Skip to main content

Full text of "North American fauna"

See other formats


3 9999 06317 640 6 












vC- ^'^'r'^\ ■ y 


This publication series includes monographs and other reports of scientific in- 
vestigations relating to birds, mammals, reptiles, and amphibians, for professional 
readers. It is a continuation by the Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife of the 
series begun in 1889 by the Division of Ornithology and Manunalogy (Department 
of Agriculture) and continued by succeeding bureaus — Biological Survey and Fish 
and Wildlife Service. The Bureau distributes these reports to official agencies, to 
libraries, and to researchers in fields related to the Bureau's work; additional 
copies may usually be purchased from the Division of Public Documents, U.S. 
Grovemment Printing Office. 

Reports in North American Fauna since 1950 are as follows (an asterisk indi- 
cates that sale stock is exhausted ) : 

•60. Raccoons of North and Middle America, by Edward A. Goldman. 1950. 153 p. 

*61. Fauna of the Aleutian Islands and Alaska Peninsula, by Olaus J. Murie; 
Invertebrates and Fishes Collected in the Aleutians, 1936-38, by Victor B. 
SchefFer. 1959. 406 p. 

*62. Birds of Maryland and the District of Columbia, by Robert E. Stewart and 
Chandlers. Robbins. 1958. 401 p. 

*63. The Trumpeter Swan; Its history, habits, and population in the United 
States, by Winston E. Banko. 1960. 214 p. 

*64. Pelage and Surface Topography of the Northern Fur Seal, by Victor B. 
ScheflFer. 1961. 206 p. 

65. Seven New White-winged Doves From Mexico, Central America, and South- 
western United States, by George B. Saunders. 1968. 30 p. 



John L. Paradiso 



) MAR 3 1 2000 



Walter J. Hickel, Secretary 

John S. Gottsohalk, Director 

North American Fauna, Number 66 

Published hy 

Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife 

April 1969 

United States Government Printing Office • Washington • 1969 

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing OflSce 
Washington, D.C. 20402 - Price $1 



Introduction 1 

Location and area of Maryland 2 

Temperature 3 

Average annual precipitation 3 

Effects of civilization 4 

Principal biotic or natural areas in Maryland 4 

Eastern Shore section 5 

Western Shore section 6 

Piedmont section 7 

Ridge and Valley section 7 

Allegheny Mountain section 7 

Maryland's mammalian fauna 8 

Keys 9 

Accounts of species 14 

Order Marsupialia (pouched mammals) 14 

Order Insectivora (shrews, moles, etc.) 15 

Order Chiroptera (bats) 41 

Order Lagomorpha (rabbits, hares, etc.) 61 

Order Rodentia (gnawing mammals) 67 

Order Camivora (flesh-eating mammals) 130 

Order Artiodactyla (even-toed hoofed mammals) 167 

Marine mammals of Maryland 173 

Extirpated Recent mammals of Maryland 181 

References 184 


Figure 1. Map of Maryland showing the 23 counties, Baltimore City, 

and the District of Columbia 3 

2. Physiographic provinces of Maryland 5 

3. Biotic sections of Maryland 6 

4. Distribution of Sorex cinereus fontinalis and S. c. cinereus 17 

5. Distribution of Sorex longirostris longirostris 21 

6. Distribution of Sorex fumeus fumeus 24 

7. Distribution of Sorex dispar dispar 26 

8. Distribution of Microsorex hoyi winnemana 27 

9. Distribution of Blarina brevicauda kirllandi 29 

10. Distribution of Cryptotis parva parva 33 

11. Distribution of Parascalops breweri 35 

12. Distribution of Scalopus aquaticus aquaticus 37 

13. Distribution of Condylura cristata cristata 40 

14. Distribution of Myotis lucifugus lucifugus 42 

15. Distribution of Myotis keenii septentrionalis 44 

16. Distribution of Myotis sodalis 45 









Distribution of Myotis subulatus leibii 

Distribution of Lasionycteris noctivagans 

Distribution of Pipistrellus subflavus subflavus 

Distribution of Eptesicus fuscus fuscus 

Distribution of Lasiurus borealis borealis 

Distribution of Lasiurus cinereus cinereus 

Distribution of Nyciiceius humeralis humeralis 

Distribution of Sylvilagus floridanus mallurus 

Distribution of Lepus americanus virginianus 

Distribution of Tamias slriatus fisheri and T. s. lysteri 

Distribution of Marmota monax monax 

Distribution of Sciurus carolinensis pennsylvanicus 

Distribution of Sciurus niger cinereus and S. n. vulpinus 

Distribution of Tamiasciurus hudsonicus loquax 

Distribution of Glaucomys volans volans 

Distribution of Oryzomys palustris palustris 

Distribution of Reithrodontomys humulis virginianus 

Distribution of Peromyscus maniculatus nubiterrae and P. m. 


Distribution of Peromyscus leucopus noveboracensis 

Distribution of Neotoma floridana magister 

Distribution of Clethrionomys gapperi gapperi 

Distribution of Microtus pennsylvanicus pennsylvanicus and 

M. p. nigrans 

Distribution of Pitymys pinetorum scalopsoides 

Distribution of Ondatra zibethicus 

Distribution of Synaptomys cooperi stonei 

Distribution of Zapus hudsonius americanus 

Distribution of Napaeozapus insignis insignis 

Distribution of Canis latrans 

Distribution of Vulpes vulpes fulva 

Distribution of Urocyon cinereoargenteus cinereoargenteus 

Distribution of Procyon lotor lotor 

Distribution of Mustela erminea cicognanii 

Distribution of Mustela frenata noveboracensis 

Distribution of Mustela vison 

Distribution of Mephitis mephitis nigra 

Distribution of Spilogale putorius putorius 

Distribution of Lutra canadensis 

Distribution of Lynx rufus rufus 









In 1950, Marshall C. Gardner (1950a, 1950b) began the first com- 
prehensive listing of Maryland mammals, but he completed only the 
sections dealing with marsupials, insectivores, and bats. This has been 
the only statewide study of Maryland mammals ever undertaken, al- 
though a number of sectional accounts have appeared, including those 
by Goldman and Jackson (1939), Bures (1948), Hampe (1939), and 
Bailey (1923). In addition, Mansueti (1950) treated in detail the 
extinct and vanishing species of the State. 

The present survey originated in the mid-1950's, but intensive work 
on it was not begun until 1962. During the course of the study, field 
work was conducted in all parts of the State except the Allegheny 
Mountain section. Specimens collected during this field work, and the 
large series of Maryland mammal specimens available in the national 
collections, form the basis for the present survey. In the "specimens 
examined" sections of the following accounts, the specimens are in 
the collections housed in the U.S. National Museum unless otherwise 
noted. Abbreviations used in the text for other institutions from which 
material has been examined are K.U. for Museum of Natural History, 
University of Kansas, U. Mich, for Museum of Zoology, University of 
Michigan, and U. Md. for University of Maryland. All measurements 
given in the accounts are in millimeters. 

Several species are included in the body of the text for which there 
are as yet no valid records for the State. These have been indicated by 
placing the common names in parentheses. They are included because 
of the virtual certainty that they are a part of Maryland's mammal 
fauna. Of one of these species, a specimen was taken in West Virginia 
only a few feet from the Maryland state line; as for the others, Mary- 
land contains abundant suitable habitat and they are known to occur 
both north and south of the State. 

Distribution maps have been prepared for all land species except 
introduced forms and certain ones that have been restocked or are 
so widespread in distribution that they have been recorded from every 
county in the State. On the maps, crosshatched areas represent probable 
distribution, shaded symbols indicate specimens examined, unshaded 
symbols indicate published records or other reports that appear to be 
valid, and an unshaded symbol with a dot in the center indicates a type 



locality. When more than one species or subspecies is represented on a 
single map, circles and triangles are used to distinguish them, and the 
crosshatchings representing their probable distributions run in dif- 
ferent directions. 

I want to express my thanks to Theodore A. Bookhout and Vagn 
Flyger of the University of Maryland's Natural Resources Institute 
for contributing a number of Maryland mammal records. I also want 
to acknowledge my gratitude to the late Romeo Mansueti of the 
Chesapeake Biological Laboratory, Solomons, Md., for his encourage- 
ment and advice on a number of distributional problems. 


Maryland lies between the parallels of 35° 53' and 39° 44' north 
latitude and the meridians 75° 4' and 79° 29' west longitude. It is 
bounded on the north by the State of Pennsylvania and on the east by 
the State of Delaware and the Atlantic Ocean. The southern boundary 
of the State is the Potomac River which separates it from Virginia and 
West Virginia. West Virginia also borders Maryland on the west. The 
District of Columbia is a political entity on the Potomac, between 
Prince Georges and Montgomery counties, Maryland. It is not physio- 
graphically distinct from Maryland in any way, and herein is regarded 
as a part of Maryland. 

The Maryland Geological Survey lists the total area of the State as 
12,300.21 square miles, of which 2,437 square miles are water. Thus the 
total land area of Maryland is 9,863.21 square miles, making the State 
the eighth smallest in the Union. The area of the District of Columbia 
is some 70 square miles, of which 8 are water. 

Maryland extends in a general ESE-WNW direction for about 320 
miles; the greatest north-south distance is approximately 150 miles. 
The State is actually a narrow cross section of the Coastal Plain, 
the Piedmont Plateau, and the Appalachian ridges. Elevations pass 
gradually from sea level to 3,342 feet on Backbone Mountain in Garrett 

Geologically, Maryland varies greatly. Formations range from the 
most ancient granite and gneiss, through rocks of every age and great 
mineralogical diversity down to the coastal deposits of Recent times. 
Overlying these rock formations are a great diversity of soils. In con- 
trast to its more northern neighbors, Maryland has never been 




IQITY| •>,^. 

D.c> c. 5"5:i'',st'"-' 

'GEORGES -<; ' Cof-f ^ 

\ • DORCHESTf... 


> ^y 

Figure 1. — Map of Maryland showing the 23 counties, Baltimore City, and the 

District of Columbia. 


The mean annual temperature for Maryland is 53 to 54 degrees. It 
varies from area to area, the greatest difference being between Worces- 
ter County on the Eastern Shore and Garrett County in the Alle- 
gheny Mountains: according to Shreve et al. (1910), the average an- 
nual temperature at Sunnyside in Garrett County is 47.1 degrees, 
whereas at Pocomoke City in Worcester County it is 58, a difference 
of 11 degrees. At intermediate points the average annual temperatures 
are also intermediate ; the differences that exist are due to such factors 
as elevation and proximity to the ocean and Chesapeake Bay. The 
average date for the last killing frost in spring in western Maryland 
is the first week in May ; farther east it is the last 10 days of April. 
In western Maryland the average time for the first killing frost in 
autumn is late September ; in the eastern part of the State it is early 


Precipitation is distributed throughout the year, but with a some- 
what greater amount in the warmer months than in the cold season. 
The heaviest rainfall, from 38 to 46 inches, occurs in western Maryland. 


The Coastal Plain receives between 40 and 44 inches each year. Calvert 
County is one of the driest areas of the State and receives only about 
36 inches yearly. 


Maryland, like most other eastern States, has no truly virgin areas. 
Even in the remotest regions of the western part of the State, logging 
has been conducted, and fields and pastures range well up onto the sides 
of the mountains. Some of the wildest parts of the State, until quite 
recently, were the marshes that lined both the eastern and the western 
sides of Chesapeake Bay and those along the Atlantic Ocean. With the 
expanding populations of both Washington and Baltimore seeking 
areas for summer recreation, many of these marshes are being drained 
and "improved" for human habitation. In addition, easy access is now 
available to the outer barrier beach on Assateague Island. The subur- 
ban communities of all the larger cities of the State are spreading 
farther and farther into the countryside and have eliminated some 
fine woods, swamps, and meadows. This is particularly true of Balti- 
more and Washington, the suburbs of which now extend 25 miles or 
more into the surrounding country. As a result, the site where the only 
specimen of the rare pigmy shrew, Microsorex hoyi loinnemana, has 
ever been taken in Maryland is iiow part of a housing project, and the 
southeasternmost Coastal Plain locality for the southern bog lemming, 
Synaptomys cooperi^ has met the same fate. Nevertheless, a number 
of areas remain in Maryland which are relatively isolated and which 
support a varied and abundant mammal fauna. Some species, such as 
the white-tailed deer and the cottontail rabbit, have actually profited 
by the changes man has brought to the State. 


Maryland lies in 5 major physiographic provinces (Fenneman, 
1938) : Coastal Plain, Piedmont, Blue Ridge, Ridge and Valley, and 
Appalachian Plateaus. 

There are three major forest regions (as described by Braun, 1950) 
in Maryland which correspond roughly to these physiographic prov- 
inces. They are the Oak-Pine Forest, the Oak-Chestnut Forest, and the 
Mixed Mesophytic Forest. Stewart and Robbins (1958) divide these 
major forest regions of Maryland into biotic or natural sections that 
represent areas showing floral or faunal differences of a secondary 
nature. They divide the Oak-Pine Forest region into an Eastern Shore 
section, an Upper Chesapeake Bay section, and a Western Shore sec- 



^^ Appalachian Plateaus 

[ [ Ridge and Va 1 ley 

^^ Blue Ridge 

^^a Piedmont 

I Coastal Plain 

Figure 2. — Physiographic provinces of Maryland. 

tion. The Oak-Chestnut Forest region is split into a Piedmont section 
and a Ridge and Valley section, while the Allegheny Mountain section 
comprises the Mixed Mesophytic Forest region in Maryland. 

In general, mammal distribution in Maryland correlates well with 
these natural areas or sections, and reference is made to them through- 
out the text. An exception is that of the Upper Chesapeake Bay section 
(comprising the northern portion of the Eastern Shore, and the Coas- 
tal Plain of Baltimore and Harford counties) which seems to be too 
weakly differentiated as a biotic area from adjacent sections to have 
any relevance with regard to mammal distribution. This section has 
been deleted herein, the northern portion of the Eastern Shore being 
assigned to the Eastern Shore section, and the Coastal Plain of Balti- 
more and Harford counties being treated as part of the Western Shore 

The following is primarily a condensation of Stewart and Robbins' 
description of Maryland's biotic sections. 

Eastern Shore Section 

The upland forests of this section are composed chiefly of loblolly 
pine {Pinus tcueda) stands and oak-hickory forests or a mixture of the 
two. Along the tidal marshes, loblolly pine is found generally without 
deciduous associates. The Eastern Shore section is poorly drained and 


FiGUBE 3. — Biotic sections of Maryland. 

there are many upland and lowland swamps in which occur sweetgum 
{Liquidamhar styracvflua) ^ blackgum {Nyssa slyvatica), red maple 
(Acer ruhrum) , pin oak {Quercus palustis), and American holly (Ilex 
opaca) . Along the Pocomoke River there are many plants with south- 
ern affinities such as bald cypress (Taeodium distichum) , red bay 
(Persea horbonia), horse-sugar {Symplocos tinctoria), water oak 
{Quercus nigra) ^ cross vine {Bignonia capreolata)^ and laurel-leaved 
greenbriar {Smilax laurifolia) . In the northern part of this section the 
upland forests are almost entirely deciduous and of the oak-hickory 
type. In addition there are such habitats as barrier beaches, salt 
marshes, and brackish marshes. Elevation is under 100 feet, and the 
topography is flat. 

Western Shore Section 

The upland forests of the Western Shore section are composed of 
scrub pine {Pinus virginiana) stands, oak-hickory forests, or a mix- 
ture of the two. In the southern part loblolly pine is common, and in 
the sandy soil of the northern part pitch pine (Pinus rigida) fre- 
quently predominates. Rich moist upland forests of white oak 
{Quercus alba) and tulip poplar {Liriodendron tulipifera) occur lo- 
cally throughout the section. Small seepage areas are frequent and 
usually support an upland swamp forest type that contains a well- 


developed understory. Flood-plain forests are particularly luxuriant 
in the Western Shore section. Tidal marshes are commonly found 
around the numerous estuaries. Elevation is from 100 to 300 feet, and 
the topography is rolling. 

Piedmont Section 

The Piedmont section occupies the area of the Piedmont physiologi- 
cal province (Fenneman, 1938) and a small part of the Coastal Plain 
known as Elk Neck in Cecil County. The forests in this section con- 
sist mostly of white oak, black oak {Quercus velutina), tulip poplar, 
smoothbarked hickories (Carya sp.), and flowering dogwood (Comus 
florida). In some areas chestnut oak {QiterciLS prmus) or scarlet oak 
{Quercus coccinea) is common, and occasionally stands of scrub pine 
or pitch pine are found. Beech {Fagus grandifolia) is often encoun- 
tered on ravine slopes, and mixed mesophytic forest communities occur 
in some of the larger valleys with steep north slopes. These communi- 
ties contain a mixture of central and northern hardwoods and some- 
times hemlock {Tsuga canadensis). Elevations in this section range 
between 300 and 800 feet, and the topography is gently rolling. Much 
of the land has been cleared for farming. 

Ridge and Valley Section 

Chestnut oak is the common tree throughout most of the section, 
and in the higher elevations it is often found in nearly pure stands. 
In dry areas and on slopes with southern or western exposure there is 
scarlet oak, interspersed with occasional stands of scrub pine, pitch 
pine, or Table Mountain pine (Pinus pungens) . Most of the ravines 
and steep northern slopes are occupied by mixed mesophytic forest 
communities in which the common species are hemlock, white pine 
{Pinus strobus)^ beech, sweet birch {Betula lenta), basswood {Tilia 
americana), sugar maple {Acer saccharum), tulip poplar, white oak, 
and northern red oak {Quercus rubra). On the valley floors, white 
oak, black oak, tulip poplar, and flowering dogwood communities 
occur. Groves of red cedar {Juniperus virginiana) are found in the 
limestone areas of the Hagerstown Valley. The section consists of a 
series of parallel ridges that range up to 2,000 feet in elevation. 

Allegheny Mountain Section 

This area is a high, undulating plateau, averaging about 2,500 feet 
above sea level. Several ridges, some 500 feet high, cross this plateau 
diagonally from northeast to southwest. The highest point in the 
State, Backbone Mountain (3,342 feet), is in this section. Hemlock 


and white pine are occasionally encountered on the slopes and in the 
valleys, but deciduous trees predominate. These include sweet birch, 
sugar maple, red maple, black cherry {Prunus serotina), basswood, 
beech, shagbark hickory ( Carya ovata) , white oak, and northern red 
oak. On higher ridges, northern red oak and red maple predominate, 
with chestnut oaks, black oak, and yellow birch {Betul<i lutea) inter- 
spersed. Scattered red spruce {Picea ruhens) is sometimes also found. 
In valleys above 2,400 feet, there are some relict bogs consisting of 
sedge meadows and bog heaths interspersed with patches of alder 
{Alnus sp.), great laurel {Rhododendron maxim/am)^ red spruce, 
hemlock, yellow birch, and red maple. 


These biotic sections of Maryland are not suflSciently differentiated 
to support widely divergent mammalian populations. Some forms are 
confined to one or two sections of the State, but in general the mam- 
malian fauna does not differ greatly from section to section. The 
average-fauna formula (Long, 1963) discussed below, reveals that 
the most significant division in the State is between the Piedmont sec- 
tion and the Ridge and Valley section. The most diversified mam- 
malian fauna is in the Allegheny Mountain section, the most impov- 
erished in the Eastern Shore section. 

Long (1963, p. 139) recommends the average-fauna formula, 20 
(100)/(Ni-|-N2), for deriving a numerical expression of the faunal 
resemblance of one area to another (in this formula, 6^= number of 
kinds common to both faunas, iVi= number of kinds in smaller fauna, 
iV^2= number of kinds in larger fauna). Using this formula, and sub- 
stituting the number of species and subspecies for each section of 
Maryland, the following comparisons were obtained : 



Ridge and 


Eastern Shore 






Western Shore -_ 


Piedmont _ _ 


Ridge and Valley. 


These percentages show, as is to be expected in an area of this small 
size, that the marmnal fauna of all the sections of Maryland rather 
closely resemble one another. Naturally, the most distant sections of 
the State geographically and ecologically, the Allegheny Mountain 
and the Eastern Shore, differ the most faunistically. Nevertheless 75 
percent of the species and subspecies are common to both sections. The 


closest resemblance between two sections is that between the Western 
Shore and the Piedmont. Surprisingly, the two Coastal Plain sections, 
the Western Shore and the Eastern Shore, show slightly less resem- 
blance to each other. This is probably due to the isolating effect of 
the Chesapeake Bay on the Eastern Shore. 

The percentages show clearly that the Allegheny Mountain and 
Ridge and Valley sections have close faunal resemblance, and that 
as a unit they stand somewhat apart from the three eastern sections. 
Thus, while the resemblance ratio of the Eastern Shore to the Western 
Shore is 90 percent, and that of the Western Shore to the Piedmont 
is 92 percent, the Piedmont has a resemblance to the neighboring Ridge 
and Valley section of only 83 percent. The resemblance of the Ridge 
and Valley to its neighboring Allegheny Mountain section returns 
to 87 percent, indicating that these two sections differ to some extent 
from the three eastern sections, which in turn appear to form a 
closely allied mammalian fauna unit. Therefore, the most strongly 
marked division with regard to mammal distribution in Maryland is 
that between the gently rolling Piedmont of Montgomery, Howard, 
Baltimore, Harford, Carroll, and eastern Frederick Counties and the 
upland Blue Ridge Mountains (Ridge and Valley section) to the west 
in Washington and western Frederick Counties. 

Taken as a whole, Maryland's mammal fauna seems to be more 
northern than southern in origin. Only a few distinctly southern 
species (represented usually by small numbers of individuals) reach 
Maryland. Some of these are Reithrodontomys humulis, Sorex longi- 
rost?n.s, and SpUogale putorius. On the other hand, a number of 
distinctly northern species reach south to Maryland {Sorex cinereus, 
Mustela. erminea, Lejms americanus, Tamiasciurus hudsonicus, and 
a number of others) and extend even farther south, particularly in 
the Appalachian Mountains, where many of them range as far south 
as North Carolina and Tennessee. 


The following keys employ external and easily observable or measur- 
able characters when possible. In a few instances it has been necessary 
to resort to dental characters when external ones were not sufficiently 
marked to separate forms. The keys are designed for use on adult 
animals only. 

Key to the Orders of Maryland Land Mammals 

la. Forelimbs modified as wings Chiroptera (bats) 

b. Forelimbs not modified as wings 2 

2a. Feet provided with hoofs Artiodactyla (even-toed hoofed mammals) 

b. Feet provided with claws ^ 


3a. Canine teeth absent; incisors chisel-like 4 

b. Canine teeth present ; incisors not chisel-like 5 

4o. Upper incisors 2-2 Lagomorpha (rabbits, hares, etc.) 

b. Upper incisors 1-1 Rodentia (gnawing mammals) 

5a. Canine teeth similar in appearance to other teeth ; eyes inconspicuous 

Insectivora (moles, shrews, etc.) 

b. Canine teeth well developed ; eyes not rudimentary 6 

6a. Tail prehensile; first digit on fore and hind limbs opposable; abdominal 

pouch present in female Marsupialia (pouched mammals) 

b. Tail not prehensile; first digit not opposable; no abdominal pouch pres- 
ent Carnivora (flesh eating mammals) 

Key to the Order Insectivora in Maryland 

la. Forefeet greatly enlarged and adapted for digging 9 

b. Forefeet similar in size to hind feet and not adapted for digging 2 

2a. Tail short, less than 25 percent of total length of animal 3 

b. Tail long, more than 30 percent of total length of animal 4 

3a. Coloration grayish; size more than 100 mm.; 32 teeth in mouth 

Blarina brevicauda (short-tailed shrew) 
6. Coloration brownish; size small, less than 100 mm.; 30 teeth in mouth 

Cryptotis parva (least shrew) 
4a. Third and fifth upper unicuspid teeth minute so that only three of the 
five upper unicuspids are visible when skull is viewed laterally 

Microsorex hoyi (pigmy shrew) 
6. Only fifth unicuspid tooth in upper jaw minute so that four unicuspids 

are visible when skull is viewed laterally 5 

5a. Total length 145 mm. or more; hind feet large and fringed with stiff 
hairs; third and fourth toes of hind feet thinly webbed for about half 

their length Sorex palustris (water shrew) 

6. Total length 135 mm. or less; hind feet not conspicuously large and not 

fringed with stiff hairs ; no webbing on any toes 6 

6a. Tail more than 55 mm. in length; coloration uniform dark gray through- 
out Sorex dispar (long-tailed shrew) 

b. Tail less than 55 mm. in total length; coloration not uniformly dark 

gray 7 

7a. Total length greater than 110 mm Sorex fumeus (smoky shrew) 

b. Total length under 100 mm 8 

8a. Coloration reddish brown Sorex longirostris (southeastern shrew) 

b. Coloration dull brown or grayish brown Sorex cinereus (masked shrew) 

9a. Snout fringed with fleshy projections; tail long, more than 50 mm. in 

length Condylura cristata (star-nosed mole) 

b. Snout not fringed with fleshy projections; tail less than 40 mm. in 

length 10 

10a. Tail thin, flesh-colored and scantily haired 

Scalopus aquaticus (eastern mole) 
b. Tail thick, blackish and well haired 

Parascalopif breweri (hairy-tailed mole) 

Key to the Order Chiroptera in Maryland 

la. Interfemoral membrane wholly or partially furred on upper surface 2 

b. Interfemoral membrane not furred on upper surface 4 


2a. Coloration reddish-orange Lasiurus borealis (red bat) 

b. Coloration brownish to black, frosted with white 3 

da. Total length greater than 125 mm.; interfemoral membrane wholly 
furred; coloration brownish, heavily frosted with white; individual 

hairs banded Lasiurus cinereus (hoary bat) 

b. Total length less than 120mm.; interfemoral membrane only partially 
furred; coloration blackish, lightly frosted with white; individual hairs 

not banded Lasionycteris noctivagans (silver-haired bat) 

4a. Ears reaching considerably beyond end of nose when laid forward 5 

b. Ears not reaching noticeably beyond end of nose when laid forward 6 

5o. Ears greatly enlarged, over 35 mm. from crown in length 

Plecotus townsendii (big-eared bat) 

b. Ears not noticeably enlarged Myotis keenii (Keen myotis) 

6a. Over 100 mm. in total length Eptesicus fuscus (big brown bat) 

b. Under 100 mm. in total length 7 

7a. Under 85 mm. in total length; distinct black facial mask 

Myotis subulatus (small-footed myotis) 

b. Over 85 mm. in total length; no black facial mask 8 

8c. Pale golden brown in coloration; nose, ears, and wings reddish-brown 

Pipistrellus subflavus (eastern pipistrelle) 

b. Coloration dark brown ; ears, nose, and wings nearly black 9 

9a. Fur long, thick, and shiny Myotis lucifugus (little brown bat) 

6. Fur short, dull and sparse 10 

10a. Coloration dark brown; ears thick and leathery 

Nycticeius humeralis (evening bat) 
b. Coloration pinkish brown; ears not thick and leathery 

Myotis sodalis (Indiana myotis) 

Key to the Order Lagomorpha in Maryland 

la. Length of hind foot greater than 115 mm (as much as 150 mm. in some 
specimens) ; coloration white in winter 

Lepus americanus (showshoe rabbit) 
b. Length of hind foot less than 115 mm.; coloration brownish in all 

seasons 2 

2a. Black on forward edge of ear sharply defined from brown of rest of 
ear; distinct black patch betweep ears 

Sylvilagus transitionalis (New England cottontail) 
b. Black on forward edge of ear not sharply defined; no dark patch 

between ears Sylvilagus floridanus (eastern cottontail) 

Key to the Order Rodentia in Maryland 

la. Upper incisors with longitudinal grooves 2 

b. Upper incisors withovit longitudinal grooves 5 

2a. Tail very short, equal to about one-sixth of total length 

Synaptomys cooperi (southern bog lemming) 

b. Tail longer than one-sixth of total length 3 

3a. Tail less than one-half of total length 

Reithrodontomys humulis (harvest mouse) 
b. Tail greater than one-half of total length 4 


4a. Coloration of sides orange; tail often tipped with white 

Napaeozapus insignis (woodland jumping mouse) 
h. Coloration of sides yellowish; tail never tipped with white 

Zapus hudsonius (meadow jumping mouse) 

5a. Tail bushy 6 

b. Tail not bushy 10 

6a. Fore and hind limbs connected by a loose fold of skin ; adapting the ani- 
mal for gliding Glaucomys volans (southern flying squirrel) 

b. Fore and hind limbs not connected by a loose fold of skin 7 

7a. Tail less than one-quarter of the total length. _ Marmota monax (woodchuck) 

b. Tail greater than one-third of the total length 8 

8a. Coloration reddish-brown above; under 325 mm. in total length 

Tamiasciurus hudsonicus (red squirrel) 

b. Coloration not reddish-brown ; over 325 mm. in total length 9 

9a. Coloration of upper parts gray, darker along middle of back; under 
550 mm. in total length; upper premolars 2-2 

Sciurus carolinensis (gray squirrel) 
b. Coloration of upper parts variable-grayish, reddish, or buflfy, but sides 
not noticeably paler than back; over 550 mm. in total length; upper 

premolars 1-1 Sciurus niger (fox squirrel) 

10a. Coloration on back reddish, marked with several longitudinal black and 

white stripes Tamias striatus (eastern chipmunk) 

6. Back not striped 11 

11a. Tail flattened horizontally, paddle-like Castor canadensis (beaver) 

b. Tail not horizontally flattened 12 

12a. Tail compressed laterally Ondatra zibethicus (muskrat) 

b. Tail not compressed laterally 13 

13a. Total length over 325 mm 14 

6. Total length less than 275 mm 17 

14o. Total length over 500 mm.; aquatic in habits.- Myocastor coy pus (nutria) 

b. Total length less than 500 mm 15 

15a. Tail length equal to, or more than, half total length of animal 

Rattus rattus (black rat) 

b. Tail length less than half total length 16 

16a. Tail well haired, and not conspicuously scaly 

Neotoma floridana (eastern woodrat) 
b. Tail scantily haired and noticeably scaly. Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) 
17a. Tail very short, equal to about one-sixth of total length 

Pitymys pinetorum (pine vole) 

6. Tail longer than one-sixth of total length IS 

18a. Tail only moderately short, equal to about one-third of the total length. . 19 

b. Tail longer than one-third of total length 20 

19a. Back marked with a wide band of dull red from forehead to rump 

Clethrionomys gapperi (red-backed vole) 
b. Back dark brown to nearly black.. Microtus pennsylvanicus (meadow vole) 
20a. Line of demarcation between coloration of back and abdomen indistinct ; 

coloration often uniform gray throughout.. Mus musculus (house mouse) 
b. Sharp line of demarcation between coloration of back and abdomen; 

abdomen always white 21 

21a. Total length over 225 mm Oryzomys palustris (rice rat) 

b. Total length under 200 mm 22 


22a. Coloration on back chestnut brown 

Peromyscus leucopus (white-footed mouse) 
6. Coloration on back grayish brown. _ Peromyscus maniculatus (deer mouse) 

Key to the Order Carnivora in Maryland 

la. Coloration black, or black and white 2 

h. Coloration not black 4 

2o. Size large, over 1,200 mm. in total length; tail short and not bushy 

Euarctos americanus (black bear) 

b. Under 800 mm. in total length; tail long and bushy 3 

3a. Upper parts marked with no more than two white stripes 

Mephitis mephitis (striped skunk) 
b. Upper parts marked with four or more white stripes 

Spilogale putorius (spotted skunk) 

4a. Black facial mask ; tail ringed Procyon lotor (raccoon) 

b. No black facial mask ; tail not ringed 5 

5a. Total length under 700 mm 6 

b. Total length over 900 mm 9 

6a. Underparts brown except for white spots on chin and throat 

Mustela vison (mink) 

b. Underparts whitish or yellowish 7 

7a. No black tail tip; tail less than one-quarter of total length 

Mustela nivalis (least weasel) 

b. Black tail tip ; tail more than one-quarter of total length 8 

8a. Black tail tip nearly 50 percent of tail vertebrae length 

Mustela erminea (ermine) 
b. Black tail tip 40 percent or less of tail vertebrae length 

Mustela frenata (long-tailed weasel) 
9a. Claws retractile; pupils of eyes elliptical; tail short, less than 165 mm 

Lynx rufus (bobcat) 
6. Claws not retractile; pupils of eyes not elliptical; tail long, over 300 

mm 10 

10a. Toes of fore and hind feet webbed; tail thick and heavy; aquatic in 

habits Lutra canadensis (otter) 

b. Toes not webbed; tail not thick and heavy; not aquatic in habits 11 

1 lo. Coloration reddish ; tail tip white Vulpes vulpes (red fox) 

b. Coloration grizzled grayish; no white tail tip 12 

12a. Total length over 1,050 mm Canis latrans (coyote) 

b. Total length under 1,050 mm Urocyon cinereoargenteus (gray fox) 

Key to the Order Artiodactyla in Maryland 

la. Back brownish, or reddish-olive in coloration, speckled with indistinct 
white blotches; antlers narrow and standing erect above head; small 

canine teeth in upper jaws Cervus nippon (Sika deer) 

b. Back reddish-brown (summer) or grayish (winter) in coloration, not 
speckled; antlers heavy, and curving forward over head; no canine 
teeth present in upper jaws Odocoileus virginianus (Virginia deer) 

336-897 O — 69- 



Order MARSUPIALIA (pouched mammals) 

Family DIDELPHIDAE (opossums) 

Didelphis marsupialis virginiana Kerr 

Didelphis virginicma Kerr, The animal kingdom . . ., p. 193, 1792. 

Type locality. — Virginia. 

General distribution. — In the eastern United States from Vermont, New York, 
central Michigan, Wisconsin, and Minnesota, south to central Georgia, Alabama, 
Mississippi, Louisiana, and Texas. 

Distribution in Maryland. — Occurs abundantly in all sections of 
the State. 

Distinguishing characteristics.- — -Teeth 5/4, 1/1, 3/3, 4/4, — 50; tail 
naked and prehensile; five toes on each foot, the first on each hind 
foot clawless and thumblike; outer hair long and coarse, underfur 
short and soft; general coloration grizzled-grayish. 

Meam/reinents. — Three adults from Cabin John, Montgomery 
County, measure: Total length 780, 737, 795; tail vertebrae 298, 325, 
333; hind foot 70, 63, 70; greatest length of skull 117.7, 98.6, 111; 
zygomatic breadth 63.5, 53.5, 54.7. 

Habitat and habits. — The opossiun prefers densely forested areas. 
Llewellyn and Dale (1964, pp. 120-121) found that at the Patuxent 
Research Center, near Laurel, Prince Georges County, this species was 
primarily an animal of the low, dense woodland, favoring sections 
near water. They found that well-drained upland woods were less 
desirable, and the open cleared or cultivated lands seemed to be of 
slight value for the opossum. Nevertheless, it will frequently wander 
into meadows and cultivated fields in search of food. The prehensile tail 
and opposable first toe on the hind foot make this animal almost as 
much at home in trees as on the ground. 

The opossum apparently does not favor the pine woods and salt 
marshes along the Atlantic coast. One specimen was taken on the 
Virginia portion of Assateague Island in the early 1930's, but local 
residents report that none have been seen there in a number of years. 

The species is abundant in the Rock Creek Park area of the District 
of Columbia, often wandering into nearby regions of the city at night, 
searching for food and sometimes nimmaging in garbage pails in 
residential areas considerably distant from the wooded areas. One 
such wanderer recently made his abode in the backyard of a row- 
house near the center of the city where he remained for many weeks, 


visiting a nearby porch in the evenings to eat the pet food set out by 
the owner for her cat. 

The opossum is a marsupial, distantly related to such animals as the 
kangaroo and the koala of Australia. It gives birth to live young, but 
the young are bom in a premature condition and are nursed in the 
pouch or marsupium of the mother. When born, they are naked or 
grublike in appearance, but the forelimbs are well enough developed 
to be used for crawling into the pouoh. Development is rapid in the 
pouch, and within 4 to 5 weeks the young are ready to leave for short 
periods. Llewellyn and Dale (1964, pp. 118-121) found that in Mary- 
land the opossum begins to breed in early February, and young are 
found in the pouch until August. Hartman (1952, p. 73) estimates the 
gestation period as slightly under 13 days. Evidently two litters are 
produced during a breeding season, but the first litter accounts for 
the majority of young. Llewellyn and Dale found that the average 
number of young for 57 litters in pouch was 7.74. 

The opossum makes its home in almost any shelter where it can be 
dry and safe from enemies. This may be mider sheds or buildings, in 
brush piles, or in holes in trees. In its eating habits the opossum is as 
unselective as it is in finding a shelter. Hartman (1952, p. 62) lists 
the frequency of foods taken in the following order: insects, fruits, 
invertebrates (other than insects), mammals, reptiles, grains, birds, 
and eggs. It also eats carrion. 

Specimens examined. — Montgomery County: Bethesda, 2; Boyds, 
1; Cabin John, 3; Plummers Island, 2; no exact locality, 2. Prince 
Georges County: Beltsville, 2; Bladensburg, 1 ; Branchville, 4; Green- 
belt, 2 ; Laurel, 36 ; Patuxent Research Center, 2 ; T.B., 1. District of 
Columbia: 25. 

Other records and reports. — Opossums have been killed in every 
Maryland county (LeCompte, 1942). 

Remarks. — As noted by Gardner (1950, p. 65), Maryland opossums 
are indistinguishable from Virginia topotypes of virginiana. 

Order INSECTIVORA (shrews, moles, etc.) 

Family SORICIDAE (shrews) 
Sorex cinereus Kerr 

This species closely resembles the southeastern shrew {Sorex longi- 
rostris) and the pigmy shrew [Microsorex hoyi). The differences 
between the masked shrew and these other species are discussed under 
the species accounts of the other two. 

There are two subspecies of Sorex cinereus in Maryland. These are : 


Sorex cinereus cinereus Kerr 

Soreas arcticus cinereus Kerr, The animal kingdom . . ., p. 206, 1792. 

Type locality. — Fort Severn, Ontario, Canada. 

General distribution. — This is a wide-ranging subspecies, distributed over 
much of the northern part of North America. In the eastern United States it 
ranges throughout New England, New Yorli, and western Pennsylvania, and 
south in the Appalachian Mountains to North Carolina. 

Distribution in Maryland. — Kidge and Valley, and Allegheny Moun- 
tain sections. (See fig. 4.) 

Distinguishing characteristics. — Teeth 3/1, 1/1, 3/1, 3/3, = 32; third 
unicuspid usually larger than, or equal in size to, fourth unicuspid; 
size very small; snout elongated and pointed; tail long, slightly less 
than half the total length of the animal; ears short and hidden in fur; 
coloration in winter pelage dark brown to almost black on upper parts, 
lighter brown or grayish on underparts ; in summer, coloration is some- 
what lighter and more brownish. 

Measurements. — An adult female from 9 miles east of Oldtown, 
Allegany County, measures : Total length 88 ; tail 40 ; hind foot 1 1 ; 
ear 7; condylobasal length of skull 15.7; cranial breadth 7.4; inter- 
orbital breadth 2.3; maxillary breadth 3.9; crown length of upp^r 
toothrow (exclusive of first incisors) 5.4. 

Habitat and habits. — This shrew is most common around rocks in 
moist or damp coniferous or deciduous woods. Sometimes it lives in 
grassy bogs and swamps, but rarely if ever in dry fields or woods 

The nest is located on or near the surface of the ground, in a cavity 
under a log, rock, or other object. It is composed mainly of leaves, and 
in shape resembles a flattened sphere some 3 inches in diameter. In 
its ramblings this shrew utilizes surface runways that it constructs 
itself and subterranean runways that have been dug by mice. 

The masked shrew is a voracious eater and consumes a wide variety 
of foods. These include beetles, moths, caterpillars, bugs, flies, crickets, 
spiders, worms, and the flesh of mice and other shrews. It also eats 
some vegetable matter such as moss and seeds. 

Little is known of the breeding habits of the masked shrew. The 
breeding season may extend from March to September, and as many 
as three litters may be produced in a single season. The gestation period 
is probably about 18 days, and from 4 to 10 young are produced per 
litter, the usual number being 7. The male stays with the female before 
and after pregnancy and during the early development of the young. 
A young shrew is able to shift for itself within 20 to 25 days after its 

The shrew is physically strong for its size, but being extremely active 
it seems to bum itself out at an early age. Its longevity is probably 
not over 2 years if it is allowed to live its full life span. 



Sorex ainereus cinereus 
▲ Specimens examined 
A Specimens reported 

Sorex ainereus fontinalis 
Specimens examined 
O Specimens reported 

Figure 4. — Distribution of Sorex cinereus fontinaUs and 8. c. cinereus. 

Specimens examined. — Allegany County: Mount Savage, 1; Old- 
town, 3 miles E, 1 ; Oldtown, 9 miles E, 1. Garrett Gov/nty: Bittinger, 2; 
Cunningham Swamp, 4 (Coll. U. Md.) . 

Sorex cinereus fontinalis Hollister 

Sorex fontinalis Hollister, Proc. U.S. National Museum, 40: 378, 
17 April 1911. 

Type locality. — Cold Spring Swamp, near Beltsville, Prince Georges County, 

General (Hstrihution. — Piedmont and Coastal Plain of Pennsylvania, Maryland, 
ani northern Virginia. 

Distribution in Maryland. — Piedmont, Western Shore, and Eastern 
Shore sections. 

The characters of this race seem to be best developed in the lower 
Piedmont section near Washington, D.C. (near the type locality). 
Specimens from the Coastal Plain sections of the Eastern Shore and 
upper Western Shore are less typical and apparently represent inter- 
grades with S. c. cinereus., which is distributed to the northeast in New 
Jersey. In the upper Piedmont the subspecies intergrades with S. c. 
cinereus. No specimens of masked shrew have been taken in the 
southern part of the Western Shore section (Calvert, St. Marys, and 
Charles Counties) and perhaps the species does not range this far 
south in the State. 


Distinguishing characteristics. — This subspecies is very similar to 
S. c. cinsreus and differs from it only in minor details which are most 
evident on the skull. Externally, the only apparent differences are 
somewhat smaller size and shorter tail. The skull is smaller, with a 
narrower braincase and a shorter, relatively wider rostrum. The uni- 
cuspid toothrow is shorter than in S. c. cinereus^ and the teeth in the 
unicuspid row are more crowded. 

This subspecies of masked shrew closely resembles the southeastern 
shrew {Sorex longirostris) , which in the eastern United States reaches 
the northern limits of its range in Maryland. Differences between the 
two are discussed under the species account for Sorex longirostris. 

Measurements. — External measurements of eight adults from the 
vicinity of Rockville, Montgomery County, are as follows : Total length 
81.7 (76-89); tail vertebrae 33.7 (30-35); hind foot 10.6 (10-11). 
Cranial measurements of five adults from the vicinity of Rockville 
are: Condylobasal length 14.9 (14.7-15.2) ; cranial breadth 7.0 (6.7- 
7.1) ; least interorbital breadth 2.7 (2.6-2.8) ; maxillary breadth 4.1 
(4.0^.2) ; crown length of upper toothrow (exclusive of first incisors) 
5.5 (5.3-5.7). 

Habitat and habits. — Bures (1948, p. 62) collected 14 masked shrews 
(which he incorrectly believed to be Sorex longirostris) near Lake 
Roland, Baltimore County. He says that, with two exceptions, all of 
these shrews were taken in a mixed deciduous woods bordering a rail- 
road siding. Of the two exceptions, one was trapped in a dense tangle 
of sumac and honeysuckle bordering a marsh, and the other in similar 
habitat along a small stream paralleling Falls Road. He states that 
systematic trapping throughout the area confirmed his opinion that this 
shrew does not wander far from deciduous woods. Hampe ( 1939, p. 5) , 
however, trapped this shrew in the Patapsco State Park in the marshy 
pastures near Glenartney, and the type specimen of the subspecies 
was collected in a cold spring swamp in Prince Georges County. 

This shrew apparently does not occur on the outer barrier beaches 
of the Atlantic Coast. Many weeks of trapping there failed to produce 
a single specimen. It does inhabit the adjacent mainland, and the skull 
of one was found in an owl pellet on Mills Island in Chincoteague Bay, 
Worcester County. The shrew had undoubtedly been captured by the 
owl on the nearby mainland. 

Regarding the nesting habits and young of this species, Hampe 
(1936) writes that he examined the nest of one which was under a 
discarded trash-filled box among the leaves about 6 feet from the road 
between Glenartney and Vineyard, Baltimore County. It was com- 
posed of a small bundle of dried and broken leaves loosely packed in 
a small depression in the ground. It was fairly dry, but the surround- 
ing ground was very damp. This nest was found on 18 October 1936 


and contained six blind and hairless young. At the time of this dis- 
covery the young were probably a week old, and one of them measured 
43 mm. in total length with tail and hind foot measurements of 12 and 
6 mm. respectively. The nest was visited again in about 2 weeks, and 
the young had developed to a size of Y7 Tom. in total length with tail 
and hind foot measurements of 33 and 10 mm. They were well furred 
and quite active. When the nest was visited for the final time on 8 No- 
vember, only 3 young could be found, and they quickly scampered 
away into the surrounding brush. The mother was seen in the nest only 
when it wa^ first investigated on 18 October, and she scurried away 
very rapidly when the nest was opened. 

With regard to feeding and breeding habits of this race not much 
is known, but they probably are similar to those of Sorex c. cinereus. 
As with cinereiis, this subspecies appears to be cyclical as far as abund- 
ance in particular areas is concerned ; some years they are scarce, in 
others numerous. An example of how abundant these shrews may be 
in some years is provided by Kyle Barbehenn who collected 80 of them 
near Germantown, Montgomery County, between November 1958 and 
January 1959, and more than 150 near Rockville, Montgomery County, 
from February to April 1959. 

Specimens exammed. — Anne Arwndel Cownty: Annapolis, 3 miles 
NW, 1; Severn Run, 1. Baltimore County: Lake Roland, 11; Lock 
Raven, 5; Pretty Boy Reservoir (near Middletown), 1. Dorchester 
County: Cambridge, 1. Montgomery County: Ashton, 1; Bethesda, 
1; Cabin John, 1; Chevy Chase, 1; Germantown, 60; Glen Echo 
Heights, 1; Great Falls, 1; Rockville (near), 153; Sandy Spring, 1. 
Prince Georges County: Beltsville, 1; Bowie, 1; Hollywood, 1; Hy- 
attsville, 5 ; Landover, 1 ; Laurel, 3 ; Patuxent Wildlife Research Cen- 
ter, 3; Tuxedo, 1. Worcester County: Mills Island, 1 (from owl pellet). 

Other records and reports. — Kent County: Chestertown (U.S. Fish 
and Wildlife Service files) . Baltimore Coumty : Patapsco State Park 
(Hampe, 1936). 

Remarks. — This shrew was for many years considered a distinct spe- 
cies. Poole (1937, p. 96), however, showed that in Pennsylvania there 
is an unbroken gradation between this form and Sorex cinereus and 
that the two are only subspecifically separable. In Maryland, the most 
typical specimens of fontinalis are found in the vicinity of the type 
locality. Farther to the northwest, near Rockville and Germantown, 
Montgomery County, specimens, although still referable to fontinalis^ 
are somewhat larger than typical of the race, and are approaching 
cinereus. The real dividing line for the 2 subspecies in Maryland is 
that between the Piedmont and the Ridge and Valley sections, those 
to the west being referable to cinereus, those to the east to fontinalis. 
Specimens from north of Baltimore and from the Eastern Shore sec- 


tion also appear to be intergrading with jS. c. cmereus. S. c. fontinalis 
appears to represent the end of a cline with regard to small size, 
shortening of the rostrum, crowding of the unicuspid toothrow, and 
short tail. 

Maryland represents the southern terminus for the distribution of 
the species Sorex cinereits east of the Appalachian Mountains. 


Sorex longirostris longirostris Bachman 

Sorex longirostris Bachman, Journal Acad. Nat. Science, Philadel- 
phia, ser. 1,7(2): 370, 1837. 

Type locality. — Hume Plantations, swamps of the Santee River (= Cat Island, 
mouth of Santee River) , South Carolina. 

General distribution. — The southeastern United States from southern Mary- 
land and the District of Columbia to central Florida, and vrestvpard, around 
the southern end of the Appalachian Mountains to Kentucky, central Indiana, 
and Illinois. 

Distribution i/n Maryland. — The southern portion of the Western 
Shore section, and perhaps extending into the lower Piedmont section. 
Maryland is the northernmost limit of the distribution of the species 
in the eastern United States. 

Distinguishing ch/wacteristics. — This shrew may be easily confused 
with Sorex cinereus^ particularly the race fontinalis.^ and with Micro- 
sorex hoyi. It is distinguished from Sorex cinereus by the following : 
size smaller; tail shorter; coloration more reddish in winter pelage; 
feet smaller; rostrum short-er and blunter; unicuspid toothrow more 
crowded; and a greater tendency for the fourth unicuspid to exceed 
the third in size. From Microsorex hm/i it differs in a major dental 
character. In Microsorex the third upper unicuspid is minute and 
disk-like, and not visible when the jaw is seen in side view. The fifth 
unicuspid is also minute and not visible in side view, so that only 3 
unicuspids are visible laterally in the upper jaw, the first, second, and 
fourth. In Sorex longirostris (and Sorex eimereus) 4 or 5 unicuspids 
are always visible when the skull is viewed laterally. In addition, 
Sorex longirostris is somewhat larger, more reddish in coloration, 
and has a longer tail than Microsorex hoyi. 

Measurements. — One specimen from Chesapeake Beach, Calvert 
County, has the following cranial measurements : Condylobasal length 
14.3; cranial breadth 6.6; least interorbital breadth 2.9; maxillary 
breadth 4.1; crown length of upper toothrow (exclusive of first in- 
cisor) 5.1. 

Three specimens from Raleigh, N.C., average 82.6 mm. in total 
length and have an average tail lengtli of 30.2 mm. 



Sovex longipostris longirostris 
• Specimens examined 

FiGUBE 5. — Distribution of Sorex longirostris longirostris. 

Habitat amd habits. — Although this shrew prefers moist situations 
such as bogs and damp woods, it has on occasion been taken on com- 
paratively high ground. It is a rare species, and little is known of its 
habits, although they probably do not differ much from those of B. 
cinereus. An interesting sidelight on the specimen from Chesapeake 
Beach, Calvert County, is a notation on the original label that says 
"fell over cliffs to bayshore." 

Specimens examJmed, — Anne Arundel County: Shady side, 1. CaVvert 
Cov/nty: Camp Roosevelt, 2; Chesapeake Beach, 1. Prince Georges 
County: Hall, 1. District of Columbia : 1. 

Remarks. — It is interesting to note that, in the eastern United States 
at least, the ranges of Sorex cinereus and Sorex longirostris do not at 
present seem to overlap anywhere. North of a certain line (in Mary- 
land this line lies in the Western Shore section between Wasliington, 
D.C., and Shadyside, Anne Arundel County) all specimens collected 
have been S. cinereus., whereas south of this line S. longirostris only 
has been taken. There does not appear, however, to be any evidence of 
intergradation between the species. Specimens of S. longirostris from 
Calvert and Anne Armidel Counties, Md., are just as typical of that 
species as are those from farther south in North and South Carolina, 
whereas specimens from Rockville, only a few miles away, are clearly 
S. cinereus. That the two are distinct species is further demonstrated 


by the fact that both have been taken in the same field in central 

In all probability Sorex ciner&us will eventually be found to be a 
resident of the southern portion of the Western Shore section, and 
S. longirostris may be distributed through more of the Piedmont and 
northern Western Shore section than is currently indicated. 


Sorex palustris punctulatus Hooper 

Sorex falustris 'punctulatus Hooper, Occas. Papers Mus. Zool. Univ. 
Mich., 463 : 1, 15 September 1942. 

Type locality. — West Virginia, Randolph County, 6 miles northwest of Durbin, 
Shavers Fork of the Cheat River, 3,600 feet elevation. 

General distribution. — "Allegheny Mountains of eastern West Virginia, and 
probably also of southwestern Pennsylvania, western Maryland, and northwestern 
Virginia." (Hooper, l&i2, p. 1). 

Distribution in Maryland. — Not recorded for the State, but undoubt- 
edly occurs in the higher elevations of the Allegheny Mountain section. 

Distinguishing characteristics. — Largest of all the eastern long- 
tailed shrews; hind feet large, and with a fringe of stiff hairs; third 
and fourth hind toes joined by thin web at the base for slightly more 
than half their length; grizzled coloration on upper parts, and pale 
gray underparts in winter pelage; tail markedly bicolored. Tooth 
formula as in 8orex cinereus^ but third unicuspid smaller than fourth. 
This is an amphibious species, well adapted for an aquatic life. 

Measurements. — Hooper (1942) gives some measurements of the 
type and two paratypes (from Randolph and Preston Counties, 
W. Va.) as follows: Total length 152, 153, 155; tail 64, 70, 71; hind 

foot 19, 20, 20; condylobasal length of skull 21.1, 21.2, , cranial 

breadth 10.6, 10.3, ; interorbital breadth 3.9, 3.8, 3.9; maxillary 

breadth 6.5, 6.4, 6.5 ; maxillary toothrow 7.9, 8.0, 8.1. 

Habitat and habits. — This species prefers very wet areas along the 
borders of streams, lakes, and ponds. Often it is found in marshes 
and bogs, and in beaver and muskrat houses, particularly in winter. 
It favors heavily wooded areas and is rarely found in marehes that 
are devoid of bushes or trees. According to Hooper (1942), the type 
specimen of the subspecies punHidatus was collected under a log at 
the base of a yellow birch sapling, in a forest of spruce, hemlock, yel- 
low birch, maple, and beech, about 100 yards from Shavers Fork, the 
nearest body of water. The paratypes were taken at the edge of streams 
feeding or draining spruce swamps, one specimen among bracken, 
rhododendron, and hemlock, the other among sedges, rushes, willow, 
and spruce. There are many areas similar to this in Garret County 


■which the water shrew may inhabit, and one of the specimens men- 
tioned by Hooper was taken one mile south-southeast of Cranesville, 
Preston County, W. Va., at an altitude of 2,600 feet, only a few yards 
from the Maryland State line. 

This shrew does not hibernate and is active all winter. It is primarily 
nocturnal in habits, but occasionally is abroad during daylight hours. 
It is well adapted to an aquatic life and is one of the best swimmers of 
the nonmarine mammals. It can swim, dive, float, run along the bottom 
of a pond or creek, and actually run upon the surface of the water for 
some distance. Jackson (1961, p. 38) says that he once saw a water 
shrew run a distance of more than 5 feet across the surface of a pool. 
The body aad head of the animal were entirely out of the water, the 
surface tension of the water supporting the shrew, and at each step 
the animal took there appeared to be a little globule of air held by 
the hair fringe on the hind feet. 

Conaway (1952), writing of the western subspecies navigator^ says 
that it apparently has an extensive breeding season since pregnant 
females have been collected in March, suckling females the first week 
in June, half grown young early in July, a female with five small 
embryos on August 2, and a male with enlarged testes on 9 August. 
The number of embryos varies from 4 to 8, and the gestation period 
is probably about 21 days. These shrews do not live long; Conaway 
estimates that the maximum age of any specimen obtained would not 
be in excess of 18 months. 

The food of the water shrew consists largely of insect matter, chiefly 
beetles and their larvae, flies, caddisflies, and mayflies. Snails, leeches, 
small fish, and fish eggs are also consumed. Vegetable matter probably 
supplies only a small part of the diet. 

Sorex fumeus fumeus Miller 

/Sorex fimieus Miller. North American Fauna, 10: 50, 31 December 


Type locality. — Peterboro, Madison County, N.Y. 

General distribution. — Eastern North America, from southeastern Ontario 
and central New England to the Smoky Mountains and northern Georgia. It has 
also been reported from central Kentucky (Barbour, 1951, p. 102) and south- 
eastern Wisconsin (Jackson. 1928, p. 65). 

Distribution in Maryland. — Higher elevations (above 2,000 feet) in 
the Allegheny Mountain section ; may also occur at higher elevations 
in the Ridge and Valley section. It is not a common species in 

Distinguishing characteristics. — In summer pelage resembles Sorex 
cin^reus, but is larger, has a longer tail, bigger feet, and somewhat 



Sorex fumeus fimeus 
Specimens examined 
O Specimens reported 

Figure 6. — Distribution of Sorex funieiis fumeus. 

paler coloration. In winter pelage, coloration is grayish, and this shrew 
resembles Sorex dispar, but has a shorter tail. Tooth formula as in 
Sorex cinereus ; third unicuspid larger than fourth. 

Measy/rerrhents. — Six adults from Finzel, Garrett County, 6 miles 
north of Frostburg, average as follows: Total length 110.8 (104—118) ; 
tail 44.5 (42-50) ; hind foot 13.2 (13-14) ; condylobasal length of skull 
(average of 3) 17.9 (17.7-18.2) ; cranial breadth (average of 4) 8.7 
(8.6-8.9) ; least interorbital breadth 3.7 (3.6-3.9) ; maxillary breadth 
5.0 (4.8-5.3) ; length of maxillary toothrow (average of 5) 6.7 

Habitat and habits. — The smoky shrew is essentially a northern and 
mountain species and reaches its greatest abundance in the cool forested 
regions of New England, New York, and Pennsylvania. Most of Mary- 
land apparently does not provide suitable habitat, for it is not a com- 
mon species in the State. It prefers damp woods and bogs at the higher 
altitudes, where it lives under moss-covered logs and rocks. E. A. 
Preble's field notes report that the specimens collected at Finzel were 
taken in a hemlock and rhododendron swamp, and those at Bittinger, 
Garrett County, deep in a hemlock forest. 

This shrew does not hibernate, and in general is active at all hours 
of the day and night. Its weak feet are not adapted for digging bur- 
rows, and it occupies those made by larger mammals such as the hairy- 
tailed mole, short-tailed shrew, red-backed mouse, and pine mouse. The 


nests are located at various places in these tunnels, a favorite being 
under a log or stump. These nests, usually made of shredded leaves, are 
roughly spherical in shape and about the size of a baseball. They gen- 
erally are situated some 4 to 19 inches below the surface of the ground. 

Breeding in this species may begin in late March and the earlier 
litters appear in early May. As many as three litters may be produced 
each season, the last appearing in late August. The gestation period 
is about 20 days, and the young number from 3 to 10, 5 or 6 being 
the most common. 

Hamilton (1940, p. 480) lists the foods of the smoky shrew as the 
following: insects, earthworms, vegetables, centipedes, snails, sala- 
manders, mammals, sowbugs, spiders, and birds. 

Hamilton ( 1943, p. 486) believes that adults, after completing their 
reproductive duties, die of old age when 14 to 17 months of age. 

Specimens examined. — Allegany County: Mount Savage, 4 (Coll. 
U. Md.) . Garrett County: Bittinger, 3 ; Finzel, 6 ; Swallow Falls State 
Forest, 3. 

Other records and reports. — Garrett County: Cranesville Swamp, 
one mile SE (Coll. U. Mich.) ; Sang Run (Coll. Maryland Nat. Hist. 


Sorex dispar dispar Batchelder 

Sorex macrurus Batchelder, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, 10: 133, 
8 December 1896. Not S. macrourus Lehmann, 1822. 

Sorex dispar Batchelder, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, 24 : 9Y, 15 May 
1911. (A renaming of S. macrurus Batchelder.) 

Type locality. — Beede's (sometimes called I^nne Heights), in township of 
Keene, Essex County, N.Y. 

General distribution. — Mountainous regions of the eastern United States, from 
Maine south into North Carolina and Tennessee. 

Distribution in Maryland. — Allegheny Mountain section ; may occur 
at higher elevations in Ridge and Valley section. It has been taken in 
Maryland only at Muddy Creek Falls, in Swallow Falls State Forest, 
Garrett County (Mansueti and Flyger, 1952, p. 250). It is one of the 
rarest shrews in Maryland. 

Distinguishing characteristics. — Similar to Sorex fumeus., but with 
a longer tail, somewhat smaller size, and a uniform slate-gray colora- 
tion in all pelages. Tooth formula as in Sorex cinereu^, with third 
unicuspid equal to fourth in size. 

Measurements. — External measurements of the type as given in the 
original description are : Total length 130 ; tail 60 ; hind foot 15 ; ear 10. 



Sorex dispar dispar 
O Specimens reported 

Figure 7. — Distribution of Sorex dispar dispar. 

Some cranial measurements of the type as given by Jackson (1928, 
p. 90) are: Condylobasal length of skull 18.2; cranial breadth 8.1; 
interorbital breadth 3.5 ; maxillary toothrow 6.1. 

Habitat and habits. — This shrew prefers moist rocky areas and the 
crevices between boulders, and large masses of rocks. It has also been 
taken under moss-covered logs in damp coniferous forests. Mansueti 
and Flyger (1952, p. 250) report that the three specimens they col- 
lected on 6 September 1950, at Muddy Creek Falls, in Swallow Falls 
State Forest, Garrett County, at an altitude of 2,200 feet, were taken 
in snap traps placed on ledges in crevices of outcropping sandstone 2 
or 3 feet above a small stream's level in a relatively cool moist hemlock 
and rhododendron forest. Charles O. Handley, Jr. (1956, p. 435) says 
that the Virginia specimen he took on Big Mountain, Giles County, in 
September of 1955 was secured in a trap set about 12 inches below the 
surface in a patch of talus. 

Very little is known of the habits of this species, but in all proba- 
bility it differs little from other long-tailed shrews. Hamilton (1943, 
p. 39) says that G. H. H. Tate collected a female with 2 embryos in 
late August in the Adirondack Mountains of New York. 

Records and reports. — Garrett County: Swallow Falls State Forest, 
at Muddy Creek Falls (Mansueti and Flyger, 1952). 




Microsorex hoyi winnetnana Preble 

Microsorex winnemana Preble, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, 23 : 101, 
24 June 1910. 

Type locality. — Bank of Potomac River near Stubblefield Falls, Fairfax 
County, Va. 

General distribution. — Maryland, south into western North Carolina. 

Distribution in Mart/land. — May occur in all sections, but is rare. 
It has been taken in Maryland only at Berwyn, Prince Georges 

Distinguishing characteristics. — This is the smallest mammal in 
North America and possibly the smallest in the world with respect to 
weight. Externally it resembles Sorex cinereus and Sorex longirostris., 
but is smaller and darker (less reddish) and has a shorter tail. Al- 
though the tooth formula is the same as that of the genus Sorex.^ there 
are certain peculiarities in the upper unicuspid toothrow which dis- 
tinguish it. The third upper unicuspid is minute and disklike, com- 
pressed anteroposteriorly between the second and fourth unicuspids, 
and is not visible when the jaw is viewed laterally. The fifth unicuspid 
is minute and peglike, and is also not visible in side view, so that only 
three unicuspids can be seen in the side view of the upper jaw (first, 

Figure 8. — Distribution of Microsorex hoyi winnemana. 


second, and fourth). This differs from the genus Sorex in which four 
or five unicuspids are always visible when the skull is viewed laterally. 

Measurements. — External measurements of the Berwyn specimen are 
as follows : Total length 86 ; tail 29 ; hind foot 9.5. The skull of this 
specimen is crushed, but some cranial measurements of the type, as 
given by Jackson (1928, p. 210) are: Condylobasal length of skull 
13.0; cranial breadth 6.1 ; interorbital breadth 2.7 ; maxillary toothrow 

Habitat and habits. — These rare shrews are little known. The type 
specimen was dislodged from the decayed interior of a large fallen 
log, and the specimen from Berwyn was found in the decayed heart 
of a dead chestnut tree, cut from a dry hillside at some distance from 

Specimens examined. — Prvnce Georges Cov/nty: Berwyn, 1. 


Blarina brevicauda kirtlandi Bole and Moulthrop 

Blarina brevicauda kirtlandi Bole and Moulthrop, Sci. Publ. Cleve- 
land Mus. Nat. Hist., 5: 99, 11 September 1942. 

Type locality. — The Holden Arboretum, Kirtland Township, Lake County, and 
Chardon Township, Geauga County, Ohio. (The county line bisects the type 
locality. ) 

General distribution. — Ranges from northwestern Michigan, eastern Wisconsin, 
and Illinois, east throughout most of Pennsylvania to central New Jersey and 
southward through Delaware, Maryland, and West Virginia to southwestern 

Distribution in Maryland. — Abundant in suitable habitat in all 
sections of the State. 

Distinguishing characteristics. — A large, short -tailed, slate-colored 
shrew, with a shorter blunter muzzle than any of the shrews previously 
discussed. The tooth formula is as in Sorex., with the fifth unicuspid 
being minute. The teeth are generally darkly tinged with reddish 

Measurements. — Thirty-seven adults from the vicinity of Annapolis, 
Anne Arundel County, average as follows: Total length 115.2 (107- 
122) ; tail 23.3 (19-27) ; hind foot 14.4 (13-15). Seventeen adults from 
the vicinity of Annapolis have the following cranial measurements : 
Condylobasal length 21.9 (20.8-22.7); mastoidal breadth 12.1 (11.4- 
12.8) ; interorbital breadth 5.8 (5.3-6.1) ; maxillary breadth 7.7 (7.3- 
8.0) ; unicuspid toothrow 8.6 (7.9-8.9). 

Measurements of eight adults from Cambridge, Dorchester County 
(Coll. K.U.), are: Total length 103.6 (101-107) ; tail vertebrae 23.1 
(20-25.5) ; hind foot 13.6 (13-14.5) ; condylobasal length of skull 21.0 



r r 









O lO 20 30MILES 




Blanna breviaauda kirtlandi 
# Specimens examined 
Specimens reported 

T T* 




Figure 9. — Distribution of Blarina brevicauda kirtlandi. 

(20.5-21.7) ; mastoidal breadth 11.3 (11.0-11.7) ; interorbital breadth 
5.4 (5.3-5.6) ; maxillary breadth 7.3 (7.1-7.6) ; unicus,pid toothrow 7.6 

Habitat and habits. — This is one of the most abundant mammals in 
Maryland. It is found in a wide variety of habitats, but is most numer- 
ous in damp woods where there is a thick understory. It is also en- 
countered in meadows and old fields, but not on the Atlantic barrier 
beaches of the Delmarva Peninsula, where many weeks of trapping on 
Assateague Island failed to uncover a single specimen. Elsewhere in 
the State, this shrew vies with the meadow mouse and the white- footed 
mouse in abundance, but does appear to be cyclical as regards numbers, 
and in some years is more plentiful than in others. 

The short-tailed shrew, like other Maryland shrews, is active the 
year around, neither hibernating nor migrating. It is abroad both 
during daylight hours and at night. It is quick and energetic in its 
actions, and appears to be constantly on the go during its periods of 
activity. Its runways zigzag in all directions and lie on the surface of 
the ground just beneath the vegetation or litter. In these runways, the 
short-tailed shrew constructs two types of nests. One of these is a 
small resting nest, and the other a much larger breeding nest. The lat- 
ter may be some 6 to 10 inches long and averages about 4 inches in 
diameter. The nests are made of leaves, shredded grasses, and other 

336-897 0—69 3 


vegetable fibers. In general, these nests are not as finely made as most 
mouse nests. 

The breeding season for this species extends from March to Sep- 
tember, and usually two or three broods of young are reared each 
season. The gestation period is from 21 to 22 days, and between 3 and 
10 young may be produced, although the average number is slightly 
below 7. These young leave the nest in 18 to 20 days, and by the time 
they are 3 months of age they are essentially mature animals. This 
shrew may live up to 3 years, but the life span is usually less than this, 
probably not more than 18 or 20 months. 

This species has a voracious appetite. Hamilton (1930, p. 30) found 
that an examination of 244 intestinal tracts from New York State 
Blarina yielded the following food percentages : Insects 47.8, arachnids 
2, millipedes 1.7, vertebrates 4.1, crustaceans 6.7, mollusks 5.4, annelids 
7.2, centipedes 3.8, plant matter 11.4, inorganic matter 2.3, and un- 
determinable material 5.2. Only 1.7 percent of the stomachs examined 
were empty. 

The bite of this shrew is poisonous. Pearson (1942) found that a 
poisonous extract could be prepared from the submaxillary salivary 
glands of this species and that a toxic material is also present in 
the saliva and may be introduced into wounds made by the teeth, but 
because of the small size of the animal its bite probably would have 
little if any effect on man. There have been reports, however, of 
distress following the bite of a shrew. Maynard (1889) says that 
when he was bitten by one of them he experienced considerable pain 
and swelling in the vicinity of the wound which persisted for a week 
or longer. Others have been bitten repeatedly by shrews of this species 
and have experienced no after effects whatsoever other than the distress 
accompanying the actual breaking of the skin by the sharp teeth. 

These shrews appear to be somewhat more gregarious than most other 
species of shrews. It is not uncommon to capture a specimen each night 
for 4 or 5 consecutive nights in a trap set in the same place, indicating 
that the animals are using the same runways if not actually associating 
with each other. It may be stated, however, that in general this shrew 
is solitary and pugnacious both to its own kind and to any other 
creature it may encounter. 

Specimens examined. — Allegany County : Frostburg, 1 (Coll. Frost- 
burg State College); Mount Savage, 42; Oldtown (near), 7. Arnrie 
Arvmdel County : Annapolis (near), 40; South River and U.S. Route 
50 (junction of), 1. Baltimore City : 1. Baltimore County: Dulaney 
Valley, 1 ; Loch Raven, 1. Calvert Cowity: Breezy Point, 2 ; Chesapeake 
Beach, 1 ; Cypress Swamp along Battle Creek, 2 ; Hungerf ord Creek, 
314 miles N of Solomons, 1; Marine Training Base, % mile N of 
Solomons, 13 ; Plum Point, 1 ; Scientist Cliffs, 2 ; Solomons, 2. Charles 


Cownty: Benedict, 1 ; Marshall Hall, 1 ; Newport, 7. Dorchester Coun- 
ty : Cambridge, 15 (14 in Coll. K.U.). Garrett County: Bittinger, 5; 
Cranberry Swamp, 1 ; Finzel, 13 ; Grantsville, 5 ; Mountain Lake Park, 
2; Swallow Falls State Forest, 2; S wanton, 4; "Wolf Swamp, 2. Mont- 
gomery Cownty: Burnt Mills, 2; Cabin John, 1; Cropley, 2; German- 
town, 1 ; Kensington, 1 mile N, 2 ; Plummers Island, 3 ; Poolesville, 1 ; 
Kockville, 17 ; Rockville, 2.3 miles NE, 6 ; Sandy Spring, 6 ; Seneca, 3 ; 
Sececa Creek at Clopper Road (Route 117), 1; Silver Spring, 6; 
Takoma Park, 1. Prince Georges Cownty: Northwest Branch Ana- 
costia River, 1 ; Hyattsville, 5 ; Lanham, 1 ; Laurel, 4 ; Mitchellsville, 
1 mile W., 2 ; Oxon Hill, 12 ; Prince Georges County Sphagnum Bog, 1. 
Worcester Cownty : Mills Island, 2 (skulls from owl pellets) ; Snow 
Hill, 5 miles NE, 1. District of Columbia: 107. 

Other records and reports. — Baltimore Cownty: Lake Roland 
(Bures, 1948, p. 62) ; Towson (Gentile, 1949, p. 11) . Frederick Cownty: 
Locust Grove (Merriam, 1895, p. 13). Kent County: Chestertown 
(U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service files). Prince Georges County: 
Bladensburg (Bailey, 1896, p. 100). 

Remarhs. — This species is in need of revision throughout its range. 
Pending this, only tentative conclusions may be reached regarding the 
various races and their distribution. At present it appears that three 
subspecies are distributed along the northeastern coast of the United 
States. The most northerly race, talpoides^ ranges throughout most of 
New England, New York, extreme northern Pennsylvania, and north- 
ern New Jersey. It is a large pale race, with an elevated cranium and 
a long slender rostrum. Distribtued along the east coast to the south of 
talfoides is kirtlandi from northeastern Ohio, ranging throughout 
most of Pennsylvania, central and southern New Jersey, Delaware, 
Maryland, and West Virginia into southwestern Virginia. It is some- 
what smaller and darker than talpoides and has a shorter, broader 
rostrum. Distributed to the south of kirtlandi is the very small dark 
southern race carolinensis. Several authorities have considered the 
range of carolinensis to extend north to Cambridge, Dorchester County, 
Md. (Bole and Moulthrop, 1942, p. 108; Gardner, 1950a, p. 67; Jones 
and Findley, 1954, p. 210). I have examined a number of specimens 
from this locality (as well as series from farther south on the Delmarva 
Peninsula) and consider them to be intergrades between carolinensis 
and kirtlandi^ but closer to kirtlandi and referable to that race. The 
intergrading character of this population is reflected primarily in 
smaller size, particularly as regards external measurements. The aver- 
age total length of eight specimens from Cambridge is 103.6 mm. as 
contrasted with 97.4 mm. for eight specimens from South Carolina 
(near the type locality of carolinensis) and 116 for the type specimen 


of kirtlaifidi from northeastern Ohio. Cranially, eight adults from 
Cambridge average closer in size to kirtJundi and have an average con- 
dylobasal length of 21.0 and a mastoidal breadth of 11.3, contrasted 
with an average condylobasal length of 18.4 and mastoidal breadth of 

10.1 in typical carolinensis (25 specimens from Raleigh, N.C.) and 21.0 
and 11.9 in the type specimen of kirtlandi. Apparently the entire south- 
em portion of the Delmarva Peninsula is an area of intergradation be- 
tween kirtlandi and carolinensis. Specimens I have examined from 
near Wattsville, Accomack County, Va., and Cape Charles at the 
southern tip of the Delmarva Peninsula in Northampton County, Va., 
although .still decidedly referable to kirtlandi, are smaller in size both 
externally and cranially than typical kirtlandi and appear to be ap- 
proaching carolinsnsis. 


Cryptotis parva (Say) 

Sorex jyarvus Say, in Long, Account of an expedition from Pittsburg 
to the Rocky Mountains, . . . 1 : 163, 1823. 

Type locality. — West bank of Missouri River, near Blair, formerly Engineer 
Cantonment, Washington County, Nebr. 

General distribution. — The species is distributed over most of the eastern and 
midwestern United States, from central New York, Michigan, Wisconsin, Min- 
nesota, and South Dakota, south to Florida in the east, and northeastern Mexico 
in the west. 

Distribution in Maryland. — Occurs in all sections of the State. 

Distinguishing characteristics. — Teeth 3/1, 1/1, 2/1, 3/1, = 30; small 
size; brownish coloration; short tail. Most closely resembles Blarina 
brevicauda but is smaller, more brownish, and has 30 teeth instead 
of 32. It may be distinguished from all other shrews in Maryland by 
its short tail. 

Measurements. — Six adults from 3/4 mile N of Solomons Island, 
Calvert County, measury as follows: Total length 76.3 (74-80) ; tail 

15.2 (1^16) ; hind foot 10(10-11) ; condylobasal length of skull 15.2 
(15.0-15.6) ; palatal length 6.5 (6.4-6.9) ; cranial breadth 7.7 (7.6- 
8.0) ; interorbital constriction 3.6 (3.5-3.7) ; maxillary breadth 5.0 
(5.0-5.1) ; molar toothrow 5.4 (5.2-5.6). 

Habitat and habits. — Most commonly found in dry fallow fields and 
stubble in the uplands, and in the marshes in the coastal areas. This 
shrew appears to be abundant in some places, and scarce or absent in 
almost identical habitat elsewhere. Along with Microtus pennsyl- 
vam-cus, it is the most frequently taken small mammal on Assateague 
Island, where it occurs everywhere except on the sparsely vegetated 
beach dunes. Another area of abundance for the species is the dry 
fallow fields of southern Maryland. In such a field, three-fourth mile 



r 1 

79- 76* 
1 ' 









O lO 20 30MILES 









J i> ji v^yOjj^y^sJ 

Cryptotis parua parva 


A '^^'Z^Wa/A^ 

Specimens examined 







O Specimens reported 



fixS , ^^(y^/ff/// 









r's. rk- 




Figure 10. — Distribution of Cryptotis parva parva. 

N of Solomons, Calvert County, this shrew was taken in traps as often 
as the short-tailed shrew and the house mouse. 

This small shrew generally follows the runways of larger mice and 
shrews, but it also constructs runways of its own. In soft ground it 
sometimes uses its snout to push dirt away, and by worming its way 
along may make a tunnel. These small burrows are not much different 
from those made by certain large beetles or other insects and are diffi- 
cult to identify. The nest of this species is usually placed in a slight 
hollow on the surface of the ground, or under a rock or log. Rarely 
is it located beneath the ground and then only at a depth of 4 or 5 
inches or less. Sometimes it will utilize artificial objects such as tin 
cans in which to nest. The structure of the nest is globular, and com- 
posed of dry grass and leaves. 

The breeding season for this species is from March to November, and 
young, born early in the spring, usually breed within the year. The 
gestation period is about 16 days, and between four and five broods 
may be produced during a season. The number of young per litter 
varies from three to nine, with the usual number being four to six. 

The food of this species, like that of other shrews, consists primarily 
of insects and other animal matter. It is known to eat beetles, bugs, 
grasshoppers, earthworms, millipedes, and snails. It is also said to be 
fond of salamanders, frogs, and broods of young honeybees. 


Unlike most other shrews, the least shrew is gregarious, and may 
be said to be almost colonial in habits. Jackson (1961, p. 58) says that 
often when a log, slab, or rock is overturned four to eight or more of 
these little shrews may be found living together underneath. Maurice 
K. Brady of Washington, D.C., told Jackson that in Virginia near 
Washington in 1925 he uncovered a nest of this species which con- 
tained 25 Cryptotis^ all in a pile. 

Specimens examined. — Allegany County: Oldtown, 9 miles E, 1. 
Anns Arundel County: Annapolis (vicinity), 2. Baltimore County: 
Lock Raven Reservoir, 1. Calvert County: Solomons, 1; Solomons, 
% mile N, 7. Charles County: Newport, 1. Dorchester County : Black- 
water National Wildlife Refuge, 1. Montgoinery County : Bethesda, 
1 ; Kensington, 13 ; Poolesville, 1 ; Sandy Spring, 19. Prmce Georges 
County: Laurel, 6; Oxon Hill, 1; Patuxent Research Center, 5. Qusen 
Annes County: Parson Island, 1. Worcester County: Ocean City, 4 
and 5 miles S, 7; Ocean City, 15 miles S, 1; Chincoteague Bay, 2. 
District of Columbia : 8. 

Other records and reports. — Montgomery County : Seneca (Kilham, 
1954, p. 252). 

Remarks. — This species is in need of revision over its entire range. 
Until this revision is completed, all specimens from Marvland are 
provisionally referred to Cryptotis parva parva. 

Family TALPIDAE (moles) 


Parascalops breweri (Bach man) 

Scalops breweri Bachman, Boston Jour. Nat. Hist., 4 : 32, 1842. 

Type locality. — Martha's Vineyard, Massachusetts (there is some question, 
however, whether this species ever occurred on Martha's Vineyard Island). 

General distribution. — Northeastern United States and adjacent Canada, south 
in the Appalachians to western North Carolina. 

Distribution in Maryland. — Occurs at higher elevations in the 
Allegheny Mountain and Ridge and Valley sections. 

Distinguishing characteristics.— Teeth 3/3, 1/1, 4/4, 3/3, = 44; tail 
short and hairy; coloration dark slate to black dorsally, slightly paler 
below; pelage soft and thick, but somewhat coarser than in the eastern 
mole {Scalopus aguaticus) ; palms enlarged and nearly circular in out- 
line; toes not webbed. 

This species can readily be distinguished from the eastern mole 
by its hairy tail, and from the star-nosed mole (Condylura cristata) 
by the absence of nasal projections. 

Measurements. — Jackson (1915 : 80) gives external measurements of 
eight males from Magnetic City, N.C., as follows : Total length 149.5 





lo 20 






s examined 



s reported 

Figure 11. — Distribution of Parascalops ireweri. 

(139-152) ; tail vertebrae 30 (23-36) ; hind foot 19.5 (18-20). He gives 
some measurements of the skulls of 10 adult males from Magnetic 
City as follows: Greatest length 32.4 (31-33.8); mastoidal breadth 
14.5 (13.9-15) ; interorbital breadth 7.3 (7.1-7.5) ; maxillary toothrow 
9.9 (9.2-10.2) . Females average smaller than males. 

A male (probably immature) from Vale Summit Road, between 
Clarysville and Vale Summit, Allegany County, has the following 
external measurements: total length 136; tail 22; hind foot 16. This 
animal weighed 35.7 grams. 

Habitat and habits. — In Maryland this mole is found only at high 
elevations in the western part of the State, where it lives in loose 
well-drained light soils. It may be found in pastureland, as well as 
in the deep woods, but is seldom encountered in damp areas or in clay 
soils. Although the eastern mole {Scalojms aquaticus) also occurs in 
western Maryland, it appears to be ecologically or at least altitudin- 
ally separated from the hairy-tailed mole. The eastern mole has been 
taken in the lowlands ; the hairy-tail only at higher elevations. 

This species makes irregular subsurface runways which form an 
elaborate network. In the winter these tunnels are deep so as to avoid 
the freezing temperatures of the upper layers of earth. Nests are con- 
structed in these deep burrows, some 10 to 20 inches below the surface 
of the ground. These are made of dried grasses and leaves, and are 
some 6 inches in circumference. 


Mating occurs in March or April, and four to five young are 
produced in late April or May after a gestation period of probably a 
month. The young moles develop rapidly and are able to shift for 
themselves within a month. They are sexually mature and able to 
breed the following spring. 

The primary foods of this species are earthworms, insects, insect 
larvae, and other arthropods. They are very voracious eaters, and 
Hamilton (1943, p. 27) reports that a captive mole of this species 
weighing 50 grams consumed 66 grams of earthworms and insect 
larvae within a 24-hour period. 

Specimens examined. — Allegany County: Mount Savage, 1. (Coll. 
U. Md.) ; Vale Summit Road, between Clarysville and Vale Summit, 
1 (Coll. U.Md.). 

Other records and re-ports. — Allegany County: Warrior Mountain 
(U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service files). Garrett County: Grantsville, 
near (Coll. U.Mich.). 

Remarks. — Two specimens of this species from Grantsville, Garrett 
County, collected 28-29 August 1949 by J. A. King, and now stored in 
the Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan, are the first actually 
taken in this State. The species, however, is probably not as rare in 
western Maryland as the few trapping records and reports would 

Scalopus aquaticus aquaticus (Linnaeus) 

(Sorex) aquaticus Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1 : 53, 1758. 

Type locality. — Philadelphia, Pa. ( Fixed by Jackson, N. Amer. Fauna 38, p. 33, 
30 September 1915). 

General distrihution. — Eastern United States, from southern New England, 
and New York State, south to Virginia, and in the Appalachian Mountains 
south to Tennessee, North Carolina, and South Carolina. 

Distribution in Maryland. — Eastern Shore, Western Shore, and 
Piedmont sections and at lower elevations in the Ridge and Valley 
and Allegheny Mountain sections. Rare or absent apparently in the 
Ridge and Valley, and Allegheny Mountain sections at elevations over 
2,000 feet. 

Distinguishing characteristics.— Teeth 3/2, 1/0, 3/3, 3/3, = 36; fore- 
feet broad and greatly enlarged, adapted for digging; body stout and 
cyclindrical; pelage soft and velvety, black to brownish black in 
coloration; tail short and naked; eyes and ears small and not visible 
on superficial examination. 

Differs from the hairy -tailed mole {Parascalops hrewcri) in that the 
tail is short and naked, and from the star-nosed mole {Corvdylura 
cristata) in that the snout is without fleshy projections. 















O lO 20 


J y /m/\^J/ //^i- 



Scalopus aquai 
• Specimens 

icus aquations 



O Specimens 










Figure 12. — Distribution of Scalopus aquaticus aquaticus. 

Measurements. — Jackson (1915, p. 34) gives external measurements 
of 15 adult males from Washington, D.C., as follows: Total length 
163.4 (154-175) ; tail vertebrae 26.5 (22-29) ; hind foot 19.8 (18-21). 

Cranial measurements for 21 adult males from Washington and 
vicinity are: Greatest length 34.3 (33.2-35.6) ; mastoidal breadth 17.7 
(17-18.3) ; interorbital breadth 7.4 (7.2-7.8) ; maxillary toothrow 10.8 
(10.4-11.3) . Females average smaller than males in size. 

Habitat and habits. — The eastern mole normally lives in sandy soils 
and light loams in meadows, pastures, cultivated fields, gardens, lawns, 
and thin woods. Rocky areas and swamps are generally avoided since 
they are barriers to the mole's burrowing activity. It does, however, 
prefer moist situations to dry ones. Very sandy regions, such as the 
barrier beaches that line Maryland's ocean front, are apparently un- 
favorable to the eastern mole, and many weeks of searching for their 
signs near Ocean City, Worcester County, and on Assateague Island to 
the south proved fruitless. Bures (1948, pp. 61-62), found moles in the 
Bare Hills-Lake Roland area of Baltimore County to be restricted to 
the moist or wet soil bordering the Lake and along the two streams 
that empty into Jones' Falls. He says that numerous individuals were 
observed at work on the lawns of propei'ty fronting Falls Road. In the 
Ridge and Valley and Allegheny Mountain sections, there is evidence 
that this species occurs only in the lowlands, whereas higher up on the 


mountains it is replaced by the hairy-tailed mole. In Mason County, 
W. Va., McKeever et al, (1952, p. 25) found an eastern mole inhabit- 
ing the sandy soil of the Ohio River bottomland and a hairy-tailed 
mole in the nearby forest-covered hills. This distribution occurs in the 
Appalachians in general, including the Ridge and Valley and Alle- 
gheny Mountain sections of Maryland. 

The eastern mole does not hibernate, but is active the year round. 
It constructs a series of burrows just beneath the surface of the ground 
during wet weather to facilitate the capture of earthworms which 
form a major part of its diet. In dry and cold weather this species digs 
deeper permanent burrows some 10 or more inches below the surface. 
Rarely does the eastern mole emerge from its subterranean burrows 
and prowl about above ground. A nest is built in one of the permanent 
burrows, which may be from 5 to 18 inches down, usually under the 
roots of shrubs or stumps. It is most often made from grass and root- 
lets, but occasionally leaves are employed. This nest is placed on the 
bottom of a flattened ellipsoidal enlargement of the tunnel, the length 
of which is about 8 inches and the diameter about 5. 

Mating in this species takes place in March and continues into April. 
The young are bom in the latter part of April or in May. The gesta- 
tion period is about 45 days, and from two to five young are bom each 
season. By the time a young mole is 5 weeks of age it is more than half 
the size of the mother. 

Eighty percent of the diet of the eastern mole is animal matter, con- 
sisting primarily of worms, insects, and insect larvae. Some of the 
favorite foods are beetles, earthworms, wireworms, white grubs, spi- 
ders, centipedes, millipedes, slugs, and insect and mollusk eggs. Some 
of the plant matter consumed are corn, potatoes, grass, tomatoes, ap- 
ples and occasionally wheat and oats. The eastern mole is a voracious 
eater and in 24 hours may consume a quantity of food equal to its 

Moles are harmful when they disfigure lawns and provide highways in gardens 
for field and pine mice. Their destruction of insects places them in a more favor- 
able light. A friend once told me that these moles had almost eliminated the 
larvae of Japanese beetles on his grounds. Tunneling activities of moles aid in 
the formation of soil. (Hamilton, 1943, pp. 23-24) . 

Specimens examined. — Allegany County: Cumberland, 3 (Coll. U. 
Md.). Anne Ai^ndel County: Annapolis, 3 miles NW, 1 ; no exact lo- 
cality, 2. Baltimore City: 2. Calvert County: Chesapeake Beach, 1; 
Plum Point, 1; Solomons, 4 miles N, 1. Charles County : Newport, 3. 
Hoicard County: no exact locality, 1 (embryo in alcohol). Montgom- 
ery County: Cabin John, 2; Capitol View, 1; Chevy Chase, 1; Plum- 
mers Island, 5 ; Rockville, 2 ; Seven Locks, 1 ; Silver Spring, 4 ; Wood- 
side, 4. Prince Georges County : Beltsville, 2 ; Berwyn, 1 ; Branch ville, 


4; Brookland, 1 ; Highland, 1 ; Landover, 2 ; Laurel, 13 ; Mount Rainier, 
1 ; Patuxent Research Center, 1. District of Columbia: 83. 

Other records and reports. — Anne Arundel County: Severna Park 
(Cooper, 1953, p. 79). Baltimore County: Lake Roland (Bures, 1948, 
p. 61); Patapsco State Park (Hampe, 1939, p. 5). Montgomery 
County: Forest Glen (Bailey, 1896, p. 100) . 

Condylura cristata cristata (Linnaeus) 

{Sorex) cristatus Linnaeus, Syst. nat., ed. 10, 1 : 53, 1758. 

Type locality. — Eastern Pennsylvania. 

General distribution. — Southeastern Canada, and northeastern United States, 
south to central Minnesota, Wisconsin, Indiana, Ohio, eastern West Virginia, 
and northern Virginia. 

Distribution in Maryland. — ^Locally abundant in all sections of the 
State although apparently rare or absent in some areas with suitable 

Distinguishing characteristics. — Teeth 3/3, 1/1, 4/4, 3/3, = 44; body 
form mole-like, but more slender; forefeet broad and enlarged for 
digging, but not to the same extent as in SccUopus; pelage black in 
coloration, somewhat harsher in texture than that of Scalopus; tail 
long, and at certain times of the year enlarged. The most distinctive 
feature of this mole is the snout, which is fringed with 22 pink pro- 
jections, or tentacles, and is responsible for the popular name of the 

Measurements. — Two adults from the District of Columbia measure 
as follows: Total length 183, 185; tail vertebrae 65, 66; hind foot 28, 
28; greatest length of skull 33.9, 33.4; mastoidal breadth 12.8, 12.8; 
interorbital breadth 6.8, 6.7 ; maxillary toothrow 6.6, 6.3. 

Habitat and habits. — The star-nosed mole prefers damp habitat in 
meadows, fields, woods, or swamps, but is sometimes taken in the leaf 
mold of dense forests, or in relatively dry fields in which there are 
a few damp spots from which its tunnels radiate. Occasionally it is 
found at a considerable distance from any water. One specimen was 
captured in June 1958 in the lower Eastern Shore section near Watts- 
ville, Accomack County, Va., a few miles from the Maryland boundary. 
It was taken in a museum special mouse trap set in a surface runway 
in dry meadow at least a fourth of a mile from the nearest water. 
Generally, however, the star- nosed mole will be encountered in very 
wet situations, and its tunnels frequently lead directly into a stream 
or pool. This animal is an efficient swimmer, using its broad forefeet 
as oars and its tail as a scull. 



Condylura aristata aristata 
% Specimens examined 
O Specimens reported 

Figure 13. — Distribution of Condylura cristata cristata. 

The star-nosed mole is less fossorial than the eastern or hairy- 
tailed moles; it is active both day and night, summer and winter. 
It often uses surface runways, and sometimes in the winter it will 
burrow in the snow, or even run across it. The tunnels that this species 
digs are more irregular in pattern than those of other Maryland moles. 
These burrows are deep in places, and then abruptly rise to near the 
surface. Frequently the tunnels enter the bank of a stream a foot 
or more below the water line. The nest of the star-nosed mole is 
constructed of leaves and grass and is located in a flattened spherical 
chamber about 5 or 6 inches in diameter and some 4 or 5 inches high. 
It is usually placed 3 or 4 inches below the surface of the ground, but 
may be as much as 10 inches down. It is always, however, above the 
high water level. 

It is believed that star-nosed moles pair in the autumn and remain 
together until the young are born. Breeding occurs in the spring, and 
birth is from April to June, the gestation period being about 45 days. 
There is only a single litter per year, and the size of the litter varies 
from three to seven, six being the usual number. The young mature 
rapidly and are ready to leave the nest within about a month's time. 
Star-nosed moles are more gregarious than other eastern moles, and 
may perhaps, be colonial, although colonies are probably formed 
through family lineage. 


Star-nosed moles are amphibious, and spend a good deal of time in 
water. They are excellent swimmers and divers, and a large portion 
of their food consists of aquatic insects and worms, only about one 
fourth of the diet being composed of terrestrial forms. 

Specimens examined. — Charles County: Marshall Hall, 1. Garrett 
County: Cranesville Swamp, 1. Howard County: Ellicott City, 1. 
Montgomery County: Brookeville, 1 ; Burnt Mills, 1 ; Cabin John, 1 ; 
Chevy Chase, 1 ; Chevy Chase Lake, 1 ; Oakdale, 1 ; Plummers Island, 
1; Potomac P.O., 1; Sandy Spring, 1; Silver Spring, 1; Woodside, 
2. Prince Georges County: Beltsville, 1; College Park, 2; Glenndale, 
1 ; Lanham, 1 ; Laurel, 2 ; Patuxent River Marsh, 1 ; no exact locality, 
1. District of Columhia: 10. 

Other records and, reports. — Prince Georges County: Branch ville 
(U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service files). Washington County: Wil- 
liamsport (Jackson, 1915, p. 91) , 

Remarks. — Maryland specimens average somewhat smaller in size, 
both externally and cranially than typical C. c. cristata., and are tend- 
ing in this character toward the smaller southern subspecies C. c. 

Order CHIROPTERA (bats) 

Family VESPERTILIONIDAE (vespertllionid bats) 


Myotis lucifugus lucifugus (Le Conte) 

y[espertilio]. lucifugus Le Conte, in McMurtrie, The animal kingdom 
. . . bytheBaronCuvier,vol. l,App.,p.431, 1831. 

Type locality. — Georgia; probably the Le Conte plantation near Riceboro, 
Liberty County. 

General distribution. — Eastern and northern North American from Alaska 
and Labrador south in the Appalachians to Georgia, and west into Arkansas. 

Distribution in Maryland. — Abundant in all sections of the State. 

Distinguishing characteristics. — Teeth 2/3, 1/1, 3/3, 3/3, = 38; face 
covered with fur except for lips and nostrils; ears moderately long, 
not extending beyond nostrils when laid forward; tragus slender and 
pcinted; wing membrane between humerus and knee sparsely furred; 
interfemoral membrane not furred; coloration rich brown, almost 
bronze; v^ung animals much darker in coloration; sagittal crest 
usually lacking on sk^oll, 

Measureinents. — Eight adults from the District of Columbia have 
external measurements as foUow^s: Total length 85.6 (80-95); tail 
vertebrae 38.5 (36-42) ; hind foot 8.9 (8.0-10.5). Some cranial meas- 
urements of seven adults from Washington, D.C., are as follows: 



7 9- 7 6' 





O lO 20 30MILES 

JtUJiul ill 


1 k 


7 7 


Myotis lucifugus luaifugus 
• Specimens examined 
O Specimens reported 

1 1 

79' 78- 

1 1 


Figure 14. — Distribution of Myotis lucifugus lucifugus. 

Greatest len^h 14.0 (13.7-14.2); zygomatic breadth 8.4 (8.0-9.1); 
interorbital breadth 4.0 (3.9^.2) ; length of maxillary toothrow 5.1 

Habitat and habits. — This species occurs almost everywhere, roost- 
ing in the attics of houses, in hollow trees, or in caves. It is gregarious 
by nature ; in the attic of one house near Seneca Point, Cecil County, 
over 9,000 were found roosting at one time. 

The little brown myotis hibernates in winter and, in some areas at 
least, is migratory in habits, traveling "flyway" routes from winter 
hibernating quarters to summering areas. During these migrations 
they may travel as far as 100 to 150 miles or more, returning by similar 
routes to their winter quartera The migratory patterns of Maryland's 
little brown myotis have not been studied, but the files of the Bat 
Banding Office, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, contain two records 
of movements of this species into the State. In both instances, the 
little brown myotis were banded in Hellhole Cave, Pendleton County, 
W. Va., in March 1964 and were picked up in the vicinity of Deep 
Creek Lake in Garrett County in June and July of 1964. Perhaps 
some of Maryland's Myotis lucifugus population winters in caves in 
West Virginia and Virginia, and travels north to forage in Maryland 
during the summer. Others that winter in Maryland may venture 
further north into Pennsylvania in the summer months. 


Mating in this species usually occurs in the autumn, before the bats 
enter hibernation. Normally the spermatozoa survive in the uterus 
throughout the winter, and fertilization occurs the following spring. 
Copulation, however, may occur during the winter or in the spring. 
The gestation period probably is about 80 days, and the young are 
bom in late May or early June. Usually only a single offspring com- 
prises a litter, but occasionally two are produced. In about 4 weeks 
after their birth, the young are flying and foraging for their own 
food. Sexual maturity is achieved at about 8 months. There is only 
one litter per season. 

The food of the little brown myotis appears to be composed entirely 
of insects, particularly nocturnal species of moths, beetles, and bugs. 
It has a voracious appetite, consuming large numbers of insects 

This bat is long-lived; there are records of banded animals 
recovered in good health as much as 20 years after banding. 

Specimens examined. — Cecil County: Seneca Point, 1. Garrett 
County : Oakland, 1. Montgomery County : Plmnmers Island, 1. Dis- 
trict of Columbia : 29. 

Other records and reports. — Baltimore County: Patapsco State 
Park (Bull. Nat. Hist. Soc. Maryland 10 (1), p. 5, 1939). Garrett 
County: Deep Creek Lake (banding recovery record). Montgomery 
County: Edwards Ferry (banding recovery record). Washington 
County: Round Top Mountain, near Hancock (banding record). 

Remarks. — This bat is far more common than the few locality 
records above would indicate. It is probably the most abimdant bat 
in Maryland. 


Myotis keenii septentrionalis (Trouessart) 

[Vespertilio gryphu^] var. septentrionalis Trouessart, Catalogus 
mammalium • • . , fasc. 1, p. 131, 1897. 

Type locality. — Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada. 

General distribution. — Eastern North America, from Newfoundland, Nova 
Scotia, Quebce, and Ontario, south to northern Florida and west to Manitoba, 
North and South Dakota, Nebraska, Kansas, and Arkansas. 

Distribution in Maryland. — Occurs in all sections of the State, and 
is common. 

Distinguishing characteristics. — This bat is similar in size and color 
to the little brown myotis {Myotis lu^ifugus) , but may be distinguished 
from that species by its long ears, which extend some 4 to 5 millimeters 
beyond the tip of the nose when laid forward. The skull is narrower in 
proportion to its length than that of the little brown myotis. 



MijOtis keenii septentrionalis 
Specimens examined 
O Specimens reported 

Figure 15. — Distribution of Myotis keemi septentrionaUs. 

Measurements. — External measurements of three adults from 
Plununers Island, Montgomery County, are as follows: Total length 
81, 87, 75 ; tail vertebrae 38, 35, 35 ; hind foot 9, 9, 10. Some cranial 
measurements of four adults from Plummers Island are : Greatest 
length 14.5 (14.4r-14.7) ; zygomatic breadth 8.9 (8.8-9.0) ; interor- 
bital breadth 3.6 (3.6-3.7) ; length of maxillary toothrow 5.9 (5.7-6.0). 

Habitat and habits. — This species roosts in small colonies in caves, 
and under loose bark on trees. Frequently it is found in association 
with the little brown myotis, from which it differs little in habitat 
selection or habits, except that it seems to be more solitary. Mansueti 
(1941, pp. 56-57) found one sleeping under the bark of a dead stand- 
ing tree near Arbutus, Baltimore County. When he peeled the bark 
away, the bat flew to a nearby tree and crawled up under some loose 
bark on it. This species is more abundant than the few Maryland 
records indicate. 

Specimens examined. — Baltimore County: Bare Hills, 1. Mont- 
gomery County: Cabin John Bridge, 1; Plummers Island, 5. Prince 
Georges County: Muirkirk, 1. District of Colwmbia: 4. 

Other records and reports. — Baltimore County: Arbutus (Man- 
sueti, 1941); Lake Koland (Bures, 1948: 63). Montgomery County: 
Forest Glen (Miller, 1897: 76). Washington County: Kound Top 
Mountain, near Hancock (bat banding record, U.S. Fish and Wildlife 
Service) . 




My Otis sodalis Miller and G. M. Allen 

Myotis sodalis Miller and G. M. Allen, Bull. U.S. Nat. Mus., 144: 
130, 25 May 1928. 

Type locality. — Wyandotte Cave, Crawford County, Indiana. 

General distribution. — Eastern United States from central New England west 
to Wisconsin, Missouri, and Arkansas, south into northern Florida. It occurs 
on the Atlantic Coastal Plain, however, only in the New England area. 

Distribution in Maryland. — Apparently very rare in the State. Its 
distribution is probably limited to limestone caves in the Ridge and 
Valley and Allegheny Mountain sections. 

Distinguishing characteristics. — Resembles Myotis hicifugus.^ but 
differs in coloration, the fur being a dull grayish chestnut rather 
than bronze, with the basal portion of the hairs of the back dull lead 
colored; coloration of underparts pinkish to cinnamon; hind feet 
smaller and more delicate than in M. lucifugus', slight, but well-de- 
fined sagittal crest usually present on skull. 

Measurements. — Two adults from the type locality in Indiana have 
measurements as follows: Total length 86, 87; tail vertebrae 35, 38; 
hind foot 9, 9; greatest length of skull 14.1, 13.9; zygomatic breadth 
8.7, 8.3; interorbital breadth 3.8, 3.7; length of maxillary toothrow 
5.5, 5.3. 

Myotis sodalis 

# Specimens examtn 
O Specimens report 

Figure 16. — Distribution of Myotis sodalis. 
336-897 0—69 4 


The skull of an adult from Oakland, Garrett County, measures: 
Greatest length 13.7; zygomatic breadth 8.1; interorbital breadth 
3.7 ; length of maxillary toothrow 5.0. 

Habitat and habits. — This bat roosts almost exclusively in lime- 
stone caves, preferring those in which there are considerable bodies 
of water. It forms large colonies and is often found in association 
with M. lucifugus. It is known from only 2 localities in Maryland. 

Hall (1962) has thoroughly studied the life histoiy of this bat. He 
found that at Blackball Mine, La Salle County, 111., the earliest date 
for entrance into hibernation was 14 September. The major buildup 
of the hibernating colony was during October and the first part of 
November. The hibernating colony starts diminishing in early April, 
and by the first week of June no sodalis are in hibernation. He esti- 
mates that the average hibernation period for this species would be 
from 15 October to 20 April, or 187 days. He found that large num- 
bers of Indiana myotis accumulate in a few caves to hibernate, and 
that for five consecutive winters the species was found in the same 
seven caves and in no others in Edmondson County, Kentucky. This 
species also occupies caves during the nonhibernating summer months, 
and may be considered a true cave species. 

As far as movements and migrations are concerned, Hall says that 
the same individual may be present in one area winter and summer 
whereas others may move as much as 250 miles between seasons. He 
says that the few band recoveries indicate that certain movement 
areas exist for certain populations. For instance, he found that one 
such population range includes Kentucky, Indiana, Illinois, and south- 
ern Ohio, and that no movement takes place between this area and 
the Ozark area of Arkansas and Missouri. 

Little is known regarding the feeding and breeding habits of M. 
sodalis., but probably they are quite similar to those of M. lucifugus. 
Like that species, M. sodalis is long-lived. One specimen banded in 
Carter County, Ky., on 12 March 1950, was recovered in good health 
14 years later on 8 January 1964, in the same cave. 

SpecimeTis examined. — Garrett County: Near Oakland, 1. 

Other records and reports. — Washington County: Round Top 
Mountain, near Hancock (bat banding record, U.S. Fish and Wild- 
life Service). 

Remarks. — The skull of the Maryland specimen is small in all 
measures, but otherwise appears to be typical M. sodalis. It has the 
slight but perfectly defined sagittal crest which is generally present 
in this species and lacking in M. lucifugus. Unfortunately, the skin is 
missing from the National Museum collections. 



Myotis subulatus leibii (Audubon and Bachman) 

Vespertilio leibii Audubon and Bachman, Jour. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila- 
delphia, ser. 1,8: 284, 1842. 

Myotis winnemana Nelson, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., XXVI: 183, 8 
August 1913. (Type from Plummers Island, Maryland.) 

Type locality. — Brie Ck)unty, Ohio. 

General distribution. — Ontario and southwestern Quebec, south to western 
North Carolina, and west to southern Iowa, eastern Kansas, and northeastern 

Distribution in Maryland. — Recorded from Plummers Island, 
Montgomery County, and Round Top Mountain near Hancock, "Wash- 
ington County. This species probably hibernates in caves in the Alle- 
gheny Mountain section, and passes through the rest of the State 
during migrations. 

Distinguishing characteristics. — Similar to Myotis hicifugus, but 
differs in its smaller size, golden tinted fur, black ears, black facial 
mask, and shorter forearm. The skull is much flatter than that of M. 
lu/)ifugus, and the braincase narrower. 

Measurements. — Two adults from Plummers Island, Montgomery 
County (the first the type of M. winncTnana Nelson) measure as fol- 
lows : Total length 82, 80 ; tail vertebrae 39, 35 ; hind foot 8, 7 ; greatest 

Myotis subulatus leibii 
# Specimens examined 
O Specimens reported 

Figure 17. — Distribution of Myotis subulatus leibii. 


length of skull 13.7, 13.1; interorbital breadth 3.4, 3.3; length of 
maxillary toothrow 5.1, 5.0. 

Habitat and habits. — These bats probably hibernate in caves in the 
wild forested regions of the Allegheny Mountains and migrate else- 
where in the State during late winter and early spring. Most 
specimens have been taken in caves located in hemlock forests. The 
position of these bats as they hang on the walls or ceilings of the caves 
is a definite means of identification. The arms, instead of hanging 
parallel to the body, as generally found in M. lucifugus and other bats, 
are extended about 30 degrees from the vertical. Little is known of the 
feeding and breeding habits, but they are presumed to be similar to 
M. lucifugus. 

Specimens examined. — Montgomery County: Plummers Island, 2. 

Other records and reports. — Washington Gownty: Round Top 
Mountain, near Hancock (bat banding record, U.S. Fish and Wildlife 
Service) . 


Lasionycteris noctivagans (Le Conte) 

Vl^espertilio']. noctivagans Le Conte, in McMurtrie, The animal king- 
dom ... by the Baron Cuvier, vol. 1, App., p. 431, 1831. 

Type locality. — Eastern United States. 

General distribution. — Nearly all of North America, from the tree line in 
northern Canada, south to Georgia, Texas, New Mexico, and California. 

Distribution in Maryland. — Probably breeds only in the Allegheny 
Mountain section, but occurs in all sections of the State as a migrant 
in the spring and the fall. 

Distinguishing characteristics. — Teeth 2/3, 1/1, 2/3, 3/3, = 36; pelage 
dark brownish-black, the ends of the hairs tipped with sUver, giving 
a somewhat frosted effect, particularly along the middle of the back; 
fur extends onto dorsal surface of interfemoral membrane; ears short 
and rounded with broad, blunt tragus; skull flattened, and rostrum 

Measurements. — An adult male from Plurmners Island, Montgomery 
County has the following external measurements: Total length 116; 
tail vertebrae 47; hind foot 10, Some cranial measurements of four 
adults from Washington, D.C. are: Greatest length 15.8 (15.6-16.2) ; 
zygomatic breadth (2 specimens) 9.9, 9.1; interorbital breadth 4.1 
(4.0-4.3) ; length of maxillary toothrow 5.7 (5.6-5.8). 

Habitat and habits. — This bat is found most frequently flying about 
ponds and streams in wooded areas. It roosts in hollow trees, in dense 
foliage, and occasionally in buildings. It is sociable and often en- 
countered in large groups. As in many species of bats, there is a marked 



79- 76- 

1 1 









O lO 20 30MILES 




Lasionycteris nootivagans 
# Specimens examined 
O Specimens reported 






T T 




FiQUEE 18. — Distribution of Lasionycteris noctivagans. 

segregation of the sexes and the large colonies seem to be composed 
primarily of females. Solitary animals are usually males. 

The breeding habits of this species are not well known, but accord- 
ing to Jackson (1961, p. 86) it usually has two young, bom blind and 
nearly naked, the last part of June or early in July. The young remain 
clinging to the breast of the mother until they are about 3 weeks old, 
when they are able to fly and shift for themselves. A single litter is 
produced each year. 

The silver-haired bat feeds entirely on nocturnal insects, particularly 
those that fly high in the woodlands or over the borders of watercourses 
with wooded banks. 

Specimens examined. — Montgomery County : Great Falls, 1 ; Plum- 
mers Island, 1. Prince Georges County: Laurel, 1. District of Colum- 
bia: 5. 

Other records and reports. — Prince Georges County: Patuxent Re- 
search Center (Gardner, 19506, p. 112) . 


Pipistrellus subflavus subflavus (F. Cuvler) 

Ylespertiliol. subflavus F. Cuvier, Nouv. Ann. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, 
1 : 17, 1832. 

Type locality. — Georgia, restricted to the LeConte Plantation, 3 miles SW Rice- 
boro, Liberty County, by Davis (1959, p. 522) . 


General distribution. — From central Minnesota and southern Quebec south into 
Georgia and western Florida ; west to Oklahoma, Texas, and Tamaulipas. The 
center of its abundance is the Ohio River Valley ; north of this it occurs locally 
in summer (Davis and Mumford, 1962, p. 396). 

Distribution in Maryland. — Probably ranges throughout all sections 
of the State, although there are no records of it from the Eastern Shore 

Distinguishing characteristics.' — Teeth 2/3, 1/1, 2/2, 3/3, = 34; 
smallest bat in Maryland; coloration of dorsum grayish to reddish- 
brown, each hair tricolored, plumbeous at base, dark brown at tip, 
with central portion yellowish-brown; flight weak and erratic, giving 
the animal somewhat the appearance of a large fluttering moth. 

Measurements. — External measurements of 11 adults from Washing- 
ton, D.C., are as follows : Total length 81.6 (75-90) ; tail 39.5 (37^2) ; 
hind foot 8.5 (8.0-9.0). Some cranial measurements of 10 adults from 
Washington are as follows: Greatest length 12.8 (12.4-13.1) ; zygo- 
matic breadth 7.9 (7.7-8.2) ; interorbital breadth 3.5 (3.4-3.6) ; length 
of maxillary toothrow 4.3 (4.2-4.4) . 

Habitat and habits. — This is a wide-ranging species that hibernates 
in caves, mine shafts, and rock crevices. During the summer months it 
probably spends the daylight hours in trees, although it is sometimes 
found in buildings. It is most frequently encountered in wooded areas 
near water. The pipistrelle is believed to have a feeding range of at 
least 5 or 6 miles, and a homing instinct has been demonstrated by 
tracing banded bats for distances up to 80 miles. Individuals roost 
year after year in the same cave. 

Mating occurs in November, and young are born the last part of June 
or early July. Usually two constitute a litter, but there are occasionally 
triplets, and sometimes only a single offspring. By the time they are 
about a month old they are able to fly, and shortly thereafter begin to 
shift for themselves. Since pipistrelles are so small their food is proba- 
bly restricted to insects such as flies, moths, and the smaller bugs and 

Despite their diminutive size, pipistrelles apparently have a long 
life span. Banded individuals have been recovered in good health as 
long as 10 years after they were originally tagged. 

/Specimens examined. — Anne Arundel County: Magatha R. ( = Ma- 
gothy River?), 2. Charles County: Marshall Hall, 13. Garrett County: 
Near Oakland, 1. Montgomery County: Capitol View, 1 ; Glen Echo, 1 ; 
Great Falls, 1 ; Plummers Island, 2. Prince Georges County: Hyatts- 
ville, 1; Laurel, 1; near D. C. line, 6. St. Marys County: St. George 
Island, 4; District of Columbia: 40. 

Other records and reports. — Baltimore County: Bare Hills (Bures, 
1948: 64); Orange Grove (Hampe, 1939: 5). Washington County: 


r r 









SC* L E ^^ 
O lO 20 30MILES 




//» ^]^ «^ Jf%' / AY / /yl 

Pipistrellus subflavus subflavus 
• Specimens examined 
Specimens reported ^ 






f r 





FiGUEE 19. — Distribution of Pipistrellus subflavus subflavus. 

Keedysville, Snively's Cave No. 1 (bat banding record, U.S. Fish and 
Wildlife Service) ; Round Top Mountain (bat banding record, U.S. 
Fish and Wildlife Service) . 

Remarks. — Two subspecies of Pipistrellus subflavus have been named 
from the eastern United States, P. s. subflavus^ the typical form as 
described above, and P. s. ohscums Miller (Type locality : Lake George, 
Warren County, New York). Miller (1897, p. 93) described ohscums 
as differing from subflavus only in coloration, being somewhat darker, 
duller, and more yellowish. Several specimens from the vicinity of 
Washington, D.C., in the national collections, are darker than typical 
P. s. subflavus and were referred by Bailey (1923, p. 136) and Gardner 
(1950b, p. 112) to obscurus. Bailey (1923, p. 137) says that "They may 
have migrated from their northern habitat, or merely wandered out of 
their regular range after the breeding season was over." As pointed 
out by W. H. Davis ( 1959, p. 523) , who has synonomyzed P. s. obscurus 
with P. s. subflavus, there is a wide range of individual variation in 
color in this species, and dark specimens are found throughout the 
entire range of P. s. subflavus. The dark specimens from the vicinity 
of Washington, referred to obscurus by both Bailey and Gardner, fall 
within the range of individual variation of color in the subspecies 

Another Maryland specimen which exhibits atypical coloration is 
from St. George Island, St. Marys County. It is similar to P. s. florid- 



amis Davis, which is distributed over peninsular Florida and south- 
eastern Georgia. W. H. Davis (1957, p. 215) speculated that perhaps 
this animal actually was a -fioridanus that had wandered northward. 
In a later publication ( 1959, p. 524) , however, he says that unless it can 
be shown that this actually happened it is best to refer this specimen 
to P. s. subfiavus. The specimen has been in the National collections 
for many years (collected 20 August 1887) , and the unusual coloration 
is perhaps due to fading. 


Eptesicus fuscus fuscus (Palisot de Beauvois) 

Vespertilio fuscus Palisot de Beauvois, Catalogue Raisonne du Museum 
de Mr. C. W. Peale, Philadelphia, p. 18 (p. 14 of English ed. by 
Peale and Beauvois) , 1796. 

Type locality. — Philadelphia, Pa. 

General distribution. — Eastern North America, from Quebec, Ontario, and 
Manitoba, south into Florida and Nuevo Leon, Mexico. 

Distribution in Maryland. — Abundant in the lower Piedmont and 
upper Western Shore sections in the vicinity of the fall line. Uncom- 
mon in the Allegheny Mountain, Ridge and Valley, and Eastern Shore 

Eptesicus fussus fuscus 
• Specimens examined 
O Specimens reported 

Figure 20. — Distribution of Eptesicus fuscus fuscus. 


Distinguishing characteristics. — Teeth 2/3, 1/1, 1/2, 3/3, = 32; size 
large, exceeded in Maryland only by the hoary bat; coloration uni- 
formly dark brown; ears thick and heavy, somewhat rounded and 
medium in size, naked except for some fur at the base; wings and inter- 
femoral membrane lacking fur; skuU larger and heavier than any other 
local bat except Lasiurus cinereus, from which it differs in being notice- 
ably narrower. Both Eptesicus and Lasiurus have 32 teeth, but in 
Eptesicus there are 2 upper incisors and 1 upper premolar, while in 
Lasiurus there are 2 upper premolars and 1 upper incisor on each side. 

Measurements. — External and cranial measurements of 15 adults 
from Washington, D.C., are as follows : Total length 113.2 (110-122) ; 
tail 43.6 (40^8) ; hind foot (average of 9) 12 (10-13) ; greatest length 
of skull 18.5 (17.5-19.6) ; zygomatic breadth (average of 10) 12.6 
(12.1-13.4) ; interorbital breadth 4.2 (3.9-4.5) ; length of maxillary 
toothrow7.1 (6.9-7.4). 

Habitat and habits. — This bat usually occurs around buildings and 
dwellings where it roosts in the daytime under windowsills, in the eaves 
of roofs, in cracks or crevices, or behind doors, blinds, and awnings. 
It is sometimes found in hollow trees, under loose bark, and occasionally 
in caves or crevices in cliffs. This species is common in parts of Mary- 
land ; it is an unusual year when at least one specimen is not captured 
in the Natural History building of the National Museum and added 
to the study collection. The big brown bat does not form large colonies 
as do some species of bats. Probably it is in part migratory, but does not 
engage in extensive seasonal migrations, other than to find a suitable 
place for hibernation. This is one of the last bats to hibernate in the 
fall, and it is on wing again in early March. During mild spells of 
winter it may be seen flying in the sun at midday (Hamilton, 1943, 
p. 90) . These bats are long-lived ; records of banded animals recovered 
10 to 15 years later are numerous. 

The homing instinct seems to be develqped to some degree. Cohen 
(1944) found several adults behind the shutter of a house in Berwyn, 
Prince Georges County, and after banding them released them on 4 
October 1941, in Baltimore City. Twelve days later, on 15 October 1941, 
one of these bats was found hanging on the same shutter from which 
it had been removed in Berwyn. It had travelled a distance of 26.56 
miles, over the congested city of Baltimore, and heavily travelled high- 
ways, to return to its home roost. 

The mating season for the big brown bat is September, and young are 
born the following June. Normally two comprise a litter, although 
there may occasionally be only one. The young grow rapidly and 3 or 
4 weeks after birth are able to shift for themselves. 

This species, like all Maryland bats, is primarily insectivorous. 
Hamilton (1933a) examined 2,200 summer fecal pellets from northern 


West Virginia and concluded that the most common insects consumed 
by the big brown bat in summer are (in order of abundance of re- 
mains) : Coleoptera, Hymenoptera, Diptera, Plecotera, Ephemirida, 
Hemiptera, Tricoptera, Neuroptera, Mecotera and Northoptera. No 
lepidqpterous remains were discovered by Hamilton in the pellets. 

Specimens esoamined. — Baltimore Oity : 1. Baltimore County: Ca- 
tonsville, 1. Montgornery County: Kensington, 1; Plummers Island, 
2 ; Silver Spring, 1 ; Takoma Park, 2. Prince Georges County : Laurel, 
3. District of Columbia: 86. 

Other records and reports. — Awfie Arundel County: Jessup (Silver, 
1928, p. 149). Baltimc/re County: Bare Hills (Cohen, 1942, p. 96) ; 
Patapsco State Park (Hampe, 1939, p. 5). Montgomery County: 
Washington Grove (Christian, 1956, p, 66). Prince Georges County: 
Berwyn (Cohen, 1944, p. 65) ; Patuxent Research Center (Gardner, 
19505, p. 112) . Washington County: Round Top Mountain, near Han- 
cock (banding record). 

Lasiurus borealis borealis (Mtiller) 

Vespertilio horealis Miiller, Des Ritters Carl von Linne . . . voll- 
standiges Natursystem nach der zwolften lateinischen Ausgabe. . . . 
Suppl. (Mammalia) , p. 20, 1776. 

Type locality. — New York 

General distribution. — Eastern North America, from southern New Brunswick, 
Quebec, Ontario, Manitoba, Saskatchewan, and Alberta, south to Florida and 

Distribution in Maryland. — Abundant in all sections of the State. 

Distinguishing characteristics. — Teeth 1/3, 1/1, 2/2, 3/3, = 32; size 
medium; color bright rufous or fulvous, hairs plumbeous at base and 
whitish at tips, producing a slight frosted effect; ears broad and blunt, 
rounded at tip, reaching about halfway from the angle of the mouth 
to the nostril when laid forward; tail moderately long; interfemoral 
membrane thickly furred on upper surface. 

This bat is easily distinguished from all other bats in Maryland by 
its bright rufous coloration and the furred interfemoral membrane. 
Males generally are darker and more reddish than females. 

MeasureTnents. — ^An adult male from Doubs, Frederick County, and 
an adult female from 3 miles NW of Annapolis, Anne Arundel 
County, measure respectively: Total length 109, 113; tail 49, 50; hind 
foot 10, 7 ; greatest length of skull 13.0, 12.6 ; zygomatic breadth 9.5, 
9.5 ; interorbital breadth 4.4, 4.2 ; length of maxillary toothrow 4.6, 4.4. 

Habitat and habits. — This bat shows a preference for deciduous 
woodlands, orchards, and city parks with trees and tall shrubs. It 
generally chooses the branch of a shady tree in which to roost, some- 



Lasiurus borealis borealis 
9 Specimens examined 
O Specimens reported 

Figure 21. — Distribution of Lasiurus borealis borealis. 

times within a few feet of the ground, and conceals itself in the foliage. 

It is well known that the red bat is migratory in habits, spending 
smnmers in northern areas and flying south in the autumn. They are 
not found in the winter in the more northern areas, while their num- 
bers appear to increase in the south. In Maryland they apparently 
occur the year round, specimens having been taken in all months 
from April through December, and in nearby Arlington, Va., on 
1 March. Whether the same population occurs here in the summer 
as in the winter is not known. Perhaps the summer population migrates 
farther south and its place is taken by a more northern population 
which has migrated in. 

It appears that this bat migrates southward in the fall behind an 
advancing cold front. David Bridge, a Maryland bird bander, tells 
me that he often takes red bats in the autumn in his bird nets at Kent 
Point on Kent Island, Queen Annes County, for several days following 
the movement of a cold front through the area. 

The red bat is a strong swift flyer. Jackson (1961, p. 96) states that 
observational timing he made of it would indicate an ordinary 
straightaway flying speed of near 40 miles per hour. It has sometimes 
been observed flying far out to sea as much as 500 miles from the 
nearest land. Usually it migrates at night, but occasionally it is ob- 
served during the day. A. H, Howell (1908, p. 36) observed over a 


hundred bats, most of which were probably of this species, passing 
over a part of Washington, D.C., between 9 and 10 a.m. on the cloudy 
mild morning of 28 September 1907. 

Red bats mate during early August; copulation occurs while the 
bats are in flight. The female apparently stores the sperm, and the 
young are not born until the following June after a gestation period 
of 80 to 90 days. Three are the usual number of young per litter, 
although there are occasionally two or four. 

Like other Maryland bats, the red bat is insectivorous and catches 
most of its prey while on wing. Some insects, however, are probably 
taken from the foliage or even near the ground, since remains of 
crickets have been found in stomachs. Additional items of diet are 
flies, bugs, beetles, cicadas, and other insects. 

Specimens exaTnined. — Anne Anmdel Counts/: Annapolis, 1; An- 
napolis, 3 miles NW, 1 ; no exact locality, 2. Baltimore City: 1. Calvert 
County: Solomons, 1. Charles County: Port Tobacco, li^ miles SW, 
2. Dorchester County: Cambridge, 1. Frederick County: Doubs, 1. 
Montgomery County: Forest Glen, 6 ; Glen Echo, 1 ; Plummers Island, 
7; Silver Spring, 2. Prinwe Georges County: College Park, 1; Laurel, 
14. Somerset County: off Tangier Island, Virginia, 1; 'Washington 
County: Hagerstown, 2; Sandy Hook, 1. District of Columhiu: 83. 

Other records and reports. — Baltimore County: Patapsco State Park 
(Hampe, 1939, p. 5). Queen Annes County: Kent Point (bird bander 
David Bridge in verbis, 16 September 1964) . 

Remarks. — A closely related species, the seminolebat, Lasiurus semi- 
nolus (Rhoads), which normally is found in Florida, southern Geor- 
gia, Alabama, Mississippi, and Louisiana, has been reported twice 
from southeastern Pennsylvania (Poole, 1932, p. 162; 1949, p. 80) 
and once from central New York (Layne, 1955, p. 453) . Layne suggests 
that individuals of this species may wander northward far out of the range in summer, and if this is so, the seminole bat may eventu- 
ally be taken in Maryland. This species is distinguished from the red 
bat by its much darker coloration, a rich mahogany brown slightly 
frosted with white. 


Lasiurus cinereus cinereus (Palisot de Beauvois) 

VespertUio cinereus (misspelled linereus) Palisot de Beauvois, Cata- 
logue raisonne du museum de Mr. C. W. Peale, Philadelphia, 
p. 18, 1796. 

Type locality. — Philadelphia, Pa. 

General distribution. — Most of North America, from the Atlantic to the Pa- 
cific, north into Canada, and south into Mexico. Breeds in the northern part of 
its range, mostly north of the United States. 



Lasrurus cmereus ctnereus 
# Specimens examined 
O Specimens reported 

Figure 22. — Distribution of Ldsiurus cinereus cinereus/i. 

Distribution in Maryland. — Occurs as a migrant in all sections of the 
State; may breed in the higher portions of the Allegheny Momitain 

Distinguishing characteristics. — Teeth as in L. horealis; size large 
(averaging 135 mm in total length) ; wingspread averaging around 14 
inches; coloration a mixture of grayish umber and chocolate brown, 
heavily tinged with white, so as to produce a hoary effect, especially on 
the back; head blunt, with ears large and rounded, conspicuously 
rimmed with black or dark brown ; tail medium length, about 40 per- 
cent of total length of the> animal; interfemoral membrane thickly 
furred on upper surface nearly to the edge; anterior edge of under- 
side of wing furred for about half its length. This bat is easily dis- 
tinguished from all other Maryland bats by its large size and unique 

Measurements. — ^Measurements of an adult male from Washington, 
D.C., are as follows : Total length 135.5 ; tail 61.5 ; hind foot 13 ; great- 
est length of skull 16.1; zygomatic breadth 12.0; interorbital breadth 
4.9 ; length of maxillary toothrow 6.2. 

An adult female from Washington, D.C., has the following cranial 
measurements : Greatest length of skull 16.9 ; zygomatic breadth 12.7 ; 
interorbital breadth 5.5 ; length of maxillary toothrow 6.2. 

Habitat and habits. — This is a migratory species. It breeds and 
spends the summer in the northern part of its range, from southeast- 


ern Pennsylvania and possibly the higher mountains of the Appa- 
lachians, north into Canada. It migrates southward quite late in the 
season. It prefers to roost in coniferous forests, but may also be found 
in farmyards, city parks, and yards, particularly where coniferous 
trees are growing. The hoary bat has an extensive home range and 
may fly a mile or more from its roosting site in search of food. It is a 
strong and rapid flyer, and Jackson (1961, p. 100) estimates that it 
can achieve speeds of up to 60 miles an hour. The scarcity of records 
and specimens from Maryland indicates that it is rare here. In the 
summer, it occurs in the higher mountains of the Allegheny Mountain 
section. In other seasons, it may be encountered throughout Maryland. 

Little is known of the breeding habits of this bat. Jackson (1961, 
pp. 100-101) says that mating probably occurs in September or Octo- 
ber and the young are bom in May or June, thus giving an apparent 
gestation period of about 8 months. It seems probable, however, that 
as in some other species of bats spermatozoa survive in the uterus 
through the winter, and that fertilization takes place early in the 
spring, giving an actual gestation period of about 90 days. Usually, 
two yoimg comprise a litter, although it is possible that as many as 
four may be produced. 

The hoary bat is primarily an insect feeder, but occasionally preys 
on smaller bats. 

Specimens examined. — Balfi<more County: Cockeysville, 1. Prinze 
Georges County: Laurel, 1. District of Columbia: 3. 

Other records and reports. — Baltimore City (Merriam, 1887, p. 86) . 
Prince Georges County: Berwyn (Tromba, 1954, p. 253) . 

Nycticeius humeralis humeralis (Rafinesque) 

Vespertilio huineralis Rafinesque, American Monthly Mag., 3 (6) : 445, 
October 1818. 

Type locality. — Kentucky. 

General distribution. — From Pennsylvania, Michigan, and Illinois, south into 
Florida and Texas, and west into eastern Oklahoma and Kansas. 

Distribution in Maryland. — Probably absent in the higher moun- 
tains of the Allegheny Mountain and Ridge and Valley sections, but 
elsewhere it may occur sparingly as a summer resident. 

Distinguishing characteristics. — Teeth 1/3, 1/1, 1/2, 3/3, = 30; super- 
ficially resembles Myotis but can be easily distinguished by the 
reduced number of teeth and the short sparse brown fur which is dull 
umber above and plumbeous at the base; fur on abdomen paler than 
on dorsum; ears small and thick. The young of this species are con- 
siderably darker than the adults. 


1 'i^" 


76 = 


/ 1 -^"P^ 





'// //X 

i ' 





O lO 20 30MILES 

V^ '^^/ 





Nyctiaeius humeralis humeralis 



If A m ^,AJ) 
'/A >t-VX 
3(/A T^Oy/ 

• Specimens examined 





^ ^ 

79' re' 

1 L 






FiGUBE 23. — Distribution of Nycticeius humeralis humeralis. 

Measurements. — ^Three adults from the vicinity of Washington, 
D.C., have external measurements as follows : Total length 90, 95, 94 ; 
tail 39, 35, 35 ; hind foot 10, 9, 8. Six adults from the vicinity of Wash- 
ington have the following cranial measurements : Greatest length 14.2 
(13.7-15.5) ; zygomatic breath 9.7 (9.6-10.0) ; interorbital breadth 3.9 
(3.8-4.0) ; maxillary tocthrow 5.2 (5.0-5.4). 

Habitat and habits. — ^This is essentially a southern species that wan- 
ders north in summer sometimes as far as Pennsylvania, Michigan, and 
Illinois. It prefers to roost in hollow trees, flying out with a slow and 
steady flight as darkness falls. It gives birth to two young, generally 
in late May. Little else is known of its habits or life history. 

Specimens examined. — Montgomery County : Linden, 1 ; Plummers 
Island, 1; Silver Spring, 1. Prince Georges County: Hyattsville, 2; 
Oxon Hill, 1 ; near D.C. line, 1. District of Columbia: 6. 

Plecotus townsendii virginianus (Handley) 

Corynorhynus virginianus Handley, Jour. Washington Acad. Sci., 45 
(2) : 148, 23 May 1955. 

Type looality. — Schoolhouse Cave, 4.4 miles NE of Riverton, 2,205 feet, Pendle- 
ton County, W. Va. 

General distril)ution. — Central part of the Appalachian highlands in eastern 
Kentucky, western Virginia, and eastern West Virginia. 


Distribution in Maryland. — Not as yet recorded, but should be looked 
for in the higher portions of the Allegheny Mountain section. To date 
it has not been found resident in any Maryland caves, but it probably 
enters the State on feeding forays from caves in nearby West Virginia 
and Virginia. 

Distinguishing characteristics. — Teeth 2/3, 1/1, 2/3, 3/3, = 36, ears 
very long; glandular masses on nose appear as lumps; fur long and 
limp; colored a dark brown above, and pinkish buff on belly, inter- 
femoral membrane naked. 

The very large ears serve to distinguish this bat from any others 
that may be encountered within Maryland. 

Measurements. — Handley (1959, p. 233) gives some measurements 
of a series of adults from West Virginia as follows : Total length 101 
(98-103) ; tail vertebrae 50 (48-52) ; hind foot 11 (10-12) ; ear from 
notch 34 (31-38) ; greatest length of skull 16.5 (16.2-16.8) ; zygomatic 
breadth 8.8 (8.6-9.0) ; interorbital breadth 3.7 (3.6-3.9) ; length of 
maxillary toothrow 5.3 (5.2-5.4). 

Habitat and habits. — This is a true cave bat usually roosting in small 
groups and emerging at dusk to fly at considerable heights. After dusk 
it descends nearer the ground, sometimes at an elevation of only sev- 
eral feet, searching for insect prey. When roosting in the caves during 
the day, the long ears are spirally coiled and flattened against the neck. 
It is a shy bat, quick to take alarm. With its large ears, it can detect 
the least sound and seems to be more wary than other species. 

Although Pearson et al. (1952) have made a detailed study of the 
life history of the western subspecies of Plecotus townsendii., little is 
known concerning the habits of the eastern race. Since the two are 
widely separated geographically, much of Pearson's findings may not 
be applicable to the eastern form. Hamilton (1943, pp. 102-103) says 
that the eastern race bears its young during late June and that the 
mother carries the single offspring until it becomes too heavy. As with 
other vespertilionid bats, the spermatozoa are probably stored over 
winter in the uteri of the females and are capable of fertilizing in the 

This species is insectivorous, and Hamilton (1943, p. 104) says that 
those examined for a clue to their feeding habits contained only the 
remains of Lepidoptera in their stomachs. 

Remarks. — This bat has never been taken within Maryland, but has 
been found in several caves very close to the border of the western part 
of the State, in Grant, Preston, and Tucker Counties, W. Va. 

During the Pleistocene, a bat very similar to this species did inhabit 
Maryland caves. Gidley and Gazin (1933, p. 345) described Oorynor- 
hynus alleganiensis {= Plecotus alleganiensis) from Pleistocene de- 
posits in Cumberland Cave, Allegany County, Md. Handley (1959, p. 


210) states that P. alleganiensis was similar in many respects to (and 
possibly directly ancestral to) P. toionsendii. 

Order LAGOMORPHA (rabbits, hares, etc.) 

Family LEPORIDAE (rabbits, hares) 


Sylvilagus floridanus mallurus (Thomas) 

Llepus]. n\uttalli\. mallurus Thomas, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., ser. 7, 
2 : 320, October 1898. 

Type locality. — Raleigh, N.C. 

General distribution. — ^Primarily east of the Appalachian Mountains, from 
Massachusetts, south into central Florida, west to Tennessee and Alabama. 

Distribution in Maryland. — Occurs abundantly in all sections of the 
State. Cottontails have been introduced into parts of Maryland from 
areas outside the range of mallurus, and hence all population m the 
State may not be ref errable to that race. 

Distinguishing characteristics. — Teeth 2/1, O/O, 3/2, 3/3, = 28; size 
small; ears large, pelage long and coarse, reddish brown, mixed with 
black on the dorsum; underparts white, including the underside of 
the tail; nape and legs cinnamon-rufous. This species differs from the 
New England cottontail {S. transitionalis) , which has not yet been 
taken in Maryland but which probably occurs in the mountains of 
the western part of the State, in several external and cranial characters 
which are described under that species. 

Measurements. — External measurements of three adidts from the 
three adults from Washii.gton, D.C., are: Basilar length 57.5, 57.0, 

458 ; tail 60, 64, 75 ; hind foot 99, 84, . Cranial measurements of 

three adults from Washington D.C., are: Basilar length 57.5, 57.0, 
56.5 ; zygomatic breadth 36.9, 36.5, 36.3; interorbital breadth 19.1, 18.5, 
17.9 ; length of maxillary toothrow 14.1, 14.0, 13.2. 

Habitat and habits. — This rabbit occupies a variety of habitats from 
the marshes of the Dehnarva Peninsula to the fields and meadows of 
western Maryland. It is seldom encomitered in heavy woods. It occurs 
on Assateague Island, off the Atlantic coast of Maryland, where it 
is particularly abundant in the wooded thickets and dry sandy areas 
adjacent to the marshes. These rabbits are found in the tall grass and 
thickets in villages and towns and even in the large cities such as Balti- 
more and Washington. The summer food consists of almost any type of 
green vegetation, but it seems to be especially fond of legumes, dande- 
lions, plantains, and lettuce. During winter it eats tender parts of 
many shrubs and trees and will gnaw away the bark of some species of 

336-897 O — 69 5 



79- -8- 








^^ 'jnl 



O lO 20 30 MILES 




wl m 

Sylvitag-us floridanus mallwms 
• Specimens examined 


O Specimens reported \j 







1 1 

79- TS- 




FiGUBE 24 — Distribution of Sylvilagus floridanus mallurus. 

trees. With the deforestation of much of Maryland since O)lomal 
times the cottontail has found more suitable habitat and today is 
abundant throughout the State. 

The cottontail is both diurnal and nocturnal, but is most active 
during the first 3 or 4 hours after daylight and from 2 to 3 hours be- 
fore sunset to about 1 hour after sunset. It does not hibernate, but is 
active yearlong. Cottontails are solitary and seldom are two or more 
found together except in the case of mother and young. 

The female builds a brood nest of grass combined with fur plucked 
from her own abdomen. The nest, placed in a depression in the ground, 
is about 4 or 5 inches in diameter and depth. It is usually well con- 
cealed in grass, weeds, thickets, or scrubby woods. In addition to the 
brood nest, the cottontail makes forms that are used as hiding or rest- 
ing places. These forms are made by scratching or trampling a shallow 
oval hollow in the ground and sometimes lining it with grass, leaves, 
or fur. 

Cottontails in Maryland mate in late winter. The gestation period 
varies from 28 to 32 days, and the first litter of the year appears by 
mid-March. Two or three litters are produced each season, and the 
number of young per litter varies from three to six, with five being 
the most frequent. 

Specimens examined. — Charles County: Marshall Hall, 1; Rock 
Point, 1. Garrett County: Grantsville, 1. Hoicdrd County: Long Cor- 


ner, 2. Montgomery Gownty: Kensington, 1 ; Plummers Island, 2; Ta- 
koma Park, 1; no exact locality, 1. Prince Georges County: Clinton, 
1 ; East Riverdale, 1 ; Lanham, 1 ; Westwood, 1 ; no exact locality, 3. 
District of Colwnbia: 24 (many of tliese are labeled "purchased in 
Washington Market" and were probably taken outside the District of 
Ck>luinbia area) . 

Other records and reports. — Allegany County: Oldtown, 9 miles E 
(personal o'bservation). Baltimore City: (personal observation). 
Baltimore County: Bare Hills-Lake Eoland area (Bures, 1948, p. 68) ; 
Loch Raven (Kolb, 1938) ; Gwynnbrook State Game Farm (Sheffer, 
1957, p. 90); Patapsco State Park (Hampe, 1939, p. 7). Howard 
County: Atholton (personal observation). Kent County: Ghestertown 
(U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service files). Prince Georges County: Pa- 
tuxent Research Center (Herman and Warbach, 1956, p. 85). Worces- 
ter County: Assateagne Island, near the Virginia border (personal 
observation) ; Ocean City, 1 mile N (personal observation). 

Rernarks. — Nelson (1909, p. 168) considers the specimen from 
Grantsville in the extreme western Allegheny Mountain section to be 
a distinct intergrade with S. f. nieamsi, nearly pale enough to be clas- 
sified with meamsi. 

Sylvilagus transitionalis (Bangs) 

Lepus sylvaticus transitionalis Bangs, Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., 
XXVI, pp. 405-407, 31 January 1895. 

Type locality. — Liberty Hill, New London County, Conn. 

General distribution — Distributed from southeastern Maine, southern New 
Hamipshire, and Vermont, south through eastern New York, New Jersey, and 
eastern Pennsylvania and along the Allegheny Mountains through West Virginia 
to northern Georgia and northeastern Alabama. 

DistHhution in Maryland. — ^There are no valid records of the New 
England cottontail from Maryland, but it almost certainly occurs in 
the Allegheny Mountain section at higher elevations. 

Distinguishing characteristics. — Similar in coloration to the eastern 
cottontail, except that the underfur is a much darker gray. The back 
is ochraceous buflP, overlaid with a wash of black-tipped guard hairs 
which give it a dark appearance. The ears are short and round and 
have a black margin on the outside edge, making a distinct black 
line which does not blend gradually into the browner color of the ear 
as in the eastern cottontail. A definite black patch is between and just 
in front of the ears. 

Cranially this species differs from the eastern cottontail in that the 
skull is lighter and slenderer, the interorbital breadth narrower, and 


the rostrum thinner. The supraorbital process is very slender, narrow- 
ing anteriorly so that the notch is absent, or virtually so. The posterior 
portion of the process is very narrow and in some instances is free of 
the skull, leaving a distinct foramen. The auditory bullae are notice- 
ably smaller in this species than in S. floridanus. 

Measurements. — Nelson (1909, p. 168) gives average measurements 
of five adults from Wilmington, Mass., as follows : Total length 388 ; 
tail vertebrae 39 ; hind foot 96 ; basilar length of skull 54.8 ; interor- 
bital breadth 17.1. 

Since geographic variation appears to be slight in this species, 
Maryland specimens, if taken, probably would not differ greatly in 
size from the Massachusetts series. 

HabiUit and habits. — Llewellyn and Handley (1945, p. 384) say 
that in Virginia 

All specimens examined were taken at elevations above 3,000 feet in the Alle- 
gheny Mountains. Signs indicate that these cottontails occupy the woods and 
brush along most of the higher crests and ridges of the state. 

They believe that the species will be found in Virginia only at ele- 
vations above 3,000 feet. Since the species occurs in the Alleghenies 
to the north and south of Maryland, and since there are several moun- 
tains in western Maryland that exceed 3,000 feet in altitude, it is 
almost certain that the New England cottontail is resident in Maryland 
and will eventually be taken there. 

This species is similar to Sylvilagus floridanus with regard to 
breeding habits and food preferences. 

Remarks. — The records of Nelson (1909, p. 199) for the occurrence 
of the New England cottontail in Washington, D.C., and in nearby 
Alexandria, Va., have been shown by Bailey (1923, pp. 120-121) to 
be erroneous. He says : 

They have been recorded from the District . . . and from Alexandria, but the 
record based on 2 young taken in a nest in the Soldiers Home grounds by Dr. 
O. W. Richmond on 20 June 1886 was erroneously included under this species, 
and a si>ecimen which I bought on 1 January 1904 of a colored man on the street 
who said he killed it at Alexandria, probably came from West Virginia where 
they are common and are often included in shipments of rabbits to market. 


Lepus americanus virginianus Harlan 

Lepus virginianus Harlan, Fauna Americana, p. 196, 1825. 

Type locality. — Blue Mountains, near Harrisburg, Pa. 

General distribution. — Southern Ontario, and northeastern United States, 
from southern Maine, south in the Appalachian Mountains to North Carolina 
and Tennessee. 








Lepus ameriaanus virginianus 




exami ned 





Figure 25. — Distribution of Lepus americcmus virginianus. 

Distribution in Maryland. — Occurs in the Allegheny Mountain and 
Ridge and Valley sections where it is now uncommon. 

Distinguishing characteristics. — A medium-sized rabbit with large 
hind feet and thick fur. Coloration in summer pelage, dull rusty 
brown varying to buffy brown, always more or less darkened by a wash 
of black. In winter, coloration is sometimes pure white with a little 
dusky around tips of ears; but frequently a dull brownish wash is 
present on the feet and terminal half of the ears. 

Cranially, this species differs from Sylvilagus floridanvs and S. 
transitionalis in its larger size and heavier build, with much stronger 
development of the supraorbitals which are subtriangular and stand 
out broadly winglike with a broad open notch between the posterior 
process and the skull. 

Measurements. — Nelson (1909, p. 86) gives average measurements 
of five adults from Pennsylvania as follows: Total length 518; tail 
vertebrae 49; hind foot 414; basilar length of skull 65.0; interorbital 
breadth 22.0. 

Habitat and habits. — This rabbit prefers areas of spruce in the 
highest regions of the Allegheny Mountain and Ridge and Valley 
sections, where it has been observed in open woods and thickets. Spruce 
areas are small and scattered districts in the upland swamps and on 
some of the mountain tops. 

Mansueti (1953, pp. 72-73) says that 


The varying hare seems to be destined to permanent extirpation in Maryland. 
It is a species with specialized habitat requirements and one of limited distribu- 
tion. Its environment is being encroached upon by civilization gradually in some 
and swiftly in other places. . . . The optimum habitat is forest of the high inter- 
mountain Allegheny Plateau which has at least a moderate understory of small 
trees and shrubs to provide food and cover. These areas are gradually being 
destroyed by an increasing deer herd as well as human expansion in Garrett 

The last reliable reports of snowshoe rabbits in Maryland were by- 
John Hamlet, formerly with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, who 
reported that in 1945 he observed a female in Garret County but did 
not record the exact locality, and by John Smith of Mountain Lake 
who shot one near the Holy Cross Camp, Deep Creek Lake, Garrett 
County, in March 1957. This latter animal was probably one of 18 that 
had been shipped into the country from the Adirondacks of New York 
and released in March 1952. (Maryland Consei-vationist 34 (2), p. 25, 
March 1957.) 

The snowshoe rabbit is active in the summer and winter, primarily 
early in the morning and late in the evening. Although it constructs 
no nests, it returns to the same spot regularly so that a form is even- 
tually hollowed out. This form is nearly always concealed under grass, 
brush, shrubbery, or a fallen log. 

This species breeds promiscuously. Mating begins early in March 
and may continue well into April. The first litter appears in April 
after a gestation period of about 36 days ; as many as four litters a year 
are possible during a breeding season, although there are usually only 
two. The number of young may range from one to five or more, but 
most frequently three or four. 

Food of the snowshoe rabbit in summer consists of dandelion, 
grasses, clover, ferns, and the tender parts of certain shrubs and trees. 
In winter, when many summer foods are not available, it feeds on 
bark and shoots of woody plants. 

Specimens examined. — Allegany County: Cumberland, 1. 

Other records and reports. — Garrett County: Cranesville Swamp 
area (Mansueti, 1953, p. 72) ; Deep Creek Lake (Maryland Conserva- 
tionist 34(2), p. 25, March 1957) ; Finzel (Mansueti, 1953, p. 72, says 
that a specimen from this locality is in the collections of the U.S. 
National Museum and lists it among his specimens examined. There is 
no record, however, that a specimen from Finzel has ever been in 
the National Museum collections. Rhodes (1903, pp. 119-120) quotes 
Merriam as saying that Preble was told of the occurrence of Lepus 
virginianus at Finzel, Md., only half a mile from the Pennsylvania 
line. Mansueti may have confused this record with the specimen of 
Lepus a. virginianus from Cumberland, Md., which is in the National 
Museum collections, and which is probably the one he examined.) ; 


Little Crossings, headwaters of North Branch of Castleman River 
(Browning, 1928, p. 242) ; Wolf Swamp, SE of Grantsville (Mansueti, 
1953, p. Y2). 

Remarks. — Several hundred snowshoe rabbits have been stocked at 
various times in several localities in western Maryland, None of these 
introductions appear to have been very successful, although the speci- 
men taken by John Smith at Deep Creek Lake in March 1957 seems 
to be one of those stocked in 1952. 

Order RODENTIA (gnawing mammals) 

Family SCIURIDAE (squirrels) 


Tamias striatus (Linnaeus) 

[Sciurusl striatus Linnaeus, Syst. nat., ed. 10, 1 : 64, 1758. 

The eastern chipmunk is distributed from Quebec, New Brunswick, 
and Nova Scotia, south into Georgia and Louisiana, west to eastern 
Oklahoma, Kansas, Nebraska, North and South Dakota, and Saskatch- 
ewan. In Maryland, two subspecies are recognizable. They are — 

Tamias striatus fisheri A. H. Howell 

Twmms striatus fisheri A. H. Howell, J. Mammal., 6(1) : 51, 9 Febru- 
ary 1925. 

Type looality. — Merritts Corners, 4 miles E of Ossining (Sing Sing), West- 
chester County, N.Y. 

This type locality has been the source of some confusion in the literature. 
It has been listed by various authorities as "Merritt's Corners, four miles W of 
Sing Sing [= Ossining] New York," (Howell, 1925, p. 51) ; "Merritts Corners, 
4 miles E of Ossining (Sing Sing), N.Y.," (Howell, 1929, p. 16); "Merritts 
Corners, 4 miles W of Sing Sing (Ossining), Westchester County, N.Y.," (Poole 
and Schantz, 1942, p. 560) ; "Merritts Corners, 4 miles E of Ossining (Sing Sing), 
Westchester County, N.Y." (Miller and Kellogg, 1955, p. 218) : "Merritts Corners, 
4 miles W Ossining (Sing Sing), AVestchester County, N.Y.," (Hall and Kelson, 
19.59, p. 294). 

The confusion involves whether Merritts Corners, a small New York State 
village not found on current maps of the region, actually lies west or east of 
Ossining, N.Y., and hence west of the Hudson River in Rockland County or east 
of the Hudson in Westchester County. 

The locality as listed on the original label of the type specimen (U.S.N.M. 
Cat. No. 193370, collected on 23 August 1884, by A. K. Fisher) reads: "Sing 
Sing, N.Y." and on the back is written "Merritts Comers 4 miles E of Sing Sing." 
U.S. Geological Survey maps of the region (,1893 edition, reprinted 1897) reveal 
that Merritts Corners, the type locality of T. s. fisheri, is located east of the 
Hudson River, in AVestchester County, N.Y., at 41°11'27" N lat., and 73°47'51" 
W long., and is approximately 3% miles E and 1% miles N of Ossining, N.Y. 

General distribution. — Middle Atlantic States, from the lower Hudson River 
Valley in New York, south to Virginia and West Virginia. 


Distribution in Maryland. — ^Uncommon in the Eastern Shore and 
Western Shore sections ; abundant locally in the Piedmont and Ridge 
and Valley sections. In the Allegheny Mountain section it is replaced 
by the subspecies T. s. lysteri. (see fig. 26.) 

Distinguishing characteristics. — Teeth 1/1, 0/0, 1/1, 3/3, = 20; a 
small, heavyset ground squirrel with dense, moderately fine fur; 
pelage marked by two pale and three dark stripes on sides of face 
and five blackish and four pale stripes extending down the back; 
rump rusty in coloration; top of head and dark facial stripes near 
russet, light facial stripes pale buffy; dark stripes on back nearly 
black in color, paler stripes near smoke-gray shading posteriorly into 
russet; center or inner pale stripe is the broadest and always gray in 
coloration; tail moderately long, grayish red and not bushy. This 
species may be distinguished from any other in Maryland by the 
striping pattern of the pelage. 

Measurements. — Four adults from the District of Columbia have 
the following external measurements: Total length 243.2 (234-255) ; 
tail 90.2 (83-99) ; hind foot 34.1 (33-35). Cranial measurements of 
nine adults from the vicinity of Washington, D.C., are as follows: 
Greatest length 39.5 (38.9-40.3) ; zygomatic breadth 22.0 (21.3-22.8) ; 
postorbital breadth 11.2 (10.6-12.2) ; length of nasals 13.2 (12.5-14.0). 

Habitat ami habits. — The chipmunk is largely a ground dweller, 
only rarely climbing trees. It prefers to live on wooded hillsides or 
mountain slopes, but is also fond of stone walls and rail fences. Though 
usually favoring dry situations, it is occasionally found in moist bot- 
tom land woods. It spends a good deal of time in burrows which it 
digs beneath a rock, stone wall, tree roots, or a building. The burrow 
is sometimes as much as 20 feet in length and 1 to 3 feet below the sur- 
face of the ground. The chipmunk in Maryland remains more or less 
active during the winter. All summer long, and especially in the 
autumn, it is busily engaged in storing food, primarily seeds and nuts 
for winter use. This food is kept in a "storeroom" adjoining the rooms 
where the animal is spending the winter. The food of the chipmunk 
consists of small seeds, berries, fruits, and nuts, and occasionally small 
birds, mice, snakes, snails, slug, insects, and other small animal life. 
Chipmunks are polyestrous and breed from March onward. The num- 
ber of young is three to five, and the gestation period 31 days. Puberty 
is reached at the age of 2i^ to 3 months. 

Specimens examined. — Anjne Aru/ndel County: Epping Forest (near 
Annapolis), 2. Frederick County: Catoctin State Park, 1. Harford 
County: Fallston, 3. Howard County: Long Corner, 2. Montgomery 
County: Bethesda, 1; Chevy Chase, 2; Dickerson, 1; Rockville, 3; 
Takoma, 1 ; Washington Grove, 2; Linden, 1. Prinze Georges Coumiy: 
Laurel, 5. Distinct of Col/wmhia: 42. 


Other records and reports. — Baltimore County: Bare Hills-Lake 
Roland Area (Bures, 1948, p. 67) ; Lock Raven (Kolb, 1938) ; Patapsco 
State Park (Hampe, 1939, p. 6). Montgomery Cownty: Sligo; Piney 
Branch; Silver Spring; Sandy Spring (all from Bailey, 1896, p. 95) ; 
Plummers Island (Goldman and Jackson, 1939, p. 133) . Prince Georges 
County : Patuxent Research Center (Herman and Warbach, 1956, p. 
87). 'Worcester County: near Milbum Landing (Vagn Flyger, per- 
sonal communication, 22 June 1964) . 

Tamias striatus lysteri (Richardson) 

Sciurus {Tamias) lysteri Richardson, Fauna Boreali- Americana, 1: 
181, pi. 15, June 1829. 

Type locality. — Penetanguishene, Ontario. 

General distribution. — Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, and southeastern Ontario, 
south into Connecticut and Pennsylvania and in the Appalachian Mountains to 
western Maryland. 

Distribution in Maryland. — Occurs in the higher mountains (above 
2,000 feet altitude) of the Allegheny Mountain section where it is 

Distinguishing characteristics. — This subspecies is similar to T. s. 
flsheri., but has paler upper parts, especially the rump and the median 
grayish bands. This paler coloration is most marked in the northern 

Tamias striatus fisheri 
Specimens examined 
O Specimens reported 

Tamias striatus lysteri 



A Specimens examined 
A Specimens reported 


-^ ^ 



T 7* 



FiQXJKE 26. — ^Distribution of Tamias striatus fisheri and T. s. lysteri. 


part of the range of the subspecies in the vicinity of the type locality. 
Maryland specimens are not so pale as typical J/ysteri. 

Cranially the differences between the two subspecies are very slight. 
T. s. lysteri averages somewhat smaller, and has relatively longer nasal 

Measurements. — External measurements of five adults and cranial 
measurements of four adults from Garrett and Allegany Counties, Md., 
are as follows: Total length 233.4 (220-247); tail 87.8 (81-100); 
zygomatic breadth 21.2 (19.9-22.2) ; postorbital breadth 10.9 (10.5- 
11.2) ; length of nasals 13.5 (12.7-14.0) . 

Habitat and habits. — Similar to T. s. -fisheri. 

Specimens examined. — Allegany Cownty: Dans Mountain (4 miles 
northwest of Rawlings), 1. Garrett County: Bittinger, 1; Cunning- 
ham Swamp, 1 (Coll. U. Md.) ; Finzel, 4; Grantsville, 1; Herrington 
Manor, 1. 

Other records arid reports. — Allegany County: Accident (Howell, 
1929, p. 19). 

Remarks. — All Maryland specimens assigned to this subspecies 
represent intergrades between T. s. lysteri and T. s. fisheri in colora- 
tion, size, and relative length of nasals, and assigning them to lysteri 
is somewhat arbitrary. Specimens from Fallston, Harford County, are 
also intergrades but are closer to fisheri and have been assigned herein 
to that subspecies. 

Marmota tnonax tnonax (Linnaeus) 

[Mu^'] monaas Linnaeus, Syst. nat., ed. 10, 1 : 60, 1758. 

Type locality. — ^Maryland. 

General distribution. — Middle eastern United States from Pennsylvania, New 
Jersey, Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Lower Peninsula of Michigan, and Iowa, south 
to Arkansas and the northern parts of Alabama, Georgia, and South Carolina. 

Distribution in Maryland. — Abundant in all sections except the 
Eastern Shore, where it has until lately been unknown. There is recent 
evidence, however, that the species is extending its range into that 

Distinguishing characteristics. — Teeth 1/1, 0/0, 2/1, 3/3, = 22; the 
heaviest member of the squirrel family found within the State (weight 
5 to 12 lbs.); tail short and somewhat bushy; fur thick and coarse; 
coloration above grizzled brown, with top of head, face, legs, and 
tail dark brown to blackish brown; under parts lighter in coloration, 
and pelage not so thick; incisor teeth white; ears short and rounded. 

The large size, grizzled brownish coloration, and short bushy tail 
readily distinguish this animal from any other rodent in Maryland. 



7 9- 














Maimota monax monax 
• Specimens examined 
O Specimens reported 





FiGUBE 27. — Distribution of Marmota monax monax. 

Measurements. — Males average larger than females in overall size. 
Two adult females, one from Sparks, Baltimore County, and the other 
from Washington, D.C., have external measurements as follows : Total 
length 628, 615; tail 157, 148; hind foot 88, 86. Cranial measurements 
of three adult males from the District of Columbia and nearby Mary- 
land are as follows: Condylobasal length 102.6, 97.5, 95.7; palatal 
length 59.3, 56.2, 55.3; zygomatic breadth 69.3, 65.8, 65.9; least inter- 
orbital breadth 27.3, 25.9, 27.2; maxillary toothrow 21.7, 21.6, 22.0. 
Cranial measurements of five adult females average: Condylobabal 
length 91.3 (89.0-94.2) ; palatal length 53.5 (51.0-56.0) ; zygomatic 
breadth 62.5 (59.6-64.8) ; least interorbital breadth 24.6 (23.3-26.3) ; 
maxillary toothrow 21.1 (20.4-21.8). 

Habitat and habits. — This is primarily a forest border and open j&eld 
mammal, seldom found in heavy dense woods. It prefers the edges 
of brushy woodlands, and particularly open fields along streams. 
Woodchucks are found along poorly cleared fence lines, in meadows, 
cow pastures, and grainfields, especially where rocky outcroppings or 
old stumps occur. They are common on the bluffs that line the Mary- 
land side of the Potomac River, and occur in great numbers in the 
farming country of Montgomery and Frederick Counties. Hampe 
(1939, p. 6) reports that they are very abundant throughout the 
Patapsco State Park, and that numerous burrows are found in the hill- 
sides along the river. In the Bare Hills-Lake Roland region of Balti- 


more County, Bures (1948, p. 67) found that they were not very 
common, their range being limited to areas of cultivation and the region 
between the deciduous woods and the marsh, Woodchucks abound in 
Garrett County, particularly in the vicinity of Deep Creek Lake. 

This species is active both day and night and is frequently seen 
in grassy shoulders and rocky outcroppings that border Maryland 
highways. On many occasions it falls victim to modern high-speed 
traffic and is one of the most frequently encountered road-kills in the 

The woodchuck inhabits an extensive burrow which sometimes ex- 
tends to a depth of 5 feet and may be some 30 feet in length. The burrow 
usually has several entrances, which may be located beneath a wall or 
tree stump. Within the burrow, there is usually one chamber in which 
a bulky grass nest is situated. In this chamber the female gives birth 
to four or five young in April or May after a gestation period of about 
4 weeks. The babies remain in the den for about a month, after which 
their eyes open, and they become completely independent of the mother 
by early July. 

Principal food of the woodchuck consists of grasses and succulents 
such as clover, alfalfa, plaintain, and various perennials, in addition 
to beans, peas, corn, and apples; seldom does the woodchuck consume 
flesh, although it has been known to pursue poultry and eat insects and 
snails. During the summer it becomes fat on these foods, and early 
in the autumn when the first frost is on the ground it descends into 
its burrow and goes into hibernation. It usually emerges again in 
late February or early March. 

Specimens examined. — Baltimore Comity: Sparks, 1, Homard 
County: Simpson ville, 1. Montgomery Cownty: Plummmers Island, 
4; Sandy Spring, 1. Prince Georges County: Laurel, 5; near Wash- 
ington, D.C, 1. Washington County: Hagerstown, 1. District of 
Colamhia: 6, 

Other records and reports. — Allegany Cownty : Mount Savage (Coll. 
U. Md.). Baltimore County: Bare Hills-Lake Roland area (Bures, 
1948, p. 67) ; Lock Raven (Kolb, 1938) ; Patapsco State Park (Hampe, 
1939, p. 6), Garrett County: Cranesville Pine Swamp (Mansueti, 1958, 
p, 83), Kent County: Galena (Allen, 1950, p, 28), Prince Georges 
County: Patuxent Research Center (Grizzell, 1949, p, 74). Washing- 
ton County : Sharpsburg, 1 mile W (personal observation) . 

Remarks. — Allen (1950, p, 28) says that the Eastern Shore is one 
of those regions that has been invaded by the woodchuck in the last 
50 years. It first appeared on the Prettyman Farm near Galena in 
Kent County around 1900, Evidently it is spreading southward around 
the Chesapeake Bay from Pennsylvania, 




Sciurus carolinensis pennsylvanicus Ord 

Sciurus pennsylvanica Ord, in [Guthrie], a new geographical, histori- 
cal and commercial grammar ; . . . , Philadelphia, ed. 2, 2 : 292, 1815. 

Type locality. — Pennsylvania, west of the Allegheny Ridge. 

General distribution. — From southern New Brunswick, Quebec, and Ontario, 
south into Virginia and in the Appalachians to Tennessee, west into eastern 
Iowa and southern Minnesota. 

Distribution in Maryland. — ^Abundant in all sections of the State. 

Distinguishing characteristics. — Teeth 1/1, 0/0, 2/1, 3/3, = 22; size 
large; tail bushy and flattened; coloration variable both in summer 
and winter; upper parts usually yellowish brown in summer, with a 
slightly grayish cast to the sides of the neck, the shoulders, and 
thighs; face clay colored to cinnamon buff; forelegs gray above, hind 
legs reddish; tail brown at base, hairs blackish near middle and tipped 
with gray; in winter pelage, paler and more grayish. 

A melanistic color phase occurs frequently in this species, par- 
ticularly in 8. c. petwisylv aniens. Albinistic animals are also often 

Measurements. — External and cranial measurements of three adult 
males from Cambridge, Dorchester County, are as follows: Total 
length 462, 486, 465; tail vertebrae 201, 216, 190; hind foot 64, 64, 61; 

79- 78* 

1 ' 





/////^^^^^''-/^ '^' w///V///v 




SCALE ^"^ 
O lO 20 30MILES 





Sciurus carolinensis pennsylvanicus 
• Specimens examined J 




O Specimens reported 



1 1 





Figure 28. — Distribution of Sciurus carolinensis pennsylvanicus. 


greatest length of skull 62.6, 62.4, 62.8 ; zygomatic breadth 33.4, 33.4, 
33.6; least interorbital breadth 16.9, 19,2, 18.2; length of maxillary 
toothrow 10.9, 11.6, 11.2. 

Habitat and habits. — ^This is a squirrel of the hardwood and mixed 
coniferous-hardwood forests, particularly those with nut-bearing trees 
and bushy undergrowth. It is quite common in the parks of Washing- 
ton, D.C., particularly Rock Creek Park. Most of these are descended 
from introduced stock. Bailey (1923, p. 108) says: 

The late Dr. William L. Ralph purchased many gray squirrels and liberated 
them in the Smithsonian grounds, where up to the time of his death in 1907 he 
fed and cared for them . . . They soon became common in the Mall . . . and 
spread to the White House grounds, LaFayette Square, and other city parks. 

Melanistics squirrels were introduced and liberated into the Na- 
tional Zoological Park and are still frequently seen there. Of these, 
Bailey (1923, p. 109) says: 

The first shipment of 10 (black squirrels) was from Rondeau Provincial Park, 
Morpeth, Ontario, 18 May 1906 ; and these squirrels were immediately liberated 
in the northwestern part of the zoo where they were very much at home. They 
have since been constanly in the park, especially from the vicinity of the great 
flight cage to the Klingle Valley and they have spread northward to Cleveland 
Park and nearly to Chevy Chase. 

Five of the 31 skins of gray squirrels in the National Museum collec- 
tions from the District of Columbia show melanistic tendencies. 

The gray squirrel is common throughout Maryland. Hampe (1939, 
p. 6) says that it is the most common squirrel in the Patapsco State 
Park and has been observed in the Park every month of the year; 
young squirrels are numerous there after the first of July. Bures 
(1948, p. 67) says the gray squirrel is quite common in the Bare Hills- 
Lake Roland area. I found them numerous on the Delmarva Penin- 
sula; in southern Maryland; in the Piedmont region, particularly in 
the vicinity of Sugar Loaf Mountain; and in the mountains of the 
western part of the State. Gray squirrels do not occur on Assateague 
Island, but I have seen them in the thickets back of the dunes several 
miles north of Ocean City. 

The gray squirrel is most at home in trees and descends to the ground 
only when necessary to obtain food and bury nuts. It does not hiber- 
nate, even in the coldest northern portions of its range. This squirrel 
is diurnal and is most active in the early morning and late afternoon. 

Its bulky nest is generally constructed in an enlarged natural cavity 
^f an old oak tree, but sometimes an outdoor nest of firmly woven 
leaves is constructed among the branches or in the crotch of a tree. 

Squirrels mate during midwinter, and the gestation period is about 
40 days. A second mating usually occurs sometime in May or June. 
The young are two to five (generally four) in number. When 2 months 


of age, they are weaned, but remain with the mother until she has her 
second litter. 

The gray squirrel is generally vegetarian in habits, its food consisting 
of many kinds of nuts (including acorns), seeds, fruits, buds, fungi, 
inner bark of certain trees, and occasionally corn and other grains, and 
fleshy parts of plants. Sometimes it eats small amounts of animal food 
such as insects or an occasional bird's egg or small bird. 

Specimens examined. — Allegany County: Mount Savage, 1 (Coll. 
U. Md.). Anne Arundel County: Priest Bridge, 1. Calvert County: 
Little Cove Point Area, 2; Prince Frederick, 1. Charles County: 
Marshall Hall, 1 ; Newport, 1 ; Port Tobacco, 2. Dorchester County: 
Cambridge, 3. Garrett County : Friendsville, 1^4 mile NW, 1 (Coll. U. 
Md.) ; Grantsville, 2; Meadow Mountain, 1 (Coll. U. Md.). Harford 
County : Fallston, 5. Montgomery County : Dickerson, 1 ; Germantown, 
2; Kensington, 1; Takoma Park, 2; Woodside, 1. Prince Georges 
County: Beltsville, 1; Bladensburg, 2; Branchville, 1; College Park, 
1; Fort Washington, 1; Laurel, 22; (Upper) Marlboro, 2; Muirkirk, 
1; Oxon Hill, 1; Patuxent Eiver (fork), 2; Piscataway Creek, 2; 
Scagg's Swamp, 1. District of Columbia: 40. 

Other records and reports. — Allegany County : South end of Town 
Hill Mountain (personal observation) . Baltimore City (Flyger, 1960b, 
p. 366). Baltimore County: Bare Hills-Lake Roland area (Bures, 
1948, p. 67) ; Loch Raven (Kolb, 1938) ; Patapsco State Park (Hampe, 
1939, p. ^). Frederick County: Thurmont (Coll. U. Md.) ; Sugar Loaf 
Mountain (personal observation). Garrett County: Keyser's Ridge 
(Coll. U. Md.) ; Montgomery County : Plummers Island (iGoldman 
and Jackson, 1939, p. 133) . Prince Georges County : Aquasco (Herman, 
and Reilly, 1955, p. 402). Worcester County : Ocean City, 2 miles N 
(personal observation). 

Remarks. — All of Maryland was formerly included within the range 
of the southern subspecies of gray squirrel, Sciurus carolinensis caro- 
linensis Gmelin (see Bangs, 1896, p. 153, and Miller, 1924, p. 223). 
Patton (1939, pp. 75-76), however, in a study of the distribution of 
the gray squirrel in Virginia, concluded that S. c. carolinensis occupies 
the southern half of the Piedmont Plateau and the entire Coastal Plain 
region in that State. He says that in Virginia the area of intergradation 
between S. c. carolinensis and S. c. leucotis (= pennsylvanicus) lies 
along a line drawn from central King George County to southeastern 
Patrick County, and he assigned a specimen from Eastville, on the 
Virginia portion of the Delmarva Peninsula, to /S. c. carolinensis. This 
suggests that, although most of Maryland lies within the range of /S. c. 
pennsylvanicus, the southern .portions of the Western Shore and 
Eastern Shore sections are within the range of S. c. carolinensis, and 
the range of the species in Maryland has been mapped in this way by 


Hall and Kelson (1959, p. 371). However, a careful comparison of 
specimens from Calvert and Charles Counties in the Western Shore 
Section and Cambridge in the Eastern Shore section with specimens 
of typical pennsylvanicus from central Pennsylvania and New York 
show that they differ in no essential respect from that subspecies, 
whereas they are considerably larger and paler than typical carolinen- 
sis. I have also examined the specimen from Eastville, Va., assigned 
by Patton (1939) to caroUnensis, and consider it to be referable to 
pennsylvanicus. It is somewhat darker than typical pennsylv aniens^ 
but can be matched in coloration by many specimens in similar prelage 
from the northern portion of the range of pennsylvanicus. In size 
it is indistinguishable from typical pennsylvanicus and considerably 
larger than carolinensis. Consequently, all of Maryland falls within 
the range of S. c. pennsylvanicus., and this range extends at least as 
far south as Eastville on the Virginia portion of the Delmarva Penin- 
sula and probably as far as the tip of that peninsula. 

Sciurus niger Linnaeus 

[Sciuincs] niger Linnaeus, Syst. nat. ed. 10, 1 : 64, 1758. 

This is our largest tree squirrel and one of the most spectacular 
rodents in Maryland. It resembles the gray squirrel but is considerably 
bigger and heavier, and less often observed. Mansueti (1952, p. 31) 
comments that a ratio of 40 grays to one fox squirrel may be high, but 
that few fox squirrels have been reported in recent years and the 
species appears to be becoming scarce in all the Atlantic Coast States. 

The distribution of fox squirrels in Maryland has been reviewed 
by Mansueti (1952, pp. 31-41), and most of the following is based 
upon his records or records cited by him. 

Two subspecies occur within Maryland. They are : 

Sciurus niger cinereus Linnaeus 

[Sciurus'] cinereus Linnaeus, Syst. nat., ed. 10, 1 : 64, 1758. 

/Sciurus niger hryanti H. H. Bailey, Bailey Mus. Libr. Nat. Hist., 

Newport News, Virginia, Bull. No. 1 [p. 1], 1 August 1920. (Type 

locality : Dorcester County, Md.) 

Type locality. — Restricted to Cambridg^e, Dorchester County, Maryland, by 
Barkalow (1956, p. 13). 

General distribution. — Formerly from Northampton County in Virginia to 
southeastern Pennsylvania, but now confined to the Eastern Shore section of 
Maryland. It has been listed by the Department of the Interior as an endangered 

Distribution in Maryland. — Occurs in limited numbers in Dor- 
chester, Queen Annes, Talbot, Wicomico, Somerset, and Worcester 


Counties. The present center of population appears to be in the vicinity 
of Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge where it is still common. 
(See fig. 29.) 

Distinguishing characteristics. — Teeth 1/1, 0/0, 1/1, 3/3, = 20; 
coloration uniform light grizzled-gray above with a steel blue cast; 
belly and feet white; tail with a pronounced black stripe on outer 
edges. A melanistic form occurs in which the belly and back are 
blackish. May be readily distinguished from the gray squirrel, which 
it resembles somewhat in coloration, by its much larger size and 
reduced dentition. 

Measurements. — Five adults from Dorchester County have external 
measurements as follows: Total length 579 (560-605) ; tail 273 (263- 
285); hind foot 77 (73-81). Cranial measurements of four adults 
from Dorchester County are: Greatest length 68.5 (67.7-69.8) ; zygo- 
matic breadth 38.8 (37.9-39.8) ; least interorbital breadth 20.8 (19.4^ 
22.3) ; length of maxillary toothrow 11.9 (11.8-12.0). 

Habitat and habits. — This subspecies prefers mature forests of 
mixed hardwoods and conifers in which mast-producing trees such 
as oaks, hickories, and pines are present. It is particularly partial to 
old-growth loblolly pine forests, many of which, however, have been 
cut over or burned through forest fires. 

This squirrel spends much time on the ground but generally doesn't 
stray far from the home roost. It lies close to the body of a tree or 
limb, seldom leaping from tree to tree as does the gray squirrel. Nests, 
which serve as home during summer and winter, are placed near 
the tips of branches in old pines, generally from 30 to 50 feet above 
the ground. Mating may occur at any time throughout the year, but 
is most frequent during the latter part of February or early March. 
Usually, four young comprise a litter and are born in April. 

Fox squirrels feed more on the ground than do gray squirrels. Food 
consists primarily of acorns, hickory nuts, walnuts, and particularly 
the seeds of loblolly pine. They seldom, if ever, cause damage to corn 
or other domestic crops. 

This squirrel has become greatly reduced in numbers and has 
entirely disappeared from some areas of its former range. One of these 
areas is the northern portion of the Eastern Shore section ; this is the 
area where this subspecies would be expected to intergrade with 
Sciurus niger vulpinus, the form inhabiting the Western Shore of 

Specimens examined. — Dorchester County : Airey (near), 1; Black- 
water Refuge, 1; Bucktown, 1; Cambridge, 9. Kent County: East 
Neck Island, 3. Eastern Shore (no exact locality), 3. 

Other records and reports (with dates of capture or sighting when 
available). — Dorchester County: Big Blackwater Section, 1932, 

336-897 O — 69 6 


(Dozier and Hall, 1944, p. 5) ; Gibbs Marsh, between Golden Hill and 
Church Creek, near Blackwater River (Mansueti, 1952, p. 33) ; Grif- 
fins Neck (Dozier and Hall, 1944, p. 10) ; Milton (Dozier and Hall, 
1944, p. 10) ; Salem Woods, 14 Miles from Cambridge on road to 
Salisbury, 1933, (Dozier and Hall, 1944, p. 5) ; Secretary (Dozier and 
Hall, 1944, p. 10) ; Taylors Island, 1963, (James B. Trefethen in 
correspondence to Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife, 12 Novem- 
ber 1964). Queen Annes County: Church Hill (near), 4 miles below 
Chestertown, 1943, (Dozier and Hall, 1944, p. 3). Somerset County: 
Big Swamp, 2 miles E of Kings Creek, 1922, (Dozier and Hall, 1944, 
p. 3) ; Westover, due west of, 1940, (Dozier and Hall, 1944, p. 3) ; 
Loretto, near, 1944, (Dozier and Hall, 1944, p. 3). Talbot County: 
Trappe, near, 1948, (Mansueti, 1952, p. 33). Worcester County: New- 
ark, 1951, (Mansueti, 1952, p. 33) ; Pocomoke City, near, (Dozier and 
Hall, 1944, p. 3). 

Sciurus niger vulpinus Gmelin 

[Sciurus] vulpinus Gmelin, Syst. nat., ed. 13, p. 147, 1788 (based on 
specimens from the eastern United States, including the Blue 
Mountains of Pennsylvania) . 

General distribution. — Formerly occurred from central New York, south 
through south-central Pennsylvania, western Maryland, eastern West Virginia, 
western Virginia, and in the Appalachian Mountains to western North Carolina. 
Distribution presently reduced to south-central Pennsylvania, Maryland, western 
Virginia, and eastern West Virginia. 

Distribution in Maryland. — Found locally in heavily forested re- 
j^ions in the Western Shore, Piedmont, Ridge and Valley, and Alle- 
gheny Mountain sections. 

Distinguishing characteristics. — Similar in size and general charac- 
teristics to >iS'. n. cinereu^, but differs in coloration. The body is general- 
ly buffy brown above, in contrast to the bluish grizzled gray of cin- 
ereus; tail grayish white above, rufous below; feet and ears rufous; 
top of head more blackish than the back. May be distinguished from 
the gray squirrel by its larger size. 

Measurements. — No external measurements are available for any of 
the Maryland adults in the National Museum collections. Two adults 
from White Sulphur Springs, West Virginia, which are typical of 
this subspecies have the following measurements: Total length 615, 
603 ; tail 299, 298 ; hind foot 77, 79. Four Maryland specimens (two 
from Laurel, Prince Georges County ; one from Priest Bridge, Anne 
Arundel County; and one from North Chesapeake Beach, Calvert 
County) have the following cranial measurements: Greatest length 
67.7 (66.6-68.2) ; zygomatic breadth 38.6 (38.2-39.4) ; least interor- 




O lO 20 


Saiums niger 


• Specimens 

exami ned 



G Type loca 

i ty 

Saiwms niger 


A Specimens 


A Specimens 


Figure 29. — Distribution of Sckirus niger dnereus and 8. n. vulpirms. 

bital breadth 20.3 (20.1-20.5) ; length of maxillary toothrow 11.9 

Habitat and habits. — Not much has been published concerning the 
habitat and habits of this subspecies. It is said to prefer open deciduous 
woods, wood borders, and orchards, but as noted by Bailey (1923, p. 
110) it is skillful in keeping out of sight. Mansueti (1952, p. 35) states 
that the subspecies has been considerably decimated in recent years, 
and the remaining fox squirrels are strictly local in distribution and 
are more or less relic populations where they occur. 

Bailey (1923, p. 110) reported that at various times fox squirrels 
were released in the National Zoological Park in Washington, D.C. 
These apparently never flourished, since none have been observed in 
the park in years. 

Specimens examined. — Allegany County: Between Clarysville and 
Red Hill, 1 (Coll. U. M.di.). Anne Arundel County: Patuxent River at 
Priest Bridge, 10. Calvert County: North Chesapeake Beach, 1. Gar- 
ret CouMty : Friendsville, 1/4 mile NW, 2 (Coll. U. Md.). Harford 
County: Fallston, 1. Prince Georges County: Laurel, 4. District of 
Columbia: 4 (these were either purchased at the Central Market or 
trapped in the National Zoological Park, and probably are not actually 
from the District of Columbia area) . 

Other records wnd reports (from Mansueti, 1952, except where 
otherwise noted. — Allegany County : Green Ridge State Forest, 1935. 


Calvert County: Governors Run, 1948 ( ?). Garrett County: Accident 
1945 and 1951 ; Bittin^er, 1948 ; Meadow Mountain, 1947. Montgomery 
County: Great Falls, 1916; Plummers Island (Goldman and Jackson, 
1939, p. 133). Prinx:e Georges County: Bladensbur^ (near), 1949 ( ?). 
College Park, 1948 ; 1/2 mile east of intersection of Hig;liways 214 and 
301, 1940. WasJiington County: Fort Frederick State Park, 1950. 

Remarks. — Mansueti (1952, p. 35) lists on a provisional basis a 
third subspecies of the fox squirrel in Maryland, the* more western 
Sciurus n. ruflventer. He and Vagn Flyger in 1950 examined the tail 
of a fox squirrel shot on a hill near Storey's Landing, Deep Creek 
Lake, Garrett County, several years before, and found that its colora- 
tion was similar to that of ruflventer. This subspecies normally occurs 
west of the Allegheny Mountains and prefers open or parklike upland 
woods rather than heavily forested sections. It commonly occurs along 
fence rows in cultivated fields or in pastures where there are only scat- 
tered trees, Mansueti claims that these conditions are found in many 
parts of Garrett County, particularly around Deep Creek Lake and 
that ru-flventer may be moving into this area from further west. He 
states that possibly as the heavily forested areas are cut, and S. n. 
vulpinu^ vacates, S. n. ru^venter invades the area vacated. On the 
other hand, he notes that numbers of S. n. ruflventer have been re- 
leased in southwestern Pennsylvania in an effort to restock the area 
and some of these may have migrated south into Maryland. The two 
specimens from Garrett County that I have examined, however, are 
typical S. n. vulpinus and exhibit none of the characters of I'ufiventer. 


Tamiasciurus hudsonicus loquax (Bangs) 

Sciurus hudsonicus loquax Bangs, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, 10: 
161, 28 December 1896. 
Type locality. — Liberty Hill, Conn. 

General distribution. — Southern Ontario, southern Vermont and New Hamp- 
shire, south to northern Virginia and "West Virginia, west to eastern Iowa and 
southeastern Minnesota. 

Distribution in Maryland. — Occurs locally in the Piedmont, Ridge 
and Valley, and Allegheny Mountain sections; scarce or absent over 
most of the Western Shore section ; apparently absent in the Eastern 
Shore section. 

Distinguishing characteristics. — Teeth 1/1, 0/0, 2/1, 3/3, = 22; 
anterior upper premolar frequently lacking, and when present so 
reduced as to be easily overlooked; size small, the smallest of our 
local tree squirrels; tail relatively short and bushy; general coloration 
in winter bright rufous above, white below; ears tufted with black; 
in summer, coloration more olive dorsaUy, \vith ears untufted. 





U MmJ 


S W f\ 






\Jtl rJ 

j)^ r^jy y 

yj j h 


to^/rY^ 1 \ 

^^IJ j I j 11 


7t *>• l! 'Vs S^'T" 

Tamiasciurus hudsonious loquax 


1 J 

9 Specimens examined 


H wHiiJlfi 


O Specimens reported 




1 1 

79* 78* 






Figure 30. — Distribution of Tamiasciurus hudsonicus loquax. 

This squirrel is differentiated from all others in Maryland by its 
small size and reddish coloration. 

Measurements. — Two adults from the vicinity of Bethesda, Mont- 
gomery County, have external measurements as follows : Total length 
310, 303; tail 130, 130; hind foot 50, 51; ear 22, 27. Cranial measure- 
ments of 10 adults from Laurel, Prince Georges County are : Greatest 
length 45.2 (44.4-46.0) ; zygomatic breadth 26.2 (26.0-27.2) ; least 
interorbital breadth 13.9 (13.1-14.6) ; length of maxillary toothrow 
7.2 (6.6-7.8). 

Habitat and liahits. — This squirrel prefers spruce and hemlpck 
forests, but is often found in deciduous woods and in rural areas in 
the northern hardwoods region where it sometimes builds nests in 
the attics of houses. It is more terrestrial than the gray squirrel, spend- 
ing a great deal of time on the ground searching for food. It is also 
more omnivorous than the gray squirrel, eating almost any kind of 
seed, nut, or berry. Various kinds of fungi are consumed and even 
an occasional ^gg when the nest of a songbird is raided. Hamilton 
(1943, p. 224) says that it has been known to Ivill and partially 
devour young cottontail rabbits. 

The bulky nest of the red squirrel, made of grass and moss, is 
usually placed high in the branches of a tree and can be distinguished 
from that of the gray squirrel by its smaller size and the finer material 
used in its construction. The red squirrel is active throughout the year. 


It produces litters of from three to six young early in the spring and 
often a second litter in late summer. 

The center of Maryland's red squirrel population is the spruce and 
hemlock forests of the Allegheny Mountain section of the State. It is 
scarce or absent over most of the Western Shore section and apparently 
lacking in the Eastern Shore section. David H. Johnson, formerly 
Curator of Mammals, U.S. National Museum, tells me that he is very 
familiar with pine woods near Greenbelt, Prince Georges County, and 
never observed a red squirrel there. J. C. Lingebach, Division of Mam- 
mals, U.S. National Museum, advises me that in his many years of field 
experience in the Annapolis area of Anne Arundel County he never 
observed a red squirrel. Flyger (1957, p. 1), however, reports that 
he trapped a red squirrel on 23 February 1957 near the Naval Academy 
in Annapolis and that there had been a colony there for several 
years. This is probably an artificially introduced population. Red 
squirrels have, however, been taken at such Western Shore section 
localities as Laurel, Bladensburg, Oxon Hill, Riverdale, and College 
Park, in Prince Georges County, and Marshall Hall in Charles County. 
These localities are not very distant from the fall line and the begin- 
ning of the Piedmont section, and elsewhere in the Western Shore 
section the red squirrel appears to be exceedingly scarce. 

Even in the Piedmont section the species is only locally abundant, 
being completely absent over large areas. At one time it was numerous 
in Rock Creek Park in Washington, D.C., but none have been seen 
there in recent years. It is still plentiful in some suburban areas north- 
west of Washington. A lactating female was found dead by David 
H. Johnson on a road adjacent to a pine woods a few miles northwest 
of Bethesda, Montgomery County, in October 1955, and another near 
this general area in September 1957. Johnson tells me that it is the 
common squirrel in some of the pine woods in the Bethesda area, 
being more often seen there than gray squirrels. In the Piedmont sec- 
tion of Baltimore County, Hampe (1939, p. 6) reported red squirrels 
uncommon in the pine woods of the Patapsco State Park, but Bures 
(1948, p. 67) found that it was a common resident of the Bare Hills- 
Lake Roland area a few miles to the northeast. Evidently, the red 
squirrel has a scattered distribution in Maryland and is only abundant 

Specimens examined. — Allegany County: Frostburg, 1; Mount 
Savage, 2 (Coll. IT. Md.). Charles County: Marshall Hall, 1. Frederich 
County: Middletown, 6. Garrett County: Bittinger, 1; Finzel, 2; 
Grantsville, 1 ; Swallow Falls State Park, 1. Harford County: Falls- 
ton, 1. Hoioard County: Long Corner, 1. Montgomery County: Be- 
thesda, 31/2 miles NW, 1 ; Bethesda, 5 miles NW, 1 ; Kensington, 8 ; 
Linden, 2; Plummers Island, 1; Takoma Park, 3. Prince Georges 


County: Bladensburg, 2; College Park (near), 1; Laurel, 16; Oxon 
Hill, 1 ; Eiverdale, 1. District of Columbia: 25. 

Other records and reports. — Allegany County: Dans Mountain 
(Coll. U. Md.) . Anne Arundel County : Annapolis (Flyger, 1957, p. 1) . 
Baltimore County: Bare Hills-Lake Roland area (Bures, 1948, p. 67) ; 
Loch Raven (Kolb, 1938) ; Patapsco State Park (Hampe, 1939, p. 6). 
Cecil County: Northeast (Coll. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia). Mont- 
gomery County: Silver Spring (files of U.S. Fish and Wildlife Serv- 
ice). Prince Georges County : Hyattsville (Bailey, 1923, p. 107). 

Remarks. — Specimens from Garrett County and Allegany County 
appear somewhat darker in summer and winter pelage than specimens 
from farther east in the State and may represent intergrades with the 
southern Appalachian subspecies T. h. abieticola. 

Glaucomys volans volans (Linnaeus) 

[Mus] volans Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1 : 63, 1758. 

Type locality. — Virginia (fixed by Elliot, Field Columb. Mus., Zool. Ser., 2: 
109, 1901). 

General distribution. — From central Minnesota, Upper and Lower Peninsulas 
of Michigan, southeastern Ontario, New York, and southern New Hampshire, 
south to North Carolina and Tennessee, west to eastern Kansas and Nebraska. 

Distribution in Maryland. — Probably abundant in all sections of 
the State where there is suitable habitat. No specimens or records are 
available, however, from the Eastern Shore, Ridge and Valley, and 
Allegheny Mountain sections, but this probably indicates that these 
sections have not been systematically trapped for the species rather 
than a scarcity of the animals themselves. Flying squirrels are noc- 
turnal, shy, and seldom observed. 

Distinguishing characteristics. — Teeth l/.l, 0/0, 2/1, 3/3, = 22; a small 
squirrel that is characterized by a "flying membrane", a loose fold of 
fully furred skin connecting the fore and hind limbs from wrists to 
ankles. The tail is broad, flattened, and almost paraUel-sided, with 
the tip rounded; pelage extremely soft and dense; coloration of upper 
parts varies with season and age, but is generally grayish brown; 
under parts ususally white or creamy white in coloration, with the 
white extending from the base of the hairs to the tip; dark brown 
streak extending along side edge of "flying membrane"; tail grayish 
above, cinnamon below; forefeet white, hind feet brown except for 
some white on toes. 

This species may be distinguished from all other squirrels in Mary- 
land by the distinctive "flying membrane." The northern flying squir- 
rel, Glaucomys sabrinus, has not as yet been reported from Maryland, 



Glaucomys volans volans 
# Specimens examined 
O Specimens reported 

Figure 31. — Distribution of Glaucmnys volans volans. 

but may occur in spruce and fir forests in the highest elevations of the 
Allegheny Mountain section. It differs from the present species pri- 
marily in that it is much larger in size and the basal portion of the 
white hairs of the belly are colored grayish. 

Measurements. — External and cranial measurements of eight adults 
from Newport, Charles County, are as follows: Total length 221.9 
(211-240) ; tail vertebrae 97.9 (90-110) ; hind foot 26.6 (21-30) ; great- 
est length of skull 34.6 (33.5-35.6) ; zygomatic breadth 20.5 (19.7- 
21.3) ; interorbital breadth 6.9 (6.5-7.5) ; length of maxillary tooth 
row 6.4 (6.2-6.5). 

Habitat and hahits.— This is essentially a species of the heavy timber 
and is never found at any great distance from water. It prefers forests 
of deciduous trees, but is sometimes encountered in woodlands of mixed 
conifers and hardwoods. Occasionally it may occupy an old orchard. 

The species is probably abundant in all sections of the State where 
there is suitable habitat, but because of its secretive habits it is seldom 
noticed. Bures (1948, p. 67) says that in the Bare Hills-Lake Roland 
area of Baltimore County it is as common as the chipmunk, but because 
of its nocturnal habits is less often observed. Hampe (1939, p. 6) found 
that it was fairly common in the Patapsco State Park. He observed one 
at twilight on 22 May 1936. Bailey (1923, p. 112) found the species 
common in the woods of the District of Cx)lumbia, right up to the edge 
of the city. 


Tlie flying squirrel is one of the most nocturnal mammals in Mary- 
land, rarely leaving its nest before the sun is well down. lit remains 
active throughout the night, foraging for hickory nuts, beechnuts, 
acorns, maple and wild cherry seeds, apples, and buds and blossoms of 
some trees. It is carnivorous to some extent and occasionally feeds on 
insects, young birds, and birds' eggs. This squirrel is highly social. 

The favorite nesting site for the flying squirrel is a hole in a dead or 
dying tree. A cavity made by a woodpecker is often preferred, although 
occasionally a natural one will be utilized and artificial bird nest boxes 
are sometimes used. The nest is composed of finely shredded leaves and 
inner bark. 

This species probably does not hibernate in Maryland, although 
farther north it becomes inactive during colder weather (Sollberger, 
1940, p. 285). Mating may occur in late February or early March and 
the gestation period is about 40 days. Three young usually comprise a 
litter, and a second mating sometimes occurs in July ( Sollberger, 1943, 
p. 163). 

Specimens examined. — Anne Arundel County: Annapolis, 3 miles 
NW, 1. Charles County: Marshall Hall, 2; Newport., 10. Montgomery 
County : Cabin John Creek, 1 ; Capitol View, 1 ; Chevy Chase, 1 ; Dick- 
erson, 1 ; Garrett Park, 1 ; Glen Echo Heights, 1 ; Great Falls, 1 ; Kens- 
ington, 2; Plummers Island (near), 1; Silver Spring, 4. Prince 
Georges County: Anacostia Eiver, NW Branch, 1; Branchville, 1; 
Laurel, 2 ; Upper Marlboro, 1 ; no exact locality, 3. St. Ma^^s County: 
Tall Timbers, 1. 

Other records and reports. — Allegany County: Mount Savage 
(Coll. U. Md.) ; Town Hill (Coll. U. Md.). Baltimore County: Bare 
Hills-Lake Roland area (Bures, 1948, p. 67) ; Patapsco State Park 
(Hampe, 1939, p. 6). Cecil County: Bacon Hill (3 specimens m Phila. 
Acad. Nat. Sci.). Montgomery County: Forest Glen (Bangs, 1896, 
p. 166). Prince Georges County: Patuxent Research Center (Herman 
and Warbach, 1956, p. 87) . 

Family CASTORIDAE (beavers) 


Castor canadensis Kuhl 

Castor canadensis Kuhl, Beitr. z. zool. u. vergleich. Anat., Ablth. 1, 
p. 64, 1820. 

Type locality. — Hudson Bay. 

General distribution. — Formerly ranged over most of the forested regions of 
North America, north of Mexico. It was exterminated in many areas of its range 
and later successfully reintroduced into some sections. 


Distribution in Maryland. — Formerly occurred in all sections of the 
State, but was exterminated around the turn of the century or earlier. 
It has been deliberately restocked in some areas and naturally invaded 
others from neighboring States where animals were stocked or rem- 
nant populations survived. 

Distinguishing characteristics. — Teeth 1/1, 0/0, 1/1, 3/3, = 20; 
largest rodent in Maryland; body thickset and compact; legs short; 
ears small; hind feet large with the toes webbed; tail broad, flat, 
nearly hairless, and covered with large scales; pelage with very soft 
dense underfur, overlaid vnth. long coarse guard hairs; coloration dark 
rich brown above, lighter below. 

Measurements. — "Nine adults from the Allegheny National Forest, 
Pennsylvania, average: Total length, 1,031 mm. (970-1,090 mm.); 
tail vertebrae, 358 mm. (260--i40 mm.) ; greatest width of tail, 129 
mm. (112-150 mm.) ; hind foot, 169 mm. (156-183.)." (Handley and 

"The skull is large and massive, that of the adult more than 120 mni. 
long and 85 mm. broad; . . . length of upper molar series about 28 
to 30 mm." (Jackson, 1961, p. 192) . 

Habitat and habits. — This species prefers forested areas wherever 
there are suitable watercourses for the, construction of dams and 
lodges. The sluggish fresh- water streams of the Eastern Shore section 
are especially suited to their needs. 

The beaver feeds on a wide range of plants. These may be sedges, 
rushes, water grasses, various roots and tubers, and bark, leaves, and 
twigs of bushes and trees. In winter it feeds primarily on green 
branches that it stores under water near the lodge. In Maryland its 
favorite trees appear to be sweetgum, pine, ash, dogwood, oak, and 

These animals are monogamous, and it is believed that they mate 
for life. Breeding begins about mid- January and extends to the end of 
February. The gestation period is approximately 120 days, and a 
single litter of from one to eight kits is produced a year (the most 
frequent number being four or five). 

The beaver's most important activity is felling trees for dams and 
lodges. A large beaver lodge is about 5 to 6 feet high and 15 or 20 feet 
wide at the water level. More often, however, smaller lodges are built, 
some 3 to 4 feet in height and 8 to 10 feet in diameter. The inside of 
a lodge consists of one room about 2 to 3 feet in height, and as many 
as 8 to 10 beaver may occupy it. The opening to the lodge is always 
under water. Many beavers, however, that inhabit lakes or deep 
streams live in bank dens rather than constructing lodges and dams. 

The beaver is active throughout the year, but is seldom active during 
daylight hours. Its routine workday begins at dusk and ends at dawn. 


Young beavers in their second year leave the parental colonies and 
emigrate to establish themselves in new colonies by pairs. Sometimes 
they may move as much as 30 miles to a new home. Most of tliis 
movement is accomplished in the water, because the animal is quite 
clumsy and slow moving on land. 

According to Mansueti (1950, p. 33) no one knows when Maryland's 
native beavers were finally exterminated. He judges that on the basis 
of when they disappeared in Pennsylvania and New Jersey, they prob- 
ably were gone from the Maryland lowlands about 150 years ago 
and that there were probably some native beavers left in western 
Maryland less than 100 years ago. Their extirpation was due to a 
number of reasons, the primary ones being heavy trapping pressure 
for their pelts, and elimination of suitable habitat. Beaver have reap- 
peared in Maryland in recent years either through deliberate intro- 
ductions or as a result of their natural migrations from other states 
where they had not been entirely extirpated or had been stocked. 
They are flourishing now in certain areas, presumably because low 
pelt value makes trapping unprofitable in the State. 

Recent records and reports. — Bonwill and Owens (1939, pp. 36-37) 
mention 3 areas of Maryland where these animals were thriving in 
1939. One was on the Upper Potomac River near Gormania, Garrett 
County ; the second on Town Creek in Allegany County ; and the third 
at a point where the Andover and Sewell Creeks meet at the head of 
the Chester River in Kent County. They believe that the first two 
colonies were the result of migrations from colonies in Pennsylvania 
or West Virginia that had escaped extermination in those States or 
had been reintroduced there. The Kent County colony was a result of 
migration from a colony in Delaware which had been stocked with 
animals from Maine by the Delaw^are Board of Game and Fish Com- 
missioners in 1935. 

Amer (1949, p. 23) says that the beaver migrated into the western 
Maryland Counties of Garrett and Allegany from colonies in West 
Virginia and are firmly established in eight streams in Garrett County 
and three streams in Allegany. They may be found in Garrett County 
in the Youghiogheny River, Laurel Run, Harrington Creek, and 
Broad Ford Run. In Allegany County they inhabit Evitts Creek and 
Town Creek; and beaver cuttings have been found on Sideling Hill 
in Washington County. He estimates that in 1949 there were 150 
beavers in western Maryland. 

Remarks. — Authorities are in agreement that Maryland's native 
beaver population probably represented the subspecies C. c. cana- 
densis. It is impossible to assign subspecific rank to Maryland's present 
beaver population since they come from so many different sources, 
and even some of the areas from which they have been stocked were 


themselves stocked at an earlier period with animals from elsewhere. 
No specimens of the native population or the present population of 
beavers have been available to me for examination. 

Family CRICETIDAE (deer mice, harvest mice, voles, etc.) 

Oryzomys palustris palustris (Harlan) 

Mus palustris Harlan, Silliman's Amer. Jour. Sci., 31 : 385, 1837. 

Type locality. — "Fast Land" near Salem, Salem County. N.J. 

General distribution.— In the Coastal Plain from southeastern Pennsylvania 
and southern New Jersey, south to northern Florida, west to the Mississippi 
River and north in the Mississippi Valley to southeastern Missoiiri, southern 
Illinois, and central Kentucky. 

Distribution in Maryland. — Recorded only from the Eastern Shore 
and Western Shore sections. 

Distinguishing characteristics. — Teeth 1/1, 0/0, 0/0, 3/3, = 16; ratlike 
in general appearance, but considerably smaller than adult Norway 
rat; tail long, nearly half the total length; fur long and coarse; color of 
upper parts grizzled grayish brown, mixed with blackish, sides paler 
with less blackish; underparts white to pale buff; tail sparsely haired 
and scaly, brownish above and whitish below. Young animals are 
more grayish than adults. 

79- 76- 

1 ' 




'' C ■' r-^ 1 



' \ 

1 K ^ '^>-^ .'' 





~|_/ ; 











Oryzomys palustris palustris 
Specimens examined 
O Specimens reported 





1 1 

1 1 





FiGUKE 32. — Distribution of Oryzomys palustris palustris. 


Marsh rice rats superficially resemble young Norway rats from 
which they may be distinguished by the upper cheek teeth. These teeth 
have two longitudinal rows of tubercles in rice rats; in Norway rats 
there are three such rows. 

Measurements. — An average-sized female from West Ocean City, 
Worcester County, has measurements as follows: Total length 247; 
tail 120 ; hind foot 30 ; ear 10 ; greatest length of skull 30.4 ; zygomatic 
breadth 16.4 ; interorbital breadth 4.9 ; length of upper molar toothrow 

An adult female from Nanjemoy Creek, Charles County, has the 
following external measurements: Total length 262; tail 127; hind 
foot 30. 

There is a peculiar size variation often encountered in this species. 
Males and females generally average about the same size, but often 
an apparently adult female may be strikingly smaller than the average. 

Habitat and habits. — ^^This species is partially amphibious and shows 
a great preference for wet meadows, marshy areas, watercourses, cane 
breaks, and swamps, and is only rarely encountered in dry fields. 

Marsh rice rats are polyestrous and breed from March to November 
in Maryland (Harris, 1953, p. 485). The gestation period is 25 days 
and the female mates again immediately after parturition. Litter size 
varies from one to five with the average being three. 

This species is an accomplished swimmer and does not hesitate to 
dive and swim under water for great distances when alarmed. It makes 
nests of grasses and weeds which may be placed under a mass of 
tangled debris or woven into the rushes a foot or more above the high 
water level. Its presence may usually be detected by the extensive and 
well-defined runways it makes and by the mats of cut vegetation float- 
ing at irregular intervals in the tidal waters. Sometimes, however, 
there may be little evidence of rice rats in an area. Harris (1953, p. 
481) says that in the Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge in Dor- 
chester County 40 percent of the 86 rice rat captures were made at 
trap stations showing no signs of small mammals, but some were taken 
at muskrat houses. Also, he was never able to locate any rice rat nests 
in this area, and noted that only a few of the runways found light 
have been made by this species. Rice rats are primarily nocturnal, and 
Harris states that only rarely was this species observed in the dajlime. 

In Maryland, rice rats are confined in distribution to the fresh and 
salt water marshes of the Western Shore and Eastern Shore sections. 
They seem to be particularly numerous in the fresh, brackish, and salt 
water marshes of the lower Eastern Shore section and occur in great 
numbers on Assateague Island, where they occupy the wetter portions 
of these marshes. 


Specimens examined. — Anne Arundel County : South River, at U.S. 
Eoiite 50, 1. Charles County: Nanjemoy Creek, 5. Prince Georges 
County: Oxon Hill, 2 miles NW, 2. Worcester County : Ocean City, 4 
and 5 miles S ( Assateague Island) , 2 ; West Ocean City, 4. 

Other records and reports. — Dorchester County : Blackwater Na- 
tional Wildlife Refuge (Harris, 1953) . 

Reithrodontomys humulis virginianus A. H. Howell 

Reithrodontowys hun^ulis virginianus A. H. Howell, Jour. Mammal., 
21 (3) : 346, 13 August 1940. 

Type locality. — Amelia, Va. 

General distribution. — Known from central Virginia north to Maryland. Exact 
northern limits of range unknown. 

Distribution in Maryland. — Rare in Maryland; probably occurs 
only in the Western Shore and southern Piedmont sections. 

Distinguishing characteristics. — Teeth 1/1, 0/0, 0/0, 3/3, = 16; upper 
incisors with conspicuous grooves; mouselike in form; tail about half 
total length; coloration grayish-brown above with a distinct band of 
blackish along the median line; sides of head and body paler, more or 
less washed with light pinkish cinnamon, this color forming a definite 
lateral line next to the belly; underparts grayish white; tail bicolored, 
fuscous above, grayish white below; ears fuscous, feet white. 

This species closely resembles the house mouse {Mus musoulus) in 
general appearance, but may readily be distinguished from that species 
by the deeply grooved upper incisors. In the eastern United States 
the harvest mouse is the only long-tailed cricetine rodent with grooved 

Measurements. — An adult female from Takoma Park (near Riggs 
Mill), Prince Georges County, measures as follows: Total length 132; 
tail 59 ; hind foot 15.5 ; ear 12 ; greatest length of skull 20.0 ; zygomatic 
breadth 10.1 ; least interorbital breadth 2.9; upper molar toothrow 2.5. 

Howell (1940, p. 346) gives external measurements of 10 specimens 
from the type locality as follows: Total length 117.2 (110-125) ; tail 
vertebrae 51.8 (45-56) ; hind foot 16.2. The greatest length of skull 
of these 10 specimens is 18.7 (18.3-19.1). It can be seen that the Mary- 
land specimen is considerably larger both externally and in the great- 
est length of the skull than topotypes of the subspecies from Amelia, 

Habitat cond habits. — Tlie harvest mouse prefers nonforested land, 
particularly cultivated fields where grain crops are growing. It seems 
to be equally at home in dry fields or in bogs, provided there is thick 
growth of tall grasses or sedges. 



Reithrodontomys humulis virginianus 
• Specimen examined 

Figure 33. — Distribution of Rcithrodontomys humulis virginianus. 

Little is known of the habits of this species. It lives in the cover 
of grass, weeds, and grains where it makes little runways over the 
surface of the ground. According to Lewis (1940, p. 426), in Amelia 
County, Va., it generally makes nests of fine grass blades on top of the 
ground in tall grass or sedges. These nests are globular and average 
larger than a croquet ball. 

The breeding season is from May to November ; the number of young 
from one to five ; the gestation period is about 23 days. 

The food of the eastern harvest mouse consists largely of seeds and 
grains with considerable green vegetation and occasionally fruit 
(Howell, 1914, p. 11). 

According to Bailey (1923, p. 118), many skulls of harvest mice 
were found in owl pellets in the Smithsonian tower in Washington, 
D.C. The owl, or owls, however, may have been feeding in nearby 
Virginia and thus the skulls may not represent District of Colmnbia 
or Maryland records. This rodent species has been trapped at only one 
locality in Maryland. 

S'peclm<ens examined. — Prince Georges County : Takoma Park (near 
Riggs Mill), 1. Howell (1940, p. 346), reported examining two speci- 
mens from Riggs Mill, and records in the files of the U.S. Fish and 
Wildlife Service indicate that Ray Greenfield actually took three spe- 
cimens in that same area on 26 January 1934. Only one si^ecimen from 
that locality, however, is now in the National collections. 


Peromyscus maniculatus (Wagner) 

Hespercnnys maimcvZatus Wagner, Arch. Naturgesch., Jahrg. 11, 1 : 
148, 1845. 

This is a wide- ranging species that occurs over much of North Amer- 
ica. Numerous subspecies have been described ; of these, two are known 
to occur in Maryland. They are : 

Peromyscus maniculatus hairdii (Hoy and Kennicott) 

Mus hairdii Hoy and Kennicott, in Kennicott, Agricultural Report, 
U.S. C!ommissioners Patents, 1856, p. 92, 1897. 

Type locality. — Bloomin^on, McLean County, 111. 

General distribution. — Prairie region of the upper Mississippi Valley, from 
eastern Kansas and Missouri ; north to southwestern Manitoba, Canada ; east- 
ward through southern Minnesota, Wisconsin, and Michigan to the man-made 
prairie of central New York, Pennsylvania, Maryland, and northern Virginia. 

Distribution in Maryland. — The distribution of this subspecies 
within the State is unknown. It has been taken in Maryland only at the 
Patuxent Research Center, Prince Georges County. (See fig. 34.) 

Distinguishing characteristics. — Teeth 1/1, 0/0, 0/0, 3/3, = 16; 
coloration of upperparts brownish gray, mixed with darker hairs; 
underparts white, the basal gray of the underfur often conspicuous; 
tail short and distinctly bicolored, upperparts brownish black, white 
beneath; feet white. Immature animals are more grayish dorsally. 

This subspecies is readily distinguished from Peromyscus manicula- 
tus rmbiterrae by its much shorter tail. It is easily confused with 
Peromyscus leucofus^ but may be distinguished by several characters 
which are discussed under that species. 

Measurements. — External measurements of two adults from the 
Patuxent Research (Center, Prince Georges County, (a wild-caught 
female and one of her laboratory-raised offspring) are as follows: 
Total length 152, 149; tail 63, 59; hind foot 18, 19; ear 13.5, 14.0. 
Cranial measurements of three adults from the Patuxent Research 
(3enter (the wild-caught female and two of her laboratory-raised off- 
spring) are: Greatest length 23.1, 23.3, 23.0; zygomatic breadth 11.5, 
12.1, 11.9; interorbital breadth 3.7, 3.9, 3.9; length of maxillary tooth- 
row 3.0, 3.3, 3.3. 

Habitat and hahits. — This subspecies inhabits prairies, open fields, 
and arable land and is entirely absent from dense forests. It was un- 
known in Maryland until 1949, when Lucille F. Stickel and Oscar 
Warbach live-trapped several in crop fields at the Patuxent Research 
Center. These fields are about 1.9 miles north of Bowie and are situated 
on a wide bench of sandy clay near the Patuxent River. From May 


1949 to June 1950, 23 of these mice were captured by Stickel and 

According to W. H. Stickel (1951, p. 26) the Maryland specimens 
of this race were most often caught in corn and in young wheat ; only 
occasionally were they found in hay or tall wheat. He says that the 
subspecies seems to be precariously established at the Patuxent Re- 
search Center and was not common, nor did the numbers appear to 
increase, during the year the area was extensively studied. 

Peromyscus m. hairdii is essentially a subspecies of the prairie re- 
gion of the upper Mississippi Valley. In recent years it appears to have 
been extending its range eastward consequent with the deforestation 
of wide areas of land in the eastern United States, In 1909, Osgood 
(1909, p. 79) knew it only from as far east as Ohio. In 1934, Mitchell 
(1934, p. 71) recorded it from Meadville, Pa., and in 1938, Moulthrop 
(1938, p. 503) listed it from Elba, Genesee County, N.Y. Hamilton 
( 1950, p. 100) recorded the first appearance of hairdii in 1947 at Ithaca, 
N.Y., an area that had been heavily trapped for the previous 20 years, 
and mentioned the capture of the subspecies at North Harrisburg, 
Dauphin County, Pa,, the first record from east of the Appalachian 
Mountains. More recently. Peacock and Peacock (1962, p, 98) have 
taken specimens from the area being developed into Dulles Airport, 
near Chantilly, Fairfax County, Va, 

Stickel (1951, p, 26) states that no doubt the animal is expanding 
its range by natural means in consequence of artificially created habi- 
tats, but the possibility of accidental transportation is considerable. 
It may be that the mouse has succeeded in crossing the heavily forested 
Appalachian Mountains by following the grass-lined banks and 
shoulders that line the roads in that area. It would in this way remain 
ecologically separated from P&roinyscus m, nubiterrae^ the race in- 
habiting the dense forests of the Appalachians. 

Just how widely hairdii is distributed in Maryland is unknown. No 
additional specimens have been taken since Stickel and Warbach col- 
lected those at the Patuxent Research Center in 1939. I have trapped 
many cultivated fields in central Maryland and grassy roadsides in 
the western part of the State with the hope of obtaining additional 
records, but without success. The recent records from nearby Chantilly, 
Va., however, lead me to believe that the subspecies is probably widely 
distributed, although perhaps scarce as regards total numbers, in open 
fields throughout Maryland. 

These mice feed largely on seeds, grain, and the ripe heads of grasses ; 
berries and numerous insects are also consumed. The nest is built 
slightly underground, or on the surface, and usually placed under 
some object, such as a board, fallen tree limb, rock, or old pasteboard 
carton. The breeding season generally begins in early March and ex- 

536-897 O — 69 7 



tends through November. A female may breed three or four times 
yearly, and a litter may contain from two to nine young, although four 
to six is the most common number. 

Specimens excmimed. — Prince Georges County: Patuxent Research 
Center, 3. 

Peromyscus maniculatus nubiterrae Rhoads 

Peromyscus leucopus nuhiterrae Rhoads, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila- 
delphia, 48 : 187, April 1896. 

Type locality. — Summit of Roan Mountain, Mitchell Ck>unty, North Carolina. 
Altitude 6,370 feet. 

General distribution. — Allegheny and Blue Ridge Mountains and adjacent 
ranges from western Pennsylvania and New York, south to western North Caro- 
lina and northeastern Georgia. 

Distribution in Maryland. — Found in the Allegheny Mountain sec- 
tion at elevations usually above 2,500 feet. 

Distinguishing characteristics. — Similar in coloration and size to 
P. m. hairdii, but is readily distinguished from that subspecies by its 
much longer tail, which is more than half the total length of the ani- 
mal. Usually nubiterrae has larger ears and feet than bairdii. 

In general, nubiterrae can be distinguished from Peromyscus leuco- 
jms by certain subtle differences in coloration. Some specimens of 
nubiterrae., however, are confusingly similar to Peromyscus leucopus^ 

Peromyscus maniculatus bairdii 
▲ Specimens examined 

Peromyscus maniculatus nubiterrae 
• Specimens examined 
O Specimens reported 

FiQtJBE 34. — Distribution of Peromyscus maniculatus nubiterrae and P. m. bairdii. 


and their distinguishing characteristics are discussed in more detail 
under that species. 

Measurements. — Thirteen adults from Finzel, Garrett County, have 
external measurements as follows: Total length 179.3 (172-190) ; tail 
93.1 (82-102) ; hind foot 20.5 (20-22). Eleven adults from Finzel have 
the following cranial measurements: Greatest length 24.6 (24.3-25.3) ; 
zygomatic breadth 12.3 (11.7-13.3); interorbital breadth 3.7 (3.5- 
3.9) ; maxillary toothrow 3.3 (3.2-3.5). 

Habitat and habits. — This subspecies prefers dense woods and is 
most abundant among mossy boulders and logs in moist spruce and 
fir forests at higher elevations. E. A. Preble (in field notes) gives 
information about where he took specimens in Garrett County. He 
says that they were common in a tract of hemlock woods about 3 miles 
east of Grantsville. One specimen was taken in a small strip of decidu- 
ous trees and shrubs adjoining a field where Peromyscus leuco'pus was 
also taken. At Finzel, at an elevation of about 2,600 feet, he found that 
these mice were abundant and inhabiting all sorts of situations from 
the dry hillsides and edges of fields to the deep hemlock swamps, while 
at Bittinger (elevation about 2,600 feet) they were abundant only in 
the deep woods. 

This mouse nests in burrows under rocks aiid logs and sometimes in 
hollow trees. It is somewhat arboreal and may build tree nests as high 
as 50 feet above the ground (J. W. Bailey, 1946, p. 216). Two or three 
litters, of from two to seven young, are produced each season. Food 
consists of seeds, nuts, and berries, supplemented with insects, snails, 
and occasionally dead birds and other mice. 

Specimens exan^in^d. — Allegany County: Frostburg, 1. Garrett 
County: Bittinger, 6 ; Finzel, 18 ; Grantsville, 16 ; Swallow Falls State 
Forest (near Muddy Creek Falls) , 1. 

Other records and reports. — Garrett County: New Germany (Coll. 
Nat, Hist. Soc. Maryland) . 


Peromyscus leucopus noveboracensis (Fisher) 

[Mu^. sylvaticus'] noveboracensis Fisher, Synopsis Mammalium, p. 
318, 1829. 

Type locality. — New York. 

General distribution. — From eastern and southern Ontario, east to Maine, south 
along the Atlantic coast into Virginia, West Virginia, and northern Kentucky, 
westward, south of Great Lakes, to eastern North Dakota, South Dakota, Ne- 
braska, northeastern Oklahoma, and northwestern Arkansas. 

Distribution in Marylamd. — Occurs abundantly in all sections of the 


Peromyeaus leucopus noveboraaensis 
C Specimens examined 
O Specimens reported 

Figure 35. — Distribution of Peromyscus leucopus noveboracensis. 

Distinguishing characteristics. — The white- footed mouse closely re- 
sembles the deer mouse {Peromyscus mamiculatus) , from which it may 
be distinguished as follows : 

From Peromyscus m. hairdii it differs in being larger, longer tailed, 
lighter and more brightly colored with more reddish on sides and back, 
and in having noticeably larger ears and feet ; the tail is less distinctly 

Cranially, P. 7. navehoraeensis is larger than P. nh. hairdii., and the 
incisive foramina are differently shaped. These foramina are anteriorly 
constricted in noveboracensis, and open and evenly curved in hairdii. 
A detailed comparison of these two forms is given by Stickel (1951, 
p. 25-32). 

From Peromyscus m. nuhiterrae, P. I. novehoracensis differs in being 
larger, shorter tailed, (tail less than half the total length of the animal) 
and more brightly colored, with more reddish on sides and back. This 
color difference is subtle in individual specimens but becomes apparent 
when large series of both species are examined. The tail in novehora- 
censis is less distinctly bicolored than in nuhiterrae. 

Some specimens of nuhiterrae and leucojms are so similar in external 
characteristics that only by a detailed examination of the skull can they 
be separated. The skull of nuhiterrae is slender and elongated, the 
braincase considerably flattened, whereas cranially novehoracensis is 
broader and heavier with the braincase more inflated. As in P. m. 


hairdii, the incisive foramina of nubiterrae are open and evenly curved, 
while in noveboracensis they are anteriorly constricted. The teeth in 
the latter form, even in juvenile animals, are noticeably larger and 
more robust than in nubiterrae. 

Measurements. — External measurements of eight adults from Alle- 
gany County (Dans Mountain State Park, and vicinity of Oldtown) 
are as follows: Total length 174.4 (170-188) ; tail 76.2 (70-92) ; hind 
foot 21.1 (20-22) ; ear 15.7 (13-18). Nine adults from the same locali- 
ties have the following cranial measurements: Greatest length 26.2 
(26.0-26.7) ; zygomatic breadth 13.4 (12.7-14.0) ; interorbital breadth 
4.1 (3.9-4.3) ; maxillary toothrow 3.6 (3.4-3.8). 

Habitat and habits. — This species is primarily a woodland inhab- 
itant, but is often found in brushy regions and sometimes in grassy 
areas that border woodlands. It is one of the most abundant mammals 
in Maryland. On Assateague Island their tracks have been observed 
even on the bare sand dunes a few yards from the ocean beach. Usually, 
however, this mouse will be found not more than 50 feet from woods or 
forests, of which it seems to prefer the deciduous woods, especially 
oak-hickory forest. 

Nests are built almost anywhere. Although it apparently does not 
dig its own burrow, or make a trail, this mouse will utilize burrows 
or trails of other small mammals. Jackson (1961, p. 218) says that it 
seems to prefer a tree site for its nest, usually about 6 to 8 feet from 
the ground, but that he has found them in abandoned squirrel nests as 
high as 20 feet above ground. He says that often the nest is built in 
a hollow tree or limb, and that another favorite site is under an old 
stump or log. The nest itself is composed of soft material such as grass, 
leaves, or other vegetation. It is usually about 10 or 12 inches in diam- 
eter and 6 or 8 inches deep. 

Breeding takes place in late February or early March, and the first 
litter is bom in April. The gestation period is variable, but is usually 
between 23 and 25 days, and the litter size varies from one to seven, 
usually three to six, with four the most frequent number. Each female 
may produce as many as four litters during the breeding season. 

The principal food for the species is seeds of various grasses, weeds, 
clover, small fruits, and grain as well as acorns and hickory nuts. In- 
sects form a small portion of the diet as does green herbage. This mouse 
sometimes occupies houses, where it may be bothersome. On Assateague 
Island in 1957 and 1958, white-footed mice were inhabiting the houses 
and outbuildings, while house mice {Mu^ nuasculus) occurred in the 
woods and marshes, but apparently not in the houses. 

Specimens examiTied. — Allegany County: Dans Mountain State 
Park, 13; Green Ridge, 4; Mount Savage, 11; Oldtown, 4 miles E, 


31 ; Oldtown, 9 miles E, 12 ; Rawlings, 2 ; Sideling Hill Creek, 8. Anne 
Arundel County: Annapolis, 3 miles NW, 12; Priest Bridge, 4; South 
River (at U.S. Route 50), 10. Baltimore County: Lake Roland, 5; 
Loch Raven, 7; Notch Cliff, 1. Calvert County: Battle Creek (Cypress 
Swamp), 4; Cove Point, 3; Drum Point, 2; Scientist Cliffs, 1; Solo- 
mons, 2; Solomons, 31^ miles N, 17. Charles County: Nanjemoy Creek, 
2; Newport, 6; Zekiah Swamp, 4. Dorchester County: Cambridge, 5. 
Garrett County: Cranberry Swamp, 7; Grantsville, 4; Swallow Falls, 
2 miles S, 2; S wanton, 3. Howard County: Atholton, 6. Montgomery 
County: Burnt Mills, 2; Cabin John (vicinity of), 4; Cupids Bower 
Island (vicinity of), 5; Forest Glen, 1; Great Falls, 1; Kensington, 
5; Linden, 2; Plummers Island, 4; Rockville (vicinity of), 6; Seneca 
Creek (at Clopper Road), 5; Silver Spring, 26; Takoma Park, 1; 
Woodside, 1. Prince Georges County : Anacostia River, NW Branch, 
3; Bladensburg, 7; Branchville, 2; Broad Creek (Indian Head Bluff), 
4; Collingwood (= Collington?) 1 mile S, 2; Hyattsville, 4 ; Lanham, 
4; Laurel, 10; Oxon Hill, 12; Riggs Mill, 1 ; Riverdale, 3. Washington 
County : Bear Creek, just N of U.S. Route 40, 2. Wicomieo County: 
Powellsville, 1. Worcester County: Snow Hill, 1 mile NE, 1; Ocean 
City, 5 miles S, 1. District of Columbia: 62. 

Other records amd reports. — Allegany County: La Vale (Coll. U. 
Md.). Anne Arundel County: Dorsey (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Serv- 
ice files). Cecil County: Rising Sun (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service 
files). Garrett County: Muddy Creek Falls (Mansueti and Flyger, 
1952, p. 250). Kent Cmmty: Chestertown (U.S. Fish and Wildlife 
Service files). Prince Georges County: Bowie (Lucille F. Stickel, 
1946, p. 301). 

Remarks. — Specimens from the Eastern Shore section (Cambridge, 
Powellsville, Snow Hill, and Assateague Island), as well as Virginia 
specimens from Accomack and Northampton Counties on the lower 
Delmarva Peninsula, are not typical novehoracensis but are somewhat 
darker in coloration, and smaller in size, and appear to be intergrades 
with P. I. leu/ioptis (Rafinesque). The type locality of P. I. leucofus 
is in western Kentucky, which is also an area of intergradation. Mary- 
land specimens from the Eastern Shore section are only slightly larger 
and paler than specimens from western Kentucky near the type lo- 
cality of P. I. leucopus. Nevertheless, they are considerably different 
from P. I. leucopus from southern Louisiana (where the subspecies is 
best characterized) both in size and coloration, and are more closely 
related to P. I, novehoracensis from central New England where nove- 
horacensis is best characterized) than to Louisianan P. I. leucopus. 



Neotoma floridana magister Baird 

N[eotoma]. magister Baird, Mammals, in Kepts. Expl. Surv. . . , 
8 (1):498, 14 July 1858. 

Type locality. — Cave near Carlisle, Cumberland County, or near Harrisburg, 
Dauphin County, Pa. 

General distribution. — Appalachian Mountain region, from extreme western 
Connecticut and southern New York, south through western Virginia and Ten- 
nessee to the Tennessee River in northern Alabama, west to central Kentucky 
and northward to extreme southern Indiana. 

Distribution m Maryland. — The Allegheny Mountain and Ridge 
and Valley sections; occurs east of the Blue Ridge Mountains in the 
Piedmont section along the cliffs and bluffs of the Potomac River to 
the vicinity of Washington, D.C. It may occur among the cliffs and 
bluffs of river valleys elsewhere in the Piedmont section. 

Distinguishing characteristics. — Teeth 1/1, 0/0, 0/0, 3/3, = 16; 
size large; coloration grizzled grayish dorsaUy, with some buffy 
intermixture, paler and more buffy on sides; underparts and feet 
white; ears large and naked; tail long, hairy, and distinctly bicolored, 
black dorsally and white underneath; vibrissae very long, and black 
or white in coloration. The young are similar to the adults, but are 

This species may be confused with the Norway rat, which it resem- 
bles superficially. It may be distinguished from that species by its 
larger naked ears, its much longer vibrissae, its longer, more hairy, 
and bicolored tail, and its softer, more grizzled grayish coloration. In 
addition, the molar teeth of the two species differ. In the eastern wood 
rat the crowns are flat, with the enamel thrown into prismatic folds ; 
in the Norway rat the molars are tuberculate. 

Measurements. — An adult male from 9 miles E of Oldtown, Al- 
legany County, measures as follows : Total length 430 ; tail 188 ; hind 
foot 42; ear 30; greatest length of skull 56.2; interorbital breadth 
6.8 ; length of nasals 21.5 ; length of molar toothrow 9.3. 

Hamilton (1943, p. 306) gives the following external measurements 
for 10 adults from New York, Pennsylvania, and West Virginia : Total 
length 423 (405-441) ; tail 186 (170-200) ; hind foot 43.5 (40-46). 

Habitat and habits. — The eastern wood rat prefers cliffs, rock slides, 
caves, and bare patches in the moimtainous regions of the State. It 
ranges into the Piedmont section at least in the Potomac River Valley, 
where it lives in the cliffs and rocks that border the river. It may occur 
in the bluffs that border other rivers in the Piedmont section, and has 
been reported from Woodside, Montgomery County (Wetmore, 1923, 
p. 187). In the Potomac River Valley, it has been found as far south 


Neotoma flondana magieter 
9 Specimens examined 
O Specimens reported 

Figure 36. — Distribution of Neotoma floridana magister. 

as Plummers Island, Montgomery County, and on the Virginia side of 
the river at Chain Bridge. 

Wood rats were particularly abundant in the vicinity of Oldtown, 
Allegany County, in the fall of 1961, where virtually every rocky out- 
cropping contained signs of them, Tliey had taken up residence under 
the front porch of a hunting cabin 9 miles east of Oldtown, and the 
sounds of their activity could be heard all night. They are inquisitive 
animals, and one had thoroughly explored an automobile that was 
parked nearby, even crawling into the engine compartment, leaving 
tracks everywhere in the dust. 

The eastern wood rat appears to have moved into Maryland's Pied- 
mont section only within recent years, Wetmore (1923, p, 187) reports 
that although Plummers Island had been under observation by Wash- 
ington naturalists since 1902, it wasn't until 1921 that the species was 
discovered to be resident there. It was known, however, to inhabit the 
cliffs along the Virginia side of the Potomac River as far south as 
Chain Bridge for many years before it was first reported from Plum- 
mers Island, and it seems probable that the Plummers Island popula- 
tion crossed over from Virginia during a winter when the Potomac 
was frozen over, Wetmore (1923) says that one was killed on Plum- 
mers Island on 25 June 1921, by Mr, W, R. Maxon, but was not pre- 
served. On 26 September and 15 October 1921, two specimens were 
collected and preserved in the Biological Survey collection. In the 


same year, five nests of this species were discovered beneath the cabin 
on the island. 

Wetmore (1923) describes the nests of the eastern wood rat on 
Plummers Island as being composed of bits of finely shredded cedar 
bark and similar materials that formed a flattened mass 12 to 15 inches 
across with a small depression in the center. As it was warm weather 
the cavities were open above, but the walls were so arranged that they 
could be pulled out to form a domed covering if the need for greater 
warmth arose. 

Wood rats eat practically any vegetation they can obtain, including 
fruits and berries, fungi, ferns, rhododendron, and a host of others. 
The species breeds from spring until fall, and as many as three broods 
may be raised annually. The gestation period is 30 to 36 days, and one 
to three young are usually born. 

Specimens examined. — Allegany County: Mount Savage, 1 (Coll. 
U. Md.) ; Oldtown, 9 miles E, 1. Garrett County : Backbone Mountain, 
Savage River Dam Site, 2 (Coll. U. MA.). Montgomery County: Plum- 
mers Island, 2, Washington Coum,ty: Bear Creek, just north of U.S. 
40,1 (Coll.U.Md.). 

Other records and reports. — Montgomery County: Perry's Island 
(Wetmore, 1923 : 187) ; Woodside (Wetmore, 1923 : 187). 

Clethrionomys gapperi gapperi (Vigors) 

Arvicola gapperi Vigors, Zool. Jour., 5 : 204, 1830. 

Type locality. — Between York [Toronto] and Lake Simeoe, Ontario, Canada. 

General distrihuUon. — Massachusetts south in the Appalachians to western 
Virginia and west through New York, northern Michigan, and southern Ontario 
to eastern Minnesota. 

Distribution vn Marylamd. — Occurs on the cooler forested slopes in 
the Ridge and Valley and Allegheny Mountain sections. 

Distinguishing characteristics. — Teeth 1/1, 0/0, 0/0, 3/3, = 16; 
cheek teeth rooted in adults; size medium; coloration of upper parts 
rusty red, becoming buffy on the sides and around the face; under- 
parts buffy white; tail less than a third of total length of animal, and 
bicolored, blackish above, paler below. 

This mouse may be distinguished from most other Maryland mice 
by its reddish coloration and short tail. It resembles the pine mouse, 
however, in both these characters, but differs in that the reddish 
coloration is confined to the dorsum, whereas in the pine mouse the 
reddish coloration extends onto the sides. In addition, the ears of the 
red-backed mouse are larger, the tail is considerably longer, and the 
fur is longer, coarser, and less mole-like. 



Clethrionomys gapperi gappen 
Specimens examined 

Figure 37. — Distribution of Clethrionomys gapperi gapperi. 

Measurements. — Ten adults from Garrett County have the follow- 
ing external and cranial measurements : Total length 147.3 (140-155) ; 
tail 42.9 (38-48) ; hind foot 19.5 (19-20) ; condylobasal length of skull 
24.9 (24.1-25.8) ; zygomatic breadth 13.3 (13.0-13.7) ; interorbital 
breadth 4.0 (3.9-4.2) ; length of molar toothrow 54 (5.2-5.6). 

Habitat and habits. — ^This mouse prefers cool, damp, forested areas 
where it lives among the mossy rocks and rotten logs. In the northern 
part of its range it is widely distributed, but in Maryland it is re- 
stricted to the higher mountains, where it is locally abundant. Preble 
(field notes) took the red-backed mouse at Finzel on the border of a 
hemlock woods, and at Grantsville he found that it was very common 
in a tract of hemlocks 3 miles east of the town. It was also abundant 
in the mixed forest covering the steep slopes on the east side of the 
Castleman River, and in the hemlock woods near Bittinger. At Moun- 
tain Lake Park, Preble took a specimen among rocks in an oak woods, 
and at Swanton he trapped a very dark individual in deep hemlock 
woods. Bookhout tells me that he trapped one in Allegany County in 
a rock outcrop in a second-growth oak-hickory forest. 

This species does not make elaborate tunnels, but will occupy those 
made by moles and shrews. Jackson (1961, pp. 227-228) has described 
a nest in detail. It was located among the rootlets of small trees and 
was some 3 inches in diameter. The nest was merely a small carpet of 
grass stems and a few particles of dead leaves and moss, the entire 


bulk of which would be no larger than a man's thumb. Another nest 
was located at a depth of about 18 inches under a rotten elm stump. It 
was situated on top of the soil underneath a root of the stump, and 
was 4 inches in diameter and about 1 inch in depth, slightly hollow 
and without cover other than the log abovB. It was composed of small 
pieces of dry leaves, bark, hazelnut shells, hemlock cones, twigs, dry 
sphagnum, and green moss. 

According to Hamilton (1941, p. 259), in New York State about 
three- fourths of the food of this species is composed of green vegeta- 
tion. In addition, a large part of the diet consists of nuts and seeds. 
Insects are not as often eaten as they are by white-footed mice. 

The red-backed mouse does not hibernate, but it does actively gather 
stores in the fall in preparation for winter. The breeding season is 
protracted, beginning in the late winter or early spring and extending 
well into fall. One litter follows another during the breeding season, 
and from two to eight young comprise a litter. The gestation period 
is 17 to 19 days. 

Specimens examined. — Allegany County: Mount Savage, 6 (Coll. 
IT. Md.) ; Town Hill Mountain, near beacon light, 1 (Coll. U. Md.). 
Garrett County: Bittinger, 7; Cranberry Swamp, 4 (Coll. U. Md.) ; 
Finzel, 5 ; Grantsville, 3 miles E, 15 ; Mountain Lake Park, 1 ; Swallow 
Falls State Forest (near Muddy Creek Falls) , 1 ; Swanton, 1 ; Thayer- 
ville Swamp, 2 (Coll. U. Md.) ; Wolf Swamp, 1. 

Remarks. — Maryland C. g. gapperi average somewhat darker and 
slightly larger than specimens of this subspecies from Ontario and 
central New York. They appear to be intergrades between C. g. gapperi 
and C. g. caroUnensis but are more closely related to the former. The 
specimen collected by Preble in the deep hemlock woods at Swanton 
is as dark and large, however, as typical caroUnensis. 

Microtus pennsylvanicus (Ord) 

Two races of this widespread and abundant small mammal are 
recognizable in Maryland. They are : 

Microtus pennsylvanicus pennsylvanicus (Ord) 

Mits pennsylvanicus Ord, in Guthrie, a new geogr., hist., comm. 
grammar . . . Philadelphia, 2d Amer. ed., 2: 292, 1815. 

Type locality. — Meadows below Philadelphia, Pa. 

General distribution. — From Quebec and New Brunswick, south into Georgia, 
and west into Nebraska, South Dakota, and North Dakota. 

Distribution in Maryland. — Distributed in the Piedmont, Ridge and 
Valley, and Allegheny Mountain sections. Intergrades with Microtus 


/>. nigrans in the Eastern Shore and Western Shore sections, and is re- 
placed by that subspecies in the southern Eastern Shore and southeast- 
ern Western Shore sections. (See fig. 38.) 

Distinguishing characteristics. — Teeth 1/1, 0/0, 0/0, 3/3, = 16; 
molar teeth rootless and persistently growing; coloration of upper- 
parts dull chestnut brown, darkest along the middle of the back; 
underparts grayish white, or buffy white; feet grayish brown; tail 
dusky above, paler below, fur overlaid with coarse guard hairs; 
tail less than a third of total length of animal. 

This vole is similar in appearance to the red-backed mouse 
( Clethrionomys gappeH) , but is larger and more brownish in colora- 
tion, and lacks the red dorsal band. It is also similar in appearance to 
the pine vole {Pitymys pinetorum) but has coarser pelage, bigger ears, 
and a longer tail. It dilEfers from the southern bog lemming {Synap- 
tomys cooperi) in its coarser, shorter pelage and much longer tail, 
and in lacking grooved upper incisors. 

Measurements. — Eleven adults from the vicinity of Oldtown, 
Allegany County, have the following external and cranial measure- 
ments: Total length 169.2 (161.0-187.0) ; condylobasal length of skull 
28.5 (28.1-29.0); zygomatic breadth 15.4 (14.8-15.9); interorbital 
breadth 3.6 (3.4-4.0) ; maxillary toothrow 6.9 (6.5-7.3). Males average 
somewhat larger than females. 

Habitat and habits. — This vole is numerous in fields and meadows 
throughout the State. It is also common in marshes and similar areas 
with heavy growth of grass ; occasionally it is found in orchards and 
open woodland if the ground cover is grassy. This is one of the most 
abundant mammals in Maryland. 

Meadow voles construct extensive runways on the surface of the 
ground. These runways are about IY2 inches in diameter and run in 
a network under the cover of dead grass. They are sometimes the 
only sign of the presence of these voles in an area. If the runway is 
fresh and is being used, there will generally be droppings and cut 
pieces of grass at various intervals along it. The nest of the meadow 
vole is usually constructed on the surface of the ground in one of the 
runways. It is bulky, generally about 5 or 6 inches in diameter and 
3 or 4 inches deep, usually covered, but sometimes not. 

The meadow vole is active both day and night. It is cyclic in nature 
and the reproductive habits vary from year to year (Hamilton, 1937). 
It is polyestrous and may breed the year round, although in Mary- 
land there is a tendency not to breed during the coldest part of win- 
ter. The females reach puberty and begin to breed at 25 days of age, 
and from six to eight young generally comprise a litter. The gestation 
period in this species is 21 days, or a little less, and as many as 17 
litters may be produced in a year. 


The food of the meadow vole consists chiefly of fresh grass, sedges, 
grains, and seeds. Green vegetation comprises the major portion of 
its diet in the spring and summer, while in the fall, grains and seeds 
are an important commodity. In winter, bark and roots of shrubs 
and trees are sometimes consumed. 

Hamilton (1943, p. 327) says that the meadow vole is of great eco- 
nomic importance. By girdling fruit trees and nursery stock it causes 
monetary loss to the horticulturist. The amount of forage crops it 
consumes, while difficult to measure, is in the aggregate a very great 
loss to the farmer. It does, however, perform a useful function in 
providing predatory birds and mammals with an abundant source of 

Specimens examined. — Allegany County: Cumberland, 2; Mount 
Savage, 8; Oldtown, 4 miles E, 19; Oldtown, 9 miles E, 74; Sideling 
Hill Creek, 3. Anne Arundel County: Annapolis, 1 mile W, 6; Annap- 
olis, 3 miles W, 4; Annapolis, 4 miles W, 2; Lake Shore area, 1. 
Baltimore County : Loch Raven, 2. Charles County : Nanjemoy Creek, 
2; Newport, 5. Garrett County: Finzel, 1; Grantsville, 1; Mountain 
Lake Park, 2. Hoioard County : Atholton, i/^ mile S, 5; Long Corner, 
1. Montgomery County: Cabin John Bridge, 1 mile N, 1 ; Kensington, 
1 ; Rockville, 2.3 miles NE, 3 ; Seneca, li/g miles NW, 26 ; Seneca, 2.9 
miles W, 52; Silver Spring (vicinity), 5. Prince Georges County: Col- 
lingwood (=Collington?), i/^ mile S, 2; Hyattsville, 10; Lanham, 1; 
Laurel, 30; Oxon Hill, 11; Riggs Mill, 1. Queen Annes County: 
Parson Island, 2. District of Columbia: 91. 

Other records and reports. — Allegany County: Dans Mountain 
(Coll. U. Md.) ; La Vale (Coll. U. Md.) ; McCoole (Coll. Carnegie 
Museum). Anne Anmdel County: Dorsey (U.S. Fish and Wildlife 
Service files). Baltimore County: Bare Hills-Lake Roland area 
(Bures, 1948, p. 67) ; Patapsco State Park (Hampe, 1939, p. 6). Gar- 
ret County: Cranberry Swamp (Coll. U. Md.). Cranes ville Pine 
Sw^amp (Mansueti, 1958, p. 83) ; Cunningham Swamp (Coll. U. Md.). 
Prince Georges County: Patuxent Research Center (Herman and 

Remarks. — This subspecies intergrades with Microtus p. nigrans in 
the Eastern Shore and Western Shore sections. Specimens from the 
northern portion of these sections (Parson Island, Annapolis vicinity. 
Laurel, Oxon Hill) are, however, clearly referable to M. p. pennsyl- 
vanicus, as is a small series from New^port, in the south central 
Western Shore section. 



Microtus pennsylvanicus nigrans Rhoads 

Microtus pennsylvanicus nigrans Rhoads, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 

Phila., 49 : 307, 18 June 1897. 

Type locality. — Currituck, Currituck County, N.C. 

General distribution. — Near the coast from southeastern Maryland to north- 
eastern North Carolina. 

Distribution in Maryland. — Southern Eastern Shore section at least 
as far north as Cambridge, Dorchester County, and southeastern 
Western Shore section in Calvert and probably St. Marys Counties. 
This subspecies intergrades with Microtus p. pennsyVvanicus in the 
central portion of the Western Shore section and in the northern part 
of the Eastern Shore section. 

Distinguishing characteristics. — Similar to Microtus p. pennsylva- 
nicus except that it is somewhat larger and has a darker coloration, 
almost black in some pelages. 

79' 7'e* 

1 ' 











% Sm ik 



Microtus pennsylvaniaus pennsylvaniaus 
• Specimens examined Y 
O Specimens reported ^ 




Microtus pennsylvaniaus nigrans 
▲ Specimens examined 




f f 





Figure 38. — Distribution of Microtus pennsylvanicus pennsylvanicus and M. p. 


Measurements. — External and cranial measurements of seven adults 
from Drum Point, Calvert County, are as follows: Total length 173.1 
(168-184) ; tail 47.8 (42-52) ; hind foot 22.6 (22-23) ; ear 14.3 (12- 
16) ; condylobasal length of skull 29.1 (28.1-30.5) ; zygomatic breadth 


15.9 (15.4^16.6) ; interorbital breadth 3.8 (3.5^.0) ; maxillary tooth- 
row 6.8 (6.6-6.9). 

Habitat and habits. — In the southern Eastern Shore section, this 
subspecies abounds in the dryer portions of brackish and salt marshes 
along the Atlantic seacoast and the Chesapeake Bay. It is probably 
the most abundant mammal occurring on Assateague Island. As an ex- 
ample of its numbers on this outer barrier island, it may be noted 
that in a single night in the spring of 1956, 60 specimens were taken 
in 100 traps set in tall grass and myrtle on the edge of a fresh water 
impoundment on the Virginia portion of the island a few miles south 
of the Maryland line. It also lives in the marshes of the Blackwater 
National Wildlife Kefuge in Dorchester County where it builds nests 
in muskrat houses (Harris, 1953) . 

In the Western Shore section, in Calvert County, this vole has 
been taken in dry meadows and brushy fields. 

The habits of this subspecies apparently differ in no essential respect 
from those of Miorotus p. pennsylvanicus. 

Specimens exwrmrved. — Calvert County: Breezy Point, 1; Drum 
Point, 12; Scientists Cliffs Road (1 mile E Route 2), 2. Dorchester 
Govmty: Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge, 5 ; Cambridge, 5. Wor- 
cester C&wnty: Assateague Island, 4 and 5 miles S Ocean City, 10. 


Pitytnys pinetorum scalopsoides (Aud. and Bachman) 

Arvicola scalopsoides Audubon and Bachman, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 
Philadelphia, 1 : 97, October 1841. 

Type locality. — Long Island, N.Y, 

General distribution. — Northeastern United States, from central New England, 
south to Virginia and western North Carolina, west to Illinois and Wisconsin. 

Distribution in Maryland. — Common in all sections of the State. 

Distinguishing characteristics. — Teeth 1/1, 0/0, 0/0, 3/3, = 16; 
molar teeth not rooted, and grow persistently; tail very short, buffy 
brown above, lighter below; ears very short, and hidden in fur; 
pelage short, soft and glossy, almost mole-like; coloration russet to 
chestnut brown on dorsum, becoming lighter on sides; underparts 
grayish buff; feet grayish brown. 

This species resembles the meadow vole [Miorotus pennsylvanicus) 
from which it may be distingiiished by its shorter tail, shorter ears, 
and finer, more russet pelage. It differs from the red-backed mouse 
{Clethrionomys gapperi) in that the reddish coloration of the dorsum 
extends onto the sides and is not confined to a band on the dorsum ; 
smaller ears; shorter tail; fur shorter, softer and more mole-like. 



79- 76" 
1 ' 










O lO 20 30MILES 




Pitymye pinetorum scalopsoides 
• Specimens examined 

^lITIIftl IWi 

O Specimens reported 




nJ-liii ul 






rj. r*^' 




.... , . .9P« 

Figure 39. — Distribution of Pitymys pinetorum scalopsoides. 

From the southern bog lemming {Synaptomys cooperi) this species 
may be readily distinguished by the lack of grooves on the upper 

Measv^ements. — Ten adults from the District of Columbia have 
the following external measurements: Total length 124.8 (120-131) ; 
tail 22.1 (15-25); hind foot 16.6 (16-18). Eleven adults from the 
District of Columbia have cranial measurements as follows: Con- 
dylobasal length 24.9 (24.2-25.9) ; zygomatic breadth 15.5 (14.2-16.3) ; 
interorbital breadth 4.2 (3.9-4.6) ; length of maxillary toothrow 6.1 

Habitat and habits. — This species is not particular with regard to 
habitat preference, being found in old fields, wood borders, and culti- 
vated fields, especially in loose sandy soils. It is often found in old 
apple orchards where the soil is mellow and sandy, and the grass 
and weeds have been allowed to grow, forming a heavy protective 
carpet of vegetation. The fallen apples also provide the mice with 
food in autumn, and the bark of apple roots supply a favorite winter 
food. Contrary to its name, the pine vole is seldom found in pine woods 
in Maryland. 

Hamilton (1938, pp. 163-170) in his life history study of the spe- 
cies says that the animal threads its way just beneath the thick carpet 
of leaves which forms a ceiling to its burrow. Rarely the pine vole 
tunnels to a depth of a foot or more, but by far the greater number 


of burrows are shallow, descending to a depth of only 3 or 4 inches. 
In orchards it tunnels its way to fallen apples, and then burrows up 
from underneath to feed on the fruit. These mice seldom leave their 
subterranean burrows. 

The nest of the pine vole is globular in shape, and composed of 
almost any material the animal can procure, generally dead leaves 
and grasses. The nest may be just below the ground surface, or, oc- 
casionally under some shallow-rooted stump. Usually there are three 
or four exits. 

This species feeds largely on roots and tubers, bulbs, and the bark 
of trees and shrubs. It seldom eats green vegetation, seeds, or most 
kinds of fruit, although it does relish apples and pears. Generally, 
considerable quantities of roots and tubers, which presumably are 
utilized as the bulk of the winter food, are stored in its burrows. Pine 
voles often are responsible for depredations in orchards, where they 
frequently girdle apple trees severely. 

This species is cyclic, and according to Hamilton (1938, p. 166) its 
reproductive behavior undoubtedly varies from year to year as does 
that of Microtus. The breeding season is from early March to mid- 
November, and small litters of from two to four young are produced. 
Tlie gestation period in all probability approximates the 21 days of 

SpeciTTvens examined. — Allegany County: Oldtown, 9 miles E, 4. 
Awne Anmdel County: Annapolis, 3 miles NW, 2; Lake Shore area, 
2. Calvert County : Plum Point, 2 miles W, 1 ; Solomons Island, 3i/^ 
miles N, 1. Carroll County: Hampstead, 1. Charles County: Newport, 
3; Port Tobacco, 3 miles SW, 1. Dorchester County: Cambridge, 3. 
Garrett County: Grantsville, 1. Howard County: Long Comer, 1. 
Montgomery County: Chevy Chase, 1; Kensington, 2; Montg-omery 
Knolls, 1 ; Plummers Island, 5 ; Poolesville, 1 mile NE, 1 ; Eockville, 
2.3 miles NE, 10; Seneca, 1.3 miles W, 1; Seneca, li^ miles NW, 1; 
Silver Spring, 1; Takoma Park, 1; Woodside, 5. Prince Georges 
County: Bladensburg, 1; Laurel, 9; Oxon Hill, 1. District of Colu/m- 
hia: 61. 

Other records and reports. — Allegany County: Green Ridge (Coll. 
U. Md.). Baltimore County: Bare Hills-Lake Roland area (Bures, 
1948: 68); Patapsco State Park (Hampe, 1939: 7). Prince Georges 
County: Patuxent Research Center, along Patuxent River (Stickel, 
Lucille F., 1948 : 506). 

Ondatra zibethicus macrodon (Merriam) 

Fiber macrodon Merriam, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, 11 : 143, 
13 May 1897. 

336-897 O — 69 8 



Type locality. — Lake Druminond, Dismal Swamp, Norfolk County, Va. 

General distribution. — Reported from Chester County, Pennsylvania, south in 
the Coastal Plain and Piedmont to the lower Cape Fear drainage of southeastern 
North Carolina. 

Distribution in Maryland. — Eastern Shore, Western Shore, and 
Piedmont sections. 

Muskrats are especially abundant in the fresh- water and brackish 
marshes of the Eastern Shore section. The subspecies incurr'odon inter- 
grades with 0. z. zihethlcus in- the Piedmont section and is probably- 
replaced by that subspecies in the Ridge and Valley and Allegheny 
Mountain sections. 

Distinguishing characteristics. — Teeth 1/1, 0/0, 0/0, 3/3, = 16; 
tail long and laterally compressed; hind feet partially webbed; ears 
small and almost hidden in fur; pelage dense, underfur soft and thick, 
overlaid with long smooth guard hairs; usual coloration a rich brown, 
with considerable bright russet to red tinge, darker on head, ncse, 
and back; Sides grayish brown to russet; underparts considerably 
lighter, varying from grayish drab to bright cinnamon rufous. 

There is a black color phase of this subspecies which in some Mary- 
land marshes runs as high as 65 percent of the population (Dozier, 
19486, p. 393). These animals are not unifoi-mly black, but have a 
modified agouti pattern shown in the lighter ventral surfaces and on 
the lower side areas where the hairs are subapically banded with 

Ondatra zibethicrus 
• Specimens examined 
O Specimens reported 

Figure 40. — Distribution of Ondatra zibcthicus. 


yellow. The dorsum, however, is a uniform glossy black with no hairs 
banded with red and yellow. Rarely an albinistic individual is encoun- 
tered, and Dozier (19486, p. 394) has reported upon a nonalbino white 
mutation ("Maryland white") occurring in some of the marshes in 
Dorchester County, and fawn colored mutants from the vicinity of 
Chestertown, Kent County. 

The muskrat is readily distinguished from other Maryland rodents 
by the combination of its aquatic habits, large size, and laterally com- 
pressed tail. The beaver, which the muskrat resembles in aquatic 
habits, is larger and has a broad, horizontally compressed tail. 

Measurements. — External measurements of an old male and two 
young adult females from Laurel, Prince Georges County, are as fol- 
lows: Total length 675, 600, 570; tail 280, 275, 266; hind foot 87, 86, 
79. Cranial measurements of 11 adults from Laurel are: Condylobasal 
length 67.6 (63.9-72.2) ; zygomatic breadth 41.8 (39.8-44.5) ; least 
interorbital breadth 5.9 (5.0-6.6) ; length of maxillary toothrow 16.1 

Dozier et al. (1948, p. 180) found that the average weight of 13,421 
male muskrats trapped on the Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge, 
Dorchester County, was 2 pounds 4 ounces, and the average weight of 
10,090 females was 2 pounds 2 ounces. Adult males varied in weight 
from 6 ounces to 4 pounds, and females from 6 ounces to 3 pounds 12 

Habitat and habits. — Muskrats are most abundant in the extensive 
marshes that line the Chesapeake Bay. Elsewhere in Maryland they 
are found in streams that wind through pastures, and in swamps. 

The muskrat is essentially vegetarian, but occasionally will make 
use of animal food such as fish, mussels, insects, crayfish, and snails. 
Martin et al. (1951, p. 236) report that at the Patuxent Research Cen- 
ter near Laurel, the most important plant material eaten is burreed, 
cutgrass, arrowhead, waterlily and panicgrass. Smith (1938, p. 12) 
found that muskrats in Dorchester County would eat, to some extent, 
almost any plant found in the marshes there. Certain fa verities, how- 
ever, form their staple diet, and no area lacking these will support a 
large muskrat population. Three square sedge and broadleaf and nar- 
rowleaf cattails constitute four-fifths of the animal's diet, and all parts 
of these plants are eaten at one time or another during the year. Other 
foods that are at times utilized by the muskrat in the Dorchester 
marshes are saltmarsh, wild reed, saltgrass, beak-rush, spikerush, big 
cordgrass, wild millet, and sweet sedge. Also occasionally eaten are 
saltmarsh fleabane, marshmallow, waterlily, dodder, iris, waxmyrtle, 
small pine trees, and poison-ivy. Smith found that Dorchester County 
muskrats sometimes consumed turtles, blue crabs, fish (chiefly sluggish 
kinds such as carp) , salt-water mussels, and possibly dead birds. 


In the Maryland marshes, muskrats are active at all hours, in the 
spring and throughout the summer. 

Muskrat homes are of two general types depending on the topog- 
raphy of the area in which they live. In the uplands they dig burrows 
into the banks of streams and other bodies of water, while in the 
marshes they build dome-shaped structures. The entrance hole to a 
bank burrow is always below the normal level of water. The burrow 
turns upward above water level and ends in a nest of grass. The dome- 
shaped structures that they build in the marshes may be as much as 7 or 
8 feet in diameter and more than 4 feet high. They are constructed of 
stalks, roots, and peaty remains of plants and are built on or around a 
firm foundation such as a stump or the base of a tree. Each house con- 
tains one or more nests from which passages lead to plunge holes in the 
floor. These holes in turn lead to underground tunnels that connect 
with the surface several feet from the house. 

Muskrats are primarily aquatic and construct elaborate canals, 6 
inches to a foot wide, and sometimes a foot or more deep, which are not 
visible when the water is high. Those canals which are used as main 
arteries of travel are always wider and deeper than those used only 
as temporary leads made in search of food. In dry areas the muskrats 
use surface trails concealed in the grass that lead in all directions, and 
except for size, resemble those made by the meadow mouse. 

In addition to surface canals and trails, muskrats construct elaborate 
systems of underground burrows and tunnels that spread out in all 
directions and are connected with the surface and the canals by plunge 
holes scattered at convenient intervals. 

Smith (1938, p. 16) found that in Maryland the muskrat may breed 
in any month with the possible exception of November and December. 
Most of the young are bom from mid- April to mid-September. Most 
Maryland trappers report that there are three litters a year, but Smith 
(1938, p. 16) was only able to obtain two a year in pen-raised animals. 
The number of young is variable ; in the Maryland investigations con- 
ducted by Smith, the number averaged 4.4, seven being the most found 
in any one uterus. The gestation period appears to be about 29 or 30 
days, and muskrats probably first breed at the age of 1 year. 

The population of muskrats in Maryland marshes apparently has 
been decreasing since 1939. The number of muskrats trapped in the 
marshes from year to year may not reflect the actual muskrat popula- 
tion since many factors such as food, predation, salinity, and breeding, 
which are not readily observable, together with the value of pelts, act 
together to affect muskrat abundance, and may be different from year 
to year. Furthermore, these factors may cause different reactions on the 
part of the muskrat populations at different levels of abundance. 
Nevertheless, trapping records probably give an adequate index of the 


larger fluctuations in population level in Maryland. With this in mind, 
Harris (1952, p. 13) lists the muskrat catch on approximately 600 acres 
of marsh on the Nanticoke River, Dorchester County. In 193Y, the 
total catch of muskrat on this marsh was 2,417 animals (4.0 animals 
per acre). By 1950 the catch on this same marsh had dropped to 150 
animals, or 0.2 animals per acre. On a Statewide level, the total catch 
of muskrat was estimated at 2 million in 1938. In 1949, when Maryland 
first began to keep accurate records of the muskrat catch, only 228,548 
animals were reported trapped throughout the State. By 1957 this 
figure had dropped to a low of 112,348 muskrats. The 1967-68 catch was 
reported as 139,000. 

These figures show that the muskrat population has been experi- 
encing a decline over the past 25 years, and since the muskrat is an 
economically important animal, there has been considerable specula- 
tion and research devoted to the reason, or reasons, for this decline. 
Hardy (1950, pp. 8-9, 27) records the opinions of the trappers them- 
selves regarding this decline, which includes such ideas as there being 
a definite ecological relationship between muskrats and domestic hogs. 
These trappers stated that with the fencing in of property in Dor- 
chester County the hogs were no longer able to root in the marshes 
and, hence, the ecological relationship of the two species was destroyed 
and the muskrat population declined. Another theory maintained by 
some of the trappers is that owing to various causes there has been a 
great increase in the number of eels in Dorchester County waters and 
that eels enter the muskrat houses and consume young. Other ideas are 
that the muskrat decline is due to increased predation by raccoons 
and foxes ; a "dreadful disease" ; floristic changes ; "trapping under" 
(placing the tra,p in underground leads) ; and high water. Hardy 
(1950, p. 27) notes that some of these factors may have been operative, 
but that it can safely be assumed that the diminishing population of 
the muskrat in Dorchester County has been brought about by a com- 
bination of ecological and environmental changes rather than by any 
single factor. Harris (1952, p. 36) points out that his study on Dor- 
chester County muskrats did not answer the question why there has 
been a decline in their numbers, but it did show that the combination 
of predation and a reduced capacity of the marsh to support muskrats 
may prevent a rapid increase in the muskrat population. 

Specimens exaTnined. — Anne Arundel County: Broadwater, 1. Dor- 
chester County: Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge, 8. Frederick 
County: Jefferson, 1. Montgomery County: Forest Glen, 1; Kensing- 
ton, 1 ; Sligo Branch, 1. Prince Georges County : Beaverdam Creek, 1 ; 
Beltsville, 1; Branch ville, 3; Lanham, 2; Laurel, 147. District of 
Colwmbia: 6. 


Other records aTid reports (from Dozier, 19486, unless otherwise 
noted). — BaltiTnore County: Bare Hills-Lake Roland area (Bures, 
1948, p. 68) ; Loch Raven (Kirkwood, 1931, p. 317) ; Patapsco State 
Park (Hampe, 1939, p. 7). Dorchester County: Best Pitch Ferry; 
Elliotts Island; Fishing Bay; Joe's Point; Robbins, near; Taylors 
Island; World End Creek, near Golden Hill. Gai^rett County: Piney 
Run, near Piney Dam (trapping record, Maryland Nat, Res. Inst.) ; 
Pawn Run, as it enters Deep Creek (trapping record, Maryland Nat. 
Res. Inst.) . Kent County: above and below Chestertown, on the Chester 
River; Chestertown (specimens in Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. collection) ; 
Fairlee Creek near its Chesapeake Bay Mouth. Montgomery County: 
Mainland across from Plummers Island (Goldman and Jackson, 1939, 
p. 133). Prince Georges County : Patuxent Research Refuge (Uhler & 
Llewellyn, 1952, p. 81). Queen Annes County: Booker's Wharf. 

Remarks. — I have not been able to examine specimens from the Ridge 
and Valley and the Allegheny Mountain sections, but one specimen I 
examined from Jefferson, Frederick County, just to the east of the 
Blue Ridge Mountains, is clearly an intergrade with Ondatras, zihethi- 
cu^ in size and coloration, and almost near enough to typical zibethicus 
to be assigned to that subspecies. On the basis of this specimen, and 
because of the known distribution oi O. z. zihethicus in Virginia and 
Pennsylvania, the muskrats of the Ridge and Valley and Allegheny 
Mountain sections probably are referable to the subs,pecies zibethicus. 
This subspecies appears to intergrade with the Coastal Plain sub- 
species macrodon throughout most of the upper Piedmont section. 

Published reports of this species in western Maryland are by Brown- 
ing (1928, p. 213) who saw muskrats around 1825 in the vicinity of 
Deep Creek Lake in Garrett County, and by Mansueti, (1958, p. 83), 
who observed them in Cranesville Swamp, Garret County, in the 
1950's. The species is present in suitable streams and ponds through- 
out the Ridge and Valley and Allegheny Mountain sections at the 
present time, and according to Flyger (in verbis, 22 June 1964) trap- 
pers report that they are not uncommon. 

Ondatra z. zibethicus differs from O. z. macrodon in its darker 
pelage (in normal color phase), and in its smaller size. It is of in- 
terest to note that Merriam in his original description of macrodon 
(specimens from Dismal Swamp, Virginia) considered the subspecies 
to be a much darker form than zihethicus. Merriam's specimens, how- 
ever, were mostly dark phase animals, and as Hollister (1911, p. 18) 
has shown, macrodon (in normal color phase) is actually a lighter 
and brighter colored subspecies than zibethicus. 



Synaptomys cooperi stonei Rhoads 

Synaptomys stonei Rhoads, Amer. Nat., 27 : 53, January 1893. 

Type locality. — ^May's Landing, Atlantic County, N.J. 

General distribution. — ^Southern Appalachians of eastern Kentucky and Ten- 
nessee, western North Carolina and Virginia and western Maryland to the 
Atlantic Coastal Plain of Maryland, Delaware, and New Jersey, and northward 
to Connecticut and coastal Massachusetts. 

Distribution in Maryland. — Statewide in distribution. The most 
southeasterly record for the subspecies stonei is in Worcester County 
(Poole, 1943, p. 103). 

Distinguishing characteristics. — Teeth 1/1, 0/0, 0/0, 3/3, = 16; size 
medium; tail short; fur rather long and shaggy; head broad; ears 
short, rising slightly above the fur; upper incisor teeth grooved. Color- 
ation of upper parts brown to chestnut, grizzled in appearance; 
underparts silvery, with no sharp line of demarcation on the sides; 
tail grayish black, not sharply bicolored; feet brownish black. 

This is the only short-tailed mouse in Maryland which has grooved 
upper incisors, and may thus be distinguished from all others. Crani- 
ally, the southern bog lemming has a shorter rostrum than any other 
ISIaryland mouse. 

79- 78' 

1 1 

77 • 










O lO 20 30MILES 





Synaptomys aooperi stonei 
• Specimens examined 



O Specimens reported 



1 1 

79» 78' 





FiGUBB 41. — Distribution of Synaptomys cooperi stonei. 


Measurements. — External measurements of five adults, and cranial 
measurements of six adults from Laurel, Prince Georges County, are 
as follows : Total length 127.4 (120-135) ; tail 21.2 (18-23) ; hind foot 
19 (18-20); greatest length of skull 24.7 (24.3-24.9); zygomatic 
breadth 17.0 (16.5-17.5) ; interorbital constriction 2.9 (2.7-3.1) ; length 
of maxillary toothrow 7.5 (7.4—7.8). 

Habitat and habits. — This species has a preference for sphagnum 
bogs, and this is where most Maryland specimens have been collected. 
It is sometimes found, however, in woodland habitats, including 
beach-maple, oak-hickory, and pine. Specimens have even been taken 
in grassy areas, orchards, weedy fields, and marshes, and in shocked 

According to Conner (1959, p. 171) the chief requirement of Synap- 
tomys seems to be the presence of green succulent monocotyledonous 
plants, primarily sedges and grasses, which are its main source of 

This species may breed throughout the year, although Conner (p. 
203) found that in southern New Jersey there was a spring peak in 
the breeding cycle, with some breeding continuing through summer 
and autumn. Poole (1943, p. 103) found a lactating female in Wor- 
cester County, Md., in late November. Conner (p. 202) found that 
litters of from two to five were usual for the species, although a 
single embryo is not uncommon, and as many as seven young have 
been reported. His data suggest that in the spring and summer females 
produce a litter every 67 days. 

Wherever the southern bog lemming occurs, it is found in com- 
pany with other small mammals such as red-backed mice, deer mice, 
shrews, and moles, and it often occupies the same burrows as these 
others. The nests are constructed of shredded grasses and sedges 
and are often concealed some distance beneath the ground. Less often, 
they are placed directly on the ground where there is sufficient ground 
cover. Conner (p. 227) found that most of the nests in southern New 
Jersey were located just under the surface, concealed in either hemlock 
or moss or in other elevated mounds in the bogs. Most of the nests 
were balls of dry shredded leaves of sedge, and had two entrances. 
The diameters ranged from 3i/^ to 6 inches, and the hollow spaces 
within the nests ai^eraged about 2i/^ inches. 

Specimens examined. — Allegany County: Oldtown, 9 miles E, 1. 
Prince Georges Coimty : Beltsville, 1 ; Beltsville, 21^ miles W 
(sphagnum bog), 5; Hyattsville, 8. District of Columhia: 1. 

Other records and reports. — Montgomery County: Sandy Springs 
[skull removed from stomach of red-tailed hawk] (Bailey, 1923, p. 
118) . Worcester County: Snow Hill, 6 miles SW (Poole, 1943, p. 103) . 


Remarks. — The specimen from 9 miles E of Oldtown, Allegany 
County, is somewhat smaller in size and less grizzled in coloration 
than those from farther east in the State. This animal may represent 
an intergrade in these characters with S. c. cooperi., the subspecies dis- 
tributed to the north of stonei, or may actually be referable to that 
form. As Wetzel (1955, p. 12) has pointed out, however, the ranges 
of all measurements in these two subspecies overlap, and the variation 
in coloration within only one sample of cooperi for one season is 
much greater than between the various subspecies of S. cooperi. This 
illustrates the difficulty in assigning individual specimens to sub- 
species. Because of this, the specimen from Allegany County is pro- 
visionally assigned to S. c. stonei, the range of which is herein 
considered to encompass the entire State. When more specimens from 
the Piedmont and the Ridge and Valley sections become available for 
study, however, it may be found that S. c. cooperi is distributed in 
those sections, and that the specimen from Allegany County should 
properly be assigned to that race. 

Family CAPROMYIDAE (hutias and coypus) 
Myocastor coypus (Molina) 

Mus coypus Molina, Sagg. Stor. Natur. Chili, p. 287, 1782. 

Type locality. — Rivers of Chile. 

General distribution. — Ranges widely over southern SoutJi America ; intro- 
duced into the United States in the 1930's, and now is established in the wild 
in at least 16 states. 

Distribution in Maryland. — A few nutria are established in the 
Dorchester County marshes. 

Distinguishing characteristics. — Teeth 1/1, 0/0, 1/1, 3/3, = 20; size 
large (sometimes attaining a weight of 21 lbs.); pelage consisting of 
2 types of hair, dense underfur, and long glossy overlying guard hairs; 
coloration rich brown or chestnut on dorsum, paler underneath; tail 
long and cylindrical; middle toes of hind feet connected by a basal web. 

This species superficially resembles the muskrat, from which it may 
be readily distinguished by its larger size, cylindrical as opposed to 
laterally compressed tail, and greater number of teeth. 

Measurements. — An adult male and female from the Blackwater 
National Wildlife Refuge, Dorchester County, measure externally as 

follows : Body length 571, 518 ; tail 413, ; hind foot 156, 137. Dozier 

(in correspondence) reports that the heaviest animal he examined at 
the Fur Animal Experiment Station in Cambridge, Md., weighed 21 


No skulls of this species are available from Maryland for measure- 

Habitat and. habits. — The habitat of the nutria in its South Ameri- 
can home is in marshes, swamps, and along the margins of rivers and 
lakes in fresh-water plant associations. Bednarik (1958, p. 2) says, 
however, that Randall Rhodes, Curator of Collections at the Cleveland 
Museum of Natural History, has told him (in personal communication 
1954) that in South America he observed that nutria were mostly as- 
sociated with marine waters. The temperature of the water seems to be 
of little importance to them, and in the United States they are now 
found as far north as Michigan and Washington State, where they 
prosper in the same type of habitat as the muskrat. 

The nutria is a vegeitarian, consuming a variety of aquatic plants, 
rushes, reeds, grasses, seeds, cattails, and sedges. In captivity it shows 
a marked preference for alfalfa and clover and is fond of practically 
all root crops except Irish potatoes. Because of its voracious appetite 
it has posed a serious threat to waterfowl marshes in some areas where 
it has been introduced. 

Nutria li^ang in streams or ponds which have steep banks burrow 
into them close to the water level. Each pair makes its own burrow, 
which is dug in and upward until well above the water level. The den is 
lined with grasses, and as the family grows, the burrow is enlarged. 

If the nutria are living in a marsh which does not have steep banks, 
floating nests of aquatic vegetation are built, which resemble those 
made by the muskrat. Where conditions permit, part of a colony may 
live in floating nests in the marsh, while other animals will build bank 

The gestation period of this species in Maryland is between 130 and 
134 days (Dozier, unpublished data, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service). 
The young seem to be bom during all seasons, and there are probably 
two or three litters a year per female. In Louisiana, litter size averages 
4.4 young (Harris, 1956). 

Nutria apparently became established in the Dorchester County 
marshes of Maryland sometime in the early 1940's. There are no rec- 
ords of their occurrence there earlier, and Herbert L. Dozier, formerly 
Director of the U.S. Fur Animal Field Station at the Blackwater 
National Wildlife Refuge, does not mention their presence in the Mary- 
land marshes in his extensive nutria correspondence in the files of the 
Fish land Wildlife Service dating back to the period 13 March 1939, to 
3 June 1941. It is possible that Maryland's nutria population may have 
originated as escapees from the U.S. Fur Animal Field Station, al- 
though there is no certain proof of this. In the late 1930's and early 
1940's Dozier was conducting experiments at the Blackwater Refuge 
on the feeding, care, and breeding of captive nutria. In one of his le(t- 


ters dated 18 November 1940, now in the files of the U.S. Fish and 
Wildlife Service, he says : 

We have recently completed two new large 100 sq. ft. inclosures in marsh and 
pond edge and have released a pair of nutria in each to study their reactions to 
various types of local habitat, etc. 

There is no record of what became of the inclosures or animals, and 
Dozier never published, to my knowledge, the results of his study. 

Maryland kept no accurate records of its annual fur catch until 1949. 
Prior to that, only rough estimates were made each year as to the num- 
ber of animals trapped in the State, and no mention was ever made of 
nutriia. In 1949, when trappers were first required to report their 
catches, four nutria were among the animals taken. No further nutria 
were reported until 1956, when two were trapped in the Dorchester 
marshes. The following year the catch was 45 and in 1958 the number 
had risen to 52. Since then the number reported has declined. Thirty- 
four were reported for 1959, none for 1960, and five in 1961. It appears 
that nutria in the Maryland marshes are only precariously established. 

SpecimeMs examined. — Dorchester County: Black water National 
Wildlife Kefuge, 8. 

Family MURIDAE (Old World rats and mice) 


Rattus rattus (Linnaeus) 

[Mus] rattus Linnaeus, Syst. nat., ed. 10, 1 : 61, 1758. 

Type locality. — Uppsala, Sweden. 

General distribution. — This is an introduced species. In the United States, it is 
well established and abundant in the south Atlantic and Gulf Coast ports. In the 
northeastern United States it is found in buildings along the docks of some sea- 
ports, and at several isolated inland localities. 

Distribution in Maryland. — May occur at present in some buildings 
along the docks in Baltimore City. 

Distinguishing characteristics. — Teeth 1/1, 0/0, 0/0, 3/3, = 16; size 
medium; general build slender; muzzle sharp; ears large, almost 
naked, reaching or covering the eyes when laid forward; tail slender 
and long, at least as long as the combined length of the head and 
body, and sometimes longer; pelage soft, but covered with coarse 
guard hairs, giving it a harsh appearance. 

There are three color phases of this species. Some authorities have 
considered these as distinct subspecies because of their general associa- 
tion with distinct geographic areas. One of these color phases, known 
as R. r. frugivorous., has a yellowish or reddish brown dorsum, with a 
white or yellowish abdomen, and is most conunonly encountered in the 
Mediterranean area. Another color variation, R. r. alewandrinus^ has a 


brownish dorsum, similar to that of frugivorous^ but with a gray 
venter, and is most abundant in the Middle East and North Africa. 
The third color phase, known as R. r. rattus^ has a black dorsum, with 
a dark gray venter, as in alexandrinus^ and is mostly associated with 
the cold temperate countries of northern Europe. In general, R. r. 
frugivorous is a wild-living animal, whereas alexandrmus and rattus 
are nearly always associated with man and his habitations. None of 
these varieties, however, is exclusively limited to any of the geographic 
or habitational areas mentioned above, and all three forms may occur 
at any one locality or in any one habitat. Because of this it seems 
advisable at present to consider them as color phases rather than as 
distinct subspecies (Caslick, 1956, pp. 255-257) . All of the color phases 
may be encountered in the United States. 

Rattus rattus is most easily confused with the Norway rat {Rattus 
norvegicus) . It may be distinguished from that species by its smaller 
size, more slender build, more elongated nose, larger longer ears, and 
much longer and more slender tail (as long as, or longer than, the 
combined length of the head and body). Cranially, the two species 
differ in that the braincase of R. rattus is shortened and rounded, 
whereas that of R. norvegicus is narrow and elongated, the well-devel- 
oped temporal ridges extending parallel to each other for a consid- 
erable distance on each side of the cranium. 

Measuremsnts. — Two adults from Washington, D.C. (taken on a 
river boat at the Seventh Street Wharf on 23 April 1923) measure 
as follows : Total length 405, 423 ; tail 218, 238 ; hind foot 37, 39 ; great- 
est length of skull 43.6, 43.2 ; zygomatic breadth 20.8, 20.9 ; interorbital 
constriction 6.4, 6.7; length of maxillary toothrow 7.0, 6.9. 

Habitat and habits. — This rat is essentially an arboreal animal and 
seldom inhabits burrows. Where it infests buildings and houses, it is 
found usually in the walls, ceilings, or roof, but seldom in basements or 
in sewers. It shuns water and seldom enters it voluntarily. This is, how- 
ever, the common rat on ships, to which it gains access by climbing 
the moorings. It is occasionally introduced with shipments of grain or 

In diet, the black rat is omnivorous, consuming a wide variety of 
grains, fruits, vegetables, and animal matter. 

The species is polyestrous all the year round. The duration of ges- 
tation is about 21 days, and the average litter size is seven to nine. 

Black rats enter into close relations with man wherever they occur, 
and for this reason they are often involved in the transmission of dis- 
eases, principally the bubonic plague. 

Specimens examined. — District of Columbia: Five (three taken 
on river boat at Seventh Street Wharf, and two taken in the Central 
Market in a box of fruit from Egypt in February 1912) . 


Remarks. — It is generally believed that the black rat was the com- 
mon rat of the eastern United States before the late 18th century. 
Around that time, it is said, the Norway rat was introduced, and be- 
cause it is a larger and more aggressive animal it drove the black rat 
out except near shipping ports (see Bailey, 1923, p. 114). There is 
however, no real evidence that the black rat was ever well established 
in Maryland or in any other Northeastern State. This animal prefers 
a warm climate and probably found Maryland too cold for its liking. 
Moreover, it is known that in areas in the South the black rat and the 
Norway rat live in the same habitations without one species driving 
away the other. In areas where the two species live together, however, 
there seems to be an ecological separation in that the black rat usually 
is found in the upper stories of a building, while the Norway rat in- 
habits the basement and adjacent sewers and tunnels. 

At the present time there are no known colonies of this species in 
Maryland, although perhaps a few animals inhabit some of the build- 
ing along the docks in Baltimore City. In 1949 Davis and Fales (1949, 
p. 248) reported them present in only three Baltimore buildings and 
estimated the population as not more than 1,000. This rat, however, is 
the common ship variety and probably has been, and will continue to 
be, repeatedly introduced into the Baltimore wharf district. 

As far as is known, none are established now in Washington, D.C., 
although here again they may leave boats and take up residence in 
nearby buildings. Five specimens have been taken in the District of 
Columbia. Three of these were removed from a boat that had docked 
at the Seventh Street Wharf in April 1923, and two were trapped in 
January and February of 1912 at the old Central Market, to which 
they apparently had been brought in baskets of fruit from Egypt. 

Rattus norvegicus (Berkenhout) 

Mus norvegicus Berkenhout, Outlines of the natural history of Great 
Britain and Ireland, 1 : 5, 1769. 

Type locality. — England. 

General Distribution. — This is an introduced form that has become widely 
established throughout North America. 

Distribution in Maryland. — Statewide. 

Distinguishing characteristics. — Similar to R. rattus, but differs in 
being larger, heavier, and shorter tailed. In coloration it is grayish 
or reddish brown on the back, heavily lined with black hairs along the 
middorsal line. The belly is silvery gray, but in some specimens it may 
be washed with a dingy yellowish - brown. Cranial differences between 
this species and Rattus rattus are described under the latter species. 


Young Norway rats superficially resemble the native American rice 
rats {OryzoTnys pahistris). They may always be distinguished from 
this species, and from other cricetines, by the upper molar teeth, 
which in the genus Rattus ( and in the other introduced Murid genus 
Mus) are provided with small rounded cusps (tubercles) arranged in 
three longitudinal rows in contrast to two rows of longitudinal cusps 
in most cricetines. 

Measurements. — An adult from the District of Columbia measures 
as follows: Total length 470; tail 208; hind foot 43; ear 21; greatest 
length of skull 52.6; zygomatic breadth 27.6; interorbital breadth 
7.4 ; length of maxillary toothrow 7.3. 

Habitat and habits. — This is essentially a water-loving and burrow- 
ing animal. In the spring of 1963, large numbers of them were inhabit- 
ing burrows in the banks bordering the Loch Raven Reservoir north 
of Baltimore. They would emerge from the burrows in broad daylight, 
dive into the reservoir, and swim considerable distances to obtain 
scraps of bread thrown into the water by visitors who were feeding 
the numerous carp which swim in the area near the dam. In Wash- 
ington, D.C., the population of Norway rats has recently risen to 
alarming proportions. Their burrows may be seen around many of the 
downtown government buildings and monuments, and at dusk they 
come into the open and actively forage for food among the refuse 
and rubble left by tourists during the day. 

The city of Baltimore has always had a Norway rat problem, but 
these animals are not as numerous as was thought at one time. In a 
careful study of Baltimore's rat population in 1949, Davis and Fales 
(1950, p. 146) estimated there were approximately 43,000 animals, 
with a range of from 26,000 to 68,000, of which about 15,000 were in 
commercial areas. They had estimated that the population in 1947 
was 165,000, so that there was a considerable decline in the period 
1947 to 1949. With improved sanitation and methods of extermina- 
tion developed during the intervening years it may be assumed that 
the rat population of the city at present is no higher, and probably 
lower, than in 1949. Nevertheless, rats are still a serious economic and 
public health problem in Washington and Baltimore. 

The Norway rat is known to occur throughout the State both in 
commercial buildings and habitations, and in some places in the wild, 
particularly in the summer. 

The species is extremely adaptable, and about the only factor essen- 
tial for its success is the presence of water ; it drinks freely, and is a 
good swimmer and diver. It will eat virtually anything, and finds 
sewers particularly attractive places to live because of the abundant 
water supply and the offal usually found therein upon which it can 


feed. From the sewers it will readily pass into buildings where it may 
cause considerable damage. 

The species is an efficient burrower, and out-of-doors its bank bur- 
rows consist of winding galleries furnished with several escape holes. 
On farms, it frequently makes burrows in manure piles, rubbish 
mounds, wheat stacks, and hay ricks. Many Norway rats spend the 
summer months in fields and meadows, and at the approach of cold 
weather migrate into towns and villages where they seek the warmth 
of commercial buildings and other habitations. 

The gestation period in the Norway rat is 21 days. Studies in 
England (Hinton, 1931, p. 13) indicate that the average number of 
young per litter is eight or nine, but that there are records of as many 
as 23. Usually the number ranges between 6 and 19, and the females 
may produce five or six litters annually. 

It is generally believed that the Norway rat and the black rat are 
incompatible, and that the larger, more aggressive Norway rat will 
drive out or kill the smaller, weaker black species wherever they are 
occupying the same area. There is no proof of this, however, and there 
are even cases known where the two species have lived together in 
the confines of a small ship (Jolin Jones, U.S. Fish and Wildlife 
Service, in verbis) . The fact that they only infrequently occur together 
is probably the result of their preference for different climatic situa- 
tions. The Norway rat is essentially a northern, cool climate animal 
and prospers in the temperate regions of northern Europe and North 
America. The black rat originated in warm, semitropical areas and 
find its optimum conditions in the warm Mediterranean regions and 
in the southern portions of the United States. It seems probable that 
the black rat, although repeatedly introduced, has never been firmly 
established in the northeastern United States and that the Norway 
rat has been the common house rat in Maryland since early colonial 

Speciments examined. — Anne Arundel Oounty: Fort Meade, 1. Bal- 
tvmore City: 1. Calvert County: Solomons Island, 1. Montgomery 
County: Silver Spring, 1 mile N, 3. District of Columbia: 77. 

Mus musculus Linnaeus 

Mv^ musculus Linnaeus, Syst. nat., ed. 10, Vol. 1, p. 62, 1758. 

Type looality. — Uppsala, Sweden. 

General distribution. — This is an old world species that has been introduced 
into the United States and is now found in a commensal and feral state through- 
out the country. 


Distribution in Maryland. — Occurs abundantly as a commensal or 
as a feral animal in all sections of the State. 

Distinguishing characteristics. — This small mouse is well known 
and needs no extensive description. The upper molar teeth of the house 
mouse are essentially like those in Rattus rattus and R, norvegimis., 
that is, with three rows of longitudinally arranged cusps. This distin- 
guishes the species from all other Maryland mice of small size. 

Externally, the house mouse superficially resembles American mice 
of the genera Peromyscus and Reithrodontomys. It differs from Mary- 
land Peromyscus externally in its smaller size and in coloration. In 
adult pelage, Peromyscus is generally a brownish gray in coloration 
on the dorsum, with a white venter, the line of demarcation between 
the two being sharply marked. The tail also is distinctly bicolored, 
darker above, pale below. In the house mouse, the coloration is more 
grayish and the abdomen is generally paler than the dorsum, but there 
is no sharp line of demarcation between the two, the abdomen seldom 
being pure white as in Peromyscus. In addition, the tail of the house 
mouse is not distinctly bicolored. 

The dorsum of the juvenile Peromyscus is colored a uniform slaty 
gray, which is totally unlike the grizzled gray of the house mouse, and 
the venter is a snowy white as in adults, with a sharp line of demarca- 
tion between the two. 

Externally, the house mouse is very smiliar in appearance to the 
harvest mouse {Reithrodontomys hwmulis) . The most certain way of 
separating the two species is through an examination of the upper 
incisor teeth. In Reithrodontomys there is a longitudinal groove which 
runs the length of each incisor, while in the house mouse these teeth 
are smooth. In addition, the biting edges of the upper incisor teeth of 
the house mouse usually are notched, and the tips of the lower incisors 
fit into the notches when the jaws are closed. 

Measurements. — Seven adults from the vicinity of Ocean City, 
Worcester County, have the following external measurements : Total 
length 149.3 (140-167) ; tail vertebrae 73 (58-88) ; hind foot 17.4 
(16-18). Cranial measurements of five adults from the vicinity of 
Ocean City are: Greatest length 20.9 (19.8-21.8) ; zygomatic breadth 
11.0 (10.6-11.5) ; interorbital breadth 3.4 (3.3-3.6) ; length of maxil- 
lary toothrow 3.2 (3.1-3.4). 

Habitat and habits. — This is a very plastic animal, and it has 
adapted itself to a wide variety of habitats. Like the black rat and 
the Norway rat, it is most often encountered in or near human habita- 
tions, but is also found in the wild throughout Maryland. 


This species probably is of Asiatic origin. It is efficient at climbing, 
jumping, and swimming; and it will eat and thrive on practically any 
food that man consumes. Its nest is made of soft materials and is 
placed in any convenient location, such as in walls, under floors and 
steps, in bookcases or furniture, and, in the wild, under logs or stones 
and other convenient recesses. 

The house mouse is very prolific. It attains sexual maturity at the 
age of 3 months and the breeding season is of long duration. The 
gestation period is from 19 to 21 days, and the number of young per 
litter is usually five or six. The young are born blind and naked, but 
they mature rapidly and are able to leave the mother in about 3 weeks. 

When these mice inhabit houses in large numbers, they do consider- 
able damage by eating large quantities of food, or tainting it with 
their droppings. They will consume linen clothing of all types, gnaw 
on books, and chew holes in the woodwork. In shops, warehouses, grain- 
eries, and on farms, they are usually abundant and destructive. 

In Maryland, the house mouse is found everywhere, even on marshes 
and dunes of the Atlantic outer barrier beaches. 

Specimens exaTnined. — Allegany County: Green Ridge, 1; Mount 
Savage, 7. Anne Arundel County: Annapolis, 3 miles NW, 1. Calvert 
County : Drum Point, 1 ; Plum Point, 2 ; Plum Point, 2 miles W, 6 ; 
Scientists Cliffs, 2; Solomons Island, % mile N, 11. Charles Coumty: 
Nanjemoy Creek, 1 ; Port Tobacco, 4. Howard Cownty: Long Comer, 
2. Montgomery County : Cabin John Bridge, 2 ; Chevy Chase, 3 ; Forest 
Glen, 5 ; Gaithersburg, 5 miles NE, 1 ; Kensington, 7 ; Seneca Creek, 
1 ; Silver Spring, 1 mile N, 2. Prince Georges County : Beltsville, near, 
1 ; College Park, 1 ; Lanham, 1 ; Laurel, 5 ; Mitchellville, 1 mile W, 9 ; 
Oxon Hill, 6; River View, 1; sphagnum bog, near District line, 1. 
Queen Annes County: Parson Island, 1. Washington County: Fort 
Frederick State Park, 2. Worcester Cownty: Ocean City, 3; Ocean 
City, 5 miles S, on Assateague Island, 3 ; West Ocean City, 4. DistHct 
of Columbia: 83. 

Remarks. — Schwarz and Schwarz (1943, pp. 59-72) reviewed the 
species and suggest that all house mice in the United States are re- 
ferable to two commensal subspecies M. m. hrevirostris and M. m. 
domesticus^i the latter being the one that supposedly occurs in Mary- 
land. In all probability, however, house mice have been introduced 
into Maryland from many different areas and at many different times. 
The range of variation in size, tail length, and coloration in Maryland 
specimens is so great that I am unable to assign them a subspecific 

336-897 O— 69 9 


Family ZAPODIDAE (jumping mice) 

Zapus hudsonius americanus (Barton) 

Difus americanus Barton, Trans. Amer. Philos. Soc, 4: 115, 1799. 

Type locality. — Schuylkill River, a few miles from Philadelphia, Pa. 

General distribution. — Southeastern Uuited States, east of central Indiana, 
and south of central New York, southward into northern Georgia. 

Distribution in Maryland. — Occurs in all sections of the State. 

Distinguishing characteristics. — Teeth 1/1, 0/0, 1/0, 3/3, = 18; upper 
incisors grooved; tail very long, blackish above, white below (not 
white tipped) ; hind legs greatly elongated ; pelage short and coarse ; 
coloration yellowish orange, suffused with blackish, the blackish 
particularly concentrated in the middorsal area and generally forming 
a rather broad band from nose to tail; coloration of underparts white, 
sometimes suffused with yellowish orange. 

This mouse is readily distinguished from all other Maryland mice, 
except the woodland jumping mouse {Nafoeozajms insignis), by its 
very long tail and powerful elongated hind legs. It is distinguishable 
from Napaeozapus by the presence of a premolar in the upper jaw, the 
absence of a white tail tip, and the more yellowish coloration (as 
opposed to orange in Napaeozapus) on the flanks. 

Measurements. — Measurements of three adults from the vicinity of 
Seneca, Montgomery County, are as follows: Total length 195, 194, 
194; tail 120, 110, 110; hind foot 26, 28, 28; ear 11, 10, 10; greatest 
length of skull 21.6, 22.0, 22.7 ; zygomatic breadth 10.5, 10.9, 10.6 ; in- 
terorbital breadth 4.2, 3.9, 4.0 ; length of maxillary toothrow 3.6, 3.7, 

Habitat and habits. — ^Krutzsch (1954, pp. 349-472) revised this 
genus, and gathered together its natural history data. Most of the 
following is based on his account. 

The meadow jumping mouse inhabits thick vegetation, usually 
grasses or forbs, or both, in areas near running water. It is found both 
in woodland and farmland, but is most abundant in open moist areas. 
In Maryland, the species occurs throughout the State in suitable 
habitat, although nowhere does it seem particularly abundant, except 
perhaps on Assateague Island, where it is common in the mixed cord- 
grass and myrtle back of the ocean dunes. 

The species is cyclical in abundance, being more numerous in some 
years than in others. It is ordinarily a nocturnal animal, appearing 
in the early dusk and remaining active until predawn. Occasionally, 
individuals will be active during daylight hours. Meadow jumping 
mice hibernate in the winter. It appears that it is necessary for this 



Zapus hudsonius americanus 
• Specimens examined 
O Specimens reported 

FiGUBB 42. — Distribution of Zapns hudsonius americanus. 

mouse to accumulate a certain amount of fat before it is capable of 
hibernation (Hamilton 1935, p. 193), and thus those taken in autumn 
are usually fat. 

Almost invariably, meadow jumping mice hibernate in burrows in 
which nests are constructed of grass, leaves, or other vegetation. 
Grizzel (1949, pp. T'^TS) found two of these animals hibernating in 
woodchuck dens at the Patuxent Research Center in January 1948. 
One animal was found 4 feet from the entrance to the burrow and 
about 40 inches below the surface of the ground. The second was 
found in another burrow 5 feet from the entrance and 26 inches below 
the surface. Both animals were curled up in the center of large leaf 
nests and well insulated from the cold. 

In the vicinity of Washington, D.C., these mice remain active well 
into November, and emerge from hibernation in early April. In the 
Allegheny Mountain section, and the Ridge and Valley section, the 
hibernation period is more prolonged. Occasionally, during mild spells 
in midwinter they merge from their burrows and become active. 
Barbehenn tells me that he collected one jumping mouse in an old 
orchard with honeysuckle and poison-ivy ground cover near Rock- 
ville, Montgomery County, on 11 February 1960, in very mild weather. 

During their active part of the year, meadow jumping mice wander 
freely and seldom make well-defined trails or runways. They con- 


struct nests of grass and leaves under logs or occasionally in a clump 
of shrubs a few inches above the ground. 

Krutzsch (1954, p. 428), citing various investigators, lists the fol- 
lowing foods consumed by these mice: Insects, berries, seeds, nuts, 
fruits of various kinds, and roots. It has been noted that meadow 
jumping mice are highly insectivorous (Quimby, 1951, pp. 85-86). 

According to Krutzsch (1954, p. 429), meadow jumping mice com- 
mence to breed shortly after they come out of hibernation, and the 
breeding season is prolonged until just before they reenter hiberna- 
tion in the autumn. There are probably two litters produced each 
breeding season, and the number of young per litter varies from three to 
eight. Bailey (1923, p. 120) reported a specimen from Sandy Springs, 
Montgomery County, taken on 19 May 1906, that contained six large 
embryos. The gestation period is approximately 18 days. 

Specimens examined. — Allegany County: Dans Mountain, 1. Charles 
County: Marshall Hall, 1; Newport, 2. Garrett County: Cunningham 
Swamp, 4; Finzel, 1. Montgomery County: Cabin John Bridge, 2; 
Kensington, 1 ; Rockville, 2 miles W, 1 ; Sandy Springs, 2 ; Seneca % 
mile N, 1 ; Seneca, 3 miles W, 2. Prince Georges County : Branchville, 
1; Laurel, 8; Patuxent Research Center, 2; Tuxedo, 1. Worcester 
County: Ocean City, 5 miles S (Assateague Island), 1. District of 
Columhia: 7. 

Other records and reports. — Baltimore County: Patapsco State 
Park (Hampe, 1939, p. 7). Montgomery County: Forest Glen (one 
seen by G. S. Miller and reported by Bailey, 1896, p. 98). Prince 
Georges County: College Park (Krutzsch, 1954, p. 439) . 

Remarks. — According to Krutzsch (1954, p. 439), specimens from 
Maryland, Virginia, and North Carolina are more nearly average 
representatives of the subspecies americanus than are those from the 
region of the type locality. 

Napaeozapus insignis insignis (Miller) 

Zapus insignis Miller, Amer. Nat., 25 : 742, August 1891. 

Type locality. — Restigouch River, New Brunswick, Canada. 

General distribution. — Eastern Canada, from Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, 
and Quebec soutii of St. Lawrence River, south into northeastern Ohio, northern 
West Virginia, and western Maryland. 

Distribution in Maryland. — Allegheny Mountain section ; may also 
occur in the Ridge and Valley section, but has not been reported from 
there as yet. 

Distinguishing characteristics . — Teeth 1/1, 0/0, 0/0, 3/3, = 16; closely 
resembles the preceding species, but somewhat larger in size; coloration 




Napaeozapue insigms insigms 
# Specimens examined 

Figure 43. — Distribution of Napaeozapus insignis insignis. 

similar to that of Zapus, but with a more brilliant orange on flanks 
tail grayish above, white below, with a distinct whitish tip; upper 
incisors grooved as in Zapus; only 3 molars present in maxillary, as 
opposid to 3 molar and 1 premolar in Zapus. 

Measurements. — Measurements of six adults (Coll. U. Mich.) from 
5 miles SE of Grantsville (alt. 2,500 ft.), Savage River State Forest, 
Garrett County, are as follows: Total length 223 (215-230) ; tail 134.7 
(130-138) ; hind foot 30 (29-31) ; ear 16.2 (16-17) ; greatest length of 
skull 23.1 (22.2-23.7) ; zygomatic breadth 12.1 (11.8-12.3) ; interor- 
bital breadth 4.5 (4.1^.7) ; length of maxillary toothrow 3.6 (3.4-3.8). 

Habitat and habits. — This species prefers the moist, cool forests 
where it is particularly abundant along the banks of mountain streams. 
One of the Maryland specimens was taken along Muddy Creek, near 
Swallow Falls, in a Rhododendron and hemlock forest which is typical 
woodland jumping mouse habitat. Handley and Patton (1947, p. 184) 
found that in Virginia they are most common at high altitudes among 
ferns, blackberry, and St.-Johns-wort in clearings surrounded by 
forest. The woodland jumping mouse is seldom found in open meadows, 
fields, or marshes where this is no heavy forest within close proximity. 

This species makes no well-defined trails or runways, but utilizes 
the burrows of moles and larger shrews, or seeks shelter under rotting 
logs and fallen trees. Nests are usually placed several inches below 


the ground and are made of leaves and dry grass. Sometimes the en- 
trance to the nest is closed when the animal is in the burrow. 

During the colder months of the year, woodland jumping mice 
hibernate, and their life processes are reduced to a mininum. In the 
autumn they eat heavily and accumulate large stores of fat on the body 
to carry them over the long period of hibernation. Their hibernation, 
deep and prolonged, is usually half of the year. 

Hamilton (1941, pp. 260-261) lists the food of the woodland jump- 
ing mouse as insect larvae (particularly lepidopterous and dipterous 
forms), spiders, small soil worms, centipedes, various small inverte- 
brates, small seeds, tiny nuts, small green leaves, blueberries, rasp- 
berries, and fragments of Asplenium fronds. 

This species normally raises but one litter a year. The gestation 
period is between 20 and 23 days, and from two to six young, possibly 
eight, comprise a litter ; the most frequent number appears to be five. 

Specimens examined. — Allegany County: Dans Mountain, 2. Garrett 
County: Finzel, 1 ; Grantsville, 5 miles SE (Savage River State For- 
est), 8 (Coll. U. Mich.) ; Muddy Greek Falls, 3 (Coll. U. Md.) ; Swal- 
low Falls State Forest (along Muddy Creek) , 1. 

Remarks. — Although Preble (1899, p. 35) noted that the specimen 
he collected at Finzel showed no approach to N. i. roanensis (type 
locality: Roan Mountain, N.C.), it is my opinion that this specimen 
and one from Swallow Falls State Forest and eight from 5 miles SE 
of Grantsville show traits that are characteristic of roanensis. They 
are smaller in size and darker in coloration than typical insignis, and 
they appear to represent intergrades with roanensis. However, they 
are closer to insignis than roanensis in these characters and are herein 
assigned to the former subspecies. 

Order CARNIVORA (flesh-eating mammals) 

Family Canldae (dogs, foxes, etc.) 


Canis latrans Say 

Canis latrans Say, in Long, Account of an exped. ... to the Rocky 
Mts. . . . ,1:168,1823). 

Type locality. — Engineer Cantonment, about 12 miles southeast of the present 
town of Blair, Washington County, Nebr., on the west bank of the Missouri 

General distribution. — Distributed primarily west of Mississippi River, from 
Alaska to Central America, with the center of population in the Great Plains 
of the United States. The species has recently been reported from a number of 
Eastern States, and apparently has been expanding its range eastward. Some of 
the eastern populations, however, may be derived from animals that escape from 
captivity, particularly those populations in Southern States. 










r / 

— 7- 





^x, .v^ 







10 20 30MILES 




C<mis Xatrana 
C Specimens examined 








FiGUBE 44. — Distribution of Canis latrans. 

Distribution in Maryland. — May be expected anywhere in the State. 
See discussion in Remarks section. 

Distinguishing characteristics. — Teeth 3/3, 1/1, 4/4, 2/3, = 42; 
closely resembles a small police dog, but with shorter legs, a bushier 
tail, and a more slender muzzle. Some feral dogs are so similar to 
coyotes that it is a difficult task for even an expert to distinguish them. 
The problem is further compounded because the coyote and dog may 
interbreed in the wild, although authentic reports of such crosses are 
scarce. There does not appear to be any certain way to distinguish 
coyote-dog hybrids from pure domestic dogs. 

The coyote is grayish in coloration, and the dorsal hairs are tipped 
with black. There is a rusty or yellowish tint on the neck and along 
the sides, particularly on the flanks. The head is grizzled gray ; the ears 
brownish. The feet are fulvous, and the throat and belly white. Since 
some domestic dogs may be similar to this in coloration, it is sometimes 
necessary to examine the skull to determine the species of the animal 
in question. The most important cranial difference between the two 
is that in the coyote the frontal region of the skull is alw^ays flattened, 
whereas in the dog it bulges to some degree. In some varieties of domes- 
tic dog this bulge is quite pronounced, in others it is less so, but it is 
generally more developed than in the coyote. The second most notice- 
able difference is found in the rostrum, which is slender and elongated 


in the coyote and usually shorter and more blunt in the dog. In addi- 
tion, the tips of the upper canines of the coyote fall below the level of 
the anterior mental foramina when the jaws are closed; in the dog 
they terminate above these foramina. The premolar teeth in the coyote 
are generally widely space ; in the dog they are crowded. The ventral 
surface of the mandibular ramus is flattened in the coyote, whereas in 
the dog it is generally rounded. Various indexes have been developed 
to express numerically some of the above-mentioned cranial differences 
(see Howard, 1949, p. 171 ; Bee and Hall, 1951, pp. 73-77 ; Burt, 1946, 
pp. 61-62). 

Certain specimens exhibit a confusing combination of dog and 
coyote characteristics. These animals may represent hybrids, but the 
characteristics of known hybrids have not been adequately documented. 
Until the problem of hybridization between the coyote and dog is 
thoroughly studied it seems advisable to refer any questionable speci- 
mens to the latter species. The domestic dog is one of the most variable 
animals with regard to its physical structure, whereas the coyote is 
a very uniform one (except for size). Because of this, it is possible for 
the domestic dog to exhibit some coyote traits without having any ad- 
mixture of coyote blood, whereas it is far less likely that a coyote would 
exhibit dog traits without some dog intermixture. 

In the field, the coyote at a distance may resemble a gray wolf ( Canis 
Iwpus). The coyote, however, is much the smaller animal, has a more 
yellowish cast to the pelage, and carries its tail lower when running. 
The skull of the coyote is smaller than that of the gray wolf, and more 
lightly built ; the teeth are much smaller, and the frontal region of the 
skull is flat, whereas in the gray wolf it is bulging as in the domestic 

Both the red fox and the gray fox are less doglike in general appear- 
ance than the coyote, and both are considerably smaller in size, and 
different in coloration. 

Measurements. — Externally the coyote ranges in total length from 
1,052 to 1,320 mm. with a tail vai-ying from 300 to 394 mm. The hind 
foot averages between 177 and 220 mm. (Hall and Kelson, 1959, p. 
843) . Animals from southwestern localities are smaller than those from 
farther north, and males are larger than females. 

A male from 5 miles northwest of Poolesville, Montgomery County, 
and a female from Cecil County, near the Delaware State line, west 
of Middlebury, Del., have the following cranial measurements : Condy- 

lobasal length 180.4, ; zygomatic breadth 99.8, 87.8; interorbital 

breadth 29.6, 31.5 ; length of maxillary toothrow 82.3, 78.7. 

Habitat and habits. — ^The coyote prefers open or semiopen country. 
Young (Young and Jackson, 1951, p. 11) calls the coyote an "edge" 
animal, and believes that it has expanded its range as the forested 


areas of the country vanished either through natural means such as 
forest fires or through manmade means such as logging etc. With the 
clearing of the land in the Northeastern United States, the coyote 
probably found habitat there to its liking, and has extended its range 

The habits of the coyote are thoroughly discussed by Young and 
Jackson (pp. 47-105). The following is compiled primarily from their 

The home of the coyote is usually a den which it constructs on a bank 
or hillside, in wheat or com fields, under houses, shacks, drainage 
pipes, or in hollow logs in thickets. Often the animal makes use of a 
fox or skunk den, enlarging it to suit its needs. 

As a rule, coyotes do not mate for life, but some pairs may remain 
together for a number of years. There is evidence that the female may 
breed when she is 1 year of age. The breeding season is from February 
to March or April, being earlier apparently in northern than in south- 
ern latitudes (Hamlett, 1938) . The gestation period is 60 to 63 days, and 
females have been known to deliver as many as 17 to 19 young, although 
5 to 7 is the usual number. 

Sperry (1941) examined the stomachs of 8,339 coyotes from western 
and midwestern localities and found that the principal food of the 
species is animal matter, of which more than 90% consists of mammals. 
In addition to carrion (25.1%), the chief mammals consumed are rab- 
bits (33.2%), rodents (17.5%), domestic livestock (13.5%), big game 
mammals, principally deer (3.6%), and miscellaneous mammals such 
as skunks, badgers, weasels, shrews, moles, foxes, raccoons, cats, etc. 
(1%). Birds comprise some 2.9% of the coyote's diet, and other verte- 
brates 0.08%. Insects account for 1% of the diet, and vegetable matter, 
principally wild fruit and cultivated fruit, some 1.7%. These percent- 
ages vary according to seasonal availability. 

Specimens examined -Cecil County: Near Delaware line, west of 
Middletown, Delaware, 1. Montgomery County. Poolesville, 5 miles 
NW, 1. 

Rem/irks. — ^The coyote has been reported from nearly all of the 
Eastern States. It is known that the species has been extending its 
range eastward. Probably the coyotes of our Northeastern States are 
a result of the natural expansion of the range of the species. On the 
other hand, coyotes have been introduced accidentally, or on purpose, 
into some of the Southeastern States, and present populations in those 
States may derive from these artificial introductions. 

The first coyote discovered in Maryland was taken on 5 February 
1921, on a farm 5 miles NW of Poolesville, Montgomery County. 
Jackson (1922, p. 187) in a discussion of this animal says ; 


The question naturally arises as to how a coyote reached this eastern locality. It 
is, of course, impossible to say definitely. The animal probably escaped from cap- 
tivity. Or it may represent an extreme eastern extension of the geographic range 
of coyotes. There is no direct evidence for or against either of the suppositions. 
It is known that the range of the coyotes has gradually extended northward 
and eastward, but it would seem hardly probable that the si)ecies has, as yet, 
ingressed a region as far east as central Maryland. 

The area in which this animal was taken was transversed by a ma- 
jor east- west arterial highway (U.S. Route 40) and it seems highly 
likely that the animal was brought into the area artifically. This view 
is supported by the fact that nearly 40 years elapsed before another 
coyote was discovered in Maryland. If the Montgomery County coyote 
really represented a southward or eastward extension of the range of 
the species, there probably would have been at least occasional reports 
of their presence in the State in later years. As it is, not until 21 April 
1961 was another coyote discovered in Maryland. On this date, a coyote 
was shot in Cecil County near the Delaware border by employees of 
the Delaware Board of Game and Fish Commissioners. Here again, 
the area where the animal was shot is near a major east- west highway 
system and not very distant from the cities of Baltimore, Wilmington, 
and Philadelphia. It seems likely that the animal was brought east as 
a pet, and either was released or escaped from captivity. On the other 
hand, the increasing number of reports of coyotes from New England, 
New York, and other Northeastern States make it more probable now 
than it was 40 years ago that the species has reached Maryland in its 
natural range expansion. It is still, nevertheless, impossible to say 


Vulpes vulpes fulva (Desmarest) 

Canis fidvus Desmarest, Mammalogie . . ., pt. 1, p. 203, in Encyclo- 
pedie methodique . . . 1820. 

Type Locality. — Virginia. 

General distribution. — Most of the Eastern United States, from southern 
Maine, southern Ontario and Wisconsin, south to Alabama, Georgia, and the 

Distribution in Marylomd. — Occurs in all sections of the State. 

Distinguishing char(wteristiGS. — Dental formula as in Ccmis; sim- 
ilar in size and general characteristics to a small dog; nose sharply 
pointed ; ears prominent and erect ; tail long and bushy, fulvous, but 
strongly streaked with black, and always with a white tip ; pelage long 
and soft; coloration rusty on face and occiput, usually mixed with 
whitish ; upper parts colored bright yellowish red, or fulvous, darker 
on the median line, with the rump grizzled with whitish ; cheeks, chin, 



79- 76- 

1 ' 





-39.- SCALE 

O >0 20 30 MILES 



VuVpes vulpes fulva 

# Specimens examined 



O Specimens reported 




1 1 
79' rp' 





Figure 45. — Distribution of Vulpes vulpes fulva. 

throat, and a band down the abdomen white ; feet and outside of ears 

Cranially, this fox differs from the gray fox ( Urocyon) in that the 
temporal ridges enclose a narrow V on the top of the skull, whereas 
in the latter they are distinctly lyrate in shape ; the upper incisors are 
lobed, in contrast to the unlobed condition in Urocyon. 

Measurements. — Three adult males from Montgomery County have 
the following external measurements: Total length 1030, 1000, 995; 
tail 370, 372, 360; hind foot 170, 165, 160; ear 83, 86, 85. Cranial meas- 
urements of seven adults from Montgomery County are as follows: 
Basal length 139.7 (133.8-143.6) ; zygomatic breadth 72.0 (69.7-74.0) ; 
postorbital constriction 23.9 (22.0-28.8) ; alveolar length of upper 
maxillary toothrow 61.8 (59.5-63.4) . 

Females average smaller than males in size. 

Habitat and habits. — The red fox is cosmopolitan in its distribution, 
except that it is not generally found in dense forests and woods. It 
prefers rolling farmland, sparsely wooded areas, brushlands, and dense 
weed patches, usually in the vicinity of a stream or lake. 

The species is now abundant in all sections of the State, although 
at one time it apparently was not found here. According to Mansueti 
(1950, pp. 27-28), the early American settlers hunted the gray fox 
{Urocyon cmereoargenteus) . The Indians were unanimous in claim- 
ing that before the coming of the Europeans there were no red foxes 


in the area. Sometime around 1650, red foxes were imported from 
England and released along the Eastern Shore of Maryland. These 
foxes apparently thrived and by the late 1670's had spread down the 
peninsula into Virginia. Today the species is widely distributed in 
Maryland, and is found even within the limits of metropolitan areas 
such as Baltimore and Washington, D.C. Whether the fox which now 
occurs throughout the State is the variety introduced by the English, 
or the native eastern North American form which has extended its 
range southward, will be discussed under the Remarks section. 

The red fox is extremely abundant in some areas of the State. Ac- 
cording to the League of Maryland Sportsmen (Rally Sheet 4(10), 
p. 6, December 1946) 79 were caught in a 5-week period at Mount 
Savage, Garrett County, in 1946. At the eastern end of the State on 
the outer barrier beach of Assateague Island, it is also abundant, and 
does some damage to nesting birds and their eggs. This species still 
roams in Rock Creek Park in the heart of Washington, D.C. 

The food of the red fox varies from season to season. Llewellyn and 
Uhler, (1952, p. 198) found that in their Maryland sample, compris- 
ing mostly November, December, and January animals, 17 percent of 
the food was plant material consisting of fruits, berries, and other 
plant items. Persimmon, pokeberry, and wild grape were most often 
consumed, while in the fall beechnuts were heavily utilized. Apple, 
pear, and com were eaten to a minor extent. The bulk of the red fox's 
food consists of animal foods, the most important part of which ap- 
pears to be rabbit. Also consumed are rodents (meadow mice, musk- 
rats, pine mice, gray and flying squirrels, house mice) and shrews. 
Birds and occasionally insects are eaten. In the spring and summer 
months the food consists of woodchucks, poultry, rabbits, small ro- 
dents, birds, snakes, turtles, eggs and varying amounts of vegetable 
matter particularly raspberries and blackberries. There is no question 
that red foxes prey to some extent on domestic livestock, particularly 
poultry when it is not properly housed. Sometimes red foxes may be- 
come quite bold. Vernon Bailey (unpublished report in files of U.S. 
Fish and Wildlife Service, 25 April 1936) tells of a pair raiding the 
henhouse of a farm in Brookville, Montgomery County; they were 
so bold that they often raided in broad daylight and took the hens 
before the eyes of their owners. 

The red fox is monogamous and is believed to remain mated for 
life. The species is monestrous, with one season a year. Most matings 
take place in late January or February, and the gestation period is 
between 49 and 55 days. Litter size varies between one and eight, with 
four or five being the usual number. 

The breeding or family den of the red fox is nearly always in a 
burrow, often that of a woodchuck, and is more often located in more 


open land, such as a pasture, fence border, or cultivated field. Vernon 
Bailey (unpublished report, 1936) described one such den at Brooke- 
ville as follows : 

The den had four openings, or doorways, 10, 15, and 20 feet apart, really the old 
doorways of a woodchuck den enlarged to fox size. Two opened out on each side 
of a big chestnut log, 3 or 4 feet in diameter. The burrows had been dug out 
by the foxes to about twice the diameter of the woodchuck burrows and en- 
larged to a comfortable fox nest room 20 feet back from the main entrance and 
10 feet back from the other doorways. They ran 3 or 4 feet below the surface 
through hard clay full of rocks that necessitated many crooks and turns but ran 
uphill so the nest chamber was actually higher up than the actual doorway. All 
of the burrows centered at the nest, beyond which the original woodchuck burrow 
extended about 10 feet further but did not come to the surface. 

There was no nest material in the nest chamber, but semidry earth made a 
comfortable bed for the young foxes with their dense woolly coats, and a uniform 
temperature that I should guess was around 55° F. gave them a healthy home in 
the den. 

Both parents hunt for food to provide for the young. Bailey de- 
scribes the food found in the den at Brookeville : 

Much food had been brought into the den by the parent foxes. One white rooster 
had been all eaten but the wings and head and telltale feathers scattered around 
the doorway ; one large house rat was lying near the doorway and two others 
were found in the nest chamber and parts of four others in the pantry, an 
excavation half full of food at one side of the upper entrance. It was about four 
feet below the surface and so cool that all of the meat was fresh though some 
of it several days old. From this were taken out part of a cottontail, half a 
crow, and a mouse. 

Specimens examined. — Arnie Arundel County: Fort George G. 
Meade, 1; Priest Bridge (near), 1. Clmrles County: Waldorf, 1. 
Dorchester County: Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge, 9. Fred- 
erick County: Jefferson, 2. Garrett County: Oakland, 1. Howard 
Coumty: no exact locality, 1. Montgomery County: Bethesda, 1; 
Brookeville, 1 ; Fairland, 1 ; Poolesville, 5 miles SW, 3 ; Potomac, 1 ; 
Eockville, 1 ; Sandy Spring, 1 ; no exact locality, 1. Prince Georges 
County: Laurel, 5; Patuxent Research Center, 4. Worcester Coumty: 
Ocean City, 3 miles S (Assateague Island), 2. District of Columbia: 3. 

Other records and reports. — Allegany County: Mount Savage 
(League of Maryland Sportsmen, Rally Sheet 4(10), p. 6, December 
1946). Baltimore County: Loch Raven (Kolb, 1938) ; Patapsco State 
Park (Hampe, 1939, p. 6). Garrett Ccmnty: Finzel (E. A. Preble in 
field report). Montgomery County: Laytonsville (rabid red fox re- 
ported in Washington Evening Star, 28 December 1956) ; Plummers 
Island (Goldman and Jackson, 1939, p. 132). 

Remarks. — It is well established that the red fox was either scarce 
or did not occur in Maryland prior to the colonization of the State 
by Europeans. Churcher (1959, p. 514) states that "a red fox was native 


to Nor^.h American north of Lat. 40° N or 45° N, but was either scarce 
or absent from most of the unbroken mixed hardwood forests (to the 
south of this) where the gray fox was paramount." 

The early Maryland colonists originally hunted the gray fox, but 
apparently at a very early date the European red fox was imported for 
hunting purposes and was released at various localities, one of which 
was the Eastern Shore. Since the red fox is now found throughout the 
whole of Maryland, as well as much of the Southeastern United States, 
the question arises whether these southern red foxes are the European 
variety or native North American red foxes which have extended their 
range southward. 

Churcher (1959, pp. 513-520) has established that the European red 
fox and the North American red fox are subspecies of the same species 
Vulpes vulpes^ the various subspecies intergrading in several major 
characters (shape of upper first molar, breadth of rostrum, develop- 
ment of sagittal crest) from western Europe, through Siberia, Alaska, 
Canada, to eastern North America. The two end products, the west- 
ern European red fox and the eastern North American red fox are, 
however, quite different animals even if only subspecifically distinct. 
The European red fox is larger and has a more robust skull than its 
eastern American relative. It also has a shorter, broader rostrum, 
a relatively narrower interorbital region, and a well-developed sagittal 
crest which forms a distinct ridge along the top of the skull. In the 
native eastern American red fox the sagittal crest is occasionally de- 
veloped but usually not into a conspicuous ridge. It narrowly diverges 
anteriorly into the temporal ridges which enclose a conspicuous V on 
the top of the skull. This conspicuous V formed by the temporal ridges 
is usually not as well developed, or is lacking, in the European form. 
The shape of the first upper molar also differs in the two subspecies. 
In the European variety this tooth is large and square in general out- 
line, the buccal cingulum is rounded, the talon broad, and the mesial 
face convex. In the American form, the tooth gives the general appear- 
ance of being elongated laterally ; the buccal face is deeply indented, 
the talon elongated, the mesial and distal faces concave, and there is 
a small protoconule. 

All the Maryland red foxes (and those from farther south) that I 
have examined show the characters of the native eastern North Amer- 
ican form, and there seems to be no indication of intermixture with 
European fox blood. In fact, Maryland specimens appear to be indistin- 
guishable from those of Wisconsin, Michigan, southern Ontario, and 
New England, where I presume there was little or no importation of 
European stock by early colonists. It is possible that with the clearing 
of land in the Southeastern United States, the habitat became well 
suited to the native American red fox, which then invaded the area 


from the north. The European red foxes, which may never really 
have been well established in the United States, were perhaps swamped 
by the influx of native American foxes and left no recognizable char- 
acteristics on the present fox population in Maryland or elsewhere in 
the Southeast. 

Urocyon cinereoargenteus cinereoargenteus (Schreber) 

Cards cinereo argenteus Schreber, Die Saugtheire . . ., Thiel 2, Heft 
13, pi. 92, 1775. 

Type locality. — Eastern North America. 

General distribution. — Distributed from southern New York and Lower 
Peninsula of Michigan, south to South Carolina and Tennessee, west to eastern 

Distribution in Maryland. — Occurs in all sections of the State. It is 
more abundant, however, in the rolling hilly country of the Piedmont, 
Ridge and Valley, and Allegheny Mountain sections than in the low, 
flat, mashy country of the Eastern Shore section. 

Distinguishing characteristics. — Dental formula as in Canis; colora- 
tion grizzled gray above with hairs banded with black and grayish 
white ; inner sides of legs, sides of belly, neck, and band across chest 
reddish brown ; belly and throat white ; chin black ; underf ur soft and 
wooly, overlaid with short, coarse guard hairs; tail bushy, laterally 
compressed with a concealed mane of stiff black hairs on its upper side, 
near the base; legs short, feet equipped with well-curved claws that 
adapt the animal for climbing; skull with temporal ridges whose 
divergent branches enclose a lyrate area and never coalesce to form a 
distinct, sharp central sagittal crest. 

This fox is somewhat smaller in size, has shorter legs, and is differ- 
ently colored, than the red fox. 

Measurements. — An adult male from Washington, D.C., has exter- 
nal measurements as follows: Total length 996; tail 356; hind foot 
143 ; ear 71. The animal weighed lOi/^ lbs. 

Six adults of both sexes from Laurel, Prince Georges County, have 
the following cranial measurements: Basal length 112.7 (110.8- 
114.0) ; zygomatic breadth 67.0 (63.0-70.8) ; interorbital breadth 
24.9 (23.8-27.3) ; alveolar length of maxillary toothrow 51.6 (50.9- 

There does not appear to be any appreciable size difference between 
the sexes. 

Habitat and habits. — This animal is essentially a southern and west- 
ern species that has apparently only recently invaded this northern 
portion of its range (Hamilton 1943, p. 176). It prefers timbered and 
rocky regions. Because of its relatively short legs, it has no great 



Urooyon cinereoargenteus ainereoargenteu. 
• Specimens examined 
O Specimens reported 

Figure 46. — Distribution of Vrocyon cinereoargenteus cinereoargenteus. 

speed and would perhaps have difficulty surviving in wide open areas. 
On the other hand, it is quite at home in the trees, being more arboreal 
than the red fox. For protection, it depends to some extent on rocky 
or brushy cover to which it can retreat, or forests where it can quickly 
climb a tree to escape a predator. Of 60 gray foxes trapped at the 
Patuxent Research Center, Prince Georges County, in the 1940's, the 
majority were taken in hedgerows and margins habitat, and most of 
the others in bottomland forests (Uhler and Llewellyn, 1952, p. 84). 

This species selects a hollow tree or log for a den ; occasionally it 
may use a burrow in the ground. It breeds but once a year, usually in 
February. Young are born from March to May and may number from 
two to seven, with the average being four. Both parents take part in 
caring for the young. 

The food of the gray fox varies from season to season. Studies at 
the Patuxent Research Center (Llewellyn and Uhler, 1952, p. 199) 
indicate that in late fall and early winter approximately 30 percent of 
the gray fox's food is plant material, while about 70 percent is animal. 
Of the plant food consumed, persimmon was the most important item, 
while corn, pear, apple, and beechnut were also taken. Rodents were by 
far the most important animal food, but rabbits, birds, and insects were 
also consumed. Hamilton (1943, p. 177) lists rabbits as the most 
important food for the species. He also lists birds, small mammals, 


particularly field mice, deer mice, wood rats, and shrews, snakes, tur- 
tles, and their eggs, lizards, insects, apples, beechnuts, corn, grapes, 
hickory nuts, persimmons, carrion, wild cherries, and grasses as addi- 
tional food items. 

The species is abundant in the Piedmont, Ridge and Valley, and 
Allegheny Mountain sections. Forty gray foxes were taken in only 5 
weeks in 1946 at Mount Savage, Garrett County (League of Mary- 
land Sportsmen, Rally Sheet 4(10) , p. 6, December 1946). The species, 
however, is not abundant in the Eastern Shore section. In fact, the 
first gray fox ever taken on the Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge, 
Dorchester County, was obtained as late as 22 October 1943. Appar- 
ently much of the Eastern Shore section is too low, flat, and marshy 
for the animals' liking. 

Specimens exammed. — Anne Arundel County: Fort George G. 
Meade, 1. Charles County: La Plata, 1; Rock Point, 1. Dorchester 
County: Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge, 1 (baculum). Mont- 
gomery County: Plummers Island, 1; Silver Spring, 1. Prince 
Georges County: Beltsville, 1; Berwyn, 2; Landover, 1; Largo, 1; 
Laurel, 11 ; Marlboro, 1. ; Oxon Hill, 1 ; Patuxent Research Center, 11. 

Other records and reports. — Allegany County: Mount Savage 
(League of Maryland Sportsmen, Rally Sheet 4(10), p. 6, December 
1946). Montgomery County: Cupids Bower (Bailey, 1923, p. 123.). 

Family URSIDAE (bears) 

Vrsus americanus Pallas 

Ursus aTnericanus Pallas, . . . Spicilegia zoologica, . . . fasc. 14: 5, 

Type locality. — Eastern North America. 

General distribution. — Wooded areas of North America, from Newfoundland 
to Alaska, and south into central Mexico. 

Distribution in Maryland. — The black bear was once distributed 
throughout the State, but today is on the verge of extirpation and is 
found only in restricted areas in the Ridge and Valley and Allegheny 
Mountain sections. 

Distinguishing characteristics. — Teeth 3/3, 1/1, 4/4, 2/3, = 42; 
largest wild mammal in Maryland; toes armed with strong claws; 
normal color both above and below black or very dark brown, except 
for cinnamon patch across muzzle and sometimes a white blotch on 
throat; pelage harsh and coarse. The black bear is so familiar as to 
scarcely need description. 

Mea^ureinents. — "Total length, adult males, 1375 to 1780 mm. (54 
to 70 in.) ; tail, 90 to 125 mm. (3.5 to 5 in.) ; hind foot, 215-280 mm. 

336-897 O— 69 10 


(8.5 to 11 in.). Weight, adult males, 250 to 500 pounds, rarely 600 
pounds or more, normally 300 to 400 pounds. Skull, adult males, 
length, 270 to 298 mm. ; width, 158 to 185 mm. Total length, adult 
females, 1270 to 1475 mm. (50 to 58 in.) ; tail 80 to 115 mm. (3 to 4.5 
in.) ; hind foot, 190 to 240 mm. (7.5 to 9.5 in.) . Weight, adult females, 
225 to 450 pounds. Skull, adult females, length 255 to 285 mm. ; width, 
148 to 172 mm." (Jackson, 1961, p. 313) . 

Habitat and habits. — The black bear prefers heavily wooded areas, 
and is now confined to the wildest and most inaccessible forests of 
the Allegheny Mountain section. Individuals may occasionally visit 
well-populated agricultural areas, but they usually do not remain in 
the neighborhood of humans for any length of time. 

Except for females with cubs, the black bear is solitary in habits. 
It is nocturnal but usually does not wait until full darkness to ven- 
ture forth ; occasionally an individual may be seen abroad in the day- 
time. These bears remain dormant from about the end of November 
or early December until March or April, usually in a cavity dug under 
an overturned tree, most often at the roots. Sometimes other sites are 
chosen, such as a cave in rocks, a hollow tree, or dense thickets. 

The female gives birth in January or February ; the gestation period 
is about 225 days. One to five young may comprise a litter, but the 
usual number is two. Black bears normally breed only every other 

The black bear is an omnivorous animal, consuming a wide variety 
of foods. It is especially fond of fruits and eats large quantities of 
blueberries, blackberries, strawberries, and raspberries. It also con- 
sumes quantities of mice, insects, and fish and occasionally wiU kill 
and devour sheep and pigs. In the autumn, when nuts are available, it 
feeds extensively on acorns and beechnuts. In addition, it will occa- 
sionally eat grass, roots, and fungi. 

Remarks. — Mansueti (1950, pp. 14-16) has thoroughly investigated 
the former and present distribution of this species in Maryland. 
According to him, the black bear was at one time distributed through- 
out the State and was plentiful. Early settlers considered it the banc^ 
of their existence. Today the black bear still exists in restricted por- 
tions of the western part of the State, but in the past 2 or 3 decades 
it has been on the verge of extinction. A 1937 report by the U.S. 
Bureau of Biological Survey (Big-Game Inventory of the United 
States, 1937, Wildlife Research and Management Leaflet BS-122, 
January 1939) placed the total number of bears in Maryland at 150. 
Tlie 1938 summary (Big-Game Inventory of the United States, 1938, 
U.S. Bureau of Biological Survey, Wildlife Leaflet BS-142, August 
1939) placed the number at 50. By 1946 (Big-Game Inventory of the 
United States, 1946, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Wildlife Leaflet 


303, March 1948) the estimate was down to 25; in 1951 (Inventory of 
Big-Game Animals of the United States, 1950 and 1951, U.S. Fish 
and Wildlife Service, Wildlife Leaflet 342, October 1952) to 20; and 
by 1956 to 12. 

Bears are still occasionally seen in Allegany and Garrett Counties. 
Theodore A. Bookhout, formerly with the University of Maryland's 
Natural Resources Institute, has informed me of several recent sight- 
ings. In the fall of 1963, one was seen near Murley's Branch, a few 
miles south of Flintstone, Allegany County ; in October 1963, one was 
seen on Maryland Route 55, approximately 2 miles north of Cor- 
riganville, Allegany County; on January 3, 1964, bear tracks were 
seen on Wagner Road just north of Oldtown, Allegany County. 

As Mansueti (1950, p. 16) notes, however, western Maryland is 
becoming more densely populated and the extensive forests are being 
laid waste, and the black bear will disappear mainly because it is 
unwanted. At most it will remain in only the most remote and inac- 
cessible of Maryland wildlife sanctuaries. 

Family PROCYONIDAE (raccoons, coatis, etc.) 


Procyon lotor lotor (Linnaeus) 

[Ursics'] Zo^or Linnaeus, Syst. nat., ed. 10, 1 : 48, 1758. 

Procyon lotor m-aritirmis Dozier, J. Mammal., 29(3) : 286, August 
1948. (Type locality : Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge, Dor- 
chester County, Md.) 

Type locality. — Pennsylvania (fixed by Thomas, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, p. 
140, March 1911). 

General distribution. — "Nova Scotia, southern New Brunswick, southern 
Quebec, and southern Ontario, south through the eastern United States to North 
Carolina from the Atlantic coast west to Lake Michigan, Indiana, southern Illi- 
nois, western Kentucky and probably eastern Tennessee." (Goldman, 1950, p. 33.) 

Distribution in Maryland. — Common in all sections of the State, 
but particularly abundant in the Eastern Shore section. 

Distinguishing characteristics. — Teeth 3/3, 1/1, 4/4, 2/2, = 40; 
size medium; form robust; fur long and coarse; coloration of upper 
parts grizzled gray, brownish, and blackish, there being considerable 
individual variation; sides paler than upper parts; under parts dull 
grayish brown, tinged with yellowish gray or white; black band, or 
mask, extends through eyes and across cheeks; remainder of face 
yellowish gray; tail alternately banded brownish gray or blackish 
and yellow, with five to seven dark rings, always terminating in a 
dark band. 
















O to 20 30MILES 




Vvocyon lotor lotor 
# Specimens examined 



A >« %fT7///Am^ 

/ <^ ^ 


O Specimens reported 



7-9 • 





1 . 



FiGUKE 47. — Distribution of Procyon lotor lotor. 

The racoon is easily distinguished from all other Maryland mam- 
mals by the dark facial mask and the long-haired tail ringed with 
black and yellow. 

Measurements. — External and cranial measurements of four adult 
females from the Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge, Dorchester 
County, are: Total length 749.5 (718-762) ; tail 236.7 (210-254) ; hind 
foot 108 (102-114) ; condylobasal length of skull 110.9 (107.1-114.2) ; 
zygomatic breadth 67.1 (62.7-69.7) ; postorbital breadth 23.3 (22.5- 
23.8) ; length of maxillary toothrow 41.3 (39.9-43.8) ; breadth of ros- 
trmn at incisors 23.7 (23.1-24.2). External measurements of three and 
cranial measurements of four adult males are : Total length 736, 736, 
762; tail 229, 229, 254; hind foot 102, 102, 102; condylosabal length of 
skull 114.1 (110.9-117.9) ; zygomatic breadth 67.4 (64.9-69.9) ; post- 
orbital breadth 22.5 (21.0-24.7) ; upper maxillary toothrow 26.1 (25.3- 

Three adult males and three adult females from Laurel, Prince 
Georges County, measure cranially: Condylobasal length 109.6, 112.7, 
111.7, 106.3, 104.4, 108.8 ; zygomatic breadth 67.4, 67.8, 74.9, 67.7, 68.4, 
65.1; postpalatal breadth 24.2, 22.1, 23.5, 22.1, 22.4, 23.2; length of 
maxillary toothrow 40.9, 41.6, 41.1, 40.7, 39.0, 40.1 ; breadth of rostrum 
at incisors 25.6, 25.1, 26.1, 23.5, 22.5, 22.8. 

Habitat and habits. — The raccoon is cosmopolitan in habitat pref- 
erence, being found in woods, swamps, and marshes, including salt- 


water marshes of the Atlantic barrier beaches. Uhler and Llewellyn 
(1952, p. 83) report that at the Patuxent Research Center, near Laurel, 
Prince Georges County, the outstanding habitat type was bottomland 
forest, followed by cultivated fields (mainly those with com), hedge 
rows and wood margins, particularly if leading to cornfields. Rac- 
coons were also abundant around marshy lake borders and in swamps. 

The raccoon is a very adept climber. Although it usually makes 
its home in a hollow tree, it sometimes will utilize a fissure in a cliff, 
or a hole among rocks. Raccoons rapidly diminish in numbers when 
trees are cut over, and will either die off or leave the area after all 
the trees are gone. 

The raccoon is nocturnal, and forages for its food after sunset. Its 
diet consists of fish, crayfish, frogs, and mussels, as well as poultry, 
mice, birds, eggs, reptiles, and insects. In season, it eats considerable 
amounts of vegetable matter such as nuts, fruits, berries, and corn. 

In more northern climates the raccoon hibernates, but in Maryland 
it remains active the year round except in the coldest portions of the 
western part of the State. The species breeds in January and Febru- 
ary, and some 63 days later females give birth to two to six young. 
The cubs are born blind and remain so for about 19 days ; they suckle 
for 2 months, and remain in the family circle through the winter. 

Remarks. — Maryland raccoons differ in no significant way from 
Pennsylvania and New York specimens. Dozier (1948a, p. 286) sep- 
arated the raccoons inhabiting the marshes of the Delmarva Peninsula 
from those living in the surrounding woods as a distinct subspecies, 
Procyon lotor rnaritiTnus. I have examined the type of this race, as 
well as the series designated by Dozier as representing it, and am 
unable to separate it from raccoons inhabiting other parts of Mary- 
land. All the diagnostic characters mentioned by Dozier (paler colora- 
tion ; longer but more sparse guard hairs ; much smaller size ; shorter, 
more pointed and less prominently banded tail; relatively shorter 
caudal vertebrae; smaller and more distinctly curved baculum; and 
various cranial characters) are either within the limits of individual 
variation of P. I. lotor., or are so slightly marked that I have been 
unable to distinguish them. Consequently, I consider Procyon lotor 
maritimus Dozier to be a synonym of Procyon lotor lotor (Linnaeus) . 

Specimens examined. — Anne Arundel County : Rutland, 1. Calvert 
County: Prince Frederick, 1; St. Leonard (near), 1; Sollers, 9. 
Charles County: Marshall Hall, 1; Newport, 1. Dorchester County: 
Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge, 69 ; Cambridge, 1 ; Castlehaven 
Point, 3; Crapo, 1; Crocheron, 1; Golden Hill, 2; House Point, 11; 
Kirwan's Neck, 2; Meekins Neck, 1 ; Punch Island, 6; Robbins (near), 
1 ; Shorters Wharf, 1 ; Vienna, 1 ; Worlds End Creek, 1. Frederick 


County: Jefferson, 2. Kent County: Chestertown, 2; Millington (4 
miles NE), 1. Montgomery County: Cabin John, 1. Prince Georges 
County: Bowie, 1; Brancliville, 1; Laurel, 39; Patuxent Research 
Center, 4. Somerset County: Cokesbury, 4; Mariimsco, 3; Rehoboth 
(near), 2; Westover, 2; Whitehaven (across Wicomico River from), 
3. Talbot County: St. Michaels, 1. Wicomico County : Bivalve (near), 
1 ; Whitehaven, 1. Worcester County : Assateague Island, 1 ; Pocomoke 
City (vicinity) , 17. District of Coluiribia: 1. 

Other records and reports. — Baltimore County: Bare Hills-Lake 
Roland area (Bures, 1948, p. 66) ; Loch Raven (Kolb, 1938) ; Pa- 
tapsco State Park (Hampe, 1939, p. 5). Garrett County: Blooming 
Rose (Browing, 1928, p. 26) ; Cranesville Pine Swamp (Mansueti, 
1958, p. 83). Montgomery County : Burtonsville (Herman et al., 1957, 
p. 113-114) ; Plmnmers Island (Goldman and Jackson, 1939, p. 132). 
Wicomico County : Salisbury, a few miles east (Kilham and Herman 
1955, p. 499). 

Family MUSTELIDAE (weasels, skunks, otters, etc.) 

Mustela erminea cicognanii Bonaparte 

Mustela cigognanii [szc] Bonaparte, Charlesworth's Mag. Nat. Hist., 
2 : 37, 1838. 

Type locality. — Eastern United States. 

General distribution. — Southeastern Ontario, southern Quebec, and Maine, 
south through extreme northeastern Ohio and Pennsylvania into Maryland. 

Distribution in Maryland. — Probably very rare in the Allegheny 
Mountain, Ridge and Valley, and Piedmont sections, and absent from 
the Western Shore and Eastern Shore sections. The species is most 
numerous in the coniferous forests of the northern portion of its range, 
but even in the north it is uncommon in coastal regions and con- 
sequently it probably does not occur in Maryland's coastal plain. It 
has been reported from the State only once. 

Distinguishing characteristics. — Teeth 3/3, 1/1, 3/3, 1/2, = 34; 
size medium; body long and slender; legs short; tail moderately short, 
averaging about 35 percent of head and body length, well haired and 
slightly bushy, tipped with black above and below; coloration of upper 
parts in summer dark brown extending to the outer parts of the legs 
and feet; color of underparts whitish, usually tinged with yellow; 
winter coloration white except for tip of tail which remains black. 

This species resembles the long-tailed weasel {Mustela frenata) in 
general appearance and in coloration, but is considerably smaller, and 
shorter tailed. Wlien using size as a criterion in separating the two 
species, it is necessary to take into account the sex of the individual. 



Mustela erminea cicognami 
9 Specimens examined 

Figure 48. — Distribution of Mustela erminea cicognanii. 

Male and female long-tailed weasels are larger than male and female 
ermines, but since the males in both species are larger than the fe- 
males, a large male ermine may approach in size a small female long- 
tailed weasel. 

Measurements. — Hall (1951, p. 119) gives the averages and extremes 
of external measurements of seven adult and subadult males from 
New York and Pennsylvania as follows: Total length 266 (240-295) ; 
length of tail 74 (66-80) ; length of hind foot 36 (33-39). He gives 
the external measurements of 12 adult and subadult females from 
Maine and the area south to central Pennsylvania as: Total length 
243 (225-260) ; length of tail 63 (55-72) ; length of hind foot 29.8 

Some cranial measurements given by Hall (1951, pp. 434-435) of 
nine adult and subadult males from New York and Pennsylvania are : 
Basilar length (of Hensel) 35.7 (33.8-37.6) ; zygomatic breadth 20.3 
(19.0-20.6) ; interorbital breadth 8.6 (7.7-8.9) ; mastoidal breadth 
18.2 (17.3-18.8) . Four adult and subadult females from New York and 
Pennsylvania measure eranially: Basilar length (of Hensel) 32.4 

(31.4-33.3); zygomatic breadth , , 17.5, 18.0; interorbital 

breadth 7.5 (7.2-7.8) ; mastoidal breadth 15.7 (average of 3, 15.3- 


Vasquez (1956, p. 114), who collected the only Maryland record of 
this species, says that no external measurements are available for the 
specimen, but he does give the following cranial measurements for the 
female: Condylobasal length 38.1; basilar length (of Hensel) 34.3; 
mastoidal breadth 17.1 ; depth of skull at first molars 9.1. 

Habitat and habits. — ^This animal is most abundant in the northern 
United States and Canada where it inhabits the deep spruce stands. 
In the southern part of its range it is often encountered in brushy fields 
and hedgegrows, and it is particularly fond of stone walls, where it 
can elude its enemies and catch the small mammals and birds which 
form its prey. 

This weasel generally does not make its own home, but prefers to 
occupy the chambers of some other mammal, most often a chipmunk's 
cavity beneath a stump or pile of rocks. Its nest is composed of fur and 
feathers from the animals on which it feeds. 

According to Hamilton (1943, p. 136) all the evidence suggests 
that these weasels mate in the early summer, and the fertilized eggs, 
after undergoing a short development remain quiescent for several 
months. Embryonic development continues in the late winter, and the 
four to nine young are born usually in mid-April. Hamilton states 
that the male weasel assists in bringing food to the young during their 
infancy and that there is much evidence that weasels remain paired 
throughout the year. 

Hamilton (1933b, p. 333) reports fall and winter food of 191 ermine 
in New York State as composed of the following : Meadow mice 35.7 
percent; undetermined mammals (principally mice) 16.3 percent; 
short-tailed shrews 15.1 percent; white-footed mice 11.4 percent; rab- 
bits 9.0 percent ; long-tailed shrews 4.9 percent ; rats 4.4 percent ; and 
chipmunks 3.6 percent. In addition, birds comprised some 2.1 percent, 
and reptiles and amphibians 1.2 percent of the fall and winter food 
of weasels (354 Mustela enninea and Mustela frenata) . 

Remarks. — This species has been recorded only once from Maryland. 
Vazquez (1956, pp. 113-114) reports that a cat killed an ermine on the 
heavily wooded grounds of the Honeywell School, 4 miles northwest 
of Bethesda, Montgomery County, on 27 May 1954. Prior to this, 
Maryland was considered far south of the normal range of the ermine, 
and it is possible that the animal escaped from captivity. Vazquez 
states that the coloration is peculiarly grayish, and that its cranial 
measurements are slightly larger than those of female Mustela erminea 
clcognanii and approach those of males of this race. The skin and skull 
of the specimen are in Vazquez' private collection and I have not ex- 
amined them. 



Mustela frenata noveboracensis (Emmons) 

Putorius NovehoraceTisis Emmons, a report on the quadrupeds of 


p. 45, 1840. 

Type locality. — Williamstown, Berkshire County, Mass. 

General distribution. — From Wisconsin east through Michigan, southwestern 
Ontario, southern Quebec, and southeastern Maine, south through the eastern 
United States to North Carolina, western South Carolina, northern Georgia, 
and Alabama, west to the Mississippi and St. Croix Rivers. 

Distribution in Maryland. — Occurs in all sections of the State. 

Distinguishing characteristics. — A large weasel, similar in colora- 
tion and general appearance to the ermine, but larger and with a longer 
tail. It is generally believed that except in the coldest portions of the 
Allegheny Mountain section, most Maryland long-tailed weasels re- 
main in brown pelage the year round, and the majority of winter- 
killed specimens from Maryland that I have examined are in brown 
pelage. There is, however, one male from Gaithersburg, Montgomery 
County, and another from Patuxent, Prince Georges County, in the 
National collections that are entirely white except for the customary 
black tail tip. 

Male long-tailed weasels are strikingly larger than females. So 
pronounced is this secondary sexual trait that some early writers 

1 1 

79- 76* 
1 ' 










O lO 20 30MILES 




Mustela frenata noveboracensis 
• Specimens examined J. 
O Specimens reported 

73- 76' 




Figure 49. — Distribution of Mustela frenata noveboracensis. 


thought the two sexes must represent distinct species. Since the female 
long-tailed weasel is so small, it is possible to mistake her for an er- 
mine, and due allowance must be made for sex when separating these 
species on the basis of size. 

MeasureTnents. — External measurements of 12 adult males from 
various parts of Maryland are: Total length 382 (340^29) ; tail 131.6 
(110-155) ; hind foot 48 (34-^8), Seven females from various parts 
of the State have the following external measurements. Total length 
286.6 (253-315) ; tail 93.1 (80-122) ; hind foot 34 (32-38). 

Cranial measurements of 10 adult males from Laurel, Prince 
Georges County, are: Basilar length 42.7 (40.8-44.3); zygomatic 
breadth 25.6 (23.5-27.3) ; interorbital breadth 9.8 (9.0-10.8) ; mas- 
toidal breadth 22.4 (21.^24.0). Cranial measurements of three adult 
females from Laurel are: Basilar length 36.1, 36.4, 36.5; zygomatic 

breadth 21.5, 21.7, ; interorbital breadth 7.9, 9.1, 9.1; mastoidal 

breadth 18.9, 19.0, 18.2. 

Habitat and habits. — This weasel prefers bushy field borders, brush- 
land, open woodland, and woodland bordering cultivated fields and 
pastures. It is quite adaptable and willing to live in close proximity to 
man as long as suitable prey is available. Recently, I found one dead on 
a road in the middle of Kensington, Montgomery County, where the 
only suitable habitat for some distance was the bushy area bordering a 
railroad track that runs through the center of town. Uhler and Llewel- 
lyn (1952, p. 81) report that during a study made at the Patuxent 
Research Center in Prince Georges County, only four weasels were 
taken in three trapping seasons. Of these, two were taken along hedge- 
rows, one in upland forest, and one along the Patuxent River. In the 
Bare Hills-Lake Roland area, Bures (1948, p. 66) thought these weasels 
were quite rare at first. Subsequent investigation revealed, however, 
that they were more common than he suspected, and that they range 
throughout the area except for the marsh and Serpentine. He says that 
they seem to use the railroad right-of-way as a natural highway regu- 
larly; their mortality rate was high there, since an average of four 
s,pecimens a year were recorded killed by passing trains. In an area as 
small as that in which Bures was working, this is a high number of 

This species generally does not make its own burrow, but uses an 
abandoned one of a chipmunk or mole. Sometimes it will utilize a hole 
among rocks or under a stump. The nest center is usually filled with 
grass and lined with fur and feathers from the weasel's prey. 

Mating in this species occurs in July and August. The gestation 
period is very prolonged, averaging about 279 days, but as in the 
ermine, the embryo remains quiescent throughout most of this period 
and only begins to develop rapidly during the last 27 days. The young. 


numbering between six and eight, are born from mid- April to mid- 
May. Hamilton (1933b, p. 328) states that the male stays with the 
female and assists in caring for the young. He says that he has several 
times seen a male of this species carrying food to a den of young ones. 

Like the ermine, the long-tailed weasel is strictly carnivorous in diet. 
Hamilton (1933b, p. 333) lists the percentages of fall and winter food 
of this species in New York State as follows: Meadow mice 33.6; 
cottontail rabbits 17.3; white footed mice 11.3; rats 9.1; short-tailed 
shrews 5.9; squirrels 2.7; chipmunks 1.0; star-nosed moles 0.8; musk- 
rat 0.8. In addition to this, a small percentage of birds and reptiles is 

SpeclTnens examined. — Allegany County : Piney Mountain, 2 (Coll. 
U. Md.). Anne Arundel County: Patuxent (2 miles S), 1. Howard 
County : Hanover., 1 ; Long Corner, 1. Montgornery County: Bethesda, 
1; Chevy Chase, 1; Foxhall Village (D.C.? not located in Maryland), 
1 ; Gaithersburg, 1 ; Garrett Park, 1 ; Kensington, 1 ; Linden, 1 ; Olney, 
1 ; Plummers Island, 3. Prince Georges County : Andrews Air Force 
Base (near), 1; Bladensburg, 1; Branchville, 1; Laurel, 17; Oxen 
Hill, 1. Talhot County : Easton, 1. District of Colunnbia: 8. 

Other records and reports. — Baltiirvore County: Bare Hills-Lake 
Roland area (Bures, 1948, p. 66) ; Halethorpe (Hampe, 1943, p. 66) ; 
Loch Raven (Seibert, 1939, p. 21) ; Patapsco State Park (Hampe, 
1938, p. 6). Calvert County: Plum Point (identified from photograph 
submitted by John F. Fales). Dorchester County: Cambridge (five 
specimens in collection of R. W. Jackson, examined by Hall, 1951, p. 
228). Garrett Comity : Grantsville (E A. Preble, in field notes, men- 
tions seeing one, June 1899). Montgomery County: Sandy Spring 
(Bailey, 1923, p. 126). 

Mustela nivalis allegheniensis (Rhoads) 

Putorius allegheniensis Rhoads, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 
52: 751, 25 March 1901. 

Type locality. — ^Near Beallsville, Washington County, Pa. 

General distribution. — From Wisconsin and northern Illinois eastward through 
northern Indiana, Michigan, and Ohio into southwestern New York and Pennsyl- 
vania, thence southward in the Appalachians to North Carolina. 

Distribution in Maryland. — This species has not been recorded as 
yet from Maryland, but it has been taken in nearby Pennsylvania, 
West Virginia, and Virginia, and probably ranges through the Al- 
legheny Mountain section of Maryland and possibly in the Ridge 
and Valley section as well. 

Distingmshing characteristics. — A very small weasel, similar to 
both M. frenata and M. ermin^n in coloration and general form, but 


considerably smaller than either. It may readily be distinguished from 
both these species by its very short tail and the complete lack of a 
black tail tip. 

Measurements. — "Male : An adult or subadult from Fair Oaks, Pa., 
a subadult from Finleyville, Pa., and an adult from Huttonsville, 
W. Va., measure respectively as follows: Total length, 206, 194, 191 
(average 197) ; length of tail, 37, 32, 28 (32) ; length of hind foot, 23 in 

"Female: Two young from Leasuresville, Pa., and Middle Paxton 
Twp., Pa., measure respectively, as follows: total length, 188, 172; 
length of tail, 33, 30; length of hind foot, 20.5, 21." (Hall, 1951, p. 

Some of the cranial measurements listed by Hall (1951, p. 440^41) 
of an adult male from Huttonsville, W. Va., and an adult female from 
Beallsville, Pa., are Basilar length (of Hensel) 28.5, 28.0, zygomatic 
breadth 16.7, 14.6 ; interorbital breadth 7.1, 6.2 ; mastoidal breadth 15.1, 

Habitat and habits. — This species inhabits both the deep forests 
and the fields and pastures within its range. It is a rare mammal how- 
ever, and is seldom encountered. 

Little is known of its habits. Hamilton (1943, p. 139) says that nests 
have been found beneath corn shocks, in shallow burrows bordering 
streams, and in similar places. The few nests that have been dis- 
covered were composed of grasses and mouse fur. Hamilton states that 
the breeding habits of this species apparently differ from those of its 
larger relatives. He says that young with unopened eyes have been 
discovered in midwinter, while nest young and lactating females have 
been found in Pennsylvania during October, January, and February. 
These litters numbered from three to six young. The female parent was 
always in attendance. From this he says that the young are probably 
bom at various seasons and there is a likelihood of more than one litter 
a year. 

Hall (1951, p. 177) says that food of the least weasel consists of 
harvest mice, deer mice, meadow mice, red-backed mice, and possibly 

Mustela vison mink Peale and Palisot de Beauvois 

Mustela mink Peale and Palisot de Beauvois. A scientific and descrip- 
tive catalogue of Peal's museum, Philadelphia, p. 39, 1796. 

Type locality. — Maryland. 

General (listrlbution. — Eastern United States from southeastern Maine, south 
to coastal North Carolina, and inland (excepting the higher elevations of the 
Appalachians) through Pennsylvania, Michigan, Georgia, and Alabama to 


Mustela vison 
Specimens examined 
O Specimens reported 

Figure 50. — Distribution of Mustela vison. 

Distribution in Maryland. — The species is Statewide in distribution ; 
the subspecies mink occurs throughout most of Maryland, but may be 
replaced by the race vison at higher elevations in the Allegheny Moun- 
tain section. This very dark northern race, vison., has been reported in 
the Appalachians to the south of Maryland (Kellogg, 1939, p. 262), 
but the only specimen available from the Allegheny Mountain section 
of Maryland is a zoo animal and its subspecific affinities are indeter- 

Distinguishing characteristics. — A very large weasel, with a fairly 
long, bushy tail ; coloration dark glossy brown over entire body, except 
for a whitish chin spot and an occasional white streak on the neck or 
white spot on the chest or belly ; pelage thick and dense, adapted for an 
aquatic life. 

The mink may distinguished from the long-tailed weasel by its 
larger size, and absence of a white belly. It is similar to an otter in 
coloration, but is smaller and does not have a broad-based tail. 

Measurements. — Males considerably larger than females. A typical 
adult male and female from Montgomery County have the following 
external and cranial measurements: Total length 650, 547; tail 225, 
193, hind foot 70, 54; basilar length 62.4, 56.0; zygomatic breadth 42.1, 
36.3; interorbital breadth 12.9, 13.7; mastoidal breadth 34.4, 30.5. 

Habitat and habits. — The mink always lives near water. It is found 
around lakes, in or near marshes, and along the banks of rivers or 


streams. It prefers forested, log-strewn, and bushy areas. At the 
Patuxent Wildlife Eesearch Center near Laurel, Prince Georges 
County, Uhler and Llewellyn (1952, p. 84) found them along lake 
margins, by a small stream, and along the Patuxent River. Bailey 
(1923, p. 125) reported that in the early 1920's they were fairly com- 
mon along the banks of almost any stream in Washington, D.C., and 
that they followed Rock Creek well down into the city. Today, owing 
to stream pollution and other factors few, if any, mink occur along 
Rock Creek in Washington. 

Mink make their home under large trees which line banks of streams 
along which they live. They also inhabit muskrat lodges or natural 
cavities along the banks of streams, rivers, lakes, or marshes. Males 
and females build separate nests, but females build more elaborate 
ones, lining them with grass, feathers, and fur to make a snug home 
for the young. 

The breeding season for mink begins in January and extends 
through March ; the gestation period is variable, from 39 to 76 days, 
depending on when mating has occurred; the later the mating, the 
shorter the gestation period. Three to six young are born in April or 
May, but as many as 10 have been reported. 

Mink range over a wide area to procure their food, which consists 
of any reptiles, amphibians, small mammals, and birds obtainable. In 
areas where muskrat abound, such as the muskrat marshes of the 
Delmarva Peninsula, mink may feed extensively on them. Llewellyn 
and Uhler (1952, p. 199), in studies conducted at the Patuxent Re- 
search Center, report that it is usually difficult to get food-habits 
material from trapped mink since their digestion is so rapid. They 
state that frequently stomachs of the animals studied were empty, and 
only digested blood was found in the intestines. They were only able 
to obtain six stomachs and four scats suitable for tabulation. In none 
of these was there any plant food except for a few poison-ivy seeds 
which were found in a stomach that, contained flicker remains. Pre- 
sumably the bird had eaten these seeds before being captured by 
the mink. One mink sample in March and another in December con- 
tained rabbit hair only. Five other winter samples had 100 percent 
rodent remains consisting of one meadow mouse, three pine mice, and 
one "wood" mouse. In the two additional stomachs examined by 
Llewellyn and Uhler, one contained flicker remains and the other 
had a beetle fragment. 

The mink sometimes does considerable damage to poultry. Bailey 
(1923, p. 125) says that he was told of a mink in the Washington area 
that visited a henhouse and killed 22 chickens in one night and returned 
the next night to kill 16 more. The following night, as the mink was 
returning to the henhouse again, it was caught by a dog. 


Despite the great number being bred in captivity, wild-caught mink 
are still in some demand for their fur, and each year many are trapped 
throughout the country. Maryland does not rank high in wild mink 
production. In 1966, only 303 mink were reported trapped in the State 
(U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Fur Catch in the United States, 1966, 
Wildlife Leaflet 478). The high point in mink trapping in Maryland 
over the past decade was reached during the 1950-51 season when 
4,370 animals were taken (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Fur 
Catch in the United States, 1949-54, Wildlife Leaflet 367) for their 

Specimens examined. — Anne Arundel County: Little Patuxent 
River, 1. Dorchester County: Bloodsworth Island, 1. Garrett County: 
Oakland (through National Zoological Park) , 1. Montgomery County : 
Bethesda, 1 ; Cabin John, 2 ; Forest Glen, 2 ; Garrett Park, 1 ; Potomac, 
1; Sligo Creek (near Takoma Park), 1; no exact locality, 2. Prince 
Georges County: Bladensburg, 1; Branchville, 2; College Park, 1; 
Lanham, 1 ; Laurel, 44 ; no exact locality, 1. 

Other records and reports. — Montgomery County: Plummers Is- 
land (Goldman and Jaxjkson, 1939 : 132) . Prince Georges County: Col- 
lege Station, 8 miles NE of Washington; Patuxent Research Center. 
(Uhler and Llewellyn, 1952, p. 84) . 


Mephitis mephitis nigra (Peale and Pallsot de Beauvois) 

Viverra nigra Peale and Palisot de Beauvois, A scientific and descrip- 
tive catalogue of Peale's museum, Philadelphia, p. 37, 1796. 

Type locality. — Maryland. 

General distribution. — New England and southern Ontario south to Virginia, 
and west of the Allegheny Mountains from the lower peninsula of Michigati and 
southern Illinois south to central Mississippi, Alabama, and Georgia. 

Distribution in Maryland. — Distributed throughout the State, but 
most abundant in the Allegheny Mountain, Ridge and Valley, and 
Piedmont sections; scarce or lacking in many areas of the Eastern 
Shore section. According to the Service Survey (U.S. Fish and Wild- 
life Service, vol. 3(4), p. 15, December 1943), with the breaking up of 
the former dense forest cover the striped skunk seems to be slowly 
making its way southward along the Delmarva Peninsula into Dor- 
chester County from Talbot County. 

Distinguishing characteristics. — Teeth 3/3, 1/1, 3/3, 1/2, = 34; 
size large; body heavy, particularly rearward; tail very thick and 
bushy; legs short; pelage dense and coarse; coloration black with a 
thin white stripe medially on the nose, and two white stripes running 
from head to tail. The amount of white on the striped skunk is subject 



Mephitis mephitis mgra 
• Specimens examined 
O Specimens reported 

FiGUBE 51. — Distribution of Mephitis mephitis nigra. 

to considerable individual variation. Some animals are almost comp- 
letely black, while others are predominately white on the back. 

This species cannot be confused with any other Maryland mammal 
except possibly the spotted skunk {Sjniogale) ^ from which it differs 
in larger size and in having two rather than four white dorsal stripes. 
In Mephitis the nose patch is always a slender stripe, whereas in 
Spilogdls it is a broad triangular patch. 

Measurements. — Two adult males and two adult females from Cabin 
John, Montgomery County, have the following external and cranial 
measurements: Total length 597, 648, 568, 648; tail 228, 260, 235, 270; 
hind foot 64, 70, 57, 67; basilar length of skull 61.5, 60.5, 55.0, 60.0; 
zygomatic breadth 43.2, 46.7, 41.4, 41.9 ; least interorbital breadth 18.8, 
19.6, 19.2, 18.1 ; maxillary toothrow 21.3, 20.7,20.2, 20.5. 

Habitat and habits. — This skunk is found in brushland, sparse woods 
weedy fields or pastures, under wood piles and rock piles, and around 
buildings. It is most common along brushy borders of streams and in 
rock piles and thickets at the base of cliffs. 

The striped skunk makes its home in a burrow which it may dig in 
a brushy area or pasture, or it may occupy the burrow of some other 
animal such as a woodchuck. Occasionally the den may be in a cave 
or under a log or stump. Burrows average between 18 and 20 feet long 
and may reach to a depth of 3 to 4 feet below the surface of the ground. 


The nest within the burrow is a somewhat wider area lined with dry 
leaves and grass. 

The striped skunk is polygamous, and mating occurs from Febru- 
ary until March, with the young being born in May or June. Only one 
litter is produced annually, and between two and 10 (usually six or 
seven) kits comprise a litter. The gestation period is 60 to 62 days. 

Llewellyn and Uhler (1952, p. 200) studied the food habits of skunks 
at the Patuxent Wildlife Kesearch Center, Prince Georges County. 
The results of their examination of 63 digestive tracts and 33 scats 
mostly taken in fall and winter are summarized as follows: 

Plant material comprised some 10 percent of the food intake. The 
only plant item found regularly in the stomach was persimmon, which 
accounted for about 7 percent. Also occasionally found were beechnuts, 
acorns, corn, wheat, pokeberry, blackgum, smilax, and a few other 
fruits and berries ; some of this plant material was apparently garbage. 
Animal matter comprised between 80 percent and 90 percent of the 
food intake; insects formed almost half of the total and were most 
prominent in the fall. About 20 percent of the insects consumed con- 
sisted of beetles, with scarabs such as June beetles (mostly larvae) and 
Japanese beetles (mostly adults) leading the list. Ground beetles were 
also found frequently. The next highest group (11 percent) was made 
up of grasshoppers and crickets. A large number (5 percent) of true 
bugs, chiefly stink bugs, were eaten. In later summer and fall, it was 
evident that in several instances the skunks had dug out yellow-jacket 
nests and eaten the occupants. Lamore (1953, p. 80) reports that he 
found a striped skunk dead on the highway near Beltsville, Prince 
Georges County, in August 1962. The animal's stomach was filled with 
yellow jackets. 

Rodents, chiefly wood mice, meadow mice, and squirrels, comprised 
15 percent of the diet; eight occurrences of rabbit totaled 5 percent. 
Llewellyn and Uhler (1952, p. 200) believe that the squirrels and rab- 
bits were probably road kills, carrion, or hunting cripples, although 
remains of rabbits that could have been nestlings were found in two 
scats. Birds were found in 14 stomachs or scats and made up 7 percent 
of the volume. One box turtle, one king snake, and several undeter- 
mined snakes and salamanders were also found. Millipedes vere found 
frequently in fall and winter and often made up entire meals. Spiders 
also appeared often, and centipedes occasionally, but their remains 
consisted mostly of legs, so that their volume constituted a small per- 
centage of the total. 

This skunk, like its s^wtted relative, possesses a powerful scent as 
a defense mechanism. The fluid which contains the scent can be ejected 
for a considerable distance, and if it should strike one's eye it will 
cause burning and smarting. Burning can be relieved by washing 

336-897 0—69 11 


the eye in lukewarm water, followed by flushing with boric acid. 
Turpentine is useful for removing skunk odor from clothing and 
from skin, and tomato juice is also effective. 

Skunk fur is commercially valuable, and in the 1965-66 trapping 
season, 161 striped skunks were reported taken in Maryland by fur 
trappers (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Fur Catch in the United 
States, 1966, Wildlife Leaflet 478). 

Specvmens examined. — Allegany County: Mount Savage, 1 (Ck)ll. 
U. Md.). Frederick County: Jefferson, 1. Montgomery County: Cabin 
John, 4; Forest Glen, 1; Silver Spring, 1. Prince Georges County: 
Laurel, 6; Patuxent Research Center, 2. Washington County: 

Other records amd reports. — Baltimore County: Bare Hills-Lake 
Eoland area (Bures, 1948, p. 66) ; Loch Raven (Kolb, 1938) ; Pa- 
tapsco State Park (Hampe, 1939, p. 6). Dorchester County: Black- 
water National Wildlife Refuge (Service Survey, U.S. Fish and 
Wildlife Service, 3(4), p. 15, December 1943). Garrett County: 
Cranesville Pine Swamp (Mansueti, 1958, p. 83). Montgomery 
County: Plummers Island (Goldman and Jackson, 1939, p. 132). 
Prince Georges County: Beltsville, near (Lamore, 1953, p. 80). 

Spilogale putorius putorius (Linnaeus) 

[Viverra'] putorius Linnaeus, Syst. nat., ed. 10, 1 : 44, 1758. 

Type ToGdlity. — ^^South Carolina. 

General distribution. — "Southeastern United States from Alabama, Missis- 
sippi, and northern Florida northward through western and central GTeorgia 
and South Carolina and northward in the Appalachian Mountains to south- 
central Pennsylvania." (Van Gelder, 1959, p. 225). 

Distribution in Maryland. — Ridge and Valley and Allegheny 
Mountain sections. 

Distinguishing characteristics. — Teeth 3/3, 1/1, 3/3, 1/2, = 34; size 
small; coloration striking, the background being black, striped with 
four white dorsal stripes which run about to the middle of the back, the 
center ones being somewhat narrower than the outer ; stripes breaking 
up into patches on the hind quarters, giving the skunk a spotted 
appearance; broad triangular white patch on nose and forehead; small 
white patch in front of ears; tail long and full, broadly tipped with 

This skunk is readily distinguished from the striped skunk (Mephi- 
tis mephitis) by the patterning of its coloration. Spilogale has four 
white stripes on the body whereas Mephitis has two (these may be 
highly variable, however, in length and breadth). Spilogale has a 



79* 76- 

1 ' 




-39°- SCALE 

O lO 20 30MILES 

/ry, i 


V- ^r 

Spilogale putorius putorius 
# Specimens examined 
O Specimens reported 



Figure 52. — Distribution of Spilogale putorius putorius. 

broad triangular white nose patch, while Mephitis has only a thin 
white stripe medially on the nose. The spotted skunk is considerably 
the smaller species. 

Measurements. — Van Gelder (1959, p. 255) gives external and some 
cranial measurements of this subspecies as follows: Males: Total 
length 506.6 (453-610) ; tail 180.9 (152-211) ; hind foot 47.8 (41-51) ; 
condylobasal length of skull 57.2 (53.6-61.9) ; zygomatic breadth 
35.3 (32.5-37.8); interorbital breadth 15.5 (13.5-16.9); length of 
maxillary toothrow 18.4 ( 17.0-20.5) . Females : Total length 450.7 (403- 
470); tail 171.9 (154-193); hind foot 44.0 (39-47); basilar length 
of skull 47.6 (45.0-50.0) ; zygomatic breadth 33.2 (31.8-34.8) ; inter- 
orbital breath 15.0 (13.5-15.9) ; length of maxillary toothrow 17.7 

A male from Piney Mountain, one-quarter mile north of U.S. Route 
40 at Clarysville, Allegany County, has the following external and 
cranial measurements : Total length 425 ; tail 155 ; hind foot 45 ; ear 
13 ; condylobasal length of skull 55.1 ; zygomatic breadth 34.1 ; inter- 
orbital breadth 14.8 ; length of maxillary toothrow 17.7. 

Habitat and habits. — In the northern part of its range this species 
prefers to live in rock piles and crevices in cliffs. In more southern areas 
of the southeastern United States it often inhabits wasteland and 
cultivated fields and sometimes build its nest under farm buildings 
or lives in deserted woodchuck burrows. All of the areas in which 


spotted skunks have been taken or observed in Maryland are similar. 
They are at or near the summits of mountains at altitudes above 1,600 
feet. They are characterized by rocky outcrops which run parallel to 
the summits and which may be several hundred feet in length. The 
vegetation consists of second-growth oaks (Quercus spp.) and hickor- 
ies {Carya spp.), with black locust (Rohinia pseudocacia) , Virginia 
pine (Pinus virginiana) , and dense tangles of wild grape ( Vitis spp.) 
occasionally present (Bookhout, 1964, p. 214) . 

Little is known of the breeding habits of the spotted skunk. Van 
Gelder (1959, p. 260^270) says that there is evidence that tliis sub- 
species has an extended breeding period, or that two litters a year 
might be produced since there are records of females nursing in both 
the spring and fall. There are between two and six young, with the 
usual number being four or five. 

According to Hamilton (1943, p. 159) the food of this species during 
the winter months consists largely of rabbits, mice, and other small 
mammals; during the summer and fall it fattens on fruits, insects, 
and birds. Lizards, small snakes, and offal are not disdained, and 
the spotted skunk will steal eggs and kill chicks. It is fond of persim- 
mons and various other fruits in season. 

This skunk possesses a means of defense consisting of a characteristic 
evil-smelling fluid which is secreted by two anal glands. This fluid, or 
musk as it is sometimes called, can be ejected accurately up to several 
feet in the direction of aJttackers. It is more overpowering, blinding, 
and burning than that of Mephitis^ land there are few animals that are 
not repulsed by it. 

Specimens examined. — Allegany County: Piney Mountain, i/4 inil® 
N of U.S. Ex)ute 40, at Clarysville, 1 (specimen taken 10 February 
1964). GaiTett County: Locklynn Heights, 1 (specimen taken in mid- 
January 1963). 

Other records and reports. — Latham and Studholme (1947, p. 409) 
report a specimen from 4 miles west of Hancock, Washington County. 
James H. Beal, of Frostburg, tells me (in correspondence) that he col- 
lected a specimen on Town Hill (Mountain), Allegany County, near 
the beacon light in August 1962, and another near the same locality in 
1959. The following records are from Bookhout (1964, p. 214) : Green 
Ridge Mountain (elevation 1,400 ft.), Allegany Comity (one animal 
seen in December 1957) ; and Dan's Mountain (elevation 1,600 ft.), 
Allegany County (four specimens trapped since 1960) . 

Remarks. — The spotted skunk is essentially a southern species and 
has apparently extended its range into Maryland and Pemisylvania 
only within recent years. The first record of a spotted skunk in Penn- 
sylvania was as recent as 40 years ago (Latham and Studholme, 1947, 



p. 409) despite the fact that trappers, hunters, and collectors have been 
working in the Maryland and Pennsylvania mountains since Colonial 

Lutra canadensis lataxina F. Cuvier 

Lutra lataxina F. Cuvier, in Dictionnaire des sciences naturelle . . . 


Type locality. — South Carolina. 

General distribution.— Constsd Plain and Piedmont of the eastern United States, 
from western Connecticut and southern New York, south to South Carolina. 

Distribution in Maryland. — ^The species is statewide in distribution. 
The subspecies lataxina inhabits the Eastern Shore, Western Shore, 
and Piedmont sections, but may be replaced by Lutra canadensis cana- 
densis in the Ridge and Valley and Allegheny Mountain sections where 
it is scarce or possibly absent (Bookhout, in correspondence) . No speci- 
mens are available to establish the subspecific identtity of the western 
Maryland otters (if they occur there), but since L. c. canadensis has 
been reported from the mountains of Virginia to the south (Handley 
and Patton, 1947, p. 133) and West. Virginia to the west (Kellogg, 
1937, p. 453), western Maryland specimens, if and when obtained, 
proba;bly will prove referable to L. c. canadensis. 














O lO 20 30MILES 




Lutra aanadensis 

• Specimens examined 
O Specimens reported 







7% ^ ^riJi'xE//^ 





7 7- 




Figure 53. — Distribution of Lutra canadensis. 


Distinguishing characteristics. — Teeth 3/3, 1/1, 4/3, 1/2, = 36; size 
large; body slender and elongated; head small, broad, and flattened; 
ears and eyes small and rounded; nose broad and flat; tail long, about 
a third of the total length of the animal, very heavy at the base and 
tapering toward the tip; legs very short, ending in large feet with 
webbed toes; pelage consisting of a dense underfur overlaid with silky 
guard hairs; coloration a rich deep brown, generally somewhat paler 
on the belly and often with a grayish mixture on the lips, chin, and 
throat. The subspecies L. c. canadensis is similar to the above but 
considerably darker in coloration. 

The combination of large size, flat, broad head, thick, heavy tail, and 
webbed toes distinguish the otter from similar mammals in Maryland. 

Measurements. — No external measurements are available for the 
Maryland and District of Columbia specimens in the National collec- 
tions. Handley and I'atton (1947, p. 134) give the range of external 
measurements in otters as follows: Total length 900-1,200; tail 300- 
400; hind foot 100-120. 

A young male from Glen Echo, Montgomery County, and an un- 
sexed (but apparently a male) old adult from Washington, D.C., have 
the following cranial measurements: Basilar length 95.8, 101.6; zygo- 
matic breadth 65.3, ; postorbital breadth 19.1, 20.7; mastoidal 

breadth 62.9, 66.7 ; length of maxillary toothrow 35.2, 38.8. Two un- 
sexed (but apparently female) adults from Washington, D.C., measure 
cranially : Basilar length 87.5, 90.6 ; zygomatic breadth 64.3, ; post- 
orbital breadth 17.2, 19.2; mastoidal breadth 56.7, 59.9; length of 
maxillary toothrow 32.9, 34.2. 

Habitat and habits. — The otter occurs along rivers, streams, and 
lakes, and it appears to be quite common in the marshes that border the 
Chesapeake Bay and the Atlantic Ocean. It occurs on Assateague 
Island, where Jacob Valentine, former manager of the Chincoteague 
National Wildlife Refuge, told me that as many as seven were living 
in 1958. Most of these, however, were in the Virginia portion of the 
island, on the Refuge. 

Maryland's Eastern Shore supports a large population of otter. 
Audubon and Bachman (1851, p. 11) and Coues (1877, p. 211) re- 
ported them as common there in the 19th century. Brayton (1882, 
p. 58) says that the Eastern Shore of Maryland appears to have always 
been a favorite resort of the otter. Another area where this species is 
abundant is on the Proving Grounds near Edgewood Arsenal, Harford 

Otters were at one time relatively common along the Potomac River 
and its tributaries in the vicinity of Washington, D.C., and have often 
been reported from the city proper. Bailey (1923, p. 125) records an 
otter at the north end of Rock Creek Park in 1920 and one taken at 


Eastern Branch near Bennings in 1895. In neai^by Maryland he reports 
that otter tracks were seen on Plummers Island in 1910 and 1922, and 
that one was observed swimming across the Potomac River near Seneca 
in April 1920. Otters still are not uncommon along the Potomac River 
both to the north and south of Washington. L. G. Henbest observed 
one swimming in the Potomac near Great Palls in late January and 
February 1964 and obtained a photograph of the animal when it 
climbed out onto a rock on the Maryland side of the river. 

The otter may be active any time of the day or night, but tends to 
be more nocturnal than diurnal. Even though it may be common, it is 
seldom seen by the casual observer because it is shy and spends much of 
its time in water. These animals are powerful and graceful swimmers 
and dive with ease and agility. When swimming on the surface it holds 
its head high out of the water and both the forelegs and hind limbs 
are directed backward, progression being made primarily by twisting 
and moving the body and tail. The otter can reach a speed of 6 or 7 
miles an hour on the surface, and nearly as great a speed when 

The otter inhabits a well hidden den along the bank of the stream 
or river in which it lives. According to Liers (1951, p. 4) these animals 
seldom dig their own dens, but utilize abandoned beaver lodges or 
wood-chuck or muskrat burrows, enlarging them to suit their needs. 
Often these dens are simply short tunnels, but sometimes they may be 
extensive and complicated. The main entrance is always under water. 
In marshes, the otter may prepare a nest from dry marsh grasses. 

Nothing has been published concerning the breeding habits of otters 
in Maryland. Liers (1951, p. 4) studied them in Minnesota under 
semiwild conditions and reports that otters breed there in winter and 
early spring. He found the gestation period to vary from 9 months 18 
days to 12 months 15 days. Only one litter is produced a year, com- 
prising generally two to four young. The male is allowed to rejoin 
the family group after the young have left the nest, and he assists the 
female in teaching them to swim and hunt for food. 

The otter eats a variety of foods, but is primarily carnivorous, 
consuming crayfish, frogs, turtles, larvae of aquatic insects, angle- 
worms, and fish (Liers, 1951, p. 1). Jackson (1961, p. 388) says that 
the otter rarely eats muskrat, young beaver, or duck, and that the parts 
of land vertebrates occasionally found among its remains probably 
were eaten as carrion. On Assateague Island the otters appeared to 
be feeding largely on jumping mullet {Mugil cephalus) . 

Otter fur is currently commanding good prices on the market, being 
durable, soft, and dense. During the 1965-66 trapping season, 495 wild 
otters were trapped in Maryland for the fur market (U.S. Fish and 


Wildlife Service, Fur Catch in the United States, 1966, Wildlife 
Leaflet 478). 

Specimens examined. — Montgomery County: Glen Echo, 1. District 
of Cohimhia : 3. 

Other records and reports. — Calvert County : Chesapeake Bay, near 
Stoakley (LeCompte, 1937: 15). Garrett County. Deep Creek Lake 
(Browning, 1928, p. 213). Harford County: Edgewood Arsenal area 
(personal observation). Montgomery County: Great Falls (identified 
from photograph taken by L. G. Henbest, February 1964) . Washing- 
ton County: near Leitersburg (Washington, D.C., Herald, 7 January 
1909). Worcester County: Assateague Island (personal observation). 

Family FELIDAE (cats) 


Lynx rufus rufus (Schreber) 

Felis rufa Schreber, Die Saugthiere . . . , Thiel 3, Heft 95, pi. 109b, 

Type locality. — New York. 

General distribution. — In the eastern United States, this race formerly oc- 
curred from central New England south to northern Georgia, and west into the 
Dakotas, Iowa, Kansas, and Oklahoma. It is now absent or rare in the Coastal 
Plain in the southern portion of its range except in Virginia's Dismal Swamp. 

Distribution in Maryland. — Formerly statewide in distribution, but 
now confined primarily to the Allegheny Mountain and Ridge and 
Valley sections. It has been entirely exterminated in the Eastern Shore 
section and is only rarely encountered in the Western Shore and Pied- 
mont sections. 

This species is uncommon enough in Maryland to produce local 
newspaper accounts when one is taken. 

Distinguishing characteristics. — Teeth 3/3, 1/1, 2/2, 1/1, = 28; 
general appearance catlike, but considerably larger than a domestic 
cat, averaging about twice as much in size and weight; body short; 
ears prominent and with small conspicuous tufts on the tips; eyes 
large and with eliptical pupils; taU very short, less than a fourth of the 
total length of the animal; pelage fairly long and loose; coloration of 
upperparts grayish to brownish, darker along the midUne, and spotted 
and blotched throughout; abdomen and inner sides of legs white, 
prominently marked with black spots; taU always tipped with black. 

The only Maryland mammal with which the bobcat may be con- 
fused is the domestic cat, from which it is readily distinguished by 
its larger size and short black-tipped tail. 

Measurements. — No external measurements are available for Mary- 
land or District of Columbia specimens in the National collections. 



Lynx mfus pufus 
• Specimens examined 
O Specimens reported 

Figure 54. — Distribution of Lynx rufus rufus. 

Kellogg (1937, p. 457) gives external measurements of 11 adult males 
from West Virginia as follows: Total length 870 (787-935) ; tail 146 
(133-165) ; hind foot 171 (162-195). According to Jackson (1961, p. 
402) the male bobcat averages about 10 percent longer than the female 
and weighs about 30 percent more. 

A female from near Fort Washington, Prince Georges County, has 
the following cranial measurements : Greatest length 128.0 ; zygomatic 
breadth 83.7; interorbital breadth 23.2; maxillary toothrow 40.4. 

Habitat and habits. — Bobcats prefer wild heavily wooded or brushy 
areas, particularly in rocky habitats and swamps. In Maryland the 
animal is still fairly numerous in the wilder areas of the Allegheny 
Mountain and Eidge and Valley sections, but is very scarce in the 
rest of the State. No specimens have been taken in the Eastern Shore 
section for many years, and presumably the animal is extirpated there. 
According to Mansueti (1950, p. 21) the species has been ruthlessly 
exterminated in Maryland as "vermin," and is everywhere much scarcer 
than in the past. 

Mansueti ( 1950, pp. 22-23 ) has gathered together a number of bob- 
cat records in Maryland. He says that Meshach Browning is reported 
to have killed scores of bobcats in the early 19th century, and that 
they were an everyday occurrence in Garrett County then. Marye 
(1945) says that a generation ago bobcats were destructive to sheep 
near the Falls of the Patapasco River, and that in his time they were 


occasionally killed in Baltimore County. He reports that in the 1920's 
he saw a large bobcat in Day's woods, between the Great and Little 
Falls of the Gunpowder River. He also cites some notes relative to 
the bobcat on the Eastern Shore and says that about 2 decades ago 
(also in the 1920's), a wild animal of the cat family was treed by dogs 
on the borders of the Nassawango Swamp, near Nassawango Bridge 
in Worcester County. The animal escaped and Marye doubts that any 
domestic cat could have done so under the circumstances imposed. 

Mansueti (1950, p. 22) quotes an article from the Baltimore Evening 
Sun (18 February 1948) entitled "Bobcats Still Here," which says that 
Thomas Leary, hunter of Beans Cover, Allegany County, trapped a 
bobcat in 1948 on Evitts Mountain in Allegany County and the news- 
paper published a photograph of the animal, thus substantiating the 

Mansueti (1950, p. 23) says that John Hamlet, formerly with the 
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, told him that a few years ago (1945 
or 1946) a bobcat was known to be roaming the Cypress Swamp region 
of Calvert County, and Watson Perrygo of the Division of Mammals, 
U.S. National Museum, tells me that bobcats are presently residing 
in wild areas on his property near Port Tobacco in Charles County. 

Several interesting specimens of bobcats from Maryland and the 
District of Columbia are in the collections of the U.S. National Mu- 
seum. One of these, a young female, was shot along with five others 
in a swamp near Oxon Hill, Prince Georges County, in 1941 when 
the swamp was being razed for a housing development. Another (an 
old female) was found dead in December 1958 on the curb of a down- 
town Washington Street, not far from Rock Creek Park. The animal 
was not examined for bullet wounds but probably was shot in the 
mountains west of Washington and then dumped from an auto onto 
the Washington Street, although it is remotely possible that it had 
wandered naturally into downtown Washington via Rock Creek Park. 
Bailey (1923, p. 121) lists several bobcat records from nearby Virginia. 

The Maryland Conservationist (27(1), pp. 9, 28, Spring 1950) re- 
cords the capture of a particularly large bobcat in Maryland. On Labor 
Day of 1949, Frank Wigfield killed the animal on Iron Mountain, 
about 5 miles east of Cumberland, Allegany County. It weighed 43 
pounds and measured 53 inches from tip to tip. 

The bobcat is shy and retiring, and primarily solitary in its habits. 
It is almost entirely nocturnal and is seldom abroad in daylight. Gen- 
erally, it seeks shelter under shrubs or in rock crevices, but some- 
times it dens in hollows trees, stumps, or logs. The den is lined with 
grasses, leaves, moss, and other vegetation, which are scraped and 
scratched into a nest. 


Mating in this species occurs in February or March ; the gestation 
period is about 50 days, and between one and four kittens are born, 
usually in April. At birth the young are blind ; the eyes open after 
about 9 or 10 days. Although weaned when 60 to 70 days old, the young 
continue with the mother until autumn or sometimes late winter. 

The food of the bobcat is entirely animal in nature, and consists to a 
large extent of rabbits as well as squirrels, mice, muskrats, and various 
kinds of birds. Bobcats often feed on deer; fawns are especially vul- 
nerable prey, and no doubt deer carrion is often consumed. Domestic 
livestock, mainly calves and sheep but also occasionally poultry, are 
also eaten. 

Mansueti (1950, p. 23) says that the bobcat is undoubtedly vanish- 
ing in Maryland, but its wary and secretive habits will insure its per- 
manence in some of the more isolated portions of the State. 

Specimens exarmned. — Prince Georges County: Fort Washington, 
near, 1 ; Oxon Hill, 1. District of Colurnbia: 1. 

Other records and reports. — Anne Anmdel County: Annapolis, 3 
miles NW near Severn River (John C. Lingebach, in verbis) . Allegany 
County: Evitts Mountain (Mansueti, 1950: 22) ; Iron Mountain (Md. 
Conservationist, 27(1), pp. 9, 28, Spring 1950). Baltimore County: 
Day's Woods between the Great and Little Falls of the Gunpowder 
River (Mansueti, 1950, p. 22). Calvert County: Cypress Swamp along 
Battle Creek (Mansueti, 1950, p. 23). Charles County: near Port To- 
bacco (W. M. Perry go, in verbis). Howard County: Falls of the 
Patapsco River (Mansueti, 1950, p. 22). Prince Georges County: 
Patuxent River, near Upper Marlboro (Bailey, 1923, p. 121). 
Worcester Cou/nty: Nassawango Swamp, near Nassawango Bridge 
(Mansueti, 1950, p. 22). 

Order ARTIODACTYLA (even-toed hoofed mammals) 

Family CERVIDAE (deer) 


Cervus nippon Temminck 

Cervv^ nippon Temminck, Coup d'oeil sur la f aune des iles de la Sonde 
et de I'empire du Japon, xxii, 1838. 

Type locality. — Japan. 

General distribution, — Native to Japan, eastern China, Korea, and Manchuria. 
Introduced into England, New Zealand, Denmark, France, Austria, Russia, 
and the United States. 

Distribution in Maryland. — James Island, Taylors Island, and ad- 
jacent mainland in Dorchester County, and Assateague Island 
Worcester County. 


Distinguishing characteristics. — Teeth 0/3, 1/1, 3/3, 3/3, = 34; size 
small; coloration brownish olive or reddish olive with the middorsal 
area somewhat darker and forming an indistinct dark line from the 
forehead to the rump; underparts somewhat lighter; dorsum, parti- 
cularly posteriorly, faintly speckled with indistinct white blotches in 
both young and adults, the white blotches being more noticeable in 
summer than winter; prominent white rump patch vnih. semierectile 
hairs; antlers in male narrow, seldom having over three points and 
standing erect over head. 

This species is distinguishable from the white-tailed deer by a num- 
ber of easily recognizable characters. It is considerably smaller, aver- 
aging a third less in weight; has speckled pelage in young and old of 
both sexes ; has narrower antlers that stand erect above the head, rather 
than curAdng forward over head ; and possesses a small canine tooth in 
both sides of upper jaw. 

Measurements. — No external measurements are available for any of 
the Maryland specimens. The species ranges in shoulder height from 
32 to 43 inches (Tate, 1947, pp. 341-342) . 

Cranial measurements of an adult male from James Island, Dor- 
chester County, are : Greatest length 231 ; zygomatic breadth 97.1 ; in- 
terorbital breadth 69.3; maxillary toothrow 68.6. Cranial measure- 
ments for two adult females from James Island are as follows : Great- 
est length 220, 224, zygomatic breadth 91.3, 93.4; interorbital breadth 
53.0, 60.0; maxillary toothrow 62.5, 65.9. 

Habitat and habits. — In its natural range, this species prefers hilly 
regions with mixed large-leafed forests. It does best in areas which are 
not subject to heavy snowfall (Flerov, 1952, p. 128) . 

In Maryland, it has been introduced on Assateague Island, and on 
James Island, from which it has spread to neighboring Taylors Island 
and the adjacent Dorchester County mainland. According to Flyger 
(1960a), four or five sika deer were released on James Island about 
1916 by Clemment Henry, who had kept them in an enclosure near 
Cambridge for an unknown period before releasing them on the island. 
They multiplied on James Island and spread to nearby Taylors Island, 
and eventually to the mainland. Flyger and Warren (1958) estimated 
that in the fall of 1957, 270 sika deer inhabited James Island. Kegard- 
ing their introduction to Assateague Island, Flyger (1960a) says that 
Charles Law of Berlin, Md., stated that he purchased five sika deer 
(two males and three females) from a man in Cambridge in 1920. 
These deer were held in an enclosure near Berlin for several years, 
during which time three young were born and one of the original males 
died. Dr. Law sold these deer to a man who in turn released them on 
Assateague Island where they have prospered and grown into a herd 


of over a thousand animals (Flyger, 1964, p. 213), Most of these, how- 
ever, are located in the southern portion of the island in Virginia. 

Sika deer can be hunted in Maryland during the regular deer hunt- 
ing season, and nearly every year a few have been taken in Dorchester 
County. However, these deer are wilder and more timid than native 
white-tailed deer, and are more difficult to stalk. Because they are 
primarily nocturnal in habits many local people are even unaware of 
their existence in their neighborhood. 

The sika deer has been introduced into various European countries, 
some of which are not pleased with the species since it is too secretive 
and wild to be a satisfactory game animal, and has a propensity for 
peeling bark from trees and competing with other species of deer for 
food (Flyger, 1959, p. 24). Whether it is a potential boon or threat 
to sportsmen in Maryland is still uncertain. 

Little is known of the biology of this species in Maryland. In the 
Soviet Union where the animal has been widely introduced, Flerov 
(1952, pp. 128-129) reports that they are gregarious and that during 
certain periods their herds consist of many dozens of animals. Rutting 
begins in September and lasts for li/^ to 2 months. Rutting takes a very 
stormy course and is accompanied by roaring and terrific battles. After 
the rut, the males gather together in herds and remain apart from the 
females during the entire winter. Females with 2- or 3-year-old young 
also gather in separate groups just prior to winter. Calving occurs 
toward the end of May or June, generally one fawn, but occasionally 
twins, being produced. 

These deer swim readily and sometimes will cross large bodies of salt 
water. Their food in Maryland is probably similar to that of the white- 
tailed deer, and it is feared that in areas where the sika deer becomes 
well established the native white-tailed species will not be able to com- 
pete for the available food supply. 

Specimens exaTnined. — Dorchester County: James Island, 8. 

Remarks. — Presnall (1958, pp. 48-49) listed sika deer as occurring 
on Assateague Island, but incorrectly identified the deer from Dor- 
chester County as hog deer (Axis porcinus) . As pointed out by Flyger 
(1960a), not only are the Dorchester County animals Cervus nipjyon, 
but very probably they derive from the same stock as the Assateague 
Island populations. 

In addition to Sika deer, Maryland supports small ix>pulations of 
introduced fallow deer {Dama dama). Presnall (1958, p. 48) says that 
a few animals remain from introductions in Worcester County (Mills 
Island in Chincoteague Bay) between 1920 and 1930, and in Talbot 
County between 1935 and 1945. Fallow deer are native to the Medi- 
terranean region of southern Europe and western Asia, but have been 
widely introduced in northern Europe and the United States, where 


colonies exist in Kentucky, Tennessee, Virginia, and elsewhere. This 
deer is about the size of a Maryland wliite-tailed deer, but with large 
pahnate antlers which are dii'ected upward. In sununer pelage, the 
coloration is fawn, with numerous white spots; in winter, a uniform 
grayish (although melanism and albinism are not infrequent). Miller 
(1912, pp. 971-972) gives external measurements of a European adult 
male of this species as : Head and body length 1540; tail 190 ; hind foot 
( with hoof) 435 ; ear from crown 165. 


Odocoileus virgitiianus borealis Miller 

Odocoileus americanus borealis Miller, Bull. New York State Mus. 
Nat. Hist., 8 : 83, 21 November 1900. 

Type locality. — Bucksport. Hancock Coxinty. Maine- 

General distribution. — "Western Ontario, east across southern Quebec, New 
Brunswick, and Nova Scotia; and from near James Bay (Xewjwrt, Abitibi 
River), Gaspe Peninsula, and Anticosti Island south to southern Maryland, 
southern Pennsylvania. Ohio. Indiana, and Illinois. Southern boundaries fixed 
at Potomac and Ohio rivers and the western limits at the Missi^ippi and Red 
Rivers." (Kellogg. 1956. p. 40). 

Distribution in Maryland.— Xt one time the white-tailed deer was 
nearly extirpated in Maryland. Today it is common in all sections of 
the State, and is found in the wilder areas of every county. 

Distiiiguishiriig characteristics. — Size large, larger than sika deer; 
antlers heavy, and main beam directed forward, bearing the several 
tines behmd ; upper parts of body colored reddish brown in summer 
and grayish in winter, unspotted except in juveniles; underparts and 
underside of tail white ; juvenile animals are reddish yellow and spotted 
with white. 

Measiireinejit. — Kellogg (1956, p. 40) gives external measurements 
of the largest male of this subspecies that he examined as : Total length 
2400; tail 365: hind foot 538; height at slioulder 1041. Two adult 
males from Cumberland, Allegany County, have the following cranial 

measurements: Condylobasal length , 261.8; width of orbit at 

frontojugal suture 129.7, 120.9 ; least interorbital breadth 74.2 ; length 
of maxillary tootlirow 71.8, 72.5. Females average smaller than males 
m size. 

Flyger (1958, p. 8) says that the average weight of 47 adult male 
deer from western Maiyland was 127.5 pounds, and 17 from Worcester 
County averaged 125.4 pounds, whereas 6 from the Aberdeen Proving 
Grounds in Harford County averaged only 104.2 jwunds. "Wherever 
the deer population becomes so great that a scarcity of food results, 
the size and weight of the deer in that area become markedly reduced. 


This was the case with the Aberdeen herd, where at the time of Fly- 
ger's study deer were over abundant. 

Habitat and habits. — Deer are essentially animals of the ''edges," 
preferring burned- over areas and second-growth timber. They are 
much less common in heavily forested sections because the dense fo- 
liage discourages the growth of low forage on which the deer feed. 
Since much of Maryland today consists of edge habitat, deer are 
probably even more abundant in the State than they were before the 
coming of the white man when most of the area was heavily wooded. 

Even though much of Maryland was heavily forested in precolonial 
and colonial days, white-tailed deer were apparently numerous and 
supplied a good source of food for early settlers. According to Man- 
sueti (1950, p. 13) there are countless references to the abundance of 
deer in early letters and accounts of conditions of the l7th, 18th, and 
19th centuries. 

Although deer originally occurred in eveiy Maryland county, the 
species was almost exterminated from about 1900 until the early 1930's. 
This was due apparently to high hmiting pressure and other factors. 
For example, Browning (1928) estimated that he killed between 1,800 
and 2,000 deer during his hunting career in western Maryland, and 
that by 1839 the deer in Garrett and Allegany counties were beginning 
to become scarce. Other factors that were responsible for the decline 
in the deer herds in Maryland include wild dog packs and forest fires, 
both of which are known to have killed many individuals throughout 
the State. 

The population increase in recent years has resulted from stocking 
and intelligent conservation, as well as from the increased "edge" 
habitat in many areas of the State. Today, the white-tailed deer oc- 
curs in all sections of Maryland, and in some places is overabundant. 
Such an area is the Aberdeen Proving Grounds in Hartford County, 
Avhere according to Flyger (1958, p. 3) counting 100 or 200 deer in a 
single morning's observation is not at all unusual, and where a distinct 
browse line is evident in the woods. At the Proving Grounds, also, 
there have been several instances of mass die-off in recent years, an 
indication of overpopulation in a particular area. Flyger found that 
the deer herd in Cecil County, on the other hand, is still rapidly grow- 
ing and the range there is more imderstocked than in any other part 
of the State. 

The Maryland Conservationist (40(1), p. 15, Jan.-Feb., 1963) lists 
the total deer kill in various Maryland counties for the 1962 season 
as follows: Garrett 577, Allegany 699, Washington 344, Frederick 
214, Carroll 114, Howard 12, Montgomery 2, Anne Arundel 5 Calvert 
93, Prince Georges 12, Charles 208, St. Marys 33, Baltimore 95, Cecil 


351, Harford 70, Kent 619, Queen Annes 124, Caroline 106, Talbot 180, 
Dorchester 696, Somerset 192, Wicomico 161, Worcester 377. In addi- 
tion to the above, 418 deer were killed at Aberdeen Proving Grounds 
during the season. The Fish and Wildlife Service reports (Big Game 
Inventory for 1967, Wildlife Leaflet 481, September 1968) an esti- 
mated total of 75,000 deer in the State for 1967. 

White-tailed deer are primarily nocturnal, but are often abroad dur- 
ing daylight hours. With regard to feeding habits of this species in 
Maryland and the availability of food within the State, Bitely (1963, 
pp. 8-9) says: 

Deer require a varied diet and if you've ever watched them feed, they'll 
nibble here and there, take a twig of witch hazel, then red maple, some huckle- 
berry and for dessert some greenbriar. . . . Whenever possible, they prefer 
browse, such as greenbriar, maple leaf viburnum, blueberry, sassafras, black oak, 
red maple and blackberry. After several winters of heavy browsing these species 
begin to disappear and the deer are forced to shift to less nutritious food. 

During the winter a deer requires from 6 to 8 pounds of dry browse each 
day for body and heat maintenance. If the quality and quantity of food is in- 
sufficient they become victims of diseases (especially pneumonia) and parasites. 
Very few deer in this section of the United States ever actually starve to death ; 
disease usually gets them first. 

He says that surveys conducted in 1962 in western Maryland in- 
dicated heavy browsing pressure on the preferred foods. For instance, 
of the twigs within reach and available to deer, the following percent- 
ages had been browsed : Maple-leaved viburnum, 53.9 ; blackberry, 43.8 ; 
blueberry, 59.0; black birch, 38.8; black cherry, 14.3; dogwood 33.9; 
greenbriar, 77.6 ; hazelnut, 24.1 ; red maple, 25.9 ; black oak, 44.4 ; sassa- 
fras, 54.8. In the western three counties, an average of 29 percent of 
the annual growth was browsed each year. By contrast, on the Eastern 
Shore, only an average of 6.1 percent was taken. The statewide survey 
disclosed that a total of 58 species of woody plants had been browsed 
throughout Maryland. 

The following life history notes on the white-tailed deer are ex- 
tracted primarily from Severinghaus and Cheatum (1956, pp. 57-186). 

It is generally agreed that social organization in this species is 
limited to the family group, which usually consists of an older doe 
with her fawns, sometimes including those of the previous year. 
Leadership of the group appears to rest with the old doe. The oc- 
casional antlered buck that may be seen with the family group is 
usually the yearling offspring of the old doe. In the Northern States, 
the breeding season begins in November and the young are bom in 
May or June. Antlers begin to appear on the bucks in the summer. 
They grow from a pedicle of the frontal bone and are covered with a 
true skin (the velvet) during their growth. Antler growth is rapid. 


usually full size being achieved within 4 months or less. During the 
period of antler growth, the buck is very careful of the sensitive 
appendages, but after full size is reached, the velvet is scraped away, 
and the polished antlers are used by the bucks in battles for mates. 
The necks of the bucks also swell considerably during the mating sea- 
son. After the mating season the antlers are shed, usually in January 
or early February in Northern States, then the cycle continues. 

Gestation period in this species varies from 189 and 222 days, with 
the average being about 201 days. The usual number of young, for 
older does, is two, occasionally three. A young doe, however, usually 
gives birth to only a single offspring. The fawns are spotted, and re- 
main in thickets where they blend perfectly with the dappled shadows 
of the foliage. Both bucks and does generally achieve sexual maturity 
at 18 months of age, although well-nourished doe fawns, at least in 
northern areas, may breed at 6 to 8 months of age. 

SpecvmeTis examined. — Allegany County: Cumberland, 3. 

Other records and reports. — Wliite-tailed deer have been reported 
from every county in Maryland. 

Remarks. — The subspecies of white-tailed deer that originally in- 
habited Maryland was Odocoileus v. borealis. By the turn of the 
present century, however, the species was nearly extinct in Maryland, 
as well as in most other eastern States. Widespread transplanting of 
deer from areas in which they were still abundant reestablished east- 
ern herds. Deer from many areas, and representing a number of sub- 
species, were brought into Maryland, and consequently today it is 
impossible to assign the State's deer to any specific subspecies. Accord- 
ing to Hosley (1956, p. 228) : "One effect of the widespread trans- 
planting of Lake States deer into the south and east and of other 
similar moves has been to mix up thoroughly the races existing in 
most of the deer range." 


The following list of marine mammals comprises only those that 
have stranded on Maryland beaches, or have been observed in waters 
off the Maryland coast and in Chesapeake Bay. The list does not in- 
clude all the marine mammals that may occur in Maryland waters, 
and many additional species will eventually be discovered. Some of 
these unrecorded species have stranded on beaches to the north and 
south of Maryland and must also pass through Maryland waters. 
Only those, however, which have actually been reported from the 
State will be discussed in any detail. 

336-897 O — 69 -12 


Order PINNIPEDIA (pinnipeds) 

Family PHOCIDAE (earless seals) 

Phoca vitulina concolor De Kay 

Phoca concolor De Kay, Zoology of New York . . . , Vol. 1, pt. 1 
(Mammalia) , p. 53, 1842. 

Type locality. — Long Island Sound, near Sands Point, Nassau County, N.Y. 

General distribution. — Along the Atlantic coast of North America from 
Ellesmere Island to South Carolina, but is rare in the northern and southern 
portion of this range. 

Description. — ^A small seal that averages in total length about 4 
or 5 feet and weighs 75 to 150 pounds. The pelage is coarse and varies 
from yellowish gray, spotted with dark brown to almost black, spotted 
with yellowish. The spotted pelage and small size are distinctive char- 
acters of this species. 

Maryland records. — Harbor seals in Maryland waters are stragglers ; 
they are not indigenous to the State. Mansueti (1950, pp. 28-29; 1955, 
p. 2) summarizes Maryland records as follows: One specimen taken 
in a seine in Chesapeake Bay near Elkton in August 1824; one animal 
feeding around Thomas Pouch Lighthouse, near Annapolis, in March 
1894 ; one animal killed in Tangier Sound on 8 July 1898 ; one specimen 
sighted on 14 September 1898 on a beach above reach of heavy waves 
at Ocean City, Worcester County ; several animals in Choptank River 
near Tilghman Island in the early part of February 1925 ; one specimen 
seen in Chesapeake Bay at Flag Pond in 1940; one animal sighted at 
Ocean City, Worcester County, in May 1955. 

In addition, there is a fragmentary skin and partial skeleton of a 
harbor seal in the National collections ; the specimen was found on the 
beach at Assateague Island, 3 miles south of Ocean City, Worcester 
County, on 12 May 1959. 

Cystophora cristata (Erxleben) 

IPhoca^ cristata Erxleben, Systema regni animalis . . . , 1 : 590, 1777. 

Type locality. — Southern Greenland or Newfoundland. 

General distribution. — North Atlantic coast from Greenland to Labrador. 
Newfoundland, Nova Scotia, and Gulf of St. Lawrence, south as an accidental to 

Description. — A large seal, with males ranging up to 10 feet in total 
length and weighing up to 850 pounds. Females are smaller, averaging 
about 8 feet in length and weighing up to 400 pounds. Coloration slate- 


gray to blackish dorsally, with sides paler and spotted with white. 
Males have a bladderlike protuberence on the nose which they can 
inflate in times of anger or danger. 

Maryland records. — One recorded in 1865 as taken near Cambridge, 
Dorchester County, on an arm of the Chesapeake Bay, 18 miles from 
salt water (Cope, 1865, p. 273) ; one animal killed at Worton Point, 
near Chestertown, Kent County, about 1860 (Mansueti, 1950, p. 31). 

It is possible that the seal from Tangier Sound previously listed as 
Phoca vitulina corwolor may have been a hooded seal rather than a 
harbor seal. The Baltimore Sun of 9 July 1898, which reported the 
killing of the animal on 8 July 1898, said that it measured almost 6i/^ 
feet in length. If this measurement was accurate, the animal would fall 
within the size range of the hooded seal rather than the harbor seal. 

Order CETACEA (cetaceans) 

The order Cetacea is divisible into two distinct suborders distin- 
guished primarily by the presence of teeth, or baleen in the mouth. 
Those that are toothed are classified as : 

Suborder ODONTOCETI (toothed whales) 

Toothed whales may have teeth in the lower jaws only, or in both 
upper and lower jaws. In some forms more than 100 teeth are present, 
while in others the teeth may be reduced to 2. Whales of this suborder 
never possess baleen. 

Family ZIPHIIDAE (beaked whales) 


Ziphius cavirostris G. Cuvier 

Ziphius cavirostris G. Cuvier, Recherches sur les ossemens fossiles . . . , 
ed. 2, 5 : 352, 1823. 

Type locality. — Near Fos, Bouches-du-Rhone, France. 

General distribution. — In the western North Atlantic, reported from Newi>ort, 
Rhode Island, south to St. Simon Island, Ga. 

Description. — A medium-sized whale, ranging up to 28 feet in length. 
The body is thickset and has a strongly marked median keel extending 
from the dorsal fin to the tail. The color pattern is extremely variable; 
the back is usually a purplish black and the underparts white. Males 
have a single tooth projecting an inch or more beyond the gum at the 
end of each lower jaw. 

Maryland records. — On 5 September 1959, a whale of this species was 
sighted alive north of Fen wick Island, Del. It stranded that night at 


Maryland Beach, Worcester County. This is the only Maryland 
record, although specimens have stranded at other localities to the 
north and south of the State. 

Family PHYSETERIDAE (sperm whales) 


Physeter catodon Linnaeus 

'IPhyseter] ca^<?c?07i Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1 : 76, 1758. 

Type locality. — Kairston, Orkney Islands, Scotland (by restriction, Thomas, 
Proc. Zool. Soc. London, p. 157, 22 March 1911). 

General distribution. — In western North Atlantic from Iceland and Davis 
Straits, south to Gulf of Mexico, West Indies, Lesser Antilles, and coast of 

Description. — This species is the largest of the toothed whales, males 
sometimes reaching a length of 60 feet or more. Females are consid- 
erably smaller, generally under 40 feet in length. In coloration this 
whale is a uniform gray or dark bluish gray. The narrow lower jaw 
contains 20 to 30 heavy teeth. Usually no teeth are visible in the upper 
jaws. There is no dorsal fin. 

Maryland records. — Only one sperm whale is known to have 
stranded on a Maryland beach. It came ashore at Greeil Run Inlet 
(now closed) just north of the Maryland- Virginia boundary on 
Assateague Island in December 1891. This specimen is preserved as a 
skeleton in the U.S. National Museum. 

At times, sperm whales are numerous off Ocean City. They attract 
the attention of passing boats by their habit of raising their flukes clear 
of the water when sounding. 


Kogia breviceps (Blalnville) 

Physeter hreviceps Blainville, Ann. d'Anat. et de Physiol., 2: 337, 

Type locality. — Region of Cape of Good Hope, Republic of South Africa. 

General distribution. — In western North Atlantic recorded from Halifax Har- 
bor, Nova Scotia, south to Jupiter Inlet, Florida. This is a pelagic species that is 
seldom found stranded on beaches. 

Description. — A small edition of its larger relative the sperm whale, 
the pigmy sperm whale ranges in length from 9 to 13 feet. In colora- 
tion it is black above, white beneath. There are usually 14 or 15 small 
needlelike teeth in each lower jaw ; no teeth visible in upper jaws. This 
species, unlike the large sperm whale, possesses a small dorsal fin. 


Maryland records. — The pygmy sperm whale is known from Mary- 
land by a live specimen that came ashore at Ocean City, Worcester 
County, in August 1959. Vacationers at the beach repeatedly tried to 
push the small whale back to sea. Eventually, during a high tide the 
animal worked its way into deeper water where it struggled away. 
The stranding of this whale is discussed in detail by Manville and 
Shanahan (1961, pp. 269-270). 

Family DELPHINIDAE (porpoises and dolphins) 
Delphinus delphis Linnaeus 

[Delphiniis] delphis Linnaeus, Systema naturae, ed. 10, 1 : 77, 1758. 

Type locality. — European seas. 

General distribution. — In western North Atlantic recorded from Iceland and 
Woods Hole, Massachusetts, south to Bahama Islands and Jamaica. 

Description. — This is a small Cetacean, reaching a length of about 
8 feet. The animal possesses a slender "beak" about 6 inches long, 
which is sharply marked off from the sloping forehead by a deep 
V-shaped groove. The mouth contains many sharp pointed teeth that 
interlock perfectly and are adapted for catching and holding the 
fish upon which the dolphin preys. In coloration, this species is 
blackish dorsally, including the dorsal surfaces of the flukes and 
pectoral apendages. The sides shade in coloration to a grayish green, 
mixed with eliptical bands of whitish on the flanks. The abdomen is 
white and there is a whitish band over the forehead with a narrow 
black band in the center that connects the black eye rings. Often there 
is a black band from the snout to the leading edge of the pectoral fin. 

Marlyamd records. — No records of strandings of this species are 
available from Maryland, but Charles O. Handley, Jr., says (unpub- 
lished manuscript) : "In September 1959, Mike Freeman of Washing- 
ton, D.C., told me of having seen two kinds of porpoises in imusual 
abundance off Ocean City, Md., and running the Ocean City Inlet into 
Sinepuxent Bay. His descriptions indicated Tursiops truncatus and 
Delphinus delphis.'''' 

This cetacean is probably one of the most abundant in Maryland 
waters, but it prefers deeper waters off shore, and hence is less likely 
to strand than several other less numerous species. 


Tursiops truncatus (Montague) 

Delphinus truncatus Montague, Mem. Wermerian Nat. Hist. Soc, 
3 : 75, 1821. 


Type locality. — Totness, Devonshire, England. 

General distribution. — In the western North Atlantic recorded from Massa- 
chusetts south to Florida. 

Description. — Adults of this species reach a length of 11 or 12 feet, 
and may be recognized by the purplish lead-gray coloration of the 
upper parts, the short beak, seldom more than 3 inches long, and the 
lower jaw, which is slightly longer than the upper. There are 20 to 
26 teeth on each side in both jaws of the mouth. 

Maryland records. — True (1890, p. 197) says that he has been 
informed that this species ascends the Potomac River as far as Gly- 
mont, a fishing station on the Maryland shore about 18 miles below 
Washington, B.C. 

On 27 and 28 July 1884, a porpoise, presumed to be of this species, 
was observed in the Potomac River above the Aqueduct Bridge in 
Washington, D.C. It was chased by boats and shot at repeatedly, but 
not captured. The species has been seen at various times near Alex- 
andria (unsigned note in The Pastime, 3(2), p. 14, August 1884). 

In the Chesapeake Bay, Tursiops has been reported as far up as 
Havre de Grace, Harford County (Maryland Tidewater News, 8, 
p. 40, 1952). 

Specimens in the National collections are from the following Mary- 
land localities: Point Lookout, St. Mary's County; Queenstown 
Creek, Queen Annes County ; and Scientist's Cliffs, Calvert County. 

In addition, bottle-nosed porpoises are often seen off Ocean City, 
Worcester County, and swimming in the Ocean City Inlet into Sine- 
puxent Bay. This is probably the most abundant marine mammal in 
Maryland waters. 

Suborder MYSTICETI (baleen whales) 

Whales of this suborder do not possess teeth. Instead, they are 
equipped with whalebone, or baleen, which hangs down in the mouth 
from either side of the upper jaws in long strips, with hairlike bristles 
on the inner edges. The apparatus thus formed serves as a strainer. 
In feeding, the baleen whales swim open-mouthed through swarms of 
plankton; then closing the mouth, they press the tongue against the 
baleen plates, squeezing out the water and leaving the plankton inside 
the mouth to be swallowed. 

Family BALAENOPTERIDAE (fin-backed whales) 


Balaenoptera acutorostrata Lacepede 

Balaenoptera acutorostrata Lacepede, Histoire naturelle des Oetacee 
. . . , p. 37, 1804. 


Type locality. — European seas. 

General distribution. — Adults of this species apparently winter in tropical or 
warm temperate waters, and summer in cold temperate and boreal waters. 
Young animals, however, may frequent warm or temperate waters during the 
summer months. In the western North Atlantic, adults have been reported during 
the summer from Iceland and Greenland south to New Jersey and the Delaware 
River. There are records of this species in Florida waters during winter months, 
(see Schwartz, 1962, pp. 206-209). 

Description. — ^The little piked whale resembles a small fin-backed 
whale in appearance, but is of somewhat stouter build. Adults reach 
a length of about 30 feet. There are approximately 50 ventral grooves 
in the throat region, and the baleen is entirely yellowish white in color. 
The body is blue-gray on the back and white on the abdomen. 

Maryland records. — ^This species has been recorded from Maryland 
only once. On 12 July 1959, an immature female stranded at Dares 
Beach, Calvert County, in Chesapeake Bay. Schwartz (1962) dis- 
cusses this specimen and its stranding in detail. 

Balaenoptera physalus (Linnaeus) 

\Balaena] physalus Linnaeus, Systema naturae, ed. 10, 1 : 75, 1758. 

Type locality. — Spitzbergen Seas ( See Thomas, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1911, 
pt. 1, p. 156, 22 March 1911) . 

General distribution. — In western North Atlantic, from Iceland and Greenland 
south to the Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea. 

Description. — This is a large baleen whale, the adults measuring be- 
tween 50 and 65 feet in total length. The coloration is velvety black 
except for a small ash-colored area at the tip of the lower jaws, a 
cream-colored chin and throat and occasionally white or piebald under- 
parts. The undersurface of the body in the region of the throat has 
numerous longitudinal grooves. The dorsal fin is high and triangular, 
usually with a concave posterior border. The baleen in this species ex- 
hibits asymmetry in coloration, the blades on the right side being white 
for more than a third of the distance from the tip of the snout and the 
remainder on that side, and all of the left side, being colored a dull 
blue-gray with streaks of white and yellow. This whale is known as the 
greyhound of the ocean because of its slender build and great speed 
in swimming. 

Maryland records. — ^The type specimen of Sihhaldius tectirostris 
Cope (a species now regarded as a synonym of Balaenoptera physalus) 
washed ashore on the Maryland coast near Sinepuxent Inlet, Worces- 
ter County, in the winter 1868-69. The skull of this specimen is now 
in the U.S. National Museum collections. 


There is a report in the Maryland Tidewater News (1953) that a 
whale 60 feet in length was stranded at Ocean City, Worcester County, 
in the spring of 1953 which probably was of this species. 

Fin-backed whales are more numerous off the Maryland coast than 
these two stranding records would indicate. 

Balaenoptera musculus (Linnaeus) 

[BaZaena] musculiis Linnaeus, Systema naturae, ed. 10, 1 : 76, 1758. 

Type locality. — Firth of Forth, Scotland (see Thomas, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 
1911, pt. 1, p. 156, 22 March 1911) . 

General distribution. — ^In the western North Atlantic, from Iceland and Green- 
land south to Panama. 

Description. — ^This is the largest animal that ever lived, either on 
land or in water. Adults sometimes reach lengths in excess of 100 feet, 
the largest specimens usually being females. The color of this species 
is slate blue over the whole body with the exception of the tip and 
undersurface of the flippers, where pigmentation is absent. The blue 
coloration may be modified by a pale mottling that is sometimes dif- 
fused and sometimes concentrated in patches in different parts of the 
body. There are between 80 and 100 ventral throat grooves and the 
baleen in the mouth is jet black. 

Maryland records. — ^This species is known from Maryland by a sin- 
gle specimen that grounded near Crisfield, Somerset County, in the 
summer of 1876. The skeleton of this juvenile individual, identified by 
G. S. Miller, Jr., is now in the museum of the Natural History Society 
of Maryland in Baltimore. 

Remarks on Maryland Marine Mammals 

The above list is composed only of species that have stranded or been 
observed off the Maryland coast. Many other species undoubtedly pass 
through Maryland waters and will someday be recorded for the State. 
Some, such as the short-finned blackfish {Glohicepliala Trmcrorhyncha) 
and the Atlantic blackfish {Glohicephala melaena) ., have stranded on 
beaches only a few miles south of the Maryland State line. The follow- 
ing is a list of species, presently unrecorded for the State, which prob- 
ably occur at some time or other in Maryland waters : 

Harp seal, Phoca groerdandica Erxleben. 

Dense-beaked whale, Mesoplodon densirostris (Blainville) . 

Gulf Stream beaked whale, Mesoplodon europaeus (Gervais). 

Northern beaked whale, Mesoplodon mirus True. 

Striped porpoise, Stenella coeruleoaTbus (Meyen) . 


Atlantic killer whale, Grampus Orcinus (Linnaeus) . 

Atlantic blackfishj GlobicefhoU^ nielaena (Traill) . 

Short-finned blackfish, GloMcephala macrorJiyncha Gray. 

Harbor porpoise, Phocoena phocoena (Linnaeus). 

Sei whale, Balaenoptera horecMs Lesson. 

Hump-backed whale, Megaptera novaeangliae (Borowski) . 

Right whale, Eubcdaena glacialis (Borowski) . 



Mansueti (1950) has discussed in detail the extirpated Recent mam- 
mals of the State. He lists six species that at one time occurred within 
Maryland but have vanished since the coming of the white man. As 
pointed out by Handley and Patton (1947, p. 78) : 

Though it is regretable that man has had a hand in the extinction of these 
creatures, he is not to be blamed too much, for the ascendency of one species and 
the extinction of another is a regular process of nature which has been repeated 
over and over again all down through the ages. Probably man did not have much 
or anything to do with the disappearance of wild horses, mammoths, mastodons, 
tapirs, wild pigs, ground sloths and camels which once roamed our lands, but 
they are gone nevertheless. As surely as a species of animal comes into being, 
it is destined to eventual extinction, whether by geologic catastrophies such as 
volcanic eruptions or earthquakes ; or by great climatic changes involving vast 
spreading glaciers or desert wastes, or by the hand of man. Our geologists have 
given us proof of all this by the fossil record in the rocks. 

The six species of extirpated Recent mammals of Maryland dis- 
cussed by Mansueti ( 1950) are : 

Erethizon dorsatum (Linnaeus) 

This species apparently never was widely distributed in Maryland, 
nor was it ever abundant. Mansueti cites records from Allegany 
County ; Blue Ridge Mountains ; Frederick -Washington Counties ; and 
EUicott City, Howard County (all of these prior to 1881). Rhoads 
(1903, p. 115) cites porcupine records from Fulton and Somerset Coun- 
ties, Pa., adjacent to Maryland on the north. The Cumberland (Mary- 
land) Sunday Times for 9 August 1964 reported that recently a por- 
cupine was shot on a farm at Rocky Gap, east of Cumberland. A pho- 
tograph of this animal accompanied the news release. This may repre- 
sent a valid state record, or the animal may have been brought to 
Maryland from elsewhere. This same article in the Cumberland Sun- 
day News reports that in 1912 a boy in Frostburg brouglit some quills 


to school from a porcupine he found dead on Mount Savage, It also 
says that during the fall of 1948 a hunter reported his dogs found a 
porcupine on Martins Mountain for they returned to him with their 
noses full of quills. He was not able, however, to locate the porcupine. 
The foregoing serves to show that there are records and reports of the 
porcupine in the western part of Maryland right up to the present 
day. The general consensus of opinion, however, regarding the status 
of this animal is that it is no longer a native inhibtant of the State. 

Canis lupus Linnaeus 

The gray wolf originally inhabited the entire State of Maryland. 
Not only are there documents and publications to show that they were 
at one time statewide in distribution (see Mansueti, 1950, pp. 25-26), 
but the early settlers used the name "wolf" to designate many places 
throughout the State. The Gazeteer of Maryland (Maryland State 
Planning Comm., and Dept. of Geology, Mines and Water Resources, 
October 1941, p. 230) lists the following place names in Maryland 
that give a good idea of where early colonists found wolves : Allegany 
County: Wolf Gap, Wolf Rock ; Baltimore County : Wolf trap Branch ; 
Caroline County: Wolf pit Branch; Carroll County: Wolfpit Branch; 
Frederick County: Wolf Rock ; Garrett County : Wolf Den Run, Wolf 
Gap, Wolf Swamp; Somerset County: Wolf Trap Creek. Mansueti 
(1950, p. 25) says that they even abounded on Assateague Island in 
Worcester County. 

All evidence seems to indicate that the gray wolf Avas exterminated 
in Maryland at a very early date, except for those in more inaccessible 
parts of western mountains. Here the species probably persisted until 
late in the 19th century, and perhaps even to the early part of the 
present century. 


Martes americana (Turton) 

The marten was exterminated in Maryland as far back as 85 years 
ago. It apparently was not widespread in distribution, and never 
abundant. Heavy trapping pressure and destruction of suitable forest 
habitat appear to account for its demise. It was probably most abun- 
dant in the western part of the State, but there are reports from the 
District of Columbia and perhaps St. Marys County (see Mansueti, 
1950, p. 23). 


Felis concolor Linnaeus 

This species at one time occurred throughout the State, wherever 
there were white-tailed deer, which served as it principal food. The 
mountain lion was hunted with relentless energy by settlers and at very 
early date was exterminated from all but the wildest portions of the 
western part of the State. The date when the last mountain lion was 
killed in Maryland is not known, but it was probably sometime toward 
the end of the 19th century. In the 18th century, the species appears 
to have been abundant in the mountains of Maryland. Meshach Brown- 
ing (1928) estimated that he killed more than 50 of them during his 
active period as a hunter in Garrett County from 1790 to 1836. There 
is no question that today, however, the species is extinct in Maryland 
despite the fact that from time to time there are reports of them in 
some of the more remote portions of the State. None of these recent re- 
ports of mountain lions in Maryland have ever been verified, and it 
seems that the species has been extirpated in the entire Eastern United 
States, with the exception of Florida where a few still persist in the 
swamps and hammocks in the Everglades. 

Cervus canadensis (Erxleben) 

This species was at one time statewide in distribution. Mansueti 
(1950, pp. 11-12) lists a number of early references to it, not only from 
the mountains of the west, but also in the Tidewater. Its former oc- 
currence within the State is attested to by the number of places that 
bear the name "elk." Thus, there is an Elklick Run in Anne Arundel 
County, Elklick Run in Garrett County, Elk Mills, Elk Neck, Elk 
River, and Elkton in Cecil County, Elk Mountain and Elkridge in 
Washington County, Elkridge in Harford County, Elkridge in How- 
ard County, and Elkridge in Baltimore County. The last of Mary- 
land's wapiti were apparently exterminated long before the middle 
of the 19th century. McAtee (1918, p. 52) places the date of their 
extirpation in Virginia as 1844. 


Bison bison (Linnaeus) 

According to Mansueti (1950, p. 10) the distribution of bison in 
Maryland and the District of Columbia must have been above the fall 
line. The bison thus was an inhabitant of the Piedmont, Ridge and 
Valley, and Allegheny Mountain sections of the State. When the first 
settlers arrived, however, the species was already becoming scarce, and 


these settlers hastened its demise, exterminating the bison in Maryland 
by 1775. The Glades Star (publication of the Garrett County Histori- 
cal Society) for 1943, says that around 1774 one of the Ashbys (early 
settlers in the Glades of Garrett County) and a neighbor were search- 
ing for the neighbor's cows one day in early winter. They followed 
the tracks of some animals in the light snow until they came to what 
is now the J. J. Ashby farm, when Ashby saw a bunch of wooly hair 
on a snag. Following the trail still farther to the hill southeast of the 
present town of Grellin, they spotted 4 bison. They shot the bulls 
and the cows escaped westward. These were the last seen in the Glades, 
and probably the last of Maryland's bison herd. 

The former occurrence of the bison is still indicated by such place 
names as: Buffalo Road (Carroll and Frederick Counties) ; Buffalo 
Run, Little Buffalo Run, and Buffalo Marsh (Garrett County). 

Mansueti (1950) lists 2 additional species (fisher, Maries pennanti; 
and Canada lynx. Lynx canadensis) that may have occurred in Mary- 
land in the past but are not presently a part of the fauna of the State. 
There is no good evidence, however, that either of these species ever 
ranged as far south as Maryland. 


Allen, D, L. 

1950. The fabulous whistlepig. Sports Afield, 123 : 28-29, 78-80. June. 
Abnee, D. 

1949. Western Maryland beaver. Maryland Conservationist, 26 : 23-24. Summer. 
AtTDTJBON, J. J., and J. Bachman. 

1851. The viviparous quadrupeds of North America. Vol. 2 : 334. 
Bailey, J. W. 

1946. The mammals of Virginia. Williams Printing Co., Richmond. 416 p. 
Bailey, V. 

1896. List of mammals of the District of Columbia. Proc. Biol. Soc. Washing- 
ton, 10 : 93-101. 28 May. 
1923. Mammals of the District of Columbia. Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, 36 : 
103-138. 1 May. 
Bangs, O. 

1896. A review of the squirrels of eastern North America. Proc. Biol. Soc. 
Washington, 10 : 145-167. 28 December. 
Bakboub, R. W. 

1951. The Mammals of Big Black Mountain, Harlan County, Kentucky. Jour- 
nal of Mammalogy, 32 : 100-110. February. 

Babkalow, F. S., Jr. 

1956. Sciurus niffer cinereus Linne neotype designation. Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash- 
ington, 69 : 13-20. 21 May. 


Bednabik, K. E. 

1958. Nutria in the United States with management recommendations for 
Ohio. Ohio Department of Natural Resources, Division Wildlife, Game 
Management Publication 165 : 1-22. 15 October. 

Bee, J. W., and E. R. Halt,. 

1951. An instance of coyote-dog hybridization. Transactions Kansas Academy 
of Science, 54 : 73-77. 

BiTELY, R. D. 

1963. Maryland whitetails. Maryland Conservationist, 50: 8-10. September- 

Bole, B. P., Jr., and P. N. Moulthbop. 

1942. The Ohio Recent mammal collection in the Cleveland Museum of Nat- 
ural History. Science Publications Cleveland Museum Natural History, 5: 
83-^181. 11 September. 
BoNwiLL, A. H., and H. B. Owens. 

1939. The return of a native. Bulletin Natural History Society Maryland, 10 : 
35-45. December. 

1964. The Allegheny spotted skunk in Maryland. Chesapeake Science, 5 : 213- 
215. Winter. 

Bbaun, E. Lucy. 
1950. Deciduous forests of eastern North America. Blackiston Cta., Philadelphia, 
596 p. 
Brayton, a. M. 

1882. Report on the Mammalia of Ohio. Report Geological S,urvey Ohio, 4 : 
Bbowning, Meshach. 

1928. Forty-four years of the life of a hunter. J. B. Lippincott Co., Philadelphia. 
400 p. 
Buses, J. A. 

1948. Mammals of a limited area in Maryland, an ecological study in the Bare 
Hills-Lake iRoland area. Maryland Naturalist, 18 : 58-72. Fall. 
BUBT, W. H. 

1946. The mammals of Michigan. University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor. 288 p. 
Oaslick, James W. 

1956. Color phases of the roof rat, Rattus rattus. Journal of Mammalogy, 37 : 
255-257. May. 


1956. The natural history of a summer aggregation of the big brown bat, 
Eptesicus fusGus fuscus. American Midland Naturalist, 55 : 66-95. January. 
Churcheb, C. S. 

1959. The specific status of the New World red fox. Journal of Mammalogy, 
40 : 513-520. 20 November. 

Coheir, E. 

1942. Myotis keeni septentrionalis (Trouessart) in Maryland. Journal of 

Mammalogy, 23 : 96. February. 
1944. A new homing record for the large brown bat. Maryland Naturalist, 14 : 
65-67. July. 


1952. Life history of the water shrew (Sorex palustris navigator) American 
Midland Naturalist, 48 : 219-248. July. 



1959. The bog lemming Synaptomys cooperi in southern New Jersey. Pubis. 
Mus. Michigan State University, Biol. Series 1 : 161-248. 24 July. 
Cooper, J. E. 

1953. An abnormally colored mole from Maryland. Maryland Naturalist, 23: 
Cope, E. D. 

1865. (Hooded seals in the Chesapeake Bay). Proc. Biol. Academy of Science, 
Philadelphia, 273. 
1877. F^ bearing animals : A monograph of North American Mustelidae. De- 
partment of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey of the Territories Misc. 
Publ. 8. 348 p. 
Davis, D. B., and W. T. Fales. 

1949. The distribution of rats in Baltimore, Maryland. American Journal of 
Hygiene, Baltimore, 49 : 247-254. May. 

1950. The rat population of Baltimore, 1949. American Journal of Hygiene, 
Baltimore, 52 : 143-146. September. 

Davis, W. H. 
1957. A new subspecies of the eastern pipistrelle from Florida. Proc. Biol. 

Soc. "Washington, 70 : 213-215. 31 December. 
1959. Taxonomy of the eastern pipistrel. Journal of Mammalogy, 40 : 521-531. 
Davis, W. H., and R. E. Mumfobd. 

1962. Ecological notes on the bat Pipistrellus subflavus. American Midland 
Naturalist, 68 : 394-398. October. 
Doziee, H. L. 
1948a. A new eastern marsh-inhabiting race of raccoon. Journal of Mammalogy, 

29 : 286-290. August. 
1948b. Color mutations in the muskrat (Ondatra z. macrodon) and their 
inheritance. Journal of Mammalogy, 29 : 393—405. November. 
DoziEB, H. L., and H. E. Hall. 
1944. Observations on the Bryant fox squirrel. Maryland Conservationist, 21 : 
1-12. Winter Issue. 
Dozieb, H. L., M. H. Mabkley, and L. M. Llewellyn. 
1948. Muskrat investigations on the Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge, 
Maryland, 1941-1945. Journal of Wildlife Management, 12: 177-190. April. 
Fenneman, N. M. 
1938. Physiography of eastern United States. McGraw-Hill Book Co., New 
York and London. 714 p. 
Fleeov, K. K. 
1952. Musk deer and deer. Fauna of the U.S.S.R. Mammals 1 : 1-257 (English 
translation, 1960, by National Science Foundation and Smithsonian Institu- 
Flygeb, V. F. 

1957. New record for red squirrel in Maryland. Maryland Tidewater News, 
March-April 1957, p. 1. 

1958. The status of white-tailed deer in Maryland, 1956. Resource Study Rept., 
Maryland Department of Research and Education, 13 : 1-9. March. 

1959. Maryland's new deer citizens. Maryland Conservationist, 36: 23-24. 


1960a. Sika deer on islands in Maryland and Virginia. Journal of Mammalogy, 

41 : 140. 20 February. 
1960b. Movements and home range of the gray squirrel, Sciuru^ oarolinensU, 

in two Maryland woodlots. Ecology, 41 : 365-369. April. 
Flygeb, V. F., and J. Waeben. 

1958. Sika deer in Maryland. Additional big name animal or a possible pest. 
Proceedings 12th Annual Conference S B. Association Game and Fish 
■Commission, p. 209-211. 

Flygeb, Vagn, and N. W. Da\is. 

1964. Distribution of sika deer (Cervus nippon) in Maryland and Virginia in 
1962. Chesapeake Science, 5 : 212-213. Winter. 
Gaednex, M. C. 
1950a. A list of Maryland mammals. Part I. Marsupials and insectivores. 

Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, 63 : 65-68. 25 May. 
1950b. A list of Maryland mammals. Part II. Bats. Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash- 
ington, 63 : 111-114. 29 December. 
Gentile, J. 

1949. A case of partial albinism in the short-tailed shrew. Maryland Naturalist, 
19 :11-12. Winter. 

GiDLEY, J. W., and C. L. Gazin. 
1933. New Mammalia in the Pleistocene fauna from Cumberland Cave. Journal 
of Mammalogy, 14 : 343-357. November. 
Goldman, E. A. 

1950. Raccoons of North and Middle America. North American Fauna, 60. 153 p. 
Goldman, E. A., and H. H. T. Jackson. 

1939. Natural History of Plummers Island, Maryland. IX. Mammals. Proc. 
Biol. Soc. Washington, 52 : 131-134. 11 October. 
GsizzELL, R. A., Jr., 

1949. Hibernating jumping mice in woodchuck dens. Journal of Mammalogy. 
30 : 74-75. February. 
Hall, E. R. 

1951. American weasels. University Kansas Publications, Museum Natural 
History, 4 : 1^66. 27 December. 

Hall, E. R, and K. R. Kelson. 

1959. The mammals of North America. Ronald Press Co., New York. 2 vols., 
1162 p. 31 March. 

Hall, J. S. 

1962. A life history and taxonomic study of the Indiana bat, Myotia socUilis. 

Scientific Publications Reading Museum and Art Gallery, Reading, Pa., 

12 : 1-68. 30 July. 
Hamilton, W. J., Jr. 

1930. The food of the Soricidae. Journal of Mammalogy, 11 : 26-39. February. 
1933a. The insect food of the big brown bat. Journal of Mammalogy, 14 : 155- 

156. May. 
1933b. The weasels of New York : Their natural history and economic status. 

American Midland Naturalist, 14 : 289-344. July. 
1935. Habits of jumping mice. American Midland Naturalist, 16: 187-200. 


1937. The biology of microtine cycles. Journal of Agricultural Research, Wash- 
ington, 54 : 779-790. 15 May. 

1938. Life history notes on the northern pine mouse. Journal of Mammalogy, 
19 : 163-170. 14 May. 


1940. The biology of the smokey shrew (Sorex fumeus lumens). Zoologica 25: 
473^92. 31 December. 

1941. The food of small forest mammals in eastern United States. Journal of 
Mammalogy, 22 : 250-263. 14 August. 

1943. The mammals of eastern United States. Comstock Publishing Co., Ithaca, 

N.Y. 432 p. 
1950. The prairie deer mouse in New York and Pennsylvania. Journal of Mam- 
malogy, 31 : 100. 21 February. 
Hamlett, G. W. D. 

1938. The reproductive cycle of the coyote. U.S. Department Agriculture Tech. 
Bull. 616. 11 p. July. 

Hampe, I. E. 

1936. The occurrence and breeding of the Maryland shrew (Sorex fontinaUs) 
in the Patapsco State Park. Bulletin Natural History Society, Maryland, 7 : 
17-18. December. (Mimeographed) 

1939. Notes on the mammals of the Patapsco State Park. Bulletin Natural 
History Society, Maryland, 10 : 4-7. September. (Mimeographed) 

1943. Mammal note. Bulletin Natural History Society Maryland, 23 : 66. April, 
May, June. 
Handlet, O. O., Je. 

1956. The shrew Sorex dispar in Virginia. Journal of Mammalogy, 37 : 433. 

1959. A revision of American bats of the genera Euderma and Plecotus. Pro- 
ceedings U.S. National Museum, 110 : 95-246. 3 September. 
Handley, C. O., Jr., and C. P. Patton, 
1947. Wild mammals of Virginia. Commonwealth of Virginia Commission 
Game and Inland Fisheries, Richmond. 220 p. 
Habdt, J, D,, Je. 

1950. What is happening to the muskrat. Maryland Conservationist, 27 : S-9. 
27. Fall. 
Haeeis, V. T. 

1952. Muskrats on tidal marshes of Dorchester County. Chesapeake Biological 
Laboratory, Solomons, Md., Publication 91. 36 p. 

1953. Ecological relationships of meadow voles and rice rats in tidal marshes. 
Journal of Mammalogy, 34 : 479-487. November. 

1956. The nutria as a wild fur mammal in Louisiana. Trans. Twenty-first 
North American Wild. Conference, p. 424-475. 

Haetman, C. G. 

1952. Possums. University of Texas Press, Austin. 174 p. 
Heeman, C. M., p. M. Bauman, and R. T. Haberman. 

1957. The presence of Eurytrema procyonis Denton (Trematoda: Dicroco- 
eliidae) in some mammals from Maryland. Journal Parasitology 43 : 113-114. 

Heeman, O. M., and J. R. Reilly. 

1955. Skin tumors on squirrels. Journal of Wildlife Management, 19 : 402-403. 

Heeman, C. M., and O. Wabbach. 

1956. Incidence of Shope's rabbit fibroma in cottontails at the Patuxent Re- 
search Refuge. Journal of Wildlife Management, 20 : 8.5-89. January. 

Hinton, M. a. C. 

1931. Rats and mice as enemies of mankind. British Museum ( Natural History ) 
Economic Series No. 8. 70 p. 



1911. A systematic synopsis of the muskrats. North American Fauna 32. 47 p. 

29 April. 

1942. The water shrew (Sorex palustris) of the southern Allegheny Mountains. 
Occas. Papers Museum Zoology University of Michigan, 463: 1-4. 15 

1956. Management of the white-tailed deer in its environment, pp. 187-259 in 
The deer of North America. Stackpole Co., Harrisburg, Pa., and Wildlife 
Management Institute, "Washington, D.C. 

1949. A means to distinguish skulls of coyotes and domestic dogs. Journal of 
Mammalogy, 30: 169-171. May. 
HowEXL, A. H. 

1908. Notes on diurnal migrations of bats. Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, 21: 
35-38. 23 January. 

1914. Revision of the American harvest mice. North American Fauna 36. 97 p. 
14 June. 

1925. Preliminary descriptions of five new chipmunks from North America. 

Journal of Mammalogy, 6 : 51-54. February. 
1929. Revision of the American Chipmunks (genera Tamias and Eutamias). 

North American Fauna 62. 157 p. 30 November. 
1940. A new race of the harvest mouse (Reithrodontomys) from Virginia. 

Journal of Mammalogy, 21 : 346. 14 August. 
Jackson, H. H. T. 

1915. A review of the American moles. North American Fauna 38. 100 p. 

30 September. 

1922. A coyote in Maryland. Journal of Mammalogy, 3: 186-187. August. 
1928. A taxonomic review of the American long-tailed shrews (genera Sorex 

and Microsorex) . North American Fauna 51. 238 p. 24 July. 
1961. Mammals of Wisconsin. University of Wisconsin Press, Madison. 
Jones, J. K., Jr., and J. S. Findley. 

1954. Geographic distribution of the short-tailed shrew, Blarina brevicauda, 

in the Great Plains. Transactions Kansas Academy of Science, 57: 208-211. 

2 August. 
Kellogg, R. 

1937. Annotated list of West Virginia mammals. Proceedings U.S. National 

Museum, 84 : 443-479. 7 October. 
1939. Annotated list of Tennessee mammals. Proceedings U.S. National Museum, 

86 : 245-303. 14 February. 
1956. What and where are the whitetails? p. 31-55 in The deer of North 

America. Stackpole Co., Harrisburg, Pa., and Wildlife Management In- 
stitute, Washington, D.C. 


1954. Cow-pasture nests of Cryptotis parva parva. Journal of Mammalogy, 35 : 
252. May. 

KiLHAM, L., and C. M. Herman. 

1955. Severe infestation of blow flies in a raccoon. Journal of Wildlife Manage- 
ment, 19 : 499. October. 


1931. Swimming of the muskrat. Journal of Mammalogy, 12 : 317-318. August. 

336-897 O — 69 13 


KOLB, O. H. 

1938. Mammals from the Loch Raven area. Bulletin Natural History Society, 
Maryland, 9 : 1-5. September. 
Kbutzsch, p. H. 

1954. North American jumping mice (genus Zapiis). University Kansas Publica- 
tion Museum Natural History, 7 : 349-472. 21 April. 

Lamobe, D. 

1953. Common skunk has meal of yellow jackets. Maryland Naturalist, 23 : 80. 
Latham, R. M., and O. R. Studholme. 

1947. Spotted skunk in Pennsylvania. Journal of Mammalogy, 28: 409. 26 
Layne, J. N. 

1955. Seminole bat, Lasiurus seminolus, in central New York. Journal of Mam- 
malogy, 36 : 453. August. 

LeCompte, E. L. 

1937. Otter caught in gill net. Maryland Conservationist, 14 : 15. Summer Issue. 

1942. Analysis of game kill statistics for season of 1941. Maryland Conserva- 
tionist, 19 : 4-5, 8. 
Lewis, J. B. 

1940. Mammals of Amelia County, Virginia. Journal of Mammalogy, 21 : 422- 
428. 14 November. 

LlEBS, E. E. 

1951. Notes on the river otter (Lutra canadensis) . Journal of Mammalogy, 32: 
1-9. 15 February. 

Llewellyn, L. M., and F. H. Dale. 
1964. Notes on the ecology of the opossum in Maryland. Journal of Mammalogy, 
45 : 113-122. February. 
Llewellyn, L. M., and C. O. Handley. 
1945. The cottontail rabbits of Virginia. Journal of Mammalogy, 26 : 379-^90. 
Llewellyn, L. M., and F. M. Uhleb. 

1952. The foods of fur animals of the Patuxent Research Refuge, Maryland. 
American Midland Naturalist, 48 : 193-203. July. 

Long, O. A. 

1963. Mathematical formulas expressing faunal resemblance. Transactions 
Kansas Academy of Science, 66 : 138-140. 
Mansueti, R. 

1941. Trouessart's little brown bat around Baltimore. Bulletin Natural History 
Society Maryland, 11 : 56-57. January-February. 

1950. Extinct and vanishing mammals of Maryland and District of Columbia. 
Maryland Naturalist, 20 : l^iS. Winter-Sipring. 

1952. Comments on the fox squirrels of Maryland. Maryland Naturalist, 22: 

1953. The varying hare, or snowshoe rabbit, in Maryland. Maryland Naturalist, 
23 : 71-75. 

1955. Seal strays into Maryland waters. Maryland Tidewater News, 12: (3) 1. 

1958. The Cranesville Pine Swamp. Atlantic Naturalist, 13 : 72-84. April-June. 
Mansueti, R., and V. F. Flygeb. 

1952. Longtailed shrew (Sorex dispar) in Maryland. Journal of Mammalogy, 

33 : 250. May. 


Manville, R. H., and R. P. Shanahan. 

1961. Kogia stranded in Maryland. Journal of Mammalogy, 42 : 26^270. May. 
Maetin, a. C, H. S. ZiM, and A, L. Nexson. 

1951. American wildlife and plants. McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York. 500 p. 
Mabte, W. B. 

1945. Some extinct wild animals of Tidewater. Maryland Tidewater. News, 2 : 

Maynabd, C. J. 
1889. Singular effects produced by the bite of a short-tailed shrew, Blarina 
brevicauda. Contributions to Science, 1 : 57-59. July. 
McAtee, W. L». 

1918. A sketch of the natural history of the District of Columbia. Bulletin 
Biological Society Washington, 1 : S-142. May. 
McKeb:veb, S., et al. 

1952. A survey of West Virginia mammals. Conservation Commission, West 
Virginia Pittman-Robertson Project 22-R. 126 p. 4 January. (Mime<^raphed) 

Merbiam, C. H. 

1887. Do any Canadian bats migrate? Evidence in the aflSrmative. Transactions 

Royal Society of Canada, Section 4 : 85-87. 
1895. Revision of the shrews of the American genera Blarina and Notiosorex. 
North American Fauna 10. 125 p. 31 December. 
MILLE31, G. S., Jr. 
1897. Revision of the North American bats of the family Vespertilionidae. North 

American Fauna 13. 140 p. 16 October. 
1912. Catalogue of the mammals of western Europe. British Museum (Natural 

History). 1019 p. 
1924. List of North American Recent mammals, 1923. Bulletin U.S. National 
Museum, 128. 673 p. 
MiLX£B, G. S., Jr., and R. Kellooo. 

1955. List of North American Recent mammals. Bulletin U.S. National Museum 
205. 954 p. 3 March. 
Mitchell, A. L. 

1934. Eastern extension of the range of Peromyscus maniculatua hairdii. Jour- 
nal of Mammalogy, 15 : 71. February. 

1938. The ijairie white-footed mouse in New York State. Journal of Mammalogy, 
19 : 503. 14 November. 

Nelson, E. W. 

1909. The rabbits of North America. North American Fauna 29. 314 p. 31 
Osgood, W. H. 

1909. Revision of the mice of the American genus Peromyscus. North American 
Fauna 28. 285 p. 17 April. 
Patton, O. p. 

1939. Distribution notes on certain Virginia mammals. Journal of Mammal- 
ogy, 20 : 75-77. February. 

Peacock, D., and R Peacock. 

1962. Peromyscus maniculatus hairdii in Virginia. Journal of Mammalogy, 43 : 
98. February. 

Pearson, O. P. 

1942. On the cause and nature of a poisonous action by the bite of a shrew 
(Blarina brevicauda). Journal of Mammalogy, 23: 159-166. May. 


Pearson, O. P., M. R. Kofoed, and A. K. Pearson. 
1952. Reproduction of the lump-nosed bat {Corynorhynus rafinesquei) in 
California. Journal of Mammalogy, 33 : 273-320. August. 
PooLE, A. J., and Viola S. Sohantz. 

1942. Catalog of the type si)ecimens of mammals in the United States National 
Museum, including the Biological Surveys collection. Bulletin U.S. National 
Museum 178 : 705 p. 9 April. 

Poole, E, L. 
1932. Lasiurus aeminolus in Pennsylvania. Journal of Mammalogy, 13!: 162. 

1937. Pennsylvania records of Sorex cinereus fontinalis. Journal of Mam- 
malogy, 18 : 96. 14 February. 

1943. Synaptomys cooperi stonei from Eastern Shore of Maryland. Journal of 
Mammalogy, 24 : 103. 20 February. 

Peeble, E. a. 
1899. Revision of the jumping mice of the genus Zapus. North Ameriean Fauna 
15 : 42 p. 8 August. 
Pbesnal, C. C. 

1958. The present status of exotic mammals in the United States. Journal of 
Wildlife Management, 22 : 45-50. January. 

1951. The life history and ecology of the jumping mouse, Zapus htidsonius. 
Ecological Monographs, Durham, 21 : 61-95. January. 
Rhoads, S. N. 

1903. The mammals of Pennsylvania and New Jersey. Privately published. 
Philadelphia. 266 p. After 11 April. 
Schwartz, F. J. 
1962. Summer occurrence of an immature little piked whale, Balaenoptera 
acutorostrata, in Chesapeake Bay, Maryland. Chesapeake Science 3: 206- 
209. September. 
SoHWARZ, E., and Henriette K. Schwaez. 
1943. The wild and commensal stocks of the house mouse, Mus nmsculus 
Linnaeus. Journal of Mammalogy, 24 : 59-72. 20 February. 
Se^beet, Henei 
1939. Weasel. Bulletin Natural History Society of Maryland, 10(1) : 21, 
Seivebinghaus, C. W., and E. L. Cheatum 

1956. Life and times of the white-tailed deer, pp. 57-186 in The deer of North 
America. Stackpole Co., Harrisburg, Pa., and Wildlife Management Insti- 
tute, Washington, D.C. 

Sheffee, D. E. 

1957. Cottontail rabbit propagation in small breeding pens. Journal of Wildlife 
Management, 21 : 90. January. 

Shbeve, F., M. a. Cheyslee, F. H. Blodgettt, and F. W. Besley. 

1910. The plant life of Maryland. Maryland Weather Service. Baltimore, Johns 
Hopkins Press, 1910, v. 3. 533 p. 
SiLVEB, James 
1928. Pilot black snake feeding on big brown bat. Journal of Mammalogy, 9: 
149, May. 
Smith, F. R. 

1938. Muskrat investigations in Dorchester County, Maryland, 1930-1934. U.S. 
Department of Agriculture Circular 474. 24 p. May. 



1940. Notes ou the life history of the small eastern flying squirrel. Journal 
of Mammalogy, 21 : 282-293. 14 August. 

1943. Notes on the breeding habits of the eastern flying squirrel ( Glaucomys 
volans volans). Journal of Mammalogy, 24 : 163-173. May. 
Spebrt, O. C. 

1941. Food habits of the coyote. U.S. Department of the Interior, Wilqlife Re- 
search Bulletin 4. 70 p. 

Stewart, R. E., and O. S. Robbins. 

1958. Birds of Maryland and the District of Columbia. North American Fauna 
62. 401 p. 

Stiokel, LtrciLLE F. 

1946. The souce of animals moving into a depopulated area. Journal of Mam- 
malogy, 27 : 301^307. 25 November. 

1948. Observations on the effect of flood on animals. Ecology 29: 505-506. 
Stickel, W. H. 

1951. Occurrence and identification of the prairie deer-mouse in central Mary- 
land. Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, 64 : 25-32. 13 April. 

Tate, G. H. H. 

1947. Mammals of eastern Asia. Macmillan Co., New York. 366 p. 
Tkomba, F. G. 

1954. Some parasites of the hoary bat Lasiurus cinereus (Beauvois). Journal 
of Mammalogy, 35 : 253-254. May. 

True, F. W. 

1890. Observations on the life history of the bottlenose porpoise. Proceedings 
U.S. National Museum, 13 : 197-203. 
Uhler, F. M., and L. M. Llewellyn 

1952. Fur productivity of submarginal farmland. Journal of Wildlife Manage- 
ment, 16 : 79-86. January. 

Van Gelder, R. G. 

1959. A taxonomic revision of the spotted skunks (genus Spilogale). Bulletin 
American Museiun Natural History, 117 : 229-392. 15 June. 


1956. A new southern record for Mustela erminea cicognanii. Journal of Mam- 
malogy, 37 : 113-114. February. 
Wbtmore, a. 

1923. The wood rat in Maryland. Journal of Mammalogy, 4 : 187-188. August. 
Wetzel, R. M. 

1955. iSpeciation and disperal of the southern bog lemming, Si'- rntoniifs 
cooperi (Baird). Journal of Mammalogy, 36: 1-20. February. 

Young, S. P., and H. H. T. Jackson. 

1951. The clever coyote. Stackpole Co., Harrisburg, Pa., and Wildlife Manage- 
ment Institute, Washington, D.C. 411 p. 




1 49.30:66 docus 

Mammals of Maryland, /Paradise, 

3 5043 00329 2652 


Demco, Inc. 38-293 

As the Nation's principal conservation agency, the Department of the Interior 
has basic resfwnsibilities for water, fish, wildlife, mineral, land, park, and recre- 
ational resources. Indian and Territorial affairs are other major concerns of this 
department of natural resources. 

The Department works to assure the wisest choice in managing all our re- 
sources so that each shall make its full contribution to a better United States 
now and in the future.