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Given By 

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No. 17 

[Aetna! date of publication, June~6, l'.ioo] 




Prepared under tin direction of 



&6 V I . i; N VI 1'. N T riMNTOi: < > F V L G E 

1 '.- 




No. IT 

[Actual date of publication, June 6, 1900] 




. )'i:»'iia<i'«I Aiuler the iMi'tiition'ofc * 






U. S. Department of Agriculture, 

Washington, D. C, March 10, 1900. 
Sir: I have the honor to transmit for publication, as No. 17 of North 
American •Fauna, 'A Revision of the American Voles of the Genus 
Microtus,'' by Vernon Bailey, Chief Field Naturalist of the Biological 


Hon. James Wilson, 

Secretary of Agriculture. 
2 .... 

: ; 


C. Hart Merriam, 

Chief, Biological Survey. 

■ : Q 



Introduction 5 

Habits 6 

Breeding 6 

Food 6 

Economic status , 7 

Injury to trees aud crops 7 

Protection of trees from voles 8 

Destruction of voles 8 

Determination of species 9 

Material examined 9 

Snip family Microtinw 10 

Genus Microtus 10 

Generic characters 10 

Subgenera 10 

Key to subgenera 11 

List of species and subspecies, with type localities 11 

Subgenus Microtus 13 

Groups in the subgenus Microtus 13 

Key to species and subspecies of the subgenus Microtus 11 

Subgenus Ariicola 59 

I'itymys 62 

Lagurus 67 

Chilotus 70 

Pcdomys 72 

Orthriomys 76 

Herpetomys 77 

Xeqfiber 78 





Platk I. Microtus pennsylvanicus Frontispiece 

II. Skulls of representative species of the 9 subgenera (top view).. .. 80 

III. Skulls of representative species of the 9 subgenera (bottom view). 82 

IV. Skulls of representative species of 7 of the groups in tbo subgenus 

Microtus (top view) ... 84 

V. Skulls of representative species of 7 of the groups in tbo subgenus 

Microtus (bottom view) 86 


Fig. 1. Molar enamel pattern of Microtus peunsylvauicus 17 

2. Molar enamel pattern of Microtus luoutanus 28 

3. Molar enamel pattern of Microtus californicus 35 

4. Molar enamel pattern of Microtus operarius 39 

5. Molar enamel pattern of Microtus abbreviates 45 

6. Molar enamel pattern of Microtus loiniscudi 17 

7. Molar enamel pattern of Microtus mordax 19 

8. Molar enamel pattern of Microtus phcuus 55 

9. Molar enamel pattern of Microtus xanthognathus 57 

10. Molar enamel pattern of Microtus macropux . 59 

11. Molar enamel pattern of Microtus pinetorum 63 

12. Molar enamel pattern of Microtus pallidas 67 

13. Molar enamel pattern of Microtus oregoui 71 

14. Molar enamel pattern of Microtus austerus 73 

15. Molar enamel pattern of Microtus umbrosus 76 

16. Molar enamel pattern of Microtus guatemalensis 78 

17. Molar enamel pattern of Microtus alleni 79 


No. 17. NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. June, 1900. 


By Vernon Bailey. 


The following synopsis of American voles is based on a study of 
between 5,000 and 0,000 specimens from more than 800 localities, includ- 
ing types or topotypes of every recognized species with a known type 
locality, and also types or topotypes of most of the species placed in 
synonymy. Voles, or meadow mice, occur throughout the greater part 
of the northern hemisphere north of the Tropics. In North America 
both species and individuals reach their maximum abundance in the 
Canadian and Transition zones, and from this broad belt the number of 
species decreases on both sides. On the north a few species occur in 
the Hudsonian and Arctic zones, and individuals are abundant even 
in the -barren grounds, or 'tundras,'' north to the arctic coast. South 
of the Transition zone the decrease in species and individuals is rapid. 
In the Upper Austral zone they are scarce; in the Lower Austral rare 
and exceedingly local; while in the Tropical only a single species, of 
very limited distribution, is known. To the south, as individuals 
decrease in abundance and species become restricted to distinct areas, 
the degree of specific and superspeciiic differentiation becomes more 
and more marked. Of the nine American subgenera, one (Neojibcr) is 
confined to Florida, and two (Orthriomys and Rerpetomys) are restricted 
to two isolated mountains in southern Mexico. Another (Pitymys) is 
mainly Austral, and is confined to the southeastern United States and 
a small area in southeastern Mexico. Three others (Pedomys, Lagurus, 
and Chilotus) are found mainly in the Transition zone, and reach but 
little north of the United States. The subgenus Arvicola belongs to 
mountains in the Hudsonian and Canadian zones; and the polymor- 
phous subgenus Microtus is the only one that enters the arctic regions. 

Yoles adapt themselves to the mcst diverse conditions of environ- 
ment. Many of the species inhabit moist or wet ground and several 
are mainly aquatic; others inhabit areas of excessive humidity, while 



a few live in dry and even arid regions. Some live in the perpetual 
shade of dense ibrests, others are exposed to the full effects of light on 
the open plains. Some of the most striking peculiarities of the differ- 
ent species result from these different conditions of environment. The 
development of oil and musk glands is most pronounced in the aquatic 
species of the subgenera Neofiber and Arvicola and least in the sub- 
genera Lagurus and Pedomys of the dry regions. The color is palest 
in species most exposed to light and dryness, as in curtatun and pallidus, 
and darkest and richest in species from shaded and humid areas, as 
in quasiater and umbrosus. 

The ranges of most of the species and subspecies conform to the 
limits of well-defined life zones, except in the subaquatic species, which 
follow water courses and often have the appearance of being out of 
their proper zones. 


Certain peculiarities of habits are common to nearly all of the species. 
None are known to hibernate, but in the North they have snug winter 
homes under the snow, where they move about freely in numberless tun- 
nels. They burrow in the ground, and are famous for their little roads 
or smooth trails which run through the grass from burrow to burrow or 
away to their feeding grounds. Bulky nests of grass and soft plant 
fibers are placed in underground cavities, or on the surface of the 
ground under cover of snow, logs, or dense vegetation. The nest is 
depressed globular in form, with an open chamber in the center, which 
contains a soft bed, and has one or two round entrances at the sides. 
These nests are the sleeping places of the old and the nurseries of the 
young. They are kept surprisingly clean and fresh, and new ones are 
frefjuently made to take the place of those that are old or imperfect. 

Breeding. — Voles seem to have no definite breeding season. Four to 
eight young are usually produced at a birth, and as far north as Min- 
nesota I have found them in the nests at all seasons of the year. 
Their increase is accordingly very rapid, and is only partially counter- 
balanced by the host of enemies that prey upon them. They form the 
principal food of nearly all owls and some hawks, while weasels, minks, 
foxes, coyotes, cats, badgers, skunks, and many other animals, as well 
as certain snakes, feed extensively on them. But in spite of their 
enemies they seem to hold their own, and tend to increase faster as 
the country becomes more thickly settled and the larger mammals and 
birds are destroyed. 

Food. — Meadow mice choose a somewhat varied diet, but their food 
consists mainly of green vegetation, roots, and bark. Grass, especially 
the tender base of grass stems, forms the bulk of their food, but almost 
every plant with which they come in contact is eaten to some extent. 
Bark, both from roots and trunks of trees and shrubs, is a favorite 
winter food. Seeds and grain are eaten when found, but are not espe- 
cially sought; flesh in any form is never refused. As the animals are 

June, 1900.] ECONOMIC STATUS. < 

active all winter and food is always abundant, tbey do not ordinarily 
lay up stores, although Mr. E. W. Nelson found M. operarius, of Alaska, 
storing - roots." 


Injury to trees and crops. — Though small enough tobe commonly called 
mice (meadow inicfc, upland mice, field mice, pine mice, ground mice, 
bear mice, etc.), they make up in numbers what they lack in size, 
and over the whole breadth of the continent lay a heavy tribute on 
many products of the farm. Too small and too numerous to be suc- 
cessfnlly destroyed by traps, guns, or poison, they prove one of the 
most difficult enemies with which the farmer has to contend. If they 
would confine themselves to meadows, their mischief would be limited 
to the destruction of a comparatively small amount of grass; but they 
prefer growing grain to grass, and by running long tunnels under 
ground, or making little paths under cover of the vegetation, gain easy 
and safe access to the fields. With a stroke of their chisel-like teeth 
they fell the stalks of wheat and oats and eat the tender parts, together 
with some of the grain. It is so easy to cut down the stalks that they 
destroy many times as much as they need for food. The work of a few 
animals is insignificant, but the work of millions makes heavy inroads 
on growing crops. Later in the season, when the grain is cut and left 
standing in shocks or stacks, the field mice take possession, building 
their nests and establishing their homes under its cover. In shocks oi 
corn and wheat left for a long time the grain is often completely 
devoured, and that remaining all winter in stacks suffers in proportion 
to the number of the little animals that make their homes in it. Even 
stacks of hay are often found in spring with the lower parts cut to chaff 
and filled with the nests of meadow mice. 

When the snow comes these little rodents can safely leave their 
cover of weeds, grass, or bushes and plow their way under the snow 
on long exploring expeditions. The tunnels thus formed remain as 
open passages until the snow melts in spring, giving the animals 
free and safe conduct from the meadows to the uplands, into fields, 
orchards, gardens, and nurseries. There is no sign from above of what 
is happening below the surface; but later on, in spring, when the 
snow disappears, trees and shrubs are found stripped of their bark 
for a wide space near the ground. The marks of tiny teeth remain in 
the hard wood, and little piles of dry outer bark, mixed with character- 
istic pellets of excreta, show what animal has been at work. The 
uncovered roads may be seen leading from tree to tree, to winter nests 
on the surface of the ground, and back to the cover of brush or mead- 
ows. Shrubs and small trees are often stripped of their bark and 
killed, and sometimes even well-grown apple trees, 10 inches or a foot 
in diameter, are completely girdled. Usually, however, large trees are 

>Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., VIII„140, 1893. 


gnawed on only one side. In this case, although they are not killed at 
once, the wood, thus exposed usually decays iu a few years, the trees 
become hollow at the base, their productiveness is impaired, and they 
die prematurely. 

Protection of trees from voles. — Various means have been resorted to 
for protecting fruit trees and shrubs from these ravages, but with only 
partial success. Wire netting and tin cylinders placed around the 
bases of the trees in autumn are generally considered the surest pro- 
tection, but in most cases this is too expensive to be practicable. 
Wrapping the trunks with burlap or twisted ropes of straw, or coating 
them with whitewash, tar, or other unpalatable substances, are com- 
mon methods of protection used with varying degrees of success. But 
as some species of voles eat the bark from the roots below the surface 
of the ground, none of these resources insure perfect protection. 

Destruction of voles. — The importance of placing every possible check 
on the increase of these animals and of reducing their numbers when 
they become too numerous is obvious. No direct method of accom- 
plishing these ends has as yet been devised, but the desired result can be 
attained indirectly by avoiding or preventing the useless destruction of 
their natural enemies. Owls and some species of hawks live almost 
exclusively upon them, watching for them night and day in the grass, 
and are always ready to pounce on any that appear above the snow. 
Weasels run through their burrows and trails, and not only kill 
enough for food, but destroy great numbers for the mere pleasure of 
killing. In spite of these well known and often reiterated facts, boun- 
ties are still paid for the destruction of hawks and owls in counties 
where the annual loss in fruit trees and grain from the ravages of field 
mice if computed would amount to a startling sum. In the spring ot 
1895 I examined a small apple orchard in Washtenaw County, Mich., 
in which several choice trees had been killed and many others injured 
during the preceding winter by the common vole (Microtus pennsylr ani- 
ens). The owner of the orchard considered $50 a low estimate of the 
damage done. At the same time the county of Washtenaw was taxing 
the farmers to pay a bounty of 25 cents each on all hawks and owls, 
while the several gun clubs of the county gave these birds a high count 
in their competitive hunting matches. Many similar instances could 
be cited. Who was ever known to miss an opportunity to destroy a hawk 
or weasel? The diminution of foxes, minks, coyotes, and such preda- 
tory mammals may be necessary, but if so, the protection and encour- 
agement of other less harmful species becomes doubly important, and 
in fact imperative, if we are to escape such devastating hordes of voles 
as have occasionally swept over certain parts of Europe, particularly 
in Scotland, 1 Germany, 2 Italy, 2 Bussia, 2 and Thessaly. 1 

1 Parliamentary Report of Plague of Field Voles iu Scotlaud, Loudon, 1893. 

2 U. S. Consular Reports, L, No. 187, 539-543, 1896. 



It is not many years since certain prominent writers treated as mere 
varieties, or subspecies, animals that belong to widely different sub- 
genera, while others described and named with full specific rank every 
different condition of pelage in a single species. In some cases the 
original type was not preserved, or no type was designated by the 
describer, or still worse, the type locality was not given, so that sub- 
sequent writers renamed these same species or confounded them with 
others. The resulting confusion can now be cleared up by means of 
series of specimens collected within the past ten years at most of the 
known type localities, and in the general region of those not definitely 
known. The series of specimens available, and the number of localities 
represented, make it possible to define almost every North American 
species from typical specimens, and in most cases to give the various 
changes of pelage due to season and age. When possible, the original 
types have been compared with the new series of specimens from the. 
type localities, and in this way the names califomicus, trowbridgi, edax, 
occidentalism townsendi, longirostriSj and modest us have been sifted out 
with the following result: califoniieus stands for a widely distributed 
western species with trowbridgi as a synonym; edax as a well-marked 
species, but one in which the name has been persistently misapplied; 
occidentalis as a synonym of townsendi; longirostris as a synonym ot 
montanus; and modestus as a western form of pennsylvanicus. The type 
of montanus is lost, but a series of 57 specimens from the type locality 
agrees with Peale's description of the species. The types of modestus 
and edax are immature specimens made up with the skulls inside the 
skins. It was only by the removal of the skulls that even the group to 
which the species belonged could be determined. 1 


The following synopsis of the genus Microtus is based mainly on 
a study of specimens in the collection of the Biological Survey and 
that of Dr. C. Hart Merriam, both of which are in the United States 
National Museum. For the use of much additional material, including 
types and topotypes, my thanks are heartily extended to Dr. F. W. 
True, executive curator, and Mr. Gen-it S. Miller, jr., assistant curator of 
mammals, United States National Museum; to Dr. J. A. Allen, curator 
of mammals and birds, and Mr. Frank M. Chapman, assistant curator, 
American Museum of Natural History; to Mr. D. G. Elliot, curator of 
the Department of Zoology, Field Columbian Museum; and to Mr. 
Outram Bangs. Most of all, I am indebted to Dr. C. Hart Merriam, 

1 Through the kindness of Dr. True and Mr. Miller, skulls have also been removed 
from a large numher of specimens from Alaska and Arctic America, so that it has 
been possible for the first time to identify the species and make use of the localities 
in determining their rauges. 


who, after doing muck work on tke genus, has placed kis manuscript, 
drawings, and large private collection of specimens at niy disposal, 
besides giving me constant criticism and advice. Among otkers wko 
kave contributed material or notes my thanks are especially due to 
Mr. E. W. Nelson, wko kas collected all the known Mexican species of 
Microtis and lias contributed the notes on their zonal distribution. 

Seventy species and subspecies are here recognized. Of these 54 
actual types and series of topotypes of 13 additional forms have been 
examined, while of the three remaining forms, for which no type exists 
or is accessible and no definite type locality is known, specimens kave 
been examined from the type region, or as near to it as can be deter- 
mined. Tkree forms, Microtus californicus constrictus, M. ludoviciauus 
and M. scirpensis are described as new. Except for a relatively small 
number of alcoholics and a few skeletons, tke specimens are mostly 
well-prepared skins with cleaned skulls and are accompanied by col- 
lectors' measurements. 

All measurements are in millimeters, and external measurements, 
unless otherwise stated, are taken in tke flesh by collectors. Skull 
measurements are my own, made from perfect skulls unless otherwise 
stated. The skull drawings are by Dr. James C. McConnell. Most of 
the drawings of teeth have been used in previous publications of the 
Biological Survey. 

Subfamily MICROTINiE Cope. 1 

The subfamily Microtinw includes tlfe Voles of the genera Microtus, 
Evotomys, and Phenacomys; the Lemmings of the genera Lemmas, 
Discrostonyx, and Synaptomys; and the Muskrats of tke genus Fiber. 
As the genera and subgenera of the family have been recently treated 
in detail by Mr. Gerrit S. Miller, jr., 2 it is only necessary to give briefly 
the characters distinguishing the genus Microtus. 

Genus MICROTUS Schrank. 

Generic characters. — Lower incisors with roots extending far behind 
and on outer side of molar series; upper incisors not grooved; molars 
rootless, with outer and inner reentrant angles approximately equal. 
Palate with median ridge, distinct lateral pits, complete lateral bridges 1 
(not terminating in posterior shelf in any American species). Tail as 
long as or longer than hind foot, terete; claw of thumb pointed, not 


Nine subgenera are here recognized among the living species of 
North America. 4 Five of these (Chilotus, Pedomys, Eerpetomys, Orthri- 
omys, and Neofiber) are found only in North America. The remaining 

iMicrolida: Cope, Syllabus Lectures Geol. ami Paleont., p. 90^ 1891. Microtinas 
Rhoads, Am. Nat., XXIX, 940, Oct., 1895. 
- North American Fauna No. 12, Genera and Subgenera of Voles and Lemmings, 1896. 
:i Usually incomplete in Neofiber. 
••The extinct species of Microtus are not included in the present paper. 


four (Microtus, Pitymys, Arvicola, and Lagurus) include also Old World 
species. All of the nine subgenera, save Microtus, are sharply defined 
and easily distinguished by either cranial or external characters. The 
subgenus Microtus contains many more species than all of the other 
subgenera together, and species differing so widely that only the most 
general characterization can be applied to it. It is a composite group 
containing all forms that do not fit into the other more restricted 
subgenera and yet are not sufficiently differentiated to merit subgeneric 


m3 with 3 transverse loops and no closed triaugles. Plantar tubercles 5 or 6. 
m3 with 3 closed triangles, ' mammae 8. 2 

Plantar tubercles 6, side glands on hips in adult males (on flanks in 

xanthognathus) Microtus 

Plantar tubercles 5, side glands on flanks or else inconspicuous. 

Side glands conspicuous on flanks of adult males, size large Arvicola 

Side glands obscure or wanting, size small Chilotus 

m3 with 2 closed triangles, mammae 4 or 6. 

Skull wide and flat, tail very short, fur short and dense, mammae 4. . Pitymys 

Skull high and narrow, tail medium, fur coarse, mamma' G Pedomys 

m3 with 2 transverse loops and 2 median triangles, plantar tubercles .">. 
ml with 5 closed triaugles. 

Side glands conspicuous in both sexes, mamma* 6, size very large, tail 

long - - • Neofiber 

Side glands obscure, mamma* 8, size small, tail very short Lagurus 

ml with 3 closed triangles. 

m.3 with 3 closed triangles, mamma* 6, tail short Herpetomys 

m3 with 2 closed triangles, mamma; 4, tail long Orthriomys 


Microtus abbreviatus Miller. Hall Island, Bering Sea, Alaska. 
acadicus Bangs. Digby, Nova Scotia. 
aUcni (True). Georgiana, Brevard County, Florida. 
alticolus (Merriam). Little Spring, San Francisco Mountain, Arizona, 8,200 

anyusticeps Bailey. Crescent City, California. 
ari~onensis Bailey. Springerville, Arizona. 
arvicoloides (Rhoads). Lake Keechelus, Washington, 8,000 feet. 
auricularis Bailey. Washington, Mississippi. 
ansterus (LeConte). Racine, Wisconsin. 

azfecns (Allen). Aztec, Rio Arriba County, New Mexico, r>,900 feet. 
hairdi Merriam. Crater Lake (Glacier Peak), Oregon, 7,800 feet. 
hrcweri (Baird). Muskeget Island, Massachusetts. 
californicus (Peale). San Francisco Bay, California. 
canescais Bailey. Conconully, Washington. 
canicaudus Miller. McCoy, Oregon. 

chrotorrhinus (Miller). Mount Washington, head of Tuckerman Ravine, 
New Hampshire, r>,300 feet. 

1 Except Microtus breweri, in which 2 are usually confluent, and chrotorrhinus, 
which has 5 closed triangles. 
2 Except in the Microtus mexicanus group, in which the number is 4. 


Microtus constrictus Bailey. Cape Mendocino, California. 

curtains (Cope). Pigeon Spring, Mount Magrnder, Nevada. 

drummondi (Aud. & Bach.). Rocky Mountains, vicinity of Jasper House, 

Alberta, Canada. 
dutcheri Bailey. Big Cottonwood Meadows, near Mount Whitney, Califor- 
nia, 10,000 feet. 
edax (Le Conte). California (south of San Francisco). 
enixns Bangs. Hamilton Inlet, Labrador. 
fishcri Merriam. St. Matthew Island, Bering Sea, Alaska. 
fontigenus Baugs. Lake Edward, Quebec. 
fulviventer Merriam. Cerro San Felipe, Oaxaca, Mexico. 
guatemalensis Merriam. Todos Santos, Huehuecheuaugo, Guatemala, 10,000 

haydeni (Baird). Fort Pierre, South Dakota. 
innuitU8 Merriam. St. Lawrence Island, Bering Sea, Alaska. 
kadiacensis Merriam. Kadiak Island, Alaska. 
labradorius Bailey. Fort Chimo, Ungava, Labrador. 
leucophceus (Allen). Graham Mountains, Arizona. 
longicaudus (Merriam). Custer, South Dakota. 
ludovlcianus Bailey. Iowa, Calcasieu Parish, Louisiana. 
macfarlani Merriam. Fort Anderson (north of Great Bear Lake), Arctic 

macropus (Merriam). Pahsimeroi Mountains, Idaho, 9,700 feet. 
macrurus Merriam. Lake Cushman, Olympic Mountains, Washington. 
mexicanus (De Saussure). Mount Orizaba,, Mexico. 
minor (Merriam). Bottineau, North Dakota. 
modestus (Baird). Sawatch Pass (Cochetopa Pass). Colorado. 
mogollonensis (Mearus). Baker Butte, Mogollon Mountains, Arizona. 
montanus (Peale). Headwaters of Sacramento River, near Mount Shasta, 

mordax (Merriam). Sawtooth (or Alturas) Lake, Idaho, 7,200 feet. 
nanus (Merriam). Pahsimeroi Mountains, Idaho. 
nemoralis Bailey. Stillwell (Boston Mountains), Indian Territory. 
nesophilus Bailey. Great (Jull Island, New York. 
nevadensis Bailey. Ash Meadows, Nye County, Nevada. 
nigrans Rhoads. Currituck, North Carolina. 
operarius (Nelson). St. Michael, Alaska. 
oregoni (Bachmau). Astoria, Oregon. 
pallidas (Merriam). Fort Buford, North Dakota. 

paupcrrimus (Cooper). Plains of Columbia, near Snake River, Washington. 
pennsylvanicus (Ord). Pennsylvania (near Philadelphia). 
pheeus Merriam. North slope Sierra Nevada de Colhna, Jalisco, Mexico, 

10,000 feet. 
pinetorum (Le Conte). Pine forests of Georgia (probably near the old 

Le Conte plantation at Riceboro, Georgia.) 
l)opofensis Merriam. Popof Island, Shumagin Islands, Alaska. 
quas later (Cones). Jalapa, Vera Cruz, Mexico. 
rivularis Bailey. St. George, Utah. 
richardsoni (De Kay). Near foot of Rocky Mountains, vicinity of Jasper 

House, Alberta, Canada. 
scalopsoides (Aud. ifc Bach.). Long Island, New York. 

scirpensis Bailey. Ainargosa River, California, near California-Nevada line. 
serpens Merriam. Agassiz, British Columbia. 
sitkensis Merriam. Sitka, Alaska. 


Microtua terrcenovcB (Bangs). Codroy, Newfoundland. 

ieirameru8 (Rhoads). Beacon Hill Park, Victoria, British Columbia. 
townsendi (Bacbman). On or near Wappatoo (Sauvie) Island, Willamette 

River, < )regon. 
unibrosus Merriam. Mount Zempoaltepec, Oaxaca, Mexico, 8,200 feet. 
unalascensis Merriam. Unalaska Island, Alaska. 
vallicola Bailey. Lone Pine, Inyo County, California. 
yakulatensis Merriam. Yakutat Bay, Alaska. 
xanthognathus (Leach). Hudson Bay. 

Subgenus MICROTUS Schrank. 

Type. — Microtus terrestris Schrank (=Mus arvalis Pallas). 
Microtus Schrank, Fauna Boica, I, lste Ahth., 72, 1798. 
Microtus Miller, N. Am. Fauna No. 12, 63, July 23, 1896 (subgenus). 

Geographic distribution (in North America). — From the Arctic Ocean 
southward to southern Mexico, and across the continent, niaiuly in 
Boreal, Transition, and Upper Austral zones. 

Subgeneric characters. — Plantar tubercles G; lateral glands on hips in 
adult males; 1 inaninue normally 8, 4 inguinal and 4 pectoral; 2 ears 
usually overtopping fur; ml normally with 5 closed triangles; 3 m3 
with 3 transverse loops and no triangles; m2with 4 closed sections, and 
in most eastern species an additional posterior inner loop; m3 with 3 
closed triangles (except in chrotorrhinus and abbreviatus groups). 


The subgenus Microtus is readily divided into 10 fairly well-marked 
groups of slightly superspecitic rank that may be conveniently desig- 
nated by the name of their best-known or most characteristic species. 
These groups are not of great importance or of equal rank, but for 
showing the relationship of species and for convenience in arrangement 
they serve a useful purpose. 

1. Pennsylvanicus Group, characterized by a posterior fifth loop to middle upper 

molar, includes pennsylvanicus, nigrans, acadicus, modest us, fontigenus, labradorius, 
enixus, aztecus, drummondi, terrcenovce, nesophilus, andJjreweri. 

2. Montanus Group, characterized by moderately short tail and constricted incisive 

foramina, includes montanus, arizonensis, nanus, canescens, canicaudus, nevadensis, 
rivularis, and dutcheri. 

3. Townsendi Group, characterized by large size, long tail, and dark-brown color, 

includes townsendi and tetramerus. 

4. Californicus Group, characterized by large size and wide-open incisive foramina, 

includes californicus, constrict us, vallicola, cdax, and scirpensis. 

5. Longicaudus Group, characterized by long tail and gray color, includes lougi- 

caudus, mordax, macrurus, angusticeps, ulticolus, and leucophceus. 

6. Mexicanus Group, characterized by short tail, brown color, and only! mammae, 

includes mexicanus, plurus, fulrirenter, and mogollonensis. 

'In front of hips in xanthognathus and probably in chrotorrhinus. 
-Four in the mexicanus group, a pair of inguinal and a pair of pectoral. 
3 With only four closed triangles in most of the Alaska species. 


7. Opararius Group, characterized by short tail and only 4 closed triangles in 

anterior lower molar, includes operarius, macfarlani, kadiacensis, itnalasccnsis, 
sitkensis, yakntatensis, popofensis, and innuitus. 

8. Abbreviatus Group, characterized by robust form, very short tail, 5 closed tri- 

angles in anterior lower molar, and two closed and one open in posterior 
upper, includes abbreviat us and fisheri. 

9. Ciirotorrhinus Group, characterized by yellow nose and five^closed triangles in 

posterior upper molar, includes chrotorrhinus and ravus. 

10. Xanthognathus Group, characterized by yellow nose, large size, glands on 

Hanks, and 3 closed triangles in posterior upper molar, includes oue species, 

In using the following key it will be necessary to have both skins 
and skulls in hand, and even then it will be impossible to identity some 
of the forms without actual comparison with their nearest allies. When- 
ever possible, several specimens should be examined, to avoid the 
danger of being led astray by abnormal molar patterns, for even the 
widest ranges of snbgeueric differences are sometimes covered by 
individual variation or abnormal tooth pattern. 


ml' with 4 closed angular sections aud a rounded posterior loop. 
m3 with two of the 3 triangles usually confluent. 

Interparietal about as wide as long, colors pale breweri 

'Interparietal much wider than long, colors dark nesopliihis 

m3 with 3 closed triangles. 
ml with usually a sharp point or spur at base of posterior triangle; belly white 

with a median dusky line term no nr 

ml with normal truncate posterior triangle; belly without median dusky line. 
Interparietal more than half as long as wide, belly white. 

Skull long and narrow, braincase long; feet aud tail stout aztecus 

Interparietal about half as long as wide, belly usually dull colored. 

Skull wide, braincase short, molars small enixus 

Skull not wide, braincase medium, molars medium. 
Colors dusky or blackish. 

Size large, hind foot 23 nigrans 

Size small, hind foot 21 fontigemus 

Colors brownish or dark grayish. 
Size medium. 

Belly white or whitish acadicus 

Belly dull. 

Colors bright or dark brownish pennsylvanicus 

Colors paler, size less modestus 

Size small, feet and tail very slender. 

Skull low, incisors projecting, bulla' not large labradorius 

Skull high, incisors decurved, bulla' large drummondi 

m2 with 4 closed sections and no posterior loop (except irregularly in Californicus 

Mammae 4, inguinal, 1-1; pectoral, 1-1. Skull short and wide. Incisive foramina 
not constricted. 

Colors bright rich brown above and below fit 1 ri renter 

Colors dull brownish above and below, 
lielly but little lighter than back. 

Size medium mexicannx 

Size slightly larger phceua 

Belly much lighter than back ; size small mogollonensia 


Mannme 8, inguinal, 2-2; pectoral, 2-2. 
ml with normally i closed triangles (sometimes 5 in sit ken sis) and rounded anterior 
Bullae very small and narrow, molars very light. 

Skull narrow and slender opcrarius 

Skull wider and heavier kadiacensis 

Bulla: medium, molars moderately heavy. 
Incisors strongly projecting. 

Size large, hind foot 23 inmiitus 

Size small, hind foot 19 macfarlani 

Incisors not strongly projecting, size medium. 
Frontals heavily ridged in adult males. 

Prezygomatie notch deep, color dusky gray or ochraceous. 

Color dark ochraceous, helly dusky .*. sitkensis 

Color dusky gray, helly huffy gray yakutatensis 

Prezygomatie notch shallow, color ochraceous unalascensis 

Frontals not ridged in adults, color ochraceous popofensis 

ml with 5 or t> closed triangles. 
A pair of glands on flanks of males, nose yellowish. 
Size large, side glands conspicuous in adult males, m.3 with 3 closed tri- 
angles xanthognathus 

Size smaller, glauds ohscure or wanting, m3 with 5 closed triangles. 

Color hister chrotorrhinus 

Color grayish varus 

A pair of glands on hips of males, nose not yeljow. 

Incisive foramina not constricted posteriorly, m2 with or without posterior loop. 
Size large, colors dark, young hlackish. 

Nasals emarginate posteriorly erfa.r 

Nasals truncate posteriorly scirpensis 

Size smaller, colors grayish, young dusky califoruicus 

Colors clearer gray, hulhe smaller. 

Skull wide '. valHcola 

Skull narrow constrict it* 

Incisive foramina constricted posteriorly, m2 normally without posterior loop. 
Tail very short, size medium. 

Belly dusky, lips and tip of nose white dutcheri 

Belly, lips, and nose huffy. 

Rostrum and nasals slender abbrcriatus 

Rostrum and nasals heavy Jisheri 

Tail medium, size large or small. 

ml with 6 closed triangles aud deep-lohed trefoil. 

Size large, hind foot 24 nevadensis 

ml with 5 closed triangles and anterior trefoil. 

Size large, hind foot 23 , rivularis 

Size medium or small, hind foot 18-22, helly gray or whitish, ears 
Hind foot 20 or more. 

Color dark gray ahove mon la n us 

Color rusty gray ahove arizonensis 

Hind foot 20 or less. 
Lateral pits of palate deep, tail hicolor. 

Color grizzled gray nanus 

Color ashy gray canescens 

Lateral pits of palate shallow, tail mostly gray. ...... canicamlus. 

16 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. - [no. 17. 


Tail long, about J of total length. 

Hip glands conspicuous in males, colors dark brown. 

Hind foot averaging 25.4 townsendi 

Hind foot averaging 22 .- tetramerus 

Hip glands not conspicuous, colors grayisb, belly whitish. 

Size large, hind foot 24 macrurua 

Size medium, hind foot 22. 
Anterior arm of frontal acuminate. 

Skull narrow, bulhc small angusiiceps 

Skull normal, bullae large. 

Sides much grayer than back mordax 

Sides scarcely grayer than back longicaudus 

Anterior arm of frontal obliquely truncate. 

Size small, foot 20 alticolus 

Size larger, foot 22 leucophaus 


Mus pennsylranica Ord, Guthrie's Geography, 2d American edition, II, 292, 1815. 

(Rhoads' reprint.) Based on Wilson's description of the meadow mouse from 

meadows below Philadelphia and along the seashore. 
Ali/nomes pratensis Raiinosque, Am. Monthly Mag., II, 45, 1817. Based on Wilson's 

description of meadow mouse. 
Lemmus noveboraceitsis Rafinesque, Annals of Nature, 3, 1820. (New York and New 

Arricola riparius Ord, Journ. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, IV, Pt. II, 305-306, 1825. 

(Type locality noc given.) 
Arricola paluslris Harlan, Fauna Americana, 136-138, 1825. (Swamp along the shores 

of the Delaware.) 
Arricola Itirsutus Emmons, Rept. Quad. Mass., 60, 1840. 
Arricola alborufescens Emmons, Rept. Quad. Mass., 60-61, 1840. (Williainstown, 

Arricola fulra Aud. and Bach., Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., I, 96, 1841. ("One of 

the Western States; wo believe Illinois.") 
Arricola nasula Aud. and Bach., Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., I, 96-1)7, 1841. (Near 

Boston, Mass.) 
Arricola rvfescens DeKay, Zool. N. Y., Mammals, I, 85, 1842. (Oneida Lake, N. Y.) 
Arricola oncida DeKay, Zool. N. Y., Mammals, I, 88-89, 1842. (Oneida Lake, N. Y.) 
Arricola dekayi Aud. and Bach., Quad. N. Am., Ill, 287-288, 1854. (New York or 

Arricola riparia var. longipilis Baird, Mammals N. Am., 524, 1857. (West Northlirld, 

111., and Racine, Wis.) 
Arricola rufidorsum Baird, Mammals N. Am., 526, 1857. ' (Holmes Hole, Marthas 

Vineyard, Mass.) 

Type locality. — Pennsylvania (meadows below Philadelphia). 

Geographic distribution. — Eastern United States and westward as 
far as Dakota aud Nebraska, shading into modestus of the western 
plains and Pocky Mountains. In a general way it occupies the Tran- 
sition zone from the Atlantic coast to the edge of the Great Plains. 

Habitat. — Meadows, iields, and especially grassy places near water. 

1 Not having 6een the type of rufidorsum or any specimen from Marthas Vineyard, 
I hesitate to place this name in synonomy. 


General characters. — Size medium; tail at least twice as long as hind 
foot; fur long, overlaid with coarse hairs; ears moderate, conspicuous 
above fur in summer, almost concealed in winter pelage; colors dusky 
gray or brownish; skull long, well arched, and rather smooth; middle 
upper molar with four triangles and a posterior loop. 

Color. — Summer pelage: Upperparts dull chestnut brown, varying 
to bright yellowish chestnut, darkened along the back with coarse 
black hairs; belly dusky gray or tinged with cinnamon ; feet brownish; 
tail dusky above, slightly paler below. Winter pelage: Duller and 
grayer throughout ; tail indistinctly bicolor. Young : Blackish. 

Cranial characters, — Skull long, usually not angular or much ridged; 
incisors projecting well in front of nasals ; incisive foramina long, occu- 
pying two-thirds of the space between molars and incisors; bulla? mod- 
erately large and well rounded ; molar series long; 
m2 with 4 closed triangles and a posterior loop; 
m3 with an anterior crescent, 3 closed triangles, 
and a posterior loop with two inner lobes; ml 
with 5 closed triangles, anterior trefoil, 4 outer 
and 5 inner salient angles ; m3 with 3 long inner _ , _, . ... 

. ' Fig- 1.— Molar enamel pattern 

and 3 short outer salient angles. of mcrotus pennsyUanicus 

Measurements. — Average of 5 adults from (x5) - 
Washington, D. C: Total length, 171; tail vertebra?, 46; hind foot, 
21.2. Skull (No. 30321, 9 ad., from Washington, D. C.) : Basal length, 
27.4; nasals, 8.3; zygomatic breadth, 17.2; mastoid breadth, 12.7 ; alve- 
olar length of upper molar series, 7.2. 

Remarks. — The above description is based on a good series of speci- 
mens from the District of Columbia, showing the seasonal changes of 
pelage and agreeing perfectly with the Pennsylvania animal. From 
Pennsylvania south along the Atlantic coast, specimens show a notice- 
able increase in size and intensity of coloration, which reaches its 
maximum in the subspecies nigrans of North Carolina; while to the 
north they show a corresponding decrease in size and intensity of col- 
oration, which reaches its extreme in the subspecies acadicus of Nova 
Scotia. To the westward pennsylvanicus is fairly typical as far as 
southern Michigan and Iowa, but on the plains of Nebraska and South 
Dakota it grows paler as it grades into modestus. Northward in Min- 
nesota it becomes smaller until scarcely distinguishable from and 
perhaps grading into drummondi of northwest Canada. Three skulls 
in the U. S. National Museum, that seem to be typical pennsylvanicus^ 
are labeled as coming from Prairie Mer Eouge, La., but I am inclined 
to question the authenticity of the labeling. 

Specimens examined. — Total number, 716, from the following localities: 

Pennsylvania: Philadelphia, 1 ; Chester County, 1 ; Carlisle,6; Columbia, 2; 
Drurys Run (near Renovo), 6; Foxbury, 2; Pine Gleu, 1; Leasuresville, 2; 
Bear Lake (Warreu County), 2. 
18392— No. 17 2 


New York: Owego, 2; Nichols, 24; Lake George, 20 ; Alder Creek, 2 ; Locust 
Grove, 55; Peterboro, 9; Troy, 5; Geneva, 5; Brandon, 4; Catskill Moun- 
tains, 3; Highland Falls, 12; Mott Haven, 1; Oyster Bay, 2; Lake Grove, 
2; Montauk Point, 45; Shelter Island, 6; Plum Island, 14; Roslyu, 4. 
Connecticut: East Hartford, 2. 
Massachusetts: Wilmington, 13; Middleboro, 19; Newtonville, 4; Holmes 

Hole, 1; Woods Holl, 1. 
Vermont: Burlington, 4. 
New Hampshire : Ossipee, 15. 
Maine : Addison, 1 ; Calais, 1. 

New Jersey: Tuckerton, 4; Mays Landing, 1; Sea Island City, 1. 
Maryland: Laurel, 23; Hyattsvillc, 7; liladensburg, 1 ; Mountain Lake Park, 

2; Finzel, 1; Grautsville, 1. 
District of Columbia: Washington, 64. 
Virginia: Falls Church, 2; Dunn Loring, 2; Arlington, 2; Fort Mycr, 1; 

Bristoe, 1. 
"West Virginia: Travellers Repose, 2; White Sulphur Springs, 3. 
North Carolina: Roan Mountain, 45; Old Richmond, 3; Raleigh, 20. 
Ohio: Garrettsville, 10; Salem, 1. 

Michigan: Detroit River, 1; Manchester, 3; Ann Arbor, 2. 
Illinois: West Northliehl. 6. 
Wisconsin: Racine, 14; Busseyville, 1; Milwaukee, 4; Saxeville, 1; Fisher 

Lake (Iron County), 14. 
Iowa: Knoxville, 2. 
Missouri : St. Louis, 5. 
Louisiana : Prairie Mer Rouge, 3. 
Nebraska : Blair, 3 ; Valentine, 2. 
Minnesota: Elk River, 112; Fort Snelling, 3; Heron Lake, 1; Ortonville, 1; 

Tower, 6. 
South Dakota: Vermilion, 2; Pierre, 2; Travere, 1; Flandreau, 4; Fort Sis- 

seton, 18; Fort Wadswortb, 2. 
Ontario : Toronto, 1 ; Lome Park, 6. 

Microtus pennsylv aniens migrans Rhoads, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1897,307-308. 

Type locality. — Currituck, N. C. 

Geographic distribution. — (Typical form.) Coast region of northern 
North Carolina and southern Virginia, in the Austroripariau zone. 

Habitat. — Marshes and localities close to water. 

General characters. — Slightly larger than pennsylvanicus, with notice- 
ably larger hind feet and darker coloration. 

Color. — Summer pelage: Upperparts dull bister, much obscured by 
black hairs; belly smoky gray to dull cinnamon; tail black above, 
sooty below; feet blackish. Winter pelage (partly retained in April 
specimens): Darker, with dorsal area almost black. Young (to nearly 
half grown) : Sooty black all over. 

Cranial characters. — Skull averaging slightly larger than in typical 
Pennsylvania! s; rostrum slightly heavier, incisive foramina wider; den- 
tition the same. 


Measurements. — Average of three not fully adult males from type 
locality: Total length, 165; tail vertebra?, 48; hind foot, 23. Skull (No. 
72374, $ ad., from Eastville, Va.): Basal length, 29; nasals, 8.5; zygo- 
matic breadth, 17.5; mastoid breadth. 13.4: alveolar length of upper 
molar series, 7.3. 

Remarks. — Specimens of Microtias from a chain of localities along the 
Atlantic coast, from North Carolina to Nova Scotia, show a decrease 
in size and intensity of coloration from the south northward. Unfortu- 
nately the type of pennsylvanicus was taken from an intermediate 
locality, and it becomes necessary to recognize the extremes — acadieus 
and migrans — as slightly differentiated forms. 

Specimens examined. — Total number of typical specimens, 16, from 

the following localities: 

North Carolina : Currituck, 6. 

Virginia: Wallaceton, 7; Eastville, 1; Smiths Island, 2. 


Microtus pennsylvanicus acadieus Bangs, Am. Nat., XXXI, 239-240, March, 1897. 

Type locality. — Digby, Nova Scotia. 

Geographic distribution. — Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island. 

Habitat. — Fields and fresh-water marshes. 

General characters. — Slightly smaller than M. pennsylvanicus; color 
slightly paler, both in summer and winter. 

Color. — Summer pelage (July to October) : Upper parts yellowish bister, 
slightly lined with black hairs; belly washed with white or smoky gray; 
tail indistinctly bicolor, brownish black above, slightly paler below; 
feet dusky plumbeous. Winter pelage: Back buffy gray; sides paler; 
ears nearly concealed under bright ochraceous patch; belly washed 
with pure white; tail sharply bicolor, blackish above, white below; feet 
plumbeous. Young: Not so dark as those of pennsylvanicus. 

Cranial characters. — Skull usually distinguishable from that of penn- 
sylvanicus by projecting posterior point of palate ; posterior tip of nasals 
slightly emarginate or truncate, never rounded. Dentition as in 

Measurements. — Type: Total length, 172; tail vertebra?, 49; hind foot, 
20. Average of 5 topotypes: 170; 47; 21. Skull (No. 2145, $ — not 
fully adult): Basal length, 25.5; nasals, 7.7; zygomatic breadth, 14.8; 
mastoid breadth, 12; alveolar length of upper molar series, 6.5. 

Remarks. — None of the 19 topotypes before me are old, and the major- 
ity are not fully adult, but in a series of 40 specimens from Prince 
Edward Island, including fully adult specimens in both summer and 
winter pelages, the principal characters of M. acadieus are accentual d. 
The winter pelage is rather more distinctive than the summer. 

Specimens examined. — Total number, 67, from the following localities: 

Nova Scotia : Digby, 19; Halifax, 1. 
Prince Edward Island : 47. 



ArvicoJa modesta Baird, Mamm. N. Am., 535-536, 1857. 

Arvicola insperatus Allen, Bui. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 347, 1894 (Custer, 8. Dak.). 

Type locality. — "Sawatcli Pass, Rocky Mountains' 1 [same as Coche- 
topa Pass], Colorado. 

Geographic distribution. — Rocky Mountains and western Plains from 
New Mexico to Britisli Columbia, and from the Black Hills of South 
Dakota to central Idaho, and beyond, with slight variation, to the 
plains of the Columbia, mainly in Transition zone. 

Habitat. — Marshes and damp grassy places. 

General characters. — Size of M. pennsylvanicus, tail slightly shorter, 
color paler, more yellowish, never chestnut in summer pelage; skull 
heavier, becoming more ridged and angular with age. 

Color. — Summer pelage : Upperparts dull ochraceous, darkened with 
black-tipped hairs; belly washed with soiled whitish, smoky gray or 
pale cinnamon; feet plumbeous; tail indistinctly bicolor, blackish above, 
dull grayish below. Winter pelage : Much darkened above by long black 
hairs, especially early in the season, later becoming paler than in sum- 
mer as the under-fur grows longer; belly heavily washed with creamy 
white; feet paler; tail more sharply bicolor. Young: Slightly less 
blackish than in pennsylvanicus. 

Cranial characters. — Skull not positively distinguishable from that of 
'pennsylvanicus, but in adults averaging heavier and more ridged. 

Measurements. — Average of 10 adults from Cochetopa Pass, Colorado : 
Total length, 170; tail vertebra', 44; hind foot, 20.0. Skull (No. 4S0r>3, 
9 ad.): Basal length, 27 ; nasals, 7.0; zygomatic breadth, 10; mastoid 
breadth, 12.4; alveolar length of upper molar sSries, 0.7. 

Remarks. — Baird's type of modestus was collected at Sawatch or 
Cochetopa Pass in the Cochetopa Mountains. The type specimen in 
the United States National Museum is a half-grown young in the black 
pelage, and agrees perfectly in both external and cranial characters 
with specimens of the same age since collected at the type locality. 
The other specimen from Sawatch Pass (No. 593), which Professor 
Baird examined and believed to be distinct from modestus, but refrained 
from describing from a single immature specimen, 1 is also in the United 
States National Museum, and proves to be Microtus nanus, a good series 
of which has since been collected at a point 3 miles east of Cochetopa 
Pass. Microtus mordax is the only other species known to occur in this 
part of Colorado. These three widely different species are readily dis- 
tinguishable at any age. 

Microtus modestus decreases in size to the northward until, in north- 
western Montana, it seems to merge into the little drummondi of the 
region farther north. Westward it becomes darker, specimens from 
Salt Lake Valley, Utah, being practically indistinguishable from typi- 
cal pennsylvanicus, while those from Cteur d'Alene, Idaho, and the 

1 Mamm. N. Am., p. 535, 1857. 


plains of the Columbia in eastern Washington are too small and dark 
to be typical modestus. 

Specimens examined. — Total number, 259, from the following localities : 
Colorado: Cochetopa Pass, 89; Fort Garland, 15; Loveland, 7; Twin Lakes, 1. 
Wyoming : Newcastle, 1 ; Bear Lodge Mountains, 2 ; Sundance, 1 ; Lower 

Geyser Basin, Yellowstone Park, 1. 
South Dakota: Custer, 2; Hill City, 1. 
North Dakota: Fort Buford, 1. 
Montana: Little Bighorn River, 2; Fort Custer, 3; Bozeman,2; Fort Ellis, 1; 

Big Snowy Mountains, 13; Pkilbrook, 1 ; Stanford, 1; Choteau, 1; Robare, 

1; Blackfoot, 1; Fort Assinniboine, 1; Tobacco Plains, 3; Stillwater Lake, 

8; Flathead Lake, 9; Little Bitterroot Creek, 2; Hot Springs Creek, 1; 

Horse Plains (8 miles east), 1. 
Idaho: Lemhi, 1 ; Salmon River, 3; Challis, 3; Birch Creek, 24; Cceur d'Alene^ 

3; Fort Sherman, 1. 
Washington: Marshall, 15; Coulee City, 4; Conconully, 4; Colville, 20; 

Marcus, 1. 
Utah: Ogdcn, 7; Salt Lake, 1. 


Microtia fontigenus Bangs, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., X, 48-49, March 9, 1896. 
Microtus pennsylvanicus fontigenus Miller, Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., XXVIII, 14, 
April, 1897. 

Type locality. — Lake Edward, Quebec. 

Geographic distribution. Eastern Canada, in the Hudsonian zone. 

Habitat. — Marshes, fields, dry banks, and deep woods. 

General characters. — Smaller than pennsylvanicus, with short wide 
skull, large round bulla', and short incisive foramina. 

Color. — Autumn pelage (September specimens in long fur): Upper- 
parts dark bister mixed with black, slightly paler on sides and cheeks; 
belly washed with whitish or smoky gray; tail bicolor, blackish above, 
grayish below; feet plumbeous. 

Cranial characters. — Skull light and smooth, not ridged or angular; 
rostrum and incisive foramina short; braincase wide; audita! bulla' 
large and smoothly rounded; interpterygoid space narrow, ending 
squarely at palate; dentition as in pennsylvanicus. 

Measurements. — Type, 9 ad. : Total length, 151; tail vertebra 1 , 41 ; hind 
foot, 21. Topotype, S ad.: 150; 45; 21. Skull (No. 3839, 3): Basal 
length, 23, nasals, 6.2; zygomatic breadth, 14.3; mastoid breadth, 11.5; 
alveolar length of upper molar series, 6. 

Remarks. — The short rostrum, short, wide braincase, and short inci- 
sive foramina distinguish fontigenus from both pennsylvanicus and drum- 
mondi, with both of which species it seems to intergrade. 

In size it is intermediate, and in external characters not very dif- 
ferent from either. It is recorded by Mr. Miller from Nepigon and 
Peninsula Harbor, Ontario, but he considers the specimens obtained at 
those places not quite typical. 1 A series of 10 specimens from Godbout, 
Quebec, are rather nearer fontigenus than acadicus. 

Specimens examined. — Total number, 0, topotypes (from the Bangs 

1 Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist,, XXVIII, 14, April, 1897. 



Microtus pennsylvanicus laoradorius Bailey, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., XII, 88, April 30, 


Type locality. — Fort Chimo, Ungava, Labrador. 

Geographic distribution. — Known only from the type locality. 

General characters. — Size of Microtus drummondi and of approxi- 
mately the same proportions. Skull flatter, with smaller audital bullae 
and more protruding upper incisors. 

Color. — (Much changed by alcohol.) Upperparts dark brownish; 
belly whitish; tail bicolor; feet pale. 

Cranial characters. — Skull low, not much ridged or angled ; postor- 
bital ridge prominent; nasals short, cuneate and scarcely reaching 
base of incisors; audital bulla? small; incisive foramina short; first 
upper molar usually with an inner posterior point, molar pattern other- 
wise as in pennsylvanicus. The skull is readily distinguishable from 
that of either drummondi or fontigenus by the protruding incisors and 
small audital bullae. 

Measurements. — Type, 2 ad. (in alcohol), measured by Dr. 0. Hart 
Merriam : Total length, 139 ; tail vertebra 1 ,, 39 ; hind foot, 20. Average of 
7 alcoholic specimens from type locality: 137; 37; 19. Skull (of type): 
Basal length, 24.3; nasals, 6.7; zygomatic breadth, 14.4; mastoid 
breadth, 11; alveolar length of upper molar series, G.2. 

Remarks. — M. labradorius shows closer affinity with drummondi than 
with fontigenus, though no doubt meeting and grading into the latter. 
It is widely different from enixus, and the two occur together at Fort 

Specimens examined. — Total number, 9, from the type locality. 

MICROTUS DRUMMONDI (Ami. & Bach.). Druinmond Vole. 

Arvicola drummondi Aud. and Bach., Quad. N. Am., Ill, 166-167, 1854. 

Arvicola (Mynomes) microcephalia Rhoads, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1894, 286-287 

(Lac La Hache, B. C). 
Microtus stonei Allen, Bui. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., XII, 4, March, 1899 (Liard River, 


Type locality. — Rocky Mountains, vicinity of Jasper House, Alberta. 

Geographic distribution. — From Hudson Bay to the west slope of 
the Rocky Mountains aud Alaska, and from the northern edge of the 
United States north to Fort Anderson, N. W. T., in Canadian and 
Hudsouian zones. 

Habitat. — Both marshes and dry upland. 

General characters. — Similar to Microtus pcnnsylv aniens, but much 
smaller, with slenderer feet aud tail, and paler color. 

Color. — Summer pelage: Upperparts yellowish bister with numerous 
dark-brown- or black-tipped hairs, sides of nose and hairs in front of 
ears more decidedly yellowish; belly white or rarely tinged with buffy, 
sometimes dusky during the molt; feet silvery gray; tail bicolor, black- 
ish above, whitish below. Winter Pelage: Paler than in summer; yel- 
low on ears and nose more conspicuous; Young: Paler and not so 
sooty as young pennsylvanicus. 

June, 1900.] MICROTUS DRUMMONDI. 23 

Cranial characters. — Skull not much arched and rather flat topped, 
slender but sharply ridged in adults; audital bullae large and smoothly 
rounded; palate flattened in immature specimens, becoming higher 
with deep lateral pits in adults. Dentition as in pennsylvanicus. Except 
for the larger bullae and a few characters of minor weight, the skull of 
drummondi is a miniature of the skull of pennsylvanicus. 

Measurements. — Average of 6 adult males and females from Muskeg 

Creek, Alberta: Total length, 145; tail vertebra 1 , 39; hiud foot, 17.8. 

Largest specimen from Muskeg Creek : 160; 41; 18. Skull (No. 81487, 

9 ad., same locality) : Basal length, 23 ; nasals, 6; zygomatic breadth, 

14; mastoid breadth, 11; alveolar length of upper molar series, 6. 

Remarks. — The characters separating drummondi from pennsylvanicus 
and modestus are relative. There is no sharp distinction and the forms 
either merge into each other, or after approaching each other in size 
overlap in range and occur together at the same localities. Specimens 
from Blackfoot, Montana, are nearer modestus, while those from Summit 
and St. Marys Lake are almost typical drummondi. At Elk River, 
Minnesota, about half of the specimens are almost typical drummondi, 
while the others are a small form of pennsylvanicus ; but, as others fall 
between and cannot positively be placed with either form, it is impos- 
sible to decide whether the difference is due to individual variation in 
an intermediate form or whether two species meet and interbreed. 

To the eastward drummondi merges into fontiyenus, from which it 
differs in such slight degree that the two are not easily distinguishable. 
On the west slope in British Columbia drummondi becomes slightly 
darker, and in that respect less unlike fontigenus in appearance, but 
retains its cranial characters, Alaska and northwestern specimens 
(from Fort Wrangel, Nulato, and Fort Simpson) are larger and in gen- 
eral appearance less different from pennsylvanicus, but detailed cranial 
characters show them to be but a robust form of drummondi. Speci- 
mens from Liard River, including the type of M. stonei, are indistin- 
guishable from typical drummondi. 

Specimens examined. — Total number, 355, from the following localities: 

Alberta: Muskeg Creek (15 miles south of Smoky River), 13; Smoky Valley 
(50 miles north of Jasper House), 5; Fishing Lake (90 miles uorth of 
Jasper house), 2 ; Henry House ( 15 miles south), 4 ; South Edmonton, 
110; St. Alberts, 26; Canmore, 2; Banff, 1; Red Deer, 1. 

Athabasca: Lesser Slave Lake, 1. 

Assiniboia: Indian Head, 30; Medicine Hat, 1. 

British Columbia: Shuswap, 13; Sicamous, 1; Cariboo Lake, 2 ; Okanagan, 
11; Ducks, 2; Stuart Lake, 1. 

Saskatchewan: Cumberland House, 2; St. Louis, 1. 

Manitoba: Carberry, 2. 

Ontario: Rat Portage, 2; Coney Island (Lake of the Woods), 2. 

Northwest Territory : Fort Churchill, 2; Fort Simpson, 2; Fort Rae, 3; Fort 
Reliance, 1 ; Big Island (Great Slave Lake), 1 ; Fort Good Hope, 
1; Fort MacPherson, 1; Fort Anderson, 2; head of Liard River, 1; 
Chandindu River, 1 ; Dawson, 1 ; Sixty-Mile Creek, 1 ; Fort Selkirk, 3 ; 
50 miles below Fort Selkirk, 1 ; Rink Rapids, 6 ; Thirty-Mile River, 3 ; 
Lake Lebarge, 4; Fifty-Mile River, 6; Lake Marsh, 22; Caribou 
Crossing, 16. 


Alaska: Fort Wrangell, 1; Nulato, 1; Charlie Creek (Yukon River), 2; Cana- 
dian Boundary and Yukon River, 4. 
North Dakota: Portland, 4; Lisbon, 1; Bottineau, 1. 
Montana : St. Marys Lake, 6 ; Summit, 8. 
Idaho : Priest Lake, 5. 
Washington : Loon Lake, 9. 

MICROTUS AZTECUS (Allen). Aztec Vole. 
Arricola (Mynomes) aztecus Allen, Bui. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., V, 73-74, April 28, 1893. 

Type locality. — Aztec, New Mexico (altitude, 5,900 feet). 

Geographic distribution. — Valley of the San Juan River in north- 
western ISTew Mexico, in Transition zoue. 

Habitat. — Grassy places along the river banks and near irrigation 

General characters. — In size similar to M. pennsylvanicus, but with 
shorter tail and larger hind foot; skull long; braincase narrow; inter- 
parietal long. 

Color. — Winter pelage: Upperparts dull buffy, heavily mixed with 
black hairs; belly washed with creamy or pale buff; feet plumbeous; 
tail sharply bicolor, black above, soiled whitish below. Young (half- 
grown specimens in Dec.) : Scarcely different in color from adults. 
(Summer pelage not examined.) 

Cranial characters. — Skull long; braincase high and narrow; inter- 
parietal more than half as long as wide, extending back to plane of 
foranien magnum; audital bull* large; mandible short and heavy; 
angular process of mandible wide; dentition as in pennsylvanicus. 

Measurements. — Average of 7 adults from type locality: Total length, 
171; tail vertebra?, 43; hind foot, 22. Slcull (No. 57432, & ad.): Basal 
length, 28.8; nasals, 8.4; zygomatic breadth, 17 ; mastoid breadth, 12.5; 
alveolar length of upper molar series, 7.2. 

Remarks. — Microtus aztecus belongs to the pennsylvanicus group. 
Externally it is not very different from modestus, but none of the 
specimens show any signs of intergradation ; and the skull characters 
are so well marked that there seems no doubt of its full specific rank. 

Specimens examined. — Total number, 45, from the following localities: 

New Mexico : Aztec, 42 ; La Plata, 3. 

MICROTUS ENIXUS Bangs. Large Labrador Vole. 
Microtus enixus Bangs, Am. Nat., XXX, 1051-1052, Dec. 5, 1896. 

Type locality. — Hamilton Inlet (north shore), Labrador. 

Geographic distribution. — Eastern coast of Labrador from Hamilton 
Inlet to Ungava Bay, in Hudsonian zone. 

General characters. — Size slightly larger than M. pennsylvanicus, with 
relatively longer tail and larger ears; coloration duller and darker; 
skull smaller, shorter, and wider, with lighter molars. Hip glands 
present in adult males. 

June, 1900.1 MICROTUS TERR^ENOV^. 25 

Color. — Summer pelage (July and Aug. specimens) : Upperparts dark 
yellowish bister mixed with blackish; belly smoky gray or soiled 
whitish, sometimes tinged with buffy; feet dusky or blackish; tail 
black above, grayish brown below. 

Cranial characters. — Outline of skull shorter, wider, and less arched 
than in pennsylvanicus; prezygomatic notch deep; coronoid notch of 
mandible wide and rounded; molar series small and slender; m2 with 
posterior loop completely closed and circular in form; m3 with termi- 
nal loop shortened ; dentition otherwise as in pennsylvanicus. 

Measurements. 1 — Type, 9 ad.: Total length, 210; tail vertebra?, 67; 
hind'foot, 22.5. Average of 10 adult topotypes : 189.4 ; 60.1 ; 22.1. SI nil 
(No. 1018, 9 ad.): Basal length, 27.3; nasals, 8.6; zygomatic breadth, 
16.7; mastoid breadth, 12.3; alveolar length of upper molar series, 6.5. 

Remarks. — Microtus enixus appears to be a distinct and well marked 
species of the pennsylvanicus group, the long tail and small molars 
being the most convenient characters for recognition. From its geo- 
graphically nearest neighbors, Microtus p. fontigenus, of Lake Edward, 
Quebec, and Microtus p. labradorms, of Ungava, it shows a wider 
difference than from typical pennsylvanicus. 

Specimens examined. — Total number, 16, from the following localities: 

Labrador: Hamilton Inlet, 13; Fort Chimo, Ungava, 3. 

MICROTUS TERRiENOV^E (Bangs). Newfoundland Vole. 
Arvicola ierrcenom Bangs, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., IX, 129-132, July 27, 1894. 

Type locality. — Codroy, Newfoundland. 

Geographic distribution. — Newfoundland and Penguin Island. 

General characters. — Slightly larger thstn pennsylvanicus, with decid- 
edly larger hind foot, and more yellowish colors; belly with dusky 
median line; nose patch buffy; skull wide and angular. 

Color. — Summer pelage fin July and August specimens): Upper- 
parts dark russet, darkened by brown-tipped hairs, becoming paler on 
sides and across face; nose patch dark buffy or dull russet; belly whit- 
ish or smoke gray with a median streak of dusky cinnamon; tail dis- 
tinctly bicolor, blackish above, soiled whitish below; feet grayish 
brown. Winter pelage (retained in April specimens): Slightly paler 
russet above, whiter below, with sharper markings throughout. Young 
(nearly half-grown): Similar to adults. 

Cranial characters. — Skull short with wide-spreading zygomata; pre- 
zygomatic notch deep; nasals terminating even with arms of premax- 
illae; lateral pits of palate deep and wide; interpterygoid space narrow 
with median constriction; ml with an anterior spur or loop; m3 with 
posterior loop short, irregularly rounded, triangular or trifoliate; m2 
and m3 normally with anterior point or spur, 

1 From original description. 


Measurements. — Average of 10 adults from type locality : Total length, 
182; tail vertebrae, 52; hind foot, 23.4. Skull (No. 74029, $ ad.): Basal 
length, 28.5; nasals, 8.4; zygomatic breadth, 17; mastoid breadth, 13; 
alveolar length of upper molar series, 7. 

Remarks. — Microtus terrcenovcs shows very distinctive characters, and 
no close affinity with any neighboring species. Specimens showing 
very young and full winter pelage are still needed for a comprehensive 

Specimens examined. — Total number, 43; from the following localities: 
Newfoundland : Coilroy, 35 ; Penguin Island, 8. 

MICROTUS BREWERI (Baird). Beach Vole. 
Arvicola Iretveri Baird, Mauira. N. Am., 525-526, 1857. 

Type locality. — Muskeget Island, Massachusetts. 

Geographic distribution. — Muskeget Island. 

Habitat. — Beach plum thickets on the sandy island. 

General characters. — Size a little larger than pennsylvanicus; colors 
pale grayish; pelage long and coarse; skull heavy with wide nasals 
and quadrate interparietal. 

Color. — Summer pelage (July 18) : Upperparts buffy gray with scat- 
tered brown- and black-tipped hairs, paler on sides; belly tinged with 
sulphur yellow; feet silvery gray; tail bicolor, rusty brown or blackish 
above, soiled whitish below. Young: Rather paler and duller than 

Cranial characters. — Skull massive; nasals wide anteriorly; inter- 
parietal more than half as long as wide; inner edges of zygomata 
sharply notched close to lachrymals; rostrum heavy; upper incisors 
bent abruptly downward; molar pattern not very different from that of 

Measurements. — Average of 10 adults from Muskeget Island : Total 
length, 182; tail vertebra?,, 54; hind foot, 22.3. Skull (No. 73141, $ ad.) : 
Basal length, 28.7; nasals, 8.3; zygomatic breadth, 17.3; mastoid 
breadth, 13; alveolar length of upper molar series, 7.2. 

Remarks,. — Nine of the 2G specimens have a small white spot on 
the forehead. This may be accidental or an only partially acquired 

Specimens examined. — Total number, 2G; all from the type locality. 

MICROTUS NESOPHILUS Bailey. Gull Island Vole. 

Microtus insularis Bailey, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., XII, 86, April 30, 1898. Name 

preoccupied by Lemmus insularis, Nillson (= Microtus agrestis L. ). 
Microtus nesophilns Bailey, Science, N. S., VIII, 782, Dec. 2, 1898. 

Type locality. — Great Gull Island, New York. 

Geographic distribution. — Great Gull Island (at entrance to Long 
Island Sound). 

June, 1900.] MICROTUS MONTANUS. 27 

General characters. — Size of pennsylvanicus ; colors darker ; skull 
shorter and wider with more spreading zygomata and deeper prezygo- 
matic notches. 

Color. — Summer pelage: Upperparts, dark yellowish bister heavily 
mixed with black hairs, darkest on nose and face; belly dusky, washed 
with cinnamon; feet blackish; tail blackish above, dark brown below. 

Cranial characters. — The skull differs from that of pennsylvanicus in 
shorter, wider braincase, wider and more abruptly spreading zygomatic 
arches, more expanded jugal, and smaller audital bulla'; palate short, 
with a median point or spur and deep lateral pits; mo normally with 
anterior inner and outer triangles approximately opposite and conflu- 
ent; dentition otherwise similar to that of pennsylvanicus. 

Measurements. — Type (measured in dry skin): Tail, 29; hind foot, 20. 
No. 1943, Am. Mus., $ ad., 185: 41 : 21. SJcull (No. 539G9) : Basal length, 
2G; zygomatic breadth, 1G.2; mastoid breadth, 12.3; alveolar length of 
upper molar series, G.8. (No. 1943) 26.6; 8.5; 16.2; 13; 6.6. 

Bemarlts. — Microtus nesophilus needs no comparison with breweri or 
ternvnovee, the other two insular forms from the Atlantic coast. In 
general appearance it more nearly resembles pennsylvanicus, but in 
cranial characters it is as distinctly different as either of the other 
island species. 

During the month of August, 1898, Mr. A. H. Howell visited Great 
Gull Island for the purpose of getting specimens of Microtus, but he 
found their old haunts covered by the earth moved in grading the 
island for fortifications, while no trace of the animals remained. He 
thinks they are completely exterminated. 

Specimens examined. — Total number, 15; all from the type locality. 

MICROTUS MONTANUS (Peale). Peale Vole. 

Arvicola i.iontanus Peale, U. S. Exploring Exp'd., Mammalogy, 41, 1848. 
Aroicola longiroslris Baird, Mamm. N. Am., 530-531, 1857. (From Tipper Pitt River, 

Type locality. — Headwaters of Sacramento River, near Mount Shasta, 

Geographic distribution. — Northeastern California, eastern Oregon, 
northern Utah and Nevada, in the Upper Sonoran and Transition 

Habitat. — Marshes, meadows, and tule swamps. 

General characters. — Size medium (about as in pennsylvanicus) ; tail 
about twice as long as hind foot; colors dark; hip glands conspicuous 
in adult males; incisors projecting well in front of nasals; incisive 
foramina narrow and constricted posteriorly. 

Color. — Summer pelage : Upperparts bister or ashy mixed with 
blackish; belly washed with soiled whitish, giving a smoky gray or 
dusky color; feet plumbeous; tail indistinctly bicolor, blackish above, 
plumbeous below; lips usually showing a trace of whitish. 


Cranial characters. — Skull generally slender and smooth, becoming 
angular and ridged in only a few very old individuals ; nasals narrow 
and short; interparietal wide and normally strap- shaped; incisive 
foramina narrow and constricted posteriorly; bulla? medium and well 
rounded; dentition rather light; m2 with 4 closed 
sections; m3 with 3 closed triangles; ml nor- 
mally with 5 closed triangles. 

Measurements. — Average of 10 specimens from 
Sisson, Cal. : Total length, 175; tail vertebra?., 52; 
hind foot, 21.5. Extremely large specimens from 

Fig. 2.-Mo1ar enamel pattern Sisson run ag bigll ag 192 . 54. 23. 8MU (No. 
of Microtus montanus (X5). n nnnt\ -, n r, . , , 

9bb89, $ ad., from Sisson): Basal length, 28; na- 
sals, 8; zygomatic breadth, 17; mastoid breadth, 13.5; alveolar length 
of upper molar series, 7.3. 

General remarks. — The original description of M. montanus, though 
meager, agrees in all particulars with the animal from Sisson, at the 
west base of Mount Shasta. The measurements (total length, Clinches; 
tail, 1J inches=15G mm. and 38 mm.) give it too short a tail, which only 
serves to restrict it more closely to this form in distinction from either 
of the longer-tailed species (mordax or californicus) that occur at or 
near the type locality. Three mounted specimens in the United States 
National Museum, which Baird referred to montanus, 1 and which came 
from Upper Klamath Lake and the Upper Des Chutes, are identical 
with those of the present series from Sisson, Fort Klamath, and Fort 
Crook. Specimens from the south end of Goose Lake, which is the 
source of Pitt Eiver, are the same as those from Sisson and from Fort 
Crook, lower down the river, and also the same as Baird's type of M. 
longirostris from 'Upper Pitt River.' 

M. montanus has a somewhat scattered and interrupted distribution 
and shows considerable geographic variation in widely separated local- 
ities. The extreme development of large size, large feet, and heavy 
angular skull is found in the big marshes of the Carson Sink, Nevada, 
while specimens from higher levels in the Transition zone are smaller, 
with slenderer feet and grayer coloration. The variation is mainly, but 
not entirely, zonal. To separate either extreme would tend to con- 
fusion rather than convenience, as the extremes point to nevadensis on 
the one hand and to nanus on the other. 

Specimens examined. — Total number, 2G3, from the following localities : 

California: Sisson, 57; Fort Crook, 23; Hayden Hill, 2; Fall Lake, 2; Cassel, 
1; Tule Lake, 2; Goose Lake, 8; Greenville (8 miles NW.), 3; Bucks 
Ranch (Plumas Co.), 1; Quincy, 3; Summit, 1. 

Nevada: Washoe, 1; Deep Hole (south end of Granite Range), 1; Pine For- 
est Range, 1; Mountain City, 4; Wells, 13; Austin, 7; Carson, 16; Still- 
water, 10 ; Newark Valley, 5 ; Monitor Valley, 5 ; Ruby Lake, 5 ; Ruby 
Mountains, 3. 

i Mamm. N. Am., 530, 1857. 


Oregon: Klamath Basin (Lost River), 8; Klamath Falls, 1; Fort Klamath, 5; 
Swan Lake Valley, 5; Plush (west side Warner Lake), 9; Shirk, 2; Steen 
Mountains (east slope), 1; Summit NE. of Steen Mountains), 2; Burns, 
2; Wapinitia, 4. 

Utah: Ogden, 10; Salt Lake City, 3; Provo, 1; Fairfield, 10; Manti, 20. 

Microtna montanus arizonensis Bailey, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., XII, 88, April 30, 1898. 

Type locality. — Springerville, Ariz. 

Geographic distribution. — Plateau country of eastern Arizona, at 
head of Little Colorado, in the Transition Zone. 

Habitat. — Creek banks and damp meadows. 

General characters. — Similar to M. montanus, but brighter and more 
ferruginous in color; lateral pits of palate shallower. 

Color. — Early winter pelage (October and November specimens): 
Upperparts yellowish or rusty brown; belly washed with white; feet 
dark grayish; tail bicolor, blackish above, grayish below; lips whitish. 
Slightly immature specimens are a little duller colored than adults. 

Cranial characters. — Skull very similar to that of montanus, but 
easily distinguished by the flatter palate with shallower lateral pits 
and by thicker pterygoids; condyloid process of mandible slightly 
shorter. Dentition not different. 

Measurements. — Type: Total length, 184; tail vertebra*, 55; hind 
foot, 20. Average of 7 specimens from type locality: 158; 41; 20.0. 
Skull (of type): Basal length, 27.3; nasals, 8; zygomatic breadth, 10; 
mastoid breadth, 12.2; alveolar length of upper molar series, 0.5. 

General remarks. — Although widely separated geographically from 
M. montanus by desert country through which continuity of range is 
improbable, this form is so closely related to that, species that its posi- 
tion is best indicated by subspecific rank. 

Specimens examined. — Total number, 12, from the following localities: 

Arizona: Springerville, 11. 
New Mexico : Nutria, 1. 

Microtus nevadensis rivitlaris Bailey, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., XII, 87, April 30, 1898. 

Type locality. — St. George, Utah. 

Geographic distribution. — Known only from type locality, probably 
restricted to Lower Sonoran zone. 

Habitat. — Tule marshes along the banks of the Virgin Eiver. The 
runways were always found in wet places among sedges and rushes. 

General characters. — Larger and lighter colored than typical mon- 
tanus; skull more arched; nasals narrower. 

Color. — Winter pelage: Upperparts dull bister, darkened with black 
ish-tipped hairs; sides scarcely paler; belly washed with white j feet 
dull grayish; tail bicolor, blackish above, grayish below. Young: 
Darker than adult, but not black backed as in nevadensis. 


Cranial characters. — Skull well arched, not much ridged; nasals con- 
spicuously narrower than in montanus; frontals narrower posteriorly ; 
basioccipital more constricted anteriorly; dentition essentially the same. 

Measurements. — Type: Total length, 179; tail vertebrae, 48; bind 
foot, 23. A nearly adult female topotype: 1G3; 43; 21. Skull (of type) : 
Basal length, 28.2; nasals, 8.3; zygomatic breadth, 17; mastoid breadth, 
13.3; alveolar length of upper molar series, 7.3. 

General remarks. — Since rivularis was described in 1898 as a sub- 
species of nevadensis, a series of 50 specimens has been collected at the 
type locality of montanus, showing for the first time the real characters 
and the range of variation in that species, and, moreover, as Dr. 
Merriam had previously suggested to me, that rivularis comes nearer 
to typical montanus than to nevadensis. So far as at present known it 
has an isolated range in a Lower Sonoran valley, but it may readily 
extend northward to meet and merge into montanus in central Utah. 

Specimens examined. —Total number, 4, from the type locality. 

MICROTUS NANUS (Merriam). Dwarf Vole. 

Arvicola nanus Merriam, North American Fauna No. 5, 62-63, pi. II, figs. 5 and 6, 

July 30, 1891. 

Type locality. — Pahsimeroi Mountains, Idaho (altitude 9,350 feet). 

Geographic distribution. — Rocky Mountains and outlying ranges, 
from central Idaho southward to central Nevada and southern Colo- 
rado, in Canadian zone. 

Habitat. — Dry, grassy parks on mountain slopes. 

General characters. — Size small; tail short; ears short and rounded; 
color dark grayish ; skull slender. 

Color. — Summer pelage: Upperparts uniformly grizzled gray mixed 
with sepia and blackish hairs; belly washed with white; feet grayish 
or plumbeous; tailbicolor, dusky gray above, whitish below. ( Winter 
pelage unknown.) Young: Similar to adult, but slightly duller 

Cranial characters. — Skull small, slender and well arched, with slen- 
der zygomata and large well-rounded bullae; superciliary ridges prom- 
inent, sometimes confluent in old age; incisors projecting well beyond 
nasals; molars light, with short, wide triangles; enamel pattern scarcely 
distinguishable from that of mordax and montanus. 

Measurements. — Type, 6 ad.: Total length, 151; tail vertebrae, 41; 
hind foot, 18. Average of five adults from type locality: 143; 37; 18.4. 
Skull (of type) : Basal length, 23.7; nasals, G.7; zygomatic breadth, 14; 
mastoid breadth, 10.8; alveolar length of upper molar series, 5.8. 

Remarks. — Microtus nanus belongs to the montanus group but occu- 
pies a higher zone and has more of the habits of Pedomys or Lagurus. 
It is rarely found in wet places or near water. Specimens from certain 
isolated localities are not entirely typical, but do not differ enough to 
warrant separation. 


Specimens exa m ined. — Total number, 114, from the following localities : 

Idaho: Pahsimeroi Mountains, 13; Lost River Mountains, 1; Ckallis, 7; Saw- 
tooth Lake, 5; Tkree Creek, 3; Montpelier Creek, 3; Seven Devils Moun- 
tains, 4. 

Utah: Uinta Mountains, head of Smitk Fork, 1. 

Wyoming: Fort Bridger, 9; Kinney Ranck, 6; Beaver, 1 (no skull) ; La Barge 
Creek (near kead), 1; Ckeyenne, 3; Sherman, 2; Laramie, 2; South Pass 
City, 20; Bighorn Mountains, head of Powder River, 9. 

Montana: Beartooth Mountains, 3; Big Snowy Mountains, 1. 

Colorado: Estes Park, 1; Cocketopa Pass, 17 ; Twin River, 1; Twin Lakes, 1. 

Microtus nanus ranescens Bailey, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., XII, 87, April 30, 1898. 

Type locality. — Conconully, Washington. 

Geographic distribution. — Northern Washington and southern British 
Columbia, east of the Cascades. Apparently confined to the Transi- 
tion zone. 

Habitat. — Dry grassy ground. 

General characters. — Like nanus but lighter, clearer gray; skull with 
larger bullae and greater mastoid breadth; zygomatic arches less widely 
spreading; upper incisors bent more abruptly downward. Hip glands 
conspicuous in adult males. 

Color. — Summer pelage: Upperparts clear, dark grayish, formed by 
pale buffy and black- tipped hairs; sides shading to lighter gray and 
belly to white; feet dark gray; tail bicolor, blackish above, grayish 
below. ( Young and winter pelage not shown in present material.) 

Cranial characters. — Skull slightly narrower and more elongate than 
in nanus; interparietal averaging longer; bullae decidedly larger and 
fuller; mastoid breadth relatively greater; incisors scarcely reaching 
beyond nasals; molar pattern as in nanus. 

Measurements. — Type: Total length, 149; tail vertebra?, 42; hind 
foot, 20. STcull (of type): Occipital condyle to anterior base of molars, 
17.4; posterior tip of nasals to foramen magnum, 19.2; zygomatic 
breadth, 15; mastoid breadth, 12.3; alveolar length of upper molar 
series, G.3. 

General remarks. — In its extreme development this northern form is 
readily distinguishable from typical nanus. From intermediate locali- 
ties, Flathead Lake and the Plains of the Columbia, specimens are 
not typical of either but show slight peculiarities of local development 
interesting in themselves but not sufficiently marked for even sub- 
specific distinction. To a certain extent they are intermediate between 
nanus and canescens. 

Specimens examined. — Total number, 47, from the following localities: 

British Columbia: Okanagan, 11; Ducks, 2; Vernon, 7. 

Washington: Conconully, 1 ; Wenatchee, 1; Fort Walla Walla, 1; Oakesdale, 

2; Wawawai, 4; Ckeney, 1. 
Oregon: Elgin, 2; Wallowa Mountains (near Joseph), <>. 
Montana: West arm of Flatkead Lake, 5; Hot Spring Creek (a branch of the 

Little Bittcrroot), 4. 


MICROTUS CANICAUDUS Miller. Gray-tailed Vole. 
Microtus canicaudus Miller, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., XI, 67-68, April 21, 1897. 

Type locality. — McCoy, Oregon. 

Geographic distribution. — Willamette Valley, Oregon, and the east 
base of the Cascades in southern Washington, in Transition zone. 

General characters. — Size and proportions about as in nanus; ears 
larger, skull heavier, more arched, with fuller, rounder bullae, and shal- 
lower lateral pits of palate, coloration more yellowish, tail grayer. 

Color. — Winter pelage: Upperparts bright yellowish bister, darkened 
with blackish-tipped hairs, slightly paler on sides; belly and whole 
lower parts whitish-gray; feet grayish or pale plumbeous; tail in 
winter adults uniformly grayish, with a half-concealed dusky dorsal 
line. In the only summer specimen (from North Yakima, Wash., and 
perhaps not typical) the tail is sharply bicolor with a blackish dorsal 
line. Young (half-grown November specimens): Sooty gray above and 
scarcely lighter below; feet dusky; tail gray, with a blackish dorsal 

Cranial characters. — Skull high, smooth, and well arched, with scarcely 
a trace of superciliary ridges; interparietal lozenge-shaped; bill las 
larger and more rounded than in nanus; interpterygoid fossa narrower 
and more acuminate; lateral pits of palate shallower; incisors less 
protruding; enamel pattern of molars the same as in nanus. 

Measurements. — Type: Total length, 135; tail vertebras, 33; hind 
foot, 20. Average of 8 adults from type locality: 141; 35.7; 20. Skull 
(of type): Basal length, 21.2; nasals, 7.3; zygomatic breadth, 15.3; 
mastoid breadth, 12.8; alveolar length of upper molar series, 6. 

Remarlis. — A single specimen with a badly broken skull from North 
Yakima, Wash., seems to be true canicaudus in summer pelage, and 
indicates that the range of the species is much more extensive than 
is at present known. 

Specimens examined.— -Total number, 14, from the following localities: 

Oregon: McCoy, 9; Beaverton, 2; Sheridan, 2 (im). 
Washington: North Yakima, 1. 

MICROTUS DUTCHERI Bailey, Dutcher Vole. 

Microtus dutcheri Bailey, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., XII, 85, April 30, 1898. 

Type locality. — Big Cottonwood Meadows, near Mount Whitney, Cal- 
ifornia (altitude, 10,000 feet). 

Geographic distribution. — Iludsonian zone of the southern Sierra 

Habitat. — Wet alpine meadows. 

General characters. — Size rather small; tail short; ears small, nearly 
concealed by fur; colors dark above and below; lips and usually nose 
white; hip glands present in adult males. 

Color. — Summer pelage : Upperparts dark bister with brown tips to 
the long hairs; below, dull cinnamon or buffy-brown; feet whitish or 


plumbeous-gray; tail bicolor, brown or blackish, above, whitish below; 
lips and usually tip of nose white. ( Winter pelage unknown.) Young: 
Dull brown above and scarcely lighter below; feet and tail blackish; 
lips and nose usually white. 

Cranial characters. — Skull similar to that of montanus but differing 
in many details; rostrum slightly longer; bulla; smaller and less globu- 
lar; lateral pits of palate shallower; dentition the same. 

Measurements. — Type, $ ad.: Total length, 1G7; tail vertebrae, 35; 
hind foot, 20. Average of 10 adults, 5 males and 5 females, from 
type locality: 163; 37; 20.6. SJcull (of type): Basal length, 27.4; nasals, 
8; zygomatic breadth, 16.7; mastoid breadth, 12.2; alveolar length 
of upper molar series, 6.5. 

General remarks. — The nearest relative of M. dutcheri is montanus, 
but the two species occupy widely separated zones, and show no evi- 
dence of inter gradation. 

Specimens examined. — Total number, 65, from the following localities 
in the Sierra Nevada: 

California: Big Cottonwood Meadows, 28; Whitney Meadows, 11; Menaclie 
Meadows, 2; Olancha Peak, 3; Head of Kern River, 1; Mammoth, 12; 
Pine City, 3; Head of San Joaquin River, 5. 

Microtus nevadenais Bailey, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., XII, 86, April 30, 1898. 

Type locality. — Ash Meadows, 1 Nye County, Nevada. 

Geographic distribution. — Known only from the type locality and 
Pahranagat Valley, about 100 miles to the northeast. Both localities 
are in the Lower Sonoran zone. 

Habitat. — Salt grass and tule marshes in alkaline valleys. Runways 
always found in wet, muddy places, and often extending through shal- 
low water. 

General characters. — Size large; ears small; tail rather short; fur 
coarse and lax; colors dark; hip glands conspicuous in adult males. 
Skull massive and angular; incisive foramina narrow and closing to a 
point posteriorly. 

Color. — Whiter pelage (March specimens): Upperparts dark sepia or 
bister, much obscured by blackish hairs; sides lighter; belly smoky 
gray; feet dark gray; tail indistinctly bicolor, blackish above, gray or 
brownish below ; lips usually white ; tip of nose usually whitish. Young: 
With a blackish dorsal stripe and dusky feet and tail. 

Cranial characters. — Skull heavy, angular, and much ridged; fron- 
talshigh; rostrum bent downward; nasals truncate or rounded pos- 
teriorly, terminating even with arms of premaxillse; incisive foramina 
short, rather narrow and constricted to a point posteriorly; dentition 
heavy; upper incisors curved abruptly downward; molar pattern vari- 

'Ash Meadows is on the Nevada side of the Nevada-California line near wl<ere 
the Amargosa River crosses the boundary. The exact locality is a big salt marsh 
below Watkins ranch. 

18392— No. 17 3 


able; m2 with 4 closed sections in 8 out of 1G specimens, in the other 
8, with a slight inner lobe or loop at base of posterior triangle; ni3 with 
anterior crescent, three closed triangles, and a posterior loop with two 
inner lobes; nil usually with C closed triangles. 

Measurements. — Type: Total length, 210; tail vertebra?, 55; hind foot, 
25.5. Average of 8 specimens from type locality : 17G; 17; 23. Skull 
(of type): Basal length, 32; nasals, 10.2; zygomatic breadth, 19.3; mas- 
toid breadth, 14.3; alveolar length of upper molar series, 8. 

Remarks. — Three specimens taken May 2G in Pahranagat Valley 
ditt'er slightly from the type series, but the cranial differences are 
slight and the darker color may be only seasonal. The species inhabits 
marshes and wet places, which are so rare and isolated in the desert 
region that it can have no extensive continuous range. It is one 
of the few forms of Microtus inhabiting a part of the Lower Sonoran 

Specimens examined. — Total number, 19, from the following localities: 

Nevada: Ash Meadows, 16; Pahranagat Valley, 3. 

MICROTUS CALIFORNICU.S (Peale.) California Vole. 

Arvicola californica Peale, U. S. Expl. Expd., Mammalogy, 40, 1848. 
Arvicola trmchridgi Baird, Mainni. N. Am., 529, 1857. (Monterey, California.) 

Type locality. — San Francisco Bay, California. 

Habitat. — Dry meadows and grassy uplands, Upper Sonoran zone. 

Geographic distribution. — California, west of the Colorado Desert and 
the Sierra Nevada, and from Santa Ysabel, San Diego County, Calif., 
north to the Bogue Biver and Umpqua valleys, Oregon. 

General characters. — Size rather large, ears conspicuous above fur; 
pelage coarse and harsh, color similar to that of the house mouse; skull 
of adult heavy and angular, incisive foramina wide and open, usually 
widest posteriorly; a trace of hip glands in adult males. 

Color. — Summer pelage: Upperparts dull butty or clay-colored, slightly 
lined with blackish-tipped hairs; sides paler; belly light buffy or soiled 
whitish; tail bicolor, brownish above, buffy below; feet clear gray. 
Winter pelage: Much darker than the summer, with an excess of black- 
tipped hairs over the back; tail more sharply bicolor, blackish above. 
Young: Fur woolly and soft, duller and darker throughout than in the 
adult; belly dusky or plumbeous; feet and tail dusky. 

Cranial characters. — Skull of adult heavy, angular, and ridged ; nasals 
long, bent well down, widening abruptly in front, narrow and notched 
at posterior end, not reaching tip of ascending arm of premaxilhe ; 
prezygomatic notch deep; postorbital processes prominent; frontals 
concave posteriorly; incisive foramina open, rounded at both ends and 
usually widest posterior to middle. Incisors heavy, the upper bent 
abruptly downward, not extending beyond tip of nasals; molars large 
and irregular, posterior triangle of ml normally with an inner point or 
angle; posterior triangle of m2 with an inner point or angle or loop, 1 

1 In 100 specimens, 77 have 1 closed triangles in ni2, 20 have an open posterior loop, 
and 3 have a closed posterior loop ;is in pmnsylvanicus. 


suggesting the posterior loop in pennsylvanicus; m3 with three closed 
triangles, 3 outer and 1 inner salient angles; nil with 5 closed trian- 
gles and 9 or 11 salient angles. 

Measurements. — Average of 4 adults, 2 males and 2 females from 
Walnut Creek, Calif.: Total length, 171; 
tail vertebra-, 49; hind foot, 21.1. Of 10 
adults from Monterey: 172; 52; 22.3. Skull 
( 6 ad., iSo. 44G78, from Walnut Creek, 
Calif.): Basal length, 27.5; nasals, 8.5; zyg- 
omatic breadth, 1 6.6 ; mastoid breadth, 13.6; 
alveolar length of upper molar series, 6.S. FlG . 3 ._ Molar enamel pattern of 

Remarks. — But slight variation is shown Mierotw eaiifornieus.(x5). 

throughout the range of the species. Specimens from Santa Ysabel 
and the base of San Bernardino Mountains are indistinguishable from 
those of the shores of San Francisco Bay or from the Rogue River 
Valley, Oregon. A slight brightening in color is noticeable in speci- 
mens from Auburn. 1 The species is conspicuously absent from the 
bottom, or Lower Sonoran area, of the San Joaquin and Sacramento 
valleys, its place being taken in the title marshes of these valleys by 
the larger, darker, longer tailed species, 71/. edaoc. 

The skin of the type of 71/7 californicus in the United States National 
Museum agrees perfectly with series of specimens from Berkeley, Wal- 
nut Creek, and other localities around San Francisco Bay, hut the 
slightly immature skull is either abnormal or else never came from the 
same animal as did the skin. By some error it was given the same 
catalogue number as the type skull of 71/. occidentalism a synonym of M. 
townsendi, but it is not the skull of that species. 

Specimens examined. — Total number, 338, from the following locali- 

California: Walnut Creek, 6; Oakland, 1; Berkeley, 44; San Lorenzo, 3; 
San Mateo, 14; Novato, 7; Olen Ellen, 9; Nicasio, 16; Point Reyes, 34; 
Cape Mendocino, 2; Mill Valley, Marin County, 3; Olenia, 5; Cloverdale, 
14; Ukiah, 2; Lay tonville, 2 ; Round Valley, 1 ; Upper Lake, 1; Leesville, 
10 ; Bartlett Mountain, 1 ; Rio Dell, 1 ; Horubrook, 3 ; Little Shast a, 1 ; May- 
ten, 2; Cassel, 6; Red Blurt', 1; near Edgewood, 2; Grindstone Creek, 
Tehama County, 2; Auburn, 5; Jackson, 7; Chinese Camp, 2; Boulder 
Creek, 2; Monterey, 22; Jamesburg, 12; Jolon, 4; San Simeon, 1; Paso 
Robles, 1; Morro, 4; Pozo, 1; Gaviota Pass, Santa Barbara County, 4; 
Santa Barbara, 2; Ventura- River, 3; San Emigdio Canyon, Kern County, 
7; Mount McGill, Ventura County, 2; Calabasas, 3; San Fernando, 4; 
San Bernardino, 2; San Bernardino Mountains, 9; San Diego, 1; River- 
side, 5; Techeloto Canyon, Riverside County, 1; Little Bear Valley (San 
Bernardino Mountains), 1; Las Virginias Creek, 1; Radee, Riverside 
County, 1; Santa Ysabel, 10; near Tejon Pass, 1; Fort Tejon, 1; South 
Fork Kern River, 6. 

Oregon: Rogue River Valley (near Grants Pass), 7; Siskiyou, 4; Drain, 6. 

'The effect of red soil is noticeable in these as in some other mammals from the 
vicinity of Auburn. 


Microtus californicus vallicola Bailey, Proo. Biol. Soc. Wash., XII, 89, 1898. 

Type locality. — Loue Pine, Inyo County, California, 

Geographic distribution, — Valleys east of the Sierra Nevada, Cali- 
fornia. Confined mainly to Upper Sonoran zone. 

Habitat. — Dry, grassy banks, upland meadows, and old weedy fields. 

General characters. — Similar to californicus, but averaging slightly 
larger and darker. Proportions the same. 

Color. — Summer pelage: Upperparts dull sepia, darkened by black- 
tipped hairs, darker and with less buffy suffusion than in californicus ; 
belly dull grayish or smoky plumbeous; feet dusky; tail bicolor, black- 
ish above, grayish below. Winter pelage : Darker throughout, with the 
black hairs of the back longer and more conspicuous. Young : Sooty 
gray above, plumbeous below, not black backed; feet and tail dusky. 

Cranial characters. — Skull like that of californicus, but usually with 
smaller audital bulla', more abruptly truncated occiput, and nasals 
reaching nearer to tips of premaxillae; lobe at base of 4th triangle of 
middle upper molar sometimes developed into a loop. 

Measurements.— Type, 5 ad.: Total length, 200; tail vertebra', 57; hind 
foot, 23. Average of 7 specimens from type locality: 188; 50; 23. Skull 
(of type): Basal length, 29.4; nasals, 9.5; zygomatic breadth, 17.0; 
mastoid breadth, 13.4; alveolar length of upper molar series, 7.4. 

Remarks. — The range of this form is not widely separated from that 
of californicus on the west slope of the mountains, and the two forms 
may meet by way of Walker Pass and the South Fork of Kern River. 
The difference is not sufficiently marked to warrant full specific separa- 
tion, in view of the fact that their ranges are so nearly continuous that 
they occupy the same zone and have essentially the same habits. 

Specimens examined. — Total number, 52, from tlie following localities: 

California: Lone Pine, 26; Olancka, 3; Cartago (west side of Owens Lake), 3; 
Independence Creek, 1; Alvord, 8; Bishop Creek, 2; Panamint Mountains 
(head of Willow Creek at east end of Nelson Range), 9. 


Type from Cape Mendocino, California. No. 98347, U. S. Nat. Mus., Biological Sur- 
vey Collection. Collected Sept. 6, 1899, by Vernon Bailey. Original number, 7174. 

Geographic distribution. — Coast region near Cape Mendocino. 

Habitat. — Open grassy hillsides and old fields and pastures. 

General characters. — Smaller and grayer than californicus, with nar- 
rower skull, smaller audital bulla 1 , and narrower inter pterygoid fossa. 

Color. — Summer pelage (in September specimens): Butty gray above, 
whitish below; tail almost concolor, dull grayish; feet gray. 

Cranial characters. — Skull smaller and especially narrower than that 
of californicus, with slender nasals and rostrum ; bulla' small and nar- 
row; pterygoids close together; zygomatic arches not abruptly spread- 
ing and not notched at anterior junction with premaxilhe ; dentition as 
in californicus; tooth rows noticeably closer together. 

June, 1900.] MICROTUS EDAX. 37 

Measurements. — Average of 4 adults from type locality : Total length, 
103; tail vertebrae, 55; hind foot, 21.5. Skull (of type): Basal length, 
20; nasals, 8.9; zygomatic breadth, 15.0; mastoid breadth, 12; alveolar 
length of upper molar series, 0.7. 

General remarks. — There is a striking similarity in the characters 
separating this narrow skulled form from its widely distributed species 
californicus, and those separating angusticeps of the coast region a little 
farther north from the still more widely distributed mordax, that shows 
an interesting parallelism in geographic modifications. Both forms are 
from the wind-beaten coast strip where arboreal vegetation is scanty 
and dwarfed, and, like some of the trees, they apparently represent 
depauperate forms of widely distributed and more protected inland 
species. At Capetown, just back of Cape Mendocino, California, I 
found constrictus in great abundance on the open grassy hills. In 
some places the ground was perforated with their burrows, while on the 
surface their runways crossed in all directions. 

Specimens examined. — Four from the type locality, besides a large 
number in the flesh. 

MICROTIS EDAX (LeConte). Tule Vole. 
Arricoht edax Le Conte, Proc Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila.,Vl, 405, 1853. 

Type locality. — California [south of San Francisco]. 1 

Geographic distribution. — Bottom of the San Joaquin and Sacramento 
valleys, in Lower Austral zone. 

Habitat. — Tule swamps and wet places, under heavy grass,where the 
runways usually extend through mud and water and in places are 
flooded by the tide. 

General characters. — Size large; feet large and stout; hair long and 
coarse; skull long, angular, and much ridged in adults; hip glands 
inconspicuous or rudimentary in adult males. 

Color. — Winter pelage: Much blacker than in californicus; gray of 
upperparts more or less obscured by black; that in full, ripe pelage is 
glossed with iridescent purple;-' sides more grayish; belly washed with 
whitish; feet dusky; tail bicolor, black above and gray below or dusky 
gray above and whitish below. Summer pelage: Upperparts less glossed 
with black. Young: With black back, dusky sides, and paler dusky 
belly; feet and tail dark. 

Cranial characters. — Skull similar to that of californicus, but larger, 
more elongated, more heavily ridged in adults, with more expanded 
jugal and heavier dentition; molar pattern similar; m2 with usually an 
open posterior fifth loop. 

Measurements. — No. 58128, $ ad., from near Tracy, Calif. : Total length, 
217; tail vertebne, 72 ; hind foot, 2.j. An immature 9 from the same 
place: 107; 49; 23. An adult $ , No. 70002, from near Marysville Buttes: 
208; 07; 25. Skull (No. 70002, $ ad.): Basal length, 30; nasals, 9.2; 

■Baird, Mamm. N. Am. 532, 1857. 

- M. californicus and many other species show a purple gloss in high pelage, but 
lews marked than in some specimens of edax. 


zygomatic breadth, 17.7; mastoid breadth, 13.9; alveolar length of upper 
molar series, 7.8. 

Remarks. — The type of M. edax in the United States National Museum, 
at Dr. Merriam's request, has been relaxed, the skull removed, and the 
skin made over and greatly improved for purposes of comparison. 
The base of the skull has been cut away, but enough remains to show 
that the specimen is immature and is the large swamp species, instead 
of califomicus. The hind foot gives the only reliable measurement. In 
the dry skin it measures, flattened out, 23.5, and is proportionately 
stout. This is fully up to the flesh measurement of No. 57900 from Tracy, 
though the skull shows the latter to be slightly older. 

M. califomicus and M. edax differ widely in habits, their ranges conform 
to different zones, the distinctive characters are certainly strong enough 
for full specific recognition, and the present series shows no intergra- 

Specimens examined. — Total number, 50, from the following localities: 

California: Tracy, 2; Marysville, 1; near Marysville Buttes, 1; Union Island 
(San Joaquin River), 1; Snisun, 24; Tulare Lake, 2; Mendota, 19. 

MICROTUS SCIRPENSIS sp. nov. Desert Vole. 

Type from Amargosa River (near Nevada line), Inyo County, Calif. No. |f^|f, 9 ^d., 
U. S. Nat. Mus., Biological Survey Collection. Collected February 26, 1891, l>y 
Vernon Bailey. Original number, 2520. 

Geographic distribution. — Known only from the type locality. 

Habitat. — Wet ground under tall tales (Scirpus olneyi), where the 
runways extend through mud and water in a little marsh around a 
warm spring. 

General characters. — Size and proportions about as in edax, colors 
not so dark, tail long, skull heavy and angular, middle upper molar 
with rounded open or elosed posterior loop. 

Colors. — Winter pelage: Upperparts dark buffy gray, slightly darker 
than in califomicus, but not so black as in edax; belly smoky gray, 
tail indistinctly bicolor, brown above, grayish below; feet brownish 
gray, not dusky. Young: Upperparts black, belly grayish, a black dor- 
sal stripe retained until the animals are half grown. 

Cranial characters. — Skull of adult angular and heavily ridged ; in 
general characters resembling that of edax, but with more truncate 
posterior tip of nasals, heavier dentition, and well-developed inner pos- 
terior loop of middle upper molar. The same characters and larger 
size distinguish it from those of vallicola and calif ornicus, and the wide 
incisive foramina with many other characters distinguish it from that 
of its nearest neighbor — nevadensis. 

Measurements. — Type: Total length, 210; tail vertebra 1 , G7 ; hind foot, 
25. Average of 6 adults: 203; 65; 25.1. Skull (of type) : Basal length, 
31; nasals, 10; zygomatic breadth, 19; mastoid breadth, 13.0; alveolar 
length of upper molar series, 8.7. 

June, 1900.] MICROTIA OPERARIUS. 39 

General remarks. — Microtus scirpensis stands nearest to M. edax, and, 
except for the more completely developed posterior loop of middle 
upper molar, fits into the californicus group. Among 14 specimens the 
loop is closed in 7 and open in 7, while among 43 specimens of edax it 
is closed in 2, open in 32, and absent in 9, and among 100 specimens of 
californicus it is closed in 3, open in 20, and absent in 77. Although 
resembling pennsylvanicus in the fifth loop, in other characters it does 
not approach that group or any of its forms. In range it comes nearer 
to vallicola than to edax or californicus, but from rallicola it differs in 
the same way as from californicus. 

Specimens examined. — Total number, 14, from the type locality. 

MICROTUfl OPERARIUS (Nelson). Tundra Vole. 
Arvicola operarius Nelson, Proc. Biol. Soe. Wash., VIII, 139, Dec. 28, 1893. 

Type locality. — St. Michael, Alaska. 

Geographic distribution. — Barren grounds from Bristol Bay, St. 
Michael, and Kowak River, Alaska, east to Anderson River. 

Habitat. — Mossy tundras. 

General characters. — Size small; tail short, densely haired; ears small 
and wholly concealed in long winter fur: colors yellowish; skull slender 
and narrow ; dentition light. 

Color. — Winter pelage: Upperparts dark rich buff, slightly tinged 
along back with black-tipped hairs; sides paler; belly pale buffy or 
creamy white; tail soiled whitish below and on sides, a partly con- 
cealed blackish dorsal line; feet gray; heels tinged with dusky. Sum- 
mer pelage: Darker yellowish above, more buffy below. 

Cranial characters. — Skull rather slender and narrow, angular and 
well ridged in adults; nasals slender, ending even with arm of pre- 
inaxilke; bullae small and narrow; palate low; incisive foramina short, 
constricted posteriorly ; incisors projecting well in 
front of nasals ; molars very light ; m2 with 4 closed 
sections; m3 with 3 closed triangles, 3 outer and 3 
inner salient angles and terminal loop; ml with 4 
closed triangles, 3 outer and 5 inner salient angles, 
and fifth triangle open and confluent with short fig. 4.— Molar enamel pat- 
terminal loop, as in M. ratticeps of Europe. tern of Mierotu * "J' era - 

™ . . riw*(X5). 

Measurements. — Type (immature, measured in 
dry skin): Total length, 110; tail vertebras, 28; hind foot, 18. Aver- 
age of 10 adult topotypes, 1G8; 40; 10.7. Skull (of type) : Basal length, 
22.4; nasals, 5.8; zygomatic breadth, 12.4; mastoid breadth, 10.7; alve- 
olar length of upper molar series, 5.5. Skull (of adult $ , No. 9899) : 
27; 8; 16; 12.3; 6.3. 

General remarks. — Mr. E.W. Nelson found these voles abundant along 
the coast tundras of Bering Sea from Cape Vancouver north to Bering 


Strait, and on Nelson, St. Michael, and Stewart islands. 1 Mr. W. H. 
Osgood found them extending southward into the timbered region as 
far as the point where the Yukon crosses the Alaska boundary. 

Specimens examined. — Total number, 81, from the following localities: 

Alaska: St. Michael, 65; Kowak River, 1; Kagiktowik, 1; Bristol Bay, 1; 
Fort Yukon, 8; Circle, 1; 40 miles above Circle, 2; International boundary 
on Yukon, 1; Yukon River (200 miles southwest of Fort Yukon), 1. 

MICROTUS MACFARLANI Merriam. Maclarlane Vole 
Microtus macfarJani Merriam, Proc. Wash. Acad. Sci., II, 24, March 14, 1000. 

Type locality. — Fort Anderson, Anderson Eiver, Northwest Terri- 

Geographic distribution. — Tundra region of Arctic America, east of 
the Mackenzie Eiver. 

General characters. — Similar to operarius in external characters, but 
with shorter tail, shorter, wider skull and more projecting incisors. 
Fur very long and soft in winter specimens. 

Color. — Winter pelage: Upperparts light buffy gray; belly whitish; 
feet silvery gray; tail sharply bicolor, black above, white below. Sum- 
mer pelage: Darker and brighter buff or ochraceous. Young: More 

Cranial characters. — Compared with operarius: Skull short and wide; 
nasals shorter; incisors more projecting; bullae wider; incisive fora- 
mina shorter; molars slightly heavier; enamel pattern the same. With 
yakutatensis: Size smaller; coloration brighter; skull Hatter; nasals 
shorter; incisors more projecting; interparietal smaller. 

Measurements. — Type (in dry skin): Tail vertebra 1 , 29; hind foot, 
18.5; topotype (No. 9144) : tail, 27 ; hind foot, 19. Skull (of type) : Basal 
length, 26; nasals, 7; zygomatic breadth, 15.5; mastoid breadth, 12.5; 
alveolar length of upper molar series, 6. 

General remarks. — Material is so scanty from the Arctic regions that 
little is known of the range of this form, whether it meets and grades 
into operarius or yakutatensis, or whether it has a restricted and isolated 

Specimens examined. — Total number, 18, from the following local- 
ities : 

Northwest Territory: Fort Anderson, 4; Mackenzie River, 11; 'Arctic 
Coast,' 3. 

Microtus yakutatensis Merriam, Proc. Wash. Acad. Sci., II, 22. March 14, 1900. 

Type locality. — Yakutat Bay (north shore), Alaska. 
Geographic distribution. — Mainland of Alaska from Glacier Bay to 
Prince William Sound. 

» Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., VIII, 140, 1893. 


General characters. — Size medium, about equal to operarius, less than 
that of any of the island forms of the group. Color dusky, as in 
sitkensis, but belly whitish. Skull of adult male heavily ridged; bullae 
medium, rounded; interparietal large, shield-shaped. 

Color. — Summer pelage: Upperparts dusky gray, with a trace of 
brownish, darker dorsally; belly washed with soiled white or pale 
buffy; tail sharply bicolor, sooty or black above, whitish below; feet 
silvery gray, soles black. Young: Quarter-grown specimen (June 19), 
darker gray than adult, with black nape, whitish belly, sharply bicolor, 
black and white tail. 

Cranial characters. — Skull heavy, ridged and angular in adult male; 
interparietal large, shield-shaped; nasals long, with median constric- 
tion; dentition heavy. From the skull of operarius it differs in greater 
width, larger bulla 1 , heavier dentition; from that of unalascensis in 
smaller size, larger interparietal, slenderer nasals, smaller bulhe, 
shorter pterygoids. Molar pattern as in operarius. Skulls of adult 
females conspicuously smoother and less ridged than in males. 

Measurements. — Average of 10 adults (5 males and 5 females) from 
type locality: Total length, 161; tail vertebrae, 37; hind foot, 20.G. 
Skull (of type, $ ad., jSTo. 98005) : Basal length, 28; nasals, 8; zygomatic 
breadth, 16; mastoid breadth, 13; alveolar length of upper molar 
series, 7. 

General remarks. — This mainland form is readily distinguished from 
any of the island species of the group by either cranial or external 
characters, although it shows closer relationship with some of them 
than with the neighboring mainland species, operarius. If it has an 
uninterrupted range to the north it may grade into operarius, but at 
present there is no intermediate material to show whether it does or not. 

Specimens examined. — Total number, 17, from the following localities: 

Alaska: Yukutat, 29; Glacier Bay, 17 ; Prince William Sound, 1. 
Microtus ladiaccHsis Merriam, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., XI, 222, July 15, 1897. 

Type locality. — Kadiak Island, Alaska. 

Geographic distribution. — Known only from the type locality. 

General characters. — Size about that of sitkensis; belly white; ears 
very small; bulla' small and narrow; basioccipital short and wide. 

Color. — Summer pelage: Yellowish brown above, with scattered black 
hairs; sides paler; belly washed with pure white; feet silvery gray, 
heels dusky, soles blackish; tail not sharply bicolor, black above, 
whitish below. Young (in June) : Dull buffy gray above, maltese below. 

Cranial characters. — Skull flat, long, and narrow; audital bulhe small 
and laterally compressed; basioccipital short and wide; palate low, 
with sloping median ridge, lateral pits deeper, and incisive foramina 
wider than in sitkensis; nasals short, not reaching posterior tips of pre- 


maxillae; incisors projecting; molars small; m3 with 3 closed triangles 
and elliptical terminal loop, making 3 inner and 3 outer salient angles, 
as in operarius. 

Measurements. — Average of five adult males : Total length, 188; tail 
vertebra^, 50 ; hind foot, 2 1 . SMll (of topotype, $ ad. No. 97969,) : Basal 
length, 28; nasals, 8; zygomatic breadth, 16.5; mastoid breadth, 13.2; 
alveolar length of upper molar series, 6.4. 

Remarks. — This insular species belongs to the operarius group, but 
differs from operarius in larger size, smaller bulla 1 , and transversely 
longer and narrower interparietal. 

Specimens examined. — Total number, 12, from the type locality. 

MICROTUS UNALASCENSIS Merriam. Unalaska Vole. 
Microtus unalascensis Merriam, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., XI, 222, July 15, 1897. 

Type locality. — Unalaska, Alaska. 

Geographic distribution — Island of Unalaska. 

General characters. — Larger and more robust than operarius; belly 
white; feet light gray; skull well arched and heavily ridged; bulla' 
large and well rounded. 

Color. — Upperparts dull yellowish brown, darkest on head and rump; 
end of nose whitish; belly white or slightly soiled whitish; feet light 
gray with dusky soles; tail bicolor, a narrow line of blackish above, 
soiled white below. Young: Similar to adult. 

Cranial characters. — Skull considerably arched, deep, heavy, and 
angular; frontals heavily ridged in old age; bulla' medium, much larger 
than in operarius or hadiaccnsis; basioccipital narrowly constricted 
between bulla' ; dentition actually and relatively heavier than in opera- 
rius; molar pattern the same; m3 with 3 closed triangles and an inner 
salient angle confluent with rounded posterior loop; ml with 4 closed 
triangles, the fifth triangle confluent with shortened anterior loop. 

Measurements. — Type, $ im.: Total length, 12^; tail vertebra?, 28; 
hind foot, 19. Adult $ topotype, No. 97963: 181; 38; 22. Skull (of 
topotype): Basal length, 30; nasals, 8; zygomatic breadth, 17.7; mas- 
toid breadth, 14; alveolar length of upper molars, 7. 

Specimens examined. — Total number, 9, from the type locality. 


Microtus unalascensis jmpofensis Merriam, Proc. Wash. Acad. Sci., II, 22, March 14, 

Type locality. — Popof Island, Shumagin group, Alaska. 

Geographic distribution. — Known only from Popof Island. 

General characters. — Similar to Jcadiacensis, but slightly larger, with 
larger feet, relatively shorter and sharply bicolor tail. Skull less ridged, 
with larger bulla' and heavier molars. In size and proportions more 
nearly agreeing with unalascensis, from which it differs in wholly dusky 
nose, less ridged skull, smaller audital bullae and deeper prezygomatic 

■Tune, 1900.] MIOROTUS SITKENSIS. 43 

Color. — General coloration not readily distinguishable from that of 
kadiacensis; upperparts dark yellowish brown; nose dusky to tip; 
belly soiled white or pale buffy; tail sharply bicolor, whitish below, 
dusky or black above; feet silvery gray, with black soles and dusky 

Cranial characters. — Skull rather long and narrow; frontals not 
ridged in adults; prezygoinatic notch deep; audital bullae medium, 
not narrowly constricted as in kadiacensis, nor large and rounded as 
in unalascensis; palate with posterior point projecting into pterygoid 
fossa; incisive foramina short and wide; molar pattern as in operarius 
except in m.3, which has normally 4 inner and 3 or 4 outer salient 

angles; ml has 4 closed and 1 open triangle as in operarius. 

Measurements. — Average of 3 topotypes: Total length, 165; tail ver- 
tebrae, 38; hind foot, 22.4. An adult 9 , No. 97959: 188; 43; 22. Skull 
(of type, No. 97950, $ ad.): Basal length, 29.4; nasals, 8f)- 7 zygomatic 
breadth, 17.5; mastoid breadth, 13.5; alveolar length of upper molar 
series, 7.2. 

General remarks. — This species needs comparison only with unalas- 
censis and kadiacensis, from both of which it differs in slight external 
and well-marked cranial characters. The three are evidently from the 
same original stock that from long insular separation has beeu modified 
by somewhat varied conditions. 

Specimens examined. — Total number, 7, from the type locality. 

MICROTUS SITKENSIS Mcrriam. Sitka Vole. 
Microti!* sitkensis Mcrriam, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., XI, 221, July 15, 1897. 

Type locality. — Sitka, Alaska. 

Geographic distribution. — Known only from Baranof Island, Alaska. 

General characters. — Size medium, about that of unalascensis; color 
yellowish brown above and below; skull rather tiat, wide interorbit- 
ally; interparietal triangular; molars small; ml with 4 or 5 closed 

Color. — August pelage : Upperparts rusty brown, brightest on rump 
and nose, besprinkled with blackish hairs; sides paler; belly washed 
with dark buff; nose blackish; feet silvery plumbeous; heels and soles 
black; tail sharply bicolor, black above, pale buff below. 

Cranial characters. — Skull long and flat, with no trace of superciliary 
ridges, wide iuterorbitally; tip of nasals reaching back of premaxilla?; 
interparietal narrow, subtriaugular; bullae medium and globose; pal. 
ate long and flattened, lateral bridges low, lateral pits shallow; incisive 
foramina short and narrow; incisors projecting well beyond nasals; 
dentition slightly more intricate than in operarius; ml has 4 or 5 
closed triangles and a rounded terminal loop with a sharp inner salient 
angle; m.3 has 3 closed triangles and 4 inner and 4 outer salient 


Measurements. — Type, & ad.: Total length, 155; tail vertebrae, 42; 
hind foot, 23. Adult 5 topotype: 190; 45; 22. Skull: Basal length, 
25.5; nasals, 7; zygomatic breadth, 14.2; mastoid breadth, 11.3; alve- 
olar length of upper molar series, 6. Skull (of topotype, V ad.): 30; 
8; 17.7; 14; 7. 

Remarks. — Microtus sitkensis belongs to a well-marked group of tlie 
subgenus Microtus with the molar pattern of M. ratticeps of Europe, 
although in sitkensis ml is usually closed up, making 5- triangles 
instead of 4. 

Specimens examined. — Total number, 2, from the type locality. 

MICROTUS INNUITUS Merriara. Innuit Vole. 

Microtus innuitus Merriam, Proc. Wash. Acad. Sci., II, 21, March 14, 1900. 

Type locality. — St. Lawrence Island, Bering Sea, Alaska. 

Geographic distribution. — Known only from St. Lawrence Island. - 

General characters. — Size large; tail of medium length, sharply 
bicolor; skull wide and low, with projecting incisors; dentition mainly 
as in the operarius group. 

Cranial characters. — Skull ridged and angular, not much arched; 
braincase short and wide; nasals short and cuueate, falling consider- 
ably back of base of incisors; interparietal sin all, semicircular; bulla? 
large, somewhat flattened and angular; pterygoids short; interptery- 
goid fossa very narrow; dentition heavy, incisors conspicuously pro- 
jecting; molars with sharply constricted enamel folds; ml with only 4 
closed triangles, m3 with three closed triangles, a short posterior loop, 
and long posterior inner salient angle. 

Measurements. — Tail vertebrae, 44; hind foot, 23. Skull (of type) : 
Basal length, 32.5; nasals, 9; zygomatic breadth, 19.5; mastoid breadth, 
15.3; alveolar length of upper molar series, 7.2. 

General remarks. — The specimens from St. Lawrence Island were 
taken from regurgitated pellets of owls and jaegers, and consist of 
skulls, feet, tails, and imperfect skeletons. The animals are abundant. 
Many were seen running in the grass by members of the Harrimau 
party who landed for a short time on the island. The species of 
Microtus coming geographically nearest to St. Lawrence Island is 
tshuktshorum Miller, from Plover Bay, on the Siberian coast, a tiny spe- 
cies bearing little resemblance to the present one. 

Specimens examined. — Ten more or less imperfect skulls, besides feet, 
tails, and parts of skeletons, from the type locality. 

MICROTUS ABBREVIATUS Miller. Hall Island Vole. 

iJicrvtus abhreviatus Miller, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., XIII, 13, Jan. 31, 1899. 

Type locality. — Hall Island, Bering Sea, Alaska. 

Geographic distribution. — Known only from Hall Island. 

General characters. — Size rather large; tail very short, and densely 
haired; ears concealed in long fur; feet large and stout, measuring 
about 23. 


Color. — July pelage: Upperparts dark buff or yellowish brown, bright- 
est over ears, face, and ramp; belly creamy white or pale buff; tail 
sharply bicolor, a narrow line of dark brownish above, creamy below; 
feet soiled white. Young (half-grown specimens): Duller and darker. 

Cranial characters. — Skull similar to that of unalascensis in size and 
general appearance, but more heavily ridged, with deeper prezygomatic 
notches, larger, more quadrangular interparietal, shallower lateral 
pits of palate; slightly smaller and especially narrower audital bulke; 
rather lighter dentition, with different molar pattern, nil and m2 with 
base of posterior triangles broadly open; m3 shortened, with but 2 
closed triangles, 3 outer, and 4 iuner salient - „ 

r\ f\ f\/\/\ t^(%/\ -\ 

augles, the third triangle opening into short pos- ■ j-V \ _ vA_ j fry 

terior loop; nil with 5 completely closed triangles, 

and a well developed anterior trefoil, 4 outer, and 

5 inner sharp, salient angles back of terminal QwM^vw 

loop. From the St. Matthew Island subspecies 

. . Fig. 5.— Molar enamel pat- 

fisheri, it diners in molar pattern as trom unettas- tern of Microtia abbren- 
ccnsis, and also in slenderer skull and rostrum, atu *( 5 >- 
slenderer zygomata, and wider interpterygoid fossa. 

Measurements. — Average of 4 adult topotypes: Total length, 100; 
tail vertebra', 25.7; hind foot, 23.3. Skull (of No. 97981, $ ad.): Basal 
length, 30.3; nasals, 8.8; zygomatic breadth, 18; mastoid breadth, 14; 
alveolar length of upper molar series, 7: 

General remarks. — Microtus abbreviates was described from an alco- 
holic specimen retaining none of the original colors. On the Harriman 
expedition 7 specimens Mere collected July 14 on Hall Island, and for 
the first time the natural appearance of the animal was made known. 
In external characters it strongly resembles a lemming on account of 
the short tail, long fur, and stout form, but the skull is that of a robust 
Microtus. It belongs to the subgenus Microtus, and in general char- 
acter comes nearest to the operarius group, from which it is excluded, 
however, by its unique molar pattern — m3 having but 2 closed tri- 
angles, while ml has 5. 

Specimens examined. — Total number, <S, from the type locality. 

MICROTUS ABBREVIATUS FISHERI Merriam. St. Matthew Island Vole. 
Microtus abbreviatus fisheri Merriam, Proc. Wash. Acad. Sci., II, 23, March 14, 1900. 

Type locality. — St. Matthew Island, Bering Sea, Alaska. 

Geographic distribution. — Known only from St. Matthew Island. 

General characters. — Similar to abbreviates, but slightly larger and 
darker; rostrum longer and heavier; nasals anteriorly expanded and 
posteriorly notched. 

Color. — Summer pelage (July specimens): Upperparts dark rich buff, 
brightest over ears, face, and rump, sprinkled with black hairs over 
back; belly strong clear buff; tail buff, with concealed dusky line above; 
feet pale buffy. Young (half- grown specimens): Duller and darker. 


Cranial characters. — Skull larger than in abbreviatus, with relatively 
narrower braincase; rostrum longer and heavier on account of the 
longer, anteriorly spreading nasals; posterior tip of nasals distinctly 
notched; dentition slightly heavier than in abbreviatus, but with essen- 
tially the same molar enamel pattern. 

Measurements. — Average of 7 adults, 1 male and 6 females, from St. 
Matthew Island: Total length, 166; tail vertebrae, 27; hind foot, 22.7. 
One adult $ : 178; 32; 24. Skull (No. 97976, $ ad.): Basal length, 
31.3; nasals, 9.8; zygomatic breadth, 19; mastoid breadth, 14; alveolar 
length of upper molar series, 7.3. 

General remarks. — Microtus a. Jisheri needs comparison only with 
abbreviatus, from which it differs in well-marked subspeciflc characters. 
The external differences are less marked than the cranial, as a natural 
result of the very similar conditions on the neighboring islands occu- 
pied by the two forms. Hall Island, the home of abbreviatus, is sepa- 
rated from St. Matthew Island, the home of Jisheri, by about 4 miles of 
deep sea. 

Specimens examined. — Total number, 8, from the type locality. 

MICROTUS TOWNSENDI (Bachman). Townsend Vole. 

Arvioola townseiidi Bachman, Journ. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., VIII, 60, PI. I, 1839. 
Arvicola Occident alls Peale, II. S. Expl. Expd., Mammalogy, 45, 1848. (Puget Sound.) 

Type locality. — Lower Columbia liiver, near mouth of Willamette, on 
or near Wappatoo (or Sauvie) Island. 

Geographic distribution. — Low country west of the Cascades, from 
Port Moody, British Columbia, south to the Willamette Valley and to 
Yaquiua Bay, Oregon, in Transition zone. 

Habitat. — Open grass land, pastures, fields, and dry meadows. 

General characters. — Size large; fur thin and harsh; ears conspicuous 
above fur; color dark brownish; a pair of conspicuous glands on hips 
in adult males. 

Color. — Summer pelage: Back Vandyke browu, much darkened with 
long black hairs; sides dark buffy gray; belly grayish or dusky; tail 
blackish, scarcely lighter below; feet plumbeous gray. Winter pelage 
(imperfect in late October and April specimens) : Slightly grayer above 
and lighter below. Young : Darker than adult, with dusky belly and 
blackish feet and tail. 

Cranial characters. — Skull long and not much arched; angular and 
heavily ridged in old age; superciliary ridges conspicuous; incisive 
foramina long and narrow, constricted posteriorly ; lateral pits of palate 
deep: bullae medium in size and well rounded; dentition heavy; ni2 
with four closed sections; m3 with 3 closed triangles, 4 inner and 3 
outer salient angles; ml with 5 closed triangles, 5 inner and 4 outer 
salient angles. The long, narrow incisive foramina distinguish the 
skull most readily from that of calijbrnicus. 


Measurements. — Adult male from Oregon City, Oreg. : Total length, 
226; tail vertebra", 66; bind foot, 26. Average of 10 adults, 5 6 and 5 9 , 
from Avon, Wash. : 193; 64; 2~>.4. Skull (No. 50907, from Oregon City, 
Oreg.): Basal length, 29.2; nasals, 8.4; zygo- 
matic breadth, 17.1; mastoid breadth, 13.5; 
alveolar length of upper molar series, 7.5. 

General remarks. — Microtus townsendi has 
no close affinities with any species except 
tetramerus of Vancouver Island. Except for 

the COllSpicilOUS hip glands, it COineS nearest Fie. 6 —Molar enamel pattern of 

,■17. 7 ' -1 7 Microtus townsendi (■ 5). 

to the longicaudus and moraax group in com- 
bination of general characters. Almost no variation is shown through- 
out its rather limited range, and there are no characters by which to 
recognize occideutalis even as a subspecies. 

Specimens examined. — Total number, 74, from the following localities: 

Oregon: Oregon City, 1; Aumsville, 2; Yaquina Bay, 5; Newport, 6; Shel- 

burn, 1 (iin); Salem, 1. 
Washington: Teniuo, 2; Steilacoom, 3; Roy, 2; Kent, 1; Lake Washington, 

Seattle (south end), 3; Avon, 25; Mount Vernon, 4; Sank, 1. 
British Columbia: Port Moody, 16; Chilliwack, 1. 

MICROTUS TETRAMERUS (Rhoads). Vancouver Vole. 

Arr.icola ( Tetramerodon) tetramerus Rhoads, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., Oct., 1894, 

Type locality. — Beacon Hill Park, Victoria, British Columbia. 

Geographic distribution. — Southern end of Vancouver Island. 

General characters. — Like townsendi, but slightly smaller, with slen- 
derer feet and tail and narrower, slenderer skull. 

Color. — Indistinguishable from that of toicnscndi, in either winter or 
summer pelage. 

Cranial characters. — Skull smaller, slenderer, and less arched than in 
townsendi, with superciliary ridges never quite meeting; nasals rela- 
tively shorter and more spreading anteriorly; incisors slenderer; molars 
smaller but with the same enamel pattern. 

Measurements. — Average of adult males from Coldstream (near 
Victoria), Vancouver Island: Total length, 177; tail vertebra', 54.3; 
hind foot, 22. The largest of a series of 14: 190; 60; 23. Skull (No. 
91901, £ ad.): Basal length, 27.3; nasals, 7.8; zygomatic breadth, 16; 
mastoid breadth, 12.4; alveolar length of upper molar series, 6.7. 

General remarks. — The marked difference in size, together with slight 
cranial characters, separates this insular form as an easily recognizable 
species. Specimens of townsendi from the nearest localities on the 
mainland, Port Moody, British Columbia, and Avon, Wash., show no 
tendency toward tetramerus. The small series of specimens includes 
both summer and winter pelage. 

Specimens examined. — Total number, 17, from near the type locality: 

Vancouver Island, B. C: Goldstreaiu, 16; near Victoria, 1. 


MICROTUS LONGICAUDUS (Merriam). Long-tailed Vole. 
Arvicola (Mynomes) longicaudus Merriam, Am. Nat., XXII, 934-935, Oct., 1888. 

Type locality. — Custer, S. Dak. (in the Black Hills at an altitude of 
about 5,500 feet). 

Geographic distribution. — Boreal cap of the Black Hills and down 
some of the cold streams well into the Transition zone. 

Habitat. — Banks of cold streams and in mountain meadows. 

General characters. — Size of body about equal to tbat of Mierotus 
pennsylvanicus ; tail much longer; ears larger; colors grayer; skull 
flatter ; braincase wider. 

Color. — Summer pelage: Upperparts dull bister, darkened with nu- 
merous black-tipped hairs, becoming grayish on the sides and shading 
into dull, buffy gray on belly ; feet plumbeous; tail dimly bicolor, black- 
ish above, soiled whitish below. Winter pelage (old and faded in a June 
specimen from Sundance, Wyo.): Upperparts grayish bister, mixed 
with blackish-tipped hairs, shading gradually into slightly paler sides 
and dull whitish belly; tail distinctly bicolor; feet soiled whitish. 

Cranial characters. — Skull long and not much arched; rostrum long; 
nasals reaching to anterior plane of incisors; bulla 1 large and rounded; 
molar pattern similar to that of pennsylvanicus, except for absence of 
posterior loop in middle upper molar; m3 with 3 closed triangles, 3 
outer and 4 inner salient angles; ml with anterior loop, 5 closed tri- 
angles, 4 outer and 5 inner salient angles. From mordax it differs in 
slightly shorter, heavier rostrum and wider nasals; narrower interptery- 
goid fossa; wider expansion of jugal; shorter and wider condyloid 
ramus of mandible. 

Measurements. — Type, 9 ad.: Total length, 185; tail vertebra?., 05; 
hind foot, 21. Topotype, 9 ad.: 181; 61 j 22. Skull (of type): Basal 
length, 25; nasals, 7.8; zygomatic breadth, 15.2; mastoid breadth, 11.6; 
alveolar length of upper molar series, 6.3. 

General remarks. — Mierotus longicaudus stands as one of the few out- 
lying and isolated forms, though the first-described species of its widely 
distributed group. Its nearest neighbor is M. mordax of the Bighorn 
Mountains, Wyoming, between which range and the Black Hills neither 
species is known to occur. 

Specimens examined. — Total number, 6, from the following localities: 

South Dakota: Custer, 2. 

Wyoming: Sundance (in the western edge of the Black Hills), 4. 

MICROTUS MORDAX (Merriam). Cantankerous Vole. 

Arvicola (Mynomes) mordax Merriam, North American Fauna No. 5, 61, July 30, 1891. 
Mierotus vellerosus Allen, 1 Bui. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., XII, 7, March, 1899. (Liard 

River, Northwest Territory.) 
Mierotus eautus Allen, 1 Bui. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., XII, 7, March, 1899. (Hell Gate, 

Liard River, Northwest Territory.) 

1 The types of Mierotus rcllerosus and H. eautus, kindly loaned me for comparison 
by Dr. Allen, agree in every character with specimens in corresponding pelage of 
M. mordax from its type locality. The type of vellerosus, collected May 4, shows the 
dark brownish-gray back of imperfect summer pelage, while the type of eautus, col- 
lected November 29, shows the light gray pelage of early winter. 

Junb, 1900.] MICROTUS MORDAX. 49 

Type locality. — Sawtooth (or Alturas) Lake, east foot of the Sawtooth 
Mountains, Idaho. 

Geographic distribution. — Rocky Mountains and outlying ranges from 
latitude 60° to northern New Mexico, and south in the Cascades and 
Sierra Nevada as far as Kaweah and Kern rivers, California. In the 
Cascades mainly confined to the east slope, but extending west to 
the Siskiyous, in southern Oregon, and Salmon and Trinity mountains, 
in northern California. Found in most of the isolated ranges of east- 
ern Oregon and northern and central Nevada. Common in Canadian 
and Hudsonian zones. 

Habitat. — Marshes and wet woods, but more especially the banks of 
cold mountain streams, down which it often extends into the Transition 

General characters. — Size medium; tail long; ears large; feet small; 
no conspicuous side or hip glands in males. Very similar to longicaudus. 

Color. — Summer pelage : Back grayish bister; sides olive gray; belly 
washed with whitish; nose dusky; feet plumbeous; tail dimly bicolor, 
dusky above, soiled whitish below. Winter pelage: Lighter colored 
than in summer; dorsal stripe of yellowish bister more sharply con- 
trasted with the deeper gray of sides and face; belly heavily washed 
with pure white; tail sharply bicolor; feet whitish. Young: Darker, 
less sharply marked than the adults; feet and tail dusky. 

Cranial characters. — Skull light and slender, similar to that of longi- 
caudus, but with slightly longer, slenderer rostrum and nasals; slen- 
derer zygomata, and longer condylar ramus of 
mandible; dentition essentially the same; m2 
with 4 closed sections, the posterior open ; m3 
with anterior crescent, 3 closed triangles, and pos- 
terior loop with 2 inner salient angles; ml with 5 
closed triangles, 5 inner and 4 outer salient angles F ' G ' 7_ „ M " 1 , ar enamel P at - 

° ' & tern of Microtus mordax 

back of anterior loop; second and third lower (x5). 
molars each with 3 outer and 3 inner salient angles. 

Measurements. — Type: Total length, 200; tail vertebra?, 77; hind foot, 
22. Average of five adults from type locality, 182; 00; 22. Skull (of 
type): Basal length, 20.5; nasals, 8.0; zygomatic breadth, 10.2; mas- 
toid breadth, 12.8; alveolar length of upper molar series, CO. 

General remarks. — The species has a wide and frequently interrupted 
range, but shows remarkably slight variation of characters. Even 
from the southern extremities of the Rocky Mountains and Sierra 
Nevada the variation is too slight for subspecific recognition. Speci- 
mens from isolated ranges in Nevada are practically typical. 

Specimens examined. — Total number, 708, from the following localities : 

Idaho: Sawtooth Lake, 35; Lemhi, 4; Lost River Mountains, 2; Sahnou 
River Mountains, 1; Three Creek, 1; Preuss Mountains, 1; Montpelier 
Creek, 3; Kingston, 1; Osborn, 1; Mullau, 10; Cceur d'Alcne, 7; Craig 
Mountains, 1; Seven Devils Mountains, 3; Priest Lake (east side), 2. 

Utah: Laketown, 6; Park City, 1; Barclay, 3; near Barclay, 4. 
18392— No. 17 1 


Colorado: Estes Park, 2; Ward, 4; Gold Hill, 2; Longs Peak, 10; Canyon 
City, 1 ; Lake City, 2 ; Silverton, 5 ; Fort Garland, 12. 

New Mexico: Chama, 1; Martinez, 1; Agna de Lobo, 1 (no skull). 

Wyoming: Bridger Pass, 14; Bighorn Mountains, 1; Lake Fork, near Bull 
Lake, 4; Clark Fork, mouth of Crandle Creek, 3; Tower Falls, Yellow- 
stone Park, 2. 

Montana: Red Lodge, 2; Pryor Mountains, 8; Fort Custer, 2; Big Snowy 
Mountains, 2; Jefferson River, 1; Blackfoot, 1 ; St. Marys Lake, 3 ; Java, 4; 
Summit, 5; Flathead Lake, 8; Tobacco Plains, 2; Horse Plains, 3; Upper 
Stillwater Lake, 6; Prospect Creek, 11 ; Thompson Falls, 2 ; Silver, 4. 

Nevada : Reese River, 18 ; Arc Dome, 15 ; Indian Creek, 1 ; Shoshone Mountains, 
north of Cloverdale, 5; Pine Forest Range, 3; Granite Creek, 8; Mountain 
City, 15; Bull Run Mountains, 1; White Mountains, 6; Ruby Mountains, 
14; Monitor Mountains, 2. 

California : Near Mount Whitney, 31 ; Olancha Peak, 1 ; Mulkey Meadows (near 
Olancha Peak), 1 ; Soda Springs (on North Fork of Kern River), 1 ; Mineral 
King (on East Fork Kaweah River), 19; Upper San Joaquin River, 2; Lone 
Pine, 2; Bishop Creek, 2; Queen Station, 1; Sequoia National Park, 24; 
Yosemite Valley, 3; Pine City, 1; Mammoth, 7; White Mountains, 4; Dou- 
ner, 3; Sierra Valley, 3; Hope Valley, 2; Carberry Ranch, 10; Emerald 
Bay, 5 ; Goose Lake, 2 ; Warner Creek, 1 ; Lassen Creek, 2 ; Lassen Peak, 19 ; 
Etna, 1; Trinity Mountains, 4; Canyon Creek, 16; Plumas County (20 miles 
southwest of Quincy), 2; Mount Shasta, 59; Sisson, 15; Goose Nest Moun- 
tain, 1; Bear Creek (Shasta County), 1. 

Oregon: Siskiyou. 6; Fort Klamath, 18; Crater Lake, 5; Diamond Lake, 5; 
Sink Creek (east of Mount Thielson), 1 ; Upper Des Chutes River, Little 
Meadows (near head of Des Chutes River), 2; Farewell Bend (Des Chutes 
River, 30 miles southwest Prineville), 2; Swan Lake Valley, 2; head of 
Drews Creek, 1 ; Warner Mountains, 3; Steen Mountains, 6; Summit (east 
of Malheur Lake), 1; 10 miles north of Harney, 9; Maury Mountains, 5; 
Wallowa Mountains, 3; Lone Rock, 1. 

Washington: Cleveland, 2; Wenatchee, 5; head of Lake Chelan, 12 ; Easton, 
2; Conconully, 3. 

British Columbia : Mount Richtor, 2 ; Nelson, 1 ; Sicamous, 5 ; Hope, 2 ; Shus- 
wap, 1 ; Glacier, 3; Okanagan, 2; Bennett City, 6. 

Alberta: Henry House, 19 ; 15 miles south of Henry House, 4; south of Smoky 
River, 3; Banff, 1. 

Northwest Territory : Liard River, 2 ; Rink Rapids (upper Yukon), 1; Lake 
Lebarge, 2; Lake Marsh, 1. 

Alaska : Charlie Creek (Upper Yukon), 4 ; Circle, 1 ; White Pass, 5 ; Skagway, 1. 

MICROTUS MACRURUS Merriam. Olympic Vole. 
Microtus macrurus Merriam, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., Aug., 1898, 353. 

Type locality. — Lake Cushtnan, Olympic Mountains, Washington. 

Geographic distribution. — (The typical form) Olympic Mountains. 
(With slight variation) along the coast strip of British Columbia ami 
Alaska north to Yakutat. 

Habitat. — Marshes and borders of cold streams. 

General characters. — Like mordax, but considerably larger, with con 
spicuously larger hind foot and darker coloration. 

Color. — Summer pelage: Upperparts dark bister, shaded with numer- 
ous black hairs, becoming sooty gray in some specimens; sides slightly 
paler; belly washed with dull buffy or whitish; feet plumbeous; tail 
distinctly bicolor, blackish or brownish above, soiled whitish below, 


usually white-tipped. ( Winter pelage unknown.) Young: Darker than 
adult, with blackish feet and tail. 

Cranial characters. — Skull averaging much larger than mordax, with 
wider interorbital region, heavier rostrum, smaller audital bullae, aud 
heavier dentition; molars especially wider; lower jaw conspicuously 
more massive, with wide, heavy molars. 

Measurements. — Type: Total length, 220; tail vertebrae, 88; hind foot, 
24. Average of five specimens from three localities in the Olympic 
Mountains: 204; 80; 24.3. Skull (of type, No. GG151, $ ad.): Basal 
length, 27.7; nasals, 8.2; zygomatic breadth, 16; mastoid breadth, 12.5; 
alveolar length of upper molar series, 7. 

General remarks. — Microtis macrurus is the most conspicuously 
marked and easily recognizable form of the longicaudus group, though 
with less deeply seated characters than some forms that arc externally 
scarcely distinguishable from each other. In the Olympic Mountains 
its range is completely isolated, being separated from that of mordax 
by the intervening low country, the habitat of the larger toicnsendi, and 
by the high Cascades, in which neither form occurs. To the northward 
it again occurs, in nearly typical form, on the coast at Lund, British 
Columbia (lat. 50°), and extends northward along the coast to Yakntat, 
Alaska, becoming slightly smaller and less markedly different from true 

Specimens examined. — Total number, 84, from the following localities: 

Washington: Lake Cushman, 7; head of Skokoiuish River, I; head of 

Soleduc River, 1; Quineault Lake, 4; Granville, 1. 
British Columbia : Lund, on Malaspina Inlet, 3; River Inlet (head), 14; Fort 

Simpson, 6. 
Alaska: Loring, 3; Wrangell, 4; Juneau, 12; Yakutat, 7; Yakutat Bay (north 

shore), 10; Glacier Bay, 11. 

Microtus angusiiceps Bailey, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., XII, 86, April 30, 1899. 

Type locality. — Crescent City, California. 

Geographic distribution. — Coast region of northwestern California and 
southwestern Oregon. 

Habitat. — Damp pastures in the Sitka spruce belt. 

General characters. — Smaller aud darker colored than typical mordax, 
with very narrow, slender skull and small audital bullae. 

Color. — Summer pelage: Upperparts dark bister, lined with black 
hairs, darkest on face and nose; sides paler; belly washed with creamy 
white; feet plumbeous gray; tail distinctly bicolor, blackish above, soiled 
white below. 

Cranial characters. — Skull small and very narrow, distinctly ridged in 
adidts; nasals projecting in front of incisors; incisive foramina short; 
audital bullae very small and constricted; coronoid notch of mandible 
narrow; incisors slender; molars small, with narrow, sharp angles; 
enamel pattern as in mordax. 


Measurements. — Type, S ad.: Total length, 170; tail vertebra 1 , 56; hind 
foot, 22. An adult 9 topotype: 170; 55; 22. Skull (of type): Basal 
length, 23.4; nasals, 7.6; zygomatic breadth, 13.5; mastoid breadth, 
10.8; alveolar length of upper molar series, 6. 

General remarks. — Externally this species is not very different from 
true mordax, but the skull shows such marked characters as to warrant 
full specific rank. 

Specimens examined. — Total number, 45, from the following localities: 

California: Crescent City, 31; Areata (Humboldt Bay), 13. 
Oregon: Gold Beach, 1. 

MICROTUS ALTICOLUS (Merriam). Mountain Vole. 

Arvicola (Hynomes) alticolus Merriam, North American Fauna No. 3, 67-69, PI. V, 
figs. 1 and 2; PI. VI, figs. 1, 2, 3, and 4; Sept. 11, 1890. 

Type locality. — San Francisco Mountain, Arizona (Little Spring, 
on northwest side of mountain, altitude S,200 feet). 

Geographic range. — Boreal zone of San Francisco Mountain, from 
8,200 feet altitude up to timberline at 11,000 feet. 

Habitat. — Vicinity of springs and cold streams on the slopes of the 

General characters. — Similar to longicaudus, but tail shorter, hind foot 
and ear smaller, and skull with truncate, instead of pointed, anterior 
end of frontal and deeper lateral pit of palate. 

Color. — Summer pelage: Upperparts uniform sepia or dull bister, 
darkened with blackish-tipped hairs; sides scarcely lighter; belly pale 
huffy or whitish ; feet dull grayish or dirty whitish; tail not sharply 
bicolor, blackish above, grayish below. Young: Similar to adults, but 
with woolly fur aud long, scattered, black-tipped hairs. ( Winter pelage 

Cranial characters. — Skull similar to that of mordax, but readily dis- 
tinguished from it and those of all other forms of the group by truncate 
end of anterior arm of frontal. Other characters are, deeper lateral pits 
of the palate; wider interpterygoid fossa; slightly longer, more open, 
incisive foramina. Dentition similar to that of longicaudus and mordax. 

Measurements. — Type, 9 ad.: Total length, 170; tail vertebra 1 , 56; 
hind foot, 20. Average of 5 adults from type locality: 178; 56; 20. 
Skull: Basal length, 25; nasals, 7.5; zygomatic breadth, 14.8; mastoid 
breadth, 12.3; alveolar length of upper molar series, 6.5. 

General remarks. — Microtus alticolus, with its subspecies leucophceus, 
is the most isolated form in the longicaudus group. Its geographieally 
nearest neighbor and probably nearest relative is mordax, in the moun- 
tains of Colorado aud northern New Mexico. 

Specimens examined. — Total number, 13, from the type locality. One 
immature specimen from Springerville, in the White Mountains, may 
be either alticolus or leucophwus. 

June, 1900.] 


MICROTUS ALTICOLUS LEUCOPH.EUS (Allen). Graham Mountain Vole. 
Jrricola leucophceus Allen, Bui. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., VI, 320-321, Nov. 7, 1894. 

Type locality. — Graham Mountains, Arizona. 

Geographic distribution. — Known only from the type locality. 

General characters. — Similar to alticolus, and of the same proportions, 
hut slightly larger, color the same, skull wider interorbitally and with 
other slight differences. 

Color. — Summer pelage : Upperparts sepia or dull bister, but little 
paler on sides and faintly lined with blackish hairs; belly washed with 
soiled whitish; feet dull grayish; tail distinctly bicolur, brown above, 
grayish below. (Young and winter pelages not represented.) 

Cranial characters. — Skull wider interorbitally than in mordax or alti- 
colus; anterior arm of frontal with triangular instead of truncate point; 
incisive foramina wider than in alticolus, slightly constricted posteriorly; 
lateral pits of palate wide and shallow; coronoid notch narrow and 
sharp. Dentition as in alticolus and mordax. 

Measurements. — Type, 9 ad.: Total length, 173; tail vertebrae, 50; 
hind foot, 22.5. Topotype, 9 ad.: 183; 50;" 23. Skull (of type) : Basal 
length, 26.5; nasals, 8.3; zygomatic breadth, 15.2; mastoid breadth, 
12.3; interorbital width, 4.2; alveolar length of upper molar series, 6.3. 

General remarks. — Microtus leucophceus belongs to the longicaudus 
group. It is closely related to alticolus, from which size and slight 
cranial characters separate it as a fairly well-marked subspecies. 

Through the kindness of Dr. J. A. Allen, of the American Museum of 
Natural History, I have the type and a topotype of M. leucophceus for 
comparison with the Biological Survey series of alticolus, mordax, and 

Specimens examined. — Total number, 2, from the type locality. 

MICROTUS MEXICANUS (De Saussure). Mexican Vole. 

Arvicola (Hemiotoviys) mexicauus De Saussure, Revue et Mag. tie Zool., 2e s6r., XIII, 
3, Jan., 1861. 

Type locality. — Mount Orizaba, Puebla, Mexico. 

Geographic distribution.— Eastern Puebla and to the north and west, 
grading into its subspecies phceus. 

Habitat. — Grassy places in open forests, in upper Austral and Tran- 
sition zones. 

General characters. — Size rather small; tail short; ears conspicuous; 
pelage coarse and lax; colors brownish; skull wide, with short, wide 
incisive foramina; ml normally with 6 inner salient angles. 

Color. — Winter pelage: Upperparts grizzled brown, from a mixture of 
dull cinnamon and black; sides paler; belly washed with cinnamon or 
huffy, or rarely with whitish ; sides of nose and ear coverts usually a 
brighter shade of cinnamon; feet clear gray; tail dusky above, gray 
below. Summer pelage (imperfectly represented): Evidently darker 
and less ferruginous. Young: Duller and darker than adult. 


Cranial characters. — Skull rather angular, with wide- spreading zygo- 
matic arches, narrow interorbital constriction, and large, well-rounded 
audital bullae; incisive foramina short and wide, truncate posteriorly; 
zygomata broadly flattened; palate with a median groove between the 
lateral pits where a spur or ridge appears in most species of Microtus; 
upper incisors abruptly decurved; molar pattern differing from that of 
nanus and montanus — mainly in extra angle of anterior trefoil of ml; 
most of the salient angles acute; m2 has 4 closed sections; m3 has 3 
closed triangles, 3 outer and 4 inner salient angles; ml has 5 closed 
triangles, 5 outer and G inner salient angles. 1 

Measurements. — Average of 10 adults from the type locality (5559): 
Total length, 138; tail vertebrae, 29; hind foot, 19.35; maximum: 148; 
30; 20. SJcull (of topotype, No. 51496, $ ad.): Basal length, 21.5; 
nasals, 7.4; zygomatic breadth, 15.3; mastoid breadth, 11.6; alveolar 
length of upper molar series, 6.6. 

General remarks. — Microtus mexicanus, phceus, fulviventer, and mogol- 
lonensis form a well-marked and closely united group of small, short- 
tailed, brownish voles, distinguished by the arrangement of mamma? in 
two pairs, a pair of inguinal, and a pair of pectoral ; by wide-spreading 
zygomatic arches and narrow interorbital constriction; by wide inci- 
sive foramina and grooved posterior ridge of palate; and by similar 
habits and habitat. They need comparison only among themselves. 
While mogollonensis and fulviv enter are well-marked forms, occupying 
widely separated and probably disconnected areas, mexicanus and 
phceus merely show the extremes of differentiation found in one wide- 
ranging and somewhat variable form. As only those from the type 
localities are really typical, any line separating mexicanus and phceus is 
purely arbitrary. 

Specimens examined. — Total number, 194, from the following localities 
in Mexico : 

Puebla : Mount Orizaba, 27 ; Chalchicomula, 22. 
Vera Cruz : Cofre de Perote, 29; Las Vegas, 11. 
Tlaxcala: Mount Malincbe, 1 ; Huamantla, 2. 

Hidalgo: Sierra de Pachucii, 7; Tulaucingo, 7; Real del Monte, 10. 
Morelos : Huitzilac, 4. • 

Mexico: Ajusco, 6; Toluca Valley, 20; North slope Volcan de Toluca, 9; 
Mount Popocatepetl; 19 ; Ainecameca, 1 ; Salazar, 19. 

MICROTUS MEXICANUS PH^US (Merriam). Colima Vole. 

Microtus phceus Merriam, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., VII, 171-172, Sept. 29. 1892. 

Type locality. — North slope of Sierra Nevada de Colima, Jalisco, 
Mexico (altitude 10,000 feet). 

Geographic distribution. — Southern Jalisco and northward to north- 
western Chihuahua (to the eastward, grading into mexicamis), occu- 
pying Boreal and Transition zones. 

'This extra number of angles is a weak character depending on tbo slightly un- 
usual development of tbo anterior trefoil of ml, so tbat a pair of short points or 
angles may in most cases be counted on its inner and outer sides. 


Habitat. — Grassy parks in open timber. 

General characters. — Similar to mexicanus, but slightly larger and a 
shade darker, and with slight cranial differences. 

Color. — Winter pelage: Upperparts uniform dark cinnamon brown 
mixed with blackish; belly a lighter shade of cinnamon or buffy, or 
sometimes whitish; feet brownish gray; tail brownish gray, paler 
below. Summer pelage: Not shown in specimens from near the type 
locality, but June specimens from El Salto, Durango, are brighter and 
darker ferruginous than topotypes in winter pelage. Young: Dull 

Cranial characters. — Skull similar to that of mexicanus, but with less 
constricted interorbital region, slightly shorter incisive foramina, and 
shallower prezygomatic notches. Dentition essentially the same. 

Measurements. — Average of 10 adult topo- 
types (5 $ and 5 9): Total length, 151; tail 
vertebra?, 35; hind foot, 20.5. Skull (topo- 
type, Sad., No. 45(345): Basal length, 25.2; 
nasals, 7.3; zygomatic breadth, 15.5; mastoid 
breadth, 12; alveolar length of upper molar 

Series 6 08 ^ la ' 8-— Molar enamel pattern of 

, Y ' , , __.. , . , Microtus 2>hcnus (X 5). 

General remarks. — Microtus m. plmus is not 
a strongly or sharply marked form of mexicanus, although apparently 
the more widespread form. Ajusco and Salazar specimens might as 
well be referred to it as to mexicanus. A large series from near Guad- 
alupe, in southwestern Chihuahua, are indistinguishable from typical 
pJuvus, and those from Miquihuana, western Tamaulipas, are nearer 
to plueus than to mexicanus. 

Specimens examined. — Total number, 13G, from the following localities 
in Mexico: 

Jalisco: Sierra Nevada de Colinia, 17. 

Michoacan: Nabuatzin, 23. 

Queretaro: Pinal de Amoles, 9. 

Tamaulipas: Miquihuana, 20. 

Durango : El Salto, 25. 

Chihuahua: Sierra Madre uear Guadalupe y Calvo, 19; Colouia Garcia, 23. 

Microiitsfidriventer Merriam, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., XII, 106, April 30, 1898. 

Type locality. — Cerro San Felipe, Oaxaca, Mexico. 

Geographic distribution. — Central part of the State of Oaxaca. 

Habitat. — Open grassy places and along edges of fields in the Boreal 

General characters. — Slightly larger than mexicanus and of nearly the 
same proportions; darker and. richer in coloration; ears conspicuous 
above fur; tail a little more than one and a half times the length of 
hind foot. 

Color. — Summer pelage: Upperparts umber brown, darkened by black 
hairs; under parts fulvous or dull chestnut brown ; feet grayish brown ; 


tail dusky brown above, fulvous below, darker toward the end. Winter 
pelage (in October and March specimens) : Less deeply colored. Young: 
Dull sooty, with scarcely a trace of fulvous. 

Cranial characters. — Skull similar to that of mexicanus, but with 
smaller bulla?, longer incisive foramina; sharper posterior point of 
frontals; molars slightly heavier, enamel pattern almost the same; ml 
has a more rounded anterior loop. 

Measurements. — Average of 10 adult topotypes (5 $ and 5 9): Total 
length, 152 ; tail vertebra?, 35 ; hind foot, 20.5. Type ( $ ad.) : 151 ; 38 ; 20. 
Skull (of type) : Basal length, 25.4; nasals, 7.4; zygomatic breadth, 15.5; 
mastoid breadth, 12.4; alveolar length of upper molar series, 6.5. 

General remarks. — M. fulviv enter belongs to the mexicanus group, but 
is sharply separated in its distinguishing characters as well as in geo. 
graphic range. But little variation is shown throughout its range 
and although specimens from the mountains near Ozolotepec show 
differences, these are slight and unimportant. 

Specimens examined. — Total number, 120, from the following localities 
in Mexico : 

Oaxaca: Cerro San Felipe, 32; Reyes, 23; 15 miles west of Oaxaca, 20; 
Mount Zempoaltepec, 28 ; nearCajones, 5; Guajainaloya, 1 (im.); mountains 
near Ozolotepec, 9; Totontepec, 8. 

MICROTUS MOGOLLONENS1S (Mearns). Mogollon Mountain Vole. 
Arvicola mogollonensis Mearns, Bui. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., II, No. 4, 283-284, Feb., 1890. 

Type locality. — Baker Buttes, Mogollon Mountains, Arizona. 

Geographic distribution. — Plateau country of central Arizona. 

Habitat. — Dry grassy parks among the yellow pines of the Transition 

General characters. — Size small; tail and feet short; color dull rusty 
brown; fur long and soft; ears not concealed; skull short, wide, and 
angular; lateral pits of palate very deep; an inner projecting point at 
base of posterior triangle of middle upper molar. 

Color. — Upperparts dull rusty brown, brightest on tips of ears; sides 
slightly paler; belly cinnamon or buffy gray; feet grayish brown; tail 
brownish gray above, grayish below. 

Cranial characters. — Skull short and well arched, with wide-spreading 
zygomata and sharply constricted interorbital region ; zygomatic shield 
broad and flat; interparietal small and narrow; nasals notched pos- 
teriorly, falling considerably short of terminus of premaxillse; bulla 1 
full and rounded; incisive foramina short, wide, and open; incisors 
wider than m nanus and bent more abruptly downward; molar pattern 
as in mexicanus, except in m2, which has an inner point at base of pos- 
terior triangle, and in ml, which has 5 closed triangles and only 5 
inner and 4 outer salient angles and an abbreviated terminal loop. 


Measurements. — Average of 10 adults from San Francisco Mountain, 
Arizona: Total length, 131; tail vertebrae, 28.5; hind foot, 18. Skull 
(adult $ , No. 21503): Basal length, 23.6; nasals, 7; zyg matic breadth, 
15.2; mastoid breadth, 12; alveolar length of upper molar series, 0.3. 

Remarks. — M. mogollonensis is widely separated, both geographically 
and specifically, from the other members of its group. Its nearest ally 
is phceus from Mexico. 

Specimens examined. — Total number, 51 ; from the following localities : 
Arizona: San Francisco Mountain (Little Spring on north side of mountain), 

15; Springerville, 35. 
New Mexico: Fort Wingate, 1. 

MICROTUS XANTHOGNATHUS (Leach). Yellow-cheeked Vole. 
Arricola xanthognalha Leach, Zool. Miscel., 1,60, 1814. 

Type locality. — Hudson Bay. 

Geographic distribution. — Northwestern Canada and Alaska, from 
central Alberta north to the Arctic coast and west to central Alaska. 

General characters. — Size large, almost equaling that of richardsoni, 
but tail shorter and ears larger; colors dull ; nose and ear patch yellow ; 
skull heavy, ridged, and angular. Side glands as in richardsoni, or a 
little farther back on flanks. 

Color (March and May specimens). — Upperparts dark sepia to bister, 
heavily lined with coarse black hairs over the back; sides of nose and 
ear patch bright rusty yellowish, a tinge of the same around eyes and 
on cheeks; belly dusky gray; breast sooty; tail indistinctly bicolor, 
blackish above, dusky gray below ; feet sooty. 

Cranial characters. — Skull smaller than that of richardsoni and 
relatively longer and narrower, with less projecting incisors; nasals 
long and narrow; bulla 1 large; incisive foramina long and narrow; den- 
tition heavy; molar pattern scarcely dif- 
ferent from that of townsendi; anterior loop 
of m.l small and triangular; middle sec- 
tion of m.3 frequently divided into two 
nearly closed triangles. 

Measurements. — Two dry skins from Fort 
Resolution, Great Slave Lake, Canada, 
adult females, in U. S. Nat. Mus. No. 4501 : F,G ; f 9 - Molar enamel patten, of 
Total length, 210; tad vertebra',, 50; hind 

foot, 27. No. 4502: 218; 45; 25. Skull (No. 4504): Basal length 
(approximately), 34.5; nasals, 10.3; zygomatic breadth, 20; mastoid 
breadth, 15.7; alveolar length of upper molar series, 8.5. 

Remarks. — Microtias xanthognathus shows no close relationship to any 
other American species. In the position of side glands it resembles 
richardsoni, but in no other characters. It shows a strong superficial 
resemblance to chrotorrhinus in color, but the great difference in size 
prevents the possibility of one ever being mistaken for the other. 


Specimens examined. — Total number, 44, from the following localities: 

Canada: Nelson River, N. W. T., 1; Cache Apocotte (40 miles east of Henry 

House, Alberta), 1; Fort Resolution, 22; Great Slave Lake, 1 ; FortRae, 1; 

Liard River, 1; La Pierre House, 1; Anderson River, 1; Arctic coast (east 

of Fort Anderson), 2. 
Alaska: Mouth of Porcupine River, 1; Yukon (200 miles southwest of mouth 

of Porcupine), 3; Charlie Creek (Upper Yukon), 9. 

ArvicoU clirotorrhinns Miller, Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., XXVI, 189-193, pi. 3, 1894. 

Type locality. — Mount Washington, New Hampshire, head of Tuck- 
erman Kavine (altitude, 5,300 feet). 

Geographic distribution. — Mount Washington, the Catskills, central 
Quebec, and northern New Brunswick, in the Hudsonian zone. 

Habitat. — Rocky places near water on the mountains, and in deep 
spruce forests farther north. 

General characters. — Size and proportions of pennsylvanicus except 
slightly smaller hind foot; ears larger; fur lax; conspicuously yellow- 
ish about nose, ears and rump; skull comparatively thin- walled and 
smooth; dentition unique. - 

Color. — Summer pelage (July 14): Upperparts bright glossy bister, 
lined with black hairs; nose to eyes dull orange rufus; hairs around 
ears and on rump yellowish; belly plumbeous; feet dark gray; tail 
grayish brown, slightly paler below. Worn, left-over winter pelage: 
Darker and more rusty above. 

Cranial characters. — Skull light and smooth, somewhat flattened on 
top, superficially reseinblingthat of Evotomys; bulke large and rounded ; 
incisive foramina short and wide; dentition rather light; incisors bent 
down at right angles to axis of skull, extending scarcely beyond tip of 
nasals; m2 with 4 closed sections; ni3 normally with 5 closed triangles, 
5 inner and 5 outer salient angles and a double-lobed posterior loop; m3 
with outer salient angles prominent and reentrant angles deep. 

Measurements. — Type: Total length, 165; tail vertebrae, 45; hind foot, 
19.4. Average of 4 adult topotypes : 170 ; 48 ; 19.6. Skull (of ad. 6 , No. 
2523, Bangs Coll.): Basal length, 25.4; nasals, 7.2; zygomatic breadth, 
15; mastoid breadth, 12; alveolar length of upper molar series, 6.4. 

Remarks. — Microtus chrotorrhinus shows a marked superficial resem- 
blance to M. xanthognathus, but in cranial characters it differs widely 
from this and all other American species and is quite unique in the 
subgenus Microtus. In the specimens examined there is no trace of 
hip glands, but in two adult males (3845 and 3849) there appear to be 
rudiments of side glands on the flanks. 

Specimens examined. 1 — Total number, 8, from the following localities :- 

New Hampshire: Mount Washington, 3. 
New York: Catskill Mountains, 1. 
Quebec: Lake Edward, 4. 

1 Type in collection of G. S. Miller, jr. ; other specimens in the collection of E. A. 
and O. Bangs. 

2 Mr. Miller records a specimen in the Am. Mus. Nat. Hist, from Trousers Lake, New 
Brunswick— Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist., XXVI, 193, 1894. 

June, 1900.] SUBGENUS ARVICOLA. 59 

Microtns ehrotorrhinus ravus Bangs, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., XII, 187, Nov. 16, 1898. 

Type locality. — Black Bay (north shore of Strait of Belle Tsle), 

Geographic distribution. — Known only from the type locality. 

General characters. — Similar to ehrotorrhinus, but slightly grayer, and 
with noticeably more yellowish on nose and face. Skull slenderer, with 
lighter dentition. 

Color. — Summer pelage (July specimens): Upperparts grayish bister, 
becoming yellowish on rump; whole face from behind ears suffused with 
yellowish, brighter on nose; belly thinly washed with white over the 
plumbeous; feet buffy gray; tail brownish above, slightly paler below. 

Cranial characters. — Skull, compared with that of ehrotorrhinus, 
slightly thinner, lighter, and slenderer throughout; interorbital con- 
striction narrower; rostrum longer and narrower; incisive foramina 
longer; molar series shorter and narrower; tooth pattern as in ehrotor- 

Measurements. — Type, 1 <? ad. : Total length, 170; tail vertebra 1 , 50; 
hind foot, 22. Average of 4 adult topotypes: 159; 40; 21.25. Skull 
(No. 7952, 9 ad.): Basal length, 25; nasals, 7; zygoaiatic breadth, 14.3; 
mastoid breadth, 11.3; alveolar length of upper molar series, 0.2. 

General remarks. — July specimens from the type locality ar.e in full, 
long pelage, with a freshness of appearance and brightness of color 
quite different from the type of ehrotorrhinus of nearly the same date. 
There is a question as to whether the real summer pelage is shown. 

Specimens examined. — Total number, 5, from the type locality. 

Subgenus ARVICOLA Lacepede. 

Arvicola Lac^pfde, Nonv. Tableau Method. Mamm., in Mom. do l'lnstit., Paris, III, 

495, 1801. Type, Mus terrestris Linnaeus (genus). 
Arvicola Lataste, Le Naturaliste, II, 349, 1883 (subgenus). 

Geographic distribution. — (In America) Boreal zone of the Cascades 
and Rocky Mountains of Canada and the northern United States. 

Subgeneric characters. — (In American species) plantar tubercles, 5; 
side glands on flanks of males conspicuous; 
a muskdjearing anal gland; mamma?, 8; pec- 
toral, 2-2; inguinal, 2-2; feet large; tail 
long; fur full and long; bulla? very small; 
incisors projecting far beyond premaxillre; 
molars with constricted and tightly closed 

Sections; m2 With 4 Closed Sections; m3 Fig. 10,-Molar enamel pattern or 

with 3 closed triangles; ml with 5 closed Miervm ^ ArmU) maeropu * (x 5) " 

1 The measurements of type and 4 topotypes are from original description. Iu 3 
adult topotypes the bind foot measures uniformly 20 mm. in dry skins with toes 

2 For full synonymy of the subgenus Arvicola, see Miller, N. Am. Fauna No. 12, 
66, 1896. 


triangles, 5 inner and 4 outer salient angles; m3 with 3 transverse loops. 
(In the European section of the subgenus ui3 has but 2 closed triangles, 
and nil but 3.) 

MICROTUS RICHARDSONI (De Kay). Richardson Vole. 
Arricola richard.soni De Kay, Zoology of New York, Mammalia, 91, IS \2. 

Type locality. — " Near the foot of the Rocky Mountains." (Type col- 
lected by Drummoud in the vicinity of Jasper House, Alberta.) 

Geographic distribution. — The typical form is known only from the 
vicinity of Jasper House and Henry House, Alberta, Canada. To the 
south it apparently grades into macropm in the Rocky Mountains, and 
arvicoloides in the Cascades. 

General characters. — Size very large (probably not exceeded in Amer- 
ica except by all eni)- 7 tail long; feet large; furlong and heavy; ears 
mostly concealed; colors dull; skull large and angular, with protruding 

Color. — Early winter pelage (October 14 to 18) : Upperparts uniformly 
grayish sepia, darkened by black tipped hairs, becoming paler on the 
sides; belly washed with white over the plumbeous under-fur; feet 
silvery gray; tail bicolor, dusky above, soiled whitish below. 

Cranial characters. — Skull large, with wide-spreading zygomatic 
arches, long rostrum, very long and protruding incisors; nasals rather 
short and wide, rounded at both ends, not reaching to base of incisors; 
audital bullae small for a Microtus, but slightly larger and more rounded 
than in either of the subspecies; incisive foramina longer and less 
constricted posteriorly; superoccipital smooth without median ridge; 
terminal loop of third upper molar normally not recurved. 

Measurements. — Young adult, No. 81381, from 25 miles west of Henry 
House: Total length, 208; tail vertebra', 61 ; hind foot, 28. Skull (ot 
same): Basal length, 32.5 (over incisors); nasals, 8.3; zygomatic 
breadth, 19.9; mastoid breadth, 14.6; alveolar length of upper molar 
series, 7.5. 

General remarks. — Richardson's specimens, which he referred to 
Arvicola riparius, and which were later re-described by De Kay, were 
collected by Thomas Drummond in the foothills of the Rocky Moun- 
tains, probably west of Jasper House. In October, 1896, J. Alden 
Loring collected a series of 8 specimens at points 15 and 25 miles west 
of Henry House (10 or 50 miles southwest of Jasper House), Alberta, 
on the very trail by which Drummond crossed from Jasper House to 
the Columbia in 1826. Unfortunately, none of this series are fully 
adult, and but one condition of pelage is shown. By comparing speci- 
mens of the same age it becomes evident that the species equals the 
larger of its two southern forms, arvicoloides, though in color it 
agrees more nearly with the Rocky Mountain form, macropus. A 
single specimen from Glacier, British Columbia, is fairly intermediate 
between richardsoni and its two southern subspecies. 

Specimens examined. — Total number, 8, from west of Henry House, 
Alberta, Canada. 


Arpicola macropus Merriam, North American Fauna No. 5, 59-60, ls;il. 

Type locality. — Pahsimeroi Mountains, Idaho (altitude about 9,700 

Geographic distribution. — Boreal zone of the Rocky Mountains from 
the Wasatch north to Canada, of the Wind River Mountains of Wyo- 
ming, the Blue Mountains of Oregon, and most of the intermediate 

General characters. — Similar to richardsoni, but evidently somewhat 
smaller; colors the same in October specimens: distinguished by less 
projecting incisors and other cranial characters. 

Color. — Summer pelage: Upperparts dark sepia, lined with long, 
black hairs; slightly paler on sides; belly washed with silvery white; 
feet dusky gray; tail distinctly bicolor throughout its length, sooty 
above, whitish below. Winter pelage (imperfect in October and May 
specimens) : Lighter, clearer gray above, black hairs less conspicuous, 
more heavily washed with white below. Young: Like adult or slightly 
darker, with long, woolly fur and dusky feet and tail; during one stage 
of pelage with entirely dusky belly. 

.Cranial characters. — Skull similar to that of richardsoni, from which 
it differs in less projecting upper incisors, longer nasals with narrower 
posterior tips ; supraoccipital with a median ridge; bulla* smaller, more 
compressed and angular; incisive foramina sharply constricted poste- 
riorly; third upper molar with terminal loop recurved in about halt of 
the specimens. 

Measurements. — Type, 9 ad.: Total length, 220; tail vertebra', 71; 
hind foot, 26. Male from type locality (not fully adult): 202; 08; 28. 
Skull (of type): Basal length, 31.5; nasals, 9; zygomatic breadth, 19.7; 
mastoid breadth, 14.5; alveolar length of upper molar series, 7.5. 

General remarks. — In a large series of specimens from numerous 
ranges of the Rocky Mountains the subspecies remains rather uniform. 
There is a slight increase in size toward the north, specimens from 
northern Montana averaging larger than from the type locality. Those 
from Strawberry Butte and the Wallowa Mountains of eastern Ore- 
gon are indistinguishable from the type series. Two half grown speci- 
mens from the top of the Wasatch Mountains, near Park City, Utah, 
are too young to indicate reliable specific variation. 

Specimens examined. — Total number, 113, from the following localities: 

Idaho: Pahsimeroi Mountains, 8; Salmon River Mountains, 11 ; Sawtooth (or 

Alturas) Lake, 18; head of Wood River, 2; Summit, Alturas County, 1; 

Seven Devils Mountains, 2; head of Crow Creek, Preuss Mountains, 4; 

Thompson Pass, 3; Priest Lake, 1. 
Utah : Park City, 2. 
Wyoming: La Barge Creek, 5 ; South Pass City, 1; Lake Fork, Wind River 

Mountains, 10. 
Montana: Beartooth Mountains, 17; Summit, Teton County, 2; St. Marys 

Lake, Teton County, 4. 
Oregon : Strawberry Butte, 2; Wallowa Mountains, 20. 



Aulacomys arvicoloides Rhoads, Am. Nat., XXVIII, 182-185, Feb. 11, 1894. 
Microtus principalis Rhoads, Am. Nat., XXIX, 940, Oct., 1895. (Mount Baker 
Range, British Columbia.) 

Type locality. — Lake Keeclielus, near Snoqualinie Pass, Kittitas 
County, Washington (altitude 8,000 feet). 

Geographic distribution. — Boreal zone of the Cascade Mountains, in 
Washington and Oregon. 

General characters. — Apparently equal to richardsoni in size, larger 
than macropus, and slightly darker than either. In cranial characters 
nearer ma crop us than richardsoni. 

Color. — Summer pelage: Upperparts dark sepia, considerably dark, 
ened with coarse black hairs; belly thinly washed with pearl gray or 
silvery whitish; feet dusky gray; tail bicolor, blackish above, soiled 
whitish below. Winter pelage: Darker than summer, with an excess 
of black hairs above; belly strongly washed with white; feet and tail 
as m summer. Young not different from young macropns. 

Cranial characters. — Skull like that of macropus, but larger; rostrum 
and incisors slightly heavier; nasals more broadly spreading ante- 
riorly, with a slight constriction near tbe middle, narrow, and pointed 
posteriorly; audital bullae, incisive foramina, and arc of upper incisors 
as in mueropus. 

Measurements. — Average of G adults, 3 males and 3 females, from 
Easton, Wash, (near the type locality): Total length, 234; tail ver- 
tebrae, 81; hind foot, 29.3. Largest specimen of the series: 253; 89; 29. 
Skull (No. 41578, S ad., from Easton): Basal length, 3G; nasals, 10.S; 
zygomatic breadth, 23; mastoid breadth, 16.3; alveolar length of upper 
molar series, 8.3. 

General remarks. — I have before me a series of 13 specimens, col- 
lected at Easton, on the outlet of Lake Keeclielus, about 12 miles from 
the type locality, and a large number of specimens from the upper 
slopes of Mount Rainier, as well as farther north and south in the Cas- 
cades. It is safe to assume that these Easton specimens are typical, 
especially as there is little variation shown throughout the Cascades 
of Washington. As at present known, the ranges of arvicoloides and 
macropns are Avidely separated, but no doubt they meet and coalesce 
in richardsoni of the Canadian Rockies. 

Specimens examined. — Total number, 101, from the following localities : 

Washington: Easton, 13; head of Cascade River, 2; Mount Rainier and 

vicinity, 34; Mount St. Helens, 4; Wenatchee, 1. 
Oregon: Mount Hood, 11 ; Marmot, 1; Mount Jefferson, 2; Detroit, 1; Crater 

Lake, 22; Anna Creek, hase of Mount Mazama, 10. 

Subgenus PITYMYS ' McMurtrie. 

Psammomys Tue Conte, Ann. Lyceum Nat. Hist. N. Y., Ill, 132, 1830. Type Psammomys 

pinetorum Le Conte. (Not Psammomys Cretzschmar, 1X28). 
Pitymys McMurtrie, Cuvier's Animal Kingdom, Am. edition, I, 434, 1831. Type 

Psammomys pinetorum Le Conte. (New name for Psammomys Le Conte.) 

1 For full synonymy of the suhgenus Pitymys, see Miller, N. Am. Fauna No. 12, 58, 

Junb, 1900.1 MICROTUS PINETORUM. 63 

Geographic distribution (in America). — Southeastern United States, 
mainly in Upper Austral zone, and a small area in the Tropical zone of 
southeastern Mexico. 

Subgeneric characters. — Plantar tubercles, 5; mam- 
ma, 4, two pairs of inguinal; lateral glands on hips 
in adult males; ears very small; tail short; fur 
short, dense, and glossy. Skull Hat and wide, with 
quadrate braincase; bulla; small; molars narrow; 
m3 with 2 closed triangles; ml with 3 closed and 2 Fi s- ll -Molar enamel 

, pattern of Microtus 

open triangles; nil' with anterior pair of triangles {Pitymys)pinetorum 
confluent; ni3 with 3 transverse loops. ( x5) " 

MICROTUS PINETORUM (Le Conte). Piue Vole. 

Psammomya pinetorum Le Conte, Arm. Lye. Nat. Hist. N. Y., Ill, 133, PI. II, 1830 
(read Dec. 21, 1829). 

Type locality. — Pine forests of Georgia. Probably the old Le Conte 
plantation at Riceboro. 

Geographic distribution. — Georgia and the Carolinas. 

Habitat. — Fields, open woods, and grassy uplands. 

General characters. — Size small; ears very small; tail short; fur short 
and fine; colors bright. 

Color. — Upperparts bright russet brown with a distinct gloss, becom- 
ing lighter on sides; belly dusky, lightly washed with color of back: 
tail brownish, darker above; feet grayish brown; ears concealed in the 

Cranial characters. — Skull short and wide with a quadrangular brain- 
case and abruptly truncate occiput; interparietal wide and normally 
somewhat lozenge-shaped; mastoids and bulla? relatively small; inter- 
pterygoid fossa normally V-shaped. Molar series rather short and 
crowded; two middle triangles of m3 often confluent; first pair of reen- 
trant angles in ml usually not meeting between anterior loop and first 
pair of salient angles. 

Measurements. — Average of 2 adult females from Georgetown, S. 0.: 
Total length, 113; tail vertebra, 18.5; hind foot, 15.5. Skull (No. 1523, 
Merriam Coll., $ ad., from Frogmore, S. C.) : Basal length, 22.3; nasals, 
7.3; zygomatic breadth, 15; mastoid breadth, 12.5; alveolar length of 
upper molar series, C. 

General remarks. — No definite type locality was given in the original 
description of pinetorum, but the species was said to inhabit the sandy 
soil of the pine barrens of Georgia. Very probably the type came from 
the vicinity of the old Le Conte plantation, near Riceboro, Ga. Thir- 
teen specimens in the Merriam collection, from Beaufort County, S. C, 
about GO miles from Riceboro, are probably fairly typical, and are taken 
for the basis of the above description. They represent the extreme 
development of the bright cinnamon brown and small-eared form of 
the Atlantic coast region. Northward through the Atlantic States the 


specimens become darker and duller colored without other important 
modifications, except a slight average increase in size. The species 
described as scalopsoides from Long Island, and later as apella from 
Pennsylvania, includes this Northern form and seems worthy of recog- 
nition as a subspecies. 

/Specimens examined. — Total number, 32, from the following localities: 

Georgia: Columbus, 2. 

South Carolina: Beaufort County (Beaufort, Frogmore, and St. Heleua 

Island), 13; Georgetown, 2; Society Hill, 1. 
North Carolina: Old Richmond, 1; Raleigh, 11; Tarboro, 2. 


Arvicola scalopsoides Aud. & Bach., Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1,97, 1841. 

Arvicola apella Le Conte, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., VI, 405, 1853. Type from 

Arvicola kennicotti Baird, Mamm. N. Am., 547, 1857. Type from Illinois. 

Type locality. — Long Island, New York. 

Geographic distribution. — Southern New York and westward to Illinois, 
southward along the coast, blending into true pinetorum. 

Habitat. — Open grassy country, meadows, pastures, and waste places. 

General characters. — Larger, darker, and duller than true pinetorum . 

Color.— Upperparts dull brownish chestnut, slightly darkened by 
dusky-tipped hairs; sides paler; belly lightly washed with dull buff 
over plumbeous under-fur; feet brownish gray; tail indistinctly bicolor, 
sooty above, grayish below. 

Cranial characters.— Skull similar to that of pinetorum, but larger, 
with heavier molars. 

Measurements. — Average of three adults from Lake Grove, Long 
Island: Total length, 125; tail vertebne, 20; hind foot, 16.3. Skull 
(No. 88732, same locality) : Basal length, 23.5; nasals, 7.4; zygomatic 
breadth, 16; mastoid breadth, 12.6; alveolar length of upper molar 
series, 6.6. 

Specimens examined. — Total number, 83, from the following localities: 

New York : Lake Grove, Long Island, 4 ; Millers Place, Long Island, 2 ; Oyster 
Bay, Long Island, 1; Sing Sing, 4; Lake George, 1; Locust Grove, 1. 

Pennsylvania: Philadelphia, 1. 

New Jersey : Tnckertou, 3. 

Maryland: Laurel, 2; Kensington, 1 ; Bladensburg, 2. 

District of Columbia : Washington, 27. 

Virginia: Falls Church, 4; Dunn Loring, 1 ; Fort Myer, 1; Clark County, 2 ; 
Cape Charles, 4; Bcllehaven, 1 ; Wallaceton (Dismal Swamp), 4. 

North Carolina: Currituck, 2; Magnetic City, 1. 

West Virginia : White Sulphur Springs, 6. 

Ohio: A specimen in the U.S. Nat. Mus., collected by Kennicott, is labeled 

Indiana: Brookville, 2 (approaching auricularis) ; Torre Haute, 1. 

Illinois: West Northiield, 2; Warsaw, 2. 

June, 1900.] MICKOTUS NEMORALIS. f)5 

Microtua pinetorum aurieularia Bailey, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., XII, 90, April 30, 1898. 

Type locality.— Washington, Mississippi. 

Geographic distribution. — Northern Mississippi, Tennessee, Kentucky, 
and southern Indiana, or in a general way the region between the Alle- 
gheny Mountains and the Mississippi Eiver, mainly in the Lower 
Austral zone. 

General characters. — Size small, about equaling that of pinetorum ; 
ears very large for a Pitymys and conspicuous above fur; colors dark 
and ricb, not always darker than scalopsoides but richer and more 
intense; fur short and dense like that of pinetorum. 

Color. — Upperparts dark rich chestnut darkened by dusky-tipped 
hairs; belly washed with paler chestnut over dark under-fur; project- 
ing tip of ear with scattered dusky hairs; tail not bicolor, scarcely 
darker above, like the back or slightly darker; feet dull brownish. 

Cranial characters. — Skull like that of pinetorum in form and general 
characters; interpterygoid fossa normally U-shaped instead of V-shaped. 

Measurements. — Type: Total length, 120; tail vertebra, 22; hind 
foot, 16. Average of six adult specimens from the type locality, meas- 
ured in the flesh by collector: 119; 22; 17. Skull (of type): Basal 
length, 22..':$; nasals, 7; zygomatic breadth, 15.2; mastoid breadth, 12.3; 
alveolar length of upper molar series, 6. 

General remarks. — A series of 31 specimens in the Merriam collec- 
tion from Eubank, Ky., average darker and richer in coloration than 
the type series and have equally large ears. Specimens from Brook- 
ville, Inch, are dark and dull colored and might pass for either this spe- 
cies or scalopsoides. A single specimen from Hickman, Ky., is immature 
but apparently typical. A flat skin with crushed skull from Barron 
Springs, near Fredericksburg, Tex., has the large ear and small foot of 
auricular is hut the dull color of nemoralis. 

Specimens examined. — Total number, 45, from the following localities: 

Mississippi : Washington, 10. 
Kentucky: Hickman, 1; Eubank, 31. 
Indiana : Brookville, 1. 
Tennessee: Rogersville, 1. 
Alabama: Greensboro, 1. 

MICROTUS NEMORALIS Bailey. Woodland Vole. 
Microtus nemoralis Bailey, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., XII, 89, April 30, 1898. 

Type locality.— Stilwell (Boston Mountains), Indian Territory. 

Habitat. — Open woods and brushland. 

Geographic distribution.— West of the Mississippi Eiver from central 
Arkansas north to Council Bluffs, Iowa. 

General characters. — Size, larger than any other species of Pitymys 
in the United States; ears, relatively large; fur, comparatively long 
18392— No. 17 5 


and coarse; colors, duller than in pinetorum, not so dark as in scalop- 
soides or auricularis. 

Color. — Upperparts dull chestnut, slightly lined with blackish-tipped 
hairs over the back and rump, becoming paler on the sides; belly 
washed with bright cinnamon; tail indistinctly bicolor; feet thinly 
clothed with pale buffy or sometimes dusky hairs. Young: Plumbeous 
or dark maltese, with a slight tinge of chestnut suffusing the back as 
maturity is approached. 

Cranial characters. — Skull large and relatively elongated; supraoc- 
cipital sloping; interparietal short and wide; mastoids and audital 
bulhc large and projecting farther back than in pinetorum; palate often 
with a posterior point projecting into the U-shaped interpterygoid 

Measurements. — Type: Total length, 130; tail vertebras, 24; hind 
foot, 18. Average of five females and five males from the type locality : 
135; 25; 18.1. Skull (of type): Basal length, 25.3; nasals, 7.7; zygo- 
matic breadth, 16.5; mastoid breadth, 13.4; alveolar length of upper 
molar series, 7. 

General remarks. — Specimens from London, Nebraska, and Council 
Bluffs, Iowa, are typical or slightly larger than those from the type 
locality. Those from central Arkansas and eastern Missouri are nearly 
or quite typical. So far as shown by the present series of specimens, 
the species stands distinct and apparently unconnected with the other 
forms of Pitymys east of the Mississippi Biver. 

Specimens examined. — Total number, 40, from the following localities : 

Indian Territory: Stilwell, Boston Mountains, 16. 

Arkansas: Beebe, 5; Hardy, 1. 

Missouri: Hunter, 3; Williamsville, 5; Kimswick, 5. 

Iowa: Council Bluffs, 4. 

Kansas: Neosho Falls, 1. 

Nebraska: London, 6. 

MICROTUS QUASIATER (Coues). Jalapa Vole. 

Arvicola (Pitymys) jnnetorum quasiater Coues. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1874, 191- 

Type locality. — Jalap i, Vera Cruz, Mexico. 

Geograph'c distribute / . — Central Vera Cruz and eastern Puebla, on 
the east slope of the mountains (altitude 4,000 to 5,000 feet), in Humid 
Tropical and lower edge of Lower Austral zones. 

Habitat. — Brushy woodland. 

General characters. — Size of pinetorum; tail about as long as hind foot; 
ears large for a Pitymys; colors dark ; fur glossy. 

Color. — Summer pelage: Uniformly dark umber or seal brown, slightly 
paler on belly, feet, and tail; tail slightly paler below than above. 
Winter pelage (in January, specimens from Orizaba and Huaucliinango) : 
Darker, richer, and more glossy. Young: Darker and duller, inclining 
to sooty or plumbeous. 

June, 1900.] MICROTUS CURTATUS. 67 

Cranial characters. — Skull similar to that of p inetortim, but with longer, 
more quadrate braiucase, more prominent postorbital ridges, narrower 
interorbital space, and larger audital bullae; dentition slightly heavier; 
molar pattern the same. 

Measurements. — Average of 6 adult males and females from the type 
locality: Total length, 130; tail vertebrae, 23; hind foot, 17.7. Skull 
( No. 5504:8, 2 adult): Basal length, 24; nasals, 7; zygomatic breadth, 
12; alveolar length of upper molar series, 0.3. 

General remarks. — Microtus quasiater is by far the most divergent 
form of Pitymys in America. Its range, so far as known, is restricted 
to a comparatively small area, 1,000 miles from that of its nearest rela- 
tive, and reaches into a zone not known to be inhabited by any other 
species of Microtus. 

Specimens examined. — Total number, 44, from the following localities: 

Vera Cruz: Jalapa, 6; Jico, 8; Orizaba, 10. 
Puebla: Huauehinango, 20. 

Subgenus LAGURUS G-loger. 

Lagurus Grloger, Gemeinniitz. Hand- u. Hilfsbuch d. Naturgesch., I, 08, 1841. Type 

Lagurus migratorius Gloger. 
Lagurus Merriam, Am. Naturalist, XXIX, 758, Aug., 1895 (subgenus). 

Geographic distribution (in America). — Transition zone of the semi- 
arid parts of the northwestern United States, 
east of the Cascades and Sierra Nevada. 

Subgeneric characters. — (In American species) 
plantar tubercles, 5; mamma 1 , 8, inguinal 2-2, 
pectoral, 2-2: lateral glands on flanks; tail little 

f / . ° ' Fig. 12.— Molarenamel pattern 

little longer than hllld toot; Cplorspale; flir lax. of Microtus {Lagurus) pal 

Skull low and wide; bulla? very large; mastoids lidui! ( 5 )- 
reaching plane of exoccipital condyles; molars slender, with wide 
reentrant angles; m3 with 2 closed triangles and narrow posterior 
loop; ml with 5 closed triangles, 4 inner and I outer salient angles; 
m3 with two terminal transverse loops and a pair of median triangles. 

MICROTUS CURTATUS (Cope). Short-tailed Vole. 

Arvieola curtata Cope, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1868, 2. 

Arvicola decurtata Coues, Mon. N. Am. Rodentia, 215 (iu text), 1877, nomeu nudum. 

Type locality. — Pigeon Spring, Mount Magruder, Nevada. 

Geographic distribution. — Transition zone of the low mountain ranges 
in western Nevada and eastern California, east of the Sierra Nevada 
and north of Death Valley. 

Habitat. — Dry, barren country, usually in sagebrush. 

General characters. — Tail very short; feet hairy; fur long and lax; 
color pale buffy gray; skull wide and flat, with very large audital bullae. 

Color. — Winter pelage: Upperparts uuiform pale buffy gray, or ashy 
gray becoming paler on the sides, and silvery white or soiled whitish 


below; tail like belly, except an indistinct dusky dorsal line; ears 
slightly buffy, more noticeably so in young than in adults; feet soiled 
silvery whitish. Summer pelage: Slightly darker. Young: Darkened 
above by long, dusky-tipped hairs; ears distinctly buff tipped. 

Cranial characters. — Skull wide and flat, with short rostrum, spread- 
ing zygomatic arches, and great mastoid breadth ; audital bulhe and 
mastoids much inflated, and with thick, spongy walls; mastoids project- 
ing back to plane of exoccipital condyles. Molar series rather light, 
with narrow, tightly closed triangles and wide reentrant angles. 

Measurements. — Average of Ave adults from the type locality: Total 
length, 141; tail vertebrae, 27; hind foot, 17.6. 8MU (No. 41019, ? ad.): 
Basal length, 24; nasals, 6.6; zygomatic breadth, 15; mastoid breadth, 
13; alveolar length of upper molar series, 6. 

General remarks. — This is the largest of the three species of La gurus 
at present known in North America, size alone being sufficient to dis- 
tinguish it from either pauperrimus or pallidus. It shows but slight 
variation throughout its somewhat restricted and probably interrupted 
range. Specimens from the head waters of Keese River, which is sepa- 
rated from the type locality by Sonoran valleys, show slightly larger 
audital bulhe and mastoids, but no characters of specific or subspecific 

Specimens examined. — Total number, 54, from the following localities: 

Nevada: Mount Magruder (near Pigeon Spring), 14; Reese River Valley, 7; 

Indian Creek (near head of Reese River), 2; Lead of Reese River, 10. 
California: Inyo Mountains, 17; White Mountains, 4. 

Note. — Microtus (Lagurus) pumilus Elliot (Field Columbian Museum, 
Zool. Series, Vol. I, No. II, p. 226, Feb. 1, 189!)) from the Olympic 
Mountains, Washington, proves to be a young Phenacomys, as I have 
ascertained by examination of the type specimen, kindly loaned me by 
Mr. D. G. Elliot, curator of mammals in the Field Columbian Museum. 

MICROTUS PALLIDUS (Merriam.) Pallid Vole. 
Arvicola pallidas Merriam, Am. Nat., XXII, 702-705, Aug., 1888. 

Type locality. — Fort Buford, N. Dak. The type was taken on a north- 
east slope, near the top of a high, barren hill, 2 miles east of the fort. 

Geographic distribution. — Transition prairies of western North Dakota, 
Montana, and as far north as Calgary, Alberta. 

Habitat. — High, semi-arid prairies, usually on shady slopes. 

General characters. — Slightly paler than curtatus; smaller; with rel 
atively much smaller audital bullae. The palest species of Microtia; 
found in America, and probably the shortest tailed. 

Color. — Upperparts uniform pale buffy gray with an extra tinge of 
buff about ears and nose; belly white or soiled whitish; tail silvery 
whitish below, dusky above; feet silvery whitish or pale gray. The 
type series was taken in September and shows what is probably the 
darkest phase of summer pelage. 

.riTNE, 1900.] 


Cranial characters. — Skull like that of curtains in general, but aver- 
aging slightly smaller and with decidedly smaller audital bullae and 
narrower mastoid breadth. Teeth relatively heavy; incisors fully 
equaling those of larger skulls of curtains; molar series heavy and 
actually longer in the smallest adults than in much larger specimens 
of curtains; enamel pattern essentially the same. 

Measurements. — Type, 9 acL: Total length, 121; tail vertebrae, 20; 
hind foot, 18 (measured dry). Slcull (of type): Basal length, 22.3; 
nasals, G.5; zygomatic breadth, 14.C; mastoid breadth, 11.6; alveolar 
length of upper molar series, G.3. 

General remarks. — In size pallidas falls between curtains and pauper- 
rimus, but in relative size of teeth curtatus comes in the middle, while 
in geographic position pauperrimus separates the other two. There is 
nothing in the material before me to indicate any intergradation 
between the forms or any subspecific relationship. 

Specimens examined. — Total number, 8, from the following localities: 

North Dakota: Fort Buford, 4. 
Montana: Philbrook, 1. 
Canada : Calgary, Alberta, 3. 

Arvioola pauperrima Cooper, Am. Nat., II, 535-536, Dec, 1868. 

Type locality. — Plains of the Columbia, near Snake Eiver, Wash- 

Geographic distribution. — Eastern Washington and Oregon, central 
Idaho, and the north slope of the Uinta Mountains, Utah, in Transi- 
tion zone. 

Habitat. — Open grassy ridges or high prairie, except in the Uinta 
Mountains, where they were found in grassy parks near the lower 
edge of pine timber. 

General characters. — The smallest species of the subgenus Lagurus, 
with colors a shade darker than in curtatus or pallidus; skull small 
and very flat-topped, often concave postorbitally. 

Color. — Summer pelage: Upperparts uniform buffy gray, slightly 
darkened with dusky-tipped hairs; ears and nose strongly tinged with 
buff; belly pale buffy; tail darkened above by a dusky line, buffy 
below ; feet like belly. Young: Less buffy and slightly more dusky 
than adult. 

Cranial and dental characters. — Skull small, relatively smooth, not 
ridged or angled, flat or concave on top; audital bulla' relatively as 
well as actually smaller than in curtatus; hamular process of mandible 
short and slender, inclosing a wide two-angled or rounded notch; 
incisors slender; molars differing from those of curtatus only in smaller 
size; enamel pattern essentially the same. 

Measurements. — Average of 3 adults from the vicinity of Antelope, 
Oreg. : Total length, 115; tail vertebra 1 , 20; hind foot, 16. Slcull (of 


adult 9 , No. 78534, from Antelope, Greg.): Basal length, 20; nasals, 
5.5; zygomatic breadth, 13.4: mastoid breadth, 11.3; alveolar length 
of upper molar series, 5.2. 

General remarks. — The above description is based mainly on a series 
of specimens collected near Antelope, Greg., on top of the high 
prairie ridge between the John Day and Des Chutes rivers, and not 
more than 150 miles from where Dr. J. G. Cooper collected his type of 
pauperrimus on the plains of the Columbia, near Snake River, October 
9, 1860. Antelope is in reality on the south edge of the plains of the 
Columbia, and specimens from that point agree in every way with the 
somewhat mutilated type of pauperrimus still in the United States 
National Museum. Specimens from the Salmon River Mountains, 
Idaho, do not differ perceptibly from the type or from the Antelope 
series. A single specimen from the top of Steen Mountain is not 
typical, but the characters are not sufficient to warrant separating it 
on a single specimen, and they may prove only individual. Four speci- 
mens from the north slope of the Uinta Mountains, Utah, show but 
litttle deviation from the typical series. 

Specimens examined. — Total number, 10, from the following localities: 

"Washington: Plains of the Columbia. 1 (the type). 
Oregon: Antelope, 6; Bake Oveu, 1 (im.); Steen Mountain, 1. 
Idaho: Salmon River Mountains, 6. 
Utah: Uinta Mountains, 4. 

Subgenus CHILOTUS Baird. 
Chilotus Baird, Matum. N. Am., 516, 1857. Type, Arricola oregoni Bachman. 

Geographic distribution. — Pacific slope from northern California to 
southern British Columbia. 

Subgeneric characters. — Plantar tubercles, 5 ; mammae, 8, inguinal, 2-2; 
pectoral, 2-2; side glands obscure or wanting; 1 ears rather small; fur 
dense, without stiff hairs. Skull short, low, and with elliptical braincase; 
molars small ; m3 with 2 or 3 closed triangles; ml with 5 closed triangles; 
m2 with anterior pair of triangles usually confluent; m3 with 3 trans- 
verse loops. 

MICROTUS OREGONI (Bachman). Oregon Vole. 

Arvicola oregoni Bachman, Journ. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., VIII, PL 1, 60-61, 1839. 
Microtus morosus Elliot, Field Columbian Mus., Zool. Scries, Vol. I, No. II, 227, Feb. 1, 
1899. (Olympic Mountains, Washington.) 

Type locality. — Astoria, Oregon. 

Geographic distribution. — Pacific coast region from northern Cali- 
fornia to Paget Sound. 

1 In a large number of skins of adult males, about a dozen show what appear to be 
ill-defined glands on the sides, midway between hips and shoulders; but before stat- 
ing postively the presence and position of these glands it will be necessary to examine 
specimens in the rlesh. 

June, 1900.] • MICROTUS SERPENS. 71 

Habitat. — Dry open ground, under cover of grass and low vegetation, 
and under logs in the open redwood forest of California. 

General characters. — Size rather small; tail long; colors dark; fur 
short, without long hairs. 

Color. — Upperparts mixed bister and blackish, with a pepper-and- 
salt appearance; belly dusky, lightly washed with 
dull buffy; feet dusky gray; tail blackish, slightly 
lighter below; ears blackish, scantily haired, pro- 
truding from the fur. 

Cranial characters. — Skull, compared with those 
of other species ot the subgenus, long and slender, FlG 13 _ Molar ename i 
with narrower braincase, longer rostrum, more \chiMu^lregoni(°xh). 
arched and less abruptly spreadiug zygomata, more 
quadrangular interparietal ; superciliary ridges in adults well marked, 
approaching or meeting interorbitally ; audital bullae small and globose; 
dentition not peculiar. 

Measurements.— Adult $ , No. i|f|f, from Astoria: Total length, 140; 
tail vertebras, 42; hiud foot, 17. Skull (of same): Basal length, 22.2; 
nasals, 1.7; zygomatic breadth, 14.8; mastoid breadth, 11.8; alveolar 
length of molar series, 5.5. 

General remarks. — The species shows some slight variation through- 
out its range, but all of the specimens examined from the low country 
south of Puget Sound are clearly referable to oregoni, and those from 
timberline in the Olympics do not vary sufficiently for even subspecific 

Specimens examined. — Total number, 103, from the following localities: 

Oregon: Astoria, 6; Oregon City, 6; Yaquina Bay, 1; Aumsville, 1; Elk 
Head, 1. 

California: Crescent City, 12 ; Humboldt Bay, 1 ; Hoopa Valley, 2 ; Dyerville, 3. 

"Washington: Tenino, 9; Roy, 1; Skamania County (45 miles southeast of 
Toledo), 1; Kent, 2; Steilacoom, 1; Aberdeen, 3; Granville, 6; Quineault 
Lake, Chehalis County, 3 ; La Push, 3; Suez, 1; Neah Bay, 10; Olympic 
Mountains (near head of Soleduc River), 9; Lake Cushman, 21. 

MICROTUS SERPENS Merriam. Creeping Vole. 

Microtus serpens Merriam, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., XI, 75, 1897. 

Type locality. — Agassiz, British Columbia. 

Geographic distribution. — Low country of southern British Columbia 
and northern Washington between the Cascade Mountains and Puget 

General characters. — Size, largest of the subgenus; tail short; colors 

Color. — Winter pelage: Upperparts uniformly sooty gray, becoming 
slightly lighter on sides; belly dusky, washed with dull buff; tail sooty 
above, silvery gray below ; feet dusky gray ; ears nearly naked, concealed 
in long fur. Summer pelage: Paler and more brownish above, belly 
lightly washed with buffy; ears projecting slightly from thinner, 
coarser fur. 

72 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. • [no. 17. 

Cranial characters. — Skull rather wide and short; superciliary ridges 
not well defined; interorbital width greater than in oregoni; zygomata 
abruptly spreading anteriorly, interparietal lozenge-shaped; audital 
bullae full and globose; incisors larger and stronger and molars slightly 
larger than in oregoni. 

Measurement*. — Type: Total length, 130; tail vertebras, 31 ; hind foot, 
18. Average. of 7 adults from type locality: 129; 32; 17.5. Skull (of 
type): Basal length, 22.4; nasals, 6.6; zygomatic breadth, 14; mastoid 
breadth, 11.2; alveolar length of upper molar series, 5.9. 

General remarks. — The range of this northern, more robust form of 
Chilotus, as at present known, is rather limited, but future collections 
may show it to be continuous with that of oregoni. 

/Specimens examined. — Total number, 56, from the following locali- 

British Columbia: Agassiz, 7; Port Moody, 10; L.angley, 3; Sumas, 10; Mount 

Baker Range, 4. 
Washington : Mount Vernon, 19; Hamilton, 2; Sauk, 1. 

MICROTUS BAIRDI Merriam. Baird Vole. 
Microtus bairdi Merriam, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., XI, 74, 1897. 

Type locality. — Glacier Peak, Crater Lake, Oregon (altitude, 7,S00 

Geographic distribution. — Known only from the type locality, but 
probably restricted to the Hudsnnian zone of the higber Cascades. 

Habitat. — Beds of Phyllodoce and LutJcea at timberline. 

General characters. — Slightly smaller than M. oregoni; color yellow- 
ish brown; fur short and glossy; tail short; ears almost concealed in 
the fur. 

Color. — Upperparts glossy yellowish bister; sides paler; belly washed 
with whitish; tail indistinctly bicolor, dusky above, dark gray below; 
feet dusky gray; nose dusky. 

Cranial characters. — Skull relatively short, wide, and fiat, with short 
rostrum; braincase subquadrate; interparietal narrow; audital bullae 
large; ascending arm of premaxillae not extending beyond nasals; 
incisive foramina short and wide; dentition not peculiar. 

Measurements. — Type, No. 79906, 9 ad.: Total length, 131; tail verte- 
bras, 33; hind foot, 17.5. A young adult S from type locality: 130; 32; 
17. Skull (of type): Basal length, 22; nasals, 6.6; zygomatic breadth, 
14; mastoid breadth, 11.5; alveolar length of upper molar series, 5.5. 

General remarks. — This species of Chilotus is as yet known only 
from 2 specimens from the type locality. No doubt it will eventually 
be found to extend along the crest of the Cascade Range in Oregon. 

Specimens examined. — Total number, 2, from the type locality. 

Subgenus PEDOMYS Baird. 

Pedomys Baird, Mamm. N. Am., 517, 1857. Type, Arvieola austerus Le Conte. 

Geographic distribution. — Middle United States from southern Louis- 
iana to Plains of the Saskatchewan. 

June. 1000. j MICROTUS AUSTERUS. 73 

Subgeneric characters.— Plantar tubercles, 5; side glands obscure or 
wanting, 1 rarely discernible; mammae, 6, inguinal, 
2-2, pectoral, 1-1; ears medium; fur long and 
coarse. SJcnll high and narrow ; molars with wide 
reentrant angles; m3 with 2 closed triangles; 
ml with 3 closed and 2 open triangles; m2 with 
anterior pair of triangles confluent; m3 with 3 Fm 14 _ Molar enamel pat . 
transverse loops, the middle loop sometimes con- tern of mcrotus (Pedomys) 
stricted, or even divided into 2 triangles. austems (x5). 

MICROTUS AUSTERUS (Le Conte\ Prairie Vole. 

Jrvicola ausferus Le Conte, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., VI, 405-40(i, 1853. 
Arvicola (Pedomys) einnamonea Baird, Mamin. N. Am., 541, 1857. (Type from Pem- 
bina, N. Dak.) 

Type locality. — Racine, Wisconsin. 

Geographic distribution. — Central part of Mississippi Valley from 
southern Wisconsin to southern Missouri and Fort Reno, Oklahoma, 
and west into eastern Nebraska and Kansas. 

Habitat. — Dry upland prairie under low grass, and in rose and hazel 

General characters. — Size of Microtus pennsy I v aniens, hnt with slightly 
shorter tail and apparently coarser pelage. Color, dark peppery gray 
above, dull fulvous below. 

Color. — Winter pelage: Upperparts dark gray, with a peppery appear- 
ance from *the mixture of black and pale fulvous tips of long hairs, black 
tips predominating; sides paler; belly washed with pale cinnamon or 
fulvous; tail sharply bicolor, feet dusky ; a tuft of fulvous hairs in front 
of ear. Summer pelage: Darker throughout, with fewer light-tipped 
hairs and thinner fulvous wash below. Young: Slightly paler than 

Cranial characters. — Skull high, narrow, and well arched; interpari- 
etal small, lozenge shaped; premaxilhe extending well back of nasals; 
audital bulhe small and narrow; incisive foramina wide posteriorly; 
molar pattern, that of the subgenus. 

Measurements. — No. 2928, $ ad., from Racine, Wis., (measured from 
alcohol by Baird) 2 : Total length, 127; tail vertebra, 32; No. 2897: 
hind foot, 19. SMll (No. 1999, ad., from Racine): Basal length, 27; 
nasals, 7.9; zygomatic breadth, 15.5; mastoid breadth, 12.6; alveolar 
length of upper molar series, G.8. Skull (No. 948 — not fully adult — 
from Racine): 25; 7.9; 15.4; 11.8; 6. 

1 A large number of skins of males show no trace of side glands, but a few show 
what appear to be very small glandular areas on the middle of the sides. It will be 
necessary to examine fresh specimens of old males before the presence or position of 
the glands is fully determined. 

3 Mamm. N. Am., 541, 1857. 


Considerable variation is shown throughout the range of the species. 
To the southwest, at Orlando and Fort Keno, Okla., the individuals 
show slightly deeper coloration and slight modifications of cranial 
characters. Except for a slightly abnormal tooth pattern Baird's type 
of cinnamonea is a large specimen of typical austerus. I cannot believe 
that it ever came from Pembina. 

Specimens examined. — Total, 211, from the following localities: 

Wisconsin : Racine, 4. 

Illinois: West Northfield, 14; Warsaw, 1. 

Indiana : Wheatland, 4. 

Iowa : Fairiield, 1 ; Knoxville, 93. 

Nebraska: Blair, 1 (im.) Coluinbns, 7; London, 13; Norfolk,' 1. 

Kansas: Cairo, 4; Onaga, 13; Burlington, 1; Doniphan County, 1; Fort 

Leavenworth, 21. 
Missouri: Golden City, 2; Piedmont, 10; Bismark, 6; Kiraswick, 6. 
Oklahoma : Orlando, 1 ; Fort Reno, 7. 

MICROTUS LUDOVICIANUS sp. nov. Louisiana Vole. 

Type from Iowa, Calcasieu Parish, Louisiana. No. 96624, $ ad., U. S. Nat. Mus., Bio- 
logical Survey Collection. Collected April 7, 1899, by Vernon Bailey. Collector's 
number, 6767. 

Geographic distribution. — Coast prairie of southwestern Louisiana, in 
Lower Austral zone. 

Habitat. — Dry grassy mounds on the fiat, half marshy coast prairie. 

General characters. — Size and proportions about as in M. austerus, 
color similar; rostrum and nasals slenderer and audital bulhe larger. 

Color. — Winter pelage (in April specimens): Upperparts dark gray, 
with a coarse, peppery appearance, produced by tbe mixture of black-, 
brown-, and whitish-tipped hairs, and varying in color as these different 
colored hairs predominate; below dull fulvous or dark buffy ; tail indis- 
tinctly bicolor, dusky above, buffy below; feet dusky. Young (quarter 
to half grown): Darker, more dusky, and less brownish than adult. 

Cranial characters. — Skull like that of austerus with larger, more 
rounded audital bulhe, larger molars, and slenderer nasals. Middle 
section of m3 often constricted or separated into two closed triangles. 
(This may occur in any species of Pedomys.) 

Measurements. — Average of 10 adults (5 males and 5 females) from 
type locality: Total length, 1G4; tail vertebra 1 , 33; hind foot, 18.5. 
Average of hind foot of males, 19; of females, 18. Type: 140; 36; 10. 
Skull (of type): Basal lengtb, 25.8; nasals, 8; zygomatic breadth, 15; 
mastoid breadth, 11.5; alveolar length of upper molar series, 0.3. 

Remarks. — A single imperfect skull in the United States National 
Museum collection from Calcasieu Parish, La., showed such pronounced 
characters as to suggest the collection of the present series of speci- 
mens. Some of the characters in the old skull prove to be abnormal, 
and the actual differences between this southern form and true austerus 
are not strongly marked. There is no known and probably no actual 
intergradation or continuity of range between the two forms, and per- 

June, iooo.i MICROTUS MINOR. 75 

haps subapecific rank would show better the close relationship of 
ludovicianus to austerus. 

/Specimens examined. — Total number, 26, from Calcasieu Parish, La. 

MICROTUS HAYDENI (Baird). Hayden Vole. 
Arrioola haydeni Baird, Mamm. N. Am., 543-544, 1857. 

Type locality. — Fort Pierre, South Dakota. 

Geographic distribution. — Plains region of western South Dakota, 
Nebraska, and Kansas, eastern Colorado and Wyoming, and southern 
Montana, in Transition zone. 

Habitat. — Dry prairies. At the type locality, in sagebrush on bad- 
land hills. 

General characters. — Considerably larger and lighter colored than M. 
a /(stents, with little or none of the fulvous or cinnamon wash below; 
fur very long and lax in winter and spring pelages; skull heavy and 

Color. — (May specimens from Fort Pierre): Upperparts uniform light 
gray, the color formed by a combination of whitish- and blackish-tipped 
hairs, with the white-tipped predominating; belly washed with silvery 
white, or sometimes soiled white, over plumbeous under-fur; feet dusky 
gray; tail bicolor. Summer pelage: Somewhat darker, with sometimes 
a slight wash of buff below. Young (one- fourth to one-half grown): 
Very woolly and slightly darker than adult. 

Cranial characters. — Skull larger, more angular, and more heavily 
ridged than in austerus; anterior part of zygomatic arches more 
abruptly spreading; prezygomatic notch deeper; interparietal larger; 
palate higher, with more prominent median ridge. 

Measurements. — Adult 9 from type locality (No. 4239, Merriam Coll.) : 
Total length, 180; tail vertebra;, 47; hind foot, 22. Skull (No. 497 L 
from Fort Pierre): Basal length, 28; nasals, 8; zygomatic breadth 
17.6; mastoid breadth, 12.6; alveolar length of upper molar series, 7.4. 

General remarks. — Probably haydeni intergrades with true austerus, 
and is merely a more robust and paler northwestern form. The ranges 
of the two almost meet, if they are not continuous. 

Specimens examined. — Total number, 110, from the following localities : 
South Dakota: Fort Pierre, 4 ; Pierre, 3; Buffalo Gap, 4; Rapid City, 4. 
Nebraska: Valentine, 10 ; Kennedy, 11; Sidney, 2; Callaway, 4; Alliance, 2. 
Kansas: Pendennis, 10; Banner, 11. 
Colorado: Loveland, 1; Canyon City, 1. 

Wyoming: Beaver, 1; Newcastle, 1; Sundance, 1; Dayton, 1; Pass, 4. 
Montana: Little Bighorn Valley, 8 ; Fort Custer, 24; Custer Station, 1; Lake 
Basin, 2. 

MICROTUS MINOR (Merriam). Least Upland Vole. 

Arvicola austerus minor Merriam, Am. Nat., XXII, 598-601, July, 1888. 

Type locality. — Bottineau, at base of Turtle Mountains, North Dakota. 

Geographic distribution. — Northern border of the Great Plains from 
northeastern North Dakota to Edmonton, Alberta, and southeastward 
to Minneapolis, Minn. 

Habitat. — Dry upland prairie. 


General characters. — Size very small, scarcely as large as Evotomys 
r gapperi and of about the same proportions; color peppery gray; pelage 
long, lax, and coarse; sixth tubercle on hind foot usually present, 
though small; skull small and slender. 

Color. — Winter pelage: Upperparts uniform, clear peppery gray, from 
a combination of black- and whitish -tipped hairs; belly washed with 
soiled white or pale buify; tail sharply bicolor, dusky above, buffy 
below; feet gray. Summer pelage: With a mixture of fulvous above; 
belly with thinner wash of light-tipped hairs over dark under-fur. 
Young: Slightly darker than adult with less peppery appearance of fur. 

Cranial characters. — Skull very small, not much arched, slender and 
narrow, with relatively heavy rostrum, narrow strap-shaped inter- 
parietal and slender zygomata; audital bulla* small and laterally com- 
pressed; molars with enamel pattern of the subgenus. 

Measurements. — Type : Total length, 133 ; tail vertebrae, 36; hind foot, 
16.5. Average of four adults from Sherbrook, N. Dak.: 128; 30; 16.7. 
Skull (No. 49230, 9 ad., from Sherbrook): Basal length, 22.3; nasals, 
6.4; zygomatic breadth, 12.2; mastoid breadth, 10; alveolar length of 
upper molar series, 5. 

General remarks. — A mere glance at the skulls shows minor to be 
widely separated from any other species of the subgenus, differing 
from austerus in much smaller size, narrower braincase, and relatively 
smaller and narrower audital bulla?. The species shows little variation 
throughout its range over the prairie region, but those occupying the 
half-timbered region of south-central Minnesota show a marked intensity 
of color. 

Specimens examined. — Total number, 04, from the following localities : 

North Dakota: Bottineau, 3; Sherbrook, 4; Devils Lake, 1. 
South Dakota: Traverse, 7. 

Minnesota: Ortonville, 6; Elk River, 40; Fort Snelling, 7; Hamlington, 1. 
Canada: Carberry, Manitoba, 1; Indian Head, Assinaboia, 11; Wingard, 
Saskatchewan, 10; Red Deer, Alberta, 1; Edmonton, Alberta, 2. 

Subgenus ORTHRIOMYS Merriam. 

Orihriomys Merriam, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., XII, 107, April 30, 1898. Type, Microtus 
umbrosus Merriam. 

Geographic distribution. — That of its only known species. 
Subgeneric characters. — Plan tar tubercles, 5 (a rudiment of 6th); side 
glands wanting or very rudimentary; mam- 
ma 1 , 4, pectoral, 2-2; ears large and almost 
naked; feet large; tail long and scantily 
haired. Skull long and narrow; bullae very 
small; posterior median ridge of palate slop- 
ing and grooved; m3 with 2 closed rounded 
-».«-,, , , triangles, and a third open one; ml with 3 

Fig. 15.— Molar enamel pattern of ° ' x 

Microtus (Orthriomys) umbrosus closed triangles, 4 inner and 3 outer salient 
(x c>) ' angles ; m2 with the anterior pair of triangles 

confluent; m3 with 4 closed sections including 2 median triangles. 

.Tune, iooo.] SUBGENUS HERPETOMYS. 77 

MICROTUS UMBROSUS iMerriam. Zempoaltepec Vole. 
Microtus umbrosns Merriam, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., XII, 108, Apr. 30, 1898. 

Type locality. — Mount Zempoaltepec, Oaxaca, Mexico (altitude 8,200 

Geographic distribution.— Known only from the east slope of Mount 
Zempoaltepec, in the humid Upper Austral zone. 

Habitat. — Dense oak forests, living in burrows and long underground 

General characters. — Size rather large: tail long; ears large; fur long 
and lax; colors dark; skull long and flat, with small bullae and peculiar 

Color. — Upperparts uniform dusky, with brown-tipped hairs; below 
dark plumbeous thinly washed with fulvous; feet and tail thinly haired, 
concolor, dark brown. 

Cranial characters. — Skull long, narrow, and but little arched, with 
smooth outlines, and slender zygomatic arches; bullae very small; 
palate low, with slender or incomplete lateral bridges, shallow lateral 
pits and grooved posterior ridge; interpterygoid fossa wide and quad- 
rate; incisive foramina short and widest in the middle. Dentition 
heavy; incisors abruptly decurved; inner salient 'angles' of upper 
and posterior lower molars rounded instead of acute; ra3 with a small 
outer and a large inner closed triangle and a posterior trefoil with large 
inner and small outer lobe; m3 with 2 median closed triangles, an 
outer and inner, and broad terminal loops. 

Measurements. — Average of 7 specimens from type locality: Total 
length, 184; tail vertebra, 65; hind foot, 23. Type: 177; 61; 23.5. 

Skull (of type): Basal length, 26.5; nasals, 7.3; zygomatic breadth, 
16; mastoid breadth, 12; alveolar leugth of upper molar series, 7. 

Specimens examined: Total number, 15; from the following localities 
in Mexico. 

Oaxaca: Mount Zempoaltepec (above Totontepec), 8; Totontepec, 7. 

Subgenus HERPETOMYS Merriam. 

Herpetomys Merriam, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., XII, 107, April 30, 1898. Type, Micro- 
tus guatemalensis Merriam, from Todos Santos, Guatemala. 

Geographic distribution. — That of the type species. 

Subgencric characters. — Plantar tubercles, 5; side glands' on thinks 
of males small and obscure or sometimes wanting; mammae, 6, pecto- 
ral, 2-2, inguinal, 1-1 (the latter apparently rudimentary and func- 
tionless); ears large; pelage long and soft; colors dark brownish. 
Skull with smooth outlines and large globose audital bullae; m3 with 3 
closed triangles; mT with 3 closed triangles and an interior confluent 

1 In some specimens no side glands can be discovered, and in others they are 
marked by a pencil of white hairs. There is some doubt as to whether the white 
hairs are a product of the glands or occur there accidentally or from injury, as they 
sometimes do over other parts of the body. 


pair of triangles opening into terminal loop, and with 5 inner and 4 
outer salient angles; ni3 with 4 closed sections including a pair of 
subequal median triangles. 

MICROTUS GUATEMALENSIS Merriani. Guatemalan Vole. 
Microtus guatemalensix Merriam, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., XII, 107, April 30, 1898. 

Type locality. — Todos Santos, Huehuetenango, Guatemala (altitude 
10,000 feet). 

Geographic distribution. — Known only from type locality. 
Habitat. — Open ground on damp north slopes under rank growth of 
brush and weeds in the Boreal zone (altitude 9,800-11,000 feet). 

General characters. — Size medium; tail less than twice the length of 
hind foot; ears large but nearly concealed in 
the long fur; colors dark. 

Color. — Winter pelage: Upperparts dark 
umber brown; nose blackish; lips white; belly 
clear plumbeous or lightly washed with dull 
ochraceous; feet and tail dusky brown, con-_ 
fig. i6.-Moiar enamel pattern of color, and thinly haired. ( Summer pelage not 
Microtus (Herpetomys) guatemai- se en.) Young (half grown individuals in De- 
cember): Slightly duller than adult. 
Cranial characters. — Skull rather long and but little arched, without 
conspicuous ridges and angles; interorbital space wide; braincaselong; 
bulhc large and globose (larger than those of any other Mexican species) ; 
palate with steep and lightly grooved posterior median ridge; incisive 
foramina wide and short. Dentition heavy; most of the salient angles 
of molars acute; prisms deltoid; m3 with anterior crescent, 3 closed 
triangles, and a posterior crescent with two inner horns; m3 with pos- 
terior and anterior transverse crescents and a pair of subequal median 

Measurements. — Average of 20 specimens from the type locality : Total 
length, 150; tail vertebne, 37; hind foot, 21. Type ( 8 ad.): 155; 40; 
21. Skull (of type) : Basal length, 25.6 ; nasals, 7.G ; zygomatic breadth, 
15; mastoid breadth, 12.3; alveolar length of upper molar series, 7. 

General remarks. — So far as at present known, this is the southern- 
most species of Microtus in America. Its nearest relatives are umbrosus 
and mcxicanus, with both of which it has some characters in common, 
but from which it differs so widely as to require subgeneric separation. 
Specimens examined: Total number, 34, from the type locality. 

Subgenus NEOFIBER True. 

Neofiber True, Science, IV, 34, July 11, 1884 (genus). Type, Neofiber alleni True 
Neofiber Merriam, North American Fauna No. 5, 59, July, 1891 (subgenus). 
Geographic distribution. — That of the type species. 

Jun», 1900.] MIC ROT US ALLENI. 79 

Subgeneric characters. — Plantar tubercles, .5; side glands conspicuous 
in both sexes and in young, situated half-way between hips and 
shoulders, the glandular area marked 
by brownish base of fur and half-en- 
circled above by a semilunar area of 
fur with white base; mamma', 0, ingui- 
nal, 2-2, pectoral, 1-1: feet and far 
modified for aquatic life; soles naked; 
a dorsal keel of long hair on rump. 

Skull maSSive ; palate long With illCOm- FlG - ".-Molar enamel pattern of Microtus 
, , , , , , . , . , (Xeofiber) alleni (X 5). 

plete lateral bridges; pterygoids wing- 
like; m3 with 2 closed triangles; ml with 5 closed triangles; ra3 with 
2 median triangles and 2 transverse terminal loops. 

MICROTUS ALLENI (True). Florida Water-Eat. 

Neofiber alleni True, Science, IV, 34, July 11, 1884. 

Microtus (Neofiber) alleni Miller, North American Fauna No. 12, 70, .July 23, 1896. 

Type locality. — Georgiana, Brevard County, Florida. 

Geographic distribution. — Eastern and central Florida. 

Habitat. — Marshes, shallow lakes, and banks of streams. 

General characters. — In appearance very similar to a small muskrat, 
but with a round tail, a tuft of long hair above the tail, hind feet less 
modified for aquatic life; fur dense, with color and texture of muskrat 
fur; skull resembliug that of the muskrat, but with the rootless molars 
of Microtus. 

Color. — Upperparts dark brown, darkened on head and along back 
by coarse blackish hairs; nose black; chin dusky; belly pale buff or 
soiled silvery whitish; tail dark brown or blackish, darker toward the 
tip; feet dark brown. Young: Dark inaltese, with sooty backs. 

Cranial characters. — Skull high and short, with heavy ridges aud 
sharp angles; prezygomatic notches deep; postorbital shelf projecting; 
palate bone longer than in any other Microtus, shorter than in Fiber; 
lateral bridges of palate interrupted ; pterygoids wing-like (as in Fiber); 
dentition heavy; upper incisors bent abruptly downward. 

Measurements. — Average of 3 adult specimens from Canaveral, 
Fla.: Total length, 320; tail vertebra), 121; hind foot, 11. Largest 
adult, i : 330; 130; 41. Skull (No. 23150, 9 ad.): Basal length, 11.6; 
nasals, 12.5; zygomatic breadth, 26; mastoid breadth, 20.5; alveolar 
length of upper molar series, 12. 

General remarks. — The striking resemblance between M. alleni of 
Florida and M. amphibius of England proves on comparison of cranial 
characters to be only superficial ; the differences are subgeneric. 

Specimens examined: Total number, 17, from the following localities: 
Florida: Georgiana, 3; Titirsville, 1 ; Eden, 3; Canaveral, 5; Geneva, 3; Lake 
Harney, 1; Oaklodge (on peninsula opposite Micco), 1. 


Skulls of 9 subgenera, upper view. 

[Enlarged one and one-half times.] 

Fi<;. 1. Microtus (Microtus) pennsylvanicus. - Hyattsville, Md. 
(No. 87163, 9 ad., U.S.Nat. Mus.) 

2. Microtus (Arvicola) macropus. Sawtooth Lake, Idaho. 

(No. 31451, 9 ad., U. S. Nat. Mus. ) 

3. Microtus (Neofiber) alleni. Eden, Fla. 

(No. 24112, 9 ad., U.S. Nat. Mus.) 

4. Microtus (Pedomys) austerus. Racine, Wis. 

(No. 92851, £ ad., U. S. Nat. Mus. ) 

5. Microtus (Pitymys) pin et or am. Frbgmore, S. C. 

(No. 1523, £ ad., Merriam collection.) 

6. Microtus (Lay ur us) curtatus. Mouui Magruder, Nov. 

(No. 41017, £ ad., U. S. Nat. Mus. ) 

7. Microtus (Chilotus) oregoni. Astoria, Greg. 

(No. 24255, £ ad., U. S. Nat. Mus. ) 

8. Microtus (Orthriomys) umbrosus. Mount Zempoaltepec, Oaxaca, Mexico. 

(No. (58469, 9 ad., U. S. Nat. Mus.) 

9. Microtus (Ihrpetomys) guatemalensis. Todos Santos, Guatemala. 

(No. 76776, £ ad., U. S. Nat. Mus.) 

North American Fauna, No. 17. 

Plate II. 

Skulls of Representative Species of the Nine Subgenera of Microtus (top view). 

1. Microtus (Microtus) pennsylvanicus. 

2. Microtus (Arvicola) macropus. 
'■'>. Microtus (Neofiber) altcni. 

4. Microti/* i Pedomys) austerus. 

5. Mir rut us (Pitymys) pinetorum. 

6. Microtus (Lagurus) curtatus. 

7. Microtus (Chilotus) oregoni. 

8. Microtus (Ortfiriomys) umbrosus. 

9. Microtus (Herpetomys) guatemalensis. 

18392— No. 17- 


Skulls of 9 subgenera, lower view. 

[Enlarged imo and one-half times.] 

Fig. 1. Microtus (Microtus) pennsylvanicus. Hyattsville, Md. 
(No. 87163, 9 ad., U. S. Nat. Mus. ) ' 

2. Microtus (Arvicola) macropus. Sawtooth Lake, Idaho. 

(No. 31451, 9 ad., U.S. Nat. Mus.) 

3. Microtus {Neofiber) alleni. Eden, Fla. 

(No. 24 112, 9 ad., U.S. Nat. Mus.) 

4. Microtus (Pedomys) uusti :rus. Racine, Wis. 

(No. 92851, $ ad., U. S. Nat. Mus.) 

5. Microtus (Pitymys) pinetorum. Froginore, S. C. 

(No. 1523, $ ad., Merriam Collection.) 

6. Microtus (Lagurus) curtatus. Mount Magruder, Nev. 

(No. 41017, $ ad., U. S. Nat. Mus.) 

7. Microtus (Chilotus) orcgoni. Astoria, Oreg. 

(No. 24255, $ ad., U. S. Nat. Mus.) 

8. Microtus ( Orthriomys) umhrosus. Mt. Zempoaltepee, Oaxaca, Mexico. 

(No. 68469, 9 ad., U.S. Nat. Mus.) 

9. Microtus (Herpetomys) guatemalensis. Todos Santos, Guatemala. 

(No. 76776, $ ad., U. S. Nat. Mus.) 

North American Fauna No. 17. 

Plate III. 

.Skulls of Representative Species of the Nine Subgenera of Microtus (bottom view). 

1. Microtus {Microtus) pennsylvanicus. 

2. Microtus (Arvicola) macropus. 

3. Microtus (Neofiber) alleni. 

4. Microtus (Pedomys) ouster us. 

5. Microtus (Pitymys) pinetorum. 

6. Microtus (Lagurus) curtatus. 

7. Microtus {ChUotus) oregoni. 

8. Microtus (Orthriomys) wmbrosus. 

9. Microtus (Herpetomys) guatemalensis. 


Skulls of 7 groups in subgenus Microtus, upper view. 

[Enlarged one and one-half times.] 

Fig. 1. Microtus mordax. Red Lodge, Mont. 
(No. 67305, 9 ad., U. S. Nat. Mus.) 

2. Microtus nevadensis. Ash Meadows, Nev. 

(No. 39663, 3 ad., LI. S.Nat, Mus.) 

3. Microtus nanus. Sawtooth Lake, Idaho. 

(No. 75181, $ ad., U. S. Nat. Mus.) 

4. Microtus operarius. St. Michael, Alaska. 

(No. 22214, $ ad., U. S.Nat. Mus.) 

5. Microtus chrotorrhiuus. Mount Washington, N. H. 

(No. 1501, $ ad., Langs Collection.) 

6. Microtus townsendi. Sieilacoom, Wash. 

(No. 42SI21, $ ad., U. S. Nat. Mus.) 

7. Microtus californicus. Walnut Creek, Cal. 

(No. 44678, $ ad., U. S. Nat. Mus.) 

8. Microtus mexicanus. Orizaba, Puebla, Mexico. 

(No. 53406, 9 ad., U. S. Nat. Mus.) 

.North American Fauna, No. 17. 

Plate IV. 

Skulls of Representative Species of Seven of the Groups in the 
Subgenus Microtis (top view). 

1. Microtus mordax. 

2. Microtus in null n.<is. | 

3. Microtus nanus. J 

4. Microtus opt rarius. 

5. Microtus ckrotorrhinus. 

(i. Microtus toumst ndi. 

7. Mz: "CiUS nil:!' : i;r 'is. 

8. Microtus mexicamis. 


Skulls of 7 groups in subgenus Microtus, lower view. 

[Enlarged one and one-half times.] 

Fig. 1. Microtus mordax. Red Lodge, Mont. 

(No. 67305, 9 ad., U. S. Nat. Mus.) 

2. Microtus neradensis. Ash Meadows, Nev. 

(No. 39663, $ ad., IT. S. Nat. Mus.) 

3. Microtus nanus. Sawtooth Lake, Idaho. 

(No. 75181, £ ad., U.S. Nat. Mas.) 

4. Microtus operarius. St. Michael, Alaska. 

(No. 22214, $ ad., U.S. Nat. Mus.) 

5. Microtus chrotorrhinus. Mount Washington, N. H. 

(No. 1501, $ ad., Bangs Collection.) 

6. Microtus towusendi. Steilacoom, Wash. 

(No. 42921, $ ad., U. S. Nat. Mus. ) 

7. Microtus calij'ornicus. Walnut Creek, Cal. 

(No. 44678, $ ad., U. S. Nat. Mus. ) 

8. Microtus mexicanus. Orizaba, Puebla, Mexico. 

(No. 53406, ? ad., U.S.Nat. Mus.) 

North American Fauna, No. 17. 

Plate V. 

Skulls of Representative Species of Seven of the Groups in the 
Subgenus Microtus (bottom view t. 

1. Microtus mordax. 

'J. Mii-rnliis in null nsiS. i 

3. Microtus munis. J 

4. Microtus opt i arias. 

5. Mirml ns chrotorrhinus. 

6. Microtus townsi ndi. 

7. Microtus riilifiiiiiiats. 

8. Microtus iia.cicnuiis. 


[Names of new species in black-face type, synonyms in italics.] 

Arvicola, 11, 59-62. 
Arvicola alborufescens, 16. 

aliicolns, 52. 

apella, 64. 

an sterns, 73. 

aztecus, 24. 

brewer i, 26. 

californica, 34. 

ehrotorrhinus, 58. 

cinnamonea, 73. 

curtata, 67. 

decurtata, 67. 

dekayi, 16. 

drummondi, 22. 

edaa;, 37. 

fulva, 16. 

haydeni, 75. 

Iiirsutus, 16. 

Insperatus, 20. 

Ac nnicotti, 64. 

leucophceus, 53. 

longicaudus, 48. 

longipilis, 16. 

longirostris, 27. 

macropus, 61. 

mexicanus, 53. 

microcephalus, 22. 

minor, 75. 

modesta, 20. 

niogollonensis, 56. 

montanus, 27. 

mordax, 48. 

nanus, 30. 

nasuta, 16. 

occidentalis, 46. 

oneida, 16. 

operarius, 39. 

oregoni, 70. 

pallidus, 68. 

palustris, 16. 

pauperrirna, 69. 

quasiater, 66. 

richardsoni, 60. 

riparius, 16. 

rufescens, 16. 

rufidorsum, 16. 

scalopsoides, 64. 

terrcenovce, 25. 

tetramerus, il. 

townsendi, 46. 

trowbridgi, 34, 

xanthognatha, 57. 
Aulacomys arvicoloides, 62. 

Chilotus, 11, 70-72. 

Heniiotomys, 53. 

Herpetorays, 1 1, 77-78. 

Lagurus, 11, 67-70. 

Lemmus noveboracensis, 16. 

Microtina:', 10. 

Microtus, determination of species, 9. 

economic status, 7-8. 

genus, 10. 

habits, 6-7. 

material examined, 9-10. 

subgenera, 10-11. 

Isey to subgenera, 11. 
list of species, 11-13. 

subgenus, 11, 13-59. 

groups in subgenus, 13-14. 
key to species, 14-16. 
Microtus abbreviatus, 15, 44-45. 

acadicus, 14, 19. 


alticolus, 16, 52. 

angustieeps, 16, 51-52. 

arizonensis, 15, 29. 

arvicoloides, 62. 

auricularis, 65. 

austerus, 73-74. 

aztecus, 14, 24. 

bairdi, 72. 

breweri, 14, 26. 

californicus, 15, 34-35. 

canescens, 15, 31. 

canicaudus, 15, 32. 

caiitus, 48. 

ehrotorrhinus, 15, 58. 

constrictus, 15, 36-37. 

curtatus, 67-68. 

drummondi, 14, 22-24. 

dutcheri, 15, 32-33. 

edax, 15, 37-38. 

enixns, 14, 24-25. 

tisheri, 15, 45-46. 

fontigenus, 14, 21. 

fulvivouter, 14, 55-56. 

guatemaleusis, 78. 

haydeni, 75. 

innuitus, 15, 44. 

insularis, 26. 

kadiacensis, 15, 41-42. 

labradorius,14, 22. 

leuoopha^us, 16, 53. 

longicaudus, 16, 48. 

ludovicianus, 74-75. 

macfarlani, 15, 40. 



Microius macropus, 61. 

macrurus, i6, 50-51. 
mexicanus, 14, 53-54. 
minor, 75-76. 
modestus, 14, 20-21. 
mogollonensis, 14, 50-57. 
montanus, 15, 27-29. 
mordax, 16, 48-50. 
morosus, 70. 
nanus, 15, 30-31. 
nenioralis, 65-60. 
nesopliilus, 14, 20-27. 
nevadeusis, 15, 33-34. 
nigrans, 14, 18-19. 
operarius, 15, 39-40. 
oi-egoni, 70-71, 
pallidas, 08-09. 
pauperrimus, 69-70. 
pennsylvanicus, 14, 10-18. 
plm-us, 14, 54-55. 
pinetorum, 63-64. 
popofensis, 15, 42-43. 
principalis, 62. 
quasiater, 66-67. 
ravus, 15, 59. 
richardsoni, 60. 

Microtus rivr.laris, 15, 29. 

scalopsoides, 64. 

scirnensis, 15,38-39. 

serpens, 71-72. 

sitkensis, 15, 43-44. 

stonei, 22. 

terrsenovse, 14, 25-26. 

tetramerus, 16, 47. 

townsendi, 16, 46-47. 

umbrosus, 77. 

unalascensis, 15, 42. 

vallicola, 15, 36. 

vellerosits, 48. 

xanthognathus, 15, 57-58. 

yakutatensis, 15, 40-41. 
Mux pennsylvanica, 16. 
Mt/nomes, 22, 24, 48, 52. pratensis, 16. 
Neoflber, 11, 78-79. 
Neofiber alleni, 79. 
Orthriomys, 11, 76-77. 
Pedomys, 11, 72-76. 
Pitymys, 11, 62-67. 
Psammomys, 02. 
Psammomys pinetorum, 63. 
Tetramerodon, 47. 





No. 18 

[Actual date of publication, September 20, 1900] 





Prepared under the direction of 





U. S. Department of Agriculture, 
Division of Biological Survey. 
Washington-, D. C, July 13, 1900. 
Sir: I have the honor to transmit for publication, as No. 18 of North 
American Fauna, a ' Revision of the Pocket Mice of the Genus Pero- 
gnathus,' by Wilfred H. Osgood, assistant in the Biological Survey. 
A preliminary revision of this group, based on the study of about 170 
specimens, was published by me in 1889 as the first number of North 
American Fauna. In this early paper certain fundamental points in 
the history and synonym of the group were for . '1?he first time cleared 
up and the number of known forms was increased from 6 to 21. Five 
years later the rapid growth of the Biological Survey's collections 
enabled me to publish descriptions of a dozen additional species and 
to undertake a new revision of the group, which was brought down 
to date in 1896. The publication of this revision, with its accompany- 
ing illustrations, and colored maps showing the distribution of the 
various species, was deferred in order to obtain additional material 
still needed to settle a few remaining questions of distribution and 
relationship. This material was subsequently obtained, bringing the 
total number of specimens available up to 3,000; and my assistant, 
Mr. Osgood, to whom I had referred certain unsolved problems, 
undertook to bring the study of the whole group down to date. The 
result is here offered for publication. 

C. Hart Merriam, 
Chief, Biological Survey. 
Hon. James Wilson, 

Secretary of Agriculture. 



History and material 9 

Distribution 11 

Color and pelages 11 

Habits 12 

Classification 12 

New species 13 

Genus Perognathus. 

Characters of subgenera 14 

Key to species and subspecies 14 

List of species and subspecies, with type localities 17 


Subgenus Perognathus 18 

Subgenus Chsetodipus 41 

Table of cranial measurements 62 





Plate I. Skulls of Perognalhus flavus, P. ampins, P. merriami, P. bimaculatus, 

P. californicus, P. pernix, P. penicillatus, and P. rostratus 66 

II. Skulls of Perognathus panamintinus, P. columbianus, P. nevadensis, 
P. bryanti, P. margaritze, P., P. arenarius, P. slephensi, 

P. nelsoni 68 

III. Map showing distribution of the subgenus Perognalhus 70 

IV. Map showing distribution of the subgenus Chwtodipus 72 


Fig. 1. Posterior view of skull of Perognathus (Perognathus) bimaculatus 14 

2. Posterior view of skull of Perognathus ( Chsetodipus) intermedius 14 

3. Skull of Perognathus fasciatus 19 

4. Skull of Perognathus flavescens 20 

5. Skull of Perognathus apache 26 

6. Skull of Perognathus brevinasus 30 

7. Skull of Perognathus longimembris 33 

8. Skull of Perognathus olivaceus 37 

9. Skull of Perognathus formosus 41 

10. Skull of Perognathus baileyi 42 

11. Skull of Perognathus paradoxus 44 

12. Skull of Perognathus intermedius 52 

13. Ear of (a) Perognathus fallax; (b) Perognathus femoralis 57 

14. Skull of Perognathus californicus 58 

15. Skull of Perognathus spinatus 60 

No. 18. NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. September, 1900. 


By Wilfred H. Osgood. 
Assistant Biologist, Biological Survey. 


Pocket mice were first discovered by Maximilian, Prince of Wied, 
during his journey up the Missouri River. In 1839 he described and 
figured Perognathus fasciatus from specimens taken on the Missouri, 
near the mouth of the Yellowstone, in the present State of North 
Dakota. During- the following half century several additional species 
were discovered; and in 1889 Dr. Merriam tentatively revised the 
group, 1 added many new species, and established the subgenus Chce- 
todipus to include the large coarse-haired species. He also reviewed 
the history of the genus, so that it is now necessary to consider only 
events subsequent to 1889. Since then hardly a year has passed with- 
out the publication of additional species. In 1890 fuliginosus was 
proposed by Merriam; 2 in 1891 femoralis, by Allen; 3 in 1892 mer- 
ria?ni, by Allen; 4 in 1893 alticola and copei, by Rhoads, 5 and infra- 
luteus, by Thomas. 6 During 1894 two papers by Merriam greatly 
increased the knowledge of the group. The first 7 added bailey i, 
canescem, columbianus, mexicarms, nelsoni, nevadensis, pa?iamintinu$, 
and stephensi; the second, 8 arenarius, bryanti, margaritce, and pent li- 
mine. In 1891 also, conditi and pricei were published b}^ Allen 9 and 

1 North Am. Fauna, No. 1, 1889. 
2 Ibid., No. 3, 74, 1890. 
_ 3 Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., N. Y., Ill, 281, 1891. 
4 Ibid., IV, 45, 1892. 

5 Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1893, 404. 

6 Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist, 6th ser., XI, 400, 1893. 

7 Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., September, 1804, 262-268. 
8 Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci., 2d ser., IV, 460, 1894. 

9 Bull. Am. Mus. Nat, Hist,, N. Y., VI, 318, 1894. 


latirostr 'is, by Rhoads; 1 in 1896 mearnsi, by Allen, 2 and in 1898 
pernix, by Allen, 3 and hangsi, eremicm, and pacijlcus, by Mearns. 1 

The preliminary revision of the genus Perognathus by Dr. Merriam 
in 1889 was based on less than 200 specimens, practically all that were 
available in this country at that time. Nearly 3,000 specimens, all 
accumulated in the past decade, have been used in the present revision. 
This large collection, like those recently studied in other groups, 
proves the existence of many new forms, 5 shows the true status of 
doubtful ones, and clears up troublesome questions of relationship, 
nomenclature, and geographic distribution. 

Most of the names of doubtful application in 1889 may now be dis- 
posed of definitely. In the case of longirnembris, the name is found 
applicable to the species inhabiting the San Joaquin Valley, Cali- 
fornia, and a new name, hrevinasus, is given to the San Bernardino 
form heretofore assumed to be true longirnembris. The acquisition of 
topot}^pes settles previous questions regarding flavus and mollipilosus, 
and the possession of large series of specimens from Washington and 
Oregon makes it possible to fix the types of lordi, parvus, and monti- 
cola, though a slight uncertainty still attaches to the last. Abundance 
of material also makes available the name hispidus, under wh.ich.para- 
doxus is placed as a subspecies, and of which conditi and spilotus 
become synonyms. 

This material embraces all the specimens of Perognathus in the col- 
lections of the United States Biological Survey, the United States 
National Museum, the American Museum of Natural History, New 
York, and the private collections of Messrs. E. A. and O. Bangs and 
Dr. C. Hart Merriam. Besides these, various important specimens 
from other sources have been examined. All the types known to exist 
have been seen except those of lordi, infraluteus, and pernix, which are 
in the British Museum. In making acknowledgments, I wish first to 
express my obligations to Dr. C. Hart Merriam for the privilege of 
using his private collection and that of the Biological Survey, and also 
for much generous criticism and advice. For the privilege of using 
the collections in their charge, thanks are also due Dr. F. W. True, 
executive curator, and Mr. G. S. Miller, jr. , assistant curator of mam- 
mals, in the United States National Museum; to Dr. J. A. Allen, 
curator of mammals and birds in the American Museum of Natural 
History; to Mr. Witmer Stone, curator of birds, Academy of Natural 
Sciences, Philadelphia; and to Mr. Outram Bangs, Mr. S. N. Rhoads, 
and Mr. W. W. Price. 

1 Am. Nat., XXVII, 185, 1894. 

2 Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., N. Y., VIII, 237, 1896. 

3 Ibid., X, 149, 1898. 
* Ibid., X, 299, 1898. 

5 Five new species and eight new subspecies are described in the present revision. 

sept., 1900] COLOR AND PELAGES. 11 

The illustrations of skulls in Plates I and II and a few of the text 
figures were drawn by Dr. James E. McConnell; the outline figures of 
skulls in the text are republished from the plates in North American 
Fauna No. 1. 


The genus Perognathus is confined to North America and is restricted 
to the region west of the Mississippi River. Its northern limit is 
Ashcroft, British Columbia; its southern, Tlalpam, in the valley of 
Mexico. On the east its limits coincide approximately with those of 
the arid divisions of the Austral and Transition zones; on the west it 
extends to the Pacific coast. It ma}^ be said in a general way that the 
subgenus Perognathus inhabits the Sonoran and the lower part of the 
Transition zones (see PI. Ill), while Chcetodipus is seldom found outside 
of the Lower Sonoran zone except on the Great Plains (see PI. IV). 
A curious exception to this distribution is found in central California, 
where Perognathus (Chcetodipus) californicus is found in the Upper 
Sonoran zone and Perognathus {Perognathus) long imembris in the 
Lower Sonoran. Pocket mice usually choose plains and deserts for 
their habitat, and one or more species may be found in nearly all the 
desert and semi-desert country in the western part of the United States. 
As a rule, they are not found in mountainous regions, except where 
the aridity is considerable and the conditions are otherwise favorable. 
They abound in southern California, Lower California, and the Great 
Basin region, and in Mexico large areas are well populated with them. 


The general pattern of marking and coloration found in the genus 
is subject to little variation. The upperparts show varying shades of 
buff with greater or less admixture of black; the underparts are nearly 
always white. Most species have a distinct side stripe or lateral line 
and a minute white subauricular spot. Among the desert forms are 
numerous examples of protective coloration and adaptation to environ- 
ment. A peculiar rump armature found in some species of the sub- 
genus Chcetodipus consists of grooved spiny bristles which extend 
be} r ond the rest of the pelage. What its function may be is little 
more than conjecture. 

So far as known no species has more than one molt. This usually 
occurs in late summer after the breeding season, but is somewhat 
irregular, as specimens in entirely different pelages may be taken at 
the same place and date. The pelage acquired by the molt continues 
throughout the year, becoming more or less worn and patchy in early 
summer, just before its renewal; * hence in most species the seasonal 

1 Unless otherwise stated, the specimens described in this paper are in the new, 
unworn, or post-breeding pelage. 


differences are not very great, the winter and .spring pelage being 
simply paler than that of late summer and fall. The young invariably 
pass through a stage in which the pelage is soft and plumbeous. 


The habits of pocket mice, as of most other small mammals, are not 
very well known. Most species are strictly nocturnal and very shy, 
and many of them are difficult to trap, as they do not readily take 
such bait as rolled oats or meat. They live in small burrows, from 
the entrances of which they throw out miniature mounds of earth 
like those of the pocket gopher. These burrows usually have two or 
more entrances, which often open under small bushes, and are closed 
with earth during the day, so that a casual observer might easily over- 
look them, particularly in the case of the smaller species. The food 
consists of seeds, which are carried in the cheek pouches and stored 
in chambers in the burrows. No species is known to hibernate, but it 
is possible that some of the more northern ones ma} r do so. 


The genus Perognathus is a member of the family Heteromyida?, 
one of the most peculiar groups of New World mammals. The other 
genera of this family are Heteromys, Dipodomys, Perodipus, and 
Microdipodops. Of these, Jleteromys may be readily separated from 
the others by its very hispid pelage, which consists almost entirely of 
grooved spines, and by its rather murine skull, smooth upper incisors, 
and small mastoids and audital bulla?. 

The genus Perognathus is commonly divided into two subgenera — 
Perognathus proper, including the small soft-haired species, and 
OhcBtodipus, containing the large coarse-haired and long-tailed forms. 
All the species except three fall naturally into one or the other of the 
two subgenera. One of these (formosus) is a Perognathus with strong 
inclination toward Chcetodipus; another (bailey I) presents the reverse 
case; and the third (hispidus) must be classed as a C'hcetodipus, though 
it is aberrant in some ways. P. femoralis and P. flavus represent the 
extremes of the two subgenera and would certainly be placed in dif- 
ferent genera if no other species were known, but between them may 
be found species showing almost every degree of differentiation. For 
convenience the genus has been divided into groups (see pp. 17—18) in 
order to show the affinities of the species and, to a certain extent, of 
the groups themselves. 

In distinguishing species, dental peculiarities are* of some service 
and cranial characters indispensable, showing relationship when exter- 
nal characters do not, and demonstrating intergradation to a degree of 
nicety otherwise almost unattainable. The best characters for com- 

sept., 1900.] GENUS PEROGNATHUS. 13 

parison are the relative sizes of the mastoids and consequent dimen- 
sions of the interparietal. The shape of the interparietal varies 
somewhat, but its proportions and dimensions are generally reliable. 
The rostrum and interorbital space also furnish good characters. 
The hairiness of the feet is important, but of value only for sepa- 
rating species or groups in which other good differences are not 
apparent. The size and shape of the ears are also occasionally of 
use. In most species the males are slightly larger than the females, 
and in some the young adults are slightly different from fully mature 
individuals. Slight local variations are abundant; in some species it 
seems almost impossible to find two local series which are absolute^ 
alike. But after making allowance for variation due to age and sex, 
individual variation will not be found very great; although so far as 
size is concerned it is greater in the parvus and hispidus groups than 
in the others. 


Thirteen forms here characterized have not heretofore been de- 
scribed. These include five species and eight subspecies, as follows: 

Peroynathus merriami gilvus Perognalhus penicillatus angustirostris 

apache melanotic pernix restrains 

callistus goldmani 

panamintmus brevinasus artus 

amplus anthonyi 

parvus magruderensis californicus dispar 
hispidus zacatecx 

All measurements in the present paper are in millimeters. 

Genus PEROGNATHUS Maximilian, 1839. 

Perognalhus Maximilian, Nova Acta Acad. Cses. Leop. -Carol., XIX, I, 369-373, PI. 
XXXIV, 1839; Reise Nord-Ani., I, 449, 1839. Type, Perognalhus fasciatus Maxi- 
milian, 1839, from the Upper Missouri River. 

Cricetodipus Peale, U. S. Expl. Exp'd., VIII, 52-54, 1848. 

Abromys Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1868, 202. 

Otognosis Coues, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1875, 305. 

Chsdodipus Merriam, N. Am. Fauna No. 1, 5, 1889. 

Characters.- — Size medium or small; form murine, rather slender; 
tail nearly as long as or longer than head and body; ears small; hind 
legs and feet rather long; external cheek pouches lined with hair. 
Skull rather small and light, flattened above; mastoids very large; 
audital bulla? inflated, more or less triangular in outline, anteriorly 
apposed to pteiygoids; jugals light and thread-like; rostrum attenu- 
ate, nasals somewhat tubular anteriorly; infraorbital foramen reduced 
to a lateral opening in the maxillary. Teeth 20; molars rooted and 
tuberculate; upper incisors strongly sulcate. 



[NO. 18. 

Characters of subgenera. 

I. Perognathus. 

Size medium or small; pelage soft, no 
spines or bristles. Soles of hind feet 
more or less hairy (except in formosus). 

Mastoids greatly developed, projecting 
beyond plane of occiput; mastoid side 
of parietal longest. Interparietal width 
less than interorbital width (rarely 
equal in longimembris) . 

Audital bullae meeting or nearly meeting 
anteriorly. Supraoccipital without 

II. Ch^todipus. 

Size medium or large; pelage harsh, often 
with spiny bristles on rump. Soles of 
hind feet naked. 

Mastoids relatively small, not projecting 
beyond plane of occiput; mastoid side 
of parietal equal to or shorter than 
other sides. Interparietal width equal 
to or greater than interorbital width. 

Audital bullae separated by nearly full 
width of basisphenoid. Supraoccipital 

Fig. 1. — Posterior view of skull of Perognathus 
(Perognathus) bimaculatus. 

lateral indentations by mastoids (ex- 
cept in formosus) ; ascending branches 
of supraoccipital slender and thread- 

Fig. 2. — Posterier view of skull of Perognathus 
( Chxtodipus) intermedins. 

with deep lateral indentations by mas- 
toids (except in Idsjndus); ascending 
branches of supraoccipital heavy and 

Key to species and subspecies. 

[Based on typical adults.] 

I. Subgenus Perognathus. 

Antitragus lobed; hind foot more than 20. 

Tail long and heavily crested; soles naked .formosus (p. 40) 

Tail moderate; soles of hind feet somewhat hairy. 

Interparietal narrow, ratio of its width to basilar length of Hensel 1 about 25; 
color grayish; size large. 

Mastoids moderate lordi (p. 39) 

Mastoids larger columbianus (p. 40) 

Interparietal wide, ratio of its width to basilar length of Hensel about 27. 

Ears white; upper side of tail faintly dusky at tip alticola (p. 39) 

Ears buff or dusky; upper side of tail dusky throughout entire length. 

Size large, hind foot 23 to 26 magruderensis (p. 38) 

Size medium, hind foot 21 to 23. 
Audital bullae meeting anteriorly in a strong symphysis; color usually 

slaty buff parvus (p. 34) 

Audital bullae meeting anteriorly in a weak symphysis or not meeting; 
color cinnamon or ochraceous buff. 
Premaxillae exceeding nasals; color cinnamon buff; ears medium. 

olivaceus (p. 37) 
Prernaxillse not exceeding nasals; color ochraceous buff; ears large. 

mollipilosus (p. 36) 

1 The basilar length of Hensel is measured from the anterior margin of the foramen 
magnum to the posterior rim of alveolus of the middle incisor. 


Antitragus not lobed; hind, foot 20 or less. 
Tail longer than head and body. 

Total length more than 150; mastoids very large amplus (p. 32) 

Total length less than 150; mastoids moderate. 

Interorbital space narrow (less than 5); basilar length of Hensel about 

17 longimembris (p. 33) 

Interorbital space wide (5 or more) ; basilar length of Hensel 15 or less. 

Hairs of belly plumbeous at base nevadensis (p. 31) 

Hairs of belly white to roots. 

Nasals short (about 7) ; tail 70 or less brevinasus (p. 30) 

Nasals long (about 8); tail more than 70. 

Color pale vinaceous buff bangsi (p. 29) 

Color grayish buff panaminlinus (p. 28) 

Tail about equal to or shorter than head and body. 

Size rather large; interparietal width 4 or more; hind foot 18 or more. 

Inside of ears chiefly black melanotic (p. 27) 

Inside of ears chiefly buff. 

Color grayish olive buff callislus (p. 28) 

Color buff or ochraceous buff apache (p. 26) 

Size medium or small; hind foot less than 18. 
Tail about 60. 
Color olivaceous. 

Hairs of belly white to roots .fasciatus (p. 18) 

Hairs of belly plumbeous at base infraluteus (p. 19) 

Color not olivaceous. 
Total length about 130; lower premolar smaller than last molar. 

flavescens (p. 20) 
Total length 120 or less; lower premolar about equal to last molar. 

Rostrum heavy; mastoids small merriami (p. 21 ) 

Rostrum light; mastoids larger gilvus (p. 23) 

Tail about 50. 

Lower premolar larger than last molar pacificus ( p. 31) 

Lower premolar smaller than last molar. 

Hind foot about 15; color salmon buff .flavus (p. 23) 

Hind foot about 17. 

Upper parts sooty or black fuliginosus (p. 25) 

Upper parts salmon buff. ( Northern Arizona) bimaculalus ( p. 24) 

Upper parts buff, strongly mixed with black. (Central Mexico.) 

mexicanus (p. 26) 

II. Subgenus Ch^todipus. 

Rump with more or less distinct spines or bristles. 

Lateral line well marked; pelage not very hispid; bristles moderate, usually con- 
fined to rump. 
Ears elongate (length 10 to 12) ; mastoids quite small; ratio of mastoid breadth 
to basilar length of Hensel about 70. 
Sizemedium; total length less than 200; hind foot about 24.. californicus (p. 58) 
Size very large; length more than 200; hind foot about 26. 

Interorbital space moderate; mastoids relatively small dispar (p. 58) 

Interorbital space wider; mastoids larger femoralis (p. 57) 

Ears rounded. 

Ears large and orbicular (length about 10); color dark; rostrum heavy. 


Mastoids large goldmani (p. 54) 

Mastoids small artus (p. 55) 

Ears medium (length about 8); rostrum light. 

Color of upperparts drab gray canescms (p. 54) 

Color of upperparts not drab gray. 

Pelage rather hispid; color dark; rostrum relatively heavy. (Central 

Mexico) nelsoni (p. 53) 

Pelage softer; color lighter; rostrum slender. 

Rump spines weak; interparietal strap-shaped; mastoids large. 

intermedins (p. 52) 
Rump spines stronger; interparietal somewhat produced anteriorly. 

Mastoids large .fallax (p. 55) 

Mastoids smaller. (Cerros Island, Lower California) .anthonyi (p. 56) 
Lateral line very faint or not evident; pelage very hispid; bristles strong, extend- 
ing to sides. 
Size large; tail 120 ormore. (San Jose Island, Lower California) . .bryanti (p. 61) 

Size smaller; tail less than 110; hind foot about 24 peninsula; (p. 60) 

Size smaller; hind foot about 22. 

Mastoids moderate. (Southern California) L spinatus (p. 59) 

Mastoids very small margaritie (p. 61 ) 

Rump without spines or bristles. 

Tail not crested, shorter than head and body; skull in adults with a supraorbital 
Size very large; hind foot about 26; color pale ochraceous. (Kansas and Ne- 
braska) paradoxus (p. 44) 

Size smaller; hind foot about 24; color bright ochraceous. (Texas.) 

hispidus (p. 42) 
Size large; hind foot about 26; color olive brown. (Zacatecas, Mexico.) 

zacatecx. (p. 45) 
Tail crested, longer than head and body; skull without supraorbital bead. 

Size very large; tail much longer than head and body; interparietal width about 

equal to interorbital width baileyi (p. 41 ) 

Size medium or large; tail slightly longer than head and body; interparietal 
width exceeding interorbital width. 
Interorbital width less than 6; color of upperparts hair-brown. (West coast 
of Mexico.) 

Skull narrow and elongate; rostrum slender pernix (p. 50) 

Skull short; rostrum heavy rostralus (p. 51) 

Interorbital width more than 6; color of upperparts pale vinaceous buff to 
broccoli brown. 
Hind foot 20 to 21. 

Size small; tail short, less than 80; hind foot 20. (Lower California) 

arenarius (p. 50) 

Size larger; tail 90 or more; hind foot 21 stephensi (p. 49) 

Hind foot 22 to 26. 
Hind foot 23 to 26; color vinaceous buff. 

Large; rostrum very heavy penicillatus (p. 45) 

Smaller; rostrum slender .angustirosiris (p. 47) 

Color blackish brown artus (p. 55) 

Hind foot 22 to 24; color broccoli brown. 

Dark; rostrum heavy pricel (p. 47) 

Paler; rostrum slender eremicus (p. 48) 


List of species and subspecies, with type localities. 

Subgenus Perognathus. 

Species and subspecies. Type locality. 

Fasdaius group: 

Perognathw fasciatus Maximilian Near junction of Missouri and Yellow- 
stone rivers, N. Dak. 

tasciatus infraluteus (Thomas ) Loveland, Colo. 

flavescens (Merriam) Kennedy, Nebr. 

merriami Allen Brownsville, Tex. 

merriam i gilvus nobis Eddy, N. Mex. 

flavus Baird El Paso, Tex. 

flavus himaculalus (Merriam) Fort Whipple, Yavapai Co., Ariz. 

flavus fuliginosus (Merriam) San Francisco Mountain, Ariz. 

flavus mexicanus Merriam Tlalpam, Mexico, Mexico. 

apache Merriam Keam Canyon, Apache County, Ariz. 

apache melanotis nobis Casas Grandes, Chihuahua, Mexico. 

caUisfus nobis Kinney Ranch, Sweetwater Co. , Wy< ». 

Panarnintinus group: 

Perognathus panarnintinus (Merriam). ..Panamint Mountains, Cal. 

panarnintinus bangsi (Mearns) Palm Springs, Cal. 

panamintirms brevinasus nobis San Bernardino, Cal. 

nevadensis Merriam Halleck, Nev. 

padficus Mearns Mexican boundary, shore of Pacific 


arnplus nobis Fort Verde, Ariz. 

longimembris (Coues) Fort Tejon, Kern Co., Cal. 

Parens group: 

Perognathus parvus (Peale) Oregon [The Dalles?] . 

parvus moUipUosus (Coues) Fort Crook, Shasta Co., Cal. 

parvus olivaceus (Merriam) Kelton, Utah. 

parvus magruclerensis nobis Mount Magruder, Nev. 

alticola Rhoads Squirrel Inn, San Bernardino Mountains, 


lordi (Gray) British Columbia. 

lordi columbianus (Merriam) Pasco, Wash. 

Formosus group: 

Perognathus formosus Merriam St. George, Utah. 

Subgenus Ch^todipus. 
Baileyi group: 

Perognathus baileyi Merriam Magdalena, Sonora, Mexico. 

Hispidus group: 

Perognathus hispidus Baird Charco Escondido, Tamaulipas, Mexico. 

hispidus paradoxus (Merriam) Trego County, Kans. 

hispidus zacatecse nobis Valparaiso, Zacatecas, Mexico. 

Penicillatus group: 

Perognathus penicillatus Woodhouse San Francisco Mountain, Ariz. 

penicillatus angustirostris nobis Carriso Creek, Colorado Desert, Cal. 

lienicillatus pricei (Allen) Oposura, Sonora, Mexico. 

penicillatus eremicus (Mearns) Fort Hancock, El Paso Co., Tex. 

stephensi Merriam Mesquite Valley, Cal. 

arenarius Merriam San Jorge, Lower California. 

3794— No. 18 2 


Species and subspecies. Type locality. 

Pemix group: 

Perognathus pemix Allen Rosario, Sinaloa, Mexico. 

pemix rostratus nobis Camoa, Sonora, Mexico. 

Intermedins group : 

Perognathus intermedins Merriain Mud Spring, Mohave Co., Ariz. 

nelsoni Merriam Hacienda La Parada, San Luis Potosi, 


nelsoni canescens (Merriam ) _ Jaral, Coahuila, Mexico. 

goldmani nobis Sinaloa, Sinaloa, Mexico. 

artus nobis - Batopilas, Chihuahua, Mexico. 

fallax Merriam Reche Canyon, San Bernardino Co., Cal. 

anihonyi nobis. Cerros Island, Lower California. 

California* ;s group: 

Perognathus femoralis Allen Dulzura, San Diego Co., Cal. 

californicus Merriam .Berkeley, Cal. 

californicus dispar nobis Carpentaria, Santa Barbara Co., Cal. 

Spinatus group: 

Perognathus spinatus Merriam Colorado River, Cal. 

spinatus peninsulx Merriam San Jose del Cabo, Lower California. 

bryanti Merriam San Jose Island, Lower California. 

margaritx Merriam Santa Margarita Island, Lower California. 

Subgenus PEROGNATHUS Maximilian, 1839. 

PEROGNATHUS FASCIATUS Maximilian. Maximilian Pocket Mouse. 

Perognathus fasciatus Maximilian, Nova Acta Acad. Cses. Leop.-Carol., XIX, I, 369- 
373, PL XXXIV, 1839; Reise Nord-Am., I, 449, 1839; Merriam, N. Am. Fauna 
No. 1, 10, 1889. 

Type locality. — Upper Missouri River near its junction with the 

Distribution. — Upper Sonoran and Transition zones of eastern Mon- 
tana and Wyoming, east into the adjoining parts of North and South 

General characters. — Size rather small, exceeding P. fiavus, but not 
equaling P. apache; ears medium, antitragus not lobed; tail subterete, 
evenly haired, slightly shorter than head and body; proximal half of 
sole of hind foot hairy. 

Color. — Upperparts grayish olivaceous, finely lined with black; 
hairs clear plumbeous basally, followed by a zone of black-tipped 
grayish buff; sides not noticeably paler than back; underparts pure 
white; lateral line bright buff (due to absence of black-tipped hairs), 
extending from nose to end of tail; tail indistinctly tricolor, dusky 
above, buffy on sides, and white below; orbital region and ill-defined 
ring around ears buff; subauricular spot present. Spring pelage: Gen- 
eral color paler, more buffy and often lacking the olive tinge; contrast 
with lateral line not marked. Young: Dull plumbeous above with 
slight admixture of buffy. 

Skull. — Size small; cranium somewhat arched; interparietal pen- 
tagonal, moderately wide; mastoids well developed, slightly project- 


ing; audita] bullae scarcely meeting anteriorly; coronoid and angular 
processes of mandible long and slender; lower premolar about equal 
to or slightly smaller than last molar. 

Measurements. — Average of four adults from Tiryou ranch, Montana 
(near junction of Missouri and Yellowstone): Total 
length, 134.7; tail vertebrae, 64.5; hind foot, 17. 
Skull: (See table, p. 62.) 

Remarks. — In bright new pelage P. fasciatus pre- 
sents a very attractive appearance. Its diminutive 
size, peculiar greenish back, pure white underparts, 
and bright buff lateral line make a combination quite 
unusual among our small mammals. One specimen 
(No. 65017) from Rosebud Agency, S. Dak. , collected 
May 13, 1894, is at the molting stage, and the incom- 
ing hairs show the extreme of this peculiar coloration. FlG - 3 — sku11 of Pero ~ 

i tit, i i n . gnathus fasciatus. 

The head, back, and rump show small patches ot 
bright, even iridescent, g-reenish, about which is the duller grayish of 
the old pelage. Another specimen (No. 65664) is further advanced, 
the only remains of the old pelage being slight traces on head and back 
and a large dark-buff rump patch. The species presents little geo- 
graphic variation. Specimens from Bighorn Basin have somewhat 
peculiar skulls, but the aberrance is very slight. 

Specimens examined. — Total number, 39, from localities as follows: 

Montana: Calf Creek, 2; Clark Fork, 2; Big Porcupine Creek, 1; Frenchman 
River, 3; Lake Basin, Yellowstone County, 2; Powderville, 1; Sage Creek, 
Bighorn Basin, 1; Tilyou ranch, 27 miles above mouth of Yellowstone 
River, 6; Wolf Creek, 1; Mouth of Yellowstone, 1. 

North Dakota: Forty miles north of Medora, 1. 

South Dakota: Cheyenne River, Custer County, 1; Corral Draw, 4; Lugen- 
beel County, 2; Pine Ridge, 3; Rosebud Agency, 1; Quinn Draw, 3; 
Smith ville, 1. 

Wyoming-: Kirby Creek, Bighorn Basin 2; Newcastle, 1. 



Perognathus infraluteus Thomas, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., 6th ser., XI, 406, May, 

Type locality. — Loveland, Larimer County, Colo. 

Distribution. — Known only from the type locality. 

General characters. — Similar to P. fasciatus, but smaller and differ- 
ent in color of underparts, which are yellowish buff instead of white; 
pelage harsher. 

Color. — Upperparts as in P. fasciatus, but more buffy; underparts 
buff with traces of white on inguinal and pectoral regions; eye-ring 
buff, more prominent than in fasciatus. 

Skull. — Essentially as in fasciatus, but smaller and with slightly 
wider interparietal, as in favescens. 


Measurements. — Average of eight young adults from the type local- 
ity: Total length, 128; tail vertebra?, 59; hind foot, IT. Skull: (See 
table p. 62.) 

Remarks. — The distinguishing character of this form is the buff 
color of its underparts. This, however, is not invariable, as one 
specimen in the series from the type locality is pure white below, and 
thus, but for minor characters, indistinguishable from fasciatus. The 
specimens examined are all young adults, which may partially account 
for their pecularities. In typical fasciatus the underparts are pure 
white in both young and old. 

Specimens examined. — Total number, 10, all from the type locality, 
Loveland, Colo. 

PEROGNATHUS FLAVESCENS (Merriam). Plains Pocket Mouse. 

Perognathus fasciatus flavescens Merriam, N.Am. Fauna No. 1, 11, 1889; Allen, Bull. 

Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., N. Y., VIII, 247, 1896. 
Perognathus copei Rhoads, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1893, 404. 

Type locality. — Kennedy, Nebr. 

Distribution. — Upper Austral plains of South Dakota, Nebraska, 
and Kansas; south possibly to northern Texas, and west to base of 
Rocky Mountains. 

General characters.— Proportions much as in P. fasciatus; size 
slightly smaller; pelage harsher; color buff, lined with black, never 
showing the strong olivaceous appearance of fasciatus. 

Color. — April specimens: Above, light-grayish bull' mixed with 
dusky; below, white; lateral line, eye-ring, and postauricular spot, 
clear buff; subauricular spot prominent; large spot on 
inflexed part of ear white; tail indistinctly bicolor; feet 
and legs white. 

Skull. — Similar to that of fasciatus, but a trifle 
smaller; interparietal wider; angular process of mandi- 
ble shorter and broader; lower premolar smaller than 
last molar. 

Measurements. — Average of six adults from Ken- 
nedy, Nebr.: Total length, 129.5; tail, 61.5; hind foot, 
. 17.3. Skull: (See table, p. 62.) 
Perognathus jia- Remarks. — This species is closel}- related to P. fas- 
vescens. ciatus, but is entirely distinct. Intergradation between 

the two is not probable, since t} r pical examples of both have been taken 
at the same place, Rosebud Indian Agency, S. Dak. < The} r doubtless 
occur together at other points, but in all cases color alone will be found 
sufficient to distinguish them. 

P. copei from Mobeetie, Tex., was based on a single very imperfect 
specimen, and its status is accordingly doubtful. Its skull shows no 
tangible departure from that of true flavescens. Possibly it represents 


a slight southern race of flavescens, or it may prove to be an inter- 
grade between that species and merriami. Four distorted and desic- 
cated individuals from Santa Fe, N. Mex.. have also been doubtfully 
referred to flavescens. 

Specimens examined. — Total number, 68 7 from localities as follows: 

Colorado: Boulder County, 1; Greeley, 3; Pueblo, 4; Sterling, 5. 

Kansas: Cairo, 4. 

Nebraska: Cherry County, 10; Ewing, 1; Kennedy, 6; Lakeside, 1; Lincoln 
County, 1; Loup Fork, 1; Myrtle, 2; Perch, Rock County, 9; Pole Creek, 
40 miles from Fort Riley, 1; Thomas County, 5; Verdigris, 1. 

South Dakota: Rosebud Agency, 2; Vermilion, 2. 

New Mexico: Santa Fe, 4. 

Texas: Mobeetie, 1. 

PEROGNATHUS MERRIAMI Allen. Merriam Pocket Mouse. 
Perognatlms flavus Baird, Mamm. N. Am., 423, 1857 (part); Merriam, N. Am. Fauna 

No. 1, 12," 1889; Allen, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., N. Y., VIII, 58, 1896. 
Oricetodipus flavus Thomas, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1888, 449. 
Perognatlms merriami Allen, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., N. Y., IV, 45, Mar., 1892. 
Perognatlms mearnsi Allen, ibid., VIII, 237, Nov., 1896. 

Type locality. — Brownsville, Tex. 

Distribution. — Subtropical region of southern Texas and northeast- 
ern Mexico, and Lower Sonoran of central Texas. The known range 
extends from Alta Mira, Tamaulipas, northward to Washburn, Tex., 
and from this point southwestward to the vicinity of Roswell, N. Mex. ; 
on the east it reaches San Antonio, and on the west follows up the Rio 
Grande as far as Comstock. 

General characters. — Size smaller than flavescens; tail about equal 
to or slightly shorter than head and bod} T , very scantily haired; pelage 
somewhat softer than in flavescens but not as in flavus; ears small and 
orbicular; colors bright; proximal half of sole of hind foot hairy. 

Cut or. — Above, ochraceous buff densely mixed with black, forming 
an imperfectly defined dorsal stripe from the nose to the tail; below, 
pure white; sides bright buffy ochraceous, lateral line scarcely dis- 
tinct; ears buff without, dusky within; spot behind ears clear buff; 
subauricular spot pure white, sharply contrasted with the surrounding- 
black and ochraceous; light orbital area comparatively extensive; 
transverse nose stripes prominent, intensely black; tail slightly darker 
above than below; feet and forelegs white. Late fall and winter pelage: 
Heavier, softer, and lighter colored. 

Skull. — General shape much as in P. flavescens, but smaller and 
slightly more angular; rostrum much heavier; maxillary branches of 
zygomata often squarely "elbowed; 1 zygomata nearly parallel; inter- 
parietal more nearly quadrate than in flavescens, much wider than in 
flavus; lower premolar about equal to last molar. 

Measurements, — Average of twenty adults from Brownsville, Tex.: 
Total length, 116.3; tail vertebrae, 57; hind foot, 16. Skull: (See 
table, p. 62.) 


Remarks. — P. merriami is a very distinct species, more closely 
related to P. Jlavescens and P. flavus than to any other form. From 
flavescens it differs in size, color, hairiness of tail, and cranial charac- 
ters. From Jlavvs, to which it has some superficial resemblance, it is 
distinguishable by its slightly larger size, less hairy tail, smaller mas- 
toids, heavier rostrum, wider interparietal, relatively larger lower 
premolar, and by other characters. In 1889 Dr. Merriam used a speci- 
men of this species from Mason, Tex., as the basis of his description 
of P. flavus, of which no typical specimens were then extant. His 
prediction that this specimen would prove different from the El Paso 
animal was verified when actual topotypes of the latter were obtained. 
Subsequent authors, however, have continued to use the characters 
pointed out by Merriam on the basis of this specimen, and slight con- 
fusion has occasionally resulted. 

The differences due to season are well shown by the large series 
examined. Early spring specimens (April) still wear the winter coat, 
which in June and early July often becomes so much worn that the 
plumbeous bases of the hairs are exposed. In late July and August 
the summer molt, the onty one known, takes place. The new hair 
comes in rapidly and evenly, progressing from the head backward 
until the animals are in the bright post-breeding pelage, which is at its 
height in September and October. In winter there is but a slight 
change — a greater or less elimination of black and a general thickening 
of the pelage. The changes after this are evidently only those which 
result from wear. 

Variations in this species are chiefly in size. Specimens from Padre 
Island, Texas, are smaller than typical ones, and those from some 
localities in Tamaulipas are abnormally large. P. mearnsi is not dis- 
tinguishable, having been based on merriami in winter pelage. 

Specimens examined. — Total number, 153, from localities as follows: 

New Mexico: Forty miles west of Roswell, 1 (intermediate). 

Texas: Austin, 1; Blocker Ranch, 1; Brownsville, 73; Comstock, 2; Kerr- 

ville, 6; Mason, 1; Padre Island, 3; Painted Cave, 1; Watson Ranch, San 

Antonio, 22; Santa Rosa, 10; San Diego, 3; Turtle Creek, Kerr County, 1; 

Washburn, 2 (intermediate). 
Nuevo Leon: Aldama, 1; Doctor Cos, 1; Linares, 1. 
Tamaulipas: Alta Mira, 1; Hidalgo, 7; Matamoras, 2; Mier, 5; Reynosa, 2; 

Victoria, 6. 

PEROGNATHUS MERRIAMI GILVUS subsp. nov. Dutchek Pocket Mouse. 

Type from Eddy, N. Mex. $ ad., No. fffff, U. S. Nat. Mus., Biological Survey Coll. 
Collected September 18, 1892, by Dr. B. H. Dutcher. Orig. No., 329. 

Distribution. — Western Texas and southeastern New Mexico. Lower 
Sonoran zone. 

General characters. — Size and proportions about the same as those 
of merriami, slightly larger than fla/mm; color as in merriami, but 

sept.,1900.] PEROGNATHUS FLAVUS. 23 

slightly paler; pelage .softer. Skull superficially resembling that of 
jlavus, but in detailed characters agreeing more closely with that of 

Color. — Paler and more yellowish than merriami; back and sides 
well mixed with black; lateral line wide; postauricular spots rather 
prominent; tail whitish below, slightly dusky above. 

Sfoutt. — Like that of merriami,' rostrum more slender; maxillary 
branches of zygomata lighter; mastoids larger. Contrasted with that 
of Jlavus, it has smaller mastoids, wider interparietal, larger lower 
premolar, and slightly wider interorbital space. 

JFeasurements. — Type: Total length, 118; tail vertebrae, 58; hind 
foot, 16.5. One topotype: Total length, 122; tail vertebras, 60; hind 
foot, 16.5. Shall: (See table, p. 62.) 

Remarks. — This subspecies combines to some extent the characters 
of jlavus and merriami. Nevertheless, careful study makes it per- 
fectly evident that these are two distinct species, between which no 
real connection exists. All the evidence tends to show that gilvus has 
been derived from merriami. That its differentiation has been in the 
direction oi jlavus is probably an accidental circumstance, and does not 
indicate close relationship. The fact that typical jlavus occurs with 
(ji/ras at its type locality (Eddy, N. Mex.), is interesting in this con- 
nection. Intergradation of gilvus with merriami is indicated by speci- 
mens from Comstock and Washburn, Tex., and also by a single 
individual taken 40 miles west of Roswell, N. Mex. 

Specimens examined. — Total number, 7, from localities as follows: 
New Mexico: Eddy, 4. 
Texas: Big Spring, 1; Presidio County, 1; Stanton, 1. 

PEROGNATHUS FLAVUS Baird. Baird Pocket Mouse. 

Perognathus jlavus Baird, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1855, 332; Mamni. N. Am., 
423, 1857 (part); Allen, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., N. Y., VII, 215, 1894. 

Type locality. — El Paso, Tex. 

Distribution. — Upper and Lower Sonoran zones from northeastern 
Colorado and western Nebraska to northern Mexico, extending west- 
ward into central Arizona and eastward to western Texas. In central 
Arizona its range meets that of the subspecies oimaculatus and in 
north-central Mexico it merges with that of mexicanus. 

General characters. — Size very small; ears medium; pelage very 
soft; tail moderately haired, shorter than head and body; proximal 
half of hind sole hairy. 

Color. — Above, pinkish buff, lightly mixed with black; below, pure 
white; black-tipped hairs most numerous in median dorsal region, pro- 
duced anteriorly beneath ears to cheeks; face and orbital region more 
or less free from duskj^; lateral line not sharply contrasted; post- 
auricular spot clear buff, very prominent; subauricular spot present. 


but inconspicuous; ears light buff outside, blackish inside; tail pale 
buffy, almost coneolor, very faintly dusky above. 

Skull. — Mastoid and audital bullae greatly developed, interparietal 
very small, pentagonal or subquadrate, nearly as long as wide; ros- 
trum quite slender; maxillary branches of zygomata angular; inter- 
orbital space well constricted; lower premolar noticeably smaller than 
last molar. 

Measurements. — Average of ten adults from Fort Huachuca, Ariz. : 
Total length, 112.5; tail vertebrae, 50; hind foot, 15.8. Skull: (See 
table, p. 62.) 

Remarks. — This species exhibits quite a departure from those pre- 
ceding. Its small size, short tail, and conspicuous postauricular spots 
serve to mark it externally, while its short, broad skull, with full bulg- 
ing mastoids and small interparietal distinguish it cranially. In its 
wide range some local differentiations might well be expected, but none 
of importance have been found. Its subspecies are not very strongly 
characterized and perfect intergradation with each is plainly evident. 

Specimens examined. — Total number, 131, from localities as follows: 

Arizona: Calabasas, 1; Chiricahua Mountains, 2; Dos Cabezos, 4; Fairbank, 
2; Fort Grant, 5; Fort Huachuca, 41; Fort Lowell, 2; Mammoth, 1; Tan- 
ner Canyon, Huachuca Mountains, 4; Willcox, 15. 

Colorado: Burlington, 1; Canyon City, 1; Fort Garland, 2; Greeley, 6; Love- 
land, 11. 

Nebraska: Alliance, 1. 

New Mexico: Chico Springs, 1; Deming, 2; Eddy, 1; Dog Spring, Grant 
County, 1; Taos, 1. 

Oklahoma: Beaver River, Beaver County, 1. 

Texas: El Paso, 8; Sierra Blanca, 1. 

Chihuahua, Mexico: Chihuahua, 10; Escalon, 3; Gallego, 3. 

PEROGNATHUS FLAVtJS BIMACULATUS (Merriam). Yavapai Pocket Mouse. 

Perognalhus bimaculatus Merriam, N. Am. Fauna No. 1, 12, 1889; Allen, Bull. Am. 

Mus. Nat. Hist., N. Y., VII, 216, 1895. 
Perognathus apache Allen, ibid, V, 71, 1893 (part). 

Type locality. — Fort Whipple, Yavapai County, Ariz. 

Distributiwi. — Central and northeastern Arizona and southeastern 

General characters.- — Similar to P. jlavus, but larger. 

Color. — As in jlavus, but with a greater abundance of black-tipped 
hairs on dorsum; underparts white with occasional traces of buff; 
lateral line quite distinct; ears clear buff outside, blackish inside. 

Skull. — Much larger than in Jlavus; interparietal relatively smaller; 
mastoids very large; lower premolar smaller than last molar as in 

Measurements. — Average of ten adults from the type locality: Total 
length, 118; tail vertebrae, 53; hind foot, 17. Skull: (See table, p. 


Remarks. — Typical adult specimens of bimctcfulaius are so much 
larger than jlwus as to be very easily distinguishable, but immature 
or undersized examples are apt to give trouble. The average differ- 
ence in size, however, is considerable and fully warrants recognition. 
When specimens of equal age are compared, the subspecies may be 
easily separated from the typical form by its larger ears and feet. 
Specimens examined. — Total number, 82, from localities as follows: 
Arizona: Fort Whipple, 23; Holbrook, 8; Keam Canyon, 1; Walnut, 1; Wins- 
low, 21. 
New Mexico : Fort Wingate, 4. 
Utah: Noland Ranch, San Juan River, 9; Riverview, 25. 

Perognathus fuMginoms Merriam, X. Am. Fauna No. 3, 74, 1890. 

Type locality. — Cedar belt northeast of San Francisco Mountain, 

Distribution. — Lava beds in the vicinity of San Francisco Mountain, 

General characters. — Size and proportions those of P. bimaculatus,' 
color very different. 

( blor. — Upperparts black or nearly black, except buff postauricular 
spots; lateral line and underparts ochraceous buff, except throat and 
breast, which are white. 

Skull. — As in bimaculatus. 

Measurements. — Type: Total length, 116; tail vertebra?, 58; hind 
foot, 18. 

Remarks. — This form is doubtless a recent offshoot from Jlavus 
which has acquired dark colors to harmonize with the black lava rock 
which it inhabits. The fact that the conditions determining its differ- 
entiation are so plainly evident should be no reason for not recogniz- 
ing the subspecies, even though its range be limited. 

Specimens examined. — Total number, 3, from localities as follows: 

Arizona: Cedar Belt, San Francisco Mountain, 1; Turkey Tanks, 1; Wolf 
Creek, 1. 

PEROGNATHUS FLAVUS MEXICANUS Merriam. Mexican Pocket Mouse. 

Perognathus jlavus mexicanus Merriam, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci., Phila., September 27, 
1894, 265-266. 

Type locality. — Tlalpam, Mexico, Mexico. 

Distribution. — Upper and Lower Sonoran zones of the southern half 
of the table-land of Mexico. 

General characters. — Similar to P. jlavus but larger and darker. 

Color. — Similar to that of flavus, but averaging much darker, the 
buff being richer and the fuliginous more extensive; postauricular 
spots and lateral line ochraceous, well contrasted; underparts white. 


Skull. — As mjlavus, but larger. 

Measurements. — Average of 12 young adults from Tlalpam, Mexico: 
Total length, 115.7; tail, 53.7; hind foot, 17.4. 

Remarks. — Some specimens of mexicanus are much like true Jiawus, 
but many are almost as dark as fuliginosiis. In these the contrast of 
dusky back and sides with ochraceous lateral line and pure white 
underparts is very striking. In size mexicanus almost equals Mma- 

Specimens examined. — Total number, 29, from localities in Mexico, 
as follows: 

Guanajuato: Celaya, 2; Guanajuato City, 2. 

Hidalgo: Ixmiquilpan, 2. 

Jalisco: Huejuquilla, 1. 

Mexico: Tlalpam, 13. 

San Luis Potosi: Ahualulco, 1 ; Hacienda La Parada, 3; Jesus Maria, 3. 

Zacatecas: Berriozabal, 1 ; Valparaiso Mountains, 1. 

PEROGNATHUS APACHE Merriam. Apache Pocket Mouse. 

Perognathus apache Merriam, N. Am. Fauna No. 1, 14, 1889; ibid., No. 3, 73, 1890; 
Allen, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist, N. Y., V, 71, 1893 (part); ibid., VII, 216, 1895. 
Perognathus flavus subsp. Merriam, N. Am. Fauna No. 3, 73, 1890. 

Type locality. — Keam Canyon, Apache County, Ariz. 

Distribution. — Eastern Arizona, western New Mexico, and southern 

General characters. — Size large, about equaling long'imembris; pelage 
rather soft; tail scantily haired; antitragus not lobed; posterior three- 
fifths of hind sole hairy. 

Color. — Above, rich buff, with light admixture of black, effecting a 
suspicion of olivaceous; lateral line moderately well 
defined; below, pure white; ears buff, very faintly dusky /T 

within, a white spot on inflexed part and on inferior i \ 

margin ; tail white below, buff above with traces of dusky Al k 

toward tip. In the early spring 'left-over' pelage the <rY t^j 
color is a beautiful clear buff with very few dusky- / / V \ 

tipped hairs. 0^~Y~~^^£ 

Skull. — Size large, equaling longimembr /.sand parvus; \ /] 

mastoids well developed; audital bullae apposed anteri- Xjf / 

orly ; interparietal pentagonal, of moderate size; angular \^J^Z\_y 

process of mandible short and upturned, not long and fig.5.— Skull of 

widespread as in longimemhris / lower premolar smaller Perognathus apa- 
than last molar. Compared with longimemhris it has 
larger more bulging mastoids, heavier rostrum, wider interorbital 
space, shorter nasals, and smaller lower premolar. 


Men 'xii r, nu nts. — Average of four adults from the type locality: Total 
length, 139.5; tail vertebra?, 67.5; hind foot, 18.5. Skull: (See table, 
p. 62.) 

Remark*. — Apart from its subspecies, P. a. melanotis, P. apache is 
closety related to no other form except P. caUistus. In color and size 
it bears some resemblance to P. longimembris, which is quite distant 
from it geographically. The only other similar form found within its 
range is P. fla/vus bimaculatus. From this it is distinguished by its 
larger size, heavy rostrum, and large wide interparietal. Specimens 
from Walnut, Ariz., are much deeper in color than usual. 

Specimens examined. — Total number, 28, from localities as follows: 

Arizona: Holbrook, 5; Keam Canyon, Navajo County, 8; Painted Desert, 2; 

Walnut, Coconino County, 4; Winslow, 1. 
New Mexico: Deming, 3; Espanola, 1; Fort Wingate, 1 ; San Pedro, 1; Santa 

Utah.: Noland Ranch, San Juan River, 1; Riverview, 1. 

PEROGNATHUS APACHE MELANOTIS subsp. nov. Black-eared Pocket 


Type i rom Casas Grandes, Chihuahua, Mexico. 9 ad., No. 97416, U. S. Nat. Mus., 
Biological Survey Coll. Collected May 21, 1899, by E. A. Goldman. Orig. No., 

Distribution. — Known only from the type locality. 

Characters. — Similar to P. apache, but darker; inside of ears black 
instead of buff; skull small and otherwise peculiar. 

Color. — General color richer buff than that of P. apache; upper- 
parts strongly mixed with black, particular^ in median dorsal region; 
inside and inflexed parts of ears black, edges of ears and subauricular 
spot white; tail bicolor, dusky above, buffy white below; orbital 
region clear buff; underparts pure white. 

Skull. — Similar to that of P. apache, but smaller; mastoids and 
audital bullae much smaller; interparietal and interorbital space rela- 
tively wider. 

Measurements. — Type: Total length, 133; tail vertebras, 65; hind 
foot, 19.5. Skull: (See table, p. 62.) 

Remarks. — The single specimen upon which this form is based is 
characterized by both external and cranial peculiarities which are 
much more than ordinary individual variation. A series of specimens 
from the type locality would doubtless show the majority of the 
peculiarities of the type to be constant. 


PEROGNATHUS CALLISTUS sp. nov. Beautiful Pocket Mouse. 

Type from Kinney Ranch, Green River basin, near Bitter Creek, Sweetwater County, 
Wyo. $ yg. ad., No. 88245, U. S. Nat, Mus., Biological Survey Coll. Collected 
May 14, 1897, by J. Alden Loring. Orig. No., 4122. 

Distribution. — Known only from the type locality and vicinity. 

General characters. — Size medium, .smaller than apache; skull quite 
similar; color very different. 

Color. — Above, grayish olive buff uniformly mixed with black; 
below, pure white; lateral line cream buff, well defined; ears whitish 
outside, dusky within; postauricular spot creamy buff, quite promi- 
nent; tail white below, dusky above. 

Skull. — Similar to apache, but somewhat heavier and more arched; 
interparietal slightly wider (though mastoids are larger) ; audita! bulla 
scarcely meeting anteriorly. 

Jfeasurements. — Type: Total length, 135; tail vertebra?, 63; hind 
foot, 18. Shall: (See table, p. 62.) 

Remarks. — This species is the most delicately colored of the genus. 
It has the attractive coloration of fasciatus, but softer and more deli- 
cate. Its position is evidently between fasciatus and apache, and its 
nearest relations are clearly with the latter. Its large size immedi- 
ately separates it from Jhsciatas, which it resembles externally, espe- 
cially before maturity. 

Specimens examined. — Total number, 7; 6 from Kinney Ranch, 
Bitter Creek, and 1 from Green River, Wyoming. 

PEROGNATHUS PANAMINTINUS (Merriam). Panamint Pocket Mouse. 

Perognathus longimembris panamintinus Merriam, Proc, Acad. Nat, Sci. Phila., Sep- 
tember 27, 1894, 265. 

Tape locality. — Perognathus Flat (altitude, 5.200 feet), Panamint 
Mountains, California, 

Distribution. — Panamint Mountains, California, and eastward 
through southern Nevada to St. George, Utah. 

General characters. — Size medium; tail long and moderately hairy; 
proximal third of hind sole hairy; pelage full, long, and silky; ears 

Color. — Above, grayish buff, often with a pearly appearance caused 
by a pale buff ground color overlaid by dark-tipped hairs; lateral line 
pale buff, not sharply defined; subauricular spot small and inconspic- 
uous; forelegs buffy or white; underparts white; tail, above dusky, 
strongly so distally, below buff or whitish. 

Skull. — Size medium; nasals long and narrow; maxillary branches 
of zygomata gradually narrowing anteriorly; interorbital space wide; 
lower premolar larger than last molar. Compared with that of flavus 
the skull of panamintinus is more elongate, with smaller mastoids, 
and wider interparietal. 


Measurements. — Average of 30 specimens from the type locality: 
Total length, 113; tail vertebrae, 78; hind foot, 19.7. Skull: (See p. 62.) 

Remark*. — All the pocket mice without lobed antitragus found in 
California belong to the panamintinus group. P. panamintinus itself 
is easily recognizable by its proportions and dental peculiarities, as 
well as by its pearly gray color and long soft pelage. Its subspecies 
are closely related to it; bangsi inhabits the arid saline valleys south- 
west of the Panamint Mountains; brevinasus is also found to the 
southwest; and an incipient form not recognized by name is found in 
eastern Nevada. From this it appears that strictly typical panamintinus 
is confined to the Panamint Mountains. 

/Specimens examined. — Total number, 1(3, from localities as follows: 

California: Panamint Mountains, 27. 

Nevada: Ash Meadows, 1; Oasis Valley, 1; Oasis Valley (ten miles west), 1; 

Pahranagat Valley, 3; Pahroc Spring, 6; Panaca, 5; Vegas Valley, 1. 
"Utah: St. George, 1. 


Perognathus longimembris bangsi Mearns, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., N. Y., X, 300, 
August 31, 1898. 

Type locality. — Palm Springs, Colorado Desert, California. 

Distribution. — Desert valleys of southern and southeastern Cali- 
fornia. Lower Sonoran zone. 

General characters. — Similar to panamintinus , but smaller and paler. 

Color. — Above, pale vinaceous buff, very lightly mixed with black, 
seldom showing the pearly effect of panamintinus/ lateral line per- 
fectly blended with sides; lower parts, including feet and fore legs, 
pure white; ears buffy white, thinly haired, a prominent white spot 
at the base of each and another on the inflexed portion ; tail buff on 
upper side, rarely showing traces of dusky except at extreme tip, 
whitish on lower side; transverse nose spots nearly obsolete. 

Skull.- — Smaller than that of panamintinus with relatively smaller 
mastoids and wider interparietal; otherwise very similar. 

Measurements. — Type: Length, 138; tail vertebra?, 80; hind foot, 19. 

Reinarks. — This pallid variety differs from panamint/mus in color 
and size only. A convenient character for distinguishing* it is the 

1 The following subspecies related to P. panamintinus bangsi has recently been 
described in the Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., XIII, 153, June 13, 1900. Owing to absence 
in the field, the author has been unable to examine the type. — Ed. 


" Type from San Felipe Narrows, San Diego County, California. No. 99828, $, 
U. S. Nat. Mus., Biological Survey Coll. Collected April 11, 1892. 

" Character*. — Similar to P. panamintinus bangsi but paler and whiter; mastoids 
greatly swollen and projecting much further back than the occiput; interparietal 
very small. Total length, 141; tail vertebra?, 82; hind foot, 19." 


color of the upper side of the tail, which is normally dusky in pana- 
mintinus and buffy in bangsi. The specimens from the more east- 
ern localities are larger than those of the Colorado Desert and 
possibly should be considered intermediate between the latter and 
true panamintinus. 

Specimens examined. — Total number, 56, from localities as follows: 

California: 1 Argus Mountains (east base) , 3; Ash Creek, Owens Lake, 5; Ban- 
ning, 1; Bishop, Owens Valley, 1; Borax Flat, 4; Cabazon, 10; Hot 
Springs Valley, 7; Haway Meadows, 1; Little Owens Lake, 5; Moran, 2; 
Olancha, 1; Palm Springs, 2; Salt Wells Valley, 12; Whitewater, 2. 


Pocket Mouse. 

Type from San Bernardino, Cal. 9 ad., No. \\%\, Coll. of C. Hart Merriam. Col- 
lected May 2, 1885, by F. Stephens. 

Distribution. — Known from a few scattered localities in extreme 
southwestern California. Upper Sonoran zone. 

General characters. — Similar in general to panamintinus and bangsi; 
color darker; tail shorter; skull peculiar. 

Color. — Above, pinkish buff, much varied with black; below, pure 
white; lateral line pinkish buff, not very sharply defined; postauricu- 
lar spot buff, more prominent than in bangsi; hairs of back and 
especially of rump, clear buff nearly to roots, often showing no 
plumbeous whatever; ears dusky; subauricular spot small; orbital 
ring buffy; tail buff or buffy white, faintly dusky above; transverse 
nose stripes blackish, well defined. Young: Dull slaty; hairs of back 
dirty whitish, with plumbeous tips. 

Skull. — Size medium, slightly smaller than in panamintinus; rather 
short, broad, and somewhat flattened; mastoids large 
and elevated from plane of cranium; interparietal mod- 
erate, smaller than in panamintinus; nasals much 
shorter than in panamintinus; zygomata more angular 
anteriorly; interorbital space relatively wide; audital 
bulla? not quite meeting in front; lower premolar larger 
than last molar. 

Measurements.— Type: Total length, 4.9 in. (124 

mm.); tail vertebra 3 , 2.6 in. (66 mm.); hind foot (meas- 

fig. e. -skuii of ured dry), 17.4 mm. Average of three adult males 

perognaihusbrevi- f rom Ferndale, San Bernardino County, Cal.: Total 

length, 130; tail, 68; hind foot (measured dry), 18.2. 

Skull: (See table, p. 62.) 

Remarks. — This is the P. longimembris of recent authors which 
requires a name, since longimembru applies only to the San Joaquin 

1 For details in regard to these localities, and others of the same general region 
mentioned in this paper, see N. Am. Fauna, No. 7, 361-384. 

sept., 1900.] PEROGNATHUS PACIFICUS. 31 

Valley animal. It ranges near P. p. bangsi, but is evidently confined 
to a higher zone. Whether it intergrades with panamintin us or bangsi 
is not satisfactorily shown by the present material. Possibly it should 
be considered a distinct species. 

Specimens examined. — Total number, 61, from localities as follows: 

California: Burbank, 1; Ferndale, San Bernardino County, 7; Jacumba, 7; 
San Bernardino, 44; Summit, Coast Range, San Diego County, 2. 

PEROGNATHUS NEVADENSIS Merriam. Nevada Pocket Mouse. 
Perognathus nevadensis Merriam, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., September 27, 1894, 264. 

Type locality. — Halleck, Nev. 

Distribution. — Upper Sonoran zone of central Nevada; northward 
to southern Oregon and northern Utah. 

General characters. — Similar in general to P. panamintinus / differ- 
ing in somewhat smaller size, color of underparts, and slight cranial 

Color. — Much as in panamintinus but darker, and with belly col- 
ored like sides. 

Skull. — Very similar to that of panamintinus; nasals a trifle 
shorter; zygomata more angular anteriorly; interparietal shorter and 
broader, occipital side strongly concave; lower premolar larger than 
last molar. 

Measurements. — Average of twenty-four adults from the type 
locality: Total length, 133; tail vertebra?, 72.4; hind foot, 18.7. 
Skull: (See table, p. 62.) 

Remarks. — P. nevadensis and P. panamintinus are closely related. 
Whether they are directly connected at the present time remains to 
be seen. Specimens from Flowing Springs, Nev., are considerably 
larger than typical, and also interesting as showing a very worn 
pelage, which is pale grizzled cinnamon with all markings more or 
less obsolete. 

Specimens examined. — Total number, 55, from localities as follows: 
Nevada: Austin, 1; Battle Mountain, 5; Devil Gate (twelve miles west of 
Eureka), 1; Flowing Springs, 10; Golconda, 2; Halleck, 23; Monitor Val- 
ley, 2; Osobb Valley, 1; Pyramid Lake, 1; Reese River, 5; Stillwater, 2; 
Wadsworth, 2. 
Oregon: Tumtum Lake, 3. 
Utah: Kelton, 1. 

PEROGNATHUS PACIFICUS Mearns. Pacific Pocket Mouse. 
Perognathus pacificus Mearns, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist,, N. Y., X, 299, August 31, 1898. 

Type locality. — Mexican boundary monument No. 258, shore of 
Pacific Ocean. 

Distribution. — Known only from the type localit}^. 


General characters. — Size exceedingly small; .similar in color and 
general characters to P. p. lyrevinasusj tail about equal to or .slightly 
shorter than head and body; proximal third of hind sole hairy; pelage 
very soft but not long and full as in panamintinus; skull much as in 
the other members of the panam/mtin us group. 

Color. — Similar to P. p. brevinasw but somewhat darker; sides 
about like back, between pinkish and salmon buff, very finety and 
thickly mixed with black; lateral line and slight postauricular spot 
pinkish buff; ears dusky; subauricular spot present; lower parts 
white; tail nearly concolor, faintly darker above than below. 

Skull. — Size very small; cranium strongly arched; mastoids mod- 
erate, not bulging as in brevinasus; interparietal much wider than long; 
zygomata very slender and threadlike; nasals rather short; interorbital 
space moderately wide; lower premolar plainly larger than last molar. 

Measurements. — Type: Total length, 113; tail vertebra?, 53; hind 
foot, 15.5. One adult topotype: Total length, 110; tail vertebra?, 54; 
hind foot, 15.3. Skull: (See table, p. 62.) 

Remarks.- — This species is by far the most diminutive member of 
the panamintinus group and of the genus. P. Jlavus, which has long 
been distinguished as the smallest pocket mouse, must now allow its 
title to pass to this tiny species. There is some superficial resem- 
blance to flavus, but the skull is entirely in accord with the characters 
of the panamintinus group. Details which yxicfficus shares with the 
other members of the group, and which distinguish it from, flavus and 
its forms, are small mastoids, wide interparietal, w T ide interorbital 
space, and large lower premolar. 

Specimens examined. — Total number, 3, all from the type locality. 

PEROGNATHUS AMPLUS sp. nov. Loring Pocket Mouse. 

Type from Fort Verde, Ariz. $ ad., No. fffff>U. S. Nat. Mus. , Biological Survey- 
Coll. Collected June 26, 1892, by J. Alden Loring. Orig. No., 272. 

Distribution. — Known ordy from the type locality. 

General characters. —Size large; tail long, well haired, slightly peni- 
cillate; hind sole naked medially to posterior fifth, which is hairy; 
pelage soft, full, and long; antitragus not lobed; mastoids greatly 

Color. — Above, pinkish buff delicately lined with black; basal fifth 
of hairs plumbeous; underparts white; lateral line buff, rather wide, 
extending on forelegs nearly to wrist; orbital area pale; white spot 
present at base of ear above and below; tail buff, mixed with black 

Skull. — Size large; mastoids excessively developed, bulging in all 
directions and reaching the maximum shown in the genus; audital 
bulla? relatively small, about as large as in P. apache, weakly apposed 


anteriorly; interparietal relatively very small, pentagonal, about as 
long as broad; rostrum long and slender, nasals more slender than in 
apache, nasal branches of premaxillse wider; zygomata narrowing 
anteriorly; interorbital width moderate; lower premolar about equal 
to or very slightly larger than last molar. 

Measurements.— Type: Total length, 155; tail vertebrae, 80; hind 
foot, 20. Sfadl: (See table, p. 62.) 

Remark*. — Both externally and cranially P. amplus is very peculiar 
and evident!}' has no close relation with any previously known species. 
In proportions (not in size) and character of pelage it is not very unlike 
P. panamintinus, and from some of the forms of this species it is but 
slightly dissimilar in color, but its remarkable skull and slightly 
haired hind foot are unique. The great development of mastoids 
which it shows is not at all correlated with an equal enlargement of 
the audital bulla?, as these are no larger than in P. apache. It has no 
important characters in common with apache and can not be closely 
related to it. 

Specimens examined. — One, the type. 

PEROGNATHUS LONGIMEMBRIS (Coues). San Joaquin Pocket Mouse. 

Otognosis longimembris Coues, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1875, 305, under Cricetodipus 

parvus. (Type from Fort Tejon. ) 
Cricetodipus parvus True, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., IV, 474, 1882. 
Perognathus inornatus Merriam, N. Am. Fauna No. 1, 15, 1889. (Type from Fresno. ) 

Type locality. — Fort Tejon, Canada de las Uvas, Kern County, Cal. 

Distribution. — Sonoran zone of the San Joaquin Valley, California, 
and its immediate extensions. 

General characters. — Size large, equaling P. apache; color uniform, 
all markings reduced; antitragus not lobed; pelage 
rather harsh; proximal third of hind sole hairy. 

Color. — Above, buff mixed with more or less black; 
below, white; bases of hairs on rump slightly or not 
plumbeous; lateral line poorly defined, concolor with 
upper sides; tail buff, paler on lower surface, faintly 
dusky above; upper side of forelegs generally buff to 
wrist; ears buffy outside, dusky within, a slight stripe 
of white on inflexed portion and the usual white spot 
at base. Young adults darker than adults, and showing fig.7.— skuii of 

a Slight tinge of olivaceOUS. Perognathuslong- 

Skull. — Size large, mastoids and audital bulla? moder- 
ate, not bulging as in brevinasus; interparietal subquadrate, relatively 
smaller than in brevinasus; interorbital space very narrow, often dor- 
sally concave in old individuals; nasals long; lower premolar larger 
than last molar. 

3794— No. 18 3 


Measurements. — Average of 4 adult males from Fresno, Cal. : Total 
length, 145.2; tail vertebrae, 74.5; hind foot, 18.7. Of 4 adult females: 
Total length, 136; tail vertebrae, 71.5; hind foot, 18.3. Skull: (See 
table, p. 62.) 

Remarks. — The above description is based mainly on specimens 
from Fresno, the type locality of ' inornatus.^ The type of longi- 
membris is immature, but its skull shows the narrow interorbital space 
peculiar to the San Joaquin Valley form. The only available topotype 
is fortunately a young adult which agrees perfectly with specimens 
from Fresno and other points in the San Joaquin Valley. Two young 
specimens from San Emigdio and Rose Station, both very near Fort 
Tejon, are also clearly the same as those from Fresno, having the 
harsher pelage and slight olivaceous effect so different from the soft 
hairs and delicate pearly color of the young of panamintinus and sub- 
species. Thus it seems that the name longimembris should be applied 
to the animal recently called inornatus rather than to the San Bernar- 
dino form. 

The species is very distinct, though its range is limited. It seems 
to be exclusively confined to the San Joaquin Valley, where it is the 
only representative of the genus. Young adults may be distinguished 
from old by their smaller size and darker color. Females are con- 
stantly smaller than males. Among adults two phases of color are 
apparent, one in which the hairs are grayish from the roots and 
another in which they are buffy. 

Specimens examined. — Total number, 111, from localities as follows: 

California: Alila, 2; Bakersfield, 5; Delano, 2; Fort Tejon, 2; Fresno, 54; 
Huron, 3; Livingston, 11; Lodi, 3; Oakdale, 2; Ripon, 2; Rose Station, 
Kern County, 1; San Emigdio, Kern County, 1; Three Rivers, 2; Tipton, 
7; Walker Basin, Kern County, 14. 

PEROGNATHUS PARVUS (Peale). Oregon Pocket Mouse. 

Cricetodipus parvus Peale, U. S. Expl. Exp'd., VIII, Mamm. and Ornith., 52-54, 1848. 
Perognathus parvus Cassin, U. S. Expl. Exp'd., Mamm. and Ornith., 48-49, 1858; 

Merriam, N. Am. Fauna No. 1, 28, 1889 — Peale' s description copied. 
Perognathus monticola Baird, Mamm. N. Am., 422, 1857; Merriam, N. Am. Fauna 

No. 1, 17, 1889. 

Type locality. — Oregon. Assumed to be The Dalles, Oreg. 

Distribution. — Valley of the Yakima River, Washington, and thence 
southward to central and southeastern Oregon. Upper Sonoran zone. 

Geyieral characters. — Size large: tail slightly penicillate, its verte- 
bra? longer than head and body; ears moderate, well haired, antitragus 
prominently lobed; proximal fourth of hind sole hairy; color vari- 
able, presenting two extremes, a gray and a buff. 1 

1 This species is certainly to some degree dichromatic, for the color variation is 
evidently not due to age, sex, or season. In one phase the huff is reduced to grayish 

bjspt., 1900.1 PEROGKNATHUS PARVUS. 35 

Color. — Gray phase: Above, pale slaty buff mixed with black, dark- 
est in center of back; below, white, except belly, the hairs of which 
are normally plumbeous, with pale tips; sides like back, but paler; 
black-tipped hairs of back running forward across sides and reaching 
or nearly reaching forearm: lateral line buff; tail tricolor, dusk} 7 
above, becoming black terminally, buff on sides, generally white 
below, but sometimes suffused with buff} 7 ; ears dusky, lighter on mar- 
gins; subauricular spot moderate; feet white; inner side of hind legs 
dusky to heel. Buffphast : Everywhere as in gray phase, but general 
color buff or ochraceous buff instead of slaty. Young: Above, clear, 
light plumbeous, tips of hairs very pale buff, gradually intensifying 
with increasing age; below, as in adult. In late fall the high pelage 
which succeeds the breeding pelage becomes much paler as the black 
tips of the hairs wear off and expose the undercolor. 

Skull. — Size large: cranium slightly arched; rostrum somewhat 
attenuate; audita] bulla? and mastoids moderately developed; audital 
bulla?, meeting anteriorly in a well-defined symphysis; interparietal 
wide, pentagonal, anterior angle strong; lower premolar smaller than 
last molar. 

Measurements. — Average of five adults from Mabton, Wash. : x Total 
length, 171.8; tail vertebras, 91.8; hind foot, 22.4. Skull: (See table, 
p. 62.) 

Remarks. — The group for which parvus stands contains seven closel} 7 
related forms. All are of relatively large size and have the antitragus 
distinctly lobed, thus requiring but slight comparison with the other 
members of the subgenus. P. p. olivaceus is the most centralized 
form. It occupies the main part of the Great Basin proper and the 
others, which are found in the various Great Basin extensions, have 
evidently been derived from it. 

The name parvus, though one of the earliest proposed for a pocket 
mouse, has been usually incorrectly applied. Peale assigns the species 
to Oregon, and his original description and measurements indicate one 
of the larger members of the genus. 2 Since but one species is found 
in the part of Oregon traversed by the Wilkes expedition, and since 
this agrees in general with Peale's description, there seems to be no 
reason why the name parvus should not now be applied to it. The 

drab, and in another it is developed into cinnamon, or even bright ochraceous. 
Between these extremes occur various intermediate stages. As might be expected, 
one phase is often much more numerous at a given locality than the other, though 
both are found together. The two are perfectly distinct in both adults and young. 

1 Although numerous specimens from The Dalles have been examined none are 
sufficiently adult to afford satisfactory measurements, so that it has been necessary to 
use the Mabton series for this purpose. 

2 The measurements alone are sufficient to prove that the name should never be 
used for alive-toed kangaroo rat. Cf. Rhoads, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1893, 


form found at The Dalles is here considered typical. The chances 
that the type was taken there are considerable since the species is very 
abundant there and members of the Wilkes expedition camped at or 
near that place on several different occasions. 1 

It is also not improbable that the type of Baird's ' monticola'' was 
also taken at The Dalles. Baird's queried statement that it came from 
St. Mary's Mission, Mont., is rendered much more doubtful by the 
unsuccessful efforts of recent collectors to obtain additional specimens 
from that locality. Dr. Suckley, who collected this type, stopped for 
some time at The Dalles and may have obtained it there, as pocket 
mice are probably more abundant there than at any other point at 
which he stopped. Its skull agrees more nearly with that of parvus 
than with that of any other form. 

Specimens examined. — Total number, 103, from localities as follows: 

Oregon: Antelope, 1; Burns, 5; Crown Rock, John Day River, 3; Harney, 1; 

Heppner, 2; Lost River, Klamath Basin, 5; Narrows, Malheur Lake, 6; 

North Dalles, 11; Prineville, 1; Rock Creek Sink, 2; Shirk, 5; The Dalles, 

13; Tule Lake, 5; Tumtum Lake, 7; Twelve-mile Creek, 1; Umatilla, 2; 

Willows Junction, 2. 
"Washington: Mahton, 25; North Yakima, 6. 


Pewgnathus mollipilosus Coues, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1875, 296 (under P. 

Perognathus monticola Townsend, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., X, 177, 1888. 

Type locality. — Fort Crook, Shasta County, Cal. 2 

Distribution. — Great Basin extension of northeastern California, 
north to Klamath Basin, Oregon. Upper Sonoran zone, except on 
Mount Shasta, where it ascends to the Boreal. 

General characters. — Size somewhat smaller than parvus; ears much 
larger, antitragal lobe prominent; coloration dark; markings intense. 

Color.- — Above, rich ochraceous buff, black-tipped hairs very abun- 
dant; lateral line prominent; white subauricular spot very faint or not 
evident; below, white, varying to tawny ochraceous on belly. 

/Skull. — Size relatively rather small; very similar to P. olwact us, 
but with the ascending branches of the premaxillse abruptly truncated, 
not exceeding the nasals. 

Measurements. — Average of three adults from the type locality: 
Total length, 168.3; tail vertebra?, 88; hind foot, 22.3; ear from 
meatus (dry), 8.2. Skull: (See table, p. 62.) 

Remarks. — The specimens from Fort Crook and Fall River Valley 
are the only ones that may be considered strictly typical. They are 

1 Wilkes, Narrative U. S. Expl. Exp'd, IV, 403-432, 1845. 

2 Fort Crook, now abandoned, was located about 2 miles northeast of the present 
site of Burgettville, or Swasey. 


well characterized by large ears, rich color, obsolescent subauricular 
spots, and truncated premaxilla?. Nearly all the others here referred 
to mollvpilosus show greater or less tendency toward olivaceus. The 
form seems to be one like raagruderensis, which is rather ill defined, 
but of a type too strongly characterized to be left unrecognized. 
Specimens from the Boreal zone on Mount Shasta do not seem to be 
separable, notwithstanding their very anomalous distribution. 1 

Speci/mens r.iut 111 nied. — Total number, 44, from localities as follows: 
California: Alturas, 1; Cassel, 6; Edgewood, 3; Fall Lake, Fall River Val- 
ley, 1; Fort Crook, 5; Likely, 1; Madeline Plains, 2; Mount Shasta (head 
of Panther Creek, altitude 7,800 feet, 8; pine helt, south base 4), 12; 
Sisson, 2; Susan ville, 2. 
Oregon: Summer Lake, 2; Swan Lake Valley, 4: Williamson River, 3. 



Perognalhus olivaceus Merriam, N. Am. Fauna No. 1, 15, 1889; ibid., No. 5,71,1891; 

Elliott, Field Columbian Mus., Zool. Ser., I, No. 10, 211, 1898. 
Perognafhus olivaceus amanus Merriam, N. Am. Fauna No. 1, 16, 1889. 

Type locality. — Kelton, Utah. 

Distribution. — Upper Sonoran zone throughout the Great Basin, 
from northern Utah and southern Idaho southwest to Owens Valley, 
California, and west to southern Oregon and northeastern California. 

General characters. — Similar to P. parvus; differing in softer pelage, 
lighter color, and slight cranial characters. 

Color. — Similar to the buff phase of P. parvus, but with clearer, 
softer colors; above, bright cinnamon buff finely mixed with black; 
lateral line distinct; subauricular spot conspicuous: 
hairs of belly pure white or with plumbeous bases and 
buff tips; inner side of foreleg white or buff. Late 
fall pelage paler. 

Skull. — Similar to that of parvus but slightly larger; 
mastoids more inflated; interparietal slightly smaller 
(ratio of interparietal width to basilar length of Hen- 
sel, 27. 8); audital bullae meeting anteriorly in a very 
weak sj^mphysis or not meeting; ascending branches of 
premaxilla? generally exceeding nasals. 

Measurements.- Tyj><: Total length, 184; tail verte- 
bra 1 , 101; hind foot, 23. Average of three males from fig. 8.— skuii of 
Salt Lake City, Utah: Total length, 175.6; tail verte- ^ gnathus "'"'"" 
brae, 95.6; hind foot, 22. Average of three females 
from Ogden, Utah: Total length, 167.7; tail vertebrae, 88; hind foot, 
21.7. Skull: (See table, p. 62.) 

Remarks. — In the wide range of this form are found numerous 

1 See N. Am. Fauna No. 16, 98, 1899. 


more or less trivial deviations from the type. Most of these are of 
size only and probably represent nothing more than individual vari- 
ation, which in this respect is often considerable. A difference in size 
between the sexes is also quite noticeable. The dark undercolor 
shown by the type of i amcmus' > has been observed in many speci- 
mens from various localities, and in the series now available from 
Nephi are individuals with pure white belly hairs, as in the type of 

/Specimens examined. — Total number, 126, from localities as follows: 
California: Benton, 1; Bishop (Veek, 1 ; Long Valley, 4; Lower Alkali Lake, 

1; Moran, 4. 
Idaho: Bear Lake (east side), 10; Big Butte, 1; Birch Creek, 3; Blackfoot, 2; 

Lemhi, 1 ; Pahsimeroi Valley, 3. 
Nevada: Anderson, 1; Bull Run Mountains, 3; Carson Valley, 1; Cottonwood 
Range, 5; Elko, 6; Golconda, 1; Granite Creek, 5; Halleck, 5; Monitor 
Valley, 5; Mountain City, 3; Pyramid Lake, 3; Reese River, 6; Ruby 
Valley, 9; Winnemucca, 1. 
Utah: Blacksmith Fork, Cache County, 2; Kelton, 2; Laketown, 2; Nephi, 

9; Ogden, 17; Otter Creek, 2; Salt Lake City, 4. 
Wyoming: Fort Bridger, 1. 


Pocket Mouse. 
Type from Mount Magruder, Nev. (altitude 8,000 feet). $ ad., No. |j^, U. S. Nat. 

Mus., Biological Survey Coll. Collected June 6, 1891, by Vernon Bailey. Orig. 

No., 2899. 

Distribution. — Upper Sonoran and Transition zones of the desert 
ranges of southern Nevada and adjoining portion of California. 

General characters. — Similar to P.p. olivaceus, but very much larger, 
being the largest member of the parvus group. 

Color. — As in P. p. olivaceus. 

Skull. — Very much as in olivaceus, but considerably larger and heav- 
ier; interparietal relatively narrower (ratio of interparietal width to 
basilar length of Hensel, 25.1). 

Measurements. — Type: Total length, 198; tail vertebrae, 107; hind 
foot, 26. Average of five adult topotypes: Total length, 191; tail 
vertebrae, 102.2; hind foot, 24.2. Skull: (See table, p. 62.) 

Remarks. — P. p. magruderensis is a large incompletely differentiated 
mountain form closely related to olivaceus which is found near it at a 
lower altitude. The form found on the Panamint Mountains shows 
trifling differences from typical magruderensis, but is here considered 
the same. 

Specimens examined. — Total number, 27, from localities 1 as follows: 
California: Coso, 8; Inyo Mountains, 2; Panamint Mountains, 7; White 

Mountains, 2. 
Nevada: Mount Magruder, 7; Grapevine Mountains, 1. 

'See N. Am. Fauna, No. 7, 361-384, 1893. 

seft.,1900.] PEROGNATHUS LORDI. 3i> 

PEROGNATHUS ALTICOLA Rhoads. White-earkd Pocket Mouse. 
Perognathus aMcolus Rhoads, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci., Phila., December, 1893,412. 

Type locality. — Squirrel Inn, San Bernardino Mountains, California. 

Distribution. — Known only from the type locality. 

General characters. — Similar to P.p. olivaceus, from which it differs 
in somewhat smaller size, in color of ears and tail, and in slight cra- 
nial characters. 

( blor. — Above, as in P.p. oH/uaceus; sides like back, lateral line not 
prominent; below, white; ears clothed within and without with clear 
white hairs; tail faint buff above, terminal fourth slightly dusky, 
white below. 

Skull. — Essentially as in P. p. olivaceus; ascending branches of 
supraoccipital very broad and heavy; interparietal rather narrow. 

Measurements. — -Average of two adult topotypes: Total length, 165; 
tail vertebrae, 83.5; hind foot, 22.2. Skull: (See table, p. 62.) 

Remarks. — This isolated species may be immediately distinguished 
from the other members of the parvus group by its light ears and tail. 
The type agrees perfectly with the topotypes upon which the descrip- 
tion is based. 

Specimens examined. — Total number, 4, all from the type locality. 

PEROGNATHUS LORDI (Gray). Northwest Pocket Mouse. 

Abrom>/s lordi Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. Loudon, 18H8, 202. 
Perognathus lordi Rhoads, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1893, 405. 

Type locality. — British Columbia. 

Distribution . — Upper Sonoran and Transition zones of the plains of 
the Columbia River, Washington, and suitable adjacent territory in 
southern British Columbia. 

General characters. — Similar to P. parvus; size large (nearly equal- 
ing magruderensis)) tail long; feet and ears moderate; antitraguslobed; 
color dark; interparietal narrow. 

Color. — Above, pale slaty buff, strongly mixed with black; general 
color as in the gray phase of P. parvus/ hairs of belly generally with 
plumbeous bases and buffy tips, leaving a small inguinal and a large 
pectoral patch pure white; subauricular spot small but distinct; tail 
tricolor, as in parvus. 

Skull. — Size large; audital bulla? and mastoids inflated; audita! bullae 
alwaj s connected anteriorly; interparietal squarish pentagonal, deeply 
notched by occipital. 

Measurements — Average of seven adults from Oroville, Wash.: 
Total length, 183 , tail vertebrae, 97.7; hind foot, 23.2. Skull: (See 
table, p. 62.) 

Remarks. — The numerous specimens examined from various parts 
of the country in which John Keast Lord collected leave little doubt 


that this was the pocket mouse to which his name was given by Gray 
in 1868; but in order to remove all uncertainty, specimens were sent 
to Mr. Oldfield Thomas, curator of mammals in the British Museum, 
who kindly compared them with the type and found that they agreed 
in every essential particular. In color lordi is almost identical with 
the gray phase of P. monticola, but its large size and small interpari- 
etal show it to be a very different species. Apparently it does not 
occur on the west side of the Columbia at Wenatchee or south of that 
point. Specimens from Coulee City, Douglas, and vicinity are grading 
toward columbianus. 

Specimens examined.— -Total number, 131, from localities as follows: 

British Columbia: Ashcroft,14; Kamloops, 6; Okanagan, 12; Vernon, 2. 

Idaho: Lewiston, 1. 

"Washington: Almota, 16; Asotin, 11; Chelan, 2; Cheney, 3; Conconully, 3; 
Coulee City, 6; Douglas, 11; Fort Spokane, 7; Marcus, 1; Orondo, 7; Oro- 
ville, 9; Spokane Bridge, 11; Wenatchee (east bank of Columbia), 9. 



Perognathns columbianus Merriam, Proc.Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., September 27, 1894, 236. 

Type locality. — Pasco, Wash. 

Distribution. — Vicinity of type locality. 

General characters. — Similar to P. lordi, from which it differs in 
slight cranial characters. 

Color. — As in P. lordi. 

Skull. — Audita! bulla? and mastoids highly developed: interparietal 
width much reduced; otherwise as in P. lordi. 

Measurements. — Average of five adults from Pasco, Wash. : Total 
length, 179.8; tail vertebra?, 92; hind foot, 22.8. Skull: (See table, 
p. 62.) 

Remarks. — This form is found only on the hot plains about the 
Great Bend of the Columbia. The great development of audita! bullae 
and mastoids and consequent reduction of interparietal width exhibited 
by it is the extreme shown in the parvus group. 

Specimens examined. — Total number, 26, from localities as follows: 

Washington: Pasco, 12; Touchet, 14. 

PEROGNATHUS FORMOSUS Merriam. Long-tailed Pocket Mouse. 
Perognathus formosun Merriam, N. Am. Fauna No. 1, 17, October 25, 1889. 

Type locality. — St. George, Utah. 

Distribution. — Southwestern Utah, southern Nevada, and the adjoin- 
ing portion of California. Lower Sonoran zone. 

General characters. — Size large (about equal to P.p. <magruderensis)\ 
tail much longer than head and body, heavity crested penicillate; ears 

SEPT. ,1900-] 



large, .somewhat attenuate, scantily haired; antitragus prominently 
lobed; soles naked. 

Color. — Above, grizzled sepia; below, white; sides not noticeably 
lighter than back; dark hairs generally extending down front leg to 
forearm; ears dusky black, tuft of bristly hairs at base mixed black 
and whitish; subauricular spot small, noticeable only in very high 
pelage; feet white; tail buff to pencil below, buff mixed with dusky 
above, intensifying toward pencil, which is brownish 
black. Worn pelage, drab instead of sepia. Young: 
Smokjr gray above, white below. 

Skull. — Size medium; cranium slightly arched; 
mastoids well developed, bulging very slightly be- 
hind, rather smaller than in the parvus group; inter- 
orbital space wide; interparietal large and wide, 
pentagonal; nasals shorter than in magruderensis; 
audital bulla? slightly touching anteriorly; lower 
premolar larger than last molar. 

Measurements. — Average of five adults from St. 
George, Utah: Total length, 189.6; tail vertebrae, 
106.4; hind foot, 24. Skull: (See table, p. 62.) 

Remarks. — This peculiar species is the only member of the subgenus 
Perognathus which has a heavily crested tail. In this respect it is 
like Chcetodipus, but its skull shows the characters of true Perogna- 
th us. It inhabits remote western deserts little frequented by collect- 
ors. With the exception of the type, all the specimens known were 
taken by the Death Valley Expedition in 1891. 

Specimens examined.- — Total number, 136, from localities 1 as follows: 
California: Argus Mountains, 6; Bennett Wells, 2; Emigrant Spring, 12; 
Funeral Mountains, 7; Furnace Creek, 4; Grapevine Springs, 11; Little 
Owens Lake, 3; Lone Pine, 2; Lone Willow Spring, 2; Panamint Moun- 
tains, 15; Resting Springs, 1; Saline Valley, 6; Saratoga Springs, 6. 
Nevada: Ash Meadows, 4; bend of Colorado River near Callville, 12; Bunk- 
erville, 2; Charleston Mountains, 1; Grapevine Mountains, 6; Oasis Val- 
ley, 2; Pahranagat Valley, 2; Pahroc Spring, 2; Pahrump Vallev, 17; 
Thorp Mill, 2. 
Utah: St. George, 9. 

Pig. 9.— Skull of Pcro- 


Subgenus CILffiTODIPTJS Merriam, 1889 (see p. 14). 

Chxtodipus Merriam, X. Am. Fauna No. 1, 5, 1889. Type, Perognathus spinalus Mer- 
riam, 1889, from Colorado River, California. 

PEROGNATHUS BAILEYI Merriam. Bailey Pocket Mouse. 
Perognathus baileyi Merriam, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., September 27, 1894, 262. 
Type locality. — Magdalena, Sonora, Mexico. 

1 See N. Am. Fauna No. 7, 361-384, 1893. 


Distribution. — South central Arizona and thence south into Sonora 
and northern Lower California, Mexico. 

General characters. — Size, very large; tail very long and penicillate; 
color .similar to that of P. formosus; skull large and heavy. 

Color. — As in formosus, but paler, being grayish rather than buffy; 
under side of tail whitish instead of buffy. 

Skull. — Large and massive; mastoids relatively smaller than in for- 
mosus; mastoid side of parietal scarcely longest, about equaling other 
long sides; audital bullae very weakly apposed in 
front; interparietal large, pentagonal, relatively 
wider than in formosus, interparietal width about 
equal to interorbital width; lower premolar smaller 
than or about equal to last molar. 

Measurements. — Average of five adults from the 
type locality: Total length. 214.6; tail vertebras, 
120.6; hind foot, 27. Skull: (See table, p. 62.) 

Remarks. — P. baileyi stands somewhat alone. It 
seems most nearly related to formosus, although the 
sum of its characters places it in a different sub- 
genus. The size and massiveness of its skull sug- 
fig. io.-skuii of Pen- g es ^ relationship to some of the larger species of 

gnathus baileyi. ° , /7 . ... 7 „ 7 . , , 

(Jhcetodipms, like paradoxus or jeinoralts, but de- 
tailed characters indicate little affinity in this direction. 

Specimens examined. — Total number, 17, from localities as follows: 

Arizona: Mammoth, 1; New River, 5; Tucson (75 miles southwest), 1; Santa 

Catalina Mountains, near Tucson, 1. 
Sonora: Magdalena, 8. 
Lower California: Comondu, 1. 

PEROGNATHUS HISPIDUS Baird. Hispid Pocket Mouse. 

Perognathusfascialus Baird, Mamm. N. Am., 420, 1857; Thomas, Proc. Zool. Soe. Lond., 

1888, 449. 
Perognathus hispidus Baird, Mamm. N. Am., 421, 1857; Merriam, N. Am. Fauna No. 1, 

23, 1889. 
Perognathus paradoxus spilotus Merriam, N. Am. Fauna No. 1, 25, 1889; Allen, Bull. 

Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., N. Y., VI, 172, 1894; ibid., VIII, 58, 1896. 
Perognathus paradoxus Allen, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist.,N. Y., VI, 172, 1894. 

Type locality. — Charco Escondido, Tamaulipas, Mexico. 

Distribution. — Southern and western Texas, north to Oklahoma and 
south into border States of Mexico. Lower Sonoran zone. 

General characters. — Size large; tail equal to or slightly shorter 
than head and body, not crested or penicillate; pelage harsh, no spines 
or bristles anywhere; ear small, antitragus lobed, tragus quite evi- 
dent; soles of hind feet naked in median line; skull heavy and some- 
what ridged. 


Color. Above, ochraceous much mixed with black; sides scarcely 
paler than back; lateral line clear ochraceous, extending- on fore and 
hind leg's for half their length; face and orbital region light, lower 
cheeks continuous "with lateral line; underparts white; ears dusky 
inside, buffy white on margins and on outer side, except an elliptical 
black spot on inflexed portion; feet white; tail whitish below, buffy 
on sides, sharply black above. Spring pelagt : Much paler. 

Sfcull. — Size large; rostrum heavy, somewhat arched; interorbital 
space wide; supraorbital bead very evident; mastoids relatively small, 
not bulging behind; mastoid side of parietal short; interparietal large, 
imperfectly pentagonal, all angles much rounded, anterior one some- 
times entirely annihilated; ascending branches of supraoccipital short 
and heav} r ; audital bullae normally separated anteriorly by breadth of 
basisphenoid, occasionally approaching each other; lower premolar 
about equal to last molar. 

Measurements. — Average of six adults from Brownsville, Tex.: 
Total length, 204.5; tail vertebras, 100.5; hind foot, 25. Skull: (See 
table, p. 62.) 

Remarks. — This species typifies one of the most peculiar groups of 
the genus. It is characterized by its large size, short uncrested tail, 
and heavy ridged skull. Its skull, though peculiar, is plainly that of 
a Chcetodipus, but external characters, excepting size, do not prohibit 
its being classed with restricted Perognathus, thus reversing the con- 
ditions presented by formosus. Baird's type agrees in essential char- 
acters with specimens from Brownsville, Tex., and other points near 
the type locality. In examining this type it was discovered that the 
broken skull supposed to belong to it is composite. The posterior 
section is the only part which may be safely assumed to have been 
originally within the skin. The anterior part and the mandible seem 
to have belonged with some other skin. Besides man}^ differences of 
proportion which show this to be the case, there is a distinct difference 
in the texture and surface appearance of the bone in the two parts, 
indicating that they were cleaned and used differently. The skull of 
Baird's second specimen (No. 1695), which he figured, is nearly per- 
fect and agrees in detail with many recently collected ones. The pos- 
terior section of the skull of the type agrees with this one, and also 
with the same parts of numerous others from the same vicinity. The 
skin of the type is also easily recognizable, so that when everything is 
considered there is no good excuse for allowing the name Perognathus 
hispidus to remain doubtful. 

The form described as P. p. spilotus is here considered synony- 
mous with hispid/us, though there is some difference between the two. 
In a general way the southern animals are smaller, and with harsher 
pelage and higher color than the northern. The difference, which is 
chiefly of size, is fairly marked, and the increase quite gradual from 



[no. 18 

typical hispidus to typical paradoxus, leaving ' conclitV and i 8pUotus i 
exactly intermediate, in character as well as geographic situation. 
Individual variation in size is often considerable, as is well shown by 
the Brownsville series, in which the length of the hind foot varies 
from 22 mm to 25 mm. 

Specimens examined. — Total number, 175, from localities as follows: 

Texas: Bee County, 5; Beeville, 2; Blocker Banch, 1; Brazos, 1; Browns- 
ville, 40; Chileipin Creek, San Patricio County, 1; Colorado, 1; Corpus 
Christi, 2; Cuero, 1; Gainesville, 6; Llano, 2; Lomita Banch (near Bio 
Grande City), 3; Long Point, 1; Los Indios Banch, Nueces County, 1; 
Nueces Bay, 5; Oconnorport, 1; Padre Island, 1; Bio Grande City, 3; 
Bockport, 30; Boma, 1; Saginaw, 1; San Antonio, 46; Santa Rosa, 1; San 
Thomas, 2; Sauz Banch, Cameron County, 1; Sycamore Creek (mouth), 2. 

Nuevo L.eon: Linares, 2. 

Tamaulipas: Matamoras, 1; Mier, 3; Victoria, 1. 


Perognathus paradoxus Merriam, N. Am. Fauna No. 1, 24, October 25, 1889. 
Perognathus latirostris Rhoads, Am. Nat., -XXVIII, 1,85, February, 1894. 
Perognathus conditi Allen, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., N. Y., VI, 318, November, 1894. 

Type locality. — Trego County, Kans. 

Distribution. — Upper Sonoran zone of the Great Plains from the 
Dakotas to Texas, westward to base of Rocky Mountains. 

General characters. — Very similar to P. hispidus, but larger and 
with softer pelage; skull much heavier and more 

Color. — Much as in hispidus, but duller and 

Skull. — As in hispidus, but much larger, heavier, 
more angular and more ridged; otherwise not 
tangibly different. 

Measurements. — Average of six adults from 
Kansas and Nebraska: Total length, 222.3; tail 
vertebra?, 108; hind foot, 26.5. Skull: (See 
table, p. 62.) 

Remarks. — The average difference in size be- 
tween paradoxus and tj^pical hispidus is consider- 
able, but apart from this there are no very impor- 
tant distinctive characters. The skull varies indi- 
vidually more than is usual in the genus and affords scarcely any 
reliable differences. P. paradoxus has few characters in common with 
P. femoralis, which it rivals in size. It is heavier and more robust than 
femoralis and different in many other ways. The type of i P. latirostris'' 
Rhoads is slightly larger than any other specimen examined, but, in 
view of the variation shown in the group, the chances of its being even 
subspecifically distinct seem very slight. Specimens from Arizona and 

Fig. 11.— Skull of Perogna- 
thus paradoxus. 


western Texas are here referred to paradoxus, as they seem slightly 
nearer to that form than to hispidus. 

Specimens examined. — Total number, 61, from localities as follows: 

Arizona: Fort Huachuca, 1; San Bernardino Ranch, 2. 

Colorado: Boulder County, 2; Sterling, 2. 

Kansas: Colby, 1; Ellis, 2; Garden Plain, 1; Pendennis, 1; Trego County, 3. 

Nebraska: Callaway, 1; Cherry County, 1; Myrtle, 2; Red Cloud, 1. 

New Mexico: Las Vegas, 1; Roswell, 1. 

Oklahoma: Alva, 11; Orlando, 3; Ponca, 1. 

South Dakota: Corral Draw, Pine Ridge Indian Reservation, 8; Quinn 

Draw, Cheyenne River, 3; Smith ville, 1. 
Rocky Mountains: 1 (type of ' latirostris'). 
Texas: Amarillo, 1; Marfa, 3; Presidio County, 1. 
Chihuahua: Chihuahua, 1; Santa Rosalia, 2; Casas Grandes, 12. 

PEROGNATHUS HISP1DUS ZACATECE subsp. nov. Zacatecas Pocket Mouse. 

Type from Valparaiso, Zacatecas, Mexico. $> yg. ad., No. 91877, U. S. Nat. Mus., Bio- 
logical Survey Coll. Collected December 16, 1897, by E. A. Goldman. Orig. No., 

Distribution. — Upper Sonoran zone from Valparaiso, Zacatecas, to 
Celaya, Guanajuato, Mexico. 

General characters. — Somewhat larger and darker-colored than his- 
pidus; otherwise similar. 

<'<>l<>r. — Much darker and more olivaceous than in hispid us; general 
color of upperparts between the hair-brown and olive of Ridgway ; 
bases of hairs very dark plumbeous; lateral line pure ochraceous, well 
defined, slightly paler than in hispidus; spots at base of whiskers 
intensely black and very conspicuous; tail sharply black above; under- 
parts white. 

Skull. — As in hispidus, but somewhat larger. 

Measurements. — Type: Total length, 211; tail vertebra?, 105; hind 
foot, 27.5. Skull: (See table, p. 62.) 

Remarks. — This form seems to be related most nearl}' to paradoxus 
and, like it, inhabits the Upper Sonoran zone. Its dark olivaceous 
color makes it easily recognizable. 

Specimens examined. — Total number, 10, from localities in Mexico, 
as follows: 

Guanajuato : Celaya, 1. 
Zacatecas : Valparaiso, 9. 

PEROGNATHUS PENICILLATUS Woodhouse. Desert Pocket Mouse. 

Perognathus penecillalus Woodhouse, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1852, 200. 
Perognathus penicillatus Woodhouse, Sitgreaves Exp'd. Zufii and Colorado River, 49, 
pi. 3, 1854; Merriam, N. Am. Fauna No. 1, 22, 1889. 

Type locality. — San Francisco Mountain, Arizona. 1 

1 Woodhouse does not specify exactly where the type was taken. It seems to have 
been between his camps 15 and 18, which were on the northeast side of the mountain. 
It is not unlikely that the type came from the Little Colorado Desert, a few miles 
farther to the northeast. 


Distribution. — Vicinity of Colorado River, from Bunkerville, Nev., 
to Yuma, Ariz., where it meets the range of its subspecies angusti- 
rostris. The type is the only specimen known from the type locality. 
Lower Sonoran zone. 

General characters. — Size rather large, about equal to formosus; 
tail long, heavily crested, penicillate; sole of hind foot naked to heel; 
ears scantily haired, shorter and rounder than in formosus, antitragus 
lobed; pelage rather soft; no spines on rump; color very uniform, 
markings almost obsolete. 

Color. — Above, vinaceous buff very finely sprinkled with black; 
sides exactly like back; lateral line obsolete; subauricular spot present; 
face and cheeks like back except for a slight darkening under ears; no 
black spots at base of whiskers; ears outside like back, inside slightly 
dusky; tail white below to pencil, upper surface and pencil dusky 
brownish. In the 'left-over' winter pelage the general color is ecru 
drab instead of vinaceous buff. 

Skull. — Size medium or rather large; rostrum heavy and high; 
parietals somewhat flattened; mastoid side of parietal about equaling 
squamosal side, much exceeded by others; interparietal moderate, all 
angles rounded, especially posterior ones, anterior angle rounded but 
distinctly evident; ascending branches of supraoccipital quite heavy; 
audital bullae widely separated anteriorly; lower premolar larger than 
last molar. 

Measurements. — Average of four adults from bend of Colorado 
River, Nevada: Total length, 205; tail vertebras, 109; hind foot, 25.5. 
Skull: (See table, p. 62.) 

Remarks. — The members of the penicillatus group are true Chmtodi- 
pus, but none of them have rump spines. Characters marking the 
typical form are large size, uniform color, subdued markings, and 
heavy skull. The skull of the type which is now available for exam- 
ination does not agree perfectly with any of the series from the bend 
of the Colorado River. It is larger and heavier than these, the anterior 
part is much elevated, and the rostrum broad. These characters, how- 
ever, are quite pronounced in the Colorado River specimens, and it 
seems safe to consider them penicillatus, even though no exact dupli- 
cates of the type are among them. Even the most northern of the 
Colorado River specimens is somewhat intermediate between true 
penicillatus and angustirostris. 

Specimens examined. — Total number, 55, from localities as follows: 

Arizona: Ehrenberg, 5; Harper Ferry, 3; Fort Mohave, 9; Norton, 4; Wan 

Francisco Mountain, 1 (type). 
California: Mohave Mountains, 1. 
Nevada: Bunkerville, 3; Colorado River, Lincoln County, 8; Colorado River, 

near Callville, 8; Vegas Valley, 13. 



Desert Pocket Mouse. 

Type from Carriso Creek, Colorado Desert, Cal. $ ad., No. 73881, U. S. Nat. Mus., 
Biological Survey Coll. Collected March 31, 1895, by A. W. Anthony. Orig. 
No., 22. 

Distribution. — Colorado Desert; south to northern Lower Califor- 
nia and east to the Colorado River and southwestern Arizona, where 
it meets the range of penicillatus and pricei. Lower Sonoran zone. 

General characters. — Similar to P. penicillatus , but smaller; color 
about the same; skull lighter and with longer and more slender 

Color. — As in P. penicillatus. 

SkuU. — Similar in general to P. penicillatus; nasals and ascending 
premaxilla? long and narrow, much more slender than in penicillatus; 
interparietal averaging larger and more angular. 

Measurements. — Type: Total length, 191; tail vertebrae, 105; hind 
foot (measured dry), 24.4. Average of five topotypes: Total length, 
181; tail vertebra?, 103; hind foot, 24. Skull: (See table, p. 62.) 

Remarks. — The numerous specimens of this subspecies which have 
been examined include many which are not strictly typical. This is 
true of the large series from the Colorado River at monument No. 204 
and the several localities in the vicinity of Yuma, all of which tend in 
differing degrees toward tvue penicillatus. From Yuma eastward the 
tendency is toward pricei. The characters of small size and slender 
rostrum are very constant in the many specimens from the Colorado 
Desert, California. 

Specimens examined. — Total number, 253, from localities as follows: 

Arizona: Bradshaw City, 1; Gila City, 3; Yuma, 9. 

California: l Agua Caliente, 3; Baregas Springs, 4; Carriso Creek, 15; Colo- 
rado Desert, 7; Coyote Wells, 3; Indian Wells, 1; Laguna, 5; Mexican 
Boundary monument No. 204, near Colorado River, 78; Palm Springs, 55; 
Salt Creek, 1; San Felipe Canyon, 6; Unlucky Lagoon, 9; Vallecitas, 10; 
Walters, 7; Whitewater, 2; Fort Yuma, 15. 

Lower California: Gardner Lagoon, 5; Hardee River (head, near mouth of 
Colorado River), 2; Poso Vicente, 2; Seven Wells, 10. 


Perogncdhus pricei Allen, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat, Hist., N. Y., VI, 318, November, 1894. 
Perognathm obscurw Allen, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., N. Y., VII, 216, June, 1895. 

Type locality. — Oposura, Sonora, Mexico. 

Distribution. — South central Arizona and Northwestern Mexico, 
west of the Sierra Madre. 

General characters. — Similar to penicillatus^ but smaller; pelage 

1 Nearlv all these localities are in the Colorado Desert, 


harsher, no spines on rump; upperparts more strongly mixed with 
black; skull short and heavy. 

Color. — Above, general effect drab or broccoli brown, produced by 
vinaceous buff strongly lined with black; sides like back, lateral line 
faintly evident; ears very scantily haired, same color as back; under- 
pays white; tail bicolor, white below, dusky above. 

Skull. — Size medium, much smaller than in 'penicillatus; rostrum 
short and heavy; nasal branches of premaxillre barely exceeding 
nasals; interparietal moderately wide, anterior angle often obliterated; 
lower premolar larger than last molar. Contrasted with ■penicillatus 
the skull of pricei is much smaller, smoother, or less angular, and has 
very much shorter nasals. In comparison with intermedius it is 
heavier and less arched, the rostrum is broader, and the nasals are 
shorter, the mastoids are smaller, and the interparietal is narrower. 

Measurements. — Average of seventeen adults from Hermosillo, 
Sonora, Mexico: Total length, 172.5; tail vertebrae, 92.8; hind foot, 
22.3. Skull: (See table, p. 62.) 

Remarks. — The type of P. pricei is very immature, but its skull 
shows characters amply sufficient to prove that it belongs to the peni- 
cillatus rather than the intermedius group. Although these groups 
inhabit the same general region and resemble each other so closely in 
superficial characters, the skulls are so markedly different as to indi- 
cate that they bear no close relation to one another. The only exter- 
nal difference is found in the rump spines. This is not to be relied 
upon absolutely, however, for though never present in penicillatus 
and its forms, they are sometimes, though very rarely, absent or unde- 
veloped in intermedius. In local habitat the two also differ in an 
interesting way, pricei being found in sandy places, while intermedins 
prefers the rocks. 

The extreme form of pricei is found in southern Sonora, where it is 
so different from typical penicillatus as to suggest full specific rank. 

Specimens examined. — Total number, 187, from localities as follows: 

Arizona: Calabasas, 6; Dos Cabezos, 1; Fairbank, 28; Fort Bowie, 2; Fort 
Huachuca, 1; Fort Lowell, 39; La Osa, 2; Mammoth, 12; New River, 5; 
Phoenix, 5; Santa Cruz River (west of Patayone Mountain), 3; Sentinel, 
2; Tubac, 3; Tucson (twenty miles south), 3; Willcox, 6. 

Sonora: Batomotal, 13; Hermosillo, 17; Magdalena, 6; Oposura, 8; Ortiz, 10; 
Quitobaquita, 10; Sonora, 1; Sonoyta, 4. 


Pocket Mouse. 

Perognatfms (Chsetodipus) eremicus Mearns, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., N. Y., X, 300, 
August 31, 1898. 

Type locality. — Fort Hancock, El Paso County, Tex. 

Distribution. — Extreme western Texas, thence south into north 

sept.. 1900.] PEROGNATHUS STEPHENSI. 49 

central Mexico east of the Sierra Madre at least to La Ventura, 

General characters. — Size about equal to pricei; color slightly paler; 
pelage softer; nasals longer and more slender; skull otherwise 

Color. — Essentially as in pricei, but paler; general effect fawn 
lightly mixed with black; dark area below ears quite prominent; spot 
at base of whiskers faint. 

Skull.— Similar to pricei; cranium somewhat arched; nasals long 
and slender; nasal branches of premaxillas widened at extremities, 
extending much beyond nasals; supraoccipital slightly bulging behind. 

Measurements. — Type: Total length, 163; tail vertebras, 83; hind 
foot, 22.1. Skull: (See table, p. 62.) 

Remarks. — The average difference between this eastern form of the 
penicillatus group and its western relative pricei is considerable. The 
long slender nasals and high arched skull of this form are never found 
in specimens from west of the Sierra Madre. Specimens from Chi- 
huahua and Coahuila appear to be quite typical. P. eremicus differs 
from pricei much as angustirostris does from true penicillatus. In 
fact, its skull is not very unlike that of angustirostris, but the two are 
not likely to be confused, on account of the difference in size and 
color. Specimens from San Bernardino ranch, Arizona, are not typ- 
ical, being dark-colored and otherwise intermediate. 

Specimens examined. — Total number, 93, from localities as follows: 

Arizona: San Bernardino Ranch, Cochise County, on Mexican boundary, 27. 

Texas: El Paso, 5; Fort Hancock, 3. 

Chihuahua: Ciudad Juarez, 2; Escalon, 1; Samalayuca, 3; Santa Rosalia, 24. 

Coahuila: Jimulco, 1; La Ventura, 12; Torreon, 14. 

Durang-o: Mapimi, 1. 

PEROGNATHUS STEPHENSI Merriam. Stephens Pocket Mouse. 
Perognathus Stephens! Merriam, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., September 27, 1894, 267. 

Type locality. — Mesquite Valley, northwest arm of Death Valley, 
In} o County, Cal. 

Distribution. — Known only from the type locality. 

General characters. — Similar to penicillatus; size very much smaller; 
tail long, well crested; hind feet naked below; very little or no black 
in color. 

Color. — ' Left -or, :■/•' /rinter prhoj, : Above, between pinkish buff and 
vinaceous buff; effect perfectly uniform, no traces of black anywhere; 
ears sparsely haired, same color as back; lateral line entirely obliter- 
ated; face slightly lighter than back and sides; below, white; tail below 
white, above like back. The post-breeding pelage is doubtless darker 
and ma} r have more or less black in it. 

Skull. — Size small; general form much like that of penicillatus; 
37 ( ,>4— No. 18 4 


cranium slightly arched; mastoids rather small; interparietal corre- 
spondingly large; ascending branches of supraoccipital relatively 
heavy; lower premolar very large, nearly twice as large as last molar. 

Measurements. — Type: Total length, 177; tail vertebras, 96; hind 
foot, 21. Skull: (See table, p. 62.) 

Remarks. — P. stephensi is a miniature of penicillatus and but slightly 
larger than arenarius. It is at once separated from the former by its 
small size and from the latter b} 7 its cranial characters. Further col- 
lections from the desert region of California will doubtless yield more 
of this interesting species, but at present it is known only from the 
two specimens which Mr. Stephens caught in the extension of Death 
Valley known as Mesquite Valley. 

Specimens examined. — Total number, 2, the type and one topotype. 

PEROGNATHUS ARENARIUS Mernam. Little Desert Pocket Mouse. 

Perognathus arenarius Merriam, Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci.,2d ser., IV, 461, September 25, 

Type locality. — San Jorge, near Comondu, Lower California. 

Distribution.— -Known only from the type locality. 

General characters. — Size very small; tail short, slightly exceeding 
head and body; pelage rather soft, no bristles anywhere; color plain 
and uniform, lateral line obsolete; skull short and broad. 

Color. — Very similar to penicillatus; dorsum buffy drab, finely 
mixed with black; sides somewhat paler, lateral line not evident; ears 
dusky, a minute white spot on lower margins; underparts white; tail 

Skull. — Size very small; cranium slightly arched; interorbital and 
mastoid width relatively great; mastoids moderate, relatively larger 
than in penicillatus; interparietal broadly pentagonal; nasals rather 
slender, slightly emarginate at frontal endings; zygomata extremely 
frail and light; lower premolar larger than last molar. 

Measurements. — Type (from dry skin): Total length, 136; tail ver- 
tebras, 70; hind foot, 20. Skull: (See table, p. 62.) 

Remarks. — P. arenarius is a very aberrant member of the penicil- 
latus series. It is about the same color as stephensi, but differs from 
it in size and cranial details, such as more slender nasals, wider inter- 
orbital space, larger mastoids, and shorter premaxillas. As far as 
known it is the smallest member of the subgenus Chwtodipus. 

Specimen examined. — The type. 

PEROGNATHUS PERNIX Allen. Sinaloa Pocket Mouse. 

Perognathus perms Allen, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., N. Y., X, 149, April, 1898. 

Type locality. — Rosario, Sinaloa, Mexico. 

Distribution. — Coast of western Mexico in the States of Sinaloa and 


Gene ml characters. — Size small; tail rather long, thinly haired, 
slightly crested; colors dark; pelage slightly hispid, no spines or 
bristles anywhere; ears medium; feet naked below. 

Color. — General color above, hair-brown, uniform over all parts 
above the lateral line; lateral line distinct, between pinkish buff and 
oehraceous buff; underparts soiled white; ears dusky, a minute white 
spot on inferior margins; tail brownish black above, whitish below. 

Skull. — Size rather small; form narrow and elongate; mastoids quite 
small; interorbital space much constricted; nasals rather broad and 
flattened, of medium length; naso-frontal suture not emarginate; 
interparietal wide, somewhat produced anteriorly; posterior angles 
much rounded; molar teeth small and weak; lower premolar larger 
than last molar. 

Measurements. — Average of four adult topotypes: Total length, 175; 
tail vertebrae, 97; hind foot, 22.3. Skull: (See table, p. 63.) 

Remarks. — Perognathus pemix differs from other Mexican species 
in much smaller size. Its dark color, narrow interorbital space and 
long nasals distinguish it from all other Chcetodipus not having rump 

Sp>ecimens examined. — Total number, 48, from localities in Mexico, 
as follows: 

Sinaloa: Altata, 2; Culiacan, 17; Mazatlan, 11 (not typical); Rosario, 10. 
Tepic: Acaponeta, 8. 

PEROGNATHUS PERNIX ROSTRATUS subsp. now Broad-nosed Pocket Mouse. 

Type from Camoa, Rio Mayo, Sonora, Mexico. $ yg. ad., No. 95818, U. S. Nat. Mus., 
Biological Survey Coll. Collected October 28, 1898, by E. A. Goldman. Orig. 
No., 13167. 

Distribution. — Coast plains of southern Sonora and northern Sin- 
aloa, Mexico. 

General characters. — Size, proportions, and general color about as 
in P. pemix; skull quite different. 

Color. — Above, slightly lighter and grayer than pemix; general 
color oftener broccoli brown than hair-brown; facial area distinctly 
paler than back and sides; lateral line pinkish buff; lower parts soiled 

Skull. — Similar to pemix, but shorter and broader; rostrum very 
heavy; nasals, premaxillae, and premaxillaiy branches of zygomata all 
heavier than in pemix; nasals shorter; interorbital space wider; inter- 
parietal, mastoids, and audital bullae not tangibly different. 

Measurements. — Type: Total length, 162; tail vertebrae, 94; hind 
foot, 23.5. Average of four topotypes: Total length, 161; tail verte- 
brae, 88; hind foot, 22.5. Skull: (See table, p. 63.) 

Remarks. — This form is quite a departure from pemix, but inter- 
gradation with that species is evidenced by a single specimen from 


Sinaloa. The series of topotypes from Carnoa are constant in their 
cranial differences f rom pernix, and though no external characters are 
evident the form seems well worth recognition. 

Specimens examined. — Total number, 10, from localities in Mexico, 
as follows: 

Sinaloa: Sinaloa, 1. 
Sonora: Carnoa, 9. 

PEROGNATHUS INTERMEDIUS Merriam. Intermediate Pocket Mouse. 

Perogncdhus intermedins Merriam, N. Am. Fauna No. 1, 18-19, 1889; ibid., No. 3, 74, 

Perognathus obscurus Merriam, ibid., No. 1, 20-21, 1889. 

Type locality. — Mud Spring, Mohave County, Ariz. 
Distribution. — Known from several scattered localities in the Sono- 
ran zone of Arizona, New Mexico, and northern Mexico. 

General characters. — Size medium, smaller than jjenicillatus / color 
much darker, with well-defined markings; rump spines rather weak; 
skull rather small and light. 

Color. — Winter p>elage: Above, general effect drab, with a strong 
mixture of black on back and rump; sides paler than back; lateral 
line pale fawn, quite narrow; ears dusky; tail dusky 
above, becoming black toward pencil, whitish below, 
faintly buffy on sides; underparts white, with sugges- 
tions of bull'. 

Skull. — Size medium; cranium well arched; rost- 
rum slender, somewhat depressed; interparietal very 
wide and strap-shaped, anterior angle normally oblit- 
erated, others but slightly rounded; lower premolar 
larger than last molar. Compared with penicillatus it 
is smaller and less angular; rostrum and nasals much 
fig. 12.— skuii of more slender; zygomata more sloping; mastoids rela- 
Pcmgnathus inter- tivelv larger and fuller; ascending- branches of supra- 


occipital much lighter; interorbital space wider. 

-Measurements. — Average of four adults from the Grand Canyon of 
the Colorado, Arizona: Total length, 179.5; tail vertebra?, 102.7; hind 
foot, 22.7; ear from anterior base, 7. Skull: (See table, p. 62.) 

Remarks. — Specimens of typical Intermedius are not numerous at 
present, and the few that are available are in the winter pelage. This 
makes the determination of \P. obscurus'' a little difficult. The latter 
is identical with -Intermedium in cranial characters, but slightly more 
ruddy in color. 

P. intermedins is much rarer than penicillatus, some form of which 
is often found near it. In the vicinity of El Paso, Tex., Mr. Vernon 
Bailey collected both mtermedius and eremicus, the one being found 

sept., 1900.] PEROGNATHUS NELSONI. 53 

in the rocks and the other in the sandy places. At other localities 
where both occur the same conditions seem to obtain. 

Specimens examined. — Total number, 46, from localities as follows: 

Arizona: Grand Canyon, 4; Harper Ferry, 1 ; Fort Bowie, 1; Fort Huachuca, 
1; Little Colorado River, Painted Desert, 2; Mud Spring, 2; Willow 
Spring, 1. 

New Mexico: Camp Apache, Grant County, 14. 

Texas: Alpine, 1; El Paso, 2. 

Chihuahua: Casas Grandes, 4; Chihuahua, 13. 

PEROGNATHUS NELSONI Merriam. Nelson Pocket Mouse. 
Perognathus nelsoni Merriam, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., September 27, 1894, 266. 

Type locality. — Hacienda La Parada, San Luis Potosi, Mexico. 

Distribution. — Upper and Lower Sonoran zone of central Mexico, 
covering the table-land from Inde, Durango, south to Lagos, Jalisco, 
and east to Jaumave, Tamaulipas. 

General characters. — Similar to intermedins, but larger, darker, and 
harsher pelaged; tail heavily crested; rump bristled. 

Color. — Above, general effect hair-brown; hairs dark plumbeous, 
basally followed by a narrow grayish fawn zone and a heavy black 
tip; sides like back, orbital region scarcely lighter; lateral line fawn, 
well denned; underparts dirty whitish; ears dusky, slightly hoary on 
margins; tail bicolor, black above, whitish below. Worn pelage 
much paler, becoming drab or ecru drab. 

Skidl. — Similar to intermedins, but larger and heavier, rostrum and 
nasals particularly so; interparietal smaller; nasal branches of pre- 
maxilke exceeding nasals; ascending branches of supraoccipital heavy. 

Measurement*. — Average of ten adults from the type locality: Total 
length, 182; tail vertebra?, 104; hind foot, 23; ear from anterior base, 
8. Shdl: (See table, p. 62.) 

Remarks. — This is the commonest pocket mouse of Mexico. It is 
found in suitable localities over the entire table-land. It is closely 
related to intermedins and possibly intergrades with it. There are 
some slight variations in the species, but none are marked enough to 
warrant separation. 

Specimens examined. — Total number, 65, from localities in Mexico, 
as follows: 

Aguas Calientes: Chicalote, 5. 

Coahuila: Jimulco, 1; La Ventura, 1; Sierra Encarnacion, 1. 
Durango: Durango City, 10; Inde, 3; Mapimi, 1. 
Jalisco: Lagos, 9. 

San Luis Potosi: Hacienda La Parada, 19; Jesus Maria, 3. 
Zacatecas: Berriozabal, 9; Canitas, 1; Hacienda San Juan Capistrano, 1; 
Valparaiso Mountains, 1. 



Perognathus intermedins canescens Merriam, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., September 
27, 1894, 267. 

Type locality. — Jaral, Coahuila, Mexico. 

Distribution. — Known only from the type locality. 

General characters. — Size larger than intermedium; color much paler 
and more grayish; skull similar to that of P. nelson i. 

Color. — General color of upperparts drab gray; lateral line pinkish 
buff, rather narrow; underparts pure white; tail bicolor, mouse gray 
above, white below. 

Skull. — Similar to that of nelsonl; differs in more slender nasals, 
constricted interorbital space, and slightly smaller mastoids. 

Measurements. — Type: Total length, 193; tail vertebras, 117; hind 
foot, 22. One topotype: Total length, 184; tail vertebrae, 105; hind 
foot, 22. Skull: (See table, p. 63.) 

Remarks. — This form seems to be quite localized. Its habitat is 
similar to that of the other members of the group. The type and 
cotypes were caught in the cliffs of a rocky canyon. 

Specimens examined. — Total number, 3, from the type locality. 

PEROGNATHUS GOLDMANI sp. nov. Goldman Pocket Mouse. 

Type from Sinaloa, Sinaloa, Mexico. 9 a( l, No. 96673, U. S. Nat. Mus., Biological 
Survey Coll. Collected February 15, 1899, /by E. A. Goldman. Orig. No., 13428. 

Distribution. — Coast plains of northern Sinaloa and southern Sonora, 

General characters.- — Size large; tail moderately long and heavily 
crested; pelage somewhat hispid, rump with a few short bristles; ears 
relatively large, much larger than those of nelson i; antitragal lobe 
prominent, wider at base than at apex; in color and markings similar 
to nelsoni; skull relatively large and heavy. 

t^e^A— Similar in general to nelsoni,' general color across shoulders 
and anterior portion of upperparts, broccoli brown; posterior half of 
dorsum much darkened by admixture of black; lateral line pinkish 
buff; ears blackish with hoary margins, externally whitish for distal 
half; subauricular spot present; tail sharply bicolor, blackish above, 
white below. 

Skull. — Size large, much heavier than in nelsoni; mastoids some- 
what smaller and more ridged; nasals much larger and heavier; skull 
noticeably higher and not so wide posteriorly, thus making the zygo- 
mata more nearly parallel. 

Measurements. — Type: Total length, 202; tail vertebrae, 108; hind 
foot, 28. Average of five topotypes: Total length, 202; tail vertebra?, 
112; hind foot, 28; ear from anterior base, 11. Shall: (See table, p. 63.) 

Remarks. — The large orbicular ears of this species easily distinguish 

bept.,1900.] PEROGNATHUS FALLAX. 55 

it from nelsoni, its nearest relative. It is one of the several forms 
peculiar to western Mexico, and, like the others, its known range is 
quite limited. Specimens from Camoa and Alamos are slightly 
smaller than those from Sinaloa. 

Specimens examined. — Total number, 36, from localities in Mexico, 
as follows: 

Sinaloa: Sinaloa, 7. 

Sonora: Alamos, 18; Camoa, 11. 

PEROGNATHUS ARTUS ap. now Batopilas Pocket Mouse. 

Type from Batopilas, Chihuahua, Mexico. J ad., No. 96298, U. S. Nat. Mus., Biolog- 
ical Survey Coll. Collected October 6, 1898, by E. A. Goldman. Orig. No. , 13090. 

Distribution. — Known only from a few scattered localities in west- 
ern Mexico. 

General characters. — Externally similar to goldmani; rump bristles 
weak or undeveloped; skull distinctive. 

Color. — As in goldmani. 

Skull. — Similar to that of goldmani, but smaller and narrower; 
mastoids much smaller with more strongly marked transverse ridges; 
audital bullae smaller; nasals moderate, exceeded by ascending pre- 
nmxilla?; interparietal nearly elliptical, slightly produced anteriorly; 
zygomata nearly parallel. 

Measurements. — Average of live adult topotypes: Total length, 191; 
tail vertebrge, 106; hind foot, 21.6. Skull: (See table, p. 63.) 

Remarks. — The large size of this species at once distinguishes it 
from pernix and rostratus, and its very small mastoids separate it from 
other Mexican species. Externally it is very similar to goldmani, but 
it has less prominent rump bristles; in fact, they are not at all evident 
in the majority of specimens. P. pernix was generally found by Mr. 
Goldman at the same localities as P. goldmani, but at Culiacan he 
found it in company with P. artus. 

Specimen*- r.mmitied. — Total number, 15, from localities in Mexico, 
as follows: 

Chihuahua: Batopilas, 8. 
Durang-o: Chacala, 3. 
Sinaloa: Culiacan, 4. 

PEROGNATHUS FALLAX Merriam. Short-eared California Pocket Mouse. 

Perognathus fallax Merriam, N. Am. Fauna No. 1, 19, 1889; Allen, Bull. Am. Mus. 
Nat. Hist., N. Y., V, 184, 1893. 

Type locality. — Reche Canyon, 3 miles southeast of Colton, San 
Bernardino County, Cal. 

Distribution. — Extreme southwestern California, occupying the 
region west of the San Bernardino and San Jacinto ranges and extend- 
ing south into northern Lower California. 


General characters. — Size medium, somewhat larger than interme- 
dins; general color similar but darker; wider and brighter lateral 
line; rump bristles heavier; tail long and crested; ears moderate. 

Color. — Above, general effect bister, middle of back and rump with 
a strong element of black; lateral line and subterminal zone of hairs 
of upperparts pinkish buff; underparts creamy white; ears dusky on 
inflexed portions, hoary on inner sides; tail bicolor. 

Skull. — Similar to intermedlus; cranium arched; nasals slender; 
mastoids rather large and full; interparietal wide, anterior angle 
slightly developed; naso-frontal suture slightly or not emarginate. 

Measurements. — Average of six adults from the type locality: Total 
length, 192; tail vertebra?, 11; hind foot, 23; ear from anterior base, 
9. Skull: (See table, p. 63.) 

Remarks. — This species falls readily into the small group typified 
by intermedins. It differs from the other members in size, color, and 
shape of interparietal. It has been much confused with femoralis on 
account of its similar color, but its much smaller ear is a convenient 
external character for distinguishing it. Two specimens from Turtle 
Bay, Lower California, are similar in color to anthonyi, but cranially 
the same as fallax, to which they are here referred. 

Specimens examined. — Total number. 120, from localities as follows: 

California: 1 Ballenas, 1; Bergmann, Riverside County, 1; Carlsbad, 1; Chi- 
huahua Mountains, 1; Dulzura, 24; El Nido, 3; Encinitas, 1; Herron, San 
Bernardino County, 5; Jacumba, 8; Lajolla, 1; Mountain Spring, 11; 
Radec, 5; Reche Canyon, Riverside County, 10; Riverside, Riverside 
County, 1; Rose Canyon, 10; San Felipe Valley, 4; San Pasqual Valley, 4; 
Santa Ysabel, 10; San Ygnacio Valley, 1; Summit (Coast Range), San 
Bernardino County, 4; Temescal, Riverside County, 1. 

liower California: Cape Colnett, 2; Ensenada, 1; Gato Creek, 1; Jamul 
Creek, 1; San Isidro Ranch, 2; Sanos Cedros, 1; San Quintin Bay, 1; Tia 
Juana, 2; Turtle or San Bartolome Bay, 2. 

PEROGNATHUS ANTHONYI sp. nov. Cerros Island Pocket Mouse. 

Type from South Bay, Cerros Island, Lower California. 9 ad., No. 81058, U. S. Nat. 
Mus., Biological Survey Coll. Collected July 29, 1896, by A. W. Anthony. 
V Orig. No., 71. 

Distribution. — Known only from the type locality. 

General characters. — Similar in general to P. fallax; differing in 
slightly smaller size, more ruddy color, and cranial characters. 

Color. — Above, grayish fawn mixed with black; lateral line brown- 
ish fawn, poorly defined; ears dusky; white subauricular spot present; 
tail dusky above, whitish below. 

Skull. — Similar to P. fallax; cranium less arched; rostrum heavier; 
mastoids smaller; interparietal smaller and shorter; zygomatic breadth 
greater anteriorly. 

1 Most of these localities, unless otherwise stated, are in San Diego County. 

SEPT., 1900.] 



Measurements. — Type: Total length, 168; tail vertebras, 92; hind 
foot, 23.5. Skull: (See table, p. 63.) 
Specimens examined. — One, the type. 

PEROGNATHUS FEMORALIS Allen. Great California Pocket Mouse. 

Perognalhus femoralis Allen, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., N. Y., Ill, 281, June 30, 1891; 
Rhoads, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1893, 407. 

Type locality. — Dulzura, San Diego County, Cal. 

Distribution. — Known from a few localities in San Diego County, 
in extreme southern California, and the adjoining part of Lower 

General characters. — Size very large; tail long, heavily crested peni- 
cillate; color dark; ears large and elongate; pelage harsh; rump and 
flanks furnished with strong bristles or 
spines; skull large and heavy. 

Color. — Similar to fallow, but quite 
intensified; above, general color bister, 
hairs heavily tipped with intense black; 
lateral line rich pinkish buff; under- 
parts dirty whitish, sometimes washed 
or flecked with buffy; tail bicolor. 

Skull. — Large and heavy; less arched 
than in fallax; rostrum and nasals much 
heavier; mastoids relatively smaller; 
molar teeth relatively weaker: inter- 
parietal subquadrate, rarely developing 
a fifth angle; naso-frontal suture slightly 

Measurements. — Average of six adults 

Fig. 13.— Ear of (a) Perognathus fallax; 
(b) Perognathus femoralis. 

tebras, 126; hind 

ible, p. 63. 

from the t}^pe locality: Total length, 223; tail verte 
foot, 27.5; ear from anterior base, 12. Skull: (See U 

Remarks. — This species has the longest tail and largest hind foot 
found in the genus, but its body is light in comparison with that of 
•paradoxus. In color it has a remarkable resemblance to fallax, which 
is found within its range, but its large size, long ears, and heavy skull 
are amply sufficient to distinguish it. 

Specimens examined. — Total number, 60, from localities as follows: 

California (San Diego County): Dulzura, :!2; Santa Ysabel, 9; Twin 

Oaks, 16. 
Lower California: Nachoguero Valley, 3. 


PEROGNATHUS CALIFORNICUS Merriam. California Pocket Mousse. 

Perognathus califomicus Merriam, N. Am. Fauna No. 1, 26, 1889; Allen, Bull. Am. 

Mus. Nat. Hist., N. Y., 263, 1896; Elliott, Field Columbian Mus., Zool. Ser., I, 

No. 10, 211, 1898. 
Perognathus armatus Merriam, 1. c, 27. 

Type locality. — Berkeley, Cal. 

Distribution. — Vicinity of San Francisco Bay and south to Bear 
Valley, San Benito County, where it meets the range of its subspecies 

General characters. — Similar to P. femoralis, but smaller; about equal 
in size to fallax; ears quite elongate; rump and flanks well supplied 
with bristles; skull very peculiar. 

Color. — Nearly the same as femoralis, much darker than fallax,' 
general effect of upperparts bister; hairs pale plumbeous basalty, 
darkening distally; subterminal zone pinkish buff fol- 
lowed by heavy black tips; tail bicolor; underparts 
and feet yellowish white. 

Skull. — Size medium; cranium considerably arched; 
mastoids exceedingly small; mastoid width greatly 
reduced; occiput bulging greatly; interparietal about 
twice as broad as long, anterior angle very slightly 
developed; naso-frontal suture deeply emarginate or 
V-shaped; lower premolar slightly larger than last 

Measurements. — Average of five adults from the 

fig. i4.-skuii of type locality: Total length, 192; tail vertebra, 103; 

/amicus. hind foot, 21; ear from anterior base, 10.5. Skull: 

(See table, p. 63.) 

Remarks. — P. califomicus 'is remarkable for its very small mastoids. 

It has no close relation to fallax, with which it has sometimes been 

confused. Its long ears and its cranial characters indicate that its 

closest affinities are with femoralis. Even within its very limited 

range it is quite a rare animal, and but few specimens are in collections. 

Specimens examined. — Total number, 18, from localities as follows: 

California: Berkeley, 7; Bear Valley, San Benito County, 2; Gilroy, 3; Por- 
tola, San Mateo County, 2; Stanford University, 2. 

PEROGNATHUS CALIFORNICUS DISPAR subsp. nov. Allen Pocket Mouse. 

Type from Carpenteria, Santa Barbara County, Cal. $ ad., No. jogggi U. S. Nat. Mus., 
Biological Survey Coll. Collected December 19, 1891, by E. W. Nelson. Orig. 
No., 1655. 

Distribution. — Coast valleys of California from San Bernardino to 
San Benito County and north along the foothills of the west slope of 
the Sierras to Placer County. 

bept.,1900.] PEROGNATHUS SPIKATUS. 59 

General elm ruder*. — Larger and paler colored than califomicus^ 
pelage somewhat softer; skull quite different. 

Color. — Similar to fallax, paler than califomicus or femoralis,' 
above, general color bister; facial area slightly lightened; lateral line 
pinkish buff', sometimes approaching ochraceous buff; underparts 
buffy white; tail bicolor. 

Skull. — Similar to that of califomicus, but larger and heavier; in 
general form resembling that of femoralis,' mastoids quite small; 
nasals heavy, somewhat elongate; interorbital space narrow. 

Measurements. — Type: Total length, 218; tail vertebra?, 120; hind 
foot, 27. Average of six typical adults: Total length, 210; tail verte- 
bra?, 117; hind foot, 26; ear from anterior base, 12. Skull: (See 
table, p. 63.) 

Remarks. — Although this subspecies is somewhat intermediate in 
character between califomicus and femoralis there seems to be no good 
evidence of any connection with the latter. It intergrades with cali- 
fomicus in the vicinity of Bear Valle}^, San Benito County. In typi- 
cal form, its skull presents the characters of small mastoids and narrow 
interorbital space found in calif brnicus at the same time almost attain- 
ing the large size of the skull oi femoralis. 

Specimens examined. — Total number, 56, from localities as follows: 

California: Auburn, 1; Bitter Water, 3; Carpenteria, 4; Fort Tejon, 2; Hue- 
neme (10 miles west), 1; Kern River (25 miles above Kernville), 1; Las 
Virgines Creek, Los Angeles County, 1; Milo, 1; Nordhoff, 4; Raymond, 
1; San Bernardino Peak, 3; San Emigdio, 4; San Fernando, 3; San Luis 
Obispo, 8; San Simeon, 1; Santa Monica, 1; Santa Paula, 1; Three Rivers, 
9; Ventura River, 7. 

PEROGNATHUS SP1NATUS Merriam. Spiny Pocket Mouse. 

Perognathus spinaius Merriam, N. Am. Fauna No. 1, 21, October 25, 1889. 

Type locality. — Twenty-five miles below the Needles, Colorado River, 

Distribution. — Desert region of southern California and northern 
Lower California. 

General characters. — Size medium, tail moderately long and crested; 
ears small and orbicular; pelage hispid, spines large and prominent 
on rump, scattered on flanks and sides and often extending to shoul- 
ders; lateral line very faint or wanting. 

Color. — Above, general effect drab brown; hairs plumbeous basalty, 
ecru drab subterminally and black-tipped; sides and orbital region 
slightl} T paler than back; underparts buffy white; lateral line gen- 
erally faint, in very bright pelage showing as a slender line of ecru 
drab; ears dusky, subauricular spot small; tail hair-brown above, 
whitish below; spines white with dusky tips, except on sides where the 
tips are also white. Many of the hairs of the back often end with a 


broad zone of ecru drab without the usual black tip. These, when 
combined with those having black tips, cause a peculiar mottled appear- 
ance. The ' left-over 1 winter pelage is much paler and grayer, the gen- 
eral effect being pale drab. 

Skull. — Size medium; cranium rather slender and much flattened; 
parietals on nearly same plane as interparietal; mastoids small, not so 
full as xnfallax and intermedium; interparietal broad 
but normally with slight evidence of an anterior or fifth 
angle; supraorbital ridge slightly trenchant; lower 
premolar about equal to last molar. 

Measurements. — Average of five adults from Palm 
Springs, Cal.: Total length, 181; tail vertebrae, 101; 
hind foot (measured dry), 21.5. Skull: (See table, 
p. (VS.) 

Remarks. — Perognathus spinatus has a limited range, 
rig." is.— skuii of and aside from the excellent series from Palm Springs 
Peroonathusspin- \ n t h e Bangs collection but few specimens have found 

(ttUS. , . 11- T • 1 

their wa} T into collections. It is the type of the sub- 
genus Chcetodipus and the representative of a small group quite dis- 
tinct from all others. Young adults of this group differ from old in 
being of a grayish color and in having weaker and less numerous spines. 
In juveniles the first pelage is soft and without spines, which do not 
appear until an entire new pelage is acquired. In this species, as in 
most others, the males average slightly larger than the females. 

Specimens examined. — Total number. 16, from localities as follows: 

California: Colorado River (twenty-five miles below Needles), 1 (type); 
Coast Range, San Diego County, 3; LaPuerta, San Diego County, 6; Palm 
Springs, 21; San Felipe Canyon, 12; Vallecitas, San Diego County, 2. 

Lower California: Cocopah Mountains, 1. 



Perognathus spinatus •peninsulas, Merriam, Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci., 2d ser., IV, 460, Sep- 
tember 25, 1894. 

Type locality. — San Jose del Cabo, Lower California. 

Distribution. — Cape region of Lower California. 

General characters. — Similar to P. spinatt/x, but much larger; pelage 
a trifle more hispid; tail more scantily haired and relatively shorter; 
ears large and rounded. 

Colo?'. — As in P. spinatus. 

Skull. — Similar to that of P. spinatus, but averaging much larger; 
supraorbital ridges flattened and shelf-like, with very trenchant edges, 
forming a nearly straight line from mastoids to lachrymals. 

Measurements. — Average of five adults from San Jose del Cabo and 
Cape St. Lucas: Total length, 188; tail vertebrae, 101; hind foot, 24. 
Skull: (See table, p. 63.) 

sept., 1900.] PEROGNATHUS MARGARITA. 61 

Specimens examined. Total number, 23, from localities as follows: 

Lower California: Cape St. Lucas, 7; Comondu, 2 (intermediate); San Jose 
del Cabo, 5; Santa Anita, 9. 

PEROGNATHUS BRYANTI Merriara. Bryant Pocket Mouse. 
Perognathus bryanti Merriam, Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci., 2dser., IV, 458, September 25, 1894. 

Type locality. — San Jose Island, Lower California. 

Distribution. — Known only from the type locality. 

General characters. — Larger and longer-tailed than peninsulce; skull 
slightly characterized; otherwise similar. 

Color. — Apparently as in peninsulce. 

Skull. — Slightly larger and heavier than in peninsulce; somewhat 
more elongate; nasals longer and more slender; interparietal wide and 
subquadrate; lower premolar equal to or slightly larger than last 

Measurements. — Type: Total length, 216; tail vertebrae, 12T; hind 
foot, 25. One adult topotype: Total length, 225; tail vertebra?, 128; 
hind foot, 25. Skull: (See table, p. 63.) 

Remarks. — This insular form is well characterized by its large size 
and long tail. In color it is probably the same as peninsulcB, though 
the material examined is not sufficient to determine with certainty. 

Specimens examined. — Total number, 8, all from the type locality. 

PEROGNATHUS MARGARITA Merriam. Margarita Pocket Mouse. 

Perognathus margarilse Merriam, Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci., 2d ser., IV, 459, September 25, 

Type locality. — Santa Margarita Island, Lower California. 

Distribution. — Known only from the type locality. 

General characters. — Size medium; tail longer than head and bod} T ; 
ears moderate; pelage rather harsh, rump and flanks with a few bris- 
tles; skull peculiar. 

Color. — Above, much as in spinatus, pale fawn mottled and lined 
with hair-brown and black; lateral line scarcely evident; subauricular 
spot present, but very small; underparts and feet dirty white. 

Skull. — Size rather small; cranium somewhat arched; mastoids 
exceedingly small, fully as small as in calif ornicus/ nasals moderate, 
nasofrontal suture emarginate; occiput not projecting posteriorly; 
interparietal wide, anterior angle evident, others very much rounded; 
interorbital space moderate, about as in calif ornicus ; lower premolar 
larger than last molar. 

Measurements. — Type (from diy skin): Total length, 180; tail verte- 
bra?, 102; hind foot, 22.5. Skull: (See table, p. 63.) 

Remarks. — So far as known, this species has no near relative on the 
mainland adjacent to its habitat. In cranial characters it seems to be 



[NO. 18. 

somewhat similar to calif ornicus, while externally it is a combination 
of fallax and spmatus. 

Specimen examined. — The type. 

Cranial measurements of Perognathus. 
[All measurements are in millimeters.] 


Perognath u s fascial u s 

P.J. infraluteus 


P. merriami 

P. m. gilvus 



P.f. bimaculatus 

P. apache 

P. apache melanotis 2 . 

P. caUistus 


P.p. brevinasus 

P. nevadensis 

P. pacificus " 

P. longimcmbris 

P. amplus - 

P. parvus 


P.p magruderensis .. 

P.p. mollipilosus 

P. alticola 

P. lordi 

P. I. columbianus 

P. formo&us 

P. bailcyi 

P. hispidus 

P. h. paradoxus 

P. h. sacatecse - 

P. penicillatus - 

P. penicillatus 

P. p. angustirostris. . . 

P. p. pricei 

P. p. eremicus - 

P. stephcnsi - 

P. arenarius - 

P. intermedins - 

P. nelsoni 


Tilyou ranch, Mont 

Loveland, Colo 

Kennedy, Nebr 

Brownsville, Tex 


El Paso, Tex 

Fort Huachuca, Ariz 

Fort Whipple, Ariz 

Keams Canyon, Ariz 

CasasGrandes, Chihuahua, 

Kinney ranch, Wyo 

Panamint Mountains, Cali- 

San Bernardino, Cal 

Halleck, Nev 

Edge of Pacific Ocean, 
Mexican boundary. 

Fresno, Cal 

Fort Verde, Ariz 

Mabton, Wash 

Salt Lake City, Utah 

Mount Magruder, Nev 

Fort Crook, Cal 

San Bernardino Mts., Cal ... 

Oroville, Wash 

Pasco, Wash 

St. George, Utah 

Magdalena, Mexico 

Mier, Mexico 

Kansas and Nebraska 

Valparaiso Mountains, Mex- 

Little Colorado Desert, 

Colorado River, near Call- 
ville, Nev. 

Carriso Creek, California... 

Oposura, Sonora, Mexico... 

Fort Hancock, Tex 

Mesquite Valley, California 

San Jorge, Lower California 

Mud Spring, Ariz 

La Parada, Mexico 

See note, p. 14. 






a ■ 
. .a 

Pr- 1 







"£ ^ 













































































































24. 5 
































3. 5 

















I 7.6 


S o 
p h 
























10. 6 






- Type. 



( ranial measurements of Perognathus — Continued. 

[All measurements are in millimeters.] 


P. n. canescens ' 

P. goldmani 

P. artus 


P. anthonyi 1 ... 


P. calif ornicus . . 



P. s. peninsulas . 


P. margarilx ' . . 


P.p. roslraius .. 

Local itv. 


Jaral, Coahuila, Mexico 17.5 

Sinaloa, Sinaloa, Mexico 20.6 

Batopilas, Chihuahua, 18.8 


Reche Canyon, California.. 18 

Cerros Island, Lower Cali- 17.4 

Dulzura, Cal 20. 3 

Berkeley, Cal 18.9 

Carpenteria, Cal 19.8 

Palm Springs, Cal 17 

San Jose del Cabo, Lower 18 

San Jose Island, Lower Cal- 18.9 
i fornia. 

Margarita Island, Lower 18 

Rosario, Sinaloa, Mexico 17. 4 

Camoa, Sonora, Mexico 16. 5 

1 Type. 




CI . 












25. 4 




















24. 4 
















.Q O 

° t 








[Names of new species in black-face type, synonyms in italics.] 

Abromys, 13. 

Abromys lordi, 39. 

Chaetodipus, subgenus, 14,41-62. 

Cricetodipus, 13. 

( 'ricetodipus flavus, 21. 

parvus, 33,34. 
Otognosis, 13. 

Otognosis longimembriq, 33. 
Perognathus, characters of subgenera 

classification, 12-13. 

color and pelages, 11-12. 

cranial measurements. 02-63. 

distribution, 11. 

genus, 13. 

habits, 12. 

history and material, 9-11. 

key to species, 14— 1H. 
Chsetodipus, 15-16. 
Perognathus, 14-15. 

list of species, 17-18. 
Ch*todipus, 17-18. 
Perognathus, 17. 

new species, 13. 

subgenus. 14,18-41. 
Perognathus alticola, 14.39. 

amoznus, ::?. 

unpins, 15,32-33. 

anarustirostris, 10,47. 

anthonyl, 16,56-57 

apache, 15,26-27. 

apache, 24. 

arenarius, 16,50. 


armatus, 58. 

art us, 16,55. 

baileyi. 16.41-42. 

bangsi, 15,29-30. 

bimaculatus, 15, 24-25. 

brevhiasus. 15,30-31. 

bryanti, 16,61. 

californicus, 15,58. 

eallistus, 15,28. 

canescens, it'., 54. 

columbianus. 14.40. 

conditi, 44. 

copei, 20. 

dispar, 15,58-59. 

679J— No. 18 5 

Perognathus— Continued. 
eremicus, 16,48-49. 
fallax, 16,55-56. 
fasciatus, 15, 18-1'.'. 
fasciatuif, 42. 
femoralis, 15, 57. 
flavescens, 15.20-21. 
flavus, 15, 23-24. 
flavus, 21,26. 
formosus, 14,40— 11. 
fuliginosus, 15, 25. 
gilvus, i5,22-23. 
goldmani, 16,54-55. 
hispidus. 16,42-44. 
infraluteus, 15, 19-20. 
inornatus, 33. 
intermedins, 16. 52-53. 
latirostris, 44. 
longimembris. 15,33-34. 
lordi, 14,39-40. 
magruderensis, l i.;s. 
margarit*, 16, 61-62. 
mearnsi, 21. 
luelanotis. 15,27. 
merriami, 15, 21-22. 
mexicanus, 15,25-26. 
mollipilosus, 14.36-37. 
monticola, 34, 36. 
nelsoni. 16,53. 
nevadensis, 15.31. 
obscurus, 47. 52. 
olivaceous. 14.37-38. 
pacificus, 15,31-32. 
panamintinus, 15,28-29. 
paradoxus, 16, 44-45. 
paradoxus, 42.44. 
parvus. 14,34-36. 
peneciUaius, i">. 
penicillatus, 16,45-46. 
peninsula-. 16,60-61. 
pernix, 16,50-51. 
pricei, 16. 47- 18. 
rostratus. 16,51-52. 
spilotus, 42. 
spinatus, 16,59-60. 
stephensi, 16. 49-50. 
zacatecse, 16. 45. 


[one and one-half times natural size.] 

Fig. 1. Perognathus fiavus Baird. Topotype. El Paso, Tex. (-No. 25029, U. S. Nat. 


2. Perognathus ampins Osgood. Type. Fort Verde, Ariz. (Type No. 46711, 

U. S. Nat, Mus.) 

3. Perognathus merriami Allen. Topotype. Brownsville, Tex. (No. 41764, 

U.S. Nat. Mus.) 

4. Perognathus flavus bimaculatus (Merriam). Topotype. Fort Whipple, Ariz. 

(No. 46478, IT. S. Nat. Mus. ) 

5. Perognathus ( Chsetodipus) californicus Merriam. Topotype. Berkeley, Gal. 

(No. 55560, U. S. Nat. Mus. ) 

6. Perognathus ( Chsetodipus) pernix Allen. Topotype. Rosario, Sinaloa, Mexico. 

(No. 91324, U.S. Nat, Mus.) 

7. Perognathus (Chsetodipus) penicillatus Woodhouse. Type. Near San Fran- 

cisco Mountain, Ariz. (Type No. 2676, U. S. Nat, Mus. ) 

8. Perognaihus (Chsetodipus) pernix rostratus Osgood. Type. Camoa, Sonora, 

Mexico. (Type No. 95818, U. S. Nat. Mus. ) 

North American Fauna, No. If 

Plate I. 

Skulls of Perognathus. 

1. Perognath us flavus. 

2. P. ampins. 

3. P. merriami. 

4. P. flavus bimaculatus. 

5. P. (Chsetodvpus) caUfornicus. 

6. P. (Chsstodipusj pernix. 

7. P. (Chsetodipus) penicillatus. 

8. P. (Chxtodipus) pernix rostraiu8. 


[one and one-half times natural size' 

Fig. 1. Perognathus panamintinus (Merriam). Type. Panamint Mountains, Cal. 
(Type No. 39866, U. S. Nat. Mus.) 

2. Perognathus lordi columbianus (Merriam). Type. Pasco, Wash. (Type No. 

39450, U. S. Nat. Mus. ) 

3. Perognathus nevadewis Merriam. Topotype. Halleck, Nev. (No. 54565, V. S. 

Nat. Mus.) 

4. Perognathus (Chsetodipus) bryanti Merriam. Type. San Jose Island, Lower 

California, Mexico. (No. 550, Coll. Calif. Acad. Sci.) 

5. Perognathus (Chtetodipus) margaritie Merriam. Type. Santa Margarita Island, 

Lower California, Mexico. (No. 90, Coll. Calif. Acad. Sci.) 

6. Perognathus (Chsetodipus) spinatus peninsula: Merriam. Type. San Jose del 

Cabo, Lower California, Mexico. (No. 274, Coll. Calif. Acad. Sci.) 

7. Perognathus (Chsetodipus) arenarms Merriam. Type. San Jorge, near Co- 

mondu, Lower California, Mexico. (No. 99, Coll. Calif. Acad. Sci.) 
S. Perognathus (Chsetodipus) stephensi Merriam. Topotype. Mesquite Valley, 

Cal. (No. 39874, U. S. Nat. Mus.) 
9. Perognathus (Chsetodipus) nelsoui Merriam. Type. Hacienda La Parada, Sail 

Luis Potosi, Mexico. (Type No. 50214, U. S. Nat. Mus. ) 

North American Fauna, No. 1 

Skulls of Perognathus. 

1. Periifii)iillni< jut na in intinus. 

2. P. lordi columbianus. 

3. P. nevadensis. 

4. P. (Chsetodipus) bryanti. 

5. P. (Chsetodtpus) margaritse. 

ti. P. (Chaetodipus) spinqtus penimvtse. 

7. P. (Chaetodipus) arenarius. 

8. P. iChmtodipui) stepkensi. 

9. P. I Chxtodipus) nelsoni. 


Map showing distribution of the subgenus Perognathus. 



Map showing distribution of the subgenus Chsetodipus. 


North American Fauna, No. 19. 


,78' %■ 17*' .TO' .66 162' IM* I5»' .50' 146" l«' 136' 13*" 130" 126" I22~ m" 

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No. 19 

[Actual date of publication, October <;, 1900] 


General Account of the Region 
Annotated List of Mammals 

By Wilfred II. Osgood 

Annotated List of Birds 

By Louis B. Bishop, M. D. 

Prepared under the direction of 





1 9 


U. S. Department of Agriculture, 

Washington, D. C, July 28, 1900. 

Sik: I have the honor to transmit for publication, as No. 19 of North 
American Fauna, a report entitled ' Results of a Biologieal Reconnois- 
sance of the Yukon River Region,' by Wilfred H. Osgood and Louis 
B. Bishop. 

Under instructions dated May 11, 1899, Wilfred.' H. Osgood, an 
assistant in the Biological Survey, proceeded-, to. Skagway, Alaska, 
and thence over White Pass to the headwaters of the Yukon and down 
the entire length of the Yukon River to St. Michael. He was accom- 
panied by Dr. Louis B. Bishop, of New Haven, as volunteer assistant; 
Dr. Bishop has prepared the report on the birds observed during the 
trip. These are the first investigations of the kind undertaken on the 
Upper Yukon, and the results herewith presented will be found to 
contain many important facts concerning the distribution of mammals, 
birds, and trees in this region. 


Hon. James Wilson, 

Secretary of ^ Vgricultwe. 

C. Hart Merriam, 

Chief, Biological Survey. 



General account of the region, by Wilfred II. Osgood 7 

Itinerary 7 

Faunal districts 8 

Lynn Canal district 8 

White Pass district 9 

Canadian Yukon district — Lake subdivision 10 

River subdivision 12 

Hudsonian Yukon district 13 

Alaska Tundra district 15 

Summary of faunal districts 16 

Previous work 18 

New species 19 

Mammals of the Yukon region, by Wilfred II. Osgood 21 

Introduction 21 

List of species and subspecies 22 

Annotated list of species 22 

Birds of the Yukon region, with notes on other species, by Louis B. Bishop.. 47 

Introduction 47 

Classified lists i >f species 51 

Annotated list of species 57 



Facing page. 

Plate I. Map of Alaska Frontispiece 

IT. Fig. 1. — Summit of White Pass. 

Fig. 2. — Canadian police station at Caribou Crossing 10 

III. Fig. 1. — Cliffs on east side of Lake Lebarge. 

Fig. 2. — Yukon River 50 miles below Fort Selkirkc 12 

IV. Fig. 1. — Nests of red squirrels in spruce thicket. 

Fig. 2. — Burrows made by red squirrels in loose scales stripped 

from spruce cones 26 

V. Skulls of Sciurus vancouvereiixix, Sriurus hudsonicus pelulans, Neo- 

toma cinerea drummondi, and Ncoloma saxamans 34 

VI. Skulls of Lutreola vison energumenos, Lutreola v. ingem, Fiber zibeth- 

icus, and Fiber sjxdulatus 42 

VII. Skulls of Mustela americana brumalis, Mustela americava actuosa, 

and Mustela americana 44 


No. 19. NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. October, 1900. 




By Wilfred H. Osgood. 

Nowhere else in North America is such a vast extent of boreal coun- 
try so easily accessible as along- the Yukon. The navigable waters 
of the river begin at Lake Bennett, only 35 miles from the port of 
Skagway. on the coast of southeast Alaska, and with but one short 
interruption, extend northward as far as the Arctic Circle and then 
westward to Bering Sea; in all, a distance of more than 1,800 miles. 
The recent developments resulting from the discovery of gold in this 
region include a modern railroad from Skagway to Bennett and a tram- 
car service around the dangerous White Horse Rapids. The chief 
obstacles to ready access to the territory have thus been removed, and 
an opportunity is afforded for obtaining specimens and information 
from a region much of which was previously unknown to naturalists. 
Accordingly, with Dr. Louis B. Bishop as voluntary companion and 
A. G. Maddren as assistant, I was detailed to make a hasty biological 
reconnoissance of this region during the summer of 1899. 


After outfitting at Seattle, Wash., we sailed via the Inside Passage 
direct to Skagway, Alaska, where we arrived on May 30. From 
Skagway we worked slowly over White Pass and down to Lake Ben- 
nett, at the head of navigation on the Yukon. Here we embarked in 
a small flat-bottomed boat suited to our needs and sailed down the 
series of lakes that follow one another for nearly 200 miles. From 
the lakes we passed into Thirty-Mile River, thence into Lewes River, 
and finally into the Yukon proper, stopping frequently and making 
collections at favorable points. With the aid of the swift, even cur- 



rent we were able to make eas} r and rapid progress. Thus we con- 
tinued until an unfortunate capsize between Fort Yukon and Fort 
Hamlin prevented further detailed work on the river, and we were 
obliged to proceed direct to St. Michael, where a month was spent in 
collecting on the coast and tundra. Finally, late in September, our 
work was brought to a close by the approach of the long arctic winter. 
We returned to Seattle on the U. S. revenue cutter Corwin, which 
stopped on her way for a few hours at St. George Island and at 
Unalaska, at each of which places we collected a few birds. 

A relatively large part of our time was spent in the White Pass 
region and about the headwaters of the Yukon, as this was an abso- 
lutely virgin field, whereas part of the lower river had been previously 
visited by naturalists. We were unable to do any collecting in the 
mountains which lie back from the river, owing to the great distance 
to be covered and the shortness of the season. Legions of mosquitoes 
were attendant upon us almost constantly. At first they seemed posi- 
tively unbearable and w r ere a real hindrance to the work, but we grad- 
ually became accustomed to them, and by the use of gloves, head nets, 
and canopies to sleep under, managed to exist in comparative comfort. 
Aside from insect pests, however, outdoor life on the Yukon in June 
and July is very enjoyable; good camping places are abundant, and 
the weather is mild and beautiful. During the latter part of August 
and in September strong winds sweep up the river and frequent rains 


The country traversed may be divided for convenience into five dis- 
tricts: (1) The Lynn Canal district, (2) the White Pass district, (3) 
the Canadian Yukon district, (±) the Hudsonian Yukon district, and 
(5) the Alaska Tundra district. These districts arc limited in a 
general way by their respective life zones, but the} 7 are not of equal 
extent or importance, and the names applied to them are used not to 
specially designate restricted parts of zones alread} 7 recognized, but 
purely as a matter of convenience. They are longitudinal districts — 
that is, they are very much longer than wide, and each is merely a nar- 
row tract covered by our route through some larger faunal region. 

Lynn Canal district. — Skagway and the country bordering L} r nn 
Canal are in the northern part of that faunal area which Nelson has 
called the 'Sitkan district' and which has often been included in the 
Northwest Coast district. The trees and shrubs are much the same as 
those at Juneau, Wrangell, and other points farther south, but the vege- 
tation is not quite so dense and luxuriant. The shores of Lynn Canal 
are steep, rocky, and comparatively sparsely timbered, but in some 
places, as at Haines, low, swampy ground and heavy saturated forests 
are found. At Skagway, poplars {Popukis tntnuloides and Popultis 


balsamifera) are very common; they share the river bottom with wil- 
lows and extend well up the steep canyon sides, where they occupy 
large areas adjacent to the pines, firs, and spruces. Skagway is 
surrounded by high mountains, and its fauna is limited chiefly b} r 
altitude. Glacier Station, 14 miles distant, and about 1,900 feet 
higher, is near the boundary between the Lynn Canal and White Pass 
districts. The station is situated on the side of a wooded gulch through 
which a fork of Skagway River Hows. The immediate vicinity is 
similar to the country about Skagway, but shows the influence, of the 
Hudsonian /one of the White Pass district, which begins only a short 
distance beyond. On either side of the gulch are glaciated granite 
dirt's supporting an irregularly distributed vegetation, chiefly groves 
of poplars and dense thickets of alders, while in the bottom of the 
gulch conifers are the prevailing trees. The most common trees and 
shrubs are lodgepole pines (Pi/ius murrayana), alpine firs {Abies 
lasiocarpa), tidewater spruces {Picea sitchensis), poplars or aspens 
(Poj'uhis tremuloides and Pqpidus balsamifera) , alders {Akius sinuata), 
dwarf birches {Betula (/landulom), currants {Ribes laxijloruiit), and 
huckleberries ( Vaccmium oral! folium). The black crowberry {Envpe- 
t I'n in nigrum) and several other heather-like plants occur in the gulch 
but are more common higher up. Along the trickling streams are 
many ferns and mosses, as well as occasional patches of the lichen 
known as 'reindeer moss.' Among the mammals of this region are 
the Streator shrew {Sorex p. streatori), the Bangs white-footed mouse 
{Peromyscus oreas), the Dawson red-backed mouse (Evotomys dawsoni), 
the long-tailed vole {Microtvs inordax), and the red squirrel {Sciurus 
h. petulans). Characteristic birds are the sooty song sparrow {MeJo- 
sjriza m. rufina), the Townsend fox sparrow {Passerella i. townsendi), 
the Oregon snowbird {Junco h. oregonus), and the varied thrush (JPes- 
'perociclilii 1 1 nvid). 

White Pass district. — The summits of the mountains that rise 
directly east of Skagwa}' are covered with glaciers and perpetual 
snow, which feed numerous streams that flow down between mass- 
ive walls of granite. The sides of the wider canyons have been 
smoothed and scored by glaciation, and the smaller and more recent 
ones are but jagged rock-bound chasms. These unfavorable conditions 
cause a rapid change in the character of the plant and animal life, and 
from Glacier to the summit of White Pass the zones are Hudsonian 
and Arctic-alpine. A few hundred feet above Glacier the trees become 
smaller and more scattered, and at Summit only the alpine juniper 
(Juniperus nana), the bearberry (Arctostajjhylos uvaursi), and depau- 
perate alpine hemlocks (Tsuya merteiisiana) occur. Heathers and 
mosses prevail and large areas of reindeer moss are conspicuous. 
For some distance on the summit of White Pass (Plate II, fig. 1) the 
elevation and physiography are much the same; the country is slightly 


rolling and consists entirely of granite rock, about which cling many 
mosses and heathers, while small alpine junipers and hemlocks 
struggle for existence in favorable places. The breeding birds found 
with these Hudsonian plants were ptarmigan (Lagopus rujpestrvs and 
L. leucurus), pipits (Anthus pensil/vanicus), rosy finches {Leucosticte t. 
littoralis), and golden -crowned sparrows (Zonotrichiacoronata). Char- 
acteristic mammals noted were pikas (Ochotona collaris), hoary mar- 
mots (Arctomys caligatus), and mountain goats (Oreamnos montanus). 

Canadian Yukon district. — Lake subdivision: On the north side of 
the divide the hemlocks are soon replaced by pines and spruces, and 
in the vicinity of Shallow Lake the boundary of the interior fauna and 
flora is reached. The change is complete at Log Cabin, British Colum- 
bia, nine miles from the head of Lake Bennett, where the characteristic 
features of the Canadian zone are again established and the general 
aspect of the country is very different. The most abundant tree is the 
white spruce (Picea canadensis), and among shrubs seen for the first 
time the buffalo berry (Lepargyrcea canadensis) is very common. 
Birds marking a change of fauna are the slate-colored junco (Junco 
hyemalis), the Alaska jay (Perisoreus canadensis fumifrons), the inter- 
mediate sparrow (Zonotrichia 1. gambeli), and the black-poll warbler 
(Dendroica striata). A new chipmunk (Eutaniias caniceps) is very 
conspicuous. At the head of Lake Bennett another change occurs; 
the country becomes more arid and rocky and there is a tinge of 

Lake Bennett is a long, narrow sheet of water inclosed by high 
granite cliffs, the sides of which are often so steep as to be unfavorable 
for plant and animal life, and whose summits are doubtless similar to 
White Pass in fauna and flora. Cold winds sweep down the lake much 
of the time, and cool shadows envelop the east side most of the fore- 
noon and the west side most of the afternoon, so that opportunity for 
warmth by direct sunlight is limited. Hence there is quite a strong 
Hudsonian element about the lake. Among the plants 1 collected here 
are the pale dwarf laurel (Kalmia glauca), the Greek valerian 
(Polemonium humile), the forget-me-not (Myosotis sylvatica aJpestris), 
the alpine juniper (Juniperus nana), the bush cranberry {Viburnum 
puuciflorum), the dwarf birch {Betula glanchtlosa), the bearberry 
(Arctostaphylos uvaursi), the buffalo berry (Lepargyrcea canadensis), 
the shadbush (Amdanehicr aini folia), the Labrador tea (Ledum grm?i- 
landicum), and the black crowberry (Empetruin nigrum). Where 
trickling streams come down to the lake alder thickets abound, and 
along terraces of rock clumps of pines and spruces as well as poplars 
tind support. Among Hudsonian mammals were found pikas (■Ocho- 
tona collaris), hoary marmots (Arctomys caligai/m), and Pall sheep 

1 Identified by F. V. Coville, chief botanist, U. S. Department of Agriculture. 

North American Fauna, No. 19. 

Plate II. 

Fig. 1.— Summit of White Pass. 

A'. Irf-j* 

Fig. 2.— Canadian Police Station at Caribou Crossing. 

oct., 1900.] FAUNAL DISTRICTS. 11 

(Ovis daffli). Although the lake widens slightly at its lower end, its 
outlet is a narrow stream about '2 miles long, called Caribou Cross- 
ing (Plate II, fig. 2), on the north side of which is an open, grassy 
.swamp bordered by willow thickets. This low country, though very 
limited and not extending to the next lake, affords a breeding place 
for a few mammals and birds not found about Bennett. 

Lake Tagish, which receives the waters of Bennett through Caribou 
Crossing, is like Bennett in character, though not so closely walled, 
and is characterized by practically the same plants and animals. The 
surrounding mountains are covered with dense forests, which in many 
places are almost impenetrable. 

Connected with Lake Tagish by a short, narrow stream, known as 
Six-Mile River, is Lake Marsh, a long shallow lake on each side of 
which extends low country, with rolling hills farther back. The valley 
widens here quite appreciably, and the open country is like that at 
Caribou Crossing. On the east side are sedgy bogs surrounded by 
willow thickets, and in many places a wide margin of beautiful green 
sedge meets the edge of the water. Rocky shores are found at some 
points on the northwest side, but in general the country is low and 
moist, in marked contrast to that about Bennett and Tagish. The 
mountain animals of those lakes are of course absent, and the bird life 
is also somewhat different. 

Fifty -Mile River, into which the Yukon waters proceed from Lake 
Marsh, is rather narrow, and for a short distance at White Horse Rap- 
ids very swift. Its banks are chiefly abrupt bluffs of sandy clay (from 
50 to 100 feet high) but at Miles Canyon it is confined between walls 
of basalt. Below the rapids the stream widens somewhat and the high 
banks become less frequent, often being replaced by low ones thickly 
grown with willows. The timber is somewhat scattered, and on the 
rolling hills back from the river bare granite spaces may be frequently 
seen. At the head of Fifty-Mile River, we first met with birch trees 
(Bctula papyrifera ?), and from that time on they were seen dail} r . 
They do not grow to large size — trees more than 8 inches in diame- 
ter were seldom seen. Several small streams flow into Fiftj^-Mile 
River, which favor the growth of thickets of alders along their banks 
and large clumps of willows about their mouths. The little boreal 
sagebrush {Artemisia frigida) grows abundantly on the warm exposed 
slopes that occasionally alternate with the sandy bluffs. Lodgepole 
pines are also abundant and frequently occupy large areas to the exclu- 
sion of all other trees. Spruce and poplar, however, are still the strong- 
est elements in the forest. 

From Fifty-Mile River we enter Lake Lebarge, the last and largest 
of the lakes. All about its clear, cold waters are low granite moun- 
tains (Plate III, fig. 1). Occasionally patches of heavy spruce forest 
are found near the water, but in many places cliffs rise abruptly from 


the water's edge, and the timber is very sparsely sprinkled over them. 
The rocks found here and a few in Thirty-Mile River are the last we 
saw showing signs of glaciation. Lake Lebarge is quite different from 
Lake Marsh, and is more similar to Lakes Tagish and Bennett, though 
all the Hudsonian elements of these are not present. 

River subdivision: This area includes the section from the foot of 
Lake Lebarge to the mouth of the Pell y River at Fort Selkirk. There 
is very little variety in the character of the country between these 
points. Thirty -Mile River, which proceeds from Lake Lebarge, is a 
swift, narrow stream, and at low water is barely navigable for small 
steamers. A conspicuous feature of its banks, which are cut abruptly 
like those of Fiftv-Mile River, is a narrow ribbon-like stratum of vol- 
canic ash about 6 inches below the surface that maj' be seen wherever 
the bank is exposed. On the mountains a short distance from the river 
the forest of spruce is heavier and purer than any previously noted. 
The poplars and willows are more confined to the brink of the river, 
and the birches are scattered. Thirty -Mile River is simply that por- 
tion of the Yukon between Lake Lebarge and the mouth of the Hoota- 
linqua or Teslin River. The stream is greatly augmented b} r the 
waters of the Hootalinqua, and from this point on to Fort Selkirk is 
known as the Lewes River. Below the Hootalinqua it cuts through 
the Semenow Hills, for the most part abrupt, rocky, and rather barren 
mountains from 2,000 to 3,000 feet high. Near their bases and at the 
water's edge are forested areas, but the exposed hillsides are covered 
with boreal sagebrush (Artemisia frig idd), with here and there a pros- 
trate juniper or a small clump of spruces. The river now widens 
rapidly, receiving in succession the waters of the Big Salmon, the 
Little Salmon, and the Nordenskiold. The rolling hills are sometimes 
a mile or several miles from the river bank, with low willow swamps 
intervening. Islands varying from 1 to 100 acres in extent and 
covered with luxuriant vegetation are abundant. The distribution 
of trees on the small, regular-shaped islands is very uniform, the 
different kinds being grouped in concentric belts. Alders generally 
form the outer margin; next come the willows; next the poplars, 
rising somewhat higher; and finally the dark-green spruces, which 
occupy the central area. The whole effect is quite picturesque. On 
the larger islands the spruces are larger, and usual l} r predominate to 
such an extent that almost everything else should be classed as under- 
growth (including trees and shrubs belonging to the genera Alnus, 
Salix, Populus, Zepargyrwa, Cormis, Viburnum, Rosa, Ledum, Yac- 
cinium, Ribes, and others). Lodgepole pines still occur, though unlike 
the spruces they nowhere form continuous forest and disappear entirely 
a short distance beyond Fort Selkirk. 

The Canadian Yukon district as a whole is very well marked. Char- 
acteristic mammals are the gray-headed chipmunk [Eutdm ins com iceps), 

North Amencan Fauna, No. 19 

Plate III. 

Fig. 1.— Cliffs on East Side of Lake Lebarge. 

Fig. 2.— Yukon River, 50 Miles below Fort Selkirk. 

oct., 1900.] FAUNAL DISTRICTS. 13 

the Bennett ground squirrel (/Sjpt rmojphihts < ///j>< tra plesius), the North* 
era bushy-tailed rat (Neotoma saxa/ma/ns), white-footed mice {Peromys- 
cus areas and Perom/yscus mandculatw cvrcticus), and the varying hare 
{Lepus salii ns). All of these species and three of the genera, Eutwm ias, 
Neotoma, land Perom/yscus, find their northern limits in this district. 
Among birds that are known from the Yukon only in this district may 
be mentioned the sparrow hawk (JFaZco sparverms), the screech owl 
{Megascops asio h rmicoUif), the night hawk (Chordeiles virgwdan/us), 
the tree swallow (Tachycmeta fticolor), the Tennessee warbler (JTehnm- 
thophUajp( regrina), the pileolated warbler ( Wilsonia pimllajpileolata), 
and the mountain bluebird (Sialia arctica). Of these, GhoroZeUes is 
perhaps the most noteworthy, as it is decidedly a southern genus. It 
is very common, and was seen nightly from Caribou Crossing to Rink 
Rapids, but after we had passed that point it disappeared. Its range 
in this region as observed by us is probably accurate and corresponds 
with the limits of the district. Among trees, the lodgepole pine 
[Pinus m/urrayana) is common throughout the district, but does not 
extend beyond it. 

Hudson ian Yukon district. — This district, as here considered, 
includes all of the Yukon region from Fort Selkirk to the limit of 
trees. The Lewes River is joined at Fort Selkirk by the Felly, after 
which the increased volume of water flows on between heavily forested 
slopes and jutting cliffs (Flate III, fig. 2), which replace the sandy 
banks of the upper river. From the mouth of the Selwyn northward 
the topography of the river banks is but slightly different. The num- 
ber of poplars in the forest is much increased; the spruces are corre- 
spondingly decreased not only in number but also in size; Avhile the 
birches about hold their own, and the pines are not present at all, 
having disappeared between Fort Selkirk and the mouth of the Selwyn 
River. As we approach Dawson spruces become dwarfed and entirely 
subordinate to the poplars, which crowd their bushy tops together for 
miles and miles. The spruces are in the gulches and in small clumps 
elsewhere, and a few are scattered about, their dark-green spike tops 
showing off well against the billowy mass of the lighter foliage of 
poplar and birch. The undergrowth remains much the same, and 
deep moss covers the ground and rocks. In damp sandy places along 
shore and on islands occasionally overflowed a bright-green scouring 
rush. {Equi 'fsetum) grows so abundantly as to be a characteristic plant. 
The alpine juniper (Juniperus nana) is found occasionally on hill- 
sides not too thickly grown with poplars, and on the more open hill- 
sides the landscape is brightened by masses of fiieweed (Chammneriori 
arujusti folium), for even here forest fires are not a novelty. 

Two more large rivers, the AVhite and the Stewart, empty into the 
Yukon in this vicinity. About the mouths of these and other tributaries 
is more or less low country covered with willows. Islands become 


.still more numerous and larger, and have a forest growth that is more 
uniform in character than that of the river banks. High cliffs over- 
hanging the river are of frequent occurrence. 

From Dawson to the Alaska boundary and thence to Circle the 
country is about the same. For a long distance in the vicinity of the 
boundary a range of high mountains is visible to the northward on the 
right bank of the river. The low, rolling hills which border the upper 
river do not quite reach Circle, but are replaced by a broad, flat country 
known as the 'Yukon Flats,' which extends from near Circle to Fort 
Hamlin, a distance of about 200 miles. Through the ' Flats ' the course 
of the river breaks up into a great many channels, and the islands 
still further increase in size and number. These are composed of 
sand and silt, in which poplars thrive better than spruces, though the 
latter are by no means eliminated. A wild rose [Rosa cinnamomea?) 
is the most abundant shrubby plant, and on the ground below it the 
Equisetum is rampant. The larger islands are identical in character 
with the mainland, and on them the spruces form quite a heavy forest, 
with deep moss beneath. At Fort Hamlin the river narrows again 
and flows between rolling wooded hills, which are similar to many 
farther up the river. Small streams enter the main river frequently, 
and the timber is much the same; poplars, alders, and birches cover 
the hills in dense thickets, through which spruces are sprinkled. 
Alders are more numerous than before. The hills vary in height 
from 500 to 3,000 feet, and the highest have a distinct timberline at 
about 2,000 feet. At the mouth of the Tanana the hills become smaller 
and the river very much wider. Here, at Fort Gibbon, Dr. Bishop 
found the larch {Larix americana) quite abundant. This was the only 
point at which it was seen by any of our party. 

The Lower Yukon beyond the Tanana is very uniform in character. 
The banks are low and rolling and overgrown with willows and alders; 
farther back are higher hills covered with poplars and birch; occasion- 
ally the summits of a few hills higher than the rest are devoid of 
trees. On the sandy islands the willow thickets are impenetrable, and 
where a cut bank exposes a section of them their slender perpendicu- 
lar trunks stand so closely as to present a solid front like a thick hedge 
or canebrake. Thus it continues until the limit of timber is reached 
at Andraefski, 90 miles above the mouth of the Yukon. 

This district as a whole is characterized by absence of southern 
plants and animals. Among migratory birds a few have their center 
of abundance farther south, but all the mammals are northern forms, 
and nearly all belong to genera of circumpolar distribution. 1 Plant 
life, though quite luxuriant, is made up of only a small number of 
hardy species. Characteristic mammals are the Fort Yukon ground 

'The only exceptions are Synaptomys, Fiber, aud Erethizon. 

oct., 1900.] FAUNAL DISTRICTS. 15 

squirrel (SpemwphUvs osgoodi), Dawson red-backed mouse (Evotomys 
dawsoni), yellow-cheeked vole (Mtcrohts xanthognathus), Yukon lem- 
ming (Lemm usyuhom mis), Dall varying hare (Lepus american us dalli), 
and tundra weasel (Patori/us arcticus). Of the birds, the most char- 
acteristic are the duck hawk (Falco peregrvn/us anatum), pigeon hawk 
[Falco columbarius), Alaska longspur ( ( 'alcariu* /ajponicus alascensis), 
hoary redpoll (Acanthis hornemanni exilipes), fox sparrow (Passerella 
iliaca), Bohemian waxwing (Ampelis garrukts), and wheatear (Saxlcola 

Alaska Tundra district. — The Yukon from Andraefski to the coast 
of Norton Sound is bounded on both sides by typical tundra. The 
country is low and gently undulating, and its surface a short distance 
away appears to be thickly carpeted with grass. That this is not the 
real condition a short walk ashore soon demonstrates; but the delusion 
is so complete that were it not for the presence of the great river one 
might fancy himself looking out over the undulating plains at the 
eastern base of the Rocky Mountains in the western United States. 

The flora of the tundra, though devoid of trees deserving of the 
name, is Jound on careful examination to be quite varied. Besides 
the numerous mosses and heathers and many small berry-bearing 
plants are dwarf willows, birches, and alders. The alders attain the 
greatest size, but are usually found in isolated clumps in favorable 
spots, where they often grow from 6 to 8 feet high. The ground is 
frozen a few inches below the surface, and the hea\w, spongelike cover- 
ing of vegetation is kept constantly saturated. Occasional high bluffs 
on the coast in exposed situations are bleak and bare, but besides 
these there is scarcely a spot not covered with low r , matted vegetation. 
Numerous small ponds are irregularly distributed over the tundra, 
and around them the vegetation is ranker than elsewhere. Broken 
lava borders the shores of St. Michael Island, and small moss-covered 
heaps of it, which form practically the only solid footing on the island, 
are scattered about over the tundra. 

Characteristic mammals at St. Michael are the Hall Island fox 
(Vidpes hallensis), Nelson vole (Microtus operarius), tundra red-backed 
mouse (Evotomys dawsoni alascensis), Nelson pied lemming (Dicro- 
stonyx nelsoni), Alaska lemming (Lemm us alascensis), and Alaska Arctic 
hare (Lepus othus). Land birds known to breed are the hoary redpoll 
(Acanthis hornemanni exilipes), common redpoll (Acanthis linaria), 
Alaska longspur (Calcarius lapponicus alascensis-), western tree spar- 
row (Spisella monticola ochracea), golden-crowned sparrow (Zonotrichia 
coronata), and Siberian yellow wagtail (Biulijt. es fiavus leucostriatus). 
Common tundra plants 1 are Cassiopea tetragona, Andromeda polifolia, 
Vacdnium vitisideea, Mairania alpina, Ledum pdl/ustre, Artemisia 

1 Nelson, Report upon Natural History Collections in Alaska, 30, 1887. 


arctica, Bubus chamcemorus, Rulnis arctieus, Betula nana, Alnus 
sinuata, ChamcBcisttcs procitmbms, and Tmsilago frig Ida. 


All the country here considered is in the boreal zones, the Tundra 
district and a small part of the White Pass district belonging to the 
Arctic subdivison, and the Yukon Valley principally to the Hud- 
sonian, though it has also a well-marked Canadian section. Birds 
are comparatively rare in all the interior region, and it is difficult to 
determine the exact range of many species. Some were seen but 
once or twice; others appeared sporadically at rather long intervals; 
while still others that are known from the region were not seen at all; 
so it is hardly safe, in making generalizations, to rely too much on 
the ranges observed by us. The distribution of trees and shrubby 
plants and of many of the mammals, however, could be determined 
with much greater accuracy and constitute reliable guides in fixing 
the limits of the districts. These districts are in general the same 
as those recognized by Nelson, but with more definite and somewhat 
modified limits. Names slightly different from those he used are 
adopted here in order to agree with the commonly accepted names 
of the primary zones of North America. Thus the part of his 'Alas- 
kan-Canadian' district here considered is called the 'Hudsonian 
Yukon' district, since it lies entirely within the transcontinental Hud- 
sonian zone. Owing to iluviatile conditions, the boundaries of the 
Yukon districts doubtless do not agree in latitude with those which 
might be made away from the rivers. 

The zones which we successively traversed in going from Skagway 
to St. Michael via White Pass and the Yukon are: (1) Canadian; (2) 
Hudsonian; (3) Arctic- Alpine; (4) Canadian; (5) Hudsonian, and (6) 
Arctic. The Lynn Canal district is in the Canadian zone, but it has 
some slight peculiarities such as are to be expected in a coast district. 
Though it does not have the Hudsonian animals of the northern coast, 
it lacks several of the typical Canadian forms of the coast farther 
south. 1 It is really near the northern limit of the Canadian zone on 

J The coast of Alaska south of the peninsula, or what has been known as the 'Sit- 
kan district,' may be easily divided into two districts corresponding to the Canadian 
and Hudsonian zones. Lynn Canal is situated near the boundary between these 
districts. Among Canadian mammals which have their center of abundance in the 
restricted Sitkan district on the coast south of Lynn Canal are: Odocoileus sitkensis, 
Sciurus vancouverensis, Peromyscus macrorhinus, Evotomys wrangdi, Microius macrurus, 
Synaptomys ivrangeli, Zapus saltator, and Myalls alascensis. Among the Hudsonian 
forms found on the coast only north of Lynn Canal are: Rangifer sp., Ovis dalli, 
Sciurus hudsonicus, Spermophilus e. plesius, Zapus h. alascensis, Ochotona collaris, and 
Myotis lucifugus. Among trees which find their northern limit in the vicinity of 
Lynn Canal are: Thuja pllcata, Abies lasiocarpa, and Firms murrayana. The northern 
district from Lynn Canal to Kadiak is so similar to the great interior Hudsonian 
region that it hardly merits recognition as a distinct district, but it certainly should 
not be included in the Sitkan district. 


the Pacific coast. The occurrence at Skagway of mammals of the 
interior, such as Microtus mordax, 1 Eootomys dawsoni, and Perom/yscus 
areas, seems to show an approach to the condition farther north where 
the coast and interior forms are practically the same. The Canadian 
zone of the Lynn Canal district gives way to the Hudsonian and 
Arctic- Alpine in the White Pass district. The character of this dis- 
trict is essentially the same as that of other mountain regions in 
western North America. This is well indicated by the fact that its 
mammals include the hoary marmot (Arctomys caligatus), the Alaska 
pika (Ochotona coUaris), and the mountain goat (Oreamnos montanus), 
and its birds the ptarmigan (Lagopus I ucurus and L. rwpestris), the 
pipit {Anthuspt nsilvcmicus), and the rosy finch (Leucostictet. littoralis). 
The Canadian Yukon district from Bennett to Fort Selkirk merely 
represents the extent to which our route entered the extreme northern 
part of the Canadian zone; that is, its limits are those of the section 
that our route made across the end of a narrow tongue which extends 
northward from the great areas occupied by the Canadian zone farther 
south. Owing to its being so near the border of the Hudsonian zone, 
its character is not purely Canadian, but the presence of such forms 
as chipmunks (JEhdamias) and white-footed mice (Peromyscus) among- 
mammals, night hawks (Ghordeiles) among birds, and lodgepole pines 
(Pin us murrayana) among trees, makes it evident that the Canadian 
element is very strong. The Hudsonian Yukon district represents the 
complete section which the Yukon River makes through the great 
northern forest belt of the Hudsonian zone. This belt corresponds to 
the Alaskan-Canadian district outlined by Nelson. It is bounded on 
the south by the Canadian zone and the extreme northern limit of 
southern forms, and on the north by the treeless tundra. On the west 
it probably reaches and includes the coast from Kadiak to Lynn Canal; 
on the east its limits are unknown. The Alaska Tundra district defines 
itself. Its character is the combined result of latitude and rigorous 
coast climate. Our experience in this treeless district was limited 
to St. Michael Island and the ninety miles between Andraefski and the 
mouth of the Yukon. The animals of this region are not all abso- 
lutely confined to it, many of them ranging some distance into the 
forest belt. Small mammals, such as the Nelson vole (Microtus ojpe- 
rarius), occupy so-called 'islands' — local spots offering what are prac- 
tical ly tundra conditions — as far within the forest belt as Circle. 

J The case of Microtus mordax at the head of Lynn Canal is particularly interesting, 
since a closely related form, M. macrurux, has been found at Glacier Bay on the 
north side of the mouth of the canal and also at Juneau on the south side, and 
would therefore be expected at Skagway, which is halfway between. Assuming 
that macrurua has been dispersed from the south northward on the coast, it seems 
that it did not reach Glacier Bay by way of the present mainland, otherwise it would 
be found at Skagway. M. mordax doubtless reached Skagway from the interior. 
4494— No. 19 2 


The fauna of the Yukon basin as a whole is composed of two prin- 
cipal elements, one containing absolutely circumpolar forms, evidently 
derived from the north, the other containing forms which have their 
center of abundance farther south. This is particularly true of the 
mammals. Among the genera belonging to the north may be men- 
tioned Rangijer, Evotomys, Lemmus, and Dicrostonyx, all of which 
are circumpolar in distribution; those from farther south are Alces, 
Schiropterus, Eutamias, Peromyscm, JVeotoma, Fiber, and Synaptomys. 
With the exception of alpine species and a few wide-ranging forms, 
chiefly carnivores, the variations of which are not sufficiently known 
to be of use in defining faunal regions, no species of mammals are 
common to the Yukon region and the Sitkan coast district. From 
this it seems that all the southern forms which reach the Yukon region 
have been derived from the interior rather than from the coast. This 
is also true of the trees and to a great degree of the birds. But, on the 
other hand, some species of land birds are common to the lower Yukon 
and the Sitkan district while a large intervening area in the interior is 
uninhabited by them. 1 Selasphorus rufus, Dendroica townsendi, and 
Ilylocichla aonalaschkcB were found on both sides of White Pass, but 
only rarely and for a very short distance on the interior side. 


Our knowledge of the natural history of the Yukon region has been 
derived chiefly from two sources — the members of the Russo-Ameri- 
can Telegraph Expedition and the Signal Service officers formerly 
stationed at St. Michael. The first information was gathered by the 
scientific corps of the Telegraph Expedition of 1865 to 1868. Promi- 
nent among the members of this corps were Robert Kennicott, Wil- 
liam H. Dall, and J. T. Rothrock, all of whom secured valuable speci- 
mens and information. The notes of Kennicott were not published, 
owing to his untimely death at Nulato, May 13, 1866, but numerous 
specimens, particularly from the vicinity of Fort Yukon, are now in the 
National Museum, a monument to his faithful pioneer work. Among 
the numerous papers on various subjects relating to Alaska published 
by Dail are lists of birds and mammals. 2 A list of plants including 
some records from Fort Yukon was published by Rothrock. 3 

1 One of these species is the varied thrush (Hesperotichla nievia) which was found 
in the Lynn Canal district, but not in any numbers in the Yukon Valley above Daw- 
son. Below Dawson it is quite common along the Yukon and undoubtedly breeds 
there. It is well known to range along the Pacific coast to Kadiak, and thence to the 
shores of Kotzebue Sound and up the Kowak River. Its absence on the Upper 
Yukon and its occurrence all along the coast make it extremely probable that in 
reaching the Yukon its course of migration is up the river from its mouth. 

2 List of Birds of Alaska, by W. H. Dall and II. M. Bannister < Trans. Chicago Acad- 
emy of Sciences, I, pt, II, 267-310, 1869; also Alaska and its Resources, by W. H. 
Dall, Boston, Lee & Shepard, 1870. 

3 Sketch of the Flora of Alaska, by J. T. Rothrock < Annual Report Smithsonian 
Institution, 1867, 433-463. 


Iii 1874, with the establishment of a meteorological station at St. 
Michael, work was begun by Lucien M. Turner. He collected about 
St. Michael and secured specimens from the fur traders and natives 
on the Yukon as far up as Fort Yukon. The results of his work were 
published in the Arctic Series of the Signal Service. 1 

Turner was relieved in 1877 by E. W. Nelson, who continued to 
collect specimens until 1881. His work was more extensive than that 
of Turner, hut was carried out along the same lines. He made several 
trips up and down the coast from St. Michael, and also worked about 
the Yukon delta and up the river as far as Anvik. L. N. McQuesten, 
who conducted a trading post at Fort Reliance, furnished him with 
numerous specimens and much valuable information. The results of 
Nelson's work were also published in the Arctic Series of the Signal 
Service a and form by far the most valuable contribution to the natural 
history of Alaska yet made. In 1889 an important report :! was pub- 
lished by Dr. George M. Dawson, covering the region of the sources 
of the Yukon and down as far as Fort Selkirk. This report contains 
detailed descriptions of the physical features of the upper river, notes 
on natural history, particularly on the distribution of trees, and a list 
of plants by John Macoun. 


Nine new species and subspecies of mammals are described in the 
present report. They are as follows: 

Seiuwpterus yukonensis. 
Sciurus hudsonicus p>etidans. 
Eutamias caniceps. 
SpermophUus empetra plesvus. 
Neotoma saxamans. 

Fiber spalulatus. 
Lejjus saliens. 
Lutreola vison ingens. 
Mustela americana actuosa. 

In the collection of birds, three new forms were found. These have 
been described by Dr. Bishop 4 as follows: 

( 'anachites canadensis osgoodi. Contopus richardsoni satunttHx. 

Sayornis saya yukonensis. 

1 Contributions to the Natural History of Alaska, by L. M. Turner, Arctic Series, 
Signal Service, No. II, Washington, 1886. 

2 Eeport upon Natural History Collections made in Alaska, by E. W. Nelson, Arctic 
Series, Signal Service, No. Ill, Washington, 1887. 

2 Geological and Natural History Survey of Canada, Annual Report, III (1887-88), 
Pt. I, 6 B-277 B, 1889. 
4 Auk, XVII, 113-120, April, 1900. 


Besides the above, several new mammals which come within the 
scope of the present report have been recently described by Dr. Mer- 
riam. 1 These are as follows: 

SpermophUus osgoodi. 
Lemmus yukonensis. 
Lemmus alascensis. 
Dicrostonyx nelsoni. 
Erethizon epixanthus myops. 

Lepus americanus dalli. 
Lepus othus. 
Vulpes hallensis. 
Sorex personatus arcticus. 
Sorex tundrentis. 

In addition to these, three new forms recently described by Witmer 
Stone 2 should be mentioned: 

Dicrostonyx hudsonius alascensis (equals I). nelsoni Merriam). 
Putorius rixosus eskimo. 
Lynx canadensis mollipilosus. 

1 Proc. Wash. Acad. Sci., II, 13-30, March 14, 1900. 
* Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., March 24, 1900, 33-49. 


By Wilfred II. Osgood. 


The following list, primarily based on collections made during the 
past 3 7 ear, includes all the known mammals of the Yukon region. 
Besides the species which belong' strictly to the Yukon, are included 
those found in the Lynn Canal and White Pass districts and those 
known to occur at St. Michael. This makes a list containing the majority 
of the mammals known from Alaska, which is not, however, intended 
to be comprehensive, but should be considered as supplementary to 
the list published by Nelson in 188T. As may be seen from the itin- 
erary, our collections were made during a hasty trip from the coast of 
southeastern Alaska to the head waters of the Yukon and thence down 
the river to St. Michael. Good series of all the common small mam- 
mals were secured, but the larger and rarer species were not often 
obtained. It was not only difficult to secure specimens of the larger 
mammals, but it was hard to gain much accurate information in regard 
to them. Most of the miners we met had been in the country but a 
short time and their knowledge of animals was limited; natives were 
seldom met on the upper river and the few that were interviewed 
seemed disinclined to talk. The fur trade on the Yukon has dwindled 
to comparatively meager proportions. The Indians still bring a few 
furs to the traders every }^ear and receive pittances of flour and tea in 
return; but the trade is apparently very small and were it not for the 
transportation business which has recently become so important, the 
large companies would doubtless find it difficult to maintain themselves. 

In identifying the recently collected specimens and studying their 
geographical distribution, it has been necessary to refer constantly to 
the specimens collected by Kennicott, Dall, Nelson, and Turner. Many 
of these, which are in the National Museum, were found to be in poor 
condition and required considerable renovating to make them compar- 
able with modern specimens. For the free use of these specimens I 
am indebted to Gerrit S. Miller, jr., assistant curator of mammals 
in the National Museum. I am also indebted to Outram Bangs for 
the use of specimens, and E. W. Nelson for much valuable informa- 
tion. The identifications of some of the mammals have been verified 




[NO. 19. 

by specialists as follows: The species of Sorex by Dr. C. Hart Merriam; 
of Microtus by Vernon Bailey, and of Zapus by Edward A. Preble. 
All measurements are in millimeters. 






Rangifer montanus Seton-Thornpson. 
Rangifer arcticus (Richardson). 
Rangifer tarandus (Linnaeus). 
Alces gigas Miller. 
Ovis dalli Nelson. 
Oreamnos montanus (Ord). 
Sciuropterus yukonensis sp. nov. 
Sciurus hudsonicus Erxleben. 
Sciurus hudsonicus petulans subsp. nov. 
Eutamias caniceps sp. nov. 
Spermophilus empetra plesius subsp. 

Spermophilus osgoodi Merriam. 
Arctomys caligatus Eschscholtz. 
Castor canadensis Kuhl. 
Mus decumanus Pallas. 
Peromyscus oreas Bangs. 
Peromyscus maniculaius arcticus 

Neotoma saxamans sp. nov. 
Evotomys dawsoni Merriam. 
Evotomys dawsoni alascensis (Miller). 
Microtus mordax ( Merriam ) . 
Microtus drummondi (Aud.and Bach. ). 
Microtus xanthognathus (Leach). 
Microtus opcrarius (Nelson ) . 
Fiber spatulatus sp. nov. 
Synaptomys dalli Merriam. 
Lemmus yukonensis Merriam. 

28. Lemmus alascensis Merriam. 

29. Dicrostonyx nelsoni Merriam. 

30. Zapus hudsonius alascensis Merriam. 

31. Erethizon epixanthus myojis Merriam. 

32. Ochotona collaris (Nelson) 

33. Lepus saliens sp. nov: 

34. Lepus americanus dalli Merriam. 

35. Lepus othus Merriam. 

36. Lynx canadensis moUipilosus Stone. 

37. Canis occidentalis Richardson. 

38. f Vulpes fulvus (Desmarest). 

39. Vulpes hallensis Merriam. 

40. Ursus americanus Pallas. 

41. Ursus horribilis alascensis Merriam. 

42. Lutra canadensis (Schreber) . 

43. Lutreola vison ingens subsp. nov. 

44. Putorius arcticus Merriam. 

45. Putorius cieognani alascensis (Mer- 


46. Putorius rixosus eskimo Stone. 

47. Mustela, americana actuosa subsp. nov. 

48. Mustela pennanti Erxleben. 

49. Qulo luscus (Linnaeus). 

50. Sorex personatus streatori Merriam. 

51. Sorex ])ersonatus arcticus Merriam. 

52. Sorex obscurus Merriam. 

53. Sorex tundrensis Merriam. 

54. Myotis lucifugus (Le Conte). 


Rangifer montanus Seton-Thompson. Mountain Caribou. 
Rangifer montanus Seton-Thompson, Ottawa Naturalist, XIII, No. 5, 6, Aug. 11, 1899; 
Allen, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., N. Y., XIII, 1-18, April 3, 1900. 

This large woodland caribou is reported as quite common in northern 
British Columbia about the head waters of the Yukon and for an 
indefinite distance northward. It does not occur on the coast south of 
Cook Inlet, but is reported from many points immediately beyond the 
summit of the coast mountains. It prefers the higher ground in 
summer and is not found along river bottoms like the moose, for 
which reason few are killed by parties descending the river. Its flesh 
is smoked and dried by the Indians for winter food, and when so cured 
is preferred to all other meat of the country. The hides, like those 
of the moose, serve the natives for various articles of clothing and a"e 
utilized especially for sleeping robes. 


Rangifer arcticus (Richardson). Barren Ground Caribou. 

The barren ground caribou ranges over nearly all of extreme north- 
ern North America from northwestern Labrador to the Aleutian 
Islands. It was formerly abundant over this great territory, but is 
now quite rare. Even at the time of Nelson's work in 1877 it had 
become comparatively uncommon, though it was once common all 
about Norton Sound and for some distance up the river. The south- 
ern and interior limits of its range are uncertain. During our stay 
in St. Michael, I saw half a dozen skins which had been secured 
near Andraefski, 90 miles above the mouth of the Yukon. There are 
specimens in the National Museum from Nushagak and llnalakleet, 
Alaska; and from Rampart House and La Pierre House, Northwest 

Rangifer tarandus (Linnaeus). Domesticated Reindeer. 

During the past few years, as is well known, an effort has been 
made to introduce domesticated reindeer from Siberia into Alaska. 
The animals as a rule have been carefully herded, but in a few cases 
they have had opportunities to stray awaj T and run wild. The herd 
that had perhaps the best chance to stray was one which was brought 
from Lapland to Haines in 1898, and driven inland over the Dalton 
trail. A short time after it started several of the animals were seen 
in the forest near Haines, and one of them was killed. This was the 
only instance of the kind brought to my attention, but I have no 
doubt that reindeer have occasionally wandered from the care of the 
herders at other times and in other places. 

Alces gigas Miller. Alaska Moose. 

Alces gigas Miller, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., XIII, 57-59, May 29, 1S99. 

The Alaska moose, as has frequently been stated, is the largest of 
the deer family in North America. Its distribution along the Yukon 
extends from Lakes Atlin and Tagish at least to the mouth of the 
Tanana and probably somewhat farther. Whymper 1 says that it was 
'never known as low as Nulato^ even in the time of its greatest 
abundance. It is evident, however, from the record of Nelson 2 at the 
Yukon delta, and that of Richardson 3 at the mouth of the Mackenzie, 
that it does occasionally leave its favorite woodlands of the interior 
and wander as far as the Arctic coast. At present it is still quite 
numerous, but is chiefly confined to the small streams tributary to the 
Yukon. According to reports which came to me it is abundant in the 
region about the upper waters of the Stewart, Pellv. and MacMillan 
rivers. Along the great river itself numbers have been killed during 

1 Travels in Alaska and on the Yukon, 245, 1869. 

2 Report upon Natural History Collections in Alaska, 287, 1887. 
:! Fauna Boreali-Anicrirana, 233, 1829. 


the recent influx of prospectors. At the beginning of the Klondike 
rush, it was not uncommon for a party to secure one or two moose 
while descending the river, but such is rarely the case at present. 
Our party failed to see any, though we spent nearly three months in 
the region; during this time we heard of but two animals being 
killed, one near the foot of Lake Lebarge and another on upper 
Charlie Creek, a short distance above Circle; both were secured by 
Indians. We saw comparative^ few fresh tracks. 

In winter, moose meat is the staple diet of both Indians and whites 
and has readily sold in the mining camps at $1 to $2 per pound. Such 
a price, even in this country of high wages, has been a great incentive 
to hunting, and many a miner has left his claim to pursue the moose. 
The hides also are a source of profit, particularly to the Indians, who 
tan them and make them into mittens and moccasins. What the Indians 
do not need they sell readily to miners and prospectors. It is dif- 
ficult to estimate the number of animals that have been killed, but it 
must be very large, for the demand has been steady and a comparatively 
large population has been supplied with meat. On one hunt, an ac- 
count of which has been given by Tappan Adney, 1 -i-t moose were 
killed in about one month, and a single party of Indians was credited 
with a total of 80 moose and 65 caribou in one winter. 

Ovis dalli (Nelson). Dall Mountain Sheep. 

Most of the specimens of the Dall sheep which have reached our 
museums were secured in the vicinity of Cook Inlet, but the animal 
occurs in nearly all the high mountains of Alaska, and in the north 
ranges to the Arctic coast. Since we were at a distance from the 
mountains during the greater part of our trip, I was unable to secure 
much information in regard to the distribution of the species. Sheep 
are said to occur about the West Arm of Lake Bennett, and Windy Arm 
of Lake Tagish. A prospector with whom I talked at Lake Tagish 
said he had seen and killed them at both of these places. Lake Bennett 
is not far from the type locality of 0. stone!, and it is possible that 
this species occurs there with 0. dalli. Both white and gray sheep 
are reported, though all are said to be white in winter. I was told 
that white sheep were killed some years ago on the cliffs about Lake 
Lebarge, but I failed to find signs of them there. Prospectors at Fort 
Selkirk say that sheep are always to be found in the mountains along 
Pelly River, particularly in the MacMillan Mountains '' near the mouth 

1 Harper's Magazine, C, 495-507, March, 1900. 

2 The sheep from the MacMillan Mountains are said to he the ' hlack sheep,' which 
name could hardly apply to 0. dalli, hut is the name commonly given to 0. stoneu 
If stonei really does occur in these mountains the record is a very interesting one, and 
the locality much farther north than any from which thespecies has been previously 


of MacMillan River, and they were also reported from the head 
waters of the Stewart and from the Tanana Hills. 

Oreamnos montanus (Orel). Mountain Goat. 

Goats occur on the high granite cliffs which inclose the upper part 
of Lynn Canal; they arc also common on the mountains near White 
Pass and about the rocky walls of Lake Bennett. I was told that they 
had been killed recently at the upper end of Little Windy Arm on 
Lake Tagish, but 1 could obtain no reliable report of their occurrence 
in the interior beyond this point. At Lake Lc) targe they were very 
doubtfully reported. Their range is known to extend north to White 
Pass in the coast mountains at least to Copper River, 1 but does not 
reach far into the interior. Hunters from the mountains about the 
upper filters of the Pelly and Stewart rivers asserted positively that 
none had been heard of in that region. 

The station agent at Glacier, near White Pass summit, told me that 
goats frequently appear on the cliffs within easy view of his house. 
He also showed me the hide of one- that had been killed near there 
a short time before our arrival. I made one short trip into these 
mountains, but failed to see any goats. The character of the cliffs 
is ideal for them, but they had evidently gone farther back to their 
summer feeding grounds, as the abundant tracks and dung were 
a few weeks old. 

Sciuropterus yukonensis sp. now Yukon Flying Squirrel. 

Tijpr from Camp Davidson, Yukon River, near Alaska-Canada boundary. No. yff°§, 
U. S. Nat Mus. Collected December 8, 1890, by R. E. Carson. 

Characters. — Size largest of North American flying squirrels; tail 
exceedingly long; color rather dark, underparts suffused with fulvous; 
skull slightly characterized. 

('<>}<>/■. — Top of head, neck, and upperparts to base of tail pale cin- 
namon or between the wood brown and cinnamon of Ridgway; under- 
fur bluish black, partially exposed on legs and membranes; underparts 
dull whitish, irregularly suffused with cinnamon fawn; feet dusky 
above, lightly edged with creamy white, buffy white below; cheeks 
and sides of head ashy, lightly mixed with cinnamon; end of nose 
slightly paler than top of head, not light ashy as in S. sabrmvA/ black 
eye-ring prominent; tail light fawn below, with a light edging of 
dusky, becoming broader toward tip; tail above fawn heavily mixed 
with black, which predominates for terminal fifth. 

Skull. — Size large, slightly larger than in S. alpmm; audita! 
bullae larger; width at postorbital constriction greater; molars heavier, 
particularly the mandibular series. 

'H. T. Allen, Science, VII, 57, 1886. 


Measurements. — Total length 365; tail 180; hind foot (measured 
dry) 41. Skull: Occipito nasal length 40; zygomatic breadth 25; 
postorbital constriction 10. 

Remarks. — This species is distinguished from both S. sahrinus and 
8. alpinus by its large size and very long tail, but it is also very dif- 
ferent from either in color. It is evidently a very rare squirrel, as 
the type and one topotype are the only specimens known. A speci- 
men from Chilkoot Inlet which may possibly be this species has been 
recorded by Dr. George M. Dawson. 1 Camp Davidson is the north- 
ernmost point at which the genus Sciurojpterus is known to occur. The 
type and one other specimen were secured by R. E. Carson, who was 
a member of the boundary survey party of the IT. S. Coast and Geo- 
detic Survey under J. E. McGrath, in 1890. Dr. W. W. Kingsbury, 
also a member of the party, writes me as follows in regard to these 

I send you the following notes taken from my journal regarding two Flying Squir- 
rels which were captured by a member of our party while in Alaska, in 1890; their 
skins were sent to the National Museum at Washington. 

The female was caught Dec. 8th, 1890, and the male Dec. 9th, 1890. Both squirrels 
were caught in a trap known as the 'dead fall,' which was set by R. E. Carson for 
marten. The traps were set in the bed of a frozen stream, where it ran through 
a clump of spruce trees about one-fourth of a mile back from the Yukon river. 
This clump of trees is about 2\ miles east of the International boundary line, and 
on the east bank of the Yukon river. 

We showed these skins to both McQuesten and Mayo, two traders who had been 
in that country over twenty years, and who said that they had seen Flying Squirrels 
along the Yukon river quite a number of times before, and had also seen them at 
Ft. Reliance and Ft. Yukon; but had not seen any of them for a number of years 
before this date. We also showed the skins to an Indian, who said these squirrels 
would attack a man by flying in his face, and the Indians would not eat them 
because the squirrels ate dirt. 

During the winter and spring of that year, I hunted very carefully in the vicinity 
where these squirrels were captured, but failed to find further trace of them. The 
stomachs of both of these squirrels were empty. The traps in which they were 
caught were set for martens, and two or three had been caught, but none were caught 
in these traps after the squirrels were captured. 

Scrums hudsonicus Erxleben. Hudson Bay Red Squirrel. 

All the red squirrels from the Yukon basin and northern Alaska, as 
far as can be determined at present, are referable to Scinrus hudsoni- 
cus ' proper,' although those from the Upper Yukon show considerable 
tendency toward S. h. streatori. Most of the Yukon specimens are 
in summer pelage, while the few available specimens from eastern 
Canada and the vicinity of Hudson Ray are in winter pelage, so that 
close comparison is not possible. Specimens from various points 
along the Yukon from Bennett to Nulato have been examined. The 

1 Geol. and Nat, Hist, Survey of Canada, Annual Report, III (1887-88), pt. I, 50 A, 

North American Fauna, No. 19. 

Plate IV. 

Fig. 1.— Nests of Red Squirrels in Spruce Thicket. 

Fig. 2.— Burrows made by Red Squirrels in loose Scales stripped 
from Spruce Cones. 


animal is exceedingly abundant in all the spruce forest, and doubtless 
ranges northward to the limit of trees. 

Evidences of its activity are to be found all through the spruce 
forest. Its globular nests of grass, moss, bark, and refuse are com- 
mon (Plate IV, fig. 1), and are usually situated near the trunk of some 
slender spruce, 10 or 20 feet from the ground. Sometimes several 
will be found in the same tree, and a half dozen or more are very 
often to be seen at the same time. Little excavations in the moss 
show where the chickarees have been digging- for roots; and spruce 
cones tucked away in these and other out-of-the-way places are fur- 
ther evidence of their sagacit}'. The ground is often strewn for some 
distance with the scales of spruce cones which they have stripped 
(Plate IV, fig. 2). Near Lake Marsh I found one such place 20 feet 
square which was covered 6 inches deep with scales. 

Sciurus hudsonicus petulans subsp. now 

Tyjh from Glacier, White Pas?, Alaska (altitude 1,870 feet). No. 97457, U. S. Nat. 
Mus., Biological Survey Collection, 9 ad. Collected June 4, 1899, by W. H. 
Osgood. Original No., 370. 

( 'luii ■<!<■!, rs. — Similar to S. hudsonicus, but larger and darker; central 
portion of tail darker and with slight mixture of black; submarginal 
black in tail wider; edging of tail much darker; underparts not pure 
white in summer. Similar to Sciurus h. streatori, but more reddish; 
central portion of tail with much less admixture of black; subterminal 
black in tail much narrower. Somewhat similar to S. Vancouver ensis, 
but paler and cranially different; lateral stripe much more prominent; 
submarginal and subterminal black in tail narrower; median dorsal 
stripe less suffused; median dorsal hairs of tail with much less black. 

Color. — Summer pelage: Upperparts between the raw r umber and 
Pro tit's brown of Ridgway; top of head slightly darker than back; 
lateral line prominent, intense black; forelegs and feet russet; under- 
parts lightly washed with fulvous; median dorsal portion of tail hazel, 
slightly mixed with black-tipped hairs; submarginal and subterminal 
black in tail rather limited; edging of tail ochraceous; under surface 
of tail paler than upper, the grayish roots of the hairs showing through. 
117// 1< i- pelagt : Similar to the corresponding pelage of S. hudsonicus, 
but considerably darker; median dorsal line more diffuse; tail darker 
and with greater admixture of black in central portion. 

Skull. — Similar to that of hudsonicus and its other subspecies; nasals 
longer and posteriorly more compressed than in S. Vancouver ensis; 
orbital arch with a sharp indentation between lachrymal and postorbital 
process. (See Plate V, fig. 2. 1 ) 

Measurements. — Average of two specimens from type localit} 7 : 
Total length 303; tail 120; hind foot 50. 

■Topotype No. 97460, U. S. Nat. Mus. Compare with fig. 1, .V. rancouvcrensis, No. 
71889, V. S. Nat. Mus., from Coldstream, Vancouver Island. 


Remarks. — The closest relationship of this red squirrel is evidently 
with hudsonicus of northern Alaska. 1 A single specimen from Ya- 
kutat Bay shows a decided tendency toward the northern form, and 
those from Cook Inlet are clearly referable to it. A more or less im- 
perfect specimen from Inverness, British Columbia, indicates a possi- 
ble intergradation with Sciurus h. streatori. There is ample material 
demonstrating by skulls as well as by color that it has no very close 
relationship to S. vancouveremis. My specimens of petulans taken 
early in June are in new summer pelage or in old winter pelage just 
previous to or in process of change. The latter doubtless does not 
fairly represent the winter pelage; but in making comparison with 
eastern specimens, 1 have chosen those in a similar condition. 

About Lynn Canal and on the southwest side of White Pass I 
found these red squirrels abundant. Several at Glacier had become 
quite tame, and came every day to the cabin of one of the railroad 
hands to be fed. They have all the vivacious energy, curiosity, and 
vocal accomplishments of their Eastern cousins, and fully maintain 
their reputation for rollicking good nature and fearlessness. 

Eutamias caniceps sp. nov. Gray-headed Chipmunk. 

Type from Lake Lebarge, Northwest Territory, Canada. No. 99200, IT. »S. Nat. 

Mus., Biological Survey Collection, 9 ad. Collected July 13, 1899, by W. H. 

Osgood. Original No. , 603. 

Characters. — Similar to E. borealis, but grayer, particularly the head, 
tail, and feet; postauricular spots more prominent; underparts pure 

Color. — /Summer or jpostbreedjing pelage: Sides bright ochraceous, 
extending from flanks forward and stopping immediately below ears, 
but interrupted at shoulders by the extension of gray from arm; five 
black stripes on back very distinct and, except outer ones, entirely 
unmixed with ochraceous; outer pair of light stripes pure white, 
prominent, not continuous with postauricular spots; inner light stripes 
bluish white mixed with ochraceous; top of head brownish gray; 
postauricular spots bluish white, connected with throat by a continuous 
light stripe running below ear; light stripes on sides of head promi- 
nent, almost pure white; dark stripes rufous mixed with blackish, 
narrower and darker than in E. horealis,' underparts pure white; feet 
yellowish white. Worn pelage: General effect of upperparts olive 
gray relieved by the black and white stripes of the back and faint 
traces of the fulvous, which has been worn away; feet grayish white; 
tail above black, grizzled and overlaid with white, below clay color 
submargined by black and margined by white. 

'The hudsonicus of northern Alaska is here considered the same as that from 
eastern Canada, but will doubtless prove separable when an abundance of material 
in all pelages is available. 


Skull. — Similar to that of /*'. boreaUs, but with a slightly fuller brain- 
case*and larger audita] bullae. 

Measurements. — Type (from dry skin): Total length 223; tail verte- 
bras 103; hind foot 32. 

Remarks. — The type' of /*.'. borealis from FortLiard, British Colum- 
bia, is missing, but specimens from Fort Simpson, which is not far 
from Fort Liard, and other points east of the Rocky Mountains, arc 
available for comparison. These are all much suffused with fulvous, 
and are very easily distinguished from those of the Upper Yukon. 
E. cardceps is characterized not only by gray head and cheeks, but by 
gray feet, gray edging to tail, and pure white underparts. 

This species is found from the headwaters of the Yukon about Lake 
Lindeman to the vicinity of Fort Selkirk, where it was last seen Irv 
our party. I found it most common in the dry and open rocky 
country about Lake Bennett and Lake Le barge, and a few were taken 
in the thickets of Lepa/rgyrcm about Lake Marsh and Fifty-Mile River. 
It is not abundant anywhere in the region, but is remarkably tame 
and unsuspicious. I seldom saw more than two or three in a half 
day's tramp, but these would often frisk about within a few feet of 
me as if entirely oblivious of 1113" presence. 

Spermophilus empetra plesius subsp. nov. Bennett Ground Squirrel. 

Thfpe from Bennett City, head of Lake Bennett, Britisb Columbia. No. 98931, U. S. 
Nat. Mus., Biological Survey Collection, 9 ad. Collected June 19, 1899, by 
W. H. Osgood. Original No., 465. 

Characters. — Similar to JS. empt tra and 8. huMacensis, but smaller; 
general color less fulvous; under side of tail always clear bright cinna- 
mon rufous; molar teeth relatively much larger than in hadiacensis; 
skull small and light and otherwise slightly peculiar. 

Color. — Poxth 'ceding p>elage: Above, mottled as in S. empetra, but 
general colorless fulvous; upperparts, mixed black, white and yellow- 
ish gray extending forward to top of head, becoming narrower and 
slightly grayer between shoulders; top of head chestnut mixed with 
black; nose and forehead clear hazel; under side of bod}' cinnamon 
rufous paling to nearly white around chin and extending to sides of 
body, neck and cheeks, and both sides of legs; under side of tail some- 
what deeper cinnamon rufous margined by }'ellowish white; subterminal 
black in tail less extensive than in empetra and hidiacensis; median 
part of upper side of tail grizzled black and yellowish, narrow sub- 
margin and subterminal zone black, the whole edged and overlaid with 
yellowish white. The hairs of the back in 8. plesius are of two kinds, 
some being of several colors arranged in zones and some pure black 
for their entire length. The former, which are most abundant, are 
dark sooty plumbeous at the base followed by a zone of light gray, 

1 See Allen, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., N. Y., Ill, 109, 1890. 


then one of black, then yellowish white, and finally a black tip. In 
jS. empetra, the arrangement is practically the same, but the upper 
part of the light gray zone blends into fulvous. As this is the widest 
zone, it gives a fulvous suffusion to the entire upperparts of the ani- 
mal. In plesius the black submargin of the tail never shows through 
on the under side. Worn, spring pelage: Upperparts yellowish gray; 
top of head, forehead, and nose cinnamon rufous; thighs with faint 
suggestions of rufous; shoulders and neck hoary; sides and under- 
parts grayish white washed with yellowish and flecked with ochrace- 
ous; feet pale buffy ochraceous; tail paler than in postbreeding pelage. 

Skull. — Similar to that of /S r . empetra from Unalaska, but smaller 
and lighter; nasals shorter and wider in proportion to their length; 
postpalatal notch extending farther forward, being almost on a 
plane with the last molar; molar teeth decidedly larger than those of 

Measurement*. — Type (from dry skin): Total length 315; tail verte- 
brae 93; hind foot 50. Skull of type: Basal length 45; zygomatic 
breadth 35; postorbital constriction 13; length of nasals 18; least 
width of nasals 6; alveolar length of molar series 13. 

Remarhs. — The material representing Spermopkilus empetra is still 
very scanty and imperfect. Specimens from the Arctic coast are few 
in number and poor in quality, while from Hudson Bay one flat skin, 
unaccompanied by a skull, is all I am able to find. I have considered 
this (No. 13932, U.S.N.M.) to be typical of empetra and have used 
it in making skin comparisons. Since it agrees fairly well with speci- 
mens of the ground squirrel which has been introduced on Unalaska, I 
have used the skulls of these for skull comparisons. Specimens from 
Bristol Bay and the Alaska peninsula are apparently intermediate 
between empetra and plesius. S. hadiacensis is apparently confined to 
Kadiak Island, as specimens from the mainland immediately opposite 
the island are cranially and dentally distinct. The southern members 
of the group, columbianus and erythroglutwus, also need not be con- 
sidered, as they are very different from empetra and plesius. 

$. plesius was first met with on the south side of White Pass near 
Glacier, where a small colony was found on a steep rocky slope above 
the canyon. They were active here in early June while patches of 
snow still lay on the ground. On the summit of White Pass another 
small colony was found, and at Lake Bennett they were very abundant. 
Here their burrows are to be found wherever the conformation of the 
rocks affords lodgment of sufficient soil. From Bennett on to Fort 
Selkirk they are exceedingly abundant. We saw them daily about all 
the lakes, and as we floated down Fift}^-Mile and Thirty -Mile rivers, 
we often saw them bobbing in and out of their burrows or scurrying 
along their little trails which score the banks. 

From sunrise till late in the afternoon, their sharp clicking cries 


rang out across the water, so that, if not to be seen, they at least 
reminded us of their presence nearly all the time. When alarmed, 
they .stand erect on their haunches near their burrows and violently 
utter their .sharp, high-pitched clickety ctick as long as the exciting 
cause is in .sight, always emphasizing each cry by vigorously slapping 
their short tails against the ground behind them. As a rule they were 
quite wary, and it was not possible to get within gunshot without some 
concealment and careful stalking. The limit of the range of the spe- 
cies along the river is near Fort Selkirk. The last specimen secured 
was caught near Rink Rapids, but I learned that quite a colony of 
ground squirrels exists on the west bank of the river just below Fort 

Spermophihis osgoodi Merriam. Fort Yukon Ground Squirrel. 
Spermophilus osgoodi Merriam, Proc. Wash. Acad. Sri., II, is, March 14, 1900. 

From Fort Selkirk, near the limit of Spennophihis plesius in the inte- 
rior, nearly to Circle, we saw no signs of ground squirrels of any kind. 
Just before reaching Circle, however, we began to sec unmistakable 
signs of them and were soon attracted to a small colony by their click- 
ing calls which reached our ears as we floated down in midstream. 
The call is executed in about the same time as that of S. plesnts, but 
its pitch is much lower and its effect on the ear is utterly different. 
It suggests the click of castanets. On going ashore we found their 
burrows and connecting paths scattered over quite an area on the hill- 
side. The colony occupied the open hillside and a few ledges of loose 
rock, and even extended down into a thicket of alder and willow at 
the foot of the hill. The animals were very shy and became much 
excited at our approach. Their long tails were very noticeable in 
marked contrast to the short ones of 8. plesms, which we had been 
accustomed to seeing. Fifteen specimens were secured. 1 At this 
time (Aug. 14) they were all very fat and in splendid postbreeding 
pelage; the entire underparts were rich ferruginous without a trace of 
any other color; the back was very dark, and the long tail was full 
and bushy. One specimen was pure glossy black with faint shadowy 
indications of vermiculation on the back. Among the specimens in 
the National Museum from Fort Yukon are several in this melanistic 
condition, showing that it is not uncommon. The range of this spe- 
cies on the Yukon begins about 20 miles above Circle and extends at 
least to Fort Y T ukon and probably to the mouth of the Tanana. 

Arctomys caligatus Eschscholtz. Hoary Marmot. 

Six specimens of the hoary marmot were secured in the White Pass 
region and about Lake Bennett, where it w f as common. It is confiued 

1 This valuable series was unfortunately destroyed. 


to rocky, mountainous parts of the Hudsonian zone, and consequently 
we did not meet with it during the latter part of our trip, and only 
heard of it through reports from the mountains at the headwaters of 
the White and Tanana rivers. As elsewhere, it is familiarly known 
as the 'whistler,' although occasionally rather inappropriately called 
'ground hog.' Its long drawn whistle is peculiarly mournful, par- 
ticularly when it breaks the deathly silence of some rocky canyon. It 
loves to stretch at full length on top of a large rock and bask in the 
sun. I frequently found it quietty enjoying itself in this manner. 

Castor canadensis Kuhl. American Beaver. 

It hardly seems possible that half a million or more beaver skins 
have been secured in the Territory of Alaska. The animal is now 
almost as rare there as it is in the United States, the inevitable result 
of continued pursuit by both whites and natives, which has so many 
parallels that it is useless to emphasize it here. At Fort Selkirk I 
saw several beaver skins taken on a small tributary of Stewart River, 
and at St. Michael I found a very few in the warehouses of the trad- 
ing companies. Beyond this I saw or heard nothing of them. 

Mus decumanus Pallas. Norway Rat. 

Large rats are exceedingly abundant at St. Michael. Their intro- 
duction must have been effected very recently, as they were unknown 
there at the time of Nelson's work. Unalaska has long been their 
northern limit on the Pacific coast. They find shelter about the 
wharves and lumber piles at St. Michael and also infest the buildings, 
particularly food warehouses. Their distribution will undoubtedly 
soon be extended all along the Yukon by means of the many steamers 
now plying between St. Michael and Dawson. 

Peromyscus oreas Bangs. Bangs White-footed Mouse. 
Peromyscus oreas Bangs, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., XII, 84, March 24, 1898. 

Long-tailed mice were taken at Skagway, Glacier, Summit, Bennett, 
Caribou Crossing, Fifty-Mile River, and Rink Rapids. In general 
they seemed to be more woodland loving than the short-tailed species, 
though at Bennett a number were taken among bare rocks at the very 
water's edge. I first noticed them here while walking along the shore 
at night. They were darting in and out among the rocks, chasing 
each other as if pla}'ing* a game of tag, and often four or five were in 
sight at once. P. oreas from the type locality is somewhat intermedi- 
ate between my specimens and those which come from the coast of 
Puget Sound and southern British Columbia. Northern specimens 
are slightly larger, paler, and less ruddy brown than typical oreas. 
They are very similar in color to canadensis and increase the prob- 


ability that the latter has a transcontinental range. Their skulls are 
larger and have fuller braincases than those of either oreas or cana- 

Peromyscus maniculatus arcticus (Mearns). Arctic White-footed Mouse. 
Hesperomys /< ucopus arcticus Mearns, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat, Hist., N. Y., II, 285, Feb., 

A short-tailed white-footed mouse was found to be very common 
from Lake Marsh to Lake Lebarge. Thirt} T specimens were secured, 
most of them about the crevices of low ledges of rock along the lake 
shores. The name arcticus is only tentatively used for these speci- 
mens, as its applicability can not be positively known until a series of 
Labrador specimens is obtained. My specimens do not differ from 
topotvpes of arcticus, and these in turn, as stated by Bangs, 1 do not 
differ in color and size from typical maniculatus. The description of 
the skull of the Great Whale River specimen examined by Bangs, how- 
ever, does not agree well with the characters of the skulls of arcticus, 
so it seems advisable to recognize arcticus as a subspecies of manicu- 
latus. It is probable that more material will amply justify this treat- 
ment of the western form. 

Neotoma saxamans sp. nov. Northern Bushy -tailed Rat. 

Type from Bennett City, head of Lake Bennett, British Columbia. No. 98923, U. S. 
Nat. Mus., Biological Survey Collection, $ ad. Collected June 19, 1899, by 
W. H. Osgood. Original No., 462. (See Plate V, fig. 4.) 

Characters. — Similar to Neotoma cinerea drummondi, but somewhat 
darker; underparts pure white; skull strongly characterized. 

Color. — (Type:) Above, grayish fawn mixed with black, becoming 
brighter on sides, where the quantity of black is much diminished; 
underparts and feet pure white; eyelids intense black with a limited 
sooty area about them; nose and anterior cheeks ashy; tail slaty above, 
white below. 

Skull. — Similar to that of N drummondi (Plate V, fig. 3 s ) but with 
interorbital space narrower; nasals narrower and more attenuate pos- 
teriorly; maxillary arm of zygoma lighter; sphenopalatine vacuities 
open; ventral surface of occipital with a high trenchant median ridge; 
front of incisors very pale. 

Measurements. — Type (from dry skin): Total length 452; tail verte- 
brae 192; hind foot 46. Skull of type: Basal length 52; zygomatic 
breadth 29; interorbital width 5; length of nasals 23. 

Remarks. — Neotoma saxamans differs from N. cinerea? N. occiden- 

1 Am. Naturalist, XXXII, 496, July, 1898. 

2 Neotoma c. Columbiana Elliot does not differ cranially from N. tinerca, and there- 
fore need not be considered in this connection. 
3 No. 75907, U. S. Nat. Mus., from Jasper House, Alberta. 
4494— No. 19 3 


iaHs, and N. drunnnondi chiefly in its long attenuate nasals, open 

sphenopalatine vacuities, and pale incisors. The only specimens 

secured were caught in a slide of large granite bowlders at the head of 

Lake Bennett. It was ascertained to occur, however, from White 

Pass to the Semenow Hills. In the cliffs above Glacier on the coast 

side of White Pass I found signs of JVeotoma, and once one peeped 

out of a crevice at me while I was busily engaged stalking a hoary 

marmot. It also occurs sparingly in the cliffs about Lake Lebarge 

and in the Semenow Hills, where the last evidences of its presence 

were seen. This distribution makes it the northernmost species of 

the genus. 

One night about 10.30, as I was returning to camp at Bennett, I saw 

one of these rats frisking about in the rocks. It was still quite light, 
and I immediately stopped and stood motionless while he darted in and 
out of the rocks. His movements were utterly noiseless and so quick 
that my eye could scarcely follow them. For some time his little 
whiskered nose appeared and disappeared at various openings in the 
rocks about ten feet away. Each time he would look steadily at me 
for a moment or two and then silently vanish. Gradually his curiosity 
overcame his caution, and in decreasing circles he came nearer and 
nearer until he bobbed out right before me and then cautiously 
approached until he could sniff at the toe of my shoe. A slight grat- 
ing of my gun barrel against a rock caused him to vanish like a flash, 
and this time he did not reappear. 

Evotomys dawsoni Merriam. Dawson Red-backed Mouse. 

Red-backed mice are by far the most abundant mammals in the 
Yukon region. Although but one specimen was taken at Bennett, 
and none between there and Fifty -Mile River, in spite of considerable 
trapping, aside from this they were found all along our route from 
Skagway to Fort Yukon. The following are the most important 
localities at which specimens were secured: Skagway, Glacier, Ben- 
nett, White Horse Rapids, Lake Lebarge, Rink Rapids, Fort Selkirk, 
Dawson, Char-lie Creek, and Circle. From a study of this series, 
which numbers over 100 specimens, it appears that all belong to one 
species, E. dawsoni. Its range probably reaches northward almost if 
not quite to the limit of trees. 

Specimens were trapped in all sorts of localities; along cold streams, 
under logs, in heavy moss, in Microtus runways, and among rocks. 
They abound on the large islands, where they were generally caught 
in dry, brush}^ places, in the dead leaves which cover the ground. 
We occasionally saw them during the day, and often heard them rust- 
ling the dead leaves on the ground about us as we lay in our blankets 
at night. They are the vermin of the miner's larder, and are always 
to be found about log cabins. 

North American Fauna. No. 19. 

Plate V. 

Skulls of Sciurus and Neotoma. (x m.) 

1. Sciurus vancouverensis. 

2. Sciurus hudsonicus petulans. 

3. Neotoma cinerea drummondi. 

4. Neotoma saxamans. 


Evotomys dawsoni alascensis (Miller). Tundra Rod-backed Mouse. 
Eootomys alascenm Miller, Proc. A.cad. Nat. Sci. Phila., L898, 364-367. 

The fflvotom/ys found at St. Michael has heretofore been compared 
only with the Asiatic E. rut /I us. Its closest relationship is really with 
K dawsoni, with which its range is doubtless continuous. On com- 
paring the series secured at St. Michael with those in the same condi- 
tion of pelage from Rink Rapids, 1 Northwest Territory, I am unable 
to tind even the slightest difference in color or size. The skull of 
alascensis is slightly characterized by small, narrow molar series, and 
by nasals which have their posterior end truncate. The palate and 
audital bullae are not peculiar. The tail is often thick and bristly in 
winter pelage and in immature specimens of both dawsoni and alascen- 
sis. From this it appears that alascensis may be only a slightly 
marked subspecies. 

The favorite habitat of these mice about St. Michael is in the heaps 
of broken lava scattered about over the tundra. They are very rarely 
taken in the Microtus runways. They are common in the warehouses, 
which they seem to enter more readily than other mice of the tundra. 

Microtus mordax (Mcrriam). Long-tailed Vole. 

Specimens of this vole were taken at Skagway, Glacier, Bennett, 
Lake Marsh, Lake Lebarge, Rink Rapids, and near Charlie Village. 
Specimens from near the coast are almost exactly like those of the inte- 
rior and all are quite typical of the species. They were found in various 
environments, but the general habitat of the species was dry places 
rather than moist. At Glacier and Bennett they were secured on dry, 
rocky hillsides; at Lake Marsh two specimens were taken in the crev- 
ises of some granite rocks; at Lake Lebarge they were taken in the 
kitchen of a log cabin; at Rink Rapids, in an open, sandy place; and 
near Charlie Village, on the side of a cut bank, where they had made 
burrows and runways among the exposed roots of trees. Charlie 
Village is by far the northernmost locality from which the species has 
been recorded. 

Microtus drummondi (Aud. and Bach.). Drummond Vole. 

This is the most common meadow vole of the Yukon region. At 
Caribou Crossing and Lake Marsh its runways form interminable 
labyrinths in the level, open stretches of sedge at the margin of the 
water. It occurs in nearly all moist, grassy places from Caribou 
Crossing to Fort Yukon. From there it undoubtedly ranges farther 
on, at least to Nulato, where Dali took several specimens. It is most 
active during the day, as I easily learned by visiting traps night and 

1 No good series of specimens is available from any point nearer Finlayson River, 
the type locality of E. dawsoni, than Rink Rapids. This series is therefore used to 
represent the species. 


morning. Near Fort Yukon I found its runways on recently depos- 
ited silt sparsely grown up to Equisetum. Its burrows in this soft 
material were very numerous, and at the entrance to each a little heap 
of earth in small globular lumps, as if carried in the mouth, was 
always to be seen. 

Microtus xanthognathus (Leach). Yellow-cheeked Vole. 

This tine species was met with only once. A small colony was found 
on a little stream near Charlie Village, occupying an old log ]am, 
part of which had become embedded in a matrix of sand and mud and 
overgrown with weeds. Burrows perforated this structure in numer- 
ous places, and well-beaten, open runways connected various openings 
about the protruding logs. The little animals were quite active during 
the daytime, and as I walked over the logs I occasionally saw one flash 
from one opening under a log to another and heard sharp little squeaks 
sounding all about beneath me. A liberal number of traps placed 
about yielded nine specimens, chiefly immature. The colony was 
apparently confined to the log jam, as traps set in suitable places but 
a few yards away secured only M. drummondi. Four specimens of 
this vole collected by Robert Kennicott are in the National Museum, 
one from the mouth of the Porcupine and three from the Yukon, 200 
miles southwest of that point. 

Microtus operarius (Nelson). Nelson Vole. 

This vole was taken on a small stream about 40 miles above Circle, 
and a few more were secured between that point and Fort Yukon. It 
doubtless ranges from there to the coast. Forty-nine specimens were 
taken at St. Michael. These represent all stages of growth and several 
phases of color and seem to offer pretty conclusive proof that but one 
species of Microtus occurs at St. Michael. It was found in all moist 
parts of the tundra, being particularly numerous along the banks of 
the small ponds in the tall grass and rank, weedy growths. 

Fiber spatulatus 1 sp. nov. Northwest Muskrat. 

Type from Lake Marsh, Northwest Territory, Canada. No. 98567, U. S. Nat. Mus., 
Biological Survey Collection, $ yg. ad. Collected July 3, 1899, by W. H. 
Osgood. Original No., 552. (See Plate VI, fig. 4.) 

Characters. — Similar in general to Fiber zibetliicus; size small; color 
rather dark; skull small; molar teeth very small; nasals short and 
much expanded anteriorly. 

Color. — Similar to Fiber zibetliicus, but apparently less suffused 
with fulvous. 

Skull. — Similar to that of Fiber zibetliicus (Plate VI, fig. 3 2 ), but 
smaller; jugals more slender, and but slightty produced dorsally ; audital 
bullae smaller; molar teeth decidedl} 7 smaller; nasals much shortened and 

1 Spatulatus, spatulate, in allusion to the shape of the nasals. 
2 No. 76259, U. S. Nat. Mus., from Wilmington, Mass. 


widely expanded anteriorly, rapidly becoming compressed posteriorly; 
angular process of mandible short, blunt, and upturned; condyle 
narrow and somewhat rounded. 

Measurements. — Type (from dry skin): Total length 495; tail verte- 
brae 170; hind foot 73. Skull of type: Basal length 57; zygomatic 
breadth 38; length of nasals 21; alveolar length of molar series 14. 

Remarks. — Specimens of this species from Ugashik, Fort Kenai, 
Nushagak, and Nulato, in Alaska, have been examined. Besides 
these, 1 tind two specimens from Alberta which seem to be referable 
to it, one from South Edmonton and one from Henry House. These 
all agree in having very small molar teeth and short, spatulate nasals, 
characters which are amply sufficient to distinguish the species from 
all other forms in the genus. The specimens secured by Nelson at 
St. Michael can not now be found, but they doubtless show the same 
characters. Fiber osoyoosensis has Larger teeth and a much longer 
rostrum than spatulatus, so need not be further compared with it. 
From these facts it appears that Fiber spafodatus is the form occupying 
all of northwest America, and is derived from a form east of the 
Rocky Mountains rather than from a western one. 

Muskrats occur sparingly all along the Yukon, where the} r find par- 
ticularly favorable environment about the many small swamp-invested 
ponds a short distance from the river banks. At St. Michael a few 
are still found about the open ponds on the tundra. 

Synaptomys dalli Merriam. Dall Lemming Mouse. 

Lemming mice were taken at the foot of Lake Lebarge, at Rink 
Rapids, and near the mouth of the Chandindu River. At Lake 
Lebarge they were found in the long grass at the edge of a small pond; 
at other localities in cold, boggy places near small streams. The 
external characters of S. dalli have been unknown up to the present 
time, but, as was to be expected, they are in accordance with the gen- 
eral type so uniform throughout this genus. The color of the upper- 
parts is chiefly raw umber mixed with black; the lower parts are uni- 
form bluish white, and the feet and tail are dusky. The ears are of 
medium size and partially hidden by long hairs growing from the 
anterior base; a conspicuous bluish- white side gland is present in the 
males. The skull of the type of dalli is not fully mature and does 
not agree in all particulars with my specimens from the Upper Yukon. 
In these the skull is somewhat larger and heavier and the nasals are a 
trifle longer and more noticeably constricted posterior^. 

Lemmus yukonensis Merriam. Yukon Lemming. 

Lemmus yukonensis Merriam, Proc. Wash. Acad. Sci., II, 27, March 14, 1900. 

This lemming was found at only two localities — Rink Rapids, where 
five specimens were secured, and Charlie Creek, where five more were 


taken. Considerable careful trapping was done at various points 
between these two places, but no other specimens were secured. At 
Rink Rapids they were caught about old logs and among dry leaves in 
places usually frequented by red-backed mice. At Charlie Creek one 
was caught in a Microtus runway and several were secured on the side 
of a cut bank. On one occasion one was seen running about under a 
brush heap in midday. 

Lemmus alascensis Merriam. Alaska Lemming. 

Lemmus alascensis Merriam, Proc. Wash. Acad. Sci., II, 26-27, March 14,1900. 

All efforts to secure this species at St. Michael proved fruitless. 
I kept large numbers of traps out for more than two weeks and set 
them in all conceivable locations about the tundra, but failed to catch 
any lemmings. 

Dicrostonyx nelsoni Merriam. Nelson Pied Lemming. 

Dicroslonyx nelsoni Merriam, Proc. Wash. Acad. Sci., II, 25-26, March 14, 1900. 
Dicrostonyx hudsonius alascensis Stone, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., March 24, 1900, 

No specimens of this species were taken. Nelson says of it: 

Specimens were brought me by the fur traders from above Fort Yukon and from 
Nulato, Anvik, and Kotlik, along the course of the Yukon, and also from the Kaviak 
Peninsula and about Kotzebue Sound. A few were taken near St. Michael, but 
they were not numerous there. They are more plentiful about Bering Straits than 
any other district visited by me, if the number of their skins among the native 
children can be taken as a guide. 

Zapus hudsonius alascensis Merriam. Alaska Jumping Mouse. 

Three typical specimens of this jumping mouse were taken in a 
sedgy swamp near the foot of Lake Lebarge. Similar swamps exist 
near the Yukon, at least as far as Fort Yukon, but I was unable to do 
any trapping in them. No specimens were taken elsewhere. 

Erethizon epixanthus myops Merriam. Alaska Porcupine. 
Erethizon epixanthus myops Merriam, Proc. Wash. Acad. Sci., II, 27-28, March 14, 1900. 
Porcupines are quite common in all the forest region of Alaska. 
I noticed signs of them at man} 7 places along the Yukon. They were 
abundant about Glacier, in the White Pass region, and 1 shot one there 
one evening as it swayed back and forth in the tap of a slender alder. 
It was eating the leaf buds which were just bursting. 

Ochotona collaris (Nelson). Alaska Pika. 

Two specimens of an ashy gray Ochotona were taken, one at the 
summit of White Pass, another at the head of Lake Bennett. The 
species was apparently quite rare at these localities and it was only 
with considerable difficulty that these individuals were secured. Both 
are very pale, ashy gray, with pure white underparts, no traces of 


fulvous, and very indistinct collars. They are in the early spring or 
left-over winter pelage, and agree quite well with specimens in the 
same pelage collected in the Chigmit Mountains, near Bristol Bay, by 
C. L. McKay. The type and topotypes of 0. collaris are in the 
summer or post-breeding pelage and present quite a different 

The species apparently occurs in the high mountains throughout 
Alaska. It was reported to me from the MacMillan Mountains, the 
Upper Stewart River, the Upper White, and the Upper Tanana. 
Fragments of a skull were found in an owd pellet picked up by Dr. 
Bishop near Windy Arm, Lake Tagish. The present record from 
White Pass is the most southern one. There is suitable country for 
it farther south, and it will be interesting to trace its range in this 

Lepus saliens sp. nov. 

Type from Caribou Crossing, between Lake Bennett and Lake Tagish, Northwest 
Territory. Canada. No. 98956, U. S. Nat. Mus., Biological Survey Collection, $ 
ad. Collected June 26, 1899, by W. II. Osgood. Original No., 504. 

Characters. — Similar to Lepus bairdi, but more yellowish and less 
ruddy; dorsal hairs with plumbeous roots; feet nearly white in sum- 
mer; similar to L. cohmibiensisj but with greater amount of black in 
dorsal region; feet much lighter; skull similar in general to that of 
Lepus a. da Hi/ audital bulla; very large. 

Colo?\ — Type in worn spring pelage: Upperparts mixed black and 
yellowish buff, w r ith patches of plumbeous under -fur exposed in places; 
black hairs predominating on rump and middle of back, forming an 
ill-defined dorsal stripe; outer edge of thighs, outer side of forelegs 
and pectoral band buff; ears and head, except sides of nose, buff with 
black hairs sprinkled through; sides of nose gray; ears margined with 
white; hairs of fore and hind feet plumbeous at base, rufous in cen- 
tral part, and broadly white at tips; general appearance of feet white, 
lightly mixed with rufous; underparts, except pectoral band, white. 

Skull. — Similar to that of dalli but somewhat larger; teeth heavier; 
nasals long, heavy, and very broad anteriorly; audital bulla? very 
large; palate short; malars rather wide, deeply channeled anteriorly; 
postorbital and antorbital processes of frontais well developed. 

Measurements. — Type (measured from dry skin): Total length 395; 
hind foot 134; ear from crown 74. Skull of type: Occipitonasal 
•length 77; greatest zygomatic breadth 38; length of nasals 33; great- 
est width of nasals 17; alveolar length of molar series 15. 

Remarks. — The exact relation in which this species stands to ameri- 
canus, bairdi, and columbiensis is difficult to determine at present. Its 
light feet point to relationship with bairdi, while its dark under color 

1 Rhoads, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1895, 242-243. 


and general buffy appearance are more like columhiensk. Its skull 
is quite distinctive, the large audital bulla? and broad nasals being- 
unequaled in the group. It seems probable that it i.s a northern 
form of hairdi not related to colwmfa'ensis, which is nearer to wctshmg- 
tmii. There are no specimens available to show whether or not it has 
any connection with dalli, which is the form found on the Lower 
Yukon. But two specimens were secured — the type, which I shot in a 
Lepargyrcea thicket at Caribou Crossing, and one very young female 
which Dr. Bishop took in a willow bog near Bennett City. It seems 
to have been a decidedly 'off year' for rabbits, for these two were the 
only ones we saw on our entire trip, though numerous signs of their 
former abundance were seen daily. 

Lepus americanus dalli Merriam. Dall Varying Hare. 
Lepus americanus dalli Merriain, Proc. Wash. Acad. Sci., II, 29-30, March 14, 1900. 
This rabbit is doubtless abundant at certain times all along the 
Lower Yukon, but we heard very little of it. It is subject to epidem- 
ics and frequently becomes locally extinct, which probably accounts 
for its scarcity last year. 

Lepus othus Merriam. Alaska Arctic Hare. 

Lepus othus Merriam, Proc. Wash. Acad. Sci., II, 28, March 14, 1900. 

Signs of Arctic hares were occasionally noticed about St. Michael, 
but we did not see any of the animals. The Eskimos were hunting 
continually, and brought numbers of ducks and geese to the village to 
sell, but they brought no rabbits during our stay. 

Lynx canadensis mollipilosus Stone. Arctic Lynx. 

Lynx canadensis mollipilosus Stone, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., March 24, 1900, 48-49. 

The Canada lynx is not as common in the interior of Alaska as might 
be expected. I saw no signs of it and could obtain only very scanty 
information as to its occurrence. The police sergeant in charge of the 
station at the foot of Lake Lebarge told me that the tracks of but 
one had been seen in that vicinity during the previous winter. Lynx- 
skin robes are in common use in the country, but the majority of them 
are imported. This I learned from a trader at Circle, who had several 
for sale that came from eastern and southern Canada. 

Lynx skulls from the following localities are in the National 
Museum: Tanana River, Russian Mission, Nulato, Andraefski, and 
mountains near Unalakleet. 

Canis occidentalis Richardson. Wolf. 

The country along the Yukon is not well suited for wolves, and they 
are seldom seen there. A prospector showed me the skin of a large 
gray one from the upper waters of the MacMillan river — the only 
one I saw on the trip. 


Vulpes fulvus (Desmarest) \ Red Fox. 

Occasional reports of foxes were received all along- our route, but no 
specimens were secured. Owing- to their natural sagacity, foxes are 
doubtless able to hold their own against trappers better than most other 
fur-bearing animals. Their skins are quite common among traders 
and natives. 

Vulpes hallensis Merriam. Hall Island Fox. 

Vulpes hallensis Merriam, Proc. Wash. Acad. Sci., II, 15-16, March 14, 1900. 

White fox skins are common among the natives and traders at St. 
Michael, and could be bought at from $1 to $4 each, according to 
quality. During our stay there one of the animals was seen on the 
island, which indicates that they are still far from extermination. 

Ursus americanus Pallas. Black Bear. 

Black and brown bears are common all along the Yukon. We found 
them common on the upper river, and Nelson records them as far down 
as Anvik. We saw tracks very frequently, but owing to the thick 
forest and underbrush, and the fact that we made no special hunts for 
them, the animals themselves were rarely observed. A young adult 
female in glossy black pelage was killed at Glacier by A. G. Maddren, 
and several others were seen during our stay there. I was told at 
Lake Lebarge and at White Horse Rapids that brown bears were seen 
very frequently. At Fort Selkirk I saw skins brought from the Pelly 
River. Near Charlie Village I saw the skin of a large brown bear 
that had been killed there shortly before our arrival. One afternoon 
while sitting in the boat preparing specimens, about 20 miles above 
Circle, I saw a good-sized black bear walking deliberately across an 
open space on a hillside a short distance away. We gave chase, but 
did not see it again. At the mouth of the Tatondu River I saw 
numerous tracks, and on the border of a stagnant pool found evidences 
that bruin had been enjoying a mud bath. Moss uprooted by bears in 
digging for roots was noticed at several places. 

Ursus horribilis alascensis Merriam. Alaska Grizzly Bear. 

Very little accurate information is obtainable in regard to the grizzly 
in the Yukon region. It doubtless occurs sparingly all along the river, 
but miners and prospectors report any large bear as a grizzly, and 
without doubt often mistake the brown bear for it. There are a num- 
ber of its skulls from Norton Sound in the Biological Survey collection. 

Lutra canadensis (Schreber). American Otter. 

The fate of the otter in Alaska is much the same as that of the bea- 
ver. There are doubtless a few on some of the smaller streams of the 
interior and about the Yukon delta, but they are now quite rare in 
comparison w T ith their former abundance. 


Lutreola vison ingens subsp. nov. Alaska Mink. 

Type (skull) from Fort Yukon, Alaska. No. 6530, U. S. Nat. Mus., $ ad., old. 
Collected by Robert Kennicott. (See Plate VI, fig. 2.) 

Characters. — Size largest of North American mink; similar to L. v. 
energumenos, but lighter in color and very much larger; skull and teeth 
very large and heavy. 

Color. — Similar in general to Lutreola v. ensrgumenos, but paler. 

Skull.- — Very large, angular, and ridged; rostrum very wide; brain- 
case relatively shallow and very wide; zygomata heavy; audital bulla? 
large and relatively wide; dentition heavy. (Compare with skull of 
Lutreola v. energumenos, Plate VI, tig. I. 1 ) 

Measurements. — No. 13880, U. S. National Museum, St. Michael, 
Alaska (from dry skin): Total length 720; tail vertebra? 180; hind 
foot 75. Skull of type: Occipitonasal length 69; zygomatic breadth 47; 
mastoid breadth 41; breadth across postorbital processes 23; length 
of audital bulla 17. Average of five adults: Occipitonasal length 
44.5; mastoid breadth 39.5; breadth across postorbital processes 21; 
length of audital bulla 17.5. 

Remarks. — The large size of the Alaska mink has been noted by 
various authors, 2 but each has dismissed the subject by concluding 
that it is the natural result of the animal's northern range, and the 
form has remained unnamed, while less marked forms from other local- 
ities have been recognized. The largest mink previously described 
is L. v. energumenos, which is very much smaller than ingens and also 
averages much darker. 

The minks of the Yukon region are caught mostly on the tributary 
streams, and, as stated by Nelson, are very abundant in the area 
between the deltas of the Yukon and the Kuskokwim. Along the 
Yukon itself our party did not see any, and very few signs of them 
were observed. Their skins were seldom seen among the Indians and 
Eskimos. They were reported, however, from the Porcupine, Koyu- 
kuk, Tauana, and various other streams tributary to the Yukon, and 
without doubt occur in suitable places all over Alaska. 

Putorius arcticus Merriam. Tundra Weasel. 

Putorius arcticus Merriam, N. Am. Fauna No. 11, 15, June, 1896. 
Putorius cicognani richardsoni Merriam, /. c, 11-12 (part). 

Three immature specimens of this weasel were taken at St. Michael. 
They were caught in traps baited with sandpipers and set among the 
lava rocks along the shore. Several specimens which were also secured 
at St. Michael by Nelson and Turner are in the National Museum. 
Besides these I find specimens from Nulato, Fort Yukon, and Fort 
Reliance, which gives the species a more extensive range in the interior 
than it has been supposed to have. Most of these specimens are 

1 No. 5537, Bangs collection, from Sumas, B. C. 

2 See Allen, Bull. U. S. Geol. and Geog. Survey Terr., II, 327-328, 1876. 

North American Fauna, No. 19. 

Plate VI. 

Skulls of Lutreola and Fiber. (Natural size.) 

1. Lutreola vison energumcno& 

2. Lutreola vison ingens. 

?,. Fiber zibethicus. 
i. Fiber spatulatux. 


imperfect, but enough skulls are now at hand to show conclusively that 
all the Yukon specimens heretofore identified as richardsoni arc really 
practically identical with P. arciicus from Point Barrow. 

Putorius cicognani alascensis (Merriam). Juneau Weasel. 

A single immature specimen taken 20 miles below Fort Selkirk is 
referred to this form. Its skull is rather large and indicates a possible 
intergradation with /'. arcticus; otherwise it agrees with alascensis. 

Putorius rixosus eskimo Stone. Alaska Least Weasel. 

Putorius rixosus eskimo Stone, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., March 24, L900, 44-45. 

No specimens of this rare weasel were obtained. There are three 
imperfect specimens in the National Museum, two from St. Michael 
and one from Fort Reliance. Besides these the only ones recorded 
are the type and four topotypes from Point Barrow, Alaska, and the 
specimen mentioned by Stone (loc. cit.) from Bethel, Kuskokwim 
River, Alaska. 

Mustela americana actuosa subsp. nov. Alaska Marten. 
Typt (skull) from Fort Yukon, Alaska. No. 6043, U. S. Nat. Mus., $ ad., old. 
Collected by Robert Kennicott. (See Plate VII, fig. 2. ) 

( ( hcwacters. — Similar to M. orumalis, but larger; cranial and dental 
characters distinctive. 

Color.— (Topotype, No. 6116, U.S.N.M., $ ad.): Posterior half of 
upperparts pale ochraceous buff, shoulders and anterior part of upper- 
parts gradually becoming grayish; entire upperparts, except head, 
overlaid with coarse brown hairs; head, including cheeks and throat, 
pale grayish-white lightly mixed with brown, especially on nose and 
chin; inside and edges of ears whitish, outside and bases of ears 
brown; underparts similar to upperparts, but darker and more brown- 
ish on chest; an irregular patch of creamy buff mixed with white on 
chest; legs and feet dark brown, front of legs with mixture of gray 
hairs; tail brown, somewhat darker at tip, and with a slight mixture 
of gray hairs. 

Skull. — Similar to that of M. brtmaMs (Plate VII, fig. I 1 ), but some- 
what larger; relatively longer and narrower; interorbital space slightly 
narrower; audital bulhv very much larger and longer; dentition rela- 
tively much weaker; last upper molar decidedly smaller. 

Mt asurements. — Average of four adult male topotypes measured in 
the flesh by the collector: Total length 26.22 inches (665 mm.); tail 
vertebrae 8.08 inches (223 mm.); hind foot 4.36 inches (109 mm.). 
Skull of type: Occipitonasal length 85; greatest zygomatic breadth 
55; breadth across postorbital processes 21; palatal length H; length 
of audital bulla? lit. 

1 Type No. 7417, Bangs collection, from Okak, Labrador. 


Remarks. — This form is the largest of the subspecies of Mustda 
americana. 3f. hrumalis is also large, but does not equal actuosa, and 
notwithstanding its smaller size has heavier dentition. The enor- 
mous audital bulla 1 of actvom are not equaled hy those of any other 
member of the group. The skulls of am.ericana (Plate VII, fig. 3 1 ) 
and caurina are so very much smaller than those of hrumalis and actu- 
osa that they do not need to be closely compared. In a good series of 
actuosa from Fort Yukon and Fort McPherson the characters are very 
constant. A large number of skins from these localities present very 
little variation, and nearly all are quite light colored like the one 
described above. The marten is still the commonest fur-bearing 
animal of Alaska, notwithstanding the hundreds of thousands that 
have already been taken. Trappers are always confident of a harvest 
of martens whether other animals are abundant or not. 

Mustela pennanti Frxleben. Fisher. 

Dr. Elliott Coues 2 states that he has examined specimens of the 
fisher from Alaska, but does not give the exact localit}\ At present 
no specimens are at hand to corroborate this record, but there is little 
doubt that the animal occurs along the Upper Yukon, as it is known 
from similar latitudes to the eastward. It was not met with by our 
party, and I received no reliable information in regard to it. 

Gulo luscus (Linmeus). Wolverine. 

Wolverines seem to be quite common in the Yukon region. They 
were often reported, and I saw a number of skins among the natives 
on the lower river. One was said to have been trapped at Tagish in 
the winter of 1898, and others were seen in the vicinity. They are 
seen frequently about Lake Lebarge in winter, and trappers from the 
MacMillan River say they are abundant in that region. 

Sorex personatus streatori Merriam. Streator Shrew. 

Specimens of this shrew were secured as follows: Haines 1, Skag- 
way 6, Glacier 1, Bennett 3, Caribou Crossing 2, Lake Lebarge 1, 50 
miles below Fort Selkirk 1, mouth of Chandindu River 1, and 40 miles 
above Circle 1. Although the conditions along the Yukon seem to be 
ideal for shrews, I was unable to secure many specimens, and could 
only conclude that they were not common there, for the same methods 
of trapping were much more successful in the coast regions. 

Sorex personatus arcticus Merriam. Arctic Shrew. 

Sorex personatus arcticus Merriam, Proc. Wash. Acad. Sci., II, 17, Mar. 14,1900. 

Twenty specimens were taken at St. Michael. They occur through- 
out the tundra in much the same situations as S. tundrensis, but were 
also found in the lava heaps and along high banks near the coast. 

x No. 4934, Merriam collection, from the Adirondack^, New York. 
2 Fnr-bearin<j Animals, 69, 1877. 

North American Fauna, No. 19, 

Plate VII. 

SKULLS OF MUSTELA. (Natural size. ) 
1. Murtela americana Irrumalis. 2. Mustda americana actuosa. 3. Mustda americana. 


Sorex obscurus Merriam. Mountain Shrew. 

Two specimens were caught under tufts of grass on a rocky hillside 
at Bennett. This locality is much farther north than any from which 
this species has been previously recorded. 

Sorex tundrensis Merriam. Tundra Shrew. 

Sorex tundrensis Merriam. Proc. Wash. A. -ad. Sci., II, 16-17, March 14, 1900. 

Eighteen specimens of this pretty shrew were taken at St. Michael. 
They were found in various parts of the tundra, but seemed to be in 
small localized colonies. About certain small ponds nearly all the 
shrews caught were of this species, while but a short distance away all 
were arct&cw. A single imperfect specimen collected by Kennicott 
near Fort Yukon is in the National Museum. In size it does not differ 
from typical famdrensis, but in color it is somewhat darker, thus 
indicating a possible intergradation with richa/rdsoni. 

My otis lucifugus (Le Conte). Little Brown Bat. 

Bats were first seen at Caribou Crossing, and from that point were 
occasionally noticed at various places to our camp, 50 miles below 
Fort Selkirk, where they were last seen. Turner mentions their 
reported occurrence as far down as Fort Yukon and Nulato. In June 
and July we generally found them flying from 10 to 11.30 p. m.. and 
sometimes even later. Two specimens only were secured. These are 
somewhat grayer and less glossy than specimens from the eastern 
United States. 



By Louis B. Bishop, M. D. 

In preparing the ornithological part of this report I have thought 
it advisable to note as far as possible all species met with from the 
time we passed Dixon Entrance, northward bound, May 28, until we 
reached Cape Scott on the return trip, October 12, for the reason that 
articles on Alaska birds are not } T et so numerous as to make such notes 
worthless. It was of course impossible to obtain specimens of water- 
fowl seen from the decks of steamers; therefore when specific identifi- 
cation was not positive I have referred genera seen to the species 
which previous observers — especially E. W. Nelson and William 
Palmer — have found most common in the waters visited. 

Nowhere did we see the vast colonies of water birds which others 
have met with in Alaskan waters, probably because most of these 
birds had left their summer homes in Bering Sea when we passed in 
October; but various migrants were common in the Inside Passage in 
May, geese and ducks on the Lower Yukon in August, and waterfowl 
of many species in Akutan Pass in October. 

The region from Skagway, at the head of Lynn Canal, to Circle, on 
the Yukon, was the scene of most of our work; and as very little was 
known of it ornithologically I have mentioned in my annotated list 
every occasion of our observation of all except the commonest species. 
Ornithologists, in referring to the Upper Yukon, include, as a rule, 
only that part of the river which lies between Dawson and Nulato; 
hence the avifauna of its head waters was with us largely a matter of 
conjecture. George G. Cantwell * mentions species he saw about the 
lakes; but his experience was in many ways so different from ours that, 
while crediting him with the first records for species which we also 
found, I have omitted others which we did not find and for which he 
may have mistaken closely allied birds. 

The country we traversed between Skagway and Circle divides itself 
into three quite distinct faunal districts. The coast of Southeast 
Alaska belongs to the ' Sitkan district ' of Nelson, White Pass Summit 

1 Birds of the Yukon Trail <Osprey, III, 25, Oct., 1898. 



and the heights above Glacier belong to the Arctic- Alpine zone, and 
the Yukon Valley belongs to the Canadian and Hudsonian zones. In 
the last the Canadian element is most pronounced in the lake region, 
with a very slight infusion of Sitkan forms, the strictly Hudsonian 
species increasing and the others decreasing as the Yukon winds north 
toward Fort Yukon. Beyond this point Hudsonian forms predomi- 
nate, giving place to Arctic where the Yukon loses its identity in the 
tundra of the delta. The Upper Yukon Valley may be divided faun- 
ally at Fort Selkirk, where the Pelly from the Rocky Mountains and 
the Lewes from the Coast Range unite to form the Yukon proper, 15 
species of land and shore birds occurring above this point which have 
not been found between there and Fort Yukon, and 12 having been 
recorded between the Pelly and Fort Yukon which have not been 
taken above. Of the 128 species and subspecies found between Dixon 
Entrance and Fort Yukon, 22 per cent were common to the coast of 
southeast Alaska and the Yukon Valley, 19 per cent confined to the 
coast, 55 per cent to the Yukon Valley, and 4 per cent found only on 
White Pass Summit and at similar altitudes. 

The avifauna of southeastern Alaska is already fairly well known, 
and the twelve days spent at Haines, Skagway, and Glacier resulted 
chiefly in extending the ranges of a few species, though the barn 
swallow proved to be the subspecies recently reinstated by Mr. Palmer, 
the myrtle warbler that lately described by Mr. McGregor, and the 
wood pewee an unrecognized form. Of the 52 species found between 
Dixon Entrance and Glacier, 2 — Oolaptes auratus luteus and Merula 
migratoria — were eastern, 8 Alaskan, 25 Pacific coast, and 17 common 
to northern North America. At Haines, which is situated on a nar- 
row and for the most part heavity wooded peninsula, birds, although 
not common, were more numerous than they were either at Skag- 
way, which is in a narrow cliff-bordered valley at the head of Lynn 
Canal, or at Glacier, 14 miles from Skagway, 1,870 feet higher, and 
surrounded by deep spruce woods and alder thickets. We found in 
the avifauna of Glacier a slight but decided difference from that of 
the tide-water level of Lynn Canal, Junco hyemalis connectens replac- 
ing J. h. oregonus, and Wilsonia pusilla pileolata replacing Tlelmintho- 
phila celata lutescens, while Melospiza ?nelodia mfina and Merula 
migratoria were absent. 

Among the thickets of alpine hemlock growing with moss and 
heather between the granite rocks of White Pass Summit and the 
heights above Glacier we found Zoiwtrichia coronata and Anthiis 
pensilvanicus common, and Lagopus rupestris, L. leucurus, Leucosticte 
tephrocotis littoralis and Sayornis saya yukonensis in smaller numbers. 
Sayornis s. yukonensis reached the Yukon level at Fort Selkirk, and 
Anthus p>ensilvanicus at Circle, but the others were not seen again. 

To one accustomed to the orchards, fields, and forests of Connect!- 

ocr.,1900.] INTRODUCTION. 49 

cut, the duck marshes of North Dakota, or even the balsam thickets 
of northern Now England, the Yukon Valley seems wanting in bird 
life — not the center of abundance of its avifauna, but rather a deposit 
for the overflow from more favored regions. There are exceptions to 
this rule, notably wandering flocks of crossbills, the colonies of bank 
swallows of Fifty-Mile and Thirty-Mile rivers and the Yukon proper, 
the spotted sandpipers that continually flitted across our bow, the 
intermediate sparrows and juncos that seldom failed to greet us as we 
stepped ashore, and the Alma thrushes, whose songs sounded all night, 
wherever we happened to camp. Bird life is fairly abundant, too, in 
certain favored places such as Log Cabin, Caribou Crossing, the 
swampy shores of Lake Marsh, and the ponds and level country at 
the lower end of Lake Lebarge. Near Miles Canyon I noticed 23 
species on July 11, but individuals of each, with the exception of bank 
swallows, were few. In the entire Upper Yukon Valley breeding 
colonies of shore and water birds were conspicuously absent. The 
precipitous shores of the lakes, the comparative absence of islands, the 
swift current of the Y^ukon, and its high banks cut by narrow, wooded 
valleys, are a sufficient explanation of this; and I can not believe that 
either geese, ducks, or shore birds ever bred abundantly in most of 
the region visited, though their number has doubtless been reduced in 
recent years. 

In the Yukon flats the condition changes, and no doubt many of 
these birds find a summer home in the ponds a few miles back from 
the river as they do at the foot of Lake Lebarge; but these we had 
no opportunity of visiting. Our study of the bird life of the Yukon 
was chiefly confined to what could be seen or heard from our boat or 
on the banks in the immediate vicinity of camping places. From the 
lakes to the Alaska boundary snow-capped peaks were absent, and 
no species were found that did not also occur upon the banks of the 
river, although we climbed hills, visited deep woods, and ascended 
small streams for some distance. As we proceeded north, however, 
several birds were found at lower altitudes than those at which they 
had been already noted. Away from the river, birds were rarer than 
immediately upon its banks. 

We learned little regarding the Upper Yukon as a migratory high- 
way for species breeding farther north, though we heard that thou- 
sands of geese and ducks passed Lower Lebarge in the spring. It was 
too late for the spring migration, and the southward movement of 
ducks and geese had hardly begun on August 20, when we left Circle. 
The fall migration of the Limicola? should have been well under way 
at this date, but very few of these birds were observed. If they 
do pass in large numbers they must frequent the ponds back from 
the river. Several times at Circle, I walked a long distance over 
the sand flats left bare by the falling Yukon without seeing any 
1491— No. 19 1 


shore birds, or anything on which they could feed. This was very 
different from the constantly passing flocks I saw on the Yukon Delta 
August 27-28, and the abundance of Limicolee at St. Michael in Sep- 
tember. The smaller land birds we often saw late in July and in 
August. They were usually in family parties, and most of them 
seemed to be traveling up the river. At Circle the intermediate 
sparrow, western tree sparrow, and western savanna sparrow were 
abundant, and were evidently migrating August 19-20. 

Forty -two species of migratory birds, exclusive of those possessing 
a continental range, certainly occur as summer residents in the Yukon 
Basin above Fort Yukon. Of these, 13 (31 per cent) have their center 
of distribution in eastern North America, 14 (33 per cent) near the 
Pacific coast, and 15 (36 per cent) in western North America not far 
from the Rocky Mountains. The eastern birds reach the Yukon 
through the Rocky Mountains. Some of these, such as Chordeiles 
virginianus, were found only above the Tatchun River; others, as 
Empidonax t. alnorum, were absent above the Pelly and common 
from there to Fort Yukon; others, as Wilsonia pusilla, were not 
found above the Chandindu River; others, as Helmmtlwphila pere- 
grina were each found at a single place, while still others, as Junco 
hyemalis and Merula migratoria, were regularly distributed along the 
river. The Pacific coast forms probably all reach the Yukon over 
the Alaska coast range. These disappear as one goes north, Hylo- 
cichla aonalaschkce extending through Lake Bennett, Wilsonia p. pileo- 
lata to Lake Marsh, Dendroica townsendi to Lake Lebarge, Myadestes 
townsendi to Dawson, and Tachycineta thalassina to Circle. Last 
and most important in number of species, abundance of individuals, 
and regularity of distribution are birds which breed in the Yukon 
Valley and spend the winter in the western United States, as Zono- 
trichia I. gambeli, Spizella s. arizonce, and the small Ammodramus s. 
alaudinus of the Yukon lakes, and those which probably enter by 
the mouth of the Yukon, as the large Ammodramus s. alaudinus, 
found below Alaska boundary, and Seiurus n. notabilis, first met near 

In coloring, Yukon birds, especially in juvenile plumage, show a 
strong tendency to replace the buff-ochraceous markings of Eastern 
forms by white, cream color, and gray. Canacliites c. osgoodi, Parus h. 
evura, and Ilylocichla u. alma are good examples of this characteristic. 

I take this opportunity to express my hearty thanks to Dr. Merriam 
for the privilege of visiting Alaska as a member of the Biological Sur- 
vey party, of writing this report, and of using the collection of the 
Biological Survey in its preparation; also to Mr. Osgood and Mr. 
Oberholser of the Biological Survey for aid in determining species. 
I am also greatly indebted to Mr. Robert Ridgway and Dr. Charles 
W. Richmond for the opportunity of studying the collection of the 

OCT., 1900.] 



United States National Museum and for much valuable assistance; to 
Dr. J. A. Allen and Mr. F. M. Chapman for the hours which I spent 
with the birds in the American Museum of Natural History; to Mr. 
William Brewster for the courtesy of allowing me to compare my 
specimens with those in his valuable collection, and to Mr. Walter 
Deane for much help in this study. 



Canachites canadensis osgoodi. Contopus richardsoni saturatus. 

Sayornis saya vukonensis. 


Halireetus albicilla. 


iEchmophorus occidentalis. 

Xema sabinii. 

Lagopus leucurus. 

Picoides americanus alascensis. 

Coutopus richardsoni saturatus. 

Empidonax hammondi. 
Junco hyemalis connectens. 
Sitta canadensis. 
Merula migratoria. 


Larus Philadelphia. 
Tringa maculata. 

Tringa acuminata. 
Loxia curvirostra minor. 


? Arenaria melanocephala. 

Larus Philadelphia 
Tringa acuminata. 


Calidris arenaria. 


Tringa hairdi. 

Symphemia semipalmata inornata. 

Buteo borealis calurus. 

Falco sparverius. 

? Megascops asio kennicotti. 

? Dryobates villosus hyloscopus. 

Contopus borealis. 

Contopus richardsoni saturatus. 

Empidonax trailli alnorum. 

Empidonax hammondi. 

Spinus pinus. 
Spizella socialis arizonae. 
Passerella iliaca. 
Helminthophila peregrina. 
Dendroica townsendi. 
Wilsonia pusilla pileolata. 
Sitta canadensis. 
Hylocichla aonalaschkaj. 
Hylocichla aonalaschkaj pallasi. 
Saxicola cenanthe. 


Colymbus holbcelli. 
Colymbus auritus. 
Gavia imber. 
Gavia arctica. 

Gavia lumme. 
Stercorarius pomarinus. 1 
Stercorarius parasiticus. 1 
Stercorarius longicaudus. 1 

1 Known only from Fort Yukon or below. 



[NO. 19. 

Rissa tridactyla pollicaris. 1 

Larus barrovianus. 1 

Larus argentatus smithsonianus. 

Larus vegae. 1 

Larus brachyrhynchus. 

Larus Philadelphia. 

Xema sabinii. 1 

Sterna caspia. 1 

Sterna paradisaea. 

Sterna aleutica. 1 

Hydrochelidon nigra surinamensis. 1 

Phalacrocorax pelagicus robustus. 1 

Merganser americanus. 

Merganser serrator. 1 

Anas boschas. 

Mareca americana. 

Nettion carol inensis. 

Querquedula disco rs. 1 

Spatula clypeata. 

Dafila acuta. 

Aythya vallisneria. 1 

Aythya marila. 

Aythya affinis. 

Clangula clangula americana. 

Clangula islandica. 

Charitonetta albeola. 

Harelda hyemalis. 

Histrionicus histrionicus. 

Arctonetta fischeri. 1 

Somateria v-nigra. 1 

Somateria spectabilis. 1 

Oidemia americana. 1 

Oidemia deglandi. 

Oidemia perspicillata. 

Chen hyperborea. 1 

Anser albifrons gambeli. 1 

Branta canadensis hutchinsi. 

Branta canadensis minima. 

Branta nigricans. * 

Philacte canagica. 1 

Olor Columbian us. 1 

Olor buccinator. 1 

Grus canadensis. 

Fulica americana. 1 

Crymophilus fulicarius. 1 

Phalaropus lobatus. 

Gallinago delicata. 

Macrorhamphus scolopaceus. l 

Tringa canutus. l 

Tringa couesi. 1 

Tringa maculata. 

Tringa bairdi. 

Tringa minutilla. 

Tringa alpina pacifica. 

Ereunetes occidental is. 1 

Calidris arenaria. 1 

Limosa lapponica baueri. 1 

Limosa haemastica. 1 

Totanus flavipes. 

Helodromas solitarius cinnamomeus. 

Heteractitis incanus. 1 

Bartramia longicauda. ' 

Symphemia semipalmata inornata. 2 

Tryngites subruficollis ] 

Actitis macular ia. 

Numenius hudsonicus. 

Numenius borealis. 1 

Squatarola squatarola. 

Charadrius dominicus. 

Charadrius dominicus fulvus. 1 

^Egialitis semipalmata. 

Arenaria interpres. 1 

Arenaria melanocephala. ' 

Canachites canadensis osgoodi. 

Bonasa umbellus umbelloides. 

Lagopus lagopus. 

Lagopus rupestris. 

Pedicecetes phasianellus columbianus. 

Circus hudsonius. 

Accipiter velox. 

Aceipiter atricapillus. 

Buteo borealis calurus. 2 

Buteo swainsoni. 1 

Archibuteo lagopus. 1 

Haliaeetus leucocephalus alascanus. 

Falco rusticolus gyrfalco. 

Falco peregrinus anatum. 

Falco columbarius. 

Falco columbarius richardsoni. 2 

Falco sparverius. 2 

Pandion haliaetus carolinensis. 1 

Asio accipitrinus. 1 

Scotiaptex cinerea. 

Scotiaptex cinerea lapponica. 1 

Nyctala tengmalmi richardsoni. 

?Megascops asio kennicotti. 2 

Bul)o virginianus pallescens. 

Nyctea nyctea. 1 

Surnia ulula caparoch. 

Ceryle alcyon. 

Dryobates villosus leucomelas. 

?Dryobates villosus hyloscopus. 2 

Known only from Fort Yukon or below. 
1 Known only above Fort Yukon. 

OCT., 190(1. J 



Dryobatea pubescens nelsoni. 

Pieoides arcticus. 

Picoides americanua alascenais. 

Colaptes auratus luteus. 

Chordeilea virginianus. 2 

Selasphorus rufua. 2 

Sayomia saya yukonensis.' 

Con t opus borea lis. 

Contopus richardsoni saturatus.' 

Empidonax trail]]. 1 

Empidonax trailli alnorum. 2 

Empidonax hammondi.'-' 

Otocoris alpeatria leucolamia. 

Pica pica hudsonica. 

Perisoreua canadensis fumifrona. 

Corvua corax principalis. 

Scolecophagus carolinns. 

Pinicola enucleator alascenais. 

Pyrrhnla cassini. 1 

Loxia leucoptera. 

Acanthia hornemanni exilipes. 

Acanthis linaria. 

Spinus pinus. 2 

Paaaerina nivalia. 

Calcarius lapponicua alascenais. 

Calcariua pictns. 1 

Ammodramua sandwichensis alaudinns. 

Zonotrichia leucophrys gambeli. 

Zonotrichia coronata. 

Spizella monticola ochracea. 

Spizella socialia arizonse. 2 

Junco hyemalia. 

Melospiza lincolni. 

Pasaerella iliaca. 

Petrochelidon lunifrona. 

Hirundo erythrogastra unalaachkensia. 

Tachycineta bicolor. 

Tachycineta thalassina. 2 

Clivicola riparia. 

Ampelia garrulus. 

Lanius borealis. 

Helminthophila celata. 

Helminthophila peregrina. 2 

Dendroica a?stiva rubiginosa. 

Dendroica coronata hooveri. 

Dendroica striata. 

Dendroica townsendi. 2 

Seiurua aurocapillus. 1 

Seiurus noveboracensis notabilis. 

Wilsonia pusilla. 

Wilsonia pusilla pileolata. 2 

Bndytes flavns leucoatriatus. 1 

Anthus pensilvanicus. 

Cinclua mexicanus. 

Sitta canadenais. 2 

Parus atricapillus septentrionalis. 

Parus cinctua alascensis. 1 

Parus hudsonicua evura. 

Phyllopseuates borealis. 1 

Regulus calendula. 

Myadeatea townsendi. 2 

Hylocichla alicise. 

Hylocichla uatulata almse. 

Hylocichla aonalaschkse. 2 

Hylocichla aonalaschkse pallasi. 2 

Merula migratoria. 

Hesperocichla naevia. 

Saxicola cenanthe. 

Sialia arctica. 2 


Chaulelasmua atreperua. 
Eniconetta stelleri. 
Branta canadenaia. 
Macrorhamphua griaeua. 

Aquila chrysaetoa. 
Nucifraga colunibiana. 
Loxia curvirostra minor. 
Motacilla ocularis. 

1 Known only from Fort Yukon or below. 

2 Known only above Fort Yukon. 



[NO. 19. 


Rissa tridactyla pollicaris. 1 

Larus barrovianus. 1 

Larus vegfe. 1 

Larus brachyrhynchus. 

Sterna aleutica. 1 

Phalacrocorax pelagicus robustus. 1 

Arctonetta fischeri. 1 

Somateria v-nigra. 1 

Chen hyperborea. 2 

Branta canadensis minima. 

Branta nigricans. 2 

Philacte canagica. 1 

Grus canadensis. 2 

Macrorhampus scolopaceus. 

Tringa couesi. 2 

Ereunetes occidentalis. 

Heteractitis incanus. 

Arenaria melanocephala. 

Of these 35 forms, 1 is a subspecies of an Asiatic bird, 5 are chiefly 
confined to Bering Sea, 2 range in winter to the western Pacific, 7 
are resident subspecies of northern North American birds, and the 
remaining 20 pass in winter to the western United States or beyond. 


Canachites canadensis osgoodi. 
Halieeetus leucocephalus alascanus. 
? Megascops asio kennicotti. 
Picoides americanus alascensis. 
Sayornis saya yukonensis. 
Contopus richardsoni saturatus. 
Perisoreus canadensis fumifrons. 
Pinicola enucleator alascensis. 
Leucosticte tephrocotis littoralis. 
Calcarius lapponicus alascensis. 
Hirundo erythrogastra unalaschkensis. 
Dendroica jestiva rubiginosa. 
Dendroica coronata hooveri. 
Paras cinctus alascensis. 
Parus hudsonicus evura. 
Hylocichla ustulata almee. 
Hesperocichla nsevia. 

Limosa hsemastica. 
Numenius borealis. 
Accipiter atrieapillus. 
Falco sparverius. 
Colaptes auratus luteus. 
Chordeiles virginianus. 
Empidonax trailli alnorum. 
Junco liyemalis. 
Passerella iliaca. 

Helminthophila celata. 
Helminthophila peregrina. 
Dendroica striata. 
Seiurus aurocapillus. 
Wilsonia pusilla. 
Hylocichla alicise. 
Hylocichla aonalaschkpe pallasi. 
Merula migratoria. 


Anser albifrons gambeli. 

Branta canadensis hutchinsi. 

Olor buccinator. 

Symphemia semipalmata inornata. 

Bonasa umbellus urnbelloides. 

Pedicecetes phasianellus columbianus. 

Buteo borealis calurus. 

Buteo swainsoni. 

Falco columbarius richardsoni. 

Bubo virginianus pallescens. 

? Dryobates villosus hyloscopus. 

Picoides americanus alascensis. 

Selasphorus rufus. 

Empidonax trailli. 

Empidonax hammondi. 

Otocoris alpestris leucolfema. 

Pica pica Hudsonica. 

Calcarius pictus. 

Ammodramus sandwichensis alaudinus. 

Zonotrichia leucophrys gambeli. 

Spizella monticola ochracea. 

Spizella socialis arizonse. 

Seiurus noveboracensis notabilis. 

Cinclus mexicanus. 

Parus atrieapillus septentrionalis. 

Myadestes townsendi. 

Sialia arctica. 

1 Reported only from the Yukon Delta. 

2 Known only as migrants. 

OCT., 1900. 




Helodromas solitarius cinnamomeus. 
Tachycineta thalassina. 
Zoiiotrk'hia coronata. 

Dendroica townsendi. 
Wilsonia pusilla pileolata. 

Hylocichla aonalaschkse. 


Limosa lapponica baueriJ 
Gharadrins dominions fulvus. 1 
Aichibutet i lag* >pus. 
ScotiapteN cinerea lapponica. 1 

Pvrrhula cassini. 

Budytee fiavus leucostriatus. 1 

Phyllopseustes borealis. 1 


Eastern species. 

Accipiter atricapillus. 
Falco sparverius. 
Colaptes auratus luteus. 
Chordeiles virginianus. 
Empidonax trailli alnorum. 
Junco hyemalis. 
? Passerella iliaca. 

Helminthophila celata. 
Helminthophila peregrina. 
Dendroica striata. 
Wilsonia pusilla. 
Hylocichla aliciaj. 
Hylocichla aonalaschkse pallasi. 
Merula migratoria. 

Western species. 

Branta canadensis hutchinsi. 

? Grus canadensis. 

Sympheniia semipahnata inornata. 

Buteo borealis calurus. 

? Otocoris alpestris leucolaema. 

Pica pica hudsonica. 

? Calcarius lapponicus alascensis. 

Ammodramus sandwichensis alaudinus. 

Zonotrichia leucophrys gambeli. 

Falco colurnbarius ricbardsoni. 

Selasphorus rufus. 
Sayornis saya yukonensis. 
Empidonax hammondi. 
Spizella monticola ochracea. 
Spizella socialis arizonse. 
Seiurus noveboracensis notabilis. 
Myadestes townsendi. 
Hylocichla ustulata alinse. 
Sialia arctica. 

Pacific coast species. 

Larus brachyrhynchus. 

Helodromas solitarius cinnamomeus. 

Leucosticte tephrocotis littoralis. 

Zonotrichia coronata. 

Hirundo erythrogastra unalaschkensis. 

Tachycineta thalassina. 

Contopus richardsoni saturatus. 

Dendroica sestiva rubiginosa. 
Dendroica coronata hooveri. 
Dendroica townsendi. 
Wilsonia pusilla pileolata. 
Hylocichla aonalaschkse. 
Hesperocichla nsevia. 


Gavia imber. 
Larus Philadelphia. 
Anas boschas. 
Histrionicus histrionicus. 
Oidemia deglandi. 

Oidemia perspicillata. 

Phalaropus lobatus. 

Actitis macularia. 

Haliteetus leucocephalus alascanus. 

Picoides americanus alascensis. 

1 Known only from the Yukon Delta. 



[NO. 19. 

Colaptes auratus luteus. 

Selasphorus rufus. 

Contopus richardsoni saturatus. 

Empidonax hamiiiondi. 

Sterna paradissea. 

Corvus corax principalis. 

Ammodramus sandwichensis alaudinus. 

Spizella monticola ochracea. 

Hirundo erythrogastra unalaschkensis. 

Tachycineta bicolor. 
Dendroica coronata hooveri. 
Dendroica townsendi. 
Wilsonia pusilla pileolata. 
Anthus pensilvanicus. 
Sitta canadensis. 
Hylocichla aonalaschkse. 
Merula migratoria. 
Hesperocichla nsevia. 


Sayornis saya yukonensis. 

Zonotrichia coronata. 

? Wilsonia pusilla pileolata. 

Anthus pensilvanicus. 

Hirundo erythrogastra unalaschkensis. 


Lagopus rupestris. 
Lagopus leucurus. 

Zonotrichia coronata. 
Leucosticte tephrocotis littoralis. 


? Dendragapus obscurus fuliginosus. 

Sphyrapicus ruber. 

Cyanocitta stelleri. 

Corvus caurinus. 

Junco hyemalis oregonus. 

Junco hyemalis connectens. 

Melospiza melodia rufina. 

Melospiza lincolni striata. 
Passerella iliaca townsendi. 
Helminthophila celata lutescens. 
Anorthura hiemalis pacifica. 
Parus rufescens. 
Regulus satrapa olivaceus. 
Regulus calendula grinnelli. 


Contopus richardsoni saturatus. 

Sphyrapicus ruber. 

Cyanocitta stelleri. 

Corvus caurinus. 

Spizella monticola ochracea. 

Junco hyemalis oregonus. 

Melospiza melodia rufina. 

Melospiza lincolni striata. 
Tachycineta bicolor. 
Helminthophila celata lutescens. 
Anthus pensilvanicus. 
Sitta canadensis. 
Merula miarratoria. 


Colaptes auratus luteus. 
?Dendragapus obscurus fuliginosus. 
Junco hyemalis connectens. 
Wilsonia pusilla pileolata. 

Cinclus mexicanus. 
Anorthura hiemalis pacifica. 
Regulus satrapa olivaceus. 


Tringa minutilla. 

Symphemia semipalmata inornata. 

? Megascops asio kennicotti. 

? Dryobates villosus hyloscopus. 

Chordeiles virginianus. 

Selasphorus rufus. 

Contopus borealis. 

Hirundo erythrogastra unalaschkensis. 

Tachycineta bicolor. 
Helminthophila peregrina. 
Dendroica townsendi. 
Wilsonia pusilla pileolata. 
Hylocichla aonalaschkse. 
Hylocichla aonalaschkpe pallasi. 
Sialia arctica. 

ocr.,1900.] BIRDS OF THE YUKON REGION. 57 



Fako peregrinus auatum. Acanthis hornemanni exilipes. 

?Falco columbarius. Passerella iliaca. 

?Falco columbarius richardsoni. Seiurua noveboracensis notabilis. 

Empidon&x trailli alnorum. Wilsonia pusilla. 

< >tocoris alpestris leucoleema. Hylocichla alicise. 

Calcarius lapponicua alascensis. Saxicola oenanthe. 


1. iEchmophorus occidentalis. Western Grebe. 

Several seen at Bocadequadra, near Dixon Entrance, May 28. 

2. Colymbus holboelli. Holboell Grebe. 

A young male was taken on the 'Canal' at St. Michael September 
22. The irides were primrose yellow; basal two-thirds of the culmen, 
outside tarsi, and lobes, seal brown; rest of bill, ocher 3^ellow; inside 
of the tarsi and lobes, maize yellow; nails, yellowish olive buff. 

3. Gavia imber. Loon. 

Seen at Bocadequadra May 28 and in the Inside Passage May L".». 
Several seen on Lake Bennett and a pair at Caribou Crossing between 
June 17 and 28. On Lake Marsh they were common and were fre- 
quently heard, especially at night. The last loon certainly referable 
to this species was seen there July 6. 

4. Gavia arctica. Black-throated Loon. 

A loon that flew over our boat on Thirty-Mile River Jul}- 18, and 
another seen near Big Salmon River July 20, I believe were Garni 
a nt lea. I saw several loons at the Aphoon mouth of the Yukon 
August 27 and one at St. Michael on September 5 and 16. We obtained 
none of them, but the experience of others makes it probable that all 
were the black-throated. Dr. Romig, of the Moravian Mission on the 
Kuskokwim River, told me that his party killed two on August 27 on 
the portage from Bethel on the Kuskokwim to Hendricks Station on 
the Yukon Delta. 

5. Lunda cirrhata. Tufted Puffin. 

Osgood saw one at Whale Island, near St. Michael, September 8. 

6. Fratercula corniculata. Horned Puffin. 

We took two and saw about a dozen puffins near Whale Island Sep- 
tember 8. Irides, drab gray; ring on eyelid and lip of bill, flame 
scarlet; rest of bill dull straw yellow; bare skin at gape and line along 
base of maxilla, cadmium yellow; line below lower eyelid and horns, 
black; palmations, cadmium orange; tarsi and toes, cadmium orange 
above, chrome yellow below; nails varying from drab gray to slate 


7. Simorhynchus pusillus. Least Auklet. 

Anklets were seen several times while we were crossing Bering Sea 
in the Corwin October 1-2 and increased in numbers as we approached 
the Pribilofs. They were common with various other (unidentified) 
species of water birds off Unalaska October 1 and abundant in Akutan 
Pass October 6. I refer them to this species, as Nelson found it the 
most abundant in these waters. 

8. Brachyramphus marmoratus. Marbled Murrelet. 

This bird was fairly common in the Inside Passage May 28-29, and 
one was killed at Bocadequadra. We saw a few on Lynn Canal May 
30, and I shot one near Skagway May 31. Doubtless some of the 
many murrelets seen with auklets near the Pribilof and Aleutian 
islands in October were this species. 

9. Cepphus columba. Pigeon Guillemot. 

Seen at Bocadequadra and along the Inside Passage May 28-29. 
Guillemots which I saw near Unalaska October 1 were probably this 

10. TJria lomvia arra. Pallas Murre. 

The murres seen near St. Michael August 29 and about St. George 
Island and Unalaska in October were probably chiefly this species, 
though some may have been TJria troile calif ornica. 

11. Stercorarius parasiticus. Parasitic Jaeger. 

Common at the Aphoon mouth of the Yukon August 27-28, and 
alx>ut St. Michael until September 10. About this time their num- 
bers decreased, and the last one was seen September 16. All appeared 
to be adults (as were the four collected), and only one was in the black 

12. Stercorarius longicaudus. Long-tailed Jaeger. 

I saw one at the Aphoon mouth August 28, and both Osgood and I 
occasionally saw the species at St. Michael until September 12. 

13. Rissa tridactyla pollicaris. Pacific Kittiwake. 

Adult kittiwakes were tolerably common at St. Michael from Sep- 
tember 19 to the end of our stay, but no young were seen. As we 
crossed Bering Sea October 1-5, and at Unalaska October 5-6, young 
kittiwakes were common, and we saw no adults except at St. George 
and Unalaska. The irides of the adult are vandyke brown; ring on 
eyelid orange rufous; bill sulphur yellow, whitish at tip; gape rufous; 
tarsi, toes, palmations, and nails slate black. 

11. Rissa brevirostris. Red-legged Kittiwake. 

One was seen by Osgood at Unalaska (Dutch Harbor) October 5. 

oct.,1900.] BIRDS OF THE YUKON REGION. 59 

15. Larus barrovianus. Point Burrow Gull. 

Abundant on the Lower Yukon, at the Aphoon mouth, and during 
September at St. Michael, though most of the adults had gone by the 
middle of the month. While crossing Bering Sea we saw several 
young October 2 and others near Unalaska October 1. A young 
bird shot near St. Michael September 19 had the head of a recently 
killed ptarmigan in its throat. The irides of the young are Prout's 
brown: tip of bill and sides of nails black; rest of bill, toes, and pal- 
mations vinaceous buff; rest of nails drab gra}^. 

16. Larus glaucescens. Glaucous-winged Gull. 

Large gulls, which doubtless were chiefly this species, were common 
from Dixon Entrance to Lynn Canal May 28-30, and we saw a few 
near Skagway June 1-2. At Unalaska, where I collected two, they 
were abundant October 1—6. A few gulls that followed the Oorwim 
in the North Pacific I think also belonged to this species. 

IT. Larus argentatus smithsonianus. American Herring Gull. 

The only large gulls I took on the Yukon — a female which had fin- 
ished laying, collected at Lake Tagish June 30, and another taken near 
Charlie Creek August 8 — were this species, and no others came close 
enough to make identification positive; hence I must refer all the large 
gulls seen to Larus a. smithsonicmus, although on several we could see 
no black on the primaries. I saw one flying over White Pass Summit 
June 12 and another at Bennett City June 19. We saw eight or ten 
at Caribou Crossing and a few on Lake Tagish. No more were 
observed until we reached Lake Lebarge July 13; but from this point 
to the mouth of the river large gulls slowly became more numerous, 
one or two being noted every few days. Three fully grown young, 
with their parents, were seen on a sand bar about 15 miles above 
Circle August 12. 

18. Larus brachyrhynchus. Short-billed Gull. 

Our acquaintance with this bird dates from our arrival at Lake 
Marsh, July 1, where we found it common, and took downy young 
the next day. From this time, until we reached the Tatchun River, 
July 23, hardly a day passed that we did not see several; on July 20 
we counted fourteen on a sand bar near Little Salmon River. After 
July 23 we saw no more until September 6, when young of the year 
appeared at St. Michael, and were common there until the 23d. The 
only adult seen at St. Michael was noted on September 11. 

The adult has the irides Prout's brown; ring on eyelids and skin at 
commissural angle reddish orange; gape orange; bill, tarsi, and toes 
olive j'ellow; nails black, french gray at base. 

Natal plumage: Creamy white, becoming pale cream color on fore- 
head, chin, and anterior breast, mottled with different shades of brown, 


except the center of chest and abdomen. Head markings slate-black, 
distinctly defined and numerous, the most characteristic being one 
that covers the entire nasal region, a V on the pileum, a W on the occi- 
put, and a somewhat interrupted U on each side of the throat. On 
the upperparts the markings become pale seal brown, and with lighter 
tips render the lower neck, sides of breast, flanks, and anal region 
grayish. Bill brownish black; tip of bill, tarsi, toes, and palmations 
whitish; nails and edges of scutelloe of tarsi and toes hair brown. 

19. Lams Philadelphia. Bonaparte Gull 

I saw several small black-headed gulls, probably this species, in the 
Inside Passage May 29. I took a Bonaparte gull at Caribou Crossing 
on June 24 and saw several others. We saw one on Lake Marsh 
July 1, a few young at St. George Island October 3, and found them 
common at Unalaska October 4-5. 

20. Xema sabinii. Sabine Gull. 

Osgood found a dead bird of this species on the shores of Chilkat 
Inlet June 1. The specimen, unfortunately, was not in a condition to 
permit its preservation, but it was carefully identified at the time and 
showed no apparent variance from the description and figure in 
Ridg way's Manual. 

21. Sterna paradissea. Arctic Tern. 

We saw a large flock of terns in the Inside Passage May 29, and 
two days later at Skagway saw a few more, securing two, which proved 
to be of this species. At Bennett, between June 15 and 20, we fre- 
quently saw two or three, and I was informed that arctic terns bred on 
a small lake near Log Cabin, British Columbia. We found a breed- 
ing colony of about twenty on a small rocky island lying in the 
entrance to Windy Arm, Lake Tagish, July 1. I found four single 
eggs (three fresh and one well advanced in incubation), one set of two 
(one fresh and the other at point of hatching), and also a young bird 
which had just left the shell. There were no nests; the young bird 
and eggs were in the short grass on the top of the island. Except a 
single bird, seen at Lake Marsh and probably belonging to this colony, 
we did not meet with terns again until August 27, when I found this 
species common at the Aphoon mouth. A single tern with injured 
primaries was seen frequently at St. Michael up to September 21. 
The downy young differs from the description given in Baird, Brewer 
and Ridgway's 'Water Birds,' in having the forehead plain dusky, the 
chin whitish, the basal half of bill, tarsi, and toes salmon pink, and the 
rest of bill and nails black. 

22. Diomedea albatrus. Short-tailed Albatross. 

A dark-brown albatross, probably the young of D. albatrus, joined 
the Corwin October 1, about 150 miles from St. Michael. It was soon 

OCT., 1900. 


accompanied by others, and until we reached Cape Scott, October 12, 

a glance astern would seldom fail to show two or three following the 

23. Fulmarus glacialis glupischa. Pacific Fulmar. 

A single dark-colored fulmar, possibly this form, was seen ( October 
1, between St. George and Unalaska. 

21. Oceanodroma furcata. Forked-tailed Petrel. 

To this species 1 refer a few light-colored petrels seen October 3, 
on Bering Sea north of the Pribilof Islands. 

25. Phalacrocorax pelagicus. Pelagic Cormorant. 

Cormorants were seen October 1 near Unalaska, where this species 
is reported as common. 

26. Phalacrocorax pelagicus robustus. Violet-green Cormorant. 

We saw a single cormorant at Whale Island September 8; and one — 
possibly the same bird — was seen by Osgood several times at St. 

27. Phalacrocorax urile. Red-faced Cormorant. 

This is the only cormorant reported by William Palmer from St. 
George, where we saw several October 3. 

28. Merganser americanus. American Merganser. 

A pair of mergansers was breeding on a small, rocky island in Lake 
Tagish, at the entrance to Windy Arm, June 30-July 1. The nest was 
found by Osgood in a crevice in the cliffs about 15 feet above the 
water. It was made of down, and contained seven eggs about one 
week advanced in incubation. Retrieving would have been impossible 
had we shot the bird, but as I succeeded in watching the female on the 
nest from a distance of less than 6 feet I feel positive of the species. 

A few other mergansers, usually in pairs, were seen on Lake Tagish 
July 1, on Lake Marsh July 8, at Fifty-Mile River July 9 and 12 (a 
flock of a dozen males flying up the river in the evening of the latter 
date), near Little Salmon River July 20, and about 25 miles above 
Circle August 12. Near Charlie Creek we found the dried wing of an 
adult male of this species August 8. 

29. Anas boschas. Mallard. 

On the flats of Chilkat Inlet I saw seven June 2. In no part of the 
Yukon Valley above Circle did we find ducks abundant, except surf 
scoters, but the mallard undoubtedly occurs at all suitable places 
throughout the region. It must breed very early, as on June 21, only 
three weeks after the lakes were open to steamer navigation, I found 
a female with two young at Caribou Crossing, and on June 28 I shot 


another female there and caught two of her half dozen downy young. 
Two ducks, probably mallards, were seen on Lake Marsh July 6, and 
at Miles Canyon Maddren was informed they had been common there 
earlier in the season. We saw several females with young in the 
marshy ponds at the foot of Lake Lebarge July 17, a few adults near 
the Little Salmon July 20, and a good-sized flock near Charlie Village 
August 10. Osgood shot one near Fort Yukon August 21. 

In the large flocks of geese and ducks disturbed by the steamer on 
the Lower Yukon were two young mallards, secured at Hendricks 
Station August 25. Mallards were common at the Aphoon mouth 
August 27, and we saw a few at St. Michael September 2. 

30. Mareca americana. Baldpate. 

Five ducks that I took to be baldpates were seen a short distance 
above Fort Selkirk July 25. 

31. Nettion carolinensis. Green- winged Teal. 

Three teal that 1 saw in the creek at Circle, August 19, were prob- 
ably this species. Green-winged teal were common in the tundra 
ponds about St. Michael during the first half of September, but 
apparently did not occur after September 16. All that were taken 
were young birds. 

32. Dafila acuta. Pintail. 

Maddren was told at Miles Canyon, July 11, that pintails were com- 
mon, but we saw none near enough for identification until August 27, 
when I found them abundant at the Aphoon mouth. Seven were here 
killed by a passenger on the steamer. During September young, 
pintails far outnumbered all other ducks on the marshes and tundra 
ponds about St. Michael. Large numbers were killed by the Eskimos, 
but no adults were seen. Their numbers had greatly decreased by 
September 20. 

33. Aythya marila. Scaup Duck. 

We saw a flock of about a dozen adult males at Caribou Crossing 
June 24, and another of about twenty on the Yukon, a short distance 
above Fort Selkirk, July 25. 

31. Aythya affinis. Lesser Scaup Duck. 

We found a pair with young on a small pond at Lower Lebarge 
July 17. Osgood secured the female. 

35. Clangula clangula americana. American Golden-eye. 

I am confident that a flock of ducks seen about 25 miles above Circle 
August 12 were males of this species or of C. islandica. 

oor.,1900,] BIRDS OF THE YUKON REGION. (53 

36. Charitonetta albeola. Buffle-head. 

I shot a female on a small pond near Lake Marsh July 8, and saw 
a male near Little Salmon River July 20. Maddren was informed 
that bume-heads were common near Miles Canyon, and a boy at Lower 
Lebarge said they bred commonly on the ponds near there, and that 
he took two young- July 16. 

37. Harelda hyemalis. Old Squaw. 

Single young birds were found frequently during- September in the 
small ponds about St. Miehael, and a flock of about a dozen was seen 
in the harbor September 11. No adults were observed. One young 
bird, taken early in September, still retained natal down on the hind- 

38. Histrionicus histrionicus. Harlequin Duck. 

We saw a male and two females in Wrangell Narrows May 2!>. A 
Hock of twelve males came eloso to the shore at Bennett June 18; and 
on June 23 a single male swam so near that men sitting on the beach 
threw stones at it. One other harlequin was seen a few miles above 
Fort Selkirk July 25. Dr Romig told me he saw a number on the 
portage from the Kuskokwim to the Yukon August 24-25. 

39. Somateria v-nigra. Pacific Eider. 

We saw the head of a male of this species lying in the window of 
the hotel at St. Michael, and the soldiers at the barracks had a 
mounted bird, shot near St. Michael in the spring, but we saw no 
living eiders of any species during our trip. 

40. Oidemia americana. American Scoter. 

We noticed a few in Wrangell Narrows May 29, and I saw a number 
off Unalaska October 5. 

41. Oidemia deglandi. White- winged Scoter. 

This species was fairly numerous at Bocadequadra, Wrangell Nar- 
rows, and Lynn Canal May 28-30. We saw two on Lake Marsh July 
6, two on Lake Lebarge July 14, and a flock of about twenty-five Hying 
up Fifty-Mile River from Lake Lebarge on the evening of July 12. 

42. Oidemia perspicillata. Surf Scoter. 

In Lynn Canal, near Haines, June 1 we noted a large flock of surf 
scoters, most of which had disappeared the next day. They were 
abundant on all the Yukon lakes except Bennett, which was almost 
destitute of bird life. On Lake Tagish we saw fourteen June 30, and 
at Lake Marsh thirty to forty males almost every day between July 
1 and 8. We saw no more, except a pair on July 11 on Fifty-Mile 
River, which connects Lake Marsh with Lake Lebarge, until we 


entered Lake Lebarge on the evening of Jul} 7 12, when a flock of at 
least a hundred flew high overhead from the direction of the lake. 
About 8 p. m. and at 10 p. m. of the same evening, and on the next 
morning, we saw what we took to be the same flock. The birds were 
probably taking a morning and evening flight, such as E. 8. Bryant 
has noticed in the case of the white- winged scoters breeding at Devils 
Lake, North Dakota; and I believe that with both species these flights 
are taken chiefly to exercise the wing muscles. We saw no females 
on any of the lakes, nor could we find them on the shore, though they 
were undoubtedly nesting in the vioinity. We observed several on 
Thirty-Mile River July 18 and two near the Little Salmon July 20. 
Near Whale Island, at St. Michael, we saw a number September 8, 
and two scoters, probably young of this species, September 21. I 
think there were a few with the American scoters I saw at Unalaska 
October 5. 

43. Chen hyperborea. Lesser Snow Goose. 

1 saw live snow geese at the Aphoon mouth August 28, and a large 
flock at St. Michael September 11. 

44. Anser albifrons gambeli. American White-fronted Goose. 

A single white-fronted goose was seen by Osgood among a number 
of other birds killed by natives about the Yukon Delta August 29. 

45. Branta canadensis hutchinsi. Hutchins Goose. 

Although Maddren was informed that a goose with four young was 
seen near White Horse Rapids about July 11, and although the 
sergeant in charge of the police station of Lower Lebarge told us 
that thousands of geese and ducks passed there in the spring, and 
that he had counted twenty -four distinct species, and had killed both 
Hutchins and cackling geese, we did not see a goose of any species 
until we were in the neighborhood of Charlie Village, August 10. 
There we saw a flock of about twenty of the Branta canadensis group, 
and Osgood shot two hutchinsi and saw many more near Fort Yukon 
August 21. Brown geese, apparently chiefly this subspecies, were 
common on the Yukon flats and on the lower river, especially the 
Yukon Delta. A Hutchins goose was brought to the steamer Robert 
Kerr by an Eskimo August 26, and I found the bird common at the 
Aphoon mouth August 27-28. Prospectors on the Kerr told me that 
geese bred abundantly at the head waters of the Porcupine and the 
marshes at the source of Birch Creek. 

During September this species was common about St. Michael in 
small flocks, but very shy; Osgood took one September 23. 

[Philacte canagica. Emperor Goose. Dr. Romig told me they 
were common on the tundra along the Kuskokwim.] 


| Olor colwmbiamis. Whistling Swan. We were told that a swan — 
probably this species- was killed at Circle during the spring-. J 

lo. Grus canadensis. Little Brown Crane. 

Along the Yukon we did not see any cranes, although I thought I 
heard one near the Little Salmon July 21, and a man who had spent, 
the summer at Circle told me he had heard and seen the 'sand- 
hill crane' there frequently during the past two months. I was also 
informed by prospectors that these cranes were found in small num- 
bers at the head waters of Birch Creek and Porcupine River. 

Near St. Michael we saw flocks of from two to six individuals each 
almost daily during the first half of September, but none later than Sep- 
tember L5. On the night of September 13 and all the following day 
there was a hard southwest gale. On the 11th we saw large num- 
bers — Osgood counted ninety-six — flying south, high in the air. 

IT. Crymophilus fulicarius. Red Phalarope. 

We saw a small flock near Skagway in Lynn Canal June 2, and 
others I believed to be this species near Wrangell Narrows and in 
Prince Frederick Sound May 29. Osgood took one at St. Michael 
September 17 during a heavy storm. 

IS. Phalaropus lobatus. Northern Phalarope. 

Large flocks were seen near Dixon Entrance May 28, and smaller 
ones on the Inside Passage May 29. From a flock of about twenty on 
Lake Lebarge July 13 I shot a female that was changing to winter 
plumage, and on a small pond at Lower Lebarge July 17 I took a 
male that was in worn breeding plumage. At St. Michael September 
2 I caught a young bird that had but one wing, and on St. George 
Island October 3 I shot one that was swimming alone in a pool. 
Phalaropes, probably this species, were seen on Bering Sea October 
1 and 1. 

19. Gallinago delicata. Wilson Snipe. 

At Haines May 31 I was told that several Wilson snipe had been 
seen that daj T , but was unable to find them. We saw one on Fifty- 
Mile River not far below Lake Marsh Juty 10, and another in the 
marsh at Lower Lebarge July 17. Osgood saw one at Circle August 
18, and I killed two from a small flock at Hendricks Station August 
25. At St. Michael we saw eight or ten single birds between Sep- 
tember 12 and 22. 

50. Tringa couesi. Aleutian Sandpiper. 

Common about the lava rocks that line the shore at St. Michael, 
where flocks of five to fifty were observed, but only small flocks after 
September 15. A few were occasionally seen on the tidal mud flats, 
H:91r— No. 19 5 


but none about the ponds in the interior of the island or on the salt 
meadow behind the town. Out of eighty specimens taken only eight 
were adults, and five of these were taken before September 9. On the 
rocky shores of a point opposite Dutch Harbor, Unalaska, I found 
them common October 5. Those taken at St. Michael were molting 
into first winter plumage, which is practically complete in the Una- 
laska birds. In this plumage there is considerable individual differ- 
ence in the width and shade of the pale edgings of the feathers of the 

The irides were Vandyke brown; bill, black changing to olive buff 
in basal half; tarsi and toes, yellowish olive buff washed with black; 
nails black. 

I find great sexual variations in size in this species, the females, as 
in many other species of Limicolse, averaging considerably larger, 
especially in length of bill. Measurements of twenty-nine males: 
Length 8.06 to 8.94 (average 8.57) inches; wing 4.37 to 5.12 (average 
4.89) inches; exposed culmen 0.96 to 1.13 (average 1.06) inches; tar- 
sus 0.91 to 1.03 (average 0.96) inches. Measurements of thirty-four 
females: Length 8.56 to 9.56 (average 9.03) inches; wing 4.47 to 5.31 
(average 4.98) inches; exposed culmen 1.16 to 1.42 (average 1.24) 
inches; tarsus 0.96 to 1.05 (average 0.99) inches. 

51. Tringa ptilocnemis. Pribilof Sandpiper. 

We saw a number on St. George October 3, but too close to the 
rookery of fur seals to be obtained. 

52. Tringa acuminata. Sharp-tailed Sandpiper. 

First found September 18, when six were seen with a large flock 
of T. a. pacijica at St Michael. We did not see more than a dozen 
of this species during the rest of September. Although the species 
has not been hitherto recorded from St. George Island, we took three 
and saw about a dozen during the short time we were there October 3. 
At Unalaska, October 5, I secured one which was with T. couesi on 
the rocky beach. The irides were vandyke brown; maxilla and distal 
half of mandible, dark seal brown, mandible changing to dull olive buff 
at base; gape ecru drab; tarsi and toes, greenish maize yellow; nails 

53. Tringa maculata. Pectoral Sandpiper. 

This species was present throughout our stay at St. Michael, usually 
associating with flocks of T. a. paciflca, but in very small numbers, 
not more than twenty being seen. All the specimens taken were 
young birds. Osgood took one at St. George October 3, and 1 one at 
Unalaska October 5. 

ocr.,1900.1 BIRDS OF THE YUKON REGION. <*>7 

54. Tringa bairdi. Baird Sandpiper. 

Two .sandpipers, probably of this species. Hew by us <>n Lake Marsh, 
and we saw tour more in the marshes of Lower Lebarge, but failed 
to secure an}' of them. I shot one young bird near the Tahkandik 
River August 7. Osgood shot one from a flock of four at Circle 
August 1 5, and another near Fort Yukon August 21. 

55. Tringa minutilla. Least Sandpiper. 

At the southern end of Lake Marsh, not far from where Six-Mile 
River enters, the surrounding country is level, and at high water the 
lake stretches far back through a dense growth of willows. At the 
time of our visit the retreating water of the lake had left a bell of 
grass between these willows and its margin. Here on the evening of 
July 2 I found three pairs of least sandpipers, and after a long search, 
somewhat interrupted by hordes of mosquitoes, I came upon a female 
surrounded by four downy young*. Both parents tried time and 
again the well-known 'wounded-bird' tactics to lure me from the spot 
where the young were hidden in the bunches of grass, and, finding 
this a failure, would circle around me only a few yards off, uttering a 
plaintive twitter. I saw two other least sandpipers on the west shore 
of Lake Marsh July 7. 

Natal plumage: Lower parts, forehead and orbital region, brownish 
white. Upperparts bright cinnamon rufous mottled with black; many 
feathers, especially on head, rump, and tail, tipped with white. Post- 
orbital line and loral line blackish, and spot of bright cinnamon rufous 
on sides of chest. Irides dark brown; bill and nails, slate black; tarsi 
and toes, pale slate. 

56. Tringa alpina pacifica. Red-backed Sandpiper. 

Young red-backed sandpipers were very abundant at St. Michael 
during our stay, many times outnumbering all other Limicohe. Early 
in September they frequented chiefly the mud flats on the coast, but 
after the middle of the month large numbers were found only about 
the pools of the salt marsh. September 24, when the tundra was quite 
thoroughly frozen, with snow in every hollow and a skimming of 
ice on the pools, I saw at least one hundred in this latter place. 

In several taken early in September the back of the neck was still 
covered with down, but the majority were in full juvenile plumage. 
Sonic -till retained this plumage at the time we left St. Michael, but 
the larger portion had molted into winter plumage. Only two adults 
weir taken, September 1 and 5. A few were seen at St. George 
Island October 3. 

57. Calidris arenaria. Sanderling. 

1 saw three at St. Michael September 11 and collected one. which 
proved to lie a young female. 


58. Totanus flavipes. Yellow-legs. 

On July 1, while floating down Six-Mile River close to its entrance 
into Lake Marsh, we were attracted by the anxious cries of a pair of 
yellow-legs. Osgood shot both birds, and we found two downy young 
in the grass on the shore of the river. Entering Lake Marsh we 
heard a yellow-legs' whistle, and on July 2 I saw a yellow-legs near 
where I found the least sandpiper. I collected a female on the west 
shore of Lake Marsh July 8, and a male, the last bird of this species 
seen, near a small pond at Lower Lebarge July 17. Both these birds 
undoubtedly had eggs or young close by, for they alighted exclusively 
in trees, scolded vociferously, tilting the body with each cry, and 
refused to leave. Bare spaces on the breast show that both sexes 
assist in incubation. 

Natal plumage: Upperparts and thighs, dark seal brown, many of 
the feathers tipped with cream buff and whitish; longitudinal lines on 
rump, cream color, inclosing central, seal-brown space. Forehead, 
buffy white, extending in narrow lines on sides of crown to occiput, 
and in broader lines above eye to nape, the latter crossed by trans- 
verse dark lines extending from eye to occiput. Line beginning at 
base of culmen enlarged to dark space on crown and occiput, extend- 
ing down neck to back, seal brown; other dark lines extending from 
crown above eye to occiput, and from nostrils through eye to nape. 
Throat and center of abdomen silvery white; rest of lower parts and 
sides of neck, buffy white; each feather of lower parts becoming 
brownish black at base. Irides, Vandyke brown; bill, black at tip, 
changing to greenish olive at base; tarsi and toes, yellow, paler than 
in adult, and mottled with brown; nails, brown. The juvenile plumage 
is appearing, in this specimen, on wings, wing coverts, chest, and sides. 

59. Helodromas solitarius cinnamomeus. Western Solitary Sandpiper. 
At Log Cabin, British Columbia, on the evening of June 14, we 

noticed a sandpiper wheeling through the air, like the woodcock at its 
breeding place, occasionally uttering a rather musical whistle. The 
next morning I found it feeding in a small swamp. It proved to be a 
solitary sandpiper, as I had suspected on the previous evening. 
Osgood saw another near Lake Marsh July 5, and I saw two near 
Little Salmon River July 21. On July 8, after rowing a few miles 
down Lake Marsh, we stopped for lunch on the west shore, where a 
forest tire had killed most of the trees, and fallen trunks piled in end- 
less confusion, brush, small pools, and hordes of mosquitoes rendered 
the place anything but a paradise. Here 1 startled a solitary sand- 
piper and a yellow-legs at the same instant. They lighted on the half- 
fallen trees and scolded me, tilting their bodies at each cry. The 
solitary sandpiper, which doubtless had a nest there, differed chiefly 
from eastern specimens of solita/rius in having dark, wavy markings 

oct., 1900.] BIRDS OF THE YUKON REGION. 69 

on inner webs of outer primaries. Osgood took a typical young of 
dnnamomeus and saw another on an island near Sixty-Mile Creek 
August 1. 

60. Symphemia semipalmata inornata. Western Willet. 

While in a meadow a short distance back from the southeast end of 
Lake Marsh July 2 I heard a willet whistle several times its unmis- 
takable 'pill-willet,' but failed to see the bird. 

61. Heteractitis incanus. Wandering Tattler. 

Osgood took an adult at Skagway May 31. I shot a young bird 
from a flock of three at St. Michael September 1, saw one on Whale 
Island September 8, and secured two at Unalaska October 5. 

The irides of the adult were vandyke brown; bill, black, base of 
mandible brownish; tarsi and toes, brownish ocher; nails, black. In 
the } T oung, the bill changed from black to sage green in basal third of 
mandible, and to greenish olive at base of maxilla; tarsi and toes, 
dull gallstone yellow, greenish at joints. 

62. Actitis macularia. Spotted Sandpiper. 

1 saw one at Skagwa}' June 3, and Osgood one at Glacier June 8. 
This is preeminently the shore bird of the Yukon Basin; we saw two 
at Bennett June 18, and until we reached Circle, August 15, hardly 
a day passed without our seeing many running along the shore, or 
skimming over the river. They were especially abundant between 
White Horse Rapids and Lake Lebarge. After the 1st of August 
most of the spotted sandpipers seen seemed to be traveling upstream 
in small flocks. We saw no adults after August 4. 

The first set of eggs w r as found at Caribou Crossing June 27; the 
last at the Tatchun River July 23. The first young noticed were in a 
nest containing three young and one pipped egir found on Lake Marsh 
July 7. Both sexes were incubating. Nests were close to the shore, 
and also on small rocky islands in the lakes. 

63. Numenius hudsonicus. Hudsonian Curlew. 

I secured one from a flock of four curlews on the marshes of Chilkat 
Inlet, and Osgood found a dead bird in the woods at Haines, June 1. 
Three young were brought to the steamer by an Eskimo at the Aphoon 
mouth August 28. I saw one at St. Michael September 2, and, I think, 
another September 14. 

Adult: Irides, vandyke brown; bill and nails; black; tarsi and toes 
cinereous. Young (Massachusetts specimen): Irides, raw umber; 
maxilla, black; mandible, clove brown, blackish at tip, vinaceous 
toward base; tarsi and toes, olive gray; nails, black. 


61. Squatarola squatarola. Black-bellied Plover. 

At the Aphoon mouth of the Yukon I saw a flock August 28. 
Osgood saw three young which had been shot on the mainland near 
St. Michael September 10, and from this date to the end of our stay 
we saw occasionally one or two birds of the year, one of which was 
taken September 16. 

65. Charadrius dominieus fulvus. Pacific Golden Plover. 

None were seen until September 16, after which young birds became 
fairly common on the boggy tundra about St. Michael and the mud 
flats along the shore. The only adult seen was taken by Osgood Sep- 
tember 25. We saw a number of young birds on St. George Island 
October 3, and Osgood secured one. Crossing Bering Sea we saw some 
near Unalaska October 4, and 1 saw one on October 8, when we were 
several hundred miles south of the Aleutian Islands. This bird flew 
several times around the Corwin, answering my every whistle, and 
seemed anxious to alight. The specimens collected differ greatly in the 
amount of the golden coloring, but all are far more golden than Massa- 
chusetts skins of dominicus, and all have the shorter wings of fulvus. 
Irides, Vandyke brown; bill and nails, black; tarsi and toes, slate 

66. iEgialitis semipalmata. Semipalmated Plover. 

Osgood collected a male at Caribou Crossing June 21. and a pair of 
adults and one pipped egg at the southern end of Lake Marsh July 
2. I removed the young bird from the shell, and within half an hour 
the down was almost dry, the eyes were open, and it could hop about 
on its 'knees.' 1 Maddren took another adult at this place July 6, and 
I a female and four eggs nearly hatched, on the west shore of Lake 
Marsh on the same day- The nest was a hollow, lined with a few 
grasses and dead leaves, and was situated about 8 feet from the water 
in the drift debris among the stones of the beach. We saw three or 
four on a sand flat near Charlie Village August 10; a few about 15 
miles above Circle August 12, and the last at Circle August 15. 

Bare pectoral spaces showed that both sexes assist in incubation. 
Natal plumage: Lower parts, white, separated by broad bare space on 
neck, changing to cream color on lower tail coverts. Above, cream 
-color, mottled with black, changing to buff on wings and tail. Fore- 
head and infraorbital patches, cream color; broad band on neck 
encircling head, white, bordered above by narrow band of black 
extending from bill around occiput, and connecting in malar region 
with black line leading to inner canthus of eye. Spot on forehead, on 
sides of chest at lower border of bare space, on sides and on flanks, 
black. Irides, dark; bill and nails, black; tarsi and toes, slate color, 
whitish posteriorly. 


67. Arenaria melanocephala. Black Turnstone. 

We found a small flock on the rocky .shore at St. Michael August 
31; I took three young- there the next day, and on September ."• 1 saw 
a single turnstone flying across the marsh. On St. George I slant I. 
October 5, we saw a number of birds that we had no doubt were black 
turnstones, but I do not tind this species recorded from the Pribilofs, 
and we were unable to obtain specimens. Irides, Vandyke brown; 
bill, olive black; tarsi and toes varying- from clay color to vinaceous 
cinnamon, and washed with black; nails, black. 

68. Dendragapus obscurus fuliginosus. Sooty Grouse. 

We were told that grouse were common on the heights above Skag- 
way. but although we often found droppings we saw no birds, and the 
spring "calling' of the male had ceased. Maddren and J heard a bird 
that must have been this species "booming- 1 far up on the hillside from 
the ravine above Glacier June 8. 

69. Canachites canadensis osgoodi. Alaska Grouse. 
Canachites canadensis osgoodi Bishop, Auk, XVII, 114, April, 1900. 

We first met the Alaska grouse at Bennett City, where Osgood shot 
a laying female June 22. At Caribou Crossing he found feathers of 
this grouse in a magpie's nest and in one of his mammal traps. At 
Lake Marsh he shot four females and four young July 4-5, at Lake 
Lebarge a female July 11, at Lower Lebarge a female and one young 
July IT, and on Thirty -Mile River an adult male July 19. He found 
the birds frequenting the thickets of poplars and young spruces and 
remarkably easy to approach. I saw a male at Lake Lebarge July 16, 
and shot a well-grown young near the Tatchun River July 16, but 
did not meet with the species elsewhere. This bird was reported as 
common at Lower Lebarge by the police sergeant stationed there: at 
Rampart City by Mr. Burkman, and along the Kuskokwim by Dr. 

70. Bonasa umbellus umbelloides. Gray Ruffed Grouse. 

I secured a female and one young bird on the west shore of Lake 
Lebarge July 14, and another female that had a brood of young, two- 
thirds grown, at Lower Lebarge July 17. Osgood took a .young bird 
from a covey near Rink Rapids Juty 22. The sergeant at Lower 
Lebarge called this species rare, but 1 was told it was common near 
Rampart City. 

71. Lagopus lagopus. Willow Ptarmigan. 

Two flocks were found on the tundra at the Aphoon mouth August 
28, one alighting close to the steamer. Not seen at St. Michael until 
September 11, when about one hundred appeared. These were seen 
frequently after this date, but were exceedingly shy. Most of those 


taken were young- birds, and all were in full molt. The irides of a 
young male taken September 19 were vandyke brown; skin above 
eye, rufous; bill, slate black, whitish at tip and salmon buff at base of 
mandible; nails, white. 

We were told that ptarmigan were very abundant near Atlin, British 
Columbia, at the head waters of the Porcupine River and Birch Creek, 
near Rampart City, along the Kuskokwim, and in winter at Glacier 
and Lower Lebarge. Doubtless some of these statements refer to the 
following species. 

72. Lagopus rupestris. Rock Ptarmigan. 

At White Pass Summit, June 11 and 13, we took three males still in 
white plumage (excepting a few dark feathers on head and lower 
neck), and saw a few others. Osgood found two eggs there, probably 
of the previous year, lying on the moss under an alpine hemlock. 
Dr. Romig told me that this sDecies was more common than L. lagopus 
along the Kuskokwim. 

[Lagopus rupestris nelsoni. Nelson Ptarmigan. We were told at 
Unalaska that this species had been abundant during the summer on 
Unalaska Island, but that the birds had been almost exterminated by 
the officers of an English man-of-war. We saw none during the day 
and a half we were there.] 

73. Lagopus leucurus. White-tailed Ptarmigan. 

Osgood took a white-tailed ptarmigan June 8 on the summit of the 
cliffs above Glacier, and saw several other ptarmigan, probably of this 
species. On June 8 he found at the same place, on the moss under an 
alpine hemlock, fragments of two ptarmigan eggs, sparingly dotted 
with brown as in leucurus. 

71. Circus hudsonius. Marsh Hawk. 

We saw one at Lake Marsh July 8, one at Lake Lebarge July 12, 
a young bird on which duck hawks were feeding near the Tahkandik 
River August 7, one about 20 miles above Circle August 12, and two 
at Circle August 15 and 20. At the Aphoon mouth 1 saw several 
August 28. At St. Michael we secured a young bird September 2, 
and saw single marsh hawks on September 6, 7, and 11. The young 
bird taken is noticeably darker than young from Dakota and New 

75. Accipiter velox. Sharp-shinned Hawk. 

I saw one at Lower Lebarge Jul}" 17, and two near White River 
July 30; Osgood found one feeding on a thrush near Charlie Creek 
August 9; at Circle I saw one August 17 and shot an adult female 
August 19. Osgood found a nest of this species, about 15 feet 

oct.,1900.] BIRDS OF THE YUKON REGION. 73 

from the ground, in a small .spruce in the center of an island near the 
Nordenskiold River July 22, and 1 secured the female, whose crop 
held the tibia, tarsus, and toes of a nicker. The nest contained three 
downy, but very pugnacious young, one infertile egg, and the remains 
of a young intermediate sparrow. I kept two of the young alive 
until July 31, when both were well feathered and trying to fly and 
were as irascible as ever. The last survivor succeeded in getting out 
of his box w'lile we were moored at Dawson, flew into the Yukon, and 
was carried rapidly along by the current, though struggling valiantly 
to reach the shore. 1 suspect that it succeeded, as I heard a man who 
hurried after it say later that he would have ' fricasseed chicken for 
dinner. 1 

76. Accipiter atricapillus. American Goshawk. 

I saw an adult flying high above the shore of Lake Marsh July 8 
with a mammal, probably a ground squirrel, in its talons. 

77. Buteo borealis calurus. Western Red -tail. 

This is presumably the common hawk of the Upper Yukon; for the 
two large hawks taken are this species, and the numerous others seen 
resembled these in appearauce, flight, and cry. About half were in 
the melanistic plumage. 

Passing down Six-Mile River July 1 we saw three large buteos 
circling, and we noticed others frequently, usually in pairs, until we 
left Circle. Osgood and Maddren found a nest near Lake Marsh July 
5 regarding which a pair of these birds were very solicitous. It was 
high in a spruce, and was empty except for a dead ground squirrel. 
On Fifty-Mile River July 10 I found a nest that was about 55 feet up 
in a spruce and contained two downy 3 T oung. Osgood shot the female, 
which was in light plumage; the male, a melanistic bird, escaped. 
Osgood shot a melanistic female at Lower Lebarge July 17, and I 
found a pair — one light, the other dark — near Fort Selkirk July 25. 
These had a nest that was 60 feet up in a spruce and contained two 
young able to fly. I saw another nest with the birds about it on an 
island near the White River July 31. 

78. Archibuteo lagopus. Rough-legged Hawk. 

On September 1, 6, 7, and 9 we saw at St. Michael large hawks 
which from their proportions and flight were either buteos or archi- 
buteos. Osgood shot one on Whale Island September 8, but could 
not retrieve it. Mr. Nelson's experience with the hawk family at St. 
Michael leads me to refer these birds to this species. 

79. Haligeetus albicilla. Gray Sea Eagle. 

Lieutenant Satterlee, of the Corwm, found a dead binl of this 
species at Unalaska October 5, which proved to be a young female. 


The wings had been removed at the carpal joint, but the unruffled 
plumage — the down yet persisting on the ends of the secondaries — 
removes all probability that it had been a caged bird. This is the first 
record of the occurrence of this species in western North America, 
although it is common in Japan and occurs in Kamchatka and occa- 
sionally on the Commander Islands. 

80. Haliaeetus leucocephalus alascanus. Northern Bald Eagle. 

We found this bird common along the Inside Passage, especially 
near Wrangell Narrows, and from the steamer I noticed three occupied 
nests. We visited one which was high in a gigantic dead cedar on a 
small island near Bocadequadra. Broken shells at the foot of the tree 
made it probable that the nest contained young. The female parent 
was secured by Maddren. On the flats of Chilkat Inlet June 1 I saw 
28 eagles feeding. Here I found another occupied nest at least 100 
feet up in a living spruce (it was so high that heavy charges of No. 4 
shot did the bird no harm). A man passing by shot the male with a 
rifle. The next day I saw the female again on the nest. In the interior 
this bird is much rarer, though I saw one at Log Cabin June 20, and 
another at Bennett June 19. We saw the birds occasionally about the 
lakes (I found a deserted nest on Lake Marsh), and once or twice 
along the river, the last being observed near the White River July 31. 

81. Falco rusticolus. Gray Gyrfalcon. 

A female was caught in a steel trap set on a post at St. Michael 
September 21. Its stomach contained feathers. The irides were 
Vandyke brown; tip of bill and nails, black; tarsi, toes, cere, gape, 
and rest of bill, pearl gray, the bill changing to pearl blue on maxilla 
near commissure. 

82. Falco peregriims anatum. Duck Hawk. 

At Fort Selkirk the character of the Yukon Valley changes, and 
the high, sandy bluffs which have been constantly visible on one bank 
or the other are frequently replaced by rocky cliffs of varying height. 
Flying about one of these cliffs near Stewart River Jul} 7 31 was the 
first duck hawk we noted. From that point to the Yukon Flats, a 
few miles above Circle, a da} T seldom passed without our seeing or 
hearing them, and from Camp Davidson to Circle I think there was 
at least one breeding pair every 10 miles. We saw a number of their 
nests on shelves on the cliffs, but at this time, the first half of August, 
the young had flown. 

Osgood secured a young female August 5 on the cliff known as 
'Old Woman,' and an adult female August 7 near the Tahkandik River, 
and shot several others which he failed to bag. I took a young male 
from a family on ' Castle Rock' August 5. We found that those taken 


had been feeding on marsh hawks. Alaska jays, white-winged cross- 
bills, intermediate sparrows, and varied thrushes. 

1 saw two duck hawks near Nulato August 24, and a tame young 
bird spent part of the rainy evening- of August 30 perched on the back 
of a chair in the hotel at St. Michael. The cere and hill of the young- 
male were french gray, changing to black on tip of bill and along 
culmen and cere above; tarsi and toes, pale, grayish green; soles, tarsi 
behind, and edges of scutellse in front, yellow; nails, black. 

83. Falco peregrinus pealei. Peale Falcon. 

One flew around the Corwvn when we were some distance south of 
the Aleutian Islands and out of sight of land October 7. 

84. Falco columbarius. Pigeon Hawk. 

We saw a pigeon hawk feeding on a large vole near Charlie (reek 
August 8. Osgood took a young male at a point 12 miles above Circle 
August 13. and I saw one at the Aphoon mouth August 28. 

85. Falco columbarius richardsoni. Richardson Merlin. 

At Circle August 18 I shot a young female merlin which is inter- 
mediate between cohimhariw and richardsoni. In general coloring 
both above and below, it is between typical examples of the two 
forms and approaches very closely a specimen of richardsoni taken by 
Captain Bendire at Walla Walla, Washington, December 3, 1880, and 
now in the American Museum of Natural History. My bird has light 
spots on outer webs of primaries and six light bars on tail similar to 
those of richardsoni, but the bars are narrower and more interrupted. 
The crop and stomach contained the remains of a red-backed mouse. 
The irides were vandyke brown; cere, greenish-yellow; maxilla, slate 
black at tip. changing to greenish-white toward cere and pale french 
gray at commissure; mandible, pale dull greenish, changing to pale 
french gray toward tip and commissure; tarsi and toes, straw yellow, 
the latter inclining toward sulphur yellow T ; nails, black. Mr. Cant- 
well writes in the L Osprey ' 1 of having seen Richardson's merlin, but 
does not state that he took specimens. These are the only records for 
this bird in the Yukon Valley. 

86. Falco sparverius. American Sparrow Hawk. 

We saw this species at Log- Cabin June 14, Semenow Hills July 19 
and 20, near the Tatchun River July 23, near Fort Selkirk July 26, 
about 30 miles below Fort Selkirk July 28, and, 1 think, at Circle 
August 15. We took specimens on July 19 and 28. This species has 
not previously been reported from along the Yukon. 

1 Osprey, III, 25, Oct., 1898. 


[Pandion haliaetus carolinemis. American Osprey. While the 
steamer was anchored near Holy Cross Mission August 25, one of the 
passengers, Mr. J. F. Burkman, fired at, but failed to get, a large 
hawk which he was positive was this species. As Mr. Nelson records 
it from the Lower Yukon, I see no reason to doubt Mr. Burkman's 

87. Asio accipitrinus. Short-eared Owl. 

We saw a short-eared owl flying overhead at St. Michael on the 
evening of September 7, and I flushed one from some bushes on Whale 
Island the next day. September 9 I set three steel traps near St. 
Michael on poles in the tundra. One of them failed to catch anything, 
but before September 25 the others yielded 6 short-eared owls and the 
nails of another. These birds had been feeding on mice and shrews. 
Osgood shot a short-eared owl at Unalaska October 5. These speci- 
mens average slightly darker, with the white of the face purer, than 
fall birds from New England. 

88. Scotiaptex cinerea. Great Gra} T Owl. 

From some low growth on a steep hillside at Miles Canyon July 11 
we flushed a large gray owl that I am confident was this species. We 
saw a mounted specimen in Dawson August 2 and I was told at 
Circle that an owl answering the description of this species had been 
killed there recently. 

89. Nyctala tengmalmi richardsoni. Richardson Owl. 

While lying awake under my mosquito netting in a clearing at the 
base of the Semenow Hills on the night of July 19 I saw a small, 
round-headed owl alight on the limb of a dead tree only a few feet 
away. It flow before I could bring my gun to bear, but I have no 
doubt it was this species. Osgood took a young bird near Rink Rap- 
ids July 22. I was told at Circle that a small owl was common there, 
and that one had been caught recently. 

90. ? Megascops asio kennicotti. Kennicott Screech Owl. 

A reddish-brown owl, of the size and appearance of a screech owl, 
was seen by Maddren and myself at Caribou Crossing on the afternoon 
of June 27. We were drawn from camp by its peculiar notes, and 
saw it fly from a poplar across an opening to a spruce thicket. Later 
that day Osgood caught a glimpse of another, or perhaps the same 
bird, as it flew from the top of a small poplar. 

91. Bubo virginianus pallescens. Western Horned Owl. 

Owl pellets, some of them remarkably large, containing chiefly 
bones of rabbits, ground squirrels, and red squirrels, were found in 
great abundance, especially at Caribou Crossing and on Windy Island, 
Lake Tagish, but the most careful hunting failed to disclose the owls. 

ocr.,1900.] BIRDS OF THE YUKON REGION. 77 

On Fifty-Mile River, near Lake Marsh July 8, we heard the hoot- 
ing of a horned owl; and at our camp at Lower Lebargeone flow over, 
about midnight July 16, and lit in the top of a spruce just out of gun- 
shot. I hurried after it but merely succeeded in seeing the bird 
swoop into the surrounding gloom. 

At our camp near the Tatchun River July 22 one flew by and set- 
tled for an instant not far off; and the next day Osgood saw three 
extremely light-colored horned owls near by. We also heard the hoot- 
ing of this species near the Yukon at the following places: Near 
Little Salmon River July 21, 20 miles below Fort Selkirk July 27, 
20 miles below the Selwyn River July 29, near the Tatondu River 
August 6, about 15 miles above Circle August 12, and opposite Circle 
August 14. In the last case the identification is not without doubt, 
but the notes of the others were unmistakable. 

[Surnia vfojUa caparoch. American Hawk Owl. At Bennett, June 
18-22, a bird with a peculiarly weird cry flew about the cliffs above 
our camp every night. By a process of elimination 1 have attributed 
the serenade to this species.] 

92. Ceryle alcyon. Belted Kingfisher. 

This bird occurs about the Yukon lakes, but in small numbers. 
Osgood saw one at Bennett June 20; I heard one at Caribou Crossing- 
June 29, and saw another on Lake Lebarge July 13. 

We found kingfishers fairh T common on Fifty-Mile River, and still 
more common on Thirty -Mile River. As the cliff's replaced the high 
banks below Fort Selkirk kingfishers became fewer, and none were 
seen after August -1, when we were about -10 miles below Dawson. 
Young able to fly were seen near Five-Finger Rapids July 22. 

93. Dryobates villosus leucomelas. Northern Hairy Woodpecker. 
Osgood took a single hairy woodpecker on Fifty -Mile River a few 

miles above Miles Canyon July 10. 

91. ? Dryobates villosus hyloscopus. Cabanis Woodpecker. 

Near the Little Salmon River July 21 I took a young female that 
corresponded in size and plumage with some young of this subspecies. 
It was seated in the entrance to a cavity in a burnt spruce. This is 
the first record of the occurrence of this bird in the Yukon Basin. 

95. Picoides arcticus. Arctic Three-toed Woodpecker. 

On July 1 I was attracted by the loud cries of a young bird, and 
traced the sound about 100 yards through a spruce grove on the bank 
of Six-Mile River. The noise proceeded from a full-fledged young 
woodpecker of this species that had thrust its head out of the opening 
to its house and kept up a continual screaming. With Osgood's assist- 
ance, the nest was opened but only this young bird was found. The 


entrance was 5 feet 8 inches from the ground, on the lower side of a 
living, slightly leaning spruce, and the cavity was 10 inches deep. 
Osgood shot what we both supposed was one of the parents, for it cer- 
tainly came in answer to the cries of the young; yet this bird proved 
to be a typical adult male of P. americd-nus alascensls. We saw no 
other woodpeckers there, except flickers. 

96. Picoides americanus alascensis. Alaska Three-toed Woodpecker. 
Osgood found the remains of an Alaska three-toed woodpecker at 

Haines June 1, and I shot a laying female near Glacier June 10. In 
the Yukon Valley we secured one on Six-Mile River; three on Fifty- 
Mile River above Miles Canyon July 10-11, two of them young 
adults; two on the Lewes River between Big Salmon and Little Salmon 
rivers July 20-21, and two at Circle, August 19-20. The young have 
whiter backs than the adults. 

97. Sphyrapicus ruber. Red-breasted Sapsucker. 

I took an adult male at Skagway May 31, and heard what 1 suppose 
was its mate. 

98. Colaptes auratus luteus. Northern Flicker. 

We saw and heard flickers several times at Glacier. One, which 
Osgood flushed from a hole high in a dead pine June 8, had yellow quills. 
In the Yukon Valley this is by far the most common woodpecker. 
We found it quite regularly from Log Cabin to Circle, but, like most 
Yukon birds, it was shy. At Caribou Crossing June 27 Osgood secured 
a female and found her nest, containing 8 young and 3 eggs, in a cavity 
3 feet from the ground in a partly dead poplar. At Six-Mile River 
we found a nest about 6 feet from the ground, and at Lower Lebarge 
July 17 I found 7 well-Hedged young in a cavity about 5 feet from the 
ground in a small dead tree in a burnt tract. July 25 1 took a full- 
grown young near Selkirk. 

Adult flickers from Alaska average slightly darker than luteus from 
Canada and farther south, the wings, tail, and bars of upperparts 
being somewhat blacker, and the light parts more olive and less buffy. 
Three young — one from near Fort Selkirk, the others nestlings from 
Lower Lebarge — show this difference in a marked degree, having the 
wings, tail, and bars of upperparts deep black, and the ground color 
above smoky olive, instead of buffy olive as in luteus; they are even 
darker than the young of auratus from Florida. But the slightness 
of the difference shown by the adults, the small number of specimens 
from Alaska, and the possibility that the plumage of the three young 
may have been discolored by the burnt trees where they were found- 
though microscopic examination shows no sign of this — make their 
separation as a subspecies inadvisable at present. 

oct.,1900.] BIRDS OF THE YUKON REGION. 79 

99. Chordeiles virginianus. Nighthawk. 

From Caribou Crossing, where 1 shot two females June 27, until 
after passing the mouth of the Tatchun River July 24, we met with 
nighthawks on numerous occasions. I took an adult male at White 
Horse Rapids July 11. These birds were very fat, as might beexpected 
from the abundance of flying insects. They are slightly darker than 
virginianus from the East. 

100. Selasphorus rufus. Rufous Hummingbird. 

We saw a rufous hummingbird on 'Eagle Island' at Bocadequadra 
May 28. At Glacier Osgood saw one June 6, and on June lo I found 
a nest with two slightly incubated eggs 3| feet from the ground on 
the branch of a small conifer near the falls of the river. I secured 
the female, and also one of two males which I saw the same day in the 
open country below Glacier. On Lake Bennett we saw one opposite 
West Arm June 24. Mr. George G. Cantwell has already added 
both this species and Cli<>r<l< iles virginianus to the Yukon avifauna. 1 

101. Sayornis saya yukonensis. Yukon Phoebe. 
Sayornis soya yukonensis Bishop, Auk, XVII, 115, April, 1900. 

Osgood took the type specimen of this phoebe on the heights above 
Glacier June 8, and I saw one on the mountainside at Bennett June 17. 
We next met the bird about some cliffs below Fort Selkirk July 26, and 
after this saw family parties almost daily. Near Stewart River July 
31, we saw a pair about their nest on the face of a cliff a few feet 
above the water. After passing Charlie Creek August 10, we saw 
no more until we reached Circle, where I killed a young one August 
19. Full-grown young were taken July 30. The note is harsh, some- 
what resembling that of Oontopus richardsoni, but louder and shriller. 
We found the birds only about the cliffs, or the steep, grass-grown 
banks of the Y'ukon, a favorite perch being rocks along the shore. 
Those we met in August seemed to be migrating up the river. 

102. Contopus borealis. Olive-sided Flycatcher. 

At Six-Mile River I took a pair July 1, the female of which had 
finished laying. A bird which I heard near Bennett June 20, and a 
large flycatcher which I shot, but could not find, at Caribou Crossing 
June 25, I believe were this species. 

103. Contopus richardsoni saturatus. Alaska Wood Pewee. 
Contopus richardsoni saturatus Bishop, Auk, XVII, 116, April, 1900. 

Osgood took a wood pewee at Skagway May 30, and I two males at 
Haines June 2. In the Yukon Valley, from Windy Island, Lake 
Tagish, where I took a male June 30, until we passed Little Salmon 
River July 21, we often heard this bird's 'pee-ah' coming from the 

^sprey, III, 25, Oct., 1898. 


wooded banks. We next saw the bird about 12 miles above Circle, 
where I took a pair August 11. It was more common at Miles Can- 
yon than elsewhere on the Yukon, and here on July 11 I found an 
unfinished nest (which resembled that of C. richardsoni) in the fork 
of a half-dead poplar about 10 feet from the ground. No form of 
wood pewee has previously been recorded from the Yukon. 

101. Empidonax trailli alnorum. Alder Flycatcher. 

We first found this species July 26 at Fort Selkirk, where the Pelly 
River, from the Rocky Mountains, joining the Lewes, forms the 
Yukon, and hardly lost it again until we reached Circle; later I heard 
one 15 miles below Fort Yukon on August 21. Wherever we landed 
we found this or the Hammond flycatcher in the alders and willows. 
Full-grown young in juvenile plumage were taken on August 5. The 
adults are apparently typical alnorum, having the greener upperparts, 
more conspicuous wing bars, and shorter bill of this form. 

105. Empidonax hammondi. Hammond Fl} T catcher. 

We saw several Hammond flycatchers at Skagway, and collected 
three. I took one at Glacier June 8, and another on a hill above 
Caribou Crossing Juno 26. After this we did not again meet with 
the bird until about 15 miles below Selwyn River, where Osgood shot 
a young one July 29. From that point to Charlie Creek it was almost 
equally common with fflnpidonax t. alnorum, frequenting the same 
localities; but after passing Charlie Creek, August 9, we saw no more 
of it. The young secured were molting. The male collected at 
Caribou Crossing is unusually pale for hammondi, but this is doubtless 
the result of wear, as the same thing is shown in Oontopus saturatus 
and llylocichla almce. 

106. Pica pica hudsonica. American Magpie. 

Maddren saw a pair at Caribou Crossing June 26, and Osgood found 
their deserted nest. At Fort Selkirk July 26 I took two young — 
male and female — which had just assumed first winter plumage. They 
were feeding about the houses of the town. I was told that another 
young bird had been seen there recently. 

107. Cyanocitta stelleri. Steller Jay. 

Osgood found the remains of a Steller jay in the woods at Haines 
June 1. 

108. Perisoreus canadensis fumifrons. Alaska Jay. 

We first met this bird at Log Cabin, noted it also at Bennett and 
Caribou Crossing, and found it common from Lake Marsh to Circle, 
generally in families. Between White River and Circle it was less 
common than farther up the Yukon. I saw one 15 miles above Fort 

oot.. 1900.] BIRDS OF THE YUKON REGION. 81 

Yukon, hoard several at Hendricks Station August 25, and saw one at 
St. Michael September 18. 

Adults had completed the summer molt by July 20; the young were 
in full juvenile plumage on .June 20, and in first winter plumage on 
August 20. The molt is complete in the adults, while in the young 
the wings and tail remain unchanged. 

The adults collected are all intermediate between capitalis and 
fwmifronsj each has a black orbital ring, but this is broader in those 
from Circle. All those in juvenile plumage have the head dull plum- 
beous, like the back, as in Jwnifrons. 

109. Corvus corax principalis. Northern Raven. 

Of all the birds we met the raven occurred most regularly. On 
our entire trip down the Yukon hardly a day passed without our see- 
ing the birds in twos and threes. We saw a few at Wrangell, found 
them more common at Wrangell Narrows, saw several at Skagway, 
and noticed the wing of one at Glacier. A few were noted across 
White Pass at Middle Lake and they were abundant at Log Cabin. 
A flock of at least 200 was observed at the latter place June 20, and 
another of 50 at Bennett tw T o days later. During September at St. 
Michael we saw them frequently, but never in large numbers. At 
Unalaeka they were abundant and remarkably tame. 

An adult taken on June 20 is in fidl molt; a young taken July 22 
is in juvenile plumage; on one taken August 23 tin 1 body feathers of 
the first winter plumage have replaced most of the juvenile, and the 
change is complete in one taken September 9. 

[Corvus arnerica/n/us. American Crow. I was told by one of the 
prospectors whom I met on a Yukon steamer that the crow, as well as 
the northern raven, occurs at the head waters of the Porcupine.] 

110. Corvus caurinus. Northwest Crow. 

Common on ' Eagle Island ' at Bocadequadra, where Osgood found 
a finished but empty nest May 28. Crows were very common near 
Vancouver June 26, but we saw none after leaving Bocadequadra. 

111. Scolecophagus carolinus. Rusty Blackbird. 

Two blackbirds which I saw at Log Cabin June 15 were probably 
this species, and 1 was told that rusty blackbirds had been abundant 
there a few days before our visit. 

Osgood took a specimen near Fort Yukon August 21, and I saw a 
small flock at the Aphoon mouth August 28. 1 was informed that 
these birds breed in large numbers on the tundra by the Kuskokwim 
and at the head of the Porcupine. 

[ ( bceothraustes vespertin us monta/n us. Western Evening Grosbeak. 
A prospector told me that a grosbeak, whose description answered 
1191— No. 19 6 


that of this species, was common on the Copper River. He assured 
me it was not the pine grosbeak, which he knew well.] 

\Pinicola enucleator alascensis. Alaska Pine Grosbeak. A red bird 
with dark wings — certainly not a crossbill — which I saw at Lake Marsh 
July 8 was probably a pine grosbeak, but we did not meet with any 
others during our trip. I was told this bird occurs along the Porcu- 

112. Loxia curvirostra minor. Red Crossbill. 

Osgood took a red crossbill and saw another at Unalaska October 5. 
We did not take any along the Yukon, but I feel positive that a red 
male crossbill which I shot at Lake Lebarge July 16, but could not 
find, belonged to this species. 

113. Loxia leucoptera. White- winged Crossbill. 

Crossbills in flocks of from half a dozen to one hundred individuals 
were often seen from Lower Lebarge to Charlie Village July 16 to 
August 11. Most of these flocks were probably leucoptera, and some 
certainly were. They were exceedingly restless, and the only ones 
taken (besides those found in the crop of a duck hawk), were three 
young at Camp Davidson August 5-6. 

114. Leucosticte griseonucha. Aleutian Leucosticte. 

We saw a number of Aleutian leucostictes on St. George October 3. 
At Unalaska I saw a flock of about twenty and another of two young 
October 5, and secured an adult and one of the young. The latter is 
in juvenile plumage, feathers of the first winter appearing only on the 
sides of the chest. 

115. Leucosticte tephrocotis littoralis. Hepburn Leucosticte. 

We found this bird only at White Pass Summit, where Osgood took 
two males and I one female June 13. It is doubtless this species of 
Leucosticte to which Cantwell refers in his paper on the 'Birds of the 
Yukon Trail.' 1 

116. Acanthis hornemanni exilipes. Hoary Redpoll. 

I secured two young from a flock about 15 miles above Circle 
August 13, and Osgood one from a flock at Circle August 19. I saw 
several at the Aphoon mouth August 27, and we found them rather 
common in small flocks at St. Michael during September. All taken 
were }^oung and were molting from juvenile to first winter plumage. 

117. Acanthis linaria. Redpoll. 

We saw several, usually in pairs and very shy, at Bennett June 17. 
One stopped for an instant on a bush close to our tent. Near Charlie 
Village I saw a male in high plumage August 11. 

^sprey, III, 25, Oct., 1898. 

oct., 1900.1 BIRDS OF THE YUKON REGION. 83 

118. Spinus pinus. Pino Siskin. 

A very restless family of this species was seen on Windy Island, 
Lake Tagish, June 30, and Osgood secured one. 1 saw one at Lower 
Lebarge July L8, and took one from a small flock near the Selwyn 
River July 29, and Osgood one from a large flock near Sixty-Mile 
Creek July 31. We saw a large flock near Dawson August 1. a few 
near Forty-Mile Creek August 1, and Osgood saw one 15 miles above 
Circle August 12. Flocks of either this bird or redpolls were heard 
near the Tatondu River and Charlie Creek August 7-8. I find no 
former record of this species for the Yukon Valley. 

lll». Passerina nivalis. Snowflake. 

At White Pass Summit I shot a female June 12 that had an old 
fracture of the wing, which had healed in such a manner as to make 
long flight impossible. I was informed snowflakes had been very 
abundant there earlier in the year. At St. Michael I saw two Septem- 
ber 16, and a flock of about twenty September 19. Osgood took one 
from a small flock September 25, and I three on September 28. 

Snowflakes were common on St. George October 3, but the two 
young taken ( S and 9 ) are indistinguishable from those from St. 
Michael, and have bills smaller than the young of towns&h/M. 

120. Calcarius lapponicus alascensis. Alaska Longspur. 

I saw several small flocks at the Aphoon mouth August 27, and 
secured one specimen. A few were found at St. Michael the last of 
August, and large flocks there September 1-2. After that several 
were seen almost ever} 7 day until September 22, when the last were 
taken. Osgood saw several at St. George October 3, and 1 saw one 
at Unalaska October 5. 

121. Ammodranms sandwichensis. Sandwich Sparrow. 

A few were seen at Unalaska October 5-6, and two young secured. 

122. Ammodramus sandwichensis alaudinus. Western Savanna 

I saw several savanna sparrows on the marshes of Chilkat Inlet 
June 1. and we took one at Haines, one at Skagway, and tw T o at 
Glacier. Seyeral pairs were found on the marshes near Log Cabin, 
a few at Caribou Crossing, and one pair on an island in Lake Tagish. 
Thej 7 were fairly common about Lake Marsh, and Osgood found a set 
of four eggs there, securing the female July 5. After leaving Lake 
Marsh these sparrows were not seen again until we reached the Alaska 
boundary, when I took a young August 5. Osgood took a young 
specimen from a flock near Charlie Village August 10, and 3 r oung 
were common at Circle August 11—19. I saw a number at the 
Aphoon mouth August 27-28, and we found a few at St. Michael up 
to September 11. 


Breeding specimens from the Yukon lake region are indistinguish- 
able in size and color from alaudin us from North Dakota. Those from 
Haines and Glacier are larger in bill and other measurements, slightly 
darker, and more buffy, but evidently belong to the same form. A 
male taken at Skagway May 31 is identical in color with a female 
savanna taken in Connecticut about the same date, but in measure- 
ments intermediate between sandwichensls and alaudinus. Young 
birds from St. Michael and the Yukon below Camp Davidson resem- 
ble closely the young of savanna in coloring, and have bills slightly 
shorter and deeper than adult alaudinus from the Yukon lakes, but 
are larger and have longer wings and tails than the latter. 

123. Zonotrichia leucophrys gambeli. 1 Intermediate Sparrow. 

Descending from the bleak, snow-covered rocks of White Pass, we 
reached at Portage June 14 a country of a more luxuriant vegetation. 
Here the intermediate sparrow appeared, and it stayed with us con- 
stantly until we left Circle, August 20. At Fort Gibbon August 23 
I saw one adult and one young. With the exception of the bank 
swallow, this is the most abundant species inhabiting the Yukon Basin. 

At Log Cabin June 20 I took a laying female; on Windy Island 
June 30 Osgood took a young, able to fly, and at Lower Lebarge I 
shot one molting into first winter plumage. We found young 
abundant in this plumage at Circle August 15-20, but saw no adults. 
This species has two distinct songs. That most often heard is a very 
mediocre performance, but the other, which I heard in its full perfec- 
tion only on a hill at Caribou Crossing June 26, and about 2 a. m. on 
Fifty-Mile River July 9, possesses all the sweetness and clearness of 
the song of Z. alhicollls. By July 15 the song season was practically 
over, but I heard one bird singing as late as August 10. 

124. Zonotrichia coronata. Golden-crowned Sparrow. 

Osgood found the golden-crowned sparrow on the heights above 
Glacier June 5. It was common at White Pass summit June 11-14, 
and was the only bird we saw along the trail to Portage June 14. We 
thought we heard it singing at Log Cabin. The song does not equal 
those of others of the genus. Osgood found an almost finished nest 
in a conifer at Summit Lake June 12. It was composed of sticks and 
moss, lined with grass, and placed about 2i feet from the ground. 
The next day I shot a female that contained an egg ready for the shell. 

125. Spizella monticola ochracea. Western Tree Sparrow. 

At Haines I took a female June 2. At Caribou Crossing we took 
two pairs June 29, one of them with a nest containing three fresh eggs. 
The nest was buried in the moss at the base of a clump of willows in 

1 This is the species formerly known as Zonotrichia leucophrys intermedia Ridgway. 
See Ridgway, Auk, XVI, 36-37, 1899. 

oct., 1900.] BIRDS OF THE YUKON REGION. 85 

a willow swamp near the lake, and it was composed of line, dry grasses, 
lined with feathers, covered externally with a thick coating of living 
moss. The eggs, which average 0.80 by 0.57 inches, are pale pea green, 
heavily mottled over the entire surface with reddish fawn color. At 
Lake Marsh July 8 I took an adult female, and 15 miles above Circle 
August S a young bird molting- from the striped juvenile into the fall 
plumage. The species was abundant at Circle, and a number were 
seen on an island 15 miles above Fort Yukon August 21. I saw one 
at the Aphoon mouth August 27, and noticed seven during September 
at St. Michael, taking the last September 21. 

126. Spizella socialis arizonae. Western Chipping Sparrow. 

"We found this species almost daily from Log Cabin to Dawson, or 
between June 15 and August 1. In point of numbers it follows the 
intermediate sparrow and the slate-colored junco. It was last observed 
about 10 miles below Dawson August 3, but the range of the species 
may extend much farther north, as a large flock seen near the Selwyn 
River July 2!» showed that the fall migration had begun. 

We found a nest with four eggs at Lake Bennett June 24, large 
young in a nest on Lake Tagish June 30. Young able to fly were met 
with at Lake Marsh July 5, and a set of three eggs on Thirty -Mile 
River July 18. The nests were in small spruces, one 4 inches and 
another about 3 feet from the ground. 

Yukon chipping sparrows, females especially, average darker than 
typical arizoncB, but coincide in measurements. Turner reports this 
species from Fort Yukon. 1 

127. Junco hyemalis. Slate-colored Junco. 

From Log Cabin to Circle this bird occurs everywhere, contest- 
ing with the intermediate sparrow for supremacy in numbers. Two 
broods are, I think, regularly reared. Females taken at Log Cabin 
and Bennett had finished laying. On Windy Island June 30 I shot 
a young bird able to fly, and on the east shore of Lake Tagish 
the following day saw one pair building a nest and another feeding 
young. Maddren found a nest with four fresh eggs at Lake Marsh 
July 4, Osgood one with three fresh eggs at Lower Lebarge July 16, 
and I one with five young on Thirty-Mile River July 18, and another 
with four just hatched young near the Tatchun River July 23. By 
July 20 young in striped plumage were common, and August 2 I took 
one near Dawson molting into first winter plumage. The slate-colored 
junco, the intermediate sparrow, and the western chipping sparrow 
were most common about brush heaps left by lumbermen, weed-grown 
clearings resulting from forest fires, and cabins of the towns. Every 
nest found was sunk in the ground to the rim in an open place 

•Contrib. Xat. Hist. Alaska, 174, 1886. 


under a weed or a tussock of grass. One contained a few dark hairs 
besides the usual tine grass lining. Twenty adults differ from eastern 
summer specimens of hyemalis only in having in both sexes bills aver- 
aging 0.02 inch longer (measured from the nostril). 

128. Junco hyemalis oregonus. Oregon Junco. 

Tolerably common at Skagwa} 7 and more so at Haines. At Skagway 
I took a female and four fresh eggs May 31. The nest, of dried grass 
lined with short, white hairs, was sunk in the ground and concealed by 
dead weeds under a birch only about 30 feet above the water of Lynn 

129. Junco hyemalis connectens. Shufeldt Junco. 

Maddren took a female at Glacier June 7, a male was taken near 
White Pass City June 9, and Maddren saw several near there that 
day. I took a male below Glacier June 10, and saw and heard a 
number singing a few hundred feet above White Pass City, where the 
spruce woods gave place to more open country. Their song is quite 
distinct from that of oregonus. This is a new record for Alaska. 

130. Melospiza melodia rufina. Sooty Song Sparrow. 

We heard several singing at Skagway May 31, and Osgood saw 
some at Haines June 2. At Haines 1 took a male June 1, and a pair, 
the female of which had finished laying, June 2. 

131. Melospiza cinerea. Aleutian Song Sparrow. 

Abundant at Unalaska, October 5-7, frequenting the roofs of build- 
ings, lumber piles, wharves, beaches, and weeds of the level country 
and hillsides. The males were singing constantly, their song having 
the usual song sparrow character, but not the usual strength or beauty. 

132. Melospiza lincolni. Lincoln Sparrow. 

At Log Cabin June 15 we saw what was apparently a Lincoln 
sparrow. Osgood took a female and a set of live fresh eggs near 
Lake Marsh July 5, I another female on the west shore July 8, and 
we heard several singing near the lake. The nest found was composed 
of coarse grass lined with tine, and was in a tuft of grass in a swamp, 
about 1 inches above the water. We again met this species at 
Lower Lebarge, near Fort Selkirk, near the White River, at Camp 
Davidson, at Charlie Village, 15 miles above Circle, and at Circle, 
where one was taken August 19. July 27 a full-grown young was 
taken, and August 12 one that had almost finished molting into win- 
ter plumage. 

133. Melospiza lincolni striata. Forbush Sparrow. 

A Lincoln sparrow which Osgood saw at Haines June 1 should be 
referred to the northwestern subspecies. 

OCT., 1900. 


134. Passerella iliaca. Fox Sparrow. 

A wave of sparrows occured at Circle August li> just after a frosty 
night, and among other species I saw a single fox sparrow. The bird 
was too close to leave identification doubtful. 

135. Passerella iliaca townsendi. 1 Townsend Fox Sparrow. 

Osgood saw one at Skagway, and we noticed several at Glacier which 
were exceedingly shy. Osgood collected two at Glacier June 8-9, one 
of which was too badly shot to preserve; the other Mr. Ridgway 
pronounces somewhat nearer this form than annectms. 

136. Petrochelidon lunifrons. Cliff Swallow. 

This species was common at Log Cabin June 15 and 20. At Cari- 
bou Crossing we saw a few June 29, probably members of the small 
colony breeding on the cliffs of an island in Lake Tagish July 1. We 
next saw cliff swallows near the Hootalinqua River July 19, and from 
this point to a few miles above Dawson, August 1, we frequently met 
with colonies of varying size, the largest being near White River. 
Their nests were attached to cliffs bordering the river, except at Fort 
Selkirk, where they were breeding under the eaves of houses. Full- 
fledged young were taken July 25, and I think the absence of this spe- 
cies below Dawson was due to their having already migrated. I was 
told that both cliff and bank swallows were exceedingly abundant 
along the Porcupine. 

137. Hirundo erythrogastra unalaschkensis. 3 Alaska Swallow. 

A few were flying over the marshes of Chilkat Inlet June 1; 1 heard 
that they were common at White Pass City June 9, and we saw two 
about the buildings of White Pass Summit June 10. At Log Cabin 
they were common on June 11, 15, and 20, and on the last date I took 
a male. A few were noticed at Bennett June 19-21. I refer all seen 
to this subspecies, for all had remarkably long tails. The single 
specimen taken had a length of 7.96 inches, wing 4.68 inches, tail 4.10 
inches, fork of tail 2.33 inches. The forehead, lower wing-coverts, 
and abdomen are more highly colored than eastern skins of II. < rythro- 
gmtra, and the shafts of the long tail feathers are whitish. 

138. Tachycineta bicolor. Tree Swallow. 

I saw several at Skagw T ay May 31 and June 3, and over the Chilkat 
marshes June 1. We saw others near Caribou Crossing June 29; one 
July 6 and a pair July 7 at Lake Marsh; and several at Miles Canyon 
July 11. A few miles above Fort Selkirk July 25 I saw several enter- 
ing and leaving an old flicker hole in a dead spruce. 

JAuk, XVII, 30, Jan., 1900. 

2 Kept. Fur-Seal Investigations, 1896-97, pt. 3, 422, 1899. 


139. Tachycineta thalassina. Violet-green Swallow. 

Mr. Cantwell 1 has already added this species to the list of birds known 
to inhabit the Yukon Valley. We saw a single male among flocks of 
bank swallows flying over Fifty-Mile River above Miles Canyon July 
11 and another between White Horse Rapids and Lake Lebarge. On 
July 18 I took a male from several that we saw near Hootalinqua, 
and at the Semenow Hills July 20 Osgood secured a female, finding 
her nest with four young in a crevice in the cliffs. Maddren shot a 
young July 28. After this we frequently saw colonies of from six 
to ten birds of this species, and one near White River that must have 
contained over fifty. 

They were nesting about the cliffs as a rule, but several times we 
saw them enter holes in banks similar to those of Clivicola riparia, 
while at Fort Selkirk they were nesting in the interstices between the 
logs of the cabins. We often met with small colonies until within 15 
miles of Circle, but after August 5 they kept so high about the cliffs 
that identification was possible only by their characteristic twitter. 
The two adult males have green rumps. 

140. Clivicola riparia. Bank swallow. 

We found a small colony nesting at the northern end of Lake 
Tagish July 1, and a larger one on the west shore of Lake Marsh July 
7, but we were entirely unprepared for the great abundance of this 
species on Fifty-Mile River above Miles Canyon. There almost every 
bank was honeycombed with their holes. Along the rest of the Yukon 
as far as Circle bank swallows were common and often abundant, but 
after August 1 their former presence was generally manifested only 
by the deserted holes. At Circle 1 saw about thirty August 17, and 
a single bird on the following day. Eggs advanced in incubation 
were found July 7, and by the 22d the young were flying, and all 
acting as if preparing to migrate. As it grew dusk on the evening 
of August 5 we watched a large Hock which circled over the Yukon, 
rising higher with each revolution, and at last disappeared toward 
some mountains due south. 

141. Ampelis garrulus. Bohemian Waxwing. 

We saw several on Six -Mile River Jul}' 1, two at Lake Marsh July 
7, one on Fifty-Mile River July 10, two pairs (one of which was 
secured) at Miles Cai^on July 11, one at Lower Lebarge July 16, two 
about a mile apart on Thirty -Mile River July 18, and four near the 
Selwyn River July 28. We took two adults and three young from a 
flock of twenty about 15 miles below the Selwyn July 29, and four 
from a similiar flock near Sixty-Mile Creek July 31. We saw them 
again at the Chandindu River August 4, Camp Davidson August 5, 

• ^sprey, III, 25, Oct., 1898. 

oct., 1900.] RIRDS OF THE YUKON REGION. 89 

50 miles above Circle August LI, and 15 miles lower August L2. 
The female taken July 11, which Lacked the wax tips on the second- 
aries, contained an egg ready for the shell. The young- resemble those 
of A. cedrorvm, but are grayer, have less white on the abdomen, no 
pale streaking above, and have the wings, tail, and lower tail- 
coverts like adult ga/rrvlvs. They lack the cinnamon suffusion of the 
head of the adult, have only a few black feathers on the throat, a 
much shorter crest, the wax-like tips of the secondaries peach-blossom 
pink instead of scarlet, and the lower tail-coverts paler. A still 
younger bird than the two described is obscurely streaked with whitish 
both on back and lower parts. On one of the young' the wax tips are 
very small. 

In habits and notes the Bohemian waxwing closely resembles the 
common cedar wax wing. Two males that we noticed while descending 
Thirty-Mile River were perched on the topmost sprays of tall spruces, 
uttering a lisping whistle at frequent intervals. One of them Hew 
after a passing insect in the manner of a flycatcher. Flocks were 
easily approached, and when one bird was shot the rest would scatter, 
and each would alight on the top branch of some spruce and utter a 
characteristic call note. This note, which we often heard from pass- 
ing flocks, w T as similar to the whistle just mentioned. The birds that 
we collected had been feeding on the purple berries of some uniden- 
tified plant. 

142. Helminthophila celata. Orange-crowned Warbler. 

Osgood took an adult male at Caribou Crossing June 20; I a female 
and two young 20 miles below Fort Selkirk July 27, and a young near 
Dawson August 2. Osgood secured an adult and one young at Camp 
Davidson August 5 and 6, and I saw one young 15 miles above Fort 
Yukon August 21. All taken were in alders or willows close to the 

113. Helminthophila celata lutescens. Lutescent Warbler. 
Common at Haines, where we took live June 1 and 2. 

114. Helminthophila peregrina. Tennessee Warbler. 

Found only at Caribou Crossing, where I heard four males singing 
and secured three of them June 25 and 27. They were in compara- 
tively open swamps of willows and low spruces. 

145. Dendroica sestiva rubiginosa. 1 Alaska Yellow Warbler. 

I am positive I often heard the song of this ■species at Bennett June 
17-22. I took an adult male at Caribou Crossing June 27, and think 
I heard the song about Lake Marsh. An adult female was taken l>y 

x Auk, XIV, 76, 123, 1897. 


Osgood near the Nordenskiold River July 22, and family parties were 
often found in the alders and willow thickets between the Felly River 
and Circle. I took a young from a small flock 15 miles above Fort 
Yukon August 21, saw one at the Aphoon mouth August 28, and a few 
I thought this species at Hendricks Station August 25. Birds from 
the Yukon Valley do not differ from those of the Alaska coast. A 
young female is duller above and more buffy below than the young 
female of D. cestiva. 

116. Dendroica coronata hooveri. 1 Hoover Warbler. 

We found Hoover warblers common at Skagway, Glacier, Log 
Cabin, and Caribou Crossing, and also noted them at Haines, Bennett, 
Lake Tagish, Miles Canyon, White River, Sixty-Mile Creek, and 12 
miles above Circle. At Skagway May 31 they were still in flocks, 
but at Glacier June 1-10 they seemed to be mated and settled for the 
summer. At Log Cabin we found a flock June 15, but five days later 
those still remaining there were beginning to nest. A small flock seen 
on an island near Sixty-Mile Creek August 1 showed that the return 
migration had begun. I took a young in striped plumage August 1. 
Adult males average paler below than typical I). coronata, the black 
markings being narrower, thus giving an effect of broad longitudinal 
markings rather than black clouding on the chest. Eight specimens 
of both sexes average slightly larger in length of wing and tail than 
the corresponding sexes from eastern and central United States. In 
six males, the exposed culmen averages 0.02 inch longer than in males 
from Connecticut, but the bill from nostril averages the same, as do 
both measurements in females. In juvenile plumage hoover/' is darker 
than coronata^ the black markings are broader and blacker, both 
above and below, and the brownish edgings to the feathers greatly 
restricted— entirely wanting on the lower parts and middle back. 

117. Dendroica striata. Black-poll Warbler. 

At Log Cabin June 15 this species was common, but on my return 
June 20 I saw only one pair — which I secured — and one other male. 
July 5 I took a male at Lake Marsh. Two birds taken at Caribou 
Crossing are somewhat smaller than average specimens from Dakota 
and Connecticut. 

118. Dendroica townsendi. Townsend Warbler. 

Osgood took a male at Skagway May 31. At Glacier it was tolera- 
bly common in the dense woods of spruce and fir, and unquestionably 
nesting; altogether we noticed about twenty individuals during our 
stay. Osgood took an adult at the southern end of Lake Marsh July 
1, and I an adult female and young female on the west shore of Lake 

1 Bull. Cooper Omith. Club, I, 32, 1899. 

oct.,1900.] BIRDS OF THE YUKON REGION. 91 

Lebarge July 14. The juvenile plumage differs from that of D. virens 
only in being slightly less brown on crown and back. This is a new 
species for the Yukon Valley. 

149. Seiurus noveboracensis notabilis. Grinnell Water Thrush. 

The first sound that I heard on the morning of August 1. when we 
were on a small island about 1<» miles below Sixty-Mile Creek, was the 
unmistakable alarm note of the water thrush. This was the first time 
we had met with this species, and before starting that morning- on our 
daily Yukon drift, Osgood and I each secured a young bird. Near 
Forty-Mile Creek. Tatondu River, and Charlie Creek water thrushes 
were again met with. At Circle I saw several August 16-20, took one 
15 miles above Fort Yukon August 21, and saw two in a thicket at 
the Aphoon mouth August 28. The young in fall plumage taken on 
the Yukon are clove-brown above, including wings and tail — far darker 
than is usual in notabilis — and have darker streaks below. 

150. Wilsonia pusilla. Wilson Warbler. 

Osgood took an adult female near the Chandindu River August -1, 
and I a young female near Charlie Village August 11 and a young- 
male 25 miles above Circle August 12. 1 also saw one 3Q miles below 
Circle August 20. These birds, while not typical pusilla, are, like 
those of the Lower Yukon, nearer it than pileolata. 

151. Wilsonia pusilla pileolata. Pileolated Warbler. 

We found this the most abundant bird at Glacier June 5-10, fre- 
quenting the alder thickets from the valley as far as they extended up 
the hills. 1 saw a yellow warbler I thought this species on White Pass 
Summit June 12. Pileolated warblers were common at Log Cabin, 
Bennett, and Caribou Crossing, and I am confident I heard them 
singing at Lake Marsh. Adult males from Glacier resemble normal 
pileolata closely, but have the back rather more green; those from the 
Yukon Valley, while having the orange forehead and lower parts of 
this form, have the duller green back of pusilla. 

[Mbtaeilla ocularis. Swinhoe Wagtail. On the morning of August 
28 the Robert Kerr, on which I was a passenger, wajs hindered from 
proceeding by a gale and low water on the bar, and was made fast to 
the bank at the Aphoon mouth of the Yukon. As 1 came on deck I 
saw half a dozen w r hite wagtails fly about the vessel and settle in the 
grass close by. While I returned for my gun they left, but a thor- 
ough acquaintance with MotaciUa alba in Egypt, where it is abundant 
during the winter, leaves me no doubt that these birds were wagtails.] 

152. Anthus pensilvanicus. American Pipit. 

A male taken at Skagway June 3 was probably a belated migrant. 
On the heights above Glacier Osgood saw several June 5, and we 


found them common at Summit June 11-13. A female taken June 13 
was laying, and a fresh but empty nest I found the same day I attrib- 
uted to this species, no other being near. This nest was loosely 
formed of fine dry grass in a hollow in the deep moss which covered 
the almost perpendicular side of a bowlder lying on a hill high above 
Summit, only a small hole for entrance showing in the moss. We 
often saw the song-flight at Summit. Launching himself with a sharp 
preliminary ' chip ' from one of the granite bowlders that abound 
there, the male would rise rapidly to a height of a hundred feet or 
more, uttering a sweet, clear song. After poising high in air and 
repeating this song for several minutes the singer would slowly float 
toward earth and alight 100 yards from where he started, soon to repeat 
the same performance. We found a pair on the heights above Ben- 
nett June 17, and a few, possibly members of one family, at Circle 
August 15-20. 

153. Cinclus mexicanus. American Dipper. 

We collected a female and set of four fresh eggs at the falls at 
Glacier June 8. A single ouzel seen farther down the river June 10 
was probably the mate of the ore taken. Osgood also took one at 
Unalaska October 5. 

151. Anorthura hiemalis pacifica. Western Winter Wren. 

We noticed a few at Glacier June 4-10, and I took a male there 
June 6. 

155. Anorthura alascensis. Alaska Wren. 

I saw one at St. George October 3, and we collected five at Unalaska 
October 5. The young were then molting. 

156. Sitta canadensis. Red-breasted Nuthatch. 

I took a male at Skagway May 31 and another near Log Cabin 
June 20, and heard one on an island at the junction of the Lewes and 
Pelly rivers July 26. This species has not heretofore been noted in 
the Yukon Valley. 

157. Parus atricapillus septentrionalis. Long-tailed Chickadee. 

We took this species at Bennett June 19, west shore of Lake Ben- 
nett June 24, Caribou Crossing June 26, Lake Marsh July 7, and Lake 
Lebarge July 15, but did not notice it again until we reached the Lower 
Yukon, although chickadees were heard several times whose specific 
identity was not determined. Thirty miles below Holy Cross Mission 
I took two August 25, and at the Aphoon mouth I saw a small flock 
August 28. Young able to fly were taken July 7. One taken August 
25 had completed the molt into first winter plumage, while an adult 
taken the same day was in fresh plumage. 

oct.,1900.] BIRDS OF THE YUKON REGION. 93 

158. Parus hudsonicus evura.' Yukon Chickadee 1 . 

We took the Yukon chickadee at Caribou Crossing June 27, Lake 
Tagish Juno 30, Lake Marsh July 5, and Lake Lebarge July 14, and 
after reaching Thirty-Mile River July 19, found it regularly distrib- 
uted in families or large flocks all the way to Fort Yukon, 15 miles 
above which I saw a flock August 21. At St. Michael 1 took a young- 
female in first winter plumage September 20. Young able to fly were 
first taken July 5 and molting birds August 13. We took adults in 
full molt June 27, and one in which the molt was almost completed 
July 21. 

159. Parus rufescens. Chestnut-backed Chickadee. 

We found a few at Haines and Skagway, and I took one and heard 
another at Glacier June 5. A female taken at Skagway June 3 had 
finished laying. 

160. Regulus satrapa olivaceus. Western Golden-crowned Kinglet. 
Tolerably common at Glacier; often heard but seldom seen, and 

difficult to procure. A female that I took June 10 had the last egg 
ready for the shell. 

161. Regulus calendula. Ruby-crowned Kinglet. 

I took a male at Log Cabin, and on June 20, between that point 
and Bennett, heard another singing. Osgood took two young speci- 
mens, one at Lower Lebarge July 17, and the other 20 miles below 
Dawson August 1. 

162. Regulus calendula grinnelli. 2 Sitka Kinglet. 

At Skagway I heard a Sitka kinglet singing May 31, and at Haines 
took a male and heard another singing June 1. At Glacier 1 took a 
male June 6, and during our stay heard two or three others singing. 
While the Log Cabin bird is normal calendula, the Haines and Glacier 
birds have the more olive back and darker sides of crown of grinnelli. 

163. Myadestes townsendi. Townsend Solitaire. 

On the heights above Bennett 1 took an adult male June 17. On 
the hot noon of June 26, while seated on the summit of a hill some 
1,500 feet above Caribou Crossing, I heard the most beautiful bird 
song that has ever delighted my ear. It seemed to combine the 
strength of the robin, the joyousness and soaring quality of the bobo- 
link, and the sweetness and purity of the wood thrush. Starting low 
and apparently far awa} r , it gained in intensity and volume until it 
filled the air, and I looked for the singer just above my head. I 
finally traced the song to a Townsend solitaire that was seated on 

1 Auk, XVII, 118, April, 1900. 2 Auk, XIV, 399, 1897. 


a dead tree about 150 yards away, pouring' forth this volume of melody 
without leaving its perch. The singer came close enough later to 
make identification certain. 

Osgood and Maddren saw one at Lake Lebarge July 14. Osgood 
took an adult at Miles Canyon July 11, another at the Semenow Hills 
July 20, a young in the spotted plumage 20 miles below the Selwyn 
River July 29, and another young 30 miles above the White River 
July 30. I saw an adult near the Selwyn River July 29, and took a 
molting adult near Sixty-Mile Creek August 1. Mr. Cantwell found 
this species in the Yukon Valley. 

161. Hylocichla alicise. Gray-cheeked Thrush. 

Several thrushes which we heard singing on the west shore of Lake 
Marsh July 8 were, I think, this species, as their song differed from 
that of the dwarf, hermit, and Alma thrushes. 1 saw two, but they 
were so shy that 1 could not secure either. Near Sixty-Mile Creek, 
July 31, 1 took a young in spotted plumage, which was with the young 
of alrnoe which Osgood shot. At Circle 1 took a young in first winter 
plumage, also with almce. 

165. Hylocichla ustulata almge. 1 Alma Thrush. 

This is the common thrush of the Yukon basin, occurring every- 
where from Log - Cabin to Circle, perhaps in largest numbers at 
Caribou Crossing and Lake Marsh. Fifteen miles above Fort Yukon 

1 took one, and saw others August 21. We found many nests, 
usually 6 to 10 feet from the ground in thick growths of young- 
spruces, but none contained eggs. A nest containing four young 
just hatched, which 1 found at Caribou Crossing June 25, was about 
8 feet from the ground in a thicket of small spruces. The nest resem- 
bled that of II. a. swainsoni. At Miles Canyon July 11 we saw 
young able to fly. Osgood took young in spotted plumage July 31, 
but those taken August 20 had assumed first winter plumage. 

They were usually silent by day, but sang frequently during the 
short nights. At Caribou Crossing, the last of June, their song could 
be heard constantly from 8 p. m. to 8 a. m., one taking up the 
strain as another stopped. The song is much superior to that of 
Hylocichla aonalaxchkm and almost equal to that of II. fmcescens. It 
has whispered notes like that of II. mustelinus. By the middle of 
July the song season was practically over, though we heard one of 
the birds singing July 23. When the nights became really dark in 
August, I often heard the call-note of this bird near our camp between 

2 and 3 a. m. 

1 Auk, XVII, 119, April, 1900. 

ocr.,1900.] BIRDS OF THE YUKON REGION. 95 

166. Hylocichla aonalaschkse. Dwarf Hermit Thrush. 

We hoard several singing at Skagway, and Osgood took one at 
Haines June 2. At Glacier they were tolerably common, and we 
secured several, but they were very shy, keeping in the thickets dur- 
ing the day and singing for several hours in the evening from the 
topmost spray of some spruce well up the mountainside. Several 
thrushes' nests in small spruces 6 to 8 feet from the ground were 
empty, for which condition the abundant red squirrels were probably 
responsible. At Log- Cabin and Bennett we heard a few singing, and 
at Caribou Crossing Osgood took one June 27. 

167. Hylocichla aonalaschkae pallasi. Hermit Thrush. 

About 15 miles below Little Salmon River July 22 we secured a 
pair, whose nest, containing four well-grown young. Osgood had found 
the evening before. Far from selecting the secluded nesting site usual 
with this species, this pair had placed their nest between two small 
bunches of flowers on an open southern hillside, just above a small 
piece of burnt poplar woodland, and exposed to the full glare of the 

168. Merula migratoria. American Robin. 

Tolerably common at Haines and Skagway, but not found at Gla- 
cier. At Haines I took a female and four well-incubated eggs June 2. 
Robins were common at Log Cabin June 15, and were found regu- 
larly, but in gradually decreasing numbers, until August 1, when the 
last was noted near Sixty-Mile Creek. A flock seen Jul} 7 29 showed 
that the southern migration had commenced. We found an empty 
nest 30 miles below Dawson and heard that the birds bred near Fort 

Although robins were b}- no means common at Caribou Crossing, I 
found, on June 25, 13 empty nests, most of them evidently built 
that year, and 4 empty nests of the Alma thrush, in a small patch of 
spruces. The red squirrels which lived in a hollow tree near by 
probably knew the location of most of these nests. Osgood took a 
well-grown young robin here on June 26. 

169. Hesperocichla naevia. Varied Thrush. 

At Haines I saw several June 1, and Osgood took one June 2. At 
Glacier varied thrushes were rather common, but exceedingly shy. 
About an hour before sunset they would fly to the top of some tall 
tree and repeatedly utter a long-drawn, plaintive whistle until dark- 
ness fell. Sometimes on cloudy days we would hear their song, but 
it was infrequent and had about stopped when we left Glacier, June 
11. We next saw this species near the Tatchun River, where I took 
a young bird July 23. Thirty miles below Dawson we took young, 


and met with the birds several times until August 21, when large 
flocks were seen near Fort Yukon. 

At Glacier I found on June 7 a nest containing four eggs, varying 
from fresh to several days incubated. It was very large, built of 
sticks and moss and lined with dry grass, and was situated 15 feet 
from the ground, near the top of a small spruce growing in dense 
woods a short distance from the river. When I put my hand on 
the tree, the female flew from the nest with a hoarse, cackling cry and 
settled a few feet away; the male did not appear. The eggs average 
1.25 by 0.81 inches and are nile blue sparingly spotted with ecru drab 
and seal brown. 

170. Saxicola cenanthe. Wheatear. 

Osgood saw two young wheatears at Circle August 19, and secured 
one. At the Aphoon mouth I shot one on August 27, which fell into 
the river and was carried away by the rapid current, but I saw the 
white rump plainly. 

171. Sialia arctica. Mountain Bluebird. 

We found a pair on Fifty-Mile River a short distance above Miles 
Canyon July 10. The next day I secured the female and found the 
nest with four well-incubated eggs in a hole about 8 feet from the 
ground in a dead spruce in the midst of a burnt tract. July 22 I 
shot a male near the point where Fifty-Mile River empties into Lake 
Lebarge. Mr. Cantwell also found this species on Fifty-Mile River. 


[Names Of new species iii lilack-faci' type.] 

Abies lasiocarpa, 9, 16. 
Acanthis exilipes,82. 

Accipitei atricapillus, 73. 

Actitis macularia, 69. 
/Echmophorus occidentalis, 57. 
.Egialitis semipalmata, 70. 
Alas 1 ' i tundra district, 15-16. 
Albatross, short-tailed, 00-61. 
Alces gigas. 23. 
Alnus sinuata, 9, 16. 
Amelanehier alnifolia. 10. 
Ammodiamus alaudinus, 83-8 1. 

sandwichensis, S3. 
Ampelis garrulus, 88-89. 
Anas boschas. 61-62. 
Andromeda polifolia, 15. 
Anorthura alascensis, 92. 

pacifica, 92. 
Anser gambeli, 64. 
Anthus pensilvanicus, 91-92. 
Archibuteo lagopus. 73. 
Arctomys caligatus, 31-32. 
Arctostaphylos uvauxsi, 9, 10. 
Arenaria melanoeephala, 71. 
Artemisia arctica, 15-16. 

frigida, 11, 12. 
Asio accipitrinus, 76. 
Anklet, least, 58. 
Aythya affinis,62. 

marila, 62. 
Bat. little brown, 45. 
Bear, Alaska grizzly, 41. 

black, 41. 
Beaver. American, 32. 
Betula glandulosa, 9, 10. 

nana, 16. 

papyrif era, 11. 
Birds, classified lists of, 51-57. 
Blackbird, rusty, 81. 
Bluebird, mountain, 96. 
Bonasa umbelloides, 71. 
Brachyramphus marmoratus, 58. 
Branta hutchinsi, 64. 
Bubo pallescens, 70-77. 
Buffalo berry, 10. 
Buffle-head, 63. 
Buteo calurus. 73. 
Calcarius alascensis, S3. 
Calidris arenaria, 67. 
Canachites osgoodi, 19, 71. 
Canadian Yukon district, 10-13. 
Canis occidentalis, 40. 
Caribou, barren ground, 23. 

mountain, 22. 
Cassiopea tetragona, 15. 
Castor canadensis, 32. 

4494— No. 19 — 

Cepphus columba, 58. 
Ceryle alcyon,77. 
Chamaecistus procumbens, 16. 
Chameeneriou angnstifolium, 13. 
Charadrius fulvus, 70. 
Charitonetta albeola, 68. 
Chen hyperborea, 64. 
Chickadee, chestnut-backed, 93. 

Icmg-tailed, 92. 

Yukon, 93. 
Chipmunk, gray-headed, 28-29. 
Chordeiles virginianus, 79. 
Ciuclua mexicanus, 92. 
Circus hudsonius, 72. 
Clangula americana, 62. 
Clivicola riparia, 88. 
Coccothraustes montanus, 81-82. 
Colaptes luteus, 78. 
Colymbus holboelli,57. 
Contopus borealis, 79. 

saturatus, 19, 79-80. 
Cormorant, pelagic, 61. 

red-faced, 61. 

violet-green, 61. 
I '< irvus americanus, 81. 

caurinus, 81. 

principalis, 81. 
Crane, little brown, 65. 
Crossbill, red, 82, 

white- winged, 82. 
Crow, American, 81. 

northwest, 81. 
Crymophilus fulicarius, 65. 
Curlew, Hudsonian, 69. 
Cyanocitta stelleri, 80. ■ 
Dafila acuta, 62. 
Dendiagapus fuliginosus, 71. 
Dendroica hooveri, 90. 

rubiginosa, 89. 

striata, 90. 

townsendi, 90-91. 
Dicrostonyx alascensis, 20, 38. 

nelsoni,20, 38. 
Diomedea albatrus, 60-61. 
Dipper, American, 92. 
Dryobates hyloscopus, 77 

leucomelas, 77. 
Duck, harlequin, 63. 

lesser scaup, 62. 

scaup, 62. 
Eagle, gray sea, 73. 

northern bald, 74. 
Eider, Pacific, 63. 
Empetrum nigrum, 9, 10. 
Empidonax alnorum,80. 

hammondi, 80. 
Equisetum, 13, 14. 
Erethizon myops, 20, 38. 
Eutaiuias caniceps, 19,28-29. 



Evotomys alascensis, 35. 

dawsoni, 34. 
Falco anatum, 74. 

columbarius, 75. 

pealei, 75. 

richardsoni, 75. 


sparverius, 75. 
Falcon, Peale, 75. 
Fauna! districts, 8-18. 
Fiber spatulatus, 19, 36-37. 
Fisher, 44. 

Flicker, northern, 78. 
Flycatcher, alder, 80. 

Hammond, 80. 

olive-sided, 79. 
Fox, Hall Island, 41. 

red, 41. 
Fratercula corniculata, 57. 
Fulmar, Pacific, 61. 
Fulmarus glupischa, 61. 
Gallinago delicata, 65. 
Gavia arctica, 57. 

imber, 57. 
Goat, mountain, 25. 
Golden-eye, American, 62. 
Goose, American white-fronted, 04. 

emperor. 64. 

Hutchins, 64. 

lesser snow, 64. 
Goshawk, American, 73. 
Grebe, Holbcell, 57. 

western, 57. 
Grosbeak, Alaska pine, 82. 

western evening, 81-82 
Grouse, Alaska, 71. 

gray ruffed, 71. 

sooty, 71. 
Grus canadensis, 65. 
Guillemot, pigeon, 58. 
Gull. American herring, 59. 

Bonaparte, 60. 

glaucous-winged, 59. 

Point Barrow, 59. 

Sabine, 60. 

short-billed, 59-60. 
Gulo luscus, 44. 
Gyrfaleon, gray, 74. 
Hare, Alaska arctic, 40. 

Dall varying, 40. 
Harelda hyemalis, 63. 
Haliseetus alascanus, 74. 

albicilla, 73. 
Hawk, duck, 74. 

American sparrow, 75 

marsh, 72. 

pigeon, 75. 

rough-legged, 73. 

sharp-shinned, 72. 

western red-tailed, 73. 
Helminthophila celata, 89. 

lutescens, 89. 

peregrina, 89. 
Helodromas cinnamomeus, 68. 
Hesperocichla narvia, 95-96. 
Hesperomys arcticus, 33. 
Heteractitis ineanus, 69. 
Hirundo unalaschkensis, 87. 

Histrionicus histrionicus, 63. 
Hudsonian Yukon district, 13-15. 
Hummingbird, rufous, 79. 
Hylocichla alicire, 94. 

alma-, 94. 

aonalaschkse, 95. 

pallasi, 95. 
Jfeger, long-tailed, 58. 

parasitic, 58. 
Jay, Alaska, 80-81. 

Steller, 80. 
Junco, Oregon, 86. 

Shufeldt, 86. 

slate-colored, 85-86. 
Junco connectens, 86. 

hyemalis, 85-86. 

oregonus, 86. 
Juniperus nana, 9, 10, 13. 
Kalniia glauca, 10. 
Kingfisher, belted, 77. 
Kinglet, ruby-crowned, 93. 

Sitka, 93. 

western golden-crowned. 93. 
Kittiwake, Pacific, 5S. 

red-legged, 58. 
Lagopus lagopus, 71. 

leucurus, 72. 

nelsoni, 72. 

rupestris, 72. 
Larix americana, 14. 
Larus barrovianus, 59. 

brachyrhynchus, 59-60. 

glaucescens, 59. 

Philadelphia, 60. 

smithsonianus, 59. 
Ledum grcenlandicum, 10. 

palustre, 15. 
Lemming, Alaska, 38. 

Nelson pied, 38. 

Yukon, 37-38. 
Lemmus alascensis, 20, 38. 

yukonensis, 20, 37-38. 
Lepargyrsea canadensis, 10. 
Lepus dalli, 20. 40. 

othus, 20, 40. 

saliens, 19, 39-40. 
Leucosticte, Aleutian, 82. 

Hepburn, 82. 
Leucosticte griseonucha, 82. 

littoralis, 82. 
Longspur, Alaska, 83. 
Loon, 57. 

black-throated, 57. 
Loxia leucoptera, 82. 

minor, 82. 
Lunda cirrhata, 57. 
Lutra canadensis, 41. 
Lutreola ingens, 19, 42. 
Lynn canal district, 8-9. 
Lynx, arctic, 40. 
Lynx mollipilosus,20,40. 
Magpie, American, 80. 
Mairania alpina, 15. 
Mallard. 01-62. 
Mammals, list, 22. 
Mareca americana, 62. 
Marmot, hoary, 31-32. 
Marten, Alaska, 43-44. 



Megascops kennicotti, 76. 
Melospiza cinerea, 86. 

lincolni. 86. 

rufina, 86. 

striata, 86. 
Merganser, American, 61. 
Merganser americanus, 61. 
Merlin. Richardson, 75. 
Merula migratoria, 95. 
Mierotus drummondi, 35-36. 

mordax, IT. 35. 

operarius, 36. 

xanthognathus, 36. 
Mink. Alaska. 42. 
Moose. Alaska, 23. 
Motacilla ocularis, 91. 
Mouse, Alaska jumping, 38. 

Arctic white-footed, 33. 

Bangs white-footed, 32-33. 

Dall lemming. 37. 

Dawson red-backed, 34. 

tundra red-backed, 35. 
Murre, 1 'alias. 58. 
Murrelet, marbled, 58. 
Mus decumanus, 32. 
Muskrat, northwest, 30.-37. 
Hnstela actuosa, 19,43-44. 

pennanti. 44. 
Myadestea townsendi, 93-94. 
Myosotifi alpestris. 10. 
Myotis lucifugus, 45. 
Neotoma saxamans, 19,33-34. 
Nettion carolinensis, 02. 
New speeies, 19. 
Nighthawk, 79. 
Nurnenius hudsonicus, 09. 
Nuthatch, red-breasted, 92. 
Nyctala richardsoni, 70. 
Oceanodronia furcata, 01. 
Ochotona collaris, 38-39. 
Oidemia amerieana, 0:'.. 

deglandi, 03. 

perspicillata, 03-04. 
Olor Columbian us, 65. 
Oreamnos montanus, 25. 
Osprey, American, 70. 
Otter. American. 41. 
Oris dalli, 24-25. 

Owl, great gray, to. 

American hawk, 77. 

Kennicott screech, 76. 

Richardson, 76. 

short-eared, 76. 

western horned, 70-77. 
Pandion carolinensis, 76. 
Parus evura. 93. 

rufescens, 93. 

septentrionalis, 92. 
Passerella iliaca,87. 

townsendi, 87. 
Passerina nivalis, 83. 
Perisoreus fumifrons, 80-81. 
Peromyscus arcticus, 33. 

oreas, 32-33. 
Petrel, forked-tailed, 61. 
Petroehelidon lunifrons, 87. 

Pewee, Alaska wood, 79-80. 
Phalacrocorax pelagicus, 61. 

robust us, 61. 
urile, o.i. 
Phalarope, northern 65. 

red, 05. 
Phalaropua lobatus, 65. 
Philacte canagica, 64. 
Phoebe, Yukon, 79. 
Pica hudsonica, 80. 
Pieea canadensis, 10. 

sitchcnsis, 9. 
Picoides alascensis, 78. 

arcticus, 77-78. 
Pika, Alaska, 38-39. 
Pinicola alascensis, 82. 
Pintail, 02. 
Pinus murrayana. 9, 13, 10, 17. 

sitchensis, 9. 
Pipit, American, 91-92. 
Plover, black-bellied, 70. 

Pacific golden, 70. 

semipalmated, 70. 
Polemonitun humile, 10. 
Populus balsamifera, 9. 

tremuloides, 8, 9. 
Porcupine, Alaska, 38. 
Ptarmigan, Nelson, 72. 

n irk, 72. 

white-tailed, 72. 

willow, 71. 
Puffin, horned, 57. 

tufted, 57. 
Putorius alascensis, 43. 

arcticus, 42-43. 

eskimo, 20, 43. 

richardsoni, 42. 
Rangifer arcticus, 23 

montanus, 22. 

tarandus, 23. 
Rat, northern bushy-tailed, 33-34. 

Norway, 32. 
Haven, northern, 81. 
Redpoll, 82. 

hoary, 82. 
Regulus calendula, 93. 

grinnelli, 93. 

olivaceus, 93. 
Reindeer, domesticated, 23. 
Ribes laxifloruni, 9. 
Rissa brevirostris. 58. 

pollicaris, 58. 
Robin, American, 95. 
Rosa cinnamomea ,11. 
Rubus arcticus. 10. 

chamsemorus, 16. 
Sanderling, 67. 
Sandpiper. Aleutian, 05. 

Baird, 07. 

least, 07. 

pectoral, 60. 

Pribilof, 00. 

red-backed, 67. 

sharp-tailed, 66. 

spotted, 69. 

western solitary. 6S. 
Sapsucker, red-breasted. 78. 
Sa xicola cenanthe, 90. 



Sayornis yukonensis, 19, 79. 
Sciuropterus yukonensis, 19,25-2(3. 
Sciurus hudsonicus, 26-27. 

petnlans, 19, 27-28. 

vancouverensis, 27. 
Scolecophagus carolinus, 81. 
Scoter, American, 63. 

surf, 63-64. 

white-winged, 63. 
Scotiaptex cinerea, 76. 
Seiurus notabilis, 91. 
Selasphorus rufus, 79. 
Sheep, Dall mountain, 24-25. 
Shrew, arctic, 44. 

mountain, 45. 

Streator, 44. 

tundra, 45. 
Sialia arctica, 96. 
Simorhynchus pusillus, 58. 
Siskin, pine, 83. 
Sitta canadensis, 92. 
Snipe, Wilson, 65. 
Snowflake, 83. 
Solitaire, Townsend, 93-94. 
Somateria v-nigra, 63. 
Sorex arcticus, 20, 44. 

obscurus, 45. 


tundrensis, 20, 45. 
Sparrow, Aleutian song, S6. 


Fox, 87. 

golden-crowned, 84. 

intermediate, 84. 

Lincoln, 86. 

sandwich, 83. 

sooty song, 86. 

Townsend fox, 87. 

western chipping, 85. 

western savanna, 83-84. 

western tree, 84-85. 
Spermophilus osgoodi, 20, 31. 

plesius, 19,29-31. 
Sphyrapicus ruber, 78. 
Spinus pinus,83. 
Spizella arizonse, 85. 

ochracea, 84-85. 
Squatarola squatarola, 70. 
Squirrel, Bennett ground, 29-31. 

Fort Yukon ground, 31. 

Hudson Bay red, 26-27. 

Yukon flying, 25-26. 
Stercorarius longicaudus, 58. 

parasiticus, 58. 
Sterna paradiseea, 60. 
Surnia caparoch,77. 
Swallow, Alaska, 87. 

bank, 88. 

cliff, 87. 

tree, 87. 

violet-green, 88. 
Swan, whistling, 65. 
Symphemia inornata, 69. 
Synaptomys dalli, 37. 
Tachycineta bicolor, 87. 

thalassina, 88. 
Tattler, wandering, 69. 

Teal, green-winged, 62. 
Tern, arctic, 60. 
Thrush, Alma, 94. 

dwarf hermit, 95. 

gray-cheeked, 94. 

hermit, 95. 

varied, 95-96. 
Thuja plicata, 16. 
Totanus flavipes, 68. 
Tringa acuminata, 66. 

bairdi, 67. 

couesi, 65. 

maculata, 66. 

minutilla, 67. 

paciflca, 67. 

ptilocnemis, 66. 
Tsuga mertensiana, 9. 
Turnstone, black, 71. 
Tussilago frigida, 16. 
Uria arra, 58. 
Ursus alascensis,41. 

americanus, 41. 
Vaccinium ovalifolium,9. 

vitisidsea, 15. 
Viburnum pauciflorum, 10. 
Vole, Drummond, 35-36. 

long-tailed, 35. 

Nelson, 36. 

yellow-cheeked, 36. 
Vulpes fulvus,41. 

Wagtail, Swinhoe, 91. 
Warbler, Alaska yellow, 89-90. 

black-poll, 90. 

Hoover, 90. 

lutescent, 89. 

orange-crowned , 89. 

pileolated, 91. 

Tennessee, 89. 

Townsend, 90-91. 

Wilson, 91. 
Water thrush, Grinnell, 91. 
Wax wing, Bohemian, 88-89. 
Weasel, Alaska least, 43. 

Juneau, 43. 

tundra, 42-43. 
Wheatear, 96. 
White Pass district, 9-10. 
Willet, western, 69. 
Wilsonia pileolata, 91. 

pusilla, 91. 
Wolf, 40. 
Wolverine, 44. 
Woodpecker, Alaska three-toed, 78. 

arctic three-toed, 77-78. 

Cabanis, 77. 

northern hairy, 77. 
Wren, Alaska, 92. 

western winter, 92. 
Xema sabinii,60. 
Yellow-legs, 68. 
Y'ukon flats, 14. 
Zapus alascensis, 38. 
Zones, 16. 
Zonotrichia coronata,,si. 

gambeli, 84. 





]sr<). do 

[Actual date of publication, August 31, 1901] 




Prepared under the direction of 








U. S. Department of Agriculture, 

Division of Biological Survey, 

Washington, D. C, July 5, 1901. 
Sir: I have the honor to transmit herewith for publication as No. 
'20 of North American Fauna a report entitled "Revision of the 
Skunks of the Genus Chincha" by Arthur H. Howell, assistant in 
the Biological Survey. 

Respectfully, T. S. Palmer, 

Acting Chief, Biological Survey. 
Hon. James Wilson, 

Seen tary of . Vgrieultun . 



Introduction 9 

History 9 

Distribution 10 

Habits 11 

External characters 12 

Material 13 

Nomenclature 13 

< Jeneric names 14 

Specific and subspecific nanus 15 

Genua ( 'hincha 20 

Generic characters 20 

Key to species and subspecies 20 

List of species and subspecies, with type localities 21 

Subgenus Ch India 22 

Subgeneric characters 22 

I descriptions of species and subspecies 22 

Subgenus Leucomiira 39 

Subgeneric- characters 39 

Descriptions of species and subspecies 41 

Tal >le of cranial measurements 44 




Plate I. Skins of Chincha putida and C. elongata 46 

II. Skins of Chincha mephitis, C. mesomekis, and C. estor 48 

III. Skins < if Chincha holzneri, C. notata, and C. spissigrada 50 

IV. Skins of < nincha macroura and ( '. milleri 52 

V Skulls of Chincha mephitis and C. putida 54 

VI. Skulls of Chincha hudsonica and C. mesomelas 56 

VII. Skulls i if ( 'hincha occidentalis and C. estor 58 

VIII. Skulls of Chincha milleri and C. vittala 60 


No. 20. NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. August, 1901. 


By Aktiu i; II. Howell. 
Assistant, Biological Survey. 



Skunks have figured in literature since the early part of the seven- 
teenth century. Their peculiar means of defense has served to make 
them conspicuous, but the repugnance in which they are commonly 
held has doubtless prevented as thorough study of their habits and 
characteristics as has been accorded to other common mammals. 

Apparently tin 1 hist account of them is that given by Gabriel Sagard- 
Theodat in his history of Canada, published in 1636, in which he 
refers to the ill-smelling qualities of these ' enfcms chi (UableS* In 
1651 Hernandez gave an account of the Mexican skunks, which he 
confused somewhat with the nasua. 3 It was on this description that Lin- 
nseus primarily based his Vwerra memphitis. Buffon, in 1765, gave a 
description and figure of a skunk, which he called 'leckincke'* — a 
name taken from Feuillee, who in 1711, in an account of lis travels in 
South America, had recorded this as the native name of the skunk 
occurring near Buenos Ayres. 5 Buffon's account has served as the 
basis for many of the later names applied to the skunks. He ascribes 
l "lechiiiche' > to South America, but his figure evidently represents one 
of the skunks of the genus Chincha, which is strictly North Amer- 
ican. The confusion of the skunks of the two continents, for which 
this error is partly responsible, has continued, though in a lessening 
degree, to the present day. 

1 Chincha of this paper is the equivalent of Mephitis of recent authors. For a dis- 
cussion of the reasons for this change, see p. 14. 
2 Histoire du Canada, p. 748, Paris, 1636. 
'Thesaurus Rer. Med. Novae His].., p. 332, Rome, 1651. 
4 Histoire Naturelle, XIII, p. 294, pi. 39, Paris, 1765. 
5 Journal du P. Feuillee, p. 21'1\ Paris, 1714. 


Schreber, in 1776, gave a good description of the large North 
American skunk, and his specific name mephitis is the first one avail- 
able for any member of the genus. Cuvier, in 1800, applied the same 
name in a generic sense to the ' mouffettesj his group including both 
the large and small skunks of North America, since separated into 
different genera. 1 During the early years of the nineteenth century 
the large skunks, which form the basis of this paper, were treated by 
many authors, and some new names were proposed; but for the most 
part the descriptions are hopelessly confused and the names are 
unidentifiable. In 1829 Richardson described hudsonica from central 
Canada; in 1832 Lichtenstein named mesomelas from Louisiana and 
macroura and mttata from Mexico; and in 1837 Gray described varians 
from Texas and mexicana (the same as macroura) from Mexico. 

Up to 1838 the North American skunks had all been included in a 
single undivided genus, Mephitis, but in this year Lichtenstein pub- 
lished an extended revision of the group, in which he classed the 
white-backed skunks as a subgenus under the name Thiosmus, but did 
not separate the little spotted skunks from their larger relatives. 2 In 
1842 Lesson published a brief but important synopsis of the genus, in 
which he arranged the species in three groups, restricting Mephitis in 
a subgeneric sense to the little spotted skunks, naming the large 
striped skunks Chincha and retaining Thiosrrms for the white-backed 
skunks. 3 Lesson's Mephitis and Chincha, proposed as subgenera, are 
perfectly tenable as genera, and are here used in that sense, Mephitis 
for the little spotted skunks, commonly known as Spilogale, and 
Chincha for the large striped skunks, commonly known as Mephitis. 

Boitard, in 1812, proposed three new names for the large skunks, 
all of which probably refer to the same species, though only one, 
putida, is certainly identifiable. This is available for the eastern 
skunk. In 1857 Baird named the California skunk occidentalis. For 
several decades after this the group received very little attention from 
systematists, but during the last few years there has been considerable 
activity in the naming of species. In 1890 estor was proposed by 
Merriam; in 1895, elongata by Bangs; in 1896, scrutator by Bangs, 
and fossidens and orthostichus (fossils) by Cope; in 1897, holzneri and 
miller i by Mearns; in 1898, avia and spissigrada by Bangs, and in 
1899, Jwhdenta by Elliot, and leptops and obtusaPm (fossils) by Cope. 


The skunks of the genus Chincha range over the' greater part of 
North America, from the Hudsonian zone in Canada to Guatemala. 
The northern limits of their distribution are not definitely known. 

'Legons d'Anat. Comp., I, tabl. 1, 1800. 

2 Abh. Akad. Wiss. Berlin for 1836, pp. 249-312, 1838. 

s Nouv. Tabl. de Regne Anim., p. 67, 1842. 

aug., 1901.] HABITS. 11 

In tht' interior they occur as far north as Great Slave Lake, as 
shown by a specimen from that locality in the V. S. National 
Museum, and by the statement of B. R. Ross, who says that while 
he has never seen a living specimen on the Mackenzie River, he 
has found the bones and pari of the skin a short distance from the 
shores of Great Slave Lake. 1 On the Atlantic coast they have not 
been recorded north of Nova Scotia. On the Pacific slope the most 
northerly record is Stuart Lake, British Columbia, though on the 
immediate coast of the Pacific they are not reported farther north 
than Howe Sound, in southern British Columbia, and probably do not 
occur much beyond this point. In the United States they are gener- 
ally distributed, except in the higher mountains, and in many places 
are extremely numerous. They are absent or very rare in eastern 
North Carolina, according to Mr. Outran) Bangs, 2 and perhaps the 
same is true of other small areas within their range. 

The subgenus Ghincha ranges but a short distance into Mexico; 
0. estor reaches southern Chihuahua in the Sierra Madre, holzneri 
enters Lower California, and variatis occurs in eastern Mexico in the 
Rio Grande Valley. The subgenus Zeucomitra 3 occupies nearly the 
whole of Mexico, and its range overlaps that of the subgenus Chincha 
in southern Arizona. It is chiefly confined to the Sonoran and Tran- 
sition zones, not occurring in the tropical lowlands except on the coast 
of Oaxaca. The southern limit of its range is not known, but it 
probably does not extend beyond the highlands of Guatemala. 


The large skunks are wholly terrestrial, living in caves, in the de- 
serted burrows of other animals, or in barrows of their own excavation. 
They do not avoid the habitations of man, but seem rather to prefer 
the clearings and pastures about the farm, and frequently make their 
abode under a house or other building. They are sluggish in move- 
ment, and usually show little fear of human beings, depending for 
safety more on the efficacy of their malodorous discharge than on 
attempts to escape. Although chiefly nocturnal, they are often seen 
moving about in the daytime, especially in the morning and evening. 
They hibernate only during the severest part of the winter, and prob- 
ably only in northern latitudes. 

Their food consists largely of small mammals, reptiles, batrachians, 
insects, and birds' eggs; and they apparently have no difficulty in secur- 
ing an abundance, for the} T frequently become excessively fat. They 
are particularly fond of insects, and during the seasons when grasshop- 
pers are abundant feed extensively on these pests. In many parts of 

1 Canadian Nat. and Geol., VII, p. 139, 1862. 
2 Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., X, p. 139, 1896. 
3 See p. 39. 


the United States they have been found useful in destroying- the 
'white grub,' a great pest in lawns and meadows. Fish and crusta- 
ceans, when available, and even carrion or other refuse, are readily 
eaten. They occasionally rob the poultry yard, but such depredations 
as they commit are more than offset by their destruction of noxious 
mammals and insects. Vegetable matter is sometimes eaten. Mr. 
E. A. Goldman reports that he has found roots and wild fruits in the 
stomach of a hooded skunk. 

Skunks have been extensively trapped for furs ever since the settle- 
ment of the country by white men, 1 and within the last few years 
attempts have been made to breed them in confinement; but although 
w skunk farms' have been started in several States, the industry seems 
not yet well established. 


Skunks are too well known to need more than a passing reference 
to their external appearance. They are stocky animals, particularly 
heavy behind, with slender nose, small ears, short legs, long fore 
claws, and long bushy tail. The pelage is long, loose, and silky; the 
under-fur is quite dense, especially in northern latitudes; and the tail 
hairs are coarse and flaccid. The colors are black and white, the white 
usually arranged in a narrow frontal stripe and two na row dorsal 
bands or one broad band covering the whole back, but the pattern of 
coloration is subject to much variation. During spring and summer 
the pelage often becomes much worn and faded, and the glossy black 
of the winter pelage is frequently replaced by a dull brown. There 
is apparently but one molt in a } r ear, and this usually occurs in late 
summer or in autumn. 

The females are always smaller than the males and less specialized 
in their cranial characters, which are often of so little prominence that 
they do not serve to readily distinguish closely related species. The 
difference in size is most marked in the larger species. Thus in 
Chincha notata the average length of the skull is 10 percent greater 
in males than in females, and the average zygomatic breadth 11 per- 
cent greater. 

The teats usually number 10 to 11. The young are born in litters 
of from 1 to 10, and reach maturity at a very early age, the bones of 
the skull completely coalescing before the teeth show any appreciable 
signs of wear. 

That which particularly distinguishes skunks from other animals is 
their means of defense, consisting of a characteristic malodorous fluid, 
which, when ejected, speedily disarms the boldest aggressor. The 

1 During the forty years from 1850 to 1890 the Hudson Bay Company alone shipped 
over 250,000 skunk skins to England. 

An;.. 1901.] NOMENCLATURE. 13 

fumes from the fresh Liquid are overpowering in their pungency, 
and are possessed of remarkably penetrating and Lasting properties. 3 
The liuid is secreted by two anal glands, similar in character to those 
possessed by other members of the Mustelidse, but Larger and more 
muscular. Dr. C. Hart Merriam has given a concise description of 
these glands, as follows: 

The glands lie on either >i«ic of the rectum, and are imbedded in a dense, gizzard- 
like mass of muscle which serves to compress them so forcibly that the contained 
fluid may be ejected to the distance of four or five metres (approximately 13 to 16$ 
feet). Each sac is furnished with a single duct that leads into a prominent, nipple- 
like papilla that is capable pf being protruded from the anus, and by means of which 
the direction of the. jet is governed. 2 


The present revision is based chiefly on a study of the specimens in 
the collections of the IT. S. Biological Survey and the IT. S. National 
Museum, supplemented by much additional material from the collec- 
tion of the American Museum of Natural History, New York, and the 
private collections of Dr. C. Hart Merriam and Mr. Outram Bangs. 
The total number of specimens examined exceeds 950, among which 
are all the existing- types. The Biological Survey collection contains 
good series of skins and skulls of most of the species, and is particu- 
larly rich in large series of extra skulls, which have proved of great 
value in showing the range of individual variation. 

My thanks are cordially extended to Dr. C. Hart Merriam for the 
privilege of using the collections under his charge. Thanks are also 
due Dr. J. A. Allen and Mr. Frank M. Chapman, of the American 
Museum of Natural History. Mr. Gerrit S. Miller, jr., of the U. S. 
National Museum. Mr. D. G. Elliot, of the Field Columbian Museum, 
Mr. Witmer Stone, of the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, 
and Mr. William Brewster, of the Museum of Comparative Zoology, 
Cambridge, for the loan of material under their charge. I am espe- 
cially indebted to Mr. Outram Hangs for the use of a tine series of 
skunks from his collection, including the types of all his species. 

The illustrations in the present paper are from photographs taken 
by Dr. A. K. Fisher, of the Biological Survey. 

One new subgenus (Leucomit/ra) and three new species and subspe- 
cies (Chincha Occident nil* nuijor, O. occidentalis notata, and C. platy- 
rliinti) are here described. 


Three generic and 35 specific names have been applied to the skunks 
of this group. The general similarity in external characters among 

the members of the genus has led to the inclusion of widely different 


1 For a valuable account of the chemical properties of this fluid see T. B. Aldrich, 
Journ. Exp. Med., I, pp. 323-340, 1896; II, pp. 439-452, 1897. 

2 Mammals of the Adirondack Region, Trans. Linn. Soc., X. Y., I, p. 76, 1882, 

14 • NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. [no. 20. 

forms under one name, while the extreme variability in some species 
has multiplied synonyms. The confused state of the nomenclature 
makes necessary a brief statement of the status of each name. 


Viverra Linnaeus, 1758. Syst. Nat., ed. X, pp. 43-44, 

The genus comprehended five species: V. ichneumon, V. memphitis, 
V. 2>utorius,V. zibetha (usually considered the type), and V genetta. 
The American skunks were referred to it by authors prior to Cuvier, 
1800, but it is now restricted to the Old World civets. 

Mephitis Cuvier, 1800. Lecons d'Anat. Comp., I, tabl. 1. 

Cuvier proposed this genus to include the ' rfwuffettesj but as no 
species are mentioned, it is necessary, in order to determine its specific 
constituents, to refer to his 'Tableau Elementalfe,' published two years 
previously. 1 In this work he places the mouffettes as a subgroup 
of Mustela, and mentions two species, Viverra putorius Linn, and 
V. mephitis Linn. 2 The latter was removed in 1842 to become the type 
of the genus Chincha Lesson, which leaves V. putorius, one of the little 
spotted skunks, as the type of Mephitis. The name Spilogale^ pro- 
posed in 1865 by (Tray for the little spotted skunks, will therefore 
have to be abandoned, becoming a synonym of Mephitis, which thus 
unfortunately proves to be the name of this group of skunks instead 
of the group for which it has so long been used. 

Chincha Lesson, 1842. Nouv. Tableau Regne Anim., Marnm., p. 67. 

Lesson proposed this as the name of a subgenus of Mephitis, with 
Chincha americcwia&s the type species; hudsonica Richardson is given 
as a variety, but no other species are placed in the group. The ref- 
erences show that his type species is based on Viverra mephitis Erx- 
leben, which in turn is based on T" mephitis Schreber — a plainly 
recognizable species. If we assume (as we can with all propriety) that 
Cuvier, in placing ' Viverra mephitis L.' as one of the types of his 
genus Mephitis referred to V. mephitis of Gmelin's edition, we then 
have for the type of Chincha a species which is one of the two orig- 
inally composing the Cuvierian genus Mephitis, and one that is like- 
wise identifiable, for V. mephitis Gmelin is based on V. mephitis 

'Tabl'. Element, de l'Hist. Nat. des Anim., p. 116, 1798. 

2 This name does not appear in either the 10th or 12th editions of Linnaeus, so we 
must assume that the reference is to Gmelin, 1788; memphitis of the 10th edition is a 
different name (see p. 18) and Cuvier's description shows that the animal he had in 
mind was a skunk, and not the composite species which Linmeus described under 
the name memphitis. 


It is perfectly clear, therefore, that Lesson intended to apply the 
name < f hincha to the large two-striped North American skunks, and it 
is used for those in a generic sense in the present paper. 

[Note. — In a list of names of Mexican animals by A. L. Herrera, 1 
■ M<iii)/ittj>/i!t!sii.s macrura : is used for the l sorillo : (the vernacular 
name of the hooded skunk in Mexico). All of Herrera's names are 
modified forms of accepted generic names, and until such time as his 
system shall have been adopted, his names require no consideration.] 


americana {Mephitis) Desmarest, 1818. Nbuv. Diet. < 1' Hist. Nat., Paris, XXI, 
p. 514. 

This nana 1 was applied to a composite species, including- as varieties 
all the skunks of North and South America. The first author to use 
it in a restricted sense was Sabine, who in 1823 applied it to the skunks 
of Canada.'- He says that the animals "under examination are the 
particular sort designated as the Vwerra mephitis of Gmelin," which 
is variety No. 7 of Desmarest. The name americana therefore becomes 
a synonym of mephitis. 

avia (Mephitis) Bangs, 1898. Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., XII, p. 32. 

Under this name Bangs described a form from San Jcse, Illinois. 
It proves to be closely related to mesomelas, of which it is considered 
a subspecies. 

bivirg-ata (Mephitis americana) Hani. Smith, 1839. Jardine's Nat. Libr., Manmi., 
I, p. 196. 

The description under this name probably refers to the eastern 
skunk (Chinch" j.>>/f/'r/a), but no t} T pe locality is assigned, and the 
species can not be identified with certainty. 

cinche i Viverra) Miiller, 1776. Natursyst. Suppl., p. 32. 

The species thus named is based on the chinehe of Buffon, which 
probably belongs to this genus, but is not certainly identifiable. Muller 
follows Buffon in ascribing the animal to South America, where 
Chincha does not occur. 

concolor ( Mephitis) Gray (Verreaux MS.?), 1865. Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1865, 
p. 149. 

Published by Gray under his * var. <■. vittata\ with 'Verreaux MS. V 
as authority. The form thus named is evident!} 7 only one of the 
many variations to which vittata is subject, and although Gray after- 
wards raised it to subspecitic rank 3 , the name must be regarded as a 

1 Sinonimia Vulgar y Cientifica de los Principalis Vertebrados Mexicanos, p. 30, 

2 Franklin's Narrative of a Journey to the Polar Sea (1819-1822), App., p. 653, 1823. 

3 Cat. Oarnivora, Brit. Mus., p. 138, 1869. 


edulis (Memphitis) Coues (Berlandier MRS.), 1877. Fur-Bearing Animals, p. 236. 

Berlandier (as quoted by Coues) gives a brief description of a skunk 
from Mexico which is probably macroura. The name will stand as ;t 
synonym of the latter. 

elongata (Mephitis mephitica) Bangs, 1895. Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., XXVI, 
p. 531. 

Under this name Bangs described the Florida skunk. It proves to 
be a distinct species, most nearly related to put Ida. 

estor (Mephitis) Merriam, 1890. N. Am. Fauna No. 3, p. 81. 

The species described under this name by Merriam is a well-marked 
form inhabiting- Arizona and northern Mexico. 

fetidissima (Mephitis) Boitard, 1842. Jardin des Plantes, Mamm., p. 147. 

Boitard proposed this name on the same page with olida and putida. 
The form thus named is probably one of the many variations of the 
common eastern skunk, but as no more definite t}^pe locality is assigned 
than ' United States,' the name can not be specifically applied. 

fceda (Yivcrra) Boddsert, 1785. Elenchus Animalium, I, p. 84. 

This is one of the many early names which can not be specificalty 
identified. Boddsert quotes Buffon, Schreber, and other early authors, 
but assigns his species to Mexico. 

fcetulenta (Mephitis) Elliot, 1899. Field Columbian Museum, Pub. 32, Zool. Ker., 
I, no. 13, p. 269. 

The form to which this name was applied proves to be practically 
identical with that to which Bangs had previously given the name 
spissigrada, of which fwtulenta is, therefore, a synonym. 

fossidens (Mephitis) Cope, 1896. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., p. 386. 

This name was applied by Cope to a well-marked fossil species from 
the Pleistocene bone caves at Port Kennedy, Pennsylvania. 

frontata (Mephitis) Coues, 1875. Bull. U. S. Geol. it (ieog. Surv. Terr., 2d series, 
no. 1, p. 7. 

The form described by Coues under this name was based on a skull 
found in the Post-pliocene deposits of Pennsylvania. While the char- 
acters assigned to it by him are of slight weight, it differs from the 
living species in dental characters, and seems worthy of specific 

holzneri (Mephitis occideritalis) Mearnn, 1897. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., XX, p. 461. 

Mearns proposed this name for the form of occidentaUs occupying 
southern California and northern Lower California (type locality, San 
Isidro Ranch). It is a rather poorly marked subspecies that ranges 
north to the vicinit}' of Monterey Bay. 


kudsonica (Mephitis americana) Richardson, 1829. Fauna Boreali-Americana, I, 
Mamm., p. 55. 

Richardson's aame, applied to the skunk of the Northern plains, 
proves available for the species ranging from Colorado north to the 
interior of Canada. 

intermedia (Mephitis vittata, var. b. ) ( rray, 1869. Cat. Carnivora Brit. Mns., p. 138. 

This name is applied to one of the numerous varieties of the hooded 
skunks due to individual variation. It is a synonym of vittata. 

laticaudata i Mephitis) E. I teoffroy, 1803. Cat. Mamm. Mus. National d'Hist. Nat., 
Paris, p. L09. 

This name can not be satisfactorily identified. The references indi- 
cate that the type specimen belonged to the genus Chi/ncka, but the 
description applies more nearly to one of the South American skunks. 

leptops (Mephitis) Cope. 1899. Journ. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila.,2d scries, XI, pt. 2, 
p. 235. 

This name was applied to a fossil species from the Port Kennedy 
hone caves. Montgomery County, Pennsylvania. I have not had an 
opportunity to compare it with specimens of recent species. 

long-icaudata (Mephitis) Tomes, 1861. Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1861, p. 280. 

Under this name Tomes described the form from Duefias, Guatemala. 
Specimens from near the type locality have been compared with those 
of iDaaroura and are found to be practically identical. 

macroura (Mephitis) Lichtenstein, 1832. 1 Darst. Saugeth., pi. 4H, with accom- 
panying text. 

Lichtenstein's plate and description are sufficient to identify the 
species thus named by him, which came from the 'mountains north- 
west of the City of Mexico.' This is the first name applied to any of 
the hooded skunks. 

memphitis ( Vwerra) Linnaeus, 1758. Syst. Nat., p. 44. 

A name applied by Linnaeus to an unrecognizable species, evidently 
part skunk and part nasua There is nothing in the description to 
indicate even the genus to which it refers, and it seems best to reject 
the name as indeterminable. It is quite distinct from mephitis, as 
shown below. 

mephitica ( Viverra) Shaw, 1792. Museum Leverianum, p. 171. 

This name has been generally adopted by recent authors for the 
eastern skunk, and was restricted by Bangs in 1895 to the northeastern 

J The date of publication of that portion of the ' Darstellung ' in which the skunks 
are described is fixed by Lichtenstein himself in a later paper (Abh. Akad. Wiss. 
Berlin for 1836, p. 303, 1838). 

2909— No. 20—01 2 


species. Schreber's name mephitis, however, is perfectly tenable for 
the same species, and being of earlier date is adopted instead of 

mephitis ( Viverra) Schreber, 1776. Saugth., Ill, p. 44 J , tab. 121. 

Recent authors have rejected this name on the ground that it is 
preoccupied by Viverra memphitis Linn., 1758, supposed to be a mis- 
print for mephitis. Through the kindness of Mr. J. E. Harting, of 
London, who has examined for me a cop} T of the tenth edition of 
Linnaaus's 'Systema Naturae' in the Linnsean Society Library, which 
contains numerous corrections and annotations in the author's own 
handwriting, sufficient evidence has been brought to light to show 
that Linnaeus intended to write 'memphitis, which must therefore be 
considered entirely distinct from mephitis. In this copy of Linnaeus 
Mr. Harting finds that although certain alterations 1 are made in the 
diagnosis, the spelling of memphitis is not corrected. Still other 
evidence of the validity of the name is adduced by Mr. Harting, who 
writes: "That he [Linnaeus] meant memphitis to stand is clear, not 
only from his leaving the spelling uncorrected in his annotated tenth 
edition, but by his rewriting it in a marginal note to his copj^ of Ra} r, s 
'Synopsis Animalium,' 1693, wherein, on p. 181, he identifies it with 
Ray's ' Yzquiepatl seu Vulpecula. 7 Opposite these words he has written 
' Viverra memphitis. ,' distinctly." 

Schreber's name mephitis, then, is not preoccupied, and being 
accompanied by a recognizable description, is adopted as the first 
name for the Canada skunk. 

mesomelas (Mephitis) Liechtenstein, 1832. Darst. Saugeth., pi. 45, with accom- 
panying text. 

Lichtenstein's specimen, on which the species thus named is based, 
was secured from a natural history dealer, and was said to have come 
from Louisiana. The measurements show it to be the small species 
inhabiting the southern Mississippi Valley, subsequently named 
scrutator by Bangs. 

mexicana (Mephitis) Gray, 1837. Charlesworth's Mag. Nat. Hist., I, p. 581. 

Gray's brief description under this name probably refers to one of 
the forms of macroura, of which mexicana is therefore a synonym. 

1 The alterations referred, to consist in the . substitution for the original diagnosis, 
of the following: 

"V. alba subtus nigro maculata;" and the entry in the margin of the query, "an 

The diagnosis as altered agrees with the later portion of the description, and the 
nasua element is largely removed, although the references point principally to that 
animal (of. Bangs, Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., XXVI, p. 529, 1895). 

That Linnaeus himself was in doubt as to the validity of the species is shown both 
by the annotations above mentioned, and by the omission of the name from his 
twelfth edition. 


milleri (Mephitis) Mourns, 1897. Proc U. 8. Nat. Mus., NX, p. 467. 

The form thus named was described from Fort Lowell, Arizona. 
It proves to be a northern race of the hooded skunk, for which this Is 
the only name. 

obtusatus (Mephitis) Cope, 1899. Journ. A. ad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 2d scries, XI, pt. 
2, p. !_•:>(>. 

Cope gave this name to an extinct species based on a single jaw 
discovered in the Port Kennedy bone deposit (Pennsylvania), but his 
type can not now be found. It is described as a very small species, 
the size of a weasel. 

occidentalis (Mephitis) Baird, 1857. Mamm. N. Am., p. 194. 

Under this name Baird described the western skunk. It is a wide- 
ranging species for which there is no other name. 

olida (Mephitis) Boitard, 1842. Jardin des Plantes, Mamm. p. 147. 

As in the case of fetidissima, described on the same page, this name 
was probably intended to apply to one of the forms of the eastern 
skunk, but in the absence of a definite type locality, no specific appli- 
cation can be made. 

orthostichus (Mephitis) Cope, 1896. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., p. 389. 

Cope described the species thus named from remains found in the 
Port Kenned}' bone caves, Pennsylvania. It appears to be quite dis- 
tinct from any living- species. 

putida (Mephitis) Boitard, 1842. Jardin de.s Plantes, Mamm. p. 147. 

This is the first name applicable to the eastern skunk in connection 
with which the type locality is definitely fixed. Boitard refers to it 
as " La Moufebte de New Jersey ■' and gives a brief description of the 
animal. The name is adopted for the species long known as m&phitica. 

scrutator (Mephitis mephitica) Bangs, 1896. Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., X, p. 141. 

Under this name Bangs described the form from Louisiana as a 
subspecies of the Canada skunk. It proves to be quite distinct from 
the latter, and is a well-marked form, for which, however, Lichten- 
stein's name mesomelas, of much earlier date, must be used. 

spissigrada (Mephitis) Bangs, 1898. Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., XII, p. 31. 

The form thus named was described by Bangs from Sumas, British 
Columbia. It proves to be a northern race of occidentalis. 

varians (Mephitis) Gray, 1837. Charlesworth's Mag. Nat, Hist., I, p. 581. 

The description of the form thus named is inadequate, and the type 
locality ( ; Texas') indefinite, but Gray's statement in a later paper 
that the tail is as long as the body fixes the name to the large skunk 
of southern and western Texas. The type specimen can not be found. 


vittata (Mephitis) Lichtenstein, 1832. Darst. Siiugeth. plate 47, with accompany- 
ing text. 

Lichtenstein described under this name the species found at San 
Mateo del Mar, Oaxaca, Mexico. It proves to be a well-marked form 
of the hooded skunk group. 

Genus CHINCHA Lesson. 

Generic characters. — Skull highly arched, highest in frontal region; 
rostrum truncated with slight obliquity; posterior margin of palate 
nearly on a line with posterior border of last molars; periotic region 
not inflated; mastoid and paroccipital processes prominent; post-orbital 
processes not prominent; coronoid process of mandible conical, erect. 
Dental formula: i. ^%, c. jij, pm. 3^3, m. 2i2 = 34. Snout not greatly 
produced; nostrils lateral; tail long and bushy. 

The genus Chincha is a member of the subfamily Mephitina?, which 
also includes three other genera. Mephitis, TMosmus, 1 and Canepatus, 
of which only the first two occur in North America. Mephitis may be 
readily distinguished by the color pattern, which consists of numerous 
white stripes (always more than two) broken into many patches or 
spots. Thiosimis differs from the other two North America genera in 
having the snout produced, and bare for a considerable distance from 
the tip, with the nostrils inferior; tail short and sparsely haired; and 
usual color pattern black, with a solid white band covering the entire 
back and part or all of the tail. 

Key to species and subspecies. 

[Based on adult males.] 

Audital bulke greatly inflated; back usually either wholly black or wholly 

white (Subgenus Leucomitra, p. 39) 

Smaller; bullfe much inflated vittata (p. 43) 

Larger; bullae less inflated. 

Tail much longer than body mitteri (p. 42) 

Tail not longer than body macroura (p. 41) 

Audital bullae not greatly inflated; back usually with a white stripe, divided 

posteriorly (Subgenus Chincha, p. 22) 

Palate with prominent spine. 

Tail longer than body elongata ( p. 27 ) 

Tail shorter than body putida ( p. 25 ) 

1 Thiosmus Lichtenstein, Abh. Akad. Wiss. Berlin for 1836, p. 270, 1838. Material 
in the collection of the Biological Survey indicates that Conepatus Gray, described 
from Patagonia, will have to be separated from the white-backed skunks usually 
known under this name. The white-backed skunks will, in such event, require 
another name; and since Thiosmus Lichtenstein seems to be the earliest one that is 
available, it is here provisionally adopted for this group. 


Palate without prominent spine. 

Tail less than halt the length of body mephitis ( p. 22) 

Tail more than half the length of body. 

Tail usually more than 350 mm. (Texas) varians (p. 31) 

Tail usually less than 350 mm. 

Skull small (basilar length 1 less than 66 mm.). 

Body stripes very broad estor ( p. 32) 

Body stripes narrower. 

Tail more than 250 mm holzneri (p. 38) 

Tail less than 250 mm. 
skull smaller (basilar length usually under 60 mm.). mesomelas (p. 29) 

skull larger | basilar length usually over 60 mm. ) avia ( p. .">(>) 

Skull large (basilar length more than 66 mm.). 

Body stripes narrow: frequently not continuous notata (p. 36) 

Body stripes broad; always continuous. 
Tail usually more than 285 mm. 

Skull very broad (mastoid breadth more than 45 mm.) ..major (p. 37) 
Skull narrower (mastoid breadth less than 4.5 mm.). 

Rostrum very broad (breadth across post-orbital processes more 

than 24 mm. ) platyrhina (p. 39) 

Rostrum narrower (breadth across post-orbital processes less than 

24 mm. ) .oceidentalis (p. 34) 

Tail usually less than 285 mm. 

Palate extending back of last mi >lars hudsonica ( p. 24) 

Palate ending on a line with last molars spisxigrada ( p. 35) 

List of Species and Subspecies, ■with. Type Localities. 

Subgenus ( Jhincha. 

Species and subspecies. Type localities. 

Chincha mephitis (Schreber) America (restricted to eastern Canada). 

hudsonica \ Richardson) Plains of the Saskatchewan. 

putida ( Boitard) New Jersey. 

elongaia ( Bangs) Micco, Brevard ( Jounty, Florida. 

mesorru las | Lichtenstein ) Louisiana. 

mesomelas avia (Bangs) San Jose, Illinois. 

mesomelas varians (Gray ) Texas. 

> star i Merriam) San Francisco Mountain. Arizona. 

oceidentalis (Baird ) Petaluma, ( Jalifo >rnia. 

oceidentalis spissigrada (Bangs) Sumas, British Columbia. 

nceidi ntalis notata nobis Trout Lake, Mount Adams, Washington. 

oceidentalis major nobis Fort Klamath, Oregon. 

oceidentalis holzneri (Mearns) San Isidro Ranch, Lower California. 

platyrh ina nobis South Fork Kern River, California. 

Subgenus Leitomitka. 

Chincha maeroura (Lichtenstein) Mountains northwest, of City of Mexico. 

iintcroura milleri (Mearns) Fort Lowell, Arizona. 

maeroura vittata ( Lichtenstein ) San Mateo del Mar, Oaxaca, Mexico. 

1 Basilar length of Hensel, measured from inferior lip of foramen magnum to pos- 
terior rim of alveolus of middle incisor. 


Subgenus CHINCH A. Large Striped Skunks. 

Subgeneric characters. — Skull (PLs. V, VI, and VII) long and relatively 
narrow interorbitally; zygomata usually spreading broadly; inter- 
pterygoid fossa broad; palate ending either squarely or with a median 
notch or spine; audital bullae not greatly inflated; anterior palatine 
foramina usually small and narrow; mastoids, and sagittal and supra- 
orbital crests well developed. Size medium to large; build heavy; soles 
broad; ears not prominent; fur dense. 

The usual color pattern is as follows: A narrow median white stripe 
extends from nose to nape; a white dorsal band beginning with a broad 
nuchal patch, and narrowing between the shoulders, divides into two 
lateral stripes, which continue to the tail and sometimes down its sides; 
the rest of the body is black; the tail is of mixed black and white 
hairs, the white ones much the longer; all the tail hairs are white at 
the base. (See PI. II, iig. 1.) 

Great variability is exhibited by the species inhabiting the eastern 
United States — -putida, elongata, and mesomelas — which grade in color 
pattern from specimens wholly white above, including the tail, to 
specimens in which the only white areas are the frontal stripe and a 
dash on the nape. In the western species and in O. mephitis from 
Canada the variability is slight, and consists chiefly in the breadth of 
the body stripes and the amount of white on the tail. (See Pis. I, II, 
and III.) The white areas are often of a creamy hue, and are never 
mixed with black hairs, as they are in the hooded skunks (subgenus 
Leucomitra), and specimens in the black phase never show any trace 
of the white on the sides that is usual in the black phase of Leucomitra. 

Descriptions of Species and Subspecies. 
CHINCH A MEPHITIS (Sihreber). Canada Skunk. 

Viverra mephitis Schreber, Saugth., Ill, p. -444, tab. 121, 1776. 

Viverra mephitica Shaw, Mus. Leverianum, p. 171, 1792 (part). 

Viverra mephitis Oken, Lehrbuch der Naturg., p. 994, 1816. 

Chincha americana Lesson, Nouv. Tabl. Regne Anini., Mamm., p. 67, 1842. 

Mephitis mephitica Bangs, Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., XXVI, p. 533, 1895; Elliot, 

Synop. Mamm. N. A., Field Columbian Museum, Zool. Ser., II, p. 322, 1901 


Type locality. — America. 

Geographic distribution. — Eastern Canada — Nova Scotia, Quebec, 
and northern Ontario; west and north at least to Oxford House, 

General characters. — Size large; tail short and slender, mixed black 
and white; markings constant: skull large and massive; palate ending 
in an even curve, without notch, or spine. 

mto., 1901.] CHINCHA MEPHITIS. 23 

Color. — The color pattern, which is quite constant, agrees with that 
described in the subgeneric diagnosis (p. 22). The white stripes are 
never very broad and are sometimes separated for their entire length, 
as in ( '. notata. They extend down the sides of the tail and project 
beyond its tip. (See PI. II, tig. 1.) 

('/■<i, intl clnii'urf, /-.v. -Skull large and massive; rostrum broad; zygo- 
mata heavy, not greatly esepanded; mastoid process* not prominent ; 
braincase very broad: palate ending in an even curve, without distinct 
notch or spin* ; posterior border of palate usually slightly hack of 
posterior alveoli of last molars. (See PI. V, figs. 1 and 2.) 

Measurements. 1 — Average of 7 adult males from Canada: 2 Total 
length. 613; tail vertebra?, 188; hind foot, 78. Average of 2 adult 
females from Canada: 8 578; 165; 70. Skull: (See table, p. 14). 

General remarks. — Until quite recently the specific name mephitica 
has been applied indiscriminately to all the skunks of eastern North 
America. In 1895, Mr. Outram Bangs 3 restricted the name to the 
form inhabiting the Hudsonian and Canadian zones/ and pointed out 
the characters which distinguish it from its congeners. Schreber's 
name mephitis, which has sixteen years' priority over Shaw's name 
mephitica, is strictly applicable to the Canada skunk (as shown by 
Bangs), since the tail is said to be half the length of the body, a pro- 
portion not found in any other of the eastern species. The specific 
name mephitis has been rejected by all recent authors on the ground 
that it is preoccupied by V> e< rra m< mphitis, Linn. ; but as shown in the 
remarks on nomenclature (p. 18), the two names are quite distinct. 

The Canada skunk is a large, stocky animal with a heavy skull and 
a very short tail that narrows gradually to the tip. It is most nearly 
related to hudsonica of the western plains, from which it differs in the 
slender tail, as well as in skull characters. From putida of the Atlantic 
States it differs in larger size, shorter tail, and constancy of markings. 
Skulls of females are considerably smaller than those of males, and 
are equaled in size by skulls of males in putida, but in other respects 
they maintain the characters assigned to the species. 

Specimens examined. — Total number, 18, from the following 

Nova Scotia: Annapolis, 1; Digby, 1: Halifax, 1. 

Quebec: Lake Edward, 4. 

Ontario: Moose Factory, 1; North Bay, Lake Nipissing, 2; Little Pic River, 

Lake Superior, 1. 
Keewatin: Oxford House, 1; Pine Lake, 1. 

1 All measurements are in millimeters. - Fide Bangs. 

3 Proc. Boston 8oc. Nat. Hist, XXVI, p. 533, 1895. 

4 Examination of a large number of specimens from northern New York and New 
England shows that putida is the form occupying the greater part of the Canadian 


CHINCHA HUDSONICA (Richardson). Northern Plains Skunk. 

Mephitis americana, var. hudsonica Richardson, Fauna Boreali-Americana, I, Mamm., 

p. 55, 1829. 
Mephitis mephitica, var. occidentalis Merriam, Ann. Rep. IT. S. Geol. Surv. for 1872, p. 

662, 1873. 
Mephitis mephitica hudsoyiio* Elliot, Synop. Mamm. N. A., Field Columbian Museum, 

Zool. Ser., II, p. 322, 1901 (part). 

Type locality. — Plains of the Saskatchewan. 

Geographic distribution.— Western Canada, from Manitoba to Brit- 
ish Columbia (east of the Cascades); south in the United States to 
Colorado, Nebraska, and Minnesota. 

General characters. — Size very large; tail heavy and of medium 
length, ending in a blunt brush wit/tout a white pencil; skull heavy, 
with a long palate; zygomata' broadly spreading. 

Color. — This species exhibits the usual color pattern of skunks of 
this group. The white stripes are of medium width, bifurcate just 
behind the shoulders, and extend nearly to the tip of the tail. The 
tail, which is very full and bushy, usually ends in a blunt, black brush, 
and has an indistinct band of white about two-thirds of the distance 
from the root to the tip. 

Cranial characters. — Compared with mephitis: Skull both longer 
and broader; zygomata very widely expanded; mastoid processes promi- 
nent; pal at i' long, ending- behind plane of posterior molars, without 
notch or spine; interorbital constriction marked; nasals and ascending 
branches of premaxilhe short; dentition heavy, the lower carnassial 
relatively large. (See PI. VI, figs. 1 and 2.) 

Measurements. — Average of three adult males from Saskatchewan, 
Montana, and Wyoming: Total length, 726; tail vertebrae, 268; hind 
foot, 82. Average of 3 adult females from Montana and Idaho, 602; 
250; 71. Skull: (See table, p. U). 

General remarks. — This skunk may be readily distinguished from 
the skunks of the eastern States by its large size and bushy tail with- 
out a distinct white pencil. Compared with mephitis, its nearest ally, 
it has a longer and heavier tail, broad, heavy soles, and a skull of quite 
different proportions. The most noticeable difference between the 
skulls of the two species is in the widely spreading zygomata of hvd- 
sonica and the contracted mastoids of mephitis. The skull of // udson lea. 
viewed from above, appears narrower *than that of mephitis in the 
frontal and parietal regions. It resembles that of occidental!* in gen- 
eral shape, but has more widely expanded zygomata. Typical hud- 
sonica may be distinguished from both varians and occidental/is by the 
short ascending branches of the premaxillse. 

The species has an extensive range on the northern plains, and 
spreads over most of the northern portions of the Rocky Mountains 
from Colorado to British Columbia. Its range meets that of mephitis 
in Manitoba, and the two species may possibly intergrade, though 

aug., 1901.] CHINOHA PUTIDA. 25 

present material docs not fully show thai such is the case. Specimens 
from British Columbia have slightly shorter tails, but in other respects 
arc typical. 

A large series from Arkins, Colorado, consisting of skulls and a 
few skins, show that two species arc present in i hat region. Of 31 
skulls of adult males. It; are fairly typical hudsonica, L2 are just as 
typical varians, and 3are indeterminate. It is not difficult to separate 
them, the hudsonica scries having broad, heavy skulls, with spreading 
zygomata and lone- palates, the varians series much slenderer and nar- 
rower skulls, with shorter palates. No skins of the hudsonica form arc 
available, but those of the varians form are typical, except that they 
have the shorter tails usual in specimens of varicms from the northern 
part of its range. Under these rather unusual conditions it seems 
hardly possible to consider that the two species intergrade, but rather 
that their ranges overlap at this point, each remaining distinct, save 
for an occasional hybrid. 

Specimens examined. — Total number, 80, from the following 

Mackenzie: Great Slave Lake, 1. 

Saskatchewan: Wingard, 1. 

Alberta: Jasper House, 1. 

British Columbia: Shuswap, 6; Sicamous, 4; Asheroft, 1; Okanagan, 4; 
Kamloops, 1; Stuart Lake, 2; Ducks, 1. 

"Washington: Fort Spokane, 1. 

Idaho: Bear Lake (east side), 1; Cceur d'Alene, 1. 

Montana: Stanford, 1; Great Falls, 1; St. Marys Lake, 1; Nyack, Teton 
Mountains, 1; Bear Paw Mountains, 3; Prospect Creek, near Thompson, 
1; Tobacco Plains, 2; Yellowstone River, (2(5 miles from mouth), 1. 

Wyoming 1 : Rona, Sheridan County, I; Lower Geyser Basin, 1; Shoshone 
Lake, 1; Fort Bridger, 1; Big Horn Mountains, 1; Bull Lake Creek, Fre- 
mont County, 1; Fort Laramie, 1. 

Colorado: Arkins, Larimer County, 19 (skulls). 

Nebraska: Johnstown, 1. 

South Dakota: Custer, 1; Fort Pierre, 1; Fort Randall, 1; Fort Sisseton, 
Marshall County, 1; Rapid City, 1. 

Minnesota: Elk River, 9; Fort . Snelling, 1; Roseau River, at Point d'Orme, 
1; Bois de Sioux, 1. 

CHINCH A PUTIDA (Boitard). Eastern Skunk. 

Mephitis putida Boitard, Jardin des Plantes, Mamm., p. 147, 1842. 

Mephitis olida Boitard, Jardin des Plantes, Mamm., p. 147, 1842. 

Mephitis fetidissima Boitard, Jardin des Plantes, Mamm., p. 147, 1842. 

Mephitis mephitica Baird, Mamm. N. Am., p. 195, 1857 (part); Elliot, Synop. 

Mamm. X. A., Field Columbian Museum, Zool. Ser., 11, ]>. 322, 1901 (part). 
Mephitis varians, var. I>. mephitica, Cray, Cat. Carnivora Brit. Mis., p. 137, 1869. 
Mephitis varians, var. e. chinga, Gray, Cat. Carnivora Brit. Mus., ]>. 137, 1869. 

Type locality. — New Jersey. 

G< ographic distribution. — New England and Middle Atlantic States; 
south to Virginia; west to Indiana. 

Gt neral characters. — Size medium; tail longer than that of mephitis, 


black, with a distinct white pencil,' skull short and relatively broad 
zygomatically, with a prominent spine on the palate. 

Color. — This species exhibits the usual color pattern of the skunks 
of this group, with considerable variation in the breadth and extent 
of the white stripes. The tail is usually wholly black, excepting- a 
white pencil, which extends from 100 to 150 mm. beyond the end of 
the vertebrae. The white stripes are usually broader than in mephitis, 
and specimens frequently occur in which the back is almost wholly 
white. In many individuals, however, the stripes are much reduced 
both in length and breadth, and occasionally are entirely wanting, the 
white being confined to a small patch on the nape and the usual frontal 
stripe. Only two individuals in the large series examined have the 
white stripes continued down the sides of the tail. (See PI. I, fig. 1.) 

Cranial characters. — Skull of medium size and. relatively broad across 
zygomata/ interorbital constriction marked; posterior border of palate 
with a prominent spine; palate usually ending about on a line with 
last molars; mastoid processes prominent. (See PI. V, figs. 3 and 4). 

Measurements. — Average of 6 adult males from Hastings, New York: 
Total length, 575; tail vertebras 229, hind foot 60. Average of 6" 
adult females from same locality: 603; 223; 62. Skull: (See table, 
p. 11). 

General remarks. — This species, the common skunk of the Eastern 
States, is generally distributed from Maine to Virginia, but reaches 
the Mississippi Valley only, so far as known, in Ohio and eastern 
Indiana. It has long borne the specific name mephitica, which until 
recently it shared with all its congeners in eastern North America; 
but since this is a synon3 r m of C. mephitis (Schreber), which is here 
adopted for the Canada skunk, it becomes necessary to select the 
next available name. While a great many names were proposed in 
the early years of the present century for the American skunks, the 
earliest used in a sufficiently restricted sense to be available for the 
present species is putida of Boitard, proposed in 18-12 for the skunk 
of New Jersey. There is but one species of skunk in New Jerse} 7 : 
hence, although Boitard's description is not in itself sufficient for 
identification, no doubt can exist as to the applicability of the name. 
The two other names (olida and fetidissima) proposed by him on the 
same page probably apply also to this form, but these are also inade- 
quately described and lack the specific mention of a type locality. 

In 1896 Bangs described a new form from Louisiana under the 
name Mephitis mephitica, scrutator (=mesomelas), and expressed the 
opinion that the skunks inhabiting the New England and Middle 4 
Atlantic States are intermediates between it and impltit i< ia(= mephitis). 1 
A careful study of a large number of specimens from eastern North 
America, including Bangs's types, shows that the skunks of the 
Atlantic coast States are very distinct from those inhabiting the 

J Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., X, pp. 139-144, 1896. 

ato., 1901.] OHINCHA ELONGATA. 27 

Mississippi Valley, and that the form from New England and the 
Middle Atlantic States is also quite distinct from mephitis. Hence 
it is entitled to separation as a full species. 

It may be at once distinguished from mephitis by its longer tail and 
very different skull. The skull is not only much smaller and weaker 
than that of mephitis, hut tin 1 relatively great breadth across the zygo- 
mata and the marked interorbital constriction give it a very different 
appearance. The skulls of some of the largest males are almost as 
broad zygomatically as those of mephitis, though very much shorter. 
The spine on the posterior border of the palate, which is a fairly con- 
stant character (absent in only a very few individuals in the large series 
examined), distihguishesy;////^ alike from mep/tif/N and from mrxomdas 
and its subspecies a/via. The presence of a palatal spine, the great 
mastoid breadth, and other differences in the skulls of males of this 
species, as compared with those of ama, whose range meets that of 
put iilii in Indiana, show that the two forms are quite distinct. Skulls 
of females, however, have the spine on the palate less pronounced, the 
zygomata less abruptly spreading, and the mastoid processes reduced, 
and thus resemble rather closely the females of avia. 

As in all the skunks, the skulls of the females of putida are very 
much smaller than those of the males, although occasionally the skull 
of a very large female will equal that of a small male. The skulls 
show a large amount of individual variation, particularly in size but 
also in other respects. Specimens from New Hampshire and northern 
New York average larger than the typical form, which might be 
regarded as due to the influence of mephitis but for the complete 
absence of other signs of intei gradation with that species. 

Sp( c'iik us ,-,(■( (in! n id. — Total number, 182, from the following locali- 

New York: Adirondack .Mountains, 51 (skulls) ; Lake George, 1<>; Tomhan- 
nock, 1; Locust Grove, 11; Severance, 13 (skulls); Catskill Mountains, 1; 
Hastings-on-Hudson, 10; Highland Falls, :-!; Big Moose Lake, Hamilton 
County, 1; Mayville, 2; Westchester County, 1; Sing Sing, 3; Montauk 
Point, 2; Shelter Island, 19 (skulls); Miller Place, Suffolk County, 2. 

New Hampshire: Ossipee, 8. 

Maine: Bucksport, 1; BrookUn, 2. 

Massachusetts: Wilmington, 15; Burlington, 2; Taunton, 1; Ipswich, 1; 
Woods Hole, 2. 

Connecticut: East Hartford, 3. 

Pennsylvania: Carlisle, 1. 

Ohio: Garrettsville, 1. 

Indiana: Marion County, 3; B< >one County, 1; Denver, 1. 

Maryland: Jefferson, 1. 

District of Columbia: Washington, 3. 

CHLNCHA ELONGATA | Bangs). Florida Skcxk. 

Mephitis mephiiica dongata Banirs. Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., XXVI, p. 531, 1895. 
Mephitis elongate Bangs, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., X, p. 142, 1896. 

Type locality. — Micco, Brevard Count}', Florida. 


Geographic distribution. — Florida (from vicinity of Lake Worth) to 
North Carolina, and in the mountains to West Virginia; west on the 
Gulf coast to the Mississippi River. 

General characters. — Size medium; tail very long, marked with white 
on the sides, and with a long' white pencil; marking's variable, but 
white stripes usually very broad; skull peculiar — larger than that of 

Color. — Markings similar to those of putida, but white stripes aver- 
aging broader (about 45 mm. in width) and bifurcating about the mid- 
dle of the back; tail mostly white above and on the sides, this color 
reaching around and almost meeting beneath the root of the tail. 
Great variability in markings is exhibited, some specimens being 
wholly black, save for a few irregular white patches on the shoulders, 
others nearly all white above, including the tail, and mixed with white 
below. (See PI. I, figs. 2 and 3.) 

('ran ial characters. — Skull larger and heavier than that of putida,' 
highly archied in frontal region; rostrum, very hroad; anterior palatine 
foramina large; zygomata spreading less abruptly; dentition heavy, 
lower carnassial especially large; audita] bulla? rather large; spine 
on palate prominent; interpterygoid fossa broad. 

M< tisnr, in, nis. Average of 2 aduH males from type locality: Total 
length, 703; tail vertebrae, 317; hind foot, 74. Average of 2 adult 
females from St. Marys, Georgia: 710; 315; 73. A series from Lake 
Harney and Mullett Lake are somewhat smaller, 3 adult males aver- 
aging 689; 292; 64. Skull: (See table, p. 44.) 

General remarks. — The Florida skunk is closely related to putida, 
but is veiy distinct from rnesomelas of the lower Mississippi Valley, 
from which it may be distinguished by its long tail and heavy skull. 
It was described by Bangs as a subspecies of the eastern skunk, 
but in a later paper he accorded it specific rank, and stated that its 
range does not meet that of mephitica (=putida) on the Atlantic coast, 
since the coastal region of North Carolina is practically uninhabited 
by skunks. More recently Mr. Bangs has received a specimen of elon- 
gata from Raleigh, North Carolina, the only one, so far as known, 
ever taken in the eastern part of the State. Two specimens from West 
Virginia are typical except that the tail is not quite the usual length — 
a character found occasionally even in specimens from Florida. 

Specimens exam ined. — Total number, 39, from the following localities: 

Florida: Micco, 2; New Berlin, 2; Blitches Ferry, Citrus County, 3; Lake 
Harney, 5; Mullett Lake, 5; Gainesville, 1; .Sebastian, 1 ; Fort Kissimmee, 
3; Lake Worth, 1; Hernando County, 1. 

Alabama: Baldwin County, 2. 

Mississippi: Bay St. Louis, 2. 

Georgia: St. Marys, 2; Pinetueky, 2; Mcintosh County, 1; Nashville, 1. 

North. Carolina: Raleigh, 1; Weaverville, 2. 

West Virginia: Green Bank, 1; Travellers Repose, 1. 

atjg., 1901.] CHINCHA MESOMELAS. 29 

CHINCHA MESOMELAS (Lichtenstein). Louisiana Skunk. 

Mephitis mesomdas Licht., Darst. Saugeth., pi. 45, fig. 2, with accompanying text, 1832. 

Mephitis mephitica scrutator Bangs, Proc. Biol. Sue. Wash., X, p. 141, 1896; Elliot, 

Synop. Mamm. X. A., Field Columbian Museum, Zool. Ser., II, p. 324, 1901. 

'/)//» locality. Louisiana. 

Geographic distribution. -West side of Mississippi Valley from 
southern Louisiana to Missouri; westward along the eoastof Texas to 
Matagorda Island; and up the Red River Valley as far at least as 
Wichita Falls. 

General characters. Siet very small; tail short, usually wholly 
Mack; skull small and relatively narrow. 

Color. More variable than varians, but apparently less so than 
putida. In specimens from the type locality the white stripes are nar- 
row, and usually terminate about the middle of the hack, though they 
occasionally extend to the root of the tail; 1 tail usually wholly black; 
the white pencil generally absent, but if present, shorter than in 
putida. (See PI. II, tig. 2.) In specimens from Texas the stripes 
usually reach to the tail, and the coloration is more constant. 

Cranial characters. Skull very small mid relatively narrow; m<is- 
toids contracted; palate ending squarely, without distinct *pi/i<>; teeth 
small: audital bullae usually more inflated than in putida. (See PL VI, 
figs. •"> and -t.) 

Measurements. — Average of 4 adult males from Louisiana: Total 
length. 576; tail vertebras, 223; hind foot, 63. Average of 3 adult 
females from same localities: 566; 224; 62. Average of 4 adults 
(both sexes) from Marble Cave, Missouri: 628; 232; 67. Skull: (See 
table, p. 44.) 

(i, a, rnl remarks. — In Lichtenstein's original description of this 
species he remarked that his type was secured from a natural history 
dealer, and was said to have come from Louisiana. In a later paper 2 
he gave its range as ' Ludoviciana et ad Missouri jVu/vium.^ By rea- 
son of his assignment of a definite type locality, and by the aid of 
the measurements of his specimen, 3 we are able to apply the name 
with certainty to the small species inhabiting the lower Mississippi 

'Lichtenstein figures a specimen in which the white stripes reach to the tail and 
down its Bides. None of those examined from Louisiana have as much white as 
this specimen, but it is stated by Mr. Levi Spalding, of Iowa, Louisiana, that all 
gradations of color occur in the skunks of that section. When more specimens 
are obtained from the State, many individuals will probably be found that agree 
perfectly with the figure of the type. 

-Ahh. Akad. Wiss. Berlin for 1836, p. 277, 1838. 

3 His measurements are: Head and body, 1 ft. 7 in.; tail, 9 in.; hind foot, 2 in. 
Reduced to millimeters (assuming that he used the Rhineland foot) these measure- 
ments are as follows: Total length, 7o.'i; tail vertebra 1 , 235; hind foot, 52; which do 
not differ radically, except in length of body, from measurements of specimens recently 
taken in Louisiana. The great length of body was undoubtedly due to stretching 
of the skin. 


Valley. The hairy soles ascribed by him to this species have not 
been observed in any species of the genus. 

The Louisiana skunk was later described by Bangs as a subspecies 
of ' 'mephitica? (= mephitis and putida). With mephitis it apparently 
has no connection; from putida it may be distinguished by its small 
size, short tail, and narrow skull with square palate. These charac- 
ters also distinguish it from elongata. In most of the specimens 
examined the tail ends in a blunt black brush, as in varlans and hud- 
sonica; but a few from both extremes of its range have a slender 
white pencil, shorter than in putida. One specimen from Marble 
Cave, Missouri, is nearly all white above, including the tail. The 
shape and size of the anterior palatine foramina are variable in this 
species, some individuals having the large rounded foramina which 
appear in the subgenus Leucomitra. 

Specimens examined. — Total number, 39, from the following 

Louisiana: Cartville, Acadia Parish, 2; Point aux Loups Springs, 5; Calca- 
sieu Parish, 11; Calcasieu Pass, 1. 

Texas: Matagorda Peninsula, 3; Virginia Point, 1; San Antonio, 3; Aransas 
County, 1; Gainesville, 2; Henrietta, 1; Wichita Falls, 1. 

Oklahoma: Fort Cobb, Washita River, 1. 

Missouri: Marble Cave, Stone County, 7. 

CHINCH A MESOMELAS AVI A (Bangs). Illinois Skunk. 
Mephitis m Bangs, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., XII, p. 32, 1898. 

Type locality. — San Jose, Illinois. 

Geographic distribution. — Prairie region of Illinois, western Indiana, 
and eastern Iowa; boundaries of range imperfectly known. 

General characters. — Resembles mesomelas very closely, but skull 
slightly larger. 

Color. — The series from the type locality is variable; in some the 
white stripes terminate about the middle of the back, in others they 
reach to the root of the tail. Tail wholly black, with or without a 
white pencil. 

Cranial characters. — Skull slightly larger than that of mesomelas; 
z}'gomata more widely expanded; upper carnassial large; palate vari- 
able in length, ending sometimes in front of and sometimes behind 
plane of last molars. 

Measurements. — Average of two adult males from type locality: 1 
Total length, 641; tail vertebrae, 181; hind foot, 65; one adult female 
from Freeport, Illinois: 610; 220; 68. 2 Shall: (See table, p. 44). 

General remarks. — This form is very closely related to mesomelas 
from which it differs chiefly in greater size and perhaps shorter tail. 

1 Fide Bangs. 

2 These measurements, taken in the flesh from a specimen which died in the 
National Zoological'Park, show that the species may have a s nnewhat longer tail than 
Bangs's measurements indicate, and not appreciably shorter than that of mesomelas. 


While its range meets that oiputida in Indiana intergradation seems 
not to take place. The differences between avi<i and -put Ida have 
already been pointed out (see p. 27). 

Specimens examined. — Total number, 10, from the following locali- 

Illinois: San . lose, <>; Freeport, 1; 'Illinois,' 1. 

Indiana: Fowler, Benton County, 1. 

Iowa: Delaware County, 1. 

CHINCHA MESOMELAS VARIANS (Gray). Long-tailed Texas Skunk. 

Mephitis varians Cray, Charlesworth's Mag. Nat. Hist., I, p. 581, 1837. 

Mephitis macroura Ami. & Bach., Quad. N. Am., Ill, p. 11, L854 [not M. macroura 

Mephitis mesomelas Allen, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat, Hist., VI, p. 188, L894 [not .1/. meso- 

melas Licht.]; Elliot, Synop. Mamm. N. A., Field Columbian Museum, Zool. 

Ser., II. p. 325, L901 [not M. mesomelas Licht,]. 

Type locality. Texas (specimens from lower Rio Grande Valley 
considered typical). 

Geographic distribution. — Southern and western Texas, eastern New 
Mexico, and adjacent parts of Mexico; north into Oklahoma, Colorado, 
Kansas, and Nebraska. 

(t, n, i;il characters. — Size large; tail very long; markings similar to 
those of hudsonica, constant: skull longer than that of mesomelas. 

Color. — Similar to that of hudsonica/ white stripes narrower than 
in estor/ tail ending in a black brush without a pencil; white hairs 
intermixed in the tail, usually showing prominently in upper surface 
to about the middle of the tail, where they form an indistinct band. 

Cranial characters. — Skull of medium size, smaller and narrower 
than that of hudsonica/ longer than that of mesomelas/ zygomata 
spreading less abruptly, and palate averaging shorter than in hud- 
sonica/ ascending branches of premaxillaB very long. 

Measurt im nts. — Average of 4 adult males from vicinity of Browns- 
ville. Texas: Total length, 758; tail vertebra", 393; hind foot, 71. 
Average of 4 adult females from lower Rio Grande Valley (Laredo 
and vicinity): 681; 376; 69. Skull: (See table, p. 44.) 

General remarks. — In Gray's original description of this species he 
remarks that it inhabits Texas, and in a later paper mentions that the 
tail is as long as the body. 1 Two forms are found in Texas, either of 
which might be the subject of the original description, but only one 
of these, the larger, has a tail as long as the bod}'. To this form, 
therefore, the name is restricted. 2 

J Cat. Carnivore P.rit. Mus., p. 186, 1869. 

2 Dr. J. A. Allen has endeavored to fix Lichtenstein's name, mesomelas, to this 
form (Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., VI, p. 188, 1894), but that this can not be done 
is evident upon comparing the measurements of this species with those of memmelas 
as given by Lichtenstein i see footnote p. 29). The specimens on which Dr. Allen 
based his views came from ( >klahoma and belong to the large form — not the small 
one, of whose presence in Louisiana he was at the time unaware. The body and 
tail measurements made by him from dry skins, do not correctly represent the aver- 
age measurements of varians; but the size and characters of the skull leave no doubt 
as to the identity of the specimens. 


The species varies greatly in size: thus specimens from the lower 
Rio Grande Valley have much longer tails and rather smaller skulls 
than those inhabiting central Texas, Oklahoma, and Colorado. In 
southeastern Texas, in the vicinity of Matagorda Bay, it intergrades 
with mesomelas, whose range extends westward along the coast from 
Louisiana. In a series of 1 specimens from O'Connorport (opposite 
Matagorda Island), which are evidently intermediate, the markings are 
like those of varians while the skulls are small like those of mesomelas, 
and the tails average 312 mm. — much longer than the average tail 
measurement of mesomelas. Seven skins from Mason, Texas, show 
much more white than typical specimens, in this respect approaching 
estor, from which some of them can be distinguished only by greater 
size and longer tail. More than half of these Mason skins have the 
white hairs of the tail extending beyond the tip, and some have a dis- 
tinct white pencil. 

Specimens examined. — Total number, 139, from the following 

Tamaulipas: Matamoras, 2; Mier, 1. 

Texas: Brownsville, 7; Corpus Ohristi, 1; Nueces Bay, 2; Santa Tomas, 1; 
Hidalgo, 2; Rio Grande City, 1; Padre Island, 1; Laredo, 2; Eagle Pass, 
3; Mouth of Pecos River, 1; Presidio County, 2; El Paso, 2; East Painted 
Cave, Valverde County, 1; Indianola, 1; O'Connorport, 7; Rockport, .">; 
Fort Richardson, Jack County, 1; Berne, 1; Mason 7; Gail, 1; Colorado, 
5; Fort Clark, Kinney County, 1; Sherwood, 2; Langtry, 2; Pecos High 
Bridge (Southern Pacific R. R. ), 2; Chisos Mountains, 1; Davis Moun- 
tains, 1. 

New Mexico: Hall Peak, 2; Eddy, 1. 

Oklahoma: Beaver River, Beaver County, 9. 

Colorado: Arkins, Larimer County, 20; Chivington, 1; Canon City, 1; Boulder 
County, 1; Costilla County, 2; Conrow, 1; Loveland, 1. 

Kansas: Cedarvale, 1; Neosho Falls, 1; Trego County, 5; Long Island, 2; 
Onaga, 3. 

Nebraska: Johnstown, 21 (skulls); Valentine, 1; Cherry County, 1; Loup 
Fork River, 1. 

CHINCHA ESTOR (Merriam) Arizona Skunk. 

Mephitis estor .Merriam, N. Am. Fauna No. 3, p. 81, 1890. 

Type local lit/. — San Francisco Mountain, Arizona. 

Geographic distribution. — Arizona, western New Mexico, Sonora, 
Chihuahua, and northern Lower California; south in the Sierra Madre 
to southern Chihuahua; limits of range unknown. 

General characters. — Size rather small; tail shorter than that of 
varians; much white on body and tall; skull resembling that of vari- 
ans, but smaller. 

Color. — White stripes on back very broad — almost confluent; pos- 
terior back wholly white in some specimens; tail of black and white 
hairs, the white longer and chiefly on the upper surface, where they 

AUG., L901.] < IIINCHA ESTOR. 33 

extend beyond and nearly conceal the black; white pencil at tip. (Sec 
PL II. fig. 3.) 

Cranial characters. — Skull resembling 1 that of various in general 
shape but smaller and slenderer/ palate ending about on a line with 
posterior molars, either square or with a very small notch; molars 
smaller than in either varians or occidentalism anterior palatine fora- 
mina small and narrow. (See PI. VII, tigs. 3 and 4.) 

Measurements. A.verage of 7 adult males from Arizona and adja- 
cent parts of Mexico: Total length, 639; tail vertebrae, 285; hind foot, 
69. Average of 4 adult females from same localities: 580; 273; 63. 
Shall: (See table, p. 4-4.) 

General remarks. -The Arizona skunk is a very distinct species 
inhabiting Arizona. New Mexico, ami adjacent parts of Mexico. In 
southern Arizona and Chihuahua its range overlaps that of milleri, 
the two species being often found at the same place. By reason of 
this fact, and on account of the extreme variability of milleri, the two 
have been frequently confused by authors, and many references to 
estor really apply to miUeri. There need be no difficulty, however, 
in distinguishing them, either by skin or skull. The hooded skunks 
(to which group milleri belongs), while extremely variable, are usually 
either wholly black or wholly white on the back, and never have the 
two white stripes of Ghimcha; the tail is longer than the head and 
body (about 52 per cent of the total length). Estor is rather constant 
in markings, and has the white stripes of the other United States spe- 
cie- inclosing a small patch of black, while the tail is shorter than the 
head and body (about 44 per cent of the total length). In the few 
cases in which estor has the whole back white, the purity of the white 
will serve to distinguish it from milleri, in which the white is of a 
grayish hue. due to the intermixture of black hairs. The very pro- 
nounced skull characters distinguishing the two groups are pointed 
out under the description of the subgenus Leucomitra (p. 39). 

Estor differs from both varians and occidentalis in smaller size and 
shorter tail, and in the much greater extent of white on its bod}' and 
tail. Specimens from the Mexican boundary line at the west base of 
the San Luis Mountains are somewhat larger than the typical form 
of estor, and one of them is plainly referable to varians, so it is pos- 
sible that intergradation takes place between the two. 

Specimens examined. — Total number, 55, from the following locali- 

Arizona: Sun Francisco Mountain, 3; Springerville, 3; Eiolbrook, 1; Cala- 
basas, 2; Yuma, 1; Fort Mohave, 1; Fort Verde, 12; Fori Huachuca, 1; 
Huachuca Mountains, 2; Huachuca Station, 1; Prescott, 1: Pinal County, 
4; Whipple Barracks, 1. 

New Mexico: Fort Wingate, 1: Cloverdale, « riant County, 1, Hachita, 1. 

2909— No. 20—01 8* 


Sonora (near Mexican boundary line): Santa Cruz River, 1 ; San Pedro River, 
J; Patagonia Mountains, 2; west side San Luis Mountains, 1; San Luis 
Springs, 1; Animas Valley, 1; San Bernardino Ranch (monument 77, Mex- 
ican boundary line), 1; La Noria (monument 111, Mexican boundary 
line), 1. 

Chihuahua: White Water, 1; Oajon Bonita Creek (near Mexican boundary), 
1; Colonia Garcia, 6; Sierra Madre (near Guadalupe y Calvo), 1. 

Lower California: Poso Vicente, 1. 

CHINCHA OCCIDENTALIS (Baird). California Skunk. 
Mephitis occidentalis Baird, Mamm. N. A., p. 194, 1857. 

Type locality. — Petaluma, California. 

Geographic distribution. — Northern and central California, from 
vicinity of Monterey Bay northward, west of the Sierra and Cascades, 
to the Willamette Valley, Oregon. 

General characters. — Size rather large; resembling- hudsonica quite 
closely, but tail longer; skull relatively narrow across zygomata; palate 
rather long, sometimes with a distinct median notch. 

Color. — Closely resembling hudsonica in pattern of coloration; white 
stripes of medium width, and frequently extending down sides of 
tail, though the white hairs never reach beyond the tip. The mark- 
ings show little variation. 

Cranial characters. — Compared with that of hudsonica, the skull of 
occidentalis is much narrower across tht zygomata, which spread less 
abruptly and are more nearly parallel to the axis of the skull. Pal- 
ate rather long, usually with a distinct median notch, though this is 
not always present, even in the typical form. The largest skulls of 
occidentalis equal those of h udson lea in length and in mastoid breadth, 
but the majority are somewhat shorter and narrower. (See PI. VII, 
figs. 1 and 2.) 

Measurements. — Type: 1 Total length, 800; tail vertebrae, 312; hind 
foot, 77. Average of 5 adult males from vicinity of San Francisco 
Bay: 693; 303; 78. One adult female from Auburn, California: 700; 
330: 75. Shall: (See table, p. 44.) 

General remarks. — The California skunk was recognized as distinct 
by Baird in 1857. With its four subspecies it forms a well-marked 
group, quite distinct from any of the eastern members of the genus, 
and has an extensive range. It equals hudsonica in size, but has a 
longer tail, and differs materially in cranial characters. The colors 
are very constant, but the skulls show great individual variation. 
The length of the tail is also variable, ranging from 265 to 370 mm. 
A series of skulls from Cassel, Shasta County, California, average 
larger than the typical form, and two specimens in the series arc 
clearly intermediate between occidentalis and major. A specimen 
from Lake Tahoe likewise shows characters intermediate between 

1 Fide Baird. 


these two forms. On the north intergradation with spissigrada is 
shown by a large series from Lake Gushman, Washington; while to 
the southward the typical form merges gradually into kolzneri. Its 
relationships with notata and platyrhina arc not dear, but intergrada- 
tion with these is probable. 

Specimens examined. — Total number, L<>7, from the following locali- 

California: Petaluma, 1: Glen Ellen, 1; Novate, 1; Nicasio, 5; Point Reyes, 
2; Mi. Tamalpais, 1: Fairfield, 2; Walnut Creek. 1; Santa Clara, 1; Salt 
Springs, Fresno River, 1; Wawona, L2 (skulls); Pine City, 7 (skulls); 
Yosemite Valley, t: Mariposa County, <i (skulls); South Fork Merced 
River, 1: Carbondale, l: Bope Valley, Alpine County, l'; Markleeville, 
1; Lake Tahoe, 2; Blue Canyon, 1; Aubum, 2: Tehama, 1; Red Bluff, 2; 
Sherwoods, 1; Cahto, 1: Cassel, Shasta County, 29(skulls); Baird, Shasta 
County, 1; Shasta Valley, -\ Sisson, 2; Pitt River, Shasta County, 4; 
Fort Crook, Shasta County. 1; Big Valley Mountains, Lassen County, 1. 
Oregon: Roseburg, 1: Eugene, 1; Grant Pass, Rogue River Valley, 5. 


Mephitis spissigrada Bangs, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., XII, ]». 31, 1898. 
Mephitis fcetulenta Elliot, Field Columbian Museum, pub. 32, Zool. Ser., 1, no. 18, p. 
269, 1899. 

Type locality. — Sumas, British Columbia. 

Geographic distribution. — Shores of Puget Sound and coast region 
of Washington and northern Oregon. 

General characters. — Resembling occidentalism but with shorter tail, 
and more white on body and tail; palate short, without notch. 

Color. — As in occidental is, but body stripes very broad, and much 
white in tail. The white stripes bifurcate about the middle of the 
buck (instead of between the shoulders as in occidental is) and extend 
down the sides of the tail, the long white hairs frequently reaching 
beyond the tip. In most of the specimens examined the body stripes 
have a distinctly yellowish cast, but this is not it constant character. 
(See PI. HI. tig. '?>.) 

i ranial characters. Skull similar to that of occidental is, hut shorter, 
and relatively broader across zygomata; rostrum averaging broader; 
bullae slightly larger: /><i/at, ending squarely, with no trace of a 
notch. - ven with, last molars: lower carnassial smaller; nasals long; 
ascending branches of premaxillae very long and narrow. 

Measurements.— Average of 3 adult males from type locality: Total 
length. 653; tail vertebra-. 246; hind foot. 79. Average of 2 adult 
females from type locality: 625; 235; 75. Average of 3 adidt males 
from Neah Bay, Washington: 630; 230; 84. Skidl: (See table, p. 44.) 

General remarks. — This is a handsome skunk and is said to be very 
abundant, feeding in large numbers on the ocean beaches. It occupies 
a comparatively small area and is a strongly marked subspecies. Its 


■short tail and the great amount of white in the markings distinguish 
it from typical occidental is. From hudsonica, it differs chiefly in its 
shorter palate, weaker and less abruptly spreading zygomata, and 
less mastoid breadth, Skulls of females of spissigrada and hudsonica 
bear a close resemblance to one another; those of the young may be 
distinguished by the longer nasals of spissigrada. 

Since the original description of this form, additional material from 
the type locality shows clearly its relationship to occidental ix and 
establishes its identity with fcetulenta of Elliot. Specimens from the 
shores of the Olympic peninsula, on which fmtulenta was based, show 
the greatest extreme in the characters assigned, bat the differences 
between them and specimens from Sumas are too slight to warrant 
even subspecitic recognition. The slight notch in the palate exhibited 
by Elliot's specimens is due to the fact that they are all immature. In 
the comparisons on which the present results are based, a series of 
adult specimens from Neah Bay has been used. Specimens from 
Washington south of the Olympics are intermediate in characters 
between spissigrada and occidentalis, as is shown by the longer tail, 
longer skull, and notched palate. 

Specimens examined. — Total number, 52, from the following locali- 

British Columbia: Sumas, 6. 

Washing-ton: Neah Bay, 5; The Lagune, near Port Angeles, 3; Lapush, 1; 

Port Townsend, 1; Steilacoom, 5; Tenino, 2; Lake Cushman, 26 (skulls); 

Chehalis County, 2. 
Oregon: McCoy, 1. 

CHINCHA OCCIDENTALS NOTATA subsp. nov. Cascade Skuxk. 

Type from Trout Lake, Mount Adams, Washington, $ adult, No. 87043, U. S. Nat. 
Mus., Biological Survey, Coll. Collected March 22, 1897, by Peter Schniid. 

Geographic distribution. — Southern Washington and northern Ore- 
gon, east of the Cascades; exact limits of range unknown. 

(j, neral characters. — Similar to occidentalism but tail shorter; skull 
slightly larger and dentition heavier; body stripes very narrow, mid 
separated for their oitin length. 

Color. — Similar to that of occidentalism but body stripes much nar- 
rower (about 15 mm. broad in average specimens) and sometimes inter- 
rupted; usually, but not always, joined at nape, and not confluent 
anywhere else. Tail usually all black exteriorly, but sometimes with 
a little white on each side near the base. In the type and some other 
specimens, the body stripes terminate about the middle of the back. 
(See PL III, tig. 2.) 

Cranial characters. — Skull slightly larger than that of occidental i*; 
palate ending nearly squarely, with no distinct notch; nasals short; 
upper molars large, often exceeding those of the largest specimens of 
major; lotoer carnassial broad. 


Measurements. Average of 3 adult males from typo locality: Total 
length, 633; tail vertebrae, 249; hind foot, 7<>. Average of 5 adult 
females from The Dalles, Oregon: 659; 286; 69. Skull: (See table, 
p. +4.) 

General remarks. —This form shows greater variability in markings 
than any other of the western skunks and is the only one in which 
the body stripes arc ever interrupted, In skull characters it resem- 
bles occidentalis quite closely, hut lacks tin 1 notch in the palate and 
has much larger molars. It probably intergrades with both occiden- 
talis and major. 

Specimens examined.- -Total number, 41, from the following locali- 

Washington: Trout Lake, Mount Adams, :;i (skins with skulls, 6; skulls 

only, 25); Rockland, Klickitat County, 1; Goldendale, 1. 
Oregon: The Dalles, 8. 

CHINCHA OCCIDENTALIS MAJOE subsp. nov. Great Basin Skunk. 

Typt from Kurt Klamath, I >regon. $ adult. No. 92238, I". S. Nat. Mus., Biological Sur- 
vey Coll. Collected Jan. 5, 1898, by B. L. Cunningham. Original number, 80. 

Geographic distriJmtion. — Eastern Oregon, northern California, and 
Nevada; east to the Wasatch Mountains in Utah. 

General char oxters. — Similar to occidental^ but much larger; hind 
font longer; skull larger and more heavily built. 

('<>h>r. — Much as in occidentalis: white stripes broad, bifurcating 
near the middle of the back, and extending- only a short distance on 
the tail, which is nearly all black exteriorly. 

( rcmial choyractt rs. — Skull larger and more heavily built than that of 
occidentalism rostrum broader and much flattened; hraincase broader 
,nnl not xo J, .-, ji, thus giving a flattened appearance to the upper sur- 
face of the skull: dentition heavier; palate long, usually ending in a 
concave line, sometimes irregularly notched; ascending branches of 
premaxillae short and broad. 

Measurements.- -Average of 5 adult nudes from type locality: Total 
length, 705; tail vertebra 1 . 306; hind foot. 84. Skull: (See table, 
p. 44.) 

General remarks. — This subspecies seems to he the largest and heavi- 
est skunk in the genus; the hind foot is both longer and broader than in 
any other member of the genus, and the front foot is correspondingly 
large. The large skull with its broad hraincase readily distinguishes 
the form from its congeners. In the series from the type locality, the 
characters are constant, but the subspecies undoubtedly intergrades 
with occidentalis in northern California, and possibly with notata in 
northern Oregon. Specimens from western Nevada are provisionally 
included with majo?; although by reason of the fact that no males 


have been examined — female skunks are less readily separable — their 
exact relationships are uncertain. Specimens from Ogden, Utah, are 
clearly referable to this form. Immature skulls of major may be dis- 
tinguished from those of both occidentalis and hudsonica by the broad 

Specimens examined. — Total number. i ; T, from the following locali- 

Oregon: Fort Klamath, 6; Tule Lake, 2; Plush, Lake County, 1; Shirk, Har- 
ney County, 1; Harney, 2; Elgin, 1. 

Washing-ton: Touchet, 1. 

California: Lassen Creek, Shasta County, 1; Honey Lake, 1; Sierra Valley, 1. 

Nevada: Carson, 1; Reno, 1; Quinn River Crossing, Humboldt County, 1. 

Utah: Ogden, 6; Provo, 1. 

CI 1 1 X( 1 1 A ( )CCIDENTALIS HOLZNERI (Mearns) . Southern California Skunk. 

Mephitis occidentalis holzneri Mearns, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., XX, p. 461, 1897. 

Type locality. — San Isidro Ranch, Lower California. 
Geographic distribution. — Southern California, from vicinity of 
Monterey Bay south into Lower California: east to the Sierra Nevada 
and San Bernardino Range; limits of southward range unknown. 
General characters. — Similar to occidentalis but smaller. 
< '<>/ or. — There are no appreciable color differences to distinguish 
this form from occidentalis. (See PI. Ill, tig. 1.) 

Cranial characters. — Skull smaller than that of occidentalis and 
relatively narrow in mastoid region ; audita! bullae more circumscribed, 
but rather prominent; palatal notch usually absent. 

Measurements. —Type (adult male): x Total length, 665; tail vertebra?, 
273; hind foot, 72. Average of 3 adult males from Twin Oaks, San 
Diego County: 637; 292; 71. Average of 3 females (barely adult) 
from San Diego County: 605; 291; 61. Skull: (See table, p. 44.) 

General remarks. — This form does not differ greatly from occiden- 
talis, but averages considerably smaller in cranial measurements. The 
body and tail measurements of holzneri are slightly smaller than those 
of occidentalis, and the hind foot is decidedly shorter. Specimens 
from Ventura and adjacent counties are intermediate between the two 
forms, having the long tail of occidentalis, but very small skulls. 

Specimens examined. — Total number, 11, from the following locali- 

Lower California: San Isidro Ranch, 3. 

California: Dulzura, 3; Twin Oaks, 5; Witch Creek, 2; Unlucky Lake, San 
Diego County, 1; Pacific coast at Mexican boundary, 1; Santa Ysabel, San 
Diego County, 1; Santa Paula, 2; San Fernando, 1 ; Ventura River, 1; Santa 
Ynez Mission, 3; Gaviota Pass, Santa Barbara County, 2; San Emigdio, 
Kern County, 1; Morro, 1; San Luis Obispo, 3; San Simeon, 2; Monterey, 
3; South Fork Kern River ( 25 miles east of Kernville), 1; Three Rivers, 5. 

/•'/'(/, Mearns. 

A.06., 1901.] SUBGENUS LEUOOM1TR A. 39 

CHINCHA PLATYRHINA sp. nov. Broad-nosed Skunk. 

Type from Smith Fork of Kern River (25 miles east of Kernville), California, J 1 adult, 
No. ],'-;:;, r. S. Nat. Mus., Biological Survey Coll. Collected July."), L891, by 
Vernon Bailey. Original number, 2998. 

Geographic distribution. Known only from the type locality and 
from Owens Valley. 

General characters. Externally much like occidentalis,' skull with 
peculiarly shaped zygomata ami very broad rostrwn. 

Color.- Resembling occidentalis: white stripes of medium width, 
produced only a short distance on the sides of the tail; tail Mack 
externally, except for an indistinct hand of white on the upper surface 
about | the distance from base to tip. Specimens from Owens Valley 
have most of the tail hairs chestnut instead of black, exteriorly; and 
in one case most of the body is chestnut. This is probably due to 

< '/■fluid! characters. — Skull resembling that of occidentalism but 
shorter and relatively broader: much flattened in frontal region; ros- 
t rn in very broad — actually and relatively broader than in largest speci- 
mens of occidentalis y zygomata spreading less abruptly and in an even 
curve nearly parallel to the axis of the skull; palate nearly square, 
with only a very slight notch; audital bullae small, and slightly 
inflated: tube of auditory meatus short; nasals short and broad. 

Measurements. — Type (adult male): Total length, 750; tail vertebras, 
320; hind foot. 90. Average of 3 adult females from Owens Valley: 
(Hit; 332; 79. Skull: (See table, p. M). 

G< io ml r< marks. — This species shows no marked charactersof pelage 
to distinguish it from occidentalis, which it equals or exceeds in size, hut 
its peculiar skull at once serves to separate it. As typical holzneri 
occurs at the type locality of platyrhiha, it is evident that intergrada- 
tion does not take place between the two species at this point. It is 
quite likely, however, that platyrhina intergrades with major; but 
until there is material available to show such intergradation, a binomial 
designation seems preferable. The skull resembles that of major in 
general shape, but is very much smaller, and relatively broader across 
the postorbital processes. 

Specinu nsexamined. — Total number, 9, from the following localities: 
California: South Fork Kern River, 5; Owens- Valley, 2; < >wens Lake, 2. 


LEUCOM1TKA, subgen. nor. Hooded Skunks. 

Type. — Chincha macroura (Lichtenstein). From mountains northwest of the City 
of Mexico. 

Subgeneric characters. — Skull (PI. VIII) short and broad; inter- 

pterygoid fossa narrowly U-shaped: palate without notch or spine: 


anterior palatine foramina large <ind rounded; audited bidlm large and 
greatly inflated; tube of auditory meatus short; periotic region slightly 
inflated; mastoid processes and sagittal crest never greatly developed; 
zygomata never spreading abruptly, and often nearly parallel to the 
axis of the skull; interorbital constriction not marked; paroccipital 
processes directed outward and not sharply pointed; posterior margin 
of coronoid distinctly concave. Size medium to small; build much 
slenderer than that of Chincha; feet slender; tail very long; ears 
prominent; fur long and silk}^ but not dense; hairs on the nape elon- 
gated and spreading sidewise, forming a sort of hood. 

In addition to the characters given above, the hooded skunks differ 
radically from the large striped skunks (subgenus Chincha) in the 
pattern of coloration (see PI. IV), and although they exhibit great 
individual variation, one description will answer for the three forms 
comprised in the subgenus. 

Two patterns occur, one in which the upperparts are chiefly white, 
the underparts black; the other in which the upperparts are nearly 
all black, with narrow lateral stripes, and under surface of tail white. 
Between these two extremes are many intermediate phases. The 
frontal stripe is narrow and often absent. 

In the white-backed phase a broad band of white begins between 
the ears and covers the whole back and upper surface of the tail, the 
long white hairs drooping gracefully from the sides and over the tip 
of the tail. This band is of varying width, but is never bifurcated as 
in true Chincha. There may or may not be a white lateral line 
separated from the dorsal band by a black area. The dorsal band is 
never of the deep creamy hue so frequent in the stripes of ( f hincha, but 
is composed of nearly pure white hairs with numerous black ones inter- 
mixed, and so is more or less distinctly grayish in effect. The lateral 
stripes, when present, are always without this mixture of black hairs. 

The black-backed phase usually has the narrow frontal stripe, and 
may have the white hood, which, however, is often absent. The 
white lateral stripe is almost alwa} r s present, though varying in width 
from an inch or more to a mere trace; it is frequently replaced by 
two narrow stripes on each side. The lower surface of the tail is 
usually white, though sometimes the whole tail is black externally. 

As in the typical subgenus, the bases of the tail hairs in both phases 
are invariably white. Irregular white spots on the ventral surface 1 of 
the body are frequent. 

In some of its characters, this subgenus shows an approach toward 
the genus Mephitis {Spilog ale of authors), particularly in the shape of 
the audital bulla? and the anterior palatine foramina. In the concave 
border of the coronoid it resembles the white-backed skunks (Thiosm us) ; 
but this is a character that sometimes appears in true Chincha. The 
parasites found occasionally in the skulls of all skunks are especially 
frequent in this subgenus. 


Descriptions of Species and Subspecies. 

CHINCHA MACROURA (Lichtenstein). Hooded Skunk. 

Mephitis macroura Lichtenstein, Darst. Saugeth., pi. 4(3, with accompanying text, 
1832.— Bain I. Mamm. X. Am., 1857, p. 200. [Not M. macroura And. and Bach.] 
Mephitis mexicana Gray, Charlesworth's Mag. Nat. Hist., I, p. 581, L837. 
Mephitis longicaudata Tomes, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1861, p. 280. 

Typt locality. — Mountains northwest of the city of Mexico. 

(i, ographdc distribution. — Highlands of central and southern Mexico; 
south to Guatemala. 

General characters.— Sist medium; coloration as in other members 
of the subgenus— extremely variable; skull with sagittal crest and 
mastoid processes well developed. 

Color. — The description of the color given in the remarks on the 
subgenus will apply to this species, with the added note that quite a 
large proportion of the specimens examined are in the black phase, 
and that the white pencil is frequently absent. (See PL IV, fig 1 . L.) 

< ranial characters.— Skull of 'medi/wm sist (for the subgenus); sagittal 
crest and mastoid processes (in adult males) well developed; molars 
small; anterior palatine foramina large and rounded; posterior margin 
of palate an even curve, ending on a line with last molars. 

Mt asurt m< nts. Average of 4 adult males from near the type locality 
(Querendaro. Nahuatzin, and Salazar): Total length, 623; tail verte- 
bra-. 299; hind foot, »>7. Average of 4 adult females from same local- 
ities: 594; 297; 60.5. Skull: (See table, p. 44). 

General remarks. — This species was described by Lichtenstein in 
L832, and his name has been very generally adopted by subsequent 
authors. His type came from the mountains northwest of the city of 
Mexico, and specimens from Salazar are' considered typical. The 
Guatemala form has been described by Tomes under the name longi- 
caudata, but specimens from the vicinity of Dueiias show that it is 
not separable from the typical form. The southern limit of range is 
unknown, but it will probably be found little south of the highlands of 
Guatemala. To the northward macroura grades imperceptibly into 
mill, ri. 

Specimens em/mined. — Total number, 60, from the following locali- 

Mexico: Tlalpam, 4; Amecameca, 1; Salazar, '1. 

Hidalgo: Marques, 1; El Chico, 1; Irolo, 1; Encarnacion, 1; Zimapan, 1; heal 

del Monte, 1. 
Michoacan: Querendaro, 4; Patzcuaro, 1; Nahuatzin, 2. 
Colima: Colima, 4; Hacienda Ma<jdalena, 1. 
Jalisco: Ameca, 2; San Sebastian, 1. 
Tepic: Santa Teresa, 1. 
Zacatecas: Valparaiso, 1. 
San Luis Potosi: Hacienda La Parada, 6. 
Tamaulipas: Jaumave, 1. 
Morelos: Ouernavaca, 5. 


Puebla: Chalchicomula, 1; Tehuacan, 1; Piaxtla, 2. 
Vera Cruz: Perote, 1; Las Vigas, 2; Jico, 4; Orizaba, 1. 
Oaxaca: Oaxaca (mountains 15 miles west), 1. 
Guatemala: Duenas (vicinity), 5. 

CHINCHA MACROURA MILLERI (Mearns). Northern Hooded Skunk. 

Mephitis milleri Mearns, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., XX, p. 467, 1897. 

Type locality. — Fort Lowell (near Tucson), Arizona. 

Geographic distribution. — Southern Arizona, Sonora, and parts of 
Chihuahua, Sinaloa, Durango, and Coahuila. 

General characters. — Very similar to macroura but averaging larger, 
with heavier skull. 

Colo?'. — Much as in macroura, with probably a larger proportion of 
the white-backed phase. In a series of 15 from Camoa, Sonora, 6 have 
black backs and 9 white backs. Two of the black-backed ones are 
with and 4 without the white hood; 1 is wholly black save for a trace 
of the side stripe and a very narrow frontal stripe. (See PI. IV, 
tigs. 2, 3, and 4.) 

Cranial characters. — Skull averaging large/' than that of macroura, 
the greatest difference being in the length. Lower carnassial consid- 
erably larger, both in length and breadth. (See PI. VIII, figs. 1 
and 2.) 

Measurements. — Type (an abnormally large specimen): Total length, 
790; tail vertebra', 435; hind foot, 73. Average of 7 adult males from 
Arizona and adjacent parts of Mexico: 672; 359; 65. Average of 7 
adult females from same localities: 668; 357; 61. Skull : (See table, 
p. 44.) 

General remarks. — The northern hooded skunk is a rather poorly 
marked subspecies of macroura, the two forms intergrading in central 
Mexico. The type is a greatly overgrown specimen, as is shown bj T 
comparison with a series of adults from near the type locality. Aver- 
age specimens are somewhat larger than macroura, the tail usually 
exceeding 350 mm. in length and the skulls averaging larger, though 
it is possible to select specimens from both extremes of their com- 
bined range that are almost identical in cranial characters. 

The most northern point at which the subspecies has been taken is 
Port Grant, Graham County, Arizona, whence it spreads southward 
over northwestern Mexico, passing into the tj r pical form in the cen- 
tral states of Mexico. Apparently it does not occupy northeastern 
Mexico, since it has not been recorded from the Rio Grande Valley or 
from the northern parts of Coahuila, Nuevo Leon, or Tamaulipas. 

Specimens examined. — Total number, 55, from the following locali- 

Arizona: Fort Lowell, 1; Nogales, 1; Fort Huachuca, 7; Fort Grant, Graham 
County, 2; Tucson, 1; Calabasas, 1; Fairbank, 2; Santa Catalina Moun- 
tains, Pinal County, 5. 


Sonora: Patagonia Mountains, 1; Santa Cruz River, 3; Santa Cruz, I; Hermo- 

sillo, 1; Magdalena, 1; Camoa, 15; Alamos, 1. 
Chihuahua: Chihuahua, .">: < 'asas ( rrandes, 2; Guadalupe y ( lalvo (mountains 

near), .'?. 
Sinaloa: Sierra de Choix, 1. 
Coahuila: Jimulco, 2; La Ventura, 1. 

CHINCHA MACROURA VITTATA (Lichtenstein) . Least Bo an Skunk. 

Mephitis vittata Lichtenstein, Darst. Saugeth.,pl. 47. with accompanying text, L832. 
Mephitis concolor Gray (Verreaus MS.?), Proc. Zool. Sue. London, L865, p. L49. 
Mephitis vittata var. b. intermedia Gray, Cat. Carnivora Brit. Mus., p. L38, L869. 
Mephitis vittata var c. concofor Gray, Cat. Carnivora Brit. Mus., p. L38, L869. 

////'< locality. — ' San Matteo el Mar,' Oaxaca, Mexico. 

Geographic distribution. — Known only from the type locality; prob- 
ably ranges over the coast region of Oaxaca and Chiapas. 

General characters. Smaller than macroura, with very small skull, 
and slightly developed mastoids and sagittal crest. 

Color. As in macroura; pencil not distinct. In the scries of 18 
topotypes examined. ;» are in the black phase. 

Cranial character's. — Skull decidedly smaller than that of macroura/ 
relatively narrow across zygomata, and mastoids much red/uced; sagit- 
tal crest very slightly developed; bulla disproportionately large. (See 
PL VIII, figs. 3 and 4.) 

Measurements. -Average of 6 adult males from the type locality: 
Total length. 558; tail vertebrae, 275; hind foot, 60.4. Average of L2 
adult females from the type locality: 585; 300; 59.5. Skull: (See 
table, p. 44.) 

General remarks. — This form was described by Lichtenstein at the 
same time as macroura, and his description was accompanied by a 
good figure of a specimen in the black phase. The description is too 
meager in details, in the absence of material from the type locality, 
to clearly establish the validity of the subspecies, but all uncertainty 
has been removed by the fine series of specimens collected at San 
Mateo del Mar in 1895 by E. W. Nelson and E. A. Goldman. The 
form is well marked, differing more from macroura than does milleri. 
It is the smallest of the genus, and -may be recognized by this fact as 
well as by its peculiar skull characters. The pelage is rather thin 
and coarse. The tail is relatively longer than that of macroura. 
Although, as usual, the males have the greater average skull meas- 
urements, yet in total length the average of the females is greater. 
A very large proportion of the skulls examined had been infested 
with parasites, and the distortion of the cranium through this cause is 
greater than in any other species examined. One specimen in par- 
ticular lias the swelling produced fully 7 mm. above the normal top 
of the cranium and spread to a width of 28 mm., although the mastoid 
breadth of the same specimen is but 31 mm. 

Specimens examined. — Eighteen, all from the type locality. 



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I N D E X . 

[New names in black-face type; synonyms in ilcUics.] 


characters, external, 12-18. 
of genus, 20. 
of subgenus, 22. 

cranial measurements, 14-45. 

distribution, 10-11. 

food, n 12. 

habits, 11-12. 

history, WO. 

key to species, 20-21. 

list of species, 21. 

material examined, 13. 

new species, 13. 

nomenclature, 13-20. 

subgenus, 22. 

type Idealities. 21. 
Chincha, 14. 

americana, 22. 

avia, 30^31. 

elpngata, 27-28. 

estor, 32-34. 

holzneri, 38. 

hudsonica, 24-25. 

maeronra, 39, 41-42. 

major. 37-38. 

mephitis, 22-23. 

mesomelas, 29-30. 

milleri. 42-43. 

notata, 38-37. 

occidentalis, 34-35. 

platyrhina, 39. 

putida, 25-27. 


varians, 31-32. 

vittata, 43. 
Conepatus, 20. 
Lcacomitra (subgenus), 39. 

characters of, 39-40. 
Mammephitisus, 15. 
MemphUis edulis, 16. 
Mephitis, 14. 20. 

Illlli fir,: nil, 15. 

avia. 30. 

!n. 15. 
chinga, 25. 
elongata, 27. 
estor, 32. 
fetidissima, 25. 
■fa tult "in. 35. 
Ei issidens, 16. 
frontata, 16: 
holzneri, 38. 

hudsonia, 24. 
hudsonica, 24. 

ii'h run ilia, 43. 

laUcaudata, 17. 

leptops, 17. 

longicaudata, n. 

macroura, 31, 41. 

mephitica, 22, 23, 2. r >, 

mesomelas, 29, 31. 

mexicana, 41. 

milleri, 12. 

obtusatus, 19. 

occidentalis, 24, 34. 

olida, 25. 

orthostichus, 19. 

putida, 25. 

scrutator, 29. 

spissigrada, 35. 

varians, 31. 

vittata, 43. 

Arizona, 32-34. 

Broad-nosed, 39. 

California, 34-35. 

Canada. 22-23. 

Cascade, 36-37. 

Eastern. 25-27. 

Florida, 27-28. 

Great Basin, 37-38. 

Hooded. II 12. 

Illinois, 30-31. 

Least Hooded, 13. 

Long-tailed Texas, 31-32. 

Louisiana, 29-30. 

Northern II led, 12-13. 

Northern Plains, 21-2-">. 

Puget Sound. 35-36. 

Southern California, 38. 

Hooded, 39-43. 

Large striped, 22-39. 

Little spotted. 10, 14. 

White-backer 1. 10. 
Spilogale, 10, 14. 
Thiosmus, 10, 20. 
Viri rra, 14. 

cinche, 15. 

fosda, 16. 

memphitis, 9, 17. 

mephitica, 22. 

mephitis. 18, 22. 

putorius, 14. 



[Greatly reduced, and relative sizes not accurately shown, owing to differences in preparation of skins.] 

Fig. 1. Ckincha jmtida (Boitard). Burlington, Massachusetts. (No. 77878, U. S. 
Nat. Mus.) 

2. Chincha elongata (Bangs). Fort Kissimmee, Florida. (No. 64017, U. S. Nat. 

Mus. ) 

3. Ohincha elongata (Bangs). Fort Kissimmee, Florida. (No. 64016, U. S. Nat. 


North American Fauna, No. 20. 

Plate I. 

Skins of Chincha. 
1. Chincha putida. 2,3. Chincha elongata. 

2909— No. 20—01- 



[Greatly reduced; and relative sizea not accurately shown, owing to differences in preparation of skins.] 

Fig. 1. Chincha mephitis (Schreber). Pine Lake, Keewatin. (No. 107226, U. S. Nat. 
Mns. ) 

2. Chincha mesomelas (Licht. ) . Calcasieu Parish, Louisiana. (No. 99831, U. S. 

Nat. Mus. ) 

3. Chv wha estor (Merriam). Holbrook, Arizona. (No. 53209, V. S. Nat. 31 us. ) 


North American Fauna, No. 20. 

Plate II. 

1. Chincha mephitis 

Skins of Chincha. 
2. Chincha rm ■-■mm las. 

3. Chincha estor. 


[( rreatly reduced, and relative sizes not accurately shown, owing to differences in preparation of skins.] 

Fig. 1. Chincha occidentalis holzneri (Mearns). Three Rivers, California. (No. 
31244, U. S. Nat. Mus.) 

2. Chincha occidentalis notata Howell. Trout Lake, Mt. Adams, Washington. 

(No. 87042, U. S. Nat. Mus.) 

3. Chincha occidentalis spissigrada (Bangs). Neah Lay, Washington. (No. 

88650, U. S. Nat. Mus. ) 

North American Fauna, No. 20. 

Plate III. 

Skins of Chincha. 

1. Cliincha occidentalis hokneri. '-!. Chincha occidentalis notata. 

3. Chincha occidentalis spissigrada. 


[Greatly reduced, and relative sizes not accurately shown, owing todifferenees in preparation of skins.] 

Fig. 1. Chincha (Leucomitra) macroura (Licht. ). Perote, Vera Cruz. (No. 54225, 
U. S. Nat. Mus. ) 

2. Chincha (Leucomitra) macroura. milleri (Mearns). Oamoa, Sonora. (No. 

95927, U. S. Nat. Mus. ) 

3. Chincha (Leucomitra) macroura milleri (Mearns). Oamoa, Sonora. (No. 

95923, U. S. Nat. Mus. ) 

4. Chincha (Leucomitra) macroura milleri (Mearns). Camoa, Sonora, (No, 

95931, U. S, Nat. Mus.) 

North American Fauna, No. 20. 

Plate IV. 

Skins of Chincha < Leucomitra^. 
1. Chincha macroura. 2,3, I. Chinclia nacroura mttleri. 


[Natural size.] 

Figs. 1 and 2. Chincha mephitis (Schreber). $, Lake Edward, Quebec. (No. 
3805, Coll. E. A. & 0. Bangs.) 
3 and 4. Chincha putida (Boitard). $, Highland Falls, New York. (No. 
2020, Am. Mus. Nat, Hist.) 

North American Fauna, No. 20. 

Plate V. 

Skulls of Chincha. 
1,2. Chincha mephitis. 3,4. Chincha pulida. 


[Natural Mze.] 

Figs. 1 and 2. Chincka hudsonica (Richardson). <J , Sicamous, British Columbia. 
(No. 69957, U. S. Nat. Mus.) 
3 and 4. Chincha mesomelas (Licht.). $, Calcasieu Parish, Louisiana. (No. 
99969, U. S. Nat. Mus.) 


North American Fauna, No. 20. 

Plate VI. 

Skulls of Chincha. 
1,2. Chincha hudsonica. 3,4. Clvi ncha mesomelas 


[Natural size.] 

Figs. 1 and 2. ChincJia occidentalis (Baird). $ , Type. Petaluma, California. (No. 
2617, U. S. Nat. Mus.) 
3 and 4. Chincha estor ( Merriam) . $ , Type. San Francisco Mountain, Ari- 
zona. (No. 24645, U. S. Nat. Mus.) 


North American Fauna, No. 20. 

Plate VII. 

Skulls of Chincha. 
1,2. Chincha occidentalis. 3, 4. Chincha extor. 


Figs. 1 and.2. Chincha (Leucomitra) macroura milleri (Mearns). $, FortGrant, Ari 
zona. (No. 96129, V. S. Nat. Mus.) 
3 and 4. Chincha (Leucomitra) macroura vittata (Licht.) $, San Mateo <lel 
Mar, Oaxaca. ( No. 73478, U. S. Nat. Mus.) 



North American Fauna, No. 20. 

Plate VIII. 

Skulls of Chincha (Leucomitra). 
1,2. Chincha macroura miUeri. 3,4. Chincha macroura vittata. 

North American Fauna. No. 21. 


Cttpe Kn, 

Map of the Queen Charlotte Islands. 

From United States Coast and Geodetic Survey chart No. 3089. 




No. 21 

[Actual date of publication, September 26, 1901.] 




Prepared under the direction of 










U. S. Department of Agriculture, 

Washington, D. C, July 5, 1901. 
Siu: 1 have the honor to transmit herewith for publication, as No. 
21 <>f North American Fauna, two special reports on the natural history 
of little-known parts of the northwest coast of North America, the 
Queen Charlotte Islands, British Columbia, and Cook Inlet, Alaska, 
both by my assistant. Wilfred H. Osgood. 

Owing to the absence of definite information concerning- the faunas 
of these areas, Mr. Osgood was sent there to conduct biological 
explorations during the field season of 1900. The results of his trip 
form an important contribution to the natural history of the northwest 
coast region. 

Respectfully. C. Hart Merriam, 

Chief, Biological Surrey. 
Hon. James Wilson, 

Srrretary of Agriculture. 




Natural history of the Queen Charlotte Islands 7 

Introduction and itinerary 7 

Acknowledgments 9 

Physiography 9 

Fl< »ra 11 

Fauna 16 

Life zones 20 

Bibliography 22 

Annotated list of mammals 25 

Annotated list of birds 38 

Natural history of the Cook Inlet Region 51 

Intri xluctii >n and itinerary 51 

Physiography 51 

Flora 53 

Fauna 56 

Life zones 59 

Previt his work 60 

Annotated list of mammals 61 

Annotated list of birds 72 




Plate I. Map of the Queen Charlotte Islands Frontispiece. 

II. Fig. 1 . Moss-grown spruce, Cumshewa Inlet 12 

Fig. 2. Salmon-herry thicket, Cumshewa Inlet. 

III. Fig. 1. Mouth of stream, Cumshewa Inlet 20 

Fig. 2. Shore of Bare Island, Skidegate Inlet. 

IV. Fig. 1. Skull of Ursiis carlottae 30 

Fig. 2. Skull of Ursus americanus. 

V. Figs. 1 and 2. Skull of Mustela cavrina 34 

Figs. 3 and 4. Skull of Mustela nesophila. 

VI. Fig. 1. Peat hog and mixed woods near Tyonek 52 

Fig. 2. Looking toward Turnagain Arm from head of Bear Creek. 

VII. Fig. 1. Peak at head of Bear Creek 60 

Fig. 2. Canyon of Upper Bear Creek. 


Figure 1. Outline' map of the Queen Charlotte Islands, showing extent of 

the Hudsonian zone 21 


No, 21. NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. September, 1901. 


By Wilfred H. Osgood, 
Assistant Biologist, Biological Survey. 


The Queen Charlotte Islands lie off the coast of British Columbia, 
just south of the Alaskan boundary, between latitude 51 55' N. and 
.~>4 l.V X. They are slightly farther from the mainland than any of 
the islands of the Alexander Archipelago, to the north of them, and 
are not in the track of regular coasting steamers. The3 T were visited 
by several of the early navigators of the northwest coast, but until 
1787 no name was given them and no account of them had been pub- 
lished. In this }• ear Capt. George Dixon cruised about the islands 
from July 1 to August 3, trading with the natives and roughly chart- 
ing the roast. He named the group after Queen Charlotte, the consort 
of George III of England, and in the report of his voyage which 
appeared later included a very interesting account of his visit, together 
with maps and illustrations. In the early part of the nineteenth cen- 
tury various fur-trading vessels stopped frequently at the Queen Char- 
lottes, and later the discovery of gold and coal in small quantities has 
caused sporadic invasions by prospectors. No important attempt has 
been made, however, to develop the resources of the islands. 

The interior has not been explored to any great extent, and proba- 
bly will not be for some time to come, since the difficulties of travel 
are insurmountable to ordinary expeditions. The principal harbors 
and most of the east coast have been surveyed from time to time by 
officers of the royal navy, and the late Dr. George M. Dawson spent 
the summer of 1878 in studying the geology and littoral topography 
of the group. The report 1 that he published is exceedingly interest- 
ing and important. It contains accounts of the history, geology, and 
ethnology of the islands, with some notes on the natural history, more 
especially of invertebrates. The vertebrate fauna as a whole had never 
been studied until the present year, however, and the little that was 
known of it was entirely due to the zeal of Rev. J. H. Keen, who for 

l Geol. Survey of Canada, Report of Progress for 1878-79, Pt. Ill, pp. 1-239, Mont- 
real, 1880. 



eight years was engaged in missionary work at Massett. The present 
white population consists of several missionaries and three or four other 
men, who are engaged in trading and fishing. To supply necessities 
to these and to carry mail to them and the educated natives, small 
steamers make irregular trips to the islands. 

From one of these steamers I was landed June 13, 1900, with ray 
assistant, Mr. Edmund Heller, at the fishing station in Cumshewa 
Inlet, known as Clew (also spelled Klue), on the north side of the inlet 
about 10 miles from its mouth. We were very kindly received by 
Mr. W. H. Dempster, who conducts a plant here for obtaining oil 
from the dogfish which abound in the waters about the islands. We 
made small collections at Clew, and then devoted a number of days to 
cruising about the inlet in a canoe, collecting and making observations 
at various points. The first and most important trip was to the head of 
West Arm of Cumshewa Inlet, where we camped from June 17 to 25. 
After the coast at this point had been worked an expedition was made 
to the top of the highest mountain near the head of West Arm. 1 This 
trip was exceedingly trying, as we were obliged to carry food, bedding, 
and traps on our backs and beat our way through the deep forest and 
heavy underbrush. We reached an altitude estimated at 4,500 to 5,000 
feet. After working here in the Hudsonian zone as much as possible 
in the brief time available we returned to Clew, and from there made 
short trips to Louise Island and the mouth of the inlet. The next 
move was to Prevost Island, at the south end of the group, which was 
reached by means of a small fishing schooner. We dropped anchor 
July 3 in Houston Stewart channel, near Ellen Island, from which 
point both Prevost Island and the south end of Moresby Island were 
worked. In a few days we sailed north again and landed at Skidegate 
July 9. Here work was done about Skidegate Inlet and on the south 
end of Graham Island until July 18, when the trip was drawn to a 
close. Our entire time on the islands was thus about five weeks, and 
we were able to visit the three largest and most important of the 
group, namely Graham, Moresby, and Prevost. The weather during 
practically all this time was extremely disagreeable, rain being not 
only continuous for long periods, but often so severe as to interfere 
seriously with work. Most of the natives, unfortunately, were away 
at the time. They find employment in summer at the salmon canneries 
on the coast, the men being skilled in fishing and the women in packing. 
They are much reduced in numbers, and the entire population is 
divided between the two small villages of Massett and Skidegate, 
though ruins of former villages are abundant on other parts of the 

lr This mountain is indicated, but not named, on the map published by Dawson. 
The only Indian I was able to interview said it was sometimes called Haida Moun- 
tain; but the white men had no name for it, though it is a very conspicuous peak. 

sept.. 1901.] PHYSIOGRAPHY. V 


The preparation of this report and the following one 1 has been 
greatly facilitated by the free access which has been accorded me to 
the collections of tin* V . S. National Museum. Mr. Robert Kidgway, 
curator, and Dr. Charles \Y. Richmond, assistant curator of birds, 
have been exceedingly kind, not only in placing at my disposal the 
collections under their charge, but in numerous other ways as well. 
1 am likewise indebted to Mr. (ierrit S. Miller, jr., assistant curator 
of mammals, for similar favors from his department. Mr. Joseph 
Grinnell, of California, has kindly forwarded me specimens for 
examination from his private collection. 

Through the kindness of Rev. J. H. Keen it has been possible to 
include in the list of birds many migratory and winter resident 
specie-. Mr. Keen lived at Massett for eight years, and during 1 that 
time collected and identified a large number of birds and other ani- 
mals. He has very generously furnished a list of Massett birds, with 
notes for use in the present report, giving all the species positively 
identified by him. Special acknowledgment has been made elsewhere 
to Mr. Frederick Y. Coville and other botanists who have so kindly 
assisted in the determination of plants (see p. 13). 


The Queen Charlottes are part of a submerged mountain chain 
like most of the other large islands, of the same coast, and were 
regarded by Dawson as a continuation northwestward of the ranges of 
Vancouver Island and the Olympic Peninsula. Their general trend is 
northwest and southeast, practically parallel with the mainland. The 
greatest length of the entire group is 156 miles, 1 and the greatest 
width 52 miles; the area is unknown. The main islands of the group 
are. consecutively from north to south: North, Graham, Moresby, 
and Prevost (set 1 frontispiece). All are very closely connected, the 
width of each intervening channel being reduced, at least at some 
points, to less than a mile. The shortest distance between the Queen 
Charlottes and the islands very closely connected with the mainland is 
i ; 7 miles, from Kose Point, Graham Island, to Stephens Island. The 
wide channel known as Hecate Strait, which lies between the Queen 
Charlottes and the mainland, is rather shallow; that part between 
Graham Island and the mainland seldom exceeds 2<> fathoms in depth. 

Graham Island is the largest of the group; its greatest length is 67 
miles, and its width 52 miles. The coast on the north end is very deeply 
indented by Massett Inlet, and to a lesser degree by Naden Harbor; 
on the east side it is comparatively regular, and the west is character- 
ized by deep, unsurveyed sounds. The east side of the island is low 

distances are stated in nautical miles, and on the authority of Dawson 


and comparatively level; the northwest part is slightly higher and 
somewhat rolling; and the southwestern corner is quite mountainous. 
This mountainous district may be roughly indicated as extending from 
Cartwright Sound south to Skidegate Inlet and east to Bearskin Baj^. 
Some of the mountains are high enough to maintain perennial banks 
of snow, which feed numerous streams; these, however, are not very 
large, and are exceeded by the lowland streams, which drain greater 
areas, particularly those in the northern part of the island, emptying 
into Massett Inlet and Naden Harbor. Heavy forest covers almost 
the entire island and fringes the coast to the very water's edge. In 
the northern part, not far from Massett, a few open, swampy meadows 
are known, and near Rose Point there are grassy sand hills, but else- 
where all is dense forest. 

Moresby Island is next in size to Graham; it is, in fact, about 5 
miles longer, but is so dissected by sounds and inlets that its area is 
very indefinitely known, though certainly less than that of Graham 
Island. Its east coast bounds a succession of inlets, which make deep, 
transverse cuts into it and frequently unite with each other to detach 
small islets. The island is thus a mere skeleton; or perhaps it might 
be more properly called a mere backbone, since it is a nearly continu- 
ous mountain chain. Apparently the only part of it which is not 
mountainous is the peninsula lying between Skidegate and Cumshewa 
inlets. Cumshewa Inlet, the first deep indentation in the east coast 
south of Skidegate Inlet, is one of the largest of the island. Its south 
side, formed by Louise Island, and the region about its upper end are 
very mountainous. Among the peaks is one which rises near the 
head of West Arm to a height of -1,000 feet or more. From the inlet, 
its sharp cliffs and heavy snow banks present a rugged, imposing 
appearance, much heightened by contrast with the low, rounded, and 
somewhat undulating, forest-covered hills near the shore line. One 
very deep canyon cuts down its east side and through it a stream of 
moderate size runs into West Arm. Numerous smaller streams enter 
the inlet in the same vicinity. To the east, west, or south from the 
summit of this mountain one looks out over many other snow-laden 
peaks not so high, but of the same character and crowded together in 
tremendous masses. These mountains are practically continuous from 
the north end of Moresby Island south at least as far as Skincuttle 
Inlet. From a boat about 10 miles offshore in Hecate Strait one can 
look across Darwin and Juan Perez sounds and obtain an excellent 
view of the San Cristoval mountains, the best part of the chain. 

Prevost Island is the southernmost of the Queen Charlottes. It is 
quite small, being but 11£ miles in length and about 8 miles in extreme 
width. It is low and rolling, and not so densely forested as Graham 
and Moresby. The hills on the north end are perhaps 600 feet in alti- 
tude and in other parts of the island they probably do not exceed 1,000 

sept., 1901.] FLORA. 11 

feet. A few small streams take their rise in the interior, several of 
which empty into Houston Stewart Channel. 


The vegetation of the northwest coast region, which is so well known 
for its almost tropical luxuriance, is probably nowhere more highly 
developed than in fcheQueen Charlotte Islands. The magnificent dark 
forests are comparatively endless, the underbrush is omnipresent and 
well-nigh impenetrable, and mosses and lichens everywhere festoon the 
trees and shrubs and carpet the rocks and soil (see Plate II, fig-. 1). 
The Indian, on the rare occasions when he can not travel by canoe, 
discreetly follows the beach; hence the interior wilderness remains 
almost as trackless as it* human beings had never set foot on the 
islands. Relatively open forest is found on the higher slopes of the 
mountains, but can be reached only by hand to hand conflict with 
the tangle lying between it and tide water. From the tops of the 
mountains in the northern part of Moresby Island one can look out 
over vast stretches of forest to the northeast on Moresby and Graham 
islands as far as the eye can perceive. Of coniferous trees at least 
seven species are found, namely, the Sitka spruce (Pipea sitchensis), 
the western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla), the alpine hemlock (Tsuga 
mertensiana), the giant cedar {TJmja plicata), the yellow cedar 
(ChamcBeyparis nootkatensis), the northwest coast pine (Pinus con- 
torta), and the Pacific yew (Taxus hremfolid). 

The Sitka spruce is the most important. It is well distributed and 
generally becomes large, being second in size only to the giant cedar. 
It was found to be the predominating tree about Cumshewa and Skide- 
gate inlets, and, though smaller, equally abundant on Prevost Island 
and the south end of Moresby Island. Owing to exposed position and 
rocky soil, the trees on Prevost Island are rather small, and dead tops 
are so mixed w r ith the live ones that from a little distance the dark 
green hillsides appear to be uniformly overcast with a light hoariness. 
Dawson reports spruce 1 as abundant in Skincuttle Inlet and about 
Darwin Sound on Moresby Island; he also found large forests of it in 
the eastern and northern parts of Graham Island, particularly about 
Naden River. Much of this timber is merchantable, though as yet no 
serious attempt to exploit it has been made. About Cumshewa Inlet 
the spruces stand in magnificent groves, the grandeur of which is 
appreciated only when one gets above the tangle of undergrowth and 
obtains an unobstructed view of the tall, straight, reddish-barked 
trunks, column after column extending far into the forest, until the 
dim light is finally entirely obscured and individual trees can no longer 
be distinguished. 

'The spruce spoken of by Daw sun was called in his report Abies menziexii, but from 
the context it is evident that Pveea sitchensig was meant. 


The giant cedar {Thuja plicata) is sparingly scattered through the 
forest in all parts of the islands except the higher mountains. Large 
individuals were rarely seen near the shore, owing, doubtless, to the 
fact that for many years the Indians have used the most accessible 
ones for making canoes. 

The yellow cedar {Chamcecyparis) is rather rare, except at high 
elevations. A few individuals of small size were found at the head 
of West Arm, Cumshewa Inlet, and at the head of Rose Harbor. 
Dawson found the species in cold places about other inlets of Moresby 
Island, as well as on the more exposed west coast. And Rev. J. H. Keen 
reports it in small quantities near Massett. On the mountains of the 
northern part of Moresby Island it is very abundant, and ranges from 
an altitude of about 2,000 feet to the upper limit of timber. 

The western hemlock {Tsuga heterophylla) is probably second in 
abundance to the spruce, and its distribution, below an altitude of 
2,000 feet, is also general. It does not, however, occur in great num- 
bers on the actual shores, like the other conifers, but becomes more 
abundant inland. The very deepest, darkest forests are largely 
composed of this hemlock. 

The alpine hemlock {Txuya mertensiana) was found only in the moun- 
tains near the head of Cumshewa Inlet. It appears with the yellow 
cedar at an elevation of about 2,000 feet, and soon becoming well 
established, persists to the highest limit of trees. It is slightly more 
abundant than the 3 r ellow cedar, and with it straggles in fantastic 
shapes up the ridges or flattens in thick mats on sunny slopes. Now 
and then it attains fair size and regularit}' of branching in cold canyons 
or about small seepage pools in little heather meadows. 

The northwest coast pine (Pinus contorta) is rather rare. A few 
small individuals were noticed on rocky detached islets in Skidegate 
and Cumshewa Inlets and in Houston Stewart Channel; and, curiously, 
a few very depauperate individuals were found well toward the sum- 
mit of the mountain near the head of Cumshewa Inlet. 

The Pacific yew {Taxus brevifolia) was found on Cumshewa Inlet 
from Clew to the head of West Arm, being most abundant about 
West Arm. It is quite common around the shores of Prevost Island 
and the south end of Moresby Island. It is said to occur toward the 
west coast in Skidegate Inlet, and Rev. J. H. Keen reports that it is 
not uncommon in some places near Massett. It does not grow to 
large size and is always found near the shore or on the very edge of 
the water, which it overhangs at high tide. 

The only deciduous trees of importance are alders, willows, and 
wild crab apples. All are abundant but are somewhat limited to the 
immediate vicinity of the coast or the borders of streams. The alder 
{Alnus oregona) grows to a relatively large size; individuals from 10 
to 15 inches in diameter were frequently seen. The willow {Sallx 

Nouh American Fauna, No. 21. 

Plate II. 

Fig. 1 .—Moss-grown Spruce, Cumshewa Inlet. 

Fig. 2.— Salmonberry Thicket, Cumshewa Inlet. 
Habitat of Melozpiza f. ruflna. 

sei-t. I'.uu.i FLORA. 13 

scauleriand) is also of fair size and is generally distributed. The 
Oregon era!) apple {Pyrus rivularis) is found about streams and along 
the borders of sandy beaches as well as in occasional open places in 
the forest, in company with elderberry {Sambucus racemo&us), dog- 
wood (Comu8 occidentalis), honeysuckle {Lonicerd in/vohtcrata), and 
wild currants {Ribes bracteosum and R. laxifiorwn). A hawthorn 
( < '/uifd </iis !>,■< vispina) also occurs, but evidently is rare, as we found it 
at > >nt one locality, near a small stream on Louise Island. 

The underbrush is largely composed of several species of huckle- 
berry (Vaccinium), the sallal (Gaultheria shallon), and the salmon 
berry (Rubus spectabilis- see Plate II, rig*. 2). Menstesia, Viburnum, 
and Amelanchier are locally abundant. Throughout the dam]) forest 
are many ferns, mosses, liverworts, and numerous species of flowering 
plants that thrive in such an environment. The 1 few and small open 
meadows that are occasionally to be found teem with grasses, sedges, 
buttercups, beach peas, vetches, monkey flowers, thistles, lilies, and 
large cow parsnips The flora of the higher parts of the mountains is 
much like that of similar altitudes on the mainland. As the forest 
becomes more open the character of the herbaceous plants changes, 
and numerous pretty glades are found carpeted with heathers {J'ln/lln- 
doc< and Cassiope) and sprinkled with dwarf laurel {Kalinin glauca), 
dwarf huckleberries (Vaccinium ccespitosum), and cowslips {Caltha 


Most of our time was devoted to collecting mammals and birds, but 
a small collection of plants, representing nearly all the species observed 
was also made. From these specimens the following list has been 
prepared through the kindness of Mr. Frederick V. Coville, Botanist 
of the V . S. Department of Agriculture and Honorary Curator of the 
U. S. National Herbarium. Mr. Coville has not only generously given 
his own time and that of his assistants to the identification of speci- 
mens, but has enlisted the very necessary aid of several eminent spec- 
ialists, who have authoritatively named specimens in special groups. 
The liverworts were very kindly determined by Prof. A. W. Evans, 
of Yale University; the mosses by Prof. J. M. Holzinger, of the Min- 
nesota State Normal School. w T ith the exception of the tw T o species of 
Dicranaceae. which are given on the authority of Dr. R. H. True; the 
ferns by Mr. William I\. Maxon, of the U. S. National Museum, and 
the flowering plants by Mr. Frederick V. Coville and Mr. W. F. 
Wight, of the U. S. National Museum. 



[no. 21. 


Porella navicularis (l. a i.. ) uxni;. 
Radula bolanderi gottsche. 

Scapania bolanderi aust. 
Diplophylleria albicans (l. ) trevis. 
Frullania nisquallensis si-li.iv. 
Herberta adunca (dicks.) s. f. gray. 


Dicranum fuscescena turn. 

Dicranella heteromalla sen. 


Bartramia glaucoviridis c. m. & k. 
Mnium glabrescens kindb. 


Eurhynchium oregonuni (sulliv. ) i.. & .t. 
Isothecium cardoti kindb. 
Plagiothecium undulatum ( l. ) sch. 
Hypnum calliehrouin bkid. 
H ylocomium squarrosum ( l. ) sch. 
Hylocomium loreuni (l. ) sen. 
Hylocomium splendens (l. ) sen. 


Filix fragilis (l. ) undew. 

Dryopteris spinulosa dilatata (hofp. ) 


Polystichum munitum (kaulf.) undew. 
Athyrium cyclosorum eupk. 
Struthiopteris spicant ( l. ) weiss. 
Adiantum pedatum l. 
Polypodium falcatuni kellogg. 

Pinus contorta loud. 

Picea sitchensis (bong. ) trautr. & mey. 
Tsuga mertensiana (bong.) carr. 
Tsuga heterophylla (raf. ) sargent. 
Tlmja plicata don. 
Chamsecyparis nootkatensis ( lamb. 

Taxus brevifolia nutt. 


Triglocbin maritima l. 
Triglochin palustris l. 

Agrostis exarata trin. 
Deschampsea csespitosa (l.) beauv. 
Dactylis glomerata l. 

i'dack.k — continued. 

Puccinellia distans ( l. ) parl. 
Festuca rubra l. 
Bromus aleutensis trin. 
Elymus mollis trin. 
Elymus Bp. 


Scirpus pauciflorus lightf. 
Carex sp. 


Juncus balticus willd. 

Juncus bufonius l. 

Juncoides parviflorum (eiirh. ) covilli 


Fritillaria kamtschatcensis (l.) kkr. 
Unifolium bifolium (l. ) greene. 
Streptopus roseus michx. 


Sisyrinchium littorale greene. 


Habenaria hyperborea (l.) r. br. 
Peramiumnienziesii (lindl. ) morong. 
Corallorhiza mertensiana bong. 


Salix scouleriana barratt. 


Abms sinuata (kei;el) rydb. 
Alnus oregona nutt. 


Urtica lvallii avats. 


Rumex sp. 
Polygonum sp. 


A triplex gmelini C. A. mey'er. 
Salicomia herbacea l. 


Montia parvifolia (moc.) greene. 

Montia sibiriea ( l. ) iiowell. 

SEPT.. 1901 ] 



J 'It ui is — Continued. 


Cerastium sp. 
Sagina crassicaulis wats. 
Ammodenia peploides (l. | bi pr. 
Tissa marina 1 1.. ) britton. 

i; \xrxci l. ack.k. 

Caltha palustris i.. 
Ooptis asplenifolia salisb. 
Aquilegia Formosa Fischer. 
Anemone narcissiflora i.. 
Ranunculus occidentalia nutt. 
Ranunculus sp. 


Cochlearia oblongifolia dc. 
Brassica campestris i.. 
Cardamine angulata hook. 
Aral lis hirsuta scop. 
Arabia Bp. 

i i; \SSI1.ACK.K. 

Sedum roseum t l. i scop. 
Sedum spathulifolium hook. 


Saxifraga mertensiana box*;. 
Saxifraga nutkana moc. 
Tiarella trifoliata l. 
Heuchera cylindrica dougl. 
Heuchera glabra willd. 


Ribes bracteosam dougl. 

Ribe.s lacustre (peks. ) poib, 
Ribes laxiflorum pubsh. 

Lutkea pectinata (hook.) kuntze. 
Aruncua animus ( l. ) 
Pyrus rivularis dougl. 
Crataegus brevispina dougl. 
Sorbus Bambucifolia (c. a s. ) eoem. 
Amelanchier alnifolia nutt. 
Rubus pedatus smith. 
Rubus gpectabilis pubsh. 
Rubus parviflorua nutt. 
Fragaria chiloenais (l. ) duchesne. 
Potentilla anserina l. 
Potentilla villosa pall. 
Geum ealthifdliuin menzies. 
Geuni sp. 
Sanguisorba sp. 
Rosa sp. 


Lupinus nootkatensia donn. 

Lupinua nootkatensis unalaskensis wats. 

Trifolium involucratum wills. 

Lathyrua maritimua | l. ) bigel. 

Vicia gigantea hook. 


Viola glabella nutt. 

(IXAlll! ACK.K. 

Epilobium glandulosum lehm. 
Epilobium bomemanni beichenb. 
Epilobium minutum lindl. 


Echinopanax horridtim (smith) ]>. & p. 


Washingtonia sp. 

Conioselinum gmelini coult. * bose 

Heracleum lanatum michx. 


Cornua canadensis l. 
Cornusoceidentalis (tobb. age.) coville. 


Moneses uniflora (l.) gray. 


Vaccinium csespitosum michx. 
Vaccinium ovalifolium smith. 
Vaccinium parvifolium smith. 
Vaccinium uliginosum i.. 


Menziesia ferruginea smith. 
Cbamsecistus procumbens (l. i kuntze. 
Kalmia glauca ait. 

Phyllodoce glanduliflora ( hock. ) co- 
Cassiope mertensiana ( bong, i don. 
Caasiope stelleriana dc. 
Gaultheria shallon pubsh. 
Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (l.) bpreng. 


Glaux maritima L. 

Dodecatheon viviparum greene. 



[NO. 21. 

Plants — Continued. 


Prunella vulgaris i.. 
Stachys sp. 


Collinsia parviflora dougi/. 
Mimulus langsdoffii don. 
Veronica americana schwein. 
Castilleja pallida kuntii. 
Castilleja parviflora bono. 
Pedicularis lanata willd. 
Pedicularis pedicellata bunge. 


Plantago maritima l. 
Plantago sp. 


Galium aparine l. 


Loniceta involucrata (rich.) hanks. 


Viburnum pauciflorum pylaie. 
Symphoricarpos racemosus michx. 
Linnaea borealis l. 


Campanula langsdorffiana fisch. 


Grindelia sp. 

Erigeron peregrinus (pursh. ) green 

Achillea borealis bong. 

Matricaria discoidea DC. 

Senecio resedifolius less. 

Carduua edulis (nutt. ) gkeene. 


The mammal fauna of the Queen Charlottes, in view of the prox- 
imity of the group to the mainland, may be said to be rather meager. 
There are only 11 species of indigenous land mammals, and 1 of these 
are bats. The genera represented are Peromyscus, Ursus, Lutra, 
Mmtela, Putorius, Sorex, Lasionycteris, and Ifyotis. Characteristic 
genera of the adjacent mainland, such as Odocoileus, Lutreola, Sciurtts, 
JE/votomys, and Microtus, are entirely wanting. The absence of these 
genera, which are common on the mainland and well adapted to all 
the conditions of the islands, indicates that the water barrier between 
the islands and the mainland is an effective one. The channel is cer- 
tainly too wide to swim, and small mammals could not easily be carried 
on driftwood, as the strong tides would be apt to sweep everything of 
that nature out at either end of Hecate Strait rather than across it. 1 
The presence of the marten, an animal which is terrestrial and arboreal, 
and the absence of the mink, which is semiaquatic, and the deer, 
which swims considerable distances, might be considered evidence that 
the islands must have been peopled with animals at a time of complete 
connection with the mainland. Rut if at that time the mainland fauna 
was approximately the same as at present, it is difficult to explain the 
present absence of the deer and mink. Whatever the case may 
have been, it is certain that the mammals have been isolated for a 

1 This means of communication is possible, however, as is shown by the fact that the 
dead bodies of deer have been washed up on the shores of the islands (see p. 25), but 
the course of the tides is such that they could not have been carried directly across 
the strait. It is therefore probable that the journey would be too long and perilous 
for any living animal to survive. 

sept., ltwi.] FAUNA. 17 

sufficient length of time to become differentiated into well-marked 
insular forms. All the land mammals that have been studied have 
proved distinct from the species of the same genera found on the 
mainland. 1 Moreover, the larger, less mutable forms ( Ursus, Mustela, 
and Putorvus), which arc also the ones least likely to have been intro- 
duced through accident or human agency, are the most strongly charac- 
terized, thus affording additional evidence of isolation of rather long 

Still more interesting than the general peculiarity of the entire 
mammal fauna as contrasted with that of the mainland, is the individ- 
uality shown among closely adjacent islands when contrasted with 
one another. A mouse (Peromyscus pr< vostensis) and a shrew {Sorex I. 
j>r< vosh nsis) arc peculiar to Prevost Island. The island is quite small, 
possibly 50 square miles in area, yet these mammals are found in 
great abundance, and do not occur on other islands which lie less than 
a mile away. The channels between these islands are said by Dawson 
to he accidental, but at least they can not have been formed very 
recently or this distribution of animals would not be found. Pero- 
myscus prt rust, nsis, though from the southernmost island of the group, 
is most closely related to /'. sitkensis which has been found only on 
islands some distance north of the Queen Charlottes, while 1\ heeni, of 
Graham and Moresby islands is not related to northern forms, but is 
scarcely distinguishable from the comparatively remote P. akeleyi of 
the Olympic Peninsula. Washington. The small mammals of the 
northwest coast are still so imperfectly known and they are all so 
interrelated, that it may be unprofitable to speculate at present on 
the derivation of various insular forms, and it is possible that the 
animals are so plastic that their present characters can not safely be 
taken as indicative of their true relationships. 

Birds are comparatively abundant. The species are much the same 
as those found throughout the whole district from Puget Sound to 
Glacier Pay. but individuals seem to be more numerous than on the 
mainland. The land birds frequent the thickets of salmon berry, alder, 
and willow bushes found bordering sandy beeches or small streams 
(see PI. II. fig. 2). In these restricted areas certain species are very 
common. Many such environments are afforded in Cumshewa and 
Skidegate inlets, and it was there that most of our collecting was 
done. The steamer which carried us to the islands dropped anchor 
in Cumshewa Inlet, about 50 yards from the shore at 5 o'clock in the 
morning of June 13, and through the little port of my stateroom 
sounded such an avian chorus as I have heard nowhere else on the 
northwest coast. The greatest volume of song came from song spar- 

l The land otter, Lutra, is the only one known to occur ou the islands of which 
no specimens have been critically examined. 

3505- No. 21—01— 


rows and fox sparrows, but the rich tones of the russet-backed thrushes 
contributed much to strength and quality; winter wrens bubbled and 
spluttered on all sides, the clear notes of a robin were heard now and 
then, and from farther back in the forest came the weird call of the 
varied thrush, while all the time several huge ravens carried on a lively 
conversation with one another. The deep forest is for the most part 
dark and quiet, and save for an occasional creeper or winter wren con- 
tains no birds. Water birds are reported to breed in large colonies on 
islets near the west coast of Moresby Island. We were unable to visit 
these, but observed small rookeries at the mouth of Gumshewa Inlet 
and in Houston Stewart Channel. 

Very few of the land birds are definitely separable from those of 
the Sitkan district, but the tendency to dark colors and heavy markings 
is extreme. Two forms are peculiar to the islands, a jay {Cyanocttta 
stelleri carlottce) and a woodpecker (Dryobatespicoideus), both of which 
belong to groups not known to be as variable as others, such asJunco, 
Melospisa, and Passerella, whose Queen Charlotte representatives are 
not strongly characterized. Ninety-six species are known to occur on 
the islands, 62 of which are found in the breeding season. For notes 
on the occurrence of many of the species, I am greatly indebted to 
Rev. J. H. Keen, whose observations at Massett covered a period of 
eight years. 

Besides the mammals and birds but one land vertebrate has been 
found on the islands, a toad (Bufo halophilus columbiensis) , which is 
common on the adjacent mainland. We noted no strictly fresh-water 
fishes, but trout are reported to inhabit some of the streams. A col- 
lection of several hundred littoral species of fish was made, chiefly by 
Mr. Edmund Heller, who has determined the species and found none 
of them peculiar. Conditions about the islands are exceedingly favor- 
able for marine invertebrate life and it flourishes in profusion, but no 
attempt at collecting such forms was made. 

The vertebrate fauna of the islands, as a whole, is very similar to 
that of the adjacent mainland, but is nevertheless peculiar in many 
respects. The vertebrates known to occur on or about the islands are 
as follows: 


1. Globicepbala scammoni. 11. Mustela nesophila. 

2. Balaenoptera velifera. 12. Emnetopias stelleri. 

3. Lagenorhynchus obliquidens. 13. Otoes alascanus. 

4. Phocsena phocsna. 14. Phoca largha. 

5. Oclocoileus columbianus sitkensis 15. Sorex longicauda prevostensis. 

(introduced). 16. Sorex longicauda elassodon. 

6. Peromyscus keeni. 17. Lasionycteris noctivagans. 

7. Peromyscus prevostensis. 18. Myotis yumanensis saturatus. 

8. Ursus carlottse. 19. Myotis subulatus keeni. 

9. Lutra canadensis subsp. 20. Myotis californicus caurinus. 
10. Putorius haidarurn. 


'., 1901.] 



( iavia imber. 1 



Gavia pacifica. 1 



( iavia luniiiR'. 1 



Lunda cirrhata. 1 



Fratercula corniculata. 


. (i. 

Synthliboramphus antiquus. 


i . 

Brachyramphus marmoratus. 1 



Cepphus columba.' 



I'ria troile californica. 1 



Rissa tridactyla pollicaris. 



Larus glaucescens. 1 



Larus brachyrhynchus. 



Larus Philadelphia. 



Pufnnus griseus. 



Purtinus tenuirostris. 



( toeanodroma furcata. 



Phalacrocorax pelagicus. 1 



Merganser americanus. 1 



Merganser serrator. 1 



Anas boschas. 1 



Mareca americana. 



Nettion carolinensis. 



Dafila acuta. 



Aythya Bp. 1 


( llangula clangula americana. 



Charitonetta albeola. 



Harelda hyernalis. 



Histrionicus histrionicus. 



Oidemia deglandi. 1 



Oidemia perspicillata. ' 



Anser albifrons gambeli. 



Branta canadensis occidentalis. 1 



Olor sp. 



Ardea herodias fannini. 



Porzana Carolina. 



< rallinago delicata. 



Tringa acuminata. 



Ereunetes occidentalis. 



Calidris arenaria. 



Totanus melanoleucus. 



Actitis macularia. 



Sqoatarola s<juatarola. 



Charadrius dominicus. 



Arenaria melanocephala. 



Hsematopus 1 tachmani. ' 



Dendragapus obscurus fuliginosus. 1 94. 


Zenaidura macroura. 



Accipiter velox. 1 



Accipiter atricapillus striatulus. 


Buteo l»>n>alis calurus. 1 

Haliseetus Leucocephalus alascanus. 1 

Falco peregrinus pealei. 1 

Kalci i columbarius suckleyi. 1 

PandUon baliaetus carohnensis. 1 

Megascops asio kennicotti. 1 

Nyctala acadica scotsea. 1 

Nyctea nyctea. 

t Jeryle alcyon. 1 

Dryobates picoideus. 1 

Sphyrapicus ruber flaviventris. 1 

t lolaptes cafer Baturatior. 1 

Selasphorus rufus. 1 

Empidonax difficilis. 1 

( !yan< »citta stelleri' carl< >ttse. ' 

( Jorvue corax principalis. 1 

( Jorvus caurinus. 1 

Pinicola enucleator flammula. 1 

Loxia curvirostra minor. 1 

Loxia leucoptera. 1 

Spinas pinus. 1 

Passerina nivalis. 

Ammodramus sandwirhensis alaudi- 

Calcarius lapponicus alascensis. 
Zonotrichia coronata. 
Junco hyernalis oregonus. 1 
Melospiza melodia rufina. 1 
Passei'ella iliaca townsendi. 1 
Hirundo erythrogastra. ! 
Tachycineta bicolor. 1 
Tachycineta thalassina. 1 
Helminthophila celata lutescens. 1 
Dendroica estiva rubiginosa. 1 
Dendroica t< wnsendi. 1 
Wilsonia pusilla pileolata. 1 
Anthus pensilvanicus. 1 
Cinclus mcxicanus. 1 
Anorthura hiemalis pacifica. 1 
Certhia familiaris occidentalis. 1 
Sitta canadensis. 1 
Parus rufescens. 1 
Regulus satrapa olivaceus. 1 
Regulus calendula grinnelli. 1 
Hylocichla ustulata. 1 
Hyiocichla aonalaschkse verecunda. 1 
Merula migratoria propinqua. 1 
Hesperocichla naevia. 1 

Bufo halophilus columbiensis. 

1 Known, or supposed, to breed. 



[NO. 21. 


Squalus sucklii. 
Hydrolagus colliei. 
CI u pea pallasi. 
Oncorhynchus sp. 
Salmo sp. 

Gasterosteus cataphractus. 
Aulorhynchus flavidus. 
Cymatogaster aggregates. 
Sebastodes melanops. 
Sebastodes caurinus. 
Hexagrammus stelleri. 
Ophiodon elongatus. 
Artedius lateralis. 
Hemilepidotus hemilepidotus. 
Euophrys bison. 
Leptocottus maculosus. 

Oligocottus maculosus. 
Blenicottua globiceps. 
Ascelicbthya rbodorus. 
Caularchus maendricus. 

Apodichthys flavidus. 
Pholis ornatus. 
Anoplarchus atropurpureus. 
Xiphistes chirus. 
Xiphidion umcosum. 
Xiphidion rupestre. 
Theragra fucensis. 
Gadus macrocephalus. 
Hippoglossus hippoglossus. 
Psettichthys melano&tictus. 
Limander asper. 


The zones of the Queen Charlottes are the Canadian and the Hud- 
sonian. The greater part of the group, at least all that which lies 
below an altitude of 2,500 feet, is Canadian, and the remainder above 
that elevation is Hudsonian. This zonal definition is determined 
almost entirely b}^ the plant life. The insular occurrence of various 
species of mammals, and to some extent of birds, may be due to acci- 
dent and unnatural agency; therefore the absence of certain forms 
obviously can not be considered significant in correlating island and 
continental zones. Moderate insular isolation restricts vegetation 
much less than animal life; so that in determining the faunal position 
of the Queen Charlottes the fact that practically all the trees and shrubs 
are those usually found in the Canadian and Hudsonian zones is of 
much more importance than that no mammals occur other than those 
of the Canadian zone. 

The latitude of the southern part of the group is about the same 
as that of the mainland where the Transition zone merges into the 
Canadian, and since the average temperature on the islands may be 
assumed to be slightly warmer than on the mainland, some Transition 
intrusions might be expected. These are comparatively few, however, 
and may safely be disregarded in a general definition of the zones of the 
group. The characteristic Transition tree, Pseudotsuga ?nucronata, 
which reaches its northern limit on the mainland in about this latitude, 
has not been found on the Queen Charlottes. None of the coniferous 
trees, with the possible exception of Taosus brevifolia, can be consid- 
ered unequivocal Transition species. Picea sitchensis^ Tsuga het&r- 
ophylla, Thuja plicata, and Finns contorta all range throughout the 
Sitkan district, which is Canadian, and, roughly speaking, extends 

1 Species determined by Mr. Edmund Heller. 

North Ameiican Fauna, No. 21 


Fig. 1.— Mouth of Stream, Cumshewa Inlet. 

Fig. 2.— Shore of Bare Island. Skidegate Inlet. 

SEPT.. 1901.] 

life zones. 


from River Inlet, British Columbia, to Cross Sound, Alaska. Among 
the small shrubs of the Queen Charlottes that also range through this 
Canadian district may be mentioned Alnus sinuata, Ribes laxiflorum, 
Ribes bracteosum, Vacdnium ovalifolium, Mendesia ferruginea. 
Viburnum paudflorum, Arctostaphylos uva-ursi, and Echi/rwpa/nax 

The Hudsonian zone occupies those parts of the islands which are 
above an elevation of about 2,500 feet. 1 The mountains which exceed 
this height are distributed in four principal groups, namely, those 
of the southwestern part of Graham Island, those of the head of 
Cumshewa Inlet, Moresby Island, those of the central part of Louise 
Island, and those lying along Darwin Sound, and known as the San 
Cristoval Range 8 (see fig. 1). The only part of the Hudsonian zone 
actually traversed by us is that on the prin- 
cipal peak at the head of West Arm of Cum- 
shewa Inlet. There the timber on the lower 
slopes of the mountain was found to be very 
heavy and of much the same character as that 
of the shore, the principal difference being 
the absence of Taocus, which seems to be con- 
fined to the immediate border of the inlets. 
At an altitude of about 2,000 feet a more 
decided difference in the flora began to be 
noticeable. This change progresses rapidly. 
The giant cedar {Thuja) disappears entirely, 
and the spruce (Picea) and western hemlock 
(Tsuga hett rophylla) are much reduced in num- 
bers. The alpine hemlock (Tsuga mertensiana) 
and the yellow cedar (Chamceeyparis nooika- 
tensis) take a place in the forest and soon be- 
come well established as the predominating 
trees, the hemlock being slightly in the ascendancy. Many smaller 
Hudsonian plants appear simultaneously with these trees and continue 
with them nearly or quite to the summit. Among these may be men- 
tioned Cassiope steUeriana, Cassiope mertensiana, Phyllodoce glanduli- 
-tf<>r<i. Kalmia glauca, Vacdnium ccespitosvm, Vacdnium uliginosum, 
( 'hamcBci8tus procumbt ns, Lueikea pectinata, < ultha palustris, Pedicu- 
laris lanata, and Pedicularis pedicellata. On the higher ridges a few 
individual.- of Tsuga heterophylla, Piem sitchensis, and Pinus contorta 
still persist, but in an exceedingly depauperate condition. Between 
the ridges are characteristic glades and heather meadows, and in 
occasional suitable basins clear pools of seepage water. Thus the 

Fig. 1.— Outline map of the 
Qu£en Charlotte Islands, 
showing extent of the Hud- 
sonian zone. 

elevations given are estimates only, as 1 was not equipped with a barometer. 
2 Very lew of the mountain.- have been named, therefore it is necessary to make 
awkward descriptive reference to therm 



[NO. 21. 

general aspect of this belt between 2,500 feet altitude and the sum- 
mit is that of a pure Hudsonian-Alpine zone, such as is found on the 
mountains of the mainland in the same latitude. Although this moun- 
tain and others near it carry large banks of snow the year round, a 
definite timberline does not exist on them, for a few trees straggle 
practically to the summits, and smaller plants flourish on the favored 
sides of the very highest pinnacles. 


The following titles are merely those of such books as have been 
consulted in the preparation of this report. By far the most impor- 
tant is the general report by the late Dr. George M. Dawson. Other 
published references to the natural history of the islands are largely 
such as have resulted from the work of Rev. J. H. Keen. 

1789. Dixon, Captain George. A Voyage Round the World, but more particularly 
to the North-West Coast of America performed in the King George and 
Queen Charlotte, Captains Portlock and Dixon, pp. 199-234. London, 1789. 

General account of a visit to the islands with notes on fur trading with the 


1868. Brown, Robert. Synopsis of the Birds of Vancouver Island. <Ibis, IV, 424, 


Mentions occurrence of Hsematopus niger on Queen Charlotte Islands. 

1869. Brown, Robert. Physical ( leography of the Queen Charlotte Islands. <Rept. 

Brit. Ass. Adv. Sri. XXXVIII(for 1868), Notices and Abstr. , pp. 133-134, 1869. 
Brief notes on geography, geology, and ethnology. 

1871. Brown, Robert. Notes on Arctic Zoology. <Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., ser. 

4, VII, 64-66, Jan., 1871. 

Reference to a skull of Phocsena communis ( =Phocaena phocsena) brought from 
the islands ami sent to the British Museum. 

1872. Poole, Francis. Queen Charlotte Islands. A Narrative of Discovery and 

Adventure in the North Pacific. Edited by J. W. Lyndon. 8vo., pp. 1-347. 
London, Hurst and Brackett. 

An account of two years' sojourn in the islands. The natural history notes 
which are summarized on pp. 305-309 are of questionable value. The follow- 
ing is the list of birds given as frequenting the neighborhood of Burnaby 
Island exactly as printed on p. 308: 

Night-hawk— /V//n) noctumus. 
Sparrow-hawk— falco sparverius. 
Gos-hawk — astur atricapiUus. 
White-headed eagle — haliaetus /< ucocephaim. 
Belted kingfisher — alcedo accinctus. 
Western bluebird — cyanceus occidentalis. 
North Western fish-crow — corvus caurinus. 
Wilson's snipe — gdUinago wilsonii. 
Canadian goose — In rnacla canadt nsis. 
White-cheeked goose— &< rnacla /< ucoparsia. 
Mallard (stock duck)— anas boschas. 

Canvas-back duck — aythia vallisneria. 
Golden-eye t whistle-wing duck) — bucephala amer- 

Buffle-head duck — bucephala albeola. 
Harlequin duck — histrionicus torqiwius. 
Velvet duck — malanetta velvetina. 
Glaucous-winged duck — kvrus glaucesa n*. 
Suckley's gull— fonts suckleyii. 
Great Northern diver — colyynbus torquatus. 
Red-necked grepe — podicetus grisergeria. 

sept., 1901.] BIBLIOGRAPHY. 23 

L880. Dawson, Geo. M. Report, on the Queen Charlotte Islands. Geological Sur- 
vey of Canada. Report of Progress Eor L878-79, [II, 1-239, Montreal, 

Consists of ageneral report auhdivided as follows: (1) Position, Discovery, 
and Early History of the Islands; (2) General Description; (3) Geological 
Observations; and sown appendixes, as follows: 

A. on the Haida Indians of the wm ,,, » Charlotte islands, by Geo. M. Dawson. 

B. Vocabulary of the Baida Indians, by Geo. M. Dawson. 

C. On Some Murine [nvertebrata from the Queen Charlotte [slands, by J. K. Whiteaves. 

D. Notes on Crustacea from the Queen Charlotte and Vancouver [slands, by S. I. Smith. 
K. List of Plants from the Queen Charlotte Islands, by John .Mac, mi. 

F. Meteorological Observations, bj Geo. M. Dawson. 

G. Notes on Latitudes and Longitudes, by Geo. M. Dawson. 

1883-1892. Macoun, John. Catalogue of Canadian Plants, pts. i-iv, pp. 1-398; pt. 
vi, pp. 1-277, Montreal, 1883-1892. 

Contains references to various plants collected by Dawson on the Queen 
Charlotte [slands. 

1887. Chamberlain, Montague. Catalogueof Canadian Birds, St John, New Bruns- 
wick. 1887. 

Mentions occurrence of Fratercula corniculata, Una troile californica, Larus 
glaucescens, and Larus brachyrhynchus. 

L890. Dawson, Geo. M. Later Physiographical Geology of the Rocky Mountain 
Region in Canada. Trans. Royal Soc. Canada, VIII, Sec. IV, 51-52, 1890. 

Contains reference to supposed occurrence of caribou on Queen Charlotte 


L891. Mackenzie, Alex. Descriptive notes on certain implements, weapons, etc., 
from Graham Island, Queen Charlotte Islands, British Columbia. -Trans. 
Royal Soc. Canada, IX, Sec. II, 45-59, 1891. 
Refers to tomahawk made of native (?) reindeer antler (p. 50). 

1894. Rhoads, S. X. Sitomys keeni sp. nov. <Proe. Acad. Nat. Sci. ?hila. (1894), 

258-259, Oct. 23, 1894. 

Type from Massett, Graham Island. 

L895. Keen. J. II. List of Coleoptera collected at Massett, Queen Charlotte Islands, 
British Columbia. Canadian Entomologist, XXVII, 165-172, July, 1895; 
cont. pp. 217-220, Aug., 1895. 
A list lit 222 species, with brief notes by the collector. 

1895. Meekiam, C. Hart. Bats of Queen Charlotte Islands, British Columl ia. 

American Naturalist, XXIX, 860-861, Sept. 1, 1895. 
Vespertilio sufmlatus keenii subsp. nov. Type from Massett, Graham Island. 

1897. Keen, J. H. Three interesting Staphylinidse from Queen Charlotte Islands. 

<Canadian Entomologist, XXIX, 285-287, Dec, 1897. 

1898. Preble, E. A. Description of a New Weasel from the Queen Charlotte 

Islands, British Columbia. Proc. Biol. Soc, Wash., XII, 1<>9-170, Aug. 10, 


Putorius haidarum sp. nov. Type from Massett, Graham Island. 

1898. Dobsey, George A. A Cruise Among Haida and Tlingit Villages about Dix- 
on's Entrance. <Popular Science Monthly, LII I, bi()-174, 1898. 

An account of an ethnological expedition which visited Massett and other 
native villages. No important notes on natural history. 


1898. Fannin, John. A preliminary catalogue of the collections of natural history 
and ethnology in the Provincial Museum, Victoria, British Columbia, 1898. 

Mentions several mammals from the Queen Charlotte Islands and the fol- 
lowing birds: Fratercula comiculata, Rissa tridactyla poUicaris, Puffinus griseus, 
and Tringa acuminata. 
1900. Seton-Thompson, Ernest. Eangifer dawsoni, preliminary description of a new 

Caribou from Queen Charlotte Islands. <Ottawa Naturalist, XIII, 257-261, 

Pis. IV, V, Feb., 1900. 

1900. Macoun, John. Catalogue of Canadian birds, Part I, Geological Survey of 

Canada, Ottawa, 1900. 

Mentions occurrence of Puffinus griseus, Puffinus tenuirostris, Tringa acuminata, 
and Bonasa wmbellus sabinei. 

1901. Osgood, Wilfred H. New subspecies of North American birds. < Auk. 

XVIII, 179-185, April, 1901. 

Contains description of Hylodchla aonalaschkse verecunda. Type from Cum- 
shewa Inlet. Moresby Island. 
1901. Chapman, Frank M. A New Race of the < r-reat Blue Heron, with Remarks 
on the Status and Range of Ardea wardi. <Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., New 
York, XIV; 87-90, April 15, 1901. 
Ardea Jierodias fannini subsp. nov. Type from Skidegate, Graham Island. 


Globicephala scammoni Cope. Blackfish. 

Common in Hecate Strait. While our little schooner was en route 
to and from Prevost Island small schools played about it every day, 
and often with a familiarity that was alarming". 

Balaenoptera velifera ('ope. Finback Whale. 

A party of about half a dozen whales was seen in Hecate Strait 
July 2. 

1 Lagenorhynchus obliquidens Gill. Striped Porpoise. 

A porpoise supposed to be this species kept within a few feet along- 
side the >chooner for some time while we were sailing in Hecate Strait 
July 7. 

Phocsena phocaena Linn. Common Porpoise. 

A school of porpoises numbering at least 100 individuals was seen 
in Hecate Strait July 7; others were frequently seen in the strait. 

A skull, evidently of this species, was sent from the islands by Dr. 
Robert Brown in 1868 to the British Museum. 1 

[Odocoileus columbianus sitkensis Merriam. Sitka Deer. 

Deer have been introduced on the islands, but have not yet 
thoroughly established themselves there. I was told by Rev. Mr. 
Collinson, who was formerly in charge of the missionary work at 
Masse tt, that he was instrumental in the introduction of a few deer 
on Graham Island some years ago. Nine individuals from the vicinity 
of Port Simpson were liberated at Massett, and within a year .signs of 
them were seen near Skidegate. Mr. Tennant, of Skidegate, states 
that a deer was killed by Indians about two years ago on Moresby 
Island, near Skidegate, but that since that time no deer or tracks have 
been reported. According to Rev. Mr. Collinson the dead bodies of 
deer from the mainland are occasionally found washed up on the 
beaches of the islands. ] 

'Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., hit. 4, VII, 64, 1871. This specimen is probably the 
one referred to by Flower as having come from Vancouver Island. (List Cetacea 
Brit. Mas., p. 16, 1885.) 



[Rangifer dawsoni 1 ( = Rangifer areticus). 

The description of a caribou from the Queen Charlotte Islands was, 
to say the least, somewhat unexpected, so in visiting the islands I was 
particularly interested in obtaining information in regard to it. I 
could find no evidence, however, that native caribou ever existed on 
any of the islands. Rev. Mr. Keen, who lived at Massett for eight 
years, and who was specially interested in matters pertaining to natu- 
ral history, says that from his own experience and that of the oldest 
Indian hunters, whom he questioned closely, he is decidedly of the 
opinion that no caribou are to be found in any part of the islands. 
Rev. Mr. Collinson, who was one of the earliest missionaries at Mas- 
sett, has the same belief as Mr. Keen, though he did not express 
such definite conclusions. Besides the missionaries I also interviewed 
a Mr. Stevens, who has kept the general store at Massett for the past 
nine years, and obtained from him the same opinion. All these per- 
sons are familiar with the story of ' Mackenzie's caribou, 1 which is 
doubtless the cause of the mistaken idea that a peculiar species is 
native to Graham Island. According to this story, which was told 
me independently and without essential variation by Messrs. Keen, 
Collinson, and Stevens, some fifteen or twenty years ago Mr. Alex- 
ander Mackenzie, a trader for the Hudson Bay Company at Mas- 
sett, conceived the idea that in such a favorable place as Graham 
Island there must be deer and caribou, though the Indians had never 
killed them or even seen their tracks. Accordingly he offered a 
reward to anyone who should kill one or bring him evidence of having 
done so. The offer remained open for a long time, but finally a claim- 
ant appeared with fragments of a caribou, including the head. This 
imperfect specimen passed through several hands and finally found its 
way to the Provincial Museum in Victoria, where it was unearthed to 
receive the name Mangifer dawsoni. If the reward was incident to 
such a statement the Indian who brought this specimen to Mackenzie 
no doubt solemnly averred that he killed it on Graham Island. An 
Indian's testimony in a case of this kind, however, would not hang 
very heavy in the balance, even against a small amount of circum- 
stantial evidence. Mr. Mackenzie is not now living, but the testi- 
mony of Mr, W. Charles, who received the caribou head from him, 
indicates that for its absolute origin we have the word of the Indians 
only. In response to a letter to Mr. Charles I received an answer 
from Mr. J. R, Anderson, deputy minister of agriculture at Victoria, 
from which the following is extracted: 

Some time ago Mr. W. Charles, who is an invalid, handed me your letter of the 10th 
January last regarding the occurrence of caribou on Queen Charlotte Islands. Mr. 
Charles asked me to communicate with you and say that the head referred to, and 
which had deformed antlers, undoubtedly came from Queen Charlotte Islands, hav- 

l Seton-Thompson, Ottawa Naturalist, XIII, 257-261, Feb., 1900. 

Sept., 1901.] MAMMALS. 27 

ing been sent to him by the Hudson Bay Company agent there, and was equally 
that of a caribou. The animal, Mr. Charles has no reason to doubt, was actually 
killed by the Indians, and they being unacquainted with it, broughl the skull to 
Mackenzie, and reported more of the same kind in the interior of the island. 

From this it seems that till the information in regard to the Mackenzie 
specimen came from the Indians, and that no white man has given 
any direct first-hand testimony as to its absolute origin. 

At the instance of Mr. Anderson a brief request for information 
was inserted in the * Daily Colonist,' of Victoria, B. ('.. and several 
replies were received. One of these, from Mr. S. M. Harrison, of 
Massett, which is of considerable interest, was kindly forwarded to me. 
It is addressed to Mr. Anderson under date of April 30, 1901, and is 
as follows: 

Sir: I noticed a paragraph in the Colonist under the heading of "Who knows" 
re the existence of caribou on Queen Charlotte Islands, t have lived here twenty 
years, and know the account given is quite correct. I have made diligent inquiries 
amongst the Indians, and have gained the following information: 

(1) Three years ago an Indian named Shakwau saw a female caribou feeding near 
a lake up Virago Sound, but failed to kill it, although he fired twice. Yethgwonas, 
another Indian, was with him at the time 

This March a man named Stlinga with his two sons saw the tracks of a big 
herd near the headwaters of Malon River, near Virago Sound. 

(3) Men who were with the man who killed the two referred to in the Colonist 
are ready to show me the place where he killed them. This is near Lthum, up 
Virago Sound. 

(4) The Haidas refused to eat the flesh of the caribou and left their carcasses. Mr. 
Mackenzie then paid them to go and bring the meat in and kept it for his own use. 

(5) As the Indians are not interested in the killing of caribou, they refusing to eat 
the meat and there being no market for the antlers, etc., they consequently do not 
hunt them. They say they are afraid to go up the mountains and into much 
danger for no recompense, there being, according to their traditions, one-eyed mon- 
sters, hobgoblins, spirits, etc., to be met with on the mountains which they fre- 
quent. * * * 

This, though much more definite than any other report received, 
contains little which did not emanate from the Indians, and it is there- 
fore difficult to be certain that it contains any element of reliability. 
Surely men who believe in "one-eyed monsters, hobgoblins," etc., 
could easily indulge themselves with an imaginary caribou. How- 
ever. Mr. Harrison's statement that meat was brought to Mackenzie 
and used by him is much more worthy of consideration and might 
lead one to entertain a belief in the possibility that caribou were killed 
on Graham Island, but the probability that such was the case is still 

If the type specimen of Rangifer dawsoni originally came from the 
mainland, as seems probable, instead of from Graham Island, it may 
either have been deliberately bartered for with the intention of obtaining 
a reward, or it may have been innocently brought to the islands to be 
used in the native arts. More or iess communication has always existed 


between the islands and the coast, and between the coast and the inte- 
rior, both in times of peace and during hostilities. Hence either 
explanation is probable. The fact that the Haidas used caribou horn 
for making implements and ornaments is not particularly pertinent to 
the question, since articles made of mountain goat and mountain 
sheep horns are even more commonly used by them. If they could 
obtain horns of elk, deer, mountain goats, and mountain sheep from 
the mainland, which they undoubtedly did, it certainly must have 
been just as easy to get the useful parts of the caribou. The Haidas, 
it is true, are better fishermen than hunters; but this is probably more 
on account of lack of game than otherwise, for they are physically 
and mentally a very superior tribe. 

In view of the conflicting nature of the reports it does not seem 
safe or advisable to recognize Rangifer da/wsoni as a distinct form, 
particularly as the specimen itself furnishes no indication that it rep- 
resents a peculiar species, even granting that it came from the islands, 
for it does not essentially differ from specimens of Rangifer arcticus, 
the only difference claimed being that of darker color, and this is 
merely an opinion, as the piece of skin was long since destroyed.] 

[Mus musculus Linn. House Mouse. 

Said to have been abundant at Clew and Skidegate, but recent liberal 
importations of cats seem to have cleared it out.] 

[Mus norvegicus Erxl. Norway Rat. 

A few have escaped from ships occasionally, but in most cases each 
individual was detected and hunted down immediately, so the pest has 
not yet obtained a foothold on the islands.] 

Peromyscus keeni (Rhoads). Keen's Mouse. 

This is the common white-footed mouse of Graham and Moresby 
islands and the small detached islets near them. We found it abun- 
dant about Cumshewa Inlet from sea level to timberline, and equally 
common in Skidegate Inlet. It infests the few inhabited houses in 
company with shrews, and elsewhere is found indiscriminately all over 
the islands. Most of our specimens were caught near the shore in 
rockj' or relatively dry places in the underbrush, but a few were taken 
high up in the mountains. In all, 98 specimens were secured, as fol- 
lows: Cumshewa Inlet, 40; Skidegate Inlet, 50; near Rose Harbor, 
south end Moresby Island, 8. I have not recently examined the type 
of the species which was taken at Massett by Rev. J. H. Keen, but 
several alcoholic specimens from that locality are at present in the 
Biological Survey collection. I have compared four good skulls of 
these Massett specimens with a series from Skidegate, at the other end 
of Graham Island, and found them identical. Those from Moresby 
Island average a trifle larger than those from Skidegate, but the 



difference is extremely slight. The mainland species most similar to 
P. I,-,, in seems to be P. akeleyij from the Olympic Mountains, Wash- 
ington. Specimens from various parts of the Olympic Peninsula 
(Neah Bay. Lake Cushman, Queniult Lake, etc.) do not differ from 
Iceeni in color, or appreciably in cranial characters: The only dis- 
tinctions of consequence are the rather smaller ears and shorter tail 
of keeni. Ten specimens from Neah Bay. Washington, assumed to be 
/'. akeU y'. average as follows: Total length, 203.8; tail vertebrae, 1 14.7; 
hind foot. 23.3. Twenty males of keeni from Skidegate average L97; 
L02; 22.7; fifteen females of keeni from Skidegate average L99.8; 
L03.4; 22 A. 

Peromyscus prevostensis sp. now Prevost Island Mouse. 
Typeirom Prevost Island, Queen Charlotte Islands, British Columbia, 9 adult (old), 
X,.. 100818, l". S. Nat. Museum, Biological Survey collection. Collected July 5, 
1900, by W. II. Osgood and E. Heller. Original No. 1135. 

( Characters. Similar to P< romyscus macrorhinus, but larger and with 
shorter tail. Similar to Peromyscus sitkensis, hut with slightly shorter 
tail and cranial differences. 

Color'. Similar to P. sitkensis and 1\ macrorhinus, hut slightly 
darker. Lpperparts with dusky concentration on middle of hack, 
forming a wide, ill-defined dorsal stripe; space around and in front of 
eyes black; ears dusky, with faint pale edgings; under parts grayish- 
white, occasionally with a faint narrow stripe of pinkish buff down 
middle of breast; hind feet generally somewhat dusky; tail sharply 

Skull. Similar to that of Peromyscus sitkensis, but slightly heavier; 
nasals decidedly shorter and not so distinctly attenuate posteriorly; 
posterior palatine foramina nearly or fully twice as long as in sitkensis. 

Measurements. — Average of forty -seven adults: Total length, 217; 
tail vertebrae, 104; hind foot, 26. (Average of ten adult topotypes of 
1\ sitkensis: 224; 113.6; 26.5. Average of two adult topotypes of 
P. macrorhinus: 231; 128; 26.) Average of five skulls of pi-evostensis 
(adult males): Basilar length of Hensel, 23; zygomatic breadth, 15.2; 
nasals. 11.5. (Average of five skulls of sitkensis (adult males): 23.-A; 
L5.2; 12.7.) 

Remarks. — This large mouse is very abundant on Prevost Island, 
where forty-seven fine adults were easily trapped in the three nights 
of our stay. They were taken in the dark woods along the shore of 
the island, under old logs or roots and in damp, mossy places. They 
are stoutly built, and individuals often made their escape from the 
ordinary 'out o' sight' traps by beating about until they freed them- 
selves. Occasionally a sprung trap and a dead mouse would be found 
lying on the ground side by side or a foot or more apart. P. jjrerost- 

1 Elliot, Field Columbian Mas. Zool. Ser., I, 220-227, Feb., L899. 


(NO. 21. 

ensis appears to be entirely confined to Prevost Island, as it was 
taken nowhere else in the Queen Charlotte group. Exactly opposite 
Prevost Island, on the south end of Moresby Island, P. keen I pnly 
was caught, as was the ease elsewhere on Moresby Island. The dis- 
tance between the two islands at this point is less than a mile, but it is 
probable that the strong tides which sweep through the channel would 
carry logs or any floating debris out to sea rather than from shore 
to shore, and thus prevent small mammals from being transferred. 
P. prevostensis is so different from P. keeni that even if the islands 
were more closely connected it would be improbable that either species 
was derived from the other. Moreover, it is also questionable whether 
either is the immediate descendant of P. macrorhinus, the form of the 
adjacent mainland, as both are more similar to forms found at a 
greater distance. Notwithstanding its geographic position, P. pre- 
roxfensis is related neither to the mainland species of the same lati- 
tude nor to any of those farther south, but to 1\ sitkensis, which is 
found much farther north. In fact, considering its distribution, its 
resemblance to sitkensis is remarkable; it is characterized onty by a 
combination of slight peculiarities. It seems best, however, to treat 
it as a full species until the rather difficult subject of the distribution of 
the section of the genus to which it belongs is more clearlv understood. 

Ursus (Euarctos) carlottae sp. nov. Queen Charlotte Black Bear. 

Type from Massett, Graham Island, Queen Charlotte Islands, British Columbia. 
Skull only, No. S7620, U. S. National Museum, Biological .Survey collection, 

Nov., 1896, J. H. Keen. 

Characters. — Size slightly greater than Ursus americamus ; skull 
more elongate; rostrum relatively more slender; cranium less arched; 
teeth larger and heavier, particularly last molars; last upper molar 
with posterior 'heel' quite elongate. (See Plate IV.) 

Measurements. — The following table gives measurements of 6 full- 
grown old skulls of U. americanus from western North America and 
one adult (the type) and ti immature skulls of carlottce. The meas- 
urements of the type of carlottce are the onty ones fairly comparable 
with those given of americanus, but those of the young skulls are 
introduced to show the relatively large size of the last upper molar. 
No. 87618, for example, is the skull of a mere cub, yet its last upper 
molar is much larger than any of those of the full-grown specimens of 
nun rlcanus. 

North American Fauna, No. 21. 

Plate IV. 

SEPT., 1901.] 






87620 Masse tt, British Columbia. 

78066 do 

87619 do 

75062 do 

87617 do 

87621 do 

87618 do 

K - s 















2g 2 



■Jin i 







C L 




- J , 


5 £ 





- — 












1 . >."> 




































"H fl o ° 
i) S bo« 

§ :•- a 
13 ^ a) a 
» *« ~ •_ 

5 3"Eg 

•4-, O 











Shuswap, British Columbia . . . 

Jasper House, Alberta 

Salmon River Mountains, 

Cook lnlii, Alaska 

smart Lake, British Co- 

— do I ? & ad 

, old 








i ad. 








? ad. 








'.' ad. 








.' ad. 








? cf ad. 








25. 5 

26. 5 

Remarks. — Seven perfect skulls of the Queen Charlotte black bear 
are in the Biological Survey collection, and although most of them 
are those of immature animals there is no difficulty in distinguishing 
any of them from mainland specimens. In comparisons specimens 
from western British Columbia and Alaska have been used to repre- 
sent americanus, which, as far as known at present, ranges from the 
Atlantic to the Pacific. No specimens are available from the west 
side of the coast mountains on the mainland opposite the Queen 
Charlottes, but a few from the region immediately north (Cook Inlet 
and White Pass) and south (Olympic Peninsula) have been examined, and 
none of them show any approach to carlottce. The skull of Xfrsus '//.v i> equal in size to that of carlottce, but the teeth, though as 
long as in earlottce, are much wider and heavier. In carlottce the brain 
case is fuller, the arch of the cranium much greater, and the interor- 
bital region wider. At the suggestion of G. S. Miller, jr., the skull 
of I . carlottce was compared with that of Ursus procerus, the fossil 
species from Ohio, and more or less superficial resemblance between 
them was found, though, of course, detailed diagnostic characters are 
numerous. Both agree in general form of skull, particularly in the 
elongate rostrum in contrast with that of U. arnericanus. The denti- 
tion of procerus, however, is much heavier and otherwise different, 
while other characters arc abundant, indicating that the resemblance 


to carlottm is merely coincidental and not indicative of close relation- 
ship. No skins of carlottce have been examined, but they are said to 
be gloss} 7 black at all times, the cinnamon form being- absolutely 
unknown on the islands. The skulls on which the foregoing descrip- 
tion is based were secured from the natives at Massett, in 1895 and 
1896, by Rev. J. H. Keen, to whom we are indebted for so many other 
specimens from the Queen Charlottes. I saw signs of bear only on 
the mountain at the head of West Arm of Cumshewa Inlet, and there 
the indications were not fresh enough to raise any hopes of securing 
a specimen. The Haidas hunt bears to some extent, and also secure 
them in dead-fall traps. 1 noticed several of these traps near the 
head of Cumshewa Inlet, but they had not been used for some time. 
Mr. Tennant, of Skidegate, secures from the Indians 10 to 30 skins 

Lutra canadensis subsp. ( Land Otter. 

Otters are rather rare on the Queen Charlottes, though perhaps no 
more so than on the mainland. Mr. Tennant, or Skidegate, says that 
his annual receipts from the Indians have seldom included more than 
a dozen otter skins. This is the only mammal known to occur on the 
islands of which I have not examined specimens. 

Putorius haidarum Preble. 1 Haida Weasel. 

Three specimens of this weasel were caught about Cumshewa Inlet 
and one at Skidegate. Traps baited with tish and set along the shore 
in the rank grass or in the rocks were the most successful. The type 
of this species is in winter pelage with slight traces of the summer 
coat, indicating, as Mr. Preble noted, a probable color difference from 
Putorius kadiacensis. This surmise is amply borne out by our spec- 
imens in full summer pelage. They are much darker than kadia- 
censis, displaying very nearl} r the rich chocolate of P. streatori, and 
having much less of the lemon-yellowish wash on the underparts 
than kadiacensis. The color of the upperparts does not encroach on 
that of the belly, and the black on the tail is extensive, occupying 
nearly half its length; in these respects it is more like kadiacensis than 
streatori. The white of the underparts extends on the under side of 
the tail for about one-third of its length. The fore feet are entirely 
white; the toes and one-third of the upper side of the hind feet are 
white. Its skull is quite distinct from that of any other of the cicognan i 
group. In general terms, it is fat, short, and stocky. The most 
conspicuous point of difference from kadiacensis, cicognani, or strea- 
tori is the very broad rostrum and interorbital region. Young spec- 
imens entirely free from parasites show this to good advantage, 
and adult skulls wdiich are infested are so much wider than those of 

'Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., XII, 169-170, Aug. 10, 1898. 

sept.. 1901. 1 M A M SI A LS. 33 

kadiacmsis in a similar condition that they are easily distinguishable. 
The flesh measurements of a fully adult male are as follows: Total 
length, 283; tail vertebrae 70; hind foot 39. Adult female: 252; 63; 
31. Skull of adult male: Basal length 39; mastoid breadth L9.2; 
width across postorbital processes 14.5; palatal length 17.5; length of 
audita! buUse 13. Skull of adult female: 35.5; 17.5; L2; L6.5; 11.6. 

Mustela nesophila sp. now Queen Charlotte Marten. 

Type from Massett, Graham Island. Queen Charlotte Islands, British Columbia. 

Skull only. Male (?), No. 78066, U. S. National Museum, Biological Survey Col- 
lection. J. II. Keen. 

( Characters. — Similarto Musk la caurina, but larger; rostrum shorter 
and heavier; dentition heavier; premolars larger and more crowded. 
Last upper molar similarto that of Mustela americana, internal length 
being more nearly equal to external length than in caurina. (See 
PI. V.) 

Measurements. — Type: Basilar length of Hensel 73; palatal length 
39; postpalatal length 34; zygomatic breadth 45.5; width across post- 
orbital processes 23: interorbital constriction 19. TopotypeNo. 76429, 
female: Basilar length of Hensel 69; palatal length 37; postpalatal 
Length 32; width across postorbital processes 23; interorbital constric- 
tion 15. (Mustela caurina No. 87075, female adult, Port Moody, 
British Columbia: Basilar length of Hensel 64; palatal length 33; post- 
palatal length 31; zygomatic breadth 41; width across postorbital proc- 
esses 2d; interorbital constriction 15.) 

Remarks. — This form is represented by two skulls which Mr. Keen 
secured several years ago from natives at Massett. These are 
not sexed. but the difference in size and other slight characters make 
it evident that one is a young male and the other an adult female. 
The peculiarities shown by these skulls are so marked that there 
can be no doubt that they represent an insular species. In the 
Biological Survey series of nearly 500 skulls of Mustela america/na 
and its allies I have been able to find no others showing the characters 
of these individuals from the Queen Charlotte Islands. The molar 
teeth of nesophila are heavier than in any other form of the group. 
The audita! bulla* are actually about the same size as in caurina and 
thus relatively smaller. The maxillary region between the infraor- 
bital foramen and the alveoli of the upper molars is wider and heavier 
than in caurma. The most obvious cranial character, however, and 
the one which distinguishes nesophila from all other members of the 
americana group is the thick, heavy rostrum. When skins are avail- 
able for comparison they also will doubtless show some slight differ- 
ences. The fur traders say the Queen Charlotte martens are always 
light colored and short haired and do not command as high a price as 
tho>e from the mainland. The Ilaidas trap more or less for martens 

3505— No. 21—01 3 


every winter, but the animal is evidently not abundant, for Mr. Ten- 
nan t's annual receipts seldom exceed fort} 7 skins. 

Latax lutris (Linn). Sea Otter. 

Formerly very abundant, but quite rare at present. A few are 
occasionally taken on the west coast of the islands or off the southern 
end of Prevost Island. During his cruise about the islands in 1787 
Dixon bartered with the Haidas for 1,821 sea-otter skins. He secured 
a great many in Cloak Bay, on North Island, and describes his expe- 
rience as follows: 1 

A scene now commenced which absolutely beggars all description, and with which 
we were so overjoyed that we could scarcely believe the evidence of our senses. 
There were 10 canoes about the ship, which contained, as nearly as I could estimate, 
120 people. Many of these brought most beautiful beaver cloaks, others excellent 
skins, and, in short, none came empty-handed, and the rapidity with which they 
sold them was a circumstance additionally pleasing. They fairly quarreled with each 
other about which should sell his cloak first, and some actually threw their furs on 
board if nobody was at hand to receive them. * * * In less than half an hour 
we purchased near 300 beaver skins, of an excellent quality. * * * That thou 
mayest form some idea of the cloaks we purchased here I shall just observe that 
they generally contain three good sea-otter skins, one of which is cut in two pieces. 
Afterwards they are neatly sewed together so as to form a square, and are loosely 
tied about the shoulders with small leather strings, fastened on each side. 

At another time, when near either Skidegate or Cumshewa Inlet, 
under date of July 29, he writes: 

Early in the afternooon we saw several canoes coming from shore, and by 3 o'clock 
we had no less than 18 alongside, containing more than 200 people, chiefly men. 
This was not only the greatest concourse of traders we had seen, but what rendered 
the circumstance additionally pleasing was the quantity of excellent furs they brought 
us, our trade now being equal, if not superior, to what we had met in Cloak Bay, 
both in the number of skins and the facility with which the natives traded. * * * 
Besides the large quantity of furs we got from this party (at least 350 skins) they 
brought several raccoon cloaks, each cloak consisting of 7 raccoon skins neatly sewed 
together. 2 

? Eumetopias stelleri (Lesson). Steller Sea Lion. 

A sea lion, probably this species, is reported. It was not seen by us. 

0toes :i alascanus 4 (Jordan and Clark) Alaska Fur Seal. 

Fur seals still occasionally stop on or near the Queen Charlotte 
Islands. In former days the natives secured a great many in the 
region off the south end of the group. 

1 A Voyage Bound the World in the King George and Queen Charlotte, pp. 199-234, 
London, 1789. 

2 Since raccoons are not found on the Queen Charlotte Islands, these skins were 
probably from Vancouver Island where the animals are common. 

3 Fide Palmer, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., XIV, 133-134, Aug. 9, 1901. 
4 Report Fur Seal Invest. 1896-1897, Pt. 3, pp. 2-3, 1899. 

North American Fauna, No. 21. 

Plate V. 

Skulls of Mustela 'Natural Size). 
l. 2. Mustela caurina. 3, 4. Mustela nesophila. 

sept.. 1901.] MAMMALS. 35 

Phoca largha Pallas. Pacific Harbor Seal. 

Harbor seals are quite common. They bobbed up very often near 
our canoe as we were paddling about the inlets. 

Sorex longicauda prevostensis subsp. now Prevosi Island Shrew. 

Type from Prevost Island, Queen Charlotte [slands, British Columbia. $ ad. No. 
100618, U. S. Nat. Mus., Biological Survey Collection. Collected July 3, L900, 
by W. H. Osgood and E. Heller. Orig. No. L089. 

Characters. Similar to Sorex longicauda; tail, relative to head and 
body, shorter; dental characters distinctive. 

Color. —Very slightly darker than S. longicauda; contrast between 
upper and lower parts less; otherwise similar. 

Skull. Size large, equal to <S Y . longicauda; dentition slightly lighter; 
third unicuspid nearly equal to fourth, not about one-half smaller as 
in longicauda. 

.1/, asurt mi /its. — Type: Total length, 133; tail vertebras, 58; hind foot, 
L5. Average of Ttopotypes: Total length, 135; tail vertebras, 55; hind 
foot. 15: ratio of length of tail to total length, -10.7. (Average of 27 
topotypes of S. longicauda: Total length, 129; tail vertebrae, 58; hind 
foot. 15.5; ratio of length of tail to total length, 45.) 

Remarks. — The shrews of Prevost Island differ from those of Gra- 
ham and Moresby islands to a greater degree than from the mainland 
species S. longicauda. In color they are very dark, even averaging 
darker than longicauda; occasional specimens are deep chocolate 
brown both above and below. On the whole, however, they are very 
similar to longicauda, but the combination of slight characters they 
show can hardly be explained, except by assuming that they were pro- 
duced by insular isolation. The case is much like that of Peromyscus 
prevostensis, though not so striking. In both cases the Prevost Island 
form is distinct from its nearest geographical ally and very closely 
similar to forms found at a greater distance. The very close relation- 
ship of prevostensis to longicauda seems best indicated by a trinomial 

This shrew was not particularly abundant on Prevost Island, and 
only 14 specimens were secured. They were caught in damp, mossy 
places such as shrews usually inhabit in the northwest coast region. 

Sorex longicauda elassodon subsp. now Queen Charlotte Shrew. 

Tujie from Cumshewa Inlet, Moresby Island, Queen Charlotte Islands, British Colum- 
bia. $ yg. ad. No. 100597. U. S. National Museum, Biological Survey Coll. 
Collected June 13, 1900, by W. II. Osgood and E. Heller. Orig. No. 1030. 

Characters. — Similar to Sorex longicauda, but smaller and with 
relatively shorter tail; teeth actually about as in Sorex obscurm, rela- 
tively much smaller. 

Color. — Almost exactly as in S, longicauda; lower parts paler than 
in prevostensis, 


Skull. — Similar in general to that of Sorex longicauda, but some- 
what smaller; compared with those of S. obscurus the braincase is more 
elevated and the rostrum more slender and attenuate, the skull in gen- 
eral having a longer and narrower appearance; the teeth are decidedly 
smaller than in longicauda, but about equal to those of obscurus, thus 
being relatively smaller than those of obscurus. In the relative size of 
individual teeth I can find no departure from longicauda or obscurus. 

Measurements. — Type: Total length, 123; tail vertebrae, 52; hind foot, 
14. Average of 7 topotypes: Total length, 132; tail vertebrae, 55; hind 
foot, 11. 

Remarks. — The shrews of Moresby and Graham Island are easily 
separable from S. prevostensis, which might be supposed to be their 
nearest relative. They are very closely related to S. obscurus and 
/S. longicauda, however, and seem to be intermediate between them. 
As in the case of prevostensis, a trinomial name is proposed for them in 
order to group them with their very similar relatives. 

They were found in abundance on Moresby Island, but for some 
reason were quite rare at Skidegate, on Graham Island. They have 
been taken at Massett by Mr. Keen, who reports that the3 r are com- 
mon there. In the vicinity of Cumshewa Inlet we took 25 specimens, 
but at Skidegate with equal effort, only one. 

Lasionycteris noctivagans (Le Conte). Silver-haired Bat. 

A single adult male was taken at Skidegate on the evening of July 
10. Another was killed the same evening, but it fell in a dense thicket 
and could not be retrieved. Others, which by their large size were 
supposed to be this species, were occasionally seen. The specimen 
secured was in the deep-brown phase, with but slight silver tipping to 
the hairs. 

I have seen no previous record of the occurrence of the silver-haired 
bat on the coast north of Puget Sound. 

Myotis yumanensis saturatus Miller. Sooty Big-footed Bat. 

Bats were very rarely seen in Cumshewa Inlet or in Houston Stewart 
Channel, near Prevost Island. At Skidegate, however, they were very 
abundant both about the village and along the edge of the forest. 
They were most easily secured about the village, and nearly every 
evening during our stay we spent several hours wandering among the 
deserted Indian cabins on the lookout for them. Early in the evening 
they were found flying quite high up along the edge of the forest and 
over the village; later they were lower down, darting in and out 
between the houses, never going much above them, and sometimes 
almost touching the ground. This made them very hard to shoot, but 
after considerable expenditure of ammunition we obtained represent- 
atives of several species. In some cases we secured specimens by 
striking them to the ground with long switches. Four adult males of 

bbpt., 1901.1 MAMMALS. 37 

Myotis yumanensis saturatus were taken, and many other bats appar- 
ently of this subspecies were seen. It appears to be the most abundant 
bat at Skidegate. The specimens seem to be perfectly typical and can 
easily be matched by others from the Puget Sound region. The species 
has not been previously recorded from the Queen Charlotte Islands. 

Myotis subulatus keeni (Merriam). Keen Bat. 

This bat was originally described by Dr. C. Hart Merriam in L895, 
from specimens collected at Massett by Rev. J. H. Keen. The type 
and three other alcoholic specimens are at present in the Biological 
Survey collection. Although no bat of the imbulatu.s type has as yet 
been found elsewhere on the west coast, it does not seem probable 
that this form is peculiar to the Queen Charlotte Islands, and its cap- 
ture on the adjacent mainland will probably occur before many years 
have passed. Strange to say, this bat was not taken by us at Skidegate. 

Myotis californicus caurinus Miller. Northwest Bat. 

This subspecies was described by Mr. G. S. Miller, jr., from speci- 
mens taken in 1895 by Rev. J. H. Keen. The type and eight topotypes 
in alcohol are now in the Biological Surve} T collection. Three speci- 
mens, one male and two females, taken at Skidegate July 10-12, are 
slightly darker than specimens from Mount Rainier and Ashford, 
Washington, and doubtless represent the extreme development of the 


Gavia imber (Gunn). Loon. 

Rather common about all the islands. Its cry when heard at night 
in one of the narrow, closely walled inlets is even more weird and 
mournful than usual. 

Gavia pacifica (Lawr.). Pacific Loon. 
Several were seen at Skidegate July 9. 

Gavia lumme (Gunn). Red-throated Loon. 

A pair of red-throated loons were seen flying down Cumshewa Inlet 
June 27. 

Lunda cirrhata Pallas. Tufted Puffin. 

Often seen flying in Hecate Strait. A moderate-sized breeding 
colony was found on an islet in Houston Stewart Channel. One 
specimen taken Juty 5. 

fratercula corniculata (Naum). Horned Puffin. 

Recorded from Massett, Graham Island, by Mr. John Fannin, on 
the authority of Mr. Keen; 1 also mentioned by Chamberlain. 2 

Synthliboramphus antiquus (Gmelin). Ancient Murrelet. 
Seen at Massett by Mr. Keen; not seen by us. 

Brachyramphus marrnoratus (Gmelin). Marbled Murrelet. 
Occasionally seen in Cumshewa and Skidegate inlets. 

Cepphus columba Pallas. Pigeon Guillemot. 

This is the most abundant water bird about the islands. It breeds 
in crevices of the rocks along the shores of quiet inlets. In many of 
these places the branches of the trees overhang the rocks and almost 
touch the water at high tide, so that when the birds are startled from 
their nests it is possible to observe the strange circumstance of a 
guillemot flying out of a tree. In frequent instances nesting sites are 
chosen in and about clefts of the rocks under the roots of large trees. 

Uria troile californica (Bryant). California Murre. 

Several were seen in Hecate Strait a few miles off the mouth of 
Cumshewa Inlet July 1; they were apparently directing their course 

1 Preliminary Catalogue of Collections in the Provincial Museum, Victoria, British 
Columbia, p. 16, 1898. 

2 Catalogue of Canadian Birds, p. 4, 1887. 


.-kit.. 1901.] BIRDS. 39 

for tin 1 Skedans Islands at the mouth of the inlet, where they probably 


Rissa tridactyla pollicaris Ridgw. Pacific Kittiwake. 

According to Mr. John Fannin, this bird was taken at the islands 
September, L895, by Dr. C. F. Newcombe. 1 It was not seen by us. 

Larus glaucescens Nauni. Glaucous-winged Gull. 

A breeding colony of about LOO of these gulls was found on an islet 
in Houston Stewart Channel. Fresh eggs, as well as young just 
hatched, were observed there July 3. Very few large gulls were seen 

elsewhere about the islands, hut they are said to breed in numbers on 
the west coast of Moresby Island. 

Larus brachyrhynchus Rich. Short-billed Gull. 
Mentioned by Chamberlain. 2 

Larus Philadelphia (Ord). Bonaparte Gull. 

A few small gulls Supposed to be this species were seen. 

Puffinus griseus (Gmelin). Dark-bodied Shearwater. 

Shearwaters supposed to he this species were seen in large flocks in 
Hecate Strait a few miles off Moresby Island, -July 1-8. Reported in 
great numbers off the west coast of the islands in the fall of 1895, by 
Dr. C. F. Newcombe. 3 

Puffinus tenuirostris (Temm.). Slender-billed Shearwater. 

Shot off the coast of Queen Charlotte Islands, by Dr. C. F. New- 
combe. in August, 1894.* 

Oceanodroma furcata (Gmelin). Forked-tailed Petrel. 

A few small petrels supposed to be this species were seen in Hecate 
Strait. July 1-8. 

Phalacrocorax pelagicus Pallas. Pelagic Cormorant. 

Frequently seen. A few breed on the Skedans Islands oil' the mouth 
of Cumshewa Inlet, and on some of tin 1 islets off the west coast of 
Prevost Island. 

Merganser americanus (Cassin). American Merganser. 

A large merganser is abundant and evidently breeds. Mr. Keen 
reports both this species and the following: 

Merganser serrator (Linn.). Red-breasted Merganser. 

Reported by Mr. Keen. Not positively identified among those seen 
by us. 

1 Preliminary Catalogue Provincial Museum, Victoria, P.. C, p. 17, 1898. 

- Catalogue of Canadian Birds, p. 10, 1887. 

3 Fannin, Preliminary Catalogue Provincial Museum, Victoria, B. ('., i>. 17, 1898. 

'Macoun, Catalogue of Canadian Birds, Part I, p. 61, 1900. 


Anas boschas Linn. Mallard. 

A flock of about a dozen mallards was seen frequently about the 
head of Cumshewa Inlet, June 17-26. 

Mareca americana (Gmelin). Baldpate. 
Reported by Mr. Keen. 

Nettion carolinensis (Gmelin). Green-winged Teal. 
Given in Mr. Keen's Massett notes. Not seen by us. 

Dafila acuta (Linn.). Pintail. 

Reported by Mr. Keen. Not seen by us. 

Aythya sp. ? 

Scaup ducks were several times seen flying- at a distance. 

Clangula clangula americana (Bonap.). American Golden-eye. 
Included in Mr. Keen's Massett list. Not seen by us. 

Charitonetta albeola (Linn.). BufhVhead. 
Seen at Massett (Keen). 

Harelda hyemalis (Linn.). Old-squaw. 

A roughly stuffed skin of an adult male old-squaw was seen at an 
Indian village in Cumshewa Inlet. 

Histrionicus histrionicus (Linn.). Harlequin Duck. 
Said to occur at Massett (Keen). 

Oidemia deglandi Bonap. White-winged Scoter. 
Frequently seen in Cumshewa and Skidegate inlets. 

Oidemia perspicillata (Linn.). Surf Scoter. 

Anser albifrons gambeli (Hartl.). American White-fronted Goose. 
Reported by Mr. Keen. 

Branta canadensis occidentalis (Baird). White-cheeked Goose. 

Six or seven were seen crossing Cumshewa Inlet June 16. 
Olor sp. ? 

Swans are said to have been taken frequently. 
Ardea herodias fannini Chapman. 1 Northwest Coast Heron. 

Often seen feeding at low tide on the beaches and mud flats of 
Skidegate and Cumshewa inlets. No specimens taken. 

Porzana Carolina (Linn.). Sora Rail. 

Included in Mr. Keen's manuscript list of birds seen at Massett. 

^ul. Am. Mus. Nat, Hist. XIV, 87-90, Apr. 15, 1901. 

sept., looi.] BIRDS. 41 

Gallinago delicata (Ord). Wilson Snipe. 
Reported by Mr. Keen. 

Tringa acuminata (Horsf.). Sharp-tailed Sandpiper. 

Taken at Magsett, Graham Island. December 27, L897, by Rev. 
J. II. Keen. 1 Mr. Keen kindly forwarded me the specimen on which 
this record was made. I have compared it with others of the same 
species and found it typical. 

Ereunetes occidentalis Lawr. Western Sandpiper. 

A small sandpiper supposed to be this species was seen on a beach in 
Cumshewa Inlet. .Inne 28. Mr. Keen reports its occurrence al Massett. 

Calidris arenaria (Linn.). Sanderling. 
Reported by Air. Keen. 

Totanus melanoleucus (Gmelin). Greater Yellowlegs. 

Two were seen and one of them taken on tin 1 beach at Skidegate, 
July 17. 
Actitis macularia (Linn.). Spotted Sandpiper. 

One seen at Skidegate in July. 

Squatarola squatarola (Linn.). Black-bellied Plover. 
Reported by Mr. Keen. 

Charadrius dominicus Miiller. American Golden Plover. 
Reported by Mr. Keen. 

Arenaria melanocephala (Vigors). Black Turnstone. 

A flock of 6 was seen near Lina Island, Skidegate Inlet, July 12. 

Haematopus bachmani And. Black Oystercatcher. 

Abundant. The shrill cries of the oystercatchers were 1 heard about 
the inlets at all hours of day or night. Nearly every outlying rocky 
islet was occupied by a pair of 'sandpipers,' as they are locally called, 
and whenever a boat approached both birds would circle about it for 
some time, flying close to the water and crying shrilly. Dr. Robert 
Brown, writing in 1869, 2 says of this species: 

About Queen Charlotte Islands it is very plentiful. In March, 1866, while row- 
ing along the narrow sounds among these islands we often saw it. It would sit on 
the rocks until we could almost touch it; then, uttering a low whistling cry, it would 
dart off to another skerry, repeating the same maneuver over and over again. 

A nestfoundin Cumshewa Inlet, June 17, was merely a hollow r about 
2 inches deep and almost perfectly round, scooped out of a weedy turf 
a few feet above high-water mark. The bottom of the hollow was 
covered with bits of broken stone, evidently placed there by the old 

'Fannin, Preliminary Catalogue Provincial .Museum, Victoria, B. C, ]>. 28, L898 
2 Ibis, IV, 424, 1868." 


bird. A few feet from the nest a downy young bird was discovered 
squatting- in the weeds and gravel. It may be described as follows: 
Upperparts chiefly mottled olive-gray and black, the gray predomi- 
nating and the black distributed mainly in an ill-defined patch on the 
back of the head and two prominent parallel stripes that extend from the 
nape down the middle of the back to the rump; middle of back with a 
little buffy- tipped down; wings like back but with more buffy; flanks 
spotted with black; throat and breast slate gray, darker on sides of 
neck and indistinctly patched with paler on middle of throat; a conspic- 
uous white spot far back on middle of breast with a white line extend- 
ing forward from it on each side to the vicinity of the axillars; 
abdomen paler than In-east and lightly washed with buffy, also having 
to some degree the vermiculated appearance of the upperparts. 

Dendragapus obscurus fuliginosus Ridgw. Sooty Grouse. 

Several were heard booming about Cumshewa Inlet early in June. 
A pair of adult birds was taken at an altitude of about 3,000 feet in 
the mountains at the head of Cumshewa Inlet June 23. 

[Bonasa umbellus sabini (Dough). Oregon Ruffed Grouse. 

In Macoun's Catalogue of Canadian Birds the following statement 
occurs under Bonasa u. sabini: 

"One of the most abundant birds of the coast region of British 
Columbia including all the islands in the Gulf of Georgia, Vancouver 
Island, and Queen, Charlotte Islands." 

We did not meet this bird anywhere on the Queen Charlottes and 
it is not mentioned in Mr. Keen's manuscript list, so it seems probable 
that this statement is erroneous.] 

? Lagopus sp. 

I was told by Mr. Tennant, of Skidegate, that eight 'white grouse ' 
were killed several years ago by a party of prospectors in the moun- 
tains on Graham Island a few miles from Anchor Cove, Skidegate 
Inlet. We found conditions favorable for ptarmigan near the summit 
of the mountains about the head of Cumshewa Inlet, but did not see 
any during our short stay there. 

Zenaidura macroura (Linn.). Mourning Dove. 

Seen at Massett by Mr. Keen; not observed by us. 

Aceipiter velox (Wils.). Sharp-shinned Hawk. 

Two small hawks supposed to be this species were seen at Skidegate 
July 12. Mr. Keen reports its occurrence at Massett. 

Aceipiter atricapillus striatulus Ridgw. Western Goshawk. 
Seen at Massett (Keen). 

Buteo borealis calurus (Cassin). Western Red-tailed Hawk. 

A solitary red tail was seen Hying near the head of Cumshewa Inlet 
June 22; no others were seen during our visit. 

sept.. 1901.] BIRDS. 43 

Haliaeetus leucocephalus alascanus Towns. Northern Bald Eagle. 

Very common; often seen in parties of from '2 to LO individuals, 
the majority being birds of the year. They seem to feed largely on 
inollusks and crustaceans, which are very abundant. At one time I 
saw seven huge birds clumsily hopping over the rocks on the shore 
evidently looking for crabs. Eagles' nests were occasionally noted in 
the tops of tall, partially dead trees. 

Falco peregrinus pealei Ridgw. Peale Falcon. 

An immature female was taken July 2. It was shot as it circled 
around the small schooner in which we were drifting- in Hecate Strait 
a few miles oti' Scudder Point, Burnaby Island. Several others were 
seen near Prevost Island, and while we were in Houston Stewart Chan- 
nel a pair of them had daily altercations with a bald eagle in the tops 
of the trees on an islet near our anchorage. 

Falco colnmbarius suckleyi Ridgw. Black Merlin. 

A small dark hawk was indistinctly seen flitting out from the top of 
a tall spruce in Cumshewa Inlet June 14. Mr. Keen reports the black 
merlin from Massett. 

Pandion haliaetus earolinensis (Gmelin). American Osprey. 

Ospreys were not seen by us, but they are evidently common in 
some parts of the islands, as we heard numerous reports of them. 
Mr. Keen has noted their spring arrival at Massett as follows: 1894, 
May 13; 1806, April i>4; 1897, May 12; 1898, April 30. 

Megascops asio kennicotti (Elliot). Kennicott Screech Owl. 
Seen at Massett (Keen). 

Nyctala 1 acadica scotaea 2 subsp. nov. Northwest Saw-whet Owl. 

Type from Massett, Queen Charlotte Island, British Columbia, $ ad. No. 168171, 
TJ. S. National Museum, Biological Survey collection. Collected December 19, 
1896, by J- H. Keen. 

( Tiaracti rs. -Similar to W. acadica, but darker both above and below, 
dark markings everywhere heavier; flanks, legs, and feet more rufes- 

Color. — Cpperparts, including head, neck, back, and upper tail- 
coverts, mummy brown; 3 head with light stripes on forehead and 
thence down sides of neck; neck and interscapulars irregularly marked 
with white; wings slightly lighter than back; five outer primaries 
with two to four white spots on outer and inner webs; inner prima- 

1 Dr. C. W. Richmond has proposed the name Cryptoglaux as a substitute for Nyctala 
on the ground that the latter is preoccupied by Nyctalus (cf. Auk, XVIII, 193, April, 
1901 ) . This dispositi< m of Nyctala seems reasonable, but Cryptoglaux is not used here, 
since it has nut been adopted by the American Ornithologists' Union. 

'-' Scotfea=dark, dusky. 

3 The color name.- used are from Ridgway's Nomenclature of Colors. 


ries and secondaries with white spots on inner webs only: tail pale 
clove In-own, narrowly tipped with white, webs of rectrices crossed by 
three white bars; auriculars Isabella color streaked with dusky; fore- 
head and superciliary region white; orbital ring and outer feathers of 
lores sooty; chin, throat, and upper breast white, interrupted by a collar 
of mars brown; lower breast and abdomen white, heavily streaked with 
walnut brown; sides, flanks, legs, and feet clear ochraceous buff. 

Measurements.— -Type: Wing 85; tail 69; tarsus 26. 

Remarks. — This dark-colored form of the Acadian owl doubtless 
ranges throughout the humid Pacific coast region. Its rarity prob- 
ably accounts for its having been previously overlooked, for its char- 
acters are in general the same as those of the numerous other forms 
peculiar to the same region, which have long been recognized in nomen- 
clature. The only specimens that I have examined beside the type 
are several imperfect ones from Puget Sound, which are in the 
National Museum collection. These agree with the type in richness 
of color and extent of dark markings. The type was collected by 
Rev. J. H. Keen, who very generously presented it to the Biological 
Survey collection. A small owl, apparently this species, flew over 
our vessel at 11 o'clock on the night of July 4, while we were at anchor 
in Houston Stewart Channel. This was the only owl seen at any time 
during our visit to the islands. 

Nyctea nyctea (Linn.). Snow} T Owl. 

Mr. Tennant says he has killed large white owls at Skidegate. Mr. 
Keen reports them from Massett. 

Ceryle alcyon (Linn.). Belted Kingfisher. 

Generally found along the larger streams. One specimen was taken 
June 21. 

Dryobates picoideus sp. nov. Queen Charlotte Woodpecker. 

Type from Cumshewa Inlet, Moresby Island, Queen Charlotte Islands, British 
Columbia. J ad., No. 166816, U. S. Nat. Mus., Biological Survey collection. 
Collected June 15, 1900, by W. H. Osgood and E. Heller. Orig. No. 386. 

Characters. — Similar in general to Dryobates v. ha/rrisi; bill slightly 
smaller; middle of back barred and spotted with black; flanks streaked 
with black. 

Description. — Top of head, wings, and tail black; middle of back 
from nape to rump white, heavily barred, or spotted with black 
(streaked in immature specimens), primaries and secondaries more or 
less spotted with white; coverts usually with two to four elongate 
white spots; unclerparts smoky brownish, deepest on breast; flanks 
streaked, barred, or spotted with black and dusky (this sometimes 
extending forward on sides to axillars); three outer tail-feathers 
white, the innermost always partially black, the others sometimes 
more or less barred with black. 

SEPT.. 1901.] 



Measuri rru nts. The Queen Charlotte specimens have rather smaller 
bills than harrisi, as appears from the following table: 



Sox. Locality. 



Expi ised 



9 ad Queen Charlotte Islands, British Columbia 









28. 5 
28. 5 

29. •". 









21 5 




9 ad. 
9 ad. 
9 ad. 

Neah Bay. Washington 



Departure Bay, British Columbia . 

Comox, British Columbia 

Seattle. Washington 





















Remarks. -Adult specimens of Dryobates picoideus arc easily dis- 
tinguishable from all other members of the villosus group by the black 
markings <>n the back. Immature birds of harrisi and of other mem- 
bers of the group occasionally have a few median or lateral streaks 
of black on the back, but never the definite barring, as in picoidms. 
There is also an occasional tendency in young- harrisi to show dusky 
on the flanks, but neither this nor the black in the back persists in the 
adult. This woodpecker is not abundant on the islands; during our 
stay we saw but six, all of which were secured. These consist of two 
adult females, two immature females, and two immature males. The 
only adult male examined was one brought to me Iry a boy at Skide- 
gate, which was not preserved, as it was very much mutilated, but its 
characters, particularly the barred back, were noted. 

Sphyrapicus ruber flaviventris (Vieill.). Northern Red-breasted Sap- 

Picas flaviventris Vieillot, Ois. Am. Sept., II, 67, 1807. 
Sphyrapicus vceritu ruber Grinnell, Condor, III, 12, Jan. 15, 1901. 

Common. Represented by ten specimens, which agree perfectly 
with birds from Vancouver Island and the mainland of British 
Columbia. This bird was discovered by Captain Cook in Nootka 
Sound on the west coast of Vancouver Island. In the narrative of his 
famous voyage he makes special mention of it and gives a very good 
description. Later, in 1807, Vieillot named it Picus flaviventris ', and 
distinguished it from Picas ruber of Gmelin as follows: 

'Diftere principalement par la teinte du ventre qui est d'un jaune 

Colaptes cafer saturation (Ridgw.j. Northwestern Flicker. 

Apparently quite rare, as we saw none. A few unmistakable tail 
feathers were found, however, by Heller in Cumshewa Inlet. Mr. 
Keen reports flickers abundant near Massett. 


Selasphorus rufus (Gmelin). Rufous Hummingbird. 

Common. During the month of June hummers were often seen 
visiting the abundant blossoms of Lonicera involucrata. Mr. Keen 
has observed their arrival at Massett for six years as follows: 1891, 
April 6; 1892, April 21; 1893, April 29; 1894, April 2; 1895, April 
11; 1896, April 15. 

Empidonax difficilis Baird. Western Flycatcher. 

Rather common, but very slry and difficult to secure. Represented 
by two adult females from Cumshewa Inlet. Mr. Keen has noted its 
spring arrival at Massett as follows: 1892, May 15; 1894, May 20. 

Cyanocitta stelleri carlottae subsp. nov. Queen Charlotte Ja}". 

Type from Cumshewa Inlet, Moresby Island, Queen Charlotte Islands, British 
Columbia. $ ad., No. 166822, U. S. Nat. Mus., Biological Survey collection. 
Collected June 17, 1900, by W. H. Osgood and E. Heller. Orig. No. 400. 

Characters. — Similar to ('. stelleri, but larger and darker colored; 
abdomen and flanks deep Berlin blue instead of Antwerp or China 
blue as in C. stelleri; frontal spots much reduced; black of head 
extending on breast and merging into blue of abdomen without sharp 

Color. — Head, neck, and back deep dull black (bluish black in some 
specimens and very slightly brownish in others); forehead with very 
slight blue spots or immaculate; upper parts of wings and tail deep 
Berlin blue; inner secondaries and tip of tail with black bars of vary- 
ing distinctness; rump and upper tail-coverts Paris blue; throat and 
neck black or brownish black; breast Berlin blue becoming slightly 
paler on flanks and crissum. 

Measurements. — Type: Total length 350; extent 483; (length and 
extent measured in flesh) wing 153; tail 155; exposed culmen 32.5; 
tarsus 49. Average of three adult males from the type localit}^: Wing 
155; tail 154; culmen 32; tarsus 49. (Average of six adult males of C. 
stelleri from Puget Sound: Wing 147; tail 147; culmen 30; tarsus 45.) 

Remarks. — The large size and dark color of this jay were noticed in 
the field, and subsequent comparison of specimens in the museum 
showed these characters to be amply sufficient to distinguish it from 
the mainland form C. stelleri It is accorded only subspecific rank because 
its derivation from the mainland form is scarcely to be doubted, and 
because individual variation in C. stelleri occasionally approaches the 
condition of C. s. carlottce. It is represented in the collection by four 
adult and four immature birds, all but one of which were taken about 
Cumshewa Inlet. Jays are not very common on the islands. They 
were seen only occasionally and were generally in family parties of 
four to six adults and young. 

Corvus corax principalis Ridgway. Northern Raven. 

Very abundant. During June the majority of those seen were young 
birds of the year which were easily distinguishable by their juvenile 

sept., 1901.] BIRDS. 47 

manners and ludicrous colloquial attempts. 1 frequently watched them 
feeding on crabs. The general method of procedure seemed to be for 
one raven to catch a small crab on the shore and then retire to a log or 
the top of a stump, a few rods back in the forest, to eat it. A\ nile he 
was enjoying the tidbit several of his companions would perch in the 
trees near by preening themselves and making vigorous comments now 
and then until it was time to return to the beach for another morsel. 

Corvus caurinus Baird. Northwest Crow. 

Not common. A flock of about thirty was seen several times near 
the head of Cumshewa Inlet. 

Pinicola enucleator flammula (Homeyer). Kadiak Pine Grosbeak. 

A small flock of pine grosbeaks was seen in Cumshewa Inlet June 
L6, and one immature male was taken. No others were seen during 

our stay. 

Loxia curvirostra minor (Brehm.). American Crossbill. 

Large flocks of crossbills were seen frequently, but as none came 
within range of our guns, no specimens were secured. Mr. Keen 
reports this species from Massett. 

Loxia leucoptera Gmelin. White-winged Crossbill. 

Mr. Keen found this species at Massett. We were unable to dis- 
tinguish species among the many crossbills that we saw in other parts 
of the islands. 

Spinus pinus (Wilson). Pine Siskin. 

Heard occasionally; no specimens taken. Seen at Massett by Mr. 

Passerina nivalis (Linn.). Snowflake. 
Seen at Massett by Mr. Keen. 

Ammodramus sandwichensis alaudinus (Bonap.). Western Savanna 

Reported from Massett by Mr. Keen; not seen by us. 
Calcarius lapponicus alascensis Ridgw. Alaska Longspur. 

Seen at Massett by Mr. Keen. 
Zonotrichia coronata (Pallas). Golden-crowned Sparrow 

Said to occur at Massett (Keen). 
Junco hyemalis oregonus (Towns.). Oregon Junco. 

Not common. It was very seldom seen near the coast and but few 
were noticed on the mountains. Although great pains were taken to 
secure every specimen seen, our total was but seven, and three of 
these were immature birds. If the junco that breeds at Sitka be con- 
sidered typical oregonvs, the Queen Charlotte birds are easily refer- 
able to this form. They seem to be identical in color, and the meas- 
urements differ too slightly to be of consequence. 


Melospiza melodia rufina (Bonap.). Sooty Song Sparrow. 

Very abundant. Their favorite haunts are the dense Rubus thick- 
ets along the shore, whence they occasionally wander out on the rocks 
and sandy beaches in search of insects and sand fleas. Hour after 
hour they sit swinging on the slender topmost twigs of the salmon- 
berry bushes and look out over the water while they pour forth a jubi- 
lant ringing song. In some of the few open grassy places they were 
particularly numerous, and in skulking through the weeds frequently 
came to grief by encountering our mouse traps. 

A nest which Heller found in Cumshewa Inlet June 24, was situated 
on the ground in a bunch of weeds near the water's edge. It contained 
two fresh eggs, which dissection of the female bird showed to be a 
complete clutch, though undoubtedly a second laying, as fledged 3 T oung 
were abundant at that time. Another nest, which I stumbled upon 
near Skidegate Juty 14, was placed in much the same kind of situation 
and contained three fresh eggs. These eggs are slightly smaller than 
those of Melospiza m. insignis in the National Museum, but other- 
wise very similar. They measure as follows: 22.6 x 16.7, 22.7x16.8, 
23x16.7, 22.8x16, 22x16.4. 

I have seen very few specimens of typical M. m. rufina from Sitka, 
but have little hesitancy in referring the Queen Charlotte bird to this 
form. There seems to be no appreciable difference in color and very 
little, if an3 T , in size. The measurements of 12 males from the Queen 
Charlotte Islands average as follows: Wing 73, tail 69.5, exposed 
culmen 14.7, tarsus 24.6. Average of 6 females: Wing 68.5, tail 
64, exposed culmen 14, tarsus 23.7. 

Passerella iliaca townsendi (Nutt.). Townsend Fox Sparrow. 

Common, but, as usual, exceedingly shy. Occasionally a bird would 
be seen pouring out a wealth of song from the top of an alder or 
willow near the shore, but more frequently they skulked away through 
the brush before one could get a fair sight of them. Represented by 
10 specimens, 6 adult and 4 immature. These are not identical with 
breeding birds from Sitka, and perhaps should be considered inter- 
mediate between townsendi and fuligfinosa. The young particularly 
are more dusky than young from Sitka. In the adults the spotting on 
the lower parts is heavier and duskier and in general there is less of 
the deep rufescent shades than in typical townsendi. 

Hirundo erythrogastra Bodd. Barn Swallow. 

A few barn swallows were always found about the numerous deserted 
Indian villages and their nests were frequently noticed on the big 
cedar beams which are the framework of the Haida houses. Only one 
specimen was secured, and this is evidently not full grown, as the tail 
is not as long nor the color as rich as in the fully adult western birds 
I have examined. 

sept., 1001.] BIRDS. 49 

Tachycineta bicolor (Vieill.). Tree Swallow. 

One or two swallows supposed to be this species were seen among 
the barn swallows in Cumshewa Inlet. Mr. Keen reports it from 
Massett, and has noted the time of its spring arrival as follows: 1891, 
April 30; L892, April 24: L893, May L2; 1895, May 3; L896, April 7; 
L89T, April 15; 1898, April 27. 

Tachycineta thalassina (Swains.). Violet-green Swallow. 

.V bird thought to be this species was seen by Heller m Cumshewa 
Inlet dime 30. 

Helminthophila celata lutescens (Ridgw.). Lutescent Warbler. 

Occasionally seen or heard. Two specimens were taken in Cum- 
shewa Inlet dune 15. 

Dendroica aestiva rubiginosa (Pallas). Alaska Yellow Warbler. 

Rather rare: seen twice in Cumshewa Inlet. Reported by Mr. Keen 
from Massett. 

Dendroica townsendi (Towns.). Townsend Warbler. 

One taken in Cumshewa Inlet dune 15, and rive at Skidcgate duly 
14: very few others seen. Mr. Keen found it at Massett, and noted 
its spring arrival there as follows: 1891, May 30; 1893, April 28; 1894, 
May 15: 1896, April 20; 1898, April 17. 

Wilsonia pusilla pileolata (Pallas). Pileolated W^arbler. 

Two speeimens were taken and several seen in the mountains near 
the head of Cumshewa Inlet June 22-24. They were not seen else- 
where, but the species is noted in Keen's Massett list. 

?Anthus pensilvanicus (Latham). American Pipit. 

A bird thought to be this species was seen on a snow field in the 
mountains of Moresby Island dune 23. 

Cinclus mexicanus Swains. American Dipper. 

A dipper was seen and beard several times along a stream emptying 
into AVest Arm of Cumshewa Inlet. 

Anorthura hiemalis pacifica (Baird). Western Winter Wren. 

Very common on all the islands. It is practically the onty bird to 
be found in the deep forest away from the seashore. On the occasions 
when we attempted to penetrate the labyrinth of undergrowth toward 
the interior of the islands, we were alwa}\s greeted, even in the dark- 
est places, by the tiny wren's bright bubbling song or scolding chatter. 
It is always in motion and utterly regardless of the weather. During 
continuous rains while we were camped at the head of Cumshewa 
Inlet a wren would appear every few hours near the front of the tent 
35U5— No. 21— 01 4 


and, after scolding us for awhile, move on through the wet brush 
cheerfully and oblivious of the drenching rain. 

I Hushed a bird from an empt}^ nest in the upturned roots of a large 
fallen cedar June 15. I visited this nest frequently and flushed the 
bird from it each time, but up to June 28 it still contained no eggs. 

Four specimens only were collected, two adults and one young from 
Cumshewa Inlet, and one young from Skidegate. These do not differ 
from specimens from the adjacent mainland of British Columbia and 
from Puget Sound near the type locality of Anorthura h. padjica. 

Certhia familiaris occidentalis Ridgw. Western Creeper. 

One specimen was taken and several others were seen in Cumshewa 
Inlet June 20. 

Sitta canadensis Linn. Red-breasted Nuthatch. 

Two specimens were taken in Cumshewa Inlet June 18 and June 22, 
respectively. No others were seen during our stay. 

Parus rufescens Towns. Chestnut-backed Chickadee. 
Abundant. Seven specimens were taken. 

Regulus satrapa olivaceus Baird. Western Golden-crowned Kinglet. 
Common. An adult male was taken in Cumshewa Inlet June 20. 

Regulus calendula grinnelli Wm. Palmer. Sitka Kinglet. 
Reported by Mr. Keen. Not seen by us. 

Hylocichla ustulata (Nutt.). Russet-backed Thrush. 

Common. Eight specimens were taken in various parts of the 
islands. It was very abundant at Clew on the north side of Cumshewa 
Inlet, but was not seen at all at our camp at the head of the inlet, 
where we found II a. verecunda. Mr. Keen found it common at 
Massett, and noted its annual arrival for seven years as follows: 1891, 
May 29; 1892, May 23; 1893, May 17; 1891, May 19; 1895, April 25, 
1896, April 11; 1898, April 26. 

Hylocichla aonalaschkse verecunda Osgood. 1 Coast Hermit Thrush. 

Rather rare. Two adult females were taken at the head of Cum- 
shewa Inlet, and one male at Prevost Island. These Queen Charlotte 
specimens have the extreme development of the characters of this 
form, being rich brownish olivaceous, although in breeding plumage. 

Merula migratoria propinqua Ridgw\ Western Robin. 

Common. No specimens preserved. Mr. Keen notes the spring- 
arrival of the robin at Massett as follows: 1891, March 12; 1892, March 
16; 1893, March 6; 1894, February 20; 1895, March 1; 1896, February 
21; 1898, February 21. 

Hesperocichla nsevia (Gmelin). Varied Thrush. 

Occasionally seen or heard. Seen at Massett (Keen). 

1 Auk, XVIII, 183, April, 1901. 


By Wilfred II. ( >sgood. 


The region about Cook Inlet was, at the beginning of the Held 
season of 1900. the only general district of consequence on the Pacific 
roast of Alaska that had not been recently visited by naturalists. The 
important bearing- which collections from this region would have on 
problems connected with the general natural history of Alaska was 
strongly realized, and. accordingly, after the completion of work on the 
coast farther south. 1 was directed to proceed to Cook Inlet and make as 
thorough a biological reconnoissance of the region as time and circum- 
stances would permit. On this trip, as earlier in the season. I had the 
efficient assistance of Air. Edmund Heller. We entered the region 
August 21, making stops of a few hours each at Seldovia and Homci 
on the southwestern end of the Kenai Peninsula. From Homer we 
continued up the inlet and into Turnagain Arm. and landed at the 
mining camp of Hope City August 23. The lower coast country 
about Hope occupied us until August 31, when Ave moved on into the 
mountains at the head of # Bear Creek, a medium-sized stream that 
empties into Turnagain Arm near Hope. A week later we left Turn- 
again Arm for the northwest side of the inlet at Tyonek, and there 
spent the remaining time from September 13 to September 28. From 
this it may be seen that most of the work was done in but two general 
localities, the vicinity of Hope and the vicinity of Tyonek. Short 
stops at Seldovia. Homer, Kenai, and Sunrise, however, were of con- 
siderable value, and information received from prospectors gave some 
general information about the Knik and Sushitna districts. If more 
time had been available it could doubtless have been spent profitably 
in these districts. The vicinity of Seldovia also seemed promising, 
but we were obliged to pass it by on our way into the inlet and could 
not return to it. 


Cook Inlet is the first important indentation of the Alaskan coast 
east of the Alaska Peninsula. It is a long narrow inlet bifurcated at 
its upper end into two large arms, Knik Arm and Turnagain Arm. 
The first of these, Knik Ann. i> about 15 miles long, and at its upper 



end receives the waters of a large stream, the Matanuska. The other, 
Turnagain Arm, is 30 miles or more in length, and extends inland until 
within about 5 miles of the waters of Prince William Sound. West of 
Knik Arm is the delta of the Sushi tna River, the largest stream empty- 
ing into the inlet. South of Turnagain Arm, and connected with the 
mainland onl} T by the 5 miles of glacier between the head of the arm 
and Prince William Sound, is the Kenai Peninsula Numerous rela- 
tively small streams enter both sides of Turnagain Arm and both 
sides of the main inlet as well, so that in addition to the great volume 
received from the Sushitna there is a large secondary supply of fresh 
water. This abundance of fresh water, much of which carries quanti- 
ties of silt in suspension, makes the inlet unsuitable for an exten- 
sive marine fauna. The tides are very strong and the rise and fall 
very great, particularly in Knik and Turnagain Arms, where the flood 
is accompanied by a bore. Navigation by either large or small craft 
is difficult and often dangerous. 

Except in Turnagain Arm, the country bordering Cook Inlet is low 
and comparatively level, though high mountains from 10 to <>(» miles 
inland can be seen on all sides. The upper end of the main inlet, in 
the region of the Sushitna delta, is of course low and more or less 
swampy. The east shore along the Kenai Peninsula, from the month 
of Turnagain Arm nearly to Kachemak Bay, is also low and compara- 
tively flat, but is for the most part heavily wooded. The northwest 
side from Mount Sushitna, near the mouth of the Sushitna River, west- 
ward for nearly 100 miles consists of a slightly rolling coastal plain, 
varying possibly from 20 to (50 miles in width. This country is broken 
here and there by rather sluggish streams, most of which head in the 
mountains farther back or in the small lakes which abound between 
the coast and the mountains. The small trading station and native 
village of Tyonek is situated on a low sandspit at the base of this plain 
about 20 miles west of the mouth of the Sushitna. About Turnagain 
Arm the mountains reach the coast, and except for a few small tide 
flats at the mouths of relatively narrow valleys, the shore is steep. 
Hope City, in the vicinity of which our work in Turnagain Arm was 
done, is situated at the mouth of Resurrection Creek, a stream of suffi- 
cient size to have made quite a wide cut through the mountains. On 
each side of Resurrection Creek rugged mountains rise to an altitude 
of 5,000 feet or more and from their canyons many small rushing 
streams pour into Resurrection Creek or Turnagain Arm near Hope. 
Bear Creek (see PI. VI, fig. 2) and Palmer Creek, which come from 
the east side, are the most important of these. 

Although the region north and east of Cook Inlet is exccedingi}' 
mountainous and quite imperfectly known, it is evident that there is a 
gap of some consequence between the Coast or Saint Eiias Range, 
which practically culminates in the upper Matanuska region, and the 

North American Fauna, No. 21. 

Plate VI 

Fig. 1.— Peat Bog and mixed Woods near Tyonek. 

Fig. 2.— Looking toward Turnagain Arm from Head of Bean Creek. 

sect., 1901.] FLORA. 53 

so-called Alaskan Range which lies north and northwest of the inlet 
and includes the lofty peak of Mount McKinley. The effectiveness 
of this gap in its relation to the geographic distribution of animals 
and plants is of great Interest. 


The flora of the Cook Inlet region is quite different in its general 
character from that of the coast farther south, although many species 
are common to both regions. The difference is largely in the reduc- 
tion of the number of coniferous trees in the Cook Inlet region and 
the corresponding increase in deciduous trees; but other features 
somewhat transitional between the heavy saturated forest of the south- 
ern coast and the treeless tundra of the north are numerous. The 
flora of the mountainous district about Turnagain Arm is, of course, 
different from that of the coastal plains of other parts of the inlet. 
The low country near Hope consists of a grassy tide flat, about 50 
acres in extent, and a few miles of forest and occasional small swamps 
along the lower part of Resurrection Creek. Balsam poplars, paper 
birches, alders, and willows abound near the streams, and spruces 
(Picea canadensis and Picea sitchensis) and hemlocks (Tsuga mertensi- 
ana) are common on the slopes and slightly elevated flats. A third 
species of spruce {Picea mariana) is found in the small peat bogs, 
where smaller Hudsonian plants, such as Labrador tea (Ledum), crow- 
berry (Empetrum), and dwarf birch (Betula glandulosa) are in profu- 
sion. The hemlock is much the most abundant of the large trees, but 
it is exceeded in individual size by the spruces. The conifers ascend 
the mountain slopes to about 2,000 feet but above that point rapidly 
disappear. Beyond this elevation are alder thickets, small patches of 
dwarf willows and birches, and vast stretches of waving grass from 
1 to .". feet high. Still higher, the slopes and rounded backs of the 
ridges are cushioned with a mass of heather and heather-like shrubs, 
chiefly Empetrum nigrum. This extends up to an approximate alti- 
tude of 5,000 feet, above which there is very little or no plant growth. 
The whole country is characterized by the abundance of high grass; 
otherwise it is a typical Hudsonian-Alpine region. 

The flora on the northwest side of the inlet in the vicinity of 
Tyonek i- somewhat different in character. With the. exception of 
considerable areas occupied by lakes and peat bogs, the whole coun- 
try is covered with comparatively open forest (see PI. VI, fig. 1). 
Deciduous trees greatly outnumber conifers, of which but two 
species occur. Picea canadensis and Picea mariana, and one of these, 
P. mariana, is quite rare and local. The paper birch (Betula ]><']>!/- 
rifera) is by far the most abundant tree, and next in rank are the pop- 
lar-, of which there are two species, Popvlus balsamifera and Populus 
tremuloide8. Alders and willows are found along the streams and 


sparingly through the forest. The underbrush is not heavy; it consists 
mainly of Menziesia and Viburnum, with an occasional clump of devil's 
club (JSckinopanax) in wet places. Long grass grows luxuriantly 
in numerous pretty open glades in the birch woods. The September 
aspect of the forest is very attractive. From a little distance the 
birches on the low, rolling slopes appear as a mass of golden and rusty 
yellow, punctured here and there bj^ the dark-green spruce tops. 
The foliage of many of the smaller plants, such as Viburnum, Cornus, 
Ribes, and Epilobium, is bright red, and adds greatly to the general 
effect. On the whole, it reminds one very much of the autumn woods 
of New England, and is quite unlike anything I have seen elsewhere 
in Alaska. 

Unfortunately, we made no collection of plants in the Cook Inlet 
region, hence an authoritative list can not be given here. The follow- 
ing list, with brief annotations copied from my field notes, gives a 
general idea of the important trees and woody plants that occur. 
Specimens of a few species were preserved, and these have been identi- 
fied by Mr. Frederick V. Coville; the remainder are field identifica- 
tions only. 

Tsuga mertensiana. Alpine Hemlock. 

This is the most abundant tree from the seacoast to timberline all 
about Turnagain Arm. It was not found elsewhere in the Cook Inlet 

Picea sitchensis. Sitka Spruce. 

A few trees of this species were found at Hope. Specimens 

Picea canadensis. White Spruce. 

Found at all points visited, including Homer, Hope, and Tyonek. 
It is very common about Turnagain Arm, and is found on the moun- 
tains up to an altitude of about 2,000 feet. It is practically the only 
conifer to be found at Tyonek. Specimens preserved. 

Picea mariana. Black Spruce. 

Found in limited numbers in peat bogs at fiope, Sunrise, and 
Tyonek. Specimens preserved. 

Empetrum nigrum. Black Crowberry. 

This is by far the most common heather-like shrub. It abounds in 
all the peat bogs in the low country, and there are miles and miles on 
the mountains where one could not walk without treading on it. 

Populus balsamifera. Balsam Poplar. 

Very abundant. Large groves stand on the flat near the mouth of 
Resurrection Creek and trees of smaller stature are numerous in all the 
Turnagain Arm country; also abundant at Tyonek. 

sept., 1901.] BXORA. 55 

Populus tremuloides. Aspen. 

A few trees supposed to be this species were found with the balsam 
poplars at Tyonek. Not seen elsewhere. 

Salix sp. Willow. 

Four or more species of willows occur in the Cook Inlet region, 
including several dwarf species only found above or near timberline. 

Alnus sinuata. Alder. 

Abundant all about the inlet. In the low country it is found along 
streams, and on the mountains it forms into dense thickets extending 
in altitude far above the coniferous trees. 

Betula papyrifera. Paper Birch. 

Abundant all about the inlet. Its vertical range is about coexten- 
sive with that of the conifers. At Tyonek it .surpasses all other trees 
in point of numbers and grows to a slightly larger size than at Hope. 
.Judging from the size of some of the Indian birch baskets trees a foot 
or more in diameter are to he found. 

Betula glandulosa. Dwarf Birch. 

Common. In the low country it is most common in peat bogs; 
high on the mountains it is found on open slopes in company with 

the dwarf willows. 

Ledum groenlandicum. Labrador Tea. 

Rather common, but more or less contined to peat bogs and wet 
heather meadows. Specimen preserved. 

Ledum palustre. Dwarf Labrador Tea. 

Less common than the preceding species, with which it is found. 

Menziesia ferruginea. Mehziesia. 

A large percentage of the underbrush is composed ox this species. 
It was found at all points visited, but most commonly at Tyonek. 

Phyllodoce glanduliflora. Heather. 

Found in limited quantities above 2,000 feet altitude in the higher 
mountains near Hope. Specimen preserved. 

Cassiope tetragona. Cassiope. 

Rather rare. It was occasionally found iti the beds of Empetrum 
in the high mountains near Hope. Specimen preserved. 

Cassiope stelleriana. Cassiope. 

Quite common above timberline in the mountains near Hope. Speci- 
men preserved. 


Arctostaphylos uva-ursi. Bearberry. 

A few plants were found on a rocky point near Hope. It was not 
observed elsewhere about the inlet. 

Vaccinium vitisideea. Mountain Cranberry. 

Very abundant from the coast to the upper limit of plant growth. 

Vaccinium sp. Huckleberry. 
Several species are abundant. 

Sorbus sambucifolia. Mountain Ash. 

Common, both in the mountains near Hope and in the low hills at 

Viburnum pauciflorum. Highbush Cranberry. 
Very common at all points visited. 

Sambucus racemosus. Elderberry. 

Abundant in the mountains near Hope; occasionally seen near 

Cornus canadensis. Bunchberry. 
Excessively abundant. 

Echinopanax horridum. Devil's Club. 

A few clumps of under-sized devil's club were occasionally found in 
damp shady places about Cook Inlet. 

Bibes laxiflorum. Blue Currant. 

Occurs sparingly in Turnagain Arm. 

Bibes rubrum. Red Currant. 

Quite common in Turnagain Arm. 

Rosa acicularis. Wild Rose. 

Abundant all about the inlet; especially so at Tyonek. 

Amelanchier alnifolia. Serviceberry. 

A single bush was found at Tyonek. The species was not seen else- 
where about the inlet. 

Rubus strigosus. Raspberry. 
Abundant at Hope and Tyonek. 

Spiraea betulsefolia? Spiraea. 


The mammals of the Cook Inlet region are essentially the same as 
those of the interior of Alaska. Nearly all the species of the lower 

SEPT., 1901.1 

FAUNA. 57 

Yukon Valley are found among them, and none show any marked 
peculiarities not possessed in their interior habitat. With the excep- 
tion of widely distributed species, such as the black bear, no species 
are common to the Cook Inlet region and the Sitkan region. Thus, 
while the mammals of Cook Inlet are not peculiar to the region, the 
mammal fauna, as a whole, is peculiar, as contrasted with that of the 
coast farther south. Two new species. Microtus mi/urus and Sorex 
eximiuS) were found, hut both are new. not only to Cook Inlet, hut to 
Alaska as well, and will undoubtedly be found in other parts of the 
Territory. Considering the latitude, both large and small mammals 
are numerous in species as well as individuals. Moose, bear, and 
mountain sheep are the principal big game, and although they have 
already been hunted to a considerable extent, it is probable that they 
are more abundant than in any equally accessible place in North 
America. Fur-bearing animals are well represented, but, as elsewhere 
in the North, have been much reduced in numbers. The smaller, less 
conspicuous mammals are such as are generally found throughout 
northern Alaska, and are well represented on account of the varied 
conditions offered by the mountains of the Kenai Peninsula and the low 
country on the northwest side of the inlet. Our collection of mammals 
from Cook Inlet numbers 240 specimens, the majority of which, of 
course, are species of small size, such as shrews and mice, since we 
made no special effort to secure big game. 

Birds were not found in great numbers. Owing to the lateness of 
the season at the time of our arrival in the inlet, those seen were per- 
manent residents or fall stragglers, the summer residents being missed 
almost entirely. Land birds, with the exception of grouse, which 
were fairly common, were not numerous in species or individuals. 
Water birds, particularly littoral or semi-pelagic forms, are notice- 
ably uncommon, probably on account of the brackish water of the 
inlet and the comparative absence of marine invertebrates. Ducks 
and geese, however, and birds which feed in fresh water are locally 
quite abundant. As in the case of the mammals, no birds are peculiar 
to the Cook Inlet region, but several interior species are found which 
do not occur on the Alaskan coast south of Cook Inlet. 

The only other land vertebrate is a frog, collected by Heller at 
Tyonek. The species has very kindly been determined by Dr. L. 
Stejneger as Rami eantabrigensis latiremis. The land vertebrates 
may be summed up as follows: 


1. Rangifer stonei. 8. Arctomys caligatus. 

i'. Aires gi.^as. 9. Castor canadensis. 

3. Ovis dalli. 10. EvotomyH dawsoni. 

4. Oreamnos kenned yi. 11. Microtus operarius kadiacensis. 

5. Sriuropterus sp. 12. Microtus miurus. 

6. Sciuras hudsonicus. 13. Fiber spatulatus. 

7. Spermophilus ernpetra .sul)s]>. 14. Synaptomys dalli. 



[NO. 21. 

15. Zapus hudsonius alascensis. 

16. Erethizon epixanthus myops. 

17. Ochotona collaris. 

18. Lepus americanus dalli. 

19. Lynx canadensis. 

20. Canis occidentalis. 

21. Vulpes kenaiensis. 

22. Ursus americanus. 
28. Ursns middendorffi. 
24. Lutra canadensis. 

25. Lutreola vison. 

26. Putorius kadiacensis. 

27. Putorius rixosus. 

28. Mustela ainericana. 

29. Gulo luscus. 

30. Sorex personatus. 

31. Sorex alascensis. 

32. Sorex eximius. 

33. Myotis lucifugus. 



Gavia imber. 40. 

Gavia lumme. 41. 

Uria troile californica. 42. 

Stercorarius parasiticus. 43. 

Rissa tridactyla pollicaris. 44. 

Larus sp. 45. 

Larus Philadelphia. 46. 

Sterna paradisiea. 47. 

Diomedea albatrus. 48. 

Phalacrocorax pelagicus. 49. 

Anas boschas. 50. 

Datila acuta. 51. 

Aythya marila nearctica. 52. 

Somateria v-nigra. 53. 

Oidemia perspicillata. 54. 

Branta canadensis subsp. 55. 
Olor columbianus. 

Ardea herodias. 56. 

Grus canadensis. 57. 

Phalaropus lobatus. 58. 

Gallinago delicata. 59. 
Macrorhamphus griseus scolopaceus. 60. 

Tringa couesi. 61. 

Tringa bairdi. 62. 

Tringa alpina paciflca. 63. 

Ereunetes occidentalis. 64. 

Limosa haemastiea. 65. 

Totanus melanoleucus. 66. 

Actitis macularia. 67. 

Numenius hudsonicus. 68. 

Squatarola squatarola. 69. 

Canachites canadensis osgoodi. 70. 

Lagopus rupestris. 71. 

Lagopus leucurus. 72. 

Circus hudsonicus. 73. 

Accipiter atricapillus striatulus. 74. 

Halia?etus leucocephalus alascanus. 75. 

Falco columbarius. 76. 

Bubo virginianus saturatus. 77. 

Nyctea nyctea. 

Ceryle alcyon. 

Picoides americanus fasciatus. 

Selasphorus rufus. 

( lontopus borealis. 

Pica pica hudsonica. 

Cyanocitta stelleri. 

Perisoreus canadensis fumifrons. 

Corvus corax principalis. 

Scolecophagus carolinus. 

Loxia curvirostra minor. 

Loxia leucoptera. 

Acanthis linaria. 

Spinus pinus. 

Calcarius lapponicus alascensis. 

Ammodramus sandwichensis alaudi- 

Zonotrichia leucophrys gambeli. 
Zonotrichia coronata. 
Spizella monticola ochracea. 
Junco hyemalis. 
Melospiza melodia kenaiensis. 
Melospiza lincolni. 
Passerella iliaca annectens. 
Lanius borealis. 

Helminthophila celata lutescens. 
Dendroica coronata. 
Dendroica striata. 
Anthus pensilvanicus. 
Cinclus mexicanus. 
Certhia familiaris montana. 
Parus atricapillus septentrionalis. 
Parus hudsonicus. 
Regulus satrapa olivaceus. 
Regulus calendula. 
Hylocichla ustulatus almas. 
Hylocichla aonalaschka'. 
Merula migratoria. 
Hesperocichla nsevia. 


Rana cantabrisjensis latiremis. 

sept., 1901.] LIFE ZONKS. 59 


IVo zones are evident in the Cook Inlet region, the Hudsonian and 
the Arctic-Alpine; All the low country about the inlet and also the 
mountain sides up to timberline may be considered as Hudsonian, and 
the region above timberline on the mountains as Arctic- Alpine. The 
Hudsonian region has the same general features as the great interior 
transcontinental Hudsonian belt, and is doubtless imperfectly eon- 
nected with it. This Hudsonian belt is not particularly marked by 
characteristic forms, since most of the species of plants and the genera 
of mammals and birds are also found in the Canadian zone; but its 
distinction consists in the absence of many of the forms which are 
characteristic of the Canadian zone or which range from the south up 
into that zone. A notable feature of the Hudsonian flora of Cook Inlet, 
which is to some extent an exception to the statement just made, is 
the abundance of Tsuga mertensiana at sea level on the shores of 
Turnagain Arm. This tree is exceedingly characteristic of the Hud- 
sonian zone, and except at this point has been found only high on 
mountains in the vicinity of timberline, as its name, the alpine 
hemlock, implies. The other large trees of Cook Inlet, Picea cana- 
densis, Picea sitchensis, Picea mariana, Populus balsamifera, Populus 
tremvloides, Alnus sinuata, and Betula papyrifera, are such as are 
generally found in a northern Hudsonian zone, but all are also found 
in the Canadian. Such trees as Pinus, Abies, Thuja, etc, which are 
represented in the Canadian zone of the Sitkan district, are entirely 
absent in Cook Inlet. The mammals and birds of the Hudsonian dis- 
trict of Cook Inlet are, like the trees, nearly all species which are 
found in the Hudsonian of the interior of Alaska, but which also 
range, at least to some extent, into the Canadian. All the genera of 
mammals belong to this category, as well as many species, such as 
Sciurus hudsonicus, Evotomys dawsoni, Fiber spatulatus, Synaptomys 
dalli, Erethiz<m epixanthus myops, Putorms rixosus, and Sorex 
per so no tns. 

The Arctic- Alpine district includes the summits of nearly all the 
mountains on both sides of Turnagain Arm (see PI. VII), and in the 
interior of the Kenai Peninsula. Spruce and hemlock timber ceases 
between 2,000 and 3,000 feet elevation, and the higher slopes are 
clothed only with matted masses of low shrubs or wide expanses of 
tall grass. In the gulches thickets of alders hold control and a few 
stunted individuals often straggle well up toward the snow line. The 
characteristic mammals of this Arctic-Alpine district are the Dall 
mountain sheep (Oris datti), the hoary marmot (Arctomys caUgatus), 
and the Alaska mountain vole {Microtus ononis). The only charac- 
teristic birds found at the time of our work were the ptarmigans 
[Lagopm rupestris and L. leucurus), but pipits (Anthus), golden- 


crowned sparrows (Zonotricbia), and rosy finches (Leucostlcte) doubt- 
less occur in the breeding season. 

Taken as a whole, the plant and animal life of Cook Inlet is very 
closely similar to that of the Yukon Valley, or, in more general terms, 
to that of the interior of Alaska. This condition is the more note- 
worthy, since the fauna and flora of the same coast south of Cook 
Inlet are in marked contrast to those of the interior in the same lati- 
tude. Since coast influences are usually conducive to life that is rela- 
tively more boreal than that of the interior, large faunal regions of 
the interior seldom extend to the actual coast, except with consider- 
able modification. This is true in most cases even when no immense 
masses of mountains separate coast and interior as they do in the 
Pacific region from southern British Columbia northwestward. The 
contrast, however, would be less if no mountains intervened, or if low 
passes permitted communication; moreover, the climatic conditions of 
coast and interior would approximate each other more closely in a 
northern latitude than in a southern. It seems probable, therefore, 
that this contrast in plant and animal life is minimized in the Cook 
Inlet region both on account of the northern latitude and the existence 
of some degree of connection with the interior. 


Very little natural history work has been done in the Cook Inlet 
region. In 1869, Ferdinand Bischoff made a small collection of birds 
and mammals at Fort Kenai which was sent to the U. S. National 
Museum; but though casual references to individual specimens have 
occasionally appeared, no account of the collection, as a whole, has 
been published. The entire collection is recorded in the catalogues of 
the Museum, but many of the specimens have been exchanged or 
distributed to educational institutions; enough still remain, however, to 
be of considerable value in making a faunal list. A few species of birds 
from Cook Inlet have been recorded by Dr. Tarleton H. Bean, 1 who 
made brief stops about the mouth of the inlet while connected with an 
expedition of the U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey, and the specimens 
collected are deposited in the U. S. National Museum. A few speci- 
mens were also taken near the mouth of the inlet by Messrs. C. H. 
Townsend and B. W. Evermann during a brief stop of the U. S. Fish 
Commission steamer Albatross. Numerous sportsmen have, in recent 
years, been attracted by the large game in the vicinity of the inlet and 
in some cases have published accounts 2 of their trips containing many 
valuable notes on the natural history and general features of the region. 
The most prominent of these are Messrs. Dall De Weese and Andrew 

x Proc. U. S. Nat. Museum, V, 144-173, 1882. 

2 Many narratives of hunting trips in Alaska, particularly about Cook Inlet, may 
be found in Recreation, Forest and Stream, and American Field. 

North American Fauna, No. 21. 

Plate VII. 

Fig. 1.— Peak at Head of Bear Creek. 
Habitat of Arctomys caligatus and Microtus miiirus. 

Fig. 2— Canyon of Upper Bear Creek. 

sept., 1901.] MAMMALS. 61 

J. Stone. Mr. De Weese collected and preserved an excellent scries 
of moose 1 and Dall sheep for the V. S. National Museum, and Mr. 
Stone secured many fine specimens, including the type of Rangifer 
stonei* for the American Museum of Natural History. New York. 

The topography and geology of the region have been studied by 
parties from the D. S. Geological Survey and in their reports may he 
found a few notes regarding animals and plants as well as much other 
matter of general interest/ 

The report of the War Department on the "Sushitna Expedition,' 
under ('apt. E. F. Glenn, also contains numerous general notes of value.* 


Alces gigas Miller. Alaska Moose. 

According- to report the moose has but recently appeared in the 
Cook Inlet region; the older Indians say no moose were there when 
they were boys: and even within the memory of white men it has 
moved westward, now being known as far out on the Alaska Peninsula 
as Katmai. 

It is quite common in many places about Cook Inlet, but is hunted 
most successfully in the Knik district, and on the north shore of the 
Kenai Peninsula, from Kussilof and Fort Kenai to Point Possession 
at the mouth of Turnagain Arm. A few Indians hunt moose here 
practically all the year round, making a living by selling the meat in 
the mining camps of Hope and Sunrise. Several carcasses were 
brought in during our stay and the meat was quickly sold at 10 cents 
a pound. On the northwest side of the inlet moose are less common 
than on the Kenai Peninsula, but occur sparingly. 

Rangifer stonei Allen. Stone's Caribou. 

Rangifer stonei Allen, Bui. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. New York, XIV, 143-148, May 28, 

Caribou are rare on the Kenai Peninsula. I saw a pair of weather- 
beaten antlers said to have been picked up on the peninsula side near 
the mouth of Turnagain Arm and heard an unsatisfactory report of 
the killing of a large buck, but beyond this could obtain no evidence 
of the animal's occurrence in this region near the coast. Mr. Stone, 
who secured the type of the species, also received reliable reports of 

'See Miller, Prop. Biol. Soc. Wash., XIII, 57-59, May 29, 1899. 

■See Allen, Bui. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., XIV, 143-148, 1901. 

3 .See Dall, Report on Coal ami Lignite. <17th Ann. Kept, U. S. Geol. Survey, Pt. 
I, pp. 771-908, 1896; Neocene of North Am., <Bul. No. 84, U. S. Geol. Survey, pp. 
234-238, 18.92; Eldridge, Reconnaissance Sushitna Basin, etc., <20 Ann. Rept. U. 8. 
Geol. Survey, Pt. VIII, pp. 6-29, 1900; Memlenhall, Reconnaissance Resurrection 
Bay to Tanana River, Ibid, pp. 271-340. 

4 Reports of explorations in the Territory of Alaska, Adjt. Gen. Office, Doc. No. 
102, pp. 5-289, 1899. 


the occurrence of caribou in the southern and western part of the 
Kenai Peninsula, but stated that they are "already very scarce and 
will doubtless soon be exterminated.*' (See Allen, loc. cit.) Two 
specimens, male and female, shot by Mr. Harry E. Lee on the Kenai 
Peninsula, have been recorded by Mr. D. G. Elliot. 1 They are more 
or less common a short distance in the interior and are often killed 
near the Sushitna River, whence their skins are brought to the coast 
to be traded. 

The characters which distinguish Stone's caribou from the mountain 
caribou (Rangif&r montanui) seem to be slight, and the claim of stonei 
to full specific rank has been questioned. The statement in this con- 
nection that "it is very evident that our knowledge of western and 
northwestern caribou is very imperfect and unsatisfactory, our mate- 
rial having been altogether insufficient" is not only true, but should 
be very significant; for if more specimens of this rare animal are not 
obtained for our museums in the near future, the question of its spe- 
cific distinctness may never be decided beyond question. 

Oreamnos kennedyi Elliot. Alaska Mountain Goat. 

Oreamnus kennedyi Elliot. Field Columbian Mus., Chicago. Pub. 46, Zool. Series 
III, 3-5, June, 1900. 

I could obtain no evidence of the occurrence of goats on any part of 
the Kenai Peninsula, but I learned from T. W. Hanmore, who has 
been the Alaska Commercial Company's agent at Tyonek for the past 
eleven years, that a small band is known to inhabit a district between 
the headwaters of the Knik and Matanuska rivers. Mr. Hanmore 
knows the animals thoroughly and says he has seen skins and horns 
from this place and often heard of them from the Indians who hunt in 
that vicinity. As far as I can learn, this is the northernmost occur- 
rence of the mountain goat. 

Ovis dalli (Nelson). Dall Sheep. 

Dall sheep were formerly common in the mountains on both sides of 
Turnagain Arm, but since active mining began there they have 
retreated to the interior of the peninsula, where the}' still occur in 
large numbers. They are also common in the mountains near the 
Knik River, from which place several heads were brought in by 
Indians while we were at Sunrise Cit} 7 . According to apparently 
reliable report, these sheep in the interior of the Kenai Peninsula 
gather into very large flocks in fall, as many as three hundred individ- 
uals having been seen together at one time. There are several routes 
into the sheep country, the easiest and the one most frequently used 
being that via the Kussilof River to Kussilof Lake and thence into 
the mountains. 

1 Field Columbian Mus. Zool. Ser., Ill, 59-62, Pis. XI-XIII, July, 1901. 

skit., 190L] MAMMALS. 63 

Sciuropterus sp. 

Flying squirrels are said to have been taken in the Knik district, 
but are unknown elsewhere about Cook Inlet. The numerous miners 
and woodsmen about Turnagain Arm were unable to give us any infor- 
mation as to the occurrence of flying squirrels, except in the Knik 

Sciurus hudsonicus Erxleben. Hudson Bay Red Squirrel. 

Common at all points visited. A few were seen at Homer, larger 
numbers at Tyonek, and in the low country about Hope they were 
excessively abundant. Sixteen specimens were taken, fourteen at 
Hope and two at Tyonek. These are indistinguishable from specimens 
in the same pelage taken near the west coast of Hudson Bay, as well 
as from those taken in the interior of Alaska, and show but very 
slight tendency toward Sciurus h. petulans; hence they are referred 
without hesitation to Sciurus hudsonicus. 

Spermophilus empetra subsp. '. Ground Squirrel. 

Spermophiles do not occur near Turnagain Arm or at Tyonek. 
They are said to be abundant on the Barren Islands near the mouth of 
the inlet and are evidently so in the mountains lying some GO miles 
back of Tyonek. While we were at Tyonek an Indian brought in 
a lot of one hundred spermophile skins from these mountains to be 
used in making parkas and other articles of native wearing apparel. 

Arctomys caligatus Eschscholtz. Hoary Marmot. 

Abundant in the mountains about Turnagain Arm, where they are 
known to the miners as "whistling pigs.' In the mountains at the 
head of Bear Creek we found them living in grassy meadows above 
timberline and on open hillsides rather than in rocky places. Their 
burrows in these places differ from those of spermophiles only in size. 
Wide well-beaten paths through the grass connect different burrows 
and diverge from them here and there over the slopes in the same 
manner as those of spermophiles. The vicinity of the burrow is 
usually very filthy with excreta. 

Although the hoary marmots of these mountains seldom see a human 
being even at a distance, they are exceedingly shy and disappear at 
the slightest alarm, on which account it was very difficult to get even 
within riffe range of them. 

Castor canadensis Kuhl. American Beaver. 

According to report which I received from a trapper at Hope, three 
beaver were secured by Indians near the mouth of Turnagain Arm in 
the fall of 1899. A limited number are secured every season along 
streams in the mountains about 60 miles inland from Tyonek. A 
trading station on the lower Sushitna River also obtains a small quota 


annually. Compared with former receipts, however, the number now 
obtained is lamentabl} r small. 

"Mus norvegicus Erxleben. Norway Rat. 

A few rats have established themselves about the wharf and stores 
at Sunrise. They have also occasionally escaped from vessels at Hope 
and Tyonek, but have not increased in numbers. 

Evotomys dawsoni Merriam. Dawson Red-backed Mouse- 
Abundant in mossy places and about decayed logs in the woods; 
only rarely taken in Microtus runways on the tide flats; quite nu- 
merous about the houses and stores in the villages and in the miners' 
cabins in the backwoods. Thirty-eight specimens were secured as 
follows: Hope, 21; mountains at the head of Bear Creek, near Hope, 
4; Tyonek, 13. These seem to be intermediate in character between 
Evotomys dawsoni and Evotomys dawsoni orca, 1 including specimens 
which might be referred to each form. As the majority, however, 
are more similar to dawsoni, they are recorded under that name. 

Microtus operarius kadiacensis (Merriam). Kadiak Vole. 

Microtus kadiacensis Merriam, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., XI, 222, July 15, 1897; Bailey, 
North Am. Fauna, No. 17, 41-42, June 6, 1900. 

This vole is rather rare at Hope, but very abundant at Tyonek. 
It is common at Homer also, as numerous signs of it were seen on 
the grass-grown sandspit near there. The runwa}\s are very large and 
were usually found in coarse grass {Elymus mollis) on low, sandy 
stretches near tide level. Great quantities of grass cuttings were 
always found in the runways. In one place near Tj^onek these mice 
had invaded a potato patch and made well-beaten paths in and out 
under the vines, but the amount of damage they inflicted on the crop 
was apparently slight. 

Thirty-one specimens were taken at Tyonek and five at Hope. 
These agree very closely with topotypes of M. kadiacensis, but in 
some respects tend toward M. operarius. The molar teeth and the 
audital bulla? are very slightly smaller than in kadiacensis, yet not 
quite so small as in operarius. In size the Cook Inlet specimens are 
about equal to those from Kadiak and somewhat larger than topotypes 
of operarius. 

Microtus miurus 2 sp. now Alaska Mountain Vole. 

Type In mi head of Bear Creek in mountains near Hope City, Turnagain Ann, Cook 
Inlet, Alaska. $ ad. No. 107175, U. S. Nat. Mus., Biological Survey col- 
lection. Collected Sept. 4, 1900, by W. II. Osgood and E. Heller. Original 
No. 1349. 

Character*. — Size small, tail short, color huffy, underparts suffused 
with body color, molar enamel pattern as in Microtus <d>l>r< viatus } ' 
skull distinctive. 

1 Evotomys orca .Merriam, Proc. Wash. Acad. Sci., II, 24-2;",, .Mar. 14, 1900. 

2 Miurus = cnrtailed. 

sEn.. 1901.1 MAMMALS. B5 

Color. — Fresh faU pelage (No. 107167): Upperparts uniform pale 
tawny, lightly mixed with black; face, sides, and flanks exactly like 
back; underparts strongly washed with buffy; tail dusky above, bufly 
below and on sides. Warn summer pelage (Type, No. 107175): Upper- 
parts pale bufly gray with plumbeous under-fur showing through in 
places; underparts whitish gray faintly suffused with bufly. Young: 
Similar to adults but grayer, with buff somewhat intensified about the 
cars and base of tail. 

Skull. — Size small; dorsal outline nearly straight, very slightly 
depressed in interorbital region; nasals of moderate length, some- 
what expanded anteriorly; naso-frontal suture slightly emarginate; 
lachrymal shelf prominent, with decided dorsal depressions between 
fronto-rnaxillary sutures; z} T gomata rounded anteriorl} T with scarcely 
any prezygomatic notch; interparietal slightly produced anteriorly, 
about twice as wide as long; audital bulla? full and rounded, their 
inner surfaces nearly parallel; lateral pits of palate shallow, inter- 
pterygoid fossa rather wide. Teeth rather light; upper incisors 
slightly sulcate; molar enamel pattern essential^ as in Microtus abbre- 
viatus; m 3 with but 2 closed triangles; m 1 with 5 closed triangles and 
o inner and 4 outer salient angles. 

Measurements. — Type: $ ad. Total length 153; tail vertebra? 31; 
hind foot 20. Average of three females: 133; 23; 19. Skull: Basal 
length 26; zygomatic breadth 15; mastoid breadth 11.4; nasals 7; 
alveolar length of upper molar series 6.2. 

Remarks. — In a general way Microtus miurus is a miniature of M. 
abbreviatus, which is undoubtedly its nearest known relative, but 
detailed differences are very numerous. External characters other 
than size are its relatively longer tail and its more ochraceous color; 
cranial characters most appreciable are its full, rounded, and nearly 
parallel audital bulla? and the nearly straight dorsal outline of the 
skull. The peculiar enamel pattern like that of M. abbreviates is 
sufficient to distinguish miurus from all other members of the sub- 
genus Microtus. The discovery of a mainland relative of the insular 
species abbreviatus is very interesting and indicates in a slight way 
how much is still to be learned of the small mammals of Alaska. In 
the high mountains of the interior other similar forms undoubtedly 
remain to be discovered. Eleven specimens were secured, including 
five adults and six young. These were all taken in ' meadows ' above 
timberline in the mountains near Hope on the south side of Turn- 
again Arm. In these places it was only by very careful and diligent 
trapping that they were secured, for though many runways were 
found but very few showed signs of recent use. The burrows instead of 
opening vertically in the side of a slight eminence, as usual, have 
entrances which are flush with the floor of the runway. The grass in 
which these runs are made is very short, as it grows in rocky soil near 
3505— No. 21—01 5 


the upper limit of vegetation in small hollows and basins. Snow lies 
in these places all the time except a few months in summer. 

Fiber spatulatus Osgood. Northwest Muskrat. 

Fiber spatulatus Osgood, N. Am. Fauna No. 19, pp. 36-37, Oct. 6, 1900. 
Muskrats are not known to occur about Turnagain Arm, but they 
are rather common about small ponds in the peat bogs near Tyonek. 
They also occur at Kenai, as is shown by two specimens from there 
collected by Bischotf in 1869 and now in the National Museum. 
These, as well as one that we secured at Tyonek, are typical Fiber 
spatulatus, having the small molars and expanded nasals exactly as in 
the type of the species. 

Synaptomys dalli Merriam. Dall Lemming Mouse. 

One adult male was taken in a small peat bog near Hope August 
26, but persistent trapping in the same locality failed to secure more, 
and none were found elsewhere about the inlet. The single specimen 
secured is essential^ the same as an adult male from Lake Lebarge, 
Yukon Territory. The Cook Inlet specimen is slightly lighter, par- 
ticularly on the head and shoulders, where there is less admixture of 
black. The skull agrees perfectly with the Yukon specimen and both 
agree fairly well with the type of dalli, all having much larger audital 
bulla? than the coast form wtungeli. The flesh measurements of the 
Cook Inlet specimen are as follows: Total length 131; tail vertebrae 
22; hind foot 20. Skull: Basal length 25; mastoid breadth 14.8; 
zygomatic breadth 15.6; nasals 7.5; alveolar length of upper molar 
series 7.9. 

Zapus hudsonius alascensis Merriam. Alaska Jumping Mouse. 

A jumping mouse in good condition was found floating in a sunken 
water barrel near Tyonek September 13. The entire vicinity was 
assiduously trapped, but no more could be obtained, from which it 
seems that the species is rare, though possibly it may have gone into 
early hibernation. It also occurs in Turnagain Arm, for a miner at 
Hope accurately described one to me that he had seen there several 
years ago. 

Erethizon epixanthus myops Merriam. Alaska Porcupine. 

Porcupines are abundant in the Turnagain Arm region, but are very 
rare at Tyonek. Mr. T. W. Hanmore, who has lived at Tyonek for 
eleven years, says that he has seen but one porcupine there in that 
time. The natives on the Kenai Peninsula use porcupine flesh as food 
and prize it very highly. They prepare the animals by first plucking 
out all the quills, then singeing off the hair, then roasting entire. I 
did not have an opportunity to taste the flesh cooked in this way, but 
found it very palatable when fried. Porcupines are eaten bj^ various 

SEPT., 1901.] MAMMALS. 67. 

carnivorous animals, particularly wolves, though doubtless only in 
extreme hunger. Old trappers and hunters say that the majority of 
the wolves taken in this region have porcupine quills in their stomachs 
and under the skin about their heads. 

Ochotona collaris (Nelson). Alaska Pika. 

Pikas do not occur in the mountains on the peninsula side of Turn- 
again Arm, but I was told by a miner from Knik River that they had 
been seen in the mountains near there. 

Lepus americanus dalli Merriam. Hall Varying Hare. 

A few signs of rabbits were seen at Hope, but no specimens were 
secured; they are said to be very abundant in winter. Six specimens 
were obtained at Tyonek, but only by persistent and careful trapping - . 
All were caught in steel traps set in runways in the thickets or in the 
peat bogs. Rabbits arc very seldom seen here in the daytime, and 
dependence on gun alone would result in but a small bag. Although 
the summer pelage of dalli is unknown and there is some possibility 
that topotypes would be slightly different in color from the Cook Inlet 
specimens, I have little hesitancy in referring the latter to dalli, since 
the skulls are nearly typical, being but slightly smaller and shorter. 
Most of the specimens from Tyonek are slightly immature and the 
color of the upperparts is strongly mixed with black. In one of 
the oldest (No. 107611) the predominating color of the upperparts is 
cinnamon; the middle of the back is heavily mixed with black, which 
becomes less intense laterally until at the edge of the pure white under 
parts there is no trace of it, and a clear cinnamon lateral line remains. 
The throat is also cinnamon with very faint signs of black. The outer 
sides of the fore legs and fore feet are russet and dusky and the inner 
sides are creamy white. The hind feet are white well mixed with cin- 
namon and dusky. The ears are nearly white, except in front, where 
there is a strong cinnamon and dusk}' admixture. The flesh measure- 
ments of the six specimens average as follows: Total length 411; tail 
vertebrae 39; hind foot 139. 

Lynx canadensis (Kerr). Canada Lj-nx. 

Lynxes are evidently still fairly common. Mr. George Coon, a 
reliable woodsman of Hope, told me that in a season of two and one- 
half months' trapping in the winter of 1899 he secured fifteen lynxes 
near the mouth of Turnagain Arm. 

Canis occidentalis Richardson. Wolf. 

Wolves are considered rather common in the Cook Inlet region. 
Mr. Coon, of Hope, told me that during the winter of 1899 he secured 
fourteen with poison. Among these were six in the black phase. 


Vulpes kenaiensis Merriam. Kenai Fox. 

Vulpes kenaiensis Merriam, Proc. Wash. Acad. Sci., II, 670, Dec. 28, 1900. 

Red, cross, and black foxes are taken annually in limited numbers. 
This species, which, as far as known, is the only one found in the 
region, is the largest fox known to North America. The skins secured 
here are usually of very good quality and blacks or ' silver grays ' com- 
manding high prices are not uncommon. Some attempt at 'farming' 
these large foxes has been made, but so far has generally proved 
unsuccessful on account of the vicious habit the males have of injur- 
ing or devouring the young. It seems possible, however, that while 
this might interfere with such extensive breeding farms as are feasible 
in the case of the blue fox, it might be controlled and the business 
made profitable if a few pairs were kept at each of a large number of 

Ursus americanus Pallas. Black Bear. 

Black bears are moderately common in the Cook Inlet region. A 
few are killed about Turnagain Arm each year, but they are less com- 
mon in the lower country on the northwest side of the inlet. While 
returning from our traps on upper Bear Creek on the evening of Sep- 
tember 1, we discovered a bear crossing a grassy place between two 
alder thickets on a hillside near us. I hurried* to camp and returned 
with my rifle and after a long stalk succeeded in securing it. It proved 
to be a young female. The fur was short, but even and glossy black. 
The animal had been feeding on berries entirely and its stomach was 
found filled to distension, chiefly with black crowberries {Empetrum 
nigrum). These were clean and absolutely free from twigs and leaves 
and so tightly packed that there hardly seemed room for another 
mouthful. The feeling of satisfaction enjoyed by the possessor of 
this well-filled paunch was very evident. Before shooting it I had an 
opportunity to watch it feeding and was amused at its exhibition of 
exuberant spirits. It would browse leisurely for a few minutes then 
would suddenly give a bound and roll over and over down a little 
heather-grown glade to the bottom and then jump up to gallop at 
full speed up and down and around in a circle, apparently impelled 
by nothing but sheer joy. This bear measured in the flesh as follows: 
Total length 1,310; tail vertebras 166; hind foot 213. 

Ursus middendorffi Merriam. Kadiak Bear. 

Large bears are still very often seen both on the Alaska Peninsula 
side of Cook Inlet and on the mountainous Kenai Peninsula. Accord- 
ing to report they were very abundant about ten years ago, but in the 
short time since have been So constantly pursued that their numbers 
have been greatly reduced. Nearly every old prospector has one or 
more stories to tell about personal experiences with big brown bears, 
and often is able to show the skins as evidence of his truthfulness. 

sept., 1901.] MAMMALS. 09 

Both whites and natives distinguish several varieties of large hears 
according to color. One of these, which is called the 'big white 
bear." and of which I examined specimens, is creamy white 1 about the 
neck, shoulders, and back, and pale brownish about the haunches and 
legs. Nearly every degree of gradation from these ' white ' bears to 
the dark brown ones may be found, however, so that it does not seem 
probable that more than one species is represented. 

Mr. T. W. Hanmore, of Tyonek, says the brown bear generally goes 
into hibernation early in October, but that a few years ago he saw the 
track of one that had plowed through 2 feet of snow down to the 
beach near Tyonek in the middle of November. 

Latax lutris (Linnaeus). Sea Otter. 

Sea otters are said to have been seen in Cook Inlet, but owing to 
the very muddy water it is probable that they were never numerous 
there, even in times of their greatest abundance elsewhere. 

Lutra canadensis (Schreber). Land Otter. 

Apparently rather uncommon, though a few are said to be taken 
every winter. 

Lutreola vison energumenos Bangs. Pacific Mink. 

Moderately common. A few mink tracks were seen along some of 
the small streams. Several skins of poor quality were offered for 
sale by miners at Hope. One specimen, a male in good pelage, was 
taken on a small stream near Tyonek September 16. It is not fully 
adult, and its skull shows no characters of value, but its color is very 
dark. On this account it is referred to energumenos. 

Putorms kadiacensis Merriam. Kadiak Weasel. 

One specimen was secured at Hope August 30. It was shot while 
in the act of making away with some scraps of meat that had been 
thrown out near the door of our cabin. This specimen is not quite 
adult, but agrees with specimens of kadiacensis of the same age in 
size, color, and cranial characters. Its flesh measurements are as fol- 
lows: Total length 326; tail vertebne 91; hind foot 15. 

Putorms rixosus Bangs. Bangs Weasel. 

One adult female was taken in a swampy place near Tyonek Septem- 
ber 19. It was caught in a small mouse trap in a Microtias runway 
and doubtless would have escaped had it not thrashed into a pool of 
water and drowned. This specimen differs but very slightly from the 
type of rixo&uS, and shows no definite approach to subspecies eskimo. 
The color of the upperparts is uniform vandyke brown, slightly 
darker than the type of rixosus; the tail is the same color, with a faint 
paleness on the underside and no trace of black anywhere; the under 


parts, including the under and inner sides of the forelegs and the fore- 
feet, are pure white; the toes and one-third of the hind feet are white. 
The skull of the Cook Inlet specimen is about the same size as that of 
the type of rixosus; the braincase is slightly flatter and more elon- 
gate; the teeth are identical. The flesh measurements are as follows: 
Total length 165; tail vertebrae 18; hind foot 21. Skull: Basal length 
27.5; palatal length 10.8; zygomatic breadth 14; breadth across post- 
orbital processes 9; length of audital bulla? 10. 

The natives regard the capture of one of these rare animals as a 
piece of great good fortune. One old Indian who frequently visited 
our cabin told us that his brother who had caught one when a small 
boy had in consequence become a 'big chief;' and he assured me that 
since I had caught one I must surely be destined to become a man of 
great wealth and power. 

Mustela americana Turton. American Marten. 

Martens are only moderately common. George Coon, a reliable 
trapper of Hope, told me that in a season of about two and one-half 
months in 1899, near the mouth of Turnagain Arm, he took but 15 
martens. Two marten skulls in the Biological Survey collection, col- 
lected by Dall De Weese on the Kenai Peninsula, are not referable to 
either M. a. caurina or 31. a. actuosa, but seem to be very nearly like 
typical americana. The skulls and teeth are about the same size as in 
americana from the Adirondack Mountains, New York, and the shape 
of the last upper molar also agrees with that of americana, being of 
almost equal width internally and externally. 

Gulo luscus (Linnaeus). Wolverine. 

Apparently rather common, as a number of skins are said to be 
secured annually. All of these are shipped via St. Michael to trading 
posts on the Yukon River, where they are sold to the Yukon natives, 
who value them very highly for making trimmings for their fur 
clothing. The natives and older prospectors tell many stories of the 
wolverine's skill and cunning in discovering and securing caches of 

Sorex personatus Geoffroy. Common Shrew. 

Very common at both Hope and Tyonek. Twenty specimens were 
taken in the vicinity of Hope and 19 at Tyonek. These are smaller 
and lighter colored than topotypes of streatori from Yakutat, but can 
hardly be referred to arcticus. I have not been able to find any char- 
acters in which they differ from personatus oi the eastern United 
States. The measurements of 20 Cook Inlet specimens average as 
follows: Total length 101; tail vertebra? 40; hind foot 12. 

sept., 1901.] MAMMALS. 71 

Sorex alascensis shumaginensis Merriam. Shumagin Shrew. 

Sorex alascensis shumaginensis Merriam. Proc. Wash. Acad. Sci., II, 18, Mar. 14, 

Seventy-six specimens of a shrew almost indistinguishable from 
X. shumaginensis were taken, 27 near Hope and 49 near Tyonek. 
These are slightly smaller than S. alascensis and decidedly paler col- 
ored, thus approaching X shumaginensis. They do not show as much 
light peppery spotting as shumaginensis, but otherwise do not differ 
from it. The skulls are slightly smaller than those of alascensis and 
practically identical with those of shumagmensis. 

Sorex (Microsorex) eximius, 1 sp. nov. 

Type from Tyonek, Cook Inlet, Alaska. 9 ad. No. 107126, U. S. National Museum, 
Biological Survey collection. Collected September 14, 1900, by W. H. Osgood 
and E. Heller, brig. No. 1395. 

( 'haracters. — Similar to Sorex hoyi, but larger and paler colored; 
skull widely different. 

( blor. — Head, back, and sides uniform pearly sepia, slightly paler 
than in S. hoyi; underparts pale drab, not strongly contrasted with 
upperparts; tail bicolor. 

Skull. — Rostrum and interorbital region narrow and elongate; brain- 
case much higher than in S. hoyi and more compressed anteriorly, dis- 
tinctly elevated above plane of rostrum; palate long, narrow, and 
excavated. Mandibles longer and relatively more slender than in 
S. hoyi. Dentition much heavier than in S. hoyi; relative size of 
fourth unicuspid, as compared with first and second, quite small; 
inferior cusp of first upper incisor long and slightly decurved. 

Measurements. — Type: Total length 98; tail vertebrae 31; hind foot 
11. Skull: Basal length (inferior lip of foramen magnum to front of 
middle incisors) 15; palatal length 6.5; mastoid breadth 7.1; antorbital 
breadth 4.3. 

Remarks. — The specimen which is the basis of the foregoing descrip- 
tion is the only one of its kind among nearly 150 shrews caught at 
Hope and Tyonek. It is of extreme interest, not only as representing 
a very distinct new species, but as the only specimen of the subgenus 
Jficr<>xo/'e,r recorded from Alaska. Its dentition is essentially as in 
the only other species of the subgenus, Sorex hoyi, but the form of 
its skull is entirely different and much more like the general type 
found in the subgenus Sorex. 

Myotis lucifugus (Le Conte). Little Brown Bat. 

A few bats were seen at Hope, but no specimens were secured. 

1 Eximius=excellent, extraordinary. 



Gavia imber (Gunn.). Loon. 

An old skin of a loon was seen at Hope; otherwise the species was 
not observed by us. 

Gavia lumme (Gunn.). Red Throated Loon. 

Five specimens of ' Colymbus septentrionalis ' are recorded in the 
catalogue of the National Museum among Bischoff's birds from Fort 
Kenai. I have been unable to find any of these in the National 

Una troile calif ornica (Bryant). California Murre. 

Bean records specimens taken at Chugachik Bay (=Kachemak Bay) 
June 30, 1880, and reports the species as abundant; 1 and a specimen 
taken by George Palmer at Knik Station is in the National Museum. 
The species was not seen by us in August and September. 

Stercorarius parasiticus (Linn.). Parasitic Jaeger. 

Several were seen at Homer August 22. Not seen elsewnere about 
the inlet. 

Rissa tridactyla pollicaris Ridgw. Pacific Kittiwake. 

A few were seen at Homer August 22. Not noticed elsewhere in 
the inlet. 

Lams sp. 

A few large gulls in immature plumage were occasionally seen, but 
they were noticeably uncommon. This scarcity I found was due to 
the fact that for the past two years gulls have been systematically 
slaughtered for millinery purposes. A trader offered from 10 to 20 
cents each for them, and consequently the Indians and half-breeds 
have killed every one that has come within range of their guns. 

Larus Philadelphia (Ord). Bonaparte Gull. 

Seen in considerable numbers at Homer August 22, but not elsewhere 
about the inlet. 

Sterna paradissea Brunn. Arctic Tern. 

The National Museum catalogues show that Bischoff secured 1 speci- 
mens of this species in May and June, 1869. We did not meet with it. 

Diomedea albatrus Pallas. Short-tailed Albatross. 

In the summer of 1880 Dr. T. H. Bean found this species common 
about the mouth of Cook Inlet, and a specimen was secured near Fort 

^roc. U. S. Nat. Mus., V, 172, 1882. 

sept., 1901.] BIRDS. 73 

Alexander. We did not sec it when we were in this vicinity, in August 
and September. 1900. 

Phalacrocorax pelagicus Pallas. Pelagic Cormorant. 

A single, lonely-looking cormorant was several times seen at Tyonek 
flying up the inlet close to the shore. Others were seen at Homer. 

Anas boschas Linn. Mallard. 

Common at Tyonek, where 7 immature birds of the year were shot 
by E. Heller in September. 

Dafila acuta (Linn.). Pintail. 
A specimen was taken by Bischofl' at Fort Kenai. 

Aythya marila nearctica Stejn. American Scaup Duck. 

A flock of 6 scaup ducks was seen on a pond near Tyonek Septem- 
ber 17. 

Somateria v-nigra Gray. Pacific Eider. 

A young bird and four eggs were secured b} 7 Dr. T. H. Bean at 
Chugachik Bay (=Kachemak Bay) July, 1880. 

Oidemia perspicillata (Linn.). Surf Scoter. 

Several flocks of scoters supposed to be this species were seen at 
Homer August 22. A specimen was taken by Bischofl' at Fort Kenai 
July, 1869. 

Branta canadensis subsp? Canada Goose. 

Small flocks were frequently seen at Tyonek, but no specimens 
were secured. 

Olor columbianus (Ord). Whistling Swan. 

The miners about the inlet say that swans are often seen there and 
that several have been killed. 

Ardea herodias Linn. Great Blue Heron. 
A great blue heron was seen at Hope hj E. Heller. 

Grus canadensis (Linn.). Little Brown Crane. 

Immense flocks of migrating cranes are said to pass over Cook Inlet 
annually. Three specimens were taken at Fort Kenai by Bischofl. 

Phalaropus lobatus (Linn.). Northern Phalarope. 

Six specimens were taken by Bischofl at Fort Kenai May, 1869. 

Gallinago delicata (Ord). Wilson Snipe. 

One specimen was taken by Bischofl' at Fort Kenai May 5, 1869. 


Macrorhamphus griseus scolopaceus (Say). Long-billed Dowitcher. 

Four specimens were taken at Fort Kenai May -±-9, 1869, and one 
July 20, 1869. Two of these are still in the National Museum. 

Tringa couesi (Ridgw.). Aleutian Sandpiper. 

An Aleutian sandpiper was .seen on the beach near Homer August 22. 

Tringa bairdi (Coues). Baird Sandpiper. 

A sandpiper, thought to be this species, was seen at Homer August 22. 

Tringa alpina pacifica (Coues). Red-backed Sandpiper. 

One specimen taken at Fort Kenai by Bischoff Maj r 16, 1869. 

Ereunetes occidentalis Lawr. Western Sandpiper. 

Three specimens were taken at Fort Kenai by Bischoff May 12-16, 
1869. One of these (No. 58170) has been examined; it is perfectly 
typical of the large-billed form, occidentalis. 

Limosa haemastica (Linn.). Hudsonian Godwit. 

Nine specimens were taken by Bischoff at Fort Kenai. At least two 
of these are still in the National Museum — one an adult in breeding 
plumage, the other in fall plumage. 

Totanus melanoleucus (Gmel.). Greater Yellow-legs. 

Taken at Fort Kenai by Bischoff May and June, 1869; specimen 
still in National Museum. 

Actitis macularia (Linn.). Spotted Sandpiper. 

Several were seen along Resurrection Creek near Hope, and one was 

Numenius hudsonicus Lath. Hudsonian Curlew. 

A specimen was taken by Bischoff at Fort Kenai May 18, 1869, but 
can not now be found in the National Museum. 

Squatarola squatarola (Linn.). Black-bellied Plover. 

One taken by Bischoff at Fort Kenai May 6, 1869; specimen exam- 
ined in National Museum. 

Canachites canadensis osgoodi Bishop. Alaska Spruce Grouse. 

'Black grouse' or 'fool hens,' as they are locally termed, are very 
common in all the Cook Inlet region. They are easily killed, and 
many thus find their way to the miner's frying pan. The Indians and 
half-breeds also hunt them to a considerable extent. When flushed 
from the ground, they rise quickly and fly swiftly, but only to light in 
the nearest spruce. When this is but a few yards away, they immedi- 
ately flounder into the thickest part of it; but if a long stretch of 

sept., 1901.] BIRDS. 75 

birches, poplars, or small deciduous bushes intervenes, they continue 
winding in and out until they reach the requisite spruce. In Sep- 
tember at Tyonek they were often found in small Hocks of eight or 
ten individuals. When flushed each would betake itself to a separate 
tree and after a brief interval start a subdued clucking, so that all 
could be easily located. At Hope they were found ranging from sea 
level to timberline; on one occasion I flushed a flock of grouse and 
but a short distance farther on a flock of ptarmigan. Their crops 
were usually found to contain spruce needles and Vacdnium and 
Viburnum berries, and in one case heads of Equisetum. Cook Inlet 
specimens agree perfectly with typical osgoodl from the Yukon Valley. 

Lagopus rupestris (Gmelin). Rock Ptarmigan. 

A few small flocks were seen in the mountains on the north side of 
Bear Creek, and three females were taken. They have been hunted 
more or less by the miners in this vicinity, and we found them very 
wild and hard to secure. 

Lagopus leucurus Swains. & Rich. Northern White-tailed Ptarmigan. 
While setting small mammal traps in a few patches of grass at the 
extreme head of Bear Creek September 5, I suddenly became aware of 
a subdued clucking apparently from a rockslide not far away. Upon 
following up the sound I was soon able to distinguish some gray birds 
moving over the rocks, but so closely did they resemble the back- 
ground that I could not see them unless they moved. They were 
quite tame and allowed me to approach within a few yards, so that I 
was easily able to make out an old female white-tailed ptarmigan and 
a brood of seven nearly full-grown young. The old bird was almost 
as solicitous for her charges as if they had been downy chicks, and led 
them away very adroitly, keeping up a continuous purring cluck and 
making herself as conspicuous as possible. Although evidently much 
alarmed at my presence, flight as a means of escape did not seem to 
enter their heads, and it was not until I fired on the old bird that the 
young took wing. I had only my rifle with me, and so was obliged to 
shoot the ptarmigan with a load intended for bear, but fortunately the 
bird was not irreparably mutilated and I was able to make a fairly 
good specimen of it. This specimen was found to be different from 
the white-tailed ptarmigan of the Colorado mountains, and examina- 
tion of the original description of Lagopus leucurus showed that the 
northern bird was the one originally described by Swainson. 1 

Circus hudsonius (Linn.). Marsh Hawk. 

One was seen flying back and forth near Homer over a meadow 
thickly populated with Microtus. Another was seen at Hope. 

1 Cf. Auk, XVII, 180, April, 1901. 


Accipiter atricapillus striatulus Ridgw. Western Goshawk. 

Goshawks were frequently seen near Tyonek, and two immature 
birds were taken September 18. Remains of Sciurus were found in 
their craws. 

Haliaeetus leucocephalus alascanus Towns. Alaska Bald Eagle. 
Said to occur; not seen by us. 

Falco columbarius-Linn. Pigeon Hawk. 

Rather common; several were seen at Hope and also at Tyonek. 
An immature bird was shot by E. Heller at Hope August 30. Its 
craw contained parts of crossbills. 

Bubo virginianus saturatus Ridgw. Dusky Horned Owl. 

Very common; they were heard nightly at Hope and occasionally 
at Tyonek. One was seen on a dark day in the deep birch woods back 
of Tyonek and an adult female was shot at Hope August 30. A 
specimen taken by George Palmer at Knik Station is in the National 
Museum. These two specimens are quite different from typical satu- 
ratus, but they are nearer to it than to any other described form. 
They are considerably lighter than saturatus and do not have barring- 
extending down on the feet to the toes, as is usual in that form; also 
the bars on the sides are not blended, but separated by distinct light 

Nyctea nyctea (Linn.) Snow}^ Owl. 

The miners and traders about Cook Inlet say that snowy owls have 
frequently been killed there in winter. 

Ceryle alcyon (Linn.) Belted Kingfisher. 

Common along streams. Its loud, clattering cry was heard fre- 
quently along Resurrection Creek, near Hope, when the thick growth 
of trees and shrubs prevented seeing the bird. 

Picoides americanus fasciatus Baird. Alaska Three-toed Woodpecker. 
Represented by eight specimens as follows: Hope, four; Tyonek, one; 
Fort Kenai, three. It was found to be quite common in the Turnagain 
Arm region, but at Tyonek, where coniferous trees are scarcer, only 
one bird was seen. Three specimens taken by Bischotf at Fort Kenai 
in 1869 are in the National Museum. 

Selasphorus rufus (Gmelin). Rufous Hummingbird. 

Mr. T. W. Hanmore, who has been stationed at Tyonek for eleven 
years, says that he has seen humming birds there several times. This 
is doubtless near the limit of the range of the species, as the bird has 
not been recorded farther north. 

sin., 1901.] TSIRDS. 77 

Contopus borealis (Swains.). Olive-sided Flycatcher. 

A specimen from Fort Kenai is in the National Museum. It is an 
adult male taken by Bischoff May 26, 1869. 

Pica pica hudsonica (Sab.). American Magpie. 

The miners at Sunrise City told us that magpies had been seen in 
that vicinity frequently, but we did not observe them there or at any 
other point in the inlet. Specimens taken in Graham Harbor by C. H. 
Townsend in 1892 are in the National Museum. 

Cyanocitta stelleri (Gmelin.). Steller Jay. 

Several specimens taken at Graham Harbor in 1892 by C. H. Town- 
send and ft. W. Evermann are in the National Museum. This is 
apparently the northern limit of the species, as we did not find it 
farther up the inlet in Turnagain Arm, nor on the north side at 

Perisoreus canadensis fumifrons Ridgw. Alaska Jay. 

Occasionally seen. One morning, after a light fall of snow, a small 
party of jays visited our camp in the mountains near Hope. A few 
were also seen at Tyonek. A large series was taken by Bischoff at 
Fort Kenai. 

Corvus corax principalis Ridgw. Northern Raven. 

Only moderately common. The trappers say they are very abun- 
dant in winter and a great nuisance to them, since they systematically 
spring their traps or take the bait from them. 

Scolecophagus carolinus (Miiller). Rusty Blackbird. 

Two males were shot by Heller at Tyonek September 23. No 
others were seen during our stay, but the birds undoubtedly breed in 
the vicinity, for two specimens were taken by Bischoff May 28 and 
July 1. respectively. An examination of the material in the National 
Museum shows a slight difference in size between eastern and western 
birds of this species. The bill especially is constantly a trifle shorter 
and lighter in specimens from Alaska. 

Loxia curvirostra minor (Brehm). American Crossbill. 

A specimen taken at Graham Harbor in 1892 by C. H. Townsend 
and B. W. Evermann is in the National Museum. 

Loxia leucoptera Gmelin. White-winged Crossbill. 

Common. They were not seen in large flocks, however, but gener- 
ally in pairs. Four specimens were taken at Hope August 25-28. 

Acanthis linaria (Linn.). Redpoll. 

Large flocks were seen frequently both at Hope and Tyonek, and 
one immature specimen was taken at Hope. Two summer adults are 


in the National Museum, one taken by Bean at Chugachik Bay 
( = Kachemak Bay), and one by Bischoff at Fort Kenai. 

Spinus pinus (Wilson). Pine Siskin. 

Three specimens were secured from a large Hock at Tyonek Sep- 
tember 22. The}" were not seen elsewhere about the inlet. 

Calcarius lapponicus alascensis Ridgw. Alaska Longspur. 

An adult male in breeding plumage was taken by Bischoff at Fort 
Kenai in May, 1869. 

Ammodramus sandwichensis alaudinus (Bonap.). Western Savanna 
Evidently an abundant breeder, as numerous specimens were taken 
in summer by Bischoff and Bean at Fort Kenai and Chugachik Bay. 
At the time of our work in August and September very few were 
seen. Four specimens were taken, three at Hope August 26, 28, and 
29, respectively, and one at Tyonek September 18. 

Zonotrichia leucophrys gambeli (Nutt.). Intermediate Sparrow. 

Evidently a common breeder, as Bischoff took a number of speci- 
mens at Fort Kenai in May, 1869, at least one of which is still in the 
National Museum. The species was not observed by us, but it may 
have been overlooked among the immature birds seen at Hope and all* 
supposed to be Zonotrichia coronata. 

Zonotrichia coronata (Pallas). Golden-crowned Sparrow. 

Common in the low second-growth brush about the village of Hope; 
also occasionally seen in the mountains near there. Four birds col- 
lected by Bischoff at Fort Kenai are recorded in the National Museum 
catalogue as Zonotrichia querula. None of these are now at hand, but 
the entries doubtless refer to Z. coronata. 

Spizella monticola ochracea Brewst. Western Tree Sparrow. 

A specimen is recorded taken by Bischoff at Fort Kenai May 19, 
1869, but it can not now be found in the National Museum. As the 
occurrence of the species is altogether probable, however, there seems 
no reason to doubt the identification. 

Junco hyemalis (Linn.). Slate-colored Junco. 

Common. Three specimens were taken at Hope August 26-28. 

Melospiza melodia kenaiensis Ridgw. Kenai Song Sparrow. 

The type of this subspecies was taken by C. H. Townsend at Port 
Graham on the Kenai Peninsula April 9, 1892. Two specimens were 
also taken at this locality by Dr. Bean July 4, 1880. A specimen 

met., 1901.] BIRDS. 79 

taken at Hope August 26 differs from the type of kenaiensis to such 
a degree that it hardly seems possible that it merely represents the 
difference between fall and summer plumage. It is characterized by 
verv sooty coloration: the dark markings about the head, neck, and 
breast are very intense and the streaks on the back are very prominent. 
In size it is intermediate between h nait nsis and cawma, and as no fall 
specimens of either are at band it seems best to refer it to kenaiensis, 
which is geographically near. It measures as follows: Wing 74; tail 
7<>; exposed culmen 14; bill from nostril 10; tarsus 24.5. 

Melospiza lincolni (And.). Lincoln Sparrow. 

An adult male was taken at Hope August 28, and a few others were 
seen while we were there. The specimen taken shows none of the 
characters attributed to Melospiza i lincolni striata. 

Passerella iliaca annectens Ridgw. Yakutat Fox Sparrow. 

Rather common, but very shy. ;is usual, and hard to secure. Two 
specimens were taken at Hope and one at Tyonek. These seem to be 
intermediate between /'. !. cmnectens and P. i. msularis, as they have 
the smaller bill and more dusk}' underparts of annectens and the lighter 
upperparts of msularis. 

Lanius borealis Yieill. Northern Shrike. 

An immature bird in the brown plumage was shot by E. Heller at 
Hope September »'». Several were seen near Homer. An adult from 
Fort Kenai, collected by Bischotf, is in the National Museum. At 
present I am unable to find sufficient characters to warrant use of the 
name iiwictus 1 for these birds. The question is further complicated 
by Lanius horeaMs sibi/rievs, which, judging from three specimens in 
the National Museum, differs from Alaskan birds only in having the 
•yermiculations on the breast nearly obsolete. 

Helminthophila celata lutescens (Ridgw.). Lutescent Warbler. 

Three specimens taken by Bischotf at Fort Kenai May 22-2<i, 1869, 
are still in the National Museum. Examination shows them to be 
typical hitescem. 

Dendroica coronata (Linn.). Myrtle Warbler. 

The National Museum catalogue records this bird taken at Fort 
Kenai by Bischotf. 

Dendroica striata (Forster). Black-poll Warbler. 

One specimen was taken at Fort Kenai by Bischotf, but is not now 
to be found. 

^rinnell, Birds of Kotzebue Sound, Pac. Coast Avifauna, I, 54-55, Nov., 1900. 


Anthus pensilvanicus (Latham). American Pipit. 

Comparatively few pipits were seen. One specimen was taken at 
Tyonek September 18. 

Cinclus mexicanus Swains. American Dipper. 

Several were seen in the mountains near Hope, and a specimen was 
taken there September 3. 

Certhia familiaris montana Ridgw. Rocky Mountain Creeper. 

An adult female taken at Hope August 31 is in fine fall plumage and 
typical of this subspecies. A few individuals were seen at r Pyonek. 

Parus atricapillus septentrionalis (Harris). Long-tailed Chickadee. 

Very common both about Turnagain Arm and at Tyonek. An adult 
male was taken at Hope September 5. This specimen seems to be refer- 
able to P. a. sejrtentrionalis rather than to P. a. turneri. 

Parus hudsonicus Forster. Hudsonian Chickadee. 

Very common at Tyonek, but rarely seen at Hope. Two specimens 
were taken at Fort Kenai by Bischoff. Cook Inlet specimens do not 
seem to differ from those of the Yukon and Kowak valleys. I am also 
unable to find any appreciable differences between them and three birds 
recently collected by E. A. Preble near the type locality of hudsonicus. 
Consequently I do not agree that the specimens at present available 
warrant the recognition of Parus hudsonicus evura. 1 From a rather 
hasty examination of the material in the National Museum there seems 
to be an average difference in the length of the tail between the Alaska 
birds and the birds from the extreme northeastern United States. The 
birds from the west side of Hudson Bay, however, are intermediate and 
apparently nearer to the Alaska birds. In other words, as far as 
present material goes, there are just as good grounds for the recogni- 
tion of Parus hudsonicus littoralls Bryant, 1863, from Nova Scotia, as 
for P. h. evura Coues, 1881, from Alaska. 

Regulus satrapa olivaceus Baird. Western Golden-crowned Kinglet. 
Moderately common. 

Regulus calendula (Linn.). Ruby-crowned Kinglet. 

An adult male taken by Bischoff at Fort Kenai May 9, 1869, is in the 
National Museum. Examination of this specimen does not show any 
characters that approach those of Regulus calendula grinnelli, which 
is found on the coast only a short distance farther south. 

[Hylocichla alicise (Baird). Gray-cheeked Thrush. 

This is one of the entries in the Bischoff collection from Fort Kenai. 
The specimen has not been found in the National Museum collection, 

x Cf. Rhoads, Auk, X, 331, 1893, et Bishop, Auk, XVII, 118-119, 1900. 

skit.. L901.] BIRDS. 81 

and as the possibility of misidentification is considerable, the species 
is not unequivocally admitted to this list.] 

Hylocichla ustulatus almae Oberholser. Alma Thrush. 

Two male birds in fresh fall plumage were taken at Hope August 
26 and August 29, respectively. These arc very olivaceous on the 
upperparts and agree with a bird taken at Circle City August IS, 

Hylocichla aonalaschkae (Gmelin). Dwarf Hermit Thrush. 

Tw r o specimens were taken at Hope and Tyonek September 7 and 
September 14, respectively. These are in fresh fall plumage, and are 
somewhat more olivaceous than fall birds from Kadiak. 

Merula migratoria (Linn.). Robin. 

The miners that we met at Hope and Sunrise reported that the ' regu- 
lar eastern robin ' had often been seen there. We did not observe it 
ourselves in the month of August, the time of our stay at those points. 

Hesperocichla naevia (Gmelin). Varied Thrush. 

Not abundant; occasional individuals were seen or heard. 
3505— No. 21—01 6 


Ai'Hinliis linaria. 77-78. 
Aceipiter striatulus, 42, 76. 

\ elox, 42. 
Actitis macularia, 41, 74. 
Albatross, Bhort-tailed, 72-73. 
Alces gigas, 61. 
Alder, 12. 55. 
Alnus oregona, 12. 

sinuata. 21. •".">. 
Amelanchier alnifolia, 13,56. 
Ammodramub alaudinus, it, 78. 
Anas boschas, 10,73. 
Anorthura pacifica, 19 50. 
Ansei gambeli,40. 
Anthus pensilyanicus, 49. 80. 
A] '!'lc, Oregon crab. 13. 
Arctic-Alpine district, 59-60. 
Arctomys caligatus, 63. 
Arctostapbylos uva-ursi, 21,56. 
Ardea fannini,-10. 

aerodias, 73. 
Arenaria melanocephala, 41. 
Ash, mountain. 56. 
Aspen, 55. 

nearctica, 7:;. 
Balaenoptera velifera, 26. 
Bat, Keen's.:;;. 

little brown, 71. 

northwest, 37. 

silver-haired, 36. 

sooty big-footed. 36-37. 
Batrachian, 19, 58. 
Bear, black, 68. 

Kadiak, 68-69. 

Queen Charlotte black, 30-32. 
Bearberry. 56. 
Beaver. .American, 63-64. 
Betula glandulosa, 55. 

papyrifeta, 56. 
Birch, dwarf, 55. 

paper, 55. 
Bird list, 19, 58. 
Blackbird, rusty. 77. 
Bonasa sabini, 42. 
BrachyramphiLs marmoratus, 38. 
Branta canadensis subsp.,73. 

occiden talis, 40. 

Bubo saturatus, 76. 


Bufo columbiensis, is. 

Bunehberry, 56. 

Buteo calurns, 12. 

( lalcarius alascensis, 47, 78. 

Calidris arenaria, 41. 

Caltha palustris, 13. 

Canacbites nsgoodi, 74-75. 

( lanadian zone, 20. 

Canis occidentalis, 67. 

Caribou, 26-28. 

Stone's, 62. 
i lassiope, 13,55. 

mertensiana, 21. 

stelleriana, 21, 55. 

tetragona, 55. 
( lastor canadensis, 63-64. 
Cedar, giant, 12. 

yellow, 12. 
Cepphus columba, 38. 
Certhia montana, so. 

occidentalis, 50. 
Ceryle alcyon,44, 76. 
Chamaecistus procumbens, 21. 
Chainaecy paris, 12. 
Charadrius dominicus,41. 
Cbaritonetta albeola, 40. 
Chickadee, chestnut-backed, 50 

Hudsonian, 80. 

long-tailed, 80. 
Cinclus mexicanus, 49, mi. 
Circus hudsonius, 75. 
Clangula americana, 40. 
Colaptes saturatior, 45. 
Contopus boreahs, 77. 
Cormorant, pelagic, 39, 73. 
Cornus canadensis, 56. 

occidentalis, 13. 
Corvus caurinus, 47. 

principalis, 46-47, 77. 
Cowslip, 13. 
Cranberry, highbush, 56. 

mountain, 56. 
Crane, little brown, 73. 
Crataegus brevispina, 13. 
Creeper, Rocky Mountain, 80. 

western, 50. 
1 rossbill, American, 47, 77. 

white-winged, 47, 77. 




Crow, northwest, 47. 
Cr< iwberry, black, 54. 
Curlew, Hudson ian, 74. 
Currant, blue, 56. 

red, 56. 

wild, 13. 
Cyanocitta carlottse, 18, 46. 

stelleri, 77. ■ 
Daflla acuta, 40, 73. 
Deer, Sitka, 25. 
Dendragapus fuliginosus, 42. 
Dendroica coronata,79. 

rubiginosa, 49. 

striata, 79. 

townsendi, 49. 
Devil's club, 56. 
Diomedea albatrus, 72-73. 
Dipper, American, 49, 80. 
Dogwood, 13. 
Dove, mourning, 42. 
Dowitcher, long-billed, 74. 
Dryobates picoideus, 18, 44-45. 
Duck, American scaup, 73. 

harlequin, 40. 

scaup, 40. 
Eagle, Alaska bald, 76. 

northern bald, 43. 
Echinopanax horridum,21, 56. 
Eider, Pacific, 73. 
Elderberry, 13, 56. 
Empetrum nigrum, 54. 
Empidonax difflcilis, 46. 
Erethizon myops, 66-67. 
Ereunetes occidentalis, 41, 74. 
Eumetopias stelleri, 34. 
Evotomys dawsoni, 64. 
Falco columbarius, 76. 

pealei, 43. 

suckleyi, 43. 
Falcon, Peale, 43. 
Fiber spatulatus, 66. 
Finch, rosy, 60. 
Fish list, 20. 

Flicker, northwestern, 45. 
Flora list, 14-16. 
Flycatcher, olive-sided, 77. 

western, 46. 
Fratercula corniculata, 38. 
Frog, 57. 

Gallinago delicata,41, 73. 
Gaultheria shalloh, 13. 
Gavia imber, 38, 72. 

lumme, 38, 72. 

pacifica, 38. 
Globicephala scammoni,25. 
Goat, Alaska mountain, 62. 
Godwit, Hudsonian, 74. 
Golden-eye, American, 40. 
Goose, American white-fronted, 40. 

Canada, 73. 

white-cheeked, 40. 
Goshawk, western, 42, 76. 
Grosbeak, Kadiakpine, 47. 
Grouse, Alaska spruce, 74-75. 

Oregon ruffed, 42. 

Grouse, sooty, 42. 

white, 42. 
Grus canadensis, 73. 
Guillemot, pigeon, 38. 
Gull, 72. 

Bonaparte, 39, 72. 

glaucous-winged, 39. 

short-billed, 39. 
Gulo luscus, 70. 
Hamatopus bachmani, 41-42. 
Haliseetus alascanus, 43, 76. 
Hare, Dall varying, 67. 
Harelda hyemalis, 40. 
Hawk, marsh, 75. 

pigeon, 76. 

sharp-shinned, 42. 

western red-tailed, 42. 
Hawthorn, 13. 
Heather, 13, 55. 

Helminthophila lutescens, 49, 79. 
Hemlock, Alpine, 12, 54. 

western, 12. 
Heron, great blue, 73. 

northwest coast, 40. 
Hesperocichla nsevia, 50, 81. 
Hirundo erythrogastra, 48. 
Histrionicus histrionicus, 40. 
Honeysuckle, 13. 
Huckleberry, 13, 56. 

dwarf, 13. 
Hudsonian zone, 21-22, 59. 
Hummingbird, rufous, 46,76. 
Hylocichla aliciee, 80-81. 

almae, 81. 

aonalaschkse, 81. 

ustulata, 50. 

verecunda, 50. 
Jaeger, parasitic, 72. 
Jay, Alaska, 77. 

Queen Charlotte, 18, 46. 

Steller's, 77. 
Junco hyemalis, 78. 

oregonus, 47. 
Junco, Oregon, 47. 

slate-colored, 78. 
Kalmia glauca, 13. 
Kingfisher, belted, 44, 76. 
Kinglet, ruby-crowned, 80. 

Sitka, 50. 

•western golden-crowned, 50, 80. 
Kittiwake, Pacific, 39,72. 
Labrador tea, 55. 

dwarf, 55. 
Lagenorhynchus obliquidens, 25. 
Lagopus, 42. 

leucurus, 75. 

rupestris, 75. 
Lanius borealis, 79. 
Larus, 72. 

brachyrhynchus, 39. 

glaucescens, 39. 

Philadelphia, 39, 72. 
Lasionycteris noctivagans, 36. 
Latax lutris, 34, 69. 
Laurel, dwarf, 13. 
Ledum grcenlandicum, 55. 



Ledum palustre, 55. 
Lepus dalli, 67. 
Leucostdcte, 60. 
Life zone, Canadian, 20-21. 

Hudsonian, 21-22, 59. 
Limosa luvmastiea, 74. 
Lion, Steller sea, 34. 
Longspur, Alaska. 17,7s. 
Loniceia involucrata, 13. 
Loon, 38, 72. 

Pacific, 38. 

red-throated, 38, 72. 
Loxia leucoptera.47,77. 

minor, -17. 77. 
Luetkoa pectinata, 21. 
Lunda cirrhata, 38. 
Lutra canadensis, 32, 69. 
Lutreola energumenos, 69. 
Lynx. Canada, 67. 
Lynx canadensis, 67. 
Macrorhamphus scolopaceus,74. 
Magpie, American, 77. 
Mallard, 10,73. 
Mammal list^, 18, 57-68. 
Mareca americana, 40. 
Marmot, hoary, 63. 
Marten, American, 70. 

Queen Charlotte, 33-34. 
Megascops kennicotti,43. 
Melospiza kenaiensis, 7S-79. 

lincolni, 79. 

rutina, 4s. 
Menziesia ferruginea, 13, 21, 55. 
Merganser, American, 39. 

red-breasted, 39. 
Merganser amerieanus, 39. 

serrator, 39. 
Merlin, black, 43. 
Merula migratoria, si. 

propinqna, 60. 
Microtus kadiacensis. 64. 

miurus, 57,64-66. 
Mink, Pacific, 69. 
Moose, Alaska. 57, 61. 
Mouse. Alaska jumping, 66. 

Dall lemming, G6. 

Dawson red-backed. til. 

house, 28. 

Keen's, 28-29. 

Prevost Island, 29-30. 
Murre, California, 38-39, 72. 
Murrelet, ancient, 38. 

marbled, 38. 
Muskrat, northwest, 66. 
Mns musculus, 28. 

norvegicus, 28, 64. 
Mustela, 16. 

americana, 70. 

nesophila, 33-34. 
Myotis caurinus, 37. 


lucifUgus, 71. 

saturatus, 36-37. 
Nettion carolinensis, 40. 
Numenius hudsonicus, 74. 
Nuthatch, red-breasted, 50. 

Nyctala scoteea, 43-44. 
Nyctea nyctea,44,76. 
i iceanodroma furcata,39. 
Ochotona collaris, 67. 
Odocoileus sitkensis, 26. 
Oidemia deglandi, 40. 

perspieillata, 40, 7:;. 
Old-squaw, 40. 
Olor, 40. 

columbianus, 73. 
< ireaimicis kennedyi, C>2. 
( Isprey, American, 43. 
Otoes alascanus, 34. 
Otter, land, 32, 69. 

sea, 34, 69. 
Ovis dalli, 62. 
Owl, dusky horned, 76. 

Kennicott screech, 43. 

northwest saw-whet, 43-44. 

snowy, 44, 76. 
Oystercatcher, black, 41-42. 
Parus hudsonicus, 80. 

rufescens, 50. 

septentrionalis, 80. 
Pandion carolinensis, 4H. 
Passerella annectens, 79. 

townsendi, 48. 
Passerina nivalis, 47. 
Pedicularis lanata,21. 

Perisoreus fumifrons, 77. 
Peromyscus keeni, 17, 28-29. 

prevostensis, 17, 29-30. 
Petrel, forked-tailed, 39. 
Phalacrocorax pelagicus, 39, 73. 
Phalarope, northern, 73. 
Phalaropus lobatus, 73. 
Phoca largha, 35. 
Phocsena phocsena, 25. 
Phyllodoce, glanduliflora, 13,21,55. 
Pica hudsonica, 77. 
Picea canadensis, 64. 

mariana, 54. 

sitchensis, 11,54. 
Picoides fasciatus, 7f>. 
Pika, Alaska, 67. 
Pine grosbeak, Kadiak, 47. 
Pine, northwest coast, 11, 12. 
Pine siskin, 47, 78. 
Pinicola flammula, 47. 
Pintail, 40, 73. 
Pinus contorta, 12. 
Pipit, American, 49, 59, 80. 
Plover, American golden, 41. 

black-bellied, 41,74. 
Poplar, balsam, 54. 
Populus balsamifera, 54. 

tremuloides, 55. 
Porcupine, Alaska, G6-C7. 
Porpoise, common, 25. 

striped, 25. 
Porzana Carolina, 40. 
Ptarmigan, rock, 75. 

northern white-tailed, 75. 
Puffin, horned, 38. 

tufted, 38. 



Puffinus griseus, 39. 

tenuirostris, 39. 
Putorius haidarum, 32-33. 

kadiacensis, 69. 

rixosus, 69-70. 
Pyrus rivularis, 13. 
Rat, Norway, 28, 64. 
Rail, sora, 40. 
Rana latiremis, 57. 
Rangifer dawsoni, 26-28. 

stonei, 62. 
Raspberry, 56. 
Raven, northern, 46-47,77. 
Redpoll, 77-78. 
Regulus calendula, 80. 

grinnelli, 50. 

olivaceus. 50, so. 
Ribesbracteosum, 13. 

laxiflorum, 13, 56. 

rubrum, 56. 
Rissa pollicaris, 39, 72. 
Robin, 81. 

western, 50. 
Rosa acicularis, 56. 
Rose, wild, 56. 
Rubus spectabilis, 13. 

strigosus, 56. 

scouleriana, 12-13. 
Salmon berry, 13. 

Sambueus racemosus, 13,56. 
Sanderling, 41. 
Sandpiper, Aleutian, 71. 

Baird, 74. 

red-backed, 71. 

sharp- tailed. II. 

spotted, 41, 74. 

western, 41, 74. 
Sapsueker, northern red-breasted, 4f 
Sciuropterus, 63. 
Sciurus hudsonicus, 63. 
Scolecophagus carolinus, 77 
Scoter, surf, 40, 73. 

white-winged, 40. 
Sea lion, Steller, 34. 
Seal, fur, 34. 

Pacific harbor, 35. 
Selasphorus rufus, 46, 76. 
Service berry, 56. 
Shearwater, dark-bodied, 39. 

slender-billed, 39. 
Sheep, Dall, 57, 62. 
Shrew, common, 70. 

Prevost Island, 35. 

Queen Charlotte, 35-36. 

Shrike, northern, 79. 
Siskin, pine, 47, 78. 
Sitta canadensis, 50. 
Snipe, Wilson, 41, 73. 
Snowflake, 47. 
Somateria v-nigra, 73. 
Sorbus sambucifolia, 56. 
Sorex elassodon, 35-36. 
eximius, 67, 71. 

Sorex personatus, 70. 

prevostensis, 17, 35. 

shumaginensis, 71. 

golden-crowned, 47, 78. 

intermediate, 78. 

Kenai song, 78-79. 

Lincoln, 79. 

sooty song, 48. 

Townsend fox, 48. 

western savanna, 47, 78. 

western tree, 78. 

Yakutat fox, 79. 
Spermophilus empetra subsp.,63. 
Sphyrapicus flaviventris, 45. 
Spinus pinus, 47, 78. 
Spiraea, 56. 

Spiraea betulaefolia, 56. 
Spizella ochracea, 78. 
Spruce, black, 54. 

Sitka, 11, 54. 

white, 54. 
Squatarola squatarola, 41, 74. 
Squirrel, flying, 63. 

ground, 63. 

Hudson Bay red, 63. 
Sterna paradisaea, 72. 
Stercorarius parasiticus, 72. 
Swallow, barn, 48. 

tree, 49. 

violet-green, 49. 
Swan, 40. 

whistling, 73. 
Synaptomys dalli, 60. 
Synthliboramphus antiquus, 38. 
Tachycineta bicolor, 49. 

thalassina, 49. 
Taxus brevifolia,12. 
Teal, green-winged, 40. 
Tern, Arctic, 72. 
Thrush, Alma, 81. 

coast hermit, 50. 

dwarf hermit, 81. 

gray-cheeked, 80-81. 

russet-backed, 50. 

varied, 50, 81. 
Thuja plicata, 12. 
Toad, 18. 

Totanus melanoleucus, 41, 74 
Tringa acuminata, 41. 



pacifica, 74. 
Trout, 18. 
Tsuga heterophylla, 12. 

mertensiana, 12, 54. 
Turnstone, black, 41. 
Uria califomica, 38-39, 72. 
Ursus americana, 68. 
carlottae, 30-32. 
middendorfri, 68-69. 
Vaccinium, 56. 
caespitosum, 13. 
ovalif olium, 21. 
uliginosum, 21. 
vitisideea, 56. 



Viburnum pauciflorum,21,56. 
Vole, Alaska mountain, 64-66. 

Vulpea kenaiensis, 68. 
Warbler, Alaska yellow, 19. 

black-poll, 79. 


myrtle, 79. 

pOeolated, 49. 

Weasel, Bangs', 69-70. 

Haida, 32-33. 

Kadiak, 69. 
Whale, finback, 25. 

Willow, 12-13,55. 
Wilsonia pileolata, 49. 

Wolf, (17. 

Wolverine, 70. 

Woodpecker, Alaska three-toed, 76, 

Queen charlotte, 18,44-15. 
Wren, western winter, 49-50. 
Yellowlegs, greater, n, 74. 
Yew. Pacific, 12. 
ZapUS alaseensis, 66. 

zenaidura macroura, 42. 
Zonotrichia, coronata, 47, Vs. 
gambeli, 78. 


North American Fauna, No. 22. 

4 112 no 103 106 I0< i02 100 

36 91 9J 90 68 86 W 82 SO 78 76 74 7£ 70 68 66 

Scale of Miles. 

55 » 75 i m ia [SO 


'I he route toHowed by this expedition is shown by e dotted line. 



No. 3 2 

[Actual date of publication, October 31, 1902] 



Prepared under the direction of 







United States Department of Agriculture, 

Washington, D. C, August 18, 1902. 
Sir: I have the honor to transmit for publication, as North American 
Fauna No. 22, a paper on the natural history of the Hudson Bay region, 
by my assistant, Edward A. Preble. 

C. Hart Merriam, 

Chief, Biological Survey. 
Hon. James Wilson, 

Secretary of Agriculture. 


A century or more ago the employees of the Hudson's Bay Com- 
pany sent collections of birds and mammals from Hudson Bay to 
London. Some of these specimens came from the shores of Hudson 
Bay. others from trading- posts in the distant interior; but many were 
not labeled to show where they were obtained. They were examined 
by the naturalists of the time and a number of species were described 
and named as new. In most cases the original specimens have dis- 
appeared and modern naturalists have been greatly perplexed in 
attempting to ascertain just what the species really were. No mod- 
ern museum possessed anything approaching a representative collec- 
tion of the mammals and birds of Hudson Bay, and specimens for 
comparison with related forms from other parts of Boreal America 
were not to be had. The resulting embarrassment was most keenly 
felt when the Biological Survey secured large collections from Alaska. 
In many instances it was impossible to tell whether certain Alaska 
species were identical with or distant from related forms previously 
described from Hudson Bay. In order to obtain the long-needed 
material it was determined to send an expedition to Hudson Bay. 
Edward A. Preble was placed in charge of this expedition; his report 
shows how well and faithfully his duties were performed. His suc- 
cessful trip, in an open boat, in inclement fall weather, from Fort 
Churchill to the Barren Grounds near Cape Eskimo, in search of topo- 
types of the Hudson Ba} r ground squirrel (often known as Parry's 
marmot) deserves special commendation. 

I take pleasure also in referring to the uniform courtesies and facil- 
ities extended by the officers and employees of the Hudson's Bay 
Company, particularly by Mr. C. C. Chipman, commissioner of the 
companv, at Winnipeg. 

C. H. M. 



Introduction ami itinerary 9 

General account of the region traversed 11 

Life zones of the region 22 

Previous work 2o 

Bibliography 27 

Note on boundaries of the region treated 38 

New species 38 

Ann< itated list of mammals 39 

Annotated list of birds 75 

Anm itated list of batrachians 133 



Plate I. Map of Keewatin Frontispiece. 

II. Fig. 1. General view of Norway House. — Fig. 2. Shore of channel 

near Norway House 10 

III. Fig. 1. Spruce thicket near Norway House. — Fig. 2. Aspen thicket 

near Norway House 10 

IV. Fig. 1. Rocky shore near Norway House, showing store of fur- 

trader. — Fig. 2. Sea River Falls (looking down ) 12 

V. Fig. 1. Oxford House (photographed by William Campbell). — Fig. 

2. Indian Camp, Oxford House 12 

VI. Fig. 1. Rapid below Windy Lake. — Fig. 2. Canoe entering rapid, 

Trout River 14 

VII. Fig. 1. Rapid, Trout River.— Fig. 2. Shore of Knee Lake near south 

end 14 

VIII. Fig. 1. White Mud Rapid, Hill River.— Fig. 2. Hill River near See- 
ing Portage; Brassy Hill in distance 16 

IX. Fig. 1. Left bank of Hill River from Rock Portage.— Fig. 2. Clay 

banks, lower Hill River 1G 

X. Fig. 1. Fort Churchill. — Fig. 2. Meadows, looking southwest from 

Fort Churchill. — Fig. 3. Seal {Erignathusbarbalus), Fort Churchill. 18 
XL Fig. 1. Ledge of quartzite at Fort Churchill. — Fig. 2. Low tide at 

Fort Churchill 18 

XII. Fig. 1. Camp on Barren Grounds, 50 miles south of Cape P^skimo. — 
Fig. 2. Burrow of lemming (Lemmus trimucronatus), Barren 
Grounds 20 

XIII. Fig. 1. Camp on Barren Grounds, 25 miles south of Cape Eskimo. — 

Fig. 2. Eskimo guide at northern camp 20 

XIV. Fig. 1. Dragging canoe up rapid, Trout River. — Fig. 2. Hell Gate 

Gorge ( looking up ) 22 


No. 22. NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. October, 1902. 


Bv Edward A. Preble. 


In 161<> Henry Hudson, while searching for a northwest passage, 
entered and partially explored the great inland sea that bears his 
name. In 1670 the Hudson's Bay Company was organized to trade 
for furs with the natives of the great unexploited territory adjacent 
to the Bay. This company first established several trading posts at 
the mouths of the rivers tributary to the Bay and then gradually 
extended its field of operations inland. By this means the southern 
and western shores of Hudson Bay and the principal rivers emptying 
into it on the west had become fairly well known at a time when 
immense areas in North America, apparently more favorably located 
and more accessible, were still unexplored. As a natural result the 
birds and mammals of this semiarctic region were early brought to 
the attention of naturalists, and many species whose ranges extend 
over a very large area were first described from specimens sent to 
Europe from Hudson Bay. This was mainly due to the labors of the 
employees of the Hudson's Bay Company, who, residing at trading 
posts and coming in contact for purposes of trade with practically all 
the natives of the region, were able to secure natural history speci- 
mens with comparative ease, especially the larger species. The many 
collections thus made were conveniently sent to .England by the ships 
which paid annual visits to the posts. In this way a number of mam- 
mals and many birds, mainly littoral and pelagic species, first became 
known to science. As time went on, however, less attention was 
given to the fauna of this region, while most other parts of North 
America were ransacked for natural history material, so that the 
close of the nineteenth century found Hudson Bay one of the most 
neglected fields of modern zoological research. Some species, orig- 
inally described from poor specimens, and in the loose and inaccurate 
style of a hundred years ago, were knoAvn by these descriptions 
alone, while others were represented in museums only by poorly 



stuffed and faded .specimens, entire]}- inadequate to meet the require- 
ments of modern scientific methods. This lack of material, in con- 
nection with the absence of definite knowledge as to the boundaries 
of the life zones, made it desirable that a collection, as thorough as 
possible, be made in the region. 

Early in the summer of 1900, therefore, I was detailed to make a 
biological reconnaissance of as much of the region immediately to the 
west of Hudson Bay as it would be practicable to cover in a single 
season. My brother, Alfred E. Preble, of Tufts College, Massachu- 
setts, accompanied me as assistant. 

The Hudson's Bay Compan}^ still maintains trading posts through- 
out the region we were to visit, and the officials of the company com- 
pose almost its entire white population. These posts are situated on 
the usual lines of travel, and constitute the only bases of supplies 
available; hence it was considered advisable to arrange with the com- 
pany for food and means of transportation. 

This we did on our arrival at Winnipeg on June 13, and obtaining a 
canoe from the company, set out the next day down the Red River. 
The following morning we took the Northwest Navigation Company's 
steamer Prince.™ at West Selkirk, and on June 17 arrived at Norway 
House, near the north end of Lake Winnipeg, where we were to begin 
operations. Here we collected until June 23, when our northern trip 
was resumed. We took two Indians for guides, boatmen, and camp 
hands, and a large Peterborough canoe, in which our collecting and 
camp outfit and provisions were carried. 

We passed down the east channel of Nelson River, and ascending 
the Echimamish, followed the usual boat route to York Factory, stop- 
ping to collect at favorable points. At the head of the Echimamish 
proper, which terminates abruptly at a rock about 30 yards broad 
called the Painted Stone, we made a portage and launched our canoe 
in a small lake. A stream flows eastward from this lake and we thus 
had the advantage of the current for the remaining distance to Hud- 
son Bay. Beyond Painted Stone Portage the route passes successively 
through the Robinson lakes, Franklin River, and Pine, Windy, 
Oxford, Knee, and Swampy lakes. These different lakes vary from a 
few miles to forty in length, and the channels connecting them con- 
tain numerous rapids. Hill River forms the outlet of Swampy Lake, 
the last of the chain, and unites with Fox River to form Steel River. 
This in turn unites with the Shamattawa, and the resulting stream, 
known as Hayes River, empties into Hudson Bay at York Factory. 
On reaching the Bay we exchanged our canoe for a sailboat and made 
our way up the west coast to Fort Churchill, at the mouth of the river 
of that name. Here, after a few days' stay, 1 left my brother to com- 
plete the collection, while 1 pushed northward well into the Barren 
Grounds. 'Phis trip consumed three weeks, and on my return to Fort 
Churchill we immediately started on the homeward journey in order 

North American Fauna, No. 22. 

Plate II. 

Fig. 1.— General View of Norway House. 

Fig. 2.— Shore of Channel near Norway House. 

North American Fauna No. 22. 

Plate III. 

Fig. 1.— Spruce Thicket near Norway House. 

Fig. 2.— Aspen Thicket near Norway House. 


to complete it before navigation closed. We passed down the coast 
to York Factory in a sailboat and retraced our way to Norway House 
in our canoe. The trip up the rapid streams with our heavily loaded 
boat was a very arduous one, but we reached Norway House without 
accident or delay on September 16, having completed a journey by 
canoe and sailboat of more than 1,200 miles, much of it through very 
difficult water. We took a steamer from Norway House on Septem- 
ber 10 and arrived at Winnipeg on September 22. 

During our trip to Hudson Bay we were placed under many obliga- 
tions to a number of officers of the Hudson's Hay Company, to whom 
our cordial thanks are hereby extended. Through the courtesy of 
C. C. Chipman, commissioner of the Hudson's Bay Company at Win- 
nipeg, we were able to make arrangements to secure supplies and trans- 
portation at the different trading posts of that company on our route; 
without this aid the trip could hardly have been accomplished. Among 
others who assisted us in various wa} 7 s are Messrs. William Clark, 
W. C. King, and Roderick MacFarlane, of Winnipeg; J. K. Mac- 
Donald, of Norway House; William Campbell, of Oxford House; 
G. B. Boucher, of York Factory; Ashton Alston, of Fort Churchill; 
and especially Dr. Alexander Milne, of Winnipeg (formerly of York 
Factory), who has given me many notes on the distribution of the larger 
mammals. To the Rev. Mr. Chapman, a missionary at Fort Churchill, 
we were also indebted for information and various courtesies. The 
Key. W. A. Burman, of Winnipeg, kindly furnished us with a list of 
the principal trees and shrubs occurring about Winnipeg. From 
Colonel Scobell, C. E., of Winnipeg, we obtained much detailed and 
valuable information concerning the boat route to York Factory. 

In preparing this report 1 have receiyed many courtesies from Mr. 
Robert Ridgway, curator, and Dr. C. W. Richmond, assistant curator 
of birds in the U. S. National Museum, who have not only permitted the 
unrestricted use of the collection under their charge but have helped 
me in many other wajs. Mr. Gerrit S. Miller, jr., assistant curator 
of mammals in the National Museum, has extended similar favors in 
regard to the mammals; and Dr. Leonhard Stejneger, curator of rep- 
tiles in the National Museum, has aided in identifying the frogs col- 
lected. Thanks are also due to Frederick V. Coville, botanist of the 
Department of Agriculture, and his assistants, for identifying the 
plants collected. Finally, I am indebted to Dr. C. Hart Merriam and 
Dr. T. S. Palmer, chief and assistant chief of the Biological Survey, 
for various courtesies extended during the progress of the work. 


Winnipeg is situated at the junction of the Red and Assiniboine 
rivers, on the site of old Fort Garry. To the westward stretch the 
plains, but the vicinity of the rivers is well wooded with elm (Uhnus 
americana), mossy-cup oak (Quercus maerocarpa), basswood {Tilia 


americana), ash-leaved maple (Ace?' negtmdo), and other species, with 
an undergrowth composed principally of viburnums, hazel (Corylus 
americana and rostrata), wolfberry (Symphorica/rpos occidentalis), 
hawthorn (Crataegus coccmea), etc. 

The Red River below (to the north of) Winnipeg is very winding 
and is inclosed between banks of clay and limestone which at first are 
rather high and steep and are fairly well wooded, though the woods 
seldom extend far back from the river. But just beyond West Sel- 
kirk (a village about 20 miles below Winnipeg, near the site of the 
historic Selkirk Settlement) the banks become lower and the woods 
gradually yield to willow thickets. Farther down, a few miles from 
the mouth of the river, these willow thickets in turn disappear, and 
Lake Winnipeg is approached through a marsh which extends as far 
as the eye can reach, and where numberless coots and other marsh- 
loving birds find a congenial home. 

Soon after we entered the waters of Lake Winnipeg, about 42 miles 
from our starting point, our course carried us too far from shore to 
permit observations as to forest conditions, and such was the case 
throughout much of our voyage up the lake, though a few oppor- 
tunities for notes were offered. At The Narrows we could see that 
the western shore was well wooded with birch and conifers, a charac- 
ter of forest which, we were told, continues south nearly to the mouth 
of Red River. 

At Bull Head, off which we anchored early on the morning of June 
16, the forest consisted mainly of spruce, tamarack, a species of pine 
(probably Pinus divaricata), birch (Betula papyrlfera), and poplar 
(Popufats halsamifera), the deciduous species predominating. The 
shores of the northern part of the lake are low and sandy with numer- 
ous outcrops of gneiss, and many low islands of the same rock occur. 
Great Playgreen Lake, the body of water next traversed, lies just east 
of the northern part of Lake Winnipeg, with which it is connected at 
its southern end by a rocky channel. This channel is entered at Mossy 
Point, the southern extremity of a slender strip of land separating the 
two lakes, on which Norway House was originally situated. Nelson 
River issues from Great Playgreen Lake by two main channels, known 
as East and West rivers, which, coming together at Cross Lake, inclose 
Ross Island, 50 miles in length. East River, on leaving Great Play- 
green Lake, divides into several minor channels encircling small islands, 
then expanding forms Little Playgreen Lake, about 25 miles from the 
outlet of Lake Winnipeg, and 800 miles from the southern end. On 
one of these islands, at the southern margin of Little Playgreen Lake, 
stands Norway House (PI. II, fig. 1). Two miles distant, on the east- 
ern shore of the hike, is Rossville Mission. 

Like most of the region between Lake Winnipeg and Hudson Bay, 
the country about Norway House consists hugely of swamps, mainly 

North American Fauna, No. 22. 

Plate IV. 

Fig. 1.— Rocky Shore near Norway House, Showing Store of Fur Trader. 

Fig. 2.— Sea River Falls, Looking Down. 

North American Fauna, No. 22. 

Plate V. 





> j. 

^« < 


Fig. 1.— Oxford House. 

Photographed by William Campbell. 

Fig. 2.— Indian Camp, Oxford House. 

October, 1902.) ACCOUNT OF KEG ION TRAVER8ED. 13 

grown up to willows and tamaracks. Numerous elevated places occur, 
rocky 'islands' on which has accumulated a rather thin covering of 
soil, supporting a moderately heavy growth of black and white spruce 
(Picea nigra and /'. alba, PI. Ill, tig. 1), balsam fir (Abies balsamea), 
Banksian pine (Pinus divaricata), aspen poplar (Pqpulm tremvloides, 
PL III. tig. 2), balsam poplar (Populus baisamifera), canoe birch 
{II tul, i papyrifera), and tamarack (Larix larid/na). These species 
form the bulk of the forest between Lake Winnipeg and Hudson Bay. 

From the vicinity of Norway House to the Sea River Falls (PI. IV, 
tig. 2), about 2<> miles below, the shores are rather low (see PI. II, 
tig. 2; PI. IV, tig. 1). Then for the few remaining miles before the 
mouth of the Echimamish is reached the route lies through a channel 
bordered by rather high banks and forested with birch and poplar. 
The water of the Echimamish, which flows into Nelson River from the 
eastward, is very dark and contrasts markedly with that of the Nelson, 
which carries the whitish waters of Lake Winnipeg. The course here 
leaves East River and ascends the Echimamish, a short distance from 
the mouth of which it passes through Hairy Lake, a broad, shallow 
sheet of water a few miles in length, in which grow extensive patches 
of bulrush ( Scirpvs laoustris). Above this lake for more than 20 miles 
the Echimamish is a winding, sluggish stream, with an east and west 
trend, and averages about 50 feet in width. Its banks are low and 
marshy, and on the lower part extensive swamps border it on 
either side. Occasional outcrops of gneiss occur, dry ' islands,' 
which form the only available camping places. The forest consists 
mainly of spruce, tamarack, and willow, the latter usually predomi- 
nating. Alosquitos, which swarm over the entire region, are here 
almost unbearable, and as the shallowness of the water, w 7 hich is barely 
deep enough to float a canoe, makes paddling very difficult, the ascent 
of this river was perhaps the least pleasant part of our journey. Three 
dams, at one of which — the second — we did some collecting, are kept 
up for the purpose of holding back a sufficient amount of water to 
permit the passage of boats. The stream flows through a flat country 
and in several places in the upper part of its course, broadens and 
forms small ponds. In its comparatively still waters the yellow pond 
lily {XympJixa) grows abundantly. 

At the Painted Stone, about 36 miles from Norway House, the 
stream comes to an abrupt termination, and boats are carried across a 
rock and launched in a small lake w T ith high, rocky shores. From this 
lake issues a stream generally considered a part of the Echimamish, 
which in the Cree language signifies ' the river that flows each way.' 
It would appear that the small lake is fed from some underground 
source, and that some of its w T aters escape into the western part of 
the Echimamish. The vicinity of Painted Stone Portage proved a 
very good collecting ground. The eastern part of the Echimamish is 


deep and bordered by high, rocky banks, on which Potentilla triden- 
tata grows abundantly. Seven miles from the Painted Stone the 
stream unites with White Water River, which discharges the waters 
of Little Lake Winnipeg, and from this point to Oxford Lake the 
stream is called Franklin River. 

The Robinson lakes, the southern shores of which are rather marshy 
and the northern shores higher, are next passed, and then 12 miles 
from the junction of the two streams Robinson Portage is reached. 
Here a portage of about three-fourths of a mile is necessary to avoid 
Robinson Rapids, where the river plunges through a deep ravine in a 
series of falls and rapids, with a total descent of about 50 feet. Deep 
mossy woods border this gorge, the excessive moisture from the 
rapids causing a luxuriant growth. From the lower or northern end 
of Robinson Portage, which lies nearly north and south, extends a line 
of lakes with marshy shores and supporting an abundant growth of 
sweet flag (Acorns calamus). A short stop was made and some col- 
lecting done at the north end of the portage. Immediately below these 
lakes the river plunges with considerable rapidity through a rocky 
gorge called Hell Gate. A short portage is made at its entrance, and 
after being launched in a surging pool at the foot of the rapid, the 
canoe is borne swiftl} T through the gorge. In some places the rocky 
walls rise nearly perpendicularly without a break; in others the bank 
consists of a succession of steep mossy terraces, the homes of several 
eagles." Throughout most of its course of 7 miles through the gorge, 
the river is confined within narrow limits, and the smooth but impet- 
uous current bears the voyager rapidly onward, constantly bringing 
fresh vistas to his view. In a few places a portion of the rocky walls 
has fallen, partiall} 7 damming the stream, and the canoe is run through 
short, rapid chutes, the perpendicular walls preventing a landing, 
however desirable it might appear. Farther down the rocky banks 
are not so high and the surrounding countiy is seen to consist of rugged 
rock masses scantity clothed with Banksian pines. Here the voyager 
may land to see the ' kettles' 1 — deep, rounded potholes of various sizes, 
which have been worn in the rock during past ages. 

A short distance beyond the lower end of Hell Gate Gorge, 23 miles 
from Robinson Portage, lies Pine Lake, a small, irregularly outlined 
body of water containing numerous islands and environed by rocky 
but fairly well wooded shores. Ten miles farther on, below a succes- 
sion of small ponds and channels with marshy shores, lies Windy Lake. 
Here the banks are moderately high and formerly were well wooded; 
but within the past few years they have been partially denuded by fire. 
The head of Windy Lake is 12 miles distant from Oxford Lake, near 

^Compare Franklin, who says, in speaking of thisgor^e, "The brown fishing-eagle, 
had built its nest on oneoftbe projecting cliffs." Narrative of a Journey to the Polar 
Sea, p. 39, 1823. 

North American Fauna, No. 22. 

Plate VI. 

Fig. 1.— Rapid Below Windy Lake. 

Fig. 2.— Canoe Entering Rapid, Trout River. 

North American Fauna, No. 22. 

Plate VII. 

Fig. 1.— Rapid, Trout River. 

Fig. 2.— Shore of Knee Lake near South Enc 


the northern end of which, 30 miles farther, is situated Oxford House, 
the only post or habitation of any kind on this route between Norway 
House and Hudson 'Bay (PI. V, figs. 1 and 2). In the short stream 
connecting the two lakes four rapids occur, at two of which portages 
are necessary (PI. VI, tig. 1). 

Oxford Lake extends southwest and northeast, and its 30 miles are 
marked by irregular short's and many islands. The shores are mainly 
of rock and are generally well forested. The locality about Oxford 
House we found favorable for collecting and a stop of a few days was 
made. The promontory on which the post is situated was probably 
well wooded originally, but its western half has been entirely cleared 
and is mainly covered with grass, w T ith a few patches of w T illows and 
other shrubs. East of this cleared area the ground slopes gently to 
Back Lake, about a quarter of a mile distant, and is fairly well covered 
with spruce, fir. tamarack, poplar, and willow. The soil is a stiff clay, 
and potatoes and other garden vegetables of fine quality are raised. 

The waters of Oxford Lake flow into Back Lake through a short, 
narrow channel, and those of Back Lake find their outlet in Trout 
River (PI. VI. tig. 2; PI. VII, fig. 1), which runs southeastward to 
Trout Falls. 9 miles from Oxford House. At Trout Falls the river 
makes a plunge of about 12 feet into a deep pool. A short distance 
below is Knee Lake, a rather narrow body of water 4() miles in length 
and extending in a general southwest and northeast direction, with two 
somewhat abrupt bends. The shores of* the southern part are high 
and well wooded (PI. VII, fig. 2), and many wooded islands of various 
sizes dot the surface of the lake. At about a third of its length from 
the upper end the lake contracts and its shores become low and swampy. 
In this narrow part is Magnetic (or Magnetite) Island, a low, bare, 
irregular rock which offers considerable attraction to the magnetic 
needle. The shores and islands of the northern or larger part of the 
lake are low by comparison with those of the southern part, but are, 
like those, well wooded. 

The next lake in the series is Swampy Lake, which is connected 
with Knee Lake b} r Jack River, a stream about 10 miles in length, 
containing four rapids in its brief course. Swampy Lake is 13 miles 
long and has low shores, especially on the eastern side, where the 
Hudson's Bay Company formerly had a post, long since abandoned. 

Various species of water milfoil (Myriophyllum) and pondweed (Pota- 
mogeton) grow in the shallow portions of all these lakes, sometimes so 
profusely as to seriously interfere with navigation; and the beautiful 
water arum ( ( 'alia pahistris) is frequently seen near the margin of lake 
or river. The larger species of birds are noticeably scarce and wild, in 
consequence of the incessant warfare waged by the natives, who eat an} r - 
thing wearing fur or feathers, and never willingly allow a large bird 
of any kind to escape. For this reason the gulls, terns, and ducks, 


which were nesting as we passed, were excessively shy. On the lakes 
and rivers off the main route these conditions probably do not prevail. 

Swampy Lake finds its outlet in Hill River, a rapid, winding stream, 
containing a great many willow -covered islands, and characterized 
during the first 30 miles of its course by numerous rapids. These 
necessitate frequent portages, half the entire number on the route, 
but fortunately they are all short. Each of these portages has its 
significant name— White Mud Portage (PI. VIII, fig. 1), Mossy Port- 
age, Seeing Portage, etc. The particular significance of the last named 
is that from the portage thus known Brassy Hill, a notable landmark, 
is seen for the first time on the way to the Bay (PI. VIII, fig. 2). This 
hill, which is also responsible for the name of the river, is a remarkable 
gravelly elevation 390 feet high and three-quarters of a mile cast of the 
river. As it is the highest point of land anywhere in the whole region 
between Lake Winnipeg and Hudson Bay, the natives naturally regard 
it as a veritable mountain. 

About 15 miles below the ' Hill,'' Rock Portage, the last on the route, 
is reached. Here a large flat rock divides the channel, and on each side 
is a fall of about 5 feet. Boats and baggage are carried over the rock. 
The Hudson's Ba} r Company formerly maintained a trading post near 
this point, but abandoned it many years ago. Between Brassy Hill 
and Rock Portage banks of clay gradually make their appearance. 
These, at first low, increase in size and in the vicing of the Rock 
have attained considerable height (PI. IX, fig. 1). From this point to 
Hudson Bay the character of the country and of the river remains 
much the same. The clayey banks continue on both sides nearly all 
the way and vary from a few feet to two hundred in height. They 
are marked by numerous gullies, cut b} T the many small streams that 
enter the main river, and, owing to frequent landslides, are continually 
giving way, precipitating uprooted trees into the river (PI. IX, fig. 2). 
In many places they are covered with a rank growth of willows and 
grasses, amid which are various orchids, violets, polygonums, and 
other small plants. 

Several species of scouring-rush {Equisetiwm) grow abundantly in 
the shallow water and often on the banks. Along upper Hill River 
sweet gale {Myrica gale) is common, and at the, mouth of Fox River, 
30 miles below Rock Portage, buckthorn (Rha/m,us alnifoUa), honey- 
suckle {Lonicera glaucescens), silverberry {JElaeagnus argentea), small- 
flowered viburnum ( Viburnum pauciflorwm), and Canadian buffalo- 
berry {Lepargyr&a canadensis) were collected. None but the last two 
were noted farther north. Banksian pine {Pinus divaricata) and 
canoe birch (Betula pa/pyrifera) also find their northern limit in this 
region mar the confluence of Hill and Fox rivers; and the aspen 
poplar (Populvs tremuloides) was not noted beyond this point, though 
it may possibly extend farther north on this route. In some places 

Nortft American Fauna, No. 22. 

Plate VIII. 

Fig. 1.— White Mud Rapid, Hill River. 

Fig. 2.— Hill River near Seeing Portage; Brassy Hill in Distance. 

North American Fauna, No. 22. 

Plate IX. 

Fig. 1.— Left Bank of Hill River from Rock Portage. 

Fig. 2.— Clay Banks, Lower Hill River. 


the valley of Hill River is narrow and the view of the traveler is con- 
fined to the immediate banks; in others it is broad, and its gradual, 
well-wooded slopes afford more extended prospects. 

The stream resulting from the junction of Hill and Fox rivers is 
called Steel River. After a course of 30 miles this in turn unites with 
the Shamattawa to form what is known as Hayes River, a broad, shal- 
low stream on whose shores gravelly beaches, absent on the deep and 
narrow Steel River, alternate with high clay banks. In the next 50 
miles the character of the country varies but little. Back from the 
river are mossy swamps, which support a growth of black crowberry 
{Empetrum nigrum), Labrador tea (Zedum), dwarf birch (Betida 
glandvlosa), and associated species. Spruces and tamaracks are 
rather stunted. This characteristic Hudsonian country first makes 
its appearance in large areas on the east side of Swampy Lake, about 
100 miles from Hudson Bay in a direct line, and is probably continu- 
ous from that point to the Bay, although for some distance the imme- 
diate banks of the river continue to show a more southern element. 

In the lower part of Hayes River are a number of low, sandy islands 
nearly devoid of vegetation from being- overflowed and ice swept dur- 
ing a large part of the year. Arctic terns and semipalmated plovers, 
which breed abundantly on some of the islands, were here met with 
for the first time. 

Six miles from the point where Hayes River empties into the Bay 
is York Factory, a post of the Hudson's Bay Company. It is on a 
strip of land, here 3 or 4 miles wide, lying between the Hayes and the 
Nelson. In the old days it was an important and well-peopled post, 
and was formerly the base from which all the supplies for the great 
interior region, brought from England by fleets of sailing vessels, 
were distributed by boats. 

The ground is low and swampy and is covered by the usual rather 
stunted growth of spruces, tamaracks, and thickets of willow. The 
soil is of a spongy character and remains frozen a few feet below 
the surface throughout the year.'- The woods extend about 5 miles 
beyond the post and are succeeded by a mile of very wet marsh inter- 
sected by many sloughs and channels. This marsh, which is called 
Point of Marsh or Beacon Point, supports a rank growth of grass 
and water plants, among which bog-bean [Menyanthes trifoliate!) and 
various species of pondweed (Potamogeton) are especially conspicuous. 

"Concerning this subject Richardson says: 

"At York Factory, on Hudson's Bay, in lat. 57°, in October, 1835, recent frosts 
had penetrated eight inches into the soil; the thaw due to the summer heat extended 
twenty-eight inches beyond this, beneath which a frozen bed seventeen and a half 
feet thick reposed on thawed mud which had a temperature of 33° F. The mean 
annual heat of this place is 25 \ F., being equal to that of Fort Simpson, which lies 
five degrees further north." Arctic Searching Expedition, p. 217, 1851. (See also 
Richardson, Edin. New Phil. Joum., XXX, p. 117, Jan., 1841.) 
7165— No. 22 2 


Various ducks and marsh sparrows and the elusive yellow rail find 
here a congenial habitat, and here, during their semiannual migra- 
tions, the various geese, ducks, and shore birds which breed in 
myriads to the northward stop for rest and food. Mosquitos 
become more abundant as the Bay is neared and are extremelv 
troublesome at this point. 

During our stay at York Factory — July 11 to 17 — collecting was 
difficult, owing to the almost incessant rain. More time was needed, 
but the short season and the distance still to be covered impelled us to 
proceed. Temporarily abandoning our canoe, therefore, we left in a 
sailboat for Fort Churchill, 150 miles up the coast. 

Contrary winds and periods of calm conspired to delay us, and the 
trip occupied six days. On the afternoon of the second day, being- 
unable to proceed, we pushed in as far as possible toward the shore 
at high tide, and during the ebb were able to go ashore by taking a 
3-mile walk over the bouldery, weed-strewn beach, where, on every 
hand, flocks of shore birds of various species were hastity seeking a 
feeding place on the broad expanse left bare by the ebbing tide. On 
reaching the shore we found the Barren Grounds on a small scale 
lying before us. Gravelly ridges, the remains of old sea beaches, 
extended in various directions at a few feet above the general level, 
the intervening depressions occupied by small ponds or marshes. Oc- 
casional stunted spruces on the ridges and dwarf birches and straggling 
willows on the lower ground were the only fair-sized shrubs, though 
various small shrubby plants were abundant. Hundreds of curlews, 
godwits, phalaropes, plovers, and sandpipers of different species -swam 
or waded about the shallow ponds in their never-ending search for 
food. A den on a gravelly hillock a foot or two higher than the gen- 
eral level was occupied by a litter of half -grown Arctic foxes, and not 
far away was seen a pair of willow ptarmigan with young just able 
to fly. 

These patches of tundra are found all along the coast between 
York Factory and Fort Churchill. They seem to be roughly semi- 
circular in shape, the woods that bound them extending much nearer 
the coast on the banks of the rivers than elsewhere. At the point 
where we landed, between Stony and Owl rivers, the forest was just 
visible from the shore of the Ba}^. Similar conditions are said to exist 
farther south toward the Severn, though in all probability fewer 
Barren Ground animals are found in that region. 

No other stop was made until we reached the mouth of Churchill 
River. T -e the physiographic conditions are different from those 
found at any other points visited on the shore of the Bay. A ridge of 
greenish-gray sandstone or quartzite (PI. XI, fig. 1) extends to the 
coast on each side of Churchill River, and on the eastern side stretches 
eastward along the coast several miles toward Cape Churchill. These 

North Ameiican Fauna, No. 22 

Plate X. 

^^^^^Mf-^-H^. 1 ^^^ a 


««m Jbe 



n*^ - 

§5*9 '.' 



'•*!►*► ■. 



Fig. 1 .— Fort Churchill. 

Fig. 2.— Meadows, Looking Southwest from Fort Churchill. 
Habitat of Calcarius pictus. 

Fig. 3.— Seal iErignathus barbatusj, Fort Churchill.. 

North American Fauna, No. 22. 

Plate XI 



Fig. 1.— Ledge of Quartzite at Fort Churchill. 

Fig. 2.— Low Tide at Fort Churchill. 
Feeding ground of various shore birds. 


ridges, particularly on the western side of the Churchill, consist of a 
succession of rounded hills, which attain a maximum altitude of about 
100 feet, and support a shrubby, herbaceous growth with many 
mosses. Over this rocky area are scattered numerous shallow ponds 
with outlets flowing to the sea through narrow ravines that are scantily 
clothed with dwarfed spruces and willows. In these sparsely wooded 
ravines the Harris sparrow was common, the parent birds accom- 
panying young just from the nest. A low. gravelly point extending 
seaward from the hills forms the western bank of the river immedi- 
ately at its mouth. On this point lie the ruins of old Fort Prince of 
Wales, destroyed by the French in 1782. The bank of the river 
immediately opposite is composed of high rocks rising abruptly from 
the water. 

Fort Churchill (PI. X, fig. 1) is situated on the west side of the 
tidal lagoon which comprises the lower part of Churchill River. It is 
about 4 miles from the mouth of the river. To the south and west 
extends a broad, level meadow, only a foot or two above high-water 
mark, clothed with a low, shrubby growth in which appears an occa- 
sional dwarfed spruce or tamarack (PI. X, tig. 2). This meadow is a 
favorite place for Smith longspurs and horned larks, and on its 
drier portions we found a few burrows of lemmings (Dicrostonyx). 
Numbers of seals (PI. X, fig. 3) of several species frequent the mouth 
of Churchill River, attracted by the abundance of fish at that point. 

As it was very desirable to do some collecting on the Barren 
Grounds. I left Fort Churchill on July 30 in a small sailboat, accom- 
panied by three Indians, my brother remaining at Churchill to com- 
plete the collection. On account of the low coast, the tide in many 
places going out from 6 to 8 miles (see PI. XI, fig. 2), traveling in a 
small boat is very difficult. We could not land except at high tide, 
and were obliged to embark at the same stage of water. Owing to the 
build of our boat, sailing was impossible unless the wind was fair or 
nearly so, and rowing was very difficult. 

On the afternoon of July 31 a few hours were spent on the shore of 
Button Bay. Here the spruce woods nearly reach the shore at one 
point. North of the woods a broad grassy plain, intersected by many 
channels connecting small, shallow ponds, extends for several miles 
along the shore. Over this area a great many shore birds and ducks 
were feeding, some species accompanied by young, evidently reared 
in the vicinity, but by far the greater number associated in large, 
restless flocks, showing that the southward movement had commenced. 

That evening we rowed several miles along the coast and encamped 
after dark on a small, sandy islet, just above high-water mark, where 
Arctic terns were breeding. The next evening our camping place was 
a sandy point near the mouth of Seal River, the position of which is 
indicated by a conspicuous rounded mound that stands near its banks. 


Along- the coast here the woods are visible from the Ba} T , and scattered 
dwarf spruces and tamaracks extend to the shore. Before Hubbart 
Point is reached, however, the tree limit curves inland so rapidly that 
the forest disappears from view altogether, although, according to 
Tyrrell, it can be seen with a glass from the summit of Hubbart Point. a 

This point, which we passed on the afternoon of August 2, is a high, 
grassy headland used as a burial place by the Eskimos, and is the most 
conspicuous landmark on this part of the coast, the mound near Seal 
River, just mentioned, being next in importance. Egg Island, which 
is mentioned as a breeding place for many sea birds, is apparently not 
conspicuous, for we failed to identify it either time we passed, prob- 
ably being too far off shore to see it. At dark on August 2 we anchored 
behind a small, rocky islet somewhat north of Egg Island, and at day- 
light next morning were again on our way. 

By noon we had reached a sandy point near Thlewiaza River, 
which proved so favorable a spot for collecting that I remained there 
several days (PI. XII, tig. 1). From the shore to a number of rocky 
and gravelly ridges a few feet in height, which were several miles 
inland, the country was nearly level, and was mostly wet and tilled with 
small hummocks. Near the shore were many broad, shallow ponds and 
muddy flats. Occasional dry areas, apparently raised sea beaches, 
were covered with rounded boulders of various sizes, and were inhab- 
ited by lemmings of the genus Lemmus, the burrows of which also 
occurred in the drier portions of the adjacent grassy meadows. A 
large species of meadow mouse {Microttis) was also found here, but 
was more abundant in the patches of coarse beach grass {Elymus 
mollis) which grew on the sandy ridges near the shore. On the gravelly 
ridges back from the immediate shore, pied lemmings (Dicrostony.i) 
were fairly abundant, and a number were secured. Dwarf shrubs, 
none of them exceeding a few inches in height, abounded; the most 
conspicuous were black crowberry (jEinpetrum nigrum), dwarf birch 
(JBetula ncma), Labrador tea {Ledum palustre), and several species of 
dwarf willows, including Salix angla/rum and S. phylicifolia. The 
scene was one of absorbing interest. On the beach and mud flats and 
about the shallow ponds thousands of shore birds of a dozen species 
circled and fed, the larger kinds, mainly Hudsonian curlews and god- 
wits, keeping at a little distance, the smaller kinds almost oblivious of 
my presence. In the deeper ponds among the ridges back from shore 
red-throated and Pacific loons, which later made night hideous by their 
cries, were feeding their unfledged young. Pomarine and parasitic 
jaegers harried about the tundra or sat motionless on the knolls, 
apparently asleep. Willow ptarmigan led their broods about in search 
of food, and horned larks, Lapland longspurs, tree and savanna spar- 
rows, and redpolls flitted from boulder to boulder. 

"Ann. Kept. Can. Geol. Surv., 1896 (new ser.), IX, p. 90F. (1897). 

North American Fauna, No. 22 

Plate XII 

Fig. 1.— Camp on Barren Grounds, 50 Miles South of Cape Eskimo. 

Fig. 2.— Burrow of Lemming (Lemmus trimucronatus), Barren 

North American Fauna, No. 2 

Fig. 1.— Camp on Barren Grounds, 25 Miles South of Cape Eskimo. 

Fig. 2.— Eskimo Guide at Northern Camp. 



Leaving on the afternoon of August 8, I pushed northward, accom- 
panied by an Eskimo (PI. XIII, fig. 2) who had promised to guide 
me to a place where ground squirrels could be secured. After a great 
deal of hard work and exposure we landed, on the evening of August 
it, in a small, shallow bay at the mouth of a stream about 25 miles 
south of Cape Eskimo (PI. XIII, fig. 1). Here I remained until 
August 13. 

The country was similar to that farther south and supported a 
similar flora, but wet ground was less common and sandy ridges were 
more frequent. The Barren Ground caribou had commenced their 
southward movement and one was secured. Some of the shore birds 
had departed, and the daily lessening numbers of other species had an 
obvious significance. On the sandy ridges and hillocks were scatter- 
ing burrows of ground squirrels, but the absence of colonies indicated 
that 1 had reached only the border of their range. Two polar bears 
were seen in the vicinity, but we were unable to secure either. 

The distance to be covered and the difficulties of navigation to be 
overcome admonished me that my return journey must be begun, and 
on the morning of August 13 I started southward. The wind was 
against us the first day. and at the close of the second we had pro- 
gressed no farther than my former camp, about 25 miles. Two more 
days of very laborious work took us a few miles below Hubbart 
Point. Here willows attain a respectable size, and on the boulder- 
covered ridges the buffalo-berry {Lepargyraea canadensis) is a con- 
spicuous shrub. A few Arctic hares were found here, and on the 
morning of August IT two were secured. 

On August 17 and 18 slow progress was made, and we were only 
able to reach a point about 15 miles above Seal River, the high mound 
near its mouth being visible from the ridges close to camp. Tama- 
racks grew in the more sheltered places, and the edge of the forest 
was only a few miles back from the coast. 

On the morning of August 19 a fair, strong wind that lasted until 
noon carried us within sight of the Beacon and the high rocks near 
Fort Churchill, which we reached that evening. During my absence 
my brother had made a good collection, and we left Fort Churchill on 
the afternoon of August 21, arriving at York Factory on the evening 
of August 26. In the course of this uneventful voyage we spent a 
few hours ashore on the afternoon of August 21 about 20 miles below 
Cape Churchill, where the conditions were somewhat similar to those 
between Stony and Owl rivers (see p. 18). Lemmings (Dierostonyx) 
inhabited the sandy ridges near the shore. 

AVe left York Factory on the afternoon of August 28 in our canoe, 
which was loaded with the outfit and the entire summer's collection, 
and, making further collections on the way, arrived at Norway House 
September 16, after a very laborious but pleasant trip. 


Hayes, Steel,- and Hill rivers as far as the Rock Portage were 
ascended by tracking — the men walking along the shore pulling the 
canoe by a line, while our efforts were directed toward steering and 
avoiding the rocks, though we sometimes relieved them on the line. 
The passage of the various rapids on Hill River was accomplished with 
much difficulty. Many we were able to ascend by poling and paddling; 
at others it was necessary to wade waist deep in the seething water, 
dragging the canoe by hand (PI. XIV, fig. 1); and often neither of 
these methods was possible and we were obliged to unload the boat 
and carry both canoe and baggage around the rapids. To avoid the 
ascent of the river through Hell Gate Gorge (PI. XIV, fig. 2), we 
made a detour, as is usual on the upstream journey. Leaving Pine 
Lake by a narrow passage, we followed the windings of a tortuous lake 
for several miles in a direction approximately parallel to the course of 
the river, and then made a portage over a low divide to the shore of 
an arm of one of the lakes a short distance above Hell Gate Rapids. 
About twenty -five portages in all were required on the return journey, 
during which we retraced, with the exception of the slight deviation 
just mentioned, the exact route followed on our northward journey. 

The trip down Lake Winnipeg was made by steamer, and we arrived 
at Winnipeg September 22. 


Our route from Winnipeg to the northernmost point reached, a 
short distance south of Cape Eskimo, passed successively through the 
Canadian and Hudsonian zones and entered well into the Arctic. 

In the fauna and flora of Winnipeg the Canadian element seems to 
predominate, though the presence of Quercus macrocarpa, Acer 
negundo, and Ulmus americanus among trees, Blarina hrevicauda 
among mammals, and Zenaidura macroura and Icterus galbi/la among 
birds, indicate that there is a strong tinge of Transition. It is probable 
that this Transition element disappears a short distance to the north- 
ward, but no very definite data regarding the country bordering Lake 
Winnipeg is available. In the region about N