455 


9 jun. 


18456 


? 


18457 


d 


18458 


9 


18459 


2 


18460 


cTjun. 



Locality. 



Walker Pass, Calif 

do 

do 

Walker Basin, Calif 

South Fork, Kern River, Calif. 

Kemville, Calif 

do 



Fresno, Calif 

do 

do 

Bakersfield, Calif , 

Carrizo Plains, Calif , 

do 

Old Port Te.jon, Calif 

Canada de las Uvas, Calif 



Alti- 
tude. 



Feet. 



2,750 



Date. 



July 2 
....do ... 
....do... 
July 14- 
July 7 
Juno 23 
July 11 

Sept, 23 
....do... 
....do... 
Oct. 11 
....do ... 
....do... 
July 4 
July 9 



Collector. 



Bailey . 
...do... 

Fisher.. 

Bailey . . 
...do ... 
Palmer 
Bailey . 

...do .. 
...do .. 
...do .. 
Nelson. 
...do .. 
...do .. 
rainier 
...do .. 



Remarks. 



Western slope. 



Ejected blood 
from eye. 



PL II, fig. 2. 



Phrynosoma platyrhinos Girard. 

Boulenger asserts that this species is " very closely allied " to Ph. 
m'callii, (Cat. Liz. Br. Mus., n, 1885, p. 247), but as a matter of fact 
these species are as distinct as any two in the genus. Boulenger's 
error, undoubtedly, arose from the fact that the specimen he described 
as Ph. ni'callii is not this species at all, bat only another specimen of 
Ph. platyrhinos. No wonder his specimens are "very closely allied!" 
Had he compared his specimens with the descriptions and figures 
quoted by him he would not have made the mistake; as it is, he has 



May. 1893.] REPTILES OF THE DEA.TH VALLEY EXPEDITION. 101 

taken the identification of his specimen (U. S. Nat. Mus. No. 10785) 
by Dr. Yarrow as conclusive, without knowing that not a single speci- 
men of all the horned toads enumerated by Yarrow in his Catalogue 
of Reptiles in the U. S. National Museum really belongs to Ph. m , callii. 

The fact, however, that Boulenger had given characters apparently 
separating northern and southern specimens, led me to examine the 
material at hand with a view to ascertain whether it might be possible 
to recognize two or more races, but an inspection of about one hundred 
and seventy five specimens fails to disclose any character or combina- 
tion of characters by which to separate them. The shape of the head, 
length, shape, and direction of head spines, length of limbs, number of 
femoral pores, and coloration are so variable that no separation can be 
built upon any of these characters. To illustrate this, let me discuss 
the contents of the two jars out of each of which Mr. Boulenger had 
one specimen, viz : U. S. Nat. Mus., No. 10785 and 11770. The former 
is Boulenger's so-called Ph. irfcallii, with the occipital spines as long as 
the horizontal diameter of the orbit, and seven femoral pores on each 
side. 

In No. 10785 (locality and collector now unknown), out of which came 
Boulenger's so-called Ph. m'callii, there are now left seven specimens, 
six males and one female. The number of femoral pores on each side 
in the males are respectively 9, 8, 7, 7, 9, 8, and in the female 7; in the 
latter the occipital horns are comparatively best developed, and in at 
least one of the large specimens this horn is considerably shorter than 
the horizontal diameter of the orbit. 

In No. 11770 (Camp 12, King's Exped., Nevada, R. Ridgway, coll.) 
there are now six specimens, three adult males and one young, and one 
adult and one young female. The number of femoral pores in the adult 
males are respectively 9, 10, 8, and in the adult female 9; in the first- 
mentioned male the occipital spine is longer than the horizontal 
diameter of the orbit; in the second, the two dimensions are equal; 
in the third male and in the female the spines are shorter. As there 
seems to be a slight average difference between the specimens in the 
two jars, I was led to examine my series with a view to determine 
whether the southern specimens average a smaller number of femoral 
pores than northern ones, but without success. 

The reexamination of my material, however, led to the unexpected dis- 
covery of a new sj)ecies from the sandy coast desert of the Mexican 
state of Sonora, which I have called Ph. goodei,* and dedicated to Dr. 

*Phrynosoma goodei sp. nor. (plate ii, figs. 3, a-e). 

Diagnosis. — Nostrils pierced within the canthi rostrales; one series of enlarged 
spines around the periphery of the hody ; tail more than twice the length of the head ; 
tympanum entirely concealed hy scales ; 7-10 femoral pores ; 3 temporal horns only 
on each side, the posterior one nearly on a line with and of the same size as the oc- 
cipital horns; only three posterior inframaxillary plates spinous. 

Habitat. — Coast deserts of the state of Sonora, Mexico. 

Type— U. S. Nat, Mus. No. 8567a; Dr. T. H. Streets coll. 



192 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. [No. 7. 

G. Brown Goode, the Assistant Secretary of the Smithsonian Institu- 
tion. It belongs to the same group which embraces Ph. cornutum, 
m J callii, and platy rhinos, but is hardly more closely allied to one than to 
the others. It may easily be distinguished by the diagnosis given in 
the footnote, and for comparison with Ph. platyrhinos I add figures of 
both on plate n. 

Ph. platyrhinos appears to be distinctively a desert species, as it was 
collected nearly everywhere, outside of the interior valley of California 
and the Pacific slope, where members of the expedition went, and judg- 
ing from the great number of specimens brought back it must be very 
common. The range of the species covers that of Callisaurus ventralis 
within the territory of the United States, but extends considerably 
further east and north. 

As with the other species of this genus the ground color of the living 
animal is subject to great variation, more or less dependent upon the 
coloration of the surroundings. The specimens collected by the expe- 
dition vary from a very pale, in some nearly whitish, drab gray to a 
vivid brick-red. 

[Horned toads abound throughout the desert regions of the West. 
Phrynosoma platyrhinos inhabits the Lower Sonoran deserts of the 
Great Basin from California to Utah and ranges up a short distance into 
the Upper Sonoran. In California it was found in greater or less abun- 
dance in the Mohave Desert, in Owens, Coso, Panamint, Death, Mes- 
quite, and Deep Spring valleys, and in the Argus, Funeral, and 
Panamint mountains (up to 1,740 meters or 5,700 feet on west slope 
northwest of Wild Eose Spring). In Nevada it was abundant in Sar- 
cobatus Flat, the Amargosa Desert, Ash Meadows, Indian Spring, 
Pahrump, Vegas, Pahranagat, and Meadow Creek valleys, • and the 
Valley of the Virgin and Muddy. In the northwestern corner of 
Arizona it was very abundant about the mouth of Beaverdam Creek 
and thence up on the west slope of the Beaverdam Mountains. In 
Utah it was common in the Santa Clara Valley ranging up through 
the sage brush to Diamond Valley and Mountain Meadows. 

At Ash Meadows in the Amargosa Desert a very white form was 
found living on the white alkali soil. 

The horned toads of the San Joaquin Valley and w r est slope of the 
Sierra Nevada in California belong to another species, Phrynosoma 
blainvillii—G. H. M.j 



May, 1803. J REPTILES OF THE DEATH VALLEY EXPEDITION. 



id; 



I.ht of specimens of Phrynosoma platyrhinos. 



Sex 

anil 
age. 



9 
9 

d 

9 

? JUD. 
? 
d 

cf.iuv. 

9 

cf 

rf 
9 

9 .i"n. 

,'" 
d 
d 

c 

<? 

d 



9 

9 juv. 

d 1 

d 

d 

d 

d 

d 
d juv. 

d 
d .I'm. 

d 

d 

9 

9 

9 

d 
9 .i»n. 

9 

rf 

9 J'in- 

d 
d 

d 
9 
9 



d 

9 

9 

d 

■' 
9 ,i"n. 
9. inn. 

d 

9 



Locality. 



Virgin Valley, Ariz 

-do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

St. George, Utah 

do 

do 

Mountain Meadows, Utah.. 

Panaca, Nev 

do 

do 

Grapevine Mountains, Nev 



Lincoln County, Nev 

do .* 

Indian Spring Valley, Nev. 

do 

Pahrump Valley, Nov 

do ..." 

Pahranagat Valley, Nev . . . 

do 

do 

Vegas Vallev, Nov 

do 

Aruargosa Desert. Nev 

do 

do 

Ash Meadows, Nev 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

Amargosa, Nev 

Funeral Mountains, Calif. . 



Argus Range, bead of Borax Flat, 

Calif. 
Water Station, head of Borax Flat, 

Calif. 

Death Valley, Calif 

Death Valley, Bennett Wells, Calif. 
Death Valley, Furnace Creek, Calif. 

do 

10 miles from Besting Springs, ( 'alif 

Saline Valley, Calif. 

Panamint Mountains, Wild Bose 

Spring, Calif. 

do 

do 

do 

Panamint Mountains, Willow 

Creek, Calif. 
Panamint Valley, Wild Rose 

Spring, Calif. 
Panamint Valley. Calif 

do : 



Alli- 
fcude. 



Feet. 



3, 000 



5, 000 



.do 

.do 
.do 
.do 



Owens Lake, Ash Creek, Calif 

Owens Valley, 10 miles north of 

Bishop, Calif. 
Argus Range, Maturango Spring, 

Calif. 
do 



9 

lL'731— No, 9 



1,500 

5, 300 

.do ... 
.do ... 
.do ... 

5, 000 

4,500 



3,700 
4,200 



Date 



Collector. 



May 
. . . .do 
. . . .do 

....do 

....do 
.'...do 
....do 
...do 

....do 

...do 
May 
May 
....do 
....do 
May 
May 
....do 
....do 
June 

Mar. 
...do 

May 

....do 

April 
...do 

May 
...do 
...do 

Mar. 
...do 

May 
...do 
...do 

Mar. 

Mar. 

Mar. 

Mar. 
...do 

Mar. 

May 

Mar. 
...do 
...do 

May 

Mai- 
Mar 



10 



Merriani 
...do .... 
....I,. ... 
...do ... 
...do .... 
...do .... 



...'....do .. 

...I ..do .. 
...I. ...do .. 

9|....do .. 

13 ....do .. 

.......do .. 

...I.. ...1.. .. 

17l....do .. 

19!.. ..do .. 

...I. ...do .. 

...I.... do.. 

ti I Kelson . 



;:o 



Apr. 21 
Apr. 22 



Apr. 
Jan. 
Jan. 
Apr. 
Mar. 
June 
Apr. 



....do 
....do 
...do 

Max- 



Mar. 

Mar. 

Apr. 

....do 

....do 

A pr. 

....do 

May 

July 

May 



Remarks. 



12 



.do 



...do 

...do 

Bailey 

...do 

...do 

...do 

...do 

...do 

Mcrriam . . 

Bailey 

Nelson 

Mcrriam . . . 

...do 

...do 

Bailey 

Stephens . . 
Palmer 

...do 

...do 

Nelson 

Merriani. . . 

Fisher 

...do 

...do 

Merriani. . . 
Palmer .... 
...do 



Stephens . 

. . .do 

Bailey 
Palmer - 
Fisher 
Stephens . 
Palmer . . . 

Nelson 

Bailey 



...do .. 

..do .. 
..do - 

Nelson. 

Bailey . 



...do .... 
...do .... 
...do .... 
...do .... 
...do .... 

...do .... 
Stephens 
...do .... 

Fisher... 



.do 



1,200 feet above 

Salt Wells. 
Colorado River. 



1 000 feet above 
Borax works. 



Panamint Mts. 



.13 



11)4 



NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. 



[No. 7. 



List of specimens of Phrynosoma platyrhinos — Continued. 



U.S. 

Nat. 
Mus. 


Sex 
and 


No. 


age. 


18433 


? jun. 


38434 


d 


18135 


9 jun. 


18430 


d 


18437 


d 


18438 


d jun. 


18439 


d 


18440 


d 


18441 


d 


18442 


? 


18443 


d jnv. 


18444 


? 


18445 




18401 


d 



Locality. 



Argns Range, Ma.tur.ingo Sprint;', 

Calif. 
Argus Range, Co.so Valley, Calif.. 

Coso, Calif '. 

Deep Spring Valley, Calif 

Lone I * i ne, Calif 

do 

Independence, < 'alii 

do 

do 

Coyote Holes, 2ii miles northeast of 

Daggett, Calif. 
Colorado Desert, Palm Spring, Calif 
(•') • 



Alti- 
tude. 



Feet. 



(?) 

Ash Meadows, Xcv 



Date. 



May 



I May 11 

' May 19 

5,400 June. 9 

j June 5 

.Tune 7 

June 11 

..'..do 

June 18 
Mar. 13 



•Sept. 27 
(•') 



(?) 
Mar. 



Collector. 



Fisher... 

...do ... 
Palmer . . 
Merriam. 
Palmer . 
...do ... 
Bailey . . 
. . .do . . . 
Stephens 
Palmer . 

Stephens 
(?) 



(?) 
Kelson. 



Remarks. 



Received from 
Death Valley 
E xped i tioii, 
April 28,1891. 

Tl. ii, fig. 4. 



Family Helodermatid^e. 

Heloderma suspectum Cope. 

It is curious that the exact range of so conspicuous and so far-famed 
a species as the Gila monster is still greatly in doubt. Southern Ari- 
zona seems to be the center of its distribution, and from there we have 
a number of well authenticated records based upon specimens, but as 
soon as we get outside of that Territory the records become uncertain, 
and the localities given are vague. Thus we have ' Mohave Eiver ' given 
by Baird upon the authority of Kennedy and Mbllhausen (Pac. Li. R. 
Hep., X, Whipple's R., Zool., p. 38) which would introduce the species 
into the Californian fauna, but no specimen seems to have been brought 
home, and the record remains dubious. Yarrow (Wheeler's Exp., W. 
100 Mer.j V, p.562) states that it is "not uncommon in Utah, New Mex- 
ico, and Arizona'' and that "several specimens were secured in 1871, 
1873, and 1874, but with one exception (specimen from Arizona collected 
in 1873) all were lost iu transit to Washington." The New Mexico 
record refers probably to the observation near San Udefonso of "a large 
lizard, presumably of this species" by one of the packers. Whether 
specimens were actually secured in Utah, I don't know, nor has any 
other Utah record came to my certain knowledge. 

It is therefore very interesting to note that Dr. Merriam found the 
dead carcass of a Heloderma near the Virgin River, in eastern Nevada, 
the first authentic record from that state. 

The specimen was in too bad shape to be preserved, but two of the 
feet were cut off aud brought home as evideuce (No. 18GI0). As the 
fourth finger, without claw, measures 22 mm , it is plain that the speci- 
men was one of large dimensions. 

[One of the most unexpected discoveries made by the expedition was 
the finding of a Gila monster by Mr. Bailey and myself in the Valley 



Mat, 1893.] REPTILES OF THE DEATH VALLEY EXPEDITION. 195 

of the Virgin, about 8 miles below B anker ville, near the eastern 
boundary of Nevada, May 8, 1891. It was dead when found, and mea- 
sured 475 mm (a little more than 1S£ inches) in total length. We 
were told by the Mormons that the species occurs in the Lower Santa 
Clara Valley, in southwestern Utah, but is rare. — C. H. M.] 

Family Anguid^:. 

G rrhonotus scincicauda (Skilton). 

The question of the status of the various Gcrrhomti credited to Cali- 
fornia is one of the most difficult and most intricate in North American 
saurology, partly on account of the great amount of individual varia- 
tion, partly because of the comparatively scanty, and in many respects 
unsatisfactory material. Yet, with about one hundred specimens before 
me, I am able to distinguish a number of separable forms. Nothing- 
would be easier than to bring them all together under one name, and 
with only a limited number of specimens 1 might be tempted to do so, 
but the result would be very far from the truth, and by so doing we 
would only delay the true solution of the question instead of promoting 
it. 

Let me first remark that 1 regard the Cape St. Lucas form separable, 
and that from Bocourt's rather detailed description of the type (Miss. 
Sc. Mcx., Kept., livr. 5, 1878, pp. 357-359) I believe that it is entitled 
to the name Gerrhonotus mnlticarinatus. This form does not occur in 
Upper California, nor do I believe that it will be found in Lower Cali- 
fornia outside of the Cape region proper. 

The next question relates to the name of the present form which 
inhabits, so far as the localities embraced in the present report are 
concerned, the chaparral belt of the San Joaquin Valley and of the San 
Jacinto and San Bernardino Mountains. I have so far been unable to 
make a distinction between the so-called G. multicarinatus of authors, 
from the State of California, G. scincicauda, and &. grandis, and as G. 
scincicauda is the oldest of these, I retain it for the present form, i. e., 
the one with all the upper scales strongly cariuated, the azygos pre- 
frontal large, the body very elongated, and the coloration characterized 
by about nine continuous dark bands across the back. It is possible 
that Wiegmann's G. cceruleus (1828) may belong here, but without the 
exact locality of the type being known, and without an opportunity to 
examine the specimen, which moreover seems to be very abnormally 
colored, it would be very unwise to adopt that name. 

The nomenclature of the other separable forms will be discussed fur. 
tlier on under their respective heads. 

According to Mr. T. S. Palmer, the present form is confined to the 
chaparral belt. Only two specimens M r ere secured by the expedition. 



196 



NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. 
List of specimens of Gerrhonotus scincicauda. 



[Xo. 7. 



U.S. 
Nat. 

Mus. 
No. 



18016 
18617 



Sex and 
age. 



Locality, 



Three Rivers, Calif 

Kaweah River, East Fork, Calif. 



AIM 
tnde. 



Feet. 
3, 600 



Dale. 



July 28 
July 27 



Collector. 



Fisher . 
Bailey . 



Remarks. 



Gerrhonotus scincicauda palmeri, subsp. nov. 

Diagnosis — Similar to G. scincicauda, but body much less elongated 
and coloration above essentially different, being, according to age and 
sex, either uniform dark olive brown with numerous black and white 
dots on the sides, or pale bluish drab clouded with numerous ill-defined 
and irregular blotches of brownish drab, blotches not arranged in 
cross bands. 

Habitat. — High elevations ot western slope of southern [only?] Sierra 
Nevada. 

Type.—U. S. Nat. Mus., No. 18006 S ad. South Fork Kings River, 
Calif., T. S. Palmer coll. 

Most of the Gcrrhonoti brought home by the expedition belong to 
this form, of which there is no specimen iu the Museum collection from 
any definite and undoubted locality before, and all the specimens of 
the expedition were collected in a comparatively small area near the 
headwaters of the Kern, Kings, and Kaweah rivers, at an altitude of 
from about 7,000 to 9,000 feet above the sea. 

It might seem strange that there should be no name available among 
the many defunct synonyms of Californian Gcrrhonoti by which to dis- 
tinguish this form, but the fact seems to be that most of the specimens 
so far brought to the notice of herpetologists have been collected in the 
lower altitudes, while the present form seems to be restricted to the 
higher altitudes of the Sierra. 

The general aspect of this form is strikingly different from all the 
other Californian Gerrhonoti, and this difference is equally well marked 
in the youngest specimen and in the oldest. I have before me a nearly 
unbroken series of ten specimens, from a very young one, with a body 
only 40 IUI " long, up to the dark old males, and none of them can for an 
instant be mistaken for the typical G. scincicauda from the lower valleys. 
The whole figure is shorter and more thick set, and the broad and 
rather distant. cross-bands on the back are conspicuously abrupt, the 
coloration being either uniform dark or else an ill-donned, often ob- 
scure, 'pepper-and-salt' mixture. Only in one specimen (No. 18612) 
there is a more definite arrangement of the light and dark spots, but 
these ill-defined cross-bands are much more numerous than in G. scinci- 
cauda, being about fifteen on the back (between anterior and posterior 
limbs) as against nine to ten in the latter. A similar pattern may also 
be traced in the youngest specimen referred to (No. 18613) with a simi- 
lar result. 



Mat, 1893.] REPTILES OF THE DEATH VALLEY EXPEDITION. 



197 



I take great pleasure iu dedicating this interesting form to Mr. T. 8. 
Palmer, who not only collected the type, but also assisted me materi- 
ally in clearly pointing out the difference in distribution of the present 
form and its typical representative in the chaparral belt. 

List of specimens of Gerrlianotus scincicauda palmeri. 



U.S. 
Nat. 
Mils. 
No. 



1S00G 
18007 
18(508 
18609 
18610 

18011 
18612 

rsoia 
18614 

18015 



Sex and 



d 
9 

9. inn. 
cf.juu 
d" 

9 
9 
efjuv, 

9 
9 



Locality. 



South Fork King's River, Calif 

East Fork Kaweah River, Calif 

do 

do 

Soda Springs, Ninth Fork Kern River. 

Calif. 

do 

North Fork Kern Kiver, Calif 

Soda Springs, NorthFork Kern Biver, 

Calif 
Sequoia National Park, Calif 



Mineral Kino-, Calif- 



Alti- 
tude. 



Feet. 



8,800 

s. 800 
»8, 500 
7, 200 

7,200 



*7, 000 
'8, SCO 



Date. 



Aug. 



Ail"-. 1 
Sept. 6 



do 

Sept. 15 
Aits. 15 



Aug. 2 
Au"-. C 



Collector. 



Palmer 
Bailey . 
...do'.. 
- do .. 

JSelsiiu . 



...do .. 
...do .. 

Ha i ley . 

Fisher . 
Bailey . 



Remarks. 



Type. 



Near K.iwoah 

saw-mill. 



* Alio ut. 

Gerrhonotus burnettii Gray. 

I have no hesitation in declaring this form to be exactly the same as 
Baird and Girard's G.formosus, and a comparison of the excellent fig- 
ure of the type of G. bumettiiby Bocouft (Miss. Sc. Mex., Kept., livr. 
5, 1878, PI. xxi G. fig. 4-4 a) with that of the type of G. formosus in 
the atlas of the herpetology of the United States Exploring Expedi- 
tion (PI. xxin, figs. 10 and 12) will at once substantiate this assertion. 
The essential characters consist in the comparatively short snout with 
its very arched profile, the great development of the paired prefrontals 
at the expense of the azygos prefrontal, which therefor is of small size, 
and the peculiar coloration, the dorsal cross-bands being broken up 
into three portions, one median and two lateral by two longitudinal 
lines which in some specimens are emphasized by being lighter than 
the ground color. 

This form is only distantly related to G. scincicauda, but very 
closely to Gerrhonotus princijns, so close, in fact, that I believe that the 
name of the latter will become reduced to a trinominal when the 
geographical distribution of the two forms shall have been ascertained 
in all its details. G. burnettii is now known to occur along the coast at 
least from Monterey to Humboldt Bay. How far inland it extends its 
range and how and where it meets or grades into G. principis is as yet 
undeterminable. One thing is certain, however, and that is, that the 
range of G. burnetii and G. scincicauda overlap considerably, and in 
this fact alone I see sufficient proof of their specific distinctness. The 
differences between them are certainly due neither to sexual, nor to 
seasonal, nor to individual variation, great as the latter is in the 
Gerrhonoti. 



198 



u. s. 

Nat. 
Mus. 
No. 



18605 



Sex ami 
age. 



d jun. 



NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. 
List of specimens of Gerrhonotua burnetii). 



[So. 



Loaality. 



Monterey, Calif. 



Alti- 
tude. 



Date. 



Sept. 29 



Collector. Remarks. 



Bailev 



Family Xantusiidje. 

Xantusia vigilis Baird. (PI. in, fig. 1). 

The present species was described in 1858 by Prof. Baird from spec- 
imens sent home by Xantns from Tort Tcjon,' Calif. Nothing has 
been published concerning it since then, and this, perhaps our most 
interesting lizard, has also been one of the rarest and supposed to pos- 
sess a very restricted range. 

Two additional specimens are now before ns, one collected by Dr. 
Fisher at Hesperia, on the south side of the Mohave Desert, on Jan- 
nary 4, 1891, while Mr. Palmer secured the other on February 24, in 
Pahrump Valley, Nevada, thus extending the range of the species 
nearly 200 miles eastward. The type locality, Fort Tejon, is in an 
open canon — the celebrated Canada de las Uvasof the early exploring 
expeditions — connecting the west end of the Mohave Desert with the 
San Joaquin Valley. The fauna and flora of this canon present a mix- 
ture of Mohave Desert and interior valley forms. 

In all probability this species is more or less nocturnal in habits, 
which may account for the scarcity of specimens collected. 

Both specimens are somewhat larger than the largest of the types, 
and, judging from the condition of the femoral pores, I take them to be 
adults. 

There appears to be some slight variation in the shape of the indi- 
vidual head shields and in the shape of the head, the Death Valley 
expedition specimens having it somewhat more elongate; but the differ- 
ences are not greater than between the type specimens themselves. 

List of specimens of Xantusia vigilis. 



U.S. 
Nat. 
Mus. 
No. 


Sex ami 
age. 


18618 
18619 





Locality. 



Pahrump Valley, Nev 

Hesperia, Mohave Desert, Calif 



Alti- 
tude. 



Feel. 

| Feb. 24 

3,200 Jan. 4 



Collector. 



Remarks. 



Palmer 

Fisher PI. ill, tig. 1. 



Family Tejidje. 

Cnemidophorus tigris B. & G. 

All the Gnemidophori brought home by the expedition oeiong to one 
species, those from the deserts of the Great Basin in California, Nevada, 



May, 1893.] REPTILES OF THE DEATH VALLEY EXPEDITION. 190 

and Utah being - typical of the above name, while those from the great 
interior valley of California are referable to a subspecies, 0. tigris 
undulatus. 

Owing - to the fact that nearly the entire collection of North Amer- 
ican Cnemidophori are inaccessible to me at the present writing, I have 
been unable to settle the question as to the proper name of the present 
species to my own satisfaction. It maybe that C. tigris is only a syno- 
nym pure and simple of C. tesselatus (Say) or they may be trinomiually 
separable. I have therefore retained the name C. tigris, as the speci- 
mens before me agree perfectly with the type of the latter. 

There is a great deal of individual variation in the amount of black 
markings and in their intensity, the dorsal pattern being quite distinct 
in some, while in others it looks as if it had faded out. On the other 
hand, the black suffusion on throat and breast is equally variable, but 
neither sex, age, season, nor locality seem to account for the variation, 
except that it is usually absent in the very youngest. In all the speci- 
mens the longitudinal striping is very evident, and, in fact, the differ- 
ence between the general pattern in the only very young specimen col- 
lected (No. 18481) and the full-grown ones, apart from individual vari- 
ation, is but very slight. 

[The whip-tail lizard {Cnemidopliorus tigris) is nearly as common as the 
gridiron-tail in much of the area traversed, but is not so strictly confined 
to the Lower Sonoran Zone, ranging up a short distance into the Upper 
Sonoran and consequently reaching some valleys in which the former 
species is absent. In this respect it resembles the leopard lizard 
{Crotaphytus wislizenii), with which it is usually found. It lives on the 
open desert and runs with great rapidity when alarmed. 

In California it is abundant in the Mohave Desert, where it ranges 
westward through Antelope Valley to the Canada de las Uvas (chang- 
ing to subspecies undulatus), and southward in the wash leading from 
near Gorman station toward Peru Creek in the Sierra Liebre. In the 
open canon leading up to Tehachapi Valley from the Mohave Desert 
it ranges all the way to the summit of the pass (at Cameron) and prob- 
ably throughout Tehachapi Valley also, but was not seen there be- 
cause of a severe cold wind, which lasted all day at the time we passed 
through. It ranges up from the Mohave Desert over Walker Pass and 
down on the west slope to the valley of Kern River, where it changes 
to subspecies undulatus. It is common in Owens Valley, and ranges 
thence up on the warm, west slope of the Inyo and White Mountains 
to 2,130 meters (7,000 feet) or higher, opposite Big Pine; and is toler- 
ably common also in Deep Spring Valley. It is common in Panamint, 
Death, and Mesquite Valleys, ranging from the latter through Grape- 
vine Canon to Sarcobatns Flat. In Nevada it is common in the Amar- 
gosa, Pahrump, and Vegas Valleys, at the Bend of the Colorado, in the 
valleys of the Virgin and Muddy, and reaches Oasis, Pahranagat, 
Desert, and Meadow Creek Valleys, and from the latter ranges up 



200 



NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. 



[No. 7. 



among the junipers on the west slope of the Juniper Mountains, to an 
altitude of 1,980 meters (6,500 feet). In Utah it is common in the Lower 
Santa Clara Valley, and thence ranges northward to the Upper Santa 
Clara Crossing, but disappears before reaching Mountain Meadows. 

The food of Cnemidophorus tigris consists of grasshoppers and other 
insects — no leaves or flowers were found in the numerous stomachs 
examined. — C. H. M.] 

List of specimens of Cnemidophorus tigris. 



U.S. 
Nat. 
Mus. 
No. 



18162 
18463 
18464 
18465 
18466 
18467 
18468 
18469 
18470 
18471 
18172 
18473 
18474 
18475 
18476 

18477 

18478 
18479 
18480 
18481 
18482 
18483 
18484 
18485 
18486 
18487 
18488 
18489 
18490 

18491 

18492 

18493 
18494 



Sex and 



ad. 

d 

d 

ad. 

ad. 

ad. 
adol. 

d 

? 

d 

d 

V 
d juv. 

d 

d 

ad. 

d 

ad. 

ad. 
juv. 

ad. 
jun. 

ad. 

ad. 

ad. 

ad. 

ad. 
jun. 

d 

9 
¥ 



Locality. 



Alti- 
tude. 



Feet. 



Sauta Clara Valley, Utah 

Pahrump Valley, Nev 

do .' 

Pahranagat Valley, Nev I 

do .' I 

Oasis Valley, Nev I 4, 600 

Callville, Nev ' 

Coso Mountains, Coso, Calif I , 

do I 

Argus Range, Shepherd Canon, Calif. ! 

do I 

do ' 

do I 

Argus Range, Coso Valley, Calif ' 

Argus Range, Searl's Garden, Calif. . j 



Panamint Mountains, Willow Creek, 4. 600 

Calif. 

Panamint Valley, Hot Springs, Calif. ' 

Lone Pine, Calif ' 

do i 

Death Valley, Calif I 

Death Valley, Furnace Creek, Calif. . ' 

do I 

do ' 

Death Valley Bennett Wells, Calif. . . ' 

do | 

do ' 

do I 

do j 

Mohave Desert, Leach Pt. Valley, ' 

Calif. 

do 

Owens Lake, mouth of canon 5 miles 

southwest of Olancha, Calif. 

Owens Lake, Olancha, Calif 

Deep Spring Valley, Calif , 



Date. 



4,000 



3,700 
5,300 



May 11 

Apr. 28 

Apr. 29 

May 25 

May 25 

June 2 

May 4 

May 18 

May 20 

Apr. 27 

Apr. 28 

Apr. 28 

Apr. 28 

May 11 

Apr. 24 

May 18 

Apr. 22 
June 11 
June 6 
Mch. 22 
June 20 
Jan. 29 
Apr. 10 
Apr. 1 
...do... 
Apr. 4 
...do... 
Jan. 22 
Apr. 25 



..do ... 
June 8 



Collector. 



May 19 
June 9 



Merriam. 

...do 

Bailey . . . 
Merriam. 
Bailev . . . 

...do:.... 

...do 

Fisher... 

...do 

...do 

..do 

..do 

..do 

...do 

Stephens 

Nelson... 



Merriam . 
Fisher... 
Palmer - . 
Nelion. . . 
Fisher . . . 

..do 

Merriam. 
Bailey . . . 
...do!.... 

...do 

...do 

...do 

Merriam . 



..do 

Stephens 



...do 

Merriam . . 



Remarks. 



Cnemidophorus tigris undulatus (Hallow). 

Ten specimens from the west slope of the Sierra Nevada differ so 
much from the desert specimens that I must regard them as entitled 
to a separate trinominal appellation. So far as I can see there is no 
structural difference, nor is there a very radical difference in the color 
or the pattern. The latter is considerably coarser, better defined, and 
deeper in color. The difference between the two forms in this respect 
is particularly well marked on the sides of the head, the dark marks 
being nearly obsolete in the desert form, while in the latter the slate- 
colored suffusion on the under side seems to be the rule. I have yet 
to see a specimen from the great interior valley of California in which 
it is present. 



May, 1803.] REPTILES OF THE DEATH VALLEY EXPEDITION. 



201 



As to the name of this form, I have to remark that the specimens 
have been carefully compared and found identical with Hallowell's type 
specimen. It will be observed that in the original description (Pr. 
Phil. Ac, 1854, p. 94) the locality of the type is stated to be " near 
Port Yuma, in San Joaquin Valley," but the self-contradiction of this 
statement is explained by the fact that Fort Miller, Fresno County, is 
meant, and not Fort Yuma, on the ( lolorado River (cf. Heermanirs list 
in Pac. E. P. Pep., X, Williamson's Route, Zoo]., Kept., p. 24). 

Two very young specimens of this form (No. 18503 and 18504), which 
are quite alike, differ considerably from the typical Death Valley speci- 
men (No. 18481) of precisely the same size. In the latter the three 
median dark dorsal bands are more or less broken up by light spots 
adjacent to the light stripes, while in the young C. undulatus these 
bands are well defined and uniform blackish, it would therefore seem 
that, while there is but little difference between adult and young in the 
former, the young of the latter are considerably different from the 
adults. 

[This subspecies replaces the typical C. tigris on the west or coast 
slope of the Sierra Nevada in California, where it was found from 
Kernville south to Havilah and Walker Basin, and north to Three Rivers 
and the East Fork of Kaweah River. It was collected also in the Can- 
ada delasUvas, near Old Fort Tejon. The range of C. tigris seems to 
be continuous with that of C. tigris undulatus through the three low 
passes by which communication is established between the Mohave 
Desert aud the upper San Joaquin Valley — namely Walker and Te- 
hachapi Passes and the Canada de las Uvas. — C. H. M.] 

List of specimens of Cnemidophorus tigris undulatus. 



U.S. 




Nat 


Sex ami 


Mus. 


age. 


No. 




18495 


ad. 


18196 


ad. 


18197 


ad. 


18498 


ad. 


18499 


ad. 


18500 


ad. 


18501 


adol. 


18502 


ad. 


18503 


JUV. 


18504 


JUV. 



Locality. 



East Fork, Kaweali River, Calif . 

Walker Basin, Calif 

do 

Old Fort Tejon, Calif 

Kernville, Calif 

do 

South Fork, Kern River, Calif... 

Three Rivers, Calif 

do 

do 



Alti- 
tude. 



Feet. 
5, 600 



2, 750 



Date. 



July 29 
July 14 
....do ... 

July 7 
June 23 
....do ... 
July 7 
July 28 
Sep. 16 
Sep. 14 



Collector. 



Bailey . 
Fisher . 
...do .. 
Palmer 
...do .. 
...do.. 
Bailey . 
Palmer 
Bailey . 
...do.. 



Remarks. 



Family Scincid^e. 



Eumeces skiltonianus (B. & G.). 

The extent of variation in color, scale formula, aud proportions is well 
illustrated by the material brought home by the expedition. Thus 
in the two examples from Maturango Spring in the Argus Range, both 
quite adult and nearly of the same size, one (No. 18598) is nearly uni- 
formly brownish-gray above, with hardly a trace of dark stripes, while 



202 



NCRTH AMERICAN FAUNA. 



[No. 7. 



in the other (No. 18599) the longitudinal stripes are quite visible, though 
the ground color is nearly the same; the former has the head greatly 
swollen at the temples and has 24 rows of scales round the middle of 
the body, while the latter has the head narrow and 2G scale rows; more- 
over, in the former the limbs are overlapping when pressed against the 
body, a character relied upon by Boulengcr for separating E. ski Hon i- 
(tnus, etc.,fromJS7. leptogrammitx, while in the last mentioned specimen the 
limbs do not meet by the length of several scales, in the latter character 
agreeing with No. 18600 from the Panamint Mountains. Both specimens 
from Old Fort Tejon are uniformly brownish-gray, one (No. 18003) con- 
siderably paler than the other, both with swollen temples. No. 18G01 
is colored like the latter, but has a very long tail, and has, moreover, 
the frontal in contact with the azygos prefrontal. 

All the specimens have two azygos postmentals, but in the collection 
of the National Museum there is plenty of material to show that Bo- 
court's Ettmeccs hallowelli, the distinguishing character of which is the 
single postmcntal, is nothing but an individual variation of E. sMl- 
tonianus. 

It is interesting to note that E. aVdtonianus, as it grows old, is sub- 
ject to the same swelling of the head at the temples and the concom- 
itant disappearance of the striped pattern as well as the loss of the 
blue color of the tail, as Eumeees fasciatus. 

A glance at the subjoined list of specimens shows that the expedi- 
tion has materially extended our knowledge of the geographical dis- 
tribution of this species, all the specimens previously recorded having 
been obtained within the Pacific slope, while now we have specimens 
both from the Argus Range and the Panamint Mountains. It is evi- 
dent, however, that it is not a species of the desert plains or valleys. 

[Specimens of this small lizard were obtained in the Panamint and 
Argus ranges in the Great Basin, and in Kern River Valley and the 
Canada de las Uvas (near Old Fort Tejon) on the coastal slope of the 
Great Divide in California — C. H. M.j 

List of specimens of Enmccez sMltonianus. 



U.S. 

Nat, 

No. ° 



Sex 
and 



Locality. 



Alti- 
tude. 



Feet. 



18598 i ad. i Argus Range, Maturango Spring, 

Calif. 

18599 i ad. ' do 

18600! adol. Panamint Mountains, head of Willow 

( !reek, Calif. 
18C01 ad. i Kern River, 25 miles above Kernville, ! 
Calif. 

18602 jnv. ! Soda Springs, North Fork Kern River, I 

Calif. 

18603 ad. : Old Fort Tejon, Calif 

18604 ad. ; do 



*7, 000 



'About. 



Date. 



Collector, i Remarks. 



Fisher . . . 

...do .... 



May 

May 

May 10 i Nelson. . . 

July 4 i Fisher... 

Aug. 15 J Bailey . . . 

July 5 I Palmer . . 

July 8 do 



May, 1893.] EEPTILES OF THE DEATH VALLEY EXPEDITION. 203 

Suborder n. OPHIDIA. 
Family Leptotyphlopid^e. 

Rena humilis B. & G. 

A single specimen (No. 18686) was collected in Death Valley, G miles 
from Bennett Wells, by Mr. Palmer, March 25. This is the most north- 
ern record of the species as well as of the family Leptotyphlopidce in 
North America. The type of this species came from the Colorado 
Desert. 

Family BoiDiE. 

Charina plumbea (B. & G.). 

The specimen (No. 18G85) which Dr. Fisher collected in Redwood 
Canon, on the East Fork of the Kaweah River, September 12, 1891, is 
entirely within the limits of the extraordinary variation of this species 
demonstrated by me some time ago (Proc. IT. S. Nat. Mus., xiii, 1890, 
p. 177 seqv.), and does not in any way approach either Gh. bottce or 
Gh. brachyops. It has forty-five scale rows, posterior nasal not in con- 
tact with anteorbital; prefrontals not entering- orbits; one loreal, four 
prefrontals, no internasals, one anteorbital, one supraorbital, three to four 
postorbitals, no suborbitals, two to three labials in contact with eye. 

Prof. Cope has recently (Proc, IT. S. Nat, Mus., xiv, 1891, p. 593) dis- 
cussed the status of Gh. plumbea and botta' 7 without the slightest 
reference however to my paper quoted above, and comes to the con- 
clusion that both are identical, chiefly, it seems, on the ground that 
when he, himself, in 18G4, examined the alleged type of de Blainville's 
Gh. bottw he counted forty-three scale rows. It will be remembered 
that 1 retained the two species for the reason that both Jan and Bo- 
court count thirty-nine scale rows as against a minimum of forty-three 
in twenty specimens of Gh. plumbea.* There seems to be good ground 
for doubting that the specimen which Cope examined really was the 
type and the same specimen which Jan and Bocourt have described 
and figured in detail. Moreover, some of Prof. Cope's notes concern- 
ing this matter (I. c.) are not calculated to inspire confidence in the 
exactness of all the statements. 

Consequently I can see no reason for changing my views of three 
years ago, viz, that there is as yet no good reason for uniting the two 
species. 

Family Natricid^e. 

Diadophis pulchellus B. & G. 

I have seen no intergradation between this form and 7>. amabilis 
which would justify a trinominal appellation for the present, 

Cope (?. c.) calls attention to Bocourt's lapsus of giving twenty-nine scale rows. 
That it is a lapsus is evident from Boconrt's comparison of the two species, in which 
he distinctly credits Ck. buttw with thirty-nine. 



204 



NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. 



[No. 7. 



The only specimen (No. 18684) collected is typical in coloration and 
within the known range of this form. It was obtained by Mr. E. W. 
Nelson in Yosemite Valley, California, August 7, 1891. 

Lampropeltis boylii (B. & G). 

The six specimens brought home by the expedition give no occasion 
for any extended remarks, as they are quite typical in every respect, 
with no leaning toward var. conjuncta Cope, from Cape St. Lucas and 
Yuma; calif ornce Blainville, from San Diego, or eisenii Yarrow, from 
Fresno. 

The two Nevada specimens differ from those from California in having 
the frontal longer than the interparietal suture, but in a lot of true L. 
boylii from Fresno (U. S. Nat. Mus. No. 11787) I find a specimen ex- 
actly like tlie above from Nevada. 

[This large and conspicuous snake, whose cream colored body is 
sharply marked by rings of black, was first found in the Valley of the 
Lower Muddy near an abandoned mill at Overton, Nevada, where sev- 
eral were secured in dense thickets of Atriplex torreiji. About dark 
they began to emerge from these retreats, making a great noise in 
crawling over the dry leaves, and were soon found in the open. The 
species was obtained also in Pahranagat Valley, Nevada, a little north 
of the middle of the valley. On the west slope of the Sierra Nevada, 
in California, specimens were collected in Kern Valley, at Three Rivers, 
and on the east fork of Kaweah River. — C. H. M.] 

List of specimens of Lampropeltis boylii. 



U.S. 

Nat. 

Mus. 

No. 



18000 
18001 
18002 

18003 
18004 
18005 



Sex 
and 
age. 



Locality. 



Three Rivera, Calif 

do 

South fork, Kern River, 25 miles 

above Kern ville, Calif. 
East fork, Kaweah River, Calif. . . 
Overton, Muddy Valley, Nevada.. 
do .' 



Alti- 
tude. 



Feet. 



1,700 



Date. 



July 27 
...do ... 
July 9 

July 27 
May 6 
...do... 



Collector. 



Palmer . 

Fisher .. 
...do... 

Bailey . . 
Merriam 
Bailev . . 



Remarks. 



Hypsigleiia ochrorhynchus Cope. 

The only specimen obtained by the expedition was collected by Br. 
A. K. Fisher in Shepherd Canon, in the Argus Range, California, 
April 24, 1891. It (No. 18071) is somewhat peculiar on account of the 
small size of the dorsal spots, though otherwise it agrees well with the 
types from Cape St. Lucas, Lower California, as well as with a number 
of specimens from Arizona. The characters pointed out by Cope as 
distinguishing H. chlorophcea, types from Fort Buchanan, southern 
Arizona, are so variable in the specimens before me that they will not 
serve the purpose. I am not quite prepared to give up the latter 
species as yet, inasmuch as the type specimen (U. S. Nat. Mus., No. 



May, 1893.| REPTILES OF THE DEATH VALLEY EXPEDITION. 205 

4G76; only one specimen is now in the collection) has no pseudo- 
preocular, a character only shared by a specimen from the city of Chi- 
huahua, Mexico (U. S. Nat. Mus. No., 14287), while it is present in all 
the other specimens. These two specimens, therefore, I shall continue 
to call H. chlorophcea until it be shown that the absence of the pseudo- 
preocular is only an individual variation. 

The specimen collected by the expedition adds a new species to the 
fauna of the State of California, if I am not mistaken. 

Assuming, for the present at least, the distinctness of S. chlorophwa, 
we would have three species or forms within the United States, includ- 
ing an undescribed species from southwestern Texas,* which may be 
distinguished as follows: 

«'. Upper surface of head flat. 

i l . No pseudopreocular H. chlorophcea. 

b*. Psemlopreocnlar present //. ochroi'hynchus. 

a 1 . Upper surface of head convex H. texana. 

Salvadora grahamiae hexalepis Cope. (PI. in, fig. 2). 

The four specimens collected by the expedition belong to this form, 
as I now understand it, that is to say, to the form which possesses at 
least one true subocular (by this term excluding the subpreocular, or 
pseudopreocular). One of the specimens (No. 18062 Virgin River, 
Nevada) possesses only one subocular (anterior), and agrees in this 
respect perfectly with specimens from Fort Whipple, Arizona (type 
locality); Mohave Villages, Arizona; Cottonwood Canon, Utah, and Valle 
de la Viejas, San Diego County, California. The three other specimens, 
however, differ from all the other specimens I have seen in also having 
a posterior subocular, thus isolating the eye entirely from the labials. 

The individual variation in this species is too great, however, to allow 
a subdivision on these lines without a much greater material to sup- 
port it. There is evidently a tendency towards dividing up the labials 
transversely in the region indicated by the localities mentioned above, 
and as this subdivision seems to be proportionate to the greater width 
of the rostral, it would be natural to conclude that the two characters 
may have a common origin. The fact that these localities are the most 
arid of all those from which I have specimens of Salvadora is very sug- 
gestive, since these snakes to a great extent live in holes in the ground. 



* Hypsiglena texana, sp. n. 

Diagnosis. — Similar to TI. ochroi'hynchus, hut with the upper surface of the head 
convex, the lateral outline of the frontal curved outward, and the dark eye stripe 
covering more than upper half of the sixth supralabial. 

Scale rows, 21; gastrosteges, 175; urosteges, 43; supralabials, 8; preoculars, 1; 
pseudopreocuhirs, 1: postoculars, 2; temporals, 1. 

Type. — U. S. Nat. Mus., No. 1782; between Laredo and Camargo, Tex..; U. S. Mex. 
Bound. Surv., Arthur Schott, coll. 

Habitat. — Southwestern Texas 

In addition to the type specimen the museum possesses two other specimens, one 
collected by Mr. W. Taylor at San Diego. Texas (U. S. Nat. Mus., No. 15672),. and 
one by Mr. Butcher at Laredo (No. 7124). Both agree in every respect with the type, 



206 



NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. 



[No. 7. 



The gradation of this form into 8. grahamkv, without subocnlars, is 
shown by a specimen collected by Dr. Edward rainier at St. Thomas, 
Nev. (U. S. Nat. Mus. No. 15G1G), which has one on one side but none 
on the other. 

[St. Thomas is less than 30 miles from the point where my specimen 
(No. 18002) was collected, and is in the same valley. — C. H. M.J. 

List of specimens of Salvadora grahamice hexalejris. 



U.S. 

Nat. 

Mus. 

No. 


Sex anfl 
age. 


Locality. 


Alti- 
tude. 


Date. 


Collector. 


Remarks. 


18059 





Argus Range, Shepherd Canon, 

Calif. 
Argus Range, Maturango Spring, 

Calif. 


Feet'. 


Apr. 26 
May 2 
Mar. 16 

May 8 






18060 
18061 


....do 

Palmer 


PI. in, fig. 2. 

1,000 feet above 
the Ainargosa 
river. 




18062 


Virgin River, near Bunkerville, 
Nev. 











Pituophis catenifer (Blainv.). 

The only two specimens which I can refer to the typical form of this 
species are from the coastal or west slope of the Sierra Nevada, and 
from Old Fort Tejon, in the Canada de las Uvas, California, and are 
better recognized as such by their coloration and general aspect than 
by any exclusive structural character. True, the carination of the 
scales is weak and tha eight outer scales are smooth in both, but the 
character derived from the carination is a very elusive one, as will be 
demonstrated under the heading of the next form, and can not alone 
be relied upon to define these very difficult and variable snakes. 

List of specimens of Pituophis catenifer. 



U.S. 

Nat. 
Mus. 
No. 


Sex and 
age. 


Locality. 


Alti- 
tude. 


Date. 


Collector. 


Remarks. 


18063 
18061 




South Fork Kings River, Calif 

Old Fort Tejon, Calif 


Feel.. 
8, 000 


Aug. 17 
July 8 


Palmer 

do 


Puibb's Creek. 











Pituophis catenifer deserticola, subsp. nov. 

By this name I propose to designate the form usually called P. bel- 
lona, or P. sayi bellona, as there can be no doubt that Baird's and Girard's, 
original GhurchilUa SeZZowa, which came from Presidio del Norte, Chihua- 
hua, Mexico, was a typical P. sayi. The type appears now to be lost, but 
I nave before me a specimen from the identical locality (U. S. Nat. Mus. 
No. 1542) with a most pronouncedly narrow rostral and agreeing with 
P. sayi in all other respects also. Of all the later names applied to va- 
rious forms or individuals of the present species none seem to have 
been based upon the richly-colored form from the Great Basin and the 



May, 1893.] REPTILES OF THE DEATH VALLEY EXPEDITION. 207 

southwestern deserts, which agrees with true P. catenifer in having a 
broad and low rostral. That Baird and Girard later referred specimens 
of this form to P. bellona can not, of course, justify the shifting of this 
name to another type. 

As a general rule this form has a more pronounced carination of the 
scales and a less number of smooth scales on the sides, but this char- 
acter can not be relied upon at all, and whether a specimen shall be 
referred to either typical P. catenifer or to this desert form must be 
decided upon the totality of the characters, as a reliance upon the car- 
ination leads to very erroneous results. This will be plain at once to 
anj r one who will take the trouble to examine and compare the descrip- 
tions of the various species described by Baird and Girard in their 
Catalogue of North American Serpents, and as I have examined a 
number of their specimens I am able to state that the descriptions are 
generally correct. It will then be found that these Pacific coast speci- 
mens have only three to live outer rows perfectly smooth, while as 
synonyms of P. catenifer, the types of P. wilkesii, etc., 'ought' to 
have nine rows of smooth lateral scales. Again, both types of P. mc- 
cleUanii which 'ought' to have only five smooth rows, because being- 
true P. sayi, have at least seven smooth rows. Furthermore, it has 
been asserted that the typical P. catenifer occurs as far east as 
Pyrmont,* Nev., upon the strength of U. S. National Museum No. 
8139. This number contains two specimens so alike otherwise as to 
preclude the possibility of their belonging to two different species. 
Why they should be referred to P. catenifer I can not discover, for one 
has only three perfectly smooth scale rows, while in the other the num- 
ber is four or five. Ou the other hand, of two specimens in the present 
collection, both from the Panainint Mountains, Calif. (Nos. 18065 and 
18066), one has only four rows of smooth scales on each side, while the 
other has ten. In every other respect the two are practically alike and 
no one could reasonably refer them to two different species. Yet that 
would have to be done were we to use the number of smooth scale rows 
as a character. 

[This subspecies, according to Mr. Stejneger, is the form inhabiting 
the Great Basin, while, as pointed out above, typical P. catenifer is 
restricted to the coastal .slope of California. 

On the east side of Pahrump Valley, Nevada, one of these snakes 
measuring 5 feet in length was killed April 29, among the tree yuccas 
along the upper edge of the Larirea belt, at an altitude of 1,310 meters 



* The name ' Pyrmont ' appears in the Rept. Wheeler Survey, V, 1875, Zoology, p. 541, 
the specimens referred to having been taken there by the Wheeler Expedition of 
1872. This is probably the same place as Piermont, which is given on map sheet No. 
49 of the Wheeler Survey, and on the 'Map of California and Nevada with Parts of 
Utah and Arizona,' published by the Chief of Engineers, U. S. Army, 1879. Pier- 
mont is ou the west side of Spring Valley and on the east slope of the Shell Creek 
Eange. It is in White Pine Comity, Nev., about 75 miles due east of the town of 
Eureka. 



208 



NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. 



[No. 7. 



(4,400 feet). Another was obtained on the east slope of the Beaverdam 
mountains, in southwestern Utah, May 11. 

In California, specimens were obtained at Lone Pine and Haway 
Meadows in Owens Valley, and in the Panamint and Argus moun- 
tains.— C. H. M.] 

List of specimens of Pituophis catenifer deserticola. 



U.S. 

Nat. 
Mils. 
No. 


Sex 
and 

age. 


180G5 

18060 
18067 
18068 
18069 
16070 





Locality. 



Panamint Mountains, Jackass Spring, 
Calif. 

Surprise Canon, Calif 

Argus Range, Shepherd Canon, Calif 
Ten miles south of Owens Lake, ( 'alif 

Owens Valley (Lone Pine), Calif 

Beaverdam Mountain, Utah 



Alti- 
tude. 



Feet. 



3,750 



May 7 

April 2?> 
April 26 
May 12 
June 4 
May 11 



Collector. 



Nelson... 

Fisher . . . 
....do .... 
Stephens 
Fisher . . . 
Morriam . 



Remarks. 



Haway Meadows. 



Bascanion flagellum frenatum, subsp. nnv. 

Diagnosis. — Adults with permanent brownish or blackish bars across 
the nape; young with a distinct whitish line from nostrils through eye 
and across temporals, this stripe often persistent in adults; chin and 
throat speckled with blackish. 

Habitat. — Southern Arizona, Utah, Nevada, California, and Lower 
California. 

Type. — U. S. National Museum, No. 10340. Mountain Spring, Colo- 
rado Desert, San Diego County, Calif.; C. R. Orcutt coll. 

There is no good reason why the various geographical forms of Bas- 
canion flagellum should not be recognized by name, inasmuch as they 
are well marked, fairly constant, and characteristic of circumscribed 
geographical areas. 

It is somewhat doubtful whether the form from the Cape St. Lucas 
region should not be recognized by a separate name also, but the mate- 
rial at hand is too scant to warrant any separation for the present. 

Say's Coluber testaceus, the adults of which are uniform above, is 
apparently confined to the country east of the Pocky Mountains, and 
the naine inapplicable to the form so strongly marked, as indicated in 
the diagnosis above. In the search for a possible name among the vari- 
ous synonyms I was led to examine thetype of Baird and Girard's Masti 
cophis mormon (U. S. Nat. Mus., No. L'012), from the Great Salt Lake, 
in the hope that it might be available for the present form, since it is 
sometimes found quoted in the synonymies of l Bascanium testaceumf 
but it proved to be a young B. flaviventre, and a new name had conse- 
quently to be adopted. 

This species was not collected by the expedition in the interior 
valley of California, but specimens in the U. S. National Museum from 
various localities show that it occurs there. 



May, 1893 



REPTILES OF THE DEATH VALLEY EXPEDITION. 



209 



The present form has undoubtedly as much right to a separate name 
as Bascanion piceum Cope, the ehief character of which, in addition to 
the uniforn dusky coloration above, seems to be the nineteen scale- 
rows of the type and only specimen hitherto recorded, against the nor- 
mal seventeen rows in B. fiagellwm and its allies. I have, however, 
before me a specimen (U. S. Nat. Mas., No. 17950) collected by Mr. P. L. 
Jouy, near Tucson, Ariz., which, though evidently by color a B. piceum, 
has only seventeen scale rows. 

Of the specimens collected, No. 18088 is particularly interesting, as 
having an undivided anal. The fact that an undivided anal has been 
observed several times in B. flagellum and allies is quite an argument 
in their favor who would not attribute < generic value' perse to the 
division or nondivision of the anal plate. 

List of specimens of Bascanion flagellum frenulum. 



U.S. 
Nat. 
Mus. 
No. 



18081 

18082 
18083 
18084 

18085 
18086 

180S7 

18088 
18089 



Sex 
and 



.1 u n . 

inn. 



Locality. 



Overton (Muddy Valley), Nov 

Vegas Vallev, Nev 

Death Valley, Bennett Wells, Calif. 
Death Valley, Furnace Creek, Calif. 

Panainiut Valley, Calif 

Panamiut Valley, Hot Springs, 

Calif. 
Colorado Desert, Falm Springs, 

Calif. 

Keeler, Owens Lake, Calif 

Deep Spring Valley, Calif 



Alti- 
tude. 



Feet. 



4,100 



Date. 



May (> 
May 1 
Jan. ':\ 
Juno 20 
May 15 
Apr. 22 

Sept. 27 

June 12 
June 9 



Collector. 



Merriam. 
...do.... 
Nelson... 
Fisher. .. 
Nelson . . . 
Merriam. 

Stephens 

Talmer .. 

Merriam. 



Remarks. 



Sit )mys in stom- 
ach. 



Killed in a cellar. 
Head only. 



Bascanion laterale (Hallow.). 

Three typical specimens were collected on the west or coastal slope 
of the Sierra Nevada and Tejon Range, California, and one from the 
western slope of the Coast Range, in San Diego County, Calif. 

This species seems to be comparatively rare, and considerable addi- 
tional material is necessary to enable us to satisfactorily map out its 
geographical distribution. 

List of specimens of Bascanion laterale. 



U.S. 

Nat, 
Mus. 
No. 


Sex 
and 
age. 


18077 
18078 
18079 
18080 


| 

' i 
1 



Locality. 



Old Fort Tejon, Calif 

Three Rivers, Calif 

Walker Pass, west slope, Calif. 
j Santa Ysabel, Calif 



Alti- 
tude. 



Date. 



Collector. 



Feet. 

July 2 j Palmer 

850 Sept. 14 Bailey..., 

I July 3 | Fisher... 

I Oct. G J Stephens 



Remarks. 



12731— No. 7 14 



210 



NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. 



[Ko. 7. 



Bascanion taeniatum (Hallow.). 

The range of the present species is somewhat better understood than 
that of B. laterale. It is much more widely distributed, as specimens 
have been taken in Idaho, Utah, Nevada, California, Arizona, New 
Mexico, and Mexico, but it does not seem to reach the coast, nor does 
it appear to occur in the Valley of California, except at two points. 
These are Walker Basin (U. S. Nat, Mns., No. 0498) and Shasta County, 
northern California, where it probably enters by way of the Pit River 
Valley, as one specimen is from Baird, on the McCloud River (U. S. Nat. 
Mns., No. 13018), the other from Canoe Creek (No. 1983), both tributa- 
ries of Pit River. 

List of specimens of Bascanion tceniatum. 



V. s. 
Nat. 
Mus. 
No. 



18073 

1S074 



18075 

18076 



Sex 

and 



Locality. 



A reus Bongo, Matnrarigo Spring, 
Calif 

Ciiso Valley, Calif 

Coso Valley, nearMaturango Spring, 
Calif...-' 

Coso Mountains, Coso, Cnlif 

Panamint Mountains, Willow (reek, 
Calif. 



Alti- 
tude. 



5, 4U0 



Date. 



May 
May 



May 11 
May 18 

May, 19 



Collector. 



Fisher . 
Do... 

Palmer 
Fisher . 
Nelson . 



Remarks. 



Thamnophis" infernalis (Blainv.). 

The status of the various forms of garter snakes in North America 
is one of the most difficult problems, and as yet an unsolved one. Much 
more material than is at present available will be necessary in order to 
establish the limits of the species and subspecies, to define their char- 
acters, to ascertain the range of individual variation within each form, 
and to settle the many knotty points of nomenclature. For the present, 
the reference of many specimens must necessarily be a provisional 
one, and individuals which one herpetologist might identify as be- 
longing to one form are very likely to be named quite differently by 
another, and our knowledge of the geographical distribution of a num- 
ber of these forms must consequently also be defective. It would there- 
fore hardly be wise to make any generalizations in this direction. Under 
such circumstances, when the limits and true characters of the various 
forms are yet unsettled, it seems unnecessary to make an attempt at 
recognizing a distinction between specific and subspecific terms. With 

* According to the A. O. II. Code of Zoological Nomenclature (canon XLll), Tham- 
nophis Fitzinger, 1843 (type Th. saurita), takes the precedence over Eutainia Baird 
& Girard. Apropos of my introduction of Leptotyphlopa of Fitzinger for Stenostoma, 
preoccupied, it lias been asserted that Fitziuger's names are nomina mi da. The 
simple fact that Fitzinger expressly indicated the type of the genus at once removes 
them from that category, and moreover, the code referred to states in so many words 
that the indication of the type species is sufficient for the establishment of the ge- 
neric term. 



May. 1803. 



REPTILES OF THE DEATH VALLEY EXPEDITION. 



211 



this proviso I shall designate the forms which I have recognized among 
the material of the Death Valley Expedition by binominals. 

Whether the form called Eutainia infemalis by Band and Girard, and 
later by Prof. Cope, really is the same as Blainville's Coluber infemalis 
is to me a question which even Bocourt's recent paper (Bull. Soc. Zool. 
France, XVII, Jan. 2G, 1892, p. 40) fails to settle, because he evidently 
includes several forms which we on this side of the Atlantic would not 
think of uniting. As the four specimens before me (Nos. 18711-18714) 
agree with the specimens which are usually called E. infemalis, I have 
adopted this term for the present. 

Two of these specimens have nineteen scale-rows and eight supra- 
labials (Nos. 18711, 18712), and all are uniform dark above with three 
well-defined buff-colored bands. No. 18711, the larger specimen, has 
the supralabials well bordered with blackish, while in No. 18712 these 
marks are obsolete. The latter is somewhat abnormal in having the 
second row of temporal s fused, together. The two specimens from Mono 
(Nos. 187L3-18714), on the other hand, have twenty-one scale-rows and 
the labials (eight) well bordered with black. 

List of specimens of Thamnophis infemalis. 



r. s. 

Nat. Sex ami 
Mas. age. 
No. j 


. Locality. 


Alti- 
tude. 


Date. 


Collector. 


Keniarks. 


1 

18711 atl. 
1 

18712 l 


San Joaquin River, High Sierra. ( lalif. 


Feet. 
8,100 


July 29 
Oct. 5 


Nelson 

Bailey 

Nelson 

....do 


Near Mam- 
moth Pass. 


18713 

18711 


Horro, San Luis Obispo County, Calif 




Nor. 10 
..do 















Thamnophis elegans (B. »fc G.). 

Of the three specimens which I refer to this species, the large one 
(No. 18708) is strikingly like the type of Baird and Girard. The num- 
ber of scale-rows, however, is only nineteen, as in Baird and Girard's 
second specimen. The eye is somewhat larger, and the posterior 
supralabials lower, but in both respects it agrees closely with No. 878, 
from Fort Reading, Calif., which has always been referred to T. elegans 
without hesitation. In the two younger specimens, from Mount Whit- 
ney (Nos. 18709 and 18710), the general color is slightly more olive, 
not quite so bluish, and the labials are margined with blackish, in this 
respect resembling No. 878, referred to above. 1 do not believe that 
too much stress should be laid upon the absence or presence of these 
marks in this and allied forms. But instead of having the space be- 
tween the dorsal aud lateral stripes uniform dark, as in the larger 
specimen, these younger ones are distinctly spotted on a rather dark 
ground, quite resembling the subspecies recently described by Cope as 
T. elegans lineolata. An examination of No. 878, however, establishes 
the fact that the dorsal spots are present aud that consequently the 



212 



NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. 



[No. 7. 



absence or presence of spots is only due to the darker or lighter shade 
of the ground color. 

A great amount of collecting and observing will have to be done 
before we can know anything definite about the individual variation of 
these snakes. Each species and form will have to be investigated by 
itself, for it is plain that conclusions based upon analogies from allied 
forms are not to be relied upon, and it seems as if the only safe way 
would be to commence an examination on as large a scale as possible of 
the unborn young, cut out of the mother snake. A careful and detailed 
record of such examinations would settle many a mooted point, and is 
recommended to the attention of California naturalists. 

List of specimens of ThamnopMa elcgans. 



U.S. 
Nat, 
Mas. 
No. 



18708 
18709 



18710 



Sex and 

a«e. 



ad. 



Locality. 



Yosemite Valley, Calif 

10 miles south of Mount Whitney, 

Calif. 
do 



Alti- 
tude. 



Fed. 
4, 000 



Date. 



Aug. 
Auk- 31 



.do 



Collector. 



Nelson... 
Dutcuer . 



.do 



Remarks. 



Thamnophis hammoiidii (Keiin.). 

Fortunately there attaches no doubt to specimeus belonging to this 
well defined species, and all here referred to it are typical in every 
way, scutellation as well as coloration. Its range overlaps to a great 
extent that of Th. vagrans without affecting the purity of the type, 
and as both are found in the identical localities, as well proved by 
the present collection, there seems no valid reason for regarding them 
as subspecies of the same species. The distinctive characters of this 
form are well pointed out and emphasized by Kennicott in the original 
description. 

Neither does there seem to be any good reason for substituting the 
name Th. couchii for that of Th. hammondli. The two forms have been 
considered distinct up to the present time, and there has been collected 
no additional material of recent years which could tend to show that 
they are identical. 

The twelve specimens of Th. hammondii contained in the present 
collection show a great constancy of some of the structural characters. 
All have twenty-one scale rows, eight supralabials, and one preocular. 

In nearly all of them there are distinct indications of a dorsal band 
which in No-. 18091, a young specimen, is quite well marked the whole 
length of the animal, while in most others it is chiefly developed on 
the portion nearest to the head. 



Mat, 1893.] REPTILES OF THE DEATH VALLEY EXPEDITION. 213 

List of specimens of Thamnopltis ltammondii. 



U.S. 




Nat. 


Sex and 


Mils. 


age. 


No. 




18687 


Sad. 


18G88 


ad. 


18689 


$ad. 


18690 




38691 


.1UV. 


18G92 


jun. 


18693 


jun. 


1S694 


Jim. 


18695 


ad. 


18696 




18697 


ad. 


18698 


jun. 



Locality. 



Owens Valley, Alvord, Calif 

Owens Valley. Fish Slough, 10 miles 

north of Bishop, Calif. 

Owens Lake. Cartago, Calif 

Old Fort Tejon, Calif 

Lone Pine, Calif 

Kern River, 25 miles above Kernville, 

Calif. 

do 

Kern River, South Fork, Calif 

Kern River, Calif - 

Kern River, South Fork, Calif 

Soda Springs, Kern River, Calif 

do 



Alti- 
tude. 



Feet. 
4, GOO 



Date. 



June 27 
July 2 



3, 700 June 10 
July 3 
Aug. 21 
July 9 



July 5 

! July 7 

7,200 | Sept. 8 
2, 700 June 22 

I Sept. 4 

! Aug. 14 



Collector. 



Stephens 

....do ... 

...do ... 

Palmer . 

Fisher. - 
...do ... 

....do... 
...do ... 
Nelson . 
Rainier . 
Fisher.. 
Bailey . . 



Remarks. 



South Fork. 



Thanmophis vagrans (B. & G.). 

The material brought home by the Death Valley Expedition seems 
clearly to demonstrate the impracticability of recognizing a subspecies 
lineolata. Among the specimens from southern California there are 
specimens which are typical and unquestionable Th. vagrans (for in- 
stance, No. 1870G), which combine all the characters of this species, 
both as to scutellation and coloration. Practically from the same 
locality we have another specimen (No. 18707), which might properly 
be referred to Th. lineolata. Those from Soda Springs on the North 
Fork of Kern Eiver, and Whitney Creek are more like the former than 
the latter, while the light colored specimen from Ash Meadows, Nevada 
(No. 18700), is a true vagrans, so far as its dorsal spots are concerned, 
but a lineolata if we pay attention to the dorsal stripe only. 

The other specimen from this latter locality (No. 18701) is abnormal 
in several respects, it being quite melanistic in coloration with a well- 
defined dorsal band. The dorsal scale rows are very irregular, so that 
it is difficult to make out the exact scale formula, but the prevailing 
number seems to be nineteen. 

The amount of black on the belly is very variable; in fact, not two 
specimens are alike in this respect. No. 18707, from Lone Tine, has no 
trace of it, while No. 1870G, from practically the same locality, Owens 
Lake, has the anterior half of each gastrostege black, and No. 18704, 
from Soda Springs, has the middle of the under side almost solid bluish 
black. 



'214 



NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. 

List of specimens of Thamnophis vagrans. 



[Ho. 



u. s. 

Nat. 
Mus. 
No. 



18699 
18700 
18701 
18702 
18703 
18704 

18705 



18706 
18707 



Sex 
and 



,]UV. 

.juv. 



Locality. 



Silver Creek, Nev 

Ash Meadows, Nev 

do 

North Fork, Kern River, Calif... 

do 

Soda Springs, North Fork, Kern 

River, Calif. 
Whitney Creek, Calif 



Owens River, Calif 
Lone Pine, Calif — 



Alti- 
tude. 



7, 000 
8,500 
6,000 



Date. 



Nov. 8,1890 

Mar. 3,1891 

Mar. 4. 1891 

Sept. 12,1891 

Sept. 10, 1891 

Aug. 15, 1891 

Sept. 5,1891 



July 20,1891 
June 11,1891 



Collector. 



Bailey 
Palmer 
...do .. 
...do . 

Nelson 
Bailey 

. . .do . . 

Nelson 
Palmer 



Remarks. 



Thamnophis parietalis (Say). 

A single specimen (No. 18715) from Horse Corral Meadows, Fresno 
County, Calif., collected by Dr. A. K. Fisher, August 10, 1891, having 
nineteen scale rows, seven supralabials, and one preocular, has been 
referred to the present form in spite of the fact that the superior spots 
along the dorsal stripe are not fused into a solid black band. I have, 
however, before me a specimen from San Francisco (No. 893), referred 
to Th. parietalis by Cope, which in this respect agrees with the present 
specimen, but the dorsal is broader. On the other hand our speci- 
men presents many points of resemblance to so-called Th. leptocephala, 
but 1 am unable to distinguish specimens of the latter with the above 
scale formula from specimens of the Th. sirtalis group. I have failed 
so far to distinguish any specific difference between Th. sirtalis and 
l&ptocephala, and am inclined to think that the latter is made up of 
similarly degenerate specimens belonging to different species or forms. 

Family CrotalidvE. 

Crotalus tigris Kenn. 

The 'tiger-rattler,' of which the expedition has brought home quite 
a series, is one of the rarest species in collections. Discovered during 
the survey of the boundary between the United States and Mexico, 
and described by Kennicott, the habitat of the species was given in 
general terms as " Deserts of Gila and Colorado," but I can find no 
evidence of specimens recorded from anywhere except from the Sierra del 
Pozo Verde,* in Arizona. A specimen was afterwards collected by Dr. 
Irwin at Fort Buchanan, Ariz., and recorded by Dr. Yarrow in his 

* The name is written both Siena del Pozo Verde and Sierra Verde in the Rept. 
IT. S. and Mex. Bound. Snrv. (cf. vol. I, pt. I, ]>. 121 and pt. II, p. 70). This range is 
situated on the boundary between Arizona and Sonora, nearly due south of liabo- 
qnivari Peak, and about 50 miles northwest of Nogales. A spriny known as 'Agua 
del Pozo Verde (Green Well)' is situated at the foot of the western slope near the 
southern end of the ran"e. 



May. 1893.] REPTILES OF THE DEATH VALLEY EXPEDITION. 215 

Catalogue of the Reptiles and Batrachians in the U.S. National Museum 
(No. 5271). Dr. J. G. Cooper lias since enumerated G. tigris from tbe 
California side of the 'Colorado Valley/* but whether he based his 
record upon specimens actually collected (in which case, probably near 
Fort Mohave), or only upon the general statement in the report of the 
Mexican Boundary Survey, I do not know. 

It does not appear to have been collected by any of the many parties 
of the Pacific Railroad Surveys, nor was it brought home by the herpe- 
tologists of the Wheeler Expedition west of the one hundredth meridian . 

The extension of its known range by the present expedition is there- 
fore very material, and is the more interesting since it was found 
almost over the entire desert area visited. So far from being restricted 
to the Colorado Valley proper, as surmised by Dr. Cooper, it seems to 
be chiefly confined to the desert mountain ranges, in which it ascends to 
a considerable altitude, as shown by the table below, while horizontally 
its range has been extended over quite a considerable area of southern 
Nevada. 

A study of the present series convinces me that the nearest affinity 
of the ' tiger rattler ' is with the true Crotalus confluent us of the plains, 
in spite of the rather striking and in many respects peculiar aspect of 
the former. 

[The known range of this exceedingly rare rattlesnake has been 
greatly extended by the expedition, specimens having been secured at 
frequent intervals from Owens Valley in California to the Great Bend 
of the Colorado on the boundary between Nevada and Arizona. It was 
usually found in rocky places in the desert ranges — rarely in the inter- 
vening valleys. 

When passing through Emigrant Canon in the Panamint Mountains, 
in California, April 15, two large rattlesnakes of this species were 
killed at one shot by Mr. Stephens, at an altitude of 1,400 meters (4,600 
feet). They were on a ledge of rock, and were standing erect with 
their heads near together, apparently playing. In Indian Spring Val- 
ley, north of the Charleston Mountains, in Nevada, one was found in a 
wood-rat's nest that was dug open to secure a large scaly lizard (Scelo- 
porus maf/ister) which had taken refuge there. Its stomach contained 
a kangaroo rat (Dipodomys) and a pocket mouse , (Perognathus), indi- 
cating nocturnal habits. Others were killed in the upper part of Vegas 
Valley (near Cottonwood Springs) and Vegas Wash, Nevada, and in 
Owens Valley (on Independence Creek), Coso Valley, the Argus Range, 
Slate Range, Panamint Range, and Grapevine Mountains, California. In 
the Argus Range nineteen were killed in or near Shepherd Canon, dur- 
ing the latter part of April and first week of May, by Dr. Fisher's 
party.— C. H. M.] 

*Proc. Calif. Acad. Nat. Sci., IV, p. 66 (1870). 



216 



NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. 
List of specimens of Crotalus tigris. 



[No. 



U.S. 
Nat. 
Mus. 
No. 



1S061 
18662 

18003 
18604 

18665 
1K600 

18G67 

1S008 

18669 

18070 

18671 
18672 

1S673 

18674 



Sex 
and 
age. 



ad. 
ad. 
jun. 
jUv. 

ad. 
ad. 

juv. 

ad. 

ad. 
ad. 

ad. 
ad. 

ad. 
? ad. 



Locality. 



Vegas Valley, Ncv 

Vegas Wash, Nov 

Indian Spring Valley, Nev 
Grapevine Mountains, Nev 



Slate Range, Calif 

Panamint Mountains, Willow 

Creek, Calif. 
Panamint Mountains, Johnson 

Canon, Calif. 
Panamint Mountains, Emigrant 

Canon, Calif. 

do 

Argus Range, Shepherd Canon, 

Calif. 

do 

Coso Valley, Maturango Springs, 

Calif. 

do 

Owens Valley, Independence 

Creek, Calif. 



Alti- 
tude. 



Feet. 



?., 100 
5,500 

5,000 

4,600 

4,600 



6,500 



Date. 



May 1 
May 2 
May 29 
June 6 

Apr. 21 
May 17 

Mar. 30 

Apr. 16 

...do... 
Apr. 29 

Apr. 27 
May 11 



...do... 

June 20 



Collector. 



Merriain. 
Bailey ... 
Merriam 
Nelson... 

Stephens 
Nelson . . . 

Fisher . . . 

Stephens 

...do.... 

Fisher . . . 

...do.... 
Palmer . . 

...do.... 
Stephens 



Remarks. 



3,000 feet ahove 
Salt Wells. 



Crotalus cerastes Hallow. 

The horned rattlesnake has a record somewhat different from that 
of the foregoing' species (C. tigris), although inhabiting, in a general 
way, the same country. It was described much earlier, is less rare in 
collections, and the geographical range was better known. This differ- 
ence is probably due to the fact that it is more confined to the desert 
plains and valleys, while G. tigris seems to take its jjlace in the moun- 
tains. 

The material brought home by the Death Valley Expedition adds con- 
siderable detail to our knowledge of the geographical range of the 
present species, and is, therefore, very valuable and interesting, for the 
previous material although better than that of C. ligris, as intimated 
above, was scanty and indefinite enough. Thus, if we take the Catalogue 
of the specimens in the U. S. National Museum (Bull. IT. S. Nat. Mus., 
No. 24, p. 73), we note at once that there is no specimen from the type 
locality, which is the Mohave Desert and borders of the Mohave Eiver. 
Dr. Merriam has now supplied this desideratum by the specimen col- 
lected April G, 1891 (No. 1865G). We next note that a specimen (No. 
8923) was collected by Dr. Yarrow in ' Southern Utah.' The locality 
is indefinite enough and more than dubious, if for no other reason than 
the complete absence of any reference to such a specimen in Dr. Yar- 
row's report upon the reptiles in the fifth volume of Wheeler's Survey 
West of the One Hundredth Meridian. Another specimen (No. 911G) is 
said to have been collected by John Kohler in 'Cottonwood Canon, 
Nevada.' Turning to the record book we find 'Cottonwood Canon, 
Arizona,' and on p. 98 of the catalogue referred to we find that John 
Kohler collected a Salvadora graham ice in 'Cottonwood Canon, Utah.' 



May, 1893.] REPTILES OF THE DEATH VALLEY EXPEDITION. 217 

The locality is certainly indefinite, to say tbe least, and a more favor- 
able expression can hardly be used about ' Colorado River, Colorado,' 
for specimen No. 482, wbicb was probably collected near Fort Yuma, 
California, and certainly not in the State of Colorado, as the catalogue 
referred to would seem to indicate. 

It is refreshing to turn from these unreliable and confusing state- 
ments to the list of exact localities furnished below for each individual 
specimen taken, and nothing will better illustrate the value of the work 
done by the Death Valley Expedition than the parallel just drawn. 

[The horned rattlesnake or 'sidewinder,' as it is locally known 
throughout the region it inhabits, is the characteristic snake of the 
Lower Sonoran deserts of the Great Basin, from southern California 
easterly across southern Nevada to Arizona and southwestern Utah. 
It inhabits the open deserts, while its congener of the same region 
(0. tigris) lives in the desert ranges. Its local name is derived from its 
peculiar mode of progression : when disturbed it moves away sideways, 
keeping its broadside toward the observer instead of proceeding in 
the usual serpentine manner. Its bite is said to be fatal, which is 
probably not the case under ordinary circumstances. A large number 
were secured by the expedition and many others were killed, but no 
one was bitten by it. It was found on both sides of Pilot Knob in the 
Mohave Desert (April 5 and 6) in Pahrnmp Valley, where four were 
caught in a space of a mile and half (April 28 and 29); in Vegas Valley 
(May 1); in Vegas Wash (May 3); in Indian Spring Valley (May 29), 
where one was shot containing a kangaroo rat (Dlpodomys) and two 
pocket mice (Perognatkus) ; in the Anmrgosa Desert (May 31), and 
in Sareobatus Flat (June 2). It was common in the valley of the 
Virgin and Lower Muddy (May C and 7), and was said to inhabit Pah- 
ranagat Valley, though we did not find it there. 

During the latter part of April and the early part of May these rat- 
tlesnakes were often found in pairs and were doubtless mating. At 
such times they remained out in plain sight over night instead of re- 
treating to holes or shelter under desert brush, and on two occasions 
they were found by us on cold mornings so early that they were too 
chilled to move until considerably disturbed. I stepped on one of these 
by accident as it lay in a compact coil with its head in the center, but 
it was held so firmly by my weight that it was unable to strike. A 
moment before, I bad killed its mate. I killed three on the mesa east 
of St. Joe, in the valley of the Muddy, in eastern Nevada, May 7. — 
C. H. M.] 



218 



north American fauna. 

List of specimens of Crotalus cerastes, 



[No. 7. 



U.S. 




Nat. 


Sex and 


Mus. 


age. 


No. 




18646 


ad. 


18647 


ad. 


18648 


ad. 


18649 


ad. 


18650 


ad. 


18651 


ad. 


18652 


inn. 


18653 


inn. 


18654 


JUU. 


18655 


Jim. 


18656 


jun. 


18657 


jim. 


18658 


ad. 


18659 


ad. 


18660 


ad. 



Locality. 



Pahrump Valley, Nov 

do 

do 

do 

Indian Spring Valley, Nev 

do '. 

A sh Meadows ( 14 mile.s north of) , Xev 

Sarcobat us Flat, Nev 

Amargosa Desert, Nev 

Death Valley (Bennett Wells), Calif 

Mohave Desert, Calif 

Borax Flat (water station), Calif 

Pauamint Valley, Calif 

do 

Lone Pine, Calif 



Alti- 
tude, 



Feet. 



4,500 



2,201 



Date. 



Apr. 

do 

....do 
Apr. 
May 

do 

Mar. 
June 
May 
Apr. 
Apr. 
Apr. 
Apr. 
Apr. 
June 



Collector, 



Merriam . . . 

...do 

...do 

...do 

Bailey 

Merriam... 
Stephens . . 

Bailey 

Mri'ri.un . . . 

Bailey 

Merriam. . . 
Stephens . 

Nelson 

Bailey 

Palmer 



Remarks. 



Type locality. 



Crotalus lucifer B. & G. 

The questions whether there is more than one separable form of this 
species within the Pacific region and, in case of an affirmative answer, 
what names are to be employed for the various forms, are yet open, 
awaiting tlie accumulation of much additional material. It may even 
be found that the name adopted above for the species is not the oldest 
tenable; but, not being able to settle that -point at present, I retain 
G. lucifer as undoubted in its application. On the other hand, that it is 
a good and distinct species, well separated from G.confluentus, and not 
a subspecies of the latter, I feel perfectly confident. 

The present species is characteristic of the interior valley and slopes 
of California as contrasted with the Great Basin, and the boundary 
between the two forms seems to be quite sharply drawn, at least in the 
regions visited by the expedition. There is probably no stronger con- 
trast among the reptiles of the same genus met with by the Death 
Valley explorers than that between the pale and clay colored rattle- 
snakes in the desert plains and mountains and the dark colored G. lucifer 
which they obtained only in the San Joaquin Valley and iu the moun- 
tain slopes encircling it. 

• [This species does not inhabit the Great Basin, but was found in a 
number of localities on the west or coastal slope of the Sierra, and in 
the San Joaquin Valley. Specimens were obtained at Old Fort Tejon, 
iu the Canada de las Uvas, and thence northward on the west slope of 
the mountains to Tehachapi Pass, Kern Valley, Kaweah Piver, Kings 
Piver Canon, the San Joaquin River, find the Merced River (on the 
latter as high as li,G20 meters or 8,G00 feet).— C. H. M.J 



May, 1893.] BATRACHIANS OF THE DEATH VALLEY EXPEDITION. 219 



List of specimens of Crotatus lucifer. 



U.S. 
Nat, 
Mus 
No. 



18675 
18676 
18677 

18078 

18679 
18680 
18681 
18682 
18683 



Sex anil 
age. 



Locality. 



ad. 
ailol. 

ad. 
,juu. 

d 
ad. 
ad. 
ad. 
ad. 



Old Fort Tejon, Calif 

Bakersfield, Calif 

Kernville, Calif 

Soda Springs, North Fork Kern 

River, Calif 

East Fork Kaweah River, Calif 

King's River Canon, Calif 

North Fork San Joaquin River, Calif 

Merced River, Calif 

do 



Alti- 
tude. 



2, 4(10 



Date. 



July 7 
July 17 
July 10 



Aug. 12 

4. 500 July 28 

Ang. 14 

6,600 July 29 
8. 000 Aug. 4 
8,600 I ...do ... 



Toll. .(.tor. 



Palmer 
Bailev . 
...do'.. 

...do.. 
...do.. 
Palmer 
Nelson 
...do .. 
...do.. 



Remarks. 



Skin. 



B.— BATRACHIA. 

Order ANURA. 

Family Bufonid^e. 
Bufo punctatus B. & G. 

This species of rather wide distribution belongs to the Lower Sonoran 
fauna, and is not known from the interior valley of California. It 
probably finds its northern limit not far from where the numerous 
specimens of the expedition were collected. 

List of specimens of Bufo punctatus. 



u. s. 

Nat. Sex and 
Mus. | age. 
No 



18748 
18749 
18750 
18751 
18752 
18753 
18754 
18755 
18756 
18757 
18758 
18759 
18760 
18761 
18762 
1J763 
18764 
18765 
18766 
18767 
1876S 
18769 
18770 
18771 
18772 
18773 
18774 
18775 
18776 
16777 
18778 
18779 
18780 
18781 
18"82 
18783 
18784 

18785 



ad. 

ad. 
ad. 
ad. 
ad. 
ad. 
ad. 
ad. 
ad. 
ad. 
ail. 
ad. 
ad. 
ad. 
ad. 
ad. 
ad. 
ad. 
ad. 
ad. 
ad. 
ad. 
ad. 
ad. 
ad. 
ad. 
ad. 
ad. 
ail. 
ad. 
ad. 
ad. 
ad. 
ad. 
ad. 
larva; 
ad. 

adol. 



Locality. 



Death Valley, Calif. 
do....:. 



.do 
.do 
.do 
.do 
.do 
.do 



Death Valley, Furnace Creek, Calif. 
do.... - 



.do . 

-do 

-do . 

.do . 

.do. 

.do 

.do 

-do 

.do 

.do 

.do 

.do 

.do 

.do 

.do 

.do 

.do 

.do 

.do 

.do 

.do 

.do 

.do 

.do 



Alti- 
tude. 



Feet. 



Panamint Mountains, Cottonwood 

Canon, Calif. 
do 



Date. 



Mar. 22 
...do ... 
...do ... 
...do ... 
...do ... 
...do ... 
...do ... 
...do ... 
Mar. 21 
...do ... 
...do ... 
...do ... 
...do ... 
...do ... 
...do ... 
...do ... 
...do ... 
...do ... 
...do ... 
...do ... 

....do ... 
....do ... 

...do ... 

...do ... 

...do ... 

...do .., 

...do ... 

...do ... 

...do ... 
....do .. 
....do . 
....do .. 
...do .. 

...do -- 
Apr. 10 

Feb. 4 
May 29 

...do.. 



Collector. 



Nelson . . . 
...do .... 

...do .... 
...do .... 
...do .... 
...do .... 
...do .... 
...do .... 
...do .... 
...do.... 

...do .... 
...do .... 
...do .... 
...do .... 
...do .... 

...do ... 
...do .... 

...do .... 

...do.... 

...do .... 
...do .... 
...do .... 

...do. ... 

...do .... 
...do .... 

...do .... 

...do .... 
...do .... 
...do .... 
...do .... 
...do .... 
...do .... 

. ...do .... 
...do .... 
Stephens. 
Fisher... 
Neison. .. 



.do 



Remarks. 



220 



NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. 



[No. 7. 



Bufo halophilus 15. &. G. (Plate hi, tigs. 3 a-b). 

Of ratlier general distribution, as specimens were collected by the 
expedition inside the great interior valley of California, on the Pacfic 
coast near Monterey, and in various localities in Owens Valley, east 
of the Sierra Nevada. Its vertical range is hardly less extended, hav- 
ing been found from the level of the sea to more than 10,000 feet above. 

List of specimens of Bufo halophilus. 



U.S. 




Nat. 


Sex and 


Mus. 


Age. 


No. 




18719 


adol. 


18720 


jnv. 


18721 


JUV. 


18722 


juv. 


18723 


ad. 


18724 


jnn. 


18725 


ad. 


18726 


ad. 


18727 


adol. 


18728 


]un. 


18729 


adol. 


18730 


adol. 


18731 


adol. 


18732 


adol. 


18733 


JUU. 


18734 


jun. 


18735 


tadpoles 


18736 


do 


18737 


do 



Locality. 



Owens Valley, Alvord. Calif. 

Owens Valley, Bishop Creek, Calif. 

do 

do 

Owens Valley, Independence Creek, 

Calif 

do 

Owens Valley, Lone Pine, Calif 

do . 

do 

do 

Round Valley, Tulare County, Calif. 

W liitney Meadows, Calif. 

Kings River, Calif 

Elizabeth Lake, Calif 

Monterey, Calif 



.do 



East Fork, Kaweali River, Calif. 

do 

do 



Alti- 
tude. 



Feet. 
4, 000 
4,000 
4, 000 
4,000 

6,000 
6,000 



10, 000 
5, 200 



About 
sea 
level. 
..do ... 
10, 200 
10, 200 
10, 200 



Date. 



Juno 26 
June 29 
June 29 
June 29 

June 19 
June 19 
June 18 
June 7 
June 6 
June 6 
Aug. 22 
Aug. 20 
Aug. 10 
July. 2 
Sept. 30 



Oct. 1 

Aug. 7 

Aug. 7 

Aug. 7 



Collector. 



Remarks. 



Stephens 
...do .... 
...do .... 
...do .... 

...do .... 
...do .... 
Ki-Uon. 
Palmer. 
...do ... 
...do ... 

...do ... 

Bailey. 
Nelson. 
Palmer. 

Bailey. 

...do ... 
...do ... 
...do .... 
...do .... 



PI. Ill, fif 



a-b. 



Bufo boreas nelsoni, Bubap. nov. (PI. in, figs. 4 a-b). 

Diagnosis. — Similar to B. boreas: Skin between warts smooth; snout 
protracted, pointed in profile; webs of hind legs very large ; soles rather 
smooth; limbs shorter, elbows and knees not meeting when ad pressed 
to the sides of the body; inner metacarpal tubercle usually very large. 

Habitat. — Southeastern California and western Nevada. 

Type.— U. S. Nat. Mus., No. 18742; Oasis Valley, Nevada, March 10, 
1891; F. Stephens, coll. 

This seems to be the southern form of Bufo boreas, distinguished from 
the latter as above. Extreme examples of both forms are very dif- 
ferent and Avould readily pass for distinct species, but specimens occur 
in which one or the other of the characters are less developed, making 
it expedient to use a trinominal appellation. 

On the other hand, both B. boreas and the new form here described 
are quite well separated from B. halophilus and its northern race, />. 
halophilus colambicusis, the difference in profile of the snout being quite 
sufficient (comp. pi. itt, figs. 3a and 4«), not to mention the other char- 
acters indicated in the diagnosis above. Their geographical distribu- 
tion, as examplified by the material brought home by the Death Valley 
Expedition, furnishes sufficient proof of the specific value of their differ- 



May, 1893.] BATRACHIANS OF THE DEATH VALLEY EXPEDITION. 221 

ences, for while we find B. halophilus alone in the valley of California, 
both species were collected in the same localities east of the Sierra 
Nevada. 

The name of this form is selected in honor of Mr. E. W. Nelson for 
his valuable .zoo geographical work botli in the extreme south and in 
the extreme north of our country. 

List of specimens of Bufo horeas nehoni. 



U.S. 




Nat- 


Sex anil 


Mas. 


age. 


No. 




18738 


ad. 


18739 


ad. 


18740 


ad. 


18741 


ad. 


18742 


ad. 


18743 


ad. 


18744 


adol. 


18745 


JUU. 


18746 


ad. 


18747 


ad. 



Locality. 



Oasis Valley, Nev. 
do ....' 



.do 
.do 
-do 
.do 



Iiesting Springs, Calif 

do 

Owens Valley, Morans, Calif. . . 
Owens Valley, Lone Pine, Calif. 



Alti- 
tude. 



Feet. 



5, 000 



Date. 



Mar. 16 
....do ... 
....do ... 
...do .. 
....do ... 

...do ... 
Feb. 7 

...do ... 
July 4 
June 18 



Collector. 



Stephens.. . 

...do 

...do 

...do 

...do 

Nelson 

Fisher 

...do 

Stephens.. . 
Nelson 



Remarks. 



Type. 



Bufo lentiginosus woodhousii (Gir.). 

The three specimens mentioned below are rather young, and are re- 
ferred to under the above name more because they occur in the region 
commonly assigned to this form than because they conform to the char- 
acters ascribed to it. As a matter of fact, 1 have yet to discover a char- 
acter, or a combination of characters of sufficient stability to enable me 
to distinguish B. woodhousii from B. american us. Proportions, parallel- 
ism or divergence of cranial ridges, and single or double subarticular 
tubercles on the toes, seem all entirely valueless as characters. 

[Specimens of this toad were collected in Pahranagat and Vegas 
valleys, Nevada; and toads, probably the same species, were common 
in the Lower Muddy and Virgin valleys, Nevada, and at the mouth of 
Beverdam Creek, Arizona. — C. H. M.] 

List of specimens of Bufo lentiginosus woodhousii. 



U.S. 

Nat. 

Mus. 

No. 



1S716 

1X717 
18718 



Sex and 
age. 



JUU. 

jnn. 
jun. 



Locality. 



Pahranagat Valley, Ncv 
Vegas Valley, Nev 



Alti- 
tude. 



Feet. 



Date. 



May 25 
Mar. 13 
Mar. 14 



Collector. 



Bailey 
Nelson 
Bailey 



Remarks. 



222 



NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. 



[No. 7. 



Family ScAriiioroDiDyE. 

Scaphioptis hamniondii Baird. 

The four specimens representing various sizes and ages from the same 
locality will ultimately be of great help in better understanding the 
status of this species. The few specimens now in the collections from 
a number of localities scattered over a very wide area, and often in a 
bad state of preservation, form a very unsatisfactory material upon 
which to base a rational discussion of the question. 

List of specimens of Scaphiopus hamniondii 



U.S. 




Nat. 


Sex and 


Mils. 


age. 


No. 




187«6 


ad. 


18787 


Rdol. 


18788 


adol. 


18789 


jmi. 



Locality. 



Owens Lake, Olancha. Calif. 
do 



.do 



Alti 

tudc. 



Feet. 

3,700 



Date. 



Collector. 



Remarks. 



May 21 

May 18 

May 15 

May 18 



Stephens 
...do ... 
...do .... 
...do ..., 



Family Hylid^e. 

Hyla regilla B. & G. 

We have been* so accustomed to regard this species as chiefly 'Pa- 
cific' in its distribution that it was rather a surprise to receive such 
an enormous number of specimens from so many localities in the desert 
regions visited by the expedition. Our knowledge as to the geographi- 
cal distribution of this species has consequently been considerably ex- 
tended, and there can be no doubt that the material gathered will be of 
extreme importance whenever it shall be possible to work up in detail 
the unequaled series in the National Museum. As my assistant, Mr. 
Frederick C. Test, has been engaged for some time upon this work, I 
shall refrain from further remarks in order not to forestall any of his 
conclusions. 

[On the west or coastal slope of the Great Divide in California, tree 
toads of this species were found in Kern Valley, Walker Basin, and at 
Old Fort Tejon in the Canada de las Uvas. On the east or Great Basin 
side of the divide they were tolerably common about the spring in Sur- 
prise Canon in the Panaraint Mountains, at Hot Springs in Panamint 
Valley, at Saratoga Spring at the south end of Death Valley, and at 
Besting Springs. In Nevada they were found in Ash Meadows, Oasis, 
Pahruinp, and Vegas valleys. — C. H. M.] 



.May, 1893] BATRACHIANS OF THE DEATH VALLEY EXPEDITION. 223 
List of specimen* of Hyla regilla. 



U.S. 
Nat. 

Mils. 
No. 


Sex and 
age. 


Locality. 


Alti- 
tude. 


Date. 


Collector. 


Remarks. 


18790 
18791 


ad. 

ad. 
ad. 
ad. 
ad. 

ad. 
ad. 
ad. 
ad. 
ad. 
ad. 
ad. 
ad. 
ad. 
ad. 
ad. 
ad. 
ad. 
ad. 
ad. 
ad. 
ad. 
ad. 
ad. 
ad. 
ad. 
ad. 
ad. 
ad. 
ad. 
ad. 
ad. 
ad. 
ad. 
ad. 

ad . 

ad. 

ad. 

ad. 

ad. 
juv. 

ad. 
adol. 
juv. 
juv. 
juv. 
juv. 

ad. 

ad. 
ad. 
ad. 

ad, 
juv. 
juv. 
juv. 
juv. 

ad. 

ad. 

ad. 

ad. 

ad. 

a.l. 

ad. 
adol, 

adol. 

adol. 

ad. 

cf ad. 

JUT, 


Panamiut Mountains, Johnson 

Cation, Calif. 
do 


Feet. 
*6, 000 

6, 000 
6, 000 
6, 000 
6, 000 
0, 0!i0 

6, ooo 

(i. (100 
6,000 
6, 000 
6, 000 
6, 000 
6,000 
6, 000 
6, 000 
6,000 
6,000 
6, 000 
6, 000 
6, 000 
6, 000 
6, 000 
6, 000 
6, 000 
0, 000 
6, 000 
6,000 
6. 000 
6,000 
6, 000 
6, COO 
6, 000 
6, 000 
6,000 


Mar. 31 
do ... 


Fisher 

...do 




18792 


. do 


do 


...do .. 




18793 


(Id 


do 


...do ... 




187:>4 


do 


do 


do 




isr:."> 


do 


....do ... 

do . 


....do 

do 




18790 


do 




18797 


. do 


do 


....do 




18798 


do 


do .. 


...do 




18799 


do 


do . 


.. ..do 




18800 


...do 


do .. 


....do 




18S01 


...do 


....do 
....do 
....do 
....do 

do ... 


....do 

...do 

...do 

... do 

....do 




18802 


. do 




18803 


do 




18804 


....do 




18805 


...do 




18806 


do 


...do .. 


....do 




18807 


...do 


do ... 


do 




18808 


...do 


do . . 


do 




188 19 


do 


do . 


....do 




18810 


do ... 


do .. 


... do 




18811 


...do 


. . .do . 


do 




18812 


do 


...do . 


do 




18813 


do ... 


...do ... 


do 




18814 


...do 


...do .. 


do 




18815 


. .do 


do .. 


....do 




18816 


..do* 


do . 


do 




18817 


.do 


. . . .do 
do . 


....do 

do 




18818 


...do 




18819 


...do 


do. .. 


do 




18820 


...do 


do ... 


...do 




18821 


...do 


...do ... 


....do 




18822 


...do 


...do ... 


....do 




1 88">3 


...do 


do . 


....do 




18824 

18825 


Panamiut Mountains, Surprise 
Canon Calif. 
...do 


Apr. 23 
do . 


....do 

do 




18826 


do 




do .. 


do 




18827 


do 




do ... 


....do 




188^8 


...do 


2,600 
2, 600 


Apr. 21 
do 


Bailey 

do 




1 8829 


...do 




18830 


Whitney Creek, Calif 


Aug. 18 
Sept. 1 
Aug. 20 
Aug. 29 
..do . 


....do 

Fisher 

Bailey 

....do 

do 




18831 








18832 


do 






18833 


do 






18834 


...do 






18835 


do 


do . .. 


....do 




18836 


do 




do . . . 


....do 




18837 






Aug. 23 
Apr. 22 


....do 

Nelson 

....do 

Fisher 

do 




18838 






rocks. 


18839 


do 






18840 


Panamint Valley, Hot Springs, 

Calif. 
do . 




...do ... 




18841 




do .. 




18842 


do 




do 


do 




18843 


do 




do .. 


do 




18844 


do 




do 


do 




18845 


do 




do . 


do 




18846 






Feb. 8 

Feb. 7 

do 


Palmer 

Fisher 

do 




18847 








18848 


do 






18849 


do 




Feb. 17 
do ... 


....do 

do 




18850 


do 






18851 


do 




. do . 


...do ... 




18852 


do 




do 


do 




18853 






Jan. 30 
do ... 


Bailey 

do 


In pond at 
spring. 


18854 


do 




18855 


do 




...do .. 


do 




18856 






Jan. 9 
July 4 

....do ... 


....do 

Fisher 

....do 




18857 
18858 


South Fork Kern River, 25 miles 

above Kernville, Calif. 





*Ahout. 



224 



NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. 



[Ko. ; 



List of specimens of Bijla regilla — Continued. 



U.S. 
Nat, 
Mus. 
No. 



Sex and 
age. 



18850 
18860 

188G1 
18862 

issg:j 

18804 
18805 
18800 
18807 
18808 
18809 
18870 
18871 

18872 
18873 
18874 
18875 

18870 
18877 
18878 
18879 
18880 
18881 

18883 
18883 
18884 

18885 



18887 



18890 
18891 
18892 
18893 
18894 
18895 
18890 
18897 
18898 
18899 
18900 

18901 
18902 
18903 
18904 
18905 
18900 
18907 
18908 
18909 
18910 
18911 
18912 
18913 
18914 
18915 
18916 
18917 
18918 
18919 
18920 
18921 
18922 
18923 
18924 
18925 
18926 



ad. 

juv. 

ad. 
ad. 
ad. 
ad. 
ad. 
ad. 
ad. 
juv. 

JUV. 

juv. 
ad. 

juv. 
iuv. 
juv. 
ad. 

ad. 
ad. 
ad. 
ad. 
ad. 
ad. 

ad. 
juv. 
juv. 
ad. 

ad. 

ad. 

ad. 

ad. 

ad. 

ad. 

ad. 

ad. 

ad. 

ad. 

ad. 
juv. 
juv. 
juv. 
adol. 

adol. 
ad. 
ad. 
ad. 
ad. 
ad. 
ad. 
ad. 
ad. 
ad. 
ad. 
ad. 
ad. 
ad. 
ad. 
ad. 
ad. 
ad. 
ad. 
ad. 
ad. 
juv. 
juv. 
ad. 
ad. 
ad. 



Locality. 



Walker Basin, Calif 

Antelope Valley, near La Liebre 
Rancho, Calif. 

Old Fort Tejon, Calif 

do 

do 

do 

South Fork Merced River, Calif. . . 

Horse Corral Meadows, Calif 

Kings River, Calif 

Cottonwood Meadows, Calif 

do 

do 

Monterey, Calif 



.do 
.do 
.do 



Alti- 
tude. 



Feet. 



8,900 
8, 000 
7,500 



Charleston Mountains, in Mountain 
Spring, Nev. 

do 

do 

do 

do 

Pahrunip Valley, Nev 

Pahrump Valley, Yount'a Ranch, 
Nev. 

do 

do 

do 

Mountain Spring, Charleston Moun- 
tains, Nev. 

do 

Corn Creek, Vegas Valley, Nev 

do 

Vegas Valley, Nev 

1 .do 



.do 
.do 
.do 
.do 
.do 
do 
.do 
.do 
.do 



Vegas Valley, Cottonwood Spring 
Nev. 

do 

Oasis Valley, Nev 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

Ash Meadows, Nev 

do 



.do 
.do 
.do 
.do 
.do 
.do 
.do 
.do 
.do 
.do 
.do 
.do 



5, GOO 

5,000 
5,600 
5, 000 
5,600 



1,800 



Date. 



July 
June 

July 
July 
...do 
July 
July 
An!;. 
Aug. 
Auji. 
...Jo 
....do 
Oct. 



Sept. 29 
Sept. 30 

.do 

Apr. 30 

...do.. 
...do.. 
...do.. 
...do.. 

Feb. 21 
Apr. 28 



...do.. 
...do.. 
...do.. 
Mar. 6 



...do.. 

Mar. 15 
...do .. 
Mar. 13 
Mar. 14 
Mar. 13 
...do.. 
...do.. 
...do.. 
...do.. 
....do.. 
...do.. 
....do.. 
...do.. 
Apr. 30 



...do.. 
Mar. 16 
....do.. 
....do.. 
....do.. 
....do.. 
....do.. 
....do.. 
....do.. 
....do.. 
....do.. 
....do.. 
Mar. 20 
....do.. 
....do.. 
....do.. 
...do.. 
Mar. 13 
...do.. 
....do.. 
Mar. 18 
Mar. 4 
Mar. 2 
Mar. 4 
Mar. 17 
Feb. 28 



Collector. 



Fisher.. 
Palmer 

...do .. 
...do .. 
...do.. 



...do ... 

Nelson . . 
Palmer - 
Nelson . . 
Dutch er 
...do ... 
...do ... 
Bailey .. 



.do 
.do 



.do 



...do .. 
...do .. 
...do .- 
...do .- 
Nelson . 
Bailey . 



...do 
...do 
. . .do 
...do 



...do 

...do 
. . .do 



...do .. 
.. .do . . 
Nelson. 
...do . 
...do .. 
...do .. 
...do .. 
...do .. 
...do .. 
...do .. 
...do .. 
Bailey . 



...do.... 

Stephens 

...do .... 

...do .... 

...do .... 

...do .... 

...do .... 

...do .... 

...do .... 

...do .... 
...do .... 

...do .... 

Fisher . . . 

...do.... 

...do .... 

...do .... 
do 

...do .... 

...do.... 
...do .... 
Palmer . . 
...do ---. 
Bailey ... 
Stephens 
Nelson . . . 
...do .... 



Remarks. 



In vine on an ar- 
bor. 



In spring 



May, 1893.] BATRACHIANS OF THE DEATH VALLEY EXPEDITION. 225 

Family Banid^:. 
Rana draytonii B. &, G. 

Of this well-marked species, Mr. Bailey collected two adults and two 
young ones at Monterey, the latter in a spring near the beach. The 
specimens are in fine condition, and display the distinctive characters 
very well. The vicissitudes of this species demonstrate beautifully 
the disastrous results of prejudiced desires of c lumping' species. 
List of specimens of liana draytonii. 



U.S. 
Nat. 
Mus. 
No. 


Sex and 
age. 


Locality. 


Alti- 
tude. 


Date. 


Collector. 


Eemarks. 


18953 


ad. 

ad. 

JUT. 

juv. 




Feet. 

Near 

sea 

level. 
..do ... 


Oct. 3 
do . 


Bailey 

do 


In spring, near 
beach. 

Do 


18954 


do 


18955 


do 


..do .. 


Sept. 30 
do . 


....do 

do 




18956 


do 


..do .. 

















Rana aurora B. & G. 

The specimens referred to this species agree in such essential points 
with the types of B. aurora, that I have been obliged to so name them, 
the ouly other alternative being to describe them as new. It is my 
conviction that the result of a careful study of a large number of speci- 
mens from the Pacific province will result in the establishment of 
several more species or subspecies than at present recognized, but I 
also feel that the final settlement must be deferred until a more propi- 
tious time for a monographic essay on the various forms, which cluster 
around R. aurora, pretiosa, and draytonii. Under these circumstances 
I deem it inadvisable to establish any new names, the more so since I 
hope it will not be long before I shall be able to devote the necessary 
time to this question. 

It is hardly necessary to add that it is out of the question to base 
any generalizations upon the supposed geographical distribution of 
these forms as they are defined for the present. 

The character which associates the present specimens so strongly 
with R. aurora is the smoothness of the skin, although very minutely 
pitted, and the very strong pitting of the line which takes the place of 
the dorsolateral fold in the other species. The differences consist 
chiefly in shorter snout, fuller webbing of the toes, broader tongue, and 
darker color. 

List of specimens of Rana aurora. 



U.S. 
Nat. 
Mus. 
No. 


Sex and 
age. 


, Locality. 


Alti- 
tude. 


Date. 


Collector. 


Eemarks. 


18947 
1S948 


ad. 

art. 

ad. 


Sequoia National Park, Calif 

do 


Feet. 
7,000 
7,000 

7,000 


Aug. 2 
Aug. 6 

....do... 


....do 

Fisher 




18949 


do 


ows. 
Do. 









12731— No. 7- 



-15 



226 



NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. 



[No. 7. 



Rana pretiosa B. & G. 

The remarks under B. aurora refer as well to the present species. 
The southern specimens which have come under my notice have the 
white (or yellow) supralabial stripe ill- defined and more or less inter- 
rupted, especially behind the angle of the mouth; while in the northern 
specimens this stripe usually is well-defined and uninterrupted. 

List of specimens of liana pretiosa. 



U.S. 




Nat. 


Sex and 


Mus. 


age. 


No. 




18928 


ad. 


18929 


ad. 


18930 


ad. 


18931 


ad. 


18932 


ad. 


18933 


adol. 


18934 


adol. 


18935 


adol. 


18936 


adol. 


18937 


adol. 


18938 


JUV. 


18939 


ad. 


18940 


ad. 


18941 


ad. 


18942 


adol. 


18943 


juv. 


18944 


adol. 


18945 


adol. 


18946 


ad. 



Locality. 



Sierra Nevada, Calif 

Mulkey Meadows, Sierra Nevada, 
Calif. 

do 

Chiquito, San Joaquin River, Calif. . 



.do 



Head of Big Cottonwood Creek, Calif 



.do 
.do 
.do 
.do 
.do 



Whitney Creek, Calif 

East Fork Kaweak River, Calif 

do 

do 

do 

Mineral King, Calif 

Lone Pine, Calif 

South Fork Merced River, Calif . . . 



Alti- 
tude. 



Feet. 

8, 400 
9,000 

9, 000 
9,800 



9,800 
11,000 

11. 000 
11, 000 
11,000 
11, 000 
11, 000 



Date. 



10, 200 
10,200 

10,200 
10, 200 
7,500 



8,800 



July 24 
....do ... 



. . . -do 

July 

....do 

Sept. 

Sept, 
....do 
. . . .do 
....do 
. . . .do 
Aug. 
Aug. 

do 

....do 

....do 

July 

Aug. 

July* 



13 



Collector. 



Stephens ... 
...do 



...do .. 

Nelson. 



...do .... 
Dutcher 



...do.. 
...do .. 
...do .. 
...do .. 
...do .. 
Bailey . 
...do .. 
...do.. 
...do .. 
...do .. 
...do.. 
Fisher. 
Nelson . 



Remarks. 



Head of river 
east of Mfc. 
Raymond. 
Do. 

Near Mount 
Whitney. 



In little lake. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 



Rana boylii Baird. 

In a recent paper* (December, 1891) Boulenger expresses the opinion 
that B. boylii is only a synonym of B. draytonii. It is evident that 
he has arrived at this conclusion without having had opportunity to 
compare authentic specimens of both species, for otherwise it would be 
impossible to make such a mistake. The two species differ in all essen- 
tial points, and among the many puzzling Western forms of this genus 
none are more easily separated. Dentition, tympanum, and dorso- 
lateral glands are so different that once seen the two species can not well 
be confounded. B. boylii has the tympanum almost concealed and cov- 
ered with tubercles, the vomerine teeth in an oblique longitudinal series 
on each side, and the dorsolateral fold flattened out so as to be nearly, 
or entirely, imperceptible, while B. draytonii has a smooth, distinct 
tympanum, vomerine teeth in clusters, and very prominent dorsolateral 
folds. 

The specimens which I have referred to B. boylii differ from the type 
of the latter in a few minor points, chief df which is the narrowness of 
the tongue; but as the specimens are rather small, much stress ought 
not to be attached to this point. Moreover, I would again refer to my 



*Aiin. Mag. Nat. Hist. (6), vin, p. 453. 



Mat, 1893.] BATRACHIANS OF THE DEATH VALLEY EXPEDITION. 



227 



remarks under B. aurora as to the in advisability of meddling with the 
status of the Californian frogs in the present connection. 

List of specimens of Bana boylii. 



U.S. 




Nat. 


Sex and 


Mils. 


age. 


No. 




18950 


ad. 


18951 


ad. 


18952 


ad. 



Locality. 



Alti- 
tude. 



Date. 



Collector. 



Remarks. 



South Fork Kern River, Calif. 



Kernville, Calif. 
do 



Feet. 



July 4 

June 23 
....do ... 



Fisher . 

Palmer 
...do .. 



25 miles above 
Kernville. 



Rana fisheri, sp. nov. (Plato in, figs. 5a-c.) 

Diagnosis. — Heel of extended hind limb reaching anterior eye canthus, 
falling considerably short of tip of snout; vomerine teeth between and 
projecting posteriorly beyond choanae; no black ear patch; vertical 
diameter of tympanic disc greater than distance between nostrils and 
eye; hind feet webbed for about two-thirds; one small metatarsal 
tubercle; one weak dorsolateral dermal fold, no dorsal folds between; 
posterior lower aspect of femur granular; back and sides with numer- 
ous small, distinct, dark spots, surrounded by lighter; no external vocal 
sacs. 

Habitat. — Vegas Valley, Nevada. 

Type.—U. S. Nat. Mus.,No. 18957; Vegas Valley, Nevada, March 13, 
1891 ; V. Bailey coll. 

Not closely allied to any of the known species. The coloration is 
very distinct, resembling somewhat that of B. aesopus; the great 
size of the tympanic disc is also quite characteristic, being larger than 
in any of our species, except B. catesbiana, clamitans, and septentrionalis. 

I should have considered it rather risky to describe a new species of 
Bana from the West had it not been for the fact that the great number 
of the specimens collected established beyond a doubt the constancy 
of the characters mentioned. 

This species is dedicated to Dr. A. K. Fisher in recognition of his 
share in the herpetological success of the Death Valley Expedition. 

[Frogs were tolerably common in Beaverdam Creek near its junction 
with the Virgin in northwestern Arizona, May 8, but whether Bana 
fisheri or B. pipiens brachycephala is not certain. The former was col- 
lected in Vegas Valley (type locality); the latter in Pahranagat 
Valley.— G. H. M.] 



228 



NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. 
List of specimens of Banaftsheri. 



[No. 7. 



U.S. 

Nat. 
Miis. 
No. 


Sex and 
age. 


Locality. 


Alti- 
tude. 


Date. 


Collector. 


Ketnarks. 


18957 


ad. 
ad. 
ad. 
ad. 
ad. 
ad. 
ad. 
ad. 
ad. 
ad. 




Feet. 


Mar. 13 
Mar. 9 
Mar. 13 
Mar. 9 
...do 


Bailey 

do 

....do 

Nelson 

do 


Type. 


18958 







18959 


do 






18960 








18961 


do 






18962 


do 




...do 


....do 




18963 


do 




...do 


do 




18964 


.. do 




...do 


do 




18965 


... do 




...do 


....do 




18966 


...do -.. 




...do .... 


....do 


. 















Ran a pipiens brachycephala (Cope). 

The western form of the green frog evidently reaches its western 
limit in Nevada, and from the fact that the expedition only brought 
home one specimen it may probably be concluded that it is rare in that 
region. This specimen was collected in Pahranagat Valley, Nevada, 
May 25, 1891, by Vernon Bailey (No. 18927). 

As to the name Rana pipiens Schreber, adopted in preference to R. 
virescens 'Kalm,' 1 may remark that as the latter was never used by 
Kalm in a binominal sense, it being only the first word of his diagnosis 
of the species, the former is beyond doubt the oldest tenable name for 
the species. From some of the recent synonymies it might be inferred 
that Rana virginiana of Laurenti (1768) would be the name, but I need 
only quote his diagnosis, viz, "corpore cinereo, dorso quinqueangulato 
quinquestriato; maculis rubris; abdomine, pedibusque flavescentibus," 
to show that it can never be identified as our shad-frog. 

This question has already been settled by Prof. S. Garman in 1888 
(Bull. Ess. Inst., xx, pp. 90, 100), and I am only induced to repeat and cor- 
roborate it here, as one might be led to believe, from Cope's treatment 
of the matter (Man. N. Am. Batr., 1889, p. 399), that Garman is respon- 
sible for the adoj>tion of Rana virescens. 



REPORT ON THE FISHES OF THE DEATH VALLEY EXPEDITION COL- 
LECTED IN SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA AND NEVADA IN 1891, WITH 
DESCRIPTIONS OF NEW SPECIES. 



By Charles H. Gilbert, Ph. D. 



LIST OF SPECIES. 

Ameiurua nebulosus Le Sueur. Salmo irideus Gibbons. 

Catotttomus arceopus Jordan. Salmo mykiss agua-bonita Jordan. 

Rhinichthys (Apocope) velifer, sp. nov. Cyprinodon macularius Girard. 
Rhinichthys (Apocope) nevadensis, sp. nov. Cyprinodon macularius bailey i,8\ib8Y>. nov. 

Rutilus symmetricus (B. & G.). Empetrichthys merriami, gen. et sp. nov. 

Lepidomeda vittata Copo. Gasterosteus williamsoni Girard. 
Cyprinus carpio Linn. 

Ameiurus nebulosus Le Sueur. 

Two specimens of this introduced species were procured at Lone Pine, 
on Owens Brver, where the species was reported as abundant. 

Catostomus araeopus Jordan. 

Type locality. — South Fork of Kern River, California. 

One specimen from Reese Biver, Nevada. Collected by Vernon Bailey. 

Rhinichthys (Apocope) velifer, sp. nov. (Plate vi, Fig. 2.) 
Type locality. — Pahranagat Valley, Nevada. 

This species is closely related to Rhinichthys yarrowi, from which it 
differs in the much larger scales, the lateral line traversing 55 instead 
of 74 to 83 scales. Both species mark such perfect transition between 
Apocope and Rhinichthys that it seems best to reduce the former to the 
rank of a subgenus. About half the specimens of yarrowi have a nar- 
row frenum, and this is present in each of the three type specimens of 
velifer. In both yarrowi and velifer the teeth are 2-4-4-2, as in typical 
Rhinichthys. The only character left to distinguish Apocope is the nar- 
rowness of the frenum when present, it being very wide in typical Rhin- 
ichthys. 

Head 4 in length ; depth, 4f . Snout narrow, but bluntly rounded, 
not projecting beyond the front of premaxillaries. Frenum joining pre- 
maxillaries to skin of forehead very narrow, varying in width in the 
three type specimens. It will probably be found that some specimens 
of this species, as of yarrowi, have protractile premaxillaries. Mouth 

229 



230 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. [No. 7. 

small, horizontal, the maxillary reaching vertical from front of orbit, 
equaling diameter of eye, 3£ in length of head. Interorbital width, 3 
in head. 

Teeth 2, 4-4, 2, hooked, with sharp edges. 

Pectorals nearly reaching base of ventrals, the latter long, overlap- 
ping front of anal fin. Origin of dorsal tin midway between base of 
caudal and middle of eye. 

D., 8; A., 7 Lat. 1. 56 (pores). 10 scales in a series obliquely forward 
to lateral line from base of first dorsal ray. 

Color in spirits, brown along back, a black band from snout across 
cheeks and along middle of sides, with a narrow silvery streak above 
it. Lower half of sides and belly silvery; an ill-defined dark streak 
from base of pectorals back along sides to the end of the anal fin. A 
small black spot on base of caudal. 

Three specimens were taken in a hot spring in Pahranagat Valley, 
Nevada, May 25, 1891, by C. Hart Merriam and Vernon Bailey. Tem- 
perature of spring 36.11° 0. (97° F.). 

Rhinichthys ( Apocope) nevadensis, sp. nov. (Plate vi, Fig. 1.) 

Type locality. — Ash Meadows, Amargosa Desert, on boundary between California 
and Nevada. 

Differing from other known species in the large head, the short deep 
body, very small eye, and in the reduction of the outer ventral ray to a 
mere rudiment. 

Head, 3| in length (varying from 3£ to 4) ; depth, 3^ (varying from 3| 
to 4). D., 8; A., 7. Lat. 1. 65. Ventrals apparently with seven rays, the 
outer one rudimentary, and often to be detected with difficulty. 

Body robust, with broad heavy head, the least depth of caudal 
peduncle less than half the greatest height of body. Greatest depth 
of head at occiput 5 in length of body (6£ in nubila of equal size). 
Eye very small, half interorbital width, which equals distance from tip 
of snout to middle of eye, and is contained 2f times in head. 

Mouth terminal, very oblique, the lower jaw included, the premaxil- 
laries not at all overlapped by the snout. The maxillary reaches the 
vertical from front of eye, and is one-third length of head. Maxillary 
barbie well developed. 

Scales very irregularly placed , and diffi cult to enumerate. The lateral 
line is incomplete in adults, and usually does not reach to opposite 
dorsal fin. In the young it is variously developed, often extending, 
though with many interruptions, to end of dorsal or base of caudal. 
Pores in lateral line (when complete) 58, about 66 oblique series, counted 
above lateral line. 

Fins small, the pectorals not reaching ventrals, the latter not to vent. 
Front of dorsal midway between base of caudal and middle of occiput. 

In spirits, the upper half of sides is speckled and marbled with brown ; 
the belly and lower half of sides immaculate or sparsely spotted. A 
broad dark lateral stripe usually present, becoming more conspicuous 



Mat, 1893.] FISHES OF THE DEATH .VALLEY EXPEDITION. 231 

posteriorly, and ending" in an obscure black spot on base of tail. A 
dark stripe sometimes present along middle of lower half of sides. 

Numerous specimens were procured in the warm springs at Ash 
Meadows, Indian Creek, and Vegas Creek, Nevada. 

Rutilus syrnmetricus (Baird and Girard). 

Type locality. — Old Fort Miller, Fresno Co., San Joaquin Valley, California. 

Specimens from Owens Lake, California, seem to agree with those 
reported on by Jordan and Henshaw (Leueos formosus, Rep. Chief En- 
gineer, Wheeler Surv. W. 100th Mer., App. NN, 1878, 193) from Washoe 
Lake, Nevada, and Kern Lake, California. There are 11 scales between 
lateral line and front of dorsal, and 52 scales in lateral line. Teeth 4-5. 
There are seven or eight rays in the anal fin, and the head is 3| in the 
length. The lateral line is imperfect in the young. 

The American species of this genus are poorly defined, and may be 
reducible to oue or two species. If the specific forms prove to be 
numerous there is no assurance that these specimens are identical with 
the types of Pogonichthys syrnmetricus and Algunsea formosus from the 
San Joaquin and Mohave rivers. 

Lepidoineda vittata Cope. 

Type locality. — Little Colorado River, Arizona. 

Three small specimens from Pahranagat Valley, Nevada, agree well 
with the original description of this species, and are probably referable 
to it. It has been recorded hitherto only from the original locality, 
the Colorado Chiquito River, Arizona, and its occurrence in the present 
locality is full of interest. Not only Lepidomeda but the whole sub- 
family (the Plagopterince) to which it belongs, is peculiar to the basin 
of the Colorado River, to which the Pahranagat waters must belong. 

Cyprinus carpio Linn. 

A specimen of this introduced species was found dead on the shores 
of Owens Lake. Carp and catfish are both common in the lower Owens 
River, and when they enter the lake are soon killed by the alkalinity of 
the water. 

Mr. Palmer and Dr. Fisher reported carp as the staple food fish at 
Three Rivers on the Kaweah River, where numerous large individuals 
were taken. 

Salnio irideus Gibbons. 

Type locality.— San Leandro Creek, Alameda Co., California. 

A single specimen of the ' Rainbow Trout' was preserved by Dr. A. 
K. Fisher from the Cafion of Kings River. Compared with specimens 
from the Santa Cruz Mountains in the vicinity of Palo Alto, this is 
found to agree in all respects. The coloration is very bright as is usual 
in the colder mountain streams. The scales above the lateral line are 
arranged in 135 oblique series. 



232 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. [No.7. 

Salmo my kiss agua-bonita Jordan. 

Ti/pe locality. — Whitney Creek south of Mt. Whitney, High Sierra, California. 
(Jordan, Report State Fish Commissioners of California, 1892, p. G2.) 

Several specimens of this, the 'Golden Trout' of Kern River, were 
collected in Whitney Creek, whence came the original types, and from 
Cottonwood Creek, a tributary of Owens Lake, to which they have 
been transplanted. Two specimens were also preserved, taken from 
the South Fork of Kern River. They agree perfectly with the original 
description cited. The scale formula should read 180 to 200, not 130 
to 200, as in the original description. 

Cyprinodon niacularius Girard. 

Type locality. — Rio San Pedro, Arizona. 

(Cyprinodon ncvadensis Eigenmann, Proc. Cal'a Acad. Nat. Sci., 1889, 270.) 

This small Cyprinodont inhabits the springs and wells throughout 
the desert region of southern California, Arizona and Nevada, and 
is the characteristic denizen of the more or less alkaline waters of this 
district. The original types are from the Rio San Pedro, a tributary 
of the Rio Gila, and I have found it abundant at a pond at Lerdo, 
Mexico, on the lower Colorado River. Specimens obtained at Lerdo 
have been compared with those from Death Valley and found identical. 

The species varies in form and color, and apparently in the size 
which it reaches in different localities. The males have the back and 
sides uniform dusky, the lower parts lighter, all the fins in the most 
brightly colored individuals being broadly margined with black. The 
females have the lower half of sides as well as belly lighter, often sil- 
very white, the sides crossed by black bars, which are wide along 
middle of body, but become much narrower than the interspaces on 
the lower half of sides. The bars vary in number and size and often 
alternate with narrower, fainter, and shorter ones. The fins are light, 
and the dorsal either with or without a black blotch on its posterior 
rays. Although usually uniform in coloration, the males occasionally 
show lateral bars, which, however, contrast little with the general 
dusky color of the sides. 

The dorsal varies from 9 to 11, and the anal from 10 to 11. There 
are 24 or 25 transverse series of scales, and the humeral scale is but 
little enlarged. The head is contained 3 to 3^ times in the length. 
Adults are very short and deep, the depth being nearly or quite half 
the length; in half-grown specimens 1 inch long, the depth is contained 
2| in the length. The eye is very small, about equaling the snout, 
contained li to 1| times in the interorbital width, and 3§ times in the 
head. The front of dorsal is usually midway between occiput and base 
of caudal. 

The normal number of ventral rays in this species seems to be six. 
No specimen examined has shown more than this number, and in sev- 
eral but five are present. In one specimen from Ash Meadows, Nevada, 
the ventral of one side only is present, and contains but three or four 



Mat, 1893.1 FISHES OF THE DEATH VALLEY EXPEDITION. 233 

lays. Four young specimens from the same locality and two from Med- 
bury Springs, Amargosa Desert, California, have the ventrals wholly 
aborted, and show on dissection no trace of the basals. These occur 
in the same lots with other specimens having normal ventrals, and are 
otherwise indistinguishable from them. No full-grown adults were 
found without ventrals, the largest being a half-grown specimen about 
one inch long with the characteristic coloration of the males already 
developed. Ten young specimens from the 'Devil's Hole,' Ash Mead- 
ows, are all without ventrals, and further collections from this locality 
would be of interest. 

In the intestines were found fragments of insects, and in one series 
of specimens from Saratoga Springs at the south end of Death Valley, 
California, very numerous shells of a small Gasteropod mollusk. 

Specimens are in the collection from the following localities : Medbury 
Spring (6 miles north of the Borax Works), Amargosa Desert, Califor- 
nia; Ash Meadows, Amargosa Desert, Nevada; Saratoga Springs, 
Death Valley, California; Amargosa Creek, California. 

Cyprinodou macularius baileyi. subsp. nov. 

Type locality* — Pahranagat Valley, Nevada, collected by C. Hart Merriam and 
Vernon Bailey, May 25, 1891. 

Eleven immature specimens from Pahranagat Valley, Nevada, show 
no trace of ventral fins. They are olivaceous above, bright silvery on 
the lower half of sides and behrw, and have two lengthwise series of 
coarse black spots, one along middle line of body, the other on a level 
with the lower edge of caudal peduncle. The anal fin is larger than 
in typical macularius, the eleven specimens having each 13 rays instead 
of 10 or 11, as constantly in the latter. The material is insufficient to 
fully decide the status of this form. Except in the characters noted it 
agrees in proportions and formula} with macularius. 

empetrichthys gen. nov. (Plate V.) 

(Cyprinodontidse) . 

Intestines short, 1£ times length of body. Teeth conic, fixed, in each 
jaw arranged in a band consisting of two or three 'rows, the outer series 
somewhat enlarged. Ventrals absent. Branchiostegals five. Both 
upper and lower pharyngeals greatly enlarged and bearing molar teeth, 
tubercular in shape. The lower pharyngeals are firmly attached to the 
ceratobrauchials of the fourth arch, while the massive epibranchials of 
the same arch serve to connect them firmly at the sides with the pharyn- 
gobranchials above. The fourth branchial arch bears normal gills. 
Its median portion is produced anteriorly, forming a triangular exten- 
sion of the lower pharyngeals in the middle line. On the oral surface 
this is indistinguishable from the pharyngeals proper, and like them 
bears molar teeth. 

Scales normal, large, regularly imbricated, nowhere tubercular "or 
ridged. 



234 NOKTH AMERICAN FAUNA. [No. 7. 

This genus seems most nearly allied to Orestias, of which numerous 
species have been described from lakes in the high Andes of South 
America. 

Empetrichthys merriami, sp. nov. (Plate V.) 

Type locality. — Ash Meadows, Aimrgosa Desert, on boundary between California 
and Nevada. 

In form and general appearance much resembling the mud minnow 
( Umbra limi), though somewhat deeper and more compressed. 

Head compressed, its upper surface slightly convex. Mouth, very 
oblique, with a distinct lateral cleft, the maxillary free at tip only, reach- 
ing slightly behind front of eye. Length of gape (measured from tip of 
snout to end of maxillary), 3£ in head; interorbital width, 2^; length of 
snout (from front of orbit to middle of upper jaw), 3f . Eye small, its 
greatest oblique diameter 5 to 5£ in bead. 

Distance from front of dorsal to middle of base of tail equals one-half 
its distance from tip of snout. The dorsal begins slightly in advance 
of anal, and ends above its posterior third. Its greatest height equals 
length of snout and eye. 

Caudal truncate when spread. Pectorals broadly rounded, reaching 
halfway to vent. D., 11 or 12 (13 in one specimen) ; A., 14 (from 13 to 
15). Lat. 1., 30 or 31, counted to base of caudal rays; 33 or 34 in all. 

In spirits the color is dark brown above, sides and below lighter, 
often irregularly blotched with brown and white. The belly often 
appears checkered, having centers of scales brown and margins white, 
or the reverse. Fins all dusky, the basal portions of dorsal and caudal 
with elongated brown spots on the interradial membranes. 

Several .pecimeus were sec.^ed at Ash Meadows and in Pahrump 
Valley, Nevada. 

Gasterosteus williamsoni Girard. 

Type locality. — Williamson Pass, California. 

Four specimens of this species collected by Dr. A. K. Fisher at San 
Bernardino, California, seem to differ from G. microcephalus only in the 
entire absence of plates on the sides. In microcephalus the plates vary 
from 3 to 7 in number, but no specimens wholly without plates have 
been reported from the more northern parts of its range. It is probable 
that williamsoni will prove a southern subspecies of this widely dis- 
tributed form, in which case the plated specimens must bear the name 
Gasterosteus williamsoni microcephalus. The naked form has been 
reported heretofore from San Bernardino (by Miss Bosa Smith), and 
from Williamson's Pass by the original describer. The locality of the 
pass I have not been able to make out. 



REPORT ON A SMALL COLLECTION OF INSECTS MADE DURING THE 
^ DEATH VALLEY EXPEDITION. 



By C. V. Riley, 

With supplementary reports and descriptions of new species by 

S. W. Williston, P. E. Uhler, and Lawrence Bruner. 



INTRODUCTION. 

In connection with the Death Valley Expedition organized by Dr. 
Merriam arrange inents were made to have Mr. Albert Koebele, one of 
the agents of the Division of Entomology, stationed at Alameda, in Cali- 
fornia, join the party with a view of making a collection of the insects 
of the region. He collected assiduously during the brief period of his 
connection with the expedition, which was suddenly interrupted by a 
decision to have him proceed to Australia to study and introduce into 
California certain beneficial insects. He separated from the rest of the 
party to return to Alameda the latter part of May and the collecting 
was done during the months of April and May. The material was for- 
warded without report prior to his leaving for Australia, so that the 
specimens are, as a rule, without notes, whether of food-plant, or habit. 
The collection is also necessarily very incomplete in not representing 
the fauna of the region in the same degree as it would have done had 
Mr. Koebele been allowed to continue throughout the expedition. 

It may be premised in making a report on any such collection as this, 
that there are few parts of the couutry, however well explored, that 
will not yield to the entomologist, in a few days' collecting, a good per- 
centage of species that are new or uudescribed, if all orders are taken 
into consideration, and this being true of the older settled portions of 
the country, it is true to a far greater extent of such exceptional re- 
gions as those included in the Death Valley Expedition. Insects are, 
also, so numerous in species and specimens, and the uudescribed ma- 
terial so vast, that the orders may be compared with the classes in the 
other groups of animals so far as reporting on them is concerned, and 
no entomologist would consider himself competent at the present day 
to intelligently report on any general collection, which must be dealt 
with by the several specialists who have made particular study of spe- 
cific families and orders. The part which I have prepared is simply a 
list of the species easily determinable either by comparison with the 
national collection or by reference to authorities in the several families, 

235 



236 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. [No. 7. 

and until the undescribed species and genera are all worked up deduc- 
tions from the list as to the bearings of the fauna on geographical dis- 
tribution, must be more or less imperfect and unsatisfactory. Never- 
theless, a few suggestions as they occur may not be out of place- 
Taking first the Coleoptera, which represent by far the larger part 
of the collectings, they have for the most part been carefully compared 
with the national collection, and I have had the assistance, in the veri- 
fications, of Mr. M. L. Linell and Mr. E. A. Schwarz, both well acquainted 
with our North American Coleoptera. Mr. Schwarz has also materially 
aided in the analysis of the collection. As the chief localities from 
which the beetles were obtained do not exceed seven, the list has been 
arranged in tabular series to prevent repetition of localities. This ar- 
rangement at once shows that the collection comprises some 258 spe- 
cies, representing 170 genera in 39 families. Of the total number of 
species arranged according to localities, twenty-eight (a) are of general 
distribution in North America, i. e., they cross the whole continent, 
and among these are six cosmopolitan species (a b), while only a single 
species {Bradycellus cognatus), found in the Argus Mountains, belongs 
to the circumpolar fauna. About fifty of the species (c) are widely 
distributed throughout the more arid regions of the West, and about 
twenty species (d) belong more properly to the fauna of maritime or 
upper California. Thebulk of these species, as will be noted, were col- 
lected in San Bernardino County. Deducting the three sets of species 
and a few others, e. g., the genera Hoinalota, Scopreus, Scymnus, and 
Cryptophagus, of the distribution of which very little "can be definitely 
said, there remain about 140 species (those unlettered) which are more 
or less characteristic of the lower Sonoran fauna. 

Some nineteen species are undoubtedly new, but only a small num- 
ber of these belong to families that have been worked up and that can 
be satisfactorily described. They have not been sent away to special- 
ists, as probably no one would care to describe them at once. They 
will, I hope, be worked up by Mr. Schwarz or Mr. Linell, but not in 
time for this report. I may mention that the Coleopterous fauna of 
this general region has been collected and studied by several compe- 
tent observers. Dr. J. L. LeConte early visited the Colorado Desert, 
and adjacent parts of Arizona; Dr. George H. Horn has also explored 
the fauna of Owens Valley; Mr. G. R. Crotch collected in a trip across 
the Mohave Desert; Dr. Edward Palmer collected in southern Utah, 
while Mr. W. G. Wright has recently made collections in San Ber- 
nardino County, and Mr. H. F. Wickham along the line of the Atlan- 
tic and Pacific Railroad in northwestern Arizona. Thus Mr. Koebele's 
small collection adds very little to our knowledge of the species already 
worked up. 

Among the more interesting species Mr. Schwarz has indicated, may 
be mentioned Pseudopsis n. sp., Mecomycter n. sp., Elasmocerus n. sp., Ore- 
mastochilus westwoodii, Alaudes singularis, Tanarthrus n. sp., Calo- 



may, 1893.] INSECTS OF THE DEATH VALLEY EXPEDITION. 237 

spasta n. sp.', and a remarkable new genus of Scolytidse. Perhaps the 
chief interest attaching to the collection is that it permits us to make 
some comparison between the beetles of the valleys and intervening 
mountain chains within the region explored. If we omi t those collected 
in San Bernardino County, which have no exact localities, and also the 
very few from Coso and Owens Valleys, the following deduction may 
be made : In Death Valley and Panamint Valley 140 species were found 
(including 23 species common to both valleys), while in Panamint Moun- 
tains and Argus Mountains 160 species were found (including 16 species 
common to both ranges). Comparing the faunas of the valleys and 
mountains, it will be noted that they have only 36 species in common. 
This difference is due principally to the marked preponderance of the 
Staphylinidse in the mountain fauna, the complete absence of the family 
Meloidse and the marked prevalence of Elateridse and Chrysomelidre 
in the mountain regions. Continued collecting later in the season might 
have largely changed this condition of things, however, and hence too 
much importance should not be attached to the deduction. The 
Carabidas are the best represented in the collection, 22 genera with 44 
species having been collected. The genera are all of wide distribution, 
and only a few species, e. g., Omophron dentatum, Calosoma prominens, 
Tetragonoderus pallidm, and Pinacod&ra punctigera, are peculiar to the 
lower Sonoran region and have all been found in the valleys. The 
single representative (Bradycellus cognatus) of the circunipolar fauna 
belongs to this family. In most other families the material collected is 
too small or not characteristic enough to warrant any generalization. 

In the Lepidoptera, the Ehopalocera have been determined by com- 
parison with the national collection or by reference to W. H. Edwards, 
of Coalburgh, W. Va. The majority of the species are characteris- 
tic of the southwestern United States, but I have not had time 
to fully analyze the distribution of the species. The representatives 
in most of the other families of the Lepidoptera, outside of the Noc- 
tuidse and Geometridte, are so very few as not to justify consider- 
ation. In the ]Soctuidfe, which are better represented, most of the 
species have been reported before, 'but there are a certain number 
of new species, and Prof. J. B. Smith, of New Brunswick, N. J., to 
whom these have been referred, finds that they represent even three 
new genera. In the Geometridae there are six species which can 
not be determined either generically or specifically, and which are 
not included in the list. These undescribed forms have been referred 
to Dr. George D. Hulst*of Brooklyn, K Y., who will, I hope, in due 
time characterize them. 

Among the Hymenoptera the Aculeate species comprise genera not 
restricted to California and include several species which are evidently 
new. In the parasitic Hymenoptera very little can be said about the 
collection. The species are most of them new, but this same statement 
would have to be made of almost any collection of the parasitic forms 



238 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. [No. 7. 

in this order from any part of the Pacific coast, and would be largely 
true of almost any part of the country. It is a singular fact, however, 
that no new genera occur, as will be noticed, in the parasitic families, 
the most interesting fact worthy of mention being the discovery of 
what is probably a representative of the genus Scolobates, found hereto- 
fore only in northern Europe. The parasitic Hymenoptera were re- 
ferred to my assistants, Mr. L. O. Howard for the Chalcididse, and Mr. 
William H. Ashmeadfor the other families, and the generic references- 
of the undescribed forms are upon their intimate knowledge of the sub- 
ject. They will not be able to characterize the many new forms in 
time for this report. 

The Diptera were few in number and were referred to Dr. S. W. 
Williston, who has characterized the new forms, and whose report 
shows that, small as was the collection, it added three genera to the 
American fauna. 

In the Heteroptera the list represents merely the species that were 
readily determinable, while the balance, including the more interesting 
forms, have been referred to Mr. P. E. Uhler, of Baltimore, Md., who 
has kindly reported on them, with definitions of the new genera and 
species. 

In the Homoptera, as will be noticed, there are some interesting new 
species, especially in the family Psyllidse, but until they are carefully 
compared, I do not feel justified in making any remarks upon them. 
Nor have I time just now to characterize the undetermined forms which 
I prefer to do in connection with the very many new species in the Na- 
tional Collection to which I have already given much study. 

The Orthoptera are of considerable interest, although the collection 
is small. In the Acridiidse, which probably have been most thoroughly 
studied in this country, three new species occur and one new genus. 
The undescribed material has been referred to Mr. Lawrence Bruner, 
of Lincoln, Nebr., who has reported on the new forms. Probably 
the most interesting find in this order is the rediscovery of Scyllina 
delicatula Scudder. The type of the species, and the only one hitherto 
found was taken in the Garden of the Gods. Most of the other species 
are of rather wide distribution. 

The Arachnida were referred to Dr. Geo. Marx and are determined 
by him. 



May, 1893.] INSECTS OF THE DEATH VALLEY EXPEDITION. 239 

ORDER COLEOPTERA. 





o 
a 

3 . 

p a 
°g 
«5 

a 

03 

m 


> 

ft 


3 

> 

a>> 

e~ 

03 

a 

a 

Ph 


a 
a 

C 

g« 

B.S 

03 

a 

OS 


a 

e 

2 

m'el 
WD 

«4 


o 
"a 
> 
o 

00 

o 
O 


> 
a 

O 


Family Cicindelid^. 














38 


Family Carabidje. 


4 












19 




1 


13 












1 
1 
1 
1 
























































1 














9 

21 










:::::::: 


2 


















1 








8 




14 














1 










9 


7 
















6 
















2 








1 
30 












i 




5 










2 












1 


2 
1 
1 




2 




















26 
1 

1 






















i 

3 
1 




1 


2 






























1 

1 


1 




























8 
1 


























1 
3 
1 




































5 
10 






























12 


2 










2 
2 
























18 
10 
12 














4 
1 


1 

11 
1 


















1 




2 
1 




1 
1 
1 

1 






1 
1 




1 








Family DYTisciDiE. 




















5 












20 
1 
3 
1 


























































1 
2 


























2 

2 

4 

3 

16 








Family Hydeophilid^e. 
Hydrophilus triangularis Say (a) 




























Ochthebius rectus Lee 














Helochares normatus Lee 














Cymbiodyta imbellis Leo 








11 






Family Silphid.e. 
Necrophorns nigrita Mannh. id) 






1 
1 























240 



NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. 
ORDER COLEORTERA— Continued. 



|Xo. 7. 





o 
a 

'S . 

g£ 

a d 

« 
CO 


<D 


"3 


a 

3 
o 

i r 

d 

CS 

Ph 


a 
o 
S 2 

•S 

2-2 
M 


<s 

"3 

!> 
o 
o 
O 


o 

s 

O 


Family Rselaphid^e. 








22 
47 

20 

o 
14 






















Family Staphylinid^e. 






2 

























































19 




' 








1 














8 












6 


1 













2 










2 
1 












15 


12 

8 

1 

17 

32 






































20 




















:::::: 




3 












1 

20 
1 

10 
1 
3 












































1 








































9 
10 


























9 


20 








i 






















1 








1 
1 
















1 
4 
19 


















Anthobium n. sp. (princeps Fauv. i. litt.) (c) 






















1 






Family Rhalacrid^e. 




1 










Family Corylophid.e. 




21 

3 
1 










Family Coccinellid.e. 




3 
3 

1 


20 


1 

1 














Coccinella abdominalis Say (a) 
















1 
15 

11 

18 










2 


3 




































1 














1 















1 
1 






Family Colydiid^:. 














Family Ceyptophaoidje. 






12 








Family Dermestid^e. 
Attagenns plcens Oliv. (ab) 








3 
3 
1 
























1 
C 










2 
3 










I 



May, 1803.] INSECTS OF THE DEATH VALLEY EXPEDITION. 



241 



ORDER COLEOPTERA— Continued. 



Family HiSTKElDi 



Saprinns ciliatus Lee. (c).. 
Saprinns lubrieiis Lee. (c). 
Saprinns laridus Lee 



»6 



Family Nitidulidje. 



Carpophilus yuccas Crotch 

Carpophilus pallipennis Say (a). 



Family Lathridiidjf.. 



Stephostethus liratus Lee. (a) 
Lathridius flliformis Gyllh. (ab) 
(Jorticaria cavicollisMannh. (a) . 



Family Byrrhid.e. 
Limuichus californicus Lee 



Family Dascyllid^e. 
Cyphon concinnus Lee. (c) 

Family Elaterid^:. 



Oardiophorus seniculus Blanch 

Oardiophorus obscurus Lee 

Anchastus sericeus Horn 

Melanotus longulus Lee 

Dolopius lateralis Eschsch. (a) . 
Melanactes densus Lee 



Familj' BUPRESTIDJ5. 



Bnprestis lanta Lee. (c) 

Anthaxia aeneogaster Lap. (a). 
Chrysobothris octocola Lee . . . 

Chrysobothris debilis Lie 

Acmaeodera tuta Horn 

Acmaeodera connexa Lee 



Family Lampyriidje. 



Podabrus tomentosus Say (a) 

Silis n. sp 

Silis filigera Lee 

Malthodes n. sp 



Family MAI.ACUUD.E. 



Malachius macer Horn 

Malachius mirandus Lee . . 

Malachius n. sp 

Attains trimaculatus Mots 
Priatoscelis conl'orniis Lee 

Pristoscelis sp 

Pristoscelis sp 

Pristoscelis sp 

Listrus luteipes Lee 

Listrus diffieilis Lee 

Listrus sp 



Doliehosoma n. sp 

Dolichosoma n. sp 

Allonyx sculptilis Lee 

Esehatocrepis constrictus Lee . 
Mecomycter n. sp 



Family Clerid.e. 



Elasmocerus n. sp 

Triehodes ornatus Sav (c) 
H.vdnocera discoidea Lee. 
Lebasiella n. sp 



OU 



23 



12731— No. 7- 



-10 



242 



NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. 
ORDER COLEOPTERA— Continued. 



[No. 7. 



Family Ptinim:. 



Ernobius sp 

Sinoxylon declive Lee. . 
Amphicerus ibrtis Leo 



Family Scarab^eid.e. 



Aphodius granarius Linn, (ab) . . . 

Aphodius rubidns Lee 

Ataenius abditus Hald. (a) 

Oncerus floralis Leo 

Diplotaxis corvina Lee 

Cotalpa granicollis Hald 

Creniastochilus westwoodii Horn 



Family Cerambycid^e. 



Haplidus testaceus Lee. 



Family Chrysomelid.e. 



Coscinoptera vittigera Lee. (c) 

Lema nigrovittata Guer 

Exema cbnspersa Mannh. (a) 

Cryptocephalus sangninieollis Suffr (c) 

Pachybracbys n. sp 

Pachybrachys sp 

Pachybrachys lustrans Leo 

Glyptoscelis illustris Crotch 

Metacbroma californicuni Lee 

Plagiodera n. sp 

Monoxia consputa Lee. (c) 

Haltica carinata Germ, (a) 

Epitrix subcrinita Lee. (c) 

Phyllotreta albionica Lee. (c) 

Psylliodes convexior Lee. (c) , 



Family Bruchid^e. 



Bruchus prosopis Lee 

Bruchus protractus Horn 
Bruchus n. sp 



Family Texebrionid.e. 



Triorophus hevis Leo 

Triorophus subpubesoens Horn . . . 
Eurymetopon rnfipes Bschsch. (d) 

Anepsius delioatulus Leo 

Centrioptera muricata Leo 

Schizillus laticeps Horn 

Ciyptoglossa verrucosa Lee 

Coniontis viatica Eschsch. (d) 

Eusattus produetus Lee 

Eleodes granosa Lee 

Eleodes grandicollis Mannh. (c?) . . . 

Eleodes arniata Lee 

Eleodes carbonaria Say (c) 

Eleodes gracilis Lee 

Eulabis ruflpes Eschsch 

Cerenopus concolor Lee 

Ccelocnemis magna Lee 

Blapstinus dilatatus Lee 

Blapstinus brevicollis Lee 

Blapstinus ruflpes Casey 

Conibiosoma elongatuin Horn 

Notibius puberulus Lee 

Alaudes singularis Horn 



Family Othniid.se. 
Othnius umbrosus Lee. (c) 

Family I'YTHiniE. 
Cononotus niacer Horn 



43 CO 



r^ CO 



15 



May, 1803.] INSECTS OF THE DEATH VALLEY EXPEDITION. 243 

ORDER COLEOrTERA— Continued. 



Family Moedellid^;. 
Anaspis pusioLec 



Family Anthicid.e. 



Notoxus eavicornis Lee 

Anthicus continis Lee 

Anthicus dimVilis Lee (a) 

Antliicus nitidulus Lee (c) ... 
Anthicus californicus Laf (a) . 
Tanarthrus n. sp 



Family Meloid^e. 



Megetra opaca Horn 

Cy8teodemus armatus Lee. 

Neniognatha lutea Lee 

Xemognatha apicalis Lee . 

Epieauta n . sp 

Cantliaris magister Horn . . 

Calospasta n . sp 

Calospasta miiabilis Horn. 
Phodaga alticeps Lee 



Family Otiorhynxhid.e. 



Eupagodores varius Lee 

Eupagodores geminatus Lee. 

Eupagodores n . sp 

Nov. gen. and n. sp 

Nov. gen. andn. sp 



Family Ctt.ci.lioniDjE. 



Sitones vittatus Lee (d) 

Apion ventricosum Lee 

Apion vicinum Smith 

Apion antennatum Smith 

Lixus 4-lineatus Chevr (c) 

Cleonus vittatus Kirb (c) 

Sniicronyx n. sp 

Smicronyx einereus(a) 

Anthonomus pejjinsularis Dictz 

Anthonomusebeninus Dietz 

Macrorlioptus estriatus Lee (c). . 

Tychius seraisquamosus Lee 

Tychius setosus Lee 

Copturus longulus Lee (a) 

Ceutorhynchus rap» Gyllh (ab) . 
Ceutorhynchus n. sp 



Family Calandrid.e. 



Scyphophorua yuccpe Horn . . . 

Sphenophorus pictus Lee 

Sphenophorus simplex Lee (e) 



Family Scolytid^e. 



Pityophthorna sp 

Pityophthorus sp 

Nov. gen. (near Cryphalus), n. sp . 



Family Anthribid^e. 
Brachytarsus tomentosns Say (a) , 



:«i 



22 



244 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. [No. 7. 

Order LEPIDOPTERA. 
Family N ymphalid^e. 

Melitcea acastus Edw 13 ex., Argus Mountains. 

Melltcea alma Streck 15 ex., Coso Valley; 1 ex., Panamint 

Valley; 1 ex., Argus Mountains. 

Pyrantels cardui Jj 1 ex., San Bernardino County, and 

abundant everywhere on trip, and 
migrating towards northwest. 

Pyrantels earyce Hb 2 ex., Argus Mountains. 

Family Lycenid^e. 

Lemonlas mormo Feld .. T 1 ex., Argus Mountains ; 1 ex. , Panamint 

Mountains; 1 ex., Panamint Valley. 

Thecla dumetorum Bd lex., San Bernardino County; 5, Coso 

Valley ; 2, Argus Mountains. 

Thecla spinetorum Bd 3 ex., Argus Mountains; 1, Panamint 

Mountains. 

Lyccena acmon Doubl 1 ex., Panamint Valley ; 1, Argus Moun- 
tains. 

Lyccena amyntula Bd 8 ex., Coso Valley ; 1, Panamint Valley ; 

2 Argus Mountains. 

Lyccena exllis Bd 1 ex., Argus Mountains; 1, Death Val- 
ley; 2, Panamint Valley. 

Lyccena daedalus Behr 1 ex., Death Valley. 

Lyccena neglecta Edw 1 ex. , Coso Valley ; 1, Death Valley. 

Lyccena lygdamas Dd 2 ex., Argus Mountains. 

Lyccena ore- Scudd 4 ex., Argus Mountains. 

Lyccena pheres, var. emus Bd 1 ex., Argus Mountains; 2, Coso Valley. 

Lyccena oaltoides Behr 2 ex., Argus Mountains. 

Family PapilioniDjE. 

Plerls occkerll Edw 2 ex., Argus Mountains. m 

Picris sisymbrll Bd 2(5 ex. , Argus Mountains. 

Anthocharis cethura Feld 19 ex., Argus Mountains. 

Anthocharls ansonides Bd 15 ex., Argus Mountains; 2, Panamint 

Mountains; 5, Coso Valley; 6, Para- 
dise Valley. 

Collas ariadne Edw 1 ex., Coso Valley. 

Papilio zolicaon Bd 5 ex., Argus Mountains; 1, San Bernar- 
dino County. 

Family HksperiDjE. 

Copceodes procris Edw 1 ex., Argus Mountains. 

Pamphila nevada Scud 1 ex., Argus Mountains. 

Pamphila phylceus Dru 1 ex., Death Valley. 

Pyrgus tesselata Scud 1 ex., Argus Mountains. 

Pyrgus erlcetorum Bd 9 ex., Coso Valley ; 3, Argus Mountains. 

Nisonlades alpheus Edw 2 ex., Argus Mountains ; 1, Coso Valley. 

Eudamus nevada Scud 1 ex. , Argus Mountains. 



Mat,1S93.] INSECTS OF THE DEATH VALLEY EXPEDITION. 245 

Family Sphingidje. 

Lepiseaia phaeton G. and R 1 ex. , Sau Bernardino County. 

Family SesiiDjE. 
Sesia sp 2 ex., Argus Mountains. 

Family Agaristice. 

Alypia riding six Gr , 3 ex., Argus Mountains; 1, Panamint 

Mountains ; 1, SanBernardino County. 

Family Pyromorphid^:. 

Triprocri8 smitlisonianus Clem ,5 ex., Argus Mountains. 

Family Arctiidae. 
Leptaretia decia Bd 2 ex., Argus Mountains. 

Family Notodontid^e. 

Centra n. sp 3 ex., Owens Valley. 

Family Cossid^:. 

Hypopta bertkoldi Grt 1 ex., Argus Mountains. 

Family Noctuid.e. 

Melipotis jucunda Hb 1 ex. , Panamint Mountains. 

Syneda howlandii Gr 1 ex., Argus Mountains. 

CirrhoboUna deducta Morr ....1 ex., Death Valley 

Rypena pelligera Smith 1 ex., Panamint Valley. 

Grotella dis Gr 24 ex., Argus Mountains. 

Thalpocliares arizonce H. Edw 10 ex., Argus Mountains. 

Mamestra eurialis Grt 18 ex., Argus Mountains. 

Mamestra crotchii Grt 2 ex., Argus Mountains 

Acontia crelata Grt. and Robs 8 ex., Argus Mountains. 

Acontia lanceolata Grt 6 ex., Argus Mountains. 

Triocnemis saporis Grt 1 ex., Argus Mountains. 

(Much paler thau typical form.) 

MeUcleptria n. sp 1 ex., Argus Mountains. 

Oneoencmis ? n. sp 5 ex., Argus Mountains. 

Schinia sp 3 ex., Argus Mountains. 

Schinia n. sp : 20 ex., Argus Mountains. 

Antaplaga n. sp 5 ex., Argus Mountains. 

Heliophana n. sp 1 ex., Argus Mountains. 

Nov. gen. et n. sp 7 ex., Argus Mountains. 

Nov. gen. et n. sp 3 ex., Argus Mountains. 

Nov. gen. et n. sp. (congeneric with above.). .6 ex., Argus Mountains. 

Scotogramma n. sp. (?) 8 ex., Argus Mountains. 

Nov. gen. et n. sp 1 ex., Argus Mountains. 

Nootua havilae Grt 2 ex., Argus Mountains. 

Plusia sp. (badly rubbed.) 2 ex., Argus Mountains. 

Agrotis (sens, lat.) n. sp 3 ex., San Bernardino Countj. 

Homoptera mima var 4 ex., Death Valley. 

Pleonectyptera n. sp 2 ex., Argus Mountains. 



246 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. tNo.T. 

Family Geometrip^e. 

Azelina hiibnerata Gn 4 ex., Argus Mountains. 

Azelina meskearia Pack 8 ex., Argus Mountains. 

Hetaira ephelidaria Hulst 1 ex., Panamint Valley ; 1 ex. , Argus 

Mountains. 

Anaplodes festaria Hulst 2 ex., Argus Mountains. 

Xemoria phyllinaria Zell 2 ex., Panamint Valley. 

Semiothisa metaiiemaria Hulst 2 ex., Argus Mountains. 

Semiothisa californiata Pack 12 ex., Argus Mountains ; 3 ex., Death 

Valley; 2 ex., San Bernardino 
County; 1 ex., Coso Valley. 

Phasiane sp 1 ex., Argus Mountains. 

Phasiane meadiata Pack 8 ex., Panamint Valley. 

Phasiane neptata Gn 1 ex., Panamint Mountains. 

Marmopteryx tesselata Pack 1 ex., Coso Valley ; 1, Argus Mountains. 

Lepiodes escaria Gr 1 ex., Panamint Valley. 

Lepiodes behrensala Pack 1 ex., San Bernardino County. 

Gory lodes n. sp 3 ex., Argus Mountains. 

Boarmia furfuraria Hulst 2 ex., Argus Mountains. 

Eupiihoecia rotundopennata Pack 1 ex., Death Valley. 

Eupithwcia zygadaniata Pack lex., Argus Mountains. 

Eupithwcia taeniata H ulst 2 ex. , Argus Mountains. 

" Coremia defensaria" according to label by 9 ex., Argus Mountains; 1 ex., Death 
Packard in collection, Hulst. ' Valley. 

Family Phycitidje. 

Oriholepis near jug o sella Rag 12 ex., Argus Mountains. 

Ephestia nigrella Hulst 1 ex., Death Valley. 

Lipographis fenestrella Pack, var lex., Death Valley. 

Homeosoma mucidellum Rag 2 ex. , Death Valley. 

Order HYMENOPTERA. 

Family Apid.e. 

Xylocopa sp 2 ex., Panamint Valley. 

Xylocopa sp 2 ex., Panamint Mountains. 

Antliophora sp 2 ex., Panamint Mountains. 

JJiadasia sp 10 ex., Coso Valley. 

Diadasia sp 1 ex., Panamint Valley. 

Melxssodes sp 1 ex., Panamint Valley. 

Jnthidium sp 1 ex., Panamint Valley. 

Osmia sp 1 ex., Death Valley. 

Nomada sp 1 ex., Death Valley. 

Perdita (Hacrotera) cephalotes Cr 2 ex., Panamint Mountains. 

Panurgus sp 1 ex., Panamint Valley. 

Panurgu8&]) 5 ex., Panamint Mountains. 

Family Andrenice. 

Macropis sp 5 ex., Panamint Valley. 

Cili88a albihirta Ashm 1 ex., Panamint Valley. 

Cilissa sp 2 ex., Panamint Valley. 

Ealictus sp 1 ex., Panamint Valley. 



May, 1893.] INSECTS OF THE DEATH VALLEY EXPEDITION. 247 

Family Sphechxe. 
Priononyx thomai Fabr 1 ex., Panamint Valley. 

Family Masarid.e. 
Masaris sp 1 ex., Death Valley. 

Family Eumenid,e. 

Odynerus sp 1 ex., Panamint Valley. 

Odynerus sp ' 1 ex., Death Valley. 

Ancistrocerus sp 2 ex., Argus Mountains. 

Ancistrocerus sp 1 ex., Death Valley. 

Ancistrocerus sp 1 ex., Argus Mountains. 

Family Mutillid.e. 

Spharophtltahna sp 2 ex., Death Valley. 

Sphcerophthalma sp 1 ex., Panamint Valley. 

Spharophthalma sp 1 ex., Argus Mouu tains. 

Family FORMICIDJE. 

Camponotus castaneus Latr 1 ex., Argus Mountains. 

Formica Integra Nyl I ex.. Argus Mountains. 

male 1 ex. , Panamint Mountains. 

Family MYRMECIDiE. 

Aphcenogaster pergandei Mayr Lone Pine. 

Family Bkaconid.e. 

Bracon sp 1 ex., Argus Mountains. 

Bracon sp 2 ex., Argus Mountains. 

Bracon sp 1 ex., San Bernardino County. 

Microbracon sp 1 ex., Argus Mountains. 

Microbracon sp 1 ex., Monterey County. 

Microbracon sp 2 ex. , Argus Mountains. 

Microbracon sp 1 ex. , Santa Clara County. 

Microbracon sp 1 ex., Argus Mountains. 

Heterospilus sp 1 ex., Argus Mountains. 

Bathystomus sp I ex., Argus Mountains. 

Chelonus sp 1 ex., Ai'gus Mountains. 

Acwlins sp 1 ex., Death Valley. 

Apanteles sp 8 ex., Argus Mountains. 

J pantcles sp 1 ex., Death Valley. 

Microplitis sp 1 ex., Panamint Valley. 

Agathis vulgaris Cr 2 ex. ; 1, Argus Mountains; 1, ranamint 

Valley. 

Agath is nigripes Cr 1 ex . . Argus Mountains. 

Eupkorus mellipes Cr 1 ex., Argus Mountains. 

Lysipklebus euewrbitapMs Ashm 2 ex., Monterey County. 

Family Ichneumonid.e. 

Crypt us sonoriu8 Cr., female 2 ex., Death Valley. 

Ophion bilinmtum Say 1 ox., Sonoma County. 

Lint neria cupressi Ashm 1 ex., Argus Mountains. 



248 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. [No. 7. 

Limneria fugitiva Say 1 ex., Monterey County. 

Scolobates sp. (or a new genus closely allied). .1 ex., Argus Mountains. (Collected on 

Pinus monophylla.) 

Anomalon sp 1 ex., Argus Mountains. 

Plecliscus sp 1 ex., Death Valley. 

Exetastes sp 1 ex., Argus Mountains. 

Banchus spinosus Cr 1 ex., Panamint Valley. 

Orthocentrus sp 2 ex., Argus Mountains. 

Pimpla no vita Cr 9 ex., Argus Mountains. (Collected on 

Pinus monophylla.) 

Family PrOCTOTRYPID.E. 

Ceraphron sp 1 ex., Argus Mountains. 

Ceraphron sp ." 2 ex., Panamint Mountains. 

Family ChalcidiDjE. 

Leucaspis affinis Say 1 ex., San Bernardino County. 

Chalcis sp 2 ex., Death Valley. 

Chalets sp 1 ex., San Bernardino County. 

Chalcis sp 1 ex., San Bernardino County. 

Acanthochalcis sp 1 ex., Panamint Valley. 

Becatoma sp 1 ex., San Bernardino County. 

Isosoma sp 15 ex., Argus Mountains. 

Ashmeadia sp 2 ex. (Collected on Pinus monophylla.) 

Systole sp 1 ex., Argus Mountains. 

Perilampus sp 2 ex., San Bernardino County. 

Perilampus sp 1 ex., San Bernardino County. 

Holaspls sp 1 ex., Death Valley. 

Torymus sp 3 ex. , Argus Mountains ; 1 on Pinus mono- 
phylla. 

Torymus sp 29 ex., Argus Mountains; 13 on Pinus 

monophylla. 

Syntomaspis sp 1 ex., San Bernardino County. 

Metapelma sp 1 ex., Panamint Mountains. 

Ratzeburgia sp 1 ex., Argus Mountains. 

Eupelmus sp 1 ex., Argus Mountains. (Collected on 

Pinus monophylla.) 

Eupelmus sp 1 ex., Argus Mountains. (Collected on 

Pinus monophylla.) 

Antigaster sp., male 1 ex., San Bernardino County. Reared 

from eggs of a Phaneroptera. 

Polychroma sp 1 ex., Death Valley ; 1, Panamint Valley; 

1, Argus Mountains. 

Encyrtus sp 2 ex., Argus Mountains. 

Diorachys sp 32 ex., Argus Mountains. 

Euielus sp 1 ex., Argus Mountains. 

Isocyrtus sp 2 ex., Owens Valley. 

Arthrolyius sp 1 ex., Panamint Mountains. 

Meraporus sp 2 ex., Argus Mountains. 

Platyterma sp 2 ex., Argus Mountains. 

Anogmus sp 1 ex., Argus Mountains. 

Eupleetrus sp 1 ex., Argus Mountains. 

Teleogmus sp 1 ex., Monterey County. 

Olinx sp 2 ex., Argus Mouutains. 



Mat, 1893.] INSECTS OF THE DEATH VALLEY EXPEDITION. 249 

Sympiesus sp - 1 ex., Argus Mountains. 

Omphale sp 1 ex., Argus Mountains. 

Entedon sp 1 ex., Argus Mountains. 

Chrysocharis sp 1 ex., Argus Mountains. 

Euderus sp 4 ex., Argus Mountains. 

Tetrastichus sp. (3 species) 8 ex., Argus Mountains, Panamint Val- 
ley, and Death Valley. 

Order HETEROPTERA. 

Family CorimeLjEnid^e. 

Corimelcena exlensa Uhler 11 ex , Panamint Mountains; 2 Pana-. 

mint Valley ; 1 Argus Mountains. 

Family Pentatomidje. 

Brochymena obscura H. Sch 1 ex., Panamint Valley. 

Lioderma sayi Stal 1 ex., Panamint Valley. 

Peribalus Umbolarius Stal 1 ex., Panamint Valley. 

ThyantarugulosaSay 1 ex., Argus Mountains. 

14 ex., Nev. 671. 

Carpoeoris lynx Fabr 1 ex., Panamint Valley. 

Dendrocoris pint Mont 9 ex., Argus Mountains, on Pinus mono- 

phylla. 

Family Coreid^e. 

Ficana apicalis Dall 3 ex., Argus Mountains, on Pinus mono- 

vhylla. 
4 ex., Panamint Valley. 

Harmostes reflexulus Stal lex., Death Valley. 

Corizus lateralis Say 1 ex., Argus Mountains, on Pinus mono- 

phylla. 

Family Berytrid^e. 

Keides muticus Say 1 ex., Argus Mountains. 

Family Lyg^id^e. 

Nysius angustatus Uhler , 15 ex., Argus Mountains. 

Isehnorhynohus didymus Zett 1 ex., Argus Mountains. 

Cymodema tabida Spin lex., Owens Valley; 1 Panamint 

Mountains. 

Eremocoris tropicus Dist 4 ex., Argus Mouutains. 

Melanocoryphus bicrucis Say 1 ex., Argus Mountains, on Pinus mono- 

phylla. 
Lygo3U8 reclivatus Say 1 ex., Panamint Valley. 

• Family Pyrrhocorid^e. 

Largus ductus H. Sch 1 ex., Argus Mountains; 1 ex., Coso 

Valley; 1 ex., Panamint Valley. 

Family Capsid^e. 

Campsocerocoris annulicornis Reut 2 ex., Argus Mountains, on Pinus mono- 

phylla. 
Hadronema robusta Uhler 1 ex., Owens Valley. 



250 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. [No. 7. 

Lygus pratensis Linn 1 ex., Death Valley. 

Lygus invitus Say 2 ex., Death Valley. 

Dicyphus seeundus Uhler , 5 ex., Argus Mountains. 

Family AntiiocoriDjE. 

Tripldeps insidiosus Say . 1 ex., Panamint Valley. 

Family TiNGiTiDiE. 

Tingis arcuata Say 5 ex., Argus Mountains. 

Coryth ma ciliata Say. var 25 ex., Argus Mountains. 

• Family Nabidje. 

Coriscus ferus Linn 1 ex., Death Valley. 

Family Reduviid^e. 

Diplodus socius Uhlcr 2 ex., Panamint Valley; 1, Panamint 

Mountains. 

Apiomerus ventralis Say lex., Panamint Valley. 

Ginea rileyi Mont 5 ex., Death Valley ; 4 ex., Panamint 

Valley. 

Family Veliid^e. 

Hebrus pucellus Burm 2 ex , Panamint Mountains. 

Macrovelia hornii Uhler 2 ex., Argus Mountains. 

Family Saldid^e. 
Species of Salda undetermined. 

Family Galgulid^e. 

Mononyx stygicus Say 3 ex., Panamint Valley. 

Family Notonectid^e. 

Anisops platycnemis Fieb 1 ex., Death Valley. 

Order HOMOPTERA. 
Family Fulgorid^e. 

Delphax tricarinatus Say 1 ex., Argus Mountains, on Pinus mono- 

phylla. 
Cixius 8tigmatus Say 1 ex., Argus Mountains, on Pinus mo- 

nophylla. 

Family Mkmhracid,e. 

Platgcenlrus aeuticornis Stal 20 ex., San Bernardino County. 

Centrodus atlas Goding 48 ex. , Death Valley. 

Mnltareis cornutus Goding 2 ex., Panamint Valley. 

Family Bythoscopid^e. 

Agallia siccifolia Uhler 12 ex., Argus Mountains, on Pinus mo- 

nophylla. 



May, 1893.] INSECTS OP THE DEATH VALLEY EXPEDITION. 251 

Family Cercopid^e. 

Proconia hieroglyphica Say 1 ex., Argns Mountains. 

Proconia costalis Pabr 1 ex., Argus Mountains, on Pinus mo- 

nophylla. 

Family Jassidjs. 

Several species not determined. 

Family Psyllid^e. 

Aphalara n. sp 23 e*., Argus Mountains, May, 1891. 

Aphalara n. sp 5 ex., Argus Mountains, May, 1891. 

Aphalara n. sp 5 ex., Argus Mountains, May, 1891. 

Aphalara n. sp 23 ex., Death Valley, April, 1891. 

N. g. et. n. sp 34 ex., Panamint Mountains and Argus 

Mountains. 

Psylla n. sp 47 ex., Argus Mountains, April and May, 

1891. J ' 

Psylla n. sp 40 ex., Argus Mountains, April and May, 

1891. 

( ?) Psylla n. sp 1 ex. ; Argus Mountains, May, 1891. 

Trioza n. sp 136 ex., Death Valley and Argus Moun- 
tains. 

Order ORTHOPTERA. 
Family Forficulidje. 

Tridactylusn. sp 3 ex., San Bernardino County; 1 ex., 

Lone Pine. (A. K. Fisher.) 

Family Blattid^e. 

Heterogamia sp. (probably new) 1 ex. 

Family Gryllid^e. 

Nemobius sp. (probably new) 1 ex. 

Gryllus abbreviatus Serv. (?) 4 ex., Panamint Valley ; 2, Argus Moun- 
tains. 

Family Locustidje. 

Stenopelmatus talpa Burm 1 ex., Panamint Valley. 

Family Acridiid^e. 

Paratettix mexicanus Sauss 8 ex., Panamint Valley. 

Paratettix toltecus Sauss. (not quite typical). .17 ex., Panamint Valley. 

Dracotettex n. sp 6 ex., Panamiut Valley. 

Haldemanella robusta Brun 1 ex., Argus Mountains. 

Hippiscus latertius ^auss (var) 8 ex., Argus Mountains; 4, Panamint 

Valley. 

Hippiscus aurilegulus Scudd 1 ex. 

Anconia Integra Scudd. (modified in color).. .8 ex., Death Valley. 



252 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. [No. 7. 

Encoptoloplius n. sp 19 ex., Panamiut Valley ; 5 ex., Death 

Valley. 

Scirtettica n. sp 1 ex. 

Scyllina delicatula Scudd 1 ex. 

N. gen. et n. sp.; between (Edlpoda and Eri- 

mobia 1 ex. . 

Leptysma mexicana Sauss 18 ex., Panamint Valley. 

Psoloessa texana Scudd 3 ex., Coso Valley 

Trimerotropis vinculata Scudd 3 ex., Panamiut Valley. 

Thrincws aridus Brun 2 ex., Pauamint Valley. 

Camnula pellucida Several ex., Walker Basin. (Dr. A. K. 

Fisher.) 

ARACHNID A. 
Family IxoDiD-a:. 

Argas occidenfalis Marx From dog's ear, Ash Meadows, Nev., 

March 9, 1891. (A. K. Fisher.) 
Bhipistoma leporis Marx From rabbit's ear. Kern River, Calif., 

July 4, 1891. (A. K. Fisher.) 
Ixodes ricinus L 3 . From Thomomys, Walker Pass, Calif., 

July 1. 1891. (A. K. Fisher.) 
Iihipicephalus angiistipalpis Marx From jack rabbit, Daggett, Calif., Jan. 

7,1891. (A.K.Fisher.) 
Dermacentor americanus L From child's ear, Loue Pine, Calif., June 

9, 1891. (A. K. Fisher.) 

Family Scorpionid^e. 

Yejovis punctipalpis Wood 1 ex. (A. K. Fisher), Panamiut Moun- 
tains, April. 



May, 1893.] INSECTS OF THE DEATH VALLEY EXPEDITION. 253 

LIST OF DIPTERA OF THE DEATH VALLEY EXPEDITION. 

By S. W. WlLLISTON. 

The following pages include a list of the species contained in a small 
collection of Diptera from Death Valley and the adjoining regions, sent 
me recently for determination by Prof. Riley. That the larger part of 
them should be new to science is not at all strange, inasmuch as they 
are, for the greater part, members of families which have been but lit- 
tle studied in America. The collection is of considerable interest as 
adding three European or African genera hitherto unrecorded from 
America, among which the wingless Apterina is the most remarkable. 
After careful search I have found it necessary to describe two new 
genera — one among the Dexiidae, the other an Ephydrinid. 

Culex inornatus n. sp. 

Female. — Palpi yellowish brown. Proboscis yellowish, black at the tip. Antennae 
black, tbe basal joints yellowish. Occiput black, clotbed mostly with whitish pu- 
bescence. Thorax red, the dorsum reddish brown, thinly clothed with light yellow 
and white tomentum, and blackish bristly hairs. Pleurae with white tomentum. 
Abdomen black, somewhat yellowish in ground-color on the second and third seg- 
ments, covered with white scale-like tomentum on the front and sides of the seg- 
ments, on the posterior part of the segments with blackish tomentum. Legs brown- 
ish; on the inner side thickly, on the outer side thinly, covered with white tomen- 
tum. Wings nearly hyaline, the tomentum of the veins blackish. Length, 5-6 mm . 

One specimen, Argus Mountains, April, 1891 (Koebele). Both this and the follow- 
ing species belong to the genus Culex in the restricted sense of Lynch. 

Culex n. sp. 

Female. — Dark brown or black, the occiput covered with white and brown tomen- 
tum. Palpi black, at the tip silvery. Proboscis black, with a white ring beyond 
the middle. Antennas black. Dorsum of thorax covered with brown and white to- 
mentum, the white toward either side posteriorly, and forming two slender lines, 
abbreviated anteriorly. Pleura? with white tomentum. Abdomen deep brown, with 
six conspicuous rings of white tomentum on the anterior part of the segments, the 
ground-color under them yellow; on the second segment a white tomeutose spot in 
front. Legs nearly black, the base of all the femora yellowish. On the outer side 
of the femora, in large part, and along the whole inner side of the legs, as also moder- 
ately broad rings at the articulations of all the tarsal joints, white. Wings nearly 
hyaline; tomentum blackish, distributed nearly evenly on the veins. Length, 6 mm . 

One specimen, Argus Mountains, Calif., April. This species is closely allied to C. 
annulatus Meigen, which occurs in the western regions and in Mexico, but seems to 
differ in the uniformly distributed tomentum of the wings. 
Simulium argus n. sp. 

Female. — Black, the legs in part light yellow. Front black, opaque. Face cinere- 
ous, with whitish pubescence. Antenna? brownish black, the basal joint yellowish. 
Thorax black, the dorsum thinly pollinose, not shining; pleurae densely white polli- 
nose, with a black spot. Abdomen opaque velvety black, the first three segments 
with a narrow silvery white spot on either side at the hind margin; the next three 
segments similarly marked, but the interval between the spots successively wider, 
and each with two other, successively larger, white spots, leaving a black space in 
the middle and a narrower one at the outer sides. Venter white. Legs brownish 



254 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. [No. 7. 

black, the distal part of the femora, base of tibia?, and the grer.ter part of the me- 
tatarsi light yellow. Wings pure hyaline, the veins light colored, those posteriorly 
very delicate. Length, 2^ mm . 

One specimen, Argus Mountains, Calif., May, 1891. 
Psilocephala n. sp. ? 

A single male specimen. Panamint Valley, April. 
Thereva vialis Osten Sacken, Western Dipt., 274. 

A single male specimen, Death Valley, Calif., April, 1891. 

Erax aridus sp. [var.] n. 

A single female specimen, considerably larger than the type of E. latrunculus Will, 
differs from that species in the legs being wholly black, the hair of the face being 
wholly white, and in the furcation of the third vein taking place opposite, instead 
of distinctly beyond the base of the second posterior cell. I am not sure till the 
male is examined, that these differences are specific. The very marked difference in 
the color of the legs will, however, justify the varietal name. 
Anthrax n. sp. 

This species, represented by a single specimen from Panamint Valley, I can not 
identify with any described species. In Coquillett's most recent synopsis, it is 
brought straight to A. scitula, from which it differs, however, in important particu- 
lars, aside from the markings of the wings, the figure of which, herewith given, will 
permit the recognition of the species. 
Anthrax fenestratoides Coquillett, Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc. xix, 185, 1892. 

A single specimen, agreeing well with the description, from Panamint Valley, 
Calif. 
Anthrax (Stonyx) sodom, n. sp. 

Female. — Black, the legs chiefly yellowish. Face produced conically; clothed, 
like the front, with black pile slightly intermixed with white tomeutum. Proboscis 
not projecting beyond the epistoma. Style of antennae about twice the length of the 
bulbous portion. Occiput with yellowish tomeutum. Mesonotum clothed with white 
tomentum and sparse, erect, black hairs. Abdomen white tomentose, with a moder- 
ate amount of black tomentum, and with sparse, erect, long black hairs; the mar- 
gins of the abdomen with black and white pile. Base of femora somewhat blackish ; 
front tibia? without spinules; front ungues small, the pulvilli apparently wanting. 
Wings with brown markings, as in the figure. Length 7 mra . 

One specimen, Death Valley, Calif., April, 1891 (Koebele). 
Anthrax n. sp. 

A single specimen, from Panamint Valley, Calif., seems to belong to a new species. 
It is taken to be A. (Dipalta) serpentina in Coquillett's table, from which it differs 
decidedly. The figure herewith given will enable it to be recognized. 
Aphcebantus vittatus Coquillett, Can. Entom. May, 1886. 

A single specimen from Panamint Valley, Calif., April 21 (Koebele), seems to be 
this, though the thorax and abdomen do not have a very " vittate " appearance. 
Argyrarnoeba daphne Osten Sacken, Biol. Centr. Amer. Diptera, i, 104, pi. 11, f. 6, 

1886.— Mexico. 

One male, from Panamint Valley, Calif. It agrees so closely with the description 
and figure of this species that I believe the determination very probable. It has, 
however, three submarginal cells in each wing, a fact which sustains Coquillett's 
objections to the acceptation of Stonyx and Dipalta. 
Triplasius novus n. sp. 

Male. — Head narrower than the thorax. Eyes broadly contiguous, the facets 
markedly larger above, but without a dividing line, the posterior orbits with a dis- 
tinct incision. Antenna} inserted close together, slender, second joint short, about 



Mat, 1893.] INSECTS OF THE DEATH VALLEY EXPEDITION. 255 

as long as broad, and about one-third the length of first joint; third joint longer 
than the first two together, a little thickened at the base, slender on the distal half, 
terminating in a minute bristle. Frontal triangle with a median impression; tri- 
angle and face clothed with abundant pile. Oral opening large, its upper margin 
nearly opposite the middle of the eyes. Proboscis long, palpi slender. ThoTax and 
abdomen clothed with thick, bushy pile. Abdomen a little longer than the thorax 
and abdomen together. Legs not strong; ungues gently curved; pulvilli about 
half of the length of the claws, distinct. Three marginal cells present, the neura- 
tion otherwise as in Bombyliits. Front light-grayish pollinose, clothed with black 
hairs in the middle. First two joints of the antennas with abundant black hair. 
Face with abundant light-yellowish hair, intermixed with black ; the uppermost 
part of the face in ground-color is black; along the oral margin, reaching the eyes, 
broadly yellow. Cheeks black, grayish pollinose. Antennae, palpi, and proboscis 
black. Pile of the occiput light yellowish or white. Thorax and scutellum opaque 
black, but almost wholly obscured by the long and abundant light yellow or white 
pile. Abdomen with long and abundant light yellowish or white pile ; the sides of 
the second segment and the terminal segment with bushy, black hair. Legs black. 
Wings dark brown, more yellowish along the costa, and lighter colored distally. 
Length, ll rara . 

One specimen, Panamint Valley, Calif., April, 1891. The species is in all respects 
a Bombyliits with three submarginal cells. 

Comastes sackeni n. sp. 

Female. — Differs from C. robmtus in the smaller size, the presence of black hairs 
on the face and thorax, the wholly black scutellum, which is without bristles on its 
margin, in the abdomen being rather uniformly clothed with shorter white pile, in- 
termixed with numerous long black hairs, and in the greater infuscation of the basal 
portion of the wings. The femora and tibia? are black. Length, 9 mm . 

One specimen, Argus Mountains, Calif., May, 1892. 
Geron, n. sp. 

A single, injured specimen, agreeing somewhat with specimens of G. albidipennis, 
but apparently different. Death Valley, Calif., May. 
Lordotus sororculus n. sp. 

Deep black, shining. Face, first two joints of the antenna? and the front clothed 
wholly with deep black pile. First antenual joint about half of the length of the 
slender third joiut, the secoud joint but little longer than wide. Pile of the occiput, 
yellowish gray; that of the mesonotum and scutellum of the same color, abundant; 
some black pile on the pectus. Scutellum convex, without impression or groove. 
Knob of the halteres, yellow. Abdomen, both above and below, with long, nearly 
white pile. Legs black, with light-yellowish tomentum and black pile. Wings, 
pure hyaline. Length, 8 mm . 

Two specimens, Coso Valley, May 21, and Kern County, Calif. 
Melanostoma n. sp. 

A single male specimen from Argus Mountains, Calif., May, 1891, evidently belongs 
to an undescribed species. It is nearest related to M. ceerulescens Will., but has the 
abdomen oval and elongate. 
Oncunyia abbreviata Loew. Williston, etc. 

A single specimen of this widely distributed insect from Panamint Valley, Calif., 
April, 1891. 

Pipunculus aridus n. sp. 

Male. — Front and face black, with silvery pubescence. Antenna? black; third 
joint silvery on the_ lower part, produced below iuto a spinous point. Thorax black, 
dorsum a little shining, faintly brownish dusted on the disk. Abdomen greenish 
black, shining. Legs black; the immediate tip of the femora, the base of the tibia?, 



256 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. [No. 7. 

and all the tarsi, save their tip yellow. Hind femora without bristles below. Wings 
hyaline; last section of the fourth vein sinuous, the three outer sections of the same 
vein of nearly equal length. Small cross vein much beyond the tip of the auxiliary 
vein. Length 3 mm . 

One specimen, Argus Mountain, California, April, 1891. Is most nearly allied to P. 
flavitarsis Will. , but differs in the color of the abdomen, and the more produced third 
joint of the antennae. 
Blepharopeza adusta Loew. Centur. x, 67. 

A single specimen from Sonoma County, Calif. (Riley), agreeing well with the de- 
scription, save that all the tibiae are reddish. 
Prospherysa similis n. sp. 

Male. — Front somewhat narrowed behind; frontal stripe dark brown, on each side 
a single row of bristles descending below the base of the third antennal joint. 
Sides of the face and the cheeks wholly without bristles. Antennae black; third 
joint four or five times the length of the second joint, not reaching the vibrissa©; 
arista thickened to about the middle. Face and sides of the front yellowish gray, 
a darker spot on the lower part of the cheeks. Palpi yellow, thorax black, lightly 
dusted, with three linear, darker stripes, scarcely visible behind. Tip of scutellum 
red, with four marginal bristles on each side, a small, medium, decussate pair and 
two small, subdiscal ones. Abdomen somewhat elongate ; first segment only a little 
shorter than the second; all the segments marmorate with white; first and second 
segments each with a pair of marginal bristles, the third segment with six before the 
hind margin, the fourth segment with a subdiscal pair and numerous ones near the 
margin; hypopygium, red. Thorax, abdomen, and legs clothed with long and abun- 
dant black hair. Legs, deep black; pul villi and claws elongate, the former light 
yellow, the latter yellowish; front tibiae with a row of short bristles on the outer 
side ; middle tibiaB with two or three median stout bristles ; hind tibiae with numer- 
ous bristles, of which two are longer than the rest. Tegulse, white. Wings, grayish 
hyaline; the small cross vein situated a little before the middle of the discal cell. 
Length 13™ m . 

Female. — Front broader, about one-third of the width of the head ; a pair of orbital 
bristles present ; hair of thorax and abdomen less abundant, and that of the abdomen 
more recumbent and bristly; claws and pulvilli not elongate. Length, 10 mm . 

Two specimens, Sonoma County, Calif. The female bears the label " Clisiocampa," 
sp. The species is nearest allied to P. apicalis v. d. Wulp, where it is clearly brought 
by Wulp's table. It will be distinguished from P. promiscua Towns., as also P. 
xcebsleri Towns., by the bare eyes, as well as other characters. 
Prospherysa sp. 

A single male specimen from Alameda County, Calif. (Riley), seems to agree well 
with P. plagiodes v. d. Wulp in its neurational characters, but has the third vein 
bristly for a short distance only. 
Melanodexia gen. nov. 

Eyes of male separated above by the ocellar prominence; front in the female very 
broad. Bristles of the front numerous and hair-like in the male; in the female 
shorter, fewer, and stouter; not descending below the base of the antennas. Eyes 
bare. Second joint of the antennas somewhat swollen, the third joint not three 
times the length of the second; arista short plumose. Sides of face and the cheeks 
hairy. Vibrissal ridges nearly parallel: vibrissio slender, situated a considerable 
distance above the orai margin, the epistoma not projecting. Bottom of the facial 
groove only gently convex. Width of the cheeks less than one-half of the greater 
diameter of the eyes. Proboscis short, palpi slender. Thorax and scutellum with 
well developed bristles. Abdomen short-conical, without distinct macrochaatae, save 
on the distal part; in the male, with abundant erect hair on the anterior segments, 
and thin bristles posteriorly; in the female, with short recumbent bristles anteriorly, 



May,1S9u.| insects of the death valley expedition. 257 

and longer bristles posteriorly. Third longitudinal vein strongly convex in front, 
terminating very near the tip of the wing; antepenultimate section of the fourth vein 
fully twice the length of the penultimate section, tho latter joining the ultimate 
section in an angle, which may be slightly rounded in the female. Legs not elon- 
gate, the bristles of ordinary size; hind tibia? not eiliate; pulvilli and ungues small 
in both sexes. 

This genus is nearest allied to Morinia and Pseudomonnia, but differs in the small 
claws of the male, the higher position of the vibrissa', the situation of the posterior 
cross-vein, the closed first posterior cell, and the absence of discal and marginal 
bristles on the anterior abdominal segment. 
Melanodexia tristis n. sp. 

Male. — Wholly black, shining, with black bristles and hair. Teguhe blackish; 
pulvilli yellow. Frontal stripe opaque, very narrow above, separating the eyes; 
three or four times as wide below; the narrow lunula shining. Hair of the 
lower part of the cheeks long. Thorax and scutellum with long bristles and mod- 
erately abundant erect hair. First two segments of the abdomen with abundant 
erect hair, posteriorly the abdomen is, for the greater part, clothed with numerous, 
erect, slender bristles. Wings tinged with blackish, especially along the veins. 
Length, 6 mm . 

Female. — Frontal stripe very broad, on each side with a row of short bristles; 
orbital and ocellar bristles present. Thorax and abdomen not hairy, but nearly 
bare, with short, recumbent bristles instead. Length, 7""". 

One male, Southern California (Baron;, and one female, Monterey County, Calif. 
(Riley). 

Lispa tenlaculata Degeer, Ins. vi, 42, 15, 1776 (Musca) Latreille, Gen. Crust, et Ins. 
iv, 347, 1809; Fallen, Dipt, Suec. Muse. 93, i, 1820; Meigen, Syst. Beschr. v. 220, 182G; 
Macquart, Hist. Nat. Dipt, ii, 314, 1835; Zetterstedt, Dipt, Scand. v, 1796, 1816; 
Walker, Ins. Dipt. Brit, ii, 147, 1853; Schiner, Fauna Austr. i, 660, 1862; Rondani, 
Dipt. Ital. Prodr. vi, 289, 1877; v. d. Wulp, Tijdschr. v. Ent. xi, 1868, pi. ii, f. 6; 
Kowarz, Wien. Ent. Zeit. xi, 000, 1892. 

Habitat. — All Europe (Kowarz), New England, Michigan, South Dakota. California. 

Two specimens, Panamint Valley, April, 1892. Tho species is especially charac- 
terized by the slender spur-like projection of the front metatarsi in the male. 
Euxesta spoliata u. sp. 

Female. — Shining, somewhat metallic green. Front, red or reddish yellow, with 
moderately coarse hairs. Antenna 1 , reddish or brownish yellow, third joint rounded. 
Face, reddish yellow, of a little lighter color than the front, not pollinose. Thorax, 
bright green, somewhat shining, thinly pruinose. Abdomen, black or pitchy black, 
the first two segments red or yellowish. Legs, yellowish or brownish red, the distal 
joints of all the tarsi blackish. Halteres, light yellow. Wings, whitish hyaline, 
with light-colored veins, except in the dark spots, where they are blackish ; the costal 
and subcostal cells are blackish throughout, encroaching somewhat on the marginal 
cell. The large blackish spot at the tip begins on the costa a little beyond the middle 
of the antepenultimate section and reaches nearly to the fourth vein ; the last 
section of the fourth vein converges markedly toward the third. Length, 4 mm . 

Three specimens, Death Valley and Panamint Mountains, Calif. 

Ephydra tarsata n. sp. 

Front shining greenish black, with two pairs of proclinate ocellar bristles; about 
three pairs of reclinate bristles below, a row along the orbit, directed inward, and 
a vertical bristle to the inner side of the row, directed inward. Antennae black; a 
small bristle on the upper side of the second joint; arista very short, pubescent on 
the much thickened basal portion. Face showing somewhat greenish beneath the 
grayish pruinosity; hair long and black. Thorax black, with a thin gray pruinosity; 
the dorsum faintly striate. Abdomen black, olivaceous grayish pollinose, not shin- 
12731— No. 7 17 



25-8 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. [No. 7. 

ing; hypopygium small, mostly concealed. Legs black, grayish or greenish prut- 
nose; front metatarsi in the male thickener! and Longer than the following three joints 
together; in the female, simple hut elongate. Wings grayish, hyaline; small cross 
vein opposite the tip of the hist longitudinal vein; posterior cross vein oblhjue. 
Length, 5-6 ain '. 

Two specimens, Owens Valley, May 21, 1891. 

This species will be readily recognized by the small hypopygium of the male, 
and the thickened front metatarsus iu the same sex, together with the nearly bare; 
arista. 

Notiphila decoris n. sp. 

Female. — Front gray or brownish gray, with two black stripes, separated by the 
triangular, brownish ocellar triangle ; the median, anteriorly directed pair of bristles 
well developed. Antennas and palpi black. Face opaque, light golden yellow. 
Dorsum of thorax and scutellum opaque yellowish brown, somewhat grayish an- 
teriorly; the stripes only feebly indicated. Pleurae more grayish-yellow below, 
with two shining black spots. Abdomen chiefly dark coffee-brown, with tin- poste- 
rior part and a median stripe on each segment gray. Legs black, the base of the 
frout metatarsi and the first three joints of the four posterior tarsi reddish yellow. 
AVings cinereous. Length, 3| mm . 

One specimen, Panamint Valley, Calif, April. 

Pelomyia gen. nov. Ephydridarum. 

Third joint of antennae rounded, second joint not unguiculated; arista long, very 
finely pubescent, nearly bare. Eyes wholly bare. Face of only moderate breadth, 
moderately convex. Cheeks moderately broad. Front moderately broad with well- 
developed bristles. Clypeus not projecting. Thorax with four rows of bristles, ex- 
tending to the anterior part. Middle tibiae without bristles on the outer side. 

The genus seems nearest related to Pelina, from which it differs in the retracted 
clypeus, the bristles of the anterior part of the thorax, etc. The eyes are bare 
under the highest magnification. The neuration does not differ from Notiphila, etc. 

Pelomyia occidentalis n. sp. 

Male, female. — Vertical triangle large, yellowish gray; front, below the triangle, 
opaque yellow, the orbital margins narrowly white, polliuose; vertical triangle, 
with two proclinate bristles; a row of three bristles on the orbital margin. Anten- 
nas brownish black, the tinder side of the third joint yellowish; second joint with a 
weak bristle at its extremity. Face yellow, not broad, somewhat whitish, pollinose; 
on either side with a few short, weak bristles. Dorsum of thorax brownish gray. 
•with three slender brown stripes. Scutellum large, bare, with two pairs of bristles, 
the intermediate pair near the apex and large, the outer pair small. Abdomen black, 
with a brownish pubescence, opaque, the small hypopygium shining black; in 
shape elongate oval ; sixth and seventh segments of the female very short. Legs 
black, or somewhat luteous, rather slender ; femora with some short bristles. Wings 
nearly hyaline. Length, 2£ ram . Two specimens, Monterey, Calif. 

Scarcely any attention has hitherto been given to the BorboridfB of 
America, a group of considerable interest, as including several of the 
few wingless forms of Diptera. I have examined about twenty species 
of the family from the United States and West Indies, nearly all of 
which are yet undescribed. I give here a table of genera based upon 
these species, and will shortly publish descriptions of them: 

North American genera of Borboridce: 

1. Wingless species APTKRINA 

Wings fully developed 2 



May, 1893.] INSECTS OF THE DEATH VALLEY EXPEDITION. 259 

2. Fourth ami fifth veins of the wings incomplete beyond the discal cell, not reach- 

ing the border Limosina 

Fourth vein, at least, fully developed and reaching the border 3 

3. Scutellum with well-developed bristles; the fifth vein incomplete beyond the 

discal cell BOKBORUS 

Scutellum without bristles; fifth vein couipleto SPttffiROCERA 

Borborns, sp.: 

Two specimens, Argus Mountains, which seem to belong to a new species. 
Limosina aldrichi n. sp. 

Male. — Black, but little shining, nearly bare. Face somewhat whitish. Front, 
but little shining in the middle. Antennae black, arista long, distinctly pubescent. 
Thorax shining. Scutellum flattened, bare, with sis bristles, the pair near the 
apex much larger than the ones toward the base. Abdomen opaque, somewhat prui- 
nose. Legs black, the tibiae and tarsi more or less dark lutcous; hind metatarsi only 
a little dilated, and but little shorter than the following joint. "Wings nearly hya- 
line; the third vein ends beyond the small cross-vein, gradually and nearly uni- 
formly curved forwards; the tip of the second is nearly midway between the 
terminations of the first and third veins, the latter ending near the tip of the wing; 
fourth vein beyond the discal cell faintly indicated. Hind cross-vein rectangular 
to the fourth vein. Length, 3 mm . 

One specimen, Argus Mountains, April, 1891. 
Apterina polita sp. nov. 

Female. — Very small, shining black, without wings and apparently without hal- 
teres. Scutellum large, flattened, trapezoidal , with four well-developed bristles. Face 
excavated in profile ; oral margin on either side with a conspicuous bristle. Cheeks 
moderately broad. Clypeus retracted into the oral cavity. Antenme short, third joint 
rounded, hairy, with a long, pubescent arista. Eyes bare. Front broad, with a row of 
orbital, proclinate bristles. Thorax with bristles. Abdomen broadly oval, depressed, 
with sixvisible segments, the second, third, and fourth of nearly equal length. Legs 
slender, with bristles, the middle tibia?, at least, with a preapical bristle; first joint 
of the hind metatarsi short, and dilated. Front opaque, with a shining median stripe 
or elongated triangle ; face and cheeks whitish dusted. Dorsum of thorax, scutellum 
and abdomen shiniug, the hair very short and sparse. Tip of femora, base of tibia?, 
and the tarsi, save the tip, yellowish. Length lj mm . 

Three specimens, Panamint Valley, April, 1891. 

Apterina is subordinated to Borborus by Schiner, and he may be right in doing so. 
The present species is in all respects a wingless Limosina, but that genus has no tan- 
gible differences from Borborus save such as are found in the neuration. A mere 
excresence, of a yellowish color, is a-11 there is to be seen of the wings. I therefore 
locate the species, provisionally, at least, in Mac-quart's genus. 

Note. — In addition to the Diptera reported upon above by Dr. "Williston, the col- 
lection contains 7 species easily named which were not sent to h im, nor was it thought 
worth while to introduce these few names into the tabulated list which precedes. 
They are added here, however, for the purpose of completing the report. — C. V. R. 

Tabanus punctifer 0. S 4 ex., Panamint Valley and Death Valley. 

Pantarbes capito O. S 1 ex., Argus Mountains. 

Triodites mm O. S 1 ex., Coso Valley. 

Lordotus diversus Coq 5 ex., Panamint Valley and Death Valley. 

Ploas fenestrate O. S 3 ex., Death Valley. 

Platyehirus peltatus Meig 1 ex., Argus Mountains. 

BibioMrtusLodw 1 ex., Santa Cruz Mountains. 



2G0 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. [No. 7. 



HBMIPTERA, HETEROPTERA OP THE DEATH VALLEY EXPE- 
DITION. 

By P. R. Uiiler. 

COREID.E. 

Harmostes propinqiins Dist., Biol. Cent. Amer. Hemipt., p. 168, No. 7; pi. xv., 

Jig. 1!). 

A damaged specimen, pf somewhat larger .size than usual, was secured on the Argus 
Mountains in May, 1891. 

BERYTIN.E. 

Pronotacantha u. gen. 

Form of Parajaly&m Distant, but with long, erect, remote spines on all sides of the 
pronotum, those of the front border directed obliquely forwards, those of the sides 
pointing outwards, the posterior pair pointing backwards, and the single one on 
each humerus curved at tip, posterior portion of the pronotum convex, very much 
elevated behind, cmarginated for the base of the coriuiu. Scutellum small, flat, 
armed with a long slender spine. Epiplenra with a short tooth beneath the base of 
the wing-cover. Antenuie and legs with the usual knobs at end of joints. Wing- 
covers flat, very much wider and longer than the abdomen, nearly spindle-shaped 
in outline, almost membranous and translucent throughout, the costal areole wide, 
crossed by a coarse diagonal vein, followed by a longer areole which is also bounded 
at tip by a diagonal vein which sends off a thinner vein to curve outward and hound 
a narrow, cunens-like areole running to the tip of the wing-cover, behind this, ex- 
tending inwardly, are four long areoles which constitute the end of the wing cover. 
Abdomen a little swollen at base, narrow behind. Middle eox;e placed far back from 
the anterior pair, but not remote from the posterior cox;e. 

P. annulata n. sp. 

Pale fulvous, with the head, front, and back of the pronotum polished black. 
Head short, subglobose, with the tylus forming a prominent vertical ridge, bounded 
by swollen cheeks; eyes prominent, brown; rostrum reaching to behind the middle 
cox;e, dark piceous, paler on the middle and beneath. Antennae long and slender, 
anuulatcd with black, the basal joint longer than the head and pronotum united, a 
little thickened at tip, second joint about one-half as long as the basal, the third ;i 
little longer, the fourth joint black, pale at tip, very short and thick, fusiform but 
acute at both ends. Pronotum stout, broad and tumid behind, black, polished, with 
a broad yellow band which narrows below and extends upon the sternum, spines 
chiefly yellow, those of the base longer. Scutellum narrow, testaceous, armed with 
a long, erect, yellow spine. Legs slender, testaceous, banded with black, the femora 
clavate and wax-yellow at tip. Wing-covers testacco-hyaline, almost membranous 
throughout, the veins delicate and a little deeper colored than the integument, those 
of the corium thick, brown, especially the costal one, the coriuni unevenly punctate, 
very short, triangular at tip, with the costal rib carried far beyond its tip; the mem- 
brane is much longer than the corium and extending well along its inner border, 
and has a series of four long and wide areoles. The cubital area is long, narrow, ob- 
lique at tip, and from it is continued a much narrower apical areolar extension, and 
these areas are all punctate and minutely bristly along the veins. Abdomen polished, 
somewhat piceous at base and tip, tinged with rufo-ferrugineous on the sides supe- 
riorly, acutely narrowing towards the tip in the male. 

Length to end of abdomen, 4 m "'; width of pronotum, f mm « One specimen, a 
male, was taken on the Argus Mountains in April. This specimen has the greater 
portion of the veins of hemelytra pale brown. Several other specimens from differ- 
ent parts of Arizona have been submitted to me for examination. 



May, 1803] INSECTS OF THE DEATH VALLEY EXPEDITION. 2G1 

This geims comes near to Metacanihus, but it differs widely therefrom in the vena- 
tion of the wing covers. It has also close affinities with I'arajalysus Dist., from 
which it differs also in venation, armature, etc. 
Acanthophysa n. gen. 

Apparently related to Hoplimts Stal., hut quite abnormal by reason of the broad 
fusiform figure, emphasized by the upwardly inflated hemelytra, which appears 
semicoriaceous throughout, terminate in an acute point behind, and have the veins 
arranged longitudinally like ridges, and which carry series of remote, long, erect 
spines. Head acutely produced, conforming to the front of the pronotum, and 
armed each side with a series of Long, anteriorly directed, almost procumbent, sharp 
spines. Rostrum reaching the posterior coxae, the basal joint thick and long; an- 
tenna- long and slender, the basal joint as long as the two following united, clavate 
at tip, the apical joint short, fusiform, acute at tip. Pronotum subcainpanuliform, 
flattened above, encircled and set with long, oblique spines pointing outward, the 
middle with a strong transverse section. Scutellum triangular, acute. Hemelytra 
with rows of long, remote spines on the veins, and fringed with a series on the costal 
and cubital border all the way to the tip; the diseoidal vein closely forked, and the 
central areole narrow and long, acutely narrowed at tip and crossed by about three 
veinlets before the tip, veins minutely, remotely punctate. Legs long and slender, 
the femora clavate at tip, and the posterior ones shorter than the abdomen. Venter 
almost flat, slightly convex. 
A. echinata n. sp. 

Grayish white, with the legs and antennae wax yellow, and the hemelytra marked 
with short, fuscous streaks on the coarse veins and a few irregular spots on the 
disk, bases of the spines mostly fuscous, and the head and pronotum a little fus- 
cous iu spaces; the apical joint of antennae blackish. Head long and acute, yel- 
lowish, with a sharp spine above, and others each side, all projecting forward; ros- 
trum yellowish; antennae darker on the swollen tip of first joint. Pronotum mod- 
erately flat, having a dark baud in front, the posterior lobe pale yellow, the basal 
margin almost truncated, with a short spine in the middle pointing backward, all 
the margins and the humeral angles armed with long, slanting spines, those of the 
anterior lobe longest and projecting over the head. Scutellum with the central 
carina and lateral raised margins ivory yellow. Legs banded with fuscous with the 
apex of the femora greatly swollen, piceous. Hemelytra with the spines chiefly 
white and directed obliquely outward and backward, the veins, especially on the 
disk and next the claws, interrupted with pale brown or fuscous membrane, form- 
ing an almost acuminate tip. having two approximate veinlets running throughout 
its length. Venter yellowish, spread with white, marked with interrupted raised 
longitudinal lines, a little spriukled with fuscous, and the entire surface hispid 
with short bristly spines, the apex infuscated. 

Length to tip of venter, 3i" m \; width of pronotum, f mm . ; width of hemelytra 
across the middle, l| mm . 

One specimen, a male, was secured at the Argus Mountains in April, and I have 
examined two other specimens which were collected near Los Angeles, Calif., by Mr. 
Coquillett. The costal rib is sharply raised, and is protracted to the very tip of the 
subcoriaceous corium; and the apexes of this corium are widely separated by a tri- 
angular interval. 

This most remarkable insect might perhaps be confounded with the prickly seed 
vessel of some of the sand ticks or beggars' lice which grow in sandy places. 

Although unquestionably a member of the family BeryUdce, it is the most aberrant 
genus of this group as yet discovered, and it helps to set forth the principle that 
there is a wide divergence of composition in the adjustment of the parts of the wing- 
covers in this remarkable group. 



262 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. pfo.7. 

LYG/EIDJE. 

Lygwosoma Peib. 
L. solida n. sp. 

Narrow and deep, gradually narrowing from the middle of coriivra to the front of 
pronotum; the surface dull, minutely grayish, pubescent all over, black, with the 
corium and humeral angles and a spot on the middle of the basal margin of prono- 
tum dull red. Head broad, convex, appearing longer from the acutely projecting 
tylus, each side of which the cheeks are sunken toward the antennal lobes; anten- 
nae stout, coated with minute gray pubescence; rostrum black, piceous, reachiug to 
behind the middle coxa". Pronotum longer than wide, almost flat, crossed next the 
middle by an indistinct ridge, humeral angles tubercular. Prosternum in front and 
margins of the pleural segments dull yellowish. Legs polished, black, hoary pubes- 
cent. Scutellum minutely pubescent, the carinate cross acute and pale at tip. Co- 
rium and clavus a little rough, closely pubescent, with the edge next the membrane 
a little dusky, the costal margin curved, and the membrane dusky black; tergum 
polished black, venter dull black, rendered a little gray by the hoary pubescence. 

Length to tip of venter, 4£ mm ; width of base of pronotum, L} mm . 

Two specimens, a male and a female, of the brachypterous form were secured in 
Mariposa County, Calif. , 

The membrane has an obscure pale lunule on the middle, and a very narrow whit- 
ish outer border. 

Lygwus Fab. 
L. melanopleurus n. sp. 

Form of bistriangularis Say, but having the pronotum a little shorter, more de- 
pressed behind the middle, and with the lateral margins a little sinuated. Color 
mainly -dull black, rendered grayish by the close, whitish pubescence which invests 
both the upper and lower surface. Head stout, moderately wide, convex above, 
marked with a red dot next the middle of base, the front narrow, with the cheeks 
compressed from the antenniferous lobes downward; the rostrum piceous, black, 
reaching upon the posterior coxa}, aDtenme black, thick, grayish, pubescent; prono- 
tum a little wider than long, depressed, and with a few coarse, dragged punctures 
behind the anterior margin; callosities transverse, distinct, the surface behind them 
depressed, a little rough, and with a few coarse punctures; lateral margins moder- 
ately oblique, feebly sinuated before the middle, with the humeri a little raised into 
a longitudinal ridge, the posterior margin nearly straight and slenderly edged with 
yellow; scutellum a little rough, depressed behind the middle, with the tip carinate 
and acute. Hemelytra paler and more lead-colored than the thorax, with the costal 
border broadly yellowish red, the posterior border more slenderly yellow, the sur- 
face pubescent and remotely minutely puuetate; membrane long, black, broadly 
bordered with white. Pectus black, hoary, pubs-see it, marked each side of line of 
legs with a row of pale spots. Legs black, pubescent. Venter reddish, black at 
tip, and with a broad blackish stripe on the side fallowing the line of the stigmata. 

Length to end of venter, il to 5 mm . ; to tip of membrane, 6 mm . ; width of base of 
pronotum, 2 mm . 

Two specimens wei'e obtained on the Panamint Mountains in April. It inhabits 
also Colorado. 
Lygaeosoma sp. 

A specimen with robust figure and of the brachypterous form was collected in 
Mariposa County, Calif., but it is too greasy for description. 

Pamera Say. 
P. nitidula n. sp. 

Dull blackish, with the head and thorax polished, chestnut brown, and the hemo- 
lytra pale testaceous, with a broad black band across the posterior part of the corium, 
an irregular spot near its base, and a spot at tip of cuneus, which runs back slenderly 



May, 1893.] INSECTS OF THE DEATH VALLEY EXPEDITION. 263 

on the outer margin. Head long, subacute at tip, set with erect bristly hairs, trans- 
versely wrinkled ; rostrum yellowish, slender, reaching behind the middle coxa' ; an- 
tennas pale yellow, slender, a little brown at points of articulation, the second joint 
as long as from the front of the eye to the pronotal stricture, the apical joint scarcely 
darker than the others, equally as long as the second, first and third much shorter, 
subequal in length. Pronotum highly polished, a little darker across the base, the 
anterior lobe globosely convex, much narrower than the basal lobe, having a con- 
striction and collum in front, the latter being punctate and a little produced behind, 
bounded by a deeply incised line, the surface spread with some bristly hairs ; posterior 
lobe depressed, about as wide as the length of the anterior lobe, coarsely remotely 
punctate, with the humeral angles callous and elevated. Legs pale yellow, the an- 
terior femora very stout, pale chestnut brown, with the knees and teeth darker, the 
anterior tibiie strongly bent, pectoral and pleural areas polished roughly and coarsely 
punctate and clothed with stiff pale hairs. Scutellum piceous, remotely punctate, 
sparingly pubescent, ridged from the middle to tbe tip, and with the tip pale and 
acute. Corium pale yellowish testaceous, darker at base, whitish at tip and on the 
cuneus, remotely punctate with brown in longitudinal lines, the embolium a little 
dusky and punctate in the crease, membrane dusky excepting the outer border, with 
pale veins. Venter pale reddish chestnut, dusky at base, the female with a sickle- 
shaped callosity running backward from the base. 

Length to tip of venter"6' nm , to end of membrane 6^'""', width of base of pronotum 

1 9mm 

A single specimen ( 9 ) was obtained in the Argus Mountains, Calif., April. I have 
also examined two others from Texas and New Mexico. Only females have thus far 
been sent to me for examination. 

Crophius Stal. 

C disconotus Say. Heteropt. New Harm., p. 14, No. 6. 

One specimen was collected on the Argus Mountains in May. This is Lyr/ants 
dicoHotus Say, the specific name of which is a misprint for disconotus, and would have 
been more correctly disconotatus. 

TINGITIDiE. 

Gargaphia Stal. 
G. opacula n. sp. 

Oblong, orate, with the head, breast, abdomen, basal and last joint of antenna? and 
base of second joint black. Head produced in front, pale beneath, the rostrum ex- 
tending to the middle coxa^, having the bucculse white and continuous, with the 
white raised border which bounds the whole length of the mesosternum on its 
sides. Pronotum tri-cariuate, convex, woolly over most of the surface and sides. The 
short anteriorly blunt and twice-tufted bulla stands next behind the head, the sur- 
face yellowish white, with a narrow reflexed border along the curved lateral mar- 
gin, the scutellum narrow and less depressed than usual; also whitish, pubescent. 
Legs pale rufo-testaceous, slender. Wing-covers white, with the veins a little 
tinged with fuscous near the tip, the exterior margin bluntly curved, regularly 
curved at tip, the areolcs small, unusually regular in size, a double series of them oc- 
cupying the costal area, but tapering off to a single series at tip, the clavus opaque, 
coriaceous, coarsely punctate, minutely pubescent in common with the disk of 
corium. Beneath dull black, minutely pubescent. 

Length to end of abdomen, 2£ mm . ; to tip of hemelytra, 3 mra .; width of prono- 
tum, 1 mm . 

Only a single specimen of this peculiar species was secured. It was taken on the 
Argus Mountains in April. The prominent convexity of the pronotum with its fur- 
like covering of hair and narrow pronotum will serve to quickly distinguish this 
species from the others thus far described. 



264 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. [-No. 7. 

Monanth'ui Fab. 
M. labeculata n. sp. 

Form similar to that of M. naasalh Putoiij but with a shorter pronotum and smaller 
meshes to the hemelytra, color fuscogriseus. Head short, convex, bronze-black, 
closely punctate, convex, the tylus vertical, buccula? large, lamelliform, whitish, 
coarsely pitted iu common with the gnla; antenna' rufous, the basal and apical 
joints and the base of the secon d joint black ; rostrnm piceous, reaching to between 
the middle coxa'. Pronotum a little darker than the hemelytra, convex; prominently 
lobate each side, the lobes long-oval, occupying the whole length, and divaricating 
posteriorly, the sunken longitudinal between them occupied by a piceous carina 
which is continued back to the tip of the scutellum, the surface covered with 
coarse sunken punctures, with short, yellowish hairs in the spaces, colluni whitish, 
prominent iu the middle, granulated and blackish piceous behind; humeri strongly 
convex, blackish and granulated at the faintly carinated lateral margin; heneath 
black, the propleurse piceous, coarsely punctate, but the tumid pieces of the meso — 
and metasternum smooth. Scutellum grayish testaceous, with the baso-lateral 
divaricating carime short, piceous, granulate, confined to the outer angles, the me- 
dial carina pale testaceous except at base, the surface granulate in lines, a little 
punctate and minutely, remotely pubescent. Corium pale-grayish testaceous, a 
little tinged with bronze, remotely punctate and pubescent, studded with piceous 
granules, and with the discoidal vein especially prominent; blackish, bullate and 
uneven, the cells of the membrane usually with dusky veins, and the cross veinlets 
of the costal border, including those of the membrane, black, the coarse vein bor- 
dering the corium often piceous black. Venter dull black, obsoletely rostrate. 

Length to tip of wing-covers, 3 """ ; width of pronotum, 1 """. Nine specimens 
were taken from Finns monophylla, on the Argus mountains in May,.1891. 

The species bears some resemblance to others of this genus common in Brazil and 

Central America. 

Leptoypha Stal. 

L. mutica Say. Tingis mutica Leconte Ed. Say's Writings, vol. i, p. 349. 

A dozen or more specimens of this common insect were collected on the Argus 
mountains in April and May. I find no difference to separate these specimens from 
those of Texas and other parts of the United States. 



Hoplomaehns Fieb. 
H. consols n. sp. 

Robust, tapering anteriorly, cinereous tinged with olive, clothed with long pile 
on the head and fore part of pronotum, and with shorter pubescence on the remain- 
der of the body. Head long, conical, acute as seen from above, indented each side 
near the eyes, with a pale yellow or orange line on the carinate middle, running 
back over the pronotum and continuing to the tip of the scutellum, tylus almost 
vertical, bounded by deeply cut sutures, covered with pale gray pile, the middle 
cheeks small, prominent, black, sharply defined; rostrum pale piceous, darker and 
acute at tip, reaching behind the posterior coxa', the basal joint stout, inflated at 
tip, longer than the throat; eyes brown, witli a bullate black space beneath them, 
and with one or two black raised dots near the base of tylus; antenna' rather slen- 
der, reaching behind the tip of the scutellum, the basal joint and lobe piceous 
black, the second joint as long as from the front of eye to the base of pronotum, 
pah; olive, darker on the ends, the two following darker, short, more slender, pron- 
otum trapeziform, convex behind a, little scabrous over most of the surface, the 
lateral margins oblique, sharp edged, a line of obsolete dark spots occurs across the 
base, in front of this each side is an oblique mark, and farther forward is a larger 
transverse spot each side; scutellum darker each side of basal portion; pectus 
dark in the depressions, the plural pieces coarsely punctate, the prosternum, in- 



May,1893.] INSECTS OF THE DEATH VALLEY EXPEDITION. 2G5 

eluding the xyphus, pale, but blackish at base; legs dusky testaceous, with the 
nails, tips of tarsi and spines piceous; hcmelytra wide, almost translucent, closely 
hoary pubescent, the costal margin broadly curved, the disk and claws dusky olive, 
membrane pale dusky olive, venter dark olive with a fuscous tinge, finely pale pubes- 
cent, with the genital pieces paler. 

Length to end of abdomen, 4"""; to tip of membrane, 4i" im ; width of base of 
pronotuni, li ,m ". 

( iue specimen was taken on the Argus Mountains in May. The species occurs in 
thevicinity of Los Angeles and in other parts of southern California. 

Some five or six other new species of genera related to Li/gits, Macrotylus, and 
Psallus, belong to this collection, but they are not in condition for description. 

AXTIIOCOUID.E. 

Anihocori8 Fall. 

A. musculus Say. Heteropt. New Harmony, p. 32; No. G. 
One specimen was secured on the Argus Mountains in April. 

SAI.THD.K. 

Salda Fab. 

1. S. interstitialis Say. Journ. Philada. Acad., vol, iv; p. 324; No. 1. 

Two specimens were secured in the Panamint and Argus mountains in April. They 
belong to two varieties with the white spots not widely distributed. 

2. S. explanata, new sp. 

In form similar to S. brachynota Fieb,, of Europe. Deep black, dull, covered with 
minute golden pubescence. The head but little wider than the front of the prono- 
tuni. and the eyes moderately promiuent, the clypeus margined each side and the 
tylns entirely testaceous: antennae stout, black, white on the outside of the basal 
joint. Pronotuni short, transversely wrinkled behind, the base deeply sinuated, the 
lateral margins oblique and a little curved, the submargin broadly, deeply depressed, 
remotely punctate, with the edge a little recurved, the humeral angles with the but- 
ton-like callosity near the border; callosities transversely prominent, with a sunken 
dot in the middle between them; pleural depression coarsely and remotely punctate. 
Tip of femora, the tibiae excepting the base and tip, and the tarsi excepting the tip, 
pale testaceous. Hemelytra obsoletely and minutely punctate, remotely pubescent, 
marked with whitish oblong decks, an obsolete pair being placed near the tip of the 
clavus, a few minute ones from near the base to behind the middle, an angular spot 
next the middle of the posterior margin and a more distinct white dot exterior to 
this; the membrane has four long, narrow, pale areoles marked with the ordinary 
smoky oblong spots, ami the posterior border is also smoke-brown with a white dot 
at the inner angle. Venter dull black, minutely pubescent, with the sixth segment 
of the female broadly and unevenly bordered behind with white. 

Length to tip of membrane, 4} to 5 mm ; width of base of pronotuni, If to 3 mm . 

This species occurs in various legions west of the Rocky Mountains. I have 
examined specimens taken in Nevada, Olympia, in Washington State, various 
parts of Utah, and California. A pair of specimens in the present collection were 
secured in the Panamint and Argus mountains in the mouth of April. 



2GG NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. [So.T. 



DESCRIPTIONS OP NEW SPECIES OF ORTIIOPTERA PROM THE 
DEATH VALLEY EXPEDITION. 

By Lawrence Bruner. 
Ameles sp. 

Possibly new, but the specimen is in too bad a condition to be described, it having 
been broken while en route in the mail, besides being immature. This same insect 
has been examined by me on several former occasions. It appears to be quite widely 
distributed in the arid and semiarid regions of the Southwest, as I have it from 
various points in New Mexico, Arizona, and California. I have also seen specimens 
from southern Idaho and middle Nevada. 
Heterogamia sp. 

Like the preceding, this insect is also probably undescribed. It is a female spec- 
imen, and can not well bo characterized now. This form seems to be not at all rare 
in some portions of Arizona and southwestern United States, and also occurs in por- 
tions of old Mexico. 
Tridactylus sp. 

The collection contains a specimen of an apparently undescribed species of this 
genus, but until I have had a little more time to study these peculiar little crickets, 
I would prefer not to name it. Other specimens of the genus have been taken along 
the Colorado River during the past summer, and have just lately come to my notice. 
Nemobius sp. 

This insect may also be new. I have seen specimens very similar to this from the 
vicinity of Los Angeles, Calif., and if represented in the collection, I can not at 
present find it. I will not try to describe the species from the single male before me. 
Encoptolophus pallidus n. sp. 

■ General color dull yellowish brown, varied with faint dusky markings common to 
the representatives of the genus. Head moderately large, a little wider than front 
edge of pronotum. Vertex about as wide as the eyes, depressed in front where the 
lateral canine meet in less than a right angle, these carina? bowed and approaching 
slightly behind, but fading away into the sides of the occiput along the hind margin 
of the eyes; the sulcus quite deep and provided with a well-defined central carina 
posteriorly; frontal costa quite prominent above, of nearly equal width throughout, 
but slightly sulcate at the ocellus and below ( 9 ), or more deeply grooved throughout 
(,?); antenna- not quite as long ( 9 ) as head and pronotum combined, or slightly 
surpassing the latter ( $), a little enlarged and slightly flattened toward their tips 
in the male; pronotum small, with the sides nearly parallel when seen from above, 
the lateral carina? well defined, but interrupted a little in advance of the middle 
carina, not prominent, equal throughout, cut a little in advance of the middle by 
last transverse sulcus, the hind border a little obtuse-angled. Tegmiua and wings 
of about equal length, surpassing the tip of the abdomen in both sexes. Posterior 
femora not much inflated basally, but passing the tip of abdomen slightly in both 
sexes. 

Color. — Male and female dull dry-grass color, marked faintly back of the eyes, 
along sides of pronotum, on front edge of tegmina and on posterior femora with the 
characteristic fuscous blotches and bands. Posterior wings hyaline, with the tips 
apparently but little darker than the disk and base. Hind tibiae pale glaucous with 
basal third pale. 

Length of body, <?, 18 »""., 9, 24 """.; of attenme, $, 7 mm ., 9, 0-5 mm -J of pro- 
notum, $, 3.75 »" 11 ., 9,4.7""".; of tegmina, $ , 15.5 """., 9,19 mm .S of hind femora, 
i, 10.5 """., 9, 13""". 
Habitat.— Panamint Valley, Cal., April 6, 1891. 



May 1893.] INSECTS OF THE DEATH VALLEY EXPEDITION. 2G7 

£>cirtettica occidentalis n. sp. 

The collection also contains a single female specimen of locust which has the 
general appearance at lirjt glauce of a Trachyrrhachys, but upon closer examination 
proves to be more nearly related to Scirtettica marmorata Uhl. of the New England 
coast. 

Head, "with the occiput rugulose, rather small and deeply set into the front edge 
of the pronotum, which latter is also quite rough; vertex between the eyes a little 
narrower than their shortest diameter, deeply grooved and provided with a deep tri- 
angular pit in front, the lateral walls prominent and farthest apart at front edge of 
eyes, approaching posteriorly but not quire meeting; frontal costa deeply sulfate 
with the walls prominent, diverging below. Antennae not quite reaching the pos- 
terior edge of the pronotum, filiform, but gently compressed. Pronotum short, about 
as broad as long, strongly compressed near the front above, the median carina prom- 
inent but not arched, once severed a little in advance of the middle by t lie last 
transverse impressed line; lateral carina} obliterated in front, but prominent behind; 
posterior angle a right angle. Tegmina and wings exteuding slightly beyond the 
tips of the abdomen, the former rather narrow. Hind femora with the base a little 
iollated; hind tibia} with the apical spines strong and longer than usual. Entire 
insect more or less thickly clothed with short whitish hairs. 

General color, grayish brown mottled and specked with plain brown and dull 
black. Middle of sides of pronotum with a short oblique whitish blotch. Tegmina 
with a median and post-basal brown spot on costal edge, apical third and posterior 
half irregularly flecked with quadrate flecks of varying sizes. Wings with disk- 
like waxy yellow, crossed just beyond the middle by a dull, rather narrow fuscous 
band that sends a dark ray nearly to the base along the costal edge, apex hyaline 
with two or three small fuscous spots along the principal veins. Posterior femora 
crossed above by three blackish bands, the middle one showing on the outer face as 
a very oblique band, anteriorly with the basal half black, beyond this with a yellow 
and then a black band, the knees dusky; hind tibias yellowish, infuscated apically 
and provided with an obscure dusky annulus near the basal third. 

Length of body, $, 20""". ; of antenna?, 6 mm .; of pronotum, 4 mm . ; of tegmina, 
19 n,m . ; of hind femora, 12.25""". 

Habitat. — A single specimen from Argus Mountains, Calif., May, 1891. 

This insect does not properly fall in this genus, but appears to approach the mem- 
bers belonging here more closely than it does any of the other forms known to me, 
and for that reason is placed here, for the present at least. 

Dracotettix plutonius n. sp. 

A smaller species than the D. monstrosus, with a much lower median pronotal car- 
ina and the vertex shorter and more depressed. 

Vertex between the eyes about as wide ( $ ), or a little wider than the shortest 
diameter of the eyes, shallowly sulcate throughout and divided into longitudinal 
halves by a rather prominent median carina, most marked behind, the lateral edges 
raised so as to form low walls; frontal costa of nearly equal width throughout, 
quite prominent to just below the ocellus ; below this point the face is perpendicular ; 
antennas short, heavy, slightly broadened and flattened near the base, bluntly 
pointed. Pronotum in front a little wider than the head, the dorsum somewhat flat- 
tcned, with the lateral carina} evenly divergent posteriorly, nearly as prominent as 
the median, which has its lobes rounded, anterior margin obtuse-angled, the pos- 
terior acute-angled. Tegmina and wings abbreviated, acute, the inner margins not 
quite touching in the female, and but very slightly overlapping in the male, reach- 
ing past the back edge of the third abdominal segment in the former and nearly to 
the base of the supra-anal plate in the latter. Prosternal spine quite large, rounded 
behind, straight or slightly concave in front and very blnntly pointed. 

The general color of this insect is dull grayish brown, the lighter color inclining to 



'2G8 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. [No. 7. 

testaceous in the female and whitish in the male. Face, pronotum and tegmina, 
with the hind femora streaked with white ( $ ) or dirty yellowish white ( 9 ). Hind 
femora crossed above with three fuscous and three lighter bands, the inner face for 
the most part black. Hind tibia? and tarsi reddish on inner edges, gray outside. 
Antennae infuscated on apical half. 

Length of body, $ , 19"""., 9, 39 mm .; of antenna, S , 6.5""".; 9 8 mm .; of vertex, 
J,1.3 mm ., 9, 2.1""".; of pronotum, g.8 m "\, 9 , 12.30""". ; of tegmina, $ , 8.5"""., 9, 
13'"'".; of hind femora, $, 10.75"""., 9,15.2""". 

Habitat. — Panamint Valley, April, and Argus Mountains, May, 1891. 

Other representatives of the genus Draeotettix have been taken in Arizona, at Los 
Angeles, in Napa County, and at Gilroy, Calif. Among the material thus gathered 
at least three well-defined species are represented. 



REPORT ON THE LAND AND FRESH-WATER SHELLS COLLECTED IN 
CALIFORNIA AND NEVADA BY THE DEATH VALLEY EXPEDITION, 
INCLUDING A FEW ADDITIONAL SPECIES OBTAINED BY DR. CHART 
MERR1AM AND ASSISTANTS IN PARTS OF THE SOUTHWESTERN 
UNITED bTATES. 



By Riibt. E. C. Stearns, Ph. D. ? 
Adjunct Curator of the Department of Hollusks, U. S. National Museum. 



The present report treats of tlie land and fresh water shells collected 
in 1891 by the several subdivisions of the Death Valley Expedition, in 
southern California and Nevada, between latitude 84° and latitude 
38° N. The routes followed by several of these parties led them into 
regions previously unexplored by naturalists, and specimens were se- 
cured from numerous thermal and mineral springs in the arid deserts 
of the southern part of the Great Basin, within the Colorado drainage 
area. The most interesting forms obtained were the two species here- 
tofore referred to Tryonia, until recently regarded as obsolescent or 
absolutely extinct, but which were found to be living, as elsewhere re- 
marked. Helix magdalenensis, another interesting species described 
from examples collected in the Mexican State of Sonora in 1889-'()0 
by Mr. Bailey, of Dr. Merriam's Division of Biological Exploration, 
was detected by Fisher and Nelson several degrees of latitude farther 
to the north than the habitat of Bailey's original examples and at a 
very much higher altitude. This latter, by its presence at this north- 
erly station, contributes to our previous knowledge and data bearing 
upon the relations between the geographical distribution of species 
and environmental conditions or influences 5 and two fresh w T ater forms, 
not before known, were added to the molluscan fauna of the region 
traversed by the expedition. 

In addition to the desert material, small collections were made in the 
High Sierra and other x>arts of California, and a few species are in- 
cluded from Arizona, New Mexico, and Texas, collected by Dr. C. Hart 
Merriam and assistants, while engaged in biological surveys of these 
regions under the Department of Agriculture. This latter material is 
important, as illustrating the geographical distribution of the species 
concerned. 

2G9 



70 



NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. 



[No. 7. 



LIST OK SHELLS. 



Glandina decussata. 
sin (/ley ana. 
texasiana. 
Streptoslyla sololensis. 
Lim ax campestris. 
Fatula striatella. 
Helix (Arionta) magdalcnensis. 
colorado'e'nsia. 
mormonum. 
tudiculata. 
cypreophila. 
arrosa. 
{Praticola) griseola. 

berlandieriana. 
(Mesodon ) thyroides. 
(Polygyra ) texasiana, 
bicrwris. 
Pupa ( Vertigo) pentodon. 
Iiiilimulus dealbatus. 
alternatus. 
serperastrus. 
Succinea luteola. 

orcgouvnsis. 
Limnwa caperata. 



Limnaa n uttalliana, 
hmnilis. 
bulimoides. 
Planorbis lenius. 

liebmauni. 
parvus 
trivolvis. 
Physa gyrina. 

hcterostropha. 
Carinifex newberryi. 
Amnicola micrococcus, sp. nov. 

porata. 
Tryonia clathrata. 
Fluminicola fust a. 

merriami. 
fusca minor. 
nuttalliana. 
Hclivina chri;sookeila. 

tropica. 
Anodonta nuttalliana. 
Unio anodontoides. 

berlandieri. 
Pisidi urn ocvidvn laic. 



Class GASTROPODA. 



Order PULMONATA. 



Suborder GEOPHILA. 



Glandina decussata Pfr. 

Hidalgo, Tamaulipas, Mexico (Mas. No. 123571), William Lloyd, March, 1891. 

These examples, three in number, are not decussated, but are sculp- 
tured only by the longitudinal incremental liues; they have the usual 
glossy or semi polished surface characteristic of the group. These speci- 
mens are rather between the variety singleyana and the typical decus- 
sata, and indicate what is exhibited in other related forms, conspicu- 
ously in the shells of 0. truncata of Florida, a considerable range of 
variation. 

Glandina singleyana W. G. B. 

? = &. decussata Pfr., variety. 
Hidalgo, Tamaulipas, Mexico (Mus. No. 123572); also Monterey, Mexico (Mus. No. 
123906)., Feb., 1891, William Lloyd. 

Two examples very close to G. texasiana, the principal difference 
being the curve and form of the termination of the columella. This 
seems to be the form that Mr. Binney refers to as collected by Prof. 
Wetherby in Bexar County, Tex., which he figures and calls decussata, 
var. singleyana in Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., Vol. xxn, No. 4, PI. 1, Fig. 
1, pp. 103-203. 



Mat.1893.] mollusks of the death valley expedition. 2*1 

Glandina texasiana Pfr. 

Brownsville, Tex. (Mas. No. 123573), William Lloyd. 

Two specimens. An ample seriesof the above, and the west Mexican 
G. albersi of the same author, might result in the reduction of the first 
to a synonymous position. 

Streptostyla sololensis C. & F. 

Victoria, Tamaulipas, Mexico (Mus. No. 123574), William Lloyd, March 30, 1891. 

"In the Sierra." Though both examples are dead, and one broken, 
they are sufficient to validate the above determination. The species 
was described by Crosse and Fisher from Sulolo (Guatemala) specimens. 

Limax campestris BiniJey; 

South Fork of Kern River, California (Mus. No. 123575), Vernon Bailey, July 8, 1891. 

At an elevation of 2,700 feet; a single example. This may be Inger- 
soll's L. montanus or a variety thereof, which he obtained in Colorado. 
In gersoll's montanus and montanus var. castaneus, Binney's ingersoUi 
and Heynemann's wienlandi may be. regarded, or at least strongly 
suspected, of close relationship to Binney's campestris, which latter may 
perhaps include Cooper's L. var. occidental is. 

Patula striatella Auth. 

Kern River region, California (Mus. No. 123577), Vernon Bailey. 

Numerous living examples at an altitude of 2,700 feet. 

Helix (Arionta) magdalenensis Stearns. 

Johnson Canon, Panamint Mountains, California (Mus. No. 123578), April 11. 1891, 

Dr. A. K. Fisher; also additional specimens in the same region (Mus. No. 

123579), April 18, 1891, Dr. Fisher and E. W. Nelson. 

The foregoing species was described by me in the Proc. IT. S. National 
Museum, Vol. xni, pp. 207-208, from a few examples collected at or 
near the town of Magdalena, State of Sonora, Mexico, November G, 
18S9, by Mr. Vernon Bailey. He detected it on a hill or mountain at 
an elevation of about 1,000 feet above the town. The latitude of Mag- 
dalena is about 31° N. The investigations of the Death Valley Expedi- 
tion have carried it far to the north of the above, to the Panamint 
region of California, where both Dr. Fisher and Mr. Nelson obtained 
numerous living individuals. This discovery extends the area of the 
distribution of H. magdalenensis northerly between six and seven degrees 
of latitude. The place where these specimens were found in Johnson 
Canon has an elevation of about (5,000 feet above the sea; the first lot 
(No. 123578) were mostly bleached shells. The Fisher-Nelson series 
(No. 123579) subsequently collected, is from a still higher elevation, 
viz. 8,000 feet; here twenty-five living examples were obtained, most 
of them mature. The Mexican locality may ultimately prove to be 
about the southerly limit of its distribution. 

Helix (Arionta) coloradoensis Stearns. 

Resting Springs, California (Mus. No. 123907), Vernon Bailey, February 12. 1891. 

A single example, either alive when collected or quite fresh, was 
detected by Mr. Bailey, who found it among rocks on a dry hill 900 



272 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. [No. 7. 

feet above the springs. It is nearly white, with the single band quite 
pale. This gives another loeality to the above species, first found in 
the Graud Cation of the Colorado, opposite the Kaibab plateau at an 
elevation of 3,500 feet, by Dr. C. Hart Merriam in 1890. The Besting 
Springs locality is in the southeastern part of Inyo County. 

Helix (Arionta) mormonum Pfr. 

Mineral King, Tulare County, Calif. (Mus. No. 123580), September 10, 1891, Vernon 
Bailey. 

The single fresh specimen, hardly mature, was found among rocks 
about 1,000 feet below the timber line, above the Empire mine. 

Helix (Arionta) tudiculata W. G. B. 

Three Rivers, Tulare County, Calif. (Mus. No. 123581), T. S. Palmer, July 27, 1891. 

Three specimens, one a fine living example, found at a point 850 feet 
above the sea. These illustrate the trifling value that should be given 
to the umbilical character in many of the laud shells. The specimens 
from which the author wrote his description were imperforate, while the 
best example of Palmer's has an entirely open umbilicus, the same as 
many other individuals that I have observed before. A large series 
will be seen to run from one extreme to the other, the variability of 
this feature being the constant factor, paradoxical as it may appear. 

Helix (Arionta) cypreophila Newc. 

?=H. tudiculata W. G. B., variety. 
Three Rivers, Tulare County, Calif. (Mus. No. 123582), July 27, 1891. T. S. Palmer. 

Two examples, probably whole and fresh if not living at the time 
they were collected, were detected by Mr. Palmer in the above region, 
at an elevation of 850 feet. Dr. New comb's specimens were found at 
or near Copperopolis, in Calaveras County, Calif. Binney regards it 
as a variety of tudiculata; it may be so. It is, however, so rare that I 
have never seen specimens enough to enable me to come to a .con- 
clusion. Mr. Palmer's examples, though imperfect, conspicuously 
exhibit the characters that separate it from tudiculata. Perhaps a 
large scries of specimens might satisfactorily connect the two. The 
dentition and genitalia have been investigated and were found by Mr. 
Binney to be the same as in tudiculata. Judging by the Palmer shell 
it is, to say the least, a decidedly well-marked variety. 

Helix (Arionta) arrosa Gould. 

Boulder Creek, Santa Cruz County, Calif. (Mus. No. 123583), Vernon Bailey, 
October, 1891. 

A single example, which may be regarded cither as a dwarfed arrosa 
or an elevated form of exarata; the latter is probably a geographical 
aspect of arrosa; Hemphill catalogues exarata as a variety of arrosa. 

Helix (Praticola) griseola Pfr. 

Hidalgo, Tamaulipas (Mus. No. 123584), and Monterey, Mexico (Mus. No. 123908), 

February, 1891; also Brownsville, Tex. (Mus. No. 123585), William Lloyd, 

July, 1891. 

The three Texas shells are tine, broadly banded examples and <lai k 
colored ; the others of the general or usual aspect. 



May, 1893.] MOLLUSKS OF THE DEATH VALLEY EXPEDITION. 273 

Helix (Praticola) berlandieiiana Mor. 

Nueces Hay. San Patricio County (Mus. No. 123586), December, 1891, ami Matagorda 

Peninsula, Texas , Mus. No. 123387). January 30, 1892, William Lloyd. 

Numerous examples from the former and two from the latter locality. 

Helix (Mesodon) thyroides Say. 

Nafcividad River, Texas (Mus. No. 123588), William Lloyd, January 4, 1892. 

Four tine specimens, one immature; two with a small parietal tooth, 
all of a dark amber horn color, and lustrous glazing. These beautiful 
examples, while fully as elevated as the larger of the three figures (337) 
in Biuuey's Manual of American Land Shells, Bull. U. S. National 
Museum, No. 28, p. 315 ( M.buceuh'iitits), are somewhat larger and slightly 
angulated at the periphery. The umbilicus is covered, peristome mod- 
erately thick, size of shell considered. These are links in the chain of 
connection of the typical thyroides with the biicculentus aspect. 

Helix (Polygyra) texasiana Mor. 

Natividad River, Texas (Mus. No. 123589), William Lloyd, January 4, 1892. 

Two examples of this somewhat puzzling group. A comparison of 
Bland's triodontoides and Pfeiffer's hicruris creates the suspicion that 
a large geographical series might result iu placing two of the three 
species in the waste basket of synonymy. 

Helix (Polygyra) bicruris Pfr. 

Brownsville, Tex. (Mus. No. 123594); Moutli of Rio Grande, Texas. (Mus. No. 
123168). William Lloyd. 

Two examples, mature and perfect, from the first and one from the 
last named locality. Heretofore credited to Mexico. 

Pupa (Vertigo) pentodon Say. 

Vegas Valley, Lincoln County, Nev. (Mus. No. 123590), Vernon Bailey, March 7, 1891. 

The dozen or more examples of this tiny shell were detected by Mr. 
Bailey at Cottonwood Springs at the east base of the Charleston Moun- 
tains, otherwise known as the Spring Mountain range, of which the 
principal elevation is called Charleston Peak. The region is in the most 
southern part of Nevada. This species has not before been detected 
so far to the west or anywhere within the vast area of the Great Basin 
or the Pacific States. 

Bulimulus dealbatus Say. 

Monterey, Mexico (Mus. No. 123909), William Lloyd, February, 1891. 

Four characteristic examples, mature and immature; dead shells. 
Bulimulus alternatus Say. 
Hidalgo, Tamaulipas, Mexico (Mus. No. 123592) ; Brownsville (Mus. No. 123691); 

aud Nueces Bay, San Patricio County, Tex. (Mus. No. 123593), William 

Lloyd, December, 1891. 

The four Mexican specimens are very hue examples of this species 
and well illustrate the propriety of Say's specific name. The alterna- 
tion of the irregular, somewhat diaphanous, longitudinal bands with 
others of a more opaque aspect is quite striking. The examples from 
the Texan localities are of the ordinary aspect. 
12731— No. 7 18 



274 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. Pfo.7. 

Bulimulus serperastrus Say. 

Hidalgo, Tamaulipas, Mexico (Mns. No. 123595), William Lloyd. 

Three good examples of this pretty species, the largest 25 n,m long. 
Like other species of the group, it varies considerably. Some individ- 
uals are much slenderer than others; hence, quite likely, the following 
synonyms from Binney's Land and Fresh Water Shells of North 
America (Part I, fig. 3,35, p. 102) : 

Jiulimus liebmanni Pfr. 
Bidimus ziebmanni Eve 
Bulimus nitelinus Eve. 

I agree with Binney; he is no doubt correct in the above inclusion. 
Perhaps the califomicus of Reeve, Conch. Icon., 378, is a geographical 
aspect of serperastrus. 

Succinea luteola Gould. 

Hidalgo, Mexico (Mus. No. 12359G), William Lloyd. 

Three examples of fresh specimens. 

Succinea oregonensis Lea. 

Kern Eiver, California (Mus. No. 123597), Vernon Bailey. 

The four living examples were detected by Mr. Bailey at an elevation 
of 2,700 feet. 

Suborder HYGBOFHIL 1. 

Limnaea caperata Say. 

Ash Meadows, Nevada (Mus. No. 123598), Dr. A. K. Fisher. 

Numerous specimens, all dead and bleached. Some of these arc 
moderately angulated on the upper part of the basal whorl following 
the suture; others strongly malleated; all of them are rather solid, and 
the surface in many instances nearly smooth; in some examples the in- 
cremental lines are sharply defined; iu one the basal Avhorl is quite 
shouldered above and malleated below, with hints of interrupted 
threadlike keels (lirse), on the same whorl near the columella. Cooper 
(Geog. Cat. No. 348) credits this species to < S. F. to Oregon,' < East- 
ern States.' Hemphill includes it (No. 01) in his little catalogue of the 
laud and fresh water shells of Utah. Call credits it living to l Warm 
Springs Lake' in the Bonneville Basin, Bull. U. S. Geol. Survey, No. 
11, 1884. My remarks relating to Limnwa palustris in Proc. U. S. 
National Museum, Vol. xiv, 1801, are also applicable to the foregoing 
species. 

Limnaea liuttalliana Lea. 

=i. palustrus Mull., var. 
Panamint Valley, California (Mus. No. 123599), Dr. C. Hart Merriara. 

Several examples with an unusually acute drawn-out spire; the 
largest a nearly typical nuttalliana; nevertheless, this, like many other 
so-called species of Limncea, is but a local expression or variety of the 
world-wide palustris. 



May, 1893.] MOLLUSKS OF THE DEATH VALLEY EXPEDITION. 1*75 

Attention is called to my remarks under Limncea lepida of the pre- 
vious year's collection (1890), in Pro'c. U. S. National Museum, Vol. 
xiv, 1891. 

Linmaea humilis Say. 

Kelton, Utah Territory (Mus. No. 123600), Vernon Bailey, November 7, 1891. 

One specimen in the " dry clay wash, about 100 feet above the level 
of the lake." 

Linmaea buliinoides Lea. 

Mohave River, near Daggett, Mohave Desert, San Bernardino County, Calif. (Mus. 
No. 123910), Dr. C. Hart Merriam, March 31, 1891. 

Six examples of this rather rare form, all dead and bleached. 
Described by the late Dr. Lea, in 1841, from examples collected by 
JSTuttall in Oregon. Sinee found at many places in the Pacilic States 
and in the Yellowstone region by Hayden's Survey. 

Planorbis lentus Say. 

Ash Meadows, Nevada (Mus. No. 123601), F. Stephens, March 2, 1891. Same region 
(Mus. No. 123602), Dr. A. K. Fisher, March 15, 1891. Panamint Valley, 
California (Mus. No. 123603 ), Dr. C. Hart Merriam. Brownsville, Tex. (Mus. 
No. 123604), William Lloyd. 

Only a few examples of the above are mature or full grown; these, 
though of rather rude growth compared with specimens from more 
southerly and less arid regions, are much closer to what Say describes 
as lentus than to his trivolvis. 

Planorbis liebmamii Dkr. 

Hidalgo, Tamaulipas, Mexico (Mus. No. 123606), William Lloyd, March, 1891. 

Numerous examples of this easily recognizable species. 

Planorbis parvus Say. 

Mohave River near Daggett, Mohave Desert, San Bernardino County, Calif. (Mus. 
No. 123911), Dr. C. Hart Merriam, March 31, 1891. 

Three examples, bleached. 

Planorbis trivolvis Say. 

Fresno, Calif. (Mus. No. 123605), Vernon Bailey, September 22, 1891. Keeler, Calif. 

(Mus. No. 123615), T. S. Palmer, June 1, 1891. Daggett, Calif. (Mus. No. 

123912), Dr. C. Hart Merriam, March 31, 1891. 

Mr. Bailey's Fresno shells were collected by him in an irrigation 
ditch. The specimens, of which there are several, were found living. 
None of them are adult, being most of them but half grown; at this 
stage they might be labeled P. tumens Opr. Palmer's Inyo County 
examples are dead shells, none adult, being about the same age as 
Bailey's. All of tbe above are simply young trivolvis. Dr. Merriam's 
locality is in the Mohave Desert, near the river of the same name, 
in San Bernardino County. Some of the examples are nearly typical 
trivolvis, others exhibit the corjmlentus aspect. In both the growth 
lines are quite conspicuous. The latter are listed herein as P. trivolvis 
var. (Mus. No. 123913.) 



276 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. [No. 7. 

Physa gyrina Say. 

Hot Springs, Panaroint Valley, California (Mus. No. 123(307), April 22, 1801; also 
Pahranagat Valley, Nevada (Mus. No. 123608), May 25, L891; Daggett, 
Mohave Desert, California, March 31, 1801 (Mus. No. 123014), Dr. C. Hart 
Merriam. Garlick Springs, San Bernardino County, Cal. (Mus. No. 123G09), 
March 14, 1891; Resting Springs, Inyo County, February 9, 1891 (Mus. No. 
123916); lveeler, Inyo County, Calif. (Mus. No. 123610), Junel, 1801; Gorman 
Station, 8 miles south of Fort Tejon, Cal., July 2, 1801 (Mus. No. 123611), 
T. S. Palmer. Kern River, California (Mus. No. 123612), and Fairfield, 
Utah (Mus. No. 123613), June 25, 1890, Vernon Railey. Hidalgo, Tauniulipas, 
Mexico (Mus. No. 123614) ; Monterey, Mexico (Mus. No. 123015), William 
Lloyd. 

Dr. Merriam's Hot Springs examples of the above are fine large 
dark colored shells; they vary considerably in elevation of spire. In 
the shorter spired individuals there is a tendency to tabulation or flat- 
tening of the upper part of the body whorl, following the suture, sug- 
gesting the shouldered aspect of Physa h umerosa, a common form on the 
surface of the Colorado Desert. His Pahranagat Valley lot are paler 
and more elongated, with a higher and more acute spire, suggestive of 
P. hypnorum. 

Palmer's Garlick Springs shells are nearer the typical form; taken as 
a whole, in size, color, and general facies; some of them hint of Tryon's 
species diaphana, a local varietal aspect of <jyrina, found in the neigh- 
borhood of San Francisco Bay. His Keeler examples, from the shores 
of Owens Lake, are few in number; two of these are over rather than 
of the usual size, and two are hardly adult; all are characteristic, form 
considered. The Gorman Station lot, of which there is a large number, 
also collected by Palmer, at a point 8 miles south of Fort Tejon, are 
exceedingly uniform in size, color, and proportions; they are all adults, 
of medium size, rather slenderer on the whole than the typical form, 
but not as slender as Merriam's Pahranagat examples. Bailey's five 
specimens from the South Fork of Kern Biver, at an elevation of 
2,700 feet, are apparently adults of a dwarfed form, less than half the 
size of average typical adults; his Fairfield specimens were found in a 
spring. At the first Mexican locality Mr. Lloyd found a single indi- 
vidual; at Monterey, seven specimens; these latter exhibit the modifi- 
cations in texture, solidity, etc., which so frequently characterize north- 
erly forms of this and allied groups, where the distribution extends into 
southerly or warmer regions. 

Physa heterostropha Say. 

Bennett Spring, Meadow Valley, Nevada (Mus. No. 123616), Dr. C. Hart Merriam, 

May 20, 1801. Owens Valley, Inyo County, Calif. (Mus. No. 123617), F. 

Stephens, July 7, 1891. Hot Springs, Panamiut Valley, California. (Mus. 

No. 123618), Vernon Bailey, January 0, 1801. Brownsville, Tex. (Mus. No. 

123619), William Lloyd. 

Dr. Merriam's Bennett Spring shells were found by him at a point 
7 miles west of Meadow Creek, at an elevation of 0,000 feet; they 
range from adolescent to mature, the largest being rather under than 



Mat, 1893.] MOLLUSKS OF THE DEATH VALLEY EXPEDITION. 277 

up to the usual adult mean. Stephens' specimens are all of one size, 

under rather than up to the average mean of adults, and of that per- 
plexing aspect so frequently exhibited iu the fresh- water snails, 
that make the use of one specific name instead of another simply an 
arbitrary matter. They would pass as subspecies of the above, or 
gyrina. The numerous examples were detected at Moran's, near Ben- 
ton, Calif., at an altitude of 5,01)0 feet. Bailey's Panamint Hot Springs 
specimens are hardly more characteristic; they point suggestively to 
the humerosa form, of the Colorado desert. Lloyd's two Texas exam- 
ples are dark amber colored and rather solid shells. 

Carinifex newberryi Lea. 

Keeler, Inyo County, Calif. (Mus. No. 123G20), T. S. Palmer. 

Numerous examples, in a bleached and semi-fossilized condition. 
These exhibit, as is not unusual with this form, considerable \ ariation. 
As additional information comes to us from time to time, the great 
range of this species, first detected by Dr. J. S. Xewberry, in the 
Klamath Lake region of northern California, near the Oregon line, and 
described by Dr. Lea in 1858, becomes exceedingly instructive and 
interesting. Heinphill collected it living in the neighborhood of Keeler, 
which is near the margin of Owens Lake, several years ago. Dr. 
Edward Palmer obtainedit in Utah Territory, near Utah Lake, in the 
Wahsatch Mountains, and it has been found in the Tertiaries of 
Nevada (King's Survey). " In the Lahontan Basin it ranges from the 
shores of Walker's Lake, north to Button's Ranch, Christmas Lakes, 
Oregon, where it is found semi-fossil" [Call]. Utah Lake is the east- 
ernmost locality as yet known. 

Order PKOSOBEANCHIATA. 

Suborder PMCTINIBBANGHIA TA. 

Section Taenioglossa. 

Amnicola micrococcus Pilsbry, sp. nov. 

Shell minute, globose, with short conic spine and narrow umbilicus. 
Whorls 3|, convex, especially below the sutures, the apex 
very obtuse. Surface smooth, light olive colored. Aper- 
ture ovate, about half the length of the entire shell, bluntly 
angled above; the inner lip is either free from the preced- 
ing whorl, or in contact only at the upper part. Alt. 1.5, 
diam. 1.3 mm . 

A smaller species than A. gran urn Say, with oval instead micrococcus. 
of round aperture and shorter spire. 

Type from small spring in Oasis Valley. Nevada (Mus. No. 123622), Dr. C. Hart 
Merriam, Jnne, 1891. Collected also iu Death Valley by Nelson and Bailey, Feb- 
ruary 4, 1891 (Mus. No. 123904). 

Several examples of this quite minute shell were detected in a small 
spring. This is a form not heretofore observed and an exceedingly 




278 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. [No. 7. 

interesting little species. It was referred to Mr. Pilsbry for .determi- 
nation and description. 

Amnicola porata Say. * 

Kelton, Utah (Mus. No. 123625), Vernon Bailey, November 7, 1891. 

Two examples in the dry clay wasli abou»t 100 feet above the lake. 

Bythinella protea Gould (Stearns). 

=Amnicola protea Gould, 1855.* 

= Melania exigua Conrad, 1855. 

= Tryonia protea Binney et auct. 

-f- Bythinella seemani Fran. (Pilsbry). 

—Hydrobia seemani Frau. 1863. t 
Saratoga Springs, Death Valley (Mus. No. 123905); January 30, 1891, E. W. Nelsou ; 
February 4, 1891, Vernon Bailey. 

Several hundred living* specimens were obtained at the springs by 
Mr. Nelson and a large number in a marsh near the springs by Mr. 
Bailey. Associated with them were a few examples of Amnicola 
micrococcus Pilsbry before mentioned. 

In explanation of the foregoing synonymy it should be stated that 
By 'thinella protea is an exceedingly variable form, including examples 
that have a perfectly smooth surface, and others that are variously 
sculptured. In all, whether sculptured or otherwise, the apex ichorls 
are smooth. The smooth form, like those referred to below, has the ap- 
pearance in every respect of an attenuated, slender drawn out Bythinella, 
like nicldiniana •■, described bythe late Dr. Lea in 1839, and it, protea, 
may ultimately be regarded as belonging to Lea's species. 

B. seemani as identified by Mr. Pilsbry appears to be the smooth 
variety or aspect of Gould's Tryonia protea (=Melania exigua Conrad). 

Frauenfeld's description is based upon examples from Durango, Mex- 
ico. The National Museum contains a number of specimens from 
Andocutira in the State of Michoacan, Mexico, from the bed of an 
ancient lake. These latter are no doubt the same as the Durango 
shells; they are perfectly smooth, of a porcellaneous whiteness and 
texture, and in no way different from the smooth form of B. protea, with 
which they have been repeatedly and carefully compared. The Mich- 
oacan region is nearly 1,800 miles south of the Colorado desert. 

The granulosa form or variety agreeing with figs. 141 and 142 of 
Binney, J was detected near the line of the Southern Pacific Railroad in 
June, 1888, by Mr. C. E. Orcutt, of San Diego. He found them living 
in pools at Indian or Fish Springs, some 15 miles northwest of the station 
on said road, known as Salton. The pools, of which there are several, 
varying from 10 to 20 feet across, are situated at the base of the San 
Jacinto range of mountains. They are only a few feet deep and are 

* Pacific Railroad Reports, y,< 1855, p. 332. 

t Verhandlnngen der k. k. zoologisch-botanischen Gesellschaft in Wien, Jahr- 
gang 1863, p. 1025. 

J See Land and Fresh Water Shells of North America, Smithsonian Misc. Collec- 
tions 144, Sept. 1865, p. 72. 



May, 1803.] MOLLUSKS OF THE DEATH VALLEY EXPEDITION. L } 7 ( J 

surrounded and shaded by tales. The water is warm; in Mr. Orcutt's 
judgment not under 100° F., and tastes like the water of the Dos Pal- 
mas Spring, 6 miles north of Salton on the opposite side of the desert, at 
the base of the Chuckawalla or Lizard Mountains. "An analysis of the 
Dos Palma s Spring water gives slight traces of alum, soda and sulphur and 
shows that considerable salt is held in solution, but it is not too salt for 
use. These springs are all below the present sea level about 100 feet, 
judging from the fact that Salton lying in the depression between 
Dos Palmas and Indian Springs, is reported to be 250 feet below sea 
level from actual measurements." Specimens from this place kindly 
preseuted by Mr. Orcutt* are contained in the National Museum (No. 
101886). 

Mr. Pilsbry remarks as to B. seemani, " it is indeed much like a 
smooth Tryonia. I wonder whether the Tryonias are not simply 
examples of this, isolated in a gradually evaporating basin, becoming 
more and more saline ! However this may be, the shells you submitted 
to me for my determination are the real seemani. v 

Gould's name protect is eminently appropriate; besides the smooth 
form herein discussed and inclusively regarded as the same as Frauen- 
feld's, and Orcutt's Indian Springs granulose examples, we find other 
varietal aspects and the sculpture varying between faint or barely dis- 
cernible, to moderately defined or conspicuous. Sometimes the shells 
are shouldered or angulated on the upper side of the whorls, often trav- 
ersed spirally by slender lirse or threads, and these again modified by 
longitudinal ribs or costae. And the proportions of the shells in shape 
also vary exceedingly; sometimes drawn out, elongated, attenuated, 
and slender, again short and robust. The mouth smaller or larger; 
the whorls varying in convexity and all of these aspects of sculpture 
and form, are seen, when hundreds of specimens are examined, to inter- 
grade or blend together in a greater or less degree. Occasionally 
there is an example that hints of Stimpson's clathrata, but I have not 
thus far been able to connect the two forms. Again referring to Mr. 
Pilsbry's note, writing of seemani he says "it is no doubt a BytklneUa] 
related quite closely to our nicMiniana." 

Without here considering the niceties of generic distinction between 
Hydrouia\ (in which Frauenfeld placed his species seemani), and 
Bythinella, it will readily occur to the reader, that a form so variable, 
would be likely in some phase of its variation to closely approach it 
not absolutely and inseparably resemble individuals of other species 
belonging to more or less intimately related, though geographically 
widely separated groups. 



*See Orcutt's notes in West American Scientist, September, 1888, and May, 1889. 

t Agreeing with Mr. Pilsbry on this point, it will be seen that I have adopted the 
generic name, Bythinella, for Dr. Gould's species. 

Wide Stimpson's Researches upon the Hydrobiin?e, etc., Smithsonian Misc. Coll., 
201, August, 1865. 



280 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. [No. 7. 

The suggestion that arises from the study of the forms above re- 
viewed, and the regions and conditions to which they are related, point 
to the causes that induce variation, and to the permanency of species 
and genera, or to the mutability of the same, as dependent on environ- 
mental factors, forces, or conditions. If we are warranted in assuming 
or to indulge in the speculation, that with volume of water ample or 
maximum and chemical proportions as related to volume minimum our 
Tryonias would be smooth; and that the smooth form that so largely 
prevails or dominates in the various species of the Bythinellas and 
related groups is in a conventional sense of the word, normal, then we 
may reasonably assume that upon the reversal of these conditions which 
are environmental and apparently fundamental, with volume of water 
mimimum and with chemical proportions as related to volume of water 
maximum, these phenomena of variation may be attributed, because 
they are so generally coincident with the latter or alternative charac- 
ter of the environment, though temperature conditions probably have 
more or less influence.* 

At times, no doubt, the flow of water from the springs where these 
forms occur is comparatively excessive, and there follows a limited lo- 
cal extension of distribution or occupancy in the immediate region, 
equal to the area covered by the oveiflow. With the decline of the 
waters and the evaporation or drying up that follows, the larger areas 
are inhabitable for awhile, as the mollusks of this general group possess 
remarkable vitality, and can live for a long time away from, or with- 
out water, in damp mud. by burying themselves below the surface. 

The soil or mud in the immediate region of alkaline or saline springs, 
through repeated oveiflow and evaporation, becomes supersaturated 
with the bitter chemicals, and it would seem that in course of time 
these conditions might play some part in inducing variation in the 
progeny of those individuals that possessed sufficient vitality to sur- 
vive or to adapt themselves to these conditions. In many places, it is 
not unreasonable to suppose that such or similar conditions are an ever- 
present and operative influence within the environment. 

I have heretofore t called attention to the remarkable variation exhib- 
ited by the pond snails, Physa, of the Colorado Desert, so abundant in 
and around Indio. In these the sculptural feature has no part, but the 
forms present not only the normal aspect of several well-known species, 
but the varietal phases, furnish connecting links between them, as well 
as extraordinary extremes to the extent of distortion. 

Now these alternations of conditions are exactly what have occurred 
within the vast area, in various places of which, these forms occur. 

No doubt there are many other springs still living (flowing) within 
the general region that await examination. The territory inhabited by 
Gould's species includes not only the localities from whence Merriam, 



*Iu this connection see Call's interesting and able paper " On the Quaternary and 
Recent Mollusca of the Great Basin," etc.. Bull. 11, U. S. Geol. Survey, 188-1. 
tAm. Naturalist. October, 188:!, pp. 1011-lOL'O. 



May. 1*W.] MOLLUSKS OF THE DEATH VALLEY EXPEDITION. 2<S1 

Nelson, Bailey, and Orcutt collected living examples, but places still 
farther north, in the Great Basin so-called; for certain forms collected 
by Dr. Yarrow* in 1872 on the shores of Sevier Lake, middle Utah, 
though unfortunately few in number and somewhat weathered, were 
regarded by the late Mr. Tryon, to whom the specimens were sub- 
mitted, as "a representative of the genus Tryonia," and are referable 
to no other form. (Mus. No. 739G0.) 

In course of time living specimens from new localities may come to 
our knowledge, as they have within the past five years, since Orcutt 
led the way with his Indian Springs collection, and it may be found, 
that in springs where the water is comparatively permanent in volume 
and sweet, the smooth form prevails, and vice versa, so far as quantity 
and quality of water and the matter of shell characters. Information 
on these points is now what is wanted. 

Tryouia clathrata Stimpson. 

Pahranagat Valley. Nevada (Mus. No. 123,021), Dr. C. Hart Merriam, May 25, 1891. 

This is the veritable form described by the late Dr. William Stimpson 
in February, 186-j, from the dead bleached specimens collected by Prof. 
William P. Blake on the surface of the Colorado Desert, while con- 
nected with one of the Pacific Railroad surveys, nearly forty years ago. 
Prof. Blake found it together with other small fresh-water gastropod 
shells, including Gould's Amnicola protea. Subsequently Gen. Carl- 
ton collected several examples of T. clathrata while on his way east with 
his command in 18G1-'G2, but in neither case is the exact locality of 
Blake's or Carlton's specimens stated. In neither of the lots collected 
by them were there any living examples; all were of a porcelaneous 
whiteness, the same as the innumerable bleached specimens of the more 
common protea-exigua form, that are spread over the surface of the 
desert. Of the thousands of these latter that I have received aud col- 
lected along the line of the Southern Pacific Railroad, not a sin ale ex- 
ample of clathrata has rewarded me for the time expended in the effort 
to find a specimen by the subsequent examination of the material from, 
this part of the desert. Dr. Merriam's find indicates a more easterly 
and less southerly distribution for clathrata, and quite likely it may 
prove to be less abundant than its ally. Dr. Merriam's examples were 
found in a hot spring; the temperature of the water as noted being 
97° F. 

Fluminicola fusca Hald. 

KVlton, Utah Territory (Mas. No. 123623), Vernon Bailey, November 7, 1891. 

Five semifossilized examples were detected in the dry wash of a clay 
bank at an elevation of about 100 feet above the lake. 

Fluminicola merriami Pilsbry and Beecber. t 

"Shell small, globose 1 turbinate, narrowly but distinctly and deeply 
umbilicated. Spire low conic, acute; whorls four, slightly shouldered 



*U. S. Geol. Survey, W. of the LOOth Meridian, vol. v, ]>. 948. 
tTbe Nautilus, vol. V, April 1892, p. 113. 




2S2 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. [No.7. 

below the sutures, the upper-lateral portion rather flattened, periphery 
and base convex. Surface smooth, horn-colored. Aperture oblique, 
ovate, angled above, broadly rounded below; upper portion of the inner 
lip adherent to the body- whorl, lower portion arcuate, without a callous 
thickening. 

"Alt. 3, diara. 2£ mm . 

" Collected from a warm spring (temperature 97° F.) in Pahranagat 
Valley, Nevada, by Dr. 0. Hart Merriam, and submitted to the writer 
by Dr. R. E. C. Stearns. 

"This species differs from F.fusca Ilald., in the much more distinct 
umbilicus, thin texture, and the non-thickened inner lip. 

" Specimens may be seen in the National Museum 
(No. 123626) collected at Warm Springs, Pahrana- 
gat Valley, Nevada, by Dr. 0. Hart Merriam, May 
25, 1891." 

This form, not previously described, is regarded 
by Mr. Pilsbry, who is an authority on the shells 
of this and allied groups, as a new species. It 
was found associated with Tryonia clathrata, else- 
where noted, the temperature of the water being 

Fig. 2. Muminicolamer- 

riami. ^ • ■*- * 

Pluminicola fusca Hald. var. minor. 

Ash Meadows, Nye County, Nevada (Mus. No. 123624), F. (Stephens, Mr/rch 4, 1891. 

Numerous (200) living specimens of nearly uniform size in spring. 

Fluminicola nuttalliana* Lea. 
Shoshone Falls, Idaho (Mus. No. 58596). 

A large number of specimens, probably as many as two hundred and 
fifty, were collected at this locality by Dr. Merriam (October 10, 1890), 
who found them clinging to the rocks in the stream. They vary consider- 
ably in elevation of the spire, etc., but the form of the mouth is quite 
persistent. 

A dwarfed but characteristic aspect of this species occurs among the 
surface shells in the Colorado Desert. 

Suborder SC VTIBRANCHIATA. 
Section liniroDOGLOSSA. 

Helicina chrysocheila Binney. 

Hidalgo, Tamaulipas, Mexico (Mus. No. 123627); also Texas near the mouth of the 
Rio Grande (Mus. No. 123167), William Lloyd. 

Four characteristic illustrations of this well marked and handsome 
species described in Binney's Terr. Air-breathing Moll., U. S., Vol. II, 
p. 354, 1851. In addition to the above number, two were obtained at 
the Texan locality. 



''Inadvertently omitted in my previous list, but included in list published in N. 
Am. Fauna, No. 5, 1891, p. 27. 






Mat,1R03.] mollusks of the death valley expedition. 283 

Helicina tropica Jan. 

Brownsville, Tex. (Mua. No. 123628), William Lloyd. 

A single example. 

Class PELECYPODA. 

Order TETRABEANCHIATA. 

Sal »order S UBMYTILA CEA . 

Anodonta nuttalliana Left. 

Keeler, Calif. (Mus. No. 123G29), T. S. Palmer. 

One semifossil example. 

Unio anodontoides Lea. 

Brownsville, Tex. (Mus. No. 123630); Mier, Tamaulipns. Mexico, May 4, 1891 (Mus. 
No. 123632),' William Lloyd. 

The Brownsville examples are less elongated than usual in this species. 
The Mexican specimens are full grown and of the usual proportions. 

These localities are believed to be much farther south than heretofore 
reported. 

Unio berlandieri Lea. 

Mier, Tamaulipas, Mexico (Mus. No. 123631), William Lloyd, May 4, 1891. 

The examples of this species are nearly full grown adults and of the 
characteristic aspect. 

Suborder CONCHACEA. 

Pisidium occidentale Newc. 

Oasis Valley, Nevada (Mus. No. 123633), Dr. C. Hart Merriam, June 2, 1891. 

Several examples. The above place is on the western edge of the 
Ealston Desert, in Nye County, Nevada. 



NOTES ON THE DISTRIBUTION OF TREES AND SHRUBS IN THE DES- 
ERTS AND DESERT RANGES OF SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA, SOUTHERN 
NEVADA, NORTHWESTERN ARIZONA, AND SOUTHWESTERN UTAH. 



By C. Hart Mekriam, M. D. 



The present chapter is made up of a multitude of disconnected notes, 
jotted down on horseback while traversing the deserts and desert 
ranges of the southern part of the Great Basin. These notes relate to 
the vertical and geographical distribution of the trees and shrubs ob- 
served by me in April, May, and June, 1891, along the route traveled 
from the north end of Cajon Pass, in the San Bernardino Mountains, 
California, to the St. George Valley, at the foot of the Hurricane Cliffs, 
in southwestern Utah, and thence westerly across Nevada to Owens 
Valley, California, and southward and south westward to the extreme 
end of the western tongue of the Mohave Desert (Antelope Valley), 
including the several passes (Walker, Tehachapi, and the Canada de 
las Uvas) by means of which communication is established between the 
Mohave Desert on the southeast, and the Bakersfield Plain, or upper 
San Joaquin Valley, on the northwest. A detailed itinerary of this 
trip may be found in Part I of the report. In a few instances, notes 
made by other members of the expedition are added and duly accred- 
ited; a small number of non-woody plants are admitted to render the 
list more useful, and in addition to the desert species a few from the 
Sierra Nevada, mainly conifers, are included. 

Most of the desert shrubs are social plants and are distributed in 
well-marked belts or zones, the vertical limits of which are fixed by 
the temperature during the period of growth and reproduction. Since 
the temperature at this season in places of the same latitude depends 
mainly on altitude, base level, and slope exposure, it follows that the 
boundaries of the several belts conform largely to the contours of alti- 
tude, with such flexures as variations in base level and slope exposure 
impose. 

The principal plant zones conform also to the animal zones, as defined 
by the limits of distribution of terrestrial mammals, birds, and reptiles. 
But since these Life Zones are discussed in the first part of the report 

285 



28G NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. [No.7. 

they will not be considered here. It should be mentioned, however, 
that each of the life zones is subdivisible both latitudinally and longitu- 
dinally, and that while the former divisions are clearly dependent on 
temperature, the causes controlling the latter are not always well under- 
stood. Such local factors as soil and slope are not here referred to. 
The most marked longitudinal divisions, so far as the Great Basin is con- 
cerned, are those of the Lower Sonorau Zone, which maybe designated 
the Larrea belt and the Grayia belt. The creosote bush (Larrea triden- 
tata)is the most conspicuous, most widely distributed, and best-known 
bush of ttie torrid deserts of the southwest, where it covers the gravel 
soils up to a certain line, which probably marks the southern limit 
of killing frost. The Larrea belt is the most important of all from the 
horticultural standpoint, because it is suited to the requirements of the 
citrus fruits, the olive, almond, fig, and raisin grape. Associated with 
the Larrea, and coinciding with it in distribution, is the inconspicuous 
Franseria dumosa. Auother species occupying the same gravel soils, 
but less generally distributed, is the beautiful and fragrant Erameria 
parvifolia. The alkali soils of the same belt are covered with grease- 
woods of the genus Atriplex, of which A. polycarpa is the most charac- 
teristic. The Grayia belt, named from its most distinctive and wide- 
spread bush (Grayia spinosa), occupies the strip between the upper 
limit of Larrea and the lower border of the true sage brush (Artemisia 
tridentata), which latter indicates the beginning of the Upper Sonoran 
Zone. Other shrubs of the Grayia belt are the dark Goleogyne ramosis- 
sima, which resembles Krameria parvifolia in general appearance, but 
belongs to a different order and has yellow flowers; the handsome 
Tetrad lymia spinosa and T. glabrata; the fetid Thamnosma montana; 
the stunted Menodor a spinosa, whose conspicuous green berries always 
grow in pairs; and the singular Salasaria mexicana, whose inflated cap- 
sules are borne away by the wind and lodge in great numbers upon the 
spiny cactuses. Certain shrubs range over the whole breadth of the 
Lower Sonoran Zone, occurring alike in the Larrea and Grayia belts. 
The most noticeable members of this category are the olive- colored 
Ephedra nevadensis, which has no apparent foliage and is used as a 
medicine by the Indians and miners; the handsome Baleas, with their 
blue and purple flowers, and Lyeium andersoni, which bears a small 
edible fruit. 

The true sage brush (Artemisia tridentata) begins with a solid front 
along the southern border of the Upper Sonoran Zone and spreads 
northward over the Great Basin like a monstrous sheet, covering almost 
without a break hundreds of thousands of square miles. It is not 
only the most striking and widely diffused plant of the Upper Sono- 
ran and Transition zones, but as a social plant has few equals, often 
occupying immense areas to the exclusion of all but the humblest and 
least conspicuous forms. Wherever one travels in this vast region, 
the aromatic odor of the sage brush is always present, and some- 



May, 1893.] SHRUBS OF THE DEATH VALLEY EXPEDITION. 287 

times, particularly after rains, is so powerful as to eause pain in the 
nostrils. 

In addition to the sage, many of the desert ranges support a growth 
of shrubs and small trees rarely if ever found on the intervening 
deserts and plains, whatever the altitude. This seems to be due in 
part to increased moisture and in part to the physical character of Hie 
slopes. The so-called cedar (Junvperus californica utahensis) and the 
pifion or nut pine (Pinus monophylla) clothe the summits and higher 
slopes of many of the ranges, forming stunted open forests of much 
beauty. Mixed with these are scattered clumps of bushes represent- 
ing a number of genera, most of which bear green foliage and hand- 
some flowers. Conspicuous among them are Berber is fremonti, Ceano- 
thus fremontij Ithus trilobata, Robinia neomexicana, Cercis occidental is, 
Prunu.s fasciculata, Kunzia tridentata [until recently known as Pur- 
shia], Gowania mexicana, Fallugia paradoxa, Amelanchier alnifulia, 
Pera/phyllum ramosissimwm, Garrya veatchii flavescens, and Sym/phori- 
carpos longifolius. Scrub oaks of two species (Quercus gambelii and Q. 
undulata) arc common in places; the green Ephedra viridis is almost 
universally present, and the mescal (Agave utahensis) occurs on a few 
of the slopes. 

Some of the desert ranges, as the Funeral Mountains, are too exces- 
sively hot and arid to support even these forms of vegetation; others, 
as the Charleston Mountains, push their lofty summits into so cold an 
atmosphere that they obtain a covering of the boreal pines and firs. 
These higher mountains, when rising from the Lower Sonoran deserts, 
present in succession all the extra tropical zones of North America, 
which, from their close juxtaposition, may be here studied to unusual 
advantage. 

In ascending or descending such slopes the change from one zone to 
another is quickly recognized and the altitude of first appearance of 
the various new species encountered may be recorded with considera- 
ble confidence. Not so, however, with the species lost, for, except in the 
case of trees and such strikingly conspicuous forms as the yuccas, some 
of the cactuses, the creosote bush (Larrea), and a few others, it is ex- 
ceedingly difficult to detect the disappearance of species when passing 
out of their ranges. A close parallel occurs in the study of bird migra- 
tion. Every observer reports the first appearance of the newcomers in 
spring, while but few have any record of disappearance in autumn. 

In order to make sure of the upper and lower limits of species on a 
mountain side the same line should be traversed both up and down the 
slope, which it was impassible to do in the limited time at our disposal. 
In cases where this is done the resulting altitudes relate to a particular 
slope only and too often to a canon or wash on that slope, so that they 
can not always be accepted as fair averages for the base level and slope 
exposure to which they properly pertain. 

Most of the altitudes were determined by aneroid barometer and are 



288 



NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. 



[No. 7. 



only approximate, because of the scarcity of base stations of known 
elevation. All altitudes are recorded in meters, and equivalents in 
English feet are given in parentheses. These equivalents are stated 
in round numbers to avoid the appearance of a degree of precision 
unwarranted by the altitudes themselves. While in some instances 
the absolute altitudes are doubtless considerably in error, their rela- 
tive values are not impaired, for they still serve to show the vertical 
extent of the belts occupied by the various species and the elevation 
in respect to fixed points. 

For aid in the determination of species I am indebted to my assist- 
ant, Mr. Vernon Bailey, who was with me in the field, and to Mr. F. V. 
Coville, botanist of the expedition, who unfortunately was with me 
only ten days at the end of the trip. Mr. Coville is responsible for the 
nomenclature and sequence of geuera here adopted. 

LIST OF TItEES AND SIIUUBS. 



Rerberis frcmonti. 
Arclomecon californicnm. 

merriami. 
Stanleya pinnata. 
Isomcris arborea. 

arborca ylobosa. 
Krameria parvifolia. 
canescens. 
Malvastrvm rotundifolinm. 
Sphasralcea monroana. 
Fremontodendron californicnm. 
Larrea tridentata. 
Thamnosma m on I ana. 
Mortonia scabrella. 
Glossapctalon nevadense, 
spincscens. 
Rhamnns crocea. 
Ccanoilins fendleri. 

dirarieatns. 
cu n eat its. 
JEsculus calif ornica. 
Acer negnndo. 
Rhus trilobata. 

diversiloba. 
Dalea polyadenia. 
frcmonti. 
johnsoni. 
Robinia neomexicana. 
Cassia armata. 
Ccrcis occidcnlali8. 
Prosopis juliflora. 

pubescens. 
dcacia greggii. 
I'nmiis faseicnlata. 

virginiana (or demissa). 
andersoni. 



Basil ima millefolium. 
Holodiseus discolor. 
Adenostoma fascicnlatum. 
Eunzia glandulosa. 
tridentata. 
Co leogync ra in 08 issi in a. 
Cercocarp n s ledifo litis. 

parvifolitts. 
Cowania mcxicana. 
Fallugia paradoxa. 
Rosa sp. — ? 
Ilctcromeles arbntifolia. 
Amelanchier alnifolia. 
Peraphylltl in ra in osiasim n m . 
Ribes lepfanthum brachyantlinm. 

menzicsii. 
Petalonyx parryi. 
Eucnide nrens. 
G a rrya veatch i i fla vescen s, 
Symplioricarpos lonyijloriis. 
A mphiachyris frenunitii. 
Aeamplopappns splurroccpltultis. 
Aplopapjins monavlis. 
Bigelovia douglassi. 

grareolcns. 

icreti folia. 
Baccliaris glntinosa. 
rinehea scricni. 
Hymenoclea salsola. 
Franseria diimosa. 

eriocentra. 
Encelia frutescens. 
Artemisia tridentata. 

spinescens, 

arbitscnla* 

fUifolia. 



May,iso3.] shkubs of the death valley expedition. 



289 



LIST OF TKKES A>'D SHRUBS — COutilllied. 



reuceapnyllum schottii. 
Tetradymia canescens. 
glabrata. 
spinosa. 

aomosa (or slenolcpis). 
Arctostapliylos glauca. 

pun gens. 
Mcuodora spinescens. 
Fraxinus coriacea. 
anomala. 
Eriodictyon tomentosum. 
Lyeium andersoni. 
cooperi. 
pallidum, 
torreyi. 
Ch ilopsis linearis. 
Salvia carnosa. 

pilosa. 
Salazaria mexicana. 
Alriplex canescens. 

eonfertifolia. 
hymenelytra. 
lentiformis. 
parryi. 
p>olyearpa. 
torreyi. 
Grayia spinosa. 
Eurotia lanata. 
Allenrolfea occidentalis. 
Sua da suffrutescens. 
Sarcobatus baileyi. 

vermiculafus. 
Eriogonum polifolium. 

in ft a turn. 
Chorizanthe rigida. 
Plalanus occidentalis. 
Betula occidentalis. 



Ahius rhombi folia. 
Querctts undulata. 
gambclii. 
lobata. 
douglasii. 
loislizeni. 
kelloggii, 
dumosa. 
Castanopsis ehrynopltylla. 
Salix longifolia. 
laevigata. 
■nigra. 
Top u I u s frem oniii. 
Ephedra nevadensis. 

viridis. 
Pinus monophylla. 
2>onderosa. 

ponderosa scopu lorum. 
jeffreyi. 
murrayana. 
balfouriana. 
anstata. 
sabiniana. 
monticola. 
lambertiana. 
flexilis. 
Abies magnifica. 
concolor. 
rsendotsuga macrocarpa. 
Sequoia gigantea. 
Libocedrus decurrens. 
Ju u iperus californica. 

calif ornica utahcnsis. 
occidentalis. 

occidentals monosperma. 
Tumion calif om icum. 



Berberis fremonti. 

This large shrub, bearing handsome yellow flowers, is common on 
the less arid of the desert ranges, where it was observed in the follow- 
ing localities : 

NEVADA. 

Charleston Mountains. — Found on west slope, near Mountain Spring, 
at an altitude of 1,680 to 1,770 meters (5,500-5,800 feet). 

Pahranagat Mountains. — Common, and ranges down on the east slope 
to 1,580 meters (5,200 feet). 

Hungry Hill Summit. — Common, beginning just north of the summit 
and passing down the south side toward the North Arm of Indian 
Spriug Valley to 1,525 meters (5,000 feet). 
12731—^0. 7 19 



290 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. [No. 7. 

UTAH. 

Beaver dam Mountains. — Abundant, ranging down to 1,350 meters 
(4,400 feet) on the west slope, and to 1,100 meters (3,600 feet) on the 
east slope. In full bloom May 11 ; flowers deep rich yellow. 

Upper Santa Clara Valley. — Begins about 13 kilometers (8 miles) 
northwest of St. George, at an altitude of about 1,280 meters (4,200 
feet), and ranges thence northerly, scattering over the rocky hillsides. 
Arctomecon californicuni. 

One of the most interesting incidents in the botanical line connected 
with the present expedition is the rediscovery of this elegant poppy, 
the type of which was collected by Fremont in Vegas Desert, southern 
Nevada, May 3, 1844.* On the very same spot, and within forty-eight 
hours of the same day of the month (May 1, 1891), Mr. Bailey and I 
found the species in full bloom, growing in large patches, and secured 
a fine series of specimens. With it was a second species equally large 
and handsome, but having white instead of yellow flowers, which proved 
to be undescribed, and which has been siuce named A. merriami. A. 
californicuni was afterward found near Bitter Springs in the Muddy 
Mountains (May 5), and in the Amargosa Desert between Ash Meadows 
and Oasis Valley (May 31). 

Arctomecon merriami. 

As stated above, this new and handsome poppy, with white flowers 
measuring 50 mm (about 2 inches) in diameter, was discovered by Mr. 
Vernon Bailey and myself in Vegas Desert, southern Nevada, between 
Lower Cottonwood Springs and Vegas Spring, May 1, 1891. It was 
found in company with the yellow-flowered species (A. calif ofnicum), 
from which it differs in the leaves and fruit as well as in the flower. 
The botanist of the expedition, Mr. F. V. Coville, has paid me the 
compliment of attaching my name to the species and has figured it in 
his forthcoming report. t 
Stanleya pimiata. 

This miserable crucifer, which attains ti height of 4 or 5 feet, has a 
woody base, while the top is herbaceous. It was not seen in Utah nor 
eastern Nevada, but was common in some of the deserts of western 
Nevada and eastern California. It or a closely allied species was noted 
at the following localities : 

CALIFORNIA. 

Owens Valley. — Common in places, and ranging up the west slope of 
the White Mountains to 1,970 meters (6,500 feet). 
Deep Spring Valley. — Common in the higher parts of the valley. 



*Rept. of Exploring Expedition to Rocky Mountains in 1842 and to Oregon and 
North California in 1843-'44, by Capt. J. C. Fremont, Washington, 1845 (Senate Doc, 
174, Twenty-eighth Congress, second session), p. 312, Botany, PI. II. 

tProc. Biol. Soc, Washington, vol. vn, May 18, 1892, p. 66. 



May, 1893.] SHRUBS OF THE DEATH VALLEY EXPEDITION. 291 

NEVADA. 

Fish Lake Valley. — Not found in the bottom of the valley, but tolera- 
bly com nion on tbe southeast side up to an altitude of 1,950 meters 
(6,400 feet) in a wash leading up towards Pigeon Spring, on the north- 
west slope of Mount Magruder. 

Grapevine Canon. — Occurs in the upper part of the canon. 

Sarcobatus Flat. — Tolerably common in places in the northern part of 
the flat. 

Oasis Valley. — Occurs sparingly. 

Pahranagat Valley. — Common in places, ranging up to about 1,525 
meters (5,000 feet) on the west side of the valley. 

Isomeris arborea. 

The hills at the head of Antelope Valley, at the extreme west end of 
the Mohave Desert (altitude 1,160 meters, or 3,800 feet) were dotted 
with clumps of Isomer is, bearing yellow flowers and large inflated pods, 
the last week in Juue. It was abundant in a wash leading south from 
this point toward Peru Creek, and was found also in the lower part of 
the open canon leading from Mohave up to Tehachapi. 

Isonieris arborea globosa.* 

This new subspecies of Isomeris was described by Mr. Coville from 
specimens collected near Caliente, at tbe head of the San Joaquin 
Valley, California, where we found it common along Caliente Creek, a 
few miles east of the station, Juue 24, 1891. 

Krameria parvifolia. 

This small and scrubby bush is very characteristic of the lower Sono- 
ran deserts, but is not so generally distributed as some other species — 
notably Larrea and Franseria. It flowers profusely throughout the 
month of May, when it is literally buried in a mass of fragrant violet- 
purple blossoms. During the latter part of the month its spiny berries 
begin to show before it is wholly out of flower. During the remainder 
of the year it is easily mistaken for Coleogyne, though growing at alower 
altitude. The following notes on its distribution were recorded: 

NEVADA. 

Pahru.inp Valley. — Common on the east side of the valley, ranging up 
to 1,340 meters (4,400 feet) on the west slope of the Charleston Mountains. 

Indian Spring Valley. — Common throughout the valley, reaching up 
in the Xorth Arm among most of the Larrea areas. It was still in flower 
in Indian Spring Valley May 29, and in fruit the same date in the 
Amargosa couutiT. 

Pahranagat Valley. — Common on gravel soil, where it is mixed witli 
Grayia, Lyeium. Larrea, and Dalea, In a wash leading from Pahroc 
Plain to Pahranagat Valley it occurs as high as 1,310 meters (4,300 
feet) in company with Franseria dumosa (still in bloom May 22-26). 

* Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., vol. vu, May 18, 1892, p. 73. 



292 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. [No. 7. 

Valley of the Virgin and Lower Muddy. — Common iu the dry parts of 
the valley. 

UTAH. 

Santa Clara Valley. — Abundant in the lower part of the valley, disap- 
pearing at an altitude of 1,220 to 1,275 meters (4,000-4,200 feet). 

Beaverdam Mountains. — On the west slope of the Beaverdam Moun- 
tains Krameria ranges up from the Virgin Valley to 1,150 meters (3,800 
feet). 
Krameria canescens. 

This species was common in dry parts of the valleys of the Muddy 
and Virgin, Nevada. It is larger than Krameria parvifolia , from which 
its flowers differ in color and fragrance. 

Malvastrum rotundifolium. 

This exquisite species, whose large cup-shaped orange-pink flowers 
seemed disproportionately heavy for its slender stems, is common in 
the hottest deserts of eastern California and southwestern Nevada. It 
was found in the Mohave Desert, and in Panamint and Death valleys 
and the Amargosa Desert, but not in the deserts of eastern Nevada. 
It was common on the west side of the canon leading from the Amargosa 
to the west end of Indian Spring Valley, but was not observed in the 
latter valley. It blossoms early and was in fruit about the end of May. 

Spheeralcea monroana. 

This common and widely distributed species (if only one species is 
covered by the notes), grows in enormous patches in some of the deserts 
of the Great Basin, where it becomes a truly social plant, the individ- 
uals standing so near together that their large salmon-colored flowers 
give color to areas miles in extent. Among the many places where it 
was seen are the following: 

CALIFORNIA. 

Mohave Desert. — Common in places. 
Leach Point Valley. — Common. 

Owens Valley. — Common, ranging up to 1,980 meters (6,500 feet) on 
the west slope of the White Mountains opposite Big Pine. 

NEVADA. 

Fish Lake Valley. — Common, ranging up on the northwest slope of 
Mount Magruder to 1,980 or 2,040 meters (0,500 or 0,700 feet). 

Grapevine Canon. — Common. 

Sarcobatus Flat. — Common in places. 

Amargosa Desert. — Occurs. 

North Arm of Indian Spring Valley. — Abundant everywhere. 

Emigrant Valley. — Abundant, and reaches up on the Desert Range 
nearly to the divide near Summit or Mud Spring. 

Timpahute Valley. — One of the principal plants, 



Mat, 1893.] SHRUBS OF THE DEATH VALLEY EXPEDITION. 293 

Paliranayat Valley. — Common, ranging up to 1,580 meters (5,200 feet) 
on the Paliranagat Mountains. 

Pah rump Valley. — Common. 

Vegas Valley. — Enormously abundant, giving color to more than half 
the area of the valley between Lower Cottonwood and Vegas springs. 

Fremontodendron californicum. 

This handsome small tree (G to 7 meters or 20 to 25 feet in height)^ 
whjch bears large and showy yellow flowers, grows in great abundance 
and perfection on the lower slopes of the Sierra Nevada, west of the 
divide, and on the Coast Ranges, but does not occur anywhere within 
the limits of the Great Basin. 

CALIFORNIA. 

Walker Pass. — Beaches the summit of the pass from the west and is 
abundant thence down into the valley of Kern Biver, and from Kern- 
ville north to Havilah and Walker Basin (in full flower June 20-24). 

Canada de las Uvas. — Common, and still in flower on the higher 
mountains, June 28. 

Larrea tridentata. 

The creosote bush (Larrea tridentata) is the most characteristic, con- 
spicuous, and widely distributed of the desert brush of the Lower 
Sonoran Zone, covering the gravel soils, wherever of suitable altitude, 
everywhere from the east foot of the Sierra Nevada in California to the 
valley of the Lower Santa Clara in Utah. Its dark green leaves and 
blackish stems render it conspicuous among all the other species with 
which it happens to be associated, so that it is easily distinguished at 
a distauce, and hence is the most important zone plant in tracing the 
boundary between the upper and lower divisious of the Lower Sonoran 
Zone. It is true that several other species — notably Franseria dumosa — 
agree with it essentially in distribution, but they are so inconspicuous 
that it would be difficult to trace the zones by their aid alone. The fol- 
lowing notes respecting the details of its distribution were recorded: 

CALIFORNIA. 

Mohave Desert. — Universally distributed over suitable soils, reaching 
as far west as the extreme upper limit of the lower division of the Lower 
Sonoran Zone in Antelope Valley, which is about Gi kilometers (4 miles) 
east of the Liebre ranch along the middle and north part of the valley, 
but not quite so far west on the south side. On the north side of the 
Mohave Desert, opposite the town ot Mohave, it finds its upper limit 
at 940 meters (3,100 feet), just reaching the mouth of the open caiion 
leading to Tehachapi Valley. On the south side of the Mohave Desert 
near Cajon Bass it reaches its northern limit at 1,020 meters (3,350 
feet). It does not cover the desert ranges in the Mohave Desert, and 
falls short of the divide at Bilot Knob or Granite Mountain (altitude 
1,400 meters or 4,600 feet). 



294 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. [No. 7. 

Walker Pass. — At the east end of Walker Pass it ascends to 1,050 
meters (3,400 feet), and on tlie south slope of the hills on the north side 
of the entrance to this x>ass reaches 60 meters (200 feet) higher, or to 
1,100 meters (3,600 feet). 

Salt Wells Valley. — This valley is a true Larrea plain, and the Larrea 
is continuous with that of the Mohave Desert. 

Panamint Valley. — Common on the gravel soils, reaching up on the 
west slope of the Panamint Mountains as high as 1,500 meters (5,000 
feet), and on favorable slopes to a still greater altitude. In Emigrant 
Canon (which slopes to the northeast) it stops at about 1,200 meters 
(4,000 feet). 

Death Valley. — Common throughout the gravel slopes on both sides 
of the salt bottom, where it was just beginning to flower April 7. (It 
was seen in flower in southern Arizona two weeks earlier.) It reaches 
north through the lower part of the Northwest Arm of Death Valley 
(Mesqnite Valley) as far as Grapevine Canon, keeping on the gravel 
slopes, but does not occur much further north, the altitude being too 
great. 

Owens Valley. — In Owens Valley, Larrea is restricted to the extreme 
southern end of the valley, except along the east side where it ranges 
for some miles north of Owens Lake, along the warm west slope at the 
foot of the Inyo Mountains, this being the hottest slope exposure of the 
valley. South of Owens Lake it occurs in scattering patches for several 
miles, and completely covers the broad valley between Haway Mead- 
ows and Little Owens Lake, this valley being a true Larrea plain. 

NEVADA. 

Amargosa Desert. — At the point where the clay soil of Ash Meadows 
changes to the gravel of the Amargosa Desert proper, Larrea begins 
with a solid front and ranges northward without interruption over the 
whole of the north arm of the Amargosa Desert, forming one of the 
purest Larrea plains met with. Throughout the greater part of this 
desert the Larrea is hardly invaded by any other plant except the 
small and inconspicuous Chorizanthe rigida. The Larrea on this desert 
is stunted, hardly averaging more than § of a meter (about 2 feet) in 
height, and along the northern edge of the desert is mostly dead; per- 
haps winterkilled. It was heavy with its woolly fruit May 30, though 
a few blossoms were seen here and there At the same date it was 
still in flower in Indian Spring Valley. 

Oasis Valley. — Most parts of Oasis Valley are a little too high for 
Larrea, which forms a belt on favorable slopes hardly more than three 
miles wide. On good south and southwest slopes a scattering growth 
reaches as high as 1,370 meters (4,500 feet). To the east of the north 
end of Oasis Valley is a small valley draining into the east fork of 
Amargosa Creek in which a little Larrea occurs. It does not grow east 
of the main part of Bare Mountains, or anywhere to the east or north 



Mat,M93.] SHRUBS OF THE DEATH VALLEY EXPEDITION. 295 

east, the whole country being too high and tbe Lower Sonoran zone 
here reaching its northern limit for this part of Nevada. 

Grape vine Canon. — Larrea comes up solid through Grapevine Canon 
from Death Valley, almost, but not quite, reaching Sarcobatus Flat, 
where it does not grow. On a southwest slope ou the south side of 
Gold Mountain it attains an altitude of 1,620 or 1,650 meters (5,300 to 
5,100 feet). 

Indian Spring Valley. — Larrea completely covers Indian Spring Val- 
ley, here reaching its northern limit at the base of the low range of 
mountains which forms the northern boundary of the valley. In the 
north arm of Indian Spring Valley it reaches northward a little be- 
yond Quartz Spring to an altitude of 1,525 meters (5,000 feet), or even 
a little higher on favorable slopes. It was still in flower in Indian Spring 
Valley May 29, aud in fruit in the Amargosa country at the same date. 
It does not occur in Timpahute Valley. • 

Pahranagat Valley. — Common on the gravel benches and slopes of 
the southern half of the valley, but not evenly distributed. It reaches 
Pahranagat Valley from the south, coming up from the Muddy Valley 
through the broad canon south of Pahranagat Lake and passing over 
the low divide (1,160 meters or 3,800 feet), whence it spreads north- 
ward over the low gravel slopes, becoming less abundant and more 
scattering until at an altitude of 1.250 to 1,280 meters (4,100 to 1,200 
feet) it is found on south slopes only. It occurs in isolated patches in 
the broad wash leading into the valley from Pahroc Plain, where it has 
a southwest slope exposure, as high as 1,310 meters (4,400 feet). On the 
west side of the valley (east slope of Pahranagat Mountains) it is com- 
mon about as far north as the middle of the valley, stopping, except in 
struggling patches, about 16 kilometers (10 miles) south of the latitude 
of Eisemann's ranch. It was still in full flower May 22-26. 

Pahnunp Valley. — Scarce on the west side of the valley and absent 
from the extensive clay flat in the bottom, but abundant everywhere 
on the long gravel slope on the east side, ranging up the west slope of 
the Charleston Mountains to 1,340 meters (4,400 feet), where it overlaps 
the tree yuccas. 

Vegas Valley. — Abundant, covering the gravel soil of the whole valley 
and ranging up on the we.st side to 1,130 meters (3,700 feet), at the east 
foot of the Charleston Mountains. 

Bend of Colorado and Muddy Mountains. — Common on suitable soils 
throughout the region bordering the Great Bend of the Colorado, and 
passing abundantly over the low summits of the Muddy Mountains west 
of the Virgin Valley. 

Valley of the Virgin and Lower Muddy. — Abundant on suitable soil 
throughout these valleys and over the high gravel mesa between them, 
where it is the dominant bush alongthe boundary between Nevada and 
Arizona. 

It does not reach northward as far as Meadow Creek Valley. 



296 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. [No. 7. 

ARIZONA. 

Beaverdam Mountains. — Larrea is abundant in the Virgin Valley near 
the mouth of Beaverdam Creek in northwestern Arizona, and reaches 
up on the west slope of the Beaverdam Mountains to 1,1G0 meters (3,800 
feet). 

UTAH. 

Santa Clara Valley. — Larrea finds the extreme northeastern limit of 
its range in the Lower Santa Clara or St. George Valley in southwestern 
Utah, where it forms a sparse growth on gravel soils and disappears on 
southerly exposures on the north side of the valley at an altitude of 
1,200 to 1,280 meters (4,000 to 4.200 feet). 

Thamnosma montana. 

This stinking bush, of a yell o wish -green color and generally sprinkled 
with berry dike fruit about the size of peas, was common in many of 
the southern deserts traversed. It was noted in the following locali 
ties: 

CALIFORNIA. 

Mohave Desert. — Common in places. 
Leach Point Valley. — Found sparingly. 

NEVADA. 

Charleston Mountains. — Common on the Charleston Mountains, 
where it ranges on the west slope from about 1,340 to 1,825 meters 
(4,400 to 6,000 feet). On the east slope it descends to 1,219 meters 
(4,000 feet) with Coleogyne. 

Indian Spring Valley. — A few plants seen. 

Valley of the Virgin and Loicer Muddy. — Occurs sparingly. 

ARIZONA. 

Virgin Valley. — Found on the east side of the Virgin Valley near the 
mouth of Beaverdam Creek, whence it ranges up. to 1,310 meters (4,400 
feet) ou the west slope of the Beaverdam Mountains. 

UTAH. 

Santa Clara Valley. — Occurs along the foot of the Beaverdam Moun- 
tains, ranging from 1,000 to 2,130 meters (3,000 to 4,300 feet). 

Mortonia scabrella. 

This bush was found by Mr. Bailey and myself on a limestone knoll 
in the valley of the Muddy, near Overton, Nev., May 0. It is re- 
markable for the peculiarity of its leaves, which are oval, conspicuously 
granular, and have thick margins that at first sight seem to be everted. 

Glossapetalon nevadense. 

This small bush was collected on the Pahroc Mountains near Pahroc 
Spring, Nevada, and a species supposed to be the same was found on 
the Beaverdam Mountains in southwestern Utah. 



May, 1893.] SHRUBS OF THE DEATH VALLEY EXPEDITION. 297 

Glossapetalon spinescens. ' 

This species was found on the Charleston Mountains, Nevada, near 
Mountain Spring. 

Rhamnus crocea. 

Common in California in the Canada de las Uvas, and also on the 
Sierra Liebre; not recorded elsewhere. 

Ceanothus fendleri. 

Common on some of the desert ranges in the Great Basin, where it was 
observed in the following localities: 

NEVADA. 

Mount Magnifier. — Common on the main peak with SyntpJioricarpos. 

Charleston Mountains. — Common on the west slope, in the neighbor- 
hood of Mountain Spring, from 1,550 to 1,770 meters (5,100 to 5,800 feet), 
and perhaps higher. 

Highland Range. — Found on the west slope. 

UTAH. 

Beaver&am Mountains. — Common on the east slope, at an altitude of 
1,340 to 1,370 meters (4,400 to 4,500 feet). 

Ceanothus divaricatus and C. cuneatus. 

These species are common in the chaparral of the west slope of the 
Sierra and Coast Ranges in California. In Walker Pass they are com- 
mon on the west slope from 1,430 meters (4,700 feet) downward, and 
range thence southerly along the west slope of the Sierra nearly to 
Caliente. 

They are common also on the south slope of the Sierra Liebre. 

iEsculus californica. 

The handsome California buckeye, which grows to be a small tree, 
was in full bloom when we first saw it, the last week in June, on the 
west slope of the Sierra Nevada between Kernville and Walker Basin, 
aud hi the Canada de las Uvas in the Tejon Mountains, a few days 
later. It usually grows on the sidehills, towering above the chaparral. 

Acer negundo. 

The box elder requires too much water to be common anywhere in 
the desert region proper. We found it along a running stream below 
Old Fort Tejon in the Canada de las Uvas, in California, and along the 
Santa Clara River, in Utah, but not elsewhere. 

Rhus trilobata. 

In California this species was common on the west slope of the Sierra 
between Walker Basin and Caliente, and on the Sierra Liebre. In 
Nevada it was found in scattered clumps on the Charleston Mountains, 
where it reaches its lower limit on the west slope at 1,550 meters (5,100 
feet), and on the Pahranagat Mountains, where it ranges down on the 
east slope to 1,580 meters (5,200 feet). On the Beaverdam Mountains 



298 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA, [No. 7. 

in southwestern Utah it descends to 1,150 meters (3,800 feet) on the west 
slope, and to 070 meters (3,200 feet) on the east slope, thus reaching the 
Santa Clara Valley. 

Rhus diversiloba. 

Common on the west slope of the Sierra Nevada and in the Coast 
Ranges. It was observed along the road between Walker Basin and 
Caliente, and also in the Canada de las Uvas. 

Dalea polyadenia. 

This small, glandular, strongly scented, purple-flowered species of 
Dalea is common over many of the desert valleys of the southern part 
of the Great Basin, where it was noted in the following localities : 

CALIFORNIA. 

Mohave Desert. — Common in places ; seen in Leach Point Valley. 

Owens Valley. — Common in places in the lower parts of the valley, 
particularly between Owens Lake and Haway Meadows. 

Deep Spring Valley. — Occurs in company with D. fremonti, Grayia, 
Menodora, and a few other shrubs. 

NEVADA. 

Fish Lalce Valley. — Tolerably common on the southeast side of the 
valley and ranging up to an altitude of 1,765 meters (5,800 feet). 

Grapevine Canon. — Tolerably common in the bottom of the canon 
near Sarcobatus Flat. 

Sarcobatus Flat. — Rather common in places in the northern part of 
the flat. 

Oasis Valley. — A single bush seen. 

Pahranagat Valley. — Common at the extreme south end of the valley 
in company with the large blue-flowered species (D. fremonti), and ex- 
tends thence northerly over the gravel soil and lower gravel slopes up 
to 1,340 or 1,370 meters (4,400-4,500 feet). In full flower May 22-20. 

Great Bend of Colorado River. — Common; in flower May 4. 

Muddy Mountains. — Rather common; in full flower May 5. 

Dalea fremonti. 

The Daleas rank among the most characteristic and, when in flower, 
among the most beautiful and showy of the desert brush. Some doubt 
attaches to the determination of the species observed by Mr. Bailey and 
myself. The large blue-flowered species believed to be Dalea fremonti 
was noted at the following localities: 

CALIFOHNIA. 

Mohave Desert. — Common in places; noted in Leach Point Valley. 

Oivens Valley. — Common along the west side of the valley from Lone 
Pine to Olancha, and less common south to Haway Meadows. From the 
east side of Owens Valley it ranges up on the west slope of the White 
Mountains to 1,080 meters (0,500 feet). 

Deep Spring Valley. — Found in company with D. polyadenia, Grayia, 
and other bushes of the upper division of the Lower Souoran Zone. 



May. 1893.] SHRUBS OP THE DfiATH VALLEY EXPEDITION. 299 

NEVADA. 

Fish Lake Valley. — Common in the southeast corner of the valley, 
whence it ranges up to an altitude of 1,765 meters (5,800 feet). 

Gold Mountain. — Common on the north slope of Gold Mountain a 
little below 2,135 meters (7,000 feet) in altitude. 

Indian Spring Valley. — Common in the Larrea in the north arm of 
Indian Spring Valley. 

Pahranagat Valley. — This large blue-flowered species was found in 
company with the small purple-flowered JJalea polyadenia, and with 
Coleogyne ramosissima, on the gravel divide at the extreme south end of 
the valley, south of Pahranagat Lake, at an altitude of 1,155 meters 
(3,800 feet). Like Coleogyne, it stops about half a mile north of this 
divide and does not occur in Pahranagat Valley proper. It does occur, 
however, also in company with Coleogyne, on the west side of the valley 
on the gavel slope at the east foot of the Pahranagat Mountains, be- 
tween 1,280 and 1,370-meters (4,200 and 1,500 feet), but is rather scarce 
there. It was in full flower May 22-20. 

Dalea johnsoni. 

Specimens of the large and showy Dalea johnsoni were collected near 
St. George, in the Lower Santa Clara Valley, Utah; and the species 
was common from the Santa Clara Valley (altitude 970 meters, or 3,200 
feet) up to 1,090 meters (3,600 feet) on the east slope of the Beaverdam 
Mountains. 

Robinia neomexicana. 

This dwarf locust was found in the Santa Clara Valley, in Utah, and 
thence up along the east slope of the Beaverdam Mountains to 1,010 
meters (3,400 feet), but was not observed elsewhere. 

Cassia armata. 

This handsome Cassia was found flowering abundantly at the Great 
Bend of the Colorado River (May 4), in Leach Point Valley (April 25), 
and near the south end of Death Valley (April 26). 

Cercis occidentalis. 

The Judas bush was found in but one spot in the Great Basin, namely, 
the Charleston Mountains, Nevada, where Mr. Bailey and I found it 
flowering in profusion in a rocky canon a little east of Mountain Spring, 
April 30. The seed pods of the previous year were still clinging to the 
branches, together with the handsome red flowers. On the west slope 
of the Sierra Nevada, in California, it was found in Kern Valley as low 
down as 820 meters (2,700 feet) on northerly exposures. 

Prosopis juliflora. 

The two species of raesquite are commonly ranked as trees and are the 
only trees besides cottonwoods that inhabit the arid Sonoran deserts of 
the Great Basin. The cottonwoods are never found except near water; 
the niesquite, on the other hand, occur at long distances from visible 



300 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. P*o.V. 

water and often occupy the tops of sand dunes. They usually grow 
in clumps from 3 to 9 meters (10 to 30 feet) in height. Their roots 
are very long and are said to travel 30 meters (100 feet) or more in 
search of moisture. The two species occur either together or singly, and 
their fruit, called 'mesquite beans/ is much sought after by the native 
animals and birds of the region, and also by the Indians. The pods are 
sweet and nutritious, and are sometimes gathered and fed to horses and 
mules instead of grain. The present species (Prosopis julijlora) was 
observed at the following localities : 

CALIFORNIA. 

Hot Springs, Panqmint Valley. — Tolerably common. 

Death Valley. — Occurs in clumps and irregular patches on the west 
side of the valley, beginning several miles south of Mesquite Well and 
ranging thence northward. It is abundant also on sand dimes in the 
northwest arm of Death Valley, from which circumstance the place is 
commonly known as i Mesquite Valley.' In Death Valley it was just 
coming into leaf on clayey soil April 10, while adjoining clumps on sand 
soil were in full leaf at the same date. 

Amargosa Canon. — Common in places. 

Resting Spring. — Tolerably common. 

NEVADA. 

Ash Meadows. — Common. 

Indian Spring Valley. — Common in a few places. 

Virgin and Lower Muddy Valleys. — Common in many places. (In full 
flower May C.) 

Great Bend of tlie Colorado. — Abundant on the sand hills on the south 
side of Vegas Wash. 

UTAH. 

Santa Clara Valley. — Occurs spariugly on sandy soil in the lower 
valley. 
Prosopis pubescens. 

This mesquite, commonly known as 'screw bean,' is widely distributed 
over the deserts of the southwest, usually in company with the preced- 
ing. It was noted in the following localities: 

CALIFORNIA. 

Panamint Valley. — Common about Hot Springs. 
Death Valley. — Common along the west side of the valley. 
Amargosa Canon. — Occurs with P. julijlora and is enormously abun- 
dant in the upper part of the canon, where Tecopa Canon comes in. 

NEVADA. 

Ash Meadows. — Abundant. 

Virgin and Lower Muddy Valleys. — Common in places. 

Indian Spring Valley. — Occurs in places. 



May, 1893.] SHRUBS OF THE DEATH VALLEY EXPEDITION. 301 

UTAH. 

Santa Clara Valley. — Occurs sparingly on sandy soil in the lower 
valley. 

Acacia greggii. 

This Lower Sonoran shrub, which grows to be 2 J to 3 meters (8 to 10 
feet) in height, perhaps higher, was not found in California, or in Nevada 
west of the Charleston Mountains. It is tolerably common along the 
upper and lower Cottonwood Springs at the east foot of the Charleston 
Mountains, and thence easterly was found at Bitter Springs in the 
Muddy Mountains, and in the valley of the Virgin and Lower Muddy, 
and thence northerly to the mouth of Beaverdam Creek, in northwestern 
Arizona, where it was abundant on the flat at the junction of Beaverdam 
Creek with the Virgin. 

Prunus fasciculata. 

This species is so characteristic of the desert ranges in the southern 
part of the Great Basin that it might properly be called the 'Desert 
Range Almond.' It is known to the Mormons as the wild almond and 
grows in dense clumps of bushes about as high as a man's head or 
lower, with irregular and very tough branches. It was noted in the 
following localities: 

CALIFORNIA. 

White Mountains. — Found in places along the summit and in canons. 
WalJcer Pass and Kern Valley. — Occurs sparingly, descending as low 
as 820 meters (2,700 feet) on northerly exposures in Kern Valley. 

NEVADA. 

Mount Magnifier. — Not common, but found in the upper part of Tule 
Canon and in a few other places. 

Gold Mountain. — Tolerably common on the north slope in scattered 
clumps a little below 2,135 meters (7,000 feet). 

Highland Range. — Occurs sparingly, mixed with Artemisia tridentata. 

Pahroc Mountains. — Tolerably common, mixed with sagebrush and 
Kunzia. 

Juniper Mountains. — Bather common, mixed with sagebrush and juni- 
per, beginning at an altitude of about 1,830 meters (6,000 feet) on the 
Meadow Valley side and ranging up to the divide. 

Charleston Mountains. — Common, reaching its lower limit on the west 
slope (Pahi'ump Valley side) at about 1,435 meters (4,700 feet). 

UTAH. 

Beaverdam Mountains. — Common, ranging down on the west slope 
to about 1,160 meters (3,800 ieet) and on the east slope to about 1,100 
meters (3,600 feet). 

Santa Clara Valley. — Occurs in scattering patches on the rocky hill- 
sides in the Upper Santa Clara Valley, beginning about 13 kilometers 
(8 miles) northwest of St. George at an altitude of 1,280 meters (4,200 
feet) and ranging thence northerly to the Upper Santa Clara Crossing. 



302 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. [No. 7. 

Prunus virginiana (or demissa). 

The chokeclierry grows sparingly about Sheep Spring in the Juni- 
per Mountains between Panaea, Nevada, and Ilebron, Utah, but was not 
observed elsewhere. 

Prunus andersoni. 

This species was found on the west slope of Walker Pass in the 
southern Sierra Nevada, California, at an altitude of about 1,370 me- 
ters (4,500 feet). 

Basilinia millefolium. 

This beautiful shrub was observed on the Beaverdam Mountains in 
southwestern Utah, and on the east slope of the High Sierra in Cali- 
fornia, where it was abundant at and a little below 2,000 meters (9,500 
feet). 

Holodiscus discolor. 

Found on the east slope of the Sierra Nevada in California at an al- 
titude of about 2,130 meters (7,000 feet). 

Adenostoma fasciculatum. 

The California chemisal or chemise does not enter the desert region 
of the Great Basin, though it occurs on the north or Mohave Desert 
slope of the Sierra Liebre and throughout Cajon Pass in the San Ber- 
nardino Mountains. It is the prevailing chaparral of the coast ranges 
of southern California and is generally mixed with scrub oaks and 
Ceanothus, forming impenetrable thickets. It is abundant on the 
west slope of the Sierra Nevada on the east side of t}\e upper San Joa- 
quin Valley. On the north slope of the Sierra Liebre it begins a little 
north of Alamo ranch at an altitude of 730 meters (2,400 feet), whence 
southward it is the prevailing chaparral. It was in flower in the Sierra 
Liebre the last week in June. 

Kunzia glandulosa [=Purshia gland nlosa]. 

Mr. Coville tells me that this is the species found by us on the sum- 
mit of Walker Pass in the southern Sierra Nevada, and thence down on 
the west slope to 940 meters (4,100 feet). 

On the east slope of the Beaverdam Mountains (which cross the 
boundary between Utah and Arizona) Mr. Bailey and I collected a 
form very close to K. glandulosa, and also the typical K. tridentata, 
apparently at different altitudes. Some of the records under the latter 
species may belong to the former. 

Kunzia tridentata [ = PursMa trident '«/«]. 

Kunzia tridentata is common on many of the desert ranges, where 
it usually grows in company with Gowania mexicana and Fallugia par- 
adoxa. When not in flower these three genera resemble one another 
so closely that they are sometimes confounded. Kunzia has yellow 
flowers on very short peduncles ; Fallugia has pure white flowers on very 
Jong peduncles j Gowania has handsome cream-colored flowers on mod- 



May, 1893.] SHRUBS OF THE DEATH VALLEY EXPEDITION. 303 

erate peduncles. It is possible that the two species of Kunzia (K. tri- 
dentata and K. glandulosa) have been confounded in some of the follow- 
ing localities : 

CALIFORNIA. 

White Mountains. — Common on the east slope, ranging down to 
1,700 meters (5,600 feet) on the Fish Lake Valley side. 



Mount Magruder. — Common in places, ranging down into Tule 
Canon. 

Gold Mountain. — Common, ranging down on the south side nearly 
as low as sagebrush (a little above 1,860 meters or 6,100 feet). 

Hungry Hill Summit. — Common just north of the summit, whence 
it ranges over the divide (1,760 meters or 5,800 feet) and passes south 
toward the north arm of Indian Spring Valley to about 1,520 meters 
meters (5,000 feet). 

Timpahute and Desert mountains. — A little was seen near Mud or 
Summit Spring. 

Pahranagat Mountains. — Common, ranging down to 1,580 meters 
(5,200 feet) on the east slope. 

HyJco Mountains. — Common in places, descending into the broad wash 
that leads from Pahroc Plain into the middle of Pahranagat Valley. 

Pahroc Mountains. — Common, mixed with Coicania mexicana, Arte- 
misia tridentata, and Primus fasciculata. 

Juniper Mountains. — Common in the juniper forest between Meadow 
Creek Valley, Nevada, and Shoal Creek, Utah, where it was just com- 
ing into flower May 18. A week earlier (May 10-11) it was past flow- 
ering in the Beaverdam Mountains. 

UTAH. 

Upper Santa Clara Valley. — Common from an altitude of 1,640 meters 
(5,400 feet) upwards to 1,830 meters (6,000 feet), and ranging thence 
northward to the Upper Santa Clara Crossing and Shoal Creek. 
Mostly past flowering in the Upper Santa Clara Valley May 17. 

Beaverdam Mountains. — Common, descending to 1,280 meters (4,200 
feet) on the east or northeast slope, and ranging down on the west 
slope to 1,340 meters (4,400 feet). Past flowering and petals all off 
May 11. 

Coleogyne ramosissima. 

This important zone plant grows in the Grayia belt just above the 
upper limit of the Larrea; it belongs therefore to the upper division 
of the Lower Sonoran Zone. The altitude which it requires takes 
jt out of most of the desert valleys and places it on the sides of the 
desert ranges, where it commonly grows in a narrow belt between the 
creosote bush {Larrea tridentata) and the sage (Artemisia tridentata). 



304 NOKTH AMERICAN FAUNA. [Ko.7. 

It is a low, dark-colored bush bearing small yellow flowers. The fol- 
lowing notes respecting the details of its distribution were recorded : 

CALIFORNIA. 

Owens Valley. — Common along the west side of the valley on the 
lower slope of the Sierra Nevada, between the altitudes of 1,375 and 
1,900 meters (4,500 and 6,200 feet). 

Panamint Mountains. — On the west slope of the Panamint Mountains, 
in a broad basin above Wild Rose Spring, a well-denned zone of 
Coleogyne crosses the basin obliquely between the upper edge of the 
Larrea and the southern edge of the juniper at an altitude of about 
1,525 meters (5,000 feet). On the east slope of the Panamint range 
Mr. Bailey found it in a zone between about 1,3-10 and 1,710 meters 
(4,400 to 5,600 feet). 

NEVADA. 

Charleston Mountains. — Common on the west slope, beginning at the 
upper edge of the Larrea at 1,340 meters (4,400 feet) and ranging up 
to, about 1,825 meters (0,000 feet) in the neighborhood of Mountain 
Spring, where it passes over the divide and descends on the east slope 
to about 1,200 meters (4,000 feet) with Yucca baccata and Thamnosma 
montana. In full bloom Ain-il 30 on the east slope of Charleston 
Mountains. 

Hungry Hill Summit. — Begins just north of the summit, passes over 
it and descends the south slope toward the North Arm of Indian 
Spring Valley to about 1,525 meters (5,000 feet) altitude. 

Timpahute and Desert mountains. — Common in the saddle between the 
Timpahute and Desert mountains. 

Pahranagat Mountains. — Common at 1,825 meters (6,000 feet) on the 
west or Timpahute side and ranging thence down to 1,525 meters (5,000 
feet). On the east (Pahranagat Valley) side it grows in a zone between 
1,275 and 1,500 meters (4,200 and 4,900 feet). 

Pahranagat Valley. — Not found anywhere on the east side of the val- 
ley proper, but common on the gravel slope on the west side, beginning 
1 mile from the bottom at 1,275 meters (4,200 feet) and ranging up to 
1,500 meters (4,900 feet) at the east foot of the Pahranagat Mountains. 
At the south end of Pahranagat Valley it comes up over the divide 
below the lake at 1,150 meters (3,800 feet) and stops about half a mile 
north of the divide. (It was not found anywhere in Meadow Creek 
Valley.) . 

UTAH. 

Beaverdam Mountains. — Common on the west slope from 1,040 meters 
(3,400 feet) up to the summit of the pass at 1,525 meters (5,000 feet), and 
on the northeast slope between 975 and 1,340 meters (3,200 and 4,400 
feet), and straggling still higher. 

Santa Clara Valley. — Occurs on cold slopes in the Lower Santa Clara 
Valley, near St. George, whence it ranges up on the north side of th§ 



May, 1893.1 SHRUBS OF THE DEATH VALLEY EXPEDITION. 305 

valley (south exposure) to 1,525 meters (5,000 feet), but is uot evenly dis- 
tributed. 

Cercocarpus ledifolius. 

The mountain mahogany is common on the higher summits of some 
of the desert ranges, and was recorded from the following localities: 

CALIFORNIA. 

Panamint Mountains. — A grove of large and handsome mountain 
mahogany trees occupies the bottom of a canon above the abandoned 
charcoal kilns at the north base of Telescope Peak, whence straggling- 
trees pass over the summit of the Panamint Range north of the Peak 
at an altitude of 2,560 meters (8,400 feet). Others were found on the 
north slope as high as 3,600 meters (9,300 feet). 

High Sierra. — On the east (Owens Valley) slope of the High Sierra 
the mountain mahogany is found in abundance, and of unusually large 
size. West of Lone Pine it grows in a zone from 2,285 to 2,900 meters 
(7,500 to 9,500 feet) altitude, and many of the individual trees attain a 
diameter of a foot. 

NEVADA. 

Mount Magnifier. — Common and of large size on the main peak, above 
2,590 meters (8,500 feet), but not reaching summit. 

UTAII. 

Upper Santa Clara Valley. — Common in places on the west slope ot 
Pine Valley Mountain. 

Cercocarpus parvifolius. 

Common in the chaparral on the west slope of the Sierra Nevada and 
on the coast ranges. It was found in abundance also in the Canada 
de las Uvas and on the south slope of the Sierra Liebre, along the upper 
part of the valley of Peru Creek. 

Cowania mexicana. 

This beautiful shrub, which attains a height of 2 or 3 meters (6 to 9 
feet), is common on many of the desert ranges, where it Mowers in such 
profusion that its large cream-colored blossoms often hide the deep 
green of its foliage. 

CALIFORNIA. 

Panamint Mountains. — Found on the summit of the range, northwest 
of Telescope Peak, at an altitude of about 2,560 meters (8,400 feet). 

NEVADA. 

Mount Magruder. — Found sparingly in the upper part of the Tule 
Canon on the south slope of Mount Magruder. 

Gold Mountain. — Common, and ranging down on the south side to 
about 1,990 meters (6,200 feet). 

Hungry Hill Summit. — Begins just north of the summit, passesover the 
divide and down ou the south side, toward Indian Spring Valley, to 
about 1,525 meters (5,000 feet). 
12731— No. 7—20 



306 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. I*" 7 

Paliranagat Mountains. — Common, descending to about 1,580 meters 
(5,200 feet) on the east slope. 

Pahroc Mountains. — Common in the sage brush near Pakroe Spring; 
just coming into flower May 20. 

Highland Range. — Found on the west slope. 

Charleston Mountains. — Found on the west slope from 1,550 to 1,830 
meters (5,100 to 6,000 feet) in the neighborhood of Mountain Spring. 

J uniper Mountains (between Panaca, Nevada,and Skoal Greek, Utah). — 
Abundant in places on south exposures, where it was hardly in bud May 
17, while a week earlier (May 10) it was flowering in the height of per- 
fection on the Beaverdam Mountains. Kunzia tridentata was common 
with Cowania in the Juniper Mountains and was just coming into flower 
May 1 7, while it had past flowering in the Beaverdam Mountains May 10. 



Beaverdam Mountains. — Abundant, ranging from 1,100 to 1,430 meters 
(3,600 to 4,700 feet) in altitude on the northeast slope; flowering pro- 
fusely May 10-11. 

Santa Clara Valley. — In ascending the Santa Clara Valley, Cowania 
begins in the sage brush about 13 kilometers (8 miles) northwest of St. 
George (altitude 1,280 meters, or 4,200 feet), and extends thence northerly 
to and beyond the Upper Santa Clara Crossing, reaching an altitude of 
about 1,645 meters (5,400 feet) where it stops and Kunzia begins. In 
other localities it is mixed with Kunzia, though the latter generally 
ranges higher. 

Fallugia paradoxa. 

This species occurs on many of the desert ranges of the Great Basin, 
often associated with Cowania mexicana and Kunzia tridentata, from 
which it has not always been discriminated by travelers. Fallugia aver- 
ages hardly more than a meter in height, being a much smaller bush 
than Cowania. Its pure white flowers are larger than the cream-colored 
blossoms of Cowania, and are borne on longer peduncles. The flowers 
of Kunzia are yellow. Fallugia was found in the following localities : 

NEVADA. 

Charleston Mountains. — Common on the west slope above 1,430 meters 
(4,700 feet), in the neighborhood of Mountain Spring, ranging up to at 
least 1,700 meters (5,600 feet). On the east slope it was not seen above 
1,525 meters (5,000 feet). 

Paliranagat Mountains. — Common on the east slope a little above 
1,580 meters (5,200 feet), and on the west slope reaches the summit. 

Hungry. Hill Summit. — Begins just north of summit and passes over 
the divide (1,770 meters, or 5,800 feet) and down on the south side to- 
ward the North Arm of Indian Spring Valley to 1,525 meters (5,000 
feet). 



May,1893.] SHKU13S OF THE DEATH VALLEY EXPEDITION. 307 

UTAH. 

Beaverdam Mountains. — Common on the east and northeast slopes of 
the Beaverdam Mountains, between 1,100 and 1,370 meters (3,800 to 
1,500 feet), where it was jnst coming into flower May 11. 

Rosa sp.— ? 

A wild rose was found in large patches in Pahranagat Valley, Nevada, 
where it was in full bloom May 22-25. 

Heteromeles arbutifolia. 

This is one of the characteristic shrubs of the Coast Eanges of Cali- 
fornia. It is common on the south slope of the Sierra Liebre, but hardly 
enters the region covered by the expedition. 

Amelanchier alnifolia. 

The service berry does not grow in the deserts, but occurs sparingly 
on some of the desert ranges. 

In Nevada it was found on the west slope of the Charleston Moun- 
tains, between 1,675 and 1,765 meters (5,500 to 5,800 feet) altitude; on 
the Juniper Mountains, on the Pahroc Mountains, and on Mount Ma- 
gruder, where it descends into the upper part of Tule Canon. 

In Utah it was found sparingly between the Upper Santa Clara Cross- 
ing and Mountain Meadows, and in some places formed dense thickets; 
and on the east .slope of the Beaverdam Mountains it was common be- 
tween an altitude of 1,100 meters (3,600 feet) and the summit of the 
pass at 1,525 meters (5,000 feet). 

Peraphyllum ramosissimum. 

This dwarf cherry, whose handsome flowers are disproportionately 
large for so small a bush, was found in the following localities on the 
mountain sides of the Transition Zone. 

NEVADA. 

Mount Magruder. — Very abundant in large patches from an altitude 
of about 2,130 meters (7,000 feet) up to about 2,590 meters (8,500 feet) 
and descending into Tule Canon. Flowering profusely June 6. 

Charleston Mountains. — Found near Mountain Spring. 

Ifungry Rill Summit. — Begins a little north of the summit, passes 
over the divide (1,760 meters, or 5,800 feet) and down on the south side 
toward the North Arm of Indian Spring Valley to about 1,525 meters 
(5,000 feet). 

Highland Range. — Found on the west slope. 

Juniper Mountains. — Found in scattered clumps at an altitude of 
about 1,825 meters, (6,000 feet) and upwards from the Upper Santa 
Clara Crossing to Shoal Creek and thence northwesterly across the 
Juniper Plateau. 

Ribes leptantlnim brachyanthum. 

This species was collected on Gold Mountain, Nevada, at an altitude of 
about 2,130 meters (7,000 feet). 



308 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. [No. 7. 

Others, probably the same species, were found at Sheep Spring in 
the Juniper Mountains, Nevada; in the canon at the south end of 
Pahranagat Valley, and on Mount Magrnder. 

Ribes menziesii. 

Common in places in the Canada dc las Uvas, California, especially 
in the vicinity of Old Fort Tejon. 

Fetalonyx parryi. 

This bush was found in but one locality, namely, the mesa on the 
south side of Vegas Wash, Nevada, where it was abundant on gypsum 
soil and in full bloom May 2. It is a small bush averaging 450 to GOO" 1111 
(about 1£ or 2 feet) in height, and having pale, yellowish flowers. 

Eucnide urens. 

This singular plant, which grows in crevices in rocky canons, was 
found in suitable places along the bases of many of the desert ranges 
in southern California and western Nevada, and also along the Lower 
Santa Clara Kiver in southwestern Utah. 

Garrya veatchii flavescens. 

This willow-like bush, about li meters (5 feet) in height, is common 
on the west slope of the Charleston Mountains, Nevada, near Mountain 
Spring, between 1,070 and 1,7G0 meters (5,500 and 5,800 feet), and on 
the Beaverdam Mountains in southwestern Utah. 

Symphoricarpos longiflorus. 

Symphoricarpos bushes were found on many of the desert ranges of 
Nevada, in the Upper Sonoran and Transition zones. 8. longijlorus was 
common at Pahroc Spring, where it was in full flower May 21 (speci- 
mens collected). Others, supposed to belong to the same species, but 
not collected and not positively identified, were recorded from the fol- 
lowing localities: 

NEVADA. 

Highland Range. — Common in places, particularly in canons. 

Tim/pahute and Desert mountains. — Common in places on the higher 
parts of the range. 

Hylco Range. — Found sparingly in a canon leading from Pahroc 
Plain to Pahranagat Valley. 

Pahranagat Mountains. — Common, descending on the east slope to 
1,580 meters (5,200 feet). 

Gold Mountain. — Common on the north side. 

Mount Magruder. — Common high up on the main peak and on side 
hills lower down, and also in several of the canons, particularly in the 
upper part of Tule Canon. 

UTAH. 

Beaverdam Mountains. — Found on the east slope. 



Mat, 1893.] SHRUBS OF THE DEATH VALLEY EXPEDITION. 309 

Amphiachyris fremoutii. 

This handsome little bush, which is common on parts of the Mohave 
Desert, was collected in the Valley of the Virgin near Bunkerville, 
Nevada. 

Acamptopappus sphaerocephalus. 

This composite desert shrnl) is abundant on many of the deserts and 
was common in the narrow valley between Owens Lake and Haway 
Meadows, California. 

Aplopappus monactis. 

Collected on Sarcobatus Flat, on the southwestern edge of the Rals- 
ton Desert, Nevada. 

Bigelovia douglassi. 

This species is not found in the desert bottoms, but is common among 
the sage brush and junipers on many of the mountain sides. 

CALIFORNIA. 

Walker Pass.— Becomes abundant at an altitude of 1,430 meters 
(4,700 feet) on the east side and ranges up over the summit of the pass. 
On the west side it descends plentifully to 1,250 meters (4,100 feet). 

Kern Valley.— Occurs on the north exposures as low down as 820 
meters (2,700 feet). 

Tehachapi Basin. — Occurs. 

Canada de las Uvas. — Common. 

Bigelovia graveolens. 

This Upper Sonoran desert species was common in the extreme west- 
ern end of the Mohave Desert (Antelope Valley) and was found in a 
wash leading thence southerly toward Peru Creek, along with tree 
yuccas, sage brush, and Isomer is. Specimens provisionally referred 
to the same species by Mr. Coville were collected at Beaverdam, Ari- 
zona. 

Bigelovia teretifolia. 

Collected on Gold Mountain. Nevada, at an altitude of 1,830 meters 
(0,000 feet) June 3. 

A large and rank species, supposed to be the same, was found in 
abundance in many of the dry washes of the desert ranges from Emi- 
grant Canon in the Panamint Mountains, California, eastward to the 
Pahranagat and Hyko ranges, Nevada, and the Beaverdam Mountains, 
Utah. On the west slope of the latter range it was found up to 1,340 
meters (4,400 feet). 

Baccharis glutinosa. 

No species of Baccharis was observed on the western side of the 
Great Basin, but one or more species were found in great abundance 
at the Bend of the Colorado River, in Nevada, and in the Valley of the 
Virgin and Lower Muddy, and also on the flat at the mouth of Beaver- 
dam Creek, in northwestern Arizona, 



310 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. [So. 7. 

Fluchea sericea. 

This slender, willow-like plant, sometimes called c arrow-wood,' forms 
low thickets in the neighborhood of water in some parts of the desert 
region, but was not found west of Death Valley. It is common at Fur- 
nace Creek on the east side of Death Valley, the only locality in Cali- 
fornia where it was seen by the expedition. In Nevada it is common 
about some of the warm springs in Ash Meadows, and very abundant 
in Vegas Wash and about the Great Bend of the Colorado Eiver, and 
also in parts of the Muddy and Virgin valleys. In the Lower Santa 
Clara Valley, Utah, near the junction of the Santa Clara with the 
Virgin, it forms dense thickets along the river. 

Hymenoclea salsola. 

This small shrub, which suggests a Bigelovia in general appearance, 
but is profusely beset with small glomerate heads, is common in many 
parts of the desert region, particularly along the courses of washes on 
the mountain sides, in which it frequently attains a considerable alti- 
tude. The following notes on its distribution were recorded : 

CALIFORNIA. 

Mohave Desert. — Common in places and found as far west as Ante- 
lope Valley, between the tow a of Mohave and Willow Spring; also 
extends up the open canon leading from Mohave to Tehaehapi Basin, 
where it reaches an altitude of 1,050 meters (3,450 feet). 

Walker Pass. — On the east side of the pass it ranges up to 1,430 
meters (4,700 feet) in the tree yuccas. On the west side of the pass 
it runs down info Kern Valley as low as 820 meters (2,700 feet), per- 
haps lower. 

Owens Valley. — Abundant in the southern part of the valley and one 
of the commonest shrubs on the west side between Lone Pine and 
Haway Meadows. It ranges up along the foot of the Sierra slope to 
1,525 or 1,550 meters (5,000 or 5,100 feet). 

Beep Spring Valley. — Found in the ^Yash leading up to the pass 
across the White Mountains. 

NEVADA. 

Grapevine Canon. — Common in the bottom of the canon. 

Oasis Valley. — Common along the bottom of the valley. 

Indian Spring Valley. — Common in the wash at the extreme west end 
of Indian Spring Valley. 

Emigrant Valley. — Common and reaching thence up on the west side 
of the Desert Mountains to about 1,680 meters (5,500 feet) near Mud or 
Summit Spring. 

Timpahute Valley. — One of the principal plants in the bottom. 

Pahranagat Valley. — Common throughout the dryer parts of the 
valley up to about 1,340 meters (4,400 feet). On the west side (Pahra- 
nagat Mountain slope) it runs up a gravel wash to nearly 1,525 meters 



Mat, 1803.] SHRUBS OF THE DEATH VALLEY EXPEDITION. 311 

(5,000 feet). On the east side it is common in a wash leading down 
from Pahroc Plain through the Hyko Mountains. 
Virgin Valley. — Common in places. 

UTAH. 

Beaverdam Mountains. — Reaches up the west slope of the Beaverdam 
Mountains to 1,340 meters (4,400 feet). 

Santa Clara Valley. — Common over most of the valley, reaching- up on 
the east slope of the Beaverdam Mountains to 1,100 meters (3,(300 feet). 

Fianseria duniosa. 

This small and inconspicuous shrub is one of the most important 
zone plants of the Lower Sonoran Zone, because of its wide distribu- 
tion and strict adherence to the lower division of this zone. It occurs 
almost invariably in company with Larrea tridentata. The following 
notes on its distribution were recorded: 

CALIFORNIA. 

Mohave Desert. — Abundant, finding its upper limit on the north side 
of the desert at about 1,000 meters (3,250 feet), where it enters the 
mouth of the open canon leading from Mohave to Tehachapi, and ranges 
about 45 meters (150 feet) higher than Larrea. It reaches its western 
limit in Antelope Valley. 

Walker Pass. — Common at the east mouth of Walker Pass, ranging 
up to about 1,100 meters (3,000 feet) thus exceeding the Larrea by 
about 30 meters (100 feet). 

Owens Valley. — Common in the extreme south end of the valley on 
the east side, and found in scattered patches from Lone Pine south, 
and all along the west side of Owens Lake and thence south to Haway 
Meadows. 

NEVADA. 

Pahrump Valley. — Common in the Larrea on the east side of the val- 
ley, where it finds its upper limit with that of Larrea on the southwest 
slope of the Charleston Mountains at 1,310 meters (4,400 feet). 

Vegas Valley. — Covers the valley with Larrea and ranges up on the 
west side to about 1,130 meters (3,700 feet). 

Muddy Mountains. — Common in Larrea at the Great Bend of the Colo- 
rado whence it extends northward over the low summits of the Muddy 
Mountains between Callville and the Virgin. 

Valley of the Virgin and Lower Muddy. — Abundant in dry places with 
Larrea, particularly on gravel slopes. Common also on the high mesa 
between these two rivers, where it is abundant along the boundary 
between Arizona and Nevada. 

Paltranagat Valley. — Common on the gravel benches with Larrea in 
the southern and southwestern parts of the valley, but not evenly dis- 
tributed and not reaching the northern part of the valley at all. It inns 
up an open canon leading from Pahroc Plain into Pahranagat Valley, 



312 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. [No. 7. 

reaching an altitude of 1,310 meters (4,300 feet) on the southwesterly 
slope exposures, but falling a little short of the extreme limit of the 
scattered patches of Larrea in the same canon. 

Indian Spring Valley. — Common throughout the valley in Larrea. 

Oasis Valley. — Occurs sparsely in the lower part of the valley along 
with Larrea, both species here finding their northern limit in this part 
of Nevada. 

Grapevine Canon. — Franseria comes up in Grapevine Canon from 
Death Valley and reaches up on the southern slope of Gold Mountain 
as high as 1,610 meters (5,300 feet) in company with Larrea. (It was 
not found in Sarcobatus Flat or in Meadow Creek Valley.) 

ARIZONA. 

Common with Larrea in the Valley of the Virgin near the mouth of 
Beaverdam Creek, and ranging thence easterly up the west slope of 
the Beaverdam Mountains to 1,160 meters (3,800 feet). 

UTAH. 

Santa Clara Valley. — Occurs sparingly in the lower part of the val- 
ley, disappearing a little above 1,220 meters (4,000 feet). 

Franseria eriocentra. 

This species was first found at the mouth of Beaverdam Creek in 
northwestern Arizona. On the opposite side of the mountains it is com- 
mon in parts of the Santa Clara Valley in Utah. In Nevada it is abun- 
dant in the higher parts of Pahranagat Valley, whence it ranges up 
through a canon in the Hyko Mountains; it reaches the summit of the 
pass over the Pahranagat Mountains (1,825 meters or 6,000 feet) from the 
west (Tiinpahute) slope; and occurs also at Hungry Hill Summit, 
whence it extends southerly to about 1,675 meters (5,500 feet). 

Encelia frutescens. 

This species is common in places on the Mohave Desert, whence it 
ranges up completely through the open canon leading from Mohave 
to Tehachapi Valley (altitude of divide 1,100 meters or 3,600 feet), and 
up the east slope of Walker Pass to 1,430 meters (4,700 feet). 

Artemisia tridentata. 

This species, the true aromatic sagebrush of the Great Basin, does 
not grow anywhere in the deserts of the Lower Sonoran zone, but be- 
gins with the Upper Sonoran and ranges thence northward over the 
plains of the Transition zone, and on many mountain sides covers the 
gravel slopes well up into the Boreal. In the southern part of the 
Great Basin, therefore, it was found only on the mountains. Coming 
down from the plains of Oregon, Washington, and Idaho, it covers the 
whole of the northern part of the State of Nevada, and California east 
of the Sierra Nevada, and reaches southward uninterruptedly along 
the bottom of Owens Valley nearly to Owens Lake, and still further 
south along the Sierra, White, and Inyo mountains. On the treeless 



May. 1893.] SHRUBS OF THE DEATH VALLEY EXPEDITION. 313 

plains it is much prized as firewood. The following detailed notes on 
its distribution were recorded: 

CALIFORNIA. 

Canada de las Uvas. — Common at an altitude of 1,070 meters (3,500 
feet), ranging - from Oastac Lake eastward to the extreme west foot of 
Antelope Valley aud also occurring in a wash leading thence south- 
ward toward Peru Greek, where it is mixed with stunted tree yuccas 
(altitude 760 to 910 meters or 2,500 to 3,000 feet). 

Walker Pass. — Common on the east side of the pass from 1,430 meters 
(4,700 feet), to summit (1,550 meters or 5,100 feet), and much higher on 
mountains on both sides. On the west slope it covers the whole })ass 
down to 1,240 meters (4,100 feet). 

Kern Valley. — Found on a steep north slope in the Kern Elver Val- 
ley as low as 820 meters (2,700 feet). 

East slope of Sierra Nevada. — Abundant all along the west side of 
Owens Valley and ranging thence up on the Sierra as high as 2,740 
meters (9,000 feet). 

Owens Valley. — Covers the whole valley from its northern end down 
to within a few miles of Lone Pine, descending to about 1,1G0 meters 
(3,800 feet). South of Lone Pine it is confined to the west side of the 
valley, where it follows the cold streams that come down from the 
High Sierra and is common on the slope above 1,550 meters (5,100 feet). 
In a few places it reaches the narrow valley between Owens Lake and 
Haway Meadows. It is absent from the warm slope at the foot of the 
White and Inyo mountains on the east side of Owens Valley, but 
begins as low as 1,980 meters (6,500 feet) on northerly exposures in 
the latitude of Big Pine, and ranges up over the White Mountains. 

White and Inyo mountains. — Abundant over most parts of the sum- 
mit of the range, often forming pure sage plains of considerable extent 
and ranging down to about 2,280 meters (7,500 feet) on the west slope 
(Owens Valley side) and to 1,920 meters (6,300 feet) on the east slope 
(Deep Spring Valley side), but does not descend into Deep Spring 
Valley. 

Panamint Mountains. — Common along the summit of the range, de- 
scending as low in places as 1,980 meters (6,500 feet) or even 1,920 
meters (6,300 feet). On the west slope of Telescope Peak it grows as 
high as 3,050 meters (10,000 feet). 

Mohave Desert. — Found on the summit of Cajon Pass and thence 
along the upper part of the Mohave Desert at the foot of the San Ber- 
nardino Mountains, occurring sparsely among the junipers down to an 
altitude of 1,160 meters (3,800 feet), where it is replaced by Atriplex and 
other genera. The altitude of the Mohave Desert as a whole is too low 
for sagebrush. 

NEVADA. 

Fish Lalee Valley. — Not found in the bottom of the valley, but de- 
scends from the White Mountains to about 1,680 meters (5,500 feet) 



314 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. [No. 7. 

along the west side of the valley; and from Mount Magruder to about 
2,040 meters (6,700 feet) on the southeast side of the valley (northwest 
exposure), and still lower on northerly exposures. 

Mount Magruder. — Covers the whole Mount Magruder plateau and 
the hills and peaks that rise from it even to the extreme summit of 
Mount Magruder itself. On the latter peak it grows in a peculiar way, 
forming distinct lines that are conspicuous at a distance. These lines 
are horizontal on the peaks and vertical on the saddles. On the south 
side of Mount Magruder it descends into Tule Canon (in the upper 
part of which it is the i)revailiug brush) and into the valley between 
Mount Magruder and Gold Mountain, where it is mixed with Grayia 
spinosa, Tetradymia glabrata, Atriplex confertifoMa, and other species. 
On the northwest slope of Mount Magruder it descends to Pigeon Spring 
(altitude 2,040 meters, or 0,700 feet) and reaches several hundred feet 
lower on the south side of the canon (north exposure). 

Gold Mountain. — Sagebrush is the prevailing brush on Gold Moun- 
tain, on the south slope of which it descends to 1,830 meters (0,000 
feet). 

Timpahute and Desert ranges. — Common along the summit, descend- 
ing to the divide at Hungry Hill summit, 1,780 meters (5,850 feet), and 
extending thence southward toward the North Arm of Indian Spring 
Valley to 1,740 meters (5,700 feet), and northward toward Emigrant 
Valley to 1,700 meters (5,600 feet). 

Pahranagat Mountains. — Abundant, descending as low as 1,525 meters 
(5,000 feet) on the east slope (Pahranagat Valley side) at the latitude 
of the middle of the valley, and still lower in the northern part of the 
valley. 

Pahroe Mountains. — Common, reaching down to 1,740 meters (5,700 
feet) or a little lower on the upper levels of Desert Valley. 

Highland range. — Abundant, descending to 1,830 meters (6,000 feet) 
on the west side (Desert Valley side), and down into the valley of 
Meadow Creek on the east side, covering the valley excepting the flat 
bordering the creek. 

Juniper Mountains. — The whole of the high plateau here spoken of as 
the Juniper Plateau or Mountains, extending from Meadow Creek 
Valley, Nevada, easterly to and across the western boundary of Utah, 
is continuously covered with sagebrush mixed with junipers. 

Charleston Mountains. — Abundant throughout the higher parts of 
the Charleston Mountains, descending on the west slope (Pahrnmp 
Valley side) to 1,550 meters (5,100 feet). 

UTAH. 

In western Utah the true sage spreads southward continuously, cov- 
ering the Escalante Desert and Shoal Creek Country and Mountain 
Meadows (which is a true sage plain), and extending south continuously 
far enough to include the Upper Santa Clara Valley above 1,280 meters 



Mat,1803.] SHliUBS OF THE DEATH VALLEY EXPEDITION. 315 

(4/200 feet) altitude, where its southern edge reaches within 13 kilo- 
meters (8 miles) of the town of St. George. To the west it ranges con- 
tinuously over the Juniper Plateau to Meadow Creek Valley as already 
mentioned, and reaches southward along the Beaverdam Mountains, 
descending to 1,340 meters (4,400 feet) on the west (Arizona) slope and 
to 1,100 meters (3,600 feet) on the east (Utah) slope. 

Artemisia spinescens. 

This compact little species is abundant on many of the higher valleys 
and slopes of the desert region in the southern part of the Great Basin, 
in California and Nevada. The following notes on its distribution 
were recorded : 

CALIFORNIA. 

Walker Pass. — Found on the summit at an altitude of 1,S30 meters 
(5,100 feet). 

Deep Spring Valley. — Common, in company with Menodora spinosa, 
Grayia spinosa, Eurotia lanata, Dalea fremonti, D. polyadcnia, Lycium 
andersoni, and Tetradymia spinosa. 

Panamint Mountains. — Common in many parts of the range. The 
little basin between Wild Rose Spring and Emigrant Canon, named 
'Perognathus Flat' by our expedition, is covered with this species, 
very pure and little mixed with other plants. 

NEVADA. 

Fish Lake Valley. — Abundant, covering the flat on the east side of 
the valley in company with Eurotia lanata, and ranging thence up on 
the northwest slope of Mount Magruder nearly to Pigeon Spring (alti- 
tude 2,040 meters or 6,700 feet). 

Valley between Mount Magruder and Gold Mountain. — ISTot abundant, 
but found in company with Artemisia tridentata, Grayia sjnnosa, Atri- 
-plex confertifolia, and Tetradymia glabrata. 

Grapevine Canon. — Tolerably common in the upper part of the 
canon. 

Sarcouatus Flat. — Common in northern part. 

Oasis Valley. — Common in the upper part of the valley above 1,220 
meters (4,000 feet) and ranging thence westerly. 

Emigrant Valley. — One of the commonest plants of the bottom (alti- 
tude a little above 1,525 meters or 5,000 feet), and ranging thence 
easterly up on the Timpahute Mountains to 1,680 meters (5,500 feet). 

Timpahute Valley. — One of the principal plants. 

Pahranagat Valley. — Common on the higher levels above 1,220 meters 
(4,000 feet). In places on the west side of the valley it reaches 2,440 
meters or 5,300 feet (on the east slope of the Pahranagat Mountains). 

Desert Valley. — The dominant plant in the gravelly soil surrounding 
the dry lake. 

Meadow Greek Valley. — Common below 1,770 meters (5,800 feet), on 
the west slope of the Juniper Plateau. 



316 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. [So. 7. 

Artemisia arbuscula. 

This sage, which grows at greater elevations than most species, was 
found in Nevada on the summit of the Pahrauagat Mountains and on 
Mount Magruder. 

Artemisia filifolia. 

This species was rare in the region traversed, but was found cover- 
ing a large flat near St.. George in the Lower Santa Clara Valley, Utah. 
It differs widely from the other species of the genus, its long linear or 
filiform whitish leaves giving it a peculiarly soft and beautiful appear- 
ance. 
Peuceaphyllum schottii. 

This large shrub, resembling a Bir/elovia in general aspect, was found 
in many of the dry washes on the lower parts of the desert ranges and 
in some of the higher valleys. It is common in Owens Valley, Califor- 
nia, where it ranges up on the east slope of the Sierra to 1,550 meters 
(about 5,100 feet). On the opposite side of the valley it reaches up on 
the west slope of the White Mountains to about 1,980 meters (6,500 
feet). It is common also on the Panamint Mountains, California, in 
the Muddy Mountains, Nevada, and in many other localities. 

Tetradymia canescens. 

This species is common on many of the higher levels, particularly on 
the desert ranges. In Nevada it was common on Mount Magruder; in 
the upper part of Pahranagat Valley; in the Juniper Mountains 
(between Meadow Creek, Nevada, and the Escalante Desert, Utah) ; and 
in Utah in the upper part of the Santa Clara Valley (mixed with the 
true sagebrush, Artemisia tridentata). 

Tetradymia glabrata. 

This fine species was not seen in the southern deserts traversed iu 
going from Panamint and Death valleys across southern Nevada to 
Utah, but was found in a number of places on the return trip, which 
was a little further north and covered higher ground. Before going to 
seed it may be easily recognized by its deep-green cylindrical branches, 
which are nearly vertical. It was found between the east slope of the 
Sierra in Owens Valley, California, and Meadow Creek Valley, Nevada, 
in the following localities: 

CALIFORNIA. 

Owens Valley. — Common, ranging up to 1,550 meters (5,100 feet) on 
the west slope. 

NEVADA. 

Valley between Gold Mountain and Mount Magruder. — Occurs spar- 
ingly in this valley with Artemisia tridentata, Grayia spinosa and other 
brush. 

Grapevine Canon. — Pound in the upper part of the canon. 



Mat.1893.] SHRUBS OF THE DEATH VALLEY EXPEDITION. 317 

Sarcobatus Flai. — Tolerably common in places in tlie northern part 
of the flat. 

Oasis Valley. — Scarce. Found sparingly above 1,200 meters (4,000 
feet). 

Emigrant Valley. — Common on the higher slopes and ranging thence 
easterly over the west slope of the Desert Mountains. 

Timpaliute Valley. — One of the principal plants ranging easterly to the 
summit of the pass over the Pahranagat Mountains (1,830 meters or 
6,000 feet.) 

Pahranagat Valley. — Tolerably common in dry places, running up to 
1,650 meters (5,400 feet) on the west side of the valley (Pahranagat 
Mountain side) with T. spinosa and Grayia spinosa. Some of it was 
in full flower May 22-26, though it was mostly in bud at that date. 

Desert Valley. — Ranges throughout the low pass across the Highland 
Range between Meadow Creek and Desert valleys. 

Meadow CreeJc Valley. — Common, ranging easterly for about 13 kilo- 
meters (8 miles) east of Panaca, where it was first seen. This point 
constitutes the easternmost limit of the range of the species so far as 
observed by us. 

Tetradymia spinosa. 

This elegant bush, with conspicuous long straw-yellow spines, is com- 
mon on many of the higher levels in the southern part of the Great 
Basin. In early spring when the foliage is freshest it is very hand- 
some, and later in the season when in fruit and covered with its white 
woolly tufts of soft feathery plumes it is still more beautiful. It was 
found in the following localities : 

CALIFORNIA. 

^Yal]ier Pass. — Tolerably common among the tree yuccas on the east 
side of the pass as high up as 1,430 meters (4,700 feet); found also on 
the west slope between 1,250 and 1,400 meters (4,100 and 4,600 feet). 

Kern Valley. — Common on northerly exposures as low as 820 meters 
(2,700 feet). 

Owens Valley. — Common along the west side of the valley, where it 
ranges up the east slope of the Sierra opposite Lone Pine to 1,830 or 
1,890 meters (6,000 to 6,200 feet). On the opposite side of the valley 
it ranges up the White Mountain slope to 1,980 meters (6,500 feet) or 
higher. 

Deep Spring Valley. — Occurs in the bottom of the valley with Grayia 
spinosa, Menodora spinosa, Eurotia lanata, Daleas, and a few others (alti- 
tude about 1,675 meters or 5,500 feet). 

NEVADA. 

Gold Mountain. — Common on the south slope above 1,675 meters 
(5,500), and on the north slope below 2,135 meters (7,000 feet). 

Oasis Valley. — Common on gravel soil at the head of the valley at 
an altitude of about 1,340 meters (4,400 feet). 



318 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. [No. 7. 

Emigrant Valley.— Found on the east side of the valley, ranging 
thence over the lower parts of the Desert and Tiinpahute mountains. 

Timpahute Valley.— Common on the higher levels, and ranges up on 
the Pahranagat Mountain slope to the summit of the divide at 1,830 
meters (6,000 feet). On the west side of the valley it begins at 1,460 
meters (4,800 feet) and ranges up on the Timpahute Mountains. 

Pahranagat Valley.— Common in places, generally on gravel soil, 
ascending on the west side of the valley (east slope of Pahranagat 
Mountains) to 1,645 meters (5,400 feet). 

Highland Range.— Found sparingly on the west slope. 

Charleston Mountains.— On the west slope of the Charleston Mountains 
Tetradymia spinosawas found in a zone between 1,340 and 1,765 meters 
.(4,400-5,800 feet). 

UTAH. 

Beaver dam Mountains. — Occurs sparingly. 
Tetradymia comosa (or stenolepis). 

This beautiful shrub, which may be recognized at a distance by its 

whiteness, is common in part of the region traversed. It was found 
in the following localities: 

CALIFORNIA. 

Owens Valley. — Common in the higher parts of the valley, ranging 
up on the west side opposite Lone Pine to 1,520 or 1,550 meters (5,000 or 
5,100 feet.) 

Walker Pass. — Occurs on the east side of the pass where it was seen 
at 1,250 meters (4,100 feet). 

Kern Valley. — Found on northerly exposures as low as 820 meters 
(2,700 feet.) 

Mohave Desert. — Pound in places, ranging westward nearly to Wil- 
low Spring in Antelope Valley, and extending northward through the 
open canon leading from Mohave to Tehachapi. 

Arctostaphylos glauca. 

In Cajon Pass this manzanita begins at about 670 meters (2,200 feet) 
and ranges up to the summit of the pass. 

Arctostaphylos pungens. 

This species of manzanita was found on the Charleston Mountains, 
Nevada, near Mountain Spring, and on the east slope of theBeaverda in 
Mountains in Utah, from 1,100 to 1,300 meters (3,600 to 4,300 feet) alti- 
tude. It was not found on any of the other desert ranges. 

Note. — Other species of manzanita are common on both slopes of 
the Sierra Nevada in California, and on the coast ranges. 

Menodora spinescens. 

The beautiful little bush provisionally referred to this species, but 
which may have been Menodora scoparia, grows in dense tufts over 
many of the higher desert levels, where it is easily recognized by the 



Mat.1893.] SHRUBS OF THE DEATH VALLEY EXPEDITION. 310 

peculiar green of its foliage and by the circumstance that it fruits early 
and its large greeu berries ;ire distributed in pairs along the branches, 
growing sessile, one on each side of the stem. It was found in the fol- 
lowing localities: 

CALIFORNIA. 

Deep Spring Valley. — Occurs in company with Grayia, IBurotia, Dalea, 
Lycium, and Tetradymia spinosa; altitude about 1,080 meters (5,500 
feet). 

NEVADA. 

Fish Lake Valley. — Common on the upper levels, ranging up on the 
northwest side of Mount Magruder to 1,950 meters (0,100 feet). 

Gold Mountain. — Common on the south slope, ranging upward from 
1,550 meters (5,100 feet). 

Oasis Valley. — Occurs sparingly above 1,220 meters (4,000 feet). 

Indian Spring Valley. — Tolerably common throughout the valley. 

Timpahute Valley. — One of the- principal plants. 

Pahranagat Valley. — Rather common on gravelly soil above an alti- 
tude of 1,190 meters (3,900 feet); on the west side of the valley (Pah- 
ranagat Mountain slope) it ranges up to 1,525 meters (5,000 feet). 
It was heavily laden with fruit May 22-26. 

Charleston Mountains. — On the west slope of the Charleston Moun- 
tains Menodora spinosa ranges from about l,525meters (5,000 feet) down 
to the upper levels of Pahrump Valley. 

NOTE. — Another species of Menodora, considerably larger than the 
one above mentioned (perhaps true spinescens), was found on the divide 
south of Pahranagat Lake, Nevada, at an altitude of about 1,150 meters 
(3,800 feet). 

Fraxiuus coriacea. 

This ash was observed in the following localities: 

CALIFORNIA. 

Owens Valley. — Common in open groves along Cottonwood and Ash 
creeks on the west side of Owens Lake, where it was heavily laden with 
fruit June 19. Another and very distinct species occurs in company 
with F. coriacea and was in fruit on the same date. 

NEVADA. 

Ash Meadows. — Ash .Meadows takes its name from the circumstance 
that this small ash is common about many of the warm springs. Ash 
Meadows is the type locality of the species. 

Upper Cottonwood Springs. — Small ash trees, supposed to be this spe- 
cies, are common with the desert willows [Chilopsis linearis) along the 
Upper Cottonwood Springs at the east baseof the Charleston Mountains. 

UTAH. 

Santa Clara Valley. — A small ash, supposed to be this species, is com- 
mon along the banks of the Lower Santa Clara River, where it occurs 
in company with F. anomala, the latter reaching the Santa Clara from 
the neighboring slope of the Beaverdam Mountains. 



320 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. P*o.fc 

Fiaxinus anomala. 

This single-leaved dwarf ash was found near Mountain Springs on 
the west slope of the Charleston Mountains, Nevada, from 1,600 to 1,760 
meters (5,300 to 5,800 feet); and on the east slope of the Beaverdam 
Mountains, Utah, from an altitude of 1,275 meters (4,200 feet) down to 
the Lower Santa Clara Valley, where it occurs along the river with an- 
other species believed to be F. coriacea. 

\i 

Eriodictyon tomentosum. 

This species was common iu the Canada de las Uvas, California, par- 
ticularly on north and east exposures, and was found also on the south 
slope of the Sierra Liebre along the Valley of Peru Creek. 

Lycium andersoni. 

The members of the genus Lycium rank among the characteristic 
bushes of the Great Basin in California, Nevada, Utah, and Arizona. 
They rarely inhabit the lower deserts, but are found plentifully on the 
upper levels and on many of the desert ranges. They are not social 
plants, but occur here and there among the other kinds of desert brush. 
Their flowers are usually greenish yellow and inconspicuous. The ber- 
ries of L. andersoni are brownish in color, acid, and rather pleasant, 
suggesting currants. This species, which is the smallest of the genus, 
was found in the following localities: 

CALIFORNIA. 

Antelope Valley (west end of Mohave Desert). — A little was seen be- 
tween Mohave and Willow Spring. It occurs also along the northwest 
edge of the Mohave Desert, and ascends the open canon leading up 
to Tehachapi Valley as high as 1,030 meters (3,400 feet). 

Walker Pass and Kern Valley. — Runs up to 1,430 meters (4,700 feet) 
on the east slope. On the west slope it was observed from 1,220 meters 
(a little over 4,000 feet) down to 820 meters (2,700 feet) in the valley of 
Kern River. 

Owens Valley. — Occurs sparingly on the west side of the valley, rang- 
ing up to 1,525 or 1,550 meters (5,000 or 5,100 feet) on the Sierra slope 
opposite Lone Pine. 

Deep Spring Valley. — Occurs in company with Grayia, Eurotia, Dalca 
fremonti, I). polyadcnia, Menodora spinosa, Tetradymia spinosa, Artem- 
isia spinescens, and Atriplex canescens. 

NEVADA. 

Fish Lake Valley. — Found on the east side of the valley, whence it 
ranges up on the northwest slope of Mount Magruder as high as 1,860 
meters (6,100 feet). 

Meadow Creek Valley. — Common in places, and ranging up to 1,765 
meters (5,800 feet) on the west slope of the Juniper Range. 

Grapevine Canon. — Occurs at the upper end of the canon near Sar- 
cobatus Flat. 



May, 1893.] SHRUBS OF THE DEATH VALLEY EXPEDITION. 321 

Oasis Valley. — Bather common, beginning at the foot of the valley 
at 1,140 meters (3,750 feet), and following- the bottom to the head of 
the valley. 

Amargosa Desert. — Occurs sparingly, mixed with the upper edge of 
the Larrea. 

Indian Spring Valley. — Common; berries ripe May 20. 

Emigrant Valley. — Common, and runs up on the west slope of the 
Desert Mountains to the divide near Summit or Mud Spring. 

Timpahute Valley. — One of the principal plants. 

Pahranagat Valley. — Common on dry gravelly levels, mixed with 
other shrubs. Extends up from the valley to 1,580 meters (5,200 feet) 
or higher on the Pahranagat Mountains, Fruit ripening May 22-26. 

Pah roc Plain. — Rather common, mixed with Grayia spinosa, Eurotia 
lanata, and Atriplex canescens. 

UTAH. 

. Beaver dam Mountains.- — Tolerably common on the east slope, ranging 
up to 1,100 meters (3,000 feet), and down to the Santa Clara Valley. 

Lycium cooperi. 
This large species was found in the following localities: 

CALIFORNIA. 

Mohave Desert. — Common in the upper levels, reaching west in Ante- 
lope Valley nearly to Willow Spring, and extending northward through- 
out the open canon leading up to Tehachapi. 

Tehachapi Valley. — Occurs in places, coming from the Mohave Desert 
and extending northward sparingly into Tehachapi Pass. 

Kern Valley. — Occurs on northerly exposures down to 820 meters 
(2,700 feet). 

Owens Valley. — Common in large clumps on the west side of the val- 
ley, ranging up on the Sierra slope as high as 1,830 or 1,890 meters 
(6,000 or 6,200 feet) opposite Lone Pine, aud common iu places all the 
way south to Haway Meadows and the Mohave Desert. 

Panamint Mountains. — Commou iu places. 

NEVADA. 

Gold Mountain. — Occurs sparingly on the north slope (collected). 

Amargosa Desert. — Found mixed with the Larrea in the upper part 
of the Larrea zone. 

Oasis Valley. — Occurs. 

Mount Magruder. — Found near Pigeon Spring, on the northwest slope 
of Mount Magruder. 

Lycium torreyi. 

This large species was collected in fruit in the Muddy Valley near 
St. Thomas, Nevada, where it was common in dry parts of the valley, 
and also in the Valley of the Virgin (nearly out of flower May 6). Iu 
Utah it was found iu the Santa Clara Valley. 
12731— Ko. 7 21 



322 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. [No. 7. 

Lycium pallidum. 

This large species, which has large trumpet shaped flowers and large 
leaves, is common in the Upper Santa Clara Valley, Utah, about 8 miles 
northwest of St. George, at an altitude of 1,275 meters (4,200 feet), 
ranging thence up to or above the Upper Santa Clara crossing. It was 
collected on the east slope of the Beaverdam Mouutains, where it runs 
up to 1,090 meters (3,000 feet). A large species, probably the same, 
was found on the west slope of the Beaverdam Mountains, from 730 up 
to 1,340 meters (2,400 to 4,400 feet). 

Note. — Lyciums were found in a number of localities not mentioned 
under the four species above enumerated for the reason that doubt at- 
taches to the identification of the species. In many places two kiuds 
were found growing together. One or more species were found in the 
following localities: 

Leach Point Valley, and Perognathus Flat (in the Panamint Moun- 
tains), California; Pahrump Valley, Iudiau Spring Valley, and High- 
land Kange, Nevada; Beaverdam Mountains and Lower Santa Clara 
Valley, Utah. 

Chilopsis linearis. 

Mr. Bailey and I did not find the desert willow in California or west- 
ern Nevada, but encountered it for the first' time at Upper Cottonwood 
Springs, at the east foot of the Charleston Mountains, Nevada, where 
it was common. It was common also at Bitter Springs in the Muddy 
Mouutains, Nevada; at the point where Beaverdam Creek joins the 
Virgin in northwestern Arizona; on the east slope of the Beaverdam 
Mountains in Utah, where it reaches an altitude of 1,280 meters (4,200 
feet), and in the Lower Santa Clara Valley. 

Mr. F. V. Coville informs me that he found it in California, on the 
Mohave River, near Daggett. 

Salvia carnosa. 

This species was noted in the following localities in California: 

Walker Pass. — Common up to 1,430 meters (4,700 feet) on the east side 
of the pass. 

Kern Valley. — Common down to 820 meters (2,700 feet), or lower on 
northerly exposures. 

Antelope Valley. — Abundant in places in a wash leading south from 
near Gorman Station toward Peru Creek; still lower down it is mixed 
with Audibertia alba. 

Salvia pilosa [=^ Audibertia pilosa']. 

This small-leaved species (until recently known as Audibertia incana 
pilosa) was found at the following localities: 

NEVADA. 

Charleston Mountains. — Common in the neighborhood of Mountain 
Spring, from about 1,525 to 1,770 meters (5,000 to 5,800 feet). 



Mat, 1893.] SHRUBS OF THE DEATH VALLEY EXPEDITION. 323 

Pahroc Mountain's. — Found near Pahroc Spring. 
Highland Range. — Common on the west slope. 

Juniper Mountains. — Collected at an elevation of 1,680 meters (5,500 
feet). 

UTAH. 

Beaverdam Mountains. — Abundant and in full flower May 10-11; 
ranges down to 1,100 meters (3,600 feet) ou the east slope, and to 1,160 
meters (3,800 feet) on the west slope. 

Note. — A large-leaved species of Audibertia was found on several 
of the desert ranges. On the north slope of Gold Mountain a species 
was found as high as 2,100 meters (7,000 feet). 

Salazaria mexicana. 

This small shrub, which presents a very odd appearance when cov- 
ered with its large inflated gibbous pods, is common in many parts of 
the desert region. It was noted in the following localities: 

CALIFORNIA. 

Mohave Desert. — Common in many places, reaching westward to Ante- 
lope Valley, and entering the mouth of Walker Pass, and also of the 
pass leading from Mohave to Tehachapi, where it attains an altitude of 
1,035 meters (3,400 feet). 

NEVADA. 

Gold Mountain. — Found on the south slope of Gold Mountain, be- 
ginning at an altitude of 1,550 meters (5,100 feet) aud ranging upward. 

Oasis Valley. — A little is found in Oasis Valley above 1,220 meters 
(4,000 feet). 

Indian Spring Valley. — Common throughout the valley. (Covered 
with inflated gibbous fruit globes May 29). 

Pahranagat Valley. — Not found in the valley proper, but tolerably 
common on the divide south of Pahranagat Lake (altitude 1,150 meters, 
or 3,800 feet), and on the west side, of the valley at the east foot of the 
Pahranagat Mountains above an altitude of 1,340 meters (4,400 feet). 

Charleston Mountains. — Common on the west slope, ranging up from 
Pahrump Valley to 1,580 meters (5,200 feet), and on the east slope up 
to 1,525 meters (5,000 feet). 

Muddy Mountains. — Common on east slope at an altitude of 600 to 
760 meters (2,000 to 2,500 feet). 

UTAH. 

Santa Clara Valley. — Occurs sparingly in the valley, disappearing on 
the north side between 1,220 and 1,280 meters (4,000 and 4,200 feet). 

Beaverdam Mountains. — Common on the lower slopes, ranging up to 
1,100 meters (3,600 feet) on the east slope, and up to 1,340 meters (4,400 
feet) on the west slope. 

Atriplex confertifolia. 

Atriplex confertifolia is the most characteristic species of desert brush 
on the clayey alkaline soils of the Upper Sonoran zone, from the Snake 



324 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. [No. 7. 

Plains of Idaho southward, and reaches downward into the Lower So- 
noran also. 

CALIFORNIA. 

Mohave Desert. — Common in suitable parts of the desert, and found 
as far west as a point a little north of Willow Spring, in Antelope 
Valley. 

Owens Valley. — The commonest plant throughout a large part of 
Owens Valley, predominating over all other species; particularly abun- 
dant on suitable soil from Big Pine southward to a point 9 miles south 
of Owens Lake. On the east side of the valley it reaches up on the 
White and Inyo mountains to about 1,980 meters (0,500 feet) in the 
latitude of Big Pine. 

NEVADA. 

Fish Lake Valley. — Very abundant, and ranging thence up on the 
northwest slope of Mount Magruder in the wash leading to Pigeon 
Spring as high as 1,950 meters (6,400 feet), where it grows in company 
with Sarcobatus vermieulatus and Stanley a pinnata. 

Valley between Mount Magruder and Gold Mountain. — Common, and 
mixed with Artemisia tridentata, Grayia spinosa, Tetradymia glabrata, 
and other species. 

Grapevine Canon. — Abundant. 

Sarcobatus Flat. — The southern half of Sarcobatus Flat is covered 
with this species, very pure and free from admixture with other plants. 
To the north it becomes invaded by Atriplex parryi, A. cancscens, Arte- 
misia spinescens, Tetradymia glabrata, Grayia spinosa, and several other 
shrubs. 

Oasis Valley. — Common throughout the valley, but disappearing 
abruptly at the south end, and not seen on the Amargosa Desert. 

Ash Meadoics. — The commonest plant on the dry, alkali soil, stopping 
with the alkali flat at the south end of the Amargosa Desert proper. 

Indian Spring Valley. — Common ' about the large dry lake at the 
junction of the north arm with the main valley. ■ 

F migrant Valley. — One of the commonest plants in the bottom at an 
altitude of a little more than 1,525 meters (5,000 feet) and extending 
thence easterly up the west slope of the Desert Range to 1,675 meters 
(5,500 feet) or higher. 

Timpahute Desert. — One of the principal plants. 

Paliranagat Valley. — Abundant in large patches on the bottoms and 
lower gravel slopes, and in the lower part of the wash coming into 
Pahranagat Valley from Pahroc Plain; ranges up on the west side of 
the valley to 1,430 meters (4,700 feet). 
.Desert Valley. — Common in the flat bordering the dry lake. 

Meadow Greek Valley. — Abundant in the flat along the creek. 

Pah rump Valley. — Very abundant on the flats in the bottom of the 
valley. 



May, 1893.] SHRUBS OF THE DEATH VALLEY EXPEDITION. 325 

Virgin and Lower Muddy Valleys. — Common oil the dry bottoms. 

UTAH. 

Santa Clara Valley. — Common in places in the lower valley. 

Atriplex parryi. 

This species apparently has the most restricted range of any of the 
shrubby forms of the genus. In California it was found in parts of 
Owens Valley between Big Pine and Lone Pine, and also along the 
west side of Owens Lake." In Ash Meadows, on the boundary between 
California and Nevada, it is one of the commonest bushes, covering 
the alkali Hats and reaching north to the gravel Larrea plain that 
marks the beginning of the Amargosa Desert proper, where it ends 
abruptly because the soil is unsuitable. It reappears iu Oasis Valley 
(beginning in the canon at the foot of the valley at an altitude of 1,140 
meters or 3,750 feet) where it extends all the way along the bottom, asso- 
ciated with Atriplex confertifolia, A. canescens,&ud Sarcobatus vermicula- 
tus. A little was found at the bottom of Grapevine Canon about a 
mile and a half from its east mouth, whence it extends easterly over' 
the north part of Sarcobatus Flat, where, however, it is not abundant. 
Atriplex hyrnenelytra. 

This striking species, which grows on salty and alkaline soil in the 
Lower Sonoran zone, is not widely distributed over the deserts of 
southern California and Nevada. It is common in Death Valley, 
Panamint Valley, and Ash Meadows, and also in places in the Muddy 
and Virgin valleys in eastern Nevada, but was not found in Oasis 
Valley or in any of the other valleys of southern Nevada. 

Atriplex polycarpa. 

Of all the greasewoods, Atriplex polycarpa is the most distinctive of 
the lower division of the Lower Sonoran Zone, occupying the bottoms 
of tlie lowest deserts, and never occurring above, if as high as, the upper 
edge of the Larrea. 

CALIFORNIA. 

Mohave Desert. — Common in suitable bottoms; the principal brush on 
the clay flat a few miles west of Willow Spring, in Antelope Valley. 

Owens Valley. — One of the commonest shrubs in the lower part of the 
valley from Lone Pine south to Haway Meadows (about 10 kilometers, 
or 10 miles, south of Owens Lake). 

NEVADA. 

Grapevine Canon. — Grows in the bottom of the canon about a mile 
and a half from Sarcobatus Flat. 

Oasis Valley. — Common in the lower part of the valley. 

Pahranagat Valley. — Not found in Pahranagat Valley proper, but 
common on the flat south of Pahranagat Lake at an altitude of about 
1,070 meters (3,500 feet). 

Virgin and Lower Muddy valleys. — Common on dry bottoms. 



326 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. [No. 7. 

Pahrump Valley. — Common 011 the east side of the valley in the 
Larrea belt. 
Atriplex canescens. 

Atriplex canescens is one of the commonest and most generally dis- 
tributed grease woods of the Lower Sonoran Zone. It is abundant 
from the western arm of the Mohave Desert (Antelope Valley) in 
California to the foot of the Hurricane Cliffs in western Utah and 
Arizona. The following notes on its distribution were recorded. 

CALIFORNIA. 

Mohave Desert. — Abundant over most parts of the desert where the 
soil is alkaline and clayey. It reaches the extreme western end of An- 
telope Valley near Gorman Station, and occurs in the wash leading 
thence southerly toward Peru Creek, at an altitude of about 7C0 meters 
(2,500 feet). 

Tehachapi Valley. — Tolerably common, coming in from the Mohave 
Desert through the open canon at Cameron; seen also in Tehachapi 
Pass. 

WalJcer Pass. — Runs up the east side of Walker Pass from the Mo- 
have Desert to an altitude of about 1,425 meters (4,700 feet). 

Owens Valley. — Common along the bottom and east side of Owens 
Valley up to about 1,980 meters (6,500 feet) along the west foot of the 
White and Inyo mountains; abundant in the narrow valley for about 
9 miles south of Owens Lake. 

Beep Spring Valley. — Grows in the bottom of the valley with Gray in 
spinosa, Tetradymta spinosa, Menodora svinosa, Dalea polyadenia, 
D.fremonti, Lyeium andersoni, Eurotia lanata, and Artemisia spinescens. 

NEVADA. 

Fish Lalce Valley. — Common in the bottom of Fish Lake Valley on the 
boundary between California and Nevada, and ranges thence up on 
the northwest slope of Mount Magruder nearly to Pigeon Spring, reach- 
ing an altitude of 1,980 or 2,010 meters (6,500 or 6,600 feet). 

Sarcobatus Flat. — Common in the northern part of the flat. 

Grapevine Canon. — Found in the bottom of this broad and open canon 
about a mile or a mile and a half west of Sarcobatus Flat. 

Oasis Valley. — Common, beginning in the canon at the foot of the 
valley at an altitude of about 1,150 meters (3,750 feet), and growing in 
company with Atriplex confertifolia, A. parryi, and Sarcobatus vermicu- 
latus. 

Indian Spring Valley. — Common about the dry lake a little north of 
the point where the north arm of Indian Spring Valley joins the main 
valley. 

Emigrant Valley.— Common, and ranges thence easterly to the sum- 
mit of the Desert Mountains near Mud Spring. 

Timpahute Valley.— One of the principal plants; ranges easterly up 
the west slope of the Pahranagat Mountains to the divide. 



Mat,1893.] SHRUBS OF THE DEATH VALLEY EXPEDITION. 327 

Pahranagat Valley. — Abundant on most of the dry parts of the bot- 
tom and on gravel slopes, and ranging up a little above 1,500 meters 
(5,000 feet) on the west or Pahranagat Mountain side (much of it in 
flower May 22-20). 

Desert Valley. — Common in places with Artemisia spinescens and 
Eurotia lanata. 

Pahroc Plain. — Common, mixed with Grayia, Eurotia, and Lyciitm 
andersoni, and ranging as high as 1,080 meters (6,500 feet) on the Pahroc 
Mountains. 

Meadow Creek Valley. — Common, and ranging up to 1,980 meters 
(6,500 feet) on west slope of Juniper Plateau. 

Virgin and Lower Muddy valleys. — Common in the dryer parts of the 
valleys. 

Pahrump Valley. — The most abundant brush on the alkaline bottoms, 
whence it ranges up the west slope of the Charleston Mountains to about 
1,700 meters (5,600 feet). 

UTAH. 

Santa Clara Valley. — Common in places in the lower part of the valley. 
Atriplex lentiformis. 

This large species is not so generally distributed as most of the other 
members of the genus, and in places it may have been confounded with 
A. torreyi, from which it is not always easily distinguishable. 

CALIFORNIA. 

Mohave Desert. — Pound growing north of Willow Spring, in Antelope 
Valley. 

Amargosa Canon. — Rather common with A. torreyi. 

NEVADA. 

Oasis Valley. — A few clump s seen. 

Pahranagat Valley. — Common in patches on suitable soil, usually 
sand or fine gravel; generally rank and large. 

Virgin and Lower Muddy valleys. — Common in dry parts of the val- 
leys; sometimes in company with A. torreyi. 

Great Bend of the Colorado River. — Occurs on the sand banks on the 
south side of Vegas Wash. 

UTAH. 

Santa Clara Valley. — Grows in the lower part of the valley. 
Atriplex torreyi. 

Atriplex torreyi is the largest species of the genus and grows in iso- 
lated localities throughout the Lower Souoran zone. Small bushes are 
sometimes difficult to distinguish from A. lentiformis. 

CALIFORNIA. 

Owens Valley. — A little was seen on the west side of Owens Lake, 
and a few patches in the narrow valley between Owens Lake and 
Haway Meadows. 



328 NORTH AMEKICAN FAUNA. [No. 7. 

Amargosa Canon. — Abundant, forming dense thickets. 

NEVADA. 

Valley of the Virgin and Lower Muddy. — Common in places in the 
dryer parts of the valley. Near an abandoned mill at St. Joe, on the 
Muddy, it forms dense and impenetrable thickets and grows to immense 
size, single bushes attaining a height of 4 J to 5 J meters (15 to 18 feet), 
with trunks 150 millimeters (about 6 inches) in diameter. 

Pahranagat Valley. — A few scattering patches of rather small size 
were found. 

UTAH. ■ 

Santa Clara Valley. — Grows in the lower valley. 

Grayia spinosa [^Grayiapolygaloides]. 

Grayia spinosa is one of the most characteristic bushes of the upper 
division of the Lower Sonoran Zone in the deserts of the southern part 
of the Great Basin. Owing to the peculiar green of its leaves and their 
tendency to 'assume a pinkish tint, it is easily distinguishable from the 
other brush with which it is associated. It was recorded from the fol- 
lowing localities: 

CALIFORNIA. 

Mohave Desert. — Grayia is common in many of the higher levels of 
the Mohave Desert. It was found as far west as Antelope Valley a 
short distance east of Willow Spring, and a little was seen in the open 
canon leading from Mohave to Tehachapi. 

Walker Pass. — In Walker Pass it extends up the east slope from the 
Mohave Desert to an altitude of 1,330 meters (4,400 feet) or higher. 

Owens Valley. — Common and ranges up oh the west side (Sierra Ne- 
vada slope) to 1,525 or 1,550 meters (5,000 or 5,100 feet). On the opposite 
or White Mountain slope it ranges up to 1,980 meters (G,5D0 feet). 

Deep Spring Valley. — Found in the bottom of the valley with Tetra- 
dymia spinosa, Menodora spinosa, Atriplex canescens, Dalea polyadenia, 
D.fremonti, Artemisia sjrinescens, Lycium andersoni, and Eurotia lanata. 

NEVADA. 

Fish Lake Valley. — Abundant, ranging up nearly to Pigeon Spring 
on the northwest slope of Mount Magruder, at an altitude of 1,080 to 
2,040 meters (0,500 to G,700 feet). 

Valley between Gold Mountain and Mount Magruder. — Common, mixed 
with Artemisia tridentata, Tetradymia glabrata, Atriplex confertifoHa, 
and a little Artemisia spineseens. 

Gold Mountain. — Common below 2,135 meters (7,000 feet) altitude on 
the north slope, and down to 1,675 meters (5,500 feet) on the south slope. 

Sarcohatus Flat. — Tolerably common in places in the northern part 
of the flat. 

Oasis Valley. — Not common. Found from 1,220 meters (4,000 feet) up- 
wards. 



May, 1893.] SHRUBS OF THE DEATH VALLEY EXPEDITION. 329 

Tim palt ute Va lley. — Scarce. 

Pahranagat Valley.— Abundant on the gravel slopes and on dry gravel 
soil in the bottom of the valley and thence up to 1,645 meters (5,400 feet) 
on the west side (east slope Pahranagat Mountains). In fruit May 
22-26. 

Pahroc Plain. — Abundant on the gravel slopes, where it is the pre- 
vailing bush all the way from Pahroc Spring to Pahranagat Valley. 

Desert Valley. — Abundant, in places forming large patches by itself 
unmixed with other species, and continuous with that of Pahroc Plain. 

Meadow Greek Valley. — Common, mixed with the sage brush, and 
ranging up to 1,920 meters (6,300 feet) on the west slope of the Juniper 
Plateau, but this is above its usual limit. 

Charleston Mountains. — Found on the east slope below 1,200 meters 
(4,000 feet). 

UTAH. 

Beaver dam Mountains. — Found on the east slope of the mountains 
from 1,095 meters (3,600 feet) down into the valley. 

Santa Clara Valley. — Occurs in the lower valley, but disappears at 
about 1,220 to 1,280 meters (4,000 to 4,200 feet) on the north side of the 
valley (south exposure). 

Eurotia lanata. 

This well-known species, which is a valuable food plant for sheep, 
and is also eaten by horses, is common thro ughout the sage plains of 
Idaho and Nevada, and was found on many of the higher levels of the 
deserts traversed by the expedition. In the north it is commonly known 
as 'white sage,' but is a widely different plant from the so-called 
' white sage' of the coastal slope and coast ranges of southern Cali- 
fornia, the latter being Audibertia alba. 

CALIFORNIA. 

Mohave Desert. — Common on the upper levels and extending up to 
1,035 meters (3,400 feet), in the open canon leading from Mohave to 
Tehaehapi Valley. 

Owens Valley. — Common among the sagebrush, and ranging up to a 
little above 1,550 meters (5,100 feet) on the Sierra slope. 

Deep Spring Valley. — Tolerably common, with Grayia spinosa, Meno- 
dora spinosa, Tetradymia spinosa, Dalea fremonti, D. polyadenia, Arte- 
misia spinescens, Lycium andersoni, and Atriplex canescens (altitude 
about 1,680 meters or 5,500 feet). 

NEVADA. 

Fish Lake Valley. — Abundant 911 the east side of the valley, ranging 
up to Pigeou Spring on the northwest slope of Mount Magruder (alti- 
tude 2,040 meters or 6,700 feet). 

Sarcobatus Flat. — Tolerably common in places in the northern part 
of the flat. 



330 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. t^o.l 

Oasis Valley. — Common on the gravel slopes at the head of the valley 
at an altitude of about 1,340 meters (4,400 feet). 

Emigrant Valley . — One of the commonest plants in the bottom of the 
valley at an altitude of 1,525 meters (a little above 5,000 feet). 

Timpahute Valley. — One of the principal plants. 

Pahroc Plain. — Common, mixed with Grayia spinosa, Lycium ander- 
soni, and Atriplex canescens. 

Desert Valley.— This valley is a remarkably typical Eurotia plain, 
thousands of acres between Pahroc Mountains and the Highland Eauge 
showing no other plant. 

Meadoiv Creelc Valley. — Extensive tracts (comprising many acres) are 
covered with this species alone. 

Juniper Mountains {between Panaea, Nevada, and Shoal Creelc, Utah). — 
Common in places among the sage and juniper. 

UTAH. 

Santa Clara Valley. — Eather common in places. 
Allenrolfea occidentalis [= Spyrostachys occidentalism. 

This small, scrubby plant (commonly known as Spyrostachys occi- 
dentalis) can endure more alkali and salt in the soil than any other 
species, and consequently is abundant on many of the salt flats where 
no other species grows. In Death Valley it forms a distinct border 
around the salt flat; and it occurs in similar soils easterly as far as the 
valley of the Virgin and Lower Muddy. 

Suaeda suffrutescens. 

Suceda suffrutescens is a saline plant, requiring both salt and alkali 
in the soil in which it thrives. It can not stand so much salt as Allen- 
rolfea, and consequently is found outside of the Allenrolfea belt around 
the true salt flats. It was recorded from the following localities: 

NEVADA. 

Grapevine Canon. — Common in places. 

Sarcobatus Flat. — Common in places in the northern part of the flat. 
Oasis Valley. — Common throughout the bottom of the valley. 
Pahranagat Valley. — Common in the lower part of the valley. 
Valley of the Virgin and Lower Muddy. — Abundant on the salt flats. 
Indian Spring Valley. — Common about the dry lake at the base of the 
north arm of Indian Spring Valley. 

Sarcobatus baileyi.* 

This new species of Sarcobatus, the second known in the genus, was 
first discovered by Mr. Vernon Bailey in the Candelaria salt marshes 
near Columbus, Nev., in wiuter. It was afterward found by Mr. 
Bailey and myself in Sarcobatus Flat, on the west side of the Ealston 
Desert, where it was common and in full fruit June 2, and on the east 
side of Fish Lake Valley, where it forms a narrow zone at an altitude 



'Coville, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., vol. vn, May 18, 1892, pp. 77-78. 



May, 1893] SHRUBS OF THE DEATH VALLEY EXPEDITION. 331 

of about 2,010 meters (G,600 feet). It grows on gravel soil, while S. 
vermiculatus, as well known, grows on alkaline clayey soils. 

Sarcobatus vermiculatus. 

This characteristic desert shrub grows on clayey alkaline soils through- 
out the Upper Souoran Zone, descending in places into the Lower 
Sonorau. It was observed in the following localities: 

CALIFORNIA. 

Owens Valley. — Common on the alkaline flats in the narrow valley 
between Owens Lake aud Haway Meadows, and in places on the west 
side of the valley between Owens Lake and Lone Pine. 

NEVADA. 

Fish Lake Valley. — The most conspicuous plant on the mud flat in tho 
bottom of the valley, whence it extends easterly on suitable soils to an 
altitude of 2,010 meters (6,700 feet) in the wash leading up to Pigeon 
Spring on the northwest slope of Mount Magruder. 

Sarcobatus Flat. — Abundant on the clayey soil, growing on clay dunes 
as high as a man's head or higher. These Sarcobatus dunes were not 
found elsewhere and were such a peculiar feature of this desert that 
the name Sarcobatus Flat was given it on this account. 

Oasis Valley. — Common throughout the bottom of the valley along 
with Atriplex confertifolia and A. parry i. 

Pahranagat Valley. — Abounds throughout the clayey mud flats of 
the valley up to an altitude of about 1,280 meters (1,200 feet), and is 
distinguishable at a distance from the other shrubs by its peculiar 
green color. 

Meadow Greek Valley. — Common along the bottom. 

Desert Valley. — Common in large patches on the flat bordering the 
dry lake. 

UTAH. 

Shoal Greek. — Occurs in places on the mud flats bordering the creek. 

Eriogonum polifolium. 

This woody Friogvium, the lower part of which is a true bush, is 
common on the upper levels of many of the deserts and along the bases 
of many of the desert ranges, where it was recorded from the following 
localities : 

CALIFORNIA. 

Mohave Desert. — Common on the higher levels. 

Antelope Valley. — Common at the extreme west end of Antelope Val- 
ley in a wash leading south toward Peru Creek. 

Tehachapi Basin. — Occurs, coining up from the Mohave Desert. 

Walker Pass. — In Walker Pass it was common up to 1,130 meters 
(1,700 feet) on the east side; on the west or Kern River side it was 
found as low as 820 meters (2,700 feet) on northerly exposures. 



332 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. [No. 7. 

Owens Valley. — West of Lone Pine this species is common and ranges 
up on the east slope of the Sierra to about 1,890 meters (6,200 feet). 

Eriogonum inflatum. 

This singular species, which was discovered by Fremont in his nota- 
ble journey across the Mohave Desert in 1844, is common on most of 
the deserts in the southern part of the Great Basin, from California to 
Utah, usually occurring on gravelly soil. It is of slight value as a food 
plant for stock, being devoured by some mules and horses. On the 
east slope of Willker Pass it ranges up from the Mohave Desert to an 
altitude of 1,430 meters (4,700 feet). 

Chorizanthe rigida. 

This singular little plant nourishes on the hottest gravel beds of the 
hottest deserts of California, Nevada, Arizona, aud southwestern Utah, 
where it flowers in the early spring. It -is the only species besides the 
creosote bush (Larrea tridentata) that grows on many of the black peb- 
ble beds which become so hot in the sun that all ordinary plants would 
be baked in a few moments. It was recorded in the following locali- 
ties: 

CALIFORNIA. 

Pandmint Valley. — Common in places. 
Death Valley. — Common on the gravel slopes. 

NEVADA. 

Amargosa Desert. — Common, and over large areas the only plant 
growing with the Larrea on the hot pebble beds. 

Grapevine Canon. — Common, coming up from the northwest arm of 
Death Valley and ranging upward on the southwest slope of Mount 
Magruder as high as 1,830 meters (G,000 feet). 

Oasis Valley. — Rather common. 

Indian Spring Valley. — Common on the black pebble beds. . 

UTAH. 

Santa Clara Valley. — Common on the warm gravel slopes. 

Platanus occidentals. 

The sycamore was not found by us in the Great Basin, but is common 
in southern California. It grows in considerable abundance in the 
valley and gorge that the road follows in leading up from Oaliente 
toward Walker Basin (on the west slope of the divide), where it ranges 
up from the valley to an altitude of 820 meters (2,700 feet). It was 
common also in the upper part of Cajon Pass in the San Bernardino 
Mountains, where it was coining into leaf March 30. 

Betula occidentalis. 

The western birch is common along some of the mountain streams on 
the west side of Owens Valley at the foot of the Sierra. 



May, 1893.] TREES OF THE DEATH VALLEY EXPEDITION. 333 

Alnus rhombifolia. 

This alder, which grows to be a large tree, 9 meters (30 feet) or more 
in height, with a tall compact trunk, is common in the valley of the 
Kern Biver, on the west side of the Sierra in California. 

Quercus undulata. 

This evergreen scrub oak was found in the following localities : 

NEVADA. 

Charleston Mountains. — Common in scattered patches near Mountain 
Spring, and down on the west slope to 1,520 meters (5,000 feet). 

Juniper Mountains. — Common in places in the juniper between 
Panaca, Nevada, and Shoal Creek, Utah. 

UTAH. 

Upper Santa Clara Valley. — Found in patches in the Upper Santa 
Clara Valley, beginning about 13 kilometers (8 miles) northwest of St. 
George, at an altitude of about 1,275 meters (4,200 feet) and ranging 
northward through Diamond Valley to the Upper Santa Clara Cross- 
ing and Mountain Meadows. 

Beaver dam Mountains. — Occurs in places on the east slope between 
1,100 and 1,300 meters (3,600 to 4,600 feet). 

Quercus gambelii. 
The Desert Bange scrub oak was found in the following localities : 

NEVADA. 

Juniper Mountains. — Found sparingly from Shoal Creek, Utah, across 
the Juniper Mountain Plateau in eastern Nevada. 

UTAH. 

Mountain Meadows. — Common in scattered patches from the Upper 
Santa Clara Crossing northward to and beyond Mountain Meadows. 

Quercus lobata. 

The white oak is common in the Canada de las Uvas, California, par- 
ticularly on the grounds immediately about Old Fort Tejon, where it 
grows to a great and unusual size. Many trees near the old fort meas- 
ure 6 meters (20 feet) or more in circumference a meter or more (3 or 4 
feet) above the ground, and one measures 8 meters (26 feet 4 inches). 
A colony of purple martens (Progne subis hesperia) was found breed- 
ing in holes high up in these oaks at the time of our visit, the last week 
in June, 1891. Quercus lobata is common also about the borders of 
Tehachapi Valley. One we measured near summit, in the west end of 
the valley, was about 2 meters (6 feet) in diameter 2 meters (6 feet) above 
ground (circumference 5.8 meters or 19 feet 1 inch). 

Quercus douglasii. 

The blue oak is common in Kern Valley and thence southerly along 
the west slope of the Sierra Nevada to Walker Basin and Caliente. 
Between the two last-mentioned localities it forms open groves on the 



334 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. [No. 7. 

grassy hilltops, particularly along the main divide. It is common also 
at Liebre ranch, on the south side of Antelope Valley, which it reaches 
from the adjoining Sierra Liebre. 

Quercus wislizeni. 

This live oak is common along the western foothills of the Sierra 
Nevada, in California, and thence southward. 

Quercus kelloggii. 

Common on the west slope of the Sierra Nevada, where Mr. Bailey 
found it occupying a zone between the altitudes of 1,470 aud 2,160 meters 
(4,900— 7,200 feet) along the East Fork of Kaweah Eiver. 

Quercus dumosa. 

Quercus dumosa is the scrub oak of the Sierra Liebre a«nd Coast Eanges 
generally. It is common on the side hills about Antelope Valley, at 
the extreme west end of the Mohave desert, and thence down through 
the Canada de las Uvas. It is common also in Cajon Pass. 

Castanopsis chrysophylla. 

The California chinquapin grows abundantly on the east slope of the 
High Sierra, in a narrow zone between 2,750 and 2,895 meters (9,000 and 
9,500 feet) altitude, opposite Lone Pine. 

Salix longifolia. 

This small and slender willow forms open thickets about water 
courses and warm springs in some of the Lower Sonoran deserts. It 
was found in the following localities : 

CALIFORNIA. 

Death Valley. — Common along Furnace Creek, on the east side of 
Death Valley, mixed with Pluchea sericea. 

Amargosa Canon. — Found sparingly along the creek in the upper 
part of the canon. 

NEVADA. 

Great Bend of the Colorado. — A slender willow forms extensive 
thickets along the river on both sides of the Great Bend. 
Ash Meadows. — Abundant about the hot springs. 

ARIZONA. 

Beaverdam Creek. — Small willows are abuudaut on the flats bordering 
Beaverdam Creek, near its junction with the Virgin, in northwestern 
Arizona. 

UTAH. 

Santa Clara Valley. — Common along the Virgin, near the mouth of 
the Santa Clara. 

Salix laevigata. 

A single tree of this species marks the position of Lone Willow 
Spring, at the east foot of the Slate Range, near the extreme south end 
of Panamint Valley, California. 



Mat, 1893.] SHRUBS OF THE DEATH VALLEY EXPEDITION. 335 

Salix nigra. 

This large and handsome willow tree is common about the large 
springs at the two ranches in Pahrump Valley, Nevada. 

Other tree willows (species not determined) were found about the 
ranches in Pahranagat Valley, Nevada; along streams on the west side 
of Owens Valley, California, in Kern Biver Valley, and in the lower 
part of the Canada de las Uvas, below Old Fort Tejon. 

Populus fremontii. 

Cottonwood trees grow along some of the permanent water courses 
of the desert region and are often planted along irrigation ditches in 
the settlements. They were found at the following localities: 

CALIFORNIA. 

Kern Valley. — Common along the river. 

Mohave Desert. — Common along the Mohave Eiver near Victor, and 
in a few other places. 

NEVADA. 

Pah ra nagat Valley. — Common. 

Pahrump Valley. — Common about the large springs. 
Vegas Valley. — Common at Vegas Spring and ranch. 
Valley of the Virgin and Muddy. — Very abundant along the streams 
in the Mormon settlements of St. Thomas, Bunkerville, and St. Joe. 

ARIZONA. 

Beaver dam Creek. — Abundant, forming a large forest on the flats 
bordering Beaverdam Creek, near its junctiou with the Virgin. 

UTAH. 

Santa Clara Valley. — Common along the Santa Clara and Virgin 
rivers. 

Ephedra nevadensis. 

This Lower Sonoran species differs conspicuously from the green 
species of the mountains {Ephedra viridis)hy its olive color. It is com- 
mon in many of the desert valleys and was noted in the following lo- 
calities : 

CALIFORNIA. 

Mohave Desert. — Common, reaching west as far as Willow Spring, in 
Antelope Valley. 

Tehaehapi Valley. — Tolerably common, coming up from the Mohave 
Desert through the open canon leading up from near Mohave. Found 
also in Tehaehapi Pass. 

Walker Pass. — On the east slope of Walker Pass the olive Ephedra 
runs up to 1,430 meters (4,700 feet), where it disappears and the green 
species (E. viridis) begins. 

Kern Valley.— Observed at about 820 meters (2,700 feet). 



336 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. [No. 7. 

NEVADA. 

Pahrump Valley. — Common, reaching its upper limit on the east side 
(west slope of Charleston Mountains) at 1,370 meters (4,500 feet). 

Pahranagat Valley. — Common everywhere on the gravel slopes. 

Indian Spring Valley. — Common in the north arm. 

Sarcobatus Flat. — Tolerably common in places. 

Grapevine Canon. — Found in the bottom of the canon. 

Emigrant Valley. — Common and ranging well up on the west slope of 
the Desert Mountains. 

UTAH. 

Beaverdam Mountains. — Found on the west slope of the JBeaverdam 
Mountains up to 1,340 meters (4,400 feet), and on the east slope up to 
1,100 meters (3,600 feet). 

Santa Clara Valley.— Occurs sparingly in the lower part of the valley. 

Ephreda viridis Coville. 

This green Ephedra does not occur in any of the Lower Sonoran des- 
erts, but grows on the mountain sides and plateaus of the Upper Sono- 
ran and Transition zones with sagebrush {Artemisia tridentata) and 
juniper (Juniperus californica utahensis). The following notes on its 
distribution were recorded : 

CALIFORNIA. . \ 

Mohave Desert. — Tolerably common at the summit of Cajon Pass and 
thence along the north base of the San Bernardino Mountains, in the 
juniper belt. 

Walker Pass. — On the east slope of Walker Pass this species begins 
at 1,430 meters (4,700 feet) with Artemisia tridentata and ranges up; 
on the west slope it is common between 1,250 and 1,400 meters (4,100 
and 4,600 feet). 

Sierra Nevada. — Common on the east (Owens Valley) slope from 2,750 
meters (9,000 feet) or higher, down to 1,830 meters (6,000 feet); and 
still lower in places on the Alabama Kange. 

White Mountains. — Rather common along the summit. 

Panamint Mountains. — Common on the higher parts of the range. 

In the basin above Wild Eose Spring it begins above Coleoggne at 
2,740-2,980 meters (6,300-6,500 feet) and runs up to the summit at the 
west base of Telescope Peak, altitude 2,560 meters (8,400 feet). 

NEVADA. 

Mount Ma gruder. — Common over the higher parts of the mountain, 
ranging all the way up to the summit of the main peak with Artemisia 
tridentata; occurs also in the upper part of Tule Canon. 

Gold Mountain. — Common on the summit and ranges down on the 
south slope to 1,830 meters (6,000 feet) with Artemisia tridentata. 

Pahranagat Mountains. — Tolerably common. 

Highland Mange. — Occurs, 



May, 1893.] TKEES OF THE DEATH VALLEY EXPEDITION. 337 

Charleston Mountains. — Common, ranging down on the west slope to 
1,430 meters (4,700 feet). 

UTAH. 

Beaverdam Mountains. — Common, descending to 1,340 meters (4,400 
feet) on the west slope, and to 1,100 meters (3,000 feet) on the east slope. 

Pinus monophylla. 

Pinns monophylla is the only pine belonging properly to the Great 
Basin region, where it occupies the summits of the desert ranges in 
company with Juniperus californica utahensis. It belongs to the Up- 
per Sonoran and Transition zones, and consequently is absent from the 
highest peaks of the White and Charleston mountains, whose summits 
are truly Boreal. It usually begins a few hundred feet above the lower 
border of the juniper belt and ranges up a little higher than the juniper, 
though the two are mixed over the greater part of their ranges. In 
some areas the juniper i)redoininates, as in the Juniper Plateau between 
Meadow Creek Valley, Nevada, and the Escalante Desert in Utah, while 
in other areas the nut pine predominates, as on Mount Magruder. 

Finns monophylla is easily distinguished from the piiion of Arizona 
(Pinus edulis) by its greater size, larger nuts, and single leaf. P. 
edulis has two leaves. Both species have short and open cones from 
which the nuts are easily dislodged by shaking. The nuts are eagerly 
devoured by wild turkeys, piiion jays, and many other species. 

The nut pine furnishes the most important food of the Indians in- 
habiting the southern part of the Great. Basin, namely, the Paiutes, 
Shoshones, and Pauamints, who gather its cones in large quantities 
and roast them in heaps, after which the nuts are extracted and placed 
in large caches for winter use. They are eaten in a raw state as well 
as roasted, and are pounded into hour and baked into a sort of bread. 

Mount Magruder is notable for the luxuriance of the nut pine for- 
ests which clothe its higher hills and peaks, and has long been a 
favorite resort of the Paiute Indians, who speak of it as 'Nut Pine 
Mountain/ and spend a considerable part of each year there for the 
sole purpose of collecting the nuts. The trees often attain a height of 
12 or even 15 meters (40 to 50 feet) and a diameter of half a meter 
(nearly 20 inches). The following notes were recorded on the distribu- 
tion of the nut pine in the region traversed : 

CALIFORNIA. 

Sierra Nevada. — On the east slope of the Sierra opposite Lone Pine 
the nut pine belt ranges from 1,830 to 2,440 meters'(6,000 to 8,000 feet) 
in width. 

Waller Pass. — On the east side of Walker Pass it begins a little 
above 1,430 meters (4,700 feet) on northerly exposures and ranges up 
over the summit of the pass at 1,525 meters (5,000 feet) and clown on 
the west slope as low as 1,310 meters (4,300 feet) in places. 

Tehachapi Mountains. — Common, and ranging down to about 1,130 
12731— No. 7 22 



338 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. [No. 7. 

meters (3,700 feet) on the side of the open canon leading from Teha- 
chapi Valley to the Mohave Desert. 

Panamint Mountains. — Common with the juniper along the summit 
of the Panamint Eange. In the basin above Wild Hose Spring on the 
northwest slope of Telescope Peak it descends to 1,980 or 1,920 meters 
(6,500 or 6,300 feet), and ranges up on this peak to 2,740 meters (9,000 
feet), or higher. Heaps of cones were found in many places in the Pan- 
amint Mountains, where they had been left by the Indians after the nuts 
had been extracted. 

White Mountains. — Common, descending to 2,040 meters (6,700 feet) 
on the east slope above Deep Spring Valley. 

NEVADA. 

Charleston Mountains. — Common with the juniper, descending on the 
west slope to about 1,550 meters (5,100 feet). 

Pahroc Mountains. — Common on the higher parts of the range, and 
lower down in the canons. 

Gold Mountain. — Common along the summit, descending on the 
south side as low at least as 2,070 meters (6,800 feet). 

Mount Magruder. — As already stated, the nut pine grows in greater 
abundance on Mount Magruder than in any other locality visited by 
the expedition, forming handsome forests on many of the knobs and 
peaks that rise from the mountain plateau, where it is very little mixed 
with juniper. 

Juniper Mountains. — Scarce in the dense juniper forest extending 
from Meadow Creek Valley, Nevada, to the Escalante Desert in Utah. 

UTAH. 

Upper Santa Clara Valley. — Begins about 13 kilometers (8 miles) north- 
west of St. George on south exposures at an altitude of about 1,270 
meters (4,200 feet) and grows scattering on the side hills in the Upper 
Santa Clara Valley, ranging thence westerly to the Shoal Creek country. 

Beaverdam Mountains. — Tolerably common on the Beaverdam Moun- 
tains, ranging down on the east side to about 1,160 meters (3,800 feet), 
and on the west slope to about 1,340 meters (4,400 feet). 

ARIZONA. 

Virgin Mountains. — On the west side of the Virgin Mountains the 
nut pine forms a broad zone, mixed with juniper, coming fully halfway 
down to the foot of the range. 

Pinus ponderosa. • 

Mr. Bailey tells me that Pinus ponderosa is common on the west 
slope of the Sierra Nevada along the East Fork of Kaweah Eiver, grow- 
ing with Sequoia gigantea in a belt between the altitude of 1,830 and 
2,100 meters (6,000 to 7,000 feet). Its range is below that of Pinus 

jeffreyi. 



May, 1893.] TREES OF THE DEATH VALLEY EXPEDITION. 339 

Pinus ponderosa scopulorum. 

The yellow i>ine grows in a broad zone on Charleston Teak, Nevada, 
and on Pine Valley Mountain, Utah, in both of which localities it is 
cut for lumber. It is said to be common in the higher parts of the 
Virgin and Highland ranges. A few scattering trees were found on 
the higher hills of the Juniper Mountains near Sheep Spring (between 
Panaca, Nevada, and Shoal Creek, Utah), at an altitude of about 2,010 
meters (6,700 feet). 

Pinus jeffreyi. 

This large pine is common in the High Sierra in California, ranging 
upward on the east slope from about 2,750 meters (9,000 feet) to 2,900 
meters (9,500 feet). 

Pinus murrayana. 

On the High Sierra in California Pinus murrayana, reaches timber- 
line with P. balfouriana, and ranges down on the east side to an alti- 
tude of about 2,900 meters (9,500 feet) or lower, growing to be a large 
tree. 

Pinus balfouriana. 

In the High Sierra in California, Pinus balfouriana and P. mur- 
rayana reach timber-line, whence they descend on the east slope to an 
altitude of about 2,900 meters (9,500 feet) or a little lower, where they 
grow to be large trees 15 to 20 meters (50 to 65 feet) in height and a 
meter or more (3 or 4 feet) in diameter. 

Pinus aristata. 

P. aristata was found on the summit of the Panamint Mountains, in 
California, by Mr. Bailey and Dr. Fisher, and on Charleston Peak, 
Nevada, by Mr. Coville and Mr. Palmer. 

A pine of this type was found by Mr. Nelson on the higher parts of 
the White and Inyo mountains, California, but whether P. aristata or 
P. balfouriana is not certain. 

Pinus sabiniana. 

This remarkable tree, with very open foliage and huge cones, is char- 
acteristic of the west slope of the Sierra and the Coast Ranges of Cali- 
fornia, and does not occur anywhere within the Great Basin. It was 
common along the route traversed from a mile west of the summit of 
Walker Pass toKernville, and thence southward to Walker Basin, and 
was found also on the Sierra Liebre, growing with and below Pinus 
monophyllOj and descending on the north slope nearly to Antelope 
Valley in the neighborhood of Liebre ranch. 

Pinus monticola. 

Pinus monticola is one of the timber-line trees. On the rocky west 
slope of the Sierra Nevada, above Mineral King, Mr. Bailey found it 
at an altitude of 2,930 meters (9,600 feet), and thence upward to 3,120 
meters (10,400 feet). In that locality but one pine (Pinus balfouriana) 
extended higher. 



340 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. [No. 7. 

Pinus lambertiana. 

Common on the west slope of the Sierra Nevada in a well-marked 
belt, the vertical breadth of which along the East Fork of Kaweah 
River was determined by Mr. Bailey to be about 360 meters (1,200 
feet), or from 1,830 to 2,160 meters (6,000 to 7,200 feet) in altitude. 
Mr. Bailey found it common at Trout Meadows, and thence along the 
upper Kern River to above Soda Springs. 

Pinus flexilis. 

In California this species was found on the Panamint Mountains 
above an altitude of about 3,050 meters (10,000 feet), and on the High 
Sierra, where it ranges from 2,830 to 3,050 meters (9,300 to 10,000 feet). 
In Nevada it was found on Charleston Peak by Mr. Coville and Mr. 
Palmer. 

Abies magnifica. 

Common on the High Sierra. Mr. Bailey informs me that he ob- 
served it on the west slope near Mineral King at an altitude of 2,230 
meters (7,450 feet), and thence up to about 3,090 meters (10,300 feet), 
where it nearly reaches timber-line. 

Abies concolor. 

Common on the High Sierra. On the west slope Mr. Bailey found it 
between the altitudes of 1,830 and 2,160 meters (6,000 to 7,200 feet) 
on the East Fork of Kaweah River, and up to 2,300 meters (7,700 feet) 
on Kern River. 

Pseudotsuga macrocarpa. 

This species of spruce occurs in gulches on the west side of Cajon 
Pass at an altitude of 670 meters (2,200 feet) and upwards, and was 
found also on the south side of the Sierra Liebre along the upper val- 
ley of Peru Creek, just below Alamo ranch. Cajon Pass is the type 
locality of this species. 

Sequoia gigantea. 

Sequoia gigantea forms a conspicuous but narrow and interrupted belt 
on the west slope of the Sierra Nevada. Mr. Bailey informs me that 
along the East Fork of Kaweah River he found it between the altitudes 
of 1,830 to 2,000 meters (6,000 to 6,600 feet), on a very gradual slope, so 
that the actual breadth of the forest was about 5 miles. 

Libocedrus decurreiis. 

Mr. Bailey found Libocedrus decurrens common on the west slope of 
the Sierra Nevada, along the East Fork of Kaweah River, from 1,830 to 
2,160 meters (6,000 to 7,200 feet) altitude, and along the North Fork of 
Kern River up to the cliffs above Soda Springs. 

Juniperus californica. 

The typical form occurs on the coastal slope of the Great Divide in 
California, sometimes ranging over a short distance on the Great Basin 
side, as along the north base of the San Bernardino Mountains. 



May,iS93.] TREES OF THE DEATH VALLEY EXPEDITION. 341 

It was observed in the following localities: 

CALIFORNIA. 

West slope of the Sierra. — Common on the sitlehills about Kernville, 
where it descends as low as 790 meters (2,600 feet) on the north slopes, 
and ranges southward along the road from Kernville to Havilah. It 
reaches the summit of Walker Pass (1,550 meters, or 5,100 feet). 

sierra Liebre. — Common on the north slope opposite the western 
part of Antelope Valley. 

Tehaehapi Mountains. — Common, ranging down into the tree yuccas 
on the side of the open canon leading from Tehaehapi Valley down to 
Mohave (altitude, about 1,090 meters, or 3,G00 feet). 

Mohave Desert and San Bernardino Mountains. — Along the north foot 
of San Bernardino Mountains, at the extreme southern edge of the 
Mohave Desert, is a well-defined belt of juniper about 8 miles in width, 
ranging from the summit of Cajon Pass at an altitude of 1,215 meters 
(4,000 feet) down through the upper part of the tree yucca zone to an 
altitude of 1,060 meters (3,500). 

Juniperus californica utahensis. 

Juniperus californicus utahensis, either alone or in company with the 
nut pine (Pinus monophylla), clothes the summits of most of the desert 
ranges, where it reaches as high as the upper limit of the Transition 
zone. It is the only juniper inhabiting the southern part of the Great 
Basin, and does not grow below the Upper Sonoran zone; conse- 
quently it is absent from the lower ranges and also from the exces- 
sively barren Funeral and Amargosa ra nges between Death Valley 
and the Amargosa Desert. The following notes on its distribution 
were recorded: 

CALIFORNIA. 

White and Inyo mountains. — Abundant along the summit of the 
range (except on the higher peaks of the White Mountains, which are 
too high for it and are clothed with pines and spruces). On the east 
slope of the White Mountains, opposite Deep Spring Valley, junipers 
descend with nut pines to 2,040 meters (6,700 feet). 

Panamint Mountains. — Common throughout the higher parts of the 
range. In the basin above Wild Rose Spring on the northwest slope 
of Telescope Peak, junipers begin at 1,900 meters (about 6,300 feet), 
and run up to 2,550 meters (8,400 feet) or higher. 

NEVADA. 

Mount Mae/ruder. — The juniper is scarce on Mount Magruder, where 
its place is taken by the nut pine (Pinus monophylla). 

Gold, Mountain — Common in sheltered cauous, and in places on the 
summit. 

Hungry Hill Summit. — Common on the divide and neighboring hills, 
reaching down on the south side to about 1,525 meters (5,000 feet). 



342 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. [No. 7. 

Pahr.anagat Mountains. — Common on the summit of the range, reach- 
ing down to 1,585 meters (5,200 feet) on the east slope. 

Pahroe Mountains. — Common on the higher parts of the range and in 
canons. 

Hyho Range. — Common on the higher parts. 

Highland Range. — Abundant, descending to about 1,830 meters (6,000 
feet) on the west side. On the east side of the Highland Range it de- 
scends to 1,700 meters (5,G00 feet), thus reaching within a few hundred 
feet of the bottom of Meadow Creek Valley. 

Juniper Mountains (between Meadow Creek Valley, Nevada, and 
Shoal Creek, Utah). — The most extensive and purest juniper forest I 
have ever seen covers the rolling plateau along the boundary between 
Nevada and Utah, reaching from an altitude of 1,765 meters (about 
5,800 feet) on the east side of Meadow Creek Valley, Nevada, all the 
way across to Shoal Creek on the borders of the Escalante Desert in 
Utah. This continuous juniper forest is more than 20 miles in breadth 
without a break and is mixed with very little nut pine. On the Shoal 
Creek side it descends to 1,830 meters (6,000 feet). The altitude of the 
plateau which it occupies, and which is here called the Juniper Moun- 
tains for lack of a better name, varies from a little over 1,830 meters 
(6,000 feet) up to about 2,100 meters (7,000 feet). 

Charleston Mountains. — Common throughout the Charleston Moun- 
tains, except on the summit of the main peak, which is too high for it. 
On the west slope (Pahrump Valley side) it descends to 1,550 meters 
(5,100 feet). 

ARIZONA AND UTAH. 

Virgin and Beaverdam mountains. — Common in a broad zone on the 
Virgin Mountains, reaching down more than halfway to the valley; 
and on the west slope of the Beaverdam Mountains down to 1,310 
meters (4,400 feet). 

UTAH. 

Beaverdam Mountains. — On the east slope junipers descend to 1,095 
meters (3,600 feet) spreading out to the northward over the upper part 
of the Upper Santa Clara Valley, where they cover all the sidehills. 

Fine Valley Mountain. — Abundant in a broad zone around the base 
of the mountain, and stretching thence northwesterly over the Upper 
Santa Clara Valley, forming a sparse forest on the hillsides until it 
reaches the Shoal Creek country, where it joins the continuous forest 
already described. In the Upper Santa Clara Valley it descends 
to 1,280 meters (about 4,200 feet) at a distance of only 13 kilometers 
(8 miles) northwest of St. George, thence forming a scattered forest 
over the sidehills in a belt at least 10 miles wide south of the Upper 
Santa Clara crossing, and reaching thence northerly to the borders of 
the Escalante Desert, south of which it is continuous with the great 
forest covering the Juniper Plateau. 



May, 1893.] TREES OF THE DEATH VALLEY EXPEDITION. 343 

Juniperus occidentalis. 

This species grows on the higher summits of the Panamiut Moun- 
tains, California, above the upper limit of Juniperus californica utah- 
ensis. Oil the north slope of Telescope Peak Mr. Bailey found it as 
high as 2,830 meters (9,300 feet). 

Juniperus occidentalis monosperma. 

This subspecies was identified by Mr. Coville as the form growing 
high up in the Charleston Mountains, Nevada. 

Tumion californicum. 

This singular tree grows along the west slope of the Sierra Nevada. 
Mr. Bailey found it on the East Fork of Kaweah River between the 
altitudes of 1,170 and 1,830 meters (3,950 to 0,000 feet). 



NOTES ON THE GEOGRAPHIC AND VERTICAL DISTRIBUTION OF CAC- 
TUSES, YUCCAS, AND AGAVE, IN THE DESERTS AND DESERT RANGES 
OF SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA, SOUTHERN NEVADA, NORTHWESTERN 
ARIZONA, AND SOUTHWESTERN UTAH. 



By C. Hart Merriam, M. D. 



The following notes on the vertical and geographic distribution of 
the desert cactuses, yuccas, and agave were made by me in April, 
May, and June, 1891, along the route traversed from the north end of 
Cajon Pass, in the San Bernardino Mountains, to the St. George Valley 
at the foot of the Hurricane Cliffs, in southwestern Utah, and thence 
westerly across Nevada to Owens Valley, California, and southward 
and southwestward to the extreme end of the western tongue of the 
Mohave Desert (Antelope Valley), including the several passes (Walker, 
Tehachapi, and the Canada de las Uvas), by means of which communica- 
tion is established between the Mohave Desert on the east and the 
Bakersfield Plain or upper San Joaquin Valley on the west. A de- 
tailed itinerary of this trip may be found in Part I of the present report. 

Nearly all of the species were photographed by me in the field, and 
in most instances parts of the individual plant photographed were 
brought back for positive identification. As in the case of the desert 
shrubs, Mr. F. V. Coville is responsible for the nomenclature employed. 

LIST OF CACTUSES, YUCCAS, AND AGAVE. 



Cereus engelmanni. 
mohavensis. 
Opuntia acanthocarpa. 

bernard'uia. 

echhiocarpa. 

wJiipplei. 

parryi. 

ramosissima. 

pulchella. 

basilaris. 

engelmanni occidentalis. 

rutila. 



JEchinocacius job nsoni. 

polycephalw. 

2)olyancistrtis. 
loislizeni lecontei. 
Mamillaria sp. 
Yucca baceata. 

arborescens. 
elata ? 
macrocarpa. 
wliipplei. 
Agave utahensis. 



345 



346 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. [No. 7. 

Cereus engelmannl. 

This is the commonest and most widely diffused cactus of the genus 
Cereus over the deserts of southern Nevada and southeastern Cali- 
fornia, where it was .found in the following localities: 

CALIFORNIA. 

Beep Spring Valley. — Tolerably common in the wash leading np 
from Deep Spring Valley to the pass over the White Mountains ; in 
full flower June 10. Found also on the Inyo Mountains. 

Panamint Mountains. — Common in places. 

NEVADA. 

Gold Mountain. — Tolerably common on the south slope above 1,550 
meters (5,100 feet); in flower June 3. 

Timpahute and Desert Mountains. — Tolerably common on both slopes. 

Pahranagat Valley. — Common on rocky slopes; in full flower May 
22-26. 

Pahranagat Mountains. — Common in places. 

Juniper Mountains. — Common; in flower May 5. 

Muddy Mountains. — Eather common; in full flower May 5. 

UTAH. 

Beaverdam Mountains. — Common, ranging from 730 to 1,350 meters 
(2,400 to 4,400 feet) on the west slope, and from 1,100 to 1,300 meters 
(3,600 to 4,300 feet) on the east slope; in flower May 10-11. 

Santa Clara Valley. — Occurs in places; in flower May 11-15. 

Cereus mohavensis. 

This cactus grows in dense clumps in rocky places on the sides of 
the Desert liauges, usually in canons, and bears dark, purple-red 
flowers. It was observed in the following localities: 

CALIFORNIA. 

White Mountains. — Common in places on the east slope above Deep 
Spring Valley, beginning at an altitude of 1,900 meters (6,300 feet) and 
ranging up to the summit of the divide; in flower June 10. 

Panamint Mountains. — Common in places along the summit, particu- 
larly north of Telescope Peak; not yet in flower, April 17-19. 

NEVADA. 

Charleston Mountains. — Found in a few places on the west slope of 
the Charleston Mountains above 1,550 meters (5,100 feet); beginning 
to flower April 29. 

Pahranagat Mountains. — Found along the summit of the range; in 
flower May 26. 

Highland Range. — Found on the west slope of the range; in flower 
May 20. 

Juniper Mountains. — Tolerably common in places among the junipers 
from 1,820 to 2,050 meters (6,000 to 6,700 feet) in altitude; in flower 
May 18-19. 



Mat, 1893.] CACTUSES OF THE DEATH VALLEY EXPEDITION. 347 

UTAH. 

Santa Clara Valley.— Found in the Upper Santa Clara Valley at an 
altitude of 1,500 or 1,525 meters (4,900 or 5,000 feet). Its deep red 
flowers were fully open May 1G. 

Opuntia acanthocarpa. (Plates vn and vni.) 

This cylindrical-stemmed cactus, which is considerably larger than 
O. echinocarpa, from which it differs also in having more distant 
branches and fewer spines, was not observed in California or western 
Nevada, but was found in eastern Nevada, on the east side of the valley 
of the Virgin, a few miles from the Mormon town of Bunkerville, and 
thence easterly to an altitude of 1,340 meters (4,400 feet) on the west 
slope of the Beaverdam Mountains, in Utah. On the east slope of the 
Beaverdam Mountains it was found between 1,090 and 1,300 meters 
(3,600-4,300 feet). It was found also in the Lower Santa Clara Valley, 
Utah. 
Opuntia bernardina. 

This tall, arborescent, cylindrical cactus barely enters the region 
explored by the expedition. In southern California it is common on 
the San Bernardino Plain, and ranges northward through Cajon Pass, 
becoming scarce toward the summit. A little further west it is common 
in the Santa Clara Valley near the mouth of Castac Creek (about 4 
miles north of the railroad switch 'Castac') at an altitude of 335 
meters (1,100 feet) and thence southerly. IrTthe region in which it 
grows it forms the favorite nesting sites for the cactus wren (Campy- 
lorhynchus brunneicapillus). 
Opuntia echinocarpa. 

This is the common arborescent cactus of the Mohave Desert region 
and the deserts of southern Nevada, over which it is widely distrib- 
uted. It has inconspicuous green flowers, and was in blossom at the 
south end of Death Valley April 26, and at Bitter Springs, Nevada, 
May 5. 

Two characteristic desert birds build their nests in this cactus almost 
exclusively, namely, Leconte's thrasher (Harporhynchus lecontei) and 
the cactus wren (Campylorhynchus brunneica/pillus), and another spe- 
cies, the black-throated desert sparrow (Amphispiza bilineata), nests in 
it and in other situations also. 

CALIFORNIA. 

Mohave Desert. — Common and widely distributed, reaching westerly 
throughout Antelope Valley. It runs up the open canon leading from 
Mohave to Tehachapi as high as 1,050 meters (3,450 feet). 

Walker Pass. — Common among the tree yuccas on both sides of the 
pass, descending in Kern Valley as low as 820 meters (2,700 feet) or 
perhaps still lower. 

Owens Valley. — Common, and ranging up on the west side (east slope 
of Sierra) to 1,830 or 1,900 meters (6,000 or 6,200 feet). 



318 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. [No. 7. 

Panamint Valley. — Common. 

Death Valley. — Common, beginning to flower at Saratoga Springs 
April 26 (flowers green). 

Beep Spring Valley. — Occurs on the west side in the wash leading up 
to the pass over the White Mountains. 

NEVADA. 

Pahrump Valley. — Common, reaching up to the divide near Mountain 
Spring on the Charleston Mountains, at an altitude of 1,700 meters 
(5,600 feet). 

Vegas Valley. — Common. 

Bitter Springs. — Common in the Muddy Mountains and in flower 
May 5. 

Valley of the Virgin and Bower Muddy. — Common on the gravel mesa 
between the Muddy and Virgin rivers. 

Fish Balce Valley. — Occurs and ranges up on northwest slope of Mount 
Magruder to 1,950 meters (6,400 feet). 

Grapevine Canon. — Occurs. 

Timpahute and Besert mountains. — Occurs. 

Pahranagat Valley. — Common. 

Pahranagat Mountains. — Occurs. 

UTAH. 

Bcaverdam Mountains. — Comes up on the northwest slope of the Bea- 
verdam Mountains to 1,450 meters (3,800 feet) from the Upper Virgin 
Valley. 

Santa Clara Valley. — Common in the Lower Santa Clara Valley in 
the neighborhood of St. George, but not observed on the east slope of 
the Beaverdam Mountains. In the Upper Santa Clara Valley it is 
replaced by the larger and much handsomer densely-spined species 
O. whipplei. 
Opuntia -whipplei. (Plate ix.) 

This remarkable species, noteworthy on account of the closeness of 
its branches, the shortness of its joints, and the multitude of its spines, 
is abundant in patches among the juniper and sagebrush along the 
Upper Santa Clara River, near the upper crossing in Utah, at an alti- 
tude of about 1,525 meters (5,000 feet), and was found also on the west 
slopes of the Highland and Juniper ranges in Nevada, but was not seen 
elsewhere. On the west slope of the Juniper Plateau it was found 
betweeu the altitude of 1,830 and 1,980 meters (0,000 and 6,500 feet). 
The fruit differs from that of O. eehinoearpa in bearing few or no spines. 

Opuntia parryi. (Plate x.) 

This species was found only in Indian Spring Valley, Nevada, 
and on the west slope of the Charleston Mountains, below Mountain 
Spring. In Indian Spring Valley it is confined to a limited area about 
17 miles west of Indian Spring on and near the low divide between this 



May, 1893.] CACTUSES OF THE DEATH VALLEY EXPEDITION. 349 

valley and Ash Meadows. It is a remarkably prostrate form of the 
cylindrical-stemmed section of the genus, and its characters are well 
shown in the accompanying photograph. 

Opuiitia ramosissima. 

This very characteristic species, easily recognized by the small diam- 
eter of its stems and branches, was not found in California or in Nevada 
west of the North Kingston Mountains, where it was first seen, and 
where it seems to reach its western limit. It was found also through- 
out Indian Spring Valley and on both slopes of the Timpahute and 
Desert mountains, ranging down on the east side (west side of Tim- 
pahute Desert) to 1,500 meters (4,900 feet), and was seen on the east 
side of the Valley of the Virgin,, near Bunkerville, Nev., and near the 
month of Beaverdam Creek, Arizona. 

Opuntia pulchella. 

This singular little species, having a remarkably large root, was 
observed in but a single locality, namely, the south end of Fish Lake 
Valley, on the boundary between California and Nevada, where it was 
in full flower June 8. The blossoms are pink. 

Opuntia basilaris. 

Opuntia basilaris is one of the commonest cactuses of the Sonoran 
deserts, and may be recognized by the obcordate shape of its pads 
and the scantiness of its spines. Its purple-red flowers grow in great 
numbers on the upper edges of the pads, as many as eight open blossoms 
and several buds having been seen on a single pad at one time. The 
species was observed in the following localities: 

CALIFORNIA. 

Mohave Desert. — Common in places. 

Tehachapi Valley and Pass. — Tolerably common, and still in flower as 
late as June 25. 

Walker Pass and Kern Valley. — Common on the east slope up to 1,430 
meters (4,700 feet). On the west slope it descends into the valley of 
Kern River, where it is tolerably common on northerly exposures as 
low as 820 meters (2,700 feet). 

Owens Valley. — Tolerably common in places. 

Beep Spring Valley. — Found in the wash leading up from Deep Spring 
Valley to the pass over the White Mountains. 

Panamint Valley. — Common in places, running over the greater part 
of the Panamint Mountains, where it was tolerably common in Perog- 
nathus Flat. 

Death Valley. — Common in places, particularly at Saratoga Springs 
at the south end of the valley, where it was in full flower as early as 
April 26. 

NEVADA. 

Fish Lake Valley. — Tolerably common, ranging up on the northwest 
slope of Mount Magruder to about 1,850 meters (6,100 feet). 



350 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. [No. 7. 

Grapevine Canon. — Common on the north side of the canon and rang- 
ing up on the Gold Mountain slope between 1,525 and 1,830 meters (5,000 
and 0,000 feet). 

Timpahute Mountains. — Abundant and flowering profusely. Eanges 
up to 1,275 or 1,300 meters (1,200 or 1,300 feet) on the road to Pahroc 
Plain. Occurs also on Pahrauagat Mountains. 

Muddy Mountains. — Common near Bitter Spring (in full flower May 
5). 

Valley of the Virgin and Lower Muddy. — Common on dry gravel soils. 

ARIZONA AND UTAH. 

Beaverdam Mountains. — Common on the east side of the Virgin Val- 
ley, ranging thence up on the west slope of the Beaverdam Mountains 
to 1,150 meters (3,800 feet). 

Opujitia engelmanni occidentalis. 

Abundant throughout the San Bernardino Plain, ranging up to the 
base of the San Bernardino Mountains and entering the lower part of 
Cajon Pass, where it reaches an altitude of about 730 meters (2,100 
feet). It occurs in patches in the Santa Clara*Valley near the mouth 
of Castac Creek. In Castac Valley the highest plant was seen on the 
north side at an altitude of 601) meters (2,000 feet), but it was rare 
above 330 meters (1,100 feet), where both it and Opuntia bernardina 
became common together about 4 miles north of the railway switch 
known as 'Castac' 

A related cactus, which Mr. Coville informs me is probably Opuntia 
ehlorotica, was found along the Colorado River, in the western part of 
Vegas Desert near Lower Cottonwood Springs, and on the west slope 
of the Charleston Mountains between 1,675 and 1,730 meters (5,500 and 
5,700 feet) altitude. 

Sheep Spring, Juniper Mountains. — A cactus resembling Opuntia en- 
gelmanni, but with smaller and more spiny pads, which differ further 
from those of O. engelmanni in not growing on top of one another 
several tiers high, was common in the sage and juniper in the Juniper 
Mountains between Meadow Creek Valley, Nevada, and Shoal Creek, 
Utah, from 1,920 to 2,070 meters (6,300 to 6,800 feet) altitude. 

Opuntia rutila. (Plate xi.) 

This species, which has enormously long and slender spines, was 
not found in California except on the Panamint Mountains, where it 
was common along the summit, ranging down on the west slope above 
Wild Rose Spring to an altitude of 1,900 meters (6,300 feet). In Nevada 
it was found on the Charleston, Pahranagat, Desert, and Timpahute 
mountains, and in the Virgin Valley. In Utah it was found on the 
west slope of the Beaverdam Mountains, up to 1,150 meters (3,800 feet), 
and occurred in places in the Santa Clara Valley. 

Along the west base of the Desert Mountains near Quartz Spring it 
^vas common and in flower May 27, and the flowers were yellow. All 



Mat, 1893.] CACTUSES OF THE DEATH VALLEY EXPEDITION. 351 

of the other flowers seen were red. It is possible that two species are 
here confounded. 
Echinocactus johnsoni. 

This species is about one-third the size of E. wislizeni, which it 
greatly resembles. Its flowers are deep red. It was found on the west 
slope of the Beaverdam Mountains in southwestern Utah, at an alti- 
tude of 1,030 meters (3,400 feet), and ranged thence up over the divide 
to 1,525 meters (5,000 feet). A small form referred to the same species 
was common on steep gravel slopes in Vegas Wash, Nevada, where it 
was in full flower May 3. It was eaten by the Paiute Indians, who 
peel it as we would a cucumber. 

Echinocactus polycephalus. 

This striking species, commonly called l nigger head' in the desert 
region, and resembling loose clusters of cocoa-nuts, is common on many 
of the desert valleys in the southern part of the Great Basin. It was 
observed in the following localities : 

CALIFORNIA. 

Inyo Mountains. — Found along the west side of the range in Owens 
Valley. 

Panamlnt Mountains. — Found in the upper part of tile Larrea on the 
wo.st side of the divide between Perognathus Flat and Wild Rose 
Spring. 

NEVADA. 

Indian Spring Valley. — Common on the rocky walls of the canon 
leading from the extreme west end of Indian Spring Valley down 
toward Ash Meadows. 

Desert Mountains. — Grows sparingly along the west base of the Des- 
ert Mountains, near Quartz Spring. 

North Kingston Range. — Common in places. 

Ash Meadows. — Common on the low rocky mountains on the east side 
of Ash Meadows. 

Pahranagat Valley. — A few clusters of heads were seen in rocky places 
on the east side of the valley. 

Muddy Mountains. — A few seen in the Muddy Mountains above Bit- 
ter Springs. 

Valley of the Virgin and Lower Muddy. — Found in a few places among 
rocks, particularly on the gravel mesa near the boundary line between 
Arizona and Nevada. Common on the high mesa between the Virgin 
and Muddy. 

[The species was not seen on the east slope of the Beaverdam Moun- 
tains, in Utah ] 

Echinocactus polyancistrus. 

This species, which resembles a pineapple in general size and appear- 
ance, was found in flower on the east slope of the White Mountains, 



352 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. [No. 7. 

California, a little above the south end of Fish Lake Valley, June 9. 
The flowers are red. 

Echinocactus wislizeni lecontei. 

This large barrel-cactus is not common in the region traversed. In 
California it was found in the Panamint Mountains (common in Sur- 
prise Canon). 

NEVADA. 

Virgin Mesa. — Common on the high gravel mesa between the Virgin 
and Muddy valleys. 

UTAH. 

Beaverdam Mountains. — Found on the west slope of the Beaverdam 
Mountains between 730 and 1,340 meters (2,400-4,400 feet), but not 
seen on the east slope. 

Mamillaria. 

Owing to the uncertainty respecting the species of Mamillaria ob- 
served, our notes are of very little value. Eepresentatives of the genus 
were found in the following localities in Nevada: Mountain Spring, 
Charleston Mountains; Great Bend of the Colorado Eiver; Bitter 
Springs (where.it was in flower May 5, flowers rich red); and on steep 
gravel slopes near the boundary between Arizona and Nevada on the 
west side of the Virgin Valley. 

Yucca baccata. (Plate xn.) 

This elegant yucca is by far the handsomest species growing in the 
desert regions of the Southwest, where it was found in the following 
localities : 

NEVADA. 

Charleston Mountains. — Yucca baccata was first seen on the west slope 
(Pahrump Valley side) of the Charleston Mountains, in the upper part 
of the tree yucca belt, at an altitude of about 1,430 meters (4,700 feet), 
whence it ranges up to the divide at Mountain Spring, a little less 
than 1,830 meters (or 6,000 feet), and down on the east side to 1,340 
meters (4,400 feet), where it was mixed with Yucca macrocarpa. It was 
budding abundantly April 30, but only a few flowers had expanded. 

Indian Spring Valley. — Tolerably common at the north end of the 
north arm of Indian Spring Valley at an altitude of about 1,400 meters 
(4,600 feet), whence it ranges up toward Hungry Hill Summit to 1,700 
meters (5,600 feet), where it was flowering in great perfection May 27. 

Timpahute and Desert Mountains. — Occurs sparingly in the neighbor- 
hood of Mud or Summit Spring. 

Pakranagat Valley. — Occurs sparingly on the west side of the valley, 
beginning about a mile from the bottom at an altitude of 1,270 meters 
(4,200 feet) and ranging up to 1,400 meters (4,600 feet). 

Hylco Mountains. — Occurs sparingly along the open canou or wash 
leading from Pahroc Plain into Pahrauagat Valley. 



May, 1.893.1 YUCCAS OF THE DEATH VALLEY EXPEDITION. 353 

Pahroc Mountains. — Tolerably common near Pahroc Spring. 

Highland Range. — Occurs sparingly on the west slope. 

Juniper Mountains. — Found sparingly on the west slope of the Ju- 
niper Mountains between Panaca and Sheep Spring, at an altitude of 
1 ,830 to 1,970 meters (0,000 to 0,500 feet). Here it was only in bud May 
19, though it was in flower on the Beaverdam Mountains ami on the 
south slope of Pine Valley Mountain, Utah, a week or ten days earlier. 

UTAH. 

Santa Clara Valley. — In the Upper Santa Clara Valley, north of St. 
George, this handsome species occurs in a belt a few miles wide, begin- 
ning at about 1,150 meters (3,800 feet) and reaching up to 1,460 meters 
(4,800 feet). 

Beaverdam Mountains. — Common, ranging down to 1,080 meters (3,600 
feet) on the east slope, and 1,030 meters (3,400 feet) on the west slope. 
It was beginning to flower May 10, though some plants were only in 
bud at that time. 

Yucca arborescens [=Yucca hrerifolia~\. (Plate xiii and frontispiece. ) 

Among the many unusual and peculiar modifications of plant life of 
the desert regions of the southwestern United States, none is more re- 
markable or striking than the tree yucca (Yucca arborescens). 

Tree yuccas form open forests or groves, usually of small size, but 
sometimes 15 or 20 miles or more in length, according to the extent of 
the area suitable to their requirements. The individual trees are well 
spaced and vary from 6 to meters (20 to 30 feet) in height. They 
branch in a very peculiar manner and are abundantly clothed with 
stiff, spiny leaves set so near together that their bases are in actual 
contact. As the tree grows the leaves die from below upward, and'the 
dead ones at first point outward at right angles to the trunk, and then 
downward, their points surrounding the branch or trunk like a belt of 
bayonets, effectually preventing most animals from climbing up from 
below. The dead leaves fall off after a year or two, so that the trunks 
and lower parts of the main branches finally become bare. 

Tree yuccas are abundant about the borders of the Mohave Desert 
and on many of the included ' lost ranges,' and also in places of suit- 
able elevation throughout the deserts of southeastern California, south- 
ern Nevada, western Arizona, and the extreme southwestern corner of 
Utah. They do not grow in the bottoms of the arid basins, or upon 
the steep declivities of the mountains, but thrive best on the higher 
gravel slopes that skirt the deserts and upon the basal slopes of the 
included desert ranges, always in a definite zone or belt the extreme 
vertical width of which rarely exceeds 450 meters (1,500 feet), and 
usually is much less. The altitude of this belt varies with the base 
level, but invariably marks the upper limit of the Lower Sonoran 
zone. 

Looking northward over the Mohave Desert from the summit of Cajon 
12731— No. 7 23 



354 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. [No. 7. 

Pass a continuous forest of tree yuccas stretches away in the distance 
until lost in the desert haze, adding a singularly weird element to the 
peculiar physiognomy of the region. 

Some years ago an attempt was made to make paper pulp from the 
trunks of tree yuccas. The attempt was successful so far as the pro- 
duction of good pulp was concerned, but the cost of manufacture 
proved greater than the projectors of the enterprise expected and it 
was abandoned. Mr. Charles H. Shinn, in an article in the American 
Agriculturist for December, 1891 (p. 6S9), states that a small pulp 
mill was built at Eavenna in Soledad Pass, just south of Mohave 
Desert in California (of which two figures are given), and that large 
quantities of paper were manufactured and shipped to England, on 
which a few editions of the London Daily Telegraph were printed. He 
states further that some of it was used in New York and in San 
Erancisco. 

The following detailed notes were recorded respecting the distribu. 
tion of this species : 

CALIFORNIA. 

Mohave Desert. — Tree yuccas are common on the higher levels of the 
Mohave Desert, where they form a belt several miles in width around 
the west arm of the desert, covering the slope at the north foot of the 
San Bernardino rangeof mountains and stretching thence westerly nearly 
to the west end of Antelope Valley. On the north side of the desert 
they cover the slope at the foot of the Tehachapi Mountains and extend 
northeasterly in scattered patches nearly to Walker Pass, in which 
they again become abundant. This belt is not continuous throughout, 
but- is interrupted by the absence of suitable conditions. Opposite 
Cajon Pass the forest is fully 20 kilometers (12 miles) in breadth, 
covering the slope between the altitudes of 730 and 1,180 meters (2,500 
and 3,900 feet), though the trees are scarce and scattering below 920 
meters (3,300 feet). Above 1,060 meters (3,500 feet) they are mixed 
with juniper, and between 1,150 and 1,180 meters (3,800-3,900 feet) 
with the true sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata). An isolated clump 
grows within the mouth of the pass on the south side of the divide at 
an altitude of 1,170 meters (3,850 feet). On the divide between Dag- 
get and Pilot Knob they occur sparingly on the south side of 
the summit, but are more common on the long slope leading down to 
Paradise Valley from the south (north exposure), where a sparse growth 
continues for many miles. A few scattered and stunted trees were 
found also on and near the divide at Pilot Knob. On the north 
side of the Mohave Desert, just north of the town of Mohave, they 
begin at an altitude of 900 meters (3,000 feet) and extend up through 
the wash or open canon leading to Tehachapi Valley, reaching Came- 
ron at an altitude of 1,090 meters (3,000 feet). They range thence 
easterly a few miles, and westerly along the base of the Tehachapi 
Mountains as far as the eye can reach. They come down from the 



Mai, 1893.] YUCCAS OF THE DEATH VALLEY EXPEDITION. 355 

north side of the desert to within a mile of Mohave Station, and ex- 
tend thence westerly and southwesterly over Antelope .Valley with 
hardly a break between Mohave and Willow Spring, though they are 
•ibsent from the dry flat extending from Willow Spring southerly and 
westerly. On the south side of the desert they reappear on a low 
ridge a few miles south of Mohave, and extend thence southerly past 
Lancaster to and into Soledad Pass. In the extreme western end of 
the Mohave Desert, known as Antelope Valley, they reach westward 
along the middle and north part of the valley to a point about 6 kilo- 
meters (4 miles) east of Liebre ranch, but on the south side (north 
slope) they do not extend quite so far west. They reappear in an open 
caiion or broad wash leading south from near Gorman's ranch to Peru 
Creek, where they occur in clumps and irregular patches for a mile or 
so at an altitude of 850 to 901) meters (2,800-3,000 feet). 

Walker Pass. — At the east end of Walker Pass tree yuccas begin at 
1,090 meters (3,G00 feet) and form a line forest in the pass, filling it all 
the way across up to 1,430 meters (4,700 feet), and straggling on singly 
and in little clumps up to and over the summit at 1,550 meters (5,100 
feet) and down on the west side, with several interruptions, to the val- 
ley of Kern Eiver. The total length of the yucca strip in the pass 
proper is 18 or 20 kilometers (11 or 12 miles). Prom Walker Pass they 
descend into Kern Valley, where a number of small interrupted groves 
are scattered irregularly along the bottom of the valley nearly all the 
way down to the forks of Kern Eiver, at an altitude of 850 meters 
(2,800 feet). 

Coso Mountains. — A yucca" grove covers part of the west slope of the 
Coso Mountains, beginning about 5 kilometers (3 miles) south of Owens 
Lake and reaching thence southerly nearly to Haway Meadows. Its 
lower edge comes down almost to the level of the valley (probably to 
about 1,120 meters -or 3,700 feet). A few scattering trees occur still 
further south, but they are not numerous enough to form a grove. [Dr. 
A. K. Fisher tells me that this grove spreads easterly over nearly the 
whole of the Coso mountains and valley.] 

Panamint Mountains. — A few stunted tree yuccas occur on the west 
side of the divide between Perognathus Flat and Wild Kose Spring in 
the Panamint Mountains. 

Nelson Range. — Mr. E. W. Nelson found tree yuccas in abundance on 
the low range (here named 'Nelson Range') separating Panamint Valley 
from Saline Valley, where they stretch all the way across from the Iuyo 
Mountains to the Panamint Mountains. 

Ivaicatch Mountains. — Mr. T. S. Palmer found a few scattering trees 
on the southwest slope of the Ivawatch Mountains. 

NEVADA. 

Mount Magru&er. — Tree yuccas occur sparingly on the norths est slope 
of Mount Magnulerand adjacent hillsides from an altitude of 2,070 me- 
ters (G,800 feet) down almost to the upper level of Fish Lake Valley at 



356 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. [No. 7. 

1,730 meters (5,700 feet). Another and better defined grove occupies 
the southeast base of Mount Magruder, facing the north part of Sareo- 
batus Flat. 

Gold Mountain. — Tree yuccas occur sparingly in the valley between 
Mount Magruder and Gold Mountain at an altitude of 1,740 meters (5,700 
feet) and range thence southerly over the south slope of Gold Mountain 
and adjacent hills, reaching westward almost to the edge of the north- 
west arm of Death Valley at 1,770 meters (5,800 feet), and occurring 
throughout the east and west trough or valley which occupies the north 
slope of Gold Mountain north of the Gold Mountain mining camp (also 
known as 'State Line'), reaching as high as 2,100 meters (7,000 feet) on 
SDuth exposures on spurs and hills north of the main peak, though not 
occurring on the north slope of the main ridge proper. On the south 
side of Gold Mountain they descend to 1,550 meters (5,100 feet), thus 
reaching well down on the north side of Grapevine Canon. Several 
were found in flower near the summit of Gold Mountain June 3, the 
only flowers of this species seen during the trip. They are sessile in 
dense clumps at the ends of the branches, and are coarser and less at- 
tractive than those of any of the other species. 

Grapevine Mountains. — A yucca forest of considerable size occupies 
the east base of the Grapevine Mountains west of the southern half of 
Sarcobatus Flat. 

Ralston Desert. — A forest of tree yuccas was seen on the norlh side 
of the east fork of Amargosa Creek northeast of the north end of 
Oasis Valley and is probably the northern limit of the species in this 
direction. 

Table Mountain. — Mr. F. Stephens found a large forest of tree yuccas 
on the mesa known as 'Table Mountain,' about 40 kilometers (25 miles) 
north of Ash Meadows. 

Timpahute and Desert Mountains. — Tree yuccas begin on the west 
side of- Timpahute Desert at the very bottom of the east slope of the 
Timpahute Mountains (altitude 1,450 to 1,490 meters or 4,800 to 4,900 
feet) and continue all the way to and over the summit of the saddle 
between the Timpahute and Desert Mountains (summit 1,750 meters 
or 5,750 feet). They do not occur immediately below Summit Spring, 
but soon reappear and reach down to Emigrant Valley at 1,580 
meters (5,200 feet), forming a broad zone along the west slope of the 
Desert JRange, whence they extend all the way around the south end of 
Emigrant Valley, and reach several miles north on the west side. Con- 
tinuing southward without interruption they pass over the low divide 
at Hungry Hill Summit (1,760 meters or 5,800 feet) and extend down 
the narrow North Arm of Indian Spring Valley to 1,200 meters (4,000 
feet), where they are sufficiently abundant most of the way to form a 
regular yucca forest. In the lower part many trees were in fruit May 
27, bearing large green pods containing flat seeds. 



Mat, 1893.] YUCCAS OF THE DEATH VALLEY EXPEDITION. 357 

Paliranagat Mountains. — Common on the Paliranagat Mountains from 
the summit of the pass between Paliranagat and Timpahute valleys 
(altitude 1,830 meters or 0,000 feet) down on the west side to the edge 
of Timpahute Desert at an altitude of 1,525 meters (5,000 feet), and 
down on the east side sparingly to within a mile of the bottom of 
Pahramigat Valley at an altitude of 1,280 meters (4,200 feet), and 
forming a fair forest above 1,400 meters (4,600 feet). Stunted and 
scattered trees stretch thence southerly all along the gravel slope on 
the west side of Paliranagat Valley at the foot of the Paliranagat 
Range. On the west slope of the Pahranagat Range (on the east side 
of Timpahute Valley) the trees are sufficiently near together to form a 
fair yucca forest between an altitude of 1,390 meters (4,600 feet) and 
the summit of the divide. 

Highland Range. — The most northerly forest of tree yuccas found 
in eastern Nevada is on the west slope of the Highland Range south 
of the dry lake in Desert Valley, and southeast of Pahroc Spring. 
This forest is at least 5 miles wide and 10 miles long, and may stretch 
away much further to the south. Apparently it begins at an altitude 
of about 1,070 meters (5,500 feet) on the desert side, and ranges up to 
2,000 meters or higher (probably to 0,500 or 7,000 feet) on the west 
slope of the mountains. 

Pahroc Range. — A few scattering and stunted tree yuccas grow at 
Point of Rocks, the southernmost spur of the Pahroc Range near 
Pahroc Spring. These are the northernmost trees of which we have any 
knowledge. The high base level of Pahroc Plain explains the un- 
usually high altitude at which they grow. 

Charleston Mountains. — On the west slope of the Charleston Mountains 
(Pahrump Valley side), below Mountain Spring, tree yuccas begin at 
an altitude of about 1,000 meters (3,500 feet), and become more and 
more abundant until they form au open forest in the upper Larrea and 
Goleogyne belt, mixing with the junipers at 1,525 meters (5,000 feet), 
and pushing 60 to 90 meters (200 or 300 feet) higher on favorable slopes, 
finally stopping at an altitude of about 1,600 meters (5,300 feet). The 
individual trees are smaller than those of the Mohave Desert, rarely 
exceeding 4£ meters (15 feet) in height. In the lower part of this belt 
Yucca arborescens is mixed with unusually large examples of Yucca 
macrocarpa, and in the upper part with the elegant Yucca baccata. 

ARIZONA. 

Northwestern corner. — On the mesa west of the Virgin River and about 
8 miles south of the mouth of Beaverdam Creek, near the boundary be- 
tween Arizona and Nevada, is a scattering belt of tree yuccas a mile 
or a mile and a half in breadth, ranging from an altitude of about 670 
meters (2,250 feet) on the Virgin Valley slope to the top of the mesa at 
740 meters (2,450 feet). 

Detrital Valley. — Mr. Vernon Bailey informs me that Yucca arbor- 
escens forms an extensive forest on the low divide between Detrital and 



358 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. lNo.7. 

Sacramento Valleys, reaching northward along the sides of Detrital 
Valley for about 24 kilometers (15 miles) north of Mountain Spring. 

UTAH. 

Beaverdam Mountains. — Tree yuccas begin at the foot of the west 
slope of the Beaverdam Mountains in southwestern Utah at an altitude 
of about 700 meters (2,300 feet), and range up to 1,340 ineters(4,400 feet), 
forming a belt 8 or 9 kilometers (5 or 6 miles) in width. The trees 
rarely exceed 3 meters (10 feet) in height and are more scattering than 
in the Mohave Desert. 

Yucca elata? 

A narrow-leaved yucca provisionally referred to this species was 
found sparingly in the Lower Santa Clara Valley, Utah, on the mesa 
near the town of St. George, where it was in full bloom and very hand- 
some May 11-15. Its flower-stalks are tall and slender, and its leaves 
narrow and thin. A form resembling this, but with somewhat thicker 
and heavier leaves, was found on the west slope of the Juniper Moun- 
tains between Sheep Spring and Panaca, between the altitudes of 1,7G0 
and 2,130 meters (5,800-0,700 feet). It was budding plentifully May 
19, but was not found in flower. 

Yucca macrocarpa. (Plate xiv.) 

This large yucca was found in but few localities traversed by the ex- 
pedition. It finds its western limit along with Opuntia ramosissima on 
the North Kingston Mountains, between Besting Springs and Pahrump 
Valley, Nevada. It begins again on the east side of Pahrump Valley 
at an altitude of about 970 meters (3,200 feet), and ranges up on the 
west slope of the Charleston Mountains to 1,090 meters (3,000 feet), 
forming a well-marked zone mixed with scattering trees of Yucca 
arborcscens, which latter species becomes more and more abundant 
until it forms a true yucca forest in the upper Larrea and Colcogyne 
belt, where Y. macrocarpa disappears. In this zone Yucca macrocarpa 
grows larger than observed elsewhere, many plants reaching the height 
of 2£ meters (8 feet), and some growing as high as 3 or even 4 meters 
(10 to 13 feet). It never branches like Yucca arborescens but has a 
heavy, irregular trunk, well shown in the accompanying photograph. 
On warm soil a few plants were in full flower April 29, though most of 
them were not yet in bud. On the east side of the Charleston Moun- 
tains it begins at an altitude of 1,525 meters (about 5,000 feet), and 
descends to the upper part of Vegas Valley, near Cottonwood Springs, 
at an altitude of 900 meters (3,000 feet), where dozens were found in 
flower April 30. 

On the north side of the Charleston Mountains this species occurs 
sparingly throughout the higher parts of Indian Spring Valley above 
1,180 meters (3,900 feet). It is common on the low divide about 27i 
kilometers (17 miles) west of Indian Spring at an altitude of 1,220 
meters or 4,000 feet, and thence is continuous westerly along the south 



MAY,i3f)3.] SHRUBS OF THE DEATH VALLEY EXPEDITION. 359 

(or highest) side of the valley to the eauon separating- Indian Spring 
Valley from the 'Ainargosa country, and occurs scattering on tbe west 
or Ainargosa side, skirting the higher slopes. In the north arm of 
Indian Spring Valley it is common and conspicuous, ranging from 
1,370 meters (1,500 feet) northward to about 1,G70 meters (5,500 feet). 
It was not found on the Beavcrdam Mountains or in any other locality. 

ARIZONA. 

Detrital Valley. — Mr. Vernon Bailey informs me that he found this 
species abundant and of unusually large size throughout the south end 
of Detrital Valley and north end of Sacramento Valley, covering the 
divide and extending for some distance along the foothills of the border- 
ing mountains. 

Yucca whipplei. 

This is the characteristic yucca of the Coast Ranges of California, 
whence it extends easterly along the west slope of the Sierra Nevada, 
where we found it flowering abundantly between Kernville and Walker 
Basin June 23, its creamy flo wers on tall white stalks dotting the side- 
hills above the chaparral. It is common also in the Tehachapi Moun- 
tains, ranging down as low as 1,000 meters (3,500 feet) in the upper 
part of the canon leading from Tehachapi to Mohave, and on the hills 
at the head of Antelope Valley, near Gorman's ranch (altitude about 
1,150 meters or 3,850 feet), whence it spreads over the Sierra Liebre 
range. 

Agave utahensis. 

This species, the only true agave met with by the expedition, was 
found in but two localities, namely, the Charleston Mountains in 
Nevada and the Beaverdam Mountains in southwestern Utah. In the 
former locality it was common on rocky hillsides in the neighborhood 
of Mountain Spring, from an altitude of 1,000 meters (5,300 feet) up to 
1,830 meters (0,000 feet), where many 'mescal' pits were found where the 
Indians had baked the edible butts of the plants. These pits average 
a little more than a meter (about 4 feet) in depth, and from 3£ to 6 
meters (12 to 20 feet) in diameter. On the west slope of the Beaverdam 
Mountains in Utah the agave begins at 1,180 meters (3,800 feet) and 
grows in a narrow zone upward toward the summit of the pass. 



LIST OF LOCALITIES VISITED BY THE DEATH VALLEY EXPEDITION. 



By T. S. Palmer. 



The delay in the appearance of the first part of the report, contain- 
ing" descriptions of the various points visited by the expedition, makes 
it desirable to furnish a brief statement concerning the places referred 
to. In describing an area like the desert region of California great 
difficulty is experienced in fixing localities, and recourse must often be 
had to canons, washes, and springs for names with which to indicate 
places. For this reason a large number of seemingly unimportant 
localities occur in the report, which can be found on few, if any, pub- 
lished maps and are more or less meaningless to one unfamiliar with the 
country. The following list, while making no pretense to include all 
the localities mentioned in the report, gives brief descriptions of the 
more important places, which will serve to locate them with reference 
to well-known points. Many of these places will be described more 
fully elsewhere. 

The altitudes have been compiled chiefly from Gannett's Dictionary 
of Altitudes in the United States* and the map sheets of the Wheeler 
Survey West of the 100th Meridian. These have been supplemented by 
observations made by the expedition; but except in the case of points 
in Death Valley (which were determined by a topographer of the U. S. 
Geologieal Survey), such altitudes are based mainly on observations 
made with aneroid barometers. Since the list is intended primarily as a 
help in finding places on the map, distances, unless otherwise stated, 
indicate the number of miles measured in a straight line between two 
points, and not the distance by the road. In the case of railroad 
points, however, the distances between stations are taken from the 
railroad figures. This will explain the apparent discrepancy in many 
cases between the distances given and the actual distances as measured 
by an odometer. The metric equivalents for altitudes and distances 
are only approximate, all fractions having been discarded in converting 
the measurements into the metric system. Under each locality will be 
found the names of the members of the expedition who visited it and 

* Bull. U. S. Geol. Survey, No. 76, 1891. 

301 



362 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. [No. 7. 

who assisted in making the collections described in this report.! A 
list of several names under one locality usually indicates that the place 
was visited by different members at different dates — particularly in the 
case of points in Death Valley, Owens Valley, and the Sierra Nevada. 

Note. — Reference letters and figures follow names of places which 
appear on the accompanying" map. Altitudes based on observations 
made by the expedition are marked with an asterisk. 

Adobe Station, Kern County, Calif. Altitude, 284 feet (86 meters). 

An abandoned stage station on the wagon road from Bakersfield to Los Angeles, 
situated northeast of Kern Lake in the San Joaquin Valley Nelson. 

Alila, Tulare County, Calif. Altitude, 280 feet t'85 meters). 

A station on the Southern Pacific Railroad, 30 miles (48 kilometers) south of Visa- 
lia -". Bailey, Fisher, Nelson. 

Alvord, Inyo County, Calif. Altitude, 3,936 feet (1,206 meters). 

The station on the Carson and Colorado Railroad for Big Pine, 54 miles (86 kilo- 
meters) north of Keeler on Owens Lake Stephens. ' 

Amargosa Borax Works, Inyo County, Calif. F, 12. 

An abandoned station and borax works of the Pacific Coast Borax Company, situ- 
ated on the Amargosa River, about 20 miles (32 kilometers) north of the Great Bend 
and 6 miles (10 kilometers) west of Resting Springs. 

Palmer, Bailey, Fisher, Nelson. 

Amargosa Range, Inyo County, Calif. D-E, 11. 

The name given to the central part of the range which forms the eastern wall of 
Death Valley. It is usually restricted]to that portion of the range between Boundary 
Canon on the north (beyond which are the Grapevine Mountains), and Furnace Creek 
on the south, which marks the beginning of the Funeral Mountains. The highest 
point, Pyramid Peak, has an altitude of 6,754 feet, or 2,058 meters. (See also Funeral 
Mountains.) 

Amargosa River. D-F, 11-12. 

A 'stream' (usually nothing more than a dry wash) running from Oa3is Valley, 
Nevada, southward through Ash Meadows to the end of the Funeral Mountains, 
where it turns at the 'Great Bend' to the west and northwest and sinks iu Death 
Valley. 

Antelope Valley, Los Angeles County, Calif. II, 7-8. 

The name applied to the western part of the Mohave Desert immediately north of 
the Sierra Liebre Merriam, Palmer. 

Argus Mountains, Inyo County, Calif. E-F, 10. 

The range situated immediately west of P.inamint Valley between the Coso and 
Panamint mountains. Its highest point, Maturango Peak, has an altitude of 8,814 
feet (2,696 meters) Palmer, Fisher. 

tMr. Albert Koebele, the eutomologist, joined the expedition at Daggett on April 
3, and remained only about six weeks. He crossed the Mohave Desert to Death Val- 
ley with one of the parties and then proceeded to Keeler by way of Panamint Valley, 
Shepherd Canon, and Darwin, making collections along the road wherever practi- 
cable. Ho visited Daggett, Paradise Valley, Granite Wells, and Lone Willow Spring 
in San Bernardino County; Furnace Creek, Bennett, and Mosquito Wells in Death 
Valley; Windy Gap; Hot Springs in Panamint Valley ; Shepherd Canon and Matu- 
rango Spring iu the Argus Mountains; Darwin and Keeler. 



Mat, 1803.] LOCALITIES VISITED BY THE EXPEDITION. 363 

Ash Creek, Inyo County, Calif, E, 8. 

A small stream entering Owens Lake from the west, about 9 miles (14 kilometers) 
north of Olaneba. Named from the ash trees that grow on its borders. . . Stephens. 

Ash Meadows, Nye County, Nev. E, 11-12. 

The large valley or plain east of the Amargosa Range and 50 miles (80 kilometers) 
north of the Great Bend of the Amargosa River, named on account of the presence 
of a small desert ash (Fraxinm coriacea) which was formerly abundant. The boun- 
dary line between California and Nevada passes through Ash Meadows. Collections 
were made by Merriam, Bailey, and Stephens at the 'King Spring' or 'Stone House' 
(altitude about 3,800* feet or 1,160 meters), on the eastern side of the valley, and by the 
rest of the party at Watkins' Ranch, 3 or 4 miles west of this point— all in Nevada. 

Bakersfield, the county seat of Kern County, Calif. Altitude, 415 feet (126 meters). 
G, 6 Merriam, Palmer, Nelson, Fisher, Bailey. 

Banning, San Bernardino County, Calif. Altitude, 2,317 feet (70o metera). 

A station on the Southern Pacific Railroad, about 30 miles (50 kilometers) southeast 
of San Bernardino and near the summit of the San Gorgonio Pass Stephens. 

Beaverdam Mountains, Washington County, Utah. C, 17. 

A north-and-south range west of the town of St. George, constituting the north- 
ward extension of the Virgin Mountains Merriam, Bailey. 

Bennett Wells, Inyo County, Calif. Altitude, 323* feet (98 meters) below sea 
level. E, 11. 

Two shallow wells dug in the bottom of Death Valley, on the west side of the salt 
marsh, and nearly due east of Telescope Peak. Named in memory of one of the 
survivors of the ill-fated party of emigrants who entered the valley in 1850. The 
lowest point in the valley (480* feet or 146 meters oelow sea level, according to ob- 
servations of the U. S. Geological Survey) is a little northeast of this place. 

Merriam, Palmer, Fisher, Nelson, Bailey. 

Benton, Mono County, Calif. Altitude, 5,515 feet (1,681 meters). B, 8. 

A station on the Carson and Colorado Railroad, 100 miles (160 kilometers) north of 
Keeler. The town is about 4 miles (6 kilometers) west of the station of the same 
name, and about 200 feet (60 meters) higher Nelson, Stephens. 

Big Cottonwood Meadows, Inyo County, Calif. Altitude about 10,000" feet (3,1 50 
meters). 
The large meadows near the head of Big Cottonwood Creek, a stream rising near 
Mount Corcoran, and flowing into Owens Lake. A meteorological station was estab- 
lished in the meadow (about 8 miles or 13 kilometers southeast of Mount Whitney) 
June 15, and observations were continued by Dntcher and Koch until Septem- 
ber 15 Merriam, Palmer, Fisher, Bailey, Nelson. 

Big Pine, Inyo County, Calif. Altitude, about 4,000 feet (1,220 meters). C, 8. 

A town in Owens Valley, about 50 miles (80 kilometers) north of Owens Lake. 
(See also Alvord) Merriam, Bailey, Nelson. 

Big Tree Cafion, Tulare County, Calif. 

A canon on the East Fork of the Kaweah, named on account of the presence of 
Big Trees (Sequoia gigantea) Bailey. 

Bishop, Inyo County, Calif. Altitude [of station], 4,104 feet (1,251 meters). C, 8. 

A station on the Carson and Colorado Railroad, about 70 miles (113 kilometer.-) 

north of Keeler. The town of Bishop, or Bishop Creek, is on the creek of the same 

name, and is west of the station Nelson, Stephens. 



364 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. LNo.7. 

Bishop Creek, Inyo County, Calif. C, 8. 

A small stream rising on the east slope of the Sierra Nevada and flowing into Owens 
River. Collections were made by Stephens at Lewis Lake on the west fork of the 
creek at an altitude of about 9,000 feet (2,740 meters) Stephens. 

Bitter Spring, Lincoln County, Nev. Altitude, 1,800-1,900* feet (550-580 meters). 
E, 15. 

A spring on the east slope of the Muddy Mountains, about 16 miles (25 kilome- 
ters) .northeast of the site of Callville Merriam, Bailey. 

Borax Flat or Lake, San Bernardino County, Calif. Altitude, 1,808 feet (551 
meters). F, 10. 
A borax marsh on the boundary line between San Bernardino and Inyo counties, 
just west of the Slate Range and near the southern end of the Argus Range, about 
25 miles (40 kilometers) west of Browns Peak. Searles' borax works are located 
on the northwest side of the marsh Stephens. 

Browns Peak, Calif. Altitude, 5,392 feet (1,643 meters). F, 10. 

A prominent peak opposite the south end of the Panamint Range and east of 
Lone Willow Spring Bailey. 

Bubbs Creek, Fresno County, Calif." 

The main branch of the South Fork of Kings River, which rises near Kearsarge 
Pass and unites with the South Fork at the east end of the Kings River Canon. 

■ Palmer, Fisher, Nelson. 
Bunkerville, Lincoln County, Nev. D, 16. 

A Mormon town in the Virgin Valley on the road from Callville, Nev., to St. George, 
Utah, 5 miles (8 kilometers) west of the eastern boundary of the State of Ne- 
vada Merriam, Bailey. 

Cajon Pass, San Bernardino County, Calif. Altitude [of wagon pass], 4,195 feet 
(1,279 meters). I, 9-10. 
A pass in the Sierra Madre, leading north from the San Bernardino Valley to the 
Mohave Desert..: Merriam, Palmer, Fisher, Stephens. 

Caliente, Kern County, Calif. Altitude 1,290 feet (393 meters). G, 7. • 

A station and post-office on the Southern Pacific Railroad at the north foot of 
Tehachapi Pass Merriam, Palmer. 

Callville, Lincoln County, Nev. Altitude, 945 feet (288 meters). E, 15. 

An abandoned Mormon settlement on the north bank of the Colorado River at the 
head of navigation and about 4 miles (6 kilometers) east of the Great Bend. 

Merriam, Bai le y. 
Cameron, Kern County, Calif. Altitude 3,786 feet (1,154 meters). 

A station on the Southern Pacific Railroad, 10 miles (16 kilometers) northwest of 
Mohave and 6 miles (10 kilometers) southeast of Tehachapi Merriam, Palmer. 

Canada de las Uvas, Kern County, Calif. Altitude about 4,288 feet (1,307 meters). If, 7. 
A wagon pass in the Tejon or Tehachapi mountains, leading from the south end of 
the San Joaquin Valley across to the west end of the Mohave Desert. Situated east 
of Mt. Pinos and about 30 miles (50 kilometers) southwest of Tehachapi Pass. 

Merriam, Palmer, Nelson. 

Canebrake Ranch, Kern County, Calif. Altitude 3,904 feet (1,190 meters). 

A ranch at the northwest foot of Walker Pass on the road from Kernville to 
Coyote Holes Merriam, Palmer, Fisher, Bailey. 



Mat, 1893.] LOCALITIES VISITED BY THE EXPEDITION. 365 

Carpenteria, Santa Barbara County, Calif. I, 5. 

A town on the Southern Pacific Kailroad, 10 miles (16 kilometers) east of Santa 
Barbara Nelsox. 

Carrizo Plains, San Luis Obispo County, Calif. G, 4-5. 

The name given to the valley or plain east of the headwaters of the San Juan 
River and separated from the main San Joaquin Valley by the low ridge of the 
Temploa Mountains Nelson. 

Castac Lake, Kern County, Calif. H, 7. 

A small lake in the Canada de las Uvas, 2 miles (3 kilometers) south of Old Port 
Tejon, but in the San Joaquin drainage t Merriam, Palmer. 

Cave "Wells, Calif., commonly known as the ' The Caves.' F, 12. 

A spring and abandoned stage station in the I va watch Mountains, about 15 miles 
(24 kilometers) south of Saratoga Springs in Death Valley. The spring is on the 
main road from Daggett to Besting Springs Palmer, Stephens. 

Centerville, Fresno County, Calif. 

A town on Kings River in the western foothills of the Sierra, about 20 miles (32 
kilometers) east of Fresno Nelson. 

Charcoal Kilns, Inyo County, Calif. Altitude about 7,500" feet (2,286 meters). 

A number of abandoned charcoal kilns on the west slope of the Panamint Mountains, 
in the upper part of Wild Rose Canon, about 7 miles (11 kilometers) above the spring 
of the same name Merriam, Fisher, Bailey, Stephens. 

Charleston Mountains, Lincoln County, Nev. E-F, 13-14. 

A high range of mountains, marked Spring Mountains on the Land Office and some 
other maps. The culminating point, Charleston Peak, has an elevation of 10,874 
feet (3,314 meters), and is the highest peak in southern Nevada. Collections were 
made by Nelson and Palmer at a saw mill (altitude about 8,000* feet or 2,438 meters) 
on the west slope northwest of the main peak, and by Merriam and Bailey at Mount- 
ain Spring (altitude 5,501 feet or 1,677 meters), at the southern end of the range on 
the road from Pahrump Valley to Las Vegas Ranch. 

Chiquito Peak, Fresno County, Calif. Altitude 8,136 feet (2,480 meters). C, 6. 

A peak on the west slope of the Sierra Nevada, south of Mount Lyell. 
Chiquito San Joaquin or Chiquito Creek, Fresno County, Calif. 

A small stream in the High Sierra, which rises southeast of Mount Raymond and, 
flowing southward, enters the San Joaquin River a little below the mouth of the 
South Fork Nelsox. 

Corn Creek, Lincoln County, Nev. 

A spring in the Vegas Valley, about 25 miles (40 kilometers) northwest of Las 
Vegas Ranch Bailey, Nelsox. 

Coso, Inyo County, Calif. Altitude about 5,800 feet (1,768 meters). E, 9. 

A deserted mining camp, about 7 miles (11 kilometers) southwest of Darwin. The 
camp is situated at the head of a rocky canon, about 3 miles (5 kilometers) south- 
east of the peak of the same name Palmer, Fisher. 

Coso Mountains, Inyo County, Calif. E, 9. 

A range southeast of Owens Lake, between the Sierra Nevada and the Argus 
Range. Its highest point, Coso Peak, has an altitude of 8,425 feet (2,568 meters); 

Palmer, Fisher. 

tOn some maps the name Castac Lake is given to a lake in the Mohave Desert, 
south of the divide in the Canada de las Uvas. 



366 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. [No. 7. 

Cotton' wood Canon, Inyo County, Calif. D. 10. 

A canon in the northern part of the Panamint Mountains, leading from the south- 
ern part of Saline Valley to the northwestern arm of Death Valley or Mesquite 
Valley Nelson. 

Cotton-wood Springs, Lincoln County, Nov. Altitude of lower spring 3,449 feet 
(1,051 meters). E, 14. 

(1) Upper Cottonwood Springs. A series of running springs at the east base of 
the Charleston Mountains, about 7 miles (11 kilometers) northeast of Mount Olcott. 

Merriam, Bailey, Nelson. 

(2) The lower spring (the Cottonwood Spring of the Wheeler survey) is in a gap 
in a low range of hills between the Charleston Mountains and Vegas Valley, some 
distance east of the upper springs Merriam, Bailey, Nelson. 

Coyote Holes, Calif. 

A name commonly applied to small springs or 'tanks' of water on the desert 
whether fresh or alkaline. 

(1) Kern County. Altitude 3,368 feet (1,027 meters). 

A spring and ranch on the Mohave and Keeler stage road, just south of the entrance 
to Walker Pass; also known as Freeman Post-Office Palmer, Stephens. 

(2) San Bernardino County. G, 11. 

An alkaline spring on the Daggett and Resting springs road, 19 miles (30 kilometers) 
by the road northeast of Daggett Palmer, Stephens. 

Crane Lake, Los Angeles County, Calif. 

A small lake 2 miles (3 kilometers) southeast of Gorman Station, in the extreme 
west end of Antelope Valley Merriam. Palmer. 

Crocker's Ranch, California. Altitude 4,497 feet (1,371 meters). 

A station on the Big Oak Flat and Yosemite Valley stage road, 23 miles (37 kilo- 
meters) northwest of the Yosemite Valley (by the road). It is near the boundary 
line between Tuolumne and Mariposa counties, and 2 miles (3 kilometers) west of 
Hodgdon, the nearest point given on the Wheeler map sheet No. 56 D. 

Cuddy Peak, California. (See Frazier Mountain.) 

Daggett, San Bernardino County, Calif. Altitude 2,002 feet (610 meters). H, 11. 

A town on the Atlantic and Pacific Railroad, 9 miles (14 kilometers) east of Bar- 
stow. Daggett is the base of supplies for the town of Calico and the Death Valley 
region Merriam, Palmer, Fisher, Stephens. 

Darwin, Inyo County, Calif. Altitude 4,840 feet (1,475 meters). E, 9. 

A small town 22 miles (35 kilometers) southeast of Keeler. Formerly an important 
mining camp Palmer, Fisher, Bailey, Nelson. 

Death Valley, Inyo County, Calif. D-F, 10-11. 

The valley lying between the Panamint Mountains on the west and the range on 
the east known by the names of the Funeral, Amargosa, and Grapevine mountains. 
There are several springs of drinkable water in the valley, of which the most import- 
ant are Saratoga Springs (altitude 352* feet, or 107 meters) at the southeast end, 
Bennett Wells (altitude 323* feet, or 98 meters, below sea level) on the west side, and 
the springs near the mouth of Furnace Creek, in the northern part of the Funeral 
Mountains. Death Valley proper extends from the vicinity of Saratoga Springs to a 
point about 10 miles (16 kilometers) north of Furnace Creek ; but with the northwest 
arm, or Mesquite Valley, it has an extreme length of about 135 miles (215 kilometers). 
It is chiefly remarkable for its depth; observations taken by the U. S. Geological 



Mat, 1893.] LOCALITIES VISITED BY THE EXPEDITION. 367 

Survey show that the lowest point northeast of Bennett Wells is ISO 1 feet (146 me- 
ters) below sea level, thus making the valley the deepest depression in North America. 
Merriam, Palmer, Fisher, Bailey, Nelson, Stephens. 

Death Valley Canon, Inyo County, Calif. 

A canon on the east slope of the Panamint Mountains, leading down into Death 
Valley. The head of the canon is about 10 miles (16 kilometers) north of .Telescope 
Peak. An Indian trail from Darwin to Furnace Creek, after crossing the Panamint 
Valley, ascends Wild Rose Canon and crosses the summit of the Panamint Moun- 
tains to the head of Death Valley Canon Bailey, Fisher. 

Deep Spring Valley, Inyo County, Calif. C, 8-9. 

A hasin ahout 10 miles (16 kilometers) long, in the "White Mountains near the 
Nevada boundary, and between Fish Lake and Owens valleys.. .Merriam, Bailey. 

Delano, Kern County, Calif. Altitude 313 feet (95 meters). F, 6. 

A station on the Southern Pacific Railroad, 32 miles (51 kilometers) north of 
Bakersfield Bailey, Fisher, Nelson. 

Desert Range, Lincoln County, Nev. C-D, 14. 

A range north of the Charleston Mountains, inclosing the north arm of Indian 
.Spring Valley. The Desert Range is the southern continuation of the Timpahuto 
Mountains. 
Desert Valley, Lincoln County, Nev. B, 15. 

A narrow valley containing a large dry lake, between the Pahroc Range on the 
west and the Highlaud Range on the east, which latter separates it from the town 
of Panaca. A second Desert Valley is given on the Land Office map of Nevada just 
east of the Desert Range and some distance southwest of the one just described. 

The latter is the Timpahuto Valley of the present report Merriam, Bailey. 

Diamond Valley, Utah. 

A small valley in the southwestern part of the Territory, south of Pine Valley 
Mountain and north of St. George Merriam, Bailey. 

Diaz Meadows, Inyo County, Calif. (See Big Cottonwood Meadows.) 
Dolan Spring, Mohave County, Ariz. F, 16. 

A spring on the east side of Detrital Valley, about 50 miles (80 kilometers) north- 
east of The Needles, Calif. Collections were made here in 1889 by Bailey. 

Elizabeth Lake, Los Angeles County, Calif. Altitude 3,317 feet (1,011 meters). H, 8. 

A body of brackish water, a ndle long and about one half mile wide (1.6 by .8 

kilometers), situated on the north side of the Sierra Liebre, 2 or 3 miles (3 to 5 

kilometers) from the north end of the San Francisquito Pass Palmer. 

Elk Bayou, Tulare County, Calif. 

A small stream emptying into the Tulare River. Collections were made near the 
line of the Southern Pacific Railroad, about 6 miles (10 kilometers) south of the 
town of Tulare Bailey, Fisher. 

Emigrant Canon, Inyo County, Calif. D — E, 10. 

A canon in the Panamint Mountains, about 10 miles (16 kilometers) north of Wild 
Rose Canon, and 15 or 20 miles (24 to 32 kilometers) north of Telescope Peak. Emi- 
grant Canon heads in Peroguathus Flat and ospens into the northwest arm of Death 
Valley Merriam, Bailey, Stephens. 

Emigrant Spring, Inyo County, Calif. Altitude about 4,400* feet (1,340 meters). 
E, 10. 

A spring, in a canon of the same name, in the Panamint Mountains. There are 
two springs, about one-half mile apart, both on the west side of the canon. 

Merriam, Bailey, Stephens. 



368 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. [No. 7. 

Emigrant Valley, Nov. C, 13. 

A small valley containing a dry lake. It is on the boundary line between Nye 
and Lincoln counties and west of the Desert and Tinipahnte mountains. 

Merriam, Bailey. 
Escalante Desert, Utah. B, 17-18. 

An extensive desert in southwestern Utah, north of Pine Valley Mountain and 
south of Sevier Lake T Merriam, Bailey. 

Farewell Gap, Tulare County, Calif. Altitude about 11,000* feet (3,350 meters). 

A pass from the headwaters of the East Fork of the Kaweah River above Mineral 
King to the head of Little Kern River Palmer, Bailey, Fisher, Nelson. 

Fish Lake Valley, Esmeralda County, Nev. B, 8-9. 

On the boundary line between California and Nevada, lying mainly in the latter- 
State, between the White Mountains on the west and the Silver Peak Mountains on 
the east Merriam, Bailey. 

Fish Slough, Owens Valley, California. 

An old stage station at several large springs on the road from Bishop Creek to 
Benton, near the boundary line between Inyo and Mono counties; about 11 miles 
(18 kilometers) north of Bishop Creek Stephens. 

Fort Miller, Fresno County, Calif. 

An abandoned military post on the San Joaquin River, about 20 miles (32 kilo- 
meters) northeast of Fresno. 

Fort Tejon, Kern County, Calif. Altitude 3,245 feet (989 meters). H, 7. 

An abandoned military post situated in the Canada de las Uvas, 4 miles (6 kilo- 
meters) from the north entrance of the canon Merriam, Palmer. 

Frazier Mountain, Ventura County, Calif. Altitude 7,750 feet, or 2,362 meters 

(Rothrock). H, 7. 

A high peak 10 miles (16 kilometers) southeast of Mount Pifios. Also known as 
Cuddy Peak, and this name appears on map sheets Nos. 73 and 73C of the Wheeler 
Survey Palmer. 

Fresno, the county seat of Fresno County, Calif. Altitude 294 feet (90 meters). 
D, 5 Bailey. 

Funeral Mountains, Inyo County, Calif. E-F, 11-12. 

A barren range, forming the eastern boundary of Death Valley and separating it 
from the Amargosa Desert. The Grapevine, Amargosa, and Funeral mountains 
form a continuous range from Mount Magruder south to Saratoga Springs, the name 
Funeral Mountains being given to the southern end of the range south of Furnace 
Creek. The highest peaks in the Funeral Mountains are Le Conte, 6,580 feet (2,005 
meters); Mount Smith, 6,300 feet (1,920 meters); and Mount Perry, 5,500 s feet (1,676 
meters). Pyramid Peak (altitude 6,754 feet or 2,058 meters) is more properly in the 
Amargosa Rang© Palmer, Fisiier, Bailey. 

Furnace Creek, Death Valley, California. E, 11. 

A small stream entering the east side of Death Valley from a canon of the same 
name in the northern part of the Funeral Mountains. A mile or two from the mouth 
of the canon is the 'Greenland ranch' of the Pacific Coast Borax Company, which is 
supplied by water from Furnace Creek. The altitude of the ranch is said to be> 
about 200" feet (61 meters) below sea level. Collections were made here by 

Merriam, Fisher, Palmer, Bailey, Nelson. Stephens. 

Garlick Spring, San Bernardino County, Calif. G, 11. 

A spring of good water in the Mohave Desert, on the Daggett and Resting Springs 
road, 25 or 30 miles (40 or 48 kilometers) northeast of Daggett.. .Palmer, Stephens. 



Mat, 1893.] LOCALITIES VISITED BY THE EXPEDITION. 369 

Gaviota Pass, Santa Barbara County, Calif. H-I, 4. 

A pass in the Santa Yfiez Mountains about 30 miles (48 kilometers) northwest of 
Santa Barbara, running north from the coast to the Santa Yfiez Valley Nelson. 

Giant Forest, Tulare County, Calif. 

The most extensive grove of Sequoia gigantea. It is in the Sequoia National Park, 
on the divide between the Marble and East Forks of the Kaweah River and 5 to 10 
miles (8 to 16 kilometers) south of Mount Silliman Palmer, Fisher. 

Gold Mountain, Esmeralda County, Nev. Altitude 7,400* feet (2,255 meters) . C, 10. 

A high east-and-west ridge at the northern end of the Grapevine Mountains, from 

which it is separated by a broad, open canon (Grapevine Canon), about 20 miles 

(32 kilometers) northwest of Grapevine Peak Merriam, Bailey. 

Gorman Station, Los Angeles County, Calif. Altitude 3,838 feet (1,170 meters). 

H, 7. 

A post-office on the wagon road from Bakersfield to Los Angeles, just south of the 
summit of the divide in the Canada de las Uvas Merriam, Palmer. 

Granite Mountains, San Bernardino County, Calif. G, 10-11. 

A low east-and-west range in the Mohave Desert lying south of the Slate and 
Panamint ranges. At the eastern end it runs into the Ivawatch Mountains, and on 
the west terminates in Pilot Knob or Granite Mountain, the altitude of which is 
5,525 feet (1,683 meters) Palmer, Stephens. 

Granite Wells, San Bernardino County, Calif. Altitude, about 4,200* feet (1,280 

meters). 

A spring in the Mohave Desert on the northwest slope of Pilot Knob or Granite 
Mountain, 40 or 45 miles (64 to 72 kilometers) northwest of Daggett, on the wagon 
road to Death Valley Merriam, Palmer. Fisher. 

Grapevine Peak, Esmeralda County, Nev. Altitude, 8,657 feet (2,638 meters). 
D, 10. 

The highest peak of the Grapevine Mountains, which lie along the California- 
Nevada boundary, separating the northwestern arm of Death Valley from Sarcobatus 
Flat and the Ralston Desert. The peak is about 15 or 20 miles (24 or 32 kilometers) 
south-southeast of Gold Mountain Nelson. 

Grapevine Spring, Inyo County, Calif. C, 10. 

A spring in the northwestern arm of Death Valley, on the western slope of the 
Grapevine Mountains, 5 miles (8 kilometers) west of Grapevine Peak, and on the 
California side of the line Stephens. 

Greenland Ranch, Calif. (See Furnace Creek.) 

Halsted Meadows, Tulare County, Calif. Alti tnde, about 7,000* feet (2,134 meters). 

A small meadow in the Sequoia National Park, 6 or 8 miles (10 or 13 kilometers) 

southwest of Mount Silliman Fisher, Palmer. 

Havilah, Kern County, Calif. Altitude 3,150 feet (959 meters). F, 8. 

A town and post-office about 15 miles (24 kilometers) south of Kernville, on the 
road to Caliente Merriam, Palmer, Bailey, Fisher. 

Haway Meadows, Inyo County, Calif. Altitude, 3,782 feet (1,152 meters). E, 9. 

A ranch and stage station on the Mohave and Keeler stage road, about 9 miles (14 

kilometers) south of Olancha and 10 miles (16 kilometers) south of Owens Lake. 

Merriam, Palmer, Bailey, Stephens, Fisher, 

12731— No. 7 24 



370 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. [No. 7. 

Hesperia, San Bernardino County, Calif. Altitude, 3,184 feet or 969 meters (S. C. 

Ry.). 1,10. 

A town on the Southern California Railway, just north of Cajon Pass and 36 miles 
(58 kilometers) north of San Bernardino . . . Merriam, Palmer, Fisher, Stephens. 
Hockett Trail, California. 

An old military trail from Visalia, Tulare County, to Lone Pino, Inyo County. 
The main trail runs up the South Fork of the Kaweah River, thence across the 
divide and up the North Fork to Soda Springs, where it follows Whitney Creek to 
Big Cottonwood Meadows; from this point it descends the steep eastern slope of the 
Sierra to Lone Pine. A side trail runs from Mineral King through Farewell Gap to 
the head of Little Kern River and strikes the old trail near Trou t Meadows. 

Palmer, Bailey, Fisher, Nelson*. 

Horse Corral Meadows, Fresno County, Calif. Altitude, ahout 8,000* feet (2,438 

meters). 

A small meadow on the trail from Camp Badger to Kings River Canon, situated 
north of Mount Silliman t Palmer, Fisher. 

Hot Springs, Inyo County, Calif. E, 10. 

Warm springs on the east side of Panamint Valley, near the mouth of Surprise 
Canon Merriam, Bailey, Fisher, Nelson, Stephens. 

Hot Springs Valley, Inyo County, Calif. E, 9. 

This name is applied to the northern end of Salt Wells Valley, which lies ahout 
10 or 15 miles (16 or 24 kilometers) southwest of Coso Peak Palaier, Stephens. 

Hungry Hill Summit, Lincoln County, Nev. C, 13. 

A divide in the Desert Mountains hctween Emigrant Valley and the head of the 
north arm of Indian Spring Valley Merriam, Bailey. 

Independence, county seat of Inyo County, Calif. D, 8. 

The station on the Carson and Colorado Railroad (26 miles or 42 kilometers north 
of Keeler, at an altitude of 3,718 feet or 1,133 meters), is ahout 2 or 3 miles (3 to 
5 kilometers) east of the town. Old Camp Independence), an abandoned military 
post, was located about 2 miles (3 kilometers) north of the town. 

Merriam, Bailey, Palmer, Fisher, Nelson, Stephens. 

Independence Creek, Inyo County, Calif. 

A small stream on the east slope of the Sierra Nevada, which rises on the cast 
slope of Kearsarge Pass and flows into Owens River near Independence. 

Palmer, Fisheh, Nelson, Stephens. 
Indian Spring Valley, Lincoln County, Nov. D, 13. 

A narrow east-and-west valley north of the Charleston Mountains, with a north 
arm west of the Desert Range Merriam, Bailey, Nelson. 

Indian Wells, Kern County, Calif. Altitude, 2,608 feet (795 meters). F, 9. 

A stage station on the road from Mohave to Keeler, near the southeast entrance to 
Walker Pass Me u ream, Palmer, Fisher, Bailey, Stephens. 

Inyo Mountains, Inyo County, Calif. C-D, 8-9. 

The first of the desert ranges east of the Sierra Nevada, forming the eastern wall 
of Owens Valley. Remarkable for its height and the steepness of its slopes. The 
name Cerro Gordo Range is sometimes given to the southern part of these mountains; 
but the Cerro Gordo, Inyo, and White mountains practically form one continuous 
range. The highest points are Waueoba Peak (altitude, 1 1 .L'fiT feet, or 3,403 meters), 
Mount Halm (altitude, 11,030 feet, or 3,362 meters), and New York Butte (altitude, 
10,675 feet, or 3,254 meters) Nels< >n. 



May, 1893.] LOCALITIES VISITED BY THE EXPEDITION. 371 

Jackass Spring, Inyo County, Calif. Attitude, 6,489 feet (1,977 meters). 

A spring on the west slope of the Panamint Mountains, at the point where Nelson 
Range joins the Panamint Mountains, not far from the entrance to Cottonwood 
Canon NELSON. 

Johnson Canon, Inyo County, Calif. 

A canon on the east slope of the Panamint Mountains, opening into Death Valley. 
Collections were made hero by Fisher and Nelson 6 or 8 miles (10 or 13 kilometers) 
southeast of Telescope Peak, at altitudes varying from 5. 000 to 9,000 feet (1,524 to 
2,743 meters) Palmer, Bailey, Fisher, Nelson. 

Tuniper Mountains, Lincoln County, New B, 16. 

A north-and-south range between Meadow Valley, Nevada, and the Escalante Des- 
ert, Utah Merriam, Bailey. 

Kaweah Peak, Tulare County, Calif. Altitude, about 14,000 feet (4,267 meters). 

D, 8. 

The highest peak in the western ridge of the southern Sierra Nevada west of 
Mount Whitney. 

Kaweah River, Tulare County, Calif. D-E, 6-7. 

An important stream whose live main branches (the North. Marble, Middle, East, 
and South Forks) drain the west slope of the Sierra south of the basin of Kings 
River, and uniting near Three Rivers flow into Tulare Lake. 

Palmer, Bailey, Fisher, Nelson. 

Kaweah Sawmill, Tulare County, Calif. 

A sawmill about 15 or 20 miles (24 or 32 kilometers) north of Three Rivers, on the 
divide between the North and Marble Forks of the Kaweah River. The mill is at 
the lower edge of the pine forest and just within the western boundary of the 
Sequoia National Park. An excellent wagon road leads to it from Three Rivers. 

Palmer, Fisher. 

Kearsarge Pass, California. Altitude, about 12,000* feet (3,658 meters). D, 8. 

One of the highest passes in the Siena Nevada, crossing the range just south of 
Mount Kearsarge. The trail from Fresno to Independence runs through this pass. 

Palmer, Fisher, Nelson. 

Keeler, Inyo County, Calif. Altitude 3,622 feet (1,103 meters). E, 9. 

A town on the east shore of Owens Lake. The present tenuin us of the Carson and 
Colorado Railroad Merriam, Palmer, Bailey, Fisher, Nelson, Stephens. 

Keene, Kern County, Calif. Altitude 2,705 feet (824 meters). 

A station ou the Southern Pacific Railroad, between Caliente and Tehachapi. about 
12 miles (19 kilometers) below the summit of the pass _ ..Merriam. Palmer. 

Kern River, California. E-G, 6-8. 

A large river draining the trough between the two ridges of the southern Sierra 
Nevada. The South or East Fork rises on the west slope of ( daneha Peak and Hows 
south, then turning to the west, unites near the town of Kcrnville with the North 
or West Fork, which heads near Mount Whitney. The main river flows into Kern 
Lake. It was named by Fremont in honor of Edward M. Kern, topographer of the 
third Fremont expedition. 

(1). Head of North Fork, Tulare County, Calif. 

Specimens so labeled were collected in the basin between Mount Whitney and 
Kaweah Peak (altitude 9,000 to 12,000 feet, or 2,743 to 3,658 meters) north of Soda 
Springs and the canon of the North Fork Palmer, Bailey, Dutcher. 



372 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. [No. 7. 

(2) South Fork, California. » 

This locality refers to a camp near the northwest hase of Walker Pass and 25 miles 
(40 kilometers) above Kernville, on the road to Coyote Holes. 

Merriam:, Palmer, Bailey, Fisher. 

Kern River Lakes, California. (See Soda Springs.) 
Kernville, Kern County, Calif. Altitude 2,551 feet (777 meters). F, 8. 
A small town near the junction of the North and South forks of Kern River. • 

Merriam, Palmer, Bailey, Fisher. 

Kings River, Fresno County, Calif. C-E, 5-7. 

This river drains the west slope of the Sierra between the basins of the San Joaquin 
and the Kaweah Rivers. Its branches rise near the crest of the range between 
Mounts Brewer and Goddard and flow southwest into the San Joaquin River. 

Kings River Canon, Fresno County, Calif. Altitude 4,500 to 5,000 feet (1,371 to 
1,524 meters). 
The main canon on the South Fork of Kings River, about 10 miles (16 kilomeicrs) 
in length Palmer, Fisher, Nei son 

Kingston Peak, San Bernardino County, Calif. F, 13. 

A peak in the northeastern part of the county near the boundary between Cali- 
fornia and Nevada, and about 45 miles (72 kilometers) southwest of Charleston Peak, 
Nevada. 
Lake Charlotte, Fresno County, Calif. D, 8. 

A small lake near timber-line in the High Sierra on the trail from Kings River 
Canon to Independence, about 3 miles (5 kilometers) west of the summit of Kear- 

sarge Pass Palmer, Fisher, Nelson. 

Lancaster, Los Angeles County, Calif. Altitude 2,350 feet (716 meters). H, 8. 

A station on the Southern Pacific Railroad in the Mohave Desert, 25 miles (40 kilo- 
meters) south of Mohave Stephens. 

Langley Meadow, Tulare County, Calif. Altitude 11,625 feett (3,542 meters). 

A small meadow containing a lake immediately west of and under the peak of Mount 
Whitney. Langley Creek, which rises in this meadow, is one of the three main streams 
which flow into the North Fork of Kern River from the east, above Whitney Creek. 
Named in honor of Prof. S. P. Langley, Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, 
who established his Mountain Camp in this meadow while making observations 
on solar heat on Mount Whitney in the summer of 1881 Palmer, Dutcher. 

La Panza, San Obispo County, Calif. G, 4. 

A post-office near the San Juan River, about 25 miles (40 kilometers) northeast of 
San Luis O uispo Nelson. 

Las Vegas Ranch, Lincoln County, Nev. (See Vegas Valley). 
Leach PointValley, San Bernardino County, Calif. F, 11. 

A valley in the Mohave Desert north of the Granite Mountains. 

Leach Point Spring on the north slope of the Granite Mountains and south side of 
the valley, is about 25 miles (40 kilometers) northeast of Pilot Knob, on the so-called 
Leach Point road from Pilot Knob to Saratoga Springs in Death Valley. Altitude 
about 3,500* feet (1,066 meters) ; Merriam, Bailey. 

Lerdo, Kern County, Calif. Altitude about 411 feet (126 meters). G, 6. 

A station on the Southern Pacific Railroad 12 miles (19 kilometers) northwest of 
Bakersfield Nelson. 



t Langley: Researches on Solar Heat, 1884, p. 194. 



May, 1893.] LOCALITIES VISITED BY THE EXPEDITION. 373 

Lewis Lake, Inyo County, Calif. Altitude,about 9,000* feet (2,743 meters). 

A small lake on the west fork and near fclie head of Bishop Creek STEPHENS. 

Liebre Ranch, Los Angeles County, Calif. 

A ranch at the north .base of the Sierra Liebre, about 20 miles (32 kilometers) 
northwest of Elizabeth Lake Merri am, Palmer. 

Little Lake or Little Owens Lake, Inyo County, Calif. Altitude about 3,100* feet 
(944 meters). F, 9. 
A small lake about 25 miles (40 kilometers) south of Owens Lake, on the, road from 

Mohave to Keeler Merriam, Pat.mer, Fisher, Bailey, Stephens. 

Lone Pine, Inyo Counly, Calif. Altitude [of station] 3,638 feet (1,115 meters. D, 8. 
A town on the west side of Owens Valley, 4 miles (6 kilometers) north of Owens 
Lake. The railroad station is on the east side of the valley. 

Merriam, Palmer, Bailey, Fisher, Nelson, Stephens. 
Lone Willow Spring, San Bernardino County, Calif. F, 10. 

A spring on the east slope of the Slate Range, opposite Browns Peak. The spring- 
is in the hills some distance above the wagon road and is almost the only good 
water on the road between Pilot Knob and 'Mesquite Wells in Death Valley. 

Merriam, Bailey, Fisher, Nelson, Palmer. 

Lookout or Lookout Hill, Inyo County, Calif. Alt. about 4,000* feet (1,219 meters). 

A ruining camp on the east slope of the Argus Mountains near the north end of 

the range, about 10 miles (16 kilometers) east of Darwin Fisher, Bailey. 

Los Olivos, Santa Barbara County, Calif. H, 4. 

A town on the road from San Luis Obispo to Sauta Barbara, north of the Santa 
Ynez Mission.... Merriam, Nelson. 

Mammoth Pass, California. Altitude about 9,500* feet (2,900 meters). 

A pass in the Sierra Nevada from the head of Owens River to the head of the 
San Joaquin Nelson, Stephens. 

Maturango Peak, Inyo County, Calif. Altitude 8,844 feet (2,695 meters). E, 10. 

The highest peak of the Argus Mountains, about 13 miles (21 kilometers) south- 
east of the town of Darwin Palmer. 

Maturango Spring, Inyo County, Calif. Altitude about 6,000 feet (1,829 meters). 

A small spring on the western slope of the Argus Mountains, 2 or 3 miles (3 or 5 
kilometers) south of Maturango Peak, and about 15 miles (24 kilometers) southeast 
of the town of Darwin. Collections were made at the spring and also near the sum- 
mit of the Argus Range, about 1,300 feet (396 meters) above. 

Bailey, Fisher, Nelson, Palmer. 
McGill Peak, California. (See Mount Pinos). 
Meadow Creek Valley, Lincoln Couuty, Nev. B, 15-16. 

A valley east of the Highland Range, in which is situated the town of Panaca, 
about 10 miles (16 kilometers) south of Pioche. The name is given on some maps as 
Meadow Valley Merriam, Bailey. 

Menache Meadows, California. 

In the High Sierra north or northwest of Olancha Peak Stephens. 

Merced River, California. B-C, 3-6. 

Rises near Mount Lyell and Mount Dana and drains the west slope of the Sierra, 
between the basins of the Tuolumne and the San Joaquin rivers Nelson. 

Mesquite Well, Death Valley, California. Altitude —351* feet (107 meters) E, 11. 
A well on the west side of the valley, about 6 miles (10 kilometers) south of Ben- 
net Wells Merriam, Bailey, Fisher, Palmer. 



374 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. [No. 7. 

Mesquite Valley, Inyo County, Calif. D, 10-11. 

The name given to the northwest arm of Death Valley, 60 or 70 miles (95 or 110 
kilometers) in length, which heads under Mount Magruder. The valley lies between 
the Grapevine Mountains on the cast and the northern part of the Panamiut Range 
on the west Merriam:, Bailey, Stephens, Nelson. 

Mill Creek, Inyo County, Calif. 

A small stream at the extreme northwest end of Panamiut Valley Nelson. 

Mineral King, Tulare County, Calif. Altitude about 9,000* feet (2,740 meters). E, 7. 

A summer resort and mining camp near the head of the East Fork of the Kaweah 

River, north of Farewell Gap Palmer, Bailey, Fisher, Nelson. 

Mohave, t Kern County, Calif. Altitude, 2,751 feet (838 meters). G, 8. 

A railroad station in the west end of the Mohave Desert, at the junction of the 
Atlantic and Pacific with the Southern Pacific Railroad. 

Merriam, Palmer, Stephens. 

Mohave t River, San Bernardino County, Calif. G-I, 10-12. 

The largest stream in the Mohave Desert, usually dry throughout the greater part 
of its course; it rises on the north slope of the San Bernardino Mountains, east of 
Caiou Pass, and flows north and then east into a sink known as ' Soda Lake' or the 
'Sink of the Mohave.' The river was named by Fremont in 1844, who spelled the 
-word Mohahve. 
Monterey, Calif. D, 1. 

A town on the bay of Monterey. Collections were made between Cypress Point 
and Pacific Grove Merriam, Bailey. 

Mormon Mountains, Lincoln County, Nev. C-D, 16. 

A range in the eastern part of the State near the Utah line. 
Moran's, Mono County, Calif. 

A ranch near the head of Owens Valley, about 6 miles (10 kilometers) east of Ben- 
ton , Stephens. 

Monro, San Luis Obispo County, Calif. G, 3. 

A town on the coast about 10 miles (16 kilometers) northwest of San Luis Obispo. 

Nelson. 
Mountain Meadows, Washington County, Utah. B-C, 17. 

A valley in the southwestern part of the Territory northwest of Pine Valley 

Mountain. The scene of the Mountain Meadow massacre Merriam, Bailey. 

Mountain Springs, Lincoln County, Nev. Altitude, 5,501 feet (1,677 meters). E, 14. 

Springs near the summit of the pass over the Charleston Mountains on the road 
from Pahrump to Vegas Valley, about 6 or 8 miles (10 or 13 kilometers) north-north- 
west of Olcott Peak Merriam, Bailey, Nelson. 

Mount Corcoran, California. Altitude, 14,093 feet (4,295 meters). E, 8. 

The ' Old Mount Whitney;' renamed by Albert Bierstadt, the artist, in honor of 
W. W. Corcoran, of Washington, D. C, the first name having been transferred to a 
higher peak. (See Geog. Rept. Wheeler Survey, I, 1889, p. 99.) 

Mount LeConte, Inyo County, Calif. Altitude, 6,580 feet (2,005 meters). E, 11. 

This is the most prominent peak in the Funeral Mountains, as seen from Bennett 
Wells in Death Valley. It is the highest point in the range and is nearly due east 
of Telescope Peak. It was named in honor of Prof. Joseph LeConte, of the Univer- 
sity of California, by James J. McGillivray,} of Ne*w York, who visited Death Valley 
in 1883-4. 

t The spelling is that adopted by the U. S. Board on Geographic Names. 

i See article entitled: ' In the Valley of Death.' in New York Times, May (?), 1891. 



Mat, 1893.] LOCALITIES VISITED BY THE EXPEDITION. 37f) 

Mount Lyell, California. Altitude, L3,042 feet (3,975 meters). B, Li. 

A 1 1 » ;_; 1 1 peak in the Siena Nevada east of the Yosemite Valley and near the head- 
waters of the Merced River. 

Mount Magruder, Esmeralda County, Nev. Altitude about 9,500* feet (2,900 me- 
ters). C, 9. 

An important mountain standing at the extreme head of the northwestern arm of 
Death Valley and at the southern end of the Red or Silver Peak Mountains. The 
Mount Magruder plateau connects the Grapevine, Panamint and Silver Peak ranges. 

Merriam, Baixjey. 
Mount Perry, Inyo County, Calif. E, 11. 

The highest peak in the northern part of the Funeral Mountains. It is named 
after Mr. J. W. S. Perry, Superintendent of the Pacific Coast Borax Company, at 
Daggett, to whom the expedition is indebted for many favors and for much valuable 
information. Mount Perry has an altitude of about 5,500" feet (1,676 meters), 
its summit being about 5,700 feet (by aneroid) above Greenland ranch in Death 
Valley. t , Palmer. 

Mount Finos, Ventura County, Calif. Altitude, 9,214 feet (2,808 meters). H, 6. 
The culminating peak of the southern Coast Ranges standing near the northern 
boundary of the county and at the headwaters of the Cuyama River. Mount Pinos, 
also known as McGill Peak, may be considered the center from which diverge the 
various ridges of the Coast Range in this region Nelson. 

Mount Silliman, Tulare County, Calif. Altitude, 11,623 feet (3,543 meters). D, 7. 

A high peak in the southern Sierra Nevada situated in the northeast corner of the 

Sequoia National Park Palmer. 

Mount Smith, Inyo County, Calif. Altitude, 6,300 feet (1,920 meters). F, 11. 

The highest peak at the southern end of the Funeral Mountains and opposite the 
entrance of Death Valley at Windy Gap. It is named after Mr. F. M. Smith, of 
San Francisco, President of the Pacific Coast Borax Company, who aided the expe- 
dition in Death Valley in every possible way. 

Mount Whitney, California, Altitude, 14,522 feet (4,426 meters). D, 8. 

The highest point in the United States, first called Fisherman Peak, but after- 
ward renamed by Clarence King in honor of Prof. J. D. Whitney, Director of the 
Geological Survey of California. The peak was first ascended August 18, 1873, J and 
the records of the fourth party who ascended it (July 7, 1875), were still in the monu- 
ment on the summit when Mr. Dutcher and the writer climbed the peak September 
10, 1891. The altitude adopted is that determined by Prof. S. P. Langley, and is 
based on a series of barometric observations made simultaneously on the peak and 
at Lone Pine. The elevation given by Whitney is 14,898 feet (4,541 meters) and that 
adopted by the Wheeler Survey 14,470 feet (4,410 meters) Palmer, Dutcher. 

Mud Spring. 

(1) Lincoln County, Nev. [C, 13.] Altitude about 5,600* feet (1,705 meters). 
A spring in the north end of the Desert Mountains, about 30 miles (48 kilometers) 
west of Pahranagat Lake MERRIAM, Bailey. 

(2) Mohave County, Ariz. [G, 16.] A spring at the north end of the Sacramento 
Valley, abont 35 miles (56 kilometers) northeast of The Needles, Calif. Collections 
were made in 1889 by Bailey. 

t There is a peak immediately north of Mount Perry, which is almost as promi- 
nent from Death Valley but which is 300 feet (90 meters) lower. 
tSee Geog. Kept. Wheeler Survey, i, 1889, p. 100. 



376 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. [No. 7 

Muddy Valley, -Lincoln County, Nov. D-E, 15-16. 

A valley northeast of the Muddy Mountains. The stream of the same name flowing 
through the valley empties into the Virgin River Merriam, Bailey. 

Mulkey Meadows, Inyo County, Calif. 

A small meadow on the east slope of the Sierra, ahout 7 miles (11 kilometers) 
southeast of Big Cottonwood Meadows and ahout 12 or 15 miles (19-24 kilometers) 
south of Mount Whitney Dutcher, Koch. 

Nelson Range, Inyo County, Calif. D, 9. 

A low east-and-west range connecting the Cerro Gordo with the Panamint Moun- 
tains and separating Saline Valley from the head of Panamint Valley. Named after 
Mr. E. W. Nelson, who explored the range and the adjoining valleys Nelson. 

Nordhoff, Ventura County, Calif. Altitude, 819 feet (249 meters). I, 6. 

A town in the Ojai Valley, northeast of Ventura Nelson. 

Oasis Valley, Nye County, Nev. C-D, 11. 

A narrow valley in the southern part of the Ralston Desert southeast of Sarcohatus 
Flat. It contains the head of Amargosa Creek Merriam, Bailey, Stephens. 

Olancha, Inyo County, Calif. Altitude, 3,708 feet (1,130 meters). E, 9. 

A ranch and post-office 1 mile (0.6 kilometers) south of Owens Lake. 

Merriam, Palmer, Bailey, Fisher, Stephens. 
Olancha Peak, California. Altitude, 12,250 feet (3,734 meters). E, 8. 

One of the highest peaks in the southern Sierra Nevada, ahout 25 miles (40 kilo- 
meters) southeast of Mount Whitney Stephens. 

Onion Valley, Inyo County, Calif. Altitude, ahout 9,000 or 10,000 feet* (2,740 or 
3,050 meters). 
A meadow or small valley on the east slope of the Sierra at the junction of the 
three forks of Independence Creek Stephens. 

Overtoil, Lincoln County, Nev. Altitude, 1,360 feet (414 meters). E, 16. 

An abandoned Mormon town in the valley of the Muddy, northwest of St. Thomas 
and 4 miles (6 kilometers) southeast of St. Joe Merriam, Bailey. 

Owens Lake, California. Altitude, 3,567 feet (1,087 meters). D-E, 9. 

A shallow alkaline lake 15 miles (24 kilometers) long, 9 miles (14 kilometers) wide, 
and ahout 50 feet (15 meters) deep. It is situated at the east hase of the Sierra 
Nevada, southeast of Mount Whitney. Named hy Fremont, in honor of Richard 
Owens, one of thememhers of Fremont's third expedition. 

Merriam, Palmer, Fisher, Nelson, Bailey, Stephens. 

Owens River, California. B-D, 7-8. 

The largest river on the east side of the southern Sierra Nevada. It rises near 
Mouut Lyell and flows south through a valley of the same name into Owens Lake. 

Owl Holes, San Bernardino County, Calif. Altitude 1,790 s * feet (545 meters). 
F, 11. 
Holes containing hot water on the Leach Poiut road from Pilot Knoh to Death 
Valh-y, situated on the south side of Owls Head Peak and ahout 13 miles (21 kilo- 
meters) west-southwest of Saratoga Springs Merriam, Bailey. 

Pahranagat Lake, Lincoln County, Nev. Altitude, 3,400 feet (1,036 meters). C, 14. 

A small lake in the south end of the valley of the same name, lying east of the 

Pahranagat Mountains aud ahout 60 miles (96 kilometers) southwest of the mining 

camp of Pioche Merriam, Bailey. 



Mat, 1393.] LOCALITIES VISITED BY THE EXPEDITION. 377 

Pahianagat Range, Lincoln County, Nev. C, 14. 

A desert range separating Timpahute Valley on the west from Palnanagat Valley 
on the east - Merriam, Bailey. 

Pahroc Spring. Lincoln County, Nev. Altitude 5,700* feet (1,737 meters), (approx- 
imate). B, 15. 
A spring near the southern end of the Pahroc Range on the east side of the plain 
of the same name and about 30 miles (48 kilometers) southwest of Pioche. 

Merriam, Bailey. 
Pahrump Valley. E-F, 12-13. 

A valley lying on the boundary line between California and Nevada immediately 
west of the Charleston Mountains and north of Kingston Peak. Collections were 
made by Fisher, Nelson, and Palmer in the northwest arm near the boundary line; 
by Nelson and Palmer at Winters' Ranch in the north central part of the valley, and 
by Merriam and Bailey at Yount's Ranch, 6 or 7 miles (10 or 11 kilometers) southeast 
of Winters' Ranch. 
Palm Springs, San Diego County, Calif. 

The springs formerly known as Agua Caliente in Palm Valley on the Colorado 
Desert about 15 miles (24 kilometers) southeast of the San Gorgonio Pass and 6 or 7 
miles (10 or 11 kilometers) south of the station of Seven Palms on the Southern Pa- 
cific Railroad Stephens. 

Pampa, Kern County, Calif. Altitude, 871 feet (265 meters). 

A station on the Southern Pacific railroad 15 miles (24 kilometers) southeast of 
Bakersfield Bailey, Fisher. 

Panaca, Lincoln County, Nev. Altitude, 4,770 (?) feet (1,550 meters). B, 16. 

A Mormon town in Meadow Creek Valley, about 10 miles (16 kilometers) south of 
Pioche Merriam. Bailey. 

Panamint, Inyo County, Calif. Altitude, 6,605 feet (2,013 meters). E, 10. 

A deserted mining camp on the west slope of the Panamint Mountains, about 4 or 
5 miles (6 or 8 kilometers) south of Telescope Peak Bailey, Fisher, Nelson. 

Panamint Mountains, Inyo County, Calif. C-F, 9-10. 

A high range lying immediately west of Death Valley, which it separates from 
Panamint Valley. The highest point, Telescope Peak, has an altitude of 10,938 feet 
(3,333 meters) Merriam, Bailey, Fisher, Nelson, Stephens. 

Panamint Valley, Inyo County, Calif. E-F, 10. 

A large valley lying between the Panamint Range on the east and the Argus Moun- 
tains on the west. The bottom of the valley on the east side of the alkali flat has 
an altitude of about 1,300 feet (395 meters). 

Merriam, Bailey, Fisher, Nelson, Stephens. 

Paradise Valley, San Bernardino County, Calif. G, 10. 

A valley in the Mohave Desert southeast of Pilot Knob. The dry lake in the bot- 
tom of the valley has an altitude of about 3,000* feet (915 meters). 

Merriam, Palmer, Fisher. 

Perognathus Plat, Inyo County, Calif. Altitude, about 5,200* feet (1,585 meters). 

A basin on the west slope of the Panamint Mountains at the head of Emigrant 

Canon. Named on account of the unusual abundance of pocket mice of the genus 

Ptrognathus Merriam, Bailey, Stephens. 

Peru Creek, California. H-I, 6-7. 

A stream flowing south from Alamo Peak (near the line between Ventura and L«fS 
Angeles counties) into the Santa Clara River Merriam, Palmer. 



378 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. ftfo.7. 

Pigeon Spring, Esmeralda County, Nov. Altitude, about 6.700* feet (2,040 meters). 
C,9. 

A spring ou the northwest slope of Mount Magruder near the California boundary. 

Mekriam, Bailey. 

Pilot Knob or Granite Mountain, San Bernardino County, Calif. Altitude, 5,525 
feet (1,683 meters). G, 10. 
A high butte or peak forming one of the most conspicuous landmarks in the 
Mohave Desert. It is at the west end of the Granite Mountains and about 75 miles 
(120 kilometers) southeast of the lower end of Owens Lake and about 35 miles (56 
kilometers) northwest of Daggett and Barstow. On a clear day it can be distinctly 
seen from the summit of Mount Whitney and Telescope Peak. (See also Granite 
Mountains.) 
Pine City. 

(1) Mariposa County, Calif. A settlement, formerly a post-office, on the west 
slope of the Sierra, about 4 miles (6 kilometers) south of Wawona, near the southern 
boundary of the county. 

(2) Mono County, Calif. A deserted mining camp near the head of Owens River 
and a few hundred feet below the summit of Mammoth Pass Nelson, Stephens. 

Pioche, county seat of Lincoln County, Nev. Altitude, 6,220feet (1,895 meters). B,16. 

Formerly an important mining camp; in the northern part of the county. 
Poso, Kern County, Calif. F, 6. 

A station on the Southern Pacific Railroad in the San Joaquin Valley, 20 miles (32 
kilometers) northwest of Bakersfield Bailey, Fisher, Nelson. 

Pozo, San Luis Obispo County, Calif. G, 4. 

A post-office about 15 miles (24 kilometers) east of San Luis Obispo. To be dis- 
tinguished from Poso, Kern County Nelson. 

Quartz Spring, Lincoln County, Nev. Altitude, about 5,200* feet (1,585 meters). 

D, 13. 

A spring at. the west base of the Desert Mountains in the north arm of Indian 
Spring Valley Merriam, Bailey. 

Queen, Esmeralda County, Nev. Altitude, 6,254 feet (1,906 meters). 

A station on the Carson and Colorado Railroad 10 miles (16 kilometers) northeast 
of Benton, Calif. The Indian Queen mine is situated in the northern end of the 
White Mountains, about 9 miles (14 kilometers) from the station, and at an altitude 
of about 9,500* feet (2,895 meters) ; the mill connected with it is 5 miles (8 kilometers) 
from the station, at an elevation of about 7,400* feet (2,250 meters) Stephens. 

Raymond Well, Kern County, Calif. 

A spring in the south end of Salt Wells Valley in the Mohave Desert, about 16 
miles (26 kilometers) southeast of Coyote Holes or Freeman Post-office.. .Stephens. 

Reche Canon, San Bernardino County, Calif. 

A narrow valley on the north side of the Box Spring Mountains, about 4 miles 
(6 kilometers) south of San Bernardino Stephens. 

Resting Springs, Inyo County, Calif. Altitude about 1,750* feet (5,320 meters). F, 12. 

The springs near the Amargosa River, about 6 miles (10 kilometers) east of the 

Amargosa borax works Merriam, Palmer, Bailey, Fisher, Nelson, Stephens. 

Rose Store or Station, Kern County, Calif. Altitude, 1,334 feet (406 meters). 

An old stage station on the road from Bakersfield to Los Angeles, about 6 miles 
(10 kilometers) north of Old Fort Tejon, near the mouth of the Canada do las Uvas. 

Palmer, Nelson. 



May, 1893.] LOCALITIES VISITED BY THE EXPEDITION. 379 

Round Valley, Inyo County, Calif. 

a small meadow in the High Siena. 2 miles (.". kilometers) south <>(' Big Cotton- 
wood Meadows and about 12 miles (19 kilometers) south of Mount Whitney. 

Palmer, Fisher. 
Saint George, Washington County, Utah. Altitude, 2,880 feet (877 meters). C, 17. 

A flourishing Mormon town near the junction of the Santa Clara and Virgin rivers 

in the extreme southwestern corner of Utah Mkrriam, Bailey. 

St. Joe, Lincoln County, Nev. Altitude, 1,650 s feet or 503 meters (1,490 feet or 

454 meters, Powell). D, 16. 

A small Mormon settlement in the valley of the Muddy about 15 miles (24 kilo- 
meters) northwest of St. Thomas Merriam, Bailey. 

St. Thomas, Lincoln County, Nev. Altitude, 1,450* feet or 442 meters (1,180 feet or 

360 meters, Powell). E, 16. 

A small Mormon settlement near the Virgin River, about 30 miles (48 kilometers) 

northeast of the great bend of the Colorado River Merriam, Bailey. 

Saline Valley, Inyo County, Calif. D, 9. 

A valley lying northeast of Owens Lake, between the Inyo Mountains and the 

northern extension of the Panamiut Mountains Nelson. 

Salt Wells, Death Valley, California. 

(1) A spring of strongly alkaline water unfit for use, at the south end of Death 
Valley near the entrance from Windy Gap and about 15 miles (24 kilometers) south 
of Bennett Wells. Observations made by the U. S. Geological Survey show the 
altitude of this spring to be 307 feet (93 meters) below sea level. 

Merriam, Palmer, Fisher, Bailey, Nelson. 

(2) A spring in Mesquite Valley (the northwestern arm of Death Valley) opposite 
the mouth of Cottonwood Canon. Altitude, about 150 ! feet or 45 meters (Wheeler). 

D, 10 Stephens, Nelsox. 

Salt Wells Valley, California. F, 9. 

The name applied to that portion of the Mohave Desert lyiug south of the Coso 
Mountains and west of the southern end of the Argus Mountains. 

Merriam, Palmer, Bailey, Fisher, Stephens. 
San Bernardino Range, California (see also Sierra Madre). 

A high range of mountains between the Mohave Desert and the San Bernardino 
Valley. The highest point, San Bernardino Peak, reaches an altitude of 11,600 feet 
(3,535 meters). The name is frequently restricted to that part of the range east of the 

Cajou Pass Stephens. 

San Emigdio, Kern County, Calif. H, 6. 

A sheep rauch in the canon of the same name, about 10 or 15 miles (16 or 24 kilo- 
meters) north of Mount Pifios .Nelson. 

San Francisquito Pass, Los Angel