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Full text of "North American fauna"

Accessions r%JL 4 Saolf oSo. 







GIVEN BY 



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U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 

^DIVJ&W OF ORNITHOLOGY ANT) MAMMALOGY 



NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 



No. 1 

[Actual date of publication, October 2f>, 1889] 




Revision of the North American Pocket Mice 

By Dk. C. Hart Merjriam 



WASHINGTON 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 

1 8 8 9 



U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 

DIVISION OF ORNITHOLOGY AND MAMMALOGY 



NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 

No. 1 

[Actual date of publication, October 25, 1 869 J 




Revision of the North American Pocket Mice 

By Dr. C. Bart Mkrriam 



WASHINGTON 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 

1889 



u^A/) l 



i£-£X-C/ 



CONTENTS. 



Page- 
Letter of transmittal v 

Announcement IV 

Preliminary Revision of the North American Pocket Mice (genera Perognathus 
et Cricetodipus auct. ), with descriptions ot new species and subspecies, and a 

Key to the known forms. By Dr. C. Hart Merriam 1-29 

in 



IT. S. Department of Agriculture, 

July 3, 1SS9. 
Sir : I have the honor to transmit herewith tbe first of a series of 
faunal papers to be published, under your direction, in the form of a 
serial entitled North American Fauna. The present communica- 
tion consists of a revision of the North American Pocket Mice (including 
descriptions of twelve new species and three new subspecies), and is 
based largely upon material collected in Dakota, Nebraska, Utah, and 
Arizona by Mr. Vernon Bailey, an energetic and enthusiastic natu 
ralist now employed ?sa field agent of the Division. 
Respectfully, 

C. Hart Merriam, 

Chief of Division of 
Ornithology and Mammalogy. 
Hon. J. M. Rusk, 

Secretary of Agriculture. 



V 



ANNOUNCEMENT. 



The Division of Ornithology and Mammalogy is engaged in mapping 
the geographical distribution of birds and mammals, in addition to the 
study of their economic relations. The purpose of this work is to as- 
certain the boundaries of the natural fauual areas of North America. 
The original information on which the maps are based is collected mainly 
by special field agents employed by the Division; a smaller portion is 
contributed by voluntary observers. In the progress of the work many 
new facts are obtained which ought to be put on record for the benefit 
of other workers in this department of science. It is not unusual to 
find new species in the collections nude by the field agents of the 
Division, and such species must be named and assigned their proper 
systematic postion before they can be discussed intelligently. 

It is evident that the results of the investigations of the Division are 
of importance to two distinct classes of readers — farmers and natural- 
ists. It is deemed desirable, therefore, to publish such of the results as 
are of use mainly to those engaged in scientific research separately from 
those of a more purely economic character. The publication of the 
economic material being already provided for (and appearing as bulle- 
tins and reports), it has been decided to publish a series of faunal papers, 
under the title North American Fauna. This publication will con- 
tain, in addition to the faunal papers proper, such technical matter as 
results from the study of the material collected or as may be necessary 
to an intelligent understanding of the reports which follow. 

No attempt will be made to issue the separate numbers at regular 
intervals, but each number will bear date of actual publication. The 
present is the first of the series. 

VII 



No. 1. NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. October, 1889. 



PRELIMINARY REVISION OF THE NORTH AMERICAN POCKET MICE 
(Genera PEROGNATHUS et CRICETODIPUS auct.) 

WITH DESCRIPTIONS OB NEW SPECIES AND SUBSPECIES AND A KEY IO THE KNOWN 

FORMS. 

By Dr. C. Hart Merriam. 



INTRODUCTORY REMARKS. 

The present contribution toward a revision of the North American 
Pocket Mice is the outgrowth of a recent attempt to identify a large num- 
ber of specimens for the purpose of mapping their geographical distri- 
bution. The results wen' wholly unexpected. Only six species were 
previously recognized. This number is here increased to eighteen; 
three subspecies also are described, and several well known names are 
shifted to forms other than those to which they have been heretofore 
commonly applied. The material at hand is far more extensive* and of 
better quality than that accessible to any previous writer; at the same 
time many large areas in the West still remain unrepresented in col- 
lections. 

Tbe present revision of the group is by no means exhaustive — it is 
intended merely as a foundation for future study. Several problems in 
synonymy remain to be worked out in the light of material yet to be 
collected, and additional species remain to be discovered. The region 
between the Rocky Mountains and the Pacitic coast has not been so 
thoroughly explored as to bo barren of new forms; and Mexico, if I 
maybe allowed the prediction, will furnish a number of species now un- 
known, some of which will shed much light on the affinities of the group 
and the interrelations of its principal subdivisions. 

* The present study is based on about 170 specimens, of which l'^O are in my own 
collection and about 50 in the U. S. National Museum. 

944— No. 1 1 1 



2 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. . [So. 1. 

HISTORY AND NOMENCLATURE, i 

Maximilian, Prince of Wied, was first to discover arid describe a 
pocket mouse from North America. In 1839 he published an excellent 
description of a species collected by himself on the Upper Missouri 
River, near the mouth of the Yellowstone. He named it Perognathus 
fasciatus—both genus and species being new.* 

In 1848 Peale described a second genus and species, from Oregon, 
under the name Cricetodipus parvus.] 

In 1852 Woodhouse described a pocket mouse from San Francisco 
Mountain, Arizona, naming it Perognathus penicillatus. % 

In 1855 Baird added another species, Perognathus Jlavus, basing his 
description on a specimen from El Paso,§ Texas (but afterwards con- 
fusing with it specimens from widely remote localities). 

In 1857 Baird described two more species, P. hispidus, from northern 
Mexico, and P. monticola, from western Montana. || 

In 186S Gray attempted, though with ill success, to describe two ad- 
ditional species, which he named Abromys lordi (gen. et sp. nov.), from 
British Columbia; and Perognathus bicolor, from Honduras. ff The for- 
mer has not been since collected; the latter, as shown by Alston, "is 
neither a Perognathus nor a native of the subregion" (Central America), 
but is a Heteromys, and came from Venezuela. (Ann. and Mag. Nat. 
Hist., 5th series, vi, 1880, 118, 119.) 

Excluding U P. bicolor^ then, as not belonging to the group at all, the 
seven species already mentioned are all that have been formally de- 
scribed. 

In 1875 Cones provisionally proposed two additional names (mollipi. 
losus and longimembris),** suggesting their adoption in case the auimals 
to which tliey were applied should prove different; from the species 
under whose names they were placed (P. monticola and parvus, respect- 
ively); thus making a total of nine specific names proposed up to the 
present time. 

In 1857 Baird separated the pocket mice into two sections or sub- 
genera, Perognathus and Cricetodipus. He characterized Perognathus 
as the larger of the two, with larger ears and a distinct lobe to the 
autitragus, and with the soles entirely uaked ; Cricetodipus as smaller, 
with smaller ears, without any lobe to the antitragus, and with the 
posterior portion of the sole hairy. ft He assigned no cranial characters 
to either of these subgenera. 

* Nova Acta Acad. Caes. Leop. Carol., Nat. Cur., xix, 1839, 368-3/4, pi. xxxiv. 
t Rept. Mam. and Ornith., U. S. Expl. Expd., Wilkes, vm, 1848, 52-54. 
X Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Pliila., 1852, 200. 
$ Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phiia., 1855, 332. 
|| Mammals N. Am., 1857, 421-423. 
II Proc. Zool. Soc. Loud., 1868, 202. 
**Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1875,296,305. 

tt This was done on the assumption that Peale's Cricetodipus parvus was the same as 
the small animal from southern California, here, called P. longimembris, which see. 



October, 1880.] KEVISION OF THE GENUS PEKOGNATHUS. 3 

In 1868 J. E. Gray named a genus Abromys, from an animal collected 
in British Columbia by Lord. The only character mentioned by Gray 
as distinguishing his genus Abromys from the genus Perognathus is the 
character of the fur, which he stated to be soft in Abromys and harsh 
or hispid in Perognathus. 

In 1875 Coues raised Cricetodipus to full generic rank and pointed 
out differential cranial characters by which it might be readily sepa- 
rated from Perognathus, to which latter genus he referred Abromys as a 
synonym. With characteristic sagacity he suspected that the small 
species without lobed antitragus might not belong to Peale's genus 
Cricetodipus at all, and therefore provisionally suggested the genetic 
and specific name Otognosis longimembris for the Fort Tejon animal, 
which he described under the head of Cricetodipus parvus. This was 
done on the supposition that the generic name Perognathus Max. Wied 
belonged to the largest species, with lobed antitragus, while in reality 
the contrary is true, as will be shown directly. Otognosis Coues, there- 
fore, becomes a synonym, pure and simple, of Perognathus. 

Having received a number of specimens of so-called Cricetodipus 
favus from the region of the Upper Missouri, near the month of the 
Yellowstone, some of them taken within a few miles of the very spot 
where Maximilian procured his type of Perognathus fa sciatus, and being 
unable to secure any reliable record of the occurrence of Perognathus 
fasciatus of Baiid and subsequent authors further north than Nebraska, 
I turned to Maximilian's original description, which is very full and 
exact, and is accompanied by a colored plate of the animal, natural 
size, and by figures of the skull and teeth and tables of measurements. 
It allows no room whatever for difference of opinion as to what his ani- 
mal really is— it is the Cricetodipus flavus (in part) of recent authors, 
my owu specimens from the Upper Missouri region agreeing in the 
minutest detail with his careful description. This discovery unfortu- 
nately renders necessary a total change in the nomenclature of the 
group. Cricetodipus of Baird and Coues becomes a synonym, pure and 

But in reality C. parvus oi Peale was a very different auimal. His description was 
based on a Biagle specimen, which must have been very young, as may lie seen from 
the following : (1) Both the Latin diagnosis of the genus and the English descrip- 
tion which follows begin with the statement that the head and body were "nearly 
eqnal in size," and further on he speaks of "its singularly large head, which equals 
its body in hulk." (2) The molars are said to have -'six rounded tubercles on each." 
(3) The dental formula is given as follows: '•Incisors, jj; canine, \\\\\ molars, ;; \ —16" 
(and later on in the same description be states that he found "rudiments of a fourth 
molar tooth in each side of the lower jaw, which would eventually have replaced the 
front ones, already much worn"). (4) " Lips large, tumid ; " which would indicate 
ft Bncking young; and (5) the relative proportions of head, body, and feet. The 
most, important measurements, reduced to millimeters, are : Head and body, 48; head 
from nose to occiput, )i'.i ; tail, 58; hind foot, 20.5; metatarsus. 13. 

It is perfectly evident from the above that Pe ale's Cricetodipus parvus could not 
have, been one of the smaller species at all, but must have been a very young indi- 
vidual of one of the larger species, possibly the Pcrofliiatltu* molUpilosuQ of Cones 



4 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. [No. 1. 

simple, of Perognathus, and the large animal from the plains, called by 
these authors Perognathus fasciatus, is left without a name. I have 
named it, therefore, Perognathus paradoxus.* 

During the half century since the publication of Maximilian's de- 
scription of Perognathus fasciatus the species has never been known 
by its right name. Baird, in 1857, placed it in his subgenus Gricetodi- 
pus (under the specific name fiavus). Twenty years later (in 1877) he 
was followed by Coues, who raised Gricetodipds to full, generic rank. 
It is rare, indeed, that a species is thus separated further and further 
from itself, until it comes to be placed in another genus from that orig- 
inally framed for its reception. 

The aim of the present paper is to establish certain types, and to correct 
certain errors of nomenclature and synonymy. Hence the descriptions 
have been based principally on type specimens;! and no attempt has 
been made to determine the limits of sexual and individual variation, 
or to discuss other interesting questions which will be treated fully in- 
a subsequent communication. 

CLASSIFICATION AND KEY TO SPECIES. 

The twenty-one species and subspecies of Perognathus here described 
may be arranged in two principal divisions or subgenera according 
to their natural affinities. Unfortunately, no dependence can be placed 
upon external characters, such as size, the presence or absence of a 
lobed antitragus, the hairiness of the sole, or the possession of a crested 
penicillate tail, none of these peculiarities being exclusively associated 
with the members of either subgenus, although heretofore they have 
been credited with even generic significance. The classification here 
proposed is based solely on cranial characters. The teeth furnish 
excellent specific characters, but none of subgeneric value. 

SUBGENERA. 
Perognathus (proper). 

Mastoids largely developed, projecting behind plane of occiput ; interparieta, 
shield-shaped or pentagonal ; mastoid side of parietal longest; audital bullae 
meeting or nearly meeting anteriorly below basisphenoid. 

* Professor Baird had but few specimens before him when he wrote his great work 
on the Mammals of North America, in 18. r >7. It is not strange, therefore, that be fell 
into one or two errors of identification, particularly in view of the enforced haste in 
which his manuscript was prepared. His most serious error, and one in which he 
has been blindly followed by subsequent writers, lay in referring the largest species 
of the group (P. paradoxus of the present paper) to Maximilian's Perognathus fasciatus. 
He noticed the great discrepancy in size, but thought it due to age. 

t Of the twenty-one species and subspecies herein formally defined, no less than 
nineteen have been described from the actual types, twelve of which are in my own 
collection and seven in tbe United States National Museum. Of the remaining two, 
one (P. fasciatus), has been described from a duplicate type (t. e., a specimen from the 
original type locality) ; tbe other (P. fiavus) from a specimen taken about 400 miles 
from the type locality, Baird's type having been lost. This is the only one concern- 
ing which there remains any doubt. 



October, 1889.] REVISION OF THE GENUS PEROGNATHUS. 5 

Chatodipus* 

Mastoids moderately developed, not projecting behind plane of occiput; inter- 
parietal broadly pentagonal, or strap-shaped ; mastoid side of parietal not 
longest ; audital bulla? separated anteriorly by full width or nearly full width 
of basispheuoid. 

The species comprising the subgenus Perognathus, excepting P. for- 
mosus alone,constitute a very natural and compact group. P. formosus 
agrees with the others in cranial characters, but differs from them 
widely in external peculiarities. 

The subgenus may be conveniently divided into two minor groups or 
sections as follows : 

1. Tail vertebra I longer than head and body ; tail heavily crested ; ears very long; 

soles completely naked; pelage coarse Formosus group. 

2. Tail at most only slightly longer than head and body ; never crested ; ears short 

or moderate ; soles more or less hairy ; pelage fine Fasciatus group. 

The species comprising the subgenus Chcetodipus naturally fall into 
four minor groups or sections, which may be characterized as follows : 

A. Occiput truncated posteriorly. 

(a) Hind foot long atid narrow: 

1. Tail always crested-peuicillate ; interparietal more than twice as broad as 

long ; no supra-orbital bead Penicillatus group. 

2. Tail never crested-penicillate; interparietal less than twice as broad as 

long; a distinct supra-orbital bead (largest forms known). 

Paradoxus group. 
(6) Hind foot short and oroad : 

3. Tail not crested-penicillate Hispidus group. 

B. Occiput bulging posteriorly: 

4. Tail crested-penicillate ; ears very long Californicus group. 

list of species and subspecies herein described. 

1. Fasciatus 

1". Fasciatus flavescens. . . 

2. Flavim 

3. Bimaculatus 

4. Longiiuembris 

5. Apache )■ Subgenus Perognathus (proper). 

6. Inornatus 

7. Monticola 

8. Oli vaceus 

8 a . Olivaceus amcenus. .. 

9. Formosus 

10. Interniedius ^ 

11. Fallax | 

12. Obscurus } Penicillatus group. i 

13. Spinatus I 

14. Penicillatus J 

16.«Paradoios .pilotns.... <,'"<»*<"<» sro"l>.. 

17. Californicus. } ,, ... 

18. Armatus [ Cahformcus group. 

KEY TO SPECIES AND SUBSPECIES OF PEROGNATHUS. 

In the preparation of the following key the dichotomous system has 
been followed because of the man i test advantage it affords in presenting 

" Chcetodipus, in reference to the stiff hairs of these animals compared with the 
soft pelage of Perognathus proper. Tiio type is CluBtodipua spinatus sp. now 



6 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. [3sro. 1. 

iu alternative couplets the characters employed, and also because it 
permits the use of antithetical diagnoses throughout. 

External characters have been selected whenever feasible, in order 
to increase the usefulness of the key. 

For greater convenience, subspecies have been treated as species, 
both in the key and in the tables which follow : 

Mastoids projecting behind plane of occiput ; mastoid side of parietal longest 
(subgenus Perognathus). 
a 1 Tail crested-penicillate ; pelage coarse. 

Antitragus lobed ; hind foot 26 ; tail vertebrae J longer than head and 

body formosus. 

a" Tail not crested-penicillate ; pelage fine or soft. 

b l Antitragus lobed ; size rather large (tail vertebrae longer than head and body), 
o' Fur of belly plumbeous at base. 

Hind foot about 24.5 amcenus. 

Hind foot about 21 monticola. 

c 2 Fur of belly white to roots of hair olivaceus. 

b' 2 Antitragus not lobed ; size medium or small. 
d l Tail vertebrae longer thau head and body. 

Audital bullae meeting in symphysis anteriorly inornatus. 

Audital bullae not meeting anteriorly longimembris. 

d? Tail vertebra? not longer than head and body. 
e 1 Tail vertebras nearly as long as head and body. 

Lower premolar about half as large as last lower molar apache. 

e 2 Tail considerably shorter than head and body. 
f 1 Tail vertebra? about 60. 

Upper parts olive-green fasciatus. 

Upper part yellowish-brown Jiavescens. 

P Tail vertebras about 40. 

Hind foot 15; lower premolar longer than broad flavus. 

Hind foot 17 ; lower premolar broader than long bimaculaius. 

Mastoids not projecting behind plane of occiput ; mastoid side of parietal not 
longest (subgenus Chwtodipus). 
Occiput truncated posteriorly. 
b l Hind foot long and narroiv. 

c l Tail crested-penicillate ; no supra-orbital bead (Penicillatus group). 
d 1 Spines or bristles on rump. 

e l Interparietal strap-shaped ; rump spines small. 

Tail very long (vertebrae 106) ; pelage coarse intermedins. 

Tail shorter (vertebras 92) ; pelage finer obscurus. 

e 2 Interparietal broadly pentagonal ; rump spines large. 

Hind foot 24 ; lower premolar larger than last molar . fallax. 

Hind foot 21 ; lower premolar smaller than last molar spinatus. 

d 2 No spines or bristles on rump. 

Hind foot about 25 penicillatus. 

c 2 Tail not crested-penicillate ; a distinct supra-orbital bead (Paradoxus group). 

Hind foot 26 ; ear without distinct spot paradoxus. 

Hind foot 23 ; ear with distinct dark spot .- spilotus. 

V 2 Hind foot short and broad. 

Tail not ci'ested-penicillate (Hispidus group). 

Hind foot 21.5 ; lower premolar larger than last molar . hispidus. 

a 2 Occiput bulging posteriorly. 

Tail crested-penicillate; ears very long (Calif ornicus group). 

White spines confined to rump californicus. 

White spines extending forward on Hanks armatus. 



Onromsn. ]889.] REVISION OF THE GENUS PEROGNATHUS. 

ARRANGEMENT OF SPECIES AND SUBSPECIES BY HAIRINESS OF SOLES. 



Entirely naked*. 



Sole of hind foot.. <{ 



(fonnosus. 

fa 1 lax. 
I intermedins. 
I obscnrns 
I spin at us. 
( penicillatus. 

californicus* 

armatns. 

paradoxus. 

spilatus. 
^hispidus. 



f faseiatus. 

Posteriori hairy I flavescens. 

' J | navns. 

[apache. 

Posteriori hairy--, { inornatns. 

& \ longi mem oris 

Posterior i hairy +. ) 

V \ amcenos. 



arrangement of species and subspecies by relative size and shape of 

lower premolar. 

1. Size of Lower Premolar compared with Last Molar. 



Larger. 

Californicus. 
Armatns. 
Hispidus. 
Intermedins. 

Fallax. 

Obscnrns. 

Penicillatus. 

Fonnosus. 

Flavns. 

Longiinenibris. 



Smaller. 



Apache. 
Monticola. 

Olivaceus. 

Aracenus. 

Bimaculatus. 

Flavescens. 
Spinatus. 



About equal. 



Paradoxus. 
Spi lotus. 
Inornatns. 
Fasciatus. 



2. Relative Proportions of Crown of Lowf.r Premolar. 



<a.) Noticeably longer than 
broad. 

Californicus. 
Armatns. 

Flavns. 
Fallax. 



(b.) About as broad as long. 



Paradoxus. 
Spilotas. 
Hispidus. 
Intermedins. 

Foriuosns. 
Flavescens. 



Inornatns. 
Olivaceus. 
A'linMius. 
Monticola. 

Longimambris 



(c.) Broader than long. 

Apache. 
Bimacnlatns. 

Penicillatus. 
Fasciatus. 

Obscnrns. 



.3. Relative Shape of Crown of Lower Premolar 



(l.) Narrowest anteriorly. 

Paradoxus. 
Spilotns. 

Californicus. 

Intermedins. 

Obscnrns. 

Fallax. 

Penicillatus. 

Fonnosus. 

Monticola. 

Flavesceus. 



(2.) Narrowest externally. 



Apache. 
Iuornalns. 
Olivaceus. 
Amcenus. 

Fasciatus. 
Fonnosus. 
Spinatns. 



(3.) Sub-triangular. 

Apache. 

Fasciatus. 

Spinatus. 



8 NOETH AMERICAN FAUNA . [No. 1. 

ARRANGEMENT OF SPECIES AND SUBSPECIES BY SHAPE OF INTERPARIETAL. 

\ / Shield-shaped or squarish-pentagonal (ratio of length to breadth, above 60). 



Inornatus. 
Apache. 
Longiinembris. 
Biniaculatus (?). 
Fasciatus. 



Flavus (anterior angles 

rounded). 
Olivaceus. 
Amcenus. 
Monticola. 



Formosns (posterior an- 

gles rounded). 
Flavescens. 



Broadly pentagonal (ratio of lengtb to breadtb below 60). 



Penicillatus (posterior angles 

rounded). 
Fallax. 
Spinatus. 



CD 



Paradoxus. 

Spilotus ^ posterior angles rounded; sides 
Hispid us $ strongly divergent anteriorly. 
Californicus (convex posteriorly). 



Strap-shaped (ratio of leugtb to breadth 38.2 to 4G.6). 
Obscurus. Intermedius. 



Arrangement of species and subs2)ecies by parietal proportions. 
[By longest side. 1 



Mastoid side 
longest. 


Median and frontal 
sub-equal. 


Frontal and pos- 
terior subequal 
(median shorter). 


Frontal, posterior, 
and median 
sub-equal. 


Apache. 

Inornatus. 

Longiinembris. 

Flavus. 

Bimaculatus. 

Fasciatus. 


Paradoxus. 

Spilotus. 

' llispidus. 

Fallax. 

Intermedins. 

Obscurus. 


Californicus. 
Penicillatus. 


Spinatus. 
Armatus. 


Flavescens. 
Formosus. 








Olivaceus. 








Amoenus. 
Monticola. 









October, 1889.] REVISION OF THE GENUS PEROGNATIIUS. 



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10 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. ■ [No. 1. 

PEEOGISTATHUS FASCIATUS Maximilian. 

Perognatlms faseiatus Max. Wied, Nova Acta Acad. Cses. Leop. Carol., xrx, I, 1839, 
369-373, pi. xxxiv (col.). Type from the Upper Missouri near its junction 
with the Yellowstone. — Max. Wied, Reise in das innere Nord Amerika, I, 
1839, 449-450. 

Perognatlms flavus Baird, Mammals of North America, 1857,423-425 (in part only). 

Duplicate type ffff $ . From near junction of Yellowstone and Missouri Rivers, 
Montana, October 6, 1887. Vernon Bailey. 

Measurements. — Total length, 135; tail vertebrae, 60 (taken in flesh by 
collector). Bind foot, 17.5; ear from crown, 4.5 (measured from dry 
skin). 

General characters. — Size small (intermediate between penicillatus 
and longimembris) ; ears small, well haired on both sides, particularly 
on the iuflexed upper portion and on the base below; no antitragal 
lobe ; tail nearly as long as head and body, not crested or penicillate ; 
posterior half of soles haired ; pelage soft. 

Color. — Above, between olive green and olive-gray, faintly suffused 
with pale fulvous, and finely lined with blackish ; a light fulvous lat- 
eral stripe*; under parts, including fore legs and feet, white to roots of 
hairs. Tail not bicolor, but slightly paler below than above. Ears 
with a light yellowish patch on inflexed upper portion, another on 
lower margin ; a larger patch of same color behind each ear. 

Cranial and dental characters. — Skull rather small, moderately arched ; 
mastoids largely developed and projectiDg slightly behind plane of 
occiput (ratio of mastoid breadth to basilar length of Hensel, 68.3; of 
intermastoid breadth, 22.7); audital bullae separated by less than 
breadth of basisphenoid ; interparietal pentagonal, considerably broader 
than long (ratio of length to breadth 66.6) ; nasals not extending quite 
so far posteriorly as nasal branch of premaxillaries ; mastoid border 
of parietal longest; coronoid process of mandible rather loug. Upper 
premolar hardly as broad as first molar; second and third molars suc- 
cessively narrower. Lower premolar about the size of last molar, its 
crown broader than long,t much narrower externally than internally, 
and anteriorly than posteriorly ; first lower molar conspicuously the 
largest tooth; second and third successively smaller; deciduous lower 
premolar nearly twice as long as broad, as usual in the genus. 

General remarks. — Perognatlms faseiatus is remarkable among mam- 
mals for the olive-green color which pervades its upper parts. A trace 

* Throughout this paper the term lateral stripe is applied to the tawny band which 
usually separates the color of the upper parts from the white of the under parts. It 
must not be supposed to imply the existence of a real stripe ivithin the color of the 
upper parts, such as is present in many of the ground squirrels. 

tin the genus Perognatlms the deciduous lower premolar is a long time in falling 
out, and in the case of young skulls care must be taken not to mistake it for the per- 
manent tooth. It is very much longer than broad, and has five well-developed cusps : 
an anterior, a middle pair, and a posterior pair (see plate IV, fig. 1). 



October. 1889.] REVISION OF THE GENUS PEROGNATHUS. 11 

of the same tint occurs in its congeners P. olivaceus and P. olivaceus 
amcenus, but it is only a trace. In size it ranks among the smaller 
members of the genus, being little larger than longimembris. 

Just fifty years ago (in 1839) this beautiful species, the type of the 
genus Perognathus, was accurately described and figured by Prince Maxi- 
milian from specimens collected by himself near the junction of the Yel- 
lowstone with the Missouri. From that time till the present it has never 
been recognized by its right name, but has been confounded with Perog- 
nathus flavus, a very different animal. The origin of this confusion 
has been already explained in the introductory portion of the present 
paper. 

PEROGNATHUS FASCIATUS FLAYESCENS subsp. nov. 
Perognathus flams Baird, Mainm. N. Am., 1857, 423-425 (in part only). 

Type £tHef<? ad. From Kennedy, Nebraska, June 11, 1888. Vernon Bailey. 

Measurements. — Total length, 130; tail vertebra?, G3 (taken in flesh 
by collector). Hind foot, 17; ear from crown, 4 (measured from dry 
skin). 

General characters. — Size of P. fasciatus, with ears and tail as in that 
species ; pelage coarser. 

Color. — Above, pale yellowish-brown, lined with blackish, without 
trace of the olive-green of fasciatus; sides with a pale fulvous lateral 
stripe; under parts, including fore legs and feet, white to base of hairs; 
ear with a whitish spot on inflexed upper portion and another on inferior 
margin. The dark hairs of the back do not reach so far down on the 
face and sides as in fasciatus ; on the head they are limited to the tri- 
angular space extending from the upper corners of the ears to the sides 
of the nose, leaving a broad zone of pale fulvous around each eye. The 
end of the nose is whitish all round. The absence of black hairs from 
the upper surface of the thighs leaves these parts pale fulvous like the 
sides. 

Cranial and dental characters. — Skull a little smaller than that of fas- 
ciatus: vault of cranium more highly arched; mastoids not quite so 
large (ratio of mastoid breadth to basilar length of Hensel, 77.9; of in- 
termastoid breadth, 34.4); interparietal broader (ratio of length to 
breadth, G1.5), sides much spreading, posterior edge notched; audital 
bulla? meeting anteriorly ; mastoid border of parietal longest; corouoid 
process of mandible more slender and less spreading. Lower premolar 
slightly smaller than last molar, its crown squarish with rounded cor- 
ners; not decidedly narrower externally than internally. 

General remarks. — P. fasciatus flavescens is a well marked subspecies, 
easily distinguished from fasciatus by coloration, by its broad orbital 
ring, by the comparative harshness of its pelage, by the shape of the 
crown of its lower premolar, and by the fact that its audital bulla- meet 
anteriorly. 



12 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. INo. 1. 

PEROGNATHUS FLAVUS Baird. 

Perognathus flavits Baird, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., Apr., 1855. 332 (type from 
El Paso, Tex.).— Baird, Manirn. N. Am. 1857. 423-425 (in part only). 

No. jHHrf $ ad. From Mason, Texas, May 31, 1888. Ira B. Henry. 

Measurements. — Total length 95 mm (taken in flesh by collector ; other 
measurements from dry skin); tail vertebrae, 40 + (extreme tip gone); 
hind foot, 15 ; ear from crown, 4. 

General characters. — Size, smallest of the known species ; ear rela- 
tively large; no antitragal lobe ; tail considerably less than head and 
body — perhaps about equaling body alone — not crested or penicillate; 
pelage soft; posterior half of sole sparsely haired. 

Color. — Above, light fulvous, obscured by black-tipped hairs and 
clearest on the sides, but no distinct lateral stripe; under parts, includ- 
cluding fore legs and feet, white to base of hairs; ears with a white 
spot on inferior margin ; a large, light yellowish-buff patch behind each 
ear; a broad ring of dull, pale fulvous around each eye. 

Cranial and dental characters. — Skull ve^ small, with largely-devel- 
oped mastoids, which encroach on interparietal and project behind 
occipital plane (ratio of mastoid breadth to basilar length of Heusel, 
78.5; of intermastoid breadth, 22.8); interparietal very small, with an- 
terior angles much rounded (ratio of lei gth to breadth, 78.1); audital 
bullse meeting in symphysis below basisphenoid ; mastoid border of 
parietal longest. Lower premolar slightly larger than last molar, its 
crown longer than broad. First lower molar largest ; second and third 
successively smaller. 

General remarks. — Unfortunately, Baird's type can notbe found. His 
original description, which is very brief, applies well to the above 
specimen from Mason, Texas, except that the tail was longer. Mason 
is a little more than 400 miles east of El Paso, and is in auother faunal 
area; hence it would not be strange if future collections show the El 
Paso animal to be different from the one here described.* 

PEROGNATHUS BIMACULATUS sp. nov. 

Type no. -/;MAr $ a ^. U. S. National Museum. From Fort Whipple, Arizona, May 
21, 1865. Dr. Elliott Coues. 

Measurements. — Total length, 117""" ; head and body, 71 (taken in 
flesh by collector). Tail vertebrae, 40 (bone left in tail) ; hind foot, 17; 
ear from crown, 4 (from dry skin). 

* Following is Baird's original description in full: 

"Perognathus favus Baird. — Much smaller than the common house mouse (Mas 
musculus). Tail nearly equal to or less than the hody, scarcely diifering in color above 
and below. Hind feet short. 

''Color. — Above yellowish buff, with dusky tips to some of the hairs; paler and 
clearer on the sides. Beneath snowy white to the roots of the hairs. Hairs on the 
back plumbeous only on their basal half. Head and body, 2-fe inches. Tail to end 
of vertebra 1 , 2 inches. Hind foot from heel, 7^ inches [manifest error for lines'}. 

" Collected at El Paso by J. H. Clark." (Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., vol. vn, 
1855,332.) 



October, 1889.] REVISION OF THE GENUS PEROGNATHUS. 13 

General characters. — Size, small, about equal to P. longimembris ; tail 
sbort, hardly equaling body without head ; ear relatively large ; no 
antitragal lobe ; pelage soft; sole haired on posterior half. 

Color. — Similar to that of P. flavus but darker, with top of nose much 
darker, and yellowish post-auricular spot much larger and more con- 
spicuous. 

Cranial and dental characters. — ^Nothing remains of the skull but a 
few fragments. The mastoids, audital bullae, aud interparietal are al- 
together wanting, so that it is impossible to ascertain a single cranial 
character. The lower jaw, however, is in fair condition and the teeth 
remain in situ. The lower premolar is noticeably smaller than the last 
molar and its crown is broader than long. 

General remarks. — P. bimaculatus may be distinguished from P. flavus 
by its larger size, longer hind foot (17 instead of 15), aud the small size 
of the lower premolar. 

PEROGNATHUS LONGIMEMBRIS (Coues). 

f Perognathus parvus Baird [not Peale], Mammals N. Am., 1857, 425-426 (from Tulare 

County, Cal.). 
Cricetodipus parvus Coues, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1875, 303-305. 
Otognosis longimembris Coues [provisional name], Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1875, 

305. 

Type no. 9856, 9 , U. S. National Museum. From Fort Tejon, Cal. J. Xantus. 

Measurements. — Head and body, 51""" (from Coues ; other measure- 
ments made by myself from the alcoholic specimen); tail vertebra*, 58; 
peneil, 8; hind foot, 17.5; ear, 3.5. 

General remarks. — Coues states: "As well as can be judged from the 
insufficient material before me, this species does not differ materially in 
color from P. flavus; and in fact the only diagnostic characters at pres- 
ent appreciable are. the greater length of the hind feet and tail." (Proc. 
Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1875, 304.) 

Fortunately, I possess a fine series of specimens from San Bernardino, 
Cal., which place is only about 100 miles from Fort Tejon, the type 
locality of O. longimembris. I take pleasure in adding, therefore, the 
following description of an adult male: 

No. im $ ad. From San Bernardino, Cal., May 6, 1885. F. Stephens. 

Measurements. — Head and body, 50; tail vertebrae, 03; hairs, 5.5; 
(taken in flesh by collector); hind foot, 17.5; ear from crown, 4.5 
(measured from dry skin). 

General characters. — Size, small ; ears rather large, without antitragal 
lobe; tail vertebra? a little longer than head and body ; scantily haired, 
and with a sparse terminal pencil, not crested; posterior third of soles 
haired ; pelage soft. 

Color. — Above, yellowish brown, every where finely lined with dusky; 
sides with a lateral line of the same color, but without the dark hairs; 
under parts, including fore legs and feet, white; tail concolor, yellow- 



14 NORTH AMERICAN EAUNA. [No. 1. 

ish, becoming dusky toward the tip. There is a yellowish patch behiud 
each ear, and a white spot at the inferior margin of the ear. [Some 
specimens have also a white spot on the infolded upper margin. Young 
grayish brown above, tail darker above than below.] 

Cranial and dental characters. — Skull small, rather flat ; mastoids very 
much swollen, projecting considerably behind plane of occiput (ratio of 
mastoid breadth to basilar length of Hensel, 78.6; of intermastcid, 24) ; 
interparietal pentagonal, nearly as long as broad (ratio of length to 
breadth, 86.4) ; audital bullae separated by full breadth of basispheuoid; 
mastoid border of parietal longest. Coronoid process of mandible mod- 
erately developed. Lower premolar slightly larger than last molar, its 
crown squarish, slightly narrower auteriorly than posteriorly, and ex- 
ternally than internally ; first molar larger than second; third a little 
more than half as large as second. 

PEROGNATHUS APACHE sp. nov. 

Type ff-ff <$ a<i - Apache County, Arizona, May 22, 1888. 

Measurement:. — Total length (measured in the flesh), 140. Tail, 68; 
hind foot, 18.5; ear from crown, 4 (measured from dry skin). 

General characters. — Size, medium; tail about as long as head and 
body, or a little shorter, not crested or penicillate ; ears small ; no an- 
titragal lobe ; soles haired to base of toes ; whiskers rather short ; 
pelage moderately soft. 

Color. — Above, light tawuy-ochraceus, finely and sparingly lined 
with black, which does not hide the ground color; under parts, includ- 
ing fore legs and feet, pure white to base of fur. Tail indistinctly bi- 
color, yellowish above and whitish beneath. Ears with an indistinct 
whitish spot on lower margin. On the back the plumbeous basal por- 
tion of the fur occupies less than half the length of the hairs. 

Cranial and dental characters. — Skull a little larger than that of P. 
fasciatus, nearly flat ; mastoids greatly swollen, reaching, perhaps, the 
maximum of devolopment seen in the genus, and projecting backward 
behind the plane of the occiput (ratio of mastoid breadth to basilar 
length of Hensel 70.2; of intermastoid breadth 21.7); interparietal pen- 
tagonal, very small, sides scarcely divergent anteriorly (ratio of length 
to breadth 78.9) ; audital bullae meeting in a symphysis below the 
basisphenoid; nasals ending posteriorly almost on a line with nasal 
branch of premaxillaries ; mastoid border of parietal longest; coronoid 
process of mandible rather small. Crown of upper premolar narrower 
than first molar; lower premolar very small, scarcely half as large as 
last molar, its crown broader than long, subtriangular. 

General remarks.— P. apache is the yellowest species thus far discov- 
ered. In size it is a little larger than P. fasciatus. In the great de- 
velopment of the mastoids and consequent smallness of the interpa- 
rietal it closely approaches P. inornatus. 



October, 1889.J REVISION OF THE GENUS PEROGNATHUS. 15 

PEROGN ATHITS INORNATUS sp. nov. 

? Perognathus parvus Baird, Mauim. N. Am., 1857, 425-426. 

Type No. M? !!„ £ JS- ad. Fresno, California. 

Measurements. — (Taken from alcoholic specimen before skinning out 
skull.) Total length, 137 ; head and body, G5; tail vertebra?, 71; pen- 
cil, 4; hiud foot, 18 5; ear from crown, 4. 

General characters. — Size, medium, about equaling P. apache, which 
it greatly resembles; tail a little longer than head and body, not crested; 
ear rather small ; no antitragal lobe; posterior third of soles haired; 
whiskers rather short ; pelage rather soft. 

Co/or.— Owing to long immersion in alcohol it is impossible to be sure 
of the original color. Apparently, however, it was a light yellowish- 
brown not unlike that of P. apache, but faintly lined with blackish. 

Cranial and dental characters.— Skull similar to that of P. apache in 
size and shape, but even flatter, and narrower interorbitally; mastoids 
jgreatly swollen and projecting considerably behind plane of occiput 
(ratio of mastoid breadth to occipito-uasal length, 55.6); audita! bulla3 
meeting anteriorly in symphysis; interparietal very small, squarish- 
pentagonal with sharp angles (ratio of length to breadth, 84.8) ; nasals 
falling considerably short of nasal branch of premaxillaries ; mastoid 
border of parietal longest. Coronoid process of mandible rather large. 
Lower premolar about the size of last molar, its crown squarish, slightly 
narrower externally than internally. 

General remarks. — In size, proportions, and (?)color P. inornatus closely 
resembles P. apache. Its skull also bears a striking resemblance to that 
of apache, but is narrower interorbitally and has shorteraud more slender 
nasals. The lower premolar, however, is very different, being about 
the size of the last molar instead of only half as large, and its crown is 
squarish instead of subtriangular as in apache. From P. longimembris 
it is easily distinguished by its much larger size. 

Very probably this is the species described by Baird as P. parvus. 
His specimen was very young and was mounted. Its mutilated and 
faded remains afford no positive characters,, but the length of its hind 
foot [18 nini , as given by Baird], and the circumstance that it came from 
Kings River, Tulare County, Gal., a locality only a few miles distant 
from Fresno, suggest the probability of its identity with the present 
species. 

PEROGNATHUS OLIVACEUS sp. nov. 

Type £§g| $ . Kelton, Utah, October 24, 1888. Vernon Bailey. 

Measurements. — Total length to end of vertebra;, 184; tail to end of 
vertebra' 101 ; pencil, 9 (taken in flesh by collector) ; hind foot, 23 ; ear 
from crown, 5 (measured from the dry skin). 

General characters. — Size rather large ; ears medium, with antitragal 
lobe large, about as high as broad; tail slightly peuicillate, not noticea- 



16 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. I No. 1. 

bly crested, its vertebrae longer than head and body ; soles haired on 
posterior fourth ; pelage soft and silky. 

Color. — Above, yellowish-brown, finely mixed with black, and tinged 
with olive, though not so distinctly as in P. fasoiatus ; below, pure 
white to roots of hair. Tail bicolor : above, proximal half like the back, 
distal half becoming sooty-brown ; below, white. There is a distinct 
white spot on the inferior margin of the ear which reaches up to the 
base of the autitragal lobe. 

Cranial and dental characters. — Skull rather large, moderately arched ; 
mastoids greatly developed (ratio of mastoid breadth to basilar length 
of Hensel72.4; of inierraastoid breadth 29.1); interparietal rouuded 
shield- shaped (ratio of length to breadth 70.5); nasals not reaching 
quite so far back as nasal branches of premaxillaries ; audital bullae 
separated anteriorly by less than full breadth of basisphenoid ; mastoid 
border of parietal longest. Corouoid process of mandible moderately 
long. Lower premolar slightly smaller than last molar; its crown 
squarish, slightly narrower externally than internally ; first and second 
molars subequal. 

General remarks. — P. olivaceus looks like an overgrown P. fasciatus. 
It has the same soft, silky fur, the same white spot below the ear, and, 
though to a less degree, the same olive tinge which is so unusual among 
mammals. But it is much larger than fasciatus, has a peuicillate tail, 
and a different skull. 

PEROGNATHUS OLIVACEUS AMCEtfUS subsp. nov. 

Type No. |f!}| $ . Nephi, Utah, November 23, 1838. Vernon Bailey. 

Measurements. — Total length, 178 ; tail vertebrae, 93 (taken in the flesh 
by collector) ; pencil, 9; hind foot, 21.5 ; ears from crown, 4 (measured 
from the dry skin). 

General characters. — Size rather large ; ears small, with autitragal 
lobe large, a little higher than broad ; tail peuicillate, not crested, its 
vertebrae longer than head and body; soles haired on posterior fourth ; 
pelage soft and silky. 

Color. — Above, yellowish-brown, fiuely mixed with black, and faintly 
tinged with olive ; sides pale salmon, fading gradually into the white 
of the under parts, which is suffused with the same color ; hairs of belly 
plumbeous at base. Tail indistinctly bicolor: above, proximal half 
colored like back, but paler ; distal half becoming sooty-brown ; below, 
whitish. There is a small spot of yellowish-white on the inferior mar- 
gin of the ear. 

Cranial and dental characters. — Very similar to P. olivaceus, but skull 
a little broader posteriorly, and interparietal relatively broader (ratio 
of length to breadth 66). 

General remarks. — P. olivaceus arnamus differs from P. olivaceus in 
having smaller ears with the light spot on inferior margin much less con- 



Octobek, 1889.] EEVISION OF THE GENUS PEROGNATHUS. . 17 

spieuous ; in having the fur of the belly plumbeous at base and suffused 
with salmon, instead of pure white, and in having the hind foot longer 
and the tail shorter. 

PEBOGXATHUS MONTICOLA Baird. 

Perognathus montieola Baird, Mammals N. Am., 1857, 422-423. Type from (?) St 
Mary's Mission, Montana. 

Type Aox 2 ad. U. S. National Museum. St. Mary's Mission (?), west of Rocky 
Mountains. 

Measurements. — (From Baird) Head and body 76 ; tail 78 + (tip broken 
off); hind foot 21.* 

General characters. — Size medium, a little smaller than P. olivaceus ; 
ears medium ; antitragus lobed; tail not crested-penicillate ; its verte- 
brae slightly longer than head and body ; pelage moderately soft. 

Color. — (From Baird) Above, mixed cinuatnou and dusky ; beneath, 
white; hairs below as well as above, plumbeous at base; a pale cinna- 
mon lateral stripe; outside of fore leg dusky to the wrist; tail bicolor. 

Cranial and dental characters. — Skull a little smaller than that of P. 
olivaceus, a little larger than fasciatus ; vault of cranium arched about 
as in olivaceus. Mastoids largely developed, projecting slightly behind 
plane of occiput; audital bullae united auterioily by symphysis; inter- 
parietal pentagonal, relatively broader than in formosus, but not so 
broad as in fasciatus and favescens (ratio of length to breadth 08.0). 
mastoid border of parietal loudest; coroncid process of mandible 
slightly longer than in olivaceus, but not so long as in fasciatus. Lower 
premolar smaller than last molar, its crown a little longer than broad, 
and narrower anteriorly than posteriorly. 

General remarks. — P. montieola is a perfectly good species, which has 
escaped notice since 1853, when the type and onlj known specimen was 
collected by Dr. George Suckley. Its skull indicates al'linity with P. 
olivaceus. In coloration it now resembles P. penicillatus, but it is so 
worn and faded from long exposure to light and dust that little de- 
pendence can be placed on its present color. The practice of mounting 
and exhibiting type specimens cau not be too strongly condemned. It 
is a relic of barbarism which modern museums can not afford to per- 
petuate. 

PEBOGNATHUS FORMOSUS sp. now 

Type No. £$$| $ ad. St. George, Utah, January 2. 1889. Vernon Bailey. 

Measurements.— Total length to end of vertebra', 10."); tail vertebrae, 
111, pencil 16; hind foot, 26 (taken in flesh by collector); ear from 
crown, 6 (measured from the dry skin). 

•This is tin- present measurement of the hiud foot iu the mounted specimen, ami 
consequently must he a little less than in life. Baud's measurement (.60 inch) is a 
little too short. 

944— No. 1—3 



18 NOKTH AMERICAN FAUNA. [No. 1. 

General characters. — Size large; ears very large; autitragai lobe con- 
siderably higher than broad; tail vertebrae a fourth longer than head 
and body; tail penicillate, and crested above on the terminal third; 
soles entirely naked to end of heels; pelage moderately soft, not so fine 
as in P. olivaceus, and not so harsh as in penicillatus. 

Color. — Above, grizzled yellowish-brown, with an abundant admixture 
of black-tipped hairs (this color reaching down on the arms to the el- 
bows); below, white to roots of hairs; lateral line, faint and narrow; 
tail, bicolor: above, proximal third colored like back, then gradually 
becoming darker until the distal half is dark sooty-brown; below, yel- 
lowish-white, except the pencil, which is dark on both sides. 

Cranial and dental characters. — Mastoids largely developed (ratio of 
mastoid breadth to basilar length of Hensel 76 ; of inter-mastoid breadth 
31.2) ; interparietal pentagonal, with posterior angles rounded, consid. 
erably broader than long (ratio of length to breadth 69); audital bullae 
meeting anteriorly in a symphysis; mastoid border of parietal longest ; 
mastoid bar of squamosal reduced to a mere spicule, which disappears 
above the meatus; coronoid process of mandible minute and depressed— 
not nearly so prominent as in olivaceus. Upper premolar broader 
than first molar; lower premolar larger than last molar, its crown about 
as broad as long, conspicuously narrower anteriorly than posteriorly, 
its posterior cusp nearly as broad as second molar ; last lower molar 
smaller than usual in the group. 

General remarks. — This elegant species, which I have named Perogna- 
thus for mosus, is the largest of the subgenus Perognathus, from all other 
members of which it differs in the possession of a very long and heavily 
crested tail, the vertebrae alone measuring one-fourth more than the 
head and body. Its ears also are very long, about equaling those of 
Chcetodipus californicus, and its soles are entirely naked. In fact, from 
its external characters no one would suspect it to belong to the sub- 
genus Perognathus at all. To use a " Couesianism," it has the skull of 
a Perognathus in the skin of a Ghwtodipus. 

PEROGNATHCTS IKTERMEDIUS sp. nov. 

Type no. f§$r<? ad. Mud Spring, Arizona, February 26, 1889. Vernon Bailey. 

Measurements. — Total length, 183; tail vertebrae, 106; pencil, 18; 
hind foot, 21 (taken in flesh by collector) ; ear from crown, 4.5 (from 
dry skin). 

General characters. —Size intermediate between spinatus and penicil- 
latus; tail vertebrae much longer than head and body; tail crested- 
peuicillate ; soles naked ; ears thicker and darker than in penicillatus; 
autitragai lobe large ; higher than broad ; lateral stripe present ; soles 
naked; pelage coarse, with slight tendency to become bristly on rump 
(bristles about as in obscurus). 

Color. — Above, drab gray, faintly suffused with pale fulvous and 
coarsely lined with blackish ; lateral line, pale fulvous ; below, includ- 



■.October, 1889.] REVISION OF THE GENUS PEJROGNATHUS. 19 

iug fore legs and feet, white to roots of hairs. Tail, bicolor; sooty- 
brown above, whitish beneath. 

Cranial and dental characters. — Skull intermediate in size between 
penicillatus and spinatus, slightly more arched than that of penicillatus; 
mastoids relatively larger than in either penicillatus or spinatus; audital 
bulla) separated by a little less than full breadth of basisphenoid ; inter- 
parietal strap-shaped, much more than twice as broad as long (ratio of 
length to breadth 38.2), its anterior margin only very slightly convex; 
nasals ending posteriorly about on a line with nasal branch of premax- 
illaries; median and frontal borders of parietal subequal. Coronoid 
process of mandible rather small. Lower premolar a little larger than 
last molar; its crown about as long as broad ; noticeably narrower an- 
teriorly than posteriorly. Owing to the nearly straight anterior margin 
of the interparietal, the parietals are unusually long in the, median 
line, measuring as much along the sagittal suture as along the frontal 
border. 

General remarks. — In size and coloration P. intermedins closely re- 
sembles P. spinatus, but it has a distinct, though pale, lateral stripe. 
It has a few small bristles on its rump, but nothing like the long- 
grooved spines of spinatus. Its lower premolar is much larger than 
that of spinatus, and squarish instead of subtriangular. It differs from 
■ penicillatus in size, coloration, and the tendency to develop bristles; 
also in the greater size of the mastoids, and in other cranial proportions. 
From P. obscurus it may be distinguished by its larger size, longer tail, 
coarser pelage, and by cranial characters. Perhaps its closest affin- 
ities are with P. fallax, from San Bernardino, Cal., from which it differs 
in being smaller, and in the smaller size of its ears, hind feet, and rump 
bristles, and in the nearly straight anterior edge of the interparietal. 

PEKOGNATHUS FALLAX sp. now 

TypeiffH $ ad> U.S. National Museum. From San Bernardino, Cal., April 21, 

1887. F. Stephens. 

Measurements. — Head and body, 70 ; tail vertebrae, 104 (taken in tiesh 
by collector); pencil, 15 ; hind foot, 24 ; ear from crown, G (taken from 
dry skin). 

General characters.— Size large; tail crested-penicill ate, its vertebra) 
much longer than head and body ; ears large, thicker than in penicilla- 
tus ; antitragal lobe much higher than broad; soles naked; pelage 
moderately soft (about as in penicillatus), becoming bristly on the rump. 
The bristles are arranged and colored as in spinatus ; they are larger 
than in obscurus, but not so large as in spinatus. 

Color.— Above, dark grizzled yellowish-brown, profusely lined with 
black; lateral line pale fulvous, coveriug the upper surface of the 
fore leg ; below, white to base of hairs. Tail bicolor : above, sooty- 
brown ; below, white. 



20 NOETH AMERICAN FAUNA. LNo. l. 

Cranial and dental characters. — Skull large and broad, much arched ; 
mastoids rather small (ratio of mastoid breadth to basilar length of 
Hensel, 73.7; of intermastoid breadth, 44.9), but slightly larger than in 
penicillatus ; interparietal more than twice as broad as long (ratio of 
length to breadth, 45.6) ; audital bullae separated anteriorly by nearly 
full breadth of basisphenoid; nasals em arginate posteriorly, extending 
nearly as far back as nasal branch of premaxillaries ; frontal border of 
parietal longest, median and posterior subequal.. Coronoid process of 
mandible very short, not rising to the level of the condyle. Upper 
tooth row strongly curved, the convexity outward. Lower premolar 
larger than last molar, its crown slightly longer than broad, and nar- 
rower anteriorly than posteriorly. 

General remarks. — In size, length of ear, and coloration this species 
is intermediate between penicillatus and califomicus. It is nearly as 
dark above as califomicus, and has the lateral stripe and rump bristles 
of that species. Its skull, on the other hand, is clearly of the penicilla- 
tus type. At the same time it is more arched than that of penicillatus, 
and the plane of the occiput is a little fuller posteriorly. The coronoid 
process of the mandible is very short and low, and the crown of the 
lower premolar longer than broad, as in califomicus. 

PEKOGNATHUS OBSCUEUS sp. nov. 

Type No. ff f£ $ a d- From Camp Apache, Grant County, New Mexico, April 30, 
1886. A. W. Anthony. 

Measurements. — Total length, 16S mm (measured in flesh by collector; 
other measurements from dry skin); tail vertebra? about 92; pencil, 
11 ; hind foot, 21 ; ear, from crown, 4. 

General characters. — Size rather small, slightly smaller than spinatus ; 
tail crested-penicillate, its vertebra? considerably longer than head and 
body, but relatively shorter than in penicillatus ; ears large, moderately 
well haired ; antitragal lobe higher than broad ; tragus evident ; hind 
feet large and broad ; soles naked ; whiskers very long, reaching to 
middle of body ; pelage rather soft ; hairs of rump very long with tend- 
ency to develop bristles. 

Color. — Above, drab, suffused with pale fulvous, finely and profusely 
lined with blackish ; a pale fulvous lateral stripe ; below, includiug fore 
legs and feet, white to base of hairs, suffused with very pale fulvous 
or salmon. 

Cranial and dental characters. — Skull rather large and flat, very broad 
interorbitally ; mastoids small (ratio of mastoid breadth to basilar length 
of Hensel, 74.7 ; of intermastoid breadth, 45.9) ; audital bullae sepa- 
rated anteriorly by full breadth of basisphenoid ; interparietal strap- 
shaped, more than twice as broad as long (ratio of length to breadth 
46.6) ; nasals extending posteriorly nearly as far as nasal branch 
of premaxillaries; median and frontal borders of parietal longest and 
subequal. Coronoid process of mandible small. Lower premolar much 



October, 1889.1 REVISION OF THE GENUS PEROGNATHUS. 21 

larger than last molar, its crown broader than long, and narrower 
anteriorly tban posteriorly. 

General remarks. — P. obscurus is one of the few known species besides 
spinatus which show any tendency toward the development of spiues 
in the pelage, bnt the small bristles on its rump are hardly more than 
a step in the direction of the large spiues of spinatus. It differs further 
from spinatus in its smaller size, larger head, broader hiud foot, shorter 
tail, finer pelage; in the presence of a pale fulvous lateral stripe and 
a suffusion of the same color throughout ; iu having a larger and flat- 
ter skull ; in having the audital bulhe separated by full breadth of basi- 
spheuoid ; in having the lower premolar larger than the last molar and 
its crown longer than broad. 

PEKOGNATHUS SPINATUS sp. nov. 

Type No. Ifff $ ad. From Lower Colorado River, California, 25 miles below the 
Needles, March 23, 1889. Vernon Bailey. 

Measurements. — Total length, 170; tail vertebra?, 104 ; pencil, 15; hind 
foot, 2L (taken in flesh by collector). Ear from crown, 3.5 (measured 
from dry skin). 

General characters. — Size, rather small ; tail crestedpeuicillate, its 
vertebra? a fourth longer than head and body ; ears moderate, scant 
haired; antitragal lobe large; whiskers long; soles naked; pelage very 
coarse, becoming spinous on the rump. 

Color. — Above, clear drab-gray, grayest on the sides, coarsely liued 
with blackish ; no lateral stripe; under parts, including fore legs and 
feet, creamy white to roots of hairs. Tail sharply bicolor — above, dusky ; 
below, white to end of vertebra?; pencil dusky all round. 

Cranial and dental characters. — Skull of medium size, considerably 
smaller and more arched than that of penicillatus ; mastoids small (ratio 
of mastoid breadth to basilar length of Hensel, 73.0; of interinastoid 
breadth, 48.4); interparietal broadly and flatly pentagonal, more than 
twice as broad as long (ratio of length to breadth, 47.0) ; audital bulla? 
separated by less than full breadth of basisphenoid ; nasals ending pos- 
teriorly about on a line with nasal branch of premaxillaries ; anterior, 
posterior, and median borders of parietals subequal ; palatines notice- 
ably thinner than rest of palate. Corouoid process of mandible very 
small. Upper molar series straight. Lower premolar smaller than last 
molar, its crown sub triangular, broader than long, and very much nar- 
rower anteriorly than posteriorly. 

General remarks. — Perognathus spinatus may be distinguished at a 
glance from all other known species of the penicillatus group by the large 
size of the spines on its rump. These spines are arranged in three 
groups, and are of two kinds, namely : (a) elongated black-tipped bristles, 
with fine awn points, occupying the middle region of the rump on and 
near the median line ; and (b) long white spines occupying the sides of 
the rump and situated a little posteriorly to the first mentioned. The 



22 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. [No. 1. 

white spines are about 12 mm in length, and project far beyond the hairs. 
All the spines are grooved longitudinally. P. obscurus and P. inter- 
medins also have rump spines, but they are much smaller and less con- 
spicuous than in spinatus. Perognathus spinatus is the type of the sub- 
genus Ghwtodipus described in the early part of this paper (see p. 5). 

PEROGNATHUS PENICILLATUS Woodhouse. 

Perognathus penecillatus Woodhouse, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci." Phila., 1852, 200. Type 

from San Francisco Mountain, Arizona. 
Perognathus penicillatus Woodhouse, Rept. Expd. Zuni and Colorado Rivers, Sit- 
greaves, 1853, 49-50, pi. 3 (based on same specimen as above). 
Baird, Mammals N. Am., 1857, 418, 419, pi. xx, Fig. 5. 

Coues, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1875, 237-292.— Coues, Monographs N. Am. 
Rodentia, 1877, 504-509. 

Type No. 2676 $ ad. U. S. National Museum (mounted, skull inside.) From San 
Francisco Mountain, Arizona, 1851. Dr. S. W. Woodhouse. 

Measurements (from Woodhouse). — Head and body, S9 mm ; tail verte- 
brae 115 [pencil, 15] ; hind foot 25.5. 

General characters. — Size large: tail crested-penicillate, its vertebrae 
much longer than head and body; ears rather large, nearly naked ; an 
titragal lobe higher than broad ; soles naked ; pelage moderately coarse 

Color. — Above, "dull light yellowish-brown, or tawny, lined with 
dark brown ;" below, including fore legs and feet, white to base of hairs; 
no lateral stripe. Tail bicolor: above, "dark brown;" below, white; 
pencil brown all round. 

Cranial and dental characters. — Unknown (skull inside of mounted 
specimen). 

General remarks. — The above described type of P. penicillatus (still 
in the U. S. National Museum) agrees almost precisely in size, propor- 
tions, and coloration (allowing a little for fading) with a recent speci- 
men irom the Lower Colorado, which will be here described in order to 
put on record its cranial characters so that they may be available for 
comparison with those of other members of the penicillatus group. 

No. |f$£ $ ad. From Lower Colorado River, Arizona (Norton's, about 25 miles 
north of Yuma), March 28, 1889. Vernon Bailey. 

Measurements (taken in flesh by collector). — Total length, 207; tail 
vertebra?, 115 ; pencil, 17; hind foot, 25; ear from crown, 5.5 (taken from 
dry skin). 

General characters. — Size, large ; tail, crested-penicillate ; its verte- 
bras longer than head and body ; ears large, nearly naked ; antitragal 
lobe higher than broad, a small tragal lobe ; sole naked ; whiskers long, 
extending beyond shoulders ; pelage moderately coarse, not becoming 
bristly on rump ; no spines anywhere. 

Color. — Above, drab-gray, faintly suffused with light tawny, and 
finely lined with dusky ; below, including fore legs and feet, pure white 
to base of hairs ; no lateral stripe. Tail sharply bicolor: above, dusky; 
below, white; pencil dusky all round. 



^October, 1889.] EEVISION OF THE GENUS PEROGNATHUS. 23 

Cranial and dental characters. — Skull large, rather flat; mastoids 
small (ratio of mastoid breadth to basilar length of Hansel G9.1 ; of in- 
teruiastoid breadth 45) ; audital bullae separated anteriorly by full 
breadth of basisphenoid ; interparietal broadly pentagonal, more than 
twice as broad as long (ratio of length to breadth 46.6) ; nasals not 
reaching so far back as nasal branch of premaxillaries ; anterior and 
posterior borders of parietals subequal in length. Coronoid process of 
mandible moderately developed, rather thick. Lower premolar larger 
than last molar ; crown broader than long,* narrower anteriorly than 
posteriorly ; first molar a little larger than second ; third about half as 
large as second. 

General remarks. — It must be borne in mind that the skull of Wood- 
house's type has not been examined, and consequently that there is a 
possibility, + however remote, that it differs in important particulars from 
the one here, described. This point can not be absolutely settled until 
either the skull is removed from the mounted type or additional speci- 
mens are collected from the type locality, San Francisco Mountain, 
Arizona. This locality is about 230 miles distant from the point on the 
Lower Colorado River where the specimen here described was ob- 
tained. 

PEROGNATHUS HISPIDUS Baird. 

Perognathus hispidus Baird, Mamm. N. Am., 1857, 421-422 (type from Charco Escon- 
dido, Mexico). 
Type No. fV, 7 ,; 9 U. S. National Museum. From Charco Escondido, Mexico. 
Collected by Lieut. D. N. Couch. 

Measurements. — Head and body, 70""" ; tail, 72+ (terminal portion 
broken off); hind foot, 21.5 (taken in flesh by collector); ear from 
crown, 4.5 (measured from dry skin). 

General characters. — Size, rather large, about equaling P. formosus; 
hind foot remarkably broad and short ; tail probably a little longer than 
head and body, uot crested-penicillate ; ears moderate, thick; antitra- 
gus lobed; soles naked; pelage harsh, but not much coarser than in 
1\ paradoxus. 

Color. — "Above, mixed cinnamon and black," not unlike paradoxus ; 
a fulvous lateral stripe; under parts, including fore legs and feet, white 
to roots of hair. Tail distinctly bicolor: above, dark ; below, whitish. 

Cranial and dental characters. — Skull large ; vault of cranium nearly 
flat; mastoids moderately developed — larger than in the penicillatus 

* Specimens from the Colorado Desert in California, and from the Lower Colorado 
Bivor region in Arizona from Fort Mojave northward, have the crown of the lower 
premolar longer than broad, while those from the region about Yuma have the crown 
broader than long. Possibly these two forms are deserving of separation, but it is 
deemed best to await the actual determination of this and other characters until 
specimens of penicillatus are secured from the type locality (San Francisco Mountain). 

rThis possibility is suggested by the very close external resemblance of P. formosus 
and /'. oalifornieu8, species which really belong to widely different sections of the 
genus, as shown by their cranial characters. 



24 NOETH AMERICAN FAUNA. [No. l. 

group, but not so large as in olivaceus and fasciatus; interparietal 
broadly pentagonal (ratio of length to breadth 54.2); audital bullsB 
separated anteriorly by full breadth of basisphenoid ; nasals not ex- 
tending so far posteriorly as nasal branch of premaxillaries. Coronoid 
process of mandible long and sharp ; condylar ramus nearly horizontal, 
upper edge turned down posteriorly. Lower premolar larger than last 
molar, its crown squarish ; second lower molar a little larger than first. 

Note. — Professor Baird included, under the head of P. Mspidus- another specimen, 
collected at Matamoras, Mexico, by Dr. Berlandier, which I am by no meaus con- 
vinced is specifically the same. This specimen (No. -fgfe U. S. National Museum) is 
not considered here. The above description, both of skin and skull, rests solely on 
Baird's type from Charco Escoudido. Its skull, unfortunately, is broken in two trans- 
versely at the frontoparietal suture. Both ends remain, however, together with the 
jaws, so that the important characters may still be seen. 

PEBOGNATHUS PARADOXUS sp. nov. 

Perognathus fasciatus Baird [not of Max. Wied], Mammals N. Am., 1857,420-421. 
T 5T e tW* 5 • Trego County, Kansas, October 17, 1834. A. B. Baker. 

Measurements. — Head and body, 100; tail vertebrae, 105; hairs, 2.5 
(taken in flesh by collector) ; hind foot, 26 ; ears from crown, 5.5 (from 
dry skin). 

General characters. — Largest known species; ears large, with anti- 
tragal lobe higher than broad ; tail a little longer than head and body, 
not crested or penicillate ; soles naked along the median line, but hairs 
on sides of heel concealing the bare portion ; pelage harsh ; whiskers 
short. 

Color. — Above, yellowish-brown, coarsely lined with black ; sides ful- 
vous ; under parts, including fore feet, white to base of fur. Tail bi- 
color : above, fuliginous ; below, whitish. 

Cranial and dental characters. — Skull large and heavy, moderately 
arched, much higher than that of any other species, with a slightly 
elevated supra-orbital ridge or bead; mastoids relatively small (ratio of 
mastoid breadth to basilar length of Hensel 66.2 ; of intermastoid 
breadth 37.9) ; interparietal large and broadly pentagonal (ratio of 
length to breadth 56.3) ; audital bullae separated by less than full 
breadth of basisphenoid ; nasals ending posteriorly almost on a line 
with nasal branch of premaxillaries ; median border Of parietal longest ; 
coronoid process of maudible long, hooked, and directed strongly out- 
ward. Lower premolar about the size of last molar (possibly a little 
smaller), its crown squarish, a little narrower anteriorly than poste- 
riorly. Second molar slightly larger than first. [This is much more 
noticeable in tbe yonng before the cusps have been worn down.] 
Arranged in order of size, the lower molariform series stands as fol- 
lows, begiuuing at the largest : m 2, m 1, m 3, pm. 

General remarks. — This is the species which Baird wrongly identified 
as P. fasciatus Max. Wied, by which name it has been known to the 



October, 1889.] REVISION OF THE GENUS PEROGNATHUS. 25 

present time, as already explained in the introductory portion of this 
paper. It is the largest of the group. Its skull departs somewhat 
from the type exhibited by the other species, as may be seen from the 
accompanying figure. This is due principally to the mastoids, which 
are relatively smaller than those of any other species except californi- 
cus. As in californicus, also, the cranium is conspicuously broader just 
in front of the auditory meatus than posteriorly ; in all other species it 
is 01JI3' slightly broader at this point. The well-marked supraorbital 
bead is found in no other species, though it exists also in the subspecies 

SpilotUS. 

Baird's original specimen from Chihuahua (No. 1061, IT. S. Nat. Mus.) 
agrees surprisingly well with specimens from western Kansas, the only 
noticeable difference being that its tail is less distinctly bicolor, is more 
heavily haired, and the hairs are somewhat longer. 

PEROGNATHUS PARADOXUS SPILOTUS subsp. nov. 

Type, skin, 5293 9 ad. From Gainesville, Cook County, Texas; October 8, 1886. 

G. H. Ragsdale. 
Skull 23096 9 yg. ad. U.S.Nat. Mus. Gainesville, Cook County, Texas. G. H. 
Ragsdale.* 

Measurements. — Total length, 19G; tail, 95 (taken in flesh by collector) ; 
hind foot, 23; ear, from crown, 5 (from dry skin). 

General characters. — Size a little smaller than P. paradoxus ; propor- 
tions about as in that species ; soles naked. 

Color. — Above, dark yellowish -brown, heavily and coarsely lined 
with black. Fulvous side stripe darker and broader than in paradoxus, 
encroaching well upon the belly and including the fore legs. Tail sharply 
bicolor: above, fuliginous ; below, yellowish-white. The ears are orna- 
mented by a blackish spot near the middle of the incurved upper sur- 
face. 

Cranial and dental characters. — Skull slightly smaller than that of 
paradoxus ; narrower (ratio of mastoid breadth to basilar length of 
Ilensel, 63; of intermastoid breadth, 37.3); nasals narrower anteri- 
orly, and extending posteriorly as far as the nasal branch of the pre- 
maxillaries; supra-orbital bead as in paradoxus ; interparietal smaller 
and more rounded posteriorly (ratio of length to breadth 57.5); audital 
bullae separated anteriorly by less than breadth of basispheuoid, as in 
paradoxus ; basioccipital narrower anteriorly ; frontal border of parietal 
longest. Mandible lighter, with condylar ramus shorter and directed 
much more obliquely upward; angle less spreading. Dentition as in 
/'. paradoxus. 

General remarks. — Perognathus paradoxus spilotus is a well-marked 

1 Unfortunately, my skins of /'. paradoxus spilntus arc not accompanied by skulls. 
The National Museum, however, lias a skull (No. 2:S09f>) from the same locality, which 
has furnished the basis for the present description. 



26 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. [No. 1. 

subspecies, which may be easily distinguished by its darker coloration, 
by the blackish spot on each ear, by the shortness of its hind foot, and 
by the fact that the tan-colored lateral stripe extends out on the fore 
leg to the wrist, while in P. paradoxus the fore leg is entirely white. 
Its darker coloration and spotted ears make it a much handsomer animal 
than P. paradoxus. 

PEEOGNATHUS CALIFOKNTCTTS sp. nov. 

? Cricetodipus parvus. Peale, Rept. Manim. and Ornith., U. S. Expl. Expd., Wilkes, 
viii, 1848, 52-54. 

Type U$"f2- Berkeley, California. Nov. 8, 1888. T. S. Palmer and Charles A. 
Keeler. 

Measurements. — Total length, 186 mm (end of tail broken off); hind 
foot, 24 ; ear, 6. [Another specimen from same place, No. 5613 $ : 
Total length, 195; tail vertebras, 101 ; hind foot, 21; ears, 6.5.] 

General characters. — Size, large ; ears very large, with antitragal lobe 
considerably higher than broad; tail vertebrae longer than head and 
body ; tail slightly crested and penicillate ; pelage harsh, with white 
spines on the sides of the rump ; soles broad, naked to heel. 

Color. — Above, dark grizzled yellowish-brown, lined with black ; be. 
low, white to base of hairs ; a pale fulvous lateral stripe ; color of the 
back reaching elbows. Tail sharply bicolor, sooty-black above, white 
beneath. 

Cranial and dental characters. — Skull long and narrow, much arched; 
mastoids very small (ratio of mastoid breadth to basilar length of Hen- 
sel, 71 ; of intermastoid breadth, 48) ; interparietal large, convex 
posteriorly, about twice as broad as long (ratio of length to breadth, 
50.5), occiput projecting considerably behind mastoids ; audital bullae 
separated anteriorly by full breadth of basisphenoid ; nasals deeply 
emarginate posteriorly, not reaching quite so far back as nasal branch 
of premaxillaries ; anterior and posterior borders of parietal longest 
and subequal ; coronoid process of mandible short; condylar ramus 
nearly horizontal. Lower premolar slightly larger than last molar; its 
crown longer than broad and narrower anteriorly than posteriorly ; an- 
terior cusp well separated from posterior ; first molar larger than sec- 
ond ; third more than half as large as second. 

General remarks. — This species, which has been heretofore confounded 
with P. monticola of Baird, resembles P. formosus in size and color, 
though darker, and having a shorter, less crested, and more sharply bi- 
color tail, which is blackish above from the very base, instead of on the 
terminal half only. Its skull differs materially from that of any other 
member of the group, aud approaches P. paradoxus more closely than 
any other species. The white spines on the sides of the rump are about 
as large as in P. fallax. 



October, 1889.] REVISION OF THE GENUS PEROGNATHUS. 27 

PEROGtjSATHUS ARMATUS sp. nov. 

Type - 6 g ;j "/t $ ad. Mount Diablo, California, March 2$, 1882. W. E. Bryant. 

Measurements. — Total length, about 160; head and body, about 70; 
tail vertebrae, about 90 ; pencil, 15 ; hind foot, 24 ; ear from crown, 7 
(from well-made skin). 

General characters. — Size a little smaller than P. californicus ; ears 
very large, with antitragal lobe higher than broad ; tail crested-pen- 
icillate; its vertebra? much longer than head and body; soles broad, 
naked to heel ; pelage coarse, with white spines on the flanks and 
sides of the rump. 

Color. — Above, very dark-grizzled yellowish-brown, heavily lined 
with black (much darker than any other species) ; below, white to 
roots of hairs; a very pale fulvous lateral stripe, which reaches upper 
surface of fore leg. Tail sharply bicolor : above, sooty ; below, white ; 
pencil, dark all round. 

Cranial and dental characters. — The occipital portion of the skull 
is absent, together with part of the interparietal, so that no impor- 
tant measurements or ratios can be taken. The mastoids are small, 
and the audita! bullae arc separated anteriorly by nearly the full 
breadth of the basisphenoid. The, parietals are longer on the sagi- 
tal suture than in californicus ; in fact, the anterior, median, and pos- 
terior borders of the parietal are fairly subequal. Coronoid process 
of mandible short and stout. Lower premolar larger than last molar, 
its crown longer than broad, with the anterior cusp well separated 
from the posterior, as in californicus. 

General remarks. — /'. ormolus differs from /'. californicus in smaller 
size, with relatively larger hind feet and ears ; in darker color, and 
in the forward extension of the white spines along the flanks almost to 
the middle of the body. The color of the upper parts does not extend 
so far down on the sides as in californicus. The greater length of the 
parietals along the median line is another character of importance. 

Possibly future collections will show thai /'. armatus grades into 
P. californicus. If so, it will have to stand as a subspecies. 

UNDETERMINED SPECIES. 

In order to complete the present revision of the group I here intro- 
duce descriptions of t lie three remaining species which have been named 
but which I have not seen. Whether (hey all refer to the same species, 
and what their nearest congeners are, can not be determined from the 
material now at hand. None of their skulls have been described. All 
three came from the Pacific province, from northern California north- 
ward.* 

"Nearly fifteen years ago (Jones made tin- following statement, which is equally 
true to-day : "Specimeue of any Saccomyine form from Oregon and Washington Ter- 
ritory an; at present special desiderata." 



28 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. No. 1.] 

PEROGNATHUS PARVUS (Peale). 

Cricetodipus parvus Peale, Rept. Mamm. and Ornith., U. S. Expl. Expd., Wilkes, VIII, 
1848, 52-54. 

The type of Peale's Cricetodipus parvus is supposed to be not extant. 
It was a very young animal, as shown in au early part of the present 
paper (under History and Nomenclature, p. 3, foot-note), and its measure- 
ments indicate that it was one of the larger species of the group. 

Following is Peale's original description: 

Head ovate ; the snout elongate, pointed, and covered with hair, excepting the 
nostrils, -which are small and convolute ; lips large, tumid, and covered with short 
hairs ; whiskers numerous, white ; a tuft of white hairs or bristles on the chin ; 
cheek-pouches spacious, opening outside of the mouth, and reachiug from the upper 
lip to the throat; the cavity extending backwards to the ears, and -lined with hair; 
eyes medium size ; ears small, round, and fringed with hairs; fore legs small, thefeet 
moderate, margined with bristly hairs ; the nails short, curved, excepting that of the 
thumb, which is orbicular, or resembling the human thumb-nail ; hindlegsloug ; the 
feet large and strong, five-toed ; the middle one slightly longer than the rest ; inner 
toe shortest, reaching only to the end of the metatarsal bones of the others ; all the 
nails short, pointed, aud slightly curved ; tail long, tapering, and clothed with 
short silky hairs. Color above, sepia-brown ; beneath, white ; a dark line crosses the 
cheeks beneath the eyes. 

Length of the head and body, 1-& inch ; head from the noso to the occiput, yV iuch ; 
ears, t/ (I inch ; tail, 2-,% inches ; foreleg from the elbow, 2 '{, inch; fore foot, -^ inch ; 
tibia, -? g inch ; hind foot, -,% inch ; metatarsus, -ft- inch.* 

A single specimen of this singular animal was obtained in Oregon, but no notes 
were furnished by the person who obtained it. The formation of its hind legs leaves 
but little room to doubt that its habits are similar to the jumping mice, Meriones 
Labradorius (Richardson), which are inhabitants of the same region. Its singularly 
large head, which equals its body in bulk, its ample cheek-pouches, long hind legs, 
and. long tail, present a general form which is peculiar and altogether very re- 
markable. On dissection, the stomach was found to contain a pulpy matter, which 
appeared to be the remains of a bulbous root ; the liver is very large, and consists of 
five foliaceous lobes ; we were not able to detect any gall-bladder. The specimen is 
a female, aud presents the rudiments of a fourth molar tooth in each side of the lower 
jaw, which would eventually have replaced the front ones, already much worn. 
(Peale, Rept. Mamm. and Ornith., U. S. Expl. Expd., Wilkes, vm, 1848, 53-54.) 

PEROGNATHUS LORDI (Gray). 

Abromys lordi Gray Proc. Zool. Soc. London, May, 1868, 202 (type from British 
Columbia). 

Gray's description of this animal is as follows : 

Fur soft, abundant, gray-washed, with blackish tips ; chin and under side of body 
whitish ; tail tapering, gray, with blackish-brown upper surface and tip; hair of the 
back dark lead-colour, with a short gray band and minute black tip. * * * The 
teeth destroyed. Length of body aud head 3 inches ; of tail 3 inches. It differs from 
Dipodomys phillipsii and other species of that genus iu having no white spot over the 
eye at the base of the ear, or white baud across the thigh. 

* The most important of these measurements, reduced to millimeters, are : Head and 
body, 48; head from nose to occiput, 23; tail, 58; hind foot, 20.5. 



October, 1889.] REVISION OF THE GENUS PEROGNATHUS. 29 

Mr. Oldfield Thomas, curator of mammals in the British Museum, 
has had the kindness to re-examine, at my request, the type of Abro- 
mys lordi, and his letter in regard to the same has reached me just as 
this manuscript is about to go to press. Mr. Thomas writes : 

I have the type of Abromys lordi before me. It is a Perognathus, and, so far as I can 
make out from Coues's description, is the same as P. monticola.* Its dimensions are : 
Head and body, 74 mm ; tail vertebrae (perfect), 81 mm ; hind foot with claw, 21.8 ; ear from 
crown, 6.5. Tbe ear appears to be just as Coues describes, with a marked antitragus, 
but no anterior projecting lobule. The distance from tbe tip of the nasals to the 
back of one of the bullae is 25.5 mm . 

PEKOGNATHUS MOLLIPILOSUS Coues. 

Perognathus monticola Coues, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Pbila., 1875, 293-296. 

Perognathus moUq)ilo8U8 Coues, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Pbila., 1K75, 296 (provisional 

name, based on specimen from Fort Crook, Cal.). — Coues, Monographs N. 

Am. Rodentia, 1877, 509-512 (same as above). 
Type No. 7251 9, U. S. National Museum, Fort Crook, Cal.t 

Measurements. — (From Coues) Head and body, 04; tail vertebrae, 82; 
hind foot, 20.5. 

General characters*. — (From Coues) Size rather small ; tail vertebra? 
longer than head and body; tail not crested-peuicillate; "antitragus 
with a great, flat, rounded, upright lobe"; pelage very soft and smooth ; 
soles naked. 

Color. — (From Coues) "Above yellowish-cinnamon lined with black- 
ish, the latter predominating; below, white"; "color of upper parts de- 
scending on the fore leg to the wrist"; a pale fulvous lateral stripe; 
"tail bicolor to correspond with the body colors." 

Cranial and dental characters. — (Xot given.) 

General remarks. — My opinion is that this animal will prove to be 
identical with P. lordi, and both may be the same as P. parvus of Peale. 

* Asl have alrcmly pointed out, I', monticola of Cones is a very different animal from 
P. monticola of Baird, and must stand as /'. mollij>ilo8U8, which see. 

t This specimen should bo in the National Museum, but Mr. F. W. True, curator of 
mammals, informs me that its number is wrong, and that it cannot be found. 



PLATE I. 

(All double natural size.) 

1. (4445) $ Peroynatlius fasciatwi Max. Wied. Duplicate type. Fort Buford, Dak. 

2. (5027) $ Peroynatlius fasciatus fiavescens Merriam. Type. Kennedy, Nebr. 

3. (5047) $ Perognafhus flaws Baird. Mason, Tex. 

4. (3572) $ Peroynatlius lonyimembris Coues. San Bernardino, Cal. 

5. (4984) $ Peroynatlius apache Merriam. Type. Apache County, Ariz. 
6.(23790)^ Perognafhus ivornatus Merriam. Type. Fresno, Cal. 

7. (5827) 9 Peroynatlius californicus Merriam. Type. Berkeley, Cal. 
30 



North American Fauna. No. 1. 



Plate I. 




\^3 




vs2? 




PLATE II. 

(All double natural size.) 

8. (5623) $ Perognathus olivaceus Merriani. Type. Kelton, Utah. 

9. (.7795) $ Perognathus olivaceus amcenus Merriani. Type. Nephi, Utah. 

10. (1735) $ Perognathus monticola Baird. Type. St. Mary's Mission, Montana. 

11. (5908) $ Perognathus /ormosus Merriam. Type. St. George, Utah. 

12. (2C684) $ Perognathus fallax Merriani. Type. San Bernardino, Cal. 

13. (6000) $ Perognathus intermedins Merriani. Type. Mud Spring, Arizona. 

32 



North American Fauna, No. 1. 



Plate II. 




PLATE III. 

(All double natural size.) 

14. (2848) $ Perognathus obscurus Merriam. Type. Grant County, N. Mex. 

15. (6137) $ Perognathus spinatus Merriam. Type. Lower Colorado River, Arizona. 

16. (6206) $ Perognathus penicillatus Woodhouse. Lower Colorado River, Arizona. 

17. (1696) ? Perognathus hispidus Baird. Type. Cbarco Escondido, Mexico. 

18. (1544) $ Perognathus paradoxus Merriam. Type. Trego County, Kans. 

19. (23096) 9 Perognathus paradoxus spilotus Merriam. Type. Cook County, Tex. 

34 



North American Fauna, No. 1. 



Plate III. 




PLATE IV. 

(Enlarged about ten times.) 

Perognathus (Chwtodipus) obscurus Merriaiu. (All from Apache, Grant County, 
New Mexico.) 
a = left upper molariform series. 
fc = left lower molariform series. 
Fig. 1 (skull No. 2855). Young (viewed obliquely from the side). Shows the 
loug deciduous premolar iu the under jaw, and also the tri-tuberculate 
cusps of the molars, which are early worn away, leaving the crowns flat 
(as shown in the succeeding figures). 
Figs. 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 are camera lucida outlines of the crowns of the teeth, 
showing successive stages of wear. In Fig. 2 the permanent lower pre- 
molar has just reached the level of the crowns of the other teeth. 
Fig. 2 (skull No. 2354) ; 3 (2853); 4 (2S51); 5 (2848 type) ; 6 (2849). 
36 



North American Fauna, No. 1. 



Plate IV. 







f® 



D 









Perognathus ( Chaetodipus )obscoinig. Merriam. 

From Gran!) CoTinty,lIew Mexico. 

Holarif oral teeth, showing the changes of form and out line 
resulting from the wearing dom of the crowns withttge. 



■ MEASUREMENTS. 

All measurements of specimens are in millimeters. 

All Mammals collected by Field Agents of the Division are measured in accordance 
with the following instructions: 

(1) The total, length is the distance between the tip of the nose and the end of 
the tail vertebra?. It is taken by laying the animal on a board, with its nose against 
a pin or upright post, and by straightening the back and tail by extending the hind 
legs with one hand while holding the head with the other; a pin is then driven into 
the board at the end of the vertebne. 

(2) The length of tail is the length of the caudal vertebra. It is taken by 
erecting the tail at right angle to the back, and placing one point of the dividers on 
the backbone at the very root of the tail, the other at the tip end of the vertebra?. 

(3) The hind foot is measured by placing one point of the dividers against the 
end of the heel (calcaneum), the other at the tip of the longest claw, the foot being 
flattened for this purpose. 

In measuring the hind foot in dry skins, the foot is fiist wrapped in wet absorbent 
cotton until the toes can be straightened. 



U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 

DIVISION OF ORNITHOLOGY AND MAMMALOGY 



NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 



No. 2 

[Actual date of publication, October 30, 1889] 







Descriptions of fourteen new species and one new genus 
of North American Mammals 

By Dk. C. Hart Mkrjuam 



WASHINGTON 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 
L8 8 9 



MEASUREMENTS. 

All measurements of specimens are in millimeters. 

All Mammals collected by Field Agents of the Division are measured in accordance 
with the following instructions: 

(1) The total length is the distance between the tip of the nose and the end of 
the tail vertebra?. It is taken by laying the animal on a board, with its nose against 
a pin or upright post, and by s raigbtening the back and tail by extending the hind 
legs with one hand while holding the head with the other; a pin is then driven into 
the board at the end of the vertebrae. 

(2) The length of tail is the length of the caudal vertebra?. It is taken by 
erecting the tail at right angle to the back, and placing one point of the dividers on 
the backbone at the very root of the tail, the other at the tip end of the vertebra?. 

(3) The hind foot is measured by placing one point of the dividers against the 
end of the heel (calcaneum), the other at the tip of the longest claw, the foot being 
flattened for this purpose. 

In measuring the hind foot in dry skins, the foot is fiist wrapped in wet absorbent 
cotton until the toes can be straightened. 



U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 

DIVISION OF ORNITHOLOGY AND MAMMALOGY 



NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 



No. 2 

[Actual date of publication, October 30, 1889] 




Descriptions of fourteen new species and one new genus 
of North American Mammals 

By Dr. C. Hart Mkrkiam 



WASHINGTON 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 

1889 






£u 






v 



U. S. Department of Agriculture, July 17, 1889. 
Sir: I have the honor to transmit herewith No. 2 of North Ameri- 
can Fauna. It contains descriptions of a new genus, twelve new 
species, and one new sub-species; and also a diagnosis of the genus 
Onychomys, and a synopsis of the known forms. 
Respectfully, 

C. Hart Merriam, 

Chief of Division of 
Ornithology and Mammalogy. 
Hon. J. M. Rusk, 

/Secretary of Agriculture. 



CONTENTS. 



Tage. 
Letter of transmittal ii j 

1. Three new Grasshopper Mice, with a diagnosis of the genus Onychomys&nd a 

synopsis of the species 1_5 

2. A new Marmot from the Black Hills of Dakota 7_9 

3. A new Pika from the Sierra Nevada Mountains 11-13 

4. A new Spermophile from southern California 15-16 

5. A new Spermophile from northwestern Arizona 17 

6. A new Ground Squirrel from the arid lands 19-21 

7. A new Bat from southern California 23 

8. A new Bat from western Arizona 25 

9. A new genus and four new species of Arvicolince 27-35 



ILLUSTRATIONS. 



(Figures in text.) 

Page 
Fig. 1. Lower jaw of Oriychomys leucogaster 4 

2. Lower jaw of Hesperomys leucopus 4 

3. Head of Nyctinom us femorosaccus 23 

4. Head of Nyctinomus moravensis 25 

5. Last lower molar of Jrvicola 31 

6. Last lower molar of Synaptomya 31 

7. Last lower molar of Phenacomys 31 

( Plate*. ) 

Plate I. Figs. 1-7, Onychomys leucogaster (skull and teeth); figs. 8 and 9 Onycho- 
mys longicaudus (teeth). 
II. Figs. 1-3, Phenacomys celatns (skull); fig. 4, Phenacomys ungava (feet); 
fig. 5, Phenacomys latimanus (feet). 

III. Figs. 6 and 7, Phenacomys celatus (teeth); figs. 8 and 9, Phenacomys ungava 

(skull and teeth); fig. 10, Arvicola riparius (tooth). 

IV. Fig. 11, Phenacomys intermedins (teeth); fig. 12. Phenacomys latimanus 

(teeth); fig. 13, Phenacomys celatus (teeth); fig. 14, Arvicola austerus 
(teeth). 
V. Fig. 15, Evotomys gapperi (teeth); fig- 16, Synaptomt/s cooperi (teeth); fig. 

17, Cuniculus (teeth); fig. 18, Myodes (teeth). 
VI. Figs. 1 and 2, Phenacomys intermedins (teeth). 
VII. Figs. 1 and 2, Phenacomys intermedins (teeth and skull). 
VIII. Figs. 1-4, Lagomys schisticeps (skull); figs. 5 and 6, Lagomys princeps 
(skull); figs. 7 and 8, Arctomys dacota (skull). 

v 



No, 2. NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. October, 1889. 



DESCRIPTIONS OF TWO NEW SPECIES AND ONE NEW SUBSPECIES OF 
GRASSHOPPER MOUSE, 

WITH A DIAGNOSIS OF THE GENUS ONYCHOMYS, AND A SYNOPSIS OF THE SPECIES 

AND SUBSPECIES. 



By C. Hart Merriam, M. D. 



A. DESCRIPTIONS OF NEW SPECIES AND SUBSPECIES. 

ONYCHOMYS LONGIPES sp. nov. 

(Texas Grasshopper Mouse.) 

Type f|3| 9 ad. Merriam Collection. Concho County, Texas, March 11, 1887. 
Collected by William Lloyd. 

Measurements (taken in the flesh by collector).— Total length, 190 mm ; 
tail, 48 [this measurement seems to be too short]; hind foot, 25; ear 
from crown, 13 (measured from dry skin). 

General characters. — Size larger than that of the other known repre- 
sentatives of the genus, with larger and broader ears, and much longer 
hind feet. Ears less hairy than in 0. leucogaster, with the lanuginous 
tuft at base less apparent ; tail longer and more slender. 

Color. — Above, mouse gray, sparingly mixed with black-tipped hairs, 
and with a narrow fulvous stripe along each side between the gray of 
the back and white of the belly, extending from the fore-legs to the root 
of the tail; under parts white. 

Cranial characters. — Skull longer and narrower than that of 0. leuco- 
gaster (particularly the rostral portion), with much longer nasals, and a 
distinct supraorbital " bead" running the full length of the froutals and 
there terminating abruptly. The nasals overreach the nasal branch of 
the preraaxillaries about as far as in leucogaster. The incisive foram. 
ina, as in 0. leucogaster, barely reach the anterior cusp of the first 
molar. The roof of the palate extends further behind the last molar 
than in leucogaster, and gives off a median blunt spine projecting into 
the pterygoid fossa. The palatal bones end anteriorly exactly on a line 
2541— No. 2 1 1 



2 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. [No. 2. 

with the interspace between the first and second molars. The presphe- 
noid is excavated laterally to such a degree that the middle portion is 
reduced to a narrow bar less than one-third the width of its base. The 
condylar ramus is lower and more nearly horizontal than in leucogaster, 
and the angular notch is deeper. The coronoid process resembles that 
of leucogaster. 

ONYCHOMYS LONGICAUDUS sp. nov. 

(Long-tailed Grasshopper Mouse.) 
Type f 1^ $ ad. St. George, Utah, January 4, 1889. Collected by Vernon Bailey. 

Measurements (taken in the flesh by the collector). — Total length, 145 ; 
tail, 55 ; hind foot, 20 ; ear from crown, 10 (measured from dry skin). 

General characters. — Similar to 0. leucogaster, but smaller, with longer 
and slenderer tail. Pelage longer, but not so dense. General color 
above, cinnamon-fawn, well mixed with black-tipped hairs. 

Cranial characters. — Skull smaller and narrower than that of 0. leuco- 
gaster; zygomatic arches less spreading ; nasals less projecting behind 
nasal branch of premaxillaries. The coronoid and condylar processes 
of the mandible are shorter, and the coronoid notch is not so deep as 
in leucogaster. The presphenoid shows little or no lateral excavation. 
The incisive foramina do not quite reach the plane of the anterior cusp 
of the first molar. The shelf of the palate projects posteriorly consid- 
erably beyond the molars, and terminates in a nearly straight line with- 
out trace of a median spine. 

ONYCHOMYS LEUCOGASTER MELANOPHRYS subsp. nov. 

, (Black-eyed Grasshopper Mouse.) 

Type, flfl $ ad. Kanab, Utah, December 22, 1888. Collected by Vernon Bailey. 

Measurements (taken in the flesh by collector). — Total length, 154; 
tail, 41 ; hind foot, 21. Ear from crown 10 (measured from the dry skin). 

Size of 0. leucogaster. Ear a little smaller. Hind foot densely furred 
to base of toes. Color above, rich tawny cinnamon, well mixed with 
black-tipped hairs on the back, and brightest on the sides; a distinct 
black ring round the eye, broadest above. This ring is considerably 
broader and more conspicuous than the very narrow ring of leucogaster. 

Cranial characters. — Skull large and broad ; very similar to 0. leuco- 
gaster in size and proportions, but with zygomatic arches less spread- 
ing posteriorly, interparietal narrower, nasals not reaching quite so far 
beyond the nasal branch of premaxillaries, and antorbital slit narrower. 
Presphenoid moderately excavated, as in leucogaster. The incisive fo- 
ramina reach past the plane of the first cusp of the anterior molar. The 
condylar ramus is longer and directed more obliquely upward than in 
leucogaster, with the coronoid and infra-condylar notches deeper. 

Note. — In order to render the preceding diagnoses of new forms 
more useful, the following brief descriptions of the skulls of the two 



Oct., 1889.] REVISION OF THE GENUS ONYCHOMYS. 3 

revioiis ly known species are appended for comparison, together with 
figures of the skull of the type of the genus (0. leucogaster) : 

Onychomys leucogaster Max. — Skull large and broad, with zygomatic arches spread- 
ing posteriorly. Antorbital slit larger than in the other known species. Palate 
hort, ending posteriorly in a short median spine (see figure). 

Onychomys torridus Coues. — Skull small , narrow, with zygomatic arches not spread- 
ing, and vault of cranium more rounded than in any other member of the genus. In- 
terparietal relatively large. Nasals projecting far beyond nasal branch of premaxil- 
lary. Incisive foramina very long, extending back to second cusp of first molar. 
Shelf of palate produced posteriorly nearly as far as in longicaudus, and truncated. 
Presphenoid slightly excavated laterally. Mandible much as in longicaudus, but 
with coronoid process more depressed and condylar ramus more slender. 

B. DIAGNOSIS OF THE GENUS ONYCHOMYS. 

The striking external differences which distinguish the Missouri 
Grasshopper Mouse from the other White-footed Mice of America 
(Hesperomys auct.) led its discoverer, Maximilian, to place it in the 
genus Hypudceus (=Uvotomys, Coues), and led Baird to erect for its re- 
ception a separate section or subgenus, which he named Onychomys. 
Coues, the only recent monographer of the American Mice, treats Ony- 
chomys as a subgenus, and gives a lengthy description of its characters. 
Since, however, some of the statements contained in this description 
are erroneous, and the conclusions absurd,* and since the most impor- 
tant taxonomic characters are overlooked, it becomes necessary to re- 
define the type. A somewhat critical study of the cranial and dental 
characters of Onychomys in comparison with the other North American 
White-footed Mice has compelled rae to raise it to full generic rank. 
It may be known by the following diagnosis : 

Genus ONYCHOMYS Baird, 1857. 

Baird, Mammals of North America, 1857, p. 457 (subgenus). 

Type, Hypudceus leucogaster. Max. Wied, Reise in das innere Nord Amerika, II, 

1841, 99-101 (from Fort Clark, Dakota). 
Hesperomys auct. 

First and second upper molars large and broad ; third less than half 
the size of the second. First upper molar with two internal and three 
external cusps, the anterior cusp a trefoil when young, narrow, and on a 
line with the outside of the tooth, leaving a distinct step on the inside. 
Second upper molar with two internal and two external cusps, and a 
narrow antero external fold. Last upper molar subcircular in outline, 
smaller than in Hesperomys, and less indented by the lateral notches. 

* Coues says : " Although unmistakably a true Murine, as shown by tbe crauial and 
other fundamental characters, it nevertheless deviates much from Mus and Hesper- 
omys, and approaches the Arvicolines. Its affiuities with Erolomys are really close." 
(Monographs of North American Rodentia, 1877, p. 106.) As a matter of fact, Ony- 
chomys has no affiuities whatever with Evotomys, or any other member of the Arvico- 
liue series, its departure from Hesperomys being in a widely different direction. 



4 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. [No. 2. 

Lower molar series much broader than in Hesperomys. First lower 
molar with an anterior, two internal, and two external cusps, and a 
posterointernal loop. In Hesperomys the anterior cusp is divided, so 
that there are three distinct cusps on each side. Second lower molar 
with two internal and two external cusps, an an tero- external and a pos- 
tero internal fold. Third lower molar scarcely longer than broad, sub- 
circular in outline, with the large posterior lobe of Hesperomys reduced 
to a slight fold of enamel, which disappears with wear. 

Coronoid process of mandible well developed, rising high above the 
condylar ramus and directed backward in the form of a large hook 
(see accompanying cut). Nasals wedge-shaped, terminating posteri- 
orly considerably behind the end of the nasal branch of the premaxil- 
laries. 




Fig. 1. 
1. Lower jaw of Onychomys leucogaster. 2. Lower jaw of Hesperomyg leucopus. 

Body much stouter and heavier than in Hesperomys. Tail short, 
thick, and tapering to an obtuse point. 

Fore feet larger than in Hesperomys ; five-tubercnlate, as usual in the 
Murine series. Hind feet four-tuberculate, and densely furred from 
heel to tubercles. Tubercles phalangeal, corresponding to the four an- 
terior tubercles of Hesperomys, that is to say, the first is situated at 
the base of the first digit, the second at the base of the second digit? 
the third over the bases of the third aud fourth digits together, the 
fourth at the base of the fifth digit. The fifth and sixth (or metatarsal) 
tubercles of Hesperomys are altogether wanting. 

C. SYNOPSIS OF SPECIES AND SUBSPECIES. 

(1) By External Characters. 

Length, about 150 mm ; tail, about 40 ; hind foot, about 21 ; ear from crown, 10. Color 
above, mouse-gray ; black ring around eye inconspicuous 0. leucogaster. 

Size of 0. leucogaster. Color above, rich tawny cinnamon, brightest on the sides ; 
black ring round eye conspicuous 0. leucogaster melanoplirys. 

Length, about 145 mm ; tail, about 55 ; hind foot, 20; ear from crown, 10. Color above, 
cinnamon fawn 0. longicaudus. 

Length, about 190 mm ; tail, about 50; hind foot, 25; ear from crown, 13. Color 
above, mouse-gray, with a narrow fulvous stripe along the sides O. longipes. 

Length, about 135 mm ; tail, about 45; hind foot, 20; ear from crown, 10. Color 
above, uniform dull tawny cinnamon ; no black ring around the eye. Tail thick 
with a dark stripe above reaching three-fourths its length; rest of tail white. 

O. torridus. 



Oct., 1889.] REVISION OF THE GENUS ONYCHOMYS. 

(2) By Cranial Characters. 



Palate ending 
posteriorly 



f with a blunt me- S a distinct supraorbital bead Ungipes. 

dian spine ) ,. ,. , ... , , , 

( no distinct supraorbital bead leucogaster. 

{ ( skull large and broad melanophriis. 

i 

I with straight or ..... , , , 

slightly con- I , n ,, Incisive foramina barely reach plane 

vex edire I smaller | ot farst molar longicaudus. 

^ fe and nar- <( 

L rower | incisive foramina reach second cusp 
l of first molar torridus. 



Cranial measurements of the known forms of the genus Onychomys. 



Basilar length of Hensel (from foramen magnum to incisor). 

'Zygomatic breadth 

Greatest parietal breadth 

Interorbital constriction 

Length of nasals 

Incisor to post-palatal notch 

Foramen magnum to incisive foramina 

Foramen magnum to palate 

Length of upper molar series (on alveolae) 

Length of incisive foramina 

Length of mandible . . 

Height of coronoid process from angle 

Ratios to basilar length: 

Zygomatic breadth 

Parietal breadth 

Nasals 

Molar series (on alveolae) 

Incisive foramina 

Foramen magnum to incisive foramen 

Foramen magnuui to palate 



O. leucogaster, 

Fort Buford, 

Dakota. 



Melanophrys, 
Kanab, Utah. 



Longipes, 
Concho 
County, 
Texas, 



4418? 4419cT 5393d 1 5894cf 3839$ 



22 
15 
12.9 

4.5 
10.8 
12 
14.7 

9.7 

4.5 

5 
15.5 

6.5 

68.1 

58.9 

49 

20.4 

22.7 

66 

44 



22 

15.2 

12.7 

4.5 
11.6 
12 

14.6 
10 

4.2 

5.7 
15.8 

7.3 

69 

57.7 

52. 7 

19 

25.9 

66. 3 

45.4 



22.3 
15.4 
12.8 

5.2 
10.7 
11.7 
15 
10.2 

4.6 

5 
15.7 

6.8 

69 

57.3 

47.9 

20.6 

22.4 

67.3 

45.7 



21.6 
15.5 
12.5 

4.8 
10.7 
11.5 
14.5 

9.9 

4.8 

5 
15.3 

6.8 

71.7 

57 

49.5 

22 

23.1 

67 

45.8 



23.3 
15.5 
12.2 

4.4 
12.5 
12.4 
15.7 
10.6 

4.4 

5.3 
16 

7.2 

66.6 

52 

52.3 

20 

22.7 

67.3 

45.4 



Basilar length of Hensel (from foramen magnum to incisor) 

Zygomatic breadth 

Greatest parietal breadth 

Interorbital constriction 

Length of nasals 

Incisor to post-palatal notch 

Foramen magnum to incisive foramina 

Foramen magnum to palate 

Length of upper molar series (on alveolae) 

Length of incisive foramina 

Length of mandible 

Height of coronoid process from angle 

Ratios to basilar length : 

Zygomatic breadth 

Parietal breadth 

Nasals 

Molar series (on alveolae) 

Incisive foramina 

Foramen magnum to incisive foramen 

Foramen magnum to palate 



Longicaudus, 
St. George, Utah. 



5895? 5896 cf 5897 cf 



9. 3 



19.3 

13 

11.5 
4.7 
9.5 

10.5 

13.4 
8.7 
3.8 
4.3 

13.5 
6.3 

67.3 
59.5 
49.2 
19.6 
22.2 
69.4 
45 



19.4 
13.1 
11.2 
4.8 
9.7 
10 4 
13.3 
8.7 
3.8 
4 4 
13.2 
6.2 



57.7 

50 

19.5 

22.6 

68.5 

44.8 



Torridus, 

Grant 

County, 

N. Mex. 



2839cf 



18.5 
12.5 
11.4 
1.2 
9.6 
10 
12.5 
8.5 
3.5 
5 
13.2 
5.8 

67.5 

61.6 

51.8 

18.9 

27 

67.5 

45.8 



DESCRIPTION OF A NEW MARMOT FROM THE BLACK HILLS OF DAKOTA. 



By Dr. C. Hart Merriaji. 



But three species of Marmots have been heretofore recognized in 
"North America. They are Arctomys monax of the East; A. flaviventer 
Of the "West; and A. caligatus (=A. pruinosus auct.)* of the northern 
Bocky Mountains and Cascade Bange from just within our northern 
border to the Arctic Circle. 

The name Arctomys flaviventer was given by Audubon andBachman 
to a specimen collected by Mr. Douglas "between western Texas and 
California," the exact locality being unknown. It was assumed by 
Baird, who has been followed by subsequent authors, that all the Mar- 
mots inhabiting the region between the Great Plains and the Pacific 
Ocean were specifically the same, excepting only the subarctic A. cali- 
gatus. This assumption was the result of the examination of scanty and 
defective material, for Baird remarked that a specimen which he had 
from The Dalles, Oregon, and which was very imperfect and in the molt, 
differed considerably from a specimen from the Black Hills of Dakota. 
Fortunately, my own collectors have succeeded in securing fine series 
of skins and skulls both from the Sierra Nevada Mountains in Cali- 
fornia and from the Black Hills of Dakota. 

The Sierra Nevada animal agrees very closely with Audubon and 
Bachman's description of A. flaviventer, and undoubtedly is closely re- 
lated to, if not identical with, their species. The Black Hills Marmot is 
a very different animal. It is fully a half larger than the largest speci- 
men of the Sierra Nevada form, and differs from it wholly in coloration. 
Its most striking feature is the possession of a mantle or cloak of golden 
yellow, covering the shoulders and upper third of the back. The hairs 
here are fully twice the length of those on the remaiuder of the back and 
rump. The under parts are deep chestnut-red, while in the Sierra Ne- 
vada species they are bright yellow, as described by Bachmau. The 

*A. cal'ujatus Esck.=.-i. pruinosm auct. For the change of name see Tyrrell, " The 
Mammalia of Canada," Proc. Canadian Inst.. 3d series, vol. vi, 1888, p. 88. 

7 



8 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. [N6. 2. 

feet are concolor with the under parts, and the hairs are reddish brown 
to the skin, there being no black basal portion, as in flaviventer. The 
whole top of the head is black or brownish black, with a more or less 
distinct white transverse bar between the eyes and the nose. The tail 
is long aud broad, distichous, reddish brown above, with a black median 
stripe below, in sharp contrast with the brown of the sides. The 
whiskers are less heavy than in flaviventer. The species may be known 
by the following description : 

ARCTOMYS DACOTA sp. uov. 

(Black Hills Marmot.) 

Type |*^| $ ad. From Custer, Black Hills, Dakota, July 21, 1888. Collected 
by Veruou Bailey. 

Measurements.— Total length, 670 m ; tail, 188 ; hind foot, 86 (taken in 
flesh by the collector); ear from crown, 13 (from dry skin). Weight, 
7.73 kilograms ( = 17 lbs). 

General characters. — Size large, considerably exceeding the largest 
individuals of A. flaviventer aud equaling large specimens oUA.monax. 
Tail long, large, and bushy, squarely truncated at the end. Hairs of 
the neck and shoulders very much elongated and mixed with a thick 
coat of woolly uuderfur, forming a sort of mantle. 

Color. — Above, light yellowish brown, becoming grizzled on the pos- 
terior half of the back (by the admixture of black hairs having a sub- 
apical zone of white) ; head black, or nearly black, grizzled on the face 
and sides of the neck with white and reddish brown, and interrupted 
between the nose and eyes by a few white hairs (indicating the position 
of a transverse whitish bar in other specimens); end of muzzle white 
all round, including tip of nose and chin ; under parts uniform dull 
rusty chestnut, including fore legs and feet all round, except that the 
feet and hind legs are mixed with yellowish ; tail above and on the 
sides dull rusty chestnut, very similar to the color of the belly; tail 
below with a broad median band of clear black, broadening toward the 
end, and protruding slightly beyond the brown of the upper surface, so 
that it shows from above. Whiskers and superciliary bristles black. 

Cranial characters. — The skull of Arctomys dacota differs from that of 
Arctomys flaviventer in having the nasal branches of thepremaxillaries 
much broader throughout, the nasal bones shorter, the interorbital 
breadth greater, the basisphenoid tenestrated, and the basioccipital 
with a subcircular median fossa. The skull, as a whole, including the 
zygomatic arches, is much broader, shorter, and heavier than that of 
A. flaviventer, but is in no way intermediate between flaviventer and 
monax. 

General remarJcs. — Another specimen, an adult female (No. ixif)* 
killed at the same place July 19, 1888, measured: Total length, G2.5; 
tail, 165 ; hind foot, 79 ; ear from crown, 12. The mantle is light golden- 



Oct., 18S9.J 



DESCRIPTION OF A NEW MARMOT. 9 



yellow, sharply defined from the color of the posterior part of the back, 
and a distinct transverse bar of yellowish-white crosses the face between 
the eyes and nose. Several half-grown young, taken at the same place 
during the middle and latter part of July, agree with the above in color 
and in the distinctness of the mantle. The mantle is less sharply de- 
fined in the type specimen than in any of the others. Probably this 
is due in part to the condition or stage of growth of the pelage, and 
will be found to vary somewhat with season. 



DESCRIPTION OF A NEW SPECIES OF PIKA (LAGOMYS SCHISTICEPS) 
FROM THE SIERRA NEVADA MOUNTAINS IN CALIFORNIA. 



By Dr. C. Hart Merriam. 



The " Little Chief Hare," or Rocky Mountain Pika {Lagomys prin- 
ceps), was described by Dr. Richardson from a specimen collected in the 
Rocky Mountains near the south branch of the Mackenzie, considerably 
north of the United States boundary. He gave its distribution as "the 
Rocky Mountains, from latitude 52° to 60°" (Fauna Boreali-Aineri- 
cana, 1829, 227). It has been since ascertained to range southward 
along the summits of the Rocky Mountains to latitude 42°, increasing 
its altitude with the decrease in latitude till in Colorado it is not found 
below timber-line — about 11,000 feet. 

As long ago as 18G3 Dr. J. G. Cooper found a species of Lagomys near 
the limit of perpetual snow in the Sierra Nevada Mountains in Cali- 
fornia,* and it has been assumed that this animal is specifically identi- 
cal with that from the Rocky Mountains. Comparison of specimens, 
however, shows the Sierra Nevada Lagomys to be a very distinct spe- 
cies, which may be easily distinguished from its Rocky Mountain con- 
gener by both external and cranial characters. Its most conspicuous 
external feature is the slate-gray color of its head, which circumstance 
has led me to bestow upon it the specific name schisticeps. It may be 
characterized as follows : 

LAGOMYS SCHISTICEPS sp. nov. 

Type, Hftc? ad. From Donner, California, June 9, 1883. Charles A. Allen. 

Measurements. — Total length, 188 mm ; tail, 9.5 (taken in flesh by col- 
lector). Ears from crown, 16; hind foot, 29.5 (taken from dry skin). 

Color. — Entire upper surface of head slate-gray, in striking contrast 
to the yellowish brown of the same parts in L.princeps. The slate-gray 
of the head extends from the nose to the nape, where it gradually shades 
into the grayish brown of the back ; rest of upper parts strongly suf- 
fused with fulvous, which is most intense along the sides near the 

Troc.Cal. Acad. Sci., in, 1863,69; also iv, 1838,6. 

11 



12 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. [No. 2. 

belly ; the black-tipped hairs are not so numerous as in L. princeps, and 
are more uniformly distributed, with no tendency to form a dark patch 
on the lower part of the back, as is usually the case in the latter spe- 
cies. Belly aud upper surfaces of feet whitish, washed with buff or 
pale fulvous, deepest on the pectoral region. Under fur slate-black ; 
soles of hind feet dusky ; of fore feet, silky yellowish white ; ears, whis- 
kers, toe-pads, and character of fur precisely as in L. princeps. 

Cranial characters. — Compared with L. princeps, the skull of L. schis- 
ticeps presents several excellent specific characters. Viewed from above, 
the preorbital portion is shorter and more obtuse, with consequent 
shortening of the nasal bones. The intermastoid breadth is greater, 
and the posterior part of the calvariuui is broader and more obtusely 
rounded. The supraoccipital takes part in the formation of the vault 
of the cranium, where it appears as a narrow bridge between the mas- 
toids, with a smooth face continuous with the superior surface of the 
skull and nearly at right angle to its vertical plane. In the type speci- 
men (No. 5376 $ ) this horizontal strip of the supraoccipital is broadest 
in the middle, where it attains a breadth of two and a half millimeters. 
In the seven skulls of L. princeps examined the supraoccipital does not 
appear on the superior surface of the cranium, except to take part in 
the formation of the lambdoidal crest, which is obsolete in L. schisticeps. 

Viewed from beneath, the most striking difference between the two 
species becomes apparent, as may be seen from the accompanying fig- 
ures. In L. princeps the palatine fossa is broadly pyriform and the an- 
terior border of the palatal bridge which forms its base is either straight 
or slightly excavated (see pi. viii, fig. 6). Allen, in his diagnosis of the 
family Lagomyidw, states that this bridge " is wholly devoid of the 
pointed anterior extension seen in the latter" (the Hares, Leporidie). 
The type specimen of Lagomys schisticeps in this respect presents ex- 
actly the condition seen in the Hares, the anterior margin of the palatal 
bridge being produced forward in a sharp point, much altering the 
shape of the fossa of which it forms the base (see pi. viii, fig. 4). More- 
over, the palatal fossa is both narrower and longer than in L. princeps, 
and the vomer projects backward a considerable distance beyond its 
anterior border, which is formed by the premaxillaries. The distance 
from the incisors to the palatal fossa is less than in L. princeps. Still 
another important difference, perhaps the most important of all, exists 
in the base of the skull. The basi-occipital is shorter and very much, 
broader in L. princeps (pi. viii, fig. 5) than in L. schisticeps (pi. viii, fig. 
3). In three skulls of L. schisticeps the average ratio of breadth to 
length of basi-occipital is 70 ; in three skulls of L. princeps it is 44. 



Oct., 1889] DESCRIPTION OF A NEW PIKA. 

Measurements of skulls of Lagomys schisticepft and L. princeps. 



13 



Lagomys schisticeps Merriam. 



3346c-* 



3347 2 



3348? 



5375? 



5376^ 



40 

3G.8 

22 

21.5 

5.2 
14.3 

8.5 
10 
15.7 

6 

7.8 
21.2 
30 
17 

8 

5.8 



Basilar length (from one of the occipital condyles to poste 
rior edge of alveola of incisor of same side) 

Basilar length of Hensel (from inferior lip of foramen mag- 
num to posterior edge of alveola of incisor) 

Greatest zygomatic breadth 

Greatest mastoid breadth 

Interorbital constriction 

Greatest length of nasal bones 

Length of upper molar series (on alveola:-) 

Incisor to molar 

Incisor to post-palatal notch ... 

Distance between alveoke of upper molar series anteriorly.. 

Distance between alveola 1 of upper molar series posteriorly. 

Foramen magnum to post-paiatal notch 

Length of mandible (symphysis to angle) 

Height of mandible from angle to condylar process 

Length of under molariforni series 

Distance from incisor to molariforni series 



13.2 

8 

9.3 
15.8 



10.5 



18.3 

28 

16 



35 



33.7 

20.4 



4.5 
13 
8.2 
9.3 

14.1 
5.8 
7.7 

20 

27 

15.3 
7.8 
5.4 



21 



5.3 
13.4 

8.2 

9.4 
14.2 

6 



28 
15.6 



Lagomys princeps Richardson. 



Basilar length (from one of the occipital condyles to pos- 
terior edge of alveola of incisor of same side) 

Basilar length of Hensel (from inferior lip of foramen mag- 
num to posterior edge of alveola of incisor) 

Greatest zygomatic breadth 

Greatest mastoid breadth 

Interorbital constriction 

Greatest length of nasal bones 

Length of upper molar series (on alveola^ 

Incisor to molar 

Incisor to post-palatal notch 

Distance between alveohe of upper molar series anteriorly 

Distance between alveola* of upper molar series posteri- 
orly 

Foramen magnum to post-palatal notch 

Length of mandible (symphysis to angle) 

Height of mandible from angle to condylar process 

Length of under molarifoim series 

Distance from incisor to molariform series 




DESCRIPTION OF A NEW SPERMOPHILE FROM SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA. 



By Dr. C. Hart Merriam. 



SPEKMOPHILTJS MOHAVENSIS sp. nov. 

(Mojave Desert Spermophile. ) 

Type H|| $ ad. From Mojave River, California, Juiie 29, 1886. Collected 
by F. Stephens. 

Measurements (taken in flesh by collector). — Head and body, 162 ; tail 
vertebrae, 68 ; hairs, 16. Hind foot 38 (measured from the dry skin after 
soaking to straighten the toes. 

General characters. — Size about equal to 8. mollis; slightly larger than 
S. tereticaudus ; tail with hairs about half the length of head and body, 
distichous; ears rudimentary ; feet large; claws long and moderately 
curved; thumb with a large blunt claw; palms naked; soles densely 
hairy to claws; pelage rather harsh. 

Color. — Above, uniform grizzled grayish brown or drab-brown ; be- 
low, soiled white ; eyelids white ; tail above like the back, but with much 
black intermixed, particularly in the distal two- thirds where it is fully 
half black and bordered with creamy- white; below creamy- white, bor- 
dered all around by a subterminal black band. 

Cranial and dental characters. — Compared with that of 8. tereticaudus 
the skull is larger, thinner, and smoother; the nasals are broader pos- 
teriorly and also extend further backward, slightly overreaching the 
nasal branches of the premaxillaries, which latter are narrower poste- 
riorly than in & tereticaudus, though broader than in 8. mollis; the shelf 
of the palate is produced backward in the median line in the form of a 
long, slender spine instead of the blunt point of tereticaudus. The 
length of the molar series is the same as in tereticaudus, though the 
skull is larger— consequently the ratio of this length to the length of 
the skull is less; the first upper premolar is smaller and shorter than 
in either tereticaudus or mollis — in fact it falls short of the level of the 
crowns of the molar series. 

Habitat.— So far as known the present species is confined to the arid 
desert in which the Mojave River sinks. At all events enough is known 



1 6 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. [No. 2. 

of the mammals of the surrounding region to justify the statement 
that it does not occur to the west, south, or east of the Mojave desert- 
hence the only direction in which it may yet be fouud is to the north- 
ward, in the desert region of southern Nevada. 

General remarks.— The number of specimens examined is nine, in- 
cluding adults of both sexes and young. The characters are very con. 
stant, there being little variation either in size or color. The species 
is entirly distinct from any previously described. 



DESCRIPTION OF A NEW SPERMOPHILE FROM NORTHWESTERN 

ARIZONA. 



By Dr. C. Hart Merriam. 



SPERMOPHILUS NEGLECTUS sp. nov. 
Type ffff <? . Dolan's Spring, Arizona, February 9, 1839. Vernon Bailey. 

Measurements (taken in flesh by collector). — Head and body, 204 mm ; 
tail vertebrae, 74 ; hairs, ] 4 ; hind foot, 32. 

. General characters. — Similar to 8. tereticaudus but smaller, with much 
shorter tail and hind feet; ears reduced to a rim above, probably not 
more than l mm high in the living animal ; soles densely haired from heel 
to claw ; tail vertebrae about half the length of head and body ; basal 
third of tail terete; distal two-thirds distichous; pelage softer and 
longer than in S. tereticaudus, particularly on the sides and under parts. 
This may be due largely to season, as the specimens were collected in 
winter (February). 

Color. — Above, grizzled grayish brown, resulting from the intimate 
and very fine admixture of white and black tipped hairs over a cinna- 
mon ground color. The long black hairs form interrupted lines on the 
back as in S. tereticaudus, only less distiuct. Under parts yellowish 
white; eyelids white; tail above and below coucolor with the back, ex- 
cept that it has a subterminal black baud which is continuous laterally 
with an indistinct subterminal border which disappears altogether a 
little above the middle of the tail. 

General remarks. — This Spermophile is nearly related to& tereticaudus, 
from which it may prove to be only subspecificaily separable when speci- 
mens are collected from the region between Fort Yuma and Fort Mo- 
jave. At all events it is distinct enough from S. mollis and S. mohavensis. 

Three specimens from the valley 1 mile west of Dolan's Spring (alti- 
tude about 3,000 feet), collected February 9, 1889, and all males, are so 
much alike that the only noticeable difference is in the length of the 
tail, which varies from 72 mm to 82 mm . The individual having the longer 
tail (No. 5263 $ ) is larger in every way, the head and body measuring 
222 mm , and the hind foot 34 mw . A specimen from Mineral Park, Ari- 
zona (No. 5264 $ ), collected February 12, 1889, is almost an exact dupli- 
cate of the one last mentioned. Four specimens (one $ and three 2 ) 
collected at Mojave, Ariz., March 11 and 12, 1889, are in the molt. The 
pelage is harsher in texture and redder iu color. 

2541— No. 2 2 17 



DESCRIPTION OF A NEW SPECIES OF GROUND SQUIRREL FROM THE 
ARID LANDS OF THE SOUTHWEST, 



By Dr. C. Hart Meeriam. 



TAMIAS LEUCURUS sp nov. 

The Ground Squirrels of the Tamias harrisi type from the region of 
the lower Colorado River are separable into two very distinct species, 
according to the color of the under side of the tail. In the form de- 
scribed as harrisi by Baird and Allen this part of the tail is white, and 
becomes the most conspicuous feature of the animal as it runs swiftly 
away with the tail cocked up over its back, after the manner of the 
antelope. To this circumstance, Mr. H. W. Henshaw informs me, it owes 
the name "Antelope Squirrel," by which it is locally known. This spe- 
cies is represented in my collection by specimens from southern Utah, 
northern Arizona, southern Nevada, southern California, and the penin- 
sula of Lower California. 

Specimens from western and southern Arizona resemble those just 
mentioned so closely, both in size and coloration, that it would be dif- 
ficult to separate them but for the difference in the color of the under 
surface of the tail, which is dark iron-gray instead of white, both upper 
and under surfaces beiug colored alike. Hence the striking effect pro- 
duced by the white under-tail of the Antelope Squirrel is wanting. 
This form is the true harrisi of Audubon and Bachman, as will be shown 
directly, though it seems to have escaped the notice of naturalists dur- 
ing the past thirty-five years. 

Tamias harrisi (originally, and I am not sure but correctly, placed in 
the genus Spermophilus) was described by Audubon and Bachman from 
a single specimen presented to them by Edward Harris, esq., and sup- 
posed to have been collected in the West by J. K. Townsend during his 
overland journey to Oregon (Quadrupeds of North America, in, 1854, 
267-269). Since, however, the route followed by Townsend was far to 
the northward of the known range of the species, and since the animal 
was not in the collection of mammals brought back by Townsend and 
by him placed at the disposal of Dr. Bachman for examination and de- 

19 



20 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. [No. 2. 

scription,* it seems at least possible that it was not collected by Town- 
send at all, but was wrongly accredited to him by some accident or trick 
of memory during the fourteen years intervening between his return 
and the publication of Audubon and Bachman's description. At all 
events, we know nothing of the locality whence it came. Therefore, in 
deciding which of the two forms must retain the name harrisi, the only 
guide is Bachman's published description and figure. Unfortunately, 
the under surface of the tail is not shown in the figure and is not men- 
tioned specifically in the description. Both plate and description, how- 
ever, agree in giving the tail a length [" vertebrae 3^ in. "=82.5 mm J which 
is considerably greater than that possessed by any of the numerous 
specimens examined of the white tailed form. Moreover, had the under 
side of the tail been white, Bachman surely would have mentioned the 
fact. His detailed description of the color-zones of the hairs of the tail 
agrees perfectly with the dark-tailed Arizona animal, and differs mark- 
edly from the usual condition of the white-tailed. The description is as 
follows : " The hairs of the tail are whitish at the roots, twice annu- 
lated with black, and tipped with white " — which is true of this species 
whether examined from above or below. In the species having the 
under tail white, on the other hand, the hairs of the under side of the 
tail are white throughout and those of the upper side are black at the 
roots, then white, with a single free zone of black, and tipped with white.t 
Hence there can be little doubt that Tamias harrisi really is the species 
with the dark under tail. This question decided, it remains to name 
and describe the white-tailed species. It may be known from the fol- 
lowing : 

TAMIAS LEUCUKUS sp. nov. 

(Antelope Squirrel). 

Type j£g§ $ ad. San Gorgonio Pass, California, May 16, 1885. F. Stephens. 

Measurements. — Head and body, 140 ; tail vertebrae, 69 (taken in 
flesh by collector). Hairs, 17 ; hind foot, 38 ; ear from crown, 4 (taken 
from skin). 

General characters. — Size a little smaller than T. harrisi, with which 
it agrees in form and proportions, except that the tail is shorter. The 
tail is distichous. This species and T. harrisi are nearly related to the 
Spermophiles and differ at least subgenerically from Tamias proper, as 

* Concerning these specimens Dr. Bachrnan said: "Mr. J. K. Townsend having 
placed at my disposal for examination and description his valuable collection of 
quadrupeds obtained in his recent laborious and perilous journey over the Rocky 
Mountains and along the western borders of our continent, I proceed to give short 
descriptions of such as appear to be undescribed." — (Jour. Phil. Acad. Sci., vm, pt. I, 
1839, 57.) No mention is made of it in this paper or in Townsend's narrative of his 
journey. 

tin some individuals there is an (abnormal ?) elongation of the lateral hairs of 
the proximal third of the tail, in which case tha very base of each hair is white, and 
there are two black zones as in harrisi. 



Oct., i860.] DESCRIPTION OF A NEW TAMIAS. 21 

pointed out by Allen (Monog. N. Am. Rodentia, 1877, 811). The soles 
are densely haired from heel to tubercles. • 

Color. — Above, finely grizzled, the ground color varying from grayish 
on the anterior half of the back to pinkish vinaceous on the rump and 
head, and becoming salmon on the outside of the fore legs and thighs. 
A single white stripe on each side extends from the shoulders to the 
rump. Eyelids and underparts white. Tailbicolor: above, iron-gray, 
resulting from the fine admixture of the white and black annulation of 
the hairs, with an indistinct white border; below, clear white, with a 
subterminal black border more or less obscured by the underlying 
hairs, which are white throughout without annulations. On the upper 
side of the tail all the hairs are annulated. On the proximal half the 
lateral hairs are longer than elsewhere, the very base of each hair is 
white, and there are two annulations of black as in harrisi*', on the 
distal half the base of each hair is black, with but one free black annu- 
lation. 

Cranial characters. — The skull of Tamias leucurus closely resembles 
that of T. harrisi, but differs from it in having the nasal bones much 
narrower posteriorly. 

* Whether this condition is abnormal, or due to the stage of growth of the hair, 
I do not know. 



DESCRIPTION OF A NEW SPECIES OF FREE-TAILED BAT FROM THE 
DESERT REGION OF SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA. 



By Dr. G. Hart Merkiam. 



NYCTLNOMUS FEMOROSACCUS sp. nov. 

Type 2276 $ ad. Agua Caliente, Colorado Desert, California, March 27, 1885. 
Collected by F. Stephens. 

Measurements (from the alcoholic specimen). — Total length, 103 ; 
head and body, 60; tail, 41; exserted part of tail, 23; head, 23; ear 
from crown, 14; ear from base of antitragus, 20; tragus, 1; humerus, 
28; fore-arm, 47; third finger: metacarpal, 45; first phalanx, 20; sec- 
ond phalanx, 19 ; fifth finger, 44. 




FIG. 3. —Head of Nyctmoraus femoiosaccus. 

General characters.— Incisors |=~. Lower incisors bifid and crowded; 
first upper premolar small, but well developed; second very large, 
with a large and high antero-internal cusp. Ears thick, united by 
bases of inner margins 4.5 mm from end of nose ; ear keel greatly devel- 
oped, with a large lobe on its lower third; antitragus higher than 
long, convex anteriorly, slightly concave posteriorly, and separated by 
a deep notch; tragus subquadrate, hidden behind the large antitragus, 
its outer angle projecting upward in the form of a small pointed lobule ; 
upper margin of ear conch with two minute horny projections, not 
symmetrical on the two sides. Tail more than half exserted. Gular sac 
present (opening on right side of median line). There is a curious fold 
of membrane stretching from the inner third of the femur to the middle 
of the tibia, forming a deep pocket between it and the interfemoral 
membrane. The wing membrane is attached to the leg at the same 
point (immediately below the middle of the tibia), so that there are 
three folds of membrane here. The fur extends out on the wing mem 
brane, above and beneath, as far as a line drawn from the middle of 
the humerus to the junction of the middle and outer thirds of the femur. 

Color, dull brown. 

' 23 



DESCRIPTION OF A NEW SPECIES OF FREE-TAILED BAT FROM THE 
LOWER COLORADO RIVER IN ARIZONA. 



By Dr. C. Hart Merriam. 



NYCTIKOMUS MOHAVENSIS sp. nov. 

Type 5418 (J ad. Fort Mqjave, Arizona, March 8, 1889. Vernon Bailey. 
Measurements (from alcoholic specimen). — Total length, 94; head and 
body, 56; head, 19.5; ear from base of autitragus, 18; ear from crown, 
12 ; tragus, 2 ; tail to end of vertebrae, 34 ; exserted part of tail, 13.5 ; 
humerus, 24; fore-arm, 44; third finger: metacarpal, 43; first phalanx, 
16; second phalanx, 16; fifth finger, 42. 




Fig. 4. — Head of Nyctinomus mohavensis. 

General characters. — Incisors jp|. Lower incisors not distinctly bifid ; 
first upper premolar minute; second large, with a well developed an- 
terc-internal cusp. Ears thinner and more translucent than in N.femo- 
rosaccus, united by bases of inner margins; posterior surface marked 
by about five indistinct transverse wrinkles ; ear keel small, without a 
distinct lobe on its inner third ; anterior convexity of auricle with six 
horny spines; antitragus very low and fiat, much longer than high, 
not hiding tragus; tragus rather large, subquadrate. Lips deeply and 
obliquely wrinkled. Wings from lower third of tibia. Fur above ex- 
tendiug from middle of humerus to distal third of femur ; below from 
middle of humerus to knee. Tail less than half exserted. No gular 
sac. Color above, sooty ; paler below. 

25 



DESCRIPTION OF A NEW GENUS (PHENACOMYS) AND FOUR NEW SPE- 
CIES OF ARVICOLlNil. 



By Dr. C. Hart Merriax. 



The genus which is the subject of the present paper is of unusual 
interest, inasmuch as it is the most central or generalized form yet dis- 
covered in the Arvicoline series. It not only combines in a remarkable 
manner the characters of the Arvicoline genera Myocles, Synaptomys, 
Cuniculus, Arvicola, and Evotomys, but is near if not in the direct line of 
descent from the Murine series. 

It was first brought to my notice by Dr. George M. Dawson, Assist- 
ant Director of the Geological and Natural History Survey of Canada, 
who sent me for identification a specimen collected by him near Karn- 
loops, British Columbia, October 2, 1888. Dr. Dawson had no facilities 
for the preparation of this kind of material, hence the specimen reached 
me in the form of a rough skin, turned inside out to dry, with the 
broken skull attached. Fortunately the feet, tail, and teeth were pre- 
served — enough to furnish the most important characters. So far as 
external features are concerned — size, proportions, and coloration — 
there is nothing to indicate that the animal might not be'a pale indi- 
vidual of the common eastern meadow mouse or vole ( Arvicola riparius), 
but the skull and teeth differ essentially from those of any previously 
known genus. All of the molars in both jaws are rooted, each having 
two true divergent roots, instead of growing from a persistent pulp, as 
in Arvicola. The crowns of the upper molars, in the number and ar- 
rangement of their triangles, resemble those of the Mississippi Valley 
voles of the subgenus Pcdomys, while they agree with Evotomys in the 
large size of the dentine islands and the crowding of the teeth. The 
crowns of the lower molars not only differ from those of any section 
of the genus Arvicola, but resemble in certain respects the correspond- 
ing teeth of the singular genera Myotics, Synaptomys, Cuniculus, and 
Evotomys. 

In studying the affinities of this remarkable animal I examined the 
entire series of skulls of the subfamily Arvicolincv in the U . S. National 
Museum, as well as those in my own collection (several hundred in 
number), and also a large number of alcoholics. The result of this in- 
vestigation was the discovery of five additional specimens of the new 

27 



28 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. [No. 2. 

genus. Two of these are broken skulls labeled in Dr. (Jones's hand- 
writing as having been collected by himself at Groswater Bay, Labra- 
dor, id I860, but not mentioned in his published writings on the Mu- 
ridce. The remaining three (all new species) were alcoholics, one col- 
lected by Napoleon A. Comeau at Godbout, on the north shore of the 
St. Lawrence, near the point where the river widens into the gulf; the 
two others collected by Lucieu M. Turner, near Ft. Ohimo, UngavaBay. 
Hence the range of the new genus is demonstrated to extend across the 
continent from Labrador to British Columbia. Probably it will be 
found to invade northern Idaho, Washington, and perhaps Montana 
also. The results of this study will be found in the following pages. 

PHENACOMYS* genus nov. 
Type Phenacomys intermedius sp. nov., from Kamloops, British Columbia. 

DIAGNOSIS. 

Brain case subquadrate, with prominent supraorbital ridges border- 
ing a median frontal sulcus ; postorbital process of squamosal peg- 
like ; interparietal rather large; zygomatic arches lowest opposite first 
molar, and expanded vertically into abroad lamina; shelf of palate 
broadly emarginate posteriorly, without the " step " of Arvicola ; as- 
cending ramus of mandible long and slender, slightly higher than cor- 
onoid process ; root of lower incisor ending at level of alveola of last 
molar; molars rooted, each having two true divergent roots; crowns 
large, crowded, with broadly rounded prisms ; pattern of upper molar 
series and arrangement of prisms as in Arvicola (section Pedomys) ; an- 
terior face of second and third upper molars concave, tbe anterior loop 
pyriform, bulging on the inner side; lower molars with line of infold- 
ing of enamel near the outer side ; last lower molar very large, as broad 
or nearly as broad anteriorly as posteriorly, and consisting of three 
elongated transverse loops joined along the outer side of the tooth, 
without any distinct external loop or triangle. 

GENERAL CHARACTERS AND COMPARISONS. 

External characters.— Forefoot 5-tuberculate ; hindfoot 6-tuberculate, 
the outer tubercle large and prominent (see pi. n, figs. 4 and 5 b) [in 
Arvicola it is nearly obsolete] ; posterior half of sole well haired ; ears 
reaching or slightly overtopping the tips of the surrounding hairs ; 
whiskers reaching the shoulders, larger and stiffer than in Arvicola ; 
pelage full and soft. 

Cranial characters. — Viewed from above, the brain case is subquad- 
rate, marked by prominent lateral ridges, as in Synaptomys and Guni- 

* Phenacomys, from q>ivoc\=^a, cheat, an imposter ; and [j.vS — a mouse, in reference 
to the circumstance that the external appearance of the animal gives no clue to its 
real affinities. 



Oct., 1889.] A NEW GENUS PHENACOMYS. 29 

cuius (pi. ii, fig. 1 ; pi. in, fig. 9). There is a distinct supraorbital 
ridge bordering a median longitudinal frontal sulcus. It rises from the 
anterior border of the orbit and passes backward, following the outline 
of the calvarium to the lateral border of the interparietal, where it 
bends downward and becomes continuous with the vertical crest of the 
squamosal, which ends at the upper margin of the audital opening. In 
addition to the deep frontal sulcus there is on each side of the brain-case 
a shallow lateral sulcus between the ridge just described and a hori- 
zontal ridge of the squamosal, which is formed by the extension for- 
wards and backwards of the posterior root of the zygoma. At the point 
of junction of the orbital and temporal fossae this ridge gives off a very 
distinct postorbital process (squamosal, uotfrontal), which, with the lam- 
inar expansion of the zygoma below serves to sharply differentiate the 
orbit from the temporal fossa.* Furthermore, the temporal fossa is 
much reduced in breadth by the lateral encroachment of the brain-case, 
which is abruptly truncated in front of the postorbital process. The 
antero-posterior diameter of the interparietal is much greater than in 
Arvicola, and its transverse diameter less. In this respect it approaches 
Synaptomys and Myodes. In Phenacomys celatns, P. ungava, and P. lati- 
manus the interparietal is pentagonal, and its posterior border is nearly 
straight. The nasal bones are truncated posteriorly a little in front of 
the ends of the nasal branches of the premaxillaries. The rostrum is 
not shortened or strongly deflexed as it is in the Lemmings, but more 
nearly agrees with its normal condition in Arvicola. 

The zygomatic process of the maxillary bends down so abruptly that 
the lowest part of the zygomatic arch is opposite the first molar, as in 
Myodes (pi. II, fig. 3). In Arvicola the slope is more gradual, and the 
lowest part of the arch is opposite the last molar. The middle portion 
of the zygoma is expanded into a large lamina or plate, which consists 
of the expanded anterior end of the jugal or malar bone and the pos- 
terior portion of the zygomatic process of the maxillary. This plate 
slopes obliquely upward, as in Myodes and Synaptomys. 

Viewed from below, several characters of importance become appar- 
ent. The shelf of the palate is broadly emarginate posteriorly, with a 
median azygos projection. The pterygoid fossa is much broader an- 
teriorly than in Myodes, and the " step " at the back of the palate is less 
apparent on the sides, and is altogether wanting in the median line (pi. 
ii, fig. 2). In this respect Phenacomys presents a condition interme- 
diate between Evotomys and Arvicola, though resembling the former 
more than the latter. It resembles Evotomys further in the breadth 
and flatness of the palate and in the shape and relative size of the au- 
dital bullae. The latter, while conforming to the general Arvicoline 

"In Myodes and Synaptomys the horizontal ridge of the squamosal forms a pro- 
jecting shelf, overhanging the temporal fossa, and rounded off anteriorly. In Phen- 
acomys and Cuniculus this ridge is not developed into a projecting shelf, hut termi- 
nate* anteriorly in a distinct peg-like process. 



30 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. [No. 2. 

pattern, are somewhat suborbicular instead of subfusiform. In this 
particular the departure from Synaptomys and Myodes is as marked as 
that from Arvicola. The basisphenoid is essentially as in Arvicola — 
it is not cut away laterally so much as in Synaptomys and Myodes. 

The ascending ramus of the under jaw is loug, and the articular facet 
is slightly above the level of the coronoid process (as in Evotomys and 
Cuniculus), which is sharp pointed and bent back at the tip (pi. in, fig. 9). 
The hamular process of the angle is rather large and curves slightly out- 
ward as well as upward. Its postero-iuferior border is obliquely flat- 
tened, but not to the extent seen in Synaptomys and Myodes. The root 
of the lower incisor ends posteriorly at the level of the alveola of the 
last molar, and a little outside and behind it, as in Evotomys. In Arvi- 
cola it passes back into the ascending ramus of the jaw as far as a 
point above and behind the dental foramen, this point being, as a rule, 
about two-thirds the distance from the crown of the last molar to the 
articular condyle. In Synaptomys and Myodes it ends at a point oppo- 
site and a little inside of the last molar. Hence in the posterior exten- 
sion of the under incisor Phenacomys is intermediate between the 
Lemmiugs and the true Field Mice. 

When the skull is allowed to rest on the upper molar series a per- 
pendicular let fall from the end of the nasals passes in front of the arc 
of the incisors, as in Evotomys and Synaptomys (pi. n, fig. 3). 

Dental characters. — Phenacomys has genuine rooted molars (pi. in, 
fig. 6), not half rooted molars like those of Evotomys, which grow from 
persistent pulps. In this respect it differs from all known members of 
the sub-family ArvicoUnce, and approaches the typical condition of the 
MuridcB. Each tooth in both upper and lower jaws has two distinct 
roots, which are long, divergent, and closed at the bottom, as in all 
truly-rooted teeth. The crowns of the teeth are large and crowded, 
with broadly rounded loops inclosing dentine islands of much larger 
size than in Arvicola, and somewhat larger even than in Evotomys, with 
correspondingly smaller interspaces or re-entrant angles (pi. vi). The 
dentine is umber-brown instead of white, thus emphasizing the peculiar 
appearance of the tooth-row as a whole. 

Upper molar series. — The upper molars resemble those of Arvicola 
(section Pedomys) in the general pattern, number, and arrangement of 
the prisms, but the crowding of the teeth produces a depression on the 
anterior face of the first loop of the second and third molars at the point 
where the preceding 'tooth presses against it, and a resultant bulge 
just inside of this point, giving the loop a pyriform shape, with an an- 
terior concavity (pi. vi, fig. 1), as sometimes seen in Evotomys. In 
Arvicola this loop is always strongly convex anteriorly. The details of 
the crowns are as follows : First upper molar with a broadly rounded 
anterior transverse loop, two external and two internal rounded tri- 
angles; second upper molar with an anterior pyriform transverse loop, 
one large internal and two smaller external rounded triangles ; third 



Oct., 1889.1 



A NEW GENUS PHENACOMYS. 



31 



upper molar with an anterior pyriform transverse loop, one external 
and one internal closed triangle, and a posterior trefoil (pi. iv, fig. 
12a). Sometimes the outer loop of the trefoil is closed, giving the 
tooth two external closed triangles and a postero-internal loop (pi. iv, 
fig. 11a). 

Lower molar series. — Line of infolding of enamel near outer side of 
tooth row. First lower molar with a posterior transverse loop, four 
greatly elongated internal triangles or digitations, of which at least two 
are completely closed, an anterior loop of variable shape, and three 
short external triangles, of which at least one is completely closed. 
Second lower molar with a posterior transverse loop, two greatly 
elongated internal triangles, of which one or both are closed, and two 
small external rounded triangles, one or both of which are closed. 
Third lower molar much larger than in Arvicola, as broad or nearly as 
broad anteriorly as posteriorly, with three greatly elongated internal 
loops, as in Synaptomys and Myodes, but without external tiiangle, the 
outer side being plane or having at most only two convexities, which 
correspond with the middle and last loops, respectively. By refer- 
ence to the accompanying figures it will be seen that the last lower 




Fig. 5. — Last lower molars of Arvicola. 




Fig. 6.— Last lower molars of Synaptomys. 




I'm. 7. — Last lower molars of Pheuacomys. 

molar of Phenacomys differs widely from that of Arvicola, but closely 
resembles that of Myotics and Synaptomys, the principal difference being 
the presence in the last mentioned genera of a distinct loop and cor- 
responding re-entrant angle on the outer side of the tooth. The deep- 
ening of the externo-lateral sulcus in. Phenacomys would produce almost 
precisely the condition this tooth presents in Synaptomys. In all the 
sections of the genus Arvicola the last lower molar is much broader 
posteriorly than anteriorly, while in Evotomys the reverse is true, it 



32 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA,' [No. 2. 

being broadest anteriorly. In all the lower molars of Phenacomys the 
posterior loop is rounded off externally, as in Synaptomys and Myodes, 
instead of forming a prominent angular projection as it does in Arvicola 
and Evotomys (see cuts on preceding page). 

PHENACOMYS INTEBMEDIUS sp. nov. 

(Plate iv, fig. 11 ; pi. vi; pi. vii.) 

Type No. 780, immature. Museum of the Geol. and Nat. Hist. Survey of Canada. 
From Kamioops, British Columbia,* October 2, 1888. Dr. Geo. M. Dawson. 

Measurements (from dry skin). — Total length about 118; head and 
body, 90 ; tail vertebrae, 28 ; hairs, 2 ; hind foot, 18 ; ears from crown, 8 ; 
from anterior root, 13. 

General characters. — Size rather small; tail slender, cylindrical; ears 
moderate, thin, protruding slightly beyond fur, well haired on both 
sides; roots rather near together; antitragus small, about as high as 
long; hind foot more slender than in P. celatus ; whiskers long and stiff; 
pelage deep, full, and soft. 

Color. — Above, grizzled grayish brown, paler than in Arvicola riparius; 
black-tipped hairs most abundant posteriorly, with no tendency to col- 
lect into a median darker area; under parts white, the basal plumbe- 
ous portion showing through ; tail bicolor, nearly black above ; fore 
feet light; hind feet dark, darkest on the ankle and outer side of foot. 
There is a strip of whitish hair on the soles. 

Cranial characters. — Unfortunately the skull is badly broken, and 
the occipital and basal portions are absent. Enough remains, however, 
to show that the brain-case is broad and flat, much like that of Chilotus. 
The specimen was young, though probably full grown, and the skull 
differs from those of the other species here described in the usual way 
in which skulls of young Arvicolinw differ from those of adults. It is 
lower and more evenly rounded, with broader iuterorbital and parietal 
regions. In fact, the breadth of the brain-case is considerably greater, 
both actually and in relation to the zygomatic breadth. This difference 
may be in part specific. There is no trace of the superciliary ridges 
which are so conspicuous in the adults, and but a faint indication of 
the lateral muscular impressions. The vertical lamellse of the zygo- 
matic arches are less developed, the incisive foramina are smaller, and 
the upper incisors are much shorter than in the other species. 

Dental characters. — Upper incisiors marked. with an indistinct groove 
near the outer side. Upper molars with all the loops and triangles 
closed (pi. VI, fig. 1). Last upper molar with an anterior pyriform 
transverse loop, two small external triangles, one large, transversely 
elongated internal triangle and a posterointernal loop, making in all 
three angular projections and two re entrant angles on each side. The 

* The exact locality, Dr. Dawson writes me, is a basaltic plateau about 20 miles 
NNW of Kamioops, at an altitude of 5,500 feet. 



Oc 1.1889.] FOUR NEW SPECIES OF PHENACOMYS. 33 

ratios of the first, second, and third upper molars to the length of the 
upper molar series are, respectively, 40, 29, aud 31. Front lower molar 
(pi. vi, fig. 2, and pi. IV, fig. 11 b) with an anterior transverse loop, 
a posterior transverse loop, four internal triangles, aud three external 
triangles, making eleven projections, six of which are on the inner and 
five on the outer side of the tooth ; three triangles on each side are en- 
tirely closed, and the fourth inner triangle is nearly closed ; anterior 
loop flattened from before backward, inner half nearly transverse, outer 
half bent obliquely backward, as sometimes seen in Cuniculns. Second 
lower molar with a posterior transverse loop, two small, rounded, external 
closed triangles, and two large elongated, subequal internal closed loops 
or triangles, the posterior loop abruptly rounded off externally as in 
Synaptomys. Last lower molar large, about as broad anteriorly as poste- 
riorly. It consists of three vertical prisms set side by side and connected 
at their bases along the outer face of the tooth. The line of enamel- 
folds is thus brought in contact with the outer side of the tooth, there 
being no outer angles at all ; in fact the outer side has a plane, nearly 
flat surface, marked only by a slight ridge and compensating groove op- 
posite the middle triangle of the inner side. Therefore, the crown of the 
last lower molar presents the appearance of three long lobes directed 
inward and slightly backward, the middle one connected with the lateral 
on each side by a narrow isthmus at the base. The most anterior of 
these three divisions is about as long as the second and third, though 
the latter are much broader. The ratios of the first, second, and third 
lower molars to the length of the lower molar series are, respectively, 
49.3, 27 7, aud 22.8. The length of the upper molar series, measured on 
the alveoke, is G.l ; on the crowns 5.7. The corresponding measure- 
ments of the lower molar series are 5.9 and 5.5. 

PHENACOMYS CELATUS sp. nov. 
(Plate ii, figs, l-.i ; pi. m, figs. 6 and 7 ; pi. iv, fig. 13.) 

Type No. §#H i ad. Godbout, P. Q., Canada, June 10, 1886. N. A. Comeau. 

Mea8urement8(froui alcoholic specimenbeforeskinning). — Total length, 
about 130 ; tail vertebne, 32; hairs, 2.5; hind foot, 17.5. 

General characters. — Size rather small, about equal to P. intermedins; 
feet broader than in intermedins; fore foot 5-tuberculate ; hind foot 0- 
tuberculate, tubercles all well developed ; thumb rudimentary, armed 
with a blunt nail ; tail slender, cylindrical, not particularly short (about 
one-third as long as head and body); whiskers long and conspicuous; 
ears defective, but thicker thau in intermedins, and hardly appearing 
above fur, not so hairy as iu ungava; autitragus small. 

Color. — Above, brown with a tawny cast, which may be the result of 

immersion in wood alcohol, out of which it was skinned ; below, whitish, 

the basal portion (about two thirds) dark plumbeous. Tail bicolor, but 

without line of demarkation ; darkest above, near the tip. Fore feet 

2541— No. 2 3 



34 NOETH AMERICAN FAUNA. [No. 2. 

and wrists whitish all round ; hind feet and ankles whitish, suffused 
with pale fulvous on the upper side. 

Cranial and dental characters. — Interparietal much larger than in P. lat- 
imanus and ungava, with antero- posterior diameter much greater (pi. n, 
fig. 1). First lower molar with a posterior transverse loop, four inter- 
nal triangles of which two are closed, three external triangles of which 
one is completely closed, and a broadly open anterior loop directed for- 
ward and slightly outward ; in all, five angular projections and four deep 
re-entrant angles on each side. Second lower molar with anterior tri- 
angles communicating. Third lower molar with a marked convexity 
followed by a distinct notch opposite the long middle lobe of the inner 
side (pi. IV, fig. 13). The length of the upper molar series, measured 
on the alveola?, is 5.9 ; on the crowns, 5.5. The corresponding measure- 
ments of the lower molar series are ^.6 and 5.5 respectively. 

General remarks. — In the National Museum collection there are the 
remains of two broken skulls of Phenacomys labeled " Groswater Bay, 
Labrador, Elliott Coues," of which I cau find no mention in Dr. Coues's 
writings. They have the appearauce of skulls found in the pellets of 
hawks and owls. One of them (No. 4218) is very young; the other 
(No. 4217) is older and larger, with correspondingly heavier processes 
and ridges than any of the specimens here described. I have provis- 
ionally referred it to P. celatus, because it has the same squarish inter- 
parietal, and essentially the same tooth pattern (see pi. in, figs. 6 and 7). 

PHENACOMYS LATIMANUS sp. nov. 

(Plate II, fig. 5; pi. iv, fig. 12.) 

Type No. fff^ $ yg. ad. Fort Chimo, Ungava, Hudson Bay. Feb. 4, 1883. Lucien 

M. Turner. 

Measurements (from alcoholic before skinning). — Total length, 116 ; 
head and body, 90; tail vertebra?, 28; hairs, 4; hind foot, 18; ear from 
crown, 5.5 ; from auterior root, 11. Additional measurements : Tip of 
nose to eye (inner cauthus), 12; to center of pupil, 13; to meatus, 22; 
to occiput, 27 ; to tip of ear, 31 ; length of manus, 11 ; breadth of manus, 
5 ; breadth of pes, 5 ; fore leg, 25. 

General characters. — Size rather small : tail short, cylindrical ; fore 
feet broad, as in the Lemmings (pi. it, fig. 5 a) ; whiskers not so long 
and stiff as in the other species ; ears defective, but evidently peculiar, 
apparently very narrow and thin. 

Color. — Above, dull" rusty-brown, reddest about the eyes and nose 
(which may be due to alcoholic staining) ; below, whitish, the basal 
portion of the fur dark plumbeous. Tail sharply bicolor, brown above 
and white beneath, the latter occupying considerably more than half 
the circumference of the tail. 

Dental characters. — First lower molar with a posterior transverse 
loop, four internal triangles of which three are closed, three external 



Oct., 1889] FOUR NEW SPECIES OF PHENACOMYS. 35 

triangles of which two are closed, and an anterior loop directed inward. 
Second lower molar with anterior triangles communicating (pi. iv, fig. 
12). 

General remarks. — Mr. Turner writes me that this specimen was found 
dead in the path, and that the Indians believe that the species always 
dies on coming in contact with human foot-prints. 

PHENACOMYS UNGAVA sp. nov. 

(Plate ii, fig. 4 ; pi. in, tigs. 8 and 9.) 

Type No. £ff§ $ ad. Fort Chimo, Ungava, Hudson Bay Territory. Spring of 1884. 

Lucien M. Turner. 

Measurements (from alcoholic before skinning). — Total length, 138; 
head and body, 104; tail vertebra3,31; hairs,3.5; hind foot, 19; ear from 
crown, 7 ; ear from anterior root, 12. Additional measurements : Tip of 
nose to eye (inner canthus), 12; to center of pupil, 14; to meatus, 24; 
to occiput, 28. 

General characters. — Size, largest of the four species herein described ; 
tail moderately short, slender, cylindrical ; ears appearing above fur, 
densely haired inside and on the margin outside ; hiud feet longer and 
more slender than in P. celatus ; whiskers long and stiff. 

Color. — Above, rusty-brown, reddest on the nose ; below, whitish, 
the basal portion of the fur dark plumbeus. 

Dental cluvactcrs. — First lower molar with a posterior transverse loop, 
four internal triangles of which three are closed, three external trian- 
gles of which two are closed, and an anterior loop which forms a pro- 
jection on the inner side. Second lower molar with the anterior trian- 
gles broadly communicating (pi. in, tig. 8). 



INDEX 



Page. 

Antelope Squirrel 19-21 

Arctomys caligatua 7 

dacota 8-9 

Jiavive nter 7 

monax 7 

Jrvicola, compared with Phenacomys 27-32 

Bat, Free-tailed 23-25 

Black Hills Marmot 7-9 

Cuniculus, compared with Phenacomys 27 32 

Evotomys, compared with Phenacomys 27-32 

Grasshopper Mouse : 

Black-eyed 2 

Loug-tai led 2 

Texas 1-2 

Lagomys princeps 11, 12, 13 

8ohisticeps 11-13 

Little Chief Hare 11 

Marmot, Black Hills. 7-9 

Mouse: 

Black-eyed Grasshopper 2 

Long-tailed Grasshopper 2 

Texas Grasshopper 1-2 

Myoden, compared with Phenacomys 27-32 

NycHnom us femorosacous 23 

uiuliari nsis 25 

Onychomya (genus) 1-5 

Onychomys leucogaster 3, 4, 5 

leucogaster mela/nophrya 2, 4, 5 

longicaudua 2,4,5 

longipes 1 , 2 , 4, ."> 

torridoa 3, 4, 5 

Phenacomys (genus now) 27-32 

Phenacomys celatua 33-34 

intermedins 32-33 

lalimanua 34-35 

u ngava 35 

Pika 11-13 

Spermophile, Mojave Desert 15-16 

Spermopliiliix moha veneU 15-16 

neglectus 17 

Squirrel, Antelope 19-21 

Synaptomys, compared with Phenacomys 27-32 

In hi ins Imrrisi 19,20,21 

leucums 19-21 

Texas Grasshopper Mouse 1-2 

37 



PLATE I. 

Figs. 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5, Onychomys leucogaster, $ young. (Skull No. 4422.) Fort Buford, 
Dakota. 

1. Skull from above, and left under jaw from outside (X 2). 

2. Crowns of left upper molars from below (X 10). 

3. Crowns of left lower molars from above ( X 10). 

4. Crowns of right upper molars from the side (X 10). 

5. Crowns of right lower molars from the side (X 10). 

Figs. 6 and 7, Onychomys leucogaster, $" ad. (No. 5012). Valentine, Nebraska. 

6. Crowns of left upper molars from below (x 10). 

7. Crowns of left lower molars from above (X 10). 

Figs. 8 and 9, Onychomys longicaudus, $ ad. (No. 5896). St. George, Utah. 

8. Crowns of left upper molars from.below ( X 10). 

9. Crowns of left lower molars from above (X 10). 

38 



North American Fauna, No. 2. 



Plate I. 













1-5. Onychomys lencogaster, d young. 
6,7. Onychomys leucogaster, ? adult. 
8,9. Onychomys longicaudus, d adult. 



PLATE II. 

1-3. Phenacomys celatus, J ad. (No. 5988.) Godbout, P. Q., Canada. Type. 

1. Skull from above (X 2). 

2. Skull from below (x 2). 

3. Skull from the side (x 2). 

4. Phenacomys unyava, $ ad. (No. ffff.) Ungava. Type. 

a. Left forefoot. 

b. Left hind foot (X about 1^; drawn from alcoholic specimen). 

5. Phenacomys lathnanus, $ yg. ad. (No. ffff.) Ungava. Type. 

a. Left forefoot. 

o. Left hind foot (x about 1J; drawn from alcoholic specimen). 

40 



North American Fauna, No 2 




1-3. Phenacomys celatus, <S adult. 

4. Phenacomys ungava, <S adult. 

5. Phenacomys latimanus, <S youug adult. 



PLATE III. 

6 and 7. Phenacomys celatus, ad. (No. 4217.) Groswater Bay, Labrador. 

6. Molar teeth in profile (X about 4); (a) upper series; (b) lower series. 

7. Crowns of molar teeth ( x about 10) ; (a) upper series ; (b) lower series. 
8 and 9. Phenacomys ungava, $ ad. (No. 6155.) Ungava. Type. 

8. Crowns of molar teeth (x about 10) ; (a) upper series; (b) lower series. 

9. (a) Skull from above; (b) under jaw from left side (x 2). 

10. Arvicola riparius, ad. Washington, D. C. First lower molar for comparison with 
corresponding tooth in Phenacomys (fig. 6b); (X about 4). 

42 



North American Fauna, No. 2. 



Plate III. 




6, 7. Phenacomys celatus, adult. 
8, 9. Phenacomys ungava, d adult. 
10. Arvicola riparius, adult. 



PLATE IV. 

11. Phenacomys intermedins, young. Kamloops, British Columbia. Type. 

a = upper molar series ; b = lower molar series ( X 10). 

12. Phenacomys latimanus, $ young ad. (6159.) Ungava. Type. 

a = upper molar series ; b = lower molar series ( x 10). 

13. Phenacomys celatus, $ ad. (5988.) Godbont, P. Q., Canada. Type. 

a = upper molar series ; b = lower molar series (X 10). 

14. Arvicola austerus, $ ad. (1(320.) Kuoxville, Iowa. 

a = upper molar series ; b = lower molar series (x 10). 

44 



North American Fauna, No, 2. 



Plate IV. 




11. Phenacomys intermedins, young. 

12. Phenacomys latimanus, d young adult. 

13. Phenacomys celatus, d adult. 

14. Arvicola austerus, ? adult. 



PLATE V. 

15. Evotomys gapperi, $ ad. (1956 U. S. N. M.) Lake Superior. 

a = upper molar series ; b = lower molar series (X 10). 

16. Synaptomys cooperi, yg. ad. (3230.) Type. 

a = upper molar series ; b = lower molar series ( X 10). 

17. Cuniculus,$ ad. (6160.) Fort Chimo, Ungava. 

a = upper molar series ; b = lower molar series ( X 10). 

18. Myodes, 9 ad. (6166.) Point Barrow, Alaska. 

a = upper molar series ; b = lower molar series ( X 10). 

46 



North American Fauna, No. 2. 



Plate V. 




15. Evotomys gapperi, .f adult. 

in. Synaptomys cooperi, young adult. 

17. < funiculus, $ adult. 

18. Myodea, y adult. 



PLATE VI. 

Phenacomys intermedins, youug. (No. 780, Mus. Geol. and Nat. Hist. Surv., Canada.) 
Kainloops, British Columbia. Type. 
Fig. 1. Upper ruolar series, in situ (from a photograph, x 15). 
Fig. 2. Lower molar series, in situ (from a photograph. X 15). 

43 



North American Fauna, No. 2. 



Plate VI. 




Phenacomys INTERMEDIUS, young. 



PLATE VII. 

Phenacomys intermedins, young. (No. 780, Mus. Geol. and Nat. Hist. Surv., Canada.) 

Karuloops, British Columbia. Type. 
Fig. 1. Skull from below, showing teeth and the remains of the skull (from a 

photograph. X 5). 
Fig. 2. Under jaw from above (from a photograph, x 5). 

50 



North American Fauna, No. 2. 



Plate VII 





PHENACOMYS INTERMEDIUS. (.Type.) 



PLATE VIII. 

(All natural size.) 

1-4. Lagomys schisticeps, $ ad. (No. 5376. ) Don ner, California. Type. 

1. Skull from above. 

2. Under jaw from the outside. 

3. Basioccipital from below. 

4. Palatine fossa. 

5 and 6. Lagomys princeps. Boulder County, Colorado. 

5. Basioccipital. 

6. Palatine fossa. 

7 and 8. Arctomy ft dacola, $ ad. (No. 5113.) Black Hills, Dakota. Type. 

7. Skull from above. 

8. Under jaw from the outside. 

52 



North American Fauna, No. 2. 



Plate VIII. 




1-4. Lagomys schisticeps, d adult. 
5-6. Lagomys princeps, adult. 
7-8. Arctomya dacota, d adult. 



U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 

DIVISION OF ORNITHOLOGY AND MAMMALOGY 



NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 



No. 3 



PUBLISHED BY AUTHORITY OF THE SECRE IARY OF AGRICULTURE 



[Actual date of publication, September 11, 1890] 



.." 



Results of a Biological Survey of the San Francisco Mountain Region and 
> Desert of the Little Colorado, Arizona 

1. General Results, with special reference to the geographical and 

vertical distribution of species 

2. Grand Canon of the Colorado 

3. Annotated List of Mammals, with descriptions of new species 

4. Annotated List of Birds 

By Dn. C. Hart Mkkriam 

5. Annotated List of Reptiles and Batrachians, with descriptions of 

new species 

BY Dr. Leonhakd Stejneger 



WASHINGTON 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 

1890 



MEASUREMENTS. 

All measurements of specimens are in millimeters. 

All Mammals collected by Field Agents of theDivision are measured in accordance 
with the following instructions: 

(1) The total length is the distance between the tip of the nose and the end of 
the tail vertebrae. It is taken by laying the animal on a board, with its nose against 
a pin or upright post, and by straightening the back and tail by extending the hind 
legs with one hand while holding the head with the other; a pin is then driven into 
the board at the end of the vertebras. 

(2) The length of tail is the length of the caudal vertebrae. It is taken by 
erecting the tail at right angle to the back, and placing one point of the dividers on 
the backbone at the very root of the tail, the other at the tip end of the vertebrae. 

(3) The hind foot is measured by placing one point of the dividers against the 
end of the heel (cal'carteum), the other at the tip of the longest claw, the foot being 
flattened for this purpose. 

In neasuring the hind foot in dry skins, the foot is fiist wrapped in wet absorbent 
cotton until the toes can be straightened. 



U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 

DIVISION OF ORNITHOLOGY AND MAMMALOGY 



NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 



No. 3 



PUBLTSHED BY AUTHORITY OF THE SECRETARY OF AGRICULTURE 



[Actual date of publication, September 11, 1890] 




Results of a Biological Survey of the San Francisco Mountain Region and 
Desert of the Little Colorado, Arizona 

1. General Results, with special reference to the geographical and 

vertical distribution of species 

2. Grand Canon of the Colorado 

3. Annotated List of Mammals, with descriptions of new species 

4. Annotated List of Birds 

By Dr. C. Hart Mkrrlam 

5. Annotated List of Reptiles and Batrachians, with descriptions of 

new species 

By Dr. Lkoxhard Stkjneger 



WASHINGTON 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 

1890 



u± 




<-<jL 









U. S. Department of Agriculture, June 4, 1890. 
Sir : I have the honor to transmit herewith No. 3 of North Ameri- 
can Fauna. It contains part of the results of a Biological Survey 
which I had the honor to conduct, under your instructions, in the San 
Francisco Mountain region in Arizoua during August and September, 
1889. 



Respectfully, 



Hon. J. M. Rusk, 

Secretary of Agriculture. 



0. Hart Merriam, 

Chief of Division of 
Ornithology and Mammalogy. 



in 



CONTENTS. 



Page. 

Letter of transmittal ]it 

Prefatory note 1 

Itinerary 3-4 

First trip to Painted Desert 3 

Second trip to Painted Desert 4 

Trip to Grand Canon 4 

Part I.— General Results of a Biological Survey of the Sax Fran- 
cisco Mountain Region and Desert of the Little Colokado, Arizona, 

with Special Reference to the Distribution of Species 5-34 

Geueral physical features of Arizona 5 

General features of the San Francisco Mountain Region 5 

Remarks on the geographic distribution of species characteristic of the 

several zones of the San Francisco Mountain Region 7-20 

Alpine zone 7 

Sub- Alpine or Timber-line zone 8 

(Central) Hudsoniau or Spruce zone 9 

(Ceutral) Canadian or Balsam Fir zone 10 

Neutral or Pine zone 11 

Pinon zone 12 

Desert area 13 

Interrelations and affinities of the several zones 17 

Life Areas of the San Francisco Mountain Region (table). . 20 

Origin of the Boreal Fauna and Flora of San Francisco Mountain 20 

Origin of the Fauna and Flora of the Painted Des rt 21 

Generalizations concerning the distribution of life in North America 22-26 

Overthrow of the so-called ' Central Province ' of Naturalists 22 

Evidence on which the 'Central Province' was based 23 

Significance of isolated types 23 

Principal Life Regions of North America 24 

Causes which determine distribution ... 26 

Climate of the San Francisco Mountain Region and Desert of the Little 

Colorado 29-34 

Part II.— Grand Canon of the Colorado, between the Kaibab and 

Cocanini Plateaus, Arizona 35-41 

General remarks ou tbe Grand Canon of the Colorado 35 

List of Mammals noted at the Grand Canon of the Colorado 37 

List of Birds noted at the Grand Canon of the Colorado 33 

Part III.— Annotated List of Mammals of the San Francisco Mount- 
ain Plateau and Desert of the Little Colorado, Ari- 
zona, with Notes on their Vertical Distribution, and 

Descriptions of New Species 43-36 

Mammals of the several zoues 85 

V 



VI 



Part IV -Annotated List op Birds of the San Francisco Mountain 
Part IV. *nno ^ ^ ^ ^ ^^ CoM)BADOi Arizona 87-101 

PART V -ANNOTATED LlSTOF REPTILES AND BATRACHIANS OF THE SaN 
PART V. ^NO M0UNTAIN p LATEAU AND DESERT OF THE LITTLE 

COLORADO, ARIZONA, WITH DESCRIPTIONS OF NEW SPECIES. By^ 

Leonhard Stejneger -- 119-123- 

Forest Trees of the Saa Francisco Mountain Region, Arizona ^^ 

Relation of a Biological Survey to Agriculture '"_"."._.. 127-128- 

Bibliograpbical appendix "- "•" 



ILLUSTRATIONS. 



COLORED MAPS. 



1. Map of Arizona, showing the Life Areas of the Colorado Platean. 

2. Biological Map of the San Francisco Mountain Region, Arizona, showing the seven 

Life Zones defined by the Survey. 

3. Map of the San Francisco Mountain Region, showing the distribution of Pinus ar- 

istata, P. ponderosa, and P. edulia. 

4. Map of the San Francisco Mountain Region, showing the distribution of Pioea en- 

gehnanni, Paeudotauga douglasii and Juniperua occidental it monoaperma. 

5. Provisional Biological Map of North America, showing the principal Life Areas. 

PLATES. 

Plate I. Diagrammatic profile of San Francisco Mountain and O'Leary Peak from 
SW. to NE., showing the several Life Zones and effects of slope-ex- 
posnre. 
II. Diagram showing effects of slope exposure on a volcanic cone north of 
San Francisco Mountain. 

III. Figs. 1-4, Meaperomya megaloiis (teeth); figs. 5-8, Heaperomya leucepvs 

rnjinus (teeth). 

IV. Figs. 1-4, Hesperomya megalotia (skull). 

V. Figs. 1-2, Arvicola alticolus (skull); tigs. 3-1, Arvicola mogollonensia (skull); 
figs. 5-7, Perognathua intermedins (skull). 
VI. Figs. 1-4, Arvicola alticolua ( teeth) ; figs. 5-8, Arvicola mogollonenaia (teeth). 
VII. Figs 1-5, Lepua texianus (skull and jaw). 
VIII. Figs. 1-5, Lepua arizonce (skull and jaw). 
IX. Figs. 1-3, Spermophilva oryptoapilotua (sknll ) ; figs. 4-7, Cynomya gunni- 
toni (skull). 
X. Figs. 1-4, Mephitis eator (skull); figs. 5-8, Neotoma mexicana (skull). 
XI. Lynx baileyi (.skull). 
XII. Fig. 1, Crotaphytua baileyi ; fig. 2, Crotaphytua collaria ; fig. 3, Phrgnosoma 
ornatixsiiniuii ; tig. 4, Phrynoeoma hernandeai, 
XIII. Map of the United States, showing localities from which specimens of 
Crotaphytua baileyi ami ('. oollaria have been examined. 

FIGURES IN TEXT. 

Fig. 1. Sorex monticolua (jaws witli teeth X 10). 

2. Lepua arizona; (outline of head and car, natural size). 



No. 3. NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. August, 1890. 



RESULTS OF A BIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF THE SAN FRANCISCO MOUNTAIN 
REGION AND DESERT OF THE LITTLE COLORADO IN ARIZONA. 



By Dr. C. Hart Merriam. 



PREFATORY NOTE. 

Recent explorations in the west, conducted by the Division of Orni- 
thology and Mammalogy of this Department, led to the belief that many 
facts of scientific interest and economic importance would be brought 
to light by a biological survey of a region comprehending a diversity of 
physical and climatic conditions, particularly if a high mountain were 
selected, where, as is well known, different climates and zones of ani- 
mal and vegetable life succeed one another from base to summit. 
The matter was laid before the Assistant Secretary of Agriculture, the 
Hon. Edwin Willits, and I was authorized by the Secretary, the Hon. 
J. M. Rusk, to undertake such a survey of the San Francisco Mountain 
region in Arizona. San Francisco Mountain was chosen because of its 
southern position, isolation, great altitude, and proximity to an arid 
desert. The area carefully surveyed comprises about 13,000 square kilo- 
meters (5,000 square miles), and enough additional territory was roughly 
examined to make in all about 30,000 square kilometers (nearly 12,000 
square miles), of which a biological map has been prepared. No less 
than twenty new species and subspecies of mammals were discovered, 
together with many new reptiles and plants; and the study of the 
fauna and flora as a whole led to unexpected generalizations concern- 
ing the relationships of the life areas of North America, necessitating 
a radical change in the primary and secondary divisions recognized. 

The most important of the general results are : 

(1) The discovery that there are but two primary life areas in North 
America, a northern (boreal) and a southern (subtropical), both ex- 
tending completely across the continent and sending off long interpene- 
trating arms. 

l 
;,0i— No. 3 1 



2 NOETH AMERICAN FAUNA. • [No. 3. 

(2) The consequent abandonment of the three life areas commonly 
accepted by naturalists, namely : The Eastern, Central, and Western 
Provinces. 

(3) The recognition of seven minor life zones in the San Francisco 
Mountain region, four of boreal origin, and three of subtropical or 
mixed origin. 

(4) The correlation of the four boreal zones with corresponding zones 
in the north and east. 

The present paper consists of five parts : (1) an announcement of the 
general results of the survey, with special reference to the geographic 
and vertical distribution of species ; (2) results of a brief visit to the 
Grand Canon of the Colorado ; (3) an annotated list of the Mammals of 
the San Francisco Mountain region including the desert of the Little 
Colorado, with descriptions of new species ; (4) an annotated list of the 
Birds ; (5) an annotated list of the Eeptiles and Batrachians, with de- 
scriptions of new species. 

Prof. F. EL Knowlton, assistant paleontologist, U. S. Geological Sur- 
vey, joined the party in the summer and collected the plants upon 
which many of my generalizations are based. He has placed me under 
great obligations by allowing me the unreserved use of this material 
and the privilege of announcing important results from the stand-point 
of the geographic distribution of species. I am indebted also to Mr. 
Frederick Y. Coville, assistant botanist, U. S. Department of Agricult- 
ure, for the determination of many of the more difficult plants. 

Dr. Leonhard Stejneger, curator of reptiles in the TJ. S. National Mu- 
seum, joined the expedition in September. Though unable to visit the 
desert region, he made notes and colored sketches from the living ani- 
mals collected by Mr. Bailey and myself, and has prepared the report 
on Eeptiles and Batrachians which constitutes part four of the present 
bulletin. 

My assistant, Mr. Vernon Bailey, deserves special recognition for the 
faithful and efficient performance of the duties assigned him, and it 
should be added that much of the success of the season's work is due to 
his zeal and intelligence. 

It is proper also to acknowledge the assistance rendered by Mr. D. 
M. Biordan, and his brothers Thomas and M. J. Biordan, of Flagstaff, 
Arizona. 

Much more would have been accomplishe d but for the insufficient fund 
available for the survey (only a little more than $600 to cover the total 
cost of transportation, outfitting, hire of animals and men, purchase of 
tents, supplies, etc.), thus permitting the employment of but one man as 
cook and general camp-hand; while the animals, both in number and 
quality, were far below the standard usually considered necessary for 
field work, which circumstance caused many annoying delays. All our 
traveling was done on horseback, and our packing on burros. 



Aug., 1890.] BIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF SAN FRANCISCO MOUNTAIN. 3 

The altitudes given in the present paper were determined by means 
of aneroid barometers, and too much confidence must not be placed in 
their extreme accuracy. 

The base maps made use of are those of the U. S. Geological Survey, 
for which I am indebted to the Director of the Survey, Maj. J. W. Powell, 
and to the chief geographer, Mr. Henry Gannett. The picture of San 
Francisco Mountain, which forms the frontispiece of this report, is from 
the sixth annual report of the U. S. Geological Survey. 

The colored map of Arizona, showing the life areas of the Colorado 
plateau south of the Grand Caiion (map 1), is based upon the present 
survey, supplemented by information derived from the U. S. Geological 
Survey. 

For the sake of convenience, the names employed to designate the 
various life areas are those in common use ; and the author wishes to 
state that he does not commit himself to these names, or to the relative 
value of the terms indicating rank (Province, Region, Zone, etc.), all of 
which have been employed in diametrically opposite ways by different 
writers. 

ITINERARY. 

The following brief itinerary, in connection with the accompanying 
maps, will enable the reader to trace the routes of the expedition and 
determine the positions of the localities mentioned in the report. 

Flagstaff, Arizona, a station on the Atlantic and Pacific Railway, is 
the point of departure for San Francisco Mountain. I reached Flagstaff 
July 26, 18S9, and was joined next day by my assistant, Mr. Vernon 
Bailey. After spending three days in outfitting, we proceeded to Little 
Spring, at the north base of San Francisco Mountain, and pitched our 
tents in a grove of aspens and panes, on a knoll just northwest of the 
spring, at an altitude of _},o00 meters (8,2.50 feet). This was our base 
camp for two months, and from it numerous side-trips were made into the 
surrounding country. Three of these were of special importance, name- 
ly, two trips across the Fainted Desert and one to the Grand Canon of 
the Colorado. During these expeditions I crossed the Painted Desert 
and the Rio Colorado Chiquito four times, spending in all sixteen days 
on the desert. I visited also Walnut Canon, about 9 kilometers (5i 
miles) south of Elden Mountain ; and local collections were made in the 
piiion and chaparral near a volcanic crater containing ruins of cliff 
dwellings 8 kilometers (5 miles) east of O'Leary Peak, and in various 
other directions. A branch camp was established just below timber 
line on the main peak of San Francisco Mountain, and the rocky sum- 
mit above timber line was climbed several times. Kendrick and O'Leary 
Peaks also were ascended. 

FIRST Title TO PAINTED DESERT, AUGUST 12 TO !!', INCLUSIVE. 

The route followed skirted the north and east sides of San Francisco 
Mountain, passing through the pine forest by way of Partridge. Spring, 
and along the edge of O'Leary Park, keeping west of O'Leary and 



4 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. [No. 3. 

Sunset Peaks, and thence turning southeasterly to Turkey Tanks. The 
dry bed of the Little Colorado River was crossed at Grand Falls, and 
Tenebito Wash was followed to the high mesa on the east side of the 
desert; this mesa was ascended and a trail was taken northward to a 
point about 25 kilometers (16 miles) north, or a little west of north, 
of the Moki pueblo of Oraibi; an abrupt turn to the south was then 
made, and Grand Falls was reached by an Indian trail south of that 
taken on the outward journey, a short stop having been made at Oraibi, 
where water and goat's milk were obtained from the Indians. From 
Grand Falls the course lay across the lava beds direct to the north base 
of the mountain, instead of by way of Turkey Tanks, as on the outward 
journey. The total distance traveled was 370 kilometers (230 miles). 
The heat was intense and much suffering was occasioned by want of 
water. 

SECOND TRIP ACROSS THE DESERT, SEPTEMBER 20 TO 27, INCLUSIVE. 

A northeasterly course was taken from Little Spring to Black Tank, 
thence to the Little Colorado at Tanner's Crossing, following the Mor- 
mon trail and crossing the river about 56 kilometers (35 miles) north of 
Grand Falls, and continuing in a northeasterly direction to Moencopie 
Wash, which was followed to Echo Cliffs, and the southern point of 
Echo Cliffs mesa was crossed from Moa Ave to Tuba. Tanner's Gulch 
and the Pueblo of Moencopie were visited and Moencopie Wash was 
followed down to the point of departure for Echo Cliffs, whence the 
return to the mountain was made by nearly the same route as on the 
way out, the total distance traveled being about 280 kilometers (175 
miles). The temperature was very much lower than during the former 
trip across the desert, and some of the nights were even cold. The re- 
cent heavy showers had left some water in the Little Colorado and in 
scattered alkaline pools in Moencopie Wash, and also in the gulches in 
the lava beds between San Francisco Mountain and the Little Colorado. 

TRIP TO THE GRAND CANON OF THE COLORADO, SEPTEMBER 9 TO 1C, INCLUSIVE. 

The usual road was followed from Little Spring to Hull Spring and 
Red Horse Tank, and thence to the tauk known as Canon Spring on 
the Cocanini Plateau, close to the caiion, which is here about 1,800 
meters (6,000 feet) in depth. Mr. Bailey and myself climbed down into 
the caiion and remained in it two days and two nights. 



PART I.— GENERAL RESULTS OF A BIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF THE SAN 
FRANCISCO MOUNTAIN REGION IN ARIZONA, WITH SPECIAL REFER- 
ENCE TO THE DISTRIBUTION OF SPECIES. 



By Dr. C. Hart Merriam. 



GENERAL PHYSICAL FEATURES OF ARIZONA. 

Arizona as a whole may be readily divided into two very distinct 
physiographic areas — an elevated plateau area and a low desert area. 
A high cliff or escarpment, one of the best marked and most extensive 
in the North American continent, enters Arizona from Utah and com- 
pletely crosses the Territory from northwest to southeast, marking the 
southern limit of the great Colorado Plateau. Though it does not 
everywhere maintain the form of a precipitous cliff, it has an average 
height of at least 1,200 meters (4,000 feet), and in some places its crest 
is more than 1,500 meters (5,000 feet) above the plain below. In its 
effects upon the life of the region it is an important fauual barrier. The 
region to the south is in the main an arid desert, interrupted by a few 
irregular ranges of mountains. The region to the north, beginning at 
the top of the cliff and occupying the northern part of Arizona, is a 
southward continuation of the Great Interior or Colorado Plateau, the 
plateau on which the Rocky Mountains rest. 

GENERAL FEATURES OF THE SAN FRANCISCO MOUNTAIN REGION. 

San Francisco Mountain is on this plateau, in the north-central part 
of the Territory (in latitude 35° 20' X. ; longitude 111° 41' W.). It is 
a volcanic peak rising 3,000 meters (12,794 feet) above sea level and 
rests on a lava base which is everywhere more than 2,130 meters (7,000 
feet) in elevation, and overlies red sandstone and carboniferous lime- 
stone. This plateau comprises about 2,000 square kilometers (800 square 
miles), and measures about 72 kilometers (45 miles) from east to west by 
53 kilometers (33 miles) from north to south. 

Fonr other volcanic peaks (O'Leary, Kendrick, Sitgreaves, and Bill 
Williams), ranging in height from 2,750 to 3,200 meters (9,000 to 10,500 
feet), together with many buttes, cones, and craters, some of which con- 
tain ' crater lakes,' occupy the same elevated base level. San Francisco 
Mountain proper, eat off from all surrounding and attached hills and 



6 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. ■ \Xo. 3. 

buttes at the height of 2,450 meters (8,000 feet), is about 19 kilometers 
(12 miles) in north and south diameter by 15 kilometers (9 miles) in east 
and west diameter, and covers about 180 square kilometers (70 square 
miles). 

The lava plateau above 2,130 meters (7,000 feet) altitude is covered 
throughout by a beautiful forest of stately piues ( Pinus ponderosa), 
which average at least 33 meters (100 feet) in height. There is no under- 
growth to obstruct the view, and after the rainy season the grass be- 
neath the trees is knee-deep in places, but the growth is sparse on ac- 
count of the rocky nature of the surface. The x>ine forest extends up 
the mountain as high as 2,675 meters (8,800 feet), but loses its distinct- 
ive character at about 2,500 meters (8,200 feet), where it is replaced in 
the main by a forest of Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga douglasU), the same as 
that found from California to Puget Sound and British Columbia. The 
Douglas fir reaches an altitude of about 2,800 meters (9,200 feet), here 
giving place to Engelmann's spruce (Picea engelmanni), which covers 
the mountain sides between the altitude named and timber line (about 
3,500 meters (11,500 feet). The fox-tail pine (Pinus aristata) begins a lit- 
tle lower down than Engelmann's spruce and accompanies it to the 
upper limits of tree growth, where both exist as depauperate forms 
scarcely more than a foot in height. The summit of the mountain 
above timber line consists of bare volcanic rock and is covered with 
snow about nine months of the year. 

Again passing down to the plateau, and thence in an easterly direc- 
tion to lower levels, a zone of cedar and pihon is first encountered — a 
belt varying in width from one to several miles according to the steep- 
ness of the slope. The only trees in this belt are junipers (locally 
known as ' cedars') and the pinon or nut pine (Pinus edulis), whose nut fur- 
nishes food to the Indians and the mammals and birds of the region. 
Descending still lower, the Desert of the Little Colorado is entered — 
an arid, treeless area whose upper limit may be set at the 1,800 meter 
(approximately 6,000 foot) contour or level. Parts of this desert are 
devoid of vegetation, while other parts support a scanty growth of 
cactus, greasewood, and a few other species. 

In the foregoing account the general features of the several zones of 
the San Francisco Mountain region have been briefly outlined. Eeca- 
pitulating, it may be said that in ascending from the hot and arid 
Desert of the Little Colorado to the cold and humid summit of the 
mountain no less than seven zones are encountered, each of which may 
be characterized by the possession of forms of life not found in the 
others. These zones, with their respective altitudes, are — first, the arid 
Desert region, below 1,800 meters (6,000 feet) ; second, the Pinon belt, 
from 1,800 to 2,100 meters (6,000 to 7,000 feet) ; third, the Pine, from 
2,100 to 2,500 meters (7,000 to 8,200 feet) ; fourth, Douglas fir, from 
2,500 to 2,800 meters (8,200 to 9,200 feet) ; fifth, Engelmann's spruce, 
from 2,800 to 3,500 meters (9,200 to 11,500) ; sixth a narrow zone of dwarf 



Aug.. 1890.] BIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF SAN FRANCISCO MOUNTAIN. 7 

spruce; and seventh, the bare rocky summit, snow covered the greater 
part of the year.* These facts as isolated facts would be of compara- 
tively little interest, but in their bearing on the problems of geographic 
distribution a very deep interest attaches to them. This will appear by 
passing in review the distinctive plants and animals of the several 
zones, and tracing their distribution in other parts of their ranges. 

REMARKS ON THE GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION OF SPECIES CHAR- 
ACTERISTIC OF THE SEVERAL ZONES OF THE SAN FRANCISCO 
MOUNTAIN REGION IN ARIZONA. 

ALPINE ZONE. 

[Approximate altitude : Above 3,500 meters, or 11,500 feet.] 

Nine species of plants which grow on the bleak and storm-beaten 
summit of San Francisco Mountain were brought back from Lady Frank- 
lin Bay by Lieut, (now General) A. W. Greely. These species are : 

Androsace septentrionalis Cijstopteris fragilis Saxifraga nivalis 

Arenaria verna Saxifraga caspitosa Oxi/ria digyna 

Cerastium alpinum Saxifraga flagellans Trisetum subspicatum 

One or more of them have been found at each of the following locali- 
ties : British Columbia, Unalaska, Bering Strait, Kotzebue Sound, 
PointBarrow, Melville Island, Back's GreatFish River, Hudson Bay and 
Strait, Labrador, Baffin Bay, Greenland, Iceland, Spitzbergen, New- 
foundland, Gulf of St. Lawrence, White Mountains of New Hampshire, 
Rocky Mountains, Selkirks, and Sierra Nevada. Several of them occur 
also in the arctic portions of the Old World, extending as far south along 
the coast as the island of Yeso, North Japan, and appearing again in 
the high mountains of Koumelia, in the Caucasus, the Carpathian 
Mountains, and the Alps. 

iSibb'iUliaprocHmbens is another polarspecies inhabiting arctic America 
from the peninsula of Unalaska to Hudson Bay, Labrador, and Green- 
land, and flourishing also throughout the arctic regions of Asia. It 
comes south along the higher summits of the Cascade range, the Sierra 
Nevada, and the Rocky Mountains, and occurs in isolated colonies on 
the barren peaks of San Francisco Mountain in Arizona and Mount 
Washington in New Hampshire. In the same way it inhabits the 
mountains of Central Asia and Siberia, and also the Carpathian Mount- 
ains, the Apennines, the Alps, the Pyrenees, and the Himalaya. 

(ieinn rossii belongs to the same category, growing from Greenland 

"The normal altitudes here given for the various tree zones of San Francisco 
Mountain are averages for the northwest side of the mountain. Favorable southern 
and southwestern exposures carry the /ones up a hundred meters or more above these 
limits, while similar northern and northeastern exposures, particularly in gulches 
and carious, deflect the /.ones as much as two, or even three hundred meters. The 
normal average difference in altitude of the same zone 071 the southwest and north- 
east sides of San Francisco Mountain is ahout 275 meters (900 feet). 



8 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. [Ko. 3. 

and the shores and islands of Hudson Strait to Melville Island and the 
coasts of Bering* Strait and Unalaska, and also in the northern part of 
Siberia and Kainschatka. It conies southward in the Eocky Mountains, 
inhabiting tbe higher peaks of the Uintas and of Colorado, and is the 
most conspicuous plant above timber line on San Francisco Mountain, 
where it forms dense mats of green among the bare rocks — patches of 
such extent that they may be seen from the plateau level below. 

Other arctic plants found above timber line on San Francisco Mount- 
ain, most of them circumpolar species, are: 

Arenaria alpina Polemonium confertum Silene acaulis 

Cerastium arvense Sagina linixei Slcllaria wmbellata 

Festuca brevifolia Saxifraga debilis Thlaspi alpestre 

It appears from what has been said that many of the plants found on 
the high rocky summit of San Francisco Mountain occur on the higher 
peaks of the Rocky Mountains, the Sierra Nevada* and Cascade range, 
and the Appalachian chain ; they occur along the arctic coasts of Alaska, 
Hudson Strait, North Labrador, Greenland, North Siberia, and Spitz- 
bei gen ; they occur in the Alps of Europe, in the Altai and Ural Mount- 
ains, the Pyrenees, and some of them even in the Himalaya. In brief, 
they inhabit the arctic regions of the globe and extend far south on the 
summits of the higher mountain ranges. Plants and animals having 
such a distribution are termed Arctic- Alpine Circumpolar species. 

We collected no insects at high altitudes on San Francisco Mountain, 
but butterflies and diptera from great elevations in Colorado have been 
shown to be identical with species from Mount Washington, Labrador, 
and Greenland. 

Among birds, the Golden Eagle— a truly circumpolar species, though 
not confined to the arctic zone — rears its young on San Francisco 
Mountain. 

There are no exclusively arctic mammals on the top of this high 
mountain, because such mammals could not exist long in so small an 

area. An Ermine Weasel (Piitorius sp. ? ) inhabits the summit, 

and the Big-horn or Mountain Sheep, another truly circumpolar type, 
spends the summer there, descending in winter to lower levels. 

SUB-ALPINE OK TIMBER-LINE ZONE. 

[Approximate altitude, 3,200-3,500 meters, or 10,500-11,500 feet.] 

Just below the barren arctic summit of the mountain is a narrow belt 
which may be named the Timber-line zone. Here the trees which reach 
timber line (in this case Picea engelmanni and Finns aristata) lose the 
upright or arborescent habit and exist as stunted and prostrate trunks, 
whose gnarled and weather-beaten forms bear testimony to the severity 
of their struggle with the elements. In this narrow belt a number of 

* EDgler tells us that 26 per cent, of the plants found on the High Sierra Nevada 
are found also in the Alps and throughout arctic Europe. 



Aug., 1890. 1 BIOLOC4IOAL SURVEY OF SAN FRANCISCO MOUNTAIN. 9 

hardy little plants attain their maximum development, decreasing rap- 
idly in abundance both above and below. Among 1 those are : 

Arenaria biflora carnutosa Gentiana barbellata PotcntiUa diasecta 

Cerastium alpinum behring- Gentiana tenella Primula parryi 

ianum Heuckefa rtibesoens Saxifraga debilis 

Oorallorhiza nmlti flora Lazula spadicea parviflora Sedum rhodanthum 

Draba aurea Pedicularis paiTyi Veronica alpina 

Epllobinm saximontanum Phleum alpinum 

Many of them are circumpolar species found throughout the northern 
regions of America, and some of them throughout the northern regions of 
the world, coming south on high mountains and occurring in greatest per- 
fection just at or near the edge of the northern limit of trees, and at tim- 
ber-line on mountains further south. Such plants are known to botanists 
as ' Sub- Alpine species,'' and it would be well if the term sub-alpine were 
restricted to the characteristic species of this zone. 

Among birds, the Titlark (Anthus pensilvanieus) was found at the top 
of the mountain, where it probably breeds. It breeds in grassy places 
on the high peaks of the Eocky Mountains, and at sea-level in Labrador, 
Greenland, and throughout arctic America; and birds congeneric with 
it are known to breed throughout the arctic portions of the Old World. 

(central) iiudsonian or spruce zone. 
[Approximate altitude, 2,800-3,200 meters ; or 9,200-10,500 feet.] 

Passing down into the next zone, the Spruce zone, a number of plants, 
birds, and mammals are encountered, which are characteristic of humid 
northern regions, but regions not quite so cold as those inhabited by 
the species which occur on the snowy summit and at timber-line. The 
characteristic trees of this zone are Engeliu aim's spruce (Picea engel- 
manni) and the fox-tail pine (Pinns aristata). Some of the small plants 
are : 

Aquilegia chryaantha Pentatemon glaueus ateno- Solidago multiradiaia 
Lathyrus wrizonieua aepalua Zygadenua elegana 

Mei'tenaia paniculata Pyrola ehlorantha 

Moneaca wnifiora Uibea aetoaum 

The fact of present interest is that many of the plants here enumer- 
ated as growing in the Spruce zone of this mountain are equally charac- 
teristic of the upper spruce belt of the higher Alleghanies, the Eocky 
Mountains, the Cascades, and the Sierra Nevada, and occur also in the 
great northern spruce forest of Canada. It is well known that the north- 
ernmost part of our own continent consists of bare rock and frozen tun- 
dras. There are no trees along the sea edge of Labrador or Hudson Strait, 
or along the coast region of arctic America from Boothia Felix to Alaska, 
but just south of this region a large forest begins which has been called 
the ' Great Pine Forest.' There is not a pine tree in it, but it is called 
pine because conifers in general are called pines by people who are not 
botanists. The tree that grows there is a species of spruce congeneric 



10 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. 



[No. 3. 



with the spruce which occurs high up on San Francisco Mountain, and 
many of the humbler plants are either identical or closely related repre- 
sentative forms. 

Among the birds which breed in the Spruce belt on this mountain are 
the Goshawk, Dusky Horned Owl, Dusky Grouse, Evening Grosbeak, 
and Clark's Crow. The Goshawk and Dusky Horned Owl range 
throughout the spruce forests of the north, from Labrador to Alaska, 
and south in the mountains; while the others are confined to its west- 
ern parts and outliers. 

Of mammals, the Porcupine is the only one believed to be restricted 
to this belt during the season of reproduction, and, like the Big-horn, 
it comes down to lower levels during the winter. Bears ( Ursus), Shrews 
(Sorex), Voles (Arvicola), and Ked Squirrels (Sciurus fremonti mogol- 
lonensis) range throughout the spruce and fir zones but were not found 
below. 

(CENTRAL) CANADIAN OR BALSAM FIR ZONE. 

[Approximate altitude: 2,500-2,800 meters ; or 8,200-9,200 feet.] 

The distinctive tree of this zone is Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga douglasii), 
which ranges northward to British Columbia. Another tree of nearly 
coincident vertical distribution on the mountain is the lofty Boeky 
Mountain Pine (Pinus flexilis macrocarpa), which extends north to the 
Kootenai region and Calgary in Canada. Wherever the Douglas fir 
has been burned off, its place is taken by the aspen {Populus tremuloides), 
a species of wide distribution iu the north, where it ranges from New 
England to Newfoundland and Labrador, and thence westward to 
Alaska, reaching its highest perfection along the southern part of the 
great coniferous forest of northern Canada, and coming south in the 
mountains. 

Among the smaller plants of the Douglas fir zone are : 

AcUva spicata Geniiana affinis Potentilla fruticosa 

Herberts ripens Geniiana lutevoscpala Hibes rusbyi 

Ceanoih ns fcndleri Geum trijlorum rioia canadensis scopulorum 

Nearly half of the above (namely, Geum trijlorum, Potentilla fruticosa, 
Actcca spicata, and Viola canadensis) have a wide range in the Canadian 
flora of the East and North, or are representative forms of such species ; 
and probably Ceanothus fendleri may be safely regarded as the western 
representative of G. ovatus, which ranges eastward from the Kocky 
Mountains to Vermont, 

One batrachian, a Salamander of the genus Amblystoma, has been 
found in this zone. Allied species inhabit the Canadian fauna of the 
East. 

A number of species of birds are characteristic of the Douglas fir 
zone. At least eight of these are either identical with or closely related 
representative forms of species which are well-known members of the 
Canadian fauna of the East, most of them breediug in northern New 



Aug., 1*90.1 BIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF SAN FRANCISCO MOUNTAIN. 11 

England, the Adirondack^, and southward in the Alleghanies. These 
are: 

Three-toed Woodpecker (Picoides amrri- Brown Creeper (Certhia familiaris mon- 

canus dorsalis) lana) 

01ive-8idedFlycatcher(Co/(/oj)»s&o?Trt7i'.s) Ruby-crowned Kinglet (Regulus ealen- 

Crossbill (Loxia curvirostra stricklandi) <hda) 

Pine Linnet (Spvaua pinus) Audubon's Thrush (Tardus aonalaschkce 

Audubon's Warbler (Dendroica auduboni) auduboni) 

The following species which breed in the Douglas lir belt on San 
Francisco Mountain do not occur in the East, though but one genus 
(Myadestes) is unrepresented in the East : 

Towusend's Solitaire (Myadestes town- Long-crested Jay (Cyanocilta stelleri ma- 

sendii) crolopha) 

Broad-tailed Humming-bird (Trochilus Louisiana Tanager (Piranga ludovieiana) 

platycercm) Mountain Chickadee (Pur us gambeli) 

It is probable that Parus gambeli and Myadestes townsendii range up 
from the Fir into the Spruce zone. 

Of mammals, there are two species of Field Mice or Voles (Arvicola 
alticolus and A. mogollonensis), one Shrew (Sorex monticolus), and one 
Red Squirrel (Sciunis fremonti mogollonensis), all of which extend up 
into the Spruce belt, but none of which were found below. It is evident 
that the Spruce and Balsam zones are closely related. 

NEUTRAL OR PIXE ZONE. 

[Approximate altitude : 2,100-2,500 meters, or 7,000-8,200 feet.] 

The characteristic and only tree of the Pine zone is Pinus ponderosa, 
which forms an unbroken forest over the whole of the lava plateau above 
the altitude of 2,100 meters (about 7,000 feet) and extends up as high, 
in some of the parks, as 2,675 meters (8,800 feet). As a distinctive 
species, however, it loses its character at about 2,500 meters (8,200 feet) 
where it is invaded, and soon after replaced, by Pinus flexilis, Pseudot- 
snga douglasii, and Populus trtmuhndes. Pinus ponderosa may be re- 
garded as a tree of the middle elevations, occurring between the pihon 
and cedar of the lower hills, and the iirs and spruces of the higher 
mountains. In such situations it ranges from the highlands of western 
Texas and northern Mexico, northward along the Rocky Mountains and 
Sierra Nevada to the dry interior of British Columbia, in latitude 51°, 
30', avoiding the region of excessive rainfall along the coast from north- 
ern California northward. 

Among the more conspicuous of the small plants occurring in the Pine 
belt of San Francisco Mountain, and having a more or less coincident 
distribution with that of Pinus ponderosa just cited, are: 

Campanula parryi Oilia aggregata attenuata Oxytropia lamberti 

Frasera speciosa Oxybaphua anguaUfoUua Pentstemon barbatus torreyi 

The one distinctive mammal of the Pine belt is Abert's Squirrel (Sti- 
nt us aberti) which ranges through the i>ine regions of Arizona, New 



12 NOETH AMERICAN FAUNA. 



[No. 3. 



Mexico, and Colorado, and has been reported from Durango, in Mexico. 
Very little can be said with certainty as to the characteristic birds of 
the Pine belt, the date of ray arrival at the mountain being so late (end 
of July) that the birds had finished breeding- and were beginning to 
wander. The following species, however, were nearly confined to the 
pines at that date and are known to breed there : 

Red-backed. Jnnco (Junco cinereus dor- Western Flycatcher (Emjndovax difficilis) 
salts) Richardson's Flycatcher (Contopus rich- 

Nuttall's Poor-will {Phalwnoptilus nut- ardsoni) 

tali) s Pigmy Nuthatch (Sitta pygmcea) 

The only reptile found in the Pine belt is a handsome horned toad 
(Phrynosoma hernandesi), which is abundant. 

PINON ZONK. 
[Approximate altitude, 1,800-2,100 meters, or 6,000-7,000 feet.] 

The distinctive trees of this zone are the piiion, or nut pine (Pinus 
edulis), and the so-called 'cedar' (Juniperus occidentalis monosperma) both 
averaging about 5 meters (16J feet) in height. The singular checker- 
bark juniper (Juniperus pachyphlcea), a very handsome and conspicuous 
species, occurs in two or three special localities, but is rare. Several 
large shrubs not observed elsewhere are abundant in parts of this 
belt, namely, Berberis fremonti, Rhus aromatica trilobata, and Spiraea 
discolor dumosa. Near the Grand Cahon of the Colorado and again at 
Walnut Caiion, where the lava rock gives place to limestone, these 
shrubs are joined by Gowania mexicana, Spircea millifolium, and Bobinia 
neo-mexicana;, and Yucca angustifolia is replaced by Yucca baccata. Ju- 
niperus californica utaliensis also grows at the Grand Canon. A dense 
chaparral (Fallugia paradoxa) forms extensive thickets east of O'Leary 
Peak and occurs sparingly over most of the Piiion belt, even extend- 
ing down into the desert in places. Both the piiion and cedar occupy 
elevations of corresponding temperature in the arid lands from west- 
ern Texas through New Mexico and Arizona and north to central Col- 
orado, and the cedar reaches westward to southern California. Closely 
related and strictly representative forms extend northward through the 
Great Basin to the Plains of the Columbia. The other species men- 
tioned occupy more or less of the same range, and some of them push 
northward over the Great Plains as well as the interior basin. 

The most conspicuous bird of the Piiion belt is the Piiion Jay (Cyan- 
ocephalus cyanocephalus). Other characteristic species are Woodhouse's 
Jay (Aphelocoma woodhousei), the Gray Tufted Tit (Parus inornatus 
griseus), the Gnatcatcher (Polioptila ccerulea), and the Bush Tit (Psal- 
tripar us plumbeous). The range of these species, taken collectively,* is 
coextensive with the distribution of the cedar belt above described. 

The large Rock Squirrel (Spermopliilus grammurus) is the most char- 



Aug., 1890. J DE8ERT OF THE LITTLE COLORADO. 13 

acteristic mammal of the Piiion belt, with which its range appears to be 
nearly coincident. It occurs in suitable localities from western Texas 
to the Great Basin in Utah and Nevada. Two or three small mammals, 
characterized by darkness of coloration, seem to be restricted to this 
belt, namely, Spermophilus spilosoma obsidianus, Perognathusfuliginosus, 
and Onychomys fuliginosus, which are here described for the first time. 
(See part III.) 

Lizards abound in the Piiion belt, becoming more numerous toward 
the desert, but two species (Sceloporus consobrinus and Uta ornata) 
which abound in the Piiion belt were not found in the desert below. 

THE DESERT AREA. 

[Approximate altitude : 1,200-1,800 meters, or 4,000-6,000 feet.] 

The Desert of the Little Colorado, sometimes known as the 'Painted 
Desert,' is a great basin about 1,000 meters (3,300 feet) in depth, situ- 
ated on the top of the plateau. It was excavated, as its name indicates, 
by the drainage system of the Little Colorado Paver — the Colorado 
Chiquito of the Mexicans — and consequently is lowest at the north, its 
slope being away from the southern edge of the plateau. The river 
has cut its bed down to about 820 meters (2,700 feet) at the point where 
it empties into the Grand Canon of the Colorado, and throughout the 
lower part of its course it flows through a canon considerably below 
the level of the desert proper, the lowest part of which is but little less 
than 1,200 meters (approximately 4,000 feet) in altitude. Its upper 
limit may be set at 1,800 meters (6,000 feet). The term Painted Desert 
should be restricted, it seems to me, to that part of the basin which is 
below 1,500 meters (approximately 5,000 feet).* 

The geology of the region is simple. The lowest stratum which comes 
to the surface is carboniferous limestone; above this is red sandstone, 
which in turn is overlaid by the so-called variegated marls or argillaceous 
clays, sometimes capped by a thin layer of impure coal or lignite. 
The limestone appears on the west side of the river only (?), where it is 
soon buried under the ancient lava floods from San Francisco Mountain 
and neighboring craters. The red sandstone is encountered everywhere, 
sometimes as surface rock, sometimes as high cliffs forming the escarp- 
ments of broad mesas, and sometimes as curiously sculptured tablets 
standing on the plain. The marls are widely distributed, and in many 



* Tlic area below 1,:570 meters (4,500 feet) is about 120 kilometers (75 miles) in 
length, and that below L,500 meters (5,000 feet), 200 kilometers (T25 miles). The long 
axis of the desert, slightly crescentic in form, and ourvingfrom near the month of the 
Little Colorado in the northwest to New Mexico in the southeast, is 320 kilometers 
(200 miles) in length, with a transverse diameter of about 110 kilometers (70 miles) 
along the middle portion, and a total area of 29,800 square kilometers (ll,. r >00 square 
miles). Its eastern edge penetrates the boundary of New Mexico in two arms, follow- 
ing the usually dry courses of the Znhi and the Carrizo, and nearly reaches the 
boundary along the Rio l'nerco, the largest tributary of the Colorado Chiquito. 



14 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. 



(No. 3. 



places, particularly south of the lower part of Moencopie Wash,* rise 
from the surface level in the form of strangely eroded hills and ranges of 
stratified cliffs whose odd shapes and remarkable combinations of colors 
— red, white, blue, brown, yellow, purple, and green — have given the 
area in which they occur the name 'Painted Desert.' There are hun- 
dreds of smoothly rounded, dome-shaped hills of bluish clay, utterly de- 
void of vegetation, and almost identical in appearance with the 'gumbo 
hills,' of the Bad Lands bordering the Little Missouri in North Dakota. 
Both the hills and the naked clayey flats between them abound in alkali 
vents — miniature craterlets — where the alkali effloresces, crusting over 
the surface in patches which resemble newly fallen snow. Many of the 
hills are capped with fossil wood, and many of the flats and lower levels 
east of the Little Colorado River are strewn with chips and pieces which 
have tumbled down during the wearing away of the hill-sides. Logs 30 
to 50 centimeters (roughly, a foot or a foot and a half) in diameter and 
9 to 12 meters (30 or 40 feet) in length are still common, and several 
sections were found, possibly from the same tree, which measured about 
150 centimeters (5 feet) in diameter. There are pebble beds miles in ex- 
tent, made up of agate, moss-agate, chalcedony, jasper, obsidian, and 
fossil wood, witli not so much as a spear of grass or bit of cactus be- 
tween them. On the other hand, many of the mesas and plains are 
covered with sand and decomposed marls which supporta scanty growth 
of cactus, yucca, grease- wood, and a few other forms of vegetation char- 
acteristic of arid regions. 

The bed of the Little Colorado River contains the only running water 
in this part of Arizona, and it 'goes dry' a large part of the year, a 
little water remaining in scattered pools, which are strongly alkaline. 
Some of the salt and alkali flats on the river-bottom support a luxuri- 
ant growth of a singular fleshy plant belonging to the genus Salicomia, 
which at a little distance looks like a leafless bush with thick green 
stems. During the rainy season, and whenever the river ' runs,' the 
liquid which flows down its course is red alkaline mud, about the con- 
sistency of ordinary sirup. This is the case also with its tributaries, of 
which Moencopie Wash and Tenebito Wash are the only ones which 
cross the Painted Desert proper. 

The physical and climatic features of the Painted Desert are peculiar 
and striking, and result in the production of an environment hostile 
alike to diurnal forms of animal life and to the person who traverses it. 
The explorer is impressed with the unusual aspects of nature — the 
strange forms of the hills, the long ranges of red and yellow cliffs, the 
curiously buttressed aud turreted buttes and mesas, the fantastic shapes 

* The terms ' wash ' and ' arroyo ' are applied to the deep channels or ravines so 
common in arid regions. "These arroyos are natnral consequences of the unequal 
manner in which the rain falls throughout the year. Sometimes not a drop falls for 
several months; again, it pours down in a perfect deluge, washing deep beds in the 
unresisting soil, leaving behind the appearance of the deserted bed of a great river," 
—Emory, Mexican Boundary Survey, I, 1857, p. 57. 



Aug., 1890] DESERT OF THE LITTLE COLORADO. 15 

of the rocks carved by the sand-blast and rendered still more weird by 
the hazy atmosphere and steady glare of the southern sun, the sand- 
whirls moving swiftly across the desert, the extraordinary combina- 
tion of colors exposed by erosion, the broad clayey flats whitened by 
patches of alkali and bare of vegetation, the abundance of fossil-wood, 
the extensive beds of shining pebbles, the unnatural appearance of the 
distant mountain sharply outlined against the yellow sky, the vast 
stretches of burning sand, the total absence of trees, the scarcity of 
water, the alluring mirage, the dearth of animal life, and the intense 
heat, from which there is no escape.* 

The plant life of the desert is scattered and scanty, and consists of 
such characteristic arid land forms as grease- wood (Atripleas canescens, 
A. confertifolia, and Sarcobatus vermiculatus) ; weeds of the genera Dico- 
ria and Oxytcenia (D. brandigei and 0. acerosa) ; a large brush-like shrub 
(Tetradymia canescens) with flowers suggesting the golden-rod; the 
singular Ephedra, which has no apparent foliage ; the narrow-leaved 
yucca ( Yucca angustifolia), and cactuses of several genera. But it must 
not be supposed that these rank and spiny forms of vegetation, whose 
gray or dull olive colors are in perfect harmony with the parched and 
barreu aspects of the desert, are the only plants found there ; for no 
sooner is the surface moistened by the passing showers of the so-called 
' rainy season ' than numerous plauts spring into existence, and favored 
parts of the desert lose something of their usual desolate and dreary 
appearance. There are places where even the nutritious grama grass 
(Bouteloua) gains a precarious foot-hold, and where a dwarf lupine (Lu- 

* Lieutenant Ives and Dr. Newberry attempted to cross this desert from the Little 
Colorado near Grand Falls, but were obliged to turn back the first day. After follow- 
ing up tbe river for three days they fouud an Indian trail leading north, and followed 
it to the Moki villages. Tbe following quotation is from Ives's account of the first day 
ou the desert : " The scene was one of utter desolation. Not a tree nor a shrub broke 
its monotony. The edges of the mesas were flaming red, and the sand tbrew back 
the sun's rays in a yellow glare. Every object looked hot and dry aud dreary. The 
animals began to give out. We knew that it was desperate to keep on, but felt uu- 
willing to return, and forced tbe jaded brutes lo wade through the powdery impalpable 
dust for fifteen miles. The country, if possible, grew worse. There was not a spear of 
grass, and from the porousness of t lie soil and rocks it was impossible that there should 
be a drop of water. A point was reached which commanded a view twenty or thirty 
miles ahead, but the fiery bluffs and yellow sand, paled somewhat by distance, ex- 
tended to the end of the vista. Even beyond the ordinary limit of vision were other 
bluffs aud sand fields, lifted into view by the mirage, and elongatiug the hideous 
picture." 

Woodbouse, in speaking of a somewhat similar desert which he crossed in western 
Arizona, states that a coyote, " becoming desperate, rushed to the spring, aud was 
killed by one, of the men with a stone." lie says further: "The ravens were hover- 
ing over us while we remained here, eagerly watching our famished mules. Since we 
loft Bill Williams's Fork there have been clouds seen every day, and anxiously did 
we watch for rain; but this seemed a thing impossible, to rain in this miserable coun- 
try, where everything appears to be an enemy, and is armed with a thorn or a poison- 
ous stiujr." 



16 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. • lNo.3. 

pinus capitatus) is abundant ; and the higher levels are adorned by a 
kind of painted-cup {Castellcia) and scattered beds of a rather coarse 
plant (Mirabilis multiflora) which suggests the morning glory. The del- 
icate pink blossoms of the graceful Malvastrum, and the more showy 
yellow and orange flowers of Hiddellia tagetina and Zinnia grandiflora 
would attract attention anywhere, and their beauty is here heightened 
by contrast with their sombre surroundings. 

Without going into details it may be said that these plants, taken 
collectively, occur in the arid parts of northern Mexico,* Texas, New 
Mexico, Arizona, and southern California, and some of them extend 
north in the Great Basin, even reaching the Plains of the Columbia ; 
and a few spread northward over the Great Plains east of the Eocky 
Mountains. 

Large black beetles of the genera Eleodes and Asida are common on 
the Painted Desert and are characteristic arid land forms, occurring 
also in Mexico. 

Toads of the peculiar genus Spea, modified for life in desert regions, 
were found after rains in some of the arroyos or washes, which are dry 
the greater part of the year. 

Lizards are the most conspicuous forms of animal life and many spe- 
cies abound throughout the desert. Among them are : 

Crotaphytus baileyi Seeloporus elongatus Rolbroolin maculata flavilenta 

Crotaphytus wislizenii Uta stansburiana Phrynosoma ornatissimum 

Seeloporus yraciosus 

We saw only one rattlesnake, but others have been recorded. Sev- 
eral of the species and all of the genera of reptiles here mentioned occur 
also in Mexico. 

Birds are scarce, both in species and individuals, and but few breed 
on the desert of the Little Colorado. The following species were ob- 
served there : 

Black-throated Desert Sparrow (Amphi- Brewer's Sparrow (Sp>izella breweri) 

spiza bilineata) Sage Thrasher (Oroscoptes montanus) 

Nevada Sage Sparrow (A. belli n&vadensis) Thrasher (Harporhynchits sp. — ?) 

Boucard's Sparrow (Pewccea ruficeps boa- Burrowing Owl (Speotyto cunicularia hy- 
cardi) pogcca) 

All of these are characteristic arid land birds, which come into the 
United States from Mexico and extend northward various distances. 
Boucard's Sparrow ranges north from the table-lands of Mexico to 
western Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona ; the Black-throated Desert 
Sparrow, from Mexico and Texas westward to southern California and 
north in the Great Basin to Utah and Nevada ; the Sage Sparrow, from 
Mexico north to the Plains of the Columbia 5 Brewer's Sparrow, from 

* The number of Arizona plants which occurin the northern part of Mexico is very 
large. Hemsley, in the botanical part of Biologia Centrali-Americana, states that 
of the 560 genera of Arizona plants mentioned by Rothrock, no less than 402, or.72 
per cent., occur also in northern Mexico. 



Aug., 1890.] DESERT OF THE LITTLE COLORADO. 17 

Mexico north over the Great Plains and the Great Basin ; the Sage 
Thrasher, from Mexico north through the Great Basin ; and the Bur- 
rowing Owl, from southeastern Texas to California and northward to 
Canada wherever suitable localities exist. Another characteristic arid 
land bird, the Boad Bunner or Chaparral Cock (Geococcyx califor- 
nianus), was not seen, but has been recorded from the Little Colorado, 
and, like the others,enters the United States from Mexico. It ranges 
from Texas to California and north to Colorado. 

The characteristic mammals of the desert are small nocturnal forms, 
such as Kangaroo Bats (Diporfomys), Pocket Mice (Ohcetodipus, a sub- 
genus of Perognathus), Big-eared Mice {Hesperomys — of the eremicus 
group), and Free-tailed Bats (Nyctinomus). All of these groups reach 
the United States from Mexico, and none of the species of the Painted 
Desert range much north of Arizona. 

Thus it appears that most of the forms of life inhabiting the desert 
of the Little Colorado — its mammals, birds, reptiles, and plants — occur 
also in Mexico and extend northward as far as the arid lands are suited 
to their requirements ; and some of its species range east into Texas and 
west into southern California. 

In like manner it has been shown that the characteristic forms of life 
of the Pinon belt occur in similar areas in different parts of the arid 
lands from Mexico to the Plains of the Columbia ; that lands which rise 
above the level of the Pinon belt are covered with forests of tall pines 
and in the main possess the same species from western Texas to British 
Columbia; that still higher elevations are clothed with balsam and 
spruce, and that the humbler plants, the birds, and the mammals of 
these balsam and spruce forests are essentially the same throughout the 
Bocky Mountains and the great northern forest of Canada from north- 
ern New England to Alaska; that the mountain peaks, if sufficiently 
high, are bare at the summit, or capped with snow and ice, and sustain 
the same species of plants that grow in the arctic regions of the world 
and come south on the high mountain ranges in all parts of the Northern 
Hemisphere; in brief, it has been found that the same species, or 
closely related representative species of animals and plants inhabit the 
remotest parts of these several zones that inhabit them on San Fran- 
cisco Mountain. 

INTERRELATIONS AND AFFINITIES OF TIIK SEVERAL ZONES. 

The contemplation of the phenomena here described leads naturally 
to comparisons of similar areas throughout the country ; to attempts to 
bring together these areas into natural biological zones and provinces, 
and to inquiries concerning their origin. 

Without going into the history of the subject, it may be said that most 
zoologists recognize three primary zoo-geographical divisions in the 
United States — an 'Easterns extending from the Atlantic Ocean to 
the Great Plains; a 'Central,' from the eastern border of the Plains 
westward to the Sierra Nevada ; and a ' Western, from the eastern 
501— No. 3 2 



18 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. . [No. 3. 

base of the Sierra Nevada to the Pacific. The arid region of the South- 
west which enters the United States from Mexico has been recognized 
as a distinct division by many naturalists, and has been named the 
1 Ghihuahuan 7 or ' Sonoran 1 region. 

The region east of the Great Plains was subdivided by Agassiz as 
early as 1854 into three areas which he called Faunas, namely : (i) a 
' Canadian Fauna? (2) an ' Alleglianian Fauna? or Fauna of the Mid- 
dle States, and (3) a ' Louisianian Fauna? or Fauna of the Southern 
States. Subsequent writers, particularly Verrill and Allen, have cir- 
cumscribed these Faunas, reduced their rank, and increased their num- 
ber until at the present time ornithologists recognize eight faunal areas 
in eastern North America, as follows: (1) Arctic; (2) Hudsonian ; (3) 
Canadian; (4) Alleghauiau; (5) Carolinian ; (6) Louisianian ; (7) Florid- 
ian; and (8) Antillean. Cope, from a study of the reptiles and ba- 
trachians, united the Louisianian and Floiidian Faunas into a district 
of primary rank, which he named the 'Austrorvparian' region — the 
exact equivalent of Agassiz's Louisianian Fauna. Passing over this 
region as clearly of southern origin, there remain the Carolinian, Alle- 
glianian, Canadian, Hudsonian, and Arctic Faunas. The three latter 
are boreal in their affinities, while the Carolinian is suffused with south- 
ern forms, and the Alleglianian seems to be neutral ground. 

In studying the several life-zones of the higher declivities of San Fran- 
cisco Mountain it became apparent not only that each has its corre- 
sponding zone in the East, but that in many instances the zones of the 
mountain may be recognized by the presence of the identical species 
which characterize them in New England and Canada. In short, it was 
found that the faunal and floral zones which go to make up the Boreal 
Province in the East may be traced in a northwesterly direction around 
the northern end of the Plains of the Saskatchewan and then south 
along the sides of the Rocky Mountains, even to this isolated peak in 
Arizona.* This has been pointed out somewhat in detail in the discus- 
sion under the head of each zone, and has been indicated further by the 
headings themselves. 

Each zone, while possessing throughout a certain number of common 
or strictly representative species, undergoes a notable change in pass- 

*This will be made clear by a glance at tbe accompanying map of North America 
(map 5), on which the Boreal Province is represented in clear green. 

Scudder, under the head of "Anomalies in the Geographical Distribution of our 
Butterflies," mentions a number of cases in which northern species of butterflies 
occur in supposed isolated colonies at remote points, all of which, it is significant to 
observe, fall within the boundaries of the Boreal Province here defined. He cites the 
brown elfin butterfly (Incisalia augustus) as a species throwing some light on this 
' anomalous' distribution. It occurs, he states, in New England and New York, aud 
south iu the Alleghanies to West Virginia. North of the United States it has been 
found at Halifax, Quebec, Montreal, and thence westerly as far as Cumberland House 
on the North Saskatchewan. In the West it again enters the United States along the 
Rocky Mountains, aud extends as far south as Colorado. A better example of a 
typical boreal distribution could hardly be desired. 



Aug., 1890.] BIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF SAN FRANCISCO MOUNTAIN. 19 

iug from the East to tbe West, each extreme being occupied by certain 
species not found in the other. It is necessary to recognize this differ- 
ence in the names applied to the zones; hence the prefix 'central' has 
been used in each case to distinguish the Eocky Mountain arm from 
the eastern arm. 

The several zones of the San Franciso Mountain region are interre- 
lated in different degrees, some very closely and others very remotely. 
Many species and even genera which are common to two or more zones, 
and consequently of no value whatever in defining the single areas, be- 
come of the utmost importance in studying the interrelations of the sev- 
eral zones. For instance, in the highest group of all — the mammalia — 
there are representatives of four distinct types, namely, Bears, Shrews, 
Yoles, and Red Squirrels, which range from the top of the timber-line belt 
to the bottom of the Canadian or Douglas fir zone.* All of these are 
circum polar types, ranging over the boreal parts of the whole world 
and coming south in the mountains. It is clear, therefore, that they are 
of boreal origin. On the other hand, there are several very different 
types of mammals, among which may be mentioned the Kangaroo Rats, 
Pocket Mice, and Grasshopper Mice, which do not occur above the Pifion 
zone. These are southern types reaching the United States from the 
table-lauds of Mexico aud extending northward over the arid lauds as far 
as the conditions are suited to their requirements. It is clear, therefore, 
that they are of southern origin. In short, it may be stated, as a 
result of this biological survey of the San Francisco Mountain region, 
that all the forms of life inhabiting Arizona were derived from one of 
two directions— the north or the south. Aud in extending these re- 
searches and generalizations so as to embrace the Great Interior Basin, 
the Rocky Mountain region, aud the Great Plains, which together con- 
stitute the so-called ' Great Central Province,'t of naturalists, I was 
astonished to be forced into the belief that no such province exists. In- 
deed, the present investigation demonstrates that there are but two pri- 
mary life provinces in this country : a northern, which may be termed 
Boreal, and a southern, which, for our purposes, may be termed Sonoran, 
since it comes to us from Mexico through Sonora. In attempting to 
arrange all the life zones of Arizona under these two headings the fol- 
lowing conclusions have been reached: The Arctic- Alpine, Timber-line, 
Hudsonian, and Canadian zones, having been shown to be derived from 
the north, fall naturally under the Boreal division. TheDesert and Piiion 
zones, having been shown to be derived from the south, fall naturally 
under the Sonoran division. There remains but one area, namely, the 
Pine area, whose relationships are in any way obscure. This area has 

"Bears range over the lower levels at certain seasons of the year, but are not known 
to breed away from the spruce and Br forests. 

tThis province was outlined by Agassi z as long ago as 1854, and has been accepted 
so far as its essential features are concerned by LeConte, Baird, Wallace, Alleu, Cope, 
Binuey, Gray, Packard, and nearly all recent writers. 



20 



NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 



[No. 3. 



been shown to consist of a mixture of Boreal and Sonoran types, more 
or less modified by adaptation to environment. In other words, it is 
neutral territory. But since the number of its Sonoran types is greatly 
in excess of its Boreal types, it may be more properly referred to the 
Sonoran Province. Therefore, of the seven life-zones of the San Fran- 
cisco Mountain region in Arizona, four may be referred to the Boreal 
Province and three to the Sonoran. 

The zoues composing each of these primary divisions are related to 
one another in different degrees. Thus, the Timber-line, Hudsonian ; 
and Canadian zones are much more intimately related than the Timber- 
line and the Alpine; and the affinities of the Pifiou and Desert are 
much closer than those of the Piiion and Pine. Hence it becomes pos- 
sible to group the zones into categories of intermediate rank between 
the primary provinces and the tertiary zoues or areas. These second- 
ary divisions are here termed regions. Under the Boreal Province we 
may recognize two regions, an Arctic and a Boreal. The Arctic region 
contains but one zone, the Alpine. The Boreal region contains three 
zones, namely, the Timber-line, Hudsonian, and Canadian. The Sono- 
ran or southern province may be likewise split into two regions, a Sub- 
Arid and an Arid. The Sub-Arid consists of a single zone, the Pine. 
The Arid region comprises two zones,* the Pinon and the Desert. The 
facts here set forth may be graphically represented by means of a table, 

thus : 

Life Areas of the San Francisco Mountain Bet/ion in Arizona. 



Provinces. 


Ecgions. 


Zones or Areas. 


! 

Boreal < 

1 

i 

Sonoran < 

I 




Alpine. 

Timber-line. 

Hudsonian. 

Canadian. 

Pine. 

Piiion. 

Desert. 


f 
Boreal s 

Sub- Arid 

Arid \ 



The primary divisions are based on the possession of distinctive 
genera; the secoudary and tertiary chiefly on distinctive species, though 
some of them possess distinctive genera also. 

ORIGIN OF THE BOREAL FAUNA AND FLORA OF SAN FRANCISCO 

MOUNTAIN. 

The Boreal zones of San Francisco Mountain are separated from cor- 
responding areas elsewhere by a broad interval occupied by the upper 
faunas and floras of the Sonoran Province. The arctic summit of the 
mountain is distant more than 400 kilometers (250 miles) from the 
nearest peak of similar character in Colorado, and nearly 3,200 kilome- 
ters (2,000 miles) from the nearest point in the Arctic zone proper — all 



* The Desert of the Little Colorado contains but two arid zones; further south a 
third is encountered. 



Aug., 1890.] BIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF SAN FRANCISCO MOUNTAIN. 21 

the arctic areas within the United States being mere dots upon the map, 
and even the lower zones of the Boreal Province being widely separated 
from similar areas in the north. The question naturally arises as to 
the origin of these small colonies of arctic life wbich appear here aud 
there over a great continent. It is perfectly evident that they could 
not have reached their present positions during existing climatic con- 
ditions; hence it is necessary to search the records of the past for the 
explanation. The period immediately preceding the present is known 
as the glacial age, because the northern parts of the globe were then 
buried in ice. This ice cap, which in places was several thousand feet 
in thickness, underwent two principal movements of advance aud re- 
treat, first crowding the life of the region far to the southward, then 
allowing it to return, to be again driven south by the next advance. 
The southern terminus of the great ice sheet extended from Xew Jersey 
to southern Illinois, and thence northwestward to British Columbia, aud 
its effects upon the climate must have been felt throughout the United 
States and even into Mexico, The advance of the glacial period was so 
gradual that plants as well as animals had time to escape by extending 
their ranges southward, aud daring the return movement were enabled 
to keep pace with its slow retreat. Had either the process of refriger- 
ation or the return of heat taken place more rapidly, most of the forms 
of life inhabiting the northern parts of the globe would have been ex- 
terminated. During the recession of the glacier many boreal plants 
and animals were stranded on mountains, where, by climbing upward as 
the temperature became warmer, they were able to find a final resting 
place with a climate sufficiently cool and moist for their needs; here 
they have existed ever since. This is the commonly accepted explana- 
tion of the presence of arctic forms on isolated mountain peaks widely 
removed from the southernmost limit of their continuous distribution. 
Incidentally the ancient origin of arctic-alpiue faunas leads to con- 
clusions which might be of use to the geologist. For instance, San 
Francisco Mountain is a volcanic peak composed entirely of lava 
rock. Its summit is inhabited by species of animals and plants which 
conld not have reached it since the recession of the glacial period. 
Hence the mountain itself can not be of more recent origin than this 
periods Here the living fauna and flora afford evidence of the age of a 
great mountain. 

ORIGIN OF THE FAUNA AND FLORA OF THE PAINTED DESERT. 

The Desert of* the Little Colorado, it will be remembered, is a deep 
basin on top of the Great Colorado Plateau. It is wholly disconnected 
from the desert region of southern Arizona by the elevated and timber- 
covered highlands occupying the crest of the plateau escarpment. In 
fact the highest part of Arizona south of the Grand Canon, except a 
few isolated mountains, is the edge of this plateau, which is nowhere 
below 2,130 meters (7,000 feet), and in pi aces rises to the height of 2,740 



22 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. ' [No. 3. 

meters (9,000 feet), as at the Mogollon Mesa. On the east, the desert 
is separated from the valley of the Upper Rio Grande by a broad area 
covered with cedar and piiiou, through which the continental divide 
passes, at an elevation of upwards of 2,130 meters (7,000 feet). There- 
fore, the only possible channel through which the fauna and flora of the 
Painted Desert could have reached this desert during existing climatic 
conditions is by way of the Grand Caiion of the Colorado. At first 
thought it seems incredible that a fauna and flora should extend several 
hundred miles through a chasm of this character; but the evidence at 
hand indicates that it does. Our descent into the caiion from the 
Cocanini Plateau was made at a point about 25 kilometers (15 miles) 
below the mouth of the Little Colorado. Here the caiion is about 1,800 
meters (more than a mile) in depth and nearly 25 kilometers (15 miles) 
wide at the top. Numerous side canons cut into it, and there are 
many shelves and bottoms which support a flora of cactuses, yuccas, 
agaves, greasewoods, and other typical Sonoran forms. Pocket Mice of 
the sub-genus Chcetodipus, Large-eared Mice of the Hesperomys eremicus 
group, and the Little Spotted Skunk (Spilogale) were secured, together 
with several birds (among them Psuccea ruficeps boucardi) and reptiles of 
the Sonoran fauna, some of which occur also on the Painted Desert.* 

The inference is that the life of the Painted Desert is derived from 
the deserts of western Arizona, and that it came by the roundabout 
way of the Grand Caiion of the Colorado. 

It might be urged that the climate of the Plateau region in the past 
may have been enough warmer than at present to admit of direct com- 
munication between the life of the Painted Desert and that of the 
deserts of southern Arizona ; but Major C. E. Dutton, who has made a 
special study of the physiographic history of the Plateau region, assures 
me that its climate has not been warmer than now since glacial times. 

GENERALIZATIONS CONCERNING THE DISTRIBUTION OF LIFE IN NORTH 

AMERICA. 

OVERTHROW OF THE SO-CALLED 'CENTRAL PROVINCE ' OF NATURALISTS. 

The region almost universally recognized by recent writers as the 
'Central Province' is made up of the Great Plains, the Rocky Mount- 
ains, and the Great Basin. A critical study of the life of the Rocky 
Mountains has shown it to consist of a southward extension of the 
Boreal Province, with an admixture of southern forms resulting from 
an intrusion or overlapping of representatives of the Sonoran Province, 
some of which, from long residence in the region, have undergone 
enough modification to be recoguized as distinct subspecies or even 
species. A similar analysis of the life of the Great Plains and Great 
Basin has shown them to consist of northward extensions of the So- 

* Ainoug the reptiles found near the bottom of the canon were two lizards (Scelo- 
porus clarkii and Uta symmetrica) which belong to the torrid fauna of southern and 
western Arizona, and are not known to reach the Painted Desert. 



AuQ.ltJOO.] BIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF SAN FRANCISCO MOUNTAIN. 23 

noran Province, somewhat mixed with the southernmost fauna and flora 
of the Boreal Province. Thus the whole of the so-called 'Great Cen- 
tral Province' disappears. 

This explains a multitude of facts that are utterly incomprehensible 
under the commonly accepted zoological divisions of the country. These 
facts relate particularly to the distribution of species about the north- 
ern boundaries of the supposed Central and Pacific Provinces, and to the 
dilemma we find ourselves in when attempting - to account for the origin 
of so many primary life areas in a country where there are no impass- 
able physical barriers to prevent the diffusion of animals and plants. 

EVIDENCE ON WHICH THE 'CENTRAL PKOVINCE' WAS BASED. 

The conclusions here announced are so diametrically opposed to the 
long accepted and current views of zoologists that it may be interesting 
to examine for a moment the evidence on which their generalizations 
were based. This evidence, stated briefly, consists in the presence, in 
the region in question, of a large number of genera and species not 
found in the Eastern States. It has just been shown that the vast 
majority of these forms were derived from the north or from the south. 
The remainder fall naturally into two categories: (1) Those so closely 
related to forms now living in adjoiniug regions as to leave no doubt 
that they are the immediate descendants of the same, modified by en- 
vironment; and (2) isolated generic types, of which the number is 
small 

SIGNIFICANCE OF ISOLATED TYPES. 

The presence of isolated types, however few, might be regarded as 
an obstacle to the acceptance of the views here advanced, but their 
significance becomes apparent as soon as an attempt is made to trace 
the life of the present back to the life of the past. The colonies of big 
trees and redwoods of California (Sequoia gigantea and 8. semper virens) 
have no nearer relatives than the bald cypress (Ta.vodium) of the Gulf 
States and a related species from China (formerly recognized geueric- 
ally under the name Glyptostrobus). This was pointed out many years 
ago by Dr. Asa Gray in connection with the circumstance that the an- 
cestors of these trees once ranged throughout the boreal regions of the 
world. A fossil species (Sequoia langsdorfii) closely related to the Cali- 
fornia redwood has been found in Spitzbergen, Iceland, Greenland, the 
north of Europe, Alaska, at the mouth of the Mackenzie River, and 
also in the Pocky Mountains, the Great Basin in Oregon, and the Bail 
Lauds in Dakota. Many parallel cases might be cited. Thus the rec- 
ords of the rocks show that many of the types which have survived the 
perils incident to the successive shiftings of the fauna and fiora during 
and subsequent to the ice age were formerly conspicuous over large areas 
in the north. These facts are in complete accord with a general law 
which may be thus formulated: 

When the physiographic conditions of a region are in process of change, 



24 north American fauna. • [no. 3. 

those forms of life which are sufficiently plastic to adapt themselves to the 
rapidly changing conditions survive, while those which cannot so adapt 
themselves become extinct. 

Isolated generic types are illustrations of this law and may be re- 
garded as remnants of the past — the only living representatives of 
types once abundant and widely diffused. Such types are not confined 
to plants, but may be found in nearly every branch of the animal king- 
dom. Among North American mammals the genera Neurotrichus and 
Aplodontia may be cited as examples, both of them being confined to a 
narrow strip along the Pacific coast from northern California to British 
Columbia. The former has a near relative in Japan ( Urotrichus), and 
the intermediate forms which connect it with the Shrews on the one 
hand and the Moles on the other are still living in eastern Asia (the 
genera Scaptonyx and Uropsilus). Aplodontia is a large rodent, the 
type and sole representative of an isolated family, and has no known 
living relative in any part of the world. 

PRINCIPAL LIFE REGIONS OF NORTH AMERICA, 

[See map 5.] 

The most importaut generalization arrived at in the present investi- 
gation is that the whole of extratropical North America consists of but 
two primary life regions, a Boreal region, which is circumpolar ; and a 
Sonoran or Mexican tableland region, which is unique.* 

The Boreal Province [colored green on map 5] extends obliquely across 
the entire continent from New England and Newfoundland to Alaska, 
conforming in direction to the trend of the northern shores of the con- 
tinental mass. It gives off three long arms or chains of islands which 
reach far south along the three great mountain systems of the United 
States — a western arm in the Cascades and Sierra Nevada, a central 
arm in the Eocky Mountains, and an eastern arm in the Alleghanies — 
and these arms iuterdigitate with northward prolongations of the Sono- 

* Siuce the present paper was written (December, 1889) the author has been en- 
gaged in the preparation of an historical synopsis of the attempts that have been 
made to define the faunal and floral areas of North America. In the course of this 
investigation several important papers have been found which confirm, and in part 
anticipate, the general conclusions here announced, though none of them attempt to 
explain the significance of the areas recognized or to correlate them with the north- 
ern and southern origiu of the life of the continent. For instance, the late Dr. Asa 
Gray stated that it is certain " that two types have left their impress upon the North 
American flora, and that its peculiarities are divided between these two elements. 
One we may call the boreal -oriental element ; this prevails at the north, and is espe- 
cially well represented in the Atlantic flora and iu that of Japan and Manchuria ; the 
other is the Mexican-plateau element, and this gives its peculiar character to the flora 
of the whole southwestern part of North America, that of the higher mountains ex- 
cepted" (Bull. U.S. Geol.and Geog. Survey, VI, 1, Feb. 11, 1881,62). At the same 
time, and in the same communication, Dr. Gray adopts the three great divisions usu- 
ally recognized by zoologists — Eastern, Central, and Pacific. 



Alt,., 1890.] BIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF SAN FRANCISCO MOUNTAIN. 25 

ran Province, which latter completely surround the southern islands of 
the Boreal system. 

The Sonoran Province [colored orange or yellow on map 5] comes into 
the United States from the south and is divisible into six subregious, 
namely: (1) an Arid or Sonoran subregion proper, occupying the table- 
land of Mexico and reaching north into western Texas, New Mexico, 
Arizona, and southern California ; (2) a C aliform an subregion, occupy- 
ing the greater part of the State of that name ; (3) a Loicer Calif omian 
subregion; (4) a Great Basin subregiou, occupying the area between 
the Rocky Mountains and the Sierra Nevada and extending as far north 
as the Plains of the Columbia ; (5) a Great Plains subregion, occupying 
the plains east of the Rocky Mouutains and extending north to the Plains 
of the Saskatchewan ; and (6) a Louisianian or Austroriparian sub- 
regiou, occupying the lowlands bordering the Gulf of Mexico and the 
Mississippi, and extending eastward, south of the Alleghanies, to the 
Atlantic seaboard, where it reaches as far north as the mouth of Ches- 
apeake Bay. 

The latter region requires a word of comment, since its true affinities 
have not been heretofore pointed out, though the region itself has been 
long recognized.* That it is an offshoot of the Sonoran region is evi- 
dent from the fact that most of its peculiar or distinctive auimals and 
plants belong to Souorau genera, and many of its species are identical 
with or closely related to Sonoran forms. It contains no less than 
eight Sonoran genera of mammals, namely : Spilogale, Urocyon, Neo- 
toma, Sigmodon, Ochetodon, Geomys, Piecotus (subgenus Corinorhinus), 
and Nyctinomus, most of which extend northward near the Atlantic 
seaboard as far as Norfolk, and at least one of them ( Urocyon) consider- 
ably further. It contains also a number of Sonoran genera of birds, 
reptiles, batrachians, and plants. At the same time, it contains two 
Tropical American genera of mammals, namely, Didelphys and Oryzomys; 
and perhaps Urocyon, Sigmodon, and Nyctinomus belong as much to one 
as to the other. It contains also a number of Tropical genera of birds, 
reptiles, and plants. Hence the A uslroriparian subregion consists of 
a mixture of Sonoran and Tropical forms ; but since the number of its 
Sonoran types is greatly in excess of the Tropical, it may be fairly re. 
garded as a subdivision of the former. 

The Tropical Province [colored red on map 5], so far as North Amer- 
ica is concerned, occupies Central America and the Antilles and pushes 
north along the lowlands on both sides of Mexico, reaching the mouth 

* As early as 1817 the entomologist Latreille made it one of his circumpolar divis- 
ions. In 1822 the botanist Schouw named it the Realm of Magnolias ; and in 1854, 
Agassi/, named it the Louisianian Fauna. These authors, and several other early- 
writers ( including Moyeu, Martins, Berghans, and Schmarda) regarded it as a region 
of primary rank. More recent writers (including LeConte, Cooper, Binney, Baird, 
and Allen) looked upon it as a subdivision of the eastern forest region or Eastern 
Province. Cope, in 1873, restored it to independent rank and named it the Austrori- 
parian region. 



26 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. ' [No 3. 

of the Rio Grande on the G-ulf of Mexico, ami a little north of Mazat- 
lan on the Pacific coast. It occupies also a narrow belt encircling the 
southern half of the peninsula of Florida. This tropical element in 
Florida is of comparatively recent origin, and consists mainly of a chain 
of island-like colonies of birds, insects, and plants which may easily 
have reached its shores and keys from the neighboring West Indies, as 
pointed out by Schwarz in an article on its peculiar Insect Fauna (En- 
tomologica Americana, IV, No. 9, 1888). The interrelations of the 
Tropical and Sonoran Provinces are such as suggest that the chief dif- 
fereuce may be due to humidity as much as temperature. 

In the light of the general conclusions here announced, the only part 
of North America which is in any way obscure, so far as the relation- 
ships of its faunas and floras are concerned, is the so-called ' Pacific 
Province; 7 and, like the 'Central Province' already discussed, it is 
evidently made up of two distinct elements, a mountain element derived 
from the Boreal Province, and a valley element derived from the Sono- 
ran ; but owing to the peculiar physiographic conditions of the west 
coast it has undergone a greater amount of differentiation. 

CAUSES WHICH DETERMINE DISTRIBUTION. 

It is not the purpose of the present paper to discuss the causes that 
have to do with limiting the distribution of terrestrial animals and 
plants further than to point out a generalization which seems to have 
been overlooked. Omitting reference to the effects of physical barriers, 
which explain the differences in the life of disconnected continents, it 
may be stated that temperature and humidity are the most important 
causes governing distribution, and that temperature is more potent 
than humidity.* Authors differ as to the period during which tem- 
perature exerts the greatest influence, some maintaining that it is the 
temperature of the whole year, and others, that it is the temperature of 
a very brief period which determines the range of species. In the case 
of birds, it has been shown by Verrill and Allen that it is the tempera- 
ture of the breeding season. 

If this is true of birds, why is it not true of other forms of animal 
life and of plants as well ? The season of reproduction for the plant, 
as for the animal, is the warm part of the year. After the period of 
reproduction the plant withers ; after it flowers and fruits and matures 
its seed, it dies down or becomes physiologically inactive. And what the 
plant accomplishes in one way the animal accomplishes in another. To 
escape the cold of winter and its consequences the sensitive mammal 
hibernates; the bird migrates to a more southern latitude; the reptile 
and batrachian dig holes in the mud or sand an*l remain in a torpid 
condition ; the insect sleeps in its cocoon or buries itself under leaves 

*In arid districts humidity is an element of vastly more consequence that in re- 
gions of moderate or copious rain-fall, particularly in regard to the inception of the 
period of reproduction in plants. 



Aug., 1890.] BIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF SAN FRANCISCO MOUNTAIN. 27 

or decomposing vegetation ; and none, but the hardier forms of life are 
left to be affected by winter temperatures. Freezing- does not hurt 
most plants when not in a state of reproductive activity. In the north, 
trees five and six feel: in diameter freeze through to the heart every 
winter. It is obvious, therefore, that plants are not exceptions to the 
law that the temperature during the season of reproductive activity deter- 
mines the distribution of life. In high arctic latitudes this period is 
very brief, while in the humid parts of the tropics it seems to extend 
over nearly if not quite the whole year. 

Some eminent writers have assumed that plants and animals do not 
agree in distribution — that a faunal map (a map showing the distribu- 
tion of an association of animals) must differ essentially from a floral 
map (a map showing the distribution of an association of plants). This 
assumption is illogical, for, as just stated, plants and auimals are sub- 
jected to the same conditions during the season of reproduction — the 
season during which they are most affected by their surrouudings. 
Furthermore, the field work on which the present paper is based, which 
was conducted with special reference to the determination of this point, 
demonstrated that complete coincidence exists in the limitation of the 
life-areas as defined independently by the study of the mammals, birds, 
reptiles, and plants of the San Francisco Mountain region. 

Since the distribution of animals and plants depends primarily upon 
temperature, it follows that the physiographic conditions which influ- 
ence temperature influence distribution also. In obedience to this law 
certain axioms of distribution may be thus expressed : 

The distribution of species in the same latitude depends primarily on 
altitude. 

The distribution of species in the same latitude and altitude 
is influenced notably by — 

(a) Elevation above base-level. 

(b) Slope-exposure. 

(c) Proximity to and direction from large bodies of 

water. 

(d) Meteorologic conditions affecting temperature. 

In the case of mountains of equal altitude and low base-level: 

(1) The number of faunal and floral zones (up to the limit 
of zones possible for the range of temperature) is in- 
versely proportional to the distance from the equator. 

(2) The width of the zones and the abruptness of the 
change from one to another is proportional to the 
steepness of the slope. 

By elevation above base-level is meant the height of a given point 
above the plane it faces. This may be made clearer by an example. 
The mean altitude of base-level below the plateau rim in Arizona is less 
than 000 meters (.'$,000 feet), and above il more than 2,130 meters (7,000 
feet). A mountain standing on the edge of the plateau will have a 



28 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. . ' [No. 3. 

higher temperature at a given altitude on the north side than on the 
south side, because the plateau level (base-level) on the north side 
carries up the temperature. Many years ago Humboldt cited an in- 
stance of this kind in the Himalaya. The temperature on the north side 
of this lofty range is much higher than on the south side at the same 
elevation; or, to state it differently, the snow line and. the timber line 
on the north side are about 900 meters (3,000 feet) higher than on the 
south side. This is due to the great height of the Thibetian Plateau as 
compared with the altitude of base level on the south side, and is in op- 
position to the influence of slope-exposure. By slope-exposure is meant 
the inclination of the surface of the earth in relation to the angle of 
reception of the sun's rays. The sun strikes the east side of a hill or 
mountain in the early part of the day, the south side a little later, the 
southwest and west sides in the afternoon, when its heat is greatest, 
and the northwest and north about sundown or not at all. But in 
case there is a high plateau on the north side, the heat from the plateau 
will force the timber line up. Therefore, of the influences under consid- 
eration, base-level is more powerful than slope exposure. 

About half a century ago the elder Binney, in a work which he did 
not live to see published, made the following observation : 

" The relations which the different levels of elevation bear to the par- 
allels of latitude, although as interesting to the zoologist as to the bot- 
anist, have not yet been made the subject of examination in this coun- 
try. But the Rocky Mountains * * * offer, in the great extent of 
their table-land and in the height to which they rise, a vast field of 
research to future naturalists, where they will be able to solve many of 
the most importaut questions connected with the geographical distri- 
bution of the terrestrial mollusks of our country."* 

If the word 'mollusks' in the above quotation be changed to the 
more comprehensive word < life,' Biuuey's remarks may be regarded as 
a prophecy fulfilled, in part at least, by the present Biological Survey 
of San Francisco Mountain. At the same time it should be remembered 
that the present report is little more than an announcement of the gen- 
eral conclusions resulting from a brief survey of a limited area, and that 
anything approaching a final discussion of the subject must be deferred 
until similar surveys of many regions result in the accumulation of a 
multitude of facts now unknown. As the late Leo Lesquereux once 
said of his favorite study : 

" This science is in its infancy ; and the childhood of science is 
marked, like that of man, by a series of trials and failures, from which 
strength and proficiency are derived. The first astronomers did not 
measure the distance from the earth to the fixed stars, nor weigh the 
planets by the diameter of their orbits." t 

*Anios Binuey, The Terrestrial Mollusks of the U. S., 1851, vol. 1, 116-117. 
t A Eeview of the Fossil Flora of North America. Bull. U. S. Geol. and Geog. Sur- 
vey Terr., No. 5 (2d series) Jan., 137f>, 248 



Aur,., 1890.J CLIMATE OF SAN FRANCISCO MOUNTAIN REGION. 29 

CLIMATE OF THE SAN FRANCISCO MOUNTAIN REG-ION AND DESERT 
OF THE LITTLE COLORADO, ARIZONA. 

The traveler in the Plateau region of Arizona is awed by the grand- 
eur and energy with which the processes of nature inauifest themselves. 
The multitude of volcanic craters and lava cones, culminating in San 
Francisco Mountain, attest the former activity and intensity of the sub- 
terranean forces; the Grand Canon of the Colorado, the most stupen- 
dous chasm known, is a gigantic illustration of the surface forces now in 
operation — of the cutting power of water and the carving power of 
sand; while the terrific thunder-storms and cloud-bursts which shake 
the very foundations of the earth in their fury, shattering the tall pines 
with the lightning, and sending mighty torrents down the hillsides to 
plow deep gorges in the desert, serve to indicate the resistless energy 
of the forces of the air. 

In its climatological aspects the Plateau region of Arizona presents a 
field of surpassing interest and diversity, and problems of the utmost 
importance to physiography and to agriculture may be there advanta- 
geously studied. Climates which usually characterize widely remote 
regions are here brought near together, appearing in successive strata 
from the desert levels to the summits of the mountains, thus permitting 
their several effects to be comprehended at a glance, and their differ- 
ences contrasted. In a general way it may be said that the climate of 
the region abounds in extremes. Protracted periods of drought are in- 
terrupted by deluges of rain; and the snows of winter suddenly give 
place to the intense heat of summer. As a natural consequence, most 
of the mammals and all of the reptiles and batrachiaus hibernate for 
longer or shorter periods, even on the desert 

It is not the purpose of the present essay to discuss meteorologic 
conditions further than is necessary to indicate in a very general way 
the peculiarities of temperature aud humidity which characterize the 
several zones herein defined. 

TEMPERATURE. 

The tropics are characterized by great uniformity of temperature, the 
daily and yearly fluctuations being insignificant. The absence of a 
marked fall in temperature at night is due in great part to the large 
quantity of moisture in the atmosphere. This moisture acts in two 
ways: (1) by diminishing the loss of heat by radiation ; (2) by directly 
increasing the temperature of the atmosphere. As stated by Wallace, 
"the warmth given off by the heated earth is very largely absorbed by 
it [the aqueous vaporj, thus raising the temperature of the air; and as 
it is the lower strata of air which contain most vapor, these act as a 
blanket to the earth, preventing it from losing heat at night by radia- 
tion into space. 1 ' (Tropical Nature, L878, p. 9.) 



30 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. 



[No. 3. 



The excessively dry atmosphere of Arizona acts in exactly the oppo- 
site way, interposing no obstacle to free radiation and presenting no 
medium to retain the heat given off at night. Hence the change in tern • 
perature from day to night is always great. The summer heat of Ari- 
zona, except on the high mountains, is greatly in excess of the summer 
heat of the tropics, while the winter temperature is vastly lower, and 
sudden contrasts are common. 

The law of latitudinal equivalent in altitude was discovered in the 
last century and was early formulated by Humboldt. Omitting refer- 
ence to local disturbing influences and seasonal variations, it may be 
stated as a general proposition that temperature decreases from the 
equatorial zone to the poles at an average rate of a little less than 1° 
Fahr. for each degree of latitude ; and from base-level to higher alti- 
tudes, at the average rate of about 3° Fahr. for each 1,000 feet of eleva- 
tion. In temperate and cold regions the differences due to latitude 
and altitude are greatest in winter and least in summer. It follows 
that places having the same mean annual temperature may have widely 
different summer temperatures ; and con versely, that places receiving 
the same amount of summer heat may have widely different mean an- 
nual temperatures. The significance of these facts becomes apparent 
in studying the distribution of life, for, as will be shown later, the dis- 
tribution of species in temperate and cold regions is governed in the 
main by the temperature of the warm season, the mean annual- temper- 
ature being of little consequence. 

It has just been stated that the mean average decrease in tempera- 
ture with altitude is about 3° Fahr. for each 1,000 feet. The exact 
rate in any particular case may be obtained by dividing the difference 
in temperature of the extremes by the difference in altitude. The Sig- 
nal Service records show that the actual rate of decrease in midsummer 
on the Colorado Plateau is 4°.* At this rate the temperature of the 
summit of San Francisco Mountain in summer would be 20° Fahr. lower 
than that of the cedar belt and 35° lower than that of the Painted 
Desert. 

Seven life zoues are described in the following pages as crowded into 
the narrow space between the arctic-alpine summit of San Francisco 
Mountain and the torrid desert of the Little Colorado, only 40 kilom- 
eters (about 25 miles) distant. Each of these zones has a distinctive 
temperature during the period of growth and reproduction — a period 
of less than three months' duration at the summit, but extending over 
half the year on the desert. Unfortunately, the time spent in any one 
of the several zones was insufficient to furnish the thermometric data 
necessary for the determination of its distinctive temperature. There- 
fore the only way in which it is possible to obtain information on this 

* Denver and Pike's Peak were selected for tbis computation because of tbeir prox- 
imity to tbe San Francisco Mountain region and because tbey afford a vertical range 
of about 2,450 meters (8,000 feet). 



AUG..1890.J CLIMATE OF SAN FRANCISCO MOUNTAIN REGION. 31 

subject is by examination of tbe records of the nearest stations in tbe 
same or corresponding zones. Data from several sucb statious may be 
found in the publications of the United States Signal Service aud in 
Schott's Tables, published by the Smithsonian Institution.* Compila 
tiou of these data leads to interesting results. Fort Apacbe, in Arizona, 
and Fort Wingate, j ust over the line in New Mexico, are in the pinon belt 
of the Great Plateau, Apache near the lower, and Wingate near the 
upper, limit of this zone. They are 232 kilometers (145 miles) apart. 
The mean temperature for the five mouths (April to August, inclusive), 
assumed to cover the period of reproduction in this belt is found to be 
G5.6° Fahr. at Fort Apache, and 65.03° at Fort Wingate, showing a 
really remarkable agreement over this part of the pinon belt. The mean 
temperature of the same period at Holbrook, on the edge of the Little 
Colorado Desert (at the junction of the Puerco and Little Colorado), 
124 kilometers (77 miles) from Fort Apache, is a little above 70° (70.9°) 
Fahr. Albuquerque, in the valley of the Upper Rio Grande in New 
Mexico, though on the other side of the Continental Divide and 309 
kilometers (192 miles) distant, has essentially the same altitude and 
essentially the same summer temperature (70.1° Fahr.). 

Data are wanting for the determination of the distinctive tempera- 
tures of the several zones of San Fraucisco Mountain above the cedar 
and pinon belt, but they may be obtained hypothetically by substitut- 
ing those from remote stations in the same zones. For instance, the 
temperature of the summit of Mount Washington, in the timber-line or 
subalpiue zone of the east, during the season of reproduction (June to 
August, inclusive), is 40.15° Fahr., which may be assumed to agree 
very closely with the temperature of the subalpiue zone of San Fran- 
cisco Mountain. Similarly, the corresponding temperature of Pike's 
Peak, Colorado, in the arctic-alpine zone, is 38.23° Fahr. But Pike's 
Peak is more than a thousand feet higher than San Francisco Peak, 
hence it is necessary to add about 4° Fahr. to the temperature of the 
former to make it represent that of the latter, which would then be in 
round numbers 42° Fahr. 

Therefore, though the actual mean temperatures of the several zones 
of the San Francisco Mountain region during the season of repro- 
duction are unknown, it is possible to arrive at very close approxi- 
mations to these temperatures by utilizing the records from distant 
stations in the same life areas. By this process the following means 
have been obtained. While not supposed to represent the actual means 
for each zone, they are believed to fall within the normal range of va- 
riation between the upper and lower borders of the zones to which they 



* The observations here referred to were taken at different periods and by voluntary 
observers. They lack, probably, the extreme precision and uniformity attained by 
the trained observers of the Signal Service; at the same time, most of them may be 
relied upon as sufficiently exact for purposes of comparison. 



32 



NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. 



I No. 3. 



severally pertain, and are therefore provisionally submitted as a step 
toward a goal as important as it is difficult to attain. 

Table of assumed mean temperatures for the several zones during the period of repro- 
duction. 



Zone. 



Arctic-alpine zone 

Subalpine or timber line zone 

Huilsonian or spruce zone 

Canadian or fir zone 

Neutral or pine zone 

Piiion or cedar zone 

Desert zone 



Cent. 


Fahr. 


o 


o 


4 


39.2 


7 


44. G 


10 


50. 


13 


55.4 


16 


CO. 8 


19 


C6.2 


22 


71. C 



In attempting to ascertain the temperature of climatic zones, in con- 
nection with the distribution of their characteristic forms of life, it 
should be borne in mind that tbe recorded temperatures are taken in 
the shade, while the plants and diurnal animals of non-forested areas, 
particularly of deserts and prairies, live in the sunshine, and conse- 
quently endure much higher temperatures, as well as much greater ex- 
tremes than indicated by the recorded observations. In attempting, 
therefore, to ascertain the quantity of summer heat necessary for a par- 
ticular species, it should be first noted whether the species inhabits 
areas exposed to the full heat of the sun or dense forests where the 
sun's rays rarely penetrate ; and in the case of animal life it should be 
noted also whether the species is diurnal or nocturnal, and the tempera 
ture observations should be made accordingly. 

A series of carefully conducted meteorologic observations, made with 
special reference to temperature and humidity, and carried on simulta- 
neously in the spruce belt of the mountain and on the Painted Desert, 
or, better still, in each of the seven zones herein defined, would be pro- 
ductive of information of much scientific and economic value. 



HUMIDITY. 

The Plateau region of the interior of North America is noted for 
its scanty rain-fall, and the same may be said of Arizona as a whole. 
The annual precipitation and mean humidity are greatest on the high 
mountains and least on the low plains and deserts. Thus San Francisco 
Mountain has many times the rain-fall of the Little Colorado Desert, 
near by, and the quantity of aqueous vapor in the air is correspondingly 
higher. Evaporation is retarded by the clouds which frequently rest 
upon the summit, and by the dense spruce forests which protect the soil 
from the direct rays of the sun, enabling it to retain enough moisture 
to permit the growth of plants requiring a humid atmosphere for their 
existence. 



Aug., 1890. J CLIMATE OF SAN FKANCISCO MOUNTAIN REGION. 33 

There are two raiuy seasons on the San Francisco Mountain plateau: 
one in summer, usually in July or August, the other in mid-winter. 
The summer raiuy season is characterized by daily thunder-showers. 
As a rule, several such showers occur each day, and not infrequently 
several may be seen at the same time from any of the volcanic cones. 
The area covered by each is very small, its diameter rarely exceeding 
half, or even a quarter of a mile ; and its duration is brief, though the 
rain-fall may be considerable. The accompanying thunder is often 
terrific, and the lightning vivid and destructive. Tall pines are shat- 
tered on every hand, and cattle are frequently killed ; three were killed 
by one stroke near our camp about the middle of August. The showers 
almost always take place in the day-time, and are most common at mid- 
day and in the early afternoon. In fact, it is a common saying in this 
region that it never rains at night. Two partial exceptions to this rule 
occurred during our stay, one in which an unusually severe and pro- 
tracted rain lasted from about 3 o'clock in the afternoon until 9 or 10 in 
the evening; the other, a light shower which actually took place in the 
night. During the latter part of the rainy season the showers became 
less frequent, but extended over a larger area and lasted longer. The 
axis of abundance seems to be between San Francisco and Kendrick 
Peaks, but the greatest precipitation occurs on San Francisco Mountain, 
as would be expected from its great altitude. The summit of the mount- 
ain is so cold that it is occasionally whitened with snow while rain falls 
at its base; and hail storms are frequent both on the mountain itself 
and throughout the plateau region, many sudden storms taking this 
form. 

Over much of the pine plateau the soil consists of decomposed lava, 
and is so porous that the rain sinks out of sight as it falls, and the 
atmosphere is so dry and evaporation so rapid that a few minutes after 
a shower no traces of it are visible. 

On the arid desert of the Little Colorado rains are infrequent, but 
usually of great violence, producing torrents which cut deep washes or 
'arroyos' in the sun baked sand and clay. Sometimes cloud-bursts 
deluge large areas, flooding the valleys and destroying multitudes of 
the smaller mammals. Three storms of this character were witnessed, 
two of moderate size, the third of great dimensions, and striking evi- 
dences of a fourth were everywhere noticeable when we reached the 
region. This latter almost inundated the town of Flagstaff and several 
other places along the line of the Atlantic and Pacific Railway, and 
left unmistakable evidences of its volume and force in various directions, 
the most impressive, perhaps, being the overflow of a crater lake and 
adjoining craterlet just east of Kendrick Peak. The track of the torrent 
that rushed down the sides of this crater, and for a distance through 
the piue forest beyond, suggested a veritable volcanic eruption. 

While following the course of Tenebito Wash across the Painted 
Desert we saw a heavy rain-storm raging over the high mesas to the 
501— No. 3 :i 



34 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. [Ko.3. 

north and east during the entire afternoon of August 14, though not a 
cloud came between us and the parching sun. Before dark a furious 
wind — the vehicle of a sand-blast — swept down the wash between the 
rows of cliffs which mark its course, abating as nigbt came on. About 
10 o'clock we were startled by a loud roaring in the north, which at first 
gave the impression that a severe storm was advancing upon us, but 
not a cloud could be seen, and the stars shone brightly in every direc- 
tion. The roaring increased and came nearer until it was evident 
that something was coming down the bed of the wash.; and in a mo- 
ment a great wave of thick mud rushed past with a tremendous roar, 
accompanied by a fetid stench. The first wave was about 1£ meters (5 
feet) high, but it soon rose to 2^ meters (8 feet), where it remained for 
an hour, and then slowly subsided. After 3£ hours it was still about 
1J meters (5 feet) deep and running swiftly, and it had not entirely 
ceased three days later. 

Two days afterward (August 1G), when at the Moki Pueblo of 
Oraibi, a furious rain set in about 4 p. m., and lasted more than an hour, 
flooding the house tops and streets, and parts of the valley below. And 
yet the desert was as parched next day as if it had never been wet. 

The heaviest and most extended rain-fall observed by us occurred 
September 20, on which date Mr. Bailey and I set out from Little Spring 
for Moencopie. Heavy leaden clouds began scurrying over the moun- 
tain toward the northeast early in the morning, and by noon the 
entire sky was overcast and had a most ominous appearance. Soon 
the rain began falling in torrents, and the storm moved steadily east- 
ward from the edge of the lava beds to the Little Colorado, and thence 
across the desert to the high mesas beyond. Such a deluge I never 
saw, and we afterwards learned that it extended 160 kilometers (nearly 
100 miles) to the south. The gulch in the edge of the lava beds, about 
2J kilometers (1£ miles) east of Black Tank, was full to overflowing; 
the flat upon which it empties was 1^ meters (5 feet) under water; 
great lakes appeared in various parts of the desert, and the Little 
Colorado bottom was completely flooded. And yet all this vast volume 
of water disappeared in a few hours. A red, sirupy, alkaline mud filled 
the bed of the Little Colorado for a few days, and pools of similar mud 
were occasionally found in depressions in the sand-rock all the way to 
Moencopie. The whole desert, from the San Francisco lava beds on the 
west to Echo Cliffs on the east, showed that it had been recently deluged, 
as if by the breakage of some mighty dam, but the water had disap- 
peared. 

From the scanty data available, and from the experience of residents 
of the region, it is safe to infer that the rain-fall was unusually heavy 
in the Plateau region during the summer of 1889. 



PART II -GRAND CANON OF THE COLORADO, BETWEEN THE KAIBAB 
AND COCANINI PLATEAUS. 

No attempt will be made to define or describe the faunas and floras 
of tbe stupendous chasm of the Colorado. Our stay of five days per- 
mitted only a hurried reconnoissance, which serves to indicate merely 
in a general way the more conspicuous features of the region. 

The lowest point between San Francisco Mountain and the Grand 
Canon is at the end of a narrow arm of the desert near Hull Spring, 
where the junipers and piiiou which border this tongue of desert unite 
and extend westward in a broad belt, completely separating the pine 
forest of the mountain plateau from that of the Cocauini Plateau (as 
shown by the areas colored yellow and green on Map 1). While the San 
Francisco Mountain Plateau is composed of lava, the Cocauini Plateau 
is carboniferous limestone. The resulting difference in soil affects the 
vegetation, and many plauts grow in the pifion belt at the canon which 
are not found in the same belt on the lava. Among such plauts are 
Coicania mexicana, Berberis fendleri, Spirwa millefolium, Robinia neo- 
mexicana, and Yucca baccata. Junipcrus californicus utahensis grows 
there also, but the relation of its presence to the soil is uucertaiu. The 
true sage-brush (Artemisia tridentata) of the Great Basin here finds its 
extreme southeastern limit. Large patches of it occur on the south side 
of the canon, opposite Point Sublime, but it disappears altogether a 
few miles away. 

At the brink of the canon opposite Point Sublime, about 2 miles east 
of the pool or tank known as Cation Spring, is a dwarf forest of peculiar 
aspect, and having a uniform height of about 5 meters. It consists of 
piiiou (Pinus edulis), cedar (Juniper us californicus utahensia), and mount- 
ain mahogany (Gercocarpus ledifolius*), which here equals the juniper 
and pihon in height and measures LOO to 201) millimeters (approximately 
4 to 8 inches) iu diameter. Mingled with it are numerous tall bushes 
of Berberis fremonti and the beautiful Spirrca millefolium. In places 
this Lilliputian forest merges into extensive fields of the true sage-brush 
(Artemisia tridentata) and yucca (Yucca baccata, which at the time of 
our visit was ripening its sweet, banana-like fruit), with several kiuds 
of cactuses; while iu other directions it gives place to thickets of scrub 

"This identification was made in tho field. No specimens of the large form were 
brought back, but specimens of a smaller bush from the Canon prove to be Cowania 
mexicana. 

35 



36 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. ' [No.3. 

oak (Quercus gambeli), with here and there a small patch of dwarf locust 
(Bobinia neo-mexicana). 

The Cocanini Plateau is highest on the north and rises abruptly at 
the very rim of the canon. The resulting southern slope is enough 
warmer than the pine-covered plateau to permit the growth of juniper 
and pinou, which besides forming a strip along the edge of the canon, 
mingle with the pines below to a limited extent. The descent into the 
caiion is precipitous, the walls being vertical or even overhanging for 
the first 300 meters (1,000 feet), so that tree growth is impossible except 
in favored spots. In places where the cliff is broken down or cut into 
by side canons a sparse forest of conifers maintains a precarious foot- 
hold. 

The Grand Caiion is about 354 kilometers (220 miles) in length, and 
its proportions are on too vast a scale to be comprehended by those 
who have not seen it. At the point visited, it is about 1,800 meters 
(6,000 feet) in depth and 25 kilometers (15 miles) wide at the top. It is 
intersected by gulches and side caiions of gigantic dimensions. It has 
ledges, terraces, and mesas, barren crags and grassy slopes, lofty mount- 
ains and deep valleys, cool hillsides clad in forests of balsam firs, and 
hot bottoms filled with sub-tropical thickets ; it has arid stretches of 
sand bearing a scattered growth of cactus and yucca, and marshes and 
springs that never become dry and are hidden by the verdure of a mul- 
titude of plants requiring a moisture-laden atmosphere for their exist- 
ence. Its animal life is as sharply varied and as strangely contrasted. 

In descending from the plateau level to the bottom of the canon a 
succession of temperature zones is encountered equivalent to those 
stretching from the coniferous forests of northern Canada to the cactus 
plains of Mexico.* They result from the combined effects of altitude 
and slope-exposure, the effects of the latter being here manifested in 
an unusual degree. Where the walls of the caiion face north or north- 
east the uppermost tree-zone consists of Douglas and balsam firs 
(Pseudotsuga douglasii and Abies concolor)— northern species which do 
not occur elsewhere in the caiion. Below this is a belt of pines (Pinus 
ponderosa), succeeded in turn by a belt of junipers and pinon, usually 
more or less mingled with pines. Immediately below the piiion belt is 
a zone which corresponds in the main to the Desert of the Little Col- 
orado ; but since it has humid as well as arid areas, forms of vegetation 
unknown on the desert interrupt its stretches of cactuses, yuccas, and 
greasewoods. Still lower down another zone is encountered which may 
be recognized by the presence of huge cactuses, arborescent opuntias, 
agaves whose tall stems are conspicuous land-marks, and many other 
plants characteristic of the Lower Colorado and Gila regions, together 



* The extremes of temperature are well illustrated by the fact that the lowest 
temperature of the twenty-four hours at the bottom of the canon was 80° Fahr. at 
4 a. m., September 13, while at the same time thick ice formed ou a bucket of 
water at the top of the caiion. 



Aug., 1890.1 GEAND CANON OF THE COLORADO. 37 

with sub-tropical hutnid forms aud a certain percentage of species not 
found elsewhere. The complex and interacting effects of radiation and 
refraction, of aridity aud humidity, of marked differences in temper- 
ature at places of equal altitude on opposite sides of the canon, of every 
possible angle of slope exposure, and of exposure to and protection from 
winds and storms, produce a diversity of climatic conditions the effect 
of which on the animal and vegetable life of the canon has been to 
bring into close proximity species characteristic of widely separated 
regions, and to crowd the several life zones into narrow parallel bands 
along the sides of the canon — bands which expand and contract in 
conforming to the ever-changing surface. The same conditions mod- 
ify and alter the species there present iu the manner in which the evolu- 
tion of new species is brought about. Iu short, the Grand Canon of the 
Colorado is a world in itself, and a great fund of knowledge is in store 
for the philosophic biologist whose privilege it is to study exhaustively 
the problems there presented. 

LIST OF MAMMALS NOTED AT THE GRAND CANON OF THE COLORADO, 
ARIZONA, SEPTEMBER 10 TO 15, 1889. 

[The new species hero mentioned are described in Part III.] 
Vesperugo fuscus. Large Brown Bat. 

Tolerably common ; a few were seen nearly every evening. 
Vesperugo hesperus. Pigmy Bat. 

Abundant. These bats inhabit crevices in the cliffs aud begin to fly 
before dark in the evening, at which time swarms of them come up over 
the brink of the canon and flit about amoug the pines and piuon. 

Sciurus aberti. Abert's Squirrel. 

Tolerably common in the pines ; a few were found feeding on piiion 
nuts along the brink of the caiion. 
Tamias dorsalis. Gila Chipmunk. 

Common among the cliffs along the top of the caiion, but excessively 
shy and difficult to procure. 
Spermophilua grammurus. Rock Squirrel. 

Abundant among the pifion along the brink of the caiion, living in 
holes in the rocks. 
Hesperomys leucopus sonoriensis. White-footed Mouse. 

Not common; two specimens provisionally referred to this form 
were caught along the top of the canon, and one was killed in the 
day-time in a field of sage brush (Artemisia tridentata). 
Hesperomys eremicus. Silky Cliff Mouse. 

Abundant both along the cliffs at the top of the caiion and thence 
down to the river below. This is the most abundant mammal of the 
canon. 
Hesperomys megalotis sp. uov. Leaf-oarod Cliff Mouse. 

A single specimen was caught in the cliffs at the brink of the canon. 
Neotoma mexicana. Wood Rat. 

Common both iu the caiion and along the cliffs at the top. 



38 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. - [No. 3. 

Thomomys fulvus. Pocket Gopher. 

Tolerably common wherever there is enough suitable soil on the 
plateau at the top of the canon. 
Perognathus (Chaetodipus) intermedins. Pocket Mouse. 

Common in small colonies down in the canon. 
Lepus texianus. Jack Rabbit. 

This species inhabits fields of sage-brush near the caiion, coming up 
from the desert of the Little Colorado. 
Lepus arizonae. Arizona Cotton-tail. 

Tolerably common in the juniper aDd chaparral. 
Cariacus macrotis. Black-tailed Deer. 

Three were killed by a sheep herder near the canon during our stay. 
Antilocapra americana. Antelope. 

Said to be not rare near the canon. 
Ovis canadensis. Mountain Sheep. 

Tolerably common ; we saw fresh signs nearly every day, and started 
a small herd opposite Point Sublime. 
Felis concolor. Mountain Lion. 

Said to be tolerably common and destructive to sheep. 
Lynx baileyi sp. nov. Plateau Wildcat. 

Tolerably common. 
Canis latrans. Coyote, 

Common ; many tracks seen. The sheep herders say that they lose 
many lambs through the depredations of Coyotes. 
Spilogale gracilis sp. nov. Little Striped Sknnk. 

Common both in the caiion and among the cliffs at the top. 
Bassaris astuta. Ring-tailed Bassaris. 

Said to be abundant in Cataract Canon and at places in the Grand 
Caiion. 

LIST OF BIRDS NOTED AT THE GRAND CANON OF THE COLORADO, ARI- 
ZONA, SEPTEMBER 10 TO 15, 1889. 

Zenaidura macroura. Mourning Dove. 

A few were seen in the pines and piiion. 
Cathartes aura. Turkey Vulture. 

Common ; as many as fifteen were seen at one time sailing over the 
canon, and a number were observed circling over a flock of sheep near 
Hull's Eanch. 
Accipiter velox. Sharp-shinned Hawk. 

Common ; one shot. 
Accipiter cooperi. Cooper's Hawk. 

Common; these hawks came to the spring every morning during our 
stay to prey upon the small birds which came there to drink. 
Buteo borealis calurus. Western Red-tail. 

Common. 



Aug., 1890.] GRAND CANO^ OF THE COLORADO. 39 

Aquila chrysaetus. Golden Eagle. 

One seen. 
Falco sparverius. Sparrow Hawk. 

Tolerably common; a male was shot whose stomach was full of grass- 
hoppers. 
Fandion haliaetus carolinensis. Osprey ; Fish Hawk. 

Seen twice. 
Bubo virginianus saturatus. Dusky Great Horned Owl. 

Tolerably common ; two came to the spring to drink about 10 o'clock 
the night of September 14, and after satisfying their thirst began hoot- 
ing in the tall pines. One was shot as he started to fly away. 
Megascops flammeolus. Flammulated Screech Owl. 

I shot a single specimen of this exceedingly rare owl while climbing 
out of the canon about 3 o'clock in the morning of September 13. Its 
stomach contained a scorpion and the remains of insects. 
Dryobates villosus hyloscopus. Cabanis's Woodpecker. 

A few were seen in the pines. 
Sphyrapicus thyroideus. Williamson's Sapsucker. 

Tolerably common ; adults of both sexes were shot. 
Melanerpes formicivorus bairdi. California Woodpecker. 

One was shot and several others were seen in the oaks half a mile 
from the caiion. 
Melanerpes torquatus. Lewis's Woodpecker. 

Tolerably common; flocks of half a dozen to a dozen came to the 
spring to drink every day. 
Colaptes cafer. Red-shafted Flicker. 

Tolerably common. 
Micropus melanoleucus. White-throated Swift. 

Several were seen in the caiion, but most of them had migrated before 
the date of our arrival (September 10). 
Trochilus platycercus. Broad-tailed Hummingbird. 

Tolerably common ; shot down in the caiion and seen also at the top. 
Tyrannus vociferans. Cassin's King-bird. 

Two were seen in the sage-brush and chaparral near the canon, and 
a few in the cedars. 

Sayornis saya. Say's Pha'bo. 

Seen in the chaparral and cedars near the caiion. 
Contopus richardsonii. Western Wood Powee. 

Tolerably common. 
Cyanocitta stelleri macrolopha. Long-crested Jay. 

Common ; feeding on pifion nuts in company with Woodhouse's and 
Pinon Jays. 
Aphelocoma woodhousei. Woodhouse's Jay. 

A few were seen in the pinon near the brink of the caiion. 

Corvus corax sinuatus. Raven. 

Several were seen alon^ the cliffs at the brink of the caiion. 



40 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. " IN0.3. 

Cyanocephalus cyanocephalus. Pinon Jay. 

Abundant in the pinon near the brink of the canon and also in the 
cedar belt \ generally seen in flocks of from thirty to eighty. 
Carpodacus mexicanus frontalis. House Finch. 

Common in small flocks, coming to the tank to drink every day. 

Loxia curvirostra stricklandi. Mexican Crossbill. 

Common ; both sexes were shot at the tank, where they came to drink. 
Spinus psaltria. Arkansas Goldfinch. 
Small flocks visited the tank to drink every day. 

FoocEetes gramineus confinis. Western Vesper Sparrow. 

Common in all grassy places and in the sage-brush. 
Zonotrichia leucophrys. White-crowned Sparrow. 

Two were shot. 
Spizella socialis arizonae. Western Chipping Sparrow. 

Tolerably common. 
Junco cinereus dorsalis. Red-backed Junco. 

Tolerably common. 
Feucaea ruficeps boucardi. Boucard's Sparrow. 

Common in the canon from an altitude of 4,000 feet downward. Adults 
and young were shot. 
Melospiza lincolni. Lincoln's Sparrow. 

Two were shot, and others seen near the brink of the canon. 
Pipilo maculatus megalonyx. Spurred To whee. 

Several were seen in the scrub oak. 
Pipilo chlorurus. Green-tailed Towhee. 

Abundant along the brink of the canon. 
Habia melanocephala. Black-headed Grosbeak. 

Tolerably common. 
Piranga ludoviciana. Louisiana Tanager. 

An immature bird of this species was shot in the canon. 
Tachycineta thalassina. Violet-green Swallow. 

A few only were seen, most of the species haviug gone south. 

Ampelis cedrorum Cedar Waxwing. 

A few were seen and one shot at the tank. 
Lanius ludovicianus excubitorides. White-rumped Shrike. 

Two were seen in the sage and chaparral near the caiion. 
Vireo solitarius cassinii. Cassin's Vireo. 

Two were shot. 
Vireo vicinior. Gray Vireo . 

One was shot in a pinon at the brink of the caiion. 
Dendroica auduboni. Audubon's Warbler. 

Common. 
Dendroica nigrescens. Black-throated Gray Warbler. 

One was shot. 
Dendroica townsendi. Townsend's Warbler. 

One was shot. 



Aug., 1890.] GRAND CANON OF THE COLORADO. 41 

Geothlypis macgillivrayi. Macgillivray's Warbler. 

Common in thickets down in the canon, where two were shot. A few 
were seen also along the brink of the canon. 
Geothlypis trichas occidentalis. Western Yellow-throat. 

One was shot low down in the canon. 
Salpinctes obsoletus. Rock Wren. 

Common along the edge of the cailon. 
Catherpes mexicanus conspersus. Caiion Wren. 

Common in the caiion. 
Sitta carclinensis aculeata. Slender-billed Nuthatch. 

Tolerably common. 
Sitta pygmaea. Pygmy Nuthatch. 

Abundant in the pines. 
Parus inornatus griseus. Gray Titmouse. 

Not uncommon in the cedars and piiion. 
Parus gambeli. Mountain Chickadee. 

Tolerably common. 
Regulus calendula. Ruby-crowned Kinglet. 

Several were seen and one shot. 
Polioptila caerulea. Blue-gray Gnatcatcher. 

Seen in small flocks near the top of the caiion. 

Merula migratoria propinqua. Western Robin. 

Tolerably common. 
Sialia mexicana. Western Bluebird. 

Abundant at the canon. 



PART III.— ANNOTATED LIST OF MAMMALS OF THE SAN FRANCISCO 
MOUNTAIN PLATEAU AND DESERT OF THE LITTLE COLORADO IN 
ARIZONA, WITH NOTES ON THEIR VERTICAL DISTRIBUTION, AND DE- 
SCRIPTIONS OF NEW SPECIES. 



By Dr. C. Hart Merriam. 



Sorex monticolus sp. nov. Mountain Shrew. 

This new Shrew is common throughout the Boreal zones of San Fran- 
cisco Mountain. Specimens were secured at various altitudes from the 
lower edge of the Douglas fir belt (altitude 2,500 nieters=8,200 feet) 
to the upper limit of the Subalpine or timber-line zone (altitude 3,500 
meters=ll,500 feet), but no traces of it were found in the pines. Its 
nearest relative seems to be Sorex vagrans of the Pacific coast. It may 
be known from the following description : 

SOREX MONTICOLUS sp. nov. 



17599 



Type No. ^~ 3 ad. U. S. National Museum (Department of Agri- 
culture collection). From San Francisco Mountain, Arizona, August 
28, 1889. Collected by C. Hart Merriam and Vernon Bailey. Altitude 
3,500 meters (11,500 feet). (Original number, 406.) 

Measurements. — Total length, 107 ; tail vertebra?, 45 ; hairs, 2 ; hind 
foot, 12.5 (measured in the flesh) ; ear from crown 3 (measured from the 
dry skin). 

General characters. — This is one of the smaller Shrews. In size, 
length of tail, external appearance, and coloration it closely resembles 
Sorex vagrans of the Pacific coast. The tail is about as long as the 
body without the head. 

Color. — Upper parts uniform dull sepia brown, becoming paler on 
the sides; under parts much lighter but without sharp line of demark- 
atiou. Tail bicolor, concolor with the body. 

Cranial and dental characters. — The skull resembles closely that of 
IS. vagrans, from which it differs in having the brain-case broader and 
more inflated. The front upper incisor has a small but distinct internal 
basal lobe connivent with its fellow. The first lateral unicuspid is 
slightly smaller than the second. The third is less than half the size of 

43 



44 



NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. 



|Xo.3. 



the fourth and nearly as small as the fifth, which Litter is minute but 
distinctly visible from the outside. (See accompanying figure.) 





-- -o 



Fig. 1. — Jaws with teeth of Sorex monticolus. 
Record of specimens collected of Sorex monticolus. 



"a 6 
5^ 


d 








.a 










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a 
5 


Locality. 


Date. 


Sex. 


a 

a 

a 
o 
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5 

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o 

-a 

a 

5 


Remarks. 


17600 
US38 


397 


San Francisco Mountain, 
Arizona. 


Aug. 22, 1889 


d ad.' 


109 


43 


13 


9,000 feet. 


2 Jill 


398 


do 


....do 


d ad. 


109 


44 


13 


Do. 


17599 
35B3K 


406 


do 


Aug. 28, 1889 


d ad. 


107 


45 


12.5 


11,500 feet. Type. 


17S01 

HBtrr 


494 


do 


Sept. 19, 1889 


d ad. 


107 


45 


13 


8,300 feet. 



Vesperugo fuscus Palisot tie Beauvois. Large Brown Bat. 

This is the commonest Bat of the pine plateau about the base of San 
Francisco Mountain, where numbers were seen every evening. Six 
specimens were shot. 

Record of specimens collected of Vesperugo fuscus. 



3 

a 

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5ft 

tog 


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ft 

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a 


Locality. 


Date. 


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235 


San Fra n c i s c o 
Mountain, Ariz . 


July 30, 1889 


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48 


21 


13 


5.5 


29 


44 


8 


77 


57 


19 


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18698 


236 
237 
256 


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65 
58 
63 


48 
51 
48 


23 
21 
22 


13.5 

14 

13 


5.5 
5.5 
5.5 


30 
31 


48 
48 


8.5 

9 

8 


83 
83 
79 


60 
60 
58 


19 

19 


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18699 


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18700 


....do 


Aug. 1,1889 


11 


18701 


257 
258 


....do 


do 




63 
58 


48 
42 


21.5 
21 


12.5 
12.5 


5 
5.5 


28 


44 


8 
8 


74 
77 


58 


18 
18.5 


10 


18702 


....do 


....do 


10.5 



Aug., 1890.] MAMMALS OF SAN FRANCISCO MOUNTAIN REGION. 



45 



Vesperugo hesperus H. Allen. Pigmy Bat. 

This tiny Bat is the smallest species kuown to inhabit the United 
States and is one of the most beautiful, its soft whitish fur contrasting 
handsomely with its black ears, lips, and wings. It was found in large 
numbers at Grand Falls on the Little Colorado River, and at the Grand 
Caiion of the Colorado along the Cocauini Plateau, and also about a 
small spring at the eastern foot of the great lava flow which ends about 
5 miles west of Grand Falls on the desert. It spends the day hiding in 
crevices in the cliffs, emerging at night-fall to drink and hunt its insect 
prey. Its flight is so swift and zigzag that it is a very difficult species 
to shoot in the rapidly fadiug light. The young, as usual among bats, 
fly more slowly and steadily and are easily killed. 

Record of specimens collected of Vesperugo hesperus. 



~s. 



£l £ 



Locality. 



Dau-. 



18685 Utile Colorado 
River, Arizona. 

1SG8G ... do 

18687 Grand Caiion of the 
Colorado, Arizona, 
do 



18688 
18689 
18690 
18G91i 
18692 
18693 



...do 
.. do 
...do 
...do 
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Aug. 19, 1889 

...do . 
Sept 10, 1889 



...do . 
....do . 

...do . 
Sept. 13, 18 

...do. 

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86 


29 


14 


9.5 


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19 


30.5 


3.5 


49 


35 


10 


? ad 


36 


31 


14 


9.5 


3 


18.5 


30 


4 


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13 


9 


3 


17.5 


29 


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34 


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d 


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28 


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17 


27.5 


3.5 


43 


33 


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d 


36 


30 


14 


9 


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18.5 


29 


3.5 


47. 5 


34 


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14 


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19 


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50 


37.5 


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29 


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8.75 


3.2 


18 





3.5 


47 


34 


10.5 


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35 


30 


14 


10 


3.5 


19 





3.5 


51 


38 


11.5 


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35 


tl. 5 


14 


9 


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4 


50 


35.5 


11.5 



6.5 

6.5 
5.5 

5.5 

5 

5 

5 

5.5 

5.5 



Vespertilio lucifugus LeConte. Common Brown Bat. 

Three specimens of a small brown bat, provisionally referred to this 
species, were secured at Little Spring, at the north foot of San Francisco 
Mountain. 



Record of sj>ccimcn* collected of Vespevtilio lucifugus 



3 

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18695 


254 

355 

299 


San Francisco 

Mountain, Ariz. 

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Aug. 1,1889 
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45 
49 


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41 
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18 

16 


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8.5 
8.5 


18696 


....do 


Aug. 7,1889 



46 



NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. 



[No. 3. 



Vespertilio evotis H. Allen. Long-eared Bat. 

A single specimen of this species was found dead near the water at 
Little Spring, at the north foot of San Francisco Mountain, on the morn- 
ing of August 15. 

Record of s-pecivicn collected of Vespertilio evotis. 



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18683 


363 


San Francisco 
Mountain, Ariz. 


Aug. 15, 1889 


d 


48 


44 


18.5 


19 


9.5 


24.5 


39 


7 


63 


50 


19 


9 



Vespertilio melanorhinus sp. nov. Black-nosed Bat. 

While encamped at Little Spring, at the north base of San Francisco 
Mountain, I found a small golden-brown bat hanging head down from 
the inside of a trough made of a large pine log. It hung so low that its 
sharp, black nose almost touched the water. It proved to be an adult 
male of an undescribed species belonging to an unnamed section of the 
genus Vespertilio, characterized by having the upper incisors parallel 
as in Kerivoula, instead of divergent as in Vespertilio proper. The only 
other Vespertilio known to possess this peculiarity is V. ciliolabrum, a 
species recently described by the writer from Kansas and New Mexico. 

VESPERTILIO MELANORHINUS sp. nov. 

Type No. 18684, £ ad. (in alcohol). U.S. National Museum. (Depart- 
ment of Agriculture collection.) From San Francisco Mountain, Ari- 
zona, August 4, 1889. Collected by G. Hart Merriam. (Original num- 
ber, 275.) 

Measurements. — Head and body, 40; tail vertebrae, 43; head, 16; ear 
from internal basal angle, 13; tragus, from inner base, 6; humerus, 22 ; 
fore-arm, 32; thumb, 3.5; third finger, 57 ; fifth finger, 44; tibia, 14.5; 
hind foot, 7. 

General characters. — Upper incisors parallel, directed inward ; inner 
incisor slightly larger than outer, its crown bifid. First upper premolar 
small but with well-developed conical cusp, situated on inner side of 
tooth-row in contact with base of canine ; second upper premolar minute, 
without well- developed cusp, situated on inner side of pm. 1, with which 
it is in contact ; third premolar nearly as large as canine, molariform. 

Crown of head but slightly elevated above plane of face ; muzzle, nar- 
row ; naked area over nostrils small ; glandular prominences between 
eyes and nose small and inconspicuous ; sides of upper lip clothed with 
a dense fringe of long, straight, and rather stiff hairs, as in V. cilio- 
labrum. 



Aug., 1890] MAMMALS OF SAN FRANCISCO MOUNTAIN REGION. 



47 



Size rather small, about equaling V. nigricans; tail a little longer 
than head and body, the extreme tip projecting. Ears shorter than 
head, rather narrow, the tips not reaching end of nose when laid for- 
ward ; anterior basal lobe angular, the horizontal and vertical borders 
meeting at a right angle; anterior (or inner) border of ear strongly 
convex on lower two-thirds, becoming straight on upper third; tip 
evenly rounded, with a slight posterior projection resulting from a 
shallow emargination, which occupies the upper half of the posterior 
(or outer) border; lower half of posterior border convex, with a thick 
lobule near the point of insertion, which is on a line with the anterior 
border of the tragus ; tragus long and slender, directed forward and 
outward ; upper third narrow ; anterior border straight in lower two- 
thirds, upper third convex, tip evenly rounded ; outer border with a 
distinct rounded lobule at base, above which it is convex on the lower 
two thirds, and then rapidly becomes narrower and is sinuate and 
slightly concave on the upper third. Thumb very short, only about 
half as long as foot, and armed with a sharp and strongly curved nail. 
Foot of medium size ; wing membranes from metatarsus at base of toes; 
upper surface furred only as far as a line drawn from the middle of the 
humerus to the knee ; under surface furred to a line joining the knee 
and elbow. Interfemoral membrane furred above to a little beyond 
middle of tibia; calcaneum reaching about half way from foot to tip of 
tail; postcalcaueal lobule small but distinct. 

Color. — Upper parts uniform dull golden brown, except the lips and 
face below and in front of the eyes, which parts are abruptly black ; 
under parts paler, palest posteriorly. Ears, face, and membranes black. 
Under fur everywhere blackish. 

General remarks. — Vespertilio melanorliinus requires comparison with 
but one species, namely, V. ciliolabrum, from which it differs in having 
shorter ears and longer legs and tail, as well as in color and minor 
details of form and proportions. 

Record of specimen collected of Vespertilio melanorhinus. 



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18684 


275 


San Franci sco 


Aug. 4, 1889 


Type. 






Mountain, Ariz. 

































Nyctinomus brasiliensis Is. Geoff. St. Hilaire. Brasilian Freo-tailed Bat. 

A Free-tailed Bat which is provisionally referred to this species is very 
abundant along the Little Colorado River near Grand Falls, where it 
inhabits crevice3 in the sandstone cliffs. It was not observed elsewhere. 
Seven specimens were secured. 



48 



NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. 
Record of specimens collected of Xyctinomus brasiliensis. 



[No. 3. 



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Locality. 


Date. 




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377 


Grand Falls of 


Aug. 14, 1889 


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Little Colo- 








































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Arizona. 




































18716 


378 


....do 


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9 59 


34 


11 


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13 


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24 


44 


8 


43 


16« 


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43 


12 


10 6 


18717 


379 


....do 


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9,59 


36 


19 


21 


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2 


25 


45 


7 6 


43 s 


17 


15= 


44 


12* 


10 c 


18718 


380 


.-.do 


....do 


9 54 






20 5 


13= 


2 


24 


43 


7 


40 


15 


14 


37 





10 6 


18719 


381 
382 
383 


....do 


...do 


? 53 
cf 54 

rf 56 


30 
33 
3! 


16 
18 
16 


20 5 
20 5 

20 5 


14 
13 5 
14 


2 

2 s 

2 


23 6 

24 

22 s 


42 5 

41 

40 


7 6 

7 
7 


41 
40 
38 


16' 

15 

15 


14 
14 
14 


42 
39 s 
37 


12 

12 
11 s 


11 


18720 


....do 


...do 


in 6 


1S721 


.. do 


— _dn 


10 6 




" 









Sciurus fremonti mogollonensis Mearns. Red Squirrel ; Chickaree. 

The Bed Squirrel of San Francisco Mountain inhabits the Boreal 
zones and is equally common, according to my observation, from the 
bottom of the Douglas fir belt to timber line. It is not nearly so noisy 
as its eastern congener, which its note suggests, though differing con- 
siderably from it. It feeds on seeds from the cones of the spruce and 
fir trees, and heaps containing many bushels of the scales of these cones 
may be found beneath the trees where it lives. Full-grown young were 
taken during the latter part of August. It is doubtful if the San Fran- 
cisco Mountain Chickaree ever descends so low as the Fihon belt, 
though it may do so in winter. At all events it was not seen in the 
Pine belt, which separates the Douglas fir from the Pinon. The differ- 
ence in altitude between the lower border of the Douglas fir, where 
this squirrel is common, and the upper border of the Pinon belt, is only 
a little more than 300 meters (about 1,000 feet), and the distance be- 
tween the two zones, at the point where they come nearest together, is 
only about a mile (on the northeast side of the mountain — in other di- 
rections it is much greater), and yet the faunal boundaries are so sharply 
defined that this seemingly insignificant difference constitutes a barrier 
as impassable as an arm of the ocean. 

Dr. E. A. Mearns has recently separated subspecifically the San 
Francisco Mountain Chickaree from the form inhabiting the Bocky 
Mountains.* The principal difference is that the former is slightly 
larger than the latter, with larger ears and hind feet. 

* Bulletin American Museum of Natural History, Vol. II, No. 4, pp. 277-280. Sepa- 
rates issued February 21, 1890. 



Aug., 1890.1 MAMMALS OF SAN FRANCISCO MOUNTAIN REGION. 49 

Record of specimens collected of Sciurus fremonti mogollunmais. 



"«e 6 


6 

M 

o 


mw 


231 


178 16 


248 


IT??' 


266 


17630 


270 


K5K 


271 


iiiis 


272 


5i«5 


359 


17607 

-14-1 . 


371 


him 


391 


um 


393 


17509 

ittn 


400 


A7S1* 


418 


aWKT 


419 


liiis 


552 


4HSI 


553 


1 7510 


554 


Jili'5 


555 


1 7506 
I4»il 


564 



Locality. 



San Francisco Mount- 
ain, Arizona. 
....do 



...do 
...do 
....do 
...do 
....do 
....do 
....do 
....do 
....do 
....do 
...do 
...do 
...do 
...do 
...do 
. . do 



Date. 



July 30, 1889 

July 31, 1889 
Aug. 2,1889 
Aug. 3,1889 

....do 

....do 

Aug. 14, 1889 
Aug. 17, 1889 
Aug. 21, 1889 

....do 

Aug. 22, 1889 
Aug. 28, 1889 
Aug. 29, 1889 
Sept. 29, 1889 

....do 

....do 

....do 

Oct. 5, 1889 



Sex. 


"Si 
a 
o 

"3 



H 


u 

<B 

> 

"5 
H 


o 
=2 
■a 
a 

a 


9 ad.. 


345 


142 


54 


cTad.. 


320 


121 


55 


d ad.. 


335 


130 


52 


cf ad.. 


320 


120 


55 


$ ad.. 


340 


140 


54 


cf im.. 


304 


127 


52 


§ im.. 


320 


137 


51 


cfim.. 


293 


129 


51 


cf ad . 


365 


156 


54 


$ im.. 


325 


141 


49 


9 ad.. 


350 


148 


54 


? ad.. 


340 


143 


54 


of ad.. 


330 


138 


51 


cTad.. 


340 


135 


53 


9 ad.. 


333 


142 


52 


9 ad.. 


323 


134 


50 


9 ad.. 


335 


143 


52 


? ad.. 


335 


137 


54 



Keniarks. 



Nursing; teats J. 

End of tail gone. 

Do. 
Nursing : teats J. 



Young ; milk in stom- 
ach. 



Lately nursing; teats J. 
Do. 



Teats j. 
Do. 

Do. 



Sciurus aberti Woodhouse. Abert's Squirrel. 

This large and handsome Squirrel is restricted to the pine area and 
was not detected in a single instance either in the Douglas fir belt above, 
or in the piiion and cedar belt below. At the same time it undoubtedly 
does invade the upper part of the piiion zone when the piiion nuts are 
ripe. It is common everywhere in the pines, and is particularly fond 
of the large seeds of Pinus flexilis, though the smaller ones of Pinus 
ponderosa constitute the greater part of its food because of the much 
greater abundance of the latter tree. 

It builds large covered nests of green pine branches, lined with soft 
grass, among the limbs of the trees, but also avails itself of holes in 
the trunks when suitable openings can be found. As a rule it is un- 
wary and may be easily approached within short gunshot range ; but 
when really frightened it runs swiftly over the lava rocks for along dis- 
tance before taking to a tree, often passing over the roots of many large 
pines in its flight. On reaching the tree of its choice, it climbs to the 
very top, and then, unlike any other squirrel with which I am familiar, 
crawls out to the small end of a branch about which it curls and re- 
mains motionless. When in this position it is exceedingly difficult to 
see, though considerably larger than our eastern Gray Squirrel ; and even 
the conspicuous white under side of the bushy tail is so coiled about 
the body as to aid in deceiving the observer. 

The long and haudsome ear-tufts are shed in the spring, and the new 
501— No. 3 1 



50 



NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. 



[No. 3. 



ones do not attain their full growth until the early part of winter ; hence 
specimens taken in summer have naked or nearly naked ears. The 
young begin to appear about the middle of September and are very 
tame and unsuspicious. Their ear-tufts grow much more rapidly than 
those of the adults, or at least begin to grow earlier in the season, so 
that in September and October the young have much longer tufts than 
their parents. 

Whether the species raises two litters in a season I was not able 
to determine, but females with udders full of milk were shot as late 
as the middle of September. 

Abert's Squirrel was first described by Dr. S. W. Woodhouse from 
specimens collected by himself at San Francisco Mountain in October, 
1851, when attached to the Sitgreaves Expedition. 

Record of specimens collected of Sciurus aberti. 





6 

'c! 

a 
"3c 
'B 

O 


Locality. 


Date. 


Sex. 


.a 

« 

"3 

O 

H 


u 
> 

'3 

H 

230 
225 
224 
230 
240 
220 
238 
230 
235 
195 
219 
227 
238 


o 

-a 

a 

s 


17491 
51427 

1741*0 
5W32 

Ml is 


267 
273 
274 
323 
404 
405 
428 
429 
430 
439 
462 
463 
499 




Aug. 2,1889 
Aug. 4,1889 
....do 


9 ad.. 
d ad.. 
<f ad.. 
9 ad.. 
d ad 
cCad.. 
d"ad.. 
cfad . 
9 ad.. 
d ad. 
9 im.. 
d"im.. 
9 ad.. 


515 
500 
505 
510 
520 
500 
495 
495 
500 
445 
455 
470 
510 


74 


do 


76 


do 


77 


do 


Aug. 9,1889 
Aug. 25, 1889 
Aug. 29, 1889 
Sept. 2,1889 
....do 


75 


do 


76 


17502 
1H3S 

17495 


do 


74 


do 


73 


do 


-75 


do 


....do 


77 


lit 33 


do 


Sept. 6,188.9 
Sept. 16, 1889 
....do 


73 


.do 


72 


1749R 
11134 

17495 


..do 


70 


...do 


Sept. 19, 18S9 


75 









Tamias cinereicollis J. A. Allen. Sau Francisco Mountain Chipmunk. 

Type No. gg 2 ad. IT. S. National Museum (Department of Agri- 
culture collection). From San Francisco Mountain, Arizona, August 
1, 1889. Collected by O. Hart Merriam and Vernon Bailey. Original 
number, 260. 

This new species of Chipmunk, which has just been described by Dr. 
J. A. Allen from specimens obtained at San Francisco Mountain,* is 
abundant throughout the pine plateau and the Douglas fir zone, and 
reaches up the mountain as high as timber line. It is most common 
where the Douglas fir and pine overlap. Unlike many of its congeners 
it is a good climber and is often found hidden among the dense foliage 
of the balsams. It is a lively and rather noisy species, feeding chiefly 
on seeds of small plants, and hibernating late or not at all. 

* Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., N. Y., Ill, No. 1, 94-96. Separates issued July, 1890. 



Aug., 1890.] MAMMALS OF SAN FRANCISCO MOUNTAIN REGION. 

Becord of specimens collected of Tamias cinereicollis. 



51 



-s 
*I 

17586 
54S33 

5JS24 

2I530 

17597 
21533 
17 5 9 5 
MB 31 

175S9 
StsTE 

17701 
54657 

1759C 

17585 
MSZf 

1768? 
21518 

«5'"1 
517 

17587 
54E23 

17581 
2 1 -, 2 „ 

17" Rl 
2JB17 

1759(1 
24628 

17678 
24614 

47680 
4618 

17679 



234 

246 
247 
259 
260 
269 
309 
346 
347 
348 
352 
357 
358 
365 
411 
412 
413 
414 
415 
41G 
565 



Locality. 



Date. 



do 
.do 
.do 
.do 
.do 
.do 
.do 

do 
.do 
.do 
.do 
.do 
.do 
.do 
.do 
.do 
.do 
.do 
.do 
.do 



San Francisco Mount- July 30,1889 
ain, Arizona 

July 31, 1889 

... do 

Aug. 1,1889 

....do 

Aug. 3,1889 
Aug. 8, 1889 
Aug. 12, 1889 

...do 

...do 

....do 

Aug. 13, 1889 
Aug. 14, 1889 

Aug. 16, 1889 
Aug. 28, 1889 

....do 

....do 

Aug. 29, 1889 
Aug. 26, 1889 
Aug. 28, 1889 
Oct. 5, 1889 





-a 








M 




a 


Sex. 


£ 








a 













H 


d 


212 


9 ad.- 


228 


9 ad.. 


228 


9 ad.. 


242 


9 ad.. 


235 


? ad.. 


222 


d 


231 


? 


225 


? 


21S 


d .... 


225 


9 


213 


? 


221 


d ■■■■ 


230 


d ad 


230 


9 .... 


220 


? 


225 


9 


230 


d--.. 


225 


9... 


223 


9 .... 


220 


d 


215 



106 
102 
1(j9 
104 

95 
101 
105 

96 
101 

99 
100 
106 
105 
101 
101 
105 
106 
101 
101 

97 



Remarks. 



34 

34 

36 Lately nursing; teats ^ 

35 Do. 

35 Nursing ; teats |. 

36 

35 

35 

34 

35 

34 

35 

35 

35 

33 

34 

35 

34 

35 

33 



Tamias dorsalis Baird. Gila Chipmunk. 

The Gila Chipmunk is tolerably common among the cliffs along the 
brink of the Grand Canon of the Colorado on the Cocaniui Plateau, but 
is shy and difficult to obtain. Chipmunks believed to be this species 
were seen at Walnut Canon and at Turkey Tanks, but were not 
secured. 

Becord of specimen* collected of Tamias dorsalis. 



"3 d 
J* 


6 










.3 


8 
u 






& a 
p3 


a 

3 
w> 
'S 






Locality. 


Date. 


Sex. 


01 

"3 
1 


u 
3 

k 

■3 

H 




•a 

a 

5 


!i«k: 


440 


Grand Canon, 




Sept 14,1889 


9 ad.. 


220 


100 


33 


i I ~ I "i 


436 


do 




. do 


d 


218 


100 


34 







Tamias leucurus cinuamomeus subsp. nov. White-tailed Chipmunk. 

This new subspecies of the Antelope Squirrel or White-tailed Chip- 
munk is tolerably common in suitable places throughout the Desert of 
the Little Colorado and the pifion belt, and is found also in the Grand 
Canon of the Colorado. It was observed in greatest abundance near 
Moa Ave, at the south end of Echo Cliffs, and along the upper part of 



52 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. , ' [No. 3. 

Moencopie Wash. It is a rock-loving species, and was seldom seen far 
from cliffs or lava beds, though in a few instances it was found on the 
open desert. At Echo Cliffs it was feeding largely on the seeds of 
Rhus aromatica trilobata ; in the pinon belt it was feeding on piiion nuts 
(Finns edulis) ; and one killed on the desert had its cheek pouches filled 
with cactus seeds (Opuntia sp. ?). 

This form of Antelope Squirrel may be distinguished from true Tamias 
leucurus by the following description : 

TAMIAS LEUCURUS CINNAMOMEUS subsp. nov. 

Type No. m|| 5 ad. U. S. National Museum (Department of Agri- 
culture collection). Echo Cliffs, Painted Desert, Arizona, September 
22, 1889. Collected by C. Hart Merriam and Vernon Bailey. (Original 
number 510.) 

Measurements. — Total length, 220; tail vertebrae, 76; hind foot, 40 
(taken in flesh). Ear from crown 6 (from dry skin). 

General characters. — Differs from Tamias leucurus in the greater length 
of the ears, tail, and hind feet, and in the ground color of the upper 
parts, which are uniform pale cinnamon, inconspicuously lined with 
black-tipped hairs, and slightly paler on the sides of the shoulders, 
rump, and legs than on the back. There is no trace of the grizzled-gray 
color which characterizes T. leucurus, particularly in winter pelage. 
Almost the only difference in color between the summer and winter 
coat is that the latter is darker and more vinaceous cinnamon. The 
summer pelage is short and coarse ; the winter pelage long and silky. 
The fall moult takes place in September and October and progresses 
from behind forwards. Several specimens procured during the latter 
part of September are in the change, the new coat covering the back 
and rump while the old remains on the head and shoulders. 

Specimens from the cedar belt are slightly darker than those from 
the desert. 

The Antelope Squirrel and its geographic races afford striking illus- 
trations of the exhibition of two principles of color adaptation com- 
bined in the same individual. When at rest, the animal is seldom 
seen, its color and markings being in complete harmony with its sur- 
roundings, in obedience to the law of protective coloration. But the in- 
stant it starts to run, the tail is elevated and its conspicuous white 
under-side is turned toward the observer, forcing itself upon the eye 
whether on the lookout for it or not. This is an example of what Professor 
Todd has termed directive coloration, under which head are classed 
colors and markings which promote mutual recognition at a distance.* 

* J. E. Todd in American Naturalist, xxn, 1888, 201-207, 



Aug., 1890.1 MAMMALS OF SAN FRANCISCO MOUNTAIN REGION. 53 

Record of specimens collected of Tamias leucurus cinnamomeus. 



S = 

955 



£5 

si 



hi ■!■■' 



fc 



510 
511 
517 
518 
519 
525 
539 
540 
431 



Locality. 



Moa Ave, Painted Desert, Arizona . . . 

do 

do 

do 

do 

Moencopie, Painted Desert, Arizona. 

Little Colorado River, Arizona 

do 

Pifion belt east of O'Leary Peak. ... 



Date. 



JZ -a 



Sept. 22, 1889 
....do 

...do 

...do 

....do 

Sept, 24, 1889 
Sept. 26, 1889 

....do 

Sept. 4, 18S9 







8 




J3 






11 


,a 








Sex. 


O 


u 






t> 
















o 


3 




H 


H 


? 


220 


76 


c? 


223 


71 


? 


200 


58 


9 


208 


69 


9 


220 


72 


J 


231 


70 


d 


210 


73 


? 


200 


62 


d 


220 


78 



40 
40 
38 
39 
39 
43 
38 
39 
39 



Tamias lateralis Say. Say's Ground Squirrel. 

Say's Ground Squirrel in the Sau Francisco Mountain country is pre- 
eminently characteristic of the pine belt, where it is the most abundant 
mammal. It extends up into the Douglas fir zone, and stragglers climb 
even higher on the mountain, a single individual having been found at 
timber line. It inhabits burrows in the ground, usually in rocky places, 
and does not climb trees. It has neither the grace nor agility of the 
arboreal squirrels (Sciurus) or the true Chipmunks (Tamias proper) but 
its motions, habits, and voice more nearly resemble those of the Sperm- 
ophiles (Spermophilus) and Prairie Dogs (Cynomys). 

Its principal food plant in August is Frasera speciosa, a rank herb which 
in general habit resembles our eastern mullein, having a large stalk 4 
or 5 feet in height. The Chipmunks were often seen climbing these 
stalks for the purpose of feeding on the seeds. A little later they 
turned their attention to the ripening seed-pods of Pentstemon barbatus 
torreyi. Their manner of procedure when feeding on the seeds of this 
plant is peculiar and interesting. They stand erect on their hind feet, 
clasp the stem between their fore paws, and bite it off as high up as they 
can reach. Then they draw the stem past their faces, biting off each 
pod as it is reached, until their cheek-pouches are enormously distended. 
One individual which I shot in the act had thirty-nine unbroken seed- 
pods in its pouches. They feed also upon the seeds of many other 
plants, and on green herbage. 

We had not been in camp a week when Say's Chipmunks began to 
come to pick up the crumbs that were left after each meal. Familiarity 
bred boldness, and we soon found them in the cook tent carryiug off 
our meager stock of provisions. These inroads became so serious that 
we were obliged to kill the culprits, in spite of our admiration of their 
audacity, beauty, and entertaining manners. They were so numerous 
that several dozen had to be destroyed before the depredations ceased. 

They became very fat during the latter part of August and the first 



54 



NOKTH AMERICAN FAUNA. 



[No. 3. 



half of September, at which, time they began to go into winter quarters. 
During hot days a few appeared until the time of our departure, the 
first week in October, but they were silent and did not run about much. 

Record of specimens collected of Tamias lateralis. 



232 
233 
238 
239 
252 
253 
261 
268 
288 
298 
30G 
307 
308 
317 
319 
320 
321 
331 
332 
333 
334 
335 
336 
337 
341 
342 
343 
344 
345 
353 
354 
355 
356 
36) 
417 
427 
562 
563 



Locality. 



San Francisco Mountain, Arizona 

do 

do , 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 



.do. 

.do. 

.do. 

.do. 

.do 

.do. 

.do. 

.do 

.do. 

.do. 

.do. 

.do. 

.do 

.do. 

.do. 

.do. 



.do. 
.do 
.do. 
.do. 
.do 



Date. 



July 30, 1889 

...do 

...do 

...do. - 
Aug. ?,1889 

...do 

Aug. 2,1889 

..do 

Aug. 5,1889 
Aug. 7,1889 
Ang. 8,1889 

...do 

...do 

...do 

....do 

....do 

...do 

Aug. 10, 1889 
....do 



...do 

...do 

.. do 

...do 

....do 

Aug. 11, 1889 

...do 

Aug. 12, 1889 

...do 

...do 

Aug. 13, 1889 

...do 

....do 

....do 

Aug. 16, 1889 
Aug. 29, 1889 
Aug. 31, 1889 
Oct. 4, 1889 
....do 



Sex. 



2 ad. 
2 ad. 
2 ad. 
cf im. 
2 ad. 
$ ad. 
9 im. 
cf im. 
d im. 
cfim. 
cf im. 
d ad. 
d ad. 
9 im. 
$ im. 
d --- 

9.... 

cf..-. 
2 ad. 
d im. 
cf im. 
cf im. 
2 ad. 
9 ad. 
cf ad. 
2 im. 
cf---- 
cf im. 
cf im. 
2 ad. 
cf ad. 
cf ad. 
d- — 
2 ad. 
2 im- 
cf ad. 
cf---. 

2-... 



267 
250 
247 
240 
280 
280 
263 
261 
267 
260 
255 
275 
292 
260 
250 
270 
255 
284 
300 
270 
242 
270 
280 
265 
285 
262 
27G 
272 
246 
273 
282 
280 
270 
290 
250 
266 
280 
265 



101 

97 

65 

90 

94 

104 

102 

97 

103 

100 

93 

97 

102 

97 

64 

90 

88 

98 

100 

96 

86 

98 

93 

88 

98 

92 

86 

76 

89 

95 

106 

106 

96 

102 

100 

95 

96 

93 



Aug., 1890.] MAMMALS OF SAN FRANCISCO MOUNTAIN REGION. 55 

Spermophilus spilosoma pratensis subsp. nov. Park Sperniophile. 

The Park Spermophile inhabits the grassy openings or parks of the 
pine belt, where its faint chirp is often mistaken for the note of a bird. 
It lives in holes among the tufts of bunch-grass and iris, on whose 
seeds it largely subsists, in common with Arvicola mogollonensis, with 
which it is often associated. It feeds also on green herbage, various 
small seeds, and grasshoppers, the latter forming an important part of 
the contents of the stomachs examined. 

The form inhabiting the north park on the main mountain-side is 
typical of the new subspecies, its general color being dark russet-hazel, 
and its spots clearly defined. Specimens from the black lava beds along 
the lower edge of the pine zone are still darker, exhibiting the darkest 
phase of coloration yet observed in the species, and are here named 
Spermophilus s. obsidianus. The form inhabiting the desert is very pale, 
and is here separated specifically under the name Spermophilus cryptospi- 
lotus, no intermediate forms having been discovered in the intervening 
region. In fact, the transition from the nearly black soil resulting 
from the decomposition of the trachyte and basalt of the lava beds to 
the light soil of the desert is so abrupt that there is no suitable place 
for iutergrades to occur. Protective coloration is almost as marked in 
this group as in the Ilorned Toads (Phrynosoma) of the same region. 

The form of Spotted Spermophile inhabiting the parks of the pine 
plateau region may be known from the following description : 

SPERMOPHILUS SPILOSOMA PRATENSIS subsp. nov. 

Type No. ^|1 ? a(L U. S. National Museum (Department of Agri- 
culture collection). Pine plateau at north foot of San Francisco Mount- 
ain, Arizona, August 5, 1889. Collected by 0. Hart Merriam and 
Vernon Bailey. (Original number 285. Teats f.) 

Measurements. — Total length, 197 ; tail vertebra;, 60 ; hind foot, 28 
(taken in flesh). Ear from crown 2.5 (from dry skin). 

Spermophilus spilosoma 'pratensis is somewhat larger and considerably 
darker than S. spilosoma proper. The upper parts are uniform russet- 
hazel, marked with numerous whitish spots from the shoulder to the 
base of the tail. These spots are bordered posteriorly with blackish, 
but are not clearly defined anteriorly or laterally. They show a tend- 
ency to arrange themselves in transverse rows. The under parts, both 
eyelids, and sides of the neck are soiled white. The proximal half of 
the tail above is colored like the back, but is mixed with yellowish and 
black hairs ; the distal half of the tail above is black, bordered with 
yellowish-brown. The under surface of the tail is yellowish, with a 
partly concealed sub-apical border of black, and a basal baud of rufous. 



56 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. ' [No. 3. 

Record of specimens collected of Spermophilus spilosoma pratensis. 



'-3 g 



.17670 



54 5 95 

MISi 

17687 
17675 
17673 



2' 7 6 
277 
278 
279 
281 
282 
*285 
286 
287 
293 
296 
300 
301 
322 
330 
339 
340 
384 
516 



Locality. 



San Francisco Mountain, Arizona 
do 



.do. 
.do. 
.do. 
.do. 
.do 
.do. 
.do. 
-do. 
.do. 
.do. 
.do. 
.do. 



.do. 
.do. 
-do. 



.do. 
.do. 



Date. 



Aug. 4,1889 
Aug. 5,1889 
...do 



...do 

....do 

... do 

...do 

...do 

...do 

Aug. 6,1889 
Aug. 7,1889 

....do 

....do 

Aug. 8,1889 
Aug. 10, 1889 

....do 

....do 

Aug. 20, 1889 
Sept. 23, 1889 



Sex. 



5 im 

? yg 

? yg 

tfJi 

?yg 

? ad 
? ad 

? yg 
cTyg 
d im 
2 im 
9 ad 
2 im 
9 im 

2 yg 
? yg 
? yg 
?yg 

cf... 



163 
149 
158 
150 
171 
195 
197 
166 

177 
170 
201 
176 
180 
175 
171 
173 
170 
195 



28 
26 
26 
26 
27 
30 
28 
26 
27 
29 
26 
31 
29 
28 
29 
26 
27 
28 
31 



* Type. 
Spermophilus spilosoma obsidianus subsp. nov. Dusky Spotted Sperraophile. 

The Dusky Sperinophile is a dark form of the Spotted Spermophile 
group. It inhabits the disintegrated lava soil of the cedar belt, and its 
relation to 8. crypto spilotus of the Painted Desert is precisely the same 
as that of Onychomys fuliginosus to Onychomys pallescens, both being 
striking illustrations of the law of color adaptation. Its relation to 
Spermophilus spilosoma pratensis of the parks in the pine belt is very 
close, and it may be regarded as a dark form of that animal. It is 
highly probable that the specimens here described do not represent 
the darkest phase of the subspecies, as they were taken in the upper 
edge of the cedar belt where the soil is not nearly so black as in many 
other places. 

SPERMOPHILUS SPILOSOMA OBSIDIANUS subsp. nov. 

Type No. ^^ $ ad. U. S. National Museum (Department of Agri- 
culture collection). Cedar belt, northeast of San Francisco Mountain, 
October 1, 1889. Collected by Vernon Bailey. (Original number 557.) 

Measurements (taken in flesh by collector).— Total length, 190 ; tail 
vertebras, 65 ; hind foot, 33. External ears represented by a mere thick- 
ened rim above. 

Spermophilus spilosoma obsidianus closely resembles 8. s. pratensis, 
but has longer hind feet and tail, and is uniformly darker, the ground 
color above being dull sepia-brown instead of russet-hazel. The whitish 



Aug., 1890.1 MAMMALS OF SAN FRANCISCO MOUNTAIN REGION. 



57 



dorsal spots are about as distinct as in pratensis, and reach further for- 
ward on the nape, but their black edgings are lost in the dark ground 
color. 

Record of specimens collected of SpermopMlus spilosoma ohsidianus. 



*6 










,9 


S3 








1 


Locality. 


Date. 


Sex. 


60 

a 

o 


/3 


43 

O 

=2 


Remarks. 


. r. 


tn 








a 




a 




EiS 


u 

O 








H 


H 


W 




I 7675 
21603 


32G 


Cedar belt, northeast of San 
Francisco Mountain. 


Aug. 9,1889 


d"ad.. 


210 


68 


33 




sliiij 


557 


do 


Oct. 1, 1889 


d" ad.. 


190 


65 


33 


Type. 



Spermophilus cryptospilotus sp. nor. Desert Spermophile. 

This new species is one of the few diurnal mammals which inhabit 
the hot and arid wastes of the Painted Desert, where it lives in burrows 
in the sand among the scattered bushes of the spiny grease wood (Atriplex 
canescens). I shot the type specimen near Tenebito Wasb, about 40 
kilometers (25 miles) east of the Little Colorado, August 17, 1889 ; and 
trapped several others at the foot of Echo Cliffs, in the northern part 
of the Desert, September 23. 

It is the palest representative of the group of which Spermophilus 
spilosoma may be regarded as the central form, and its bleached, yel- 
lowish pelage is in perfect harmony with its desert surroundings. It 
may be known from the following description: 



SPERMOPHILUS CRYPTOSPILOTUS sp. nov. 



Type No. ggf 



[Plate ix, figs. 1, 2, and 3: skull.] 
$ ad. U. S. National Museum (Department of Agri- 



culture collection.) From Tenebito Wash, Painted Desert, Arizona, 
August 17, 1889. Collected by C. Hart Merriam. 

Measurements (taken in flesh by collector). — Total length, 190; tail 
vertebrae, 60; hind foot, 32. Ear from crown 2 (taken from dry skin). 

Spermophilus cryptospilotus is the palest known form of the 8. sirilosoma 
group. In the type, which is an adult male in worn summer pelage, the 
ground color above is uniform buffy-clay-color, without spots. When 
held in certain lights, faint traces of the obsolete spots may be detected. 
Patches of the fresh fall coat are coming in behind the ears and on the 
sides of the neck. The tail is colored like the back, but is more yellow- 
ish below, and has a partially concealed subterminal black band. 

Another adult (No. 17G78, from the foot of Echo Cliffs), a recently 
nursing female (with pectoral teats |; inguinal f), is in the same worn 
breeding pelage though killed as late as September 23. The color above 
is tinged with vinaceous cinnamon, and there are no traces of spots. 
Two others taken at the same place the same day (Nos. 17077 and 
17079), and probably young of the year, though full grown, are in the 



58 



NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. 



| No. 3. 



new unworn pelage and are distinctly marked with whitish spots on 
tbe rump and posterior part of the back, and the rest of the back is 
mixed with hoary. 

Record of specimens collected of SpcrmopMlus cryplospilotus. 



£% 



513 
514 
515 
516 



Locality. 



Painted Desert, Arizona. 

do 

do 

do 

do 



Date. 



Aug. 17, 1889 

Sept. 23, 1889 

do 

...do 

... do 





■d 


ffi 








.a 




















Sex. 






o 






t> 






















o 
H 


eg 


H . 


<f ad . 


190 


60 


32 


? 


206 


72 


31.5 


?.... 


194 


66 


33 


? ad.. 


210 


72 


32 


d 


195 


62 


31 



Remarks. 



Type, from Tene- 
bito Wash. 



Teats I. 



Spermophilus grammurus Say. Ground Squirrel or Spermophile. 

The home of this Spermophile is in the pinon and cedar belt. It 
rarely occurs so high up as the lower edge of the pines, and still more 
rarely in the desert below the edge of the cedars. It is particularly 
abundant along the brink of the Grand Canon of the Colorado, living 
in ledges and crevices among the rocks, and feeding chiefly on pinon 
nuts when they are to be had. Unlike Abert's Squirrel, which it nearly 
equals in size, it is very wary and difficult of approach. Young about 
two-thirds grown were found near the mouth of their holes early in 
September. 

Record of specimens collected of Spermophilus grammurus. 



"§ a 

[z; g 
CO § 



_79S4 

i'-iu :i h 

-7682 
SiSTS 

17982 
»1B'J3 
17983 



436 
437 
457 
458 
438 
454 
455 



Locality. 



San Francisco Mountain, Arizona . 

do 

Grand Canon (7,500 feet), Arizona. 

do 

San Francisco Mountain, Arizona . 
Grand Canon (7,500 feet), Arizona. 
do 



Sept. 5,1889 

do 

do 

do 

.... do 

Sept. 14, 1889 
Sept. 13, 1889 



Sex. 



? ad.. 
& ad.. 
cf ad.. 
ad., 
cfim.. 
cf im.. 
* cfim- 



440 
478 
460 
460 
425 
405 
400 



183 
208 
194 
198 
190 
182 
146 



Tail short. 



Cynomys gunnisoni Baiid. Prairie Dog. [Plate ix, figs. 5, 6, and 7 : skull.] 

Prairie Dogs abound throughout the Sonoran region, occurring in 
scattered colonies on the Little Colorado Desert and in nearly all the 
parks in the cedar and pine belts. A few are found as high up as the 
parks that penetrate the Douglas fir zone. They are abundant in the 
large meadow in which Fort Moroni is situated, at the west foot of San 



Aug., 1890.) MAMMALS OF SAN FRANCISOO MOUNTAIN REGION. 



59 



Francisco Mountain, and are common within 2 miles from the town of 
Flagstaff, where I have seen dozens of them feeding in a field of ripen- 
ing oats which had been ruined by their depredations. Their boldness 
in permitting me to approach withm a stone's throw before diving into 
their burrows shows that no effort had been made to destroy them. As 
a rule they are not easily trapped, but under ordinary circumstances 
ranches of reasonable size may be kept clear of them by the use of 
bisulphide of carbon. 

The San Francisco Mountain Prairie Dog is typical gunnisoni of 
Baird, and differs from the white-tailed animal from Wyoming, the 
latter being as yet unnamed.* 

Record of specimens collected of Cynomys gunnisoni. 







Hifl 


d 

to 




!a 2 


a 


m -z 


be 


fci* 


O 


17SB9 
5J62B 


324 




464 


•j rati 


556 


17690 
5JS2B 


325 



Locality. 



Date. 



San Francisco Mountain, Arizona. Aug. 9,188!) 

do Sept, 16, 1889 

.... do Oct. 1,1889 

do Aug. 9,1889 





A 


8 




tr 


3 








Sex. 


a 


u 






> 




o3 















eS - 




H 


H 


$ ad.. 


330 


CO 


cf ad.. 


330 


59 


9 ad.. 


323 


53 


<S ini-- 


320 


70 



Castor canadensis Kunl. Beaver. 

Beavers still inhabit the lower part of the Little Colorado, at least at 
certain times of the year, but what becomes of them when the river 
dries up I am unable to say. Perhaps they move down into the Grand 
Canon of the Colorado, where water is always plentiful. We found 
Beaver cuttings at Tanner's Crossing. Woodhouse states that he found 
lodges on the Little Colorado, near the mouth of tbe Zuili, in October, 
1851 ; Kennedy says that in December, 1853, Beavers were " very com- 
mon in many places" along the Little Colorado; and Moll hausen speaks 
of finding their dams on the same stream. 

Onychomys fuliginosus sp. nov. Dusky Scorpion Mouse. 

This new species of Scorpion Mouse inhabits the pihon and cedar 
belt and the lava beds between San Francisco Mountain and the Desert 
of the Little Colorado, where its dark, almost blackish coloration, 
unique in the genus, is in as complete accord with the prevailing color 
of tbe decomposed lava and 'malpais' soil on which it lives as the 
pallid-cinnamon tints of its congener of the Painted Desert are with 
its environment. Tbe two forms, though inhabiting adjoining areas, 
exhibit tbe extremes of color variation at present known in the genus; 
yet it is clear tbat both sprang from a common ancestor in very recent 
times, for the region which they inhabit was only recently (geologically 
speaking) rendered habitable lor any member of the group. The high 



It will bo described in Fauna No. 4, under the name Cynomys I, neurits. 



60 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. ■ [No. 3. 

plateau on which the Desert of the Little Colorado is situated, and be- 
low the general level of which it has been excavated to the depth of 
1,000 meters (about 3,000 feet) by the drainage system of the now 
evanescent stream whose name it bears, was formerly clad in a forest 
of spruce and fir, the remnants of which still cling to the mountains 
and buttes that rise above its level, and was too cold and moist to suit 
the requirements of this type, whose center of distribution is in the 
semi-tropical arid lands of the Sonoran fauna. Therefore the differen- 
tiation must have taken place subsequent to the invasion of the region 
by the parent form, the well-known laws of protective coloration oper- 
ating to clothe the colonies which made their homes respectively on the 
light sandy desert, and in the black lava beds, with garbs which har- 
monize best with their distinctive surroundings. Nearly parallel cases 
occur in the Spermophilus spilosoma group, the Perognathus flavus group, 
and the Thomomys group inhabiting the same region. Better examples 
of color adaptation to environment would be hard to find. 

A complete series of intergrades between Onychomys fuliginosus and 
O. melanophrys pallescens (the pale form inhabiting the Painted Desert) 
might be expected were it not for the abrupt transition from the dark 
lava beds to the light-colored soil of the desert. Two somewhat inter- 
mediate specimens (Nos. 17,995 and 17,996) were in fact obtained just 
below the edge of the lava flow a few miles east of Black Tank. Still 
others may be discovered, in localities not yet explored, which will con- 
nect the Scorpion Mouse of the lava beds with that of the desert. But 
for the present it must be accorded full specific rank. 

The stomachs of the specimens collected contained scorpions and 
insects. 

The species may be known from the following diagnosis : 

ONYCHOMYS FULIGINOSUS sp. nov. 

Type 2™§ 9 ad. U. S. National Museum (Department of Agriculture 
collection.) From Black Tank lava beds, northeast of San Francisco 
Mountain, September 27, 1889. Collected by C. Hart Merriam and Ver- 
non Bailey. (Original No. 547. This specimen is a very old female with 
the teeth worn down flat. She contained two large embryos.) 

Measurements. — Total length, 160; tail vertebras, 47; hind foot, 21.5 
(taken in flesh). Ear from crown, 12.5 ; ear from anterior root, 16 (taken 
from dry skin). 

General diameters. — Size rather large; tail and hind feet short; ears 
rather large, with lanuginous tufts at base scantily developed ; pelage 
coarser than in the melanophrys group. 

Color.— Above, blackish slate, darkest along the middle of the back, 
faintly tinged with fulvous on the sides ; under parts white, the hairs of 
the belly plumbeous at base. Tail dusky above, except the terminal 
fourth which is whitish like the under side ; a ring of dusky surrounds 
the base of the tail. The color of the upper parts is more extended 



Aug., 1890.] MAMMALS OF SAN FRANCISCO MOUNTAIN REGION. 



61 



than in any of the known forms. It completely covers the sides, com- 
ing down to the belly, from which it is separated by a very sharp line 
of demarkation; it also completely covers the posterior and outer 
aspects of the hind legs to the ankles, where it ends abruptly. 

General remarks. — The general color of Onychomys fuliginosus suggests 
the immature pelage of 0. leucogaster, but comparison of specimens 
soon dispels the illusion. The type of the present species is one of the 
oldest specimens of the genus that has fallen under my observation. 



Record of specimens collected of Onychomys fuliginosus. 



"go 

■ a 


o 

3 
a 
'So 
'3 
O 


Locality. 


Date. 


Sex. 


■a 

W) 

a 

3 

O 

H 


8 

2 

CD 

u 

o 

> 

'3 
H 


o 

.o 

a 

S 


a 
a 

O 

E 
o 

« 


49 

a - 

41 O 


Remarks. 


flBCS 


547 


Black Tank, lava beds 


Sept. 27, 1S89 


9 ad.. 


160 


47 


21.5 


12.5 


16 


Type ; contained 






northeast of San 
















two large 


em- 






Francisco Mountain, 
















bryoe. 








Arizona. 




















mr s 


432 


Cedar belt east of San 


Sept. 5,1889 


<$ im.. 


152 


45 21 


12 


16 










Francisco Mountain, 
























Arizona. 




















liaog 


560 


do 


Oct. 4, 1889 


rf im.. 


145 


45 


21 5 


12 


16 






idsirr 


501 


Black Tank, lava beds 
northeast of San 
Francisco Mountain, 
Arizona. 


Sept. 21, 1889 ? ad.. 


160 


53 


22.5 


12 


15.5 






17998 

3JSOG 


500 


do 


do 


d" im.. 


135 


42 22 


11.5 


15.5 

















Onychomys melanophrys pallescens subsp. nov. Desert Scorpion Mouse. 

This form ot Onychomys inhabits the Painted Desert and the high 
mesa on which the Moki pueblos stand. 

Like its congeners it is carnivorous, feeding principally on insects 
and scorpions. The stomachs of all of the specimens procured contained 
scorpions, and many were distended with them to the exclusion of other 
food. One contained the hair and flesh of a mouse. The species was 
very troublesome because of its habit of preying upon the small mam- 
mals found in our traps. It may be known by the following diagnosis: 

ONYCHOMYS MELANOPHRYS PALLESCENS subsp. nov. 

Type No. ^ S ad. Merriam Collection. Moki Pueblos, Apache 
County, Arizona, May 18, 1888. 

Measurements of type (from dry skin, apparently somewhat over- 
stuffed). — Total length, 168 j head and body, 125 ; tail, 45 ; hind foot, 22 ; 
ear from crown, 12 ; from anterior root, 16.5. 

General characters. — Size large, exceeded only by O. longipes of Con- 
cho County, Texas j ears, feet, and tail much as in O. melanophrys ; fur 



62 



NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. 



[No. 3. 



full, long, and soft; orbital ring absent or inconspicuous; lanuginous 
tuft at base of ear well developed. 

Color. — Above, pale tawny-cinnamon, palest anteriorly, and bright- 
est on the flanks and rump ; not noticeably mixed with black-tipped 
hairs. Below, pure white to roots of hairs. 

General remarks. — Onychomys melanophrys pallescens differs from 0. 
melanophrys in its somewhat larger size and decidedly paler coloration. 
An adult female from the Moki villages agrees in all respects with the 
type. An adult female (No. 17998) from Echo Cliffs, near the north end 
of the desert, is somewhat smaller and the colors are slightly deeper. 
A young adult male (No. 18002) from a gulch a few miles north of 
Moencopie, has a longer hind foot (measuring 24 millimeters), and the 
upper parts are clay-colored, faintly washed with tawny, particularly on 
the flanks. Three young from Echo Cliffs have the upper parts clear 
gray, slightly mixed with black-tipped hairs, and in one of them (No. 
17999) the fur of the belly is plumbeous at base. 

m 

Record of specimens collected of Onychomys melanophrys pallescens. 



a o 

.2(25 

ll 
to 

in s 



24Su3 

■2 -1 -J i' 5 



2I3T1 
180O1 



528 
520 
530 
531 
532 



Locality. 



Painted Desert, Arizona 

do 

do 

, do 

do 



Date. 



Sept. 25, 1889 
Sept. 24, 1889 
Sept. 25, 1889 

.....do 

do 











a 






S 




* 




,=! 


h 


















bC 


<B 






Sex. 


a 
"3 


> 


o 
o 

i3 


a 

o 
























H 


H 


M 


H 


? ad. 


150 


46 


21.5 


12 


c? ad.. 


160 


49 


24 


12 


c? im.. 


142 


47 


23 


12 


$ J» v - 


123 


38 


21 


12 


d juv 


123 


38 


20.5 


12 






15.5 

16 

15 

15.5 

15.5 



Hesperomys eremicus Baird. Silky Cliff Mouse. 

Hesperomys eremicus was described by Baird in 1857 from specimens 
collected at Fort Yuma on the Lower Colorado. It is a rock-loving 
species and usually makes its home in cliffs or ledges in the desert. 
Following up the Colorado Kiver it passes through the Grand Canon 
and enters the Desert of the Little Colorado. Specimens were secured 
along* the sandstone cliffs that border the latter stream, and also at Echo 
Cliffs. In the Grand Caiion it is excessively abundant, outnumbering 
all the other mammals collectively, and proving a nuisance to the 
trapper by constantly getting into traps set for Pocket Mice and other 
more desirable species. 

During the two nights spent in the cafion these mice came about my 
blankets in great numbers and I was forced to place my scanty stock 
of provisions in a small tree for protection; but even there it was not 
safe, for the mice are excellent climbers, and I shot one by moonlight 
as it peered down at me from a low branch. 



Aug.. 1890.] MAMMALS OF SAN FRANCISCO MOUNTAIN REGION. G3 

Record of specimens collected of Hesperomys eremicus. 



1 1 

PS 



17954 
34SB5 

179SO 
17967 

21-7K 

1 796 I 
54B7S 

1 792.; 
CT837 

179.17 

testa 

179S9 

1 tSr! 

179-27 
24S3S 

179?B 

148 30 

17952 
2136} 

1 79R9 

refits 

54B77 
1 7B6H 

2i-<;-, 

J 7961 

1 7937 

21-4- 

tfHS 

l 79J6 

tffii 
rettt 
KfH 

24^ 



443 
470 
472 
477 
479 
482 
485 
486 
487 
488 
489 
490 
444 
445 
471 
473 
478 
480 
481 
483 
491 
492 
441 
474 
475 
476 
481 
507 
533 
534 
536 
535 
508 
537 



Locality. 



Grand Caiion, Arizona .. 

do 

do 

.... do 

do 

.... do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do. 

do 

do 

do 

do 

Painted Desert, Arizona . 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 



Date. 



Sept. 15, 1889 
Sept. 11, 1889 

...do 

Sept. 12, 1889 
...do 



do 

...do 

...do 

....do 

....do 

...do 

Sept. 14, 1889 
Sept. 15, 1889 
Sept. 15, 1889 
Sept. 11, 1889 

....do 

Sept. 12, 1889 

...do 

....do 

....do 

Sept. 14, 1889 

...do 

Sept. 15, 1889 
Sept. 11, 1889 

...do 

...do 

Sept. 12, 1889 
Sept. 22, 1889 
Sept. 26, 1889 

...do 

...do 

...do 

Sept. 22, 1889 
Sept, 26, 1889 



Sex. 



d ad.. 
d" ad.. 
*? ad. 
? ad.. 
9 ad.. 
d ad.. 
d ad.. 
9 ad.. 
d ad.. 
9 ad.. 
9 ad.. 
J ad.. 
d ad.. 
9 im.. 
d nn.. 
9 im.. 
9 im.. 
9 im.. 
9 im.. 
d"im.. 
9 im.. 
9 im.. 
9 im.. 
9 im.. 
d im.. 
d im.. 
d im . . 
d ad.. 
d ad.. 
d ad.. 
d ad.. 
9 ad.. 
9 juv. 
9 im.. 



.3 
fcl 

a 



H 


u 

.a 

s 
t> 

'3 

H 


200 


109 


166 


72 


195 


100 


178 


98 


190 


103 


174 


91 


185 


101 


182 


100 


176 


95 


185 


105 


175 


97 


194 


106 


172 


96 


185 


103 


172 


99 


172 


96 


182 


100 


180 


98 


190 


106 


173 


98 


178 


100 


171 


96 


167 


85 


162 


91 


170 


95 


167 


82 


160 


93 


178 


98 


196 


106 


175 


95 


181 


103 


195 


103 


1C8 


82 


100 


87 



w 

23 

22 

23 

22.5 

20 5 

20 

20.5 

20.5 

20 

20 

24 

21 

22 

22 

22 

20 

21 

22 

21 

21.5 

21 

22 

21 

21 

21 

19 

22 

23 

21.5 

21 

22 

22 

21.5 



* Teats g. 

Hesperomys megalotis sp. hov. Leaf-cared Cliff-Mouse. 

This huge-eared Mouse was found at two places only : the Grand 
Canon of the Colorado and the Desert of the Little Colorado. In the 
latter locality it inhabits the ruins of ancient cave dwellings in the 
side of a lava flow about a mile east of Black Tank. Specimens of the 
same or a closely related form were collected by Mr. Bailey at Moccasin 
Spring, Arizona, near the boundary lino between Arizona and Utah, in 
December, 1888. 



64 



NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. 



[No. 3. 



HESPEROMYS MEGALOTIS sp. nov. 
[Skull, plate iv; teeth, plate in, figs 1,2,3, and 4.] 

Type No. ^| $ ad. U. S. National Museum (Department of Agri- 
culture collection). From Black Tank, Desert of the Little Colarado, 
Arizona, September 21, 1889. Collected by 0. Hart Merriam (original 
number 502). 

Measurements. — Total length 200 ; tail vertabrre 108 ; pencil 10 ; hind 
foot 24 (taken in flesh). Ear from crown 21; ear from anterior notch 
25 (taken from dry skin). 

General characters. — Size large ; ears enormous ; tail long^nd sharply 
bieolor, with a long pencil. 

Color. — Upper parts yellowish-brown, strongly suffused with reddish- 
brown [other specimens lack this suffusion], sides washed with tawny- 
salmon ; ears, narrow ring round eye, and upper surface of tail dusky. 
Under parts including feet, white; a salmon suffusion across breast. 

General remarks — Hesperomys megalotis requires comparison with but 
one species, namely, H. truei from Fort Wingate, N. Mex. Through 
the kindness of Mr. F. W. True, Curator of Mammals in the National 
Museum, I have the type of H. truei before me. Its ears, hind feet, and 
tail are shorter than those of H. megalotis; its skull is broader and 
flatter, and the notch between the condyle and angle of the jaw is much 
deeper. Unfortunately the teeth of H. truei are worn down to the gums 
and show no characters. The hind foot of H. truei measures 21 mm , 
while in the smallest of four specimens of H. megalotis it measures 23 mm . 
Shufeldt records the length of the tail vertebra as 82 mm . in H. truei; the 
shortest perfect tail in four specimens of H. megalotis measured 103 mm , 
a difference of 21 mm ., or a little more than 20 per cent. 

Record of specimens collected of Hesperomys megalotis. 



















a o 
.26 


6 








+3 


8 
u 






X 


Locality. 


Date. 


Sex. 


a 
a 


u 


+3 
O 

=2 


• to 


a 
'S 








"a 


t> 


T3 

a 


^ 


u 

o 




• 




o 
H 


H 


a 




469 

*502 




Sept. 11, 1889 
Sept. 21, 1889 


9 ad., 
cf ad.. 


195 


103 


24 


5TStl 
1794 3 


Black Tank, in Deseit northeast of San 


200 


108 


24 






Francisco Mountain, Arizona. 














541 
545 




Sept. 27, 1889 


?.... 


210 


112 


23 






...do 


cf 


178 


183 


23 


5SBSS 









'Type. 



t Tail broken. 



Hesperomys leucopus rufinus subsp. nov. White-footed Mouse. 

The White-footed Mouse of San Francisco Mountain abounds in the 
open parks as well as in the forests, and extends up the mountain to or 
beyond the upper limit of tree growth. As in most other parts of 



alc, 1800] MAMMALS OF SAN FRANCISCO MOUNTAIN REGION. 65 

North America it is a constant annoyance to the trapper, getting into 
all kinds of traps set for other small animals, particularly Arvicolas, 
Shrews, and Spotted Spermophiles. As a rule, traps must be kept in 
one place long enough to catch most of the White-footed Mice of the 
immediate vicinity before much success can be expected with other 
species. This is due in part to the abundance of these Mice, and in 
part to the fact that they take all kiuds of bait — bread, cheese, corn- 
meal, oatmeal, and flesh,- particularly birds' heads, a favorite bait for 
Shrews. They are chiefly nocturnal, but are sometimes caught in the 
day-time. Seeds of small plants and remains of grasshoppers were 
found in most of the stomachs examined. 
The new form may be known from the following description : 

HESPEROxMYS LEUCOPUS RUFINUS subsp. now 
[Teeth, plate m, tigs. 5, 6, 7, and 8.] 

Type No. gp $ ad. U. S. National Museum. From San Francisco 
Mountain, Arizona (altitude 9,000 feet), August 22, 1889. Collected 
by O. Hart Merriam and Vernon Bailey (original No. 401 ; contained 7 
embryos; teats, | .) 

Measurements. — Total length, 168; tail vertebrae, 69; pencil, 5; hind 
foot, 19 (taken in the flesh);, ear from crown, 13; ear from anterior 
notch, 18 (taken from dry skin.) 

General characters— Similar to JET. leucopus, but with somewhat larger 
and broader ears and much shorter tail. There is a lanuginous tuft at 
anterior base of ears, of which hardly a trace exists in H. leucopus. The 
hallux ends opposite the base of the secoud toe, while in H. leucopus it 
passes beyond this point. 

CWor.— Upper parts, deep tawny brown, darkest along the middle of 
the back, and brightest along the sides, the body color reaching to the 
elbows and heels; under parts, including feet, white; tail, sharply bi- 
color, dusky above, whitish below; ears, dark. 

Cranial characters.— The zygomatic arches are much broader anter- 
iorly than in H. leucopus, and the incisive foramiua extend further back- 
ward, reaching the plane of the first molar. The most marked cranial 
character is the shape of the zygomatic arches; anteriorly they stand 
out from the skull with a distinct 'elbow' at the bend, and in some 
specimens are actually broader in front than behind, while in H. leu- 
copus they are very much narrower anteriorly than posteriorly. 

General remarks.— I have compared the San Francisco Mountain 
White-footed Mouse with nearly a thousand specimens from various 
parts of North America, and find that it most closely resembles the 
form inhabiting the Adirondack region in northern New York. The 
difference in length of tail, however, is .meat, and the cranial differences 
are those above mentioned. 
r,i)l_No. 3 5 



QQ NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. 

Becord of specimens collected of Hesperomys leucopus rufinus. 



LNo.3. 






18057 

2¥§7B 

17G3S 
? -'4S7-l 

^ j '-: 4 i 

ijss'i" 

176 5 2 

2455« 

1 7fi4« 

1 7 r, k o 
5558B 

Msg3 

ii-sSi" 

24573 
2TB73 

54551 
3IBS5 
sdHb 

2 4sO" 



240 
241 
249 
250 
262 
289 
290 
291 
297 
310 
314 
315 
329 
*401 
425 
426 
242 
263 
265 
292 
293 
316 
410 
420 



Locality. 



San Francisco Mountain, Arizona. 



..do 
...do. 
..do. 
..do. 
..do 
...do 
...do. 
..do. 
...do. 
..do. 
..do. 
...do 
. . . do . 
.. do. 
...do. 
...do. 
...do. 
..do. 
...do. 
..do. 
...do. 
do. 
...do. 



Date. 



July 31, 1889 
...do 

Aug.' 1,1889 

....do 

Aug. 2,1889 
Aug. 6,1889 

....do 

... do 

Aug. 7,1889 
Aug. 8,1889 

...do 

....do 

Aug. 10, 1889 
Aug. 22,1889 
Aug. 30, 1889 

..do 

July 31,1889 
Aug. 2,1889 

.. do 

Aug. 6, 1889 

....do 

Aug. 8,1889 
j Aug. 27, 1889 
I Aug. 29, 1889 



Sex. 



d ad. 
d ad. 
9 ad. 
d ad. 
d ad. 
$ ad. 
9 ad. 
d ad. 
d ad. 
d ad. 
d ad. 
d ad. 
d ad. 
$ ad. 
? ad. 
d ad. 
cTim. 
d im. 
cfim. 
d*im. 
9 ini. 
d im. 
:" im. 
d ini- 



157 
160 
167 
101 
168 
155 
163 
150 
170 
160 
153 
159 
151 
168 
168 
152 
125 
152 
150 
142 
140 
121 
112 
155 



W 



21 

21 

20 

19 

21 

19 

20 

19-1- 

21 

21 

20 

20 

19 

19 

20 

20 

20 

20 

20 

20 

20 

19 

19 

20 



-Type. 
Hesperomys leucopus sonoriensis Le Coute. Desevt White-footed Mouse. 

This subspecies inhabits the Painted Desert. Several immature 
specimens from the edge of the lava beds near Black Tank, and oue 
from the Grand Canon of the Colorado, are here provisionally cata- 
logued under this name though too young to show positive characters. 
These are Nos. 1792G, 17932, 17942, 17915, 17916, 17917, 179J8. 

Record of specimens collected of Hespicromys leucopus sonoinensis. 



5 o 

CO 3 

&3 



18054 

17931 

24S45 

2 1* 4:; 

1: 1S5J 



2~35§ ? 

17365 

2IS7-3 



521 
529 
542 
543 
546 
526 
527 
544 
548 
519 
442 



Locality. 



Date. 



Painted Desert, Arizona 

do 

do .-" 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do ; Sept. 27, 1889 

do ....do 

do I --- do 

Grand Canon, Arizona Sept. 15, 1889 



Sept. 24, 1889 
Sept. 25, 1889 

...do 

Sept. 27, 1889 

....do 

Sept, 25, 1889 
...do 



Sex. 



d im. 
9 ad. 

d 
d 
d 
d 
? 
d 
d 
9 

d 



160 
156 
160 
156 
152 
146 
136 
136 
148 
144 
140 



H 



20 

20 

20 

20 

20 

19.5 

18 

19 

20.5 

19. 5 

19.5 



Aug., 18J0.] MAMMALS OF SAN FRANCISCO MOUNTAIN KEGION. 



67 



Neotoma mexicana Baird. Round-tailed Wood Rat. [Skull, plate X, figs. 5, 6, 7, and 8. ] 
This Wood Rat is abundant throughout the pine area, where it makes 
its nests in the crevices of rooky ledges. Bulky nests of sticks were 
found on the ground in the cedar and pifiou zone, and also in the ancient 
cave dwellings of the Indians in the volcanic craters and lava flows be- 
low the mountain and in the desert. Cactus spines in large quantities 
form an important element in and about these nests, and doubtless 
serve as a protection against Coyotes and Skunks. Whether or not the 
different kinds of nests are made by the same species I am unable to 
say. Wood Rats are abundant in the Grand Caiion of the Colorado, 
where specimens were captured along the cliff at the top of the canon 
and also near the bottom. 

Record of specimens collected of Neotoma mexicana. 






»li*l 



'in'" 



Locality. 



366 
367 
372 
373 
561 
361 
440 
558 
447 
449 
450 
453 
448 



San Francisco, Mountain, Arizona. 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

Grand Canon, Arizona 

do 

do 

do 

.... do. 



Date. 



Aug. 16, 1889 

....do 

Aug. 17, 1889 

....do 

Oct, 4, 1889 
Aug. 15, 1889 
Sept. 16,lf89 
Oct. 2, 1889 
Sept, 15, 1889 

...do 

... do 

Sept. 14, 1889 
Sept. 1 ■ 



Sex. 



9 ad. 
9 ad. 
<S ad. 
d ad. 
tfad. 
? ira. 
' im. 
9 im. 
9 ad. 
9 ad. 
9 ad. 
9 ad. 
, im 



355 
347 
383 
363 
345 
265 
130 
305 
340 
340 
330 
325 
320 



163 
161 
176 
164 
160 
125 
48 
146 
157 
162 
154 
152 
150 



37 

37 

37 

36 

37 

34 

215 

36 

36 

36 

35 

36 

34 



- Veiy young. 
Arvicola alticolus sp. nov. Mountain Vole. 

This oew species occupies higher altitudes and moister situations 
than A. mogollonensis, the only other Vole known to inhabit the region. 
It is common along the borders of the higher parks, and in the moist 
meadows at and just above timber line on San Francisco Mountain, and 
ranges down to the lower part of the Douglas fir zone, where several 
specimens w r ere caught at the point where Little Spring comes out of 
the ground. Thus its vertical range is from 2,500 to 3,500 meters 
(8,200 to 11,500 feet). Its runways were noticed in great abundance in 
a moist park on the summit of Kendrick Peak. At timber line, on San 
Francisco Mountain, it feeds extensively on seetls of Primula parryi. 

The species may be known from the following description: 

ARVICOLA (MYNOMKK) ALTICOLUS sp. nov. 
[Skull, plate V, dgs. 1 and2; teeth, plate VI, figs. 1,2,3, and 1. | 

Type No. JJJJJ 9 ad. U. S. National Museum (Department of Agri- 
culture collection). From Little Spring (altitude 2,500 meters — 8,200 
feet), San Francisco Mountain, Arizona, July 31, 1889. Contained 6 



68 



NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. 



[No. 3. 



embryos ; teats |. Collected by 0. Hart Merriam and Vernon Bailey. 
(Original number 243.) 

Measurements. — Total length, 170; tail vertebrae, 56; hairs, 8; hind 
foot, 20 (taken in flesh). Ear from crown, 8; from anterior root, 14 
(taken from dry skin). 

General characters. — Size medium or rather large ; ears large, pro- 
jecting nearly 4 millimeters above the fur ; antitragus small, hardly half 
as large as in A. longicaudus ; hind feet of medium length ; tail loug but 
shorter than in A. longicaudus. 

Color. — Upper parts dark bister, suffused with pale reddish-brown, 
and conspicuously lined with black ; under parts hoary plumbeous, the 
line of demarkation distinct but not sharp. Tailbicolor; dark brown 
above, darkest near the tip ; grayish brown below. 

Cranial characters. — Skull large and rather narrow across the zygo- 
matic arches; rostral portion long; incisive foramina about twice as 
long as premaxillary symphysis ; nasals ending posteriorly nearly on a 
line with the ends of premaxillaries and terminating in a rounded or 
pointed extremity [this character does not hold in the young] ; nasals 
not strongly decurved ; jugals not expanding into a vertical plate or 
lamella; zygomatic arches spreading posteriorly; outer border of 
parietals convergent anteriorly. 

Dental characters. — The dental characters of this species are those of 
the western division of the section or subgenus Mynomes of Eafinesque — 
the western species, as a rule, lacking the postero-internal loop or tri- 
angle of the middle upper molar, which is a conspicuous character in the 
eastern A. riparius. 

General remarks. — Arvicola alticolus is nearly related to A. longicaudus 
from the Black Hills of Dakota. It differs from A. mogollonensis, the 
only other species known to inhabit the mountains of northern Arizona, 
in many particulars, which for convenience of reference have been ar- 
ranged antithetically in tabular form as follows : 

Distinctive diagnoses of Arvicola alticolus and A. mogollonensis. 



A. mogollonensis. 



A. alticolus. 



Total length 

Tail vertebrae 

Hind foot 

Katio of zygomatic breadth to basilar 

length of skull. 
Incisive foramina 



Less than 140"" 11 . 
Less than 32 mm * . 

18">"> 

About 68 



Jugal bone 



Zygomatic arches 

Nasals ending posteriorly 



But little longer than premax- 
illary symphysis. 

Expanding into a vertical plate 
or lamella. 

Widest anteriorly 

Far short of premaxillaries - . 



.Posterior ends of nasals 

Nasals 

Outer borders of parietals 



Emarginate 

Strongly .deflexed 



More than 170 mm . 
More than 50 mm . 

20mm. 

About 62. 

About twice as long as pre- 
maxilliary symphysis. 

Not expanding into a vertical 
plate or lamella. 

Widest posteriorly. 

Nearly on a line -with pre- 
maxillaries. 

Hounded or pointed. 

Not strongly deflexed. 



Parallel anteriorly Convergent anteriorly. 



* Thirty-two millimeters is the maximum measurement of tail in fifteen specimens of A. mogollon- 
ensis. 



Air, 1890.1 MAMMALS OF SAN FRANCISCO MOUNTAIN REGION. 



69 



Record of specimens collected of Arvicola alticolus. 



£1 

PS 



23545 

1761R 

24S52 

13554 

11614. 



24BS5 

17617 

'lir,-.- 

17811 

17618 

Hsii 



Localitv. 



Date. 



251 

409 
422 
495 
403 
4(17 
408 
423 
424 
496 
497 
498 



San Francisco Mountain, July 31,1889 
Arizona. 

do Aug. 1,1889 

do Aug.29,1889 

do \.ug.30,1889 

do Sept. 19, 1889 

do Aug.23,1889 

do Aug.29,1889 

do j Aug. 28, 1889 

do Aug.30,1889 

do do 

do Sept. 19,1889 

do do 

do do 



w 



170 56 20 



170 
193 
182 
175 
148 



Remarks. 



Type. Contained six em- 
bryos. 
55 20 Adult. 

53 20 Contained five embryos. 
55 20 Adult. 
62 20 Do. 



4. 



d 


123 


36 


19 


d 


157 


52 


21 


? 


123 


39 


19 


? 


120 


38 


19 


d 


122 


41 


19 


d 


121 


37 


19 


d 


123 


39 


19 



20 Immature. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 



Arvicola mogollonensis Mearns. Mogollon Vole. 

This species, which has been recently named by Dr. Mearns* from 
an immature specimen collected at Baker Butte, on the Mogollon 
Mesa in central Arizona, inhabits the parks in the piue belt of San 
Francisco Mountain, but was not found at a greater altitude than 2,500 
meters (8,200 feet). It lives in small colonies, with well-beaten paths 
or runways between the various burrows, and feeds principally on the 
seeds of Artemisia torightii and related species, and also upon those of 
the blue iris (Iris missoiiriaisis), and the stems of various grasses. 

Dr. Mearns named the species from a young individual with a broken 
skull, but did not point out any characters by which it can be distin- 
guished from other members of the genus. Through the courtesy of 
Dr. J. A. Allen, Curator of Mammals in the American Museum of Natural 
History, New York, I have had the opportunity of examining the type 
and comparing it with ray series of the same species from San Fran- 
cisco Mountain.! In order that the species may be recognized by future 
students of the group, I have prepared the following description, based 
on fifteen specimens collected at San Francisco Mountain, Arizona: 

Arvicola mogollonetiMs Mearns. 
[Skull, plate V, figs. 3 and 1 ; teeth, plate VI, lijjn. 5, (i, 7, ami 8.] 
(This species belongs to the western division of the subgenus My- 

II nines.) 

Measurements. — Total length, 125 to 140; tail vertebras, 24 to 32 ; hairs, 
5; hind foot, 18 (taken in flesh). Ear from crown, 5.5; from anterior 
base, 11 (taken from dry skin). 

'Ball. Am. Mns. Nat. Hist. New York, II. I, 283. Author's separates published Feb- 
ruary 81, L890. 
t S:in Francisco Mountain is aboul 96 kilometers (GO miles) north of Baker Butte. 



70 



NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. 



[No. 3. 



Genera} characters. — Size small ; tail and hind feet very short ; hind 
feet broad and hairy; ears moderate, not concealed by fur; antitragus 
of medium or rather large size ; pelage long and soft, not " short and 
hispid " as stated by Dr. Mearns. 

Color. — Upper parts uniform light bister, strongly and uniformly 
suffused with pale reddish-brown, with no tendency to become darker 
along the middle of the back, and not conspicuously mixed with black 
tipped hairs ; under parts uniform dark plumbeous overlaid with hoary, 
due to the whitish tips of the hairs. Tail indistinctly bicolor: above, 
concolor with the back ; below somewhat lighter. 

Cranial characters. — Skull short and broad ; zygomatic arches widest 
anteriorly or with sides parallel ; rostrum short ; incisive foramina not 
more than one-half longer than premaxillary symphysis ; nasals abruptly 
deflexed, emargiuate posteriorly, and falling far short of premaxillaries ; 
jugals expanding anteriorly into a vertical plate or lamella the lower 
part of which embraces the end of the zygomatic process of the maxil- 
lary ; outer borders of parietals parallel anteriorly. 

Dental characters. — The dental characters of Arvicola mogollonensis are 
those of the subgenus Mynomes. The postero-internal loop of the mid- 
dle upper molar is generally wanting, as usual in western Arvicolce, but 
in one specimen it is present (No. 24563). The last upper molar com- 
monly has three re-entrant angles ou its inner face, but sometimes has 
four owing to an extra fold on the posterior crescent. The front lower 
molar usually has two and sometimes three closed triangles on the inner 
side. The range of variatiou is well shown in the accompanying figures 
(see pi. VI, figs. 5-8). 

An antithetical diagnosis of A. mogollonensis as compared with A. 
alticolus has been given under the head of the latter species. 

Record of specimens collected of Arvicola mogollonensis. 



§1 






284 
294 
302 
303 
304 
305 
311 
312 
313 
327 
328 
392 
399 
338 



Locality. 



Date. 



San Francisco Mountain, | Aug. 5,1889 

Arizona. 
do 



.do 
.do 
.do 
.do 
.do 
.do 
.do 
.do 
.do 
.do 
.do 
-do 
.do 



...do 

Aug. 6,1889 
Aug. 7,1889 

...do 

....do 

... do 

Aug. 8,1889 

....do 

...do 

Aug. 10, 1889 

...do 

Aug. 21, 1889 
Aug. 22, 1889 
Aug. 10, 1889 







W 






.=3 


















© 






























08 


> 


p 


11 
X 


o 
H 


a 


w 


? 


139 


32 


18 


2 


127 


28 


17 


d 


130 


27 


18 


d 


130 


30 


18 


9 


130 


29 


18 


d 


126 


28 


i7 


d 


133 


30 


18 


d 


127 


24 


18 


d 


128 


26 


16 


? 


128 


27 


16 


9 


120 


20 


18 


$ 


135 


28 


18 


d 


123 


26 


18 


d 


128 


26 


18 


d 


135 


31 


18 



Remarks. 



Contained three em- 
bryos. 
Nearly full grown. 
Old. 

Do. 
Contained three em- 
bryos. 
Adult. 
Do. 



Do. 
Do. 



Aug., 1890.] MAMMALS OF SAN FRANCISCO MOUNTAIN REGION. 



71 



Thomomys fulvus Woodhouse. Woodhouse's Pocket Gopher. 

This species was first described by Woodliouse from specimens pro- 
cured at Sati Fraucisco Mountain in October, 1851. It is very abun- 
dant throughout the pine belt, and occurs also in suitable places all the 
way up the side of the mountain to timber line. 

Record of specimens collected of Thomomy s fulvus. 



r * - 






Locality. 



Date. 



2 4 BBS 

am 

1 7664 
17. 16 9 

1 ••? i 



245 
349 
350 
351 
362 
385 
386 
387 
395 
402 
421 
244 
318 
388 
389 
390 
394 
396 
4!):: 



San Fraucisco Mountain, Arizona July 31, 1889 

do Aug. 12, 1889 

do ...do 

do Aug. 13, 1889 

do Aug.15,1889 

do Aug.21,1889 

do do 

do do 

do Aug. 22, 1889 

do Aug. 23, 1889 



.do. 

.do. 
.do. 
.do. 
.do. 
.do. 
.do. 
.do. 



Grand Canon, Arizona 



Aug. 29, 1889 
July 31,1889 
Aug. 8,1889 
Aug. 21, 1889 

... do 

...do 

Aug. 22, 1889 

....do 

Sept, 14, 1889 



d ad. 
d ad. 
$ ad. 
d ad. 
d ad. 
9 ad. 
d"ad. 
9 ad. 
9 ad. 
d ad. 
f ad. 
? ini. 
im. 
9 im 
9 im. 
9 im. 
9 im. 
9 im. 
d im. 



222 
203 
210 
215 
231 
220 
210 
210 
205 
217 
187 
216 
178 
194 
178 
100 
205 
193 
170 



30 
28 
29 
30 
30 
34 
30 
30 
28 
30 
27 
29 
29 
28 
27 
26 
30 
28 
25 



Thomomys perpallidus Merriam. Desert Pocket Gopher. 

This pallid form of Pocket Gopher occurs in isolated colonies in the 
Painted Desert. Specimens collected in the sand flats bordering the 
Little Colorado are almost as pale as the type, which came from the 
Colorado Desert in southern California, excepl that the tips of the 
hairs of the back, occiput, and sides of the face are strongly marked 
with tawny clay-color. 

Record of specimen collected of Thomomys perpallidus. 





o 








A 


i 
u 




o 


jZ| 








it 
















a 




o 


* - 

' r. 


3 

"a 


Locality. 


Date. 


Sex. 






■d 
a 




u 
O 

504 








O 

H 


H 


3 






Sept. 22, 1889 


d 


232 


79 


33 







Dipodops longipes ^m. et sp. imv. Moki Kangaroo Bat. 

This new Kangaroo Rat is common throughout the Desert of the Lit- 
tle Colorado, but was not found elsewhere. Like its relatives, it lives 



72 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. ' [No. 3. 

in burrows iu the sand, which are usually closed in the day-time. Mr. 
Bailey long ago made the discovery that the holes of most species of 
this group may be recognized at a glance from the fact that they are 
never dug straight down on a level plain, but are made in a side bill or 
sand bank so that, the entrance is nearly horizontal, and as a rule there 
is a little mound of sand at the mouth of the burrow, which the animal 
throws out for the purpose of closing the hole for the day. 

The American Kangaroo Eats fall naturally into two groups of 
generic value, one possessing four toes on the hind foot, the other five. 
The type of the genus Dipodomys (D. phillipsi, from Real del Monte, 
Mexico, described by Gray in 1841) has four hind toes; hence the ge- 
neric name Dipodomys must be restricted to the four-toed species. The 
first five-toed species described is D. agilis (from Los Angeles, Califor- 
nia, named by Gambel in 1848), which therefore becomes the type of 
the new genus, Dipodops. The genus Dipodops is based on the pos- 
session of five complete toes on the hind foot (each toe consisting of 
metatarsal, phalanges, and claw), without regard to any other charac- 
ter whatsoever. Discussion of the cranial characters of the species of 
both genera may be found in a special paper soon to be published by 
the writer. 

The species inhabiting the Desert of the Little Colorado may be known 
from the following description : 

DIPODOPS LONGIPES sp. nov. 

Type No.^H $ yg. ad. U. S. National Museum (Department of Agri- 
culture collection). Foot of Echo Cliffs, Painted Desert, Arizona, Sep- 
tember 22, 1889. Collected by C. Hart Merriam. (Original number, 
512.) 

Measurements. — Total length, 275; tail vertebra?, 165; pencil, 25; 
hind foot, 42 (taken in flesh). Ear 'from crown, 8 (taken from dry skin). 

General characters. — Similar to Dipodops agilis, but with longer hind 
feet, shorter tail, and much paler coloration. 

Color. — Above, uniform ochraceousbuff, finely lined with black- tipped 
hairs, the latter being most noticeable on the rump ; a large pure white 
spot over each eye and another behind each ear. Cheeks between whis- 
kers and ears, mostly white, slightly mixed with ochraceous. Under 
parts pure white to base of hairs, including fore legs and feet, band 
across thighs, and hind feet (except soles, which are dusky). Upper 
tail stripe dusky, continuous to end of tail, but paler on the crested pen- 
icillate portion, where it involves the terminal half of each hair only; 
under tail stripe very narrow posteriorly and indistinctly continuous 
with the dark tip of the pencil ; lateral white stripes broad and distinct 
from basal white ring to white basal portion of pencil. 

Cranial characters. — The skull of Dipodops longipes differs from that 
of D. agilis in the following particulars : The vault of the cranium is 



Air,., 1890.] MAMMALS OF SAN FRANCISCO-MOUNTAIN REGION. 



73 



more highly arched ; the parietals (viewed from above) do not send off 
a long and slender posterolateral process ; the zygomatic bridge of the 
maxillary is evenly rounded off below, instead of sending off a postero- 
external lobule ; the distance across the posterior border of the frontals 
equals that from the front of the nasals to the posterior end of the nasal 
branches of the premaxillaries, and also that from the anterior point of 
the frontal to the mastoid inflation ; and the pit in the horizontal ramus 
of the mandible, behind the last molar, is very much larger than in 7). 
agilis. 

It should be mentioned that the present species needs no comparison 
with I), chapmani, recently described by Dr. Mearns from Fort Yerde. 

Record of specimens collected of Dipodops longipes. 



"So 
P 

r ^ to 



Locality. 



hlltt 



505 
*5I2 



Painted Desert, Arizona . 

do 

do 



Date. 



Sept. 22, 1889 
Sept. 23, 1889 
Sept. 24, 1889 



Sex. 



255 
d j 275 
d 255 



137 
1G5 
150 



* Type. 

Perognathus apache Merriam. Apache Pocket Mouse. 

This Pocket Mouse is probably common in suitable localities through- 
out the Little Colorado Desert. The type specimen of the species came 
from the high mesa on the east side of the Painted Desert. I caught 
an immature individual near Moa Ave at the foot of Echo Cliffs, Sep- 
tember 25. Its hole was under a greasewood bush on a sand plain. 

Record of specimen collected of Perognathus apache. 



"3 o 












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a 'A 


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£a 


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<* 


- 


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3 

a 


Locality. 


Date. 


Sex. 







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=2 


Remarks. 


^Z 










3j 


a 


a 




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8 

O 








OS 
H 


3 


a 




xm 


524 


Painted Desert, Ari- 
zona. 


Sept. 25, 1889 


d im . 


139 


72 


18.5 


Foot of Echo Cliffs. 



Perognathus flavus subsn. Baird's Pocket Mouse. 

An undescribed form of Perognathus flavus inhabits the Desert of 
the Little Colorado. An immature specimen was caught in Tanner's 
Gulch, a few miles north of Moencopie, September 24, but it is too 
young to admit of satisfactory description. 



74 



NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. 
Record of specimen collected of Perognathus Jlavus subsp. 



[No. 3. 



'-5 s 


6 

as 

a 


Locality. 


Date. 


Sex. 


btl 

a 


i 

u 

> 




«2 


Remarks. 


15* 


O 








O 

H 


■3 


a 

a 




17706 
MBi2 


522 


Painted Desert, Ari- 
zona. 


Sept. 24, 1889 


cTitn -- 


125 


60 


19 


Near Moencopie. 



Perognathus fuliginosus sp. nov. Dusky Pocket Mouse. 

The Dusky Pocket Mouse is a dark form of Perognathus Jlavus, in- 
habiting the lava beds. It is modified in the same manner and for the 
same reason as Onychomys fuliginosus, and the remarks under the head 
of the latter species apply equally well to the present. An immature 
specimen was captured in the cedar and pinon zone on the black lava 
or ' malpais' northeast of the mountain, October 4. It may be known 
from the following diagnosis : 



PEROGNATHUS FULIGINOSUS sp. nov. 



Type S aim. 



u u ±l^. U. S. National Museum (Department of Agriculture 
collection). From Cedar belt, northeast of San Francisco Mountain, 
altitude 7,000 feet, October 4, 1889. Collected by Yernon Bailey. 
Original number, 559. 

Measurements. — Total length, 116; tail vertebrae, 58; hind foot, 18 
(taken in flesh by collector) ; ear from crown, 4 (taken from the dry 
skin). 

Characters. — Similar to Perognathus Jlavus, but with the upper parts 
uniform sooty brown, faintly tinged with yellowish-brown ; post-auricu- 
lar spots and backs of ears yellowish ; a fulvous lateral stripe, ill-defined 
below, merges into the color of the belly, which is strongly suffused with 
fulvous. In coloration this species is unique in the genus. 

Perognathus (Chaetodipus) penicillatus Woodhouse. Woodkouse's Pocket Mouse. 
San Francisco Mountain is the type locality of this species, but I did 
not succeed in finding it. Woodhouse, who discovered it when attached 
to the Sitgreaves Expedition, captured his specimen in October, 1851, at 
San Francisco Mountain, but does not state the exact spot. His journal, 
however, shows that it was not far from their camp No. 17, which seems 
to have been at Hart Spring at the west base of the mountain. 

Perognathus (Chaetodipus) intermedius Merriam. Iutermediate Pocket Mouse. 
[Skull, plate V, figs. 5, 6, and 7.] 

Five specimens of this species were collected by Vernon Bailey and 
myself in the Grand Canon of the Colorado directly below the tank 
known as 'Canon Spring,' on the Cocanini Plateau, north of San Fran- 
cisco Mountain. They were found living in small colonies among rocks 
and cactus in the Agave zone, which is below the level of the Painted 
Desert. Like other members of the genus they are strictly nocturnal 



Aug, 1P90.1 MAMMALS OF SAN FRANCISCO MOUNTAIN REGION. 



75 



and feed chiefly on seeds. Two additional specimens were caught in 
the cliffs of red sandstone at Tanner's Crossing on the Little Colorado 
River in September. 

The specimens here mentioned differ from the type (which came from 
Mnd Spring in northwestern Arizona) in having the rump spines more 
numerous and of larger size. They vary considerably in lengths of 
tail and hind feet, as shown by the following table of measurements. 
One individual in particular (No. ^^ $ from the Grand Canon) departs 
more than usual from the type and resembles in some respects P. spina- 
tus. Thus the interparietal might almost be described as broadly pen- 
tagonal, and the posterior border of the parietals is about as long as 
the anterior. The front lower molar, however, is that of intermedins, 
and the evident immaturity of the specimen may account for its pecul- 
iarities. 

Record of specimens collected of Perognathus (Chcetodipus) intermedins. 



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Is 


fc 




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a 


X A% 


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'£ 
O 


17974 


465 


i::<:3 


466 


17976 


467 


17!»75 

Hfsg 


468 


SJBStf 


506 1 




538 



Locality. 



Grand Canon, Arizona 

do 

do 

do... 



506 | Painted Desert, Arizona . 
.do 



Date. 



Sept. 12, 1889 

...do 

...do 

...do 

Sept, 22, 1889 
Sept, 26, 1889 







■-. 




-a 












so 






a 




Sex. 


a> 








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=8 




H 


H 


cf ad.. 


183 


101 


$ ad.. 


175 


105 


? 


175 


100 


d 


185 


105 


? 


172 


100 


$.... 


166 


93 

1 



Erethizon epixanthus Brandt. Yellow-Haired Porcupine. 

Porcupines inhabit the spruce belt and the sub-alpine or timber-line 
zone of San Francisco Mountain. No specimens were secured, but nu- 
merous gnawings were observed. Their favorite food-tree is the fox-tail 
pine (Pinus aristata). Hundreds of stunted trees of this species grow- 
ing near timber line show ugly scars where the bark has been eaten. 
The gnawings which I examined are on the west side of the mountain. 
Most of them are on the east side (the uphill side) of the trees, and their 
height above the ground varies from one to three or four meters. Their 
average size is hardly greater than a man's hand, though some of them 
are much larger. 

During the fall and winter the Porcupines sometimes descend from 
the mountain to lower levels, and on several occasions they have been 
found along the Little Colorado. Sitgreaves and Keunerly mention in- 
stances of this kind, and a cattleman told me of a similar case that fell 
under his observation. Keunerly states that in December, 1853, Porcu- 
pines were common along the Little Colorado, where "they find a bounti- 
ful subsistence in the bark and tender twigs and buds of the young 



76 



NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. 



[^0.3. 



cottouwood trees;" and Mollhauseu, who was with Kennerly, says in 
his 'Diary,' "from time to time we saw porcupines, Cercolabes novce, 
lazily climbing the trees." 

LepustexianusWaterkonse. Jack Rabbit. [Skull, plate VII.] 

Jack Rabbits are common throughout the upper levels of the Little 
Colorado Desert and in the pinon and cedar belt, and sometimes enter 
the parks of the pine belt. During the intense heat of the day we fre- 
quently started them from their hiding places under the low branches 
of junipers or in tufts of greasewood. At such times they remain abso- 
lutely motionless, squatting close to the ground with their long ears 
laid flat upon their backs. When in this position their colors harmon- 
ize so well with their surroundings that they are rarely seen until they 
start with a great bound and gallop swiftly away. 

Record of specimens collected of Lepus texianus. 



'a 6 
'■S 3 

£2 


6 

to 

"3 



Locality. 


Date. 


Sex. 


M 

a 

4) 


8 

S-i 

O 
H 



=2 


Remarks. 


% 

D 3 


.2° 
o 








es 

o 
H 


a 

w 




17 7 13 
■>4U1'.> 


435 


San Francisco Mount- 
ain, Arizona. 


j Sept. 5, 1889 


2 ad.. 


610 


95 


142 


Killed in cedar belt ; 
nursing. 


17714 
i lliUii 


503 


Painted Desert, Ari- 
zona. 


Sept. 21, 1889 


$ ad.. 


630 


100 


11) 




17712 
34 6 IB 


550 


San Francisco Mount- 
ain, Arizona. 


Sept. 27, 1889 
■ 


? ad.. 


610 


92 


140 


Killed in cedar belt. 



Lepus arizonae J. A. Allen. Arizona Cotton-tail; Jack Cotton-tail. 

[Skull, plate VIII.] 

When overtaken by night iu the lava beds of the cedar belt east of 
O'Leary peak, and many miles from water, I first made the acquaint- 
ance of the Jack Cotton-tail, a species which differs strikingly from the 
other American 'Cotton-tails,' in the great length of its ears. Just at 
dusk a family of them came out of their hiding-places in the chaparral 
to feed upon the scattered tufts of bunch-grass which exist even on 
this porous, arid soil. We found them again, and at the same hour, in 
the broad strip of pifion and cedars which separates the tall pine forest 
of the San Francisco Mountain Plateau from that of the Cocanini Pla- 
teau bordering the Grand Caiion of the Colorado. Afterward they 
were found to be tolerably common throughout the pilion and cedar 
zone, and were sometimes encountered in the Desert, where I shot one 
in the daytime in one of the small red sand-stone canons of the Little 
Colorado River near the point known as Tanner's Crossing. 

The great length of the external ears in this species (fig. 2) is cor- 
related with a corresponding increase in the size of the bony parts which 
incase the organs of hearing, the audita! bullae being fully double the 
size of those of Lepus sylvaticus (see pi. vin, figs. 1 and 31. The tail 
also is much longer than iu the other members of the sylvaticus group. 



Aug., 1890.] MAMMALS OF SAN FEANCISCO MOUNTAIN REGION. 



77 



The flesh of the Arizona Cotton-tail is white and tender, but rather 
dry. 








It is possible that this species may prove to be the same as Lcpus 
bachmani, described by Waterhouse in 1838, from a specimen collected 
by Douglas (luring his overland journey from Texas to California, in 
which case, of course, Waterhouse's name will have precedence. 



78 



NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. 
Record of specimens collected of Lepus arizonas. 



[No. 3. 



to £ 



Locality. 



Date. 







8 


















© 








Sex. 




h 






> 
















o 






H 


H 


9 ad*. 


393 


57 


d im . 


368 


38 


cfiui . 


360 


48 


d im - 


325 


48 


$ im . 


330 


46 



~ ^ 



SJB53 

176R4 



433 
434 
460 
459" 
461 



San Francisr o Mountain, Arizona 

do 

do 

do 

do 



Sept. 4,1889 
...do 

Sept. 15, 1889 
Scjpt. 16, 1889 
Sept. 15, 1889 



* Ear 85 mm . 

Cariacus macrotis Say. Black-tailed Deer. 

The Black-tailed Deer is abundant on San Francisco Mountain and 
neighboring peaks and buttes, where it inhabits the boreal zoues, com- 
ing down into the pines in fall and winter. A fawn in the spotted coat 
was captured August 5. 

Iieeord of specimen collected of Cariacus macrotis. 



1 o 

Si 


6 

to 








5 

OS) 


ffl 






















« 3 
MS 


a 
'Si 


Locality. 


Date. 




"3 


9 

> 


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Remarks. 


P S 


o 






ifl 


H 


H 


W 




S5CE5 


280 


San Francisco Mount- 
ain, Arizona. 


Aug. 5,1889 


cfjuv. 


730 


94 


280 


Fawn in spotted coat. 



Antilocapra americana Ord. Autelope. 

The Antelope is still common in the San Francisco Mountain region, 
where it ranges from the upper levels of the Little Colorado Desert to 
the upper part of the pine zoue. Its center of abundance seems to be 
in the piiion belt. It does not inhabit the Painted Desert proper, nor 
the Douglas fir zone. Small herds, composed of two or three to a dozen 
individuals, were seen frequently in the parks throughout the pine belt, 
and occasionally in the pine forests away from any openings. They 
were seen near Partridge Spring and within a mile of Little Spring. A 
few years ago Antelopes were very abundant throughout this region, 
but they have been killed off by both Indians and white men. The In- 
dians hunt them on horseback among the lava beds just below the piiion 
belt, east and northeast of O'Leary Peak. 

Ovis canadensis Shaw. Mountain Sheep. 

A small herd of Mountain Sheep inhabits the main peak of San Fran- 
cisco Mountaiu, where I saw eight or nine individuals together on one 
occasion (August 23). They are said to leave San Francisco Mountain 
in early winter, and to cross over to Kendrick Peak where they remain 



Am;., 1890] MAMMALS OF SAN FRANCISCO MOUNTAIN REGION. 79 

until spring, the reason being that there is better feed and protection 
on Kendrick than on San Francisco Mountain. The two peaks are 
only 12 miles apart. Sheep are common at the Grand Cafion, where I 
surprised a small herd September 14. 
Felis concolor Linnaeus. Mountain Lion ; Panther ; Cougar. 

The Mountain Lion occurs throughout the San Francisco Mountain re- 
gion, but is not abundant. It is found chiefly in the pinon and pine areas, 
though it descends at times iuto the desert. During our stay at the 
Grand Canon of the Colorado, about the middle of September, a Mount- 
ain Lion carried off a Deer shot by a sheep-herder and left out over 
night. It is much dreaded by the herders, who lose many sheep and 
lambs from its depredations. 

Two Xavajo Indians whom we met at Red Horse Tank, September 10, 
had quivers made of skins of the Mountain Lion with the tails left on. 
The tails were much shorter and the color of the pelage darker than in 
the eastern animal. 
Lynx baileyi sp. nov. Plateau Wild-Cat. 

Wild Cats are common throughout the region, but whether or not 
more than one species is represented is an open question. Their tracks 
were often seen at Little Spring, where they came to drink at night. 
The only specimen secured was an old female which I shot September 
28, in the spruce belt near the upper border of the park that extends 
far up the mountain above Hart Spring. Although killed as early as 
4 o'clock in the afternoon on a clear day, its stomach was distended 
with small mammals, proving that it sometimes hunts in broad day- 
light. It contained one Red Squirrel or Chickaree (Sciurus fremonti 
moyollonensis). one Mountain Chipmunk (Tamias cinereicollis), two 
Pocket Gophers (Thomomys fidvus), and one Mountain Vole (Arvicola 
alticolus). 

The Wild Cat of San Francisco Mountain belongs to an undescribed 
species, of which I have specimens from various parts of the great Colo- 
rado Plateau in Colorado, Utah, and Arizona. It may be known from 
the following description : 

LYNX BAILEYI * ep. nov. 
[Skull, plato XI. ] 

Type No. ^ 9 ad. Merriam Collection. Moccasin Spring, Arizona, 
December 28, 1888. Collected by Vernon Bailey. (Original number 
400.) 

Measurements. — Total length, 745; tail vertebra', 132 j hind foot, 105 
(measured in flesh by collector). Ear from crown, 00 (from dry skin). 

General characters. — Lynx baileyi differs from Lynx ru/us of the east- 
ern United States in being uniformly paler above and in having a shorter 
tail and softer fur. The upper parts arc everywhere suffused with a 



* Named in honor of my assistant, Mr. Vernon Bailey, who baa collected more ne w 
species of North American mammals than any other person. 



80 



NOETH AMERICAN FAUNA. 



fNo.a 



buffy tint, and the dark markings are decreased in area or altogether 
suppressed. Thus, the blackish marblings of the face and forehead are 
obsolete, and the black half ring at the tip of the tail is not more than 
half the width of that of L. rufus. On the other hand, the anterior 
border of the ear is distinctly whitish, in marked contrast to the black 
immediately behind it, while in L. rufus the same border is dark tawny- 
brown. The white hind toes of L. rufus are absent. 

Cranial characters. — The vault of the cranium is greatly inflated com- 
pared with that of L. rufus, and the constriction behind the supraorbital 
processes is much less pronounced. The distance from the foramen 
magnum to the post-palatal notch equals that from the front of the 
nasals (in median line) to the plane of the supraorbital processes, while 
in L. rufus che former measurement greatly exceeds the latter. The 
tympanic portion of the audital bulla is inflated and projects anteriorly 
slightly beyond the inflated capsular portion, making the bulla as a 
whole wider anteriorly than posteriorly. The reverse is true of L. rufus. 
In Lynx baileyi a distinct sulcus marks the line of attachment of the sep- 
tum which separates the tympanic chamber from the inner chamber. 
This sulcus is not evident in L. rufus except in the young. 

I am indebted to Mr. John H. Sage, of Portland, Connecticut, for the 
loan of two Connecticut specimens of Lynx rufus. One of these is a 
very old male of great size killed at Chester, Connecticut, December 
1, 1887. It measured 959 mm and weighed 14£ kilograms (32^ pounds). 
The other is a half-grown female kitten, killed at the same locality 
December 19, 1887. It measured 658 mm and weighed 4 kilograms (8 
pounds 10 ounces). 

Record of specimen collected of Lynx baileyi. 



<s 6 
03 3 


d 

Is 

a 
■& 
'u 
O 


Locality. 


Date. 


Sex. 


a 

o 
H 


£8 

u 

u 

> 

'3 
H 


o 

=2 
■a 

a 

W 




551 




Sept. 28, 1889 


9 ad. 


780 


130 


170 


2TB61 







Canis latrans Say. Coyote. 

The Coyote is common in the Sonoran fauna, and is very destructive 
to young lambs and to fruit. Several were seen on the Painted Desert, 
one in the act of feeding on a watermelon at the Moki pueblo of Moen- 
copie. 

In common with most carnivorous mammals the Coyote can not go 
many days without water. Woodhouse states that one was killed with 
a club at a small spring on the desert in western Arizona, where his 
party remained for two days. He says the Coyotes " became desper- 
ate, and would come to drink whilst the men and their mules were 
standing there," Dr. Kennedy states that specimens of this Wolf col- 



Aug.. 1890.] MAMMALS OF SAN FRANCISCO MOUNTAIN REGION. 81 

lected at San Fraucisco Mouutaiu had softer fur and broader skulls 
than those from the Missouri. (Pacific E. R. Eepts. x, d, 11.) 
Putorius sp. ? Weasel. 

Unmistakable signs of a Weasel were found on the summit of the 
mountain, just above timber line, but as no specimen was secured the 
species is uncertain. 
Mephitis estor sp. riov. Skunk. 

This Skunk is common about San Francisco Mountain, where a num- 
ber of specimens were trapped in a ledge of rocks near Little Spring, 
on the line where the pine and Douglas fir zones meet (at an altitude 
of 8,200 feet). The limits of its vertical range were not ascertained, and 
1 am unable to say whether or not it inhabits the Desert proper. 

The North American Skunks are greatly in need of revision, the spe- 
cies being undefined and the synonymy hopelessly involved. I should 
not venture to add a new name to the list except for the fact that the 
present species can not be assigned to any already described. It may 
be known from the following description : 

MEPHITIS ESTOR sp. nov. 
[Skull, plate x, tigs. 1, 2, '3, and 4.] 

Type No. ^™j $ ad. U. S. National Museum (Department of Agri- 
culture collection). From San Francisco Mountain, Arizona, August 
17, 1889. Collected by Vernon Bailey (Original number, 369.) 

Measurements (taken in flesh by collector). — Total length, 610; tail 
vertebra?, 256 ; pencil, 140; hind foot, 67. Ear from anterior base, 18; 
from crown, 8 (measured from dry skin). 

General characters. — Size, small ; tail, short, considerably shorter than 
head and body, and made up of hair of two lengths ; ears, small ; soles 
naked throughout, though the heel has the appearance of being haired 
because it is overlapped by the long hairs of its sides. 

Color. — There is the usual white frontal stripe, narrow and barely 
reaching the nuchal patch, which latter begins in a straight line 
stretching completely across from ear to ear, occupying the whole oc- 
cipital region and extending posteriorly in a broad white band, narrow- 
ing slightly over the shoulders and immediately expanding so as to 
cover the whole dorsal surface of the posterior half of the back and 
rump, inclosing a small, narrow streak of black along the middle of 
the rump (and this is wanting in some specimens, leaving the posterior 
back solid white), and thence passing continuously out over the tail, 
which it covers as a thin veil, allowing the black to show through, and 
projecting 90""" beyond at the tip. The under parts are black, with 
irregular white patches on the throat [and breast in other specimens] 
and a white central area in the tail, which is produced by the fact that 
the basal half of each of the black hairs is white. 

Cranial and dental characters. — Compared with a series of fifty skulls 
501— No. 3 6 



82 



NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. 



[No. 3. 



of Mephitis mephitica from northern New York, that of M. cstor is nar- 
rower, the nasal portion of the face is less abruptly deflected, and the 
'step 'in the under jaw less sharply defined. The second and tbird 
upper molars are smaller, and the first lower molar larger. The post- 
palatal notch is anterior to the plane of the posterior edge of the al- 
veolus of the last molar ; there is no distinct pit between the audital 
bulla and post-glenoid jirocess ; the greatest breadth across mastoids 
is less than the distance from the foramen magnum to post-palatal 
notch ; the greatest breadth across the supraorbital processes exceeds 
the interorbital breadth ; the distance from the foramen lacerum pos- 
ticum to the tip of the mastoid is not greater than the distance between 
canines; and the distance from the last lower molar to the condyle (in 
median line) is less than the length of the lower molar series. 

In skunks, as usual in the Mustelidw, the sutures disappear so early 
in life that the excellent characters which they afford are lost if adult 
skulls only are studied. Therefore, when seeking distinctive cranial 
characters, it is desirable to compare skulls of immature as well as 
adult animals. 

In a young specimen of Mephitis estor (No. 25485) the nasals end in a 
narrow point exactly on the plaue of the posterior borders of the max- 
illaries, and equal the parietals in length. The shorter, lateral portion 
of the nasals is less than half the length of the frontals. The basioc- 
cipital is unusually broad and short, its breadth between the carotid 
foramina equaling its length. In both M. mephitica and M. occidentalis 
the basioccipital is very much narrower. In both of these species, 
also, the audital bullae are larger and less compressed laterally. In M. 
estor the post-palatal notch is truncated anteriorly, ending in a straight 
line; in M. mephitica it bears a blunt median spine, while in M. occiden- 
talis it is narrowly notched in the median line. The great size of the 
molars in M. occidentalis is strikingly apparent in comparing young 
skulls with those of M. estor and M. mephitica of approximately the same 
age. 

Mephitis estor may be distinguished at a glance from M. macroura by 
the shortness of its tail. 

Record of specimens collected of Mephitis cstor. 






Locality. 



Date. 





S 


.3 


H 






M 










H 








> 


ea 












H 


H 


640 


256 


520 


255 


580 


288 



17 7 1' 

23 BIT 

17 710 

■_-4U-l Li 



*369 
368 
370 



San Francisco Mountain, Arizona 

do 

.... do 



* Type. 



Aug. 17, 1889 <-? ad. 
Aug. 16, 1889 J $ im. 
Aug. 17, 1889 ! ? im. 



07 
65 
64 



Aug., 1890] MAMMALS OP SAN FRANCISCO MOUNTAIN REGION. S3 

Spilogale gracilis sp. nov. Little Striped Skunk. 

The Little Striped Skuuks are characteristic members of the Sonoran 
fauna, aud do not occur at higher altitudes than this fauna or its off- 
shoots attain. They are rarely found far from water, and most of the 
species prefer rocky situations, often making their homes in crevices in 
cliffs. 

While asleep near a small spring in the Grand Cauon of the Colorado, 
September 12, 1889, I was awakened at midnight by a sniffling noise 
about my head. Eising suddenly on my elbow, a small animal scam- 
pered hurriedly away over the rocks. His form was only dimly out- 
lined in the dark, but a hasty shot left no doubt as to his identity, and 
a moment later I held in my hand the type of a new species of Little 
Striped Skunk. A day or two afterward a younger individual was cap- 
tured among the cliffs at the top of the Canon. The stomachs of both 
contained remains of the cliff mouse (Eesperomys eremicus). The new 
species may be known from the following description : 

SPILOGALE GRACILIS sp. nov. 

Type No. ~~ S ad. U. S. National Museum (Department of Agri- 
culture collection). From Grand Caiiou of the Colorado (altitude 3,500 
feet), Arizona, north of San .Francisco Mountain, September 12, 1880. 
Collected by C. Hart Merriam (Original number 451). 

Measurements (taken in the flesh). — Total length 400 ; tail vertebrae 
112*; hairs 100; hind foot 4G. 

General characters. — Louger and more slender than the eastern S. 
putorius, with a much longer tail. Frontal white patch much longer 
than broad, and rounded off both above aud below ; dorsal and lateral 
markings essentially as in S. putorius. Terminal part of tail white ; 
the white occupying a little more than a third of the upper surface and 
two-thirds of the under surface. 

Cranial and dental characters. — The skull of ISpilogale gracilis differs 
widely from that of 8. putorius. It is much flatter; the zygomatic 
arches are broader, aud the frontoparietal region is depressed to the 
general plane of the top of the cranium. The horizontal ramus of the 
under jaw is straight, while in 8. pmtorins it is strongly convex below. 
The front of the upper sectorial tooth between the anterior and inner 
lobes is concave ; while in S. putorius it is straight. 



* The tail of this specimen has been injured in early life aud the terminal portion 
is absent. The tail vertebra', of a young individual caught at the Canon measure 

Kii.' 



84 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. ' [No. 3. 

Comparative measurements of Spilogale putorius, and S. gracilis, taken in the flesh. 





S. putorius. 


S. gracilis. 




17185 rfokl 


17986 d" old. 


18568cfim. 


Total length 


372 

129 

60 

39 


400 

142* 

100 

46 


390 
160 




105 




46 







* Tail short ; tip gone. 
Cranial measurements and ratios. 



Measurements. 



S. gracilis <S 

ad. type 
Grand Can- 
on, Ariz., No. 
24897. 



S. putorius cf 

ad. Lake 
Worth, Fla., 
No. 24117. 



Greatest length of skull (from occipital condyle) 

Basilar length of Hensel 

Occipito-nasal length 

Greatest zygomatic hreadth 

Greatest mastoid hreadth 

Breadth across postorbital processes 

Least postorbital hreadth 

Greatest height of cranium from basisphenoid 

Greatest height of cranium from palate 

Greatest breadth aero • s molars 

Length of pterygoid fossa 

RATIOS. 

Ratios to basilar leDgth of Hensel : 

Zygomatic breadth 

Palatal length 

Height of cranium from basisphenoid 

Height of cranium from palate , 

Length of pterygoid fossa 

Breadth across postorbital processes 

Breadth of postorbital constriction 

Ratios to palatal length : 

Distance from foramen magnum to postpalatal notch 

Distance across upper molars 

Ratio of breadth to length of upper molar 



53.8 
47.0 
50.5 
34.0 
29.8 
16.8 
12.2 
16.5 
12.5 
18.4 
10.8 



52.3 
46. 5 
48.5 
33.0 
29.5 
18.0 
14.5 
17.8 
15.0 
18.5 
11.0 



72.3 


70.9 


40.8 


38.7 


35.1 


38.2 


26.5 


32.2 


22.9 


23.6 


35.7 


38.7 


25.9 


31.1 


144.7 


155.5 


95.8 


102.7 


131. 9 


139.1 



Record of specimens collected of Spilogale gracilis. 



Ho 


6 








,d 


8 








"3 

a 


Locality. 


1 >ate. 


Sex. 


<a 


> 


o 

a 


Remarks. 


W 2 


M 








-2 




a 




^ 


o 








H 


H 


W 




179f}G 

Mi'J7 


451 


Grand Canon, Arizona. 


Sept. 12, 1889 


cf ad. 


400 


142 


46 


Type: Tail vertebra; 
injured and short. 


1 BBSS 


452 


do 


Sept. 14, 1889 


cf ini 


390 


160 


40 





Aug., 1890.] MAMMALS OF SAN FRANCISCO MOUNTAIN REGION. 85 

Taxidea aniericana Boddaert. Badger. 

The Badger is a common inhabitant of the Souoran fauna, but does 
not extend up into the balsam zone. A single individual was observed 
in the pines about the middle of September. 

Lutra hudsonica Lacepede. Otter. 

Mr. Bailey found tracks of au Otter along the Colorado River at the 
bottom of the Grand Canon in September. 

Bassaris astuta Liechtenstein. Ring-tailed Cat. 

This animal, to which the misleading name ' American Civet ' has 
been applied, is common in places in the Grand Canon, particularly 
near the mouth of Cataract Canon. It is found also in the canon of the 
Little Colorado, just below Grand Falls, as I was informed by a man 
who killed one there. 

Ursus horribilis Ord. Grizzly Bear. 

The Grizzly Bear has been reported by early writers from San Fran- 
cisco Mountain, where both Woodhouse and Kennerly speak of it as 
abundant. Cones and Yarrow state that several were killed on the 
north slope of Bill Williams Mountaiu ; and Mr. G. K. Gilbert tells me 
that his party killed one on the same mountain October 28, 1871. 

Mollhausen, in his i Diary,' says that when he passed !Sew Year's 
Spring, at the south foot of Mount Sitgreaves, January 2,1854, it was 
" covered with thick ice." He says further : 

The numerous footprints of the grey bear which traversed the forest in all di- 
rections, tempted us to follow them. We examined the forest that lay to the south 
of us as well as that at the foot of Mount Sitgreaves and the, neighboring hills, and 
we found dens in such numbers that if they had been tenanted we should have had 
a bear to every acre of land. The declivities and ravines of Mount Sitgreaves are, 
it seems, a particularly favorite residence with them, and even Leroux, old trapper 
and hunter as he was, did not remember to have ever met with signs of such num- 
bers living together on so small a space ; but, unfortunately, the whole company had 
emigrated but a few days before our arrival. Probably the freezing of the water 
had occasioned this move, for we found on the ice marks of their having tried to 
break it. They seemed to have made their journey to the south in troops of eight 
or more, and their path was plainly recognisable on the glittering snow. (Vol II, 
pp. 164-Ki">i. 

Ursus americamis Pallas. Black Bear. 

The Black Bear is common throughout the Boreal zones of the San 
Francisco Mountain region, and is particularly abundant on Kendrick 
Peak and some of the neighboring buttes. It is said to be common also 
in Oak Creek Cation, where the effects of slope-exposure make up for 
the low altitude. 

MAMMALS OF THE SEVERAL ZONES. 

Arctic- Alpine Zone. — The Rocky Mountain Sheep (Oris canadensis) 

and a species of Weasel ( Putorius sp. ?) are the only mammals 

known to inhabit the bare rocky summit of the mountain, and it is prob- 
able that they belong more properly to the subalpine or timber-line 



86 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. [No. 3. 

zone. Other species occasionally straggle up there; thus a single Say's 
Squirrel (Tamias lateralis), a Mountain Chipmunk (Tamias cinereicollis), 
and a Shrew (Sorex monticolus) were found just above timber line. 

Boreal Zones (comprising the timber-line, spruce, and Douglas fir 
belts). — The characteristic mammals of these zones are the Porcupine 
(Erethizon epixanthus), Black Bear ( Ursus americanus), Black-tailed 
Deer (Cariacus macrotis), Red Squirrel (Sciurus fremonti mogollonensis), 
Voles (Arvicola mogollonensis and A. alticolus), and Shrew (Sorex monti- 
colus). All except the Arvicolas range from the top of the timber-line 
zone to the bottom of the Douglas fir zone. Arvicola alticolus inhabits 
the subarctic and Hudsoniau (or spruce) zones, while Arvicola mogollo- 
nensis does not occur above the parks of the Canadian (or fir) zone. 

In addition to the above-mentioned species, which so far as known 
are restricted to the Boreal Province during the breeding season, sev- 
eral others occur there which inhabit also one or more of the zones 
below. These are t he Mountain Chipmunk ( Tamias cinereicollis) which 
really belongs to the Boreal Province, though it ranges throughout the 
upper levels of the pine plateau area; Say's Chipmunk (Tamias later- 
alis), which extends up from the pines ; Pocket Gopher (Thomomys ful- 
vus) ; White-footed Mouse (Hesperomys leucopus rufinus) ; Wildcat (Lynx 
baileyi) ; Mountain Lion (Felis concolor), Skunk (Mephitis estor). 

Pine Zone. — In the area next below the fir — the Pine Plateau area — 
there is but one distinctive mammal, and it, singularly enough, is a 
Squirrel— Abert's Squirrel (Seiurus aberti). Though this is the only 
mammal restricted to the Pine area, many others occur there. Say's 
Chipmunk (Tamias lateralis) here finds its center of abundance, though 
in common with the Mountain Chipmunk (T. cinereicollis), it ranges up 
through the Boreal zoues. The following are common to the Pine and 
Sonoran regions : Antelope, Badger, Coyote, Round-tailed Wood-Rat, 
Rock Spermophile, Spotted Spermophile, and Prairie Dog. The two 
latter are found only in the openings or parks. 

Pifion Zone.— The most characteristic mammal of the pinon belt is the 
Rock Squirrel or Spermophile (Spermophilus grammurus.) The Ante- 
lope also seems to find its center of abundance in this zone. Another 
characteristic species is the White- tailed Chipmunk (Tamias leucurus 
cinnamomeus), which comes up from the desert along with the Scorpion 
Mouse (Onychomys fuliginosus), Pocket Mouse (Perognathus fuliginosus), 
and Rabbits (Lepus texianus and Lepus arizonce.) 

Desert Area. — The most characteristic mammals of the desert region 
are Kangaroo Rats (Dipodops) and Pocket Mice (Perognathus), both of 
which are long-legged, long- tailed, jumping animals, provided with 
external cheek-pouches, and strictly nocturnal in habits. Other desert 
animals are the Big-eared Mice (Hesperomys eremicus and H. megalotis), 
Free-tailed Bats (Nyctinomus), and the Pigmy Bat ( Vesperugo hesperus). 



PART IV— ANNOTATED LIST OF BIRDS OF THE SAN FRANCISCO 
MOUNTAIN PLATEAU AND THE DESERT OF THE LITTLE COL- 
ORADO RIVER, ARIZONA. 



By Dr. 0. Hart Merriam. 



Colymbus nigricollis califomicus. Eared Grebe. 

A Grebe, probably of this species, was seen in a small pond in Tan- 
ner's Gulch, a few miles north of Moencopie, during the latter part of 
September. Recently it has been recorded from Mormon Lake and " a 
small lake near Flagstaff" by Dr. E. A. Mearns (Auk. VII, Jan. 1890, 
50.) 

Anasboschas. Mallard. 

A large number of Mallards were seeu, and several shot, on a small 
pond in Tanner's Gulch, north of Moencopie, September 23. 

Anas americana. Baldpate. 

Recorded by Dr. Mearns as common at Mormon Lake, about 20 miles 
south of San Francisco Mountain. 

Anas discors. Ulue-winged Teal. 

Six were seen at a small pool in a park in the balsam belt August 30. 
At Hull Spring, September 9, a large flock (fifty or more) was found 
squatting in the mud below the spring, and seven were killed at one 
shot by Vernon Bailey. I killed one and saw several others in a small 
pond north of Moencopie, September 23. 

Spatula clypeata. Shoveller. 

During the evening of September 23, when camped in Tanner's Gulch, 
north of Moencopie, I shot a Great Horned Owl, which had just alighted 
on a rocky pinnacle overlooking the pond, where he had doubtless come 
to feed on coots (Fulica americana). At the dischargeof the gun a flock 
of ducks rose from the pond and circled over our small camp-fire. 
Dimly discerning them in the darkness I fired and a Shoveller fell dead 
at my feet. 

Dafila acuta. Pi nta i I . 

Recorded from Mormon Lake by Dr. Mearns. 

Erismatura rubida. Ruddy Duck. 

1 Recorded by Dr. Mearns from both Mormon Lake and Duck Lake, 
near Flagstaff. 

87 



88 BIRDS OF SAN FRANCISCO MOUNTAIN REGION. , ' [No. 3. 

Plegadis guarauna. White-faced Glossy Ibis. 

Breeds abundantly on Mormon Lake, about 20 miles south of San 
Francisco Mountain, as I was informed by several persons. Recorded 
also by Dr. Mearns. Woodhouse states that he obtained two speci- 
mens on the Little Colorado. 

Botaurus lentiginosus. American Bittern. 

" Especially abundant at Mormon Lake, where it finds a most con- 
genial home." — Mearns. 
Nycticorax nycticorax nsevius. Black-crowned Night Heron. 

Recorded by Dr. Mearns from Mormon Lake. 

Grus mexicana. Sandhill Crane. 
Recorded by Dr. Mearns from Mormon Lake. 

Porzana Carolina. Sora. 

Found in the rushes in Tanner's Gulch, a few miles north of Moen- 
copie, during the last week of September. Recorded by Dr. Mearns as 
abundant at Mormon Lake. 
Fulica americana. American Coot. 

Enormously abundant amongst the rushes in a small pond in Tan- 
ner's Gulch, a few miles north of Moencopie. There must have been 
thousands of them in this place at the time of our visit, September 23, 
24. A dozen or more, could be killed at a single shot at almost any 
time. Their flesh is excellent. Dr. Mearns records the species as 
breeding abundantly at Mormon Lake. 

Phalaropus lobatus. Northern Phalarope. 

A flock of eight, six of which were killed, was found in a little crater 
lake ('Walker Lake'), August 19. 

Recurvirostra americana. American Avocet. 

A flock of about twenty was seen August 13 near the Little Colorado 
River, in a small alkali pool, the result of a heavy shower. No others 
were observed. 

Tringa bairdii. Baird's Sandpiper. 

Five were shot August 27 in a small crater lake (Walker Lake), aud 
two more at the same place September 1. 

Tringa minutilla. Least Sandpiper. 

Shot at a small crater lake August 27 and September 1 in company 
with Tringa bairdii and Actitis macularia. 
Breunetes pusillus. Semipalmated Sandpiper. 

Shot September 1 at Walker Lake. 

Totanus solitarius. Solitary Sandpiper. 

One was shot August 26 at a little pool in a park in the balsam belt, 
and another at Walker Lake, September 1. No others were seen. 

Actitis macularia. Spotted Sandpiper. 

Shot August 27 and September 1 at a small crater lake (Walker 
Lake). 



Aug., 1890.1 BIRDS OF SAN FRANCISCO MOUNTAIN REGION. 89 

.SJgialitis vocifera. Killdeer. 

A single individual was found in a park in the pines near Flagstaff, 
July 28, and a few were seen about the scattered pools in the bed of the 
Little Colorado River, August 13 and 14. One was shot at a small 
crater lake (Walker Lake), August 27. 
Callipepla gambeli. Ganibel's Partridge. 

Gambel's Partridge does not inhabit the summit of the Great Plateau 
though it reaches its edge from the south aud west. It is found a 
short distance west of Bill Williams Mountain, and is common in Cat 
aract Caiion. The only evidence of its presence in the region of the 
Little Colorado is Mollhausen's statement that " small partridges hopped 
about among the thick shrubs" bordering this stream when he crossed 
it in December, 1854 (Mollhausen's Diary, II, 1858, 143). 

Dendragapus obscurus. Dusky Grouse. 

Mr. John Swinburne, of Shona Ranch, St. John's, Arizona, visited our 
camp early in September, and climbed San Francisco Mountain Sep- 
tember 3. He informs me that he saw a Dusky Grouse in the spruce 
belt on the mountain. He is perfectly familiar with the species, and I 
think there can be no doubt as to the correctness of the identification. 

Meleagris gallopavo mexicana, Mexican Turkey. 

Common. In August they were feeding on gooseberries in the bal- 
sam belt; in September they were feeding ou pinon nuts in the cedar 
belt. 

The northward distribution of the Turkey is said to be limited by the 
Grand Canon of the Colorado. This may be due to the greater eleva- 
tion of the Kaibab Plateau which is in the Canadian fauna, its prevail- 
ing forest being Douglas fir instead of pine. 

Columba fasciata. Band-tailed Pigeon. 

There is something remarkable about the occurrence of this species 
in the San Francisco Mountain region. It was recorded as common by 
Woodhouse, who found it in small flocks in October, 1851; and Dr. 
Mearns states that he found it common about the base of San Francisco 
Mountain in May and June. It was not seen at all by our party. 

Zenaidura macroura. Mourning Dove. 

Common from the Desert of the Little Colorado to the upper limit of 
the pine belt. Every evening they assemble at the springs and wator 
holes, coming in greatest numbers just at dark, particularly about the 
borders of the Desert where water is very scarce. On the evening of 
August 20 we camped for the night at a small spring about 5 miles west 
of Grand Falls. At dusk hundreds of Doves came to drink, aud con- 
tinued coming until it was so dark that they could not be seen. 

Cathartes aura. Turkey Vulture. 

Tolerably common, particularly about Flagstaff and at the Grand 
Canon ; seldom seen at San Francisco Mountain. 
Circus hudsonius. Marsh Hawk. 

Several were seen circling about some grass and bushes near a spring 



90 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA, • [No. 3. 

at Echo dill's September 22-24. One was seen at Tenebito Wash, 
about the middle of August, and another at Black Tank September 20. 
Accipiter velox. Sharp-shinned Hawk. 

Tolerably common about San Francisco Mountain, and at the Grand 
Canon. 
Accipiter cooperi. Cooper's Hawk. 

Tolerably common, particularly at the Grand Canon of the Colorado, 
where they used to watch a water hole, perched motionless on a neigh- 
boring pine, and pounce on the birds that came to drink. Shot an old 
female at Little Spring August 4, another August 6 at Kendrick 
Peak, and saw several others about the mountains. 
Accipiter atricapillus. Goshawk. 

Several seen on the mountain. One was shot and another seen in the 
act of drinking at Little Spring, at the lower edge of the Douglas fir 
belt. Dr. Mearns states that he saw an immature Goshawk near timber 
line on San Francisco Mountain, June 7, 1887. 
Buteo borealis calurus. Western Red-tail. 

A few probably breed, but none were observed until August 6, when 
they suddenly became abundant, remaining so until the latter part of 
September. I have never seen these hawks so unwary. They were 
easily approached either on horseback or afoot, and many were shot in 
the pines. They fed principally on Chipmunks ( Tamias cinereicollis and 
Tamias lateralis), and occasionally captured the large Abert's Squirrel 
(Sciurtis aberti). 
Buteo lineatus elegans. Red-hellied Hawk. 

A specimen of this H awk was collected on the Little Colorado by Ken- 
nedy and Mollhausen in November, 1853. 
Buteo swainsoni. Swainson's Hawk. 

Bare; only two were seen during the season. One of these was shot 
August 30. 

Aquila chrysaetos. Golden Eagle. 

The Golden Eagle breeds on San Francisco Mountain, where it was 
often seen. An adult was shot by Vernon Bailey, August 28, at a 
small pool of very cold water at timber line. Its stomach contained 
the remains of an Abert's Squirrel {Sciurus aberti). On the morning of 
August 7, a little after daylight, I saw two Golden Eagles perched in 
tall pines near Le Boux Spring, watching for Prairie Dogs. They al- 
lowed me to ride under the trees on which they were perched. 
Falco mexicanus. Prairie Falcon. 

A pair of these Falcons had their nest on a high cliff in the crater of 
the main peak of San Francisco Mountain, and another pair had posses- 
sion of a similar ledge on Kendrick Peak. Their loud cries may be 
heard a long distance. A specimen of this species was secured by Ken- 
nerly and Mollhausen on the Little Colorado in November, 1853. 

Falco colnmbarius. Pigeon Hawk. 

Mr. F. Stephens Avrites me that he saw this Hawk at San Francisco 
Mountain, near Le Boux Spring, about the middle of July, 1887. 



Aug. 1890.1 BIRDS OF SAN FRANCISCO MOUNTAIN REGION. 91 

Falco sparverius. Sparrow Hawk. 

Abundant throughout the pinon, pine, and spruce zones, and common 
in parts of the Desert where there were bushes for it to perch on. 
Feeds principally on insects. 
Pandion haliaetus carolinensis. Osprey ; Fish Hawk. 

Seen twice at the Grand Canon about the middle of September. 
Asio wilsonianus. Long-eared Owl. 

Mr. F. Stephens writes me that he shot a specimen of this species at 
San Francisco Mountain, near Le Roux Spring, about the middle of 
July, 1887. 
Megascops flammeolus. Flammulated Screech Owl. 

At 3 o'clock in the morning of September 13, while climbing out of 
the Grand Canon of the Colorado by moonlight, I shot one of these 
Owls. Its stomach contained a scorpion and some beetles and other 
insects. It was an immature female. 
Nyctala acadica. Saw-whet Owl. 

Dr. Mearns found a nest of this owl near Little Spring and secured 
the female parent. The nest contained one egg and three young, but 
the date is not given. 
Bubo virginianus saturatus. Dusky Great Horned Owl. 

This dark form of the Great Horned Owl has been heretofore regarded 
as limited in its range to the humid spruce forests of the northwest 
coast region from Oregon to Alaska, and thence easterly through the 
great northern spruce forests of Canada to Labrador; but no one seems 
to have suspected its existence in the Rocky Mountains. Comparison 
of San Francisco Mountain specimens with the U. S. National Museum 
series shows that they pertain to this form and differ widely from either 
B. virginianus of the East, or B. subarcticus of the Plains and arid lands 
of the West. 

This Owl is common in the spruce and balsam belts of San Francisco 
Mountain. A specimen shot at the brink of the Grand Canon of the 
Colorado differs from the mountain specimens in having considerable 
white on the feet. 

A Great Horned Owl was shot at Tanner's Gulch, near Echo Cliffs, 
on the desert of the Little Colorado, September 23, but was not pre- 
served. 
Speotyto cunicularia hypogaea. Burrowing Owl. 

Found on the higher mesas of the Desert of the Little Colorado, oc- 
cupying deserted burrows of Prairie Dogs [Cynomys gunnisoni). 

Glaucidium glioma. Pygmy Owl. 

Not obtained by our party. Dr. Mearns records it from San Fran- 
cisco Mountain. 
Geococcyx californianus. Road-rnnner. 

Not observed by our party. Recorded by Dr. Kennedy, who states 
that it was "seen occasionally daring the winter along the Little Colo- 
rado River." 



92 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. " fNo.3. 

Ceryle alcyon. Belted Kingfislier. 

A single Kingfisher was seen at Tanner's Gulch, a few miles north of 
Moencopie, September 23. 
Dryobates villosus hyloscopus. Cabanis's Woodpecker. 

Common in the pine belt. 
Picoides americanus dorsalis. Alpine Three-toed Woodpecker. 

Common in the spruce and balsam belts. A female was shot high 
up on the mountain August 23, feeding a full-grown young. A few 
were killed as low as the upper edge of the pine belt. 

Sphyrapicus varius nuchalis. Red-naped Sapsucker. 

Occurs during fall migration. First observed September 19, when 
Professor Knowlton shot an adult male near Little Spring. The next 
day, September 20, 1 shot an immature bird in the cedars, and Septem- 
ber 23, saw another at Moa Ave. September 30, Professor Knowlton 
shot another male at Little Spring. No others were seen. 

Sphyrapicus thyroideus. Williamson's Sapsucker. 

Common in the Douglas fir belt and the upper part of the pines ; prob- 
ably breeds in the aspens. Both young and old were shot. Common 
in the pines at the Grand Canon the middle of September. 

Melanerpes torquatus. Lewis's Woodpecker. 

Breeds in the pinon and cedar belt, where it is tolerably common; 
may breed in the lower part of the pine area also. Bather common at 
Canon Spring on the south side of the Grand Canon, where small flocks 
came to drink every day during our stay, about the middle of Septem- 
ber. Young were shot at Turkey Tanks the middle of August. 
Melanerpes formicivorus bairdi. Californian Woodpecker. 

Found among the oaks near the Grand Canon of the Colorado. Not 
seen elsewhere. 
Colaptes cafer. Red-shafted Flicker. 

Common in the pines. 
Phalasnoptilus nuttalli. Poor-will. 

A colony of Poor-wills inhabited a ledge of rocks at the lower edge 
of the balsam belt, near Little Spring. They began calling just at dusk 
every evening. A young was shot August 1, and several adults after- 
ward. A single Poor- will was seen at Tanner's Crossing on the Little 
Colorado, but whether it was the present form or the Frosted Poor-will 
(Phalamoptilus nuttalli nitidus) is uncertain. The same doubt pertains 
to specimens from the Moki villages recorded in the Beport of the Ives 
Expedition. 

Chordeiles virginianus henryi. Western Nighthawk. 

Common about the mountain in summer, and on the Desert of the 
Little Colorado in August ; not seen after the middle of September. 
Micropus melanolencus. White-throated Swift. 

Flocks of White-throated Swifts were seen high up on the mountain 
and circling over the higher buttes in August and the early part of 
September. One was seen at the Grand Canon September 10. 



Aug., 1800. j BIRDS OF SAN FRANCISCO MOUNTAIN REGION. 93 

Trochilus platycercus. Broad- tailed Hummingbird. 

Very abundant in the balsam belt and the upper part of the pine 
belt. A nest containing two nearly fledged young was found on the 
limb of a Douglas fir, about four feet from the ground, July 31. The 
principal food plant of this Hummingbird is the beautiful scarlet trum- 
pet flower of Pentstemon barbatus torrcyi. During the latter part of Au- 
gust and early September, after it had ceased flowering, these birds 
were most often seen in the beds of the large blue larkspur (Delphinium 
scopulorum). They wake up very early in the morning and go to water 
at daylight no matter how cold the weather is. During the month of 
August, and particularly the first half of the month, when the morn- 
ings were often frosty, hundreds of them came to the spring to drink 
and bathe at break of day. They were like a swarm of bees, buzzing 
about one's head and darting to and fro in every direction. The air 
was full of them. They would drop down to the water, dip their feet 
and bellies, and rise and shoot away as if propelled by an unseen power. 
They would often dart at the face of an intruder as if bent on piercing 
the eye with their needle-like bill, and then poise for a moment almost 
within reach before turning, when they were again lost in the busy 
throng. Whether this act was prompted by curiosity or resentment I 
was not able to ascertain. Several were seen at the summit of the 
mountain during the latter part of August. They were found also at 
the Grand Caiion of the Colorado, September 12-15. They began to 
leave the mountain during the first week in September, and none were 
seen after the middle of the month. 
Trochilus rufus. Rufons Hummingbird. 

Common in the pines, feeding principally on Pentstemon barbatus tor- 
reyi. Rarely seen as far up as the balsam belt. A few were usually 
seen among the multitude of Broad-tailed Hummers at Little Spring 
every morning in August, but they were more abundant lower down. 

Dr. Mearns records Trochilus alexandri as "a summer resident in 
the zone of Pinus ponderosa v (Auk, July, 1890), but does not mention 
the present species. 

Tyrannus vociferans. Cassin's Kingbird. 

Rather scarce. A few pairs breed in the parks In the pine belt, but 
the species is much more common in the cedar bel/ and upper levels of 
the Desert. A few were seen at the Grand Cafion cfrf the Colorado about 
the middle of September. 

Sayomis saya. Say's I 'Indie. 

Found in the Desert of the Little Colorado and at the Grand Canon 
in September, frequenting patches of greasewood (Atriplex eanescens) 
in the former locality, and sage-brash (Artemisia tridentata) in the lat 
ter. Also common in the bushes bordering the Little Colorado at Tan- 
ner's Grossing, September 21. 

Contopus borealis. Olive-sided flycatcher. 

Common in the balsam bell. Several broods of young were found 
early in August. 



94 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. ' I No. 3. 

It is noteworthy that Gontopus pertinax, which is common on the Santa 
Cataliua and White Mountains, was not found anywhere in the San 
Francisco Mountain region. 
Contopus richardsonii. Western Wood Pewee. 

Abundant throughout the pines. 
Empidonax difficilis. Western Flycatcher. 

Common in the pines and in the lower part of the balsam belt. 

JSmpidonax hammondi. Hammond's Flycatcher. 

A few specimens were taken during the latter part of August. 
Otocoris alpestris arenicola. Desert Horned Lark. 

Common in flocks in the parks of the cedar belt, and tolerably common 
in the upper part of the desert, particularly in September. 
Pica pica hudsonica. Magpie. 

Not observed by our party but recorded from the Little Colorado by 
Kennerly, who procured a specimen there December 8, 1853. 
Cyanocitta stelleri macrolopha. Long-crested Jay. 

Abundant during August in the balsam and pine belts, and in Sep. 
tember found everywhere from timber line to the lower part of the cedar 
belt. 
Aphelocoma woodhousei. Woodhouse's Jay. 

Common in the cedars and pinon, where it was seen at Turkey Tanks, 
at a crater east of O'Leary peak, and at the Grand Caiiou of the Colo- 
rado. It is shy and difficult to procure. 

Corvus corax sirmatus. t Raven. 

Common on the Desert of the Little Colorado, but not found about the 
mountain. Seen along the Rio Puerco, the Colorado Chiquito, Tenebito 
Wash, and Moencopie Wash. Found also at the Grand Canon. A flock 
of about fifty individuals was seen near Hull Spring on a narrow tongue 
of the desert which projects far into the cedar belt between San Fran- 
cisco Mountain and the Grand Canon. 
Corvus americanus. Crow. 

Not common. A flock was usually found in the neighborhood of Fort 
Moroni, the headquarters of the cattle ranch. 
Picicorvus columbianus. Clarke's Nutcracker. 

Breeds commonly in the spruce belt, occasionally descending to the 
pines in summer. In September, when the piiion nuts were ripening, 
it came down from the mountain in flocks and was often seen in the 
piiion belt with the Pinon and Woodhouse's Jays. At the same time 
it was common at the uppermost limit of the dwarf spruce of the sub- 
alpine zone. 
Cyanocephalus cyanocephalus. Piiion Jay. 

Breeds abundantly throughout the piiion belt, of which it is one of the 
most characteristic species. Always seen in flocks ; very noisy. 
Agelaius phuenieeus. Red- winged Blackbird. 

Recorded by Woodhouse, who says of it: " I found them also in the 
San Francisco Mountain, near the Laguna Eneniatio." 



Aug., 1890.1 BIRDS OF SAN FRANCISCO MOUNTAIN REGION. 95 

Sturnella neglecta. Western Meadowlark. 

A few pairs breed in the parks of the lower part of the pine zone. In 
the latter part of September it was tolerably common in the neighbor- 
hood of Moa Ave, near the north end of the Desert of the Little Colo- 
rado, and also between Black Tauk and the cedar belt on the west side 
of the desert. None were seen in the desert proper. 

Icterus bullocki. Bullock's Oriole. 

Shot an immature bird in some tall bushes bordering the Little Colo, 
rado at Grand Falls, August 14. 
Scolecophagus cyanocephalus. Brewer's Blackbird. 

Tolerably common about Flagstaff, and seen occasionally in the cedar 
belt and in some of the parks in the pine belt. Several were seen in a 
bushy place near a spring at the south end of Echo Cliffs, September 
22, and the species was common in the rushes in Tanner's Gulch, north 
of Moencopie, the last week in September. 

Coccothraustes vespertina. Evening Grosbeak. 

Breeds in the spruee. Au adult female was killed at Le Koux Spring, 
July 29. The skin of her belly was thick and gelatinous, showing that 
she had only recently left the nest. Another was seen near Le Roux 
Spring, August 7, and an adult male was seen at Little Spring Septem- 
ber 7. 
Carpodacus mexicanua frontalis. House Finch. 

Occasionally seen in small flocks in the pines. When camped at the 
Grand Calion of the Colorado during the middle of September, small 
flocks of this species came to a pool to drink every day. 
Loxia curvirostra stricklandi. Mexican Crossbill. 

Tolerably common in the balsam belt, coming down into the pines in 
the latter part of summer. They may breed in the pines in early spring 
when the mountain is covered with snow. During our stay at the Grand 
Canon, about the middle of September, they used to come every day to 
a small pool to drink. 

Spinus psaltria. Arkansas Goldfinch. 

Not common ; a few were seen from time to time in the pines and at 
the Grand Canon. 
Spinus psaltria arizona?. Arizona Goldfinch. 

A few were seen at Flagstaff in September. 
Spinus pinus. Pine Siskin. 

Common in the balsam belt, where it breeds ; common in the pines 
during the latter part of summer. 

Poocaetes gramineus confinis. Western Vesper Sparrow. 

Common in the parks in the pine belt and thence down to the upper 
levels of the desert. Common at the Grand Canon September 10-16. 
Several were seen along the upper part of Moencopie Wash during the 
latter part of September. 

Ammodramus sandwichensis alaudinus. Western Savanna Sparrow. 

Found near Echo Cliffs late in September. Not noted elsewhere. 



96 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. . [No. 3. 

Chondestes grammacus strigatus. Western Lark Sparrow. 

Common iu the open parks in the cedar belt and occasionally found 
in the parks in the pines. 

Zonotrichia leucophrys. White-crowned Sparrow. 

Shot at the Grand Canon the middle of September. First shot at the 
mountain September 19; afterwards tolerably common. 

Zonotrichia intermedia. Intermediate Sparrow. 

Common during migration. The first was shot in the pine belt, near 
Little Spring, August 31 ; afterward it was tolerable common until the 
end of September. 

Spizella socialis arizonee. Western Chipping Sparrow. 

Abundant throughout the pines and cedars. 

Spizella monticola. Tree Sparrow. 

This species is a winter visitant from the far north and had not 
arrived at the time of my departure. Dr. Kennedy found it in Decem- 
ber on the Little Colorado, "feeding upon the seeds of the grapes 
and weeds that grow along the valley." 

Spizella breweri. Brewer's Sparrow. 

Common on the Desert of the Little Colorado in summer, and found 
also in the cedar belt in early autumn. This species and Amphispiza 
bilineata were almost the only birds found on the Painted Desert proper 
iu August. 
Junco hyemalis oregonus. Oregon Junco. 

A fall migrant, not seen until September 22, after which a few were 
seen. 
Junco caniceps. Gray-headed Junco. 

Woodhouse described Junco caniceps in 1852 from several specimens 
taken at different localities as wide apart as Mexico, Texas, and San 
Francisco Mountain. The bird from the latter locality is an immature 
female in fall plumage (collected October 14, 1851). It is not the same 
species as the males described on the same page. The latter come first 
in the description and I believe them to be Junco cine feus Swainsou or 
Junco cinereus palliatus Eidgway. 

Junco cinereus dorsalis. Red backed Junco. 

Breeds abundantly throughout the upper levels of the pine plateau 
region and in the balsam and spruce belts. At San Francisco Mount- 
ain in summer it is the commonest species of bird after Sitta pygmcea, 
and it was still abundant when we left the inouutain, October 1. Spotted 
young were taken throughout August. 
Amphispiza bilineata. Black-throated Desert Sparrow. 

Tolerably common on the Desert of the Little Colorado; not seen 
elsewhere. 

Amphispiza belli nevadensis. Sage Sparrow. 

A spotted young was shot on the edge of a field near Flagstaff July 
28. Others were seen along the Desert of the Little Colorado and at 
the Grand Canon. It probably spends the whole year on the desert^ 



Aug., 1890.] BIRDS OF SAN FRANCISCO MOUNTAIN EEGION. 97 

for Dr. Kennedy states that he found it " in the month of December 

along the Little Colorado Elver, wherever the weeds and bushes were 

thick." 

Feucaea ruficeps boucardi. Boucard's Sparrow. 

Common in the Grand Canon, where several were shot ; found also 
on the Desert of the Little Colorado. 

Melospiza fasciata fallax. Desert Song Sparrow. 

This subspecies was shot at the Grand Canon of the Colorado and 
along Echo Cliffs, near Moencopie. 
Melospiza fasciata montana. MouDtain Song Sparrow. 

Two specimens of this subspecies were, shot at Little Spring Sep- 
tember 8, and another September 27. Others were seen near the same 
locality during the latter part of August. 
Melospiza lincolni. Lincoln's Sparrow. 

Tolerably common in weeds in the pine belt early in September; first 
shot September 7. Two were shot and others seen at the Grand Canon 
about the middle of September. 
Passerella iliaca schistacea. Slate-colored Sparrow. 

Dr. Leonhard Stejneger shot one at the north foot of San Francisco 
Mountain September 29. No others were seen. 
Pipilo maculatus megalonyx ? Spurred Towbee. 

Several were seen in the scrub-oak at the Grand Caiion of the Col- 
orado about the middle of September. 

Pipilo chlorurus. Green-tailed Towhee. 

Common in the pines during migration, and also in the bushes along 
the Little Colorado. It probably breeds near the mountain, where an 
immature bird was shot in the pines August 5. 

This species was very abundant at the Grand Canon of the Colorado 
during tlie middle of September, and its habit of searching for food on 
the ground led to the death of several individuals which got into our 
traps set for Mice and other small mammals. It was seen at Echo 
Cliffs late in September. 
Habia melanocephala. Black-headed Grosbeak. 

Several were shot in the pines. It was rather common at the Grand 
Canon of the Colorado about the middle of September. 
Piranga ludoviciana. Louisiana Tanager. 

Breeds commonly in the balsam belt, where both young and old were 
taken in early August. They were in the habit of coming to Little 
Spring to drink every morning during the early part of our stay. A 
young of the year was shot in the Grand Caiion, September 13. 
Piranga hepatica. Hepatic Tanager. 

Probably breeds in the lower levels of the pine belt east of O'Learv 
Peak, where an adult male was shot and others seen September 4 and 
5. An immature male was shot in the pines near Little Spring August 
31, and an adult female September 7. 

The first specimen of the Hepatic Tanager secured within the United 
501— No. 3 7 



98 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. • [No. 3 

States was killed at San Francisco Mountain by Dr. S. W. Woodhouse, 

naturalist of the Sitgreaves Expedition, in October, 1851. Dr. 0. B. R. 

Kennerly states that he saw it at San Francisco Mountain in December, 

1853. 

Progne subis. Martin. 

Dr. M earns records this species as common in the pine plateau region. 
We did not find it. 
Petrochelidon lunifrons. Cliff Swallow. 

Several were seen at Grand Falls, on the Little Colorado, August 14, 
and a number of deserted nests were found on the sandstone cliffs on 
the east bank of the river. Not seen elsewhere. 
Chelidon erythrogaster. Barn Swallow. 

Several were seen at Tanner's Gulch, north of Moencopie, September 
24. 
Tachycineta thalassina. Violet-green Swallow. 

Common, particularly in the parks of the pine plateau. 
Ampelis cedrorum. Cedar Waxwing. 

One was shot, and several were seen at different times near a pool on 
the edge of the Graud Canon about the middle of September. 

Lanius ludovicianus excubitorides. Wliite-rumped Slirike. 

Common on the greasewood plains of the desert of the Little Colorado. 
Two were seen in the sage-brush and chaparral at the Grand Cauon, 
and one in a park in the pine belt. 
Vireo gilvus swainsoni. Western Warbling Vireo. 

Common in the pines. 
Vireo solitarius cassinii. Cassin's Vireo. 

Common in the pines during fall migration ; first shot August 21. 
Two were shot at the Graud Canon the middle of September. 

Vireo solitarius plumbeus. Plumbeous Vireo. 

Tolerably common ; first shot August 31. Mr. F. Stephens writes 
me that he shot a specimen of this species and saw others near Le 
Roux Spring about the middle of July, 1887. 
Vireo vicinior. Gray Vireo. 

This species was not found except at the Grand Canon of the Colorado, 
where a male was shot in a piiion September 14. 

Helminthophila virginiae. Virginia's Warbler. 

Specimens were shot in the pines July 28 and August 17. 
Helminthophila ruficapilla gutturalis. Calaveras Warbler. 

Abundant during the latter parr of August, particularly in the as- 
pens; found also as high up on the mountain as the timber-line zone. 
Helminthophlia celata lutescens. Lutescent Warbler. 

A few were shot from August 29 to September 18, mostly in the tall 
pines and aspens. 
Dendroica eestiva. Yellow Warbler. 

Shot near Little Spring August 12, August 29, and September 3. 
Tolerably common in the cottonwoods along the Little Colorado River 



Aug., 1890] BIRDS OF SAN FRANCISCO MOUNTAIN REGION. 99 

in August. Several were seen in a patch of reeds along Tenebito Wash 
in the desert, far from any trees, August 17 ; and in a thicket of bushes 
near a spring at the foot of Echo Cliffs late in September. 

Dendroica auduboni. Audubon's Warbler. 

Breeds abundantly in the balsam belt ; common in migration through- 
out the timber-covered portions of the region. 

Dendroica graciae. Grace's Warbler. 

First shot at the mountain August 12, and in the cedar belt August 
13 ; afterward a few were taken in the pines ; not seen after the last 
week in August. 

Dendroica nigrescens. Black-throated Gray Warbler. 

First shot August 12 in the pines; common until the middle of Sep- 
tember. Found on the mountain as high as timber line, and also at 
the Grand Caiiou of the Colorado. 

Dendroica townsendi. Townsenrl's Warbler. 

First shot on the mountain August 2L ; became common about 
August 28, and disappeared early in September. Found from the pines 
to the upper part of the timber line zone. Shot at the Grand Canon 
September 14. 

Dendroica occidentalis. Hermit Warbler. 

Common during fall migration, particularly from August 23 to Sep- 
tember 1 in the timber-line zone. A few were killed as low down as 
the pines. 

Geothlypis macgillivrayi. Macgillivray's Warbler. 

One was seen at the base of Mount Kendrick August 6, and a female 
was shot near Little Spring August 14. No others were observed until 
August 22, when the species was tolerably common for a few days in 
some undergrowth along the edge of one of the parks in the pine belt. 
Three were shot and others seen in the Grand Canon September 12 
and 13. 

Geothlypis trichas occidentalis. Western Yellow-throat. 

One was shot and several seen in some thick weeds in the pine belt 
August 31, and others were shot in the Grand Caiion of the Colorado 
September 12 and 14. 

Sylvania pusilla. Wilson's Warbler. 

Abuudaut ou the mountain during migration; first taken August 14; 
soon became abundant, outnumbering all the other Warblers; became 
scarce about the end of August; last seen early in September. 

Anthus pensilvanicus. American Pipit ; Titlark. 

Probably breeds in the neighborhood of timber line on San Francisco 
Mountain, where it was shot by Mr. Bailey August 23. During migra- 
tion it was seen at other places, and came to water at the little crater 
lake called Walker Lake, September 18, 22, and 25. Several were seen 
at Moa Ave, near the south end of Echo Cliffs, the last week in Septem- 
ber. 



100 • NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. • [No. 3. 

Oroscoptes montanus. Sage Thrasher. 

Occurs sparingly on the Desert of the Little Colorado ; hardly more 
than half a dozen individuals were seen altogether. 

Mimus polyglottos. Mockingbird. 

Common at Grand Falls, on the Little Colorado. 

Harporhynchus sp. — ? 

Two Thrashers were seen in the upper part of the Desert of the 
Little Colorado about the middle of August, but they were so shy that 
I was unable to approach within shooting distance, and consequently 
could not determine the species. 
Salpinctes obsoletus. Rock Wren. 

Common about rocky exposures everywhere from the Desert of the 
Little Colorado up to the top of San Francisco Mountain, and also at 
the Grand Canon of the Colorado. 
Catherpes mexicanus conspersus. Caiion Wren. 

Tolerably common in the Grand Canon and in the Canon of the Little 
Colorado, where its marvelous song echoes and re-echoes until the 
towering cliffs fairly ring. One was shot on a ledge on the north side 
of San Francisco Mountain August 22, and several were seen among 
the lava rocks on the west side of the desert September 21 and 26. 
Troglodytes aedon aztecus. Western House Wren. 

Tolerably common about the bottom of the Douglas fir belt in sum- 
mer. Common in bushes bordering the Little Colorado during the lat- 
ter part of September. 
Cistothorus palustris. Long-billed Marsh Wren. 

Common in the tall rushes in Tanner's pond, a few miles north of 
Moeucopie. 

Certhia familiaris montana. Rocky Mouutain Creeper. 

Tolerably common in the Douglas fir belt and the upper part of the 
pine belt. 
Sitta carolinensis aculeata. Slender-billed Nutbatch. 

Tolerably common in the tall pines and balsams; found also at the 
Grand Canon during the middle of September. 

Sitta canadensis. Red-bellied Nuthatch. 

Eecorded by Dr. Mearns from San Francisco Mountain ; not secured 
by us. 

Sitta pygmeea. Pygmy Nuthatch. 

The most abundant and characteristic bird of the pine belt, to which 
it is probably restricted during the breeding season. In the fall it 
ranges up through the Douglas fir zone. It commonly moves in small 
flocks, and is one of the most familiar and affectionate of birds. 

Parus inornatus griseus. Gray Titmouse. 

Breeds commonly in the piiion belt, to which it seems to be restricted 
and in which it was encountered at various points from Turkey Tanks 
to the Grand Caiion. 



aug., 1890.] BIRDS OF SAN FRANCISCO MOUNTAIN REGION. 101 

Parus gambeli. Mountain Chickadee. 

Breeds abundantly in the spruce and fir zones, and is tolerably com- 
mon in the pines during the latter part of August and September. 

Psaltriparus plumbeus. Lead-colored Bash-tit. 

Tolerably common in the pinon belt; not seen elsewhere. 

This species was described by Baird from specimens collected along 
the Little Colorado by Kennerly and Mollhausen in November, 1853. Dr # 
Kennerly states that it was found in large flocks among the scattered 
bushes along the river. 

Regulus satrapa. Golden-crowned Kinglet. 

Not observed by us, but recorded by Woodhouse from San Francisco 
Mountain, where he found it in October, 1851, associated with B. calen- 
dula and Parus gambeli. 
Regulus calendula. Ruby-crowned Kinglet. 

Common on the mountain, where it breeds in the spruce belt. It was 
tolerably common at the Grand Canon the middle of September. 

Polioptila caerulea. Blue-gray Gnatcatcher. 

Common in the cedar belt and at the Grand Cailon of the Colorado. 
Two were seen in the greasewood along Moencopie Wash, late in Sep- 
tember. 

Myadestes townsendii. Towusend's Solitaire. 

Breeds in the Boreal zones of San Francisco Mountain and Kendrick 
Feak. A spotted young was shot on Kendrick Peak, August 25. Dur- 
ing migration it was seen as low as the cedar belt (September 16). 

Turdus aonalaschkae auduboni. Audubon's Hermit Thrush. 

Breeds abundantly throughout the spruce and Douglas fir zones. 
Spotted young were shot August 1. 
Merula migratoria propinqua. Western Robin. 

Occasionally seen in the pines and along the lower part of the fir belt. 
A few were seen at Grand Falls on the Little Colorado the middle of 
August, and it was tolerably common at the Grand Canon of the Colo- 
rado the middle of September. 

Sialia mexicana. Western Bluebird. 

Breeds abundantly in the pines, and was common in the cedars and 
pinon in early autumn. 

Sialia arctica. Mountain Bluebird. 

Breeds sparingly ; rare until September 5, when it suddenly became 
abundant; afterward seen at frequent intervals until the end of the 
month, principally in the cedars. 



PART V.-ANNOTATED LIST OF REPTILES AND BATRACHIANS COL- 
LECTED BY DR. C, HART MERRIAM AND VERNON BAILEY ON THE 
SAN FRANCISCO MOUNTAIN PLATEAU AXD DESERT OF THE LITTLE 
COLORADO, ARIZONA, WITH DESCRIPTIONS OF NEW SPECIES. 



6 



By Leonhard Stejneger. 



A.— REPTILIA. 



Crotaphytus baileyi sp. nov. Plate xn, Kg. 1. 

Diagnosis. — Similar to C. collaris it) coloration, but with at least two 
rows of interorbital scutella3; supraoculars smaller; head narrower, 
and snout longer. 

Habitat. — Western New Mexico, Arizona, Utah, Nevada, and northern 
Mexico. 

Type. — U. S. National Museum No. 15821 ; Painted Desert, Little 
Colorado River, Arizona ; September 26, 1889 ; Dr. C. Hart Merriam 
and V. Bailey, coll. 
Synonymy. — Crotaphytus collaris Auct. part nee Say. 

Crotaphytus collaris var. Bocourt, Miss. Scientif. Mexique, 
Zool., Rept., 3 livr., p. 155, pi. xvn bis, figs. 6, Ga (1874). 

Bocourt seems to have been the first to notice the difference in the 
scutellatiou and proportions of the heads of the typical Crotaphytus col- 
laris and the form here named C. baileyi, but owing to the fact that he 
only possessed a single specimen of the latter, with somewhat uncer- 
tain locality (-'Mexico") he failed to recognize the full significance of 
the characters he so admirably describes and figures. The general 
similarity in the very striking coloration which in both forms is equally 
variable seems to have overshadowed the structural distinction be- 
tween them. 

The type of Say's Agama collaris came from the Verdigris River, near 
its junction with the Neosho River, Creek Natiou, Indian Territory. I 
have therefore selected a specimen collected at the Verdigris River (U. 
S. National Museum, No. 1)308) for comparison and illustration as typi- 
cal of the species. (See pi. xn, fig. 2.) 

The differences between the two forms are so well expressed in the 
figures accompanying this paper that a detailed description is quite un- 
necessary. Suffice it to say that I have found these characters to hold 
good in a collection of over seventy specimens from nearly thirty dif- 

103 



104 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. ' [No. 3. 

ferent localities in the West, due consideration being given to individ- 
ual variation. 

If we plot on a map the exact localities from which we have un- 
doubted specimens (see map, pi. xni) we shall find that our specimens 
of G. collaris hail from Kansas, Indian Territory, Arkansas, Texas, and 
eastern New Mexico, while specimens of G. baileyi, with definite locali- 
ties, are at home in the western portion of the latter territory, in Arizona, 
Nevada, and northern Mexico. It will be seen that the two forms come 
very close together in New Mexico, but they belong to two different 
drainage systems, at least in the northern portion of the territory, and 
I do not believe that both will be found anywhere in the same locality. 

There can consequently be no doubt that both forms are subspecies 
of the same species, but whether the form now named for the first 
time should receive a trinominal appellation or not is quite another 
thing, depending, according to the code of zoological nomenclature 
adopted by the American Ornithologists' Union,* which I adhere to in 
all my writings, upon the question whether the two forms are " now 
known to intergrade" or not. 

In the collection before me there are a few specimens which present 
features which at first sight might seem to indicate intergradation. 
Thus No. 2725, collected by Dr. Kennedy " between Los Angeles and 
Rio Grande," and one of the specimens of No. 4958, Pecos River, 
Texas, Captain Pope, are quite alike as far as the interorbital scutella- 
tiou is concerned, and neither are typical in this respect, inasmuch as 
both have a large interorbital, with a minute scale on the edge of it 
instead of either a large single one, or two smaller of equal size; but a 
comparison of the two specimens shows at once that the first mentioned 
one with the elongated snout belongs to G. baileyi, while the latter does 
not materially differ from the two typical G. collaris in the same bottle. 

A specimen of No. 2715 is in every way similar to Dr. Kennedy's 
G. baileyi just referred to; two others in the same bottle seem to be 
typical of this form, while the remaining two are typical G. collaris. 
These specimens were collected by Mollhausen, under Lieutenant Whip- 
ple, "near Canadian," but it is quite significant that he crossed from 
the Canadian River into the territory exclusively inhabited by our new 
form, consequently across the boundary between the two. 

It is quite possible that intergradation takes place, especially in 
southern New Mexico east of the Rio Grande, but until the fact shall 
have been proved conclusively I refuse to adopt a clumsy trinominal. 

So far I have been unable to establish any difference in color between 
the two forms, though at one time I thought that G. baileyi had a better 
developed black collar usually connected on the neck, but the excep- 
tions are too many to make this tendency available as a character. 

* Canon xi, The Code of Nomenclature, etc., adopted by the American Ornitholo- 
gists' Union. New York, 1886. 



Arc. 1890. j REPTILES OF SAN FRANCISCO MOUNTAIN REGION. 105 

During the second trip across the Painted Desert (September 21 to 
26), Dr. Merriam collected seven specimens (Nos. 15821 to 15827) of 
various sizes near the Little Colorado River. Several of them were 
quite fresh when brought to camp, and I had the opportunity to make 
a color sketch and the following description from a young individual 
("No. 15824), the color designations referring to Ridgway's " Nomen- 
clature: " 

Head above pale sepia, inclining to clay color ; anterior portion of 
upper neck in front of the first black collar pale blue, with several lon- 
gitudinal marks of ' coral red;' space between the two black collars 
pale ; oil green,' with a narrow transverse collar of coral red; ground 
color of back dull oil green, fading posteriorly on hind legs and tail to 
a grayish 'pea green,' the back densely covered with rather large dark 
grayish olive blotches, which ouly allow the ground color to show 
through as a fine reticulation ; the second black collar bordered poste- 
riorly with a wide line of ' lemon-yellow,' the back being crossed by 
five similar lines, fading posteriorly and more or less alternating on the 
lateral halves of the body; tail with transverse bars of dark grayish 
brown ; fore legs above < apple green,' nearly yellow on the hand and 
faintly barred with the latter color; under surface pale greenish white, 
palms slightly pinkish, tail nearly white. Tongue deep pink; pharynx 
blackish carmine; palate ultramarine blue. Iris brassy greenish-yel- 
low. 

Crotaphytus wislizenii 15. & G. 

The only specimen was collected near the Great Falls of Little Colo- 
rado River, August 18 (U. S. Nat. Mus., No. 15820.) It is a full-grown 
female of the typical form.* 

* A comparison of Dr. Merriain's specimen with the material in the National Mu- 
seum, more than seventy specimens, led to the discovery that those of the Pacific 
province from central California northwards belong to a separate form which I pro- 
pose to characterize as 
Crotaphytus silus sp. nov. 

Diagn.— Similar to C. wislizenii, hut with the snout much shorter and more trun- 
cate in profile; greatest width of head equal to or greater than distance from nos- 
tril to ear opening; distance between nostril and inner anterior orbital angle consid- 
erably less than vertical diameter of ear opening. 

Hab. — San Joaquin Valley, California, to the State of Washington. 

Type. — U. S. National Museum No. 11790 A; Fresno, Cal.; Gustav Eisen, coll. 

This form is not C. gambeli 13. & G., the type of which (U. S. Nat. Mus., No. 2722) 
is before me, showing all the typical features of C. wisUzenii. As stated in the 
original description (Proc. Phila. Acad., VI, 1852-'53, p. 120) the exact locality of Gam- 
bel's specimens is not known, but as they were collected by him during his trip to 
California it has been surmised that they were from the latter State. Though this 
is by no means certain, it is quite possible, for I suspect that the form occurring in 
the desert region of southern California will bo found to agree with that of Arizona 
and New Mexico, i. e. the true C. wislizenii. Nor is it the same as C. copeii Yarrow, 
from which the new form differs in the same manner as it does from C. wislizenii. 



106 



NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. 



[No. 3. 



Uta stansburiana B. & G. 

Three specimens in excellent condition (U. S. Nat. Mus., Nos. 15842- 
15844) were collected in the Painted Desert, near the Little Colorado 
Eiver, September 21. These are in every way typical. 

Four young specimens (Nos. 15845-15848) were secured in the Grand 
Caiiou of the Colorado on September 12, about 500 feet above the bot- 
tom. These seem to have longer arms than typical examples, resem- 
bling in that respect U. palmeri,* but owing to their bad state of pres- 
ervation it is impossible to come to any conclusion, though it is certain 
that they do not belong to the latter form. 1 made the following notes 
on their color while yet tolerably fresh : 

Nos. 15846 and 15847 : Above coppery drab with three longitudinal 
series of indistinct brown spots along the back, which is speckled all 
over with numerous bluish white dots one to three scales large ; tail 
somewhat grayer with faint cross-bars of a slightly darker color, and a 
longitudinal dusky spot along the median line of each of the darker 
cross bars on the anterior half of the tail; legs with faint dusky cross- 
bars; head more rusty on the crown inclining to greenish bronze on 
supraorbitals and the region between them ; snout, dusky ; under side 
whitish, flanks inclining to greenish; chin and throat sky blue with 
faint dusky marblings. No. 15845 is similar, but with fewer light 
specks on the back, and with numerous dusky dots particularly notice- 
able on the upper neck; whole head uniform coppery drab; cross-bars 
on tail more distinct; chin and throat whitish, slightly suffused with 

I Lave C. silu* from the following localities: 



TJ. S. Nat. 
Mus. No. 



11790 

11757 

9581 

12771 



Locality. 



Fresno, Cal 

do 

Fort Tejon, Cal 

Des Chutes River, Oregon. 



Collector. 



G. Eisen 

... do 

W. M. Gabb .... 
Capta n Fendiie 



Xo. of 
specimens. 



* U. palmeri sp. nov. 

Diagn.— Similar to typical U. stansburiana and with the same dorsal lepidosis, the 
scales being small, tnberculate, and not carinated for their entire length, but much 
larger and with longer fore legs, the tips of which, when adpressed, reach to or beyond 
the insertion of the thigh ; scales on edge of collar much smaller; large prefrontals 
about twice as large as the largest supraoculars ; number of femoral pores about 17 ; 
about 30 dorsals in a head length ; color (in alcohol) above uniform bluish drab, 
with numerous small whitish dots, two to three scales large, sprinkled over the body, 
and no dusky markings whatever; dark blue blotch behind axilla present, though 
rather indistinct. 

Hab.— San Pietro Martir Island, Gulf of California. 

Type.— U.S. National Museum, No. 16002; Dr. Edw. Palmer, coll. 

Dimensions of largest specimen (9): Total length (tail reproduced) 158 mm ; head 
15 mm , width of head 14 mm ; snout to posterior gular fold 25 mm ; gular fold to vent 

4gmm . f or6 li m |) 33mm . hjud limb 52mm. 



Aug., 1890.] REPTILES OF SAN FRANCISCO MOUNTAIN KEGION. 107 

bluish and marbled with purplish gray ; upper and lower mandibles 
suffused with 'salmon color.' 

Uta ornata B. & G. 

After a careful examination of the material at hand I have come to 
the conclusion that there exists a well-marked difference between Uta 
ornata of Baird and Girard and U. symmetrica. 

This difference, however, is not the one which would suggest itself 
upon a comparison of the original descriptions (for instance, as con- 
trasted by Boulenger, Oat. Liz. Br. Mus., II, pp. 210-211, and quite 
naturally so) inasmuch as both forms have the median dorsal series 
much smaller than those immediately adjoining it on both sides. Judg- 
ing from the original description of TJ. ornata one would imagine the dor- 
sal lepidosis to be similar to that of U.graciosa (Hallowell), but I have 
Baird and Girard's types before me (U. S. Nat. Mus., No. 2750,* Bio 
San Pedro, Texas, J. H. Clark, coll.), which show conclusively that 
both forms in this respect are essentially on the same plan. That the 
original describers failed to point out this character was undoubtedly 
due to the fact that at that time they had only to compare their new 
species with TJ. stansburiana from which the characters given were quite 
sufficient to separate it. 

The chief difference between the two forms seems to be one of proportions 
U. symmetricabemg more slender and elongated, with much longer hind 
limbs, particularly tibire and toes. The males in both forms are slen- 
derer than the females, but the difference is well marked if specimens 
of the corresponding sex are compared. As a rule the difference may 
be expressed thus : In TJ. ornata the hind leg is shorter than distance 
from posterior gular fold to vent; while in TJ. symmetrica the hind leg 
equals or exceeds the same distance. 

Though arranged on the same plan with a series of smaller dorsals 
in the middle, there is, nevertheless, a well marked distinction between 
the dorsal lepidosis of the two forms; for in TJ. symmetrica the differ- 
ence between the two kinds of rows is greater, aud their arrangement 
more symmetrical and orderly, the keels of the larger ones forming four 
nearly continuous parallel lines, while in TJ. ornata the rows are not so 
perfect, the outer one being often very irregular, both ill sizeaud number, 
more or less interrupted, or in some places divided into two smaller 
rows. In one of the types, the male, there can hardly be said to be 
more than one row of large scales on each side of the smaller middle 
one. 

TJ. ornata and TJ. symmetrica seem to affect different altitudes, the 
latter occurring in the lower arid and desert regions, while the former 
is found chiefly in the cedar beltt aud above. 

* In the Mex. Bound. Surv. Rept., p. 7, the number is erroneously given as 2700, 
which belongs to a Crotaphytus. 

t The horizontal distribution of U. ornata is as yet uncertain. In addition to the 
San Francisco Mountain specimens I have soon others collected near Fort Whipple, 



10S NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. 

Dr. Merriatu collected one specimen (N«k 15S4L) of typical V. ornata 
iu the cedar belt of San Francisco Mountain (altitude about 6,800 f< 
on September 5. There are two more specimens in the National Museum 
from the same mountaiu (No. 427o collected by H. B. Mollhausen, under 
Lieutenant Ives. 
Uta symmetrica Baird. 

As already pointed out under the foregoing species, this one is quite 
distinct from U. ornata. and in its distribution is a lowland and desert 
form. Professor Baird's type v Xo. 2760) from Fort Yuma, seems to be 
lost, but I have an excellent series of sixteen specimens Xo. 27J4) from 
the same locality, ample material for establishing the* characters of the 
species. The three specimens (Nbs. 15838-15810) all males, collected 
by Mr. Bailey near the bottom of the Great Canon of the Colorado Biver, 
altitude about 3*500 feet, agree very well with these and are undoubt- 
edly true Uta symmetrica as distinguished from U. ornata. 

Two of the specimens were in good condition when brought into camp, 
and afforded me an opportunity to make the following notes on the 
fresh colors : 

y. L5338. Groundcolor above grayish-drab, more pinkish on tail 
aud along the middle line, with a series of eight s herring-bone ' cross- 
bars of dusky, growing pale posteriorly aud including a light spot on the 

-- - - - n Carpenter, No. 156i>o. Ire- 

ler t - harm fU. S. Nat. Mas.. No. 15729) which I 

- -he rim of -- .bout 7.000 feet 

It is very peculiar in fe . ■ .- borderin, a - -fold 

- .. but as .: ■ - ia proportions with 
Uta ornata fro. :ude aud neighborhood. I refus ::: i _. ird it other 

than an individual variation ■■ - -ens shall have been obtained. 

TV - - - •-. however, agreeir-,- aMMa g 

_ . iently belong:: . 
>anie croup as V __ nosed und:: ~c as — 

Uta levis sp. nov. 

Dia<7n.— .. uie what irregular rows of enlarged and 

- ! . irom the shoulders hack- 

ee two median : - - "ineoferl ■ : 

on be divided :: - toil ranch less than twice the length 

of head and body : length of hind teg - less than distance from posterior 

tr fold to vent : no dark spot behind axilla. 
Hob. — Tierra Amaril'a. New MexM 

Type. — U. S. Nation., - a, No. 11474: Prof. E. D. Cope, coll. 

This form, of which both male and female (Nos. 11474 - - tot by Pro- 

- r Cope at Tierra Amarilia, about 110 miles norths- - .. . 

:ade of aV • . - 7,8 - - - bed from U. ornata, its nearest 

by the absence of tl - enlarged wales m : . _r;l aa those on the i 

lateral fold be. _ - than the other dorsal granules ; nor are 

there any pointed tubercles or cluster of tnl c - : :k. In addition to 

char - - - is rather feeble. As in typL 

ornata the hind legs are e "-.-..-. B rows very irregular. The color of 

botl • .5 above is uniform at the slightest trace of markings : the 

male has flank patches of a pale skv-blue | in alcohol). 



Aug., i£90.l REPTILES OF SAN FRANCISCO MOUNTAIN REGION. 109 

middle line ; the sixauterior cross-bars are bordered behind by a narrow 
black line, and all, both in front and behind, by a whitish line which is 
broader behind than in front; on the sides several rows of indistinct 
pale spots, many of them bordered anteriorly by dusky ; a narrow dusky 
line across the head between the eyes; an indistinct dusky line from 
nostrils throngh eyes to above ear ; legs and tail with indistinct and 
irregular cross-bands of a lighter shade than the ground color; under- 
side whitish, with an elongated patch of emerald green on the flanks 
and a more yellowish one on the middle of the throat. (Now, after 
having been in alcohol for more than half a year, the green of the flanks 
has changed to a faint sky-blue, and the yellowish throat patch has 
disappeared.) 

The other specimen (No. 15840) is considerably smaller. It resembles 
the above, though a little darker and with the pattern more distinct; 
no green on flanks, and the throat patch pinkish-yellow (now disap- 
peared). 

Holbrookia maculata flavilenta Cope. 

By this name Professor Cope recently designated some specimens 
from Lake Valley, New Mexico, and as I find all the western specimens 
differing from true H. maculata in much the same manner as described 
by him and being in need of a name for this western (west of the Rio 
Grande) subspecies, I adopt the above appellation, at least provisionally. 

This is the form which Professor Cope formerly called H. propinqua 
(for instance : Proc. Phila. Acad. 1866, p. 303 ; Expl. W. lOOMerid, V. 
p. 601), a species which he has later restricted — and most properly so — 
to southwestern Texas. The New Mexican and Arizona specimens were 
left with H. maculata " subspecies maculata." Yet the differences be- 
tween these specimens and typical H. maculata which originally led to 
their identification with H. propinqua do iu reality exist, though they 
are difficult to express in words, but they do also iutergrade, to some 
extent, necessitating the use of triuominals. 

In order to properly identify the specimens brought home by Dr. 
Merriam, I was obliged to review the whole question of II. maculata and 
its various races, and I came to the conclusion that there are two main 
races, each with a special geographic color variety. I may tabulate 
them as follows, indicating at the same time their geographic distribu- 
tion in so far as I have been able to examine specimens from undoubted 
localities. 

A. Pointed snout and narrow anterior supralabials. 

1. Holbrookia maculata, typical: Northern Texas, Indian Territory, Kansas, 

Nebraska, eastern Colorado. 

2. n. m. lacerate : Central Texas. 

B. Truncate snout and broad prominent anterior supralabials. 

'i. U. »i. flavilenta : Western New Mexico, Arizona, except extreme southern 

portion. 
4. II. m. upproximana : Southern Arizona, parts of Sonora, Chihuahua and Coa- 
huila. 



1 J NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. 



[No. 3. 



H. lacerata I take to be only a color race of typical H. maculata. In 
outline of head, shape of labials, and proportions I can find no difference 
between the S R. lacerata (No. 10160 Helotes, Texas ; W. G. Marnock, 
coll.) and various males of the typical form. So far as coloration of the 
upper parts are concerned, H. lacerata is closely approached by three 
specimens from Neosho, Kansas (No. 4693), and in regard to the lateral 
spots it may be stated that they are present in all three examples be- 
longing to the National Museum, though the original description ex- 
pressly says : " No blue spots on the sides." 

Both H. approximans and H. flavilenta, as here understood, differ from 
true H. maculata as exemplified by numerous specimens from the typi- 
cal locality, the Platte Eiver, in the more truncated outline of the snout, 
as seen from above, the greater width, height, and obliqueness of the 
supralabials, and generally, in the reduced number, consequently greater 
size and greater flatness of the scales on top of the snout. As a rule 
the hind feet of these western forms are longer, but proportions of feet 
and tail as compared with length of body vary to such an extent indi- 
vidually all over the range of the species that they are hardly available 
for purposes of identification. 

H. approximans seems to differ from H. flavilenta chiefly, if not exclu- 
sively, in having the lateral dark spots placed a little further back and 
surrounded by more blue. 

Dr. Merriam's specimens (U. S. National Museum, Nos. 15828-15837) 
were collected in the Painted Desert, some at Moencopie, but the ma- 
jority near the Little Colorado Eiver, between September 21 and 26. 
One is quite young, the others full grown, or nearly so. 

Sceloporus clarkii B. & G. 

Originally described from southern Arizona, and by subsequent col- 
lectors ascertained to inhabit the drainage basin of the Gila River as 
well as the lower Colorado valley. Dr. Merriam's discovery of its 
occurrence in the Grand Canon of the Colorado Eiver north of San 
Francisco Mountain materially extends the range of the species north- 
ward and adds another to the many southern forms which push their 
northern outposts up through this wonderful canon. As one of the 
specimens was caught about 1,000 feet above the bottom of the canon, 
it is quite possible that this species may extend at least as far as the 
mouth of the San Juan Eiver, or across the border into Utah. 

Of the two specimens collected (Nos. 15849, 15850) one is very 
young — head and body 38 mm long. Its coloration is very pronounced 
and differs considerably from that of the adults, except the head and 
upper neck. The rest of the upper surface is of a pale bluish drab, with 
very distinct blackish-brown cross-bars, those on one side of the back 
alternating with those on the other side; across the neck just in front 
of the shoulders there is a nearly complete brownish black collar, lat- 
erally bordered with pale yellow both in front and behind. In the 
other specimen, which is more than half grown, only a trace is left of the 



Aug., 1890.] REPTILES OF SAN FRANCISCO MOUNTAIN REGION. Ill 

collar, consisting of a blackish spot on each shoulder bordered behind 
with pale yellowish. 

Sceloporus consobrinus B. & G. 

Like Uta omata, the present species is confined to the Cedar belt of 
the plateau, where it is not uncommon. Pour specimens were col- 
lected : No. 15854, San Francisco Mountain, August 25, 1889; No. 
15853, in the Cedar belt north of the mountain, at an altitude of about 
6,500 feet, September 9; aud two (Nos. 15S51-'2) near Canon Spring, at 
the rim of the Grand Calion, September 13 and 15. It is not found 
either in the canon or in the desert. 

Sceloporus graciosus B. & G. 

A very young specimen (No. 15855), which was collected at Tanuer's 
Gulch, Painted Desert, on September 24, 1 refer to this species, although 
it differs considerably in coloration from the full-grown specimens which 
I have been able to compare it with. The dorsal spots are represented 
by two longitudinal brownish bands, narrowly margined with black, 
bordering a median band of nearly the same width but of a beautiful 
sky-blue color; laterally the dark bands are again bordered by a white 
one of equal width ; beyond this there is a wider dusky baud, followed 
again on the sides by a narrower and less well defined white band 
which is set off from the light under surface by a shade of dusky. 

Sceloporus elongatus, sp. uov. 

Diagnosis. — Head shields smooth ; occipital comparatively small, but 
broader than parietals ; two or three parietals ou each side ; two scales 
on canthus»rostralis ; supraoculars, one large row and three small sub- 
equal ones, two outer and one inner ; five free scales in front of ear 
opeuing ; dorsal rows nearly parallel ; lateral scales but little smaller, iu 
oblique rows; scales ou shoulders large, connecting dorsals with bra- 
chials ; dorsal scales keeled, pointed, with a well-pronounced notch on 
each side of the point, 47 to 51 scales between occipital and tail, 9 to 11 
in a head length ; femoral pores 16 to 18 on each side, not meeting 
medially ; tail about eight times the length of the head; distance be- 
tween base of fifth toe aud extremity of fourth, including claw, less than 
distance from nostril to arm, and much more than from snout to poste- 
rior margin of ear; no color band across nape; no longitudinal color 
bands ; males with dark blue patches on Hanks and one on each side of 
throat, females similarly marked, but colors less vivid and less ex- 
tended. 

Habitat. — Painted Desert, Arizona. 

Type.—JJ. S. National Museum, No. 15858 ; Moa Ave, Painted Desert, 
Arizona; September 23, 1889 ; Dr. C. Hart Merriam, coll. 

Unable to identify the specimens brought homo by Dr. Merriam from 
the Painted Desert with any of the numerous forms described, Ihave boon 
obliged to introduce them under a new name. Although nearly related 
to several of the species already known it is not an intermediate form 



112 



NOKTH AMERICAN FAUNA. 



[No. 3. 



connecting any of them, as in slenderness it surpasses them all, the tail 
and hind legs being particularly elongated. 

In the number of dorsal scales this form is intermediate between S. 
consobrinus and 8. graciosus, though the number included in a head 
length is the same as in the former, but in the new form the scales are 
not so strongly carinated, the keel being lower and mostly confined to 
the terminal half of the scale. It also agrees with 8. consobrinus 
in the distribution of the blue color on flanks and throat, but shares 
with 8. bocourtii the peculiarity of exhibiting a similar coloration 
in the females and young, differing from the latter, however, in having 
a blue mark on each side of the throat instead of a single one on 
the middle of the throat. The coloration of the upper side, how- 
ever, is more of the 8. undulatus type ; but it is much lighter, the 
dark undulating cross-lines are not so heavy, and there is no trace 
of longitudinal bands. Even in the very young specimen these color 
characters are well pronounced and identical with the adults. 

Measurements (in millimeters). 



& 
B 






















'3 




1 6 












— 


r~ 












o A 




<B 






,d 


o 


ID 


a 






o 




3S 

CO 


Collector. 


be 

cS 

■zl 

a 


Locality. 


Date. 


it 

P 

<D 


o 
o 

s 


J3 
O 

■a 


> 

t 




ra 

iJD 

o 

o 
u 


00 

it 

a 


o 
a 


CD 

a 


U 




CO 






H 


a 

CO 


£ 


a 
co 


o 

to 


M 


.t> 


M 


15858 


Dr. C Hart 
Merriam and 
V. Bailey. 


cf ad. 


Moa Ave, Ari- 
zona. 


Sept. 23, 1889 


199 


15 


14 


75 


34 


52 


124 


Type. 


15859 


do 


? ad. 


....do 


....do 


197 


16 


13 


73 


35 


50 


I'M 




15856 


do 


$ ad. 




Sept. 21, 1889 




14 


1° 


70 


"¥> 


41 


*77 








River, Arizona. 


















15857 


do 


juv. 


....do 


Sept. 26, 1889 


104 


10 


8 


40 


.... 


28 


64 











* Tail reproduced. 

Fhrynosoma hernandesi (Gir.). 

To avoid mistakes I may at once remark that this name is intended 
for the interior form usually designated as Ph. douglassii, or even Ph. 
douglassii douglasii (!), as distiugnished from the northwest coast form 
known as Ph. douglassii pygmwa, for as it was upon the latter that Bell 
founded his Agama douglassii, it is plain that the dwarf species found 
in the territory drained by the Columbia Eiver is entitled to the name 
Ph. douglassii without any further qualifying trinominal. 

It is beyond the scope of the present paper to discuss in detail the 
status of all the forms which are more or less closely grouped around 
Ph. douglassii, but I may state in this connection that the examination 
of a very extensive material has convinced me of the necessity of recog- 
nizing at least four different forms, each with a definite and distinct 
geographical distribution, viz, the typical Ph. douglassii (=pygmasa) 



Aug., 1890.] REPTILES OF SAN FRANCISCO MOUNTAIN REGION. 113 

from Oregon and Washington; Ph. hemandesi (=douglassii Auct. nee 
Bell) from the wooded plateau region of Colorado, Utah, New Mexico, 
and Arizona ; Ph. ornatissimum, from the desert region of the latter 
territories ; and Ph. brevirostre (Gir. nee Cope), a small edition of Ph. 
ornatissimum from Wyoming and, in general, thedraiuage basins of the 
Yellowstone and Platte Rivers. 

Of these, only Ph. hemandesi and Ph. ornatissimum concern us in the 
present connection. 

After having discovered that Ph. pygmwa is only a synonym of typical 
Ph. douglassii, it remained to ascertain which name in the long list of 
synonyms would be available for the form so long known as Ph. doug- 
lassii. It was then found that Girard's types of Ph. hemandesi in the 
TJ. S. National Museum (Nos. 107, 198) are still extant and that they 
are identical with the plateau form here in question. 

Fortunately, Girard's type of Ph. ornatissimum is also preserved ( U. S. 
National Museum, No. 204), so that we have authentic bases for both 
names. It remains now only to point out the differences between these 
species, differences which may be more easily appreciated by an inspec- 
tion of plate xii, figs. 3 and 1, drawn from specimens collected by Dr. 
Merriam. 

In Ph. hemandesi the head is more pointed, the lateral outline being 
straight or even concave, against convex in Ph. ornatissimum; the spines 
both on head and body are considerably larger and more numerous ; 
the occipital spines are more horizontal, sloping backwards and paral- 
lel with the temporal spines, hence the outline of the occipital angle 
when viewed from above is subdivided iuto three angles by the points 
of the occipital spines, while in Ph. ornatissimum the occipital spines are 
more erect so that they do not protrude backwards into the occipital 
angle which, besides, is considerably more shallow. In Ph. hemandesi 
the occipital spines are also placed much nearer to the temporal spines, 
the interval being less between the occipital spines and the apex of the 
occipital angle, while in Ph. ornatissimum they are situated about mid- 
way, there being a large opening between the occipital spines and the 
temporal ones. The spines on the dorsal surface are larger in Ph. her- 
nandesi, especially the row on the neck ruuniug backwards from the tip 
of the occipital spines. Ph. hemandesi, moreover, seems to have a con- 
siderably longer tail, it being quite as long in the females as in the males 
of Ph. ornatissimum (the males as is well known having considerably 
longer tails than the females). There are also decided differences in 
coloration, in spite of the great individual variation in both species. 
Quite characteristic of Ph. hemandesi is the red color of the cephalic 
spines, while the rest of the head is more or less of a greenish or blu- 
ish gray. 

Phrynosoma hemandesi has a range corresponding to that of Uta or- 
nata&nd Sceloporns eonsobrinus, being chiefly confined to the cedar belt 
and the lower pine belt. It was collected by Dr. Merriam at various 
501— No. 3 8 



114 



NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. 



[No. 3. 



points on San Francisco Mountain at various altitudes from 7,000 to 
8,500 feet, and 1 myself obtained specimens of the same form at Hull's 
Spring (6,000 feet alt.) and at the Canon Spring. A melanistic form 
was found in the black lava beds east and northeast of the mountain. 
The following is a full list of the specimens brought home by Dr. Mer- 
riam : 



U.S. 

Nat. 
Mus. 
No. 


Sex 
and 
ago. 


15799 


d ad. 


15800 


d ad. 


15801 


d ad. 


15802 


d ad. 


15803 


d juv. 


15804 


d juv. 


15805 


d juv. 


15800 


9 ad. 


15807 


9 ad. 


15808 


? ad. 


15809 


9 ad. 


15810 


9 ad. 


15811 


9 ad. 


15812 


juv. 


15813 


juv. 


15814 


d juv. 


15815 


d juv. 



Locality and altitude. 



San Francisco Mountain, Arizona (7,000 feet). 
do 



.do 
.do 
.do 
.do 
.do 
do 
.do 



do (7,000 feet). 

do 

do (8,500 feet). 

-do r (7,000 feet). 

do 

do 

Black lava beds east of mountain -^ 

Black iava beds northeast of mountain 



Date. 



Sept. 


8, 1889 


Sept. 


5, 1889 


Do. 


Do. 


Aug. 


'?0, 1889 


Aug. 


7, 1889 


Aug. 


20, 1889 


Aug. 


5, 1889 


Sept. 


5, 1889 


Aug. 


17, 1889 


Aug. 


8, 1889 


Sept. 


5, 1889 


Aug. 


17, 1889 


Aug. 


25, 1889 


Aug. 


19, 1889 


Sept. 


26, 1889 



Much has been written in regard to the perfection with which these 
animals ' imitate' the color of the ground on which they live, and our 
own observations fully verified the statement that they afford one of 
the most striking examples of protective mimicry. In the cedar and 
pine belts of the San Francisco Mountain the dark brown color of the 
soil and stones covering the surface is closely matched by the ground 
color of the Phrynosomas, while the greenish gray and orange colored 
markings which somewhat irregularly adorn their backs are perfect im- 
itations of the lichens covering the rocks and pebbles among which 
these odd-looking creatures live. Near the rim of the Grand Canon of 
the Colorado, on the other hand, the ground is covered with small peb- 
bles of variously colored sandstone, ranging from a clayey white to 
brick red and dark brown, and the specimen which I collected there 
(No. 15724) is such a faithful reproduction of the surroundings that it 
would undoubtedly have remained undetected had it not been moving. 
Even more remarkable are the specimens which Dr. Merriam collected 
in the black lava belt east and northeast of the mountain. One of 
these (No. 15815) was brought to camp alive, enabling me to make the 
following description of the fresh colors : " Ground color of upper side, 
including head, satiny black ; light markings on median third of body 



Aug., 1890.] REPTILES OF SAN FEAXCISCO MOUNTAIN KEGION. 



115 



dull 'Naples yellow,' abruptly changing into the yellow ochre of those 
on the sides ; tips of most lateral spines white ; tips of largest cephalic 
spines marbled with ocher; under side yellowish white, densely mar- 
bled with blackish; collar, light ocher yellow." In these specimens 
even the gloss of the black lava was imitated. 

Phrynosoma ornatissimum (Gir.). 

The differences between this species and Ph. hernandesi have been 
pointed out under the head of the latter. They seem to be constant, 
they are well pronounced in the adults, and there seems to be no inter- 
gradation, so that I see no reason for adopting a trinominal appellation. 

As already alluded to, this species is a true desert form, and it was 
consequently found by Dr. Merriam only on his trips through the 
Painted Desert. The following specimens were secured : 



U.S. 

Nat. 

Mus. 

No. 


Sex 
and 
age. 


Locality. 


Date. 


15816 


rf ad. 




Aug. 17, 1889 
Sept. 25, 1889 
Sept. 24, 1889 
Do 


15817 


d" ad. 
? ad. 
$ ad. 




15818 


do 


15819 











Judging from these specimens the normal coloration of Ph. ornatis- 
simum is a pale cinnamon rufous on the back, with large round black 
spots, surrounded by a pale yellow line ; upper side of head including 
spines uniform cinnamon rufous of the same shade as the ground color 
of the back. 

The relation between Ph. hernandesi and Ph. ornatissimum and their 
distribution offers a most interesting parallel to that observed between 
a number of species of rodents, as pointed out by Dr. Merriam on 
previous pages (see pp. 55, 56. 59, CO, 74). 

Eutainia vagrans B. & G. 

The only snake collected was found by Mr. Bailey in the crater of 
O'Leary Peak, 9,000 feet altitude, October 2. (No. 15798.) This was, 
moreover, the only snake seen during the entire stay of the party in the 
San Francisco Mountain * plateau, though a single rattlesnake was seen 
on the Painted Desert, near Teuebito Wash, by Dr. Merriam. 

* This is a fact well worth recording, for it tends to corroborate the statement that 
snakes, especially rattlesnakes, are becoming rare in many western localities where 
they were quite abundant not long ago. During a short stay in July, 1864, Dr. E. 
Coues collected quite a number of rattlesnakes belonging to uo les9 than four differ- 
ent species, on the same mountain, where not one was seen by Dr. Merriam's whole 
party during a stay of two months. The species collected by Dr. Coues have been 
determined as follows: Crotalus confluent us. molossus, lucifer, and scutulatus. (Wheel- 
er's Expls. W. 100 Mer., v., pp. 604-608.) 



116 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. ' fN T o.3. 

B .— B ATRACHI A. 

Amblystoma tigrinum (Green). 

While we were sitting around the camp-fire in the evening of Septem- 
ber 19, a salamander (U. S. Nat. Mus., No. 16179) was suddenly seen 
writhing in the hot ashes, having probably dropped off one of the 
burning logs. I follow Cope's authority in adopting the above name. 
San Francisco Mountain is the locality whence came the type of Hallo- 
well's A. nebulosum. 

The fresh colors above were dark olive and " straw-yellow " in about 
equal proportions ; a ring round the eyes and upper lips tinged with 
reddish ; under side of head whitish ; of body, pale yellowish-gray ; 
free portions of digits tinged with pink ; iris dark hazel. 

Bufo lentiginosus woodhousii (Gir.). 

Two medium-sized specimens (Nos. 16181, 16182) were collected on 
September 24 at Tanner's Gulch, 3 miles north of Tuba City, Painted 
Desert. They are normally colored though rather light, especially the 
smaller one. The following color notes were taken from the fresh spec- 
imens: " Above pale olive-green with a somewhat lighter stripe down 
the middle of the back ; tip of tubercles pale red surrounded by black 
rings; lower surface olive- white." 

Two other and much smaller specimens were obtained at Tanner's 
Crossing of the Little Colorado, September 22 (Nos. 16183, 16184). Al- 
though differing greatly from the former in coloration, I can find no 
other character to distinguish them. A colored sketch and description 
from the fresh specimens at the time are to the following effect: "No. 
16183. Entire upper surface pale flesh color, suffused with buff on 
hands and feet ; parotoids darker, nearly l brick-red ' except in the 
middle ; all the tubercles of the same red color ; each of the larger ones 
surrounded at the base by a circle of minute black specks ; a narrow 
white stripe down the middle of the back ; a few dusky annular marks 
on upper flanks and hind legs ; under surface bluish- white ; lower abdo- 
men and inner side of hind limbs pale brownish-yellow; palms of the 
same color, but the inner surface of the fore limbs pinkish ; iris brassy, 
densely clouded with dark mottlings, except a narrow inner ring which 
is bright metallic." 

Professor Cope, in his elaborate work on the " Batrachia of North 
America" (Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., No. 34, p. 282), as a reason for leav- 
ing Hallo well's B. dor sails out of the synonymy, makes the following 
statement: 

There is nothing in the description nor in the figure to enable us to ascertain what 
species or subspecies is represented. The evidence is as much in favor of the speci- 
men having been a B. 1. americanus as a B. I. xvoodhousei, and no locality is given to 
assist in reaching a conclusion. The type specimen can not be found. 

This is not so, for in the first place Hallo well gives the locality of the 
only specimen expressly as " San Francisco Mountain, New Mexico " (i. e., 



Aug., 1890.1 REPTILES OF SAN FRANCISCO MOUNTAIN REGION. 117 

Arizona), and in the second place mention is made of the shortness of 
the head (" Length of head, 8 lines ; length of head and body, 3 inches," 
consequently " head 4.5 times in length "). Moreover, Girard, who 
afterwards examined and partly described the type specimen, simply 
changed the name because B. dorsalis was already preoccupied by Spix, 
and we are well warranted in regarding the only specimen brought home 
by Dr. Wood house as the type of B. tvoodhousii. Finally, Hallo well's 
type of B. iorsalis, so far from not being found, is one of the very speci- 
mens enumerated by Professor Cope, viz, No. 2531. The " Calif. Mts." 
in the original entry on the Museum record book is simply a slip for San 
Francisco Mountain, as is evidenced by the original parchment label 
still attached to the specimen, which reads : 

" Bufo dorsalis Hallo well, San Francisco Mountain, New Mexico. S. W. Wood- 
house, M. D." 

This also disposes of another statement by the same author (op. cit, 
pp. 282-284) that Mollhausen's specimen from Canadian River (U. S. 
]S T at. Mas., No. 2G32) is the type. Girard, at the time of publishing the 
name B. icoodhousii had only the " Sonoran" specimens from the TJ. S. 
Mexican Boundary Survey and Hollowell's type of B. dorsalis. Those 
from the Pacific Railroad surveys under- Whipple came in later. 

Bufo punctatus B. & G. 

Four specimens (U. S. National Museum, Nos. 16185-16188) of this 
species were collected by Mr. Bailey at the bottom of the Grand Canon, 
September 13, 1889. I took the following color description from one of 
the fresh specimens (No. 16185): "Above ' malachite- green' densely 
speckled with small dots of bright vermilion ; limbs paler, dotted with 
vermilion and also with minute black specks which likewise occur on 
the flanks; region surrounding nostrils black; upper lips and whole 
under surface bluish-white, irregularly speckled with black ; posterior 
part of belly and underside of thighs dark brownish flesh-color; soles, 
dull orange. 

This is a southern species which extends northward along the Col- 
orado River. Mollhausen collected it in the " Upper Colorado Region," 
which apparently means the region about the Little Colorado River. 

Specimens collected : U. S. National Museum, Nos. 16185-16188. 

Spea hammondii (Baird). 

A single specimen (No. 16180) was collected by Dr. Merriam in the 
Painted Desert, August 18, 1889. The label is inscribed as follows: 

" Tenebito Wash : found in a hole in wet mud ; this wash is dry most of the year." 
Hyla arenicolor Cope. 

An interesting color variety of this species was collected by Dr. Mer- 
riam about 1,000 feet above the bottom of the Grand Canon of the Col- 
orado, September 13, 18S9; and Mr. Bailey obtained similar specimens 
at the bottom. These specimens, which were found on a very light-col- 
ored rock, the exact shade of which they matched, are remarkable for 



118 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. {No. 3. 

the nearly total absence of dark markings on the upper surface. They 
were brought to me fresh, so as to give me an opportunity to pre- 
pare the following description of the colors : No. 16189, 1,000 feet above 
bottom of Grand Canon, Dr. Merriam, coll. "Iris pale brassy with 
black marblings. Above uniform frosted silvery, irregularly overlaid 
with a faint golden gloss which is more brassy on tympanum and sides 
of face ; faint traces of dusky cross-bars on limbs, the light interspaces 
being pale golden ; under side whitish, suffused with pinkish on fore 
neck, and with pale bluish-green on chin and (more intensely so) on 
middle of breast and belly ; flanks posteriorly, as well as inner surface 
of limbs, bright and deep gamboge-yellow ; under side of thighs and 
sides of belly more brownish-orange ; digital discs pale orange-pink. " 

The specimens collected by Mr. Bailey were less metallic and more of 
a clayey color, except the tympanum, which was coppery ; discs more 
purplish-pink ; web of hind limbs bright gamboge-yellow. One of these 
(No. 16190) shows traces of the normal marblings of the species, the 
description from the fresh specimen being as follows : " Above clayey, 
with numerous slightly darker spots and well marked cross-bars of the 
same color on limbs ; labial margins whitish ; chin dark purplish-gray 
with whitish dots ; breast whitish ; belly bluish, gradually shading into 
yellowish behind; inner surface of limbs bright gamboge-yellow; thighs 
underneath more brown, speckled with whitish ; digital discs pale flesh- 
color." 

Specimens collected : U. S. National Museum, Nos. 16189-16194. 

Rana virescens brachycephala. Cope. 

Quite a number of these Frogs were obtained at Tuba City and Tan- 
ner's Gulch, Painted Desert, September 24, 1889, three of which were 
preserved (Nos. 16195, 16196, 16197). I have no doubt that) this is the 
species which Hallowell records under the name of Rana areolata, as 
collected by Dr. Woodhouse in the San Francisco Mountain. 



FOREST TREES OF THE SAN FRANCISCO MOUNTAIN REGION, ARIZONA. 



By Dr. C. Hart Merriam. 



The lofty pine forest of the San Francisco Mountain Plateau has been 
famous since the days of the early explorers, Sitgreaves, Kenuerly, and 
Ives, who passed through it on their journeys across the continent. 

It is a noteworthy forest, not alone on account of the size and beauty 
of the single species of tree of which it is composed (Pinus ponder osa), 
but also because of its openness, freedom from undergrowth, and its 
grassj* carpet — for the porous lava soil supports a sparse growth of 
bunch-grass which is high enough after the rainy season sets in to con- 
ceal the rocky surface, and, at a little distance, to present the appear- 
ance of a meadow. The pleasing effect is heightened by the circum- 
stance that the region can not be reached from any direction without 
first passing over a long stretch of arid desert. 

The pine forest is thoroughly mature, nearly all the trees being of 
large size, and rarely crowded. Toward the desert it gives place to the 
juniper and piiion of the 'Cedar belt;' while on the mountains which 
rise above the plateau level it is invaded and finally superseded by 
other species. Most of the kinds of trees growing on San Francisco 
Mountain have been enumerated under the zones in which they occur; 
hence a brief notice of each will suffice. 

Quercus gambelii Nuttall. Oak. 

This is the only Oak met with by the expedition. It was seen in the 
neighborhood of Red Horse Tank, aud thence to the Grand Canon of 
the Colorado, and in small quantities near Walnut Canon, but was not 
found at the mountain. It occurs as a rule in the form of scrub thickets 
not more than two or three meters in height, but a few large trees were 
seen near the Grand Canon. 

There is something remarkable respecting the history of this tree in 
the San Francisco Mountain region. Sitgreaves and other early ex- 
plorers speak of it as abundant about the mountain, while we did not 
find it at all in the very places where it was formerly common. Its 
absence explains the absence of several species of birds which might 
be expected at the mountain, but which are rarely fouud except in oak 
scrub v 

119 



120 NORTH AMEEICAN FAUNA. ' [ffo.3. 

Populus tremuloides Michaux. Aspen ; Quaking Aspen. 

The Aspen is a common tree on San Francisco Mountain, where its 
normal vertical range is from a little below 2,500 to 3,000 meters (about 
8,200 to 9,800 feet), though it descends considerably lower on north- 
easterly exposures. It is abundant on the pinnacle which caps the sum- 
mit of Kendrick Peak. It grows on drier soil than Douglas fir and 
usually occupies the places from which the latter has been burned off, 
often forming large groves whose tall white trunks, as straight as 
arrows, attain a height of 25 meters (about 80 feet). It is worthy of 
remark that the common brake (Pteris aquilina) is usually associated 
with the Aspen, wherever found. 

Populus monilifera Aiton. Cotton-wood. 

The Cotton- wood grows sparingly along the Little Colorado bottom, 
where it is the only tree. It occurs also in places in the Grand Caiion. 
Juniperus occidentalis monosperma Engelniann. Western Cedar; Juniper. 

This is the tree from which the cedar belt takes its name. It is asso- 
ciated with the pifion, and is bounded by the desert below and by Pinus 
ponderosa above, ranging in altitude from 1,800 to 2,100 meters (6,000 
to 7,000 feet). 
Juniperus californica utahensis Engelmann. Great Basin Cedar. 

This species was found at the Grand Caiion of the Colorado. 

Juniperus pachyphlcea Torrey. Checker-bark Cedar ; Alligator-bark Cedar. 

This striking and handsome tree is rare in the San Francisco Mount- 
ain region, where it was observed in two places only, namely, at Wal- 
nut Caiion, and near the east base of Elden Mountain. 

Abies concolor Lindley & Gordon. White Fir ; Balsam Fir. 

This fir is common in places at the Grand Caiion of the Colorado, 
where it occupies the uppermost zone on northerly exposures in com- 
pauy with Pseudotsuga douglasii. It was found by Mr. Bailey on the 
east side of Elden Mountain, but was not observed on Sa'n Francisco 
Mountain. The species is easily distinguished by the great length of 
its leaves, and by the balsam blisters on its bark, in this respect re- 
sembling the eastern Abies balsamea, and differing from all the other 
trees of the Plateau region. 
Abies subalpina Engelmann. White Cork-bark Fir. 

This beautiful fir, unique in the color and character of its bark, is one 
of the most conspicuous trees on San Francisco Mountain between the 
altitudes of 2,725 and 2,900 meters (8,950 to 9,500 feet). On the north 
side of a large butte, just south of Walker Lake crater, it descends to 
2,600 meters (8,500 feet). The bark is a fine elastic cork of uniform 
texture, and free from hard particles. It averages about 6 millimeters 
in thickness and is very durable, frequently remaining intact while the 
wood rots away. Large pieces of it, still retaining their elasticity, may 
be stripped from dead trees and from logs upon the ground. It is 
sculptured by irregularly interrupted longitudinal depressions or 
grooves, and is ornamented by fine, parallel, wavy lines. Its color va- 
ries from creamy white to gray, and the surface has a velvety texture. 



Aug., lsao] TREES OF SAN FRANCISCO MOUNTAIN REGION. 121 

The leaves are short ; and the scales of the large cones are deciduous 
while still on the tree. In fact, it was almost impossible to secure a 
perfect coue as early as the latter part of September. 

I believe this tree to be distinct from true A. snbalpina, biit in the 
absence of material for direct comparison, I am unwilling to separate it. 

On Kendrick Peak it grows from the south rim of the crater (altitude 
about 2,800 meters, or 9,200 feet) to the summit (a little above 3,050 
meters, or 10,000 feet). 
Pseudotsuga'douglasii Lindley. Douglas Fir. 

Douglas fir is the most characteristic tree of the Canadian zone of 
San Francisco Mountain, where it ranges from 2,500 to 2,800 meters 
(8,200 to 9,200 feet) in altitude. It is associated with Pinus flexilis mac- 
rocarpa and Populus tremuloides, though preferring moister situations. 
On the south side of both Agassiz and Kendrick Peaks the effects of 
slope-exposure carry it up nearly if not quite to 3,050 meters (10,000 
feet). In a cold canon on the northeast side of San Francisco Mount- 
ain, on the other hand, the effects of slope-exposure bring its lower 
limit down to 2,280 meters (7,500 feet) ; and it descends still lower in 
the crater on the northeast side of O'Leary Peak. 

Picea engelmanni (Parry). Engelmann's Spruce. 

Engelmann's Spruce reaches the uppermost limit of tree growth in 
company with Pinus aristata, and comes down to the upper limit of the 
Douglas fir zone, thus ranging in altitude from 2,800 to 3,500 meters 
(9,200 to 11,500 feet). On the south side of Kendrick Peak it was not 
observed below 2,950 meters (9,700 feet). Perhaps Picea pungens occurs 
with it, in which case the latter has the lower range. 

Pinus flexilis macrocarpa Engelmanu. White Piue. 

This lofty pine, which equals or even exceeds P. ponderosa in size, 
occupies the lower zone of San Francisco Mountain, from about 2,500 
to 2,775 meters (8,200 to 9,100 feet), occurring with Douglas fir aud aspens. 
Along the upper part of the Pinus ponderosa belt it is mixed with that 
species. On the south side of Kendrick Peak it begins at about 2,680 
meters (8,800 feet) and reaches the summit. Its nuts are much sought 
after, on account of their large size, by squirrels and chipmunks. 

Pinus ponderosa Douglas. Yellow Piue. 

As already stated, this species may be properly spoken of as the only 
tree of the San Francisco Mountain plateau, where its normal vertical 
range is from 2,100 to 2,500 meters (7,000 to 8,200 feet), though it ex- 
tends irregularly to 2,675 meters (8,800 feet), mixing with the firs, 
aspens, and white pines. On the south side of Kendrick Peak the effects 
of slope-exposure elevate its upper limit to an altitude of about 2,830 
meters (9,300 feet) ; while on the south side of Agassiz Peak it reaches 
2,775 meters (9,100 feet). It stretches southward from San Francisco 
Mountain to the plateau escarpment west of Baker Butte, and thence 
easterly along the crest of the plateau rim to the White Mountains, 
with no break of any considerable size, though near the White Mount- 
ains it is invaded by cedar and piiion. 



122 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. " [No. a 

Along the plater.u escarpment Pinus ponderosa descends to a much 
lower altitude than elsewhere, being found as low as 1,370 meters (4,500 
feet). This is due to the low altitude of base-level below the plateau. 

The forest of Pinus ponderosa covering the Cocanini plateau, and 
commonly kuown as the ' Cocanini forest,' is separated from the San 
Francisco Mountain plateau forest by a wide belt of cedar and piiion 
(see Map 1). Another disconnected forest of the same kind occupies 
the high crest of the plateau west of Cataract Caiion. For this latter 
information I am indebted to Mr. John H. Eenshawe, of the TJ. S. Geo- 
logical Survey. 

Pinus aristata Engelrnann. Fox-tail Pine. 

The Fox-tail Pine is a tree of high altitudes. On San Francisco 
Mountain it begins to appear at about 2,750 meters (9,000 feet), and 
ranges thence to timber line, vieiug with Picea engelmanni to attain the 
greatest elevation on the rocky side of the peak, and thriving best in 
more open and slightly drier situations than its companion. It was not 
found on Kendrick or O'Leary Peaks. At the upper limit of its range (the 
limber-line zone), it is little more tliau a gnarled and prostrate bush, 
while lower down (in the Hudsonian zone), it is a large and handsome 
tree. Its large cones are usually dripping with clear, transparent resin. 

Pinus edulis Engelruauu. Pifion ; Nut Pine. 

The Piiion occurs in company with Junipers, the two together con- 
stituting the Piiion or cedar belt, which is the zone next below the 
pines. The altitude of the pinou belt is 1,800 to 2,100 meters (6,000 to 
7,000 feet). The Piiion is more abundant in the upper than in the lower 
part of the cedar belt, and was common wherever we entered this belt 
from Walnut Caiion to the Grand Caiion of the Colorado, but the 
single-leaved form (P. monopliylla) was nowhere met with, though it is 
accredited to the San Francisco Mountain region by Sargent in his vol- 
ume on Forest Trees (Tenth Census, 1884, p. 190). 

The Piiion is a prolific bearer, the quantity of nuts produced by the 
small and apparently distorted cones of a single tree being surprisingly 
large. They begin to ripen about the end of August, and constitute 
the most important indigenous food of the Indians as well as of many of 
the mammals and birds of the region. 

TREES OF ESSENTIALLY COINCIDENT RANGE. 

Between the summit of the mountain and the desert plain below, the 
following approximate coincidences in the vertical range of trees occur : 

Pinus aristata ) Approximate altitude, 2,800-3,500 meters, or 

Picea engelmanni \ 9,200-11,500 feet. 

Pseudotsuga douglasii ...A ^ 

Piuusflexilismacrocarpa \ 

Populis tremuloides J 

Pinus edulis ) Approximate altitude, 1,800-2,100 meters, or 

Juniperus occideutalis monosperma. ) 6,000-7,000 feet. 



■ Approximate altitude, 2,500-2,800 meters, or 



Aug., 1890] TREES OF SAN FRANCISCO MOUNTAIN REGION. 123 

Note.— The normal altitudes here given for the various trees of San 
Francisco Mountain are averages for the west side of the mountain. 
Favorable southern and southwestern exposures carry the zones up a 
hundred meters or more above these limits, while similar northern and 
northeastern exposures, particularly in gulches and canons, deflect the 
zones as much as 200, or even 300 meters. The normal average differ- 
ence in altitude of the same zone on the southwest and northeast sides 
of San Francisco Mountain is about 275 meters (900 feet). 



RELATION OF A BIOLOGICAL SURVEY TO AGRICULTURE. 



The primary object of mapping the geographic distribution of species 
is to ascertain the number, positions, and boundaries of the natural 
faunal and floral areas — areas which are fitted by nature for the exist- 
ence of certain native animals and plants, and which consequently are 
adapted for the growth of certain agricultural products and for the 
support of certain kinds or breeds of stock. The obvious reason why 
certain animals and plants inhabit restricted parts of the earth's sur- 
face and do not occur in other parts, where there are no impassable 
barriers to prevent, is that such species have become adapted to the 
particular physical and climatic conditions there prevailing, and their 
sensitive organizations are not sufficiently plastic to enable them to live 
under other conditions. 

The present biological survey of the San Francisco Mountain region 
has demonstrated that mammals, birds, reptiles, insects, and plants so 
coincide in distribution that a map showing the boundaries of an area 
inhabited by an association of species in one group serves equally well 
for other groups. The reason of this coincidence in distribution is that 
all terrestrial forms of life inhabiting the same area are exposed to the 
same surroundings and governed by the same general laws. 

The point of greatest significance, so far as the practical agriculturist 
is concerned, is that what is true of animals and plants in a state of na- 
ture is true also of animals and plants as modified by the voluntary acts 
of man ; for every race or breed of sheep, cattle, or swine, and every 
variety of grain or vegetable thrives best under particular conditions of 
temperature, moisture, exposure, and so on. It follows that a map of 
the natural life areas of a country will tell the farmer what he can ex- 
pect to produce most profitably on his own farm, and also what crops 
will not thrive in his neighborhood, thus saving the time and cost of ex- 
perimental farming, which, in the aggregate, amounts to hundreds of 
thousands of dollars every year. 

Illustrations of the application o the principle here enunciated are 
not lacking, even in the arid region under consideration. Maps 1 and 
2 are examples of the kind of biological maps here referred to, and may 
be used by the settler as guides in the selection of crops for particular 
localities. It is true that very little of the region embraced in the pres- 
ent report is under cultivation, partly because of its scanty water supply 
and partly because of its inaccessibility until opened up by the Atlantic 

125 



126 NOETH AMEBIC AN FAUNA. [No. 3. 

and Pacific Railway. Nevertheless, several crops and garden vegeta- 
bles have been grown successfully without irrigation, even in the Little 
Colorado Desert, and the beginning thus made indicates a natural group- 
ing of agricultural products according to the zones here defined. The 
Moki Indians cultivate successfully, in the arid valleys below the Pueb- 
los, cotton, tobacco, peaches, melons, flax, gourds, and southern varie- 
ties of corn and beans ; and alfalfa grows luxuriantly in the same zone. 
None of these do well in the cooler climates of the higher zones. At- 
tempts at agriculture in the Pine belt have developed the additional 
fact that wheat, potatoes, a variety of corn different from that of the 
desert, and other garden products yield excellent results. The Cana- 
dian or fir zone, which is next above the Pine, is subject to early frosts, 
and hence unfitted for any but the hardier crops ; but turnips, beets, and 
oats have been found to do well along its lower border, and wild rasp- 
berries, gooseberries, and strawberries abound in the Spruce belt. 

If the area here mapped were extended so as to include the Giant- 
cactus belt of the Gila and Salt River valleys, the range in agricultural 
products would be far more striking, for then the orange, the date, and 
the fig of the lower desert could be contrasted with the hardy cereals 
and the potato of the mountain plateau. These tropical fruits are now 
grown near Phoenix, only 200 kilometers (125 miles) from San Francisco 
Mountain. 



BIBLIOGRAPHICAL APPENDIX. 



BRIEF TITLES OF WORKS AND PAPERS CONTAINING MATTER RELATING TO THE SAN 
FRANCISCO MOUNTAIN REGION, ARIZONA. 

Bigelow, Dr. J. M., 1856. Report 011 the Botany of the Thirty-fifth Parallel : 

1. General Description of the Botanical Character of the Conntri/, 

2. Description of Forest Trees. <Tacific R. R. Reports, 4° ; Washington, IV, pt. 

v, 1856, 1-21. 
Britton, Dr. N. L. , 1889. A List of Plants collected at Fort Verde and vicinity and in 
the Mogollon and San Francisco Mountains, Arizona, 1884-188S, by Dr. E. 
A. Mearus, U. S. A. <Trans. New York Acad. Sci., VIII, 1889, 61-76. 
Dutton, Captain [now Major] Clarence Edward, U. S. A., 1885. Mount Taylor and 
the Zuiii Plateau. [Chap. I, The Plateau Country at large.] <Sixth An- 
nual Report U.S. Geol. Survey; Washington, 1885, 113-124. 
Gilbert, Grove Karl, 1875. Report upon the Geology of port ions of Nevada, Utah, 
California, and Arizona, examined in the years 1871 and 1872. <^Expls. 
West of 100th Meridian, 4° ; Washington, III, Geology, 1875, 21-155. 
Contains remarks on the San Francisco Mountain Region in Chap. I, Sections 
ii-iii (pp. 43-60), and Chap. V (pp. 118-156). 
Hoffman, Dr. Walter James, 1877. The Distribution of Vegetation in Portions of 

Nevada and Arizona. <Am. Nat. XL, 1877, 336-343. 
Ives, Lieut., Joseph C, 1861. Report upou the Colorado River ofthe West, 4° ; Wash- 
ington, 1861, maps and plates. 
Contains a report on the Geology of the region by Mewberry, on Zoology by Baird, 
and on Botany by Gray, Torrey, Thurber, and Engelmann. 
Kennekly, Dr. C. B. R., 1850. Report on the Zoology of the Thirty-fifth Parallel. 
Field Notes and Explanations. <Tacific R. R. Reports, 4°; Washington, IV, pt. 

VI, 1856, 1-17. 
Report on the Mammals of the Route. <Tbid., X, 6, 1859, 1-18. 
Report on the Birds of the Route. <Ibid., X, 6, 1859, 19-35. 
Loew, Dr. Oscar, 1875. Agricultural Resources, Vegetation, etc., of Arizona. 
<Expls. Westof 100th Meridian, 4° ; Washington, III, Geology, pt. vi, 1875, 
573-612. 
This paper contains an important chapter on the Geographical Distribution of 

Plants, in which four Plant Zones are defined, as follows: 
"(1) Zone of Cactus, Yucca, and Agave; altitude, 3,000 to 3,500 feet ; grass is 
scanty. Where there is water, a most luxuriant vegetation springs up. 

(2) Zone ofObione and Artemisia (Greasewood and Sage-brush) altitude, 3,500 to 

4,900 feet. Grass is poor with few exceptions, on granitic and volcanic soil. 
The Cactus species are diminishing in number. 

(3) Zone of Jumperm occidentalis (Cedar); altitude 4,900 to 6,800 feet; Cactus 

species few. 

(4) Zone of Pine and Fir, 6,800 to 10,800 feet (highest points)." 

127 



128 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. [No. 3. 

Loew, Dr. Oscar — Continued. 

Loew's first zone does not reach the plateau, but exteuds far up the Grand Cation, 
nearly if not quite to the mouth of the Little Colorado. His second and 
third zones are comparable respectively with the Desert area and the Pinon 
or Cedar belt of the present paper. The fourth zone includes everything 
between the Cedar belt and timber line, thus embracing the Pine plateau 
area, the Douglas fir zone, the Spruce zone, and the Subalpine or Timber-line 
zone. 
The altitudes given by Loew relate to Arizona as a whole and consequently are 
not strictly comparable with those of the present paper, which are restricted 
to the plateau. The apparent discrepancy is due to the difference in base- 
level. 

Mearns, Dr. Edgar A., 1890. Observations on the Avifauna of Portions of Arizona. 

< The Auk, New York, VII, No. 1, January, 1890, 45-55 ; No. 3, July, 1890, 
251-264. 

Mearns, Dr. Edgar A., 1890. Description of supposed New Species and Subspecies 
of Mammals, from Arizona. < Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. New York, II, No. 
4, February, 1890, 277-307. 
Contains description of Sciurus hudsonius mogollonensis and Arvicola mogollonensis 
from the Mogollon Mountains. 

Mollhausen, Baldwin, 1858. Diary of a Journey from the Mississippi to the Coast 
of the Pacific. 2 vols. Map and colored plates, with Introduction by 
Humboldt. Translated from the German by Mrs. Sinuett. London, 1858. 
Mollhausen was draughtsman of the Whipple Expedition, and also acted in 
the capacity of Naturalist, assisting Dr. Kennedy, Surgeon and Naturalist 
of the Expedition. The present work was published by Mollhausen on his 
return to Germany. It contains considerable Natural History matter scat- 
tered through the text. 

Newberry, Dr. John S., 1861. Report on the Geology of the Ives Expedition to the 
Colorado River of the West. Constitutes part III of the Ives Report, 
which see. 

Rusby, Dr. H. H., 1889. General Floral Features of the San Francisco and Mogollon 
Mountains of Arizona and New Mexico, and their adjacent Regions. 

< Trans. New York Acad. Sci. VIII, 1889, 76-81. ' 

Sitgreaves, Capt. L., 1853. Report of an expedition down the Zufii and Colorado 
Rivers in 1851, 1853, 8°, pp. 198 ; map and 81 plates. 
Consists of Sitgreaves's Narrative (pp. 4-21, with 24 plates of scenery and Indians); 
Tables of Distances, Geographical Positions, and Meteorological Observa- 
tions (p. 23-29); Report on National History, by S. W. Woodhouse, M. D., 
(pp. 31-178), containing the following parts: Narrative (pp 33-40); Mammals 
(pp. 43-57, pis. 6) ; Birds (pp. 58-105, pis. 6) ; Reptiles [and Batrachians], 
by Edward Hallo well, M. D. (pp. 106-147, pis 21); Fishes, by Spencer F. 
Baird and Charles Girard (pp. 148-152, pis. 3) ; Botany, by John Torrey 
(pp. 155-178, pis. 21); Medical Report, by S. W. Woodhouse, M. D. (pp. 
181-185). 

Woodhouse, Dr. S. W., 1853. Report on the Natural History of the Sitgreaves Ex- 
pedition down the Zuiii and Colorado Rivers in 1851, 8°, 147 pp. 
Contained in Sitgreaves's Report, which see. 



INDEX 



Abies balsamea, 120. 

concolor, 36, 120, 121. 
subalpina, 120-121. 
Accipiter atricapillus, 10, 90. 
coop^ri, 38, 90. 
velox, 38, 90. 
Acteea spicata, 10. 
Actitia niacularia, 88. 
.3Egialitis vocifera, 89. 
Agama co laris, 103. 

douglasii, 112. 
Agave, 22, 36. 
Agelaius pboeniceus, 94. 
Agriculture, relation of biological survey to, 125- 

126. 
Altitudes (see also under Zones) : 
Desert of Little Colorado. 
Grand Canon. 
Kendrick Peak. 
Painted Desert. 
San Francisco Mountain. 
Amblystoma nebtilosuin, lift, 
tigrinnm, 10, 116. 
Ammodramus sandwicbensis alandinus, 95. 
A'nphispiza belli uevadensis, 16, 96-97. 

bilineata, 16, 96. 
Ampelis cedrorum, 40, 98. 
Anas americana, 87. 
bosenas, 87. 
discors, 87. 
Androsace scptentrionalis, 7. 
Antelope, 38, 78, 86. 
Anthus pensilvanicus, 9, 99. 
Antilocapra americana, 38, 78, 86. 
Apbelocoma woodbousei, 12, 39, 94. 
Aplodontia (genus), 24. 
Aquila chrysaetos, 8, 39, 90. 
Aquilegia obrysantba, B. 
Arenaria alpina, 8. 

biflora carnulosa, 9. 
verna, 7. 
Arizona, general physical features, 5. 
Artemisia tridentata, '-"-'. 85, 37. 93, 98. 

wrightii, 69. 
Arvicola (uenus), 10, 19, 86. 

alticolus, 11, 67-69, 79, 86. 
longicaudus, 68. 
inogollonensis, 11, 55, 69-70 86. 
Asida (genus), 16. 
Asio wilsonianus, 91. 
Aspen, Quaking, 11, 120, 121, 122. 

501— No. 3 9 



Atriplex canescens, 14, 15, 93. 

conferti folia, 15. 
Avocet, American, 88. 
Badger, 85, 86. 
Bald cypress, 23. 
Baldpate, 87. 
Bassaris astuta, 38, 85. 
Bassaris, Ring-tailed, 38, 85. 
Bat, Black-nosed, 46-47. 

Brazilian Free-tailed, 25, 47-48, 86. 
Common Brown, 45. 
Large Brown, 37, 44. 
Long-eared, 46. 
Pigmy, 37, 45, 86. 
Batracbians, general report, 116-118. 
of Painted Desert. 16. 
Canadian zone, 10. 
Bear, 10, 19. 

Black, 85, 86. 
Grizzly, 85. 
Beaver, 59. 
Beetles, 16. 
Belts (see Zones). 
Berberis fcndleri, 35. 

fremonti, 12, 35. 
repens, 10. 
Big-born (see Mountain Sbeep). 
Big tree, 23. 

Bill Williams Mountain, 5. 
Biological survey, relation to agriculture, 125. 
Birds, general report, 87-101. 
Birds : 

Canadian zone, 10-11. 
Desert of Little Colorado, 16-17,87-101, 
Grand Canon of Colorado, 38-41. 
liudsonian zone, 10. 
Pino belt, 12. 
Piuon bolt. 12. 

Sub-alpine i>r Umber-line zone, 9. 
Bittern, 88. 
Blackbird, Brewer's, 95. 

Bed-winged, M. 
Bluebird, Mountain. 101. 

Western, 41,101. 
Botaums lentiginosus, 88. 
Boateloua (genua), 15. 
Bubo subarcticus. 91. 
virginianus, 91. 

saturatus, 10,39,87,91. 
Bufo dorsalis, 116,117. 

lentiginosus americanus, 116. 

129 



130 



NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. 



[No. 3. 



Bnfo lentiginosis woodhou»ii, 116-117. 

punctatus, 117. 
Bush-Tit, 12, 101. 
Buteo borealis calurus, 38, 90. 
lineatns elegans, 90. 
swainsoni, 90. 
Butterfly, Brown elfin, 18. 
Cactus, 14, 15, 22, 30, 52. 
Callipepla ganibcli. 89. 
Campanula parryi, 11. 
Canislatrans, 15, 38, 80-81, 80. 
Canon of the Colorado (see Grand Canon). 
Cariacns niacrotis, 38, 78, 86. 
Carpodacus mexicanus frontalis, 40, 95. 
Castelleia (genus), 16. 
Castor canadensis, 59. 
Cathartes aura, 38, 89. 
Catherpes mexicanus conspersus, 41, 100. 
Ceanothus fendleri, 10. 

ovatus, 10. 
Cedar, Alligator-bark, 12, 120. 
Checker-barb, 12, 120. 
Great Basin, 12, 35, 120. 
Western, 12, 120, 122. 
Cerastium alpinum, 7. 

behringianam, 9. 
arvense, 8. 
Cercolabes novae, 76. 
Cercocarpus ledifolius, 35. 
Certhiafamiliaris montana, 11, 100. 
Ceryle alycon, 92. 
Chajtodipus (subgenus), 17, 19, 22. 
Chelidon erythrogaster, 98. 
Chickadee, Mountain, 11, 41, 101. 
Chickaree, 10, 11, 19, 48-49, 79, 86. 
Chipmunk, Gila, 37, 51. 

San Francisco Mountain,50-51, 79,86, 90. 
Say's, 53-54, 86, 90. 
White-tailed, 51-53, 86. 
Chondestes grammacus strigatus, 96. 
Chordeiles virginianus henryi, 92. 
Circus Ludsonius, 89-90. 
Cistothorus palustiis, 100. 
Climate, 29-34. 
Cocanini Plateau, 35, 36. 
Coccothraustes vespertina, 10, 95. 
Cock, Chaparral, 17, 91. 
Colaptes cafer, 39, 92. 
Colorado River (see Grand Caiion): 
Plateau, 5. 

Escarpment, 5. 
Mean elevation, 5. 
Southern limit, 5. 
Columba fasciata, 89. 
Colymbus nigricollis californicus, 87. 
Contopus borealis, 11, 93-94. 
pertinax, 94. 
richardsonii, 12, 39, 94. 
Coot, American, 87, 88. 
Corallorhiza mnltifiora, 9. 
Corinorhinus (subgenus), 25. 
Corvus americanus, 94. 

corax sinuatus, 15, 39, 94. 
Cottonwood, 120. 
Cougar, 38, 79, 86. 
Cowauia mexicana, 12, 35. 



Coyote, 15, 38, 80-S1, 86. 

Crane, Sandhill, 88. 

Creeper, Rocky Mountain, 11, 100. 

Crossbill, Mexican, 11, 40, 95. 

Crotalus, 16. 

confluentus, 115. 
lucifer, 115. 
molossus, 115. 
scntulatus, 115. 
Crotaphytus baileyi, 16, 103-105. 
collaris, 103, 104. 
gamheli, 105. 
silus, 105-106. . 
wislizenii, 16, 105. 
Crow, Clarke's, 10, 94. 

common, 94. 
Cyanocephalus cyanocephalus, 12, 40, 94. 
Cyanocitta stelleri macrolopha, 11, 39, 94. 
Cynomys, (genus) 53. 

gunnisoni, 59-59, 86, 91. 
leucurus, 59. 
Cystopteris fragilis, 7. 
Dafila acuta, 87. 
Deer, Black-tailed, 38, 78, 86. 
Delphinium harbatus torreyi, 93. 
Dendragapus obscurns, 10, 89. 
Dendruica aestiva, 98-99. . 

auduboni, 11, 40, 99. 
graciaB, 99. 
nigrescens, 40, 99. 
occidentalis, 99. 
townsendi, 40, 99. 
Desert of Little Colorado : 

Itinerary of trips across, 3-4. 
Altitude, 13. 
Batrachians, 16. 
Birds, 16-17, 87-101. 
Fossil wood, 14. 
Limits, 13. 
Mammals, 17, 22. 
Origin of fauna and flora, 21-22. 
Physical features, 13-15. 
Rain, 32-34. 
Reptiles, 16. 
Temperature, 31. 
Vegetation, 14, 15-16. 
Dicorea brandigei, 15. 
Didelphys (genus), 25. 
Dipodomys (genus), 17, 19. 

phillipsi, 72. 
Dipodops (genus), 86. 

longipes, 71-73, 86. 
Distribution, causes determining, 26-28. 
Dove, Mourning, 38, 89. 
Draba aurea, 9. 

Dryobates villosus hyloscopus, 39, 92. 
Duck, Bald-pate, 87. 

Blue-winged teal, 87. 
Mallard, 87. 
Pintail, 87. 
Ruddy, 87. 
Shoveller, 87. 
Eagle, Golden, 8, 39, 90. 
Eleodes (genus), 16. 
Empidonax difflcilis, 12, 94. 
hammondi, 94. 



Aug., 1890.] 



INDEX. 



131 



Ephedra (genus), 15. 
Epilobium saximontanum, 9. 
Erethizon epixanthus, 10, 75-76, 86. 
Ereunetes pusillus, 88. 
Erismatara rubida, 87. 
Eutainia vagrans, 115. 
Falco columbarius, 90. 
mexicanus, £0. 
sparverius, 39, 91. 
Falcon, Prairie, 90. 
Fallngia paradoxa, 12. 

Fauna and flora of Painted Desert, origin, 21-22. 
San Francisco Mountain, ori- 
gin, 20-21. 
Fannal Divisions (See also Zones) : 
Allegbanian, 18. 
Antillean, 18. 
Arctic, 18, 20-21. 
Anstroriparian, 18, 25. 
Boreal, 18, 19, 20, 22, 24. 
Californian, 25. 
Canadian, 10, 18, 19, 20. 
Carolinian, 18. 
Central, 17, 19, 2 -23, 24, 25. 
Chihuahuan, 18. 
Eastern, 17, 24, 25. 
Floridian, 18. 
Great Basin, 25. 
Great Plains, 25. 
Hudsonian, 18, 19, 20. 
Louisianian, 18, 25. 
Lower Californian, 25. 
Pacific, 24, 26. 
Sonoran, 18, 19, 20, 24, 25. 
Tropical, 25-26. 
Western, 17, 25. 
Felis concolor, 38, 79, 86. 
Festnca brevifolia, 8. 
Finch, House, 95. 
Fir, Balsam, 36, 120, 121. 

Douglas, 6, 10, 11, 36, 120, 121, 122. 
White, 36, 120,121. 
White Cork-bark, 120-121. 
Flicker, Red -shafted, 39. 
Flycatcher, Hammond's, 94. 

Olive-sided, 11, 93-94. 
Western, 12, 94. 
Forest trees, general report, 119-123. 
Forest, Cocanini, 35. 

Great Northern or Spruce, 10-11. 
Pine, of San P^rancisco Mountain, C, 119, 
121-122. 
Fossil wood, 14, 15. 
Fox, 25. 

Frasera speciosa, 11, 53. 
Fnlica americana, 87, 88. 
Gentiana affinis, 10 

barbellata, 9. 
heterosepala, 10. 
tenella, 9. 
Geococcyx californianus, 17, 91. 
Geomys (genus), 25. 
Geothlypis macgillivrayi, 41, 99. 

trichas occidentalia, 41, 99. 
Geum rossii, 7-8. 

triflorum, 10. 



Gilia aggregata attenuata, 11. 

Glacial period, effects upon faunas and floras, 21-23. 

Glaucidium gnoma, 91. 

Glyptostrobus (genus), 23. 

Gnatcatcher, Blue-gray, 12,41, 101. 

Goldfinch, Arizona, 95. 

Arkansas, 40,95. 
Gopher, Desert Pocket, 71, 

Pocket, 25, 38, 71,79, 86. 
Goshawk, 10, 90. 

Grand Canon of Colorado (general report), 35-41. 
Birds, 38—41. 
General characters, 35- 

37. 
Mammals, 22, 37-38. 
Reptiles, 22. 
Trees and shrubs, 12,35- 

36. 
Trip to, 4. 
Grease wood, 14, 15, 22, 36, 57, 93. 
Grebe, Eared, 87. 
Grosbeak, Black-headed, 40, 97. 

Evening, 10, 95. 
Grouse, Dusky 10, 89. 
Grus mexicana, 88. 
Habia melanocephala, 40, 97. 
Harporhynchus, 16, 100. 
Hawk, Cooper's, 38, 90. 
Fish. 39, 91. 
Marsh, 89-90. 
Pigeon, 90. 
Red-bellied, 90. 
Sharp-shinned, 38, 90. 
Sparrow, 39, 91. 
Swainson's, 90. 
Western Red-tail, 38, 90. 
Helminthopbila celata lutescens, 98. 

ruficapilla gutturalis, 98. 
Virginia;, 98. 
Heron, Black-crowned Night, 88. 
Hesperomys eremicus, 17, 22, 37, 62-03, 83, 86. 
leucopus, 65. 

rufinus, 61-66, 86. 
aonoriensis, 37, 66. 
megalotis, 37, 63-64, 86. 
truei, 64. 
Heuchera rubeaoens, 9. 
Hollirookia maculata, 109, 110. 

approximans, 109, 110. 
tlavilenta, 10, 109-110. 
lacerata, 109, 110. 
propinqua, 109. 
Humidity, 32-34. 
Hummingbird, Hlack-chinned, 93. 

Broad-tailed, 11,39,^.;. 
Rufous, 93 
Hyla arenicolor, 117-118. 
Ihis, White-faced Qloasy, 88. 
Icterus bullocki, 95. 
Tnciaalia Augustus, 18. 
Insects, 8, 16. 
Iris, 55. 

missouriensis, 69. 
Isolated types, 23-24. 
Itinerary, 3-4. 
Ives Expedition, 15, 92. 



132 



NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. 



[No. 3. 



■Jay, Long-crested, 11, 39, 94. 
Piiion, 12, 40, 94. 
"Woodhouse's, 12, 39, 94. 
Junco, Arizona, 96. 

Gray-headed, 96. 
Oregon, 96. 
Red-backed, 12, 40, 96. 
•Jnnco caniceps, 96. 
cinereus, 96. 

dorsalis, 12, 40, 96. 
palliatus, 96. 
hyemalis oregonus, 96. 
Juniper, 12, 120, 122 (see also Cedar). 
Juniperus californica utahensis, 12, 35, 120. 

occidentalis monosperma, 12, 120, 122. 
pachyphloea, 12, 120. 
Cendrick Peak, 5, 33. 
Kerivoula (genus), 46. 
Xilldeer, 89. 

Kingbird, Cassin's, 39, 93. 
jlin:fisher, Belted, 92. 
"Kinglet, Golden-crowned, 101. 

Ruby-crowned, 11, 41, 101. 
Lanius ludovicianus excubitorides, 40, 98. 
Lark, Horned, 94. 
Lathyrus arizoDieus, 9. 
Lazula spadicea parviflora, 9. 
Linnet, Pine, 11, 95. 
Lepus arizonpe, 38, 76-78, 86. 
bachmani, 77. 
texianus, 38, 76, 86. 
Life areas of Arizona, 20. 
Lion, Mountain, 38, 79, 86. 
Lizards, 13, 16, 22. 
Locust, Dwarf, 12, 35, 36. 
Loxia curvirostra strictlandi, 11, 40, 95. 
Lupinus capitatns, 15, 16. 
Lutra hudsonica, 85. 
Lynx baileyi, 38. 79-80, 86. 

rufus, 80,81. 
Magpie, 94. 
Mallard, 87. 

Malvastrum (genus), 16. 
Mammals, general report, 43-86. 
Mammals, new species described (list follows) : 
Arvicola alticolus, 67-69. 
Dipodops longipes, 71-73. 
Hesperomys leucopus riinnus, 64-66. 

inegalotis, 63-64. 
Lynx baileyi, 79-80. 
Mephitis estor, 81-82. 
Onychomys fuliginosns, 59-61. 

melanophrys pallescens, 61-62. 
Perognatbus fnliginosus, 74. 
Sorex monticolus, 43-44. 
Spilogale gracilis, 83-84. 
Spermophilus cryptospilotus, 57-58. 

spilosoma obsidian us, 56-57. 
pratensis, 55-56. 
Tamias leucurus cinnamomeus, 51-53. 
Vespertilio melanorhinus, 46-47. 
Mammals of Arctic- Alpine zone, 85-86. 
Boreal zone, 19, 86. 
Canadian zone, 11, 19, 86. 
Grand Cafion, 22, 37-38. 
Mammals of Hudsoniau zone, 10, 19, 86. 



Mammals of Painted Desert, 17, 22, 86. 
Pine zone, 11, 86. 
Pifion zone, 12-13, 86. 
Martin, 98. 
Meadowlark, 95. 
Megascops flammeolus, 39, 91. 
Melanerpes formicivorus bairrti, 39. 92. 

torquatus, 39, 92. 
Meleagris gallopavo mexicana, 89. 
Melospiza fasciata fallax, 97. 

montana, 97. 
lincolni, 40, 97. 
Mephitis estor, 81-82, 86. 
mephitica, 82. 
occidentalis, 82. 
Merula migratoria propinqua, 41, 101. 
Mertensia paniculata, 9. 
Micropus melanoleucus, 39, 92. 
Mimus polyglottos, 100. 
Mirabilis rnultiflora, 16. 
Mockingbird, 100, 
Mole, 24. 

Moneses uniflora, 9. 
Mountains : 

Bill Williams, 5. 
Kendrick, 5, 33. 
O'Leary, 5. 

San Francisco, 20, 31, 33, 34, 35. 
Sitgreavei, 5. 
Mouse, Apache Pocket, 73. 

Baird's Pocket, 60, 73-74. 
Big-eared, 17, 22, 37, 62-63, 83, 86. 
Desert Scorpion, 56, 61-62. 

White-footed, 66. 
Dusky Pocket, 74, 86. 

Scorpion, 56, 59-61, 74, 86. 
Field. (SeeYole.) 
Grasshopper, 19. 
Intermediate Pocket, 38, 74-75. 
Leaf eared Cliff, 37, 63-64, 86. 
Pocket, 17, 19, 22, 86. 
Silky Cliff, 17, 22, 37, 62-63, 83, 86. 
White-footed, 37, 64-66, 86. 
Woodhouse's Pocket, 74. 
Myadestes (genus), 11. 

townsendii, 11, 102. 
Neotoma (genus), 25. 

mexicana, 37, 67, 86. 
Neiirotrichus (genus), 24 
Nighthawk, Western, 92. 
Nuthatch, Pygmy, 12, 41, 100. 
Red-bellied, 100. 
Slender-billed, 41, 100. 
Nyctala acadica, 91. 
Nycticorax nycticorax nfevius, 88. 
Nyctinoinus (genus), 17, 25, 86. 

brasiliensis, 47-48, 86. 
Oak, 36, 119. 
Ochetodon (genus), 25. 
Onychomys (genus), 19. 

fuliginosus, 13, 56, 59-61, 74, 86. 
leucogaster, 61. 
longipes, 61. 

melanophrys pallescens, 56, 61-62. 
Opossum, 25. 
Opnntia, 36, 52. 



Aug., 1890.1 



INDEX. 



133 



Oriole, Bollocks. 95. 

Oroscoptes montanus. 1G, 17, 100. 

Oryzomys (genus), 25. 

Osprey, 39, 91. 

Otocoris alpestris arenicola, 94. 

Otter, 85. 

Ovis canadensis. 8, 10. 38, 78-79, 85. 

Owl, Burrowing, 16, 17, 91. 

Dusky Great-horned, 10, 39, 87, 91. 
Flammulated Screech, 39, 91. 
Great-horned, 91. 
Long-eared, 91. 
Pygmy, 91. 
Saw-whet, 91. 
Western Horned, 91. 
Oxybaphus angustifolius, 11. 
Oxyria digyna. 7. 
Oxyta?nia acerosa, 15. 
Oxytropis lamberti, 11. 
Painted-cup, 16. 
Painted Desert: 
Altitude, 13. 
Birds, 16. 
Fossil wood, 14. 
Itinerar;. of trips across, 3-4. 
Mammals, 17. 22. 
Origin of fauna and flora, 21-22. 
Peculiar aspects, 14-15. 
Physical features, 13-15. 
Position and boundaries, 13. 
Rain, 32-34. 
Reptiles, 16. 
Temperature, 14-15, 31. 
Toads. 10. 
Vegetation, 15-16. 
Pandion halinetus carolinensis, 39, 91. 
Panther, 79. 

Partridge, Gambel's, 69. 
Parus gambeli, 11, 41, 101. 

inornatus griseus, 12, 41, 100. 
Passerella iliaca schistacea, 97. 
Pedicularis parryi, 9. 
I'entstemon barbatus torreyi, 11, 53, 93. 

glaucus stenosepalus, 9. 
Perognathus (genus), 17, 22. 86. 
apache, 73, 86. 
flavus, 60, 73-74, 86. 
fuligino-us, 18, 74, 86. 
intermedius, 38, 74-75, 86. 
penicillatus, 74, 86. 
Petrochelidon lunifrons, 98. 
Peuca.'a ru6ceps boaoardi, 16, 22, 40, 97. 
Pewee, Western Wood. 12, 39, 94. 
Phahiuoptilus nuttali, 12,92. 

nitidus, 92. 
Phalarope, Northern, 88. 
Phalaropus lohatus, 88. 
Phleum alpinum, 9. 
I'hii-be, Say's, 39, 93. 
PhrynoBOma (genu9), 55. 

bre virostre, 113. 
donglassii. 112, 113. 

pygmwa, 112, 118. 
bernandesi, 12, 112-115. 
ornatissimum, 16, 113, 115. 
Pica pica budsonica, 94. 



Picea engelmanni, 6, 8, 9, 121, 122. 

pungens, 121. 
Picicorvus columbianus, 10, 94. 
Picoides americanus dorsalis, 11, 92. 
Pigeon, Band-tailed, 89. 
Pine, Fox-tail, 6, 8, 9, 75, 122. 
Nut, 6. 12, 35, 52, 98, 122. 
White, 10, 11, 49, 121, 122. 
Yellow, 6, 11, 36, 49, 93, 120, 121-122. 
Pifion, 6, 12, 35, 52, 98, 122. 
Pintail. 87. 
Pinus aristata, 6, 8, 9, 75, 122. 

edulis, 6, 12, 35, 52, 98, 122. 
flexilis, 11. 

macrocarpa, 10, 49, 121, 122. 
monophylla, 122. 

ponderosa, 6, 11, 36, 49, 93, 120, 121-122. 
Pipilo chlorurus, 40, 97. 

maculatus megalonyx, 40, 97. 
Pipit, American, 9, 99. 
Piranga, hepatica, 97, 98. 

ludoviciana, 11, 40, 97. 
Plants, Alpine zone, 7-8. 
Canadian zone, 10. 
Desert, 15-16. 
Pine belt, li. 
Sub- Alpine zone, 9. 
Plecotus (genus), 25. 
Plegadis guarauna, 88. 
Polemonium confertum,8. 
Polioptila cseruLea, 12, 41, 101. 
Poocaetes gramineus confinis,40, 95. 
Poor-will, Nuttall's, 12, 92. 

Frosted, 92. 
Populus tremuloides, 11, 120, 121, 122. 

monilifera, 120. 
Porcupine, Yellow-haired, 10, 75-76, 86. 
Porzana Carolina, 88. 
Potentilla, dissecta, 9. 

frnticosa, 10. 
Prairie Dog, 53, 58-59, 86, 91. 
Primula parryi, 9, 67. 
Progne subis, 98. 
Psaltriparus phimbeus, 12, 101. 
Pseudotsuga dougJasii, 6, 10, 11, 36, 120, 121, 122. 
Pteris aquilina, 120. 
Patorins, 8,81,85. 
Pyrola chlorantha, 9. 
Qnerotlfl gambelii, 36, 119. 
Rabbit. Arizona Cotton-tail, 38, 76-78,86. 

Jack, 38, 76, 86. 
Rana areolata, 118. 

virescens brachycephala, 118. 
Rat, Cotton, 25. 

Kangaroo, 17, 19, 71-73, 86. 
Round-tailed Wood, 25, 37, 67, 86. 
Rattlesnake, 16,115. 
Raven, 15, 39, 94. 
Reonrvirostra americana, 88. 
Regains oalendala, 11, 41, 101. 

satrapa, 101. 
Reptiles, general report, 103-115. 
Reptiles, new species described (list follows): 
Crotaphytus baileyi, 103-105. 

silus, 105. 
Sceloporus elongatus, 111-112. 



134 



NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. 



[No. 3. 



Reptiles: 

Uta levis, 108. 
palnieri, 106. 
Reptiles of Desert of Little Colorado, 16. 
Pine belt, 12. 
PifiOD belt, 13. 
Rhus aromatica trilobata, 12, 52. 
Ribes rusbyi, 10. 
setosum, 9. 
Ridellia tagetina, 16. 
Ring-tailed Cat, 38, 85. 
Road-runner, 17, 91. 
Robin, Western, 41, 101, 
Robinia neo-mexicana, 12, 35, 36. 
Sage-brush, 22, 35, 37, 93, 98. 
Sagina linnsei, 8. 
Salicornia (genus), 14. 
Salpinctes obsoletus, 41, 100. 
Sandpiper, Baird's, 88. 
Least, 88. 
Semipalmated, 88. 
Solitary. 88. 
Spotted, 88. 
San Francisco Mountain : 
Altitude, 5. 
Climate, 29-34. 
General features, 5-6. 
Humidity, 32-34. 
Life zones, 6-11, 19. 
Origin of fauna and flora, 20-21. 
Size, 6. 

Temperature, 29, 32, 
Trees, 8-11. 
Vegetation, 7-11. 
Sarcobatus vermiculatus, 15. 
Saxifraga csespitosa, 7. 
debilis, 8, 9. 
flagellaris, 7. 
nivalis, 7. 
Sayornis saya, 39, 93. 
Scaptonyx (genus), 24. 
Sceloporus bocourtii, 112. 

clarkii, 22, 110-111. 
consobrinus, 13, 111, 112, 113. 
elongatus, 16, 111, 112. 
graciosus, 16, 111, 112. 
undulatus, 112. 
Sciurus (genus), 53. 

aberti.11,37,49-50,86, 90. 
fremonti mogollonensis, 10, 11, 19, 48-49, 
79, 86. 
Scolecopbagus cyanocepbalus, 95. 
Sedum rhodantbnm, 9. 
Sequoia gigantea, 23. 
langsdorfii, 23. 
sempervirens, 23. 
Sheep, Mountain, 38, 78-79, 85. 
Shoveller, 87. 

Shrew, Mountain, 10, 11, 43-44, 86. 
Shrike, "White-rumped, 40, 98. 
Shrubs, Grand Canon, 12, 35, 36. 

Pifion belt, 12. 
Sialia arctica, 101, 

mexicana, 41, 101. 
Sibbaldia procumbens, 7. 
Sigmodon (genus) , 25. 



Silene acaulis, 8. 
Siskin, Pine, 95. 

Sitgreaves Expedition, 74, 75, 98. 
report, 128. 
Mount, 5. 
Sitta canadensis, 100. 

carolinensis aculeata, 41, 100. 
pygmaea, 12, 41, 100. 
Skunk, Common, 81-82, 86. 

Little Striped, 22, 25, 38, 83-84. 
Slope-exposure, 27, 28, and plates 1 and 2. 
Solidago multiradiata, 9. 
Solitaire, Townsend's, 11, 102. 
Sora, 88. 
Sorex (genus), 10,19,24. 

monticolus, 11, 43^4, 86. 
Sparrow, Black -throated Desert, 16, 96. 
Boucard's, 16. 22, 40, 97. 
Brewer's, 16, 96. 
Desert Song, 97. 
Intermediate, 96. 
Lincoln's, 40, 97. 
Mountain Song, 97. 
Nevada Sage, 16. 
Sage, 96-97. 
Slate-colored, 97. 
Tree, 96. 

White-crowned, 40, 96. 
Western Chipping, 40, 96. 
Western Lark, 96. 
Western Savanna, 95. 
Western "Vesper, 40, 95. 
Spatula clypeata, 87. 
Spea (genus), 16. 

hammondi, 117. 
Speotyto cunicularia hypogaaa, 16, 17, 91. 
Spermophile, 53, 58. 

Desert, 57-58. 
Dusky Spotted, 56-57. 
Park, 55-56. 
Rock, 12, 37, 58, 86. 
Spotted, 57, 60, 86. 
Spermophilus (genus), 53. 

cryptospilotus, 57-58. 
grammurus, 12, 37, 58, 86. 
spilosoma, 57, 60, 86. 

obsidianus, 13, 56-57. 
pratensis, 55-56. 
Sphyrapicus thyroideus, 39, 92. 

varius nuchalis, P2. 
Spilogale (genus). 22,25. 

gracilis, 38, 83-84. 
putorius, 83-84. 
Spinus pinus, 11, 95. 
psaltria, 40, 95. 

arizonse, 95. 
Spiraea discolor dumosa, 12. 

millefolium, 12. 
Spizella breweri, 16, 96. 
monticola, 96. 
socialis arizonas, 40, 96. 
Spruce, Engelmann's, 6. 8, 9, 121, 122. 
Squirrel, 53. 

Abert's, 11, 37, 49-50, 86, 90. 
Antelope, 51-53. 
Gray, 49. 



Aug., 1890. 



INDEX. 



135 



Squirrel, Ground, 58. 

Red, 10, 11, 19, 48-49, 79, 86. 
Rock, 12, 37. 
Say's Ground, 53-54, 86. 
White-tailed, 51-53. 
Stellaria umbellata, 8. 
Sturnella neglecta, 95. 
Swallow, Bam, 98. 
Cliff, 98. 

Violet-green, 40, 98. 
Swift, White-throated, 39, 92. 
Sylvania pusilla, 99. 
TachyciDeta thalassina, 40, 98. 
Tamias, 53. 

cinereicollis, 50-51, 79, 86,90. 
dorsalis, 37, 51. 
lateralis, 53-54, 86, 90. 
leucurus, 52. 

leucurus cinDamomeus, 51-53, 86. 
Tanager, Hepatic, 97-98. 

Louisiana, 11,40,97. 
Taxidea americana, 85, 86. 
Taxodium (genus), 23. 
Teal, Blue-winged, 87. 
Temperature, 29-32. 

decrease with altitude and latitude, 

30. 
factor in distribution of species, 
26-28. 
Temperatures of the life zones, 32. 
Tetradymia canescens, 15. 
Thlaspi alpestre. 8. 
Thomomys (genus), 60. 

fulvus, 38, 71, 79, 86. 
perpallidus, 71. 
Thrasher, 16, 100. 

Sage, 16, 17, 100. 
Thrush, Audubon's Hermit, 11, 101. 
Tit. Gray-tufted, 12, 41, 100. 
Titlark, 9, 99. 

Titmouse, Gray, 12,41, 100. 
Toad, 16, 117. 

Horned, 12, 16, 55, 112-115. 
Totanus solitarius, 88. 
Towhee, Green-tailed, 40,97. 

Spurred, 40, 97. 
Trees, general report, 119-123. • 

Canadian zone, 6, 10. 
Grand Canon, 35-36. 
Hudsonian zone, 6, 9. 
Pine zone, 6, 11. 
Piiion zone, 6, 12. 

Sub-alpine or timber-line zone, 7, 8. 
Tringa bairdii, 88. 

iiiiniitilla, 88. 
Trisetum subspicatum, 7. 
Trochilus alexandri, 93. 

platyoercuB, 11, 39, 93. 
rufus, 93. 
Troglodytes ai'-don aztecus, 100. 
Trisetum subspicatum, 7. 
Tuidifs aonalasclik;r auduboni, 11, 101. 
Turkey, Mexican, 89. 

Vulture, 38, 89. 
Tyrannns vociferaus, 39, 93. 
Urocyon (genus), 25. 



Uropsilus (genus), 24. 
Urotrichus (genus), 24. 
TTrsus (genus), 10, 19. 
Ursus americanus, 85, 86. 

horribilis, 85. 
Uta levis, 108. 

ornata, 13, 107-108, 111, 113. 
palmeri, 106. 

stansburiana, 16, 106-107. 
symmetrica, 22, 107, 108-109. 
Veronica alpina, 9. 
Vesperugo fuscus, 37, 44. 

hesperus, 37, 45, 86. 
Vespertilio ciliolabrum, 46, 47. 
evotis, 46. 
lucifugns, 45. 
melanorhinus, 46-47. 
nigricans, 47. 
Viola canadensis scopulorum, 10. 
Vireo, Cassin's, 40, 98. 
Gray, 40, 98. 
Plumbeous, 98. 
Western Warbling, 98. 
Vireo gilvus swainsoni, 98. 

solitarius cassinii, 40, 98. 

plurubeus, 98. 
vicinior, 40, 98. 
Vole, 10, 19. 

Mogollon, 11, 69-70, 86. 
Mountain, 11,67-69, 79, 86. 
Vulture, Turkey, 38, 89. 
Warbler, Audubon's, 11, 40, 99. 

Black-throated Gray, 40. 99. 
Calaveras, 98. 
Grace's, 99. 
Hermit, 99. 
Lutescent, 98. 
Macgillivray's, 41, 99. 
Townsend's, 40, 99. 
Virginia's, 98. 

Western Yellow-throat, 41. 99. 
Wilson's, 99. 
Yellow, 98-99. 
Waxwing, Cedar, 40, 98. 
Weasel, 8, 81, 85. 
Wildcat, Eastern, 80, 81. 

Plateau, 38, 79-80, 86. 
Woodpecker, Cabanis's, 39, 92. 
Californian, 39,92. 
Lewis's, 39, 92. 
Red-naped, 92. 
Red-shafted, 92. 
Three-toed, 11,92. 
Williamson's, 39,92. 
Wren, Canon, 41,100. 

Long-billed Marsh, 100. 
Rock, 41, 100. 
Western House, 100. 
Yucca, 14. 

angustifolia, 12, 15. 
baccata, 12, 35, 36. 
Yucca, Narrow-leaved, 12, 15. 
Zenaidura macroura, 38, 89. 
Zinnia grandiflora, 16. 
Zones : 

Alpine, 7,19,20,31,32. 



136 



NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. 



[3T0.3. 



Zones : 

Alpine, altitude, 7. 

birds, 8. 

mammals, 8. 

plants, 7-8. 
Arctic-Alpine, 19. 
Canadian or Donglas Fir, 6, 10, 11, 18, 19, 20, 32. 

altitude, 10. 

batrachians, 10. 

birds, 11. 

mammals, 11, 19. 

trees and plants, 10. 
Cedar or Pinon (see Piiion). 
Desert, 6, 13-15, 19, 20, 32. 

altitude, 13. 

batrachians, 16. 

birds, 16-17. 

insects, 16. 

mammals, 17, 22. 

reptiles, 16. 

trees and plants, 14, 15-16. 
Hudsonian or Spruce, 6, 9, 19, 20, 32. 

altitude, 9. 

birds, 10. 

mammals, 10. 



Zones : 

Hudsonian or Spruce, trees and plants, 9. 
Pine, 6, 11, 19, 20, 32, 33. 
altitude, 11. 
birds, 12. 
mammals, 11. 
reptiles, 12. 
trees and plants, 11. 
Pinon or Cedar, 6, 12, 17, 19, 20, 30, 31, 32. 
altitude, 12. 
birds, 12. 

mammals, 12-13, 19. 
reptiles, 13. 

trees and shrubs, 6, -12. 
Sub-alpine or Timber-line, 6, 8, 19, 20, 31, 32. 
altitude, 6, 8 . 
birds, 9. 
mammals, 19. 
trees and plants, 8-9 
Zones at Grand Caiion, 36-37. 

interrelations and affinities, 17. 
Zonotrichia intermedia, 96. 

leucophrys, 40, 96. 
Zygadenus elegans, 9. 



PLATE I. 

Diagrammatic profile of Sail Francisco Mountain and O'Leary Peak from south- 
west to northeast, showing the several life-zones and effects of slope-exposure. 

Slope exposure is the inclination of the surface of the earth in relation to the 
angle of reception of the sun's rays. Th e sun strikes the northeast and east sides of 
a hill or mountain early in the day, "before the heat is very great; the south side at 
noon when the heat is greater: the southwest and west sides in the afternoon 
when the heat is greatest, and the northwest and north about sundown or not at all. 
It follows that the southwest side of a hill or mountain receives the sun's rays at 
nearly a right angle during the hottest part of the day, and consequently is the 
hottest side. The higher temperature on the southwest side causes the zones to rise, 
and conversely, the lower temperature on the north and northeast sides — the coldest 
exposures — causes them to dip down. The normal difference in altitude of the same 
zone on the southwest and northeast sides of San Francisco Mountain was found to 
be about 275 meters, or 900 feet. 



NORTH AMERICAN TAUNA N° 3. 



Plate 1. 




PLATE II. 

Diagram showing effects of slope-exposure on a volcanic cone north of San Fran- 
cisco Mountain. 

This cone is in the pine helt, its base being above the level of the pifion or cedar 
belt ; yet its south and west slopes are covered with piiion and cedars to the 
exclusion of the tall pines which cover its north and east slopes as well as the 
surrounding plain. This is the result of slope-exposure, the sun's rays striking the 
south and west sides at such a sharp angle as to increase the temperature sufficiently 
to permit, the growth of trees normally restricted to lower levels. 



WORTH AMERICAN EAUNA N? 3. 



Plate II 




DIAGRAM SHOWING EFFECTS OF SLOPE EXPOSURE ON A VOLCANIC 
CONE NORTH OF SAN FRANCISCO MOUNTAIN. 



PLATE III. 

Figs. 1,2, 3, and 4, Hesperomys megalotis Merriam (No. \ fffj), $ ad. Painted Desert, 
Arizona. Type. 

1. Crowns of left upper molars from below (XlO). 

2. Crowns of left lower molars from above ( XlO). 

3. Crowns of left upper molars from the outside (XlO). 

4. Crowns of left lower molars from the outside (xlO). 

Figs. 5, 6, 7) and 8, Hesperomys leucopus rufinus subsp. nov. (No. f4§4s)j 9 ad. San 
Francisco Mountain, Arizona. 

5. Crowns of left upper molars from below ( XlO). 

6. Crowns of left lower molars from above ( XlO). 

7. Crowns of left upper molars from the outside (XlO). 

8. Crowns of left lower molars from the outside (XlO). 

Note. — In this and the following plates the numbers in parentheses are those of 
the U. S. National Museum, unless the contrary is stated. 



orth American Fauna, o. 3 



Plate III. 











1-4. Hesperomys megalotis sp. nov. 



6-8. Hesperomys leucopus rufinus 



PLATE IV. 

Figs. 1, 2, 3, and 4, skull of Hesperomys megalotis Merriaui (No. flff^), $ ad. 
Painted Desert, Arizona. Type. 



North American Fauna, No. 3. 



Plate IV. 







Hesperomys megalotis sp, nov. 



PLATE V. 

Figs. 1 and 2. Skull of Arvicola alticolus Merriam (No. f-fffi) 9 ad. San Francisco 
Mountain, Arizona (X2). 

Figs. 3 and 4. Skull of Arvicola mogollonensis Mearns (No. irfifl) cTad. San Fran- 
cisco Mountain, Arizona (X 2). 

Figs. 5,6, and 7. Skull of Perognathus intermedins Merriam (No. ?-f{jf£) <£ad. 
Grand Canon of the Colorado, Arizona ( x li). 



North American Fauna, No. 3. 



Plate V. 




1, 2. Arvicola <ilti<-<ihts sp. nov. 
8, -4. A. mogollonensis. 



5. 6, 7. Perognathus (Chaetodipus') intermedins. 



PLATE VI. 

1,2. Arvicola alticolus Merriam, $ ad. (No. tflfs)- San Francisco Mountain, Arizona. 
Type. 

1. Upper molar series. 

2. Lower molar series ( X 10). 

3,4. Arvicola alticolus Merriam, $ ad. (No. -f-fim)- San Francisco Mountain, Arizona. 

3. Upper molar series. 

4. Lower molar series (XlO). 

5, G. Arvicola mogollonensis Mearns, $ im. (No. \&%\ Am. Mus. Nat. Hist.). Baker 
Butte, Mogollon Mesa, Arizona. Type. 

5. Upper molar series. 

6. Lower molar series (XlO). 

7,8. Arvicola mogollonensis Mearns, $ (No. rrsij?). San Francisco Mountain, Arizona. 

7. Upper molar series. 

8. Lower molar series (XlO). 



Nortn American Fauna ; No. 3. 



Plate VI. 










1-4. Arvicola atticolus. 



5-8. A. mogollonensis. 



PLATE VII. 

Skull of Lepns texianus Waterhonae (No. tiH*)> 9 ad. San Francisco Mountain, 
Arizona. (Natural size.) 



North American Fauna, No. 3. 



Plate VII. 




Lepus texianus, $>. 



PLATE VIII. 

Skull of Lepus arizonw Allen (No. fffff) , ? ad. Sau Francisco Mountain, Arizona. 
(Natural size). 



North American Fauna. No. 3. 



Plate VII 




Lepus arizona . j 



PLATE IX. 

Figs. 1, 2, and 3, skull of Spermophilua cryptoajnlotus Merriarn (No. fyfyf), $ ad. 
Painted Desert, Arizona. Type. (1£ natural size.) 

Figs. 4, 5, 6, and 7, skull of Cynomys gunnisoni Baird (No. fffH)> 5 ad - San Fran- 
cisco Mountain, Arizona. (Natural size.) 



North American hauna, No. 3. 



Plate IX. 






1-; J , Spermophilus cryptospilotus sp. nov. i I 



4-7. Cynomys gunnisoni mat. sizei. 



PLATE X. 

Figs. 1,2, 3, and 4, skull of Mephitis estor Merriani (No. fyfoy). <? a ^- San Francisco 

Mountain, Arizona. (Natural size.) Type. 
Figs. 5, 6, 7, and 8, skull of Neotoma mexicana Baird (No. |$£ jjf ), $ ad. San Francisco 

Mountain, Arizona (natural size). 



North American Fauna^ No 3 



Plate X. 




i i. ,U' phitis estor sp qo\ 



8. Jfeotoma mexicana. 



PLATE XT. 

Lynx baileyi Merriam (No. f49!ls~)j 9'ad. San Franeisco Mountain, Arizona. (Two 
thirds natural size.) 



North American Fauna, No. 3. 



Plate XI. 




Lynx baileyi sp. nov., ?,ol<l (j nat. size). 



PLATE XII. 

(All natural size.) 

1. (15821) Crotaphytus oaileyi Stejn. Type. Little Colorado Desert, Arizona. 

2. (9368) Crotaphytus collaris (Say). Verdigris River, Arkansas. 

3. (15818) Phrynosoma ornatissimum (Gir.). Little Colorado Desert, Arizona. 

4. (15802) Phrynosoma hernandesi (Gir.). San Francisco Mountain, Arizona. 



North American Fauna, No. 3. 



PLATE XII. 




\,-;s 










)<• 



1. Crotaphytusbaileyi. 2. C.collaris. :). Fhrynosoma ornaUasimum. 4. P. hemandeai. 



PLATE XIII. 

Map of the United States showing localities from which specimens of Crotaphytus 
baileyi and C. collar-is have been examined. 



3 



PROVISIONAL BIOLOGICAL MAP OF NORTH AMERICA, SHOWING PRIN- 
CIPAL LIFE AREAS. {PREPARED IN JANUARY, 1890.) 

[See Pages 24-26.] 

The areas indicated in different colors are not of equal value. The 
Boreal Province, as shown on the map in one color (green), is the 
equivalent of the Sonoran Province, which is shown in six colors, one 
for each of its principal divisions, as follows : The Sonoran proper, 
the Austroriparian, the Great Plains, the Great Basin, the California!!, 
and the Lower Californiau. The Boreal Province comprises three zones — 
Subalpine or timber line, Hudsonian, and Canadian — each of which 
undergoes certain changes in passing from the Atlantic to the Pacific, 
but our knowledge of the region is too vague to justify an attempt 
to show the resulting divisions. 

The Carolinian Fauna is a northward extension of the Austroripa- 
rian, while the Alleghanian is neutral ground between the latter and 
the southernmost division of the Boreal Province (the Canadian Fauna). 
The data thus far accumulated do not admit of tracing the boundaries 
of these minor subdivisions or their equivalents in the West. 



5 



U.S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 

DIVISION OF ORNITHOLOGY AKD MAMMALOGY 



NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 



]N~o. 4= 



PUBLISHED LY AUTHORITY OF THE SECRETARY OF AGRICULTURE 



[Actual dare of publication. October 6, 1890] 




Descriptions of twenty-six new species of North American Mammals 

By i »i: c. Hart Merbiam 



WASHINGTON 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 

1890 



MEASUREMENTS. 

All measurements of specimens are in millimeters. 

All Mammals collected by Field Agents of the Division are measured in accordance 
with the following instructions: 

(1) The total length is the distance between the tip of the nose and the end of 
the tail vertebra 1 . It is taken hy laying the animal on #> board, with its nose against 
a pin or upright post, and by straightening the back and tail by extending the hind 
legs with one hand while holding the head with the other; a pin is then driven iuto 
the board at the end of the vertebra 1 . 

(2) The length of tail is the length of the caudal vertebras. It is taken by 
erecting the tail at a right angle to the back, and placing one point of the dividers on 
the backbone at the very root of the tail, the other at the tip end of the vertebra 1 . 

(3) The hind foot is measured by placing one point of the dividers against the 
end of the heel (calcaneum), the otber at the tip of the longest claw, the foot being 
flattened for this purpose. 

In measuring the hind foot in dry skins, the foot is first wrapped in wet absorbent 
cotton until the toes can be straightened. 



U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 

DIVISION OF ORNITHOLOGY AND MAMMALOGY 



NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 



No. 4 



PUBLISHED BY AUTHORITY OF THE SECRETARY OF AGRICULTURE 



[Actual date of publication, October 8, 1890] 




Descriptions of twenty-six new species of North American Mammals 

By Dr. C. Hart Mkrriam 



WASHINGTON 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 

1890 



\ 



1 7 %; 



U. S. Department of Agriculture, 

August 12, 1890. 
Sir: I have the honor to transmit herewith No. 4 of North Amer- 
ican Fauna. It contains descriptions of twenty-six new species of 
North American mammals, nearly all of which were discovered in the 
course of the biological explorations conducted by the Division. 
Respectfully, 

C. Hart Merriam, 

Chief of Division of 
Ornithology and Mammalogy. 
Hon. J. M. Rusk, 

Secretary of Agriculture. 



CONTENTS 



Letter of transmittal m 

1. Contribution toward a revision of the Little Striped Skunks (genus Spilo- 

gale), with descriptions of seven new species 1-15 

2. Descriptions of five new Ground Squirrels of the genus Tamias 17-22 

3. Description of a new Evotomys from Colorado 23-24 

4. Descriptions of two new species of Evotomys from the Pacific coast region. 25-26 

5. Description of a new Marten (Afushla caurina) from the northwest coast.. 27-29 

6. Description of a new species of Molossus from California 31-32 

7. Description of a new Prairie Dog from Wyoming 33-35 

8. Descriptions of three new Ground Scpiirrels of the Spennophilus spilosoma 

group 37-39 

9. Descriptions of three new Kaugaroo Rats, with remarks on the identity o" 

Dipodomys ordii of Woodhouse 41-49 

10. Description of a new Pocket Gopher, of the genus Gejmt,8, from western 

Nebraska 51 

11. Description of a new species of Hesperomys from southern Florida 53-54 



ILLUSTRATIONS 



PLATES. 



Plate I. Pigs. 1-3, Spilogale phenax (skull); figs. 4-6, Spilogale leucoparia (skull). 

II. Fig. 1, Evotomys occidentalis (teeth); fig. 2, Evotomys californicus (teeth) j 
tig. 3, Evotomys yalei (teeth). 
III. Figs. 1-2, Hesperomys maeropus (teeth;. 



FIGl'RES I.N' TEXT. 



Page. 
Fig. 1. Spilogale gracilis (transverse section of skull) 2 

2. Spiloyale ringens (transveise section of skull) 2 

3. Evotomys galei (teeth) 24 



v 



No, 4. NOKTH AMEEIOAN FAUNA, October, 1890= 



CONTRIBUTION TOWARD A REVISION OF THE LITTLE STRIPED SKUNKS 
OF THE GENUS SPILOGALE. 

WITH DESCRIPTIONS OF SEVEN NEW SPECIES. 



By Dr. C. Hart Merriam. 



The number of specimens of Spilogale at present available for study 
and comparison is wholly insufficient to warrant a final attempt to es- 
tablish and define the North American species and subspecies ; at the 
same time it is ample to demonstrate the absurdity of 'lumping,' under 
one specific name, as is now the practice, all the forms inhabiting the 
United States, from Florida to California. 

The present paper is based on the study of 39 skins and 08 skulls, de- 
rived from the following' sources: U. S. National Museum, 8 skins and 
9 skulls; Department of Agriculture series, 12 skins and 11 skulls; 
Merriam collection, 19 skins and L8 skulls. 

The examination of this material shows that the members of the genus 
may he readily separated into two divisions, according to the general 
shape of the skull; one having the cranium broad and Hat, with the 
frontoparietal region depressed, presenting the extreme of differentia- 
tion of the genus; the other with the cranium narrower and more 
highly arched and the frontoparietal region somewhat elevated, ap- 
proaching the normal Mephitine type. The members of the latter 
division inhabit the Gulf States and Mississippi Valley, extending as 
far westward (at least) as Trego County, Kans. ; the members of the 
former inhabit the Son or an region of the west, from central Texas west- 
ward through New Mexico and Arizona to California, extending south to 
Cape St. Lucas and north to British Columbia and the Great Basin. 

The eastern group, so far as represented in the meager series at hand, 

comprises three species, one inhabiting Florida, one Alabama, and one 

Kansas. How far the limits of dispersion of each form extend, aud 

whether or not any of them intergrade, are questions that can not be 

5514— No. 4 1 1 



2 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. . [No. 4. 

settled until specimens from intermediate localities are examined. The 
Florida form is the smallest and whitest; the Kansas form is the largest 
and blackest. 

The western group comprises at least three species and two or three 
subspecies, but, considering the great extent of the area it inhabits, is 
even less fully represented in available specimens than the eastern. 
One species inhabits south-central (and western ! ) Texas ; one Arizona 
and southern California ; and one the southern part of the peninsula of 
Lower California. 

In the genus Spilogale, as in the allied genera Mephitis and Conepatus, 
the range of individual variation is considerable, though by no means 
so great as has been assumed. The principal variables are four, namely, 
(1) cranial characters ; (2) dental characters; (3) length of tail; (4) color 
markings. As a rule the variation in each species is between definite 
limits which may be defined. 

The males are much larger than the females and have considerably 
longer tails. 

Color and markings. — The color markings are constant in pattern 
throughout the genus / the only variation being in the quantity of white, 
the widest extremes being the result of tbe extension or suppression of 
some of the markings. In the young the ground color is intensely black 
and the markings are pure white. As age advances, the markings be- 
come creamy yellow, and in worn states of the pelage and old museum 
specimens the black becomes dull brown. 

General remarks on cranial characters and variation. — As already 
stated, there are two well-marked groups in the genus Spilogale — one 
having the cranium broad and flat, with the fronto-parietal region de- 
pressed to tbe general plane of the top of tbe skull ; the other having 
the cranium relatively narrow and more highly arched, with the fronto- 
parietal region somewhat elevated. (See figs. 1 and 2.) 





Fig. 1. — Transverse section of skull of Spilogale Fig. 2.— Transverse section of skull of Spilogale 

gracilis. ringens. 

The angle of divergence of the lateral series of teeth is greater in the 
narrow than in the broad skulls. As a rule, the postpalatal notch 
reaches the plane of the molars in the narrow-skulled forms, and falls 
short of this plane in the others. As a rule, also, in the narrow-skulled 
forms, the first and second upper premolars are not crowded, do not 
overlap, and are wholly in the tooth-row, while in the broad-skulled 
forms they are much crowded and partly overlap, or the first is turned 
obliquely or sideways to give the succeeding tooth more room. 



Oct, 1890.] REVISION OF THE GENUS SPILOGALE. 6 

The degree of inflation of the mastoids varies greatly in the species 
of both groups, and is not always proportional to the intermastoid 
breadth of the cranium. Thus, in the type of 8. lucasana, in which the 
inflation is only moderate, the ratio of mastoid breadth to basilar length 
of Hensel is 69.3, while in 8. leueoparia, which presents the maximum 
of inflatiou, the ratio is only 60.8. In some species the inflated mastoid 
is set off from the upper surface of the cranium by a distinct change of 
direction in the bone, or even by a well-marked groove or sulcus, while 
in others no such line of demarkation exists. The upper part of the 
inflated mastoid is covered by the squamosal, the outer edge of which, 
in the broad-skulled species, usually forms a sharp ridge along the 
outer side of the mastoid capsule. In 8. leucoparia, however, this ridge 
is obsolete. The two species having the largest (most inflated) capsules 
are 8. leucoparia of central Texas, and 8. putorius of Florida. The de- 
gree of inflation varies somewhat with age, being greatest in young 
adults or middle-aged individuals and least in those of advanced age. 

The postmolar production of the palate varies somewhat with age 
and sex. Thus, in two adult skulls from Provo, Utah, the postpalatal 
notch reaches the plane of the molars iu the female, but not in the male. 
As a rule, it reaches the plane of the molars in the narrow-skulled forms, 
and falls short of this plane in the broad skulls. 

The horizontal ramus of the jaw is nearly straight iu all the flat- 
skulled forms except lucasana; it is strongly convex below in lucasana 
and in all the narrow-skulled forms. 

The size, shape, and proportions of the sectorial teeth and of the 
upper molar afford excellent specific characters. The postorbital part 
of the frontal narrows with age. In the adults of some species there is a 
marked postorbital constriction, while in others no trace of it exists. The 
value of this excellent character is often destroyed by large asymmetrical 
postorbital swellings resulting from the presence, in the frontal sinuses, 
of a worm-like endoparasitic arachnid of the genus Pentastoma. Some 
species have distinct, peg-like postorbital processes, which in others are 
represented merely by slight protuberances. 

Young skulls, compared with adults of the same species, are more 
highly arched, the brain case is more inflated, and the zygomatic arches 
are less spreading. The sectorial teeth and-molars are sometimes actu- 
ally larger than in old specimens, lor I he reason that the teeth com- 
plete their growth very early, and in old age become smaller by the 
wearing away of the crowns. 

The bones of the skull unite very early, as usual in the Mux I did a; 
all the sutures disappearing during the first few months. 

Cranial and dental measurements ami ratios, — The time has not yet 
arrived for fixing the limits of individual variation in any group of the 
Mammalia. When a series of ahundred or more skulls of a single species 
from a single locality, of the same sex and approximately the same age, 
shall have been carefully measured and the ratios of these measurements 



4 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. . |No.4. 

calculated, a beginning will have been made. Until then, the relative 
values of the various measurements and ratios as factors in determining 
specific andsubspecific differences must remain more or less problemati- 
cal, as well as the percentage of variation in each. The tables prepared 
with so much care by the late Eeinhold Hensel (in Craniologische Stu- 
dien*) are of little value because the localities from which the speci- 
mens came are not stated, and it is probable in many cases that several 
geographic races or subspecies are ' lumped' under one name. 

The present paper, which is not put forward as more than a step 
toward the attainment of a knowledge of the Little Striped Skunks, 
contains a table of tbe cranial and dental measurements and ratios of 
most of the adult (and a few immature) skulls to which I have had ac- 
cess. Many of the measurements, and more of the ratios, are worthless ; 
and the table is published as much to show these as those which are 
really important. 

In comparing one species with another, adult skulls only should be 
selected and they should always be of the same sex. 

The value of measurements and ratios of the postorbital constriction 
is frequently destroyed, as previously stated, by the large swellings pro- 
duced by the worm-like parasite (Pentastoma or Lingiiatula) which in- 
fests the frontal sinuses of more than half of the skulls examined. 
Thus, the constriction in an old male, 8. gracilis (No. 5852), from St. 
George, Utan, is entirely obliterated, notwithstanding the fact that 8. 
gracilis has the deepest constriction of any of the known species. The 
same extreme of distortion occurs in an old female from Roseburg, Ore- 
gon (No. 24200). 

Other skulls in which the postorbital breadth is more or less affected 
by these swellings are Nos. (IT. S. National Museum) 4143, 4219,30058, 
and perhaps also 24115, 24116, and 24117, and (Merriam collection) 
1800, 2100, 2270, 2408, 2583, 3985, 4266, 5676, 6314, 6315, 632S. 

In a few very old skulls the upper molars are worn down so far that 
their measurements and ratios are unreliable. This is the case in Nos. 
(IT. S. National Museum) 1622, 4143, 24200, 24897 and (Merriam collec- 
tion) 3985 and 5852 ; and Nos. 5676 and 6315 are somewhat worn. 

Generic characters of Spilogale contrasted with Mephitis. — The small, 
many-striped skunks were separated from their larger single or double 
striped relatives by J. E. Gray, in 1865, under the generic name Spilo- 
gale. The separation was based wholly on external characters, of which 
the only tangible one is the number of tubercles (4) at the base of the 
hind toes. It may be added that the Little Striped Skunks are slender 
and weasel-like in form, active, agile, and somewhat arboreal in habit, 
often making their homes in hollows of trees or crevices in cliffs ; while 
the true skunks are heavy, thickset animals, slow of movement, ter- 
restrial in habit, and live in burrows which they dig in the earth. 

*Nova Acta d. Ksl. Leop.-Carol-Deutsch. Acad, d. Naturf., Halle, XLII, 1881, pp. 
125-195, pis. VI-XIII. 



Oct, 1890 I REVISION OF THE GENUS SPILOGALE. 5 

Sj)ilogale\s a perfectly valid genus, arid may be known from Mephitis 
by the following cranial and dental characters. 

The cranium as a whole is flat and broad, the frontal and parietal 
regions being so depressed that the top of the skull presents a nearly 
straight plane, instead of being highly arched as in Mephitis ; the skull 
is broadly wedge-shaped in outline; the mastoids are greatly inflated, 
forming elliptical capsules which reach on either side from the meatus 
to the exoccipital, the outer border of which is pushed backward toward 
the condyle ; the paroccipital process is obsolete or rudimentary ; the 
tube of the auditory meatus is bent strongly forward ; the supraorbital 
processes are more strongly developed; the step of the mandible is 
absent; the first lower premolar is relatively much larger; the upper 
sectorial tooth is longer ; the upper molar is narrower antero poste- 
riorly ; and the zygomatic arches are more spreading and are broadest 
and highest in the middle instead of posteriorly. 

Geographic distribution. — At the time when Baird wrote his great 
work on the mammals of North America, the Little Striped Skunks were 
known from California and Texas only. I have examined specimens 
from North Carolina, Georgia, Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, Kansas, 
Texas, Arizona, Lower California, California, Oregon, Washington, 
CTtah, and Idaho, and species of the genus are known to inhabit Iowa 
and Wyoming. 

# Faunal position. — The genus tipilogale is a Sonoran genus, coming 
into the United States from Mexico, and ranging northward and east- 
ward as far as the ramifications of the Sonoran fauna extend. To the 
south it reaches Yucatan and Guatemala (Alston, in Biologia Centrali- 
Amerieana). 

The only part of the United States in which Spilogale oversteps the 
bounds of the Sonoran fauna is along the west coast, where, as pre- 
viously explained (North American Fauna. No. .'>, p. 20), the Sonoran 
and Boreal elements arc curiously mixed. 

Synonymy and nomenclature. — The synonymy and nomenclature of the 
Little Striped Skunks is somewhat involved. Without going fully into 
the history of the subject, it may be stated that four specific names have 
been applied to North American animals which are now recognized as 
belonging to the genus Spilogale, namely, putorius (Linnaeus, 1758); in- 
terrupta (Rafinesque, 1820); bieolor (Gray, 1837) ; quaterlinearis (Wi- 
nans, 1859). 

'the name Viverra putorius was given by Linnams in 1758 to the Little 
Striped Skunk of Florida or Carolina, and was based primarily on 
Catesby's description and figure. It becomes available therefore for 
the Florida animal, to which it is here restricted. 

The name Mephitis interrupta was given by Rafinesque in 1820 to the 
species inhabiting 'Louisiana,' but Louisiana at that date was com- 
mon h spoken of as stretching far to the northwest, including most of the 
territory west of the Mississippi River and eastof the Rocky Mountains. 



6 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. . [No. 4. 

The naine was afterward (1836) restricted by Lichtenstein to the black- 
tailed form of the ' Upper Missouri River.' 

The name Mephitis bicolor was given by Gray in 1837 to a North 
American animal ; but since the locality was not mentioned, and the 
description contains nothing distinctive, it is impossible to ascertain 
which form he had in mind, and the name must be dropped. Indeed, 
Gray himself, in 1865, gave it as a synonym of M. interrupta of Rafin- 
esque. 

The name Mephitis quaterlinearis was given by one Wiuaus, in 1859, to 
the Kansas animal,* and like the foregoing becomes a synonym of 
interrupta. 

The name Yiverra zorrilla was given by Schreber, in 1778, to a South 
American species, and consequently may be dismissed from further con- 
sideration in the present connection. 

Hence but two specific names are available for species inhabiting the 
United States, namely, putorius for the Florida animal, and interrupta 
for the animal inhabiting the Missouri region, of which Kansas speci- 
mens may be regarded as typical. 

KEY TO SPECIES AND SUBSrECIES OF SPILOGALE. 

A.— Cranium broad and flat; fronto-parietal region depressed to 

GENERAL LEVEL OK UPPER SURFACE OF SKULL. 

a 1 . Under jaw strongly convex below lucasana. 

a 2 . Under jaw straight or nearly straight below. 

b '. Mastoids enormously inflated and evenly rounded below, with hardly a trace 
of lateral ridge leucoparia. 

b' 2 . Mastoids moderately inflated, not evenly rounded below, with lateral ridge 
well developed. 
c 1 . Postorbital processes but little developed ; interorbital constriction 

marked gracilis. 

c 2 . Postorbital processes strongly developed ; interorbital constriction faint or 
absent. 
d l . Combined length of crowns of upper sectorial tooth and molar equals 

length of pterygoid fossa from base of hamular plienax. 

d*. Combined length of crowns of upper sectorial tooth and molar falls con- 
siderably sbort of length of pterygoid fossa saxatilis. 

B.— Cranium narrower and more highly arched; fronto-parietal region 

SOMEWHAT ELEVATED. 

a l . Combined length of Tipper sectorial tooth aud molar greater than length of 
mastoid capsule, and equal to distance from anterior lip of foramen mag- 
num to foramen lacerum medium indianola. 

a 2 . Combined length of upper sectorial tooth and molar less than length of mastoid 
capsule, aud much less than distance from anterior lip of foramen mag- 
num to foramen lacerum medium. 
b l . Inner lobe of upper molar broadly rounded on inner side, with greatest con- 
vexity near middle. 
c\ Distance from nasal emargiuation to point midway between postorbital 
processes at least one-third the length of the top of skull interrupta. 

* See Coues, Fur-Bearing Animals, 1877,239-240. 



Oct., 1890 1 REVISION OF THE GENUS SP1LOGALE. 7 

c s . Distance from nasal ernargination to point midway between postorbital 
processes considerable less than one-third the length of the top of the 
skull ringens. 

b -. Inner lobe of upper molar not broadly rounded on inner side, and with decided 
projection considerably behind middle of tooth putorius. 



SPILOGALE PUTORIUS Linnams. 

Viverra putorius.— Linnaeus, Systema Natura 1 , ed. x, I, 1758, 44 (based primarily on 
the Putorius americanus striatus of Catesby). 

General characters. — The Little Striped Skunk of Florida is conspic- 
uous for its small size, short tail, and the extent of tbe white mark- 
ings. In addition to the usual markings, it usually has a white patch 
or stripe on the outside of the thigh and another on the upper side of 
the foot, the two rarely being confluent. The rump spots are large and 
sometimes continuous with.the leg-stripe. The stripes at the base of the 
tuil are very large and confluent posteriorly, forming a broad patch of 
white which covers the upper surface of the basal fourth of the tail. The 
external lateral stripe is broad, encroaches on the belly, and is contin- 
uous posteriorly with the anterior transverse stripe, which, in turn, is 
often continuous with the internal dorsal stripe. The tail with hairs 
is much shorter than head and body. 

A single specimen from Kissimee Prairie, Florida (No. 4870 9 im.), 
is smaller than the others, aud differs from them in the great extent 
and breadth of tbe external lateral stripe, which is confluent with 
both anterior and posterior transverse stripes. The rump spots also 
are unusually large, and are confluent posteriorly with the tail spots 
and laterally with the leg-stripe, and the latter is continuous on one 
side with the foot stripe. The middle pair of dorsal stripes begin pos- 
terior to the plane of the ears, leaving the black occipital patch larger 
than usual. 

Cranial characters. — So far as cranial characters go, 8. putorius, 8. 
iudiauola, 8. ringens, and 8. intcrrupta constitute a closely related group, 
widely separated from the species inhabiting the arid lands from cen- 
tral Texas westward. They agree in having the cranium relatively 
high and narrow; the frontoparietal region somewhat elevated; the 
upper lateral series of teeth strongly divergent posteriorly; all of the 
premolars in the tooth row, not overlapping, and rarely crowded; the 
post-palatal notch ending about on a line with the alveolus of the upper 
molar and without median projection ; a distinct postorbital constric- 
tion ; and the horizontal ramus of the lower' jaw strongly convex below. 
They further agree with one another, and differ from the flat-skulled 
forms, except 8. leucoparia, in lacking a distinct crest or ridge along the 
outside of the mastoid capsule (formed by the edge of the squamosal). 
8. putorius and 8. indianola have the smallest and shortest skulls. 8. pu- 
torius has the largest mastoid capsules, and differs from all the others 
in the shape of the inner lobe of the upper molar, the posterointernal 



8 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. ■ [No 4. 

crescent of which projects strongly toward the median line posterior to 
the middle of the tooth. In 8. interrupta, mdianola, and ringem the 
inner lobe of the upper molar is broadly and evenly rounded, bringing 
the most prominent part of the convexity nearly opposite the middle 
of the tooth instead of considerably behind it. The nasal opening is 
constricted laterally in its upper half 

In S. putorius, interrupta, and indianola, the length of the upper sur- 
face of the rostrum, from the nasal emargination to the plane of the 
postorbital processes, is just half the length of the upper surface of the 
cranium behind the postorbital processes, while in 8. ringens the latter 
measurement is considerably more than double the former. 

Measurements. — A fully adult male, captured at Lake Worth, Fla., 
May 20, 1889, by Morris M. Green (U. S. National Museum, No. ifjff), 
afforded the following measurements in the flesh: Total length, 372; 
tail vertebra, 129; hairs, 50; hind foot, 39. A female caught at the 
same place two days previously (U. S. National Museum, No. ^rxff) 
measured : Total length, 340; tail vertebra, 1.17 : hairs, 48 ; hind foot, 37. 

SPILOG ALE INTERRUPTA Rafinesque. 

Mephitis interrupta. — Rafinesque, Aunals of Nature, I, 1820, 3. Lichtenstein, Abhancl. 

Akad. Wiss., Berlin (for 1836), 1838; 281, tab. II, fig. 1. 
Mephitis quaterlinearis. — Win an s [Kansas?], newspaper, 1859 (see Cones, Fur-Bearing 

Animals, 1877, 239-240). 

General characters. — This species may be known from all others by 
the large size of the tail and the limited extent of the white markings. 
The tail, with hairs, is longer than the head and body, and is large and 
full. As a rule it is black throughout ; and the white when present, is 
limited to a slender tuft surrounded by the black hairs of the extreme 
tip. The head markings are very small, the frontal spot being less than 
half the usual size, and the crescent in front of the ear being reduced 
to an inconspicuous streak or dab wholly unconnected with the lateral 
stripe, there being no white at all under the ear. All of the white 
stripes are reduced in size, so that the animal has the blackest back of 
any known species, 8. ringens approaching it most closely in this re- 
spect. 

Cranial characters. — The skull of 8. interrupta is longer and higher 
posteriorly than that of 8. putorius, and the audital bullse are much less 
inflated. The inner lobe of the upper molar is broadly rounded, with 
the most prominent part of the convexity opposite the middle of the 
tooth, instead of far behind the middle as in 8. putorius. The post- 
orbital processes are feebly developed and there is scarcely a trace of 
postorbital coustriction. 

Specimens of Spilogale interrupta have been examined from various 
places in Kansas, from the eastern part of the state (Barber and Coffey 
Counties) west to Trego County, and from the Kiowa Indian Agency. 



Oct., 1890. 1 REVISION OF THE GENUS SPILOGALE. 9 

General remarks. — Whatever doubt may arise as to wbetlier or not 
the species here described is really the Mephitis interrupta of Rafin- 
esque, there can be none whatever that it is the 71/. interrupta of Lich- 
tenstein ; so that the question, if any, relates not to the name of the 
species but merely to the authority for the name. Lichtenstein dis- 
tinctly states that his animal came from the 'Upper Missouri' and that 
it hid a black tail. 

Measurements. — The average measurements of four males from Trego 
County, Kans., are as follows: Head and body,* 350 ; tail vertebra?, 21(5; 
hairs, 105; hind foot, £9.5. The average measurements of two females 
from the same locality are: Head and body, 320 ; tail vertebrae 208; 
hairs, 80; hind foot, 43.5. 

SPILOGALE RLNGENS sp. nov. 

Typo No. !§£ff 9. U. S. National Museum (Department of Agriculture collec- 
tion). Greensborough, Hale County, Alabama, August 2. 1890. Collected 
by C. S. Brimloy. (Original number, 50.) 

Measurements (taken in flesh). — Total length, 160; tail vertebra?, 1G5 ; 
hind foot, 45 ; pencil, 88. 

General characters. — Size considerably larger than S. putorius; about 
equaling 8. interrupta, with which it is most closely related ; tail with 
hairs longer than head and body, white markings restricted ; no white 
on legs or feet; frontal spot very small; crescent in front of ear not 
continuous or barely continuous with lateral stripe ; white of tail limited 
to terminal third above and terminal half below; while the white is less 
extensive than in S. putorius, it is more extensive than in 8. interrupta. 

Cranial characters. — Compared with & interrupta, its nearest relative, 
the skull of 8. ringens is broader across the postorbital processes and 
interorbitally, has better developed postorbital processes, and a decided 
postorbital constriction. The distance from the nasal einargination to 
the plane of the postorbital processes is considerably less than one-third 
the length of the top of the skull, while in 8. interrupta it is just one- 
third. The ratio of the distance across upper molars to the upper lat- 
eral series of teeth is about 120 in ringens and 113 in interrupta. 

Compared with S. putorius the skull is longer, the brain case is higher 
posteriorly, the inflated mastoids do not project so far laterally, the in- 
ner lobe of the upper sectorial tooth is larger and broader, and the in- 
ner lobe of the upper molar is evenly rounded off, the most prominent 
part of the convexity being near, instead of behind, the middle of the 
tooth. 

Whde the type is from Hale County, Ala., other specimens have 
been examined from Cherokee, N". C, Corinth, Miss., and Mobile, Ala. 



* Unfortunately, tbe collector did not record the total length in the flesh ; but by 
ndding tiio lengtb of tbe tail to tbe bead and body, an approximate measurement may 
be obtained. 



10 



NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. 



[No, 4. 



The Latter has a little more white than the others, and the ante-auricu- 
lar crescent is narrowly continuous with the lateral stripe. In the Cor- 
inth specimen the white tip of the tail reaches further down than on the 
others. 



SPILOGALE INDIANOLA sp. nov. 

Type (skull) No. 1621, young adult. U. S- National Museum. From Indianola, 
Matagorda Bay, Texas. Collected by J. H. Clarke, in 1851. 

This species is founded on two skulls collected at Indianola, Mata- 
gorda Bay, Texas, by J. H. Clarke, of the Mexican Boundary Survey. 
The skins were not preserved, and nothing whatever is known of the 
external characters of the animal. It probably is a Mexican tropical 
species extending north along the Gulf coast of Texas. 

Cranial characters. — The skull is small, and the brain case is short 
and highly arched, as in 8. putorius from Florida. It differs from puto- 
rius, however, in being narrower across the postorbital processes, in 
having smaller and less prominent mastoid capsules, smaller audital 
bullae, longer pterygoid fossa, and larger teeth. The upper sectorial 
and molar particularly are much larger than iu putorius, the combined 
length of the two teeth exceeding the length of the mastoid capsule and 
equaling the distance from the anterior lip of the foramen magnum to 
the foramen lacerum medium, iu these respects differing from all 
known species of the genus. The inner lobe of the upper molar is very 
large and broad, and is broadly and evenly rounded off on the inner 
side, the greatest convexity being opposite the' middle of the tooth in- 
stead of considerably behind it. The ratio of breadth to length of the 
upper molar is 120, while in 8. putorius it is 13G. 

The lower sectorial tooth is very much larger, and the last lower 
molar about double the size of the same tooth in 8. putorius. 

Average ratios of several specimens each of Spilogale indianola, S. interrupta, S. ringens 

and S. putorius. 



Ratios to basilar length of Hensel : 

Leugiu of upper lateral series of teeth 

Length of upper sectorial and molar together 

Length of upper sectorial 

Length of pterygoid fossa 

Ratio of mastoid breadth to palatal length 

Ratio of breadth to length of upper molar 



S. indian- 


S. inter- 


S. ringens. 


ola. 


rupta. 


37.5 


36 


35.5 


23. C 


22.1 


20.8 


14.3 


13.2 


12.5 


25 


24 


23.8 


143 


150.5 


156 


126 


132 


134 



S. putorius. 



35 

21.3 

13 

24 
162 
136 



Oct., 1890.1 REVISION OF THE GENUS SPILOGALE. 11 

SPILOGALE LUCASAtfA sp. nov. 

Type No. ]:]:; ad. U". S. National Museum. From Cape St. Lucas, Lower Cal- 
ifornia. Collected by John Xantus. (Original number, b'03.) 

General characters. — Size large; tail long (with hairs apparently about 
as long as head and body); terminal pencil white; white markings 
large and broad. Median pair of dorsal stripes broadly continent pos- 
teriorly with anterior transverse bands, and thence with external lat- 
eral stripes; lumbar spots on each side elongating posteriorly so as to 
form a distinct stripe, which becomes continent with the posterior trans- 
verse stripe of the same side, forming an acute angle posteriorly at 
point of union ; tail spots indistinctly continent posteriorly. Two par- 
allel longitudinal white stripes extend back from the chin to the throat, 
where they are connected by a transverse curved line. Two other 
white stripes, one on each side, reach backward from the angles of the 
mouth to a point a little below and posterior to the ears, where they 
indistinctly join the lateral stripes. This is the only species known to 
me in which there is any regularity in the throat and chin markings. 

Cranial characters. — Two skulls from Cape St. Lucas, Lower California 
(the type, IsTo. 4219, and Xo. 4143, U. S. National Museum), are much 
larger, broader posteriorly, flatter, and everywhere more massive than 
those of any other species examined. The postorbital processes are 
well developed; the postorbital constriction is not noticeable; there is 
a distinct sagittal crest; the post-palatal notches fall considerably short 
of the plane of the alveoli of the upper molars; the upper molars are 
rectangular, with a deep notch behind, ami the postero-internal angle 
projects furthest toward the median Line as in 8. putorius from Florida; 
there is no line of demarkation on the upper surface of the skull between 
the inflated mastoids and cranial pariet.es. 

The first upper premolar is small. In one skull (No. 4143) it is ab- 
sent on one side and very small on the other, but is wholly in the tooth 
row. In the other skull (the type, No. 4219) it is present on both sides, 
larger, and slightly overlaps the canine. The second upper premolar 
is not crowded and does not overlap tin' third. 

The under jaw is more convex below than in any other species known 
to me ; the angular process is set up higher, and there is more evidence 
of the ' step' which is so characteristic of Mephitis. 

SPILOGALE LEUCOPARIA sp. nov. 

(Plate I, nV. s . 4-6.) 

Typo No. II" I, <$ ad. Merriam collection. From Mason, Mason County, Texas, De- 
cember 2, 1885. Collected by Ira B.Henry. (Original number, 16.) 
General characters. — Size medium (total length of $ , about 400; hind 
foot, about 45), tail with hairs shorter than head and body. White mark- 
ings larger than in any other known species, the white on back equaling 



12 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. . [No. 4 

or even exceeding the black in area; all the stripes are broader than in 
the other species ; the middle pair of dorsal stripes are continuous pos- 
teriorly with the anterior transverse stripe, which in turn are broadly 
confluent with the external lateral stripes. The lumbar spots are gen- 
erally confluent with the posterior transverse stripes. The tail spots 
are sometimes confluent posteriorly, forming a narrow band across the 
base of the tail. There is no white on the thighs, and only rarely a 
few white hairs on the upper surface of the foot. 

Cranial characters. — The skull of 8pilogale leucoparia presents the 
maximum degree of inflation of the mastoid capsules yet observed in the 
genus, surpassing even S. putorius of Florida. The inflation is most 
conspicuous postero-laterally, and in transverse section the capsules are 
subcircular in outline. The crest or ridge usually formed by the outer 
edge of the squamosal is obsolete. The audital bullae are larger than 
usual. 

SPILOGALE GRACILIS Merriam.* 

Type No. g-Ji'yr $ ad. U. S. National Museum (Department of Agriculture collec- 
tion). From Grand Canon of the Colorado, Arizona (north of San Francisco 
Mountain), September 12, 1889. Collected by C. Hart Merriam, near bottom 
of canon. (Original number, 451.) 

Measurements of type (taken in the flesh). — Total length, 400 ; tail ver- 
tebrae, 142; t pencil, 100; hind foot, 40. 

General characters. — Size medium: form slender like a ferret ; tail 
with hairs, longer than head and body. External lateral stripe very 
large and broad, and broadly confluent with the anterior transverse 
stripe, which in turn is sometimes narrowly confluent with the inner 
dorsal stripe. Exposed white of tail occupies nearly the whole of the 
terminal half above and the terminal two-thirds below. 

In old individuals the lumbar spots show a tendency to become con- 
fluent posteriorly with the posterior transverse stripes. The spots at 
base of tail are sometimes confluent posteriorly. The males have con- 
siderably longer tails than the females. 

Cranial characters. — The skull of 8. gracilis is broad and flat, with the 
fron to-parietal region depressed to the piano of the top of the skull, and 
there is a deep postorbital constriction — the deepest possessed by any of 
the species now known. There are well marked postorbital protuber- 
ances, but they are not peg-like processes as in S.phenax and 8. saxatilis. 



* This species has beeu described in North American Fauna, No. 3, pp. 83-84. 

t The tail of this specimen was injured in early life and the terminal portion is 
absent. In a young individual caught at the canon two days later, the tail vertebra? 
measure 1G0. 



Oct., 1890.] REVISION OF THE GENUS SPILOGALE. 13 



SPILOGALE SAXATILIS sp. dot. 

Type No. -*g-f? $ ad. Merriaui collection. From Provo, Utab, November 13, 1888. 
Collected by Vernon Bailey. (Original number, 384.) 

Measurements of type (taken in the flesh). — Total length, 450; tail 
vertebra^, 176; pencil, 100; hind foot, 49. Measurements of 5 ad. (same 
locality and date): total length, 400; tail vertebrae, 163; hairs, 80; hind 
foot, 41. 

General characters. — Size, rather large; tail, with hairs, longer than 
head and body. External lateral stripe nearly obsolete and barely or 
not continuous with anterior transverse stripe. In the type specimen, 
an adult male, noueof the markings are confluent. In an old female taken 
at the same locality and date, the internal or middle dorsal stripes are 
narrowly confluent posteriorly with the anterior transverse stripes, and 
the caudal spots meet indistinctly across the base of the tail. All of the 
other spots and markings are distinct. Externally 8. saxatilis maybe dis- 
tinguished at a glance from its nearest geographical neighbor, S. gracilis, 
by the inconspicuous and nearly obsolete lateral stripe. In S. gracilis 
this stripe is large and broad and broadly confluent with the anterior 
transverse stripe. 

Cranial characters. — The skull of S. saxatilis resembles tbatof S. gra- 
cilis in size aud proportions, but differs from it in having well-developed 
postorbital processes, in having the anterior mires deeply and broadly 
emarginate above, in having the zygomatic arches more broadly and 
highly arched, and in lacking a deep postorbital constriction (though it 
has a slight constriction). It differs from S.phenax in the shape of the 
nasal aperture (which is less broadly emarginate above), iu the presence 
of a slight interorbital constriction (altogether absent in phenax), in hav- 
ing the last lower molar smaller, and in a number of cranial and dental 
proportions, which are given in tabular form under S.phenax. 

SPILOGALE PHENAX sp. no v. 
(Plan- l. figs. 1-3.) 

Type No. [,;[][', X ad. Merriam collection. .From Nicasio, Marin County, Cal- 
ifornia, October 31, L885. Colleoted by C. A. Allen. 

General characters. — Size large ; hind foot 10 (in dry skin) ; tail, with 
hairs, shorter than head and body. External lateral stripes narrow, but 
considerably broader than iu 8. saxatilis; lumbar spots inclined to 
become confluent with posterior transverse stripes. Markings other- 
wise Dormal. Exposed white portion of tail occupying terminal third 
above and terminal half below. There is considerable white in irreg- 
ular patches about the chin and angles of the mouth. 

Cranial and dental characters.— The postorbital processes of 8. phenax 
reach the maximum development observed in the geuus; the postorbital 



14 



NOETII AMERICAN FAUNA. 



[No. 4. 



constriction is absent; tbe zygomatic arches are broad and highly 
arched, and the sectorial and molar teeth are large. The last lower 
molar is conspicuously larger than in 8. gracilis and 8. saxatilis. 

8. phenax differs from 8. saxatihs in the following particulars : The 
breadth across the postorbital processes is greater (ratio to basilar length 
37, against 35.2 in saxatilis); there is no attempt at a postorbital con- 
striction; the e marginatum above the nasal aperture is neither so 
broad nor so deep ; the vault of the cranium is higher ; the molariform 
teeth in both jaws are much larger, particularly the last lower molar, 
the ratio of which to the iuterQi'bital constriction is 20.3, while in saxa- 
tilis it is 17.4 (the ratio of the interorbital breadth to the basilar length 
being the same in both skulls) ; the combined length of the crowns of 
the upper sectorial tooth and molar equals the length of the pterygoid 
fossa, while it falls short of it in saxatilis ; the palate is broader, the 
ratio of the distance across the upper molars to palatal length being 
100.4, while in saxatilis it is 94.1); and the inner lobe of the upper molar 
is narrower (the ratio of the anteroposterior diameter of the inner lobe 
to the same diameter of the outer lobe being 87.5, while in saxatilis it 
is 95.2). 

Several specimens from the region about San Bernardino aud Alham- 
_bra, in southern California, have longer tails and broader side stripes 
than the Nicasio specimens, and the markings under the chin tend to 
arrange themselves in two small parallel stripes, with a small spot at 
each angle of the mouth. The postorbital processes are smaller than 
in true phenax. This form may merit subspeciflc separation. 

The following table shows the ratios of a number of cranial and 
dental measurements in 8. saxatilis and 8. phenax, and also in 8. gracilis, 
their nearest geographical neighbor: 

Batios of type specimens of Spilogale phenax, S. saxatilis, and S. gracilis (all adult males). 



Ratios to basilar length of llensel : 

Height of cranium from posterior margin of palate 

Length of upper sectorial tooth 

Length of lower sectorial tooth 

Length of upper sectorial and molar together 

Breadth across postorbital processes 

Postorbital constriction 

Ratios to palatal length : 

Distance from foramen magnum to post-palatal notch 

Length of upper lateral series of teeth 

Breadth across upper molars : 

Length of upper sectorial tooth 

Length of upper molar (anteroposterior diameter of outer 

cusp) 

Ratio of length of last lower molar to interorbital constriction. . 

Ratio of breadth to length of upper sectorial tooth 

Ratio of breadth to length of upper molar 

Ratio of inner cusp to outer cusp of upper molar (antero-poste- 
rior diameter of each) 



zS. phenax, 


8. saxatilis, 


Nicasio. 


Prove, 


Cal. ,-;ul. 


Ft ah. cf ad. 


No. 2100. 


No. 5675. 


28. G 






12.2 




l(i 


14.9 


21.4 


19.7 


37 


35.2 


30.4 


27 


141 


135 


85.9 


82.9 


100.4 


91.1 


31.4 


29. 2 


23.1 


20.4 


20.3 


17.4 


67.0 


66.6 


145.8 


147.6 


87.5 


95.2 



S. gracilis, 

Grand 
Canon, Ari- 
zona, o'ad. 
No. 24897. 



26.5 
12.5 
15.9 

21.7 
35.7 
25.9 

144 
89.5 

95.8 
31.2 

24.4 
17.7 
64.4 

129.7 



Oct.,1890.] REVISION OF THE GENUS SPILOGALE. 15 



SPILOGALE PHENAX LATIFROSS subsp. nov. 

Type No. iJffro" 9 old. U. S. National Museum (Department of Agriculture col- 
lection). From Roseburg, Douglas County, Oregou, July 13, 1869. Collected 
by Tbeodore S. Palmer. (Original number, 216.) 

Measurements (taken in the flesh). — Total length, 335; tail vertebrae, 
130 ; pencil, 90 ; hind foot, 40. 

General characters. — Similar to 8. phenax, but much smaller. No 
peculiarities in the markings appear in the single specimen examined — 
a very old, nursing female in worn pelage — except the white under the 
chin, which is much less extensive than in 8. phenax ; other specimens 
may have more. 

Cranial characters. — The skull of 8. phenax latifrons, as its name indi- 
cates, is broader interorbitally and across the postorbital processes than 
8. phenax. It is broader also across the brain case, the mastoids, and 
the palate. The last lower molar is much smaller than in 8. phenax. 
The skull of the type specimen is so injured that the basilar length can 
not be taken, but another skull, from Ohehalis Co., on the coast of 
Washington, affords the following ratios, which for convenience of 
comparison are accompanied by corresponding ratios of the type of 8. 
phenax : 



S. latifronx, 
No. 2583. 
I 9 yg. ad. 



Katios to basilar length of Uensel: 

Interorbital breadth 32. i 

Breadth across postorbital processes 38. 9 

Breadth across molars 43. 2 

Breadth across mastoids 65.6 

Breadth of brain-case 55.1 



8. phenax, 
$o.2100. 

<$ ad. 



29. 4 

37 

41.6 

64 

49 



CRANIAL MEASUREMENTS AND RATIOS OF TEN SPECIES OF SPILOCALE. 




']'l'.--" < .... . 1 1 \ i. Ill- 



an 
in, 


0315 , 


0328 


3 


53. e 


53.5 


64.0 




51.5 


52 


53.5 




IS. :■ 


47.5 


48.5 




1 7. ;. 


47 


47.8 




30 B 


31 






28. 3 


38 


28.7 




15 


10 


10.1 




in.; 
u. a 

27.5 


14 

11.3 
28 .7 


14.4 

14.7 
211.6 




18.S 




l!l 




17..'. 


17 


17 




11 


11 2 






22.8 


23 7 


23. 8 




111. (1 


17.3 


17.3 




19. :i 


In 7 


19. 5 




11.2 


11.8 


11.5 




92.6 


88.1 


34. 5 






10. ,7 


10.2 




11.2 
0.2 


11.7 

6.4 
4.C 


11.3 


4.1 


' 


Oil 


0.7 


6.6 




5.5 


7. 8 


5. a 




7,1 


7'. 7 


7.1 




3 


3.6 


B, 1 




'.'. * 


3 3 


8.1 




10.5 


III .8 


10.1 




09 


65.2 






i,n .- 


:7,-. 8 


BO 




ID 




18 




89.7 


40 


311.1 




SB, i' 


30. 1 

41.4 


35.6 

10 2 




37 


09 
35.7 


00.8 
35 




30. 1 




28 " 






13.4 


12 S 




17.2 


10.2 


14. S 






21 8 


23.2 






S3.0 


33.8 






29.4 


29. 






30.1 


SO S 




1112. 1 
22 f- 


98.9 


98.5 
21 1 




1.72. 'J 


117.3 


151 




148 11 


ISO 


IBB. 2 




g . 


103.0 


91 

102.0 




33, .7 




31.6 




27 


20 B 


20.3 




07. 7 


7: g 


68.3 




42.2 


;., 1 


13 




83 


82 


82 




02. 1 


01 1 


03. 1 




132 


l,:l 


182 




37 3 


:»., :i 


3 1.0 




12 7 


44. E 


41 




HO 1 


113. 8 


112.7 




58 
00.9 


68 8 
34 3 


68 ) 
94.3 





DESCRIPTIONS OF FIVE NEW GROUND SQUIRRELS OF THE GENUS 

TAMIAS, 



By Dr. C. Hart Merriam. 



A. DESCRIPTIONS OF THREE NEW SPECIES OF THE TAMIAS 

LATERALIS GROUP. 

The type specimen of Tamias lateralis of Say was collected by Long's 
Expedition on the Arkansas River in Colorado, a few miles below 
the present site of Canon City. Specimens agreeing with the typical 
form have been examined from other parts of Colorado, from the Uinta 
Mountains in Utah, and from San Francisco Mountain, Arizona. Com- 
parison of specimens from various parts of the West shows that there 
are at least three well-marked species which have not yet been de- 
scribed. 

The most conspicuous differences by which the several forms may be 
distinguished are: (1) the exteut of the iuuer black dorsal stripe; (2) 
the color of the head and neck; and (3) the color of the under side of 
the tail. In true lateralis the under side of the tail (within the sub- 
marginal black band) is grizzled grayish yellow, in specimens from the 
Wahsatch (near Park City, Utah), it is deep, intense chestnut; in those 
from the Sierra Nevada (from Klamath, Oregon, to Lake Tahoe, Nevada, 
and Donner, California) it is deep fulvous. The head and sides of the 
neck in typical lateralis are suffused with ferruginous or pale rusty 
chestnut; in the Wahsatch animal the same parts are deep rusty chest- 
nut ; while in specimens from the Sierra Nevada they are bright golden- 
red or ochraceous, strikingly different from any of the others. The 
inner black stripe is small and more or less obscured in lateralis; it 
is huge and distinct in the Wahsatch and Sierra animals, and of 
medium size in Montana specimens. Specimens from the Medicine Bow 
Mountains, Wyoming, differ from all the others examined, in having the 
ground color above very much darker. In some of these specimens the 
upper surface of the tail is almost black. The form may deserve sub- 
specific recognition. 

Seasonal variation in color is more marked in some members of the 
present group than in any other North American mammal with which 
I am familiar (excepting, of course, the winter change to pure white in 
5514— No. 4 2 17 



18 NOETII AMERICAN FAUNA. . [No. 4. 

some northern species). Tbis variation relates mainly to the extent 
and intensity of the red or golden mantle which covers the head and 
neck. The maximum development of color occurs soon after the close 
of the breeding season, in August and September; but, as shown by 
Dr. J. A. Allen* in his recent excellent and highly critical revision of the 
chipmunks of the Tamias quadrivittatus group, the change may be de- 
layed by nursing and other causes, so that specimens showing both ex- 
tremes may be killed the .same day at the same place. As a rule the 
males are more highly colored than the females. This is particularly 
marked in T. cinerascens, in which the extremes of sexual coloration are 
so different that it is hard to believe them the same species. Adult 
males and females of this species, the former in the height of the red, 
the latter in the purest gray phase, were collected by myself at Helena, 
Montana, about the middle of August, 1888, together with a few speci- 
mens in intermediate pelage. 

Common characters. — Tamias lateralis and its allies here described 
are the largest of the American ground squirrels of the genus Tamias. 
They are intermediate between Tamias and Spermojrfiilus, and it is open 
to question whether they do not belong to the latter rather than to the 
former genus. They certainly depart from Tamias proper and agree with 
Spermophiius (section or subgenus Colobotis) in the form of the skull, 
in the general form of the body (in being heavy and thick-set instead 
of light and slender), in habits, iu becoming excessively fat in the fall, 
and in hibernating early. They differ from all members of both groups 
in the peculiar pattern of the coloration, namely, the absence of dorsal 
stripe or stripes, coupled with the possession of three lateral stripes on 
each side (two of which are black, separated by one which is whitish or 
yellowish), and a conspicuous mantle of ferruginous-chestnut or ochra- 
ceous, which covers the head and neck to the shoulders at least a part 
of the year. Heretofore but one species (T. lateralis) has been recog- 
nized. Three additional species are here described. The four may be 
arranged iu couplets according to affinities, thus : 

KEY TO SPECIES OF THE TAMIAS LATERALIS GROUP. 

a 1 . Inner black stripe much smaller than outer; lateral hairs of tail with two black 
bauds; under side of tail grizzled yellowish gray. 

b ' . Ground color of back grizzled brown lateralis. 

b 2 . Ground color of back grizzled ash-gray cinerascens. 

a," 1 . Inner stripe as large as outer ; lateral hairs of tail with one black band; under 
side of tail fulvous or chestnut. 

c\ Under side of tail deep chestnut ; mantle ferruginous chestnut castanurus. 

c -. Under side of tail fulvous ; mantle ochraceous cJirysodeirus. 

Faunal position. — Tamias lateralis and its relatives here described 
belong to the lower or southern zones of the Boreal province. They in- 
habit the Douglas Fir zone and the higher levels of the Pinus ponderosa 
zoue, and are particularly fond of rocky hillsides. 

'Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., New York, III, May, 1890, pp. 49-50. 



Oct., 1890. J FIVE NEW GROUND SQUIRRELS. 19 



TAMIAS OASTANURUS sp. nov. 

Type No. -|Si y? S ad - U. S. National Museum (Department of Agriculture collec- 
tion). From Park City, Wahsatch Mountains, Utah (altitude 7,000 feet), 
July 3, 1890. Collected by Vernon Bailey. (Original number, 1383.) 

Measurements (taken in the flesh). — Total length, 284; tail vertebrae, 
92; pencil, 32; hind foot, 43. Ear from crown, 13 (in dry skin). 

Color. — Head and neck to shoulders ferruginous chestnut, lightest on 
the sides of the neck. Inner black stripe nearly as broad, long, and 
sharply defined as the outer, in this respect resembling T. chrysodeirus 
of the Wabsatcb. Belly hairs dusky at base as in T. chrysodeirus, but 
tipped with whitish or very pale yellowish, the dusky base showing- 
through. Tail above mixed yellow, black, and reddish brown, with 
yellow or fulvous border; tail below deep chestnut, with a submarginal 
black baud. Upper surfaces of feet whitish. The ground color of the 
rump and outer side of the leg is darker and more strongly suffused 
with reddish-brown than in T. chrysodeirus. 

General remarks. — This species is remarkably constant in coloration, 
as shown by a series of 44 excellent specimens (consisting of adults 
and young of both sexes) collected in the Wahsatch Mountains in June 
and July by Mr. Bailey. Almost the only variation from the type is in 
the amount of, red in the mantle (some of the females having less than 
the type), and this is more constaut than in the other species. 

Mr. Bailey writes that these Ground Squirrels are "particularly abun- 
dant around the edge of town [Park City] and around the boarding- 
houses at the mines, where they pick up crumbs about the doors. A 
good many live along the roads, picking up the grain that falls from 
wagons. Of thirty-five stomachs examined, all but ten contained re- 
mains of insects (grasshoppers, beetles, flies, and larva?). Most of them 
contained also seeds of plants, flowers, and foliage, and some were 
nearly full of roses. Many contained corn, beans, oats, bread, cake, 
potatoes, and fat pork picked up about camp." 

TAMIAS CHRYSODEIRUS sp. nov. 

Type No. £?§g $ art. Merriam collection. From Fort Klamath, Oregon, July 
31, 1888. Collected by Samuel Parker. (Original number, 143.) 

Measurements. — Total length, 286 ; tail vertebra-, ; pencil, 25 : 

hind foot, 39; ear from crown, 13. 

General characters. — Top of head, rusty chestnut; sides of neck, 
bright ochraceous, this color reaching forward on the sides of the face, 
backward to the shoulders, upward across the nuchal region, where it is 
grizzled with the black-tipped hairs of the back, and downward (though 
of a paler shade) completely across the throat, and brightest on the 
sides of the neck between the ears and shoulders. The three side stripes 



20 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. • [No. 4. 

of equal breadth throughout; inner black stripe equaling the outer in 
length, breadth, and sharpness of definition ; white stripe extending 
both anteriorly and posteriorly beyond the others, and being traceable 
in some specimens from the ears to the root of the tail Under side of 
body everywhere strongly washed with pale ochraceous, which is deepest 
on the throat, where the hairs are of the same color throughout. Belly 
hairs dusky at base, with yellowish tips, the dusky showing through. 
Tail above, mixed black and yellow, with yellowish border; tail below, 
fulvous with a submarginal band of black. Upper surfaces" of feet 
strongly suffused with ochraceous. 

General remarks. — This species is represented in the Department of 
Agriculture collection by a series collected near Gleubrook, Nev., on the 
eastern side of Lake Tahoe, by Charles A. Keeler; and in the Merriam 
collection by series from Klamath, Oregon, collected by Samuel Parker ; 
and Donner, Cal., collected by Charles A. Allen. The range of varia- 
tion is slight and relates mainly to the intensity of color of the mantle, 
which varies from deep ochraceous or orange red to pale yellowish. 

TAMIAS CINEKASCENS sp. nov. 

Type No. f-rfy 9 ad. Merriam collection. From Helena, Montana (altitude 4,500 
feet), August 13, 1888. Collected by C. Hart Merriam. (Original number, 4.) 

Measurements. — Total length, 322; tail vertebrae, 10S; pencil, 35; hind 
foot, 44; ear from crown, 9. 

Color of type specimen, and of females generally in gray phase. — Upper 
parts, from nose to root of tail, clear ash-gray, grizzled with black-tipped 
hairs ; no red anywhere, or at most a slight ochraceous tinge on shoul- 
ders or a few red hairs about head ; white stripe broad, reaching from 
ears to hips, somewhat obscured over shoulders ; black stripe broad, 
short, and obscured at both ends, the inner shorter than the outer; a 
reddish-brown wash on outer side of thighs ; tail above grizzled black 
and gray, with yellowish border ; tail below grizzled grayish -yellow 
with a broad submarginal black band and a narrower and less distinct 
(concealed) band on the basal half of the lateral hairs; under parts 
whitish, slightly tinged with yellowish, the dusky basal portion of the 
belly hairs showing through ; feet whitish from ankles. 

Males in red phase. — Similar to gray phase, but with top of head and 
neck aud sides of neck from white of lower eyelid to shoulders, deep 
rusty chestnut; eyelids white; a whitish line from eye to ear, dividing 
the red ; face in front of eye whitish. 

General remarks. — The females when in the red phase are not nearly 
so red as the males ; and no males in the gray phase were procured. 
The species is represented by specimens, all collected by myself at 
Helena, Mont., in August, 1888. 

The relationships of Tamias cinerascens are with T. lateralis, not 
with T. eastanuras or I. chrysodeirus. 



Oct., 1890.1 FIVE NEW GROUND SQUIRRELS. 21 

B. DESCRIPTION OF A NEW SPECIES OF THE TAMIAS HARRISI 

GROUP. 

The members of the Tamias harrisi group differ from all other Ameri- 
can ground squirrels iu possessing a single lateral stripe, white in color. 
Three forms have been thus far described, namely, the original T. harrisi 
of Bachinau, which has the under side of the tail iron-gray and the lat- 
eral hairs black at base and marked with two free black bands ; T. leu- 
curus (described by the writer in Fauna No. 2, 1889, pp. 19-21), which 
has the under side of the tail white, with a single partly concealed sub- 
marginal black band ; and T. leucurus cinnamomeus (described by the 
writer in Fauna, No. 3, 1890, pp. 51-53), which has the tail colored like the 
foregoing, but the upper parts suffused with cinnamon. The new species 
here, described (T. interpret), while resembling T. harrisi and T. leu- 
curus in the color of the upper parts, has the lateral hairs of the tail 
black at the base and marked with two free black bauds as in T. harrisi 
from western Arizona, and the hairs of the under surface of the tail white 
as in leucurus. It resembles leucurus more than harrisi, and yet is more 
closely related to the latter. It is clearly intermediate between the two 
and still it does not connect them, there being room for au intervening 
form or 'intergrade' in each direction. Intergrades with harrisi will 
probably be discovered, so that it will rank eventually as a subspecies. 

It may be known from the following description : 

TAMIAS INTERPRES sp. nov. 

Type No. k*o§8 $ ad. U. S. National Museum (Department of Agriculture col- 
lection. From El Paso, Texas, December 10, 1889. Collected by Vernon 
IJailey. (Original number, 762.) 

Measurements (taken in flesh). — Total length, 226; tail vertebrae, 80; 
pencil, 22 ; hind foot, 37 ; ear from crown, 4 (in dry skin). 

General characters. — Similar to Tamias leucurus, but tail longer and its 
lateral hairs marked with two free black bands instead of one. 

Color (of type in wiuter pelage)- — Upper parts finely grizzled gray, 
faintly tinged posteriorly with vinaceous, and suffused with pale ful- 
vous over the nose ; shoulders, hips, and outer surfaces of fore and hind 
legs ochraceous buff; a broad stripe of clear white on each eyelid and 
on each side of back from shoulders to side of rump; under parts silky 
whitish. Tail above with proximal third concolor with back and suf- 
fused with pale fulvous ; distal two-thirds grayish black with a partly 
concealed submargiual black band and whitish border; tail below white, 
with two complete free black bands (the innermost concealed) and a 
whitish border. The lateral hairs of the tail are black at the very base, 
so that each hair has three black zones, alternating with three white 
zones, precisely as in T. harrisi. But it differs from harrisi in having 
the hairs of the underside of the tail whitish instead of marbled black 
and white, giving the tail a very different appearance. 



22 NOKTH AMERICAN FAUNA. . fNo.4. 

The four forms may be easily identified by the following 

KEY TO SPECIES AND SUBSPECIES OF THE TAMIAS HARRISI GROUP. " 

A. — Lateral hairs of tail with one free black band, under side of tail white : 

b 1 . Upper parts grayish leucnrus. 

b 2 . Uppei parts cinnamon leucurus cinnamomeus. 

B. — Lateral hairs of tail with two free black bands : 

c 1 . Under side of tail iron-gray (mixed black and white) liarrisi. 

c 3 . Under side of tail white interpres. 



C. DESCRIPTION OF A NEW SUBSPECIES OF THE TAMIAS 

MINIMUS GROUP. 

TAMIAS MINIMUS MELANUBUS subsp. nov. 

Type No. |$°£f $ ad. U. S. National Museum (Department of Agriculture col- 
lection). From west side of Snake River near Blackfoot, Idaho, July 17, 
7890. Collected by Vernon Bailey and Basil Hicks Dutcher. (Original num- 
ber, 1451). 

Measurements. — Total length, — ; tail vertebne, 84 ; pencil, 21; hind 
foot, 29 ; ear from crown, 7.5 (in dry skin). 

General characters. — Similar to Tamias minimus consobrinus Allen, but 
with under side of tail black along the median line, bordered on each 
side with pale yellowish — thus exactly reversing the condition which 
prevails in all the other known species of the genus, the normal ar- 
rangement consisting of a light (usually yellowish or fulvous) median 
stripe, bordered by a submarginal baud of black. 

General remarks. — Specimens of this new form of the small, pallid 
chipmunk of the Great Basin have just been received from Vernon 
Bailey, chief field agent of the Division, and his assistants, Basil Hicks 
Dutcher and Clark P. Streator. They were collected on the Snake 
Biver Desert in Idaho, between Blackfoot and Big Lost Biver. Mr. 
Bailey writes me that they are replaced by the ordinary form (T. mini- 
mus consobrinus) in the immediate vicinity of Blackfoot, on the east side 
of Snake Biver. The Snake Biver Desert consists of sand and sage 
plains alternating with lava beds. Without knowing the exact haunts 
of the animal it is difficult to say whether its peculiar freak of tail col- 
oration is protective (in barmony with the dark tints of the lava) or di- 
rective (in sharp contrast with the light colors of the sandy desert). I 
incline to the latter view. 

The new form is here treated as a subspecies instead of a species, be- 
cause specimens from Big Lost Biver are somewhat intermediate, hav- 
ing the usual submarginal black band on the basal third of the tail, 
while the central part is black beyond. (No. 23046 9 , collected by 
Clark P. Streator, July 21, 1890, is of this character). 



DESCRIPTION OF A NEW EVOTOMYS FROM COLORADO. 



By Dr. C. Hart Merriam. 



Up to the present time no member of thecircumpolar genus Evotomys 
has been recorded from the Eocky Mountain region of the United States, 
so far as I am aware. It is with great pleasure, therefore, that I am 
able to add to our fauna a new species of this genus from the mount- 
ains of Colorado. 

The specimen on which the new species is based was collected near 
Gold Hill, Boulder County, Col., at an altitude of 9,500 feet, by Mr. 
Denis Gale, who very generously presented it to me along with an inter- 
esting collection of other mammals from the same region. 

It may be known by the following description : 

EVOTOMYS GALEI sp. no v. 

Gale's Red-backed Mouse. 

(Plate II, fig. 3.) 

TypeffffQad. Merriam collection. From Boulder County Colorado (altitude 
9,500 feet), July 13, L889. Collected by Denis Gale. 

Size about equal to that of E. gapperi, or a little larger, but not so 
large as E. carolinemis. Unfortunately no measurements were taken 
in the flesh. The hind foot, after soaking to straighten the toes, meas- 
ures 19. The tail in the dry skin measures about 42; pencil, G.5. The 
ears are considerably larger than those of E. gapperi and the antitragus 
is relatively as well as actually much larger. 

Color:— Above, considerably lighter than true gapperi; dorsal band 
well defined, pale hazel (not obscured by black-tipped hairs), extending 
from midway between the eyes and ears nearly to the tail; rest of up- 
per parts 'Isabella-color,' suffused with ochraceous-buff. Below, white 
throughout, without trace of fulvous ; basal half of fur of belly plum- 
beous. Tail sharply bicolor: above, 'Isabella-brown,' with a blackish 
tip; below, soiled white. There is no apparent post-auricular spot. 

Crania! characters. — Compared with E. gapperi, the brain-case is 
broader, flatter, and more squarish in outline; ira mediately behind the 

23 



24 



NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. 



[No. 4. 



orbits it spreads out more abruptly, and the postorbital process of the 
squamosal is more promiueut, so that the orbital and temporal fossae 
are more sharply separated. A broad depression occupies the posterior 
part of the frontals. The audital bullae are large and high, but are less 
inflated laterally than in gapperi. The zygomatic arches are somewhat 
expanded upward at the point of junction of the jugal with the zygo- 
matic process of the maxillary, showing a tendency toward the forma- 
tion of the vertical lamella seen in Phenacomys and the lemmings. 

Dental characters. — The molar series are considerably larger than in 
skulls of gapperi of the same size, but are not so large as in Phenacomys. 
The last lower molar is slightly broader posteriorly than anteriorly (con- 
trary to the rule in Evotomys) and is broadest in the middle. It con- 
sists of three transverse loops, all of which are closed. The re-entrant 
angles of the inner side are very deep ; those on the outer side are cor- 
respondingly shallow. The front lower molar has the usual number of 
loops and triangles. The anterior loop is directed straight forward and 
communicates broadly with the adjoining triangles on each side, leaving 
one external and two internal closed (or nearly closed) triangles and a 
posterior loop. The upper molars present no noteworthy peculiarities. 
All of the molars in both jaws are rooted, each having two long and 
well-formed roots, resembling those of Phenacomys, except that they are 
not closed at the bottom. (See fig. 3.) They may be considered as 
intermediate between those of Evotomys rutilus and Phenacomys. 







Fig. 3. —Molar teeth of Evotomys galei (a, left upper series; b, left lower series). 



DESCRIPTIONS OF TWO NEW SPECIES OF EVOTOMYS FROM THE PACIFIC 
COAST REGION OF THE UNITED STATES. 



By Dr. C. Hart Merriam. 



During the summer of 18S9, Mr. Theodore S. Palmer made a biologi- 
cal reconnaissance of the Pacific coast region from northern California 
to Paget Sound, under the direction of the Division of Ornithology and 
Mammalogy of the Department of Agriculture. Among the interest- 
ing results of his explorations was the capture of two species of the cir- 
curapolar Arvicoliue genus Evotomys, one as far south as Humboldt 
Bay, California. The only previous record of the genus from the Pa- 
cific region is Coues' mention of a specimen collected by Kennerly at 
Ckilowk Lake, Washington, and referred to E. gapperi* Species of the 
genus have been described by tlie writer from the Great Smoky Mount- 
ains in North Carolina and Tennessee, and from the Rocky Mountains 
in Colorado. It remains only to discover a form in the Sierra Nevada 
in order to complete the illustration of the typical distribution of a Bo- 
real genus, extending its range southward along all the great mountain 
systems of the continent and throughout the humid Pacific coast region 
to the southernmost limits of the Boreal zones. 

The new species collected by Mr. Palmer may be know from the fol- 
lowing descriptions : 



EVOTOMYS OCCIDENTALS sp. nov. 
Western Red-backed Mouse. 
(Plate II, fig. I.) 

Type No. .^IHrTad. U.S. National Museum (Department of Agriculture col- 
lection). From Aberdeen, Chehalis County, Washington, August Hi, 1889. Col- 
lected by Theodore S. Palmer. (Original number, 308.) 
Measurements (taken in flesh). — Total length, 145; tail vertebra?., 45 ; 
pencil, 3; hind foot, 18; ear from crown, 7.5 (in dry skin). 

General characters. — Size medium, about equaling E. gapperi; tail 
rather long; coloration very much darker than in any other known 
form. 



* Mon, N. Am. Rodentia, 1877, 144. 

25 



26 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA |No.4. 

Color. — Tipper parts dark sepia-brown, with a broad dorsal area of 
burnt umber not sharply defined. Under parts salmon color, the dusky 
basal part of the fur sometimes showing through. Tail blackish above, 
slightly paler below, but not bicolor. Hind feet dusky. 

Cranial and dental characters. — The skull of Evotomys occidentalis is 
small and narrow, with the br.tin case highly arched. The enamel 
folds of the molars are deep, those from opposite sides pressing strongly 
against one another as shown in the figure (plate n, fig. 1). The 
front lower molar has five projecting angles on the inner side and four 
on the outer. The last upper molar has four projecting angles on the 
inner side and three on the outer, with sometimes the suggestion of a 
fourth. 

EVOTOMYS CALIFORMCUS sp. nov. 

Caxifornian Red-backed Mouse. 

(Plate II, fig. 2.) 

Type No. ££$££ $ ad. U. S. National Museum (Department of Agriculture col- 
lection). From Eureka, Humboldt County, California, June 3,1889. Col- 
lected by Theodore S. Palmer. (Original number, 110.) 

Measurements (taken in flesh). — Total length, 161 ; tail vertebrae, 
50; pencil, 5; hind foot, 21; ear from crown, 6 (apparently defective 
at tip; measured from dry skiu). 

General characters. — Compared with E. occidentalis, the present form 
is larger, with longer tail and hind feet and shorter ears (the margins 
of the ears appear to be imperfect, and may have been slightly longer). 
The tail is distinctly bicolor, which is not the case in occidentalis ; it is 
dusky above and whitish below. There is less red in the dorsal area, 
and the black hairs are more conspicuous. The ground color above is 
lighter and has a grayish tint, especially on the sides, instead of being 
dark sepia-brown. The belly is white instead of salmon. The hind feet 
are much lighter. 

Cranial and dental characters. — The skull is larger, broader, and 
flatter than that of E. occidentalis, its nearest relative; the frontals are 
depressed and concave between the eyes, and also broader interorbitally; 
the zygomatic arches stand out more strongly in front, and the pari- 
etals are very much broader and flatter. The dental characters are 
essentially the same as in E. occidentalis. 



DESCRIPTION OF A NEW MARTEN (MUSTELA CAURINA) FROM THE 
NORTHWEST COAST REGION OF THE UNITED STATES. 



By Dr. C. Hart Merriam. 



The marten inhabiting' the dense spruce forests of the heavy rain-fall 
belt along the northwest coast from northern California to Puget Sound, 
and doubtless ranging much farther north, differs specifically from the 
eastern M. americana in both cranial and dental characters, and many 
of the departures from the latter animal are iu the direction of the old 
world M. zibellina. It may be known from the following description : 

MUSTELA CAURINA sp. nov. 

Type No.f£ff $ yg. ad. Merriam collection. From Chehalis County, Wash- 
ington (coast near Gray's Harbor), February 4, 1886. Collected by L. C. 

Toney. 

General characters. — In external appearance Mustela caurina differs 
little from M. americana, the chief difference being that the irregular 
markings of the throat and under surface generally are orange-red in- 
stead of whitish or yellowish. A female taken at the same place and 
on the same day as the type lias the tianks and even the upper parts 
suffused with the same color, giving the animal a peculiarly rich and 
beautiful appearance. 

A young female, less than half grown, was collected by Mr. T. S. 
Palmer, at Crescent City, in the extreme northwestern corner of Cali- 
fornia, June 19, 1889 (No. l^Ui U. S. National Museum). It is very 
woolly and the color is a uniform light seal brown, somewhat paler below, 
and interrupted on the throat by a yellowish patch. 

Cranial characters. — The skull of M ustela caurina differs from that of M. 
americana in the following particulars : The rostral portion is broader 
and shorter ; the audital 1 >ull;e are shorter and less inflated ; the frontals 
are broader both interorbitally and postorbitally ; the shelf of the palate 
is less produced behind the plane of the last molar; the first upper pre- 
molar is smaller and more crowded ; the upper molars are larger; the 
upper sectorial, in addition to its larger size, has the inner lobe very 
much larger and longer, projecting anteriorly beyond the plane of the 
anterior lobe, the reverse being the case in M. americana ; the last upper 

27 



28 



NOETH AMERICAN FAUNA. 



lNo.4. 



molar is not only larger, but has a much broader saddle ; the transverse 
diameter of the tooth is about one-third greater than in M. americana, 
and the antero-posterior diameter of the inner lobe is both relatively 
and absolutely much greater ; the distance between the outer alveoli 
of the upper canines equals the greatest length ofaudital bullae instead 
of being much less ; the transverse diameter of last upper molar is greater 
instead of less than the length of the upper sectorial ; the length of 
the first lower molar is less instead of greater than the antero-posterior 
diameter of the last upper molar, and equals instead of exceeding 
the greatest breadth of the upper sectorial. The under jaw is in every 
way larger and heavier ; the lower canine is not so strongly bent ; the 
first lower premolar is smaller ; the last lower molar is approximately 
of the same size; the lower sectorial is larger in both diameters; the 
three remaining lower teeth (second and third premolars and first molar) 
are uniformly shorter, thicker, and higher. The inner cusp of the lower 
sectorial is wanting in the male and nearly obsolete in the female. 

The above cranial and dental comparisons have been made with speci- 
mens from the Adirondack Mountains in northern New York, and in 
both cases with skulls of corresponding sex and almost exactly the same 
size. The resulting absolute measurements, therefore, as well as the 
ratios, are available for direct comparison. Both of the skulls of M. 
caurina are young adults, while those of M. americana are a little older 
though by no means old. Hence the breadth of the frontals postorbi- 
tally in M. caurina is somewhat greater than if the skulls were fully 
adult. 

Measurements of skulls of Mustela caurina and M. americana. 



Measurements of skull. 



Basilar length from condyle to front of premaxillary. 

Basilar length of Hensel (from inferior lip of foramen niaguum to 

posterior rim of alveolus of middle incisor) 

Greatest zygomatic breadth 

Breadth across postorbital processes 

Least interorbital breadth 

Least postorbital breadth , 

Distance from inferior lip of foramen magnum to post palatal notch. 
Palatal length (from postpalatal notch to posterior rim of alveolus 

of middle incisor) 

Length of lateral series of teeth on alveoli (from front of canine 

to back of last molar) 

Greatest breadth across molars (on alveoli) '. 

Greatest breadth across canines (on alveoli) 

Greatest length of under jaw (single half) 

Height of coronoid process from angle 

Length of pterygoid fossa (from base of hamular to deepest part of 

postpalatal notch) 

Length of shelf of palate behind plane of alveolus of last molars 

Greatest length of audital bulla 

Least breadth of muzzle behind canine 

Measurements of teeth. 

Upper sectorial, length of crown 

Upper sectorial, breadth of crown 

Last upper molar, antero-posterior diameter of outer lobe 

Last upper molar, antero-posterior diameter of inner lobe 



21. caurina, 


M. americana, 


Chehalis 


Adirondaeks, 


County, Wash. 


New 


York. 


2578 ,-r 


2577? 


4927 d 


4930? 


78 


70. 5 


77.5 


70.5 


70.7 


03.5 


70. 5 


64. 2 


44.5 


40.8 


44.7 


39.2 


22.5 


20 


21 


18.3 


17.7 


16.9 


17.3 


15.5 


16.4 


16.2 


15.5 


14.5 


33.2 


30.5 


33. 3 


31.2 


37.0 


33 


36. 5 


33 


28 


24.5 


27. 5 


24.5 


20 


23 


24 


21 


15 


13. 2 


13 8 


12.7 


52.0 


42.5 


50. 5 


45 


23.5 


21 


23 


18.5 


9.8 


10.4 


10.5 


10 


6.2 


6.3 


7.7 


6.1 


15 


13.3 


16.5 


16.2 


17.5 


14 


15 


13.3 


8.2 


7.3 


7.7 


7 


5 


4.5 


4.7 


3.7 


4 


3.7 


4 


3.3 


5.5 


4.5 


4.7 


4 



Oct., 1890.] DESCRIPTION OF A NEW MARTEN. 29 

Measurements of skulls of Mu stela caurina and M. americana — Continued; 



Measurements of skull. 



If. caurina, 

Chehalis 

County, Wash. 



M. americana, 

Adirondack^, 

New York. 



2578d" '2577? 4927 d 4930? 



Measurements of teeth— Continued. 

Last uppermolar, an tero-posteiior diameter of saddle 

Last upper molar, greatest transverse diameter 

Lower sectorial tooth, greatest length of crown 

Length of first lower molar 

Ratio* of cranial and dental measurements: 

Ratios to basilar length of Hensel: 

Zygomatic breadth 

Palatal length 

Length of lateral series of teeth 

Breadth across molars 

Length of upper sectorial tooth 

Length of lower sectorial tooth 

Bread t h of postorbital constriction 

Length of under jaw 

Ratio of length of inner cusp to outer cusp of upper molar 

Ratio of length of inner cusp to transverse diameter of upper 

molar 

Ratio of breadth to length of upper sectorial 

Ratio of antero-posterior diameter of saddle of upper molar to same 

diameter of inner lobe 

Ratios to half basilar length (from condyle to front of premaxillary ): 

Zygomatic breadth 

Palatal length 

Breadth of anteorbital constriction 

Breadth of postorbital constriction 

Length of lateral series of teeth 

Breadth across molars 

Breadth of last upper molar 

Length of upper sectorial 

Length of lower sectorial 

Length of first lower molar 

Post-molar production of shelf of palate 

Length of audita] bulla' 

Breadth of muzzle 



3.6 
8.5 
10 



62.9 
53.1 
39.6 
36.7 
11.5 
14.1 
23.1 
74.3 
13.7 

64.7 
60.9 

65.4 

114.1 
96.4 
45.3 
42 
71.7 
61.6 
21.7 
21 

25.6 
13.5 
1 5. 8 
38.4 
44.8 



3 

7.5 
8.5 
4.5 



64.2 
51.9 
38.5 
36.2 
11.4 
13.3 
25.5 
66.9 
12. 1 

60 
61.6 

66.6 

115.6 
93.4 
47.8 
45.8 
69.5 
65.2 
21.2 
20. 7 
24 
12.7 
17.8 
37.7 
39.6 



3.7 
7.3 

8.7 
5.8 



63.4 

51.9 

39 

34 

10.9 

12.3 

21.9 

71.6 

11.7 

64.3 
61 

78.7 



115.2 


94 


44.6 


40 


70.9 


61.9 


18.8 


19.8 


22.4 


14.9 


19.8 


42.4 


38.4 



.3 
6.4 
8 
5.4 



61 

51.4 

38.1 

32.7 

10.9 

12.4 

22.5 

70 

12.1 

59.7 
52.8 

75 

111.2 
93.6 

43.8 

40 

69.5 

55.6 

19 

19.8 

22.6 

15.3 

17.3 

45.8 

37.6 



DESCRIPTION OF A NEW SPECIES OF MOLOSSUS FROM CALIFORNIA 
(MOLOSSUS CALIFOMICUS), 



By Dr. C. Hart Merriam. 



Molossus is a tropical American genus of bats, no species of which has 
been heretofore recorded from the United States, so far as I am aware. 
The subject of the preseut description is a huge animal, with immense 
ears, aud of sooty-brown color. It was captured at Al ham bra, in south- 
ern California, by Mr. E. C. Thurber, who writes me that it was found on 
the ledge over a door. Two others were caught during the same month 
(December, 1889), and both in similar situations. Mr. Thurber says of 
one of them : " It was hanging from the ledge of a window, swinging 
back and forth and knocking against the window as if to attract atten- 
tion. All were caught about 8 or 9 o'clock in the evening." 

Mr. Henry W. Henshaw tells me that when encamped in southern 
California several years ago, he saw and tried in vain to shoot, an enor- 
mous bat, much larger than any he had previously seen, which passed 
swiftlj* by in the light of the camp tire. 

The present species is closely related to Molossus perotis of Brazil. 
It may be known from the following description: 

MOLOSSUS OALIFORNICUS sp. nov. 

Type No. 573G $ ad. Merriam collection. From Alhambra, Los Angeles County, 

California, December 14, 1889. Collected by E. C. Thurber. 

Dental formula,— Inc., l~! 2 ; c, J^J; pm., ||; m.,^:';=30. First upper 
molar minute, and wedged in angle between canine aud second pre- 
molar, on the outer side. Second premolar large; higher than first 
molar. First lower premolar nearly as large as second. Lower incis- 
ors bifid and crowded. Lower canines with cingulum forming a dis- 
tinct cusp on inner side. 

Muzzle very obliquely truncated, as in M.perotis, projecting ll mi " in 
froutof upper incisors and deeply notched between nostrils. Lips smooth, 
without vertical wrinkles; a prominent glandular swelling in front of 
each eye; side of head immediately above and behind eye concave. 

Ears very large, their bases united in front, projecting slightly beyond 
muzzle. Ear conch broadly convex anteriorly and posteriorly, slightly 
convex on lop, keel large and heavy, flattened externally. Tragus 
quadrate, higher than broad. Antitragus twice as long as high, nearly 
rectangular, highest a little behind middle, and separated posteriorly 

31 



32 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. . [No. 4. 

from conch by a deep notch. Inside of ear conch (facing outward) 
haired in the form of a horseshoe, the hairs beginning on the superior 
margin of the keel about opposite angle of mouth and extending ante- 
riorly the full length of the keel, thence curving upward (leaving a 
naked crescentic triangle in front) and reaching the upper border of the 
conch at the highest point anteriorly (on plane of nostrils) and thence, 
curving backward, forming a narrow fringe along the margin of the 
highest part of the conch and extending backward to a point opposite 
the angle of the moutb. The folds of the ear over the nose are densely 
haired on both surfaces, the hairs projecting forward over the nostrils. 
The anterior margin of the conch is reflexed and bare in iront from the 
plane of the keel to the antero-superior rounded angle. 

Upper surface of wing membrane with a line of hair along the poste- 
rior margin of distal three-fourths of fore-arm, expanding in the apex of 
angles between the fore-arm and fifth metacarpal, and fifth and fourth 
metacarpals, but not invading the narrow space between the fourth and 
third metacarpals. There is a small, scant-haired strip immediately be- 
hind the metacarpophalangeal articulation of the third digit. Ante- 
brachial membrane naked in front of humerus, but haired in front of 
forearm, except at bottom of angle. No gular sac (may be present in 
male). Wings from junction of middle and distal third of tibia. Color 
sooty-brown, palest below, bases of hairs everywhere pale drab-gray. 

Measurements of type specimen. 

Head and body 102 

Tail 60 

Free part of tail 13 

Head 42 

Height of ear (from line of attachment above eye) 24 

Length of ear (antero-posterior) 39 

Tragus, height from anterior base 4 

Tragus, breadth at top 2. 5 

Length of autitragal lobe 11 

Humerus 41 

Fore-arm 73 

Longest finger 136 

Thumb : 9 

f metacarpal 72 

,. , lstph 31 

Third finger •< „, , OQ _ 

^ j 2d ph 28. o 

y cartilaginous claw 8 

( metacarpal 70 

' , I lstph 26 

° j 2d ph 5 • 

^ cartilaginous claw 6 

f metacarpal 38 

lstph 22 

Fifth finger <j 2dph _ 6 

i cartilaginous claw .• 5 

Tibia 22.5 

Hind foot 17 



DESCRIPTION OF A NEW PRAIRIE DOG FROM WYOMING. 



By Dr. C. Hart Merriam. 



CYNOMYS LEUCURUS sp. nov. 

Type No. %'}** 2 ad. Merriam collection. From Fort Bridger, Wyoming, Sep. 
tember 15,1888. Collected by Vernon Bailey. (Original number, 224.) 

Measurements (taken in flesh). — Total length, 335; tail vertebrae, 53; 
pencil, 21 (worn — much longer in other specimens); hind foot, 58; car 
from crown, 3 (in dry skin). 

General characters. —Similar iu size and general appearance to C. gun- 
nisoni, of Baird, but readily distinguished from the latter by the color 
of the tail and by cranial characters. 

Color (of type which has nearly completed the change from summer 
to fall pelage). — Upper parts from nose to basal half of tail grizzled gray- 
ish buff, much mixed with black over the posterior part of back and 
rump ; a broad, blackish patch over each eye, and a larger patch, griz- 
zled with buffy, on each cheek below the eye ; thighs buff, not mixed 
with black ; under parts generally soiled bully white, deepest at base 
of tail; throat aud under side of face whitish. Tail, basal half con- 
color with upper and lower surfaces of body respectively; terminal half 
whitish all round without trace of dark bar. Specimens in summer pe- 
lage are uniformly bully or grayish yellow above, the black hairs being- 
scarce and not noticeable, except on close examination. One specimen 
is almost brick red above, which may be due to staining from the soil. 

Specimens of Cynomys leucurus iu summer pelage average lighter in 
coloration than C. gunnisoni, and in fall pelage there is more black on 
the back. But the principal and most conspicuous difference is in the 
coloration of the tail, which in gunnisoni is concolor with the body, has 
a submarginal and snbterminal black band, the tips of the hairs only 
being white ; while in leucurus the black band is absent and the termi- 
nal half or two-thirds of the tail is white. Moreover, the tail is shorter 
in leucurus than in gunnisoni. 

Professor Baird pointed out the striking difference in the tail of this 
species as compared with that of gunnisoni, hut having only two speci- 
mens of the present form aud one of gunnisoni he did not separate them. 
5514— >i T o. 4 3 3 - 



34 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. [No. 4. 

Cranial characters. — The skull of G. leucurus agrees in the main with 
that of G. gunnisoni as contrasted with G. ludovicianns, but differs from 
gunnisoni in the following particulars: The occiput (viewed from behind) 
is broader and flatter, and the mastoids are larger, flatter, and more 
completely in the occipital plane ; the audital bullae are larger and the 
meatus is less produced laterally ; the nasals end more anteriorly com- 
pared with the nasal branches of the prein axillaris ; the greatest 
breadth across the nasal branches of the premaxillaries equals or ex- 
ceeds the interorbital breadth ; the anteroinferior angle of the zygoma- 
tic arch is thickened so as to form a small triangular plate (instead of 
being rounded off as in gunnisoni). ^ 

The cranial differences which separate Gynomys leucurus from G. ludo- 
vicianus are numerous and marked, as may be seen by consulting the 
following table, in which the differential characters are arranged an- 
tithetically : 

Cynomys ludovicianus. Cynomys leucurus. 

Audital bulla:. 

Moderate; constricted below meatus; I Much inflated; not constricted below 
meatus small. meatus; meatus large. 

Greatest breadth across audital bailee equals distance from anterior Up of foramen mag- 
num to — 

Second molar (fourth molariform tooth), j First molar (third molariform tooth), 

Basi-occipital (on median line). 

Longer than broad. I As broad as long. 

Plane of occiput (viewed from behind). 



Arched, with mastoid portion small and 
anterior to plane of ex-occipitals. 



Depressed, with mastoid portion large 
and on same plane with exoccipi- 
tals. 



Frontal shield. 

As broad as long. Much longer thau broad. 

Interorbital breadth. 

Almost equal to distance from postorbital One-third narrower than distance from 
process to fronto-maxillary suture. postorbital process to frontoinax- 

illary suture. 

Nasals ending posteriorly. 

About on line with nasal branch of pre- j Anterior to nasal branch of premaxillary. 
maxillary. 

Nasal branch of premaxillary. 

Ending about on line with fronto-max- Ending considerably posterior to fronto- 
illary suture. Widest at auterior maxillary suture. Of uniform width 

edge of zygomatic process of max- | throughout. 

illarv. 



Oct.,1890.] DESCRIPTION OF A NEW PKAIRIE DOG. 35 

CYNOMYS LUDOVICIANUS. | CVNOMYS LEUCUHUS. 

Greatest breadth across premaxillaries. 

Much less than interorbital breadth. Ecjual to or greatei than iuterorbital 

breadth. 

Zygomatic arch with anteroinferior angle. 

Sharp, and thickened to form a heavy But slightly thickened, 
triangular plate. 

Coronoid process of mandible. 

Short, thick, and only slightly recurved. Longer, more slender, and more strongly 

recurved. 

Upper molar series. 

More, than twice as far apart anteriorly I Not more than twice as far apart ante- 
as posteriorly. riorly as posteriorly. 

Last lower molar. 

Much longer than broad, with posterior About as broad as long, with posterior 
cusp produced. cusp shortly rounded oil'. 



DESCRIPTIONS OF THREE NEW GROUND SQUIRRELS OF THE 
SPERMOPHILUS SPILOSOMA GROUP. 



By Dr. C. Hart Merriam. 



In 1833 E. T. Bennett* published descriptions of a number of new 
species of mammals said to have been obtained in " that part of Cali- 
fornia which adjoins to Mexico." The exact locality from which these 
specimens came has always been in doubt. It has been long known 
that they did not come from any part of California, but from some part 
of Mexico. Prof. Baird supposed the locality to have been somewhere 
in southeastern Sonora, while Bachman believed it to have been in 
northeastern Sonora, or even Chihuahua east of the Sierra Madre. 
This uncertainty as to the type locality of so many species has always 
been a matter of annoyance to those who have had to do with the spe- 
cies in question. Among these species is a small spotted spermophile 
which Bennett named Spermopliiliis spilosoma. I shall not attempt to 
fix the type of this species, but assume for the present that it agrees in 
the main with specimens from northern Mexico and extreme western 
Texas. Regarding it as a central type, the related species which have 
been thus far described are the following: Spermophilus obsoletus Ken- 
nicott, from western Nebraska, and three forms described by the writer 
(North American Fauna, No. 3, pp. 55-58), namely, 8. cryptospUotus, S. 
spilosoma pratensis, and 8. spilosoma obsidianus. To these, one additional 
species .and two subspecies are here added, making eight in all. The 
acquisition of the matei ial on which all of the six new forms are based is 
due entirely to the biological explorations conducted by the Division of 
Ornithology and Mammalogy of the Department of Agriculture. The 
National Museum contains, outside of the Department of Agriculture 
collection, but two skins of the spilosoma group (collected nearly forty 
years ago by the Mexican Boundary Survey), and five of obsoletus. The 
Department of Agriculture series now numbers nearly sixty excellent 
skins, accompanied in each case by the skull. 

The new forms may be distinguished from those previously known by 
the following descriptions : 



Proceedings of the Zoological Society <>f London, 18:!:?, 40-41. 

37 



38 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. • [No. 4 



SPERMOPHJLUS CANESCENS sp. nov. 

Type No. HS 1 u $ i m - U. S. National Museum (Department of Agriculture col- 
lection). From Wilcox, Cochise County, Arizona, November 16, 1389. Col- 
lected by Vernon Bailey. (Original number, 67G.) 

Measurements (taken in flesh). — Total length, 150; tail vertebrae, 55; 
pencil, 10 ; hind foot, 28 ; ear from crown, 2 (in dry skin). [Specimen not 
full grown.] 

General characters. — Similar to Spermophilus spilosoma, but with 
ground color drab-gray, without anytiugeof fulvous or rufous and with 
the white spots tending to coalesce laterally into irregular wavy trans- 
verse bars, which are so close together that the distance between 
them is less than the width of the markings. Basal third of tail cylin- 
drical ; distal two-thirds distichous. 

Color. — Upper parts drab-gray, much obscured by hoary ; head and 
face hoary; back everywhere covered with transversely elongated whit- 
ish markings, which are much crowded and tend to run together later- 
ally, forming transverse wavy bars, separated by narrower dark wavy 
lines consisting of the dark tips of the hairs. Eyelids and under parts 
white. Tail above, grizzled grayish-drab, mixed with blackish on the 
terminal third, and bordered with buffy ; tail below, buffy with asubmar- 
ginal blackish band. 

SPEEMOPHILUS SPILOSOMA MACROSPILOTUS subsp. nov. 

Type No. MbM 9 ad. U. S. National Museum (Department of Agriculture col- 
lection). From Oracle, Pinal County, Arizona, June 11, 1889. Collected by 
Vernon Bailey. (Original number, 129. Teats, f .) 

Measurements (taken in flesh). — Total length, 220; tail vertebrae, 74; 
pencil, 19; hind foot, 30; ear from crown, 3 (in dry skin). 

General characters. — Size medium; ground color above russet-hazel ; 
dorsal spots large, distinct, and far apart. 

Color. — Ground color above, russet-brown, slightly paler over the nose; 
top of head and neck mixed with light-tipped hairs ; dorsal spots very 
large, distinct, distant, roundish in outline, and indistinctly bordered 
posteriorly with dusky ; under parts whitish. Tail above, proximal 
half concolor with back ; distal half mixed buffy and black with a buffy 
border. Tail below, pale ochraceous buff with a partly concealed sub- 
marginal black band. 

General remarks. — The above description applies in every particular 
to three adult specimens from Oracle. The young differ in being 
brighter colored and in having the dorsal spots smaller, less spaced, 
and not so round. 



Oct., 1890.1 THREE NEW SPERMOPHlLES. 39 



SPEEMOPH1LUS SPILOSOMA MAJOR subsp. nov. 

Type No. HMy ? a ^- U. S. National Museum (Department of Agriculture collec- 
tion). From Albuquerque, New Mexico, July 22, 1889. Collected by Vernon 
Bailey. (Original number, 225. Teats, f.) 

Measurements (taken in flesh). — Total length, 234; tail vertebra 1 , 80; 
pencil, 18 ; hind foot, 35 ; ear from crown, 3 (in dry skin). 

General characters. — This is the largest member of the group thus far 
discovered, and its color is different from any of the others, being inter- 
mediate between spilosoma and obsoletus. 

Color. — Ground color above broccoli brown, tinged with pale fulvous 
over the nose. Spots indistinct and ill defined, bordered posteriorly 
with dusky; most numerous over the rump. Under parts white. Tail 
above, proximal half pale reddish-brown, distal half buffy brown with 
a sub-marginal black band, bordered with pale buff; tail below, buffy 
with a partly concealed submarginal black band. 

General remarks. — A series of a dozen specimens of this subspecies, 
collected at Albuquerque in July, 1889, by Mr. Bailey, shows the changes 
resulting from differences in age and in the wear of the pelage. In the 
young the upper parts are pale vinaceousciunamon, the dorsal spots 
are much more distinct, and both sides of the tail more reddish-brown 
than in the adults. Adults in worn pelage have the tail pale cinnamon- 
rufous, and the upper parts faintly tinged with reddish-brown — exposed 
by the wearing away of the light tips of the hairs. 

In color and markings, Spermophilus spilosoma major is intermediate 
between S. spilosoma and 8. obsoletus, though it lacks the coal-black 
edgings to the indistinct spots of the latter, and is larger than either. 



DESCRIPTIONS OF THREE NEW KANGAROO RATS, WITH REMARKS ON 
THE IDENTITY OF DIPODOMYS ORDII OF WOODHOUSE.* 



By Dr. C. Hart Merriam. 



In North American Fauna, No. 3, I proposed the genus Dipodops for 
the kangaroo rats having five toes on the hind feet, as distinguished 
from Dipodomys proper, which has but four toes.t In several instances 
the external resemblances between species belonging to one genus and 
those belonging to the other are so exceedingly close that it is unsafe 
to name museum specimens without actually counting the toes. The 
most extraordinary and perplexiug instance of this kind which has come 
to my notice is that of two species inhabiting the same localities at El 
Paso, Tex. They are so much alike in size, color, and proportions, that, 
without reference to the number of toes, the closest scrutiny is neces- 
sary to discriminate between them. In fact, the differences are so slight 
that a naturalist of note has suggested to me that they might be one and 
the same species, the presence or absence of the useless digit being a 
mere individual variation, as is known to be the case in the kittiwake 
gull (Rissa tridactyla). The possibility of such a parallel was so con- 
trary to the results of my study of the group (having examined several 
hundred specimens without finding a single instance of individual vari- 
ation, either in the number or relative size of the digits) that I felt im. 
pel led to make a particularly critical study of the El Paso kangaroo 
rats for the purpose of ascertaining the facts in the case. Owing to the 
indefatigable zeal of the chief field naturalist of the Division, Mr. Vernon 

* It was my intention to publish a revision of the North American kangaroo rats in 
tbe present number of Fauna, but unforeseen delays, particularly in securing proper 
illustrations, bave prevented. 

1 1 am aware that Dobson bas published a special paper " On the Uuimportauce of 
the Presence or Absence of the Hallux as a Generic Character in Mammalogy " (Proc. 
Zool. Soc. Loudou, 1884, 402-403); but bis argument was based wholly upon a study 
of tbe hallux in the iusectivorous hedgehogs (Erinaeens), a group which presents, ac- 
cording to his own statement, all intermediate conditions in the development of till 
digit, and m one species of which (E. albivento'is) Dr. Dobson found an individual, an 
old female, which had a hallux on the left foot but not on the right. No such varia- 
tions occur in the genus Dipodops ; in fact, the constancy in tbe length of tbe hallux 
in the several species is remarkable, as will appear in my forthcoming paper on the 
group. 

41 



42 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. . [No. 4. 

Bailey, a series of sixteen beautifully prepared specimens was available, 
including both sexes and different ages of both species, accompanied 
by tables of measurements taken in the flesh. The results of this 
study may be briefly stated : The two forms may be distinguished with- 
out counting the toes, by external differences of color and proportions, 
constant though slight, and by numerous cranial characters. (The lat- 
ter are pointed out under the head of Dipodomys ambiguus, where the 
cranial characters of the two animals are contrasted in detail.) There- 
fore, notwithstanding the close external resemblance of the two El Paso 
kangaroo rats, they really are not closely related at allj but belong to 
distinct genera. Mr. Bailey, who collected the specimens, writes me that 
he had no difficulty in distinguishing them in the flesh, the Dipodops be- 
ing stouter and heavier than the Dipodomys, and having a thicker and 
shorter tail. 

Careful comparison of Woodhouse's original description of D. ordii 
from El Paso, Tex., with the present excellent series of both forms 
from the same locality, has convinced me that D. ordii is the 5-toed ani- 
mal (a Dipodops) leaving the 4-toed (a Dipodomys) to be described. The 
latter is here named Dipodomys ambiguus, and Dipodops ordii is rede- 
scribed from abundant material accompauied by trustworthy measure- 
ments taken in the flesh. 

DIPODOMYS AMBIGUUS sp. nov. 

Type No. £fott $ a( i. U. S. National Museum (Department of Agriculture collec- 
tion). From El Paso, Texas, December 13, 1889. Collected by Vernon Bailey. 
(Original number, 782.) 

Measurements (taken in flesh). — Total length, 233 ; tail vertebrae, 133; 
pencil, 32 ; hind foot, 37; ear from crown, 7 ; from anterior root, 12 (in 
dry skin). 

General characters. — Hind toes, 4 ; size rather small for a true Dipo- 
domys. Terminal third of tail crested-penicillate. Closely resembles 
Dipodops ordii, from the same locality, but is more slender and the color 
of its upper parts is bufly-drab instead of deep ocbraceous-buff. 

Color. — Upper parts buffy-drab, brightest on the sides, where it is 
faintly tinged with pale ochraceous-buff, and everywhere mixed with 
black tipped hairs, which are most conspicuous on the rump. Upper 
tail-stripe dusky from basal ring to extreme tip, the bases of the hairs 
white ; lower tail-stripe dusky, and when unworn reaching the dusky 
tip, leaving a white stripe on each side which ends about opposite the 
end of the vertebrae. 

Cranial characters. — Compared with Dipodops ordii the skull of Dipo- 
domys ambiguus is broader interorbitally ; the length of the nasals is 
about equal to the iuterorbital breadth at plane of lachrymals ; the ex- 
panded orbital bridge of the maxillary ends postero-laterally in a small 
projecting lobule, with a concavity in front of it; the breadth of the 



Oct., isoo.i Three new species of dipodomys. 43 

frontals posteriorly is about equal to tbe distance from the foramen 
magnum to tbe incisive foramina, and is considerably greater thau the 
distance from front of incisor to back of last molar; the postero-supe- 
rior angle of the squamosal is sharply angular ; the height of cranium 
above symphysis of audital bullae is much less than the iuterorbital 
breadth at plane of lachrymals ; the angular process of mandible is rel- 
atively short and blunt; the breadth of the skull across the inflated 
mastoids equals the distance from tbe anterior lip of the foramen magnum 
to tbe posterior rim of alveolus of incisor; the greatest breadth across 
the zygomatic processes of the maxillaries equals the distance from 
^occipital condyle to front of incisive foramina, 

Dipodomys ambiguus is closely related to D. merriami, recently de- 
scribed by Dr. Mearns,* but differs from it in having shorter ears and 
tail and longer bind feet. The thigh patch is very much smaller — hardly 
a third as large as in D. merriami. Unfortunately, the skull of the 
latter has been lost, so that no cranial comparisons can be made. The 
examination of specimens from intermediate localities may result in re- 
ducing ambiguus to subspecific rank. 

CRANIAL CHARACTERS OF iJipodomyS ambiiJUUH CONTRASTED WITH THOSE OF DipodopS 

ordii. 

DIPODOPS ORDII. I DIPODOMYS AMBIGUUS. 

Interorbital breadth at fronto-parietal suture. 

— Distance from front of incisor to back Much longer than distance from front of 
of last molar. incisor to back of last molar. 



= Distance from parietals to middle of 

nasals. 
= Distance from foramen magnum to front 



Longer tban distance from parietals to 

middle of nasals. 
Much longer than distance from foramen 



of molar series. magnum to front of molar series. 



Considerably less than distance from for- 
amen magnum to incisive foramina, 

Less than distance from fronto-premaxil- 
lary suture to interparietal. 



About equal to distance from foramen 
magnum to incisive foramina. 

About equal to distance from fronto-pre- 
maxillary suture to interparietal. 



Breadth of orbital bridge of maxillary. 

Much less than width of rostrum across = Breadth of rostrum across widest part 
widest part of premaxillaries. of premaxillaries. 

Expanded orbital bridge of maxillary. 

.Marrow':!;/ rounded off postero-laterally, [ Ending postero-laterally in a projecting 
without trace of projecting lobule. lobule. 

Posl-palatal notch. 

Reaching plane of interspace between sec- I Barely reaching plane of middle of last 
oud and third molars. molar. 



Bull. Am. Mils. Nat, Hist., N. V., ii, 290-291. Separates issued February 21, 1890. 



44 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. [No. 4. 

DIPODOPS ORDII. | DIPODOMTS AMBIGUUS. 

Length of nasal bones. 

Much greater than inter-orbital breadth i Equal to interorbital breadth at plane of 
at plane of lachrymals. lachrymals. 

Breadth of middle portion of hasi-occipital. 

About half, or less than half, its leugth. | Considerably more than half its length. 

Tympanic capsule terminating anteriorly. 



On same plane with inflated mastoid, the 
two together forming a uniformly 
rounded mass. 



In a blunt projection below the inflated 
mastoid, the latter being concave or 
emarginate immediately above it. 



Postero-superior angle of squamosal. 
Broadly rounded. | Sharply angular. 

Greatest vertical depth of inflated mastoid. 
= Length of nasals. I Less than length of nasals. 

Height of cranium above symphysis of audital bulla;. 
= Interorbital breadth. i Much less than interorbital breadth. 

Condylar process of mandible. 
Twice as long as broad. | Nearly as broad as long. 

Angular process of mandible. 



Very long and sharp (distance from tip to 
tip much greater than distance from 
condyle to tip of incisors). 



Relatively short and blunt (distance from 
tip to tip about equal to or slightly 
exceeding distance from condyle to 
tip of incisors). 



Greatest breadth of cranium across inflated mastoids. 



Exceeds distance from anterior lip of 
foramen magnum to alveolus of in- 
cisor. 



Equals distance from anterior lip of fora- 
men magnum to alveolus of incisor. 



Greatest breadth across maxillaries. 

Equals distance from occipital condyle to Equals distance from occipital condyle to 
posterior border of incisive foramina, j anterior border of incisive foramina. 



Oct., 1800.] THREE NEW SPECIES OF DIPODOMYS. 45 

Measurements (taken in the flesh) of Dipodomys ambiguus from El Paso, Texas. 



National Orip;- 
Museum inal 
No. No. 



18143 
2504! 
18145 
25C43 
1 8147 
25045 
18130 
25037 
18146 
25044 
18148 
25046 
18149 
25047 
18144 
25042 
18140 
25038 
18136 
25034 
18138 
25036 
18137 
25035 



Locality. 



768 
775 



El Paso, Tex. 

...do 

...do 



Date. 



1889. 
Dec. U 



Dec. 12 



Sox. 



Dec. 13 / ad. 



do 



783 ... 
704 

795 ... 

800 ....do 

801 ....do 

806 do 

807 ....do 
818 ....do 

808 ...do 



.do Dec. 13 cf ad. 



Dec. 14 I o. im. 



do Dec. 14 rf 

Dec. 15 <3 ad. 



Dec. 15 

Dec. 17 d 

Dec. 17 d 

Dec. 18 ? im. 

Dec. 17 ? im. 



Total 
leuj'tl). 



252 
236 
233 
245 
240 
250 
257 
248 
261 
251 
210 
250 



Tail 
verte- 
brae. 


Hind 
foot. 


147 


38 


141 


34 


133 


37 


145 


38 


145 


38 


154 


37 


155 


39 


152 


38.5 


154 


30 


150 


38.5 


Hi 


39 


140 


» 



Remarks. 



Type. 



DIPODOPS OKDII Wooilhouse. 

Duplicate type No. i^VJI 9 ad. U. S. National Museum ( Department of Agricult- 
ure collection). From El Paso, Texas, December 11, 1889. Collected by Vernon 
Bailey. (Original number, 769.) 

Measurements (taken in flesh). — Total length, 240; tail vertebra 1 , 134; 
pencil, 30; hind foot, 38. Ear from crown, 7 ; from anterior base, 12 (in 
dry skiu). Length of hallux from heel, 20. 

General characters. — Hind toes, 5; size, medium; form, stoat and thick 
set, with a thick tail ; tail, crested-penicillate on terminal third ; general 
color, deep oohraceous-buff, brightest on the sides. 

Color. — Upper parts from tip of nose to base of tail, and extending 
down outer side of leg to heel, deep ochraceous-buff varying to ochra- 
ceous, darkest on the back and brightest on the sides, not conspicu- 
ously mixed with black-tipped hairs except on the rump. Upper tail- 
stripe dusky from basal ring to extreme tip, the hairs white at base; 
under tail-stripe dusky, sometimes reaching and sometimes falling 
short of the dusky tip. Lateral tail-stripes white, reaching to or a little 
beyond eud of vertebra-. 

Cranial characters. — Compared with Dipodomys ambiguus from the 
same locality (El Paso, Tex.), the skull of Dipodops ordii is narrower 



46 



NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. 



[No. 



interorbitally ; the leugth of the nasals is considerably greater than the 
interorbital breadth at plane of lachrymals; the expanded orbital 
bridge of the maxillary is shortly rounded off postero-laterally ; the 
breadth of the frontals posteriorly is considerably less than the dis- 
tance from the foramen magnum to the incisive foramina, and about 
equals the distance from front of incisor to back of last molar ; the 
postero-superior angle of squamosal is broadly rounded; the height of 
cranium above symphyses of audita! bullae equals interorbital breadth 
at plane of lachrymals; the angular process of mandible is relatively 
long and sharp. The cranial characters of Blpodops ordii have been 
contrasted with those of Dipodomys ambiguus under the head of the lat- 
ter animal. 

Measurements (taken in the flesh) of Dipodops ordii, from El Paso, Texas. 



National 

Museum 

No. 


Orig- 
inal 
No. 


Locality. 


Date. Sex. 


Total vert 


Hind 
foot. 


18142 


763 
769 
781 
802 
764 


El Paso, Tex 


1889. | 
Dec. 10 d 

Dec. 11 1 ? 

Dec. 13 d ad. 

Dec. 16 cfjiv. 

Dec. 10 d 


231 
240 
240 
210 
231 


133 
134 
138 
120 
131 


38 


25040 
18135 




38 


25033 
18141 
25039 
18150 
25048 
18134 
25032 


....do 

....do 


37 
38 
38 



DIPODOMYS SPEOTABILIS sp. nov. 

Type No. £|§ff <? ac ^ U. S. National Museum (Department of Agriculture col- 
lection). From Dos Cabezos, Cochise County, Arizona, November 22, 1889. 
Collected by Vernon Bailey. (Original number, 695.) 

Measurements (taken in flesh). — Total length, 350; tail vertebra-, 211 ; 
pencil, 30; hind foot, 52. Ear, from crown, 10 ; from anterior base, 16 
(in dry skin). 

General characters. — Largest of the genus, equaling or even surpassing 
I), deserti in size. Tail with hairs nearly twice as long as head and 
body and very handsome, having a long terminal brush of pure white 
surmounting a broad band of black ; hairs on proximal half of tail 
short and appressed ; of terminal half, long and free ; at the same time 
the tail is not distinctly crested above as in several other species. 

Color. — Upper parts, from nose to root of tail, ochraceous-buff mixed 
with black-tipped hairs, brightest and purest on the sides, palest on 
the cheeks, and mixed with clay-color on the head. Hip patch ochra- 
ceous, becoming dusky as it passes down the leg and dilating behind 
the ankle so as to form a large blackish spot which reaches the heel. 



Oct., 1800.] THREE NEW SPECIES OF DIPODOMYS. 47 

Supraorbital white spot obscured. Upper and lower tail stripes dusky, 
meeting a little behind the middle and forming a broad black subtermiual 
band (occupying about one-third the total length of the tail), beyond 
which is a large terminal brush of pure white. The white side-stripes 
disappear a little beyond the middle of the tail. 

Cranial characters. — Skull large and heavy for a Dipodomys. Inflated 
mastoids separated on top of the skull by about 3""", so that there is a 
distinct interparietal, cuneate in shape. In D. deserti, the only species 
approaching D. spectabilis in size, the mastoids meet immediately behind 
the parietals, havin g at most an inconspicuous spicule between them. The 
two species differ further in the maxillary bridge of the orbit, which is 
fully a third broader in spectabilis than in deserti, and in the inter-or- 
bital breadth of the frontal, which is much greater in the former. 1). 
deserti has the flattest skull of any known member of the genus; in D. 
spectabilis it is higher and the mastoids are more rounded. In D. spec- 
tabilis the antero-posterior diameter of the orbit just outside of the lach- 
rymal is equal to or less than the length of the fron to-maxillary suture, 
while in deserti it is much greater. In D. spectabilis the breadth of 
cranium across inflated mastoids equals the distance from anterior lip 
of foramen magnum to tips of upper incisors (falling far short of alveolus) 
while in deserti the mastoid breadth equals distance from same point to 
front of alveolus of upper incisor. In D. spectabilis the greatest breadth 
across maxillaries equals distance from occipital condyle to front of in- 
cisive foramina, in deserti to posterior border of same foramina. In 
D. spectabilis the condylar process of the mandible is broader and bent 
upward at a stronger angle than in deserti, and the transversely elon- 
gated angular process is very much longer. 

General remarks. — This elegant species presents the darkest tail and 
richest coloration known in the genus, while its nearest relative (I)., 
deserti) is distinguished from all others by the pallor of its colors. In 
some respects J), spectabilis resembles the type of the genus (D.phillipsi),, 
but it is very much larger and requires no comparison with that species. 
D. spectabilis inhabits a wide range of country in the lower Sonorau 
faunal province. The Department of Agriculture series consists of 
thirty beautifully prepared skins and skulls (all collected by Mr. Bailey), 
from the following localities : Oracle, Oalabasas, and Dos Cabezos, Ariz.; 
Demiug and Albuquerque, New Mexico; Sierra Blanca, Tex.; and Mag- 
dalena, Sonora, Mexico. The largest specimens are from Albuquerque 
and may merit subspecific separation. 

The following table of measurements affords an index to the variation 
in size in the several localities. 



48 



NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. 



Measurement 8 (taken in flesh) of thirty specimens of Dij)odomi/s 

localities. 



fNo.4. 
spectabilis from various 



National 
Museum 

No. 


Orig- 
inal 

No. 


Locality. 


Date. 


Sex. 


Total 

length. 


Tail 
verte- 
bra. 


Hind 
foot. 


Remarks. 


16821 


139 




1889. 
June 12 


d ad. 


353 


206 


52 




23732 






16822 


140 


do 






341 


202 


51 




23733 
16823 
23734 


141 


....do 


June 12 


9 ad. 


330 


193 


47 




17745 


605 




Oct. 26 


d ad. 
5 


325 


187 ■ 


50 




24686 
17746 


606 


do 


Oct. 26 


313 


179 


49 




24687 






17747 


610 


....do 


Oct. 27 


d ad. 

? 


325 


196 


44 




24688 

17748 


611 


. . . do 


Oct. 27 


315 


184 


48 




24689 






17749 


612 


...do 


Oct. 28 


9 


325 


194 


45.5 




24690 
17750 


614 


...do 


Oct. 29 


d ad. 
? 


340 


200 


52 




246&1 
17751 


615 


do 


Oct. 29 


330 


200 


50 




24692 






17752 


616 


....do 


Oct. 29 


? 


325 


195 


48 




24693 






17753 


617 


... do 


Oct. 29 


d ad. 

? 

d ad. 
d au. 


333 


198 


48 




24694 
17754 


618 


....do 


Oct. 29 


335 


204 


47 


. 


24C95 
22652 


619 


....do 


Oct. 29 


320 


192 


48 




17886 


695 




Nov. 22 


350 


211 


52 


Type. 


24823 




. 


17887 


702 


....do 


Nov 23 


9 im. 

? 


331 


190 


5! 




21824 

17888 
24825 


703 


....do 


Nov. 23 


335 


194 


51 




17889 


704 


....do 


Nov. 23 


? 


350 


209 


54 




24820 






17820 

24707 


020 


Ma^daleua, Mexico 


Nov. 2 


? 


320 


183 


48 




17821 


621 


....do 


Nov. 2 


d ad. 


320 


187 


48 




24758 






17131 
21064 


226 


Albuquerque, N. Mex 


July 23 


d ad. 


355 


220 


50 




17133 
24U6U 


227 


....do 


July 23 


d ad. 


390 


236 


57 




17132 


230 


...do 


July 24 


? 


350 


215 


55 




24065 






18019 

24930 


753 


Doming, N. Mex 


Dec. 5 


9 ad. 


35C 


206 


52 




18065 


751 


do 


Dec. 6 


d ad. 


345 


203 


54 




24964 






18C66 


755 


...do 


Dec. 6 


9 .in v. 


220 


123 


48 




24965 

18067 


756 


....do 


Dec. 6 


218 


120 


48 




24966 
18092 
24990 


822 


Siei ra ISlauca, Tex 


Dec. 21 


? 


305 


217 


55 




18091 


819 


. . (ii> 


Dec. 25 


? 
d 


33:-. 


196 


52 




2498J 
18093 
24991 


851 


...do 


Dec. 26 


294 


160 |- 


52 





Oct., 1890] 



THREE NEW SPECIES OF DIPODOMYS. 



40 



DIPODOMYS CALIFOKNICUS sp. nov. 

Type No. Iffjf £ ad. U. S. National Museum (Department of Agriculture col- 
lectiou). From Ukiah, Mendocino County, California, May 4, 1889. Collected 
by Theodore S. Palmer. (Original number, 46.) 

Measurements (taken in flesh). — Total length, 302; tail vertebrae, 183; 
hind foot, 43; pencil, 16. Ear, from crown, 9; from anterior base, 16 
(in dry skin). 

General characters. — Size medium, about equaling D. agilis ; ears 
large; tail long, with a pure white pencil ; tail crested penicillate, but 
crest not conspicuous; color darker than in any other known species of 
the group. 

Color. — Upper parts from nose to band across thigh sepia-brown, suf- 
fused with pale ochraceous-buff, which is brightest on the sides. Thigh 
patches large, becoming dusky in passing down the legs, aud forming 
a black spot behind and on the sides of the ankle. Eyelids black, 
supraorbital white spot distinct; black mark at base of whiskers large 
and distinct. Upper and lower tail stripes black, meeting a short dis- 
tance in front of terminal pencil, which is pure white. 

Cranial characters. — Top of skull considerably arched (relatively) ; 
mastoids about 3 nmi apart; interparietal not twice as long as broad; 
height of brain case above symphysis of audital bulla? considerably 
greater than breadth of united frontals between lachrymals j lachrymals 
large ; expanded orbital bridge of maxillary broad ; iuterorbital breadth 
at posterior border of frontals equal to distance from inferior lip of fora- 
men magnum to center of crown of premolar; breadth across inflated 
mastoids equal to distance from occipital condyle to front of incisive 
foramina; greatest breadth across zygomatic processes of maxillaries 
equal to distance from occipital notch to nasals; angular process of 
mandible long and pointed. 

Measurement a (taken in flash) of Vipodomya californions. 



National 

Museum 

No. 


Orig- 
inal 
No. 


1C6I7 
2354:! 


32 


16818 


46 


23544 


166 10 
23615 


47 


1C620 




23546 


52 



Locality, 



Dale. 



1880. 
32 | Ukialt, Gal I April 28 

. do May i 

.do Hay 4 

. do May 7 



Sex, 



Total 

length, 



287 
302 
295 
305 



Tail 

vi'i te- 

ur». 



170 
183 

lfc'O 
181 



Hind 
foot. 



IJi marks. 



Type. 



5514— ^o. 4 1 



DESCRIPTION OF A NEW POCKET GOPHER OF THE GENUS GEOMYS, 
FROM WESTERN NEBRASKA. 



By Dr. C. Hart Merriam. 



Numerous specimens of pocket gophers received from the sand hills 
of western Nebraska differ from typical Geomys bursarius of the Mis- 
sissippi Valley in paler coloration, and in never attaining the size of 
full-grown individuals of the latter species. For the present the new 
form will be treated as a subspecies as follows : 

GEOMYS BURSARIUS LUTESCENS subsp. nov. 

Type No. £$£$? 9 -id. U. S. National Museum (Department of Agriculture col- 
lection). From Sand Hill9, Birdwood Creek, Lincoln County, Nebraska, May 
"27, 1889. Collected by A. B. Baker. 

Measurements (taken in flesh). — Total length 265; tail vertebrae 86 ; 
hind foot 33. 

Color. — Upper parts uniform buffy-clay color except the nose, which is 
dusky. Under parts similar to the upper, but paler, and with the plum- 
beous basal fur showing through. 

Cranial diameters. — Compared with skulls of Geomys bursarius of tbe 
same size, G. bursarius lutescens is heavier, with more strongly devel- 
oped ridges and processes. The inflated mastoids are larger, occupying 
a larger part of the occipital plane of the skull, and bulging further 
posteriorly. The audital bull* also are somewhat larger. 

51 



DESCRIPTION OF A NEW SPECIES OF HESPEROMYS FROM SOUTHERN 

FLORIDA. 



By Dr. C. Hart Merriam. 



In the spring of 1889, Mr. Morris M. Green, an assistant in the Di- 
vision of Ornithology and Mammalogy, was sent to southeastern 
Florida for the purpose of studying its fauna and collecting the mam- 
mals and birds of the region. Among other specimens of interest he 
brought back a dozen skins and skulls of a large and highly-colored 
white-footed mouse, which has not been described. It belongs to a sub- 
tropical group, and is closely related to Hesperomysfloridanus Chapman.* 
Two were captured at Canaveral and ten at Lake Worth (on the east 
side of the lake). Mr. Green states that " they burrow in the sand and 
eat the seeds of scrub-palmettoes, but are most common in parts of the 
scrub where there are few scrub-palmettoes and many scrub-oaks." 
The new species may be known from the following description : 

HESPEROMYS MACROPUS sp. nov. 

(Plate III, teeth.) 

Type No. ^jffr, $ ad. II. S. National Museum (Department of Agriculture col- 
lection). From Lake Worth, Florida, May 5,1889. Collected by Morris M. 
Greeu. (Original number, 72.) 

Measurements (taken in flesh). — Total length 203; tail vertebrae 96; 
hind foot 29; pencil 2. Ear from crown 17; from notch 2L (in dry 
skin). 

General characters. — Size large ; hind feet very long. Soles naked 
to heel. Ears large and broad; tail of medium length, nearly naked, 
showing the annuli distinctly; a distinct pectoral spot; whiskers very 
long and still'. 

Color. — Upper parts buffy-ochraceous, brightest on the sides, and 
mixed with black-tipped hairs along theback, forming a distinctly darker 
dorsal area. Under parts, including sides of nose in front of whiskers, 
creamy-white, with a distinct ochraceous spot ou the breast. Tail con- 
color, slightly paler below than above. 

•Bull, Am. Mus. Nat. Hist,, N. Y., II, :\, 117. Separates issued June 7, 1889. 

53 



54 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. ■ [No. 4 

Cranial characters. — Skull very large and long (basilar length from 
occipital condyle to front of premaxillary 27.5 j greatest length 30.5 ; 
length of molar series of teeth 4.2 ; interorbital breadth 4.6), its size 
alone being sufficient to distinguish it from any other species inhabit- 
ing the United States, not excepting H. calif ornicus. The brain case 
is moderately arched above, and there is an indistinct supraorbital bead, 
which is continued posteriorly as a slight ridge along the parieto-squa- 
mosal suture. The rostral portion of the skull is long ; the nasals long 
narrow posteriorly, and extending backward considerably beyond the 
nasal branches of the premaxillaries. The incisive foramina reach the 
plane of the first molar; tbe palatal notch does not reach plane of last 
molar ; the palatine foramina are situated opposite the second molar in- 
stead of on the plane of the interspace between the first and second. The 
zygomatic arches are very slender, broadest posteriorly, and dip down 
to the plane of the palate ; in the dry skulls they curve in a little just 
in front of the widest part. The interparietal is narrower antero-pos- 
teriorly than in S. leucopus or H. gossypinus. 

General remarks. — Hesperomys macropus requires comparison with but 
one species, H. floridanus. It differs from floridanus in color and in 
having larger ears (21 instead of 17.5 from notch), much longer hind 
feet (29 instead of 24), and larger and stiffer whiskers. No cranial com- 
parisons can be made with H. floridanus, because the skull of the latter 
was not preserved. 

I am indebted to Dr. J. A. Allen, curator of mammals and birds in the 
American Museum of Natural History, for the loan of the type speci- 
men of Hesperomys floridanus for comparison with the present species. 



INDEX. 



Californian Red-backed Mouse, 26. 
Colobotis (subgenus), 18. 
Conepatus, 2. 
Cynoniys gunnisoni, 33, 34. 
leucurus, 33-35. 
ludoviciarnn, 34-35. 

ludovicianus compared with leucurus, 
34-35. 
Dipodomys (genus), 41,42. 
agilis, 49. 

anibiguus, 42-45, 46. 
californicus, 49. 
deserti, 46, 47. 
merriami, 43. 
pbillipsi, 47. 
spectabilis, 46-48. 
Dipodops, compared with Dipodomys, 41-42. 
oidii, 42,45-46. 

compared with Dipodomys anibi- 
guus, 43-44. 
Erinaceus albiventris, 41. 
Evotomys (genus), 23,24, 25. 
californicus, 26. 
carolinensis, 23. 
galei, 23-24. 
gapperi, 23,24,25. 
occidentals, 25-26. 
rutilus, 24. 
Gale's Red-backed Mouse, 23-24. 
Geomys bursarius, 51. 

lutesceno, 51. 
Ground Squirrel, 17-22. 
Hesperomj's californicus, 54. 
tloridanus, 53, 54. 
gossypinus. f.4. 
lencopus, 54. 
macropns, "■:: M. 
Kangaroo Rat, 41-49. 
Marten, 27-28. 
Mephitis (genus), 2, 4, 5, 11. 
tricolor, 5, 6. 
interrapta, 5, 8, u. 
qnatei linearis, 5, C, 8. 
Molossns (genus), 31. 

californicns, 31-32. 
perol is. :u. 
Bfouse, Californian Red-backed, 26. 
Gah-'s Red-baoked, 23-24. 
Western Red backed 25-26. 



Mouse, White-footed, 53. 
Mustela americana. 27, 28, 29. 
caurina, 27- 2'J. 
zibellina, 27. 
Phenacomys, compared wilh Evotomys. 24. 
Pocket Gopher, 51. 
Prairie Dog, 33-35. 
Skunk, Little Striped, 1-15. 
Spermophilus (genus), 18. 

spilosoma group. 37-39. 
canescens, 38. 
cryptospilotus, 37. 
obsoletns, 37, 39. 
spilosoma, 37, 38, 39. 

macrospilotus, 38. 
major, 39. 
obsidianus, 37. 
pratensis. 37. 
Spilogale (genus), 1-7. 

con trusted with Mephitis, 4-5. 
gracilis, 2, 4, 6, 12, 13, 14. 
indianola, 6. 7, 8, 10. 
interrupta, 6, 7, 8-9, 10. 
leucoparia, 3, G. 7, 11-12. 
lucasana, 3, 6, 11. 
phenax, 6, 12, 13-14, 15. 
latitioiis. (i, 15. 
putorius, 3, 5, 6, 7-8, 9, 10, 11, 12. 
ringens, 2, 7, 8, 9-10. 
saxatilis, 6, 12, 13, 14. 
Tamias (genus), 18. 

harrisi group, 21, 22. 
lateralis group, 17-20. 
minimus group, 22. 
Tamias castanaras, is, 19, 20. 
ohrysodeirus, is, 19-20. 
cinerascens, 18, 20. 
harrisi, 21, 22. 
interpret, 21, 22. 
lateralis, 17, 18, 20. 
- leucurus, 21, 22. 

cinnnraomens, 21, 22. 
minimus consobrinns, 22. 
melannrns, 22. 
Viverra pntorins, 5,7. 

zorrilla, 6. 
Western Red-backed Mouse, 25-2G. 
White-footed Mouse, 53. 



K> 



PLATE I. 

(All natural size.) 

1-3. Spilogale phenax (No. ii8u)<? <id. Nicasio, California. Type. 
4-6. Spilogale leucoparia (No. f |ff )<£ ad. Mason, Texas. 

(Fig. 6 shows the inflated mastoid capsules from behind.) 

56 



North American Fauna, No. 4. 



Plate I. 







1-3. Spilogale phenax sp. nov. 



4-6. S. leucoparia sp. nov. 



PLATE II. 

(All magnified about 15 diameters.) 

1. Evotomys occidentalis (No. f*447)(? a(1 - Aberdeen, Wasbington. Type. 

a. Upper molar series. 

b. Lower molar series. 

2. Evotomys caUfornicus (No. Hoi?) ad. Eureka, California. Type. 

a. Upper molar series. 

b. Lower molar series. 

3. Evotomys galei (No. £§§!) $ ad. Gold Hill, Colorado. Type. 

a. Upper molar series. 

b. Lower molar series. 

58 



North American Fauna, No. 4. 



Plate 




1. Evotomys occidental^ sp. nov. 2. E. californicm sp. nov. 3. E. galei sp. nov. 



PLATE III. 

(All maguined about 15 diameters.) 

1 Ilesperomys mavropus (No. fiHf ) $ ac ». Lake Worth, Florida. Type. 

a. Left upper molar series. 

b. Left lower molar series. 

2. Hexperomys maeropus (No. fflio) $ • Lake Worth, Florida. (A younger specimen.) 

a. Left upper molar series. 

b. Left lower molar series. 

60 



North American Fauna, No. 4. 



Plate III. 




Hesperomys macropua sp. nov.: fig. 1. type; fig. 2, a younger specimen. 



/ 



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