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Full text of "North American fauna"

BOSTON PUBLIC LIBHAMT 



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OCCiDEp^^fEGE 



UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF THE.I 



FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 

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RACCOONS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA 



NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 60 




BOSTON PUBLIC UBr^.^BY^^,^\ 



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UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR 
Oscar L. Chapman, Sncretary 

FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 
Albert M. Day, Director 



North American Fauna 60 



RACCOONS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA 



BY 



EDWARD A. GOLDMAN 



With 

Foreword, Appendix, and Revision 

of Bibliography 

By 

Hartley H. T. Jackson 




UNITED STATES 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 

WASHINGTON : 1950 



For Bale by the Superintendent of Documents, U. S. Government Printing Office 
Washington 25, D. C. - Price 45 cents 



FOREWORD 

The present monograph, The Raccoons of North and Middle Amer- 
ica, was completed by its author, Edward Alphonso Goldman, in 
December 1940, and earl}^ in 1941 was submitted for publication in the 
North American Fauna series. Advent of World War II delayed its 
printing, and at the time of the death of Major Goldman, September 2, 
1946, he had been so engrossed in the preparation of his manuscript 
on Biological Investigations in Mexico that he had not revised the 
raccoon manuscript. In the meantime one new subspecies Procyon 
lotor inegalodous Lowery had been described and several papers relating 
to raccoons had been published. Since Major Goldman's death 
another subspecific name Procyon lotor inaritimus Dozier has appeared 
and a few other papers have been pulilished. 

In this final review and analysis of the manuscript it is believed de- 
sirable to leave Goldman's views and expressions as little changed as 
possible. Accordingly all editing has been done with this in view and 
only such changes made as would clarify and collate the text, or make 
consistent abbreviations and (citations. Some important items to be 
noted have been indicated and explained in footnotes. No deletions 
of pertinent matter have been made. The bibliography (p. 87) has 
been extended to include literature published to date. The two 
subspecies, Procyon lotor megalodous Lowery (1943, p. 225) and Procyon 
lotor maritimus Dozier (1948, p. 286), descriptions of which may be 
found in the appendix (p. 84), have been included in the distributional 
map of species and subspecies of the subgenus Procyon (fig. 1) but have 
not been included in the list of North American species and subspecies, 
with type localities (p. 27'), in the key to species and subspecies (p. 29), 
or in the general discussion throughout the text. 



CONTENTS 

Page 

Introduction 1 

History 2 

Habits 5 

Food and general activities 7 

Senses and instincts 9 

Breeding 13 

Hibernation 14 

Economic status 14 

General characters 17 

Pelage and molt 19 

Variation 20 

Geographic variation 20 

Individual variation 20 

Explanations 23 

Measurements 23 

Colors 23 

Specimens examined 23 

Use of key to species and subspecies 24 

Genus Procyon Storr 25 

Key to subgenera 27 

List of North American species and subspecies, with type localities.. 27 

Subgenus Procyon Storr 28 

Key to species and subspecies of the subgenus Procyon 29 

Subgenus Euprocyon Gray 80 

Appendix 84 

Bibliography 87 

Index 151 

V 



ILLUSTRATIONS 

Plate Page 

1 . Pacific Northwest Raccoon {Procyon lotor ■pacificus) Frontispiece 

2. Skins (dorsal view) Procyon lotor lotor, Procyon cancrivorus -panamensis. 109 

3. Skulls (lateral view) Procyon lotor lotor, P. I. hirtus 11] 

4. Skulls (lateral view) Procyon lotor litoreus, P. I. elucus 113 

5. Skulls (lateral view) Procyon lotor incautus, P. maynardi 115 

6. Skulls (lateral view) Procyon lotor excelsus, P. I. psora 117 

7. Skulls (lateral view) Procyon lotor hernandezii, P. I. pumilus 119 

8. Skulls (lateral view) Procyon pygmaeus, P. insularis insularis 121 

9. Skulls (dorsal view) Procyon lotor lotor, P. I. hirtus 123 

10. Skulls (dorsal view) Procyon lotor litoreus, P. I. elucus 125 

11. Skulls (dorsal view) Procyon lotor incautus, P. maynardi 127 

12. Skulls (dorsal view) Procyon lotor excelsus, P. I. psora 129 

13. Skulls (dorsal view) Procyon lotor hernandezii, P. I. pumilus 131 

14. Skulls (dorsal view) Procyon pygmaeus, P. insularis insularis 133 

15. Skulls (ventral view) Procyon lotor lotor, P. I. hirtus 135 

16. Skulls (ventral view) Procyon lotor litoreus, P. I. elucus ^ 137 

17. Skulls (ventral view) Procyon lotor incautus, P. maynardi 139 

18. Skulls (ventral view) Procyon lotor excelsus, P. I. psora 141 

19. Skulls (ventral view) Procyon lotor hernandezii, P. I. pumilus 143 

20. Skulls (ventral view) Procyon pygmaeus, P. insularis insularis 145 

21. Skulls (dorsal view) Procyon lotor elucus (male), P. l. elucus (female) 

P. I. lotor (lateral view of mandibular ramus) 147 

22. Skulls (dorsal and- ventral views) Procyon cancrivorus panamensis 149 

Figure 

1. Map, showing distribution of species and subspecies of subgenus Procyon. 24 

2. Map, showing distribution of subgenus Euprocyon [Procyon cancrivorus 

panamensis) in Panama __ 81 

VI 






*iUdU 



THE RACCOONS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE 
AMERICA 

By EDWARD A. GOLDMAN, Senior Biologist, Biological Surveys, Branch of 

Wildlife Research 



INTRODUCTION 

The raccoons, genus Procyon, colloquially known as "coons," belong 
to the carnivorous family Procyonidae, which also includes the Ameri- 
can genera Nai^ua, Nasuella, Bassaricyon, and Polos, and the Old 
World genera Ailurus and Ailuropoda of the subfamily Ailurinae. 

The members of the Procyon lotor group (subgenus Procyon), with a 
transcontinental range from southern Canada to Panama, except in 
parts of the Rocky Mountain region, and including those inhabiting 
several distant islands, are among the most familiar and characteristic 
of North American mammals. This group is not known to occur 
south of Panama. It is overlapped in the Isthmian region by the 
so-called crab-eating raccoons of the subgenus Euprocyon, which 
range from that northern limit as far south as Paraguay in South 
America. The raccoons have been greatly reduced in mnnbers or 
have disappeared in many formerly wooded sections, owing to clearing 
and intensive human occupation. Despite adverse conditions, how- 
ever, they have maintained themselves in many places with remarkable 
tenacity. Trapping for other fur bearers may have reduced the 
northern fringe to some extent, but the general range of the group has 
been little diminished. At the present time raccoons reach their 
northern limit in regular occurrence on Vancouver Island, B. C. 

The continental forms of the sid)genus Procyon constitute a com- 
pact assemblage of closely allied geographic races all assignable to 
Procyon lotor. Complete intergradation is evident in numerous cases 
and the relative value and combination of characters presented indi- 
cate such close relationships that it can safely be assumed where lack 
of material leaves gaps in the known ranges. 

In the present revision of the raccoons are treated the North Amer- 
ican continental species as far as the eastern border of Panama and the 

PLATE 1 

Pacific Northwest Raccoon {Procyon lotor pacificus). 



2 A'ORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 60, FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 

species on outlying islands alono; both the Atlantic and the Pacific 
coasts. Thirty species and snbspecies are recognized. Twenty-nine 
of these are assigned to the subgenus Procyon and one to the subgenus 
Euprocyon. 

The revision is based mainly on a study of raccoon material in the 
collection of Biological Survej^s, Fish and Wildlife Service, and in 
other collections in the United States National Museum. These and 
358 specimens borrowed from other museums make a total of 1,337 
examined. The assemblage included the types or topotypes of most 
of the known species and subspecies. 

For the loan of specimens the writer is especially indebted to Dr. 
Thomas Barbour, Museum of Comparative Zoology, Cambridge, 
Mass. ; the late Dr. Joseph Grinnell, Museum of Vertebrate Zoology, 
Berkeley, Calif.; Dr. W. H. Osgood, Chicago Natural History Mu- 
seum, Chicago, 111.; Dr. H. E. Anthony, American Museum of Natural 
History, New York City; Dr. R. M. Anderson, National Museum of 
Canada, Ottawa, Canada; the late Oldfield Thomas of the British 
Museum (Natural History) ; Francis Kermode, Provincial Museum, 
Vancouver, British Columbia; Dr. L. R. Dice, Museum of Zoology, 
University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Mich.; and the late D. R. Dickey, 
Pasadena, Calif. Grateful acknowledgment is also due to Percy Shu- 
feldt, La Cueva, N. Mex., for the generous donation of specimens 
collected by him in Campeche, Mexico. Notes on his examination of 
specimens in the British Museum have been kindly furnished by Dr. 
Remington Kellogg, United States National ^Museum, Washington, 
D. C. Stanley P. Young, Fish and Wildlife Service, Washington, 
D. C, generously supplied the photograph for the frontispiece. 

Dr. E. W. Nelson became keenly interested in the raccoons, as shown 
by his work on those inhabiting the Florida Keys (1930a). ^ During 
the same time and in the following year new subspecies were described 
jointly by Nelson and the writer in preparation for a revision of the 
group; but other projects claimed attention and our collaboration 
could not be carried beyond this preliminary stage. 

HISTORY 

The raccoons represent a highly successful branch of a well-developed 
phylogenetic tree. Their ancestry has been traced far back to the 
genera Phlaocyon and Cynodietis of the Lower Miocene or Oligocene 
periods. Early progenitors of these animals prol)ably also gave rise 
to such divergent modern families as the Canidae, the Ursidae, and the 
Mustelidae. For detailed discussion of the phylogenetic relation- 
ships of the raccoons see the authors Hsted in the Bibliography (p. 87), 
especially Wortman and Matthew (1899, p. 109), Matthew (1930, p. 

' Publications i-fferri'd to parenthetically by date are listed in the Bibliography, pp. S7-106. 



RACCOONS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA 3 

129), and Gregory (1933, p. 83). The genus Procyon was well repre- 
sented in the early Pleistocene of North America, when it already 
ranged across the present United States from the Atlantic to the 
Pacific. Among Pleistocene species described were Procyon priscus 
Le Conte (1848, p. 106) from Illinois, Procyon simus Gidley (1906, p. 
553) from California, and Procyon nanus Simpson (1929, p. 575) from 
Florida. 

The name "raccoon" is derived from Indian appellations of the 
animal, which have been variously rendered as "aroughcun," 
"arathkone," and "arakun." The familiar abbreviation "coon" is 
in general colloquial use in the United States. An animal as common 
and conspicuous and possessing such peculiar and interesting traits as 
the raccoon could not remain long unobserved by explorers and set- 
tlers in its country, and as it became better known it was accorded a 
prominent ])lace in the folklore of the United States. 

The (»arliest reference to a raccoon found in the literature is by 
Captain John Smith (1612, p. 13), who in describing the animals of 
\"irginia says: "There is a beast they call AroiKjhcun, much like a 
badger, but vsetli to live on trees as Scpiirrels doe." This reference 
was closely followed l)y that of Pui-chas (1(>14, ]). 761) in describing 
the same region. 

Under the name "Mapach," and apparently as "Tepe Maxtlaton," 
and perhai)s under others, the raccoon was recorded by Hei-nandez 
(1651, ti'act 1, pp. 1, 9) in southern Mexico. The voyager around the 
world, Dampier (1729, p. 276), mentions the al)undance of these 
animals on the Tres Marias Islands, off western Mexico, which he 
visited in 1686. The early systematic term Vulpi affinis Americana 
was applied by Ray (1693, p. 179), in connection with a generalized 
description of animals probably representing l)oth the subgenera 
Procyon and Enprocyon then undifferentiated and very imperfectly 
known from l)oth North and South America. Quaint descriptions of 
the raccoon in the Carolinas were published by Lawson (1718, p. 121), 
and.by Catesby (1743, p. XXIX). Hans Sloane (1725, p. 329) credits 
the animal to Jamaica as follows: "The Racoons are commonly here 
in the mountains, and live in hollow fiddlewood Trees, from whence 
they make Paths to go to seek Sugar Canes, which is their chief, if not 
only Sustenance." No specimens are available from Jamaica, and if 
this record was well founded it seems strange that it has not been 
supplemented by others. 

Evidently noting the general resemblances, Linnaeus closely asso- 
ciated the raccoon with the bear in the 1740 edition of his Systema 
Naturae (p. 35) as Ursus cauda elongata in contradistinction to the 
true bear, Ursus cauda abrupta. Under the same name in 1747 (pp. 
277-289, table 9, figs. 1 and 2) he published a lengthy description of 



4 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 6 0, FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 

the raccoon accompanied by the earliest illustrations seen by the 
author. Of these, figure 1 is a sketch of the entire animal. In figure 
2 attention is directed to the strongly developed and peculiarly 
formed os penis, or baculum. 

The accounts of the raccoon in Pennsylvania and New Jersey by 
Peter Kalm in 1753 (Benson 1937, pp. 52-53, 111, 242-243) formed a 
part of the basis for Linnaeus' short description of Ursus lotor in the 
tenth edition of his Systema Naturae (1758, p. 48). Recognizing 
distinctive characters, Storr (1780, p. 35) used Procyon as the generic 
name for the group typified by Ursus lotor Linnaeus. G. Cuvier (1798, 
p. 113) described Ursus cancrivorus, the crab-eating raccoon from 
Cayenne which later became the type of the subgenus Ewprocyon Gray 
(1864, p. 705). Only a few new North American species or subspecies 
were added during the nineteenth century by Wagier (1831, p. 514), 
Gray (1842, p. 261), Baird (1857, p. 215), Bangs (1898a, p. 219; 1898b, 
p. 92), and Merriam (1898, p. 17; 1899, p. 107). Short papers descrip- 
tive of new forms by Merriam (1900, p. 151; 1901, p. 101), Miller 
(1911, p. 3), Mearns (1914, pp. 63-66), Hollister (1914, p. 142), 
Gohhiian (1913, p. 15), Nelson (1930a, pp. 7-10), and Nelson and 
Goldman (1930a, p. 82; 1930b, pp. 453-459; 1931a, pp. 17-20; 1931b, 
p. 308) have since appeared. 

RACCOON NAMES NOT CLEARLY ASSIGNABLE 

The following names that have been proposed for species of the 
raccoon are unrecognized or unassigned owing to the author's inability 
to associate them with any particular region, or because of some 
obvious defect in status. If the type specimens of any of these are 
extant, it is possible that any such accompanied by skulls, may afford 
clues to their identity; because of the range of individual variation in 
subspecies, however, there is likely to be considerable uncertainty. 
Skins subject to fading over a period of many years are of very limited 
value for comparative purposes, beyond the determination of the 
subgenus. 

Procyon nivea Gray, Charlesworth's Mag. Nat. Hist., vol. 1, p. 580, 1837. "In- 
habits North America, Texas." "Fur soft, silky, white. Tail one-colored." 
No type specimen designated. Doubtless based upon an albino, as suggested 
in the original description. At least two subspecies occur in Texas. Name 
unidentifiable. 

Procyon brachyurus Wiegmann, Archiv fiir Naturgesch., dritter jahrgang, erster 
band, p. 369, 1837. "Patria: Antillae?" Based on two specimens said to have 
come from the West Indies (see pp. 354-355), but their place of origin was 
regarded as uncertain by the describer, as shown by the notation. Figured by 
Wagner in Schreber's Saugthiere (p. 143 C). The plate illustration is of two 
brownish animals, the tail shown in one as quite short. 



RACCOONS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA 5 

Procyon obsninis Wiegmann, Archiv fiir Naturgesch., dritter jahrgaiig, erster band, 
p. 370, 1837. "Patria ignota." Figured by Wagner in Schreber's Saugthiere 
(p. 143 D). The plate illustration is of a very dark-colored animal. This seems 
to be unidentifiable. 

[Procyon brachyurus] var. fusca Burmeister, Verzeichniss Zool. Mus. Univ. Halle- 
Wittenberg Saugeth., Vogel Amphib., 1850, p. 13. Based on Procyon obscurus 
Wiegmann and Procyon obscurus Wagner, in Schreber's Saugthiere, Suppl., 
vol. 2, p. 159, 1841, without description. 

[Procyon lotor] var. melanus Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1864, p. 704. No type 
locality indicated. No type specimen designated. "Nearly black." 
Unidentifiable. 

[Procyon lotor] var. albina Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1864, p. 704. (Nomen 
nudum.) 

Pr[ocyon] hernandezi castaneus de Beau.x, Zool. Anzeiger, vol. 35, p. 624, April 26, 
1910. From Mexico. Based on a specimen (No. 357) which had been in 
the Royal Zoological Museum, Florence, Italy, since 1857. According to 
the description in part (p. 621), "Die Korperfarbe ist ein echtes und rechtes 
Kastanienbraun mit prachtvoU silbrigem Glanze." The color of raccoons is 
so variable that a single specimen does not afford reliable differential char- 
acters. The color described is unusual for a raccoon and might be due to 
fading or to erythrism. If the skin is accompanied by a skull, comparison of 
the latter with those of the several geographic races known to occur in 
Mexico might afford a clue to identity. 

Pr[ocyon] lotor rufescens de Beaux, Zool. Anzeiger, vol. 35, p. 625, April 26, 1910. 
Type locality unknown ("?Heimat"). Type specimen not designated. 
About 10 specimens said to have been examined. Body color more or less 
suffused with rich red brown. Apparently not identifiable. 

Pr[ocyon] l.[otor] flavidus de Beaux, Zool. Anzeiger, vol. 35, p. 626, April 26, 1910. 
Type locality "Southern United States?" Type specimen not designated. 
Only one skin examined. Color dirty yellow. Hairs of back neither ringed 
nor tipped with black. Apparently not identifiable. 

Pr[ocyon\ hudsonicus Brass, Aus dem Reiche der Pelze, p. 564, April 1911. No 
type designated. Described as "sehr gross und granbraun." Apparently 
based upon commercial skins assumed by the describer to be from Hudson 
Bay where no raccoons occur. The name is therefore unidentifiable. 

HABITS 

Few North American animals are endowed with more interesting or 
attractive ways than the raccoons. The general habits, as recorded 
by many observers, seem everywhere to be very similar for the mem- 
bers of each of the two subgenera. In Panama, Procyon and 
Eujirocyori share to some extent the same local habitat, both favoring 
the vicinity of swamps and streams and both being addicted to the 
crab-eating habit as shown by stomachs examined. But Procyon 
seems to be more arboreal than Euprocyon, and the two probably 
depart materially in general behavior. Dr. Thomas Barbour informed 
the author that the local representatives of both subgenera have been 
kept in captivity at the biological station on Barro Colorado Island 



C) XOKTII AMERICAN FAUXA 6 0. FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 

in Gatun Lake, Canal Zone, and that he has noted that Procyon 
"washes" its food in the characteristic manner while Euprocyon does 
not. The writer's own general observations indicate that under 
natural conditions Procyon does not regularly wash its food and 
suggest that washing may be limited mainly to food supplied to 
animals in captivity. As Euprocyon has a very restricted range in 
North America, the present discussion is limited chiefly to the mem- 
bers of the typical subgenus Procyon. 

Much has been written on the life history of the raccoon of the 
eastern United States which may be assumed to apply, with some 
reservations, to all members of the Procyon lotor group. The peculiar 
habits of the raccoon began to attract the attention of the settlers 
during the early colonial period, as is shown by the following quaint 
and somewhat fantastic account of this animal in the Carolinas by 
Lawson (1718, p. 121): 

The Raccoon is of a dark-gray Colour; if taken young, is easily made tame, but 
is the drunkenest Creature living, if he can get any Liquor that is sweet and 
strong. They are rather more unlucky than a Monkey. When wild, they are 
very subtle in catching their Prey. Those that live in the Salt- Water, feed much 
on Oysters which they love. They watch the Oyster when it opens, and nimbly 
put in their Paw, and pluck out the Fish. Sometimes the Oyster shuts, and 
holds fast their Paw till the Tide comes in, that they are drown'd, tho' they swim 
very well. The way that this Animal catches Crabs, which he greatly admires, 
and which are plenty in Carolina, is worthy of Remark. When he intends to 
make a Prey of these Fish, he goes to a Marsh, where standing on the Land, he 
lets his Tail hang in the Water. This the Crab takes for a Bait, and fastens his 
Claws therein, which as soon as the Raccoon perceives, he, of a sudden, springs 
forward, a considerable way, on the Land, and brings the Crab along with him. 
As soon as the Fish finds himself out of his Element, he presently lets go his 
hold; and then the Raccoon encounters him, by getting him cross-wise in his 
Mouth, and devours him. There is a sort of small Land-Crab, which we call a 
Fiddler, that runs into a Hole when any thing pursues him. This Crab the 
Raccoon takes by putting his Fore-Foot in the Hole, and pulling him out. With 
a tame Raccoon, this Sport is very diverting. The Chief of his other Food is all 
sorts of wild Fruits, green Corn, and such as the Bear delights in. This and the 
Possum are much of a Bigness. The Fur makes good Hats and Linings. The 
Skin dress'd makes fine Womens Shooes. 

More accurate early descriptions of the animal in Pennsylvania 
and New Jersey are those of Kalm (Benson 1937, pp. 52-53): 

The quadruped, which Dr. Linne in the memoirs of the Royal Academy of 
Sciences has described by the name of Ursus caxida elongata, and which he calls 
Ursns Lotor, in his Systema Naturae, is here called a raccoon. It is found very 
frequently and destroys many chickens. It is hunted by dogs, and when it runs 
up a tree to save itself a man climbs up after it and shakes it down to the ground, 
where the dogs kill it. The flesh is eaten and is reputed to taste well. The bone 
of its male parts is used for a pipe cleaner. The hatters purchase their skins and 
make hats of them, which are next in quality to those of beavers. The tail is 
worn round the neck in winter and therefore is likewise valuable. 



RACCOONIS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA 7 

And quoting Kalm further (Benson 1937, pp. 242-243): 

I have already mentioned something of the raccoon; I shall here add more of 
the nature of this animal and its mode of living in its habitat, in a place which is 
properly its native country [vicinity of the then village of Raccoon at or near the 
present town of Swedesboro, N. J.]. The English call it everywhere by the name 
of raccoon, which name they have undoubtedly taken from one of the Indian 
nations; the Dutch call it hespan, the Swedes, espari, and the Iroquois, attigbro. 
It commonly lodges in hollow trees, lies close in the daytime, never going out 
except on a dark, cloudy day; but at night it rambles and seeks its food. I 
have been told by several people that in bad weather, especially when it snows 
and blows a storm, the raccoon lies in its liole for a week without coming out 
once; during that time it lives by sucking and licking its paws. Its food consists 
of the several sorts of fruit, and corn, while the ears are soft. In gardens it often 
does a great deal of damage to the apples, chestnuts, plums, and wild grapes, 
which are its favorite food; to the poultry it is very cruel. When it finds the 
hens on their eggs, it first kills them, and then eats the eggs. It is caught by 
dogs, which trace it back to its nest in hollow trees, or by snares and traps, in 
which a chicken, some other bird, or a fish is put for bait. It generally brings 
forth its two or three young in May when it prepares its nest. Some people eat 
its flesh. It leaps with all its feet at once; on account of this and of several other 
qualities many people here reckoned that it belonged to the genus of bears. The 
skin is sold for eighteen pence at Philadelphia. I was told that the raccoons 
were not nearly so numerous as they were formerly; yet in the more inland parts 
they were abundant. I have mentioned before the use which the hatters make 
of their furs, that they are easily tamed, and that they like sweetmeats, etc. 
Of all the North American wild quadrupeds none can be tamed so easily as this 
one. 

In regard to the dm-ation of life in the raccoons under natural 
conditions, no informatioA is now at hand. Such data should become 
available in the future through the tagging or otherwise marking of 
animals captured and liberated. According to Flower (1931, p. 177), 
a male raccoon lived in the Rotterdam Zoological Garden from vSep- 
tember 30, 1890 to May 6, 1900, 9 years, 7 months, and 6 days, and 
an albino was in the London Zoological Garden from May 6, 1884, 
to February 27, 1898, 13 years, 9 months, and 21 days. He also 
mentions a crab-eating raccoon that lived in the London Zoo 1 5 
years, 10 months, and 5 days. Lowery (1936, p. 19) quotes Claude 
Odmn of Bernice, La., who said that he kept a raccoon in captivity 14 
years. 

FOOD AND GENERAL ACTIVITIES 

Throughout the vast range of the group, raccoons favor the vicinity 
of water in forested regions; but they also occin* along streams travers- 
ing open desert areas. Although raccoons are truly omnivorous, 
feeding to a considerable extent on a great variety of plant substances 
such as acorns, beechnuts, berries, persimmons and other fresh fruits 
of many kinds, and corn in the "milk" stage, most of their food is 
obtained in or near shallow water in swamps and marshes, and along 



8 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 60, FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 

the shores of streams, lakes, and brackish lagoons, and even along the 
sea coasts, as in the Florida Keys and other islands. In such places, 
frogs, small fishes, crayfish, crabs, clams, oysters, insects, small 
mammals, reptiles, and other animal foods are sought, as shown by 
the characteristic telltale footprints revealing the course of nocturnal 
wanderings and by stomach examinations. 

As water recedes to lower levels and pools become detached, fish, 
of which raccoons are very fond, are more readily captured by them. 
Referring to some water holes near Lake Drummond, Dismal Swamp, 
Va., in October 1895, A. K. Fisher reported: "Judging from the 
tracks about these pools, as many as a dozen must have come every 
night to feed on the fish imprisoned therein. The heads of catfish, 
pike, eels, and perch were found in abundance under the bushes and 
along the edges where the raccoons had dropped them." According 
to Mary J. Rathbun (1918, p. 401), the fiddler crab {Uca pwjilator) 
is the main food of the raccoon on the bay shores next to the Gulf 
in Texas. Young birds and eggs in the nest are often taken, and 
departing from the usual aquatic habitat, the raccoons occasionally 
make raids on the farmer's poultry. 

A complete list of the miscellaneous items composing the diet of 
raccoons would be exceedingly long and would vary in accordance 
with the season and with local conditions. On Key Largo, Fla., 
E. W. Nelson found the raccoons feeding extensively on the ripening 
fruit of the marlberry (Icacorea paniculata) in March. The taking 
of dry berries may be resorted to when more acceptable food supplies 
are insufficient. Examination of stomach contents has revealed the 
hard seeds of the hackberry and juniper berries in Texas raccoons and 
Vernon Bailey found these animals feeding upon manzanita (Arcto- 
staphylos) berries in California. The eating of grasshoppers has been 
reported in Texas. 

Although raccoons enter the water freely, much time is spent in 
patrolling the muddy shores. Closely crowded tracks, suggesting the 
imprints of human baby hands and feet, often mark the lines of least 
resistance up and down the banks of streams or through swamps, and 
well worn trails are gradually formed, disappearing in places at the 
edge of the water where it was necessary for the animals to wade or 
swim, and reappearing again on the farther side. In addition to 
water, trees, especially hollow ones affording shelter, are almost indis- 
pensable for the well-being of most raccoons. There seems to be evi- 
dence that the clearing of timber, especially the cutting of the large 
shelter trees needed for refuge and hibernation, has been an important 
factor in reducing the numbers of these animals in the northern part 
of their range. In the warmer southern territory, where hibernation 
does not occur, shelter trees are evidently not so essential. Mangrove 



RACCOONS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA 9 

swamps, with no large trees within many miles, are regularly inhabited 
by large numbers of raccoons that seem able to forego supplies of fresh 
water. Although hollow trees are favored for the shelter afforded, 
holes in banks and rocky ledges are also occupied, especially in locali- 
ties where such trees are few or absent. Raccoons are mainly noc- 
turnal in their search for food, but they sometimes come out during 
the day, and are especially fond of sunning themselves, usually sprawled 
in a variety of postures on the larger upper limbs of trees. 

SENSES AND INSTINCTS 

The sensory organs in raccoons are evidently highly developed. 
Many observers accord these animals a reputation for great curiosity 
and cunning, and a cleverness or adroitness, involving a high order of 
general intelligence. As a result of experiments Cole (1907, p. 261) 
concluded that "in the rapidity with which it forms associations the 
raccoon seems to stand midway between the monkey and the cat. In 
the complexity of the associations it is able to form it stands nearer 
the monkey." It is remarkable, as pointed out by Stock (1929, p. 288), 
that although Procyon occurred in California during the Pleistocene, no 
member of the family has been found in the Rancho La Brea deposits. 
This is probably due to the caution of raccoons in approaching and 
investigating water holes or such natural traps as the miry, sticky tar 
pits presented. 

The senses and instincts of raccoons, as exhibited by animals in 
captivity, have been carefully studied and well described by Cole 
(1912), who concluded that although most of the senses are strongly 
developed, that of smell is less utilized than the others. His results 
seem worth quoting at length: 

The most conspicuous behavior of the raccoon seems to be associated with the 
sense of touch, which is highly developed in the palm of the forepaw and the tip 
of the nose. During their hours of activity the animals were most often busy in 
exploring with their paws the floor and objects on the floor of the room in which 
they were kept. . . . Dark places, as your pocket or a knothole, are explored by 
touch hundreds of times. . . . Notwithstanding the strength of the raccoon in 
clinging and climbing, no touch is softer or more gentle than that of his forepaws 
when engaged in this investigating activity. 

An evidence that the nose is sometimes used for pure touch is the fact that these 
animals frequently investigated the experimenter's hands, and even his face, with the 
nose. This also seemed to be an affair of pure curiosity and quite breathless. . . . 
Occasionally they would both touch a strange object with the nose and sniff 
at it also. . . . 

The raccoon's taste for sweets is especially marked. All other foods were 
promptly deserted for cane sugar by my animals. . . . My raccoons avoided all 
food which had a purely sour taste, yet ripe apples and peaches were eaten which 
have for human taste a slightly acid tang along with the sweet flavor. Unlike 
herbivorous animals the raccoon refuses to taste salt. . . . 

876119°— 50 2 



10 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 6 0, FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 

Next to sugar the raccoons preferred boiled beef and they were ahnost equally 
fond of uncooked apples, peaches, plums, and cherries. My animals never ate 
the raw beef which we offered them a few times. Some raccoons have been forced 
to eat it but they do not appear to thrive on such food. My raccoons were often 
seen to catch and eat flies. They would eat grains of corn, even when dry and 
hard, if they were hungry. Bread made of either corn-meal or flour was readily 
accepted. It seems evident, therefore, that the raccoon in his native haunts lives 
upon forest fruits and buds, and upon flies, beetles, minnows, etc. . . . 

So far as I could observe the raccoons did not often employ the sense of sniell, 
though this may have been due to their captive condition. In no case did they 
seem to find pieces of meat on the floor by means of smell. If one of them saw 
a small piece of meat dropped in the hay on the floor he would search for it care- 
fully but beyond a distance of a few inches he did not seem to smell it. They 
found small pieces of loaf sugar on the floor quite as promptly as they did meat, 
yet from the standpoint of the human sense of smell sugar has no odor. 

In one case smell was evident. When the animals were to be fed the basin of 
food was usually placed on the step while the door was being unlocked. During 
this time all of the raccoons sniffed noisily at the crack beneath the door. When 
it was opened, however, they looked for the food basin. So in this case smell was 
evident only when sight could not be used. 

The studies of Cole indicated that the raccoon has a keen sense of 
sight. In regard to hearing he says: 

This appears to be the special protective sense of the raccoon. The slightest 
sound produced (1st) perfect immobility, and (2d) fear and scurrying to the 
highest part of their place of confinement. . . . 

Every sound at a distance was listened to intently for several seconds after the 
experimenter had ceased to hear it. On one occasion all the raccoons became 
still and yet the observers could hear no sound. Investigation showed that a 
man was trundling a wheelbarrow over the grass plot at least 100 yards distant 
from the house in which the raccoons were kept. 

The sound caused by dropping on the floor a piece of meat, one-half the size of 
a grain of corn, was often heard by each of the animals. They turned directly 
toward the source of the sound. Hence they not only hear faint sounds but 
localize them well. Localization was further tested by putting raccoon No. 3 in 
a large box with a solid back. The experimenter then scratched on the outside of 
the back of the box with a small stick. The raccoon turned directly to the spot. 
The place was changed some two feet. He turned instantly to the new place and 
grasped with both forepaws at the exact spot. He did this repeatedly. His 
behavior suggests that localization of sound is much more definite than that of the 
human ear. His grasping at the spot might indicate that the raccoon catches 
some small prey partly by the aid of hearing. . . . 

On the principle that animals which make sounds hear soiuids we may, in con- 
nection with hearing, mention the sounds which the raccoon is capable of making. 
A warning growl always accompanied eating when they were fed. When hungry 
they sometimes emit a sound about midway between a whine and a purr, "a 
whimpering cry." This sound is well-known to woodsmen and is far more char- 
acteristic of the young than of the adult animal. . . . When forcibly held their 
whining and growling is somewhat similar to that of a dog. In fighting the animal 
gives short, sharp barks as he snaps. 

Turning once more to the whining-purr, there is less and less of it (in captivity) 
as the animals grow older and only long waiting for food produces it. In the 



RACCOONS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA 11 

forest it may be used as a call to others. A very young raccoon, making this cry 
from loneliness or in search of its mother, will cease to make it if gently stroked or 
scratched. 

Of the climbing- habit Cole says: 

This instinct involves the sense of support, which is present before the raccoon 
possesses either the strength or the muscular co-ordination necessary for climbing, 
and the impulse to cling to any support. The sense of support is best described by 
an example, ^^'hen raccoon No. 5 was probably not more than two weeks old I 
placed him one day upon the top of a small closed box six inches high. He groped 
over the top of this box . . . with his forepaws extended, feeling the way. But 
the moment his paws felt the edge of the box the animal shrank back and began to 
grope in another direction. Again he would find the edge and again shrink back 
and start anew. Apparently at this age vision did not serve to show him that he 
might safely drop to the floor. It seems likely that this impulse enables the young 
raccoon to remain safely in a high nest, even though it were not enclosed. . . . 

When the raccoon is a month old it is able to sustain its weight by clinging to a 
support by any one of its paws and this it does instinctively. ... As soon as the 
young raccoon can walk well any bush or tree arouses his impulse to climb. At 
first there is some awkwardness and two of our animals were seen to fall from a 
small tree, when about eight weeks old. A little later they could hardl.v be 
dislodged at all. ... As Brehm states, the raccoon often climbs along a branch 
with his back down "like a sloth or an ape". . . . My raccoons always laid hold of 
one bough before releasing the other. They go from one bough to another very 
quickly yet they rely much more on their strength than on their agility. 

Cole agrees with other observers in the conclusion that raccoons are 
very playful: 

One would sit for a long time and play with his hind feet or the tip of his tail. 
Three were observed to play in this fashion for one and a quarter hours, with 
almost no pause. While my animals had to work twice a day for their food I 
observed only momentary play, or perhaps curiosity, as the tendency to pick up a 
straw or bit of cornhusk and roll it for a moment between their forepaws. In 
some degree, therefore, their play seems to depend on the possession of surplus 
energy. When well rested they played roughly with each other in mock fights, 
running and seizing each other gently with the teeth, rolling over and over in their 
tussles. In this play they would often climb to the shoulder of the observer, 
whereby he may learn both the strength of their grip and the sharpness of their 
claws. They also make a pretense of biting your hand in play, a characteristic 
reaction of the pet raccoon. 

In this connection Cole quotes Beckmann, as follows: 

"In the numberless leisure hours which every captive raccoon has he does 
thousands of things in order to dispel the tedium. Now, he sits upright in a 
secluded corner, and with a most earnest expression he is busied in trying to tie 
a straw around his nose. Now, he plays thoughtfully with the toes of his hind 
foot, or snatches after the wagging end of his long tail. At another time he lies 
on his back and has a whole heap of hay or dry leaves hugged against his belly and 
he tries to tie down this loose mass by drawing his tail tightly over it with his 
forepaws." 



12 NORTH AMEllICAN FAUNA 6 0, FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 

The impulse to follow which seems to be inherent in young; animals 
of many kinds was noted by Cole, who says: 

After learning to walk, the raccoons would all follow me, or anyone else, with 
the utmost eagerness. If I ran they struggled through the grass at their best 
rate, giving the instinctive cry more and more shrilly as I got further away from 
them, and ceasing to give it when they overtook me. In the middle of the 
seventh month this instinct to follow began to wane. When released from their 
place of confinement each one tended to go on an exploring tour of his own and 
to make for a nearby tree. At this time they would still follow if called. A 
month later no one of the four would follow at all, and their period of infancy 
w^as past. 

Although Cole regards the raccoon as especially good-natured, 
". . . yet anger or ferocity was observed in these animals at about 
the twelfth week of their age. Though scrupulous care was taken to 
keep the animals tame they became fierce if they were left without 
being handled for a few days. In the fighting attitude the ears are 
laid back, the head lowered and the posterior portion of the body 
sharply humped up. Growling and unfleshing the teeth accompany 
this fighting attitude and, when provoked the raccoon is an ugly 
fighter." He found that his raccoons showed fear by starting at 
sounds, and the sudden darkening of the room caused by the door 
blowing shut produced in young animals a panic for a moment. 
Indifference to each other's behavior was marked. No certain 
evidence of the sexual instinct was noted by Cole until the twelfth 
month. 

In regard to the practice of washing food that caused Linnaeus to 
apply the name lotor, and the Germans Waschbdr, Cole says: "My 
raccoons did not always dip their food in water. No doubt this was 
partly due to their being fed together so that they formed the habit 
of eating rapidly. . . . Nevertheless, I do not believe that the 
raccoon in his native state will carry food very far for the purpose of 
'washing it'." Whitney (1931, p. 35) comments on this point as 
follows: "Unquestionably the most common error into which writers 
have fallen in regard to the habits of raccoons is that the raccoon 
washes most of the food that he eats ... in the wild state the 
raccoon washes almost nothing that he eats." He regards the error 
as due to observations made on animals in confinement. It is obvious 
that the washing of many kinds of food taken by raccoons, especially 
at a distance from water, would be impracticable. It is probable that 
under natural conditions raccoons wash only shellfish and other food 
gathered in or about water, the washing being often necessary to 
remove sand or other gritty matter. 

Concerning the sleep of raccoons, Cole writes: 

There are two rather characteristic positions in sleeping. In one the animal 
lies on his back with his forepaws placed over his eyes. A young raccoon, when 



RACCOONS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA 13 

held and somewhat frightened, also puts both forepaws over his eyes, thus giving 
a somewhat comical appearance, suggestive of "hiding its face in its hands." 
Another position in sleep consists in rolling the body almost into a ball with the 
top of the head placed fiat on the floor between the forelegs. In this position even 
the ears are hardly visible. Though the animal does sleep in other positions 
these two are most common. It would seem that the raccoon sleeps best, there- 
fore, with his eyes not only closed but covered, and for protection he depends 
most upon his lofty nest and its concealment from enemies. 

Among mental attributes of the raccoon, both Davis (1907, p. 486) 

and Whitney (1933, p. 112) regard curiosity as an outstanding 

characteristic. 

BREEDING 

The period of gestation in Procyon lotor, at least in the northern 
part of its range, has been determined by various atithorities to be 
about 9 or 10 weeks. One of the more definite records is that of 
Gander (1928), relating in a single instance to Procyon lotor psora in 
sotithern California. An animal kept in captivity was mated Jantiary 
27 to 29 and the young were born April 3. i\.nother record is that of 
Brown (1936) of 69 days from first coition. 

A litter of small yoimg was collected by E. A. Preble at Tuckerton, 
N. J., June 23; one taken by B. V. Lilly at Abbeville, La., suggests 
that in southern localities the season may be more irregular. Rac- 
coons breed but once a year and four young are ustially produced at 
a birth, but the number may vary from two to six. In regard to 
breeding in the Adirondacks of northern New York, Merriam (1884, 
p. 94) says: 

The Raccoon makes its home high up in a hollow of some large tree, preferring 
a dead limb to the trunk itself. It does little in the way of constructing a nest, 
and from four to six young are commonly born at a time, generally early in April 
in this region. The young remain with the mother about a year. 

The act of copidation, rarely recorded in raccoons under natural 
conditions, was witnessed by the author on Blackbeard Island, Ga., 
April 19, 1939. From a point of vantage on high ground in the woods 
a mated pair, unconscious of his presence, was observed in short 
grass in the open marsh about 75 yards away. With a pair of field 
glasses a very clear view of the animals in bright sunshine was obtained 
at short range. When first seen at 2 :05 p. m., the female, surmounted 
by the male, was in a standing position and sexual conj miction 
appeared to be already complete. Rhythmical movements of the 
hind quarters of the male were interrupted by periods of quiet. Several 
times he shifted position slightly from one side to the other, but 
remained most of the time with his head resting near the median line 
of the back of the female. The latter remained passive until at the 
end of about half an hour by the watch she laid her ears back and turned 



14 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 6 0, FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 

her head, showing her teeth and apparently snarhng at the male, 
although even at the short distance no sound was heard. The male 
quietly slipped from her, and both animals moving only a few feet 
immediately resumed their search for small crabs that were numerous 
in the marshy ground. The fur on the lower part of the back of the 
female had become considerably rumpled, but this was ignored by her 
in the search for food. 

HIBERNATION 

The winter activities of raccoon vary in southern and northern 
latitudes. In the southern United States and southward the raccoons 
are active throughout the year. In the North these animals become 
torpid, and there is a kind of hibernation or partially suspended 
animation, similar to that of the bears and only approximating the 
deep lethargic winter sleep of some other northern animals. In 
describing behavior in winter in Canada, Wesley Mills (1892, sec. 4, 
p. 50) refers to W. Yates, of Hatchly, Ontario, and says: "This 
observer has made some very interesting observations on a tame rac- 
coon (Procyon lotor). This creature lived in a hollow log lined with 
straw and drowsed away the greater part of December and January, 
leaving any food placed before him unnoticed. The raccoon is 
known to spend the greater part of the winter in hollow elm trees 
in this part of the country, and Mr. Yates points out that the cutting 
down of most of these trees resulted in the raccoons betaking them- 
selves to underground burrows including those once occupied by 
foxes." According to Seton (1929, p. 252): 'Tn the Red River 
Valley [Canada], the sleep lasts from mid-November to early March." 
Concerning hibernation in the Adirondacks of northern New York, 
Merriam (1884, p. 9.3) writes: "The Raccoon hibernates during the 
severest part of the winter, retiring to his nest rather early, and 
appearing again in February or March, according to the earliness or 
lateness of the season. Disliking to wade through deep snow he 
does not come out much till the alternate thawing and freezing of the 
surface, suggestive of coming spring, makes a crust upon which he 
can run with ease." 

ECONOMIC STATUS 

Raccoons are naturally prolific, and owing to very extensive geo- 
graphic range and adaptability the forms of Procyon lotor constitute 
a wildlife asset of major recreational and economic importance. In 
the extreme scarcity of money in pioneer days raccoon skins supplied 
an important element in helping the people to maintain their existence. 
In 1788 (Chase 1911) the residents of a mountain section in Tennessee 
organized the local "State of Franldin." Money was scarce, and the 



RACCOONS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA 15 

salaries of pii})lic officials were paid in animal skins, including the 
following: ". . . secretary to his excellency, the governor, 500 rac- 
coon [skins]; . . . clerk of the lioiise of commons, 200 raccoon [skins]; 
members of assembly, per diem, 3 raccoon [skins]; . . ." Through- 
out the pioneer days raccoon skins were regular articles of barter. 
The skins were especially popular for making caps and coats, the 
latter use extending to the present tim(> as garments for both men and 
women. Although their original numbers have greatly decreased, 
owing to the reduction or elimination of suitable habitat incident to 
human encroachment, raccoons have persisted where many other 
native animals have become extinct. Aside from the fur produced, 
their value in providing excellent nocturnal sport for an army of 
hunters and exercise for the "coon" dogs nearly throughout the 
forested sections of the country is well known. This hunting asset 
is becoming better appreciated by State game commissions and 
sportsmen's associations, and the lil)eration of raccoons in suitable 
places is a regular part of the annual program of wildlife management. 

The meat, especially of young raccoons, is an accepted article of 
food in some parts of the country and is very palatable. During the 
early days in California, according to Newberry (1855, p. 47), raccoons 
in considerable numbers were sold in the San Francisco market, 
commanding a price of one to three dollars each. 

Raccoons are destructive to human interests in some places to a 
limited extent. Of the economic status of the animal in its typical 
region, Pennsylvania and New Jersey, Rhoads (1903, p. 182) says: 

Dr. Warren reports answers from correspondents which condemn this animal 
as a stealer of fish, especially trout. Others say it does not catch many of these 
but is after crayfish chiefly. His raids on nesting turkeys I can vouch for, the 
eggs being sucked. His destruction of poultry is occasionally severe and he likes 
green maize ears dearly. No doubt he is a destroyer of birds' nests, eggs and 
young, both terrestrial and arboreal. He catches some mice, but being a slow 
sort of fellow, prefers more leisurely employment. On this account, he is quite a 
vegetarian, grapes, nuts, fruits and certain vegetables falling to his share. His 
furs for warmth and his carcass for food about compensate for the direct losses 
sustained by humanity in his depredations. 

In the Gulf Coast Region, where raccoons still abound, conditions 
are described by Kopman (1921, p. 28) thus: 

One of the principal foods of the raccoon in Louisiana is crayfish. Among 
vegetable foods, corn in the milk, persimmons, wild grapes, and palmetto berries 
are very acceptable to the "coon." As a destroyer of poultry the raccoon is 
often a great nuisance, and it takes many wild birds. These animals are estab- 
lished on many of the bushy islands of the coast, and they eat the eggs and young 
of the seabirds and other aquatic species breeding there. On Marsh Island and 
other bird and game preserves on the coast owned by the State, the Department 
of Conservation has had to provide for systematic trapping of the raccoon. . . . 



1(3 XOHTH AMERICAN FAUNA 60. FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 

In considering the natural enemies of birds, Forbush (1916, pp. 
24-25) discusses the raccoon as follows: 

There is some evidence to the effect that the raccoon robs birds' nests, but it 
is not numerous enough now in settled regions to be very destructive. Its fond- 
ness for green corn has not endeared it to the farmer, and the sportsman and 
angler believe that it destroys game and fish. Add to these alleged reasons for 
its destruction the increasing price for its skin in the market and we can see why 
the "coon" is not destined long to be a great factor as an enemy of birds, except 
possibly on lands where all animals are protected. 

An early mention of the raccoon in New England is by Josselyn (1672), 
who says: "The Raccoon liveth in hollow trees, and is about the size 
of a Gib Cat; they feed upon Mass, and do infest our Indian Corn 
very much; they will be exceeding fat in Autumn; their flesh is some- 
what dark, but good food roasted." 

Corn is grown extensively throughout much of the range of the 
raccoon, and perhaps more complaints are lodged against the animal 
for damages to this staple crop than to any other human interest. 
Cornfields adjoining woodland inhabited by raccoons may be in- 
vaded, usually for only a short distance, about the time that the 
ears reach the "milk" stage. The stalks are pulled down, or the 
ears stripped ofi" and partly eaten and left scattered over the ground. 
In some of the most serious instances noted by the writer more than 
one-half of the corn was destroyed on areas several acres in extent. 
Other grain crops (as, for example, kafir corn) and fruits and vege- 
tables of many kinds are also subject to some injury. Personal 
observations have shown that raccoons sometimes become nocturnal 
despoilers of the nests of waterfowl. 

General observations over a wdde range indicate that the depre- 
dations of raccoons are sporadic in relation to human interests, 
involve few individuals, and are usually so limited and local in extent 
that they are quite negligible. The removal of one or two offenders 
by trapping or shooting will put a stop to the raids in most cases. 
In a very few instances systematic trapping may be necessary to reduce 
a local raccoon population that has become too numerous and destruc- 
tive. The isolated cases of damages sustained are, in general, far 
outweighed by the asset value of the species. 

The northern subspecies of Procyon lotor are among the most 
important fur bearers, but pelts of the forms of the crab-eating 
raccoon, Procyon (Euprocyon) cancrivorus, are of little value, owing 
to the short, thin, bristly character of the pelage. 

Some idea of the numbers of raccoon (Procyon lotor) pelts that have 
been handled as furs may be gained from estimates based upon sta- 
tistical studies made in 1925 by Frank G. Ashbrook of the then Bureau 
of Biological Survey, United States Department of Agriculture 
(now part of the Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the In- 



RACCOONS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA 17 

terior), and Horace J. McMullen, of the then National Association of 
the Fur Industry (Ashbrook and McMullen 1925). The data 
gathered from the principal fur auctions in the United ^States and in 
London, and from raw fin- receiving houses indicated that the average 
yearly production of raccoon pelts for the 10 years preceding 1925 
was 600,000 to 1,000,000. These figures were also taken to represent 
the average yearly consumption for the period stated. [The most 
recent (1948) information compiled by the Fish and Wildlife Service 
indicates an annual take of from 1 to 1% million pelts in the United 
States.] 

The raccoon has an assured place as one of the more important 
American fur-bearing animals and will continue to hold this position 
so long as it can be maintained in suitable ninnbers. [It is outnum- 
bered only by the muskrat, opossum, and skunk in pelts taken.] 

The natural supply of raccoon furs is being gradually reduced 
through the general encroachment of civilization upon the range of 
the animal. Aside from trapping for the fur, hunting for sport with- 
out adequate regulations, and harassment by dogs, the drainage of 
water areas and the cutting of timber, especially the older trees afford- 
ing convenient sheltering hollows, have resulted in conditions unfa- 
vorable for raccoons. Displaying wonderful adaptability, raccoons 
still maintain themselves even in man}' well-settled areas, often in the 
vicinity of human habitations or even large cities, with a persistence 
truly remarkal)le. Experiments have been conducted on raising 
raccoons in captivity. Much should be done, however, to further 
better management of the raccoon in the wild, not only as an important 
fur bearer and for the sport afforded in its chase, but as a characteristic 
American animal of outstanding general interest owing to its peculiar 
and attractive habits. 

GENERAL CHARACTERS 

The raccoons as a whole present a narrow range of variation in 
external appearance. The general color pattern, including the black 
facial mask and the barred tail, is everywhere very similar, even for 
the two subgenera. The subgenus Procyon, embracing the numerous 
forms of the typical North American group, is, however, easily dis- 
tinguished by the normal, or backward direction of the hair on the 
nape, by the pi'esence of underfur, and by the grayish forearms and 
thighs. In Euprocyon, on the other hand, the pelage of the nape is 
reversed, underfur is absent, and the forearms and thighs are usually 
blackish instead of grayish. 

The normal number of mammae seems to be six in both Procyon and 
Euprocyon, but has been found to vary to eight in the latter subgenus. 
Cranial and dental subgeneric distinctions are pointed out in the 
treatment of subgeneric characters. 



18 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 60, FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 

In both subgenera the plantigrade structure of the feet is an out- 
standing feature. The fore feet somewhat resemble tiny hands, with 
long fingers opposable to a high degree, possessed of great strength, 
and yet capable, in Procyon at least, of being used with a remarkable 
deftness and delicacy of touch. The digits of the hind feet are much 
less opposable, and the imprints of the broad flattened soles along 
muddy shores may be likened to those of a small child's feet. Al- 
though the favorite haunts of the members of both subgenera are in 
the vicinity of water and much time is spent upon the ground, Procyon, 
as compared with Euprocyon, is provided with claws that are narrower, 
sharper, more compressed laterally, and strengthened by greater ver- 
tical depth at the base, better adapting this subgenus for climbing and 
a more arboreal life. In Panama, where the two subgenera occur 
together, the crab-eating habit is shared in common, but may be in- 
dulged in to a greater extent by Euprocyon than by Procyon. The 
broader, less trenchant cusps in the molariform teeth of Euprocyon, 
as compared with those of Procyon, are better fitted for crushing hard 
substances. Along the coast of Salvador, mangrove swamps are in- 
habited by a local form, Procyon lotor dickeyi, which feeds extensively, 
perhaps principally, upon crabs. The abrasive effect of such a diet 
on the teeth of a member of the typical subgenus is there strikingly 
shown by the early wear and rapid shearing oft' of the crowns of the 
molars, leaving the premolars comparatively little aft'ected. In some 
of the older specimens of dickeyi the molar crowns are reduced until a 
mere shell remains near the roots. This may, however, be due to 
some unusual local condition as such rapid or extensive wear has not 
been observed anywhere else. 

The black mask varies somewhat in extent, and some forms are 
paler than others, but owing to general uniformity in pattern of color- 
ation in each subgenus, recourse must usiuiUy be had to size and to 
cranial and dental modifications in tracing the relationships of species 
and subspecies. 

In the subgenus Procyon most of the sutures of the skull are easily 
traced at birth. Among the earliest sutures to close are those of the 
basicranial segment surrounding the foramen magnum. The supra- 
occipital, exoccipitals, and basioccipital are all firmly united, and the 
sutures have disappeared before the permanent dentition is fully in 
place. The union between these bones and the remainder of the skull, 
however, remains distinctly visible until finally closed later with ad- 
vancing age. The jugals unite with the maxillae earlier than with 
the squamosals. Progressive obliteration extends to the maxillo- 
premaxillary sutures and to the median line between the frontals, 
while the parietal sutures remain distinct. The closure of the parietal 
sutures may be taken as an indication of maturity. In old age all the 



RACCOONS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA 19 

bones of the skull become coalesced, among the last to unite firmly 
being- the nasals and the mandibles. A well-developed, sometimes 
high and trenchant, sagittal crest commonly present in the older males 
is less frequent and less prominent in the females; but in many old 
adults of both sexes the temporal impressions do not unite to form a 
crest. The deciduous dentition is retained only a short time. The 
permanent middle incisors appear before the molars. 

In the continental forms of the subgenus Procyon subspecific dis- 
tinctions rest upon combinations of relatively slight characters, 
indicating close relationships. Although the characters do not stand 
out very conspicuously as a rule, and due allowance must be made for 
individual variation, they are maintained with a fair degree of con- 
stancy over areas often of considerable extent. Some of the more 
extreme forms of the intergrading series are very similar in external 
appearance, but are diflferentiated by well-marked details of cranial 
structure. Skull characters, rather than color, must therefore be 
relied upon in determining systematic relationships. In dental 
sculpture all the forms are very similar, but they vary greatly in the 
size of the teeth and, to some extent, in the form of the molar crowns. 

In tracing the relationships of the numerous forms of the subgenus 
Procyon the principal characters of taxonomic value are the following: 
General color, whellier light or dark, plain grayish, or suffused with 
ochraceous buff, or varying shades of rusty rufous; relative develop- 
ment of the black mask, whether continuous across middle of face, 
extent of black postauricular spots, and of white facial markings; 
general form of the skull (especially of the brain case and the frontal 
profile), massiveness, development of postorbital processes and of 
zygomata, width of palate, size of auditory bullae; size and relative 
length and breadth of large molariform teeth. The males are usually 
decidedly larger than the females in all dimensions, but the sexes agree 
closely in details of cranial structure. 

PELAGK AND MOLT 

The pelage differs widely in the subgenera Procyon and Euprocyon, 
as pointed out in the treatment of subgeneric characters. In the 
subgenus Procyon it is longer, softer, and much denser than in Eupro- 
cyon, the denseness being largely due to the fine underfur, which 
differs in texture from the longer overfur or guard hairs, and which is 
absent in Euprocyon. Owing to the differences in density and texture 
of the hairs, Euprocyon is of little value for the fur. 

The annual molt in the subgenus Procyon extends over a lengthy 
period during the summer, at least in the more northern and more 
heavily furred subspecies. The new pelage, rather short in the fall. 



20 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 6 0, FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 

becomes longer in the winter. In the subgenus Euprocyon — inhabiting 
tropical countries — no definite seasonal molt seems apparent. 

VARIATION 

Variation in the raccoons is assignable to several categories, of 
which perhaps the most obvious are geographic and individual. 

GEOGRAPHIC VARIATION 

The raccoons are believed to intergrade throughout the vast range 
of the species Procyon lotor on the North American mainland, and the 
component subspecies are the expression of geographic variation in 
size, weight, color, and minor details of structure in response to 
environmental and genetic influences. Some of the insular forms 
present a greater degree of differentiation, evidently due to isolation, 
and are regarded as distinct species. The largest form of the genus, 
Procyon lotor excelsus, inhabits interior valleys, principally the Snake 
River Valley in southeastern Washington, eastern Oregon, and 
southern Idaho. Large, but less extreme, geographic races occupy 
the other Western States and the mainland of Middle America. 
These give way to smaller subspecies in the eastern United States, 
the minimum size being reached by those living on the Florida Keys. 
Maria Madre and Maria Magdalena of the Tres Marias Islands 
Group off western Mexico are occupied by Procyon insularis, a large 
form regarded as specifically distinct from the mainland animal. 
Small species of raccoons inliabit New Providence Island in the 
Bahamas, and Guadeloupe and Barbados Islands of the Lesser 
Antilles. The smallest species of raccoon known was well named 
Procyon pygmaeus from Cozumel Island, Yucatan. 

Geographic variation in color in the raccoons is limited mainly to 
the general tone and to the relative development of the black mask 
and other facial markings. The paler subspecies, such as Procyon 
lotor pallidus, inhabit the thinly timbered desert areas in the Colorado 
River Valley and adjoining territory, while darker races have de- 
veloped in the eastern United States and in densely forested regions 
of heavy precipitation in Central America. In considering the pallid 
coloration of raccoons from desert areas, as along the Colorado River, 
it should be understood that these animals are restricted to the 
vicinity of water, yet they share the general pallor that is a marked 
characteristic of the mammals of the region as a whole. 

INDIVIDUAL VARIATION 

By individual variation reference is made to all the degrees of 
divergence from a typical mean exhibited by large series of conspecific 
skins and skulls from any given locality. In the raccoons the range 
of this variation in size, color, and cranial details is about the same as 



RACCOONS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA 21 

that for which due allowance must be made in other groups of carni- 
vores. Since the subspecies of Procyon lotor are geographic races 
with confluent geographic ranges, an unusually large individual of a 
small form may be similar in size to an unusually small individual of 
a large form, and color and cranial details may vary in comparable 
ratio. Owing to individual variation, some specimens, especially 
from unknown localities, may be difficult to identify subspecifically. 
They may usually be distinguished, however, by the combination of 
characters presented. 

Apparently, abnormal individual variations in general color are 
common in the raccoons. A half-grown example (No. 253823, U. S. 
Natl. Mus.) from Nelson County, Va., exhibits an apparent case of 
erythi'ism. The usual black facial mask, postauricular spots, dark 
bands on the tail, and the normally dark tips of hairs are light yel- 
lowish brown; the usual white areas tend toward creamy white. In 
a specimen from Santee, S. C. (No. 178391, U. S. Natl. iVLus.), the 
usual black tips of the hairs over the back and the dark tail rings are 
light brownish. The dark facial markings are also inclined toward 
brown instead of black, and the basal color of the fur in general is 
lighter than normal. 

No definitely melanistic raccoons have been examined, but in a 
specimen from Red Blufi", Calif. (No. 14466, U. S. Natl. Mus.), there 
is an intensification of the overlying black on the upper parts, due to 
the unusual extent of the black on the tips of the hairs and the cor- 
responding reduction of the light subapical zone on these hairs. As 
a result the back appears to be almost solid black. The usual light 
bars are present on the tail, and the white facial markings are normal. 
The occurrence of albino raccoons is reported from time to time. 
An adult male from Paducah, Ky. (No. 151657, U. S. Natl. Mus.), is 
pure white except on the nape where the white is suffused with 
yellowish. 

The weight of the northern raccoons undoubtedly varies consider- 
ably according to the season; the animals become very fat in the fall, 
especially in regions where they must hibernate. The more southern 
raccoons that are active throughout the year do not accumulate so 
great a store of fat, and even their shorter pelage would weigh less. 
The weight dift'ers, of course, in accordance with size in animals of 
comparable age, sex, and condition in the various species and sub- 
species. Comparatively few weights, however, appear to have been 
reliably recorded and are available for comparison. Whitney (1931, 
p. 31) reports the taking of more than 300 raccoons {Procyon lotor 
lotor) in Massachusetts and Connecticut during a 7-year period. 
Of the 300, every one that appeared to be uncommonly large was 
weighed on accurate scales. The largest weighed 22 pounds and 10 



22 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 60, FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 

ounces, ^^liitney believed, however, that the average would be 
about 13 pounds as the weights included those of a good many animals 
taken in the fall that had been born in the spring of the same year 
and had not been able to attain a weight of much more than 10 
pounds. Eighteen raccoons regarded by Whitney as of uniformly 
greater weight were taken by him in the fall near Brunswick, Maine. 
Eight of these weighed more than 23 pounds each, the largest, 27 
pounds, including, a sack estimated to weight three-fourths of a 
pound. 

A large, fat, adult male raccoon (Proajon lotor hirtus) collected by 
Vernon Bailey (1923, p. 124) at Elk River, Minn., November 5, 
1886, was recorded by him as weighing 30% pounds. Another male 
of the same subspecies taken at Fargo, N. Dak., by O. J. Murie, 
November 9, 1919, weighed 24 pounds. Average animals from the 
same localities would undoubtedly weigh much less. 

Weights of specimens of Procyon lotor elucus, which is active through- 
out the year and does not become so fat as the more northern sub- 
species, were obtained in winter by E. A. M earns on Saw Grass 
Island, Catfish Creek, Polk County, Fla. Five adult males from the 
island ranged from 10 to 12 pounds in weight, the average being 11 
pounds. The weight of three adult females from the same locality 
ranged from 7.7 to 10 pounds, the average being 9 pounds. Weights 
of the diminutive raccoon Procyon lotor auspicatus, of Key Vaca, 
one of the Florida keys, were obtained late in winter by E. W. Nelson. 
Five adult males were found by him to range in weight from 4 to 6 
pounds, with an average of 5.3 pounds. Two adult females from the 
same locality weighed 4 and 5 pounds, respectively. 

Individual variation in cranial and dental development is extensive 
in scope and may render difficult the determination of some speci- 
mens, especially if from unlvuown localities. The variations are 
noticeable especially in the form of the brain case and frontal profile, 
relative prominence of postorbitai processes, size of auditory bullae, 
and size of large molariform teeth. Dental abnormalities are pre- 
sented in a few cases. In two individuals, one of Procyon lotor 
litoreus from Saint Simon Island, Ga., and the other of Procyon 
gloveralleni of Barbados, Lesser Antilles, the first premolars in both 
jaws are absent. Supernumerary teeth sometimes suggest early 
division of the dental matrix. In a skull of Procyon lotor hernandezii 
from Colima two canines are present on one side in the upper jaw, one 
somewhat smaller being posterior to the normal canine in the space 
usually occupied by the first premolar which is absent. On the side 
opposite the double canines the first premolar is also absent, there 
being a hiatus between the canine and second premolar. The 
mandible is normal. 



RACCOONS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA 23 

EXPLANATIONS 
MEASUREMENTS 

All measurements of specimens are in millimeters. The weights 
given are in pounds. Adult males usually exceed adult females in 
dimensions, and the measurements are, therefore, presented according 
to sex. In some cases so few nearly typical examples are available 
that the measurements given may not represent the normal range 
of individual variation, and too broad generalizations, therefore, 
should not be based on them. 

The external measurements, unless otherwise stated, were taken 
in the flesh by the collector, as follows: 

Total length. — Nose to end of terminal tail vertebra. 

Tail vertehrae. — Upper base of tail to end of terminal vertebra. 

Hind foot. — Heel to end of longest claw. 

The following cranial measurements were taken with a vernier 
caliper by the author: 

Greatest length: — Length from anterior tip of premaxillae to supra- 
occipital in median line over foramen magnum. 

Conrlylobasal length. — Length from anterior tip of premaxillae to 
posterior plane of occipital condyles. 

Zygomatic breadth. — Greatest distance across zygomata. 

Interorbital breadth. — Least distance between orbits. 

Least width of palatal shelf. — Width between outer sides of palate 
at constriction behind posterior molars. 

Ma.rillary tooth rotv. — Distance from front of canine to back of 
posterior molar at alveolar border. 

Crown length of upjyer carnassial. — Greatest length of crown of upper 
carnassial along outer side. 

Crown width of upper carnassial. — Greatest transverse diameter of 
crown of upper carnassial. 

COLORS 

Owing to the banding of the individual hairs, raccoons present 
coarsely blended colors difficult to segregate. For this reason very 
limited use has been made, in quotation marks, of names of colors 
from Ridgway's ''Color Standards and Color Nomenclature, 1912." 
In the description of colors generally understood, modifying or com- 
parative terms have been employed in naming tones, many of which 
are not well defined. 

SPECIMENS EXAMINED 

Specimens examined, unless otherwise indicated, are in the collec- 
tions of the United States National Museum, including the Biological 
Surveys collection. 



24 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 60, FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 
USE OF KEY TO SPECIES AND SUBSPECIES 

The key to the species and subspecies of the subgenus Procyon is 
based largely on the geographic ranges, as trenchant characters 
cannot be assigned to intergrading geographic races, and most of 
the insular forms treated as species are imperfectly known. The key 
supplements the map (fig. 1) in affording a clue to the identification 
of particular sp(M-im(Mis from known localities. 






Fig 


URE I. — Distribut 


ion of 


species and subspeci 


1. 


P. 


lotor lotor. 


12. 


P. 




mexicanus. 


2. 


P. 


I. hirtus. 


13. 


P. 




pallidua. 


3. 


P. 


I. varius. 


14. 


P. 




psora. 


4. 


P. 


I. litoreuH. 


15. 


P. 




pacificus. 


5. 


P. 


I. solutus. 


16. 


P. 




excelsus. 


G. 


P. 


I. elucus. 


17. 


P. 




vancouverensis. 


7. 


P. 


I. marinus. 


18. 


P. 




grinnelli. 


8. 


P. 


I. inesperatus. 


19. 


P. 




hernandezii. 


9. 


P. 


1. auspicatus. 


20. 


P. 




shufeldfi. 


10. 


P. 


1. incautus. 


21. 


P. 




dickei/i. 


11. 


P. 


1. fuscipes. 


22. 


P. 




crassidens. 



of the subgenus Procyon: 

23. P. I. pumilus. 

24. P. insularis insularis. 

25. P. i. vicinus. 

26. P. niaynardi. 

27. P. pygniaeus. 

28. P. minor. 

29. P. gloveralleni. 

30. P. I. maritimns. 

31. P. I. ntegalodous. 



RACCOONS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA 25 

Genus PROCYON Storr 

Procyon Storr, Prodr. Meth. Mammal., p. 35. 1780. Type Ursnf^ lotor Linnaeus. 

Campsiurus Link, Beytr. Naturg. 1 (2): 87, 1795. Type Ursuf^ lotor Linnaeus 
(see Hollister, p. 146, 1915). 

Lotor Geoffrey and Cuvier, Mag. Enc. 2: 187, 1795. 

Lotor Oken, Lehrb. Naturg., S'-^^ TheiL, 2'-= Abth., p. 1080, 1816. 

Euprocyon Gray, Zool. See. London Proc. 1864: 705 (subgenus). Type Ursus 
cancrivorus Cuvier. 

Mamprocyonus Herrera, Sin. Vulg. Cient. Vert. Mexicanos 1899: 18. 

Euprocyon Goldman, Smithsn. Misc. Coll. 60 (22): 16, Feb. 28, 1913 (genus). 

Euprocyon Hollister, U. S. Natl. Mus. Proc. 49 (2100): 146, Aug. 13, 1915 (sub- 
genus). 

Distribution. — Southern Canada to southern Brazil and northern 
Argentina, and some of the outlying islands. 

Generic characters. — Form robust; head broad, with short, pointed 
muzzle; ears medium-sized, pointed ; upper lip hairy across median line; 
soles of feet naked, smooth, without well-developed digital pads; digits 
free, very long, the first more than half the length of the second; claws 
nonretractile; tail shorter than body, cylindrical, distinctly amiulated; 
baculum long, curved and bilobed distally; mammae 6, arranged in 
three pairs, as follows: pectoral, 2; abdominal, 2; inguinal, 2. 

Skull broad and massive; rostrum broad; brain case broad posteri- 
orly, tapering gradually anteriorly; interorbital and postorbital con- 
strictions moderate; postorbital processes of maxillae usually more 
developed than postorbital proc(>sses of frontals; sagittal crest high 
and trenchant in some old adults, absent in others, the temporal ridges 
not uniting along median line. Mastoid processes long, stout, strongly 
everted, rounded distally; hamular jjrocesses rounded, with knob-like 
ends; auditory bullae large, inlhited on inner side, the outer side 
sloping gradually to external auditory meatus. Mandible heavy, 
inferior border evenly roimded; symphysis short; coronoid process 
rising high and curving backward over condyle. 

Dental formula: i 3/3 c 1/1 pm 4/4 m 2/2 = 40. 

Dentition heavy; molar crowns moderately high, with prominent 
cusps; first and second upper premolars simple unicuspids; third upper 
premolar with a high conical principal cusp and a postero-internal 
shelf-like cingulum sometimes bearing a small cusplet; crown of fourth 
upper premolar subquadrate, about as long as broad, with five prin- 
cipal cusps; crown of first upper molar usually slightly broader than 
long, with four principal cusps; second upper molar subtriangular, with 
three principal cusps; crown of first lower molar elongated, sub- 
rectangular, with five distinct cusps. First upper premolar with a 
single root; second and third upper premolars 2-rooted; foiu'th upper 
premolar 3-rooted. Incisors heavy, the crowns more or less distinctly 
grooved when unworn. Canines oval in cross section at alveoli, 

870119°— 50— 3 



26 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 6 0, FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 

conical, without distinct grooves, the upper canines not strongly 
everted. 

Remarks. — The genus Procyon is readily distinguished from the other 
living genera of Procyonidae. It is most closely allied to Nasua, but 
differs strikingly in external appearance as well as internal structure. 
It shares with Nasua the general pattern of white and black facial 
markings, hairy mid-section of upper lip, and annulated tail, but 
departs in more robust form, shorter snout, pointed ears, free digits, 
short front claws, and short, cylindrical instead of tapering tail. 
Important similarities in cranial structure and dental details, espe- 
cially the molar cusps, are apparent, but the skull diverges notably in 
its short and broad, instead of narrow and elongated outlines. Among 
other cranial characters that distinguish Procyon from Nasua are the 
o-reater breadth of the palate betw^een the molars in relation to breadth 
of bony palate behind molars (palate nearly parallel-sided throughout 
its length in Nasua) ; upper molariform tooth rows curved posteriorly, 
instead of being nearly straight ; mastoid processes much more promi- 
nent; and canines more rounded and conical, instead of flattened and 
saber-like, with trenchant anterior and posterior edges. The genus 
Procyon differs from the genus NasueUa in about the same characters 
as from Nasua. 

The genus Procyon is more distantly related to the genus Bas- 
saricyon which it approaches in general type of dentition, but with 
which it contrasts strongly in color and in many important structural 
details. Procyon is a much larger, more heavily built animal than 
Bassaricyon, which also exhibits a departure in color, pelage, and other 
external features. In Bassaricyon the color is more uniform, the face 
somewhat grayish but lacking the black mask and white markings of 
Procyon and the general body color ochraceous tawny. The general 
pelage is much denser, softer, and has a silky quality very unlike that 
of Procyon. The tail is longer in Bassaricyon, flattened instead of 
cylindrical, and is indistinctly annulated. The ears are more rounded 
in Bassaricyon than m Procyon, and a median projection of the 
rhinarium extends across the lip to the mouth. The skulls of Procyon 
and Bassaricyon are somewhat similar in general form, but differ in 
many important features. Contrasted with that of Bassaricyon, the 
skull of Procyon presents points of difference including the following: 
Aluch larger, more massive (thin-walled and delicate in Bassaricyon) ; 
brain case less inflated ; orbits relatively smaller ; postorbital processes 
much less, and mastoid processes much more, developed; canines 
without distinct grooves (canines with two distinct longitudinal 
grooves on inner, and two on outer, surfaces in Bassaricyon). 

Compared with the genus Potos, the most aberrant American mem- 
ber of the family as currently recognized, the genus Procyon differs so 



RACCOONS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA 27 

widely that the commonly accepted family alignmcuit seems open to 
some question. Pofos contrasts strongly in nearly uniform coloration, 
rounded ears, and long, tapering, short-haired, prehensile tail. The 
rhinarium in Potos traverses the upper lip more as in Bassaricyon. In 
the skull of Potos similarly striking contrasts with Procyon are evident. 
The teeth may be regarded as somewhat similar in general form l)ut 
there the resemblance ends. The molar crowns in Potos are lower and 
much simpler than in Procyon, being nearly flat and without well- 
developed cusps at any age, the posterior molars almost completely 
opposed, above and below. Anterior premolars, present in Procyon, 
are absent in Potos, a condition correlated with the shortening of the 
rostrum in the latter genus. The canines, normally rounded and 
without distinct grooves in the adult stage in Procyon, are flattened and 
saber-like, with deeply grooved sides in Potos. The mandible in Potos 
is remarkable for its depth and long, early-fused symphysis, the space 
between the rami anteriorly U-shaped instead of V-shaped, as is usual 
in the group. The lower border of the ramus, convex in Procyon, is 
concave in Potos, owing to lateral compression and downward expan- 
sion of the angle. Among other differential cranial features of Potos 
are the parallel-sided palate, peculiar flat bullae, and complete absence 
of the mastoid processes so well developed in Procyon. 

The genus Procyon requires no close comparison with the Old World 
procyonid genera Ailurus and Ailuropoda of the subfamily Ailurinae. 
The characters of the Old World genera and their relationship to the 
other procyonids have recently been discussed by Gregory (1936) and 
by McGrew (1938). Among other important references bearing on 
the classification of the Procyonidae are Hollister (1915), and Pocock 
(1921). 

KEY TO SUBGENERA 

aK Pelage of two kinds, long guard hairs and short, soft underfur; hair on nape 
normal, not directed forward; palate extending behind posterior molars a 
distance of more than one-fourth length of palate Procyon (p. 28) 

a^. Pelage coarse and wiry, without underfur; hair on nape directed forward; 
palate extending behind posterior molars a distance of less than one-fourth 
length of palate Euproct/on (p. 80) 

LIST OF NORTH AMERICAN SPECIES AND SUBSPECIES, WITH TYPE 

LOCALITIES 

Subgenus PROCYON Storr 

Procyon lolor lotor (Linnaeus) Pennsylvania (p. 33). 

lotor hirtus Nelson and Goldman Elk River, Minn. (p. 37). 

lotor varius Nelson and Goldman Castleberry, Ala. (p. 38). 

lotor Utoreus Nelson and Goldman Saint Simon Island, Ga. (p. 40). 

lotor solutus Nelson and Goldman Hilton Head Island, S. C. (p. 41). 

lotor ehicus Bangs Oak Lodge, Brevard County, Fla. 

(p. 42). 
lotor marrnus Nelson Chokoloskee, Fla. (p. 44). 



28 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 6 0, FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 

LIST OF NORTH AMERICAN SPECIES AND SUBSPECIES, WITH TYPE 
LOCALITIES— Continued 

Subgenus PROCYON Storr— Continued 

Procyon Jotor inesperaius Nelson Upper Matecumbe Key, Fla. (p. 46) . 

lotor auspicatus Nelson Marathon, Key Vaca. Fla. (p. 47). 

lotor incaxdus Nelson Torch Key, Fla. (p. 48). 

lotor fuscipes Mearns Fort Clark, Tex. (p. 49) . 

lotor mexicamis Baird Espia, Chihuahua, Mexico (p. 52). 

lotor pallidus Merriam New River, Colorado Desert, Calif. 

(p. 54). 

lotor psora Gray Sacramento, Calif, (p. 56). 

lotor pacificus Merriam Lake Keechelus, Wash. (p. 58) . 

lotor excelsus Nelson and Goldman „ __ Owyhee River, Oreg. (p. 60). 
lotor vancouverensis Nelson and Gold- Vancouver Island, British Colum- 
man. bia (p. 61). 

lotor grinnelU Nelson and Goldman La Paz, Baja Calif, (p. 62). 

lotor hernandezii Wagler Valley of Mexico, Mexico (p. 64). 

/o/or .s/i«/eZdii Nelson and Goldman La Tuxpena, Campeche, Mexico 

(p. 65). 

lotor (iickeyi Nelson and Goldman Barra de Santiago, Salvador (p. 67). 

lotor crassidens HoUister Talamanca, Costa Rica (p. 69). 

lotor pumihis Miller Ancon, Panama (p. 70). 

insularis insularis Mevv\&m Maria Madre Island, Tres Marias 

Islands, Mexico (p. 72). 
znsuZarf.s iiiVinus Nelson and Goldman _ _ Maria Magdalena Island, Tres 

Marias Islands, Mexico (p. 73). 
?na,i'ytt«rr/z Bangs New Providence Island, Bahamas 

(p. 75). 

pygmaeus Merriam Cozumel Island, Yucatan (p. 76). 

minor Miller „ Pointe-a-Pitre, Guadeloupe Island , 

Lesser Antilles (p. 77). 
gloveralleni Nelson and Goldman Island of Barbados, Lesser An- 
tilles (p. 79). 

Subgenus EUPROCYON Gray 
Procyon cancrivoriis panamensis (Goldman)_^ Gatun, C. Z. (p. 82). 

Subgenus PROCYON Storr 
[References under Genus Procyon Storr. p. 25] 

Distribution. — Nearly transcontinental from southern Canada to 
Panama; occin'ring also on some of the outlying islands. 

Subijeneric characters. — Contrasted with the subgenus Euprocyoii: 
Pelage longer and of two kinds — long coarse guard hairs and short, 
soft underfur; hair on nape normal, not directed forward; claws nar- 
rower, more compressed laterally, of greater vertical depth at base, 
and more sharply pointed. Bony palate extending behind posterior 
molars a distance of more than one-fourth the total length of palate. 
Molariform teeth, except first premolars, smaller, with narrower, 
more sharply pointed cusps ; connecting ridges between principal cusps 
higher, more trenchant. 



RACCOONS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA 29 

Remarks. — The subgenus Procyori overlaps the range of the sub- 
genus Euprocyon in Panama, but the characters pointed out are quite 

distinctive. 

Key to Species and Subspecies of the Subgenus PROCYON 

[Typical adults] 
o'. Geographic range continental. 
b\ Geographic range eastern United States and sonthern Canada, west to near 
longitude 90°. 
c^. Size smaller; hind foot usually less than 120 nun.; geograi)hic range excluding 
greater part of Florida, 
rfi. Color darker; geographic range southeastern Canada and the North- 
eastern States, mainly north of latitude 35° „P. 1. lotor (p. 33). 

d^. Color paler; geographic range Southeastern States, mainly south of 

latitude 35° P. I. varius (p. 38). 

c^. Size larger; hind foot usually more than 120 mm.; geographic range greater 

part of Florida P. I. elucus (p. 42). 

b^. Geographic range not including eastern United States far beyond longitude 

90°. 

cK Geographic range mainly east of longitude 105°, and north of latitude 22°. 

d^. Color darker, more suffused with buff; pelage longer; geographic range 

mainly upper Mississippi and Missouri River drainage.-P. I. hirtus (p. 37). 

d'^. Color paler, more suffused with gray; pelage shorter; geographic range 

mainly Texas and northeastern Mexico P. I. fuscipes (p. 49). 

c^. Geographic range not mainly east of longitude 105° and north of latitude 22°. 
d^. Geographic range mainly west of the Sierra Nevada and Cascade Range, 
e'. Color darker; geographic range mainly southwestern British Columbia, 

western Washington, and western Oregon P. I. pacifirus (p. 58). 

e~. Color paler; geographic range mainly California P. I. psora (p. 56). 

d^. Geographic range not inainly west of the Sierra Nevada and Cascade 
Range, 
gi. Size larger; geographic range mainly Snake and Humboldt River drainage 

in Idaho, Oregon, and Nevada P. I. excelsus (p. 60). 

e^. Size smaller; geographic range not including Snake and Humboldt River 

drainage in Idaho, Oregon, and Nevada. 
p. Color paler; geographic range Colorado River drainage 

P. I. pallidas (p. 54). 
p. Color darker; geographic range not including Colorado River drainage. 

fir'. Geographic range southern Baja California P. I. grinneUi (p. 62). 

g'^. Geographic range not including southern Baja California. 
h^. Geographic range mainly north or west of Isthmus of Tehuantepec. 
i^. Color paler; geographic range northwestern Mexico south to about 

latitude 22° P. I. mexicanus (p 52). 

i^. Color darker; geographic range high tableland and coastal regions of 
Mexico from about latittide 22° to Isthmus of Tehuantepec 

P. I. hernandezii (p. 64). 
h^. Geographic range mainly south or east of Isthmus of Tehuantepec. 
i^. Color paler; geographic range mainly north of latitude 14°, including 

Yucatan Peninsula P. I. shufeldti (p. 65). 

i^. Color darker; geographic range mainly south of latitude 14°. 
j^. Skull less massive; known geographic range southwestern coast of 
Salvador P. I. dickeiji (p. 67). 



30 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 60. FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 

j2. Skull more massive; known geographic range excluding southwestern 
coast of Salvador. 
k^. Skull longer and narrower; dentition heavier; knowni geographic 
range Costa Rica, Nicaragua, and Honduras 

P. I. crassidens (p. 69). 
A;2. Skull shorter and broader; dentition lighter; known geographic 

range Panama P- I- puniUus (p. 70). 

o2. Geographic range insular (at least in part), 
fei. Geographic range off Pacific coast. 

cK Georgaphic range Vancouver Island P. 1. vancouverensis (p. 61). 

C-. Geographic range oiT west coast of Mexico [P. insularis and subspecies]. 
d^. Color paler; geographic range Maria Madre Island, Nayarit 

P. i. insularis (p. 72). 
d2. Color darker; geographic range Maria Magdalena Island, Nayarit 

P. i. vicinus (p. 73). 
fe2. Geographic range off Atlantic coast (at least in part). 
c^. Geographic range far offshore islands (Bahamas and Lesser Antilles). 
dK Geographic range Bahama Islands (New Providence Island) 

P. maynardi (p. 75). 
d^. Geographic range Lesser Antilles, 
e'. Color darkei'; upper carnassial longer than broad; geographic range 

Barbados Island P. glover alleni (p. 79). 

e^. Color paler; upper carnassial shorter than broad; geographic range 

Guadeloupe Island P. minor (p. 77). 

c2. Geographic range coastal islands (at least in part), 
di. Size larger; hind foot more than 90 mm.; geographic range southern 
Florida Keys and islands and coasts of Georgia and South Carolina, 
e^. Geographic range southern Florida Keys (at least in part). 
p. Color darker; geographic range very close to or extending to Florida 
coast. 
g^. Size larger; total length (adult male) more than 700 mm.; geographic 
range Upper Matecumbe and other keys near base of main Florida 

chain P. I. inesperatus (p. 46) . 

gr2. Size smaller; total length (adult male) less than 700 mm.; geographic 
range keys of Ten Thousand Islands group and adjacent coast 

P. I. rnarinns (p. 44). 

p. Color paler; geographic range outer half of Florida Keys. 

g^. Size larger; hind foot (adult male) more than 110 mm.; palatal bridge 

extending on median line beyond plane of last molars more than 12 

mm. ; geographic range Big Pine Key group, near extreme end of 

Florida chain P. I. incautus (p. 48). 

g^. Size smaller; hind foot (adult male) less than 110 mm.; palatal bridge 
extending on median line beyond plane of last molars less than 12 

mm.; geographic range Key Vaca P. I. auspicatus (p. 47). 

e^. Geographic range islands and coasts of Georgia and South Carolina. 
p. Dentition heavier; crown length of upper carnassial usually more than 
9 mm.; geographic range Saint Simon Island, neighboring islands, and 

coast of Georgia P. I. litoreus (p. 40). 

p. Dentition lighter; crown length of upper carnassial usually less than 
9 mm. ; geographic range Hilton Head Island, neighboring islands, and 

coast of South Carolina P. I. solutus (p. 41). 

d^. Size smaller; hind foot about 90 mm. or less; geographic range Cozumel 
Island, east coast of Yucatan P. pyginueus (p. 76). 



RACCOONS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA 31 

PROCYON LOTOR GROUP 

DiMribufion. — Transcontinental (except in parts of the Rocky 
Mountain region) from southern Canada to Panama, and islands as 
far distant as the Tres Marias off the west coast of Mexico and the 
Bahamas and Lesser Antilles, West Indies. Altitudinal range is from 
sea level up along streams to about 5,000 feet in parts of the Rocky 
Mountain region (a few animals reaching as high as 8,500 feet eleva- 
tion), and to more than 9,000 feet in the mountains near Ajusco south 
of the Valley of Mexico. It occupies the Tropical, Austral, Transition, 
and lower part of Canadian Zones. 

Characters. — Contrasted with Procyon cancrivorus and related forms: 
Pelage of nape inclined backward; pelage consisting of two distinct 
kinds of hairs — soft, dense, velvety underfur, and longer, stiffer, 
projecting overlying hairs; throat and postauricular areas blackish; 
cusps of larger molariform teeth relatively high and trenchant, with 
distinct connecting ridges. 

Remarks. — The Procyon lotor group includes P. lotor and subspecies 
of the mainland from Canada to Panama and closely adjacent islands. 
To the group may also conveniently be referred several more distant 
insular forms regarded as specifically distinct, but closely allied, as 
shown by similarity in important characters. These inhabit the Tres 
Marias Islands off the west coast of Mexico, Cozumel Island off Yuca- 
tan, and several rather widely separated islands of the West Indies. 
How the particular West Indian islands now inhabited were reached 
by raccoons and why these animals do not occur on many other 
islands of the archipelago where conditions seem similarly suitable are 
interesting subjects for speculation. Sloane (1725, p. 829) referred to 
the occurrence of the animal in Jamaica, as follows: "The Raccoons 
are commonly here in the Mountains, and live in hollow fiddlewood 
Trees, from whence they make paths to go to seek Sugar Canes, which 
is their chief, if only Sustenance." As there appear to be no later 
records and as Sloane referred vaguely to various authors who described 
raccoons elsewhere, he probably confused Jamaica with some other 
island. 

The members of the group as a whole differ among themselves in 
tone of coloration, but the pattern of color markings is essentially the 
same, and all forms are much alike in general external appearance. 
They require close comparison as a group only with the crab-eating 
raccoon, Procyon {Euprocyon) cancrivorus, the range of a northern 
representative of the latter being overlapped in Panama. The char- 
acters that have been mentioned, however, readily separate the two 
groups. 



32 KORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 60, FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 

PKOCYON LOTOR (Linnaeus) 

ISynonyniy undci- suhspocies] 

Distribution. — Transcontinental (except in the Rocky Mountain 
region) from southern Canada to Panama, and islands near mainland 
coast. The altitudinal and zonal ranges have been given under the 
distribution of the various subspecies. 

General characters. — Size variable, general color of upper parts 
ranging from iron grayish to blackish, more or less suffused with 
ochraceous buff, especially on nape and lighter caudal rings; pelage 
long, full, and soft in the northern subspecies, much shorter, thinner, 
and stiff er in the more southern forms. Similar in external appearance 
to, but differing in cranial characters from, distant insular animals 
recognized as belonging to distinct species. 

Color. — Upper parts in general varying from iron grayish to blackish, 
more or less suffused with buff, rusty, or "orange rufous," especially on 
nape, the general tone depending much upon the relative width and 
distribution of light subapical bands and black tips of long hairs; 
dorsum more or less heavily overlaid with black, tending to thin out 
and become grayer along sides; top of head varying mixtures of black 
and white or gray, producing a grizzled effect; face with a sharply 
delimited black mask usually reaching from cheeks across eyes and 
muzzle, with median extensions downward to rhinarium and upward 
on forehead, more or less interrupted between the eyes, however, in 
some forms; facial mask bordered above by conspicuous white lines 
extending from near middle of forehead backward under ears or to 
sides of neck; sides of muzzle, lips, and chin white; tufts of stiff, 
whitish vibrissae 50 to 100 millimeters in length, arising from sides of 
muzzle, and smaller, less conspicuous tufts arising, one on each side 
over eyes and sides of cheeks; under parts, in general, thinly overlaid 
with long grayish or buffy over hairs, only partially concealing the 
dense brownish underfur; throat crossed by a distinct blackish or 
brownish area, separated from facial mask by narrow white lines 
extending posteriorly from muzzle; ears clothed with short grayish or 
buffy hairs, with black areas varying in size and distinctness at 
posterior base; forearms and thighs similar to under parts, but hind 
legs more or less distinctly blackish near heels; fore feet whitish; hind 
feet usually whitish, but dusky of ankles sometimes extending down 
on metatarsus; toes of hind feet with a few grayish or dusky bristles 
usually extending beyond ends of longest claws; tail above with five to 
seven conspicuous black rings and a black tip, alternating with broader 
grayish or buffy rings, the black rings less sharply defined and some- 
times interrupted below. 



RACCOONS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA 33 

Remarks. — Procyon lofor is divisible into 25 geographic races which 
on the mainland form a closely intergrading series. The species 
attains its largest size in P. I. excehus of the Snake River Valley in 
southeastern Washington, eastern Oregon, and southern Idaho, and 
the smallest forms are from the Florida Keys. The palest subspecies 
inhabit the hot arid delta of the Colorado River and adjoining regions, 
and the darkest have developed in the regions of heavy precipitation 
in Central America. 

PROCYON LOTOR LOTOR (Linnaeus) 

Eastern Raccoon 

[f7rs?is] lolor Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. (ed. 10) 1: 48, 1758. 

[Meles] lotor Boddaert, Elenchus Animal 1 : 80, 1784. "Habitat in America." 

L[otor] vulgaris Tiedemann, Zoologie. Zu seinen Vorlesungen entworfen, erster 

band, Mensch und Saugthiere, p. 380, 1808, (part). From North America, 

Mexico, and the Antilles. 
Procyon annulahis G. Fischer, Zoognosia 3: 177, 1814 (part). "Habitat in Ameri- 

cae maritimis." 
Procyon lotor Illiger, Abhand. Konig Akad. Wissensch. Berlin, 1804-181 1, pp. 

70, 74, 1815. 
Procyon gularis Hamilton Smith, Jardine's Nat. Lib. 15: 222, 1848. From State 

of New York. 

Type locality. — Pennsylvania.^ 

Tyjie. — Not known to exist. 

Distribution. — Nova Scotia, southern New Brunswick, southern 
Quebec, and southern Ontario south through the eastern United 
States to North Carolina, and from the Atlantic coast west to Lake 
Michigan, Indiana, southern Illinois, western Kentucky, and probably 
eastern Tennessee. Lower Austral to Canadian Zones. 

General characters. — A rather small, dark form with long, full, soft 
pelage; skull with moderately high, narrow frontal region, and weak 
or obsolescent postorbital processes. Similar to P. I. hirtus of Minne- 
sota, but much smaller; pelage less extremely long, and less suffused 
with ochraceous buff; skull smaller. Differs from P. I. solutus of 
Hilton Head Island and the coastal region of South Carolina in darker, 
less grayish coloration, more elongated skull, and other cranial 
details. Resembles P. I. litoreus of Saint Simon Island and the coastal 
region of Georgia, but pelage longer and softer, and cranial characters, 
especially the much smaller molariform teeth, distinctive. Much 
like P. I. varius of Alabama, but larger, usually darker, and pelage 
much longer; skull larger and of heavier proportions. 

Color. — Upper parts, in general, varying shades of buffy grayish 
(becoming ochraceous buff or rusty rufous on nape and across shoul- 

2 Type locality fixed by Thomas, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1911, p. 140. 



34 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 6 0, FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 

ders in somo individuals) overlaid with black, the general tone due 
mainly to black-tipped hairs with a ligiiter subterminal zone, the dark 
brownish iinderfur showing through to some extent; sides of body 
somewhat lighter, the black tips of hairs shorter or black-tipped hairs 
less numerous than on median dorsal area; top of head mixed black 
and white or grayish, giving a coarsely grizzled effect; black mask 
enclosing eyes, but more or less discontinuous on middle of face where 
a blackish median line is more or less distinctly isolated by lighter 
lateral lines; upper surface of muzzle usually brownish; facial mask 
bordered above by rather broad and conspicuous whitish lines extend- 
ing posteriorly across cheeks to sides of neck; sides of muzzle, lips, 
and chin white; under parts, in general, thinly overlaid with long 
grayish or huffy overhairs only partially concealing the dense under- 
fur, which varies from near wood brown to chestnut bowai; throat 
crossed by a brownish or blackish area, separated from facial mask 
laterally by narrow whitish or buffy lines extending posteriorly from 
muzzle; ears densely clothed inside and out with short, whitish or 
buffy hairs, merging with the general pelage on external basal portion; 
black postauricular patches usually large and conspicuous; forearms 
and thighs similar to under parts, but hind legs more or less distinctly 
blackish near heels; fore and hind feet, including toes, whitish, the 
soles black and naked; tail above with five to seven narrow black 
rings and a black tip, alternating with broader grayish or ochraceous 
buffy rings, the black rings less sharply defined and sometimes inter- 
rupted below. Young (in first pelage) : Color markings as in adults, 
but top of head, nape, and postauricular spots nearly pure brownish 
black, in contrast to the lighter, generally buffy, tone of dorsum, over 
which the black-tipped hairs beginning to appear are still incon- 
spicuous. 

Cranial characters .—Skull rather small, w4th moderately high, nar- 
row frontal region; brain case depressed near fronto-parietal suture; 
postorbital processes of frontals small or obsolescent; postorbital 
processes of jugal well developed. Very similar to that of P. I. hirtus, 
but much smaller, less massive; sides of frontals behind orbits usually 
more deeply indented or constricted, the result being that sides of 
brain case are more rounded or bulging, less tapering anteriorly; 
dentition relatively the same. Not very unlike that of P. I. solutus, 
but longer and relatively narrower; frontal region usually narrower; 
palatal shelf longer, extending farther posteriorly beyond posterior 
molars; dentition usually somewhat lighter, the large molariform teeth 
rather narrow, but maxillary tooth row longer as a rule, owing to wider 
spacing of premolars. Similar in general form to that of P. I. litoreus, 
but smaller, and dentition relatively much lighter, the difference most 
marked in the molariform teeth. Compared with that of P. I. varius, 



RACCOONS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA 35 

the skull of p. I. lotor is larger and heavier; jiigal broader; sides of 
frontals behind orbits usually more deeply indented or constricted; 
maxillary tooth row longer; posterior upper premolar and upper 
carnassial usually distinctly larger. 

Measurements. — Adult female from Liberty Hill, Conn. : Total length, 832 milli- 
meters; tail vertebrae, 247; hind foot, 118. Adult female from Minerva, N. Y. : 805; 
225; 105. Adult male from Granville, Nova Scotia: 837; 240; 116. Two adult 
males from Dismal Swamp, Va., respectively: 800, 860; 245, 285; 115, 110. Adult 
female from Dismal Swamp, Va. : 800; 250; 115. Skull: Adult female from Lib- 
erty Hill, Conn.: Greatest length, 114.4; condylobasal length, 109.8; zygomatic 
breadth, 74.1; interorbital breadth, 23; least width of palatal shelf, 14.8; maxillary 
tooth row (alveoli), 41.7; upper carnassial, crown length, 8.8, crown width, 9.2. 
Male and female from Adirondack Mountains, N. Y., respectively: Greatest 
length, 117, 110.9; condylobasal length, 112.9, 107.4; zygomatic breadth, 71.8, 
67.9; interorbital breadth, 22.7, 23.3; least width of palatal shelf, 16.2, 16.2; max- 
illary tooth row, 42.4, 41.9; upper carnassial, crown length, 8.3, 8.3, crown width, 
8.9, 9.3. Male and female from Dismal Swamp, Va., respectively: Greatest 
length, 116, 111.6; condylobasal length, 109.2, 105.7; zygomatic breadth, 76.4, 
68.5; interorbital breadth, 25, 23.3; least width of palatal shelf, 16.2, 16.5; maxil- 
lary tooth row, 41.9, 39.7; upper carnassial, crown length, 8.8, 8.5, crown width, 
9.2, 9.1. 

Remarks. — Although individual variation is considerable, and due 
allowance shoidd be made for it, the general characters of P. I. lotor 
are maintained with a fair degree of constancy throughout its range. 
Specimens from the northern part of the area have somewhat longer 
pelage and average somewhat darker than those from the southern 
part, but individuals contrasting strongly in color, some very dark 
and others light in tone, may be found at the same locality. Inter- 
gradation with P. I. hirtus, P. I. solutus, P. I. litoreus, and P. I. 
varius is evident, but the transition from one geographic race to another 
seems to be rather abrupt. [See also appendix, p. 84.] Specimens of P. 
I. lotor from Belleville, 111., and New Richmond, Mich., approach 
hirtus and might be referred to that form. Those from Dismal Swamp, 
Va., and eastern North Carolina are variable; some being near-typical 
lotor, while others grade toward solutus. 

[Meles] lotor Boddaert, L[otor] vulgaris Tiedemann, and Procyon 
annulatus G. Fischer are substitute names for [Ursus] lotor Linnaeus. 
Procyon gularis Hamilton Smith was based on a live individual "in the 
State of New York," in which the "whole throat was black." There 
is no reason to assume that the animal differed from the typical form 
of the region, in which the amount of black on the throat is quite 
variable. 

Specimens examined. — Total number, 181, as follows: 

Connecticut: Liberty Hill, 3;^ West Greenwich, 2 (skulls only); exact locality un- 
known, 1 (skull only). 
District of Columbia: Washington, 1 (skull only). 

3 Mus. Comp. Zool. 



36 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 6 0, FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 

Illinois: Belleville, 2 (skulls only); Olive Branch, 2 (skulls only);-' Rosiclare, \.* 

Indiana: Bicknell, 2 (skulls only); Culver, 1 (skull only); Pitcher Lake, Posey 
County, 1 (skull only) f Porter County, I (skull only) ; Russiaville, 1 (skull 
only) ; Salamonia, 1 (skull only) .•* 

Kentucky: Mammoth Cave, 1; Paducah, 1. 

Maine: Bethel, 4 (3 skulls without skins) f Bucksport, 2 (skulls only) ;^ Ellsworth, 
1 (skin only) ;3 Greenville, 1;^ Penobscot River, 2; Umbagog Lake, 1 (skull 
only) ;^ Upton, l.^ 

Maryland: Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge, Dorchester County, 5 (1 skull 
without skin) [referable to P. L maritimus, see appendix, p. 85]; Bowie, 1 
(skull only) ; Branchville, 1 ; Cabin John, 1 ; Jefferson, 2 (1 skull without skin) ; 
Laurel, 7 (skulls only) ; Marshall Hall, 1 (skull only) ; Patuxent River, 1 
(skull only). 

Massachusetts: Ayer, 1 (skull only);^ Brookhaven, 1 (skull only); Pepperell, 1 
(skull only);^ Stockbridge, 1 (skull only).* 

Michigan: Constantine, 1 (skin only);^ Detroit, 1 (skull only); New Richmond, 1 
(skull only). 

New Hampshire: O.ssipee, 1 (skull only). 

New Jersey: Tuckerton, 3. 

New York: Adirondack Mountains, 9 (skulls only); Essex County, 4 (skulls 
only); Fort Montgomery, 2 (1 skin without skull) ;^ Hastings, 1;^ Hastings 
on Hudson, 4 (2 skins without skulls) ;^ Lake George, 1 (skull only) ; Lewis 
County, 1 (skull only) ; Leyden, 1 (skull only) ; Locust Grove, 1 ; Long 
Island, 1;^ Monroe County, 1 (skull only);^ Minerva, 3;' Netherwood, 1;^ 
Piseco, 1; Saint Lawrence County, 2 (1 without skin and 1 without skull); 
Schoharie, 1 (skin only) ;^ Schroon Lake, 1 (skull only) ; Severance, 8 (skulls 
only); Sing Sing, 16 (skulls only); West Point, 2 (skins only). 

North Carolina: Asheville, 6 (5 skulls without skins); Coinjock, 1 (skin only); 
Highlands, 1 (skin only) ; Moore County, 1 (skull only) ; Pisgah National 
Forest (Bent Creek), 3 (skulls only): Raleigh, 1 (skull only). 

Nova Scotia: Bridgetown, 1;* Digby, 1; Granville, 3.^ 

Ontario: Credit River, 1 (skull only);* Preston, Waterloo County, 1 (skull only).* 

Pennsylvania: Allegheny County, 2 (1 without skin and 1 without skull) ; Carlisle, 
7 (skulls only) ; Chester County, 1 (skull only) . 

Vermont: Newfane, 1 (skull only). 

Virginia: Amelia County, 1 (skull only); Buckingham County, 2 (skins only); 
Chesterfield, 1 (skull only) ; Chesterfield County, 1 (skull only) ; Clarke 
County, 1 (skull only); Dismal Swamp, 5 (1 skull without skin); Fredericks- 
burg, 4 (skulls only); Gunston, 2 (skulls only); Morrison, 1 (skull only); 
Nelson County, 1 (skin only); Smith Island, 2; Warwick County, 1 (skull 
only); Washington, 4 (1 skull without skin). 

3 Mus. Comp. Zool. 

■Chicago Mus. Nat. Hist. 

■Univ. Michigan Mus. Zool. 
« Mus. Vert. Zool. 
' Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. 
* Natl. Mus. Canada. 



RACCOONS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA 37 

PROCYON LOTOR HIRTUS Nelson and Goldman 
Upper Mississippi Valley Raccoon 

Procyon lotor hirtus Nelson and Goldman, Jour. Mammal. 11 (4): 455, Nov. 11, 
1930. 

Type locality. — Elk River, Sherburne County, Minn. 

r?/2J^.— No. 187926, male adult, skin and skull. United States 
National Museum (Merriam collection) ; collected by Vernon Bailey, 
March 4, 1886. 

Distribution. — Upper Mississippi and Missouri River drainage areas 
from the eastern slopes of the Rocky Mountains east to Lake Michi- 
gan, and from southern Manitoba and probably southwestern 
Ontario and southeastern Alberta south to southern Oklahoma and 
Arkansas. Overlapping divisions of Upper Austral and Transition 
Zones; entering Canadian Zone to a limited extent near Lake Superior. 

General characters. — A large, dark subspecies with long, full, soft 
pelage, usually suffused with ochraceous buff; skull with high, narrow 
frontal region, and weak or obsolescent postorbital processes. Similar 
to P. I. lotor of the eastern United States, but much larger; pelage 
longer and usually more suffused with ochraceous buff. Size about 
as in P. I. fuscipes of Texas, but color darker, the pelage much longer 
and denser, more suffused with buff instead of grayish, the light 
subapical zone of hairs over upper parts less extensive and permitting 
the under color to show through; skull differing in slight details. 

Color. — Similar to P. I. lotor but usually more suffused with 
ochraceous buff. 

Cranial characters. — Skull very similar to that of P. I. lotor in general 
form, but much larger, more massive; brain case usually more tapering 
anteriorly, the sides of frontals diagonally below and behind post- 
orbital processes less deeply indented or constricted; postorbital 
processes of frontals weakly developed, or obsolescent, as in lotor. 
About the same in size and in most important details as P. I. fuscipes, 
but interorbital and postorbital regions usually narrower; frontal area 
similarly high, but usually less flattened, with a narrower, more 
distinct, V-shaped median depression. 

Measurements. — An adult male from Fargo, N. Dak.: Total length, 880 mm.; 
tail vertebrae, 265; hind foot, 125. Skull: Type: Greatest length, 127.1; 
condylobasal length, 122.2; zygomatic breadth, 80.5; interorbital breadth, 25.8; 
least width of palatal shelf, 15.8; maxillary tooth row (alveoli), 45.8; upper 
carnassial, crown length, 8.8, crown width, 9. 

Remarks. — The raccoon of the upper part of the Mississippi Valley 
is readily distinguished from its eastern relative, P. I. lotor, by much 
larger size, especially of the skulls. It is less easily separated from 
P. I. fuscipes of Texas, which is of about the same size, but typical 
specimens differ in color and in cranial details as pointed out. Inter- 



38 NOHTII AMERICAN FAUNA 60, FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 

gradation is evident, but in the sum of characters presented these 
widely ranging form's are quite distinct. 

Specimens examined. — Total number, 61, as follows: 
Colorado: Arkins, 1 (skull only); Cherry Creek, Arapahoe County, 2 (1 skull 

without skin); Estelene, 1; Las Animas, 1; Loveland, 1; Tuttle, 1; Wray, 4 

(1 skin without skull; 3 skulls without skins). 
Illinois: Chicago (Jackson Park), 1; Henderson County, 1; Joliet, 1 (skin only). 
Iowa: Keosanqua State Park, Van Buren County, 1.^ 
Kansas: Manhattan, 1 (skull only). 
Minnesota: Beltrami County, 1; Elk River (type locality), 13 (6 skulls without 

skins). 
Missouri: Independence, 1 (skull only); Marble Cave, 1 (skull only). 
Nebraska: Beemer, 2 (skulls only); Haigler, 1 (skull only); Johnstown, 1 (skull 

only) ; Republican Fork, Platte River, 1 (skull only) ; Valentine, 1 (skull 

only); without exact locality, 1 (skull only). 
New Mexico: Bear Canyon, Raton Range, 1 (skull only); Raton Range (mouth 

of Trinchera Pass), 1. 
North Dakota: Fargo, 1; Grafton, 1 (skull only): Towner, 1. 
Oklahoma: Fort Cobb, 1 (skull only); Frederick ("20 miles from"), 1 (skin 

only); Mount Scott, 4 (1 skull without skin); Redfork, 1 (skin only). 
Texas: Canadian, 1 (skull only). 
Wisconsin: Delavan, 6 (5 skulls without skins); Okee, 1 (skull only); without 

exact locality, 1 (skull only). 
Wyoming: New Haven, 1. 

PROCYON LOTOR VARIUS Nelson and Goldman 
Alabam.\ Raccoo.n 
Procyon lotor varius Nelson and Goldman, Jour. Mammal. 11 (4): 456, Nov. 11, 
1930. 

Type locality. — Castleberry, Conecuh Countj^ Ala. 

Type. — No. 158246, female adult, skin and skull, United States 
National Museum (Biological Surveys collection) ; collected by A. H. 
Howell, October 10, 1908. 

Distribution. — Extreme southwestern Kentucky, Tennessee, Missis- 
sippi, northern Louisiana, Alabama, northwestern Florida, and western 
Georgia. Mainly Lower Austral Zone. 

General characters. — A small subspecies most closely resembling 
Procyon lotor lotor, but smaller, usually paler, pelage much shorter, 
and skull differing in detail. Differing from P. I. elucus of Florida in 
paler color, rather decidedly smaller size, and in cranial features. 
Similar to P. I. fuscipes of Texas in color, but much smaller, with a 
different skull. 

Color. — Upper parts in general light buffy grayish, with a light 
ochraceous buffy suffusion along median dorsal area, becoming more 
intense on nape and shoidders, thinly overlaid with black; sides 
clearer gray, the black-tipped hairs of dorsum thinning out; top of 
head mixed brownish black and gray; facial mask brownish black. 



'Iowa State College. 



RACCOONS OF NORTH AND AdlDDLE AMERICA 39 

becoming rusty brownish on median line between eyes, and ochraceous 
buffy on upper surface of muzzle; sides of muzzle, lips, and chin 
white; under parts in general thinly ovei'laid with })uffy grayish; 
throat patch brownish black; ears grayish with small black patches 
at posterior base; legs grayish, becoming whitish on feet; tail above 
with about five or six black rings and a black tip, alternating with 
light ochraceous buffy rings, the dark rings becoming buffy and less 
distinct below. 

Cranial characters. — Skull small and slender, with weak or obsoles- 
cent postorbital processes of frontals; very similar to that of P. I. 
lotor, but smaller and more delicate in structure; jugal narrower; 
sides of frontals diagonally behind and below postorbital processes 
usually less deeply indented or laterally constricted; maxillary tooth 
row shorter; posterior upper premolar and upper carnassial usually 
distinctly smaller; very similar to that of P. I. elucus in general form, 
but rather decidedly smaller; brain case narrower, frontal region 
flatter, less "humped." Compared with that of P. I. fuscipes the skull 
is much smaller, more slender, with narrower frontal region, and 
postorbital processes of frontals (not very prominent in Juscipes) less 
developed. 

Measurements. — Type: Total length, 720 mm.; tail vertebrae, 218; hind foot, 
103. An adult male from Hurricane, Ala.: 772; 258; 109. Skull: Type: 
Greatest length, 104.8; condylobasal length, 98.6; zygomatic breadth, 64.4; 
interorbital breadth, 22.5; least width of palatal shelf, 14.6; maxillary tooth row 
(alveoli), 39.8; upper carnassial, crown length, 7.8, crown width, 7.9. 

Remarks. — The Alabama raccoon agrees more closely in combina- 
tion of characters with typical lotor than with any of the other known 
subspecies, although its distribution area constitutes a wedge, sepa- 
rating the ranges of elucus, fuscipes, and litoreus. [See appendix, 
p. 84.] Intergradation with these forms is evident, but the lines of 
demarcation between them appear to be fairly sharply drawn. 

Specimens exa/mined. — Total number 57, as follows: 
Alabama: Ashford, 2 (1 skull without skin); Barachias, 5 (skulls only); Castle- 
berry, 2; Huntsville, 1; Hurricane (4 miles north), 2; Orange Beach, 
11 (9 skulls without skins); Perdido Bay, 1 (skull only); Sylacauga, 2 
(skulls only). 
Florida: Apalachicola, 5 (skulls only). 
Georgia: Geneva, Talbot County, 1 (skull only); Juniper, Talbot County, 6; i° 

Nashville, 2 (1 skin without skull); Talbot County, 5 (skulls only). 
Kentucky: Hickman, 2. 

Louisiana: Baton Rouge, 1;" Morrow, Saint Landry Parish, 1 (skull only); 
Mississippi River (mouth), 1 (skull only) " [referable to P. I. megalodous, 
see appendix, p. 84]. 
Mississippi: Bay Saint Louis, 1 (skin only); Saucier, 1; >- Washington, 2. 
Tennessee: Arlington, 1; Big Sandy, 1; Clarksville, 1. 

i« Mus. Comp. Zool. 

" Louisiana State Univ. Mus. 

'2 Southern Forest Expt. Sta. Collection. 



40 ^'ORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 60, FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 

PROCYON LOTOR LITOREUS Nelson and Goldman 

Saint Simon Island Raccoon 

Procyon lotor litoreus Nelson and Goldman, Jour. Mammal. 11 (4): 457, Nov. 
11, 1930. 

Type locality. — Saint Simon Island, Glynn County, Ga. 

Type. — No. 2450, adult (probably male), skull only, United States 
National Museum; collected by Samuel W. Wilson; entered in museum 
catalog, August 7, 1856. 

Distribution. — Coastal strip and islands of Georgia. Austrori- 
parian division of Lower Austral Zone. 

General characters. — Size medium and color dark, much as in 
Procyon lotor elucus of Florida; length and texture of pelage about the 
same; skull differing in detail, especially in the much heavier den- 
tition. Similar to P. I. lotor of Pennsylvania in color, but pelage 
shorter, more bristly, and cranial characters distinctive. Differing 
from P. I. solutus of South Carolina in more buffy or brownish colora- 
tion and heavy dentition. 

Color. — About as in P. I. elucus. 

Cranial characters. — Skull similar in general form to that of P. I. 
elucus, but frontal region narrower and flatter, the sides usually more 
compressed or abruptly indented behind postorbital processes, leaving 
the brain case bulging laterally instead of tapering gradually into 
orbit as in elucus; dentition much heavier throughout, the difference 
being most noticeable in the large molariform teeth. Differing from 
that of P. I. solutus in larger size and much heavier dentition. Com- 
pared with that of P. I. lotor the skull is usually larger, with much heav- 
ier dentition; postorbital processes of frontal weak or obsolescent as 
in lotor and elucus. 

Measurements. — Adult topotype: Hind foot (dry skin) 107 mm. Skull: Type: 
Greatest length, 116.6; condylobasal length, 109.4; zygomatic breadth, 72.9; 
interorbital breadth, 22.2; least width of palatal shelf, 15.8; maxillary tooth 
row (alveoli), 43.6; upper carnassial, crown length, 9.6, crown width, 9.9. 

Remarks. — The remarkably heavy dentition readily distinguishes 
P. I. litoreus from all others of the group inhabiting the eastern 
United States. Its large teeth are equalled elsewhere in the group 
only in some of the larger subspecies of the Western States and south- 
ern Mexico and Central America. Specimens from Saint Simon 
Island appear to reach the maximum in dental development, but are 
closely approached by those from the adjacent mainland. 

Specimens examined. — Total number, 25, as follows: 

Georgia: Altamaha River (mouth), 5 (skulls only); Mcintosh County, 2 (skulls 
only) ; Ossabaw Island, 1 (skin onhO ; Saint Simon Island, 15 (2 skins, 13 
skulls); Thunderbolt Creek, Chatham County, 2. 



RACCOONS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA 41 

PROCYON LOTOR SOLUTUS Nelson and Goldman 

Hilton Head Island Raccoon 

Procyon lotor soliitus Nelson and Goldman, Jour. Mammal. 12 (3) : 308, Aug. 24, 
1931. 

Type locality. — Hilton Head Island, Beaufort County, S. C. 

Type. — No. 256027, male adult, skin and skull. United States 
National Museum; collected by W. L. Brown, December 10, 1930. 

Distribution. — Coast region and islands of South Carolina. Lower 
Austral Zone. 

General characters. — Size rather small; color grayish; black mask 
uninterrupted across face in two of every three individuals; winter 
pelage rather long and dense. Similar, in general to P. I. litoreus of 
Saint Simon Island and the coast region of Georgia, but color clearer 
gray, less inclining toward buffy or brownish ; skull characters, espe- 
cially the much lighter dentition, distinctive. Differing from P. I. 
lotor in more grayish general coloration, less elongated skull, and other 
cranial details. 

Color. — Upper parts in general grayish, rather heavily overlaid 
with black, especially on median dorsal area; rather small nape patch 
suffused with ochraceous buff; top of head mixed l)lack and gray, the 
gray predominant; black mask usually continuous across middle of 
face, prolonged upward along median line to middle of forehead and 
downward over middle of muzzle to nose; sides of muzzle, lips, and 
chin white; under parts in general thinly overlaid with silvery gray, 
the dark brownish under color showing through; throat patch black- 
ish; ears gray, with black patches at posterior base; limbs similar to 
under parts, becoming brownish gray on feet, the hind legs with pure 
black areas on outer side above heels; tail with about six black rings, 
narrowest near base, and a black tip, alternating with light ochra- 
ceous buffy rings. 

Cranial characters. — Skull of medium size, rather broad, short, and 
light in structure. Similar in general to that of P. I. litoreus but 
smaller; dentition very much lighter. Compared with that of P. I. 
lotor the skull is shorter and relatively broader; frontal region usually 
broader and flatter; palatal shelf shorter; dentition usually somewhat 
heavier, but maxillary tooth row shorter as a rule, the premolars more 
closely crowded. 

Measurements. — An adult male from Bulls Island, S. C. : Total length, 803 
mm.; tail vertebrae, 244; hind foot, 117. Two adult females from Bulls Island, 
S. C., respectively: 635, 749; 193, 260; 105, 107. Skull: Type: Greatest length, 
111.7; condylobasal length, 108.2; zygomatic breadth, 75.1; interorbital breadth, 
24.1; least width of palatal shelf, 16.4; maxillary tooth row (alveoli), 42.1; upper 
carnassial, crown length, 8.8, crown width, 9.2. 

876119°— 50 -1 



42 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 6 0, FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 

Remarks. — The raccoon of Hilton Head Island and neighboring- 
islands, and the adjacent mainland is readily distinguished from P. I. 
Jltoreus by much lighter dentition. Differentiation of this insular form 
is apparently due to isolation, its typical habitat being separated from 
the mainland by a broad and rather deep channel. Some skulls of 
this form closely resemble some of those of P. I. varius, the general size 
and dentition being very similar. Closely compared with those of 
varius, however, the skulls are usually shorter and broader, the frontal 
region broader and flatter, the brain case more rounded and inflated, 
and the cheek teeth somewhat larger. In addition, the longer pelage, 
grayer coloration, and more complete black facial mask appear to be 
distinctive. 

Sj^ecimens- examined. — Total number, 31, as follows: 

South Carolina: Bulls Island, Charleston County, 11 (8 skins without skulls): 
Eddings Island, 1; Edisto Island, Charleston County, 5; >^ Hilton Head Island 
(type locality), 9 (6 skulls without skins); Hunting Island, 1; Saint Helena 
Island, 1; Santee, 2; Yemassee, Hampton County, 1 (skull only).i^ 

PROCYON LOTOR ELUCUS Bangs 
Florida Raccoon 

Procyon lotor eh)C7is Bangs, Boston Soc. Nat. Hist. Proc. 28 (7) : 219, March, 1898. 

Type locality. — Oak Lodge, on a peninsula opposite Micco, Brevard 
County, Fla. 

Type. — No. 3502, old male adult, skin and skull, Museum of Com- 
parative Zoology (Bangs collection); collected by Outram Bangs, 
February 15, 1895. 

Distribution. — Peninsular Florida, except southwestern part in- 
habited by P. I. marinus, north to extreme southern Georgia; grading 
into P. I. varius in northwest Florida. Tropical and Austroriparian 
division of Lower Austral Zone. 

General characters. — A medium-sized, generally dark-colored sub- 
species, with a deep, rusty rufous nuchal patch prominent in many 
typical examples; skull characterized especially by greatly inflated 
frontal vacuities usually giving the upper outline a decidedly "humped" 
appearance. Much like P. I. Utoreus of Saint Simon Island, Ga.; 
general size, color, length and texture of pelage about the same; skull 
differing in detail, especially the much lighter dentition. Similar to 
P. I. varius of Alabama, but color usually darker, size decidedly larger, 
and cranial characters distinctive. Dift'ering from P. I. marinus of the 



13 Mus. Comp. Zool. 



RACCOONS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA 43 

Ten Thousand Islands and P. I. inesperafus of Upper Matecumbe Key 
in larger size, and the more elevated frontal region of skull. 

Color. — About as in P. I. litoreus. Very similar to P. I. lotor but 
averaging somewhat paler, the hairs over median dorsal area with 
shorter black tips and the nape more regularly and deeply suffused 
with rusty or orange rufous. 

Cranial characters. — Skull similar to that of P. I. litoreus, but frontal 
region broader, higher arched, or more "humped"; sides of frontals 
usually less compressed or abruptly indented behind orbits, leaving the 
brain case tapering more gradually anteriorly, instead of bulging 
laterally as in litoreus; dentition much lighter, the difference most 
noticeable in the molariform teeth. Decidedly larger than those of 
P. I. lotor, P. I. varius, P. I. marinus, or P. I. inesperatus, with brain case 
broader, and frontal region more "humped"; postorbital processes of 
frontals obsolescent or small as in other eastern forms. 

Mensurements. — Type (from original description): Total length, 892 mm.; tail 
vertebrae, 286; hind-foot, 125. An adult male topotype: 800; 244; 120. Average 
of five adult males from Saw Grass Island, Catfish Creek, Polk County, Fla. : 812 
(790-850); 259 (240-280); 126 (125-129); weight (pounds), 11 (10-12). Average 
of three adult females from same locality: 758 (745-770); 245 (235-255); 121 
(117-123); weight (pounds), 9 (7.7-10). Skull: Average of five adult males from 
Saw Grass Island, Catfish Creek, Polk County, Fla.: Greatest length, 119.4 
(113.7-123); condylobasal length, 114.5 (110.3-117.1); zygomatic breadth, 74.1 
(72-76.6); interorbital breadth, 23.7 (22.3-24.8); least width of palatal shelf, 16 
(14.9-17.3); maxillary tooth row (alveoli), 43.2 (41.7-44.6); upper carnassial, 
crown length, 8.7 (8.4-9.1), crown width, 8.9 (8.8-9.2). Average of three adult 
females from same locality: Greatest length, 113.6 (112.1-115.2); condylobasal 
length, 108.8 (106.8-110.4); zygomatic breadth, 68.4 (66.6-70); interorbit^ 
breadth, 24 (23.3-24.5); least width of palatal shelf, 16.4 (15.4-17.6); maxillary 
tooth row, 41.9 (41.3-42.7); upper carnassial, crown length, 8.8 (8.7-9), crown 
width, 8.8 (8.6-9). 

Remarks. — In P. I. elucus the inflation of the frontal sinuses reaches 
its extreme development giving the skull a "humped" appearance in 
outline, a character shared to some extent with other forms including 
P. I. lotor. Typical examples of elucus are quite dark in color, and the 
rusty rufous suffusion of the nape, appearing irregularly in many 
subspecies, is more prevalent and of a deeper and richer tone than is 
usual in the group. Intergradation with litoreus, varius, and marinus 
is evident, and while not clearly indicated probably occurs with in- 
esperatus which is known only from the mangrove-fringed islands along 
the southeast coast of the peninsula of Florida. Specimens from as 
far south as Naples on the west coast and Cutler, Dade County, are 
clearly referable to elucus. 



44 XORTH AMERICA]S^ FAUNA 6 0, FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 

Specimens examined. — Total number, 127, as follows: 

Florida: Allenhurst, 1 (skull only); Aucilla River, 6 (skulls only); Black Point, 
Dade County, 1; Blue Cypress Lake, Osceola County, 1 (skull only); Blue 
Springs, 1 (skin only);" Buena Vista, 1 (skull only); Citronelle, 4; " Cutler, 
Dade County, 9 (1 skull without skin);" Englewood, Sarasota County, 1; 
Enterprise, 1 (skin only) ; " Fort Kissimmee, 18 (14 skulls without skins) ; 
Gainesville, 3;^^ Homosassa, 1 (skull only); Kissimmee, 1; Kissimmee River, 
1; Lake Cypress, 1; Lake Harney, 5 (1 skin without skull); Lake Hatch-ne- 
haw, 15 (skulls only); Lake Kissimmee, 8 (7 skulls without skins); Lake 
Monroe, 1 ; Matanzas Inlet, 1 (skull only) ; Miami, 1 ; Micco, 1 (skull only) ; 
Naples, 3 (skulls only); New Berlin, 5; '« Oak Lodge (type locality on penin- 
sula opposite Micco), 2 (1 skull without skin) ; " Orlando, 1 (skin only) ;i5 Royal 
Palm Hammock, 1 (skull only); San Mateo (5 miles northeast), 1 (skin only); 
Saw Grass Island, Catfish Creek, Polk County, 12; Snapper Creek, Dade 
County, 2; Tarpon Springs, 3 (2 skins without skulls; 1 skull without skin);'^ 
Taylor Creek, 2 (skins only);i^ Wilson, 1; Welaka, 1 (skin only)." 

Georgia: Fargo, 8 (5 skulls without skins) ; Okefenokee Swamp, 2 (1 skull without 
skin). 

PROCYON LOTOR MARINUS Nelson 

Tex Thousand Islands Raccoon 

Procyon lotor marinvs Nelson, Srnithsn. Misc. Collect. 82 (8): 7, July 10, 1930. 

Type locality. — Near Cliokoloskee, Collier County, Fla. 

Type.— 'No. 254989, male adult, skin and skull, United States Na- 
tional Museum; collected by E. W. Nelson, February 28, 1930. 

Distribution. — Keys of the Ten Thousand Islands Group, and ad- 
joining mainland of southwestern Florida from Cape Sable north 
through the Everglades to Lake Okeechobee (Ritta). Tropical Zone. 

General characters. — A very small subspecies with heavy dentition. 
Not very unlike P. I. elucus and P. I. inesperatus in color, but smaller 
than either, and cranial characters, especially the relatively larger 
posterior upper premolar and carnassial, distinctive. Decidedly 
darker than P. I. auspicatus or P. I. incautus and cranial characters 
quite different. 

Color. — Similar to that of P. I. elucus, but somewhat grayer, especi- 
ally on the head, the back usually less heavily overlaid with black; 
rusty nape patch averaging less strongly marked, often obsolescent; 
under parts and light rings on tail paler, less ochraceous buffy; black 
mask more restricted. 

Cranial characters. — Skull much smaller and more delicately propor- 
tioned than in P. I. elucus, frontal area much more depressed; brain 
case more rounded; posterior upper premolar and carnassial relatively, 
and sometimes actually, larger; palatal shelf about the same. Very 
similar in general form to that of P. I. inesperatus, but smaller, with 

" Mus. Comp. Zool. 

15 Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. 

16 Four in Chicago Mus. Nat. Hist.; one in Mus. Comp Zool. 



RACCOONS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA 45 

relatively and often actually larger (especially broader) posterior upper 
premolar and carnassial. Differing from those of P. /. aus'picatus and 
P. I. incautus mainly in usually broader frontal region and much larger 
posterior upper premolar and carnassial. 

Measurements. — Type: Total length, 665 mm.; tail vertebrae, 222; 
hind foot, 105; weight (pounds), 7. Two adult male topotypes, 
respectively: 642, 655; 214, 200; 100, 98; weight (pounds), 7, 8. Two 
adult female topotypes: 610, 613; 200, 192; 93, 93; weight (pounds), 
5, 5.5. Skull: Type: Greatest length, 105.9; condylobasal length, 
101.8; zygomatic breadth, 64.8; interorbital breadth, 22.3; least width 
of palatal shelf, 13.9; maxillary tooth row (alveoli), 40; upper carnas- 
sial, crown length, 9, crown width, 9.1. Two adult male topotypes: 
Greatest length, 101.3, 106.7; condylobasal length, 98, 101.8; zygo- 
matic breadth, 65.5, 69.5; interorbital breadth, 20.4 23.3; least width 
of palatal shelf, 14.9, 15; maxillary tooth row, 39.8, 40.5; upper carnas- 
sial, crown length, 8.9, 8.7, crown width, 9.7, 9.5. Two adult female 
topotypes: Greatest length, 93.7, 94.7; condylobasal length, 90.1, 
91.8; zygomatic breadth, 58.3, 00.6; interorbital breadth, 20.5, 20.3; 
least width of palatal shelf, 14.2, 14.1; maxillary tooth row, 36.4, 38; 
upper carnassial, crown length, 8, 8.8, crown width, 9.2, 9.1. 

Remarks. — P. I. marinus is one of the smaller subspecies of raccoons 
that have developed near the southern end of the peninsula of 
Florida, not dift"ering much in size from P. I. auspicatus and P. I. 
incautus. It appears to be limited to the great maze of mangrove- 
covered or -bordered islands, or keys, known as the "Ten Thousand 
Islands" where raccoons are present in great numbers, and to parts 
of the adjoining Everglades region. Specimens from Ritta at the 
southern end of Lake Okeechobee appear to be referable to marinus. 
Most of the islets mentioned are covered by the sea to a depth of 
from 3 to 4 feet at each high tide, and are totally devoid of fresh 
water. As most of these keys have no large trees to afford hollows 
and no dry land the raccoons must make their homes on top of the 
mangrove roots where they are forced to retreat by the incoming tide. 
Specimens from Cape Sable show gradation toward P. I. elucus, which 
ranges south to the eastern part of Dade County along the eastern 
side of the peninsula. Although evidently closely related to elucus, 
which occupies a different, but adjoining habitat, marinus maintains 
its distinctive characters with remarkable constancy. 

Specimens examined. — Total number, 49, as follows: 

Florida: Cape Sable, 3; Chokoloskee (type locality), 38; Coon Key, Ten 
Thousand Islands, l;i" Flamingo, Monroe County (skulls only), 3; •* Ritta, 4 
(skulls only). 



I' Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. 
" Mus. Comp. Zool. 



46 NORTH AMERICAN FAUIvTA 60, FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 

PROCYON LOTOR INESPERATUS Nelson 

Matecumbe Key Raccoon 

Prnciion lotor inesperahis Nelson, Smithsn. Misc. Collect. 82 (8): 8, July 10, 1930. 

Type locality. — Upper Matecumbe Key, Monroe County, Fla. 

Type. — No. 255037, male adult, skin and skull, United States 
National Museum; collected by E. W. Nelson, March 19, 1930. 

Distribution. — Key Largo Group, embracing fringing keys along 
the southeast coast of Florida, from Virginia Key south to Lower 
Matecumbe Key. Tropical Zone. 

General characters. — Closely allied to P. I. elucus of adjacent main- 
land, but averaging smaller and grayer; skull flatter. Differs from 
P. I. marinus, P. I. auspicatus, and P. I. incautus, representatives of 
neighboring groups of Florida keys, in its larger, more robust form, 
and in the combination of color and cranial characters. 

Color. — Much as in P. I. elucus but usually somewhat grayer, 
especially on head and face; black mask more restricted, the upper 
surface of muzzle paler; dorsum rather heavily washed with black, 
and rusty rufous nuchal patch well marked as in elucus ; dark rings on 
tail distinct, and light rings often strongly bufty. 

Cranial characters. — Skull similar to that of P. I. elucus, but frontal 
area markedly depressed, instead of highly arched, or "humped." 
Differing from those of P. I. marinus, P. I. auspicatus, and P. I. incautus 
in larger size and more massive proportions; posterior upper premolar 
and carnassial actually, and therefore relatively, decidedly smaller 
than in P. I. marinus. Compared further with those of auspicatus 
and incautus, the palatal shelf extends farther behind the posterior 
molars than in the former and the frontal region is usually broader 
than in either. 

Measurements. — Type: Total length, 730 mm.; tail vertebrae, 250; hind foot, 
115; weight (pounds), 8.5. Adult male from Key Largo: 795; 222; 124; weight 
(pounds), 12. Adult female from Lower Matecumbe Key: 648; 228; 102; weight 
(pounds), 5. Skull: Type: Greatest length, 114; condylobasal length, 108.1; 
zygomatic breadth, 68.2; interorbital breadth, 23.1; least width of palatal shelf, 
15.2; maxillary tooth row (alveoli), 41; upper carnassial, crown length, 9.1, crown 
width, 9.6. 

Remarks. — Only a short distance separates the insular habitat of 
the present subspecies from the adjacent Florida mainland which is 
occupied by P. I. elucus. Nevertheless specimens from the various 
keys of the Key Largo Group differ somewhat in color as pointed out, 
and the skulls may at once be recognized by appreciably smaller size 
and more flattened frontals. The skulls of those from Key Largo 
and Virginia Key are larger than those from the more distant Upper 
and Lower Matecumbe Keys, and in this respect grade toward the 



RACCOONS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA 47 

mainland animal. The motor highway from Miami to Key West, 
connecting keys by fills or viaducts enabling raccoons to pass from one 
key to another will doubtless result, through int(^rbreeding, in the 
blending and obliteration of the interesting characters that now 
distinguish the various races of the island chain. 

Specimens examined. — Total number, 25, as follows: 

Florida (Key Largo Group): Elliotts Key, 7; '^ Key Largo, S;'''" Lignum Vitae 
Key, 1; Lower Matecumbe Key, 7; Plantation Key, 2; Upper Matecumbe 
Key, 1 (type) ; Virginia Key, 2. 

PROCYON LOTOR AUSPICATUS Nelson 

Key Vaca Raccoon 

Procijon lotor auspicatus Nelson, Smithsn. Misc. Collect. 82 (S) : 9, July 10, 1930. 

Type locality. — Marathon, Key Vaca, Monroe County, Fla. 

Type. — No. 255080, male adult, skin and skull. United States 
National Museum; collected by E. W. Nelson, March 28, 1930. 

Distribution. — -Key Vaca and doubtless closely adjoining keys of 
the Key Vaca Group, a central section of the main chain off the 
southern coast of Florida. Tropical Zone. 

General characters. — A very small, pale subspecies; skull with a 
narrow, but rounded brain case. Similar in size to P. I. marinus of 
the Ten Thousand Islands and P. I. incautus of the Big Pine Key 
Group, but decidedly paler than the former and dift'ering in cranial 
details from both. Distinguished from P. I. inesperatus of Upper 
Matecumbe Key, by smaller size, much paler color, and by cranial 
characters. 

Color.- — Very pale, similar to that of P. I. incautus, but not quite 
so extreme, much paler throughout than P. I. inesperatus or P. I. 
marinus, the upper parts usually thinly overlaid with rusty brownish, 
and the underfur of a lighter brownish tone than in inesperatus or 
marinus; black facial mask more restricted; dark rings on tail narrower, 
more brownish, but usually distinct all around. 

Cranial characters. — Skull very small, with a short palatal shelf 
and moderately heavy dentition. Similar to that of P. I. marinus, 
but somewhat smaller, with shorter palatal shelf, and lighter dentition. 
Smaller than that of P. I. inesperatus, with brain case relatively nar- 
rower, palatal shelf shorter, pterygoids less divergent posteriorly. 
Compared with that of P. I. incautus the skull is smaller, with shorter 
palatal shelf and narrower zygomata. 

Measurements. — Type: Total length, 644 mm.; tail vertebrae, 214; hind 
foot, 99; weight (pounds), 5.5. x^verage of five adult male topotypes: 657 
(634-700); 236 (214-275); 100 (96-107); weight (pounds), 5.3 (4-6). Two adult 

■" Mus. Comp. Zool. 

2" Two in Mus. Comp. Zool. 



48 XORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 60, FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 

female topotypes, respectively: 603, 620; 212, 232; 83, 97; weight (pounds), 4, 5. 
Skull: Type: Greatest length, 100; condylobasal length, 94.7; zygomatic breadth, 
64.5; interorbital breadth, 19.4; least width of palatal shelf, 13.9; maxillary tooth 
row (alveoli), 37.4; upper carnassial, crown length, 7.8, crown width, 8.6. Aver- 
age of five adult male topotypes: Greatest length, 102.1 (99.9-105.9); condylo- 
basal length, 97 (94.3-101); zygomatic breadth, 63.5 (60.2-66.2); interorbital 
breadth, 20 (18.8-22.7); least width of palatal shelf, 14 (13.4-15); maxillary 
tooth row, 38 (36.4-38.9); upper carnassial, crown length, 7.8 (7.6-8.1), crown 
width, 9 (8.7-9.3). Two adult female topotypes: Greatest length, 93.6, 97.5; 
condylobasal length, 89.4, 94; zygomatic breadth, 59.8, 58.7; interorbital breadth, 
18.8, 19; least width of palatal shelf, 14, 13.8; maxillary tooth row, 35, 36.6; 
upper carnassial, crown length, 7.4, 7.7, crown width, 8.3, 8.6. 

Remarks. — The Key Vaca raccoon is one of the most salient in 
characters of the stibspecies inhabiting the Florida Keys. It re- 
sembles P. I. hicautus in pale coloration, but departs from all in 
combination of cranial features. Its range is the most restricted of 
any of the Florida races. 

Specimens examined. — Thirt(>en, from type locality. 

PROCYON LOTOR INCAUTUS Nelson 

Torch Key Raccoon 

Proryon lotor incaiitus Nelson, Smithsii. Misc. Collect. 82 (8): 10, July 10, 1930. 

Type locality. — Torch Key. Big Pine Key Group, Monroe County, 
Fla.' 

Type.—^o. 255060, male adult, skin and slcull, United States 
National Museum; collected by E. W. Nelson, March 24, 1930. 

Distribution. — Big Pine Key Group, near southwestern end of 
chain of Florida keys. Tropical Zone. 

General characters. — A small, very pale subspecies, palest of the 
Florida forms, with skull highly arched, and narrow between orbits. 
Closely resembling P. I. auspicatus of Key Vaca in color, but cranial 
characters, especially the narrower, high frontal region, distinctive. 
Decidedly paler than P. I. marinus or P. I. inesperatus of Upper 
Matecumbe Key, and skull differing in important details. 

Color. — Very pale, similar to that of P. I. auspicatus, but averaging 
even paler, especially on head and face, the black mask more restricted, 
more distinctly interrupted between eyes, the whitish areas cor- 
respondingly extended and more completely isolating the dusky 
median streak; upper surface of muzzle light buffy; rusty nuchal 
patch conspicuous, inclining toward yellowish in worn pelages; dark 
rings on tail rusty brown, as in auspicatus, but usually broader. 

Cranial characters. — Cranium small, with narrow, highly arched 
frontal region and light dentition. Averaging larger than that of 
P. I. auspicatus, with frontal region narrower, usually more highly 
arched; palatal shelf extending farther behind plane of last molars; 



RACCOONS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA 49 

pterygoids more divergent posteriorly; molariform teeth smaller. 
Similar in general to those of P. I. marinus and P. I. inesj)eratus, 
but distinguished by narrower frontal region and smaller molariform 
teeth. 

Measurements. — Type: Total length, 694 mm.; tail vertebrae, 263; hind foot, 
118; weight (pounds), 8.5. Average of five adult males from Big Pine Key and 
No Name Key: 710 (656-738); 247 (216-273); 111 (108-113); weight (pounds), 
8 (7.5-9.5). Average of four adult females from Torch Key (type locality), 
Boca Chica Key, and No Name Key: 688 (660-720); 240 (226-253); 105 (103- 
110); weight (pounds), 6.1 (5.5-6.5). Skull: Type: Greatest length. 111; 
condylobasal length, 104.7; zygomatic breadth, 66.7; interorbital breadth, 19.8: 
least width of palatal shelf, 14.9; maxillary tooth row (alveoli), 38.8; upper 
carnassial, crown length, 7.8, crown width, 8.5. Average of seven adult males 
from Big Pine Key and No Name Key: Greatest length, 109.8 (105-113.8); 
condylobasal length, 102.9 (97.8-106.2); zygomatic breadth, 69.4 (62.5-78.1); 
interorbital breadth, 21.8 (19.6-23.9); least width of palatal shelf, 14.8 (13.9-16); 
maxillary tooth row, 39.2 (38.1-40.4); upper carnassial, crown length, 7.8 (7.6-8), 
crown width, 8.6 (8-9). Average of four adult females from Torch Key, Boca 
Chica Key, and No Name Key: Greatest length, 104.9 (101-107.7); condylobasal 
length, 94 (96.5-100.5); zygomatic breadth, 61.9 (60.7-64.2); interorbital breadth, 
21.1 (20-22.2); least width of palatal shelf, 14.4 (14-15); maxillary tooth row, 
38 (37.4-38.5); upper carnassial, crown length, 7.5 (7.3-7.8), crown width, 8.3 
(7.8-8.8). 

Remarks. — The home of this race of raccoons is on the group of 
Florida Keys farthest from the mainland. As is the case with the 
other Florida Key raccoons they live mainly, and sometimes entirely, 
in mangrove swamps without access to fresh water except during rains. 
The brilliant light of their environment may have affected their 
general color more than the others, as suggested by their pale, faded 
tints. In general form and proportions the skull resembles that of 
P. I. elucus rather more closely than those of its geographically nearer 
insular relatives. It is much smaller, however, and suggests a minia- 
ture of that of the mainland animal. 

Specimens examined. — Total number, 33, as follows: 

Florida: Big Pine Key, 16; -^ Boca Chica Key, 2; Geiger's Key, 2; - Key West, 3 
(1 skull without skin); ^3 No Name Key, 5; Stock Island, 3; -^ Torch Key 
(type locality), 2. 

PROCYON LOTOR FUSCIPES Mearns 

Tex.\s Raccoon 

Procyon lotor fusripes Mearns, Biol. Soc. Washington Proc. 27: 63, March 20, 1914. 

Type locality. — Las Moras Creek, Fort Clark, Kinney County, Tex. 
(altitude 1,011 feet). 



-I Ten in Mus. Comp. Zool. 

-- Mus. Conip. Zool. 

-3 One in Mus. Conip. Zool. 



50 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 6 0, FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 

Type. — No. 63055. male adult, skin and skull. United States Na- 
tional Museum: collected by Edgar A. Mearns, February 6, 1893. 
Original number 2273. 

Distnbution. — Texas, except extreme northern and western parts, 
southern Arkansas, Louisiana, except delta region of Mississippi, and 
south into northeastern Mexico, including Coahuila and Nuevo Leon, 
to southern Tamaulipas, Austroriparian and Lower Sonoran divisions 
of Lower Austral Zone. 

General characters. — A large, dark grayish subspecies, with pelage of 
medium length and texture; skull with high, moderately broad frontal 
region and weakly developed postorbital processes. Size about as in 
P. I. hirtus of Minnesota, but color grayer, less suffused with buff; 
mask more uniformly black and continuous across face and on upper 
surface of muzzle; pelage much shorter and less dense. Similar to 
P. I. mexicanus of Chihuahua, but decidedly darker, and cranial 
characters distinctive. Resembling P. I. varius of Alabama in general 
color, but somewhat grayer and much larger, with a different skull. 
Similar in size to P. I. hernandezii of the Valley of Mexico, but less 
grayish, the postauricular spots larger, more conspicuous; skull less 
flattened and differing in detail. 

Color. — Similar to that of P. I. varius, but averaging somewhat 
grayer, less suffused with buff; mask usually more uniformly black and 
continuous across middle of face and on upper surface of muzzle to 
nasal pad. 

Cranial characters. — Size and general proportions of skull nearly as 
in P. I. hirtus, but interorbital and postorbital regions usually broader; 
frontal region similarly high, but usually flatter, with a less distinct, 
V-shaped, median depression. 'Similar in size to that of P. I. mexi- 
canus; frontal region similarly high behind plane of postorbital 
processes, but more elevated anteriorly, the upper outline more convex; 
brain case more depressed near fronto-parietal suture; interorbital and 
postorbital regions usually narrower; postorbital processes of frontals 
shorter, the upper margin of orbit less deeply concave. Compared with 
that of P. I. varius the skull is much larger and heavier, with broader 
frontal region. Not very unlike that of P. I. hernandezii, but less 
flattened, the frontal region more elevated; brain case usually more 
depressed near fronto-parietal suture; postorbital processes of frontals 
less prominent, the upper margin of orbit less deeply concave; posterior 
upper premolar and upper carnassial usually smaller. 

Measurements. — Type: Total length, 900 mm.; tail vertebrae, 290; hind foot, 
132. Two adult males from Laredo, Tex., respectively: 860, 850; 298, 275; 
136, 131. An adult male and female from Sabinas, Coahuila: 922, 760; 330, 260; 
136, 116. Skull: Type: Total length, 130.2; condylobasal length, 125; zygomatic 



RACCOONS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA 51 

breadth, 84.4; interorbital breadth, 26.9; least width of palatal shelf, 16.2; maxil- 
lary tooth row (alveoli), 47.4; upper cariiassial, crown length, 8.5, crown width. 
9.6. An adult male and female from Sabinas, Coahuila: Cireatest length, 130.6, 
117.7; condylobasal length, 123.9, 112.1; zygomatic breadth, 82.8, 75.5; inter- 
orbital breadth, 24.4, 24; least width of palatal shelf, 18.1, 15.9; maxillary tooth 
row, 46.9, 43.3; upper carnassial, crown length, 8.9, 8.7, crown width, 10, 9.4. 

Remarks. — P. I. fuscipes requires rather close comparison with P. I. 
hirtus to the north and P. I. hernandezii to the south, but typical 
specimens differ in combination of characters as pointed out. It is 
readily distinguished from P. I. varius by much larger size and from 
P. I. mexicanus by darker color. Intergradation with all of these may 
safely be assumed. In typical fuscipes, however, the facial mask 
usually extends as a broad, uniformly black area across the face as in 
P. I. mexicanus and western subspecies in general, instead of being- 
more or less distinctly interrupted by whitish longitudinal lines, one on 
each side near inner angle of eye, tending to isolate a narrow, elongated 
black median patch as in hirtus, varius and other eastern continental 
forms. In fuscipes the brain case, on the other hand, is somewhat 
depressed near the fronto-parietal suture and the postorbital processes 
of the front als are very short or obsolescent, characters shared with 
hirtus, varius and the eastern subspecies in contrast with mexicanus and 
the more western and southern continental forms in which the depres- 
sion of the brain case is less evident, and the postorbital processes of 
the frontals are well developed. 

Specimens examined. — Total number, 100, as follows: 

Coahuila: Muzquiz, 1; opposite Langtry, Texas, 3; Sabinas, 3. 

Louisiana: Abbeville, 8 (3 skins without skulls); Abbeville (24 miles southwest), 
3; Iowa, 1 (skull only) ; Lake Ridge, 1; Morgan City, 1; Tallulah, 12 (10 skulls 
without skins). [All specimens except those from Lake Ridge and Tallulah 
probably are referable to P. I. megalodous.] 

Nuevo Leon: Monterrey, 1. 

Tamaulipas: Alta Mira, 1 (skull only); Bagdad, 1; Camargo, 3; Marmolejo, l;^'' 
Matamoros, 3 (2 skulls only). 

Texas: Angleton, 1; Aransas National Wildlife Refuge, Refugio County, 2; 
Aransas County, 2 (skulls only); Broome, 1 (skin only); Brownsville, 1; 
Canyon, 2; Carlsbad (10 miles east), 3; Columbia, 1 (skull only); Corpus 
Christi, 2; Dickinson Bayou (opposite Galveston), 1; Eagle Pass, 1; Fort 
Clark, 2 (including type) ; Grady, 1 (skull only) ; Kerrville, 2 (skulls only) ; 
Kountze, 1 ; Langtry, 1 ; Laredo, 5 (3 skins without skulls) ; Liberty, 1 (skull 
only) ; Lomita Ranch, 2 (skulls only) ; Long Point, 1 (skull only) ; Los Ratones, 
Zapata County, 1; Mason, 4; Matagorda, 6 (5 skulls without skins); Padre 
Island, 1 (skull only); Port Lavaca, 1 (skull only); Rankin, 2; Sour Lake, 4 
(3 skulls without skins); Texarkana (10 miles northwest), 2; Washington 
County, 1 (skull only); Water Valley, 2 (skulls only). 



^-i Univ. Michigan Mus. Zool. 



52 KORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 6 0, FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 
PROCYON LOTOR MEXICANUS Baird 
Mexican Raccoon 

Procyon lotor, variete mexicaine I. Geoffroy-Saint Hilaire, Vo^^ sur la Venus, 
Zoologie, p. 125, pi. VI, 1855. From Mazatlan, Sinaloa, Mexico. 

Procyon hernandezn var. mexicana Baird, Mammal. North Amer., p. 215, 1857. 

Procyon lotor mexicamis Mearns, Biol. Soc. Washington Proc. 27: 65, Mar. 20, 
1914. 

Type locality.— ^spisi, northwestern Chihiialuia, Mexico. 

Type. — No. 2018, probably female, adult, skull only (originally ac- 
companied by skin which cannot now be found), United States 
National Museum; collected by C. B. R. Kennedy, April 1855. 

Distribution. — New Mexico, except northeastern and northwestern 
parts, southeastern Arizona, western Texas, and south through 
Chihuahua, eastern Sonora, Sinaloa and Durango to northern Nayarit, 
Mexico. Lower Sonoran to Transition Zone. 

General characters. — One of the palest subspecies of the group; skull 
with broad frontal area highly arched behind plane of well-developed 
postorbital processes. Color and general size about as in P. I. pallidus 
of the Colorado River Valley, but skull usually broader, especially 
between orbits, and differing in other slight details. Decidedly paler 
than P. I. fuscipes of Texas, or P. I. hirtus of Minnesota, and combina- 
tion of cranial characters quite different. Similar in general to 
P. I. hernandezii of the Valley of Mexico but paler, the upper parts 
less extensively overlaid with black; skull more highly arched and 
presenting other distinctive features. 

Color. — Upper parts in general coarsely grizzled iron grayish and 
under parts light buffy about as in P. I. pallidus; black mask broad 
and uninterrupted across face; rusty nuchal patch usually absent, 
but faintly indicated in occasional specimens. 

Cranial characters. — Skull most closely resembling that of P. I. 
pallidus, but brain case, frontal area and palatal shelf usually broader; 
frontals rather high behind plane of postorbital processes as in pallidus ; 
tooth rows usually shorter. Compared with those of P. I. fuscipes 
and P. I. hirtus the frontal region is similarly high behind plane of 
postorbital processes, but less elevated anteriorly, the frontal outline 
descending in a more nearly straight line with nasals; brain case less 
depressed near frontoparietal suture; interorbital and postorbital 
areas usually broader; postorbital processes of frontals longer, the 
upper margin of orbit more deeply concave. Contrasted with that 
of P. I. hernandezii the skull is of similar size, but less flattened, the 
frontal region more elevated behind plane of postorbital processes; 



RACCOONS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA 53 

interorbital and postorbital areas usually broader; maxillary tooth 
row shorter; posterior upper premolar and carnassial smaller. 

Measurements. — Adult male from Lochiel, Santa Cruz River, Ariz.: Total 
length, 895 mm.; tail vertebrae, 365; hind foot, 121. Adult female from Deming, 
N. Mex.: 840; 305; 125. Adult male and female from Fort Lowell (near Tucson), 
Ariz., respectively: 890, 820; 325, 305; 131, 125. Skull: Adult male from 
Lochiel, Ariz., and adult female from Deming, N. Mex.: Greatest length, 121.1, 
120.6; condylobasal length, 114.6, 115.4; zygomatic breadth, 77, 78; interorbital 
breadth, 24.2, 24.2; least width of palatal shelf, 55.7, 55.9; maxillary tooth row 
(alveoli), 42.5, 42.7; upper carnassial, crown length, 8.7, 8.6, crown width, 9.7, 9.7. 
Adult male and female from Fort Lowell, Ariz.: Greatest length, 123.3, 116.2; 
condylobasal length, 115.6, 110.9; zygomatic breadth, 83.5, 78.8; interorbital 
breadth, 28.8, 25.3; least width of palatal shelf, 17.6, 16.4; maxillary tooth row, 
42.7, 43.6; upper carnassial, crown length, 8.5, 8.8, crown width, 9.5, 9.6. 

Remarks. — P. I. mexicanus shares extremely pale coloration with 
P. I. pallidus of the Colorado River Valley, typical examples of the 
two being externally indistinguishable. They are evidently very 
closely allied, some specimens being practically identical, but the 
combination of cranial characters pointed out usually serves to 
separate them as geographic races. The specimen described by 
Baird and regarded as the type of mexicanus is a fully adult, but 
undersized individual, probably a female (greatest length of skull, 
113) which does not properly reflect the true characters of the sub- 
species as shown by other specimens from the type region. The 
type locality was originally given as Espia, Sonora. Examination 
of Boundary Survey reports and statements by C. B. R. Kennerly, 
the collector, show that it was taken at Espia, shown on modern 
maps in extreme northwestern Chihuahua. The error was doubtless 
due to lack of information in regard to the exact location of the 
Sonora-Chihuahua boundary. To this subspecies are referred speci- 
mens from Alazatlan, Sinaloa. A specimen from Mazatlan formed 
the basis of the detailed description by Geoffroy-Saint Hilaire (1855, 
p. 125) of a Mexican raccoon, "variete mexicaine," which, however, 
he did not name. A specimen from northern Nayarit is referred to 
mexicanus, but those from localities farther south seem more properly 
assignable to P. I. hernandezii. Specimens from the upper part of 
the Gila River Valley grade toward and might be referred to pal/ldus. 
The series of 47 specimens from Escuinapa, Sinaloa, afl'ords an unusual 
opportiniity for the study of individual variation. 

Specimens examined. — Total number, 87, as follows: 

Arizona: Fort Huachuca, 1; Fort Lowell, 2; Lochiel, 1; San Bernardino Ranch, 
Cochise County, 1; Santa Catalina Mountains, 1 (skull only); Santa Rita 
Mountains (McCleary's Ranch), 1. 

Chihuahua: Casas Gran.des, 1; Colonia Diaz, 1; Espia, 1 (type, skull only); San 
Luis Mountains, 1. 



54 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 6 0. FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 

Durango: Rancho Saiituario (northwestern Durango), 1 (skull only) .25 

Nayarit: Acaponeta, 1. 

New Mexico: Alcalde, 7 (skulls only); Central, Grant County, 1 (skull only); 

Chloride, 1; Deming, 1; Gila National Forest, 2 (skulls only); Magdalena 

Mountains, 1; Redrock, 1; Rinconada, 1; Santa Rosa, 2; Velarde, 3 (skulls 

only) . 
Sinaloa: Escuinapa, 47 (12 skins without skulls; 10 skulls without skins) ; ^sMazat^ 

Ian, 2; Rosario, 1. 
Sonora: "N. Sonora, Lumholtz Expedition", 1 (skin only); -^ Oputo, 2. 
Texas: El Paso, 1 (skull only). 

PROCYON LOTOR PALLIDUS Merriam 
Colorado Desert Raccoon 

Procyon -paUidus Merriam, Biol. Soc. Washington Proc. 13: 151, June 13, 1900. 

Procyon lotor ochraceus Mearns, Biol. Soc. Washington Proc. 27: 64, Mar. 20, 
1914. Type from Sonoyta River, Sonora, Mexico, near Quitobaquito, 
Pima Co., Ariz., No. 59900, male subadult, U. S. Natl. Mus.; collected by 
Edgar A. Mearns, February 7, 1894. 

Tyi^e locality. — New River, Colorado Desert, Imperial County, 
Calif. 

Type. — No. 99272, female adult, skin and skull. United States 
National Museum (Biological Surveys collection) ; collected by Frank 
Stephens, October 16, 1899. 

Distribution. — Colorado and Gila River Valleys and adjoining 
territory from the delta north to northeastern Utah, and east to 
western Colorado and northwestern New Mexico. Mainly Lower 
Sonoran division of Lower Austral Zone, but ranging up along streams 
into Transition Zone. 

General characters. — One of the palest subspecies of the group; 
skull with narrow frontal area highly arched behind plane of postorbi- 
tal processes. Color and general size about as in P. I. mexicanus of 
Chihuahua, but skull usually narrower, especially between orbits, 
and differing in other slight details. Decidedly paler, more ashy 
gray than P. I. psora of the Sacramento Valley; skull with upper 
outline rising more prominently behind plane of postorbital processes. 
Similar to P. I. grinnelli, but slightly paler, and cranial characters, 
especially the more abruptly sloping frontal profile from apex behind 
plane of postorbital processes, distinctive. 

Color. — About as in P. I. mexicanus. 

Cranial characters. — Skull closely resembles those of P. I. mexicanus 
and P. I. psora but brain case, frontal area and palatal shelf usually 
narrower; frontals high behind posterior plane of postorbital processes 
as in mexicanus (flatter and rising less prominently in psora) ; tooth 



-= Amer. Mus. Nat. Uist. 



RACCOONS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA 55 

rows usually longer than in mexicanus. Compared with P. I. grinnelli 
the brain case and interorbital region are narrower, and the anterior 
frontal outline descends in a more nearly straight line from apex 
immediately behind the postorbital processes — upper outline of 
frontals a more evenly convex curve in grinnelli. 

Measurements. — Type: Total length, 855 mm.; tail vertebrae, 295; hind foot, 
128. Two adult males from Colorado River, Mexican Boundary, Ariz., respec- 
tively: 950, 875; 405, 340; 135, 126. An adult female from same locality: 845; 
305; 128. Skull: Type: Greatest length, 117.6; condylobasal length, 111.1; 
zygomatic breadth, 77.8; interorbital breadth, 25.5; least width of palatal shelf, 
13.5; maxillary tooth row (alveoli), 43.4; upper carnassial, crown length, 8.8, 
crown width, 9.6. Two adult males from Colorado River, Mexican Boundary, 
Ariz.: Greatest length, 133, 126.6; condylobasal length, 122.4, 120.6; zygomatic 
breadth, 79.1, 78.6; interorbital breadth, 25.3, 24.8; least width of palatal shelf, 
15.4, 16.8; maxillary tooth row, 46.6, 43.7; upper carnassial, crown length, 9.7, 
8.6, crown width, 10.4, 9.5 An adult female from same locality: Greatest length, 
119.6; condylobasal length, 114.1; zygomatic breadth, 77.1; interorbital breadth, 
23.4; least width of palatal shelf, 14.6; maxillary tooth row, 41.7; upper carnassial, 
crown length, 8.7, crown width, 9.3 

Remarks. — As the name indicates the present subspecies is charac-- 
terized by light coloration, a feature shared with P. I. mexicanus. 
The close alliance of P. I. pallidus and P. I. mexicanus is obvious but 
differing combinations of cranial characters seem to warrant their 
recognition as distinct, but not strongly marked forms. The type of 
jmllidus is an unusually pale specimen as shown by comparison with 
others from localities so near that they must be regarded as typical. 
The type of P. I. ochraceus is a subadult male in rather faded pelage 
to which the name is doubtless due. It is not satisfactorily separable 
from P. I. pallidus. 

Specimens examined. — Total number, 29, as follows: 

Arizona: Colorado River, Mexican Boundary, 3; Fort Apache (25 miles south- 
east), 1; Lakeside, 1 (skull only); Mellen, l;^^ Phoenix, 1 ; Springerville (3 
miles northwest), 2; Tempe, 1; Topock, 1; Wupatki National Monument, 
Coconino County, 1. 

Baja California: Calexico (11 miles southeast), 1; Cocopah Mountains, 3 (skulls 
only); New River (5 miles south of Mexicali), 1 (skin only); Pascualitos 
Laguna, 1; exact locality unknown, 1 (skull only). 

California: Colorado River (5 miles below Needles), 1 ; ^e Colorado River (near 
Pilot Knob), \\-^ Colorado River (20 miles north of Picacho), 1;26 New 
River, Colorado Desert, 1 (type); Pilot Knob, 1; Potholes, l.^e 

Colorado: Navajo River, Archuleta County, 1 (skin only). 

Sonora: Sonoyta River, near Quitobaquito (type of ochraceus), 1. 

Utah: Pine Valley, 1 (skull only); Saint George, 1. 



26 Mu.s. Vort. Zool. 



56 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 60, FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 

PROCYON LOTOR PSORA Gray 
California Raccoon 

Procyon psora Gray, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. 10 : 261, Dec. 1842. 

Procyon lotor calif ornicus Mearns, Biol. Soc. Washington Proc. 27: 66, Mar. 20, 
1914. Type from ocean beach near last Mexican Boundary Monument 
(No. 258), San Diego County, Calif., No. 60675, female subadult, U. S. Natl. 
Mus.; collected by Frank Xavier Holzner, July 16, 1894. 

Type locality. — Sacramento, Sacramento County, Calif. 

Type. — Perhaps in British Museum; cohected by Captain Belcher. 

Distribution. — California, except extreme northwest coastal strip, 
the northeastern corner and southeastern desert region, ranging south 
through northwestern Baja California to San Qtiintin; extreme west- 
central Nevada (Wilson Canyon, east slope of Sierra Nevada). 
Lower Austral, Upper Austral, and Transition Zones. 

General characters. — A large, moderately dark form with a broad, 
rather flat skull. Very similar to P. I. pacijicus of Washington, but 
averaging paler; skull usually more elongated and differing in detail. 
Decidedly darker, less ashy gray than P. I. pallidus of the Colorado 
River Valley, and cranial characters distinctive. Similar in general 
to P. I. excelsus of the Snake River Valley, but much smaller and 
usually darker; sktdl relatively narrower. 

Color. — Similar in general to that of P. I. lotor, but upper parts 
grayer, less suffused with buff under the overlying black-tipped hairs; 
light rings on tail less buffy; rusty nuchal patch usually absent or less 
prominent; black mask continuous across face, as in western forms in 
general, instead of more or less distinctly interrupted on either side of 
median line as in lotor. 

Cranial characters. — Skull closely resembles that of P. I. pacijicus but 
usually more elongated, the brain case less fully expanded, especially 
anteroexternally ; interorbital region narrower; upper profile rather 
flat and postorbital processes of frontals well developed as in 
pacijicus. Similar to that of P. I. excelsus, but smaller, relatively 
narrower. Compared with that of P. I. pallidus, the skull is of similar 
size, but relatively broader, with flatter frontal region. 

Measurement. — Adult male from Tehama, Calif.: Total length, 880 mm.; tail 
vertebrae, 277; hind foot, 138. Adult female from Wheatland, Calif.: 870; 300; 
120. Adult male and female from Nicasio, Calif., respectively: 901, 820; 348, 
312; 132, 121. Skull: Adult male from Tehama and adult female from Wheat- 
land, Calif.: Greatest length, 124.8, 120.4; condylobasal length, 120, 113; zygo- 
matic breadth, 82.6, 79.2; interorbital breadth, 26.3, 26.8; least width of palatal 
shelf, 17.6, 16.2; ma.xillary tooth row (alveoli), 44.2, 43.9; upper carnassial, 
crown length, 8, 8.6, crown width, 9.3, 9.6. Adult male and female from Nicasio, 
Calif.: Greatest length, 124.5, 118.7; condylobasal length, 116.6, 114.2; zygomatic 
breadth, 82, 78.4; interorbital breadth, 24.2, 25.8; least width of palatal shelf, 
16.4, 16.1; maxillary tooth row, 43.2, 41.8; upper carnassial, crown length, 8.8, 
8.6, crown width, 9.7, 9.3. 



RACCOONS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA 57 

Remarks. — P. I. -psora has commonly been treated by authors as 
specifically distinct from P. I. lofor of the eastern United States. 
This is not so surprising as direct comparison of the skulls of these 
widely separated subspecies reveals rather strikino; differences, especi- 
ally the much larger general size, and broader, flatter frontal region 
with much more prominent postorbital processes of psora. These 
differences, however, are completely bridged by the intervening forms. 
P. I. psora passes gradually into P. I. pacijicus in northern California 
and southwestern Oregon, and some specimens from those regions 
might with similar propriety be referred to either form. Some 
specimens from near the type locality of P. I. californicus suggest 
gradation toward P. I. pallidus, but general comparisons indicate that 
californicus cannot satisfactorily be separated from psora. 

Specimens examined. — Total number, 198, as follows: 

Baja California: Laguna Hansen, 1;-^ San Quintin, 1; San Ramon (mouth of 

Santo Domingo River), 2; -' San Telmo, 1 (skin only) ; -" Valle de las Palmas, 

1 (skin only). 2'. 
California: Areata, 2; ^^ Baird, 1; Bakersfield, 1; -^ Banta, 1 (skull only); Berkeley, 

4; -'7 Bodfish, 1; Bradley, 3 (1 skull without skin, 2 skins without skulls); 

Camp Meeker, 1; Carbondale, 1;" Carlotta, 1;" Cassel, 4 (skulls only); 

Cazadero, 1 (skull only); -'^ Chico, 4; Colusa, 2 (1 skull without skin); Covelo, 

1 (skull only); Cuddeback, Humboldt County, 2 (skulls only); " Cuyamaca 
Mountains, 1;^' Cypress Point, Monterey County, 1;^^ Dyerville (5 miles 
south), 1; Eel River (southwest of South Yollo Bolly Mountain), 2; El 
Portal, 2; " Eureka, 1; " Fort Tejon, 2 (1 skull only); Gazelle (5 miles east), 

2 (skulls only) : Glen Ellen, 1; Grass Valley, 3; ^' Grizzly Island, 1; 2? Gualala, 
1: -' Hay Fork, Trinity County, 1; '" Helena, 3; '^' Hoopa Valley, 1; Hum- 
boldt Bay (Carson's Camp, Mad River), 1; Inverness, 1 (skull only); Isa- 
bella, 1; 2^ Jolon, 3; Julian, 2; ^7 Kern River (25 miles above Kernville), 1; 
Klamath River, Siskiyou County, 1 (skull only) ; Knight's Landing (near 
type locality), 1; La JoUa, 1: -' Lake Merced, 1; ^'^ Lassen Creek, 1; Layton- 
ville, 2; Lierly's Ranch, Mendocino County, 1; Little Browns Creek, Trinity 
County, 2 (skulls only); Little Shasta, 3; Lockwood, 2; Marysville Buttes, 
2; 27 McCloud River (near Baird), 3 (2 skulls without skins); '-' Mendota, 1; 
Menlo Park, 1 ; ^7 Mission, Santa Inez, 1 ; Mohave River, 1 (skull only) ; 
Monterey, 2; Mount Diablo, 1; -' Mount Saint Helena, 2; Mount Sanhedrin, 
2 (1 skull without skin); ^~ National City, 2; Nelson, 1 (skull only); Nicasio, 
10 (5 skulls without skins); Orland, 1 (skin only); Ornbaun Spring, Hum- 
boldt County, 1 (skull only) ; ^7 Pacific Ocean beach, near Monument 258, 
Mexican Boundary, 1 (type of californicus); Paine Creek (Dale's Ranch), 
Tehama County, 4 (2 skins without skulls); " Pescadero, 5; " Pine City, 2 
(skulls only) ; Pitt River, Shasta County, 1 (skull only) ; Placerville, 2 (skulls 
only) ; " Pleyto, 2 (skulls only) ; Point Pinois, 1 ; Point Reyes, 4 (2 skulls 
without skins); Portola, 2; " Portola Lake, San Mateo County, 1; " Posts, 
1 ; Red Bluff, 1 (skin only) ; Rio Dell, 1 (skull only) ; Rockport, 1 (skull only) ; 
Round Mountain, 3 (skull only); Rumsey, 1; " Saint John, Gloini County, 2: 
San Emigdio, 3; San Francisco, 1 (skin only) ; San Luis Obispo, 3; Sausalito, 1 
(skull only) ; " Shasta County, 1 ; Shasta Valley (6 miles east of Edgewood) , 



27 Mus. Vert. Zool. 

876119°— .50- 



58 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 60, FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 

I- Snelling, 3;-' Soquel Mill (40 miles east of Raymond), 1; South Yollo 
Bolly Mountain, 1; Spalding, Eagle Lake, 3; ^7 Spenceville, l;^? Stockton, 
14; " Suisun Marsh, 1; " Tehama, 1; Three Rivers, 1; Tower House, Shasta 
County, 1; " Trinidad, 1; -'" Union Island, 1; Vacaville, 1; ^7 Victorville, 1; ^^ 
Wawona, 1 (skull only); Weaverville, 2 (skulls only); " Wheatland, 1; Willow 
Lake, Plumas County, 1; " Winthrop, 1 (skull only); Wolf, l.^? 
Nevada: Wilson Canyon, east slope of Sierra Nevada, 1. 

PROCYON LOTOR PACIFICUS Merriam 

Pacific Northwest Raccoon 

Procyon psora pan'ficn Merriam, North Amer. Fauna 16: 107, Oct. 28, 1899. 
Procyon proteus Brass, Aus dem Reiche der Pelze, p. 564, 1911. West coast from 
Puget Sound to the Cascade Mountains. (Not Procyon proteus Allen, 1904.) 

Tyi)e locality. — Lake Keechelus, Kittitas County, Wash, (altitude 
8,000 feet). 

Type. — No. 93137, adult [female], skin and skull, United States 
National Museum (Biological Surveys collection) ; collected by C. 
Hansen, January 15, 1898. 

Distribution. — Southwestern British Colum])ia, except Vancouver 
Island, northern, central, and western Washington, western Oregon, 
and extreme northwestern California. Upper Austral and Transition 
Zones. 

General characters. — A dark subspecies with a relatively broad, flat 
skull. Most closely resembling P. /. psora of the Sacramento Valley, 
Calif., but darker; skull relatively shorter and broader. Similar to 
P. I. excelsus of the Snake River Valley, southeastern Oregon, but much 
smaller, darker, and cranial characters distinctive. Decidedly larger 
than P. I. vancouverensis of Vancouver Island, and skull differing in 
detail. 

Color. — As in P. I. vancouverensis. Much as in P. I. psora, but darker, 
the top of head and long guard hairs over upper parts in general more 
extensively black; subapical light })ands of hairs somewhat narrower, 
tending to permit the basal color, which is of a darker tone (near dark 
cinnamon brown), to show through; mask unmixed black continuous 
across face and over upper surface of muzzle; rusty nuchal patch 
usually absent or inconspicuous. 

Cranial characters. — Skull comparatively short, broad and flat; 
interorbital space very broad; postorbital processes of frontals well 
developed. Resembling that of P. I. psora, but usually less elongated, 
the brain case more fully expanded, especially anteroexternally ; inter- 
orbital region broader. Similar to that of P. I. excelsus, but smaller, 
with brain case more rounded. Very similar in general form to that 
of P. I. vancouverensis, but much smaller throughout; brain case 



27 Mus. Vert. Zool. 



RACCOONS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA 59 

relatively larger, more inflated; nasals broader, narrowing more 
abruptly to a point posteriorly; pterygoids longer, more diverging 
posteriorly; maxillary tooth rows longer, the individual teeth much 
larger. 

Measurements. — Adult female from Steilacoom, Wash.: Total length, 830 mm.; 
tail vertebrae, 270; hind foot, 129. Skull: Type (?) and an adult female from 
Steilacoom, Wash., respectively: Greatest length, 113.8, 114.2; condylobasal 
length, 106.8, 109.2; zygomatic breadth, 79.9, 81.2; interorbital breadth, 26.8, 
27.3; least width of palatal shelf, 14.9, 16.9; maxillary tooth row (alveoli), 41.4, 
41.3; upper carnassial, crown length, 8.6, 7.9, crown width, 9.4, 10. Average of 
five adult males from Lake Cushman, Wash. : Greatest length, 119.5 (116.1-123.1) ; 
condylobasal length, 112.6 (109.5-116.5); zygomatic breadth, 81.7 (78.8-84.7); 
interorbital breadth, 26 (25.1-27.1); least width of palatal shelf, 16.8 (16.2-17.6); 
maxillary tooth row, 43.6 (42.8-44); upper carnassial, crown length, 9.1 (8.8-9.4), 
crown width, 9.8 (9.5-10). 

Remarks. — The present subspecies is the raccoon of the Pacific 
Northwest coastal and Cascade Range regions, extending in small 
numbers into the interior along the Columbia River Valley to north- 
eastern Washington. Like the regional representatives of other 
groups of mammals it is characterized by dark coloration. Compared 
with P. I. lotor of the eastern United States, which is also dark in 
color, the upper parts in pacijicus are more heavily overlaid with black, 
the light subterminal bands of the longer hairs and the light rings of 
the tail are grayer, less huffy or yellowish, the top of the head is 
blacker, and the mask is more iniiformly black and continuous across 
the face. P. I. pacijicus intergrades with P. I. psora in southwestern 
Oregon and northwestern California, and with P. I. excelsus east of the 
Cascade Mountains in Washington and Oregon. Procyon proteus 
Brass was assigned to the raccoon of the west coast from Puget Sound 
to the Cascade Mountains, which is within the range of typical P. I. 
pacijicus. The name is also preoccupied by Procyon proteus Allen, 
applied to a crab-eating raccoon in South America. 

Specimens examined. — Total number, 82, as follows: 

British Columbia: Hastings, 1; Port Moody, 3 (skulls only). 

California: Crescent City, 5 (4 skulls without skins). 

Oregon: Big Summit Prairie, Ochoco National Forest, 1 (skull only); Blue River, 
1 (skull only); Bridge, 1; CoUywash Burn, 1; Estacada, 3 (2 skulls without 
skins); Glendale, 3 (skulls only); Glide (24 miles east), 1; Glide (14 miles 
northeast), 1; Grant's Pass, 7 (32 miles south, 5 [1 skull without skin]; 43 miles 
northeast, 2 [1 skin without skull]); Hardman, 2; Pistol River (North Fork), 
Curry County, 1; Port Orford, 5 (skulls only); Remote, 1 (skull only); 
Riverside, 2. 

Washington: Easton, 1; Hoodsport, 4 (skulls only); Lake Cushman, 10 (skulls 
only) ; Lake Keechelus, 1 (type) ; Mount Vernon, 2 (skulls only) ; Orcas Island, 
1 (skull only); Skokomish River, Olympic Mountains, 2 (skulls only); 
Steilacoom, 5 (1 skin without skull); Tieton, 1; Toppenish, 3; Trout Lake, 
south base of Mount Adams, 5 (skulls only); Whidby Island, 1 (skull only). 



60 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 6 0, FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 

PROCYON LOTOR I<:XCKLSUS Nelson and Goldman 
Snake River Valley Raccoon 
Proci/on lotor excelsus Nelson and Goldman, Jour. Mammal. 11 (4): 458, Nov. 11, 

Type locality. — Owyhee River, Oreg;., 10 miles west of Fairylawn, 
Owyhee County, Idaho. 

Type. — No. 236214, old male adult, skin and skull, United States 
National Museum (Biological Surveys collection) ; collected by J. W. 
Fisk, April 15, 1920. 

Distribution. — Snake River drainage in southeastern Washington, 
eastern Oregon, and southern Idaho, the Humboldt River Valley, 
Nev., and river valleys of northeastern California. Mainly Upper 
Sonoran Zone. 

General characters. — Size largest of the group; color rather pale, 
similar in color to P. I. psora of California, but usually paler, and much 
larger, with skull differing in detail. Closely allied to P. I. pacificus 
of Washington, but much larger, decidedly paler, top of head much 
grayer, and cranial characters distinctive. 

Color. — Upper parts of body in general very light buffy grayish, 
with a light ochraceous buffy suffusion along median dorsal area, 
becoming pronounced on nape, moderately overlaid with black; sides 
clearer gray, the overlying black-tipped hairs less numerous than on 
dorsum; top of head a grizzled mixture of black and gray; face with the 
usual black mask and white markings; under parts in general thinly 
overlaid with buffy grayish, the light brownish undertone showing 
through; throat patch dark brownish; ears grayish with black patches 
at posterior base; limbs grayish, the hind legs with small, unmixed 
brownish areas on outer sides near heels; tail above with about six 
black annulations and a black tip, alternating with somewhat broader, 
light buffy rings, the dark rings usually becoming indistinct below. 

Cranial characters. — Skull similar to that of P. I. psora, but larger 
and more angular; frontal region broader, generally flattened, and 
postorbital processes well developed, as in psora. Compared with 
that of P. I. pacificus the skull is larger, with brain case relatively 
more elongated; frontal region broad as in pacificus. 

Measurements. — No skin measurements available. Skull: Type: Greatest 
length, 136.5 ram.; condylobasal length, 125.8; zygomatic breadth, 89.1; inter- 
orbital breadth, 30.1; least width of palatal shelf, 17.2; maxillary tooth row 
(alveoli), 47; upper carnassial, crown length, 9, crown width, 10.6. 

Remarks. — The present form is easily distinguished from all others 
of the group by the large size and massive development of the skull. 
No close cranial comparisons with forms east of the Rocky Mountains 
are necessary as this race differs notably in the much larger size, and 



RACCOONS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA 61 

broad, flat frontal region, with prominent postorbital processes — 
frontal region generally high and narrow, and postorbital processes 
weak, or obsolescent, in forms east of Rocky Mountains. 
Specimens examined. — Total number, 32, as follows: 

California: Parker Creek, Modoc County, l.^s 

Idaho: Bruneau. 1 (skull only); Emniett, Gem County, 1; Forest (Deer Creek), 
1 (skin only); Hagerman, 4 (1 skull without skin); Lost Valley Reservoir, 
head of Wieser River (altitude 5,000 feet), Adams County, 1 (skin only); 
Preuss Mountains, 1 (skull only); Stanley' Lake, Custer County (altitude 
8,500 feet), 1 (skin only); Three Creek, 2 (1 skin without skull; 1 skull without 
skin). 

Nevada: Golconda, 1 (skull only); Montello, 1. 

Oregon: Adel, 2; Dry Creek, Malheur County, 1 (skull only); Enterprise, 1 
(skin only); Harper (8 miles east), 1 (skull only); Huntington, 1 (skull only); 
Lnnaha, 1 (skull only) ; Owyhee River (type locality, 10 miles west of Fairy- 
lawn, Idaho), 2; Rome, I; Tupper, 1 (skull only); Vansycle, I (skull only). 

Washington: Alpowa, 1 (skull only); Garfield County, 1; Touchet, 1; Wallula, 1; 
Washtucna, 1. 

PROCYON LOTOR VANCOUVERENSIS Nelson and Goldman 

Vancouver Island Raccoon 

Procyon lotor varicouverensis Nelson and Goldman, Jour. Mammal. 11 (4): 458, 
Nov. 11, 1930. 

Tyj)e locality. — Quatsino Sound, Vancouver Island, British Colum- 
bia, Canada. Transition and Canadian Zones. 

Type. — No. 135457, male adult, skull only, United States National 
Museum (Biological Surveys collection) ; collected by Charles Sheldon, 
November 1904. 

Distribution. — Known only from Vancouver Island. 

General characters. — A dark subspecies most closely allied to P. I. 
pacijicus of Washington, but decidedly smaller, and cranial details 
distinctive. 

Color. — An adult (winter pelage) from Beecher Bay, Vancouver 
Island: Upper parts in general grayish, heavily overlaid with black; 
small nape patch suffused with ochraceous buff; top of head mixed 
black and gray, the black predominating; face with brownish black 
mask, the dark color extending down along middle of muzzle to nose ; 
sides of muzzle, lips, and chin white; under parts, in general, thinly 
overlaid with buff gray, the dense brown underfur showing through; 
throat patch brownish, mixed with gray along median line; ears gray- 
ish, with black patches at posterior base; limbs similar to under parts, 
becoming soiled whitish on feet, but hind legs with unmixed, dark 
brownish areas on outer sides above heels; tail with six narrow black 
rings and a black tip, alternating with broader grayish rings, the black 
rings interrupted on under side near base. 

28 Mtis. Vert. Zool. 



62 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 6 0, FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 

Cranial characters. — Skull rather small, short, low, broad, and flat, 
with well-devoloped postorbital processes. Very similar in general 
form to that of P. I. pacijicus, but much smaller throughout; brain case 
relatively smaller and less inflated ; nasals narrower and more attenuate 
posteriorly; pterygoids shorter, less diverging posteriorly; maxillary 
tooth rows shorter, the individual teeth much smaller. 

Measurements. — An adult from Beecher Bay, Vancouver Island: Hind foot 
(dry skin), 112 mm. Skull: Type: Greatest length, 116; condylobasal length, 
108.9; zygomatic breadth, 77.5; interorbital breadth, 25.4; least width of palatal 
shelf, lfi.5: maxillary tooth row (alveoli), 40.2; upper carnassial, crown length, 8.3, 
crown width, 8.9. 

Remarks.— The Vancouver Island raccoon is a well-marked sub- 
species. It requires close comparison only with P. I. pacificus of the 
adjacent mainland. 

Specimens examined. — Total number, 40, as follows: 

Vancouver Island, B. C: Alberni Valley (Hall's Ranch), 1; ^9 Beecher Bay, 3 (2 

skulls without skins) ; ^o Cadboro Bay, 1 (skull only) ; 3« Errington, 1 ; ^^ Fort 
Rupert, 1 (skull only);" French Creek, 1; ^9 Little Qualicum River, 1;29 
Mount Tolmie, 1 (skull only) ; ^o Parksville, 2; ^9 Quatsino Sound (type 
locality), 21 (skulls only); San Josef River Valley, 1 (skull only); Sooke, 2 
(skulls only) ; ^° Victoria, 1 (skull only) ; ^'^ exact locality unknown, 3 (skulls 
only). 30 

PROCYON LOTOR GRINNELLI Nelson and Goldman 

Baja California Raccoon 

Procyon lotor grinnelli Nelson and Goldman, Jour, ^^'ashington Acad. Sci. 20 (5): 
82, Mar. 4, 1930. 

Type locality. — La Paz, Baja California, Mexico. 

Type. — No. 147181, male adult, skin and skull, United States 
National Museinn (Biological Surveys collection); collected by E. W. 
Nelson and E. A. Goldman, February 15, 1906. 

Distribution. — Southern Baja California from the Cape region north 
at least to San Ignacio. Tropical and Lower Sonoran Zones. 

General characters. — A large, pale subspecies with a rather broad, 
high, evenly arched skull. Similar to P. I. pallidus of the Colorado 
Desert, but slightly darker and cranial characters, especially the more 
evenly arched profile of s'kull, distinctive. Compared with P. I. psora 
of the Sacramento Valley, general color paler, more grayish, less 
deeply suffused with buff, the long black guard hairs over dorsum less 
in evidence; top of head gra^^er, less heavily mixed with black; black 
areas at posterior base of ears smaller; skull with frontal region more 
highly arched. 



-•> Mus. Vert. Zool. 

3i> Provincial Mus.. Britisli Columbia. 

3> Amor, Mus. Nat. Hi.st. 



RACCOONS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA 63 

Color. — Upper parts in general coarsely grizzled iron grayish, the 
median dorsal area faintly suffused with pale buff", becoming pro- 
nounced on back of neck, rather thinly overlaid with black; top of head 
gray, mixed with black, producing a grizzled effect; face with solid 
black mask; white facial markings as usual in the group; under parts in 
general overlaid with very pale buffy grayish, the brown undertone 
showing through; throat patch blackish; ears grayish, with rather 
small black patches at posterior base ; limbs similar to under parts, but 
becoming whitish on feet; hind legs with small, pure brownish areas on 
outer side near heels; tail with the usual annulations and black tip, 
the light rings pale cream buff' and the narrower dark rings (6 to 7) 
consisting of black-tipped hairs with an underlying buffy suffusion; 
dark rings less evident on under side of tail and scarcely complete, 
tending to fade out on median line, except near tip. 

Cranial characters. — Skull similar to that of P. I. pallidus, but brain 
case and interorbital region l)roader; frontals rising higher anteriorly, 
the upper outline a more evenly convex curve — anterior frontal outline 
descending in a more nearly straight line from apex immediately 
behind postorbital processes in imllidus; dentition about the same. 
Compared with that of P. I. psora the skull is less flattened, the frontal 
region more higlily arched; brain case rather broad and other cranial 
details much as in psora. 

Measurements. — Type: Total length, 913 mm.; tail vertebrae, 335; hind foot, 
132. Skull: Type: Greatest length, 122.1; condylobasal lengtft, 115.5; zygomatic 
breadth, 77.9; interorbital breadth, 24.3; least width of palatal shelf, 16.7; maxil- 
lary tooth row (alveoli), 44.1 ; upper carnassial, crown length, 8.8, crown width, 9.3. 

Beinarks. — Raccoons are dependent upon water for existence, and 
owing to exceedingly arid conditions in the central section of Baja 
California their general range is interrupted for considerable distances. 
The form here described, which occupies the southern half of the 
peninsula, differs rather markedly in combination of characters from 
both of the more northern su})species, P. I. psora and P. I. pallidus. 
It recjuires no very close comparison with P. I. mexicanus of the 
adjacent mainland of Mexico, which in general, is paler, with the black 
postauricular spots obsolescent, and skull notably depressed in frontal 
region. 

Specimens examined. — Total number, 11, as follows: 

Baja California, Mexico: La Paz (type locality), 3;^- Mount Miraflores, 3; '^ 
San Ignacio, 5. 



32 One (skull only) in Mus. Vert. Zool. 

33 Two in Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. 



64 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 60, FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 

PROCYON LOTOR HERNANDEZII Wagler 

Mexican Plateau Raccoon 

Pr[ocyon] hernandezii Wagler, Isis 24: 514, 1831. 

Procyon lotor hernandezii Allen, Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. Bull. 3: 176, Dec. 10, 1890. 

Type locality. — Valley of Mexico, Mexico (specimens from Tlalpam 
regarded as typical).^* 

Type. — Not designated. 

Distribution. — Southern part of tableland or plateau region of 
Mexico and adjoining coasts, from Nayarit, Jalisco, and San Luis 
Potosi, south to near the Isthmus of Tehuantepec. Altitudinal range 
from sea level to about 8,000 feet. Tropical to Transition Zone. 

General characters. — A large, dark grayish subspecies; skull some- 
what flattened, with narrow frontal region and slender, wide spreading 
zygomata; dentition heavy. Similar in general to P. I. fuscipes of 
Texas, but upper parts grayer; skull flatter and differing in detail. 
Decidedly darker than P. I. mexicanus of Chihuahua, the upper parts 
more extensively overlaid with black, and cranial characters distinc- 
tive. Differing from P. I. shufeldti of Campeche in longer pelage; top 
of head darker and back more heavily overlaid with black; skull more 
slender. 

Color. — Very similar to that of P. I. fuscipes but still grayer, less 
buffy beneath overlying black; black postauricular spots smaller. 
Young (in first pelage) : Similar to lotor of corresponding age, but top 
of head and postauricular areas less extensively brownish black, and 
black mask continuous across face (mask more or less interrupted 
between eyes in lotor) ; feet dark brownish instead of buft'y. 

Cranial characters. — Skull size about as in P. I. fuscipes but more 
flattened above, the frontal region less elevated, and brain case less 
depressed near fronto-parietal suture; postorbital processes of frontals 
usually longer, narrower, more acutely pointed ; upper margin of orbit 
usually more deeply concave; posterior upper premolar and upper 
carnassial usually larger. Similar to that of P. I. mexicanus, but 
flatter, the frontal region less elevated; interorbital and postorbital 
regions usually narrower; maxillary tooth rows longer; posterior 
upper premolar and upper carnassial larger. Compared with that 
of P. I. shufeldti the skull is more slender, less massive; interorbital 
and postorbital regions narrower; dentition about the same. 

Measurements. — Adult male from Tlalpam, Valley of Mexico, Mexico: Total 
length, 905 mm.; tail vertebrae, 283; hind foot, 122. Two adult males from 
Jalpan, Queretaro, and Patzcuaro, Michoacan, respectively: 894, 872; 340, 308; 
129, 127. Two adult females, Tetela del Volcan, Morelos, and El Chico, Hidalgo: 
860,825; 300, 264; 120, 122, Skull: Adult male from Tlalpam, Mexico: Greatest 



3< Type locality fixed by Nelson and Goldman, Biol. Soc. Washington Proc. 44: 17, Feb. 21, 1931. 



RACCOONS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA 65 

length, 122.9; condylobasal length, 116.9; zygomatic breadth, 86; intororbital 
breadth, 25.2; least width of palatal shelf, 16.8; maxillary tooth row (alveoli), 
45.7; upper carnassial, crown length, 9.2, crown width, 10.3. Two adult males 
from Acambaro, Michoacan, and Jalpan, Queretaro: Greatest length, 128.3, 
123.7; condylobasal length, 124.8, 116; zygomatic breadth, 86.2, 83.1; interorbital 
breadth, 24.2, 23.9; least width of palatal shelf, 16.4, 16.4; maxillary tooth row, 
45.2, 44.2; upper carnassial, crown length, 9.3, 9.1, crown width, 10, 9.3. Two 
adult females from Tetela del Volcan, Morelos, and El Chico, Hidalgo: Greatest 
length, 118.1, 114; condylobasal length, 114.8, 109.3; zygomatic breadth, 79.3, 
76.8; interorbital breadth, 24.7, 22.1; least width of palatal shelf, 16.4, 15.8; max- 
illary tooth row, 44.2, 42.3; upper carnassial, crown length, 9.4, 8.2, crown width, 
10, 9.4. 

Bemarks. — The range of P. I. hernandezii in southern Mexico is 
transcontinental, and while mainly at 4,000 to 6,000 feet on the table- 
land of the interior it extends from sea level along the tropical coasts 
to 8,000 feet altitude on the slopes of the mountains bordering the 
Valley of Mexico. It intergrades on the north in eastern Mexico 
with P. I. fuscipes and in western Mexico with P. I. mexicanus. 
Toward the southeast its range meets that of P. I. shufeldti. 

Specimens examined. — Total number, 50, as follows: 

Colima: Armeria, 1; Colima, 5 (3 skulls without skins); Manzanillo, 8 (3 skulls 

without skins). 
Guerrero: Papayo, 2; Tlapa, 1. 
Hidalgo: El Chico, 1. 
Jalisco: Arroyo de Plantinar, l;'^ Atemajac, 3 (1 skull without skin); Barranca 

Ibarra (Canyon de Oblatos), Rio Grande de Santiago, 1; Garabatos, 1;^^ Las 

Canoas, 2;^^ Zacoalco, 1; Zapotlan, 2 (1 skull without skin). 
Mexico: Ajusco, Distrito Federal, 1 (skull only); Tlalpam, Distrito Federal, 1. 
Michoacan: Acambaro, 2 (skulls only); Patzcuaro, 2 (1 skull without skin); 

Querendaro, 3 (2 skulls without skins). 
Morelos: Tetela del Volcan, 1. 
Nayarit: San Bias, 1. 
Oaxaca: Cuicatlan, 1. 

Queretaro: Jalpan, 2 (1 skull without skin). 
San Luis Potosi: Hacienda la Parada, 1; San Luis Potosi, 1. 
Veracruz: Jico, 3; Mirador, 2 (1 skin without skull). 

PROCYON LOTOR SHUFELDTI Nelson and Goldman 
Campeche Raccoon 

Procyon lotor shufeldti Nelson and Goldman, Biol. Soc. Washington Proc. 44: 17, 
Feb. 21, 1931. 

Type locality. — La Tuxpena, Champoton, Campeche, Mexico. 

Type. — No. 177546, male adult, skin and skull. United States 
National Museum (Biological Surveys collection) ; collected by Percy 
W. Shufeldt, April 20, 1911. 

Distribution. — From the Isthmus of Tehuantepec east through 
Chiapas, Tabasco, Campeche, Yucatan, Quintano Roo, British 

3= Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. 



66 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 6 0, FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 

Honduras, and Giiatomala to western Honduras; limits of range 
unknown. Tropical Zone. 

General characters. — A large, rather pale, short-haired subspecies, 
with massive skull. Similar in general to P. I. hernandezii of the 
Valley of Mexico, but pelage shorter, color duller, top of head grayer 
and back less modified by })lack-tipped hairs; black postauricular 
spots (small in hernandezii) still less distinct; skull more massive and 
differing in detail. Size about as in P. I. crassidens of Costa Rica, but 
color decidedly paler and grayer, the upper parts less heavily overlaid 
with black, and the subterminal light zone of longer hairs more 
extended and thus affecting the general tone; skull less flattened. 
Dift'ering from P. I. dickeyi in larger size, much grayer color, and in 
cranial characters. 

Color. — Upper parts in general usually light buft'y gray, with rather 
thinly distributed overlying black-tipped hairs resulting in a coarsely 
grizzled blend; nape patch rusty rufous; sides lighter, the black tips of 
hairs inconspicuous; top of head clearer gray, mixed with black, lacking 
the light buffy tone suffusing the back; black mask across face extend- 
ing downward along median line of muzzle to nose and upward to 
middle of forehead; lines bordering mask above, sides of muzzle, lips, 
and chin white as usual in the group; under parts in general thinly 
overlaid with very light buft'y hairs, the light brownish underfur show- 
ing through, but short and scarcely concealing the skin; throat patch 
brow^nish; ears grayish; black postauricular spots small and incon- 
spicuous; limbs similar in color to under parts, but over hairs denser, 
becoming dull whitish on feet; hind legs with outer sides of ankles 
brownish; tail above with seven to eight narrow blackish rings and a 
black tip, alternating with light ochraceous buft'y rings, less distinct 
and tending to become conftuent below, especially near base. Varying 
in some specimens from paler and grayer to darker, with dorsum more 
profusely overspread with black, and rusty rufous nape patch indis- 
tinct or absent. Young (in first pelage) : Similar to P. I. hernandezii, 
but paler above, especially the top of head, which is scarcely differ- 
entiated from back. 

Cranial characters.- — Skull similar in size to that of P. I. hernandezii, 
but more massive; interorbital and postorbital regions broader; denti- 
tion al)out the same. Similar in size and angularity to that of P. I. 
crassidens, but less ftattened, the frontal region higher arched behind 
postorbital processes; dentition and other cranial details about as in 
crassidens. Compared with that of P. I. dickeyi the skull is decidedly 
larger, more massive; sagittal and lambdoid crests heavier, thicker and 
less trenchant; palate broader; auditory bullae usually larger. 

Measurements. — Type: Total length, 874 mm.; tail vertebrae, 292; hind foot, 
116. An adult female topotype: 909; 296; 128. Skull: Type: Greatest length, 



RACCOONS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA 67 

126.1; coiidylobasal length, 118.7; interorbital breadth, 26.8; least width of palatal 
shelf, 16.8; maxillary tooth row (alveoli), 45.1; upper carnassial, crown length, 
9.6, crown width, 9.8. 

Remarks. — The general range of the present subspecies embraces the 
peninsula of Yucatan and adjoining territory as far south and west as 
the Isthmus of Tehuantepec. Like the representatives of other widely 
ranging subspecies inhabiting the general region it is characterized by 
pale colors. Occasional specimens, however, as one from Huilotepec 
(near Tehuantepec), Oaxaca, have the upper parts more heavily over- 
laid with black, indicating gradation toward the darker Central 
American forms. It is closely allied to P. I. hernandezii, but the 
characters pointed out are distinctive. 

Specimens examined. — Total number, 23, as follows: 
British Honduras: El Cayo (near San Lorenzo), 1.^^ 
Campeche: La Tuxpena (type locality), 3. 
Chiapas: San Vicente, 1 (skull only). 

Guatemala: El Espino, 1; northern Guatemala (exact locality unknown), 1. 
Honduras: Santa Barbara, 1.^" 

Oaxaca: Huilotepec, 7; San Mateo del Mar, 1 (skull only); Tehuantepec, 4.5* 
Tabasco: Alontecristo, 1. 
Veracruz: Minatitlan, 1. 
Yucatan: Chichen Itza, 1. 

PROCYON LOTOR DICKEYI Nelson and Goldman 
Salvador Raccoon 

Procyon lotor dickeyi Nelson and Goldman, Biol. Soc. Washington Proc. 44: 18, 
Feb. 21, 1931. 

Type locality. — Barra de Santiago, Department of Almachapam, 
Salvador. 

Type. — No. 12796, male adult, skin and skidl, collection of Donald 
R. Dickey; collected by G. D. Stirton, April 14, 1927. 

Distribution. — Coast region of southwestern Salvador and probably 
of southeastern Guatemala; limits of range unknown. Tropical Zone. 

General characters. — A dark-colored sul)species (one of the darkest 
of the group) of medium size; skidl short and light in structure. Color 
about as in P. I. crassidens of Costa Rica; size similar, but skull of 
lighter proportions, and differing in important details. Similar in 
general to P. I. shufeldti of Campeche, but smaller, and much darker, 
the upper parts more heavily overlaid with black; cranial characters 
distinctive. 

Color. — Upper parts in general grayish, heavily and rather uniformly 
overlaid with black extending well down along sides; light subterminal 
zone of longer hairs narrow and dark undercolor showing through in- 



38 Univ. Michigan Mus. Zool. 

3' Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. 

3* One skin without skull, one skull without skin, Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. 



68 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 6 0, FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 

tonsifying general dark tone; top of head clearer gray, heavily mixed 
with black, producing a somewhat grizzled effect, the black predom- 
inating; black facial mask extending downward on median line to nose 
and upward to middle of forehead ; white supraorbital lines short and 
narrow, ending under ears instead of continuing posteriorly to sides of 
neck as in shufeldti and more northern forms; sides of muzzle, lips, and 
chin white; under parts in general thinly overlaid with buffy white, 
the underfur light brownish, sparse and only partially concealing the 
skin beneath; throat patch brownish black; ears grayish; black post- 
auricular spots small, tending to blend with dark tone of back; fore- 
arms dull grayish, becoming soiled whitish on feet; outer surfaces of 
hind legs similar to sides of body, becoming brownish black near heels 
and soiled whitish on feet; tail above with about seven blackish rings, 
rather indistinct near base, and a black tip, alternating with rich 
ochraceous buffy rings, tending to blend along median line below. 

Cranial characters. — Skull characterized by thin-walled, delicate 
structure, with weakly developed sagittal and lambdoid crests. Most 
closely resembling that of P. I. craf^sidens, but of lighter proportions; 
frontal region less flattened; palate much narrower, a character very 
noticeable in the lesser distance between cheek tooth series; jugal more 
slender; dentition heavy, much as in crassidens. Compared with that 
of P. I. shufeldti the skull is decidedly smaller and less massive ; frontal 
region of similar elevation; sagittal and lambdoid crests weaker, 
thinner and more trenchant; palate narrower; auditory bullae usually 
smaller; dentition about the same. 

Measurements. — Type: Total length, 840 mm.; tail vertebrae, 310; hind foot, 
115. Average of four adult male topotypes: 840 (800-870) mm.; 297 (300-340) ; 
114 (110-120). Average of eight adult female topotypes: 782 (730-790); 300 
(280-340) ; 110 (105-120). Skull: Type and an adult male topotype, respectively: 
Greatest length, 114.7, 108.3; condylobasal length, 108.4, 102.7; zygomatic 
breadth, 79.3, 76.2; interorbital breadth, 23.9, 22.5; width of palate between last 
molars, 19.5, 20.9; least width of palatal shelf, 16, 15.3; maxillary tooth row 
(alveoli), 41.7, 40.7; upper carnassial, crown length, 7.7, 8.5, crown width, 9, 8.9. 
Average of seven adult female topotypes: Greatest length, 116.1 (113-122.5); 
co-tdylobasal length, 109.7 (107.5-115.9); zygomatic breadth, 74 (70.2-80); inter- 
orbital breadth, 23.9 (22.9-25.3); width of palate between last molars, 19.7 (18.4- 
21); least width of palatal shelf, 15.2 (14.7-15.7); maxillary tooth row, 43.7 
(42.7-45.7.); upper carnassial, crown length, 9.2 (8.7-10), crown width, 10 
(9.5-11). 

Remarks. — P. I. dickeyi is the most northern of the known Central 
American subspecies, all of which are characterized by darker color 
than their more northern relatives. It appears to be a highly special- 
ized mangrove-inhabiting race as specimens from the interior only a 
short distance away are markedly different and nearer to crassidens. 
In external appearance this subspecies is similar to P. I. crassidens, but 
the cranial features are quite distinctive. The rusty rufous nape 



RACCOONS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA 69 

patch often present in more northern forms is absent or only faintly 
indicated in some individuals. In the type locality it was found by 
the collector living among mangroves where specimens were obtained 
by shooting. Examination of stomach contents revealed crabs, which 
appear to be the principal food. In all of the skulls, including that of 
a young individual about two-thirds grown, the large cheek teeth are 
much more worn than is usual in raccoons of corresponding ages. This 
excessive wear, greatest on the molars, is due evidently to the abrasive 
character of the food. The delicate cranial structure and rapid reduc- 
tion of the molars also suggest that malnutrition resulting from an 
imperfect diet, or incomplete mastication of food, may have been 
responsible for the development of the peculiar characters of this 
localized race. 

Specifnens examined. — Total number, 22, as follows: 
Guatemala: Exact locality unknown, 5. 

Salvador: Barra de Santiago, Department of Ahuachapam (type locality), 17 (4 
skins without skulls).^' 

PROCYOX LOTOR CRASSIDENS Hollister 
Costa Rican Raccoon 

Procyon lotor crassidens Hollister, Biol. Soc. Washington Proc. 27: 142, July 10, 
1914. 

Tyj^e locality. — Talamanca, northeastern Costa Rica. 

12191 
Type. — No. — -, adult [male?], skin and skull. United States 

National Museum; collected by William M. Gabb. Original number 
14. 

Distribution. — Costa Rica, Nicaragua, Salvador, except south- 
western coast region and probably Honduras, except western part; 
probably extending into western Panama. Tropical Zone. 

General characters. — One of the darkest known forms of the group; 
closely resembling P. I. pumilus of Panama and P. I. dickeyi of Salvador 
externally, but cranial characters distinctive. 

Color. — About as in P. I. dickeyi, the dorsum heavily overlaid with 
black extending well down the sides; white supraorbital lines distinct, 
but short and disappearing inider the ears as in dickeyi. 

Cranial characters. — Skull similar to that of P. I. dickeyi, but more 
massive; frontal region more flattened; palate much broader, the 
tooth rows more widely separated; dentition heavy much as in 
dickeyi. Compared with that of P. I. pumilus the skull is larger, 
relatively longer, narrower, and less extremely flattened; inter- 
orbital and postorbital regions narrowers; postorbital processes of 



3*" Donald R. Dickey collection. 



70 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 60, FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 

frontals shorter, broader and more obtusely pointed; dentition similar 
but usually heavier. 

Measurements. — An adult male from Jalapa, Nicaragua: Total length, 950 mm.; 
tail vertebrae, 310; hind foot, 120. An adult male from San Rafael del Norte, 
Nicaragua: 880; 250; 110. Skull: Type: Greatest length, 125.5; condylobasal 
length, 122.9; zygomatic breadth, 75.8; interorlMtal breadth, 25.8; width of 
palate between last molars, 24.1; least width of palatal shelf, 17.3; maxillary 
tooth row (alveoli), 47.3; upper carnassial, crown length, 10, crown width, 10.7. 

Remarks. — P. I. crassidens is similar to P. I. pumilus and P. I. 
dickeyi in external appearance, all sharing an extremely dark colora- 
tion. While closely allied to the forms mentioned, the cranial char- 
acters presented are quite distinctive. Some specimens from the 
interior and southeastern coast region of Salvador, quite near the 
restricted range of dickeyi, are distinctly grayer than typical crassidens, 
and in this character, as in cranial details, grade toward shufeldti. 

Specimens examined. — Total number, 18, as follows: 
Costa Rica: El Sauce Peralta, 1; Talamanca, 1 (type); exact locality unknown, 1. 
Nicaragua: Jalapa, 2;*° San Rafael del Norte, 2;« Vijagua, 1.^" 
Salvador: Barrios Mine, Morazan, 1;" Colima, Cuscatlan, 1;*^ Lake Guija, 1;^' 
Puerto del Triunfo, Usulutan, 1;^^ Rio Goascoran, La Union, I;*'- Rio San 
Miguel, 3;^i San Pedro Mine, Morazan, 1;" Volcan San Miguel, 1." 

PROCYON LOTOR PUMILUS Miller 
Isthmian Raccoon 
Procyon pumilus Miller, Biol. Soc. Washington Proc. 24: 3, Jan. 28, 1911. 

Type locality. — Ancon, Panama. 

Ttjpe. — No. 171983, young adidt [female?], skin and skidl, United 
States National Museum; collected by Allan H. Jennings, 1910. 

Distribution. — Panama and the Canal Zone from Porto Bello west 
to Boqueron, Chiriqui, limits of range unknown. Tropical Zone. 

General characters. — Closely allied to P. I. crassidens of Costa Rica; 
color very similar; skull shorter, relatively broader and flatter. 

Color. — Very dark, the upper parts heavily overlaid with black 
about as in P. I. crassidens, but white supraorbital lines usually less 
distinct, somewhat obscured by dusky hairs. 

Cranial characters. — Skull smaller, shorter, relatively broader, and 
still flatter than that of P. I. crassidens; interorbital and postorbital 
regions broader; postorbital processes longer, narrower, more acutely 
pointed; dentition lighter, especially the cheek teeth distinctly smaller. 

Measurements. — Adult male from Porto Bello, Panama: Total length, 920 mm.; 
tail vertebrae, 350; hind foot, 125. Adult female from Gatun, Canal Zone: 
831; 292; 123. Shill: Adult male from Porto Bello, Panama and adult female 
from Gatun, Canal Zone, respectively: Greatest length, 113.5, 113.2; condylo- 



« Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. 

" Donald R. Dickey eollection. 



RACCOONS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA 71 

basal length, 110.8, 110.5; zygomatic breadth, 81.1, 80.6; interorbital breadth, 
26.8, 24.8; least width of palatal shelf, 15.1, 14.8; maxillary tooth row, 44, 41.9; 
upper carnassial, crown length, 8.9, 7.6, crown width, 9.6, 9. 

Remarks. — The range of P. I. pumilus marks the known extreme 
southern Hmit of the Procyon lotor group. Its distribution area 
overhips that of Procyon cancrivorus panamensis, the so-called crab- 
eating raccoon, the two occurring in the same localities in the Canal 
Zone and vicinity. From the latter it is easily distinguished extern- 
ally by its smaller size, more slender proportions, grayish instead of 
l)lackish forearms and thighs, presence of underfur, and the normal 
inclination backward of the pelage of the nape which in the crab- 
eating raccoon is reversed. The skull is recognizable especially 
by the smaller molars, with more pointed instead of rounded cusps. 
Although the dentition of pumilus is not so well fitted as that of the 
crab-eating raccoon for crushing hard substances such as crabs, it 
shares with it the crab-eating habit, at least to some extent, as shown 
by the examination of stomach contents. 

P. I. pumilus is most closely allied to P. I. crassidens. In external 
appearance some specimens of the two are practically indistinguisha- 
ble, although the white supraorbital lines are usually less distinct in 
pumilus; but the skull is notable for its shortness; and in the general 
flatness, and length of the postorbital processes it reaches the extreme 
development presented in the group. Material now available, 
including a series of six topotypes (Balboa and Ancon, the type locality, 
are contiguous), shows that this raccoon is not so very small as the 
type, an unustially under-sized and not fully adult individual, seemed 
to indicate. 

Specimens examined. — Total number, 15, as follows: 

Canal Zone: Ancon, 1 (type); Balboa, 6;^^ Gatun, 4. 

Panama: Boqueron, 1;^^ Pedregal, 1;^^ Porto Bello, 2. 

PROCYON INSULARIS Merriam 

[References under subspecies] 

Distribution. — Tres Marias Islands, off west coast of Nayarit, 
Mexico. 

General characters. — A large, pale species, with short, coarse pelage 
and massive skull. Similar to adjacent mainland forms of P. lotor 
(P. I. mexicanus and P. I. hernandezii), but pelage shorter, more 
bristly, color inclining toward buffy instead of iron grayish, the back 
less overlaid with black; black postauricular spots much smaller, less 
conspicuous; skull more angular and differing in important details. 



« Chicago Mus. Nat. Hist. 
« Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. 
« Mus. Comp. Zool. 



72 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 6 0, FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 

Color. — Upper parts in general light cream buflf, the dorsal area 
thinly overlaid with black; nuchal patch undifferentiated or faintly 
indicated by a very pale buffy line ; sides lighter, the black-tipped hairs 
inconspicuous; top of head grizzled gray and black; black mask 
extending across face and along median line from nasal pad to middle 
of forehead; white supraorbital lines continuous to sides of neck; 
sides of muzzle, lips, and chin white; under parts, in general, thinly 
overlaid with very pale creamy buff, the light brown underfur show- 
ing through; throat patch brownish flecked with gray; ears grayish, 
the black patches at posterior base, usual in the group, obsolescent; 
limbs about like sides, becoming dull whitish on feet; hind legs 
brownish on outer sides near ankles; tail above with about seven 
black rings and a black tip, alternating with broader cream buffy 
or light ochraceous buffy rings, the dark rings interrupted below. 

Cranial characters. — Skull large, angular, and massive, with remark- 
ably heavy zygomata, the squamosal arm, especially, very broad 
anteriorly and extended vertically (as apparent when viewed from 
^he side) . Similar in general to that of P. lofor, especially , P. I. 
mexicanus and P. I. hernandezii, but more angular; zygomata broader 
and heavier, the squamosal arm broader anteriorly, more extended 
vertically; transverse squamosal portion of zygoma bearing a more 
conspicuous process on anterior border near posterior end of jugal; 
palatal shelf relatively narrower, the lateral borders more deeply 
concave; postorbital processes of frontals well developed as in mexi- 
canus and hernandezii; large molariform teeth narrower; crown of 
second upper molar subquadrate, instead of subtriangular, the inner 
border more evenly rounded. 

Remarks. — P. insularis is clearly allied to P. I. mexicanus and 
P. I. hernandezii of the adjacent mainland and was regarded by its 
describer as a subspecies of the widely ranging continental animal. 
The characters pointed out are so trenchant, however, that its position 
in the group is better expressed by according it specific rank. It is 
subdivisible into two closely related insular forms. 

PROCYON INSULARIS INSULARIS Merriam 
Mar! A Madre Island Raccoon 
Procyon lotor insularis Merriam, Biol. Soc. Washington Proc. 12: 17, Jan. 27, 1898. 
Type locality. — Maria Madre Island, Tres Marias Islands, off west 
coast of Nayarit, Mexico. 

Type. — No. 88978, old male, skin and skull, United States National 
Museum (Biological Surveys collection); collected by E. W. Nelson 
and E. A. Goldman, May 10, 1897. 



RACCOONS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA 73 

Distribution. — Known only from Maria Madre Island. Tropical 
Zone. 

General characters. — Closely resembling P. i. vicinus of Maria Mag- 
dalena Island, but dorsum less conspicuously overlaid with black, and 
top of head grayer; cranial characters distinctive. 

Color. — About as set forth for the species as a whole, differing only 
slightly from P. i. vicinus in the somewhat lesser amount of overlying 
black. 

Cranial characters. — Skull very similar to that of P. i. vicinus, but 
brain case less highly arched; lambdoid crest more broadly spreading, 
not rising so high over foramen magnum; basioccipital, basisphenoid, 
and palatal shelf broader; palatal ridges (extending posteriorly to 
pterygoids) more widely separated; pterygoids thicker, the posterior 
ends more strongly everted and knob-like; maxillary arm of zygoma 
with lower external border projecting as a distinct process separated 
from outer alveolar border of molars by a deep notch (process absent 
in vicinus) ; zygomata very broad and heavy as in vicinus; foramen 
magnum more decidedly wider than high (more nearly circular in 
vicinus); dentition about the same. 

Measurements. — Type: Total length, 854 mm.; tail vertebrae, 286; hind foot, 
1.32. An adult male topotype: 840; 264; 128. Skull: Type and an adult male 
topotype, respectively: Greatest length, 121.8, 119; condylobasal length, 114.6, 
114; zygomatic breadth, 86.4, 82.5; interorbital breadth, 27.8, 27.2; least width of 
palatal shelf, 15.4, 14.3; maxillary tooth row, 43.6, 42.2 (alveoli); upper carnas- 
sial, crown length, 8.6, 8.6, crown width, 9.3, 9.1. 

Remarks. — P. i. insularis requires close comparison only with P. i. 
vicinus of Maria Magdalena Island. While cranial details appear to 
be quite distinctive these insular forms are much alike in external 
appearance. In the few specimens available, however, the black over- 
lying the dorsum — rather thin in vicinus — is further reduced in 
insularis, leaving a coarsely grizzled effect. 

Specimens examined. — Six, all fi'om the type locality. 

PROCYON INSULARIS VICINUS Nelson and Goldman 
Maria Magdalena Island Raccoon 

Procyon itisnlaris vicinus Nelson and Goldman, Biol. Soc. Washington Proc. 44: 
20, Feb. 21, 1931. 

Type locality. — Maria Magdalena Island, Tres Marias Islands, 
Nayarit, Mexico (altitude 250 feet). 

Type. — No. 88982, male adult, skin and skull, United States National 
Museum (Biological Surveys collection); collected by E. W. Nelson 
and E. A. Goldman, May 27, 1897. 

Distribution. — Known only from Maria Magdalena Island. Trop- 
ical Zone. 

876119°— 50 6 



74 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 6 0, FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 

General characters. — A pale subspecies with short, coarse pelage. 
Closely resembling Procyon i. insularis of Maria Madre Island, but 
dorsum more conspicuously overlaid with black, and top of head some- 
what darker; cranial characters distinctive. 

Color. — Upper parts in general light cream buff, the dorsal area 
rather thinly overlaid with black; sides lighter, the black-tipped hairs 
inconspicuous; top of head gray mixed with black, giving a grizzled 
effect; black mask across face extending downward to nose and up- 
ward on median line to middle of forehead; white supraorbital mark- 
ings normal; sides of muzzle, lips, and chin white; under parts in gen- 
eral thinly overlaid with very pale creamy buff, the light brown under- 
fur showing through; throat patch brownish flecked with gray; ears 
grayish, the black patches at posterior base, usual in the group, obso- 
lescent; legs about like sides, becoming dull whitish on feet; hind legs 
brownish on outer sides near ankles; tail above with seven black rings 
and a black tip, alternating with broader cream buff rings, the dark 
rings interrupted below. 

Cranial characters. — Skull very similar to that of P. i. insularis, but 
brain case more highly arched; lambdoid crest rising higher over fora- 
men magnum; basioccipital, basisphenoid, and palatal shelf narrower; 
palatal ridges (extending posteriorly to pterygoids) less widely sep- 
arated; pterygoids thinner, the posterior ends less everted; maxillary 
arm of zygoma normal, the lower external border not projecting and 
forming a distinct process separated from outer alveolar border of 
molars by a deep notch; zygomata very broad and heavy, as in insu- 
laris; foramen magnum more nearly circular (more decidedly wider 
than high in insularis) ; dentition about the same. 

Measurements. — Type: Total length, 904 mm.; tail vertebrae, 313; hind foot, 
135. Skull: Type: Greatest length, 120; condylobasal length, 115.2; zygomatic 
breadth, 84.6; interorbital breadth, 27.7; least width of palatal shelf, 14.1; maxil- 
lary tooth row (alveoli), 42.6; upper carnassial, crown length, 8.7, crown width, 9.2. 

Remarks. — As mighty be expected P. i. vicinus is closely allied to its 
near geographic neighbor, P. i. insularis of Maria Madre Island, and 
requires no very close comparison with any other form. It is distin- 
guished externally from adjacent mainland forms, P. I. mexicanus and 
P. I. hernandezii, by shorter, coarser pelage, the general color inclining 
toward buffy instead of grayish, and the black postauricular spots 
obsolescent; the skull differs in numerous important details, especially 
the higher arched brain case, much broader, heavier, zygomata, nar- 
rower palatal shelf, and narrower carnassials. 

Specimens examined. — Two, from the type locality. 



RACCOONS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA 75 

PROCYON MAYNARDI Bangs 
Bahama Raccoon 
Procyon viaynardi Bangs, Biol. Soc. Washington Proc. 12: 92, Apr. 30, 1898. 

Type locality. — New Providence Island, Bahamas. 

Type. — No. 7750, male young, skin and skull, Museum of Com- 
parative Zoology (collection of E. A. and O. Bangs); collected by 
Herbert L. Claridge, August 1897. 

Disfribufion. — Known only from New Providence Island, Bahamas. 
Tropical Zone. 

General characters. — A small, mecHum dark-colored species with a 
slender, delicate skull, narrow palatal shelf, and light dentition. 
Similar in general to P. I. incautm of the extreme southern Florida 
keys, but color darker, and cranial characters, especially the small 
teeth, distinctive. Somewhat similar in size to P. minor of Guade- 
loupe Island, Lesser Antilles, but apparently somewhat paler in color 
and skull differing notably in the narrowness of the palatal shelf. 

Color. — Upper parts in general grayish, becoming ochraceous buffy 
on nape and over shoulders, moderately overlaid with black, thinning 
out along sides; top of head a grizzled mixture of gray and black; black 
mask interrupted between eyes, a dusky median patch extending to 
forehead somewhat isolated by lighter lateral lines, as in P. I. lotor; 
upper surface of muzzle ochraceous buffy; supraorbital lines, sides of 
muzzle, lips, and chin white; ears grayish, with black patches at 
posterior base; under parts thinly overlaid with grayish; limbs similar 
to under parts, the hind legs blackish near ankles; tail with five or six 
black rings and a black tip, alternating with ochraceous buffy rings. 

Cranial characters. — Skull very similar in outline and general propor- 
tions to that of P. I. incautus, but palatal shelf narrower, the sides 
distinctly concave (sides more nearly parallel in incautus) ; nasals 
narrower posteriorly; auditory bullae slightly larger, more inflated; 
posterior upper premolar and carnassial slightly smaller. Similar in 
size to that of P. minor, but brain case narrower, less flattened above; 
palatal shelf decidedly narrower, the sides more concave; nasals nar- 
rower between anterior processes of frontals; auditory bullae slightly 
larger; dentition similar, but molariform teeth broader. 

Measurements. — Adult Male topotype: Total length, 713 mm.; tail vertebrae, 
240; hind foot (dry skin), 100. Skull: An adult male and an adult female (topo- 
types), respectively: Greatest length, 105.9, 103.5; condylobasal length, 101.7, 
101; zygomatic breadth, 79.3, 64.6; interorbital breadth, 21.9, 22.1; least width of 
palatal shelf, 12.2, 13.3; maxillary tooth row (alveoli), 38.7, 38.9; upper carnassial, 
crown length, 7.6, 7.6, crown width, 8.4, 8.5. 

Remarks. — The Bahama form is closely related to the raccoons of the 
Florida Keys as shown in the skull by agreement in form and general 
proportions, especially the height of the frontal region, with slight 



76 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 6 0, FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 

development of postorbital processes, and the depression of the brain 
case near the fronto-parietal suture. The differential characters, 
however, warrant its recognition as a distinct species. In describing- 
P. maynardi Bangs (1898b, p. 92) says: ''There is no tradition among 
the inhabitants of Nassau that the raccoon was ever introduced upon 
the island. . . . The raccoon is abundant upon Nassau [New Provi- 
dence] but Mr. Maynard believes that it does not exist upon any of the 
other islands of the Bahama group." According to the Acting 
Colonial Secretary Charles P. Bethel, the raccoons on New Providence 
Island have decreased during recent years owing to the destruction by 
hurricanes of fruit trees that afforded a food supply. 

Specimens examined. — Three, ''^ all from New Providence Island. 

PROCYON PYGMAEUS Merriam 

CozuMEL Island Raccoon 

Procyon pygmaeus Merriam, Biol. Soc. Washington Proc. 14: 101, July 19, 1901. 

Ty2ye locality. — Cozumel Island, Yucatan, Mexico. Tropical Zone. 

Type. — No. 108511, male subadult, skin and skull. United States 
National Museum (Biological Surveys collection) ; collected by E. W. 
Nelson and E. A. Goldman, April 14, 1901. 

Distribution. — Known only from Cozumel Island. 

General characters. — Smallest known species of the genus, with short, 
bristly, grayish pelage; skull with short, posteriorly rounded nasals and 
very small teeth. Somewhat similar in color and texture of pelage to 
P. I. shufeldti, of the adjacent mainland, but so much smaller and 
cranial characters so distinctive that close comparison is not required. 

Color. — Upper parts in general light buffy gray, the median dorsal 
area suffused with pale buff, becoming more pronounced and approach- 
ing ochraceous buff on a narrow nuchal patch in some specimens, 
rather thinly overlaid with black ; top of head clearer, grizzled gray and 
black, lac^'ing light buffy tone suft'using back; black mask becoming 
brownish and usually more or less mixed with gray on middle of face, 
the gray admixture invading also the dark median streak extending to 
the forehead; upper surface of muzzle brownish; lines bordering mask 
above, sides of muzzle, lips, and chin white; under parts, in general, 
thinly overlaid with light buffy hairs, the light brownish underfur 
showing through; throat patch dark brownish, clearly defined; ears 
grayish or light buffy; postauricular spots brownish, small and incon- 
spicuous; legs similar to under parts, becoming dull whitish on feet, 
the hind legs with outer sides of ankles clearer brownish ; tail with six 
or seven narrow, brownish or blackish rings and a black tip, alternating 
with broader ochraceous buft'y rings, the dark rings ill-defined on 
under side. 

« One in Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist.; one in Mus. Comp. Zool. 



RACCOONS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA 77 

Cranial characters. — Skull small, short, and flattened, with relatively- 
short, narrow rostrum, short nasals, broad frontal region and brain 
case, and light dentition. Somewhat similar in general form to that 
of P. I. shvfeldti, but departing widely in the smaher size; rostrum 
relatively shorter and narrower; frontal region relatively broader; 
nasals relatively shorter, more rounded, less acutely pointed pos- 
teriorly; postorbital processes of frontals well-developed and upper 
border of orbit distinctly concave as in shujeldti; teeth similar in 
sculpture, but relatively much smaller, the first and second upper 
premolars more widely spaced, and the last molar with a narrower 
internal lobe. Compared with those of P. maynardi and P. minor, 
the skull is smaller, with rostrum shorter, frontal region flatter and 
relatively broader than in either; nasals shorter, broader and more 
rounded posteriorly; palatal shelf narrow much as in maynardi (much 
narrower than in minor); auditory bullae smaller than in either; 
postorbital processes of frontals more developed; dentition similar 
but lighter. 

Measurements. — Type: Total length, 667 mm.; tail vertebrae, 230; hind foot, 
90. Adult femalet opotype: 665; 250; 97. Skull: Type and adult female 
topotype, respectively: Greatest length, 100, 96.7; condylobasal length, 93.7, 
91.9; zygomatic breadth, 58.8, 60.8; interorbital breadth, 19.5, 19.8; least width 
of palatal shelf, 12.5, 12.3; maxillary tooth row (alveoli), 35.3, 35.5; upper car- 
nassial, crown length, 6.8, 7, crown width, 7.8, 8. 

Remarks. — P. pygmaeus, as the name suggests, is distinguished by- 
its small size. The general flattening of the cranium, especially the 
flatness and breadth of the frontal region, the development of the 
postorbital processes of the frontals, and the slight depression of the 
brain case near the fronto-parietal suture, indicate relationship to the 
raccoon of the adjacent mainland as might be expected, rather than 
to any of the West Indian species. Striking differences from the 
mainland animal in size and in other more important characters, 
however, point to long isolation in its insular habitat. The teeth are 
remarkably small, the second upper premolar especially, being reduced 
in size and separated from the third upper premolar by a distinct gap. 

Specimens examined. — Five, all from the type locality. 

PROCYON MINOR Miller 
Guadeloupe Island Raccoon 
Procyon minor Miller, Biol. Soc. Washington Proc. 24: 4, Jan. 28, 1911. 

Type locality. — Pointe-a-Pitre, Guadeloupe Island, Lesser Antilles. 

38417 
Type. — No. , male young (permanent canines not quite fully 

in place), skin and skull, United States National Museum; collected 
by L. Guesde. Received from the THerminier Museum. 



78 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 6 0, FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 

Distribution. — Known only from Guadeloupe Island. Tropical 
Zone. 

General characters. — A small, rather dark species with a slender, 
delicate skull, remarkably broad palatal shelf, and very light dentition. 
Similar to P. maynardi, of the Bahamas, but apparently somewhat 
darker in color, and cranial characters, especially the much broader 
palatal shelf, distinctive. 

Color. — Upper parts in general grayish, becoming "ochraceous buff" 
on nape and shoulders, the dorsum heavily overlaid with black; 
sides paler and almost silvery gray, the dark-tipped hairs thinning out; 
top of head whitish mixed with black, with the usual grizzled effect; 
black mask continuous across face in one specimen, somewhat inter- 
rupted between eyes in another; sides of muzzle, lips, chin, and 
supraorbital lines white; ears grayish, with large, conspicuous black 
patches at posterior base; under parts thinly overlaid with grayish, 
the light brown underfur showing through; throat patch blackish; 
forearms, hind legs and feet grayish, similar to sides, the ankles 
blackish; tail with about seven black rings and a black tip, alternating 
with ochraceous huffy rings. 

Cranial characters. — Skull similar in size and general form to that 
of P. maynardi, but brain case broader and flatter; palatal shelf 
much broader, the sides forming nearly straight parallel lines (sides 
more concave in maynardi) ; nasals broader between anterior processes 
of frontals; auditory bullae slightly smaller; dentition similar, but 
molariform teeth narrower. 

Measurements. — No reliable skin measurements available. Skiill: Type and a 
subadult topotype, respectively: Greatest length, 101.6 mm., 104.5; condylobasal 
length, 94.5, 98.5; zygomatic breath, 55.3, 62; interorbital breadth, 18.1, 19.8; 
least width of palatal shelf, 16.5, 15.5; maxillary tooth row (alveoli), 38.5, 37.3; 
upper carnassial, crown length, 7.6, 7.6, crown width, 8.1, 8.1. 

Remarks. — Although widely separated geographically, P. minor 
appears to be more nearly related to P. maynardi than to any other 
known form. The elevation of the frontal region, absence or slight 
prominence of the postorbital processes of the frontals, and the 
depression of the brain case near the fronto-parietal suture are 
characters denoting alliance with maynardi and the raccoons of the 
Florida region. It requires no close cranial comparison with P. 
(jloveralleni of Barbados, the skull of which is distinguished at a glance 
by the larger molariform teeth. 

Specimens examined. — Two, the type, and a topotype.^® 



«« Mus. Comp. Zool. 



RACCOONS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA 79 

PROCYON GLOVERALLENI Nelson and Goldman 
Barbados Raccoon 

Procyon gloveralleni Nelson and Goldman, Jour. Mammal. II (4): 453, Nov. 11, 
1930. 

Type locality. — Island of Barbados, Lesser Antilles, West Indies. 

Type. — No. 18591, young male, skin and skull, Museum of Com- 
parative Zoology; collected by Sir Francis Watts, 1920. 

Distribution. — Known only from the Island of Barbados. Tropical 
Zone. 

General characters. — A small, dark species, with a short, delicately 
formed skull. Similar in color to Procyon minor, of Guadeloupe 
Island, Lesser Antilles, but sides of body and limbs in type specimen 
darker, owing to more numerous black-tipped hairs (black-tipped 
hairs thinning out and sides of body and limbs more grayish in minor) ; 
cranial characters, especially the much heavier dentition, distinctive. 
Contrasting with P. maynardi, of New Providence Island, Bahamas, in 
darker general color and widely different skull. 

Color. — Type: Upper parts in general near "light ochraceous buff" 
(most intense on nape and shoulders) rather heavily overlaid with 
black, becoming lighter buff, less obscured by black on sides of body 
and limbs; top of head buffy gray, mixed with black; face with solid 
black mask and usual white markings; the upper surface of muzzle 
black to nose; sides of muzzle, lips, and chin white; under parts thinly 
overlaid with buffy grayish; throat patch brownish black, thinly 
overlapped by ochraceous buffy hairs, here reversed as usual in the 
group; ears buffy grayish with black patches at posterior base; 
ankles dusky all around; feet soiled buffy whitish; tail with four 
narrow black rings and a black tip alternating with light ochraceous 
buffy rings, the subterminal black ring and tip nearly coalescent. 

Cranial characters. — Skull similar in general to that of P. minor, 
but frontal region broader and flatter; postorbital processes more 
prominent; palatal shelf narrower; teeth very similar in sculpture, 
but crown of upper carnassial tending to be longer than broad, a 
condition unusual in the group. Compared with that of P. maynardi 
the skull differs in about the same characters as from minor, except 
that the palatal shelf is decidedly broader. 

Measurements. — Type: Hind foot (dry skin), 89 mm. Skull: Type: Greatest 
length, 94; condylobasal length, 89.2; zygomatic breadth, 53.4; interorbital 
breadth, 18.7; least width of palatal shelf, 13.6; maxillary tooth row (alveoli), 
37; upper carnassial, crown length, 9.8, crown width, 9. Two adult topotypes, 
No. 267380, female, and No. 267381, sex undetermined, United States National 
Museum, respectively: Greatest length, 113.2, 109.8; condylobasal length, — , 105.3; 
zygomatic breadth, — , 69; interorbital breadth, 24.3, 24.3; least width of palatal 
shelf, 15, 14.4; maxillary tooth row, 40, 39.8; upper carnassial, crown length, 
8.6, 8.7, crown width, 8.9, 8.6. 



80 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 60, FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 

Remarks. — Dr. Glover M. Allen (1911, p. 221) recorded the occur- 
rence of raccoons in Barbados and referred to Griffith Hughes (1750, 
p. 66) who, writing in the middle of the 18th century, mentioned a 
law of the Island providing a bounty for their destruction. In the 
absence of specimens for study the animal was tentatively referred 
by Allen to "Procyon (?) cancrivorus G. Cuvier." Subsequent efforts 
by him to obtain representatives resulted in the collection, in 1920, 
of the young individual later made the type of a new species bearing 
his name. 

The type specimen was so young when collected that the permanent 
premolars and canines, although well advanced, are not in full func- 
tional position. In the type the first premolars, both deciduous and 
permanent, are absent in both jaws, an abnormality observed else- 
where only in the large-toothed form P. I. litoreus, inhabiting Saint 
Simon Island, Ga. Since the original description was published 
two specimens, in the exhibit collection of the United States National 
Museum, taken by the Reverend Barnett about 1867 have attracted 
attention and have been dismounted. The skulls show full maturity. 
One specimen, No. 267380, had been marked female, and the other. 
No. 267381, slightly smaller, is probably of the same sex. The 
molariform teeth are rather large, but not so large as in the type. 
In the upper carnassial a tendency toward equal to or greater length 
than width of the crown is exhibited, a condition sometimes presented 
in P. I. pumilus of Panama. In the broad frontal region and well- 
developed postorbital processes the relationship of gloveralleni to the 
raccoons of Central America is also suggested, but it differs widely in 
other respects. 

Raccoons, formerly abundant, and said to favor a rugged region 
on the south side of the island, have apparently been reduced to or 
near extermination. In response to a formal inquiry the American 
Consul, Frederick W. Baldwin, wrote July 13, 1932: "Very few rac- 
coons now exist in Barbados and specimens would be extremely 
difficult to obtain." 

Specimens examined. — Three, all from the type locality. 

Subgenus EUPROCYON Gray 

[References under Genus Procyon Storr, p. 25] 

Distribution. — Southern Costa Rica, western Panama, and northern 
Colombia to southern Brazil. 

Subgeneric characters. — Contrasted with subgenus Procyon: Pelage 
shorter, underfur absent; hair on nape directed forward; claws broader, 
less compressed laterally, of lesser vertical diameter at base, and more 
bluntly pointed. Bony palate extending behind posterior molars a 
distance less than one-fourth total length of palate. Molariform 



RACCOONS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA 



81 



teeth, except first premolars, larger and more massive, with broader, 
more rounded and bluntly pointed cusps; connecting ridges between 
principal cusps lower, less trenchant. 

Remarks. — The subgenus Euprocyon overlaps the range of the 
subgenus Procyon in Panama, but the two differ so conspicuously 
in appearance that no very close comparison is necessary. 

PROCYON CANCRIVORUS (G. Cuvier) 

Ursus cancrivorus G. Cuvier, Tabl. Elem. de I'Hist. Nat. des Animaux, 1798, 

p. 113. Type from Cayenne, French Guiana. 
Procyon cancrivorus Desmarest, Diet. Hist. Nat. 29: 93, 1819. 

Distribution. — (See under subgenus Euprocyon.) 

General characters. — (See subgeneric characters under subgenus 
Euprocyon.) 

Color. — General dorsal area varying from ashy gray to ochraceous, 
more or less heavily overlaid with black; ears, supraorbital streaks, 
and sides of muzzle whitish; black mask, usual in the group, extending 
across face to cheeks, including orbits, and the median line from fore- 
head to nose; under parts varying from pale gray to yellowish or 
ochraceous; outer sm^faces of forearms and thighs usually blackish; 
feet varying from gray to brown; tail with about seven or eight alter- 
natiiig black and gray or yellowish rings and a black tip. 

Cranial characters.- — (See subgeneric characters under subgenus 
Euprocyon.) 

Remarks. — Few specimens of Procyon cancrivorus have been avail- 
able for study, but general com])arisons indicate that the species has 



K 


^m 




f 


Sol 


^^^ 




ao 


&0 .00 



Figure 2. — Distribution of Procyon cancrivorus panamensis (subgenus 

Euprocyon) . 



82 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 60, FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 

a wide range in South America, somewhat parallehng the great range 
of P. lotor in North America. A single subspecies extends into the 
region under review. 

PROCYON CANCRIVORUS PANAMENSIS (Goldman) 
Panama Crab-Eating Raccoon; Mapachin 

Euprocyon cancrivorus panamensis Goldman, Smithsn. Misc. Collection 60 (22) : 
15^ Feb. 28, 1913. 

Type locality. — Gatun, Canal Zone, Panama. 

Type. — No. 171669, female adult, skin and skull, United States 
National Museum (Biological Surveys collection) ; collected by E. A. 
Goldman, June 21, 1911. 

Distribution. — Southern Costa Rica, western Panama to near the 
Colombian boundary; doubtless reaching Colombia, but range in that 
country undetermined. Tropical Zone. 

General characters. — A dark Panama representative of the species 
ranging widely in South America. Similar in size to P. c. proteus of 
northern Colombia, but general color less tawny; cranial details, dis- 
tinctive. Differing from P. c. cancrivorus, of Cayenne, in darker color 
and in cranial characters. 

Color. — Ground color over dorsum varying from ashy gray to ochra- 
ceous buffy or yellowish ochraceous, heavily overlaid with black; top 
of head grizzled black and gray, the black predominating; sides of 
muzzle, and rather restricted supraorbital streaks, white or grayish 
white; facial area, including orbits, interorbital space, lower part of 
cheeks, and median line from forehead to nose, nearly clear black; 
under parts, including base of tail, varying from pale ochraceous buff 
to yellowish ochraceous, becoming more or less grayish white on throat, 
chin, and lips; ears well-clothed with whitish or yellowish hairs, dark- 
ening gradually on upper base by encroachment of body color; outer 
sides of hind legs and ankles all around deep glossy black; fore legs 
black or dark brownish all around; feet thinly clothed with short hairs 
varying from brownish to grayish; tail with seven or eight alternating 
black and grayish or yellowish rings and a black tip, the proximal rings 
more or less interrupted along median line below. 

Cranial characters. — In general form the skull closely resembles that 
of P. c. cancrivorus, but palate more elongated, lower surface of basioc- 
cipital more convex, the lateral margins turning downward and partly 
covering auditory bullae; nasals broader; auditory bullae broader, 
more inflated posteriorly; dentition about the same. Contrasted with 
that of P. c. proteus the skull differs in longer palate, and anteriorly 
broader, posteriorly narrower nasals. 

Measurements. — Type: Total length, 950 mm.; tail vertebrae, 350; hind foot, 
142. Skull: Type: Greatest length, 130; condylobasal length, 125.8; zygomatic 



RACCOONS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA 83 

breadth, 83.3; interorbital breadth, 25.7; least width of palatal shelf, 17.7; maxil- 
lary tooth row (alveoli), 48.3; upper carnassial, crown length, 10.2, crown width, 11. 

Remarks. — Comparison of the Panama series and South American 
material from various locahties, including a specimen from northern 
Brazil assumed to be near typical P. c. cancrivorus of Cayenne, and 
the type and two topotypes of P. c. proteus, of northern Colombia, indi- 
cates that the Panama animal is a well-marked geographic race. The 
close agreement in dentition and the other essential characters, how- 
ever, point to probable intergradation of all forms of cancrivorus. P. 
c. panamensis overlaps the range of Procyon lotor pumilus in Panama 
where both occur at the same localities, but may readily be distin- 
guished by the reversed pelage of the nape, absence of underfur, and 
the blackish instead of grayish forearms and thighs. 

Specimens examined. — Total number, 7, as follows: 

Canal Zone: Gatun (type locality), 3. 

Costa Rica: Canas Gordo, 1.*^ 

Panama: Boquete, 1 (skull only);** Cana, 1; Porto Bello, 1. 



" Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. 
" British Mus. (Nat. Hist.). 



APPENDIX 

Descriptions of two subspecies that were not included in the Gold- 
man manuscript are here abstracted or copied almost verbatim from 
the original accounts of the respective authors, but as nearly as 
possible in conformity of treatment with the Goldman manuscript. 

PROCYON LOTOR MEGALODOUS Lowery 

Mississippi Delta Raccoon 

Procyon lotor megalodous Lowery, Occas. Papers Mus. Zool. Louisiana State Univ. 
13: 225, November 22, 1943. 

Type locality. — Marsh Island, Iberia Parish, Louisiana. 

Type. — No. 2321, male adult, skin and skull, Louisiana State Univ. 
Mus. Zool.; collected by Ted O'Neil and prepared by George H. 
Lowery, Jr., October 24, 1943. 

Distribution. — Coast region of southern Louisiana from St. Bernard 
Parish west to Cameron Parish. 

General characters. — A medium-sized raccoon in which the pelage is 
strongly suffused above with black and pale yellow. Skull massive 
and with extremely large molariform teeth, by which characters it is 
separable from the two geographically adjacent subspecies P. I. varius 
and P. l.fuscipes. 

Color. — Nearest to P. I. varius, but distinguished in its much more 
yellowish (less grayish) suffusion on upper parts and greater concen- 
tration of black along mid-dorsal line; ears, pale areas of face, legs, 
flanks and under parts decidedly yellowish, not grayish as in P. I. varius. 
Also much more yellowish (less grayish) than P. I. fuscipes, with black 
of dorsal midline more pronounced. 

Cranial characters. — Skull differing from both P. I. varius and 
P. I. fuscipes in the larger size of the molariform teeth ; also differing 
from that of P. I. varius in its more inflated frontal region, and lesser 
interorbital breadth. 

Measurements. — Type: Total length, 804 mm.; tail vertebrae, 262; hind foot, 
128. Skull: None available except a Ions table of measurements of molariform 
teeth (Lowery 1943, pp. 228-229). 

In his discussion of P. I. megalodous Lowery (1943) has made the 
following comments : 

Remarks. — This new race of raccoon, which is an abundant inhabitant of the 
Louisiana coastal marshes, is so clearly separable from all other races of Procyon 

84 



RACCOONS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA 85 

lotor that it is surprisiiiK it has not been described until now. Superficially, it 
resembles varius of northern and eastern Louisiana, Mississippi, and Alabama, but 
its much more yellowisli pelage which is strongly suffused with black, and its 
massive skull and large molariform teeth clearly set it apart from that form. In 
coat color this new race bears no close similarity to P. I. fuscipes of Texas, being 
distinctive as outlined above. However, the two agree with respect to certain 
cranial characters. In both the skull is massive, the frontal "hump" distinct, and 
the postocular constriction evident, but the dentition of megalodous is so decidedly 
heavier that skulls of the latter are separable from fuscipes without much difficultrv. 
Three skins from Grand Terre Island are decidedly yellower than anything else 
examined in the present connection. The dark middorsal area is restricted to a 
narrow but heavily concentrated band of dark brown (no black) ; hence the yellow- 
ish pelage of the sides and flanks is less suffused with dark hairs than in other 
raccoon specimens. The pelage of these specimens lacks any vestige of gray or 
black, the hairs being either yellowish or brown. Although there is a definite 
tendency among marsh dwelling raccoons to assume a decided xanthochronistic 
appearance in late spring and summer, this condition is clearly associated with 
wear, stain, and fading. These latter factors are not at all evident in the Grand 
Terre Island specimens, which are in fresh fall pelage. Whether this island popu- 
lation merits taxon-omic recognition is dependent upon how constant the above 
noted characters appear in additional material, which is not obtainable at present. 

Specimens examined. — Total number, 20 skins and 41 skulls, as 

follows : 

Louisiana: Cameron Parish: Rockefeller Refuge, 1 skin without skull; near 
Sabine Wildlife Refuge, 19 skulls. Calcasieu Parish: Lake Charles, 1 skin 
with skull. Terrebonne Parish: Timbalier Island, 1 skin with skull. St. Ber- 
nard Parish: Toca Village, 1 skin with skull; Belair, 9 skins and 10 skulls. 
Plaquemines Parish: Delta [National Wildlife] Refuge below Pilottown, 3 
skins and 4 skulls. Jefferson Parish: Grand Terre Island, 3 skins with skulls 
and one miscellaneous skull. Iberia Parish: Marsh Island, skin with skull 
(type). 

PROCYON LOTOR MARITIMUS Dozier 

Coastal Marsh Raccoon 

Procyon lotor maritimus Dozier, Jour. Mammal. 29 (3) : 286, August 31, 1948. 

Type locality. — Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge, Dorchester 
County, Maryland. 

Type.— No. 275,290, female adult, skin and skull, U. S. Natl. Mus. 
(Biological Surveys collection) ; collected by Herbert L. Dozier, 
December 3, 1946. 

In describing P. I. maritimus Dozier (1948) wrote: 

Distribution. — Known only from marsh areas on the Delmarva Peninsula 
(Delaware, Maryland, and Virginia). 

General characters. — A small to medium, pale subspecies. Readily distinguished 
from typical Procyon I. lotor by its paler coloration; longer but more sparse guard 
hairs; much smaller size; more slender legs and general build; narrower and more 
pointed head; decidedly shorter, more pointed, and less prominently banded tail; 
and relatively much shorter caudal vertebrae. In general color and length of the 
subapical band of the guard hair it is perhaps nearest to Procyon I. mexicanus 
of Arizona, New Mexico, and Mexico, but is only about half the size of the latter 
and its tail is decidedly shorter and less distinctly marked. 



86 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 60, FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 

Color. — Upper portion in general pale buffy grayish, becoming light ochraceous 
buffy on shoulders, with rufous tinge on nape: the longer, black-tipped guard 
hairs over the median dorsal area are grouped on the back as unevenly colored 
streaks, somewhat undulating or serpentine in arrangement (in marked contrast 
to the darker general salt and pepper effect of typical Procyon I. lotor) ; light- 
colored subapical band of each guard hair extends a greater distance beyond the 
underfur tips than in lotor and results in a much paler or more yellowish cast to 
the outer pelage; guard hairs almost entirely white along the sides and lower 
pS,rts, adding to the pale, shaggy general appearance of the animal; top of head a 
light grizzled mixture of gray and brownish-black; facial mask brownish-black 
and decidedly less prominent than in lotor \ feet black, with gray hair dorsally, the 
claws dull black (description from live and freshly killed animals) ; tail with five 
rather narrow, brownish-black rings and a black tip, alternating with wider light 
ochraceous buffy rings, less clearly defined below. 

Pelage. — An uneven spread of hair with respect to average guard hair length is 
apparent, that of the middorsal area being in general slightly shorter than in the 
rest of the pelt, due probably both to sparser distribution of hair and to variation 
in fiber length. The very long, coarse guard hair is typical of this race and unique 
among eastern races of raccoons. Due to the length and sparseness of the guard 
hairs, coupled with possible decreased density of the underfur, there is a slight 
backward slant to the direction of the hair flow. In lotor the hair is more dense, 
shorter, erect, and more fluffy in appearance than in maritimus. 

Skvll. — Of medium size, rather narrow and elongate. Compared with that of 
lotor, the skull is slightly smaller, less heavily built, distinctly narrower, and more 
elongate; interorbital portion more elongate, postorbital processes of frontals 
rather weakly developed or obsolescent, frontal area relatively narrow, flatter, 
markedly more sloped or depressed, and somewhat concave; palatal shelf decidedly 
narrower; posterior part of zygomata less arched dorsally. 

Measurements. — Type: Total length, 718 mm; tail vertebrae, 210; 
hind foot, 111. Adult male topotype (No. 275,296, U. S. Natl. Mus.) : 
Total length, 762; tail vertebrae, 254; hind foot, 102. Skull: Type: 
Greatest length, 112.2; condylobasal length, 107.9; zygomatic breadth, 
68.8; interorbital breadth, 23.6; least width of palatal shelf, 15.1; 
maxillary tooth row, 41.7. 
To quote Dozier further: 

Remarks. — This form appears well adapted for survival under the rather 
exacting requirements of our eastern tidewater, coastal marsh conditions. The 
medium size and slender build fit it for fast traveling in the marsh; the pale 
coloration blends well with the vegetation of its habitat during most of the 
season; and the long, coarse-haired pelage can withstand a lot of abrasive action 
from sharp-edged sedges and coarse grasses. In Procyon I. maritimus the length 
of the pale subapical band is the greatest yet recorded, nearest that in some 
western races of Procyon lotor, namely, excelsus, pacificus, psora, and mexicanus. 
The guard hairs are the longest of any known race except hirtus of the Upper 
Mississippi Valley, in which the hairs average slightly longer. 

Specimens examined. — Total number, 34, as follows: 

Delaware: Rehoboth Bay, 1. 

Maryland: Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge, 29 (6 skins only); Crocheron, 1 

(skin only); Vienna, 1 (skin only). 
Virginia: Saxis Island, 2 (skins only). 



RACCOONS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA 87 

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Allen, J. A. 

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Amundson, Rod. 

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1893. Second report of the Department of Agriculture of British Columbia 

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No. 102, Biol. Ser. No. 31, pp. 1-238. January 24. 



88 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 6 0, FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 

Arant, Frank Selman. 

1939. Status of game birds and mammals in Alabama. Alabama Dept. 
Conserv., Montgomery, 38 pp. 
Arthur, Stanley Clisby. 

1926. Louisiana fur-bearing mammals. Seventh Bien. Rept. Louisiana 
Dept. Conserv. 1924-1926, pp. 63-113. 

1928. The fur animals of Louisiana. Louisiana Dept. Conserv. Bull. No. 

18, pp. 1-433. November. 
Account of the natural history of the raccoon. 
AsHBROOK, Frank G., and Horace J. McMullen. 

1925. A preliminary study of statistical data on the fur resources and the 

fur trade. Yearbook Natl. Assoc. Fur Industry, pp. 5-34. 
Audubon, John James, and John Bachman. 

1849-54. The quadrupeds of North America. 3 vols. New York. 
Account of the raccoon, vol. 2, pp. 74-82. 
Bailey, Bernard. 

1929. Mammals of Sherburne County, Minnesota. Jour. Mammal. 10 (2): 

153-164. 
Bailey, Vernon. 

1905. Biological survey of Texas. North Amer. Fauna 25, 222 pp., illus. 

General account of raccoons in the State, pp. 192-195. 
1923. Mammals of the District of Columbia. Biol. Soc. Washington Proc. 
36: 103-138. May 1. 
Includes an account of the raccoon, pp. 123-124. 

1926. A biological survey of North Dakota. North Amer. Fauna 49, 226 

pp., illus. December. 
General account of P. I. hirtus in North Dakota, pp. 187-190. 
1931. Mammals of New Mexico. North Amer. Fauna 53, 412 pp., illus. 
December. 
General account of P. I. mexicanus in New Mexico, pp. 348-349. 
1933. Cave life of Kentucky. Amer. Midland Nat. 14 (5): 433-434. 
1936. The mammals and life zones of Oregon. North Amer. Fauna 55, 416 
pp., illus. June. 
Accounts of P. I. pacificus and P. I. eicehus, pp. 31.5-317. 
Baird, Spencer Fullerton. 

1857. Mammals of North America. Pacific R. R. Rept. 8, 757 pp., illus. 

General account of the raccoons, pp. 209-215; original description of Proci/nti hernandezii 
var. mexicana {=P. I. mexicanus), p. 215. 

Bangs, Outram. 

1898a. The land mammals of peninsular Florida and the coast region of 
Georgia. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist. Proc. 28 (7) : 157-235. March. 
Original description of P. I. elnciis, p. 219. 

1898b. A new raccoon from Nassau Island, Bahamas. Biol Soc. Washington 
Proc. 12: 91-92. April 30. 
Original description of P. maynardi. j). 92. 

1901. Chiriqui Mammalia. Mus. Comp. Zool. Bull. 39 (2): 17-51. 
Barnes, Claude Te.wcum. 

1922. Mammals of Utah. Univ. Utah Bull. 12 (15): 1-66. April. 
Distribution of the raccoon in Utah, pp. 1:33-134. 



RACCOONS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA 89 

Bennet, James Milton. 

1925. Dog, gun, and raccoon. Forest and Stream 95: 554. 
Bennitt, Rudolf, and \\'erner O. Nagel. 

1937. A survey of the resident game and fur bearers of Missouri. Urviv. 
Missouri Studies 12 (2): 1-215. April 1. 
Benson, Adolph B. 

1937. The America of 1750, Peter Kahn's travels in North America. The 

EngHsh version of 1770. Revised from the original Swedish and 
edited by Adolph B. Benson, with a translation of new material from 
Kalm's diary notes. Vol. 1, 380 pp., illus.; vol. 2, pp. 381-797, 
illus., folding map 1. New York. 

Accounts of the raccoon in Pennsylvania and New Jersey. Vol. 1, pp. 52-53, 111, faced 
with ilUistration. 242-243. 

Bergtold, \V. H. 

1925. Unusual nesting of a raccoon. Jour. Mammal. 6 (4): 280-281. 
Billings, E. 

1856. Natural history of the raccoon (Procyon lotor). Canadian Nat. and 
Geol. 1 (4): 253-260. September. 
An early general account. 

Black, John David. 

1938. Mammals of Kansas. Kansas State Board Agr., Thirteenth Bien. 

Rept., pp. 116-217. 

Distribution and habits, pp. 154-155. 

Blair, W. Frank. 

1938. Ecological relationships of the mammals of the Bird Creek Region, 

northeastern Oklahoma. Amer. Midland Nat 20 (3): 496. No- 
vember. 

1939. Faunal relationships and geographic distribution of mammals in Okla- 

homa. Amer. Midland Nat, 22 (1): 104. July. 

1940. A contribution to the ecology and faunal relationship of the mammals 

of the Davis Mountain region, southwest Texas. Univ. Michigan 
Mus. Zool. Misc. Pub. No. 46, p. 23. June 28. 
Boddaert, Peter. 

1784. Elenchus Animalium. Vol. 1, 174 pp. Roterdami. 

Description of Procyon lotor under the substitute name [Melis] lotor, p. 80. 

Bole, B. P., Jr., and Philip N. Moulthrop. 

1942. The Ohio recent mammal collection in the Cleveland Museum of Natural 
Hi.story. Cleveland Mus. Nat. Hist. Sci. Pub. 5 (6) : 83-181. Sep- 
tember 11. 
Bradt, Glenn W. 

1946. The raccoon, masked clown of the woodlots. Michigan Conserv. 15 
(8) : 6-7. September. 
Brass, Emil. 

1911. Aus dem Reiche der Pelze. 709 pp. April. 

Descriptions of Pr[ocyon] hudsonicus [unidentifiable] and Procyon proteus (=P. I. 
pacificus), p. 564. 

Brown, C. Emerson. 

1936. Rearing wild animals in captivity, and gestation periods. Jour. 
Mammal. 17 (1): 10-13. February 14. 
Gestation period in a raccoon m Philadelphia Zoo 69 days from first coition, p. 13. 

876119°— 50 7 



90 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 6 0, FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 

Brown, L. G., and Lee E. Yeager. 

1943. Survey of the Illinois fur resource. Illinois Nat. Hist. Survey Bull. 22 

(6): 462. September. 
Browne, F. C. 

1892. The coon in eastern Massachusetts. Forest and Stream 39 : 405. No- 
vember 10. 
Burmeister, Hermann. 

1850. Verzeichniss der im Zoologischen Museum der Universitat Halle- 
Wittenberg aufgestellten Saugethiere, Vogel und Amphibian. 84 pp. 
Lists three species of raccoon. Proposes new combination [Procuon hrachyurus] var. 
fusca, p. 13, based upon Procyon obscurus, without description or comment. 

Burt, William H. 

1946. The mammals of Michigan. 288 pp., 13 color pis., 107 text figs., 67 

text maps. 
Butterfield, Robert T. 

1944. Tagged raccoons— 1943-44. Ohio Conserv. Bull. 8 (7): 11. July. 
Cagle, Fred R. 

1949. Notes on the raccoon, Procyon lotor megalodous Lowery. Jour. Mam- 
mal. 30 (1) : 45-50. February 14. 
Cahalane, Victor H. 

1928. A preliminary wild life and forest survey of southwestern Cattaraugus 
County, New York. Roosevelt Wild Life Bull. 5 (1): 81-98. 
March. 

1947. Mammals of North America. 682 pp., illus. Macmillan Co. 

Raccoon, pp. 156-161. 

Cahn, Alvin R. 

1921. The mammals of Itasca County, Minnesota. Jour. Mammal. 2 (2): 
68-74. 
Campbeli., J. E. 

1945. The raccoon in North Dakota. North Dakota Outdoors 7 (8): 4. 

February. 
Cartwright, George. 

1792. A journal of transactions and events, during a residence of nearly 
sixteen years on the coast of Labrador. 3 vols. 

a northern record: On the Alexander River, a branch of the St. Lewis River, shot a 
raccoon, August 22, 1774, vol. 2, p. 23. 

Gary, Merritt. 

1911. A biological survey of Colorado. North Amer. Fauna 33, 256 pp., 

illus. August 17. 
Distribution and habits in Colorado, pp. 193-194. 

Catesbt, Mark. 

1743. The natural history of Carolina, Florida and the Bahamas. 2 vols. 

Describes the raccoon, p. XXIX, "An Account of Carolina and the Bahama Islands"; in 
appendix to vol. 2. 

Chamberlain, Montague. 

1884. List of the mammals of New Brunswick. New Brunswick Nat. Hist. 
Soc. Bull. 3: 39. 
Chase, Harry. 

1911. The Sullivan Law. Forest and Stream 77: 551-552. October 7. 

Refers, p. 552, to the use of raccoon skins in payment for services of the Secretary to the 
Governor of the "State of Franklin" in eastern Tennessee. 



RACCOONS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA 91 

Clarke, Frank I. 

1910. Game of British Columbia. Bur. Provincial Information British 
Columbia Off. Bull. No. 17: 29. 
Cole, H. E. 

1922. Wildlife in Baraboo Hills. Wisconsin Conserv. 3 (6) : 9. .January. 
Cole, Lawrence Wooster. 

1907. Concerning the intelligence of raccoons. Jour. Coinp. Neurol, and 
Psychol. 17 (3): 211-261. May. 
Records the results of rather elaborate experiments. 

1912. Observations of the senses and instincts of the raccoon. Jour. Animal 
Behavior 2 (5) : 299-309. September-October. 
Cory, Charles B. 

1912. The mammals of Illinois and Wisconsin. Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. 
Ser. 11, Pub. 153, p. 396. 
Criddle, Stuart. 

1929. An annotated list of the mammals of Aweme, Manitoba. Canadian 
Field-Nat. 43: 156. October. 
Cross, E. C, and J. R. Dymond. 

1929. The mammals of Ontario. Royal Ontario Mus. Zool. Handbook No. 1, 
pp. 12-13. 
CuRRiE, John W. 

1949. This raccoon racket. Kentucky Happy Hunting Ground 5 (2): 5, 19. 
March. 

Brief account of raising raccoons at Game Farm of the Kentucky Game and Fish 
Commission. 

CuviER, Georges. 

1798. Tableau elementaire de I'histoire naturelle des animaux. 710 pp., 
illus. Paris. 
Original description of Ursu.t cancrirnriis (=PTOcyon cavcTivoriis), p. 113, from Cayenne. 

Dalquest, Walter W. 

1948. Mammals of Washington. Univ. Kansas Pubs. Mus. Nat. Hist., vol. 2, 
444 pp. 
Discussion of the raccoon, pp. 179-182. 

Dampier, William. 

1729. A new voyage round the World. Vol. 1, 550 pp. 

Refers to the occurrence of raccoons on the Tres Marias Islands, ofl the west coast of 
Mexico, p. 276. 

Banner, E. Y. 

1931. Raccoons like candy. Mt. Rainier Nature Notes 9 (8): 8. 
Davis, Herbert Burnham. 

1907. The raccoon: A study in animal intelligence. Amer. Jour. Psychol. 
18 (4) : 447-487. October. 
An important detailed account of the results of experiments. 

Davis, William B. 

1939. The recent mammals of Idaho. 400 pp., illus. Caxton Printers, 
Caldwell, Idaho. 
An account of P. I. ezcelsus within the State, pp. 128-129. 



92 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 60, FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 

De Beaux, Oscak. 

1910. ijber eine neue Farbeiispielart des Waschbaren. (Ein Beitrag zur 

Systematik des Procyon lotor.) Zool. Anzeiger 35: 621-626. 

April 26. 

A confusing general discussion of raccoons. Three new names, "Pr. I. flavidus" (p. 626), 
"Pr. lotor rufescens" (p. 625), and "Pr. hernandezi castaneus" (p. 624) are proposed, but 
appear to be unidentifiable. 

Bellinger, S. C, and J. D. Black. 

1940. Notes on Arkansas mammals. Jour. Mammal. 21 (2): 188. 
Desmarest, a. G. 

1819. Dictionaire histoire naturelle. Vol. 29, p. 93. 
Dice, L. R. 

1925. A survey of the mammals of Charlevoix Coimty, Michigan, and 
vicinity. Univ. Michigan Mus. Zool. Occas. Papers No. 159, p. 20. 
April 11. 
DiONNE, Charles Eusebe. 

1902. Les mammiferes de la Province de Quebec. 285 pp. 

Distribution and habits of raccoon, pp. 164-168. 

DoziER, Herbert L. 

1948. A new eastern marsh-inhabiting race of raccoon. Jour. Mammal. 29 
(3): 286-290. August 31. 

Description of Procyon lotor maritimus, from Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge, 
Dorchester County, Maryland. 

DoziER, Herbert L., Thora M. Plitt Hardy, and Merle H. Markley. 

1948. Fur characteristics of two eastern raccoons. Jour. Mammal. 29 (4) : 
383-393. December 31. 
Dymond, John Richardson. 

1928. The mammals of Lake Nipigon region. Trans. Royal Canadian Inst. 
16 (pt. 2) : 239-250. 

Northern records of the raccoon, p. 240. 

Elliot, D. G. 

1901. A list of mammals obtained by Thaddeus Surber in North and South 
Carolina, Georgia, and Florida. Field Columbian Mus. Pub. No. 
58, Zool. Ser. 3 (4): 51-53. June. 

1903. A list of mammals collected by Edmund Heller, in the San Pedro 

Martir and Hanson Laguna Mountains and the accompanying 
coast regions of Lower California. Field Columbian Mus. Pub. 
No. 79, Zool. Ser. 3 (12): 231. June. 

1904. Catalogue of mammals collected by E. Heller in southern California. 

Field Columbian Mus. Pub. No. 91, Zool. Ser. 3 (16): 316. March. 
1907. A catalogue of the collection of mainmals in the Field Columbian 
Museum. Field Columbian Mus. Pub., No. 115, Zool Ser. 8: 
426-427. 
Enders, Robert K. 

1930. Some factors influencing the distribution of mammals in Ohio. Univ. 
Michigan Mus. Zool. Occas. Papers No. 212, p. 9. April 23. 
EvERMANN, Barton Warren, and Howard Walton Clark. 

1911. Notes on the mammals of the Lake Ma.xinkuckee region. Washington 

Acad. Sci. Proc. 13 (1) : 32. 



RACCOONS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA 93 

Fischer, Gotthelf. 

1814. Zoognosia Tabulis Synopticis. Vol. 3, 732 pp. 

Description of Procyon annulalus ( = Procyon lotor), p. 177. 

Flower, Stanley Smyth. 

1931. Contributions to our knowledge of the duration of life in vertebrate 
animals. V. Mammals. Zool. Soc. London. Proe. 1931 (pt. 1): 
145-234. 

The longevity of the raccoon in captivity, p. 177. 
FoRBUSH, Edward Howe. 

1916. The natural enemies of birds. Massachusetts Board Agr. Bull. 

No. 3, pp. 24-25. 

Consideration of the raccoon in relation to birds. 

Frantzius, a. von. 

1881. Los mamiferos de Costa Rica. Colecion de documentos para la 
historia de Costa Rica publicados por el Don Leon Fernandez. 442 pp. 

Raccoon, p. 412. 

Frye, O. Earl, and Daniel W. Lay. 

1943. Fur resources and fur animals of Texas. Texas Game, Fish, and 
Oyster Comm. Bull. No. 25: 18-19. 
Gander, Fr.ank Forrest. 

1928. Period of gestation in some American mammals. Jour. Mammal. 
9 (1): 75. February 9. 

Records the period of gestation in a raccoon under observation. 

Garman, H. 

1894. A preliminary list of the vertebrate animals of Kentucky. Essex 
List. Bull. 26 (1-3): 4. 

The raccoon as an enemy of bird life. 

Gaumer, George Franklin. 

1917. Monografia de los mamiferos de Yucatan. Pub. by Secret aria de 

Fomento, D. F. Mexico. 331 pp. 

Notes on the raccoon of Yucatan, pp. 210-215. 

Geoffroy-Saint Hilaire, Isidore. 

1855. Voyage sur la Venus. Zoologie. 355 pp., illus. 

Description of "Procyon lotor variete mexicaine," from Mazatlan, Sinaloa, pp. 125-132, 
pi. VI. 

Geoftroy-Saint Hilaire, Isidore, and G. Cuvier. 

1795. Memoire sur une nouvelle division des mammiferes, et sur les principles 
qui doivent servir de base dans cette sorte de travail. Mag. Encyc. 
2: 164-190. 
GiDLEY, James Williams. 

1906. A fossil raccoon from a California Pleistocene cave deposit. U. S. 
Natl. Mus. Proc. 19: 553-554, illus. 

Original description of Procyon simus, p. 553. Similar in size to P. I. excelsus, but molari- 
form tooth rows more strongly cui'ved outward near middle; crown of first upper premolar 
with outer side sloping inward posteriorly, instead of nearly parallel to antero-posterior 
axis of skull; posterior lower molar with a distinctly broader cusp, or 'heel." 

Gill, Theodore N. 

1872. Letter on the alleged hybrid between a raccoon and cat. Amer. 
Nat. 6: 53-55. January. 



94 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 60, FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 

Gilpin, J. Bernard. 

1870. On the Mammalia of Nova Scotia. Trans. Nova Scotia Inst. Nat. 
Sci. 2 (pt. 1): 15. 
Goldman, Edward Alphoxso. 

1913. Descriptions of new mammals from Panama and Mexico. Smithsn. 
Misc. Collect. 60 (22) : 1-20. February 28. 

Original description of E. c. panamensis {^Procyon (Eitprocyon) cancrivorus panamensis), 
p. 15. 

1920. Mammals of Panama. Smithsn. Misc. Collect. 69 (5): 1-309, illus. 
Accounts of P. I. pumilus and P. c. panamensis, pp. ISl-l.";;?. 

GOODPASTER, W. 

1941. A list of the birds and mammals of southwestern Ohio. Jour. Cin- 

cinnati Soc. Nat. Hist. 22 (3) : 43. June. 
Goodwin, George Gilbert. 

1924. Mammals of the Gaspe Peninsula, Quebec. Jour. Mammal. 5 (4) : 
253. 

1934. Mammals collected by A. W. Anthony in Guatemala, 1924-1928. 

Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. Bull. 68, art. 1, 60 pp., illus. December 12. 
Records P. I. shufeldfi from El Espino and Finca Cipres, Guatemala. 

1935. The mammals of Connecticut. Connecticut State Geol. and Nat. 

Hist. Survey Bull. 53, 221 pp., illus. 
Distribution records in Connecticut, p. 59. 

1942. Mammals of Honduras. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. Bull. 79: 176. May 

29. 
1947. The carnivores. Part II. Raccoons and their allies. Audubon Nat. 
Bull., Ser. No. 18, Bull. No. 3, 4 pp. November. 
Gray, John Edward. 

1837. Charlesworth's Mag. Nat. Hist. 1: 580. 

Description of Procyon nivea which is unidentifiable. 

1842. Descriptions of some new genera and fifty unrecorded species of Mam- 
malia. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. 10: 255-267. December. 
Description of Procyon psora, p. 261. 

1864. A revision of the genera and species of ursine animals (Ursidae), 
founded on the collection in the British Museum. Zool. Soc. London 
Proc. 1864: 677-709. 

Includes accounts of the raccoons, pp. 703-706. Euprocyon proposed as a subgenus, p. 
705. 

Green, H. U. 

1932. Mammals of the Riding Mountain National Park, Manitoba. Can- 

adian Field-Nat. 46 (7) : 149-152. October. 

Records extinction of raccoon in Riding Mountain section during past two decades, p. 
152. 

Gregory, Tappan. 

1936. Mammals of the Chicago region. (Program of Activities.) Chicago 

Acad. Sci. 7 (2-3) : 34. July. 
Gregory, William King. 

1933. Nature's wild dog show. New York Zool. Soc. Bull. 36 (4): 83-96, 

illus. July-August. 
Brief reference to origin of raccoon family duiing lower Oligocene period, p. 83. 



RACCOONS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA 95 

Gregory, William King — Continued 

1936. On the phylogenetic relationships of the giant panda {Aihiropoda) to 

other arctoid Carnivora. Amer. Mus. Novitates No. 878, pp. 1-20. 
August 8. 
Grinnell, Joseph. 

1914. An account of the mammals and birds of the lower Colorado Valley. 
Univ. California Pub. Zool. 12 (4): 51-294, illus. March 20. 
Distribution and habits of P. I. pallidus, pp. 260-2(i2. 

1933. Review of the recent mammal fauna of California. Univ. California 

Pub. Zool. 40 (2) : 99. September 26. 
Grinnell, Joseph, Joseph Scattergood Dixon, and Jean Myron Linsdale. 
1930. Vertebrate natural history of a section of northern California through 

the Lassen Peak Region. Univ. California Pub. Zool., vol. 35, 594 

pp., 181 text figs. October. 

Account of P. I. psora, pp. 460-462. 

1937. Fur-bearing mammals of California. 2 vols. Vol. 1, pp. 137-165. 

Univ. California Press, Berkeley. 
Grinnell, Joseph, and Jean Myron Linsdale. 

1936. Vertebrate animals of Point Lobos Reserve, 1934-35. Carnegie Inst. 
Washington, Pub. No. 481, p. 134. December 10. 
Hall, Archibald. 

1861. On the mammals and birds of the district of Montreal. Canadian 
Nat. & Geol. 6 (4) : 294. 

Description of specimen of raccoon. 

Hall, E. R. 

1946. Mammals of Nevada. 710 pp. Univ. California Press, Berkeley. 

Notes on raccoons, pp. 175-179. 

Hamilton, William John, Jr. 

1941. Notes on some mammals of Lee County, Florida. Amer. Midland 
Nat. 25 (3) : 688. May. 

1943. The mammals of eastern United States. 432 pp., illus. Ithaca, N. Y. 

Raccoons, pp. 118-125. 

Hardy, Manly. 

1907. The raccoon. Forest and Stream 69: 852. November 30. 

On raccoon characteristics. 

Harlan, Richard. 

1825. Fauna Americana: being a description of the mammiferous animals in- 
habiting North America. 318 pp. 

General account of the raccoon, pp. 53-56. 

Harper, Francis. 

1920. Okefinokee Swamp as a reservation. Jour. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. 20: 

30. January-February. 
1927. The mammals of the Okefinokee Swamp region of Georgia. Boston 

Soc. Nat. Hist. Proc. 38: 297. 
1929. Notes on mammals of the Adirondacks. New York Mus. Handbook, 
No. 8, p. 69. May. 
Harrington, Lyn. 

1944. The masked bandit of the woods. Canadian Nature 6 (5) : 154, illus. 

November-December. 



96 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 6 0, FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 

Hatt, Robert T. 

1924. The land vertebrate communities of western Leelanau County, Mich- 
igan, with an annotated list of the mammals of the county. Papers 
Michigan Acad. Sci., Arts and Letters 3: 392. 
Hernandez, Francisci. 

1651. Rerum medicarum Novae Hispaniae thesaurus sen plantarum ani- 
malium, mineralium Mexicanorum Histaria [Francisci Hernandez, 
et al.]. 

Accounts of the "Mapach," tract 1, cap. 1, p. 1 and of the "Tepe Maxtlaton," tract 1, 
cap. 28, p. 9 of an appendix of the general work; both apparently referable to the raccoon. 

Herrera, Alfred L. 

1899. Sinominia vulgar y cientifica de los principales vertebrados Mexi- 
canos. 31 pp. Mexico. 
Herrick, Clarence Luther. 

1892. Mammals of Minnesota. Minnesota Geol. Nat. Hist. Survey Bull. 7, 
299 pp., illus. 
Account of Procyon lotor i = P. I. hirtiis), pp. 139-145. 

Hibbard, Claude W. 

1933. A revised check list of Kansas mammals. Trans. Kansas Acad. Sci. 

36: 235. 
1944. A checklist of Kansas mammals, 1943. Trans. Kansas Acad. Sci. 
47: 61-88. 
Notes on raccoons, p. 67. 

Hollister, Ned. 

1914. Descriptions of four new mammals from tropical America. Biol. 

Soc. Washington Froc. 27: 141-144. July 10. 
Original description of P. I. crassidens, p. 142. 

1915. The genera and subgenera of raccoons and their allies. U. S. Natl. 

Mus. Proc. 49 (2100): 143-150. August 13. 
An important contribution to knowledge of the classification of the group. 

Howell, Arthur H. 

1921. A biological survey of Alabama. North Amer. Fauna 45, pp. 34-35. 
Hughes, Griffith. 

1750. The natural history of Barbados. 314 pp., illus. London. 
Refers to a bounty on raccoons, p. 66. 

Huntington, George S. 

1892. On the ileo-colic junction in Procyon lotor and allied forms. Trans. 
New York Acad. Sci. 11: 50-53. 
Illiger, Johann Karl Wilhelm. 

1815. Ueberblick der saugthiere nach ihrer vertheilung uber die welttheile. 
Abhand. Konig Akad. Wissensch. 1804-1811: 39-159. Berhn. 
IvEY, DeWitt R. 

1948. The raccoon in the salt marshes of northeastern Florida. Jour. 
Mammal. 29 (3): 290-291. August 31. 
Jackson, H. H. T. 

1908. A preliminary list of Wisconsin mammals. Wisconsin Nat. Hist. 
Soc. Bull. 6: 13-34. 
Jaeger, E. C. 

1947. Use of the os phallus of the raccoon as ripping tool. Jour. Mammal. 
28 (3) : 297. August. 



RACCOONS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA 97 

Jameson, E. W., Jr. 

1943. Note.s on the habits and siphonapterous parasites of the mammals 
of Welland County, Ontario. Jour. Maminai. 24 (2): 1<)4-1<)7. 
May 20. 
Johnson, Cliarles E. 

1916. A brief descriptive list of Minnesota mammal.s. Fins, Feathers and 
Fur, No. 8, p. 7. December. 
Johnson, M. S. 

1930. Common injurious mammals of Minnesota. Univ. Minnesota Agr. 
Expt. Sta. Bull. 259, p. 57. January. 
Jones, Glenn. 

1946. The raccoon in Oklahoma. Oklahoma Game and Fish News 2 (12): 
4-5, 7. December. 
JossELYN, John. 

1672. New England's rarities discovered in birds, beasts, fishes, serpents, 
and plants of that country. (Reprint, 1865, 169 pp.) 
ReftTS to the habits of the raccoon, p. .52, 1865 edition. 

Kbeler, Charles A. 

1891. Notes on the colors of west coast mammals. Zoe 2: 212. 
Kellogg, Remington. 

1937. Annotated list of West Virginia mammals. U. S. Natl. Mus. Proc. 
84 (3022) : 443-479. October 7. 
Distribution and habits of raccoon, p. 45L 

1939. Annotated list of Tennessee mammals. U. S. Natl. Mus. Proc. 86 
(3051): 245-303. 
Distribution of raccoon within the State. 

Kerr, Robert. 

1792. The animal kingdom or zoological system of the celebrated Sir Charles 
Linnaeus, Class 1, Mammalia. 400 pp. 

An account of the raccoons under the names Ursus lotor and "V. lotor melinus," the latter 
a color phase, pp. 188-189. 

KOPMAN, H. H. 

1921. Wild life resources of Louisiana. Louisiana State Dept. Conserv. 
Bull. No. 10, pp. 23-39. December. 

Contains an account of the raccoon in Louisiana, p. 28. 

Lanman, Charles. 

1856. Adventures in the wilds of the United States and British American 
Provinces. 2 vols. Vol. 1, p. 83. Philadelphia. 
Lawson, John. 

1718. The history of Carolina. 258 pp. 
An account of the raccoon, p. 121. 

Le Conte, John L. 

1848. Notice of five new species of fossil Mammalia from Illinois. Amer. 
Journ. Sci. and Arts (Silliman's Journal), ser. 2, vol. 5, art. 16, pp. 
102-107. May. 

New name, Procyon prisms, proposed, p. 106. 

Leraas, H. J. 

1942. Notes on mammals from west-central Minnesota. Jour. Mammal. 
23 (3) : 344. August 14. 



98 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 60, FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 

Linnaeus (Linne'), Carl. 

1740. Systema Naturae, inquo naturae regna tria, secundum classes, ordines, 
genera, species, systematice proponuntur. Ed. 2, 80 pp., Stock- 
holiniae. 
Listed the raccoon with the bear as Ursus cauda elongata, p. 35. 

1747. Beskrifning Pa et Americanskt Diur, som Hans Konglige Hoeghet 
gifvit til underjoekning. Kongliga Svenska Vetenskaps Academiens 
Handlingar, vol. 8, pp. 277-289, tab. 9, figs. 1-2. 

A general description of the raccoon under the name Ursus Cauda elongata, including 
habits, and perhaps the first illustration of the animal and its os penis. 

1758. Systema Naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera species, cum 
characteristibus, difFerentiis, synonymis, locis. Ed. 10, tomus 1, 
regnum animale, 824 pp. 
Original description of [C'r«!(s] lotor {^Procyon lotor lotor), p. 48. 

LowERY, George H., Jr. 

1936. A preliminary report on the distribution of the mammals of Louisiana. 
Louisiana Acad. Sci. Proc. 3 (1) : 1-39. March. 
Distribution and habits of raccoons, p. 19. 

1943. Check-list of the mammals of Louisiana and adjacent waters. Lou- 
isiana State Univ. Mus. Zool. Occas. Papers No. 13, pp. 213-257, 
illus. November 22. 
Raccoons, pp. 225-231. Description of Procyon lotor niegalodous, p. 225. 

LUTTRINGER, L. L., Jr. 

1931. An introduction to the mammals of Pennsylvania. Pennsylvania Bd, 
Game Comm'rs. Bull. 15: 29. 
Lyon, Marcus Ward, Jr. 

1936. Mammals of Indiana. Amer. Midland Nat. 17 (1) : 1-384. January. 
Maar, R. D. 

1947. Raccoons snap their own pictures. Field and Stream 52 (6) : 112-113, 
illus. October. 
MacFarlane, Roderick Ross. 

1905. Notes on mammals collected and observed in the northern Mackenzie 
River District Northwest Territories of Canada, with remarks on 
explorers and explorations of the far North. U. S. Natl. Mus. Proc. 
28: 673-764, illus. June. 
Raccoon numbers and distribution, pp. 715-716. 

MacLulich, D. a. 

1936. Mammals of the Wanapitei Provincial Forest, Sudbury District, 
Ontario. Canadian Field-Nat. 50 (4) : 57. April. 
Manville, R. H. 

1942. Notes on the mammals of Mount Desert Island, Maine. Jour. Mam- 
mal. 23 (4) : 393. November 14. 
Matthew, William Diller. 

1930. The phylogeny of dogs. Jour. Mammal. 11 (2): 117-138. 
Phylogenetie relationships of raccoons, p. 129. May 9. 

McGrew, p. O. 

1938. Dental morphology of the Procyonidae with a description of Cynarc- 
toides, gen. nov. Field Mus. Nat. Hist. Geol. Ser. 6 (22) : 323-338, 
illus. October 31. 



RACCOONS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA 99 

McKean, William T. 

1948. Winter foods of North Dakota predatory animals. North Dakota 
Outdoors 10 (8): 6. February. 
McLean, Donald D. 

1934. Predatory animal studies. California Fish and Game 20 (1): 32, 
January. 
McMahan, C. a. 

1946. Trapping the raccoon. Texas Game and Fish 4 (12) : 30. November. 
McQueen, A. S., and Hamp Mizell. 

1926. History of Okefenokee Swamp. 191 pp. Jacobs & Co., Clinton, S. C. 
Mearns, Edgar Alexander. 

1914. Descriptions of three new raccoons from the Mexican boundary region. 
Biol. Soc. Washington Proc. 27: 63-67. March 20. 

Original descriptions of P. I. fuscipes, p. 03, P. I. ochraceus {=P. I. paUidus), p. 64, and 
P. I. californkus {=P. I. psora) , p. 66. 

Merriam, Clinton Hart. 

1884. The mammals of the Adirondack Region. 316 pp. 
Includes an account of the raccoon, pp. 91-95. 

1898. Mammals of Tres Marias Islands off western Mexico. Biol. Soc. 

Washington Proc. 12: 13-19. January 27. 

Original description of Procyon lotor insularis (=P. insularis insularis), p. 17. 

1899. Results of a biological survey of Mount Shasta, California. North 

Amer. Fauna 16, 179 pp., illus. October 28. 

Original description of Procyon psora pad flea {=P. lotor pacificns), p. 107. 

1900. Descriptions of two new mammals from California. Biol. Soc. Washing- 

ton Proc. 13: 151-152. June 13. 

Oiiginal description of Procyon pallidus (=P. lotor pallidus), p. 151. 

1901. Six new mammals from Cozumel Island. Biol. Soc. Washington Proc. 

14: 99-104. July 19. 
Original description of Procyon pygmaeus, p. 101. 

Miller, Gerrit S., Jr. 

1900. Key to the land mammals of northeastern North America. New York 

State Mus. Bull. 8 (38): 137. 
1905. Mammals of the Bahama Islands. (The Bahama Islands.) Geog. Soc. 
Baltimore, pp. 371-384, illus. 
Extended account of P. maynardi, pp. 376-379. 

1911. Descriptions of two new raccoons. Biol. Soc. Washington Proc. 
24: 3-6. January 28. 

Original descriptions of Procyon pnmiliis (^Procyon lotor pi/miliis). p. 3, and Procyon 
minor, p. 4. 

1924. List of North American recent mammals, 1923. U. S. Natl. Mus. 
Bull. 128, 673 pp. 
Species of Procyon, pp. 107-110. 

Mills, Wesley. 

1892. Hibernation and allied states in animals. Trans. Royal Soc. Canada 
10 (sec. 4): 49-66 (1893). 
Describes the hibernation of a tame raccoon, p. 50. 



100 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 60, FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 

MoHR, Carl O. 

1947. Table of equivalent populations of North American small mammals. 

Amer. Midland Nat. 37 (1): 224. January. 
Morris, R. F. 

1948. The land mammals of New Brunswick. Jour. Mammal. 29 (2) : 168. 

May. 
MosBY, Henry S. 

1947. Virginia animals everyone should know: The raccoon. Virginia 
Wildlife 8 (2) : 8-9, 20. February. 
MuRiE, Adolph. 

1935. Mammals from Guatemala and Honduras. Univ. Michigan Mus. 
Zool. Misc. Pub. 26, 30 pp., illus. July 15. 
Records P. I. shiifeldli from El Cayo, British Honduras. 

Nagel, W. O. 

1943. How big is a 'coon'? Missouri Conserv. 4 (7): 6-7. October. 
Necker, Walter L. and Donald F. Hatfield. 

1941. Mammals of Illinois. An annotated check list with keys and bibli- 
ography. Chicago Acad. Sci. Bull. 6 (3): 46. May 15. 
Nelson, Arnold B., and Harvey I. Scudder. 

1947. The raccoon as a predator on turtles. Jour. Mammal. 28 (4): 406. 
Nelson, Edward William. 

1899. Natural history of the Tres Marias Islands, Me.xico. North Amer. 
Fauna 14, 97 pp., illus. .4pril 29. 
Distribution and habits of the raccoons, p. 17. 

1930a. Four new raccoons from the keys of southern Florida. Smithsn. 
Misc. Collect. 82 (8): 1-12, illus. July 10. 

Original descriptions of P. I. marivus, p. 7; P. I. inesperatus, p. 8; P. I. auspkatns, p. 9; 
and P. I. incautus, p. 10. 

1930b. Wild animals of North .\merica: intimate studies of big and little 
creatures of the mammal kingdom. 1930 ed., 254 pp., illus. 
General account of the raccoon, pp. 59-60. 

Nelson, Edward William, and Edward Alphonso Goldman. 

1930a. A new raccoon from Lower California. Jour. Washington Acad. Sci. 
20 (5) : 82-83. March 4. 
Original description of P. I. griniielli, p. 82. 

1930b. Six new raccoons of the Procyon lotor group. Jour. Mammal. 11 (4) : 
453-459. November 11. 

Original descriptions of Procyon gloveralleni, p. 453; P. I. hirtus, p. 455; P. I. variiis, p. 456; 
P. I. litoreus, p. 457; P. I. excelsus, p. 458; and P. 1. vancouverensis, p. 458. 

1931a. Three new raccoons from Mexico and Salvador. Biol. Soc. Washing- 
ton Proc. 44: 17-22. February 21. 

Original descriptions of P. I. shufeldti, p. 17, P. 1. dickeyi, p. 18. and P. i. iiciutis, p. 20. 

1931b. A new raccoon from South Carolina. Jour. Mammal. 12 (3): 308- 
309. August 24. 
Original description of P. I. solutus, p. 308. 

1932. The type locality of Ursus lotor Linne. Jour. Mammal. 13 (4) : 367. 
November. 



RACCOONS OF jNOKTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA 101 

Newberry, J. S. 

1855. Report upon the mammals, in routes in California and Oregon explored 
by Lieutenants R. S. Williamson and Henry L. Abbott, Corps 
Topographic Engineers in 1855, Rept. Expl. and Surv. R. R. route 
Mississippi River to Pacific Ocean, 1854-1855. Vol. 6, pt. 4, 
No. 2, chap. 1, pp. 35-72. 
Raccoons sold for food in San Francisco market, p. 47. 

Norton, Arthur H. 

1930. The mammals of Portland, Maine, and vicinity. Portland Soc. 
Nat. Hist. Proc. 4 (1): 24-25. 
Oken, Lorenz. 

1816. Lehrbuch der Naturgeschichte. Dritter Theil, Zoologie, Zweite 
Abth. Fleischthiere, pp. 386-387. 
Orr, Robert T. 

1943. Mammals of the Clearwater Mountains, Idaho. California Acad. 

Sci. Proc, 4th ser. 23 (35) : 521. August 18. 
Osgood, F. L., Jr. 

1938. The mammals of Vermont. Jour. Mammal. 19 (4) : 437. November 
14. 
Packard, A. S., Jr. 

1866. List of vertebrates observed at Okak, Labrador, by the Reverend 

Samuel Weiz. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist. Proc. 10: 269. 
1891. The Labrador coast. 513 pp. New York. 
Pearson, Leonard, and B. H. Warren. 

1897. Diseases and enemies of poultry. Special Report. 749 pp. (Pub. 
by authority Pennsylvania State Legislature.) 

Chickens killed by raccoons and other habits injurious to human interests in Pennsyl- 
vania described, pp. 481-484. 

Pike, Zebulon M. 

1895. Expeditions of Z. M. Pike 1805-1807. 2 vols. Edited by Elliott 
Coues. 
PococK, Reginald Innes. 

1921. The external characters and classification of the Procyonidae. ZooL 
Soc. London Proc. 1921: 389-422. 
A discussion of the genera and subfamilies. 

PooLE, Arthur J., and Viola S. Schantz. 

1942. Catalog of the type specimens of mammals in the United States 

National Museum, including the Biological Surveys collection. 

U. S. Natl. Mus. Bull. 178, pp. 1-705. 
Pope, Clifford H. 

1944. Attainment of sexual maturity in raccoons. Jour. Mammal. 25 (4): 

91. November. 
Prince, E. E. 

1906. Zoological report. Trans. Ottawa Field Nat. Club. 22: 58. June. 
PuRCHAS, Samuel. 

1614. Purchas his pilgrimage. Or relations of the world and the religions 
observed in all ages and places discovered from the creation unto the 
present. 918 pp., 8th "booke", chap. 5. 
An early reference to the raccoon in Virginia, p. 761. 



102 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 60, FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 

Raxd, a. L. 

1933. Notes on the mammals of the interior of western Nova Scotia. Cana- 
dian Field-Nat. 47 (3): 45. March. 

1943. History of the raccoon (Procyon lotor L.) in Nova Scotia. Canadian 

Field- Nat. 57 (4-5) : 95. April-May. 

1944. The recent status of Nova Scotia fur bearers. Canadian Field-Nat. 

58 (3) : 90. May- June. 
1948. Mammals of the eastern Rockies and western plains of Canada. Nat. 
Mus. Canada Bull. No. 108, 237 pp., illus. 
Rathbun, Mary Jane. 

1918. The grapsoid crabs of America. U. S. Natl. Mus. Bull. 97. 445 pp., 
illus. (1917). 
Reference to fiddler crab as food of raccoon, p. 401. 

Rausch, Robert. 

1947. Suggestions for the handling of certain mammals. Jour. Wildlife 
Mangt. 11 (2): 189. April. 
Ray, John. 

1693. Synopsis methodica animalium. Quadrupedum. 336 pp. London. 
Includes an early reference to the raccoon, p. 179 

Rhoads, S. N. 

1885. Tenacity and ferocity in the raccoon. Amer. Nat. 19 (8): 823-824. 
1894. Contributions to the mammalogy of Florida. .\cad. Xat. Sci. Phila- 
delphia Proc, p. 155. 
1903. The mammals of Pennsylvania and New Jersey. 266 pp., illus. 

Account of Procyon lotor, pp. 182-183. 

Richardson, John. 

1829. Fauna Boreali-Americana. Part 1, p. 36. London. 
RiDGWAY, Robert. 

1912. Color standards and color nomenclature. 44 pp., 53 color pis. 

Washington, D. C. 
RiNKER, George C. 

1944. Os clitoridis from the raccoon. Jour. Mammal. 25 (4): 91-92. 
Rowley, John. 

1902. The mammals of Westchester County, New York. .\bst. Proc. Linn. 
Soc. New York, Nos. 13-14, p. 53. 
Rust, H. J. 

1946. Mammals of northern Idaho. Jour. Mammal. 27 (4): 313. Novem- 
ber. 
Sansom, Joseph. 

1820. Travels in lower Canada. Voyages and Travels 3 (1) : 49. 
Saunders, William Edwin. 

1932. Notes on the mammals of Ontario. Trans. Royal Canadian Inst. 18 
(pt. 2, No. 40): 271-309. July. 

Notes on distribution and habits of raccoon. A few reported on north shore of Lake 
Superior; rare north of latitude 47°, p. 281. 

SCHOONMAKER, W. J. 

1929. Notes on some mammals of Allegany State Park. Jour. Mammal. 10 
(3): 247. August. 
Scott, William Berryman. 

1913. A history of land mammals of the Western Hemisphere. 693 pp., illus. 

Origin and relationships uf Procyonidae, pj). 546-548. 



RACCOONS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA 103 

Seton, Ernest Thompson. 

1929. Lives of game animals. Bears, coons, badgers, skunks, and weasels. 
Vol. 2 (pt. 1), 367 pp., illus. 

Includes an illustrated account of the raccoon, pp. 230-256. 

Sherman, H. B. 

1936. A list of the recent land mammals of Florida. Florida Acad. Sci, 
Proc. 1: 110. 
Shiras, George, 3d. 

1920. A raccoon explores new country. Forest and Stream 90 (1) : 10, 11, 44. 
January. 
Shufeldt, Robert Wilson. 

1915. On the taxonomy of the Procyonidae. Science (n. s.) 41 (10f)2): 691- 
692. May 7. 

A superfamily Proeyonidea is divided into two families— the Procyonidae and the Poto- 
sidae, with the former divided into three subfamilies. 

Simpson, George Gaylord. 

1929. Pleistocene mammalian fauna of the Seminole Field, Pinellas County, 

Florida. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. Bull. 56 (art. 8): 561-599. Feb- 
ruary 12. 

Original description of Procpon nanus, p. 575, which differed conspicuously from living 
species of the region in greater length in proportion to width of first upper molar. 

Sloane, Hans. 

1725. A voyage to the Islands Madera, Barbados, Nieves, St. Christophers, 
and Jamaica with the natural history of the herbs and trees, four- 
footed beasts, insects, reptiles, etc., of the last of these Islands. Vol. 
2, 499 pp., illus. 
Records the raccoons (apparently erroneously) in Jamaica, p. 329. 

Smith, Charles Hamilton. 

1848. Introduction to Mammalia. Jardine's Naturalist's Library 15: 17- 
313, illus. 

Description of Procyon gularis ( = P. I. lotor), p. 222, based on a live specimen "in the State 
of New Yorlc," and of P. cancrirorns, p. 223. 

Smith, Captain [John]. 

1612. A map of Virginia. With a description of the country, the commodi- 
ties, people, government, and religion. 109 pp. 

Contains the earliest reference to the raccoon found in literature. The animal is recorded 
under the name oroughcun, p. 13. 

Smith, Ronald Ward. 

1!)40. The land mammals of Nova Scotia. Amer. Midland Nat. 24 (1): 
225. July. 
Snyder, L. L. 

1930. A faunal investigation of King Township, York County, Ontario. 

Trans. Royal Canadian Inst. 17 (pt. 2): 175. 
1941. The mammals of Prince Edward County, Ontario. Univ. Toronto 
Studies, Biol. Ser. No. 48, p. 21. 
Snyder, L. L., and E. B. S. Logier. 

1931. A faunal investigation of Long Point and /icinity, Norfolk County, 

Ontario. Trans. Royal Canadian Inst. 18 (pt. 1) 39: 131. 



104 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 6 0, FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 

SoPER, J. Dewey. 

1923. The mammals of Wellington and Waterloo counties, Ontario. Jour. 

Mammal. 4 (4) : 251. November. 
1942. Mammals of Wood Buffalo Park, northern Alberta and District of 
Mackenzie. Jour. Mammal. 23 (2) : 126 May 14. 
Squires, W. Austin. 

1946. Changes in mammal population in New Brunswick. Acadian Nat. 
2 (7): 31. May. 
Stephens, Frank. 

1906. California mammals. 351 pp., illus. 

Accounts of P. I. psora, P. I. pacifica, and P. I. pallidus. pp. 225-228. 

Stock, Chester. 

1929. A census of the Pleistocene mammals of Rancho La Brea, based on 
the collections of the Los Angeles Museum. Jour. Mammal. 10 (4) : 
281-289, illus. November. 
Points out, p. 288, the remarkable absence of Procyonidae. 

Stone, Witmer, and William Everett Cram. 

1902. American animals, a popular guide to the mammals of North America 
north of Mexico, with intimate biographies of the more familiar 
species. 318 pp., illus. 
A good account of the common raccoon, pp. 247-254. 

Storr, Gottlieb Conrad Christian. 

1780. Prodromus methodi mammalium. 43 pp., Tubingen. 
Procyon employed as a generic name foWhe first time, p. 35. 

Struwing, Nels J. 

1948. North Dakota fur harvest report, 1947-48. North Dakota Outdoors 
11 (2): 11. August. 
Stuewer, Frederick W. 

1943a. Reproduction of raccoons in Michigan. Jour. Wildlife Mangt. 7 (1): 

60-73. January. 
1943b. Raccoons: Their habits and management in Michigan. Ecol. 

Monog. 13: 203. April. 
1948. Artificial dens for raccoons. Jour. Wildlife Mangt. 12 (3): 296-301. 
July. 
Sturgis, Robert S. 

1939. The Wichita Mountains Wildlife Refuge. Chicago Nat. 2 (1): 12. 

March. 

SURBER, ThADDEUS. 

1932. The mammals of Minnesota. Minnesota Dept. Conserv. Bull., Div. 
of Game and Fish, p. 48. 
SviHLA, Arthur, and Ruth Dowell Svihla. 

1940. Annotated list of the mammals of Whitman County, Washington. 

Murrelet 21 (3) : 54. September-December. 
SwANSON, G. A., T. SuRBER, and Thomas S. Roberts. 

1945. The mammals of Minnesota. Minnesota Dept. Conserv. Tech. Bull. 
No. 2, p. 63. 
Swarth, Harry Schelwald. 

1912. Report on a collection of birds and mammals from Vancouver Island. 
Univ. California Pubs. Zool. 10 (1): 1-124, illus. 

Distribution and habits of raccoon, pp. 108-109. 



RACCOONS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA 105 

SWENSON, SiDEL B. 

1931. The mammals of Minnesota. Fins, Feathers and Fur, No. 04, p. 7. 
P'ebrnary. 
Taylor, Walter Penn, and W. T. Shaw. 

1927. Mammals and birds of Mount Rainier National Park. 249 pp., illus. 
Occurrence and habits of P. I. pacifica, pp. 44-45. 
Tevis, Lloyd, Jr. 

1947. Summer activities of California raccoons. Jour. Mammal. 28 (4): 
323-332. December 1. 
Tiedemann, D. Friedrich. 

1808. Zoologie. Zu seinen Vorlesungen entworfen, erster Hand, Mensch und 
Saugthiere. 610 pp. 

Description of Procyon lotor under the substitute name Llotor] tmlyark, p. 380. 

Tucker, William J. 

1930. Yearbook on Texas conservation of wildlife 1929-30. Texas Game, 

Fish, and Oyster Comn., p. 37. 
Tyrrell, J. B. 

1889. Catalogue of the Mammalia of Canada exclusive of the Cetacea. 
Canadian Inst. Proc, 3rd ser. 6: 76. 
Wagler, Johann Georg. 

1831. Einige Mittheilungen liber Thiere Mexicos. Isis 24: 510-533, 
Description of P. hernandezii, p. .514. 

Wagner, Johann Andreas. 

1841. In Schreber's Die Saugthiere. Supplement, Abth. 2, 558 pp. 

Treatment of the genus Procyon, pp. 153-162, and refers to illustrations; Procyon lotor, pi. 
143, P. hernandezii, pi. 143 A, P. brachyurus, pi. 143 C, and P. obscurus, pi. 143 D, published 
in 1778. The latter two species are unidentifiable. 

Warren, Edward Royal. 

1910. The mammals of Colorado. 300 pp. G. P. Putnam's Sons, New York. 

Aceomit of Procyon lotor (=P. I. hirtiis) in the State, pp. 219-220. 

1942. Mammals of Colorado. Their habits and distribution. 330 pp. 
Univ. of Oklahoma Press. 
\\'hitlow, Wayne B., and E. R. Hall. 

1933. Mammals of the Pocatello region of southeastern Idaho. Univ. 
California Pub. Zool. 40 (3) : 246. 
Whitney, Leon F. 

1931. The raccoon and its hunting. Jour. Mammal. 12 (1): 29-38. Feb- 

ruary 12. 

A good general account of the raccoon in New England. 

1933. The Raccoon — some mental attributes. Jour. Mammal. 14 (2): 108- 

114. May 15. 
Wiegmann, Ar. Fr. Aug. 

1837. L^eber die Gattung Procyon. Archiv fiir Naturgesch., drifter Jahrgang, 

erster Band, pp. 353-372. 

An early review of the genus in which five species are recognized, two of these, Procyon 
brachyurus (p. 369) and Procyon obscurus (p. 370) described as new. Neither of these seems 
to be clearly identifiable. 



S7G11'J°— .50- 



106 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 60, FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 

Williams, M. Y. 

1942. Notes on the fauna of Bruce Peninsula, Manitoulin and adjacent 
islands. Canadian Field-Nat. 56 (6) : 92. September. 
Williams, S. R. 

1909. On hibernation in the raccoon. Ohio Nat. 9 (6): 495-496. April. 
Wood, Frank Elmer. 

1910. A study of the mammals of Champaign County, Illinois. Illinois State 

Lab. Nat. Hist. Bull. 8: 573. 
Wood, N. A. 

1911. Results of the Mershon Expedition to the Charity Islands, Lake 

Huron. Michigan Acad. Sci. 13th Ann. Rept., p. 133. 

1912. Notes on Michigan mammals. Michigan Acad. Sci. 14th [Annual] 

Rept., p. 164. 
1914. An annotated check-list of Michigan mammals. Univ. Michigan Mus. 

Zool. Occas. Papers No. 4, p. 9. April 1. 
1922. The mammals of Washtenaw Countj', Michigan. Univ. Michigan 
Mus. Zool., Occas. Papers, No. 123, p. 10. 
Wood, Norman A., and L. R. Dice. 

1924. Records and distribution of Michigan mammals. Papers Michigan 
Acad. Sci., Arts and Letters 3: 437-438. 
Wortman, J. L., and William Diller Matthew. 

1899. Ancestry of certain members of the Canidae, the Viverridae, and 
Procyonidae. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. Bull. 12: 109, 131-138. 
Wright, A. H., and S. E. R. Simpson. 

1920. The vertebrates of the Otter Lake Region, Dorset, Ontario. Canadian 
Field-Nat. 34: 167. December. 
Yeager, Lee E. 

1942. Coal-stripped land as a mammal habitat, with reference to fur animals. 

Amer. Midland Nat. 27 (3) : 621-622. May. 
Yeager, Lee E., and R. G. Re.xnels. 

1943. Fur yield and autumn foods of the raccoon in Illinois River bottom 

lands. Jour. Wildhfe Mangt. 7 (1): 45-60. Jaimary. 



PLATES 



PLATE 2 

A. Procyon [Procyon] lotor lotor (Linnaeus); male adult; Lake Drummond, Dismal 

Swamp, Va. (No. 75255, U. S. Natl. Mus., Biological Surveys collection.) 
Note long pelage, uniformly directed backward. 

B. Procyon [Eu procyon] cancrivorus panamensis Goldman; female adult; Gatuii, 

Canal Zone, Panama. (No. 171229, U. S. Natl. Mus., Biological Surveys 
collection.) Note short pelage, reversed on nape. 

108 



North American Fauna 60. Fish and Wildlife Service PLATE 2 




^^^ 



Skins of the subgenera Procyon and Euprocyon. 



109 



PLATE 3 

[Two-thirds natural size] 

Proci/on [Proci/on] lotor lotor (Linnaeus); [male] adult; Sing Sing, N. Y. (No. 

129146, U. S. Natl. Mus., Biological Surveys collection!) 
Proci/on [Procyon] lotor htrtiis Nelson and Goldman; male adult; Elk River, 

Minn. (No. 187926, U. S. Natl. Mus., Merriam collection.) 

110 



North American Fauna 60. Fish and Wildlife Service PLATE 3 



^^^^-^^ 






Skulls of Procyon, subgenus Procyon. 



Ill 



PLATE 4 

[About three-fourths natural size] 

A. Proci/on [Pi-oci/on] lotor litoreus Nelson and Goldman; tvpe; [male] adult; 

Saint Simon' Island, Ga. (No. 2450, U. S. Natl. Mus.) 

B. Procyon [Proci/on] lotor clucus Bangs; male adult; Fort Kissimmee, Fla. 

(No. 64002, U. S. Natl. Mus., Biological Surveys collection.) 

112 



North American Fauna 60, Fish and Wildlife Service plate 4 




Skulls of Procyon, subgenus Proc.ijon. 



113 



PLATE 5 

[About three-fourths natural size] 

Procyon [Proci/on] lotor incautus Nelson: tvpe; male adult: Torch Kev, Fla. 

(No. 255060, U. S. Natl. Mus., Biological Surveys collection.) 
Procyon [Procyon] maynardi Bangs: male adult; New Providence Island, 

Bahamas. (No. 121905, U. S. Natl. Mus.) 

114 



NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 60. FiSH AND WILDLIFE SERVI 



CE PLATE 




t^^*"*— >^„ 



■"**-(»► 








Skulls of Procyon, subgenus Procijon. 



115 



PLATE 6 

[About four-fifths natural size] 

A. Procyon [Procyon] lotor excelsus Nelson and Goldman; type; male adult; 
Owyhee River, Oreg., 10 miles west of Fairylawn, Idaho. (No. 236214, 
U. S. Natl. Mus., Biological Surveys collection.) Distinguished by very 
large size. 
Procyon [Procyon] lotor psora Grav; male adult; Nicasio, Calif. (No. 187936, 
U. S. Natl. Mus., Merriam collection.) 

116 



B 



North American Fauna 60. Fish and Wildlife Service PLATE 





r 



Skulls of Procyon, subgenus Procyon. 



117 



PLATE 7 
[Three-fourths natural size] 



A. Proct/on [Proci/oii] lotor hernandezii Wagler; male adult; Tlalpain, Valley of 

Mexico, Mexico. (No. 51151, U. S. Natl. Mils., Biological Surveys 
collection.) 

B. Procyon [Procyou] lotor puinilus Miller; male adult; Porto Bello, Panama. 

(No. 171484, U. S. Natl. Mus., Biological Surveys collection.) 



118 



NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 60. FiSH AND WILDLIFE SERVI 



CE PLATE 7 





M 



f 



5V- 




i 4 



Skulls of Procyon, subgenus Procyon. 



119 



PLATE 8 

[Five-sixths natural size] 

Procyon [Procyon] pygmaeus Merriam; type; male vouiig adult; Cozumel 

Island, Yucatan, Mexico. (No. 108511, U. S. Natl. Nlus., Biological Surveys 

collection.) 
Procyon [Procyon] insularif; insularis Merriam; male adult; Maria Madre 

Island, Nayarit, Mexico. (No. 88978, U. S. Natl. Mus., Biological Surveys 

collection.) Note heavy zygomatic arch. 

120 



North American Fauna 60, Fish and wildlife Service PLATE 




^esiiSsdml^^ 




Skulls of Procijon, subgenus Procyori. 



121 



i76119°— .")() 9 



PLATE it 



[Five-sevi'titlis natural size] 

A. Procyon [Procyoti] lotor lotor (Litinaeu.s) ; [male] adult; Sing Sing, N. Y. (No. 

129146, V. S. Natl. Mus., Biological Surveys collection.) 

B. Procyon [Prociion] lotor hirtus Nelson and Goldman; male adult; Elk River, 

Minn. (No. 18702(i, I'. S. Natl. Mus., Merriam collection.) 

122 



NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 60. FlSH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE PLATE 9 








Skulls of Proci/oii, subgenus Procijon. 



123 



PLATE 10 

(Thrcp-fourths natural size] 

A. Frocijon [Procijon] lotor litoreiis Nelson and Goldman; tvpe; [male] adult; Saint 

Simon Island, Ga. (No. 2450, U. S. Natl. Mus.) 

B. Procyon [Frocyon] lotor elucus Bangs; male adult; Fort Kissimmee, Fla. (No. 

64002, U. S. Natl. Mus., Biological Surveys collection.) 

124 



North American Fauna 60. fish and Wildlife Service PLATE l( 





Skulls of Procyon, subgenus Procyon. 



125 



870119° — .")() 10 



PLATE 11 

|Three-fouiths+ natural size] 

A. Procyon [Froci/on] loior incautus Nelson; tvpe; male adult; Torch Kev, Fla. 

(No. 255060, U. S. Natl. Mus., Biological Surveys collection.) 

B. Procyon [Proci/on] maynurdi Bangs; male adult; New Providence Island, 

Bahamas. (No. 121905, U. S. Natl. Mus.) 

126 



NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 60, FiSH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE PLATE 11 




i 



v-^^s^^ 



B 




Skulls of Procijon, subgenus Frocyon. 



127 



PLATE 12 

[About three-fourths natural size] 

A. Proci/on [Procyon] lotor excelsus Nelson and Goldman; type; male adult; Owy- 

hee River, Oreg., 10 miles west of Fairylawn, Idaho. (No. 236214, U. S. 
Natl. Mils., Biological Surveys collection.) Distinguished by very large 
size. 

B. Procyon [Procyon] lotor psora Grav; male adult; Nicasio, Calif. (No. 187936, 

U.' S. Natl.Mus., Merriam collection.) 

128 



North American Fauna 60, Fish and Wildlife Service PLATE 12 






Skulls of Procijon, subgenus Procyon. 



129 



PLATE 13 

[About three-fourths natural size] 

Procyon [Procyon] lotor hernandezii Wagler; male adult; Tlalpam, Valley of 
Mexico, Mexico. (No. 51151, U. S. Natl. Mus., Biological Surveys collec- 
tion.) 

Procyon [Procyoti] lotor pumilus Miller; male adult; Porto Bello, Panama. (No. 
171484, U. S. Natl. Mus., Biological Surveys collection.) 

130 



NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 60, FlSH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE PLATE 13 









't-*-irK 



Skulls of Procijon, suljgenus Procijon. 



131 



PLATE 14 

IThree-fourths natural size) 

A. Procyon [Procyon] pyginaeus Merriam; type; male voung adult ; Cozumel Island, 

Yucatan, Mexico. (No. 108511, U. S. Natl. Mus., Biological Surveys 
collection.) 

B. Proci/on [Procijon] insularis insulnris Merriam; male adult; Maria Madre 

Island, Nayarit, Mexico. (No. 88978, U. S. Natl. Mus., Biological Surveys 
collection.) 

132 



NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 60, FiSH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE PLATE 14 




\ 




m. 



^'-^ 




Skulls of Procyon, subgenus Procyon. 



133 



PLATE 15 

[Seven-tenths natural size] 

A. Procyon [Procyon] lotor lotor (Linnaeus); [male] adult; Sing Sing, N. Y. (No. 

129146, U. S. Natl. Mus., Biological Surveys collection.) 

B. Procyon [Procyon] lotor hirtus Nelson and Goldman; male adult; Elk River, 

Minn. (No. 187926, U. S. Natl. Mus., Merriam collection.) 

134 



North American Fauna 60, fish and Wildlife Service PLATE 15 







1» 



I 




Skulls of Procyon, subgenus Procyon, 



135 



PLATE 16 

[About Ihrpe-fourths natural size] 

A. Procyon [Proci/on] lotor Htoreus Nelson and Goldman; type; [male] adult; 

Saint Simon Island, Ga. (No. 2450, U. S. Natl. Mus.) 'Note heavy denti- 
tion. 

B. Procyon [Procyon] lotor elucus Bangs; male adult; Fort Kissimmee, Fla. (No. 

64002, U. S. Natl. Mus., Biological Surveys collection.) 

136 



NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 60. FiSH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE PLATE 16 




N..-^-. i 



f: 




Skulls of Procijon, subgenus Procijon. 



137 



PLATE 17 

[About three-fourths natural size] 

Procyon [Procyon] lotor incautus Nelson; tvpe; male adult; Torch Kev, Fla. 
(No. 255060, U. S. Natl. Mus., Biological Surveys collection.) 

Procyon [Procyon] maynardi Bangs; male adult; New Providence Island, 
Bahamas. (No. 121905, U. S. Natl. Mus.) 

138 



North American Fauna 60, Fish and wildlife Service PLATE 17 





I 



V 



Skulls of Procyon, subgenus Procyon. 



139 



PLATE 18 

[About three-fourths natural size] 

A. Procyon [Procyon] lotor excelsus Nelson and Goldman; tvpe; male adult; Owvhee 

River, Oreg., 10 miles west of Fairylawn, Idaho. (No. 236214, U. S. Natl. 
Mus., Biological Surveys collection.) Distinguished by very large size. 

B. Procyon [Procyon] lotor psora Gray; male adult; Nicasio, Calif. (No. 187930, 

U. S. Natl. Mus., Merriam collection.) 

140 



North American Fauna 60, Fish and Wildlife Service PLATE 18 




,:> 




.- 1' r* >-A 



,J.. ^ k ^ 



^ ^ i(lj 




Skulls of Procijon, subgenus Procijon. 



141 



S7G119°— 50 11 



PLATE 19 

[Five-sixths natural size] 

A. Procyon [Procyon] lotor hernandezii Wagler; male adult; Tlalpam, Valley of 

Mexico, Mexico. (No. 51151, U. S. Natl. Mus., Biological Surveys collec- 
tion.) 

B. Procyon [Procyon] lotor pumilus Miller; male adult; Porto Bello, Panama. (No. 

171484, U. S. Natl. Mus., Biological Surveys collection.) 

142 



NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 60, FiSH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE PLATE 1! 




}> i *• '^ 






Vi ^*. 




Skulls of Procyon, subgenus Procyon. 



143 



ri.ATi: 20 

[About two-thirds natural size) 

A. Proci/on [Proci/on] pugmaeiis Merriani : type ; male young adult : Cozuinel Island, 

Yucatan, ^iexic•o! (No. 108511, U. S. Xatl. Mus., Biological Surveys collec- 
tion.") 

B. Proci/on [Procyon] insulan's insularis Merriain: male adult; Maria Madre 

Island. Xayarit, Mexico. (No. 88078, U. S. Natl. Mus., Biological Surveys 
collect ion. ~) 

144 



North American Fauna 60, Fish and Wildlife Service PLATE 20 







^ T:L? * V^ '-•^^" AgLl'J^ ' 



V" Txii'Trx-. .fc^''^- 



"3^- 



^ 



\ 



#^ 



Skulls of Proci/on, subgenus Frocyon. 



145 



PLATE 21 

[Six-sevenths natural size] 

A. Proci/on [Procyon] lotor elucus Bangs; male adult; Fort Kisslmmee, Fla. (No. 

64002, U. S. Natl. Mus., Biological Surveys collection.) Note larger size 
and greater angularity of male. 

B. Procyon [Procyon] lotor elucus Bangs; female adult; Fort Kissimmee, Fla. 

(No. 64012, U. S. Natl. Mus., Biological Surveys collection.) Note smaller 
size and lesser angularity of female. 

C. Procyon [Procyon] lotor lotor (Linnaeus): female adult; Schroon Lake, N. Y, 

(No. 98595, U. S. Natl. Mus., Biological Surveys collection.) Lateral view 
of typical mandibular ramus. 

146 



North American Fauna 60. Fish and Wildlife Service PLATE 21 




Skulls, including a mandibular ramus, of Procyon, subgenus Prori/on. 

147 



PLATE 22 

[About fivo-sixths natural size] 

A. Procijon [Euprocyou] cancrivorus pananicnsis Goldman; type; female adult: 

Gatiiu, Canal Zone, Panama. (No. 171669, U. S. Natl. Mus., Biological 
Surveys collection.) Upper surface of cranium. 

B. Procyon [Euprocyon] cancrivorus panamensis Goldman; type; female adult: 

Gatun, Canal Zone, Panama. (No. 171669, U. S. Natl. Mus.. Biological 
Surveys collection.) Under surface of cranium. Note molar crowns with 
roiuided cusps adapted for crushing food: and compare with more trenchant 
cusps in subgenus Procyon. 

148 



North American Fauna 60. Fish and V/ildlife Service PLATE 22 



1^ % 





) 




Skulls of Procjjoii, subgenus Euproctjun. 



149 



INDEX 

[Page numbers in boldface refer to principal entries; those in italic to synonyms | 



abrupta, Ursus cauda, 3. 
Ailuropoda, 1. 
Ailurus, 1. 

Alabama raccoon, 38. 
albina, Procyon lotor, 5. 
annulatus, Procyon, 33, 35. 
auspicatus, Procyon lotor, 22, 24, 28, 44, 
46, 47, 48. 

Bahama raccoon, 75. 
Baja California raccoon, 62. 
Barbados raccoon, 79. 
Bassaricyon, 1,26. 
brachyurns, Procyon, 4. 
breeding, 13. 

California raccoon, 56. 
californicus, Procyon lotor, 56, 57. 
Campeche raccoon, 65. 
Campsiurns, 35. 
cancrivorns, Etiprocyon, 16. 

Procyon, 16, 31, 80, 81. 

Procyon cancrivorus, 82, 83. 

Ursns, 4, 25, 81. 
castaneus, Procyon hernandezi, 5. 
coastal marsh raccoon, 85. 
Colorado Desert raccoon, 54. 
Costa Rican raccoon, 69. 
Cozumel Island raccoon, 76. 
crab-eating raccoon, 4. 
crassidens, Procyon lotor, 24, 28, 66, 67, 

68, 69, 71. 
Cynodictis, 2. 

dickeyi, Procyon lotor, 18, 24, 28, 66, 
67, 69, 70. 

eastern raccoon, 33. 

economic status, 14. 

elongata, Ursus cauda, 3, 6. 

elucus, Procyon lotor, 22, 24, 27, 38, 39, 

40, 42, 44, 46, 49, 113, 125, 137, 147. 
Euprocyon, 1, 2, 3, 4, 25, 27, 28, 29, 80. 

cancrivorus, 16. 

cancrivorus panamensis, 28, 8B. 



excelsus, Procyon lotor, 20, 24, 28, 33, 
56, 58, 59, 60, 86, 117, 129, 141. 

flavidus, Procyon lotor, 5. 

Florida raccoon, 42. 

food, 7. 

fusca, Procyon brachyurns, 5. 

fuscipes, Procyon lotor, 24, 28, 37, 38, 
39, 49, 52, 64, 65, 84. 

general activities, 7. 

gloveralleni, Procyon, 22, 24, 28, 79. 

grinnelli, Procyon lotor, 24, 28, 54, 55, 

62. 
Guadeloupe Island raccoon, 77. 
gularis, Procyon, 33, 35. 

hernandezii, Procyon, 64. 

hernandezii, Procyon lotor, 22, 24, 28, 

50, 52, 53, 64, 66, 67, 72, 74, 119, 

131, 143. 
hibernation, 14. 

Hilton Head Island raccoon, 41. 
hirtus, Procyon lotor, 22, 24, 27, 33, 34, 

35, 37, 50, 52, 111, 123, 135. 
hudsonicus, Procyon, 5. 

incautus, Procyon lotor, 24, 28, 44, 46, 

47, 48, 75, 115, 127, 139. 
inesjjeratus, Procyon lotor, 24, 28, 43, 

44, 46, 47, 48. 
instincts, 9. 
insularis, Procyon, 20, 71. 

Procyon insularis, 24, 28, 72,74, 121, 
133, 145. 
Isthmian raccoon, 70. 

key to subgenera, 27. 

to species and subspecies of subgenus 
ProcN'on, 29. 
Key Vaca raccoon, 47. 

litoreus, Procyon lotor, 22, 24, 27, 33, 
34, 35, 40, 41, 42, 43, 80, 85, 86, 
109, 111, 113, 123, 125, 135, 137, 147. 

longevity, 7. 

Lotor, 25. 

151 



152 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 60, FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 



lotor, Meles, 33, 35. 

Procyon, 1, 31, S8, 62. 

Procyon lotor, 21, 24, 27, 33, 35, 38, 
39, 40, 41, 43, 56, 57, 75. 

Ursus, 4, 6, 25, 33. 
Lotor vulgaris, 33, 35. 

Mamprocyonus, 25. 

Mapachin, 82. 

Maria Madre Island raccoon, 72. 

Maria Magdalena Island raccoon, 73. 

marinus, Procyon lotor, 24, 27, 42, 43, 

44, 46, 47, 48. 
maritimus, Procyon lotor, 24, 36, 85. 
Matecumbe Key raccoon, 46. 
maynardi, Procyon, 24, 28, 75, 78. 79, 

115, 127, 139. 
megalodous, Procyon lotor, 24, 39, 51, 

84. 
melanns, Procyon lotor, 5. 
Meles lotor, 33, 35. 
Mexican Plateau raccoon, 64. 
Mexican raccoon, 52. 
mexicana, Procyon hernandezii, 52. 
mexicanus, Procyon lotor, 24, 28, 50, 

52, 54, 55, 63, 64, 65, 72, 74, 85, 86. 
minor, Procyon, 24, 28, 75, 77, 79. 
Mississippi Delta raccoon, 84. 
molt, 19. 

nanus, Procyon, 3. 
Nasua, 1. 
Nasuella, 1. 
nivea, Procyon, 4. 
nomenclature, 3. 

obscurus, Procyon, 5. 
ochraceus, Procyon lotor, 54, 55. 

Pacific Northwest raccoon, 58. 
pacifica, Procyon lotor, 28. 

Procyon psora, 58. 
pacificus, Procyon lotor, 24, 56, 57, 58, 

59, 60, 61, 86. 
pallidus, Procyon, 54- 

Procyon lotor, 20, 24, 28, 52, 54, 56, 
57, 62, 63. 
Panama crab-eating raccoon, 82. 
])anamensis, Euprocyon cancrivorus, 28, 
82. 

Procyon cancrivorus, 28, 81, 82, 109, 
149. 
pelage, 19. 
Phlaocyon, 2. 
Potos, 1, 27. 



priscus, Procyon, 3. 
Procyon, 25, 27, 28, 29. 
annulatus, 33, 35. 
l)rachyurus, 4. 
l^racliyurus fusca, 5. 
cancrivorus, 16, 31, 80, 81. 
cancrivorus cancrivorus, 82, 83. 
cancrivorus panaraensis, 28, 81, 82, 

109, 149. 
cancrivorus proteus, 82, 83. 
gloveralleni, 22, 24, 28, 79. 
gularis, 33, 35. 
hernandezi castaneus, 5. 
hernandezii, 64. 
hernandezii mexicana, 52. 
hudsonicus, 5. 
insularis, 20, 71. 
insularis insularis, 24, 28, 72. 74, 121, 

133, 145. 
insularis vicinus, 24, 28, 73. 
lotor, 1, 31, 32, 33, 52. 
lotor albina, 5. 
lotor auspicatus, 22, 24, 28, 44, 46, 

47, 48. 
lotor californicus, 56, 57. 
lotor crassidens, 24, 28, 66, 67, 68, 

69, 71. 
lotor dickeyi, 18, 24, 28, 66, 67, 69, 70. 
lotor elucus, 22, 24, 27, 38, 39, 40, 42, 

44, 46, 49, 113, 125, 137, 147. 
lotor excelsus, 20, 24, 28, 33, 56, 58, 

59, 60, 86, 117, 129, 141. 
lotor flavidus, 5. 
lotor fuscipes, 24, 28, 37, 38, 39, 49, 

52, 64, 65, 84. 

lotor grinnelli, 24, 28, 54, 55, 62. 
lotor hernandezii, 22, 24, 28, 50, 52, 

53, 64, 66, 67, 72, 74, 119, 131, 143. 
lotor hirtus, 22, 24, 27, 33, 34, 35, 37, 

50, 52, 111, 123, 135. 
lotor incautus, 24, 28, 44, 46, 47, 48, 

75, 115, 127, 139. 
lotor inesperatus, 24, 28, 43, 44, 46, 

47, 48. 
lotor insularis, 72. 
lotor litoreus, 22, 24, 27, 33, 34, 35, 

40, 41, 42, 43, 80, 113, 125, 137 
lotor lotor, 21, 24, 27, 33, 35, 37, 38, 

39, 40, 41, 43, 56, 57, 75, 85, 86, 

109, 111, 123, 135, 147. 
lotor marinus, 24, 27, 42, 43, 44, 46, 

47, 48. 
lotor maritimus, 24, 36, 85. 
lotor megalodous, 24, 39, 51, 84. 



INDEX 



153 



Procyon — Continued 
lotor melanus, 5. 
lotor mexicanus, 24, 28, 50, 52, 'A, 

55, 63, 64, 65, 72, 74, 85, 86. 
lotor ochraceus, 54. 55. 
lotor pacificus, 24, 28, 56, 57, 58, 59, 

60, 61, 86. 
lotor pallidus, 20, 24, 28, 52, 54, 56, 

57, 62, 63. 
lotor psora, 13, 24, 28, 54, 56, 58, 60, 

62, 63, 86, 117, 129, 141. 
lotor ]Mimilus, 24, 28, 69, 70, 80, 83, 

118, 131, 143. 
lotor rufescens, 5. 
lotor shufeldti, 24, 28, 64, 65, 67, 68, 

70, 76. 
lotor solutus, 24, 27, 33, 34, 35, 40, 41. 
lotor vancouverensis, 24, 28, 58, 61. 
lotor varius, 24, 27, 33, 34, 35, 38, 42, 

43, 50, 84. . 
maynardi, 24, 28, 75, 78, 79, 115, 127, 

139. 
minor, 24, 28, 75, 77, 79. 
nanus, 3. 
nivea, 4. 
obscurus, 5. 
pallidus, 54' 
priscus, 3. 
proteus, 58, 59. 
psora, 56. 
psora ])acifica, 58. 
pumilus, 70. 
pygmaeus, 20, 24, 28, 76, 121, 133, 

145. 
sinius, 3. 
proteus, Procyon, 58, 59. 

Procyon cancrivorus, 82, 83. 
psora, Procyon, 56. 

Procyon lotor, 13, 24, 28, 54, 56, 58, 

60, 62, 63, 86, 117, 129, 141. 
pumilus, Procyon, 70. 

Procyon lotor, 24, 28, 69, 70, 80, 83, 

118, 131, 143. 
pygmaeus, Procyon, 20, 24, 28, 76, 121, 
133, 145. 

raccoon, Alabama, 38. 
Bahama, 75. 
Baja California, 62. 
Barbados, 79. 
California, 56. 
Campeche, 65. 
coastal marsh, 85. 
Colorado Desert, 54. 
Costa Rican, 69. 



raccoon — continued 

Cozumel Island, 76. 

cralj-eating, 4. 

eastern, 33. 

Florida, 42. 

Guadeloupe Island, 77. 

Hilton Head Island, 41. 

Isthmian, 70. 

Key Vaca, 47. 

Maria Madre Island, 72. 

Maria Magdalena Island, 73. 

Matecumbe Key, 46. 

Mexican, 52. 

Mexican Plateau, 64. 

Mississippi Delta, 84. 

Pacific Northwest, 58. 

Panama crab-eating, 82. 

Saint Simon Island, 40. 

Salvador, 67. 

Snake River Valley, 60. 

Ten Thousand Islands, 44. 

Texas, 49. 

Torch Key, 48. 

Upper Mississippi Valley, 37. 

Vancouver Island, 61. 
rufescens, Procyon lotor, 5. 

Saint Simon Island raccoon, 40. 

Salvador raccoon, 67. 

senses, 9. 

shufeldti, Procyon lotor, 24, 28, 64, 65, 

67, 68, 70, 76. 
simus, Procyon, 3. 
Snake River Valley raccoon, 60. 
solutus, Procyon lotor, 24, 27, 33, 34, 

35, 40, 41. 

Ten Thousand Islands raccoon, 44. 
Texas raccoon, 49. 
Torch Key raccoon, 48. 

Upper Mississippi Valley raccoon, 37. 
Ursus cancrivorus, 4, 25, 81. 

Cauda abrupta, 3. 

Cauda elongata, 3, 6. 

lotor, 4, 6, 25, 33. 

Vancouver Island raccoon, 61. 
vancouverensis, Procyon lotor, 24, 28, 

58, 61. 
varius, Procyon lotor, 24, 27, 33, 34, 

35, 38, 42, 43, 50, 84. 
vicinus, Procyon insularis, 24, 28, 73. 
vulgaris, Lotor, 33, 35. 



weights, 22. 



o 



OCCIDENTAL COLLEGE LIBRARY 

149.30:60 .^^, ,^ ,^ "^o^us 

Raccoons of North and middle /Goldman. E 



3 5043 00321 7501 




Demco, Inc. 38-293