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Full text of "North American fauna"

BOSTON PUBLIC LIBRARY 



3 9999 06317 636 4 



BIRDS OF MARYLAND 

AND 
THE DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 



SOVIBNmtlUTfK 







NUMBER 62 




UNITED STATES 

DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR 

FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 



BIRDS OF MARYLAND 

AND 
THE DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 



By 

Robert E. Stewart and Chandler S. Robbins 

Wildlife Biologists, Branch of Wildlife Research 
Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife 




NUMBER 62 



UNITED STATES 
DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR 

Fred A. Seaton, Secretary 

FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 
Arnie J. Suomela, Commissioner 




United States Government Printing Office • Washington • 1958 



For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, United States Government Printing: Office, 
Washington 25, D. C. : Price $1.75 



CONTENTS 

Page 

Introduction 1 

Objectives and Plan 2 

Acknowledgments 4 

Historical Sketch 6 

Birdlife and Land Use 11 

Geographical Distribution of Birds 15 

Birds of the Oak-Pine Forest Region 20 

Eastern Shore section 23 

Western Shore section 25 

Upper Chesapeake section - 26 

Birds of the Oak-Chestnut Forest Region 28 

Piedmont section 29 

Ridge and Valley section 31 

Birds of the Mixed Mesophytic Forest Region 33 

Allegheny Mountain section 33 

Species Account 37 

Literature Cited 375 

Appendix A — Common and Scientific Names of Plants Referred to 

in Text... 387 

Appendix B — Species Dropped From Hypothetical List 388 

Appendix C — Important Records Since October 1956 388 

Species Index - 391 

MAPS 

1. Biotic areas of Maryland and the District of Columbia 19 

2. Geographical localities in Maryland 38 

3. Breeding colonies of Great Blue Heron and Black-crowned Night 
Heron 52 

4. Breeding ranges of Least Bittern, Black Duck, Osprey, and 
Long-billed Marsh Wren 60 

5. Breeding range of American Bittern 62 

6. Canada Goose banding recoveries 66 

7. Mallard banding recoveries 71 

8. Black Duck banding recoveries 73 

9. Pintail banding recoveries 76 

10. Green-winged Teal banding recoveries 78 

iii 



Page 

11. Breeding ranges of Blue-winged Teal and Ruffed Grouse 79 

12. Blue-winged Teal banding recoveries 80 

13. American Widgeon banding recoveries 83 

14. Wood Duck banding recoveries 86 

15. Redhead banding recoveries . . 88 

16. Ring-necked Duck banding recoveries - 89 

17. Canvasback banding recoveries 91 

18. Lesser Scaup banding recoveries 93 

19. Breeding range of Black Vulture .... . 106 

20. Breeding range of Marsh Hawk . .. 117 

21. Peregrine Falcon banding recoveries 120 

22. Sparrow Hawk banding recoveries .. 123 

23. Breeding ranges of King Rail and Virginia Rail 127 

24. Breeding ranges of Clapper Rail and Saw-whet Owl 128 

25. Breeding ranges of Upland Plover and Willet 142 

26. Common Tern banding recoveries--. 165 

27. Breeding colonies of Least Tern 166 

28. Mourning Dove banding recoveries 174 

29. Breeding ranges of Chuck-wilFs-widow and Traill's Flycatcher 183 

30. Chimney Swift banding recoveries — 186 

31. Breeding range of Pileated Woodpecker - 191 

32. Breeding range of Yellow-bellied Sapsucker, Solitary Vireo, Mag- 
nolia Warbler, Black-throated Blue Warbler, Northern Water- 
thrush, Purple Finch, and Slate-colored Junco - __ ... 195 

33. Breeding range of Least Flycatcher... 205 

34. Breeding range of Tree Swallow .... 210 

35. Breeding ranges of Bank Swallow and Cliff Swallow 212 

36. Blue Jay banding recoveries 219 

37. Breeding range of Fish Crow 222 

38. Breeding ranges of Black-capped Chickadee and Carolina Chickadee 223 

39. Breeding range of White-breasted Nuthatch 227 

40. Breeding ranges of Brown-headed Nuthatch and Hermit Thrush.... 230 

41. Breeding range of Bewick's Wren 234 

42. Breeding range of Short-billed Marsh Wren 237 

43. Robin banding recoveries 244 

44. Breeding range of Veery 250 

45. Breeding ranges of Blue-gray Gnatcatcher and Golden-crowned 
Kinglet 253 

46. Breeding range of Warbling Vireo 268 

47. Breeding range of Prothonotary Warbler 271 

48. Breeding ranges of Swainson's Warbler and Nashville Warbler 273 

49. Breeding range of Worm-eating Warbler 274 

50. Breeding ranges of Golden-winged Warbler and Blue-winged 
Warbler 275 

51. Breeding range of Black-throated Green Warbler 287 



Page 

52. Breeding range of Cerulean Warbler 289 

53. Breeding ranges of Blackburnian Warbler and Yellow-throated 
Warbler 291 

54. Breeding range of Chestnut-sided Warbler 293 

55. Breeding range of Pine Warbler 296 

56. Breeding range of Prairie Warbler.. 298 

57. Breeding ranges of Kentucky Warbler and Mourning Warbler 305 

58. Breeding ranges of Hooded Warbler and American Redstart... 311 

59. Breeding ranges of Canada Warbler and Rose-breasted Grosbeak 314 

60. Breeding ranges of Bobolink and Boat-tailed Grackle 318 

61. Common Grackle banding recoveries 328 

62. Breeding range of Blue Grosbeak.. 336 

63. Purple Finch banding recoveries 342 

64. Breeding range of Savannah Sparrow 350 

65. Breeding ranges of Sharp-tailed Sparrow and Seaside Sparrow 354 

66. Slate-colored Junco banding recoveries... 360 

67. White-throated Sparrow banding recoveries 367 

68. Breeding range of Swamp Sparrow 370 

69. Song Sparrow banding recoveries 372 




4& fc's Qjpmi* &*«&, 



The Bald Eagle, national bird of the United States. (From the Fish and 
Wildlife Service painting by Louis Agassiz Fuertes.) 



BIRDS OF MARYLAND 

AND THE DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 



Birds hold an important position in our economy and culture. 
Their recreational value is shared by the gunner, the photog- 
rapher, and an increasing number of bird students who both 
singly and in organized parties take frequent trips to make 
Christmas-season or spring counts, to record the progress of 
migration, or to seek rare species. If the amount of money spent 
annually for such items as field clothes, gasoline, food, lodging, 
guns, shells, boats, binoculars, telescopes, cameras, film, and 
bridge tolls by persons in quest of birds for one purpose or another 
were known, the total would doubtless surprise even the most 
ardent participants. 

Aside from their recreational and direct economic value, birds 
have esthetic appeal to most of our citizens. Countless thou- 
sands of people derive daily enjoyment from the sight of birds 
on their feeding shelves, in their birdbaths, or on their lawns, 
from hearing their varied songs, or from watching distant flocks 
of waterfowl by day or hearing their calls by night. The majestic 
Bald Eagle, which nests throughout our tidewater area, so in- 
spired our ancestors that it was selected as our national emblem. 
Frequent references to other birds in prose and poetry attest to 
the more subtle influences these creatures have upon our 
civilization. 

The United States Fish and Wildlife Service is directed by 
several acts of Congress to obtain information on the protection 
and management of all birdlif e in the United States. To carry out 
these directives the Service has made surveys of the birdlife of 
characteristic segments of the nation. For convenience of delinea- 
tion, State boundaries have usually been used to indicate survey 
areas. It has been noticeable that during the past two decades 
the approach has changed from very generalized surveys or more 
elaborate treatments with detailed descriptions of habits, to the 
most recent approach with primary emphasis on numerically 
changing populations in response to human utilization of the land. 



2 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 62, FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 

The importance of quantitative studies is stressed in the present 
work, which deals with a part of the United States where human 
populations are high and land use relatively intensive and diversi- 
fied. This area is ideally situated for appraisal of the effects upon 
our birdlife of the growing demands upon our natural resources. 

OBJECTIVES AND PLAN 

The chief purpose of this book is to describe the birdlife of an 
important segment of the eastern United States in terms of its 
geographical, ecological, and seasonal distribution in each of the 
natural or biotic regions that extend into Maryland and the Dis- 
trict of Columbia. An attempt is made to show where and when 
populations of each species may be expected to occur within these 
regions and to indicate some of the more important environmental 
factors. Related information on numerical status and breeding 
and migration periods is given in detail for most species. Band- 
ing data that furnish important clues to migration routes and 
breeding and wintering grounds are included. 

Unlike most State bird books of the past, this volume does not 
include descriptions of plumages, field marks, songs, and habits. 
That type of information is readily available in many other books, 
and need not be repeated here. Instead the pages that follow are 
devoted to information on the time and place of occurrence of each 
species, its ecological requirements, and its abundance, often in 
terms of population densities by habitat type. With respect to 
population densities this volume initiates a new approach among 
regional bird books. In the past, abundance of a species has 
generally been described in vague terms, and seldom with refer- 
ence to a particular type of environment. This has made it 
difficult if not impossible to make comparisons of one area with 
another or to measure changes within a given area over a period 
of years. To the casual bird watcher the population figures will 
indicate where he can expect to find a certain species of bird. To 
the more serious student they will indicate preferred habitats in 
which he may carry out further study. To the farmer they may 
suggest ways of making the farmyard, field borders, or woodlots 
more attractive to certain species of birds. For those entrusted 
with the protection of our Nation's wildlife resources, the present 
population figures can be used in future comparisons to measure 
decreases or increases in abundance of any of our nesting species 
as a result of changing farming, forestry, or other land-use 
practices. 

The information in this book is based almost entirely on data 



BIRDS OF MARYLAND AND DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 3 

obtained within the boundaries of Maryland and the District of 
Columbia. However, it is organized by major biotic regions that 
extend into and cover large areas in many eastern States. Thus, 
the book actually serves as a cross-sectional study of the more 
important biotic regions in the mideastern part of the country. 
These regions cover the central and southern Appalachian Moun- 
tains, the Piedmont Plateau, and the northern and central parts 
of the Atlantic Coastal Plain. Much of the information applies in 
a general way wherever the appropriate regions are found. 

During the course of this study it was found that each species 
is to a large extent independent of all other associated birds so 
far as its habitat requirements and distributional patterns are 
concerned. The habitat niche occupied by each species within a 
given biotic community was invariably found to be somewhat 
different from the habitat niche occupied by any other species. 
Definite ecologic associations of two or more species occurred only 
in areas where the required habitat niches of all species concerned 
were present. Such associations are usually quite local in scope, 
since all habitats vary from one area to another, and the presence 
or absence of a single critical factor in the environment can cause 
a change in species composition. Because of this variation in 
species composition within most biotic communities it was decided 
to emphasize the "species approach" rather than the "community 
approach" in reporting the results of our investigations. A gen- 
eral discussion of habitat conditions and characteristic bird popu- 
lations may be found in the descriptions of the major biotic 
regions of the area, but the bulk of the information is summarized 
under the various species headings in the species account. 

This report is based to a large extent on systematic field work 
by the authors. Intensive field work was begun on the Patuxent 
Research Refuge near Laurel in 1941, and during the period 1945 
through 1955 this was expanded to include all of the State of 
Maryland. A thorough coverage of all counties was attempted 
during the height of one or more breeding seasons in order to 
record the geographical distribution, habitat, and relative 
abundance of each nesting species. Similar studies were carried 
out in the winter, and intensive observations were conducted dur- 
ing the migration seasons at numerous strategic localities through- 
out the State. An effort was made to determine breeding-popula- 
tion densities in at least one or two typical habitats for nearly all 
species of birds that nest regularly within the boundaries of Mary- 
land and the District of Columbia. More than 1,500 records of 
eggs and nestlings of noncolonial species were obtained in addi- 



4 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 62, FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 

tion to 2 or 3 thousand nests of colonial species. We banded 
approximately 18,000 birds during the period and collected speci- 
mens of nearly all species that have been recorded. 

The field work by the authors was supplemented by gathering 
together the sight observations and specimen records of many 
professional and amateur ornithologists. The ornithological 
literature, including the bird-distribution files of the Fish and 
Wildlife Service, has been critically examined for all Maryland 
and District of Columbia records. These files contain reports 
from cooperators since the year 1883, as well as clippings or 
abstracts from the more important ornithological literature dur- 
ing the same period. 

Frequent reference is made to recoveries of banded birds. 
Upwards of 100,000 birds have been banded in Maryland and the 
District of Columbia since the inception of the banding program. 
Several thousand recovery reports are on file at the Bird Banding 
Office at Patuxent Research Refuge. These have all been ex- 
amined, as have the reports of birds banded in other States and 
Canadian Provinces and recovered in Maryland and the District of 
Columbia. Through the use of serially numbered aluminum bird 
bands we are learning where the individual birds that nest in 
Maryland spend the winter, where those that winter here raise 
their young during the summer months, and the routes these birds 
take during migration. This information is especially important 
in the case of our migrant game birds, and has practical applica- 
tions for species such as the Redwinged Blackbird and Common 
Grackle, which damage ripening grain crops in late summer but 
are beneficial to the farmer at other times. Be it for purposes of 
protection, for selective control, or for improvement of hunting, 
banding recoveries are constantly supplying more information 
on the distribution, migration, and abundance of a greater variety 
of birds. 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

The late Frank Coates Kirkwood heads the list of persons to 
whom special thanks are due ; his long series of detailed notes from 
1881 through 1930 are the foundation for subsequent field investi- 
gations throughout Maryland. The present volume was first 
conceived by the late Robert C. McClanahan, who met his untimely 
death a few months after he had started serious work on the 
project. 

To each person mentioned in the historical sketch — in fact, to 
each whose name appears anywhere in the species account — our 



BIRDS OF MARYLAND AND DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 5 

sincere thanks are tendered. Staff members of the Patuxent 
Research Refuge, nearly all field observers of the various affiliated 
clubs of the Maryland Ornithological Society, and most active 
members of the Audubon Society of the District of Columbia have 
contributed in one way or another to this manuscript. Dr. Irston 
R. Barnes, Dr. Edwin G. Davis, Clara Schoenbauer, and Donald 
M. Thatcher, in particular, have assisted by making the Audubon 
Society's field records available. We are especially indebted to W. 
Bryant Tyrrell for help in assembling valuable data recorded 
by several of the earlier Maryland ornithologists. 

Our gratitude is extended to those active field observers who 
have critically read the entire species account and supplied addi- 
tional notes to clarify the distribution, migration, abundance, and 
nesting summaries: Dr. Maurice G. Brooks, Mr. and Mrs. A. J. 
Fletcher, Richard L. Kleen, C. Haven Kolb, Jr., Dr. John W. 
Richards, Dr. Ralph S. Stauffer, John W. Terborgh, Dr. Alexander 
Wetmore, and Edwin Willis. We express our deep appreciation 
to officials of the Museum of Comparative Zoology, the United 
States National Museum, and the Natural History Society of 
Maryland for the use of their collections. Thanks are extended to 
Dr. Ira N. Gabrielson for the use of his personal collection of 
Maryland birds. 

There are so many contemporary observers active throughout 
Maryland and the District of Columbia that it would not be 
practical to list them here. Nearly all who have contributed 
records to this book will find their names used as authority for 
some of the observations. It is difficult indeed to single out a few 
for special mention, but the following names stand out for their 
work on migration or on nesting activities: John H. Buckalew, 
James B. Cope, Edward J. Court, Mrs. W. L. Henderson, Richard 
L. Kleen, M. Brooke Meanley, Dr. John W. Richards, Allen R. 
Stickley, Jr., Mrs. Gail Tappan, John W. Terborgh, and Edwin 
Willis. Others who have made important contributions to this 
phase of the work are Dr. John W. Aldrich, Robert J. Beaton, 
Robert M. Bowen, John W. Brainerd, Dr. Maurice G. Brooks, 
Mary Catherine Crone, the late Frank C. Cross, Philip A. DuMont, 
Allen J. Duvall, John H. Fales, C. Douglas Hackman, Marvin W. 
Hewitt, Duvall A. Jones, Mrs. Alice Kaestner, the late Renwick 
R. Kerr, J. Ellsworth Knudson, Samuel Mason, R. Bruce Over- 
ington, K. Friel Sanders, H. Elizabeth Slater, Paul F. Springer, 
Dr. and Mrs. R. S. Stauffer, John W. Taylor, Jr., and Dr. Alex- 
ander Wetmore. Most of the persons mentioned in the following 
paragraph have also supplied detailed notes on migration. 



6 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 62, FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 

In addition to our own banding-recovery records we have sum- 
marized recoveries from all other cooperators in Maryland and the 
District of Columbia. Those who made the greatest contribution 
to banding were the following : Cooperators who have banded over 
5,000 birds in Maryland and/or the District of Columbia are Seth 
H. Low (11,000 banded, mostly at Unity), Rev. Edward Stoehr 
(9,000, some of them at Capuchin College in Washington, the 
others at St. Conrad's Friary on the Severn River in Anne Arundel 
County), William M. Davidson (9,000 birds, mostly at Silver 
Spring and Takoma Park), the Maryland Department of Game 
and Inland Fisheries (6,000 wild birds, almost all of them water- 
fowl), and Leonard M. Llewellyn (5,000, mostly at Patuxent 
Refuge and in Allegany County) . The majority of the recoveries 
have resulted from the work of these persons. We wish also to 
acknowledge the contribution of Blackwater National Wildlife 
Refuge, and of all other banders in the Maryland and District of 
Columbia area. The following banders, in particular, have con- 
tributed materially to the recovery data summarized under the 
various species; each of these cooperators has banded over 1,000 
birds: Hervey Brackbill, John H. Buckalew, A. E. Clattenburg, 
Mr. and Mrs. Richard D. Cole, James B. Cope, Compton Crook, 
Orville W. Crowder, Dr. David E. Davis, Mr. and Mrs. A. J. 
Fletcher, Irving E. Hampe, Kendrick Y. Hodgdon, Dr. E. R. 
Kalmbach, Rev. Fabian Kekich, Dr. Frederick C. Lincoln, John 
R. Longwell, Stephen W. Simon, Frank R. Smith, and Capt. 
J. E. M. Wood. More than 40 other cooperators have operated 
bird-banding stations in this area. 

HISTORICAL SKETCH 

Early references to the birdlife of Maryland are few and vague. 
During colonial times the settlers frequently mentioned in their 
writings the waterfowl, turkeys, grouse, and other game species 
that were conspicuous inhabitants of this area. But it seems that 
Audubon, Alexander Wilson, and the earlier ornithologists and 
collectors chose to concentrate their efforts in other States, and 
left little in writing about the birds they found while travelling 
through the Free State. 

The first list of birds of this area of which we have knowledge 
was published in Paris in 1816 by David Baillie Warden in "A 
Chorographical and Statistical Description of the District of 
Columbia." Translated into current nomenclature, this list was 
as follows: 



BIRDS OF MARYLAND AND DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 



Canada Goose 
Wood Duck 
Redhead 
Canvasback 
Sharp-shinned Hawk 
Bobwhite 
Virginia Rail 
Semipalmated 

Sandpiper 
Passenger Pigeon 
Great Horned Owl 



Snowy Owl 
Whip-poor-will 
Common Nighthawk 
Ruby-throated 

Hummingbird 
Yellow-shafted Flicker 
Horned Lark 
Barn Swallow 
Blue Jay 
Mockingbird 
Catbird 
Robin 



Eastern Bluebird 
Loggerhead Shrike 
Myrtle Warbler 
Yellowthroat 
Eastern Meadowlark 
Redwinged Blackbird 
Orchard Oriole 
Baltimore Oriole 
Indigo Bunting 
American Goldfinch 
Fox Sparrow 



In addition to these 32 species, Mr. Warden mentioned that the 
Turkey had disappeared by that time. He made mention of the 
Common Grackle as a natural enemy of the Mockingbird, but 
neglected to include the Common Grackle in his list. 

Not until 1862 did another list of the birds of the District of 
Columbia appear. Prepared by Elliott Coues and Daniel Webster 
Prentiss, this list of 226 species was the first comprehensive pub- 
lication on the avifauna of the District of Columbia. Several short 
papers published from 1876 to 1882 added a few new species to 
the District list. In 1883 Drs. Coues and Prentiss' "Avifauna 
Columbiana," an expansion of their original paper, was pub- 
lished as Bulletin 26 of the United States National Museum. This 
served as the standard reference for Maryland and the District 
of Columbia until Frank Coates Kirkwood completed his "List of 
the Birds of Maryland" in 1895. 

Except in the immediate vicinity of Washington, no systematic 
recording of bird distribution and migration in Maryland is 
known to have been done before 1881. On January 1 of that year, 
Frank Coates Kirkwood began his lifelong study of the distribu- 
tion and migration of Maryland birds. Interest in collecting and 
studying birds spread rapidly during the 1880's, stimulated in 
part by the founding of the American Ornithologists' Union and 
the inception of the cooperative bird migration observer pro- 
gram by Wells W. Cooke of the Division of Entomology of the 
United States Department of Agriculture (forerunner of the 
Biological Survey and the Fish and Wildlife Service) . Bird stu- 
dents (that is, bird collectors and egg collectors) also became 
acquainted with others of like interest through publications such 
as The Ornithologist and Oologist (1876-93), and The Oologist 
(1884-1941). 

Kirkwood drew about him a circle of close friends who were 
active collectors and field observers in the Baltimore area. On 



8 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 62, FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 

the first page of his "List of the Birds of Maryland" he acknowl- 
edges the ornithological contributions of the following Baltimore 
friends : William H. Fisher, Arthur Resler, W. N. Wholey, A. T. 
Hoen, George H. Gray, Percy Thayer Blogg, and J. Hall Pleasants. 
Mr. Blogg, who was active in the Natural History Society of 
Maryland until his death in 1946, was the last survivor of this 
friendship of 50 years before. So far as is known, none of these 
men, with the exception of Kirkwood, has received the honor of 
a detailed obituary in an ornithological periodical ; so to the pres- 
ent generation they remain only familiar names associated with 
many important observations of the nineteenth century. J. M. 
Sommer, a close associate of Kirkwood after the beginning of the 
current century, obtained many observations and nest records of 
interest, chiefly from the Baltimore area and from western Mary- 
land. 

In other parts of the State, Kirkwood had faithful corre- 
spondents in the early days in J. E. Tylor of Easton, H. W. Stabler, 
Jr., of Sandy Spring, Edgar Albert Small of Hagerstown, and 
Robert Shriver of Cumberland. A note in The Auk tells us that 
Edgar Small, who died in 1884 in his twentieth year, "was widely 
known as a young ornithologist of much promise." From June 5 
to June 14, 1895, just before the publication of his book, Kirkwood 
made his first trip to western Maryland during the breeding sea- 
son. He worked the area in the vicinity of Vale Summit, Alle- 
gany County. Since he had had neither correspondents nor 
personal experience in the higher mountains of Garrett County, 
his book has no reference to the nesting of the northern species 
that are restricted to that end of the State. It remained for 
Edward A. Preble of the Biological Survey to make the first 
ornithological expedition to Garrett County in May, June, and 
July, 1899. Preble made a fine collection of specimens, and the 
Maryland Geological Survey published his findings the following 
year. 

From 1899 to 1903, Rev. Charles William Gustave Eifrig 
(1871-1949) was pastor of the Lutheran church in Cumberland. 
During these four short years he accumulated the first detailed 
information on the migration of birds through Allegany and 
Garrett Counties and contributed significantly to the knowledge 
of the nesting and wintering birds of the area. He obtained speci- 
mens of 165 species, and this collection is now the property of 
Saint Mary of the Lake Seminary at Mundelein, 111. His work 
during this period and his later visits to western Maryland are 
nicely summarized in his publications, listed in Literature Cited. 



BIRDS OF MARYLAND AND DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 9 

Shortly before his death, Dr. Eifrig referred to his sojourn in 
Maryland as the happiest period of his life. 

While ornithology was getting its start in Maryland as a whole, 
the District of Columbia and its suburbs served as the collecting 
and observing grounds for several of the founding fathers of the 
American Ornithologists' Union: Spencer Fullerton Baird (1823- 
87), Walter Bradford Barrows (1855-1923), Charles Emil Ben- 
dire (1836-97), Dr. Elliott Coues (1842-99), Dr. Albert Kenrick 
Fisher (1856-1948), Dr. Clinton Hart Merriam (1855-1942), Dr. 
Daniel Webster Prentiss (1843-99), Robert Ridgway (1850- 
1929), and Dr. Robert Wilson Shufeldt (1850-1934). Many other 
Washingtonians joined the ranks before the turn of the century; 
among the most active of these were Dr. Charles Wallace Rich- 
mond (1868-1932), Henry Wetherbee Henshaw (1850-1930), 
Pierre Louis Jouy (1856-94), Dr. Sylvester Dwight Judd (1871- 
1905), Dr. Edwin Marble Hasbrouck (1866-1956), William Pal- 
mer (1856-1921), Vernon Orlando Bailey (1864-1944), Dr. Paul 
Bartsch (1871- ), Edward J. Court (1877- ), Arthur 
Holmes Howell (1872-1940), Henry Worthington Olds (also 
Oldys, 1859-1925), Dr. Harry Church Oberholser (1870- ), 
Wilfred Hudson Osgood (1875-1947), Dr. Theodore Sherman 
Palmer (1868-1955), Jesse Dade Figgins (1867-1944), and 
Joseph Harvey Riley (1873-1941). 

Many of the distinguished ornithologists listed in the preceding 
paragraph were still active in the field through the first quarter 
of the 20th century, during which time they were joined by Mr. 
and Mrs. L. D. Miner, Dr. Frederick C. Lincoln, Dr. Alexander 
Wetmore, W. L. McAtee, Dr. Ira N. Gabrielson, Dr. Clarence 
Cottam, William Marshall, and many other field workers in the 
Washington area. Activity seemed to slacken a bit during the 
1920's and 1930's, but during this period Robert Overing, William 
Howard Ball, and many of the Biological Survey staff continued 
to make observations. Two publications by May Thacher Cooke 
(1921 and 1929) brought up to date the earlier works of her 
father, Wells W. Cooke, and kept field workers of the Washington 
region abreast of current observations. 

In the 1920's, Ralph W. Jackson of Cambridge was the most 
ardent field ornithologist on the Eastern Shore. The majority of 
Dorchester County records before the 1930's are a result of his 
work. From the late thirties on, the staff members of the Black- 
water National Wildlife Refuge (including David V. Black, 
Leonard M. Llewellyn, Cornelius W. Wallace, and W. Steele Web- 
ster) have furnished much valuable information. Frazer Poole 



10 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 62, FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 

contributed considerable information on the birds of Caroline 
County, as well as several nesting records from Worcester County. 

The Ocean City area has never had a resident naturalist who 
kept notes on the birds of that area. Kirkwood was about the 
only person to supply detailed records from the Maryland coast 
before the 1930's. For the 15-year period from 1928 to 1942 
there were only occasional trips to this area by various observers, 
including Irving E. Hampe, C. Haven Kolb, Jr., Gorman M. Bond, 
W. Bryant Tyrrell, G. A. Ammann, and Robert C. McClanahan. 
These, with the addition of M. Brooke Meanley, were also among 
the most active reporters in the Baltimore area and the Maryland 
suburbs of Washington. Mr. Meanley, a protege of Kirkwood, 
carried on in his footsteps during the 1930's and 1940's, obtaining 
valuable information on breeding birds in Baltimore County and 
elsewhere. 

During the first half of the 20th century several natural-history 
organizations have stimulated conservation education and have 
brought amateur and professional ornithologists together at meet- 
ings and on field trips. The Biological Society of Washington, 
founded in 1880, has published lists of birds of the District of 
Columbia area (Cooke, 1908, 1913, 1921, and 1929; Fisher, 1935), 
as well as McAtee's "Sketch of the Natural History of the District 
of Columbia" (1918). The Audubon Society of the District of 
Columbia, founded in 1897, has had an especially active program 
from 1946 on, when it began publishing The Wood Thrush (now 
The Atlantic Naturalist) . Two separate organizations under the 
name of Maryland Audubon Society were formed in the early part 
of the 20th century, and at one time one of them had 80 members ; 
one of these clubs persisted until about 1937. 

The Natural History Society of Maryland, founded in Baltimore 
in 1929, has had an active program in ornithology, maintains a 
study skin collection and an ornithological library, and has pub- 
lished two booklets on birds : "Birds of Baltimore and Vicinity," 
by Irving E. Hampe and "A Preliminary List of Birds of Mary- 
land and the District of Columbia," by Irving E. Hampe and 
Haven Kolb. The latter has been the only available list of Mary- 
land birds since Kirkwood's book went out of print. The Natural 
History Society also publishes the quarterly periodical Maryland 
Naturalist (formerly, Bulletin of the Natural History Society of 
Maryland, and Maryland— A Journal of Natural History). The 
Maryland Ornithological Society, founded in 1945, now has branch 
clubs in Baltimore and in Allegany, Frederick, Montgomery, Anne 
Arundel, Harford, Caroline, and Talbot Counties. In addition to 



BIRDS OF MARYLAND AND DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 1 1 

the local meetings and field trips the society has an annual state- 
wide meeting and several statewide field trips, and publishes 
Maryland Birdlife quarterly. 

BIRDLIFE AND LAND USE 

Birdlife is never static. Changes are constantly taking place, 
not only in the total number of individuals of a species, but in 
their distribution as well. Being winged creatures, capable of 
easy movement from place to place, and having definite environ- 
mental requirements, birds are very sensitive to habitat changes. 
It is hard to visualize all of the changes that have taken place 
since Audubon's time, scarcely a hundred years ago. Clearing, 
cutting, and burning of forests, cultivating of open land, elimina- 
tion of hedgerows, draining and filling of marshes, pollution of 
streams and estuaries, flooding of stream valleys to form reser- 
voirs, and introduction of foreign birds — all of these practices 
have caused drastic changes in the distribution and abundance of 
many species. Three species that have been recorded in Mary- 
land are now extinct, and several others have been extirpated 
from much of their original range. Equally important, though 
perhaps less noticeable, have been the many pronounced local 
changes in abundance of more common species. 

The importance of the habitat niche as the principal controlling 
factor in the distribution and abundance of birds cannot be em- 
phasized too strongly. The occurrence of a particular species in 
any area is governed largely by certain critical environmental 
elements that comprise its habitat niche. These habitat require- 
ments may be quite obvious to the observer, or they may be more 
subtle in character. The effects of such controls are especially 
pronounced during the breeding season, when the populations of 
each species are restricted within more limited ecological bound- 
aries. Because of the differential in habitat requirements among 
birds at all seasons, any major environmental change is reflected 
in independent reactions of each species in terms of its distribu- 
tion and abundance. 

Land-use practices frequently involve major habitat changes 
that have a marked effect on the species composition and numbers 
of birds. Ordinarily, certain species benefit from these changes 
while others are unfavorably affected, depending in each case 
upon the creation or destruction of the required habitat niche. 
The initial clearing of hundreds of thousands of acres of Mary- 
land forests in order to raise field crops undoubtedly eliminated 



12 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 62, FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 

many hundreds of thousands of woodland birds that were deprived 
of their needed environment. At the same time, field and edge- 
inhabiting species rapidly expanded into the new territory that 
was opened up for them. Widespread lumbering and forest fires 
have greatly increased the areas of brushland habitats that repre- 
sent transitory secondary stages in the natural forest successions. 
As a consequence, thicket-inhabiting birds are now much more 
numerous and more widely distributed than formerly, while popu- 
lations of typical forest birds have been correspondingly reduced. 

As our human populations continue to increase at a rapid rate, 
the demands on the soil, water, forest, and recreational resources 
of Maryland may be expected to increase proportionately. Within 
our lifetimes we may see many wildlife habitats so altered in 
character that the species composition of breeding, migrating, 
and wintering birds will differ radically from that found at 
present. Certain trends are already evident. During the past 
5 years we have seen the wild natural character of Assateague 
Island transfigured into a bulldozed wasteland of street signs and 
lot markers. In less than one generation from now there may be 
no more natural barrier beach in the State. As these areas are 
"developed," many wintering and migrant coastal birds will be 
unfavorably affected and several of our most interesting and 
picturesque breeding birds will probably disappear, including 
such species as the American Oystercatcher, the Piping Plover, 
and the Wilson's Plover. Eventually, birds of this type would 
be largely supplanted by common, widespread species such as the 
Kobin, the Chipping Sparrow, and the Starling, characteristic of 
suburban or residential areas. 

Foresters are developing methods of timber-stand improvement 
that favor the growth of the most valuable crop trees by elimi- 
nating the less desirable species of trees. The widespread use 
of arsenic tabs to kill all hardwoods in the Eastern Shore pulp 
plantations, would eradicate the Red-eyed Vireo and many other 
deciduous forest birds from vast tracts of land where they are 
now common, while populations of certain species, particularly 
the Pine Warbler, would be increased by such measures. In the 
mountains the common forestry practice of girdling so-called 
weed trees such as black gum and certain other fruit-producing 
species greatly reduces the available food supply for Turkey, 
Ruffed Grouse, thrushes, and others. Elimination of understory 
shrubs and saplings from a woodlot removes nesting cover for 
such species as the Wood Thrush, Hooded Warbler, and Acadian 
Flycatcher, and the removal of "wolf" trees, dead snags, and 



BIRDS OF MARYLAND AND DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 13 

branches destroys the nesting cavities so necessary to owls, wood- 
peckers, chickadees, titmice, and Great Crested Flycatchers. 

The American public is constantly demanding greater perfec- 
tion in fruit and other agricultural crops. This forces the farmer 
and orchardist to exercise extra precautions to reduce damage 
from insects, to eliminate weeds from the fields, and to keep fruit 
trees well pruned. The rank grasses and weeds that provided 
cover for large numbers of Field Sparrows, Indigo Buntings, and 
Yellowthroats in grandfather's orchard have been largely re- 
placed by specific cover crops or mowed grass in today's orchard* 
with a resulting decrease in avian inhabitants. The use of sprays, 
applied by high-pressure sprayers, has further lowered the bird 
population through destruction of insect food and dislodging of 
nests. Natural hedgerows have been replaced to a large extent 
by single-species hedges or clean fences, with a corresponding 
drop in the variety and number of birds. The recent planting 
of multiflora-rose hedges in some areas has provided food and 
cover for a limited number of species, notably the Mockingbird 
and Song Sparrow, and has established pathways whereby birds 
that are not prone to venture far from cover can travel from one 
woodlot to another or can forage farther out into large fields 
than they otherwise would. Growing use of mechanical corn- 
pickers has greatly increased the available food supply for farm 
birds during the colder months because of substantial amounts 
of waste grain left behind. Many species of birds, including 
Mourning Doves and various blackbirds, are responding in in- 
creasing numbers to this abundant repast. Locally, especially near 
tidewater on the Eastern Shore, Canada Geese, Mallards, Black 
Ducks, and recently Pintails, have learned to take advantage of 
this new food resource, and frequently great flocks can be seen 
converging on some of the larger fields. 

The impact of man's activities on Chesapeake Bay and other 
tidewaters of Maryland is a continuous threat to the welfare of 
large numbers of waterfowl and numerous other water birds that 
utilize these areas. Aside from a steadily growing hunting pres- 
sure, the decline in quality of large areas of waterfowl habitat 
has been noticeable during recent years. In the fresher parts of 
Chesapeake Bay and its estuaries, the feeding activities of the 
introduced European carp have greatly increased the turbidity of 
the water, thereby reducing the sunlight penetration and resulting 
in lowered production of aquatic food plants. The Patapsco, Back, 
and Middle Rivers have been polluted with industrial wastes so 
that their value to waterfowl is now negligible. It is suspected 



14 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 62, FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 

that the recent use of dredges for taking soft-shell clams may de- 
stroy large beds of aquatic plants, particularly on the Eastern 
Shore. Many salt and brackish bay marshes have been severely 
impaired by ditching for mosquito control, while large areas of 
fresh estuarine marsh on the Potomac and Patapsco Rivers have 
been completely eradicated to make way for building sites, air- 
fields, and parks. 

In certain resort areas such as Eastern Bay, there has been 
growing public pressure to eliminate the "seaweed" because of 
its interference with boating and swimming. Unfortunately, the 
chief reason that Eastern Bay remains one of the outstanding 
waterfowl areas in Maryland is because the so-called seaweed is 
composed almost entirely of excellent aquatic food plants, includ- 
ing such species as sago pondweed, red-head pondweed, ditch 
grass, and eel grass. It is becoming increasingly evident that if 
we are going to maintain a reasonable population of waterfowl in 
our area, many of the land-use practices causing disturbance or 
destruction of waterfowl habitat will have to be stopped or modi- 
fied soon. The regulation of hunting pressure is probably only 
of secondary importance in the maintenance of waterfowl popu- 
lations, while the preservation and improvement of waterfowl 
habitat is the approach that reaches the core of the problem. 

The widespread use of insecticides is becoming more of a threat 
to wildlife each year. Agricultural experts, faced with the prob- 
lem of obtaining the greatest possible yield per acre, are not only 
refining techniques of soil improvement, but are also giving a 
great deal of attention to insect control. Foresters, concerned with 
our dwindling timber resources, are devoting more time to the 
control of injurious forest insects. Residents in the tidewater 
areas have become especially agitated during recent years over the 
scourge of mosquitoes and other biting insects that are so preva- 
lent in these areas. New and more powerful insecticides are ap- 
pearing on the market, and many of these are being applied in 
ever-heavier concentrations over larger areas of woodland, marsh, 
and field, and on orchards, roadsides, and garden crops. It must be 
admitted that insecticides have their place in the economy of our 
State and Nation and that they are destined to partially replace 
natural biological controls in many areas. It is a fact, however, 
that interference with the balance of nature can have disastrous 
and unforeseen results. When man, in his attempts to control 
harmful insects, unwittingly eliminates beneficial insects that 
have helped keep the harmful ones in check, the harmful species 
often increase to greater abundance than before and cause greater 



BIRDS OF MARYLAND AND DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 15 

economic loss. Nature has its own ways of combating man's 
interference: many insects formerly vulnerable to DDT have de- 
veloped a resistance to this chemical, necessitating substitution 
of other poisons. This suggests that ultimately our insecticides 
may be of much more deadly types than those currently in use, 
with an ever greater potential danger to birds and other wildlife. 
Much of the information in this book, including population 
densities by habitat units, should permit comparison with data 
from similar studies that may be conducted in the future. The 
comparison of population data should be especially significant, 
since this would afford a definite measure of the responses of 
birds to changing environments. It is to be hoped that this type 
of information, aside from any scientific value it may have, will 
prove useful in interpreting past changes and predicting future 
changes in the distribution and numerical status of bird popula- 
tions. Through a better understanding of these natural phe- 
nomena, more effective management programs may be instituted 
that will serve to protect endangered or diminishing species. 

GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF BIRDS 

Stretching from the Allegheny Mountains to the Atlantic 
Ocean, the area within Maryland and the District of Columbia 
contains a great variety of breeding birds. Owing to its peculiar 
shape and position in relation to the ranges of birds with southern 
and northern affinities, unusual and interesting combinations of 
northern and southern breeding species are included. The west- 
ernmost part of Maryland, for example, although not rising more 
than 3,360 feet above sea level, has such breeding birds as the 
Saw-whet Owl, Hermit Thrush, Nashville Warbler, Northern 
Waterthrush, Mourning Warbler, and Purple Finch. In south- 
eastern Maryland the breeding birds include such southern species 
as the Louisiana Heron, Royal Tern, Chuck-will's-widow, Red- 
cockaded Woodpecker, Brown-headed Nuthatch, and Boat-tailed 
Grackle. Few other States can exceed Maryland's record of 28 
species of regularly nesting warblers. 

The Chesapeake Bay region is probably the outstanding area 
in Maryland from an ornithologist's point of view. With its ad- 
joining estuaries and tidal marshes, the bay is a focal point for 
vast numbers of migrating waterfowl that furnish one of the most 
spectacular ornithological sights in North America. Hundreds of 
thousands of ducks and thousands of swans, geese, and coots are 
attracted by the extensive beds of wild celery, sago pondweed, red- 
head pondweed, ditch grass, and eel grass, and the lush stands of 



16 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 62, FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 

wild rice and three-square. Most sections of the bay also teem 
with animal food in the form of fish and mollusks, crustaceans, 
and other invertebrates. Numerous birds besides waterfowl — 
loons, grebes, cormorants, herons, rails, sandpipers, gulls, and 
terns — take advantage of this and concentrate here in large 
numbers. 

Maryland is traversed by a maze of migration routes. The 
largest flights of Whistling Swan, Canvasback, Lesser Scaup, 
Ruddy Duck, American Widgeon, and many other ducks occur 
along the Susquehanna River and Chesapeake Bay. Brant and 
Snow Geese follow the coast for the most part along with scoters, 
Greater Scaup, Red-breasted Merganser, Red-throated Loon, 
Double-crested Cormorant, Gannet, and others. The Common 
Loon, Horned Grebe, Canada Goose, and Black Duck appear regu- 
larly on both routes. Shorebirds are most plentiful along the mud 
flats of the coastal bays; but the Sanderling, Willet, and Knot 
are most frequently seen flying along the outer beach. The West- 
ern Sandpiper is most common along Chesapeake Bay. Large 
numbers of Soras and Bobolinks stop over in the marshes along 
the tidal rivers on their way south and are especially abundant in 
the wild-rice marsh along the Patuxent River. 

The Potomac River westward from Washington, D. C, is used 
as a flyway by Ring-billed Gulls and by a variety of ducks. Con- 
centrated fall hawk flights may be seen along all of the mountain 
ridges, at Hooper and Barren Islands in Chesapeake Bay, and 
along the outer coast. Falcons, Ospreys, and accipiters predom- 
inate on coastal routes, buteos inland. Tremendous flocks of Tree 
Swallows move down the Delmarva Peninsula (the area east of 
Chesapeake Bay) in late September and early October; Cliff 
Swallows congregate in the Allegheny Mountains. The Purple 
Martin roost in downtown Washington is a spectacular sight in 
late July and early August, when more than 20,000 birds may be 
observed. All parts of Maryland have excellent flights of passer- 
ine birds, though the species composition varies greatly from the 
western end (with Mississippi drainage) to the coast. Species 
that migrate down the Mississippi Valley and are absent in the 
southeastern States are found in abundance in the Allegheny 
Mountains of western Maryland but become progressively rare 
eastward; some of them seldom occur east of Chesapeake Bay. 
Concentration points for migrating passerines are in the thickets 
on the barrier beaches (especially during periods of strong 
westerly winds), the Pocomoke and Potomac River valleys, the 
wooded valleys of other streams, and the mountaintops. 



BIRDS OF MARYLAND AND DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 17 

Winters are usually mild except in the Allegheny Mountains 
in the extreme western part of Maryland, where conditions ap- 
proximate those of central New York or New England. In the 
coastal areas, snow seldom stays on the ground more than 2 or 3 
days at a time. Most interesting at this season are the concen- 
trations of waterfowl and other water birds throughout tidewater 
Maryland. A fine variety of land birds is also present all winter, 
except in the Allegheny Mountains. In most areas the bird stu- 
dent may observe 50 or more species in a day, and as many as 100 
along the coast. The more common and widespread wintering 
species include the Downy Woodpecker, Common Crow, Chickadee 
(Carolina or Black-capped), Golden-crowned Kinglet, Slate- 
colored Junco, and Tree Sparrow. 

In the eastern and central sections, permanent residents such 
as the Turkey Vulture, Tufted Titmouse, Carolina Wren, and 
Cardinal are common. Several species that occur in winter in 
southeastern Maryland are near the northern limits of their regu- 
lar wintering range. These include the Eastern Phoebe, Brown- 
headed Nuthatch, Short-billed Marsh Wren, Catbird, Brown 
Thrasher, Water Pipit, Palm Warbler, Boat-tailed Grackle, Vesper 
Sparrow, and Chipping Sparrow. During recent years, the White- 
crowned Sparrow has been rapidly increasing and extending its 
wintering range through central Maryland and sparingly down 
the Delmarva Peninsula. Northern visitors, such as the Rough- 
legged Hawk, Purple Sandpiper (Ocean City), Snow Bunting, and 
quite recently the Evening Grosbeak, appear regularly in small 
numbers. Hawks are particularly conspicuous in the area east of 
Chesapeake Bay, where the birdwatcher may observe 50 indi- 
viduals of 8 or more species in a day's trip. Redwinged Black- 
birds, Eastern Meadowlarks, Common Grackles, and Brown- 
headed Cowbirds winter abundantly in this same area, and more 
sparingly elsewhere. 

Five principal physiographic provinces are represented in the 
area within Maryland and the District of Columbia : the Appala- 
chian Plateaus, the Ridge and Valley province, the Blue Ridge 
province, the Piedmont province, and the Coastal Plain (Fenne- 
man, 1938). The portion of the Appalachian Plateaus in Mary- 
land is known as the Allegheny Mountains and occurs in the west- 
ernmost part of the State, extending westward from the Allegheny 
Front (Dans Mountain). This area is a high, undulating plateau, 
averaging about 2,500 feet above sea level and crossed diagonally, 
northeast to southwest, by several ridges that rise some 500 feet 
above it. The highest point in the State (3,360 feet) is located 



18 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 62, FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 

here, on Backbone Mountain. Extending eastward from the Alle- 
gheny Front to Catoctin Mountain, through the Ridge and Valley 
and Blue Ridge provinces, there are numerous parallel ridges 
that range up to 2,000 feet elevation. Except for the wide and 
fertile Hagerstown Valley, most of the valleys in this area are 
narrow, and little used for farming. The Piedmont province ex- 
tends eastward from the eastern base of Catoctin Mountain to 
the fall line of the rivers, which passes through Washington, D. C, 
Baltimore, and Elkton. The greater part of this area is gently 
rolling with elevations ranging from 300 to 800 feet, and con- 
sists mainly of agricultural lands with scattered woodlots. The 
Coastal Plain, comprising all of the area below the fall line, is 
bisected by Chesapeake Bay. Most of the Coastal Plain west of 
the bay has a rolling topography with elevations ranging from 
100 to 300 feet, while that portion found east of the bay is flat 
and low, with elevations under 100 feet. The river flood plains on 
the Coastal Plain are much wider and more swampy than are 
those in the other provinces. 

There are several hundred miles of tidewater frontage, owing 
to the ragged shoreline of Chesapeake Bay and its numerous arms 
and inlets. The ocean coastline, however, is only 31 miles. The 
salinity of the tidewater in Maryland varies greatly; the waters 
of upper Chesapeake Bay and the upper sections of many of the 
estuaries are nearly fresh, while the waters of the lower Chesa- 
peake and coastal bays are almost as salty as the ocean. This 
variation accounts for the great variety of aquatic plants and 
types of marshes found in the State. 

The boundaries of the principal biotic or natural areas in Mary- 
land and the District of Columbia appear to coincide quite closely 
with the units proposed by Dr. E. Lucy Braun (1950) for classify- 
ing the regions of the Eastern Deciduous Forest of North America. 
According to this system a forest region is characterized by the 
prevalence of a specific climax type, or by a mosaic of types. How- 
ever, each forest region also contains other climax types that are 
more restricted in area, including some that are prevalent in other 
regions. Many other habitats, both forest and nonforest, are 
present in these regions; some of these habitats actually occupy 
much greater areas than the climax types. These include stages 
in natural succession from open country to forest and manmade 
habitats such as towns, cities, and agricultural areas. 

According to Braun's classification, the area embraced by Mary- 
land and the District of Columbia lies within three major forest 
regions that are designated the Oak-Pine Forest Region, the Oak- 



BIRDS OF MARYLAND AND DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 



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20 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 62, FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 

Chestnut Forest Region, and the Mixed Mesophytic Forest Region. 
Our data on distribution and ecology of birds are closely corre- 
lated with the distribution of these forest regions, so we have 
decided to follow Braun's classification except for slight changes 
in the regional boundaries (see fig. 1). The most noticeable shift 
was made on the boundary separating the Oak-Pine and Oak- 
Chestnut Forest Regions. For our purpose it seemed best to 
include the "necks" of Baltimore and Harford Counties in the 
Oak-Pine Forest Region rather than in the Oak-Chestnut Forest 
Region. 

Each of the three forest regions, here considered as major biotic 
regions, may be subdivided into sections that represent areas 
showing floral and faunal differences of a secondary nature. In 
Maryland and the District of Columbia we have found it expedi- 
ent to recognize six sections — the Eastern Shore, Western Shore, 
and Upper Chesapeake sections of the Oak-Pine Forest Region; 
the Piedmont and the Ridge and Valley sections of the Oak- 
Chestnut Forest Region; and the Allegheny Mountain section of 
the Mixed Mesophytic Forest Region. While attempting to follow 
Braun's classification of these subdivisions as far as we could, we 
found it necessary to modify her concept of the sectional bound- 
aries with the following results : The Allegheny Mountain section 
is the same as described; the Ridge and Valley section includes 
Braun's Northern Blue Ridge section as well as her Ridge and 
Valley section; the Piedmont section is the same as described ex- 
cept for a slight westward shift of the eastern boundary; the 
Upper Chesapeake, Western Shore, and Eastern Shore sections 
are new subdivisions of the Oak-Pine Forest Region that have not 
been previously described. 

BIRDS OF THE OAK-PINE FOREST REGION 

The Coastal Plain of Maryland and the District of Columbia, 
except for Elk Neck in Cecil County, occurs within the Oak-Pine 
Forest Region. This region is intermediate in many respects 
between the Southeastern Evergreen Forest Region of the South- 
ern States and the more central Oak-Chestnut Forest Region. 
Under the old life-zone concept it would probably be considered 
a transitional belt between the Lower Austral (Austroriparian) 
and Upper Austral (Carolinian) Life Zones. Over the greater 
part of this region in Maryland the upland forests are composed 
of a combination of pine stands and oak-hickory forests or a mix- 
ture of the two. An exception to this is found in the areas ad- 
joining the upper Chesapeake Bay (designated as the Upper 



BIRDS OF MARYLAND AND DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 



21 



Chesapeake section) , where the upland forests are almost entirely- 
deciduous, although still of a type characteristic of the Oak-Pine 
Forest Region. Interesting associations of southern and east- 
central plants occur in the region. Locally, extensive stands of 
loblolly pine and even bald-cypress swamps are present, reminding 
one of more southern latitudes. Other species of pines, as well 
as most of the deciduous trees, are those which are also character- 
istic of the Oak-Chestnut Forest Region or are widely distributed 
throughout the Atlantic Coastal Plain. 

The associations of plants and animals in the tidewater habitats 
of the Oak-Pine Forest Region are quite different from other com- 
munities found in Maryland and the District of Columbia. There 
are numerous types of tidal marshes along the bays and estuaries, 
and almost every one has a distinct assortment of breeding birds. 
Fresh and brackish marsh types include American three-square, 
Olney three-square, river bulrush, cattail, wild rice, reed, salt 
reed-grass, and switchgrass. Salt-marsh types are salt-water 
cordgrass, salt-meadow grass, spike-grass, needlerush, saltmarsh 
bulrush, black grass, and glasswort. Many tidewater birds may 
be considered edge species, since they feed in the open water or 
in marsh areas but nest in adjacent patches of brush or trees. 
Still other species nest on small islands, on beaches, or in banks 
along the shore. 

The breeding birds of the region include several species of 
definite southern affinities, while associated with them are many 
more that are widely distributed throughout the greater part of 
the Eastern Deciduous Forest area. Interestingly enough, a few 
breeding species that are generally considered characteristic of 
the more northern portions of the Eastern Deciduous Forest area 
are also present. The species of birds that have been known to 
breed in the Oak-Pine Forest Region in recent years are as 
follows : 



Green Heron 
Least Bittern 
Black Duck 
Wood Duck 
Turkey Vulture 
Black Vulture (local) 
Red-shouldered Hawk 
Osprey 
Bobwhite 
Virginia Rail 
Common Tern (local) 



PRIMARY SPECIES 

Least Tern (local) 
Black Skimmer (local) 
Mourning Dove 
Yellow-billed Cuckoo 
Great Horned Owl 

(local) 
Barred Owl 
Chuck-wilFs-widow 

(local) 
Whip-poor-will 
Chimney Swift 



Pileated Woodpecker 

(local) 
Red-bellied 

Woodpecker 
Downy Woodpecker 
Eastern Kingbird 
Great Crested 

Flycatcher 
Acadian Flycatcher 
Eastern Wood Pewee 
Barn Swallow 



22 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 62, FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 



PRIMARY SPECIES— Continued 



Purple Martin (local) 
Common Crow 
Carolina Chickadee 
Tufted Titmouse 
Brown-headed 

Nuthatch (local) 
House Wren 
Carolina Wren 
Long-billed Marsh 

Wren 
Short-billed Marsh 

Wren (local) 
Mockingbird 
Catbird 
Robin 

Wood Thrush 
Blue-gray Gnatcatcher 

(local) 



Great Blue Heron 
Little Blue Heron 

(local) 
Common Egret (local) 
Snowy Egret (local) 
Black-crowned Night 

Heron 
American Bittern 

(local) 
Mallard (local) 
Blue-winged Teal 

(local) 
Cooper's Hawk 
Red-tailed Hawk 
Broad-winged Hawk 
Bald Eagle 
Marsh Hawk (local) 
Sparrow Hawk 
King Rail 

Clapper Rail (local) 
Common Gallinule 

(local) 
Piping Plover (local) 
Killdeer 



Pied-billed Grebe 
Louisiana Heron 
(local) 



Starling 

White-eyed Vireo 
Red-eyed Vireo 
Prothonotary Warbler 

(local) 
Parula Warbler 
Yellow-throated 

Warbler (local) 
Pine Warbler (local) 
Prairie Warbler 
Ovenbird (local) 
Louisiana 

Waterthrush (local) 
Kentucky Warbler 
Yellowthroat 
Yellow-breasted Chat 
Hooded Warbler 

(local) 



SECONDARY SPECIES 

American Woodcock 
Spotted Sandpiper 

(local) 
Willet (local) 
Gull-billed Tern (local) 
Forster's Tern (local) 
Barn Owl 

Screech Owl (local) 
Common Nighthawk 

(local) 
Ruby-throated 

Hummingbird 
Belted Kingfisher 
Yellow-shafted Flicker 
Hairy Woodpecker 
Eastern Phoebe 
Horned Lark 
Tree Swallow (local) 
Bank Swallow (local) 
Rough-winged Swallow 
Blue Jay 
Fish Crow 
White-breasted 

Nuthatch (local) 

MINOR SPECIES 

Yellow-crowned Night 

Heron (local) 
Glossy Ibis (local) 



American Redstart 

(local) 
House Sparrow (local) 
Eastern Meadowlark 
Redwinged Blackbird 
Common Grackle 

(local) 
Scarlet Tanager 
Cardinal 
Indigo Bunting 
Rufous-sided Towhee 
Grasshopper Sparrow 
Sharp-tailed Sparrow 

(local) 
Seaside Sparrow 

(local) 
Chipping Sparrow 
Field Sparrow 
Song Sparrow 



Brown Thrasher 
Eastern Bluebird 
Loggerhead Shrike 

(local) 
Yellow-throated Vireo 
Warbling Vireo (local) 
Black-and-white 

Warbler 
Swainson's Warbler 

(local) 
Worm-eating Warbler 

(local) 
Yellow Warbler 
Orchard Oriole 
Boat-tailed Grackle 

(local) 
Brown-headed Cowbird 
Summer Tanager 

(local) 
Blue Grosbeak (local) 
American Goldfinch 
Henslow's Sparrow 
Vesper Sparrow 



Gadwall (local) 
Sora (local) 
Black Rail (local) 



BIRDS OF MARYLAND AND DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 23 

MINOR SPECIES— Continued 

American Oyster- Red-headed Baltimore Oriole 

catcher (local) Woodpecker (local) (local) 

Wilson's Plover (local) Red-cockaded Savannah Sparrow 

Herring Gull (local) Woodpecker (local) (local) 

Laughing Gull (local) Least Flycatcher Bachman's Sparrow 

Roseate Tern (local) (local) (local) 

Royal Tern (local) Cedar Waxwing Swamp Sparrow 
Black-billed Cuckoo (local) 

EASTERN SHORE SECTION 

This part of the Oak-Pine Forest Region (see fig. 1) is in the 
Coastal Plain of southeastern Maryland, east of Chesapeake Bay. 
Weather stations in this section (Weeks, 1941) yield the follow- 
ing data (based on mean weather records over a period of from 
11 to 67 years) : 

Annual temperature — 55.4° F. (at Easton) to 57.9° F. (at Crisfield) 
January temperature — 35.2° F. (at Easton) to 38.6° F. (at Crisfield) 
July temperature— 76.0° F. (at Snow Hill) to 77.8° F. (at Pocomoke City) 
Growing season — 178 days (at Princess Anne) to 210 days (at Crisfield) 
Annual precipitation — 39.35 inches (at Snow Hill) to 43.37 inches (at Cam- 
bridge) 
Annual snowfall — 10.2 inches (at Crisfield) to 21.1 inches (at Rock Hall) 

The upland forests are composed chiefly of loblolly-pine stands 
and oak-hickory forests or a mixture of the two. Along the 
margins of the tidal marshes, loblolly pine characteristically 
occurs in somewhat open stands without deciduous associates. 
Much of the Eastern Shore section is poorly drained with the 
result that upland swamps are numerous and extensive lowland 
swamps occur along many of the streams. Sweetgum, black gum, 
red maple, and pin oak are typical trees in most of these swamps, 
and locally American holly is common. The large swamp along 
the Pocomoke River and its tributaries is especially interesting 
since it includes many southern plants including bald cypress, 
red bay, horse-sugar, water oak, cross vine, and laurel-leaved 
greenbrier. In the coastal area of Worcester County many other 
interesting habitats are found, such as the littoral zone of the 
ocean, the coastal bays or lagoons, the barrier beaches, and the 
salt marshes. Along the Chesapeake Bay shore there are numer- 
ous brackish estuaries that abound in aquatic plant food, while 
adjoining many of them are extensive brackish marshes. Oysters, 
crabs, and fish are plentiful in the tidewater areas of the Eastern 
Shore section, and support a fairly large fishing industry. The 
agricultural areas of this section are largely devoted to truck 



24 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 62, FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 

farming and chicken raising and to apple and peach orchards 
(Hamilton and Johnson, 1940). 

Many of the southern birds that breed within the Oak-Pine 
Forest Region are more common and widespread in the Eastern 
Shore section than elsewhere, and this is true also of those species 
that are associated with salt-water habitats. These include vari- 
ous southern herons, Clapper Rail, American Oystercatcher, 
Wilson's Plover, Royal, Gull-billed, and Forster's Terns, Black 
Skimmer, Chuck-will' s-widow, Red-cockaded Woodpecker, Brown- 
headed Nuthatch, Swainson's Warbler, Boat-tailed Grackle, and 
Sharp-tailed and Seaside Sparrows. Paradoxically, several breed- 
ing species generally associated with cooler climates occur regu- 
larly in certain tidewater habitats of the Eastern Shore section, 
but are absent or rare in other sections of the Oak-Pine Forest 
Region. These include the American Bittern, Gadwall, Blue- 
winged Teal, Marsh Hawk, Herring Gull, Tree Swallow, Short- 
billed Marsh Wren, and Swamp Sparrow. 

During the migration and wintering periods, most of the marsh 
ducks (Anatinae) and shorebirds (Charadriidae and Scolopa- 
cidae) , as well as various other species associated with salt-water 
habitats, are much more abundant in the Eastern Shore section 
than elsewhere. The greatest variety and numbers of marsh ducks 
are to be found in the brackish marshes of Dorchester County, 
while the majority of the shorebirds are most numerous in the 
coastal area of Worcester County. Spectacular concentrations of 
diving ducks and other open-water species are to be seen on the 
numerous brackish estuaries and inlets along the Chesapeake 
Bay shore and are especially abundant on Eastern Bay and the 
Chester River. In fall, many land birds, including several species 
of hawks and quite a few passerine species, tend to follow the 
coast while migrating and therefore are numerous in this section. 
In spring, several passerine species, particularly some of the 
warblers, tend to follow inland migration routes and therefore 
are rare or absent in the Eastern Shore section. 

In winter, several half-hardy species that are characteristic 
wintering birds in the Southern States regularly range as far 
north as the Eastern Shore section but are not ordinarily found in 
the other sections. These include the Tree Swallow, House Wren, 
Palm Warbler, Vesper Sparrow, and Chipping Sparrow. Among 
other wintering birds of interest could be listed the Purple Sand- 
pipers at the Ocean City Inlet and Ipswich Sparrows and Snow 
Buntings on the barrier beaches. Turkey Vultures and Myrtle 
Warblers winter in unusually large numbers throughout much of 



BIRDS OF MARYLAND AND DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 25 

the Eastern Shore section, and waterfowl are plentiful wherever 
appropriate aquatic habitats occur. 

WESTERN SHORE SECTION 

This section is found on the Coastal Plain west of Chesapeake 
Bay and south of the Patapsco River (see map, fig. 1). Weather 
stations within this section (Weeks, 1941) yield the following 
average data: 

Annual temperature — 54.5° F. (near Glenn Dale) to 57.1° F. (at Solomons) 
January temperature — 34.3° F. (near Glenn Dale) to 36.7° F. (at La Plata) 
July temperature — 75.8° F. (near Glenn Dale) to 78.2° F. (at Solomons) 
Annual growing season — 172 days (near Glenn Dale) to 213 days (at Solo- 
mons) 
Annual precipitation — 35.62 inches (at Solomons) to 44.33 inches (at Anna- 
polis) 
Annual snowfall — 15.8 inches (at Solomons) to 21.5 inches (at Annapolis) 

Over the greater part of the Western Shore section, the upland 
forests are composed of scrub-pine stands and oak-hickory forests 
or a mixture of the two. On the lower Coastal Plain terraces near 
tidewater, and especially in the southern part of the section, 
loblolly pine is common, often taking the place of the scrub pine. 
On sandy soils in the northern part of the section in the Fall-line 
Clay Hills district (Harper, 1918), pitch pine is frequently pre- 
dominant. Rich, moist upland forests, composed chiefly of white 
oak and tulip-poplar, occur locally and are especially prominent 
in east-central Prince Georges County on the fertile soils of the 
Greensand district (Harper, 1918). Small seepage areas are 
frequent throughout the section and usually support an upland 
swamp forest type that contains a well-developed understory 
composed chiefly of ericaceous shrubs. The flood-plain forests are 
particularly luxuriant in the Western Shore section and support 
a great variety of plants and animals. The best example of this 
type occurs along the Patuxent River and its tributaries; bald 
cypress occurs commonly in the swamp along Battle Creek. Quite 
a few brackish estuaries are present that contain abundant aquatic 
plant food, and many of these are fringed by various tidal-marsh 
associations. The most extensive and interesting marsh area 
occurs near the head of the Patuxent estuary southeast of Upper 
Marlboro. Most of the agricultural areas in the Western Shore 
section are largely devoted to tobacco farming; locally truck 
farming is also important (Hamilton and Johnson, 1940). 

In the Western Shore section, breeding birds that show the most 
definite southern affinities, such as the Chuck-will's-widow and 
Brown-headed Nuthatch, are restricted to the southernmost por- 



26 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 62, FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 

tions in the areas where loblolly pine is prevalent. Other southern 
birds, such as the Black Vulture, Yellow-throated Warbler, Sum- 
mer Tanager, and Blue Grosbeak, occur regularly throughout 
most of the section. Two species, the Warbling Vireo and Balti- 
more Oriole, which nest regularly in the other biotic sections of 
the State, are very rare or absent in the Western Shore section. 
The White-breasted Nuthatch and Loggerhead Shrike have a 
peculiar breeding distribution within this section in that they 
appear to be almost entirely restricted to habitats in the fertile 
Greensand district, mostly in east-central Prince Georges County. 
Nearly all of the other breeding species are those that are wide- 
spread and regular throughout the Oak-Pine and Oak-Chestnut 
Forest Regions. 

During the migration periods, thousands of ducks, coots, and 
other water birds put in their appearance on many of the brackish 
estuaries and are especially numerous on the Potomac, Wicomico, 
Patuxent, South, and Magothy Rivers. Other outstanding concen- 
tration areas include the wild-rice marshes, particularly those 
along the Patuxent River, where hordes of Soras, Bobolinks, Red- 
winged Blackbirds and many other species may be found. The 
characteristic wintering birds of the Western Shore section are 
composed almost entirely of the species that are widely distributed 
at this season throughout the Oak-Pine and Oak-Chestnut Forest 
Regions. 

UPPER CHESAPEAKE SECTION 

The Upper Chesapeake section is found on the northern por- 
tions of the Coastal Plain on both sides of Chesapeake Bay (see 
fig. 1). East of the bay it extends south to the area where lob- 
lolly-pine stands represent an important forest type, while west 
of the bay it extends southward to the Patapsco River. Weather 
stations within this section (Weeks, 1941) yield the following 
average data: 

Annual temperature — 53.9° F. (at Aberdeen) to 55.7° F. (at Baltimore) 
January temperature— 33.1° F. (at Aberdeen) to 35.1° F. (at Ridgely) 
July temperature — 75.7° F. (at Aberdeen) to 77.7° F. (at Baltimore) 
Annual growing season — 179 days (at Elkton) to 200 days (at Coleman) 
Annual precipitation — 40.16 inches (at Aberdeen) to 44.27 inches (at Van 

Bibber) 
Annual snowfall — 18.3 inches (at Aberdeen) to 21.8 inches (at Millington) 

Although here placed in the Oak-Pine Forest Region, this sec- 
tion actually represents in many respects a transitional area 
between the Oak-Pine and Oak-Chestnut Forest Regions. The up- 
land forests of the Upper Chesapeake section are almost entirely 



BIRDS OF MARYLAND AND DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 27 

deciduous and are mostly of the oak-hickory type. The principal 
species include white oak, black oak, Spanish oak, willow oak, 
mockernut, pignut, and sweetgum. Locally, chestnut oak is com- 
mon in these forests, and formerly chestnut was present. Scat- 
tered upland swamps are present in the Upper Chesapeake section ; 
in these the most common trees are usually pin oak, red maple, 
black gum, and sweetgum. Narrow strips of well-drained flood- 
plain forests occur along some of the streams, and here tulip- 
poplar, American elm, white ash, hornbeam, and sweetgum are 
often the prevailing species. 

Many brackish and nearly fresh estuaries are found in this 
section; these contain an abundant aquatic-plant growth. The 
famous Susquehanna Flats with its extensive beds of wild celery 
is the largest of these. Tidal marshes are frequent, especially in 
that portion west of Chesapeake Bay; the more important types 
are Olney three-square, American three-square, river bulrush, 
cattail, and wild rice. 

A large part of the Upper Chesapeake section has been cleared 
for farming, particularly the portion lying east of Chesapeake 
Bay. Most of these agricultural areas are devoted to dairy farm- 
ing or to the raising of cash grain crops ; locally truck farming is 
also important (Hamilton and Johnson, 1940). 

The breeding birds of the Upper Chesapeake section differ from 
those of the Eastern Shore and Western Shore sections principally 
in the fact that most of the species that are associated with pine 
or salt-water habitats, as well as most of those that would indi- 
cate southern affinities, are rare or absent. Only two southern 
species are of regular occurrence — the Blue Grosbeak is fairly 
common locally while the Black Vulture occurs sparingly. Five 
warblers, the Black-and-white Warbler, Prairie Warbler, Oven- 
bird, Hooded Warbler, and American Redstart, are unaccountably 
scarce as breeding species throughout the greater part of this 
section. On the other hand, the Kentucky Warbler is unusually 
abundant. 

The Upper Chesapeake section is outstanding as a concentration 
area for migrating waterfowl. Thousands of Whistling Swans and 
Canada Geese and hundreds of thousands of ducks are to be found 
on the shallow estuarine waters of the Susquehanna Flats, the 
Sassafras River, the Gunpowder River area, and elsewhere. Vari- 
ous species of diving ducks and particularly the Canvasback are 
sometimes seen in almost unbelievable numbers. In winter, an- 
other outstanding feature of the Upper Chesapeake section is the 
enormous number of Redwinged Blackbirds, Common Grackles, 



28 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 62, FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 



and Brown-headed Cowbirds that move over the area in great 
flocks. 

BIRDS OF THE OAK-CHESTNUT FOREST REGION 

The area in Maryland and the District of Columbia that em- 
braces the Piedmont, Blue Ridge, and Ridge and Valley physio- 
graphic provinces (Fenneman, 1938) , extending from the fall line 
to the Allegheny Front, lies within the Oak-Chestnut Forest 
Region. A small hilly portion of the Coastal Plain, known as Elk 
Neck in Cecil County, is also included on the basis of the known 
relations of its plant and animal life. Various species of oaks, 
particularly white, scarlet, black, and chestnut oaks, are especially 
abundant in the upland forests of the Oak-Chestnut Forest Region, 
and locally tulip-poplar is predominant. Chestnut was formerly 
an important constituent of most of these forests, but now has 
largely disappeared, at least as a forest tree, owing to the chestnut 
blight. Mixed mesophytic forest communities are to be found in 
some of the cooler ravines and on steep north slopes ; these include 
such species as hemlock, white pine, sugar maple, basswood, sweet 
birch, beech, northern red oak, white oak, and tulip-poplar. 

The majority of the breeding birds in the region are those 
which are characteristic and widespread throughout the central 
portions of the Eastern Deciduous Forest area and, using life-zone 
terminology, could be considered as typically Carolinian. Locally, 
on the higher ridges or in the cooler ravines, a few species char- 
acteristic of more northern climates also occur. The species of 
birds that have been known to breed in the Oak-Chestnut Forest 
Region in the past few years are as follows : 



Turkey Vulture 
Mourning Dove 
Chimney Swift 
Downy Woodpecker 
Eastern Kingbird 
Eastern Wood Pewee 
Barn Swallow 
Common Crow 
House Wren 
Robin 

Wood Thrush 
Starling 



PRIMARY SPECIES 
Red-eyed Vireo 
Black-and-white 

Warbler (local) 
Ovenbird 
Hooded Warbler 

(local) 
American Redstart 

(local) 
House Sparrow 
Eastern Meadowlark 
Redwinged Blackbird 
Common Grackle 



Scarlet Tanager 
Cardinal 
Indigo Bunting 
American Goldfinch 
Rufous-sided Towhee 
Grasshopper Sparrow 
Vesper Sparrow 
Chipping Sparrow 
Field Sparrow 
Song Sparrow 



BIRDS OF MARYLAND AND DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 



29 



Green Heron 

Wood Duck 

Black Vulture (local) 

Cooper's Hawk 

Red-tailed Hawk 

Red-shouldered Hawk 

Broad-winged Hawk 

Sparrow Hawk 

Ruffed Grouse (local) 

Bobwhite 

Turkey (local) 

Killdeer 

American Woodcock 

(local) 
Upland Plover (local) 
Spotted Sandpiper 

(local) 
Yellow-billed Cuckoo 
Barn Owl (local) 
Screech Owl 
Great Horned Owl 
Barred Owl 
Whip-poor-will 
Common Nighthawk 

(local) 
Ruby-throated 

Hummingbird 
Belted Kingfisher 
Yellow-shafted Flicker 



Mallard 

Black Duck (local) 
Sharp-shinned Hawk 
Bald Eagle (local) 
Peregrine Falcon 

(local) 
King Rail (local) 
Virginia Rail (local) 
Black-billed Cuckoo 
Red-headed 

Woodpecker (local) 
Traill's Flycatcher 

(local) 



SECONDARY SPECIES 
Pileated Woodpecker 

(local) 
Red-bellied 

Woodpecker 
Hairy Woodpecker 
Great Crested 

Flycatcher 
Eastern Phoebe 
Acadian Flycatcher 
Least Flycatcher 

(local) 
Horned Lark 
Rough-winged Swallow 
Cliff Swallow (local) 
Purple Martin 
Blue Jay 
Carolina Chickadee 

(local) 
Black-capped 

Chickadee (local) 
Tufted Titmouse 
White-breasted 

Nuthatch 
Bewick's Wren (local) 
Carolina Wren 
Mockingbird (local) • 
Catbird 

Brown Thrasher 
Eastern Bluebird 
Blue-gray Gnatcatcher 

MINOR SPECIES 
Bank Swallow (local) 
Fish Crow (local) 
Short-billed Marsh 

Wren (local) 
Veery (local) 
Loggerhead Shrike 

(local) 
Prothonotary Warbler 

(local) 
Blackburnian Warbler 

(local) 
Pine Warbler (local) 



Cedar Waxwing 

(local) 
White-eyed Vireo 

(local) 
Yellow-throated Vireo 
Warbling Vireo (local) 
Worm-eating Warbler 
Golden-winged 

Warbler (local) 
Blue-winged Warbler 

(local) 
Parula Warbler 
Yellow Warbler 
Black-throated Green 

Warbler (local) 
Cerulean Warbler 

(local) 
Chestnut-sided 

Warbler (local) 
Prairie Warbler 

(local) 
Louisiana Water- 
thrush 
Kentucky Warbler 

(local) 
Yellowthroat 
Yellow-breasted Chat 
Orchard Oriole 
Baltimore Oriole 
Brown-headed Cowbird 



Bobolink (local) 
Summer Tanager 

(local) 
Blue Grosbeak (local) 
Dickcissel (local) 
Savannah Sparrow 

(local) 
Henslow's Sparrow 

(local) 
Bachman's Sparrow 

(local) 



PIEDMONT SECTION 

The Piedmont physiographic province (Fenneman, 1938) as 
well as a small part of the Coastal Plain known as Elk Neck in 
Cecil County is classified as the Piedmont section of the Oak- 



30 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 62, FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 

Chestnut Forest Region (see fig. 1) . Weather stations within this 
section (Weeks, 1941) yield the following average data: 

Annual temperature — 52.6° F. (at Fallston) to 54.3° F. (at Frederick) 
January temperature — 31.3° F. (at Emmitsburg) to 34.8° F. (at Pretty Boy 

Dam) 
July temperature— 74.2° F. (at Fallston) to 76.7° F. (at Frederick) 
Annual growing season — 173 days (at Boyds) to 188 days (at Emmitsburg) 
Annual precipitation — 38.66 inches (at Great Falls) to 44.84 inches (at 

Maryland Line) 
Annual snowfall — 22.4 inches (at Woodstock) to 32.5 inches (at Emmits- 
burg) 

The gently rolling topography and the well-drained fertile soils 
of this section are conducive to the establishment of widespread 
upland, rich, moist forest types. In most of these forests, white 
oak, black oak, tulip-poplar, and smooth-barked hickories are 
the predominant species, with flowering dogwood as an ever- 
present understory tree. Locally, and especially on some of the 
drier or more sterile sites, chestnut oak or scarlet oak is pre- 
dominant, while occasionally associated with them may be found 
stands of scrub pine or pitch pine that represent stages of the 
secondary succession. Beech is frequently a common tree on 
ravine slopes, and mixed mesophytic forest communities occur 
in some of the larger valleys with steep north slopes. These com- 
munities are composed of a mixture of central and northern 
hardwoods and frequently contain hemlock as well. Narrow 
strips of rich, well-developed flood-plain forest communities are 
to be found along the larger streams and are characteristically 
composed of a great variety of bottomland species. Good-sized 
reservoirs have been created along some of the streams by the 
construction of dams. 

A very large proportion of the Piedmont section has been 
cleared for agricultural purposes. Most of these areas are devoted 
chiefly to dairy farming, while locally truck farming and the 
raising of livestock and cash grain crops are important (Hamilton 
and Johnson, 1940). 

A marked uniformity in environment, resulting in a rather 
restricted number of habitats, is to be noted throughout the Pied- 
mont section. Because of this, the variety of birds to be found in 
the area is not ordinarily impressive. The vast majority of the 
birds are those that may be classified as field or field-margin 
species or those that are characteristic of upland well-drained 
forests. Most of the water, marsh, and bottomland habitats are 
quite restricted in area, so that the number of species to be found 



BIRDS OF MARYLAND AND DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 31 

in them is somewhat limited. Nearly all of the characteristic 
birds of the Piedmont section are of species that are widespread 
and common throughout the central portions of the Eastern De- 
ciduous Forest area. A slight southern influence is to be noted 
along the Potomac River Valley, which apparently is serving as 
an invasion route for breeding species such as the Black Vulture, 
Summer Tanager, and Blue Grosbeak. Locally a trace of a more 
northern element in the avifauna may be discerned, especially 
in the more elevated portions of the section, where breeding species 
such as the Traill's Flycatcher, Chestnut-sided Warbler, and 
Savannah Sparrow may be found in small numbers. Other local 
breeding populations of special interest in the Piedmont section 
include the Upland Plovers in the Frederick and Worthington 
Valleys, the Veeries of Rock Creek Park in the District of Colum- 
bia, the Blue-winged Warblers in the Susquehanna River Valley, 
the Cerulean Warblers in the flood-plain forests along the Sus- 
quehanna, Patapsco, and Potomac Rivers, and the Dickcissels in 
southern Frederick and western Montgomery Counties. 

During the migration periods many of the field and edge species 
are more numerous in this section than elsewhere. Of these, the 
Water Pipit and White-crowned Sparrow are especially note- 
worthy since in spring they both occur in unusually large numbers 
in the Frederick Valley. Fair-sized migrating flocks of water- 
fowl and other water birds are sometimes seen on the reservoirs 
and larger streams, and frequently some of these remain into the 
winter. Wintering birds in general are less numerous than they 
are in the Oak-Pine Forest Region, with the noted exception of 
the Common Crow, which is to be found in exceptionally large 
flocks, particularly in Carroll County. 

RIDGE AND VALLEY SECTION 

Both the Blue Ridge and the Ridge and Valley physiographic 
provinces (Fenneman, 1938) are included in the Ridge and Valley 
section of the Oak-Chestnut Forest Region (see fig. 1). Weather 
stations within this section (Weeks, 1941) yield the following 
average data: 

Annual temperature — 52.2° F. (at Clear Spring) to 54.0° F. (at Keedysville) 
January temperature — 31.2° F. (at Chewsville) to 34.0° F. (at Picardy) 
July temperature — 73.7° F. (at Western Port) to 75.9° F. (at Keedysville) 
Annual growing season — 155 days (at Hancock) to 188 days (at State 

Sanatorium) 
Annual precipitation — 35.10 inches (at Western Port) to 43.52 inches (at 

State Sanatorium) 
Annual snowfall — 22.7 inches (at Picardy) to 34.6 inches (at Clear Spring) 



32 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 62, FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 

Forest types in which chestnut oak is common are prevalent 
throughout most of the Ridge and Valley section. On rocky ridge- 
tops and upper slopes this species is often found in nearly pure 
stands. On some of the drier sites, and especially on slopes with 
southern or western exposures, scarlet oak is predominant, while 
interspersed with it may be found occasional secondary stands of 
scrub pine, pitch pine, or Table Mountain pine. Locally, fairly 
large areas of scrubby bear oak thickets occur on some of the more 
level expanses of the mountain tops. Most of the ravines as well 
as steep north slopes are occupied by mixed mesophytic forest 
communities. The characteristic trees in these communities are 
hemlock, white pine, and numerous deciduous species including 
beech, sweet birch, basswood, sugar maple, tulip-poplar, white 
oak, and northern red oak. On the valley floors another type of 
mesophytic forest is found in which white oak, black oak, and 
tulip-poplar are ordinarily dominant, with flowering dogwood as 
a common understory tree ; locally, secondary stands of white pine 
are found interspersed with these species. In the limestone areas 
of the Hagerstown Valley, occasional groves of red cedar are 
present. The only prominent flood-plain forest type occurs as a 
rather narrow stretch along the Potomac River. 

With the exception of the Hagerstown Valley, which is very 
intensively farmed, a relatively small proportion of the Ridge and 
Valley section has been cleared for agricultural purposes. In the 
Hagerstown Valley most of the agricultural areas have been 
developed for dairy farming or for the raising of cash grain 
crops, while the scattered smaller farms elsewhere in the section 
are devoted chiefly to apple orchards or are general, self-sufficing 
farms (Hamilton and Johnson, 1940). 

While most of the breeding birds in the Ridge and Valley section 
are characteristic species of the central portions of the Eastern 
Deciduous Forest area, there is also a noticeable tinge of more 
northern species. Species that show more northern affinities are 
most numerous in the cooler ravines or on the higher ridges, and 
include the Ruffed Grouse, Least Flycatcher, Black-capped Chick- 
adee, Golden-winged Warbler, Black-throated Green Warbler, 
Blackburnian Warbler, and Chestnut-sided Warbler. The Cliff 
Swallow, Bewick's Wren, and Cerulean Warbler are regularly 
distributed throughout the greater part of this section, the latter 
species occurring in upland forests of the mountains as well as 
in the flood-plain forests. Other noteworthy breeding birds 
include Turkeys in Allegany County, Blue-winged Warblers in 



BIRDS OF MARYLAND AND DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 33 

the Blue Ridge Mountains of Frederick County, and Bachman's 
Sparrows on Green Ridge Mountain. 

During the migration periods, warblers, vireos, and other 
insectivorous birds as well as several species of hawks tend to 
concentrate along the ridgetops. Wintering birds in the Ridge 
and Valley section are usually rather sparse except along the 
Potomac River, where fairly good numbers may be found. 

BIRDS OF THE MIXED MESOPHYTIC FOREST REGION 

The part of the Appalachian Plateaus (Fenneman, 1938) that 
extends into western Maryland (Garrett County and western 
Allegany County) lies within the Mixed Mesophytic Forest 
Region. This region is generally characterized by the fact that 
mixed mesophytic forest communities are prevalent throughout. 
The portion in Maryland, being restricted to the Allegheny 
Mountains, is comparatively high in elevation, so that most of 
the forest communities are actually intermediate between the 
typical mixed mesophytic forest types and the more northern 
hemlock-northern hardwood types. Because of this, the area is 
considered a well-marked subdivision of the Mixed Mesophytic 
Forest Region and is designated the Allegheny Mountain section. 

ALLEGHENY MOUNTAIN SECTION 

Weather stations within this section (Weeks, 1941) yield the 
following average data: 

Annual temperature — 47.2° F. (Sines, Deep Creek) to 51.0° F. (Frostburg) 
January temperature — 27.7° F. (Grantsville) to 30.7° F. ( Friends ville) 
July temperature— 67.3° F. (Oakland) to 71.8° F. (Frostburg) 
Annual growing season — 124 days (Oakland) to 159 days (Frostburg) 
Annual precipitation — 41.56 inches (Frostburg) to 46.19 inches (Oakland) 
Annual snowfall — 47.7 inches (Frostburg) to 70.2 inches (Grantsville) 

The communities of plants and animals in the Allegheny Moun- 
tain section (see fig. 1) are much more northern in character than 
are those in the various sections of the Oak-Chestnut and Oak- 
Pine Forest Regions. Hemlock and occasional white pine occur 
regularly in many of the forests on the slopes and in the valleys, 
although deciduous trees are generally predominant. These in- 
clude such species as sweet birch, sugar maple, red maple, black 
cherry, basswood, beech, shagbark hickory, white oak, and 
northern red oak. On the higher ridges, northern red oak and 
red maple are usually predominant, with chestnut oak, black oak, 
yellow birch, and other northern hardwoods as frequent asso- 
ciates. Occasionally interspersed with them are scattered red 



34 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 62, FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 

spruce. In the valleys at elevations above 2,400 feet there are 
quite a few relict bogs; these consist of sedge meadows and bog 
heaths interspersed with patches of taller shrubs, predominantly 
alder and great laurel, and trees, usually red spruce, hemlock, 
yellow birch, and red maple. In sandy situations on some of the 
lower ridges, open stands of pitch pine are present. 

The agricultural areas of the Allegheny Mountain section occur 
in exceptionally picturesque surroundings and are located on the 
more rounded ridgetops as well as in the valleys. Most of the 
farms are of the general, self-sufficing type (Hamilton and John- 
son, 1940) . Locally, many farmers supplement their farm income 
with profits derived from the production of maple syrup. The 
creation of several artificial lakes has greatly improved the rec- 
reational facilities of the area, and as a consequence large numbers 
of tourists are attracted during the warmer months. 

Most of the breeding birds in the Allegheny Mountain section 
are those that are typical of the more northern portion of the 
Eastern Deciduous Forest, an area that is sometimes referred to 
as the Transition or Alleghenian Life Zone. Associated with them 
in much smaller numbers are such species as the Tufted Titmouse, 
Yellow-breasted Chat, Hooded Warbler, and Cardinal, which are 
more characteristic of the central portions of the Eastern 
Deciduous Forest. The scattered boreal bogs in Garrett County 
are especially interesting since they harbor large numbers of the 
more typical northern species. Two of the best-preserved bogs, 
Wolf Swamp (about 4 miles southeast of Grantsville) and Cranes- 
ville Swamp (just east of Cranesville, W. Va.) also contain small 
breeding populations of the Saw-whet Owl, Golden-crowned 
Kinglet, and Nashville Warbler. Backbone Mountain is worthy 
of note as being the only area in Maryland where breeding popu- 
lations of the elusive Mourning Warbler may be found. 

The species of birds that have been known to breed in the 
Allegheny Mountain section of Maryland in the past 10 years 
are as follows: 

PRIMARY SPECIES 

Ruffed Grouse House Wren Starling 

Yellow-shafted Flicker Catbird Red-eyed Vireo 

Barn Swallow Brown Thrasher Magnolia Warbler 

Cliff Swallow (local) Robin (local) 

Common Crow Wood Thrush Black-throated Blue 

Black-capped Veery Warbler 

Chickadee Cedar Waxwing 



BIRDS OF MARYLAND AND DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 



35 



Black-throated Green 

Warbler 
Blackburnian Warbler 
Chestnut-sided 

Warbler 
Ovenbird 

Green Heron 
Wood Duck 
Turkey Vulture 
Sharp-shinned Hawk 
Red-tailed Hawk 
Broad-winged Hawk 
Marsh Hawk (local) 
Sparrow Hawk 
Bobwhite (local) 
Virginia Rail (local) 
Killdeer 

American Woodcock 
Spotted Sandpiper 

(local) 
Mourning Dove 
Yellow-billed Cuckoo 
Black-billed Cuckoo 
Great Horned Owl 
Barred Owl 
Whip-poor-will 
Chimney Swift 
Ruby-throated 

Hummingbird 
Belted Kingfisher 
Pileated Woodpecker 

Mallard 

Hooded Merganser 

Cooper's Hawk 

Red-shouldered Hawk 

Turkey 

Upland Plover (local) 

Screech Owl 

Saw- whet Owl (local) 

Common Nighthawk 

Red-bellied 

Woodpecker (local) 
Acadian Flycatcher 

(local) 



PRIMARY SPECIES— Continued 

Savannah Sparrow 

(local) 
Chipping Sparrow 
Swamp Sparrow 

(local) 
Song Sparrow 



Northern Water- 
thrush (local) 

Canada Warbler 
(local) 

Rufous-sided Towhee 



SECONDARY SPECIES 
Red-headed 

Woodpecker (local) 
Yellow-bellied 

Sapsucker (local) 
Hairy Woodpecker 
Downy Woodpecker 
Eastern Kingbird 
Great Crested 

Flycatcher 
Eastern Phoebe 
Least Flycatcher 
Eastern Wood Pewee 
Horned Lark 
Purple Martin (local) 
Blue Jay 
White-breasted 

Nuthatch 
Eastern Bluebird 
Solitary Vireo 
Black-and-white 

Warbler 
Golden-winged Warbler 
Yellow Warbler 
Mourning Warbler 

(local) 

MINOR SPECIES 

Tree Swallow (local) 
Rough-winged Swallow 
Common Raven (local) 
Tufted Titmouse 

(local) 
Bewick's Wren (local) 
Carolina Wren (local) 
Short-billed Marsh 

Wren (local) 
Hermit Thrush (local) 
Golden-crowned 

Kinglet (local) 
Yellow-throated Vireo 



Yellowthroat 
Hooded Warbler 

(local) 
American Redstart 
House Sparrow 
Bobolink (local) 
Eastern Meadowlark 
Redwinged Blackbird 
Baltimore Oriole 
Common Grackle 
Brown-headed Cowbird 
Scarlet Tanager 
Rose-breasted 

Grosbeak 
Indigo Bunting 
Purple Finch (local) 
American Goldfinch 
Grasshopper Sparrow 
Henslow's Sparrow 

(local) 
Vesper Sparrow 
Slate-colored Junco 

(local) 
Field Sparrow 



Warbling Vireo 

Nashville Warbler 
(local) 

Parula Warbler 

Cerulean Warbler 
(local) 

Louisiana Water- 
thrush (local) 

Kentucky Warbler 
(local) 

Yellow-breasted Chat 

Cardinal (local) 



In spring and fall the Garrett County lakes, especially Deep 
Creek Lake and Mountain Lake, serve as resting and feeding 
places for migrating waterfowl. Maurice Brooks (1936a), 



36 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 62, FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 

Elizabeth Slater, and Friel Sanders have observed 25 species of 
waterfowl in these two lakes. The best concentrations occur when 
birds arriving from the northwest in fall run into widespread 
precipitation along or just east of the Allegheny Plateau. Deep 
Creek Lake and Mountain Lake also attract a wide variety of 
shorebirds, primarily in fall when water levels are low and exten- 
sive flats are exposed; no less than 17 species of plovers and 
sandpipers have been identified in the Allegheny Mountain 
section. 

The ridgetops are favored pathways for migrating hawks, par- 
ticularly in fall. Major flights occur regularly along Backbone 
Mountain (including Big Savage Mountain) and Dans Mountain 
(including Wills and Haystack Mountains) , and may be witnessed 
on almost any cool day with northwest winds in September or 
October. Occasionally, good flights may be witnessed regardless 
of wind direction, though the birds usually fly so high on a south- 
west wind as to be very difficult to see. 

Nowhere in Maryland is the diurnal migration of warblers 
more impressive than along the ridgetops early on a fall morning. 
Flying at treetop height, singly or in small groups, and occa- 
sionally stopping to rest or feed for a few minutes, warblers, 
vireos, nuthatches, woodpeckers, and many other birds are con- 
spicuous on migration from dawn until 9 a.m. or later. These 
flights are most pronounced on cool mornings with northwesterly 
winds. 

In both spring and fall, transient species that nest in the north- 
eastern States and Provinces and migrate primarily through the 
lower Mississippi Valley move in relatively large numbers through 
the Allegheny Mountain section. The Least, Traill's, Yellow- 
bellied, and Olive-sided Flycatchers, Cliff Swallow, Philadelphia 
Vireo, Nashville, Tennessee, Magnolia, Bay-breasted, Black- 
burnian, Mourning, and Wilson's Warblers, and the Rose- 
breasted Grosbeak occur regularly during migration in this sec- 
tion, and in much larger numbers than in the central and eastern 
parts of the State. 

In the dead of winter, birds in general are conspicuous by 
their absence. One may tramp through the woods and fields for 
an hour or more without seeing or hearing a single bird. Then 
again, spots may be found where small flocks can be seen regu- 
larly throughout the cold months. Feeding stations are effective 
in inducing such species as Rufous-sided Towhees and White- 
throated Sparrows to remain in this part of the State where they 
do not otherwise winter. The main ornithological attraction 



BIRDS OF MARYLAND AND DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 37 

of the Allegheny Mountain section in winter is furnished by 
northern finches, such as crossbills and Pine Grosbeaks, which 
though irregular in their appearance, can be found much more 
readily here than in the other parts of Maryland. 

SPECIES ACCOUNT 

A total of 333 species is included in the regular list of birds for 
Maryland and the District of Columbia. Nineteen additional 
species that have been recorded are considered to be of hypo- 
thetical status only. One species not yet recorded, the Buff- 
breasted Sandpiper (Tryngites subruficollis) undoubtedly does 
occur as a regular, rare transient near the coast. Specimens have 
been collected for all species on the regular list with the excep- 
tion of the following: Greater Shearwater, Cattle Egret, Common 
Teal, Harlequin Duck, American Oystercatcher, American Avocet, 
Glaucous Gull, Iceland Gull, Red-cockaded Woodpecker, Brewer's 
Blackbird, and Lapland Longspur. The regular list includes three 
introduced species, the Ring-necked Pheasant, Starling, and House 
Sparrow, and four extinct or extirpated species, the Greater 
Prairie Chicken (Heath Hen), Eskimo Curlew, Passenger Pigeon, 
and Carolina Parakeet. Sufficient evidence has been found to 
indicate that at least 192 species have occurred in Maryland as 
breeding birds, although apparently 9 of these do not breed in 
Maryland at the present time. 

The information presented under the species headings is based 
on data from all readily available sources, chiefly for the period 
beginning about 1860 and ending on December 31, 1955. In addi- 
tion, data from a few earlier articles are included, and scattered 
records of particular interest through October 1956 are also listed. 
Reference to subspecies is purposely omitted in nearly all cases, 
since most of the information is derived from field observations 
rather than study of collected specimens. A species is considered to 
be on the regular accepted list for Maryland and the District of 
Columbia if any one of three prerequisites is satisfied: (1) A 
specimen preserved; (2) a satisfactory photograph taken; or (3) 
three or more reliable sight observations made. If a recorded 
species does not meet at least one of these standards, it is con- 
sidered to be of hypothetical status only, and is so indicated by 
placing the common name of the species in brackets. 

Throughout the species account, the authors are responsible 
for all general statements and for any specific records (except 
banding records) unless authority is otherwise indicated. Several 
hundred thousand records from various sources were carefully 



38 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 62, FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 

screened, and only those believed reliable beyond reasonable doubt 
are included. Every Maryland and District of Columbia card in 
the bird-distribution files of the United States Fish and Wildlife 
Service has been examined. In addition, all national and all 
Maryland and District of Columbia ornithological periodicals have 
been covered — as well as publications from other localities that 
we believed might contain information on Maryland birds. The 
specimen-card file of the United States Fish and Wildlife Service 
was checked, as were a large percentage of the Maryland and 
District of Columbia specimens in the Fish and Wildlife Service 
and United States National Museum collections. 

Unusual occurrence, nesting, or migration records listed in the 
text are often located by county or the District of Columbia. 
Records referable to Baltimore County include those made in 
Baltimore City; it was found to be impractical to separate the 
records from these two areas, particularly in the case of many of 
the earlier observations which were often characterized by vague 
or generalized locality data. Not more than two authorities are 
listed for any one record, regardless of how many persons were 
involved. The abbreviation "USNM" indicates that a specimen 
or clutch of eggs is in the collection of the United States National 
Museum (including the United States Fish and Wildlife Service 
collection) in Washington, D. C. Many of the localities referred 
to in the text are shown on the map of geographical locations 
(fig. 2). 

The relative abundance of each species is usually indicated for 
breeding, transient, and wintering periods in each biotic section 
in which it occurs. In a few cases, where wandering nonbreeding 
birds are found during the breeding season, the relative abundance 
of a species as a vagrant is also shown. Terms used to indicate 
relative abundance are defined as follows : 

Abundant: Means that a species, considering its habits and 
conspicuousness, was found in very large numbers. 

Common: Means that a species, considering its habits and 
conspicuousness, was found in large numbers. 

Fairly Common: Means that a species, considering its habits 
and conspicousness, was found in moderate or fair numbers. 

Uncommon: Means that a species, considering its habits and 
conspicuousness, was found in rather small numbers. 

Rare: Means that a species, within its normal range, was 
recorded in very small numbers. 

Casual: Means that a species, slightly beyond its usual range 
for the season indicated, was recorded very few times. 




Figure 2 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCALITIES 

IN 

MARYLAND 



BIRDS OF MARYLAND AND DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 39 

Accidental: Means that a species, well beyond its usual range, 
was recorded only once or twice. 

These general terms are supplemented in many cases by breed- 
ing-population densities and maximum 1-day counts at other 
seasons. 

General and specific calendar dates are used to indicate the 
nesting seasons for species that breed in Maryland and the Dis- 
trict of Columbia. In describing the nesting seasons, the prefixes 
"early," "mid," and late," applied to a month, are often used. 
"Early" refers to the period from the 1st through the 10th day 
of the month ; "mid" is used to designate the period from the 11th 
through the 20th; and "late" indicates the period from the 21st 
through the last day of the month. The nesting peak represents 
the approximate period when three-fourths or more of the indi- 
viduals of a given species are engaged in nesting activities. Egg 
dates refer to the extreme dates on which nests with viable eggs 
(not necessarily full clutches) were found. Nestling dates indi- 
cate the extreme dates on which nests containing young birds were 
recorded. Corresponding dates for downy young are used instead 
of nestling dates in the case of precocial species. The total num- 
ber of nest records from which the egg-date and nestling-date 
extremes are derived is indicated for each species. A single nest- 
ing record may be included in both the egg count and the nestling 
count if observed in both stages. Only nest records reported from 
Maryland or the District of Columbia are included. 

In the descriptions of spring and fall migration, the "normal 
periods" represent the dates when a species is ordinarily migrat- 
ing, while extreme dates may be considered to be unusual records. 
In order to make allowance for yearly variation in migration 
dates, a limited amount of leeway is usually indicated for the 
beginning and ending of normal migration periods. For example, 
a normal period listed as "April 15-25 to May 10-20" means that 
the migration usually begins some time between April 15 and 
April 25, and usually ends some time between May 10 and May 
20. Migration peaks represent the approximate periods when 
the greatest numbers of individuals are migrating. 

For widespread breeding or transient species that occur in good 
numbers in several biotic sections, the nesting peak and normal 
migration periods as given in the text are applicable only to the 
more centrally located areas, including the Upper Chesapeake, 
Piedmont, and Ridge and Valley sections and the northern part of 
the Western Shore section (Prince Georges and Anne Arundel 
Counties) . As a general rule the nesting peaks and normal spring 



40 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 62, FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 

migration periods as given here may be expected to be as much as 
1 week earlier than corresponding dates in the Allegheny Moun- 
tain section, and as much as 1 week later than corresponding dates 
in southeastern Maryland (Eastern Shore section and southern 
part of Western Shore section) . On the other hand, the normal 
fall migration periods as given in the text for wide-ranging species 
may be as much as 1 week later than corresponding dates in the 
Allegheny Mountain section and as much as 1 week earlier than 
corresponding dates in southeastern Maryland. The difference 
may vary up to 3 weeks or more for such species as the Black-and- 
white Warbler and may not vary to any appreciable extent for 
others such as the Rose-breasted Grosbeak and Cliff Swallow. 

The appropriate habitats of most species are briefly described. 
It should be remembered that whenever an appraisal of the rela- 
tive abundance of a species within a given biotic section is made, 
consideration is always given to the required habitat of that 
species. The common names of plants used in the descriptions 
of habitats are taken from the eighth edition of Gray's Manual of 
Botany (Fernald, 1950). The scientific as well as the common 
names of all plants referred to are listed in Appendix A. 

For nesting species, breeding-population densities by habitat 
are frequently listed. These figures are derived from intensive 
population studies of breeding territorial males or pairs, using the 
spot-mapping method (see Audubon Field Notes 4 (2) : 185, 1950). 
An effort has been made to include all known breeding-population 
studies of uniform habitats that have been conducted in Maryland 
and the District of Columbia. The unpublished studies from Prince 
Georges County were made on, or within 3 miles of, the Patuxent 
Research Refuge. Population densities based on only 1 pair 
of birds in a study area (or a fractional part of the territory of a 
pair, or fractional parts of the territories of 2 or more pairs if 
their combined total amounts to less than 1.0 territory) have not 
been included. In the cases of wide-ranging or rare species, it 
has been necessary to set up study areas of several hundred acres 
in order to obtain significant density figures. Altogether, breed- 
ing-population densities have been obtained for 103 species. In 
addition, counts or careful estimates of 12 colonial species are 
listed. It is hoped that these population figures will prove help- 
ful in appraising changes in abundance in years to come. 

Maximum nonbreeding counts are also listed for many species. 
These represent the highest number of individuals recorded in 1 
day by 1 party of observers (except in the case of Christmas 
counts, which include the total number recorded in 1 day by all 



BIRDS OF MARYLAND AND DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 41 

parties taking a given count) . These counts were all taken either 
on land or by boat. No attempt was made to include all high 
counts of a species ; instead, selection was made of the highest rep- 
resentative counts for each general area in which the species 
occurs. It should be pointed out that in most cases these high 
counts were obtained incidental to other observations. A party 
or observer that set out at the proper season under favorable 
weather conditions with the express intent of beating the high 
count for a given species should have little trouble in exceeding 
many of the counts listed here. The counts are intended as an 
indication of relative abundance rather than a series of extra- 
ordinary figures. The inclusion of more than one count for most 
species helps to make the few really exceptional counts stand out 
from the others. 

Most of the Christmas counts have been published in Audubon 
Field Notes. The present Washington, D. C, Christmas count is 
the only one of any importance that overlaps into an adjacent 
State. In several other areas, a circle 15 miles in diameter would 
have included parts of Pennsylvania, West Virginia, or Virginia, 
but observers have made a point of restricting their observations 
to the Maryland portions of the circle. In the case of the recent 
Washington, D. C, figures, the breakdown by areas has always 
been published, so it has been possible to eliminate all counts that 
were made in Virginia and to include only those birds known to 
have been seen or heard within Maryland or the District of 
Columbia. 

The presentation of banding data for many species is restricted 
to an analysis, mapping, or listing of recoveries that were made 
at a distance of 10 miles or more from the points of banding. 
Only out-of-State records are plotted on the maps, including the 
recovery localities of birds banded in Maryland and the banding 
stations of birds recovered in Maryland. Four types of symbols 
on the maps represent: records of birds banded during the sum- 
mer ; records of birds banded during the fall, winter, and spring ; 
records of birds recovered during the summer; and records of 
birds recovered during the fall, winter, and spring. Only one 
symbol of each type is plotted within a State or Province, regard- 
less of the number of records involved. When a symbol represents 
2 or more records it is plotted in a central location as indicated by 
the distribution of the records. 



42 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 62, FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 

Family GAVIIDAE 

COMMON LOON Gavia immer (Briinnich) 

Status. — Transient: Common in the tidewater areas of the 
Eastern Shore, Western Shore, and Upper Chesapeake sections; 
fairly common in the Allegheny Mountain section; uncommon in 
the interior of all other sections. Wintering: Fairly common in 
the tidewater areas of the southern portions of the Eastern Shore 
and Western Shore sections ; uncommon in the tidewater areas of 
the northern portions of the Eastern Shore and Western Shore 
sections and in the Upper Chesapeake section; casual in the in- 
terior (recorded on Dec. 15, 1935, Dec. 16, 1936, Jan. 8, 1937, and 
Jan. 31, 1937, at Deep Creek Lake in Garrett County — M. G. 
Brooks) . Summer vagrant: Casual in the tidewater areas of the 
Eastern Shore, Western Shore, and Upper Chesapeake sections 
(recorded between June 11 and June 28 in Worcester, Charles, 
Anne Arundel, Baltimore, and Kent Counties) . 

Habitat. — Transient: Tidewaters of the ocean, bays, and 
estuaries ; also inland fresh waters of ponds, lakes, reservoirs, and 
rivers. Wintering : Chiefly salt water of the coastal bays and lower 
Chesapeake Bay; occurs sparingly on the ocean and on brackish 
bays and estuaries. 

Spring migration. — Normal period: April 5-15 to May 25-30; 
peak, April 20 to May 5. Extreme arrival dates: April 4, 1941, in 
Prince Georges County; April 8, 1950, in Garrett County (M. G. 
Brooks). Extreme departure dates: June 2, 1907, in Montgomery 
County (A. K. Fisher) ; June 1, 1938, in Baltimore County (H. 
Brackbill) . 

Fall migration. — Normal period: September 10-15 to Novem- 
ber 20-30; peak, October 10 to November 15. Extreme arrival 
dates: September 8, 1940, in Baltimore County (H. Brackbill) ; 
September 8, 1950, in Queen Annes County (Mr. and Mrs. W. L. 
Henderson). Extreme departure date: December 28, 1948, in 
Baltimore County (H. Kolb). 

Maximum counts. — Spring: 90 at Point Lookout, St. Marys 
County, on April 12, 1952 (L. Griffin, J. W. Terborgh, et al.) ; 47 
at Patuxent Refuge on April 25, 1944; 45 at Emmitsburg, Fred- 
erick County, on April 30, 1955 (J. W. Richards) ; 35 on lower 
Patuxent River on April 13, 1954; 30 in the Conowingo area, 
Harford and Cecil Counties, on April 23, 1950 (H. F. Kuch) ; 20 
in the South Marsh Island area, Somerset County, on April 28, 
1946. Fall: 200 in the Ocean City area, Worcester County, on 
November 2, 1945 ; 50 on the Chester River and Eastern Bay on 



BIRDS OF MARYLAND AND DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 43 

October 31 and again on November 1, 1953 (Mr. and Mrs. W. L. 
Henderson) ; 40 on Fishing Bay, Dorchester County, on October 
25, 1954; 36 on Mountain Lake, Garrett County, on October 24, 
1936 (M. G. Brooks). Winter (Christmas counts): 29 in the 
Ocean City area on December 27, 1950; 18 in southeastern Wor- 
cester County on December 22, 1947; 18 in the Solomons Island 
area, Calvert County, on December 21, 1946. 

RED-THROATED LOON Gavia stellata (Pontoppidan) 

Status. — Transient: Common in the coastal area of Worcester 
County; fairly common in the tidewater areas elsewhere in the 
Eastern Shore and Western Shore sections ; uncommon in the tide- 
water areas of the Upper Chesapeake section; casual in the in- 
terior of all sections — recorded in Garrett (Brooks, 1936a), Alle- 
gany (Eifrig, 1904), and Montgomery (3 records — A. K. Fisher, 
R. F. Deed, J. W. Terborgh) Counties. Wintering: Common in 
the coastal area of Worcester County ; fairly common elsewhere in 
the tidewater areas of the Eastern Shore and Western Shore 
sections; rare in the tidewater areas of the Upper Chesapeake 
section. Summer vagrant: Rare in the coastal area of Worcester 
County. 

Habitat. — Usually in salt-water areas, including the ocean, 
coastal bays, and lower Chesapeake Bay; during migration also 
occurs sparingly on brackish tidewaters and rarely on fresh water. 

Spring migration. — Normal period: March 5-15 to May 15-20; 
peak, March 20 to April 15. Extreme arrival dates: March 2, 
1885, in Kent County (H. Brown) ; March 21, 1937, in Garrett 
County (M. G. Brooks). Extreme departure dates: May 23, 1948, 
May 21, 1949, and May 21, 1953 (J. M. Cadbury, D. A. Cutler), 
all in the Ocean City area. 

Fall migration. — Normal period: October 25-30 to December 
15-20; peak, November 5 to December 10. Extreme arrival date: 
September 24, 1954, in Anne Arundel and Kent Counties (Mrs. 
W. L. Henderson, Mrs. G. Tappan). Extreme departure date: 
December 19, 1900, in Allegany County (Eifrig, 1904). 

Maximum counts. — Spring: 50 on March 24, 1947, and 29 on 
April 6, 1946, in the Ocean City area. Fall: 84 in the Ocean City 
area on November 24, 1946. Winter (Christmas counts) : 292 in 
the Ocean City area on December 27, 1953; 35 in the Wicomico 
River area, Charles and St. Marys Counties, on December 31, 
1950 ; 33 in the Solomons Island area, Calvert County, on Decem- 
ber 21, 1946. 



44 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 62, FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 

Family PODICiPEDlDAE 
RED-NECKED GREBE Pod/ceps grisegena (Boddaert) 

Status. — Transient: Rare (uncommon in spring of 1948) in 
tidewater and inland fresh water areas of all sections. Winter- 
ing: Rare in the tidewater areas of the Eastern Shore and West- 
ern Shore sections. 

Habitat. — Open salt, brackish, and fresh waters, including the 
ocean, bays, estuaries, lakes, reservoirs, and rivers. 

Spring migration. — Normal period: March 1-10 to April 1-10; 
peak, March 10 to March 25. Extreme arrival date: February 25, 
1894, in Baltimore County (F. C. Kirkwood) . Extreme departure 
date: May 11, 1929, in Prince Georges County (H. C. Oberholser). 

Fall migration. — Normal period: About November 5 to De- 
cember 5. Extreme departure dates: December 26, 1951, in 
Montgomery County (S. H. Low) ; December 3, 1938, in Garrett 
County (M. G. Brooks) . 

Maximum counts. — Spring: 6 in the District of Columbia dur- 
ing March 16-21, 1948 (F. R. Bell, I. R. Barnes) ; 5 at Ocean City 
on March 14, 1948 (J. E. Willoughby) ; 5 at Seneca, Montgomery 
County, on March 19-21, 1948 (T. W. Donnelly, I. R. Barnes) ; 3 
at Cobb Island, Charles County, on March 20, 1948 ; 3 at Triadel- 
phia Reservoir, Montgomery County, on March 20 and April 1, 
1948 (W. M. Davidson, S. H. Low) . Fall: 2 at Deep Creek Lake, 
Garrett County, on November 11, 1937 (M. G. Brooks). Winter: 
8 at Ocean City on December 27, 1955 (Christmas count) ; 5 at 
Sycamore Island, Montgomery County, on January 3, 1953 (E. J. 
Stivers) . 

HORNED GREBE Pod/ceps auritus (Linnaeus) 

Status. — Transient: Abundant in the tidewater areas of East- 
ern Bay and the Choptank River ; common elsewhere in the tide- 
water areas of the Eastern Shore, Western Shore, and Upper 
Chesapeake sections ; fairly common in the interior of all sections. 
Wintering: Common in the tidewater areas of the Eastern Shore 
and Western Shore sections ; uncommon in the tidewater areas of 
the Upper Chesapeake section; casual elsewhere — recorded at 
Lake Ashburton, Baltimore, in 1938, 1940, and 1942 (H. Brack- 
bill), at New Market, Carroll County, in 1881 (H. H. Hopkins), on 
Triadelphia Reservoir on December 24, 1955, and on Deep Creek 
Lake in Garrett County on January 3, 1954 (M. G. Brooks). 
Summer vagrant: Casual in the tidewater areas of the Eastern 
Shore, Western Shore, and Upper Chesapeake sections — recorded 



BIRDS OF MARYLAND AND DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 45 

in Worcester, Somerset, Anne Arundel (A. E. Conway), Harford 
(T. A. Imhof), and Cecil (M. B. Meanley) Counties. 

Habitat. — Salt, brackish, and fresh waters, including the 
ocean, bays, estuaries, lakes, ponds, and reservoirs. In winter, 
most numerous on the ocean, coastal bays, and central and lower 
Chesapeake Bay. 

Spring migration. — Normal period: March 5-15 to May 10-15; 
peak, March 25 to April 25. Extreme arrival date: March 4, 1953, 
in Anne Arundel County (Mrs. W. L. Henderson, Mrs. G. Tappan) . 
Extreme departure dates: June 2, 1950, in Anne Arundel County 
(Mrs. W. L. Henderson) ; May 28, 1927, in the District of Columbia 
(W. H. Ball) ; May 23, 1952, in Prince Georges County. 

Fall migration. — Normal period: October 10-20 to December 
1-10; peak, October 25 to November 20. Extreme arrival date: 
September 21, 1954, in Anne Arundel County (Mrs. W. L. Hender- 
son, et al.). Extreme departure dates: December 29, 1949 (H. 
Kolb), and December 14, 1940 (H. Brackbill), in Baltimore 
County; December 3, 1935, in Garrett County (M. G. Brooks). 

Maximum counts. — Spring: 1,000 at Point Lookout, St. Marys 
County, on April 13, 1955 (P. G. DuMont, E. Hall) ; 210 at Parson 
Island, Queen Annes County, on April 1, 1948; 123 in the South 
River area, Anne Arundel County, on April 9, 1954 ; 122 on lower 
Patuxent River on April 13, 1954; 17 at Lake Ashburton, Balti- 
more County, on April 12, 1940 (H. Brackbill). Fall: 830 in 
Charles and St. Marys Counties on November 26, 1955 (P. G. 
DuMont, E. Hall) ; 113 on the Patuxent River on November 22, 
1955 ; 50 in the District of Columbia on October 30, 1930 ( W. L. 
McAtee) ; 30 at Mountain Lake, Garrett County, on November 2, 
1951 (H. E. Slater). Winter: 1,737 at St. Michaels, Talbot 
County, on December 29, 1953 (Christmas count) ; 371 at Ocean 
City on December 27, 1954 (Christmas count) ; 250 at Point Look- 
out, St. Marys County, on January 31, 1954 (J. W. Terborgh) ; 
229 in the Annapolis area on January 2, 1955 (Christmas count) . 

PIED-BILLED GREBE Podilymbus pod/'ceps (Linnaeus) 

Status. — Breeding: Uncommon in the tidewater areas of the 
Eastern Shore and Western Shore sections ; rare in the interior of 
the Eastern Shore, Western Shore, Upper Chesapeake, and Pied- 
mont sections. Eggs or small young have been recorded in Anne 
Arundel and St. Marys Counties (Court, 1936), in Baltimore 
County (C. M. Buchanan), and in Prince Georges and Worcester 
Counties. Transient: Common in tidewater and inland-water 
areas of all sections. Wintering: Uncommon in the tidewater 



46 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 62, FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 

areas of the Eastern Shore, Western Shore, and Upper Chesapeake 
sections; rare or casual on inland areas of all sections (no definite 
winter records for the Ridge and Valley section). Summer va- 
grant: Rare in all sections. 

Habitat. — Usually on ponds or streams that are fringed with 
emergent marsh vegetation ; occasional in open bays and estuaries. 

Nesting season. — Nests with eggs were found in Anne Arun- 
del County on June 3, 1932 (Court, 1936), and in Prince Georges 
County on June 4, 1954. Downy young were observed in Worces- 
ter County on July 9, 1948, and August 11, 1955; in Baltimore 
County (C. M. Buchanan) on June 15, 1951 ; and in Prince Georges 
County on July 10, 1956 (C. G. Webster). 

Spring migration. — Normal period: February 25-March 5 to 
May 1-10; peak, March 20 to April 20. Extreme arrival dates: 
February 14, 1949, in Prince Georges County ; February 22, 1922, 
in the District of Columbia (Mrs. C. A. Aspinwall). Extreme de- 
parture dates: May 25, 1950, in Baltimore County (P. Heaps) ; 
May 15, 1920, in Montgomery County (Mrs. C. A. Aspinwall). 

Fall migration. — Normal period: August 10-20 to December 
1-10 ; peak, September 10 to November 10. Extreme arrival dates: 
July 15, 1899 (E. A. Preble), and July 21, 1929 (W. H. Ball), in 
District of Columbia; July 21, 1944, in Prince Georges County. 
Extreme departure dates: December 17, 1953, in Prince Georges 
County; December 15, 1935, in Garrett County (M. G. Brooks). 

Maximum counts. — Spring: 82 in the Port Tobacco area, 
Charles County, on March 7, 1954 (A. R. Stickley, Jr.) ; 29 at 
Beltsville, Prince Georges County, on March 28, 1954 (L. W. 
Oring, S. Karlin) ; 20+ in the District of Columbia on April 5, 
1922 (M. J. Pellew) . Summer vagrant: 8 in the District of Colum- 
bia during early June 1922 (L. P. Callaghan). Fall: 80 in the 
Newport Bay area, Worcester County, on November 1, 1951 ; 57 
on Bush River, Harford County, on October 3, 1948; 34 in the 
District of Columbia on October 9, 1929 (W. H. Ball) ; 33 in the 
Elliott Island area, Dorchester County, on October 2, 1948 ; 30 on 
Northeast River, Cecil County, on September 30, 1952 (Mrs. W. L. 
Henderson) ; 26 on Mountain Lake, Garrett County, on November 
3, 1951 (H. E. Slater). Winter: 79 in the Annapolis area on Jan- 
uary 2, 1955 (Christmas count) ; 46 at Port Tobacco, Charles 
County, on January 27, 1953 (A. R. Stickley, Jr.) ; 43 in Ocean 
City area on December 21, 1952 (Christmas count) ; 33 in Wico- 
mico River area, Charles and St. Marys Counties, on December 
28, 1952 (Christmas count) ; 26 in the Susquehanna Flats area, 



BIRDS OF MARYLAND AND DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 47 

Harford and Cecil Counties, on January 2, 1950 (Christmas 
count) . 

Banding. — One banded in Prince Georges County on September 
8, 1943, was found dead in central Minnesota (Kandiyohi County) 
on November 21, 1944. 

Family PROCELLARIIDAE 

CORY'S SHEARWATER PufTmus diomedea (Scopoli) 

Status. — Fairly common summer visitor along the coast. This 
species was recorded between 2 and 10 miles offshore from Ocean 
City as follows : 29 observed on August 8, 1947 ; 3 on August 21, 
1948 (S. H. Low, P. F. Springer) ; 65 on August 24, 1946; 2 on 
September 9, 1950. On June 22, 1956, approximately 80 were 
observed between 15 and 25 miles offshore from Assateague 
Island. 

GREATER SHEARWATER PufTmus gravis (O'Reilly) 

Status. — Casual visitor along the coast. Seven were observed 
a short distance offshore from Assateague Island on May 17, 
1947. Five or 6 were repeatedly seen a short distance offshore 
from Ocean City during the period May 9-13, 1949 (E. G. Davis, 
R. J. Beaton, E. G. Baldwin), and 2 were seen in this same area 
on May 14, 1955. 

[AUDUBON'S SHEARWATER] Puffinus Iherminieri Lesson 

Status. — Hypothetical. After the great storm of August 1842, 
a shearwater, doubtfully referred to as this species, was captured 
in the District of Columbia (Coues and Prentiss, 1861). Coues 
(1864) later referred to this record and stated that it "has since 
been definitely ascertained to be this species." The specimen can- 
not now be found. 

LEACH'S PETREL Oceanodroma leucorhoa (Vieillot) 

Status. — Rare vistor along the coast and in tidewater areas 
elsewhere in the Eastern Shore and Western Shore sections. On 
June 11, 1894 (not 1895 as in Kirkwood, 1895), 2 were seen 3 
miles out from Ocean City ; and 2 others were noted 8 miles out on 
August 9, 1901 (F. C. Kirkwood) . Specimens (USNM) have been 
taken in the District of Columbia as follows: 2 in August 1842; 
2 about 1859; 1 on June 7, 1891 (W. Bayley) ; 1 on August 29 
and 1 on August 30, 1893 (W. Palmer) ; 1 (out of 5 seen) on 
October 4, 1930 (Ball, 1931a) ; and 1 on August 24, 1933 (Lin- 
coln, 1934) . Another specimen was obtained at Royal Oak, Tal- 
bot County, on October 17, 1954 (R. L. Kleen) . On August 25, 



48 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 62, FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 

1933, 25 were seen on the Potomac River between Haines Point 
in the District of Columbia and Mount Vernon, Virginia (H. G. 
Deignan) . 

HARCOURT'S PETREL Oceanodroma castro (Harcourt) 

Status. — Accidental visitor. Two were collected (TJSNM) in 
the District of Columbia, 1 on August 28 and 1 on August 29, 
1893, after a hurricane had passed up the Atlantic coast (Pal- 
mer, 1897b). 

WILSON'S PETREL Oceanites oceon/cos (Kuhl) 

Status. — Summer visitor: Common offshore along the coast; 
rare in the coastal bays and other tidewater areas of the Eastern 
Shore and Western Shore sections. Records on inland bays and 
estuaries are as follows: One taken near Washington, D. C, in 
August 1842 (McAtee, 1918) ; 1 collected in 1859 (TJSNM— cata- 
logued on July 20, 1859) on the Potomac River (Wetmore, 1925) ; 
1 collected (TJSNM) at Marshall Hall, Prince Georges County, on 
June 27, 1914 (Swales, 1920) ; 1 seen near Chesapeake Beach, 
Calvert County, on July 31, 1915 (A. K. Fisher) and 1 collected 
there (USNM) on June 21, 1924 (Wetmore, 1925) ; 1 collected at 
Kenwood Beach in Calvert County on July 24, 1935 (Kolb and 
Bond, 1943) ; 9 seen (1 collected — USNM) on Chincoteague Bay, 
Worcester County, on July 3, 1945 (Stewart and Robbins, 1947b). 

Habitat. — Preferably the pelagic zone of the ocean, 2 or more 
miles offshore. 

Extreme dates of occurrence. — June 21, 1924, in Calvert 
County (Wetmore, 1925) and September 9, 1950, off Ocean City. 

Maximum counts. — 162 on August 8, 1947, off Ocean City; 
50 on August 21, 1948, off Ocean City (P. F. Springer) ; 30 on 
September 9, 1950, off Ocean City. On June 22, 1956, approxi- 
mately 750 were observed between 15 and 25 miles offshore from 
Assateague Island, Maryland. 

Family PELECANIDAE 

WHITE PELICAN Pe/econus erythrorhynchos Gmelin 

Status. — Accidental visitor. A male was shot in Garrett 
County near Oakland on April 31, 1887, by a 14-year-old boy; the 
head was mounted — Anon., Forest and Stream 28 (16) : 345, May 
12, 1887. One was recorded as having been shot near the mouth 
of the Chester River and another in Upper Chesapeake Bay — 
dates not given (Burns, 1932). One bird, recorded by Cooke 
(1929) as having been collected in the District of Columbia in 
1863 by C. Drexler, was actually taken by Drexler near Alexan- 



BIRDS OF MARYLAND AND DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 49 

dria, Virginia, in April 1864; this specimen was correctly cata- 
logued (USNM) under the number 33701, but was later mis- 
takenly reentered under number 41793 as having been collected in 
the District of Columbia in 1863. 

BROWN PELICAN Pelecanus occidentalis Linnaeus 

Status. — Casual visitor in the tidewater areas of the Eastern 
Shore and Western Shore sections. A specimen in the old collec- 
tion of the Maryland Academy of Sciences was reported to have 
been taken on the lower Potomac River (Kirkwood, 1895). A 
mounted bird that had been shot on Chincoteague Bay on April 
9, 1906, was examined in Worcester County (F. C. Kirkwood). 
Another mounted specimen owned by Mr. Ethan A. Carey of 
Berlin, Maryland, was reported to have been shot about 1922 near 
the Isle of Wight Coast Guard Station, north of Ocean City; and 
Mr. Carey claimed that he had seen single birds on 2 occasions 
since that time (Stewart and Robbins, 1947a). A flock of 4 was 
seen on Assateague Island, 6 miles south of Ocean City, on May 
22, 1935 (Cottam and Uhler, 1935). One was seen at Solomons 
Island in Calvert County during the period September 28 to 
November 1, 1935, by Dr. R. V. Truitt (Hampe and Kolb, 1947) 
and another was seen there by the same observer on October 10, 
1936. One was seen on the Potomac River in Prince Georges 
County, 5 miles south of Alexandria, Virginia, on June 13 t 1953 
(C. Cottam), and 1 at St. Michaels, Talbot County, on September 
2, 1956 (R. L. Kleen, et al.). 

Family SULIDAE 

GANNET Morus bassanus (Linnaeus) 

Status. — Transient: Fairly common in the coastal area of 
Worcester County; uncommon in the lower part of Chesapeake 
Bay (St. Marys, Calvert, Somerset, and Dorchester Counties) ; 
rare in the upper part of Chesapeake Bay — records for Anne 
Arundel (C. Symington), Kent (A. P. Sharp), and Queen Annes 
(A. J. Duvall) Counties. Wintering: Uncommon in the coastal 
area of Worcester County and in the lower part of Chesapeake 
Bay. 

Habitat. — Littoral and pelagic zones of the ocean and the 
deeper salt water portions of Chesapeake Bay. 

Period of occurrence. — Extreme dates: September 16, 1901, 
at Ocean City (E. F. Armstrong) and May 20, 1950, near Ocean 
City. Approximate periods of greatest abundance: October 25 to 
December 5, and March 25 to May 5. 



SO NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 62, FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 

Maximum counts.— Spring: 80 during the period May 1-3, 
1953, off Assateague Island (R. Strosnider) ; 35 off Point Lookout 
in St. Marys County on April 3, 1954 (J. W. Terborgh, et al.). 
Fall: 100+ on December 5, 1915, on Chesapeake Bay below the 
Patuxent River (C. R. Shoemaker) ; 75 on November 4, 1951, at 
Ocean City (W. B. and D. C. Grautoff). Winter: 9 on February 
20, 1949, at Ocean City ; 5 at Solomons Island, Calvert County, on 
December 21, 1946. 

Family PHALACROCORACIDAE 

[GREAT CORMORANT] Phalacrocorax carbo (Linnaeus) 

Status. — Hypothetical. Sight records of single birds believed 
to be this species were reported from the Ocean City inlet on the 
following dates: December 13 and December 27, 1950 (Buckalew, 
1951a) ; December 31, 1952 (S. Fisher, L. W. Oring, J. K. 
Wright) ; February 26, 1950. A specimen collected on June 5, 
1859, in the District of Columbia (USNM) was said to have been 
of this species, but in view of the lateness of the date and the 
fact that the specimen cannot now be found, the record must 
remain hypothetical. 

DOUBLE-CRESTED CORMORANT Phalacrocorax aortitis (Lesson) 

Status. — Transient: Common in the coastal area of Worcester 
County ; fairly common in tidewater areas elsewhere in the East- 
ern Shore and Western Shore sections; uncommon in the Alle- 
gheny Mountain section and in the tidewater areas of the Upper 
Chesapeake section; rare elsewhere in the interior of all sections. 
Wintering and summer vagrant: Uncommon in the tidewater 
areas of the Eastern Shore and Western Shore sections. One 
adult in breeding plumage was observed in the Pocomoke River 
swamp on June 16, 1946. 

Habitat. — Mostly on open salt water, including the ocean, bays, 
and larger estuaries ; occasional on brackish and fresh water. 

Spring migration. — Normal period: February 25-March 5 to 
May 20-30; peak, March 25 to May 15. Extreme arrival date: 
February 8, 1953, in Charles County (M. C. Crone, A. R. Stickley, 
Jr.). Extreme departure dates: June 13, 1955, in Prince Georges 
County (F. M. Uhler) ; June 5, 1948, in Calvert County; June 3, 
1953, in Queen Annes County (Mrs. G. Tappan, Mrs. W. L. Hen- 
derson) ; June 2, 1927, in the District of Columbia ( W. W. Rubey) . 

Fall migration. — Normal period: August 5-15 to November 
15-25; peak, September 10 to November 1. Extreme arrival 
dates: August 4, 1945, in Worcester County; August 4, 1946, in 



BIRDS OF MARYLAND AND DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 51 

Calvert County (F. M. Uhler) ; August 4, 1952, in Prince Georges 
County. 

Maximum counts. — Spring: 4,600 in the Ocean City area on 
May 11, 1952 (D. A. Cutler) ; 4,000 at Gibson Island, Anne 
Arundel County, on May 5, 1956 (Mrs. W. L. Henderson) ; 450 
at Point Lookout, St. Marys County, on April 6, 1953; 388 on 
Chesapeake Bay, Calvert County, on April 20, 1954; 300 in the 
South Marsh Island area, Somerset County, on April 28, 1946. 
Fall: 1,200 in the Ocean City area on October 25, 1949; 42 in the 
mouth of the Chester River, Queen Annes County, on September 
13, 1952 (Mr. and Mrs. W. L. Henderson). Winter: 29 at Cobb 
Island, Charles County, on January 8, 1953 (A. R. Stickley, Jr., 
M. C. Crone) ; 16 in the Ocean City area on December 27, 1955 
(Christmas count) . 

Banding. — Twelve birds, recovered in tidewater Maryland 
during spring (April 21-May 11) and fall (September 26-Novem- 
ber 18), had been banded on the breeding grounds as young birds 
during the period June 26-August 4 in the following areas: 3 in 
central Ontario (southern Algoma District) ; 7 on the coast of 
Maine (Lincoln County) ; and 2 in southeastern Quebec (Ka- 
mouraska County). 

Family ANHINGIDAE 

ANHINGA Anhinga anhinga (Linnaeus) 

Status. — Accidental visitor. A specimen in the old collection 
of the Maryland Academy of Sciences was reported to have come 
from the Pocomoke River (Kirkwood, 1895). Another specimen, 
formerly in the old Peale collection, was reported to have been 
shot prior to 1805 at Elkridge Landing on the Patapsco River 
(Burns, 1932). 

Family ARDEIDAE 
GREAT BLUE HERON Ardea herodias Linnaeus 

Status. — Breeding: Fairly common locally in the Eastern 
Shore and Western Shore sections (nesting colonies have been 
located in Worcester, Wicomico, Talbot, Queen Annes, St. Marys, 
Calvert, Charles, Prince Georges, and Anne Arundel Counties) ; 
uncommon and local in the Upper Chesapeake section (one large 
colony located in Cecil County). See figure 3. Transient: Com- 
mon in the tidewater areas of the Eastern Shore, Western Shore, 
and Upper Chesapeake sections ; fairly common in the interior of 
all sections. Wintering: Uncommon in the tidewater areas; rare 



52 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 62, FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 




LEGEND 
O BLACK -CROWNED NIGHT HERON 
• GREAT BLUE HERON 



Figure 3. — Breeding colonies of Great Blue Heron and Black-crowned Night 

Heron. 



in the interior of the Eastern Shore, Western Shore, Upper Chesa- 
peake, and Piedmont sections. Summer vagrant: Fairly common 
in all sections. 

Habitat. — Breeding: Heavily wooded flood-plain or swamp 
forests along streams ; also in dense patches of scrubby, coniferous 
and deciduous trees that are located adjacent to salt marshes. 
Transient and wintering: Various water margin types along 
ponds, lakes, streams, bays, and estuaries. 

Nesting season. — Mid-March to mid-July. Extreme nesting 
dates (21 records) : March 20, 1949, in Anne Arundel County 
(Mrs. W. L. Hunt) and July 20, 1941, in Charles County (F. M. 
Uhler) . Nestlings were banded in Cecil County as early as May 
21, 1939 (F. C. Schmid). 

Approximate migration periods. — Spring: February 25 to 
May 15; peak, March 15 to April 25. Fall: July 15 to December 
15 ; peak, August 1 to November 1. 

Maximum breeding populations. — 300 nests in the colony near 
Earleville, Cecil County in 1943 (R. 0. Bender) ; 100 occupied 
nests in a colony in the Pocomoke Swamp in Wicomico County in 
1948. 

Maximum counts. — Spring: 60 at Aliens Fresh, Charles 
County, on March 29, 1953 (J. W. Terborgh). Fall: 82 along the 



BIRDS OF MARYLAND AND DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA S3 

Potomac River in Prince Georges and Charles Counties on Septem- 
ber 19, 1927 (H. H. T. Jackson). Winter (Christmas counts) : 
69 in the Ocean City area on December 27, 1954; 60 near Port 
Tobacco, Charles County, on December 27, 1941; 54 in the An- 
napolis area on January 2, 1955. 

Banding. — Out of 245 nestlings banded in Cecil County in late 
May and early June of 1938, 1939, 1940, and 1941 by F. C. Schmid 
and J. A. Gillespie, 18 were subsequently recovered away from the 
nesting colony. Fifteen of these were killed during the first fall 
and winter and show the same pattern of northward wandering 
as is typical of other species of herons. As early as July 9 a young 
bird was found dead on the coast of Long Island. Between mid- 
July and mid-October another was taken in southern New York, 
1 in Connecticut, 3 in New Jersey, and 1 along the Big Gunpowder 
River in Carroll County, Maryland. It is interesting that birds 
recovered during their first winter are scattered from Maryland 
(Carroll and Harford Counties) and New Jersey (2 records) to 
northern Florida and northern Cuba (Matanzas). Adult birds 
as well as young ones take long migratory flights as shown by 
recoveries of li/2 to 6-year-old birds in central Florida and the 
Bahamas (Man-of-War Cay), respectively. 

GREEN HERON Butorides v/rescens (Linnaeus) 

Status. — Breeding and transient: Common in the tidewater 
areas of the Eastern Shore, Western Shore, and Upper Chesa- 
peake sections (during the breeding season, scattered pairs and 
occasional colonies comprising from 6 to 20 pairs occur) ; fairly 
common in the interior of all sections. Wintering: Casual in the 
Eastern Shore, Western Shore, and Upper Chesapeake sections — 
recorded in Worcester (1953-54), St. Marys (1940-41), Anne 
Arundel (1952-53, 1954-55), and Baltimore (1952-53, 1953-54) 
Counties. 

Habitat. — Breeding: In tidewater areas that contain a combi- 
nation of wooded or brush habitats and tidal marshes ; also in the 
interior along wooded stream bottoms and along the wooded 
margins of lakes and ponds. Transient: Various water-margin or 
shallow-water habitats. 

Nesting season. — Mid- April to early August (peak, mid-May 
to late June). Extreme egg dates (82 nests) : April 21, 1948, in 
Worcester County and July 8, 1891 (H. B. Stabler) in Mont- 
gomery County. Extreme nestling dates (13 nests) : May 30, 
1891, in Kent County (Fisher, 1892) and August 3, 1954, in Dor- 
chester County. 



54 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 62, FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 

Period of regular occurrence. — Normal period: April 1-10 
to November 1-10. Period of greatest abundance: April 25 to 
September 10. Extreme dates of spring arrival: March 16, 1946, 
in Harford County (S. Mason, Jr.) ; March 23, 1947, in Dorchester 
County ; March 28, 1948, in the District of Columbia ; March 30, 
1946, in St. Marys County. Extreme fall departure date: Novem- 
ber 20, 1948, in Dorchester County (M. B. Meanley). 

Maximum counts. — 27 in the Ocean City area on May 11, 1952 ; 
21 in the District of Columbia on May 11, 1917 (H. C. Ober- 
holser) ; 18 at Port Tobacco, Charles County, on May 6, 1938 (C. 
Cottam, A. L. Nelson) . 

LITTLE BLUE HERON Florida caerulea (Linnaeus) 

Status. — Breeding: Fairly common in the coastal area of Wor- 
cester County (3 colonies located) ; rare and local elsewhere in the 
Eastern Shore and Western Shore sections — nesting in Dorchester 
County (P. J. Van Huizen) and in St. Marys County (E. J. 
Court) ; probably nesting- along the Pocomoke River, and in the 
vicinity of Port Tobacco, Charles County, since repeated observa- 
tions of adult birds have been made in these two areas during 
April, May, and June in recent years. Adults have also been 
recorded during the breeding season at Cobb Island and Zekiah 
Swamp in Charles County and at the Marshall Dierssen Refuge 
(J. W. Terborgh, et al.) in Montgomery County. Postbreeding 
transient: Common in the Eastern Shore, Western Shore, and 
Upper Chesapeake sections; fairly common in the Piedmont, and 
Ridge and Valley sections ; uncommon in the Allegheny Mountain 
section. Wintering: Rare in the tidewater areas of the Eastern 
Shore and Western Shore sections. 

Habitat. — Breeding: Usually in dense patches of scrubby or 
young trees adjacent to tidal marshes. Transient: Nearly all 
types of water-margin or shallow-water habitats. 

Nesting season. — Mid-April to mid-July. Extreme nesting 
dates (5 records) : June 6, 1953, and July 15, 1946. 

Spring migration. — Extreme arrival dates: March 26, 1950, in 
Worcester County (Mr. and Mrs. J. Enoch Johnson) ; March 29, 
1948, in Calvert County (F. M. Uhler) ; April 1, 1948, in Wicomico 
County. Spring vagrant: One on June 1, 1950, at Patuxent 
Refuge in Prince Georges County (K. Laub) ; and another in 
Howard County on May 5, 1956. 

Postbreeding movement. — Normal period: July 1-10 to Octo- 
ber 5-15; peak, July 25 to September 10. Extreme arnval dates: 
June 20, 1929, in the District of Columbia (W. H. Ball) ; June 24, 



BIRDS OF MARYLAND AND DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 55 

1949, in Prince Georges County. Extreme departure dates: No- 
vember 23, 1946, in Dorchester County; November 5, 1951, in 
Queen Annes County (Mrs. W. L. Henderson). 

Maximum breeding populations. — 125 pairs in the colony on 
Mills Island, Worcester County, on July 6, 1946. 

Maximum counts. — Postbreeding : 650 along the Potomac 
River in Prince Georges County and the District of Columbia on 
August 28, 1930 (H. C. Oberholser) ; 90 in the District of Columbia 
on August 8, 1928 (W. H. Ball) ; 75 on Assateague Island, Wor- 
cester County, on August 14, 1948; 60 on the Gunpowder River 
marshes on August 5, 1902 (W. B. Evans) ; 52 in Dorchester 
County on August 31, 1946. Wintering: 2 in the District of 
Columbia on December 18, 1948 (F. C. Cross) ; 1 in the Ocean City 
area on February 20, 1949. 

CATTLE EGRET fiubu/cus ibis Linnaeus 

Status. — Casual visitor. One was recorded on April 25, 1953, 
at Berlin, Worcester County. Another was seen near Bucktown, 
Dorchester County, on May 1 and 8, 1955 (E. Rogers, K. Stecher). 

COMMON EGRET Casmerodius a/bus (Linnaeus) 

Status. — Breeding: Fairly common locally in the coastal area 
of Worcester County and in the Pocomoke River swamp ; rare and 
local elsewhere in the Eastern Shore and Western Shore sections — 
found nesting near Marbury in Charles County in 1931 (Court, 
1936) and on Bodkin Island in Queen Annes County in 1954 (V. 
D. Stotts). Postbreeding transient: Common in the Eastern 
Shore, Western Shore, and Upper Chesapeake sections; fairly 
common in the Piedmont, Ridge and Valley, and Allegheny Moun- 
tain sections. Wintering: Rare in the tidewater areas of the 
Eastern Shore and Western Shore sections; casual in the Upper 
Chesapeake section — 1 remained during the winter of 1952-53 
near Chase in Baltimore County (O. W. Crowder). Spring 
vagrant: Casual in the Eastern Shore, Western Shore, Upper 
Chesapeake, and Piedmont sections. 

Habitat. — Breeding: Near streams in heavily wooded swamp 
forests ; also in dense patches of scrubby coniferous and deciduous 
trees adjacent to salt marshes. Transient: Water-margin habitats 
along ponds, lakes, and streams, and in marshes. 

Nesting season. — Early April to early July. Extreme nesting 
dates (9 records) : April 1, 1950, in Wicomico County and July 6, 
1946, in Worcester County. 

Postbreeding movement. — Normal period: June 10-20 to No- 
vember 5-15; peak, July 15 to September 10. Extreme arrival 



56 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 62, FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 

dates: May 27, 1926, in the District of Columbia (Mrs. T. M. 
Knappen) ; May 30, 1891, in the District of Columbia (W. Pal- 
mer) ; June 1, 1950, in Prince Georges County. Extreme departure 
date: November 19, 1948, in Dorchester County. 

Maximum counts. — Transient: 1,000+ at Fort Foote, Prince 
Georges County, on August 26, 1951 (J. M. Abbott) ; 120 in the 
Elliott Island area, Dorchester County, on October 2, 1948 ; 100+ 
in the District of Columbia on September 9, 1930 (W. L. McAtee) ; 
87 in the Chincoteague Bay area on August 7, 1948 ; 85 near Not- 
tingham along the Patuxent River on August 21, 1947; 75 near 
Baltimore on August 26, 1945 (H. Brackbill) ; 71 at Sandy Point, 
Anne Arundel County, on July 17, 1948 (J. E. Willoughby) . 
Winter: 8 in Dorchester County on December 22, 1952 (Christmas 
count) . 

SNOWY EGRET Leucophoyx thula (Molina) 

Status. — Breeding: Fairly common in the coastal area of Wor- 
cester County and on Smith Island in Somerset County; possibly 
breeds elsewhere near tidewater in Somerset, Wicomico, and 
southern Dorchester Counties, since numerous observations of 
adults have been recorded in this area during the breeding season 
in recent years. Postbreeding transient: Fairly common in the 
tidewater areas of the Eastern Shore and Western Shore sections ; 
uncommon in the tidewater areas of the Upper Chesapeake sec- 
tion; rare in the interior of the Eastern Shore, Western Shore, 
and Upper Chesapeake sections. Spring vagrant: Casual in the 
Eastern Shore, Western Shore, and Upper Chesapeake sections. 

Habitat. — Breeding: Dense patches of scrubby or second- 
growth coniferous and deciduous trees adjacent to extensive areas 
of salt marsh. Transient: Usually in tidewater areas along ponds 
and streams, and in marshes. 

Nesting season. — Late April to mid-July. Extreme nesting 
dates (5 records) : May 1, 1946, and July 15, 1946, in Worcester 
County. 

Spring migration. — Extreme arrival dates: March 31, 1948, in 
Dorchester County; April 2, 1955 (A. S. Kaestner), in Anne 
Arundel County. Spring vagrant records: 1 at Middle River, 
Baltimore County, on May 2, 1950 (E. Willis) ; 1 at Patuxent 
Refuge, Prince Georges County, on May 16, 1945. 

Postbreeding movement. — Normal period: July 10-20 to 
October 25-November 5; peak, August 1 to October 5. Extreme 
arrival date: July 8, 1947, in Prince Georges County Extreme 



BIRDS OF MARYLAND AND DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 57 

departure date: November 6, 1948, at the mouth of the Patapsco 
River (E. La Fleur) . 

Maximum breeding populations. — 50 pairs at the Mills Island 
colony in Worcester County on July 6, 1946, and 100 pairs on 
June 25, 1956. 

Maximum counts. — Postbreeding : 175 at Mills Island, Wor- 
cester County, on July 15, 1946 ; 104 at West Ocean City on Septem- 
ber 7, 1955 (Mr. and Mrs. I. C. Hoover) ; 101 on Assateague 
Island, Worcester County, on September 5, 1948 ; 25 in the Elliott 
Island marsh, Dorchester County, on October 2, 1948 ; 20 at Sandy 
Point, Anne Arundel County, on September 1, 1947 (J. W. Taylor, 
Jr.) ; 20 at Fairhaven, Anne Arundel County, on August 25, 1948 
(D.M.Thatcher). 

Banding. — One banded as a nestling on July 13, 1947, in Wor- 
cester County was trapped and released on August 16, 1947, on 
Chincoteague National Wildlife Refuge on the coast of Virginia 
(11 miles from the point of banding). 

LOUISIANA HERON Hydranassa tricolor (Miiller) 

Status. — Breeding: Uncommon and local in the Chincoteague 
Bay area of Worcester County — from 3 to 5 pairs in a mixed heron 
colony on Mills Island in 1946 and 1947, at least 8 pairs in 1953, 
and about 25 pairs in 1956. Postbreeding transient: Uncommon 
in the coastal area of Worcester County; rare in the tidewater 
areas elsewhere in the Eastern Shore and Western Shore sections. 
Spring vagrant: Casual in the Western Shore section — 4 observed 
at Point Lookout, St. Marys County, on April 12, 1952 (J. W. 
Terborgh) . 

Habitat. — Breeding: Patches of scrubby or second-growth trees 
adjacent to salt marshes. Transient: Marginal habitats in salt 
marshes. 

Nesting season. — Late April to mid-July. Extreme nesting 
dates (4 records) : June 6, 1953, and July 13, 1947. 

Postbreeding movement. — Normal period: July 20-25 to Sep- 
tember 10-20; peak, July 25 to September 1. Extreme arrival 
date: July 17, 1927, in the District of Columbia (W. H. Ball). 
Extreme departure date: September 27, 1949, at Ocean City. 

Maximum counts. — Postbreeding: 10 at Sandy Point, Anne 
Arundel County, on July 31, 1948 (E. Arnold) ; 5 at Blackwater 
Refuge, Dorchester County, on August 23, 1956 (P. F. Springer) ; 
3 at Ocean City on July 24, 1949. 



58 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 62, FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 

BLACK-CROWNED NIGHT HERON Nycticorax nycticorax (Linnaeus) 

Status. — Breeding: Fairly common locally in the Eastern 
Shore and Western Shore sections — colonies have been located in 
Worcester, Somerset, Dorchester, Baltimore (F. C. Kirkwood), 
Charles (E. J. Court), Prince Georges (E. J. Court), and Anne 
Arundel (Le Compte, 1937) Counties and the District of Co- 
lumbia; uncommon and local in the Piedmont section — colonies 
located along the Susquehanna River (0. W. Crowder) and in the 
District of Columbia (numerous observers). See figure 3. 
Transient: Fairly common in the tidewater areas of the Eastern 
Shore, Western Shore, and Upper Chesapeake sections ; uncommon 
in the interior of all sections. Wintering : Uncommon within the 
Eastern Shore section in the tidal marshes along Chesapeake Bay ; 
rare elsewhere in the Eastern Shore section and in the Western 
Shore, Upper Chesapeake, and Piedmont sections; casual in the 
Ridge and Valley section — 1 collected near Hagerstown on Janu- 
ary 31, 1923 (R. Trovinger) . 

Habitat. — Breeding: Usually in dense stands of young or 
scrubby trees (occasionally in stands of mature trees) near tide- 
water or near inland ponds and streams. Transient: Various 
types of water-margin or shallow-water habitats. 

Nesting season. — Early February to early August (nesting 
peak, late March to mid- June) . Extreme egg dates (6 records) : 
February 3, 1950, in the District of Columbia (Davis, 1945) and 
May 19, 1899, in Baltimore County (F. C. Kirkwood). Extreme 
nestling dates (6 records) : February 22, 1909, in the District of 
Columbia (A. K. Fisher) and July 15, 1946, in Worcester County. 
Migration dates. — Extreme spring arrival dates: March 25, 
1945, in Prince Georges County; March 27, 1952, in Carroll 
County. Extreme fall departure date: October 17, 1894, in Balti- 
more County (A. Resler). 

Breeding populations. — One hundred pairs at Linthicum 
Heights, Anne Arundel County, on May 17, 1936 (M. B. Meanley) ; 
50 pairs at Mills Island, Worcester County, on July 6, 1946, and 
75 pairs there on June 25, 1956. 

Maximum counts. — Spring: 80 from the District of Columbia 
to Great Falls on May 12, 1913 (Mr. and Mrs. V. Bailey) ; 80 in 
the Elliott Island marsh, Dorchester County, on April 30, 1949; 
75 in the Ocean City area on May 11, 1952 (D. A. Cutler). Fall: 
64 in the Elliott Island marsh on September 26, 1949. Winter: 9 
in the Elliott Island marsh on December 28, 1955 (Christmas 
count) . 

Banding. — Five birds recovered in the Eastern Shore section 



BIRDS OF MARYLAND AND DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 59 

had been banded as nestlings in coastal localities from Cape Cod, 
Massachusetts, to Delaware. A Cape Cod bird was found winter- 
ing at Salisbury, while the others were all taken during the fall 
migration period. One of these was recovered as an adult on 
August 12, 1928, on the ocean */2 mile off Ocean City. 

YELLOW-CROWNED NIGHT HERON Nyctanassa violacea (Linnaeus) 

Status. — Breeding: Rare and local in the Eastern Shore, West- 
ern Shore, and Piedmont sections — a small colony, comprising 7 
nests in 1939, 5 nests in 1940, 2 nests in 1946 (Lawrence, 1946), 
and 3 nests in 1953 (L. Kilham), is located in Montgomery 
County near the junction of Seneca Creek and the Potomac River; 
in 1946 and 1947, at least one pair was present in the large mixed 
heron colony on Mills Island in Chincoteague Bay; an occupied 
nest was found in the District of Columbia in 1950 and 1951 
(Criswell, 1951), and in 1952 (J. Criswell). It is probable that 
during recent years a small colony has existed in the vicinity of 
West Ocean City in Worcester County, since from 2 to 5 adults 
have been observed in this area repeatedly during the breeding 
season. Scattered observations of adults have been made during 
the breeding season on Assateague Island, along the Pocomoke 
River, near Chance in Somerset County, near St. Marys City in 
St. Marys County, along the Patuxent River in Prince Georges 
County, in Zekiah Swamp in Charles County (F. C. Cross), and 
near Emmitsburg (J. W. Richards) in Frederick County. Post- 
breeding transient: Uncommon in the tidewater areas of the East- 
ern Shore, Western Shore, and Upper Chesapeake sections; rare 
in the interior of all sections. 

Habitat. — Breeding: Flood-plain or swamp forests near 
streams ; also in dense stands of young or scrubby trees adjacent 
to salt marshes. Transient: Various water-margin or shallow- 
water types. 

Nesting season. — Mid-April to mid-July (probably) . In 1953, 
a newly completed nest was found in Montgomery County on 
April 18, and on April 25 an adult was observed on the nest (L. 
Kilham). An occupied nest in the District of Columbia was 
studied during the period May 6 to June 30, 1950 (Criswell, 1951) . 
In 1939 a Montgomery County nest contained eggs on May 15 
(W. H. Lawrence) and young on June 10 (E. Stoehr) ; in 1953, 
another nest at this location contained eggs on May 20, and young 
on June 6 ( J. W. Terborgh) . 

Period of occurrence. — Probable normal period: April 10-20 
to October 10-20 ; period of greatest abundance, April 25 to Sep- 



60 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 62, FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 

tember 10. Extreme occurrence dates: April 18, 1953, in Mont- 
gomery County (L. Kilham) and October 18, 1947, in Baltimore 
County (R. M. Bowen). 

Maximum counts (nonbreeding) . — 7 in the Ocean City area 
on August 22, 1948 (S. H. Low, P. F. Springer) ; 4 in the Ocean 
City area on September 4, 1948. 

LEAST BITTERN Ixobrychus exilis (Gmelin) 

Status. — Breeding: Common in the tidewater areas of the 
Eastern Shore, Western Shore, and Upper Chesapeake sections; 
during the breeding season, occasional birds have been observed in 
the interior in all sections — however, definite evidence of breeding 
is lacking from these inland areas except that 2 nests were found 
on Patuxent Refuge, Prince Georges County, in 1955 (F. M. 
Uhler) . See figure 4. Transient: Common in the tidewater areas 





79" 

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7 8' 




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75' 




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10 20 30 40 MILES 
























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ipal Ronge of LEAST BITTERN, 
BLACK DUCK.OSPREY, and 






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LONG-BILLED MARSH WREN 










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Local R«cord of LEAST BITTERN 
Local Rocord of BLACK DUCK 




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-36'- 




















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Figure 4. — Breeding ranges of Least Bittern, Black Duck, Osprey, and 
Long-billed Marsh Wren. 



of the Eastern Shore, Western Shore, and Upper Chesapeake 
sections; uncommon in the interior in all sections. Wintering: 
Casual in the tidewater areas — 1 in the District of Columbia on 
January 8, 1880 (P. L. Jouy) ; 1 on Carroll Island in Baltimore 
County on January 5, 1952 (T. A. Imhof ) . 
Habitat. — Breeding: Especially common in narrow-leaved cat- 



BIRDS OF MARYLAND AND DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 61 

tail marshes ; fairly common in other coarse marsh types, includ- 
ing reed and salt reed-grass ; also of regular occurrence in weak- 
stemmed brackish marsh types, such as Olney three-square, when 
scattered shrubs are present ; occurs sparingly in the salt marshes 
in needlerush and in salt-meadow grass when scattered shrubs of 
marsh elder or sea myrtle are present. Transient: Occurs in 
nearly all marsh habitats. 

Nesting season. — Late April to early August. Extreme egg 
dates (23 nests) : May 10, 1916, in Dorchester County (Jackson, 
1941) and July 12, 1950, in Baltimore County (E. Willis). Ex- 
treme nestling dates (7 nests) : June 8, 1954, in Baltimore County 
(E. Willis) and July 14, 1950, in Baltimore County (E. Willis). 
The nestlings observed on June 8, 1954, voluntarily left the nest 
upon the approach of the observer. 

Period of regular occurrence. — Normal period: April 20-30 
to September 10-20; peak, May 5 to September 1. Extreme ar- 
rival dates: April 12, 1929, in the District of Columbia (W. H. 
Ball) ; April 18, 1936, at Mountain Lake, Garrett County (Brooks, 
1936a). Extreme departure dates: November 7, 1954, in Mont- 
gomery County (R. R. Kerr) ; October 11, 1954, in Prince Georges 
County; September 25, 1954, in Montgomery County (S. H. Low). 

AMERICAN BITTERN Botaurus lentiginosus (Rackett) 

Status. — Breeding: Fairly common in the tidewater areas of 
Somerset, Wicomico, and Dorchester Counties; uncommon else- 
where in the tidewater areas of the Eastern Shore, Western Shore, 
and Upper Chesapeake sections; rare in the Allegheny Mountain 
section (Eifrig, 1904, and Brooks, 1944). See figure 5. Transient: 
Fairly common in the tidewater areas of the Eastern Shore, 
Western Shore, and Upper Chesapeake sections; uncommon in 
the interior of all sections. Wintering: Uncommon in the tide- 
water areas of the Eastern Shore and Western Shore sections; 
rare in the tidewater areas of the Upper Chesapeake section. 
Summer vagrant: Casual in the interior of all sections. 

Habitat. — Breeding: Various marsh or marsh-meadow types, 
chiefly tidal and including narrow-leaved cattail, Olney three- 
square, needlerush, and switchgrass. Transient: Various marsh 
and marsh-meadow types. Wintering : Brackish and salt marsh 
and marsh-meadow types. 

Nesting season. — Three nests were found in or very near the 
District of Columbia on June 3, 1917, 1 containing 3 young ready 
to fly, another 3 young, 10 days old, and the third 4 hard-set eggs 
(Court, 1921) ; another nest containing 3 young and 1 egg was 



62 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 62, FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 




BM Principal Range 
• Local Record 



Figure 5. — Breeding range of American Bittern. 

found near Dames Quarter in Somerset County on June 18, 1948; 
large nestlings were found on the Blackwater National Wildlife 
Refuge, Dorchester County, in early July 1953 (J. H. Steenis, W. 
R. Nicholson). Young birds out of the nest were recorded in 
Baltimore County on July 18, 1936 (M. B. Meanley), in Anne 
Arundel County on August 28, 1937 (E. A. McGinity), and in 
western Maryland (Allegany or Garrett County) on June 30, 
1902 (Eifrig, 1904). 

Spring migration. — Normal period: March 10-20 to May 5- 
15; peak, March 25 to April 25. Extreme departure date: May 
21, 1949, in the District of Columbia (E. Arnold). 

Fall migration. — Normal period: September 1-10 to Novem- 
ber 1-10; peak, September 20 to October 20. Extreme dates of 
arrival: August 19, 1953, in Prince Georges County; August 23, 
1917 (R. W. Moore) in the District of Columbia. Extreme dates 
of departure: December 7, 1952, at Pennyfield in Montgomery 
County (R. M. Cole) ; November 29, 1949, in Dorchester County; 
November 16, 1937, in Garrett County (M. G. Brooks). 

Maximum counts. — Spring: 5 at Chesapeake Beach, Calvert 
County, on March 27, 1948 ; 5 at Port Tobacco, Charles County, on 
May 6, 1933 (C. Cottam, A. L. Nelson) . Fall: 3 in the Elliott Island 
marsh, Dorchester County, on November 17, 1948, and November 



BIRDS OF MARYLAND AND DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 63 

29, 1949. Winter (Christmas counts) : 7 in the Blackwater 
Refuge area in Dorchester County on December 28, 1953; 6 in 
the Ocean City area on December 27, 1953. 

Family CICONIIDAE 
WOOD IBIS Mycferia americana Linnaeus 

Status. — Casual visitor. One was collected (USNM) in Prince 
Georges County on July 28, 1851 ( W. R. Young) . One was re- 
ported to have been shot near Cumberland in Allegany County, 
about 1865 (Kirkwood, 1895) . Two, an adult and an immature, 
were collected (USNM) "a short distance from the Washington 
Monument and on the Maryland side of the Potomac" on July 2, 
1892 (Hasbrouck, 1893). One was reported seen in Baltimore 
County in Dulaney Valley on October 15, 1893 (Kirkwood, 1895). 
Three were shot in Prince Georges County in 1896 including an 
adult and an immature at Silver Hill on July 20, and an immature 
taken near Laurel on July 27 (Palmer, 1897a). 

No other observations of this species were recorded until 1955 
when 18 or 20 birds arrived at Gibson Island, Anne Arundel 
County, on June 24; many of these remained until July 23 (first 
seen by Capt. G. Fisher, and subsequently by numerous observers) ; 
3 were also observed in Anne Arundel County along the Patuxent 
River near Nottingham on July 12, 1955 ; a single was seen at the 
Patuxent Refuge, Prince Georges County, on July 24 and 30, 1955 ; 
2 were observed at Tilghman Island, Talbot County, on August 
10, 1955 (J. Cummings) ; and 1 was recorded at Towson, Balti- 
more County, in mid-July (Mrs. W. Royal). On June 17, 1956, 
another was seen at Gibson Island (Dr. and Mrs. M. Stout). 

Family THRESKIORNITHIDAE 

GLOSSY IBIS Plegadis falcinellus (Linnaeus) 

Status. — Breeding: Rare and local in the coastal area of Wor- 
cester County — 2 pairs of adults and 2 young, three-fourths 
grown, recorded on Mills Island on June 25, 1956. Transient: 
Rare and irregular in the Eastern Shore and Western Shore sec- 
tions — a specimen was procured near Baltimore and 2 others in 
the District of Columbia in about 1817, and the species was 
described as occurring on the Eastern Shore of Maryland at very 
irregular intervals in spring (Baird, et al., 1884) ; 1 was shot in 
the District of Columbia in September, 1900 (Daniel, 1901a) ; 1 
was closely observed on Assateague Island, Worcester County, on 
June 11, 1950 (J. H. Buckalew, E. O. Mellinger) ; in Charles 
County, 1 was recorded at Port Tobacco on May 2, 1953 (M. C. 



64 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 62, FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 

Crone, K. Keeley) , and another was seen on Cobb Island on Sep- 
tember 2, 1953 (Taylor, 1953) ; 2 were seen at Ocean City on 
September 4, 1955 (R. L. Kleen), and a single was recorded there 
on April 7, 1956 (P. A. Buckley) . 

Family ANATIDAE 

[MUTE SWAN] Cygnus o/or (Gmelin) 

Status. — Hypothetical. This introduced species has been re- 
corded twice in the tidewater areas of Maryland — 3 were reported 
near Ocean City on February 12, 1954 (Mr. and Mrs. I. C. Hoover) , 
and 3 immature birds were recorded at Gibson Island, Anne 
Arundel County, on January 22, 1955 (J. M. Abbott) ; 1 of the 
latter birds remained until January 28 (Mrs. W. L. Henderson, 
Mrs. G. Tappan) . 

WHISTLING SWAN O/or co/umb/anus (Ord) 

Status. — Transient: Locally common on Chesapeake Bay and 
adjoining estuaries in the Eastern Shore, Western Shore, and 
Upper Chesapeake sections (concentration areas include the 
Susquehanna Flats, Eastern Bay, and the Potomac, Patuxent, 
Magothy, Middle, Gunpowder, Bush, Sassafras, Chester, and 
Choptank Rivers) ; uncommon in the coastal area of Worcester 
County and in the interior of all sections. Wintering: Locally 
common on Chesapeake Bay and adjoining estuaries in the East- 
ern Shore, Western Shore, and Upper Chesapeake sections (con- 
centration areas, same as during migration) . Summer vagrant: 
Casual visitor — 11 on Gunpowder River marsh on June 2, 1918 
(W. A. Warns) ; 2 near Neavitt, Talbot County, through the sum- 
mer of 1952 (R. L. Kleen) ; 12 on the Chester River during June 
and July 1955 (V. D. Stotts) . 

Habitat. — Chiefly shallow, brackish estuarine waters that con- 
tain an abundance of aquatic plants such as wild celery, sago pond- 
weed, and red-head pondweed. During migration, also occurs oc- 
casionally on inland ponds and lakes. 

Spring migration. — Normal period: March 1-10 to April 20- 
30; peak, March 10 to April 5. Extreme arrival date: February 
14, 1947, in Prince Georges County. Extreme departure dates: 
May 27, 1955, in Washington County (S. C. Stauffer) ; May 25, 
1951, in Queen Annes County (M. W. Hewitt) ; May 22, 1953, in 
Anne Arundel County ; May 18, 1952, in Baltimore County (F. C. 
Cross) . 

Fall migration. — Normal period: October 15-25 to November 
20-30 ; peak, October 25 to November 15. Extreme arrival dates: 



BIRDS OF MARYLAND AND DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 65 

September 26, 1893, in Washington County (J. Leopold) ; 40 on 
the Patuxent River near Nottingham on October 1, 1938 (D. R. 
Gascoyne) . Extreme departure dates: December 16, 1902, in Gar- 
rett County (G. Eifrig) ; December 4, 1901, in Prince Georges 
County (B. Greenwood). 

Maximum counts. — Spring: 15,000 on Susquehanna Flats on 
March 15, 1931 (C. Marburger) ; 3,000 in Gunpowder River area 
on March 15, 1951 (T. A. Imhof ) ; 1,900 on Eastern Bay on March 
25, 1950 ; 945 on the Bush River on March 18, 1951 (T. A. Imhof) ; 
800 at Sandy Point, Anne Arundel County, on March 20, 1952 (S. 
H. Low) ; 400 on the Patuxent River on March 25, 1948. Fall: 
5,000 on the Chester River on November 29, 1945 (E. R. Quort- 
rup) ; 3,000 on Eastern Bay on November 18, 1950 (Mr. and Mrs. 
W. L. Henderson) ; 600 in the Carroll Island area, Baltimore 
County, on November 19, 1950; 177 near Unity, Montgomery 
County, on November 12, 1950 (S. H. Low) ; 50 at Mountain Lake, 
Garrett County, on November 2, 1951 (H. E. Slater). Winter: 
10,654 in the St. Michaels area, Talbot County, on December 29, 
1953 (Christmas count) ; 4,940 on the Susquehanna Flats on 
January 2, 1950 (Christmas count) ; 2,000 on the Sassafras River 
on December 4, 1949 (E. Arnold) ; 1,505 in the Gibson Island area, 
Anne Arundel County, on January 3, 1954 (Christmas count) ; 
1,500 in the Gunpowder River area on January 20, 1952 (T. A. 
Imhof). 

CANADA GOOSE Branta canadensis (Linnaeus) 

Status. — Transient: Abundant in the tidewater areas of the 
Eastern Shore and Upper Chesapeake sections (concentration 
areas include the Susquehanna Flats, Bohemia River, Sassafras 
River, Chester River, Eastern Bay, Choptank River, Honga River, 
Dorchester County marshes, Fishing Bay, Nanticoke River, 
Tangier Sound, Pocomoke Sound, Chincoteague Bay, and Sine- 
puxent Bay) ; fairly common in the tidewater areas of the West- 
ern Shore section and in the interior (mostly flying overhead) 
of all sections. Wintering: Common in the tidewater areas of the 
Eastern Shore and Upper Chesapeake sections (concentration 
areas, same as during migration) ; fairly common in the interior 
of the Eastern Shore and Upper Chesapeake sections ; uncommon 
in the Western Shore and Piedmont sections. 

Habitat. — Shallow water with aquatic vegetation in tidal bays, 
estuaries, and ponds, and inland ponds and lakes ; also occurs reg- 
ularly on tidal marshes, and in many areas feeds extensively in 
wheat, rye, and corn fields near tidewater. 



66 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 62, FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 

Spring migration. — Normal period: February 15-25 to April 
15-25; peak, March 10 to April 10. Extreme arrival dates: 
February 9, 1950, in Prince Georges County (T. B. Israel); 
February 10, 1920, in Dorchester County (R. W. Jackson) ; Febru- 
ary 14, 1920, in the District of Columbia (F. Harper) . Extreme 
departure dates: May 23, 1903 (F. C. Kirkwood), and May 21, 
1940 (H. Brackbill), in Baltimore County. 




Figure 6. — Canada Goose banding recoveries. Each symbol represents the 
number of records for a State or Province. Banded in Maryland, recovered 
elsewhere: solid circle = recovered June through August; solid triangle = 
recovered September through May. Recovered in Maryland, banded else- 
where : open circle = banded June through August ; open triangle = banded 
September through May. 



BIRDS OF MARYLAND AND DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 67 

Fall migration. — Normal period: September 25-October 5 to 
November 20-30 ; peak, October 15 to November 5. Extreme ar- 
rival dates: September 8, 1955, in Talbot County (R. L. Kleen) ; 
September 12, 1954, in Montgomery County (S. H. Low) ; Septem- 
ber 13, 1955, in Caroline County (M. W. Hewitt) ; September 14, 
1954, in Baltimore County (S. W. Simon) ; September 18, 1953, 
in Prince Georges County (F. M. Uhler) . 

Maximum counts. — Spring: 7,000 on the Susquehanna Flats, 
Cecil County, on March 31, 1955; 7,000 in the Sassafras River 
area on April 1, 1955; 5,000 in the Newport Bay area in Wor- 
cester County on April 1, 1950; "thousands" in Prince Georges 
County on March 24, 1929 (W. R. Maxon) ; 2,400 on Eastern Bay 
on March 25, 1950 (J. E. Johnson) ; 1,250 on Savannah Lake, 
Dorchester County, on March 3, 1955 ; 1,000 in the Gibson Island 
area, Anne Arundel County, on March 25, 1953 (Mrs. G. Tappan, 
Mrs. W. L. Henderson) ; 800 near Emmitsburg, Frederick County, 
on March 20, 1955 (J. W. Richards). Fall: 15,000 on Blackwater 
National Wildlife Refuge, Dorchester County, on November 16, 
1947 (I. R. Barnes) ; 10,000 on Hooper Island, Dorchester County, 
on November 24, 1951 (I. C. Hoover) ; 2,000 in the Newport Bay 
area, Worcester County, on November 11, 1951. Winter: 25,000 
in the Turner Creek area, Kent County, during January and 
February, 1955 (R. T. Smith) ; 19,346 in the St. Michaels area, 
Talbot County, on December 29, 1953 (Christmas count) ; 17,440 
on Chester River on December 6, 1955; 15,000 in Dorchester 
County on December 22, 1952 (Christmas count) ; 9,300 on the 
Susquehanna Flats on January 1, 1951 (Christmas count) ; 6,700 
at Ocean City on December 27, 1953 (Christmas count). 

Banding. — See figure 6. 

BRANT Branta bernida (Linnaeus) 

Status. — Transient and wintering: Common in the coastal area 
of Worcester County ; also occurs regularly in the tidewater areas 
along the Chesapeake Bay side of the Eastern Shore section, being 
fairly common in Somerset and Dorchester Counties and uncom- 
mon in Talbot and Queen Annes Counties (north to Eastern Bay) ; 
rare in tidewater areas of the Western Shore and Upper Chesa- 
peake sections. Summer vagrant: Casual visitor — 1 flying bird 
at South Point, Worcester County, on July 6, 1951 (J. H. Buck- 
alew), and 1 at Kent Island, Queen Annes County, on June 28, 
1954 (P. F. Springer). 

Habitat. — Shallow salt water in bays or sounds in which sea- 
lettuce (Enteromorpha spp.) or eel grass abound — most numerous 
along the barrier beach side of the coastal bays. 



68 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 62, FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 

Spring migration. — Normal period: February 10-20 to April 
20-30; peak, February 20 to April 10. Extreme arrival date: 
February 6, 1954 (large flight), in Worcester County. Extreme 
departure dates: May 20, 1950 (R. J. Beaton), and May 15, 1954 
(D. C. Aud. Soc), in Worcester County; May 8, 1955, in Queen 
Annes County (S. W. Simon). 

Fall migration. — Normal period: October 10-20 to December 
10-20 ; peak, October 25 to December 10. 

Maximum counts. — 10,000 off South Point near the south end 
of Sinepuxent Bay on December 27, 1948 (E. Arnold, S. H. Low) ; 
2,500 in the Ocean City area on February 25, 1951 ; 2,130 in the 
St. Michaels area, Talbot County, on December 29, 1953 (Christ- 
mas count) ; 72 in the District of Columbia on February 20, 1930 
(Mr. and Mrs. W. J. Whiting) . 

[BARNACLE GOOSE] Branta /eucops/s (Bechstein) 

Status. — Hypothetical. One reported killed near Langford, 
Kent County, on November 12, 1947 (T. A. Geiser). 

WHETE-FRONTED GOOSE Anser albifrons (Scopoli) 

Status. — Casual visitor. A specimen (USNM) bought in the 
Washington market in March 1856 was reported to have been 
shot on the Potomac River (Baird, 1858). A specimen, formerly 
in the collection of the Maryland Academy of Sciences but ap- 
parently no longer extant, was shot on the Gunpowder River on 
November 12, 1892 (Fisher, 1894) . One was captured alive with 
a flock of Canada Geese near Cambridge in Dorchester County on 
December 15, 1937 (D. V. Black). Another was observed at Ox- 
ford, Talbot County, in mid-October 1956 (S. Hersloff). 

SNOW GOOSE Chen hyperborea (Pallas) 

Status. — Transient and ivintering: Fairly common in the 
coastal area of Worcester County (somewhat irregular in winter) ; 
rare elsewhere in tidewater areas of the Eastern Shore, Western 
Shore, and Upper Chesapeake sections; casual visitor in the 
interior — recorded in Garrett, Frederick, Montgomery, and Prince 
Georges Counties. 

Habitat. — Usually in marshes of salt-water cordgrass or on 
the bays adjacent to them. 

Period of occurrence. — Normal period: October 15-25 to 
March 20-30 ; peak, November 20 to March 5. Extreme dates of 
arrival: Early October, 1890, in Baltimore County (W. H. 
Fisher) ; October 13, 1950, in Dorchester County (C. W. Wallace, 
W. S. Webster). Extreme dates of departure: April 21, 1954, 



BIRDS OF MARYLAND AND DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 69 

in Worcester County (P. G. DuMont) ; April 19, 1935, in Mont- 
gomery County (Bagg, 1935). 

Maximum counts. — Spring: 206 in the Ocean City area on 
March 4, 1950 (R. J. Beaton) ; 50 at Emmitsburg, Frederick 
County, on March 9, 1955 (Mrs. J. W. Richards) . Fall: 700 in the 
Ocean City area on November 28, 1950 (J. H. Buckalew) ; 125 at 
Neavitt, Talbot County, on December 3, 1955 (J. Reese) . Winter: 
8,000 in the Ocean City area on February 11, 1907 (F. C. Kirk- 
wood) ; 1,997 and 1,986 in the Ocean City area on December 27, 
1954, and December 27, 1950, respectively (Christmas counts) ; 
25 on Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge in Dorchester County 
on December 23, 1951 (Christmas count). 

BLUE GOOSE Chen caerulescens (Linnaeus) 

Status. — Transient and ivintering: Rare in the Eastern Shore, 
Western Shore, and Upper Chesapeake sections; casual in the 
Piedmont section — 1 at Marshall Dierssen Refuge in Montgomery 
County, May 6-8, 1949, and 1 near Buckeystown in Frederick 
County during the period April 23-30, 1950. Prior to 1930 this 
species apparently occurred as a casual visitor only. 

Habitat. — Usually on ponds in tidal marshes; rarely on ponds 
in the interior. 

Period of occurrence. — Extreme dates of arrival: October 18, 
1950, in Dorchester County (C. W. Wallace, W. S. Webster) ; 
October 18, 1952, in Prince Georges County; October 24, 1949, in 
Queen Annes County. Extreme dates of departure: May 15, 1951, 
in Harford County (T. A. Imhof ) ; May 8, 1949, in Montgomery 
County (R. Wright). 

Maximum counts. — 55 (1 flock) over Berwyn, Prince Georges 
County, on October 18, 1952; 14 (1 flock) on Gunpowder Neck, 
Harford County, on May 15, 1951 (T. A. Imhof) ; 11 on Black- 
water Refuge on December 28, 1954 (Christmas count) ; 10 near 
Chestertown, Kent County, on November 24, 1950 (J. H. Buck- 
alew) ; 4 on Mills Island in Worcester County on February 9, 
1938 (G. A. Ammann). 

MALLARD Anas platyrhynchos Linnaeus 

Status. — Breeding: The true status of "wild" Mallards during 
the breeding season is difficult to determine because of the fact 
that considerable numbers of semiwild birds have been released 
in the State from time to time. Scattered pairs of nesting birds 
that give every appearance of being feral have been noted in 
tidewater areas and on inland ponds, lakes, and streams in all 
sections. Whether any of these are derived from the introduced 



70 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 62, FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 

stock is problematical. It may be significant that Kirkwood 
(1895) in his book on Maryland birds does not refer to any 
breeding records for the species. During the past 12 years 
(1942-1953), downy young or nests with eggs have been recorded 
in the following areas: Worcester, Dorchester, Kent, Calvert, 
Prince Georges, Baltimore, Montgomery, and Garrett Counties 
and the District of Columbia. Transient: Fairly common on tide- 
water and inland areas in all sections (concentrations occur along 
the Potomac River in Montgomery County, on Triadelphia 
Reservoir, on Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge, and on the 
Chester River). Wintering: Fairly common on tidewater and in- 
land areas of the Eastern Shore, Western Shore, Upper Chesa- 
peake, and Piedmont sections ; uncommon in the Ridge and Valley 
and Allegheny Mountain sections. 

Habitat. — Breeding: Usually ponds or streams that are fringed 
with marsh vegetation. Transient and wintering: All types of 
fresh-water and tidal ponds, lakes, and streams; also feeds ex- 
tensively in corn fields that are located nearby. 

Nesting season. — Mid-March to late July. Extreme egg 
dates (5 nests) : March 20, 1949, in Montgomery County (N. 
Shelton) and May 14, 1950, in Baltimore County (E. Willis). 
Extreme downy young dates (13 broods) : May 7, 1949, in the 
District of Columbia (W. W. Rubey) and July 20, 1952, in Balti- 
more County (E. Willis). 

Spring migration. — Normal period: February 5-15 to May 
1-10; peak, February 20 to March 20. Extreme arrival dates: 
January 18, 1947, in Prince Georges County; January 22, 1939, in 
Baltimore County (H. Kolb) ; January 28, 1949, in Anne Arundel 
County (Mrs. F. H. Vinup). Extreme departure dates: May 16, 
1931, in Charles County (C. Cottam) ; May 14, 1949, in Worcester 
County (E. G. Davis) ; May 14, 1922, in the District of Columbia 
(J. Kittredge, Jr.). 

Fall migration. — Normal period: September 10-20 to Decem- 
ber 15-25; peak, October 25 to December 5. Extreme arrival 
dates: August 20, 1927, in the District of Columbia (A. Wet- 
more) ; August 28, 1896, in Prince Georges County (B. Green- 
wood). Extreme departure dates: December 31, 1940, in Prince 
Georges County; December 28, 1948, in Baltimore County (H. 
Kolb). 

Maximum counts. — Spring: 1,690 on the Potomac River below 
Washington, D. C, on March 10, 1928 (H. H. T. Jackson). Fall: 
11,500 on the Chester River on December 6, 1955 ; 7,000 along the 
Potomac River in Prince Georges and Charles Counties on Novem- 



BIRDS OF MARYLAND AND DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 



71 



ber 30, 1925 (F. C. Lincoln) ; 1,245 in the Patuxent River marsh 
on October 27, 1955 ; 600 at Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge, 
Dorchester County, on November 16, 1947 (I. R. Barnes) . Winter: 
5,885 on the Potomac River in the District of Columbia area on 
January 7, 1928 (A. Wetmore, H. H. T. Jackson) ; 5,250 in south- 
ern Dorchester County on December 28, 1955 (Christmas count) ; 
2,500 at Triadelphia Reservoir on January 1, 1954, and December 
24, 1955 (Christmas counts) ; 1,240 on the Susquehanna Flats on 
January 2, 1950 (Christmas count) ; 1,110 in the Ocean City area 
on December 27, 1953 (Christmas count). 
Banding. — See figure 7. 




Figure 7. — Mallard banding recoveries. Each symbol represents the number 
of records for a State or Province. Banded in Maryland, recovered else- 
where: solid circle = recovered June through August; solid triangle = 
recovered September through May. Recovered in Maryland, banded else- 
where : open circle = banded June through August ; open triangle = banded 
September through May. 



72 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 62, FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 

BLACK DUCK Anas rubripes Brewster 

Status. — Breeding: Common in the tidewater areas of the 
Eastern Shore section (greatest numbers in the marshes of Dor- 
chester County and in the Chester River-Eastern Bay area) ; 
uncommon in the tidewater areas of the Western Shore and Upper 
Chesapeake sections; rare in the interior of all sections; definite 
inland-breeding records for Baltimore (H. Kolb), Prince Georges, 
and Allegany (K. A. Wilson) Counties. See figure 4. Transient: 
Abundant in the tidewater areas of Dorchester County and in the 
Chester River-Eastern Bay area; common in tidewater areas 
elsewhere in the Eastern Shore section; fairly common in tide- 
water areas of the Western Shore and Upper Chesapeake sections 
and in the interior of all sections. Wintering: Common in tide- 
water areas of the Eastern Shore section ; fairly common in tide- 
water areas of the Western Shore and Upper Chesapeake sections ; 
uncommon in the interior of all sections. Outstanding wintering 
and transient concentration areas include the Chester River, 
Eastern Bay, the Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge, and the 
large marsh extending from Savannah Lake to Elliott Island in 
southern Dorchester County. 

Habitat. — Breeding: Various types of tidal marshes and marsh 
meadows, including Olney three-square, switch grass, salt reed- 
grass, salt-water cordgrass, salt-meadow grass, and needlerush; 
also along margins of islands situated in bays or estuaries; and 
on inland ponds and streams that are fringed with marsh vegeta- 
tion. Transient and ivintering: Nearly all types of marshes, 
ponds, and streams; occasionally fairly large numbers are also 
found on the open bays and estuaries. 

Nesting season. — Mid-March to early September; peak, early 
April to late June. Extreme egg dates (217 nests) : March 28, 1953, 
in Queen Annes County (V. D. Stotts) and August 24, 1914, in Dor- 
chester County (Jackson, 1941). Extreme downy young dates 
(54 broods) : April 8, 1949, in Dorchester County (W. S. Webster) 
and August 12, 1954, in Dorchester County. 

Spring migration. — Normal period: February 15-25 to April 
15-25; peak, February 25 to March 25. Extreme arrival date: 
January 28, 1951, in Harford County (T. A. Imhof). Extreme 
departure dates: May 21, 1922, in the District of Columbia (J. 
Kittredge, Jr.) ; May 7, 1936, in Garrett County (M. G. Brooks) ; 
May 6, 1893, in Baltimore County (G. H. Gray). 

Fall migration. — Normal period: September 10-20 to Decem- 
ber 1-10; peak, October 20 to November 25. Extreme arrival 
dates: August 20, 1927, in the District of Columbia (A. Wet- 



BIRDS OF MARYLAND AND DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 



73 



more) ; August 24, 1949, in Prince Georges County. Extreme 
departure date: December 17, 1939, in Prince Georges County. 
Breeding population density (pairs per 100 acres). — 

5.3 (53 in 1000 acres) in brackish bay marsh (a mosaic of tidal ponds and 
creeks and various plant associations including needlerush, salt-water 
cordgrass, salt-meadow grass, salt reed-grass, spike-grass, Olney three- 
square, and ditch grass) in Dorchester County in 1956. 

Maximum counts. — Spring: 18,560 on the Potomac River be- 
low Washington, D. C, on March 10, 1928 (H. H. T. Jackson). 
Fall: 23,000 along the Potomac River in Prince Georges and 



©a m®, 





Figure 8. — Black Duck banding recoveries. Each symbol represents the 
number of records for a State or Province. Banded in Maryland, recovered 
elsewhere: solid circle = recovered June through August; solid triangle = 
recovered September through May. Recovered in Maryland, banded else- 
where: open circle = banded June through August; open triangle s= banded 
September through May. 



74 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 62, FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 

Charles Counties on November 10, 1928 (H. C. Oberholser) ; 
10,000 on the marsh between Savannah Lake and Elliott Island 
in Dorchester County on November 12, 1948 ; 6,941 on the Potomac 
River below Washington, D. C, on October 28, 1930 (H. C. Ober- 
holser) ; 4,000 on Middle River in Baltimore County on November 
12, 1927 (G. A. Edwards) ; 1,400 on Gunpowder Neck in Harford 
County on October 22, 1950 (T. A. Imhof). Winter: 40,243 on 
the Potomac River, below Washington, D. C, on February 11, 
1928 (H. H. T. Jackson) ; 10,125 in southern Dorchester County 
on December 28, 1955 (Christmas count) ; 7,102 in the St. Michaels 
area, Talbot County, on December 29, 1954 (Christmas count) ; 
7,000 on the Susquehanna Flats on January 7, 1928 (J. A. Cur- 
rier) ; 2,210 in the Ocean City area on December 22, 1951 
(Christmas count) ; 2,000 on Triadelphia Reservoir, Montgomery 
and Howard Counties, on January 1, 1954 (Christmas count). 
Banding. — See figure 8. 

GAD WALL Anas strepera Linnaeus 

Status. — Breeding: During the late spring of 1948, at least 
7 pairs were found nesting in a tidal marsh in Somerset County 
located from 1 to 2 miles southeast of Dames Quarter (Springer 
and Stewart, 1950) — several pairs were noted in this same area 
during 1949 and 1950, and in 1955 a nest with eggs was found 
about 2 miles south of there on Fish Island in the Manokin River ; 
in 1956, a nest with eggs was found in southern Dorchester 
County, 6 miles northeast of Elliott. Transient: Common in tide- 
water areas of Charles County along the Potomac and Wicomico 
Rivers; fairly common in tidewater areas of Dorchester County; 
uncommon elsewhere on tidewater and inland areas of all sections. 
Wintering: Same as transient status, except that it is absent or 
rare in the Allegheny Mountain, Ridge and Valley, and Piedmont 
sections. Summer vagrant: Casual in the Western Shore section 
— recorded in the District of Columbia on June 7, 1930 (W. H. 
Ball), and June 12, 1952 (J. W. Taylor, Jr.), in Prince Georges 
County on June 13 to 24, 1949, and in Anne Arundel County (Mrs. 
W. L. Henderson, Mrs. G. Tappan) on June 30, 1955. 

Habitat. — Breeding: In Somerset County, occurs in a tidal 
marsh in which salt-meadow grass is predominant with scattered 
patches of switch grass, salt-marsh bulrush, and needlerush and 
scattered shrubs of wax-myrtle, sea-myrtle and marsh-elder. 
Transient and tointering: Brackish estuaries, ponds in tidal 
marshes, and occasionally on inland ponds, lakes, and rivers. 

Nesting season. — Late April to early August. Extreme egg 



BIRDS OF MARYLAND AND DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 75 

dates (4 nests) : May 4, 1956, in Dorchester County and July 19, 
1955, in Somerset County. A brood of 10 young about 4 or 5 days 
old was observed on July 3, 1948, in Somerset County (F. M. 
Uhler). 

Spring migration. — Normal period: March 10-20 to April 25- 
May 5. Extreme arrival date: February 25, 1955, in Anne Arun- 
del County (Mrs. W. L. Henderson). Extreme departure dates: 
May 16, 1954, in Dorchester County (J. K. Wright) ; May 5, 1951, 
in Harford County (T. A. Imhof) and in Baltimore County (H. 
Kolb, E. Willis). 

Fall migration. — August 20-30 to November 20-30; peak, 
October 10 to November 10. Extreme arrival dates: August 19, 
1950, in Montgomery County (J. W. Taylor, Jr.) ; August 20, 
1927, in Charles County (E. A. Preble). Extreme departure 
date: December 1, 1951, in Montgomery County (L. Kilham). 

Maximum counts. — Spring: 1,300 on the Potomac River below 
Washington, D. C, on March 13, 1928 (H. H. T. Jackson) ; 670 
on Savannah Lake, Dorchester County, on March 3, 1955 ; 260 in 
Charles County on March 22, 1953 (A. R. Stickley, Jr.) ; 220 in 
Sandy Point-Matapeake area on March 23, 1946. Fall: 6,000 on 
the Potomac River in Charles County on November 1, 1927 (H. C. 
Oberholser) ; 650 in southern Dorchester County on November 
19, 1950. Winter: 3,804 on the Potomac River in Prince Georges 
County and upper Charles County on December 5, 1930 (H. C. 
Oberholser) ; 1,889 in the Wicomico River area in Charles County 
on January 1, 1950 (Christmas count) ; 1,300 in the Port Tobacco 
area in Charles County on January 27, 1953 (A. R. Stickley, Jr.) ; 
700 in the Savannah Lake-Elliott Island area, Dorchester County, 
on February 25, 1950, and February 22, 1954. 

Banding. — Two Gadwalls recovered in Somerset and Harford 
Counties (November 22-27) had been banded as juvenals (August 
3-17) in north-central North Dakota and Saskatchewan (Wood 
River, Courval). 

PINTAIL Anas acuta Linnaeus 

Status. — Transient and wintering: Common in the tidewater 
areas of the Upper Chesapeake section (east of Chesapeake Bay) ; 
fairly common in other tidewater areas of the Eastern Shore, 
Western Shore, and Upper Chesapeake sections; uncommon in 
the interior of all sections. 

Habitat. — Brackish estuaries, and ponds in tidal marshes ; also 
on inland ponds, lakes, and rivers. 

Spring migration. — Normal period: January 15-25 to April 
25-May 5; peak, February 15 to March 20. Extreme arrival 



76 



NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 62, FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 



date: January 14, 1956, in Dorchester County. Extreme departure 
dates: May 26, 1952, in Caroline County (M. W. Hewitt) ; May 
16, 1954, in Dorchester County (J. K. Wright) ; May 14, 1922, 
in the District of Columbia (J. Kittredge, Jr.). 

Fall migration. — Normal period: August 25-September 5 to 
December 10-20 ; peak, October 25 to December 5. Extreme date 
of arrival: August 22, 1929, in the District of Columbia (W. H. 
Ball). 

Maximum counts. — Spring: 2,000 on Otter Creek and 470 on 
Bush River, both in Harford County on March 5, 1950 (P. F. 
Springer) ; 500 in the District of Columbia on March 11, 1950 
(J. W. Taylor, Jr.). Fall: 6,330 in the Chester River area on 
December 6, 1955 ; 2,175 at Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge 
on November 13, 1955 (H. Sutton) ; 800 on the Potomac River 
in Prince Georges County on December 5, 1930 (H. C. Ober- 
holser) ; 300 in the Gunpowder River area on January 6, 1952 




Figure 9. — Pintail banding recoveries. Each symbol represents the number 
of records for a State or Province. Banded in Maryland, recovered else- 
where: solid triangle = recovered September through May. Recovered in 
Maryland, banded elsewhere: open circle = banded June through August; 
open triangle = banded September through May. 



BIRDS OF MARYLAND AND DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 77 

(T. A. Imhof ) ; 200 in the District of Columbia on November 13, 
1940 (W. L. McAtee). Winter: 30,000 near Chestertown, Kent 
County, during January-February, 1955 (R. T. Smith) ; 3,625 
in southern Dorchester County on December 22, 1952 (Christmas 
count) ; 550 in the Wicomico River area, Charles County, on Janu- 
ary 2, 1949 (Christmas count) ; 535 in the Ocean City area on 
December 22, 1951 (Christmas count) ; 506 on Susquehanna Flats 
on December 20, 1947 (Christmas count). 
Banding. — See figure 9. 

COMMON TEAL Anas crecca Linnaeus 

Status. — Rare winter visitor in the coastal area of Worcester 
County; casual elsewhere. One or two have been recorded nearly 
every winter since February 1950 on Heine's Pond. 

Period of occurrence. — Extreme dates: December 27, 1950, 
1953, 1954, and 1955 (S. H. Low, et al.) in Worcester County and 
April 1885 on the Potomac River near Washington (USNM — 
H. Marshall). 

GREEN-WINGED TEAL Ancs carolinensis Gmelin 

Status. — Transient: Common in the tidewater areas of Dor- 
chester County; fairly common in tidewater areas elsewhere in 
the Eastern Shore, Western Shore, and Upper Chesapeake sec- 
tions ; uncommon in the interior of all sections. Wintering: Fairly 
common in tidewater areas of Dorchester County; uncommon in 
tidewater areas elsewhere in the Eastern Shore, Western Shore, 
and Upper Chesapeake sections; rare in the interior of the 
Eastern Shore, Western Shore, Upper Chesapeake, and Piedmont 
sections. Summer vagrant: 1 observed in Dorchester County on 
June 21, 1956 (P. F. Springer). 

Habitat. — Tidal ponds and creeks of brackish marshes; also 
occurs more sparingly in salt marshes, on estuarine waters, and 
on inland ponds, lakes, and streams. 

Spring migration. — Normal period: February 25-March 5 to 
May 1-10; peak, March 10 to April 20. Extreme arrival date: 
February 19, 1949, in Prince Georges County. Extreme departure 
date: May 19, 1954, in Dorchester County. 

Fall migration. — Normal period: September 5-15 to Decem- 
ber 1-10; peak, October 10 to November 25. Extreme dates of 
arrival: August 19, 1950 (J. W. Taylor, Jr.), in Montgomery 
County; August 24, 1956, in Prince Georges County (P. F. 
Springer). Extreme dates of departure: December 23, 1926, in 
the District of Columbia (A. Wetmore) ; December 12, 1948, in 
Montgomery County (I. R. Barnes). 



78 



NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 62, FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 



Maximum counts. — Spring-' 500 on Mills Island, Worcester 
County, on April 23, 1938 (G. A. Ammann) ; 166 in the Patuxent 
River marsh near Upper Marlboro on April 5, 1955; 162 in 
southern Dorchester County on March 11, 1955. Fall: 3,000 on 
Blackwater Refuge, Dorchester County, on November 16, 1947 
(I. R. Barnes) ; 250 in the Gunpowder River area on October 21, 
1950 (T. A. Imhof ) ; 150 on the Potomac River below Washington, 
D. C, on November 9, 1925 (A. Wetmore). Winter (Christmas 
counts) : 606 in southern Dorchester County on December 28, 
1954 ; 200 in the Ocean City area on December 21, 1952 ; 75 near 
St. Michaels in Talbot County on December 29, 1953; 60 on the 
Susquehanna Flats on January 2, 1950. 

Banding. — See figure 10. 




Figure 10. — Green-winged Teal banding recoveries. Each symbol represents 
the number of records for a State or Province. Banded in Maryland, recov- 
ered elsewhere: solid circle = recovered June through August; solid tri- 
angle = recovered September through May. Recovered in Maryland, banded 
elsewhere: open circle = banded June through August; open triangle = 
banded September through May. 



BIRDS OF MARYLAND AND DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 



79 



BLUE-WINGED TEAL Anas d/scors Linnaeus 

Status. — Breeding: Fairly common in tidewater areas of Dor- 
chester County; uncommon in tidewater areas elsewhere in the 
Eastern Shore Section; rare in tidewater areas of the Western 
Shore and Upper Chesapeake sections. Definite records of nests 
with eggs or broods of downy young are from Worcester (G. A. 
Ammann), Somerset, Dorchester, St. Marys (E. J. Court), Anne 
Arundel (R. R. Kerr), and Baltimore (W. A. Putnam) Counties. 
See figure 11. 




LEGEND 
BLUE-WINGED TEAL 
^fjyM Principal Range 

• Local Record 
RUFFED GROUSE 

3 Principal Range 
O Local Record 



Figure 11. — Breeding ranges of Blue-winged Teal and Ruffed Grouse. 



Transient: Common in the tidewater areas of Dorchester County; 
fairly common in tidewater areas elsewhere in the Eastern Shore, 
Western Shore, and Upper Chesapeake sections; fairly common 
locally in the Allegheny Mountain Section; uncommon elsewhere 
in the interior of all sections. Wintering : Uncommon in the tide- 
water areas of Dorchester County ; casual elsewhere in the Eastern 
Shore section — 1 recorded at Heine's Pond, Worcester County, 
on December 27, 1950, and 1 on December 27, 1954 (S. H. Low). 

Habitat. — Breeding: Usually in short-growth, tidal marsh- 
meadow types such as salt-meadow grass. Transient: Various 
types of tidal and inland ponds and marshes. 

Nesting season. — Mid-April to early August (nesting peak, 



80 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 62, FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 

early May to late June) . Extreme egg dates (9 nests) : May 4, 
1954, in Dorchester County and June 16, 1931 (A. L. Nelson) , in 
Dorchester County. Extreme downy young dates (25 broods) : 
May 25, 1919, in Baltimore County (W. A. Warner) and August 
4, 1954, in Dorchester County. 

Spring migration. — Normal period: March 10-20 to May 10- 
20; peak, April 5 to May 5. Extreme arrival dates: March 6, 
1954, in Montgomery County (E. Hall, P. G. DuMont) ; March 8, 
1926, on the Potomac River below Washington, D. C. (H. C. 




Figure 12.— Blue-winged Teal banding recoveries. Each symbol represents 
the number of records for a State or Province. Banded in Maryland, recov- 
ered elsewhere: solid circle = recovered June through August; solid 
triangle = recovered September through May. Recovered in Maryland, 
banded elsewhere: open circle = banded June through August. 



BIRDS OF MARYLAND AND DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 81 

Oberholser). Extreme departure dates: June 6, 1953, in Mont- 
gomery County (J. W. Terborgh) ; June 2, 1892, in Prince Georges 
County (C. W. Richmond). 

Fall migration. — Normal period: August 20-30 to November 
10-20; peak, September 5 to October 15. Extreme arrival dates: 
August 7, 1928, in the District of Columbia (W. H. Ball) ; August 
11, 1898, in Baltimore County (F. C. Kirkwood). Extreme de- 
parture dates: December 10, 1927, on the Potomac River below 
Washington, D. C. (H. H. T. Jackson) ; December 9, 1899, on 
Gunpowder River marsh (J. Thomas). 

Breeding population density (pairs per 100 acres) . — 

6.2 (10 in 160 acres) in brackish bay marsh (study tract included tidal ponds 
and creeks and extensive areas of salt-meadow grass) in Dorchester 
County in 1956. 

Maximum counts. — Spring: 173 on the Patuxent River marsh 
near Upper Marlboro on April 5, 1955 ; 150 at Marshall Dierssen 
Refuge, Montgomery County, on April 26, 1953, and March 30, 
1954 (both by J. W. Terborgh) ; 75 on the marsh between Savan- 
nah Lake and Elliott Island, Dorchester County, on April 30, 
1949; 50 on Mills Island, Worcester County, on April 23, 1938 
(G. A. Ammann). Fall: 500+ in Elliott Island marsh on Sep- 
tember 21, 1954; 185 on the Patuxent River marsh on October 
27, 1955; 150 on Savannah Lake on October 2, 1948; 80 in the 
District of Columbia on September 20, 1930 (C. Cottam) ; 75 at 
the Dierssen Refuge on September 8, 1952. Winter: 80 on Black- 
water Refuge, Dorchester County, on February 22, 1952; 39 in 
southern Dorchester County on December 28, 1953 (Christmas 
count) . 

Banding. — See figure 12. 

[CINNAMON TEAL] Anas cyanopiera Vieillot 

Status. — Hypothetical. B. H. Warren reported observing a 
male on the Bohemia River in Cecil County on April 9, 1910. 

EUROPEAN WIDGEON Mareca pene/ope (Linnaeus) 

Status. — Transient and wintering: Rare in the tidewater areas 
of the Eastern Shore, Western Shore, and Upper Chesapeake 
sections ; casual in the Piedmont and Allegheny Mountain sections. 
A total of 41 records, including specimens, have been reported 
from Maryland and the District of Columbia. These include 18 
from the Upper Chesapeake section (including 10 from Harford 
and Cecil Counties, and 2 each from Kent and Baltimore Coun- 
ties) ; 11 from the Eastern Shore section (6 from Dorchester 



82 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 62, FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 

County, 4 from Worcester County, and 1 from Caroline County) ; 
10 from the Western Shore section (6 from Anne Arundel 
County, 2 from the District of Columbia, and 1 each from Charles 
and Prince Georges Counties) ; 1 from the Piedmont section 
(near Seneca, in Montgomery County — L. Kilham) ; and 1 from 
the Allegheny Mountain section (at Mountain Lake on April 17, 
1954— M. G. Brooks). 

Habitat. — Brackish and fresh estuaries and marsh ponds; 
usually associated with the American Widgeon. 

Period of occurrence. — Extreme dates: October 16, 1892 
(USNM), in the Washington, D. C, market (J. R. Massie) and 
April 17, 1954, in Garrett County (M. G. Brooks). Number of 
records by month: October, 6; November, 6; December, 7; Jan- 
uary, 2; February, 4; March, 7; April, 5. All records were of 
single birds except for 2 seen at Gibson Island in Anne Arundel 
County on October 30, 1951 (Mrs. W. L. Henderson, Mrs. G. 
Tappan) ; and 2 seen near Perry ville in Cecil County on April 5, 
1931 ( W. Yoder) . 

Banding. — One recovered in Dorchester County on November 
27, 1929, had been banded at Husavik, Iceland, on August 15, 
1929. This was the fourth North American recovery of a Euro- 
pean Widgeon from Iceland. 

AMERICAN WIDGEON Mcrreca americana (Gmelin) 

Status. — Transient: Common, locally abundant, in the tide- 
water areas along Chesapeake Bay and adjoining estuaries in the 
Eastern Shore, Western Shore, and Upper Chesapeake sections 
(concentration areas include the Susquehanna Flats, Eastern Bay, 
Dorchester County marshes, and the Choptank, Chester, Sassa- 
fras, Northeast, Bush, Gunpowder, Middle, and Magothy Rivers, 
and portions of the Potomac and Wicomico Rivers in southern 
Charles County) ; fairly common in the interior of all sections 
and in the coastal area of Worcester County. Wintering : Locally 
common in tidewater areas along Chesapeake Bay and adjoining 
estuaries in the Eastern Shore, Western Shore, and Upper Chesa- 
peake sections; uncommon in the coastal area of Worcester 
County; rare in the interior of all sections. Summer vagrant: 
Casual visitor — recorded in Harford County on July 14, 1952 
(P. F. Springer) ; in Queen Annes County on June 17, 1952, 
July 21, 1953, and June 8-15, 1954 (P. F. Springer) ; in Mont- 
gomery County on July 12-16, 1953 (S. H. Low) ; and in the 
District of Columbia, July 8-12, 1933 (E. N. Grinnell). 

Habitat. — Brackish estuarine waters, and ponds in brackish 



BIRDS OF MARYLAND AND DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 



83 



tidal marshes that contain a plentiful aquatic plant growth, in- 
cluding such species as wild celery, red-head pondweed, sago 
pondweed and ditch grass; also occurs more sparingly on inland 
ponds and lakes. 

Spring migration. — Normal period: March 1-10 to May 10-20; 
peak, March 15 to April 15. Extreme date of arrival: February 
13, 1949, in Prince Georges County. Extreme dates of departure: 
June 1, 1953, in Montgomery County (S. H. Low) ; May 31, 1951, 
in Harford County (T. A. Imhof) ; May 26, 1953, in Prince 
Georges County (P. F. Springer). 

Fall migration. — Normal period: September 5-15 to Decem- 
ber 10-20; peak, October 10 to December 10. Extreme arrival 




Figure 13. — American Widgeon banding recoveries. Each symbol represents 
the number of records for a State or Province. Banded in Maryland, recov- 
ered elsewhere: solid triangle = recovered September through May. Re- 
covered in Maryland, banded elsewhere : open circle = banded June through 
August; open triangle = banded September through May. 



84 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 62, FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 

dates: August 28, 1935, in Prince Georges County (R. B. Wal- 
lace) ; September 2, 1952, in Frederick County (J. W. Richards) . 

Maximum counts. — Spring: 7,900 in the Carroll Island area, 
Baltimore County, on March 16, 1947 ; 6,100 on Gunpowder Neck, 
Harford County, on March 18, 1951 (T. A. Imhof). Fall: 19,000 
on Gunpowder Neck on December 7, 1951 (T. A. Imhof) ; 14,000 
on the Potomac River below Washington, D. C, on November 19, 
1929 (H. C. Oberholser) ; 14,000 in the Carroll Island area on 
November 19, 1950 ; 5,650 in southern Charles County on Decem- 
ber 11, 1948. Winter: 19,281 near St. Michaels in Talbot County 
on December 29, 1953 (Christmas count) ; 11,000 at Gunpowder 
Neck on January 2, 1952 (T. A. Imhof) ; 4,830 on the Susquehanna 
Flats on January 2, 1950 (Christmas count) ; 3,165 in the Kent 
Island area, Queen Annes County, on December 29, 1949 (Christ- 
mas count) ; 2,670 in southern Charles County on December 26, 
1948 (Christmas count). 

Banding. — See figure 13. 

SHOVELER Spatula clypeata (Linnaeus) 

Status. — Transient: Fairly common in tidewater areas of 
Dorchester County ; uncommon elsewhere in tidewater and inland 
water areas of all sections. Wintering : Uncommon in tidewater 
areas of Dorchester County; rare in tidewater areas elsewhere 
in the Eastern Shore, Western Shore, and Upper Chesapeake 
sections; casual in the Piedmont section — 2 observed throughout 
the winter of 1955-56 at Owings Mills, Baltimore County (E. G. 
and J. R. Worthley). 

Habitat. — Shallow ponds in brackish marshes; occasionally 
in other tidewater habitats and on inland ponds and lakes. 

Spring migration. — Normal period: March 1-10 to May 1-10 ; 
peak, March 15 to April 25. Extreme date of arrival: February 
28, 1953, in Anne Arundel County (Mrs. W. L. Henderson, Mrs. G. 
Tappan). Extreme dates of departure: May 19, 1952, in the Dis- 
trict of Columbia (M. W. Mulloy) ; May 17, 1954, in Dorchester 
County. 

Fall migration. — Normal period: August 25-September 5 to 
December 1-10; peak, September 25 to November 10. Extreme 
arrival date: August 6, 1944, in Prince Georges County. Extreme 
departure date: December 11, 1899, on the Gunpowder River 
marsh (F. C. Kirkwood). 

Maximum counts. — Spring: 55 on Blackwater Refuge, Dor- 
chester County, on March 25, 1950 (J. E. Johnson) ; 40 at Elliott 
marsh, Dorchester County, on March 21, 1956 ; 35 at Indiantown, 



BIRDS OF MARYLAND AND DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 85 

St. Marys County, on April 3, 1954, and April 8, 1953 (J. W. 
Terborgh) ; 20 on Mills Island, Worcester County, on April 23, 
1938 (G. A. Ammann). Fall: 410 on the Potomac River below 
Washington, D. C, on October 19, 1929 (H. C. Oberholser) ; 40+ 
in the District of Columbia on September 6, 1930 (W. H. Ball) ; 
18 in Worcester County on November 8, 1952 (M. Gilbert). 
Winter: 90 on Blackwater Refuge on February 25, 1950; 40 in 
the Newport Bay area, Worcester County, on February 21, 1954 ; 
15 on the Sassafras River on December 26, 1948 (J. E. Willoughby, 
J. W. Taylor, Jr.). 

WOOD DUCK Aix sponsa (Linnaeus) 

Status. — Breeding: Fairly common in the Eastern Shore, 
Western Shore, Upper Chesapeake, Piedmont, and Ridge and 
Valley sections; uncommon in the Allegheny Mountain section. 
Transient: Common in the Eastern Shore, Western Shore, and 
Upper Chesapeake sections ; fairly common in the Piedmont, Ridge 
and Valley, and Allegheny Mountain sections. Wintering: Un- 
common in the Eastern Shore and Western Shore sections; rare 
in the Upper Chesapeake, Piedmont, and Ridge and Valley sec- 
tions. 

Habitat. — Inland streams, ponds, and lakes that are bordered 
by trees; also in the upper fresh-water marshes of the tidal 
estuaries. 

Nesting season. — Early March to early September (nesting 
peak, late March to early July) . Extreme egg dates (76 nests) : 
March 10, 1951 (12 eggs in another nest on March 14, 1953), 
and July 25, 1950 (both extremes in Prince Georges County by 

C. G. Webster) . Extreme downy young dates (88 broods) : April 
14, 1953, and September 2, 1953, both in Prince Georges County 
(C. G. Webster). 

Spring migration. — Normal period: February 20-March 1 to 
April 10-20 ; peak, March 1 to April 1. Extreme date of arrival: 
February 18, 1946, in Prince Georges County. 

Fall migration. — August 15-25 to November 15-25; peak, 
September 5 to November 5. Extreme date of arrival: August 12, 
1944, in Prince Georges County. Extreme dates of departure: 
December 10, 1927, on the Potomac River below Washington, 

D. C. (H. H. T. Jackson) ; December 4, 1951, in Anne Arundel 
County (Mrs. W. L. Henderson). 

Breeding population density (pairs per 100 acres). — 

0.4 (3 in 714 acres) in flood-plain forest along Patuxent River, Prince Georges 
and Anne Arundel Counties, in 1943. 



86 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 62, FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 

Maximum counts. — Spring: 150 near Seneca, Montgomery- 
County, on March 19, 1948 (T. W. Donnelly). Fall: 184 at 
Patuxent Refuge, Prince Georges County, on October 29, 1944; 
150 on Mataponi Creek, Prince Georges County, on September 
13, 1947 (N. Hotchkiss, F. M. Uhler) ; 90 on the Nanticoke River 
on November 3, 1955; 40 on Gunpowder Neck, Harford County, 
on September 5, 1951 (T. A. Imhof ) ; 35 in the District of Colum- 
bia on September 13, 1930 (W. H. Ball). Winter (Christmas 




D.PF. 



Figure 14. — Wood Duck banding recoveries. Each symbol represents the 
number of records for a State or Province. Banded in Maryland, recovered 
elsewhere: solid triangle = recovered September through May. Recovered 
in Maryland, banded elsewhere: open circle = banded June through August; 
open triangle = banded September through May. 



BIRDS OF MARYLAND AND DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 87 

counts) : 12 in the Ocean City area on December 28, 1949; 6 at 
Patuxent Refuge on December 27, 1940. 
Banding. — See figure 14. 

REDHEAD Aythya americana (Eyton) 

Status. — Transient and wintering: Locally common in the 
tidal estuaries adjoining Chesapeake Bay in the Upper Chesa- 
peake, Eastern Shore, and Western Shore sections (concentration 
areas include the Gunpowder-Middle River area, the Bush River, 
Chester River, Eastern Bay, Choptank River, and Patuxent 
River) ; uncommon (rare in winter) in the coastal area of Wor- 
cester County and in the interior of all sections. Summer vagrant: 
Casual in the Eastern Shore, Western Shore, and Upper Chesa- 
peake sections. 

Habitat. — Brackish estuarine waters with a plentiful aquatic 
plant growth, including such species as red-head pondweed, sago 
pondweed, and wild celery; occasional on inland lakes and ponds. 

Spring migration. — Normal period: March 1-10 to May 1-10; 
peak, March 15 to April 20. Extreme dates of departure: May 
25, 1939, in Baltimore County (H. Kolb) ; May 20, 1949, in Queen 
Annes County; May 15, 1954, in Worcester County (J. K. Wright) . 

Fall migration. — Normal period: October 5-15 to December 
15-25; peak, November 10 to December 10. Extreme arrival 
dates: October 1, 1956, in Cecil County (C. D. Evans, D. P. 
Fankhauser) ; October 3, 1889, in Harford County (F. C. Kirk- 
wood) . 

Maximum counts. — Spring: 10,500 in the Carroll Island area, 
Baltimore County, on March 16, 1947; 4,000 on the Bush River, 
Harford County, on March 17, 1946 (Mrs. R. C. Simpson) ; 2,200 
on the Potomac River below Washington, D. C, on March 13, 
1928 (H. H. T. Jackson). Fall: 9,340 on Eastern Bay, Queen 
Annes County, on December 12, 1955; 5,000 on the Potomac 
River in Prince Georges and Charles Counties on November 29, 
1926 (H. C. Oberholser) , and November 30, 1925 (F. C. Lincoln) ; 
3,340 on Chester River on December 6, 1955 ; 1,500 on Gunpowder 
Neck, Harford County, on December 10, 1950 (T. A. Imhof). 
Winter: 7,050 in the Kent Island area, Queen Annes County, on 
December 29, 1949 (Christmas count) ; 3,000 at Cove Point, 
Calvert County, on February 5, 1949 (L. K. Couch) ; 3,000 in the 
Gunpowder River area on January 6, 1952 (T. A. Imhof) ; 1,500 
on the lower Patuxent River on February 18, 1951 (E. G. Davis") 

Banding. — See figure 15. 



88 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 62, FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 




f 



)© 



A 




\T\ 






Figure 15. — Redhead banding recoveries. Each symbol represents the number 
of records for a State or Province. Banded in Maryland, recovered else- 
where: solid triangle = recovered September through May. Recovered in 
Maryland, banded elsewhere: open circle = banded June through August; 
open triangle = banded September through May. 

RING-NECKED DUCK Aythya collaris (Donovan) 

Status. — Transient: Fairly common in all sections. Winter- 
ing: Uncommon in the Eastern Shore, Western Shore, and Upper 
Chesapeake sections; rare in the Piedmont section. Summer 
vagrant: Casual visitor — recorded at Marshall Dierssen Refuge, 
Montgomery County, on June 6, 1953 (J. W. Terborgh) and at 
Patuxent Refuge, Prince Georges County, throughout the sum- 
mers of 1953 (F. M. Uhler) and 1955. This species has become 
decidedly more common since about 1945, coincident with its 
general increase as a breeding bird in the Northeast. 

Habitat. — Brackish or fresh estuarine waters and inland ponds 
and lakes. 



BIRDS OF MARYLAND AND DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 



89 



Spring migration. — Normal period: February 10-20 to May 
1-10; peak, February 20 to April 5. Extreme arrival date: 
February 5, 1950, in Prince Georges County. Extreme departure 
date: May 18, 1938, in Baltimore County (H. Brackbill). 

Fall migration. — Normal period: October 5-15 to December 
1-10; peak, October 25 to November 30. Extreme arrival dates: 
September 17, 1935, in Garrett County (M. G. Brooks) ; October 
2, 1948, in Queen Annes County. Extreme departure date: De- 
cember 12, 1948, in Montgomery County (I. R. Barnes). 




Figure 16. — Ring-necked Duck banding recoveries. Each symbol represents 
the number of records for a State or Province. Banded in Maryland, re- 
covered elsewhere : solid triangle = recovered September through May. Re- 
covered in Maryland, banded elsewhere : open circle = banded June through 
August; open triangle = banded September through May. 



90 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 62, FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 

Maximum counts. — Spring: 3,000 on the Bush River, Harford 
County, on March 26, 1933 (S. Cramer) ; 720 at Patuxent Refuge, 
Prince Georges County, on March 10, 1953; 250 at Dierssen 
Refuge, Montgomery County, on February 28, 1954 (J. W. Ter- 
borgh) ; 200 in the Carroll Island area, Baltimore County, on 
March 30, 1947. Fall: 45 in Montgomery County on November 
27, 1949 (S. A. Briggs). Winter: 1,715 in southern Dorchester 
County on December 22, 1952 (Christmas count) ; 1,500 at Gibson 
Island, Anne Arundel County, on January 20, 1951 (Mrs. W. L. 
Henderson) ; 730 on the Susquehanna Flats on January 2, 1950 
(Christmas count). 

Banding. — See figure 16. 

CANVASBACK Aythya valisineria (Wilson) 

Status. — Transient: Abundant on the Susquehanna Flats in 
Harford and Cecil Counties; locally common elsewhere in the 
tidewater areas along Chesapeake Bay and adjoining estuaries 
in the Eastern Shore, Western Shore, and Upper Chesapeake 
sections (concentration areas include Eastern Bay, Fishing Bay, 
Tangier Sound, Pocomoke Sound, and Northeast, Sassafras, 
Chester, Choptank, Honga, Nanticoke, Gunpowder, Magothy, and 
South Rivers, the lower Patuxent River, and portions of the 
Potomac and Wicomico Rivers within Charles County) ; uncom- 
mon in the coastal area of Worcester County and in the interior 
of all sections. Wintering: Common in tidewater areas along 
Chesapeake Bay and adjoining estuaries in the Eastern Shore, 
Western Shore, and Upper Chesapeake sections (concentration 
areas same as during transient periods) ; usually uncommon in 
the coastal area of Worcester County; rare in the interior of the 
Eastern Shore, Western Shore, Upper Chesapeake, and Piedmont 
sections. Summer vagrant: Casual in the Eastern Shore and 
Western Shore sections. 

Habitat. — Estuarine waters that contain a plentiful aquatic 
plant growth, including such species as wild celery, sago pond- 
weed, and eel grass; also on inland lakes and ponds. Locally, 
Canvasbacks occur in large numbers in certain bays and estuaries 
that contain a rich and varied molluscan fauna. 

Spring migration. — Normal period: February 25-March 5 to 
May 1-10; peak, March 5 to April 5. Extreme arrival date: 
February 23, 1930, in Montgomery County (A. K. Fisher). 
Extreme departure dates: June 3, 1950, in Anne Arundel County 
(Mrs. W. L. Henderson) ; May 28, 1948, in Prince Georges 
County; May 24, 1952, in Montgomery County (P. A. DuMont). 



BIRDS OF MARYLAND AND DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 



91 



Fall migration. — Normal period: October 15-25 to December 
15-25; peak, November 15 to December 15. Extreme arrival 
date: October 3, 1889, on the Gunpowder River (F. C. Kirkwood) . 

Maximum counts. — Spring: 40,000 on the Potomac River in 
Prince Georges and Charles Counties on March 7, 1925 (H. C. 
Oberholser) ; 30,000 on the Susquehanna Flats on March 15, 1931 
(C. Marburger) ; 3,000 on Bird River, Baltimore County, on 




Figure 17. — Canvasback banding recoveries. Each symbol represents the 
number of records for a State or Province. Banded in Maryland, recovered 
elsewhere: solid circle = recovered June through August; solid triangle = 
recovered September through May. Recovered in Maryland, banded else- 
where: open circle = banded June through August; open triangle = banded 
September through May. 



92 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 62, FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 

March 7, 1948 (0. W. Crowder) ; 1,000+ at Gibson Island, Anne 
Arundel County, on March 18, 1952 (Mrs. W. L. Henderson) ; 
800 on Fishing Bay, Dorchester County, on March 25, 1946. 
Fall: 100,000-j- on the Susquehanna Flats on December 7, 1947; 
50,000 on the Potomac River, Charles County, on December 5, 
1924 (H. C. Oberholser) ; "thousands" on Fishing Bay on Decem- 
ber 9 and 10, 1949 ; 2,500 in southern Charles County on Decem- 
ber 11, 1948. Winter: 105,000 on the Potomac River in Prince 
Georges and Charles Counties on February 13, 1926 (H. C. Ober- 
holser) ; 91,000 on the Susquehanna Flats on December 27, 1952 
(Christmas count) ; 17,750 in the Ocean City area on December 
27, 1955 (Christmas count) ; 15,424 in the Annapolis area on 
January 1, 1956 (Christmas count) ; 12,000 near the Army Chemi- 
cal Center, Harford County, on January 2, 1952 (T. A. Imhof) ; 
8,520 in southern Charles County on December 30, 1951 (Christ- 
mas count) ; 5,450 on the lower Patuxent River on January 12, 
1955 ; 3,085 in southern Dorchester County on December 28, 1954 
(Christmas count) ; 3,040 in the Kent Island area, Queen Annes 
County, on December 29, 1949 (Christmas count). Summer 
vagrant: About 100 in the District of Columbia on September 9, 
1931 (W. L. McAtee) ; about 30 in the District of Columbia on 
August 25, 1929, and June 7, 1930 (W. H. Ball). 
Banding. — See figure 17. 

GREATER SCAUP Aythya marlla (Linnaeus) 

Status. — Transient and wintering: Common in the coastal area 
of Worcester County; fairly common in tidewater areas along 
Chesapeake Bay and adjoining estuaries in the Eastern Shore, 
Western Shore, and Upper Chesapeake sections; rare in the in- 
terior of all sections. 

Habitat. — Bays and estuaries (both salt and brackish) ; oc- 
casional on inland lakes and ponds. 

Spring migration. — Normal period: March 1-10 to May 10- 
20; peak March 15 to April 20. Extreme dates of departure: 
May 31, 1951, in Harford County (T. A. Imhof) ; May 27, 1906, 
in Montgomery County (H. C. Oberholser) ; May 24, 1901, in 
Allegany County (G. Eifrig) ; May 23, 1920, in the District of 
Columbia (J. Kittredge, Jr.). 

Fall migration. — Normal period: October 1-10 to December 
1-10. Extreme date of arrival: September 26, 1920, in the Dis- 
trict of Columbia (J. Kittredge, Jr.). 

Maximum counts. — High counts for the Greater Scaup and 
Lesser Scaup are combined under the latter species. 



BIRDS OF MARYLAND AND DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 



93 



LESSER SCAUP Aythya affirm (Eyton) 

Status. — Transient: Common, occasionally abundant, in tide- 
water areas of the Eastern Shore, Western Shore, and Upper 
Chesapeake sections ; fairly common in the interior of all sections. 
Wintering: Common in tidewater areas of the Eastern Shore, 
Western Shore, and Upper Chesapeake sections; rare in the in- 




Figure 18. — Lesser Scaup banding recoveries. Each symbol represents the 
number of records for a State or Province. Banded in Maryland, recovered 
elsewhere: solid circle = recovered June through August; solid triangle = 
recovered September through May. Recovered in Maryland, banded else- 
where: open circle = banded June through August; open triangle = banded 
September through May. 



94 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 62, FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 

terior of all sections. Summer vagrant: Casual visitor — recorded 
in Worcester, Dorchester, Queen Annes (P. F. Springer), Anne 
Arundel (I. E. Hampe), Prince Georges, Charles (A. R. Stickley, 
Jr.), Montgomery (J. Hailman, K. Stecher), and Garrett Counties, 
and in the District of Columbia (numerous observers). 

Habitat. — Bays and estuaries (both salt and brackish water) 
and inland ponds, reservoirs, and lakes. 

Spring migration. — Normal period: March 1-10 to May 10- 
20; peak, March 15 to April 20. Extreme departure dates: June 
8, 1921 (A. Wetmore), and June 8, 1931 (W. L. McAtee), in the 
District of Columbia ; June 8, 1929, in Prince Georges and Charles 
Counties (H. C. Oberholser) ; June 8, 1953, in Garrett County. 

Fall migration. — Normal period: September 25-October 5 to 
December 15-25; peak, November 10 to December 10. Extreme 
arrival dates: September 19, 1927, in the District of Columbia 
(H. H. T. Jackson) ; September 24, 1953, in Dorchester County. 

Maximum counts (Greater and Lesser Scaup). — Spring: 
73,000 on the Potomac River in Prince Georges and Charles Coun- 
ties on March 17, 1926 (H. C. Oberholser) ; 6,250 in the Carroll 
Island area, Baltimore County, on March 16, 1947 (O. W. 
Crowder) ; 5,000 in the District of Columbia on March 10, 1920 
(A. Wetmore) ; 1,790 in Anne Arundel County on March 30, 1946; 
1,500 at Eastern Neck Island, Kent County, on April 1, 1938 (G. A. 
Ammann) ; 1,350 on the Choptank River on March 25, 1946. Fall: 
118,000 on the Potomac River in Charles County on November 
17, 1926 (H. C. Oberholser) ; 25,000 on the Susquehanna Flats 
on December 7, 1947. Winter: 10,000 in southeastern Worcester 
County on December 22, 1947 (Christmas count) ; 2,100 on Seneca 
Creek, Baltimore County, on February 14, 1952 ; 2,000 on the Sus- 
quehanna Flats on December 26, 1952 (Christmas count) ; 1,400 
on the lower Patuxent River on February 18, 1951. Summer 
vagrant: 9 in the District of Columbia on June 21 and August 13, 
1930 (W. J. Whiting) ; 4 at Port Tobacco, Charles County, on June 
27, 1953 (A. R. Stickley, Jr.). 

Banding. — See figure 18. 

COMMON GOLDENEYE Bucephala clangula (Linnaeus) 

Status. — Transient and wintering: Common in tidewater 
areas of the Eastern Shore and Western Shore sections; fairly 
common (uncommon in winter) in tidewater areas of the Upper 
Chesapeake section; uncommon (fairly common locally) in the 
interior of the Eastern Shore, Western Shore, Upper Chesapeake, 
Piedmont, and Ridge and Valley sections; uncommon (rare in 
winter) in the Allegheny Mountain section. Concentration areas 



BIRDS OF MARYLAND AND DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 95 

include the lower Potomac River, lower Patuxent River, Chester 
River, Eastern Bay, Choptank River, Honga River, Fishing Bay, 
Nanticoke River, Tangier Sound, Pocomoke Sound, and Chinco- 
teague Bay. Summer vagrant: Casual visitor — recorded in 
Charles (J. W. Taylor, Jr.), Calvert (M. H. Martin), Anne 
Arundel (Mrs. W. L. Henderson, R. R. Kerr), and Baltimore 
(C. D. Hackman) Counties. 

Habitat. — Bays and estuaries (both salt and brackish waters) ; 
also on inland lakes, reservoirs, and large streams. 

Spring migration. — Normal period: March 1-10 to April 20- 
30; peak, March 15 to April 10. Extreme departure dates: May 
11, 1953, in Anne Arundel County (Mrs. G. Tappan, Mrs. W. L. 
Henderson) ; May 5, 1939, in Charles County (C. Cottam, F. M. 
Uhler) . 

Fall migration. — Normal period: October 15-25 to December 
15-25; peak, November 10 to December 10. Extreme arrival 
dates: September 17, 1935, in Garrett County (M. G. Brooks) ; 
October 8, 1901, on the Potomac River below Washington, D. C. 
(B. Greenwood). 

Maximum counts. — Spring: 250 on Chesapeake Bay, Queen 
Annes County, on March 29, 1955; 150 on the Chester River on 
March 2, 1946; 100 near Solomons Island, Calvert County, on 
March 15, 1952 (L. Griffin) . Fall: 1,500 on Fishing Bay, Dor- 
chester County, on December 10, 1949; 600 in the Kent Island 
area, Queen Annes County, on December 1, 1951 (Mr. and Mrs. 
I. C. Hoover). Winter: 2,000 on the Potomac River off Mt. 
Vernon, Virginia, on December 27, 1920 (A. Wetmore) ; 1,947 
near St. Michaels, Talbot County, on December 29, 1953 (Christ- 
mas count) ; 1,646 in the Annapolis area on January 1, 1956 
(Christmas count) ; 1,200 in southern Dorchester County on De- 
cember 28, 1953 (Christmas count) ; 1,066 in the Kent Island 
area on December 29, 1949 (Christmas count) ; 567 in St. Marys 
County on January 2, 1956 (Christmas count) ; 432 in the Solo- 
mons Island area on December 21, 1946 (Christmas count) ; 387 
in the Ocean City area on December 27, 1948 (Christmas count) ; 
200 at Dierssen Refuge, Montgomery County, on January 31, 
1953 (E. D. Cooley) ; 80 near Green Spring in Allegany County on 
February 7, 1924 (M. G. Brooks). 
[BARROW'S GOLDENEYE] Bucephala hlandka (Gmelin) 

Status. — Hypothetical. About December 20, 1922, 1 was re- 
ported to have been taken at the mouth of Bush River by A. J. 
Dando (Hasbrouck, 1944). As no specimen is available, and 
particularly because of the similarity of this species to the Com- 



96 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 62, FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 

mon Goldeneye, this record must remain hypothetical. The female 
specimen reported by Richmond (1891) as shot on the Potomac 
River was found to be a Common Goldeneye. 

BUFFLEHEAD Bucephala albeola (Linnaeus) 

Status. — Transient: Common in tidewater areas of the East- 
ern Shore and Western Shore sections; fairly common in tide- 
water areas of the Upper Chesapeake section and in the interior 
of all sections. Wintering: Common in tidewater areas of the 
Eastern Shore section; fairly common in the tidewater areas of 
the Western Shore section; uncommon in the tidewater areas of 
the Upper Chesapeake section ; rare in the interior of all sections. 
One of the outstanding concentration areas is found on the Little 
Choptank River in Dorchester County. Other concentration areas 
include Chincoteague and Sinepuxent Bays, Choptank River, East- 
ern Bay, Chester River, and tidewaters of Anne Arundel and 
Calvert Counties. Summer vagrant: Casual visitor — 1 at Sandy 
Point, Anne Arundel County, on July 7, 1952 (R. R. Kerr). 

Habitat. — Bays and estuaries (both salt and brackish waters) ; 
also inland ponds, reservoirs, lakes, and (rarely) streams. 

Spring migration. — Normal period: March 10-20 to April 20- 
30; peak, March 25 to April 15. Extreme arrival date: February 
25, 1950, in Prince Georges County (P. F. Springer). Extreme 
departure dates: June 9, 1951, in Charles County (J. W. Taylor, 
Jr.) ; June 3, 1955, in Prince Georges County (F. M. Uhler) ; 
June 2, 1953, in Anne Arundel County (Mr. and Mrs. W. L. 
Henderson) . 

Fall migration. — Normal period: October 20-30 to December 
10-20; peak, November 1 to November 30. Extreme arrival 
dates: September 3, 1956, in Caroline County (M. W. Hewitt) ; 
October 10, 1893, in Frederick County ( W. H. Fisher) . 

Maximum counts. — Spring: 201 on the South River, Anne 
Arundel County, on April 9, 1954; 77 in southern St. Marys 
County on April 12, 1954. Fall: 500 on Eastern Bay, Queen 
Annes County, on November 23, 1951 (V. B. Daiker) ; 280 in the 
North Beach area, Calvert County, on November 23, 1952 (L. W. 
Sieck) ; 240 on South River, Anne Arundel County, on November 
14, 1954 ; 75 on Mountain Lake, Garrett County, on November 2, 
1951 (H. E. Slater). Winter: 650 in the Ocean City area on De- 
cember 27, 1948 (Christmas count) ; 646 in southeastern Wor- 
cester County on December 22, 1947 (Christmas count) ; 591 in 
the Annapolis area on January 2, 1955 (Christmas count) ; 553 
in St. Marys County on January 2, 1956 (Christmas count) ; 150 



BIRDS OF MARYLAND AND DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 97 

on Chester River, Kent County, on December 17, 1926 (T. Den- 
mead). 

Banding. — Two Buffleheads recovered in Anne Arundel and 
St. Marys Counties in winter (December 12- January 1) had been 
banded during late summer (July 22-August 8) in southern Mani- 
toba. Two others banded in Queen Annes County on March 15 
and March 18, 1956, were recovered in eastern Wisconsin and 
southwestern Saskatchewan on October 19, 1956, and September 
15, 1956, respectively. 

OLDSQUAW Clangula hyemalis (Linnaeus) 

Status. — Transient and wintering: Common in tidewater areas 
of the Eastern Shore and Western Shore sections ; uncommon in 
tidewater areas of the Upper Chesapeake section ; rare in the in- 
terior of all sections. Summer vagrant: Casual visitor — recorded 
in Anne Arundel County in 1946 (F. M. Uhler), in 1950 (E. 
La Fleur, R. Beasley) and 1953 (Mr. and Mrs. S. Henderson), 
and in Prince Georges County in 1897 (G. Marshall). 

Habitat. — Bays and estuaries (chiefly salt-water) ; more spar- 
ingly in the ocean ; rarely on inland ponds, lakes, and streams. 

Spring migration. — Normal period: March 1-10 to April 20- 
30; peak, March 15 to April 15. Extreme departure dates: May 
11, 1952, in Worcester County (D. A. Cutler) ; May 8, 1950, in 
Anne Arundel County (Mrs. W. L. Henderson). 

Fall migration. — Normal period: October 20-30 to December 
10-20; peak, November 5 to December 5. Extreme arrival dates: 
October 18, 1956, in Anne Arundel County (Mrs. W. L. Hender- 
son, Mrs. G. Tappan) ; October 19, 1956, in Dorchester County. 

Maximum counts. — Spring: 4,000 in Talbot County on March 
18, 1931 (H. C. Oberholser) ; 664 in the Western Shore section 
(West River to St. Georges Island) on March 25, 1920 (A. Wet- 
more) ; 540 on the Potomac River near the mouth of the Wicomico 
River on March 26, 1920 (A. Wetmore). Fall: "Thousands" 
near the mouth of the Chester River on November 29, 1945 (E. R. 
Quortrup) ; "thousands" at the mouth of the Manokin River, 
Somerset County, on December 6, 1911 (F. C. Kirkwood) ; 500 
on Eastern Bay and the Choptank River on November 23, 1951 ; 
200 near South Point in Chincoteague Bay on November 11, 1950 ; 
10 near Seneca, Montgomery County, on November 28, 1953 (P. A. 
DuMont). Winter: 7,032 near St. Michaels in Talbot County on 
December 29, 1953 (Christmas count) ; 2,413 in Ocean City area 
on December 27, 1955 (Christmas count) ; 1,020 in southern Anne 
Arundel County on January 6, 1955; 927 in southeastern Wor- 



98 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 62, FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 

cester County on December 22, 1947 (Christmas count). Summer 
vagrant: 12 at Gibson Island, Anne Arundel County, on June 8, 
1953 (Mr. and Mrs. W. L. Henderson). 

HARLEQUIN DUCK Histrionkus histrionicus (Linnaeus) 

Status. — Casual visitor along the coast. One was recorded at 
Ocean City on December 28, 1949 (Davis and Willoughby, 1950). 
Another was observed on March 1, 1955, and April 30, 1955 
(D. A. Cutler), at the Ocean City Inlet. 

[LABRADOR DUCK] Campforhynchus labradorium (Gmelin) 

Status. — Hypothetical. Now extinct, this species probably 
occurred in the Chesapeake Bay area at one time. Audubon 
(1838 and 1843) mentions seeing them in a market at Baltimore. 

COMMON EIDER Somateria moUissima (Linnaeus) 

Status. — Casual visitor. A specimen, formerly in the old col- 
lection of the Maryland Academy of Sciences (but no longer 
extant), was reported to have been collected in Charles County, 
below Marshall Hall (Kirkwood, 1895). An immature male was 
closely observed at Ocean City on February 20, 1949 (I. R. 
Barnes, P. F. Springer), and 1 was observed at the same loca- 
tion on May 15, 1949 (J. Cadbury, D. A. Cutler) . Five were seen 
at Ocean City on December 26 and 27, 1955 (E. G. Baldwin, P. A. 
DuMont) , and 2 on February 26, 1956 (Mr. and Mrs. I. C. Hoover) . 

KING EIDER Somateria spectahilis (Linnaeus) 

Status. — Casual visitor. One was collected (USNM) on the 
lower Potomac River (purchased at D. C. market on December 
12, 1866) . A female was collected on the Severn River on Decem- 
ber 12, 1895 (F. C. Kirkwood). Another female, killed on the 
Honga River in Dorchester County on November 9, 1928, was 
mounted and exhibited in a store at Hooper Island (Perkins, 1933) . 
Two, a female (McDonogh Museum) and an immature male (Md. 
Acad. Sci.), were collected on November 18, 1933, at the mouth 
of the Little Choptank River in Dorchester County (H. Matthai) ; 
2 others (a female collected — USNM) were seen by Mr. Matthai 
at the same location on November 25, 1933. One immature male 
and 1 female were seen at Ocean City on January 29, 1950 (Barnes 
and Handley, 1950) ; the immature male was observed several 
times after this, through February 26. A single bird was observed 
at Ocean City on October 28 and December 28-29, 1951 (J. W. 
Taylor, Jr.). Another was seen at Ocean City on December 21 
and 29, 1952. 



BIRDS OF MARYLAND AND DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 99 

WHITE-WINGED SCOTER Melanitta deglandi (Bonaparte) 

Status. — Transient: Abundant in the coastal area of Worcester 
County; common in tidewater areas elsewhere in the Eastern 
Shore and Western Shore sections; fairly common in tidewater 
areas of the Upper Chesapeake section ; rare in the interior of all 
sections. Wintering: Common in tidewater areas of the Eastern 
Shore section; fairly common in tidewater areas of the Western 
Shore section ; uncommon in tidewater areas of the Upper Chesa- 
peake section. Summer vagrant: Rare in tidewater areas of the 
Eastern Shore, Western Shore, and Upper Chesapeake sections. 

Habitat. — Most numerous on littoral zone of ocean ; also regu- 
lar in bays and estuaries and occasional on inland lakes and ponds. 

Spring migration. — Normal period: March 10-20 to May 1- 
10; peak, March 25 to April 25. Extreme departure dates: May 
21, 1939, in Queen Annes County (H. Kolb) ; May 21, 1950, be- 
tween Sandy Point and Kent Island (S. H. Low) ; May 15, 1954, 
in Worcester County (J. K. Wright). 

Fall migration. — Normal period: October 5-15 to December 
5-15; peak, October 20 to December 1. Extreme arrival date: 
September 24, 1954, in Kent County (Mr. and Mrs. W. L. Hen- 
derson) . 

Maximum counts. — Spring: 8,000 between Ocean City and the 
Delaware line on April 6, 1946; 1,000+ on Eastern Bay on May 
1, 1925 (F. C. Kirkwood). Fall: 3,000 in the Kent Island area, 
Queen Annes County, on December 1, 1951 (R. R. Kerr) ; 400 at 
North Beach, Calvert County, on November 23, 1952 (L. W. 
Sieck). Winter (Christmas counts): 3,391 near St. Michaels, 
Talbot County, on December 29, 1954; 2,636 in the Ocean City 
area on December 27, 1954 ; 565 in southeastern Worcester County 
on December 22, 1947; 203 in the Solomons Island area, Calvert 
County, on December 21, 1946. 

SURF SCOTER Melanitta perspicillata (Linnaeus) 

Status. — Transient: Abundant in the coastal area of Wor- 
cester County ; common in tidewater areas elsewhere in the East- 
ern Shore and Western Shore sections; uncommon in tidewater 
areas of the Upper Chesapeake section; casual in the Piedmont 
section — 1, March 29-30, 1954, at Dierssen Refuge, Montgomery 
County (J. W. Terborgh, E. G. Baldwin). Wintering: Common 
in the coastal area of Worcester County; fairly common in tide- 
water areas elsewhere in the Eastern Shore and Western Shore 
sections ; rare in tidewater areas of the Upper Chesapeake section. 



100 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 62, FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 

Summer vagrant: Casual in the Eastern Shore section — recorded 
in Worcester County (L. T. Berry). 

Habitat. — Most numerous on littoral zone of ocean ; also regu- 
lar on bays and estuaries (chiefly salt-water) . 

Spring migration. — Normal period: February 20-March 1 
to May 1-10; peak, March 1 to April 20. Extreme departure 
dates: May 20, 1950, and May 19, 1906 (F. C. Kirkwood) , at Ocean 
City. 

Fall migration. — Normal period: October 1-10 to December 
1-10; peak, October 15 to November 25. Extreme arrival date: 
September 27, 1949, at Ocean City. 

Maximum counts. — Spring: 19,000 between Ocean City and 
the Delaware line on March 1, 1955. Winter (Christmas counts) : 
5,352 in the Ocean City area on December 27, 1954; 1,066 in 
southeastern Worcester County on December 23, 1946. 

COMMON SCOTER Oidemia nigra (Linnaeus) 

Status. — Transient: Common in the coastal area of Worcester 
County ; fairly common elsewhere in tidewater areas of the East- 
ern Shore and Western Shore sections; uncommon in tidewater 
areas of the Upper Chesapeake section. Wintering: Fairly com- 
mon in the coastal area of Worcester County ; uncommon in tide- 
water areas elsewhere in the Eastern Shore and Western Shore 
sections; rare in the tidewater areas of the Upper Chesapeake 
section. 

Habitat. — Most numerous in littoral zone of ocean ; also regu- 
lar in bays and estuaries (chiefly salt-water). 

Spring migration. — Normal period: February 10-20 to May 
5-15; peak, February 25 to April 25. Extreme date of arrival: 
February 6, 1954, in Worcester County. Extreme dates of de- 
parture: May 22, 1949, and May 20, 1950, at Ocean City. 

Fall migration. — Normal period: September 10-20 to Novem- 
ber 20-30; peak, October 10 to November 10. Extreme arrival 
dates: August 4, 1945, and August 27, 1900 (F. C. Kirkwood), at 
Ocean City. 

Maximum counts. — Spring: 6,300 between Ocean City and the 
Delaware line on April 6, 1946. Winter (Christmas counts) : 
2,368 in the Ocean City area on December 27, 1954; 71 in south- 
eastern Worcester County on December 22, 1947. 

RUDDY DUCK Oxyura /ama/censis (Gmelin) 

Status. — Transient: Common, locally abundant, in tidewater 
areas of the Eastern Shore, Western Shore, and Upper Chesa- 
peake sections; fairly common on inland water areas of all sec- 



BIRDS OF MARYLAND AND DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 101 

tions. Wintering: Common in tidewater areas of the Eastern 
Shore and Western Shore sections; fairly common in tidewater 
areas of the Upper Chesapeake section ; rare on inland water areas 
of the Eastern Shore, Western Shore, Upper Chesapeake, and 
Piedmont sections. Concentration areas include: the Potomac 
River in Charles County, Wicomico River in Charles and St. Marys 
Counties, lower Patuxent River, South River, West River, Ma- 
gothy River, Patapsco River, Gunpowder River, Susquehanna 
Flats, Sassafras River, Chester River, Eastern Bay, Choptank 
River, Fishing Bay, and the Nanticoke River. Summer vagrant: 
Rare visitor in the tidewater areas of the Eastern Shore, Western 
Shore, and Upper Chesapeake sections. 

Habitat. — Brackish bays and estuaries that contain plenti- 
ful aquatic plant growth, or a rich molluscan fauna ; also on inland 
lakes and ponds. 

Spring migration. — Normal period: March 1-10 to May 10- 
20; peak, March 15 to April 10. Extreme arrival date: February 
27, 1948, in Prince Georges County. Extreme departure dates: 
June 7, 1930, in the District of Columbia (W. H. Ball) ; June 2, 
1953, in Dorchester County (Mr. and Mrs. W. L. Henderson) ; 
May 31, 1948, in Prince Georges County. 

Fall migration. — Normal period: September 15-25 to Decem- 
ber 5-15; peak, October 25 to November 30. Extreme arrival 
dates: August 27, 1935, in Garrett County (M. G. Brooks) ; Sep- 
tember 2, 1950, in Anne Arundel County. Extreme departure 
date: December 15, 1935, in Garrett County (M. G. Brooks). 

Maximum counts. — Spring: 12,500 on Fishing Bay, Dor- 
chester County, on March 21 and March 25, 1946; 6,150 in the 
South River area, Anne Arundel County, on April 9, 1954; 3,520 
in southern Charles County on March 20, 1948 ; 2,500 in the Point 
Lookout area, St. Marys County, on March 29, 1953 (J. W. 
Terborgh) ; 2,300 in the Carroll Island area, Baltimore County, 
on March 16, 1947 (O. W. Crowder). Fall: 26,330 in northern 
Anne Arundel County on November 23, 1955; 5,650 in southern 
Charles County on December 11, 1948; 1,000+ in St. Marys 
County on November 8, 1946 (F. M. Uhler) ; 200 at Mountain 
Lake, Garrett County, on November 2, 1951 (H. E. Slater). 
Winter: 14,190 in the Annapolis area on January 2, 1955 (Christ- 
mas count) ; 10,000 in the Port Tobacco area, Charles County, on 
December 27, 1941 (Christmas count) ; 7,500 in the Wicomico 
River area, St. Marys County, on February 11, 1950 (R. J. Beaton, 
J. W. Taylor, Jr.) ; 6,880 on the South and West Rivers, Anne 
Arundel County, on January 2, 1949 ; 5,000 on the lower Patuxent 



102 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 62, FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 

River on February 18, 1951 ; 4,400 on the Patapsco River on Jan- 
uary 25, 1955. Summer vagrant: 40 on June 11, 1953, and 37 
on June 27, 1953, in the Port Tobacco area, Charles County (A. R. 
Stickley, Jr.). 

Banding. — One Ruddy Duck recovered in Baltimore County on 
December 9, 1931, had been banded as a young bird in eastern 
Wisconsin on September 25, 1931. 

MASKED DUCK Oxyura dominka (Linnaeus) 

Status. — Accidental visitor. An adult male was collected 
(USNM) in Cecil County near Elkton on September 8, 1905 
(Houghton, 1906). 

HOODED MERGANSER Lophodyfes cucullatus (Linnaeus) 

Status. — Breeding: Rare in the Allegheny Mountain and Pied- 
mont sections — an adult female and 8 small young were observed 
on Cherry Creek in Garrett County on June 21, 1946 (Stewart and 
Robbins, 1947a), and an adult with young was seen near Seneca 
in Montgomery County on May 1, 1954 (W. B. Tyrrell). Tran- 
sient: Common in tidewater areas of the Eastern Shore section; 
fairly common in tidewater areas of the Western Shore and Upper 
Chesapeake sections and in the interior of all sections. Winter- 
ing: Fairly common in tidewater areas of the Eastern Shore 
section; uncommon in tidewater areas of the Western Shore and 
Upper Chesapeake sections; rare in the interior of the Eastern 
Shore, Western Shore, Upper Chesapeake, and Piedmont sections. 
Summer vagrant: Rare in all sections. 

Habitat. — Creeks and ponds in tidal marshes; also on inland 
streams, lakes, and ponds. 

Spring migration. — Normal period: February 15-25 to May 
5-15; peak, March 10 to April 20. Extreme arrival date: Feb- 
ruary 14, 1953, in Frederick County (J. W. Richards) . Extreme 
departure date: May 27, 1949, in Prince Georges County. 

Fall migration. — Normal period: September 25-October 5 to 
December 5-15; peak, November 1 to November 30. Extreme 
arrival dates: September 17, 1895, in Montgomery County (E. J. 
Brown) ; September 20, 1948, in Prince Georges County. 

Maximum counts. — Spring: 80 on Blackwater Refuge, Dor- 
chester County, on March 21, 1946. Fall: 50 in the Port Tobacco 
area, Charles County, on November 19, 1950; 31 at Patuxent 
Refuge, Prince Georges County, on November 26, 1947; 24 at 
Great Falls, Montgomery County, on November 14, 1948 (K. H. 
Weber). Winter: 100 on the Potomac River, off Mt. Vernon, 
Virginia, on February 8, 1920 (F. Harper) ; 70 on Blackwater 



BIRDS OF MARYLAND AND DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 103 

Refuge on December 27, 1949 (Christmas count) ; 50 in the Port 
Tobacco area on December 27, 1941 (Christmas count) ; 35 on 
Gunpowder Neck, Harford County, on December 31, 1950 (T. A. 
Imhof). 

COMMON MERGANSER Mergus merganser Linnaeus 

Status. — Transient and wintering: Common in tidewater areas 
of the Upper Chesapeake section; fairly common in tidewater 
areas of the Eastern Shore and Western Shore sections and in the 
interior of the Eastern Shore, Western Shore, Upper Chesapeake, 
and Piedmont sections; uncommon in the Ridge and Valley, and 
Allegheny Mountain sections. Summer vagrant: Casual visitor — 
recorded in Montgomery (D. M. Thatcher), Anne Arundel (J. W. 
Taylor, Jr.), and Prince Georges Counties. 

Habitat. — Brackish bays, estuaries, and marshes, and inland 
ponds, lakes, and streams (rare in salt-water habitats). 

Spring migration. — Normal period: February 15-25 to May 
5-15; peak, March 5 to April 25. Extreme arrival dates: Feb- 
ruary 7, 1903, in Allegany County (G. Eifrig) ; February 12, 1945, 
in Prince Georges County. Extreme departure dates: May 26, 
1905 (H. C. Oberholser) , and May 24, 1952 (J. M. Abbott), in the 
District of Columbia; May 18, 1944, in Prince Georges County. 

Fall migration. — October 20-30 to December 15-25; peak, 
November 15 to December 10. Extreme dates of arrival: Septem- 
ber 22, 1951, in the District of Columbia (C. L. Clagett) ; Sep- 
tember 23, 1932, in Prince Georges County (H. C. Oberholser) ; 
September 29, 1894, in Baltimore County (F. C. Kirkwood). Ex- 
treme date of departure: December 27, 1940, in Prince Georges 
County. 

Maximum counts. — Spring: 195 in the Carroll Island area, 
Baltimore County, on March 16, 1947 (O. W. Crowder) ; 150 in 
the District of Columbia on March 13, 1931 (W. L. McAtee) ; 
100+ at Port Tobacco, Charles County, on March 22, 1952 (H. A. 
Sutton, P. A. DuMont) ; 85 near Perry Point, Cecil County, on 
March 5, 1949 (I. R. Barnes). Winter: 1,171 on Blackwater 
Refuge, Dorchester County, on December 23, 1951 (Christmas 
count) ; 438 on the Susquehanna Flats on December 28, 1951 
(Christmas count) ; 400 near Accokeek, Prince Georges County, 
on December 29, 1944 (Christmas count) ; 350 on Loch Raven 
Reservoir, Baltimore County, on January 11, 1947 (H. Kolb) ; 
242 in the Wicomico River area, southern Charles County, on 
January 2, 1949 (Christmas count) . 



104 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 62, FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 

RED-BREASTED MERGANSER Mergus senator Linnaeus 

Status. — Transient: Common, occasionally abundant, in the 
coastal area of Worcester County; fairly common elsewhere in 
tidewater areas of the Eastern Shore and Western Shore sections ; 
uncommon in tidewater areas of the Upper Chesapeake section 
and in the interior of all sections. Wintering: Fairly common in 
the coastal area of Worcester County; uncommon elsewhere in 
tidewater areas of the Eastern Shore, Western Shore, and Upper 
Chesapeake sections; rare in the interior of the Eastern Shore, 
Western Shore, Upper Chesapeake, and Piedmont sections. Sum- 
mer vagrant: Rare in the coastal area of Worcester County and in 
tidewater areas of Somerset County; casual visitor in tidewater 
areas elsewhere — recorded in Dorchester, Anne Arundel, and St. 
Marys Counties. 

Habitat. — Bays and estuaries (chiefly salt-water) ; also occurs 
on the ocean and occasionally on inland ponds, lakes, and streams. 

Spring migration — Normal period: March 5-15 to May 15- 
25; peak, March 25 to April 25. Extreme dates of departure: 
May 30, 1927, in the District of Columbia (W. H. Ball) ; May 30, 
1948, in Frederick County. 

Fall migration. — Normal period: October 15-25 to December 
10-20 ; peak, November 1 to November 30. Extreme arrival date: 
September 19, 1945, in Worcester County. Extreme departure 
date: December 23, 1901, in Allegany County (G. Eifrig). 

Maximum counts. — Spring: 200 on Deep Creek Lake, Garrett 
County, on April 18-19, 1936 (M. G. Brooks) ; 153 in the Ocean 
City area on April 6, 1946 ; 19 in the District of Columbia on April 
17, 1918 (R. W. Moore) ; 15 near Seneca, Montgomery County, on 
April 18, 1949 (F. C. Cross). Fall: 5,000 on Sinepuxent Bay, 
south of Ocean City, on November 2-3, 1945; 50 on Gunpowder 
Neck, Harford County, on October 21, 1950 (T. A. Imhof ) ; 20 
on Mountain Lake, Garrett County, on November 3, 1951 (H. E. 
Slater). Winter (Christmas counts) : 462 in the Ocean City area 
on December 28, 1949; 77 near St. Michaels, Talbot County, on 
December 29, 1953. 

Family CATHARTIDAE 

TURKEY VULTURE Cathartes aura (Linnaeus) 

Status. — Breeding and transient: Common in the Eastern 
Shore, Western Shore, Upper Chesapeake, and Piedmont sections ; 
fairly common in the Ridge and Valley section; uncommon (occa- 
sionally fairly common during migration) in the Allegheny Moun- 
tain section. Wintering: Abundant in the Eastern Shore section; 



BIRDS OF MARYLAND AND DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 105 

common in the Western Shore, Upper Chesapeake, and Piedmont 
sections ; fairly common in the Ridge and Valley section ; rare in 
the Allegheny Mountain section. 

Habitat. — A wide-ranging edge species that occurs regularly 
in agricultural, marsh, and other open areas as well as in adjacent 
forested tracts. 

Nesting season. — Early April to late August (nesting peak, 
late April to mid-July). Extreme egg dates (91 nests) : April 
3, 1943, in Anne Arundel County and June 10, 1923 (F. C. Kirk- 
wood), in Baltimore County. Extreme nestling dates (25 nests) : 
May 13, 1954, in Caroline County (A. J. Fletcher) and August 29, 
1942, in Anne Arundel County. 

Migration periods. — Approximate spring period: January 25 
to March 20. Approximate fall period: October 25 to December 
10. 

Breeding population densities (pairs per 100 acres). — 

0.3 (7 in 2,656 acres) in mixed habitats (including forest and brush, with 
scattered agricultural areas and abandoned farmlands) along the border 
between Anne Arundel and Prince Georges Counties in 1943. 

0.1 (7 in 11,520 acres) in "general farmland" (various agricultural habitats, 
chiefly hayfields and pastures, with little cover owing to widespread clean- 
farming practices) in Frederick County in 1950 (Stewart and Meanley, 
1950). 

Maximum counts. — Winter (Christmas counts) : 1,334 in the 
Ocean City area on December 27, 1955 ; 704 near Denton, Caroline 
County, on December 26, 1953; 400 near Crisfield, Somerset 
County, on December 26, 1949. 

Banding. — Some of the Turkey Vultures, occurring in Maryland 
during the summer, range farther south during the colder months 
as shown by the following records : 1 banded in Howard County 
on August 24 and recovered in northeastern North Carolina on 
January 23 ; and 2 recovered in Somerset and Frederick Counties 
on April 7 and July 19, respectively, that had been banded in 
southeastern Virginia (Elizabeth City County) in winter (De- 
cember 15-January 6) . A movement from Maryland to the north 
is also shown by a bird that was banded in Dorchester County on 
March 12 and recovered in central New Jersey on August 15. 
Local movements are indicated by 5 birds banded in Prince Georges 
County in fall and winter (October 4-January 9), all of which 
were recovered in winter and spring (December 10-April 20) 
between 12 and 35 miles from the point of banding. Another 
bird banded in Worcester County on June 5 was recovered the 
following year on July 3 in Dorchester County (37 miles from 



106 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 62, FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 

point of banding). Occasional erratic seasonal movements are 
shown by the following records: 1 recovered in Prince Georges 
County on December 23 that had been banded in southeastern 
Virginia on April 19 ; 1 recovered in Howard County on December 
3, that had been banded in northern Virginia (Alexandria) on 
August 26, and 1 banded in Prince Georges County on October 8, 
and recovered in south-central Pennsylvania on December 10, 
6 years later. 

BLACK VULTURE Coragyps atratus (Bechstein) 

Status. — Permanent resident (see fig. 19) : Common in the 
southern part of the Western Shore section (St. Marys, Charles, 
and Calvert Counties and southern Prince Georges County) ; 
fairly common in the Potomac River Valley, extending from the 





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Figure 19. — Breeding range of Black Vulture. 



District of Columbia to Williamsport in Washington County; un- 
common in the northern part of the Western Shore section (Anne 
Arundel and northern Prince Georges Counties) , in the southern 
part of the Piedmont section (Howard and Montgomery Coun- 
ties), in western Frederick County (Frederick Valley), eastern 
Washington County (Hagerstown Valley and the Blue Ridge), in 
the Susquehanna River Valley (Harford and Cecil Counties), in 
the northern part of the Eastern Shore section (southern Queen 



BIRDS OF MARYLAND AND DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 107 

Annes and northern Talbot Counties), and along the Pocomoke 
River (in Wicomico and Worcester Counties) ; rare, elsewhere in 
the Eastern Shore, Upper Chesapeake, and Piedmont sections and 
in the western part of the Ridge and Valley section. Definite nest 
records are from St. Marys (Court, 1924), Charles (A. D. Jones), 
Montgomery (Wimsatt, 1939; S. H. Low), Prince Georges (Stew- 
art and Robbins, 1947a), Anne Arundel (Dorsey, 1947), Harford 
(Kolb, 1949b), Baltimore (Smyth, 1952), and Wicomico Coun- 
ties. Alexander Wetmore states that this species was rare in 
Maryland until about 30 years ago. 

Habitat. — A wide-ranging edge species that occurs in agricul- 
tural and other open habitats as well as in adjacent forested 
areas. 

Nesting season. — Mid-March to early July. Extreme egg 
dates (12 nests) : March 14, 1952, in Charles County (A. D. Jones) 
and May 17, 1947, in Harford County (Kolb, 1949b). Extreme 
nestling dates (4 nests) : April 29, 1951, in Baltimore County 
(Smyth, 1952) and July 4, 1953, in Montgomery County (S. H. 
Low). 

Maximum counts. — Spring: 75 at Carderock, Montgomery 
County, on March 28, 1948 (E. J. Stivers) ; 40 near Buckeystown, 
Frederick County, on April 29, 1950. Winter: 100 near Plummers 
Island, Montgomery County, on February 11, 1945 (A. Wetmore) ; 
90 in St. Marys County on January 31, 1954 (J. W. Terborgh, et 
al.) ; 69 in the District of Columbia area on December 20, 1952 
(Christmas count) ; 65 near Accokeek, Prince Georges County, 
on December 22, 1947 (Christmas count) ; 62 in the Wicomico 
River area in southern Charles County on December 28, 1952 
(Christmas count) ; 51 in the Point Lookout area, St. Marys 
County, on December 22, 1937 (Christmas count) ; 16 near Den- 
ton, Caroline County, on December 26, 1953 (Christmas count) ; 
12 in the Catoctin Mountain area, Frederick County, on December 
30, 1951 (Christmas count). 

Banding. — One Black Vulture recovered in Kent County on 
March 6, 1939, had been banded as an adult in southeastern 
Virginia (Elizabeth City County) on May 5, 1935. 

Family ACCIPITRIDAE 

SWALLOW-TAILED KITE Elanoldes forficafus (Linnaeus) 

Status. — Casual visitor. A specimen (USNM) was collected at 
Ellicott City, Howard County, on August 7, 1879. A mounted 
specimen examined by Kirkwood (1895) was shot near Catons- 
ville, Baltimore County, in late July or early August, 1889. An- 



108 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 62, FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 

other was collected in Montgomery County on August 3, 1895 
(Bent, 1937). 

GOSHAWK Accipiter gentilis (Linnaeus) 

Status. — Breeding: Formerly rare (one nest record) in the 
Allegheny Mountain section — in 1901, a pair was present all 
summer and nested about 3 miles above Jennings in Garrett 
County (Behr, 1914). Transient and wintering: Uncommon and 
irregular in the Allegheny Mountain section; rare and irregular 
in all other sections. Definite transient and wintering records 
have been made in Garrett (Brooks, 1936c), Allegany (specimens 
— Kirkwood, 1895), Washington (specimen — J. N. Hamlet), 
Montgomery (specimens — USNM), Baltimore (F. C. Kirkwood), 
Prince Georges (specimen — Fisher, 1918; also several sight 
records), Talbot (fide R. L. Kleen), and Dorchester (specimen — 
Cottam and Uhler, 1935) Counties. 

HABITAT. — Breeding: Behr (1914) mentions that this species 
disappeared as a breeding bird in Garrett County, with the cutting 
of spruce and hemlock. Transient and wintering: Occurs in vari- 
ous forest edge habitats. 

Period of occurrence. — The dates of occurrence of transient 
and wintering birds are uniformly distributed between the ex- 
tremes of September 28, 1944 (Stewart et al., 1952) and the 
middle of March, 1918 (Cottam and Uhler, 1935). 

SHARP-SHINNED HAWK Accipiter striates Vieillot 

Status. — Breeding: Fairly common in the Allegheny Mountain 
section; uncommon in the Ridge and Valley section; rare (form- 
erly more numerous) in the Piedmont section. Transient: Com- 
mon in all sections (a concentration area during the fall flight is 
found on Hooper and Barren Islands in Dorchester County). 
Wintering: Uncommon in the Eastern Shore and Western Shore 
sections ; rare in the Upper Chesapeake, Piedmont, and Ridge and 
Valley sections. 

Habitat. — Occurs most commonly in areas with extensive 
wooded tracts. During migration, especially in the fall, this 
species concentrates along the ridge tops of the Allegheny Moun- 
tain, and Ridge and Valley sections, along the Chesapeake Bay 
shores of the Eastern Shore and Western Shore sections, and along 
the coast. 

Nesting season. — Early May to mid-July. Extreme egg dates 
(5 nests) : May 15, 1910, in the District of Columbia (E. J. Court) 
and May 31, 1891, in Montgomery County (Stabler, 1891). 



BIRDS OF MARYLAND AND DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 109 

Nestling date (1 nest) : July 11, 1938, in Garrett County (L. M. 
Llewellyn) . 

Spring migration. — Normal period: February 25-March 5 to 
May 10-20; peak, April 5 to May 5. Extreme date of arrival: 
February 8, 1943, in Prince Georges County. Extreme date of 
departure: May 28, 1953, in Charles County (A. R. Stickley, Jr.). 

Fall migration. — Normal period: September 1-10 to Novem- 
ber 15-25; peak, September 15 to October 25. Extreme dates of 
arrival: August 16, 1943, in Prince Georges County; August 20, 
1889, in the District of Columbia (C. W. Richmond) . Extreme 
date of departure: December 6, 1953, in Prince Georges County. 

Maximum counts. — Spring: 105 at Patuxent Refuge, Prince 
Georges County, on April 26, 1946. Fall: 190 at Monument Knob 
on the boundary between Frederick and Washington Counties on 
October 11, 1953 (R. J. Beaton) ; 113 at White Marsh, Baltimore 
County, on October 1, 1954 (C. D. Hackman) ; 89 at Seneca, Mont- 
gomery County, on September 22, 1951 (D. Power). Winter 
(Christmas counts) : 17 in the Ocean City area on December 27, 
1953 ; 5 in the Point Lookout area, St. Marys County, on December 
22, 1937 ; 5 in southern Dorchester County on December 28, 1955. 

COOPER'S HAWK Accipiter cooper/7 (Bonaparte) 

Status. — Breeding: Fairly common in the Western Shore sec- 
tion; uncommon elsewhere in all sections. Transient: Fairly com- 
mon in all sections (a concentration area during the fall flight is 
found on Hooper and Barren Islands in Dorchester County). 
Wintering: Uncommon in the Eastern Shore, Western Shore, Up- 
per Chesapeake, and Piedmont sections; rare in the Ridge and 
Valley, and Allegheny Mountain sections. 

Habitat. — Forest and wood margin habitats, occurring most 
commonly in areas that contain extensive forested tracts. 

Nesting season. — Mid-April to late July. Extreme egg dates 
(29 nests) : April 21, 1918, in the District of Columbia (E. J. 
Court) and June 5, 1892, in Montgomery County (H. B. Stabler). 
Extreme nestling dates (10 nests) : June 5, 1892, in Montgomery 
County (H. B. Stabler) and July 23, 1937, in Worcester County 
(Vaughn, 1937) . 

Spring migration. — March 1-10 to May 5-15; peak, April 5 
to April 30. Extreme date of arrival: February 24, 1949, in Prince 
Georges County. Extreme dates of departure: May 18, 1921, and 
May 17, 1917, in the District of Columbia area (McAtee, 1921). 

Fall migration. — Normal period: September 1-10 to Novem- 
ber 15-25; peak, September 15 to October 25. Extreme dates of 



110 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 62, FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 

arrival: August 24, 1945, in Worcester County; August 27, 1953, 
in Talbot County (R. L. Kleen). Extreme date of departure: 
November 28, 1951, in Frederick County (J. W. Richards) . 

Breeding population density (pairs per 100 acres). — 

0.2 (3 in 1,856 acres) in upland forest and brush (both pine and deciduous), 
with scattered small agricultural areas and abandoned farmlands, in 
Prince Georges County in 1943. 

Maximum counts. — Spring: 19 on Patuxent Refuge, Prince 
Georges County, on April 26, 1945. Fall: 16 on Patuxent Refuge 
on September 23, 1944 ; 14 on South Mountain along the boundary 
between Frederick and Washington Counties on October 15, 1949 
(Beaton, 1951) ; 14 at White Marsh, Baltimore County, on Oc- 
tober 1, 1954 (C. D. Hackman). Winter (Christmas counts): 
8 in the Crisfield area, Somerset County, on December 26, 1949 ; 
8 in the Ocean City area, Worcester County, on December 27, 
1955 ; 7 in southern Dorchester County on December 21, 1947. 

Banding. — A southward movement of Cooper's Hawks from 
Maryland is shown by the record of an adult banded in Prince 
Georges County on August 1, 1945, that was recovered in south- 
eastern North Carolina on November 12, 1947. The more north- 
ern origin of some of the migrating Cooper's Hawks in Maryland 
is indicated by the following records of 5 birds recovered in 
Maryland during early spring (March 6-20) and fall (September 
22-October 28) that had been banded as nestlings in summer 
(June 20- July 12) farther north: 3 recovered in Dorchester, 
Prince Georges, and Washington Counties had been banded in 
Massachusetts (eastern and southwestern portions) ; and single 
birds recovered in Dorchester and Carroll Counties had been 
banded in northeastern New Jersey and southeastern Ontario 
(Leeds County) respectively. More local movements are illus- 
trated by 2 birds recovered in Caroline County in fall (September 
3-26, 1931) that had been banded as nestlings (June 18-25, 
1931) in central Delaware; and a bird banded as a nestling in 
Prince Georges County on June 16, 1943, that was recovered about 
10 miles distant in Anne Arundel County on April 20, 1944. 

RED-TAILED HAWK Bufeo iamakensis (Gmelin) 

Status. — Breeding: Fairly common in the Eastern Shore and 
Western Shore sections; uncommon elsewhere in all sections. 
Transient: Fairly common in all sections. Wintering: Common 
in the Eastern Shore and Upper Chesapeake sections ; fairly com- 
mon in the Western Shore and Piedmont sections ; uncommon in 
the Ridge and Valley, and Allegheny Mountain sections. 



BIRDS OF MARYLAND AND DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 111 

Habitat. — A wide-ranging edge species that occurs regularly 
in agricultural, marsh, and other open areas as well as in ex- 
tensive forested tracts. 

Nesting season. — Mid-March to late June (peak, late March 
to early June). Extreme egg dates (49 nests) : March 12, 1899, 
and May 3, 1917, in Baltimore County (both extremes by F. C. 
Kirkwood). Extreme nestling dates (9 nests) : April 25, 1923, 
and June 24, 1896, in Baltimore County (both by F. C. Kirkwood) . 

Spring migration. — Normal period: February 10-20 to April 
10-20; peak, February 25 to April 1. Extreme date of departure: 
April 30, 1944, in Prince Georges County. 

Fall migration. — Normal period: September 5-15 to Decem- 
ber 1-10; peak, October 10 to November 15. 

Breeding population density (pairs per 100 acres) . — 

0.05 (5 in 10,560 acres) in mixed habitats (forest and brush, including 
deciduous and pine types, with scattered small agricultural areas and 
abandoned farmlands) along the boundary between Anne Arundel and 
Prince Georges Counties in 1951. 

Maximum counts. — Spring: 28 near Emmitsburg, Frederick 
County, on March 21, 1953 (J. W. Richards) ; 15 (12 in one hour) 
at Patuxent Refuge, Prince Georges County, on February 28, 
1948. Fall: 231 over South Mountain along the boundary between 
Frederick and Washington Counties on October 30, 1954 (E. 
Arnold) ; 65 at White Marsh, Baltimore County, on November 12, 
1952 (C. D. Hackman) ; 50 (in 15 minutes) in the District of 
Columbia on November 6, 1947 (E. G. Davis). Winter (Christmas 
counts) : 35 in the Ocean City area on December 27, 1955; 23 near 
Denton, Caroline County, on December 26, 1953 ; 16 in the Susque- 
hanna Flats area in Harford and Cecil Counties on December 27, 
1952; 15 in southern Dorchester County on December 28, 1953; 
14 in the Catoctin Mountain area on January 1, 1955; 12 in the 
District of Columbia area on December 31, 1951. 

Banding. — A nestling banded in Montgomery County on May 
6, 1937, was recovered in southwestern Illinois (St. Clair County) 
on August 30, 1937. Another nestling banded in Montgomery 
County on May 12, 1940, was recovered in northern Virginia 
(Page County) on February 19, 1941. An immature bird banded 
in Prince Georges County on November 1, 1943, was recovered in 
south-central North Carolina (Union County) on January 21, 
1944. One banded near Hagerstown, Washington County, on 
November 8, 1952, was recovered near Savage River dam, Garrett 
County, on October 28, 1954. One recovered in the District of 
Columbia on December 1, 1951, had been banded as a nestling 



112 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 62, FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 

in central New York (Tompkins County) on May 28, 1951. An- 
other bird recovered in Harford County on December 28, 1943, 
had been banded in south-central Pennsylvania on December 1, 
1943. 

RED-SHOULDERED HAWK Buteo lineatus (Gmelin) 

Status. — Regular occurrence throughout the year. Locally 
common in the Eastern Shore and Western Shore sections — most 
numerous along the Pocomoke and Patuxent Rivers and their 
tributaries, and in the Zekiah Swamp (Charles County) ; fairly 
common in the Upper Chesapeake and Piedmont sections ; uncom- 
mon (rare in winter) in the Ridge and Valley, and Allegheny 
Mountain sections. During migration in the fall this species tends 
to concentrate along the fall line of the Piedmont section (Hack- 
man, 1954). 

Habitat. — Chiefly flood-plain or river swamp forests (Stewart, 
1949) ; in the Ridge and Valley, and Allegheny Mountain sections, 
also occurs in moist well-drained forests on the upland. 

Nesting season. — Mid-March to late June (nesting peak, late 
March to late May). Extreme egg dates (53 nests) : March 17, 
1910, in Prince Georges County (E. J. Court) and May 31, 1891, 
in Baltimore County (Kirkwood, 1895). Extreme nestling dates 
(75 nests) : April 3, 1939, in Prince Georges County (E. Mc- 
Colgan) and June 16, 1941, in Prince Georges County (L. M. 
Dargan). 

Migration periods. — Spring: February 15-25 to April 10-20; 
peak, March 1 to April 5. Fall: September 10-20 to November 
20-30 ; peak, September 20 to November 15. 

Breeding population density (pairs per 100 acres) . — 

0.2 (51 in 26,880 acres) in lowland forest (flood-plain forest and adjacent 
small clearings and areas of river terrace and river bluff forests) along 
the Patuxent River in Anne Arundel and Prince Georges Counties in 
1943 (Stewart, 1949). 

Maximum counts. — Spring (migrants) : 36 at Bethesda, Mont- 
gomery County, on March 26, 1954 (J. C. Boyd) ; 8 near White 
Marsh, Baltimore County, on February 25, 1953 (C. D. Hack- 
man) ; 8 near Emmitsburg, Frederick County, on April 14, 1952 
(J. W. Richards) ; 7 on Patuxent Refuge, Prince Georges County, 
on March 25, 1945. Fall: 115 migrating along the fall line near 
White Marsh on November 12, 1952 (C. D. Hackman) ; 56 migrat- 
ing along the fall line at Laurel, Prince Georges County, on Oc- 
tober 24, 1954 ; 22 on South Mountain along the boundary between 
Frederick and Washington Counties on October 15, 1949 (Beaton, 



BIRDS OF MARYLAND AND DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 113 

1951). Winter (Christmas counts) : 21 in the Ocean City area 
on December 27, 1954; 12 at Patuxent Refuge on January 12, 
1950 ; 12 in the Point Lookout area, St. Marys County, on Decem- 
ber 23, 1938; 11 in southern Dorchester County on December 23, 
1951 ; 10 in the Triadelphia Reservoir area on December 24, 1955. 

Banding. — Ten banded as nestlings in Anne Arundel, Prince 
Georges, and Montgomery Counties and the District of Columbia 
in spring (April 3-June 4), were recovered as follows: 5 were 
taken in spring and early summer (April 7- June 30), including 
3 in Maryland (between 10 and 55 miles from point of banding), 
and 1 each in central New York and east-central Virginia ; 4 were 
taken in fall (September 15-October 25) , all in Maryland, between 
13 and 48 miles from the point of banding; and 1 was taken in 
winter (January 20) in central North Carolina. An adult banded 
in Prince Georges County on March 18, 1944, was recovered in 
east-central Virginia (reported in letter dated April 10, 1945) 
and an immature banded in Dorchester County on October 29, 
1941, was recovered in central Massachusetts on November 11, 
1945. Five recovered in fall, winter, and spring (October 12- 
April 1) in Prince Georges, Carroll, Kent, Baltimore, and Wico- 
mico Counties had been banded as nestlings (May 2-June 17) in 
eastern Massachusetts, central New York, northern New Jersey, 
southeastern Pennsylvania, and central Delaware, respectively. 
An immature banded in southeastern Pennsylvania on September 
5, 1954, was recovered in Baltimore County on January 17, 1955. 
BROAD-WINGED HAWK Bufeo platypterus (Vieillot) 

Status. — Breeding: Common in the Allegheny Mountain, and 
Ridge and Valley sections; fairly common in the Piedmont and 
Western Shore sections ; uncommon in the Upper Chesapeake and 
Eastern Shore sections. Transient: Common, occasionally abund- 
ant, in the Allegheny Mountain, Ridge and Valley, Piedmont, and 
Western Shore sections ; fairly common in the Upper Chesapeake 
and Eastern Shore sections. Concentration areas during migra- 
tion, especially in the fall, include most of the higher ridges in 
the Allegheny Mountain, and Ridge and Valley sections. 

Habitat. — Chiefly well-drained upland deciduous forest or up- 
land deciduous forest mixed with pine. 

Nesting season. — Late April to mid-July (nesting peak, early 
May to late June) . Extreme egg dates (30 nests) : April 23, 
1893, in Montgomery County (USNM — M. Clarke) and June 6, 
1936, in Baltimore County (M. B. Meanley). Extreme nestling 
dates (7 nests) : June 3, 1886, in the District of Columbia (Riley, 
1902) and July 14, 1935, in Baltimore County (M. B. Meanley). 



114 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 62, FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 

Spring migration. — Normal period: April 5-15 to May 1-10; 
peak, April 15 to April 30. Extreme dates of arrival: March 15, 
1884 (H. W. Henshaw), and March 31, 1919 (M. T. Cooke), in 
the District of Columbia. 

Fall migration. — Normal period: September 1-10 to October 
10-20; peak, September 15 to September 30. Extreme dates of 
arrival: August 11, 1955, in Talbot County (R. L. Kleen) ; August 
28, 1946, in Prince Georges County (J. N. Hamlet). Extreme 
dates of departure: November 27, 1891, in Montgomery County 
(USNM— C. W. Richmond) ; October 21, 1950, along the boundary 
between Frederick and Washington Counties (R. S. Stauffer) . 

Breeding population density (pairs per 100 acres). — 

0.2 (4.5 in 1,856 acres) in upland forest and brush (mixed pine and deciduous 
forest with small scattered agricultural areas and abandoned farmlands) 
in Prince Georges County in 1943. 

Maximum counts. — Spring: 171 at Patuxent Refuge, Prince 
Georges County on April 16, 1944; 94 on South Mountain along 
the boundary between Frederick and Washington Counties on 
April 21, 1951 (R. J. Beaton) ; 51 at Laurel, Prince Georges 
County, on April 20, 1952; 40 near Deep Creek Lake, Garrett 
County, on April 17, 1954 (M. G. Brooks) ; 36 near Emmitsburg, 
Frederick County, on April 19, 1954 (J. W. Richards). Fall: 
2,500 (in 15 minutes) near Emmitsburg, Frederick County, on 
September 18, 1953 (J. W. Richards) ; 2,169 at Lore's Pond, Cal- 
vert County, on September 21, 1949 (G. Kelly) ; 1,430 on South 
Mountain on September 24, 1950 (E. G. Baldwin) ; 1,399 along 
the fall line above White Marsh, Baltimore County, on September 
23, 1954 (C. D. Hackman) ; 1,047 (in 75 minutes) on Patuxent 
Refuge on September 22, 1944; 1,000 in the District of Columbia 
on September 22, 1918 (M. T. Cooke). 
ROUGH-LEGGED HAWK Buteo lagopus (Pontoppidan) 

Status. — Transient and ivintering: Fairly common in Dor- 
chester County; uncommon elsewhere in the Upper Chesapeake 
and Eastern Shore sections ; rare in all other sections. Birds of 
the dark phase of this species predominate in Maryland. 

Habitat. — Chiefly, open agricultural areas and tidal marshes. 

Period of occurrence. — Normal period: October 25-November 
5 to April 5-15 ; peak, November 20 to March 25. Extreme date 
of arrival: October 1, 1949, along the boundary between Frederick 
and Washington Counties (R. J. Beaton) . Extreme dates of de- 
parture: April 21, 1948, in Queen Amies County; April 21, 1951, 
along the boundary between Frederick and Washington Counties 
(R. J. Beaton). 



BIRDS OF MARYLAND AND DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 115 

Maximum counts. — Spring: 3 in Talbot and Dorchester Coun- 
ties on March 22, 1953 (E. Willis). Winter: 6 in Dorchester 
County on December 22, 1952 (Christmas count) . 

GOLDEN EAGLE Aquila chrysaetos (Linnaeus) 

Status. — Transient: Uncommon in the Ridge and Valley, and 
Allegheny Mountain sections; rare elsewhere in all sections. 
Wintering: Rare in the Piedmont, Upper Chesapeake, Western 
Shore, and Eastern Shore sections. Summer vagrant: Casual in 
the Allegheny Mountain section — 1 seen over Negro Mountain, 
Garrett County, on August 31, 1931 (A. Wetmore). 

Habitat. — A wide-ranging edge species. 

Spring migration — Normal period: March 1-10 to April 10- 
20. Extreme date of departure: April 21, 1951, along the bound- 
ary between Frederick and Washington Counties (R. J. Beaton). 

Fall migration. — Normal period: September 20-30 to No- 
vember 20-30. Extreme dates of arrival: September 16, 1951, 
at White Marsh, Baltimore County (C. D. Hackman) and Septem- 
ber 17, 1950, along the boundary between Frederick and Wash- 
ington Counties (R. J. Beaton). Extreme date of departure: 
December 3, 1949, along the boundary between Frederick and 
Washington Counties (R. J. Beaton). 

Maximum counts. — Fall: 3 at Monument Knob along the 
boundary between Frederick and Washington Counties on Sep- 
tember 24, 1950, and October 15, 1949 (Beaton, 1951). 

BALD EAGLE Haliaeetus leucocephalus (Linnaeus) 

Status. — Breeding: Fairly common in the tidewater areas of 
the Eastern Shore, Western Shore, and Upper Chesapeake sec- 
tions; rare in the Piedmont section. Definite nest records for 
Worcester, Somerset, Dorchester, Talbot, Caroline, Queen Annes, 
Kent, Cecil, Harford, Baltimore, Prince Georges, Anne Arundel, 
Calvert, St. Marys, Charles, and Montgomery Counties and the 
District of Columbia. Transient and wintering : Fairly common 
in the tidewater areas of the Eastern Shore, Western Shore, and 
Upper Chesapeake sections; uncommon in the Piedmont section 
and in the interior of the Eastern Shore, Western Shore, and 
Upper Chesapeake sections; rare in the Ridge and Valley, and 
Allegheny Mountain sections. Summer vagrant: Uncommon in 
the Eastern Shore, Western Shore, Upper Chesapeake, and Pied- 
mont sections. 

Habitat. — Most numerous in tidewater habitats; also occurs 
along inland lakes, ponds, and streams. 

Nesting season. — Early February to early August (peak, 



116 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 62, FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 

mid-February to early June). Extreme egg dates (63 nests): 
February 8, 1915, in Baltimore County (F. C. Kirkwood) and 
April 29, 1936, in Baltimore County (W. B. Tyrrell). Extreme 
nestling dates (34 nests) : March 18, 1934, in Anne Arundel 
County (Tyrrell, 1934) and July 9, 1947, in the District of Colum- 
bia (J. W. Taylor, Jr.). A nest containing young about 4 weeks 
old was found on June 26, 1934 ; these young would not have left 
the nest until August (W. B. Tyrrell) . 

Periods of greatest abundance (transients and vagrants) . — 
Spring: March 1 to April 30. Fall: August 25 to December 15. 

Maximum counts. — Fall: 12 along the Potomac River in Prince 
Georges and Charles Counties on September 19, 1927 (H. H. T. 
Jackson) ; 7 near White Marsh, Baltimore County, on September 
17, 1953 (C. D. Hackman). Winter: 36 in southern Dorchester 
County on December 22, 1952 (Christmas count) ; 34 in the Carroll 
Island area, Baltimore County, on December 29, 1951 (Christmas 
count) ; 27 at Army Chemical Center, Harford County, on January 
2, 1952 (T. A. Imhof ) ; 17 in the Susquehanna Flats area in Har- 
ford and Cecil Counties on December 28, 1951 (Christmas count) . 

Banding. — A nestling banded in Charles County on May 6, 
1940, was recovered in central North Carolina on September 20, 
1940. Another nestling banded in Montgomery County on April 
23, 1936, was recovered in northeastern Ohio in August 1936. 
Two other nestlings banded in Baltimore and Anne Arundel Coun- 
ties on June 23, 1936, and May 26, 1934, were recovered in Mary- 
land on October 10, 1937, and December 30, 1936, respectively, 
within 35 miles of the points of banding. Two Bald Eagles re- 
covered in winter in Kent and Worcester Counties had been banded 
as nestlings in southeastern Ontario and southern New Jersey, 
respectively. Two others recovered in Dorchester and Calvert 
Counties in winter and 1 recovered in Calvert County in Septem- 
ber had all been banded as nestlings in northern Delaware. 

MARSH HAWK Circus cyaneus (Linnaeus) 

Status. — Breeding (see fig. 20) : Fairly common in the Alle- 
gheny Mountain section and in the tidewater areas of Somerset, 
Wicomico, and Dorchester Counties; uncommon elsewhere in the 
tidewater areas of the Eastern Shore section. Definite nest rec- 
ords for Somerset, Dorchester, and Garrett Counties. Transient: 
Common in the Eastern Shore and Upper Chesapeake sections; 
fairly common in all other sections. Wintering: Common in the 
Eastern Shore and Upper Chesapeake sections; fairly common 
in the Western Shore and Piedmont sections; uncommon in the 



BIRDS OF MARYLAND AND DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 



117 




LEGEND 

I Principal Range 
• Local Record 



Figure 20. — Breeding range of Marsh Hawk. 



Ridge and Valley section ; rare in the Allegheny Mountain section. 
Summer vagrant: Rare in all sections. 

Habitat. — Breeding: Tidal marsh and marsh-meadow types and 
(in Allegheny Mountain section) upland sedge-meadows. Trans- 
ient and wintering: Open agricultural areas and tidal marshes. 

Nesting season. — Late April to mid- July. Extreme egg dates 
(6 nests) : April 28, 1954, in Dorchester County and June 23, 
1950 (W. B. Tyrrell), in Garrett County. Extreme nestling dates 
(4 nests) : June 12, 1925, in Garrett County (F. C. Kirkwood) and 
July 1, 1937 (downy young), in Garrett County (John, 1937). 

Spring migration. — Normal period: March 1-10 to May 1-10; 
peak, March 20 to April 20. Extreme date of arrival: February 
28, 1948, in Prince Georges County. Extreme dates of departure: 
May 13, 1946, in Baltimore County (H. Kolb) ; May 12, 1913, in 
Prince Georges County (T. H. Kearney, W. R. Maxon). 

Fall migration. — Normal period: August 10-20 to November 
20-30 ; peak, October 10 to November 15. Extreme dates of ar- 
rival: July 27, 1894, in St. Marys County (A. W. Ridgway) ; July 
31, 1938, in Baltimore County (H. Kolb) . 

Maximum counts. — Fall: 20 along South Mountain on the 
boundary between Frederick and Washington Counties on Novem- 
ber 12, 1949 (Beaton, 1951) ; 13 in Dorchester County on Novem- 



118 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 62, FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 

ber 23, 1946. Winter: 73 in Dorchester County on December 22, 
1952 (Christmas count) ; 50+ near Seneca, Montgomery County, 
on January 25, 1947 (S. A. Gatti) ; 45 in the Ocean City area on 
December 27, 1955 (Christmas count) ; 31 in the Crisfield area, 
Somerset County, on December 26, 1949 (Christmas count) ; 31 in 
southeastern Worcester County on December 22, 1947 (Christmas 
count) . 

Banding. — Two birds recovered in winter (December 30-Janu- 
ary 12) in Caroline and Queen Annes Counties had been banded 
as nestlings in western New York and northeastern New Jersey. 
Another, recovered in September in Wicomico County, had been 
banded as a nestling in southern New Jersey. An adult banded 
in east-central New York was recovered in Talbot County (dates 
not known). 

OSPREY Pandion haliaetus (Linnaeus) 

Status. — Breeding (see fig. 4) : Common in the tidewater areas 
of the Eastern Shore, Western Shore, and Upper Chesapeake sec- 
tions. Transient: Common in the Eastern Shore, Western Shore, 
and Upper Chesapeake sections ; fairly common in the Piedmont, 
Ridge and Valley, and Allegheny Mountain sections. Wintering: 
Rare in the Eastern Shore, Western Shore, and Upper Chesapeake 
sections ; casual in the Piedmont section — recorded in Montgomery 
County on February 1, 1918 (A. Wetmore), and December 20, 
1952 (L. E. Morgan). Summer vagrant: Uncommon in the East- 
ern Shore, Western Shore, Upper Chesapeake, and Piedmont sec- 
tions. 

Habitat. — Along open tidewater and inland ponds and streams. 

Nesting season. — Late March to late August (nesting peak, 
late April to early July) . Nest-building was recorded as early as 
March 22, 1953, in Caroline County (Mr. and Mrs. A. J. Fletcher) . 
Extreme egg dates (173 nests) : April 20, 1887, in Cecil County 
(USNM) and July 20, 1953, in Caroline County (Mr. and Mrs. 
A. J. Fletcher). Extreme nestling dates (68 nests) : "About May 
20" in Caroline County (Poole, 1942b) and August 19, 1893, in 
Talbot County (Kirkwood, 1895) . 

Spring migration. — Normal period: March 10-20 to May 10- 
20 ; peak, April 10 to April 30. Extreme dates of arrival: March 
2, 1954, in St. Marys County (H. N. Page, V. C. Kirtley) ; March 
5, 1952, in Anne Arundel County (Mrs. W. L. Henderson, Mrs. 
G. Tappan) ; March 7, 1954, in Caroline County (S. Somers). 
Extreme date of departure: May 24, 1953 in Frederick County 
(J. W. Richards) . 



BIRDS OF MARYLAND AND DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 1 19 

Fall migration. — Normal period: September 5-15 to Novem- 
ber 1-10 ; peak, September 15 to October 5. Extreme date of ar- 
rival: August 31, 1942, in Prince Georges County. Extreme dates 
of departure: November 30, 1907, in the District of Columbia 
(A. K. Fisher) ; November 23, 1951, in Dorchester County. 

Maximum counts. — Spring: 45 in Charles County on April 18, 
1953 (J. W. Terborgh) ; 43 (in 6i/ 2 hours) on Patuxent Refuge 
on April 26, 1945. Fall: 23 in the Ocean City area on September 

29, 1945; 16 along the fall line above White Marsh, Baltimore 
County, on September 20, 1952 (C. D. Hackman), 13 on South 
Mountain along the boundary between Frederick and Washington 
Counties on September 23, 1950 (Dr. and Mrs. R. S. Stauffer). 

Banding. — One banded as a nestling at Turkey Point, Cecil 
County, on July 2, 1954, was recovered in western Mato Grosso, 
Brazil, on September 25, 1954; another banded as a nestling on 
Long Marsh Island in Eastern Bay, Queen Annes County on July 
2, 1954, was recovered in Oriente Province, Cuba, on November 

30, 1955. One shot near Grasonville, Queen Annes County, on 
April 5, 1956, had been banded on Gardiners Island, New York, 
on July 20, 1951. 

Family FALCONIDAE 

PEREGRINE FALCON Fa/co peregrinus Tunstall 

Status. — Breeding: Occurs locally in the Piedmont, Ridge and 
Valley, and Allegheny Mountain sections (during the period 1932- 
1952, 10 occupied nest sites found were in Harford, Montgomery, 
Frederick, Washington, and Allegany Counties). Transient: 
Fairly common along the coast in Worcester County (Assateague 
Island is an outstanding concentration area during the fall migra- 
tion) ; uncommon in the tidewater areas elsewhere in the Eastern 
Shore, Western Shore, and Upper Chesapeake sections and in the 
interior in the Ridge and Valley, and Allegheny Mountain sec- 
tions ; rare on inland areas of the Eastern Shore, Western Shore, 
Upper Chesapeake, and Piedmont sections. Wintering: Rare in 
the Eastern Shore, Western Shore, Upper Chesapeake, Piedmont, 
and Ridge and Valley sections. 

Habitat. — Breeding: Usually in the vicinity of cliffs in the 
mountains or along deep gorges of some of the larger streams. 
Transient and wintering: Occurs most commonly along the ocean 
beach; also regular along the bay shores and tidal marshes and 
on the higher ridges in the mountains ; in downtown Washington, 
D. C, 1 or 2 birds are frequently found in the vicinity of the taller 
buildings. 



120 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 62, FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 




Figure 21. — Peregrine Falcon banding recoveries. Each symbol represents 
the number of records for a State or Province. Banded in Maryland, recov- 
ered elsewhere : solid triangle = recovered September through May. Recov- 
ered in Maryland, banded elsewhere: open triangle = banded September 
through May. 



BIRDS OF MARYLAND AND DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 121 

Nesting season. — Mid-February to early June (Wimsatt, 1939 
and 1940). Extreme egg dates (3 nests) : about February 12, 
1939 (Wimsatt, 1940), and about May 7, 1937 (allowing for incu- 
bation period — Wimsatt, 1939) — both records in Washington 
County. Extreme nestling dates (2 nests) : about March 15, 1939 
(Wimsatt, 1940), and about June 10, 1937 (Wimsatt, 1939)— both 
records in Washington County. 

Spring migration. — Normal period: February 20-March 1 to 
May 10-20. Extreme date of arrival: February 19, 1922, in 
Montgomery County (Fisher, 1935). Extreme date of departure: 
May 22, 1918, in the District of Columbia (L. Griscom). 

Fall migration. — Normal period: September 10-20 to Novem- 
ber 20-30 ; peak, September 25 to November 5. Extreme date of 
arrival: August 30, 1943, in Prince Georges County. Extreme 
date of departure: December 9, 1949, in Dorchester County. 

Maximum counts. — Spring: 5 at Gibson Island, Anne Arundel 
County, on February 25, 1955 (Mrs. W. L. Henderson, S. Hender- 
son). Fall: 75 (12 captured) on Assateague Island in Worcester 
County on October 13, 1946 (T. H. Cunningham) ; 4 on South 
Mountain on October 3, 1953 (R. J. Beaton) ; 4 on Backbone 
Mountain, Garrett County, on September 25, 1955 (M. G. Brooks, 
et al.). 

Banding. — See map, figure 21. 

PIGEON HAWK Falco columbarius Linnaeus 

Status. — Transient: Fairly common in the coastal area of Wor- 
cester County; uncommon elsewhere in all sections. Wintering : 
Rare in the Eastern Shore and Western Shore sections. 

Habitat. — Especially characteristic of the coastal barrier 
beaches in the zone containing brush and patches of loblolly pine ; 
also occurs in other brush and forest edge habitats and along the 
bay shores. 

Spring migration. — Normal period: March 20-30 to May 1- 
10; peak, April 10 to April 30. Extreme dates of arrival: March 
4, 1955, in Prince Georges County (F. C. Schmid) ; March 7, 1937, 
in Anne Arundel County (M. B. Meanley) ; March 10, 1956, in 
Talbot County (R. L. Kleen, E. Adams) ; March 18, 1942, in Caro- 
line County (K. B. Corbett). Extreme dates of departure: May 
15, 1954, in Worcester County (J. K. Wright) ; May 13, 1950, in 
Charles County (M. C. Crone, R. S. Farr) ; May 11, 1917, in the 
District of Columbia (H. C. Oberholser). 

Fall migration. — Normal period: August 20-30 to November 
1-10; peak, September 15 to October 20. Extreme dates of ar- 



122 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 62, FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 

rival: August 13, 1948, in Worcester County; August 17, 1890, 
in the District of Columbia (W. B. Barrows). Extreme dates of 
departure: November 14, 1943, in Prince Georges County; No- 
vember 11, 1951, in Worcester County. 

Maximum counts. — Fall: 8 on Assateague Island, Worcester 
County, on September 20, 1945; 5 near Emmitsburg, Frederick 
County, on September 23, 1951 (J. W. Richards) . 

SPARROW HAWK FoJco sparverius Linnaeus 

Status. — Breeding: Fairly common in all sections. Transient: 
Locally abundant in the Eastern Shore section (Hooper Island in 
Dorchester County is one of the principal concentration areas in 
fall) ; common elsewhere in all other sections. Wintering: Com- 
mon in the Eastern Shore and Upper Chesapeake sections ; fairly 
common in the Western Shore and Piedmont sections ; uncommon 
in the Ridge and Valley section ; rare in the Allegheny Mountain 
section. 

Habitat. — Chiefly open agricultural areas. During migration, 
also occurs regularly along the wooded ridges in the Ridge and 
Valley, and Allegheny Mountain sections; along the fall line in 
the Piedmont section; and in brush and edge habitats near tide- 
water. 

Nesting season. — Late March to late August (nesting peak, 
mid-April to early July) . Extreme egg dates (39 nests) : March 
31, 1894, in the District of Columbia (USNM— J. H. Riley) and 
August 4, 1889, in or near the District of Columbia (USNM — F. 
Robinette). Extreme nestling dates (10 nests): May 17, 1898, 
in Baltimore County (F. C. Kirkwood) and August 5, 1946, in the 
District of Columbia (J. W. Taylor, Jr.). 

Normal migration periods. — Spring: March 1-10 to May 1- 
10; peak, March 15 to April 25. Fall: September 1-10 to Novem- 
ber 10-20; peak, September 15 to October 10. 

Maximum counts. — Spring: 75 in Dulaney Valley, Baltimore 
County, on March 18, 1893 (Kirkwood, 1895) . Fall: 51 on Hooper 
Island, Dorchester County, on September 24, 1950 ; 42 near White 
Marsh, Baltimore County, on September 20, 1952 (C. D. Hack- 
man) ; 20 on South Mountain along the boundary between Fred- 
erick and Washington Counties on September 24, 1950. Winter 
(Christmas counts) : 66 in Caroline County on December 20, 1952; 
52 in the Ocean City area on December 27, 1953. 

Banding. — See figure 22. 



BIRDS OF MARYLAND AND DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 123 




Figure 22. — Sparrow Hawk banding recoveries. Each symbol represents the 
number of records for a State or Province. Banded in Maryland, recovered 
elsewhere: solid triangle = recovered September through May. Recovered 
in Maryland, banded elsewhere : open circle = banded June through August. 



124 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 62, FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 

Family TETRAONIDAE 
RUFFED GROUSE Bonasa umbellus (Linnaeus) 

Status. — Permanent resident. See figure 11 (p. 79). Common 
in the Allegheny Mountain section; fairly common in the Ridge 
and Valley section (absent from Hagerstown Valley) ; formerly 
occurred throughout the Piedmont section and in the northern part 
of the Western Shore section (northern portions of Prince Georges 
and Anne Arundel Counties) but gradually disappeared from this 
area during the period 1900-1920. Possibly a few still occur 
along the Patapsco River in Carroll County, since 1 was reported 
on the upper Patapsco on December 9, 1930 (Perkins and Allen, 
1931), and another was reported near Westminster on May 9, 
1953 (D. A. Jones). There have also been recent sight records 
in northeastern Cecil County (Maryland Conservationist 25 (3) : 
12, 1948). A most extraordinary record was made by J. Cad- 
bury and J. Arnett who report seeing 2 Ruffed Grouse in the 
Pocomoke River swamp in Worcester County on May 10, 1953; 
another was seen in the same area in May 1954 (D. A. Cutler). 

Habitat. — Occurs as an edge species in extensive tracts of 
forest, being most common in the vicinity of forest openings or 
in young stands of cut-over second-growth timber. 

Nesting season. — Mid-April to early July. Extreme egg dates 
(8 nests) : April 28, 1859, in Montgomery County (USNM) and 
June 15, 1952 and 1956, in Garrett County (Allegany Bird Club 
Junior Camp). Extreme downy young dates (6 broods): May 

30, 1948, in Washington County and June 11, 1925, in Garrett 
County (F. C. Kirkwood). 

Maximum counts. — Fall: 14 reported killed by a hunting party 
near Crellin, Garrett County, on November 1, 1944 (A. Sisler). 
Winter (Christmas counts) : 27 in Garrett County on December 

31, 1954; 8 in the Catoctin Mountain area, Frederick County, on 
January 2, 1954. 

GREATER PRAIRIE CHICKEN (HEATH HEN) 

Tympanuchus cup/do (Linnaeus) 

Status. — Formerly occurred, at least locally, on the Maryland 
Coastal Plain (Crevier, 1830, and Cabot, 1855). C. S. Wescott, 
of Philadelphia, reported it as occurring — "according to tradi- 
tion — in Maryland and Delaware, on the shores of the Chesapeake 
Bay and on the Peninsula of Maryland and Virginia" (Grinnell, 
1910). A specimen, formerly in the U. S. National Museum, was 
collected near Washington, D. C, on April 10, 1846 (Swales,. 



BIRDS OF MARYLAND AND DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 125 

1919) . This species was also recorded near Marshall Hall, Prince 
Georges County, during the spring of 1860 (Bent, 1932). 

Family PHASIANIDAE 

BOBWHITE Colinus virginianus (Linnaeus) 

Status. — Permanent resident. Common in the Eastern Shore, 
Western Shore, and Upper Chesapeake sections; fairly common 
in the Piedmont, and Ridge and Valley sections ; uncommon in the 
Allegheny Mountain section. 

Habitat. — In or near hedgerows, wood margins, and brushy 
fields, in agricultural areas or on abandoned farmland. 

Nesting season. — Early May to late September (nesting peak, 
mid-May to mid-August). Extreme egg dates (39 nests) : May 
12, 1935, in Baltimore County (M. B. Meanley) and September 
16, 1891, in the District of Columbia (Farnham, 1891). Extreme 
downy young dates (25 broods) : June 16, 1953, in Caroline 
County (M. W. Hewitt) and September 25, 1949, in Montgomery 
County (W. B. Tyrrell). 

Breeding population densities (pairs per 100 acres). — 

5 (3 in 66 acres) in field and edge habitat (including strips of flood-plain 
forest, brushy fields, and hedgerows) in Baltimore County in 1947 
(Hampe, et al., 1947). 

1.5 (25 in 1,694 acres) in upland pine and deciduous forest and brush with 
small agricultural areas and abandoned farmlands near the boundary 
between Anne Arundel and Prince Georges Counties in 1943. 

Maximum counts. — Winter (Christmas counts) : 122 in the 
Ocean City area on December 27, 1954; 77 in the St. Michaels area, 
Talbot County, on December 29, 1954 ; 74 in southern Dorchester 
County on December 28, 1953; 67 in the Annapolis area on Jan- 
uary 2, 1955; 42 at Patuxent Refuge on December 23, 1943; 40 
in the Catoctin Mountain area on December 30, 1951. 

RING-NECKED PHEASANT Phasianus co/ch/cus Linnaeus 

Status. — Permanent resident. Introductions of this species 
have been made on numerous occasions, at many locations in 
Maryland. However, the Ring-necked Pheasant has been unable 
to maintain itself in numbers except locally in the Piedmont, Ridge 
and Valley, and Allegheny Mountain sections. This species may 
be found most commonly near the Pennsylvania boundary in Cecil, 
Harford, Baltimore, Carroll, Frederick, and Washington Counties. 
Haven Kolb reports that this species was first noted at Loch Raven 
in Baltimore County about 1939, and that territories of several 
crowing males have been maintained there since the spring of 
1951. 



126 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 62, FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 

Habitat. — Agricultural fields, abandoned fields, hedgerows, and 
brushy or weedy field margins. 

Family MELEAGRIDIDAE 

TURKEY Me/eagr/s gallopavo Linnaeus 

Status. — Permanent resident. Fairly common locally in Alle- 
gany County; uncommon and local in western Washington County; 
rare in Garrett County. Formerly occurred throughout the Alle- 
gheny Mountain, Ridge and Valley, and Piedmont sections, and in 
portions of the Western Shore section near the fall line ; but was 
extirpated from the greater part of its range during the last half 
of the nineteenth century. Turkeys were of regular occurrence 
in some of the wilder sections of Montgomery County until 1890, 
the latest record occurring on October 28, 1894, when 4 birds 
were observed at Seneca (C. W. Richmond). Two were shot at 
Blue Ridge Summit, Frederick County, on November 11, 1900 
(J. V. L. Cook). During recent years the wild populations in 
Allegany and Washington Counties have been augmented from 
time to time with introductions of game farm stock* Introduced 
birds have also become established in Worcester County in the 
vicinity of the Pocomoke State Forest. 

Habitat. — Occurs only where extensive tracts of forest are 
found. 

Nesting season. — A nest with 2 eggs was found in Montgom- 
ery County near Rockville on June 4, 1859 (USNM — W. M. Mc- 
Lain). A nest, containing 7 eggs, was found in Allegany County 
in May during the mid 1940's, and poults were seen on numerous 
occasions in June, July, and August; earliest date for poults was 
June 14, 1945 (K. A. Wilson). 

Family RALLIDAE 

KING RAIL Rallus e/egans Audubon 

Status. — Breeding (see fig. 23) : Fairly common in the tide- 
water areas of the Eastern Shore, Western Shore, and Upper 
Chesapeake sections ; uncommon and local in the Piedmont section 
and in the interior of the Eastern Shore, Western Shore, and 
Upper Chesapeake sections. Transient: Fairly common in the 
tidewater areas of the Eastern Shore, Western Shore, and Upper 
Chesapeake sections ; uncommon elsewhere in all sections. Winter- 
ing: Fairly common in tidewater areas of the Eastern Shore sec- 
tion; uncommon in tidewater areas of the Western Shore and 
Upper Chesapeake sections. 

Habitat. — Various brackish and fresh-water marsh types, in- 



BIRDS OF MARYLAND AND DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 



127 




I Principal Range 

KING RAIL 
• Local Record 

VIRGINIA RAIL 
O Local Record 



Figure 23. — Breeding ranges of King Rail and Virginia Rail. 



eluding narrow-leaved cattail, Olney three-square and switch- 
grass ; occurring most commonly in the higher areas of marsh that 
contain scattered shrubs. 

Nesting season. — Early May to mid-August. Extreme egg 
dates (16 nests) : May 17, 1930, in St. Marys County (W. H. 
Ball) and June 23, 1950, in Caroline County (Mrs. A. J. Fletcher). 
Extreme downy young dates (6 broods) : May 29, 1949, in Mont- 
gomery County (Cross, 1949) and August 13, 1954, in Dorchester 
County. 

Maximum counts. — Winter: 23 in southern Dorchester County 
on December 28, 1953 (Christmas count) ; 10 at Cove Point, 
Calvert County, on February 17, 1946 (R. T. Peterson) . 

CLAPPER RAIL Rallus longirostris Boddaert 

Status. — Breeding and transient (see fig. 24) : Fairly common 
in the coastal area of Worcester County and in the tidewater 
areas of Somerset County ; uncommon and local in the outer fringe 
of other tidal marshes along Chesapeake Bay, occurring in the 
Eastern Shore section (north to Parson Island in Queen Annes 
County — D. E. Davis) and in southern St. Marys County; casual 
occurrence elsewhere — recorded in the Patapsco River marsh 
(Kirkwood, 1895) and in the District of Columbia (Coues and 



128 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 62, FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 





79' 
1 


78- 








V* 




7,6- 




7*, 

1 


o 


/ 

/ 


I J 

'offlac *- 




t 


i i' 


j 


T" 

i 
\ 

A 








lj^ 


-39«- 





SCALE 

10 20 30 40 MILES 








/ ^v 








-3S«- 










LEGEND 










li 












CLAPPER RAIL 












X&gJ, ( 










| Principal Range 
• Local Record 








i / i*N 


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x*5 J vv fW 














SAW -WHET OWL 














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O Local Record 








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Figure 24. — Breeding ranges of Clapper Rail and Saw-whet Owl. 

Prentiss, 1883). Wintering: Uncommon in the coastal area of 
Worcester County ; rare in tidal areas of Somerset County ; casual 
in the tidewater areas elsewhere in the Eastern Shore and Western 
Shore sections. 

Habitat. — Restricted to salt marshes, usually either salt-water 
cordgrass or needlerush. 

Nesting season. — Early May to early August. Extreme egg 
dates (4 nests) : May 20, 1950 (S. H. Low), and July 20, 1951, 
both in Worcester County. Half-grown young were seen at Ocean 
City on August 13, 1949. 

Maximum counts. — Spring: 6 at Ocean City on May 12, 1946. 
Fall: 12 at Ocean City on September 3, 1953 (J. W. Terborgh). 
Winter: 27 in the Ocean City area on December 27, 1953 (Christ- 
mas count). 

VIRGINIA RAIL Rallus limkola Vieillot 

Status. — Breeding and transient (see fig. 23) : Common in 
tidewater areas of the Eastern Shore and Upper Chesapeake sec- 
tions; fairly common in the Allegheny Mountain section (locally) 
and in tidewater areas of the Western Shore section ; rare in the 
Piedmont, and Ridge and Valley sections and in the interior of the 
Eastern Shore, Western Shore, and Upper Chesapeake sections. 



BIRDS OF MARYLAND AND DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 129 

Wintering : Common in tidewater areas of the Eastern Shore sec- 
tion; uncommon in tidewater areas of the Western Shore and 
Upper Chesapeake sections. 

Habitat. — Brackish tidal marshes, being especially char- 
acteristic of Olney three-square type, but also occurring regularly 
in narrow-leaved cattail, switchgrass and in other types; in the 
interior it is characteristic of sedge meadows and is occasionally 
found in stands of common cattail. 

Nesting season. — Late April to late August. Extreme egg 
dates (16 nests) : May 14, 1933, in Dorchester County (F. R. 
Smith) and August 16, 1956, in Dorchester County (P. F. 
Springer). Extreme downy young dates (5 broods) : May 23, 
1944, in Dorchester County (L. M. Llewellyn) and July 8, 1950, 
in Montgomery County (S. H. Low). 

Migration periods. — The periods of migration for this species 
are imperfectly known. The probable periods would extend 
through April and early May in spring and through late August, 
September, and early October in fall ; the latest definite migration 
date is October 8, 1954, in Talbot County (R. L. Kleen). 

Maximum counts. — Fall: 42 in the Elliott Island area, Dor- 
chester County, on August 31, 1946. Winter (Christmas counts) : 
58 in southern Dorchester County on December 23, 1951; 17 in 
the Gunpowder River marshes, Baltimore and Harford Counties, 
on December 29, 1951 ; 16 in southern Charles County on January 
1, 1954. 

SORA Porzana Carolina (Linnaeus) 

Status. — Breeding: Rare and local in the tidewater areas of the 
Upper Chesapeake and Western Shore sections — a nest with eggs 
(photograph, p. 469 in Bent, 1926) was found along the Bush 
River in Harford County on May 25, 1899 (W. H. Fisher) ; a 
female, with an egg ready to lay, was killed by a dog on the Gun- 
powder River marsh on May 5, 1899 (J. Thomas) ; 4 were seen at 
North Point, Baltimore County, on July 25, 1893 (G. Todd) ; 2 
were heard calling at Sandy Point, Anne Arundel County, on June 
27, 1952 (R. R. Kerr). Transient: Common (locally abundant 
in fall) in the tidewater areas of the Upper Chesapeake and 
Western Shore sections (concentration areas include the Elk, 
Bush, Gunpowder, Back, Patapsco, and Patuxent Rivers, and 
formerly the Anacostia River) ; fairly common elsewhere in all 
sections. Wintering: Rare in tidewater areas of the Eastern 
Shore, Western Shore, and Upper Chesapeake sections. 

Habitat. — Various fresh and brackish marsh types; especially 



130 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 62, FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 

numerous (in fall) in wildrice marshes; but also occurring regu- 
larly in narrow-leaved cattail, reed, and many other types; also 
found sparingly in salt marshes. 

Spring migration. — Normal period: April 20-25 to May 15- 
20. Extreme date of arrival: April 19, 1953, in Anne Arundel 
County (L. W. Oring) . 

Fall migration. — Normal period: August 10-20 to October 
20-30; peak, August 25 to September 30. Extreme date of ar- 
rival: August 7, 1895, in the Washington, D. C, area (B. Green- 
wood). Extreme dates of departure: November 9, 1878, in the 
District of Columbia (S. F. Baird) ; November 3, 1880, in Prince 
Georges County (USNM) . 

Maximum counts. — Spring: 8 at Sandy Point, Anne Arundel 
County, on May 2, 1953 (P. A. DuMont). Fall: 55 at Aliens 
Fresh, Charles County, on September 26, 1953 ; about 50 (21 shot) 
in the Patuxent River marsh on September 1, 1942 ; 50 at Seneca, 
Montgomery County, on September 7, 1953 (J. W. Terborgh) ; 30 
at Sandy Point on September 2, 1953 (J. W. Terborgh, R. R. 
Kerr) ; 28 at Mountain Lake, Garrett County, on September 26, 
1953 (M.G.Brooks). 

Banding. — One recovered in Cecil County on September 18, 
1933, had been banded in northeastern New Jersey on September 
7, 1933. 

YELLOW RAIL Coturnkops noveboracens/s (Gmelin) 

Status. — Transient: Rare in tidewater areas of the Eastern 
Shore, Western Shore, and Upper Chesapeake sections. Records 
from Worcester, Dorchester, Talbot, Prince Georges, Anne 
Arundel, Baltimore, and Harford Counties, and the District of 
Columbia. 

Habitat. — Chiefly, fresh and brackish tidal marshes. 

Migration periods. — Spring (8 records) : March 12, 1909, at 
Laurel, Prince Georges County (USNM— E. B. Marshall) to May 
20, 1917, in the District of Columbia (USNM— Mrs. E. Paminetti) . 
Fall (8 records) : October 2, 1929, in Patuxent River marsh, 
Prince Georges County (J. Trennis), to November 19, 1898, on 
Carroll Island, Baltimore County (F. C. Kirkwood). 

BLACK RAIL Laterallus jamaicensis (Gmelin) 

Status. — Breeding and transient: Fairly common locally in 
tidewater areas of Dorchester County ; rare and local in tidewater 
areas elsewhere in the Eastern Shore and Western Shore sections 
(recorded in Worcester, Anne Arundel, Calvert, St. Marys, 
Charles, and Prince Georges Counties, and the District of Co- 



BIRDS OF MARYLAND AND DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 131 

lumbia). There are definite nest records for Calvert (E. J. 
Court) and Dorchester Counties, and adults were collected in the 
District of Columbia on May 29, 1891 (R. L. Jones), and June 6, 
1879 (Shekells). 

Habitat. — Principally areas of salt meadow that contain a 
mixture of salt-meadow grass and spike-grass. 

Nesting season. — Nests with eggs were found in Dorchester 
County on June 16, 1931 (A. L. Nelson, F. M. Uhler) , and on May 
20, 1953. Dates on Calvert County records are not available. 

Migration period. — Spring (5 records) : April 26, 1954, in 
Dorchester County (W. R. Nicholson) to May 22, 1952, in Anne 
Arundel County (J. W. Terborgh). Fall (9 records) : September 
1, 1908, in the District of Columbia (USNM— H. M. Bailey) to 
October 19, 1906, in the Patuxent River marsh, Prince Georges 
County (W. F. Roberts). 

Maximum count. — Summer: 100+ calling at 11:30 p.m. on 
June 2, 1954, in Elliott Island marsh, Dorchester County (J. W. 
Terborgh, J. E. Knudson) . 

CORN CRAKE Crex crex (Linnaeus) 

Status. — Accidental visitor. One was shot in Worcester 
County, at Hursley (now Stockton) on November 28, 1900, by 
John Livesey. The mounted specimen was exhibited at the De- 
cember 6, 1900, meeting of the Delaware Valley Ornithological 
Club (Abstr. Proc. D.V.O.C. 4:6). Hampe and Kolb (1947) 
state that Dr. Witmer Stone "well remembered the specimen." 
This Old World species, which normally winters in Africa, has 
been taken in a dozen North American tidal localities from Mary- 
land north to Baffin Island. 

PURPLE GALLINULE Porphyrula martinica (Linnaeus) 

Status. — Casual visitor. An adult male was collected in the 
District of Columbia on April 30, 1845 (Deignan, 1943a). One 
that had been shot on the Potomac River was seen in a market 
in Washington, D. C, on August 24, 1889 (Kirkwood, 1895). An 
immature female was collected on the Patuxent River marsh in 
lower Anne Arundel County on October 12, 1938 (Hampe, et al., 
1939). An adult was observed repeatedly during the period June 
24-26, 1947, at the Patuxent Research Refuge, Prince Georges 
County (Stewart, et al., 1952). Another adult was observed 
repeatedly at Seneca, Montgomery County, during the period July 
19-25, 1953 (R. R. Kerr). 



132 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 62, FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 

COMMON GALLINULE Gallinula ch/oropus (Linnaeus) 

STATUS. — Breeding: Fairly common in the marshes along the 
Gunpowder River estuary (Baltimore and Harford Counties) ; 
uncommon and local in tidewater areas of the southern half of 
Dorchester County; possibly breeds sparingly in other tidewater 
areas — recorded in summer on the Patapsco River (H. Brackbill) 
and in the District of Columbia (several observers) and 1 bird 
was observed at the Patuxent Refuge, Prince Georges County on 
June 9, 1949. Transient: Uncommon in tidewater areas of the 
Eastern Shore, Western Shore, and Upper Chesapeake sections; 
rare in the Piedmont section and in the interior of the Eastern 
Shore, Western Shore, and Upper Chesapeake sections. Winter- 
ing: Casual visitor in the coastal area of Worcester County — 1 
recorded at Heine's Pond near Berlin on December 27, 1954 (J. 
H. Buckalew, S. H. Low), and 2 at West Ocean City on Decem- 
ber 27, 1955 (P. A. DuMont). 

Habitat. — Occurs in the vicinity of ponds in brackish marsh 
types, including narrow-leaved cattail, Olney three-square, and 
needlerush ; during migration, also occurs on inland marshes. 

Nesting season. — Early May to mid- July. Extreme egg dates 
(7 nests) : May 10, 1916, in Dorchester County (Jackson, 1941) 
and June 21, 1936, on the Gunpowder River (M. B. Meanley). 

Migration periods. — Spring (12 records) : April 7, 1954, in 
Anne Arundel County (N. B. Wells) to May 19, 1946, in the Dis- 
trict of Columbia (J. W. Taylor, Jr.). Fall (16 records) : Septem- 
ber 22, 1955, in Talbot County (M. Gifford), to November 22, 
1953, in Worcester County (E. Arnold). 

Maximum counts. — 13 on August 31, 1946, and 5 on October 
2, 1948, in the Elliott Island area, Dorchester County. 

Banding. — One killed at Ridgely, Caroline County (letter of 
September 26, 1955), had been banded at Oshawa, Ontario, on 
August 24, 1955. 

AMERICAN COOT Fulka americana Gmelin 

Status. — Transient: Locally common in the tidewater areas of 
the Eastern Shore, Western Shore, and Upper Chesapeake sections 
(concentration areas include the Potomac, Wicomico, Patuxent, 
and South Rivers in the Western Shore section, the Middle, Gun- 
powder, Northeast, and Sassafras Rivers and Susquehanna Flats 
in the Upper Chesapeake section, and the Chester River, Eastern 
Bay, and Heine's Pond near Berlin, in the Eastern Shore section) ; 
fairly common in the Allegheny Mountain section; uncommon 
elsewhere in all sections. Wintering: Locally common in tide- 



BIRDS OF MARYLAND AND DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 133 

water areas of the Eastern Shore, Western Shore, and Upper 
Chesapeake sections (concentration areas, same as during migra- 
tion) ; rare in the Piedmont section and in the interior of the 
Eastern Shore, Western Shore, and Upper Chesapeake sections. 
Summer vagrant: Casual — recorded in the District of Columbia 
(several records), and in Queen Annes and Prince Georges 
Counties (P. F. Springer). 

Habitat. — Brackish estuaries, and ponds in brackish marshes 
that contain a plentiful aquatic-plant growth, including such 
species as wild celery, red-head pondweed, and sago pondweed; 
also occurs on inland ponds and lakes. 

Spring migration. — Normal period: March 10-20 to May 5-15; 
peak, March 25 to April 25. Extreme date of arrival: March 8, 
1949, in Prince Georges County. Extreme dates of departure: 
June 10, 1954, in Baltimore County (E. Willis) ; May 30, 1949, in 
Garrett County; May 23, 1886, in the District of Columbia (C. W. 
Richmond) ; May 20, 1926, in Charles County (A. Wetmore). 

Fall migration. — Normal period: September 20-30 to Decem- 
ber 1-10; peak, October 15 to November 25. Extreme dates of 
arrival: August 28, 1930, on the Potomac River, below Washing- 
ton, D. C. (H. C. Oberholser) ; September 14, 1953, in Dorchester 
County; September 14, 1954, in Queen Annes County (P. F. 
Springer) . 

Maximum counts. — Spring: 11,350 on the Susquehanna Flats 
and Northeast River on March 31, 1955; 10,000 on the Middle 
River, Baltimore County, on March 21, 1953 (E. Willis) ; 1,500 
in the Port Tobacco area, Charles County, on March 21, 1954 (A. 
R. Stickley, Jr.) ; 1,000 in the Kent Island area, Queen Annes 
County, on April 9, 1949 (R. A. Grizzell) . Fall: 10,000 on the 
Potomac River in Prince Georges and Charles Counties on Novem- 
ber 10, 1928 (H. C. Oberholser) ; 4,000 in the Carroll Island area, 
Baltimore County, on November 19, 1950 ; 1,200 on Heine's Pond, 
Worcester County, on November 22, 1953 (E. Arnold) ; 590 on 
Savannah Lake, Dorchester County, on November 23, 1946; 500 
on Deep Creek Lake, Garrett County, on November 2, 1954 (M. 
G. Brooks) . Winter: 8,050 in the Carroll Island area, Baltimore 
County, on December 31, 1949 (Christmas count) ; 5,460 on the 
Susquehanna Flats on December 27, 1952 (Christmas count) ; 
4,100 in the Wicomico River area, Charles County, on December 
11, 1948 ; 1,700 in the Kent Island area, Queen Annes County, on 
December 31, 1948 (Christmas count) . 

Banding. — One recovered in the District of Columbia (letter 
of June 5, 1945) had been banded in northeastern Illinois on No- 



134 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 62, FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 

vember 10, 1944. Another recovered in Kent County in the fall 
of 1954 had been banded in Connecticut on February 25, 1953. 
Five banded in Kent County between February 18 and March 26 
were shot during the fall, 1 in northern Minnesota, 2 in east-cen- 
tral Wisconsin, 1 in southeastern Michigan, and 1 in eastern 
Ontario. 

Family HAEMATOPODIDAE 
AMERICAN OYSTERCATCHER Haematopus palliatus Temminck 

Status. — Breeding and transient: Rare in the coastal area of 
Worcester County. 

Habitat. — Sandy, shell-strewn beaches on islands along the 
coast. 

Nesting season. — A pair with small downy young (photo- 
graphed) was observed on Assateague Island about 8 miles south 
of Ocean City on June 6, 1939 (M. B. Meanley). In 1951, in the 
northern part of Chincoteague Bay, a pair with large young that 
could barely fly was seen on an island on July 3 (J. H. Buckalew) , 
and another pair with small young (1 banded) was seen on an- 
other island on July 12 ; in 1952, another young bird was banded 
in the same area on July 4 ( J. H. Buckalew) . 

Period of occurrence. — Extreme dates: April 25, 1900 (A. 
Ludlam), and August 9, 1902 (F. C. Kirkwood), in Worcester 
County. 

Family CHARADRIIDAE 

SEMIPALMATED PLOVER Charadrius semipalmatus Bonaparte 

Status. — Transient: Common in the coastal area of Worcester 
County; fairly common in other tidewater areas of the Eastern 
Shore, Western Shore, and Upper Chesapeake sections; uncom- 
mon elsewhere in all sections. Wintering and summer vagrant: 
Rare in the coastal area of Worcester County. 

Habitat. — Mud flats and wet sand flats, usually along the 
margins of bays, estuaries, ponds, and lakes ; occasional along the 
ocean beach. 

Spring migration. — Normal period: April 5-15 to June 5-15; 
peak, May 5 to May 25. Extreme date of arrival: April 1, 1948, 
in the Ocean City area. Extreme dates of departure: June 26, 
1950, in the Ocean City area; June 22, 1954, in Queen Annes 
County (P. F. Springer) ; June 19, 1946, in the District of Co- 
lumbia (W. H. Ball). 

Fall migration. — Normal period: July 15-25 to November 1- 
10; peak, August 5 to September 15. Extreme date of arrival: 



BIRDS OF MARYLAND AND DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 135 

July 10, 1949, in the Ocean City area. Extreme dates of de- 
parture: November 30, 1949, in Dorchester County; November 16, 
1947, in the Ocean City area. 

Maximum counts. — Spring: 525 in the Ocean City area on 
May 12, 1956 ; 300 on Mills Island in Chincoteague Bay on May 7, 
1938 (G. A. Ammann) ; 25 in the District of Columbia on May 14, 
1927 (W. W. Rubey). Fall: 280 on Assateague Island on August 
30, 1950 ; 90 in the Crisfield area, Somerset County, on August 11, 
1950; 60 at Sandy Point, Anne Arundel County, on August 21, 
1947. 

PIPING PLOVER Charadnus melodus Ord 

Status. — Breeding: Uncommon in the coastal area of Wor- 
cester County. Transient: Uncommon in the coastal area of Wor- 
cester County; rare in tidewater areas elsewhere in the Eastern 
Shore and Western Shore sections. Wintering : Rare and irregu- 
lar in the coastal area of Worcester County. 

Habitat. — Coastal barrier beach; occasional on sandy beaches 
bordering bays and estuaries. 

Nesting season. — Early May to late July. Extreme egg dates 
(5 nests) : May 17, 1948 (J. E. Willoughby), and June 5, 1939 (M. 
B. Meanley), both in Worcester County. Extreme downy young 
dates (8 broods): June 16, 1935 (Tyrrell, 1935), and July 23, 
1949, both in Worcester County. 

Period of occurrence (excluding wintering dates) . — Extreme 
dates: March 12, 1949, on Assateague Island (J. H. Buckalew) 
and November 12, 1950, in the Ocean City area. 

Maximum counts. — Spring: 7 on Assateague Island on April 
14, 1951 (J. H. Buckalew) . Summer: 22 on Assateague Island on 
July 23, 1949. Fall: 6 on Assateague Island on October 5, 1946. 
Winter: 14 in the Ocean City area on December 27, 1954 (Christ- 
mas count) . 

Banding. — A juvenal banded in Worcester County on July 12, 
1947, was recovered in the Bahama Islands (Grand Bahama) on 
October 22, 1947 (Robbins and Stewart, 1948) . 

WILSON'S PLOVER Charadrius wilsonia Ord 

Status. — Breeding and transient: Rare (formerly more num- 
erous — H. H. Bailey) in the coastal area of Worcester County. 

Habitat. — Sandy shores on the barrier beach or on sandy 
islands in the coastal bays. 

Nesting season. — A pair was observed in courtship at West 
Ocean City on April 16, 1949. A nest containing 2 newly hatched 
young and 1 egg was found iy 2 miles north of Ocean City on June 



136 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 62, FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 

26, 1948 (S. H. Low). Downy young were banded on Assateague 
Island, 2 miles south of Ocean City, on July 10, 1947 (L. D. 
Cool, Jr.) . 

Period of occurrence. — Extreme dates: April 16, 1949, and 
August 17, 1925 (F. C. Kirkwood), both in the Ocean City area. 

Banding. — A ju venal banded in Worcester County, 2 miles 
south of Ocean City on July 10, 1947, was collected on Cedar 
Island, Accomack County, Virginia, on June 3, 1948. 

KILLDEER Charadrius vociferus Linnaeus 

Status. — Breeding: Fairly common in all sections. Transient: 
Common in all sections. Wintering : Fairly common in the East- 
ern Shore section; uncommon in the Western Shore and Upper 
Chesapeake sections; rare (occasionally more numerous) in the 
Piedmont section. 

Habitat. — Pastures, golf courses, and other extensive areas 
of short-grass turf; sparsely vegetated agricultural and fallow 
fields; sand and gravel areas; mud flats and shores. 

Nesting season. — Mid-March to late July (nesting peak, mid- 
April to late June). Extreme egg dates (159 nests) : March 16, 
1919, in Dorchester County (Jackson, 1941) and July 17, 1953, 
in Caroline County (Mr. and Mrs. A. J. Fletcher). Extreme 
downy young dates (48 broods) : April 14, 1952 (Mr. and Mrs. 
W. L. Henderson), and July 27, 1950 (R. W. Dickerman), in 
Anne Arundel County. 

Spring migration. — Normal period: February 5-15 to April 
1-10; peak, March 1 to March 20. Extreme dates of arrival: 
January 23, 1953, in Prince Georges County; January 24, 1953, 
in Montgomery County (P. F. Springer). 

Fall migration. — Normal period: July 5-15 to December 5- 
15; peak, August 20 to November 25. Extreme date of arrival: 
July 1, 1943, in Prince Georges County. Extreme dates of de- 
parture: December 22, 1946, in Prince Georges County; Decem- 
ber 17, 1951, in Anne Arundel County (Mrs. G. Tappan). 

Breeding population densities (pairs per 100 acres). — 

3.9 (3 in 77% acres) in recently plowed fields and sprout-wheat fields in 
Prince Georges County in 1949. 

1.4 (4 in 275 acres) in mixed agricultural habitats (including residential 
areas) in Prince Georges County in 1943 and 1947. 

0.2 (22 in 11,520 acres) in "general farmland" (chiefly hayfields and pas- 
tures, with little cover owing to widespread clean-farming practices) in 
Frederick County in 1950 (Stewart and Meanley, 1950). 

Maximum counts. — Fall: 200 in the Patuxent River marsh on 
November 23, 1946 ; 125 on Deep Creek Lake, Garrett County, on 



BIRDS OF MARYLAND AND DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 137 

September 23, 1936 (M. G. Brooks) ; 100 in the District of Colum- 
bia on November 21-24, 1917 (C. H. M. Barrett) ; 100 at Emmits- 
burg, Frederick County, on October 27, 1955 (J. W. Richards) ; 
75 on the Beltsville Research Center, Prince Georges County, on 
July 24, 1945. Winter (Christmas counts) : 539 in the Ocean City 
area on December 27, 1953 ; 115 in the District of Columbia area 
on January 1, 1955; 109 in the Denton area, Caroline County, on 
December 20, 1952; 80 in the Triadelphia Reservoir area (Mont- 
gomery and Howard Counties), on December 26, 1952. 

Banding. — One banded as a juvenal in Dorchester County on 
April 20, 1952, was recovered in eastern North Carolina on Janu- 
ary 2, 1954. Another banded in Montgomery County on August 
23, 1952, was recovered in south-central Virginia on March 5, 
1953. 

AMERICAN GOLDEN PLOVER Pluvialis dominka (Muller) 

Status. — Fall transient: Rare in all sections. Spring trans- 
ient: Casual occurrence — 1 collected on Nanjemoy Creek, Charles 
County, on March 28, 1911 (Swales, 1920) ; 1 seen on Assateague 
Island, Worcester County, on May 1, 1946 (Stewart and Robbins, 
1947a) ; 1 seen at Ocean City on April 16, 1949; and 1 recorded 
along Sinepuxent Bay on May 12, 1956 (R. L. Kleen). 

Habitat. — Mud flats, sand bars, beaches, cultivated fields, and 
pastures. 

Period of fall migration. — Extreme dates: August 14, 1955, 
in Talbot County (R. L. Kleen) and November 22, 1953, in Anne 
Arundel County (P. A. DuMont) . Migration peak: September 15 
to October 15. 

Maximum counts. — 20 on October 5, 1930, in the District of 
Columbia (Mr. and Mrs. W. J. Whiting) ; 6 on October 8, 1953, 
at Emmitsburg, Frederick County (J. W. Richards, P. O'Brien) . 

BLACK-BELLIED PLOVER Squatarola squatarola (Linnaeus) 

Status. — Transient: Common in the coastal area of Worcester 
County; fairly common in tidewater areas elsewhere in the East- 
ern Shore and Western Shore sections; uncommon in tidewater 
areas of the Upper Chesapeake section ; rare in the Piedmont sec- 
tion and in the interior of the Eastern Shore, Western Shore, and 
Upper Chesapeake sections. Wintering: Uncommon in the coastal 
area of Worcester County; rare elsewhere in tidal areas of the 
Eastern Shore section. Summer vagrant: Rare in the coastal 
area of Worcester County. 

Habitat. — Sandy beaches and mud flats, usually near salt water 



138 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 62, FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 

(ocean or bays) ; occasional on fields and pastures, especially near 
salt water. 

Spring migration. — Normal period: April 20-30 to June 5- 
15; peak, May 10 to May 30. Extreme date of arrival: March 
20, 1954, in Charles County (J. W. Terborgh). 

Fall migration. — Normal period: July 20-30 to November 
20-30; peak, August 15 to September 30. Extreme date of ar- 
rival: July 15, 1946, in Worcester County. Extreme date of 
departure: December 9, 1949, in Dorchester County. 

Maximum counts. — Spring: 200 in the Ocean City area on 
May 24, 1953, and 115 at Sandy Point, Anne Arundel County, on 
the same day (J. W. Terborgh) ; 100 in the Crisfield area, Somer- 
set County, on May 18, 1947; 11 in the District of Columbia on 
May 26, 1928 (W. H. Ball, P. Knappen). Fall: 199 on Assa- 
teague Island on August 30, 1950 ; 183 in the Ocean City area on 
August 23, 1945. Winter: 97 in the Ocean City area on December 
27, 1954 (Christmas count). 

RUDDY TURNSTONE Arenaria interpres (Linnaeus) 

Status. — Transient: Fairly common in the coastal area of Wor- 
cester County; uncommon in tidewater areas elsewhere in the 
Eastern Shore section; rare in tidewater areas of the Western 
Shore and Upper Chesapeake sections; casual in the Piedmont 
section — 1 seen at Seneca, Montgomery County, on September 14, 

1953 (J. W. Terborgh). Wintering and summer vagrant: Rare 
in the coastal area of Worcester County. 

Habitat. — Tidal salt-water flats with a short sparse growth 
of salt-water cordgrass or glass wort; also on jetties and sandy 
beaches at tidewater. 

Spring migration. — Normal period: April 20-30 to June 5-15; 
peak, May 10 to June 1. Extreme date of arrival: April 4, 1948, 
in Worcester County (S. H. Low). Extreme date of departure: 
June 16, 1935, in Worcester County ( W. B. Tyrrell) . 

Fall migration. — Normal period: July 25-30 to November 1- 
10; peak, August 5 to September 30. Extreme dates of arrival: 
July 23, 1947, and July 23, 1949, on Assateague Island. Extreme 
date of departure: November 12, 1950, in the Ocean City area. 

Maximum counts. — Spring: 420 near Ocean City on May 15, 

1954 (D. C. Aud. Soc.) ; 300 on Assateague Island on May 25, 
1947; 75 in the District of Columbia on May 26, 1928 (W. H. 
Ball, P. Knappen). Fall: 100 on Assateague Island on September 
25, 1931 (H. E. Richardson). 



BIRDS OF MARYLAND AND DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 139 

Family SCOLOPACIDAE 

AMERICAN WOODCOCK Philohela minor (Gmelin) 

Status. — Breeding: Fairly common locally in the Eastern 
Shore, Western Shore, Upper Chesapeake, Ridge and Valley, and 
Allegheny Mountain sections; uncommon and local in the Pied- 
mont section. Transient: Fairly common in all sections. Winter- 
ing: Uncommon in the Eastern Shore section; rare in the Western 
Shore section; casual in the Piedmont and Allegheny Mountain 
sections — 1 near Thurmont in Frederick County on January 2, 
1954 (Christmas count), and 1 seen along Bear Creek in Garrett 
County on December 31, 1954 (R. B. McCartney). 

Habitat. — Breeding: Thickets or open stands of shrubs and 
small trees on or adjacent to damp or wet areas; pine and sweet- 
gum fields, alder swamps, and slashings on recently cutover or 
burned-over areas are characteristic habitats. Transient and 
wintering: Various types of shrub and forest swamps. 

Nesting season. — Late February to mid-June (nesting peak, 
mid-March to early May). Extreme egg dates (23 nests) : Feb- 
ruary 25, 1891, in Baltimore County (USNM) and May 8, 1943, 
in Prince Georges County. Extreme downy young dates (19 
broods) : April 5, 1936, in Baltimore County (M. B. Meanley) and 
June 16, 1896, in Baltimore County (G. Holland). 

Spring migration. — Normal period: February 10-20 to March 
20-30 ; peak, February 25 to March 15. Extreme dates of arrival: 
January 19, 1953, in Prince Georges County; January 27, 1953, 
in Charles County (M. C. Crone, A. R. Stickley, Jr.). Extreme 
date of departure: April 11, 1952, in Frederick County (Mrs. 
J. W. Richards) . 

Fall migration. — Normal period: October 1-10 to December 
1-10; peak, October 25 to November 25. Extreme date of de- 
parture: December 12, 1894, in Allegany County (Z. Laney). 

Breeding population densities (territorial males per 100 
acres) . — 
5.6 (7 in 125 acres) in brushy, poorly drained, abandoned farmland in Prince 

Georges County in 1943. 
1.5 (19 in 1,280 acres) in upland, poorly drained brushland (cutover and 
burned-over forest land with scattered, small abandoned clearings) in 
Prince Georges County in 1951 (Stewart, 1952). 

Maximum counts. — Spring: 19 on Patuxent Refuge (in half- 
mile walk) on March 4, 1945 ; 18 near Elliott, Dorchester County, 
on February 22, 1954 (J. W. Terborgh, J. E. Knudson). Fall: 
8 on Patuxent Refuge on November 12, 1947. Winter: 12 in Anne 



140 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 62, FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 

Arundel County on December 26, 1950 (Christmas count) ; 6 at 
Aliens Fresh, Charles County, on January 31, 1953 (J. W. Ter- 
borgh) ; 5 in the Ocean City area on December 27, 1953 (Christ- 
mas count). 

COMMON SNIPE Capella gallinago (Linnaeus) 

Status. — Transient: Fairly common in all sections. Winter- 
ing: Uncommon in tidewater areas of the Eastern Shore and 
Western Shore sections; rare in the Piedmont and Upper Chesa- 
peake sections and in the interior of the Western Shore and East- 
ern Shore sections. 

Habitat. — Usually on wet grassy areas such as low pastures, 
and wet meadow types in tidal marshes ; also occurs on mud flats 
and shores that are adjacent to open water, and occasionally 
occurs on cultivated fields following heavy rains. 

Spring migration. — Normal period: March 1-10 to May 5-15; 
peak, March 15 to April 25. Extreme dates of arrival: February 
24, 1895, in Baltimore County (F. C. Kirkwood) ; February 28, 
18 — , in Allegany County (Z. Laney). Extreme dates of de- 
parture: May 23, 1937, in Baltimore County (M. B. Meanley) ; 
May 21, 1903, in Allegany County (G. Eifrig) ; May 18, 1947, in 
Prince Georges County. 

Fall migration. — Normal period: September 15-25 to Decem- 
ber 10-20 ; peak, October 1 to December 5. Extreme dates of ar- 
rival: August 3, 1955, in Prince Georges County; August 23, 1956, 
in Dorchester County (P. F. Springer) ; August 26, 1928, in the 
District of Columbia (W. H. Ball) ; September 2, 1898, at Pa- 
tapsco Marsh (John W. Edel). Extreme dates of departure: De- 
cember 23, 1950, in Frederick County (R. T. Smith) ; December 
23, 1951, in Garrett County (J. G. Smart). 

Maximum counts. — Spring: 120 at Aliens Fresh, Charles 
County, on March 29, 1953, and March 20, 1954 (J. W. Terborgh, 
et al.) ; 110 near Easton, Talbot County, on March 25, 1956 (C. 
Welsh, R. L. Kleen) ; 100 in Frederick County on March 17, 1951 
(R. T. Smith) ; 55 at Sandy Point, Anne Arundel County, on 
March 22, 1953 (E. Willis, D. A. Jones). Fall: 100 at Aliens 
Fresh on December 6, 1952 (J. W. Terborgh) ; 25 in Frederick 
County on December 23, 1950 (R. T. Smith) ; 24 on Bush River, 
Harford County, on October 3, 1948. Winter: 130 at Aliens Fresh 
on January 31, 1953 (J. W. Terborgh) ; 61 in the Wicomico River 
area (Charles and St. Marys Counties) on January 1, 1954 
(Christmas count) ; 20 in the Ocean City area on December 27, 
1955 (Christmas count) ; 12 in southern Dorchester County on 
December 28, 1953 (Christmas count). 



BIRDS OF MARYLAND AND DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 141 

LONG-BILLED CURLEW Numenius americanus Bechstein 

Status. — Casual visitor: A specimen (USNM) was taken in 
the District of Columbia on April 11, 1842, by W. Walker (Swales, 
1920). Another specimen (USNM) was collected in September 
1843 in St. Marys County (Deignan, 1943a) . One was shot from a 
flock of 6 or 7 on the Gunpowder River marsh on May 19, 1899 
(J. Thomas — head and wings examined by F. C. Kirkwood) . There 
are also several sight records for the nineteenth century. 

WHIMBREL Numenius phaeopus (Linnaeus) 

Status. — Transient: Fairly common in the coastal area of 
Worcester County ; rare in tidewater areas elsewhere in the East- 
ern Shore, Western Shore, and Upper Chesapeake sections. 

Habitat. — Salt-marsh flats with a sparse growth of short vege- 
tation, usually either glasswort or salt-water cordgrass; also 
occurs on the ocean beach and on mud flats adjoining the coastal 
bays. This species often concentrates in areas of salt marsh that 
contain high populations of fiddler crabs (Uca pugnax). 

Spring migration. — Normal period: April 25-30 to May 20- 
25 ; peak, May 1 to May 20. Extreme arrival date: April 21, 1906, 
in Worcester County (F. C. Kirkwood). Extreme departure 
date: May 27, 1935, in the District of Columbia (Ball, 1928b). 

Fall migration. — Normal period: July 5-10 to September 10- 
20; peak, July 15 to August 15. Extreme arrival date: July 3, 
1906, in Worcester County (F. C. Kirkwood) . Extreme departure 
date: September 25, 1931, in Worcester County (H. E. Richard- 
son). 

Maximum counts. — Spring: 40 at Ocean City on May 15, 1906 
(F. C. Kirkwood) ; 37 on Assateague Island on May 1, 1946; 18 in 
the District of Columbia on May 26, 1928 (Ball, 1928b). Fall: 
116 in the Ocean City area on July 27, 1952. 

ESKIMO CURLEW Numenius borealis (Forster) 

Status. — Now probably extinct. Apparently formerly occurred 
in Maryland as a rare transient. A specimen (USNM) was taken 
on the Potomac River (cataloged in Baird's handwriting in 1861). 
One was reported seen at Ocean City in 1913 by R. C. Walker, 
who had personally collected nearly all other species of Maryland 
shorebirds and who gave a detailed description of this bird. 

UPLAND PLOVER Bartramia longicauda (Bechstein) 

Status. — Breeding (see fig. 25) : Fairly common in the Fred- 
erick Valley (in Frederick County between the Monocacy River 
and Catoctin Mountain) ; uncommon locally elsewhere in the 



142 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 62, FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 





79* 

1 


7 8" 

1 






77* 


7 r 




7S 


• 


1 
/ 
/ J 


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-39°- 





SCALE 

10 20 30 40 MILES 






/ 


( 1 *> 11 \& v-"r 

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-38*- 




LEGEND 
UPLAND PLOVER 
Iffa^j Principal Range 
• Local Record 




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-36*- 




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| Principal Range 






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78" 






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Figure 25. — Breeding ranges of Upland Plover and Willet. 



Piedmont section and in the Ridge and Valley, and Allegheny 
Mountain sections — occurring in Baltimore County in the Worth- 
ington Valley and (formerly) in Dulaney Valley; in Montgomery 
County in the vicinity of Dickerson, Poolesville, Whites Ferry, and 
(formerly) Sandy Spring; in Washington County in the Hagers- 
town Valley; in Garrett County in the vicinity of Accident; and 
(formerly) in Allegany County at Vale Summit. Transient: Un- 
common in all sections. Summer vagrant: Casual — 2, apparently 
non-breeding, recorded in the District of Columbia from June 11 
to June 26, 1935 (Ball and Wallace, 1936) . 

Habitat. — Breeding: Agricultural areas with extensive hay 
fields and pastures, usually on land with a slightly concave con- 
tour. Transient: Various types of open fields and meadows and, 
less frequently, in marsh and shore habitats with short or sparse 
vegetation. 

Nesting season. — Early May to late June. Extreme egg dates 
(12 nests) : May 10, 1942, and June 10, 1940, both in Baltimore 
County (Meanley, 1943b). Extreme downy young dates (6 
broods) : May 25, 1947, in Frederick County and June 21, 1941, 
in Baltimore County (both by M. B. Meanley). 

Spring migration. — Normal period: April 1-10 to May 5-15; 
peak, April 10 to May 5. Extreme dates of arrival: March 21, 



BIRDS OF MARYLAND AND DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 143 

1896, in the District of Columbia (P. W. Shufeldt) ; March 25, 
1944, in Prince Georges County. Extreme dates of departure: 
May 27, 1952, in Prince Georges County (G. B. Saunders) ; May 
21, 1903, in Allegany County (G. Eifrig). 

Fall migration. — Normal period: July 5-15 to September 15- 
25; peak, July 15 to September 5. Extreme dates of arrival: June 
29, 1902, in the District of Columbia (W. W. Cooke) ; July 3, 
1895, in Baltimore County (Kirkwood, 1895). Extreme date of 
departure: September 26, 1919, in Montgomery County (A. Wet- 
more) . 

Breeding population density (territorial males per 100 
acres) . — 

0.2 (20 in 11,520 acres) in "general farmland" (various agricultural habitats, 
chiefly hayfields and pastures, with little cover owing to widespread clean- 
farming practices) in Frederick County near Buckeystown in 1950 
(Stewart and Meanley, 1950). 

Maximum counts (nonbreeding). — Fall: 20 near Emmits- 
burg, Frederick County, on July 18, 1952 (J. W. Richards) ; 12 
near Lilypons, Frederick County, on August 5, 1951 (L. M. 
Wendt). 

SPOTTED SANDPIPER Actitis macularia (Linnaeus) 

Status. — Breeding: Fairly common in the tidewater areas of 
the Eastern Shore section; uncommon elsewhere in all sections. 
Transient: Common in all sections. Wintering: Accidental — 1 
seen along the Choptank River near Cambridge on December 27, 
1949 (T. W. Donnelly). 

Habitat. — Various shore habitats along inland ponds and 
streams, tidal bays, and estuaries. During the breeding season 
also frequents various field and meadow habitats that are adjacent 
to open water. 

Nesting season. — Early May to late July (nesting peak, mid- 
May to late June) . Extreme egg dates (35 nests) : May 11, 1911, 
in Dorchester County (Jackson, 1941) and July 15, 1946, in Anne 
Arundel County (F. M. Uhler). Extreme downy young dates (9 
broods) : June 4, 1939, in Prince Georges County (M. B. Meanley) 
and July 9, 1949, in Worcester County. 

Spring migration. — Norynal period: April 5-15 to May 25-June 
5; peak, April 25 to May 20. Extreme dates of arrival: April 2, 
1905, in Montgomery County (W. L. McAtee) ; April 3, 1861, in 
the District of Columbia (C. E. Schmidt). Extreme date of de- 
parture: June 6, 1945, in Prince Georges County. 

Fall migration. — Normal period: July 5-15 to October 1-10; 



144 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 62, FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 

peak, July 25 to September 5. Extreme date of arrival: July 1, 
1948, in Prince Georges County. Extreme dates of departure: 
November 13, 1949, in Dorchester County; October 28, 1906, in 
Montgomery County (A. K. Fisher) ; October 25, 1947, in Balti- 
more County (R. M. Bowen) ; October 25, 1954, in Anne Arundel 
County (Mrs. W. L. Henderson, Mrs. G. Tappan) ; October 24, 
1936, in Garrett County (Brooks, 1938). 

Maximum counts. — Spring: 127 at Rosedale, Baltimore County, 
on May 6, 1950 (D. A. Jones) ; 63 in the District of Columbia area 
on May 11, 1917 (H. C. Oberholser) ; 45 in the Port Tobacco area, 
Charles County, on May 7, 1940 (I. N. Gabrielson, A. L. Nelson). 
Fall: 50 near Centerville, Queen Annes County, on July 4, 1900 
(F. C. Kirkwood) ; 20 on Gibson Island, Anne Arundel County, on 
July 25, 1952 (Mrs. W. L. Henderson, Mrs. G. Tappan). 

SOLITARY SANDPIPER Tringa solitaria Wilson 

Status. — Transient: Fairly common in all sections. Summer 
vagrant: Casual — small numbers, presumably non-breeding, were 
observed throughout June, during several summers at Deep Creek 
Lake in Garrett County (Brooks, 1936b) , and 1 was seen at Middle 
River in Baltimore County on June 17 and 19, 1951 (E. Willis). 

Habitat. — Mud flats and other marginal habitats along fresh- 
water ponds and streams. 

Spring migration. — Normal period: April 10-20 to May 20- 
25; peak, April 25 to May 15. Extreme dates of arrival: March 
29, 1954, in Caroline County (M. W. Hewitt) ; March 30, 1883, 
in the District of Columbia (H. W. Henshaw) ; March 30, 1952, 
in Baltimore County (E. Willis). Extreme dates of departure: 
May 30, 1891, in Montgomery County (H. W. Stabler) ; May 27, 
1945, in Prince Georges County. 

Fall migration. — Normal period: July 15-25 to October 10- 
20; peak, August 10 to September 25. Extreme dates of arrival: 
July 12, 1948, in Prince Georges County ; July 12, 1956, in Queen 
Annes County (R. P. Dubois) ; July 14, 1893, in Baltimore County 
(P. T. Blogg, G. H. Gray). Extreme dates of departure: Novem- 
ber 2, 1906, in Calvert County (J. H. Riley) ; October 28, 1916, 
in the District of Columbia (L. D. Miner) .- 

Maximum counts. — Spring: 50 in the Port Tobacco area, 
Charles County, on May 11, 1943 (A. L. Nelson, F. M. Uhler) ; 
37 in St. Marys County on May 8, 1954 (J. W. Terborgh, J. W. 
Taylor, Jr.) ; 30 near Seneca, Montgomery County, on April 26, 
1953 (J. W. Terborgh) ; 13 at Patuxent Refuge, Prince Georges 
County, on May 12, 1945. Fall: 8 at Chesapeake Beach, Calvert 



BIRDS OF MARYLAND AND DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 145 

County, on August 10, 1946; 7 at Sandy Point, Anne Arundel 
County, on August 20, 1947. 

WILLET Catoptrophorus semi pal mat us (Gmelin) 

Status. — Breeding (see fig. 25) : Locally common in tidewater 
areas of Somerset and Wicomico Counties and southern Dor- 
chester County; uncommon in the coastal area of Worcester 
County. Transient: Common in the coastal area of Worcester 
County; uncommon in tidewater areas elsewhere in the Eastern 
Shore and Western Shore sections ; rare in tidewater areas of the 
Upper Chesapeake section. 

Habitat. — Tidal salt marshes, including salt-water cordgrass, 
salt-meadow grass and glasswort types. During the spring and 
fall also occurs on the ocean beach, bay shores, mud flats, and 
sand bars. 

Nesting season. — Mid-May to late July. Extreme egg dates 
(11 nests) : May 10, 1904 (R. W. Jackson), and July 12, 1951 
(both extremes in Worcester County). 

Spring migration. — Extreme date of arrival: April 15, 1953, 
in Dorchester County (W. R. Nicholson). Migration peak: April 
25 to May 15. One bird was observed in the District of Columbia 
as late as June 11, 1926 (Ball, 1927) . 

Fall migration. — Normal period: July 10-20 to October 1- 
10; peak, July 25 to September 1. Extreme date of arrival: July 
10, 1949, in Worcester County. Extreme date of departure: A 
fresh bird found in the Baltimore market on November 3, 1894, 
had been shot nearby, possibly 1 or 2 days before (Kirkwood, 
1895). 

Breeding population density (pairs per 100 acres). — 

10.5 (21 in 200 acres) in brackish bay marsh (strip 220 yards wide along 
tidal creek and containing extensive areas of salt-meadow grass) in 
Dorchester County in 1956. 

Maximum counts. — Spring: 65 in the Ocean City area on May 
2, 1953 (R. Strosnider). Fall: 200 on Assateague Island on Aug- 
ust 23, 1947; 50 in the District of Columbia on August 10-11, 
1893 (Cooke, 1929) ; 9 at Sandy Point, Anne Arundel County, on 
August 14, 1947 (J. W. Taylor, Jr.). 

GREATER YELLOWLEGS Totanus melanoleucus (Gmelin) 

Status. — Transient: Common in the tidewater areas of the 
Eastern Shore, Western Shore, and Upper Chesapeake sections; 
fairly common elsewhere in all sections. Wintering: Uncommon 
in tidewater areas of the Eastern Shore section; rare in tidewater 
areas of the Western Shore and Upper Chesapeake sections. 



146 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 62, FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 

Summer vagrant: Rare in tidewater areas of the Eastern Shore, 
Western Shore, and Upper Chesapeake sections. 

Habitat. — Shallow flats in marshes or at the margins of ponds, 
bays, and estuaries. 

Spring migration. — Normal period: March 25-April 5 to May 
25-June 5 ; peak, April 20 to May 15. Extreme dates of arrival: 
March 16, 1904, in the Patapsco River marsh (F. C. Kirkwood) ; 
March 18, 1946, in Dorchester County. Extreme dates of de- 
parture: June 13, 1946, in Dorchester County; June 12, 1946, in 
Somerset County; June 8, 1938, in Worcester County (G. A. 
Ammann) . 

Fall migration. — Normal period: July 25-August 5 to Novem- 
ber 15-25; peak, August 25 to September 30. Extreme date of 
arrival: July 15, 1946, in Worcester County. Extreme date of 
departure: November 28, 1953, in St. Marys County (J. W. Ter- 
borgh) . 

Maximum counts. — Spring: 500 on Mills Island in Chinco- 
teague Bay on May 7, 1938 (G. A. Ammann) ; 113 in the Ocean 
City area on May 2, 1953 (R. Strosnider) . Fall: 60 near Elliott 
Island, Dorchester County, on November 19, 1948; 50 on Black- 
water National Wildlife Refuge, Dorchester County, on Septem- 
ber 4, 1948. Winter: 26 in southern Dorchester County on De- 
cember 28, 1953 (Christmas count). 

LESSER YELLOWLEGS Totanus flavipes (Gmelin) 

Status. — Transient: Common in tidewater areas of the Eastern 
Shore, Western Shore, and Upper Chesapeake sections; fairly 
common in the Allegheny Mountain section ; uncommon elsewhere 
in all sections. Wintering : Rare in tidewater areas of the Eastern 
Shore section (most numerous in vicinity of Blackwater National 
Wildlife Refuge, Dorchester County) ; casual elsewhere — recorded 
in the District of Columbia on January 2, 1954 (J. M. Abbott) . 
Summer vagrant: Casual — recorded in the District of Columbia 
on June 21, 1929 (W. H. Ball). 

Habitat. — Shallow flats in marshes or at the margins of ponds, 
bays, and estuaries. 

Spring migration. — Normal period: April 1-10 to May 25- 
June 5; peak, April 15 to May 20. Extreme dates of arrival: 
March 12, 1906, in the District of Columbia (Cooke, 1929) ; March 
15, 1895, in Harford County (Kirkwood, 1895) ; March 18, 1950, 
in Queen Annes County (J. W. Aldrich). Extreme date of de- 
parture: June 13, 1946, in Dorchester County. 

Fall migration. — Normal period: July 15-25 to November 1- 



BIRDS OF MARYLAND AND DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 147 

10; peak, August 10 to September 30. Extreme dates of arrival: 
July 12, 1947, in Worcester County; July 13, 1952, in Baltimore 
County (E. Willis). Extreme dates of departure: November 23, 
1951, in Dorchester County (E. J. Stivers) ; November 16, 1941, 
in Garrett County (M. G. Brooks) ; November 14, 1948, in Har- 
ford County. 

Maximum counts. — Spring: 45 at Kent Island, Queen Annes 
County, on May 5, 1956 (R. P. and M. Dubois) ; 30+ at Chinco- 
teague Bay on May 29, 1922 (A. H. Howell). Fall: 500 (50 shot) 
at Ocean City on September 16, 1901 (E. F. Armstrong) ; 225 on 
Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge, Dorchester County, on 
August 24, 1947; 79 in the District of Columbia on August 27, 
1928 (W. H. Ball). Winter: 16 on Blackwater Refuge on Feb- 
ruary 19, 1949. 

KNOT Calidris canutus (Linnaeus) 

Status. — Transient: Fairly common in the coastal area of 
Worcester County; rare in tidewater areas elsewhere in the East- 
ern Shore, Western Shore, and Upper Chesapeake sections. 

Habitat. — Ocean beach, and sandy flats on the inland side of 
the barrier beaches that adjoin the coastal bays. 

Spring migration. — Extreme dates: May 1, 1953, in Worcester 
County (R. Strosnider) and June 4, 1954, in Worcester County 
(J. W. Terborgh, J. E. Knudson) . 

Fall migration. — Extreme dates: August 4, 1945, in the Ocean 
City area and November 2, 1952, at Heine's Pond, Worcester 
County. Migration peak: August 10 to September 20. 

Maximum counts. — Spring: 175 in the Ocean City area on 
June 1, 1952 (E. G. Baldwin) ; 170 on May 22, 1948, and 76 on 
May 17, 1947, on Assateague Island; 15 in the District of Co- 
lumbia on May 26, 1928 ( W. H. Ball) . Fall: 46 on Assateague 
Island on August 30, 1950 ; 34 at Ocean City on August 17, 1925 
(F. C. Kirkwood). 

PURPLE SANDPIPER Erolia maritima (Briinnich) 

Status. — Transient and luintering: Fairly common in the 
vicinity of the Ocean City Inlet in Worcester County ; casual else- 
where — 1 observed at Sandy Point in Anne Arundel County on 
November 22, 1953 (P. A. DuMont). 

Habitat. — Usually found on the rocky jetties that border the 
Ocean City Inlet. 

Period of occurrence. — Extreme dates: October 28, 1950 (I. 
R. Barnes) and May 21, 1950, at Ocean City. Peak: November 
20 to May 15. 



148 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 62, FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 

Maximum counts. — 68 on December 27, 1954 (Christmas 
count), and 61 on May 5, 1956 (P. A. DuMont), at Ocean City 
Inlet. 

PECTORAL SANDPIPER Erolia melanotos (Vieillot) 

Status. — Transient: Fairly common in the Allegheny Mountain 
section and in tidewater areas of the Upper Chesapeake, Western 
Shore, and Eastern Shore sections; uncommon elsewhere in all 
sections. Summer vagrant: Casual — recorded in the District of 
Columbia on June 21, 1929 (W. H. Ball). 

Habitat. — Marshes with short vegetation and mud flats. On 
the barrier beaches they are especially characteristic of the grassy 
sloughs just back of the sand dunes — American three-square and 
Fimbristylis sp. are usually the principal plant species in this type. 

Spring migration. — Normal period: April 1-10 to May 25- 
June 5 ; peak, April 25 to May 20. Extreme date of arrival: March 
20, 1954, in Charles County (J. W. Terborgh, R. R. Kerr). Ex- 
treme date of departure: June 11, 1926, in the District of Colum- 
bia (Ball, 1927) . 

Fall migration. — Normal period: July 20-30 to November 1- 
10 ; peak, August 10 to October 25. Extreme date of arrival: July 
15, 1952, in Baltimore County (E. Willis) . Extreme date of de- 
parture: November 12, 1945, in Prince Georges County. 

Maximum counts. — Spring: 34 near Essex, Baltimore County, 
on May 8, 1949 (D. A. Jones) ; 31 in Anne Arundel County on May 
10, 1952; 22 at Aliens Fresh, Charles County, on April 3, 1954 
(J. W. Terborgh). Fall: 350-f in the District of Columbia on 
September 7, 1928 (W. H. Ball) ; 220 on Assateague Island on 
August 14, 1948; 75 near Elliott, Dorchester County, on Septem- 
ber 22, 1954 ; 50 at Sandy Point, Anne Arundel County, on August 
20, 1947. 

WHITE-RUMPED SANDPIPER Erolia fvscicollis (Vieillot) 

Status. — Transient: Uncommon in the coastal area of Wor- 
cester County; rare elsewhere in all sections. 

Habitat. — Sandy beaches and mud flats at the margins of 
ponds, bays, and estuaries. Occurs in greater numbers on the 
barrier beaches than elsewhere. 

Spring migration. — Extreme dates: May 2, 1953, in Wor- 
cester County (R. Strosnider) and June 14, 1926, in the District of 
Columbia (Ball, 1927). Migration peak: May 10 to June 10. 

Fall migration. — Normal period: August 1-10 to October 20- 
30; peak, August 20 to September 30. Extreme date of arrival: 
July 26, 1947, in Worcester County. Extreme dates of departure: 



BIRDS OF MARYLAND AND DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 149 

November 13, 1954, in Dorchester County; November 12, 1949. 
in Worcester County. 

Maximum counts. — Spring: 20 in the District of Columbia on 
May 20, 24, and 26, 1928 (W. H. Ball). Fall: 18 in the District of 
Columbia on September 12, 1930 (W. J. Whiting) ; 14 on Assa- 
teague Island on August 30, 1950. 

BAIRD'S SANDPIPER Erolia bairdii (Coues) 

Status. — Fall transient: Rare — recorded in the Eastern Shore, 
Western Shore, and Allegheny Mountain sections. 

Habitat. — Mud flats at the margins of ponds, bays, and estu- 
aries. 

Period of occurrence. — Single birds were recorded as follows : 
August 14, 1948, on Assateague Island ; August 17, 1952, at Sandy 
Point, Anne Arundel County (C. N. Mason) ; August 19, 1928, 
at Scotland Beach, St. Marys County (Ball, 1930a) ; September 3, 
1928, and September 28, 1930, in the District of Columbia (Ball, 
1931b); September 29, 1945 (USNM), at Ocean City; October 
18 and 24, 1936, at Deep Creek Lake in Garrett County (Brooks, 
1938). 
LEAST SANDPIPER Erolia minutilla (Vieillot) 

Status. — Transient: Common in the tidewater areas of the 
Eastern Shore, Western Shore, and Upper Chesapeake sections; 
fairly common elsewhere in all sections. Wintering: Uncommon 
in the coastal area of Worcester County ; rare in tidewater areas 
elsewhere in the Eastern Shore section. Summer vagrant: 
Casual — recorded in the District of Columbia on June 21, 1929 
( W. H. Ball) . 

Habitat. — Marshes with short vegetation, and mud flats at the 
margins of ponds, bays, and estuaries. 

Spring migration. — Normal period: April 15-25 to May 25- 
June 5 ; peak, May 1 to May 20. Extreme dates of arrival: March 
22, 1947, in Dorchester County; April 4, 1953, in Worcester 
County. Extreme dates of departure: June 14, 1926, in the Dis- 
trict of Columbia (Ball, 1927) ; June 12, 1946, in Somerset County. 

Fall migration. — Normal period: July 10-20 to November 1- 
10; peak, July 25 to September 25. Extreme date of arrival: 
July 1, 1951, in Baltimore County (E. Willis). Extreme dates of 
departure: November 29, 1945, in Worcester County; November 
27, 1954, in Dorchester County; November 22, 1917, in the Dis- 
trict of Columbia (C. H. M. Barrett). 

Maximum counts. — Spring: 900 in the Crisfield area, Somer- 
set County, on May 18, 1947 ; 549 in the Ocean City area on May 



150 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 62, FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 

2, 1953; 500+ on Mills Island in Chincoteague Bay on May 7, 
1938 (G. A. Ammann) ; 150 at Sandy Point, Anne Arundel County, 
on May 23, 1954 (C. N. Mason) . Fall: 210 on Assateague Island 
on August 14, 1948 ; 194 in the Ocean City area on August 5, 1945 ; 
51 on Blackwater Refuge, Dorchester County, on August 24, 1947. 
Wintering: 25 in the Ocean City area on December 21, 1952 
(Christmas count). 

DUNLIN Erolia alpina (Linnaeus) 

Status. — Transient: Abundant in the coastal area of Worcester 
County; common in tidewater areas elsewhere in the Eastern 
Shore section ; uncommon in the Allegheny Mountain section and 
in the tidewater areas of the Western Shore and Upper Chesapeake 
sections; rare elsewhere in all sections. Wintering: Fairly com- 
mon in the coastal area of Worcester County ; uncommon in tide- 
water areas elsewhere in the Eastern Shore section ; rare in tide- 
water areas of the Western Shore section. 

Habitat. — Sandy beaches and mud flats at the margins of 
ponds, bays, and estuaries. This species is especially character- 
istic of the tidal mud flats along the coastal bays and lower Chesa- 
peake Bay. 

Spring migration. — Normal period: March 20-30 to June 1- 
10; peak, May 1 to May 25. Extreme date of arrival: March 13, 
1892, in Baltimore County (W. N. Wholey) . Extreme date of de- 
parture: June 11, 1949, in Worcester County (B. Williams). 

Fall migration. — Normal period: July 25- August 5 to Decem- 
ber 10-20; peak, October 15 to November 30. Extreme date of 
arrival: July 23, 1949, in Worcester County. Extreme date of de- 
parture: December 30, 1951, in Anne Arundel County (Mrs. W. 
L. Henderson). 

Maximum counts. — Spring: 700 in the Crisfield area, Somer- 
set County, on May 18, 1947; 315 in the Ocean City area on May 
2, 1953 (R. Strosnider) ; 130 (1 flock) near Elliott Island, Dor- 
chester County, on May 20, 1953 ; 60 in the District of Columbia 
on May 26, 1928 (W. H. Ball, P. Knappen) . Fall: 400 in the Ocean 
City area on November 27, 1945 ; 200+ in the Elliott Island area 
on October 30, 1949, and on November 18, 1947; 150 at Kent 
Narrows, Queen Annes County, on October 24, 1949. Wintering 
(Christmas counts) : 1,102 in the Ocean City area on December 
27, 1955; 177 in southern Dorchester County on December 28, 
1954. 

SHORT-BILLED DOWITCHER Limnodromus griseus (Gmelin) 

Status. — Transient: Common in the tidewater areas of Wor- 



BIRDS OF MARYLAND AND DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA IS 1 

cester, Somerset, Wicomico, and Dorchester Counties ; fairly com- 
mon in tidewater areas elsewhere in the Eastern Shore, Western 
Shore, and Upper Chesapeake sections; rare elsewhere in all 
sections. Wintering: Casual in the coastal area of Worcester 
County— 1 at Ocean City on December 27, 1950 (F. M. Packard). 
Summer vagrant: Rare in the coastal area of Worcester County. 

Habitat. — Mud flats at the margins of ponds, bays, and estu- 
aries. 

Spring migration. — Normal period: April 1-10 to May 25- 
June 5; peak, May 1 to May 25. Extreme date of arrival: March 
6, 1875, in Baltimore County (A. Resler). Extreme date of de- 
parture: June 6, 1939, in Worcester County (M. B. Meanley). 

Fall migration. — Normal period: July 1-10 to November 10- 
20 ; peak, July 15 to September 5. Extreme dates of arrival: June 
26, 1950, and June 27, 1948 (M. A. Elliott), in Worcester County. 
Extreme date of departure: November 20, 1948, in Dorchester 
County. 

Maximum counts. — Spring: 525 in the Crisfield area, Somer- 
set County, on May 18, 1947 ; 300 on Assateague Island on May 1, 
1946; 17 at Rosedale, Baltimore County, on May 6, 1950 (D. A. 
Jones). Fall: 104 on Assateague Island on August 23, 1947; 44 
in the Crisfield area on July 27, 1947; 40 along the Blackwater 
River, Dorchester County, on November 1, 1952. 

LONG-BILLED DOWITCHER Limnodromus sco/opaceus (Say) 

Status. — Rare spring and fall transient. Seven were killed 
from a flock on the Anacostia River, District of Columbia, in April 
1884 (Smith and Palmer, 1888). One was collected (USNM) at 
Hains Point in the District of Columbia on September 10, 1929 
(Ball, 1932a). Two were seen on Columbia Island in the District 
of Columbia on September 27, 1930 (Mr. and Mrs. W. J. Whit- 
ing) . One was seen on Triadelphia Reservoir in both Montgomery 
and Howard Counties on October 28, 1951 (S. H. Low). 

STILT SANDPIPER Micropalama himantopus (Bonaparte) 

Status. — Fall transient: Fairly common in the coastal area of 
Worcester County ; uncommon in tidewater areas elsewhere in the 
Eastern Shore section ; rare in the Western Shore, Upper Chesa- 
peake, and Allegheny Mountain sections. Spring transient: 
Casual — 1 seen in the District of Columbia on June 3, 1926 (Ball, 
1927) ; 1 seen at Middle River on May 9, 1954 (D. A. Jones) ; 1 
seen at Ocean City on May 16, 1954 (D. A. Cutler, J. K. Wright) ; 
and 1 at Kent Narrows, Queen Annes County, on May 5, 1956 
(R. P. and M. Dubois). 



152 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 62, FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 

Habitat. — Mud flats at the margins of ponds, bays, and estu- 
aries. 

Fall migration. — Normal period: July 25-August 1 to October 
5-15; peak, August 5 to September 30. Extreme date of arrival: 
July 23, 1949, in Worcester County. Extreme date of departure: 
October 26, 1916, in the District of Columbia (F. Harper). 

Maximum counts. — 126 on Assateague Island on August 14, 
1948; 14 at Heine's Pond in Worcester County on September 6, 
1954 (J. W. Terborgh) ; 12 in the District of Columbia on Sep- 
tember 30, 1930 (W. J. Whiting) ; 7 at Kent Narrows, Queen 
Annes County, on October 2, 1948. 
SEMIPALMATED SANDPIPER Ereunetes pusillus (Linnaeus) 

Status. — Transient: Abundant in the coastal area of Worcester 
County; common in other tidewater areas of the Eastern Shore, 
Western Shore, and Upper Chesapeake sections ; fairly common in 
the Allegheny Mountain section; uncommon elsewhere in all sec- 
tions. Wintering: Uncommon or rare in the coastal area of Wor- 
cester County. Summer vagrant: Uncommon or rare in the 
coastal area of Worcester County; casual elsewhere — recorded in 
the District of Columbia on June 21, 1929 (W. H. Ball) . 

Habitat. — Sandy beaches and mud flats at the margins of 
ponds, bays, and estuaries; less commonly on the ocean beach. 
This species is especially characteristic of the tidal sandy mud 
flats along the coastal bays and lower Chesapeake Bay. 

Spring migration. — Normal period: April 20-30 to June 5-10; 
peak, May 5 to June 1. Extreme date of arrival: April 4, 1953, 
in Worcester County (J. H. Buckalew). Extreme dates of de- 
parture: June 15, 1954, in Queen Annes County (P. F. Springer) ; 
June 14, 1926, in the District of Columbia (Ball, 1927) ; June 14, 
1944, in Anne Arundel County. 

Fall migration. — Normal period: July 1-10 to November 5- 
15; peak, July 25 to September 20. Extreme dates of arrival: 
June 26, 1950, in Worcester County; June 27, 1954, in Queen 
Annes County (P. A. DuMont). 

Maximum counts. — Spring: 1,660 in the Ocean City area on 
May 12, 1956 ; 700 in the Crisfield area, Somerset County, on May 
18, 1947. Fall: 1,700 on Assateague Island on August 13, 1950 ; 
700 in the Crisfield area on August 11, 1950 ; 325 on Blackwater 
National Wildlife Refuge, Dorchester County, on August 24, 1947 ; 
200 at Sandy Point, Anne Arundel County, on August 20, 1947; 
75+ in the District of Columbia on August 24, 1928 ( W. H. Ball) . 
Winter: 34 in the Ocean City area on December 27, 1955 (Christ- 
mas count) . 



BIRDS OF MARYLAND AND DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 153 

WESTERN SANDPIPER Ereunefes maun* Cabanis 

Status. — Fall transient: Fairly common in tidewater areas of 
the Eastern Shore, Western Shore, and Upper Chesapeake sec- 
tions; rare elsewhere in all sections. Spring transient: Rare in 
tidewater areas of the Eastern Shore, Western Shore, and Upper 
Chesapeake sections. Wintering: Usually rare in the coastal area 
of Worcester County. 

Habitat. — Sandy beaches and mud flats at the margins of 
ponds, bays, and estuaries. 

Fall migration. — Normal period: July 15-20 to October 25- 
November 5; peak, July 25 to October 5. Extreme dates of ar- 
rival: July 1, 1951, in Baltimore County (E. Willis) ; July 13, 1947, 
in Worcester County. 

Spring migration. — Extreme dates: May 2, 1953, in Wor- 
cester County (R. Strosnider) and June 5, 1948, in Calvert 
County. 

Maximum counts. — Fall: 260 on Blackwater National Wildlife 
Refuge, Dorchester County, on August 24, 1947; 200 on Assa- 
teague Island on August 13, 1950; 100 at Sandy Point, Anne 
Arundel County, on August 21, 1947; 90 at Elliott Island, Dor- 
chester County, on October 2, 1948. Wintering: 65 in the Ocean 
City area on December 22, 1951 (Christmas count). 

MARBLED GODWET Limosa fedoa (Linnaeus) 

Status. — Fall transient: Rare in the coastal area of Worcester 
County; casual elsewhere — recorded at Sandy Point in Anne 
Arundel County on August 14, 1953 (E. G. Davis), August 28, 
1954 (C. N. Mason), and on September 15 and 18, 1951 (I. C. 
Hoover, Mrs. W. L. Henderson). Spring transient: Casual — 
singles recorded at Gibson Island, Anne Arundel County, on May 
6, 1950 (Mrs. G. Tappan) ; at Ocean City on May 14, 1955; and 
at West Ocean City on May 19, 1956 (P. G. DuMont) . 

Habitat. — Sandy beaches, and mud flats at the margins of 
tidal ponds and bays, chiefly along the coast. 

Fall migration. — Extreme dates: July 23, 1949, and October 
10, 1948 (J. H. Buckalew), in Worcester County. Peak: August 
10 to October 5. 

Maximum counts. — 14 in the Ocean City area on August 31, 
1952 (L. Griffin, L. Westhaver) ; 8 in the Ocean City area on 
September 6, 1952 (D. E. Power) ; 4 on Assateague Island on 
October 2, 1948 (J. H. Buckalew) . 

HUDSONIAN GODWIT Limosa haemasfka (Linnaeus) 
Status. — Fall transient: Rare in the coastal area of Worcester 



154 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 62, FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 

County; casual in the Western Shore section — 1 seen in the Dis- 
trict of Columbia on August 27-28, 1933 (Deignan, 1943b) . Spring 
transient: Accidental — 1 was reported shot at West River, Anne 
Arundel County, on May 16, 1886 (Kirkwood, 1895). 

Habitat. — Sandy beaches, and mud flats at the margins of tidal 
ponds and bays, chiefly along the coast. 

Fall migration. — Extreme dates: July 17, 1948 (J. H. Bucka- 
lew) , and September 24, 1950 (J. H. Buckalew, E. 0. Mellinger) , 
in Worcester County. 

Maximum counts. — 6 (2 collected) on September 17, 1950, and 
6 on September 24, 1950, all on Assateague Island (J. H. Bucka- 
lew, E. 0. Mellinger). 

[RUFF] Philomachus pugnax (Linnaeus) 

Status. — Hypothetical. One was seen on August 6, 1948, at 
Green Run on Assateague Island (Buckalew, 1948). 

SANDERLING Crocethia alba (Pallas) 

Status. — Transient: Abundant in the coastal area of Worcester 
County ; uncommon in other tidewater areas of the Eastern Shore, 
Western Shore, and Upper Chesapeake sections; rare elsewhere 
in the Eastern Shore, Western Shore, Upper Chesapeake, and 
Piedmont sections. Wintering: Fairly common in the coastal 
area of Worcester County; rare in tidewater areas elsewhere in 
the Eastern Shore and Western Shore sections. Summer vagrant: 
Uncommon in the coastal area of Worcester County. 

Habitat. — Especially characteristic of the ocean beach; also 
found sparingly on sandy beaches that border bays and estuaries. 

SPRING migration. — Normal period: April 20-30 to June 5-15; 
peak, May 5 to June 5. Extreme date of departure: June 16, 1935, 
in Worcester County (W. B. Tyrrell) . 

Fall migration. — Normal period: July 10-20 to October 20- 
30 ; peak, July 25 to September 20. 

Maximum counts. — Spring: 500 on Assateague Island on June 
3, 1938 (G. A. Ammann) ; 300 in the Ocean City area on May 9, 
1948, and on May 23, 1948. Fall: 2,800 on August 14, 1948, and 
2,385 on August 30, 1950, on Assateague Island; 1,925 in the 
Ocean City area on August 4, 1945. Winter: 775 in the Ocean 
City area on December 27, 1955 (Christmas count) . 

Family RECURVIROSTRIDAE 
AMERICAN AVOCET Recurvirostra americana Gmelin 

Status. — Casual fall visitor. Two were seen (photograph 
taken) in Dorchester County at the Blackwater Refuge during the 



BIRDS OF MARYLAND AND DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 155 

period September 30 to October 17, 1940, and 1 remained until 
November 2, 1940 (Black, 1941). Another was recorded in 
Somerset County at Deal Island on December 11, 1941 (T. Den- 
mead) , and 1 at Cove Point, Calvert County, on November 5, 1947 
(G. Kelly) . One was observed in St. Marys County at Point No 
Point on October 23, 1951 (J. H. Buckalew). One was seen at 
Ocean City on September 4, 1955 (R. L. Kleen, T. Lord), and 
September 7, 1955 (Mr. and Mrs. I. C. Hoover). 

Family PHALAROPOD1DAE 

RED PHALAROPE Phalaropus fulicarius (Linnaeus) 

Status. — Rare transient in the Eastern Shore, Western Shore, 
and Piedmont sections. 

Spring record. — Two were seen at Ocean City on May 20, 1950 
(J. H. Buckalew, S. H. Low) . 

Fall records. — One was photographed at Solomons, Calvert 
County, on July 10, 1947 (G. Kelly) ; 1 was seen off Ocean City on 
August 21, 1948 (S. H. Low, P. F. Springer) ; 1 was collected 
(USNM) in the District of Columbia on October 3, 1912 (W. 
Palmer) ; 1 was collected (USNM) at Whites Ferry, Montgomery 
County, on October 4, 1897 (Swales, 1920) ; 1 was collected 
(USNM) in the District of Columbia on October 17, 1885 (F. S. 
Webster) . 

WILSON'S PHALAROPE Steganopus tricolor Vieillot 

Status. — Rare transient in the Eastern Shore, Western Shore, 
Piedmont, and Allegheny Mountain sections. 

Spring record. — An adult female was seen at Dickerson, Mont- 
gomery County, on May 12, 1929 (Wetmore, 1929). 

Fall records. — On August 3, 1949, 1 was collected on Assa- 
teague Island (Buckalew, 1949) ; in late August, 1953, 1 was 
seen at Deep Creek Lake, Garrett County (M. G. Brooks) ; on 
September 8, 1947, 1 was seen on Triadelphia Reservoir along the 
boundary between Howard and Montgomery Counties (Has- 
brouck, 1948) ; in 1930, 1 was seen in the District of Columbia on 
September 19 (W. J. Whiting), 3 were seen there on September 
27, 3 on September 30, and 1 was collected (USNM) on October 
2 (Ball, 1948). 

NORTHERN PHALAROPE Lobipes lobatus (Linnaeus) 

Status. — Rare spring and fall transient in the Eastern Shore 
and Western Shore sections. 

Spring records. — One was seen on the Potomac River in 
Charles County on May 10 and June 7, 1930 (H. C. Oberholser) ; 



156 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 62, FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 

1 was seen at Ocean City on May 20, 1950 (J. H. Buckalew, S. H. 
Low), and another on May 13, 1951 (D. A. Cutler, et al.) ; 1 was 
observed near Elliott, Dorchester County, on May 23, 1954; a 
single remained on the Patuxent Refuge, Prince Georges County, 
from May 26 to June 3, 1955 (photographed — F. M. Uhler) . 

Fall records. — One was seen on Assateague Island on August 
14, 1948; 3 at Ocean City on August 21, 1948 (P. F. Springer) ; 
1 in the District of Columbia on August 29, 1916 (R. W. Moore, 
C. R. Shoemaker) ; 1 (collected, USNM) on Assateague Island on 
August 30, 1950; 1 (collected, USNM) in the District of Columbia 
on August 31, 1891 (T. Marron) ; 1 at Gibson Island, Anne 
Arundel County, on September 20, 1950 (Mrs. W. L. Henderson, 
Mrs. G. Tappan) ; 2 flocks of 12 each and several singles at Ocean 
City on October 5, 1928 (A. Wetmore) ; and 3 at Cornfield Har- 
bor, St. Marys County, on October 14, 1928 (A. Wetmore) . 

Family STERCORARIIDAE 
[POMARINE JAEGER] Sfercorar/us pomarinus (Temminck) 

Status. — Hypothetical. One was reported on the Potomac 
River in Prince Georges County on January 12, 1929 (H. C. Ober- 
holser), and 2 were recorded 13 miles offshore from Ocean City 
on September 9, 1950. 

PARASITIC JAEGER Sfercorar/us parasiticus (Linnaeus) 

Status. — Rare visitor. An immature male was collected in the 
District of Columbia on September 23, 1899 (Ball, 1932b). One 
was seen in Worcester County, a short distance offshore from 
Maryland Beach on May 11, 1946 (Stewart and Robbins, 1947a) . 

[LONG-TAILED JAEGER] Stercorarius longicavdus Vieillot 

Status. — Hypothetical. F. C. Kirkwood recorded 1 on a fish 
pound off Ocean City on May 1, 1906. 

Family LARIDAE 
GLAUCOUS GULL Larus h/perboreus Gunnerus 

Status. — Transient and wintering: Rare in the tidewater areas 
of the Eastern Shore and Western Shore sections. 

Records. — One on the Potomac River, Charles County, on No- 
vember 1, 1927 (H. C. Oberholser) ; 1 at South Point, Worcester 
County, on December 21, 1952 (S. H. Low) ; 1 in the District of 
Columbia from January 28 to March 31, 1937 (A. L. Curl) ; 1 at 
Tilghman, Talbot County, on February 12, 1949 (J. B. May, O. W. 
Crowder) ; 1 in Prince Georges County on February 17, 1935 (R. 



BIRDS OF MARYLAND AND DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 157 

Overing) ; 1 on the Potomac River, Charles County, on February 
18, 1926 (H. C. Oberholser) ; 1 at Annapolis on March 23-28, 
1920 (A. Wetmore) ; 1 in the District of Columbia on April 5-9, 
1914 (E. A. Preble) ; several at Ocean City on April 28, 1929 (A. 
Wetmore) ; and 1 at Ocean City on May 6, 1949 (Buckalew, 1950) . 

ICELAND GULL Larus glaucoides Meyer 

Status. — Rare visitor in the Eastern Shore, Western Shore, 
and Upper Chesapeake sections. 

Records. — Kirkwood (1895) reports observing an immature at 
Baltimore on November 23, 1893; single adults were seen along 
the former ferry route between Sandy Point, Anne Arundel 
County, and Matapeake, Queen Annes County, on January 18, 
1946, February 18 and 25, 1945 (Hampe, 1945), May 8, 1950 (Mr. 
and Mrs. W. L. Henderson), May 12, 1945, and May 12, 1946; an 
immature was recorded in the District of Columbia on March 12, 
1945 (Stewart and Robbins, 1947a) ; 1 was seen at Ocean City on 
May 15, 1948 (P. B. Street) ; and 1 at Gibson Island, Anne Arundel 
County, on June 4 and June 6, 1956 (Mrs. W. L. Henderson, Mrs. 
G. Tappan). 

GREAT BLACK-BACKED GULL Larus marinus Linnaeus 

Status. — Transient and wintering: Fairly common in the 
coastal area of Worcester County; uncommon in tidewater areas 
elsewhere in the Eastern Shore and Western Shore sections ; rare 
in tidewater areas in the Upper Chesapeake section. Summer 
vagrant: Single birds were seen at Ocean City on July 7, 1951 (D. 
A. Cutler), and July 19, 1955; 2 on Sharps Island, Talbot County, 
on July 15, 1953 (J. Hailman) ; and 1 in Dorchester County on 
July 30, 1953 (Mr. and Mrs. W. L. Henderson) . 

Habitat. — Open water and adjacent beaches of the ocean, bays, 
and larger estuaries. 

Period of occurrence. — Normal period: August 5-15 to May 
15-25; peak, August 25 to May 10. Extreme date of departure: 
June 3, 1938, in Worcester County (G. A. Ammann). 

Maximum counts. — Spring: 12 in the Ocean City area on May 
5, 1951; 6 at Point Lookout, St. Marys County, on April 6, 1953 
(J. W. Terborgh) . Fall: 18 in the Ocean City area on November 
11, 1950. Winter (Christmas counts) : 26 in the Ocean City area 
on December 27, 1954; 24 in Talbot County on December 29, 1953; 
13 in the Annapolis area on January 2, 1955. 

LESSER BLACK-BACKED GULL Larus fuscus Linnaeus 

Status. — Accidental visitor. An adult female was collected 
(USNM) on Assateague Island, Worcester County, on October 7, 



158 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 62, FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 

1948 (Buckalew, 1950). One was closely observed at Gibson 
Island, Anne Arundel County, on October 7, 1952 (Mrs. W. L. 
Henderson, Mrs. G. Tappan) . 

HERRING GULL Lcrrus argentatus Pontoppidan 

Status. — Breeding: Three nests with eggs were found on 
Sharps Island, Talbot County, on July 24, 1955, and 7 nests (4 
with eggs, or eggs and young) on July 1, 1956 (R. L. Kleen). 
Transient and wintering: Abundant in the coastal area of Wor- 
cester County; common in other tidewater areas of the Eastern 
Shore, Western Shore, and Upper Chesapeake sections; fairly 
common (in spring) in the Allegheny Mountain section; uncom- 
mon elsewhere in all sections. Summer vagrant: Fairly common 
in the coastal area of Worcester County ; uncommon in tidewater 
areas elsewhere in the Eastern Shore, Western Shore, and Upper 
Chesapeake sections. Immature birds predominate during the 
summer months. 

Habitat. — Ocean, bays, estuaries, and adjacent bsaches and 
fields; also on inland bodies of water, including lakes, reservoirs, 
and the larger streams. 

Spring migration. — Normal period: February 20-March 1 to 
May 20-30 ; peak, March 20 to May 15. 

Fall migration. — Normal period: August 1-10 to November 
10-20 ; peak, September 15 to October 20. 

Maximum counts. — Spring: 3,000 in the District of Columbia 
on March 7, 1936 (H. C. Oberholser) ; 1,238 in the Ocean City 
area on May 17, 1947; nearly 1,000 along the Potomac River in 
Charles and Prince Georges Counties in mid-March, 1926. Fall: 
2,090 in the Ocean City area on October 6, 1946. Winter (Christ- 
mas counts) : 2,554 in the Ocean City area on December 27, 1955; 
1,231 in the Kent Island area, Queen Annes County, on December 
29, 1949 ; 730 in the Susquehanna Flats area on December 28, 1951. 

Banding. — A total of 68 recovered throughout the year in tide- 
water Maryland had been banded as young birds in the following 
areas: New Brunswick, 25; coast of Maine, 10; northern Michi- 
gan, 9; coast of New Hampshire, 8; coast of Massachusetts, 7; 
southeastern Ontario, 3 ; coast of New York, 2 ; southern Quebec, 
2; southern Nova Scotia, 1; northeastern Wisconsin, 1. A full- 
grown immature bird banded in west-central Florida on December 
28, 1937, was recovered in Baltimore County on November 15, 
1939. 

RING-BILLED GULL Larus delawarensis Ord 

Status. — Transient: Abundant in the tidewater areas of the 



BIRDS OF MARYLAND AND DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 159 

Eastern Shore, Western Shore, and Upper Chesapeake sections; 
fairly common elsewhere in all sections. Wintering: Common in 
the tidewater areas of the Eastern Shore, Western Shore, and 
Upper Chesapeake sections; uncommon elsewhere in the Eastern 
Shore, Western Shore, Upper Chesapeake, and Piedmont sections. 
Summer vagrant: Uncommon in the tidewater areas of the East- 
ern Shore, Western Shore, and Upper Chesapeake sections. In 
spring, a noticeable westward flight occurs along the Potomac 
River into western Maryland. 

Habitat. — Ocean, bays, estuaries, and adjacent beaches and 
fields; also inland lakes, reservoirs, and rivers. 

Spring migration. — Normal period: February 15-25 to May 
20-30 ; peak, March 1 to May 10. 

Fall migration. — Normal period: July 5-15 to November 10- 
20 ; peak, August 15 to October 25. 

Maximum counts. — Spring: "Thousands" in the District of 
Columbia on April 10, 1940 (W. L. McAtee) ; 1,200 in Susquehanna 
Flats area on March 25, 1947; 1,000 at Seneca, Montgomery 
County, on February 28, 1954 (J. W. Terborgh). Fall: 840 on 
August 30, 1950, and 590 on August 13, 1950, on Assateague 
Island ; 400 in the District of Columbia on October 19, 1937 ( W. 
L. McAtee) ; 302 in the Middle River area, Baltimore County, on 
August 27, 1950 (E. Willis) . Winter (Christmas counts) : 1,270 
in the Ocean City area on December 21, 1952 ; 878 in the Carroll 
Island area, Baltimore County, on December 22, 1946 ; 801 in the 
District of Columbia area on January 1, 1955. 

Banding. — A total of 29 recovered throughout the year in tide- 
water Maryland had been banded as young birds in the following 
areas: northeastern Michigan, 17; southeastern Ontario, 11; and 
northwestern New York, 1. 

LAUGHING GULL Larus atricilla Linnaeus 

Status. — Breeding: Uncommon and local in Chincoteague Bay 
— a colony of about 100 pairs was located on Striking Marsh in 
1915 (H. H. Bailey) ; in 1951 a colony of about 15 pairs was found 
on Robins Marsh, but in 1955 only half a dozen pairs were present; 
in 1953 a colony of 25 pairs was found on an island one mile south- 
east of South Point and by 1955 this colony had doubled; rare and 
local elsewhere in tidewater areas of the Eastern Shore and West- 
ern Shore sections — a small colony was located at Cornfield Har- 
bor. St. Marys County, during the period 1935-1946 (A. Wet- 
more) , and a colony was found on Sharps Island, Talbot County, 
during the summer of 1954 (fide Mrs. W. L. Henderson). 



160 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 62, FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 

Transient: Common in the tidewater areas of the Eastern Shore, 
Western Shore, and Upper Chesapeake sections; casual in the 
Allegheny Mountain section — 1 at Deep Creek Lake on October 
18, 1936 (Handlan, 1936). Summer vagrant: Fairly common in 
the coastal area of Worcester County; uncommon in tidewater 
areas elsewhere in the Eastern Shore, Western Shore, and Upper 
Chesapeake sections. Wintering: Rare in tidewater areas of the 
Eastern Shore and Western Shore sections. 

Habitat. — Ocean, bays, and estuaries, and adjacent beaches and 
fields. Usually nests on islands of salt marsh, chiefly salt-water 
cordgrass. 

Nesting season. — Late May to early August. Extreme egg 
dates (5 records, about 40 nests) : June 6, 1953, and July 18, 1955, 
in Worcester County. Doivny young dates (3 records, 175 young 
in all stages) : June 6, 1954, in Talbot County (fide Mrs. W. L. 
Henderson) and July 25, 1956, in Worcester County (E. F. Mash- 
burn) . 

Spring migration. — Normal period: April 1-10 to May 10-20. 
Extreme dates of arrival: March 27, 1948, in Calvert County; 
March 27, 1949, in Worcester County. Extreme date of departure: 
May 22, 1940, in the District of Columbia ( W. L. McAtee) . 

Fall migration. — Normal period: July 20-30 to November 20- 
30; peak, August 15 to November 1. Extreme date of arrival: 
July 18, 1927, in Calvert County (W. H. Ball). Extreme dates 
of departure: December 10, 1927, on the Potomac River below 
Washington, D. C. (H. H. T. Jackson) ; December 3, 1950, in 
Anne Arundel County (A. M. Smith). 

Maximum counts. — Fall: 3,000 on Back River, Baltimore 
County, on September 3, 1948 (E. Willis) ; 1,000 at Gibson Island, 
Anne Arundel County, on September 14, 1950, and November 1, 
1951 (Mrs. W. L. Henderson, Mrs. G. Tappan) ; 500-1,200 on the 
Potomac River off Alexandria, Virginia, in late September and 
early October 1951 (E. G. Davis) . Winter (Christmas count) : 
6 near St. Michaels, Talbot County, on December 29, 1953. 

Banding. — Eight recovered throughout tidewater Maryland in 
fall (September 1-October 15) had been banded as young birds 
in the following areas: Cobb Island, Virginia (Northampton 
County), 6; and southern New Jersey (Cape May County), 2. 
One banded as a juvenal near South Point, Worcester County, on 
July 18, 1955, was recovered at Coco Solo, Canal Zone, on Decem- 
ber 11, 1955. 



BIRDS OF MARYLAND AND DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 161 

BONAPARTE'S GULL Larus Philadelphia (Ord) 

Status. — Transient: Fairly common in the tidewater areas of 
the Eastern Shore, Western Shore, and Upper Chesapeake sec- 
tions; uncommon elsewhere in all sections. Wintering: Fairly 
common in the coastal area of Worcester County; uncommon in 
tidewater areas elsewhere in the Eastern Shore, Western Shore, 
and Upper Chesapeake sections. 

Habitat. — Open water and adjacent beaches of the ocean, bays, 
and estuaries; also on inland bodies of water, including lakes, 
reservoirs, and the larger streams. 

Spring migration. — Normal period: March 5-15 to May 10- 
20; peak, March 25 to May 1. Extreme dates of arrival: Feb- 
ruary 18, 1950, in St. Marys County (R. J. Beaton, J. W. Taylor, 
Jr.) ; February 22, 1938, in Baltimore County (H. Kolb) ; Feb- 
ruary 23, 1927, in the District of Columbia (H. C. Oberholser). 
Extreme dates of departure: June 8, 1929, in the District of Co- 
lumbia (H. C. Oberholser) ; June 7, 1930, in Prince Georges 
County (H. C. Oberholser). 

Fall migration. — Normal period: September 10-20 to Decem- 
ber 10-20; peak, October 20 to November 30. Extreme dates of 
arrival: August 9, 1901, 8 miles off Ocean City (F. C. Kirkwood) ; 
August 17, 1955, in Anne Arundel County (L. W. Oring) ; August 
23, 1928, in the District of Columbia (W. J. Whiting) ; August 
25, 1948, in Queen Annes County (S. H. Low). Extreme date of 
departure: December 30, 1922, in the District of Columbia (M. J. 
Pellew) . 

Maximum counts. — Spring: 225 at Ocean City on April 1, 
1948; 200+ at Annapolis on May 1, 1925 (F. C. Kirkwood) ; about 
200 at Washington, D. C, on March 8, 1935 (W. L. McAtee) ; 130 
on Chesapeake Bay, between Sandy Point in Anne Arundel County 
and Kent Island in Queen Annes County on April 6, 1946. Fall: 
200-f- on Deep Creek Lake, Garrett County, during October 1939 
(M. G. Brooks) ; 170 on December 10, 1927, and 52 on September 
12, 1928, on the Potomac River below Washington, D. C. (H. H. 
T. Jackson). Winter: 332 at Ocean City on December 27, 1953 
(Christmas count). 

BLACK-LEGGED KITTIWAKE Rissa tridactyla (Linnaeus) 

Status. — Casual visitor in the coastal area of Worcester County. 
An immature Kittiwake was closely observed on Assateague 
Island on August 30, 1950 (Stewart, 1951). An adult female was 
found dead near Ocean City on March 4, 1951 (Cutler, 1952). 



162 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 62, FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 

GULL-BILLED TERN Gelochelidon nilotica (Gmelin) 

Status. — Breeding: Fairly common locally in the coastal area 
of Worcester County. Transient: Uncommon in the coastal area 
of Worcester County; casual in tidewater areas in the Western 
Shore section — 1 seen in the District of Columbia on May 20, 
1928 (Ball, 1928a), recorded in St. Marys County at Point Look- 
out on July 21, 1928, and at Cornfield Harbor on September 6, 
1931 (A. Wetmore), 1 seen at Sandy Point, Anne Arundel County, 
on September 4, 1949 (R. D. Cole, E. H. La Fleur), and 2 seen 
there on September 11, 1949 (R. J. Beaton, I. E. Hampe) . 

Habitat. — Ocean and coastal bays and adjacent sandy beaches. 
Nests on sandy islands in the coastal bays. 

Nesting season. — Mid-May to early August. Extreme egg 
dates (26 nests) : June 6, 1953, and July 18, 1955, in Worcester 
County. Extreme doivny young dates (about 31 broods) : June 6, 
1946, and July 18, 1949 (J. H. Buckalew), in Worcester County. 

Period of occurrence. — Extreme dates: April 30, 1955 (D. C. 
Aud. Soc), and September 25, 1949 (K. H. Weber), in Worcester 
County. 

High breeding populations. — Twenty-five pairs on the group 
of islands about 1 mile south-southeast of South Point in Chinco- 
teague Bay on July 12, 1951. 

Maximum counts (nonbreeding) . — Spring: 10 in the Ocean 
City area on May 14, 1949 (E.G. Davis) . Fall: 5 on Assateague 
Island on September 5, 1948. 

Banding. — A juvenal, banded near South Point in Chinco- 
teague Bay on July 4, 1952, was recovered in Cuba during the fall 
of 1952. Another juvenal, banded near South Point on July 12, 
1951, was recovered near Quimby in Accomack County, Virginia, 
on August 16, 1951. 

FORSTERS TERN Sterna forsteri Nuttall 

Status. — Breeding: Locally common in the coastal area of 
Worcester County (north to Ocean City) ; rare in tidewater areas 
of Somerset County. Fall transient: Common in the tidewater 
areas of the Eastern Shore and Western Shore sections; fairly 
common in tidewater areas of the Upper Chesapeake section; 
casual in the Piedmont section — recorded in Montgomery County 
on October 4, 1942, and August 25-26, 1945 (A. Wetmore) . Spring 
transient: Uncommon in the coastal area of Worcester County; 
rare elsewhere in tidewater areas of the Eastern Shore and West- 
ern Shore sections; probably casual in the Allegheny Mountain 
section — 2 believed seen on Deep Creek Lake on May 3, 1938 



BIRDS OF MARYLAND AND DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 163 

(M. G. Brooks). Wintering: Rare in the coastal area of Wor- 
cester County; casual elsewhere — 1 recorded in the District of 
Columbia on December 28, 1928 (W. H. Ball), and several seen 
there on December 29-30, 1946 (D. Berkheimer, E. L. Poole) ; 
1 recorded at Denton, Caroline County, on February 16, 1955 
(A. Knotts). Summer vagrant: Casual — 10 seen on Chesapeake 
Bay out from Gibson Island, Anne Arundel County, on June 2, 
1953 (Mr. and Mrs. W. L. Henderson) . 

Habitat. — Breeding: Salt marshes and adjacent open water; 
nesting colonies are usually located on islands of salt marsh, 
chiefly salt-water cordgrass in the coastal bays. Transient: Ocean, 
bays, estuaries, and adjacent beaches or salt marsh. 

Nesting season. — Late April to late July (nesting peak, early 
May to late June). Extreme egg dates (9 records, about 1,200 
nests) : May 7, 1938 (G. A. Ammann), and July 18, 1955, in Wor- 
cester County. Extreme downy young dates (6 records, about 450 
broods) : June 6, 1953, and July 20, 1951, in Worcester County. 

Spring migration. — Extreme dates: April 3, 1954, in Charles 
and St. Marys Counties (J. W. Terborgh, et al.), and May 9, 1953, 
in Charles County (J. K. Merritt, J. W. Terborgh) . 

Fall migration. — Normal period: July 5-15 to November 15- 
25; peak, August 15 to October 20. Extreme date of arrival: 
June 28, 1953, in Anne Arundel County (E. J. and A. Besson). 
Extreme dates of departure: December 6, 1953, in Charles County 
(M. C. Crone, R. L. Farr) ; November 28, 1953, in St. Marys 
County (J. W. Terborgh) . 

High breeding populations. — Approximately 1,000 pairs on a 
marshy island near North Beach (Assateague Island) on June 6, 
1894 (Kirkwood, 1895) ; about 700 pairs on Robins Marsh Island 
in Chincoteague Bay on July 11, 1951. 

Maximum counts (nonbreeding) . — Fall: 150 at Beverly Beach, 
Anne Arundel County, on September 9, 1947 ; 75 in the Ocean City 
area on September 29-30, 1945; 60 at Point Lookout, St. Marys 
County, on November 23, 1935 (W. H. Ball) ; 45 in the District 
of Columbia area on October 9, 1928 (Lincoln, 1928). Winter: 
7 in the Ocean City area on January 10, 1945, and 7 in the same 
area on December 27, 1954 (Christmas count). 

Banding. — Two juvenals, banded in Worcester County (Robins 
Marsh) on June 19, 1953, were recovered on the wintering ground, 
1 in central Florida (Orange County) on December 13, 1953, and 
1 in eastern North Carolina on January 2, 1954. A juvenal, 
banded on Robins Marsh on July 11, 1951, was recovered in Dor- 
chester County, near Cambridge (letter of April 30, 1952) . An- 



164 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 62, FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 

other juvenal, banded on the Clam Harbor Tumps (near the south 
tip of Mills Island in Chincoteague Bay) on July 6, 1946, was 
trapped about 10 miles distant, on Robins Marsh on July 11, 1951. 

COMMON TERN Sterna hirundo Linnaeus 

Status. — Breeding: Common in the coastal area of Worcester 
County; fairly common locally in tidewater areas of Somerset 
County; rare and local in tidewater areas of Dorchester, Talbot, 
and St. Marys Counties — colonies were found near Holland Island, 
Dorchester County, in 1919 and 1920 (Jackson, 1941) and in 1924 
(F. C. Kirkwood), on Sharps Island, Talbot County, on July 24, 
1955 (R. L. Kleen), and at Point Lookout, St. Marys County, in 
1937 (E. G. Holt, W. L. McAtee). Transient: Common in the 
coastal area of Worcester County; fairly common in other tide- 
water areas of the Eastern Shore, Western Shore, and Upper 
Chesapeake sections ; uncommon or rare elsewhere in all sections. 

Habitat. — Ocean, bays, and adjacent sandy beaches; also on 
inland ponds, lakes, and rivers. This species usually nests in 
colonies on sandy islands in the coastal bays. Three colonies found 
on the Manokin River in Somerset County in 1954 and 1955 were 
situated on marshy islands, comprised chiefly of salt-water cord- 
grass. 

Nesting season. — Mid-May to mid- August (nesting peak, early 
June to late July). Extreme egg dates (34 records, about 1,650 
nests) : May 30, 1937, in St. Marys County (E. G. Holt, W. L. 
McAtee) and August 5, 1950, in Worcester County (R. W. Dick- 
erman). Extreme downy young dates (34 records, about 1,075 
broods) : June 6, 1953, and August 5, 1939 (Kolb, 1939), in Wor- 
cester County. 

Spring migration. — Normal period: April 5-15 to May 25-30; 
peak, April 20 to May 25. Extreme date of arrival: April 4, 1953, 
in Worcester County (J. H. Buckalew). Extreme date of de- 
parture: June 8, 1929, in the District of Columbia (H. C. Ober- 
holser) . 

Fall migration. — Normal period: July 5-15 to November 10- 
20; peak, August 10 to September 30. Extreme date of arrival: 
July 2, 1950, in Baltimore County (E. Willis). Extreme date of 
departure: November 30, 1953, in Worcester County (E. G. Davis) . 

High breeding populations. — About 415 pairs on the group 
of islands 1 mile south-southeast of South Point in Chincoteague 
Bay on July 3, 1945. 

Maximum counts (nonbreeding) . — Spring: 3,050 in the Ocean 
City area on May 11, 1952 (D. A. Cutler) ; 112 on the Potomac 



BIRDS OF MARYLAND AND DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 



165 



River below Washington, D. C, on May 12, 1928 (H. H. T. Jack- 
son). Fall: 285 on Assateague Island on August 23, 1947. 
Banding. — See figure 26. 




Figure 26. — Common Tern banding recoveries. Each symbol represents the 
number of records for a State or Province. Banded in Maryland, recovered 
elsewhere: solid circle = recovered June through August; solid triangle = 
recovered September through May. Recovered in Maryland, banded else- 
where: open circle = banded June through August. 

ROSEATE TERN Sterna dougallii Montagu 

Status. — Breeding: Formerly nested in the coastal area of 
Worcester County — a good-sized colony was found on the barrier 
beach 5 miles south of Ocean City on June 10, 1933, and adults and 



166 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 62, FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 

8 sets of eggs were collected (Court, 1936) ; nested commonly on 
islands in Sinepuxent Bay during June 1936 and 1938 (Poofe, 
1942b) ; an adult was collected on Assateague Island on June 3, 
1938 (G. A. Ammann). There are no definite breeding records 
in recent years although a single adult was closely observed at 
Ocean City on June 18, 1948. Spring transient: Rare in the 
coastal area of Worcester County. 

Habitat. — Ocean and coastal bays, and adjacent sandy beaches. 

Period of occurrence — Extreme dates: May 11, 1952 (D. A. 
Cutler) , and June 18, 1948, in Worcester County. 

SOOTY TERN Sterna fuscata Linnaeus 

Status. — Accidental visitor. One was collected at Baltimore 
on October 1, 1876, by Alexander Wolle (Kirkwood, 1895). This 
specimen was given to the U. S. National Museum (cat. 70756) 
and later (on January 28, 1881) was sent to the Chicago Academy 
of Sciences. Another specimen was found alive at Baltimore on 
October 17, 1954 (H. Kolb). Both specimens were collected 
shortly following the passage of hurricanes. 

LEAST TERN Sterna albifrons Pallas 

Status. — Breeding (see fig. 27) : Common in the coastal area 
of Worcester County; fairly common locally in tidewater areas 





79* 76" 

1 l- 






77» 


7 r 




7V 
-39°- 


-39«- 
-38*- 


AX 'OTTI3.C <- 

SCALE 

O 10 20 30 40 MILES 


/ 
f 

' i 


2 f 


J { 


i > W"* / ) > 
V^V I < ( 

\ v *i(K/ r\ /s 

76* 


X ("^ 

1 f l / T9L 

77* 

l 


1 1 
79* 78* 


f* 


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Cm 



Figure 27. — Breeding colonies of Least Tern. 



BIRDS OF MARYLAND AND DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 167 

along Chesapeake Bay, occurring along the eastern shore of the 
bay north to Swan Point in Kent County (W. L. Henderson) and 
along the western shore north to Strawberry Point in Baltimore 
County (E. Willis) ; also occurs up the Potomac River to Leonard- 
town (E. J. Court). Transient: Uncommon in tidewater areas 
of the Eastern Shore and Western Shore sections; rare in tide- 
water areas of the Upper Chesapeake section; casual in the in- 
terior — recorded on August 13, 1955, following the passage of a 
hurricane when 16 were seen near Emmitsburg, Frederick County 
(J. W. Richards), 4 near Laytonsville, Montgomery County (S. H. 
Low), 2 at Patuxent Refuge, Prince Georges County, and 2 at 
Goldsboro, Caroline County (Mr. and Mrs. A. J. Fletcher). 

Habitat. — Ocean, bays, and estuaries, and adjacent sandy 
beaches; nests on sandy islands or beaches. 

Nesting season. — Late May to early August (nesting peak, 
early June to mid-July) . Extreme egg dates (32 records, about 
415 nests) : May 20, 1953, in Queen Annes County and July 24, 
1955 (R. L. Kleen), in Talbot County. Extreme downy young 
dates (16 records, about 250 broods) : June 18, 1945, in Wor- 
cester County and July 24, 1955 (R. L. Kleen), in Talbot County. 

Spring migration. — Extreme dates: April 21, 1948, in Wor- 
cester County and May 27, 1950 (E. Willis), in Baltimore County. 

Fall migration. — Normal period: July 15-25 to September 1- 
10; peak, August 1 to August 20. Extreme date of arrival: July 
10, 1952, in Baltimore County (E. Willis) . Extreme dates of de- 
parture: September 28, 1952, in Queen Annes County (Mrs. W. L. 
Henderson) ; September 27, 1953, in Charles County (M. C. Crone, 
K. Keeley). 

High breeding populations. — About 285 pairs on the barrier 
beach between Ocean City and the Delaware line, on June 17, 
1948; about 100 pairs at Kent Narrows, Queen Annes County, 
on July 6, 1935 (M. B. Meanley) . 

Maximum counts (nonbreeding). — Spring: 150 in the Ocean 
City area on May 12, 1951. Fall: 74 in the Ocean City area on 
August 4, 1945 ; about 50 along the Potomac River in the District 
of Columbia on August 13, 1955, following a hurricane (E. G. 
Davis) . 

ROYAL TERN Thalasseus maximus (Boddaeri) 

Status. — Breeding: First recorded in July 1950 when 2 nests 
with eggs (collected) were found on an island in Chincoteague 
Bay, about 1 mile south of South Point (J. H. Buckalew) ; 165 
nests with eggs and young were found in the same area on July 



168 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 62, FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 

6, 1953 (J. H. Buckalew) ; on June 26, 1954, about 500 adults 
were noted there (P. A. DuMont) ; on July 18, 1955, 76 large 
young- (nearly all that were present) were caught and banded; 
and on July 25, 1956 (E. F. Mashburn), 31 young (all that were 
present) were caught and banded. Fall transient: Fairly com- 
mon in the coastal area of Worcester County ; uncommon in tide- 
water areas elsewhere in the Eastern Shore and Western Shore 
sections. Spring transient and summer vagrant: Rare in the 
coastal area of Worcester County; casual in lower Chesapeake 
Bay — 1 observed at Plum Point, Calvert County, on April 23, 
1955 (J. H. Fales). Wintering: Casual in the coastal area of 
Worcester County — 1 seen at Ocean City on December 21, 1952. 

Habitat. — Ocean and bays, and adjacent sandy beaches. 

Spring migration. — Extreme dates of arrival: April 23, 1955, 
in Calvert County (J. H. Fales) ; April 25, 1953, in Worcester 
County (D. A. Cutler). 

Fall migration. — Normal period : July 15-25 to November 15- 
25; peak, August 20 to October 25. Extreme date of arrival: 
July 12, 1951, in Worcester County. Extreme date of departure: 
November 27, 1945, in Worcester County. 

Maximum counts. — Fall: 69 on Assateague Island on Septem- 
ber 17, 1950 (J. H. Buckalew, E. O. Mellinger) ; 32 at Point Look- 
out, St. Marys County, on October 24, 1953 (J. W. Terborgh) ; 30 
at Tilghman Island, Talbot County, on August 31, 1956 (H. 
Armistead). Spring: 18 near South Point, Worcester County, on 
May 2, 1953 (R. Strosnider). 

Banding. — One banded as a juvenal near South Point, Wor- 
cester County, on July 18, 1955, was recovered in the Province of 
Pinar del Rio, Cuba, on February 19, 1956. 

[SANDWICH TERN] Thalasseus sandvicensis (Latham) 

Status. — Hypothetical. On September 19, 1945, 1 day after 
a tropical hurricane, 2 were observed at Ocean City (Stewart and 
Robbins, 1947a) . 
CASPIAN TERN Hydroprogne casp'ia (Pallas) 

Status. — Spring transient: Uncommon in tidewater areas of 
the Eastern Shore, Western Shore, and Upper Chesapeake sec- 
tions ; casual in the Piedmont section — 1 seen at Plummers Island, 
Montgomery County, on May 5, 1918 (Fisher, 1935), and recorded 
at Loch Raven in Baltimore County on April 18, 1942, and April 
23, 1943 (H. Kolb) . Fall transient: Fairly common in the coastal 
area of Worcester County ; uncommon in other tidewater areas of 
the Eastern Shore and Western Shore sections ; rare in tidewater 



BIRDS OF MARYLAND AND DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 169 

areas of the Upper Chesapeake section ; casual elsewhere — 1 seen 
at Plummers Island, Montgomery County, on October 30, 1938 
(A. Wetmore) and 1 seen near Seneca, Montgomery County, on 
September 5, 1953 (H. A. Sutton). Summer vagrant: Rare in 
tidewater areas of the Eastern Shore, Western Shore, and Upper 
Chesapeake sections. Wintering : Casual — 1 seen at Matapeake, 
Queen Annes County, on December 22, 1948 (T. W. Donnelly). 

Habitat. — Ocean, bays, estuaries, and adjacent beaches. 

Spring migration. — Normal period: April 10-20 to May 25- 
June 5 ; peak, April 25 to May 20. Extreme date of arrival: April 
4, 1953, in Worcester County (J. W. Terborgh) . Extreme dates of 
departure: June 11, 1930, in the District of Columbia (W. J. 
Whiting) ; June 9, 1951, in Charles County (J. W. Taylor, Jr.) ; 
June 6, 1953, in Anne Arundel County (Mrs. W. L. Henderson, 
Mrs. G. Tappan) . 

Fall migration. — Normal period: August 10-20 to October 
25-November 5 ; peak, August 20 to September 30. Extreme date 
of arrival: August 7, 1949, in Anne Arundel County (C. N. 
Mason). Extreme date of departure: November 7, 1948, in Wor- 
cester County. 

Maximum counts. — Spring: 31 on Middle River, Baltimore 
County, on May 13, 1950 (E. Willis) ; 13 at Deal Island, Somer- 
set County, on April 28, 1946; 9 at Gibson Island, Anne Arundel 
County, on April 30, 1952 (Mrs. W. L. Henderson) ; 7 in the Dis- 
trict of Columbia on May 21, 1927 (W. W. Rubey) . Fall: 59 at 
Ocean City on September 19, 1945 ; 8 in the District of Columbia 
on September 19, 1927 (H. H. T. Jackson). Summer vagrant: 
4 in the District of Columbia on June 28, 1927 (H. C. Oberholser) . 

Banding. — One recovered at Breezy Point, Calvert County, on 
October 29, 1944, had been banded as a juvenal on Gravelly Island, 
Delta County, Wisconsin, on June 21, 1944. 

BLACK TERN Chlidonias niger (Linnaeus) 

Status. — Breeding (?): Possibly nests occasionally in the Alle- 
gheny Mountain section — on June 9, 1935, 2 were seen on a pond 
near Grantsville, Garrett County, and, according to the people 
living on the property, had been there since spring (Denmead, 
1937) . Fall transient: Fairly common in the coastal area of Wor- 
cester County; uncommon in other tidewater areas of the Eastern 
Shore, Western Shore, and Upper Chesapeake sections and in the 
Allegheny Mountain section; rare elsewhere in all sections. 
Spring transient: Uncommon in tidewater areas of the Eastern 



170 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 62, FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 

Shore, Western Shore, and Upper Chesapeake sections ; rare else- 
where in all sections. 

Habitat. — Ocean, bays, estuaries, and adjacent beaches and 
marshes; also on inland ponds, lakes, reservoirs, and rivers. 

Spring migration. — Normal period: May 1-10 to June 1-10; 
peak, May 10 to May 30. Extreme date of arrival: April 29, 1950, 
in Prince Georges County. Extreme date of departure: June 12, 
1952, in Montgomery County (J. W. Taylor, Jr.). 

Fall migration. — Normal period: July 5-15 to September 20- 
25 ; peak, July 20 to September 20. Extreme date of arrival: June 
28, 1927, in Prince Georges County (Mr. and Mrs. L. D. Miner). 
Extreme dates of departure: October 16, 1899, in Baltimore 
County (F. C. Kirkwood) ; September 28, 1952, in Queen Annes 
County (Mr. and Mrs. W. L. Henderson) ; September 26, 1929, 
in the District of Columbia (W. H. Ball) . 

Maximum counts. — Spring: 24 at Ocean City an May 5, 1956 
(P. A. DuMont) ; about 20 in the District of Columbia on May 
27, 1926 (Mrs. T. M. Knappen) ; 8 in Anne Arundel County on 
May 8, 1954 (P. A. DuMont) ; 6 at Ocean City on May 11, 1952 
(D. A. Cutler). Fall: 81 on September 5, 1948, and 70 on July 
23, 1949, on Assateague Island ; 37 in the District of Columbia on 
September 17, 1930 (W. H. Ball) ; 12 at Oxford, Talbot County, 
on July 13, 1950 (Mr. and Mrs. W. L. Henderson) ; 12 at Sandy 
Point, Anne Arundel County, on September 13, 1947 (J. W. Tay- 
lor, Jr.) ; 8 at Seneca, Montgomery County, on September 8, 1952 
(J. W. Terborgh). 

Family RYNCHOPIDAE 

BLACK SKIMMER Rynchops nigra Linnaeus 

Status. — Breeding: Common in the coastal area of Worcester 
County. Transient: Common in the coastal area of Worcester 
County ; casual elsewhere — 1 on the Potomac River on September 
8, 1858 (Coues and Prentiss, 1883), singles in the District of Co- 
lumbia on April 14, 1928 (C. H. M. Barrett), and on August 18, 
1952 (Johnson, 1952), 2 at Sandy Point, Anne Arundel County, 
on August 28, 1955, and 1 at Tilghman Island on May 18 and 19, 
1956 (R. L. Kleen). Wintering: Casual visitor — 1 seen in St. 
Marys County on December 29, 1940 (Dargan, et al., 1941) ; 2 
seen at Ocean City on December 27, 1954 (I. N. Gabrielson) , and 1 
at Ocean City on January 24, 1947. 

Habitat. — Coastal bays and adjacent sandy beaches. Nests 
on sandy islands in the coastal bays. 

Nesting season. — Late May to late August (nesting peak, mid- 



BIRDS OF MARYLAND AND DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 171 

June to late July). Extreme egg dates (23 records, about 635 
nests) : June 1, 1938 (Poole, 1942b), and August 3, 1939 (Kolb, 
1939), in Worcester County. Extreme downy young dates (23 
records, about 640 broods) : June 18, 1945, and August 12, 1955, 
in Worcester County. 

Spring migration. — Extreme arrival dates: April 14, 1928, 
in the District of Columbia (C. H. M. Barrett) ; April 20, 1900, 
in Worcester County (Ansley Ludlam). Migration peak: May 5 
to May 20. 

Fall migration. — Normal period: August 10-20 to November 
10-20; peak, September 1 to November 1. Extreme date of de- 
parture: November 24, 1946, in Worcester County. 

High breeding populations. — About 250 pairs on islands in 
Sinepuxent Bay and northern Chincoteague Bay on July 12, 1951. 

Maximum counts (nonbreeding) . — Spring: 560 in the Ocean 
City area on May 11, 1952 (D. A. Cutler) . Fall: 400 in the Ocean 
City area on September 27, 1949, and September 29, 1945. 

Banding. — Five, banded as juvenals in Worcester County in 
summer (June 24-July 4), were recovered in Florida during the 
period September 12-April 6; 3 of these were recovered on the 
east coast of central Florida, and 2 were taken on the Gulf coast 
of southern Florida. Five others, banded as juvenals in Wor- 
cester County, were recovered as follows : 2 in Georgia on January 
15 and April 1 ; 1 in South Carolina in late December ; 1 in south- 
ern Delaware on August 9 ; and 1 at Salisbury, Wicomico County, 
during the hurricane of August 12, 1955. 

Family ALCIDAE 

[RAZORBILL] Aha forda Linnaeus 

Status. — Hypothetical. One was seen on the barrier beach 2 
miles south of Ocean City on December 4, 1926 (Wetmore, 1927) . 
Another was seen near the former Isle of Wight Coast Guard 
station (north of Ocean City) on February 3, 1938 (J. H. Bucka- 
lew). 

THICK-BILLED MURRE Uria lomvia (Linnaeus) 

Status. — Casual visitor. Five specimens (USNM), found in 
the Washington, D. C, market, were taken in the District of 
Columbia during the period, December 14, 1896, to January 1, 
1897 (Bartsch, 1897). A specimen was collected at Havre de 
Grace, Harford County, on November 5, 1899 (examined by F. C. 
Kirkwood). Another was taken near Kensington, Montgomery 
County, on November 24, 1899 (USNM— R. S. Shepherd), and on 



172 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 62, FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 

the same day at least 2 other freshly killed birds were offered for 
sale in Washington. 

DOVEKIE P/aufus a//e (Linnaeus) 

Status. — Transient and wintering: Rare (occasionally more 
numerous) in the coastal area of Worcester County. 

Habitat. — Pelagic and littoral zones of the ocean. 

Period of occurrence. — Extreme dates: November 18, 1898 
(F. C. Kirkwood), and March 11, 1952 (J. H. Buckalew), both in 
Worcester County. Occurrence peak: December 10 to February 
10. 

Maximum count. — Thousands were reported 10 to 15 miles 
offshore from Ocean City (hundreds caught in mackeral nets) 
during early January 1949 (J. H. Buckalew) . 

[BLACK GUILLEMOT] Cepphus grylle (Linnaeus) 

Status. — Hypothetical. Audubon (1840-1844) reported that 
he had seen this species "as far south as the shores of Mary- 
land." 

Family COLUMBIDAE 

MOURNING DOVE Zenaidura macroura (Linnaeus) 

Status. — Breeding and transient: Common in the Piedmont, 
Upper Chesapeake, and Western Shore sections; fairly common 
in the Allegheny Mountain, Ridge and Valley, and Eastern Shore 
sections. Wintering: Fairly common in the Eastern Shore and 
Western Shore sections; uncommon in the Upper Chesapeake, 
Piedmont, and Ridge and Valley sections; rare in the Allegheny 
Mountain section. 

Habitat. — Agricultural areas and adjacent hedgerows, wood 
margins, woodlots, and residential areas. 

Nesting season. — Early March to early October (nesting peak, 
mid-April to mid-July). Extreme egg dates (151 nests) : March 
10, 1953, in the District of Columbia (J. A. Madden) and Septem- 
ber 21, 1949, in Montgomery County (S. H. Low). Extreme nest- 
ling dates (67 nests) : March 29, 1950, in the District of Columbia 
(W. B. Tyrrell) and October 4, 1952, in Baltimore County (C. D. 
Hackman) . 

Spring migration. — Normal period: February 10-20 to April 
20-30 ; peak, March 10 to April 10. 

Fall migration. — July 20-30 to November 1-10 ; peak, August 
15 to October 15. 

Breeding population densities (territorial males per 100 
acres) . — 



BIRDS OF MARYLAND AND DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 173 

1.2 (32 in 2,563 acres) in mixed forest and brush habitats with clearings 
(both pine and deciduous trees with small scattered agricultural areas 
and abandoned farmlands) along the border between Anne Arundel and 
Prince Georges Counties in 1943. 

0.4 (50 in 11,520 acres) in "general farmland" (various agricultural habitats, 
chiefly hayfields and pastures with little cover, owing to widespread 
clean-farming practices) in Frederick County in 1950 (Stewart and 
Meanley, 1950). 

Maximum counts. — Fall: 200 near Baltimore on August 26, 
1893 (W. H. Fisher) ; 115 on Patuxent Refuge, Prince Georges 
County, on September 28, 1946. Winter (Christmas counts) : 
1,624 in the Ocean City area on December 27, 1955; 370 near 
Denton in Caroline County on December 26, 1953 ; 319 in the St. 
Michaels area, Talbot County, on December 29, 1955; 317 in the 
Triadelphia Reservoir area on December 24, 1955; 316 in the Dis- 
trict of Columbia area on January 1, 1955 ; 218 in southern Dor- 
chester County on December 28, 1955; 215 in southern Charles 
County on January 1, 1954. Spring: 200 in Anne Arundel County 
in March 1933 (T. Denmead) . 

Banding. — See figure 28. 

PASSENGER PIGEON Ectopistes migratorius (Linnaeus) 

Status. — Now extinct. Formerly abundant at times, at least 
locally. Grant (1951) states that this species formerly nested in 
Garrett County in the vicinity of Deer Park, Mountain Lake Park, 
Oakland, and Grantsville. An immense roost was located near 
Oakland according to Eifrig (1904). In Allegany County during 
the 1870's (Grant, 1951) the Passenger Pigeon was a regular 
spring and fall migrant arriving from the south in about the 
middle of April and returning during the Indian summer, prob- 
ably about the first of October. The last big flight was reported in 
western Allegany County in the vicinity of Barton (Grant, 1951) 
and Vale Summit (Kirkwood, 1895) on the unusual date of Jan- 
uary 1, 1877 (mistakenly published by Grant as 1876). Grant 
reported a flock containing thousands of birds, and Kirkwood 
stated that at that time the sky was black with them and that 
large numbers were killed. 

In Howard County (Fisher, 1896) during the period about 
1840-45, "large flocks would be seen reaching as far as the eye 
could see — the birds making their appearance in the fall and 
remaining until about Christmas although at times a few would 
winter with us." Large numbers were killed at night while roost- 
ing and their bodies fed to the hogs (Fisher, 1894) . Until about 
1880, Passenger Pigeons were seen regularly in the vicinity of 



1 74 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 62, FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 




Figure 28. — Mourning Dove banding recoveries. Each symbol represents the 
number of records for a State or Province. Banded in Maryland, recovered 
elsewhere: solid triangle = recovered September through May. Recovered 
in Maryland, banded elsewhere: open circle = banded June through August; 
open triangle = banded September through May. 



BIRDS OF MARYLAND AND DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 175 

Baltimore almost every season, generally migrating in September 
and October in flocks of from 15 to several hundred individuals 
(Fisher, 1896). In 1878, for about 10 days in October, flocks con- 
taining from 5 to 20 birds were seen flying over Baltimore be- 
tween 7:00 and 7:30 a.m., 6 to 12 flocks being seen each day 
(Kirkwood, 1895). In the vicinity of Washington, D. C, this 
species appeared in flocks at irregular intervals throughout the 
fall, winter, and spring ; the last large flight took place in the fall 
of about 1858 or 1859 (Coues and Prentiss, 1883). 

By 1880, this species had become quite rare throughout its 
range. The latest records were made during the period 1888 
to 1903. In Dorchester County several were shot during the 
latter part of the 1880's (Hampe and Kolb, 1947). In the Dis- 
trict of Columbia and nearby sections of Maryland (Cooke, 1929) 
a few were seen and specimens collected in 1887, 1889 (small 
flock near Laurel and flock of 12 at Jefferson), and 1891 (latest 
1 collected on May 2, 1891). In the vicinity of Baltimore 1 was 
shot near Bradshaw in September 1888 and another, with a flock 
of Mourning Doves in Dulaney Valley in September 1889 (Fisher, 
1896) ; quite a few were seen in the fall of 1893, including a record 
of 3 on August 27, a flock of 50 or 60 on September 17, and a flock 
of about 40 on September 19 (Kirkwood, 1895). The last record 
east of the mountains was of 3 birds seen on the ridge near Loch 
Raven Station in Baltimore County about August 15, 1899, by 
Gilmore. Near Hancock, in Washington County, a flock of 8 or 10 
birds was observed several times during the year, 1889 (Den- 
mead, 1954). In Garrett County, Eifrig (1904) believed that he 
saw 5 on July 19, 1901, and a pair on July 17, 1903. He states 
further that farmers and others in Garrett County at that time 
were occasionally seeing small flocks of from 2 to 12 individuals. 

GROUND DOVE Columbigallina passerina (Linnaeus) 

Status. — Accidental visitor. Two female specimens (USNM) 
have been taken. One was collected in the District of Columbia 
on September 1, 1844 (entered in catalog as 1843), by J. C. Mc- 
Guire, and the other was collected at Broad Creek in Prince 
Georges County on October 14, 1888, by Thomas Marron. 

Family PSITTACIDAE 
CAROLINA PARAKEET Conurops/s carof/nensis (Linnaeus) 

Status. — Now extinct. "In September, 1865, while gunning 
for Sora on the Potomac River, Mr. Edward Derrick fired into a 
flock of strange birds flying overhead, killing several, which 



176 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 62, FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 

proved to be Carolina Paroquets. He had one mounted, and kept 
the specimen in his house for a number of years. Other parties 
on the marsh at the same time shot numbers of the birds. De- 
scriptions furnished by Mr. Derrick and careful questioning by 
ourselves, leave no doubt as to the identity of the birds" (Smith 
and Palmer, 1888) . Kirkwood (1895) states that this species was 
originally well known in tidewater Maryland. Wright (1912) 
quotes Rev. Andrew White as reporting in about 1677 : "A Rela- 
tion of the Colony of Lord Baron of Baltimore, in Maryland, near 
Virginia, etc." recorded, that "During the winter it abounds in 
. . . parrots, and many others unknown to our parts of the world." 

Family CUCULIDAE 
YELLOW-BILLED CUCKOO Coccyzus americanus (Linnaeus) 

Status. — Breeding and transient: Fairly common in the East- 
ern Shore, Western Shore, Upper Chesapeake, Piedmont, and 
Ridge and Valley sections; uncommon in the Allegheny Moun- 
tain section. 

Habitat. — Swamp or moist, brushy open forest and wood 
margin types; also in orchards and residential areas. 

Nesting season. — Mid-May to mid-September (nesting peak, 
late May to mid-August) . Extreme egg dates (38 nests) : May 13, 
1946, in Prince Georges County (R. B. Overington) and August 
28, 1951, in Baltimore County (C. D. Hackman). Extreme nest- 
ling dates (18 nests) : May 26, 1935, in Baltimore County (M. B. 
Meanley) and September 16, 1951, in Baltimore County (E. 
Willis). 

Spring migration. — Normal period: May 1-5 to June 1-20; 
peak, May 10 to May 25. Extreme dates of arrival: April 9, 1954, 
in Anne Arundel County (Col. and Mrs. U. Amoss) ; April 20, 
1954, in Allegany County (L. McCollough, Mrs. G. M. Miller) ; 
April 28, 1888, in Baltimore County (A. Resler) ; April 28, 1955, 
in Caroline County (Mrs. A. J. Fletcher) ; April 29, 1948, in 
Prince Georges County. In 1951 very few arrivals were noted 
before June 10, and the major influx occurred in July. 

Fall migration. — Normal period: August 1-10 to October 10- 
20; peak, August 15 to September 25. Extreme dates of depar- 
ture: November 12, 1954, in Baltimore County (S. W. Simon) ; 
November 6, 1954, in Caroline County (A. J. Fletcher) ; November 
3, 1954, in Prince Georges County (L. M. Llewellyn) ; October 29, 
1954, in Frederick County (J. W. Richards) ; October 25, 1952, 
in Montgomery County (A. Baugness). 



BIRDS OF MARYLAND AND DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 177 

Breeding population densities (territorial males per 100 

acres). — 

8 (2 in 23^5 acres) in upland oak forest (white, scarlet, and black oaks) in 
Prince Georges County in 1944. 

6 (1.5 in 24% acres) in river terrace forest (beech-white oak) in Prince 
Georges County in 1944. 

6 (2 in 32% acres) in well-drained flood-plain forest (sweetgum, hornbeam, 
river birch, tulip-poplar, etc.) in Prince Georges County in 1944; 3 (2.6 
in 85 acres) in other areas of this habitat in 1945 (Stewart, et al., 1946). 

4 (2 in 47% acres) in hedgerows in agricultural areas and abandoned farm- 
lands (including strip 27% yards wide on each side of hedgerow) in 
Prince Georges County in 1945. 

2 (1.5 in 80 acres) in "central hardwood forest (oaks-tulip-poplar) with 
scattered pine" in the District of Columbia in 1948 (Trever, 1952) ; 
absent in 1949, 1951, 1952, 1953, and 1954. 

Maximum counts (nonbreeding) . — Spring: 7 at Patuxent 
Refuge in Prince Georges County on May 9, 1943, and on May 
12, 1944; 7 in Worcester County on May 11, 1952 (D. A. Cutler). 
FaM: 10 in Carroll County on August 18, 1953 (D. H. Mcintosh) ; 
10 near Seneca, Montgomery County, on September 1, 1953 (J. K. 
Wright) ; 8 on Patuxent Refuge on August 16, 1943 ; 8 in Dor- 
chester County on September 25, 1953. 
BLACK-BILLED CUCKOO Coccyzus erythropthalmus (Wilson) 

Status. — Breeding: Fairly common in the Allegheny Moun- 
tain section; uncommon in the Ridge and Valley, Piedmont, and 
Upper Chesapeake sections ; rare in the Western Shore and East- 
ern Shore sections. Transient: Uncommon in all sections. 

Habitat. — Brushy open forest and wood margin types. 

Nesting season. — Early May to late July. Extreme egg dates 
(8 nests) : May 18, 1935 (H. Kolb), and July 19, 1950 (E. Willis), 
both in Baltimore County. Extreme nestling dates (5 nests) : 
May 23, 1946, in Prince Georges County (E. G. Cooley) and July 
26, 1950 (E. Willis), in Baltimore County. 

SPRING migration. — Normal period: April 25-May 5 to June 
1-5; peak, May 5 to May 20. Extreme dates of arrival: April 18, 
1931, in Harford County (S. Mason, Jr.) ; April 20, 1905, in 
Baltimore County (F. C. Kirkwood). Extreme dates of depar- 
ture: June 30, 1951 (a year of exceptionally late cuckoo migra- 
tion), and June 7, 1945, in Prince Georges County. 

Fall migration. — Normal period: July 25-August 5 to October 
5-15 ; peak, August 10 to September 1. Extreme date of arrival: 
July 20, 1952, in Prince Georges County. Extreme dates of de- 
parture: November 2, 1955, in Caroline County (Mrs. A. J. 
Fletcher) ; October 28, 1925, in the District of Columbia (Mr. and 
Mrs. L. D. Miner) ; October 19, 1947, in Prince Georges County. 



178 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 62, FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 

Maximum counts. — Spring: 7 at Patuxent Refuge, Prince 
Georges County, on May 8, 1943 ; 6 at Gibson Island, Anne Arun- 
del County, on May 11, 1952 (Mrs. W. L. Henderson). 

Family TYTONIDAE 

BARN OWL Tyto alba (Scopoli) 

Status. — Fairly common locally in the Eastern Shore section; 
uncommon locally in the Western Shore, Upper Chesapeake, Pied- 
mont, and Ridge and Valley sections ; rare in the Allegheny Moun- 
tain section (Brooks, 1944) . There are definite breeding records 
for Worcester, Dorchester, Talbot, Caroline, Queen Annes, Cal- 
vert, St. Marys, Charles, Anne Arundel, Prince Georges, Mont- 
gomery, Baltimore, Harford, and Washington Counties and the 
District of Columbia. 

Habitat. — Open agricultural lands or marshes in the vicinity 
of woodlots or buildings or other man-made structures; also in 
towns and cities. 

Nesting season. — Throughout the year (nesting peak, early 
March to late July). Extreme egg dates (20 nests) : January 2, 
1949, in the District of Columbia (J. W. Aldrich) and September 
20, 1956, in Dorchester County (P. F. Springer). Extreme nest- 
ling dates (25 nests) : April 11, 1930, in Montgomery County 
(E. J. Court) and November 6, 1956, in Dorchester County (P. F. 
Springer). Young just out of the nest were seen on December 
8, 1893, and on February 27, 1895, in the District of Columbia 
(Bendire, 1895). Young not over 2 weeks out of the nest were 
also seen in the District of Columbia on January 7, 1896 (A. K. 
Fisher) . 

Maximum counts. — 12 on Blackwater Refuge, Dorchester 
County, on May 10, 1952 (W. S. Webster) ; 5 in the Ocean City 
area on December 27, 1954 (Christmas count). 

Banding. — Two adults banded in Prince Georges County in 
spring (April 2-8) were recovered the same or the following 
spring (April 30-May 14) in central and southeastern Pennsyl- 
vania. A nestling banded in Montgomery County on June 17, 
1939, was recovered on September 7 of the same year just across 
the Pennsylvania line from Grantsville, Garrett County, Mary- 
land. Two banded as nestlings in Dorchester County on April 
23, 1952, were recovered in southern New Jersey and nearby 
Maryland (12 miles from the point of banding) on (letter of) 
February 21, 1955, and June 24, 1952, respectively. Two recov- 
ered in Howard and Worcester Counties in fall (September 25, 
November 8) had been banded as nestlings the same year they 



BIRDS OF MARYLAND AND DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 179 

were recovered (July 16, July 30) in southeastern Pennsylvania 
and southeastern Massachusetts, respectively. Another banded 
in west-central New Jersey on November 14, 1925, was caught 
in Talbot County, Maryland, on April 5, 1926. 

Family STRIGIDAE 
SCREECH OWL Otus asio (Linnaeus) 

Status. — Permanent resident. Uncommon (fairly common 
locally) in all sections. Alexander Wetmore states that this 
species "has decreased decidedly over abundance of 40 years ago 
in the area adjacent to Washington." 

Habitat. — Woodlots, orchards, and other wood-margin types 
near agricultural areas; also in towns and suburban areas. 

Nesting season. — Late March to mid- July (nesting peak, early 
April to mid-June). Extreme egg dates (16 nests) : March 25, 
1889, in the District of Columbia (C. W. Richmond) and May 4, 
1899, in Baltimore County (F. C. Kirkwood). Extreme nestling 
dates (17 nests) : April 24, 1890, in Montgomery County (H. B. 
Stabler) and June 20, 1950, in Baltimore County (T. C. Buck). 
Nearly full-grown young, still being fed by the parents, were re- 
corded as late as July 24, 1893, in Baltimore County (Kirkwood, 
1895). 

Maximum counts. — Winter (Christmas counts) : 5 in the 
Ocean City area on December 27, 1953 ; 5 in the St. Michaels area, 
Talbot County, on December 29, 1955. 
GREAT HORNED OWL Bubo virginianus (Gmelin) 

Status. — Permanent resident. Common in the tidewater areas 
of Dorchester County; fairly common elsewhere in the Eastern 
Shore section and in the Allegheny Mountain section ; uncommon 
in all other sections. 

Habitat. — Forests and woodlots and adjacent agricultural fields 
and marshes. 

Nesting season. — Late January to late May (nesting peak, 
early February to late April) . Extreme egg dates (44 nests) : 
January 27, 1933, in Dorchester County (Jackson, 1941) and April 
12, 1893, in Baltimore County (A. Wolle). Extreme nestling 
dates (22 nests) : February 24, 1945, in Prince Georges County 
(J. N. Hamlet) and May 14, 1932, in Anne Arundel County (M. B. 
Meanley) . 

Maximum counts. — Winter (Christmas counts) : 27 in the 
Ocean City area on December 27, 1955 ; 25 in southern Dorchester 
County on December 28, 1954; 9 in Garrett County on January 
1, 1950. 



180 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 62, FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 

SNOWY OWL Nyctea scandiaca (Linnaeus) 

Status. — Rare and irregular winter visitor in all sections 
(usually most numerous in the tidewater areas) . 

Period of occurrence. — Extreme arrival dates: November 13, 
1954, in Anne Arundel County (H. A. Sutton) ; November 15, 
1876, in the District of Columbia (W. Holmead). Extreme de- 
parture date: March 21, 1950, in St. Marys County (R. J. Beaton, 
J. W. Taylor, Jr.) . Peak of abundance: November 25 to February 
20. 

Numbers. — During most years, this species was either absent 
or only a few scattered records of singles were made. Occasionally, 
however, larger numbers were recorded. About 15 specimens 
were taken in the vicinity of Washington, D. C, during the winter 
of 1876-77 (C. W. Richmond) . There were 12 records from Mary- 
land during the flight of 1926-27 (Gross, 1927) . On February 
16, 1936, 6 were found in pole traps on Spesutie Island in Harford 
County (M. B. Meanley) . At least 5 were taken in Maryland and 
brought to a taxidermist in Baltimore during the winter of 1945- 
46 (Brackbill, 1946) . During the great flight of 1949-50 at least 
25 were recorded in Maryland and the District of Columbia ; 3 of 
these were observed at Mills Point on the Wicomico River in St. 
Marys County on March 21, 1950 (R. J. Beaton, J. W. Taylor, Jr.) . 

BARRED OWL Sfr/x van a Barton 

Status. — Permanent resident. Common in the Eastern Shore 
and Western Shore sections; fairly common in the Upper Chesa- 
peake, Piedmont, Ridge and Valley, and Allegheny Mountain 
sections. 

Habitat. — Flood-plain and swamp forests ; also in various moist 
forest types on the upland. 

Nesting season. — Late February to late June (nesting peak, 
early March to early May) . Extreme egg dates (45 nests) : Feb- 
ruary 25, 1931, in the District of Columbia (J. C. Jones) and May 
26, 1943, in Prince Georges County. Extreme nestling dates (37 
nests) : March 23, 1935, in Baltimore County (M. B. Meanley) 
and June 21, 1947, in Montgomery County (T. H. Cunningham). 

Breeding population density (pairs per 100 acres). — 

0.5 (6 in 1,142 acres) in lowland forest (flood-plain forest with small adjacent 
clearings and areas of river terrace and river bluff forest) along the 
Patuxent River in Anne Arundel and Prince Georges Counties in 1943. 

Maximum counts. — Winter (Christmas counts) : 15 in the 
Ocean City area on December 27, 1954 ; 9 in the District of Colum- 



BIRDS OF MARYLAND AND DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 181 

bia area on January 1, 1955 ; 6 at Patuxent Refuge on December 
28, 1945. 

Banding. — One recovered in Montgomery County on October 
20, 1942, had been banded in northeastern Ohio on May 1, 1942. 
LONG-EARED OWL As/o otus (Linnaeus) 

Status. — Rare and local permanent resident in the Piedmont 
and Western Shore sections. Also occurs, at least occasionally, 
in the Allegheny Mountain, Ridge and Valley, Upper Chesapeake, 
and Eastern Shore sections. There are definite breeding records 
for Baltimore County near Randalstown in 1893 (Kirkwood, 
1895) , in Dulaney Valley in 1898 (F. C. Kirkwood) , near Sweetair 
in 1936 (F. C. Kirkwood), and near Loch Raven Reservoir in 1946 
(Kolb, 1947) ; for Montgomery County near Rockville (Baird, 
et al., 1874), near Brighton in 1892 and Olney in 1950 (H. B. 
Stabler) ; for Prince Georges County near College Park in 1945 
(J. N. Hamlet) ; for Anne Arundel County (E. J. Court) ; and for 
the District of Columbia in 1890 (C. W. Richmond, E. M. Has- 
brouck) and 1894 (W. Palmer, E. M. Hasbrouck) . Other records 
of occurrence in fall and winter have been made in Dorchester 
(E. Willis), Caroline (M. W. Hewitt, A. J. Fletcher), Calvert (E. 
M. Barry), Charles (F. M. Uhler), Harford (M. B. Meanley), 
Washington (E. A. Small), and Garrett Counties. Alexander 
Wetmore states that this species "has decreased greatly over the 
recorded abundance of 50-60 years ago." 

Habitat. — Usually this species is found in or near dense stands 
of young pine. 

Nesting season. — Mid-March to early June. Extreme egg 
dates (5 nests) : April 3, 1898, in Baltimore County (F. C. Kirk- 
wood) and May 1, 1950, in Montgomery County (H. B. Stabler). 
Extreme nestling dates (4 nests) : April 14, 1946, in Baltimore 
County (Kolb, 1947) and June 1, 1950, in Montgomery County 
(H. B. Stabler). 
SHORT-EARED OWL Asio flammeus (Pontoppidan) 

Status. — Breeding ( ?) : A "marsh owl" nest with eggs was 
reported found in Dorchester County in June 1923 by Orrille Mills 
(F. C. Kirkwood) ; an adult was seen near the Blackwater Refuge 
in Dorchester County on July 22, 1938 (N. Hotchkiss) ; 1 was col- 
lected on Assateague Island, Worcester County, on August 6, 1906 
(W. H. Fisher) ; an adult was collected in the District of Colum- 
bia on May 23, 1871 (R. Ridgway) ; a pair was observed on May 
5, 1956, at Kent Narrows, Queen Annes County (R. P. and M. 
Dubois). Transient and tvintering: Uncommon in the Upper 
Chesapeake and Eastern Shore sections and locally (Point Look- 



182 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 62, FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 

out) in the Western Shore section; rare (formerly more numer- 
ous — Kirkwood, 1895) in other sections. 

Habitat. — Usually most numerous on extensive areas of tidal 
marsh; also occurs on large, open agricultural areas. 

Period of occurrence (transient and wintering). — Normal 
period: October 20-30 to April 5-15. Extreme date of arrival: 
October 16, 1953, in Prince Georges County (S. F. Blake). Ex- 
treme dates of departure: April 21, 1939, in Garrett County (M. 
G. Brooks) ; April 20, 1861, in the District of Columbia (D. W. 
Prentiss) ; April 19, 1953, in Anne Arundel County (L. W. Oring) . 

SAW-WHET OWL Aegolius acadicus (Gmelin) 

Status. — Breeding (see fig. 24) : Uncommon and local in the 
Allegheny Mountain section — recorded in summer near Cumber- 
land on July 6, 1903 (Eifrig, 1904) ; in Cranberry Swamp (3 miles 
south of Finzel) on July 5, 1945; in the Maryland portion of 
Cranesville Swamp (just east of Cranesville, West Virginia) on 
July 7, 1945; and in Wolf Swamp (about 4 miles southeast of 
Grantsville) during the period May 30 to June 16, 1951. Tran- 
sient and wintering: Rare or uncommon in the Eastern Shore, 
Western Shore, Upper Chesapeake, Piedmont, and Ridge and 
Valley sections (probably also occurs in the Allegheny Mountain 
section although there are no definite records during fall and 
winter) . 

Habitat. — During the breeding season this species appears to 
be restricted to boreal wooded bogs that contain stands of red 
spruce, hemlock, or tamarack. At other seasons, it occurs in vari- 
ous wood margin thickets or in forest types with an understory 
brush layer. 

Nesting season. — A full-grown young bird was captured near 
Cumberland on July 6, 1903 (Eifrig, 1904), and a young bird in 
juvenal plumage was seen at Wolf Swamp on June 16, 1951. An- 
other young bird in juvenal plumage was found in the West Vir- 
ginia portion of Cranesville Swamp on June 22, 1932 (Brooks, 
1936c). 

Period of occurrence (transient and wintering). — Normal 
period: October 20-30 to March 20-30. Extreme dates of arrival: 
October 3, 1886, in the District of Columbia (F. S. Webster) ; 
October 15, 1944, in Prince Georges County. Extreme dates of 
departure: May 2, 1953, in Frederick County, near Emmitsburg 
(J. W. Richards) ; April 6, 1953, in Prince Georges County. F. C. 
Kirkwood recorded 1 in Baltimore County on the unusual date of 
June 24, 1921. 



BIRDS OF MARYLAND AND DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 



183 



Family CAPRIMULGIDAE 

CHUCK-WILL'S-WIDOW Capr/mu/gus caroffnensis Gmelin 

Status. — Breeding (see fig. 29) : Common in or near the tide- 
water areas of the Eastern Shore section and the southern part 
of the Western Shore section (occurring regularly north to the 
Delaware line along the coast, north to Kent Island in Queen 
Annes County along the eastern shore of Chesapeake Bay, north 
to the Shadyside Peninsula in Anne Arundel County on the west- 
ern shore of Chesapeake Bay; north along the Patuxent River to 
Jarboesville, and north along the Potomac River to Morgantown 
in Charles County) ; uncommon in the interior of the Eastern 
Shore section and in the interior of the southern part of the 
Western Shore section (St. Marys, Charles, and Calvert Coun- 
ties) . This species occurs only as a casual visitor in the northern 
part of the Western Shore section, having been recorded in the 
vicinity of Laurel in Prince Georges County in the summer of 
1896 (C. W. Richmond), in the fall of 1929 (R. B. Overington), 
and on May 12, 1935 (Wetmore, 1936) ; at Cheverly in Prince 
Georges County on May 4, 1944 (W. M. Perrygo) ; in Anne Arun- 
del County at Odenton on 2 occasions (Kirkwood, 1895) ; at Sandy 
Point on June 2, 1954 (J. W. Terborgh) ; and in the District of 




LEGEND 
CHUCK- WILL'S-WIOOW 
IJS^J Principal Range 

• Local Record 
TRAILL'S FLYCATCHER 

F^^J Principal Range 
O Local Record 



Figure 29. — Breeding ranges of Chuck-wilTs-widow and Traill's Flycatcher. 



184 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 62, FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 

Columbia on July 22, 1895 (R. Ridgway), and in the summer of 
1896 (C. W. Richmond) . 

Habitat. — Brushy open stands or wood margins of loblolly 
pine, usually near tidewater. 

Nesting season. — Egg dates (3 nests) : May 10, (Court, 

1921), and May 27, 1930 (F. C. Kirkwood), in St. Marys County 
and July 8, 1954, in Talbot County (J. Spurry) . 

Period of occurrence. — Extreme arrival dates: April 19, 1956, 
in Talbot County (J. Reese) ; April 23, 1955, in Anne Arundel 
County (H. E. Slater, K. F. Sanders) ; April 25, 1953, in Wor- 
cester County; April 26, 1952, in St. Marys County (J. W. Ter- 
borgh) ; April 26, 1955, in Caroline County (V. Wright) . Ex- 
treme departure date: September 1, 1954, in Talbot County (R. L. 
Kleen). 

Maximum counts. — Spring: 32 in Talbot County on May 8, 
1954 (R. L. Kleen) ; 16 in the Ocean City area on May 5, 1951. 

WHIP-POOR-WILL Caprimulgus vociferus Wilson 

Status. — Breeding and transient: Common in the Eastern 
Shore, Western Shore, and Ridge and Valley sections ; fairly com- 
mon in the Upper Chesapeake, Piedmont, and Allegheny Mountain 
sections. 

Habitat. — Various types of upland forest in the vicinity of 
clearings or wood margins. 

Nesting season. — Late April to mid- July (nesting peak, early 
May to early July). Extreme egg dates (15 nests) : April 24, 
1922, in Dorchester County (Jackson, 1941) and June 27, 1946, 
in Prince Georges County (L. M. Dargan). Extreme nestling 
dates (7 nests) : May 25, 1941, in Prince Georges County (W. H. 
Lawrence) and July 17, 1908, in Garrett County (G. Eifrig). 

Spring migration. — Normal period: April 5-15 to May 15-25; 
peak, April 20 to May 10. Extreme dates of arrival: March 22, 
1948, in Prince Georges County (H. Severance) ; March 26, 1921, 
in Dorchester County (R. W. Jackson) ; March 29, 1903, in Balti- 
more County (F. C. Kirkwood). 

Fall migration. — Normal period: August 10-20 to October 1- 
10 ; peak, September 1 to September 20. Extreme date of arrival: 
July 29, 1920, in Dorchester County (R. W. Jackson). Extreme 
dates of departure: October 27, 1937, October 24, 1935, and Oc- 
tober 23, 1936, in the District of Columbia (R. Overing) . 

Breeding population density (territorial males per 100 
acres) . — 
1.4 (15 in 1,047 acres) in upland forest and brush habitats (pine and decidu- 



BIRDS OF MARYLAND AND DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 185 

ous trees and brush, with small scattered agricultural areas and aban- 
doned farmlands) in Prince Georges County in 1943. 
A total of 66 Whip-poor-wills was recorded between 9:28 p.m. and 12:30 a.m. 
during the evening of May 20, 1945, at 29 stops along the highway from 
southern St. Marys County to north-central Prince Georges County, 

Maximum counts. — Spring: 200 on May 7, 1949, in Washing- 
ton County (Dr. R. S. Stauffer, M. Stauffer) ; 33 in the Ocean 
City area on May 5, 1951; 24 on Patuxent Refuge in Prince 
Georges County on May 6, 1950. 

COMMON NiGHTHAWK Chordeiles minor (Forster) 

Status. — Breeding: Uncommon and somewhat local in all sec- 
tions. Fall transient: Common, occasionally abundant, in all 
sections. Spring transient: Uncommon in all sections. 

Habitat. — Open country such as agricultural fields and 
marshes ; also in towns and cities. 

Nesting season. — Late May to mid- July. Extreme egg dates 
(16 nests) : May 31, 1955, in Caroline County (A. J. Fletcher) 
and July 4, 1931, in St. Marys County (E. J. Court). One small 
nestling was observed in Baltimore County on June 8, 1891 (Kirk- 
wood, 1895). Two juvenals were collected in St. Marys County 
on July 18, 1894 (R. Ridgway) . 

Spring migration. — Normal period: May 1-10 to May 25-30; 
peak, May 10 to May 20. Extreme dates of arrival: April 14, 1949, 
in the District of Columbia (C. N. Mason) ; April 19, 1955, in 
Baltimore (C. M. Buchanan) ; April 19, 1891, in Wicomico County 
(F. C. Kirkwood) ; April 20, 1927, in Baltimore County (F. C. 
Kirkwood) . 

Fall migration. — Normal period: July 20-30 to September 
25-October 5 ; peak, August 15 to September 10. Extreme date of 
arrival: July 17, 1944, in Prince Georges County. Extreme dates 
of departure: October 14, 1929, in Baltimore County (F. C. Kirk- 
wood) ; October 14, 1947, in the District of Columbia (T. W. 
Donnelly) . 

Maximum counts. — Spring: 13 near Emmitsburg in Freder- 
ick County on May 26, 1954 (P. J. O'Brien) ; 11 at Westminster, 
Carroll County, on May 10, 1952 (D. A. Jones) ; 10 in the District 
of Columbia on May 11, 1917 (H. C. Oberholser). Fall: 700 at 
Emmitsburg, Frederick County, on August 30, 1953 (J. W. Rich- 
ards) ; 500 over the Gunpowder River marsh on September 3, 
1903 (F. C. Kirkwood) ; 250 at Rockville, Montgomery County, 
on September 3, 1954 (J. W. Terborgh) ; 200 at Patuxent Refuge 
on September 4, 1942, and on September 2, 1943. 



186 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 62, FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 

Family APODIDAE 
CHIMNEY SWIFT Chaetura pelagica (Linnaeus) 

Status. — Breeding: Common in all sections. Transient: Com- 
mon, occasionally abundant, in all sections. 




Figure 30. — Chimney Swift banding recoveries. Each symbol represents the 
number of records for a State or Province. Recovered in Maryland, banded 
elsewhere: open triangle = banded September through May. 



BIRDS OF MARYLAND AND DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 187 

Habitat. — Aerial, usually most numerous in the vicinity of 
towns and cities. 

Nesting season. — Early May to early September (nesting 
peak, late May to early August) . Extreme egg dates (40 nests) : 
May 9, 1918, in Dorchester County (Jackson, 1941) and July 14, 
1891, in Baltimore County (F. C. Kirkwood). Extreme nestling 
dates (27 nests) : June 22, 1949, in Prince Georges County and 
September 1, 1907 (F. C. Kirkwood), in Allegany County. Fly- 
ing young were recorded as early as June 29, 1924, in Baltimore 
County (F. C. Kirkwood) . 

Spring migration. — Normal period: April 5-15 to May 10-20; 
peak, April 15 to May 5. Extreme dates of arrival: March 30, 
1895, in Baltimore County (P. T. Blogg) ; April 4, 1950, in Fred- 
erick County (R. T. Smith). 

Fall migration. — Normal period: August 15-25 to October 
10-20; peak, September 5 to October 10. Extreme dates of de- 
parture: November 2, 1954, in Talbot County (J. Spurry) ; October 
25, 1906 (W. W. Cooke), October 25, 1915 (E. A. Preble), and 
October 25, 1925 (V. Bailey), all in the District of Columbia. 

Breeding population density (pairs per 100 acres) . — 

0.6 (16 in 2,656 acres) in mixed forest, brush and field habitats (in an area 
that included 12 buildings with chimneys) along the border between 
Anne Arundel and Prince Georges Counties in 1943. 

Maximum counts. — Spring: "Thousands" in the District of 
Columbia on April 20, 1925 (M. J. Pellew), and during April 26- 
May 2, 1931, and 2,000 on May 9, 1932 (Cottam, 1932) ; 1,000 at 
Port Tobacco, Charles County, on May 7, 1940 (C. Cottam, F. M. 
Uhler) ; 500+ at Emmitsburg, Frederick County, on April 15, 
1953 (J. W. Richards) ; 500 at Gunpowder River marsh on April 
22, 1901 (F. C. Kirkwood). Fall: 4,100 on October 2, 1947, and 
4,000-5,000 about September 18, 1924 (H. C. Oberholser), in the 
District of Columbia; "several thousand" at College Park, Prince 
Georges County, on October 5, 1948 (A. C. Martin) ; 950 on Sep- 
tember 12, 1954, at Swallow Falls, Garrett County (L. W. Oring) . 

Banding. — See figure 30. 

Family TROCHILIDAE 
RUBY-THROATED HUMMINGBIRD Archilochus co/ubr/s (Linnaeus) 

Status. — Breeding and transient: Fairly common in all 
sections. 

Habitat. — Breeding: In moist forest types and in hedgerows, 
wood margins, and other edge types that contain brush or small 
trees. Transient: Various edge habitats; usually most numerous 
in areas that contain an abundance of showy flowers. Native 



188 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 62, FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 

flowers that are particularly attractive to this species include the 
jewelweed and trumpet creeper. 

Nesting season. — Mid-May to early September (nesting peak, 
late May to mid-July) . One was observed on a nest as early as 
May 10, 1953, in Worcester County (J. M. Cadbury, D. A. Cutler). 
Extreme egg dates (58 nests) : May 17, 1949, in Prince Georges 
County (M. B. Meanley) and August 20, 1904 (hatching eggs) in 
Washington County (Harlow, 1906). Extreme nestling dates (17 
nests) : June 8, 1898, in Baltimore County (J. Sommer) and Aug- 
ust 20, 1904 (hatching), in Washington County (Harlow, 1906). 
Spring migration. — Normal period: April 20-30 to May 25- 
June 1; peak, May 5 to May 25. Extreme dates of arrival: April 
11, 1954, in Caroline County (A. M. Thompson) ; April 12, 1953, 
in Anne Arundel County (Mrs. W. L. Henderson, Mrs. G. Tap- 
pan) ; April 13, 1893, in Baltimore County (W. H. Fisher) ; April 
14, 1954, in Montgomery County (P. G. DuMont). 

Fall migration. — Normal period: August 1-10 to September 
25-October 5; peak, August 15 to September 10. Extreme dates 
of departure: October 20, 1913, in the District of Columbia (A. K. 
Fisher) ; October 15, 1918 (A. T. Hoen) , and October 15, 1930 
(F. C. Kirkwood), in Baltimore County; October 14, 1950, in 
Anne Arundel County (Mrs. W. L. Henderson). 

Breeding population densities (breeding pairs per 100 
acres). — 

15 (13 in 85 acres) in well-drained flood-plain forest (sweetgum, hornbeam, 
river birch, tulip-poplar, etc.) along the border between Anne Arundel 
and Prince Georges Counties in 1945 (Stewart et al., 1946). 
8 (1.5 in 20 acres) in "virgin hemlock forest" in Garrett County in 1949 

(Robbins, 1949a). 
8 (2 in 23^3 acres) in upland oak forest (white, scarlet, and black oaks) in 

Prince Georges County in 1944. 
7 (2.4 in 34^ acres) in pine field (weedy, abandoned fields with open 

growth of young scrub pine) in Prince Georges County in 1945. 
6 (1.5 in 24^ acres) in river terrace forest (beech-white oak) in Prince 

Georges County in 1944. 
6 (1.5 in 23% acres) in "mature northern hardwood forest" (black cherry, 
beech, hemlock, sugar maple, sweet birch, etc.) in Garrett County in 
1951 (Robbins and Stewart, 1951a). 
4 (2 in 47% acres) in hedgerows in agricultural areas and abandoned farm- 
lands (including strip 27% yards wide on each side of hedgerow) in 
Prince Georges County in 1945. 
4 (1.5 in 36 acres) in "virgin central hardwood deciduous forest" (white 
oak-tulip-poplar) in Prince Georges County in 1947 (Stewart and Rob- 
bins, 1947b). 
3 (2 in 80 acres) in "central hardwood forest (oaks-tulip-poplar) with 
scattered pine" in the District of Columbia in 1948 and 1949; absent in 
1951 (Trever, 1952) and in 1952, 1953, and 1954. 



BIRDS OF MARYLAND AND DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 189 

Maximum counts. — Spring: 9 at Patuxent Refuge on May 22, 
1945; 9 at Gibson Island, Anne Arundel County, on May 8, 1955 
(Mrs. W. L. Henderson, Mrs. G. Tappan). Fall: 35 on Patuxent 
River marsh near Nottingham on August 21, 1947; 30 in Dor- 
chester County (Hurlock to Salem) on August 30, 1930 (H. B. 
Curry) ; 30 at Seneca, Montgomery County, on September 12, 1954 
(J. W. Terborgh) ; 25+ on 1 tree in Deer Park, Garrett County, 
on August 18, 1894 (J. E. Tylor) ; 20 on the Patapsco River marsh 
on August 25, 1896 (F. C. Kirkwood) . 
[RUFOUS HUMMINGBIRD] Setasphorus rufus (Gmelin) 

Status. — Hypothetical. On November 8, 1952, a hummingbird 
with a rufous back was closely observed in flight by J. W. Rich- 
ards at Emmitsburg (Richards, 1954). Twenty-two days later 
another was observed at Jamesville on the Eastern Shore of Vir- 
ginia (Fuller, 1953). The Rufous Hummingbird now occurs 
regularly in fall and winter as far east as Louisiana. The only 
specimen for the Atlantic Coast was taken at Charleston, South 
Carolina, on December 18, 1909. Any hummingbird seen in Mary- 
land after early October should be studied with care. 

Family ALCEDINIDAE 
BELTED KINGFISHER Megaceryie akyon (Linnaeus) 

Status. — Breeding and transient: Fairly common in the tide- 
water areas of the Eastern Shore, Western Shore, and Upper 
Chesapeake sections ; uncommon elsewhere in all sections. Winter- 
ing: Fairly common in the Eastern Shore section and in the tide- 
water areas of the Western Shore section; uncommon elsewhere 
in the Western Shore section and in the Upper Chesapeake sec- 
tion ; rare in the Piedmont, Ridge and Valley, and Allegheny Moun- 
tain sections. 

Habitat. — Margins of inland streams, ponds, and lakes, and 
tidal bays and estuaries. 

Nesting season. — Late March to mid- July. Two were ob- 
served entering a fresh hole in a bank in the District of Columbia 
as early as March 26, 1922 (W. W. Rubey) . Extreme egg dates 
(27 nests) : April 11, 1930, in Baltimore County (M. B. Meanley) 
and June 4, 1911, in Dorchester County (Jackson, 1941) . Extreme 
nestling dates (12 nests) : May 30, 1881, in Kent County (Fisher, 
1892) and July 7, 1954, in Baltimore County (J. R. Worthley). 

SPRING migration. — Normal arrival: March 5 to March 15. 
Extreme dates of arrival: February 13, 1898, in Baltimore County 
(F. C. Kirkwood) ; February 19, 1949, in Montgomery County (J. 
Criswell) . 



190 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 62, FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 

Fall migration. — Normal departure: November 1 to Novem- 
ber 10. Extreme date of departure: November 18, 1945, in Prince 
Georges County. 

Maximum counts. — Winter (Christmas counts) : 104 in the 
Annapolis area on January 2, 1955 ; 22 in the Ocean City area on 
December 27, 1954; 22 in southern Dorchester County on Decem- 
ber 28, 1954; 22 in the District of Columbia area on January 1, 
1955; 19 in the Wicomico River area in Charles and St. Marys 
Counties on January 1, 1954. 

Family PICIDAE 
YELLOW-SHAFTED FLICKER Co/apfes auratus (Linnaeus) 

Status. — Breeding: Common in the Allegheny Mountain sec- 
tion; uncommon (formerly common) in all other sections. Trans- 
ient: Common in all sections (during the fall flight this species 
concentrates in exceptionally large numbers on Hooper and Barren 
Islands in Dorchester County) . Wintering: Fairly common in the 
Eastern Shore and Western Shore sections; uncommon in the 
Upper Chesapeake, Piedmont, and Ridge and Valley sections; 
rare in the Allegheny Mountain section. 

Habitat. — Marginal areas that include forest, wood margins, 
and fields, as well as brushland and hedgerows. 

Nesting season. — Early April to late July (nesting peak, late 
April to mid- June) . Nest building was recorded as early as April 
7, 1950, in Baltimore County (E. Willis). Extreme egg dates (92 
nests) : April 18, 1910, in Dorchester County (Jackson 1941) and 
June 23, 1893, in Baltimore County (Kirkwood, 1895). Extreme 
nestling dates (68 nests) : May 22, 1892, in Baltimore County, 
(F. C. Kirkwood) and July 30, 1940, in Baltimore County (H. 
Brackbill) . 

Spring migration. — Normal period: March 5-15 to May 1-5; 
peak, March 20 to April 25. Extreme dates of arrival: February 
12, 1913, in Dorchester County (R. W. Jackson) ; February 24, 
1890, in Montgomery County (H. W. Stabler) ; February 25, 1891, 
in Talbot County (R. H. Blain) ; February 27, 1910, in the District 
of Columbia (A. H. Howell) . 

Fall migration. — Normal period: September 5-15 to Novem- 
ber 5-15; peak, September 25 to October 20. Extreme dates of 
arrival: August 24, 1931, in the District of Columbia (W. L. Mc- 
Atee) ; September 4, 1901, in Baltimore and Washington Counties 
(F. C. Kirkwood). Extreme dates of departure: December 3, 
1941, in Baltimore County (H. Brackbill) ; November 17, 1944, 
in Prince Georges County. 



BIRDS OF MARYLAND AND DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 



191 



Breeding population densities (pairs per 100 acres) . — 

3 (2 in 66 acres) in field and edge habitats (including strips of flood-plain 
forest, brushy fields, and hedgerows) in Baltimore County in 1947 
(Hampe, et al., 1947). 

3 (2 in 80 acres) in "central hardwood forest (oaks-tulip-poplar) with 
scattered pine" in the District of Columbia in 1948 (Trever, 1952) and 
in 1954 (Wright, 1955) ; 1 (1 in 80 acres) in 1949, 1951, 1952, and 
1953 (Trever, 1952; Clagett, 1952 and 1953). 

Maximum counts. — Spring: "Hundreds" near Baltimore on 
March 25, 1893 (F. C. Kirkwood). Fall: "Nearly 1,000" on 
Hooper Island, Dorchester County, on September 30, 1933 (W. B. 
Tyrrell) ; a flock of 200+ at Patuxent Refuge on October 15, 1942. 
Winter (Christmas counts) : 239 in the Ocean City area on Decem- 
ber 27, 1954; 107 in the Annapolis area on January 1, 1956; 104 
in the District of Columbia area on January 2, 1954 ; 80 in south- 
ern Dorchester County on December 28, 1953 ; 79 in the Wicomico 
River area of Charles and St. Marys Counties on January 1, 1954 ; 
75 on Patuxent Refuge on December 23, 1941. 

PILEATED WOODPECKER Dryocopus pileatus (Linnaeus) 

Status. — Permanent resident (see fig. 31). Fairly common in 
the Allegheny Mountain section and in the western part of the 
Ridge and Valley section (west of Hagerstown Valley) ; fairly 
common locally in the Eastern Shore section (most numerous 




Figure 31. — Breeding range of Pileated Woodpecker. 



192 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 62, FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 

along the Pocomoke River and its tributaries, and in Dorchester 
County) , in the Western Shore section (most numerous along the 
Patuxent River and its tributaries in Prince Georges and Anne 
Arundel Counties and in the Zekiah Swamp in Charles County), 
and in the Piedmont section (chiefly along Potomac River valley 
of Montgomery County) ; uncommon locally in the eastern part 
of the Ridge and Valley section (mountains of eastern Washington 
County and northwestern Frederick County) . 

Habitat. — Extensive areas of upland, moist forest types in the 
mountains of the Allegheny Mountain, and Ridge and Valley sec- 
tions; also in extensive areas of flood-plain or swamp forests in 
the Eastern Shore, Western Shore, and Piedmont sections. 

Nesting season. — Early April to late June. Nest-building was 
recorded as early as April 2, 1950, in Montgomery County (S. B. 
Van Meter, M. G. Van Meter). Extreme egg dates (7 nests) : 
April 17, 1949 (probable — adult flushed from nest) , in Montgom- 
ery County (P. A. DuMont) and "early June" 1895 in Dorchester 
County (Kirkwood, 1895). Extreme nestling dates (14 nests): 
May 2, 1949, in Montgomery County (S. B. Van Meter, M. G. Van 
Meter) and June 23, 1950 (W. B. Tyrrell), in Garrett County. 

Breeding population densities (pairs per 100 acres) . — 

0.6 (5 in 775 acres) in flood-plain forest (including forest and brush 
habitats) along the border between Anne Arundel and Prince Georges 
Counties in 1950, 1951, and 1952; 0.5 (4 in 775 acres) in 1949; about 
0.2 (1.5 in 775 acres) during the period 1942-48. 

Maximum counts. — Winter (Christmas counts) : 20 in the 
Ocean City area (Pocomoke swamp) on December 27, 1954; 15 
in southeastern Worcester County (Pocomoke swamp) on Decem- 
ber 22, 1947; 11 in Garrett County on December 31, 1954; 8 in the 
Blackwater Refuge area on December 21, 1947, on December 28, 
1948, and on December 23, 1951; 8 on Patuxent Refuge on Jan- 
uary 14, 1952. 

RED-BELLIED WOODPECKER Cenfurus caro/inus (Linnaeus) 

Status. — Permanent resident. Common in the Western 
Shore section ; locally common in the Eastern Shore section (most 
numerous along the Pocomoke River and its tributaries) ; fairly 
common in the Upper Chesapeake and Piedmont sections; rare 
in the Ridge and Valley, and Allegheny Mountain Sections. 

Habitat. — Flood-plain or swamp forests; also rich moist 
forests on the upland. 

Nesting season. — Mid-April to mid-June. An occupied nest 
was found as early as April 25, 1953, in Montgomery County (L. 



BIRDS OF MARYLAND AND DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 193 

Kilham). Extreme egg dates (6 nests) : May 2, 1919, in Dor- 
chester County (Jackson, 1941) and May 16, 1936, in Harford 
County (M. B. Meanley). Extreme nestling dates (9 nests): 
May 4, 1945, in Prince Georges County (J. B. Cope) and June 10, 
1891, in Baltimore County (Kirkwood, 1895) . 
Breeding population densities (pairs per 100 acres) . — 

19 (7 in 36 acres) in "virgin central hardwood deciduous forest" (white 
oak-tulip-poplar) in Prince Georges County in 1947 (Stewart and 
Robbins, 1947b). 

7 (6 in 85 acres) in well-drained flood-plain forest (sweetgum, hornbeam, 
river birch, tulip-poplar, etc.) along the border between Anne Arundel 
and Prince Georges Counties in 1945 (Stewart, et al., 1946) ; 6 (2 in 
32% acres) in another area of this habitat in 1944. 

6 (4.5 in 80 acres) in "central hardwood forest (oaks-tulip-poplar) with 
scattered pine" in the District of Columbia in 1951, 2 (1.5 in 80 acres) 
in 1948 and 1949 (Trever, 1952) ; 1 (1 in 80 acres) in 1952 and 1953 
(Clagett, 1952 and 1953), and in 1954 (Wright, 1955). 

5 (2 in 44% acres) in river bluff forest (beech-white oak) in Prince Georges 
County in 1944, 2 (1 in 44^ acres) in 1945 (J. W. Aldrich, A. J. 
Duvall). 

Maximum counts. — Winter (Christmas counts) : 111 in the 
Annapolis area on January 1, 1956 ; 94 in the Ocean City area on 
December 27, 1955 ; 86 in the District of Columbia area on Janu- 
ary 1, 1955 ; 72 in the Triadelphia Reservoir area on December 24, 
1955; 56 on Patuxent Refuge on January 12, 1950; 56 in the 
Wicomico River area in Charles and St. Marys Counties on De- 
cember 28, 1952. 

RED-HEADED WOODPECKER Melanerpes erythrocephalus (Linnaeus) 

Status. — Breeding and transient: Fairly common locally in the 
Allegheny Mountain section; rare or uncommon and local in the 
Ridge and Valley, Piedmont, Western Shore, and Eastern Shore 
sections (breeds in Washington, Frederick, Montgomery, Balti- 
more, Harford, Prince Georges, and Anne Arundel Counties and 
the District of Columbia, and formerly in Caroline, Dorchester, 
and Talbot Counties). Wintering: Uncommon and local in the 
Piedmont, Upper Chesapeake, and Western Shore sections (com- 
mon near Seneca, Montgomery County — L. Kilham, and near 
Accokeek, Prince Georges County — E. T. McKnight) ; rare and 
local in the Eastern Shore section. Alexander Wetmore states 
that this species has become "greatly reduced in numbers since 
40 years ago." 

Habitat. — Woodlots, parks, and open woodland; usually most 
numerous in open stands of oak trees or in areas with an abun- 
dance of dead trees. 



194 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 62, FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 

Breeding season. — Late April to early July. Extreme egg 
dates (11 nests) : May 3, 1891, in Baltimore County (Kirkwood, 
1895) and June 23, 1885, in the District of Columbia (USNM). 
Extreme nestling dates (11 nests) : May 8, 1920, in Baltimore 
County (F. C. Kirkwood) and July 6, 1945, in Garrett County. 

Spring migration. — Normal period: April 25-May 5 to May 
15-25 ; peak, May 5 to May 15. Extreme arrival dates: March 31, 
1890, in Wicomico County (A. E. Acworth) ; April 7, 1902, in 
Carroll County (R. Watts) ; April 7, 1940, in Baltimore County 
(E. A. McGinity) ; April 8, 1905, in the District of Columbia (W. 
W. Cooke). Extreme departure dates: June 2, 1916, and May 30, 
1905, in the District of Columbia (H. C. Oberholser). 

Fall migration. — Normal period: August 25-September 5 to 
October 5-15 ; peak, September 10 to October 1. Extreme arrival 
date: August 23, 1952, in Frederick County (J. W. Richards). 
Extreme departure dates: October 20, 1950, in Anne Arundel 
County (Mrs. G. Tappan) ; October 19, 1948, in Baltimore County 
(H. Brackbill). 

Maximum counts. — Spring: 50 near Seneca, Montgomery 
County, on April 13, 1939 (W. H. Lawrence) ; 11 in the District 
of Columbia area on May 11, 1917 (H. C. Oberholser). Fall: 13 
near Seneca, Montgomery County, on October 2, 1948 (I. R. 
Barnes, D. M. Thatcher). Winter: 100 near Accokeek, Prince 
Georges County, on December 22, 1940 (Christmas count) ; 50 near 
Seneca, Montgomery County, on November 13, 1955 (H. E. 
Smith) ; 5 at Port Tobacco, Charles County, on December 26, 1926 
(Christmas count). 

YELLOW-BELLIED SAPSUCKER Sphyrapicus varius (Linnaeus) 

Status. — Breeding (see fig. 32) : Fairly common locally in the 
Allegheny Mountain section (most numerous in Garrett County 
in the Cherry Creek swamps and in the vicinity of Herrington 
Manor — uncommon elsewhere) . Transient: Fairly common in all 
sections. Wintering : Uncommon in the Eastern Shore and West- 
ern Shore sections ; rare in the Upper Chesapeake, Piedmont, and 
Ridge and Valley sections. Summer vagrant: Accidental — 1 seen 
at Denton on June 20, 1956 (A. M. Thompson) . 

Habitat. — Breeding: Moist or swamp forests in or near boreal- 
type bogs at elevations of 2,400 feet or more; also in forests on 
the higher ridges at elevations over 3,000 feet. Transient and 
wintering: Swamps and flood-plain forests and moist forest types 
on the upland; also in orchards, parks, and in wooded areas 
around houses. 



BIRDS OF MARYLAND AND DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 



195 




Figure 32. — Breeding range of Yellow-bellied Sapsucker, Solitary Vireo, 
Magnolia Warbler, Black-throated Blue Warbler, Northern Waterthrush, 
Purple Finch, and Slate-colored Junco. 



Nesting season. — A nest containing eggs was found in Garrett 
County on June 5, 1925 (F. C. Kirkwood) . Nests containing young 
were observed in Garrett County on May 29, 1949, and on July 7, 
1945. Adults were recorded feeding young out of the nest in Gar- 
rett County on June 12, 1949 (R. S. Stauffer), and on July 6, 1895 
(Kirkwood, 1895). 

Spring migration. — Normal period: March 20-30 to May 1- 
10; peak, April 5 to April 25. Extreme arrival dates: March 12, 
1892, in Baltimore County (G. H. Gray) ; March 15, 1908, in the 
District of Columbia (W. L. McAtee) ; and March 17, 1907, in 
Montgomery County (W. L. McAtee). Extreme departure date: 
May 17, 1953, in Frederick County (Mr. and Mrs. A. J. Fletcher). 

Fall migration. — Normal period: September 15-25 to October 
10-20; peak, September 25 to October 10. Extreme arrival date: 
September 10, 1905, in the District of Columbia (W. W. Cooke) . 
Extreme departure dates: November 1, 1947, in Baltimore County 
(H. Kolb) ; October 24, 1935, in Prince Georges County (R. Over- 
ing) ; October 24, 1951, in Anne Arundel County (K. Brooks) . 

Maximum counts. — Spring: 6 in the District of Columbia on 
April 12, 1891 (C. W. Richmond). Fall: 15 near Seneca, Mont- 



196 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 62, FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 

gomery County, on October 10, 1953 (A. Baugness, H. Oberlin) ; 
12 at Gibson Island, Anne Arundel County, on September 28, 1953 
(Mrs. W. L. Henderson, Mrs. G. Tappan) ; 7 at Patuxent Refuge 
on September 28, 1944, and on October 2, 1944. Winter (Christ- 
mas counts) : 15 in the District of Columbia area on December 31, 
1955; 11 at Patuxent Refuge on December 29, 1944; 10 at Acco- 
keek, Prince Georges County, on December 21, 1937 ; 8 in the St. 
Michaels area on December 29, 1955; 8 in the Ocean City area on 
December 27, 1955 ; 6 near the eastern base of Catoctin Mountain 
in Frederick County on December 30, 1951, and December 27, 
1952. 

HAIRY WOODPECKER Dencfrocopos v/7/osus (Linnaeus) 

Status. — Permanent resident. Fairly common in all sections. 

Habitat. — Extensive tracts of deciduous forest. 

Nesting season. — Early April to mid-June. Extreme egg 
dates (5 nests) : April 19, 1934, in Montgomery County (E. J. 
Court) and April 29, 1935, in Baltimore County (M. B. Meanley). 
Extreme nestling dates (26 nests) ; April 25, 1953, in Wicomico 
County (J. C. Miller) and June 13, 1931, in Baltimore County (M. 
B. Meanley) — also an extremely early record of young on April 
9, 1900, in the District of Columbia (Daniel, 1901b). 

Breeding population densities (pairs per 100 acres) . — 

2 (2 in 80 acres) in "central hardwood forest (oaks-tulip-poplar) with 
scattered pine" in the District of Columbia in 1949, 1951, and 1953 
(Trever, 1952; Clagett, 1953); 1 (1 in 80 acres) in 1952 and 1954 
(Clagett, 1952; Wright, 1955). 

2 (1.5 in 85 acres) in well-drained flood-plain forest (sweetgum, hornbeam, 
river birch, tulip-poplar, etc.) along the border between Anne Arundel 
and Prince Georges Counties in 1945 (Stewart, et al., 1946). 

Maximum counts. — Winter (Christmas counts) : 45 in the 
Ocean City area (including Pocomoke swamp) on December 27, 
1955; 29 in the Catoctin Mountain area in Frederick and Wash- 
ington Counties on January 2, 1954; 27 at Patuxent Refuge on 
January 12, 1951 ; 27 in the Triadelphia Reservoir area on Decem- 
ber 24, 1955 ; 19 near Chase in Baltimore and Harford Counties on 
December 31, 1950 ; 16 in Garrett County on December 31, 1954. 

DOWNY WOODPECKER Dendrocopos pubescens (Linnaeus) 

Status. — Permanent resident. Common in the Eastern Shore, 
Western Shore, Upper Chesapeake, Piedmont, and Ridge and 
Valley sections ; fairly common in the Allegheny Mountain section. 

Habitat. — Wood margins, open woodland, orchards, and other 
forest edge habitats. 



BIRDS OF MARYLAND AND DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 197 

Nesting season. — Late April to mid-June. An occupied nest 
was found as early as April 23, 1945, in Prince Georges County 
(J. W. Brainerd). Extreme egg dates (16 nests) : May 1, 1930, 
in the District of Columbia (E. J. Court) and May 30, 1907, in 
Allegany County (F. C. Kirkwood). Extreme nestling dates (41 
nests) : May 7, 1945 (J. B. Cope), and June 17, 1956, both in 
Prince Georges County. 

Breeding population densities (pairs per 100 acres). — 

14 (5 in 36 acres) in "virgin central hardwood deciduous forest" (white 

oak-tulip-poplar) in Prince Georges County in 1947 (Stewart and 

Robbins, 1947b). 
7 (2 in 30 acres) in "damp deciduous scrub with standing dead trees" 

(burned-over, poorly drained upland forest) in Prince Georges County 

in 1948 (Oresman, et al., 1948). 
6 (5 in 80 acres) in "central hardwood forest (oaks-tulip-poplar) with 

scattered pine" in the District of Columbia in 1954 (Wright, 1955) ; 

6 (4.5 in 80 acres) in 1953 (Clagett, 1953); 5 (4 in 80 acres) in 1952 

(Clagett, 1952) ; 4 (3 in 80 acres) in 1948, 1949, and 1951 (Trever, 

1952). 
6 (4.7 in 85 acres) in well-drained flood-plain forest (sweetgum, hornbeam, 

river birch, tulip-poplar, etc.) along the border between Anne Arundel 

and Prince Georges Counties in 1945 (Stewart, et al., 1946) ; 6 (2 in 

32% acres) in another area in 1944. 
5 (2 in 40 acres) in "mixed oak forest" (white, scarlet, and chestnut oaks, 

etc.) in Baltimore County in 1948 (Kolb, et al., 1948), and in 1949 

(Kolb, 1949a) ; 5 (2 in 37 acres) in 1952 and 1953 (Kaufmann, et al., 

1952; Cole and Kolb, 1953); 3 (1 in 40 acres) in 1950 (Kolb, 1950); 

3 (1 in 37 acres) in 1951 (Kolb and Cole, 1951). 
5 (3 in 66 acres) in field and edge habitats (including strips of flood-plain 

forest, brushy fields, and hedgerows) in Baltimore County in 1947 

(Hampe, et al., 1947). 

Maximum counts. — Winter (Christmas counts) : 207 in the 
District of Columbia area on December 31, 1955; 168 in the An- 
napolis area on January 1, 1956; 141 in the Ocean City area on 
December 27, 1954 ; 100 at Patuxent Refuge on January 12, 1950 ; 
86 in the Catoctin Mountain area in Frederick and Washington 
Counties on January 2, 1954. 

RED-COCKADED WOODPECKER Denc/rocopos borealis (Vieillot) 

Status. — Rare and local permanent resident in the Eastern 
Shore section. Small numbers occur in a rather restricted area 
in the vicinity of Golden Hill in Dorchester County. They were 
first recorded there by F. R. Smith, who observed singles or small 
flocks during the periods, June 2-November 29, 1932, and April 8- 
September 30, 1933. More recent records in the Golden Hill area 
include 1 seen on October 8, 1955 (P. Hurlock) and 2 seen on 
September 20, 1956 (P. F. Springer). Elsewhere, a young bird 



198 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 62, FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 

was observed on Assateague Island, Worcester County, on June 
9, 1939 (Meanley, 1943a). 

Habitat. — Open stands of loblolly pine along the margins of 
tidal marshes. 
[IVORY-BILLED WOODPECKER] Campephilus principalis (Linnaeus) 

Status. — Hypothetical. Audubon (1831 and 1842) records this 
species as occurring in Maryland. 

Family TYRANNIDAE 

EASTERN KINGBIRD Tyrannus tyrannus (Linnaeus) 

Status. — Breeding: Fairly common in all sections. Spring 
transient: Common in all sections. Fall transient: Common in 
the Eastern Shore section ; fairly common elsewhere in all sections. 
Wintering: Accidental — 1 was closely observed on Assateague 
Island, Worcester County, on December 23, 1946 (J. H. Bucka- 
lew). 

Habitat. — Marginal habitats such as orchards, farmyards, 
residential areas, cut-over forests, etc. 

Nesting season. — Early May to late August (nesting peak, 
late May to mid- July). Nest-building was recorded as early as 
May 6, 1953, in Caroline County (Mr. and Mrs. A. J. Fletcher). 
Extreme egg dates (108 nests) : May 21, 1899, and July 18, 1923, 
both in Baltimore County (F. C. Kirkwood). Extreme nestling 
dates (66 nests) : May 31, 1946, in Prince Georges County (E.G. 
Cooley) and August 22, 1953, in Carroll County (D. H. Mcintosh). 

Spring migration. — Normal period: April 20-30 to May 20- 
25; peak, May 1 to May 20. Extreme arrival dates: March 10, 
1955, in Anne Arundel County (Mrs. W. L. Henderson) ; April 12, 
1922, in Dorchester County (R. W. Jackson) ; April 13, 1883, in 
Washington County (E. A. Small) ; April 14, 1895, in Baltimore 
County (F. C. Kirkwood). Extreme departure date: May 26, 
1901, in Baltimore County (F. C. Kirkwood). 

Fall migration. — Normal period: July 15-25 to September 
15-25; peak, August 5 to September 5. Extreme arrival dates: 
July 12, 1926, and July 13, 1911, in Baltimore County (F. C. Kirk- 
wood). Extreme departure dates: October 13, 1955, in Caroline 
County (M. W. Hewitt) ; October 7, 1931, in Baltimore County 
(F. C. Kirkwood) ; October 5, 1947, in Prince Georges County; 
October 4, 1936, in Anne Arundel County (E. A. McGinity) . 

Breeding population densities (pairs per 100 acres) . — 

10 (2 in 20 acres) in suburban type residential area (including small orchards 
and large expanses of lawn) in Prince Georges County in 1942. 



BIRDS OF MARYLAND AND DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 199 

3 (7 in 260 acres) in mixed agricultural habitats (including hedgerows and 
wood margins) in Prince Georges County in 1949. 

Maximum counts. — Spring: 150 at Gibson Island, Anne 
Arundel County, on May 8, 1955 (Mrs. W. L. Henderson, Mrs. 
G. Tappan) ; 117 near Greenbelt, Prince Georges County, on May 
8, 1954 (L. W. Oring) ; 100+ (on 1 plowed field) in Baltimore 
County on May 14, 1920 (W. Marshall) ; 75 at Port Tobacco, 
Charles County, on May 6, 1938, and on May 8, 1937 (I. N. 
Gabrielson, F. M. Uhler) . Fall: 2,000 on Gunpowder River marsh 
on September 2, 1902 (J. Thomas) ; 250 in Worcester County on 
September 4, 1953 (R. R. Kerr, J. W. Terborgh) ; 57 on Assa- 
teague Island, Worcester County, on September 1, 1945; 40 in 
Dorchester County on August 22, 1930 (H. B. Curry). 

WESTERN KINGBIRD Tyrannus verticalis Say 

Status. — Rare fall transient; accidental winter visitor and 
spring transient. A specimen (USNM) found in the Washington, 
D. C, market on September 30, 1874, had been collected in nearby 
Maryland (Coues and Prentiss, 1883). Another specimen was 
obtained near Denton in Caroline County on September 28, 1931, 
by S. E. Perkins III (Lincoln, 1932) . Two were seen at St. Marys 
City, St. Marys County, on September 18, 1938 (Wetmore, 1939). 
One was recorded at South Point, Worcester County, on Novem- 
ber 14, 1954 (H. Sutton). Two were observed at Wye Island, 
Queen Annes County, on September 9, 1956 (N. Nevius, et al.), 
and 2 others at Ocean City on September 17, 1956 (R. D. Cole, et 
al.) ; 1 was banded at the latter location on the following day. One 
was collected (USNM) in Worcester County, about 4 miles south- 
west of Snow Hill on December 23, 1946. One was seen near 
Claiborne, Talbot County, on May 22 and 23, 1956 (R. L. Kleen). 

[SCISSOR-TAILED FLYCATCHER] Muscivora forficata (Gmelin) 

Status. — Hypothetical. A bird, presumably of this species, 
was reported seen in the District of Columbia on May 6, 1861 
(Coues and Prentiss, 1883). Another was reported near the 
Potomac River in Prince Georges County during August of about 
the year 1865 (Palmer, 1896) . A third sight record was reported 
in this same area during April 1881 (C. W. Richmond) . 

GREAT CRESTED FLYCATCHER Myiarchus cr in it us (Linnaeus) 

Status. — Breeding: Common in the Eastern Shore and West- 
ern Shore sections ; fairly common in the Upper Chesapeake, Pied- 
mont, and Ridge and Valley sections ; uncommon in the Allegheny 
Mountain section. Transient: Fairly common in all sections. 



200 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 62, FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 

Habitat. — Wood margin habitats and open stands of pine or 
upland deciduous forest. 

Nesting season. — Mid-May to early August (nesting peak, 
late May to early July) . Extreme egg dates (112 nests) : May 13, 
1881, in the District of Columbia (USNM — M. Thompson) and 
July 15, 1913, in Dorchester County (Jackson, 1941). Extreme 
nestling dates (26 nests) : June 11, 1912, in Dorchester County 
(R. W. Jackson) and August 4, 1949, in Prince Georges County 
(J. S. Cooley). 

Spring migration. — Normal period: April 20-30 to May 15- 
20; peak, May 5 to May 15. Extreme arrival dates: April 18, 
1931 (J. C. Jones), and April 19, 1914 (W. W. Cooke), in the 
District of Columbia. 

Fall migration. — Normal period: August 15-25 to September 
15-25; peak, August 25 to September 10. Extreme departure 
dates: November 21, 1948, in Baltimore County (E. Willis) ; 
October 29, 1952, in Montgomery County (M. G. Van Meter). 

Breeding population densities (pairs per 100 acres). — 

8 (3 in 36 acres) in "virgin central hardwood deciduous forest" (white 

oak-tulip-poplar) in Prince Georges County in 1947 (Stewart and 

Robbins, 1947b). 
8 (3 in 40 acres) in "mixed oak forest" (white, scarlet, and chestnut oaks, 

etc.) in Baltimore County in 1950 (Kolb, 1950) ; 5 (2 in 40 acres) in 

1948 (Kolb, et al., 1948) ; 3 (1 in 40 acres) in 1949 (Kolb, 1949a) ; 

3 (1 in 37 acres) in 1951 (Kolb and Cole, 1951) and 1952 (Kaufmann, 

et al., 1952) ; none in 1953. 
7 (2 in 28 acres) in partially opened flood-plain forest (sycamore, elm, ash, 

etc.) in Montgomery County in 1943 (J. W. Aldrich, A. J. Duvall). 
7 (1.5 in 21 acres) in "dense second growth" (oak-maple ridge forest) in 

Garrett County in 1949 (Robbins, 1949b). 
6 (5 in 80 acres) in "central hardwood forest (oaks-tulip-poplar) with 

scattered pine" in the District of Columbia in 1948; 4 (3 in 80 acres) 

in 1949, 2 (2 in 80 acres) in 1951 (Trever, 1952) ; 4 (3.5 in 80 acres) 

in 1954 (Wright, 1955) ; 4 (3 in 80 acres) in 1952 (Clagett, 1952) ; 

3 (2.5 in 80 acres) in 1953 (Clagett, 1953). 
5 (2 in 44% acres) in river bluff forest (beech, white oak, scarlet oak) in 

Prince Georges County in 1944 and 1945 (J. W. Aldrich, A. J. Duvall). 
4 (2 in 47% acres) in hedgerows in agricultural areas and abandoned fields 

(including strip 27% yards wide on each side of hedgerow) in Prince 

Georges County in 1945. 

Maximum counts. — Spring: 41 in Talbot County on May 8, 
1954 (R. L. Kleen) ; 22 in Worcester County on May 11, 1952 (D. 
A. Cutler) ; 21 in the District of Columbia area on May 12, 1913 
(Oberholser, 1917a) ; 20 in Frederick County on May 9, 1953 (J. 
W. Richards). Fall: 9 in Dorchester County on August 31, 1946. 



BIRDS OF MARYLAND AND DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 201 

ASH-THROATED FLYCATCHER Myiarchus cinerascens (Lawrence) 

Status. — Accidental visitor. A specimen (USNM) was col- 
lected at Beltsville, Prince Georges County, on November 25, 1911, 
by E. B. Marshall. 

EASTERN PHOEBE Sayornis phoebe (Latham) 

Status. — Breeding: Fairly common in all sections. Transient: 
Common in all sections. Wintering : Fairly common in Worcester 
County ; uncommon elsewhere in the Eastern shore section and in 
the southern part of the Western Shore section (Calvert, St. 
Marys, and Charles Counties) ; rare in the northern part of the 
Western Shore section (Anne Arundel and Prince Georges 
Counties), and in the Upper Chesapeake and Piedmont sections; 
casual in the Ridge and Valley section — 1 seen in the Hagerstown 
Valley of Washington County during the winter of 1882-83 
(Small, 1883a). 

Habitat. — Various edge habitats including wood margin and 
field edge types. During the breeding season, this species is usu- 
ally restricted to areas near bridges, culverts, buildings, or other 
man-made structures. 

Nesting season. — Late March to early August (nesting peak, 
mid- April to late June) . Extreme egg dates (272 nests) : March 

25, 1929, in Prince Georges County (R. V. Truitt) and July 21, 
1956, in Prince Georges County. Extreme nestling dates (183 
nests) : May 1, 1929, in the District of Columbia (G. B. Roth) and 
August 1, 1956, in Prince Georges County (P. F. Springer). 

Spring migration. — Normal period: March 5-15 to April 20- 
30; peak, March 20 to April 15. Extreme arrival dates: Febru- 
ary 23, 1902, in the District of Columbia (H. W. Oldys) ; February 
27, 1953, in Prince Georges County (L. M. Horn, A. C. Martin) ; 
February 28, 1954, in Montgomery County (J. W. Terborgh) ; 
March 1, 1953, in Caroline County (A. Knotts). 

Fall migration. — Normal period: September 10-20 to Novem- 
ber 1-10; peak, September 25 to October 15. Extreme arrival 
date: September 1, 1944, in Prince Georges County. Extreme de- 
parture dates: November 29, 1893, in Montgomery County (H. B. 
Stabler) ; November 29, 1896, in Baltimore County (F. C. Kirk- 
wood) ; November 28, 1954, in Prince Georges County; November 

26, 1948, in Caroline County (Mrs. A. J. Fletcher). 
Breeding population densities (pairs per 100 acres) . — 

7 (6 in 84 acres) in mixed agricultural habitats (including bridges and 
buildings) in Prince Georges County in 1949; 6 (5 in 84 acres) in 
1947 and 1948; 5 (4 in 84 acres) in 1950 and 1951. 



202 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 62, FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 

0.6 (15 in 2,656 acres) in mixed forest and field habitats (containing scat- 
tered bridges, culverts, and buildings that are used for nesting sites) 
in Anne Arundel and Prince Georges Counties in 1943; 0.4 (11 in 
2,656 acres) in 1942. 

Maximum counts. — Spring: 20 on the Gunpowder River marsh 
on March 22, 1904 (J. Thomas) ; 20 at Port Tobacco, Charles 
County, on April 7, 1953 (J. Hailman) ; 18 on Patuxent Refuge 
on March 16, 1945; 15 at Seneca, Montgomery County, on Febru- 
ary 28, 1954 (J. W. Terborgh) . Fall: 13 on Patuxent Refuge on 
October 7, 1945. Winter (Christmas counts) : 32 in the Ocean 
City area on December 27, 1953; 11 in southeastern Worcester 
County on December 22, 1947 ; 8 near Denton, Caroline County, on 
December 23, 1950 ; 3 in the Triadelphia Reservoir area of Mont- 
gomery and Howard Counties on January J, 1954. 

YELLOW-BELLIED FLYCATCHER Empidonax flav/venfris 

(Baird and Baird) 

Status. — Transient: Uncommon in the Allegheny Mountain, 
Ridge and Valley, and Piedmont sections; rare in the Upper 
Chesapeake, Western Shore, and Eastern Shore sections. 

Habitat. — Various types of evergreen and deciduous forests, 
with some preference shown for the former. 

Spring migration. — Normal period: May 10-15 to May 30- 
June 1; peak, May 20 to May 30. Extreme arrival dates: May 7, 
1949, in Montgomery County (M. C. Crone, L. M. Wendt) ; May 
9, 1886 (W. Palmer), and May 9, 1902 (A. K. Fisher), in the Dis- 
trict of Columbia. Extreme departure dates: June 1, 1917, in 
the District of Columbia (F. Harper) ; June 1, 1925, in Garrett 
County (F. C. Kirkwood). 

Fall migration. — Normal period: August 10-20 to September 
25-October 5 ; peak, August 25 to September 25. Extreme arrival 
dates: July 28, 1859, in the District of Columbia (E. Coues — 
USNM) ; August 3, 1893, in Baltimore County (G. H. Gray) ; 
August 5, 1894, in the District of Columbia (C. W. Richmond). 
Extreme departure dates: October 26, 1955 (banded), in Balti- 
more County (S. W. Simon) ; October 11, 1926, and October 8, 
1905, in Baltimore County (F. C. Kirkwood) ; October 6, 1881, in 
the District of Columbia (H. M. Smith). 

Maximum counts. — Spring: 17 near Laurel, Prince Georges 
County, on May 30, 1917 (W. L. McAtee, A. Wetmore) ; 5 in Balti- 
more County on May 21, 1893 (W. N. Wholey) . Fall: 8+ at Holly 
Point, Baltimore County, on September 23, 1896 (F. C. Kirk- 
wood) ; 6 banded at Ocean City, Worcester County, on September 



BIRDS OF MARYLAND AND DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 203 

13, 1955 ; 3 in the District of Columbia on September 18, 1930 ( W. 
L. McAtee). 

ACADIAN FLYCATCHER Empidonax v/rescens (Vieillot) 

Status. — Breeding: Common in the Eastern Shore, Western 
Shore, and Upper Chesapeake sections; fairly common in the 
Piedmont, and Ridge and Valley sections; uncommon and local 
in the Allegheny Mountain section — occurs along Bear Creek in 
Garrett County (Brooks, 1936c). Transient: Fairly common in 
the Eastern Shore, Western Shore, and Upper Chesapeake sec- 
tions ; uncommon in the Piedmont, and Ridge and Valley sections. 

Habitat. — Flood-plain and swamp forests; also rich, moist 
forests on the upland. 

Nesting season. — Late May to mid-August (nesting peak, 
early June to early July) . Extreme egg dates (71 nests) : May 26, 
1943, in Prince Georges County (J. B. Cope) and July 30, 1893, 
in Baltimore County (Kirkwood, 1895). Extreme nestling dates 
(21 nests) : June 9, 1952, in Caroline County (M. W. Hewitt) and 
August 11, 1953, in Calvert County (W. B. Tyrrell). 

Period of occurrence. — Normal period: May 1-10 to Septem- 
ber 5-15 ; peak, May 10 to August 1. Extreme arrival dates: April 
29, 1845, in the District of Columbia (USNM— Hutton) ; April 
29, 1951, in Prince Georges County. Extreme departure dates: 
October 2, 1927, in Baltimore County (F. C. Kirkwood, J. Som- 
mer) ; September 28, 1952, in St. Marys County (J. W. Terborgh) ; 
September 24, 1950, in Montgomery County (S. A. Briggs) ; 
September 19, 1947, and September 19, 1951, in Prince Georges 
County. 

Breeding population densities (pairs per 100 acres) . — 

47 (6 in 12% acres) in lowland seepage swamp (red maple, sweetgum, pin 
oak with brushy understory of sweet-bay, winterberry, arrow-wood, 
etc.) in Prince Georges County in 1946. 

39 (33.7 in 85 acres) in well-drained flood-plain forest (sweetgum, hornbeam, 
river birch, tulip-poplar, etc.) along the border between Anne Arundel 
and Prince Georges Counties in 1945 (Stewart, et al., 1946) ; 34 (11 
in 32% acres) in another area of this type in 1944. 

33 (12 in 36 acres) in "virgin central hardwood deciduous forest" (white 
oak-tulip-poplar) in Prince Georges County in 1947 (Stewart and 
Robbins, 1947b). 

29 (4 in 14^2 acres) in poorly drained flood-plain forest (pin oak, sweetgum, 
red maple, red ash, etc.) in Prince Georges County in 1946. 

28 (22.5 in 80 acres) in "central hardwood forest (oaks-tulip-poplar) with 
scattered pine" in the District of Columbia in 1954 (Wright, 1955) ; 
28 (22 in 80 acres) in 1949, 26 (21 in 80 acres) in 1948 and 1953, 19 
(15 in 80 acres) in 1951 (Trever, 1952; Clagett, 1953); 20 (16 in 80 
acres) in 1952 (Clagett, 1952). 



204 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 62, FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 

23 (6.5 in 28 acres) in partially opened flood-plain forest (sycamore, ash, 
elm, etc.) in Montgomery County in 1943 (J. W. Aldrich, A. J. Duvall). 

12 (3 in 24% acres) in river terrace forest (beech-white oak) in Prince 
Georges County in 1944. 

12 (1.5 in 13 acres) in upland oak forest (white, northern red, chestnut, and 
black oaks) in Montgomery County in 1943 (J. W. Aldrich, A. J. Duvall). 

9 (4 in 44% acres) in river bluff forest (beech, white oak, scarlet oak) in 
Prince Georges County in 1945; absent in 1944 (J. W. Aldrich, A. J. 
Duvall). 

9 (3.5 in 37 acres) in "mixed oak forest" (white, scarlet, and chestnut 
oaks, etc.) in Baltimore County in 1953 (Cole and Kolb, 1953) ; 8 (3 in 
37 acres) in 1951 and 1952 (Kolb and Cole, 1951; Kaufmann, et al., 
1952); 5 (2 in 40 acres) in 1948 (Kolb, et al., 1948); 4 (1.5 in 40 
acres) in 1949 (Kolb, 1949a) and 1950 (Kolb, 1950). 

Maximum counts. — Spring: 34 in Charles and St. Marys 
Counties on May 9, 1953 (J. W. Terborgh, et al.) ; 30 along the 
C. & O. Canal in Montgomery County on May 9, 1953 (E. J. 
Stivers, et al.) ; 25 at Patuxent Refuge on May 10, 1952. Fall: 
9 at Patuxent Refuge on August 17, 1944. 

TRAILL'S FLYCATCHER Empidonax traillii (Audubon) 

Status. — Breeding (see fig. 29) : Uncommon in the Allegheny 
Mountain section ; uncommon and local in the Piedmont section — 
in late June of 1951, territorial males were recorded at 6 locations 
in the northern half of Carroll County and at 1 location a mile 
west of Frederick in Frederick County, while in 1954, C. M. 
Buchanan found an occupied nest at Loch Raven in Baltimore 
County; rare in the District of Columbia — 1 singing male was 
closely observed at Kenilworth on July 15, 1950 (E. G. Davis, J. E. 
Willoughby), and on June 27, 1951 (R. F. Deed). Transient: 
Rare in the Allegheny Mountain, Ridge and Valley, Piedmont, 
Upper Chesapeake, and Western Shore sections, and (in fall only) 
in the Eastern Shore section. 

Habitat. — Alder thickets, located along streams or in swamps ; 
occasionally in other types of brushy thickets in damp situations. 

Nesting season. — A nest containing 3 dead young was found 
at Mountain Lake in Garrett County on June 11, 1939 (M. G. 
Brooks) . A nest, just completed, found at Loch Raven, Baltimore 
County, on July 10, contained 3 young on July 31, 1954 (C. M. 
Buchanan) . Another nest containing young was found in Garrett 
County, near Bittinger, on August 24, 1938 (L. M. Llewellyn) . 

Spring migration. — Normal period: May 10-15 to May 25- 
June 1. Extreme arrival dates: May 5, 1893 (collected), in 
Baltimore County (A. Resler) ; May 7, 1922, in the District of 
Columbia (H. C. Oberholser) ; May 8, 1954, in Howard County. 



BIRDS OF MARYLAND AND DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 



205 



Extreme departure dates: June 9, 1953, in Frederick County (J. 
W. Richards) ; June 2, 1943 (USNM), in Prince Georges County. 

Fall migration. — Normal period: August 20-25 to September 
10-15. Extreme arrival dates: August 16, 1886, in the District 
of Columbia (A. K. Fisher) ; August 18, 1927, in Baltimore 
County (F. C. Kirkwood). Extreme departure dates: September 
24, 1955, in Baltimore County (C. M. Buchanan) ; September 17, 
1890, in the District of Columbia (USNM— C. W. Richmond). 

Maximum counts (nonbreeding) . — Spring: 5 near Seneca, 
Montgomery County, on May 14, 1949 (L. M. Ashley) ; 3 in 
the District of Columbia on June 1, 1917 (F. Harper). 

LEAST FLYCATCHER Empidonax minimus (Baird and Baird) 

Status. — Breeding (see fig. 33) : Fairly common in the Alle- 
gheny Mountain section; uncommon in the western part of the 
Ridge and Valley section (Allegany County) ; rare and local in the 
Piedmont and Western Shore sections — occurring irregularly in 
the vicinity of Baltimore (A. A. Brandenburg, A. Stokes) , in the 
northern part of Baltimore County, in Carroll County, and in 
Prince Georges County in the vicinity of the Patuxent Research 
Refuge. Transient: Fairly common in the Allegheny Mountain, 
Ridge and Valley, and Piedmont sections ; uncommon in the Upper 




Figure 33. — Breeding range of Least Flycatcher, 



206 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 62, FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 

Chesapeake and Western Shore sections; rare in the Eastern 
Shore section. 

Habitat. — Breeding: Open deciduous woodland, and orchards. 
Transient: Various types of deciduous forests and forest edge. 

Nesting season. — Early May to mid-August (nesting peak, 
late May to early July). Nest building was recorded in Balti- 
more County as early as May 4, 1951 (A. A. Brandenburg). 
Extreme egg dates (8 nests) : May 19, 1935, in Allegany County 
(L. M. Llewellyn) and June 17, 1949, in Prince Georges County. 
Nestlings were observed in Baltimore County during the period 
June 2-10, 1951 (A. A. Brandenburg). An occupied nest was 
found in Garrett County at Friendsville on about August 15, 1949 
(A.Wright). 

Spring migration. — Normal period: April 25-May 5 to May 
15-25; peak, May 5 to May 15. Extreme arrival dates: April 19, 

1880, in Prince Georges County (USNM — G. Marshall) ; April 20, 

1881, in the District of Columbia (W. Palmer) ; April 20, 1954, in 
Baltimore County (Mrs. R. E. Kaestner). Extreme departure 
dates: June 11, 1953, in Frederick County (J. W. Richards) ; June 
6, 1953, in Montgomery County (R. F. Deed) ; June 2, 1905, in 
Baltimore County (F. C. Kirkwood). 

Fall migration. — Normal period: August 20-25 to September 
15-25; peak, August 25 to September 15. Extreme arrival dates: 
August 13, 1887, in the District of Columbia (A. K. Fisher) ; 
August 18, 1927, in Baltimore County (F. C. Kirkwood) ; August 
19, 1942, in Prince Georges County. Extreme departure dates: 
October 1, 1916, in Montgomery County (D. C. Mabbott) ; Septem- 
ber 28, 1892, in Baltimore County (A. Resler) ; September 28, 
1901, in Allegany County (G. Eifrig) . 

EASTERN WOOD PEWEE Confopus virens (Linnaeus) 

Status. — Breeding and transient: Fairly common in all sec- 
tions. 

Habitat. — Wood margins or open stands of upland deciduous 
and pine forests; also in mature orchards and in wooded resi- 
dential areas. During the fall migration period, this species also 
occurs in more open habitats such as field margins and hedgerows. 

Nesting season. — Late May to mid-September (nesting peak, 
early June to late July) . Extreme egg dates (116 nests) : May 21, 
1953, in Charles County (A. R. Stickley, Jr.) and August 15, 
1897, in Baltimore County (J. Sommer) . Extreme nestling dates 
(53 nests) : June 13, 1950, in Harford County (R. B. Thomas) 
and September 13, 1951, in Baltimore County (E. Willis). 



BIRDS OF MARYLAND AND DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 207 

Spring migration. — Normal period: May 1-10 to May 25- 
June 5; peak, May 10 to May 25. Extreme arrival dates: April 
20, 1930, in Montgomery County (F. C. Lincoln) ; April 24, 1932, 
in Baltimore County (W. B. Tyrrell) ; April 26, 1945, in Prince 
Georges County. 

Fall migration. — Normal period: September 1-10 to October 
5-15 ; peak, September 10 to October 1. Extreme departure dates: 
October 31, 1950, in Anne Arundel County (Mrs. W. L. Hender- 
son) ; October 25, 1937, in St. Marys County (J. C. Jones, F. H. 
May) ; October 19, 1901, in Allegany County (G. Eifrig) ; October 
17, 1883, on the Patapsco River marsh (A. Resler) . 

Breeding population densities (pairs per 100 acres). — 

19 (7 in 36 acres) in "virgin central hardwood deciduous forest" (white oak- 
tulip-poplar) in Prince Georges County in 1947 (Stewart and Robbins, 
1947b). 

17 (3.5 in 21 acres) in "immature loblolly-shortleaf pine stand" in Worcester 
County in 1948 (Springer and Stewart, 1948c). 

11 (4.5 in 40 acres) in "mixed oak forest" (white, scarlet, and chestnut oaks, 
etc.) in Baltimore County in 1949 (Kolb, 1949a) ; 10 (4 in 40 acres) in 
1948 (Kolb, et al., 1948) ; 8 (3 in 37 acres) in 1951 and 1953 (Kolb and 
Cole, 1951; Cole and Kolb, 1953) ; 4 (1.5 in 37 acres) in 1952 (Kaufmann, 
et al., 1952) ; 3 (1 in 40 acres) in 1950 (Kolb, 1950). 

10 (8 in 80 acres) in "central hardwood forest (oaks-tulip-poplar) with 
scattered pine" in the District of Columbia in 1954 (Wright, 1955) ; 8 (6 
in 80 acres) in 1948 and 1953; 6 (5 in 80 acres) in 1949 and 6 (4.5 in 80 
acres) in 1951 (Trever, 1952; Clagett, 1953); 7 (5.5 in 80 acres) in 
1952 (Clagett, 1952). 

7 (1.5 in 22 acres) in "unsprayed apple orchard with infrequently mowed 
ground cover" in Worcester County in 1948 (Springer and Stewart, 
1948b). 

6 (1.4 in 23% acres) in upland oak forest (white, scarlet, and black oaks) in 
Prince Georges County in 1944. 

5 (2 in 44% acres) in river bluff forest (beech, white oak, scarlet oak) in 
Prince Georges County in 1945; 2 (1 in 44% acres) in 1944 (J. W. Aldrich, 
A. J. Duvall). 

5 (1.6 in 32% acres) in pine-oak forest (pitch pine, scrub pine, Spanish oak) 
in Prince Georges County in 1944. 

5 (1.5 in 30 acres) in "damp deciduous scrub with standing dead trees" in 
Prince Georges County in 1947 (Stewart, et al., 1947). 

Maximum counts. — Spring: 20 at Unity, Montgomery County, 
on May 9, 1953 (S. H. Low) ; 16 in St. Marys and Charles Counties 
on May 8, 1954 (J. W. Terborgh, J. W. Taylor, Jr.) ; 16 in the Dis- 
trict of Columbia and southern Montgomery County on May 10, 
1952 (P. A. DuMont, et al.). Fall: 16 near Seneca, Montgomery 
County, on September 5, 1953 (H. A. Sutton) ; 16 at Port Tobacco, 
Charles County, on September 2, 1954 (A. R. Stickley, Jr.) ; 15 
on September 9, 1944, at Patuxent Refuge. 



208 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 62, FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 

OLIVE-SIDED FLYCATCHER Nuttallornis boreaf/s (Swainson) 

Status. — Breeding: Formerly found sparingly in summer in 
Garrett County at Cranesville Swamp (Brooks, 1936c), being of 
regular occurrence there until about 1937 (M. G. Brooks). 
Transient: Uncommon in the Allegheny Mountain section; rare 
in the Ridge and Valley, Piedmont, Upper Chesapeake, and West- 
ern Shore sections ; casual in the Eastern Shore section — 1 seen in 
the Pocomoke Swamp on May 17, 1952 (P. A. DuMont) ; 1 seen 
at Royal Oak, Talbot County, on September 26, 1953 (R. L. 
Kleen) ; and 1 seen at Tilghman, Talbot County, on September 14, 
1955 (R. L. Kleen). 

Habitat. — Brushy, cut-over or burned-over forest land with 
scattered standing dead trees. 

Spring migration. — Normal period: May 10-15 to June 1-5; 
peak, May 15 to June 1. Extreme arrival dates: May 5, 1956, in 
Prince Georges County ; May 9, 1912, in the District of Columbia 
(A. K. Fisher) ; May 9, 1953, in Frederick County (J. W. Rich- 
ards). Extreme departure date: June 10, 1945, in Prince Georges 
County. 

Fall migration. — Normal period: August 15-25 to September 
15-25; peak, August 25 to September 15. Extreme arrival dates: 
August 10, 1943 (USNM), in Prince Georges County; August 13, 
1917, in the District of Columbia (R. W. Moore). Extreme de- 
parture dates: October 2, 1928, in Baltimore County (F. C. Kirk- 
wood) ; September 30, 1950, in Montgomery County (C. N. 
Mason) . 

Maximum counts. — Fall: 3 near Seneca, Montgomery County, 
on September 5, 1953 (H. A. Sutton) ; 3 at Herrington Manor in 
Garrett County on September 11, 1954 (L. W. Oring) . 

Family ALAUDIDAE 
HORNED LARK Eremophila a/pesfris (Linnaeus) 

Status. — Breeding: Fairly common in the Allegheny Mountain, 
Ridge and Valley, and Piedmont sections, and in the coastal area 
of Worcester County; uncommon elsewhere in the Eastern Shore 
section and in the Western Shore and Upper Chesapeake sections. 
Transient: Fairly common in all sections. Wintering: Fairly 
common in the Eastern Shore section; uncommon in all other 
sections. 

This species has been gradually expanding its breeding range 
southeastward during the past 50 years. In Garrett and Alle- 
gany Counties it was first recorded in summer in about 1900 and 
the first definite breeding records were obtained in 1904 (Eifrig, 



BIRDS OF MARYLAND AND DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 209 

1923). Farther east, the first indication of breeding was evident 
when an adult and 2 juvenals were collected near Laurel, Prince 
Georges County, on June 23, 1922 (Swales, 1922). 

Habitat. — Cultivated fields, pastures, golf courses, airfields, 
sandy beaches, and other open habitats with sparse or short 
vegetation. 

Nesting season. — Early March to late July (nesting peak, mid- 
March to mid-May) . Nest-building was recorded as early as March 
3, 1939, in Prince Georges County (M. B. Meanley) . Extreme egg 
dates (17 nests) : March 18, 1952, in Baltimore County (E. Willis) 
and July 6, 1931, in Baltimore County (F. C. Kirkwood). Ex- 
treme nestling dates (15 nests) : March 19, 1954, in Baltimore 
County (E. Willis) and July 14, 1946, in Worcester County. 
Fledglings were observed being fed by a parent in Baltimore 
County on August 2, 1954 (C. D. Hackman). 

Spring migration. — Normal period: January 15-25 to March 
20-30; peak, January 25 to March 10. Extreme departure date: 
April 9, 1931, in the District of Columbia (W. L. McAtee) . 

Fall migration. — Normal period: September 25-October 5 to 
December 10-20 ; peak, October 10 to December 1. 

Maximum counts. — Spring: 400 in Worcester County on 
February 22, 1948 (E. Arnold) ; 200 in Baltimore County on 
March 20, 1928 (W. Marshall) ; 100 (1 flock) near Emmitsburg, 
Frederick County, on February 7, 1952 (J. W. Richards) . Fall: 
300 on the Gunpowder River marsh on December 7, 1902 (J. 
Thomas) ; 200 in Baltimore County on November 12, 1929 (W. 
Marshall) ; 150 on Taylors Island, Dorchester County, on Decem- 
ber 1, 1893 (R. C. Watters). Winter: 500 at Indiantown, St. 
Marys County, on January 31, 1952 (J. W. Terborgh) ; "hun- 
dreds" at Cumberland during February 1901 (Eifrig, 1902b) ; 
270 at Ocean City on December 27, 1948 (Christmas count) ; 240 
in the Catoctin Mountain area of Frederick County on January 2, 
1954 (Christmas count) ; 154 in southeastern Worcester County 
on December 22, 1947 (Christmas count) ; 127 near Denton, Caro- 
line County, on December 26, 1953 (Christmas count). 

Family HIRUNDINIDAE 

TREE SWALLOW /r/c/oprocne bico/or (Vieillot) 

Status. — Breeding (see fig. 34) : Fairly common in the tide- 
water areas of Somerset, Wicomico, and Dorchester Counties; 
uncommon or rare in the tidewater areas elsewhere in the Eastern 
Shore section and in the Western Shore and Upper Chesapeake 
sections; locally uncommon or rare in the Allegheny Mountain 



2 10 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 62, FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 




LEGEND 
Principal Rang 
Local Record 



Figure 34. — Breeding range of Tree Swallow. 



section — recorded in Garrett County at Cranesville Swamp, Deep 
Creek Lake (Brooks, 1936c), Crellin (Eifrig, 1920b), Hammel 
Glade and Lake Louise. Spring transient: Common in the Eastern 
Shore, Western Shore, and Upper Chesapeake sections; fairly- 
common in the Piedmont, Ridge and Valley, and Allegheny Moun- 
tain sections. Fall transient: Abundant in the Eastern Shore sec- 
tion ; common in the tidewater areas of the Upper Chesapeake and 
and Western Shore sections ; uncommon elsewhere in all sections. 
Wintering: Uncommon and irregular in the coastal area of Wor- 
cester County and in the tidewater areas of Somerset and Dor- 
chester Counties; casual elsewhere in the Eastern Shore section 
and in the Western Shore and Piedmont sections — 1 seen at Cobb 
Island, Charles County, on January 7, 1950 (F. M. Uhler), a small 
flock recorded at Gibson Island, Anne Arundel County, on January 
15, 1950 (Mrs. W. L. Henderson), 1 seen at Westminster, Carroll 
County, on January 12, 1952 (D. A. Jones). 

Habitat. — Breeding: Usually near open water or marsh in 
areas with standing dead trees. Transient: Most numerous in the 
vicinity of open water or marsh, but also occurring regularly over 
agricultural fields and other open habitats. Wintering: Usually 
found in the vicinity of wax-myrtle thickets on the barrier beaches 
or adjacent to salt marshes. 



BIRDS OF MARYLAND AND DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 211 

Nesting season. — Early May to mid-July. Extreme egg dates 
(8 nests) : May 12, 1894 (W. H. Fisher), and July 3, 1893 (P. T. 
Blogg), in Baltimore County. Extreme nestling dates (9 nests) : 
June 3, 1954, in Caroline County (Mrs. A. J. Fletcher) and June 
28, 1920, in Garrett County (Eifrig, 1920b). 

Spring migration. — Normal period: March 25-April 5 to May 
10-20; peak, April 5 to May 5. Extreme arrival dates: February 
22, 1954, in Dorchester County (J. W. Terborgh) ; February 28, 
1953, in St. Marys County (J. E. Knudson) ; March 4, 1903, in 
Baltimore County (F. C. Kirkwood) ; March 10, 1956, in Caroline 
County (Mrs. A. J. Fletcher). Extreme departure dates: June 
6, 1953, in Frederick County (R. F. Deed) ; May 28, 1949, in Mont- 
gomery County (P. A. DuMont) ; May 26, 1908, in Allegany 
County (F. C. Kirkwood) ; May 24, 1951, in Prince Georges 
County. 

Fall migration. — Normal period: July 1-10 to November 5- 
15; peak, August 25 to October 25. Extreme arrival dates: June 
21, 1950, in Prince Georges County; June 30, 1906, in Worcester 
County (F. C. Kirkwood). Extreme departure dates: November 
26, 1900, in Baltimore County (F. C. Kirkwood) ; November 17, 
1948, in Dorchester County. 

Maximum counts. — Spring: 2,500 at Aliens Fresh, Charles 
County, on April 12, 1952 (L. Griffin, et al.) ; 1,000 in Baltimore 
County on April 7, 1901 (F. C. Kirkwood) . Fall: 50,000+ in the 
Elliott Island area, Dorchester County, on October 22, 1949; 
30,000-f- between Vienna and Cambridge in Dorchester County on 
October 2, 1948; 5,000 in Baltimore County on August 29, 1903, 
and October 18, 1901 (F. C. Kirkwood) ; 3,800 on Assateague 
Island, Worcester County, on September 5, 1948. Winter: 200 on 
Assateague Island on February 8, 1938 (G. A. Ammann) ; 150 in 
the Ocean City area on January 31, 1906 (F. C. Kirkwood) ; 50 
near Westover, Somerset County, on December 8, 1911 (W. H. 
Fisher) . 

BANK SWALLOW Riparia riparia (Linnaeus) 

Status. — Breeding (see fig. 35) : Fairly common locally in 
the tidewater areas of the Western Shore and Upper Chesapeake 
sections and along the Chesapeake Bay shores of the Eastern 
Shore section (south to the Choptank River) ; uncommon and local 
in the Piedmont, and Ridge and Valley sections — recorded in 
Baltimore County at Herring Run and Dulaney Valley (F. C. Kirk- 
wood), in Harford County along Broad Creek near Pylesville (P. 
Heaps) and Darlington (S. Mason, Jr.) and occurring along the 



212 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 62, FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 




LEGEND 
CLIFF SWALLOW 

3 Principal Range 

O Local Record 
BANK SWALLOW 

Principal Range 
• Local Record 



Figure 35. — Breeding ranges of Bank Swallow and Cliff Swallow. 

Potomac River in Washington County (M. G. Brooks). Spring 
transient: Fairly common in all sections. Fall transient: Common 
in the tidewater areas of the Upper Chesapeake section; fairly 
common in the Allegheny Mountain section and in the tidewater 
areas of the Eastern Shore and Western Shore sections ; uncom- 
mon elsewhere in all sections. 

Habitat. — Breeding: Restricted to areas near water with suit- 
able sandy banks for nesting. Transient: In the vicinity of open 
water and marshes ; also over pastures, agricultural fields, barrier 
beaches, and other open habitats. 

Nesting season. — Mid-April to mid-July (nesting peak, early 
May to late June). In Baltimore County, this species was ob- 
served excavating nest burrows as early as April 19, 1895 (W. 
H. Fisher). Extreme egg dates (50 nests) : May 10, 1916, in the 
District of Columbia (E. J. Court) and June 23, 1912, in Anne 
Arundel County (J. Sommer). Extreme nestling dates (100+ 
nests) : May 30, 1950, in Cecil County (A. A. Brandenburg) and 
July 17, 1892, in Baltimore County (F. C. Kirkwood). 

Spring migration. — Normal period: April 10-20 to May 15- 
25; peak, April 25 to May 10. Earliest arrival dates: April 4, 
1918, in the District of Columbia (I. N. Gabrielson) ; April 5, 1916, 
in Dorchester County (R. W. Jackson) ; April 5, 1952, in Mont- 



BIRDS OF MARYLAND AND DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 213 

gomery County (E. J. Stivers). Extreme departure dates: May 
26, 1886, in the District of Columbia (C. W. Richmond) ; May 26, 
1949, in Prince Georges County. 

Fall migration. — Normal period: July 5-15 to September 5- 
15; peak, July 15 to September 5. Extreme departure dates: 
September 29, 1930, in Kent County (W. Baker) ; September 21, 
1920, in the District of Columbia (F. C. Lincoln) ; September 21, 
1940, in Baltimore County (E. A. McGinity) . 

Maximum counts. — Spring: 110 in the District of Columbia on 
May 11, 1917 (Oberholser, 1918) . Fall: 10,000 on the Gunpowder 
River marsh on July 15, 1900 (F. C. Kirkwood) ; 3,000 on Back 
River, Baltimore County, on July 17, 1891 (F. C. Kirkwood) ; 
"thousands" on the Patapsco River marsh on August 16, 1897 
(F. C. Kirkwood) ; 500 in Kent County on August 10, 1954 ; 250 
at Seneca, Montgomery County, on September 7, 1953 (J. W. Ter- 
borgh) . 

ROUGH-WINGED SWALLOW Sfe/g/c/opferyx ruflco/l/s (Vieillot) 

Status. — Breeding: Fairly common along the Potomac River 
in Montgomery County; uncommon and local elsewhere in all 
sections. Transient: Uncommon in all sections. 

Habitat. — Usually in the vicinity of open water, including 
rivers, ponds, bays, and estuaries. 

Nesting season. — Mid- April to late June (nesting peak, mid- 
May to mid-June). Nest-building was recorded in Caroline 
County as early as April 19, 1952 (Mr. and Mrs. A. J. Fletcher). 
Extreme egg dates (42 nests) : May 13, 1886, in Baltimore County 
(F. C. Kirkwood) and June 20, 1887, in the District of Columbia 
(USNM — H. Thompson). Extreme nestling dates (10 nests) : 
May 22, 1953, in Caroline County (Mr. and Mrs. A. J. Fletcher) 
and June 27, 1893, in Baltimore County (P. T. Blogg). 

Spring migration. — Normal period: April 1-10 to May 5-15; 
peak, April 10 to May 5. Extreme arrival dates: March 22, 1952, 
in Caroline County (Mr. and Mrs. A. J. Fletcher) ; March 26, 1950, 
in Montgomery County (J. W. Taylor, Jr.). Extreme departure 
date: May 25, 1952, in Prince Georges County. 

Fall migration. — Normal period: June 25-July 5 to August 
25-September 5. Extreme arrival date: June 20, 1945, in Prince 
Georges County. Extreme departure dates: September 14, 1954, 
in Charles County (R. R. Kerr, J. W. Terborgh) ; September 11, 
1920, in Montgomery County (H. C. Oberholser). 

Maximum counts. — Spring: 125 at Aliens Fresh, Charles 
County, on April 12, 1952 (R. R. Kerr) ; 87 at Gibson Island, Anne 



214 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 62, FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 

Arundel County, on May 5, 1956 (Mrs. W. L. Henderson, et al.) ; 
80 near Cabin John, Montgomery County, on April 17, 1949 (P. 
A. DuMont) . Fall: 50 in the District of Columbia on August 31, 
1917 (H. C. Oberholser) . 

BARN SWALLOW Hirundo rustica Linnaeus 

Status. — Breeding: Common in all sections. Transient: Abun- 
dant in the Eastern Shore, Western Shore, and Upper Chesapeake 
sections; common in the Piedmont, Ridge and Valley, and Alle- 
gheny Mountain sections. Wintering: Accidental — 1 recorded in 
the District of Columbia on December 27, 1935 (G. Petrides). 

Habitat. — Breeding: In open country, usually in the vicinity of 
barns, bridges, and other types of buildings. Transient: In open 
country, usually most numerous near water. 

Nesting season. — Late April to late August (nesting peak, 
late May to early July) . Nest-building was recorded as early as 
April 13, 1956, in Caroline County. Extreme egg dates (380 
nests) : May 5, 1955, in Caroline County (A. Bilbrough) and 
August 4, 1950, in Prince Georges County. Extreme nestling 
dates (297 nests) : May 18, 1949, in Prince Georges County and 
August 21, 1950 (E. Willis), in Baltimore County. 

Spring migration. — Normal period: April 1-10 to May 10-20; 
peak, April 20 to May 5. Extreme arrival dates: March 20, 1880, 
in Washington County (E. A. Small) ; March 20, 1900, on the Gun- 
powder River marsh (J. Thomas) ; March 25, 1954, in Caroline 
County (A. J. Fletcher) ; March 26, 1954, in Anne Arundel County 
(Mrs. W. L. Henderson, Mrs. G. Tappan). Extreme departure 
date: May 28, 1940, in Baltimore County (H. Brackbill). 

Fall migration. — Normal period: July 1-10 to September 10- 
20; peak, July 10 to September 1. Extreme arrival dates: June 
22, 1956, in Worcester County ; June 27, 1914, in Baltimore County 
(F. C. Kirkwood). Extreme departure dates: November 6, 1948, 
in Worcester County (K. H. Weber) ; October 12, 1917, in Dor- 
chester County (R. W. Jackson) ; October 12, 1954, in Prince 
Georges County; October 6, 1929, in the District of Columbia (M. 
T. Donoho) . 

Breeding population densities (pairs per 100 acres). — 

11 (31 in 275 acres) in mixed agricultural and residential habitats (including 
several barns and sheds) in Prince Georges County in 1949; 5 (13 in 275 
acres) in 1947; 3 (9 in 275 acres) in 1943. 

Maximum counts. — Spring: 283 in Worcester County on May 
11, 1952 (D. A. Cutler) ; 200 at Gibson Island, Anne Arundel 
County, on May 8, 1955 (Mrs. W. L. Henderson, Mrs, G, Tappan) . 



BIRDS OF MARYLAND AND DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 215 

Fall: 10,000 on the Gunpowder River marsh on July 15, 1900 (F. 
C. Kirkwood) ; 1,600 in Montgomery County on July 26, 1953 (R. 
R. Kerr) ; 1,000 in Worcester County on August 14, 1948. 

CLIFF SWALLOW Petrochelidon pyrrhonota (Vieillot) 

Status. — Breeding (see fig. 35) : Common in the Allegheny 
Mountain section ; fairly common in the western part of the Ridge 
and Valley section (Allegany County and western Washington 
County, east to Indian Springs) ; rare and local in the Piedmont 
section, the most recent records occurring in Baltimore and Har- 
ford Counties — including a colony found 20 miles north of Balti- 
more in 1924 (Kirkwood, 1925) , 2 occupied nests between Glyndon 
and Shawan on June 5, 1948 (M. B. Meanley), and 2 nests at Nor- 
risville in 1955 (O. W. Crowder) ; formerly common in Baltimore 
and Harford Counties and occurring in Frederick County (F. C. 
Kirkwood) ; formerly occurred sparingly in the District of Co- 
lumbia (Coues and Prentiss, 1861), and in Prince Georges County 
near Hyattsville — a colony of 15 pairs in 1898 (E. J. Court). 
Transient: Common in the Allegheny Mountain section; fairly 
common in the Ridge and Valley section; uncommon in the Pied- 
mont, Upper Chesapeake, and Western Shore sections ; rare in the 
Eastern Shore section. 

Habitat. — Breeding: Open country, usually in the vicinity of 
unpainted barns. Transient: Open country generally, frequently 
near water. 

Nesting season. — Early May to late July (nesting peak, late 
May to early July) . Nest-building was recorded as early as May 
6, 1953, in Garrett County (M. Taylor), and May 12, 1902, in 
Baltimore County (F. C. Kirkwood). Extreme egg dates (10 
colonies) : May 22, 1898, in Prince Georges County (E. J. Court) 
and June 17, 1883, in Harford County (F. C. Kirkwood) . Extreme 
nestling dates (9 colonies) : June 17, 1883, in Harford County and 
July 27, 1902, in Baltimore County (F. C. Kirkwood) . 

Spring migration. — Normal period: April 20-30 to May 15- 
25; peak, May 1 to May 15. Extreme arrival dates: April 6, 1952, 
in Charles County (M. C. Crone) ; April 10, 1887 (A. K. Fisher), 
April 10, 1908 (W. W. Cooke), and April 10, 1916 (L. D. Miner), 
in the District of Columbia ; April 13, 1930, in Baltimore County 
(F. C. Kirkwood) . Extreme departure dates: June 4, 1883, in the 
District of Columbia (H. W. Henshaw) ; May 31, 1903, in Balti- 
more County (F. C. Kirkwood) . 

Fall migration. — Normal period: July 1-10 to September 5- 
15; peak, July 10 to September 5. Extreme departure dates: 



216 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 62, FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 

September 23, 1950, along the boundary between Frederick and 
Washington Counties (M. W. Goldman) ; September 17, 1929, in 
Baltimore County (F. C. Kirkwood) ; September 16, 1944, in 
Prince Georges County. 

Maximum counts. — Spring: 36 at Patuxent Refuge on May 
12, 1945; 35 near Seneca, Montgomery County, on May 8, 1948. 
Fall: 1,500 on the Patapsco River marsh on September 15, 1896 
(F. C. Kirkwood) ; 1,000 in Long Green Valley, Baltimore County, 
on July 11, 1909 (F. C. Kirkwood) ; "hundreds" in Garrett County 
on August 14, 1903 (G. Eifrig). 

PURPLE MARTIN Progne subis (Linnaeus) 

Status. — Breeding: Common in the tidewater areas of the East- 
ern Shore, Western Shore, and Upper Chesapeake sections ; fairly 
common in the Piedmont section; uncommon elsewhere. Tran- 
sient: Fairly common in all sections (abundant during the fall 
flight in the District of Columbia — see Oberholser, 1917b and 
Cooke, 1929). 

Habitat. — Open country, frequently near water (in the vicinity 
of martin houses during breeding season). 

Nesting season. — Late April to late August (nesting peak, 
mid-May to mid-July) . Nest-building was recorded as early as 
April 28, 1949, in Caroline County (A. J. Fletcher). Extreme egg 
dates (20 colonies) : May 29, 1894, and July 9, 1895, in Baltimore 
County (F. C. Kirkwood). Extreme nestling dates (79 nests) : 
June 12, 1894, in Worcester County (Kirkwood, 1895) and August 
24, 1951, in Caroline County (A. J. Fletcher) . 

Spring migration. — Normal period: March 25-April 5 to May 
10-20 ; peak, April 5 to April 25. Extreme arrival dates: March 10, 
1940, in St. Marys County (R. C. McClanahan) ; March 13, 1952, in 
Caroline County (R. Maloney) ; March 13, 1953, in Washington 
County (R. S. Stauffer). Extreme departure dates: May 26, 1889, 
in the District of Columbia (C. W. Richmond) ; May 24, 1942, in 
Prince Georges County. 

Fall migration. — Normal period: July 1-10 to September 5- 
15; peak, July 15 to September 1. Extreme arrival date: June 27, 
1919, in the District of Columbia (M. J. Pellew). Extreme de- 
parture dates: October 15, 1893, in Baltimore County (F. C. Kirk- 
wood) ; October 12, 1911, in the District of Columbia (F. G. Hea- 
ton) ; October 11, 1936, in Anne Arundel County (E. A. Mc- 
Ginity). 

Maximum counts. — Spring: 40 at Patuxent Refuge on April 
6, 1944; 30 at Magnolia, Harford County, on April 4, 1895 (F. C. 



BIRDS OF MARYLAND AND DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 217 

Kirkwood) . Fall: 100,000 in the District of Columbia during the 
third week in July 1947 ; 3,000 near Riverview, Baltimore County, 
on September 12, 1908 (F. C. Kirkwood) ; 2,000 on Coaches Island, 
Talbot County, on August 30, 1952 (Judge and Mrs. W. L. Hender- 
son) ; 1,500 at Cambridge, Dorchester County, on August 1, 1947 
(I. R. Barnes). 

Banding. — One bird, banded as a ju venal near Laurel, Prince 
Georges County, on July 1, 1945, was recovered in the District of 
Columbia on July 27, 1950. 

Family CORVIDAE 

BLUE JAY Cyanocitta cristata (Linnaeus) 

Status. — Breeding: Fairly common in the Allegheny Mountain, 
Ridge and Valley, Piedmont, Upper Chesapeake, and Western 
Shore sections; uncommon in the Eastern Shore section. Transient: 
Common in the Allegheny Mountain, Ridge and Valley, Piedmont, 
Upper Chesapeake, and Western Shore sections ; uncommon in the 
Eastern Shore section. Wintering : Fairly common in the Pied- 
mont, Upper Chesapeake, and Western Shore sections ; uncommon 
in the Allegheny Mountain, Ridge and Valley, and Eastern Shore 
sections. 

Habitat. — Various types of forests, wood margins, and hedge- 
rows. 

Nesting season. — Early April to mid-August (nesting peak, 
late April to mid- June) . Nest-building was recorded as early as 
April 1, 1945, in Prince Georges County (E. Ediger). Extreme 
egg dates (46 nests) : April 12, 1929, in Baltimore County (J. 
Sommer) and July 26, 1925, in the District of Columbia (K. 
Baird). Extreme nestling dates (60 nests) : May 8, 1943, in the 
District of Columbia (Fr. F. Kekich) and August 16, 1951, in 
Baltimore County (E. Willis). 

Spring migration. — Normal period: April 15-25 to May 15- 
25; peak, April 25 to May 15. Extreme arrival date: April 8, 
1954, in Prince Georges County. Extreme departure date: May 
27, 1888, in the District of Columbia (C. W. Richmond). 

Fall migration. — Normal period: September 5-15 to Novem- 
ber 1-10; peak, September 25 to October 20. Extreme arrival 
date: September 3, 1944, in Baltimore County (H. Brackbill). 
Extreme departure date: November 12, 1945, in Prince Georges 
County. 

Breeding population densities (pairs per 100 acres) . — 

5 (4.2 in 85 acres) in well-drained flood-plain forest (sweetgum, hornbeam, 



218 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 62, FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 

river birch, tulip-poplar, etc.) along the boundary between Anne Arundel 
and Prince Georges Counties in 1945 (Stewart, et al., 1946). 

5 (2 in 44% acres) in river bluff forest (beech, white oak, scarlet oak) in 
Prince Georges County in 1944 and 1945 (J. W. Aldrich, A. J. Duvall). 

4 (1.5 in 40 acres) in "mixed oak forest" (white, scarlet, and chestnut oaks, 
etc.) in Baltimore County in 1948 (Kolb, et al., 1948) ; 3 (1 in 40 acres) 
in 1949 (Kolb, 1949a) and 1950 (Kolb, 1950) ; 3 (1 in 37 acres) in 1951 
(Kolb and Cole, 1951) and in 1952 (Kaufmann, et al., 1952). 

Maximum counts. — Spring: 597 at Laurel, Prince Georges 
County, on May 5, 1955; 346 in the District of Columbia and 
adjacent Montgomery County on May 10, 1952 (P. A. DuMont, et 
al.) ; 200 near Emmitsburg, Frederick County, on April 27 and 
again on April 28, 1954 (J. W. Richards) ; 134 at Patuxent Refuge 
on May 6, 1950 ; 100 over the Gunpowder River marsh on May 7, 
1900 (F. C. Kirkwood). Fall: 862 in one-half hour, migrating 
along the fall line in Prince Georges County on September 29, 
1954; 532 in IV2 hours along the fall line in Montgomery County 
on October 5, 1955 (K. A. Goodpasture) ; 500 in the Gunpowder 
River area on October 2, 1902 (F. C. Kirkwood) ; 150 in Baltimore 
County on October 4, 1898, and October 30, 1901 (F. C. Kirk- 
wood). Winter (Christmas counts) : 326 in the Catoctin Moun- 
tain area in Frederick County on December 30, 1951 ; 324 in the 
Triadelphia Reservoir area on December 24, 1955 ; 246 in the An- 
napolis area on January 2, 1955 ; 246 in the District of Columbia 
area on January 1, 1955 ; 237 at Patuxent Refuge on January 12, 
1951; 89 in Garrett County on December 31, 1954; 72 in southern 
Dorchester County on December 28, 1953. 

BANDING. — See figure 36. 

[BLACK-BILLED MAGPIE] Pica pica (Linnaeus) 

Status. — Hypothetical. This western species has been recorded 
from St. Marys (June 28, 1931), Frederick (August 1950 to Janu- 
ary 2, 1951), Allegany (December 23, 1950), and Montgomery 
(July 3 to December 18, 1952) Counties. Two of the birds, those 
in Frederick and Montgomery Counties, later proved to be escaped 
cage birds, and there is no assurance that the other 2 had not also 
been transported here in captivity. 

COMMON RAVEN Corvus corax Linnaeus 

Status. — Uncommon and local resident in the Allegheny Moun- 
tain, and Ridge and Valley sections (formerly more numerous, but 
increasing in recent years). This species also occurs as a rare 
visitor in the Piedmont section — records in this area are as fol- 
lows: Montgomery County, 1 seen near Woodside on January 9, 
1949 (J. H. Fales), 1 seen near Rockville on July 4, 1938 (W. H. 



BIRDS OF MARYLAND AND DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 219 




Figure 36. — Blue Jay banding recoveries. Each symbol represents the number 
of records for a State or Province. Banded in Maryland, recovered else- 
where: solid circle = recovered June through August; solid triangle = 
recovered September through May. Recovered in Maryland, banded else- 
where: open circle = banded June through August; open triangle = banded 
September through May. 



220 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 62, FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 

Lawrence), and 2 seen near Unity on April 10, 1949 (S. H. Low) ; 
Baltimore County, 1 shot at Sunnybrook on November 8, 1929 
(Kirkwood, 1930), 1 seen on the Back River Road on February 
11, 1930 (F. C. Kirkwood, J. Sommer) , and 1 seen at White Marsh 
on October 12, 1951 (C. D. Hackman) ; District of Columbia, 1 
seen on December 29, 1952 (A. Wetmore) . A few other records 
from the Piedmont section were found to be birds that had escaped 
from captivity. 

Habitat. — Usually on the higher ridges and in the vicinity of 
cliffs. 

Nesting season. — A pair found in Garrett County at Finzel 
during the summer of 1899 was reported to have nested there for 
several years (Preble, 1900), and an occupied nest was found 
there on May 15, 1903 (Eifrig, 1904) . In Allegany County, about 
25 pairs were found nesting in a colony at Rocky Gap, 6 miles east 
of Cumberland (Eifrig, 1904), and on May 15, 1902, several were 
observed carrying food there (G. Eifrig). A nest containing 
nearly full-grown young was observed on March 28 and April 4, 
1904, on Will's Mountain at the Narrows, a mile northwest of 
Cumberland (Eifrig, 1905) . Three young were banded in an Alle- 
gany County nest on May 7, 1950 (S. F. Sigwald) . 

COMMON CROW Corvus brachyrhynchos Brehm 

Status. — Breeding and transient: Common in all sections. 
Wintering : Abundant in the Piedmont section, in the eastern part 
of the Ridge and Valley section (Hagerstown Valley in Washing- 
ton County), and in or near the tidewater areas of the Eastern 
Shore section; common elsewhere in the Eastern Shore section 
and in the Upper Chesapeake and Western Shore sections; fairly 
common in the western part of the Ridge and Valley section (west 
of Hagerstown Valley) ; uncommon in the Allegheny Mountain 
section. ] 

Habitat. — Agricultural lands and adjacent woodland. 

Nesting season. — Early March to early June (nesting peak, 
late March to mid-May) . Extreme egg dates (243 nests) : March 
13, 1888, in Baltimore County (W. N. Wholey) and May 20, 1900, 
in Baltimore County (F. C. Kirkwood) . Extreme nestling dates 
(73 nests) : April 7, 1917, in Dorchester County (R. W. Jackson) 
and June 10, 1948, in Montgomery County. 

Spring migration. — Normal period: February 1-10 to April 
10-20 ; peak, February 20 to March 20. 

Fall migration. — Normal period: September 10-20 to Novem- 
ber 20-30; peak, October 20 to November 20. 



BIRDS OF MARYLAND AND DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 221 

Breeding population densities (pairs per 100 acres). — 

0.6 (16 in 2,656 acres) in mixed forest and brush habitats (both pine and 
deciduous) with small scattered agricultural areas and abandoned fields, 
near the boundary between Anne Arundel and Prince Georges Counties 
in 1943. 

0.1 (9 in 11,520 acres) in "general farm land" (various agricultural habitats, 
chiefly hayfields and pastures, with little cover owing to widespread 
clean-farming practices) in Frederick County in 1950 (Stewart and 
Meanley, 1950). 

Maximum counts. — Winter: 200,000 in a roost in the District 
of Columbia during the winter of 1919-20 (Oberholser, 1920) ; 
11,000 at Elliott Island, Dorchester County, on December 28, 1953 
(J. W. Terborgh, et al.) ; 10,000 near Hampstead, Carroll County, 
on January 2, 1950 (Christmas count) ; 6,542 near St. Michaels, 
Talbot County, on December 29, 1954 (Christmas count). 

Banding. — One banded as a young bird in St. Marys County 
on July 26, 1939, was recovered in Montgomery County (letter 
of December 2, 1939), and an adult banded in Prince Georges 
County on June 18, 1947, was recovered in Anne Arundel County 
(about 12 miles from point of banding) on December 27, 1948. 
Two birds, recovered in Howard and Washington Counties in late 
fall and winter (November 14, January 7), had both been banded 
as juvenals in southeastern Quebec in late soring (May 15, June 
7). 

FISH CROW Ccrvus ossifragus Wilson 

Status. — Breeding (see fig. 37) : Fairly common in the tide- 
water areas of the Eastern Shore, Western Shore, and Upper 
Chesapeake sections; uncommon and local in the Piedmont, and 
Ridge and Valley sections (occurring in Frederick and Hagers- 
town Valleys) . Transient: Common in the Eastern Shore section; 
fairly common in the Upper Chesapeake section and in the tide- 
water areas of the Western Shore section; uncommon elsewhere 
in the Western Shore section and in the Piedmont, and Ridge 
and Valley sections. Wintering: Uncommon in the tidewater 
areas of the Eastern Shore, Western Shore, and Upper Chesa- 
peake sections; rare in the interior of these sections and in the 
Piedmont and Ridge and Valley sections. 

Habitat. — Wood margin, field, shore, and marsh habitats that 
are adjacent to tidewater; in the interior, also occurs sparingly 
in Frederick and Washington Counties in agricultural fields and 
field borders. 

Nesting season. — Late March to late June (nesting peak, late 
April to early June). Extreme egg dates (27 nests) : March 30. 



222 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 62, FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 




Figure 37. — Breeding range of Fish Crow. 

1864, in Montgomery County, near the District of Columbia line 
(USNM— T. B. Rice) and June 8, 1894, in Worcester County 
(Kirkwood, 1895). Extreme nestling dates (4 nests): May 14, 
1932, in Anne Arundel County (M. B. Meanley) and June 8, 
1894, in Worcester County (Kirkwood, 1895). 

Spring migration. — Normal period: February 1-10 to May 
1-10; peak, March 1 to April 15. 

Fall migration. — Normal period: September 20-30 to Decem- 
ber 15-25; peak, October 20 to December 10. 

Maximum counts. — Spring: 250 at Aliens Fresh, Charles 
County, on March 29, 1953 (J. W. Terborgh) ; 160 in Talbot 
County on April 2, 1946; 125 in Worcester County on April 7, 
1946. Fall: 75 in southern Dorchester County on November 27, 
1954; 50 in the District of Columbia on October 13, 1950 (I. R. 
Barnes). Winter: 200 in the District of Columbia on December 
23, 1906 (W. L. McAtee) ; 175 at Pt. Lookout, St. Marys County, 
on December 23, 1938 (Christmas count) ; 103 at the Susquehanna 
Flats on December 20, 1947 (Christmas count). 

Family PARIDAE 
BLACK-CAPPED CHICKADEE Parus atricapillus Linnaeus 

Status. — Breeding (see fig. 38) : Common in the Allegheny 



BIRDS OF MARYLAND AND DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 



223 




LEGEND 
BLACK-CAPPED CHICKADEE 
J Principal Range 

CAROLINA CHICKADEE 

l'i, ' | Principal Range 

UUmi Overlapping oreo 



Figure 38. — Breeding ranges of Black-capped Chickadee and 

Chickadee. 



Carolina 



Mountain section ; fairly common in the western part of the Ridge 
and Valley section (Allegany County) ; rare and local in the 
eastern part of the Ridge and Valley section and in the northern 
part of the Piedmont section (occurring near the Pennsylvania 
line in Carroll County and on the higher ridges of Washington 
and Frederick Counties). Transient and wintering: Common 
in the Allegheny Mountain section and in the western part of the 
Ridge and Valley section (Allegany County) ; uncommon in the 
eastern part of the Ridge and Valley section and in the northern 
part of the Piedmont section (most numerous in the mountains 
and along the Potomac River in Washington and Frederick 
Counties and in the tier of counties along the Pennsylvania State 
line) ; rare and irregular (fairly common in flight years) else- 
where in the Piedmont, Upper Chesapeake, Western Shore, and 
Eastern Shore sections — much more numerous than usual during 
the winter of 1884-85 in Baltimore County (A. H. Jennings) 
and the District of Columbia (Palmer, 1885), and during the 
winter of 1954-55 throughout the State. 

Habitat. — Various forest and wood margin types; in winter 
shows a greater preference for weedy fields and pine stands 
than does the Carolina Chickadee. 



224 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 62, FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 

Nesting season. — In Garrett County an occupied nest was 
found on May 29, 1949, and nest-building was observed on June 
26, 1949. Extreme nestling dates (3 nests) : June 12, 1955 (J. 
R. Worthley), and June 17, 1955 (Dr. and Mrs. J. R. Travis), 
all in Garrett County. 

Period of occurrence outside of breeding areas. — Extreme 
arrival dates: October 15, 1892, and October 15, 1893, in Balti- 
more County (F. C. Kirkwood) ; October 22, 1954, in Anne 
Arundel County (Mrs. W. L. Henderson, Mrs. G. Tappan) ; 
October 23, 1954, in Baltimore County (C. M. Buchanan) ; October 
24, 1954, in Prince Georges County; October 24, 1896, in the 
District of Columbia (USNM — W. Palmer). Occurrence peak: 
November 1 to March 1. Extreme departure dates: May 8, 1955, 
in Anne Arundel County (Mrs. W. L. Henderson, Mrs. G. Tap- 
pan) ; May 6, 1955, in Baltimore County (S. W. Simon) ; April 24, 
1955, in Prince Georges County; April 23, 1885, in the District 
of Columbia (USNM— A. H. Jennings) . 

Maximum counts. — Spring: 25+ near Oakland, Garrett 
County, on March 14, 1953 (K. F. Sanders, H. E. Slater) . Winter 
(Christmas counts during flight year, 1954-55) : 173 in the 
District of Columbia area on January 1, 1955; 158 in Garrett 
County on December 31, 1954; 138 in the Catoctin Mountain 
area in Frederick and Washington Counties on January 1, 1955; 
14 in the St. Michaels area, Talbot County, on December 29, 1954 ; 
12 in the Ocean City area on December 27, 1954. Winter (Christ- 
mas counts during other years) : 104 in Allegany County on 
December 31, 1949; 85 in the Catoctin Mountain area, Frederick 
County, on January 2, 1950; 7 near Perry Point, Cecil County, 
on December 27, 1952. 

Banding. — One banded in north-central Connecticut on Jan- 
uary 13, 1925, was recovered in Baltimore County on April 12, 
1930. 

CAROLINA CHICKADEE Parus caro/inens/s Audubon 

Status. — Permanent resident (see fig. 38) . Common in the 
Eastern Shore, Western Shore, and Upper Chesapeake sections; 
fairly common in the Piedmont section and the eastern part of 
the Ridge and Valley section (Frederick and Washington Coun- 
ties) ; uncommon in Allegany County. 

Habitat. — Various forest and wood margin types. 

Nesting season. — Mid-March to late June (nesting peak, mid- 
April to late May) . Nest-building was observed in Montgomery 
County as early as March 18, 1950 (W. B. Tyrrell). A female 



BIRDS OF MARYLAND AND DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 225 

with an egg nearly ready to be laid was collected in the District 
of Columbia on April 11, 1888 (Cooke, 1929). Extreme egg 
dates (47 nests) : April 16, 1913, in Dorchester County (Jackson, 
1941) and May 29, 1950, in Prince Georges County. Extreme 
nestling dates (45 nests) : April 30, 1949, and June 29, 1944, 
both in Prince Georges County. Young not long out of the nest 
were observed on July 23, 1893 (Kirkwood, 1895). 
Breeding population densities (pairs per 100 acres). — 

9 (7 in 80 acres) in "central hardwood forest (oaks-tulip-poplar) with scat- 
tered pine" in the District of Columbia in 1951; 6 (5 in 80 acres) in 
1949; 5 (4 in 80 acres) in 1948, 1952, and 1953 (Trever, 1952; Clagett, 
1952 and 1953) ; 4 (3y 2 in 80 acres) in 1954 (Wright, 1955). 

6 (2 in 32% acres) in well-drained flood-plain forest (sweetgum, hornbeam, 
river birch, tulip-poplar, etc.) along the boundary between Anne Arundel 
and Prince Georges Counties in 1944; 5 (4.3 in 85 acres) in other areas 
of this habitat in 1945 (Stewart, et al., 1946). 

5 (1.5 in 28 acres) in partially opened flood-plain forest (sycamore, ash, elm, 
etc.) in Montgomery County in 1943 (J. W. Aldrich, A. J. Duvall). 

5 (1.5 in 30 acres) in "damp deciduous scrub with standing dead trees" 
(burned-over, poorly drained upland forest) in Prince Georges County 
in 1948 (Oresman, et al., 1948). 

Maximum counts. — Winter (Christmas counts) : 816 in the 
District of Columbia area on January 1, 1955; 508 in the Ocean 
City area on December 27, 1954; 372 in the Annapolis area on 
January 1, 1956; 347 in the St. Michaels area, Talbot County, 
on December 29, 1955; 219 at Patuxent Refuge on January 12, 
1950; 185 in southern Dorchester County on December 28, 1953. 

BOREAL CHICKADEE Pcrrus hudsonicus Forster 

Status. — Accidental visitor. One was seen near Rockville, 
Montgomery County, on December 12 (P. G. DuMont, K. Stecher) 
and was collected ( USNM) at the same location on December 19, 
1954 (Stecher, 1955). On January 25, 1955, 1 was seen at the 
feeding station of Mrs. H. W. Smith in Cumberland, and at about 
the same time another was seen, also in Cumberland (fide N. 
Livingston). 

TUFTED TITMOUSE Parus bico/or Linnaeus 

Status. — Permanent resident. Common in the Eastern Shore, 
Western Shore, Upper Chesapeake, and Piedmont sections ; fairly 
common in the Ridge and Valley section; uncommon in the 
Allegheny Mountain section. 

Habitat. — Various types of deciduous forest. 

Nesting season. — Mid-March to mid-July (nesting peak, mid- 
April to early June). Nest-building was recorded as early as 



226 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 62, FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 

March 14, 1939, in Montgomery County (W. B. Tyrrell). Ex- 
treme egg dates (73 nests) : April 14, 1946, in Montgomery 
County (J. N. Hamlet) and June 26, 1918, in Dorchester County 
(Jackson, 1941). Extreme nestling dates (36 nests) : May 7, 
1914, in Prince Georges County (A. Wetmore) and July 10, 1953, 
in Caroline County (M. W. Hewitt). Young not long out of the 
nest were recorded on August 3, 1919 (Cooke, 1929), and on 
August 4, 1894 (Kirkwood, 1895) . 

Breeding population densities (pairs per 100 acres) . — 

13 (11 in 85 acres) in well -drained flood-plain forest (sweetgum, hornbeam, 
river birch, tulip-poplar, etc.) along the boundary between Anne Arundel 
and Prince Georges Counties in 1945 (Stewart, et al., 1946) ; 12 (4 in 
32% acres) in another area of the same habitat in 1944. 

13 (3 in 23% acres) in upland oak forest (white, scarlet, and black oaks) in 
Prince Georges County in 1944. 

12 (10 in 80 acres) in "central hardwood forest (oaks-tulip-poplar) with 
scattered pine" in the District of Columbia in 1951; 6 (5 in 80 acres) 
in 1948, 1949, 1953, and 1954 (Trever, 1952; Clagett, 1953; Wright, 
1955) ; only 2 pairs were present in 1952 (Clagett, 1952). 

11 (4 in 37 acres) in "mixed oak forest" (white, scarlet, and chestnut oaks, 
etc.) in Baltimore County in 1951, 1952, and 1953 (Kolb and Cole, 1951; 
Kaufmann, et al., 1952; Cole and Kolb, 1953) ; 6 (2.5 in 40 acres) in 1948 
(Kolb, et al., 1948) ; 5 (2 in 40 acres) in 1949 and 1950 (Kolb, 1949a and 
1950). 

11 (2 in 18% acres) in "second growth river swamp" (red maple, sweetgum, 
black gum, etc. with dense understory of holly, sweet pepperbush, and 
greenbrier) in Worcester County in 1948 (Springer and Stewart, 1948d). 

10 (3.5 in 36 acres) in "central hardwood deciduous forest" (white oak- 
tulip-poplar) in Prince Georges County in 1947 (Stewart and Robbins, 
1947b). 

9 (4 in 44% acres) in river bluff forest (beech, white oak, and scarlet oak) 
in Prince Georges County in 1945; 7 (3 in 44% acres) in 1944 (J. W. 
Aldrich, A. J. Duvall). 

7 (2 in 28 acres) in partially opened flood-plain forest (sycamore, ash, elm, 
etc.) in Montgomery County in 1943 (J. W. Aldrich, A. J. Duvall). 

6 (2 in 32% acres) in pine-oak forest (pitch pine, scrub pine, and Spanish 
oak) in Prince Georges County in 1944. 

6 (1.5 in 24% acres) in river terrace forest (beech-white oak) in Prince 
Georges County in 1944. 

Maximum counts. — Winter (Christmas counts) : 476 in the 
District of Columbia area on December 31, 1955; 290 in the 
Ocean City area on December 27, 1954; 217 in the Annapolis 
area on January 1, 1956; 180 on Patuxent Refuge on December 
28, 1945; 112 in the Catoctin Mountain area in Frederick and 
Washington Counties on January 2, 1954; 92 in southern Dor- 
chester County on December 28, 1955 ; 84 in Allegany County on 
December 31, 1949. 



BIRDS OF MARYLAND AND DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 



227 



Family SITTIDAE 
WHITE-BREASTED NUTHATCH Sitta caro/inensis Latham 

Status. — Breeding (see fig. 39) : Fairly common in the Alle- 
gheny Mountain and Piedmont sections; fairly common locally 
in the Eastern Shore and Western Shore sections (most numerous 
in the swamp along the Pocomoke River and its tributaries, and 
in the Greensand District of east-central Prince Georges County — 
see Harper, 1918; rare and irregular elsewhere) ; uncommon in 
the Ridge and Valley section ; rare or absent in the Upper Chesa- 
peake section. Transient and wintering: Usually fairly common 
in all sections, but varying considerably in abundance from year 
to year. 

Habitat. — Flood-plain and swamp forests ; and moist deciduous 
forest types on the upland. 

Nesting season. — Late March to mid-July (nesting peak, mid- 
April to late May). Nest-building was recorded as early as 
March 31, 1894, in Baltimore County (P. T. Blogg) . Extreme 
egg dates (11 nests) : April 7, 1894, in Baltimore County (P. T. 
Blogg) and May 17, 1881, in Washington County (Small, 1881b). 
Extreme nestling dates (11 nests) : April 30, 1948, in the District 
of Columbia (T. W. Donnelly) and June 10, 1956, in Garrett 




LEGEND 

j| ii 1U Principal Range 
• Local Record 



Figure 39.— Breeding range of White-breasted Nuthatch. 



11% NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 62, FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 

County (G. Knight). Nest-building was recorded as late as 
June 1, 1935, in Allegany County (L. M. Llewellyn) . Kirkwood 
(1895) recorded young just out of the nest as late as July 26, 
1894. 

Spring migration. — Normal period: February 25-March 5 to 
April 25-May 5; peak, March 5 to April 10. 

Fall migration. — Normal period: September 15-25 to No- 
vember 1-10; peak, October 10 to November 1. As early as the 
first week in July there frequently is a light movement of White- 
breasted Nuthatches into areas that are within 5 or 10 miles of 
its nesting range. 

Breeding population densities (pairs per 100 acres) . — 

6 (2 in 36 acres) in "virgin central hardwood forest" (white oak-tulip-poplar) 
in Prince Georges County in 1947 (Stewart and Robbins, 1947b). 

6 (5 in 80 acres) in "central hardwood forest (oaks-tulip-poplar) with scat- 
tered pine" in the District of Columbia in 1948; 5 (4 in 80 acres) in 
1951, 3 (2.5 in 80 acres) in 1949 (Trever, 1952) ; and 2.5 (2 in 80 acres) 
in 1952 and 1953 (Clagett, 1952 and 1953). 

5 (2 in 40 acres) in "mixed oak forest" (white, scarlet, and chestnut oaks, 
etc.) in Baltimore County in 1949 (Kolb, 1949a) ; 5 (2 in 37 acres) in 
1951, 1952, and 1953 (Kolb and Cole, 1951; Kaufmann, et al., 1952; Cole 
and Kolb, 1953) ; 3 (1 in 40 acres) in 1948 (Kolb, et al., 1948) and in 
1950 (Kolb, 1950). 

5 (1.5 in 28 acres) in partially opened flood-plain forest (sycamore, ash, 
elm, etc.) in Montgomery County in 1943 (J. W. Aldrich, A. J. Duvall). 

Maximum counts. — Winter (Christmas counts) : 188 in the 
District of Columbia area on January 1, 1955; 71 at Patuxent 
Refuge on January 14, 1952; 71 in the Catoctin Mountain area 
on December 30, 1951; 36 near Chase, Baltimore County, on 
December 29, 1951; 25 in southeastern Worcester County on 
December 22, 1947 ; 22 in Garrett County on December 31, 1954. 

RED-BREASTED NUTHATCH Sitta canadensis Linnaeus 

Status. — Breeding ( ?) : Rare and irregular in the Allegheny 
Mountain section. "A small flock of these birds, evidently a 
family, was seen on the branches of a tall dead tree, in the deep 
woods near Bittinger [during the period June 17-July 24, 1899]. 
It was also seen near Finzel about the middle of May when it 
was undoubtedly breeding" (Preble, 1900). A singing male was 
observed along the Youghiogheny River on June 4, 1919 (J. M. 
Sommer), and this species has also been referred to as nesting 
along the Youghiogheny River by Brooks (1937) . Brooks reports 
that 1 was seen in the Maryland portion of Cranesville Swamp 
in June, 1932. Transient and ivintering : Of irregular occurrence 
in all sections but usually most numerous in the Piedmont and 



BIRDS OF MARYLAND AND DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 229 

Western Shore sections. This species is very erratic in its move- 
ments and extremely variable in abundance from year to year, 
ranging from being entirely absent to locally common. Summer 
vagrant: One was seen in Prince Georges County on July 22, 
1943 (Stewart, et al., 1952). 

Habitat. — Breeding: Stands of red spruce and hemlock. 
Transient and tvintering: Most numerous in stands of pine, par- 
ticularly scrub pine and pitch pine; also occurs occasionally in 
various deciduous forest types. 

Spring migration. — Normal period: March 5-15 to May 5-15; 
peak, March 20 to April 10. Extreme departure dates: May 23, 
1949, in Prince Georges County; May 18, 1886 (H. M. Smith), 
and May 18, 1913 (J. H. Riley) , in the District of Columbia. 

Fall migration. — Normal period: September 1-10 to October 
25-November 5; peak, September 20 to October 20. Extreme 
arrival dates: August 22, 1903, in the District of Columbia (W. 
L. McAtee) ; August 30, 1948, in Prince Georges County; August 
31, 1918, in Montgomery County (R. W. Moore). 

Maximum counts. — Winter (Christmas counts) : 109 in the 
District of Columbia area on January 1, 1955; 58 at Patuxent 
Refuge on January 14, 1952; 36 near Denton, Caroline County, 
on January 1, 1955; 24 in the Ocean City area on December 27, 
1954; 23 at Point Lookout, St. Marys County, on December 22, 
1937. 

BROWN-HEADED NUTHATCH Sitta pusilla Latham 

Status. — Permanent resident (see fig. 40). Common in the 
tidewater areas of Somerset, Wicomico, Dorchester, and Talbot 
Counties, and locally in the coastal area of Worcester County; 
fairly common in the tidewater areas of southern St. Marys 
County; uncommon and local in the tidewater areas of Queen 
Annes County and southern Calvert County. 

Habitat. — Open stands of loblolly pine near tidewater (usually 
at the margins of tidal marshes) . 

Nesting season. — Early April to mid-June. Extreme egg 
dates (7 nests) : April 15, 1931, in St. Marys County (E. J. Court) 
and May 7, 1920, in Dorchester County (Jackson, 1941). Ex- 
treme nestling dates (4 nests) : May 5, 1925, in Talbot County 
(R. W. Jackson) and June 10, 1896, in Somerset County (F. C. 
Kirkwood). Kirkwood (1895) also recorded a pair building a 
nest in Queen Annes County as late as May 25, 1892. 

Maximum counts. — Winter: 214 in southern Dorchester Coun- 
ty on December 28, 1953 (Christmas count) ; 130 in the St. 



230 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 62, FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 




LEGEND 
BROWN-HEADED NUTHATCH 
I Principal Range 

• Local Record 

HERMIT THRUSH 

j^^J Principal Range 



Figure 40. — Breeding ranges of Brown-headed Nuthatch and Hermit Thrush. 



Michaels area, Talbot County, on December 29, 1955 (Christmas 
count) ; 127 along the western shores of Sinepuxent and Newport 
Bays on December 27, 1953 (Ocean City Christmas count) ; 70 
at Point Lookout, St. Marys County, on January 31, 1954 (J. W. 
Terborgh, et al.). 

Family CERTHIIDAE 

BROWN CREEPER Certhia familiaris Linnaeus 

Status. — Breeding ( ?) : Possibly nests occasionally in the 
Allegheny Mountain section — a female was collected in Garrett 
County at Bittinger on June 28, 1899 (Preble, 1900) . This species 
has been found during the nesting season in the West Virginia 
portion of Cranesville Swamp (Brooks, 1936c). Transient and 
wintering: Fairly common in all sections. Summer vagrant: A 
singing bird was observed on Patuxent Refuge, Prince Georges 
County, on June 2, 1944 (Stewart, et al., 1952) ; 1 was observed 
near Pikesville, Baltimore County, on July 22, 1949 (I. K. Kuch) ; 
1 was recorded at Gibson Island, Anne Arundel County, on August 
30, 1953 (Mrs. W. L. Henderson). 

Habitat. — Various types of deciduous and coniferous forests. 

Spring migration. — Normal period: March 15-25 to April 
20-30; peak, March 25 to April 15. Extreme departure dates: 



BIRDS OF MARYLAND AND DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 231 

May 13, 1930, in Baltimore County (W. Marshall) ; May 12, 1951, 
in Montgomery County (C. N. Mason, K. Niles) ; May 8, 1954, 
in Caroline County (N. W. Hewitt). 

Fall migration. — Normal period: September 25-October 5 to 
November 10-20; peak, October 15 to November 10. Extreme 
arrival dates: September 11, 1911, in Montgomery County (R. 
W. Moore) ; September 14, 1913, in Baltimore County (J. M. 
Sommer). 

Maximum counts. — Winter (Christmas counts) : 87 in the 
District of Columbia area on January 1, 1955; 58 in the Ocean 
City area on December 27, 1954; 48 at Patuxent Refuge on 
January 14, 1952 ; 31 in southern Dorchester County on December 
28, 1955; 21 in the Catoctin Mountain area of Frederick and 
Washington Counties on January 2, 1954. 

Family TROGLODYTIDAE 
HOUSE WREN Troglodytes aedort Vieillot 

Status. — Breeding and transient: Common in all sections. 
Wintering: Uncommon in Worcester County; rare in Somerset, 
Wicomico, Dorchester, and St. Marys Counties; casual elsewhere 
— recorded in Prince Georges County on February 11, 1953 (L. 
W. Oring), in Baltimore County on December 11, 1948 (H. Kolb), 
December 16, 1928 (J. M. Sommer), December 30, 1952-January 
2, 1953, and January 3, 1954 (E. Willis), in Frederick County 
on December 27, 1952 (Mrs. J. W. Richards), in Charles County 
on January 30, 1954 (J. W. Terborgh, R. R. Kerr) . 

Habitat. — Various edge habitats, including brushland, wood 
margins, hedgerows, orchards, and residential areas. 

Nesting season. — Early May to early September (nesting 
peak, mid-May to late July). Extreme egg dates (248 nests) : 
May 3, 1946, in Prince Georges County and August 12, 1947, 
in Prince Georges County (E. G. Cooley). Extreme nestling 
dates (317 nests) : May 22, 1945, in Prince Georges County (E. 
G. Cooley) and September 2, 1919, in Baltimore County (W. 
Marshall) . 

Spring migration. — Normal period: April 10-20 to May 10-20; 
peak, April 20 to May 5. Extreme arrival dates: March 26, 1910, 
in the District of Columbia (E. B. Gregg) ; March 26, 1950, in 
Montgomery County (P. A. DuMont) ; April 2, 1949, in Prince 
Georges County (E. G. Davis). 

Fall migration. — Normal period: September 1-10 to October 
10-20 ; peak, September 10 to September 25. Extreme departure 
dates: November 19, 1950, in the District of Columbia (T. D. 



232 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 62, FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 

Burleigh) ; November 13, 1954, in Baltimore County (C. M. 
Buchanan) . 

Breeding population densities (territorial males per 100 
acres) . — 
100 (5 in 5 acres) in farmyard and orchard in Prince Georges County in 

1948. 
58 (13 in 22% acres) in abandoned field saturated with nesting boxes in 

Prince Georges County in 1949. 
50 (15 in 30 acres) in "damp deciduous scrub with standing dead trees" 

(burned-over poorly drained upland forest) in Prince Georges County in 

1947 (Stewart, et al., 1947). 
47 (7 in 15 acres) in abandoned farmyard in Prince Georges County in 1947. 
15 (3 in 20 acres) in suburban-type residential area (including small orchards 

and large expanses of lawn) in Prince Georges County in 1942. 
14 (3 in 22 acres) in "unsprayed apple orchard with infrequently mowed 

ground cover" in Worcester County in 1948 (Springer and Stewart, 

1948b). 
11 (2 in 17% acres) in "lightly sprayed apple orchard with rye planted as 

ground cover" in Worcester County in 1948 (Springer and Stewart, 

1948b) . 

Maximum counts. — Spring: 135 at Gibson Island, Anne 
Arundel County, on May 8, 1955 (Mrs. W. L. Henderson, Mrs. 
G. Tappan) ; 75 at Unity, Montgomery County, on May 9, 1953 
(S. H. Low) ; 31 at Greenbelt, Prince Georges County, on May 9, 
1953 (L. W. Oring, et al.). Fall: 13 at Patuxent Refuge on 
September 13, 1943. Winter: 4 in the Ocean City area on De- 
cember 27, 1950 (Christmas count) ; 3 at Point Lookout, St. 
Marys County, on January 31, 1954 (R. R. Kerr, J. W. Terborgh) . 

Banding. — One banded as a nestling at Unity, Montgomery 
County, on July 26, 1953, was recovered 15 miles away at Belts- 
ville, Prince Georges County, on May 28, 1954. 

WINTER WREN Troglodytes troglodytes (Linnaeus) 

Status. — Breeding: Formerly locally common in the Allegheny 
Mountain section, occurring in Garrett County along the head- 
waters of the Casselman River in the valley between Negro and 
Meadow Mountains (Behr, 1914) ; they were last recorded in 
this area by Eifrig (1915 and 1920), who found a small colony 
during the summer of 1914; the only recent indication of this 
species breeding in Garrett County was 1 seen in summer in 
the Maryland portion of Cranes ville Swamp (M. G. Brooks). 
Transient: Fairly common in all sections. Wintering: Locally 
common in the Eastern Shore section (most numerous along the 
Pocomoke River and its tributaries) ; fairly common in the 
Western Shore and Upper Chesapeake sections; uncommon in 



BIRDS OF MARYLAND AND DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 233 

the Piedmont, and Ridge and Valley sections; rare in the Alle- 
gheny Mountain section. 

Habitat. — Breeding: To be looked for in boreal types of forest 
that contain red spruce. Transient and wintering: Swamp and 
flood-plain forests and rich, moist forests on the upland. 

Spring migration. — Normal period: March 25-April 5 to April 
25-May 5; peak, April 10 to April 25. Extreme departure dates: 
May 10, 1950, in Prince Georges County ; May 9, 1909, in Mont- 
gomery County (A. M. Stimson) ; May 9, 1950, in Baltimore 
County (A. A. Brandenburg). 

Fall migration. — Normal period: September 25-October 5 to 
November 15-25; peak, October 10 to November 10. Extreme 
arrival dates: September 19, 1953, in Washington County (R. S. 
StaufFer) ; September 20, 1947, in Baltimore County (H. Kolb) ; 
September 21, 1901, in Allegany County (G. Eifrig) ; September 
23, 1948, in Frederick and Prince Georges Counties. 

Maximum counts. — Spring: 11 on April 27, 1950, on Patuxent 
Refuge. Fall: 10 on October 27, 1943, on Patuxent Refuge. Winter 
(Christmas counts) : 68 in the Ocean City area on December 27, 
1954 ; 47 in southeastern Worcester County on December 23, 1946 ; 
39 in southern Dorchester County on December 28, 1953; 33 in 
the District of Columbia area on January 1, 1955; 26 in the 
Wicomico River area in Charles and St. Marys Counties on 
January 1, 1954; 19 at Patuxent Refuge on December 29, 1944; 
18 in the Catoctin Mountain area in Frederick and Washington 
Counties on January 2, 1954; 5 in Garrett County on December 
31, 1954. 

Banding. — One banded in southeastern Massachusetts on Oc- 
tober 10, 1940, was recovered in Somerset County on April 8, 
1941. 

BEWICK'S WREN Thryomanes bewkkii (Audubon) 

Status. — Breeding (see fig. 41) : Fairly common in the western 
part of the Ridge and Valley section (east to Indian Springs) ; 
uncommon in the Allegheny Mountain section and in the eastern 
part of the Ridge and Valley section; casual in the Piedmont 
section — found nesting near Cooksville, Howard County, in 1949 
(D. H. Mcintosh), and at Millers, Carroll County, in 1954 (J. 
R. Worthley). Transient: Uncommon in the Ridge and Valley, 
and Allegheny Mountain sections; rare in the Piedmont section; 
casual in the Western Shore, Upper Chesapeake, and Eastern 
Shore sections — 1 collected in Prince Georges County on April 8, 
1944 (Stewart, et al., 1952), 1 seen in Baltimore County on 



Z34 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 62, FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 




LEGEND 
Vy/^X Principal Range 
• Local Record 



Figure 41. — Breeding range of Bewick's Wren. 



April 16, 1950 (E. Willis), 1 seen in Worcester County on April 3, 
1948 (S. H. Low). Summer vagrant: Rare and irregular in the 
Piedmont section. Wintering: Casual — recorded in Worcester 
County in 1953 (J. E. Knudson), in Caroline County in 1954-55 
(Mr. and Mrs. A. J. Fletcher), in Baltimore County in 1953-54 
(Worthley, 1954), in Montgomery County in 1954 (S. W. Simon, 
R. P. Dubois), and in the District of Columbia in 1890 (C. W. 
Richmond) . 

Habitat. — Various edge habitats in the vicinity of farm houses 
or in towns. 

Nesting season. — Late April to mid-July. Extreme egg dates 
(8 nests) : April 30, 1890, in Washington County (G. H. Gray) 
and June 26, 1907, in Allegany County (F. C. Kirkwood). Ex- 
treme nestling dates (10 nests) : May 12, 1907 (young left nest), 
and July 13, 1907, both in Allegany County (F. C. Kirkwood). 

Spring migration. — Normal period: March 25-April 5 to April 
25-May 5; peak, April 5 to April 25. Extreme arrival date: 
March 12, 1901, in Allegany County (G. Eifrig). Extreme 
departure date: May 9, 1953, in Montgomery County (S. H. Low). 

Fall migration. — Extreme arrival date: September 9, 1928, 
in Montgomery County (H. H. T. Jackson). Extreme departure 
dates: November 23, 1954, in Washington County (Mrs. R. B. 



BIRDS OF MARYLAND AND DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 235 

Green) ; November 22, 1953, in Montgomery County (T. W. 
Davis) . 

CAROLINA WREN Thryothorus ludovicianus (Latham) 

Status. — Permanent resident. Common in the Eastern Shore 
and Western Shore sections; fairly common in the Upper Chesa- 
peake, Piedmont, and Ridge and Valley sections; rare in the 
Allegheny Mountain section. Periodically, large numbers of this 
species are winter-killed; during subsequent years, a gradual 
build-up to usual population levels may be noted. 

Habitat. — Brushy swamps and flood-plain forests and rich, 
moist forests on the upland. 

Nesting season. — Late March to late September (nesting peak, 
mid-April to early July). Nest-building was recorded as early 
as March 22, 1954, in Baltimore County (E. Willis). Extreme 
egg dates (43 nests) : April 5, 1949, in Baltimore County (I. K. 
Kuch) and August 10, 1893, in Baltimore County (Kirkwood, 
1895). Extreme nestling dates (34 nests): April 25, 1926, in 
the District of Columbia (W. H. Ball) and September 26, 1955, 
in Baltimore County (M. R. Gatchell). 

Breeding population densities (territorial males per 100 
acres). — 

11 (9 in 80 acres) in "central hardwood forest (oaks-tulip-poplar) with scat- 
tered pine" in the District of Columbia in 1951, absent in 1948 and 1949 
(Trever, 1952) ; also absent in 1952 and 1954, 1 pair in 1953 (Clagett, 
1953). 

8 (3 in 36 acres) in "virgin central hardwood deciduous forest" (white oak- 
tulip-poplar) in Prince Georges County in 1947 (Stewart and Robbins, 
1947b). 

6 (4.8 in 85 acres) in "well-drained flood-plain forest" (sweetgum, hornbeam, 
river birch, tulip-poplar, etc.) along the boundary between Anne Arundel 
and Prince Georges Counties in 1945 (Stewart, et al., 1946) ; 6 (2 in 32% 
acres) in another area of this habitat in 1944. 

Maximum counts. — Winter (Christmas counts) : 286 in the 
Ocean City area on December 27, 1954; 207 in the Annapolis 
area on January 2, 1955; 181 in the District of Columbia area 
on January 1, 1955 ; 148 in the St. Michaels area, Talbot County, 
on December 29, 1955; 55 in the Catoctin Mountain area on 
January 2, 1954. 

LONG-BILLED MARSH WREN Telmatodytes palustris (Wilson) 

Status. — Breeding (see fig. 4) : Abundant in the tidewater 
areas of the Eastern Shore, Western Shore, and Upper Chesa- 
peake sections. Transient: Abundant in the tidewater areas of 
the Eastern Shore, Western Shore, and Upper Chesapeake sec- 



236 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 62, FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 

tions; uncommon elsewhere in all sections. Wintering: Fairly 
common in the tidewater areas of Somerset, Wicomico, and 
Dorchester Counties ; uncommon in the tidewater areas elsewhere 
in the Eastern Shore and Western Shore sections; rare in the 
tidewater areas of the Upper Chesapeake section. 

Habitat. — In the salt marshes during the breeding season this 
species occurs in the greatest numbers in stands of needlerush 
but also occurs regularly in areas of salt-meadow grass and salt- 
water cordgrass that contain scattered shrubs of marsh elder 
and sea myrtle. In brackish tidal marshes, this species is found 
abundantly in marshes of cattail, salt reed-grass and reed. It 
also occurs commonly in Olney three-square marshes, especially 
when scattered shrubs are present. Transients occur in large 
numbers in many types of tidal marsh, and are found sparingly 
in the interior marshes and marsh-meadows. Wintering birds 
are usually most common in stands of salt reed-grass. 

Nesting season. — Early May to late August (nesting peak, 
early June to late July) . Extreme egg dates (217 nests) : May 3, 
1938, in St. Marys County (R. C. McClanahan) and August 9, 
1950, in Baltimore County (E. Willis). Extreme nestling dates 
(78 nests) : June 9, 1950, and August 24, 1952, both in Baltimore 
County (E. Willis). 

Spring migration. — Normal period: April 15-25 to May 10-20; 
peak, April 25 to May 10. 

Fall migration. — Normal period: September 5-15 to October 
25-November 5; peak, September 15 to October 15. Extreme 
arrival date: August 31, 1916, in the District of Columbia (Mr. 
and Mrs. L. D. Miner). Extreme departure date: November 16, 
1926, in the District of Columbia (W. H. Ball) . 

Breeding population densities (territorial males per 100 
acres) . — 
104 (23.2 in 22 x k acres) in a uniform, nearly pure stand of "needlerush 

marsh" in Somerset County in 1948 (Springer and Stewart, 1948a). 
36 (6 in 16^ acres) in "cattail marsh" (mostly narrow-leaved cattail with 
scattered swamp rose-mallow) in Calvert County in 1948 (Springer and 
Stewart, 1948a). 

Maximum counts. — Fall: 50 in the Gunpowder River marsh 
on October 25, 1900 (F. C. Kirkwood). Winter (Christmas 
counts) : 127 in southern Dorchester County on December 28, 
1953; 27 in the Ocean City area on December 21, 1952. 

SHORT-BILLED MARSH WREN Cistothorus platensis (Latham) 

Status. — Breeding (see fig. 42) : Common in the tidewater 



BIRDS OF MARYLAND AND DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 



237 




LEGEND 
I Principal Range 
# Local Record 



Figure 42. — Breeding range of Short-billed Marsh Wren. 

areas of Somerset, Wicomico, and Dorchester Counties; uncom- 
mon in the tidewater areas elsewhere in the Eastern Shore and 
Western Shore sections; uncommon and local in the Allegheny- 
Mountain section; rare and irregular in the interior of the 
Western Shore section and in the Piedmont section — recorded 
in summer from Baltimore County (F. C. Kirkwood, H. Kolb), 
Montgomery County (P. F. Springer), Prince Georges County 
(Stewart, et al., 1952), and Frederick County. Transient: 
Fairly common in the tidewater areas of the Eastern Shore 
section; rare elsewhere in all sections. Wintering: Common in 
the tidewater areas of Somerset, Wicomico, and Dorchester 
Counties; uncommon in the coastal area of Worcester County; 
rare in the tidewater areas of Talbot, Queen Annes, St. Marys, 
and Charles Counties. 

Habitat. — In the Eastern Shore and Western Shore sections, 
this species is most commonly found in switchgrass meadows 
situated along the inner margins of the tidal marshes; in the 
Allegheny Mountain section, the open sedge-meadows situated 
in boreal bogs are preferred. Other marsh types, including 
mixed brush-wet meadow areas of the barrier beaches, saltmarsh 
bulrush stands, and mixed stands of Olney three-square and 
salt-meadow grass are occasionally inhabited. This species also 



238 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 62, FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 

occurs irregularly on the upland in orchard grass hayfiields or 
pastures. 

Nesting season. — In the District of Columbia, 1 was seen 
that was apparently nest-building on May 26, 1935, and a cock 
nest was found on June 15, 1935 (Ball and Wallace, 1936) ; 
other cock nests were found in this same area on June 25, 1935 
(Ulke, 1935). At least 8 cock nests were found near Dames 
Quarter in Somerset County on June 20, 1952 (N. Hotchkiss and 
E. Miller). A nest containing heavily incubated eggs was found 
on June 25, 1935, in St. Marys County near Point Lookout 
(Wetmore, 1935). On September 13, 1896, a young bird was 
observed begging an adult for food in Dulaney Valley in Balti- 
more County (F. C. Kirkwood). 

Spring migration. — Normal period: May 1-5 to May 20-25; 
peak, May 5 to May 20. Extreme arrival dates: April 27, 1953. 
in Prince Georges County; April 30, 1929, in Montgomery County 
(W. H. Ball). Extreme departure date: June 8, 1948, in Prince 
Georges County. 

Fall migration. — Extreme dates: September 23, 1951, in 
Charles County (M. C. Crone) and November 13, 1929, in Calvert 
County (Ball, 1930b). In Garrett County this species was re- 
ported to be fairly common during early September (M. G. 
Brooks) . 

Breeding population density (territorial males per 100 
acres) . — 

10 (3 in 30 acres) in "switchgrass marsh-meadow" in Somerset County in 
1948 (Springer and Stewart, 1948a). 

Maximum counts. — Spring: 8 at Patuxent Refuge on May 9, 
1953 ; 7 at White Marsh, Baltimore County, on May 9, 1953 (C. 
D. Hackman) . Fall: 8 at Plum Point, Calvert County, on Novem- 
ber 13, 1929 (Ball, 1930c). Winter (Christmas counts) : 164 in 
southern Dorchester County on December 23, 1951; 35 in the 
Ocean City area on December 21, 1952. 

Family MIMIDAE 
MOCKINGBIRD Mimus po/yg/offos (Linnaeus) 

Status. — Semi-permanent resident (slight migratory move- 
ment between September 10 and October 10). Common in the 
Western Shore and Eastern Shore sections; fairly common in 
the Upper Chesapeake section and in the southern part of the 
Piedmont section (Howard and Montgomery Counties) ; uncom- 
mon elsewhere in the Piedmont section and in the eastern part 
of the Ridge and Valley section (Frederick and Washington 



BIRDS OF MARYLAND AND DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 239 

Counties) ; rare in the western part of the Ridge and Valley 
section (Allegany County) and in the Allegheny Mountain 
section. 

Coues and Prentiss (1883) called the Mockingbird a rare sum- 
mer resident at Washington, D. C, arriving on April 25 and 
departing in the middle of September. Kirkwood (1895) stated 
that in 1895, it was resident in the southern counties of Maryland 
and regular in summer as far north as Kent and Anne Arundel 
Counties; in the remainder of the State, he considered it only 
a straggler, and he cited all known occurrences in the Baltimore 
area, including 2 nests with eggs at Towson in 1882. Starting 
in 1901 this species began a gradual increase in the Baltimore 
area, but it was not until 1905 in Washington, D. C, and 1908 
in Baltimore County, that it began to be seen regularly through- 
out the year. The first nesting record for western Maryland 
was obtained in 1909 at Oldtown, Allegany County (Eifrig, 1909), 
and the first wintering bird was recorded in Allegany County 
in 1920-21 (Eifrig, 1921). 

Habitat. — Hedgerows, wood margins, and other edge habitats 
in the vicinity of residential and agricultural areas. 

Nesting season. — Early April to early September (nesting 
peak, late April to mid-July). Nest-building was recorded in 
Prince Georges County as early as April 7, 1948 (A. C. Martin) . 
Extreme egg dates (98 nests) : April 10, 1945 (B. Hoyland), 
and August 21, 1954, both in Prince Georges County. Extreme 
nestling dates (103 nests) : April 19, 1945, in Prince Georges 
County (B. Hoyland) and September 1, 1953, in Carroll County 
(D.H.Mcintosh). 

Breeding population densities (territorial males per 100 
acres) . — 

15 (3 in 20 acres) in suburban-type residential area (including small orchards 
and large expanses of lawn) in Prince Georges County in 1951 and 1952; 
10 (2 in 20 acres) in 1942. 

2 (3 in 175 acres) in mixed agricultural habitats (including hedgerows and 
wood margins) in Prince Georges County in 1951. 

Maximum counts. — Winter (Christmas counts) : 278 in the 
Annapolis area on January 1, 1956; 179 in the Triadelphia 
Reservoir area on December 24, 1955; 163 in the Washington, 
D. C, area on January 1, 1955; 137 in the St. Michaels area, 
Talbot County, on December 29, 1955 ; 70 in the Ocean City area 
on December 27, 1955; 33 in the Catoctin Mountain area of 
Frederick and Washington Counties on December 31, 1955. 

Banding. — Two young birds banded in Prince Georges County 



240 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 62, FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 

in summer (June 7, July 9) were recovered in Anne Arundel 
and Baltimore Counties in May and September (both between 
15 and 20 miles from the point of banding). One banded in 
Anne Arundel County on September 12, 1954, was recovered in 
north-central West Virginia on May 20, 1956. 

CATBIRD Dumetella carolinensis (Linnaeus) 

Status. — Breeding and transient: Common in all sections. 
Wintering: Uncommon in Worcester County and uncommon 
locally in Charles and St. Marys Counties; rare elsewhere 
in the Eastern Shore and Western Shore sections; casual in the 
Upper Chesapeake and Piedmont sections (see Cooke, 1929, and 
Brackbill, 1942 — also other scattered records) ; accidental in the 
Ridge and Valley section — 1 recorded at Cumberland on January 
23, 1921 (Eifrig, 1921), and 1 seen at McCoole, Allegany County, 
on December 21, 1947 (L. M. Llewellyn). 

Habitat. — Especially characteristic of shrub swamps and other 
brush areas on wet or moist sites; also in hedgerows and wood 
margins, and in edge habitats in residential areas. 

Nesting season. — Late April to late August (nesting peak, 
late May to mid-July). Nest building was recorded as early as 
April 30, 1953, in Anne Arundel County (Mrs. W. L. Henderson). 
Extreme egg dates (589 nests) : May 6, 1956, in Prince Georges 
County (E. C. Robbins) and August 17, 1950, in Baltimore 
County (E. Willis). Extreme nestling dates (298 nests) : May 
25, 1900, in the District of Columbia (Bartsch, 1900) and August 
27, 1950, in Baltimore County (E. Willis). 

Spring migration. — Normal period: April 20-30 to May 15-25; 
peak, May 1 to May 15. Extreme arrival dates: April 14, 1952, 
in Anne Arundel County (Mrs. W. L. Henderson, Mrs. G. Tap- 
pan) ; April 15, 1922, in the District of Columbia (L. D. Miner) ; 
April 15, 1938, in Prince Georges County (R. Overing) ; April 15, 
1940, in Baltimore County (E. A. McGinity). Extreme departure 
date: May 31, 1914, in the District of Columbia (Oberholser, 
1919). 

Fall migration. — Normal period: September 1-10 to October 
20-30. Extreme departure dates: December 1, 1955, in Frederick 
County (J. W. Richards) ; November 28, 1950, in Anne Arundel 
County (Mr. and Mrs. G. Englar) ; November 23, 1936, in Balti- 
more County (E. A. McGinity) ; November 20, 1949, in Prince 
Georges County. 

Breeding population densities (territorial males per 100 
acres) . — 



BIRDS OF MARYLAND AND DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 241 

80 (10.4 in 13 acres) in shrub swamp (alder, poison sumac, sweet pepperbush, 
swamp rose, etc.) in Prince Georges County in 1945. 

74 (7 in 9% acres) in "open hemlock-spruce bog" (brush-meadow stage with 
young red spruce, hemlock, alder, etc.) in Garrett County in 1949 (Rob- 
bins, 1949c). 

47 (9 in 19.2 acres) in "shrubby field with stream-bordered trees" in Balti- 
more County in 1947, 42 (8 in 19.2 acres) in 1946 (Cooley, 1947). 

35 (19 in 5SY2 acres) in brushy, poorly drained abandoned farmland in Prince 
Georges County in 1948; 22 (13 in 58 acres) in another area of similar 
habitat in 1947. 

9 (1.5 in 17% acres) in "lightly sprayed apple orchard with rye planted as 
ground cover" in Worcester County in 1948 (Springer and Stewart, 
1948b). 

Maximum counts. — Spring: 200+ in the Port Tobacco area, 
Charles County, on May 11, 1943 (I. N. Gabrielson, et al.) ; 150 
at Gibson Island, Anne Arundel County, on May 8, 1955 (Mrs. 
W. L. Henderson, Mrs. G. Tappan) ; 77 in the Rosedale area, 
Baltimore County, on May 6, 1950 (D. A. Jones) ; 65 in Howard 
County on May 8, 1954; 59 each in 2 District of Columbia areas 
on May 12, 1913 (Oberholser, 1917a). Winter (Christmas 
counts) : 30 in the Wicomico River area in Charles and St. Marys 
Counties on January 1, 1954; 17 in the Ocean City area on 
December 27, 1954; 12 in southern Dorchester County on Decem- 
ber 28, 1953. 

Banding. — One banded in Cecil County on May 13, 1951, was 
recovered in northeastern New Jersey on June 10, 1951. Another 
recovered in Somerset County on May 6, 1950, had been banded 
in southeastern Pennsylvania on May 14, 1948. One bird banded 
in the District of Columbia on September 29, 1937, was recovered 
in southeastern New York on May 30, 1938. One banded at 
Ocean City on May 13, 1956, was found dead at Amityville, New 
York, on May 16, 1956. 

BROWN THRASHER Toxostoma rufum (Linnaeus) 

Status. — Breeding and transient: Fairly common in all sec- 
tions. Wintering : Uncommon in Worcester County; rare (locally 
uncommon) elsewhere in the Eastern Shore and Western Shore 
sections; casual in the Upper Chesapeake section. 

Habitat. — Upland, dry or moist brushland ; also in hedgerows, 
wood margins, and in edge habitats in residential areas. 

Nesting season. — Mid-April to early August (nesting peak, 
mid-May to early July). Extreme egg dates (195 nests) : April 
22, 1954, in Caroline County (Mrs. A. J. Fletcher) and July 20, 
1897, in Baltimore County (J. M. Sommer) . Extreme nestling 
dates (166 nests) : May 10, 1921, in the District of Columbia 



242 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 62, FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 

(S. F. Blake) and August 6, 1893, in Baltimore County (Kirk- 
wood, 1895). 

Spring migration. — Normal period: March 25-April 5 to May 
1-10; peak, April 15 to April 30. Extreme arrival dates: March 
17, 1953, in Caroline County (Mrs. A. J. Fletcher) ; March 22, 
1908, in the District of Columbia (A. H. Howell) ; March 23, 
1953, in Baltimore County (E. Willis). Extreme departure date: 
May 12, 1946, in Baltimore County (H. Brackbill). 

Fall migration. — Normal period: September 5-15 to October 
5-15. Extreme departure dates: November 7, 1955, in Frederick 
County (Mrs. J. W. Richards) ; November 5, 1893, in Baltimore 
County (F. C. Kirkwood) ; November 4, 1935, in Prince Georges 
County (R. Overing) ; November 3, 1930, in Kent County (W. 
Baker) . 

Breeding population densities (territorial males per 100 
acres) . — 
15 (3 in 20 acres) in suburban-type residential area (including small orchards 

and large expanses of lawn) in Prince Georges County in 1951 and 1952. 
7 (2 in 30 acres) in "damp deciduous scrub with standing dead trees" 

(burned-over, poorly drained upland forest) in Prince Georges County 

in 1948 (Oresman, et al., 1948) ; 5 (1.5 in 30 acres) in 1947 (Stewart, 

et al., 1947). 

Maximum counts. — Spring: 100 at Gibson Island, Anne Arun- 
del County, on May 8, 1955 (Mrs. W. L. Henderson, Mrs. G. Tap- 
pan) ; 35 in Washington County on May 7, 1949 (R. S. and M. 
Stauffer) ; 24 in Charles and St. Marys Counties (J. W. Terborgh) 
and in Howard County on May 8, 1954; 23 in Baltimore County 
on May 5, 1951 (E. Willis, D. A. Jones). Winter (Christmas 
counts) : 60 in the Ocean City area on December 27, 1955 ; 42 in 
the Wicomico River area in Charles and St. Marys Counties on 
January 1, 1954; 20 in southern Dorchester County on December 
28, 1954. 

Banding. — The winter distribution of Brown Thrashers that 
nest in Maryland is indicated by 3 records of banded birds that 
were recovered in the coastal plain of South and North Carolina. 
Another bird banded as a juvenal in the District of Columbia was 
found dead the following May in Baltimore, 35 miles to the north. 
The recovery of a south-bound bird of the year in Hanover County, 
Virginia, on September 28, 1950, is directly in line between its 
hatching locality in Prince Georges County, Maryland, and the 
coastal plain of South Carolina. Another Brown Thrasher, found 
dead in summer in Connecticut, had been banded at Baltimore 
during spring migration 4 years earlier, on May 9, 1943. 



BIRDS OF MARYLAND AND DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 243 

Family TURDIDAE 

ROBIN Turdus migraforius Linnaeus 

Status. — Breeding: Common in all sections. Transient: Abun- 
dant in all sections. Wintering: Common in Worcester County; 
fairly common elsewhere in the Eastern Shore section and locally 
in the Western Shore section ; uncommon in the Upper Chesapeake 
section; rare in the Piedmont, and Ridge and Valley sections; 
casual (usually) in the Allegheny Mountain section (Brooks, 
1936) — regular occurrence throughout Garrett County during the 
winter of 1952-53. 

Habitat. — Breeding: Marginal habitats with a short-grass 
herbaceous cover in agricultural and residential areas. Transient 
and wintering: Various marginal and forest habitats that are 
situated on wet or rich, moist sites. 

Nesting season. — Late March to late August (nesting peak, 
late April to mid- June) . Nest-building was recorded as early as 
March 25, 1921, in Baltimore County (J. M. Sommer) . Extreme 
egg dates (476 nests) : April 4, 1945, in Prince Georges County 
(E. G. Cooley) and August 3, 1894, in Baltimore County (F. C. 
Kirkwood). In Carroll County, an adult was observed building 
a nest on August 6, 1953, and on August 25 was observed on the 
nest and turning eggs that were probably infertile (D. H. Mc- 
intosh), Extreme nestling dates (440 nests) : April 22, 1945, in 
Baltimore County (Brackbill, 1947b) and August 24, 1951, in 
Caroline County (Mr. and Mrs. A. J. Fletcher). 

Spring migration. — February 1-10 to April 20-30; peak, 
March 5 to April 10. Extreme arrival dates: January 21, 1922, in 
Anne Arundel County (fide T. Denmead) ; January 21, 1944, in 
Prince Georges County. Extreme departure dates: May 2, 1944, 
and May 2, 1945, in Prince Georges County. 

Fall migration. — Normal period: September 10-20 to Novem- 
ber 10-20; peak, October 10 to November 1. Extreme departure 
date: December 5, 1944, in Prince Georges County. 

Breeding population densities (pairs per 100 acres). — 

45 (9 in 20 acres) in suburban-type residential area (including small orchards 
and large expanses of lawn) in Prince Georges County in 1942. 

24 (5 in 20% acres) in "moderately sprayed apple orchard with infrequently 
mowed ground cover" in Worcester County in 1948 (Springer and 
Stewart, 1948b). 

21 (4 in 19.2 acres) in "shrubby field with stream-bordered trees" in Balti- 
more County in 1947, 16 (3 in 19.2 acres) in 1946 (Cooley, 1947). 

21 (2 in 9% acres) in "open hemlock-spruce bog" (brush-meadow stage with 
young hemlock, red spruce, alder, etc.) in Garrett County in 1949 
(Robbins, 1949c) 



244 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 62, FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 





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-~Vs 



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Figure 43. — Robin banding recoveries. Each symbol represents the number 
of records for a State or Province. Banded in Maryland, recovered else- 
where: solid triangle = recovered September through May. Recovered in 
Maryland, banded elsewhere: open circle = banded June through August; 
open triangle = banded September through May. 



BIRDS OF MARYLAND AND DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 245 

17 (3 in 17% acres) in "lightly sprayed apple orchard with rye planted as 

ground cover" in Worcester County in 1948 (Springer and Stewart, 

1948b). 
7 (6 in 84 acres) in mixed agricultural habitats (including hedgerows and 

wood margins) in Prince Georges County in 1949, 5 (4 in 84 acres) in 

1952, 4 (3 in 84 acres) in 1950 and 1951. 

Maximum counts. — Spring: 3,000 near Emmitsburg, Fred- 
erick County, on March 19, 1952 (J. W. Richards) ; 1,500 on the 
Gunpowder River marsh on March 4, 1902 (F. C. Kirkwood) ; 750 
near Rockville, Montgomery County, on March 20, 1951 (R. F. 
Deed). Fall: 500 on the Gunpowder River marsh on October 23, 
1901, and on October 26, 1903 (F. C. Kirkwood) ; 344 on Patuxent 
Refuge on October 26, 1944. Winter (Christmas counts) : 2,931 
in the Annapolis area on January 1, 1956 ; 2,080 in the St. Michaels 
area, Talbot County, on December 29, 1955; 1,301 in the Ocean 
City area on December 27, 1953; 1,103 in St. Marys County on 
January 2, 1956 ; 620 in southern Dorchester County on December 
22, 1952; 369 near Denton, Caroline County, on December 20, 
1952; 270 in the Triadelphia Reservoir area on December 24, 
1955; 179 in the Catoctin Mountain area on December 31, 1955. 

Banding. — See figure 43. 

WOOD THRUSH Hylocichla musteline, (Gmelin) 

Status. — Breeding and transient: Common in all sections. 
Wintering: Accidental — 1 was closely observed at South Point, 
Worcester County, on December 22, 1951 (J. H. Buckalew) . 

Habitat. — Flood-plain, swamp and upland rich, moist decidu- 
ous forests that contain an understory of small trees and shrubs. 

Nesting season. — Early May to mid-August (nesting peak, 
late May to late July) . Extreme egg dates (353 nests) : May 8, 
1949, in Montgomery County (W. B. Tyrrell) and July 29, 1900, 
in Baltimore County (F. C. Kirkwood). Extreme nestling dates 
(197 nests) : May 25, 1907, in the District of Columbia (R. H. 
True) and August 12, 1900, in Baltimore County (F. C. Kirk- 
wood) . 

Spring migration. — Normal period: April 20-30 to May 15- 
25; peak, May 1 to May 15. Extreme arrival dates: April 13, 
1888, in the District of Columbia (E. M. Hasbrouck) ; April 13, 
1892, in Baltimore County (F. C. Kirkwood) ; April 13, 1930, in 
Washington County (W. Middlekauff ) . 

Fall migration. — Normal period: August 20-30 to October 5- 
15; peak, September 1 to September 20. Extreme departure 
dates: November 27, 1931, in the District of Columbia (P. 
Knappen) ; November 21, 1926, in Montgomery County (W. W. 



246 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 62, FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 

Rubey) ; November 14, 1948, in Prince Georges County (M. B. 

Meanley) . 
Breeding population densities (territorial males per 100 

acres) . — 

40 (14.5 in 36 acres) in "virgin central hardwood deciduous forest" (white 
oak-tulip-poplar) in Prince Georges County in 1947 (Stewart and Rob- 
bins, 1947b). 

24 (19.5 in 80 acres) in "central hardwood (oaks-tulip-poplar) with scattered 
pine" in the District of Columbia in 1949, 18 (14 in 80 acres) in 1951 and 
16 (13 in 80 acres) in 1948 and 1953 (Trever, 1952; Clagett, 1953); 20 
(16 in 80 acres) in 1954 (Wright, 1955) ; 19 (15.5 in 80 acres) in 1952 
(Clagett, 1952). 

24 (20.1 in 85 acres) in well-drained flood-plain forest (sweetgum, hornbeam, 
river birch, tulip-poplar, etc.) along the boundary between Anne Arundel 
and Prince Georges Counties in 1945 (Stewart, et al., 1946) ; 15 (5 in 
32% acres) in another area of this habitat in 1944. 

20 (4 in 20 acres) in "virgin hemlock forest" in Garrett County in 1949 
(Robbins, 1949a). 

18 (2 in 11 acres) in upland seepage swamp forest (red maple, sweetgum, 
black gum, etc., with dense understory of holly, sweet pepperbush, clammy 
azalea, maleberry, etc.) in Prince Georges County in 1946. 

16 (2 in 13 acres) in shrub swamp (alder, poison sumac, sweet pepperbush, 
swamp rose, red maple, etc.) in Prince Georges County in 1945. 

12 (3.5 in 28 acres) in partially opened flood-plain forest (sycamore, ash, 
elm, etc.) in Montgomery County in 1943 (J. W. Aldrich, A. J. Duvall). 

12 (1.5 in 13 acres) in upland oak forest (white, northern red, chestnut, and 
black oaks) in Montgomery County in 1943 (J. W. Aldrich, A. J. Duvall). 

11 (2.5 in 23% acres) in "mature northern hardwood forest" (black cherry, 
beech, hemlock, sugar maple, sweet birch, etc.) in Garrett County in 
1951 (Robbins and Stewart, 1951a). 

10 (4 in 40 acres) in "mixed oak forest" (white, scarlet, and chestnut oaks, 
etc.) in Baltimore County in 1949 (Kolb, 1949a) ; 8 (3 in 40 acres) in 
1948 (Kolb, et al., 1948) ; 5 (2 in 37 acres) in 1951, 1952, and 1953 (Kolb 
and Cole, 1951; Kaufmann, et al., 1952; Cole and Kolb, 1953) ; 3 (1 in 40 
acres) in 1950 (Kolb, 1950). 

10 (2 in 19% acres) in "shrubby field with stream-bordered trees" in Balti- 
more County in 1946; 5 (1 in 19% acres) in 1947 (Cooley, 1947). 

9 (4 in 44% acres) in river bluff forest (beech, white oak, scarlet oak) in 
Prince Georges County in 1945; 7 (3 in 44% acres) in 1944 (J. W. Aid- 
rich, A. J. Duvall). 

8 (2 in 24% acres) in river terrace forest (beech-white oak) in Prince Georges 
County in 1944. 

8 (2 in 23^1 acres) in upland oak forest (white, scarlet, and black oaks) in 
Prince Georges County in 1944. 

6 (3 in 47% acres) in hedgerows in agricultural areas and abandoned farm- 
lands (including strip 27% yards wide on each side of hedgerow) in 
Prince Georges County in 1945. 

4 (1.3 in 32% acres) in pine-oak forest (pitch pine, scrub pine, and Spanish 
oak) in Prince Georges County in 1944. 



BIRDS OF MARYLAND AND DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 247 

Maximum counts. — Spring: 160 at Greenbelt, Prince Georges 
County, on May 9, 1953 (L. W. Oring, et al.) ; 124 at Middle 
River, Baltimore County, on May 5, 1951 (E. Willis, D. A. Jones) ; 
122 in Howard County on May 8, 1954. Fall: 100 near Gwynns 
Falls, Baltimore County, on September 21, 1897 (E. Armstrong) ; 
22 on Patuxent Refuge on September 6, 1944. 

Banding. — One banded as a nestling in Baltimore County on 
June 18, 1949, was found in southern Alabama on March 11, 1950. 
Bent (1949) gives March 16 as the earliest spring arrival date for 
anywhere in the United States, so this bird was either an excep- 
tionally early migrant or a winter straggler. 

HERMIT THRUSH Hylocichla guttata (Pallas) 

Status. — Breeding (see fig. 40) : Uncommon and local in the 
Allegheny Mountain section at elevations above 2,500 feet — oc- 
curring in Garrett County near Grantsville, on Little Savage 
Mountain near Finzel and at Mountain Lake Park (Preble, 1900) ; 
on Negro Mountain near Accident (Eifrig, 1938) ; in Cranberry 
Swamp near Finzel (G. Eifrig) ; in Cherry Creek Swamps near 
Bittinger and Piney Creek Swamps near Finzel (Stewart and 
Robbins, 1947a) ; in Wolf Swamp; in Cranesville Swamp; in the 
vicinity of Herrington Manor; and in the vicinity of Deep Creek 
Lake. Transient: Fairly common in all sections. Wintering: 
Common in the swamp along the Pocomoke River and its tribu- 
taries; fairly common elsewhere in the Eastern Shore and West- 
ern Shore sections; uncommon in the Upper Chesapeake, Pied- 
mont, and Ridge and Valley sections; casual in the Allegheny 
Mountain section — 1 seen at Cranesville swamp on December 31, 
1954 (B. Miller, Mrs. G. M. Miller). Summer vagrant: Acci- 
dental — 1 was collected in Howard County on July 9, 1890 (A. 
Resler) . 

Habitat. — Breeding: Usually open spruce-hemlock bogs, pine 
plantations in the vicinity of bogs, and oak and pine barrens on 
the ridge tops. Transient and wintering: Wood margins; hedge- 
rows ; and swamp, flood-plain, and upland moist forest types with 
brushy understory. 

Spring migration. — Normal period: March 20-30 to May 1- 
10; peak, April 5 to April 25. Extreme arrival dates: March 15, 
1907, in the District of Columbia (W. W. Cooke) ; March 15, 1953, 
in Frederick County (J. W. Richards) . Extreme departure dates: 
May 21, 1892, in Baltimore County (G. H. Gray) ; May 19, 1898, 
in Harford County (F. C. Kirkwood) ; May 17, 1891, in the Dis- 
trict of Columbia (C. W. Richmond). 



248 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 62, FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 

Fall migration. — Normal period: October 1-10 to November 
25-December 5; peak, October 10 to October 30. Extreme ar- 
rival dates: September 18, 1900, in the District of Columbia (R. 
W. Shufeldt) ; September 19, 1914, in Dorchester County (R. W. 
Jackson) ; September 21, 1954, in Frederick County (J. W. 
Richards) . 

Maximum counts. — Spring: 100+ at Waverly, Baltimore 
County, on April 15, 1893 (W. N. Wholey) ; 100 on Negro Moun- 
tain, Garrett County, on April 20, 1903 (G. Eifrig). Fall: 50 at 
Tilghman, Talbot County, on October 14, 1953 (R. L. Kleen) ; 22 
at Patuxent Refuge on October 26, 1944. Winter (Christmas 
counts) : 130 in the Ocean City area on December 27, 1955; 72 in 
the Wicomico River area of Charles and St. Marys Counties on 
January 1, 1954; 64 in southern Dorchester County on December 
28, 1953; 44 in the Annapolis area on January 2, 1954; 34 at 
Patuxent Refuge on December 29, 1944. 

Banding. — One banded at Monkton, Baltimore County, on 
October 3, 1955, was recovered in north-central South Carolina 
on October 25, 1955. 

SWAINSON'S THRUSH Hylockhla ustulata (Nuttall) 

Status. — Breeding: Formerly a regular summer resident in 
Garrett County — occurring in the vicinity of Jennings, until about 
1908 when the last of the spruce was cut (Behr, 1914) ; a nest 
with eggs (in sapling 4 feet above ground) near Oakland on June 
13, 1917, was reported by J. M. Sommer; there are no recent 
records. Transient: Common in all sections (uncommon in spring 
in the Eastern Shore section). Wintering: Accidental — 1 re- 
ported at Gibson Island, Anne Arundel County, from January 1 
to 18, 1954 (Mrs. W. L. Henderson, Mrs. G. Tappan), and 1 near 
Berlin, Worcester County, on December 27, 1955 (J. R. Worthley, 
R. Dubois). 

Habitat. — Flood-plain, swamp, and upland moist forest types 
with brushy understory. 

Spring migration. — Normal period: May 1-10 to May 20-30; 
peak, May 10 to May 20. Extreme arrival dates: April 20, 1954, 
in Anne Arundel County (Mrs. W. L. Henderson, Mrs. G. Tap- 
pan) ; April 24, 1948, in Montgomery County (I. R. Barnes) ; 
April 25, 1921, in the District of Columbia (H. C. Oberholser) ; 
April 28, 1953, in Frederick County (J. W. Richards) ; April 28, 
1954, in Talbot County (R. L. Kleen). Extreme departure dates: 
June 5, 1945, in Prince Georges County; June 4, 1917, in Baltimore 
County (C. H. Grace). 



BIRDS OF MARYLAND AND DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 249 

Fall migration. — Normal period: September 5-15 to October 
5-15; peak, September 15 to October 5. Extreme arrival dates: 
August 25, 1944, in Montgomery County (A. Wetmore) ; August 
29, 1955, in Prince Georges County; September 2, 1888, in the 
District of Columbia (A. K. Fisher). Extreme departure dates: 
November 7, 1954, in Talbot County (R. L. Kleen) ; October 26, 
1954, in Anne Arundel County (Mrs. W. L. Henderson, Mrs. G. 
Tappan) ; October 24, 1948, in the District of Columbia (J. W. 
Taylor, Jr.). 

Maximum counts. — Spring: 66 at Patuxent Refuge on May 10, 
1950; 35 in the District of Columbia on May 9, 1953 (C. L. 
Clagett). Fall: 60 at Tilghman, Talbot County, on September 23, 
1953 (R. L. Kleen) ; 18 at Patuxent Refuge on September 6, 1944. 
Occasionally large numbers are heard calling while migrating 
overhead at night; high counts include 1,900 at Laurel, Prince 
Georges County on September 29, 1950; 1,300 in northeastern 
Garrett County on September 20, 1952; 1,200 in the District of 
Columbia on October 15, 1947 (I. R. Barnes) . 

GRAY-CHEEKED THRUSH Hylocichla minima (Lafresnaye) 

STATUS. — Transient: Fairly common in all sections. 

Habitat. — Forest types with brushy understory, particularly 
flood-plain and swamp forests, and rich moist forests on the 
upland. 

Spring migration. — Normal period: May 5-15 to May 25-30; 
peak, May 15 to May 25. Extreme arrival dates: April 30, 1956, 
in Anne Arundel County (Mrs. W. L. Henderson) ; May 2, 1956, 
in Prince Georges County ; May 3, 1930, in the District of Colum- 
bia (W. J. Whiting) ; May 3, 1953, in Charles County (M. C. 
Crone, A. R. Stickley, Jr.). Extreme departure dates: June 2, 
1927, in Baltimore County (J. M. Sommer) ; June 1, 1945, in 
Prince Georges County. 

Fall migration. — Normal period: September 10-20 to October 
10-20; peak, September 20 to October 5. Extreme arrival dates: 
September 5, 1950, in Baltimore County (Mr. and Mrs. R. D. 
Cole) ; September 5, 1952, in Prince Georges County. Extreme 
departure dates: October 30, 1927, in Montgomery County (W. 
H. Ball) ; October 21, 1954, in Prince Georges County. 

Maximum counts. — The maximum number seen per day during 
both spring and fall flights, would usually range between 5 and 10 
birds. Much larger numbers were occasionally heard calling 
while migrating overhead at night; high counts include 90 on 
May 24, 1947, at Patuxent Refuge; 1,000 on September 29, 1950, 



250 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 62, FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 

at Laurel, Prince Georges County; and 600 on September 20, 
1952, in northeastern Garrett County. 

VEERY Hylocichla fuscescens (Stephens) 

Status. — Breeding (see fig. 44) : Common in the Allegheny 
Mountain section; rare in the Ridge and Valley section; rare 
and local in the Piedmont section. Summer occurrence in the 
Piedmont section was recorded as follows: In the District of 
Columbia along Rock Creek (Halle, 1943 and 1948) and in 
Glover-Archbold Park (Briggs, 1954) ; in Montgomery County 
at Forest Glen (in 1952 — E. Miller) and Cabin John Park (E. 
J. Court, 1952) ; in Baltimore County along Gunpowder Falls 
near the Carroll County line (M. B. Meanley) and near Lake 
Roland (A. Simon) ; in northwest Baltimore City (R. D. Cole) ; 
and in Harford County near Norrisville (0. W. Crowder). 
Transient: Fairly common in all sections (in spring, uncommon 
in the Eastern Shore and Western Shore sections). 

Habitat. — Breeding: Swamp and bog forests and moist forests 
on the upland ; also in plantations of pine situated on moist sites. 
Transient: Forest types with brushy understory, particularly 
flood-plain and swamp forests, and rich moist forests on the 
upland. 




Figure 44. — Breeding range of Veery. 



BIRDS OF MARYLAND AND DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 251 

Nesting season. — Early May to mid-July. Extreme egg dates 
(6 nests) : May 12, 1945, in Montgomery County (E. J. Court) 
and June 26, 1948, in the District of Columbia (Halle, 1948). 
Extreme nestling dates (6 nests) : June 17, 1918, in Garrett 
County (G. Eifrig) and July 10, 1948, in the District of Columbia 
(Halle, 1948). 

Spring migration. — Normal period: April 25-May 5 to May 
15-25; peak, May 5 to May 15. Extreme arrival dates: April 20, 
1889, in the District of Columbia (A. K. Fisher) ; April 24, 1881, 
in Washington County (E. A. Small). Extreme departure dates: 
June 8, 1947, in Baltimore County (E. G. Cooley) ; June 2, 1907, 
in the District of Columbia (A. K. Fisher). 

Fall migration. — Normal period: August 20-30 to September 
15-25; peak, September 1 to September 15. Extreme arrival 
dates: August 17, 1927, in Baltimore County (F. C. Kirkwood) ; 
August 18, 1889, in the District of Columbia (J. D. Figgins). 
Extreme departure dates: October 16, 1952, in Montgomery 
County (J. S. Moon) ; October 11, 1947, in Prince Georges 
County. 

Breeding population density (territorial males per 100 
acres) . — 

8 (1.5 in 20 acres) in "virgin hemlock stand" in Garrett County in 1949 
(Robbins, 1949a). 

Maximum counts. — Spring: 22 in Rock Creek Park, District 
of Columbia, on May 9, 1953 (C. L. Clagett) ; 15 at Patuxent 
Refuge on May 10 and again on May 13, 1950. Fall: 12 at 
Patuxent Refuge on September 5, 1943. On May 5, 1952, 130 
were heard calling, while migrating overhead at night at the 
Patuxent Refuge. 

EASTERN BLUEBIRD Sialia si a lis (Linnaeus) 

Status. — Breeding: Fairly common in all sections. Transient: 
Common in all sections. Wintering: Common in the Eastern 
Shore and Western Shore sections; fairly common in the Upper 
Chesapeake and Piedmont sections; uncommon in the Ridge and 
Valley section; rare in the Allegheny Mountain section. 

Habitat. — Chiefly marginal habitats in agricultural and resi- 
dential areas. 

Nesting season. — Early March to late August (nesting peak, 
early April to mid-July). Nest-building was recorded as early 
as March 4, 1900, in Baltimore County (F. C. Kirkwood). Ex- 
treme egg dates (232 nests) : March 12, 1898, in Baltimore 
County (W. H. Fisher) and July 27, 1881, in Baltimore County 



252 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 62, FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 

(F. C. Kirkwood). Extreme nestling dates (161 nests) : April 
17, 1946, in Prince Georges County (E. G. Cooley) and August 
24, 1945, in Prince Georges County (J. B. Cope). 

Spring migration. — Normal period: February 5-15 to April 
10-20; peak, March 1 to April 1. Extreme arrival dates: Febru- 
ary 3, 1900, in Allegany County (G. Eifrig) ; February 3, 1945, 
in Baltimore County (H. Brackbill). Extreme departure date: 
May 11, 1941, in Baltimore County (H. Brackbill). 

Fall migration. — Normal period: September 15-25 to De- 
cember 10-20 ; peak, October 5 to November 15. Extreme arrival 
dates: August 30, 1896, in Baltimore County (F. C. Kirkwood) ; 
August 31, 1901, in Allegany County (G. Eifrig). Extreme 
departure date: December 28, 1938, in Baltimore County (H. 
Brackbill) . 

Breeding population densities (pairs per 100 acres). — 

23 (5 in 21^ acres) in an abandoned field saturated with nesting boxes in 
Prince Georges County in 1949 and 1950, 19 (4 in 21% acres) in 1951. 

20 (4 in 20 acres) in suburban-type residential area (including small orchards 
and large expanses of lawn) in Prince Georges County in 1943, 1944, and 
1945; 15 (3 in 20 acres) in 1942. 

14 (3 in 22 acres) in "unsprayed apple orchard with infrequently mowed 
ground cover" in Worcester County in 1948 (Springer and Stewart, 
1948b). 

7 (2 in 30 acres) in "damp deciduous scrub with standing dead trees" (burned- 
over, poorly drained upland forest) in Prince Georges County in 1947 
(Stewart et al., 1947). 

4 (3 in 75 acres) in mixed agricultural habitats (including hedgerows and 
wood margins) in Prince Georges County in 1947. 

Maximum counts. — Spring: 100 at Point Lookout, St. Marys 
County, on March 2, 1954 (H. N. Page, V. C. Kirtley) ; 61 at 
Patuxent Refuge on March 22, 1944. Fall: 5,000 on the Gun- 
powder River marsh on October 26, 1903 (J. Thomas) ; 400+ 
at Cambridge, Dorchester County, on November 1 and 2, 1914 
(R. W. Jackson) ; "hundreds" at Cumberland, Allegany County, 
on October 3, 1901, October 18, 1902, and October 24, 1900 (G. 
Eifrig). Winter (Christmas counts) : 378 in the Annapolis area 
on January 2, 1955; 336 at Port Tobacco, Charles County, on 
December 21, 1941 ; 231 in the Ocean City area on December 27, 
1954; 102 in the Triadelphia Reservoir area on December 26, 
1952. 

Banding. — One recovered in Calvert County on October 7, 
1934, had been banded as a juvenal in southwestern New Hamp- 
shire on August 10, 1933. Another banded in Prince Georges 
County on October 13, 1943, was recovered on April 15, 1946, 
in northern Virginia (about 20 miles from the point of banding) . 



BIRDS OF MARYLAND AND DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 



253 



Family SYLVIIDAE 



BLUE-GRAY GNATCATCHER Polioptila caeru/ea (Linnaeus) 

Status. — Breeding and transient (see fig. 45) : Common in 
the Eastern Shore, Western Shore, and Upper Chesapeake sec- 
tions; fairly common in the Ridge and Valley section and in the 
Potomac River valley of the Piedmont section; uncommon else- 
where in the Piedmont section; rare in the Allegheny Mountain 
section. Wintering : Accidental — 1 was observed in the District 
of Columbia on January 1, 1924 (Blake, 1924) ; 1 in Caroline 
County on December 20, 1953, and January 1 and 5, 1954 (Mr. 
and Mrs. A. J. Fletcher) ; and 2 near Annapolis on January 2, 
1955 (E. P. Wilson). 




Figure 45. — Breeding ranges of Blue-gray Gnatcatcher and Golden-crowned 

Kinglet. 



Habitat. — Brushy, partially open swamp and flood-plain 
forests ; in the Ridge and Valley, and Allegheny Mountain sections 
it is also found in orchards and in open stands of upland forest. 

Nesting season. — Early April to late June (nesting peak, 
late April to early June). Nest-building was recorded as early 
as April 8, 1945, in Prince Georges County. Extreme egg dates 
(32 nests) : April 11, 1953, in Montgomery County (J. Love) 
and June 8, 1940, in Montgomery County (W. H. Lawrence). 



2 54 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 62, FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 

Extreme nestling dates (18 nests) : May 6, 1950, in Charles 
County (M. C. Crone) and June 16, 1946, in Calvert County. 

Spring migration. — Normal period: April 1-10 to May 1-10; 
peak, April 10 to April 25. Extreme arrival dates: March 26, 
1921, in Dorchester County (R. W. Jackson) ; March 29, 1952, 
in Montgomery County (C. L. Clagett, et al.) ; March 29, 1953, 
in Caroline County (Mrs. A. J. Fletcher). Extreme departure 
dates: May 18, 1901, in Allegany County (G. Eifrig) ; May 12, 
1934, in Prince Georges County (R. Overing). 

Fall migration. — Normal period: August 5-15 to September 
5-15. Extreme departure dates: December 1, 1953, in Anne 
Arundel County (J. W. Taylor, Jr.) ; November 23, 1890, in the 
District of Columbia (C. W. Richmond) ; November 11, 1950, 
in Baltimore County (E. Willis) ; October 3, 1954, in Montgomery 
County (P. A. DuMont) ; October 2, 1951, in Caroline County 
(Mrs. A. J. Fletcher). 

Breeding population densities (pairs per 100 acres) . — 

7 (2 in 28 acres) in partially opened, flood-plain forest (sycamore, ash, elm, 
etc.) in Montgomery County in 1943 (J. W. Aldrich and A. J. Duvall). 

6 (1.5 in 25 acres) in "unsprayed apple orchard with unmowed ground cover" 
in Allegany County in 1948 (Springer and Stewart, 1948b). 

2 (1.4 in 85 acres) in well-drained, flood-plain forest (sweetgum, hornbeam, 
river birch, tulip-poplar, etc.) along the boundary between Anne Arundel 
and Prince Georges Counties in 1945 (Stewart, et al., 1946). 

Maximum counts (nonbreeding). — Spring: 77 at Greenbelt, 
Prince Georges County, on April 10, 1954 (L. W. Oring) ; 77 
along the Pocomoke River on April 21, 1954 (P. G. DuMont) ; 
65 near Aliens Fresh, Charles County, on April 12, 1952; 50 
near Largo, Prince Georges County, on April 19, 1947; 18 in 
Washington County on May 7, 1949 (R. S. and M. Stauffer). 
Fall: 17 near Seneca in Montgomery County on August 20, 1949 
(I. R. Barnes). 

GOLDEN-CROWNED KINGLET Regulus satrapa Lichtenstein 

Status. — Breeding (see fig. 45) : Uncommon and local in the 
Allegheny Mountain section at elevations above 2,500 feet — 
occurring in Garrett County during recent years in Wolf Swamp 
(about 4 miles southeast of Grantsville) ; in the Maryland portion 
of Cranesville Swamp (just east of Cranesville, West Virginia), 
and on the east slope of Backbone Mountain (2 to 3 miles west- 
southwest of Bayard, West Virginia) — also formerly occurred 
regularly in the vicinity of Jennings before the last of the spruce 
was cut in 1908 (Behr, 1914). Transient: Common in all sec- 
tions. Wintering: Common in the Eastern Shore and Western 



BIRDS OF MARYLAND AND DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 255 

Shore sections; fairly common in the Upper Chesapeake and 
Piedmont sections; uncommon in the Ridge and Valley section; 
rare in the Allegheny Mountain section. Summer vagrant: Acci- 
dental — 1 recorded in the District of Columbia on July 25, 1932 
(Burleigh, 1932) ; 1 recorded at Cumberland, Allegany County, 
on August 7, 1901 (G. Eifrig). 

Habitat. — Breeding: Largely restricted to areas with fairly 
dense stands of mature red spruce. Transient and wintering: 
Most numerous in stands of scrub pine, pitch pine and loblolly 
pine; also of regular occurrence in various deciduous forest 
types. 

Nesting season. — Dependent young out of the nest were ob- 
served in Garrett County on July 6, 1945. 

Spring migration. — Normal period: March 15-25 to April 
15-25; peak, March 25 to April 15. Extreme departure dates: 
May 23, 1903, in Allegany County (Eifrig, 1904) ; May 12, 1919, 
in Baltimore County (F. C. Kirkwood). 

Fall migration. — Normal period: September 25-October 5 to 
December 1-10; peak, October 15 to November 10. Extreme 
arrival dates: September 20, 1910, in the District of Columbia 
(E. J. Brown) ; September 22, 1942, in Prince Georges County 
(M. B. Meanley) ; September 24, 1950, in Baltimore County 
(E. Willis). Extreme departure dates: December 28, 1919, in 
the District of Columbia (F. Harper) ; December 20, 1946, in 
Baltimore County (H. Brackbill). 

Breeding population density (pairs per 100 acres). — 

32 (4 in 12Y2 acres) in "virgin spruce-hemlock bog forest" (red spruce and 
hemlock with dense understory of great laurel) in Garrett County in 
1951 (Stewart and Robbins, 1951a). 

Maximum counts. — Spring: 50 at Emmitsburg, Frederick 
County, on both April 8 and 9, 1953 (J. W. Richards) ; 35 at 
Patuxent Refuge on April 7, 1944. Fall: "Hundreds" at Ocean 
City on October 2, 1949 (M. B. Meanley) ; 100 at Gibson Island, 
Anne Arundel County, on October 16, 1952 (Mrs. W. L. Hen- 
derson, Mrs. G. Tappan) ; 70 at Patuxent Refuge on October 27, 
1943. Winter (Christmas counts) : 380 at Patuxent Refuge on 
December 23, 1943; 354 in the District of Columbia area on 
January 2, 1954; 156 in the Ocean City area on December 27, 
1955 ; 105 in southern Dorchester County on December 28, 1953 ; 
92 in the Wicomico River area in Charles and St. Marys Counties 
on January 1, 1954. 
RUBY-CROWNED KINGLET Regulus calendula (Linnaeus) 

Status. — Transient: Common in all sections. Wintering: Un- 



256 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 62, FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 

common in the Eastern Shore and Western Shore sections; rare 
in the Upper Chesapeake and Piedmont sections; casual in the 
Ridge and Valley section. 

Habitat. — Brushy forested areas including pine and deciduous 
types. 

Spring migration. — Normal period: March 25-April 5 to May 
1-10; peak, April 10 to April 25. Extreme arrival date: March 
20, 1905, in the District of Columbia (T. H. Levering) . Extreme 
departure dates: May 19, 1950, in Washington County; May 16, 
1954, in Worcester County (J. K. Wright) ; May 15, 1920, in 
Montgomery County (D. C. Aud. Soc). 

Fall migration. — Normal period: September 20-30 to No- 
vember 10-20; peak, October 5 to October 30. Extreme arrival 
dates: September 6, 1935, in the District of Columbia (Overing, 
1936) ; September 9, 1955, in Frederick County (J. W. Richards) ; 
September 13, 1880, in Washington County (E. A. Small) ; Sep- 
tember 14, 1913, in Prince Georges County (W. W. Cooke). 
Extreme departure date: November 30, 1901, in Allegany County 
(G. Eifrig). 

Maximum counts. — Spring: 50 at Emmitsburg, Frederick 
County, on April 11, 1952, and April 18, 1953 (J. W. Richards) ; 
36 at Patuxent Refuge on April 21, 1944. Fall: 155 at Patuxent 
Refuge on October 27, 1943. Winter (Christmas counts) : 29 
in the Ocean City area on December 27, 1953; 23 at Patuxent 
Refuge on January 14, 1949; 22 in the Wicomico River area of 
Charles and St. Marys Counties on January 1, 1954; 16 in southern 
Dorchester County on December 27, 1949; 16 in the Catoctin 
Mountain area in Frederick County on December 30, 1951. 

Family MOTACILLIDAE 
WATER PIPIT Anthus sp'moletta (Linnaeus) 

Status. — Transient: Common in the Piedmont section; fairly 
common in all other sections. Wintering: Fairly common in 
the Eastern Shore section and in the southern part of the 
Western Shore section (St. Marys and southern Charles Coun- 
ties) ; rare elsewhere in the Western Shore, Upper Chesapeake, 
and Piedmont sections. 

Habitat. — Open agricultural fields with short or sparse vege- 
tation, including pastures, and grain fields with young sprout 
growth; also occurs on mud flats and tidal marshes with sparse 
vegetation. 

Spring migration. — Normal period: March 1-10 to May 1-10; 
peak, March 10 to April 10. Extreme arrival dates: February 



BIRDS OF MARYLAND AND DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 257 

16, 1908, in the District of Columbia (W. W. Cooke) ; February 
24, 1924, in Baltimore County (F. C. Kirkwood) . Extreme 
departure dates: May 21, 1925, in Dorchester County (R. W. 
Jackson) ; May 18, 1949, in Prince Georges County; May 18, 
1950, in Washington County. 

Fall migration. — Normal period: September 20-30 to No- 
vember 25-December 5; peak, October 10 to November 5. Ex- 
treme arrival dates: September 12, 1901, in Harford County 
(W. H. Fisher) ; September 12, 1911, in Baltimore County (F. 
C. Kirkwood) ; September 15, 1951, in Allegany County. Extreme 
departure dates: January 12, 1949, in Prince Georges County; 
December 23, 1914, in Baltimore County (F. C. Kirkwood). 

Maximum counts. — Spring: 600 at Emmitsburg, Frederick 
County, on April 7, 1953 (J. W. Richards) ; 200 near Lanham, 
Prince Georges County, on March 26, 1949 ; 150 near Loch Raven 
Reservoir, Baltimore County, on March 13, 1940 (I. E. Hampe, 
H. Kolb) ; 150 at Queen Anne, Queen Annes County, on April 15, 
1956 (W. Rittenhouse) . Fall: 2,000 near Seneca, Montgomery 
County, on October 25, 1952 (J. W. Terborgh) ; 1,500 at Monkton, 
Baltimore County, on November 13, 1955 (S. W. Simon) ; 1,000 
at Oxon Hill, Prince Georges County, on November 26, 1938 
(W. Perrygo) ; 300 in Montgomery County near Triadelphia 
Reservoir on October 28, 1951 (S. H. Low). Winter (Christmas 
counts) : 830 in the Ocean City area on December 27, 1948; 
250 near Denton, Caroline County, on December 20, 1952; 235 
in the Kent Island area, Queen Annes County, on December 31, 
1948; 165 in the Wicomico River area in Charles and St. Marys 
Counties on December 26, 1948. 

Family BOMBYCILLIDAE 

CEDAR WAXWING Bombycilla cedrorum Vieillot 

Status. — Breeding: Common in the Allegheny Mountain sec- 
tion; uncommon in the Ridge and Valley, Piedmont, and Upper 
Chesapeake sections; rare in the Western Shore and Eastern 
Shore sections. Transient: Common in all sections. Wintering: 
Uncommon in the Eastern Shore, Western Shore, Upper Chesa- 
peake, Piedmont, and Ridge and Valley sections; rare in the 
Allegheny Mountain section (Brooks, 1936c). 

Habitat. — Open or brushy woodland and marginal habitats 
in agricultural and residential areas. 

Nesting season. — Late May to mid-September (nesting peak, 
mid-June to mid- August). In Montgomery County, a new nest 
was found as early as May 30, 1905 (Oberholser, 1905) . Extreme 



258 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 62, FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 

egg dates (21 nests) : June 7, 1936, in Harford County (W. B. 
Tyrrell) and Anne Arundel County (M. B. Meanley), and August 
21, 1892, in Baltimore County (Kirkwood, 1895). Extreme 
nestling dates (5 nests) : June 18, 1950, in Baltimore County 
(C. D. Hackman) and September 11, 1923, in the District of 
Columbia (S. F. Blake). 

Spring migration. — Normal period: April 25-May 5 to May 
25-June 5 ; peak, May 5 to May 25. In 1952, the migration was 
much earlier than usual, large numbers arriving at the close 
of February (earliest record, February 24, 1952, in Prince 
Georges County) , and high counts were made in numerous areas, 
throughout March and early April, while a few small flocks 
lingered until the end of April. Extreme departure dates: June 
15, 1902, in Baltimore County (J. Thomas) ; June 8, 1887, in 
the District of Columbia (C. W. Richmond) ; June 8, 1945, in 
Prince Georges County. 

Fall migration. — Normal period: August 15-25 to January 
1-10; peak, September 25 to November 10. Extreme arrival 
date: August 9, 1944, in Prince Georges County. Extreme de- 
parture date: January 12, 1940, in Prince Georges County. 

Breeding population densities (pairs per 100 acres) . — 

16 (1.5 in 9*£ acres) in "open hemlock-spruce bog" (brush-meadow stage 

with young hemlock, red spruce, alder, etc.) in Garrett County in 1949 

(Robbins, 1949c). 
15 (4 in 21Vz acres) in "red pine plantation" (young trees about 20 feet in 

height) in Garrett County in 1949 (Robbins and Barnes, 1949). 
15 (3 in 20 acres) in suburban-type residential area (including small orchards 

and large expanses of lawn) in Prince Georges County in 1946; absent 

in other years during the period 1942-52. 

Maximum counts. — Spring: 450 near Port Tobacco, Charles 
County, on March 23, 1952 (A. R. Stickley, Jr., M. C. Crone) ; 
350 near College Park, Prince Georges County, on March 25 and 
27, 1952 (C. L. Clagett) ; 150 near the Gunpowder River marsh 
on May 24, 1903 (J. Thomas). Fall: 400 in Baltimore County 
on October 23, 1896 (W. H. Fisher) ; 350 near Seneca, Mont- 
gomery County, on October 17, 1953 (J. K. Wright) ; 268 at 
Patuxent Refuge on October 26, 1944. Winter: 1,325 at Patuxent 
Refuge on February 23, 1956 (L. M. Llewellyn) ; 300 in the 
Port Tobacco area on December 23, 1931 (Christmas count). 

Family LANIIDAE 
NORTHERN SHRIKE Lanius excub/for Linnaeus 

Status. — Wintering: Rare and irregular in all sections. Ordi- 
narily, during most winters this species is absent; and during 



BIRDS OF MARYLAND AND DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 259 

the occasional flight years, only a few scattered individuals are 
recorded. The latest flights occurred during the winters of 
1950-51 and 1954-55, when the species was recorded in Garrett, 
Washington, Frederick, Montgomery, Anne Arundel, and Wor- 
cester Counties (various observers). The only previous winters 
when more than single specimens or observations were recorded 
were 1887-88 and 1892-93. 

Habitat. — Brushy wood-margins, hedgerows, and other "edge" 
habitats, chiefly in agricultural areas. 

Period of occurrence. — Extreme dates: October 26, 1887 
(collected), on the Patapsco River marsh (A. Resler) and March 
10, 1951, in Worcester County (J. H. Buckalew) . Occurrence 
peak: December 20 to February 20. 

LOGGERHEAD SHRIKE Lanius ludovicianus Linnaeus 

Status. — Breeding: Uncommon in the east-central portion of 
Prince Georges County; rare and local elsewhere in the Western 
Shore section and in the Eastern Shore, Upper Chesapeake, 
Piedmont, and Ridge and Valley sections. Transient: Fairly 
common in the Eastern Shore section; uncommon in the Western 
Shore, Upper Chesapeake, Piedmont, and Ridge and Valley sec- 
tions; rare in the Allegheny Mountain section. Wintering: 
Uncommon in the Eastern Shore section and the southern part 
of the Western Shore section ; rare in the Upper Chesapeake and 
Piedmont sections and in the northern part of the Western Shore 
section; casual in the Ridge and Valley section. A. Wetmore 
states that in Maryland, this species "has decreased appreciably 
in the past 15 years." 

Habitat. — Hedgerows, wood margins, and other edge types 
in agricultural areas; during the breeding season usually found 
in the vicinity of hedgerows or groves of red cedar. 

Nesting season. — Mid-April to late June. Extreme egg dates 

(4 nests) : April 19, 1925, in the District of Columbia and May 
4, 1924, in Montgomery County (both by S. F. Blake) . Extreme 
nestling dates (5 nests) : May 20, 1910, in Prince Georges County 

(R. H. True) and June 29, 1931, in Montgomery County (W. M. 

Davidson) . 

Spring migration. — Normal period: March 5-15 to April 10- 

20; peak, March 20 to April 10. Extreme arrival date: March 2, 

1954, in St. Marys County (H. N. Page, V. C. Kirtley). Extreme 

departure dates: April 23, 1893, in Baltimore County (G. H. 

Gray) ; April 21, 1904, in the District of Columbia (T. H. 

Levering) . 



260 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 62, FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 

Fall migration. — Normal period: August 10-20 to November 
1-10; peak, August 25 to October 25. Extreme arrival dates: 
July 31, 1906, in Montgomery County (H. W. Maynard) ; August 
1, 1917, in Dorchester County (R. W. Jackson) ; August 5, 1898, 
in Prince Georges County (S. J. Judd). Extreme departure 
date: November 27, 1919, in the District of Columbia (J. Kitt- 
redge, Jr.). 

Maximum counts. — Winter (Christmas counts) : 20 in the 
Ocean City area on December 27, 1954 ; 13 in the Wicomico River 
area in Charles and St. Marys Counties on January 1, 1954; 
11 near Denton, Caroline County, on January 1, 1955; 6 in the 
Triadelphia Reservoir area in Howard and Montgomery Counties 
on January 1, 1954. 

Family STURNIDAE 

STARLING Sturnus vulgaris Linnaeus 

Status. — Permanent resident. Common (locally abundant) in 
all sections. 

Habitat. — Marginal habitats in agricultural and residential 
areas. In winter, large numbers roost on buildings in the business 
sections of Baltimore and Washington, D. C. 

Nesting season. — Early February to mid-July (nesting peak, 
mid-April to mid-June). Nest-building was recorded as early 
as February 1, 1939, in Baltimore County (H. Brackbill). Ex- 
treme egg dates (68 nests) : April 7, 1950, in Prince Georges 
County and June 12, 1950, in Prince Georges County (R. W. 
Dickerman). Extreme nestling dates (173 nests): April 12, 
1933, in the District of Columbia (W. H. Ball) and July 18, 1940, 
in Baltimore County (H. Brackbill). 

Breeding population density (pairs per 100 acres). — 

5 (15 in 275 acres) in mixed agricultural habitats (including residential 
areas and hedgerows and wood margins) in Prince Georges County in 
1943. 

Maximum counts (nonbreeding) . — Winter: 100,000 in Wash- 
ington, D. C. (Barnes, 1950) ; 30,000 in Susquehanna Flats area 
on December 27, 1952 (Christmas count) ; 9,338 in the Ocean 
City area on December 27, 1955 (Christmas count) ; 7,166 near 
Chase, Baltimore County, on December 28, 1952 (Christmas 
count) ; 6,000 in the Port Tobacco area, Charles County, on 
December 22, 1928 (Christmas count). 

History of Starling invasion. — This European species be- 
came established in the United States following its successful 
introduction in New York City on March 6, 1890, and April 25, 



BIRDS OF MARYLAND AND DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 261 

1891 (Chapman, editorial in Bird Lore, 1907, Vol. 9, p. 206). 
Its first appearance in Maryland was reported in 1906 at Balti- 
more by Chapman. On February 15, 1910, 1 was found dead 
following a storm in Talbot County near Easton (A. K. Fisher) ; 
on January 19-20, 1912, 2 were collected in the District of 
Columbia (USNM — C. Zeller). In the vicinity of Baltimore, 
this species was again recorded at the town of Cockeysville on 
October 24, 1913, when 2 were seen (D. C. Clark) ; the first nest 
containing young was found in Baltimore on May 27, 1917 (F. C. 
Kirkwood) ; at this time the species had become fairly common 
in that area, as several hundred were seen on January 27, 1917, 
and about 10,000 on December 4, 1917 (W. H. Fisher). In the 
vicinity of Washington, D. C, this species was next recorded 
on January 9, 1914, when a flock of about 200 was seen (A. 
Wetmore) ; young of the year were seen on June 26, 1916 (F. 
Harper), and on April 25, 1917, a nest with young was found 
nearby in Montgomery County (Oldys, 1917) ; by late January, 
1922, this species had become quite common, as thousands were 
roosting on the buildings of downtown Washington (Cooke, 1929) . 

Other early records in the Eastern Shore section include a 
flock of over 75 seen at Cambridge, Dorchester County, on Feb- 
ruary 14, 1916 (Jackson, 1916), and a nesting record at Cam- 
bridge on May 2, 1920 (Jackson, 1941). In its spread westward 
over the State, the Starling was first recorded at Frederick on 
June 1, 1918, when an occupied nest was found (J. B. Semple) ; 
at Cumberland it was first reported during February 1920, when 
a flock of about 100 was observed (Eifrig, 1920b) ; in the Alle- 
gheny Mountain section it was first recorded during the summer 
of 1928, when a flock of 40 was seen near Accident (Eifrig, 1933) . 

Banding. — Forty-five banded in Maryland and the District of 
Columbia during December, January, February, and March were 
subsequently taken outside the Maryland-District of Columbia- 
Virginia area. Only 2 of these were recovered in the spring 
immediately following the winter of banding. Both were taken 
in southern Pennsylvania, 1 on an unspecified date in February, 
the other on March 15. These data as well as recoveries from 
subsequent years indicate that the principal northward movement 
takes place in February and March. Kessel (1953) shows a 
map of all recoveries of Starlings banded in the vicinity of the 
District of Columbia in winter. The records are fairly evenly 
distributed within a "V" stretching from Washington northward 
through Buffalo on the west and Albany on the east. An exami- 
nation of the dates of recovery shows that the migrants which 



262 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 62, FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 

winter in the Washington roosts nest primarily in central New 
York State and adjacent counties of Ontario, Quebec and Vermont. 
All of the 24 Pennsylvania recoveries were made during the 
migration periods or in subsequent winters. 

Recovery records indicate that the great majority of Starlings 
that winter in the Washington roosts nest within 20 miles of 
the Capitol ; 4 out of every 5 summer recoveries of winter-banded 
birds were taken within 20 miles of the place of banding. Re- 
coveries of Maryland and District of Columbia Starlings south 
of a 40-mile radius from the banding station are very few — 
perhaps due in part to the relatively small number banded during 
the nesting season. Four birds banded in Washington (January 
to March) were taken at various seasons of the year from 40 
to 160 miles away in Virginia; and 1 banded at Raleigh, North 
Carolina, in mid-February was killed on the lower Patuxent River 
2 years later in January. There have been too few bandings 
on the Eastern Shore to yield recoveries, but Kessel (1953) has 
shown that a coastal flight from New England and another flight 
from the Hudson and Connecticut River valleys probably account 
for many of the wintering birds in our Eastern Shore section. 

Family VIREONIDAE 

WHITE-EYED VIREO Vireo griseus (Boddaert) 

Status. — Breeding and transient: Common in the Eastern 
Shore and Western Shore sections; fairly common in the Upper 
Chesapeake section and in the Potomac River valley of the 
Piedmont section; uncommon elsewhere in the Piedmont section 
and in the Ridge and Valley section; rare in the Allegheny 
Mountain section. 

Habitat. — Chiefly shrub swamps and brushy cutover forest 
swamps; also in hedgerows and wood margins in agricultural 
areas. 

Nesting season. — Mid-April to early August (nesting peak, 
early May to late June). Nest-building was recorded as early 
as April 16, 1949, in Worcester County (J. H. Buckalew). Ex- 
treme egg dates (24 nests) : April 25, 1949, in Worcester County 
(J. H. Buckalew) and July 11, 1901, in Harford County (W. H. 
Fisher). Extreme nestling dates (13 nests) : June 1, 1902, in 
Washington County (J. M. Sommer) and August 6, 1893, in 
Baltimore County (Kirkwood, 1895). 

Spring migration. — Normal period: April 15-25 to May 10-20 ; 
peak, April 25 to May 10. Extreme arrival dates: April 10, 1912, 
in the District of Columbia (W. D. Appel) ; April 12, 1953, in 



BIRDS OF MARYLAND AND DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 263 

Charles County (M. C. Crone, K. Keeley) ; April 12, 1954, in 
Caroline County (M. W. Hewitt) ; April 14, 1929, in Baltimore 
County (J. M. Sommer). 

Fall migration. — Normal period: August 15-25 to September 
25-October 5 ; peak, August 25 to September 15. Extreme depar- 
ture dates: October 30, 1927, in Baltimore County (F. C. Kirk- 
wood, J. M. Sommer) ; October 28, 1910, in the District of 
Columbia (M. D. Suter) ; October 28, 1933, in Prince Georges 
County (R. Overing). 

Breeding population densities (territorial males per 100 
acres) . — 
40 (5.2 in 13 acres) in shrub swamp (alder, poison sumac, sweet pepperbush, 

swamp rose, red maple, etc.) in Prince Georges County in 1945. 
32 (6 in 18% acres) in "second-growth river swamp" (red maple, sweetgum, 

black gum, etc., with dense understory of holly, sweet pepperbush, and 

greenbrier) in Worcester County in 1948 (Springer and Stewart, 1948d). 
28 (16 in 58 acres) in brushy, poorly drained, abandoned farmland in Prince 

Georges County in 1947. 
Seventy-four singing males were counted during a 20 mile canoe trip on the 
Pocomoke River, from Poorhouse Branch to Pocomoke City, on June 16, 1946. 

Maximum counts (nonbreeding) . — Spring: 59 in the Ocean 
City area (including the upper Pocomoke River) on May 5, 1951; 
40 in Charles and St. Marys Counties on May 8, 1954 (J. W. 
Terborgh). Fall: 18 killed at the Washington Monument in 
Washington, D. C, on September 12, 1937 (Overing, 1938) ; 
15 at Patuxent Refuge on September 9, 1943. 

YELLOW-THROATED VIREO Vireo fiavifrons Vieillot 

Status. — Breeding and transient: Fairly common in the East- 
ern Shore, Western Shore, and Upper Chesapeake sections and 
in the Potomac River valley of the Piedmont section; uncommon 
elsewhere in the Piedmont section and in the Ridge and Valley 
section; rare in the Allegheny Mountain section. 

Habitat. — Flood-plain and lowland swamp forests and rich, 
moist forests on the upland; usually occurring in forest areas 
with a partially opened canopy. 

Nesting season. — Mid-April to late July (nesting peak, mid- 
May to late June). Nest building was recorded as early as 
April 19, 1949, in Worcester County (J. H. Buckalew) . Extreme 
egg dates (18 nests) : May 9, 1917, in Dorchester County (Jack- 
son, 1941) and July 21, 1922, in the District of Columbia (S. F. 
Blake). Extreme nestling dates (15 nests) : June 4, 1916, and 
July 18, 1915, both in Baltimore County (J. M. Sommer) . 

Spring migration. — Normal period: April 20-30 to May 15- 



264 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 62, FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 

25; peak, May 1 to May 15. Extreme arrival dates: April 5, 
1953, in Anne Arundel County (Mrs. W. L. Henderson, Mrs. G. 
Tappan) ; April 11, 1922, in the District of Columbia (J. Kitt- 
redge) ; April 13, 1890, in Baltimore County (J. H. Pleasants) . 

Fall migration. — Normal period: August 20-30 to September 
20-30; peak, September 1 to September 20. Extreme departure 
dates: October 9, 1897, along the Patapsco River marsh (F. C. 
Kirkwood) ; October 4, 1953, in Charles County (M. C. Crone, 
A. R. Stickley, Jr.). 

Breeding population densities (territorial males per 100 
acres) . — 

19 (7 in 36 acres) in "virgin central hardwood deciduous forest" (white oak- 
tulip-poplar) in Prince Georges County in 1947 (Stewart and Robbins, 
1947b). 

9 (2.5 in 28 acres) in partially opened, flood-plain forest (sycamore, ash, elm, 
etc.) in Montgomery County in 1943 (J. W. Aldrich, A. J. Duvall). 

9 (4 in 44% acres) in river bluff forest (beech, white oak, scarlet oak) in 
Prince Georges County in 1945; absent in 1944 (J. W. Aldrich, A. J. 
Duvall) . 

8 (6 in 80 acres) in "central hardwood forest (oaks-tulip-poplar) with scat- 
tered pine" in the District of Columbia in 1948 and 1949; 2 (2 in 80 
acres) in 1951 (Trever, 1952) ; 4 (3.5 in 80 acres) in 1954 (Wright, 1955) ; 
3 (2.5 in 80 acres) in 1952 (Clagett, 1952) ; 2 (1.5 in 80 acres) in 1953 
(Clagett, 1953). 

8 (1.5 in 18% acres) in "second-growth river swamp (red maple, sweetgum, 
black gum, etc., with dense understory of holly, sweet pepperbush, and 
greenbrier) in Worcester County in 1948 (Springer and Stewart, 1948d). 

7 (2.5 in 37 acres) in "mixed oak forest" (white, scarlet, and chestnut oaks, 
etc.) in Baltimore County in 1952 (Kaufmann, et al., 1952) ; 4 (1.5 in 
37 acres) in 1953 (Cole and Kolb, 1953) ; 3 (1 in 37 acres) in 1951 (Kolb 
and Cole, 1951) ; 3 (1 in 40 acres) in 1949 and 1950 (Kolb, 1949 and 
1950) ; 1 (0.5 in 40 acres) in 1948 (Kolb, et al., 1948). 

3 (2.9 in 85 acres) in well-drained flood-plain forest (sweetgum, hornbeam, 
river birch, tulip-poplar) along the boundary between Anne Arundel and 
Prince Georges Counties in 1945 (Stewart et al., 1946). 

Maximum counts (nonbreeding) . — Spring: 20 on May 11, 
1952, at Port Tobacco, Charles County (M. C. Crone) ; 20 at 
Patuxent Refuge on May 8, 1954. Fall: 25 at Wills Mountain, 
Allegany County, on September 3, 1901 (F. C. Kirkwood). 

SOLITARY VIREO Vireo solitarius (Wilson) 

Status. — Breeding (see fig. 32) : Fairly common in the Alle- 
gheny Mountain section at elevations above 2,000 feet. Transient: 
Fairly common in the Allegheny Mountain, and Ridge and Valley 
sections; uncommon in the Piedmont, Upper Chesapeake, and 
Western Shore sections; rare in the Eastern Shore section. 

Habitat. — Breeding: Hemlock and white pine forests and 



BIRDS OF MARYLAND AND DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 265 

mixed mesophytic forests. Transient: Various types of deciduous 
and coniferous forests. 

Nesting season. — Late May to mid-July. The earliest record 
of nest-building was made on May 27, 1919, in Garrett County 
(J. M. Sommer) . Egg dates (2 nests) : June 1, 1925 (J. M. 
Sommer), and June 1, 1951, both in Garrett County. Nestling 
dates (2 nests) : June 15, 1918 (J. M. Sommer), and June 25, 
1949, both in Garrett County. Nest-building was recorded as 
late as June 25, 1949. 

Spring migration. — Normal period: April 10-20 to May 5-15; 
peak, April 20 to May 5. Extreme arrival dates: April 3, 1932, 
in the District of Columbia (E. N. Grinnell) ; April 6, 1952, in 
Baltimore County (E. Willis) ; April 7, 1946, in Worcester 
County. Extreme departure dates: June 2, 1924, in the District 
of Columbia (A. Wetmore) ; June 1, 1930, in Calvert County 
(H. E. Ewing) ; May 30, 1947, in Prince Georges County (J. 
E. Willoughby). 

Fall migration. — Normal period: September 20-30 to October 
20-30; peak, October 1 to October 20. Extreme arrival dates: 
August 30, 1953, in Frederick County (J. W. Richards) ; Sep- 
tember 2, 1951, in Montgomery County (M. C. Merrill, C. K. 
Schoenbauer) ; September 6, 1903 (W. L. McAtee), and September 
6, 1935 (R. Overing), in the District of Columbia; September 11, 
1927, in Baltimore County (J. M. Sommer) . Extreme departure 
dates: November 15, 1955, in Frederick County (J. W. Richards) ; 
November 10, 1951, in Anne Arundel County (F. C. Cross) ; 
November 5, 1911, in Montgomery County (A. K. Fisher). 

Breeding population densities (territorial males per 100 
acres) . — 

27 (5.5 in 20 acres) in "virgin hemlock forest" in Garrett County in 1949 

(Robbins, 1949a) ; 
17 (4 in 23% acres) in "mature northern hardwood forest" (black cherry, 

beech, hemlock, sugar maple, sweet birch, etc.) in Garrett County in 1951 

(Robbins and Stewart, 1951a). 

Maximum counts (nonbreeding) . — Spring: 10 at Patuxent 
Refuge on April 29, 1944. Fall: 20 at Patuxent Refuge on 
October 15, 1947. 

RED-EYED VIREO V/reo o/ivcrceus (Linnaeus) 

Status. — Breeding and transient: Abundant in all sections 
except the Eastern Shore section where it is common. 

Habitat. — Various types of deciduous forests. 

Nesting season. — Mid-May to mid-August (nesting peak, late 
May to mid-July). Extreme egg dates (165 nests): May 19, 



266 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 62, FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 

1945, in Prince Georges County (J. B. Cope) and July 31, 1893, 
in Baltimore County (Kirkwood, 1895). Extreme nestling dates 
(75 nests) : June 4, 1945, in Prince Georges County (J. B. Cope) 
and August 18, 1954, in Caroline County (Mrs. A. J. Fletcher). 
Young birds, still partly dependent on their parents, were ob- 
served at Baltimore on September 11, 1940 (H. Brackbill). 

Spring migration. — Normal period: April 25-May 1 to May 
15-25; peak, May 1 to May 15. Extreme arrival dates: April 17, 
1954, in St. Marys County (J. W. Terborgh) ; April 17, 1954, 
in Prince Georges County (L. W. Oring) ; April 19, 1954, in 
Baltimore County (A. S. Kaestner) ; April 21, 1895, in the 
District of Columbia (H. W. Oldys). Extreme departure date: 
May 28, 1914, in the District of Columbia (Oberholser, 1919). 

Fall migration. — Normal period: August 10-20 to October 
5-15; peak, August 25 to September 25. Extreme departure 
dates: November 11, 1888, in Montgomery County (J. D. Fig- 
gins) ; November 11, 1917, in the District of Columbia (P. 
Bartsch) . 

Breeding population densities (territorial males per 100 
acres) . — 

100 (36 in 36 acres) in "virgin central hardwood deciduous forest" (white 

oak-tulip-poplar) in Prince Georges County in 1947 (Stewart and 

Robbins, 1947b). 
92 (78.2 in 85 acres) in well-drained, flood-plain forest (sweetgum, hornbeam, 

river birch, tulip-poplar, etc.) along the boundary between Anne Arundel 

and Prince Georges Counties in 1945 (Stewart, et al., 1946) ; 55 (18 in 

32% acres) in another area of this habitat in 1944. 
65 (29 in 44% acres) in river bluff forest (beech, white oak, scarlet oak) in 

Prince Georges County in 1946, and 40 (18 in 44^ acres) in 1945 (J. W. 

Aldrich, A. J. Duvall). 
62 (8 in 13 acres) in upland forest (white, northern red, chestnut, and black 

oaks) in Montgomery Country in 1943 (J. W. Aldrich, A. J. Duvall). 
61 (8.5 in 14*4 acres) in poorly drained flood-plain forest (pin oak, sweetgum, 

red maple, red ash, etc.) in Prince Georges County in 1946. 
60 (14 in 23% acres) in "mature northern hardwood forest" (black cherry, 

beech, hemlock, sugar maple, sweet birch, etc.) in Garrett County in 

1951 (Robbins and Stewart, 1951a). 
53 (42 in 80 acres) in "central hardwood forest (oaks-tulip-poplar) with 

scattered pine" in the District of Columbia in 1948, 51 (41 in 80 acres) 

in 1949, 49 (39 in 80 acres) in 1951 (Trever, 1951) ; 51 (41 in 80 acres) in 

1954 (Wright, 1955) ; 48 (38.5 in 80 acres) in 1953 (Clagett, 1953) ; 41 
(32.5 in 80 acres) in 1952 (Clagett, 1952). 
52 (11 in 21 acres) in "dense second-growth" (oak-maple ridge forest) in 

Garrett County in 1949 (Robbins, 1949b). 
50 (20 in 40 acres) in "mixed oak forest" (white, scarlet, and chestnut oaks, 

etc.) in Baltimore County in 1948 (Kolb, et al., 1948) ; 49 (18 in 37 

acres) in 1951 (Kolb and Cole, 1951) ; 38 (15 in 40 acres) in 1949 (Kolb, 



BIRDS OF MARYLAND AND DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 267 

1949a) ; 38 (14 in 37 acres) in 1953 (Cole and Kolb, 1953) ; 33 (13 in 40 

acres) in 1950 (Kolb, 1950) ; 33 (12 in 37 acres) in 1952 (Kaufmann, et 

al., 1952). 
45 (5 in 11 acres) in upland seepage swamp forest (red maple, sweetgum, 

black gum, with dense understory of holly, sweet pepperbush, clammy 

azalea, maleberry, etc.) in Prince Georges County in 1946. 
44 (5.5 in 12%acres) in "mature oak-maple ridge forest" in Garrett County 

in 1949 (Robbins, 1949b) ; 
39 (5 in 12% acres) in lowland seepage swamp forest (red maple, sweetgum, 

pin oak, with brushy understory of sweet bay, winterberry, arrow-wood, 

etc.) in Prince Georges County in 1946. 
37 (8.2 in 24% acres) in river terrace forest (beech-white oak) in Prince 

Georges County in 1944. 
34 (8 in 23% acres) in upland oak forest (white, scarlet, and black oaks) in 

Prince Georges County in 1944. 
34 (11 in 32^ acres) in pine-oak forest (pitch pine, scrub pine, Spanish oak) 

in Prince Georges County in 1944. 
28 (3.6 in 13 acres) in shrub swamp (alder, poison sumac, sweet pepperbush, 

swamp rose, red maple, etc.) in Prince Georges County in 1945. 
21 (6 in 28 acres) in partially opened, flood-plain forest (sycamore, ash, elm, 

etc.) in Montgomery County in 1943 (J. W. Aldrich, A. J. Duvall). 
16 (3 in 18% acres) in "second-growth river swamp" (red maple, sweetgum, 

black gum, etc., with dense understory of holly, sweet pepperbush, and 

greenbrier) in Worcester County in 1948 (Springer and Stewart, 1948d). 
10 (2 in 21 acres) in "immature loblolly-shortleaf pine stand" in Worcester 

County in 1948 (Springer and Stewart, 1948c). 
10 (1.5 in 15 acres) in "open slash area" (cutover oak-maple ridge forest) in 

Garrett County in 1949 (Robbins, 1949b). 

Maximum counts (nonbreeding). — Spring: 205 at Patuxent 
Refuge on May 3, 1947 ; 200+ near Port Tobacco, Charles County, 
on May 11, 1943 (I. N. Gabrielson) ; 195 in Montgomery County 
on May 9, 1953 (E. J. Stivers, et al.). Fall: 209 killed at the 
Washington Monument in Washington, D. C, on September 12, 
1937 (Overing, 1938) ; 47 at Patuxent Refuge on September 5, 
1943. 

PHILADELPHIA VIREO Vireo philadelphkus (Cassin) 

Status. — Transient: Uncommon in the Allegheny Mountain, 
and Ridge and Valley sections; rare in the Piedmont, Upper 
Chesapeake, and Western Shore sections, and (in fall only) in 
the Eastern Shore section. 

Habitat. — Various types of deciduous forests. 

Spring migration. — Normal period: May 5-10 to May 25-30; 
peak, May 10 to May 20. Extreme arrival date: May 3, 1931, 
in Baltimore County (F. C. Kirkwood). Extreme departure date: 
June 8, 1927, in Baltimore County (F. C. Kirkwood). 

Fall migration. — Normal period: September 1-5 to October 



268 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 62, FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 

1-5; peak, September 5 to September 25. Extreme arrival dates: 
August 25, 1951, in Baltimore County (Mr. and Mrs. R. D. Cole) 
and Montgomery County (I. R. Barnes) ; August 29, 1931, in 
Baltimore County (F. C. Kirkwood) ; August 29, 1953, in Talbot 
County (R. L. Kleen). Extreme departure dates: October 21, 
1948, in the District of Columbia (E. G. Davis) ; October 11, 
1941 (collected), in Baltimore County (Kolb and Hampe, 1941). 
Maximum counts. — Spring: 3 near Rosedale, Baltimore 
County, on May 6, 1950 (D. A. Jones). Fall: 10 at Towson, 
Baltimore County, on August 27, 1951 (Mr. and Mrs. R. D. 
Cole) ; 4 at Chevy Chase, Montgomery County, on September 16, 
1928 (W. H. Ball) ; 3 at Emmitsburg, Frederick County, on 
September 17, 1952 (J. W. Richards) ; 3 on South Mountain, 
along the boundary between Frederick and Washington Counties 
on September 20, 1952 (R. J. Beaton) ; 3 banded on the barrier 
beach north of Ocean City on September 13, 1955. 

WARBLING VIREO Vireo gilvus (Vieillot) 

Status. — Breeding (see fig. 46) : Fairly common in the Ridge 
and Valley, and Upper Chesapeake sections; uncommon in the 
Piedmont section and in the northern part of the Eastern Shore 
section (Queen Annes, Caroline, and Talbot Counties) ; uncom- 
mon and local in the southern part of the Eastern Shore section 




LEGEND 
■J Principal Range 
Local Record 



Figure 46. — Breeding range of Warbling Vireo. 



BIRDS OF MARYLAND AND DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 269 

(occurring in the vicinity of the towns of Cambridge, Hurlock, 
Vienna, Salisbury, Berlin, and Princess Anne) ; rare in the 
Allegheny Mountain section (Brooks, 1936c) ; rare and local in 
the Western Shore section — summer records in Charles County 
at Marshall Hall (S. F. Judd) and Chapel Point (A. Wetmore), 
in Anne Arundel County near Deale (N. Hotchkiss) and Rock 
Creek (J. M. Sommer), in Prince Georges County at Hyattsville 
(N. Hotchkiss), and in the District of Columbia. Transient: 
Uncommon in the Ridge and Valley, and Piedmont sections; 
rare in the Allegheny Mountain, Upper Chesapeake, Western 
Shore, and Eastern Shore sections. 

Habitat. — Open stands of shade trees in residential areas of 
towns and farms; in Ridge and Valley, and Piedmont sections, 
also occurs in open-growth flood-plain forests. 

Nesting season. — Mid-May to mid-July (probably). Nest- 
building was recorded as early as May 17, 1917, in Dorchester 
County (R. W. Jackson). Extreme egg dates (15 nests) : May 
24, 1925, and June 22, 1925, both in Dorchester County (R. W. 
Jackson). 

Spring migration. — Normal period: April 20-25 to June 1-10; 
peak, May 1 to May 20. Extreme arrival date: April 19, 1919, 
in Dorchester County (R. W. Jackson). Extreme departure 
dates: June 12, 1951, in Howard County; June 11, 1946, in Prince 
Georges County. 

Fall migration. — Normal period: August 20-30 to September 
20-30; peak, September 1 to September 15. Extreme arrival 
dates: August 17, 1927, and August 17, 1930, in Baltimore County 
(F. C. Kirkwood). Extreme departure date: October 9, 1892, 
in Baltimore County (F. C. Kirkwood) . 

Breeding population densities (territorial males per 100 
acres) . — 

10 (2 in 19% acres) in "shrubby field with stream-bordered trees" in Balti- 
more County in 1946; 5 (1 in 19% acres) in 1947 (Cooley, 1947). 

Maximum counts (nonbreeding) . — Spring: 75 in Washington 
County on May 7, 1949 (R. S. and M. Stauffer) ; 9 near Seneca, 
Montgomery County, on May 12, 1956 (C. N. Mason) ; 7 in the 
District of Columbia on May 12, 1913 (Oberholser, 1917a) ; 3 at 
Patuxent Refuge on May 9, 1953. 

Family PARULIDAE 
BLACK-AND-WHITE WARBLER Mniotilta varia (Linnaeus) 

Status. — Breeding: Common in the Allegheny Mountain, and 
Ridge and Valley sections; fairly common in the Piedmont and 



270 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 62, FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 

Western Shore sections; fairly common locally in the Eastern 
Shore section (most numerous in Worcester County, and in 
eastern portions of Wicomico and Somerset Counties) ; rare in 
the Upper Chesapeake section. Transient: Common in all sec- 
tions. Wintering: Casual — 2 seen at Chestertown, Kent County, 
on December 27, 1932 (W. Baker) ; 1 banded at Cambridge, 
Dorchester County, on December 27, 1952 (J. H. Buckalew) ; 

I seen at Denton, Caroline County, on December 9, 1953 (Mrs. 
A. J. Fletcher). 

Habitat. — Various types of deciduous and coniferous forests, 
usually with partly opened canopy (apparently absent during 
the breeding season in flood-plain forests). 

Nesting season. — Early May to early July. Extreme egg 
dates (9 nests) ; May 14, 1901, in the District of Columbia 
(Bartsch, 1901) and June 7, 1886, in the District of Columbia 
(C. W. Richmond). Extreme nestling dates (9 nests) : May 17, 
1948, in Worcester County (P. F. Springer) and July 4, 1892, 
in Baltimore County (Kirkwood, 1895). 

Spring migration. — Normal period: April 5-15 to May 15-25; 
peak, April 20 to May 10. Extreme arrival dates: March 28, 
1929, in Prince Georges County (L. McCormick-Goodhart) ; 
March 30, 1908, in the District of Columbia (H. W. Oldys) ; 
March 31, 1952, in Montgomery County (E. J. Stivers) . Extreme 
departure date: May 30, 1945, in Prince Georges County. 

Fall migration. — Normal period: August 5-15 to October 
1-10; peak, August 25 to September 25. Extreme arrival dates: 
July 19, 1951, in Caroline County (A. Knotts) ; July 24, 1951, 
in Baltimore County (E. Willis) ; July 31, 1886, in the District 
of Columbia (A. K. Fisher). Extreme departure dates: Novem- 
ber 26, 1953, in Montgomery County (L. Kilham) ; November 14, 
1931, in the District of Columbia (W. L. McAtee) ; October 30, 
1952, in Caroline County (M. W. Hewitt). 

Breeding population densities (territorial males per 100 
acres) . — 
21 (4.5 in 21 acres) in "dense second-growth" (oak-maple ridge forest) in 

Garrett County in 1949 (Robbins, 1949b). 
16 (3 in 18% acres) in "second-growth river swamp" (red maple, sweetgum, 
black gum, etc., with dense understory of holly, sweet pepperbush, and 
greenbrier) in Worcester County in 1948 (Springer and Stewart, 1948d). 
13 (2 in 15 acres) in "open slash area" (cut-over oak-maple ridge forest) in 
Garrett County in 1949 (Robbins, 1949b). 

II (4 in 36 acres) in "virgin central hardwood deciduous forest (white oak- 

tulip-poplar) in Prince Georges County in 1947 (Stewart and Robbins, 
1947b). 



BIRDS OF MARYLAND AND DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 



271 



7 (1.5 in 21 acres) in "immature loblolly-shortleaf pine stand" in Worcester 
County in 1948 (Springer and Stewart, 1948c). 

5 (4 in 80 acres) in "central hardwood forest (oaks-tulip-poplar) with scat- 
tered pine" in the District of Columbia in 1948, 3 (2 in 80 acres) in 1949, 
1 (1 in 80 acres) in 1951 (Trever, 1952); 1 (1 in 80 acres) in 1952 
(Clagett, 1952) ; none in 1953 or 1954. 

Maximum counts (nonbreeding) . — Spring: 46 in the Poco- 
moke River area on May 5, 1951; 46 at Patuxent Refuge on 
May 6, 1950. Fall: 65 at Greenbelt, Prince Georges County, on 
August 27, 1954 (L. W. Oring) ; 50 at Patuxent Refuge on 
August 28, 1943; 30 near Cabin John, Montgomery County, on 
September 24, 1947 (I. R. Barnes, E. G. Davis). 

PROTHONOTARY WARBLER Protonotaria citrea (Boddaert) 

Status. — Breeding and transient (see fig. 47) : Abundant in 
the swamps along the Pocomoke and upper Nanticoke Rivers and 
their tributaries; fairly common elsewhere in the Eastern Shore 
section and in the southern part of the Western Shore section (St. 
Marys, Calvert, and Charles Counties, and southern Prince Georges 
County) ; uncommon in the northern part of the Western Shore 
section, in the Upper Chesapeake section, and along the Potomac 
and Susquehanna River valleys in the Piedmont section ; rare else- 
where in the Piedmont section, and along the Potomac River and 
larger tributaries in the Ridge and Valley section. 




LEGEND 

|j Principal Range 
• Local Record 



Figure 47. — Breeding range of Prothonotary Warbler. 



272 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 62, FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 

Habitat. — Most numerous in river or stream swamp forests; 
also occurs in well-drained flood-plain forests. 

Nesting season. — Late April to late June (peak, mid-May to 
mid-June). Nest-building was recorded as early as April 26, 
1953, in Caroline County (Mr. and Mrs. A. J. Fletcher) . Extreme 
egg dates (12 nests) : May 10, 1953, in Caroline County (Mr. and 
Mrs. A. J. Fletcher) and June 22, 1931, in Dorchester County (F. 
C. Kirkwood). Extreme nestling dates (17 nests) : May 24, 1955, 
in Montgomery County (E. Meyer) and June 30, 1951, in Caroline 
County (Mr. and Mrs. A. J. Fletcher) . 

Period of occurrence. — Normal period: April 15-20 to Sep- 
tember 10-20; peak, April 25 to September 10. Extreme arrival 
date: April 8, 1951, in Worcester County (D. A. Cutler) . Extreme 
departure date: September 25, 1949, in Montgomery County (I. 
R. Barnes). 

Breeding population density (territorial males per 100 
acres) . — 

40 (7.5 in 18% acres) in "second-growth river swamp" (red maple, sweetgum, 

black gum, etc., with dense understory of holly, sweet pepperbush, and 

greenbrier) in Worcester County in 1948 (Springer and Stewart, 1948d). 

A total of 180 singing males was counted during a 20-mile canoe trip on the 

Pocomoke River, from Poorhouse Branch to Pocomoke City, on June 16, 1946. 

Maximum counts (nonbreeding) . — Spring: 49 along the Poco- 
moke River on May 5, 1951; 15 near Cabin John, Montgomery 
County, on May 12, 1956 (H. A. Sutton) ; 8 near Seneca, Mont- 
gomery County, on April 25, 1948 (R. E. Lawrence). Fall: 15 
along the Pocomoke River on September 10, 1950 ; 12 near Cabin 
John, Montgomery County, on September 3, 1947 (T. W. Don- 
nelly) . 

SWAINSON'S WARBLER Limnothlypis swainsonii (Audubon) 

Status. — Breeding (see fig. 48) : Uncommon in the swamp 
along the Pocomoke River and its tributaries ; rare in other stream 
swamps in Worcester County. 

Habitat. — River and stream swamps, being most numerous in 
the drier portions with partially opened canopy, and with dense 
understory brush composed of greenbrier, sweet pepperbush, and 
other shrubs (Meanley, 1950). 

Nesting season. — On May 15, 1955, a female that had been 
captured in a mist net in the Pocomoke swamp, Worcester County, 
laid an egg in a gathering cage. Newly hatched young were ob- 
served in the Pocomoke swamp on June 13, 1948 (Meanley, 1950). 
Adults were observed feeding young out of the nest near Pocomoke 
City, on June 20, 1953 (E. Fleisher, L. G. Worley). 



BIRDS OF MARYLAND AND DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 



273 




Figure 48. — Breeding ranges of Swainson's Warbler and Nashville Warbler. 



Period of occurrence. — Extreme arrival date: April 21, 1948, 
in Worcester County. Extreme departure date: August 30, 1948, 
in Worcester County (M. B. Meanley). Future observations will 
undoubtedly show that this species remains on the breeding 
grounds at least until early September. Two migrants, probably 
from the Pocomoke swamp area, were seen on Tangier Island, 
Virginia, September 17 to 19, 1939, by A. H. Clark (Murray, 
1952). 

Breeding population density (territorial males per 100 
acres) . — 

11 (2 in 18% acres) in "second-growth river swamp" (red maple, sweetgum, 
black gum, etc., with dense understory of holly, sweet pepperbush, and 
greenbrier) in Worcester County in 1948 (Springer and Stewart, 1948d). 

WORM-EATING WARBLER Helmitheros vermivotus (Gmelin) 

Status. — Breeding (see fig. 49) : Fairly common in the Ridge 
and Valley section, and locally in the Piedmont section ; uncommon 
in the Western Shore section, and in the swamp along the Poco- 
moke River and its tributaries; rare elsewhere in the Eastern 
Shore section, and in the Upper Chesapeake and Allegheny Moun- 
tain sections. Transient: Uncommon in the Ridge and Valley, 
Piedmont, and Western Shore sections; rare in the Allegheny 
Mountain, Upper Chesapeake, and Eastern Shore sections. 



274 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 62, FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 




Figure 49. — Breeding range of Worm-eating Warbler. 



Habitat.— Breeding: Well-drained upland deciduous forests, 
usually with understory of mountain laurel or other shrubs ; in the 
Eastern Shore section, occurs in the drier portions of river or 
stream swamps that contain an understory of mountain laurel. 
Transient: Various types of deciduous forests. 

Nesting season. — Mid-May to mid- July. Extreme egg dates 
(8 nests) : May 29, 1892, in Charles County (W. Palmer) and 
July 4, 1885, in the District of Columbia (USNM). Extreme 
nestling dates (8 nests) : May 28, 1930, in St. Marys County (F. C. 
Kirkwood) and June 25, 1893, in Baltimore County (W. N. 
Wholey) . 

Spring migration. — Normal period: April 25-30 to May 10- 
15; peak, May 1 to May 10. Extreme arrival dates: April 17, 
1942, in Harford County (S. Mason, Jr.) ; April 21, 1948, in Wor- 
cester County. Extreme departure date: May 18, 1923, in the 
District of Columbia (J. Kittredge, Jr.). 

Fall migration. — Normal period: August 10-20 to September 
10-20; peak, August 20 to September 10. Extreme arrival dates: 
July 31, 1886, in the District of Columbia (A. K. Fisher) ; August 
8, 1906, in Montgomery County (A. K. Fisher). Extreme de- 
parture dates: October 15, 1920, in Baltimore County (F. C. Kirk- 



BIRDS OF MARYLAND AND DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 



275 



wood) ; October 1, 1951, in Caroline County (M. W. Hewitt) ; 
September 23, 1952, in Prince Georges County. 

Maximum counts (nonbreeding) . — Spring: 8 in Washington 
County on May 7, 1949 (R. S. and M. Stauffer) ; 6 on Warrior 
Mountain, Allegany County, on April 28, 1907 (F. C. Kirkwood) ; 
6 along the Pocomoke River in Worcester County on April 21, 
1948; 6 at Patuxent Refuge on May 10, 1950. Fall: 9 at Patuxent 
Refuge on August 21, 1953; 5 in Dulaney Valley, Baltimore 
County, on August 13, 1899 (F. C. Kirkwood). 

GOLDEN-WINGED WARBLER Vermivora chrysoptera (Linnaeus) 

Status. — Breeding (see fig. 50) : Fairly common in the Alle- 
gheny Mountain section, and in the western part of the Ridge and 
Valley section (Allegany County) ; uncommon in western Wash- 
ington County (west of Hagerstown Valley). Transient: Fairly 
common in all sections except the Eastern Shore section where 
it is rare. 

Habitat. — Breeding: Brushy cutover oak-chestnut, mixed 
mesophytic, and bog forests. Transient: Various types of forest, 
although usually most numerous in flood-plain and swamp forests. 

Nesting season. — In Garrett County, a nest with eggs was 
found on June 2, 1925, and a nest with young nearly ready to fly 




LEGEND 
GOLDEN- WINGED WARBLER 
Ej^^j Principal Range 

BLUE -WINGED WARBLER 

| | Principal Range 

• Local Record 



Figure 50. — Breeding ranges of Golden-winged Warbler and Blue-winged 

Warbler. 



276 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 62, FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 

on June 16, 1918 (both records by J. M. Sommer) . Another nest, 
containing young, was observed in Garrett County on June 13 
and June 17, 1956 (G. Knight). 

Spring migration. — Normal period: April 25-30 to May 10- 
15; peak, May 1 to May 10. Extreme arrival dates: April 23, 
1952, in Prince Georges County ; April 24, 1924, in the District of 
Columbia (M. T. Cooke). Extreme departure dates: May 29, 
1892, in Baltimore County (W. N. Wholey) ; May 20, 1882, in the 
District of Columbia (H. W. Henshaw) ; May 20, 1952, in Caroline 
County (A. J. Fletcher, M. W. Hewitt) . 

Fall migration. — Normal period: August 15-20 to September 
1-10; peak, August 20 to August 30. Extreme arrival dates: 
August 2, 1896, in Baltimore County (F. C. Kirkwood) ; August 
6, 1953, in Prince Georges County; August 8, 1889 (USNM), in 
the District of Columbia (H. M. Smith). Extreme departure 
dates: September 24, 1950, in Baltimore County (E. Willis) ; 
September 16, 1955, in Worcester County ; September 14, 1924, in 
Montgomery County (A. Wetmore) ; September 13, 1921, in the 
District of Columbia (B. H. Swales, A. Wetmore). 

Breeding population density (territorial males per 100 
acres) . — 

17 (3.5 in 21 acres) in "dense second-growth" (oak-maple ridge forest) in 
Garrett County in 1949 (Robbins, 1949b). 

Maximum counts (nonbreeding) . — Spring: 17 at Patuxent 
Refuge on May 8, 1943 ; 12 near Seneca, Montgomery County, on 
May 3, 1952 (J. W. Terborgh) ; 6 at Port Tobacco, Charles County, 
on May 5, 1939 (I. N. Gabrielson, A. L. Nelson). Fall: 14 at 
Patuxent Refuge on August 28, 1943 ; 6 near Seneca, Montgomery 
County, on August 22, 1951 (R. R. Kerr, J. W. Terborgh). 

BLUE-WINGED WARBLER Vermivora pinus (Linnaeus) 

Status. — Breeding (see fig. 50) : Fairly common locally in the 
eastern part of the Ridge and Valley section (occurring north of 
Myersville in the Blue Ridge Mountains of western Frederick 
County) and in the northeastern part of the Piedmont section (in 
the Susquehanna River valley of Cecil and Harford Counties) ; 
also recorded in 1951 at Chevy Chase, Montgomery County (nest 
with eggs — C. P. Scheid) , and in 1954 in the vicinity of Northeast, 
Cecil County (J. W. Day) ; prior to 1900, this species occurred 
regularly in Baltimore County (Kirkwood, 1895) and Harford 
County (W. H. Fisher), in the area between Baltimore and Van 
Bibber ; this species was also found nesting in 1880 near the Dis- 
trict of Columbia (Richmond, 1888) and in Prince Georges 



BIRDS OF MARYLAND AND DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 277 

County, in the vicinity of Laurel (eggs, USNM — G. Marshall). 
Transient: Fairly common in the Piedmont, Upper Chesapeake, 
Eastern Shore, and Western Shore sections; uncommon in the 
Ridge and Valley section ; rare in the Allegheny Mountain section 
(Brooks, 1936c) . 

Habitat. — Breeding: Wet or moist brushy cut-over forests. 
Transient: Most numerous in flood-plain and swamp forests; oc- 
casional in other deciduous forest types. 

Nesting season. — Mid-May to early July. Nest-building was 
recorded as early as May 20, 1893, in Baltimore County (G. H. 
Gray) . Extreme egg dates (5 nests) : May 27, 1893 (G. H. Gray) , 
and June 18, 1896 (F. C. Kirkwood), in Baltimore County. Ex- 
treme nestling dates (3 nests) : June 13, 1892, and July 1, 1893, in 
Baltimore County (G. H. Gray). 

Spring migration. — Normal period: April 25-30 to May 10-15; 
peak, May 1 to May 10. Extreme arrival dates: April 21, 1954, in 
Worcester County (P. G. DuMont) ; April 23, 1925, in the District 
of Columbia (Mrs. T. M. Knappen) ; April 23, 1954, in Talbot 
County (R. L. Kleen). Extreme departure dates: May 26, 1905 
(Oberholser, 1905), May 26, 1906 (D. C. Aud. Soc), May 26, 1907 
( W. L. McAtee) , all in the District of Columbia ; May 22, 1948, in 
Baltimore County (H. Kolb). 

Fall migration. — Normal period: August 15-20 to September 
10-20; peak, August 20 to September 5. Extreme arrival dates: 
August 5, 1949, in the District of Columbia (A. R. Stickley, Jr.) ; 
August 6, 1953, in Prince Georges County; August 8, 1950 and 
1951, in Baltimore County (E. Willis) . Extreme departure dates: 
October 4, 1947, in Prince Georges County; September 27, 1952, 
in Montgomery County (M. M. Snow) . 

Maximum counts. — Spring: 23 in the Pocomoke River area on 
May 5, 1951 ; 17 at Patuxent Refuge on May 10, 1950 ; 8 at Port 
Tobacco, Charles County, on May 5, 1939 (I. N. Gabrielson, A. L. 
Nelson). Fall: 4 at Patuxent Refuge on August 20, 1943, and 
August 24, 1942. 

GOLDEN-WINGED WARBLER X BLUE-WINGED WARBLER HYBRIDS 

Records of Brewster's Warbler {"Vermivora leucobron- 
chialis") . — This hybrid form has been recorded as follows : 1 seen 
at Glen Echo, Montgomery County, on April 26, 1953 (I. R. 
Barnes, P. A. DuMont) ; 1 collected at Beltsville, Prince Georges 
County, on May 1, 1895 (USNM— A. H. Thayer) ; 1 seen at 
Middle River, Baltimore County, on May 3, 1950 (E. Willis) ; 1 
seen along the C. and O. Canal, Montgomery County, on May 3. 



278 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 62, FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 

1953 (I. R. Barnes) ; 1 seen at Port Tobacco, Charles County, on 
May 4, 1953 (Mrs. J. Cooley, Jr.) ; 1 collected at Loch Raven, Balti- 
more County, on May 7, 1940 (Seibert, 1941) ; 2 seen at Patuxent 
Refuge on May 8, 1943 (Stewart, et al., 1952) ; 1 seen in the Dis- 
trict of Columbia on May 9, 1947 (I. R. Barnes) ; 1 seen at 
Patuxent Refuge on May 10, 1950; 1 seen in the District of 
Columbia on May 13, 1950 (T. W. Donnelly) ; 1 banded in the Dis- 
trict of Columbia on May 16, 1939 (Fr. E. Stoehr) . 

Records of Lawrence's Warbler ("Vermivora lawrencei") . — 
This hybrid form has been recorded as follows : 1 seen in the Dis- 
trict of Columbia on May 2, 1905 (T. H. Levering) ; and another 
on May 5, 1943 (A. Wetmore) ; 1 male collected at Plummers 
Island, Montgomery County, on May 12, 1907 (Osgood, 1907) ; 1 
seen in Garrett County on June 28, 1936 (Brooks, 1936c) ; 1 seen 
at Patuxent Refuge on September 4, 1942 (Meanley, 1944). 

TENNESSEE WARBLER Vermivora peregrina (Wilson) 

Status. — Transient: Fairly common in the Allegheny Moun- 
tain, Ridge and Valley, and Piedmont sections; uncommon in the 
Upper Chesapeake and Western Shore sections ; rare in the East- 
ern Shore section. 

Habitat. — Various types of deciduous forest. 

Spring migration. — Normal period: May 5-10 to May 20-25; 
peak, May 10 to May 20. Extreme arrival dates: April 28, 1953, 
in Frederick County (J. W. Richards) ; April 29, 1956, in Prince 
Georges County; May 1, 1954, in Montgomery County (J. H. 
Fales, C. N. Mason). Extreme departure dates: June 3, 1910, in 
the District of Columbia (R. W. Williams) ; May 30, 1917, in 
Prince Georges County (W. L. McAtee, A. Wetmore). 

Fall migration. — Normal period: September 1-10 to October 
5-15; peak, September 15 to October 5. Extreme arrival dates: 
August 20, 1955, in Baltimore County (C. M. Buchanan) ; August 
25, 1951, in Montgomery County (I. R. Barnes) ; August 27, 1891, 
in Baltimore County (G. H. Gray) ; August 29, 1953, in Talbot 
County (R. L. Kleen). Extreme departure dates: November 30, 
1889, in Frederick County (J. D. Figgins) ; November 17, 1951, 
in Montgomery County (1 banded — S. H. Low, J. H. Buckalew) ; 
October 22, 1922, in the District of Columbia (J. Kittredge, Jr.). 

Maximum counts. — Spring: 66 at Patuxent Refuge on May 14, 
1950 ; 15 in the Seneca area, Montgomery County, on May 9, 1953 
(I. R. Barnes, et al.) . Fall: 50 at Seneca, Montgomery County, on 
September 12, 1954 (J. W. Terborgh) ; 36 at Swallow Falls, Gar- 
rett County, on September 11, 1954 (L. W. Oring) ; 18 at Middle 



BIRDS OF MARYLAND AND DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 2 79 

River, Baltimore County, on September 25, 1951 (E. Willis) ; 12 
at Patuxent Refuge on October 3, 1947. 

ORANGE-CROWNED WARBLER Vermivora celata (Say) 

Status. — Fall transient: Rare (15 records) — recorded in Mont- 
gomery, Baltimore, Prince Georges, and Worcester Counties. 
Wintering : Casual — recorded in Worcester County in 1952 (S. H. 
Low), 1953 (A. J. Fletcher, R. R. Kerr), 1954 (I. N. Gabrielson, 
A. R. Stickley, Jr.), and 1955 (3 seen— J. W. Terborgh) ; in Balti- 
more County in 1949-50 (R. D. Cole) ; and in the District of Colum- 
bia in 1928 (E. T. Wherry) . Spriyig transient: Casual — 1 observed 
in Baltimore County on May 11, 1892 (P. T. Blogg) ; and 1 seen on 
three dates, April 10-26, 1956, at Emmitsburg (J. W. Richards). 

Habitat. — Usually found in hedgerows or wood margins. 

Fall migration. — Extreme arrival date: September 30, 1952, 
in Montgomery County (Cross, 1952). Extreme departure dates: 
November 12, 1950, in Baltimore County (E. Willis) ; November 
8, 1952, in Worcester County (M. Gilbert). 

NASHVILLE WARBLER Vermivora ruficapilla (Wilson) 

Status. — Breeding (see fig. 48) : Uncommon and local in the 
Allegheny Mountain section — occurring in Garrett County at the 
following locations : Mountain Lake (near Mt. Lake Park — M. G. 
Brooks) ; Cranberry Swamp (V2 mile east of Finzel) ; Wolf 
Swamp (about 4 miles southeast of Grantsville) ; Cunningham 
Swamp (near Bittinger) ; and the Maryland portion of Cranesville 
Swamp (just east of Cranesville, West Virginia). Transient: 
Fairly common in the Allegheny Mountain, and Ridge and Valley 
sections; uncommon in the Piedmont, Upper Chesapeake, and 
Western Shore sections ; rare in the Eastern Shore section. 

Habitat. — Breeding: Brushy, cutover spruce bogs. Transient: 
Wood margins or open stands of swamp and flood-plain forests, 
and rich, moist forests on the upland. 

Nesting season. — A nest found in Wolf Swamp contained eggs 
on May 30, and nearly full-grown young on June 16, 1951. On 
June 12, 1949, adults were observed carrying food in the Maryland 
portion of Cranesville Swamp. 

SPRING migration. — Normal period: April 25-30 to May 15-20; 
peak, May 1 to May 15. Extreme arrival dates: April 20, 1925, 
in the District of Columbia (W. H. Ball) ; April 23, 1946, in Prince 
Georges County; April 23, 1952, in Frederick County (J. W. 
Richards). Extreme departure dates: May 25, 1949, in Prince 
Georges County; May 24, 1917, in Montgomery County (A. Wet- 
more) . 



280 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 62, FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 

Fall migration. — Normal period: September 5-10 to October 
5-15; peak, September 10 to October 5. Extreme arrival date: 
September 4, 1898, in Baltimore County (F. C. Kirkwood). Ex- 
treme departure dates: November 6, 1949, in Worcester County 
(M. B. Meanley) ; October 25, 1938, in the District of Columbia 
( W. B. Mcllwaine, Jr.) ; October 23, 1954, in Baltimore County 
(C. M. Buchanan) ; October 19, 1950, in Prince Georges County 
(J. H. Fales). 

Breeding population densities (territorial males per 100 
acres) . — 
39 (3.5 in 9 acres) in "scrub spruce bog" (brush-meadow stage with young 

red spruce) in Garrett County in 1951 (Robbins and Stewart, 1951b). 
21 (2 in 9Y2 acres) in "open hemlock-spruce bog" (brush-meadow stage with 
young hemlock, red spruce, alder, etc.) in Garrett County in 1949 
(Robbins, 1949c). 

Maximum counts (nonbreeding). — Spring: 20+ at Waverly, 
Baltimore County, on May 12, 1892 (W. N. Wholey) ; 14 in the 
District of Columbia, and adjacent Prince Georges County, Mary- 
land, on May 11, 1917 (Oberholser, 1917a) ; 10 at Emmitsburg, 
Frederick County, on April 27 and 28, 1954 (P. J. O'Brien, J. W. 
Richards) . Fall: 3 at Patuxent Refuge on September 9, 1953, and 
October 3, 1947 ; 3 at Seneca, Montgomery County, on September 
12,1954 (J. W. Terborgh). 

PARULA WARBLER Parula americana (Linnaeus) 

Status. — Breeding: Common in the Western Shore section; 
locally common in the Eastern Shore section (most numerous 
along the Pocomoke River and its tributaries, uncommon else- 
where) ; fairly common in the Piedmont section; uncommon in 
the Ridge and Valley, and Allegheny Mountain sections; rare in 
the Upper Chesapeake section. Transient: Fairly common in all 
sections. 

Habitat. — Flood-plain and swamp forests, and rich, moist 
forests on the upland, including both deciduous and coniferous 
types. 

Nesting season. — Late April to late June. Nest-building 
was recorded as early as April 24, 1946, in Montgomery County 
(Peterson, 1946). Extreme egg dates (6 nests) : May 15, 1947, 
and June 14, 1947, in Prince Georges County (M. B. Meanley). 
Extreme nestling dates (9 nests) : May 28, 1930, in St. Marys 
County (F. C. Kirkwood) and June 25, 1893, in Baltimore County 
(W.N. Wholey). 

Spring migration. — Normal period: April 15-20 to May 20-25; 
peak, April 20 to May 10. Extreme arrival dates: April 6, 1928, 



BIRDS OF MARYLAND AND DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 281 

in the District of Columbia (A. H. Howell) ; April 7, 1946, in 
Worcester County; April 7, 1949, in Montgomery County (L. M. 
Wendt). Extreme departure dates: May 30, 1905, in the District 
of Columbia (H. C. Oberholser) ; May 30, 1944 and 1945, in Prince 
Georges County. 

Fall migration. — Normal period: August 20-30 to October 5- 
15; peak, September 10 to October 5. Extreme departure dates: 
December 14, 1936 (found dead, in "excellent condition"), in the 
District of Columbia (Lincoln, 1937) ; October 29, 1952, in Caro- 
line County (M. W. Hewitt) ; October 20, 1948, in the District of 
Columbia (E. G. Davis). 

Breeding population densities (territorial males per 100 
acres) . — 

47 (40.1 in 85 acres) in well-drained, flood-plain forest (sweetgum, horn- 
beam, river birch, tulip-poplar, etc.) along the boundary between Anne 
Arundel and Prince Georges Counties in 1945 (Stewart, et al., 1946) ; 22 
(7.2 in 32% acres) in another area of this habitat in 1944. 
29 (4 in 14% acres) in poorly-drained, flood-plain forest (pin oak, sweetgum, 

red maple, red ash, etc.) in Prince Georges County in 1946. 
19 (3.5 in 18% acres) in "second-growth river swamp" (red maple, sweetgum, 
black gum, etc., with dense understory of holly, sweet pepperbush, and 
greenbrier) in Worcester County in 1948 (Springer and Stewart, 1948d). 
16 (4.5 in 28 acres) in partially opened, flood-plain forest (sycamore, ash, 
elm, etc.) in Montgomery County in 1943 (J. W. Aldrich, A. J. Duvall). 
14 (1.5 in 11 acres) in upland seepage swamp forest (red maple, sweetgum, 
black gum, with dense understory of holly, sweet pepperbush, clammy 
azalea, maleberry, etc.) in Prince Georges County in 1946. 
12 (4 in 32% acres) in pine-oak forest (pitch pine, scrub pine and Spanish 

oak) in Prince Georges County in 1944. 
12 (1.5 in 13 acres) in upland oak forest (white, northern red, chestnut, and 
black oaks) in Montgomery County in 1943 (J. W. Aldrich, A. J. Duvall). 
8 (1.5 in 20 acres) in "virgin hemlock stand" in Garrett County in 1949 

(Robbins, 1949a). 
6 (1.5 in 23% acres) in "mature northern hardwood forest" (black cherry, 
beech, hemlock, sugar maple, sweet birch, etc.) in Garrett County in 
1951 (Robbins and Stewart, 1951a). 
4 (1.5 in 36 acres) in "virgin central hardwood deciduous forest" (white oak- 
tulip-poplar) in Prince Georges County in 1947 (Stewart and Robbins, 
1947b). 

Maximum counts (nonbreeding) . — Spring: 112 at Patuxent 
Refuge on May 6, 1950; 102 in Montgomery County on May 8, 
1954 (K. Stecher) ; 100 at Port Tobacco, Charles County, on May 
11, 1943 (I. N. Gabrielson, F. M. Uhler) ; 49 in the Pocomoke 
River area of Worcester and Wicomico Counties on May 5, 1951. 
Fall: 80 in the District of Columbia on October 1, 1948 (I. R. 
Barnes, K. H. Weber) ; 35 near Cabin John, Montgomery County, 
on September 18, 1954 (P. A. DuMont) ; 23 found dead at the 



282 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 62, FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 

Washington Monument, in the District of Columbia, on September 
12, 1937 (Overing, 1938) ; 19 at Greenbelt, Prince Georges County, 
on October 6, 1954 (L. W. Oring) . 

YELLOW WARBLER Dendroica petechia (Linnaeus) 

Status. — Breeding: Fairly common in the Allegheny Mountain, 
Ridge and Valley, and Upper Chesapeake sections, and in the tide- 
water areas of the Eastern Shore and Western Shore sections ; un- 
common elsewhere in the Eastern Shore and Western Shore sec- 
tions, and in the Piedmont section. Transient: Common in the 
Allegheny Mountain section; uncommon in all other sections. 

Habitat. — Open growth of willow, and other small trees and 
shrubs on wet ground; also occurs in orchards, and in residential 
areas that contain an open growth of small ornamental trees. 

Nesting season. — Early May to early July (nesting peak, mid- 
May to mid-June) . Nest-building was recorded as early as May 
1, 1954, in Baltimore County (E. K. Lubbert) . Extreme egg dates 
(99 nests) : May 7, 1921, in the District of Columbia (M. J. Pel- 
lew) and June 17, 1951, in Baltimore County (E. Willis) . Extreme 
nestling dates (27 nests) : May 23, 1902 (F. C. Kirkwood), and 
July 10, 1951 (E. Willis), in Baltimore County. Fledglings out 
of the nest were recorded as early as May 26, 1935, in Allegany 
County (L. M. Llewellyn). 

Spring migration. — Normal period: April 15-25 to May 25-30; 
peak, May 1 to May 20. Extreme arrival dates: April 3, 1953, in 
St. Marys County (R. R. Kerr) ; April 4, 1862 (USNM), in the 
District of Columbia (C. E. Schmidt) ; April 6, 1893, in Dorchester 
County (R. C. Watters) . Extreme departure dates: June 11, 1916, 
in the District of Columbia (Oberholser, 1919) ; June 7, 1952, in 
Prince Georges County. 

Fall migration. — Normal period: July 15-25 to September 20- 
30; peak, July 25 to September 1. Extreme arrival dates: July 9, 
1933, in the District of Columbia (E. N. Grinnell) ; July 12, 1917, 
in Dorchester County (R. W. Jackson). Extreme departure dates: 
October 12, 1910, in the District of Columbia (E. J. Brown) ; Octo- 
ber 6, 1927, in Montgomery County (W. H. Ball). 

Breeding population densities (territorial males per 100 
acres) . — 
63 (12 in 19.2 acres) in shrubby field with stream-bordered trees in Baltimore 

County in 1946, 47 (9 in 19.2 acres) in 1947 (Cooley, 1947). 
5 (3 in 66 acres) in field and edge habitat (including strips of flood-plain 
forest, brushy fields, and hedgerows) in Baltimore County in 1947 
(Hampe, et al., 1947). 

Maximum counts (nonbreeding) . — Spring: 200 at Port To- 



BIRDS OF MARYLAND AND DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 283 

bacco, Charles County, on May 7, 1940 (C. Cottam, I. N. Gabriel- 
son) ; 60 in the District of Columbia on May 4, 1952 (Mr. and Mrs. 
T. L. Zapf). 

MAGNOLIA WARBLER Dendroka magnolia (Wilson) 

Status. — Breeding (see fig. 32) : Common in the Allegheny 
Mountain section at elevations above 2,500 feet (locally down to 
2,100 feet) . Transient: Common in all sections except the Eastern 
Shore section where it is uncommon. 

Habitat. — Breeding: Hemlock, red spruce, and mixed meso- 
phytic forests that contain an understory of conifers. Transient: 
Various types of deciduous and coniferous forests, being most 
numerous in those that contain an understory shrub layer. 

Nesting season. — Probably late May to early July. Extreme 
egg dates (5 nests) : June 3, 1925 (F. C. Kirkwood), and June 28, 
1899 (Preble, 1900), in Garrett County. Nestling dates (3 nests) ; 
June 12, 1918 (J. M. Sommer) ; June 12, 1925 (G. Eifrig) ; and 
June 13, 1949, all in Garrett County. 

Spring migration. — Normal period: May 1-10 to May 25-30; 
peak, May 10 to May 20. Extreme arrival dates: April 22, 1891, 
in the District of Columbia (C. W. Richmond) ; April 28, 1905, in 
Baltimore County (F. C. Kirkwood) ; April 28, 1954, in Anne 
Arundel County (Mrs. G. Tappan, Mrs. W. L. Henderson). Ex- 
treme departure dates: June 8, 1954, in Baltimore County (S. W. 
Simon) ; June 3, 1945, in Prince Georges County; June 2, 1917, in 
the District of Columbia (F. Harper). 

Fall migration. — Normal period: August 20-30 to October 5- 
15; peak, September 10 to September 25. Extreme arrival dates: 
August 15, 1886, in the District of Columbia (A. K. Fisher) ; 
August 19, 1952, in Baltimore County (E. Willis). Extreme de- 
parture dates: October 28, 1916, in the District of Columbia (Mr. 
and Mrs. L. D. Miner) ; October 27, 1951, in Garrett County (H. E. 
Slater). 

Breeding population densities (territorial males per 100 
acres) . — 

80 (16 in 20 acres) in "virgin hemlock forest" in Garrett County in 1949 

(Robbins, 1949a). 
63 (6 in 9Y2 acres) in "open hemlock-spruce bog" (brush-meadow stage with 

young hemlock, red spruce, alder, etc.) in Garrett County in 1949 

(Robbins, 1949c). 
40 (5 in 12Y2 acres) in "virgin spruce-hemlock bog forest" (red spruce and 

hemlock with dense understory of great laurel) in Garrett County in 1951 

(Stewart and Robbins, 1951a). 
33 (3 in 9 acres) in "scrub spruce bog" (brush-meadow stage with young red 

spruce) in Garrett County in 1951 (Robbins and Stewart, 1951b). 



284 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 62, FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 

26 (6 in 23% acres) in "mature northern hardwood forest" (black cherry, 
beech, hemlock, sugar maple, sweet birch, etc.) in Garrett County in 
1951 (Robbins and Stewart, 1951a). 

22 (6 in 27% acres) in "red pine plantation" (young trees about 20 feet in 
height) in Garrett County in 1949 (Robbins and Barnes, 1949). 

Maximum counts (nonbreeding) . — Spring: 69 at Patuxent 
Refuge on May 10, 1950. Fall: 48 at Middle River, Baltimore 
County, on September 24, 1950 (E. Willis) ; 34 killed at the Wash- 
ington Monument in the District of Columbia on September 12, 
1937 (Overing, 1938) ; 29 at Patuxent Refuge on September 25, 
1943 ; 25 at Cumberland, Allegany County, on September 21, 1901 
(G. Eifrig). 
CAPE MAY WARBLER Dendroha tigrina (Gmelin) 

Status. — Spring transient: Uncommon in all sections except 
the Eastern Shore section where it is rare. Fall transient: Fairly 
common in all sections. Wintering: Accidental — 1 recorded in the 
District of Columbia on December 16, 1888, and another on Decem- 
ber 16, 1916 (Richmond, 1917) ; 1 seen in Frederick County on 
March 12, 1950 (R. T. Smith). 

Habitat. — Various types of forest, with preference generally 
shown for young pine stands. 

Spring migration. — Normal period: May 1-5 to May 15-20; 
peak, May 5 to May 15. Extreme arrival dates: April 26, 1950, in 
the District of Columbia (F. C. Cross) ; April 27, 1954, in Prince 
Georges County; April 27, 1954, in Montgomery County (J. H. 
Fales) ; April 28, 1954, in Frederick County (J. W. Richards). 
Extreme departure dates: June 1, 1924, in Baltimore County (J. 
M. Sommer) ; May 30, 1917, in Prince Georges County (A. Wet- 
more) ; May 30, 1921, in the District of Columbia (J. Kittredge, 
Jr.). 

Fall migration. — Normal period: September 1-10 to October 
15-25 ; peak, September 10 to October 10. Extreme arrival dates: 
August 23, 1942 (USNM), in Prince Georges County; August 25, 
1890, in Montgomery County (J. D. Figgins) ; August 25, 1951, 
in Baltimore County (R. D. Cole, E. Willis) ; August 25, 1955, in 
Talbot County (R. L. Kleen). Extreme departure dates: Novem- 
ber 26, 1915, in the District of Columbia (P. Bartsch) ; November 
10, 1951, in Queen Annes County; October 26, 1944 and 1954, in 
Prince Georges County. 

Maximum counts. — Spring: 36 near Seneca, Montgomery 
County, on May 12, 1951 (R. F. Deed, C. N. Mason) ; 21 at Patux- 
ent Refuge on May 13, 1950. Fall: "Thousands" at Ocean City on 
October 2, 1949 (M. B, Meanley) ; 41 at Patuxent Refuge on Octo- 



BIRDS OF MARYLAND AND DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 285 

ber 7, 1944; 15 at South Mountain, along the boundary between 
Frederick and Washington Counties, on September 25, 1949 (R. J. 
Beaton) . 

Banding. — One banded at Monkton, Baltimore County, on May 
5, 1955, was recovered near Chatham, New Brunswick, on June 1, 
1955. 

BLACK-THROATED BLUE WARBLER Dendroica caerulescens (Gmelin) 

Status. — Breeding (see fig. 32) : Common in the Allegheny 
Mountain section at elevations above 2,000 feet. Transient: Com- 
mon in all sections except the Eastern Shore section, where it is 
uncommon. Wintering : Accidental — 1 was recorded in the Dis- 
trict of Columbia on December 22, 1930 (Booker, 1931), and re- 
mained throughout the months of January, February, and March, 
1931 (Oberholser, 1931). 

Habitat. — Breeding: Mixed mesophytic, oak-chestnut, hemlock, 
and red spruce forests with understory of great laurel, mountain 
laurel, or various deciduous shrubs. Transient: Various types of 
deciduous forest. 

Nesting season. — Probably late May to early July. Egg dates 
(3 nests) : All on June 3, 1925, in Garrett County (F. C. Kirk- 
wood). Nestling dates (2 nests) : June 11, 1918 (J. M. Sommer), 
and June 25, 1949, both in Garrett County. 

Spring migration. — Normal period: April 25-30 to May 20-25; 
peak, May 1 to May 15. Extreme arrival dates: April 15, 1928, 
in Harford County (F. C. Kirkwood) ; April 19, 1896, in the Dis- 
trict of Columbia (J. D. Figgins) ; April 21, 1929, in Baltimore 
County (F. C. Kirkwood, J. M. Sommer). Extreme departure 
dates: June 5, 1949, in Prince Georges County (R. C. Simpson) ; 
June 5, 1952, in Frederick County (J. W. Richards) ; May 30, 
1897, in Baltimore County (F. C. Kirkwood) ; May 30, 1888, in 
the District of Columbia (C. W. Richmond). 

Fall migration. — Normal period: August 25-September 5 to 
October 10-20 ; peak, September 20 to October 10. Extreme arrival 
dates: August 19, 1951, in Baltimore County (E. Willis) ; August 
21, 1887, in the District of Columbia (A. K. Fisher) ; August 21, 
1944, in Prince Georges County; August 22, 1930, in Dorchester 
County (H. B. Curry). Extreme departure dates: October 31, 
1953, in Montgomery County (P. G. DuMont) ; October 29, 1913, 
in the District of Columbia (L. D. Miner). 

Breeding population densities (territorial males per 100 
acres) . — 

58 (11.5 in 20 acres) in "virgin hemlock forest" in Garrett County in 1949 
(Robbins, 1949a). 



286 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 62, FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 

52 (6.5 in 12% acres) in "virgin spruce-hemlock bog forest" (red spruce and 
hemlock with dense understory of great laurel) in Garrett County in 
1951 (Stewart and Robbins, 1951a). 

48 (3 in 6% acres) in "young second-growth resulting from cutting" (oak- 
maple ridge forest) in Garrett County in 1949 (Robbins, 1949b). 

17 (1.5 in 9 acres) in "scrub spruce bog" (brush-meadow stage with young 
red spruce) in Garrett County in 1951 (Robbins and Stewart, 1951b). 

Maximum counts (nonbreeding) . — Spring: 119 at Patuxent 
Refuge on May 10, 1950 ; 50 at Port Tobacco, Charles County, on 
May 11, 1943 (I. N. Gabrielson, A. L. Nelson) ; 40 at Unity, Mont- 
gomery County, on May 9, 1953 (S. H. Low) . Fall: 29 at Patuxent 
Refuge on October 11, 1947; 17 at Greenbelt, Prince Georges 
County, on October 7, 1954 (L. W. Oring) ; 9 banded on the 
barrier beach north of Ocean City on September 13, 1955. 

MYRTLE WARBLER Dendro/ca corona/a (Linnaeus) 

Status. — Breeding: Accidental — an adult male and female, the 
latter with a broken wing, and 3 young about one-half grown were 
reported near Havre de Grace, Harford County, in June 1879 
(Kumlien, 1880). Transient: Abundant in all sections. Winter- 
ing: Abundant in the southern part of the Eastern Shore section 
(Worcester, Somerset, Wicomico, and Dorchester Counties) ; 
common elsewhere in the Eastern Shore section, and in St. Marys 
County ; fairly common elsewhere in the Western Shore and Upper 
Chesapeake sections; uncommon in the Piedmont, and Ridge and 
Valley sections. Summer vagrant: One was collected on August 
7, 1859, in the District of Columbia (E. Coues) ; 1 was seen at 
Middle River, Baltimore County, on July 4 and July 24, 1951 (E. 
Willis) . 

Habitat. — Transient: Various types of forest. Wintering: 
Flood-plain and swamp forests, and brushy areas near tidewater — 
at this season, usually found where either bayberry or poison ivy 
is common ; also occurs locally in red-cedar thickets. 

Spring migration. — Normal period: March 10-20 to May 15- 
25; peak, April 15 to May 15. Extreme arrival dates: March 8, 
1917, in Dorchester County (R. W. Jackson) ; March 8, 1953, in 
Caroline County (A. M. Thompson). Extreme departure dates: 
May 31, 1915, in Baltimore County (J. M. Sommer) ; May 30, 1917, 
in Prince Georges County (W. L. McAtee, A. Wetmore) ; May 30, 
1954, in Charles County (A. R. Stickley, Jr.). 

Fall migration. — Normal period: September 20-30 to Novem- 
ber 20-30 ; peak, October 5 to November 10. Extreme arrival dates: 
August 27, 1954, in Caroline County (M. W. Hewitt) ; August 30, 
1913 (F. C. Kirkwood), and August 31, 1950 (Mr. and Mrs. R. D. 



BIRDS OF MARYLAND AND DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 



287 



Cole), in Baltimore County; September 4, 1955, in Talbot County 
(R. L. Kleen). Extreme departure dates: December 20, 1944, in 
Prince Georges County; December 16, 1903, in the District of 
Columbia (A. K. Fisher) . 

Maximum counts. — Spring: 300 at Port Tobacco, Charles 
County, on May 5, 1939 (I. N. Gabrielson, F. M. Uhler) ; 300 along 
the C. and O. Canal in Montgomery County, on May 13, 1950 (P. A. 
DuMont) ; 240 at Greenbelt, Prince Georges County, on May 9, 
1953 (L. W. Oring, et al.). Fall: 300 in the Ocean City area on 
October 25, 1949; 196 at Patuxent Refuge on October 26, 1944; 100 
at Herring Run, Baltimore County, on October 16, 1930 (J. M. 
Sommer). Winter (Christmas counts) : 6,500 in southern Dor- 
chester County on December 28, 1953; 4,001 in the Ocean City 
area on December 27, 1954; 1,138 in the Wicomico River area, 
Charles and St. Marys Counties, on January 1, 1954. 

Banding. — One recovered in Dorchester County, on February 
12, 1956, had been banded on Nantucket Island, Massachusetts, 
on October 20, 1955. 

BLACK-THROATED GREEN WARBLER Dendroica v/rens (Gmelin) 

Status. — Breeding (see fig. 51) : Common in the Allegheny 
Mountain section ; fairly common in the western part of the Ridge 
and Valley section (Allegany County) ; uncommon in the eastern 




Figure 51. — Breeding range of Black-throated Green Warbler. 



288 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 62, FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 

part of the Ridge and Valley section (Washington County, and in 
western Frederick County from Myersville north to the Pennsyl- 
vania line; also recorded in summer (July 20, 1947, and June 28, 
1948) in the Piedmont section at Cabin John, Montgomery County. 
Transient: Common in all sections except the Eastern Shore sec- 
tion where it is uncommon. 

•Habitat. — Breeding: Hemlock stands, and mixed mesophytic 
forest (including deciduous types as well as mixed stands of con- 
iferous and deciduous trees) . Transient: Various types of decidu- 
ous forest. 

Nesting season. — Probably mid-May to early July. Although 
no nests have been located, young birds out of the nest have been 
recorded several times. The earliest of these observations was 
made on June 12, 1949, in Garrett County. A pair was observed 
copulating as early as May 19, 1935, in Allegany County (L. M. 
Llewellyn) . 

Spring migration. — Normal period : April 20-25 to May 15-25 ; 
peak, May 1 to May 15. Extreme arrival dates: April 16, 1950 
(P. A. DuMont), and April 18, 1920 (B. H. Swales), in Mont- 
gomery County; April 19, 1934, in the District of Columbia (C. H. 
Benjamin) ; April 19, 1946, and April 19, 1949, in Prince Georges 
County. Extreme departure dates: June 10, 1917, in the District 
of Columbia (D. C. Mabbott) ; June 5, 1954, in Baltimore County 
(S. W. Simon) ; May 30, 1917 (W. L. McAtee, A. Wetmore), and 
May 30, 1945, in Prince Georges County. 

Fall migration. — Normal period: August 25-September 5 to 
October 10-20 ; peak, September 10 to October 5. Extreme arrival 
dates: August 9, 1952, in the District of Columbia (A. R. Stickley, 
Jr.) ; August 10, 1942, in Baltimore County (H. Kolb) ; August 
21, 1949, in Prince Georges County. Extreme departure dates: 
October 31, 1953, in Montgomery County (P. G. DuMont) ; Octo- 
ber 31, 1954, in Anne Arundel County (Mr. and Mrs. H. N. Page) ; 
October 27, 1956, in Prince Georges County; October 23, 1954, in 
Frederick County (J. W. Richards) . 

Breeding population densities (territorial males per 100 
acres) . — 
36 (4.5 in 12% acres) in "mature oak-maple ridge forest" in Garrett County 

in 1949 (Robbins, 1949b). 
30 (6 in 20 acres) in "virgin hemlock forest" in Garrett County in 1949 

(Robbins, 1949a) . 
21 (2 in 9% acres) in "open hemlock-spruce bog" (brush-meadow stage with 
young hemlock, red spruce, alder, etc.) in Garrett County in 1949 
(Robbins, 1949c). 
9 (2 in 23*4 acres) in "mature northern hardwood forest" (black cherry, 



BIRDS OF MARYLAND AND DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 



289 



beech, hemlock, sugar maple, sweet birch, etc.) in Garrett County in 
1951 (Robbins and Stewart, 1951a). 
7 (2 in 27% acres) in "red pine plantation" (young trees about 20 feet in 
height) in Garrett County in 1949 (Robbins and Barnes, 1949). 

Maximum counts (nonbreeding) . — Spring: 37 at Patuxent 
Refuge on May 10, 1950. Fall: 35 at Middle River, Baltimore 
County, on September 24, 1950 (E. Willis) ; 30 near Seneca, Mont- 
gomery County, on September 25, 1949 (I. R. Barnes, S. A. 
Briggs) ; 28 at Patuxent Refuge on September 25, 1943. 

CERULEAN WARBLER Dendroica ceru/eo (Wilson) 

Status. — Breeding (see fig. 52) : Fairly common in the western 
part of the Ridge and Valley section (Allegany and Washington 
Counties, west of Hagerstown Valley) ; fairly common locally in 
the Piedmont section — occurring in the Susquehanna River valley, 
in the Potomac River valley, along the Patapsco River, and in the 
vicinity of Dulaney Valley northeast of Baltimore City, in Balti- 
more County (Kolb, 1943) ; uncommon in the Savage River valley 
in Garrett County ; rare elsewhere in the Allegheny Mountain sec- 
tion. Transient: Uncommon in the Ridge and Valley section; rare 
in all other sections. 




LEGEND 
V/5\ Principal Range 
9 Local Record 



Figure 52. — Breeding range of Cerulean Warbler. 



290 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 62, FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 

Habitat. — Flood-plain forests, and rich, moist deciduous forests 
on the upland. 

Nesting season. — Probably late May to early July. Egg dates 
(2 nests) : June 9, 1901 (F. C. Kirkwood) , and June 10, 1900 
(Kirkwood, 1901), in Baltimore County. Nestling dates (2 nests) : 
June 9, 1901, and June 14, 1903, in Baltimore County (F. C. Kirk- 
wood) . 

Spring migration. — Occurrence peak: May 1 to May 15. Ex- 
treme arrival dates: April 20, 1954, in Allegany County (L. 
McCollough, E. Minke) ; April 25, 1953, in Frederick County (J. 
W. Richards) ; April 26, 1953, in Worcester County ; April 27, 
1902, in Baltimore County (F. C. Kirkwood). Extreme departure 
dates: May 31, 1949, in Prince Georges County; May 29, 1902, in 
Montgomery County (USNM— W. R. Maxon). 

Fall migration. — Extreme arrival dates: August 8, 1953, in 
Prince Georges County; August 18, 1948, in Montgomery County 
(N. Jenison) ; August 19, 1948, in Baltimore County (I. E. 
Hampe) . Extreme departure dates: September 25, 1955, in Mont- 
gomery County (P. A. DuMont) ; September 23, 1951, in Balti- 
more County (E. Willis). 

Maximum counts (nonbreeding) . — Spring: 11 near Seneca, 
Montgomery County, on May 5, 1951 (F. C. Cross) ; 5 near 
Emmitsburg, Frederick County, on May 3, 1954 (J. W. Richards) ; 
3 at Patuxent Refuge on May 8, 1948. Fall: 7 near Seneca, Mont- 
gomery County, on August 25, 1951 (I. R. Barnes). 

BLACKBURNIAN WARBLER Dendroica fusca (Muller) 

Status. — Breeding (see fig. 53) : Common in the Allegheny 
Mountain section ; uncommon in the western part of the Ridge and 
Valley section (Allegany County) ; rare and local in the eastern 
part of the Ridge and Valley section (occurring in Frederick 
County along Hunting Creek, at elevations above 1,280 feet). 
Transient: Fairly common in all sections except the Eastern Shore 
section where it is rare. 

Habitat. — Breeding: Red spruce, hemlock, and white pine 
stands, and mixed mesophytic forests. Transient: Various types 
of forest. 

Nesting season. — Probably late May to early July. Nest- 
building was recorded in Garrett County on May 31, 1951, and on 
June 15, 1918 (Eifrig, 1920a). Adults were observed carrying 
food in Garrett County on June 25, 1949. 

Spring migration. — Normal period: April 25-May 5 to May 
20-30; peak, May 5 to May 20. Extreme arrival date: April 23, 



BIRDS OF MARYLAND AND DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 291 




Figure 53. — Breeding ranges of Blackburnian Warbler and Yellow-throated 

Warbler. 



1920, in Montgomery County (A. Wetmore). Extreme departure 
dates: June 4, 1945, in Prince Georges County; June 3, 1907, in 
the District of Columbia ( W. W. Cooke) . 

Fall migration. — Normal period: August 20-25 to September 
25-October 5; peak, September 5 to September 25. Extreme 
arrival dates: August 2, 1872, in the District of Columbia (USNM 
— E. Coues) ; August 14, 1886, in the District of Columbia (A. K. 
Fisher) ; August 18, 1951, in Baltimore County (Mr. and Mrs. 
R. D. Cole) ; August 19, 1942, and August 19, 1949, in Prince 
Georges County. Extreme departure dates: October 17, 1953, in 
Montgomery County (P. G. DuMont) ; October 17, 1954, in Anne 
Arundel County (Mr. and Mrs. H. N. Page) ; October 16, 1954, in 
Baltimore County (S. W. Simon). 

Breeding population densities (territorial males per 100 
acres) . — 

110 (22 in 20 acres) in "virgin hemlock forest" in Garrett County in 1949 

(Robbins, 1949a). 
96 (12 in 12^ acres) in "virgin spruce-hemlock bog forest" (red spruce and 

hemlock, with dense understory of great laurel) in Garrett County in 

1951 (Stewart and Robbins, 1951a). 
39 (3.5 in 9 acres) in "scrub spruce bog" (brush-meadow stage with young 

red spruce) in Garrett County in 1951 (Robbins and Stewart, 1951b). 



292 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 62, FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 

Maximum counts (nonbreeding) . — Spring: 89 at Patuxent 
Refuge on May 10, 1950; 30 at Emmitsburg, Frederick County, 
on May 5, 1956 (J. W. Richards). Fall: 12 near Seneca, Mont- 
gomery County, on September 25, 1949 (I. R. Barnes, S. A. 
Briggs) ; 8 at Patuxent Refuge on September 11, 1943. 

YELLOW-THROATED WARBLER Dendroka dominka (Linnaeus) 

Status. — Breeding and transient (see fig. 53) : Common in the 
Eastern Shore section and in the southern part of the Western 
Shore section (St. Marys County and southern portions of Charles 
and Calvert Counties) ; uncommon near tidewater in the northern 
part of the Western Shore section; rare in the interior of the 
northern part of the Western Shore section and along the Potomac 
River in the Piedmont section (recorded up to Harrison Island — 
J. V. Dennis). Vagrant: One singing at an elevation of 800 feet 
near Alesia, Carroll County, June 21, 1951; also several records 
from the Upper Chesapeake section in spring. 

Habitat. — Stands of loblolly pine, and bald cypress swamps; 
also occurs sparingly in mature stands of scrub pine and pitch 
pine. 

Nesting season. — Mid- April to early July. Nest-building was 
recorded as early as April 18, 1949, just across the Maryland 
boundary at Dyke, Virginia. In Dorchester County, Maryland, 
nest-building was recorded on May 9, 1920, and a nest with eggs 
was found on May 16, 1919 (Jackson, 1941). Adults were ob- 
served feeding young out of the nest on June 8, 1929, in Dorchester 
County (F. C. Kirkwood). A nest with young was found in 
Charles County on June 9, 1951 (J. W. Taylor, Jr.). A pair was 
observed feeding young on Harrison Island in the Potomac River 
on June 28, 1953 (J. V. Dennis) . An occupied nest was found in 
Anne Arundel County as late as July 10, 1954 (Mrs. W. L. Hender- 
son, Mrs. G. Tappan). 

Period of occurrence. — Normal period: April 1-10 to Septem- 
ber 10-20. Extreme arrival dates: March 27, 1948, in Calvert 
County; March 30, 1927, in the District of Columbia (K. H. 
Stuart) ; March 30, 1946, in Anne Arundel County. Extreme 
departure dates: September 27, 1919, in the District of Columbia 
(M. J. Pellew) ; September 26, 1953, in Montgomery County (P. 
G. DuMont, E. Hall). 

Breeding population densities (territorial males per 100 
acres) . — 

29 (6 in 21 acres) in "immature loblolly-shortleaf pine stand" (trees from 
45 to 65 feet in height) in Worcester County in 1948 (Springer and 
Stewart, 1948c). 



BIRDS OF MARYLAND AND DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 



293 



11 (2 in 18% acres) in "second-growth river swamp" (red maple, sweetgum, 
black gum, etc., with dense understory of holly, sweet pepperbush, and 
greenbrier) in Worcester County in 1948 (Springer and Stewart, 1948d). 

Maximum counts (nonbreeding) . — Spring: 25 along the Poco- 
moke River in Worcester County on May 5, 1951 ; 16 in St. Marys 
County on May 8, 1954 (J. W. Terborgh) . 

CHESTNUT-SIDED WARBLER Dendroka pensylvanica (Linnaeus) 

Status. — Breeding (see fig. 54) : Common in the Allegheny 
Mountain, and Ridge and Valley sections (chiefly at elevations 
above 1,200 feet) ; fairly common locally in the northern part of 
the Piedmont section, occurring in northern Carroll County, and 
in the valley of Gunpowder Falls in northern Baltimore County; 
rare and local in the southern part of Baltimore County, occurring 
in the vicinity of Reisterstown (first recorded by Brumbaugh, 
1915) and once near the north boundary of Baltimore City (Mean- 
ley, 1938). Summer vagrant: One singing at Fulton, Howard 
County on June 26, 1951 ; 10 July specimens (USNM) from Laurel, 
Maryland, and the District of Columbia taken during the period 
1888-1891. Transient: Common in all sections except the Eastern 
Shore section where it is uncommon. 




LEGEND 

[;^- ; :: /j Principal Range 
# Local Record 



Figure 54. — Breeding range of Chestnut-sided Warbler. 



294 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 62, FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 

Habitat. — Breeding: Brushy, cut-over areas of oak-chestnut, 
mixed mesophytic, and northern hardwood forests; also in bear- 
oak barrens. Transient: Various types of deciduous forest. 

Nesting season. — Late May to mid-July. Extreme egg dates 
(18 nests) : May 28, 1919, in Garrett County (J. M. Sommer), and 
June 26, 1937, in Baltimore County (Meanley, 1938) . A nest con- 
taining young was observed in Garrett County on June 15, 1955 
(L. McCollough, E. Minke) . Young out of the nest, but not fully 
fledged, were recorded on July 17, 1915, in Baltimore County 
(Brumbaugh, 1915). 

Spring migration. — Normal period: April 25-May 5 to May 
15-25; peak, May 5 to May 15. Extreme arrival dates: April 19, 
1902, in the District of Columbia (H. W. Maynard) ; April 23, 
1893, in Baltimore County (F. C. Kirkwood) . Extreme departure 
dates: May 30, 1891, in the District of Columbia (C. W. Rich- 
mond) ; May 30, 1917, in Prince Georges County (W. L. McAtee, 
A. Wetmore) ; May 30, 1946, in Anne Arundel County. 

Fall migration. — Normal period: August 15-20 to September 
25-October 5 ; peak, August 20 to September 10. Extreme arrival 
dates: August 10, 1889 (C. W. Richmond), and August 10, 1894 
(J. D. Figgins) , in the District of Columbia ; August 12, 1889, in 
Baltimore County (A. H. Jennings) ; August 12, 1944, in Prince 
Georges County; August 14, 1951, in Caroline County (M. W. 
Hewitt). Extreme departure dates: October 14, 1906, in Mont- 
gomery County (A. K. Fisher) ; October 11, 1880, in Prince 
Georges County (W. Palmer) ; October 11, 1947, in Baltimore 
County (R. M. Bowen). 

Breeding population densities (territorial males per 100 

acres) . — 

79 (16.5 in 21 acres) in "dense second-growth" (oak-maple ridge forest) in 

Garrett County in 1949 (Robbins, 1949b). 
67 (10 in 15 acres) in "open slash area" (cut-over oak-maple ridge forest) in 

Garrett County in 1949 (Robbins, 1949b). 

Maximum counts (nonbreeding) . — Spring: 161 at Patuxent 
Refuge on May 10, 1950 ; 36 near Buckeystown, Frederick County, 
on May 6, 1950. Fall: 32 near Baltimore on September 5, 1893 
(G. H. Gray) ; 32 at Patuxent Refuge on August 20, 1943. 

BAY-BREASTED WARBLER Dendroica castanea (Wilson) 

Status. — Transient: Fairly common in all sections except the 

Eastern Shore section where it is rare. 

Habitat. — Various types of forest. In spring, a preference is 

shown for stands of young pine. 

Spring migration. — Normal period: May 5-10 to May 20-25; 



BIRDS OF MARYLAND AND DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 295 

peak, May 10 to May 20. Extreme arrival dates: May 1, 1932, in 
Montgomery County (F. C. Lincoln) ; May 2, 1896, in the District 
of Columbia (H. W. Oldys). Extreme departure dates: June 7, 
1950, in Anne Arundel County (M. McLean) ; June 2, 1917, in 
Baltimore County (C. H. Grace) ; June 2, 1917, in the District of 
Columbia (F. Harper). 

Fall migration. — Normal period: August 20-30 to October 1- 
10; peak, September 5 to September 25. Extreme arrival dates: 
August 17, 1921, in the District of Columbia (B. H. Swales) ; 
August 18, 1939, in Garrett County (H. Kolb) ; August 19, 1942, 
in Prince Georges County; August 19, 1952, in Frederick County 
(J. W. Richards). Extreme departure dates: November 6, 1887, 
in the District of Columbia (H. W. Henshaw) ; November 1, 1896, 
in Baltimore County (F. C. Kirkwood) ; October 19, 1888, in the 
District of Columbia (R. Ridgway). 

Maximum counts. — Spring: 43 at Greenbelt, Prince Georges 
County, on May 12, 1956 (L. W. Oring) ; 30 along the Potomac 
River in Washington County on May 12, 1952 (Dr. and Mrs. R. S. 
Stauffer) ; 24 at Patuxent Refuge on May 13, 1950; 15 near Em- 
mitsburg, Frederick County, on May 17, 1952 (J. W. Richards). 
Fall: 22 at Patuxent Refuge on September 13, 1943 ; 18 at Seneca, 
Montgomery County, on September 12, 1954 (J. W. Terborgh) . 

BLACKPOLL WARBLER Dendroka striata (Forster) 

Status. — Transient: Common, occasionally abundant, in all sec- 
tions except the Eastern Shore section where it is fairly common. 
Summer vagrant: Accidental — 1 seen in Montgomery County on 
June 27, 1951 (J. H. Fales) ; 1 seen in Calvert County on July 6, 
1928 (Ball, 1930a) ; one collected in the District of Columbia on 
July 30, 1893 (Brown, 1894). 

Habitat. — Various types of coniferous and deciduous forests. 
During the latter part of the spring migration they usually con- 
centrate in stands of young pine. 

Spring migration. — Normal period: May 1-5 to June 1-10; 
peak, May 10 to May 30. Extreme arrival dates: April 21, 1916, 
in the District of Columbia (L. D. Miner, R. W. Moore) ; April 23, 
1954, in Anne Arundel County (Mrs. G. Tappan) ; April 25, 1953 
(L. W. Oring), and April 25, 1948, in Prince Georges County. 
Extreme departure dates: June 16, 1907 (R. W. Williams, Jr.), 
June 16, 1915 (A. H. Howell), and June 16, 1926 (S. F. Blake), in 
the District of Columbia; June 14, 1907 in Allegany County (F. C. 
Kirkwood) . 

Fall MIGRATION. — Normal period: September 10-20 to October 



296 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 62, FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 

15-25 ; peak, September 25 to October 10. Extreme arrival dates: 
September 1, 1889, in the District of Columbia (USNM— C. W. 
Richmond) ; September 3, 1872, in the District of Columbia 
(USNM — D. W. Scott). Extreme departure dates: November 12, 
1949, in Worcester County; November 9, 1930, in the District of 
Columbia (H. C. Oberholser). 

Maximum counts. — Spring: 145 at Patuxent Refuge on May 
24, 1949; 100+ at Port Tobacco, Charles County, on May 11, 1943 
(I. N. Gabrielson, A. L. Nelson) ; 100 at Sycamore Island in Mont- 
gomery County on May 28, 1949 (P. A. DuMont). Fall: 140 at 
Patuxent Refuge on October 11, 1947. 

PINE WARBLER Dendroka pinus (Wilson) 

Status. — Breeding and transient (see fig. 55) : Abundant in 
the Eastern Shore section, and in the southern part of the Western 
Shore section (St. Marys County, and southern portions of Calvert 
and Charles Counties) ; fairly common elsewhere in the Western 
Shore section; uncommon in the western part of the Ridge and 
Valley section (Allegany County), and locally in the Allegheny 
Mountain section (in the vicinity of Deep Creek Lake — M. G. 
Brooks) ; rare in the Piedmont and Upper Chesapeake sections, 
and in the eastern part of the Ridge and Valley section (Washing- 





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BIRDS OF MARYLAND AND DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 297 

ton and Frederick Counties). Wintering: Rare in the Eastern 
Shore section, and near tidewater in the Western Shore section; 
casual in the interior of the Western Shore section, and in the 
Piedmont section — recorded at Darlington, Harford County, dur- 
ing the winter of 1933-34 (S. Mason, Jr.) , and at Greenbelt, Prince 
Georges County, during the winter of 1953-54 (L. W. Oring) . 

Habitat. — Breeding: Most numerous in stands of loblolly pine 
and pitch pine; also occurs sparingly in mature stands of scrub 
pine and white pine. Transient: Pine stands; also occurs in mar- 
ginal habitats in residential and agricultural areas in fall, and to 
a lesser extent in spring. 

Nesting season. — Probably early April to mid-June. Nest- 
building was recorded as early as April 5, 1921, in Dorchester 
County (R. W. Jackson) . Extreme egg dates (7 nests) : April 19, 
1920, and May 20, 1919, in Dorchester County (Jackson, 1941). 
Extreme nestling dates (3 nests) : May 2, 1919, in Dorchester 
County (R. W. Jackson) and May 26, 1930, in St. Marys County 
(F. C. Kirkwood). 

Spring migration. — Normal period: March 10-20 to April 20- 
30 ; peak, March 20 to April 20. Extreme arrival dates: March 3, 
1945, in Prince Georges County; March 5, 1922, in the District of 
Columbia (C. S. Baer). Extreme departure date: May 3, 1947, 
in Prince Georges County. 

Fall migration. — Normal period: August 15-25 to October 
15-25 ; peak, September 5 to October 5. Extreme departure dates: 
October 31, 1943, in Prince Georges County; October 28, 1952, in 
Anne Arundel County (Mrs. W. L. Henderson) ; October 27, 1900, 
in Allegany County (G. Eifrig). 

Breeding population densities (territorial males per 100 
acres). — 

76 (16 in 21 acres) in "immature loblolly-shortleaf pine stand" (trees from 45 
to 65 feet in height) in Worcester County in 1948 (Springer and Stewart, 
1948c). 
20 (6.4 in 32% acres) in pine-oak forest (pitch pine, scrub pine, and Spanish 

oak) in Prince Georges County in 1944. 
10 (2 in 20 acres) in mature scrub pine stand in Prince Georges County in 
1946. 

Maximum counts (nonbreeding) . — Spring: 250 at Point Look- 
out, St. Marys County, on April 9, 1953 (J. Hailman) ; 50 in 
Charles County on March 29, 1953 (J. W. Terborgh) ; 15 at 
Patuxent Refuge on April 6, 1947. Fall: 20 at Patuxent Refuge 
on September 27, 1947. Winter (Christmas counts) : 11 in the 
Ocean City area on December 27, 1955 ; 4 in the St. Michaels area, 
Talbot County, on December 29, 1953. 



298 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 62, FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 

PRAIRIE WARBLER Dendroica discolor (Vieillot) 

Status. — Breeding (see fig. 56) : Common in the Eastern Shore, 
Western Shore, and Ridge and Valley sections; fairly common 
(locally) in the Piedmont section; rare in the Upper Chesapeake 
and Allegheny Mountain sections. Transient: Uncommon in the 
Eastern Shore, Western Shore, Piedmont, and Ridge and Valley 
sections; rare in the Upper Chesapeake section. 




LEGEND 
Jq Principal Range 
Local Record 



Figure 56. — Breeding range of Prairie Warbler. 



Habitat. — Especially characteristic of abandoned fields with 
open stands of young pine, including scrub pine, pitch pine, and 
loblolly pine; also occurs locally in abandoned fields with open 
stands of young sweetgum, in brushy cut-over or burned-over 
upland forests, and in weedy or abandoned orchards. 

Nesting season. — Mid-May to late July (nesting peak, late 
May to early July) . Extreme egg dates (30 nests) : May 14, 1891 
(W. B. Barrows), and July 19, 1926 (S. F. Blake), in the District 
of Columbia. Extreme nestling dates (20 nests) : May 25, 1949, 
in Prince Georges County (E. C. Robbins) and July 12, 1947, in 
Baltimore County (H. Kolb). 

Spring migration. — Normal period: April 15-25 to May 15-25; 
peak, April 25 to May 15. Extreme arrival dates: April 12, 1883, 



BIRDS OF MARYLAND AND DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 299 

in the District of Columbia (H. W. Henshaw) ; April 12, 1949, in 
Anne Arundel County (Mrs. W. L. Henderson) . 

Fall migration. — Normal period: August 5-15 to September 
15-25; peak, August 15 to September 5. Extreme arrival dates: 
July 31, 1951 and 1953, in Prince Georges County. Extreme 
departure dates: November 19, 1954, in Caroline County (Mrs. 
A. J. Fletcher) ; October 20, 1952, in Anne Arundel County (Mrs. 
W. L. Henderson, Mrs. G. Tappan) ; October 6, 1910, in the District 
of Columbia (E. J. Brown). 

Breeding population densities (territorial males per 100 
acres). — 

85 (22 in 26 acres) in "dry deciduous scrub" (burned-over upland oak forest) 

in Prince Georges County in 1947 (Robbins, et al., 1947). 
57 (4 in 7 acres) in pine field (abandoned field with open growth of young 

scrub pine) in Montgomery County in 1943 (J. W. Aldrich, A. J. Duvall). 
50 (15 in 30 acres) in "damp deciduous scrub with standing dead trees" 

(burned-over, poorly drained upland forest) in Prince Georges County 

in 1947 (Stewart, et al., 1947). 
50 (9 in 18 acres) in brushy, well-drained, abandoned farmland in Prince 

Georges County in 1947. 
48 (10 in 21 acres) in "immature loblolly-shortleaf pine stand" (trees 45 to 65 

feet in height) in Worcester County in 1948 (Springer and Stewart, 

1948c). 
46 (16 in 34% acres) in pine field (abandoned field with open growth of young 

scrub pine) in Prince Georges County in 1945. 
33 (6.5 in 19% acres) in sweetgum field (abandoned field with open growth of 

young sweetgum) in Prince Georges County in 1945. 
18 (4.5 in 25 acres) in "unsprayed apple orchard with unmowed ground cover" 

in Allegany County in 1948 (Springer and Stewart, 1948b). 
18 (4 in 22 acres) in "unsprayed apple orchard with infrequently mowed 

ground cover" in Worcester County in 1948 (Springer and Stewart, 

1948b) . 
8 (4 in 47% acres) in hedgerows in agricultural and abandoned farmland 

areas (including strip 27 Yz yards wide on each side of hedgerow) in 

Prince Georges County in 1945. 

Maximum counts (nonbreeding) . — Spring: 75 at Port Tobacco, 
Charles County, on May 11, 1943 (I. N. Gabrielson, F. M. Uhler) ; 
43 in Anne Arundel County on May 10, 1952 (J. W. Terborgh, et 
al.) ; 37 at Patuxent Refuge on May 3, 1947. Fall: 7 at Patuxent 
Refuge on August 17, 1944. 

PALM WARBLER Dendroka palmarum (Gmelin) 

Status. — Transient: Fairly common in all sections. Wintering: 
Uncommon in Worcester County; rare elsewhere in the Eastern 
Shore section, and near tidewater in the Western Shore and Upper 
Chesapeake sections; casual in the Piedmont, and Ridge and 
Valley sections — recorded in Baltimore County on December 17, 



300 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 62, FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 

1911 (J. L. Ulman) , in Montgomery County during the winter of 
1949-50 (S. H. Low) and on December 19, 1954, in Howard County 
on December 13, 1955 (S. H. Low), and December 26, 1952, and 
in Allegany County at McCoole (L. M. Llewellyn) on December 
28, 1947. 

Habitat. — Wood margins, hedgerows, roadsides and other mar- 
ginal habitats. 

Spring migration. — Normal period: April 1-10 to May 1-10; 
peak, April 10 to April 25. Extreme arrival dates: March 22, 
1952, in Caroline County (M. W. Hewitt) ; March 26, 1929, in 
Montgomery County (Mr. and Mrs. W. J. Whiting) ; March 29, 

1947, in Howard County; March 29, 1953, in Baltimore County 
(H. Kolb) . Extreme departure dates: May 27, 1897, and May 24, 
1931, in Baltimore County (F. C. Kirkwood) ; May 20, 1917, in the 
District of Columbia (W. L. McAtee) ; May 13, 1923, in Mont- 
gomery County (F. C. Lincoln) ; May 12, 1950, in Prince Georges 
County; May 12, 1951, in Frederick County (J. W. Richards) . The 
extreme dates for the Yellow Palm Warbler (Dendroica palmarum 
hypochrysea) are March 22, 1952 (M. W. Hewitt), and May 24, 
1931 (F. C. Kirkwood). The Western Palm Warbler (Dendroica 
palmarum palmarum) has been recorded only 16 times in spring, 
the extreme dates being April 12, 1947, in the District of Columbia 
(R. Tousey) and May 27, 1897, in Baltimore (F. C. Kirkwood). 

Fall migration. — Normal period: September 10-20 to Novem- 
ber 1-10; peak, September 25 to October 25. Extreme arrival 
dates: August 30, 1939, in Montgomery County (J. H. Fales) ; 
September 4, 1887 (H. W. Henshaw), and September 4, 1929 
(L. D. Miner), in the District of Columbia; September 5, 1942 
(USNM), in Prince Georges County. Extreme departure dates: 
November 20, 1943, in Prince Georges County; November 18, 
1914, in the District of Columbia (J. H. Riley) ; November 14, 

1948, in Anne Arundel County (E. J. Stivers). The bulk of the 
Western Palms pass through before October 10; the bulk of the 
Yellow Palms after that date. Extremes for the Western Palm 
Warbler are September 5, 1942, and November 14, 1947. Ex- 
tremes for the Yellow Palm Warbler are September 15, 1946 (J. 
H. Fales), and November 14, 1948 (E. J. Stivers). 

Maximum counts. — Spring: 63 (Yellow Palm) at Patuxent 
Refuge on April 21, 1944. Fall: 25 (Western Palm) north of 
Ocean City, Worcester County, on September 14, 1955; 18 (Wes- 
tern Palm) at Point Lookout, St. Marys County, on September 27, 
1953 (J. W. Terborgh) ; 15 (Yellow Palm) at Patuxent Refuge on 
October 15, 1942. Winter: 41 (39 Western, 2 Yellow) in the Ocean 



BIRDS OF MARYLAND AND DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 301 

City area on December 27, 1955 (Christmas count) ; 30 (20 Yel- 
low, 10 Western) in the Denton area, Caroline County, on Decem- 
ber 15, 1954 (Mrs. A. J. Fletcher) ; 12 (9 Western, 3 Yellow) in 
southeastern Worcester County on December 23, 1946; 7 (6 
Western, 1 Yellow) near Rockville, Montgomery County, on De- 
cember 19, 1954; 6 in the Chase area in Baltimore and Harford 
Counties on January 3, 1954 (Christmas count). 

OVENBIRD Seiurus aurocapillus (Linnaeus) 

Status. — Breeding: Abundant in the Ridge and Valley section; 
common in the Allegheny Mountain, Piedmont, and Western Shore 
sections; fairly common locally in the Eastern Shore section; un- 
common and local in the Upper Chesapeake section. Transient: 
Fairly common in all sections. 

Habitat. — Breeding: Various types of well-drained, deciduous 
forest on the upland; also in pine stands with deciduous under- 
story. Transient: All types of forest. 

Nesting season. — Early May to mid-July (nesting peak, mid- 
May to late June). Extreme egg dates (52 nests) : May 10, 1945 
(E. G. Cooley), and July 6, 1943 (J. B. Cope), in Prince Georges 
County. Extreme nestling dates (27 nests) : May 22, 1939, in the 
District of Columbia (W. B. Tyrrell) and July 17, 1893, in Balti- 
more County (G. H. Gray). 

Spring migration. — Normal period: April 15-25 to May 15-25; 
peak, April 25 to May 10. Extreme arrival dates: April 9, 1893, 
in Baltimore County (F. C. Kirkwood) ; April 10, 1904, in the 
District of Columbia (J. H. Riley) ; April 10, 1919, in Dorchester 
County (R. W. Jackson). 

Fall migration. — Normal period: August 15-25 to October 5- 
15; peak, September 5 to September 25. Extreme arrival date: 
August 6, 1953, in Prince Georges County. Extreme departure 
dates: November 25, 1955, in Queen Annes County (W. Ritten- 
house) ; November 13, 1887, in the District of Columbia (H. W. 
Henshaw) ; November 10, 1954, in Talbot County (R. L. Kleen) ; 
November 8, 1949, in Baltimore County (E. Willis) ; October 21, 
1954, in Prince Georges County (L. W. Oring) . 

Breeding population densities (territorial males per 100 
acres) . — 

61 (49 in 80 acres) in "central hardwood forest (oaks-tulip-poplar) with 
scattered pine" in the District of Columbia in 1952 (Clagett, 1952) ; 59 
(47 in 80 acres) in 1951 (Trever, 1952) and 1953 (Clagett, 1953) ; 55 
(43.5 in 80 acres) in 1948, 43 (34 in 80 acres) in 1949 (Trever, 1952) ; 50 
(40 in 80 acres) in 1954 (Wright, 1955). 
53 (19 in 36 acres) in "virgin central hardwood deciduous forest" (white oak- 



302 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 62, FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 

tulip-poplar) in Prince Georges County in 1947 (Stewart and Robbins, 

1947b). 
45 (9.5 in 21 acres) in "immature loblolly-shortleaf pine stand" (trees 45 to 65 

feet in height) in Worcester County in 1948 (Springer and Stewart, 

1948c). 
40 (16 in 40 acres) in "mixed oak forest" (white, scarlet, and chestnut oaks, 

etc.) in Baltimore County in 1948 (Kolb, et al., 1948) ; 34 (12.5 in 37 

acres) in 1953 (Cole and Kolb, 1953) ; 31 (12.5 in 40 acres) in 1949 

(Kolb, 1949a) ; 30 (12 in 40 acres) in 1950 (Kolb, 1950) ; 24 (9 in 37 

acres) in 1951 (Kolb and Cole, 1951), and 1952 (Kaufmann, 1952). 
32 (4 in I2Y2 acres) in "mature oak-maple ridge forest" in Garrett County in 

1949 (Robbins, 1949b). 
26 (5.5 in 21 acres) in "dense second-growth" (oak-maple ridge forest) in 

Garrett County in 1949 (Robbins, 1949b). 
25 (6 in 23% acres) in upland oak forest (white, scarlet, and black oaks) in 

Prince Georges County in 1944. 
24 (1.5 in 6% acres) in "young second-growth resulting from cutting" (oak- 
maple ridge forest) in Garrett County in 1949 (Robbins, 1949b). 
23 (5.6 in 24% acres) in river terrace forest (beech-white oak) in Prince 

Georges County in 1944. 
20 (3 in 15 acres) in "open slash area" (cut-over oak-maple ridge forest) in 

Garrett County in 1949 (Robbins, 1949b). 
17 (5.5 in 32% acres) in pine-oak forest (pitch pine, scrub pine, and Spanish 

oak) in Prince Georges County in 1944. 
11 (5 in 44% acres) in river bluff forest (beech, white oak, scarlet oak) in 

Prince Georges County in 1945 ; 9 (4 in 44% acres) in 1944 (J. W. Aldrich, 

A.J. Duvall). 
10 (2 in 20 acres) in mature scrub pine stand in Prince Georges County in 

1946. 

Maximum counts (nonbreeding) . — Spring: 66 in Baltimore 
County on May 6, 1950 (D. A. Jones) ; 63 at Patuxent Refuge on 
May 6, 1950. Fall: About 15 killed at the Friendship Interna- 
tional Airport ceilometer, Anne Arundel County, on September 
10, 1954; 13 killed at the Washington Monument, Washington, 
D. C, on September 12, 1937 (Overing, 1938) ; 10 at Patuxent 
Refuge on September 16, 1943. 

NORTHERN WATERTHRUSH Seiurus noveboracensis (Gmelin) 

Status. — Breeding (see fig. 32) : Common in the Allegheny 
Mountain section. Transient: Fairly common in all sections. 
Wintering: Accidental — 1 was recorded at Solomons Island, Cal- 
vert County, on December 12, 1949 (G. Kelly). 

Habitat. — Breeding: Occurs at elevations above 2,200 feet in 

bogs or along streams in brushy, cut-over forests or in swamp 

forests with a well-developed understory of shrubs. Transient: 

Shrub swamps, and swamp and flood-plain forests. 

Nesting season. — A nest containing 1 egg and 3 newly hatched 



BIRDS OF MARYLAND AND DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 303 

young was found in Garrett County on May 29, 1949. Young just 
out of the nest were observed in Garrett County on June 13, 1918 
(J. M. Sommer), and on June 25, 1949. 

Spring migration. — Normal period: April 25-30 to May 20-30; 
peak, May 1 to May 20. Extreme arrival dates: April 15, 1951, 
in Worcester County (J. H. Buckalew) ; April 16, 1921, in the 
District of Columbia (M. J. Pellew). Extreme departure dates: 
June 5, 1949, in Frederick County (M. B. Meanley) ; June 2, 1907, 
in Montgomery County (A. K. Fisher) . 

Fall migration. — Normal period: August 1-10 to October 1- 
10; peak, August 25 to September 20. Extreme arrival dates: 
July 26, 1952, in Baltimore County (E. Willis) ; July 27, 1907, in 
Allegany County (F. C. Kirkwood) ; July 27, 1955, in Caroline 
County (Mrs. A. J. Fletcher) ; July 28, 1889, in the District of 
Columbia (J. D. Figgins). Extreme departure dates: October 16, 
1892, in Baltimore County (W. N. Wholey) ; October 16, 1919, in 
the District of Columbia (M. J. Pellew) ; October 14, 1955, in 
Caroline County (Mrs. A. J. Fletcher). 

Breeding population densities (territorial males per 100 
acres). — 
84 (8 in 9% acres) in "open hemlock-spruce bog" (brush-meadow stage with 

young hemlock, red spruce, alder, etc.) in Garrett County in 1949 

(Robbins, 1949c). 
64 (8 in 12% acres) in "virgin spruce-hemlock bog forest" (red spruce and 

hemlock with dense understory of great laurel) in Garrett County in 1951 

(Stewart and Robbins, 1951a). 
33 (3 in 9 acres) in "scrub spruce bog" (brush-meadow stage, with young red 

spruce) in Garrett County in 1951 (Robbins and Stewart, 1951b). 

Maximum counts (nonbreeding) . — Spring: 19 at Patuxent 
Refuge on May 12, 1951 ; 9 at Port Tobacco, Charles County, on 
May 11, 1943 (I. N. Gabrielson, A. L. Nelson). Fall: 17 at Green- 
belt, Prince Georges County, on September 19, 1954 (L. W. 
Oring) ; 10 banded on the barrier beach north of Ocean City on 
September 11, 1955; 9 near Seneca, Montgomery County, on 
September 8, 1952 (J. W. Terborgh) ; 8 at Patuxent Refuge on 
September 9, 1953. 

LOUISIANA WATERTHRUSH Sei'urus mofac/7/a (Vieillot) 

Status. — Breeding and transient: Common in the Eastern 
Shore and Western Shore sections; fairly common in the Upper 
Chesapeake, Piedmont, and Ridge and Valley sections; fairly 
common locally in the Allegheny Mountain section at elevations 
below 2,300 feet (rare up to 2,560 feet) . Wintering: Accidental — 
a female in excellent condition was collected (USNM) along the 



304 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 62, FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 

Patuxent River, near Bowie, Prince Georges County, on December 

29, 1953. 

Habitat. — Flood-plain and swamp forests; also in rocky, 
wooded ravines along streams. 

Nesting season. — Mid-April to mid-June. Nest-building was 
recorded as early as April 10, 1888, in the District of Columbia 
(Cooke, 1929). Extreme egg dates (24 nests) : May 8, 1921, in 
the District of Columbia (Cooke, 1929) and June 11, 1899, in 
Baltimore County (F. C. Kirkwood). Extreme nestling dates (11 
nests) : May 12, 1954, in Prince Georges County (L. W. Oring), 
and June 16, 1938, in the District of Columbia (W. H. Lawrence) . 

Spring migration. — Normal period: April 1-10 to May 1-10; 
peak, April 15 to April 30. Extreme arrival dates: March 25, 
1948, in the District of Columbia (E. G. Davis, R. D. Widman) ; 
March 26, 1929, in Montgomery County (Mr. and Mrs. W. J. 
Whiting) ; March 27, 1948, in Calvert County. 

Fall migration. — Normal period: August 1-10 to September 
10-20; peak, August 15 to September 5. Extreme arrival date: 
July 31, 1953, in Prince Georges County. Extreme departure 
dates: October 4, 1920, in the District of Columbia (M. J. Pellew) ; 
October 2, 1948, in Baltimore County (I. E. Hampe) ; September 

30, 1950, in Montgomery County (C. N. Mason) ; September 28, 
1945, in Prince Georges County. 

Breeding population densities (territorial males per 100 

acres) . 

16 (3 in 18% acres) in "second-growth river swamp" (red maple, sweetgum, 
black gum, etc., with dense understory of holly, sweet pepperbush, and 
greenbrier) in Worcester County in 1948 (Springer and Stewart, 1948d). 

4 (3.5 in 85 acres) in well-drained flood-plain forest (sweetgum, hornbeam, 
river birch, tulip-poplar, etc.) along the boundary between Anne Arundel 
and Prince Georges Counties in 1945 (Stewart, et al., 1946). 

Maximum counts (nonbreeding) . — Spring: 35 along Western 
Branch, Prince Georges County, on April 19, 1947 ; 28 along the 
Potomac River, Montgomery County, on May 9, 1953 (E. J. 
Stivers, et al.) ; 25 along the Pocomoke River, Worcester County, 
on April 1, 1948. Fall: 6 at Patuxent Refuge on September 1, 
1943. 

KENTUCKY WARBLER Oporornis formosus (Wilson) 

Status. — Breeding and transient (see fig. 57) : Abundant in 
the Upper Chesapeake section ; common in the Eastern Shore and 
Western Shore sections; fairly common in the Piedmont section, 
and in the eastern part of the Ridge and Valley section (Blue 
Ridge Mountains and Hagerstown Valley) ; uncommon and local 



BIRDS OF MARYLAND AND DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 305 





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1 


76* 


0QM. 



Figure 57. — Breeding ranges of Kentucky Warbler and Mourning Warbler. 



in the northwestern part of the Allegheny Mountain section 
(chiefly at elevations below 1,700 feet) ; rare in the western part of 
the Ridge and Valley section (Allegany and Washington Counties, 
west of Hagerstown Valley) . 

Habitat. — Swamp and flood-plain forests, and rich, moist 
decidous forests on the upland. 

Nesting season. — Mid-May to mid- August (nesting peak, late 
May to late June). Extreme egg dates (42 nests) : May 16, 1918, 
in Dorchester County (Jackson, 1941), and July 31, 1933, in 
Baltimore County (DeGaris, 1936). Extreme nestling dates (38 
nests) : June 4, 1944, in Prince Georges County and August 11, 
1933 (DeGaris, 1936), in Baltimore County. 

Spring migration. — Normal period: April 25-30 to May 20- 
25; peak, May 10 to May 20. Extreme arrival dates: April 19, 
1949, in St. Marys County (M. B. Meanley) ; April 24, 1938, in 
Montgomery County (W. L. McAtee) ; April 24, 1954, in Caroline 
County (M.W.Hewitt). 

Fall migration. — Normal period: August 1-10 to September 
1-10. Extreme arrival dates: July 25, 1951, in Baltimore County 
(E. Willis); July 26, 1951, in Caroline County (Mrs. A. J. 
Fletcher). Extreme departure dates: September 20, 1954, in 
Caroline County (M. W. Hewitt) ; September 19, 1954, in Prince 



306 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 62, FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 

Georges County (L. W. Oring) ; September 18, 1951, in Baltimore 

County (R.D.Cole). 
Breeding population densities (territorial males per 100 

acres) . — 

32 (3.5 in 11 acres) in upland seepage swamp forest (red maple, sweetgum, 
black gum, etc., with dense understory of holly, sweet pepperbush, clammy 
azalea, maleberry, etc.) in Prince Georges County in 1946. 

31 (4 in 13 acres) in upland oak forest (white, northern red, chestnut, and 
black oaks) in Montgomery County in 1943 (J. W. Aldrich, A. J. Duvall). 

23 (6.5 in 28 acres) in partially opened flood-plain forest (sycamore, ash. 
elm, etc.) in Montgomery County in 1943 (J. W. Aldrich, A. J. Duvall). 

23 (19.6 in 85 acres) in well-drained flood-plain forest (sweetgum, hornbeam, 
river birch, tulip-poplar, etc.) along the boundary between Anne Arundel 
and Prince Georges Counties in 1945 (Stewart, et al., 1946). 

17 (6 in 36 acres) in "virgin central hardwood forest" (white oak-tulip- 
poplar) in Prince Georges County in 1947 (Stewart and Robbins, 1947b). 

14 (1.8 in 12% acres) in lowland seepage swamp forest (red maple, sweetgum, 
pin oak, with dense understory of sweet-bay, winterberry, arrow-wood, 
etc.) in Prince Georges County in 1946. 

13 (2.5 in 18% acres) in "second-growth river swamp" (red maple, sweet- 
gum, black gum, etc., with dense understory of holly, sweet pepperbush, 
and greenbrier) in Worcester County in 1948 (Springer and Stewart, 
1948d). 

8 (2 in 24% acres) in river terrace forest (beech-white oak) in Prince 
Georges County in 1944. 

8 (3 in 37 acres) in "mixed oak forest" (white, scarlet, and chestnut oaks) in 
Baltimore County in 1953 (Cole and Kolb, 1953) ; 6 (2.5 in 40 acres) in 

1948 (Kolb, et al., 1948) ; 5 (2 in 37 acres) in 1952 (Kaufmann, et al., 
1952) ; 4 (1.5 in 40 acres) in 1950 (Kolb, 1950) ; 3 (1 in 40 acres) in 

1949 (Kolb, 1949a) ; absent in 1951 (Kolb and Cole, 1951). 

6 (4.5 in 80 acres) in "central hardwood forest (oaks-tulip-poplar) with 
scattered pine" in the District of Columbia in 1951; 4 (3 in 80 acres) in 
1953 (Clagett, 1953) ; 2.5 (2 in 80 acres) in 1954 (Wright, 1955) ; 1 (1 in 
80 acres) in 1948 and 1949 (Trever, 1952) ; 1 (1 in 80 acres) in 1952 
(Clagett, 1952). 

Maximum counts (nonbreeding) . — Spring: 40 near Emmits- 
burg, Frederick County, on May 10, 1952 (J. W. Richards) ; 39 at 
Patuxent Refuge on May 10, 1950. Fall: 5 at Patuxent Refuge on 
September 3, 1951 (C. H. Mayhood) . 

CONNECTICUT WARBLER Oporornis agilis (Wilson) 

Status. — Fall transient: Uncommon in all sections. Spring 
transient: Rare and irregular (all reliable records from the 
vicinity of the District of Columbia and Baltimore) . 

Habitat. — Wood margins and other brushy areas in moist 
situations. 

Spring migration (11 records, including 5 specimens). — Ex- 



BIRDS OF MARYLAND AND DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 307 

treme dates: May 5, 1901, in Baltimore County (F. C. Kirkwood) 
and May 30, 1882, in the District of Columbia (USNM— E. W. 
Nelson) . Occurrence peak (7 records) : May 11 to May 24. Four 
of the specimens were collected in 1882 on May 22 (D. W. Pren- 
tiss), May 24 (H. W. Henshaw), May 28 (W. Palmer), and May 
30 (E. W. Nelson), all in the District of Columbia. The other 
specimen was collected at Plummers Island, Montgomery County, 
on May 17, 1909 (W. H. Osgood). 

Fall migration. — Normal period: September 10-20 to October 
10-20; peak, September 25 to October 10. Extreme arrival dates: 
August 28, 1886, in the District of Columbia (USNM— A. K. 
Fisher) ; September 3, 1950, in Baltimore County (C. M. Bu- 
chanan) ; September 6 and 7, 1939, in the District of Columbia 
(F. C. Lincoln) ; September 9, 1943, in Prince Georges County. 
Extreme departure dates: November 7, 1948, in Prince Georges 
County (M. B. Meanley) ; October 29, 1947, in Anne Arundel 
County; October 24, 1889, in the District of Columbia (W. 
Palmer) . 

Maximum counts. — Fall: 7 in Prince Georges County on 
October 3, 1947 ; 4 banded in Worcester County on September 13, 
1955. 

MOURNING WARBLER Oporornis Philadelphia (Wilson) 

Status. — Breeding (see fig. 57) : Uncommon locally in the 
Allegheny Mountain section — occurring regularly in Garrett 
County on Backbone Mountain at elevations above 3,000 feet 
(rare and local on the east slope of Backbone Mountain, down to 
2,640 feet). Transient: Uncommon in the Ridge and Valley, 
Piedmont, Upper Chesapeake, and Western Shore sections (prob- 
ably also as numerous in the Allegheny Mountain section, although 
there are no definite transient records from that area) ; rare in 
the Eastern Shore section. 

Habitat. — Breeding: Brushy, cut-over oak-chestnut and north- 
ern hardwood forests — especially those areas that contain black- 
berry thickets. Transient: Wood margins and moist, brushy, cut- 
over forests. 

Nesting season. — No definite nest records; however, adults 
were observed carrying food on June 26, 1949, in Garrett County. 

SPRING migration. — Normal period: May 15-20 to June 1-5; 
peak, May 20 to June 1. Extreme arrival dates: May 4, 1928, in 
the District of Columbia (W. J. Whiting) ; May 5, 1951, in Mont- 
gomery County (S. A. Briggs) ; May 7, 1932, in Cecil County (J. 
W. Brown). Extreme departure dates: June 11, 1945, in Prince 



308 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 62, FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 

Georges County; June 7, 1917, in the District of Columbia (F. 
Harper) . 

Fall migration. — Normal period: August 20-25 to October 1- 
5; peak, August 25 to October 1. Extreme arrival dates: August 
17, 1894, in Prince Georges County (USNM — G. Marshall) ; 
August 19, 1877, in the District of Columbia ( W. Palmer) . Ex- 
treme departure dates: October 13, 1946, in Prince Georges 
County; October 9, 1897, along the Patapsco River marsh (F. C. 
Kirkwood) . 

Breeding population density (territorial males per 100 
acres) . — 

10 (2 in 21 acres) in "dense second-growth" (oak-maple ridge forest) in 
Garrett County in 1949 (Robbins, 1949b). 

Maximum counts (nonbreeding) . — Spring: 5 at Patuxent 
Refuge on May 31, 1943. 

YELLOWTHROAT Geothlypis trichas (Linnaeus) 

Status. — Breeding: Abundant in the Eastern Shore, Western 
Shore, and Upper Chesapeake sections ; common in the Allegheny 
Mountain section ; fairly common in the Piedmont, and Ridge and 
Valley sections. Transient: Common, occasionally abundant, in 
all sections. Wintering: Rare in the Eastern Shore section and in 
the tidewater areas of the Western Shore and Upper Chesapeake 
sections; casual in the Piedmont section — recorded at Lake Ro- 
land, Baltimore County, on December 22, 1935 (Meanley, 1936b). 

Habitat. — Brushy wet meadows and marshes, and thickets of 
shrubs and small trees in swampy situations. 

Nesting season. — Early May to mid- August (nesting peak, 
late May to early July) . Extreme egg dates (41 nests) : May 4, 
1954, in Dorchester County and August 4, 1895 (F. C. Kirkwood), 
in Baltimore County. Extreme nestling dates (24 nests) : May 
23, 1954, in Worcester County (J. Travis) and August 13, 1893, 
in Baltimore County (Kirkwood, 1895). 

Spring migration. — Normal period: April 15-25 to May 15- 
25; peak, May 1 to May 15. Extreme arrival dates: April 10, 
1954, in Allegany County (L. McCollough, E. Minke) and Caroline 
County (M. W. Hewitt) ; April 11, 1929, in the District of Co- 
lumbia (W. H. Ball) ; April 11, 1954, in Charles County (M. C. 
Crone, A. R. Stickley, Jr.) ; April 12, 1929 in Baltimore County (F. 
C. Kirkwood) ; April 12, 1947, in Queen Annes County (E. G. 
Davis) ; April 12, 1948, in Prince Georges County. 

Fall migration. — Normal period: August 15-25 to October 
15-25; peak, September 1 to October 1. Extreme arrival date: 



BIRDS OF MARYLAND AND DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 309 

August 12, 1943, in Prince Georges County. Extreme departure 
dates: November 13, 1949, in Prince Georges County (M. B. 
Meanley) ; November 2, 1919, in the District of Columbia (F. 
Harper) . 

Breeding population densities (territorial males per 100 
acres). — 
111 (5 in 4% acres) in hedgerow along brook between agricultural fields 

(including strip 27^ yards wide on each side of hedgerow) in Prince 

Georges County in 1948. 
108 (14 in 13 acres) in shrub swamp (alder, poison sumac, sweet pepperbush, 

swamp rose, young red maple, etc.) in Prince Georges County in 1945. 
80 (24 in 30 acres) in "damp deciduous scrub with standing dead trees" 

(burned-over, poorly drained upland forest) in Prince Georges County 

in 1947 (Stewart, et al., 1947). 
58 (11 in 19.2 acres) in "shrubby field with stream-bordered trees" in Balti- 
more County in 1947, 47 (9 in 19.2 acres) in 1946 (Cooley, 1947). 
55 (9 in I6Y2 acres) in "cattail marsh" (narrow-leaved cattail stand with 

scattered swamp rose-mallow) in Calvert County in 1948 (Springer and 

Stewart, 1948a). 
46 (12 in 26 acres) in "dry deciduous scrub" (burned-over upland oak forest) 

in Prince Georges County in 1947 (Robbins, et al., 1947b). 
41 (23 in 58 acres) in brushy, poorly drained, abandoned farmland in Prince 

Georges County in 1947. 
29 (10 in 34% acres) in pine field (abandoned field with open growth of young 

scrub pine) in Prince Georges County in 1945. 
22 (2 in 9 acres) in "scrub spruce bog" (brush-meadow stage with young red 

spruce) in Garrett County in 1951 (Robbins and Stewart, 1951b). 
21 (2 in 9% acres) in "open hemlock-spruce bog" (brush-meadow stage with 

young hemlock, red spruce, alder, etc.) in Garrett County in 1949 (Rob- 
bins, 1949c). 
16 (4 in 25 acres) in "unsprayed apple orchard with unmowed ground cover" 

in Allegany County in 1948 (Springer and Stewart, 1948b). 
14 (9 in 66 acres) in field and edge habitat (including strips of flood-plain 

forest, brushy fields, and hedgerows) in Baltimore County in 1947 

(Hampe, et al., 1947). 
13 (4 in 30 acres) in "switchgrass marsh-meadow" in Somerset County in 

1948 (Springer and Stewart, 1948a). 
13 (2 in 15 acres) in "open slash area" (cut-over oak-maple ridge forest) in 

Garrett County in 1949 (Robbins, 1949b). 
11 (2 in 18% acres) in "second-growth river swamp" (red maple, sweetgum, 

black gum, etc., with dense understory of holly, sweet pepperbush, and 

greenbrier) in Worcester County in 1948 (Springer and Stewart, 1948d). 
7 (2 in 28 acres) in partially opened flood-plain forest (sycamore, ash, elm, 

etc.) in Montgomery County in 1943 (J. W. Aldrich, A. J. Duvall). 
2 (2 in 85 acres) in well-drained flood-plain forest (sweetgum, hornbeam, 

river birch, tulip-poplar, etc.) along the boundary between Anne Arundel 

and Prince Georges Counties in 1945 (Stewart, et al., 1946). 

Maximum counts (nonbreeding) . — Spring: 200+ at Port 
Tobacco, Charles County, on May 11, 1943 (I. N. Gabrielson, A. 



310 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 62, FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 

L. Nelson) ; 135 near Greenbelt, Prince Georges County, on May 
8, 1954 (L. W. Oring) ; 108 in the Middle River area, Baltimore 
County, on May 5, 1951 (E. Willis, D. A. Jones) . Fall: 189 found 
dead at the Washington Monument, Washington, D. C, on Sep- 
tember 12, 1937 (Overing, 1938). Winter: 5 in the Wicomico 
River area of Charles and St. Marys Counties on December 30, 
1951 (J. W. Terborgh, R. R. Kerr) . 

YELLOW-BREASTED CHAT kteria Wrens (Linnaeus) 

Status. — Breeding and transient: Common in the Eastern 
Shore, Western Shore, and Upper Chesapeake sections; fairly 
common in the Piedmont, and Ridge and Valley sections; uncom- 
mon in the Allegheny Mountain section. Wintering: Casual in the 
Eastern Shore and Western Shore sections — recorded in Wor- 
cester, Talbot, Baltimore, Anne Arundel, and St. Marys Counties, 
and the District of Columbia. This species was not recorded in 
winter before 1952. 

Habitat. — Hedgerows, wood margins, and other brushy habi- 
tats, including cut-over and burned-over upland forests. 

Nesting season. — Mid-May to late July (nesting peak, late 
May to early July). Extreme egg dates (102 nests) : May 18, 
1887, in the District of Columbia (Cooke, 1929) and July 16, 1939, 
in Prince Georges County (E. G. Cooley). Extreme nestling 
dates (29 nests) : June 1, 1946, in Baltimore County (H. Kolb) 
and July 26, 1891, in Baltimore County (F. C. Kirkwood). 

Period of occurrence. — Normal period: April 25-May 5 to 
September 15-25; peak, May 10 to August 15. Extreme arrival 
dates: April 3, 1951, at Gibson Island — possibly a wintering bird 
(Mrs. M. North) ; April 14, 1917, in Montgomery County (Miss 
H. P. Childs) ; April 16, 1952, in Talbot County (Mrs. S. Hender- 
son). Extreme departure dates: October 14, 1954, in Prince 
Georges County (L. W. Oring) ; October 11, 1954, in Frederick 
County (J. W. Richards) ; October 10, 1953, in Baltimore County 
(C. M. Buchanan). Several November records, possibly repre- 
senting wintering birds, have been omitted. 

Breeding population densities (territorial males per 100 
acres) . — 

36 (7 in 19.2 acres) in "shrubby field with stream-bordered trees" in Balti- 
more County in 1947; 31 (6 in 19.2 acres) in 1946 (Cooley, 1947). 

28 (8.5 in 30 acres) in "damp deciduous scrub with standing dead trees" 
(burned-over, poorly drained upland forest) in 1948 (Oresman, et al., 
1948); 13 (4 in 30 acres) in 1947 (Stewart, et al., 1947). 

15 (4 in 26 acres) in "dry deciduous scrub" (burned-over upland oak forest) 
in Prince Georges County in 1947 (Robbins, et al., 1947). 



BIRDS OF MARYLAND AND DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 



311 



15 (8.5 in 58 acres) in brushy, poorly drained, abandoned farmland in Prince 

Georges County in 1947. 
8 (5 in 66 acres) in field and edge habitat (including strips of flood-plain 

forest, brushy fields, and hedgerows) in Baltimore County in 1947 

(Hampe, et al., 1947). 
8 (2 in 25 acres) in "unsprayed apple orchard with unmowed ground cover" 

in Allegany County in 1948 (Springer and Stewart, 1948b). 

Maximum counts (nonbreeding). — Spring: 100+ at Port 
Tobacco, Charles County, on May 11, 1953 (I. N. Gabrielson, et 
al.) ; 56 in Howard County on May 8, 1954; 34 in the Pocomoke 
Swamp on May 16, 1954 (J. K. Wright) . Fall: 13 near Seneca, 
Montgomery County, on September 5, 1953 (H. A. Sutton) ; 4 
banded on the barrier beach north of Ocean City on September 
12, 1955. 

HOODED WARBLER Wilsonia citrina (Boddaeri) 

Status. — Breeding and transient (see fig. 58) : Common in the 
Western Shore, and Ridge and Valley sections ; common locally in 
the Eastern Shore section (during the breeding season largely 
restricted to the swamp along the Pocomoke River and its tribu- 
taries) ; fairly common in the Piedmont section and locally in the 
Allegheny Mountain section (at elevations under 2,000 feet in the 
northwestern part, and on the higher ridges above 2,800 feet) ; 




i Principal Range 
• Local Record (Redstart) 






Figure 58. — Breeding ranges of Hooded Warbler and American Redstart. 



312 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 62, FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 

uncommon elsewhere in the Allegheny Mountain section; rare in 
the Upper Chesapeake section. 

Habitat. — Swamp forests or rich, moist forests on the upland 
that contain a fairly dense understory of shrubs, including such 
species as sweet pepperbush, southern arrow-wood, spicebush, 
mountain laurel, and great laurel. 

Nesting season. — Mid-May to mid-August (nesting peak, late 
May to early July) . Extreme egg dates (12 nests) : May 22, 1943, 
and July 30, 1943, in Prince Georges County. Extreme nestling 
dates (7 nests) : June 9, 1933, in Anne Arundel County (M. B. 
Meanley) and July 11, 1944, in Prince Georges County (J. B. 
Cope) . Young birds out of the nest were recorded as early as June 
4, 1949, in Montgomery County (D. M. Thatcher), and partially 
dependent young were observed being fed by parents as late as 
August 27, 1955, in Prince Georges County. 

Spring migration. — Normal period: April 20-30 to May 20-30; 
peak, May 1 to May 15. Extreme arrival dates: April 3, 1950, in 
Anne Arundel County (Mrs. W. L. Henderson) ; April 13, 1919 
(A. Wetmore), and April 13, 1947 (Gunn and Crocker, 1951), in 
the District of Columbia; April 16, 1949, in Worcester County; 
April 17, 1945, in Prince Georges County. 

Fall migration. — Normal period: July 25-August 5 to Sep- 
tember 20-30 ; peak, August 15 to September 10. Extreme depar- 
ture dates: October 16, 1953, in the District of Columbia (C. O. 
Handley, Jr.) ; October 8, 1952, in Prince Georges County (L. W. 
Oring) . 

Breeding population densities (territorial males per 100 
acres) . — 

63 (8 in 12% acres) in lowland seepage swamp forest (red maple, sweetgum, 
pin oak with brushy understory of sweet-bay, winterberry, arrow-wood, 
etc.) in Prince Georges County in 1946. 
48 (11.6 in 24% acres) in river terrace forest (beech-white oak) in Prince 

Georges County in 1944. 
36 (4 in 11 acres) in upland seepage swamp forest (red maple, sweetgum, 
black gum, pitch pine with dense understory of holly, sweet pepperbush, 
clammy azalea, maleberry, etc.) in Prince Georges County in 1946. 
32 (6 in 18% acres) in "second-growth river swamp" (red maple, sweetgum, 
black gum, etc., with dense understory of holly, sweet pepperbush, and 
greenbrier) in Worcester County in 1948 (Springer and Stewart, 1948d). 
32 (2 in 6% acres) in "young second-growth resulting from cutting" (oak- 
maple ridge forest) in Garrett County in 1949 (Robbins, 1949b). 
29 (6 in 21 acres) in "dense second-growth" (oak-maple ridge forest) in 

Garrett County in 1949 (Robbins, 1949b). 
18 (8 in 44% acres) in river-bluff forest (beech, white oak, and scarlet oak) 
in Prince Georges County in 1944; 14 (6 in 44% acres) in 1945 (J. W. 
Aldrich, A. J. Duvall). 



BIRDS OF MARYLAND AND DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 313 

17 (2.5 in 15 acres) in "open slash area" (cut-over, oak-maple ridge forest) 
in Garrett County in 1949 (Robbins, 1949b). 

16 (5.2 in 32% acres) in pine-oak forest (pitch pine, scrub pine, Spanish oak) 
in Prince Georges County in 1944. 

8 (3 in 36 acres) in "virgin central hardwood deciduous forest" (white oak- 
tulip-poplar) in Prince Georges County in 1947 (Stewart and Robbins, 
1947b). 

8 (2 in 22% acres) in upland oak forest (white, scarlet, and black oaks) in 
Prince Georges County in 1944. 

6 (5 in 80 acres) in "central hardwood forest (oaks-tulip-poplar) with scat- 
tered pine" in the District of Columbia in 1948, 4 (3.5 in 80 acres) in 1949 
(Trever, 1952) ; 4 (3 in 80 acres) in 1952 and 1953 (Clagett, 1952 and 
1953); and in 1954 (Wright, 1955) ; 2 (2 in 80 acres) in 1951 (Trever, 
1952). 

Maximum counts (nonbreeding). — Spring: 100 at Gibson 
Island, Anne Arundel County, on May 8, 1955 (Mrs. W. L. Hen- 
derson, Mrs. G. Tappan) ; 50 at Patuxent Refuge on May 6, 1950; 
40 near Emmitsburg, Frederick County, on May 10, 1952 (J. W. 
Richards) . Fall: 16 at Patuxent Refuge on September 5, 1943. 

WILSON'S WARBLER Wilsonia pusilla (Wilson) 

Status. — Transient: Uncommon, occasionally fairly common, 
in all sections, except the Eastern Shore section where it is rare. 
Wintering : Accidental — 1 was collected (USNM) in Worcester 
County on December 22, 1947 (Robbins, 1949d). 

Habitat. — Wood margins, hedgerows, and other brushy habi- 
tats, usually in moist situations. 

Spring migration. — Normal period: May 5-10 to May 20-30; 
peak, May 10 to May 20. Extreme arrival dates: April 26, 1953, 
in Anne Arundel County (Mrs. W. L. Henderson, Mrs. G. Tap- 
pan) ; April 29, 1932, in the District of Columbia (E. N. Grinnell) . 
Extreme departure dates: June 10, 1928, in Harford County (F. 
C. Kirkwood) ; June 4, 1910, in the District of Columbia (V. 
Bailey) ; May 31, 1943, in Prince Georges County; May 31, 1951, 
in Montgomery County (S. H. Low). 

Fall migration. — Normal period: August 20-25 to September 
20-25; peak, August 25 to September 15. Extreme arrival dates: 
August 15, 1953, in Anne Arundel County (Mrs. W. L. Henderson, 
Mrs. G. Tappan) ; August 17, 1945, in Prince Georges County. 
Extreme departure dates: October 13, 1919 (M. J. Pellew), and 
October 6, 1904 (W. W. Cooke), in the District of Columbia; 
October 5, 1954, in Prince Georges County (L. W. Oring). 

Maximum counts.— Spring: 10 along the C. and O. Canal, 
Montgomery County, on May 12, 1951 (P. A. DuMont) ; 10 at 
Greenbelt, Prince Georges County, on May 12, 1956 (L. W. 



314 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 62, FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 

Oring) ; 9 at Patuxent Refuge on May 18, 1947. Fall: 10 at 
Seneca, Montgomery County, on September 12, 1954 (J. W. Ter- 
borgh) . 
CANADA WARBLER Wilsonia canadensis (Linnaeus) 

Status. — Breeding (see fig. 59) : Common in the Allegheny 
Mountain section at elevations above 2,100 feet. Transient: Com- 
mon in all sections except the Eastern Shore section where it is 
uncommon. 




LEGEND 
BOTH SPECIES 
I Principal Range 

• Local Record of 
ROSE-BREASTED GROSBEAK 



Figure 59. — Breeding ranges of Canada Warbler and Rose-breasted Grosbeak. 



Habitat. — Breeding: Swamp and moist forests, in bogs and 
along streams with understory of great laurel and other shrubs; 
also occurs in brushy cut-over oak-chestnut and northern hardwood 
forests on the ridges. Transient: Flood-plain and swamp forests, 
and rich moist forests on the upland. 

Nesting season. — Probably late May to mid-July. Egg dates 
(2 nests) : May 28, 1935, in Allegany County (L. M. Llewellyn) 
and June 2, 1919, in Garrett County (J. M. Sommer) . Kirkwood 
(1895) refers to a nest with young, found in Allegany County in 
1895, sometime later than June 10. Several observations have 
been made of adults carrying food in Garrett County, the earliest 
record occurring on June 11, 1918 (F. C. Kirkwood). 

Spring migration. — Nor?nal period: May 1-10 to May 25-June 



BIRDS OF MARYLAND AND DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 315 

1 ; peak, May 10 to May 25. Extreme arrival dates: April 26, 1925, 
in Baltimore County (F. C. Kirkwood) ; April 28, 1954, in Howard 
County. Extreme departure dates: June 4, 1945, in Prince Georges 
County; June 2, 1907 (A. K. Fisher), and June 2, 1917 (F. 
Harper) , in the District of Columbia. 

Fall migration. — Normal period: August 10-15 to September 
15-25; peak, August 20 to September 5. Extreme arrival dates: 
July 31, 1887, in the District of Columbia (A. K. Fisher) ; August 
5, 1951, in Baltimore County (E. Willis) ; August 6, 1953, in Prince 
Georges County. Extreme departure dates: October 23, 1921, in 
Montgomery County (A. Wetmore) ; October 12, 1947, in Prince 
Georges County; October 11, 1908, in the District of Columbia 
(R.W.Williams). 

Breeding population densities (territorial males per 100 
acres) . — 

45 (9.5 in 21 acres) in "dense second-growth" (oak-maple ridge forest) in 

Garrett County in 1949 (Robbins, 1949b). 
44 (5.5 in 12% acres) in "virgin spruce-hemlock bog forest" (red spruce and 

hemlock with dense understory of great laurel) in Garrett County in 

1951 (Stewart and Robbins, 1951a). 
32 (2 in 6 J /4 acres) in "young second-growth resulting from cutting" (oak- 
maple ridge forest) in Garrett County in 1949 (Robbins, 1949b). 
27 (4 in 15 acres) in "open slash area" (cut-over oak-maple ridge forest) in 

Garrett County in 1949 (Robbins, 1949b). 
22 (2 in 9 acres) in "scrub spruce bog" (brush-meadow stage with young red 

spruce) in Garrett County in 1951 (Robbins and Stewart, 1951b). 
21 (2 in 9% acres) in "open hemlock-spruce bog" (brush-meadow stage with 

young hemlock, red spruce, alder, etc.) in Garrett County in 1949 

(Robbins, 1949c). 
7 (1.5 in 20 acres) in "virgin hemlock stand" in Garrett County in 1949 

(Robbins, 1949a). 

Maximum counts (nonbreeding) . — Spring: 100-f along the 
Choptank River, Caroline County, on May 10-11, 1952 (A. J. 
Fletcher, M. W. Hewitt) ; 91 at Greenbelt, Prince Georges County, 
on May 12, 1956 (L. W. Oring) ; 72 at Patuxent Refuge on May 
11, 1950; 42 in the District of Columbia on May 13, 1950 (P. A. 
DuMont, et al.) . Fall: 33 at Patuxent Refuge on August 20, 1943 ; 
14 near Great Falls, Montgomery County, on August 29, 1948 
(D. C. Aud. Soc). 

AMERICAN REDSTART Setophaga rutkiUa (Linnaeus) 

Status. — Breeding (see fig. 58) : Common in the Allegheny 
Mountain, Ridge and Valley, Piedmont, and Western Shore sec- 
tions; locally common in the Eastern Shore section (largely re- 
stricted to the swamps along the Pocomoke and upper Nanticoke 
Rivers and their tributaries) ; uncommon and local in the Upper 



316 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 62, FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 

Chesapeake section. Transient: Common in all sections. Win- 
tering: Accidental — 1 seen at White Marsh, Baltimore County, on 
December 6, 1950 (C. D. Hackman) ; 1 seen in the District of 
Columbia on December 4, 1951 (A. M. Stimson) . 

Habitat. — Breeding: Second-growth river swamps and flood- 
plain forests in all sections; also in second-growth mixed meso- 
phytic and northern hardwood forests in the Ridge and Valley, 
and Allegheny Mountain sections. Transient: Various types of 
deciduous forest. 

Nesting season. — Late April to early July (nesting peak, mid- 
May to mid-June) . Nest-building was recorded as early as April 
19, 1949, in Worcester County (J. H. Buckalew). Extreme egg 
dates (39 nests) : April 25, 1949, in Worcester County (J. H. 
Buckalew) and June 30, 1890, in the District of Columbia (E. M. 
Hasbrouck). Extreme nestling dates (19 nests) : May 23, 1954, 
in Worcester County (A. A. Brandenburg) and July 9, 1898 (F. C. 
Kirkwood), in Baltimore County. 

Spring migration. — Normal period: April 15-25 to May 20-30; 
peak, May 1 to May 15. Extreme arrival dates: April 7, 1946, in 
Worcester County; April 10, 1954, in Prince Georges County (L. 
W. Oring) ; April 13, 1952, in Charles County (A. R. Stickley, 
Jr.) ; April 14, 1927, in Baltimore County (F. C. Kirkwood) . 

Fall migration. — Normal period: August 1-10 to October 1- 
10; peak, August 25 to September 20. Extreme arrival dates: 
July 22, 1918, in the District of Columbia (A. H. Howell) ; July 22, 
1955, in Prince Georges County (W. H. Stickel) ; July 25, 1951, in 
Baltimore County (E. Willis) . Extreme departure dates: Novem- 
ber 16, 1948, in the District of Columbia (E. G. Davis) ; October 
18, 1955, in Caroline County (Mrs. A. J. Fletcher) ; October 17, 
1953, in Montgomery County (P. G. DuMont) ; October 16, 1947, 
and October 16, 1954 (L. W. Oring) , in Prince Georges County. 

Breeding population densities (territorial males per 100 
acres) . — 

91 (17 in 18% acres) in "second-growth river swamp" (red maple, sweetgum, 
black gum, etc., with dense understory of holly, sweet pepperbush, and 
greenbrier) in Worcester County in 1948 (Springer and Stewart, 1948d). 
51 (43.4 in 85 acres) in well-drained flood-plain forest (sweetgum, hornbeam, 
river birch, tulip-poplar, etc.) along the boundary between Anne Arundel 
and Prince Georges Counties in 1945 (Stewart, et al., 1946). 
16 (3 in 19.2 acres) in "shrubby field with stream-bordered trees" in Balti- 
more County in 1947, absent in 1946 (Cooley, 1947). 
12 (3.5 in 28 acres) in partially opened flood-plain forest (sycamore, ash, elm, 

etc.) in Montgomery County in 1943 (J. W. Aldrich, A. J. Duvall). 
12 (1.6 in 13 acres) in shrub swamp (alder, poison sumac, sweet pepperbush, 
swamp rose, young red maple, etc.) in Prince Georges County in 1945. 



BIRDS OF MARYLAND AND DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 317 

Maximum counts (nonbreeding). — Spring: 130+ at Port 
Tobacco, Charles County, on May 11, 1943 (I. N. Gabrielson, A. L. 
Nelson) ; 130 in Baltimore County on May 6, 1950; 115 in Mont- 
gomery County on May 8, 1954 (K. Stecher) ; 91 at Patuxent 
Refuge on May 6, 1950 ; 72 in the Pocomoke Swamp on April 21, 
1954 (P. G. DuMont). Fall: 150 at Tilghman, Talbot County, on 
September 8, 1955 (R. L. Kleen) ; 110 on August 27, 1954, and 55 
on September 19, 1954, at Greenbelt, Prince Georges County (L. W. 
Oring) ; 40 in Baltimore County on August 31, 1893 (F. C. Kirk- 
wood) ; 27 killed at the Washington Monument in the District of 
Columbia on September 12, 1937 (Overing, 1938) ; about 25 killed 
at the Friendship International Airport ceilometer, Anne Arundel 
County, on September 10, 1954. 

Family PLOCE1DAE 
HOUSE SPARROW Passer domesticus (Linnaeus) 

Status. — Permanent resident. Common (locally abundant) in 
the Upper Chesapeake and Piedmont sections; fairly common 
(locally abundant) in the Eastern Shore, Western Shore, Ridge 
and Valley, and Allegheny Mountain sections. 

Habitat. — Most numerous in the vicinity of barnyards in the 
country; also characteristic of small towns and the business sec- 
tions of cities. In the rural areas, this species generally concen- 
trates wherever livestock are kept. 

Nesting season. — Mid-February to mid-November (nesting 
peak, early March to mid-August) . Nest-building was recorded 
as early as February 14, 1894, in the District of Columbia (C. W. 
Richmond) and as late as November 3, 1898, in Baltimore County 
(F. C. Kirkwood). Extreme egg dates (86 nests) : March 29, 
1930 (M. B. Meanley), and August 6, 1882 (F. C. Kirkwood), in 
Baltimore County. Extreme nestling dates (45 nests) : April 15, 
1945, in Prince Georges County and September 6, 1917 (W. Mar- 
shall), in Baltimore County. 

Maximum counts. — Winter (Christmas counts) : 1,329 in the 
Ocean City area on December 27, 1955; 1,311 in the Catoctin 
Mountain area, Frederick County, on December 30, 1951; 793 in 
the Triadelphia Reservoir area on January 1, 1954; 607 in Caro- 
line County on December 26, 1953. 

History of introduction. — The following description of the 
early history of the House Sparrow in Maryland is largely derived 
from data presented by Kirkwood (1895). Beginning in 1851, 
when this European species was first introduced into the United 
States at Brooklyn, New York, importations were made at widely 



318 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 62, FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 

different points during the next 30 years. Its first appearance in 
Maryland was recorded in 1865 at Hancock in Washington 
County. After this it soon appeared at other locations, including 
importations which were made in the District of Columbia in 1871 
(Cooke, 1929) and in Baltimore in 1874. The establishment of 
this species in the various sections of the State may be described 
as having taken place in the following order: Ridge and Valley 
section during the period 1865-70 ; Allegheny Mountain and Pied- 
mont sections during the period 1872-76; Upper Chesapeake, 
Western Shore, and Eastern Shore sections during the period 
1877-80. 

Family ICTERIDAE 

BOBOLINK Dolichonyx oryzivorus (Linnaeus) 

Status. — Breeding (see fig. 60) : Fairly common in the Alle- 
gheny Mountain section at elevations above 2,500 feet; rare and 
local in the Piedmont section, occurring in Baltimore County in 
Worthington Valley (M. B. Meanley) and in Frederick County in 
the vicinity of Buckeystown. Spring transient: Fairly common 
in all sections. Fall transient: Common, occasionally abundant, 
in the Upper Chesapeake and Western Shore sections ; fairly com- 




LEGEND 
BOBOLINK 
L^C^J Principal Range 

O Local Record 
BOAT-TAILEO GRACKLE 
I Principal Range 

• Local Record 



Figure 60. — Breeding ranges of Bobolink and Boat-tailed Grackle. 



BIRDS OF MARYLAND AND DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 319 

mon in the Eastern Shore section; uncommon in the Piedmont, 
Ridge and Valley, and Allegheny Mountain sections. 

Habitat. — Breeding: Hayfields and over-grown pastures. 
Transient: In spring this species frequents various field and field 
border habitats ; in fall, it concentrates in fresh or brackish tidal 
marshes, especially those that contain wild rice. Concentration 
areas, in fall, include the marshes of the Patuxent, Patapsco, Gun- 
powder, Elk, and (formerly) the Potomac Rivers. 

Nesting season.— In 1932, a nest in Garrett County contained 
eggs on June 20 (Brooks, 1936c) and young birds on June 24 
(Brooks, 1934) . 

Spring migration. — Normal period: May 1-5 to May 20-30; 
peak, May 5 to May 20. Extreme arrival dates: April 16, 1905, 
April 25, 1898 and 1904, in Baltimore County (F. C. Kirkwood) ; 
April 25, 1931 (Mr. and Mrs. L. D. Miner), in the District of 
Columbia; April 26, 1911 and 1914, in Dorchester County (R. W. 
Jackson). Extreme departure dates: June 12, 1921, in Anne 
Arundel County (T. Denmead) ; June 12. 1931, in Baltimore 
County (F. C. Kirkwood) ; June 6, 1909, in the District of Colum- 
bia (H. W. Henshaw) ; June 6, 1914, in Dorchester County (R. W. 
Jackson) ; June 5, 1948, in Calvert County. 

Fall migration. — Normal period: July 25-August 5 to Octo- 
ber 1-10; peak, August 25 to September 15. Extreme arrival 
dates: July 18, 1944, in Prince Georges County; July 21, 1900, in 
Baltimore County (F. C. Kirkwood) ; July 24, 1954, in St. Marys 
County (R. R. Kerr). Extreme departure dates: November 8, 
1888, on the Patapsco River (A. Resler) ; November 5, 1901, on 
the Gunpowder River (F. C. Kirkwood) ; October 30, 1943, in 
Prince Georges County. 

Maximum counts. — Spring: 5,000 on the Gunpowder River 
marsh on May 21, 1902 (F. C. Kirkwood) ; 990 in Howard County 
on May 8, 1954 ; 500 near Blackwater Refuge, Dorchester County, 
on May 10, 1952 (W. S. Webster) ; 431 in Anne Arundel County on 
May 8, 1954 (P. A. DuMont). Fall: 20,000 at Snows Marsh, 
Baltimore County, on September 12, 1899 (F. C. Kirkwood) ; 5,000 
at the Gunpowder River marsh on August 26, 1904 (F. C. Kirk- 
wood) ; 2,000 along the Pocomoke River, Worcester County, on 
September 16, 1950 (J. H. Buckalew) . 

EASTERN MEADOWLARK Sturnella magna (Linnaeus) 

Status. — Breeding and transient: Common in all sections. 
Wintering: Common in the Eastern Shore section; fairly common 
in the Western Shore and Upper Chesapeake sections ; uncommon 



320 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 62, FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 

in the Piedmont, and Ridge and Valley sections ; rare in the Alle- 
gheny Mountain section. 

Habitat. — Breeding: Hayfields and over-grown pastures in 
agricultural areas; marsh-meadow types in the tidal marshes, 
including salt-meadow grass, black grass, and switchgrass, and 
American three-square meadows on the coastal barrier beaches. 
Transient and wintering: Agricultural fields and field borders, 
and salt marshes. 

Nesting season. — Early May to early August (nesting peak, 
mid-May to mid-July). Nest-building was recorded as early as 
May 1, 1926, in Dorchester County (R. W. Jackson). Extreme 
egg dates (68 nests) : May 10, 1941, in Montgomery County (E. 
J. Court) and July 25, 1922, in Dorchester County (Jackson, 
1941). Extreme nestling dates (16 nests) : May 18, 1891, in the 
District of Columbia (C. W. Richmond) and July 26, 1931, in 
Garrett County (J. A. Molter) . 

Spring migration. — Normal period: March 5-15 to April 25- 
May 5; peak, March 25 to April 20. Extreme arrival dates: 
February 21, 1908 (H. W. Oldys), and February 22, 1917 (Mr. 
and Mrs. L. D. Miner), in the District of Columbia; February 28, 
1945, in Prince Georges County; March 1, 1902, in Allegany 
County (G. Eifrig) ; March 1, 1917, in Washington County (M. 
A. Murphy) ; March 12, 1953, in Garrett County (H. E. Slater, K. 
F. Sanders). 

Fall migration. — Normal period: October 1-10 to November 
25-December 5; peak, October 15 to November 15. Extreme ar- 
rival date: September 16, 1943, in Prince Georges County. 

Breeding population densities (territorial males per 100 
acres) . — 
7 (6 in 90 acres) in mixed hayfields and pastures in Prince Georges County 

in 1951. 
7 (1.3 in 17 acres) in salt-meadow grass marsh-meadow in Somerset County 

in 1948 (Springer and Stewart, 1948a). 
5 (1.5 in 30 acres) in switchgrass marsh-meadow in Somerset County in 
1948 (Springer and Stewart, 1948a). 

Maximum counts (nonbreeding). — Winter (Christmas 
counts) : 4,167 in the Ocean City area on December 27, 1955 ; 671 
in Caroline County on December 26, 1953; 633 in southern Dor- 
chester County on December 28, 1954; 387 near the Wicomico 
River in Charles and St. Marys Counties on December 28, 1952. 

YELLOW-HEADED BLACKBIRD 

Xanthocephalus xanthocephalus (Bonaparte) 

Status. — Casual visitor. On September 10, 1891, a male was 



BIRDS OF MARYLAND AND DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 321 

collected at Baltimore (Kirkwood, 1895), and on August 29, 1892, 
a female was collected in the District of Columbia (Hasbrouck, 
1893). Two other females were collected in the vicinity of Balti- 
more, 1 on September 18, 1893 (Md. Acad. Sci.), the other on 
October 1, 1894 (Kirkwood, 1895). Another male was seen at 
West Ocean City on May 11, 12, and 13, 1956 (C. M. Buchanan, 
et al.). 

REDWINGED BLACKBIRD Agelaius phoen/ceus (Linnaeus) 

Status. — Breeding: Common, locally abundant, in the Eastern 
Shore, Western Shore, Upper Chesapeake, and Piedmont sections ; 
fairly common in the Ridge and Valley, and Allegheny Mountain 
sections. Transient: Abundant in the Eastern Shore, Western 
Shore, and Upper Chesapeake sections ; common in the Piedmont, 
Ridge and Valley, and Allegheny Mountain sections. Wintering : 
Abundant in the Upper Chesapeake section; common in the East- 
ern Shore section; fairly common near tidewater in the Western 
Shore section; uncommon in the interior of the Western Shore 
section, and in the Piedmont, and Ridge and Valley sections ; rare 
in the Allegheny Mountain section. 

Habitat. — Breeding: Various types of marsh and marsh- 
meadow with or without scattered shrubs and small trees ; in the 
Upper Chesapeake and Piedmont sections and to a lesser extent 
elsewhere, this species also occurs regularly in hayfields and 
weedy fallow fields and occasionally in grainfields. Transient and 
wintering: Marshes, agricultural fields, and field borders. 

Nesting season. — Late April to early August (nesting peak, 
mid-May to early July). Extreme egg dates (717 nests) : April 
28, 1951 (E. Willis), and July 27, 1947 (E. G. Cooley), in Balti- 
more County. Extreme nestling dates (350 nests) : May 12, 1951, 
and August 9, 1950, in Baltimore County (E. Willis). Young 
birds out of the nest were observed in Baltimore County as early 
as May 12, 1951 (E.Willis). 

Spring migration. — Normal period: February 15-25 to May 
5-15; peak, February 25 to March 30. Extreme arrival dates: 
January 23, 1916, in the District of Columbia (W. W. Cooke) ; 
February 5, 1941, in Prince Georges County. Extreme departure 
dates: May 18, 1902, in the District of Columbia (H. W. May- 
nard) ; May 18, 1947, in Prince Georges County. 

Fall migration. — Normal period: July 20-30 to December 1- 
10; peak, October 15 to November 20. Extreme arrival dates: 
July 8, 1933, in the District of Columbia (E. N. Grinnell) ; July 



322 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 62, FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 

11, 1919, in Baltimore County (F. C. Kirkwood). Extreme de- 
parture date: December 15, 1942, in Prince Georges County. 
Breeding population densities (territorial males per 100 

acres) . — 

73 (12 in IQY2 acres) in "cattail marsh" (narrow-leaved cattail with scattered 

swamp rose-mallow) in Calvert County in 1948 (Springer and Stewart, 

1948a). 
37 (7.2 in 19^ acres) in "saltmarsh bulrush-saltgrass marsh" in Somerset 

County in 1948 (Springer and Stewart, 1948a). 
36 (7 in 19% acres) in "shrubby field with stream-bordered trees" in Baltimore 

County in 1947, 26 (5 in 19^ acres) in 1946 (Cooley, 1947). 
23 (7 in 30 acres) in "switchgrass marsh-meadow" in Somerset County in 

1948 (Springer and Stewart, 1948a). 

Maximum counts (nonbreeding) . — Spring: "Millions" at Car- 
roll Island, Baltimore County, on March 15, 1896 (F. C. Kirk- 
wood) ; 10,000 in Baltimore County on March 8, 1900 (F. C. Kirk- 
wood) ; 6,000 at Port Tobacco, Charles County, on March 2, 1954 
(V. C. Kirtley, H. N. Page) . Fall: 10,000 in Baltimore County on 
November 11, 1894 (F. C. Kirkwood) ; 5,000+ along the Choptank 
River, Talbot County, on September 9, 1947 (N. Hotchkiss). 
Winter (Christmas counts) : 800,000 in the Susquehanna Flats 
area, Cecil County, on December 26, 1948; 26,825 in the Ocean 
City area on December 27, 1954; 17,393 in southern Dorchester 
County on December 28, 1955; 5,000 at Port Tobacco, Charles 
County, on December 23, 1937, and December 27, 1941. 

Banding. — Three recovered in winter (December 31-February 
15) in Somerset County had been banded in spring (April 22- 
May 15) in the following areas : 2 in southeastern Massachusetts 
and 1 in southern New Jersey. One banded at Patuxent Refuge 
on March 18, 1950, was recovered in central Vermont on May 16, 
1952, and another banded at Patuxent Refuge on August 14, 1946, 
was recovered in northeastern North Carolina on April 4, 1947. 

ORCHARD ORIOLE Icterus spurius (Linnaeus) 

Status. — Breeding and transient: Common in the Eastern 
Shore and Western Shore sections; fairly common in the Upper 
Chesapeake and Piedmont sections; uncommon in the Ridge and 
Valley section; rare in the Allegheny Mountain section (Brooks, 
1936c). 

Habitat. — Orchards and residential areas of farms, towns, and 
suburbs ; also occurs regularly in open stands of loblolly pine along 
the margins of the tidal marshes in the Eastern Shore section. 

Nesting season. — Early May to early August (nesting peak, 
late May to late June) . Nest-building was recorded as early as 



BIRDS OF MARYLAND AND DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 323 

May 2, 1953, in Worcester County (P. A. DuMont). Extreme egg 
dates (65 nests) : May 20, 1916, in Dorchester County (Jackson, 
1941) and July 14, 1953, in Caroline County (E. Bilbrough). 
Extreme nestling dates (48 nests) : May 29, 1953, and August 1, 
1953, in Caroline County (E. Bilbrough). 

Spring migration. — Normal period: April 25-May 5 to May 
15-25; peak, May 5 to May 15. Extreme arrival dates: April 7, 
1947, in Prince Georges County; April 19, 1952, in Caroline 
County (Mr. and Mrs. A. J. Fletcher) ; April 20, 1916, in Dor- 
chester County (R. W. Jackson) ; April 21, 1917, in Baltimore 
County (F. C. Kirkwood). 

Fall migration. — Normal period: July 1-10 to August 20-30. 
Extreme departure dates: October 13, 1952, in Anne Arundel 
County (Mrs. W. L. Henderson, Mrs. G. Tappan) ; September 
21, 1952, in Charles County (M. C. Crone, A. R. Stickley, Jr.) ; 
September 18, 1954, in Montgomery County (P. A. DuMont) ; 
September 13, 1940 (A. V. Davis, Jr.), and September 13, 1948 
(W. B. Green), in Washington County. The resident birds 
usually depart during the last half of July, while during some 
years, small numbers of transients are of regular occurrence dur- 
ing August. 

Breeding population densities (territorial males per 100 
acres) . — 

29 (3 in 10.5 acres) in farmyards (including small orchards) in Prince 
Georges County in 1951. 

15 (3 in 20 acres) in suburban residential area (including small orchards and 
large expanses of lawn) in Prince Georges County in 1942. 

10 (2 in 19% acres) in "shrubby field with stream-bordered trees" in Balti- 
more County in 1946, 5 (1 in 19% acres) in 1947 (Cooley, 1947). 

Maximum counts. — Spring: 50 along the Gunpowder River on 
May 5, 1904 (J. Thomas) ; 30 at Port Tobacco, Charles County, on 
May 6, 1938, and May 11, 1943 (I. N. Gabrielson, F. M. Uhler) ; 
29 in Caroline County on May 10, 1952 (Mr. and Mrs. A. J. 
Fletcher) . 

BALTIMORE ORIOLE Icterus galbula (Linnaeus) 

Status. — Breeding: Fairly common in the Allegheny Moun- 
tain, Ridge and Valley, and Piedmont sections ; uncommon in the 
Upper Chesapeake and Eastern Shore sections; rare (or absent — 
no definite records) in the Western Shore section. Transient: 
Fairly common in all sections. Wintering: Rare and irregular in 
the Eastern Shore, Western Shore, Upper Chesapeake, and Pied- 
mont Sections. 

Habitat. — Breeding: Shade trees in residential areas on farms, 



324 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA, 62, FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 

and in towns and suburbs; also in open stands of flood-plain 
forests and moist forests on the upland. Transient: Various types 
of deciduous forest. 

Nesting season. — Early May to early July (nesting peak, mid- 
May to mid-June) . Nest-building was recorded as early as May 
2, 1891, in Baltimore County (Kirkwood, 1895) and May 2, 1954, 
in Caroline County (Mrs. A. J. Fletcher). Extreme egg dates 
(19 nests) : May 18, 1880, in Washington County (E. A. Small) 
and June 12, 1931, in Baltimore County (M. B. Meanley). Ex- 
treme nestling dates (40 nests) : May 26, 1954, in Caroline County 
(Mrs. A. J. Fletcher) and July 4, 1898, in Baltimore County (F. 
C. Kirkwood). 

Spring migration. — Normal period: April 25-May 5 to May 
15-25; peak, May 5 to May 15. Extreme arrival dates: April 9, 
1913, in Dorchester County (R. W. Jackson) ; April 17, 1896, in 
Wicomico County (A. E. Acworth) ; April 18, 1917, in Baltimore 
County (F. C. Kirkwood). Extreme departure dates: June 12, 
1946, in Prince Georges County ; June 10, 1899, in the District of 
Columbia (A. H. Howell). 

Fall migration. — Normal period: August 1-10 to September 
20-30; peak, August 20 to September 15. Extreme arrival date: 
July 28, 1943, in Prince Georges County. Extreme departure 
dates: October 20, 1945, in Prince Georges County; October 15, 
1922, in the District of Columbia (J. Kittredge, Jr.) ; October 10, 
1930, in Kent County (W. Baker). 

Breeding population densities (territorial males per 100 
acres) . — 

10 (2 in 19% acres) in "shrubby field with stream-bordered trees" in Balti- 
more County in 1947, 5 (1 in 19^ acres) in 1946 (Cooley, 1947). 

Maximum counts (nonbreeding) . — Spring: 100 along the Gun- 
powder River marsh on May 8, 1904 (J. Thomas) ; 40 at Patuxent 
Refuge on May 10, 1950; 40 in Washington County on May 7, 
1949 (Dr. R. S. and M. Stauffer). Fall: 11 at Patuxent Refuge 
on August 29, 1944; 10 (8 banded) on the barrier beach north 
of Ocean City on September 13, 1955. 

[BULLOCK'S ORIOLE] Icterus bullockii (Swainson) 

Status. — Hypothetical. One was banded at Ruxton, Baltimore 
County, on January 17, 1955 (R. D. Cole). Another was seen at 
Claiborne, Talbot County, on March 3 and 8, 1955 (R. L. Kleen). 

RUSTY BLACKBIRD Euphagus carolinus (Muller) 

Status. — Transient: Fairly common in all sections. Winter- 
ing: Uncommon in the Eastern Shore, Western Shore, and Upper 



BIRDS OF MARYLAND AND DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 325 

Chesapeake sections ; rare in the Piedmont, Ridge and Valley, and 
Allegheny Mountain sections. 

Habitat. — Brushy, cut-over swamp and flood-plain forests ; also 
occasional in agricultural fields and field borders. 

Spring migration. — Normal period: February 25-March 5 to 
April 25-May 5; peak, March 25 to April 15. Extreme arrival 
dates: February 12, 1929 (W. H. Ball), and February 15, 1900 
(P. Bartsch), in the District of Columbia; February 21, 1926, in 
Montgomery County (W. W. Rubey). Extreme departure dates: 
May 24, 1931, in Harford County (F. C. Kirkwood) ; May 18, 
1893, in Baltimore County (G. H. Gray, W. N. Wholey) ; May 15, 
1954, in Worcester County (J. K. Wright) ; May 12, 1951, in Mont- 
gomery County (P. A. DuMont). 

Fall migration. — Normal period: October 1-10 to December 
1-10; peak, October 20 to November 15. Extreme arrival dates: 
September 11, 1928, in Baltimore County (F. C. Kirkwood) ; Sep- 
tember 16, 1885, in the District of Columbia (H. W. Henshaw) ; 
September 18, 19~46, in Baltimore County (I. E. Hampe). Ex- 
treme departure date: December 28, 1945, in Prince Georges 
County. 

Maximum counts. — Spring: 500+ in Baltimore County on 
April 27, 1924 (F. C. Kirkwood) ; 250 on the Gunpowder River 
marsh on March 30, 1904 (J. Thomas) ; 100+ at Port Tobacco, 
Charles County, on May 5, 1939 (C. Cottam, F. M. Uhler). Fall: 
1,200 along the Patapsco River, Anne Arundel County, on Novem- 
ber 13, 1899 (W. H. Fisher) ; 1,000 in Dulaney Valley, Baltimore 
County, on October 24, 1901 (F. C. Kirkwood) ; 165 at Patuxent 
Refuge on October 25, 1944. Winter (Christmas counts) : 242 
near Chase, Baltimore County, on December 28, 1952 ; 223 in the 
Ocean City area on December 27, 1955; 106 near the Wicomico 
River in Charles and St. Marys Counties on December 28, 1952; 
103 at Port Tobacco, Charles County, on December 26, 1944 ; 102 
at Patuxent Refuge on January 14, 1953. 

BREWER'S BLACKBIRD Euphagus cyanocephalus (Wagler) 

Status. — Casual visitor — 1 seen repeatedly near Emmits- 
burg, Frederick County, during the period November 24- 
December 3, 1951 (Richards, 1953) ; also recorded in the same 
area on November 8-9, 1955 (J. W. Richards). Two were seen 
near Newark, Worcester County, on December 23, 1946 (J. W. 
Aldrich) . Three were seen near Port Tobacco, Charles County, on 
December 28, 1946 (I. N. Gabrielson). On April 8, 1956, 3 were 
observed near Easton, Talbot County, and 4 were seen at the 



326 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 62, FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 

Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge, Dorchester County (P. A. 

Buckley) . 

BOAT-TAILED GRACKLE Cassidix mexicanus (Gmelin) 

Status. — Breeding (see fig. 60) : Fairly common in the coastal 
area of Worcester County and in the tidewater areas of Somerset 
County ; rare, local, and irregular elsewhere in the tidewater areas 
of the Eastern Shore and Western Shore sections, occurring as 
far north as Pomona in Kent County (Small, 1883b) and Gibson 
Island in Anne Arundel County (Mrs. W. L. Henderson) . Winter- 
ing: Uncommon in the coastal area of Worcester County and in 
the tidewater areas of Somerset County; casual in the tidewater 
areas of the Western Shore section — 10 seen on Gibson Island, 
Anne Arundel County, on December 21, 1951, 50 on February 5, 
1952, and 100 on March 14, 1952 (Mrs. W. L. Henderson). 

Habitat. — Salt marshes and marsh borders, including patches 
of loblolly pine and thickets of sea myrtle, marsh elder, and 
wax-myrtle. 

Nesting season. — Mid-April to early July. Nest building and 
nearly completed nests were recorded in Worcester County on 
April 21, 1948. Nests with eggs were recorded in one colony in 
Worcester County on June 3, 1938 (G. A. Ammann). Extreme 
nestling dates (5 colonies) : May 13, 1952 (J. H. Buckalew) and 
July 7, 1892 (W. N. Wholey), in Worcester County. 

Maximum counts. — Spring: 200 in the Ocean City area on 
May 12, 1951 (E. G. Baldwin, J. W. Terborgh) . Fall: 128 in the 
Ocean City area on November 11, 1951 ; 70 on Assateague Island 
on August 30, 1950. Winter: 130 in the Ocean City area on 
December 21, 1952 (Christmas count) ; 95 near Crisfield, Somer- 
set County, on January 25, 1947. 

COMMON GRACKLE Quiscalus quiscula (Linnaeus) 

Status. — Breeding: Abundant in the Eastern Shore and Upper 
Chesapeake sections and in the southern part of the Western 
Shore section (St. Marys County and southern Charles and Cal- 
vert Counties) ; common in the Piedmont section and in the 
eastern part of the Ridge and Valley section (Frederick and 
eastern Washington Counties) ; fairly common (somewhat local) 
in the Allegheny Mountain section, in the western part of the 
Ridge and Valley section (Allegany County and western Washing- 
ton County), and in the northern part of the Western Shore 
section (Prince Georges and Anne Arundel Counties, northern 
Calvert County, and northern Charles County). Transient: Com- 
mon, occasionally abundant, in all sections. Wintering: Abundant 



BIRDS OF MARYLAND AND DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 327 

in the Upper Chesapeake section; common in the Eastern Shore 
section ; fairly common in the southern part of the Western Shore 
section (Calvert, Charles, and St. Marys Counties) ; uncommon 
in the northern part of the Western Shore section (Anne Arundel 
and Prince Georges Counties) and in the Piedmont section; rare 
in the Ridge and Valley section. 

Habitat. — Breeding: Agricultural fields and field borders, 
farmyards, orchards, evergreen patches, and residential areas in 
towns and suburbs. Transient and ivintering: Chiefly agricultural 
fields and field borders ; occasional in various forest types. 

Nesting season. — Late March to late June (nesting peak, mid- 
April to late May). Nest-building was recorded as early as 
March 21, 1951, in Baltimore County (E. Willis). Extreme egg 
dates (239 nests) : April 6, 1952 (E. Willis), and June 12, 1897 
(E. J. Cook), in Baltimore County. Extreme nestling dates (184 
nests) : April 20, 1952 (E. Willis), and June 24, 1891 (F. C. Kirk- 
wood), in Baltimore County. 

Spring migration. — Normal period: February 10-20 to April 
1-10; peak, February 25 to March 25. Extreme arrival dates: 
January 17, 1919, in Baltimore County (E. 0. Donovan) ; Janu- 
ary 21, 1916, in the District of Columbia (Mrs. F. M. Bailey) ; 
January 28, 1944, in Prince Georges County. Extreme departure 
dates: April 20, 1929, in Baltimore County (F. C. Kirkwood) ; 
April 17, 1886, in the District of Columbia (USNM— C. W. Rich- 
mond) ; April 14, 1944, in Prince Georges County. 

Fall migration. — Normal period: July 10-20 to December 
1-10 ; peak, October 25 to November 20. During occasional years 
the peak movement is greatly delayed, occurring as late as De- 
cember 16-21 at the Patuxent Refuge in 1944 (Stewart, et al., 
1952). 

Maximum counts. — Spring: 5,000+ at Dulaney Valley, Balti- 
more County, on February 27, 1930 (F. C. Kirkwood) ; 5,000+ 
at Patuxent Refuge on March 20, 1937 (I. N. Gabrielson). Fall: 
60,000 at Patuxent Refuge on December 20, 1944 (late flight) ; 
15,000 on Gunpowder River marsh on November 9, 1901 (J. 
Thomas) ; 10,000+ in Baltimore County on November 9, 1901, 
November 4, 1929, November 7, 1929, and November 10, 1928 
(F. C. Kirkwood) ; 10,000 on the Patuxent River marsh near 
Upper Marlboro on November 14, 1946 ; 10,000 near Easton, Tal- 
bot County, on August 18, 1953. Winter: 350,000 over Sassafras 
River, Cecil County, on December 27, 1952 (Christmas count) ; 
50,000 on December 18, 1902 ( W. H. Fisher) , and 31,500 on Janu- 
ary 25, 1947, in Somerset County. 



328 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 62, FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 

Banding. — See figure 61. 




Figure 61. — Common Grackle banding recoveries. Each symbol with numerals 
represents the number of records for each State or Province. Banded in 
Maryland, recovered elsewhere: solid circle = recovered June through 
August; solid triangle = recovered September through May. Recovered in 
Maryland, banded elsewhere: open circle = banded June through August; 
open triangle = September through May. 



BROWN-HEADED COWBIRD Molothrus ater (Boddaert) 

Status. — Breeding: Fairly common in the Allegheny Mountain, 
Ridge and Valley, Piedmont, Upper Chesapeake, and Eastern 



BIRDS OF MARYLAND AND DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 329 

Shore sections ; uncommon in the Western Shore section. Trans- 
ient: Common in all sections. Wintering: Common in the Eastern 
Shore and Upper Chesapeake sections; fairly common in the 
southern part of the Western Shore section (Calvert, Charles, 
and St. Marys Counties) ; uncommon in the northern part of the 
Western Shore section (Anne Arundel and Prince Georges 
Counties) and in the Piedmont, and Ridge and Valley sections; 
rare in the Allegheny Mountain section. 

Habitat. — Agricultural areas and adjacent woodland. 

Nesting season. — Late April to early August (nesting peak, 
early May to early July) . Extreme egg dates (125 nests) : April 24, 
1921, in Montgomery County (E. J. Court) and July 28, 1929, in 
Baltimore County (M. B. Meanley). A young bird out of the 
nest was recorded as early as May 17, 1919, in Dorchester County 
(R.W.Jackson). 

Breeding host species. — A total of 223 instances of cowbird 
parasitism have been recorded in Maryland and the District of 
Columbia, including 59 on sparrows (Emberizinae), 53 on warb- 
lers (Parulidae), 44 on vireos ( Vireonidae) , 15 on buntings 
(Richmondeninae), 12 on thrushes (Turdidae), 10 on icterids 
(Icteridae), 10 on flycatchers (Tyrannidae), 8 on tanagers 
(Thraupidae) , and 12 on miscellaneous species. By species, rec- 
ords of parasitism are as follows: 39, Red-eyed Vireo; 23, Song 
Sparrow; 18, Chipping Sparrow; 11, Field Sparrow; 9 each for 
Yellow Warbler, Yellow-throat, and Cardinal; 7, Summer Tana- 
ger ; 6 each for Wood Thrush and Orchard Oriole ; 5 each for East- 
ern Phoebe, Hooded Warbler, American Redstart, Indigo Bunting, 
and HensloVs Sparrow ; 4 each for Robin, White-eyed Vireo, and 
Redwinged Blackbird; 3 each for Carolina Wren, Ovenbird, 
Kentucky Warbler, and Yellow-breasted Chat; 2 each for Great 
Crested Flycatcher, Mockingbird, Blue-gray Gnatcatcher, Pro- 
thonotary Warbler, Parula Warbler, Pine Warbler, Prairie 
Warbler, Louisiana Waterthrush, and Rufous-sided Towhee; 1 
each for Black-billed Cuckoo, Eastern Kingbird, Acadian Fly- 
catcher, Least Flycatcher, Barn Swallow, Carolina Chickadee, 
Veery, Eastern Bluebird, Starling, Solitary Vireo, Black-and- 
white Warbler, Worm-eating Warbler, Blue-winged Warbler, 
Magnolia Warbler, Blackburnian Warbler, Yellow-throated Warb- 
ler, Scarlet Tanager, Blue Grosbeak, and American Goldfinch. 

Spring migration. — Normal period: February 5-15 to April 
15-25; peak, March 10 to April 10. Extreme arrival date: Janu- 
ary 25, 1941, in Prince Georges County. Extreme departure 



330 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 62, FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 

dates: May 10, 1910, in the District of Columbia (F. M. Bailey) ; 
May 7, 1943, in Prince Georges County. 

Fall migration. — Normal period: August 15-25 to December 
1-10; peak, September 25 to November 1. Extreme arrival dates: 
August 10, 1917, and August 11, 1927, in Dorchester County 
(R. W. Jackson). Extreme departure dates: December 23, 1944, 
in Prince Georges County; December 19, 1951, in Anne Arundel 
County (Mrs. G. Tappan). 

Maximum counts. — Spring: 3,000 in Anne Arundel County on 
March 21, 1954 (D. A. Jones, E. Willis) ; 3,000 at Middle River, 
Baltimore County, on March 21, 1955 (E. Willis) ; 2,000 in Cecil 
County on March 25, 1947; 500 near Emmitsburg, Frederick 
County, on April 14 and 15, 1953 (J. W. Richards). Fall: 1,500 
in Dulaney Valley, Baltimore County, on November 11, 1894 
(F. C. Kirkwood) ; "thousands" near Cumberland, Allegany 
County, on November 3, 1901 (G. Eifrig) ; 600 on Kent Island, 
Queen Annes County, on October 17, 1953 (V. B. Daiker, E. 
Rogers) ; 500 near Beltsville, Prince Georges County, on August 
29, 1952. Winter: 200,000 in Cecil County on December 27, 1952 
(Christmas count) ; 15,772 in the Ocean City area on December 
27, 1955 (Christmas count) ; 8,700 on Kent Island, Queen Annes 
County, on January 26, 1947 ; 2,095 in southern Dorchester County 
on December 28, 1953 (Christmas count). 

Banding. — Nine banded in Baltimore, Anne Arundel, Prince 
Georges, and Montgomery Counties in spring and summer (March 
30-August 23) were recovered in fall and winter (November 6- 
February 10) in the following areas: 7 in eastern South Carolina 
and 2 in eastern North Carolina. Six recovered in late fall and 
winter (November 15-February 5) in Kent, Dorchester, Wico- 
mico, and Worcester Counties had been banded in late spring and 
summer (April 16-September 22) in the following areas: 5 from 
southeastern Massachusetts and 1 from southeastern Connecticut. 

Family THRAUPIDAE 

SCARLET TANAGER Piranga o/ivacea (Gmelin) 

Status. — Breeding and transient: Common in the Ridge and 
Valley, Piedmont, and Western Shore sections; fairly common in 
Allegheny Mountain, Upper Chesapeake, and Eastern Shore sec- 
tions. Wintering: Accidental — 1 seen near Berlin, Worcester 
County, on December 27, 1953 (C. L. Clagett, E. G. Baldwin), 
and 1 observed at Annapolis on January 2, 1955 (E. R. Seeders). 

Habitat. — Various types of deciduous forest — usually most 



BIRDS OF MARYLAND AND DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 331 

numerous in swamp and flood-plain forests, and in rich, moist 
forests on the upland. 

Nesting season. — Early May to early August (nesting peak, 
late May to mid-July). Nest-building was recorded as early as 
May 8, 1945, in Prince Georges County. Extreme egg dates (32 
nests) : May 12, 1953, in Caroline County (M. W. Hewitt) and 
August 1, 1892, in Howard County (A. Resler) . Extreme nestling 
dates (12 nests) : June 4, 1953, in Caroline County (M. W. 
Hewitt) and August 8, 1895, in Baltimore County (H. J. Muller). 
Stub-tailed young, just out of the nest, were recorded as early as 
June 10, 1953, in Prince Georges County. 

Spring migration. — Normal period: April 25-30 to May 20-25; 
peak, May 1 to May 15. Extreme arrival dates: April 17, 1896 
(P. W. Schufeldt), and April 18, 1930 (L. McCormick-Goodhart) , 
in the District of Columbia; April 20, 1952, in Montgomery 
County (I. R. Barnes) ; April 20, 1954, in Prince Georges County 
(C. G. Webster, L. W. Oring). 

Fall migration. — Normal period: August 15-25 to October 
1-10; peak, September 10 to September 30. Extreme departure 
dates: November 13, 1896, in the District of Columbia (USNM— 
R. Ridgway) ; October 23, 1952, in Baltimore (H. Kolb, E. Willis). 

Breeding population densities (territorial males per 100 
acres) . — 

26 (9.3 in 36 acres) in "virgin central hardwood deciduous forest" (white oak- 
tulip-poplar) in Prince Georges County in 1947 (Stewart and Robbins, 
1947b). 

19 (15.7 in 85 acres) in "well-drained, flood-plain forest" (sweetgum, horn- 
beam, river birch, tulip-poplar) along the boundary between Anne 
Arundel and Prince Georges Counties in 1945 (Stewart, et al., 1946). 

17 (4 in 24% acres) in river terrace forest (beech-white oak) in Prince 
Georges County in 1944. 

15 (3.5 in 23 1 / 4 acres) in "mature northern hardwood forest" (black cherry, 
beech, hemlock, sugar maple, sweet birch, etc.) in Garrett County in 1951 
(Robbins and Stewart, 1951a). 

14 (3 in 21 acres) in "dense second-growth" (oak-maple ridge forest) in 
Garrett County in 1949 (Robbins, 1949b). 

13 (6 in 44% acres) in river bluff forest (beech, white oak, scarlet oak) in 
Prince Georges County, in 1944, 7 (3 in 445^ acres) in 1945 (J. W. 
Aldrich, A. J. Duvall). 

13 (1.8 in 14 1 / 4 acres) in "poorly drained, flood-plain forest" (pin oak, sweet- 
gum, red maple, red ash, etc.) in Prince Georges County in 1946. 

12 (1.5 in 13 acres) in upland oak forest (white, northern red, chestnut, and 
black oaks) in Montgomery County in 1943 (J. W. Aldrich, A. J. Duvall). 

10 (8 in 80 acres) in "central hardwood forest (oaks-tulip-poplar) with scat- 
tered pine" in the District of Columbia in 1948, 8 (6.5 in 80 acres) in 
1949, 7 (5.5 in 80 acres) in 1951 (Trever, 1952) ; 5 (4 in 80 acres) in 
1952 (Clagett, 1952) ; 4 (3 in 80 acres) in 1953 (Clagett, 1953). 



332 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 62, FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 

10 (2 in 20 acres) in "virgin hemlock forest" in Garrett County in 1949 

(Robbins, 1949a). 
9 (3 in 32% acres) in pine-oak forest (pitch pine, scrub pine, Spanish oak) in 

Prince Georges County in 1944. 
9 (2.5 in 28 acres) in partially opened, flood-plain forest (sycamore, ash, elm, 

etc.) in Montgomery County in 1943 (J. W. Aldrich, A. J. Duvall). 
8 (2.5 in 30 acres) in "damp deciduous scrub with standing dead trees" 

(burned-over, poorly drained upland forest) in Prince Georges County 

in 1948 (Oresman, et al., 1948). 
6 (1.4 in 23% acres) in upland oak forest (white, scarlet, and black oaks) in 

Prince Georges County in 1944. 
4 (1.5 in 37 acres) in "mixed oak forest" (white, scarlet, and chestnut oaks, 

etc.) in Baltimore County in 1952 (Kaufmann, et al., 1952) ; 3 (1 in 40 

acres) in 1950 (Kolb, 1950) ; 3 (1 in 37 acres) in 1951 and 1953 (Kolb and 

Cole, 1951; Cole and Kolb, 1953); 1 (0.5 in 40 acres) in 1949 (Kolb, 

1949a) ; absent in 1948 (Kolb, et al., 1948). 

Maximum counts (nonbreeding) . — Spring: 110 at Patuxent 
Refuge on May 10, 1950 ; 42 along the C. and O. Canal in Mont- 
gomery County on May 9, 1953 (E. J. Stivers, et al.). Fall: 11 
at Patuxent Refuge on September 25, 1943. 

SUMMER TANAGER Piranga rubra (Linnaeus) 

Status. — Breeding and transient: Fairly common in the south- 
ern half of Worcester County, and near tidewater in the Western 
Shore section; uncommon elsewhere in the Eastern Shore and 
Western Shore sections, and along the Potomac River valley and 
on Sugarloaf Mountain in the Piedmont section; rare elsewhere 
(formerly more numerous) in the Piedmont, and Ridge and Val- 
ley sections, and in northern Caroline County. 

Habitat. — Upland oak-hickory and oak-chestnut forests; also 
occurs in upland stands of loblolly pine and scrub pine. 

Nesting season. — Late May to late July (nesting peak, early 
June to early July. Extreme egg dates (41 nests) : May 24, 1912, 
in St. Marys County (E. J. Court) and July 13, 1902, in Baltimore 
County (J. M. Sommer). Extreme nestling dates (7 nests): 
June 13, 1899, in Baltimore County (J. M. Sommer) and July 27, 
1954, in Caroline County (Mr. and Mrs. A. J. Fletcher). 

Spring migration. — Normal period: April 25-30 to May 20-25 ; 
peak, May 1 to May 15. Extreme date of arrival: April 21, 1896, 
in Montgomery County (P. W. Schufeldt). Extreme date of 
departure: May 29, 1954, in Prince Georges County. 

Fall Migration. — Normal period: August 15-25 to September 
20-25. Extreme departure date: September 29, 1898, in Balti- 
more County (W. H. Fisher) . 



BIRDS OF MARYLAND AND DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 333 

Breeding population density (territorial males per 100 
acres) . — 

10 (2 in 21 acres) in "immature loblolly-shortleaf pine stand" (trees 45 to 65 
feet in height) in Worcester County in 1948 (Springer and Stewart, 
1948c). 

Maximum counts (nonbreeding) . — Spring: 9 in St. Marys 
County on May 8, 1954 (J. W. Terborgh, J. W. Taylor, Jr.) ; 8 at 
Port Tobacco, Charles County, on May 12, 1951 (M. C. Crone) ; 6 
in Seneca area, Montgomery County, on May 9, 1953 (I. R. Barnes, 
et al.). Fall: 7 at Port Tobacco on September 23, 1951 (M. C. 
Crone, R. L. Farr) . 

Family FRINGILUDAE 

CARDINAL Rkhmondena cardinalis (Linnaeus) 

Status. — Permanent resident. Common in the Eastern Shore, 
Western Shore, Upper Chesapeake, Piedmont, and Ridge and 
Valley sections. Uncommon and local in the Allegheny Mountain 
section except along Bear Creek and lower Youghiogheny River 
where it is fairly common. 

Habitat. — Brushy, cut-over flood-plain and swamp forests, 
and rich, brushy, moist forests on the upland ; also in hedgerows 
and wood margins, and in residential areas of farms, towns, and 
suburbs. 

Nesting season. — Early April to late August (nesting peak, 
late April to early July) . Nest-building was recorded as early as 
April 1, 1945, in Baltimore County (H. Brackbill). Extreme egg 
dates (206 nests) : April 5, 1931, in the District of Columbia (J. C. 
Jones) and August 19, 1900, in Baltimore County (F. C. Kirk- 
wood). Extreme nestling dates (104 nests) ; April 24, 1947 (H. 
Brackbill) , and August 29, 1915 (J. M. Sommer) , both in Balti- 
more County. 

Breeding population densities (territorial males per 100 
acres) . — 

23 (3 in 13 acres) in upland oak forest (white, northern red, chestnut, and 
black oaks) in Montgomery County in 1943 (J. W. Aldrich, A. J. Duvall). 
19 (7 in 36 acres) in "virgin central hardwood deciduous forest" (white oak- 
tulip-poplar) in Prince Georges County in 1947 (Stewart and Robbins, 
1947b). 
18 (5 in 28 acres) in partially opened, flood-plain forest (sycamore, ash, elm, 

etc.) in Montgomery County in 1943 (J. W. Aldrich, A. J. Duvall). 
13 (11 in 85 acres) in "well-drained flood-plain forest" (sweetgum, hornbeam, 
river birch, tulip-poplar) along the boundary between Anne Arundel and 
Prince Georges Counties in 1945 (Stewart, et al., 1946). 
9 (7.5 in 80 acres) in "central hardwood forest (oaks-tulip-poplar) with scat- 



334 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 62, FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 

tered pine" in the District of Columbia in 1951; 3 (2 in 80 acres) in 1953 

(Clagett, 1953) ; 2 (1.5 in 80 acres) in 1949 and 1952 (Clagett, 1952) ; 

1 (1 in 80 acres) in 1948 (Trever, 1952). 
8 (1.5 in 18% acres) in "second-growth river swamp" (red maple, sweetgum, 

black gum, etc., with dense under story of holly, sweet pepperbush, and 

greenbrier) in Worcester County in 1948 (Springer and Stewart, 1948d). 
5 (2.4 in 47% acres) in hedgerows in agricultural areas and abandoned 

farmlands (including strip 27% yards wide on each side of hedgerow) in 

Prince Georges County in 1945. 
5 (3 in 66 acres) in field and edge habitat (including strips of flood-plain 

forest, brushy fields, and hedgerows) in Baltimore County in 1947 

(Hampe, et al., 1947). 

Maximum counts (nonbreeding). — Winter (Christmas 
counts) : 640 in the Annapolis area on January 1, 1956 ; 467 in 
the Ocean City area on December 27, 1953 ; 436 in the District of 
Columbia area on January 1, 1955; 310 in Caroline County on 
December 26, 1953 ; 284 in the Catoctin Mountain area in Freder- 
ick County on December 30, 1951 ; 266 near Triadelphia Reservoir 
in Montgomery and Howard Counties on December 26, 1954 ; 171 
in Allegany County on December 31, 1949 ; 73 in Garrett County 
on December 31, 1954. 

Banding. — An adult banded in Montgomery County on 
March 10, 1939, was recovered in western Pennsylvania (New 
Kensington) on July 20, 1940. An immature bird banded in 
Montgomery County on August 20, 1943, was recovered in south- 
eastern Pennsylvania on November 2, 1943. Two birds banded 
in Prince Georges County on March 29, 1946, and September 10, 
1946, were recovered on April 23, 1947, and January 17, 1948, 
respectively, at distances of 13 and 17 miles from the points of 
banding. 

ROSE-BREASTED GROSBEAK Pheucticus ludovicianus (Linnaeus) 

Status. — Breeding (see fig. 59) : Fairly common in the Alle- 
gheny Mountain section ; rare, irregular, and local in the Western 
Shore, Piedmont, and Ridge and Valley sections — recorded as fol- 
lows: in Calvert County (where a pair bred at Governor's Run 
in 1925 and one was seen at Plum Point on July 25, 1928 — Ball, 
1930a), in Frederick County (E. J. Court reports that several 
pairs were found nesting on Sugarloaf Mountain, elevation 1,281 
feet, many years ago) , and in Allegany County (one was seen at 
1,100 feet on Green Ridge on June 8, 1947). Transient: Fairly 
common in all sections except the Eastern Shore section, where 
it is rare. 

Habitat. — Breeding: Brushy, cut-over bog, mixed mesophytic 



BIRDS OF MARYLAND AND DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 335 

forests, and northern hardwood forests. Transient: Various types 
of deciduous forests and wood margins. 

Nesting season. — Late May to early July (probably) . Extreme 
egg dates (10 nests) : May 27, 1919, and June 13, 1917, in Garrett 
County (J. M. Sommer). Nestling dates (2 nests) : June 8-14, 
1895, in Allegany County (Kirkwood, 1895) and June 11, 1918, 
in Garrett County (J. M. Sommer). 

Spring migration. — Normal period: May 1-5 to May 20-25"; 
peak, May 5 to May 15. Extreme arrival dates: April 8, 1929, 
at Chestnut Grove, Baltimore County (F. C. Kirkwood) ; April 17, 
1902, in the District of Columbia (H. W. Maynard) ; April 20, 
1952, in Charles County (M. C. Crone, A. R. Stickley, Jr.) ; 
April 22, 1950, in Montgomery County (F. C. Cross). Extreme 
departure dates: June 3, 1917, in the District of Columbia (A. H. 
Howell) ; June 2, 1948, in Prince Georges County. 

Fall migration. — Normal period: September 5-15 to October 
1-10 ; peak, September 15 to September 30. Extreme arrival dates: 
August 22 1953, in Harford County (D. Mcintosh) ; August 29, 
1887, in the District of Columbia (R. Ridgway) ; August 29, 1954, 
in Charles County (A. R. Stickley, Jr.) ; August 30, 1950, in 
Baltimore County (E. Willis) ; August 31, 1900, in Prince Georges 
County (C. W. Richmond). Extreme departure dates: November 
25, 1901, in Allegany County (G. Eifrig) ; November 23, 1952, 
in Montgomery County (J. E. Willoughby) ; November 15, 1953, 
in Prince Georges County (L. W. Oring) ; November 2, 1930, in 
Kent County (W. Baker). 

Maximum counts (nonbreeding) . — Spring: 31 at Patuxent 
Refuge on May 13, 1950; 17 at Rosedale, Baltimore County, on 
May 6, 1950 (D. A. Jones). Fall: 5 at Patuxent Refuge on 
September 23, 1943. 

BLUE GROSBEAK Guiraca caerulea (Linnaeus) 

Status. — Breeding and transient (see fig. 62) : Fairly common 
in Kent and Queen Annes Counties, and in northern Caroline 
County and western Talbot County; uncommon elsewhere in the 
Upper Chesapeake section, in the Western Shore section, and in 
the southern part of the Piedmont section (along Potomac River 
valley and in southern Howard County) ; rare in the southern part 
of the Eastern Shore section (south of Talbot and Caroline Coun- 
ties), in the northern Piedmont section, and along the Potomac 
River valley of the Ridge and Valley section. 

Habitat. — Wood margins, hedgerows, and orchards in open 
agricultural areas. 



336 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 62, FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 




LEGEND 
N$S3 Principal Range 

• Local Record 



Figure 62. — Breeding range of Blue Grosbeak. 



Nesting season. — Late May to early August. Extreme egg 
dates (6 nests) : May 28, 1863, in the District of Columbia (H. W. 
Elliott) and June 24, 1887, in Prince Georges County (Farnham, 
1891). Extreme nestling dates (4 nests) : June 8, 1956, in Prince 
Georges County (E. Mashburn) and August 8, 1953, in Mont- 
gomery County (Abbott, 1953). 

Period of occurrence. — Normal period: May 1-5 to September 
25-30; peak, May 10 to September 15. Extreme arrival dates: 
April 22, 1956, in Prince Georges County (F. C. Schmid) ; April 
23, 1950 (Mrs. F. H. Vinup), in Anne Arundel County; April 25, 
1955, in Caroline County (Mrs. A. J. Fletcher) ; April 30, 1950, in 
Frederick County (M. B. Meanley). Extreme departure dates: 
October 24, 1953, and October 18, 1953, at different locations in 
Talbot County (Mrs. W. L. Henderson, R. L. Kleen) ; October 6, 
1955, in Caroline County (Mrs. A. J. Fletcher) ; October 3, 1947, 
in Prince Georges County; October 3, 1953, in Montgomery 
County (A. Wetmore) . 

Breeding population densities (territorial males per 100 
acres) . — 
1.7 (3 in 175 acres) in mixed agricultural habitats (including hedgerows and 

wood margins) in Prince Georges County in 1952. 
0.5 (8 in 1,600 acres) in mixed agricultural habitats (including wood margins 
and hedgerows) in Howard County in 1951. 



BIRDS OF MARYLAND AND DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 337 

INDIGO BUNTING Passerina cyanea (Linnaeus) 

Status. — Breeding and transient: Abundant in the Ridge and 
Valley, and Piedmont sections; common in the Allegheny Moun- 
tain, Upper Chesapeake, and Western Shore sections ; fairly com- 
mon in the Eastern Shore section. Wintering: Accidental — a 
specimen was collected in the District of Columbia on December 
13, 1887 (M. M. Green). 

Habitat. — Hedgerows, wood margins, and orchards; also in 
brushy cut-over areas of swamp forest and of rich, moist forest 
on the upland. 

Nesting season. — Mid-May to late August (nesting peak, early 
June to late July) . A nest, nearly complete, was found as early 
as May 17, 1943, in Baltimore County (H. Kolb). Extreme egg 
dates (109 nests): May 24, 1896 (F. C. Kirkwood), May 24, 
1948 (H. Kolb), and August 16, 1891 (F. C. Kirkwood), all in 
Baltimore County. Extreme nestling dates (41 nests) : June 5, 
1942 (H. Kolb), and August 30, 1896 (F. C. Kirkwood), in 
Baltimore County. 

Spring migration. — Normal period: April 25-May 5 to May 
25-June 5; peak, May 10 to May 25. Extreme arrival dates: 
March 13, 1938, in Prince Georges County (L. McCormick- 
Goodhart) ; March 22, 1953 (1 bird), and April 8, 1953 (6 birds), 
at Gibson Island, Anne Arundel County (Mrs. W. L. Henderson, 
Mrs. G. Tappan) ; April 11, 1953, in Caroline County (A. Knotts) ; 
April 15, 1921 (H. D. Wise), and April 18, 1918 (E. A. Chapin), 
in the District of Columbia. 

Fall migration. — Normal period: August 20-30 to October 
5-15; peak, September 5 to September 25. Extreme arrival date: 
August 16, 1944, in Prince Georges County. Extreme departure 
dates: November 1, 1955, in Frederick County (J. W. Richards) ; 
October 19, 1930, in Kent County (W. Baker) ; October 19, 1953, 
in Dorchester County (P. F. Springer) ; October 18, 1930, in 
Washington County (W. Middlekauff) ; October 17, 1945, in 
Prince Georges County. 

Breeding population densities (territorial males per 100 
acres) . — 
52 (13 in 25 acres) in "unsprayed apple orchard with unmowed ground cover" 

in Allegany County in 1948 (Springer and Stewart, 1948b). 
30 (6.5 in 22 acres) in "unsprayed apple orchard with infrequently mowed 
ground cover" in Worcester County in 1948 (Springer and Stewart, 
1948b). 
19 (4 in 21 acres) in "dense second-growth" (oak-maple ridge forest) in Gar- 
rett County in 1949 (Robbins, 1949b). 



338 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 62, FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 

18 (4.5 in 25 acres) in "heavily sprayed apple orchard with frequently mowed 
ground cover" in Allegany County in 1948 (Springer and Stewart, 1948b). 

17 (3.5 in 20 % acres) in "moderately sprayed apple orchard with infre- 
quently mowed ground cover" in Worcester County in 1948 (Springer 
and Stewart, 1948b). 

16 (3 in 19% acres) in "shrubby field with stream-bordered trees" in Balti- 
more County in 1947, 10 (2 in 19^ acres) in 1946 (Cooley, 1947). 

14 (10.5 in 72% acres) in mixed agricultural habitats (including hedgerows 
and wood margins) in Prince Georges County in 1948; 13 (9.5 in 72% 
acres) in 1949. 

14 (9 in 66 acres) in field and edge habitat (including strips of flood-plain 
forest, brushy fields, and hedgerows) in Baltimore County in 1947 
(Hampe, et al., 1947). 

6 (1.5 in 26 acres) in "dry deciduous scrub" (burned-over upland oak forest) 
in Prince Georges County in 1947 (Robbins, et al., 1947). 

5 (1.5 in 28 acres) in partially opened, flood-plain forest (sycamore, ash, elm, 
etc.) in Montgomery County in 1943 (J. W. Aldrich, A. J. Duvall). 

Maximum counts (nonbreeding) . — Spring: 200+ at Port 
Tobacco, Charles County, on May 14, 1936 (C. Cottam, I. N. 
Gabrielson) ; 112 near Seneca, Montgomery County, on May 12, 
1951 (C. N. Mason, K. Niles) ; 45 in Howard County on May 8, 
1954; 43 at Patuxent Refuge on May 13, 1950. Fall: 45 in 
Dulaney Valley, Baltimore County, on September 6, 1896 (F. C. 
Kirkwood) ; 35 near Seneca, Montgomery County, on September 
25, 1949 (I. R. Barnes). 

DICKCISSEL Spiza amerkana (Gmelin) 

Status. — Breeding: Regular, but variable in abundance (rare 
to fairly common) locally, in the western part of the Piedmont 
section and eastern part of the Ridge and Valley section — 
occurring in Montgomery County in the vicinity of Dickerson 
(first noted in 1928 — Wetmore and Lincoln, 1928b) ; in Frederick 
County in the vicinity of Emmitsburg (J. W. Richards), Buckeys- 
town, and Doub, and formerly near Jefferson (1890-92 — J. D. 
Figgins) ; and in Washington County near Spickler (R. S. 
Stauffer), and in the vicinity of Ashton. Rare and irregular 
elsewhere in the Piedmont section — recent records of singing 
males include 1 seen in the District of Columbia during June 
20-28, 1935 (Ball and Wallace, 1936), 1 seen near West Friend- 
ship, Howard County, on June 19, 1946 (Stewart and Robbins, 
1947a), and 1 seen near Uniontown, Carroll County, about June 
10-15, 1953 (D. Mcintosh) ; casual in the Eastern Shore section — 
1 singing near Wye Mills, Queen Annes County, on June 19, 1953 
(N. Hotchkiss, E. Miller). Formerly (about 1860) this species 
was found breeding commonly in the District of Columbia (Smith, 



BIRDS OF MARYLAND AND DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 339 

1891; Coues and Prentiss, 1883) and near Baltimore (Kirkwood, 
1895), but it gradually decreased in numbers until 1875, by 
which time it had become extremely rare. Transient: Rare in 
the Ridge and Valley, Piedmont, Upper Chesapeake, Western 
Shore, and Eastern Shore sections. Wintering: Rare and ir- 
regular — recorded during the winter of 1950-51 in Montgomery 
County (H. E. Slater) ; in 1953-54 (M. W. Hewitt) and 1954-55 
(Mr. and Mrs. A. J. Fletcher) in Caroline County; on March 13, 

1954, in Frederick County (J. E. Knudson) and in the winter 
of 1954-55 in Anne Arundel County (Mrs. W. L. Henderson). 

Habitat. — Agricultural fields and weedy field borders, usually 
most numerous in the vicinity of alfalfa or clover hayfields. 

Nesting season. — A nest with eggs was found near Ashton, 
Washington County, on June 15, 1951. A young bird, barely 
grown, was seen near Dickerson, Montgomery County, on July 
22, 1928 (Wetmore and Lincoln, 1928b). 

Spring migration dates. — April 24, 1938, in Cecil County 
(Clark) ; April 26, 1953, in Montgomery County (H. S. Haller) ; 
April 27, 1956, in Anne Arundel County (H. Wierenga) ; May 2, 
1950, in Frederick County; May 6, 1950, in Prince Georges 
County; May 7, 1892, in Baltimore County (W. N. Wholey) ; 
May 7, 1939, in Montgomery County (H. C. Oberholser) ; May 
20, 1876, in Baltimore County (A. Resler) ; May 22, 1953, in 
Prince Georges County. 

Fall migration dates. — September 2, 1956, in Prince Georges 
County; September 4, 1956, in Kent County; September 12-13, 

1955, in Worcester County; September 18, 1954 (P. G. DuMont), 
in Montgomery County; September 21, 1956 (banded) in Wor- 
cester County; September 30, 1953, in Anne Arundel County 
(Prof, and Mrs. D. Howard) ; October 2, 1880 (collected), in Bal- 
timore County (A. Resler) ; October 30, 1898, in Baltimore County 
(F. C. Kirkwood) ; November 18, 1954, in Frederick County (Mrs. 
J. W. Richards) ; November 22, 1951 (banded), in Montgomery 
County (S. H. Low). 

Breeding population density (territorial males per 100 
acres) . — 

1.4 (7 in 500 acres) in mixed agricultural land (chiefly wheat and red clover) 
in Washington County in 1951. 

Maximum counts. — Summer: 25 were recorded in the Dicker- 
son area of Montgomery County on June 7, 1952 (R. R. Kerr, 
J. W. Terborgh), and 17 singing males were recorded in the 
same area on July 21, 1951 (R. J. Beaton) . 



340 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 62, FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 

EVENING GROSBEAK Hesperiphona vespertina (Cooper) 

Status. — Irregular visitor during the fall, winter, and spring 
in all sections. Although frequently absent, during flight years 
it is usually rare or uncommon, while during the winters of 
1951-52, 1954-55, and 1955-56 it could be considered fairly com- 
mon locally. 

Habitat. — Deciduous flood-plain forests, and stands of conifers. 

Period of occurrence. — Noticeable flights occurred during 
the winters of 1921-22 (Wetmore, 1923), 1945-46, 1949-50, 
1951-52, 1954-55, and 1955-56, while 1 or 2 records were re- 
ported during the winters of 1941-42, 1946-47, 1948-49, 1950-51, 
1952-53, and 1953-54. Extreme arrival dates: October 4, 1949, 
in the District of Columbia (R. W. Peakes) ; October 22, 1954, 
in Baltimore County (S. W. Simon) ; October 23, 1951 and 1954, 
in Prince Georges County. Extreme departure dates: May 18, 
1952, in Prince Georges County (Mrs. R. McCeney) ; May 16, 
1952, in Baltimore County (Mrs. R. C. Stewart, Sr.) ; May 13, 
1946, in Baltimore County (Brackbill, 1947a) ; May 12, 1922, 
in the District of Columbia (Cooke, 1929). 

Maximum counts. — Hundreds migrating over Frederick about 
May 15, 1952 (Partridge, 1953) ; 80 in Garrett County on De- 
cember 31, 1954 (Christmas count) ; 72 at Laurel, Prince Georges 
County, on November 6, 1954; 68 at Beltsville, Prince Georges 
County, on February 25, 1955 (J. H. Fales) ; 50 at Seneca, Mont- 
gomery County, on March 9, 1952 (P. A. DuMont) ; 40 at Chase, 
Baltimore County on March 15, 1952 (O. W. Crowder). 

Banding. — The greatest flight on record for our area occurred 
during the winter of 1951-52. One hundred and fifteen Evening 
Grosbeaks were banded at Laurel in Prince Georges County 
between April 6 and May 11, 1952. Four that had been banded 
elsewhere were trapped or seen at Laurel during this same period : 
1 banded at Lexington, Massachusetts, on May 9, 1950, 1 at 
Alexandria, Virginia, on January 11, 1952, and 2 color-banded 
in the winter or spring of 1952 at Pine Ridge, Virginia (Robbins, 
1953). Two that had been banded in central Connecticut on 
March 13, 1950, and February 22, 1953, were recovered in 
Wicomico County, Maryland, on April 16, 1952, and Worcester 
County about April 18, 1955, respectively. One bird banded at 
Laurel on April 20, 1952, was trapped and released at a feeding 
station in central New York on March 5, 1953. Another banded 
at Laurel on April 26, 1952, was recovered near Alpena, Michigan, 
on April 1, 1955. 



BIRDS OF MARYLAND AND DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 341 

PURPLE FINCH Carpodacus purpureas (Gmelin) 

Status. — Breeding (see fig. 32) : Uncommon, occasionally 
fairly common, in the Allegheny Mountain section. Transient: 
Fairly common in the Allegheny Mountain, Ridge and Valley, 
Piedmont, and Western Shore sections; uncommon in the Upper 
Chesapeake and Eastern Shore sections. Wintering: Uncommon 
in all sections except the Allegheny Mountain section where it 
is rare or absent. 

Habitat. — Breeding: Occurs at elevations above 2,500 feet in 
bogs or on the higher ridges in open stands of red spruce or 
open mixed stands of red spruce and hemlock. Transient and 
ivintering: Chiefly flood-plain and swamp forests; occasional in 
moist, deciduous forests on the upland and in pine stands. In 
winter, this species is usually most numerous in areas where 
seed-laden ash or tulip-poplar occur. 

Nesting season. — A nest found in the Maryland portion of 
Cranesville Swamp, Garrett County, contained eggs on May 29, 
and young birds on June 12, 1949. 

Spring migration. — Normal period: March 10-20 to May 5-15; 
peak, March 20 to May 5. Extreme arrival dates: February 22, 
1904 ( W. W. Cooke) , and February 26, 1905 (T. H. Levering) , 
in the District of Columbia; February 29, 1956, in Prince Georges 
County; March 4, 1952, in Baltimore County (R. D. Cole). Ex- 
treme departure dates: June 3, 1907, on Warrior Mountain, Alle- 
gany County (F. C. Kirkwood) ; May 29, 1860, in the District of 
Columbia (USNM) ; May 26, 1907, in Montgomery County (A. 
K. Fisher) ; May 21, 1892, in Baltimore County (G. H. Gray) . 

Fall migration. — Normal period: September 20-30 to Novem- 
ber 10-20; peak, October 15 to November 5. Extreme arrival 
dates: August 26, 1923, and August 31, 1919, in the District of 
Columbia (J. Kittredge, Jr.) ; September 4, 1951, in Howard 
County; September 4, 1955, in Baltimore County (C. M. Bu- 
chanan). Extreme departure dates: December 9, 1943, in Prince 
Georges County; December 6, 1901, in Allegany County (G. 
Eif rig) . 

Maximum counts (nonbreeding) . — Spring: 500 near Cabin 
John, Montgomery County, on April 17, 1949 (P. A. DuMont) ; 
500 (1 flock) at Glen Echo, Montgomery County, on April 6, 
1946 (E. G. Davis) ; 100 in Baltimore County on April 4, 1891, 
and April 28, 1905 (F. C. Kirkwood) ; 100 in Prince Georges 
County on April 28, 1944. Fall: 200 in Baltimore County on 
November 26, 1893 (F. C. Kirkwood) ; 104 in Prince Georges 
County on November 8, 1954 ; 66 in Baltimore County on Novem- 



342 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 62, FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 




Figure 63. — Purple Finch banding recoveries. Each symbol represents the 
number of records for a State or Province. Banded in Maryland, recovered 
elsewhere: solid circle = recovered June through August; solid triangle = 
recovered September through May. Recovered in Maryland, banded else- 
where : open circle = banded June through August ; open triangle = banded 
September through May. 



BIRDS OF MARYLAND AND DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 343 

ber 2, 1930 (F. C. Kirkwood). Winter (Christmas counts) : 185 
in the District of Columbia area on December 31, 1955; 126 in 
the Wicomico River area of Charles and St. Marys Counties on 
January 1, 1954; 102 in the Triadelphia Reservoir area on 
December 24, 1955 ; 72 in Allegany County on December 31, 1949 ; 
70 at Patuxent Refuge on January 12, 1950. 

Banding. — See figure 63. 
PINE GROSBEAK Pin/co/a enuc/eafor (Linnaeus) 

Status. — Rare and irregular winter visitor. This species has 
been recorded during the following winters : in 1903-04 near the 
District of Columbia (Chapman, 1904) ; in 1945-46 — 1 collected 
in Worcester County (Buckalew, 1950) ; in 1950-51 in Garrett 
County (J. H. Buckalew) ; in 1951-52 in Baltimore County (W. 
P. Braker) and in Frederick County (Richards, 1953) ; in 1952- 
53 in Garrett County (K. F. Sanders, H. E. Slater) ; in 1954-55 
in Baltimore County (S. W. Simon), in Washington County (R. 
J. Beaton), and in Prince Georges, Frederick, and Garrett 
Counties; and in 1955-56 in Allegany County (Mr. and Mrs. J. 
Workmeister) . 

Period of occurrence. — Extreme arrival dates: November 6, 
1954, in Washington County (R. J. Beaton) ; November 16, 1945, 
in Garrett County (Buckalew, 1950). Extreme departure dates: 
March 1, 1953, in Garrett County (K. F. Sanders, H. E. Slater) ; 
February 17, 1952, in Baltimore County (W. P. Braker). 

Maximum counts. — 12 in Frederick County on November 25, 

1951 (J. W. Richards) ; 10 in Baltimore County on February 17, 

1952 (W. P. Braker) ; 9 in Garrett County on December 31, 1954. 

HOARY REDPOLL Acanthis hornemanni (Holboell) 

Status. — Accidental winter visitor. An adult male was col- 
lected (USNM) at South Point, Worcester County, on February 
20, 1949 (Buckalew, 1950). This is the only specimen of this 
species from south of New York City. 

COMMON REDPOLL Acanthis flammea (Linnaeus) 

Status. — Rare and irregular winter visitor in all sections. 

Habitat. — Abandoned weedy fields and hedgerows. 

Period of occurrence. — Extreme arrival dates: December 6, 
1901, in Allegany County (Eifrig, 1902b) ; December 21, 1952, 
in Worcester County (R. B. Bates, E. O. Mellinger) . Occurrence 
peak: January 15 to February 25. Extreme departure dates: 
March 12, 1914, in the District of Columbia (M. T. Cooke) ; 
March 11, 1934, in Dorchester County (F. R. Smith). 



344 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 62, FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 

Maximum counts. — 40 near Sweet Air, Baltimore County, on 
February 13, 1914 (F. C. Kirkwood) ; 12-15 in Dulaney Valley, 
Baltimore County, on February 8, 1920 (F. C. Kirkwood) ; 11 
near Rockville, Montgomery County, on January 14, 1940 (J. C. 
Jones) ; 10 in Baltimore on February 18, 1917 (J. M. Sommer) ; 
9 near Girdletree, Worcester County, on February 10, 1938 (G. 
A. Ammann) ; 8 at Cumberland on December 6, 1901 (Eifrig, 
1902b) ; 7 in the District of Columbia on February 12, 1899 
(W. Palmer). 
PINE SISKIN Spinus pinus (Wilson) 

Status. — Breeding ( ?) : ["On July 1, 1937, a number of Pine 
Siskins. . . ., some of them young birds of the season, were noted 
in Swallow Falls State Forest along the Youghiogheny River in 
Garrett County, Maryland. The birds were feeding and calling 
in hemlock trees, and it seems reasonable to suppose that they 
may have bred locally. Individuals of this species were again 
noted on July 3, by Mr. M. Graham Netting, of the Carnegie 
Museum, Pittsburgh." (Brooks, 1937)]. Transient and winter- 
ing: Irregular, rare or uncommon (absent during some years) 
in all sections; much more numerous than usual during the 
fall, winter, and spring of 1952-53, when it could be considered 
as common. 

Habitat. — Transient and wintering: Pine stands and flood- 
plain and swamp deciduous forests; also in hedgerows and wood 
margins. This species is usually most numerous in areas where 
seed-laden conifers or sweetgum are common. 

Period of occurrence (nonbreeding) . — Normal period: Octo- 
ber 10-20 to May 1-10. Extreme arrival dates: October 3, 1946, 
in Prince Georges County; October 7, 1918, in Baltimore County 
(W. Marshall). Extreme departure dates: May 29, 1949, in 
Garrett County; May 22, 1926, in Prince Georges County (R. V. 
Truitt) ; May 22, 1950, in Baltimore County (D. A. Jones) ; 
May 19, 1888, in the District of Columbia (Cooke, 1908). 

Maximum counts. — Fall, winter, and spring of 1952-53: 400 
near Emmitsburg, Frederick County, on October 18, 1952 (J. 
W. Richards) ; 280 near Kent Narrows, Queen Annes County, 
on February 21, 1953; 250 at Patuxent Refuge on January 14, 
1953 (Christmas count) ; 225 in the Ocean City area on December 
21, 1952 (Christmas count) ; 220 near Greenbelt, Prince Georges 
County, on January 4, 1953 (L. W. Oring) ; 200 near Oakland, 
Garrett County, on March 1, 1953 (K. F. Sanders, H. E. Slater) . 
Other years: 225 at Greenbelt, Prince Georges County, on April 
8, 1955 (L. W. Oring) ; 100 on November 2, 1913, and 75 on 



BIRDS OF MARYLAND AND DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 345 

November 2, 1919, near Cambridge, Dorchester County (R. W. 
Jackson) ; 55 near Ocean City on November 24, 1946. 

AMERICAN GOLDFINCH Spirws trhtis (Linnaeus) 

Status. — Breeding: Common in the Allegheny Mountain, Ridge 
and Valley, Piedmont, and Upper Chesapeake sections; fairly 
common in the Western Shore and Eastern Shore sections. 
Transient: Common in all sections. Wintering: Common in the 
Eastern Shore, Western Shore, Upper Chesapeake, and Piedmont 
sections; fairly common in the Ridge and Valley, and Allegheny 
Mountain sections. 

Habitat. — Breeding: Hedgerows, wood margins, brushy fields, 
shrub swamps, and orchards. Transient and wintering: Chiefly 
flood-plain and swamp forests; occasional in pine stands and in 
hedgerows, wood margins, and brushy fields. In winter, this 
species often concentrates in areas where seed-laden sweetgum 
is common. 

Nesting season. — Early July to early October (nesting peak, 
late July to early September). Nest-building was recorded as 
early as July 6, 1952, in Baltimore County (E. Willis). Extreme 
egg dates (55 nests) : July 12, 1885, in the District of Columbia 
(C. W. Richmond) and September 15, 1935, in Baltimore County 
(Meanley, 1936a). Extreme nestling dates (31 nests) : August 
8, 1912, in Dorchester County (R. W. Jackson) and October 4, 
1948, in Baltimore County (H. F. Kuch). 

Spring migration. — Normal period: March 20-30 to June 1- 
10; peak, April 5 to May 15. Extreme arrival date: March 11, 
1906, in the District of Columbia (W. W. Cooke). Extreme 
departure date: June 11, 1946, in Prince Georges County. 

Fall migration. — Normal period: September 20-30 to Novem- 
ber 20-30; peak, October 15 to November 15. 

Breeding population densities (territorial males per 100 
acres) . — 

21 (4 in 19% acres) in "shrubby field with stream-bordered trees" in Balti- 
more County in 1946 and 1947 (Cooley, 1947). 
12 (3 in 26 acres) in "dry, deciduous scrub" (burned-over upland oak forest) 

in Prince Georges County in 1947 (Robbins, et al., 1947). 
6 (1.5 in 25 acres) in "unsprayed apple orchard with unmowed ground cover" 

in Allegany County in 1948 (Springer and Stewart, 1948b). 
6 (1.5 in 25 acres) in "heavily sprayed apple orchard with frequently mowed 
ground cover" in Allegany County in 1948 (Springer and Stewart, 
1948b). 
5 (3 in 66 acres) in field and edge habitat (including strips of flood-plain 
forest, brushy fields, and hedgerows) in Baltimore County in 1947 
(Hampe, et al., 1947). 



346 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 62, FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 

Maximum counts (nonbreeding) . — Spring: 2,000 at Port 
Tobacco, Charles County, on May 7, 1940 (C. Cottam, F. M. 
Uhler) ; 2,000 near Cabin John, Montgomery County, on April 
17, 1949 (P. A. DuMont) ; 1,320 at Greenbelt, Prince Georges 
County, on May 5, 1956 (L. W. Oring) ; 1,000 on Gibson Island, 
Anne Arundel County, on April 28 and 29, 1952 (Mrs. W. L. 
Henderson) . Fall: About 750 (382 banded) near Berwyn, Prince 
Georges County, on October 23, 1952 (S. H. Low) ; 200 at Unity, 
Montgomery County, on October 28, 1951 (S. H. Low) ; 150 at 
Kent Island, Queen Annes County, on November 11, 1951 (Mrs. 
W. L. Henderson). Winter: 1,607 in the Ocean City area on 
December 22, 1951 (Christmas count) ; 724 in the Triadelphia 
Reservoir area on December 24, 1955 (Christmas count) ; 676 
in the Annapolis area on January 1, 1956 (Christmas count) ; 
500 near Emmitsburg, Frederick County, on February 21, 1953 
(J. W. Richards) ; 366 in St. Michaels area, Talbot County, on 
December 29, 1953 (Christmas count) ; 300 at Port Tobacco, 
Charles County, on December 27, 1941, and December 21, 1943 
(Christmas counts). 

Banding. — One banded in Montgomery County on October 12, 
1952, was recovered in southern South Carolina on February 28, 
1953; another banded in Prince Georges County on April 28, 
1954, was recovered in Kamouraska County, Quebec, on August 
7, 1955. 

RED CROSSBILL Lox/cr curvirostra Linnaeus 

Status. — Breeding ( ?) : A female collected near Laurel, Prince 
Georges County, on May 23, 1884, showed "unmistakable evidence 
of having lately incubated" (Ridgway, 1884), and several were 
seen at Laurel on June 30, 1884 (C. W. Richmond) ; a young 
bird barely able to fly was seen with an adult near the District 
of Columbia on May 17, 1885 (Smith, 1885) ; recorded in Dor- 
chester County near Golden Hill during the periods May 15 to 
June 24, 1932, and June 4 to August 7, 1933 (F. R. Smith). 
Transient and wintering: Rare and irregular in all sections 
(recorded during 5 of the past 10 winters, 1944-1955). This 
species has been recorded from the District of Columbia and 
from Worcester, Dorchester, Talbot, Caroline, Anne Arundel, 
Prince Georges, Montgomery, Howard, Baltimore, Harford, 
Allegany, and Garrett Counties. The records indicate that Red 
Crossbills were much more regular and numerous in the Piedmont 
section during the period 1884-1900 than at the present time. 
Especially large flights were noted in the Piedmont section during 



BIRDS OF MARYLAND AND DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 347 

the winters of 1887-88 (numerous specimens — USNM), 1894-95 
(Kirkwood, 1895; C. W. Richmond), and 1916-17 (H. C. Ober- 
holser). In Allegany County this species was noted in fair 
numbers in winter during the period 1902-07 (G. Eifrig). Since 
1940, only scattered records of this species have been made. 

Habitat. — Usually in stands of pine or other conifers. 

Period of occurrence (nonbreeding) . — Extreme arrival dates: 
September 12, 1956, in Worcester County (S. W. Simon) ; October 
10, 1886 (H. W. Henshaw), October 17, 1921 (J. Kittredge, Jr.), 
and October 28, 1906 (A. H. Howell), in the District of Columbia; 
"late October, 1889" in Talbot County (J. E. Tylor) . Extreme 
departure dates: June 5, 1895 (R. Ridgway), and June 2, 1902 
(C. W. Richmond), in the District of Columbia. 

Maximum counts. — 75 in the District of Columbia on Novem- 
ber 6, 1887 (H. W. Henshaw) ; 50 at Long Green Valley, Balti- 
more County, on December 27, 1899 (F. C. Kirkwood) ; 50 at 
Bethesda, Montgomery County, on May 4, 1953 (V. F. Hogan) ; 
40 on Warrior Mountain, Allegany County, on May 24, 1907 
(F. C. Kirkwood). 

WHITE-WINGED CROSSBILL Loxia /eucopfera Gmelin 

Status. — Rare and irregular winter visitor; accidental sum- 
mer visitor — 1 collected at Oxon Hill, Prince Georges County, 
on August 13, 1907 (Oldys, 1907). Definite records are from 
Garrett, Frederick, Montgomery, Baltimore, Harford, Anne 
Arundel, Prince Georges, and Talbot Counties, and the District 
of Columbia. 

Habitat. — Stands of pine or other conifers. 
Period of occurrence (wintering). — Extreme arrival dates: 
October 23, 1913, in the District of Columbia (Williams, 1914) ; 
November 13, 1954, in Prince Georges County. Extreme de- 
parture dates: April 7, 1955, in Montgomery County (H. E. 
Smith) ; March 1, 1953, in Frederick County (P. J. O'Brien) ; 
March 1, 1953, in Garrett County (K. F. Sanders, H. E. Slater) ; 
February 25, 1923, in the District of Columbia (E. R. Kalmbach) ; 
February 25, 1953, in Anne Arundel County (Mrs. W. L. Hen- 
derson, Mrs. G. Tappan). Only 2 well-marked flights of this 
species have been recorded in our area, 1 during the winter of 
1916-17 and the other during the winter of 1952-53. During 
the winter of 1916-17, this species was recorded repeatedly in 
the District of Columbia and nearby Maryland from December 
14 to the latter part of February ( W. L. McAtee, A. Wetmore) . 
During the winter of 1952-53 it was recorded from January 4 



348 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 62, FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 

to March 1 in Garrett (K. F. Sanders, H. E. Slater), Frederick 
(J. W. Richards, P. J. O'Brien), Harford (R. W. Peakes), Anne 
Arundel (Mrs. W. L. Henderson, Mrs. G. Tappan) , Prince Georges 
(Mrs. R. McCeney), and Talbot (H. McCullogh) Counties, and 
the District of Columbia (J. H. Benn, H. Friedmann). Other 
scattered records of this species were made during the winters 
of 1863-64, about 1874, 1906-07, 1913-14, 1922-23, and 1954-55. 
Maximum counts. — 40 on December 24, 1916 (McAtee, et al., 
1917), 23 on December 25, 1916 (E. G. Holt, D. C. Mabbott), and 
15 on February 25, 1923 (E. R. Kalmbach) — all in the District 
of Columbia; and 12 at Silver Spring, Montgomery County, on 
April 17, 1955 (H. E. Smith). 

RUFOUS-SIDED TOWHEE Pipilo erythrophthalmus (Linnaeus) 

Status. — Breeding and transient: Common, locally abundant, 
in all sections. Wintering: Fairly common in Worcester County; 
uncommon elsewhere in the Eastern Shore, Western Shore, and 
Upper Chesapeake sections ; rare in the Piedmont, and Ridge and 
Valley sections; casual in the Allegheny Mountain section. 

Habitat. — Brushy cut-over upland forests; dry brushy fields 
and thickets; hedgerows and wood margins. 

Nesting season. — Mid-April to late August (nesting peak, 
mid-May to late July) . Extreme egg dates (115 nests) : April 22, 
1945, in Prince Georges County (E. G. Cooley), April 22, 1955, 
in Caroline County (Mr. and Mrs. A. J. Fletcher), and August 16, 
1939, in Prince Georges County (E.G. Cooley) . Extreme nestling 
dates (72 nests) : April 30, 1945, and August 22, 1939, in Prince 
Georges County (E. G. Cooley). A nest with eggs (pipped) 
was also recorded on the extremely late date of August 28, 1891, 
in Baltimore County (W. H. Fisher). 

Spring migration. — Normal period: March 15-25 to May 5-15; 
peak, April 15 to May 5. Extreme arrival dates: March 8, 1894 
(F. C. Kirkwood), and March 11, 1945 (E. A. McGinity), in 
Baltimore County; March 13, 1952 and 1953, in Anne Arundel 
County (Mrs. W. L. Henderson, Mrs. G. Tappan) ; March 14, 
1943, in Prince Georges County. 

Fall migration. — Normal period: September 20-30 to October 
25-November 5; peak, October 1 to October 25. Extreme de- 
parture dates: November 24, 1949, in Baltimore County (E. 
Willis) ; November 12, 1931, in the District of Columbia (J. A. 
Molter) . 

Breeding population densities (territorial males per 100 

acres) . — 

57 (17 in 30 acres) in "damp deciduous scrub with standing dead trees" 



BIRDS OF MARYLAND AND DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 349 

(burned-over, poorly drained upland forest) in Prince Georges County 

in 1947 (Stewart, et al., 1947). 
50 (13 in 26 acres) in "dry deciduous scrub" (burned-over, upland oak forest) 

in Prince Georges County in 1947 (Robbins, et al., 1947). 
45 (9.5 in 21 acres) in "immature loblolly-shortleaf pine stand" (trees 45 to 

65 feet in height) in Worcester County in 1949 (Springer and Stewart, 

1948c). 
33 (5 in 15 acres) in "open slash area" (cut-over oak-maple ridge forest) in 

Garrett County in 1949 (Robbins, 1949b). 
33 (7 in 21 acres) in "dense second-growth" (oak-maple ridge forest) in 

Garrett County in 1949 (Robbins, 1949b). 
32 (2 in 6% acres) in "young second-growth resulting from cutting" (oak- 
maple ridge forest) in Garrett County in 1949 (Robbins, 1949b). 
23 (13.5 in 58 acres) in brushy, abandoned farmland in Prince Georges 

County in 1947. 
22 (2 in 9 acres) in "scrub spruce bog" (brush-meadow stage with young red 

spruce) in Garrett County in 1951 (Robbins and Stewart, 1951b). 
17 (6 in 34% acres) in pine field (abandoned field with open growth of young 

scrub pine) in Prince Georges County in 1945. 
14 (3.5 in 25 acres) in "unsprayed apple orchard with unmowed ground 

cover" in Allegany County in 1948 (Springer and Stewart, 1948b). 
8 (1.6 in 19% acres) in sweetgum field (abandoned field with open growth of 

young sweetgum) in Prince Georges County in 1945. 
7 (2 in 27% acres) in "red pine plantation" (young trees about 20 feet in 

height) in Garrett County in 1949 (Robbins and Barnes, 1949). 
6 (1.8 in Z2% acres) in pine-oak forest (pitch pine, scrub pine, Spanish oak) 

in Prince Georges County in 1944. 

Maximum counts (nonbreeding) . — Spring: 320 at Rosedale, 
Baltimore County, on May 6, 1950 (D. A. Jones) ; 200 at Gibson 
Island, Anne Arundel County, on May 8, 1955 (Mrs. W. L. 
Henderson, Mrs. G. Tappan) ; 135 at Middle River, Baltimore 
County, on May 5, 1951 (E. Willis, D. A. Jones). Fall: 100+ 
at Baltimore on October 10, 1917 (F. C. Kirkwood). Winter 
(Christmas counts) : 487 in the Ocean City area on December 27, 
1954; 112 in the Wicomico River area of Charles and St. Marys 
Counties on January 1, 1954; 94 in southern Dorchester County 
on December 28, 1954; 91 near Chase, Baltimore County, on 
December 29, 1951. 

Banding. — Two birds recovered in spring (April 28-May 2) in 
St. Marys and Baltimore Counties had been banded in eastern 
Massachusetts and northeastern New Jersey on August 11 and 
April 25, respectively. 

IPSWICH SPARROW Passercu/us princeps Maynard 

Status. — Transient and wintering: Uncommon along the coast 
in Worcester County; casual in the Western Shore section — 
singles recorded in Anne Arundel County along the West River 



350 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 62, FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 

on March 24, 1920 (Wetmore, 1927), and at Gibson Island on 
April 15, 1956 (Mrs. W. L. Henderson, Mrs. G. Tappan). 

Habitat. — Sand dune zone of the barrier beaches, usually 
occurring in areas where beachgrass is common. 

Period of occurrence. — Extreme arrival dates: November 9, 
1929 (A. Wetmore), and November 16, 1947 (I. R. Barnes), 
in Worcester County. Extreme departure dates: April 15, 1956, 
in Anne Arundel County (Mrs. W. L. Henderson, Mrs. G. Tap- 
pan) ; April 5, 1938, in Worcester County (G. A. Ammann). 

Maximum counts. — About 30 near Ocean City on December 30 
and 31, 1927 (Wetmore and Lincoln, 1928a) ; 25 on Assateague 
Island on November 28, 1945 ; 12 on Assateague Island on Decem- 
ber 23, 1946 (Christmas count). 

SAVANNAH SPARROW Passerculus sandwkhensis (Gmelin) 

Status. — Breeding (see fig. 64) : Common in the Allegheny 
Mountain section (usually in areas that are over 2,500 feet in 
elevation) ; uncommon and local in the Ridge and Valley, and 
Piedmont sections — occurring in the Hagerstown Valley in Wash- 
ington County, in the Frederick Valley in Frederick County, and 
in the Worthington Valley in Baltimore County; rare and local 
in the Upper Chesapeake, Western Shore, and Eastern Shore 
sections — occurring near Fort Howard in Baltimore County, near 




Figure 64. — Breeding range of Savannah Sparrow. 



BIRDS OF MARYLAND AND DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 351 

Sandy Point in Anne Arundel County, and on Assateague Island 
in Worcester County. Transient: Abundant (at least locally) 
in the Eastern Shore section; fairly common elsewhere in all 
sections. Wintering: Common in the Eastern Shore section; 
fairly common in the southern part of the Western Shore section 
(Calvert, Charles, and St. Marys Counties) ; uncommon in the 
Upper Chesapeake section; rare in the Piedmont section and in 
the northern part of the Western Shore section (Anne Arundel 
and Prince Georges Counties). 

Habitat. — Breeding: Hayfields and over-grown pastures; also 
occurs in grassy areas on the bay shores and barrier beach. 
Transient and tuintering: Especially characteristic of weedy 
fallow and cultivated fields, and of marsh-meadow types in the 
tidal marshes ; also commonly found on the barrier beaches where 
beachgrass occurs. 

Nesting season. — Fledglings just out of the nest were observed 
in Garrett County on June 3, 1951. 

Spring migration. — Normal period: March 15-25 to May 5-15; 
peak, March 25 to April 20. Extreme arrival dates: March 6, 
1944, in Harford County (S. Mason, Jr.) ; March 11, 1949, in 
Prince Georges County; March 12, 1892, in Baltimore County 
(J. H. Pleasants). Extreme departure dates: May 23, 1947, in 
Prince Georges County; May 18, 1921, in the District of Columbia 
(W. L. McAtee) ; May 18, 1948, in Worcester County; May 16, 
1931, in Charles County (E. R. Kalmbach, C. C. Sperry). 

Fall migration. — Normal period: September 15-25 to Novem- 
ber 1-10; peak, October 5 to October 30. Extreme arrival dates: 
September 4, 1898, in Baltimore County (F. C. Kirkwood) ; 
September 11, 1948, in Montgomery County (F. R. Bell, R. C. 
Simpson) ; September 13, 1945, in Prince Georges County. 
Extreme departure dates: November 22, 1886, in the District of 
Columbia (H. W. Henshaw) ; November 16, 1902, in Baltimore 
County (F. C. Kirkwood). 

Breeding population density (territorial males per 100 
acres) . — 

50 (12.5 in 25 acres) in "lightly-grazed pasture" in Garrett County in 1951 
(Stewart and Robbins, 1951b). 

Maximum counts (nonbreeding) . — Spring: 68 in Anne Arun- 
del County on April 18, 1954 (L. W. Oring) ; 50+ near Emmits- 
burg, Frederick County, on March 30, 1952, and April 11, 1955 
(J. W. Richards) ; 50 at Port Tobacco, Charles County, on May 
5, 1939 (C. Cottam, A. L. Nelson) ; 30-40 in Baltimore County 



352 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 62, FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 

on April 8, 1898 (F. C. Kirkwood). Fall: 100 in Worcester 
County on October 5, 1946; 50 in Dulaney Valley, Baltimore 
County, on November 2, 1902 (F. C. Kirkwood). Winter: 471 
in the Ocean City area on December 27, 1954 (Christmas count) ; 
145 in southeastern Worcester County on December 23, 1946 
(Christmas count) ; 115 in southern Dorchester County on Decem- 
ber 28, 1955 (Christmas count) ; 85 at Point Lookout, St. Marys 
County, on January 31, 1954 (J. W. Terborgh). 

GRASSHOPPER SPARROW Ammodramus savannarum (Gmelin) 

Status. — Breeding and transient: Common in all sections. 
Wintering: Casual occurrence — recorded in Baltimore County on 
January 2, 1893, and January 16, 1898 (F. C. Kirkwood), and 
collected on December 10 and 22, 1892 (W. H. Fisher) ; 1 collected 
at Marshall Hall, Charles County, on February 21, 1900 (S. D. 
Judd) ; recorded at Cambridge, Dorchester County, on February 
22, 1913 (R. W. Jackson). 

Habitat. — Chiefly, various types of hayfields; also in over- 
grown pastures and weedy, fallow fields and occasionally in 
broomsedge fields. 

Nesting season. — Early May to early September (nesting 
peak, late May to early August). Extreme egg dates (83 nests) : 
May 15, 1921, in Baltimore County (W. Marshall) and August 
19, 1952, in Harford County (D. Mcintosh). Extreme nestling 
dates (24 nests) : May 25, 1953, in Prince Georges County (P. 
F. Springer) and September 2, 1919, in the District of Columbia 
(F. Harper) . Young birds unable to fly were seen in Baltimore 
County on September 10, 1920 (F. C. Kirkwood). 

Period of occurrence. — Normal period: April 5-15 to October 
20-30. Extreme arrival dates: March 17, 1912, in Dorchester 
County (R. W. Jackson) ; March 18, 1939, in Prince Georges 
County (M. B. Meanley) ; March 20, 1898 (F. C. Kirkwood), 
and March 20, 1927 (J. M. Sommer), in Baltimore County; 
March 25, 1950, in Frederick County (R. T. Smith). Extreme 
departure dates: November 23, 1892, in Somerset County (col- 
lected— W. H. Fisher) ; November 20, 1899, in the District of 
Columbia (E. A. Preble). 

Breeding population densities (territorial males per 100 
acres) . — 

77 (4 in 5% acres) in weedy fallow field in Prince Georges County in 1945. 
42 (5 in 12 acres) in orchard grass-Korean lespedeza hayfield in Prince 

Georges County in 1948. 
32 (3 in 9% acres) in weedy pasture in Prince Georges County in 1945. 



BIRDS OF MARYLAND AND DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 353 

Maximum counts (nonbreeding) . — Spring: 108 near West- 
minster, Carroll County, on May 9, 1953 (D. A. Jones) ; 85 in 
Howard County on May 8, 1954; 50 near Buckeystown, Frederick 
County, on May 6, 1950. Fall: 5 (banded) near Unity, Mont- 
gomery County, on October 19, 1952 (S. H. Low). 

HENSLOW'S SPARROW Passerherbulus henslowii (Audubon) 

Status. — Breeding and transient: Fairly common in the East- 
ern Shore, Western Shore, and Upper Chesapeake sections (rare 
in Caroline County) ; uncommon in the Piedmont and Allegheny 
Mountain sections ; rare in the Ridge and Valley section. Winter- 
ing: Casual occurrence — 1 observed near Newark, Worcester 
County, on December 23, 1946; another seen at Point Lookout, 
St. Marys County, on January 26, 1953 (R. R. Kerr). 

Habitat. — Chiefly broomsedge fields and weedy sedge-meadows ; 
also occasional in hayfields. 

Nesting season. — Mid-May to mid-July. Extreme egg dates 
(13 nests) : May 18, 1944, in Montgomery County (E. J. Court) 
and June 26, 1924, in Dorchester County (J. M. Sommer). 
Nestlings were recorded in St. Marys County on June 1, 1930 
(E. J. Court) . 

Period of occurrence. — Normal period: April 5-15 to Novem- 
ber 1-10. Extreme arrival dates: March 16, 1947, in Baltimore 
County (O. W. Crowder) ; March 24, 1945, in Prince Georges 
County; March 25, 1917, in the District of Columbia (M. T. 
Cooke) ; March 27, 1921, in Dorchester County (R. W. Jackson). 
Extreme departure dates: November 21, 1897, in Baltimore 
County (F. C. Kirkwood) ; November 17, 1945 (collected), in 
Anne Arundel County; November 16, 1930, in the District of 
Columbia (J. A. Molter). 

Breeding population densities (territorial males per 100 
acres) . — 
16 (2 in I2Y2 acres) in weedy, unimproved pasture in Prince Georges County 

in 1950. 
15 (3 in 20 acres) in abandoned broomsedge field in Prince Georges County 

in 1948. 
7 (2 in 30 acres) in "switchgrass marsh-meadow" in Somerset County in 1948 
(Springer and Stewart, 1948a). 

Maximum counts (nonbreeding) . — 23 in Charles and St. Marys 
Counties on May 9, 1953 (J. W. Terborgh, et al.) ; 18 in the 
Ocean City area on May 11, 1952 (D. A. Cutler, et al.). 

SHARP-TAILED SPARROW Ammospiza caudacuta (Gmelin) 

Status. — Breeding and transient (see fig. 65) : Common, 



354 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 62, FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 





79' 78* 






7 r 




7i 




/ I //~\ 


/ 












Ay °^mii \. 


i 


,yS\ 








-39*- 


SCALE 






X > ) V^fi^KJ 




-33°- 




O 10 20 30 40 MILES 














1 > *H 


-36*- 


1 | 
79- 76* 

1 -J 






1 1 

77* 76* 


\ 


aoM. 



Figure 65. — Breeding range of Sharp-tailed Sparrow and Seaside Sparrow. 



locally abundant, in the Eastern Shore section, occurring in the 
coastal area of Worcester County, and in the tidewater areas 
along Chesapeake Bay north to Kent Narrows in Queen Annes 
County; uncommon and local in the Western Shore section, 
occurring in the tidewater areas along Chesapeake Bay, north 
to Sandy Point in Anne Arundel County, and up the Potomac 
River to Cobb Island in Charles County ; casual elsewhere during 
migration — recorded in the District of Columbia (Cooke, 1929) 
and at Strawberry Point, Baltimore County (E. Willis, D. A. 
Jones). Wintering: Uncommon in the coastal area of Worcester 
County; rare in the tidewater areas of Somerset, Wicomico, 
Dorchester, and St. Marys (R. R. Kerr, J. W. Terborgh) Counties. 

Habitat. — Breeding: Chiefly salt marshes in which salt- 
meadow grass is predominant ; also common locally in salt marshes 
where black grass is prevalent, and sparingly in marshes of 
salt-water cordgrass. 

Nesting season. — Mid-May to late August. Extreme egg dates 
(6 nests) : May 14, 1955, in Worcester County (J. E. M. Wood) 
and August 21, 1947, in Anne Arundel County. Nestling dates 
(2 nests) : June 4, 1944, in Queen Annes County and June 16, 
1940 (M. B. Meanley), in Worcester County. 

Period of occurrence. — Throughout the year, Population 



BIRDS OF MARYLAND AND DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 355 

peak: May 10 to September 30. Extreme date of spring depar- 
ture: June 3, 1951, at Strawberry Point in Baltimore County 
(E. Willis, D. A. Jones). 

Breeding population density (territorial males per 100 
acres) . — 

100 (approximately 17 in 17 acres) in saltmeadow grass marsh-meadow in 
Somerset County in 1948 (Springer and Stewart, 1948a). 

Maximum counts (nonbreeding). — Fall: 47 in Worcester 
County on September 27, 1949. Winter: 61 in the Ocean City 
area on December 21, 1952 (Christmas count). 

SEASIDE SPARROW Ammospiza maritima (Wilson) 

Status. — Breeding and transient (see fig. 65) : Common in 
the Eastern Shore section — occurring in the coastal area of 
Worcester County and in the tidewater areas along Chesapeake 
Bay, north to Kent Narrows, Queen Annes County (rarely north 
to Langford Bay, Kent County — Kirkwood, 1895) ; uncommon 
and local in the Western Shore section, occurring in the tidewater 
areas along Chesapeake Bay, north to Idlewilde, Anne Arundel 
County (rarely north to Gunpowder River area, where recorded 
by F. C. Kirkwood on April 21, 1897, by W. H. Fisher on June 7, 
and 10, 1900, and by T. A. Imhof on May 6, 1951). Wintering: 
Rare in the tidewater areas of Somerset, Wicomico, and Dor- 
chester Counties, and in the coastal area of Worcester County; 
casual in the tidewater areas of the Western Shore section — 
single birds seen at Point Lookout, St. Marys County, on January 
26, 1953 (R. R. Kerr), and January 2, 1956 (J. W. Terborgh). 

Habitat. — Tidal salt marshes, occurring most commonly in 
salt-water cordgrass and salt-meadow grass types that contain 
scattered shrubs of marsh elder and sea myrtle; also occurs 
sparingly in stands of needlerush. 

Nesting season. — Early May to early July (probably). Ex- 
treme egg dates (11 nests) : May 20, 1953, in Dorchester County 
and June 21, 1940 (Kolb, 1941), in Worcester County. Nestling 
dates (2 nests) : May 20, 1953, in Dorchester County and June 4, 
1944, in Queen Annes County. 

Population peak. — About April 20 to October 10. 

Breeding population densities (territorial males per 100 
acres) . — 

10 (2 in 19% acres) in "saltmarsh bulrush-saltgrass marsh" in Somerset 

County in 1948 (Springer and Stewart, 1948a). 
9 (2 in 22% acres) in "needlerush marsh" in Somerset County in 1948 

(Springer and Stewart, 1948a). 
Note. — Populations in optimum habitats have not been studied in detail. 



356 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 62, FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 

Maximum counts (nonbreeding) . — Spring: 50 in the Elliott 
Island marsh, Dorchester County, on May 23, 1954. Fall: 24 in 
Worcester County on September 27, 1949. Winter (Christmas 
counts) : 13 in the Ocean City area on December 27, 1955 ; 7 near 
Elliott, Dorchester County, on December 27, 1949. 

VESPER SPARROW Pooecefes gramineus (Gmelin) 

Status. — Breeding: Common in the Allegheny Mountain, Ridge 
and Valley, and Piedmont sections; fairly common in the Upper 
Chesapeake section; uncommon in the Eastern Shore section and 
in the northern part of the Western Shore section (Anne Arundel 
and Prince Georges Counties) ; rare in the southern part of the 
Western Shore section (Calvert, Charles, and St. Marys Counties) . 
Transient: Fairly common in all sections. Wintering: Uncommon 
in Worcester County ; rare elsewhere in the Eastern Shore section 
and in the southern part of the Western Shore section (Calvert, 
Charles, and St. Marys Counties) ; casual in the northern part 
of the Western Shore section (Anne Arundel and Prince Georges 
Counties) and in the Upper Chesapeake and Piedmont sections. 

Habitat. — Short-growth or sparsely vegetated pastures, hay- 
fields, and fallow fields. 

Nesting season. — Mid-April to mid-August (nesting peak, 
early May to early July) . Nest-building was recorded in Balti- 
more County as early as April 14, 1924 (F. C. Kirkwood). 
Extreme egg dates (39 nests) : May 5, 1915, in Baltimore County 
(F. C. Kirkwood) and August 1, 1901, in Garrett County (G. 
Eifrig). Extreme nestling dates (13 nests) : May 14, 1949, in 
Frederick County (M. B. Meanley) and July 2, 1931, in Baltimore 
County (W. Marshall). 

Spring migration. — Normal period: March 10-20 to May 1-10; 
peak, March 25 to April 25. Extreme arrival dates: March 1, 
1951, in Caroline County (M. W. Hewitt) ; March 4, 1893, in 
Queen Annes County (F. C. Kirkwood) ; March 5, 1919, in 
Baltimore County (F. C. Kirkwood) ; March 5, 1945, in Prince 
Georges County. Extreme departure dates: May 23, 1893, in 
Baltimore County (W. N. Wholey) ; May 16, 1906, in Worcester 
County (F. C. Kirkwood). 

Fall migration. — Normal period: September 10-20 to Novem- 
ber 1-10; peak, September 25 to October 30. Extreme arrival 
dates: September 1, 1886, in the District of Columbia (A. K. 
Fisher) ; September 2, 1947, in Talbot County (W. M. Davidson) ; 
September 9, 1943, in Prince Georges County. Extreme departure 
dates: November 21, 1886, in the District of Columbia (A. K. 



BIRDS OF MARYLAND AND DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 357 

Fisher) ; November 16, 1919, in Prince Georges County (F. 
Harper) . 

Maximum counts (nonbreeding) . — Spring: "Several hundred" 
at Roland Park, Baltimore County, on April 10, 1897 (W. H 
Fisher) ; 50 in Queen Annes County on March 4, 1893 (F. C. 
Kirkwood) ; 30 near Emmitsburg, Frederick County, on March 
26, 1953 (J. W. Richards) . Fall: 25 in Dulaney Valley, Baltimore 
County, on October 23, 1898 (F. C. Kirkwood). Winter: 34 in 
the Ocean City area on December 27, 1954 (Christmas count) ; 
21 in southeastern Worcester County on December 22, 1947 
(Christmas count) ; 8 near the Wicomico River in Charles and 
St. Marys Counties on February 8, 1953 (J. W. Terborgh) ; 7 in 
southern Dorchester County on December 22, 1952 (Christmas 
count) . 

LARK SPARROW Chondestes grammacus (Say) 

Status. — Breeding: Formerly occurred in the Allegheny Moun- 
tain section — a colony of about 50 birds, including young, was 
found near Accident, Garrett County, on July 24, 1901, and 1 was 
seen there on July 29, 1903 (Eifrig, 1902a) ; also recorded as 
being common near Red House until about 1926 (Brooks, 1936c). 
Spring transient: Casual — 1 seen at West Ocean City on May 13, 
1951 (D. A. Cutler). Late summer and fall transient: Rare in 
the coastal area of Worcester County (7 records) ; casual else- 
where in the Eastern Shore and Western Shore sections — re- 
corded in Somerset County in 1955 (F. McLaughlin), in Calvert 
County in 1948 (McKnight, 1950), in Anne Arundel County in 
1948 (Davis, 1948), in Prince Georges County in 1947 (Stewart, 
et al., 1952) , and in the District of Columbia in 1877 (2 seen — 
Ridgway, 1878) and 1886 (Henshaw, 1886). 

Habitat. — Breeding: Agricultural fields and field borders. 
Transient: Most records were made in brushy, sandy areas on the 
ocean barrier beach and along the bay shores. 

Late summer and fall migration. — Extreme arrival dates: 
July 17, 1947, in Prince Georges County (Stewart, et al., 1952) ; 
July 22, 1948, in Calvert County (McKnight, 1950). Extreme 
departure dates: October 21, 1950, in Worcester County (R. J. 
Beaton) ; September 29, 1955, in Somerset County (F. 
McLaughlin) . 

Maximum count (nonbreeding). — 5 on the barrier beach be- 
tween Ocean City and the Delaware line on September 4, 1954 
(R. L. Kleen). 



358 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 62, FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 

BACHMAN'S SPARROW Aimophila aestivalis (Lichtenstein) 

Status. — Breeding and transient: Rare and local in the Western 
Shore, Piedmont, and Ridge and Valley sections; formerly oc- 
curred in the Allegheny Mountain section. During the period 
1896-1954, scattered observations of from 1 to 6 singing males 
or pairs have been recorded in the District of Columbia and in 
the area within 12 miles of the District boundary in Prince 
Georges and Montgomery Counties, at the following locations: 
Kensington (Figgins, 1897, and R. W. Moore), Congress Heights 
(P. Bartsch), Lanham (W. R. Maxon), Cabin John (A. Wet- 
more), District of Columbia (F. Lees), Beltsville Research Cen- 
ter (Stewart and Meanley, 1943), Patuxent Refuge (Stewart, 
et al., 1952), town of Potomac (R. Tousey), and College Park 
(Meanley, 1949). One was also recorded near Simpsonville, 
Howard County, on May 8, 1955. In Allegany County, 3 pairs 
were found during the summer of 1947 and 2 pairs in 1948 on 
Green Ridge, about 1 mile north of the Potomac River (Springer 
and Stewart, 1948b). This species was also found in Garrett 
County during the period 1900-10, and in June, 1923, a singing 
male was observed near Oakland (Brooks, 1936c). Wintering: 
Accidental — a specimen recently killed by a car was found on 
January 25, 1951, in Somerset County between Princess Anne 
and Deal Island (USNM— Buckalew, 1951b). 

Habitat. — Weedy, abandoned fields with open growth of shrubs 
and small pine or deciduous trees; also in weedy, abandoned 
orchards. 

Nesting season. — Mid-May to mid-July (probably). Egg 
dates (2 nests) : May 20, 1946 (E. J. Court), and May 26, 1942 
(Stewart and Meanley, 1943), both on the Beltsville Research 
Center, Prince Georges County. The nest found in 1942 contained 
young birds on June 3. During the period June 22-25, 1948, 
adults were observed feeding fledglings, just out of the nest, on 
Green Ridge, Allegany County. 

Period of occurrence (transient and breeding). — Extreme 
arrival dates: April 11, 1956 (P. A. DuMont), and April 19, 1925 
(F. Lees), in the District of Columbia; April 29, 1896 (Figgins, 
1897), and April 29, 1953 (P. A. DuMont), in Montgomery 
County. Extreme departure date: "middle of August," 1949, in 
Prince Georges County (Meanley, 1949) . 

Breeding population densities (territorial males per 100 
acres) . — 
43 (3 in 7 acres) in brushy field (abandoned field with open growth of young 



BIRDS OF MARYLAND AND DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 359 

hickory, scrub pine, and shrubs) in Prince Georges County in 1942 
(Stewart and Meanley, 1943). 
8 (2 in 25 acres) in "unsprayed apple orchard with unmowed ground cover" 
in Allegany County in 1948 (Springer and Stewart, 1948b). 

SLATE-COLORED JUNCO Junco hyemalis (Linnaeus) 

Status. — Breeding (see fig. 32) : Fairly common on Backbone 
Mountain, Garrett County, at elevations above 3,000 feet; un- 
common elsewhere in the Allegheny Mountain section at eleva- 
tions above 2,500 feet. Transient: Abundant in all sections. 
Wintering : Abundant in all sections except the Allegheny Moun- 
tain section, where it may be considered as fairly common. Sum- 
mer vagrant: Casual occurrence — singles recorded at Old Town 
in Allegany County on June 7, 1907 (F. C. Kirkwood), at Hamp- 
stead in Carroll County on June 18, 1952 (D. H. Mcintosh), at 
Towson in Baltimore County on June 15, 1953 (D. A. Jones), and 
in the District of Columbia on June 13, 1953 (J. H. Criswell, K. 
Dale) . 

Habitat. — Breeding: Brushy, cut-over forests in the boreal 
bogs and in ravines and on north slopes at elevations above 2,500 
feet (1 record as low as 1,850 feet) ; also occurs in brushy cut- 
over oak-chestnut and northern hardwood forests on the higher 
ridges at elevations above 3,000 feet. Transient and wintering: 
Hedgerows, wood margins, thickets, brushy fields, and brushy 
cut-over or burned-over forests; also in residential areas of 
farms, towns, and suburbs. 

Nesting season. — Mid-May to mid-July (probably) . Extreme 
egg dates (5 nests) : May 18, 1899 (Preble, 1900), and July 9, 
1920 (G. Eifrig), in Garrett County. Extreme nestling dates 
(6 nests) : May 31, 1919 ( J. M. Sommer) , and Jury 5, 1920 (G. 
Eifrig) , in Garrett County. 

Spring migration. — Normal period: March 1-10 to May 1-10; 
peak, March 20 to April 15. Extreme arrival date: February 25, 
1944, in Prince Georges County. Extreme departure dates: 
May 30, 1956, in Baltimore County (S. W. Simon) ; May 24, 
1956, in Montgomery County (S. H. Low) ; May 17, 1908, in the 
District of Columbia (A. M. Stimson) . 

Fall migration. — Normal period: September 25-October 5 to 
November 20-30; peak, October 20 to November 15. Extreme 
arrival dates: September 5, 1955, in Talbot County (R. L. Kleen) ; 
September 13, 1955, in Worcester County (M. Broun) ; Septem- 
ber 14, 1918, in the District of Columbia (Mr. and Mrs. L. D. 
Miner) ; September 15, 1953, in Baltimore County (D. A. Jones) ; 
September 19, 1950, in Anne Arundel County (Mrs. W. L. Hen- 



360 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 62, FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 




Figure 66. — Slate-colored Junco banding recoveries. Each symbol represents 
the number of records for a State or Province. Banded in Maryland, recov- 
ered elsewhere: solid triangle = recovered September through May. Re- 
covered in Maryland, banded elsewhere : open triangle = banded September 
through May. 



BIRDS OF MARYLAND AND DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 361 

derson) ; September 20, 1914 (J. M. Sommer), and September 20, 
1950 (E. Willis), in Baltimore County. Extreme departure date: 
December 5, 1944, in Prince Georges County. 

Maximum counts (nonbreeding) . — Spring: 1,000 at Waverly, 
Baltimore County, on April 9, 1897 (A. M. Hoen) ; 800 at Emmits- 
burg, Frederick County, on April 7, 1953 (J. W. Richards) . Fall: 
1,933 at Patuxent Refuge on October 27, 1943. Winter (Christmas 
counts) : 2,508 in the Annapolis area on January 1, 1956; 1,772 
in the Ocean City area on December 27, 1955 ; 1,725 in the Anna- 
polis area on January 2, 1955 ; 1,616 in the Triadelphia Reservoir 
area on December 24, 1955; 1,494 in the St. Michaels area on 
December 29, 1955; 1,283 at Patuxent Refuge on December 29, 
1944. 

Banding. — See figure 66. 

OREGON JUNCO Junco oreganus (Townsend) 

Status. — Casual visitor. One was collected near Laurel, Prince 
Georges County, on April 28, 1890 (USNM— Ridgway, 1890). 
One was seen on Gunpowder Neck, Harford County, on March 2 
and March 7, 1952 (T. A. Imhof). One was banded at Denton, 
Caroline County, on October 31, 1955 (Mr. and Mrs. A. J. 
Fletcher) . 

TREE SPARROW Sphelta arborea (Wilson) 

Status. — Transient and wintering: Common in the Allegheny 
Mountain, Ridge and Valley, Piedmont, and Upper Chesapeake 
sections and in the northern part of the Western Shore section 
(all except St. Marys County) ; fairly common in the coastal area 
of Worcester County; uncommon, rare, or absent elsewhere in 
the Eastern Shore section and in the southern part of the Western 
Shore section (St. Marys County). 

Habitat. — Agricultural and abandoned fields and field borders, 
including hedgerows and wood margins; also in brushy marsh- 
meadows in the interior and in brushy sandy areas on the barrier 
beaches. 

Period of occurrence. — Normal period: November 1-10 to 
March 25-April 5; peak, November 25 to March 15. Extreme 
arrival dates: October 18, 1947, in Allegany County (M. G. 
Brooks) ; October 20, 1946 (O. W. Crowder) , and October 20, 
1948 (P. F. Springer), in Frederick County. Extreme departure 
dates: April 14, 1949, in Montgomery County (S. H. Low) ; 
April 14, 1956, in Prince Georges County (P. F. Springer) ; 
April 13, 1924, in the District of Columbia (C. H. M. Barrett) ; 
April 12, 1902, in Allegany County (G. Eifrig). 



362 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 62, FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 

Maximum counts (Christmas counts). — 544 in the Triadelphia 
Reservoir area on December 24, 1955 ; 540 in Allegany County on 
December 31, 1949; 500 at Port Tobacco, Charles County, on 
December 26, 1936 ; 401 in the Catoctin Mountain area, Frederick 
County, on December 31, 1955. 

CHIPPING SPARROW Spizella passerina (Bechstein) 

Status. — Breeding and transient: Common in all sections. 
Wintering: Fairly common in the southern half of Worcester 
County; uncommon in the northern half of Worcester County; 
rare elsewhere in the Eastern Shore section and near tidewater 
in the Western Shore section. 

Habitat. — Breeding: Chiefly residential areas and orchards 
on farms, and in towns and suburbs, that contain a combination 
of scattered trees or shrubs and short grass or sparsely vegetated 
ground cover. Transient and wintering: Residential areas, or- 
chards, and agricultural fields and field borders. 

Nesting season. — Mid-April to early September (nesting peak, 
late April to late July. Extreme egg dates (331 nests) : April 14, 
1946, in Prince Georges County (E. G. Cooley) and August 28, 
1892, in Baltimore County (Kirkwood, 1895). Extreme nestling 
dates (205 nests) ; May 7, 1945, in Prince Georges County (E. G. 
Cooley) and September 4, 1892 (F. C. Kirkwood), in Baltimore 
County. Young just out of the nest were observed in Baltimore 
County as late as September 16, 1894 (Kirkwood, 1895). 

Spring migration. — Normal period: March 20-30 to May 1-10; 
peak, April 10 to April 30. Extreme arrival dates: March 2, 1952, 
in Charles County (A. R. Stickley, Jr., M. C. Crone) ; March 7, 
1954, in Baltimore County (A. S. Kaestner) ; March 8, 1950, in 
Prince Georges County (P. F. Springer) ; March 12, 1890, in the 
District of Columbia (J. D. Figgins). 

Fall migration. — Normal period: September 5-15 to Novem- 
ber 5-15 ; peak, September 20 to October 15. Extreme departure 
dates: December 4, 1892, in Baltimore County (F. C. Kirkwood) ; 
December 3, 1950, in Anne Arundel County (R. D. Cole) ; Novem- 
ber 29, 1943, in Prince Georges County. 

Breeding population densities (territorial males per 100 
acres) . — 

90 (18 in 20 acres) in suburban type residential area (including small orch- 
ards and large expanses of lawn) in Prince Georges County in 1942. 
51 (9 in 17Y2 acres) in "lightly sprayed apple orchard with rye planted as 
ground cover" in Worcester County in 1948 (Springer and Stewart, 
1948b). 
48 (10.5 in 22 acres) in "unsprayed apple orchard with infrequently mowed 



BIRDS OF MARYLAND AND DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 363 

ground cover" in Worcester County in 1948 (Springer and Stewart, 

1948b). 
42 (10.5 in 25 acres) in "unsprayed apple orchard with unmowed ground 

cover" in Allegany County in 1948 (Springer and Stewart, 1948b). 
28 (6 in 20% acres) in "moderately sprayed apple orchard with infrequently 

mowed ground cover" in Worcester County in 1948 (Springer and Stew- 
art, 1948b). 
18 (13 in 72 acres) in mixed agricultural habitats (including hedgerows and 

wood margins) in Prince Georges County in 1948. 
14 (3.5 in 25 acres) in "heavily sprayed apple orchard with frequently mowed 

ground cover" in Allegany County in 1948 (Springer and Stewart, 

1948b). 

Maximum counts (nonbreeding). — Spring: 44 at Patuxent 
Refuge on April 9, 1945. Fall: "Hundreds" at Cumberland, Alle- 
gany County, on October 3, 1901 (G. Eifrig) ; 129 at Patuxent 
Refuge on September 28, 1943. Winter (Christmas counts) : 141 
in southeastern Worcester County on December 23, 1946; 70 in 
the Ocean City area on December 27, 1950; 11 in the District of 
Columbia area on January 2, 1954. 

Banding. — A Chipping Sparrow banded in Prince Georges 
County on September 13, 1943, was recovered in northern South 
Carolina on April 8, 1944. Another recovered in St. Marys County 
on February 13, 1933, had been banded in southeastern Massa- 
chusetts on July 6, 1930. One banded in the District of Columbia 
on April 15, 1942, was recovered in northern Virginia on June 24, 
1944 (18 miles from point of banding). 

FIELD SPARROW Spizella pusilla (Wilson) 

Status. — Breeding and transient: Common in all sections. 
Wintering: Common in the Eastern Shore section; fairly common 
in the Western Shore, Upper Chesapeake, and Piedmont sections ; 
uncommon in the Ridge and Valley section ; rare and local in the 
Allegheny Mountain section (occurring along Bear Creek and the 
Youghiogheny River in Garrett County at elevations under 1,700 
feet). This species has been steadily expanding its wintering 
range northward during the past 10 years (1946-55) . 

Habitat. — Weedy, abandoned fields with scattered shrubs or 
small trees; also in agricultural areas along hedgerows, wood 
margins, and in weedy orchards. 

Nesting season. — Mid-April to early September (nesting peak, 
early May to late July) . Extreme egg dates (265 nests) : April 21, 
1952, in Baltimore County (C. D. Hackman) and August 25, 1919 
(R. W. Jackson), in Dorchester County. Extreme nestling dates 
(121 nests) : May 10, 1945, in Prince Georges County (E. G. 
Cooley) and August 23, 1950, in Baltimore County (E. Willis) . 



364 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 62, FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 

Spring migration. — Normal period: March 10-20 to May 1-10; 
peak, March 20 to April 25. Extreme arrival dates: March 5, 
1911, in the District of Columbia (W. W. Cooke) ; March 8, 1944, 
in Prince Georges County. 

Fall migration. — Normal period: September 20-30 to Decem- 
ber 1-10; peak, October 10 to November 1. Extreme arrival 
dates: September 13, 1930, and September 15, 1895, in Baltimore 
County (F. C. Kirkwood). Extreme departure date: Decem- 
ber 20, 1944, in Prince Georges County. 

Breeding population densities (territorial males per 100 
acres) . — 
80 (20 in 25 acres) in "unsprayed apple orchard with unmowed ground 

cover" in Allegany County in 1948 (Springer and Stewart, 1948b). 
79 (5.5 in 7 acres) in pine field (abandoned field with open growth of young 

scrub pine) in Montgomery County in 1943 (J. W. Aldrich, A. J. Duvall). 
50 (11 in 22 acres) in "unsprayed apple orchard with infrequently mowed 

ground cover" in Worcester County in 1948 (Springer and Stewart, 

1948b). 
48 (16.7 in 34% acres) in pine field (abandoned field with open growth of 

young scrub pine) in Prince Georges County in 1945. 
36 (7 in 19% acres) in sweetgum field (abandoned field with open growth 

of young sweetgum) in Prince Georges County in 1945. 
23 (13.5 in 58 acres) in brushy, abandoned farmland in Prince Georges 

County in 1948. 
22 (4.5 in 20% acres) in "moderately sprayed apple orchard with infre- 
quently mowed ground cover" in Worcester County in 1948 (Springer 

and Stewart, 1948b). 
18 (13 in 72 acres) in mixed agricultural habitats (including hedgerows 

and wood margins) in Prince Georges County in 1948. 
12 (3 in 26 acres) in "dry deciduous scrub" (burned-over upland oak forest) 

in Prince Georges County in 1947 (Robbins, et al., 1947). 
11 (2 in 17% acres) in "lightly sprayed apple orchard with rye planted as 

ground cover" in Worcester County in 1948 (Springer and Stewart, 

1948b). 
7 (2 in 30 acres) in "damp deciduous scrub with standing dead trees" (burned- 
over poorly drained upland forest) in Prince Georges County in 1947 

(Stewart, et al., 1947). 

Maximum counts (nonbreeding) . — Spring: 350 at Port To- 
bacco, Charles County, on April 7, 1953 (J. Hailman) ; 90 at 
Patuxent Refuge on March 23, 1945. Fall: "Hundreds" along 
Evitts Creek, Allegany County, on October 3, 1901 (G. Eifrig) ; 
"hundreds" in the District of Columbia on October 20, 1935 
(Overing, 1936) ; 232 at Patuxent Refuge on October 30, 1950. 
Winter (Christmas counts) : 849 in the Ocean City area on Decem- 
ber 27, 1950 ; 302 in the Triadelphia Reservoir area in Montgomery 
and Howard Counties on January 1, 1954; 272 in Caroline 



BIRDS OF MARYLAND AND DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 365 

County on December 26, 1953 ; 175 in the Catoctin Mountain area 
of Frederick and Washington Counties on January 2, 1954; 175 
near the Susquehanna Flats in Harford and Cecil Counties on 
January 1, 1951. 

Banding. — One banded in Prince Georges County on October 
20, 1943, was recovered in northeastern Massachusetts on May 5, 
1944. 

[HARRIS* SPARROW] Zonofrichia querula (Nuttall) 

Status. — Hypothetical. At least 2 were closely observed at 
Elkridge, Howard County, on October 21, 1956 (G. M. Bond, I. E. 
Hampe, et al.). 

WHITE-CROWNED SPARROW Zonofrichia tevcophrys (Forster) 

Status. — Transient: Fairly common in the Allegheny Moun- 
tain, Ridge and Valley, and Piedmont sections; uncommon in the 
Upper Chesapeake and Western Shore sections; rare in the 
Eastern Shore section. Wintering: Now uncommon in the Ridge 
and Valley, Piedmont, and Upper Chesapeake sections, and rare 
in the Western Shore and Eastern Shore sections; prior to 1947, 
this species was only of casual occurrence in winter anywhere in 
Maryland. 

Habitat. — Hedgerows and wood margins in agricultural areas, 
especially where hayfields and pastures are predominant ; also in 
residential areas on farms and in towns and suburbs with abund- 
ant ornamental shrubs and small trees. 

Spring migration. — Normal period: April 25-May 5 to May 
15-20; peak, May 5 to May 15. Extreme arrival dates: April 10, 
1952, in Anne Arundel County (Dr. and Mrs. F. H. Vinup) ; 
April 11, 1905 (W. W. Cooke), and April 12, 1914 (E. A. Preble), 
in the District of Columbia; April 20, 1948, in Montgomery 
County (S. H. Low). Extreme departure dates: May 26, 1929, 
in Baltimore County (W. Marshall) ; May 22, 1952, in Prince 
Georges County; May 21, 1892, in Montgomery County (H. B. 
Stabler) ; May 21, 1935, in the District of Columbia (M. M. Snow) . 

Fall migration. — Normal period: October 1-10 to November 
10-20; peak, October 10 to October 30. Extreme arrival date: 
September 27, 1896, in Baltimore County (F. C. Kirkwood). 
Extreme departure dates: December 6, 1896, in Baltimore County 
(F. C. Kirkwood) ; December 4, 1944, in Prince Georges County; 
November 28, 1886, in the District of Columbia (H. W. Henshaw) . 

Maximum counts. — Spring: 11 in Caroline County on May 5, 
1956 (A. J. Fletcher, et al.) ; 10 at Cumberland, Allegany County, 
on May 2, 1902 (G. Eifrig) ; 10 near Buckeystown, Frederick 



366 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 62, FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 

County, on May 6, 1950. Fall: "Hundreds" in the Frederick 
Valley, Frederick County, on October 29, 1949 (C. 0. Handley, Jr., 
M. B. Meanley) ; 12 at Patuxent Refuge on October 9, 1943. 
Winter (Christmas counts) : 83 in the Triadelphia Reservoir area 
on December 24, 1955; 42 in the Catoctin Mountain area on De- 
cember 31, 1955; 26 in Caroline County on December 24, 1956; 
25 at McCoole, Allegany County, on December 27, 1949; 12 near 
Cecilton, Cecil County, on January 1, 1951. 

Banding. — One banded in Prince Georges County on October 13, 
1947, was recovered in southern Texas (letter of January 10, 
1950). 

WHITE-THROATED SPARROW Zonotrkhia albkollis (Gmelin) 

Status. — Breeding (?) : Probably rare and irregular in the 
Allegheny Mountain section — 2 pairs in the Maryland portion of 
Cranesville Swamp on June 17, 1952, indicated that they were 
probably nesting; this belief is supported by the fact that 2 occu- 
pied nests were found on June 18 and 19, 1952, only 3^2 miles away 
in West Virginia (Ganier and Buchanan, 1953). Transient: 
Abundant in all sections. Wintering: Abundant in the Eastern 
Shore section; common in the Western Shore and Upper Chesa- 
peake sections; fairly common in the Piedmont, and Ridge and 
Valley sections ; rare in the Allegheny Mountain section. Summer 
vagrant: Casual occurrence — 1 seen in the District of Columbia 
on August 9 and 10, 1907 (Wood, 1907) ; singles observed in 
Prince Georges County during June and July 1936 (B. Carow), 
and on June 26, 1947; and in Calvert County on June 28, 1955 
(K. Stecher). 

Habitat. — Wood margins, hedgerows, and brushy cut-over 
areas of swamp and flood-plain forests and rich moist forests on 
the upland. 

Spring migration. — Normal period: March 20-30 to May 
20-30; peak, April 15 to May 10. Extreme arrival dates: March 
5, 1949, in Baltimore County (I. E. Hampe) ; March 11, 1903, in 
the District of Columbia (W. W. Cooke) ; March 16, 1945, in 
Prince Georges County; March 17, 1918, in Anne Arundel County 
(F. Harper). Extreme departure dates: June 15, 1955, in Anne 
Arundel County (A. L. Varrieur) ; June 14, 1899, in the District 
of Columbia (A. H. Howell) ; June 13, 1933 (R. Overing), and 
June 10, 1946, in Prince Georges County ; June 10, 1952, in Balti- 
more County (E. Willis). 

Fall migration. — Normal period: September 20-30 to Decem- 
ber 1-10 ; peak, October 10 to October 30. Extreme arrival dates: 



BIRDS OF MARYLAND AND DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 367 




Figure 67. — White-throated Sparrow banding recoveries. Each symbol repre- 
sents the number of records for a State or Province. Banded in Maryland, 
recovered elsewhere: solid triangle = recovered September through May. 
Recovered in Maryland, banded elsewhere: open triangle = banded Sep- 
tember through May. 



368 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 62, FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 

September 13, 1955, in Worcester County (S. W. Simon) ; Sep- 
tember 14, 1918 (L. D. Miner, R. W. Moore) , and September 15, 
1889 (C. W. Richmond), in the District of Columbia. Extreme 
departure dates: December 20, 1944, in Prince Georges County; 
December 13, 1933, in the District of Columbia (C. H. Benjamin). 

Maximum counts. — Spring: 355 in Montgomery County on 
May 10, 1952 (P. A. DuMont, et al.) ; 336 at Patuxent Refuge on 
April 29, 1944; 200 near Emmitsburg, Frederick County, on 
May 7, 1953 (J. W. Richards) . Fall: "Hundreds" in the Ocean 
City area on October 2, 1949 (M. B. Meanley) ; 196 at Patuxent 
Refuge on October 30, 1943. Winter (Christmas counts) : 5,154 
in the Ocean City area on December 27, 1955; 2,765 in the St. 
Michaels area on December 29, 1955 ; 1,983 in the Annapolis area 
on January 1, 1956 ; 1,550 in southern Dorchester County on De- 
cember 28, 1953 ; 904 in the Wicomico River area of Charles and 
St. Marys Counties on January 1, 1954 ; 807 in Talbot County on 
December 29, 1953 ; 704 in Caroline County on December 26, 1953. 

Banding. — See figure 67. 

FOX SPARROW Passerella iliaca (Merrem) 

Status. — Transient: Fairly common (occasionally more nu- 
merous) in all sections. Wintering: Uncommon in the Eastern 
Shore and Western Shore sections ; rare in all other sections. 

Habitat. — Wood margins, hedgerows, and brushy cut-over 
areas of swamp, flood-plain, and moist upland forest. 

Spring migration. — Normal period: February 10-20 to April 
5-15; peak, February 25 to March 25. Extreme arrival dates: 
January 23, 1950, in Prince Georges County ; January 26, 1950, in 
Baltimore County (E. Willis) ; January 31, 1954, in St. Marys 
County (J. W. Terborgh). Extreme departure dates: May 11, 
1882 (W. Palmer), and May 11, 1917 (M. J. Pellew), in the Dis- 
trict of Columbia; May 8, 1956, in Montgomery County (S. H. 
Low) ; May 6, 1950, in Frederick County (Md. Ornith. Soc.) ; 
May 5, 1956, in Caroline County (A. J. Fletcher, et al.). 

Fall migration. — Normal period: October 15-25 to November 
20-30 ; peak, November 1 to November 20. Extreme arrival dates: 
October 3, 1906, in the District of Columbia (A. K. Fisher) ; 
October 8, 1943, in Prince Georges County; October 9, 1921, in 
Montgomery County (A. K. Fisher). Extreme departure dates: 
December 16, 1894 and 1928, in Baltimore County (F. C. Kirk- 
wood) ; December 8, 1900, in Allegany County (G. Eifrig). 

Maximum counts. — Spring: 200 near Unity, Montgomery 
County, on March 14, 1954 (S. H. Low) ; 145 at Patuxent Refuge 



BIRDS OF MARYLAND AND DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 369 

on March 22, 1944 ; 90 in St. Marys County on January 31, 1954 
(J. W. Terborgh). Fall: 400-500 in Dulaney Valley, Baltimore 
County, on November 5, 1893 (F. C. Kirkwood) ; 25 at Patuxent 
Refuge on November 17, 1951. Winter (Christmas counts) : 107 
in the Ocean City area on December 27, 1955; 47 in St. Marys 
County on January 2, 1956; 38 in the District of Columbia area 
on December 30, 1950; 30 at Port Tobacco, Charles County, on 
December 23, 1931; 20 in southern Dorchester County on De- 
cember 21, 1947. 

Banding. — One banded in Baltimore County on March 27, 1947, 
was recovered on May 1, 1948, in the St. Pierre and Miquelon 
Islands (about 20 miles offshore from southern Newfoundland) ; 
1 banded in Montgomery County on November 24, 1951, was re- 
trapped in Harford County on March 21, 1956. 

LINCOLN'S SPARROW Mefosp/za lincolnii (Audubon) 

Status. — Transient: Fairly common in the Allegheny Mountain 
section ; uncommon in all other sections except the Eastern Shore 
section, where it is rare. Wintering: Casual in the Eastern Shore 
section — 1 closely observed near Berlin, Worcester County, on 
December 27, 1948 (J. E. Willoughby). 

Habitat. — Hedgerows, wood margins, and brushy marsh- 
meadows. 

Spring migration. — Normal period: May 1-5 to May 20-25; 
peak, May 5 to May 20. Extreme arrival dates: April 21, 1918 
(L. Griscom), and April 25, 1923 (J. Kittredge, Jr.), both in the 
District of Columbia. Extreme departure dates: May 30, 1917, 
in Prince Georges County (W. L. McAtee, A. Wetmore) ; May 26, 
1952, in Baltimore County (Mr. and Mrs. R. D. Cole). 

Fall migration. — Normal period: September 15-25 to October 
15-25; peak, September 25 to October 15. Extreme arrival date: 
September 12, 1943, in Prince Georges County. Extreme depart- 
ure dates: October 30, 1927, in Baltimore County (F. C. Kirkwood, 
J. M. Sommer) ; October 30, 1943, in Prince Georges County. 

Maximum counts. — Spring: 4 along the C. and O. Canal, Mont- 
gomery County, on May 10, 1952 (P. A. DuMont) ; 3 at Rosedale, 
Baltimore County, on May 6, 1950 (D. A. Jones). Fall: 9 or 10 
in Dulaney Valley, Baltimore County, on October 4, 1896 (F. C. 
Kirkwood) ; 6 at College Park, Prince Georges County, on Septem- 
ber 26, 1952 (C. L. Clagett) ; 4 near Emmitsburg, Frederick 
County, on October 10, 1953 (J. W. Richards) . 

SWAMP SPARROW Me/osp/za georgiana (Latham) 

Status. — Breeding (see fig. 68) : Common in the Allegheny 



370 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 62, FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 




Figure 68. — Breeding range of Swamp Sparrow. 



Mountain section at elevations above 2400 feet; fairly common 
locally in the Eastern Shore section, occurring in the marshes along 
the Nanticoke River in the vicinity of Vienna (Bond and Stewart, 
1951) ; also occurs in the Elk River marshes near Elkton. Trans- 
ient: Common, locally abundant, in the Eastern Shore, Western 
Shore, and Upper Chesapeake sections; fairly common in the 
Piedmont, Ridge and Valley, and Allegheny Mountain sections. 
Wintering: Common, locally abundant, in the Eastern Shore sec- 
tion ; fairly common in the Western Shore and Upper Chesapeake 
sections; uncommon in the Piedmont section; rare in the Ridge 
and Valley section. 

Habitat. — Marshes and sedge meadows with open growth of 
shrubs and small trees. 

Nesting season. — Probably mid-May to mid-July. Extreme 
egg dates (7 nests) : June 5, 1917 (J. M. Sommer), and June 22, 
1946, in Garrett County. Extreme nestling dates (3 nests) : June 
10, 1956 (G. H. Cole), and June 14, 1956 (R. Wilson), both in 
Garrett County. 

Spring migration. — Normal period: March 15-25 to May 15- 
25; peak, April 15 to May 10. Extreme arrival dates: March 9, 
1922 (C. H. M. Barrett), and March 10, 1909 (W. W. Cooke), in 
the District of Columbia. Extreme departure dates: May 27, 1917, 



BIRDS OF MARYLAND AND DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 371 

in the District of Columbia (A. Wetmore) ; May 26, 1945, in 
Prince Georges County. 

Fall migration. — September 15-25 to November 10-20 ; peak, 
October 5 to October 30. Extreme arrival dates: August 21, 1913, 
in the District of Columbia (W. D. Appel) ; August 24, 1954, in 
Anne Arundel County (Fr. E. Stoehr) ; September 5, 1901, in 
Allegany County (G. Eifrig) ; September 10, 1949, in Prince 
Georges County (M. B. Meanley). Extreme departure dates: 
December 3, 1922, in the District of Columbia (J. Kittredge, Jr.) ; 
November 30, 1943, in Prince Georges County. 

Breeding population density (territorial males per 100 
acres) . — 

21 (2 in 9V 2 acres) in "open hemlock-spruce bog" (brush-meadow stage with 
young hemlock, red spruce, alder, etc.) in Garrett County in 1949 
(Robbins, 1949c). 

Maximum counts (nonbreeding) . — Spring: 53 at Rosedale, 
Baltimore County, on May 6, 1950 (D. A. Jones) ; 40 at Gibson 
Island, Anne Arundel County, on May 8, 1955 (Mrs. W. L. Hen- 
derson, Mrs. G. Tappan) ; 38 at Patuxent Refuge on April 29, 
1944. Fall: About 100 at Patuxent Refuge on October 12, 1946; 
75 at Seneca, Montgomery County, on October 11, 1953 (J. W. 
Terborgh). Winter (Christmas counts) : 1,271 in southern Dor- 
chester County on December 28, 1953 ; 759 in the Ocean City area 
on December 27, 1953; 286 near the Wicomico River in Charles 
and St. Marys Counties on January 1, 1954; 113 at Patuxent 
Refuge on January 12, 1951. 

SONG SPARROW Me/ospiza me/od/a (Wilson) 

Status. — Breeding: Common in the Allegheny Mountain, Ridge 
and Valley, Piedmont, and Upper Chesapeake sections and in the 
tidewater areas of the Western Shore and Eastern Shore sections ; 
uncommon (fairly common, locally) in the interior of the Western 
Shore and Eastern Shore sections. Transient: Abundant in all 
sections. Wintering: Common in the Eastern Shore and Western 
Shore sections; fairly common in the Upper Chesapeake, Pied- 
mont, and Ridge and Valley sections ; uncommon in the Allegheny 
Mountain section. 

Habitat. — Hedgerows and wood margins in agricultural areas ; 
residential areas (with ornamental shrubs, small trees, and 
lawns) of farms, towns, and suburbs ; brushy pastures ; and sedge 
meadows and marshes with open growth of shrubs or small trees. 

Nesting season. — Early April to mid-September (nesting peak, 
late April to early August). Extreme egg dates (306 nests) : 



372 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 62, FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 




Figure 69. — Song Sparrow banding recoveries. Each symbol represents the 
number of records for a State or Province. Banded in Maryland, recovered 
elsewhere: solid circle = recovered June through August; solid triangle = 
recovered September through May. Recovered in Maryland, banded else- 
where: open circle = banded June through August. 



BIRDS OF MARYLAND AND DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 373 

April 12, 1901, in Allegany County (G. Eifrig) and August 21, 
1892, in Baltimore County (F. C. Kirkwood) . Extreme nestling 
dates (179 nests) : May 1, 1953, in Prince Georges County (E. C. 
Robbins) and September 11, 1892, in Baltimore County (Kirk- 
wood, 1895). 

Spring migration. — Normal period: February 15-25 to April 
15-25; peak, March 1 to March 25. Extreme arrival date: Janu- 
ary 30, 1949, in Baltimore County (H. Brackbill). Extreme 
departure date: April 29, 1944, in Prince Georges County. 

Fall migration. — Normal period: September 20-30 to Novem- 
ber 20-30; peak, October 10 to October 30. 

Breeding population densities (territorial males per 100 
acres) . — 
109 (21 in 19% acres) in "shrubby field with stream-bordered trees" in 

Baltimore County in 1947, 67 (13 in 19^ acres) in 1946 (Cooley, 1947). 
32 (3 in 9% acres) in "open hemlock-spruce bog" (brush-meadow stage with 

young hemlock, red spruce, alder, etc.) in Garrett County in 1949 

(Robbins, 1949c). 
22 (4.5 in 20% acres) in "moderately sprayed apple orchard with infrequently 

mowed ground cover" in Worcester County in 1948 (Springer and 

Stewart, 1948b). 
12 (9 in 72 acres) in mixed agricultural habitats (including hedgerows and 

wood margins) in Prince Georges County in 1951. 
9 (6 in 66 acres) in field and edge habitat (including strips of flood-plain 

forest, brushy fields, and hedgerows) in Baltimore County in 1947 

(Hampe, et al., 1947). 
9 (1.5 in 17% acres) in "lightly sprayed apple orchard with rye planted as 

ground cover" in Worcester County in 1948 (Springer and Stewart, 

1948b). 
7 (2 in 28 acres) in "partially opened flood-plain forest" (sycamore, ash, 

elm, etc.) in Montgomery County in 1943 (J. W. Aldrich, A. J. Duvall). 

Maximum counts (nonbreeding) . — Spring: 300 at Emmits- 
burg, Frederick County, on March 22, 1953 (J. W. Richards) ; 200 
at Patuxent Refuge on March 4, 1945. Fall: 127 at Patuxent 
Refuge on October 27, 1943. Winter (Christmas counts) : 1,287 
in the Ocean City area on December 27, 1953; 771 in southern 
Dorchester County on December 28, 1953; 508 in the Annapolis 
area on January 2, 1955 ; 100 in Allegany County on December 31, 
1949. 

Banding. — See figure 69. 

LAPLAND LONGSPUR Ca/carius lapponhus (Linnaeus) 

Status. — Rare and irregular winter visitor. About half a 
dozen were recorded in Baltimore City during the period February 
4-10, 1895 (A. Resler) , and a flock of about 20 was observed at 
Lake Roland, Baltimore County, on February 10, 1895 (Kirk- 



374 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 62, FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 

wood, 1895). At Ocean City a small flock was recorded on De- 
cember 29, 1927 (A. Wetmore) , 3 were observed on December 25, 
1939 (Stewart, 1947), and 1 was recorded on January 23, 1948 
(I. R. Barnes) . 

CHESTNUT-COLLARED LONGSPUR Cakanus ornatus (Townsend) 

Status. — Accidental visitor. One was collected at Ocean City 
on August 20, 1906 (USNM— Kirkwood, 1908). 

SNOW BUNTING P/ecfrophenax nivalis (Linnaeus) 

Status. — Transient and wintering: Uncommon (occasionally 
more numerous) in the coastal area of Worcester County; rare 
elsewhere in all sections (no definite records for Allegheny Moun- 
tain section). 

Habitat. — Sand-dune zone of the barrier beaches; also along 
sandy shores of Chesapeake Bay and in extensive agricultural 
fields and pastures. 

Period of occurrence. — Normal period: November 10-20 to 
March 1-10 ; peak, November 25 to February 20. Extreme arrival 
dates: October 31, 1953, in Anne Arundel County (Mrs. W. L. 
Henderson, Mrs. G. Tappan) ; November 2, 1947, in Worcester 
County (I. R. Barnes). Extreme departure dates: April 1, 1906, 
and March 13, 1907, in Worcester County (F. C. Kirkwood). 

Maximum counts. — 150 on January 29, 1906 (F. C. Kirkwood), 
146 on December 27, 1955 (Christmas count) , and 50 on November 
28, 1945, in the Ocean City area ; about 100 on February 18, 1905, 
in the District of Columbia (F. M. Finley) ; 45 at Triadelphia 
Reservoir, Montgomery County, on December 26, 1954 (Christmas 
count) ; 25 at Gibson Island, Anne Arundel County, on November 
28, 1952 (Mrs. W. L. Henderson, Mrs. G. Tappan). 



LITERATURE CITED 

Abbott, Jackson M. 

1953. Blue Grosbeak nest at Seneca. Atlantic Naturalist 9:35. 
Audubon, John James. 

1831. Ornithological biography, xxiv + 512 pp. Philadelphia. 

1838. Ornithological biography, xxiv + 618 pp. Edinburgh. 

1840-44. The birds of America. 7 vols. 1840-44. New York and Phila- 
delphia. 
Bagg, Aaron C. 

1935. Snow Geese (Chen hyperborea) near Washington, D. C. Auk 
52:302. 

Baird, Spencer F. 

1858. North American birds. Pac. Rail Road Rep. 9:761. 
Baird, Spencer F., Thomas M. Brewer, and Robert Ridgway. 

1874. A history of North American birds. Little, Brown, and Co., Bos- 
ton, lxiv + 560 pp. 

1884. The water birds of North America. Little, Brown, and Co., Bos- 
ton, xi + 537 pp. 
Ball, William Howard. 

1927. Notes from Washington, D. C. Auk 44:257-259. 

1928a. The Gull-billed Tern (Gelochelidon nilotica) at Washington, 
D. C. Auk 45:367. 

1928b. The Hudsonian Curlew (Numenius hudsonicus) at Washington, 
D. C. Auk 45:371. 

1930a. Notes from eastern Maryland. Auk 47:94-95. 

1930b. Short-billed Marsh Wren (Cistothorus stellaris) in Maryland. 
Auk 47:262. 

1931a. Leach's Petrel (Oceanodroma leucorhoa) in the District of 
Columbia. Auk 48:106. 

1931b. Baird's Sandpiper (Pisobia bairdi) at Washington, D. C. Auk 
48:260. 

1932a. Some notes on rare birds of the Washington region. Proc. Biol. 
Soc. Wash. 45:165-166. 

1932b. Notes from the Washington, D. C. region. Auk 49 :362. 

1948. Wilson's Phalarope in the District of Columbia and Virginia. 
Auk 65:312. 
Ball, William Howard, and Robert Browne Wallace. 

1936. Further remarks on birds of Boiling Field, D. C. Auk 53 :345-346. 
Barnes, Irston R. 

1950. The Starling's conquest. Atlantic Naturalist 6:64-68. 
Barnes, Irston R., and Charles O. Handley, Jr. 

1950. King Eiders seen at Ocean City. Atlantic Naturalist 5:183-184. 
Bartsch, Paul. 

1897. Uria lomvia, an addition to the Avifauna Columbiana. Auk 
14:312-313. 

1900. Birds of the road: VI, nesting time. Osprey 4:147-150. 

1901. Tenants of Uncle Sam. Osprey 5:88-91. 

375 



376 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 62, FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 

Beaton, Robert J. 

1951. Hawk migration at South Mountain. Atlantic Naturalist 6:166- 
168. 
Behr, Herman. 

1914. Some breeding birds of Garrett Co., Md. Auk 31:548. 
Bendire, Chas. E. 

1895. The American Barn Owl breeding at Washington, D. C, in winter. 
Auk 12:180-181. 
Bent, Arthur Cleveland. 

1926. Life histories of North American marsh birds. U. S. Natl. Mus. 

Bull. 135. xii + 490 pp. 
1932. Life histories of North American gallinaceous birds. U. S. Natl. 

Mus. Bull. 162. xi + 490 pp. 
1937. Life histories of American birds of prey. U. S. Natl. Mus. Bull. 
167. viii + 409 pp. 
Black, David V. 

1941. Avocets in Maryland. Auk 58:405. 
Blake, S. F. 

1924. Blue-gray Gnatcatcher in the District of Columbia in winter. 
Auk 41:349. 
Bond, Gorman M., and Robert E. Stewart. 

1951. A new Swamp Sparrow from the Maryland coastal plain. Wilson 
Bull. 63:38-40. 
Booker, Y. E. 

1931. A wintering Black-throated Blue Warbler. Bird-Lore 33:124. 
Brackbill, Hervey. 

1942. Catbird wintering in Maryland. Auk 59:112-113. 

1946. Snowy Owls in the winter of 1945-46. Maryland Birdlife 2 :28. 
1947a. Evening Grosbeaks and Purple Finches at Baltimore. Auk 64: 

321-322. 
1947b. Period of dependency in the American Robin. Wilson Bull. 
59:114-116. 
Braun, E. Lucy. 

1950. Deciduous forests of eastern North America. Blackiston Co., 
Philadelphia, xiv + 596 pp. 
Briggs, Shirley A. 

1954. Veeries in Glover-Archbold Park. Atlantic Naturalist 10:38. 
Brooks, A. B. 

1934. Some ornithological contributions by the nature school. Redstart 
1:1-3. 
Brooks, Maurice G. 

1936a. Waterfowl on four Allegheny Lakes. Redstart 3:71-76, 82-85. 
1936b. Solitary Sandpiper in summer at Deep Creek Lake, Maryland. 

Auk 53:444. 
1936c. Notes on the land birds of Garrett County, Maryland. Nat. 
Hist. Soc. Md. Bull. 7:6-14. 

1937. Pine Siskins in western Maryland. Wilson Bull. 49:294. 

1938. Shorebirds at a western Maryland lake. Auk 55:126-127. 
1944. A check-list of West Virginia birds. Bull. 316 Agric. Exp. Sta., 

West Virginia University. 56 pp. 



BIRDS OF MARYLAND AND DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 377 

Brown, Edward J. 

1894. Dendroica striata in summer at Washington, D. C. Auk 11:79. 
Brumbaugh, Chalmers S. 

1915. Chestnut-sided Warbler nesting near Baltimore. Bird-Lore 17: 
456-457. 
Buckalew, John H. 

1948. Ruff in Maryland. Wood Thrush 4:22. 

1949. Wilson's Phalarope in Maryland. Wood Thrush 5:26. 

1950. Records from the Del-Mar-Va Peninsula. Auk 67:250-252. 
1951a. European Cormorant observed at Ocean City, Maryland. Mary- 
land Birdlife 7:17. 

1951b. First winter record of the Bachman's Sparrow in Maryland. 
Maryland Birdlife 7:40. 
Burleigh, Thomas D. 

1932. The Golden-crowned Kinglet, a summer visitor in the District of 
Columbia. Auk 49:485-486. 
Burns, Frank L. 

1932. Charles W. and Titian R. Peale and the ornithological section of 
the old Philadelphia Museum. Wilson Bull. 44:23-35. 
Chapman, Frank M. 

1904. The Pine Grosbeak at Washington, D. C. Bird-Lore 6:17. 

1907. The Starling in America. Bird-Lore 9:206. 
Clagett, Charles L. 

1952. 1952 breeding-bird population studies. Atlantic Naturalist 8:87-88. 

1953. 1953 breeding-bird population studies. Atlantic Naturalist 9:88-89. 
Cole, Richard, and Haven Kolb. 

1953. Seventeenth breeding-bird census; Mixed Oak Forest. Audubon 
Field Notes 7:341-342. 
Cooke, May Thacher. 

1921. Birds of the Washington region. Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 34:1-22. 
1929. Birds of the Washington, D. C, region. Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 
42:1-80. 
Cooke, Wells W. 

1908. Bird migration in the District of Columbia. Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 
21:107-118. 

1913. Bird migration in the District of Columbia. Proc. Biol. Soc. 
Wash. 26:21-26. 
Cooley, Eleanor G. 

1947. Breeding-bird census; Shrubby field with stream-bordered trees. 
Maryland Birdlife 3:59-61. 
Cottam, Clarence. 

1932. Nocturnal habits of the Chimney Swift. Auk 49:479-481. 
Cottam, Clarence, and F. M. Uhler. 

1935. Bird records new or uncommon to Maryland. Auk 52:460-461. 
Coues, Elliott 

1864. Critical review of the family Procellariidae : Part II, embracing 
the Puffineae. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 116-144. 
Coues, Elliott, and Daniel W. Prentiss. 

1862. List of birds ascertained to inhabit the District of Columbia, etc. 

In: 16th Ann. Rep. Smithsonian Inst. 399-421. 
1883. Avifauna Columbiana. 133 pp. Washington, D. C. 



378 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 62, FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 

Court, Edward J. 

1921. Some records of breeding birds for the vicinity of Washington, 

D. C. Auk 38:281-282. 
1924. Black Vulture (Coragyps urubu) nesting in Maryland. Auk 41: 

475-476. 
1936. Four rare nesting records for Maryland. Auk 53:95-96. 
Criswell, Joan H. 

1951. Yellow-crowned Night Heron nesting in Washington. Atlantic 
Naturalist 6:120. 

Cross, Frank C. 

1949. King Rails nest at Seneca. Wood Thrush 5 :26. 

1952. Status of the Orange-crowned Warbler in the Washington area. 
Atlantic Naturalist 8:91. 

Cutler, David A. 

1952. First Kittiwake specimen for Maryland. Maryland Birdlife 8:16. 
Cuvier, M. Le Baron. 

1826. Oeuvres completes de Buffon (Oiseaux) 21:249-255. 
Daniel, John W., Jr. 

1901a. Occurrence of the Glossy Ibis at Washington, D. C. Auk 18:271. 

1901b. Nesting of the Hairy Woodpecker near Washington, D. C. Auk 
18:272. 
Dargan, Lucas, Phoebe Knappen, and Robert C. McClanahan. 

1941. A Maryland winter record for the Black Skimmer. Auk 58:406. 
Davis, Edwin G. 

1948. Bird notes. Wood Thrush 4:22. 
Davis, Edwin G., and John E. Willoughby. 

1950. Harlequin Duck in Maryland. Wood Thrush 5:124. 
Davis, Malcolm. 

1945. Black-crowned Night Heron in Washington, D. C. Auk 62:458. 
De Garis, Charles F. 

1936. Notes on six nests of the Kentucky Warbler (Oporornis formosus). 
Auk 53:418-428. 

Deignan, H. G. 

1943a. Some early bird-records for Maryland and the District of Colum- 
bia. Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 56:69. 
1943b. Occurrence of the Hudsonian Godwit in the District of Columbia. 

Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 56:70. 
1943c. Hoyt's Horned Lark on the Eastern Shore, Maryland. Proc. Biol. 
Soc. Wash. 56:71. 
Denmead, Talbott. 

1937. Black Tern in Maryland. Auk 54:206. 

1954. Letter to the editor. Maryland Birdlife 10:56. 
Dorsey, Caleb. 

1947. Observations on the nesting habits of the Black Vulture in Anne 

Arundel County, Maryland. Maryland, A Jour, of Nat. Hist. 17:27-29. 
Eifrig, C. W. G. 

1902a. Lark Sparrow and Olive-sided Flycatcher in western Maryland. 

Auk 19:83-84. 
1902b. Northern birds at Cumberland, Md. Auk 19:211-212. 
1904. Birds of Allegany and Garrett Counties, western Maryland. Auk 

21 :234-250. 



BIRDS OF MARYLAND AND DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 379 

1905. Nesting of the Raven at Cumberland, Md. Auk 22:312. 

1909. Additions to the list of birds of Allegany and Garrett Counties, 
western Maryland. Auk 26:437-438. 

1915. Notes on some birds of the Maryland Alleghanies; an anomaly in 
the check-list. Auk 32:108-110. 

1920a. In the haunts of Cairns' Warbler. Auk 37:551-558. 

1920b. Additions to the "Birds of Allegany and Garrett Counties, Mary- 
land." Auk 37:598-600. 

1921. Mockingbird and Catbird wintering at Cumberland, Maryland. 
Auk 38:608-609. 

1923. Prairie Horned Lark (Otocoris alpestris praticola) in Maryland 
in summer. Auk 40:126. 

1933. In the haunts of Cairn's Warbler — a retrospect and a comparison. 
Wilson Bull. 45:60-66. 

1938. Hermit Thrush, Swamp and Savannah Sparrows as summer resi- 
dents in western Maryland. Auk 55:281. 
Farnham, A. B. 

1891. Ornithologists Association Secretary's report. Oologist 8:219-220. 
Fenneman, Nevin M. 

1938. Physiography of eastern United States. McGraw-Hill Book Com- 
pany, Inc. New York and London, xiii -f- 714 pp. 
Figgins, J. D. 

1897. Bachman's Sparrow in Maryland. Auk 14:219. 
Fisher, A. K. 

1918. Occurrence of Goshawks (Astur a. atricapillus) and Saw-whet 
Owl (Cryytoglaux acadica) in the vicinity of Washington, D. C. Auk 
35:351. 
1935. Natural history of Plummers Island, Maryland. Proc. Biol. Soc. 
Wash. 48:159-167. 
Fisher, Wm. H. 

1892. A trip to Tolchester Beach. Orn. and Ool. 17:38. 

1894. Maryland birds that interest the sportsman. Oologist 11:94-97, 

137-139. 
1896. Wild Pigeon and Dove. Nidologist 3:139. 
Fuller, Arthur B. 

1953. A strange Hummingbird in Northampton County, Virginia. 
Raven 24:24-25. 
Ganier, Albert F., and Forest W. Buchanan. 

1953. Nesting of the White-throated Sparrow in West Virginia. Wilson 
Bull. 65:277-279. 
Grant, Edward R. 

1951. The last Maryland flight of the Passenger Pigeon. Maryland 
Birdlife 7:27-29. 
Grinnell, George Bird. 

1910. American game-bird shooting. Forest and Stream Publishing Co., 
New York, xviii + 558 pp. 

Gross, Alfred O. 

1927. The Snowy Owl migration of 1926-27. Auk 44:479-493. 
Gunn, W. W. H., and A. M. Crocker. 

1951. Analysis of unusual bird migration in North America during the 
storm of April 4-7, 1947, Auk 68:139-163, 



380 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 62, FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 

Hackman, C. Douglas. 

1954. A summary of hawk flights over White Marsh, Baltimore County, 
Maryland. Maryland Birdlife 10:19-26. 
Halle, Louis J., Jr. 

1943. The Veery breeding in Washington, D. C. Auk 60:103. 
1948. Veeries breed in Washington. Wood Thrush 4:2-7. 

Hamilton, A. B., and J. D. Johnson. 

1940. Types of farming in Maryland. University of Maryland Agricul- 
ture Experiment Station Bull. 432. 271 pp. 

Hampe, Irving E. 

1945. The Iceland Gull in Maryland. Maryland, A Jour. Nat. Hist. 
15:77. 
Hampe, Irving E., Robert M. Bowen, and Gorman M. Bond. 

1947. The breeding bird census and bird watching. Maryland, A Jour. 
Nat. Hist. 17:67-72. 
Hampe, Irving E., and Haven Kolb. 

1947. A preliminary list of the birds of Maryland and the District of 
Columbia. Nat. Hist. Soc. Md. Baltimore, xi + 76 pp. 

Hampe, Irving E., H. Seibert, and H. Kolb. 

1939. Purple Gallinule in Maryland. Auk 56:475. 
Handlan, J. W. 

1936. A brief inspection of lakes in the Allegheny tableland. Redstart 
4:12-13. 

Harlow, R. C. 

1906. Late nesting of the Hummingbird. Oologist 23:156. 
Harper, Roland M. 

1918. A phytogeographical sketch of southern Maryland. Jour. Wash. 
Acad. Sci. 8:581-589. 
Hasbrouck, Edwin M. 

1893. Rare birds near Washington, D. C. Auk 10:91-92. 

1944. The status of Barrow's Golden-eye in the eastern United States. 
Auk 61:544-554. 

1948. Wilson's Phalarope near Washington, D. C. Auk 65:609-610. 
Henshaw, H. M. 

1886. Occurrence of Chondestes grammacus about Washington, D. C. 
Auk 3:487. 
Houghton, C. O. 

1906. The Masked Duck in Maryland. Auk 23 :335. 
Jackson, Ralph W. 

1916. Occurrence of Starlings in Dorchester County, Md. Bird-Lore 
18:175. 

1941. Breeding birds of the Cambridge area, Maryland. Bull. Nat. Hist. 
Soc. Md. 11:65-74. 

John, Thomas. 

1937. A Maryland Marsh Hawk nest. Redstart 4:10. 
Johnson, J. Enoch. 

1952. Black Skimmer in Washington. Atlantic Naturalist 8:90. 
Kaufmann, Jack, Richard D. Cole, and Haven Kolb. 

1952. Sixteenth breeding-bird census ; Mixed oak forest. Audubon Field 
Notes 6:308-309, 



BIRDS OF MARYLAND AND DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 38 1 

Kessel, Brina. 

1953. Distribution and migration of the European Starling in North 

America. Condor 55:49-67. 
Kirkwood, Frank Coates. 

1895. A list of the birds of Maryland. Trans. Maryland Acad. Sci. 

2:241-382. 
1901. The Cerulean Warbler (Dendroica cerulea) as a summer resident 

in Baltimore County, Maryland. Auk 18:137-142. 
1908. Chestnut-collared Longspur (Calcarius ornatus) in Maryland. 

Auk 25:84. 
1925. Cliff Swallow (Petrochelidon lunifrons) again nesting in Balti- 
more County, Maryland. Auk 42 :275-276. 
1930. A Raven in Baltimore County, Maryland. Auk 47:255. 
Kolb, C. Haven, Jr. 

1939. Ornithological observations at Ocean City. Bull. Nat. Hist. Soc. 

Md. 10 :26-34. 
1941. Further ornithological notes from Ocean City, Maryland. Bull. 

Nat. Hist. Soc. Md. 11:115-120. 
1943. Status of Dendroica cerulea in eastern Maryland. Auk 60:275-276. 

1947. Breeding of the Long-eared Owl near Baltimore. Maryland, A 
Jour, of Nat. Hist. 17 :23-25. 

1949a. Thirteenth breeding-bird census; Mixed oak forest. Audubon 

Field Notes 3:266. 
1949b. Northward extension in the breeding range of the Black Vulture. 

Maryland Naturalist 19:7-9. 

1950. Fourteenth breeding-bird census; Mixed oak forest. Audubon 
Field Notes 4:300. 

Kolb, C. Haven, Jr., and Gorman Bond. 

1943. Unusual records for eastern Maryland. Auk 60:451. 
Kolb, C. Haven, Jr., and Richard D. Cole. 

1951. Fifteenth breeding-bird census; Mixed oak forest. Audubon 
Field Notes 5:323. 

Kolb, C. Haven, Jr., and Irving E. Hampe. 

1941. Recent records from Baltimore and vicinity. Bull. Nat. Hist. Soc. 
Md. 12:28-29. 
Kolb, C. Haven, Jr., Chandler S. Robbins, and Eleanor C. Robbins. 

1948. Twelfth breeding-bird census; Mixed oak forest. Audubon Field 
Notes 2:234. 

Kumlien, Ludwig. 

1880. The Yellow-rumped Warbler (Dendroeca coronata) breeding in 
eastern Maryland. Bull. Nuttall Ornith. Club 5:182-183. 
Lawrence, R. E. 

1946. Trips of the month. Wood Thrush 1 :23. 
Le Compte, E. Lee. 

1937. Rare birds. Maryland Conserv. 14(3) :8-9. 
Lincoln, Frederick C. 

1928. Forster's Tern in the District of Columbia. Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 

41 :209-210. 
1932. State of the Arkansas Kingbird (Tyrannus verticalis) in Mary- 
land. Auk 49:88-90. 
1934. An influx of Leach's Petrels. Auk 51 : 74-75. 
1937. Parula Warbler in Washington in December. Auk 54:395. 



382 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 62, FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 

McAtee, W. L. 

1918. Early bird records for the vicinity of Washington, D. C. Auk 

35:85. 
1921. Ten spring bird lists made near Washington, D. C. Wilson Bull. 

33:183-192. 

McAtee, W. L., E. A. Preble, and Alexander Wetmore. 

1917. Winter birds about Washington, D. C, 1916-1917. Wilson Bull. 
29:183-187. 

McKnight, Edwin T. 

1950. Summer occurrence of juvenile Lark Sparrow in southern Mary- 
land. Wood Thrush 5:125. 

Meanley, M. Brooke. 

1936a. Late nesting of the Goldfinch at Baltimore, Md. Auk 53:90. 
1936b. Maryland Yellow-throat in winter in Maryland. Auk 53:220. 
1938. Chestnut-sided Warbler nesting near Baltimore, Maryland. Auk 

55:542-543. 
1943a. Red-cockaded Woodpecker breeding in Maryland. Auk 60:105. 
1943b. Nesting of the Upland Plover in Baltimore County, Maryland. 

Auk 60:603. 
1944. Lawrence's Warbler in Maryland. Auk 61:477. 

1949. Bachman's Sparrow at College Park, Maryland. Wood Thrush 
5:73. 

1950. Swainson's Warbler on coastal plain of Maryland. Wilson Bull. 
62:93-94. 

Murray, Joseph James. 

1952. A check-list of the birds of Virginia. Virginia Soc. Ornith., 
Lexington, Va. 113 pp. 

Oberholser, Harry C. 

1905. Two bird days near Washington, D. C. Wilson Bull. 11 :84-88. 

1917a. A cooperative bird census at Washington, D. C. Wilson Bull. 
29:18-29. 

1917b. A remarkable Martin roost in the City of Washington. Bird- 
Lore 19:315-317. 

1918. A second bird survey at Washington, D. C. Wilson Bull. 30:34-48. 

1919. Birds of a Washington City dooryard. Amer. Midland Nat. 
6(1):1-13. 

1920. The season; xviii, December 15, 1919, to February 15, 1920. Bird- 
Lore 22:106. 

1931. The season, Washington region. Bird-Lore 33:194-195. 

Oldys, Henry. 

1907. Occurrence of a White-winged Crossbill at Oxen Hill, Md., in 

August. Auk 24:442. 
1917. Starlings nesting near Washington, D. C. Auk 34:338. 

Oresman, Stephen, John Tiffany, and Chandler S. Robbins. 

1948. Twelfth breeding-bird census; Damp deciduous scrub with numer- 
ous standing dead trees. Audubon Field Notes 2:226-227. 

Osgood, Wilfred H. 

1907. 'Helminthophila lawrencei' near the District of Columbia. Auk 
24:342-343. 



BIRDS OF MARYLAND AND DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 383 

Overing, Robert. 

1936. The 1935 fall migration at the Washington monument. Wilson 

Bull. 48:222-224. 
1938. High mortality at the Washington monument. Auk 55:679. 
Palmer, William. 

1885. Abundance of Parus atricapillus near Washington. Auk 2:304. 
1896. The Scissor-tailed Flycatcher in Virginia and Maryland. Auk 

13:83. 
1897a. The Wood Ibis in Virginia and Maryland. Auk 14:208-209. 
1897b. An addition to North American Petrels. Auk 14:297-299. 
Partridge, Mrs. Melvin H. 

1953. A northward flight of Evening Grosbeaks. Maryland Birdlife 9:14. 
Perkins, S. E. III. 

1933. Notes from Dorchester Co., Maryland. Auk 50:367-368. 
Perkins, S. E. Ill, and Robert P. Allen. 

1931. Notes on some winter birds of Maryland. Maryland Conserv. 
8(2) :3-5. 
Peterson, Roger Tory. 

1946. Nesting sites of the Parula Warbler in the Potomac valley. Wilson 
Bull. 58:197. 
Poole, Frazer G. 

1942a. A list of the birds of Caroline County, Maryland. Bull. Nat. 

Hist. Soc. Md. 12:51-56. 
1942b. Breeding notes Eastern Shore birds. Bull. Nat. Hist. Soc. Md. 
12:56-58. 
Preble, Edward A. 

1900. The summer birds of Western Maryland. Maryland Geological 
Survey 294-307. 
Richards, John W. 

1953. Some records new to Frederick County. Maryland Birdlife 9:3-4. 

1954. Rufous Hummingbird seen at Emmitsburg. Maryland Birdlife 
10:36-37. 

Richmond, Charles W. 

1888. An annotated list of birds breeding in the District of Columbia. 

Auk 5:18-25. 
1891. Barrow's Golden-eye (Glaucionetta islandica) near Washington, 

D. C. Auk 8:112. 
1917. The Cape May Warbler at Washington, D. C, in winter. Auk 
34:343. 
Ridgway, Robert. 

1878. Eastward range of Chondestes grammaca. Bull. Nuttall Ornith. 

Club 3:43-44. 
1884. Probable breeding of the Red Crossbill in central Maryland. Auk 

1:292. 
1890. Junco hyemalis shufeldti in Maryland. Auk 7:289. 
Riley, J. H. 

1902. Notes on the habits of the Broad-winged Hawk (Buteo platyp- 
terus) in the vicinity of Washington, D. C. Osprey 6:21-23. 
Robbins, Chandler S. 

1949a. Thirteenth breeding-bird census; Virgin hemlock forest. Audu- 
bon Field Notes 3:257-258, 



384 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 62, FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 

1949b. Thirteenth breeding-bird census; Mature and lumbered oak-maple 

ridge forest. Audubon Field Notes 3 :259-261. 
1949c. Thirteenth breeding-bird census; Open hemlock-spruce bog. 

Audubon Field Notes 3:269. 
1949d. Wilson's Warbler in Maryland in late December. Auk 66 :207-208. 
1953. The Evening Grosbeak in Maryland. Maryland Birdlife 9:19-23. 
Robbins, Chandler S., and Irston R. Barnes. 

1949. Thirteenth breeding-bird census; Red pine plantation. Audubon 
Field Notes 3 :258. 

Robbins, Chandler S., and Robert E. Stewart. 

1948. Maryland Piping Plover recovered in the Bahamas. Bird-Banding 

19:73-74. 
1951a. Fifteenth breeding-bird census; Mature northern hardwood for- 
est. Audubon Field Notes 5:320-321. 
1951b. Fifteenth breeding-bird census; Scrub spruce bog. Audubon 
Field Notes 5:325. 
Robbins, Chandler S., Robert E. Stewart, and Martin Karplus. 

1947. Eleventh breeding-bird census; Dry deciduous scrub. Audubon 
Field Notes 1:200-201. 
Seibert, Henri C. 

1941. Brewster's Warbler in Maryland. Auk 58:410. 
Small, Edgar A. 

1881. Notes from Maryland. Ornithologist and Oologist 6:79. 
1883a. Phoebe birds in winter. Ornithologist and Oologist 8:32. 
1883b. Boat-tailed Grackle. Ornithologist and Oologist 8:76. 
Smith, Hugh M. 

1885. Breeding of Loxia americana in the District of Columbia. Auk 

2:379-380. 
1891. On the disappearance of the Dick Cissel (Spiza Americana) from 
the District of Columbia. Proc. U. S. Natl. Mus. 13:171-172. 
Smith, Hugh M., and William Palmer. 

1888. Additions to the avifauna of Washington and vicinity. Auk 5:147- 
148. 
Smyth, Thomas, Jr. 

1952. Black Vulture nesting in Baltimore County. Maryland Naturalist 
22:18-19. 
Springer, Paul F., and Robert E. Stewart. 

1948a. Twelfth breeding-bird census; Tidal marshes. Audubon Field 

Notes 2:223-226. 
1948b. Twelfth breeding-bird census; Apple orchards. Audubon Field 

Notes 2:227-229. 
1948c. Twelfth breeding-bird census; Immature loblolly-shortleaf pine 

stand. Audubon Field Notes 2:239. 
1948d. Twelfth breeding-bird census; Second-growth river swamp. 
Audubon Field Notes 2:240-241. 

1950. Gadwall nesting in Maryland. Auk 67:234-235. 
Stabler, Harold B. 

1891. Nesting of the Sharp-shinned Hawk. Oologist 8:161-162. 
Stecher, Karl. 

1955. Brown-capped Chickadee at Rockville. Atlantic Naturalist 10 :214. 



BIRDS OF MARYLAND AND DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 385 

Stewart, Robert E. 

1947. The distribution of Maryland birds. Maryland Birdlife 3:55-57. 

1949. Ecology of a nesting Red-shouldered Hawk population. Wilson 
Bull. 61 :26-35. 

1951. Kittiwake — seen on Assateague Island. Atlantic Naturalist 6:175, 
222. 

1952. Census of Woodcock breeding population in vicinity of Patuxent 
Refuge, Md. in 1951 [in investigations of Woodcock, Snipe, and Rails 
in 1951 by John W. Aldrich and others]. U. S. Fish and Wildlife 
Service, Special Scientific Report — Wildlife No. 14:29. 

Stewart, Robt. E., James B. Cope, Chandler S. Robbins, and John W. Brainerd. 

1946. Effects of DDT on birds at the Patuxent Research Refuge. 
Journal of Wildlife Management 10:195-201. 

1952. Seasonal distribution of bird populations at the Patuxent Research 
Refuge. Amer. Midi. Nat. 47:257-363. 

Stewart, Robert E., Martin Karplus, and Chandler S. Robbins. 

1947. Eleventh breeding-bird census; Damp deciduous scrub with numer- 
ous standing dead trees. Audubon Field Notes 1:200. 

Stewart, Robert E., and M. Brooke Meanley. 

1943. Bachman's Sparrow in Maryland. Auk 60:605-606. 

1950. Fourteenth breeding-bird census; General farm land. Audubon 
Field Notes 4:305. 

Stewart, Robert E., and Chandler S. Robbins. 

1947a. Recent observations on Maryland birds. Auk 64:266-274. 
1947b. Eleventh breeding-bird census; Virgin central hardwood decidu- 
ous forest. Audubon Field Notes 1:211-212. 
1951a. Fifteenth breeding-bird census; Virgin spruce-hemlock bog for- 
est. Audubon Field Notes 5:317-318. 
1951b. Fifteenth breeding-bird census: Lightly grazed pasture. Audu- 
bon Field Notes 5:326-327. 
Swales, B. H. 

1919. A former record of the Heath Hen (Tympanuchus cupido) at 
Washington, D. C. Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 32:198. 

1920. Records of several rare birds from near Washington, D. C. Proc. 
Biol. Soc. Wash. 33:181-182. 

1922. Prairie Horned Lark (Otocoris alpestris praticola) in Maryland 
in summer. Auk 39:568-569. 
Taylor, John W. 

1953. Glossy Ibis at Cobb Island. Atlantic Naturalist 9:91. 
Trever, Karl. 

1952. 1951 breeding-bird population studies. Atlantic Naturalist 7:133- 
135. 
Tyrrell, W. Bryant. 

1934. The youth of the Eagle — in Maryland. Maryland Conserv. 11(4) : 
8-9. 

1935. Bird notes from Ocean City, Maryland. Nat. Hist. Soc. Md. Bull. 
6:21-23. 

Ulke, Titus. 

1935. Rare birds in the District of Columbia. Auk 52 :461. 
Vaughn, Ernest A. 

1937. Wildlife's public enemy No. 1. Maryland Conserv. 14(4):19-20. 



386 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 62, FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 

Warden, David Baillie. 

1816. A chorographical and statistical description of the District of 
Columbia. Smith, Rue Montmorency, Paris, vii + 212 pp. 
Weeks, John R. 

1941. Our climate: Maryland and Delaware. Maryland State Weather 
Service. 66 pp. 
Wendt, Lorina M. 

1951. Upland Sandpipers near Lilypons. Atlantic Naturalist 7:37. 
Wetmore, Alexander. 

1923. The Evening Grosbeak near Washington, D. C. Auk 40:130. 

1925. Wilson's Petrel in Maryland. Auk 42:262-263. 

1927. Records from the coast of Maryland. Auk 44:256-257. 

1929. Wilson's Phalarope in Maryland. Auk 46:538-539. 

1935. The Short-billed Marsh Wren breeding in Maryland. Auk 52 :455. 

1936. The Chuck-will's-widow in Maryland. Auk 53:333. 
1939. Arkansas Kingbird in Maryland. Auk 56:86. 

Wetmore, Alexander, and Frederick C. Lincoln. 

1928a. Recent records for Maryland. Auk 45:225-226. 

1928b. The Dickcissel in Maryland. Auk 45:508-509. 
Williams, R. W. 

1914. The White-winged Crossbill (Loxia leucoptera) in the District of 
Columbia. Auk 31:251-252. 
Wimsatt, William A. 

1939. Black Vulture and Duck Hawk nesting in Maryland. Auk 56: 
181-182. 

1940. Early nesting of the Duck Hawk in Maryland. Auk 57:109. 
Wood, Nelson R. 

1907. A White-throated Sparrow in Washington, D. C, in August. 
Auk 24:442. 
Wright, Albert Hazen. 

1912. Early records of the Carolina Paroquet. Auk 29:343-363. 
Wright, J. Kenneth. 

1955. 1954 breeding-bird population studies. Atlantic Naturalist 10: 
150-151. 



APPENDIX A — Common and Scientific Names of Plants 
Referred to in Text 

[Names taken from eighth edition of Gray's Manual of Botany (Fernald, 

1950)] 



Alder (Alnus spp.) 
American elm (Ulmus americana) 
American holly (Ilex opaca) 
American three-square (Scirpus 

americanus) 
Arrow- wood (Viburnum dentatum) 
Ash (Fraxinus spp.) 
Bald cypress (Taxodium distichum) 
Basswood (Tilia americana) 
Bay berry (Myrica pensylvanica) 
Beachgrass (Ammophila 

breviligulata) 
Bear oak (Quercus ilicifolia) 
Beech (Fagus grandifolia) 
Black cherry (Prunus serotina) 
Black grass (Juncus gerardi) 
Black gum (Nyssa sylvatica) 
Black oak (Quercus velutina) 
Broomsedge (Andropogon virginicus) 
Cattail (Typha spp.) 
Chestnut (Castanea dentata) 
Chestnut oak (Quercus prinus) 
Clammy azalea (Rhododendron 

viscosum) 
Common cattail (Typha latifolia) 
Cross vine (Bignonia capreolata) 
Ditch grass (Ruppia maritima) 
Eel grass (Zostera marina) 
Elm (Ulmus sp.) 

Flowering dogwood (Cornus florida) 
Glasswort (Salicornia spp.) 
Great laurel (Rhododendron 

maximum) 
Greenbrier (Smilax spp.) 
Hemlock (Tsuga canadensis) 
Hickory (Carya spp.) 
Hornbeam (Carpinus caroliniana) 
Horse-sugar (Symplocos tinctoria) 
Jewel weed (Impatiens capensis) 
Laurel-leaved greenbrier (Smilax 

laurifolia) 
Loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) 



Maleberry (Lyonia ligustrina) 
Marsh elder (Iva frutescens) 
Mockernut (Carya tomentosa) 
Mountain laurel (Kalmia latifolia) 
Narrow-leaved cattail (Typha 

angustifolia) 
Needlerush (Juncus roemerianus) 
Northern red oak (Quercus rubra) 
Olney three-square (Scirpus olneyi) 
Orchard grass (Dactylis glomerata) 
Pignut (Carya cordiformis) 
Pin oak (Quercus palustris) 
Pitch pine (Pinus rigida) 
Poison ivy (Rhus radicans) 
Poison sumac (Rhus vernix) 
Red ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica) 
Red bay (Persea borbonia) 
Red cedar (Juniperus virginiana) 
Red-head pondweed (Potamogeton 

perfoliatus) 
Red maple (Acer rubrum) 
Red pine (Pinus resinosa) 
Red spruce (Picea rubens) 
Reed (Phragmites communis) 
River birch (Betula nigra) 
River bulrush (Scirpus fluviatilis) 
Sago pondweed (Potamogeton 

pectinatus) 
Saltmarsh bulrush (Scirpus robustus) 
Salt-meadow grass (Spartina patens) 
Salt reed-grass (Spartina 

cynosuroides) 
Salt-water cordgrass (Spartina 

alterniflora) 
Scarlet oak (Quercus coccinea) 
Scrub pine (Pinus virginiana) 
Sea myrtle (Baccharis halimifolia) . 
Shagbark hickory (Carya ovata) 
Shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata) 
Southern arrow- wood (Viburnum 

dentatum) 
Spanish oak (Quercus falcata) 



387 



388 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 62, FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 



Spicebush (Lindera benzoin) 
Spike-grass (Distichlis spicata) 
Sugar maple (Acer saccharum) 
Swamp rose (Rosa palustris) 
Swamp rose-mallow (Hibiscus 

palustris) 
Sweet-bay (Magnolia virginiana) 
Sweet birch (Betula lenta) 
Sweetgum (Liquidambar 

styracifl.ua) 
Sweet pepperbush (Clethra 

alnifolia) 
Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) 
Sycamore (Platanus occidentalis) 



Tamarack (Larix laricina) 
Three-square (Scirpus spp.) 
Trumpet creeper (Campsis radicans) 
Tulip-poplar (Liriodendron 

tulipifera) 
Water oak (Quercus nigra) 
Wax-myrtle (Myrica cerifera) 
White ash (Fraxinus americana) 
White oak (Quercus alba) 
White pine (Pinus strobus) 
Wild celery (Vallisneria americana) 
Wild rice (Zizania aquatica) 
Willow oak (Quercus phellos) 
Winterberry (Ilex verticillata) 



Table Mountain pine (Pinus pungens) Yellow birch (Betula lutea) 



APPENDIX B — List of Species Dropped From Hypothetical List 

The following species have been reported as having occurred 

in Maryland or the District of Columbia, but the records are too 

indefinite to warrant their inclusion as probable members of the 

avifauna. 

Sooty Shearwater Puffinus griseus (Gmelin). Specimen cannot 
be found (Hampe and Kolb, 1947). 

Egyptian Goose Alopochen aegyptiaca (Linnaeus). There is no 
assurance that the specimen recorded by Kirkwood (Auk 
17:64-65) had not escaped from captivity. 

European Quail Coturnix coturnix (Linnaeus). About 1,200 re- 
leased in Baltimore County, 1879-92; 1 nest record. This 
introduced species did not become established. 

Sandhill Crane Grtcs canadensis (Linnaeus). Specimen said to 
have been procured in the District of Columbia (Coues and 
Prentiss, 1862) cannot be located, and may never have been 
preserved or examined by an ornithologist. 

Ivory Gull Pagophila eburnea (Phipps). Recorded in 1843 
(McAtee, 1918), but there is no assurance it was correctly 
identified. 

Rock Dove Columba livia Gmelin. The great majority of obser- 
vations refer to privately owned or escaped birds. No truly 
wild population is recognized in this area. 

APPENDIX C — Important Records Since October 1956 

As stated on page 37, it was the intent of the authors to have 
the text complete through the calendar year 1955. The more 
important changes in status, migration and nesting dates, popu- 



BIRDS OF MARYLAND AND DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 389 

lation densities, and high counts for the period January through 

October 1956 were incorporated into the text. The maps and the 

bibliography, however, have not been amended since 1955. 

Several new records of interest occurred while the manu- 
script was in press and are of sufficient importance to be included 

here. 

White Pelican Pelecanus erythrorhynchos Gmelin. One was seen 
at Gibson Island, Anne Arundel County, on October 4 and 
5, 1957 (R. Dwight, Mrs. E. G. Tappan). 

Cattle Egret Bubulcus ibis Linnaeus. Five birds spent the sum- 
mer of 1957 in the Mills Island heron colony (N. Hotchkiss), 
but there was no proof of nesting. One bird was reported 
seen near Easton, Talbot County, on May 6, 1957. 

Knot Calidris canutus (Linnaeus) . Three seen at Ocean City on 
December 30, 1957 (D. A. Cutler et al.) constitute the first 
winter record for Maryland. 

Buff -breasted Sandpiper Tryngites subruficollis (Vieillot). A 
sight record near Hurlock, Dorchester County, on September 
24, 1957 (S. H. Dyke) places this species on the hypothetical 
list. 

Ruff Philomachus pugnax (Linnaeus). One was observed in the 
District of Columbia on September 22, 1957 (P. A. DuMont) . 
This is the second definite record for our area. 

Black-legged Kittiwake Rissa tridactyla (Linnaeus). One was 
seen at Ocean City on December 30, 1957 (D. A. Cutler et al.) . 
Another observed at the mouth of the South River in Anne 
Arundel County on December 30, 1956, represents the first 
record for the Chesapeake Bay area. 

Common Tern Sterna hirundo Linnaeus. One observed at Ocean 
City on December 30, 1957 (J. W. Terborgh et al.) repre- 
sents the first winter record for Maryland. 

Ash-throated Flycatcher Myiarchus cinerascens (Lawrence). 
One collected (USNM) at Monkton, Baltimore County, on 
November 26, 1957 (S. W. Simon) represents the second 
record for Maryland. 

Wilson's Warbler Wilsonia pusilla (Wilson) . One spent the winter 
of 1956-57 at a feeding station in Easton, Talbot County; 
it was first noted on November 30, 1956 (J. Offutt). This 
is the second winter record for Maryland. 

Bachman's Sparrow Aimophila aestivalis (Lichtenstein). One 
seen at Elliott, Dorchester County, on December 31, 1957 
(K. Stecher) represents the second winter record for Mary- 
land. 



390 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 62, FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 

Harris' Sparrow Zonotrichia querula (Nuttall). This species is 
transferred from the hypothetical list to the regular list on 
the basis of a bird found near Darnestown, Montgomery 
County, on January 1, 1958, and subsequently seen by many 
observers. 

With the above changes, the regular list of birds recorded in 
Maryland and the District of Columbia stands at 334 species. 
The revised hypothetical list still contains 19 additional 
species. 

March 1958. 



SPECIES INDEX 

[Page numbers in boldface refer to principal entries; those in italics to maps] 

A Asio flammeus, 181. 

Acanthis flammea, 343. otus, 181. 

hornemanni, 343. wilsonianus. See A. otus. 

linaria. See A. flammea. Astur atricapillus. See Accipiter 

Accipiter cooperii, 22, 29, 35, 109. gentilis. 

gentilis, 108. Auk, Razor-billed. See Razorbill. 

striatus, 7, 29, 35, 108. Avocet, American, 37, 154. 

velox. See A. striatus. Aythya affinis, 16, 92, 93. 

Actitis macularia, 22, 35, 143. americana, 7, 87, 88. 

Aegolius acadicus, 15, 34, 35, 128, 182. collaris, 88, 89. 

Agelaius phoeniceus, 4, 7, 17, 22, 26, marila, 16, 92, 94. 

27, 28, 35, 321, 329. valisineria, 7, 16, 27, 90, 91. 

Aimophila aestivalis, 23, 29, 33, 358, B 

389. Baeolophus bicolor. See Parus bicolor. 

Aix sponsa, 7, 21, 29, 35, 85, 86. B ald Eagle, vi, 1, 22, 29, 115. 

Alca torda, 171. Baldpate. See Widgeon, American. 

Alle alle. See Plautus alle. Bartramia longicauda, 29, 31, 35, 141, 

Alopochen aegyptiaca, 388. 1^2. 

Ammodramus savannarum, 22, 28, 35, Bittern, American, 22, 24, 61, 62. 

352. Least, 21, 60, 60. 

Ammospiza caudacuta, 22, 24, 353, Blackbird, Brewer's, 37, 325. 

554. Redwinged, 4, 7, 17, 22, 26, 27, 

maritima, 22, 24, 35U, 355. 28, 35, 321, 329. 

Anas acuta, 13, 75, 76. Rusty, 324. 

carolinensis, 77, 78. Yellow-headed, 320. 

crecca, 37, 77. Bluebird, Eastern, 7, 22, 29, 35, 251, 

cyanoptera, 81. 329. 

discors, 22, 24, 79, 79, 80. Blue Jay, 7, 22, 29, 35, 217, 219. 

platyrhynchos, 13, 22, 29, 35, 69, Bobolink, 16, 26, 29, 35, 318, 318. 

71. Bobwhite, 7, 21, 29, 35, 125. 

rubripes, 13, 16, 21, 29, 60, 72, 73. Bombycilla cedrorum, 23, 29, 34, 257. 

strepera, 22, 24, 74. Bonasa umbellus, 12, 29, 32, 34, 79, 

Anhinga, 51. 124. 

Anhinga anhinga, 51. Botaurus lentiginosus, 22, 24, 61, 62. 

Anser albifrons, 68. Brant, 16, 67. 

Anthus spinoletta, 17, 31, 256. Branta bernicla, 16, 67. 

Antrostomus. See Caprimulgus. canadensis, 7, 13, 16, 27, 65, 66. 

Aquila chrysaetos, 115. leucopsis, 68. 

Archilochus colubris, 7, 22, 29, 35, 187. Bubo virginianus, 7, 21, 29, 35, 179. 

Ardea herodias, 22, 51, 52. Bubulcus ibis, 37, 55, 389. 

Arenaria interpres, 138. Bucephala albeola, 96. 

Arquatella maritima. See Erolia clangula, 94. 

f maritima. islandica, 95. 
391 



392 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 62, FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 

Bufflehead, 96. Chickadee, Black-capped, 17, 29, 32, 

Bunting, Indigo, 7, 13, 22, 28, 35, 329, 34, 222, 223. 

337. Boreal, 225. 

Snow, 17, 24, 374. Carolina, 17, 22, 29, 223, 224, 329. 

Buteo borealis. See B. jamaicensis. Chlidonias niger, 169. 

jamaicensis, 22, 29, 35, 110. Chondestes grammacus, 357. 

lagopus, 17, 114. Chordeiles minor, 7, 22, 29, 35, 185. 

lineatus, 21, 29, 35, 112. Chuck-wilFs-widow, 15, 21, 24, 25, 

platypterus, 22, 29, 35, 113. 183, 183. 

Butorides virescens, 21, 29, 35, 53. Circus cyaneus, 22, 24, 35, 116, 117. 



C 

Calcarius lapponicus, 37, 373. 

ornatus, 374. 
Calidris canutus, 16, 147, 389. 
Campephilus principalis, 198. 
Camptorhynchus labradorium, 98. 



hudsonius. See C. cyaneus. 
Cistothorus platensis, 17, 22, 24, 29, 
35, 236, 237. 

stellaris. See C. platensis. 

Clangula hyemalis, 97. 

Coccyzus americanus, 21, 29, 35, 176. 

erythropthalmus, 23, 29, 35, 177, 
Canvasback, 7, 16, 27, 90, 91. 329 

Capella delicata. See C. gallinago. Colaptes auratus, 7, 22, 29, 34, 190. 

gallinago, 140. Colinus virginianus, 7, 21, 29, 35, 125. 

Caprimulgus carolinensis, 15, 21, 24, Columba livia, 388. 

25, 183, 183. Columbigallina passerina, 175. 

vociferus, 7, 21, 29, 35, 184. Colymbus. See Podiceps. 

Cardinal, 17, 22, 28, 34, 35, 329, 333. Compsothlypis americana. See Parula 
Carpodacus purpureus, 15, 35, 195, americana. 

341, SU2. Contopus virens, 21, 28, 35, 206. 

Casmerodius albus, 22, 55. Conuropsis carolinensis, 37, 175. 

Cassidix mexicanus, 15, 17, 22, 24, Coot > American, 15, 132. 

318 326. Coragyps atratus, 21, 26, 27, 29, 31, 

Catbird, 7, 17, 22, 29, 34, 240. 106 ' 106 ' 

~ ,, . .,_ ... n . __ __ </v . Cormorant, Double-crested, 16, 50. 

Cathartes aura, 17, 21, 24, 28, 35, 104. _ ' « r™ ' + r™„f 

_ . , . . .European, bee L»ormorant, ureat. 

Catoptrophorus semipalmatus, 16, 22, Great 50 

-^2,145. Corn Crake, 131. 

Centurus carolinus, 21, 29, 35, 192. Corthylio calendula. See Regulus 

Ceophloeus pileatus. See Dryocopus calendula. 

pileatus. Corvus brachyrhynchos, 17, 22, 28, 31, 

Cepphus grylle, 172. 34, 220. 

Certhia familiaris, 230. corax, 35, 218. 

Chaetura pelagica, 21, 28, 35, 186, 186. ossifragus, 22, 29, 221, 222. 

Charadrius hiaticula. See C. semipal- Coturnicops noveboracensis, 130. 

matus. Coturnix coturnix, 388. 

melodus, 12, 22, 135. Cowbird, Brown-headed, 17, 22, 28, 29, 

semipalmatus, 134. 35, 328. 

vociferus, 22, 29, 35, 136. Crake, Corn, 131. 

wilsonia, 12, 23, 24, 135. Crane, Sandhill, 388. 

Charitonetta. See Bucephala. Creciscus jamaicensis. See Laterallus 

Chat, Yellow-breasted, 22, 29, 34, 35, jamaicensis. 

310, 329. Creeper, Brown, 230. 

Chen caerulescens, 69. Crex crex, 131. 

hyperborea, 16, 68. Crocethia alba, 16, 154. 



BIRDS OF MARYLAND AND DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 393 

Crossbill, Red, 346. Dryocopus pileatus, 21, 29, 35, 191, 

White-winged, 347. 191. 

Crow, Common, 17, 22, 28, 31, 34, 220. Duck, Black, 13, 16, 21, 29, 60, 72, 73. 

Fish, 22, 29, 221, 222. Harlequin, 37, 98. 

Cryptoglaux acadica. See Aegolius Labrador, 98. 

acadicus. Masked, 102. 

Cuckoo, Black-billed, 23, 29, 35, 177, Ring-necked, 88, 89. 

329. Ruddy, 16, 100. 

Yellow-billed, 21, 29, 35, 176. Wood, 7, 21, 29, 35, 85, 86. 

Curlew, Eskimo, 37, 141. Dumetella carolinensis, 7, 17, 22, 29, 

Hudsonian. See Whimbrel. 34, 240. 

Long-billed, 141. Dunlin, 150. 

Cyanocitta cristata, 7, 22, 29, 35, 217, E 

*19- Eagle, Bald, vi, 1, 22, 29, 115. 

Cygnus columbianus. See Olor colum- Golden 115. 

bianus. Ectopistes migratorius, 7, 37, 173. 

olor, 64. Egret, American. See Egret, Com- 

D mon. 

Dendrocopos borealis, 15, 23, 24, 37, Cattle, 37, 55, 389. 

j97 < Common, 22, 55. 

pubescens, 17, 21, 28, 35, 196. Snowy, 22, 56. 

villosus, 22, 29, 35, 196. Eider > American. See Eider, Common. 

Dendroica aestiva. See D. petechia. Common, 98. 

caerulescens, 34, 195, 285. King, 98. 

castanea, 36, 294. Elanoides forficatus, 107. 

cerulea, 29, 31, 32, 35, 289, 289. Empidonax flaviventris, 36, 202. 

coronata, 7, 24, 286. minimus, 23, 29, 32, 35, 36, 205, 

discolor, 22, 27, 29, 298, 298, 329. 205 > 329 - 

dominica, 22, 26, 291, 292, 329. trailii, 29, 31, 36, 183, 204. 

fusca, 29, 32, 35, 36, 290, 291, 329. virescens, 12, 21, 29, 35, 203, 329. 

magnolia, 34, 36, 195, 283, 329. Eremophila alpestris, 7, 22, 29, 35, 

palmarum, 17, 24, 299. 208 - 

pensylvanica, 29, 31, 32, 35, 293, Ereunetes mauri, 16, 153. 

2Q% % pusillus, 7, 152. 

petechia, 22, 29, 35, 282, 329.. Erolia alpina, 150. 

pinus, 12, 22, 29, 296, 296, 329. bairdii, 149. 

striata, 295. fuscicollis, 148. 

tigrina, 284. maritima, 17, 24, 147. 

virens, 29, 32, 35, 287, 287. melanotos, 148. 

Dickcissel, 29, 31, 338. minutilla, 149. 

Dolichonyx oryzivorus, 16, 26, 29, 35, Euphagus carolinus, 324. 

318 318. cyanocephalus, 37, 325. 

Dove, Ground, 175. F 

Mourning, 13, 21, 28, 35, 172, 174. Falco columbarius, 121. 

Rock, 388. peregrinus, 29, 119, 120. 

Dovekie, 172. sparverius, 22, 29, 35, 122, 123. 

Dowitcher, Eastern. See Dowitcher, Falcon, Peregrine, 29, 119, 120. 

Short-billed. Finch, Purple, 15, 35, 195, 341, 3U2. 

Long-billed, 151. Flicker, Yellow-shafted, 7, 22, 29, 34, 

Short-billed, 150. 190. 

Dryobates. See Dendrocopos. Florida caerulea, 22, 54. 



394 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 62, FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 



Flycatcher, Acadian, 12, 21, 29, 35, 
203, 329. 

Alder. See Flycatcher, Traill's. 

Ash-throated, 201, 389. 

Crested. See Flycatcher, Great 

Crested. 
Great Crested, 13, 21, 29, 35, 199, 

329. 
Least, 23, 29, 32, 35, 36, 205, 205, 

329. 
Olive-sided, 36, 208. 
Scissor-tailed, 199. 
Traill's, 29, 31, 36, 183, 204. 
Yellow-bellied, 36, 202. 
Fulica americana, 15, 132. 

G 

Gadwall, 22, 24, 74. 
Gallinula chloropus, 22, 132. 
Gallinule, Common, 22, 132. 

Florida. See Gallinule, Common. 

Purple, 131. 
Gannet, 16, 49. 
Gavia immer, 16, 42. 

stellata, 16, 43. 
Gelochelidon nilotica, 22, 24, 162. 
Geothlypis trichas, 7, 13, 22, 29, 35, 

308, 329. 
Glaucionetta. See Bucephala. 
Gnatcatcher, Blue-gray, 22, 29, 253, 

253, 329. 
Godwit, Hudsonian, 153. 

Marbled, 153. 
Goldeneye, American. See Goldeneye, 
Common. 

Barrow's, 95. 

Common, 94. 
Goldfinch, American, 7, 22, 28, 35, 329, 
345. 

Eastern. See Goldfinch, Ameri- 
can. 
Goose, Barnacle, 68. 

Blue, 69. 

Canada, 7, 13, 16, 27, 65, 66. 

Egyptian, 388. 

Snow, 16, 68. 

White-fronted, 68. 
Goshawk, 108. 

Grackle, Boat-tailed, 15, 17, 22, 24, 
318, 326. 

Bronzed. See Grackle, Common. 



Common, 4, 7, 17, 22, 27, 28, 35, 
326, 328. 

Purple. See Grackle, Common. 
Grebe, Holboell's. See Grebe, Red- 
necked. 

Horned, 16, 44. 

Pied-billed, 22, 45. 

Red-necked, 44. 
Grosbeak, Blue, 22, 26, 27, 29, 31, 329, 
335, 336. 

Evening, 17, 340. 

Pine, 37, 343. 

Rose-breasted, 35, 36, 40, 311,., 
334. 
Grouse, Ruffed, 12, 29, 32, 34, 79, 124. 
Grits canadensis, 388. 
Guillemot, Black, 172. 
Guiraca caerulea, 22, 26, 27, 29, 31, 

329, 335, 336. 
Gull, Bonaparte's, 161. 

Glaucous, 37, 156. 

Great Black-backed, 157. 

Herring, 23, 24, 158. 

Iceland, 37, 157. 

Ivory, 388. 

Laughing, 23, 159. 

Lesser Black-backed, 157. 

Ring-billed, 16, 158. 

H 

Haematopus palliatus, 12, 24, 37, 134. 
Haliaeetus leucocephalus, vi, 1, 22, 29, 

115. 
Hawk, Broad-winged, 22, 29, 35, 113. 
Cooper's, 22, 29, 35, 109. 
Duck, See Falcon, Peregrine. 
Marsh, 22, 24, 35, 116, 117. 
Pigeon, 121. 

Red-shouldered, 21, 29, 35, 112. 
Red-tailed, 22, 29, 35, 110. 
Rough-legged, 17, 114. 
Sharp-shinned, 7, 29, 35, 108. 
Sparrow, 22, 29, 35, 122, 123. 
Heath Hen. See Prairie Chicken, 

Greater. 
Hedymeles ludovicianus. See Pheucti- 

cus ludovicianus. 
Helmitheros vermivorus, 22, 29, 273, 
27U, 329. 



BIRDS OF MARYLAND AND DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 



395 



Heron, Black-crowned Night, 22, 52, Kingfisher, Belted, 22, 29, 35, 189. 



58. 

Great Blue, 22, 51, 52. 

Green, 21, 29, 35, 53. 

Little Blue, 22, 54. 

Louisiana, 15, 22, 57. 

Yellow-crowned Night, 22, 59. 
Hesperiphona vespertina, 17, 340. 
Hirundo erythrogaster. See H. rus 
tica. 

rustica, 7, 21, 28, 34, 214, 329. 
Histrionicus histrionicus, 37, 98 



Kinglet, Golden-crowned, 17, 34, 35, 
253, 254. 

Ruby-crowned, 255. 
Kite, Swallow-tailed, 107. 
Kittiwake, Black-legged, 161, 389. 
Knot, 16, 147, 389. 

L 
Lanius borealis. See L. excubitor. 
excubitor, 258. 
ludovicianus, 7, 22, 26, 29, 259. 



Hummingbird, Ruby-throated, 7, 22, Lark ' Horned, 7, 22, 29, 35, 208. 



29, 35, 187. 

Rufous, 189. 
Hydranassa tricolor, 15, 22, 57. 
Hydroprogne caspia, 168. 
Hylocichla fuscescens, 29, 31, 34, 250, 
250, 329. 

guttata, 15, 35, 230, 247. 

minima, 249. 

mustelina, 12, 22, 28, 34, 245, 329. 

ustulata, 248. 

I 

Ibis, Glossy, 22, 63. 

Wood, 63. 
Icteria virens, 22, 29, 34, 35, 310, 329. 
Icterus bullockii, 324. 

galbula, 7, 23, 26, 29, 35, 323. 

spurius, 7, 22, 29, 322, 329. 



Larus argentatus, 23, 24, 158. 

atricilla, 23, 159. 

delawarensis, 16, 158. 

fuscus, 157. 

glaucoides, 37, 157. 

hyperboreus, 37, 156. 

leucopterus. See L. glaucoides. 

marinus, 157. 

Philadelphia, 161. 
Laterallus jamaicensis, 22, 130. 
Leucophoyx thula, 22, 56. 
Limnodromus griseus, 150. 

scolopaceus, 151. 
Limnothlypis swainsonii, 22, 24, 272, 

273. 
Limosa fedoa, 153. 

haemastica, 153. 
Lobipes lobatus, 155. 



Ionornis martinica. See Porphyrula Longspur> Chestnut-collared, 374. 

martimca. Lapland 37 373 

Iridoprocne bicolor, 16, 22, 24, 35, 209, L Co^n \q i 2 . 

210. 



Ixobrychus exilis, 21, 60, 60. 

J 

Jaeger, Long-tailed, 156. 

Parasitic, 156. 

Pomarine, 156. 
Jay, Blue, 7, 22, 29, 35, 217, 219. 
Junco hyemalis, 17, 35, 195, 359, 360. 

oreganus, 361. 
Junco, Oregon, 361. 

Slate-colored, 17, 35, 195, 359, 360. 

K 

Killdeer, 22, 29, 35, 136. 
Kingbird, Arkansas. See Kingbird, 
Western. 

Eastern, 21, 28, 35, 198, 329. 

Western, 199. 



Red-throated, 16, 43. 
Lophodytes cucullatus, 35, 102. 
Loxia curvirostra, 346. 

leucoptera, 347. 

M 

Magpie, American. See Magpie, 

Black-billed. 

Black-billed, 218. 
Mallard, 13, 22, 29, 35, 69, 71. 
Mareca americana. 16, 82, 83. 

penelope, 81. 
Martin, Purple, 16, 22, 29, 35, 216. 
Meadowlark, Eastern, 7, 17, 22, 28, 

35, 319. 
Megaceryle alcyon, 22, 29, 35, 189. 
Melanerpes erythrocephalus, 23, 29, 

35, 193. 



396 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 62, FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 

Melanitta deglandi, 99. Nuttallornis borealis, 36, 208. 

fusca. See M. deglandi. mesoleucus. See N. borealis. 

perspicillata, 99. Nyctanassa violacea, 22, 59. 
Meleagris gallopavo, 12, 29, 32, 35, Nyctea nyctea. See N. scandiaca. 

126. scandiaca, 7, 180. 
Melospiza georgiana, 23, 24, 35, 369, Nycticorax nycticorax, 22, 52, 58. 

370. Nyroca. See Aythya. 
lincolnii, 369. 

melodia, 13, 22, 28, 35, 329, 371, ° 

372. Oceanites oceanicus, 48. 

Merganser, American. See Merganser, Oceanodroma castro, 48. 

Common. leucorhoa, 47. 

Common, 103. Oidemia nigra, 100. 

Hooded, 35, 102. Oldsquaw, 97. 

Red-breasted, 16, 104. Olor columbianus, 15, 16, 27, 64. 

Mergus merganser, 103. Oporornis agilis, 306. 

serrator, 16, 104. formosus, 22, 27, 29, 35, 304, 305, 

Micropalama himantopus, 151. 329. 

Mimus polyglottos, 7, 13, 22, 29, 238, Philadelphia, 15, 34, 35, 36, 305, 

329. 307. 

Mniotilta varia, 22, 27, 28, 35, 40, 269, Oriole, Baltimore, 7, 23, 26, 29, 35, 

329. 323. 

Mockingbird, 7, 13, 22, 29, 238, 329. Bullock's, 324. 

Molothrus ater, 17, 22, 28, 29, 35, 328. Orchard, 7, 22, 29, 322, 329. 

Morus bassanus, 16, 49. Osprey, 16, 21, 60, 118. 

Murre, Briinnich's. See Murre, Thick- Otocoris alpestris. See Eremophila 

billed. alpestris. 

Thick-billed, 171. Otus asio, 22, 29, 35, 179. 

Muscivora forficata, 199. Ovenbird, 22, 27, 28, 35, 301, 329. 

Mycteria americana, 63. 0wl ' Barn > 22 > 29 > 178 - 

Myiarchus crinitus, 13, 21, 29, 35, Barred, 21, 29, 35, 180. 

199 329 Great Horned, 7, 21, 29, 35, 179. 

cinerascens, 201, 389. LoT Mred*^" 1, ^^ H ° rned * 

Myiochanes virens. See Contopus Sa^whet, 15, 34, 35, 128, 182. 

mrens - Screech, 22, 29, 35, 179. 

N Short-eared, 181. 

Nannus hiemalis. See Troglodytes Snowy, 7, 180. 

troglodytes. Oxyechus vociferus. See Charadrius 

Nighthawk, Common, 7, 22, 29, 35, vociferus. 

185. Oxyura dominica, 102. 

Nomonyx dominicus. See Oxyura jamatcensis, 16, 100. 

dominica. Oystercatcher, American, 12, 24, 37, 

Numenius americanus, 141. ' 

borealis, 37, 141. P 

phaeopus, 141. Pagolla wilsonia. See Charadrius 

Nuthatch, Brown-headed, 15, 17, 22, wilsonia. 

24, 25, 229, 250. Pagophila eburnea, 388. 

Red-breasted, 228. Pandion haliaetus, 16, 21, 50, 118. 

White-breasted, 22, 26, 29, 35, Parakeet, Carolina, 37, 175. 

227, 227. Parula americana, 22, 29, 35, 280, 329. 



BIRDS OF MARYLAND AND DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 397 

Parus atricapillus, 17, 29, 32, 34, 222, Pintail, 13, 75, 76. 

228. Pipilo erythrophthalmus, 22, 28, 35, 

bicolor, 17, 22, 29, 34, 35, 225. 36, 329, 348. 

carolinensis, 17, 22, 29, 223, 224, Pipit, American. See Pipit, Water. 

329. Water, 17, 31, 256. 

hudsonicus, 225. Piranga erythromelas. See P. 

Passer domesticus, 22, 28, 35, 37, 317. olivacea. 

Passerculus princeps, 24, 349. olivacea, 22, 28, 35, 329, 330. 

sandwichensis, 23, 29, 31, 35, 350, rubra, 22, 26, 29, 31, 329, 332. 

350. Pisobia. See Erolia. 

Passerella iliaca, 7, 368. Plautus alle, 172. 

Passerherbulus henslowii, 22, 29, 35, Plectrophenax nivalis, 17, 24, 374. 

329, 353. Plegadis falcinellus, 22, 63. 

Passerina cyanea, 7, 13, 22, 28, 35, Plover, American Golden, 137. 

329, 337. Black-bellied, 137. 

Pelecanus erythrorhynchos, 48, 389. Golden. See Plover, American 

occidentalis, 49. Golden. 

Pelican, Brown, 49. Piping, 12, 22, 135. 

White, 48, 389. Semipalmated, 134. 

Pelidna alpina. See Erolia alpina. Upland, 29, 31, 35, 141, H2. 

Penthestes. See Parus. Wilson's 12, 23, 24, 135. 

Petrel, Harcourt's, 48. Pluvialis dominica, 137. 

Leach's, 47. Podiceps auritus, 16, 44. 

Madeira. See Petrel, Harcourt's. grisegena, 44. 

Wilson's, 48. Podilymbus podiceps, 22, 45. 

Petrochelidon albifrons. See P. Polioptila caerulea, 22, 29, 253, 25S, 

pyrrhonota, 329. 

pyrrhonota, 16, 29, 32, 34, 36, 40, Pooecetes gramineus, 17, 22, 24, 28, 35, 

212, 215. 356. 

Pewee, Eastern Wood, 21, 28, 35, 206. Porphyrula maritinica, 131. 

Phaeopus borealis. See Numenius Porzana Carolina, 16, 22, 26, 129. 

borealis. Prairie Chicken, Greater, 37, 124. 

hudsonicus. See Numenius phaeo- P r °9ne subis, 16, 22, 29, 35, 216. 

p U8% Protonotaria citrea, 22, 29, 271, 271, 

Phalacrocorax auritus, 16, 50. ™^' 

carbo 50. Puffinus diomedea, 47. 

Phalarope, Northern, 155. gravis > 37 ' 47 ' 

Red, 155. gnseus, 388. 

Wilson's, 155. Iherminieri, 47. 

Phalaropus fulicarius, 155. Purple Finch ' 15 ' 35 ' 195 > 341 ' H2 ' 

Phasianus colchicus, 37, 125. Q 

Pheasant, Ring-necked, 37, 125. Quail, European, 388. 

Pheucticus ludovicianus, 35, 36, 40, Querquedula. See Anas. 

31b, 334. Quiscalus quiscula, 4, 7, 17, 22, 27, 28, 

Philohela minor, 22, 29, 35, 139. 35, 326, 328. 

Philomachus pugnax, 154, 389. R 

Phoebe, Eastern, 17, 22, 29, 35, 201, Rail, Black, 22, 130. 

329. Clapper, 22, 24, 127, 128. 

Pica pica, 218. King, 22, 29, 126, 127. 

Pigeon, Passenger, 7, 37, 173. Virginia, 7, 21, 29, 35, 127, 128. 

Pinicola enucleator, 37, 343. Yellow, 130, 



398 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 62, FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 



Rallus elegans, 22, 29, 126, 127. 
limicola, 7, 21, 29, 35, 127, 128. 
longirostris, 22, 24, 127, 128. 
Raven, Common, 35, 218. 
Razorbill, 171. 

Recurvirostra americana, 37, 154. 
Redhead, 7, 87, 88. 
Redpoll, Common, 343. 

Hoary, 343. 
Redstart, American, 22, 27, 28, 35, 

311, 315, 329. 
Redwing, Eastern. See Blackbird, 

Redwinged. 
Regulus calendula, 255. 

satrapa, 17, 34, 35, 253, 254. 
Richmondena cardinalis, 17, 22, 28, 34, 

35, 329, 333. 
Riparia riparia, 22, 29, 211, 212. 
Rissa tridactyla, 161, 389. 
Robin, 7, 12, 22, 28, 34, 243, 2U, 329. 
Ruddy Duck, 16, 100. 
Ruff, 154, 389. 

Ruffed Grouse, 12, 29, 32, 34, 79, 124. 
Rynchops nigra, 21, 24, 170. 

s 

Sanderling, 16, 154. 
Sandpiper, Baird's, 149. 

Buff-breasted, 37, 389. 

Least, 149. 

Pectoral, 148. 

Purple, 17, 24, 147. 

Red-backed. See Dunlin. 

Semipalmated, 7, 152. 

Solitary, 144. 

Spotted, 22, 35, 143. 

Stilt, 151. 

Western, 16, 153. 

White-rumped, 148. 
Sapsucker, Yellow-bellied, 35, 194, 195. 
Sayornis phoebe, 17, 22, 29, 35, 201, 

329. 
Scaup, Greater, 16, 92, 94. 

Lesser, 16, 92, 93. 
Scoter, American. See Scoter, Com- 
mon. 

Common, 100. 

Surf, 99. 

White-winged, 99. 
Seiurus aurocapillus, 22, 27, 28, 35, 
301, 329. 



motacilla, 22, 29, 35, 303, 329. 

noveboracensis, 15, 35, 195, 302. 
Selasphorus rufus, 189. 
Setophaga ruticilla, 22, 27, 28, 35, 311, 

315, 329. 
Shearwater, Audubon's, 47. 

Cory's, 47. 

Greater, 37, 47. 

Sooty, 388. 
Shoveler, 84. 
Shrike, Loggerhead, 7, 22, 26, 29, 259. 

Migrant. See Shrike, Logger- 
head. 

Northern, 258. 
Sialia sialis, 7, 22, 29, 35, 251, 329. 
Siskin, Pine, 344. 
Sitta canadensis, 228. 

carolinensis, 22, 26, 29, 35, 227, 
227. 

pusilla, 15, 17, 22, 24, 25, 229, 230. 
Skimmer, Black, 21, 24, 170. 
Snipe, Common, 140. 

Wilson's. See Snipe, Common. 
Somateria niollissima, 98. 

spectabilis, 98. 
Sora, 16, 22, 26, 129. 
Sparrow, Bachman's 23, 29, 33, 358, 
389. 

Chipping, 12, 17, 22, 24, 28, 35, 
329, 362. 

English. See Sparrow, House. 

Field, 13, 22, 28, 35, 329, 363. 

Fox, 7, 368. 

Grasshopper, 22, 28, 35, 352. 

Harris', 365, 390. 

Henslow's, 22, 29, 35, 329, 353. 

House, 22, 28, 35, 37, 317. 

Ipswich, 24, 349. 

Lark, 357. 

Lincoln's, 369. 

Savannah, 23, 29, 31, 35, 350, 350. 

Seaside, 22, 24, 35U, 355. 

Sharp-tailed, 22, 24, 353, S5U. 

Song, 13, 22, 28, 35, 329, 371, 372. 

Swamp, 23, 24, 35, 369, 370. 

Tree, 17, 361. 

Vesper, 17, 22, 24, 28, 35, 356. 

White-crowned, 17, 31, 365. 

White-throated, 36, 366, 367. 
Spatula clypeata, 84. 
Sphyrapicus varius, 35, 194, 195. 



BIRDS OF MARYLAND AND DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 399 

Spinus pinus, 344. Sandwich, 168. 

tristis, 7, 22, 28, 35, 329, 345. Sooty, 166. 

Spiza americana, 29, 31, 338. Thalasseus maximus, 15, 23, 24, 167. 

Spizella arborea, 17, 361. sandvicensis, 168. 

passerina, 12, 17, 22, 24, 28, 35, Thrasher, Brown, 17, 22, 29, 34, 241. 

329, 362. Thrush, Gray-cheeked, 249. 

pusilla, 13, 22, 28, 35, 329, 363. Hermit, 15, 35, 230, 247. 
Squatarola squatarola, 137. Olive-backed. See Thrush, Swain- 
Starling, 12, 22, 28, 37, 260, 329. son's. 
Steganopus tricolor, 155. Swainson's, 248. 
Stelgidopteryx ruficollis, 22, 29, 35, Wood, 12, 22, 28, 34, 245, 329. 

213. Thryomanes bewickii, 29, 32, 35, 233, 

Stercorarius longicaudus, 156. 234. 

parasiticus, 156. Thryothorus ludovicianus, 17, 22, 29, 

pomarinus, 156. 35, 235, 329. 

Sterna albifrons, 21, 166, 166. Titmouse, Tufted, 17, 22, 29, 34, 35, 

antillarum. See S. albifrons. 225. 

dougallii, 23, 165. Totanus fiavipes, 146. 

forsteri, 22, 24, 162. melanoleucus, 145. 

fuscata, 166. Towhee, Red-eyed. See Towhee, 

hirundo, 21, 164, 165, 389. Rufous-sided. 

Strix varia, 21, 29, 35, 180. Rufous-sided, 22, 28, 35, 36, 329, 

Sturnella magna, 7, 17, 22, 28, 35, 319. 348. 

Sturnus vulgaris, 12, 22, 28, 37, 260, Toxostoma rufum, 17, 22, 29, 34, 241. 

329. Tringa solitaria, 144. 

Swallow, Bank, 22, 29, 211, 212. Troglodytes aedon, 22, 24, 28, 34, 231. 

Barn, 7, 21, 28, 34, 214, 329. troglodytes, 232. 

Cliff, 16, 29, 32, 34, 36, 40, 212, Tryngites subruficollis, 37, 389. 

Turdus migratorius, 7, 12, 22, 28, 34, 

Rough-winged, 22, 29, 35, 213. 2 43 2U 329 

Q ^ + 16 'f ' 24 ' 35 ' 209 ' 21 °' Turkey, 12, 29, 32, 35, 126. 

Swan, Mute, 64. _ *' ' ' ' 

Whistling, 15, 16, 27, 64. Turnstone, Ruddy, 138. 

Swift, Chimney, 21, 28, 35, 186, 186. T V™V*nucKus cupido, 37, 124. 

Tyrannus tyrannus, 21, 28, 35, 198, 

T 329. 

Tanager, Scarlet, 22, 28, 35, 329, 330. verticalis, 199. 

Summer, 22, 26, 29, 31, 329, 332. Tyto alba> 22 29 178> 
Teal, Blue-winged, 22, 24, 79, 79, 80. 

Cinnamon, 81. U 

Common, 37, 77. Upland Plover, 29, 31, 35, 141, U2. 

European. See Teal, Common. Uria lomvia, 171. 

Green-winged, 77, 78. 
Telmatodytes palustris, 22, 60, 235. 



V 



Tern, Black, 169. Veery, 29, 31, 34, 250, 250, 329. 

Caspian, 168. Vermivora celata, 279. 
Common, 21, 164, 165, 389. chrysoptera, 29, 32, 35, 275, 275. 

Forster's, 22, 24, 162. lawrencei, 278. 

Gull-billed, 22, 24, 162. leucobronchialis, 277. 

Least, 21, 166, 166. peregrina, 36, 278. 

Roseate, 23, 165. pinus, 29, 31, 32, 275, 276, 329. 

Royal, 15, 23, 24, 167. ruficapilla, 15, 34, 35, 36, 273, 279. 



400 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 62, FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 

Vireo flavifrons, 22, 29, 35, 263. Parula, 22, 29, 35, 280, 329. 

gilvus, 22, 26, 29, 35, 268, 268. Pine, 12, 22, 29, 296, 296, 329. 

griseus, 22, 29, 262, 329. Prairie, 22, 27, 29, 298, 298, 329. 

olivaceus, 12, 22, 28, 34, 265, 329. Prothonotary, 22, 29, 271, 271, 

philadelphicus, 36, 267. 329. 

solitarius, 35, 195, 264, 329. Swainson's, 22, 24, 272, 278. 

Vireo, Blue-headed. See Vireo, Soli- Tennessee, 36, 278. 

tary. Wilson's, 36, 313, 389. 

Philadelphia, 36, 267. Worm-eating, 22, 29, 273, 27U, 329. 

Red-eyed, 12, 22, 28, 34, 265, 329. Yellow, 22, 29, 35, 282, 329. 

Solitary, 35, 195, 264, 329. Yellow-throated, 22, 26, 291, 292, 

Warbling, 22, 26, 29, 35, 268, 268. 329. 

White-eyed, 22, 29, 262, 329. Waterthrush, Louisiana, 22, 29, 35, 

Yellow-throated, 22, 29, 35, 263. 303, 329. 

Vulture, Black, 21, 26, 27, 29, 31, 106, Northern, 15, 35, 195, 302. 

106. Water-turkey. See Anhinga. 

Turkey, 17, 21, 24, 28, 35, 104. Waxwing, Cedar, 23, 29, 34, 257. 

yy Whimbrel, 141. 

Warbler, Bay-breasted, 36, 294. Whip-poor-will, 7, 21, 29, 35, 184. 

Black-and-white, 22, 27, 28, 35, Widgeon, American, 16, 82, 83. 

40,269,329. . European, 81. 

Blackburnian, 29, 32, 35, 36, 290, Willet, 16 » 22 > ***, 145 - 

291 329 Wilsonia canadensis, 35, 314, 81%.. 

Black'poll, 295. citrina, 12, 22, 27, 28, 34, 35, 311, 

Black-throated Blue, 34, 195, 285. sn > 329 « 

Black-throated Green, 29, 32, 35, pusilla, 36, 313, 389. 

287 287. Woodcock, American, 22, 29, 35, 139. 

Blue-winged, 29, 31, 32, 275, 276, Woodpecker, Downy, 17, 21, 28, 35, 

329. 196. 

Brewster's, 277. Hairy, 22, 29, 35, 196. 

Canada, 35, 314, 81*. Ivory-billed, 198. 

Cape May, 284. Pileated, 21, 29, 35, 191, 191. 

Cerulean, 29, 31, 32, 35, 289, 289. Red-bellied, 21, 29, 35, 192. 

Chestnut-sided, 29, 31, 32, 35, 293, Red-cockaded, 15, 23, 24, 37, 197. 

293. Red-headed, 23, 29, 35, 193. 

Connecticut, 306. Wood Pewee, Eastern, 21, 28, 35, 206. 

Golden-winged, 29, 32, 35, 275, Wren, Bewick's, 29, 32, 35, 233, 28I>. 

275. Carolina, 17, 22, 29, 35, 235, 329. 

Golden-winged X Blue-winged House, 22, 24, 28, 34, 231. 

hybrids, 277. Long-billed Marsh, 22, 60, 235. 

Hooded, 12, 22, 27, 28, 34, 35, 311, Short-billed Marsh, 17, 22, 24, 29, 

311, 329. 35, 236, 287. 

Kentucky, 22, 27, 29, 35, 304, 305, Winter, 232. 

329. f x 

Lawrence's, 278. Xanthocephalus xanthocephalus, 320. 

Magnolia, 34, 36, 195, 283, 329. 

Mourning, 15, 34, 35, 36, 305, 307. Y 

Myrtle, 7, 24, 286. Yellowlegs, Greater, 145. 

Nashville, 15, 34, 35, 36, 278, 279. Lesser, 146. 

Orange-crowned, 279. Yellowthroat, 7, 13, 22, 29, 35, 308, 

Palm, 17, 24, 299. 329. 



BIRDS OF MARYLAND AND DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 401 

Z Zonotrichia albicollis, 36, 366, 367. 

Zenaidura macroura, 13, 21, 28, 35, leucophrys, 17, 31, 365. 

172, in. querula, 365, 390. 

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