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1r'<ii-,i>-> <iMh< I -ifK. ,L..,FuiiU* wMsf. Vol, lOOi S». I. 

THK 



OKTH AMERICAN 
REVIEW. 



SUiTKD b\- ULOYD BtiWS. 



January, 1890. 

A DUEL. 

Trade . THK BT. HON. IV. E. GLADSTONE 
. . THE HOS. JAMES 0. BIAINK 

JcrrERftOK Davih 
] .M,r, R. H. T;i 
. . RoDOtFO i. 
l'ri>tcnDr ot Arrhieology m the Univcnity or Koroe 

\r ._ 1. ,. .. CUA»IM!.& K. Tuckfrua> 

iMinKr .... CaMIU-R Ft.*MUAItIt»N 
<or C^tpjrTiciit ■ COVNT HuiLB DK KkNA IKV 

WrOMK-STi VIKlVa OK DIVORCK. 
MaRV a. UVikUDHK 



NOTES AND (X)UMK.VTS. 

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Q. S. NICHOLAS, 

|41BBlVHfltf|^ NEW r( 



THE 



. NORTH AMER^^AN 



REVIEW. 



Rk-Krablisbkd bt Allkn Tnok dikk Rick. 



EDITED BY LLOYD BBYCE. 



VOL. CL. 



Tro Tyriuwiue mihi duUo ducrimine agetur. 



NEW YORK: 
No. 3 EAST FOURTEENTH STREET. 

181)0. 



Copyright, 188M890. by Lloyd BHTOi 

■^U HghU reaentd. 



B * ■ • 4 



W.":.- 



»• • _ • • 



NORTH AMEKICAN REVIEW. 

No. cccxcvrii. 



JANCABY. 1890. 



A DUEL 

FREE TRADE-THE RIGHT HON. W. E. GLADSTONE. 
PROTECTION-THE HON. JAMES G. BLAINE. 



ilOL GLADSTDKII: 

t. APOLOOr FOR IBIS ABTICLB. 
The existing diffurcnce of practice between Amcrict Vld Brit- 
ain vith rMpfwl to free trade and proteot!oQ of neoossity givw 
rin to ■ kiud of iuUiriutioual coDtroverajr ou thuir reMpoctEve 

.neriti. To interfere /rom acrci^ the Tater in Bach s oootrorersy 

'bio act vhioh ida; wear tbo appunaco of impertiae&c«. It 
!■ primJ faeie an intniiioo by a oitiz«D of one country 
into tho dnmettic affairs of anotbor, which an a rale musX 
be bcLLvr judgvd of by deuii«iia Chan by foroignera. Nuy, it 
vf evflo BotiD a nther rioleat ininiiiioQ; for the sincere adrocato 

' of one of tho two Ryvtenu cannot Hprak of whitt ho deems to be the 
demeiit« of the other otherwise tbau in broad and trennhant ternu. 
In this caw. however. It may be said that aomothiug of reci]>n>cal 

'nprooch ia implied ia the glaring contrast between the legislation 
of the two ooiintries, apart from any argamentative crpoiicion of 
iti natart. And whttre iihoald an Eagliahman look for weapons 

. to be uaed against protection, or an Americaa for weapons to be 
wialdod in its faror, except in America and Kngland reepeotiroly ? 
This aeotimeDt roceired, daring the latu Proaidestial struggle, 
a Ureir iiltutntioa ia pmctloo. .\o Ainert<aui genilenuu, Mr. 

NOTC'Wr Otedtim* tea cwtcmulr mueoM l» tb* rtwullaiiMiu pvbUM- 
Uag<' .a4i*rilr. aUbw'aicplf -eORoa S'. A. Rivnw. 

-SO. 3B8, 1 



3 



THE NORTH AMERICAN REVIEW. 



N. HoKaj, of New York, took, a«oordin|; to tlip proverb, th« 
bull bj Ibe hormt. Uo vigited Oreut OrJtaia, mH<i» whnt ho con- 
sidered to be an inspectioo of the emplojments, mges, and con- 
dition of the people, and reported the resnlk to Iiia couDtrymen, 
while they were vnxm with the animatioQ ol the national contest, 
nnder thedoleful titleaof'Kree- Trade Toilers" and " Starration 
Wages for Men ajid Women." He was good onougb to forward 
to roe a copy of hi» most interoating tract, and he did me the 
further honor to address to mv a tutter covering the pamphlet. 
He challenged an expresstoD of my opinion on the results of £»« 
trade in England and on " the relative value of free trade and 
protection to the Rnglish-apeaking people." 

There waa an ovidunt title thus to call upon mo, becanse I had, 
many yean since, given uttomuce to an opinion then and now 
■tnoerel; entertained. I thoaght, and each of the rolling j< 
teaches mo mora and more Qzedly to think, that in intemalioual'' 
tranauctions the British nation for the present enjoys a commer* 
' cial primacy ;^at no country in the world Hhows »ny capacity 
/ to vreat it from us. except it be America ; that, if America shall 
frankly adopt and steadily maintain a sjstem of free trade, she 
will by degrees, perhaps not slow degrees, outstrip us in the race, 
and will probably tako the place which at present belongs to ns ; 
but that she will not injure ua by the 0[>oration} Oo the con- 
trary, dliu will do na good. Her freedom of 'Ma^ will add to our 
present commerce and our present wealth, bo that wa shall be 
better than we now are. But while we obtain this incromcut, 
flhe will obtain another increment, ao mnch lurger than onra that 
it will both cover the minus quantity which, as oompurod with 
ni, she at present exhibits in ititemational tranaaotiona, nnd also 
establish a positive excess, possibly a large eioeas. in her own 
favor. 

It wonld have boon importinent in mo. and on other grounds 
impolitic, to accept the invitation of Mr. McKay while {he I'rosi- 
denttal contest was yet ponding. Butsll the agencies in that great 
election have now done their work, and prottwtion has obtained 
her victory. Bo ciho the loveliest and most fruitful mothor of the 
wealth of nations, or be she an impostor and a swindler, disltn* 
goishod from other swindlers mainly by the vast eoale of her 
operations, she no longer stands within the angost shadow of the 
election, and she mnst take her chance in the arena of diiicossio&'i 



FRKS THADK OR PftOTECTlOS. 



S 



^keommoO combaUot, ftslitteii to free spcM>ch and to fair troat- 
bat to nothing more. So tbut the citizona of tvro couu- 
trJM long frienill;, and evidQQtly destined to jret closer friend- 
liiiiCM. Dtaj ooir Btlml; and safe); piireiie an argameiit whiob, 
[from eiUier ot the opposin;; poinu of viuw. bos tbe most direct 
ri&K OD tbe wealth, comfort, and well-being of Lbo people od 
1 ^m of tbe wator. 

U. AS OLD PBIBKD fflTn A NEW VACS. 

The appeal of the champion whose call has brought me into 

the fl«)d it ver7 propttrly mode " to thewage-eamersof the United 

StatHL" lie exhibits tho deplorable oonditioc of tbo BriUfifa 

warktDgman. and saica whether our commercial supremary in not 

uphill! at bis eipeniie. The constant tenor o( the argument in 

thix : hijb wagw br protnc'lion, low wages by free trade. It 

l*r»ii OS the recurring burdva of a eong. Now, it somotime* 

that, while we listen to a melodj preaeated to na ua now, 

i Um giadtialljr arises in tbe mind, "Ihare heard Ihia.before." 

fAndl cmo state with troth that I hare heard this Tery same 

■uUodj before ; oay, that I am familiar with it It comoe to na 

Mvvilh a plcamnt norelty ; bnt onoe opon a time wo British 

folk wtra aurfeited, nar, almtiet bored to death, with it. It is 

ampljr the old mug ul oar squires, which tbej sang with perfect 

JMW todefeod tbe Ciirn liaws, first from vitfain the fortress 

\ai aa aorvformed l^krUamvol, and then for a f^ood many years 

iSwre, with thfir defenoea fatally and fast crumbling before their 

!*7W. aft«r l*arliamiinl bad been reformed. Mr. McKay and 

ProtectioQ, now ma<le vocal in him, terrify the American trork- 

I jDaa by threatening him irith tho wagos of his British comrade, 

iprMtMly as the Engliih landlord coaxed our mral laborers, when 

need to get our bedt wbeaUfrom Daotzig, by exhibiting the 

fatarration wagaa of the Foliidi peasant. 

But tltera is alao a Tariution in the musical phrase. Our low 
vastti. it it nid. form tho baaia of oar cheap production. So it 
I danred, ai Mr. McKay apprioea me, to " get some relief from 
tiM Anwrioan goremment ": by wbicU I understand that be <alls 
far more protection. Fnr example : I have learned that turfs ore 
eooailoDally sent from Ireland to America to supply tho Irish 
Imnigruit with a mde memorial of tho country be was forced ta 
Iwre, bat baa not eeased lu lore ; and that those turfs aro drar to 



0^ 



THE XORTIT A^aESTCAX REVIEW. 



hia affectionate patriotism, and have been boaghtb; him at prices 
rolativoly high. Bat thej are charged (I am told) as utienu- 
memted artidoH, at fifteen por cent on tho value. I liopo theru In 
no Btrong tarbary interest in AnK^nna, for I gather that, to aouure 
high wages to Iho diggers, you wonid readily, and quite coo- 
flistentlr, niiao thii?, say, to five-aud- twenty. The proioctive 
argument, however, at thia stage rather ie. How ean the capitaliBt 
•ngaged in manufacture coniiwte with his British riral, who ob* 
tabu labor at half the price? But this also in to us uvither 
more nor Icm than thu repetition uf au old ami familiar etraii 
Tho argument is bo ptatuihle that, in the early days of our Tell- 
knowD Corn>Law controrerey, it commendod itself even to BOtne 
of the first champioRsof Ilepeal. They pointed out that during Che 
groat French war the trade of our raauurKCtiirur« was secnrod by 
onr posMttioo of the sea ; bat that, when, by the establishment of 
peace, that became an open highway, it wm impOHeiblo for our 
manufacturers, who had to jtsy their workmen wnge« btutod upon 
protection pricM for brvwl as the first nec«iiBary of life, any longer 
to oom[»to with tlie chwap bnaul and cheap labor of the continent. 
And. in truth, they could show that their trade w^ at the time, 
to a great extent, either stationary or oven reoediug These argu- 
ments were made among ns, in the alleged interest of labor and of 
cnpitnl, jnst as thuyaru now L'lnpluyed by you; for America may at 
present bo said to diet on the ciwt-off reasonings of English protec- 
tionism. They were so specious that they held the field until the 
geulns of Cobdon recalled us from conventional phnues to nntnral 
laws, and until a fieriea of bad harrcsi:t (about 1811A— tt) hud 
shown tbti British workman that what enhanced the price of hia 
bread had no corresponding power to raise the rate of his wages, 
but dmtiiictly tendi^ to dcprcM them. 

r>et mn now mark the exact point to which wo haTe adTanood. 
Like a phonograph of Mr. Edison, tho American Proteotlonist 
iiniply re|}eat0 on his side of the Atlantic what has been first and 
often, and long ago, said on ours. Under protection onr wages 
were, on the whole, higher than those of the Continent. Under 
protection American wages are higher than those of Great 
Britain. We then argued, paiit Aw, rr^ propttr hoc. He now 
argnca (jnrt listen to hi« phonogmph), po*t knc, eriji> pr^ttr h»c. 
But our cxpoHcnce has proceudt-il a stagu furthvr lltaii that of 
jUia Ameiiuun people. BtMpitv the low wages of the Continent, 



FHKE TRADE OR PROTECnOK 



We broko (lovn oxery protective mill BnJ flcwilcd the conntrr (so 
the pbraae then na) with tho corn knd Che comtnoditioii of the 
vbolo world ; irith Uw oaro of America flret and foramnst. But 
did oar nles of wages tberoupon siuk to tlie level of the Coa- 
titwnt ? Or did it rise %i«i»AWy and rspicU; to a point higher 
tbfto ImmI bcon Rvcr kuoK-n before ? 

That tbe Americttn rutc of w«gM i« higher than oars I con- 
oede. Some, at least, at the causes of thta most gratify lag taal I 
ihaQ endeavor to acknowledge. Myeiiuinerution may he siiflloient 
or may be otherwiee. Whether it be eshaiistiro or not, tho facta 
will of thenuKlvM lend to lay upon protcotioniMO tbe burden of 
MUblii^hin)^, by tiomething more than mere conoomitaucy, a 

icuaal ri'lution huliriwn commercial restnuat and wages relativety 
blgh. But what if, bfuiiiles doing this, I show (and it is eaay) that 

|ngMwhtch mar have boen parliiilly aad rvlutivcly high nndvr 
(ion. have become both generally and absolutely higher, 
And greatly Uiglmr, under free trade ? 

That protection may oitexut with high wagus, that it rm; not 
of itaclf neutralise all the gifta and favors of nature, that it doM 
n4>t lu a matt«>r of course make u rich country into a poor onu — 
all this may be true, but is nothing to the point. Th» true quoa- 
tjon 11 wbetbur protei^tian offers ua the way to tho muximam of 

.altainable wage. Thia can only be done by raising to the iit- 

'mart attainable height the fund out of which wages and profits 
alike aru drawn. If its tendency ia not to increoBc, but to dimin- 

, Wi, that fond, thrn protrction is a bar to high wageat, not thfir 
and i«, tburelon?, the enymy. not thu friund. of theclastuui 
on wboM* wages their livelihood depends. This la a firat ontline 

I of tho propoaittoiu which I ahall ondoavor to unfold and to bring 

IWIIM. 

m. ARITTSH VAOS). 

Mr. McKay greatly reli«l npon a representation which he has 
giTira a« to the rato of wages in Kngland. It laonly incidental to 
the main disooMion, for tliu nubjcot of this paper is not £nglaud, 
I America. Yet it evidually requires to be dealt with; and I 
ideal with it broadly, though briefly, asking leove toconteab 
Iba InfereDcea and the tncts which he praaonta. My con- 
'IntiOB on thia head will be two-fold. Fifvt. he has been misled as 
to the aetnal rato of wagea in ^^glnnd. Secondly, tbe qurationia 
aot whether thai rale i< lower than the rate in America, norcTen. 



8 



THE KOBTir AUFJUCAV REVIEHT. 



wfiether th« Atneriran workman (rd(1 thin U a yerj difFenint mat* 
ter) is al«-iiy« better off tbuti the vrorkmati Ju BnglAnd. It ie, 
What are Eaglieli vagea nov under free trade, oomporod vritb 
whftt tliej formerly wore under protoctiun ? 

And (tret, as to the actual rateg 'm partiotilar caaos to which he 
has ruferrcd, I must draw u line boiweeD the case of the Engtuh 
chain- makers, ou which he haa dwelt, and the oaae of the great 
coal industry, of which lio hag taken the town of Wignn as a 
sample. 

In an old sociot; ttkc this, with an indcflnito variety of occu- 
pationa, there are luuullf some which lie, as it wore, out of the 
Btrcam, and which represent the traditions of il former timo, or 
p«<!uliaritt«« of circuntstanoa, not ;ot touched by thnt (|[iiRkon)ng 
brenth of freedom in trade and labor under which [ shall show It 
to hu uiiqucationablc that an oTCrwhelniinj; proportion of onr 
population have found thoir way to a great and, indood, extraor- 
dinary improvement. In particular, we may expect to find a 
[amentablo pi(;tnre in those cages where hand hibor is destined to 
be Huppkiited by machiDArj, but where the ttuusition, though 
at Imnd, has not yet taken effect. These chain-mnkers are repre* 
sented B« earning, man and wife together, four dollar« per 
woek. Smallas is this amount, it would not have drawn on that 
ocoouDt the loagc notico in the days whpn hnmnnity took its 
standards from the facts Hupplied by prutccliun. L'ndvr the 
present circumstances, it happens to hare attracted marked attea- 
tion in Parliament, and elsewhere, aud I believe that it ia at 
this Tery time the subject of public incjuiry. Bat the true 
answer to the argument from isolated oases is that there is no 
relation whuUjrer betwMn the condition of this or that small, 
antiqnatvd, and solitary employment, and the general condition 
of onr vage-oarning population. 

It is otherwise, however, with reference to Wigan. Em- 
ployment at this important centre is subject to the economical 
currontaof the time, and undonbteilly the facts it may exhibit 
meat be held to bear upon the gencnil ijuextion of the ooodition 
of the people, lint it so hapjicns that I have tlie best means of 
obtaining iufomiAtion about Wigan. and I had better state at 
once that I am at ituiue with Mr. McKay's report upon the 
iacta. The ata.t«ment« made by him have doabtlen done their 
work ; but it i« still a matter of interest to cleur op the truth. 



ntXS TRADS Ok PROTKCnOJr. 

i rt wpto, of Thicb h< (i«duM thai Ifae pvi^ cbnrcb bas bam 
AmuhM, nvw. M I Am Mscnd, bad an? eziit«ace. Tbe tMBpm- 
lon in BoMtihdge miae, wkiHi he lUtM at nitieCT-three degreee, 
dtaa ooK ■XDmiil rnnaty Aa gn m. The vsgw of mnL are not 
thne ttSIEagt a daj, bat tvj teitm a mimmom of three ahilliofi 
•ad tbrcefteoc* up to Uia «Qin of four ahHlinga aod oxpenoe. 
The MiBiannD for toomb on tb« bank is not one dnUi&g. bat 
one ahOliiig and flxpanw, and tbe nuximaiD not oo* ^Ulinp 
and mnflpeoca, bat tvo diilltngm. Vird» tuch u be estimates at 
fiirty-fireiadMS vide an? forbiddett bj bj-lair« of tbe Local Board 
iooed in IflSS, and ntmUr lawi kraed in 1S«0 reqatn that 
eottaff^ afaall have an open ^Moe^ at the rear er lida, of not tern 
than one biuulrad and itkj aqnare faeL BarroTa are not in oae 
for vbeelta; ooid aDdergroaad. Inavofd,ea Car as tbe only place 
I hare been aMe to make tlw lobjeet of etafnJTiatioB is ooDoenad, 
the aeeame; of tbe npposed stateneats of feet ii eonteatad aQ 
aloog tbe t^ bf pervooi oo tbe fpot, whom t know to be nf the 
IdgfaflA DutwofthineH and anthoritj. 

We ate, knwsrcr, bapptij in a condition to bring apon tbe arena 
•i^idtnee of Car higher BHMoeat than aasertioiu or denials foonded 
ipenal^v i^iidglaaeeiofatnreUer, ereahadbeootbeenbdea 
with a for^ona eoD ch idon, or than denialj attat^ againat tbooe 
iMertio&j. So far aa Great BhtatD ia ccoo om cd. it is obrtous 
•BOacfa to vhat point we sbvnld address oar iaqniries, if they 
irt to be of aoj wriom force in detenniQing bj reeolta the eea- 
trv f WW f QpOB tbe reipectire miriu of protection and free trade. 
We maat endearor tn ascertain the general late of vapa noer, in 
ooaparisoai with what it was ondfr the protectiTn sjrtem. and 
with eottftant regard to tbe cMt of bring as exhibited b; tbe prioea 
of eomModftics. 

And. in order to try tbe qnestion for this coaatry at larger 
wbathar &ee trade has been a carse or a Meanng to tbe people who 
inbabft it. I shall repair at once to our higheet aatbority. Hr. 
Oiflen, of tbe Board of Trsde, whose earefal and cotopf«hensiTe 
disqaiiitioRa an before the world, and are known to command, 
ia a TTTT bia^ deifrae, the pabHc confideawe^ Be snppliee as 
« ' 'i compare tbe wagei <d 1633 with those of 

i&sk iQ luui a tiajr as to speak for tbe prisoipal branches of 



xeuMWfl 



t tka LmI R*lf CMtvr: Sa - ! 



p.irt 



8 



TUF. yoRTu AMERICAN nnvTKn: 



Inilustry, »ith the exception of agricaUnral labor. The irages of 
mimirii.we Icani, >wvi!iutrrcuflcd in StalToniabirc (which almost ccr- 
tainlv is tlie mining district of loweet incremeut) by oU ]ier cent. In 
the great exportuble oianufacturcg of Bmdlord. ami Uudtlorefield, 
the lowest augmentations arc 20 and 30 per oont.. and in other 
branchiM they ri(« tn fin^ R^^ uifl, i.t..j| ^-y^" ^" 15'^ »i"l 1C(I per 
cent. The (juiMi-ilomcstiu Invica of ciirpeiitfrd, hrickUj-urE, and 
ns, in the great murta of Glasgow and Manchester, show a 
lean iDcivai;<.> of G3 per cont. for tho firBl, C& jior cout. for the 
Becoml, and 47 per cent for the Ihird. The lowest weekly wage 
nnuicd for an adult is twentj-two BhilIiu£S (as against seventeen 
ahitlings in 1833), and the highest thirtj-&ix ehilUngs. But 
it ie tho relative rate with which wo have to do ; and, 
as the American writer appears to conteniphLtv with a pc- 
oultar dread tbo cfTect of free trade npon shipping. I further 
quote Hr. GifTcD on the monihly wages of seamen* in IUSS 
and 18S3 in Bristol. Glasgow, Uverpool, and Lontlon. The 
percentage of increase, ainco we have passed from the ))rotectivo 
sj'stem of the Navigation Law into free trade, ia tu Brintol 68 
percent., in Glu^ow !>n per cent,, in Liverpool (for different 
classes) from 26 per cent, to 70 per cent., and iu Loudon frum 
45 per cent, to 69 per cont Mr. UitTen lius given the ligurqs in 
all the c»s»i where lie coold be anfiiciently cerLaJn of i-c»ctitade. 
No such return, at once exact and couipfeheuaive, can be sup- 
plied in the case of the rttral workman. But here the facts are 
iiotorlonH. We are aspired that there luis been an nniii'eraal rise 
fgomewhiit checked, I fear, by the poccat agriculturul distreen), 
which Caird and other autboritiM place at 60 per centf Hr. 
Qiffen uppnrcntlr concurs; anil, so far aa my own personal 
sphere oE obwrvation reaches, 1 can with confidence confirm the 
aetimiftc and declare it to bo modorntc Together with t}iis JD- 
oreaae of pay there lias been a general diminution of the houn 
of work, which Mr. Giffcn places at ono-fifth-l If we make 
this oorroction upon the compitrative table, we Ehall find that the 
cases lire very few in which tho iDcremoat does not range ue high 
as from dO and towards 100 per ennt 

In a later csaay. of January, 188ti.3 Mr. Giffeo toiiohea tho 
case of the nnskilled laborer. TTe ohservefi that the aggregate 
proportion of nnakillcd to skilled labor has diminished— a fact 



'p.vx t p. S3. I ft«. ! Pt^ ttl. «. 



TffB NOBTB AMERICAN REVIEW. 



ftud r^iou» of ftptitudee to produce the svror&l uommoditH? 
which are a«c«ssary or useful for the ta«tQiUDoe« comfort* and 
luIrnnUgo of human life. 

If evwjr conntry produced all commodities witli exsrfly the 
flame dct^ree of faoitity or ohcapneisi, il would be coiilrikry to com- 
moQ-sease to incur the charge of seodinj^ ihetn from one country 
to another. 

lint the inequalities are bo great that (for example) region A 
can supply region B with many articles of food, and region fi 
can in return supply regiou A with muiiy articles of clothing, ut 
such rates that, although in each case the charge of tracsmisijfon 
has of necessity been added to iho Qrat coet, the re&pectivo articloe 
can be Kold after importation at a lower rat« than if they wen! 
home-growQor home-manufactured in the one or the otherooantry 
nepectively. 

The relative cost, in each caw, of productionand tmnaraiasion, 
as compared with domestic production, supplioB, while all remain 
nQtrammellL-d by Htoto law, a rule, melive, or miuuxiiring of dis- 
tribution vhich may be termed natural. 

Th« nrgnment of the Froe-Trader is that the legislator ought 
nerer to interfere, or only to interfere »o far as iuiporutive fixcal 
neeeaaity may require it, with thin natural taw of diHtribution. 

All interference with it by a goremmont in order to encourage 
some dearer method of production at home, in preference to a 
cheaper method of production abrotid, may fairly be termed 
artiliciul. And ereij such interference meaua simply a diminu- 
tion of the national wealth. If region A grova com at home for 
fifty shillingti with which region B can supply it at forty, and region 
B mannfactiin-x cloth at twenty shillingii with which region A can 
supply it at fifteen, the national wealth uf eiuli in d imiuisbed by the j 
an and the five shillings respectirely. 

And the capital idta and taboreniin each of lliusc countrioahave 
so much the less to diride into their resipeotive shares, in that com- 
petition between capital and labor which determines the distribu- 
tion between them of the price brought in the market by com- 
utuditica. 
f" Id mj view, and I may sa? for my countrymen in our view, 
I protection, however dignified by the source tmm which it pro- 
oeeds, is esnuutially an invitation tu wuflte, promulgated with the 
aatboHtyof Uiw^ It may be more rioleut and prohibitory, orit may 



rRKS nUDE OR PttOTSGTtOH. 



■;bot, upmUuipomttovhieh tLgoBBtituaprocaisepTen to 
dav prodoctioo to atilelil it ■gBuurt tbe omnpoiitioa of cheap pro- 
dnetion. or fiven to dearer prodactioa to hold it bana]faag£minct 
rhiw|Ml . to maost Cor it a market it roulil oot otberviao bold, and 
to«Ml)leitto«xaot<rom tha coammcr « pric« ▼btch Iw voaJd not 
etherriae pay. 

ProCectioD aji to a prodaccr. Grow thta or mannfiKtnre that 
at a gnrnttx oeceamrj oatUr, tboagh wc mijrtii obtain it mon 
dwaplr frvm abroad. wh«re it cao be prodac«d at a tinaUerD«oea- 
warj otttlaT. This ia at^iiig, in other vords, wast* a certain 
HBowit of labor and of capital; and do not be afraid, for tbe oo«t 
of yaur waate shall be laid oo tbt) shoalden of a nation abicb b 
vedi able to hear it. 80 much for tbe waste onaroidably attadi- 
ing to dearzMtss of prodaction. Hot there are other and vet worse 
ilaaiLrijitiuns at wasto, ■■ to which I know not whRther America 
ssflan fraatly from them, but I kaow that iu IbiscvuuLrT «e 
tafforrd from them ^evouslr ooder tbe sway of prot«ctioQ. 
^ WiNO tba barrier tR«ted by a protective dot; is so high that no 
feretflMT can overiaap it, that duty enables tbe home manafacL- 
orar not only to charge a high price, bat to force on the con- 
saner a bad article. Thus, with an extrars^puit doty ou foreign 
Bnrka, we bad for our own ase the wont corks in Europe. And 
yctagaiiu protoction caosea wa«t< of aaoth<>r kind in a large elaes 
•f aaaa. Sopposo tbe oatoral dindvanta^^ of the home pro- 
dao«r to aqoal 1& per cent., but tbv pn>t«ctiTe duty to be 
M. Bak che^Hieas reqnires minote cure, economy, and do- 
apaUh at all tbe stages throogb vhich production has to pass. 
Tltta minots earpand thrift depend moialyon tbt> preanire of 00m- 
petitiAB. There were among oi, and there may be elsewhere, 
■MDy prodacsrs wboa iadolenot' tempts ton^Iect; who are not 
HflkienUy drawn to resist this iunlia by tbu attra<:tion of 
ftfiiiig profit to a iB«simuni; for whom the prospect of adviui- 
Isg* IB not cnoQgb without the sense of neou^tr, and whom 
I nothing can spar to a dnv nirablt-ness of moremeut «xc«pt the 
faarof not being aUe to sell their articles. In the case I hare 
mppDSsd, the aeoottd IS per osnt. is a fn» margin wheraopon 
this indotonc« isay disport itself : the bome producer is not only 

toanrsd for what he wastes throogh neoessity. hnt for what be 
airtri frniB asgitg; nce or c hojoe; and his fdtow-countrynwja, the 
psUio, haraUpayaliEeTorbotb. Wesufferedgri«roosly fiotnthis 



13 



TttE NOItTaAMERJGAX ItSVIEW, 



in Knglaad, for ottontimes the rale of the prorlncer is, or ma. 
produca notju veil as he can, bat aehiullj ox hn can, anil as well 
only u ho must. Aud happy ure you if. through kceucr anergy 
or more troubletionie coiucienoe lu production, yoo liavo no sim- U 
ilnr euflerin^ in Americn. ■ 

If protection could bo equably dintributctl all round, then it 
would bo fair u hctweon cIaas aud cl&fit). But it cunnot poettihl^ J 
be thus distributed in any country until tto have discoverod &■ 
country which will not find il« intoro^t iu exporting some oom- ' 
niodity or other. For the price of thiit coiumodity at home must bo 
dobonninvd by iln price in foroifni or UQprotcct«Hl market*, and 
therefore, even if protective duties aro inscribed od the ^talntc- 
hook at home, their olTcct muiit remain nb<!olut«ly null, so fur 
M this partJcular article is conoemKd. It is beyond baman vlt 
and power to Beciire to the cotton-grower, or to the grower of 
wheat or raaiie in the Unite<l Ktatos. tlio tenth purt of a cent per 
bale or per 1>nshel beyond what the prico in the market* uf 
cx[>ort will allow to him. If, under these circnnigtanee«. ha ia 
required to pay to the iron*ma8ter of IVnusylviinia, or to the 
ninnufa^iturer at Ijowell, no extra price on liis implements or on 
his clothing, for which ho can recoiro no ootnpensation whatcvur, 
8uch ertm price is at flnt wght much like robbery perjictrated 
by hiw. 

If such be the ugly physiognomy preseiitod, at the present stage 
of onr inquiry, bythiitanciontmid houry-heaJod wizard in relation 
to the clium for equal dealing botween oIa«8 luid class, the pre- 
fiiimptivo ciuiu iH not ii whit butter in regard to the aggregate 
wealth of the nation. Wealth is accnmiilaCion ; oud the aggre- 
gate of thai accumulation duponds upon the net aurplits left by 
the prices of industrial pnwlucta after dt fraying out of them lliu 
costs of production. To make tlits surplus large is to raiso 
national wealth to its maximuni. It is largest when we prudace 
what wc can produce cheapest. It is diminiaheal. and iho nation 
is 90 far impoverished, whenever and wherever and in whnterer 
extent, under the cover uf protwctire luira, men iiro induced to 
produce articles leaving a smaller surplus instead of nrtjcloe 
leaving a larger one. Itnt mich is the essence of protection. In 
Kngland (speaking raughly) it made lus produce more wheat at 
high pricet instead of mom tiaBues st low pricM. la America 
U makes yoo produce mure cloth and mora iron at high prioea 



FHKS TRADE OR PROTECTIOX. 



13 



of moru c«re»la and more eotton at low prices. Aod 
yoBT ooiiteQtioD is that by making production thus coetly you 
maJn mgoa bigh. To thU queiitioii l^t iis pae^ otiuranlB ; yvi not 
vithaiit leaving behind uscortain resulLi wliidi I think, jrou will 
Cud ii hard lo altaclc. unless it be iu Hank and rear. Sach as 
Umk : Firvt. that tsxtni prici* impiised ou clum A fur the bunfilit 
of c)aM B, without cum pe million, ig rabbor.T. and robbery not 
nmdered (in the abdtntct) more respectable b«ciuieo thu sute is 
till! ctilprit. VSe<candljr, thut protvctioii mtuinii dftar production. 
•ad dear prwini-tirm means, pro tanlo. n&ttunul imjKncrishmenW 

Bot the view (tl i\\K ^vuuinc Protcctioniet is the direct oppoaitu 
flf all thi«. I andonttand his contention to be that protuotion is 
(aatali- ' 'tn i.-*) a minw of wealth : that a greater ag- 

gittfut': ; iruui what yon wouhi call keeping tabor and 

capital at home than from letting them »cck vmjrloymcnt 
wht'fvvi* in ih« whole world th«y can find it most economically. 
/hat if thii ratlly is bo, if thvru bo this inborn fcrtilitv iu thti^ 
|iprmctpki itaelf, whjr are tho iwTeral States of the Union pre- 
clsded frDm applying it within their owii rod{kectirc kurdern? 
Qf the iCCXtfiU« would bo mado richer by ihxt, internal nppli<:ii- 
tioD of protpoiion to the parts, why is it not so spptiod? On 
tbe iilbrr hand, if tbd country as a wholo vonid by this duvioB bo 
nadfl not richer, bat poorer, tlirongh the interference with the 
aatoml htwa of pruductiuu, Lbi-n how h it that by ttimilar int«r- 
fenoM the Mgrggate of ibe States, the great commonwcath of 
.iflMriea, can Ijc mudc, in iti gGnoml balanco-shoet, not po«n>r, bat 
liciwr? 

A^lial ii the Yaluo orthis HT^unicat about keeping capital at 
Ihomi^ by DioonBof protection, which, 1>ut for protection, would 
Ind it« way abroad ? The cor)t9ntiuu sooma to be this ; capital 
vbtoh Donld be nioit profitably v-inpliiycd abroad ought by legal 
iradaceraent Co be ]nT0lglpd into remaining here, tn order that it 
nay b« 1cm profitably eniplnyul at home. Our ohjectought to be, 
aot 111 ponae ihMu tudubtricfl iu which the retnra la the largost 
when compATod with the outlay, bnt to ddtain iu thiscoiintrjrlhe 
brgnt qoantity of rnpitnl that wo can. Now, here I really must 
imrviir lb* ariptiniriit into iU hiiUng-pliiccn by tcrtiiig it in extremes, 
IX ' "r the legislator id to keep and employ in his 

*i«.Mi. ,_. .-.■ t' ••■ ■■■ (HiMihle arnonnt of capitjil, then the British 
PacUuEMat (czn'i/i/i ^rs/td) ought to protect not only wheat but 



14 



THE tfORTtt AMERJVA^r REVIKW. 



piofiapfilM. \A piQMpplft tfl DOW sold in London for ci^bt ahiilinfrd 
aixpttBoa, which, before we imported that mitJMtic fmit from the 
tiopioi, would hftTe sold for two pounds) Vfhj not protect the 
KTDWvr uf pineapples n( two poucds hy a doty of 400 per cent. ? 
Do not tell mv that tbifi is ridicalooa. Il ia ridiculoas opon my 
prinriptM ; but npon your prineipiea it u ftltowiMv, it U wiac, it in 
obt^pUofT — NSwW, fih&U I say* as it tsto protect oottanfftbrics by 
« doty of aO pBToeot Xo ; not u wi«e onljr. bat even more wise, 
and Uicnftin tma more obligatory. Because acconli&K to tbiA 
tifOMBt w« ABght to aim at Um |»oduetioti witluB oar own limit* 
of Umw coauaodities wbicfa rvqnire the laigoat expenditure of 
oapital and US»r to rear them, in preportioa to tbe qoanttty pn>- 
dnoed ; and no ooaunodity oonld mere amply fnlfil this coodiUcm. 

If pro te ction ha. •• tti obanpiom (or netim») bold, initeelf an 
•MaomMal good, then it holds in tbe sphere of prednetion the 
SMte pbKo a« belonge to trnth in the uphare of phikMophy, or to 
Tirtne in the cpiMrt at notab. In thb caie, yon cannot hare ton 
mn^of it; Mthat, whik' tatrc pntoetkn is •oanomical pmd ioj 
iiitujo. MnrlifltwiHlntli in full d«relopaM«toafylBtbepiohilHtioo 
of tov^trad*. I do out think the aijuneat vonld be onCair. 
It reaiDy ta tbe kfieal cantUary of all yoor BttmnoaB on the high 
wi^m which (h yoa hetietv) protcclion ihtm in Amertoa. and on 
tbf )(«w w-atrn whkh (aa yon bejieir) our free trade, now inpartially 
a|iptiad all mnnd, inttete nfon gn^aad. Bat I nAun from 
piwirfwg the pdat, beoBSH tds KatvU to be iMpesribfa for 
■TTinf an arjtaatent which tanda ta driv« the maoan Piotoct«HH-| 
iM d««pK and de«|wr intok Ml tha a«d. h«t (vte *■ ikold call ) 
Ihamiiw. 

Boi now t iWpiMa* the anew mqfki W that the eaaa vhieh tl 
ban pal M an axtnoM tmmi ami thai aifuuia an tut vcaj 
i mit nnX hy Uoir frttiwnea. Ueoinem> H m ^ iiwiwiaaceinnwf»l' 
I— HM i . when Tirtwe ofMi tcmAn in a men. Oat ohtt be eo. 
RM the kwe ef <<enKK«ty, vhtdh w« ar* new h^ittnc, a^iraoeb 
mtt«h ofon \n ihe iaw* ^^t ariihmaaki : «nd if jmmr i^jaJuj!, it 
tk»A «* .H^c1«* »•' t<»lt^ aM*C ttw ieUs 9m ihe bw^nmit of 
•ifst< :. -KxaM»tt.v 1^ n%nl k |<a4 ft a » i. it it atteaet 
-aikd he nwee ha* ih»a«— «hy it 

in 



vff ve^^n^ eft ^r 



ehal- 



ntEB TRADE OR PROTECTION. 



15 



I 
I 



' he war into the enemy'a country. I shall boldly con- 
' wlioloof tbisdootrine — tliat cupitol should be tempted 
atci an arsB of dmir prodoction for the sake or under the notion 
r[ kMpiQg it »t faomo — is % deliuinn from top to boctoin. It tayn 
(o the capitalist, laTmt (wv) a miltion doIUrs ia milU or fitctories 
to produoe yam and cloth which wo contd obtoin more cheaply 
frncn abroa4 — that 19, tw it romembonKl. which could be prodaovd 
•broad aod wat beru at a ■mailer uo«t of prodDcliou, or, iu other 
vord*. with \tsa waite ; for all cxpenditun: in prodoction beyond 
Ui« BMWuro of QocesBity — call it what we may — is simpl« wasto. 
To indnee him to do this, yon promise that he shall receive aa 
tftiSewl iBst4MuIof a natanU price ; and, in order that the 
fonignsrmay not dri<r« him from the market, thin artid(!ial price 
tiiall boaaddled. through the operation of an import dnty, upon the 
cempoiiag fonHp n commodity ; not in order to moet the waota of 
tlMiCai*t which is ihesole jiutirying parposo ofnn import duty, 
bat 10 order to oarer the low on wustpfal domcMtic production, 
nd lo make it yield a profit. And all tlus in order, At 'a 8iud, 
tiMt kbe capitalist maybe induced to keep bia capital at home. 
Bal, in Ajnarioa, beaides the jealotuly-paliaadod field of dear pro- 
dBOtion, there is a vast open expanse of cheap produotiou^ 
anulj, in the wholo mass (to speak roughly) of the ugrioultuni! 
prodacta uf tbo country, not to mention snch gifts of iho earth as 
its mttwral oil& In raiding these, the American capitalist will 
lod th« demand of tlie world unexhansto<1, however ho may in- 
CMMv tbe fuppty. Why, Ihuu, is he to carry his capital abroad 
wbm tbnneii profitable employment for it at home? If protection 
is BeoHsary to keep American capital at home, why is not the vaab 
Mfutal now sitstaiaing your domestic a$;ri culture, and rsifing 
eoounoditiw for sale at free-trado pricas, exported to other couu- 
tiias ? Or, conTenely, since rost capitals find an anlimited field 
fiirnmplaymeat in cheap domestic production without protct^tiun, 
it is dMaoiutrat«d that proteotion is' not required in order to 
keep yeorc^Ul at home. 

Ko adrtavary will. I tliink, renture upon aoswering this by 
aiyinj; that the proRts are larger in protected than iu unprot4)oled 
tndiuCriea. First, because tbe best opinions seem to testify that 
in your protected trades profits are hard proased by wages — aitat« 
»A things rrry likely to ooonr. bt^cause protection, restlngnpon arti- 
floial aimatanta. tends U> diiiturb and banish all natural adjust* 



riE££ TRADE OH PROTECTIOX. 



17 



or otiior Mirfoo than tbo postman dbtribating IuH«ts at a 
vj. But of diatributora the name Lale^'ion : t.hcy oonstitnte 
X\k» nut wtay o£ the wliolestilc And retail tntdesmea or a 
wontry, with all tho vanUi apjK'rt&iniiig to tliem. As coosumeni, 
Uwf are taxed un all protccte'l commoditieA ; as tho allies of 
prodaccTB in tho biU!ni!iB of diaLributing. thu; aro forced to do 
vith lOon oapital what could bo done aa veil vitb Ibbb. 

T. RSLATIO^ WtWBXS FROTECnoX AKD Hion WA01E&. 

AOmittiog that we ice id tlio United States a coexistence of 

bigh wagoawitb prutt-otioD, hut denying the relation of cause and 

iffiet between tbeu, I mity bu oxVkA whflllier I uin prepared to 

hntdra that deiiiul into on nniversul propoeition and contend 

that in no case can wagee be raised hy a system of protection. 

Mj amtver is this : A country cannot possibly raise its aggre- 

I gala vage ftind by protcetion. but mtut inevitably rcdnco iL It ts 

H « cootnfiini>e for producing dear and for selling dear, under cover 

^L^|mm11 or fence which ahutji out lbs cheuper foreign article, or 

^^^^^^pspc it on admiasion by tht- imposition of a heary fine. Yet 

T nay for the moment allow it to bo possible tb»t, in some partton- 

Isr trade or trades, wugnt muy bo misod (at tho expense of the 

aMBUuaity) in cooaeqneQce of protection. There ma a time 

vfara America built ships for Gn-at Britain ; namely, befom the 

Jbnericao Rerolution. She now imposes beary duties to prevent 

oer building ships for her. Eren my own recollection goes back 

to the period, between sixty and sovontv yttara iigo, irhon by far 

^ tk« moat, and also tUo b«st, part of the trade between Ds vaa 

H eaniad in Americao bottoms. Mr. KcKuy refers in his tetter to 

»> a period be/or* the War vrlivn she cotild compote with British 

Iibor» bat wfanot as be informs ua, yoar shipwi-iglit was paid six 

Ainipg» a day, wbtfroas now he has fourtMn; which means ttiat, 

1^ ai the proHta of capital are not 9up|>o»ud to have declined, tho 

^1 roiomaQlty pays for ships more than twice as much as it used to 

^1 jny, and your aiiip-baildcRidu a Htnall tragic with A large capital 

1^ iastead of doiog (m before) & large trade with a (rctatiTdy) smull 

eapitaL 
[H t will not now stop to dil!it« on my ndininition for tho 
^V nKnroM of a community which can boar to indalge in these 
lapurariafaioc prooessos; nor uven to aslc whether tho shipwright 
ID ' . . t)if, gn„(t oonstancT of wage as he had in 

. .„, -. ■■'.'8. a 




lbs lin^ out, «r vbetbor hii bnsv leeopt ■• eoBBMrmM v 
tiS*lng»<Ma>f M tfae iiiiwiiMiliii lad maftim af nf#. Bat I 
•in look aniplj to tb> i^QMlioa vfavibM* pf o ttat fan la thia 
(SM itisM «ae«s. r da not -MtH'^lf to Mj^ U ia, ia s UniMd 
war. iapoaiMe. If il be tiw, the itopi istb* p r<weM w«. I oon- 
eevn, « taOows : AtriM alnofaitclT n ^ «tw i br h*r ova aae a 
oaruia naialMr and toB Hig tof rwiTe C o t tg i wi lajs mch dntW 
Kpoa. foreifu ships aad materials tfaaK tbej dull not be obUia«<] 
from abn»d at Icm tkaa dovble Um prioe at vbidi ifae; an lolil 
la ft*«|nB asrtet. Thnvfore Ibe Aiawwaii Ai|Hbaild0 can 
fcn* Wi iiiaiilijiBWi to pCT kba aa; ma. voc axoMfiaf two 
pnoMt tor bkooouHdhr. TW iiMaiaiiin pabc it tbt rfiTinoa 
aftbe8MMBtM««n UHf»pi«iIi9t««dKbr««ttiM&. That ii 
fMWWd br thi g<aB«f«) ct«i« tt the )th«r aw/tec m Ui» cawntrr. 
If a* hbar aHtfcM. itih— opaa la Iha waM, if tanAoittiU; 
•applM. ih«B tb» waf mii bbt paaJMy. ta a gJTCD eani, 
BMB* in fM- a siiau* ol th* waaapoir prioe' «f ahJfft. If tb« hai>d> 
*D(fe b» ••« N^aiKag a Um$ ■ffraatjceihif (•» to oaU it), and 
thm^f faapidiag tha aoMM af ^vmmtOe i iwpiriiiaaj tim aiU 
■BfVMal km «hai«, Than v-br not tW Gk«c ■•«• oa* vill ack. 
hi all CMH* II«WM» tiw «a«iaaatST ia Iha ff t«B ewe pcys tha 
yiea af tiw ^Mwiyoiy Ihar fc» toi^. «hna>tth» priea ta arafte* 
mA fciiMMii, vhBa a tn4er ia a ■aHitwii at uuwaiBiaB vay 
la» apott •«* •( dMH. aaA ;«c aMt hav»a fsol ^alaDea-riwc*. 
apM tha ahata. b* amt »04 Mii'cMaat low ajsa them all 
i««tMa« toba a IraAir; itidaaaCJaR. ««ih taapaet t« 
< af fWfctaBti— . is m a ai^jh Ma^r. 
'WikhMl. thMi. «hMt«t#lT 3w.n^ h «• W |iiailli that m 
sMtilni ttd aiiijl ml iMsa tiwn ^r W a njatiiin 
h««n* |a««MMMi (tarf itt ftatoetfa^ a* br aa it fl«M. ia auiais^ 
olv) aad bi^ «^w. t eoMhFM ttoa to laiar fmrnaOr tha 
hl^ Wke «f «^:ta m Ih* V^t^4 i^Mm ia iMa iaMa waoM be 
aathto< iwaHwa yn p n^wat. &»l«iihihyMt«f thtaaaaldtoijv 
ki»l atoti 4^*fwm to »a to I* hi tha aalan «ff • 
(h irtVnata h^* iha«teaasiMaaf 
auKMiwt^ 
l*MlabteHi>iln'iai 



ail 

a 



,. ts^.::*, ^ 



TRADK on PROTRCTJOS. 



19 



rftio* BsirHiigiied to tbntn hv foreign rompetition in the marketa 
■here tbej lire sold. I take this roujih estimate for tlie wko of 
smplioltT, Btul in tite Mine -new I overltxfk tlt&fuct that the sugar 
Tfairh Ton gmw U stUl c*>verod, m it a&od u> bo covcrv*], by aii 
iifteniiTB piotoctioD. Ono-half, thui, of AmGrican Ubor enjoys 
fmt«alira wa^««;th« other half of the producleof Uie ITnhed 
Suiio* Mt funiiafjc-iJ l>j mt-n! -■ fn!u-trj.Ic lyiWrs." Jfow, I 
itMifc t« oak wh«ili«r thti nsgcs^ of the .igri<.*iiltural half ar^ 
nntd by the axist«.'nc« of protW!tiv« lawi vrhiob cover tira arti- 
ma half. 7" . o&iinDt pouiUjr affirm^ brcause it la an elo* 

■aeatarr fa. -eu ti>« (|iuu)tit/ of Isbnr in tbo market) 

iker are goTomed hj the prices of the commoJiiici thcr prodaoOi 
aidtrhatthf-- --^-'-- arB frqp-traj*' prinoa. You hate " free-trade 
laUen" ail " :auntr;,Kiid by theu-Kido vou bare pratecied 

artivaxu. I a«k, iwa, q<.u1» this iiuestini) : Is the remuneration 
of ch« "ln?«-tntlti toileit," ail thiu^ UJaera. itiLo nccouot, crquivu- 
kbt to that uf tha protected artiians ? If it 19 not, vhj do not 
the agnonltnnil men paiut nver itito the pniTiiicos uf 'lematid for 
wuiaCacUariQg and tniuiug labor, andj b; augmenting the iinp< 
1(7, fcdaue and Mjualise the rate ? Which is like wking, Uow 
opiRM tl tUiU a r iteut with one loaf when two arc offered 

kim ? Thrnti" 1 bo, hid in not content; wheneTf.r he 

on. he take* tha two and leavoi the one. It CoUowi that io this 
MM thera ftxUta 110 «xoc«a of wage fnr him to appmpriate. The 
loiJL ineaninc by the loaf not a nit-rfi moncr lutv, but that looney 
lll«iCiKeUl*r with ail it«iiKi(lonU of all kinda, ia equal as be- 
y^f^gf^ ji -- . ..- > -^f,(i the nnjirolwctod laborer. Tha propor- 
liooa *.•'. ^i of labor are governed in the long run ^nnd 

parbaiw in Anwnoa more certiiinlj and rapidly than anywbero 
tbe) b; the admnta^ attaching to oaeh respectivelr. In other 
«ord«, Ihtt fn.>».tnd« wagoa are as good aa the protected v«gee; 
nd (opart fium RmnU and exceptional caaea) the ide» that pro- 
IwAioB fsiaoi th« nU0 u£ wa^ea OU uiy lar^u Hcah- or in any opua 
Idd ia ao iUnflOD. 

Rnl 1 prO' ' nfidor the Taat exeeptional adrftuLagea 

*b>'-U a* a<Au:< uixed. Slalos enjo^ ; which enable tfaoiD 

vt bear the pn)r>'"«i uf deplecwn that, throngh the system of pror 
\--~'- ■' ■ ■ : ; ;, ! ! *hich (or thora cauBO 

'^ : ^^r-.*Mion. but only of 

hat^atmi and ratarUtd prwgresa. 



Tta jtoaTB AJOBtCAir Mtmrw. 



TL OX 



BXiaesR 



DOl 



numcttos otlt 



isruma, astik 

SOV WUIMf VSB TOITKD STUITB. 

I hald ttat datr pcoda c t ja o. ewe it rwpra ii ini to tht pro- 

itai fc* aifad Car ft dttaOBd aanw feB O* ^Mttiao, " Hw, tiua, h 
it Unit Aacrica, wkidu as jaa mf, mmkm aanrawm a wiiSa hy 
wmbtnft ill athr t*"**™* in the i^id 
oC karmUkr* TbvUAmf juiiiiii uhww » 
that th« can u Sfc* tltsl ef aa iodiffidBa] vbo, with wartefol 
wp— itftra, kai & rart fortaa^ sKh at t» bam Un a higv ex- 
ooi of raeeqitK. Bat far kii WMt» tint exosB voald be laifer 
ililL 

I wiO, tfceA. proceed t* ee* fortJi M«e «( the nawni vbi^. bjr 
piiag im ft um d aMrgy aad cnqrtaoaai oypirtBBity to the 
■ar t. of pndoctioo ta Ai— ica. aMB to aDov {ia IwoMiy phraae) 
af ber ■laktng dacte and diakes of a h*gt partion of vW 
tababir ■eeaMalatfeiia> aad nt, bj firtae ti %ht 
ef ilwsB, la aMoBiih the world. 

I. Let BO ofaMm^ ftnt» that H»fina fnamtmm 
■■Mofcottott, BwaaK awrt, oOt, mJ other cosBoditiei, vhich 
are nld in tbe KnefaeKand Marfcrt of Am awU at eodi prices et 
it vill jiald. !%• prodnoer* era faed Cor tin benefit «f the pio- 
t«cted iotcnns, *ai revvite aechiBf ifi Rwm ; b«t the; obtain Ibr 
ibeir eeoatiT. at wtiX as tor tbe world. Aa «bob adnntage of a 
notaatatal tnde— that b to «■;. a mda in vbiob prodaetioB is 
earrird od at a BuutBDia coat ra capital aDd labor as oompand 
vitb vbal the rwt «f the vorld «aa ^ 

i. AnHhca tOTite* uai ebtai&s ia a icBtfkdbla d«pn from 
■n th« vortd OD« oi tbe gnmX eteeaents of pradactioa, wHboiit 
tax of aaj kind— oaaMljr, oapitaL. 

a. Wbtleaec«riactotfaec^ilaBatpr«dM«tai»eMp^tntbe 
protected trade*. «be altAV* all tbe vortd «» do its bee^ fej a ftee 
lnw{fT«tf-» •> -^veat or (foaUly aaj uoii a ywwliTt g moaopol; 
in tb« vU v men. 

4. Shf dtmw uHHi a beak <4 oaiiual na s m es a ao *aet that it 

at«r«il': 



uDoag 



ihiM 



«biA eipisia 
«»{« VMM ot ibe pretaetire sjrsteai. 



FMES TRADE OR PBOTEVTION. 



91 



Anil firtt ot then I ploco the immsnaft extent and Tutnoss of her 
territory, «hioh make her not go much a country as in her- 
■etf a world, and not a reij Uttta world. She carries on the 
b awa t ii of domestto ezofaangea ou a scale such aa maDkiad has 
MTtraeeii. Of all the staple products of honuui iadustrj and 
tan, bow few an there whioh, in one or another of her countlem 
twgtQOM, the toil of America woald refuse to rield. Xo other 
oootitrjr has the aaoiD divenity, the same free choice of JndaBtrLal 
patfuit, theaatoeopliou to lay hold not on the good merely, but on 
lbs bast. Hutorically, all intemational trade has had its broadest 
b«h in the interchange between tropical or Bouthoro commodi- 
tiai and tboae of the tempeiBte or northern zone. And even 
tiuB kind of exchange America poaaeesea ou a couaiderable Bcalo 
within her own ample bordera. 

Apart fnim this widevuriety, I foppoee there U no other coan- 
trr of the whole earth in which, if we combine together the sar* 
faea and that which is below the iinrtaoe, Nature has been w 
boantiful to man. The mineral resouroee of our own Britannic Isle 
btw, witboat qnestton, principally contributed to ite commercial 
prvAmisence. But when we match them with those of AmericA, 
it hi LfHipat agutnit Rrobdingoag. I believe that yoar coaUfield, 
forukoiple, is to ours nearly in the proportion of thirty-six to 
MM. Now, ihia Tait aggregate superiority of purely auturol 
nalth is siniply equivalent to the gift, say, of » qneen in a game 
tttihtm, or to a start allowed in a raoe by one boy to anothcir ; 
with ttUi difference : that America oouM hold her own ugainat all 
eom«rs without Ibe queen, and that, tike her little Lord Fauotlu- 
n>y. aba c«D, if she likes, run the race, and perhaps win it, upon 
■qaal terms. By pratectioD she oiakea a bad move, which helpa 
u to make fight, and ties a heavy clog upon her feet, so that the 
•tost timid among us need not now to grvAlly dread her ooni- 
petitton ill tli>^ itilrrtiutionsj trade of the world. 

Again, the iuiertiiiUonal position of America may, in a oer- 
tain light, bo illastr»t«d by com[Mring together the economical 
tions onder which coal has been produced in the different 
of this ialand. The royalty upon coal rcpnucnts that 
nrplos over and above estimated, trading profit from a mine 
Vhieb the l««*ee can afford Co pay the landlord. In Kogland, 
IsoMaDy, royalties hare variiid from about sixpencealon to nine* 
pfDM tn a fow caaea ; acatcely ever higher. But In Staifordshire. 



39 



iUKBiCAlf RJBVJJpie. 



ewiiig to Iko Bitrtencw aC ft nataiteUtt «oat-a«Man>, called th* tMt* 
jftrdotMl, and to thv pMMoeoaf inmstonedHUHtaotljintvntntl' 
And with the <wal. die roysltjr hu ufleu amonated to uo iuui ihaa 
tbMe KhilUajra. Thie Bxe«as hM » teal analqcj to tl»» surplus 
bvwty of Slothvr Kartit Ln Aitahc^ JUid vMi I see Iwr abat- 
(Of MMH-whal ef bar vast adTantagv thnmgfa Uie iriek of }tfo- 
t«4toa, I am ntninded of tha OBfkwa iiwii Uut (as Ukappsna) 
Uii< aaiwaxl nhiinjxnoo of Um vliianl aude ibe settiuu of il in 
Slalbfdiibira xiaicuUriy wast^fiil, aod tiuU fnctiotw, aod ao 
hmUI tnoUoo*. of ctw tan-7«nl coal are duv irrwtfrtnblj tened 
in tbv Mrth. Uke tkf> tribotowkiob AjBCnea has, and faaj, « it 
«MMM^ matPQCadlT. bMB payi^S *D iMr |ainwtiil infarrMta. 

la (Mat u( th» alawrttta of rhffa|lMf. A—hra wballf aar- 
pMWi wt; a*. foraxAapIv, in U» natMaU JBdrfnaiiWeadTaBlaKM 
•k»*m)miki»u(litlw«MiaB«ii«i«itr aC Mm mto vbieli pro- 

ilini ten ifThi laiitiii aliiiih iiiMiai kupmilwti Iha*a 

tatotr «««« a paony pariafioaL fbiiihad br M—rfc. Harpar. of 
»a» Ywfc. wteA hr i bif iii dl l^ l^'lMpiiM miiI Aill of 
MtrpubMMlMaffliatTbbaMbyatoyMibaia. BMafttfcMi jib* 9«a&- 
Ifttaa aba tfaabs ^u< I* eoafm iaia wtaawa ibiaigb tba danwr- 

TWr»ar«C«maibM' partMBlaaa vlMcb I bOTatoMtie* brfara 
o( Hm aabfML Awk af tb^ iavttinaA 
ite B^Uo attar » j > aiw lrai. A* tbffi it 
.^littiiii iliMiiiii biaM nlfif ia^ I «£i j^ ni *wt of «bat 
lM«bia«L It a dM. T»aA» it. «a «■» Mi^Mt M faML lika 






Ualtkf^bavYAdRMili 



xAjr 



4^aaaarki 



jyUES TSAim OB PJiOTSCTlOK. 



as 



sllug uiit this Aiugulur mlvaiitugds oxvt the outer vorlil whicb 
tore h«& gitfii lo Anu^ricn, uot lu Luke notice of thoi« ad- 
TUUf i» which h^r [fcople have ou-ued or crcitted fur tbcmi>elTe!i. 
In: ■;.-" ' --^ijusc, haa there bceo so careful acuUivatioo 

It! -ly. And if Am^'rica hiu durjuusod in iuduS' 

trul tiiKorenoi Lha race from which her p^iiplu spmujj, we tlo 
nob grudge huf the huuor or ihe gain. Americaiu ure ccuiio- 
laists ta iiiTvotJons iuid do not let thum ttlip. For example* tho 
rMpiu£-mAchiQ« of inoikTti litnf-s, I bv-liavo, vriu inroutcd ia 
Kortiinbire. hut did out past tuto uiijr guuvrul lue. Still'born 
then, it diappeand.; but it wu appreciated and eetabUshod iu 
Aowrica* Aod then c&me bockamon}; iis lu ati importation from 
tlMnoe, uid vu at hut approcia'.ed und cstubiialied horo. The 
MnMtj of labor hu, in truth, Huppliwl the great Republic with an 
— lutial elvtnvnt of suitruand sfttutar; discipline. 

The Toath of America vaa. eapecially in Nuw Eaglund, a 
jvoth Dot of laxarj, but of dilliculty. Nature d«alt aomcwhal. 
■Mtil; Vith roar iiQCtutoni ; and lo their great adrautage. They 
TCte reared iu a mold of inasuuUue chxnicl«r, and wera made lit 
toeucoanter, and turu to aooounl. all Ticisaitude^. Aathecoun- 
trj opened, they were oonfronted everywhere witb one great and 
etyin^ want, tho scarcity of labor. 3o they were put upon tha 
l^i:ation of their mental powers to labor-Baving contriviuiocfl, 
wd UiU want grev lu fAJl an, or fiuter than, it wad uupplied. 
Tlitu it hai eom« about thai a race enduetl with cooaumiuate 
iMtty for Ubor haa also bL-uoiuv tbu richoet of all raoM in iujstru- 
lBeDt« for dt«p«iuiftj{ with labor. The proriiion of »aoh irkstra- 
Bdata hjH beoomu with you a standing tradition, &ud ibis to such a 
depeelhat - alcenyourjilaceoa (probably) the most invoiit* 

ire natiao ■ Mirld. It is thus obvious enough that a 

tiBarkahlu faculty and habit of inTcntioa, which goos direct to 
rJMMfnr**, helps to fill up Oiat gap iu your productire nuults 
vfaioh in crriatnJ by the wasiffnineu of protection. The leakage 
ia th« oatiouul alutcm is more ihancompouaatod by the efllcienoy 
of t2u> panip« that snpply it. 

America makes oo scrapie, thcu, to cfaoapeD everythiug in 
which labor ia oonoenied. and ghe gires tbo capitalist the coin- 
iBand of all uiTHntioa« on the best termv abo can contrive. Why ? 
Only hrcMJi* this ia the road to nalional wealth. Therefore, she 
bw no laercf apon labor, bat displa<^«4 ft right and l«ft. Y«t 



94 



Tim NORTH AMERICAS REVIEW, 



whon wo oomp to the aue whora capital in most in question. 
riiablus liur iiliip-biiildora, her iron- musters, and Iwr mill-ovnon 
lo ulmrdo doiiblo ur Mvmi-iluublo prioM ; which, if her pnicCioe 
\t»> >') lii1)or-niviti|f bo ^t^)lt, niti«t bo t.hd roiul to nstional porerty. 
E CfjHprrio, it ii)iu bo riglit in shuttiug uut foruigu ships and goods 
lo niliH Iho racviptii at thu Amurttain ciipiultM, why does she not 
liu 111 < < itiid thu Atnerioan " devil "* to nuM Uu 

nwi]' I UWrer? Not that I rwjominend such 

cfliwjirtunoy. t rwjoioe in the anonuUios and contnidictious b/ 
rlrtuo of whiah the appUcutionit of tolance urerywhora aboaiid 
thraagh thu Stutcs (or ttta benefit of their popalstioos, mad vith> 
tf tit •toubt, though taorv oircuitoitdy, of oan also, ud of the world 
at lnrtTfi. 

I tmrti still to nolii-v ooo remftimng point It is this : I do 
not dmibl tliAt pn>iliK-ttiiu is much chu^tiptl in America bj the 
atwuco oC all kiad< of clibs IrgisUttoa oxccpt that which u t«nned 
pTutMtion; an ittstauw aUkf vicioniand fig^aito, bat still an in- 
stauoi) ouIt. In our Itritish lngisUtion. tho tntenet of the indi- 
ridual or llw cUu Mill rather kifolj prevails against that of th« 
pubUok Itt Anwrica. m I nodontand tlw nutter, the pabBc ob- 
tMtn* full and v^nal Jnstiee. 1 laka for ^—^r** the ease of the. 
nuliv^i ; Ihst tasi oreatioa. osm of aliWMt amrasal good to mao- 
tdndt now appniaohii]^ lo onr-teiith or oa«-kw«lfih of oar entiro 
mUomsI p o ws e oi a niL It ia betiend that ift iinannranirj FarLia- 
WMitarr 4>tpeodttnf¥, and ia ahnonwal ptwsa paid hr land, th* 
I f this ooantr; www land to bctwean Ifty and a hnadnsd 

b........ «;4triinie b*]n>Md tWnakaraloael of tbeir crsaboa. Thas 

4bm tW a^iil of iMtMtioo. onlj skiflinE its Ibnn. mU ko nna- 
tatgidkO*! MW I H U I* «UL Xothiag is a» i w iis m hsswnsto 
saMfSwaAJan : and vsgstit not mUy fcrnjnria^Vatfor 
tet wMs Um rrtU aaiMt of Uw raiiMi ^th»h niofas 
ft i s d o* C»H»« w i^i» Hi*> »k <rtiy A ia>i Ae 
WfHiv wn MfnviHnsMi af mv oiwit • 

«U T«« n9«AI. l«««rT M VtM 

I M wry » «^ «fc>«. *M^sMi I te<« «i 

1 hoki" itv>t i«« Am* w^ Aa «MB 



rnsE TRADE ofi p^yrscnoy. 



25 



I 



Aoald be within mj rigbt io saying hard thiags, oatside the do- 
■un of pdlittcal economy, kbout ■ sjmtem which has commendod 
iti^ to the great American Rtatc Aod people, allbongh tfao8o 
hard Uuogt an, in put at lout, atrictlj conaeqaent ti|>oD what 
km been, said betoiv. Indeed, the momJ U to cloe«ly allied to 
tb» aoonomical argnmsnl as to bo intertwintMl with it lutbor 
than oonaeiiaent opoQ iL Further, 1 believe the people of the 
Caited States to be a peopio who, like that race from which they 
in iprting, Iotp plain apeaking ; and I do not b«li«T« that to 
apprae opmiotu detiberately and c(»iacieDtiously held n-onld be 
lbs my to win yonr nep«ct. 

I nrga, then, that oil protection is monily as well aa eoooon]- 
IcaOy bad. Thii b a very diSurvnt thiag from eayiog that all 
Praeretioojfta arc bad. Many of them, without doubt, are good, 
nay, «xce)l«til, aa weiu in thin oountry ouuiy of the snpporters of 
the Gnrn Idv. It is of the t«ailenct«a of a system that I speak, 
■hich Dpetmlfl rariooaly, apon nioet men unconsciously, apon 
uttc own QOt at all ; nod surely that system cannoc bo goo«I 
wfaioh makfl* an indiridiml, or n set of individuals, live on the 
moanm of the community and caaatw him relatively to diminUh 
tfaii ston-, which ditty to hi« ft'llow-cilizi^ru and to their equal 
rigfatc should teach him by hi£ con trihat ions to augment. The 
lubit of mind thus esgooder»d u not such as altogether be6ts a 
bw ouontry or faarmoniem with an indepoodent obaraotor. And 
tha mora the system of pmtection is discoaud and oontested, 
tfcs more thorn «hom it favon are drixen to struggle for its 
■italciiaoDo, tlic farther tbfly moat inseoably doTiat« from the 
k.w of eqoal rights, and, perfaj^w, even from th« tone of genuine 
parMnal indepaadpnoo. 

In speaUag thai, we speak greatly from our own experience. 
I have penooally lirod throuf^h the Tari«d phaees of that ^ iperience. 
uoB n began that battle between monopoly and freedom which 
eoit IM aboot a qoart^r of a century of the nation'^ life. I havL> 
aen and known, and had the opportunity of comparing, the 
lumper and fnutu* of niiud engendered first by our protoctioniflm. 
vfaieh ve now took back upon as eervitude, and then by the com- 
nenual fraadoni and o^uatity which we have enjoyed for the last 
thirty or forty ywn. The one tended to harden into positive 
■^<falnui» • tlia oUwr hai done mnuh to foster a more Ub«tial touu 
v( mind. 



TBE NORTH AMERSCAti BXVIBW. 



P«rliap8 the most remarkable feature in the arg;iiiiient of 
((l»dston«, M inde«d of orery EnglUh Froo-Trader except John 
Smart Mill, is the oairertaUty of application vfaich h« demauda 
f or his tkttoiy. Id nrging Ita adoption he makes do disdoct 
bttwooQ MUDtrios; ho takes no aoeoaot of geogiiq»hical positit 
— whether a natioa be in the easUrn or the vestern beiauiu1i«r 
whtthwr it bo north or ionth of tho eqaaior; bo pajs do ii«e«l to" 
oUmaU, or product, or dejpve of adTaDoement ; none to to|x>- , 
yraph; — vbether tfae ooantry be as lerel as the delta of tbo N'ilc^ 
or at uoB&UitMtts as the Republic of Boltria; none to pureuiU^ 
Mid «iii|4«j'meato. whether in the n^cultnnl. raanotaetttrinj;, or 
comBMroMl fisld ; Bona to th« vaahh or poraitj of ■ poople; 
none to popnlatioB, vfaecher it be cro-wded or ^wrve; none to 
area, vhetfaer it be as limited as a Gcrmao priDcipalitjr or as 
•ilMdtd H ft MbtiaMtil Bapire. Free tr»le be beberee adTon- 
tafHos fbr KUfhiad : tlMnlors, without th« aUowaaee of anf^ 
nodifving roadition, gnat orsnisU. the Raglirfi ■cpnomiat dc 
dana it to fas advanti^eoai far the Cidlod States, ibr Brasil. fa 
AwlnbUa ; bi short, for all eottatriea vHh whick fa«t*»*«^ oai 
■■ UM ii h trtde rtbttoos. It wvoU W dificalt. if not lapotsfbk, 
fcr Mr. QladstoM to te4 any priaeiiils «f xtaiatspation or any 
■MRQi* of AttaiMw BO vma^ <tlad la tW vwji^ aaads of alt i 
ctwntrie* ta ba asansMa tha palter of trm tnda to be. Sareljr ilH 
ia ik4 nofliir W waJatain dMfc <Mwct^ his rwalts fiom obeerr-^ 
•Mm and exp«vmm> ia his «tm tmatiuj, ba mtg fisQ into error 
•ad ftul to a: the fiaaaeial workiafsor echcr eaaauies 

pmyraphkiall^ iTttivtr aad of ti^Uy gwafr aiaa. 

TW Awsritui IVelveti>.«tst. V« t aeC ha ^nooarteaas to orge,. 
Il hfMwIarfa kb view* tltaa tW TwjfSlk F^w-n«dflr. No in- 
IvlMfMl pr<M-^^>-^- -• in the TullaA StaAsa fntsafc that « 
oMntr; wwi 4liw adr«ata(|a htm thaadafCiea of 

V«ot«etkV» ijawat. IlitaMi go^naaiiat k bM a aMdbi 

iMi.^ k,- m {a ifcrtdy a^jaalBlaa ta woeic witKI 

Ofcat 



V 



=, V 



rSEE TRADE OR PliOTECTIOX. 

wmt. One haa a Jorge popDlation to the sijaare mile ; the 
«ti)cr a louU popaUtion Ui tbu equare mile Ooo wu rild 
id * rich Mid complux cirilizfttion bofor« the establishment of 
ihv othfit wu i*vmi TorvsoeD. One bad become the weallbiest 
nation of the world while Uie other waa yet in the toiU aod 
ioabta of a fronlirr life aud a primitivo cirilisuition. One hud 
•MaaiTo manafactarea for almoit «rerr Sold of hnmao Do«d, 
vltb the ciriUacd world for ila mark«t, while the popuUliou ol 
llw other mm ttiU forced to dtrida its energies betwi>«D the hard 
wlliag of the sra and the still harder calling of a rude and 
■caDtilj^nimuiKTruliru agricultura. 

The phrvical difler«nce« between the two countries are far 
mora atrikiofc than thepolitioal ami Rocial differenceti. They are, 
fodami, almoxt incalculable. Great Britain ia an ieland lees than 
bi: 'and nquan? miles in extent. It liPS in the far north. 

Itk :.. rumoot point is nuarljr thirty dcgmni of latitude above 

the IropitM. Ita noflbcmmof t point is bnt nine degrees below the 
aietk) ctrele. Within iu area the cichungt! of natural products 
n neoenarUjF limilrd. Ita life depends upon ita connection 
Titb other ooaatriei. Itji proapcritj reeta upoa ita commerce 
with the world. On the other hand, a single State of the Union 
ii nwu-Iv three timea an targe as Great Britain. Several other 
fltatoa are each qaiteecioal to it in area. The whole Unioa la 
uvU-oisli fort;f timte as large- .Alaska eiceptod, the Dorthera- 
mit potat of the Union ia eixty miles south of the Boutbcmmoet 
piiDt of Great Britain, and the southernmost point of the UnioD 
abottitllf more than a hundred miles from the tropit-s. Its 
nataral prodacla are more ntried, more numerons, and of more 
Tkluablc ehanicler than theee of all Kuroi>o. To qaote one of 
Xr. Gladatone'a phnaes, we eonstitnte "notao muchacoQDtry 
iaoiUBelrea. aa a world." He tella ue that vo carry on "the 
ImainaM of domeatic exchanges on a K:ale mch as mankind has 
ttnr ■em." Our fon-ign contmeroo, very large in ilaelf, is only 
at one to tweiity-flre compared to onr internal trade. And yet 
Xr. Oladstoiw tliinlu that a policy which is essential to an island 
ia tbe QOithem oeean should be adopted as the policy of a coan> 
try vbidi ereo to bis awn TisioD is " u world within itself." 

Witii theaa fuodametital pcdnta of differenoe between the two 
fOBBtnas, 1 Msttnw that varied Snancial and industxial lys- 
tem>, wnmght by the expsrienoe of each^ would be the nat- 



M 



TRE HOnvn AUKRICAN JtrVIEW. 



:4 



iiml utd loificAl rueiih. U«no6 I do not join imw- with Ur. 
fMnilitniiii on t>ntti nf hU pro}Muittons. He 'lefeiuls fieflH 
tnulo in Mrvnt Itrilnin. I!e kbjuuU pr»t«ction iu Lho Uuite^^ 
St«t«>. Tho llrtt pruiKiiition I neither danjr nor affirm. 
VTftv I ((> iiHKiinitt Ihnt prDl«elioci u in ftll oouDtrici aad 
iMUli-r nil l,■i^•llmxtl^neetl thf iri«wt pojfcy, I nhould Iw Ruilty 
iin »mir iiiiniUr tn that which I think Mr. Gkdirttitie aomnuu. 
tt mlpht Iw diffli-iilt lo pTom that free tmdc la not the wisest 
flimncin) {xilicr tt>r Omit Elritoin. So far from fpuniing hurself 
■Itutitt miit«>Tful iiiitK>rt««l rr»itt oth«r coantriH, ttfrriodaitruJ 
•VAtvm would wither iit)<l ^ic if forcifrtr^^"^****'**'^''^'''''' 
»Titit A hriof jwrfoti, Sh» i» in iin espivinl dcfrw d«p<*iitlvut u]K>n 
ll)« proliicis of othw nrntutiMk Morrarar. thtr «1om not fe«) bouc 
lo |iM.r h«'(Hl io th« nU» of wa(v> vluofa her labor inaj reoair^ 
TtMt, lib,' th* MbrtMvhioti twr ltbor«rakt«a, nan tak» itc • 
Id the markets of tH# world. 

On m«nT pottit* attd in oumr n^wcu it vat tax Oifferent with 
Orvat ItritiaB « huntlred vvara afcw ^ic did oot kbea fool m- 
ntvd tlut A* cMtd bMT fck* iioif«4irt«in fltOnariiwlMai aationa. 

nuMi»f«Hurc(lfbrk*t«itf aadftir b«ta»t<worie«feolaai«arMcbiBg 
«n«»dttHi|ilDU>. hito lho«a cola^it ao ithw — tian eagld cany 
anrtht^;. *TVt« «nu n* «*1» of daty apott 

<Aial port. WtMithacatMiwaeadtdwitaMei 

t^ndiin jm'^iN.-^a c<«MlM k» (^f«MMd lBtkH> ««ly IB BnOib < 

TUi «W w<« pivlMttaK * It waa pntihliiia. abadala aad 
a wMwflwa, MmI it ww«v«riiM«l ana i»th»4ay v^m Mr. OM- 
•Mfrf f«*H«U wf«« Kto KMit v^ n^ifcfci fMaar ift ndWMbL U 
vnui iH>i >ih>Jn«, ikvMifk la ««• Taqnaw * waa anftufti. satit : 
ttt* Nln*MVif hwi* Mntbli lai ig^ i haA aMviad t^ wttMkwmH 



Banoa^ii 
tMeflfl 

lad tS 



MM^lMt. 



*:kk 




■♦,■ .t 



!^««U. 



TRADE OR PROTBCTIOS. 

flrriingtoi' oapital of the kingdom ; r-vvrj ypsr wit- 

•aaeda rttu- i- -■ ■■' tutlio effective niacliinory whoao iiRgrogiite 

^er was already th< wvoder of tho wertd. The onward march 
af V facturrng irnhmtriM, tho ntwdy and rapid dewlojt- 

Bi>:L : mercautile marine, ab&urbed the matchless cnU}rpri«« 

lad emrr^ of the kiugdom. I^nally, with & vnst capHal bccu- 
Ottlfttad. with * low rate of intprest rJ^UljUslied. aud with a 
annCnEtirmg poww oncittallpd, tho British merchants -wero 
Tvu\v to uodorbid all riralt In nvlring for thi> trade of t ho world. 

At that tnomest Great Britain had reason to feel anpremely 
EOQtcnt. Sbr found under hpr orro fta^, on chc sliorce of cvltj 
oeean. a liA«t of ooniumere whom no maa might number. She 
had Canada, Aa«lra)ia, and India with open ]>orts and froe mar- 
ktti for all her fabrics ; and, more than all thes« oomhinod, nho 
{band the ITnitnl Statn isuddeniT and scrioii»lv loworing her tariff 
and effectiii-elr abolishiDg protection at the very moment Bng- 
bad WW declaring for fT«« trade. The traffic of the world 
•fvmed pTonpiMtiTKly in \icr rontrol. Conid tliitt cnndicion 
of trndo haTB continued, no estimate of the growth of England'a 
vcrnlth would bo poaslble. Practjculty it would bare bad tn^o limit. 
Could aha have retainod her control of the markets of the United 
9Mm M ihe held it for the fotir yean preening the ontbreak of 
tte CItH War, the Araorirain people would hare grown commer- 
eblly dependent npon bur in a greater degree tfaan ia Canada or 
Aostralia today. 

Bat Kngland was dealing with an intelligence equal to ber 
Q(^ T' '■-' ; ^1 ■ -',!.? had. by repeated orperienee, hjamed 
that \h- ion In home manufactures wer« thoM 

ia ;land most prospered in her commercial relations 

vith .11'- Luited States, and thjit those pertoda of depreediou 
had, with a single exceptton, easily explained, followed the 
maetmml by Congrrss of n fnW' trade tariff.* as oerljiinly as effect 
(0r|.,«> .-■iiiiu> Aue of the moat guggostire eiiwrimenta of that 
fc:. -I in the tariff to which I hare jant referred, passed 

Et : ' :rinonywi'- id'flnowly-deelarcd finan- 

fia' ^ , _. .mMiiii.Si :'r-»»*ident (Mr. Polk) auda 

fcaii i w ra S(«CTrt»ry of the TrcnMry (Mr. Robert J. Walker) were 



"CMv-UadQlAiW biPolVM a mblnuUDtlutKif Wrma- It la mad U> 
ti^Utwmat'113 wUiib U ItfTlea «IUi no UU«aUOo to pcatvct doaiMUe 



THS NORTH AMKJUCAS REVIEW. 

btr man interestad Id expanding th« v«& of slare territor; than ! 
in adruiriilg faoDW muiaEKtun-^. aad ven e^>ociaU]r cftger io< 
make ooruDonnal exchanges with Europe od the somewhat iit-i 
ficdtt b*fiu of eottoQ at high prices and rvtanung fabri«e at Iot ! 

Under ordioary circamatanoes the tne trade tariif of 1840! 
voald hare prompt]; fallea onder popuUr reprobation and beea ] 
doomed lo tptaiy repeal. Bat it had a uttgalar blaEtory and 
ft time «M generailf ac^aiesoed in, ens attaining in many 
tiooa a certain degree oE popohintT. Xrrer did aoj nth«r taiij 
meet with eomanj and ao jpeat axU of an adteniitious char- 
aoler to lutttn it as did ihia eoaotnent of l&ifi. Oar war with i 
Mexico began jut ae tlMdatiea w«i« lowered, aad the oonaeqnenee J 
via the dtsboneowBt of aaore than eoa hnndred w)iTTionii at dol- 
brt in a war that reached all kicalitie« and Earocably afftcted all | 
intanata. Thbwaaagnat aom oC moMrjr for that period, and for' 
the 7**n 1&46, 184T. and 1&4S it riMiiaiiiiTiTy mora than dmiblcd 
IheenlinaryoutlaTof the goTeramaBl. In the middle of thiej 
p«M tk« Irieh Camlae eocaxted and tmO&A tar an "^ww^ sx> 
poKof hieadifaib at hj^ pricw. Thed i scwm y of gold i&Cbli- 
tontia. the noeeadiBX ««er, lashed the nhannth of butnem i 
Mf<er befcn, by tapidlT «ftlaixu« the euvBlHtioB of «oia 
parts of the ooant^. Befen this wtp e wmg of gold had < 
Ihe three gieat aa ti o m of Hfopa. as pieeedeaoe wm ndumed: 
<htl lim^— ^gtettd. Vnmm.mA Rbm.— e»tmwd npon tt 
CMmean War. The expect of mau^fiuw &«m B»gt«Ti^ 
Pcaamwwebeefeed; the lawrfrtati ^ ffwiai wmhloel 
•udeoaU aelteei^ the mKkalB of tka world. As. 
eltakiklH wee thus fiven toaU fermaef tr*fa intW Uailed 
1^w tea ,nwe— t$M t* ISSC— IheM *d«aMiliau a»da 

>.|»i 1 1 _ "^ f7 1 1 1 B f il la ri M ir i appAl 

|»^* hm co«ntxj. 

oiy »>p**a4Wt^ mtr^ief g«M tnm Calitc 

)^«u .i.r ,«.,« ' M.^ T^iii ■ I iifT— ifHii mmfi or 
A«M««wr«hm» mhadwith 



SBAMVWl 



FR2B TJiADB OH PJiOTECTTOK 



33 



tho ruin of thousands, iDcIndioi; proportionately u 
tbe South u in the Xortli, leading the country dis- 
and dutrecmd in all tbe avenues uf trado. Tlie ilisas- 
trooi rctulu of ihii tariff npon tho permaneat industriea of the 
C(iaotr]r 4r6 described in Prcaidcut Buchanan's vdl-remenibered 
BMMgo, eommnnjatl^l to Congress nftcr tho panic : " With un- 
■BTpwwl pldutj ID all the olemoni^ of uatiooa) wealth, our 
mana£actarpra hare futpendnil, our public vorks are retanled, our 
prirate eiil»rpri«s of tlidcnMit kinds are abaudoned, and thou- 
Mads of aMfnl labonjra are ihrown out of employmout uikI 
t«dac«d to want." This ustimouy oa to the n-Ktilt of a rree-tnido 
tariff ia all the more forcible from the fact that Mr. Buchanan, 
I a member of Ih^sidunt Polk's Cabiript, had consented to the 
ItliMtdonm«at of protection, which iu his earlier canMr he had 
rtrscstl; jrupported. 

If tbaM diiaatitra of I8A7, flmrin^ from tho rroe-trndo Tariff, 
ODold ham been regarded as t'lcitptiunul, if they bad bc«n without 
panllel or pruccdcDl. thvy might not have hud &o di^ly aslgoiii- 
tmaoK. But the American people hitd twice before passed through 
tcimiUr (tzperieiict!. On the eve of the War of 1S12. CougresB 
piardad the natiouat itrength by enacting a highly prot«ctive 
tariff. Bjr its own terms ibia turiff must end with thu wur. When 
tha new tariff was to be formed, ft popiUftr cry aro.se against 
" war dutiM," thon;fh the conutry had proaperod under them 
dMpitd tbe axliiuatiug effoct of the stmggle with Grc:it firituiu. 
Bat Ihn prayer of the people was answered, and tho war duties 
wtrtdrxi^ped iron) tbe tariff of 1810. Thebuaines3 of the country 
«M tpradily prwtrml«L The people were soon reduced to as great 
4iRrMi tm in that melancholy period between tho oloee of the 
BfTolatJonary Viar and the organixation of thn X»tinniLl QoTcrn> 
Mnt— 17S3 to li&~d. Colonel Benton's rivid description of tho 
ftnoA of dvprtsNon following the rtduction of duties comprises 
n a ' ' -t a whole chapter of tbe history of froo tradv in tiM 
X:. . : 

*S* vrtM Cot pnvwtr: BO «>« exospt tbm« of th« ktMvlff ABd tb« Bunbkl: M rnr- 
«**■» «t vSw^UMfMlM MMpt lb« ««dU«r or MRifl kottrdM-af nuMT : no ani^r- 
—I hi tt/taMrji m liMLiiiil rnrUfaor: n« mUa l«r tbo prodoeU of tbs t»m: im 
■«#>< fa«hMWMv«««cpttlMd.arUM*««UaiMsr knooklaR Omr* prapertT. Di*- 
iMM«M tk* mTCml err Bf Iba people: reUaf Iho «blv«nal rt o nwiJI ~ 

Odiat casw at last with the enactment of the protective tariff 
Ism. to tb« mpport ot whiuh leading men of both parties pa- 
TOU cI.,~)to. 388. 3 



84 



TBE NORTH AWKtOCAft R K ^' IhW. 



triottuiklly united for tbo common good. TliiU act, supplomotit 
b; llto Rfit of 18'-iS, lirooRht Rcniime prospwrity to the country.' 
Tlio orcdit of [HUHitix Ihv two protnetirn sot« wax not due to 
uno party lOoni). It was the work of the great meD of both 
partion, Mr. Clay and General Jackson, 31r. Wutieter and 
Mr. Vuii Qun'ti. GvuvntI William llcnrr Harrisoa lutd Richard 
51. •lohiiton, SilM Wrij^bt ami Louis McLuift, voted for one or tbo 
nthtM- of tliiwo actJi, und itevpral of them rotcd for both. The 
col>|>L<ritioti of thvAo f miopiit meti is a great hiatoric tribate to Lbs 
tu'cvwAily iind vithio of pT^itooiion, Plenty atid prospcrilT fallowed. 
M if by miiyic. the lD);i«lalioD to which they gare their support 
\Vd ttave their oonoumnt tocUmony that the aeveo yaan pn- 
ooilhijt lh« (>ii»olm«nt of th« proUotire tarilT of ISM were the 
mo«t disootinkging which tho yonog Ropoblic in its brief life had 
wtcoMiitorvd, ami that the eDWti yuan which fotiowed ita enact- 
WMit ««t* beyond lutotdeot the sntt pntptnaa and iMppy. 

SvolioDftl )6alo««r Mkd r*rtiMUi mI «(wM mat totare the 
giwl dovelopnwiti of manufartam in tbe Xorth and East which 
tuJlv>wis3 Uw appuctttly Arm tiahtiehmetit of ibe protective pol> 
Icy. IIm tn*-tT«(l* iMlm a( xha Soath Mitfod— at feast 
ttnty p^-ruiaded oChen to Miev* — that tli* maaofartonsg 
Sl^ea «vra |vaiip«inB|> at the fttpaaee at tW plaatiag Statci. 
Uwlw tW had o( Calh.»ia. So«ik Garoliu nhtOti, and Pnai- 
4e«t Jaoka^a. vW had ■> atrikwglT ab*«a Us tattb ta the 
)MUoy wf '•-•-••>». wa* tM4 able tonttct tte asctMatat and 
M«Mkiat< tKe F^w-Tnkd«t> luri iiiailai m Um Cotton 

'^ vees kiaatiW petieiia^ npeamed by hta 

.,4 — — v-aeii^ee Oay iBr p t eaitioo ; CMboan tor, 

Ik* BmU. IU cmUI twl Mrtal 

• aw as AnaiHl aa Ckr. Oai 

I iiiimtil I* 

•ill tm^^^ tW 



Rtaoo : CUbovB lor^ 
Ikr. aatefiraBhia'^' 



I, ii^iA«^ »,mA iA iM Li mMi 



•fw«. 



FSEB TRADE OR PBOTECTIO.V. 



the beet practicablr aolation of the imprmiiiig dilTlcnltiev. 
Impiuidiog difficultly w&r« two. One was tho portontoua 
nt>r«ment wliiuh involved th« powibility of dimolringthe Union. 
Tb« other vetui the lU-mand for a. free trade tHriO)i& thvoiil)' mciui- 
DK that ciiiilil ii])pciiM (he SoiiLh»ni Niiilifiera. Dimnion tad 
tm trade from tliat timii bci^aiufi aasocialiil in the public mind — 
i f ftppreboiuioD in the Xorth, nsourocof politJcAl power 

1'. Jih. CalhouQ wa£ the uiaster-spiril. who had giveu the 

«ngini»l impalKC both to dUatiion and free trade. Each in euro 
•Inngthvunl the othur in the Boatli tuid hoth [wrishitl loguthcr 
in tbe War of thi' Itcbi-llioa. 

For a time iuiti«fiirtion wm felt with the tariff luljnslment of 
1(t33, bfcauie it wan regarded ax at iMiHt a tuiuporur; rocuntiiliii- 
tiau bi^twwn two MTiiona of the Uiiiou. Bcfnre the aliding scale 
«M nitnoasljr twlriuii'«d, tht-rc was groat stimulus to niuiiufucU 
liog and to Irailc, which tinnlly Msnmed the form of ihtn^rous 
coUtioiu Thf) y«n 1834. 1835. and 1936 woro dittiiiguiiihed 
lor alt tnaniicrof business hazard, and before th« fourth year 
eponod, ihf 30-]wr cent, reduction (three years of 10 peroent, 
inch) on the scale of daties was bf^inuinf; to influence tnulo nn- 
Umalbiy. The apprfhtneiun of evil soon became gcneriU. [niblk: 
HBffdfloei) WM Hlinkcit, thi' panic of 1837 <'n8uoU, and bneioMt 
RTMitaU WHre rapid, gBneral, and devaittating. 

The tpiubl« increiL«4.-d through 18.t8. 1839. and IfHO. and the 
partjf in power, held reepoiieiljle for the financial disasters, fell 
Ui1«r popular condemnation. Mr. Van Bnrcn was defeated!, and 
thft elder Oenffral Uarriion wnji Horated to the Pr^^idency by an 
cxeeptioiultj large majority of the electoral xoUv. There was no 
ititf to tho peopl«> until the protective tariffof 18*2 wiia enncled; 

iV ' ■■ - ''I'-ont experience of 1S?4 waa repealed ou evena 

Prosperity, wide and general, wm at once 

f^nruii. Uitt tiie reinstntenientof the nemocratic |Mtrtv to [Ktwer, 

i-'iv<«nUtvr. by the t-leelion of Mr. Polk to the Prettidenny, fal< 

■i by a perreree violation of public pledgee on the part of 

BMU LU iinporlant pliicee of adtnini^tnition. led to the n-|)«al of 

the nrolMttvv ai?t and tlip TOb«tirution of tho tariff of 1846, to 

ri I havealrauIyadTftrted.and whose effect* upon the country 

LItave bri*'' ■ " "d. 

Veaau.' ■■fore, from 1813. when a protective tariff 

cMiaet«d U)givftitr«ngth and atabilj^' to tbegovemmont in 



TUB XOBTB AMERICAN SETimV. 



the ApproAching wnr with Groat Britufn^ to 18S1, when % prote«t- 
iro tariff was eiuictec] to give strength snd ^Ubitity to the govern- 
ment io the impending revolt of the Southern Staten, wo have 
fifty yttn of BQ^oetivo exporicnc« in th« bistor; of the RcpobUe. 
During thU long period froe-trwle twifla were thrice foUoirwi bv 
iiidiutriul stagaution, b*r financial embarrassmenl, b; dt8trc&« 
nmoiig all rliissce dejicndent for snbsidtQnce npOD their own labor. 
Thrieo wore thrao burdru« rcmovird by the enactmont of a 
protective tariff. Thrice the protective tariff promptljr leil to 
hidustrliil aoUvlt;, to financial ease, to innxperit; among the 
people. And this happy coDdilton lasted in each csAe. with no 
diniinulinn of its bi-nrficcnt influence, until illvgitimati' pdliticol 
cnmbiuations, having their origin in perfonal and Mction.il aimi, 
pr«eipital(Hl another eraof frra trade. A perfectly impartial man, 
unswerred by tho excitenipnl which thi^tincsttoD engeuden m pop 
ulnr diHTuraion. might ttafely be asked if the half-rentnry's experi- 
enoe, with its three trials of both srstemt, did not cetablish the 
wiedom of protection in the Uoiied !>tales. If the inductive 
method of TWttoning may be tmstcd. we certainly have a logical 
hMis of oonelutdon in the facts here detailed. 

And by what other mode of wfloniiiy can ve mttij proceed in 
thit &eld of oontTorenj? Tbt grmi m«hc4 of Baotm vaa br 
" rifid and pure ohcM-vatloo, aided bv czjierifflent and fmetlfied 
by indnetioo." 1j»t as inrestigata " from effeets U> causes, and 
iiiit friMii oiiusns to eflecl«.*' Snitly it b by a Imig aorica of rxjieri- 
infcitM, Htid by that leei ooly, that any country can iiEkablieh so 
liiduetrial KTDtefM thai viU best «d n dereteping its biddoi wv^th 
mid .'■'■ -iianetit [wmye rf t y . And e»eh eonatiy 

muai ■ itadf. QaeMkiaa of trade can BO mote 

bo TV-^ ' iuienK4 Kiew» thaxt rropn nu be jvodocvd with 

.i Tbf aakBOwii ^wfitiitM are to many tlMt a 

I ''Twvhvfp mn •ever ban an abadote antwr 

\ with an appuvnt confideaoe In 

— J— >'ig with tbeeeimreof 
of fr*c tndc. 




r&EE TRADE OR PROTECTION. 



to tbe toacbings of ttxiR-rinienU which '• \\are been rar- 
forwsrd by imreful geQcrbliiatioii to wuil-grotiuJiil cuuclu- 

An on offMt to tbo cfiArge tTint free-trade tarifTfi hare always 
eotlcd in puiica aud loDg porioiU of Uunncial diBtrew, the 
M]«ocat«8 of free trade point to the fact that a fiiiuucial 
paoie of grant wrerity fi^l upon the country jo 1873, wbtMi Che 
protective tariff of 1861 was in full force, and tliat, thcrcforo, 
panic aiid di^trea follow [it-riadB of protection sa well aa periodg 
of froe tradr. It is true that a Suaacial panic o«carred in 187S, 
and iu«xi«tvnce wonld blunt the forc« of my argument if there 
wtn not an iniperativply tmthful way of uccoiinltng for it sm 
a distinct reault from entirely distinct cuuHd. Tlie pauio of 
1873 na widely diflereot in Wa true origin from those which 
Ili*r«bMn Mpo^ng. The Civil War, which cloeed in I860, had 
■uuifloftd on l><>lb iidt» a vutt iimoiint of property. Reckoning 
the mODoy directly tapendn), tbe value of property destroyed, and 
ll.' ^tou armi(L<tI and pri'vouiod. tho total U eBtimabed to 

k '.isiind millioniiof dollani. The producers of the coon- 

trjr tisd bran lerioasly diminishcid in number. A half^milHon 
iB«B had betm killed. A milltou more had been disabled in various 
degrees. Ildp wu» nefnled in tlie honontblu form of pensions, and 
tke aggregate required fur this pnrpoac oxcooded all aaticipation 
ud baa annually absorbed an immenae proportion of tbo national 
tacotBO. Tlte public debt that ntu^t bu funded rcikcbcd ntinrly 
three thuasand miUI(>n«, demanding at tbo bogiDning more that) 
ma bondml and fifty millionB of dollam for annnid iiitereet. 
A gnat proportion of tbo debt, when funding was complete, wag 
bdd In Eeropc, fialling for an ntjormoue export of gold, or its equiv- 
rieat, to tneirt the interest. 

B«ide ibejfl bunions upon the people, the country was on 

tiawi* ' moupy. and all gold payments ailded a heavy 

inmiuii I WtiiKht of the obligntioii. The Httnation was 

•itbocit parallot. The ftpeculnlivc mania which always acrom- 

ptot* war had "rivate obligationn to a perilous extent, 

•ad the imj»ortj .naroee of restoring coin payment. On 

the one band, it was contended that to enforce the measure 

' the Alirinkage of prices which would 

:;imd. it wu arged with equal zeal that 

topoitpaac iihiDga' would inoresso tho general distrust among 



40 



THE NORTH AMEBIC AS REVIEW. 



^re the beitt answer to Mr. Uladatone'a assumption that 
Uuiiocl 8Utos would haro mado more rapid progreeii nnder a sya- 
t«ni of free trade. I take tbo ofliciiil figunM of tlie ocnsQS in 
the United States, and for tlio United Kingdom I quote from Mr. 
Giff«a, who Ucomuendod bj- Mr. Gladstone as the best authority j 
in England : 

—In 1860 the population of Ibo United States wa« in round 
numbers ai.OM.OOO. At the same time the popnlatton of 
the Unitud Kingdom was in round numbers 29,000,000. Thai 
vealtfa of the United StatM at that time was fourteen ' 
thonaand tnilliom of doUara ; the wealth of the United 
Kingdom was twent v-nine thotisanil millions of ilollars. The 
United Kingdom hud, therefore, nmrly the same population, 
bnt more thou double the w«iUth of the United States, with^ 
in«<ihin«'rv for munufacluring four-ftild greater than that of i 
the United StalA^^. At tlie end of twenty yoais (1880), it ap- 
peared that the United .States had added nearly thirty thon* 
Baud niilliunts of dullun to her wealth, while the United 
Kingdom hcwl added nearly fifteen thoaBand millions, or 
about one-half. 

— Daring this period of twenty rears the United Stales bad 
incurred the enormous Iohs of nine thousand millions of dol- 
Ian by internal war, whilo the United Kingdom waa at 
peace, enjoined exceptional prosperity, and made a far greater) 
gain than in any other twenty years of her faietory — a gain 
which during four yoani wiun in targe part due to the calamity 
that had fallen a))on tho United 8tiite». The Untied King* 
dom bad added six millions to her population during the 
period of twenty ywirs, while tho addition to the Uuitedj 
States exceeded eighteen millions. 
— By tbo compound ratio of population and wealth in eaehj 
eountrr, oven without making allowance for the great loaaJ 
inoiirrod bj the Civil War, it is plainly ohown by thoitatisticsl 
here presented that the degree of progres in tho United 
States under protection fur exceetled that of the United! 
Kingdom under free trade for tho period named. In 18fl0| 
the arerage wealth, p^r ettpHa, of the United Kingdom wasl 
•1 ,000. while in tho United SUtes it was bnt |450. In 1880 ! 
the United Kingdom hud inereoaod htt ptr-aapila we«)th to ' 
91,930, while the United States bad incroaecd her per^apiia 



FRBE TRADE OB PSOTECriOtf. 



41 



l>ta*S70. The TTnirwi Kinpioni hiwlin twentr years 

htir pfr-rapUa woahh '^'Spor wnL, while tho Uiutt-J 

BtMtm bnd iacrcawMl her per-cajiila wealth more th&n d3 per 

croU If aJlowaoce should bo tnadi; for war lowes, the ratio of 

glJD in the United St«teq would fur excead 100 per cent Upon 

Ihogefwolta, whftt ground huMr. Gladstone for hiiiag<«rlioD? 

Vith grwt confidence. Mr. Gladstone proposes to rarrr the 

nt for bee trndo into Ihu enemy's country. Perhaps the 

fficmjr. who are only modeet Protection iBl«, tnuy ombarmsB the 

nnh of hia lo^'c with a few pertinent quwtiooB, or at least abute 

On mte at ipewd which he proposes for his triumpliant movement. 

1 ihall not fpie connl'er-lheDries. I shall onir cite ostablishod 

laett, and allow the forttt to cstublish their own theories : 

—3. John Edgar Tbompcoo. late president of the Pennsylvania 

Railroad Company, piirfhasoil one hundred toua of steel rails 

In 1864 at a price (freight piiifl to New York; duty of 45 jjor 

c«nt unpaid) of 1103.41 gold coin. (By way of iitustrating 

~ Hi. Qladatone's claim to superior quality of manufactures 

tinder fre« trade, the railroad compaoy states that matky 

«t the rails broke during the first winter's trial.) In 1KS4 

KngliAh rails had fallen to (68 per ton in New York^ the 

freight paid and the duty unpaid. Knghith manufacturers 

bcld the market for the ensuing six years, though the sales 

at the high prices were limited. In 1870 Congress loid a spe- 

oillc duty of |28 per ton on eteel rails. From that time the 

home iiiarkf>t has been held by our own manii fncturcrs, with a 

■body annuaJ fall in price, as the ftuilitius of production in- 

eroaaed. until the post summer and autumn, when st«vl rails 

nre aelliog in Pittsburg, ChicHgo, and London at siib- 

■toatially the Mme prices. Does any Free-Trader on either 

lide of the occun honestly hclieTe that Amencnn rails could 

ererlmvc bucri furnielifd aa chiiiplT aa English rails, except 

llf the ftnrdy cnnipeiitiun which the highly protective duty 

of 1870 enabled the American manufacturers to maintain 

agalost the foreign mannfActurers in the first place, and 

■niong American manufiulnrers themselves in the second 

plaoa? It b not •eeortcd that during tljcninct«ea ycarseince 

th" ' -"ntr wa» finrt cataiiliahed (except during the paet 

frv. I .American niiln have boeu as cheap in America 

■ Bnylifftt roils hare been in England, bat it is asserted with 



43 



run NOHTtJ AMERICAN flFfTffir. 



porfiaet confldenoe tliHt, steadily and invnrinbly, Amemsn 
nillroBd oitrnpaniea bsru bought cheaper rails at home than 
tbejr would have be«n able to buy in England if the proteo- 
livt' iluty hud not ntitniilatod the tnanitfactum of st«fl mils 
iu tlic Utiitod Stutoa, and if tho rosntting competition had 
nt>t.din<cUy operated apou tho Eogliah market.* 

—3. Ktiftlishstfol forlooomotivo lirwi imported in ISfiS. duty pd-id, 
wiw I hirty-foiir cents por pound in ^^old. The American com- 
potitiou, under a huary protective duty, hod by 1872 redac«<l 
tho prioit to thtrttHm ceot* p«f potmd, duty paid. At tlie 
pnuii'iit timo (ISMil) Amarioan ateel for locumuttTo tirua, of 
an good i]uality as tho Buj^lisb stn>l formerly imported, is 
fiirnisht-d at four and three-qoarter cents per pnund luid 
dolirortsi frm of coti at tb« pomt whont tho locomotives are 
maniifAc'lnn»l. The Iowerin)[ of prioe was not a vuluntary 
wH oQ th« imrt ot the English maaofaclorer. It wax tba 
dlrwt rMult of Amorioan oompetitioa ander a protective duty 
— A • II that oould not ham been auooesefuUy inang- 

wr»u--i :r« trnd*. 

»^ In tho ymr 184U. th« last onder a free-trade polioy, tbe 
popiiUtioa o( thirty-AOo miUiwM in tKe United Stataa bougbtj 
oarpvU to Um aaoant of twain mOlioas of dallKB. Nearlyl 
bolt of the loUl MHOOBI vaa importM. In 1868, vitJi »j 
papatatioQ vtimatcd it azty^na milhona, tte 
■Boant ftui for earpata vaa uMiriy aiSLy Mffliana of 4oQBn,1 
mmI of this IanP> Ma law tiiMi «m milGoa wan paid fori 



•Is M« 



*« 



>|«M»I 



•«3f*^ 



•aw mtat 



FBXB TRADE OR PJtOTSCflO.V. 



43 



foreign CttrpuUi Aud about hnlf u nittlioii for Oriontal niga. 
Iktm »aj Free-Trader Id Butrlutitl belii>ve ttmt tli» Uoitod 
8t>UH, wtthoat a prutaitire lurilT, could hare attained such 
coatttil ut ibi own carpet titanufuvturc and trade ? Tt will 
sot h« Qonaticc^d, in this conneciion. thiit unilcir n protootivo 
tariff, the popuUuion, by ros«>D of baiter wages, wax enable 
lo biiT • far gtvttter pro[)ortiori of carjx-ta iUhu uuder free 
tndv. Xor mu4t it escape ob^prration that caipets are now 
(orniBbMl to tho ;\juoric4n buyer under a protective t-ariff 
ravch clieBp«T than vbcn a non-protective taritl allonred 
Ktiropv to send «o Urge a proporliou ut the total amount used 
in t ' '' 1 States. 

The-"' -' lOiu might be iodi^finitely multiphed. In wool- 

kn, in cottoiui, in Icatbvr fiibricii; in glau. in producta of load, 
ofbrasN ' ' ! iuthe whole round of insuufaclures, it 

wQlbef- <u liaa brought ilovu the price froin tbc 

tile charged by tho importers beforo protection bwt built up the 
UMtin^ mannfactiire in America. For many articles wc pay 
rthan u [mid in KiiroiM.-. If we pay higher for other things 
(Lao ia poid ucroM the eea to-Oay, figurM pluinly indicate that we 
piy leaa than we uhauld harebiM-nconipRtled to piiy if tho protect- 
tie syaeiD bad notboen ftdoptvd; and 1 beg 31r. Glud^tone'H aUcD' 
tion lo the fort that tbn American pcoplo have much more where- 
nth to pay than they ever had or could hare uuder frvo trade.* 

* ta tfUi* ot Umm fftcUk. ProtUttit OeTdkbd aiail« lbs tMoihat ■UletnenU, 
MWt t qaol* tna bit fMo-U»dn idoimc* to [^nin^m In llccnsklMr, tBT; 

'Ov VMB*' MtUT Uwk, •• tholf trtnnrr Mtd pl*tn «flV«t. r«t*e tb« pctoe to oco- 
WMn«utuUcJt* tnidurtul wtd niDtfCt to datr. by ^mciaeir Iho juun |Mtd tor 
MMIflVU*^ Tb"* lliaanxHwl of (b« ducy nittuurw the ux ^Id hj tboaa whovur- 
dMMtarwa tMa*latpw1«d krUcloK Ukny oClboM UUnctk lM««*Er, »r«rataMar 
■ miriiilwili nil own tamttrr. Mid Um dvltM now bricd voo* torttm gooAa 
■id jsariMU an «UM wtotmUaa to tfaoM bsnw nwnuIaaiarM boMoao ihcj rtm 
4ruwMM*n» laoM nf cur i«of)t« wIm tr* miMutaetttnt^io-mabtthtaeiarnl 
MIcIm mwd mil Uvn /or a prti^ «gn<>f tti Ih'Jl demanded /or tA< imporiei gotdt 
mtt^ntfoidrntlaimf tfi>tv._ ^It hafi^M itinl. wiiiJ«rvni^''jrti/ifr;iiii/«iokailba 



«: 



_^ _r«rf»i<a. poi^bUH km una HiUi. _ 

jijji (l^irTrr Mvrfy •»■ ff«ifc tlu»am»*nhiatt<d 



\\mta of Um RkDM UpdDMKlalaiiilacouiitn. 



IraniM'Tr" j--— *— prtnafftj (or tvareuon*; MCnl, Blr. risTelmnd •UukIs 
>ateBl*f1<ralMlbalMadariae(na4r*dai«n]tlD tho t'nUad .suum, wd UUIa- 
ttaaU**!^*^!!!}* KvmiU) iMMlavlatbcllaaarviruaieataMMlbrtbaEiiglUb F>aq> 
Ti^ir Ml—*. II U ft nltMbl* adwf Inn (ram tM hc*d at tbo bt»^ntSm iiartr 
•ha bn adtrHH UmI "•NMyantlraly a t*w at o<tr poopla u«c Imported artlDto*,'' 
•M L^t Uu«a ■*« "hIBImm ot irar ^«0|il« wbo uctw um lutd iMrcr «•<* aux ol 
tt» fw i^a ^xMlatf* ' la wbal word* cki«M Uia ovmcilata aooOM* of lb* protootlT* 
■dkr ta ite t^KliAd tuirm h» Wore RUf e» p rw>ail I 

MM «b^ Xr- OovbImUI a— «t>d tiwt ovr |Mop)0 iMf for Mif d«Bw*tle (abrioi 
•■■rir n «Blla Um mm* mb^oad priM wbhib ibo datraddA toUw Intpwlad 



44 



THS }iORTH AifERWAN REVIEW. 



Mr. Gladstono boldly oonteiitts thut "keeping capital at houe 
by protection ix tlfsr proddction, and is a delusion from top to 
bottom." I tukc diruct i-ssue with him on that propodtiuD. Be- 
tween 1870 and the preeent timo coasidcmbly more thnn one haa- 
drcd thoiiaiiid miles of niilmad have bc«n built in the Unttod 
8tuU«. Tli(« stuel rail and other metal connected llierewitli io- 
Tolvod HO vnnt a «um of money that (t coald not hara boen raised 
to Mnd out of tlic omintr^T in gold coin. Thv totzil cost oould not 
liavc beoii less than iiro btindrcd millions of dollars. We had. a 
Xai^o intprost to pay ubroail nn the public debt, aad for nine yconi 
aftiir 1S70 gold was at a premium iu the United Suios. Darinj^^l 
thoHo jroars iirarly foHrtbousand mllea of railway wuru conatrucUid, ^B 
and to import Enjtlish rail and pay for it with gold bougbt iit u ^ 
lari^o promium would hare been impossiUle. A vorylarj^ proper- 
tion of the railway enterpriMs would of necosuty hare been 
obnndiiticd if the export of gold to pay for th« mils had been tlioj 

WtlolML" IM flrltauljr tpAm witkoat teVMUgaUnc tatS*. ud ^ecmytMA u Itim ran of > 
IhoMMliK^mwAaUniMiUwhlelibaTabMO w«dtii tb»latm>«Mof Itmlcn lupan- 
■n lo4auelv« lh« paoplai Mr. aerabtndl vruiNni woold hara been Mmtctbeti«d 
Ubf ttaAalrraiAfaweuuiiilaB-M;. iriM had Ktna oaa osaBfla— to Matala Ua 
okwia A* k* lUBlUad ftll UtMbUldu ttf Ut poalUaa. I rantan M ailMl a tow 
whM appuwUr wlaUUiU* «XMt r>¥OT«* «I Mr. OlaralMid^ >t»tnM^i 
-lMlknMcriw)dtw«pi«tMl«dl9««at7o(Kp«r coLital. batwd ** tboM 
fl«<MlabahH(U|wrrMt.litelM>rl»priM«b«lUM tonlBn (oodB, Ibajr M*. Id rMt. 
«lMa[wp. Tb*; (UHlirMll tb« Ka^Ub wtJct* U C«udk Ma — c bw rWI r Min- 
yUm with Ou>«J*ii«ood^ whick mw pflitced by » dtay atf ■ p*T cMt. 
-hiUBt tmUMT M nh|M>i. tA • ditr of ■ p#» aaaL : bol p*uat lakUio- !• not. tlMR« 
tW»IBnr— Bt.M«hwtelh*tJmHi»aatai«aUwm wi MW hw ti Oa UW aMtvur. 
lltoohMpM; nmnanacvtbadUiaracBiMatar IdBdMadwttMafbrliUi 
tar a !■!«« aBMaat «( i«MBt Iwiihiwtnha— aia miMnUiu wlBh awantterai 
«(UmmHm ThprawwvUbfrwiMnnlaNatolMi bM iha Ivwwl bU wm 
*At«dhj*aMa(MtnrwarK«««iik.X. J. Ba ncma Ite omDmiU h4 fMr . 

fl»l«*un. TlM|«to»,th>f«lttn,la lhat'aaUKktM««|httQha.*BM«<inci 
Mr, CI»v<4MHridM<U«M,«Mta*t<ia. BM hi fad Um pctM I* tat •» P«- 1 
••>! duTlacik* iMt Kwii aa4 latMa wwmIowm •■•OTiAK.aadl 

- IhMt MMI tkiM w«aalOHtW»pVHa«.*Mr. AiiiitlialB He. 
■'-T r' "1 "I IIIW1 Maiiwifcii m fNia iiiHh aj^wiimw «< 
lk«| 4r>r.b«.i.r ' i * ii Tanli ■■§ ^im h Mihifiaaihii iT»aT 

ta ■>■<■ — ■till an tat vanttM^lM 

la 1Mb tk* w^ia Mtf«a 1)^' 



-<- 



rfi^ 



4ft 

be 



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Vjeftt 









■Vol. 



ithO^ 



oaoV^^S; 



i\vo 



beiw^ 



m-,,ec." 



=t\oni 



*n4 



i^\- 



^-ir^^^^rz^^- 



lit 



deep 



UV 






Ccfi 



OTOC' 



.C8*B* 



















\ie^' 






coAo^ 



ii«* 



"^^e^-<-,V.'- 



.d*«C--' 



otd* 



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,.vt^^ 



^r^*ro>»>'- 



FRES TRADE OR PROTECTtON. 



47 



Mr. Gladiftone nukes another statcuierit of ^reat fnuilcnais 

of great ralae. Comptriogthe purauiuia tbe United States 

irViclk reqnira no prolootioa with tbose tbat ore protected, he 

mft: "Ko advenary vUl. I think, renture ufion saving that tbe 

proAta mre larj^r in protected than in anproti^ctod mdastrieit.*' 

Thb is Tory true, and Mr. Oladetonc may bo Hurprieitl to boar 

Ibak tbe constant objection made by Amcrlcati Fre<f<TradeTS 

■funst tbo " protwted indnstries," at lie terms them, is that the 

pmBts derived Trotn tht-m are illegilimatcly large. Mr. OladgtOQe 

nes clearly that as a mlo this is not tme. and he at once discerns 

the raaeoQ. He says "tbe best opinious Mom to testify tltat in 

yoQf protected trades proHts are hard pressed by waKeg." 

The Vree-Trsdora of Amerioi try by every cuunJiig device 

to hide this fact. \\* adraiseion vi fatal to thoir euiieo. 

Xot one free-trade organ or leader among them all dares 

to take his poaitioQ bcade 'Ht. (rladstonc and pluiiily tell llio 

tnilh lo the Amerieaa laborer. Not one free-tradp nr^an or 

laidiir dam franktj lo ehv to the great body uf Anierioin irork- 

nm \\ . ■'■ -iruL'lioii of protection inevitably and largely re- 

4iuh i _. wages. I thank Mr. Gladstone for tliis testi* 

■Mtji at ones aocnmte and acute. It is fair to presume that bo 

tatfiila it to be appHed to the unprotected manufttctnrer in Kng- 

l>Dd i&d to ihn protected manurneturcr in .^moricn, both prodiie- 

m thf mat article, nil logic givus, and 1 have no douhl truly, 

■l*'le profit to the mannfartnnT of Enplanii, st-Uing at u low 

ffia. Bs lA the manufactun^r of America, aelling at a liigh 

P^"^;f." >MT- •■ !i. ■ ■..■, iHiing wholly in IheBaperior wages paid 

"'U'.Anirni.'iiJi ui" liimic. 

thm it anulhur important effect of protective daties which 

it inclnde in his fnink uilmiitsion. He hcch 

Kst he calls tbe "protected industriefl" 3c- 

j i:dly as compared with tbe European school 

(i t , '4 not Bee tb&t the effect is to raine the 

kU !-■ the United States engaged in whst Mr. 

«!«aU< t|w " UBprotrcted industries." Printers, brick- 

— "'ra, iBi! all .^'lien of that class ore paid as high 

'f«iir other tnule or calling, hat If the wages of 

* -eted dosses were Foddenly Btnick down to 

' *^' others most follow. A million men 

r half the pay that aaotber million men 



'V^ 



90 

wsary to Becnrc the Imt] to English (ships ? Tlie doctrine of im-l 
proriDf harbors in the United .SUt«ii by the N'ationiU GorcrameDKl 
vraa for many ymn severely contested, the utrict-confitruclioa] 
party [naiuluiuiug that it must be confined to Uarbors on ibe : 
coast nt points where foreign comniRrco reaches the country. Dm 
ing one of the many dtsctisaions over tbis narrow oonatrutitton, aa] 
Obio member of Congress deotared that be " could not tliiiih much 
of a Coustitution that wotUd notMaad being dippi'd infresli walor, 
as well &8 aalt. " I fear tlwt Mr. Gliul«tone*s code of morals 
thia qnnstion of protection will not aeoun! mucb r«8]M>ot in otl 
countrii^s m long us it spoils in a«lt water. 

It vill not escape )[r. Oladetone'i) keeu observutian that 
British hit(>rHBt« in tiarigntion donriiih with less rivalry and' 
liave incMaeed in greater proportion than any other of the 
grvat inttircoLs of the United Kingdom. I oek his candid^ 
udmifiRian that it is the one interest which England has prolectfd^ 
6ti>iidily iind determinedly, r«gardloaB of consigconcy aud regard-j 
loss of Qxix-nw. Nor will Mr. Gladstone fail to tiot« that] 
narigation is the weakefil of the great interests in the Unit 
States, bccfttu« it ia the one which the Xalionnl GoToromoDt ha 
ooostautly refused to prutect. If niuce the Civil War the United 
StAttts bod tpout in protecting her shipping nitfrvly the lUinunl in- 
terest on the great snm which Knglond has expended to protect 
lier ocean Iruflic, Americuu fic-ute wou]d now be rivulbng the fleet 
of Knglanii, h» they rivalled thorn before the war, on every 
where tlie prospect of commercial gain iuvit«s the Amerioan 

flag- 

The failure of the United States to encourage and tetablta 
commercial lines oC Aniericau ehip« is in etrutge o<mtnut i^-ith 
the nmloua elTorl^ made to extijnd lines of railway inndo thf 
country, even to the point of anticipating the real necda 
many sectioniw If all the •drancestorailtray ronipaaiea, togetbe^ 
with tbe ontright gifts by towns, cities, counties, State* and No 
tioD be addtnl together, the niooey value wontd not fal} short of 
thoamnd - toognw 

}teojil[i « ''* cauut 

tbt - '■ ua] 



frfj: trade or s^rotection. 



61 



■ Kr. QBtt|||h it of prok-cliuu on IudcI. Thu posilioiu of the 

AnBrlaBll!xngnB8«Bd the Englisti Parliament on this euljcct aro 

pnejaoly roTcTwd. KogfatMl him noTer lieon affrigbri-il bv Iha 

von] luboilT, and, while wti lutre tUM>d .itiU in impotent fear, she 

liM tak^a |>oMe9siaii of the aeas \iy tltu jiitlicious, and cTeii the 

Uvuh. iriierpoaition of pt^aniary aid. I have alix-ad}' auid that 

M-- on iliB amount whieli Kngland htw paid for this 

oLjv .. ^...ci; tdie began it with great energy, tifty yean 

ofo. would give all tlie stininlos needed for tlio niptd cxpaiiflien 

of our oonitnerce. Let it be added that if the govemtucnt of 

the t'oiltd Sutea will for twenty years to come gira merely the 

Intenat upon ttie interest, at the rate of 5 per cent., on the 

aaoiint wlii ' ' -n a frwi gifi to railroads, ejury eteam line 

liMdrd uo r i>', till' PiU'ific, and thcOiilf will spriiig iuUi 

etuteocv irithin tvo ycare from the passage of the act. U is but 

ifrv ynani rincv Oongrrw t«i(N) rcfiisod to gire oven |IS.S.(MKl 

far annum to aeouru au adiuifuhtu line of stenmerN from Haw 

Wk to the fotir largest ports of Brazil. And the sum of 

ilt3,(IW is btit the interest upon the interest of the interest, at b 

fcr Kmx,, of the gross amount freely given to the constntction of 

nitetdg within the Union. U it any wonder that wo havo lost 

lllprr?''"' '^!.»«ca F 

TK .;i to the [jolicy of extending our foreign com- 

nmv'tr; »iii 1 . ;> .irii<<hi|i liueiiwitli a small sum, jual as we have 
aided intemiLl LuKiK.ii-ce on railroftde with n vast sum, originates 
wlh llw American Free-Trador. Mr. (iladstone cannot fail to see 
■"■ adiMtiujfiiiiii llir »iilv-m of this fn-L' Iradi: t'llort in the 
^™to<18ut»3 mnit prove to (treat Brit'itin. The Btuady argimifut 
kha»>Tratler ia that, if the ttonniship liuoa were establishedi 
' iWwe nor trade hceari*"." we prodii'-e iiinler our 
lOthing that ran riim|>ote In iieiitnil DiHrkets with 
'-.c kind from England. Huw then can the Free- 
' ' 'ill a long lifll of articles manufactured 
t.'ftdy and largo sale in Canadn ? The 
11 iliv same tipon Etiglieh and Amerieun goodu. 
-f— England to Queboc or Monireal is cheaper 
u'tttririv rtntres of the ITuitud States to the 
- not great, hm it i« in favor of the 
. and not of the Ami'riejin shipj«r 
Trader to explain why, if the coet 



TBE ftOnTff ASERXCAy REVIWW. 



nf transportntiou be matle the samo, the United States oaonot 
coinpet« wilh England in every coantrj' in South Amoriva in nit 
the articles of which wc sell a lurgcr umount in Catiiwlti tlum 
England does. I appcod a note naming the American artjcloa 
sold in Cauiula, and tho Free-Tnuler, if candid, vill admit that 
the list is one which is ponstantlr and rapidly increasiD|[.* 

Giving hood to the erjr of the professional Frec'Tradcr in 
America, Mr. Oladetone feeU Bui-e that, though th« protected 
tnonafactnrers in th« United StntM may flourish and prosper, they 
do ao at the pspon^c of the farmer, «ho is in every conc<.-iT&bll 
form, according to the frct-trode dictum, the helplesa victim 
protection. Both Mr. Qlndstone and the American Freo>Tradcr 
hare, then, the duty of expUiuiug why the agricultarnl States of 
the West liavogmwn in weaUh during the long period of protec- 
tion at a more rapid rate than tlie manufacturing States of the 
East. The statement of the Free-Trader can be oonoltiaiTely 
answered by rvfcrrin;; to tho oaosns of the United States for the 
year ]$eO, mid also for the year 1880 : 

— In IS6ti. eight manufacturing Slates of, the £ast (tho bix of 

New England, together with New York and Pennsylvania) 
returned au aggregate wealth of ^.133,(KI0,O00. Twenty 
yean afterwards, Irf the census of 1S80, tho same Stnt<« re- 
turned an aggregate wealth of tl6,338,OOO,00O. The rate of 
increase for the twenty years was slightly more than 21(3 per 
cent. 

— Let us sec how tlie agricultural States fared daring thia 

period. By the ceneua of 1860, eight agricultural Sutes oC^ 
the West (Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan. Mia* 
nuHota, Xrbrnska, and AVinconsin) returned an aggregate 
wculth of «3.^71, 000,000. Twenty years afterwards, by thi 
censufl of 1880 (protection all the while in full force), the 
some Stolen returned an aggregate wealth of #11.368,000,00^^;-^^™ 
Tho rate of increase for the twenty years was3M pereeii_-^- "* 



■TbB fidloifliir artldM at Attiartoui manutactitre kn MIA Is GMMida i 
Ursvll ibuiUkvuUolMoI KnKlUlituiiulactim: 



nrBMcnMl*v< 
lirtiiUiK-laX. Inl 
WAll'tMtwr. wrtC 



uuLDntbcturifl, twlsoa. Unwant. ■U 

.!>-.' i—iMfiai taiilf toatfcM.a<w<JQ<t, 

\K7iMa, 



'■'^K 



-rallMlb 



Mx. mining in"^^.'"'"%eA\ane^^ . - i„ lV« one b^uAred 

ground "V"":;;i„eT««e »«.*t%^V«.Uty an»<'fR X^ln too 



ROBERT E. LKE. 

BT JEPPZBSOK DAVIS. 



IKD Lee, gt-ntteman, scholar, ^Unt eoldier, 

true Chriatisn, was born in We^tmoroliuid 

OaoDly. Vii^finia, on Janawy 19, 1807. He was the joungeot 

MID of OetMinl Henry Lc«. who wu faniiliarly known ds "hight- 

[-Haw B nurry" in tho traditions of the war of the KevoluUon, and 

th« marked conGctence and personal regard of Gon- 

rWashmglnn. 

n. E. Lm «it4<r«d the TniKHl States Military Aradiimy in the 

Btner of \1ii5, atier which tny aL-tjiiHiutaiiL-e with him com- 

iMmced. He *»>, an I n'tuenibor him, largorniid loukml uoro 

ire than the avonigc " pleb." btit l«S8 so than Maeon, who 

TwdHtiiwd to be thu bend of hiti rlnu. HU soldierly bearing 

■ad esceDeoi condnct canswl him iiidneniooenioit to rise throngh 

the Mveral grwlw and to be the adjutant of the corps of codcta 

i«b«a li« WM graduated. It is iftat«d that liohad not then a "d^ 

Fstfll " mark Maoding agaiiiA him, which in qiiito crodiblu if all 

" wpo rta " ogainit liim hs'l twen canmlliHl, becanan thoy were not 

[far wanton or inti-Qtional ddlinqiK-tirv, Thoutfti nnmorioally rated 

|«cond in his claas, his proficiency was such that be vaa assigaed 

r corfte. which for many yewa h« adorned both u a 

■-•' - ■: -intwr. 

-»t type of manly bpanty, yet Bcemingly qd- 
' tfiil and nnaesuniiTig as to make him 

;i;v I-. Lie jrrcat powers had an opportunity for 

Hie mind led him to analytic mtlier ihau'per- 

<r ohtaiDiog re^ulia. 

c.f III, ofrailnation in 1820 nntil 184C he was 

\me '^lal diitteo. and hod by rcj^lur promo- 

.:iieil to Uio grjitUt of eaptntri of engineers. As such he 



£« 



TBS KORTH AMERICAN REVIEW. 



vu RMigncid Co duty with the commanil of Brigadier-Odneml 
Wuol in ifao uiunpuign to ('hituialitia. Thvnce tlie command 
proceeded to miikv a junction with Genoral Z. Tnylor in front of 
Buena Vtalu- Uure Captain Lee was employed in the uonstrnc- 
tinn <if the defensive work, when GeneraJ Scott came, armed 
with (i iKcretiunary ordens, and tortk Ijcn for nervice in the 
column which Scott wa« to command, with mncb olfie that 
Oencnil Taylor oould ill afford to spare. Snbwqncnt crcnta 
ppovml that the loss to Gonoral Taylor's army was more than 
compensatod by the gain to the general cauK. 

Aroiding any encroachment upon the doiniun of history by 
ciilvriiifT upon a description of campaigns and battloa, I cannot 
forbear fntm referring to a particular instance of Loe'a gallnntiy 
and dovotion to duty. Before the battle of Contrenui, General 
Scott's troops had become separated by the field of Petlrigal. and 
it wiM nocossary to communicati) iuetructioiis to tho«c on the other 
side of this barrier of rocks and lava. General Scott says ia his 
report that ho had sont eevon officers since abotit sundown to coin- 
muuicale instructions; they had all returned without getting 
through, " but the gallant and indefatigablu Captain Ijce, of the 
engineers, who has been constantly wiCb the operating forcoe, i< 
juKt in from Sbielda, Smith. Cadwallader," etc. Hubsequently 
General Scott, 'While giving testimony before a court of inquiry, 
said: "Captiun Jjne, engineers, ciuuo to nie from Contrcnia with 
a message from Brigadier-Geuural Bmith, I think, about the same 
timo (midnight) ; he, having puaaed over the diffii-ult ground by 
daylight, found it just possible to return to St. Augnstinu in the , 
dark — the greatest feat of physical and moral courage performed] 
hy any iiidividiuJ. in my knowlttdgc, pirtiding the i^iLmpftUfn." 

Tbii- tiild of Pedrigal, ta described, was impaesable on Viorae- 
hack, and croewd with much dlfficnlty by infantry in daylight 
Aflor consultatinn with :' ihi n«ir !■ '' " ■ -'■ h^'ol 

deridetl that an attack i - .idr ni. r- 'Ma 

tlirough storm and dar' 



. I. . ri^.i .. 



^\ie vMit 



ROBERT £. XJfJS. 



for that ■which ia the crowning glory of man : he offored 
hfan^ tor ttic vreltitrv of otiiers. 

B« wvnt to Mexioo vith the rank of cuptuin of engineera, 

taA b; gallBntiy and meritonous conduct hmu to thf ruDk of 

^eeliiticl ID xho lutny. oomniission by brevet. After hiti return 

^^c rasumed his duties as an oSicor of the i!)ngiD««r Corps. 

^^bd^^Bployed io the cnnstrnctioa of Fort CaitoII, near Bald- 

^I^^^K "**-*"' occarrvd which illuMiBtea his Dic« sentiraent of 

Itaaar. Some tncmbera of the Cnban Jnnta called upon him and 

(Aercd htm the commnnd of nn axpcdition to oierthrow the 

SfMiiih control of the island. A rery lurgc »am of inonoy was 

to bv fmid immcdiBlcly upon his ncceptuitoe of thi^ir proposition, 

ud A largn Kum thuacefonvard wu to be paid montldy. Lee came 

t» Washington to convene with nie upon the aubject. After a 

hficf diteDBion of the milittir)* problem, he Butd it vras uot that 

, he had come to consult me about ; the question he wait considl^^illg 

wbethsr, whilo an officer in the United Stat«a Anny and 

'ion ho might have acquired as eiich, ho 

;ii . ' :ion for foreign serrioe agsioHt a govom* 

■Hit vitti which tho United State* wore at peace. The con- 

duion was his decision to decline any further correspondence 

» with the Jantm. 

^B Ib \ifSi Cvlrtnd Lm wae made Hupcrintcndeut of the United 

^■S|gdia|||pr Academy ; a position for which be seemed to be 

^^^^^^^^B^ ail yroM by hie attniiimenta ag by lii« fondness for 

TVa^ pe6(itL>. bis One perconal ap[)«anin(M^, and impreBsive man- 

lot. When, a yvar or two thureaftvr, I visited the acxdftciy, and 

Tib nrpTiH-^l to me so many gray baire on his head, bu confiSAcd 

1^ ' i eicecdingly worry him, and then it waa per- 

I -v"MiatJiy with yonng ]M>opIe was rather an im- 

i:(«tioQ for the Ruperintendency. 

-'-jrirneuts wt-re added to the army, two of 

fiiiitry. CaptatQ Lee, of the engineers, 

■tny, waa offered tho position of !i«ut*nant- 

" .-impnt of ciivnlry, which he aooepted. 

rseman. and tlie eon of Light-Horse 

-> in his proper element ; but the chief of 

r',^ bim that it was a d««oent to go 

lit! cavalry. Soou after the regi- 

nd asaign«d U> duty in TexnSj the colonel, 



60 



THE ttOBTB AMERICAS RBVI£W. 



th« Confcdoravr he was invited to come to Monlgomfrv and 
jilain tliv L-oudittuu of litscomnianil; but his ongagomentK wi>re no 
prvsBiii^; that he sent his seuond oiKcer, Uoncral J. £. Juhiuton, 
tc furcieh th« dmred information. ^^ 

\\'\w.n l\\« cipiul of tlio Confederacy was removed from Mont»^H 
gomery to Richmond, \jKf, under theonlcre of the President, wii* 
cliargiil with tlic general direction of army affair*. In this posi- 
tion the same ploaaant relations which hud alvruyn existed botwMn 
thetn continued, andLee'e indefatigablo attention to the details 
Uio various commands \ra« of much benefit to the public SLTvicc 
In the moaoLime diwutent, confusion, and disagre«mont among lli| 
comaiands in western Virginia made it noce»ary to send thorn M 
oBBoer of higher rank tliao uuy then on duty in titatsoction. Tl 
ser%-ico wm diBAgreenble, toilsome, and in no vise promising 
give distinction to a commander. Foeeing by all reference 
others, Hufiice it to say thnt at ln«t Lee waa asked to go, itiul, hq 
counting tlic cost, bo un hesitatingly prep«rcd to start. By cot 
centnU-iiig the troops, and by n judicious sclectioa of the positiof 
ho eompolied the enemy finally to retreat. ^j- 

There ia an incident in this campnign which has never beo^H 
reported, save as it was orally given to me by General Lee, with l^fl 
raqoest that I should t»kp no official nolico of it. A strong di- 
yiaion of tlio enemy was reported to be encampod in a TiJl 
which, one of the colonels said he had found by rBOonnoimin 
rould rradilv he upprnauhod on one side, and he proposed, wi 
his regiment, to surprise and attack. Gt-nernl Ijce accepted 
proposition, btit told him that ho hintitelf would, in the mcanlinn 
with several regiments, ascend the mountain that overlooked tl 
valloy on lh« otlu-rside; and at dawn of day on a mom in l 
colonid was lo make his assantt. His firing was to be : ' - 
for a Joint attack from throe ditvetiooa. During the uighl 
niadu a tnilKonir tiscent of the raouDtain and was in poeition 
tho time ugreoil Hpnn. The valley was covered by it dense fi 
Not hearing tho signal, ho went by a winding |)uth duwn thu si 
of tlirt nionntAiu and mw the rnemy ;ir - --r breakfnet a 
nlhrrwtn' «' rtipacH as to indicate that -! unliroly igno- 

rni !*•« rt»tiime«J to his own command, t 

" ' •■' " ''■ '■-" """Pted sigmil had 

i;id autrthvr dutool 
>o wniuit, \k prv)<oeed that tbo 



ROBERT E. LEB. 

ivith hinfiboald rarpri riip. whicli hn Miovcd, 

ainitao«eSj might s. \^ Ih> (Icqc. Tlic uol- 

umIb went to cnsmtt their nim Biitl returnoil lo inform hfm 
wtf fcf> cold, w«?t. aoil hungry m lo be unfit for llie 
Tbc fiig wnit chL'D Uftiuj;, stitl it was rmccKiiirjr to at* 
uuDiMliatdy or lo withdrair before boing discorvrwl by the 
tarycr for» in Iho valK>y. Loo ihorofore withdrew bii 
|«omni»i>d iitid Rafi>l; oontlucteil tWni to hi»> encamp mcnt, 
TIm coloacl wliri wax to giro the sigii^kl for the joint attack, 
aprehfttdiug tb« |Kirpose. rejwrted thai m'hcn ho arrived upon 
ind be found the enaimpmpnt prot««t«d bjr a hcavv 
olMtif. which ]in>TpaUid him from making a tiiiiiilpti charge, as 
ka bad^expeatnl, not QnderBtanding that if be hw! fired his guns 
at anf dittaoce b« woald hare accii red the joint attack of tbonlhur 
dfrtanhiMTitr and probably brouglic abnitt 311 entire rictory. I^ee 
Ifenerooily forbore to exonerate himsolf whon tho nuw«i>apcrB in 
Birfaiaond oriticiiod bim ao<reml/, one deojing him anjr other 
oooaideimtkxi except that which bo cajoyod as " the Preaiduot'i 

It VM an embamiunient to the Executire to bodcprired of the 

Ivieeot General Leo, but tt wasdcened nocesaaryagiLin to detach 

itolookaflvraifainonlhocoaKtofCarolinaaiid Georgia, and bo 

It bad been tb« aniiirritod attacks upon him bv the Rich* 

preae that it wue thought proper to give him a letter to the 

aor of South Curolinii, staliog what manner of man biul l>e«n 

■est to bim. Tb«rv bin iikill aa ao engineer watt inaiiifiuitod in iho 

dehsioei he coniarucird and devised. On his return to Richmond 

beramncnl hiifunctioDA of general enpervisor of military alTuira. 

In (he ipring of \Mt Uishop 3Ipndu lay dangeronsly ill. Thia 

bl» nwjiMtastie bad caoghi (ieiipral Loo hia catechism when 

[btry, end when he waa announced lo the bUhop the latter wked 

I bim shown in inimcl lately. U«an8Wl^^ed Lee's inquiry as 

be felt by Aviug. " Nearly gone, but I wisbed to ace yon 

and then in a f&eble roiee added : " Ood bless yon, 

<^a for year high ami re^iuiblo dnlios 1" 

flood ruverenlly by thubed of hU early pro- 

'& 'ty, but tbo Kaintly patriot saw beyond the 

to whom bo bail taucht the catechism ; first 

to(f-> 'liHriaglo Robert, ami lheii,iitrn|;i;liiig uguinst 

nlonjtloii, mvolied Uwnjn'i guidanoc for thf general. 



63 



or "»•«■'; 

Havxa - 

v.- 



- 86 ''■H'ff NORTH AMERICAN REVIEW. 

he waa fast asleep. General Lee pleasantly added that, if he had 
had any vanity as an orator, it would have received a rude check. 

The evident purpose was to offer to Lee a chance to escape by 
transferring to me the responsibility for overt acts. Not only to 
repel the sa^^estion, but unequivocally to avow his individual re- 
sponsibility, with all that, under existing circumstances, was 
implied in this, was the highest reach of moral courage and gen- 
tlemanly pride. Those circumstances were exceptionally perilous 
to him. He had been indicted for treason ; the United States 
President had vindictively threatened to make treason odious ; 
the dregs of society bad been thrown to the surface ; judicial seats 
were held by political adventurers ; the United States judge of 
the Virginia district had answered to a committee of Congress 
that he could pack a jury so as to convict Davis or Lee, — and it 
was under such surroundings that he met the grand jury and 
testified as stated above. Arbitrary power might jiervert justice 
and trample on right, but could not turn the knightly Lee from 
the path of honor and truth. 

Descended from a long line of illustrious warriors and states- 
men, Robert Edward Lee added new glory to the name he bore, 
and, whether measured by a martial or an intellectual standard, 
will compare favorably with those whose reputation it devolved 
upon him to sustain and emulate. 

Jbffeesok Davib. 



THE BOUDER-LAND OF SCIENCE. 




BT K. n. mVVSSOS, director of SIBLET COLLBOB, C0R5CLL 

i^ UKirERSITV. 

^^QSntnr intelligent reodsr itad thinker vbo has studied the 
kutnry of tho8(t mnrTcllous devolopmcnta of physical Bcicoce 
which have chiinicti<riii>«) tho progrctut of civlliziition during the 
bet half<C4;utur7, eud who oontinupd to wntcL tiic wuiiderful no* 
[celentionol it« progress, which seems to-dajr its most stntciag 
iett-ura, must iiinritably rocogniao in ite growth en picmcnt of 
iTutlj prtftt«r inipttrlAai*E! thun the morelj* mHteriiUand iitiliturinn 
tnde vhfch «o dtnturbod the mind of the eccentric and uafortn- 
iHit itlviiTii artist-iu and poutictd, Ruslciu. .Science has been 
' Toiid a (;rcat comforter, cirilizor, and ealightener. It is 
amonU a* iriOl as a phvdifal agent, promoting morality as well 
oaaidiag bomanity in its p1)jr«ical and intellectual progresa. It 
hw feoenUcd "HWwtneM and light" aa well aa those coarectr, 
bat no loea cncDtiul, i-1t.-mi<utti of our onward and opward morc- 
m«Qt which eeemed to Mattheir Arnold so insigniScant, Its 
growth and its offwita have Iieen likf those of that light deinribed. 
In Ocoeais and by GtHihtgy, al tlii^ bcginningof thn n-or1d'i«hiRtory. 
At first glimmering, faint, uncorUii), hardly visible, exhibiting 
[to the senses only the fact of the existence of in6aitedarkuos8, it 
jbae gndttaily sjirviMl uv^r the world, growing brighter *i it ex- 
enlightening wider and wider areas ; revealing the good 
be sought, the bad to ho eradeU ; ita brightness increasing 
sareand more rapidly this side the "dark ages," antil we are 
than eeti^flfi with the brilliiiiicT of its rays ; and as ve en- 
doifor to eocn«tom ourxvlvee to the sunlight of our own ccntorj, 
n wander if It bo pouible that tbo nue oan adapt itaelf lo the ro- 
ll^ qairvmenta of furtliLT pru;;n)aa, 

^^ But as tbb liiiht gsioa in intensity and illuminateg more and 
r aon hnghUy the wurld about us, and aa it oxtcuds ita onlight- 



TttE KORTff A^tEnlC^\IC ItBVIEW. 



eoing nj3 further and fnrtlicr into the dark rogioiu that nlw&ji 
border iu Held, there always exists a horder>laud, more or less 
distinctly 800Q and more or less defined, in which are included 
tho«e wonders which wc may hope yet to see. We contiDaally 
marrcl M the ioreutioDa and disoortriefi nt to-day, and woodor 
■till moro what will come to-morrow. We are coolinuolly ex- 
pecting to SCO a limit reached by th« iDTcntor and by the discov- 
erer, and are as constantly Gnd ing that wo are simply on a frontier 
which ia being steadily pushed further aod further out into the 
iafiaite unknown ; and the more we learn and the more we dis- 
cover, the greater tho opportunity (or greater and more rapid 
progress. We are daily learning a more tliorongfa appreciation of 
our own ignorance and of the insignificance of our finite in the 
niidtttof the iuQnite. We haro groped oar way with ourrunhlight, 
have made better speed with the modern candle, hare eougratu- 
latui! ourselvo« on tho eioellenco of our oil-lamps, have boaated of 
our gas-lights, and now take excecdingprideinthe nidiunt bright* 
ness of onr oloctric lights; yet we uro far from an upjiroxima- 
tion to the volume, the intensity, and the qaatity of suolight, and m 
can see that the path ahead is still too long for our measurement, | 
and that, in comparison, the distance already traversed ia 
microscopic. Tho hordcr-lanil is still ahuiwl of us, coustiuitly eu- ^ 
1argiu£as wc move on. The more wo gain, the more is seen tofl 
he achievable. 

The progress ohserrod by tho student of history from rush- 
light to electric light, and from barbarism to civilization, has 
always been an accelerated motion. From inHi^ificaat beginnings 
we have seen tho race advance by a movcmeut, slow at 6nt,^. 
gradually increasing, continually gaining in rat« of motion 
well OS in poiition, until, especially during the UbI generation^ 
the Telocity of onward ntorement has been such that the brightest 
intellect, tho most iwwcrful mind, is utterly unablu to follow it 
in all its paths, and every worker and every student has become a 
apeciatist. Each is well coutont to contribute his mite to the 
general treasury and to assist by aiding ever so little through his 
labors in his own restricted field. Ko Humboldt can ever again 
grasp tho whole of existing pautology ; no Baoon can ctlt again 
hope to see the Itmita of the ever-widoning field ; no Comptc nan 
ever again safely attempt to plan a scheme for ibu deveh)pment 
of all minor lines of scientific investigation. 



TBS BORDBR'LAim OF SCIESCE. 



m 



EtetiiBlons into Ilip Uonler-Iaud of Bcience most hereafter be 
pUddhI and coinliioCttl by ni(*n who have alnwdy made them* 
■dfci fiuniluu- with the preriouNly-explonid adjacent territory; 
aikt ve Qnd thul the accelcmtcd prt^ew of the past and of 
the prewDt it tikelj to bo assured by a grMter and greater 
body of anc-h Bpecialiste. A hundred philrwopliers follow Bucon ; 
a thoaaand Kwk the enda proposed to them hy Compic ; and in- 
muDemblc aciontific etitdonta and investigators endeaTor to mnke 
kmirtt the uufaoovn by eatering upou the paths of which the 
bffnnningB wero revealed by earlior Humboldt^. A few ycnrs ago 
l^ndajr Btadied chemistry and physics ; to-day he would be 
etUutr » rary itupid or a very rash muii who should clmrn to be 
it oaoe obemiiit and pbj'sicist. lo the Last generutiou wu hud 
ebeiuicta and physicists ; t»-day the chemist finds ampto scope 
fnran hia povors in the stnrty of Iho molocular etniotiire of on 
argonic componnd, or in the invi>^ligation of the petrolniims, or 
in tbo eiaminution of the cfTttclA of varying proportiontt of man- 
ptMie open the properties of the modem "niiU" stouU ; while 
the pbyticist has become an electrician, a student of the spectra, 
•0 iomatigator of the form of the sound-wave ; or he sCmlies the 
oonditiotu affecting the liqaeftability of the so-cuJlod "pemia- 
neoi" fasM. Tbns aperializing. he bf4:oineR compctenl to Attempt 
tMBKTchei in the border-laud of bts Mience and to attack prob* 
l«aw now Tagoely looming up ahead like great icehergt, far away 
OD thcdutani sea, obscured by thoir own mJHts — probleiii« which 
in eron grander and more important tlinn those which the nine- 
tMUth eentttry has already seen solved. 

Thtu. as a glance at the history of the post luid its progr««> 
towvd the present readily shows, the movement of ih? great onr- 
mit. white always more or leas variable in rate and in direction. 
noder the irrt^lar action of impressed forces, has always, on 
rhnlo. bm^n onward, nnd with, ou the whole, an accelerated 
jn. Thfl forcea whifih have acted to modify, to change, 
iDfvlanl, or to acoelemte this progress hare been as apiiarentlj 
nrioblv as those of the winds and the tides ; but, Uke those 
of viod and tide, every force sooctiug, wht>Lht*r moral, physical, 
or tDtellcctcal. has be«a controlled by lav, and the resultant effect 
has alwayi and invariably been on onward motion, with continunl 
•ceeloratinn. 

Looking btdc, thtn, upon this post of the race, we bare seen 



TBE ItOBTB AMEiaCAlf MEVnSW. 

fully or (lelltiitely amswercKl ; but it Is, iwrhapa, possible to o1> 
tain Bonio idc^a of the extent and direction of this motion of the 
lifv of Mnn, tltis n|)])raximatci;, if not occuratelj, stniigbt line of 
pro|[re«», fur » little waj ahead. Wo mny. at IcASt, »ak what is 
thv path now open, and what may we hope to lind as we adrance 
a littlt' wHjr furtbvr iilong it. Perhaps mv majr even b« allowt'd to 
indulj^e in some speculatioQ. if we carefully endearor to diotin- 
guUh btitwuDQ the Ksnila of oar "scivntific use of tfae inugina- 
Uon" and thu roasonnMc dcdnction* of p«nni«ible arj^mcnta* 
Cion. We will tnkc our tpecniations first and our more tboroagfa- 
\y foundc>dcloducUoos afterwarda. 

I am alwars inctined to ask, Qrat, what may we believe to be 
tho probable form and Ukoaoss of the coming man and bia wife. 
I imagine tlut, when we look back from oar borne in the nnaeen 
nnirarae, agea hence, we shall we», without mucb doubt, a race of 
men differini; from those of to-day mach aa the man of to-day 
diners from his atmioas, perhaps eimiao, anc««tors. The brain 
will bo dcTeIo]wd to meet the mora complex and eeriooa taxation 
of a mttre oonip1«x and trying civiUzalioa ; the vital powers will 
be intensified ; the man. red ncing tbe powers of Natore stlU more 
oompletely to hta serrice, will depend leaa on (Im exeitioaa of hla 
nuaelca, and tluy wtU be c o rrea p ond in gly aikd oonpanthrdy lese 
powerful, though they will probably^ aevenhriees I imagine, con- 
tinue to grow aomewbat in aise, aa they tiMjnestktaably hav« 
grown aincQ the middle agea ; tbe Innga mast supply afiraiion to 
■ Urger and mote ciiwdly circnlat«d rafaime ci blood riclier in the 
|tboq>Hatio eleotenta c«pe«ialtr M*4td for the bBnding-ap of 
bmin and mwe ; the digcatioB mnat anpplr iti notriment in 
almllarly tncreeaedaBOOBl and altered chatacter aad oompoaitkm ; 
the wb(4e aysten nut be tmftHo of mom rapid, aon tboroogh, 
and more manacMble coctTecuoa of tfae eaeqries of the natural 
rotceat,-' *-V " - •■ .-tandtbeeoul '' ' ^habitilt. 

lf»<' ' <«aytoaeraQ>r-. :benatar« 

of the chanL -'irucal man tliatmwsC jr^aally takeplaea. 

fk- t.-.:- -^ i^ j^ aatenor erea more than is iti 

•le gre*! ferebaa d win probab); orariMiig % 
Lftfttisg a gf - It^eaee of »>cintt>- 

'--J" —'—''■ ... jtfgeacnhU ; with 

■M^oa oif cnio foods to 
.a^^bk of expnanng great 



TU£ BORDEtt'LAyb Of SOIESCE. 



73 



tieu by word and bj plaj of feeitwre. The cliost will bo large ; 
the longs capAcious nnil free in operation, promptly fK'If-,iiljuBtiti£ 
ta an denuuidi and all Tariatioiu of demand, and fitted to aSrate 
awrBcnia ToloDHa of fluid flowing'in from the reiiiB. The digest- 
in otgmi vill De«eMan1r bo taitcd to develop and apply the 
pboaphalio nutriment of grain and fmit fooiU ; the liver, and 
i^ltcn Mpeci&Uy, producing those fats which make the main part 
of brain and nerre ttMiie— llie abdomen tbaa growing with the 
langs. Tho limbs may proliablr bo longer ; better cudhioned with 
lat than now ; smaller in proportion to the rest of the body, u to 
veigbl at least ; ihoiigb we may presame that this change will be 
inadtf with positiTe gain, on the whole, in grace and general 
fuwer. A more generally intelligent ruco will pay more attention 
to tbe preserratiOQ and eultiration of the physical powers by ex- 
ereisa and erery sanitary derii^e, and this will unqaestionably aid 
in tlie derolopmcnt of a noble physique. Tbe coming man will 
b« tall, and frt<e and lofty of cnrriage. m will bedt a being fnll of 
noble Ihoaghts and high aspirations, and his progress toward the 
inflnite in all that is good and great will be oommeosarate with 
Us annobled powers of body and mind. 

Tbe woman of the coming race will hara a similar dflTolop- 
OMUL Mind and body oJtf^ring in similar directions, her in- 
teUeotoal face and her noble b»ud will bo carried above a no less 
impressire form. Ages of further growth of her always-con- 
trolling allMitions will have conferred upon her, even more than 
apm b«r consort, those beatitifol perfections of manner and 
tboae attractions of face and figure, coming of the freer and freer 
play of tbe affections and gncos of home, wbiob must always dis- 
Uagnuh in asQperUilive degree the lovelier sox. Sbe will grow 
-with tb« agaaand tfarongh the age«; her form will gain in grace 
•ad Ktrsngth, in ronndneaa and beauty; and she will, as always, 
bad BUM is hts approach toward boareu. Easier lives and more 
tntaUtgvDM* a better ippticntion of knowledge, and in all respects 
a bvttar Ufs, will give to both the most tliat nalnre csin confer. 
As «n] dioa and rirtne sarrives and strengthens, they will, band 
in hand, advanoo continually, and with continaally greater eaae 
aad speeij , toward tbu perfect life. 

•' What may w* hope from stMonce?" No man can say; bat 
perlwpa TaatlT muro thsn the most sanguine to-day rcnturu to 
predict. Wo have seen steam applied to the propulsion of tbe 



74 



TBS SORTB AMttilCAN kEtlEW. 



steanuhip uid the rnitwaj train. Wttliin a tew jeara the steam- 
boat has frown from the dimeneioDE of it Tscbt to tbe eixe of th« 
"Great f-^lem" and of the "Sardegna" Bud Uio'^Citjof Paria," 
drivea bjr the power of 15,000 to 30.000 honei, croinnf; cb« 
Atlantic in lees tban a week. Another generatioa or two 
otay MO the size doabled and epood etUl farther iiicrcucd, 
the ro_vag« rodtic«4 To leu than four days. What all this 
means it ti diiScalt to conceive; bat perhaps it may aid the 
ima^natioD to saj that the engineer's horse-power is about a half 
more tbui the actu&l pover of the average horse ; that the en^ri- 
nwr'a horw worlds unremittinfrlj- twenty-four hours a day, and 
thas does the work of three real bomea; that this means that he 
must fiotl a way to stow the equivalent power of about a qoartar 
of a million of horse* in his ship of the nrxt generation ; that h« 
must put the power of nearly 154},000 tons of horsee into 6,000 
tons of engine; that be mnet snugly pttck inaship 1,000 feet long, 
or perhaps ]e«s, the power of a "•triag4eam" MO oiilm long. 
But all this aeema perfectly possible, and not altogether improb- 
able, to the hopeful en^necr of io^y. Ue thinks it may proTB^ 
40 be only a matter of time and money. B 

On land, Bt«am is likely yet to show powers that may astonish 
the spectator of its performances as macb as at tm. Speeds of 
sixty oitlea an hoar and orer bare been already freqaently at- 
tained, and there seems no rcMaon to doubt that thu is bat a be- 
ginninjr. BoTeliring to-day may Tcty probably aee 3p«i>ds exceed- 
ing a hundred milo« an hoar attained, and the continenl crossed 
intwodaysor less. In fact, I hare maon tobeUeve thataspeed 
of ninety miles an hour has already been maiotaincd by an ordi- 
DOfj engine and light train for a abort distance, with one of ny 
orer-bold boys at (be tbrottle-ialre; and it may not be long before 
engines ore built for sneb speeds. Such on engine tearing New 
York In the morning would reach San Francisco the next night 
But before this can b^ done much work will bo nqnircd on the 
roAd-bn), OS vol! as iu the improrement of the machine itself, ii 
Th< . howerer, given the demand and the capital, canA 

f fecuring Each Bpeedsa&d naintaining^ 
I safety. 

.-9 mi^ become commonplace beside 
n.M reiuonabty bcUcTc poMiblo to the woB- 
i hand pf Qion, 10 the inTcntor and the 



Tne BOttDEk-lAXD 0/ scJexcS, 



76 



Bwduuiio aided by all the resources of modern and fntiuro 

W< uo alrekdy familiar vith the telognipli, transmitting 
Tlllj^ii icroa IjLnd ani] under aeu around tbo vorld ; wo 
haTe sTen diacoVRrod a method of Bonding over ita wires the /ae 
tiaaU of a written, or a tainted, or an eu^'ruvisl page ; tbu battd 
vhlL-h writes a lettur at one end of t)io line is imitated at the 
othsr by tb« pen of the liftlitning, and his ovory lino, cufTo. and 
dot and da«li exactly reproduced under the eye of bi« waiting 
correipoudenL Who knoa'e but that tlie Lime may come wlieu 
hb portrait may go with bta letter, or cT^n the word« of hia 
moath, sent through line of telephone, be apparently the ieauo 
sf thn familiar fnce speaking, like a roice from the Arabian 
Nij[bbi, aoriMi tliu world ? Tbo Murses, thu BelU, and the 
Edtwna of oomlng years may be relied on to perform do leaa 
•<ndflra tlian those which now astoni«h ns ; and the phonographs 
■nd graphophonen of later daya and of future agee will record in 
tbdr own Toioca and their own language, for all the elerriitie^ of 
earth-exuteace, their thoagbta and their triumphB. in donuant, 
but ever-liTiog, form. The great electricians of to-day are teaclk- 
iag aa how to convert the energy of the Hleam-engine into the 
newer form and to apply it to the illumination of our streeLs and 
ear dwdllingi, and to employ it in the oponition of at! the machin- 
ery 4>f thop and mill and home. The time may yet come when, 
by the employment of this wonderful conveyer of power, tbc 
energy of all the c!oal>mtne9, or of tho immoostirable tone and 
looa of water ponring orcr that tremt-udoun precipice of Xiagnra 
into the abyscee of the whirlpool and the rushiiij; rapida buluw^ 
Averthrea milliooa of horw power — maybe tranemitted along a 
mpper wire tn dintant cliien to funii^h the motive power of fuc- 
terMt. of worltsbopt, and of iununivrable homo indnitrien, doing 
iti ehara of the great work yet to be performed, of breaking np 
the {VCMiit factory e^-siem and enabling the home-worker once 
curt to eoinpeto on living tcrmn with great ag^^regations of 
capital In untcnipulous hands. Great atuam-erigines will nu- 

donbte-! ' " ' ne gvnemlly t lie Boarcea of power in our larger cities, 

aod wi j: orcr thu electrio wire* into every comer of tho 

town, ihvir HnarMn arm^. bolpiug the sewing woman nt her ma- 
t^.\r... •\,.. w«an!r at hi« pattern loom, the mechanio at his engine 
U' ig vwtj booaa the mechanical aids Deeded in tho 



THE f!ORTH AMERICAN REVXSW. 



kilchen, the laniidr;, the elevator, aud. at the same time, gtviog 
light, and possibly ovon heat, in liberal qaanti^ and iQieoattjr. 
It may become « more powerful gtniiu thiui wa« ever dreamed of 
by Scheherazade, and deseribcd id the " Arabian Nights' Enter' 
toiomeDts." 

There are aome other direcUoiiB in which we maj certainly 
hopo to s«« Bfl marTellona changes in the future as have Iweu 
witneitsed iu the post. It is not imponiblp thiit tro may em fl««ta 
of submariue boats doing the work of peace Mid of war. A centnrjr 
ago, uoarly. Rob«rt Falton, following in tlie path opened by 
Baahnell still wirlier, bailt in France a boat irhicU. mailing aboat 
on the surface like an; otiier craft, woald then strike its sails and 
plunge beneath the Ritrfaec, moving about at the will of its com- 
inander by the hour, would reappear where leajtt expected, iihake 
off tW Soods from its decks, and, raising its mast &gmu. steadily 
■mI across the aea to its deetioation. In oar own days, my friend 
Uolland, the most penistent, the brareet, and most reliable of 
invontont in this art, has built his submarine boala to curry him- 
sv\t and friends about the harbor of New York, spending the 
hours under water or on tho surface, as he might chooec, and 
showing Ilia turtle- sliaped di-ck at one time off the docks of the 
city, and, an hour or two later, astonisliiDg and^ frightening the 
pa«aengoRof« stttuncr in the Lower Bay by his sadden rtM 
■loofsido, Sach boats will probably be naed in labmarine ei- 
pkmtlona. and will nndoDbtcdly bo employed in naval wmr&uv, 
to the confusion of nations spending their millions upon the 
monster iron-^^lads now fajniUar to ns. The limited cxp«ri«Dces 
of our pwple during our own Civil War, with their rode '"daTid*" 
of that time, showed what may be antictpnted when the«« nib* 
mftrilie craft are made capable of life at sea and of tiaveniDj; 
long routes. Possibly w? even may boike that the time will 
oome when vp, with soma later Captain Xemo, may thas crou 
the Atlantic. uuafFeoted by gale or wave, in comfort and safety, 
winter and summer alilce. The problem is onqnestionably 
in k promising at*t« of •e&u-a«lutio<i. When the eabmarlne 
Jfoftt, tbo Uow«U or otb«r tarp«do, and the Zahuski gnn u« 
>aght togvtiwr in on« sach cnift. the death of aO naval war- 
Urv at « Ttiry early date is aosomL Th» work of ths inventor 
will innir* th« p««o« of \h» vorU. 

Stonic« batteries, with tb«ir vtfini etwrcr in tbt fonoof o1«e> 



IK BOHDERLAtlD Of SCIES 



77 



Hcltj, nuiy b» tuefnl Ja sulimnrino naTtgatioti and ia the pro- 

pBlaion of camitfM on land; aatl it looka us tf they wcrv Uk«Iy al 

oo Mrlf lUte to b« of •er?ice to the solviDg of tliat fcrcateat of 

■nth* riiibte problems of the engino«r, tho nsTigntioa of tho 

air. For thu iturpoM it seemi pouibtc thikt vteatn. too, may jet 

b*of mricA, to at least B limited vxtvnt. It waa shown, many 

joara ago, by tlio distinguiahed French eagincor Dapuy de 

LAin« that baliooos might be mode " dirigible" by hand and 

SiDp«IIM hv power, and his work h»s been repeated in later years 

b; the H«Mn. Reoard and Krebs, using stored electricity and 

attaining ft ipoed of nearly fifteon mitea an hour. Aa Bagliab 

•ngineer alao, Mr. Pole, tho veteran anlhority on applicntions of 

fleaoi power, auerts that, taking the lifting power of tho balloons 

a« given by latest good work, and luuumiDg that they may be 

proprllcd by engines no huivicr than those sometimes emplnyi-d 

IB torpoilu-boats, it would be poaaible to drive a cigar-akaped haU 

loan, four hundred feut long and thirty feet in diameter, nt the 

tBM of ibirty miles an hoar. That this will be realized, aud more, 

we may hardly doubt. Bui it remains a question whether the 

baDouo con be dispensed witli and the flying-machine made self- 

■BfltJUDiae as well lu eelf-inipelting. Thia is greatly doubted by 

uaoy: Ixit it ti) impo«4)b[(< to aay positively thai it cannot be 

done.* W* miky {WMtbly jet see the air navigated by flyiiig- 

BMcbiiMi of enomi<iiL« aijjo. conveying puscngurs and important 

Jespatchea, and ptrhajis light articles of merchandise, ut ntes of 

aptai exceeding the flight of the swiftest birds; but few men 

of seieaoe or engineers imngine that tnich macbinea will over bo- 

coois Tshtele* of general use. or as reliable as to time and dates as 

mn the iteaaahipa orlhe railway traiiisof to-day. Slioald the \D' 

nmtor uf the soocessful flyiug-machi&e ever come forward, he will 

B«ct with a welcome snch tu has rarely been necorded any one of 

his prvdecessoni. U« will have performed a more wonderful task 

than any one of them. 

A ftill more wonderf al work will be done by the genius, should 
h« ever appear and should tho thing be possible, who shall find a 
way »f producfag that bemitiful and inoomprebvuiiible light 
■nitted by tba flre*fly or the glow-worm — a tight which is with- 



"lliiial ■imlwiin'iil taTsatlmUnn* hj V ro t tmar Lauftar.lha ilWUim»Uad 
><■* gfcyiSlt. ynn ihmt Um giniini]U«i hem mM wKh ftre tmUs Ibm 
k aswIiMilr nppcMod. 



78 



TUB NORTH AMERICAN SSVIBW. 



out heat and Uliistrateg proba,ljly tli« only koovn case oi at leut 
approximatclj complete transformation of vital or fae^energy 
into light without VMto and at low temperature. Such a trans- 
formation occurs less perfect!]' in phosphorous combustion, and 
the bint girea by the animal and by tbo mineral cannot be sup- 
posed to be quite beyond the limit of thought of coming discoT- 
crvra and invvntorv. Ud who turns the glow-worm's light to the 
use and benefit of mankind vill confer an incstimabln boon upon 
the race. It socms pti.-feclly reasonable to suppose that this, at 
least a problem already solved by Natare, ia not entirely beyond 
the rciuh of the over-fniitful mind of man. It would sevm no 
more im)inibublc Ihat lht> chiMiiial eli»uld dotecl the Bcoret of the 
composition of tliv Qrv-ily'tj ilhiminant than it once appeared that 
ho should over effect the synthesis of madder and revolutionize 
a gn-at industry. Kot only would the tolution of thin problem 
boa bcuefit to the race, as giving Lhcm a most bcniiliful and 
mild light, but the conversion of beat or other energy into 
this form of light, vithout wastc«, would result in the most 
extraordinary economy. It la estimated tliat, in the caaa of 
the more common forms of light-producing apparatus, not 
ov«r 5 per cent, of the energy is made ueeful, the remaining Itfi 
per cent, being wasted as hcut, and wotse than waited, as the 
boat produced is always n simirre of nnnoyance and loaa of health. 
Uu who tihull give us the sccrvt of the flashing out-of-door light* 
of the summer evening will enable na to secur« tventy Itmee aa 
much light with a given cxponditure of fuol n« wo now obtain, 
and will in that proportion liotb chc^apen the production of light 
and reduce the amount of injury done by combustion. We boast 
fo-day of otir electric lights; but, this invention or discovery 
made, we shaU have a far less expensive, though perhaps not 
more healthful, light. 

The direct convention of heat Into electricity, or the direct 
production of that lluid by the combustion of fuel, is another of 
those problems which are thonght by many men of science lo be 
possibly capable of eolntion, and eomo rather promising efforts 
havo boon mado to reach a result so altiaRtive. Thifi may even 
provH Lu be the tnte aolutiou of the problem of the glow-worm. 
Blu^Liili! flu- \':f„i^ .>v,.r ,-„.ii,- wben, by the burning of a little coal 
ii heat them comfortably, dorivt all 

: Jumestitt drudgery, secure a beautiful 



TBS BOSDen-LAf^D OF aCIENCB. 



79 



BiooD>lIko liglil, And prewrro tliem, at the snme time, against 
•esnUe ritutlmi of Ibu Ktiun8]>lK-re, vn Bhali buvo attained a 
ctttc of beatitQd« which niight well be tiikon m a foretaste of 
pandise. Wo «an, and actimllf do, transform heat and other 
•tierces Already within our owd bodies at a constant temi>crature: 
whj mav we not repeat thesp proctMsea out«ido of them ? It do«e 
nut «c«m puuible that we must always submit to the nun* invrit- 
•bi» tbennal and therrao-dynamic wa£t« of tbree-fjiiartere to nine- 
tMths, or moro, of th« stored energy of our fuels. 

We can, at but. only •pe(!alate about these coming blessingsof 
% fntnre time and the coming race ; but we luay, at least, be por- 
aitt«d to hope that much of this possible may become actual. 
We may be allowfO to hopo thiit later generations may continuo 
to see an interminable succ«ssiort of advances made by coming 
iD0n of acienre, and by learned eugineeisaud mechanics, that shall 
eauUmtally odd t» the sum of human happincAA in this world, and 
m*k« it eontiunally eAsior to prepare for a better world and a 
bri^tcr. Wltu knows bat that the telescope!, the spectroscopv, 
and (fiber os yoC uainvented instruments may aid us in this by 
nrsttling th« aecrctaof other and more perfect tires, in other and 
Bu>n> adniAoed worlds than onre, d«ipit« the Load-shaking of 
tliasc who know mo«t of the probabilities ? Who can say thut the 
lift of the nc« may not be made iu a few guoerstions, by this 
vTwaccakriBting progress of which the century has set^u hut tbo 
be^taniag, a true tnillennial introduction into the unseen unireiBe 
and tbe glorintu life that every man, Clirintiffln or Hcepttc, optimist 
i>r pessimist, would gladly hope for aud believe posailite ? Of this 
«• may be certain: do one can imagine the reach and limit of the 
nsalts of the apiQtcation of the intellect of man to the problems 
of life to-d»y. itny more than conld ourancMtors of two centuries 
ijfo haw imagined or lielieved in tbe progress that we to-day 
nay look bank npon. The border*land of science still stretohei 
<m tsto tbe onknown. 

IL H. TurasTOX. 



, A ROMANCE OF OLD HOME. 

BY PROPESSOB BOOOLFO I.AXCIASI, IJ..V., PH.D., P.A.S., KTC. 



In TBS early morning of May 13 I was called to witnoes the 
opening of two marble coQiuit wbich bad bwii discovered two days 
before under the foandations of the new F&laszo di Giugtizia 
(HiJlfl of Justico), in the neighborhood of Hadrian's niaueolouin. 
Orderg had been given for the removal of both aarcophagi to tho 
Citj Muaoum of the Capitol, where the ceremony of catting tha 
brass clamps which fastened their lids and of examining and de- 
scribing their coutvnia could boquicUyand curcfullyacoompliebod. 
This plan, however, was not found practicable, bccansu both 
coffins liappeuod to be Qtled with water, which had iu by-goue cent- 
uries filtered within, drop by drop, through the interstices of tho 
lids. Under such circnmstancee it was found impossible to re- 
moTo the coffins to the Capitol, not only on account of the exoeaB- 
irc increnito in weight prodnoed by the wntor, but also becauBo 
the violent iihakiug of the liquid mass would have damaged and 
otherwise disordered the skeletons and the objects which, por^ 
chance, hud bui'u burit^d within. I hastened to the spot to see the 
matter properly HttoinJod to, and this is what 1 saw in the coarse 
of that memuruble morning. 

At a depth of twenty-five fwt bt^Iow the level of the city — that 
ia to say, four or fivo feet only above the level of the Tiber, which 
mua etoH by — the two marble ooSins were lying side by aide, 
embedded in the soft damp clay. The one on the loft-band side 
was inscribed with the simple name 

CREPCREIA TRYPHAENA, 

ind duB(>[ rt'piiaionting iV* eoeoe f>l he 

!.■ .t?i '1 ■ J' ..n the (uiiorftl ^ed, wiiU lUi 

vlV *^^' ' 



4 
4 



A ROMJLSCE or OLD ROME. Ql 

Tha other coEHd, inscribed with the oume 

Uiiclol CREPEREIO EVHODO, 

to be peWccUy plttiii mid Bimplo. Kaou^h to say that 
eontaJDod no objecU of interest bui Ibe skuleton o( & man 
kboiit lUt/ jean of xgu. The contents oi tho Qrst Qof&n were 
far ntorr prec-ioue, iind almost uDiquo of Ihrir kind. 

tSn wooer bad tbe seals been broken and thu lid pat asido 
than my aauitants am] mysolf, and, in (act, the whole crowd of 
vorkiBCO wbicli had congregated around on the first announoe- 
nant of the "find," were almost borritied at the sight before aa 
Gwdlif %i the akcletoD, tUronK'i the veil of the puro yia.ict, we 
mm tb« sknil corcrod, as it were, with denee long massc'S of brown 
hab floating In the liquid cr^'stal. The coniniont« niado by 
th* aimpte and escital crowd by which we were surrounded 
were almost as intere»t)ng aa the discovery itself ; tho news con- 
MfiUDg tbfi prodigious bair spread like wild-fire amoug the com- 
ntoH of the district; and so tho exhumatioii of Crepereia 
TiTpbaena was ttocotnplished with unexpected solomnity, and its 
i ranenibnuioe will last for uiuuy yeara to conio in the popular trft' 
dittoDS uf lite new quarter of the Halltt of Justice (pruti di Cus- 
UDe). The mystery of the hair is easily explained. Together 
[ with the spring water, germs or bulbs of an aquatic plant bad 

it*r«d iho lorcophaguft. settUd on the convex mirface of the 
AwU, and devolopod into long gloesy threads of a dark shade. 

The skull was bend ing gently towards the left shoulder, as rcpto- 
■aolcd, by chance, in the bas-relief. Ou the same shouIdLT was lying 
aa exqnijiU) little doll csrTed in oak. On ench fide of the head 
there wer« gold var-rings with drops of pcurhi. Mingled in a heap 

rith tha rertobnc of the neck and of the backbone there were a gold 
Deeklace, woren as a chain, with thirly-eevcn pendants of groen 
jasper, and a large brooch with an intaglio In nn)Othy«t, of OnM>k 
wwk.matuhlp. representing the 6ght of a griffin and a doer. 
Wh0o the l«flb&od had bcon IviDg. we found four rings of solid 
p44. Od« is an tngagenient-ring. with an engraring in red jaspor 
'rsimaeuting two hands clasped together. Ilia second bus the 



PHILETV8 

«.«^.-.t -.n til- .if,T,-. •n,, ihjrii-unii the foartli rings are plain 
10 ijHvial account. 



»tf^ v:-^so. 3^. 



6 



u 



THE .\OBTH AMERlCAy RSVIEW. 



hu tlvsys been the same since the begituiing of the world. The 
same passioQs have never ceased to Bttr and to guvvni mankiad, 
with tbo same aJleraaUona of Kood and cril, of jove aud acrrova, 
of infaalile simplicitj and maturity of older a^.* Then we no 
longer woodcron finding that thechildK>n of by -gone ages h»d toys 
and games abiwluti'ly ldi>iitical with those of the present day. 
ThesB playtbtiigs have mostly been found in toinln, pagan as well 
HH I'hmlinu, and oonsiet chiefly of dalU and tnariotiettea, of 
crepundia lany kind of rattling instrument), money-boxes, little 
silver bolls, used against the j'eUatura or evil-oyo, ivory mftsks, 
Mednsa's hoads, little carts and boats, caricaturua of men and 
boasts, and sometimee pigs with children on their bocks. Tho 
origin of thcMi last objects can bo traced in tho ancient Spartan 
custom uf sucriGcing young pigs to Diaaa on the occasion of Ihe 
7\i/ifn\dia, thefeaeidayof wet-mirses. There are also articulated 
serpents, with which childreu Dsed to frighten each other. Snchfl 
is evideatly the serpent represented in a bas-rclit'f now in the^ 
Villa Culiiaoutaaa of Baron toq Hoffmann, wiiich shows the 
graceful figuraofaboy concealed behind a large »-en)c ma&k. 
through the open mouth of which ho Sourisfaee a snake, with the 
intention of frightening a playmate who stands before tbo mask. 

In the exciivntions of the Booian oometeries on the Esqoiline 
Hill I have found many curious objects in lead, which must be 
cUuecd among toys. Such are, for itutance, wheels for littls 
oarts, the spokos of which ropraaent figures ni charioteers; frames 
for diuiiuutive mintire; puMf-parloutt for portrdts ur medallioos, 
and imitations of domestic utensils. The early explorers of 
the Catacombs eynMik of an infiiiite roriety of playthtngi dis- 
eoveted in children's loculi, and especially of ivory blocks with 
letters in altj>- relievo, u»d to learn the alplishct, as described by 
Qiiintilian and Su Jerome, who call them " instructive amuse- 
ments for childhood." The manufacture and tho Bse of toys ara 
not peculiar to the Urevo-Ito i limes and lands. In Egyptii 
tAfflhs citntemponuy with the earliest dynasties mauy have been 
found, and distribitted through the various muAenms of Eurof 
idi U - inimios and mumray-oasas, mioiatuni boats' 

tiine t^ors, and cren Uttle crocodiles. wboM^ 
i or shut sa yoa like. .A,mong onr own *' fibdi'l 

.-, .'-.»^»Uf. unfMBwUifeIlMr«bu«ttr^M««d. 



A nOUAyCB OF OLD ROUE. 



8S 



vtvnMtnaBlion littlo cla; vasaa. vitb a bail inside, vrliioh, «a 
bang altaken, soonil like a tistrum. They wvre used, together 
Tith tbe jn'^rfra, b; narses to amuM &u())|ui(>t their youngchargea, 
iceoin|MDving the rattling with tlieir onn ^law oud moDotonoiu 
sBfing, tbe kata-han-kaUsi$ of the Gre«k, the nemat of the 
Itftina, tbe ninna-nanna of tho Italiana. Many of these objects 
Imtv been diacoTervd in PoDipeian nurseries, trhereaa the bnus 
fufra abound especlalljr id the bed of the Tiber. Whj thejr 
iboold be foand in such quantities in the bed of the Tiber is one 
«f tb« many mTiterios connected with tbe btetory auU nature of 
that remarkable river. 

It was cnstom&rr among tho ancients to load the newborn 
dtild vith gifts of erery description. Mothers, fnundK, and eTea 
•U family servants congregated around the cradle, admiring, 
caraaung, and embracing tbe babj, while the Tunenibte grand- 
Biotber bl«8Md and anointed him. wishing that roses and lilies 
might spring up along hid path, and that palaces and rich 
damains might bvcome bis portion. 

When a child was abandoned and descried, the erepundut 
were either bung to his neck or were put in u basket b}- his side 
— « practice which rigniOed that the poor lonely infant waa pat 
tnder the care of Bacchus, who had shared the same fate, and 
tlatt like tbts little god, it was bo|>e<L tliat he would bo tended 
ad «sred fnr. In the Pio-Clcmcntino section of the Vatican 
Itamm tliere ia a graceful statuette of a child, with many 
tnjnmdia round bis neck, by meami of which the fooDdling coald 
be identified in ])n}gn!S8 of lime. In gccqc fourth, act foortb, of 
tiW'BadenB,'* Plautus describes minutely the objects concealed 
in paUttra'f basket, which help the futlior to identify the long- 
laM daflcrhter. Aristophanes and Terentins are very fond of 
flor their plays on this plot of cipiised infunLs, rccog> 

aut.^, ... ■:-- time by their parents with the help of ffiiori»ma(a. 

Tbe costom of modelling or moulding little figures in wax or 
elay waa also a great diversion for Greek and Bomnn children. 
li^fff^nm refers to this practice both in " Alkyoii " and in 
"Pi—m,'* eompariog moet happily the innumerable change* 
wblcli fnrtnn andergoM by tbe hands of God to the thoueand 
ftKisu whieh a bit of wax or clay receives in the hitnds of ohil* 
divD. Artisto of great valae baTe condescended somctimea to 
medal •s«««inly small works, elegant and oosUy "nothinge," 



86 



TUB h'ORTH AimniCAN REVIEW, 



to b« coinp«red to our Ptvnoh bib«lot». Pliny spcaVs of K&llis* 
tnitos having oarved in irory aats aud otber lusects ao tiny and 
miiiuto that it was alin^xst impossible to diflooTerand appreciate 
their exact shape aofl proi>ortiouB. BlyrmokidM is said to hare 
cnt flret in Ivory and then in marfalo a chariot drawn by toor 
horsM, vhicb could be screened and concealed under the wings 
of a fly; and also a maa>of-wAr> or guadriremis, not larger than 
tlia body of a be«. 

The smallest of the many hundred marble figures which I bsTe 
discovered i» only ninc-t«nth8 of nn inch high. It represents a 
lady attending to her toilet, with a mirror in the right hand. It 
is exhibited in the now Museum of the Orto Botanico* near the 
Coliseam. 

To come back, hon-ev<tr, to the special subject of dolls : t^e 
fact that they have been conRtantly found in Greece as well as iu 
Italy, in pagan aa well as Jn Christian tombs, shows how gener' 
ally and constantly they must have been osed. These dolls are 
of ereiy kind and description, of wood, of clay, of irory, of wax, 
and mostly nrticniated. Vnrro compares the fascination which 
dolls exert on ohildren to the fascination of flowers, of gems, of 
money, of cakeji. I'lntjirch, in writing afToctionatc words of cxim- 
fort to his wife for the loas of their sweet Timoesena, dwells apoa 
the charming diepoHtion of the child, and relat««. among other 
traits, how she begged the nurse to give her milk not only to 
other children, but also to hor doll. 

The ancient custom of placing children's toys cither inside or 
above tombe is too well known to need further illustration. To 
it refers the grawful sl^iry told by VitniviiiB apropos of the 
Corinlbian maiden on whose tomb the nurse had placed a round 
basket contaiuing her former playthings. A plant of acanthus 
having surrounded the basket with its delicate tendrils and 
leaves, suggested to Knllimakos the first idon of the Corinthian 
capital. 

The Mnseo Orisiiano nnti^sed to the Vaticao Library is per- 
haps the richest in this mndcf^t but interesting daas of antiques, 
especially in dolU and marionettes carved in bone, and articttlated 
so that they could move and gesticolata by means of thread* or ^ 
wires. S 

' All that I have said on the subject may seem not to pertain 
to th« cas« of Cnptnia TiTpliMna, who must bo snppoaed to bar* 



A KOMAXCe OF OLD ROME. 



67 



l^fn up her pluythinK* many jean before her death. A passage 
«kioh we find tu the eecoDd Satire of Pcreiiis (t. 70) enabled us 
to expUin the ease very easilr ; bat. first, let me give a more do- 
tuM deeoription of tho little work of art. 

The pupa it carved in oalc, to which tbe oombined action 
oCaga and water has pren the hartlncse of metal. Althotigh not 
diffannt iDBiieand eliape from another doll, illuetmti.'d br Biecari 
ia plate V. of the "AnlicM Ornatrunti e TrastuHi del Cambini," 
evn i> modftili^ with a far more perfect imitation of the woman's 
form, and u conaiderod by ViKronti and Ciutellani the fineat of 
iu kind yet found in Roman excavations. The hands and foot 
anoinrtd with the otmoat ekiU. Tho arrangement of the hair 
ii etianotcriiitic of the ago of the Antonines, and differs but little 
faon the vtjts of Faiuttina thfl elder. The doll wtu prohflbly 
draned. and in the thumb of her right hand worv iDMrtcd two 
fu(d key-nsga. in imitation of thode worn by housewives. The 
Igvrfi tiM BitiOQlatioDB of which at the hips, knees, shoulders. 
mA tHiovi ftre still in good cotidttion, is thirty centimetres 

The TOTse vi Pcrsios abore referred to-^ 

Ntmjte koe. tvad Ttmtri dmtotat a rtryfiw jwppor— 

•fatflec that dolls and playthings arc nut a specialty of children's 
famtn. It W1U mctomanr for ynnng ladiee to offer theirdolla to 
Vans or Diana on thoir w«dding-Klay. But this v»& not the end 
Itarred for CrepereU's doll. She was doomed to share tho ead 
Utt of faer young mistrosa, and lie down by her corpse before tho 
mankfb oeramony could be accomplished. 

BoDOLro LairciAvi. 



BY-GONE DAYS L\ BOSTON. 



BT THK HON. CHARLES X. TTCKEBXAN. 



I BATB Khool-boT recollections, chiefly aneodoticAl, of certain 
notable mon in Boston, whiob, thougli affording ibqm glimpflu ol 
their penonal characteristics, may b« worth reoordiog. Theao 
men bftkugod to a clan which sbnl a distinct ijiflnenco orar 
•ocietj' from the rostram. the Icctartvroom, and the pulpit in a 
city which est««tiu itself — and not wtthoDt aiMne ctaitn to th« 
titie — tht literary mptropolu of the ooantrjr. I refer to the da/i 
of Vebftar and KTcrett, the AdaauM. Ot)», and Qaincy, amonj; 
atatMinen ; Jndne Siorj and Bmiut Cbo«t«, among tawjen ; 
PrMOott ud Ticknor. among hutwians ; £merfoo and Alcott, 
among philosophers ; Channing, Lyman Beeeher, Blagden, 
Wan, and Piorpont, among deigrtDen ; and a host of leaswr 
lights. I mnat condn* myaelt to a bw of tfaoM whose peraooal 
traits made an imprranon, at the time, apoo mr yoathfnl mind. 

Daniel Webster, chi«flv ftvm his pahtic Iam«» hot in Urge 
Beasnre from the fact that many of his glowing periods woe 
familiar to u« wboal<boys in tk»|i«gK of our "ItfTell's Speaker," 
was to me an objeet at pcofoviid admiralion. I see hitn now, 
" in hta habit as he wmlk^."* maa of gmbd phymqae, with a 
dark, oommaitding oouuieoanM and peneumting eyes, dr«Med in 
a hlae swrnllow-taiM «oat. with gilt battaa^ and a buff waist- 
eoat. hehnr vluoli daagW his w»tek«lMm and keys. 

T%9 wamtmntivmmt UmI tk» grsak onter was to speak fmo 
the Ttrttrvm oria Moirt wa» mflkiest to ftU th« loom to rafToca- 
tkm \onf haian he apfMand. I via eaesv wktn a smaQ boy, 
ptoksd la a Amu* ot««4 al « poliikal misting im Fanrail Hall 
«h<« Wvbslvc brill forth. attd I mbs near bnng crashed to death 
— a i^gt^y amesig gianit- asihemahitude' ' 



*^ 



VJikMt. 



BT-OOXE DAI'S I-Y BOSTOS. 



89 



fwij to imt fm, a MHd mam of human bodies, as holplosa to 
Qountcract the niorenujot as if Faneuil Elall, the " C radio of 
Liberty," was being rocked by aa earthquake. The orator was 
in the midst of a stirring iippuol, urging tho ncceasitjr for indivtd- 
nal exertion and uuflinchiiig patriotism to avert th« dangers tbat 
tJirwtencd the politieaJ party whose principle! he espoosod, when 
he perceived the terrible stray of tlio packed asaemblv and the 
imintnent danger that might easne. Webster stopped short in 
the middle of a eentencc. odrancod to the edge of the platform, 
extended his arm in an authorKative uttitudo, and, in a Bt«ntoriun 
roice of command, cried out : " Let each man stand firm !*' The 
eflcct vas iitftantatieoa!. Each man atood firm ; the great hcav* 
tog mass of hnmanitj re;;utDcd its equilibrium, and, saVe the 
long broatb of relief that filled the air, perfect stillnosa ensned. 
" Thai," exclaimed the great orator, " iH what we call Belt-gov- 
ernment r* — so apt an illustratioa of the principle he was ex- 
pounding tbat the net UHembly rps]x)ndo(I with deafening cheen. 

I waeecarcely leeaan admirvr of Edward Kvcnstt, whose cold, 
cluneal, and studied style was in marked contmat to the massive 
wonnth and energy of bi9 great rival in public oratory. The one 
■track the qearry with the emphasis of a dUcoverer; the other 
dUasIled the marble with the delicacy of a Bnished sculptor. To 
Usten to Webster woe to bo warmed with an aneipected emotion: 
to bongnpon the periods of Krerctt wivb to feci the charou of 
caltun-H] rhetoric. 

1 had been smuggled between some friendly petticoats into 
tlie gallery " oxclusireJr reserred for ladies" that I might hear 
Erer«tt')f famous eulogy on the death of Lafayette, and 1 listened 
to it with devouring ears. On a pcdetttal at tho right of tho 
ontor atotxl a bust of the illu8triuuii Frenchman, and n fuM- 
lengib portnut of him in nil was suspended from the wall behind. 
oa a background of crape. All this was prearrnngetl to assist tho 
orator in his peroration, and to tbc8« ho turned with graceful 
aetioR Mul tmpoasioneal expression as he addreRRpd each symbol 
with the fioal words uf his addrew: " .Speak, marble lips! Speak. 
TotiTB c«nTasI Teach ns the lovp of liberty protected by law ! " 
I thought the applause woald never end. 

Twenty yearsafler, 1 mentioned to )lr. Everett the impression 
bis addreea on that occasion had made on my youthful mind, and 
repari<d hit closing words. He complimented me 00 my "excel- 



90 



TIfE JfORTH AJJEHJCAy R£VIEW, 



lent m«morf." I did not, howwer, tell htm w1i>t b tliook my 
jToungimagiuattou bad receiired when I fiubsequeDtlj discoverad 
that tho "marble lipa" he had invoked to teach the lore of lib* 
fTiy were — plaster! IJiiforLunatvlj for Boston, no "qaarried 
nwrble't aculpturcd glow " from clawic Faros, or even from Car- 
rara, representing Lafayette, vaa obtoiuable iu the city at the 
time ; hence the ignoble nibstitute. 

That Everett resorted oocaaioiiallj to aoceoiorie* '* to catch 
the ege» of the groundlings " may seem not altogether worthy oC 
a man of such culttrated tAStes and talents ; l)ut these studied 
effects, like hie studied orator}', served to ■* bring down " the 
house and the banqnet-tsble: which, after all, is the object of the 
moment with the orator or the actor, or both combined. It waa 
always succeBsful with Everett. A gentleman who eat near him 
at a public dinner in Boston related & little incident in iilnstra* 
tion of this. Among the ornamented diRhes on the tsblo wu a 
grand plat fancifully decorated, iuclndiug two miniature ailk 
flags on 8tick». which were atuck into the riand previously to its 
being served. This dish stood direotly in front of Everett. 
Before he was aware of it it was remoTed from the table for the 
purpose of being carved at the Bidoboard. When ho mined it, 
he appeared to be serionily annoye<), and, beckoning to one of the 
wiiitiTs. whispered to him to bring back tho dish and place it 
whiTc it was before. Thij was accordingly done. Uy friend, 
one of the few who had obserrod the little by-wtene, conld not at 
all understand it, or know why the groat man had appeared to 
disconcerted at the loss of the dish and so immensely relieved at 
itfi rcappoarmnce ; but when the cloth was removed and Everett 
made bis speech, in re<<poitie to a national toast, the mystery was 
explained. As tho orator warmed with his theme, and espatiated 
in glowing Ungunge upon the greatnesa of the Republie. and the 
patriotic emotions excited by the flag of the Union, whose folds 
they all beheld graoefally festooned aronnd the walU of the 
banqnel'hal), he fwiicd — as if moved by the impulse of the 
inoment — the two iiltle flags from the dixh before him and waived 
them, one in oach hand, above his head, nntil his accents were 
drowned in tho murmurs of applacse that foltowfd the graceful, 
ikppro{kHate. and. so to speak, iatpirtil acL 

In one of hts speeebea Edward Everett spoke of " the iMden 
waSgbt of nooanfal ualntioii.'' With him tb« }mAta weight wai 



BY-aoys DAYS m boston. 



01 



^Mftpoioted BtnbiUon. Ltk« Webster. Clay, Culboun, and a 
bMt of Others who were worthy to roccir« the highest {pft at the 
biadt of the people, and by pairiotio and earnest work had 
■tmea to obtain it, he failed. Aa u achotar, a true patriot, and 
a fttuihed ontor. he was thoroughly appreciated by a large and 
ditorimi Dating chue; but his Dntora) t-emperanietil and ciclusivo- 
Mas, porbapa aa much as anything, did not eotnmend Jiim as an 
aUgibl« candidate for the Presideacy. Webster, on the other 
hand, was "m toach"with tbf people, and bin name was « 
watchword of atrength ; but his utronj; advocacy of pariisaa 
iDMMrea bad Mrerod the sympathies of a large section whose 
TOt« would hate been neceEsary tn his encccss. 

On my way to and from Bchool I had to pau» the Conrt-TIouBe, 
and woutd oocasionully slip in to enjoy the crofift-examinalion of 
a witness, the pleading of the barrister, or the cliargo to the jury 
of Ohief-Jnatioe Story. There I heard Rofiis Clioate eeduoe the 
obcnas mindt nf unintellocltial Jiirymen by his fervDnt, almost 
vonanlj, appaalH to tbejr Hympathiea ia behalf of the prisoner at 
the bar, who, in the majority of owes, richly dcacrred punialinicot 
In thi4 dase of oratory Choate bad no eqnal. I once heard him 
deftad • man ohorjced with oblaininKgoo<ls nnderfalae pretences, 
who had reprasenlcd himself to his creditors as possessing a large 
oapitsl when in point of fart he was a bankrupt. Not a word of 
•fidenoe oouM be extracted in faror of the prisoner, who8« guilt 
wifl folly esUblishM. But Choale had ascertained that, many 
yoars boforo. when a very young man. the accnsed had, on one 
or tw-o ocraaions, taken charge of a Sunday-flchool clam to reliere 
AtcAcfarrwho waa ill. The great barrister nt-ised upon thi« fact 
ass drownJDg man a straw, and clung to it with a tenacity and 
iaprMsfTfneas of appeal tbataetonifthcd judge and jury. His ar- 
gammt was something like this : Could such a eelf-doTOtnl 
OhrisUsn. a young man surrounded by the atlnremcnta of a great 
diy. Tolnntarily resist them and gire himeclf up to the religions 
training of littic children, teaching them the word of God and 
tlerating thtiir minds and hearlii with lessons of morality, if he 
waa htminlf eorrapt and unprincipled-. No^ Xo, — a thonsand 
Ubbb KoI Hb failiDga in life were the common failings of 
faonmity. Hr waa self-deceived , sanguine, impracticable — A 
nua wboM ideas were roee^olorcd, and who imagined, as be 
loektd OT«r hit iteck In trade and built raatles-in-the-air of fatara 



92 



TBE NOBTH JMERICAIf HBVIEW. 



prosporitT. tliat he waa alrendy n mui of mcnne, and in reality 
pooeeaaed tba amount which, tiader thit seU-delusion, h« repre- 
Mnt«(t to his croditors to be his oapitiU. And so forth and so 
forth. Thon followed the illuittration of a mirago in the <l«ert, 
when the wearied trnvellflr, deceired bj the atrial phenomenon, 
fancies that he beholds in the distanco palaces and verdure and 
gashioj; foantaine, which, alas! oh a nearer approach dissolvo 
into airy nothingn. Tears bedewed the eyes of the eloqnent 
pleader ; nt least, he frequentlj wiped them with his faandker* 
chief, and as freqiientl; had recoarae to the glastt of water on 
the table to relieve his choking uttoraaces. This was too much 
ior the seasibilities of the jiirjmsn, and the; acquitted the reecol 
at the bar without leiivitij; their seats. 

Choate's de«ply-furrowed face and nnhealthj exprcimion tndi- 
oated an overtaxed brain at the expense of irrcgutarity in living. 
I believe he hod no time to compress his preparation of oases 
within ofHcc honnt, and did nn immrn>ie deal of work at home. 
Not that "he took his briefs to bed with him," — as is said to bo 
the case with a celebrated London barrister. — but that bisbrieb 
kept him out of bed for the grcatvr part of the night, and that ho 
drauk an inordinate quantity of tea to keep off the sleepy god. 

Asthe dcmi-god of literary Boston, whoso temple of worehip 
vas chiefly the I ec tun?- room, I remember the thin features, the 
tom«d«<lown collar, diaplayiiig an excva of iincovereJ throat, and 
the calm, self-assorting pxpresaion of Ralph Waldo Emcrsan oshe 
indolged in his somewhat mystical uttcmnoss to th« crowded 
assemblftgeti of the Society for tlie ()ilTii»ion of Useful Knowledge 
A large part of the audieace waa composed of merchants, some of 
wlium declared " on 'change. " the following day. that the 
my<«tical Sage of Conoord was " too mnch for Hum, but that their 
daughters nndorstood and appreciated himthoroaghly." Bat for 
the limitations of spac« I should yield to the temptation to repeat 
hero many of the anccdotoa cnrrent at the time in connection 
with this prefiminently great and origitial philosopher. Wc must 
content oursolrcs with one, as illustrative of that extravagance of 
expression wbieh ocoasianiilly betraywl bis Honsa of koeo hatDor. 
BmersoD was at the theatre one evening, in com|isuy with hu 
Ksthetio friend Margaret Fiiiier, to see the renowned Fanny 
KlUler. As tho " dtvifu d<\M9>u»'* was executing one of bar 
inimitable ^i>of(«/£pf, bulancinc hersapplo body va the toeofhw 



9A 



TWS yORTH A31EBSC^\ JiEVIEW. 



aud eaw him frequently. Dariog one winter, the former, not 
having KcD or ht'aril from Dr. ChsDniug for three wmIls, not- 
witKHUmliug that the weather had been uuusuidly mild nad ogroft- 
ablv, feared that he v&a ill, and called atbis house to inquire. Be 
found CbaoniDg in his library, the sun gtreamiug through the 
closed viadows and a biasing fire in the grate, while ttie doctor 
himself wad in hiii usual headth and Bpirita. ft atarally the Tisitor 
ofikcd him why he ytu not out enjoying the soft air and tho ftun- 
ehine. Channing shook his head and said : '* Impassible, mj 
friend. I dure not, and you know I never do, Teature out of doore 
in an cast wind." 

"But, doctor," eaid his friend, " tho wind is not from the 
east ; it has bouc south for tho poet three weeks." 

" You are greatly mUtaken/' rejoined the doctor; "look at 
the vane," poiuling totho weathercockof the Park -Street Church, 
risible from the window. 

"But that ranc is rusty," was the rceponae, "and kat not 
nuved /or Ihrw w«*«. Jt wauta oiling." 

The astonished divine must have concluded that his own 
facuttlee required oiling, for he started off directly for his muffler 
and overcoat, and went out with his companion for a walk in the 
cheering sunshine, with the joy of a prisoner rcli;use<l from a long 
impri^Timont in a caso of miscarriage of justice. lie must also 
hare experienced a sense of mortification at the discovery that he 
had boon deceived by misplaced confidence tn the OolTinislio < 
weathercock. \ 

Ohanning'8 calmuees and 3clf-po4BenioD were additional traits 
in his charauter, and were tiingularly manifested on a certain oc- 
casion. He was sealed among the audience in the gallery of the 
Old South Church, in the midet of a packed aasembly, on aome 
public occasion, whcu, suddenly, a porteatoue omckiug bodi^ 
was heani in the floor of the gallery. A panio ensued, which of 
itself wad siinioivut to create terrible danger. The general Jmpred- 
sloQ was that the whole gallery, with its dense muss of occupants, 
was on tUe point of falling. Tho people with terrifying screams 
xiuhed to the points of ogrpss, threatening to crush each other to 
dMlh in thuMmntic '.'fTnns trj^Ecape. In tho midst of this excit- 
ing aoai^^^^^ii -iid and perfectly compoacd, 

' ' * '^t' to reaumc their 

i; din.'Ctiy around 



fir-OOXE DATS IN BOSTOX. 



95 



turn, anil as they nwatvdtfaemsolvoBtlioir neighbors did thoeamo, 
ud ia a few monMaU perfect order and <]uiet were restored. 

Another Unitarian olergyman who, for man; years, influenced 
hia congregatioQ with almoat supreme power, aod who was the 
eoiiot«rp*rt of Chauning in phj'siquo and style of delireryj U 
mrtbj of a iketch. Tht« wiw the Rev. John Pierpunt. lie was 
tail, strong-limbed, and energetic ; poasoaaiQg a Ter; original 
mind and a directness of purpose which was never turned aside 
by quMtiotu of self-interoft. £vod to the verge of offence, and 
Sualty b«'yond it, he preaubed the duty of men tu Oud and to 
saoh oLher, fearless of personal consequences. During the great 
tonperaDce movement in Boston, Pierpont was in mthor an awk- 
ward position toward his congnif^tion. A strictly temperate nuin 
himself, ho had lUways enjoined temperance upon his hearers ; 
bot now he fell it inuumhent upon him to join his forces with 
the ptirtj whose principle was " total abstinencej" and he well 
knew that this woald not be acceptable to tlio majority of his hear- 
ers. Among the pillars of his church, the priocipiU pew-owoers, 
and the largest ooutribulors lo the fund in its support, were two 
or three distillers of ardent spirits, who bad accumulated large 
fortnnes in their trade, and who were held to be honorable and 
worthy men. No doubt the conscientious preacher took thcae 
pointa into serious consideration ; but, beinj; » man who despised 
half^roeunres iu a caio where morals were coucernt-d, bi> ilecicl«d 
lo preach down their vocation in life, even if it re^^nlted iu 
prmcbtng them out of cburch. AceordiuKly, be did not minco 
mattMt, bat with the full force of arji^imcnt and appeal ho 
4«aoaQoed those who built ap fortunea by the manufncture of 
iotoxicating liquors, and held them chiefly responsible for the 
crying evil of the timoe — intompemncc — and its debasing and im- 
povflrubiug resalta. One or two such sermons pas«ud without 
sarioDS comment, but ad isunday after Suuday the enthusJastio 
prsaclMT retaraed to the cbarfi;e, the distillers, supported by a 
majority ot the paw-owncni, Conid stand it no longer, and Pier- 
pont was respectfully dismissed from tho pulpit. My imprcsfion 
ii that from that time he abaodoDed the clerical profession; at all 
areata, while ooncinuiog to denounce the use of spirituous drinks, 
ha hecame an ardent advocate of HpiritaiiUi.(nt. 

Aa an hohwt and fcarlots proucher, he was an honor to the 
palfit i u a povlf hi« vorwH will always ht included In any coUeo- 



06 



THE NORTJJ AMSRrCAN REVIEW. 



lion that fairly represeats tbe lyrical talent of the period ; as a 
promoter of education, hi« school-books wore in tij» in every New 
England ncadoniy, and as a praclical inventor, tho " Fierpont 
itove," anil even a very aerviceablu nuur-sLrop, attested his claimH 
to tho title of " universal genius." Very many years after 1 had 
B«en Fierpont in the pulpit I was attracted, at a fuQcrul ceremony 
in Now York, by tho striking appeflraiioo of a tail, patriarchal 
gentleman with a floiring white beard, who stood proraiaently 
ainoiig the mournera. Hearing my name mentioned by a friend 
who greeted me, the patriarchal gctitloman turned to me and, 
introdacing liimwlf as Mr, John Pierpont, inqoired if I waa 
n relative of the late Dr. Joseph Tuckennan, formerly a " c^rgy- 
man-at-largo " in Boston. On being loM that snch was the fact, 
he shook me warmly by the hand and exclaimed that the meet- 
ing was one of great iDtorcst to him aod that, after the ceremony^ 
be had a most important communicAtion to make to me. 

I may hurc i-cmark that the cltrg^inau above meutiooed, aD 
uncle of tniue, was one of the most benevolent and disintorosted 
men it lias ever been my fortune to know. His life waa devoted 
to the gratuitous miaistration from the pulpit aud elsewhere of 
religion and of good works for the benofit of tho poor of Boston. 
To this cause he devoted the larger sliare of his private fortune, 
and so widu was the extent of his repatation in this regard tliat 
an English biogrttpher asserts that, as an unselfish humanilarian, 
be deserves the title of the American Howard. Among his per- 
aonal cburacteristics waa that of occasional absence of mind. On 
entering the hoaso one day, Dr. Tuckerman placed his hat upon 
the ball table, entered the parlor, and, seeing a magazine upon 
the book-stand, took it up and soon became absorbed in perusing 
its pagco. In this occupation he was disturbed by the entrunoe 
of a lady, who, to the doctor's great surprise, iufoniied him that 
he had made tho mistake of entering the wrong house, his own 
being the one next door. Tho body of this distinguished philan- 
thropist lies at Mount .\ubarn, under a marble monument erected 
to his memory by the poor of Buston, so many of whom desired 
to contribute to its cost that it became necessary to limit tba 
amount of each subscription to one cent. 

To return to Mr. i'icrponl. The " impor- 4t- 

tion" that the rrvprend gcnilr-"' m ii-..i ^'» nulj^j^^, «f 

startling. With great jsoieuin 



BY-GONE DAYS IS BOSTON. 



97 



i,s{Bv clays prcnoiul;, he hsdhelda most iut«rf8ttng oonver- 
Mion villi Dt. William ElleryCbanaitig. As Cbanniug had thvn 
hen doftd £or npwftrds of twcotyjoftn, 1 at first coacladvd that 
tietpont wu out of hiii wjises ; btit or recalUag tho fnct thut h« 
wu m pronouncxMl Sjiiritualiist, I lisLeaed with serious atteuUon. 
** I Hked Cbanniog uuoDg nthcr thioge," contioQed m/ oom* 
ion, " whcro be then wm. 
•• ' Id the fifth hanven,' he replied. 
" • And where is oar friend. Dr. Tnckermao f 
**'Iii theserouth tieuven.' 
** * And bow hatipptu it that be, good as he ww, u in higher 

th»D joanwir ?' 
'" * On at'vouDt of bis great unaelfishuoss,' was Chviniii^s re- 
ply. I kn«w." continued Pierimiit, "that this fact would bo 
of gmt iiitenut tojonaadrour family, and it luoks Hku » spccittl 
prDTid«ncv lliat I am favurtd with Ibid opportuuit; of naokUig it 
kaown.'* 

With the exception of thiaidioa^Ticraay, Pierpont was perfetitiy 
nuional. and probably his colleagnca of the spiritualistic circle 
would Mttcrt tliat Cbisiatcrviow with tbo dupurted was the strong- 
eat itvidface of hid [K-rfc-ct laciditj of intellect. Picrponfs latter 
dayi were puwd in U'li^liington as a olcrk in one of the doport- 
BuntA, sad M an otxasiotul public lecturer. 

Aootlier Ter; notable clergymftn of Boston was the Rev. hy- 
mfla BeedtBTt lather of tbv latu licary Wurd Ucocber, of Brook- 
lyn. Ue wmi one <if the lights — technically Bpcnking, the " blue 
light **— of CalviniBtn. Ete was a powerful preacher to a devoted 
eoofTCgsiioD, and iuitalged in BectariundenanciatioD beyond what 
were gt^nerolJy considered the bouudtt «( good tjuite. I recall a 
miny Sunday ultoniouu when, Beeiiher's church being near onr 
boQM. I attended thcsc^^ice«, more, I fear, from curiosity thnn 
jinlie. The sermon W3« upon procrastination in ful- 
-lian obMrvaocva. It mudc an impn'ssion upon my 
miiul Imm m oircuirii^ance that attended it. After describing the 
" \s,\ nvut the impiMiil(<iit ginuor, and enumerat'ng 
*i to ilie burning gulf, among which procras- 
■' the greatest, the eloquent preacher illuetrated 
'" ^')iIlt. A mother who bud always intended 
t for baptism postponed the oeremony, 
' ««r worldlj occupation, tram day to day and 



HOW I BECAME AN ASTRONOMER. 



BY CAMILXE FLAMMA-BIOH. 



now did I b«corae an astroDomer [■' The quMtion ia a 
iar one. Vou might, porbapa, jaat as well ask a poot, a painter, 
or a saatptor hovr his specuU tastes were amikeaed. So far as I 
am coucvnicd, I cauiiot briuj; to mind the time when I first took 
iutereat in the wonders oi Ih^ heavens. 

When a child, as far back, in fact, as I caq remember, I was 
moved by the glory of the starlit firmament nt night and of the 
we8t«riiigiiua at eventide ; my heart thrilled withla me at the 
lordly speotaolB of uatnrc ; and, tike all children, my iuquieitiTe ' 
braiQ waa disturbed by a Ibousaud questions. Why was this? 
Why was that ? Where did the sun go to at setting ? What 
voro all thoso stars ? And what abont the earth whereon we 
live — who sustained it ? 

I was five and a half years old when au auDolar ivclipsu of the 
Min occurred to the inhabitants of the department of the Haat*- 
Hame, where my family lived and whore X was bom ; a eeoond 
oclipse (which vns a total one in Germanj) was also visible in 
the same province when I waa between nine and ten yejira of nge. 
I have but a vague remembrance of the first, which occurred 
in the morning in the fall of the year, and seemed to bring iMck 
night shortly aftor snnrise; but I remember the second as if it 
had taken place yeateplay. It was in the afternoon of afullsoinmei 
day. Tbosky wasoue broad oxpttuao of blutr. The sun ahom 
moat brightly, when my mother came *■> '-^'"^ '" t'- '-'I' 
brother, my young sister, and mys'tlf, m p- 
the gable of our huuse, 
to be placed. We gaz< ; .; 
which was well within our r> 
in size, as Che invi< 



>ir f BeCAMS AN ASTRONOMER, 



face. The mooD sood corenKl inurti tliau ouo-balf uf the 
i>ri) of Amj. Nuture pal on a land and sioiater appearance. I 
mneinlMr that the fjood old cotrntrywoDiea of the placti mid that 
tb« and of the world vas at hand. 

This celestial phcnomooan imp ra aa o d me the more forcibly at 
tho time becauao it liad been foretold lo a minate by the learnud 
IB«D of Paris, and bad taken phice eiacUy as predicted bjr them. 
I afaoald not be surprised if the event had a decisive inflacnce on 
tb* derelopraent of mj tastes. At nine years and a half the mind 
and charaictor appear io ho almost formed, and to afford a fair 
indication of tbe features the; are likely to eTinc« after gaining 
■tmigtb. Some oven may monif^l thow features at an earlier 
a^. Three years previoiiRly the prefect of Ihodepartment had af- 
fectionately token me in bin arma and given mu a bag of sugar* 
frfiuna, became I was the only pupil to answer satisfactorily a fuw 
qnaitiotu in geogropby put by him while on a risit of inspection 
to tho parish Khool. 

Oorhooaewaa built «a ihealopcof a hUl ca]Ied the "chateau" 
bacaase in old feudal days a castle frowned on its sununit over 
tho samnnding country. Of this ancient stronj^hold nothing at 
jWfMnt TBBuina but rains. From tliis liigb ground, however, a 
aoMmartding prospect may be enjoyed. At evening, when tbe 
ann went down, I took pleasure in going there alone to watch the 
ai^carajice of the stars as they ahone forth one by one in the 
daplhl of the darkening heavens. The names of a few planets 
and eonitellations had found a place in my yonthful imagination: 
Vaniu, the bright eTening sUr ; the Pleiades, or, as I called them, 
tbe ben and her aix chickens ; Orion, better known to me as the 
taJce; aiid tbe Polar Star. VThat were thoae disUnt worlds ? 
Bow far awvy were tbey from our globe ? \Vhat, in fact, was the 
whole akj whitbcr we wonld fain have Qown on our childish 

AnoUMr raralnlaMDoe rocun of those now distant years. Hav- 

lag tanninated my studies at the parish school, my family, when 

X was abooA tan jeon of age, took the necesaary stepa to pre{>are 

TRnfiTTbe rcrtedaiUcal profession. wlUoh, aa I then thought, 

' -ire career. The village priest kindly volunteered 

'^o rudiments of lAtin and Greek. As the 

.le diuul languages was fairly rapid, I was 

■ lAOgrrs. a town at that time more celebrated 



100 



TBB NORTH AMERTCAN REVIEW. 



in my eyes for its cathedral aod small Bontinu; tiiaa oa account 
of itB strategic position or its historical renovm. It was a litUo 
plaoe eeoladod from the rest of tho world, wher« the steam whistle 
of the tocomotJTe vaa scarcely heard as yet ; stooped in ddrotion 
aod aileDt as a cloister of the middle agns. EvorTthing about it 
»iggwt«d religion and mintclea, and the church waa ut tho head 
of OTcrything. Diderot began his cloMical etndie« whore I was 
about to commence raiae. 

Wo were trndfing up a siocp aacent, my father and I, beride 
the tired horso that painfully tugged at the coach, when one of 
those problems that puizled me most — the hundriKlth pcrliapa 
since our dopartum— ^a^oetod itsolf, but, somehow ur other, t&- 
tnuned inflexibly tmsolrcd. 1 wanted to know what was ben«atb 
the earth and why it did not fitll. Ikfy fiitheHs eraaive replies only 
added to my cnriosity. I could not detach my thoughts &om tbo 
image of our globe sa^ndod in space. It took mj sleep away 
the following night. I repeatedly quoationod my profes8ore,but with- 
out ever receiving from them a reply that satisfied me thoronghly. 
One even went eo far as io ussuro lae that astronomy was n science 
not to bo wholly relied upon, and thflt the old id«i of tlui son re- 
volving aronnd the earth was perhaps the beet and, after all, tho 
most probable. 

I had a. chnm who had the half of an open-glass in his powM* 
Btoa Tho iirat op|>ortunity chat offered — it was on u Wudncsdsy, 
as we returned from oar walk to the neighboring mountain — I 
lookod at the moon through this rudimentary inslrumeot. I no- 
ticed the depressions formed by the circular cavities and seas as 
they appear fringed by thu sokir light along the ciouii'erim. What 
a discovery waa this ! And how my heart beat I There von 
mounuins in the moon, as on our earth ! And seas I And conn- 
trios t Perchance alao inhabitanu! The young profesaor who 
walked by ray side uiuwcred each of my qucetions on the subject, 
laying : *' Why not ? " But to the last queetion he said : " Ob, 
aa for inhabitanis, that is impoastblo ! " 

The following year a comet appeared in the sky. lieJng only 
A day scholar, I was able to accompany some members of the 
family with whom I boarded to look at it in the evening from tba 
ramparts of the town. Its pale light, w«<ir(l appearance, and the 
fact that it changed its position in the aky from one ovRning to 
another, struck my childish ^oy with uniaxomenl. It toared 



aOWt SECA31E A!f ASTSONOHER. 



103 



iboTO the SDOMt like an airy feather, and ithono with a soft, caha 
ll^tl thai suffaaed tho tleptba of the heaveiu. It was to me a 
note of infceiTogsHon poised in the infinite. Bui as I generally 
nound anything but aacislactory &iiAir«r« to iqj quedtioos, I b»* 
KU lo hold mv puiLce nod to think for myself. 

The greater number of my youthful rominisoences are of much 
tha nine kind. Of the msoy subjects that went to make up the 
oonne of my stadies, those which related to coemographical mat- 
ton, llw potition of tho earth, the mechanism of th« aeoeoDs, the 
action of the aan, were among the most interesting to mr mind i 
and, I may add, tbose bearing on the phHnnm(>nu of terrpslriii] 
nalnrc — the chrynalis that grows iut« a batlerfly, Ihti fossils with 
which the toll of those Jurassic redone altonnda. Often at rarly 
■wniiDg in winter, before the eiin roec, 1 liavc sketched tlio ont- 
liae at Moat BUnv, which towured in the distance, while dream- 
ing of the carve of the termsiriol globoand the dimensions of our 
world. The bills of the Uaiite-Mame, its elevated promontories 
that «hoot up almost rcrtically from tbo oxt«neive surrounding 
idaina, may be looked Dpon as so many obaenrutoriea. From tbeir 
tammitj the «ye often soars above a lower sheet of clouds^ that 
iao\u like an ocean of drifted snow. It often happens also that 
the aidenal heavens are so clear and trunsparvnt that tho guxcr 
•lemsdniwn upwards nearer to tho stars. Thought soars over the 
fiufaoe of the whol(i brond worlc]. 

The aptitudes with which one may be endowed at birth find 
hen a wide Beld and fntl scope tor their deTelopment. U ia 
natnre heiwlf that here addreesea ue. The pro«pects an ample 
and Imposing, the bills graoefal and verdant, the meadows richly 
ehd; itnanu gurgle, birds warble, insects hum, aod ererything 
speaks of life— actnal life, and also life ancient and perpetual. 
YoD cannot take up a stone, so to speak, but it contains a trace 
of some petrified animal. 

The thought Is strong within me, therefore, that I hare 
■hrays been in the same frame of mind wherein I am to-day. 

A.t fonrtvcn, when my classical studies wcn> ttbout tcriiunjit«d, 
mj family went to live in Paris. At that age I was an omiuro- 
foqs roader of works bearing more eepeoi&Uy oa natural history 
and Mtroooeiy. In my fifteenth year I was, above all, taken up 
fTklh Mnuognphical qnestians, aad wrote a big book on tho origin 
of the world-— « vuluue naturally Incomplete and of little rain*, 



104 



TBE HOBTE AMEEICAN RBVIKW. 



vhicb luckily never nii>t with s pnblisher, but which eventnally i 
took tho form of a work of mine eatitleil "The World Before! 
the Creation of Man." 

A happj* concourse of circumai&nceB led me, vhoa in my 
Mlteenth jear, to enter the Paria Obaervntory. I wm introdnced 
to Lc Verrier l>y Father Babinel, as he was familiiirly called, &aA 
receired as an assistant aatronomur at that institution. I was 
pflsnoantely fond of a^tronom^r. But having read Arago's 
BCientifio trwitisee, eepecially the one which rcfera to Builly, who 
fell a victim to revolutionary fury, I hail some misgivinga as 
to whether I should ooDseorate ra>'iwlf deOnitely to so uustora a 
TocAtion. Ky hesitation will be readily understood if the picture 
Arago has drawn of the young afttronomor is placed beiore 
reader. Here it is : 

"Th« madwn Mitranamer, who la nmllj worthr tba &uim, rniut NBOOsn Ilia 
ptaararv of Holaty ajld «v«ti Lha cnmrnrt alTonlod b; a few ba«n of snlBUvntptod 
■leap. In ellnunaallfca oiira. diirtag iba mtbtw m m om of the jtv. lha ■ky b almort 
■twkfatilddan bablnd a tbick onrUtnotcltnuU. To verltr mcti or mok a point u 
tbeory. It U nacMWir Ui v-ateh for (ho aUchlaaC opealiif and tara It al auoo U w»- 
c»iini.naderpanalL)roCtultliiK orriorliundradscif 7«an «ir Mob rcnOcaUon. A 
ffcroraUe irlod dlapab the vapqn U> tba lUioatlan whora. lor Uh apnoo of • Mw 
Mocod* oqIj. Nino tanportwil pbonotnMiaa la about tv taka pbo*. TIm MtttMumr. 
cvpoaed to erarj tnolamvniir of Uit air,-^ oonditiiM baet aakolatcd to liMitr* ao- 
sarBio]r>— fcia bodf palafullr bant, dirceta wKb aO poadbla dlUcmoa lha ora-ptooa of 
■ tgltiBO | i« irltb gradnatad aealo on tba at*r Impatiaatly avaJUd. Tha Ubm of 
tettirfao* are m«Te coaaaamn. If, In adjiutlnc tba taiatrameat. be blonders hj ooa- 
bolt the tbtckDM* of OM of iboM Unoa. tba obaopvitlloD wUI bo null attd raid. Jadga 
of blaanitoty: at tba crtUcal nioniMit abraatb atwlnd oaoaaa tbo arUflotal Ilitbt 
lUed upon tba taleaoopa w vibrat*. so tbat tb« tlnai baooma almoal InvWbla Tbs 
alAT llaoir, wboao rara reaob Uie era tbrauiEh abaoapbsrlc ttrata of variable danattr. 
tMaporamc and fafrao U ng madia, ajjpean amngtr M oadUatc, m tbot lU roa) 
poallloB caa acarMlr ba dotanalaed at a novaaBt trttcn axtniBa '•bfTT—^ lo tba 
tmasa le Indlapoaaabla toloaura prooUoa In iba BwaanrNDBata: sTciTthbw baooHiM 
coafuaad, alUMr b«cauaa tbo aro-|[laaa sola ooTond wUb v^or, or baoaaaa tba naw 
approaeh of aoma vtry cold oietaJ Inducai aa abundant MOtattoo at ttwr* ta tba ar* 
aezt U> tbo letaaoopai tba wrvfthod obaorror Ea thenapoa agpoatd lo ooa of two al* 
t«rnattr«a ; eUthm h» muot loavr to oili«r« man laekr tba aattaantleatloa of a pba- 
aenitiuni trblob mar Bovap moo nfnUn opciir dertiw Ms Utattatkor totradaea lata 
■oianoaiaaDltattaaoonaelDeaaoI MblcblaproliteinaUaaL FtaaItr.tooQmpl«(«lbaDb- 
■erTatlaa,bamtiMooamiIt lbainlcroaoai)lodlrlalooaofairadaatadelfQla.«faee tba 
aCrafned rUan, wbtob la aoaia anporlndneea bnadnaai. mnat (aka ih« tlaoa of wbat 
Optlobuu call tba indoUmt rlaloB, tfae etAj one tbat tbo ""ti*!;" nooded 

" HoNOoar baa b« aeoaped (rocn tbU nwral and pbjalaal ttinaro tbu tba attnn- 
antor. If be wjahe* to know bow vjefal bla labon mar bare prri^'cd. I> obllgad l#| 
lannab Into nonteriol rockoolnga of wpoLdva ailnuU* ntid (aaKlh. Oattalii lalni ] 
latlOBB Bead a wbol* day's work to ood^hu<* Ibani wUb Iba lablot." 

In preienoe of such a piottim onp rr-'- — '-'* '■••— 
tat*. M. Paatenr. whom I viftit^^ at : 
me to enter the Musenni, a'^ 



*W I BECAME AN ASTROSOiiEn. 



lOR 



omj my best predilections. The OhtenzUtry, lioweyar, vod the 
dhj. and I am dcIishUrd thut it did. That impasiufc edifice, to 
ajr eyea, wu a temple. 1 Teuerated ila uoble traditions. I had 
for tbo aothor of thf discovery <>f N^ptuno au iiiifL>ig»ed admirs- 
tkn, and wa« proud to bo adniiued to work iindvr his shndoir. 
Such. tbva. ii the wajr I becamo an uatronomor ; or, nther, m 
. it ncnu to mt^ I hare uJwuva had the aiuie taates, this ia tb« yay 
m; astroDotnical career was decided. 

Sinoo then, hoveror, I bars fnaad out that the ideas I had 
fonned about Mtronomy and SKtronomors do not exactly corr«> 
«pofKl Tith lAvra rciklity. I aotud in thu temple many petty 
jealoaeiw, uarrov-uiindLHl niiibitioiu, some good calcoltitors, but 
renr little enthnaiaftm for the sky. and not n particle of pootio 
•mtiment. Surcml arnnng them locikrd upon the ecienco much in 
the nnie manner na If they had to make a piece of furniture or a 
pair of ahoeB. It ia only fair to odd that the pursoit of pan? 
MUboiDstics dri«« op every nurroundinic object like a fruitless 
blMt, and that the t-m nt physical iLsrtrouoray had scarcely then 
rMcbfd iu dawii. Within t.he last quarter of a contnry oar 
■Dbllnie scieiiOD has been wholly transformed. Tnsteail of watch> 
in^ inert masBeB in motion through the void of xpace. the study of 
tlwuniTeneM related to the physical confltitution of thedifForent 
voiids, the evolutions of the stam and of life, has talun Its plaoe. 
It u a signal adTanoe over the old school, and mny be looked 
apon as likely to prove the gn>n<1o3t feature of astronomical 
•eieaee hi tbe near fotare. 

Camillb Flam MARION. 



A PlEA FOR COPYRIfiHT. 

BY cotrurr tuiix de keratrt. 



Fob manj' ye&n Kraace has anxiously aimttod from the United 
States an act of repomtinn. IL U impossible to understand od 
the other side of the ocetiD how the Uuited States can perust in 
a system vrliich is iinfortaoate for the probity of the couDtry. aa 
veil as for the dcvolopmeot of it« litcrataro. It is evident that 
OS IODgASCOiiiit«rfeiti»g Prencb works, whether artistic, litemry, 
or otherwise, is authorized, uitlioual gaaiuti in this oouutry can 
oii]y develop with the utmost difficulty, owing to the evident fact 
that Aifierican publishers naturally hesitate to pay natire authors 
large amounts wh«n thoy arc able to obtain the worki of foreign 
ftiithor* for nothing. Consequently, from the point of view of 
tliP United States, there are two questions : fii-st, thai of the pro- 
bity of the nation, which ought not to be eabject to the shadow of 
doubt; sficond, the protection which a government eeseotially 
protectionist should not ro^l80 to its own authors. 

If we now regard the matter from the French point of view, 
we are forced tostate that the authors, editors, andartistsof France 
hare renched the utmost verge of patient endunmce. It is iinpos* 
aibto for them to understand bow the revised statotM of the United 
States, with the amcndraentA of 1870 and 1885 relating to copy- 
right, can authorize the plunder of foreign anthers by domestic 
publishers without requiring some just compensattou for the 
authors' labor. The French people aro the more justified in 
being aetonishod at such a law IxK^anse, since the superiorityof 
the tjnitod States as an inventive nation became msuireM, they 
unhesitatingly uuited in the Conference of Berne. Ii was at this 
Ume, indeed, that the United States secarod protection for itself 
throughout Europe ; aJthough since 1853, under a d(.'crev nf the 
Imperinl Government of France, American authors, as well as J B- 
Tentors, hare been chivalrously accorded in France ' 
toctian as French citizens. The Freor*- 
manda a rvciprooity that is bn( jw 



A PLEA FOR COPFBIQBT. 



107 



The whole qacetion Is resumed in this. Ooreniments are re* 
ipoiulble for the morality of their pt-ople. It is for them bo gaide 
Uurtr people ia tho pnth at hnniietj iind jueticv toward their Doigh- 
bon. This doty the United &tat««QoTenuueiitbM notducharged 
in Iti trMtmeat of the litararj propcrtj of foreign authors. All 
dflputmeuts of the gorernment, indeed, are not eqoally culpnblu. 
The rod cnlprit in this cane is the Uoiisu of Roprosuutacivus. Many 
IVeddtabi. and the Senate as veil, have more than once reoo^aod 
the neoeaaity and justice of intematioiuU copyright ; the Hoase 
slone baa prerented an; stich legiilation, at times in consoquonco 
of the tjrraonicat obstraction of a miuoritjr. Nor can the House 
^ifl thu rcaponaibility from itself to the people whom it TOpre- 
Mnt& It cannot ho objected that the mcmberB are hotmd to exe- 
eats H mandatory order ; for thos a momher iroiiM bo obliged to 
obejhifi coQstitDonts, even when their persouul iuteroiit^ were in 
conflict with the good of the nation or the nio^t etc-mentary prin- 
dplaaof morality. As an instance of thia singular occurrence, 
although tho majority of thoHonse werein farorof thoChuoehill, 
the tyrannical obstruction of one single member wait miflieient to 
annihilate all hopes which had been built upon this bill. In a 
speech irhich the preeeut Speaker, !ilr. Keed, delivered ta Blaine 
this year, foreseeing his elevation to that dignity, he stated 
that be int«iided to do everything in his power to bring 
aboat a rvrision of the rules, which have hitherto allowed fllibns- 
tering and obstructionist tactics. The moment now appears op- 
pBftnite to curtail the enormous privilege which the minorit; has 
vngatnl to itself. It should not be sufficient that, because some 
districts object to copyright, the more intelligent, adocatcd, and 
experienced roprcscntutires of other districts and Stfttea should he 
■nbJHtad to the perpetual affront of being obliged to see their 
ovn intarasts at home injured, as well as their good name for pro- 
bity misundentood and oondemned abroad. 

Aside from the question of interest and thetr good name, 
another point from which the United States suffers is that the 
extreme eheapneas of foreifni works, owing to tho fact that pnb- 
lailwn pay no rights to foreign autliors, is most prejudicial to the 
Bonlity of the lower c ba aea. For the editors and publishers of 
■uond- or thinNrate order aeek rather the nnmher than the 
-_ i:.- »- .1 - inving nodesiro to furnish them with sound, 
it, on the oontrary, with Contastio aud im- 



106 



THE yORTH AMEBICAU REVIEW. 



moml books, which appeal to their morbid taatei: The editors 
aud publishers ot good poaitiou and staodiag, however, hare re- 
cognized and appn>ciated this fact ; the; have appreciated the 
KcrioasnoBH of the danger, and an good citiseiu they rcaliEO thut 
the iutcUcctaol and moral intereatB of the people are to a cei^ 
tain extant nnder their charge, as the educators of the nation; 
and they htt?e devoted their chief care to republishing the best 
worka of the most famons and estevtncd foreign authors. 

Thejr have roccDtly given striking evidence of the eincerity of 
their sentiments hj assembling for the first time, as Mr. Coudert 
faeotiauRly ohsorrod ax. the recent bauqnet olTored to me, with 
the author'a legendary hostility laid aside, joining in and adher> 
ing to the unaui iuodb wish expreaaod for ao international copyriKhi, 

I do not desire to enter into any discassioo concerning the prin> 
dpies or Ihwriea of the Democratic or Ropublican party ; for the 
question of intemationnl copyright is the most non-partisan que** 
tionofolt. If such a law almll be pa&»cdbythe Senate and Uooi^ 
each party will be equally entitled to the honor and credit of the 
nicaetire. Nntional industry will profit thereby ; for the number 
of French authors who wish to be read in the Cnitod States 
will be very mnch increaned ; editions therefore will be more 
nnraoroua. All indiislriea which unite in the making of a 
book will equally profit thereby. American authors will profit 
in two ways by tliia new Icgielatiou. In the first place, they will 
bare many more readers in their own country ; they «ill be better 
paid by publishers ; and French editors and pabtishers, who eren 
now pnj for tmnaJiitioiis of American works, will seek to augment 
their own interests by extending and moltiplying translatious of 
Amerioan works tbronghoat Franco. 

America, whether North or South, baa remaineil ontside the 
literary union existing throughout Europe. It is rerj certain 
that, as eoonos the Congreaa of the United Stntea enacts an inter- 
national-copyright law, the republics of Central aud Sontb 
America will follow suit. The true method for the United States 
in order to pUoe itwtf in union with KuropR, would be to imitate 
what President Glerelaod, with the advice and consent of the 
Senate, has already done in regard to industrial property, when 
he took th« IniiiHtivein jnitiingin the Conference of Berne. That 
is tn s.iT,it should adhere, throngh President Harriron, to the 
k t <i of Benie iu regard to Uterarj' matten ; for thera is a 



A PLEA FOR COPYRIOHT. 



109 



}an>Iog7 between ptttents und literarjr and artiatio works. Tbu 
U well Mt»blUlieil m tlie Constitution, where protection is granted 
inlh««UDe phrwc to anthoraand invGntors. The ioTcntioti for 
whioh the invontor tokee out a patent is the (-hild of Ixiolci; which 
)BTt> atored up &Dd coiomuuicated science audiH;^uirvdt;spt3rteuu>. 

It b dilBcult to anderetand that the American people protect 
the child by l»gulatioQ, but rob tbo parent of orury sort of pi-o- 
t«o(ioa. W* vill not be onjaat enough to bclicre tliut the only 
ttmum tar pratooting the child Is tlutl it mniu dollBni, its oc- 
luiDwledg«d superiority in inJuiitria] aud scientiGc piiniuit« being 
ncojcnixed in Europe. If the Bclfish opinion really existed in tho 
tTnited SiAtai, Fnoce would be fally justified in dcHisting from 
Jt>chivalroa« course, irory much as a modern Don Quixote. She 
would, indeed, ba guilty toward her own citizens by not defend- 
ing French Iett«ra and arta us the United States defends engineunt 
and iuTenton. Mr. Bell and Mr. £dison feet no more pleasure 
Id bandling French bank-not«« than wo would fwl in doriring 
wam» adrantange from the numnroua representations of " The 
Dram Major" and other works of OlTeuLucb, Lococq, etc. For 
their eyn tlie color of gold ts exactly the flame as it ia to in- 
mton. It is well, this being nuderatood. to express to 
ftmtrimn legislators th& conviction that, if the condition of 
iflain which not only hurts the purse of tbo French author, but 
which also injures aud niutilatos his works with IranslatiunH uiul 
■daptatioaB. still continuee. owing to bod faith and unscrupuloua- 
oan in aomo part« of th« W«st, Fronch legislators will not delay 
io naking rvprisaU by withdrawing from thoir indostrial conron- 
tioDS that protect American [utents, which would thus become 
pablio property. The copyright guanrntwiog Itt«rary works is at 
i<wt deaerring of as much regard aa a patent covering an in- 
wotioti. 

It sesfflfld pn)p«r to me to offer to tlio readers of The XoRTn 
Ajibbican Rbtirw these few obeerrationa, and I feel more en- 
oaangt>d since the educated and literary elements of tbo American 
nation hato rrc«ntly affirmMl that the coOKioQces of France and 
the United States were entirely in nnioa oa this important 
quMlioii of aniftic and literary right. These few lines could, I 
think, be cipiod equally well by ilr. Appleton or Mr. Jamua 
Lowdl as by mytelt 

S. 01 KtBATBY. 



WOMEN'S VIEWS OF DIVORCE. 

BT MART A. UTEIUIQBB, AMEUA B. B&BK, BOSS TEBBT COOKR, 
EUZABETH STUAKT PHELPS, XSD JENKIB JUNB. 



1. Tt is the rerj highest function of man and woman to nuie 
and train a family. Indeed, civilizatioD has put this end Ln 
view — the perpetuatioD and imprarement of the race. The es- 
tablishment of homes, thv roaring of familicff, the founding of 
Boboola and oollegeii, the planting of institntioDS, the main- 
taining of govern ments, all are but meaoa to this end. Mar- 
riage therefore, being necessary to tbe exietenoe of the family, 
is the most important and the most sacred ibstitulion kuown 
to humiuity. It is older than the state, and ranks higher in 
importance, for the home makes Che cverlnsting granite on which 
civil goremment reKts, and is stable and righteous in proportion 
as homes are permanent and pure. When ve arraign the public 
life as corrupt and loir in moral tone, ve are making sad con- 
fession of the corruption of the prirate life and of the low moral 
stnndnrd of the homo. And to reform tbe public life, tbe pnri* 
Gcation muitt begin ut the hearth-stone. 

The highest ideal of marriage b llkelv, other things being 
equal, to eveptnate in the highest type of family, and the best 
thing that cun happen to any human being is to be well bom. A 
true marrisge is the union of one man with one woman, both of 
whom are normally developed, mentally, morally, and physically, 

NoTK— "nMqMotloiiaiwfanlttedaaa ba«lafot thedlMvarfom oa Dlrarao, whkli 
WM b«CTin I& TtER Rarmr tor Kovonker, u« laTorrad to bf ■oin« of Um «o»- 
trCbotontatkApNMBltMUlcnml. Thni ^r* m follow* : 

I. Do joataUomlB thaprlnripkordlvoroeTiiidtr BAjr elreamitaxiMMt 

S. OnstttdlfnresdpMpt* to tn allowed la BwRTuod«r Mr t^tmiitulaBOMf 

X WtMtliUi«aa»ototdlrom(»tbalnWar1troftbaiaaill]rl 

1 Don Om BbMhito proUhtUaa of dIvwiN tviMn It vxbu Miulkat* to Om 

BKKsl [lUrilT of MOlPtr t-EC^ 



wo)t£rrs vTEwa or ditorob. 



Ill 



of «aEt*bl« igA uid nmiUr oonvtctioiui, vho are dmwn to each 
(Aber by matnal respeat &iid love. The attraction of each to the 
otbar ii to itroog that it unifies their differing tastes and tempen* 
auiba, and oiakoa their happiness consist in mutual bcIpfuloeaB. 
It renden coacGsnon and forbeamnoe an erer-fresh delight to 
both, diridea sorrov, doablea pleasure, and crestea an Klysiura for 
** the twain made one " that is found nowhere else on eiu-th. 

Now, wbat«Ter impairB the integrity of mairtago is not onlj 
at wu- with its primary iot«nfioQ. the proper rearing of a family, . 
bat it demoraliacs both the contracting parties. Thero always 
nrndea in the higheai ideal of marriage the parpose of perma- 
Dcncj. Bat there are crimes committed by the marrivd which 
defrnt the ends of marriage, and render continaance of 
vcdded life intolerable, if not impossible, to one or both of the 
partiM. Th^-ie ore marital infidelity, druokenncsg contracted 
lft«r marriage, cruelty, deeertion, conviction for felony or in> 
funooH crime, and, in tlie case of the hnsbund. fuiluru to provide 
for the family, when the cauKii of his poverty is not the rusuU of 
phjaical inabiUty, or when it might buve been avoided by ordi- 
Btrj indnstrj. These violate the solemn contract of the wedflod 
«oople, mado in the praaoDCe of a olergyman, or magiHtrBt<>, and 
wHaeaaea, which publicly ratified their prerioaa prirate betrothal. 

It is at rarianc« with the boat interesta of society, and lowers 
ihn ideal of marriage, for noh perBoni to bo compelled to Ut« in 
marital rolatlona. If divorce is obtained beoamie of snch offences, 
It may. Indeed, break up the home; but far better so than to ]ier- 
petrate a grvater wrong. No woman hae a moral right to K-como 
tlko mother of children when the father is licentious, dmnken, 
jtnd emol. For this perpetuates the brtitishnem and woo of the 
race, and gives an extoosioii of time to erils that humanity shoulit 
mitfrow. Unthinking as to their caase, it has appealed to Heavon 
lor nli«f, throwing itself in duspair 

" oa tha worU'a gnmt &H«x-«Uini 
Tkftt ■top* tliT«' (UrinMM np to Ood." 

We an Icamtng to-doy that reliof can only come from obodionco 
to the laws of being, physical, mental, and moral, from a higher 
idMl ol marriago, from nobler conditions of pamntage. It is the 
ymj Ida of Bins to inroke the gift of little children into homes 
foal with corruption, where dninkenncse gibbers, Inst poisons, 
bnitaliiy dcttla raanleroas blows, and hate has usurped the place 



113 



THE NORTH AMERICAN REVIEW. 



of lore. If on}' Iitw miwle by mun ohoald seem to command 
bj prohibiting divorce under any oiicumstauocs, wu may ha bu 
it would be LQ coatraventioo of the dirine law, and be better 
" honored in the breftoh than in the obeemnce." ^ 

2. Is tJierc any juat reason why the innocent divorced party B 
ahouM b« forbidden to remarry ? Should the law puniah an in* 
noceut peraoD for another'a guilt ? Why not go a etoj] further, 
if th« bliunele«s divorced party u to be punished by prohibition of i 
remarriage, and Tint the sune penalty alike on the hnsband and H 
wife for every crime that either commita, regartJIeiw of the inno- ^ 
ceuoe of cither ? Why not imprison both when oitu ttteiUii, and 
hang both wh«Q one commits murder ? H 

It becomes a diSerent question when it is proposed to abolish ^ 
all restrictioius ou the guilty divorved party, and to allow re- 
marriage at pleasure, which \& permitted in some States. In ^| 
many caees it would retiult in a repetition of the same offcnoo ^^ 
against the laws of wedlock, aud a eecond divorce would ensue, 
and BO on ad libitum. And there havi! been other instancos 
whore, either from the awakenJug uf nobler impuWa, or from an 
ac<inired mastery over appetite and jmsBion, or because of the in- 
fluence of a stronger moral nature, one who has grievouBly sinned 
in one maniago has nobly rt'trievetl the pant in n eecond, and ^ 
henceforth has led a »potleai and upright life. If not puniahmeat ^| 
alone, but reformation, be sought by the law, it can aoiiietime« be ^t 
obtained by giving to the offender an opportunity to reinstate him- 
self in honest wedlock and in legal domeetio life. I'o prohibit 
remarriage absolutely id to open the door to immoral living. ^^ 

As any such prohibition must remain a dead-letter at pr««ent, -^M 
since there are States where any divorced persons can remarry at 
will, whether innocent or guilty, I have thought well of the legal ^ 
proristone of thoee .States that leave the future marital rights of H 
divorced parties with the court granting the divorce. In Ala- 
bama the court doeiJea whether the guilty irarty shall marry ^A 
agniQ. In Maryland the court may prohibit remarriage to the ^H 
guilty party during the lifetime of the innocont party, if there ia " 
jood and anfficieut reaKou. la Virginia the court may use ic« 
liioretion in prohibitiug the renmrriage of the guilty par^ : and 
lo on. W" 1 ' ' ', * '' ' ■ ''.liou 

are so iuli ., it 

uwms vi Hy divorced partieB in the 



woMsars viswa or divosce. 



113 



>f the cotirt, proridcil alvays that the oonrt bo of tho 
higbeac Huthnrity, incomiptible in cbumcter, humane in spirit, 
and lo uaiinpaitJiablH iu wisdom nud morality as to give it fituoaa 
for amving at righttsous decisions La tbeae perplexing caaea. 

3. Tlw preMDt fntiU faoilit; of diTorc« ui undoubtedly men* 
ating the botiM>, diitintBgniting the fiuiiilyj and nndangering the 
wlfim) of mx'vAj. For divurcis is granted to-iiay for th« m<)«t 
trivial canfM ; it can be obtained by collusion, frand, and with 
afaaoluta tacncj, tion-r««id«ata rucciviiig no notice of the lait 
bnmgfat against them in nnothor State, and sometimes finding 
tlwaiielTCB divomxl before they had even BUdpected that audi a 
nwasant vox in contemplation. The causes jitfti^ng the State in 
deoreoiof; the aitotteriog of tha marriage-tie should be 7«daoed to 
a miDimnm; there should be an entire absence of the prusent in- 

it hait« in granting divorotit, bnt, itwtewl, the utmost delib- 
luD ; ercry dirorcie ease ihould be made public ; and my owd 
pndilectkin ia in favor of gnuitiug "total divorce " only by th« 
nirdict of m jury trial. 

U these procautioos wer« observed, they would immodiately 
dhniniih tho (rightful number of (]iT0rc<*8. Whenever it shall 
baaataUtsbed that dirorce is primd./acie evidence of the guilt 
of oiM of the vedtlc*! parties, and tlje utmost publicity is given 
to the proceedings, that eocivty may judge for itaoli, the integrity 
of the family will be maintained, and not injured, by divorce. 
Oos ofila safegaardfl, whieh modem rmklewinrsg has removed, 
will be rottorrd. It will he svcn tluit husbund und wife must 
eooquer tlin iucomgiatibiUties of their domctitiu Ufu, since occu> 
lieaal mlsundorstaudinge, differcuces of opinion, and vagrant 
dadras cannot be made tho ground for au easy disruptiou of the 
■wtrimonial tie. Ont of this self-denial and se1f<4liscipline there 
frequently comu tho hu^est bluaaodneae of married people. 
tr^Kjiti*! aelf-coatrol, which is essential to happiDesa in every re- 
latioe, baoomes the taw of tikoir livt^ Pamioo dieeout, and from 
ha ashes there springs the divine mutual love which is the ante* 
typr and Twitiliutti of the marriage that shuU be Immortal. 

4. An abaoluti; proliibitioD of divorce oannot legislate sppe> 
tit« and pa#«ii>n out of existence. Theysurviv©, rampant and 
6^""- '"-y will dofi-at the end in view if church and stat* 
f" roe entirely, in the supposed interest of morality. 
Tb« srmtest groasDcn of life is permitted to men in many 



VOL. CL— xn. 388* 



B 



114 



TUB XO&TH AMERICAN REVIEW. 



Europoau conntrioa where tllToro* h difficult, and for tfaoir 
criminal pleasure Iioubos of vioo are reguUtctl and i>nitccle<l by 
Uw. Tho Terv mull number of divorotit oa roconl iu ttiicli cnun- 
ti-iot) \i, theruforb, no {imof lluit tiiey bsve a higher dtAodard of 
muml piiritj than prerails atnoiig thcwo people who allow a 
greatrr frf<|Ui;iiry al ii'wtiivM. South Oaroliiut ia tbo ooljr Slat« of 
tho Uni(>D that Uiu not proridcd by Uiw for tho diBsolation of 
marriage. If tlioro is, tbereforo, n higher ideal ol mural parity 
prtfviiiliiig in that Stata tbao among her fti^ter-commnnwe-iillhs, 
where divorue for Doroo catuea iit legal, tliem has oomu uvi;r it« 
eooiuty u most happy chaogi: siuco the long-goii« jean when 1 
hod some personal kuowlodgo of its social sLattis. 

Kow, what would I pro|K>Be EBaprftotical mfaciiroof <li^orcen^ 
form ? In later ytura I haru come to think ninn^ uf tho pnsTcntion 
Ihuiiuf thu cur« of evils. If stalvKincu, ralhvr tlmu pvliticisiis, 
loijialtttt'd for fiociuty, I«jial nmrriiigc would be made more diiB- 
ciilt and divorcQ loss fjiey. At tlic timo of my own marriago 
in my natire city, Honton, about forty-live ycum ago, tliiirc was a 
legal requirement tliat all marriages should be published ou A 
bullrtin-board in tho office of the city clerk during "thrco suc- 
cessive pnhlie diiji," Theso might bo three successive Sundays, 
or a Fast or ThanlcRgiving day, or other holiday, with two SuQ> 
dihya. It iisuiilly hupix.-m'd'. however, that the propoecd mar* 
rioge was placardud on the biilletiu-board for two wooks. People , 
passing and reposdiog coufitantlydrppped into the vestibalc of tlio' 
otlice, where tht> bulletin-boanl was Hiupended, and sorutiuizedj 
the advertiaemetil*. In two instauoee, ki my knowledge, this] 
publicity prevented marriages tliat would hAve proved disaAlKnu./ 
That precaution has been removed, and it is only nnec«mry in 
Masniohai<ett« that ii " ticouiie " from the city or luwu clerk! 
shall be preaenteil when the partios to be legally married nppcnrJ 
before tho minister or miigititnite. In many Statt'ii uo licuiiiio ia] 
reqnired, and A marringo may be rushed through with u bride- 
groom at tho age of fourlcvu and ii bride of iwt'Ive, Eiwy, eeerot,] 
ami rapid divorce follows legitinistcly in the wako of suuli uniuna.] 

A low tone ponrades society at tfau present timo in refurvnou 
DlArriitge. It is urged upon b<>th men and women m a means oi 
obtatuiii^ a living, aud the sitlf-itidulgent young ma.ii who in tu 
the hunt for a inarriagi*ahlu hcin>^, that ho may live vUltout 
effort, is ulmosi as oommao to-day u Ihu luxttrious glirl who d»>l 



WOXSNS VIEWS or DIVORCE. 



116 



hor parpnsQ to noflrry only ft rich man — *'a gPMt catch" 
— withoat regvd to age, cluncMr, int«Iligcnco, or oomputibili^. 
MArruges are mads (or coavenieuce, posilion, poUoy, and Cor 
alioact evary other concoiTsblc ptirpoae. Nottre&m of love hal- 
low« thom, Qo thongbt uf Dubla Uviag dignifies Ihoiu, uo viaioa of 
little obildroQ. wImso "iQfaDcj-ia a perp«tnal Messiah," vnt^rs 
Um heart or the wrcrtchod iiomo. 

As I paawd OQC of tKe guitllemen'a elegant club-hoaaes to be 
fonod Dow-B-dafs in all cicies, my cotnpantoa, one of tha moeit 
oaltured and truveliod men of tha community, said : "Uerc is 
one of the menaces of tbo home, imd of the family, developed by 
aodam aootety. And tltc antrumniHlled life vbich it ia pcssiblo 
for men to live in thMe club-hoiuea is not favorable to the higheel 
OlenUina of men, to happy marriage, to the rearing of ft noble 
daily, or to the well-being of society." If it be said in roply that 
womra ba.rv also their olab^honaos, where they hate oqusl re- 
Ciracy and freedom from restraint, it can easily bo shown to bo 
Otbenrise. In tbo women'o c\nh-roman — not a kou*e — there io 
osmra bttr, nor a restaarant, nor upMrlmcuts for smoking or 
eard-pbying. They are oonseomted to aerious parsuitii, to n*ad- 
iB|^ stady, listaning to loclurM, and deviniug ways and miuiua for 
tBtalteotoal, pbiUnthruptc, uod reformatory work, and they are 
mn<ly tcnaut«d after dayligbt 

The question of marriage and diroroe laws, and their reform- 
ation, ia one in which wom^n are vitally inter«sted. for they 
an geocrally thv (ltw]w«t .lufTKTurs from the laws' immoral nnil an- 
■qtial action, anti for tbuin tlicru ia the least redress. Whatever 
Ispslation may be undi;rtaken, whether by concerted State 
idion or through a national constitutional amendment, conconia 
keth sexes equnlly. and both should have equiU influence in 
linetlng It Very many of the evils that have sprung np in the 
varriage relaUoo hare originated in the fact that one aex has 
bivD tbs sole dictator of laws which conccm both eqoolly. Men 
>i»n made the lawn of nutrriage and divorce, and women have 
[.MTcr been consulted as to their wisdom, or their adaptability to 
I'fl nwn firfDnwtancea, or their upproral of tbem. 
'^' ! has legal control of tbe person of the wife ; her 

"" ■ ' —1, and have no money value. She isexpectod 

Iter, ami ckithing, imd is thun made a pati- 
ilfToodoDt on her husband. Vniatever gains accrue froui 



TBE NORTB AME&WAN REVIKW. 



her onpud labor become his property. If she bos leisure vat 
ability to engago in rooney-m&lcing omploymoDt« after perform- 
ing the household labor, man; of the StatcK of the Union give her 
earniDgs olfio to the husband. Four iromon of proaiinciice in 
literary and profeasional life, vboee Damea would be familiar to 
most of my readers, have been compelled to apply to the coarts 
for protection against the hnsbandji who would hare robbed them 
of their earniugs. while they were charged with the mainteiuQce 
and education of the rhildren. The impecnniona condition of 
vivos, not alone among those whoso husbands are men of small in- 
comes, bat among many whose means are ample, ts une nf the 
most fruitful eoDroes of restlessDen and anbapptnesa in married 
life, and is one of the underlying Ganses of freqnent divorce. 

Ooly six of the United States allow Uie married mother to be 
an equal owner and gtiardian of the minor children with their 
father. In all other StHt«8 the father ie their solo ownur and 
guardian. If the mother baa no ownership in her little children, 
whom site wiaa in the Tulloy of death, at the risk of hor own life. 
she is, indeed, paaperized, moet abject, moat wretched. Ah, if 
men were not. in most instances, bettor than the laws they have 
made for women, this world would be Pandemonium itself 1 A 
wife and motlier should always be mistrem of herself, and nerer 
the slave of another, not even when that othor is her husband 
and the slavery is founded on her undying love. That robs hor of 
half herralne. " Give your child to beeducat«dby asJave," said 
the old Greek, "and instead of one slave, you will then ha e two." 

There should be legal equality established between the busbund 
and the wife, equal ownership of the family property, equal 
gnardinnship of the minor children. For more than a quarter of 
a century I haTc been so fiitunted that I have been tho recipient 
of the conSdenoes of wives and motbcre to a very large extent If 
I should publish the ead stories of injnstice, wrong, and outrage 
of whirh they have been the silent rictimB. perpetrated nodor 
cover of laws made by men for the government of both sexea in 
married life, and by husbands who intend to be in the toaio Uu 
and jnst, I would startle tho community, 

"No ordinary man," said John Stuart Mill, years ago, "U 
willing to 6ud at his fireside an equal in the persnn he calU hit 
wife." Have wo outgrown tho uarrownesa of the duy when Ihoso 
words were pcimod ? Are moo dow just enoogb to oaansel with 



WOXE.VS VtSWS OF DTVOBCB. 



117 



«Mn in formiilBting s code of laws that shall bear equally on 
boaixuid nod wife ? Arc tboy prepared to convert ioto UvLng 
reriljr the axiom of oar gr«at Bill of Bigbta, wbich declaree that 
"aU jait goTenimcats dorive thoir power from the cotueat of the 
Komned " ? Theo, indeed, is u better dity uboot to dawu on the 
worid — "a ttatclier Edoa will oomo again to man.'* IF not, then 
Um rsfmiiiation of our laws of marriage and diroroo utudt tarrv 
yot longer for the tardy adreot of the day when man vill see in 
wemaii hu other half, equal but diverse, who will be hU best 
helper and bts divinest friend, when he elevates her to the same 
plane of equality mth himMlf, and forbide her to be fettered eTen 
bf agoonmer. 

Maet a. Litzrkobe. 



I 



1. DlTOBCl is a eabjpct in which every one is concerned, and 
ibodt which every one Imb something to say ; the very hut 
■abject thai can be treated dogmatically, for the iriaest and beet 
thinkers differ widvly on it, both in it« relipoua and social aapccte. 
Penonally asked if I bolieve in the principle of divorce ander any 
ciroanutaDceSr I aoiwer. Ten, jutt as t believe that, if a limb ia 
dbeawd. it is bettor to cut it off, and go halt through life, than 
loaa tifc altogether. Second'beete are the materiale out of which 
patient, cheerful Mnls make noble lives. I believe in divoroe 
beeaoWt whui a mistake of any kind is maile, it ia mir manifest 
daty either to endeavor to rectify it or to spring out uf its shadow. 
Aoaahappy marriage is the great mistake, the most pathetio of all 
'"i^fk", and ooe can hardly help wmo reproach upon Fate for 
nCtiflg nen aad women to ohtiose their destiny while blindfolded 
by love or passion, and then punishing them for chooaing wrong. 
bat when mistakes are made, why give permanency to wrong and 
GrtnHty to enfforing ? The irrcvocabto contains no element of 
n. It is a hell without any new phnoiplea of action, 
]«..i,....L .„ipo, and without energy. 

If a great problem of the nineteenth centnry oonid be decided 
by an alluaion to Moms, or Matthew, or St. Paul, any disciusion 
OD the iDAttev would be Idle and profane talking. But if the 
Uwi of M oa n are binding between man and wife, why not 
'■' < t4 and children, buyer and aoller, master and 

-tt right, indeed, have we for abrogating any of the 
•oactmutts coutaioed in Leviticat and dsewhera in the 



VH AMtE&tCAN &EVtBW. 

sal lav of honor that a man ahall n» 
le has lured from her husband and honie. I ^ 
lation ha oan make her, and even selfUh anc^ 
ed upon by public opinion, and j-ivld iu sota^ 
ial necessity. But if remarringe is forbiddei^ 
I wJU find iu tho prohibition an incentive to 



Litorj ifl rarely a calculating offeuco. It U aid, 
deliberates is loet." The truth is, vtomea are 
la not doiibemto. Thackeray had the pro- 
)t4> a woman's heart vhen he made the mioer- 
s Nevcomc leave her husband and home in 
bod no fluoh intention. Cruelly tempted, per- 
kred, when pouion is stronger than reason, 
Ilk of Donseqaencos, but go, blindfold, haud- 
Are such women likely to be kept nioml by 
ll t As well try to deter or encourage them by 
lion. Prohibition never yet prevented crime : 
then, as a jumiBhnieut ? 
that the woman is the inuoceDt party, tvliAt 
Q add injustice to injury, to ooniloQin her to 
solitude, finding the bread and bearing tUo 
irould gladly find and bear for her? Clou\il 
women in a position more beset by grievoaa 
nony is never a sufficient right for n wronBeA 
' husband may betake himself to a tore\«-, 
» evade it, for a hneband who has deserted^ 
jHsily desert herinpurae. Most women woi \a 
di!liberate, continuw! desertion a far -w 
mitted in a moment of passion. An^ Aei -^^ 
esorter would not obock doaortion, t. -''"^K 
lat a man who would de«rt his wifo ^y_ , }^^y 
Digamy. Besides, if the prohibition to rc^ **^^ 
litive, the anlwthful wife is not fch '"***■*■¥ 
Fomcn who are chaste beyond do\iijt **^r»cr 
08. Keoping tho Seventh Oonimund^- "'^^ 
li^raco their huRbands iProtrievuKi '^**Ct, 

or brawlers or thicvrsL Th< 



They may nako thoiV i*^*'^ ^e 
(or divorce vhioU *houM 



Th 



«5y 

1 <j^\ 






■.r- 



isa 



THE SORTH AMERICAN REVIEW. 



rpstmining one. The lovo of homp, the wolfore of the feunily, tbo 
f««r of n Mill worse future, the natoral clJDging of s mother to 
thu fntlier of her chlldriin, and, nliore all, the hulplesti poflitioD of 
a woman in a diToroo cnitrt. standing pasiivc while her honor ii 
dmg^»d in the public bicbways, mnkvs divorce a wmpon io a 
woman's hand sho will orer be loitth to nne. Alio, no man can 
publicly cxpootf hb wife without some courentional disgrace to 
himself, even if he can come into court — which is Tcry unlikely — 
with his own hands clean. 

One gront mcnnce to publio morality from diroroe is, howoror, 
quite within control — the Bupprwssion of all newspaper reporting 
in such trials. In France there is a penalty of SO,(H)0 franca for 
publiiihing the rcTolttug details in a divorce case. In New York 
they are the Sunday litt>ratureof the masses. But the sii|ipri>8£iun 
of divorce itaelf would no more tend to the moral health of the 
nation than the driviug-in of an erupttre di&caect would tend to 
tlie phrsiciil hualth of the individual. 

C^srtainly the remedy projKxiod by the £|ibcopal Heneral Cod- 
Tention — " lliat severe penalties should bo iuflictod by the slate, 
on the demand of the church, for the aupprcssion of all oflooces 
against thr Seventh Commatidmrnt and sundry other parts of the 
Mosaic k'gtslutioii " — is one which would meet with the unani- 
mous opposition of all kinds and conditkiDS of men " ont of 
orders." tt is a proposiliun smacking of the Dark Ages, of 
Loud and the Mathers, and would open the door for ii priestly in- 
tolerance which ovciy man and woman would feel it a delight and 
R duty to oppose. The day for the chnrob to dictate, and the 
stiitc to enron.'H its dictates, is centuries behind our civiliKatioD. 
There would not be ciril power enongh in any stats to onforoe 
"oeTcni iKualtius " of priustlr demanding. But if Huch power 
was given to the Epi3co|Mil Church, it could not >k <h:\)K-tl to the 
Oiitholifi, Prcgbyterian, Methodirt, eto. BoJiidce, what iponial 
claim has the Seventh Command above all others T It it coitid 
ever be right to surroniid one command with "mv«ro ponaltiM** 
from the church, she must have an (hjuhI rii'' : tio 

other nine in the same manner. And fhtu let;. ■»! 

the Epiaoopal General Convention's pmponitiun m 

Iki entertir ' " ' ' . . 

glorious !;■ I 
marriiige in its jurir 



W03i£S-S VIEWS OF DIVORCE. 



1S3 



<; vaA vhat it coiiM uotdo in a^of credulity it ia Dot 

I5 to Uo wtieii iadividual opioioaa fear Doitber charcb caaooi 
iMT popnUur nperstUioa». 

Tba itrengtbening of the Dinrrtaf^tte itnd th« decadence of 
dlTorce lie with tlie falhen anil multitini uf tins and Hucceeding 
p^aerationa. Kut by an accident was the Fifth Commandment 
filacnl ill Ui« Tim of all tho commands regulating our social life 
If parenu will HMtrgood soruatid daughters, there will certainly 
bv gond basbuitti and vivos, bapp^ homos, uud peaceful and bou* 
onblfl old age. For it in one of the worst attribut«« of divorce 
thst it not only defroadB youUi of ita happiucss, but robs old age 
I of iu raqwot and oomforl. 

I XJDforttiniUely, hovovor, even when vc have delcnnined the 
I of llip condition, and perceived, thouprli dimly, what ia noc- 

irj to its niformation, we are forced irreostibl; npon the oon- 
diuioD thai between ouMrable marriage and divorce there is only 
I eboioe of cvHs. 



1. T mnjcnt in divorce as a right nnd ncedfal thing only 
' Ditder onu cm:unutaucc. It has becu, uud etill is aft«r u long 
I Ufr, my fixed opioloo that in all the affairs of this world, as woU 
the next, the Suripluroa are the only infnlliblo guidci. In tho 
Bible an to bo fouod a knowledge of humanity and a profound 
npoaition of it« needs and their remedies that are adapted to 
•nry btiTtian entergonoy. It seema. no doubt, strange to modern 
eahtireand abnird to modern infidelity that ho who made man 
ibontd onderatand twtter wliat is for htn orcaturo's beat good than 
man binuelf ; but all mon accopt the mathematical axiom that 
" the vbole U greater than its part'': why should th(>y deny 
»th* Miae mMim bolds good in etbios ? And in referring to 
itbority w« find 00 uncertain anund, no vsgao law, conccru- 
itcnw. Ovor and again it is declared ihut thtii ts not per- 
'■■X oao reason — the inUdclity to the marrtage- 
\r rkina] clause, of cither husband or wife. 

il in.h a law ia I Wen* divoroe permittf>d for 

pnvertv. iacompHtibilitv of k-mpor. when? 
J.lhp ijdtiftnrp. the kindly daily deeds, that 
roduoiM and foetuni ? Ko ordi- 



194 



TOE flORTH AXBRICA:1 BSVIEW. 



DUice of Qod is meant to be for the mere pleasnra or Mlf-indolgJ 
ence of hamantty, bat for an vJucation into the divine life. 

** Ldt» wm ff1T«b 
AakaawMtBd, macUoii«4. cUeAr to UUi sod. 

Vie are not beasts of the field, left to the nndiBtarbed iadaigeooal 
of our instincts and the sole purpose of doing our own will and 
following our oirn devices. Wc are the cluldrcn of God, and 
however we deny or disgrace oar birthright, I betiera tho mort 
degraded anner^ tho most vociferant inSdel, haa within him at 
times a oonacioni spark of the aoooantublc soal that he must 
swcr for to its QiTer. 

But for the sin vhioh is also a shame and an iiiautt to tho' 
oooent part; in this sacrtHl contract there is no reason for en- 
durance or condoQution. No pure and true woman, do clear- 
niinded, honorable man, uould wish to live in stich relation one 
hour after its discovery. The lav of God iu this matter is amply 
justified by the reason and coaE<icnc« of man. Still, I would 
have tempornry separation allowed by law, and tho earnings of 
either party secured to his or her own uwe, in vaws of persigtoit 
drunkenness, personal violence, or iitgiitiiiy; but not absolute and 
pennanent divorce. Such aeparation would be a sharp leseonand 
punishment to tho offender, and a nn&itnl protection to the weak 
in tboe^e case!<, nliKi iiHgiiring to a helplosa family such support na 
the unoffending [Nirent could supply. 

2. Here, again, the Bible answers for me. Christ laid down 
the law of divorce in words t«o simple and direct to be miaoori- 
atrued or ovnded ; nnil the human reasons for this hiw are equally 
pluD. If man or woman can sin aguust the faith and parity ot]fl 
the marriage relation, and. having broken the tie for that roaaon, 
roknot it at pleasure, in what is mani^o better than conseoatiTB 
polygamy? I hare myself tntowo of a woman with tbr«o living 
husbands : was she any higher in the acale of morals than tht 
most utter heathen or persistent Mormon t 

My own feeling is strong ngainfit any rtmarrtiigo after bb[ 
tioD by death. I think to a pure, deli^'if- ^uthfal woman the 
can be but one marriage in her Ufe. I: -i tbn nfmembimnoo 

of a past lovB that oncf 
another mnst always fil 
ewiy loTu ouiy Uavu Imvu tiiutru' 



WOSmS'S VIEWS OF DIVORCB. 



123 



) an opPQ tie. t sm awar^ tbifl is ao ex- 
mine, anil I Iwlieve there are other women 
wbo Till agree with me. It is aim a deep regret in my mind that 
enry Cbmtiao church do«« Dot regard Duuriage «s a mcramoot, 
a* doM the Bom&Q bicrarchy. I tkinlc it is for the good and 
«f«tir of society that it should be so regarded. 

Fran another poiDt of view, oonsiflcr what sort of mou aud 
TOBsn are thiise who are divorced for Scriptural cause. Impare, 
petjaixd, onrMiHuned by law of God or man, are tbey fit to 
nBntertr >ti frota which all society and rent otvilixatloD 

tpliaa ? ■ Jmoat the only opportanity ivhicb tbo stato has 

lo coQtroI and regitlate the marriaffo of ite citizens, for the laws 
ooaoemiDg marriagoa of minon are too easily and too often 
•ndsd to bp mQ<:h more than a dead-letter. And what good 
woman would marry a man so divorced ? What honorahle man 
wimld offer tha recpect of his mime and the honor of his home to 
a woman cast off by another m&n for this reason? Is it sensible 
er decent tlmt spch murriagM shonli bo ssnctioaed by iiny 
tbonffatfal, decent oommnnitj, even if it were not distinctly for- 
bidden by Gud ? 

8. The familiee of ciTitiaitiuu consult of tiie two heads, 

^—kaiband and wife, luid of tbeir children. What, then, is the effect 

^Bnf divorce npon the husband? If bis wifA repudiates him Vxt 

^HUw only good reason, what sort of twlf-respect can be left to him ? 

^H&iid with no lelf-reapect, of what vultie in man or woman 't W'w 

home ia no longer a ref age or a couaolatioD to him ; he is separated 

flOB bis children ; be is branded in the eyps of society; for, how- 

erer so ixs gafoUy be may demand the sympachioa of men of his 

own sort, or boworer impnili-nlly brare the opinion of the pnb- 

,lio.1iokDows that ID the cyoa of the bo»L and purMt men and 

len he U stamped with a stigma of disgrace. It is true he 

: ttoi panishment ; bat does that make it more endurable 

' has drf^Twding ? Snch a position seems to me ao dreadful and 

I pitiable that I would oounsel a woman to endure and forgive 

biv koibond's slas is long as nature and rclijnous principle allow 

tio, for Um sake of trying to rebuild bis character and 

bim that nlf-conQdeace which, next lo divine help, 

i%ba try to 

at IMr OaMl «•*«« W hlshOT Ulwca- 



136 



TtIK SOUTH AMERlOAtt HKVIEW. 



Bat if diTOTXM^ for any rcasoa ia ilcgniJing und demoralizing 
to a muu, wtiat most it be to a woiimu ? For bur Ltio whoto 
world \\m no mercy -, tbcro 10 uo forgctfulneas of ber sin. ereik iC 
ehn ropoDt in the bittenw-ss of death ; and doopor woe than the 
world's scorn awaits her, for I bL>lievo the wont woman on earth 
cannot be foroTer separated from ber children vithoat agonj 
sooner or later. In tbo first whirl of paeiioD iho may forgAt 
tUvm, hilt {>iuuion Hies like a eiitniiier tt^mpest and loaros devasta- 
tion along its track. Hor ohiMrcii'B sweet, innoc«nt oyuei must 
forevHr liauut her ; their frighted and saddened r^lU ring forever 
in her ear ; and she will know in the btackniws of despair that 
Eho has committed woman's ttnpArdannble sin, for which eociety 
will allow hor no place for ropentonce, though abe seek It cans 
fully and with tears of blood. 

There have been men — to the honor of thi* race be it recorded 
— ^who have so nobly loved tbo weak or wicked women whom they 
bavo rowed before God to olieriBli and protect that they have hid- 
den from the world lapae« and entanglements they alone have dis- 
covered, and tenderly won buck to penitence and peaco tlio 
strayed aouU committed to their charge. Those ore tboy whom 
the world cannot know or honor, but there are women who wor- 
ahip thorn aa aainta and saviours only next to bim who modo snob 
men " just and faithful knigbtaof God." 

And for the children — witleas, harmloaa viotims — what o»n 
atone to thorn for the mysterious desertaoD of their fathi-r f Hoi< 
Dot dead ; tliey may oreu meet him In the street, seixc bim, cling 
to him, and implore his retnm, — t know of children who have 
en»cted this pathetic and uno(mRcionii tragedy. — bnt be does not 
come bock ; the pillar of the house has fallen ; but who will t«ll 
them why ? The abameful knowledge lied in wait for them iu a 
dosolftted fa tare. 

But when the mother goes, worao want gngnaa ; tbwo indeed 
their home id gone ; their hearts aro full to orer6owing with earth's 
worst no«talgift ; there are no fond kisses for tho«e quireriDglipa 
at night ; no sloop-mngs to Inlt their wnkeful weariness ; nn 
soothing of their sharp childish wuos, " as one whom his mother 
oomfort«tb" ; no cool, soft hand on the forehead hot with feveror 
aching with fatigne. Oh! worst of all . -' ' : *i-]u«aeB, 

no mother ! Nor can any tell them it sba ii 

in boaren awaitjng titem* or lead them to deck tbo sltpquag* 



WOXKyS VTEWS OF DIVORCE. 



127 



rit^ dew dead bod;. She is worse than dead : she is di- 



» 



P 



The family tf the ami that is the gorm of the state, the BOed 
>f L-lTiIiatioo : whiru tlivurce so rends it and ncullrni its frag- 
'tn«Qtj abroad, can any philosophy, or any Btufiidity, or tho 
e rw ii I t ijtnorance, d«ny that divorce destroys and ohliteracce its 
iot»'grity ? 

A. .\» far as my knowledge extends there is no conntiy and 
DO rbarch wliem " absolate pTohibilioii of diTorco" exists. TIio 
lofty itand-poiDt of tho Romaa Churoh permits on absohitc 
aeparuiion of the two parttijs for oertjiiti rea«0Tis, without power of 
mnarriaga; and it cuiin'ot be said that thin is not divorce ; it 
oertaitily U. in tho Scriptural senw. But tht! avenigt* morality of 
coDntrittfl where this charch is the rating sulhority ie said to be 
>Jiighrr than that of other ooiintries— a Bt«t«m«nt that might 
plained and modilied by l)iu< fact that these countries are 
notably in want of froe piihlio achools, and alao by the more 
tnportant (act that sin losca its ti'rrora to this iadividuai vndvr 
tbe theory and practice of plouary absolution. 

T«t from tho stand-point of commoD-sense it is foir to argue 
procx^ure which degrades and corrapta tho individual must 
tend to corrupt ami degrade society; for mcinty is not a 
nnlt, but au a([grL-gation of penoos whoee assaciution affects both 
th« mora) and physical status of the concrete ma^s. U is as true 
at aocivty as of the church that " whether one member sofFor all 
the sMuntwra BuBvr with it." 

The freqnrnt and apparBntly favorit« ar^ment tliat remar- 
riage aftar diforca thonltl bo allowed bocAQse otherwise men are 
drin*a U* inimonitilr 'a lo shamelessly based on the AKSumption 
thmt moD are uo Utu-rthon beasts of the field, and can nciiher 
dnmiaat* thrir irwtitiots nor control their passious any better than 
«itlwr animaU. that with tho decent public in goncrnl, or the 
Miirffen in lh« reaigioo of the Bible, it khould have neither respect 
nsr •i>jf*hL 

Wh-i MtMQ dtuy thffir own roperiority to brutes, and prefer 

''if*a ot their IciwMt natures to purity and nobility 

.' a a|>irilHal U/p htrt-nftcr, then, indeed, it will bo 

. express any (»thor opinions than those of the dog 

"^f H« niOT h>!i.i»nto onr conrorsation to their sono- 

'■■^ti xittcmnces; but as long as then aro those, both 




138 



TBE XORTU AiLKRtCA^ RKVtEW. 



men and women, who "seek a better coontr?, area a beaTOoly," 

and 800 in tnio earthly m&magv a type and Ulastraiion of Christ 'h 

relation to his ohnnih. who coiiaider that it is a single and holy 

roUtion, ordxiued fur the good of mankind »nd aa an edacatioa 

for heavenly places, jnst so long thcru will be thow of cither sex 

vbo consider divorce diaintegralinf; and demoralisin; to the indi- 

vidnal, the bunilj, and eocioty at large. 

RoBB Terbt Coobr. 



I All aeked a simple qneetion which reqniraa a oomplicatod 
answer. Do I justify the right of divorce ? Assnredly. Wlien ? 
When the question U a due) between a wrong and a right ; when 
not to give the right is to commit an undeniable wrong. I justify 
divorce as I do a anrgical operation— then and thus only ; when 
it is the last expedient, the final hope, thv desperate venture ; 
when there is nothing elau to he done to save the social life. 

A man and woman elect to lie themselves together for life, 
preanmably bocauoe they cherish each other above ntl human 
beings. To say that the caasea which practically invalidate 
thia tie are infinite in variety in only to say that human nature 
oxista. To insist that the causes which may legally separate tbo 
married should bo limited in quantity is only to bay that morality 
is a virtue or frailty a vice. We aliould go so far aa to make this 
limitation the severest, the most strennons, that the hi^^host 
civilization will bear. I cannot belinve.in this matter more than in 
others, in " going under," as the phrase has it, to a compromiM 
with ideal Kighl, Bnt what is ideal Right ? 

If a man knocks his wife down, he shattera the marrisge-troth 
as much as if he brought an evil woman to her Imnse. If a 
woman drinks away the moral nature of her unborn baW. she 
<;«aBea to be a wife as surely as if she broke the SovL-uth Com- 
mandment. "InQdelity" to the obligations of marriage is a 
t«nn to which we give a too restricted nue. t do not hesitate to 
aay that persooal abuse, or felony boforo the law. or desertion, or 
habitual draokeanoss, or other equivalent (it there be equivalent) 
offences, may justify divorre as amply as the <:ntito of fld«I(i>ry. 
But that these offences need to be idanUfied with a legal coa- 
eoieoce surpassing any thing yet bronghttobvurupon onntatutw 
seems to mo lui ' '''arsMMkHj* ■■' > ^* 'I 

States needs a ' iM^^^^^B 



woxEya VIEWS of divorce. 



IM 



like onra — slioald b« niAci« " ft strait and narrow vay." We have 
boilt it so broadly that " thoasaiids go in thereat.'' It ehoald be 
nudf) nnenTiftble, unpopular, iinlilLcI^', aud the judgment of the 
people Hhoald hedge it aboat with thorns and barbed wire. It 
■ImmU be madfl aa disgraceful u crime. It should be made as 
hud u death. 

The que^ion whether a divorcod person ought to marry again 
during tb« lifetime of the flrst partner is the last in, hut it is the 
ponr of the diflcunaion. One gives an opinion on thia point per- 
fvcOy aware that life and time may change it; for one sms that 
npttriracv modifies or creates opinion easily enough on any snb- 
ject, bat on none more thoroughly than on this. The pergonal 
aifects oar ntoratity Lo an appalling extent; and Haintly 

pb«n Blackpool, looking op ont of tlio pit of death at the puro 
lace of Rache]. in Dickens's story, muitt liave had his own riewa 
oo divorou before which the comfortable jndgmont of a happy 
hoow ought to contem itself a blind and gnipjng thing. Rut, no 
I (eel qnolificd to form an opinion upon eo trcmt-iuloue a 
I mnet believe that Mr. Gladstone, in thi« disca3»ioQ, and 
Mr. E. J. Phelps, in that of another rexiew, barecomc nearest to 
th4* right of the caae when they would deny to tlio divorced under 

I any cixcumatauccci the right of remarriage until death shall 
pre it. 
Sow, this old qnestion is a threefold one, and oaght to mn like 
thU : Shall we marry ? Shall we uumarry ? SItall we remarry ? 
Claarly. h eeema to me that the emphasis of the discnsaion has 
been put in the wrong place. We shmild olip it furthtT along 
the line of interrogative. It is less important to iuijuire, L>o 
th^ right to remarry ? Were they wrong to nnmarry ? than to 
aak, l>id they right lo marri/f 
^_ I bars spoken of the right of divorce aa a surgical expedient. 
^■Carf7 on the t$an of thought and wo may lenm a lesson. 
^B The b«at-initniei(?d physicians know well that there exista 
^1 to-4»y a lafalUt and powerful eonfliet in the profeesioiial world. 
'• iiaod. tbe tendency of oippriment tnrnit terribly to 

■ f»mhing gnw to the operaling-tablc. Di8ta*«, Uko 
^'•w Testament, " coming oat, tean him" who 
■"St his lif« to the gnrgieal faAhion. Tenny- 
't poetry for the prexailing facts of science, 
"m bo wrote of his hospital doctor, who 



\\- 



130 



TUB jyORTJt AMERICAN REVIEW. 



handled the child ** gently enougb, but bis voice and hlB faco ' 
were not kind." 

"But Ihej Bkldhioothtm 
Qo irmM bappUv viag tbe k&Ue Uiui Ln tirlns Ui •*•-« iko limb." 

Ou the other hand, there has intensified tbe solemn belief in iha ' 
ralidity of the hetiling art. The maturiifc medica in trusted oboTo 
the bntober's knife. The fine, the delicate, the patient remedy, 
the prophylactic, or the louic, or the uurative, becomes the 
material of absorbing stndy Bach as the medical world haa never 
known before. Thi; doctrine of mercy, the theory of prevention, 
rule the medical oonBcionco, and the heater's intellect reSoe« as the 
sensibility is saved — tliuii, please Heaven, the patient too. 

Divorce, at best, U pun? eurgery; nothing more nor loss: neces-j 
aary at the extremity, never to be tolerated ivhon the milderi 
measura will save thv life. 

Tbe truly scientific, and therefore the bopefnl, treatment of 
this social disease most, I believe, oonsiat mora and more, and 
most some iimn cnnmst entirely, in the preventive, and what wo^ 
might call attoutivt;, means of cure. What is the uji> — what i<V 
the use— in wearing out our bruins to invent scalpels and probes, 
to cut, and sew, and carve, and bury, when a careful course of 
the right remedy wonld heal the patient P 

In brief, bo long as we are allowed to marry aa we do, what 
right hare we to expect anything else than unmarrying and^ 
remarrying to the end of tbii weak and wicked world ? fl 

As our laws stare us in the face, there is no nuui so drunken, 
80 immoral, eo brutal, bo cruel, that he may not take to himgeUj 
the purest, the meet refined, the most scnsitiTe of womfn to wife 
if ho can get her. There iit no woman so paltry, so petty, 
vain, so inane, so enfeebled in body and mind by oorseta 
chloral, flirtation, or woree, that she may not become the wife of 
an intellectual, honorable man and the mother of his doomed 
children. There is no pauper who may nnt wed a paopAT an^ 
beget paupers to the end of his story. There is no felon 
turned from his prison, or loose upon eofit-ly n i " i 
who may not make a base play at w«d1oc1c. and |< 
diseased soul and body in those of hia descemlonls, wilbc 
restraint. There la no mouiN-r of w'l. " 
daises "who may not, if ho uhiK)B> . 
name of marriage, in mcrilogo to wl 



WOMSirS Vl£W8 OF DtVOBVB, 



181 



Ij lift UL vj^id to exprwB larpdse or arereioa at the itak- 
suing nuietj of the offence. 

Where ii thu Uw that prevents a titled rou4 from t>oooming the 
hiMl»a(l of A {lOK American girl ^ Where is the law that savea a 
rich vonuLD bom the dMigns of a meroeitar; cpondthrift suitor f 
Where i< wliot Sophoclee calU'd "the unwritten law" tlmt pro- 
Tenta a man and woman who do not love each other iupremely, 
nDMlfiehl;, permanently, and wu mij^bt almost sa; diriDely, from 
Jmring to take npon t)tcingo[v<v4 the- sacred marriage-vow ? 

Where ie the public Bcntimt'iit which calls a mariage de con- 
ttmaneehy ita true name? Legalised prostitation are two ugly 
wordt ; but iinthing leas will fit the cose Wliere ia the drift of 
hifh omution which acoma a loveloss marriage as ditigraceful, 
makes a foolish one unpopular, and a wi<rked one impossible? 
Oiva Da thn publie opinion which will make it Indelicate for a 
mao to marry for a liouaekecper or a woman for a home. Give 
oa the average of judgment which ahall stomp it a social 4>lot to 
marry "for position" and call it a crime to marry for money. 
Give Qf tbl^ great idc-al which shall create the noble fact. Give 
u aoch a comprelienaion of the feeling which ought to draw men 
and women into th? marriage-tie that anything le«t than almighty 
lore should invalidate marriage as much oa the absence of a wit- 
OMt to the oath. Giro na snt-h a vision of the purity, the itn- 
aetlUhneffi, the patience, the leudemesB, the loyalty through sor- 
mw and nckueM and ill fortune and fading faimeas, and the 
clash of temperamenta, which thn marriage-bond requires — such 
a holy power ae shall lift ns above the social mire toward which 
nor nation ia ainking. The sheer force of relentless right onght 
tu hold ua np ; but the average opinion mnat form the moral der- 
tiek. 

Bring to bear upon oar worst perplexity our highest oppor- 
tttiUtj. Mak<t it ta ueariy impoasible lu human deflciency allows 
to nsarry wrong ; and we make it all but nniiecc«sary to ask if 
divorce be right. 

EUZABBTH STCART PHBLPS. 



largely one of wntimeat with the 
with their religionii beliefs, 
pie, hooeat, unbiaw«d opinion in 



133 



TBB NORTH AMERICAN REVUSH'. 



regard to the just relations of the aexa and the inf1aenc« of tliMe 
ralatioua upon society at large. That social qiieBliona, mar- 
riage among the number, have changed their aspects during the 
past qasrter of a contnr; no one iriti deny. Bat the tendency 
is lott tovard the br««king-up of family Lifo. the disraptiou of 
family ties, I think, than appears on the surface. Marriage, as 
we understand it, is a comparatitrely recent institotion. In the 
church it ha« always implied more or leas of servitude or nnquea- 
tioning obedivnot on the part of the woman. The wisdom of 
obedience to all men, or to any man tinder all circamslunccs. is 
now doubted by intelligent women ; and the sanction of thtt 
church has lost much of its sacramental character la the oyeK of 
both men and women. 

This has opened the door to marriago as a civil contract, and 
to freedom of divorce. Side by side with the oose with which 
divorces may be secured has grown up Che belief in individual 
rights and the pursuit of individual iitclination as the highest 
good. A marriage that at the outset does not falfi) expeotatton 
is considered a " mistake " — a mistake that may havo eeriona 
ooniie^uenoes, and therefore ought to be rcctillod an qoioklj aa 
possible. It is forgotten that persons who have made one miatako 
nill bu vary likely to make another. 

But now the queation arises. What is a mistake ? and who is 
to eufler its coneoqncnCN — ^tbc one who makea it or society at 
large ? Natural law compels oach individnnl to suffer the rcMilta 
of hia or her own acts, even though committed in ignorance at 
their consequences. This at Srat sight seems unjust ; it wouM 
he so if men were bom, lived, and died by and for themselrea 
alone. But we loarn by what we suffer, and discover our rela- 
tions to the world about lis by Lhp diRagreeablo aspects which those 
relations sometimes assume to us. Prom this point of view there 
are no ?iirh things as mistakes, or. if lher« are, we are here t^ 
make them, and onr growth — the good they do us — depends njwn 
thucouragsand vtisilom with which w« meet thci circumataiicw 
they crcat* for na. 

Doubtless the most serious " mistake " that can Kp made, from 
the popular point of view, is an nnoongeinal m. ■ad if 

marriage was simply to make t- — 'r hapo» 
true aepeot of the oaite, auil tin 
lease them from unpleasaat bun ' 



WOit£?rS VIEWS Of DIVORCE. 



188 



Bnt mAtriiiee Has a mach morti aorioiu intention, a mach deeptr 
Bcuilng thmn this — a meaninf; that tho oivilizMl world gcncrnlljr 
fari* «ad recognizes, and that reuilers it mipehur to the wioketl- 
tum of toauv legal tuuctmeotg. and still pn»erreti the m&rrivd 
home u the rule and »ep«r»tioQ as the exception. 

T«t it would bti bard to aaytbot no exceptions could bo allowed, 
DDdtr uijr ftnw of circamBiancc, in nsga where gach vital inter- 
«ti mre iDVolred. But where and how to admit them ? 

tfot for clruakeanca. for the nun or woman amy reform, and 
•lwa/8 needs all the help, all tho gnards, that can be thrown 
•rooad hin or bor to koqi from falling lower. But it is cruoUj 
to women and children to leave them in the power of drunken 
blubMidsand fatfaen, w« are told. So it is ; but it k aW cruel to 
loiTa women at the mercy of aav^e, jealoUH, cruel, selfish, mean 
nan — more dangoroas wmeti mes, more hnrtf ul, more deadly, than 
to tbo hapless drunkard, whoiLi appetite is inherited and wenknen 
fotfensd by a wicked traffic, and by social cuatoniB that are aa tlio 
open door to bis deetruction. Even crime cannot aeparate the 
womaD from the omn to whom she hue gircu herwlf, who is the 
ftther of her children. She ifi the link which connecU hitn with 
a btCter life ; and her faith fuhie^e, her courage, her devotion, ara 
the beat guarantee of hta Qtial salvation. For nothing hunmn can 
flnally or forerer resist the power of sufficient goodness. It worka 
within KM, to will and do iu pleasure ; it only Kcms to foil because 
tbereU not eoongh of it, or because time enough is not given it to 
take root and bring forth itit leaf, bloeeom, and final fruit. 

There is a dc^roe of disloyalty in marriage which leaves the 
saffcring party to the contract no choice but acceptance of the 
otbar** troacbery and faithtoaioeH- In such oaaes tho law would 
be jONtiSed initepping in to release one from the eembtunce of a 
bond that tho other liad already broken; but it should only be 
done in a public and formal nuinner, upon the ezprcased and guar- 
anteed deaire of both parties, and after ample proridon had 
be«n mods and guaranteed to those who have been forced into a 
belpleM and diisadrantsgeouH potttion. 

These Rr" '^ ■' '-^■■'■- circumntances in which it seems as if the 
i%awlt&n of < . pormouent Mparution, could possibly como 

'B4> rnere qnestion of happiness for tho ia> 

|t^ • ■ ''■""lopraent, of growth for the race, 

riumof forces and qualities, at 



184 



THE NOBTU AMESICAN SBVWW. 



the same time that the desire for companionship end ttoe parental 
instincts are gratified. 

It ia nnscientific and anphiloaophical to tlie last A^nn to ail- 
Yocate that like shouM tuurry like, or that people of the same 
temper, disposition, aud tastos " wore intended for oach other." 
If fiucih n principle vere carried out, the world would ha full nf 
eitremes — angels and devils, eainu and fiends incaroate, Gogs 
and Iklagogs, 

It is a wonderfally wise and humane prorieion that the desire 
for companionship, pareatnl lore, and the care of the helplces are 
the Rtrongest instincts within lis. These exiiit and are exercised 
without rcfereucc to the quuHiics or likeneffl to ouraeWea of tboso 
who call them forth. I^ove in the h«art finds an objwt upon which 
to bestow itself, animato or inaaimate, according to covironment. 
The poori>Ht creature ia happier having something to care for — 
happier far than in being cared for. 

" Don't yon think it would be better to leave that worthleaa 
husband of yours " ? I onco aaked a poor washerwoman, who had 
boon a res[w(tte<! iind well-paid domcatio beforo marr>'ing a 
drunken, shiftless huHbaQd, and who oould readily have fonnd a 
good komu aud good wages again If she would have left him. 
" Well, I don't know," she replied ; " women must be takia' care 
of something — don't yo think so.' — ao' I might as well take care 
of him ; nobody else would." But Qod, 1 thought, and she is bis 
minister. 

It clears ap so many things if we pat onrscKes out of tbe 
qnestion, and accept what comoa to us as simple duty, as tJiat 
which is given us to do, aud that we are to do as well as w« can, 
with such pulieuce and judgmentaiHl ability as we possasa. When 
that is done, there are no regret«, no thought of mist&kes : we 
are only auked to do that which is ]Ki88iblo to ourselves. 

The grave and eternal re^ponBibilities of marriage may well 
induce the thoughtful »mong iho young to panse and reflect 
before incurring them. But unco they have dona w. there Is no 
turning back ; for they arc no longer living for themselves ; they 
uo longer exist aseeparate CQlities : they h:> 'irw- 

tion and become a new product — a part of '.t* 

Sowing life of tbe aniverse— and their ba>: .nil 

of agreement in t!ii ■ ''.'■' '? 
ousi notnuuona i 



W02tE}f*8 VnSWS OPMVO&CB. 



1S6 



amoBg people of Infinitelj-Tariod ideaa, tiist«Sj luibiu, and 
capacities. 

It u » KuirTelloiis thing, tskiDK tliis fact into coDsidcro- 
tiooi and the iadividuftl ricw that so many (eel justillcd in con- 
lUtrillg the right one, that mom nuirried p4<oplc, especially the 
Hvly-marriud, do not fly apart, ahocked ouc of their illuidoDS, 
uid onwiUiog to accept the conditioas of wedlock. " Be eure 
jDU love him, ** wid an old lady once to an engaged young woman; 
" it »U1 take all the love yon can gcare up before you get to where 
I am." That the majority adjust thems«lv(>fl to this now and 
prvvionaly aaknown and untried life is proof of that tiuural ac- 
evpUooe, that underiying sense of duty, thatcariousadaptability 
W innituASt&ooitf, which oro aa much a part of ue as tho raadiaess 
of the body to meet tltn changc# in the weather. We can pamper 
the body till it ceaseti to exert natural functions and activiti<>s, 
bat then we ar« puuiibi'd. by diitetuie; and we can pervert ideits 
and indulge wlQshnees until we are unable to see a straight line of 
daty, B&d UQwiUing to follow it if wo did. and then comet trouble 
for otir«e]re« and otbers- 

lodiridoal rights and indiridiia] happiness are not objects of 
the llntt oonaidenttion iu ttiis world — at least not to the individ- 
uals thentaelTea, It is not aeoeseary to seek for direct opposition 
in a wife or husband, true lore, based on respect, being tho best 
guide ; but if circum»tat)ce« develop, as they sometimes do, a 
ooodition whioh leaves only duty as the incentive to life and its 
activities, seize aud keep fast hold of this moet eteadfaat, true, 
and aogelic of ministers and gnidee. True, it would be much 
ftsiar CO do this if the law was jnst, equal, and nniform in regard 
to nsniage. On the contrary, it is most tinjust, unequal, and 
Imgttlar in the diffea^at States of our own country, ud wull as in 
Uw world at large. Let ns hope, however, that, with wider 
knowledge of Ibo «TiIs that flow oat of broken marriages and 
wrscksd family life, with B juster appreciation of the advantages 
of Rcofnixed and rooted sanctities in the niiud of man, and of 
the clatms of marriage to a large place among the objects held 
oust in roTormice by men and nations, a pablio opinion will be 
created thai will demand permanent recognition of the most 
_,..^l .,' ,ri .-.i.iiT.. .:,..,» arjjj an equal adjustment of laws that 

L hearily and hardly upon ihe dofence- 
[■ - IkitpUM mother. Jkxvib Jititb. 



188 



TOe HORTH AUEBICAU REVIEW. 



obiMp nMsvMtJao. nlilofa asftUi mtKM dMoper mMt kail fralM ; »ad Ita oofce obeuU 
IwutniMdlaMirvDaB taeLaadpraduoerof wartvcuL To do thia wMooo Mfu Hy. bow- 
oror. It I* «videiitUi«tUu3niri«w BaBnTkctttrM wUl havo to tUod la tcou Mst 
otdcAblto MiUUoD t«c«cbatb«r, orb«pauiM of on* Wgo tDMOufactureL Aadltla 
fnithar cvUHit UmU Mif Ma4|tutiiiMit ot eoe ot tbcM id&Ud nMnnlaotwoa mut 
•er1««*lr affMethotndtut>7 u fe wholB. 

Ailartlil(8OMt0«lumtfctt,wad«iioe makv pUia tha tni« reUtiom ud eeo- 
iiMtlaiM bMweea Ihe wloaa nwnobuUHM Uw bum* Importjuil will bacons ikoM 
MUUmauKl ccnnaoUon*. tlu ■rMttor wU boooma tb* aoMto oT tlw maaittaetimc 
ASil tao eb«at«r will becODM tb* prodaou. uatU peifaftpa kU nuaofMUiM mv 
bacomooiioliEimAEiK nuumEactmv defl&tUilj onvuilMd luid araUOMtlaid. 

TlLOiKOcranotwiieDOit, wUoh allbnla metliodfl kmI bkiUniO(m br whlrii pn>dDO 
UanoiBlMeiianiiBiHly IncreMCdAt •deorMMdcxptaBCi nmat lo time brtnc kboot 
tlM pTodoctlon at tbo nootMauT wtlolM etf (m4, oIoUiIok, •la. wtUigut tbo •mplwr 
iuaiiboCMiniii)tih.boraraBpeiidlturaef UommIs nowaseMBMT. ^M»rmria, 
Mslatce wiUei%albUtk«mttiA<wwi^ a (wmmmttv imI oImm <p e«M.frii"*pr»*Al( 
IKctKttlrrK tcUh aHide* both t)f ntrtarily a»i Juxury wMvtit tht ofpHoaiionqf 
thtir wiAot* time to (IM labor ^ produetioH. 

As dmUam now Rt«nd, tlia Kvarag« aum qiaada Ui wbolo ftVmllAbIa ttmo 1b work 
tolMduidoIoUMblmMlf. ll«Fond ihlx Imi naJly doaa not da nry ntioh. Hotiu 
bat UUIa Uou tor ulndj. UiuuKfct. or BsiKirlmant. or (or UU davelofunantef tbe 
lilgtaarDMiitalBDdKdniiUkl pownrc which bo known thftt h> pOMMMKbd bMDOt 
(iBUvtsauuLOropportniiili loeulllvaw. 

Tba ooiulderatlaa ut mlmt will Iwllic ooodiUooof amtin la tbe bnpidcr time 
wbBB men ofta prarldo for Uialr materia] wonta wtUiout pmtumc tlM «Dttre doi^ 
labor for (ham, and irhmthowienclu of tlMftT«T«c«vaaew> to uttBiad ooi oilr 
in MU-BUpport, batftUola ■dl-daralopmcnt. la aa szliiHBelr tnterMtlaK quwUoB. 
andoMtbat la worthjof clcwoatndr and r«fl«ctlon. Wbather Uda lacuw tbo re 
p ttai i en el oT«r-p»pai»tlo«. ortba oclual climbiatioo oClndiTtdtttlt wh« (u* not 
worlhy lo bs ooniiDiied, and t be oanaeqnent anrvlrttl and daraJopnciit of Um blftMir 
mental and aptrltnal powora olmtut, lainnotTaady toaaj; bvt Itaaaou to BMUiat 
Uis tandgncr la In Uia dtractlnnor llmUlnR ths papulatlaa. In ovaccrawdad cam- 
monlttw at leaaL 11 la a aubjcot vrall wurttij tbe muldnation OC aociM o< our 
eminuit thlnkera. There l> no doubt tltal Uien will be maoj wild awtata of Ike 
pcndnlam bcromltnaaiiineaUa traerbythm. Hot wbea the pofialatlan la rlctiUr 
adjoated «ad tlio iirodoola ot maanlaotana are oqaliabtr dinded. wo (ball bare a 
aocial aUlc tnm which nlne-teottiB of the pmaaal ■oflhrUiRS of b limaaltr vUl have 
paaaedawaj. 

Prncjt TovmBTD Anrat. 

n. 

TStm ASOCT FDUUi dKHIVAM. 

Eur-ootxo hoaao-mothar* need to aaj that ehildreo took, br natnFe, to dirt, and 
that IL wu rood for tlie III. Farmen Klllnned Ibaaamaot plga. Wft wlwr Inoiv 
day. declare that oleacUncu la naiural, aa wall as prafltabte, i« (anbiaasedl pdita and 
iKOple. 

Pnfeaaloaal phllaDthrapy comca iMar aatttoR ibo bruid ot " Us" apoo tbbi dle- 
tnm by marked prefecenoe (or tb« work Ot our* ab»T« that at provaitlloti. TIiou- 
•aoda ar« acalonalreKiieDdedbibuUdlEW dacrlcka lo bolat tmlortunatai «al of a 
4M«nilK^ where the hvBdredJirMeh weald tiavepald for laoatBBli biancradffed. 

Prlruephtlanthropy Aaaataharhmdaeaa (or dirty ooaaa. Whlk iha wrelebad 
Tictim «( pAMlon or airoamatueae eu ttMser tlanit, V^tu^gamatam tiaefc 
aKaiiul the wall, dratrtoc aalda her aktrta fron 'M^^^^^^^^B^ "**" 

(aU laio Che eatlar. and aha diet tebbMttn. t- i! ^^^^^^^^BBkUM 

■md baa diaffvliiHl him 0«t of Hmblaii' - 
WlMO lh« idbDcr ti a Woiimb, aba rlaaa I 
»atlticaub)Mt.alwar*prQTld«nl ih>ifaMi» -^ 
law and Brtartaoradlbly uaaauw^ 



SOTES AJftt COM^tTEyrS. 



180 



I »ii1|ii imIHih (ki fail ■iiinllliiii Imlll* ■iiili|iMi1j fnnnlfiiliiwi 
Ulkaviliigsna tnraUBkCn tka (UMlnoUon ot oiplUiUwd lw»d-UaHMid neoMB 
haUwoatb»tjmpUhjci»CaaiatMojnMlol\i»i no r«roh)tiK detAU* Dan abaki^ 
■k* nam dn wftk a tiiRb butl. If Ibn bud Ito red wRb blood, aba bu taad* bar 
rittacwgw (KlUw «>< Blagtkn Bora. 

1MaBlilBlniiliibodnaobod]r wbota oanrBnatot with tti« Btcff? of cTor-daj 
alB» A« • psTBlMkclnl proMns and alKn o' U* tbaaa. h la earinualr dlfloult, 
Olwdgy la net <■ tfce toe w —a ta any Tank of »orfeij. UonpalamaiMiiflt loilrvp 
«>IUI Mtfnc^ •>« •Bo'wad to atAod tit pabUe m o aia than Id tbaday wboa thaaama 
BtwtecU la ^ pit oi ■ London (liaaira Bi«Tad Charlaa Lamb to iadixaallOB, HDil mora 
■ lafllniirnainl of U wfiiJ pUwca In tba mUBawwl ladlca' «aU» oT Um farTr-boat Hum 
w« aa«r tk«a rotttiad Uktrtf faan ace. With Uia adTaoco at the aas npoo tba aoto- 
nd« knwua a( liiiilinaw Lh«r ara aUowad men and mora to " laks Ibeir cbaikoe" 
■■ Mas da. ThM* bnadrad jean acu tber baasad EngUab molban for aU^laai 
Tai«< fia Btai run oUlilra&. II la oarlalnliF not rcapaot tor woman >a •clsaathu 
nakaa tka batlj Jnry wait of Ie4a7< lalio baala bla bonaat witn whan iDbiaoapih 
^iMnr ■! Itw Mna at haairinf Uae potaoaar ol huabaod and rblldmi. ar tbo aban- 
doBatclctwliaatKiotalka lata pBitaorol bar iatataj ratbar UiaalatUni mmrrywm- 
ectar. 

Wlifadwmaa^tqraonacti the wvrae (Itaa wickad iiMBaalt tbc auiubtr of Ui« 
wala tfaai Baaat aaalt graaler tban ihoaa ovrrv suited bj-ibalrbrotbontonachUlM 
fciniii «4 otaic— ra«Jtoa ao aluv«rd)r a)wn chta mlKblavooa pemralon cf popnlar 
mitrg ikat oM WMkdan at tba bUatkMM wUob Icaona tbo peril of tettlBC ayori- 
oHagwpatbr bava pUr. 

TbsaviggaitBr vaoat Of a dnakoa arardorar. " nMietnc la p4aje< ovt Id New 

Taakr<li«wttaaBcnaatJ|[bt about bli Back. and i n 1 1'u acaba iifjiiallia fiii iiltiiai 

Aaawlac tba BU&a IkM: TbaraaaUUtiOGrtailiial litoncnniilnstoaabotliaTaabbeaNt, 
aadtbaatolcmiit nacticnof tbacam-nlahe kaowa nna pownrfullr In bar teror. 
Bite* dM ndiea tbo potlm, and wbeo alia toada tho pMoL ih« calcnlaloa proba- 
hflUti^ aaJ lalf ao aaflaa adda whan d»a ai1intn1iif««a ona to tba hnatMjul of wbam 
riMlatlrad.aadeaipO0a tba otbar talo tba baort of tbn panuaonr wbo lailrodot 
bar- laUMaeoldsr tliaea to wblcb *rc hnro r^hrrvi, lawmaikcra checked luldda 

\ti Milalalin lI'aT T " ii'iiii' •'bo klllMi bcn^ olioittd ba dn«KC^ naked and 

aw4 at lb* oatfa taD turoacb tba markat-plaoa. A maMaltiia inimlcrar lamj nat 
tav •Eadtald and kaltar. The nwiat Ikoailea woman woaldfSMvoTanfaaiiMwaraaba 
aa'^olaatf «u«lkal tarbarlUa*ivtata wontd-abonld abacanroatherfetldaalcn 
— ba«bwadbr tbBblad(aa«i.llieatimii|1taciM)Dae,aad tbe BapUicanwdiiarlntat 
tkaaaaralaad, pendaal Bgaia' TiMSDbUeat toocbof knowledin □( rrmlmna natua 
ta " Yka mubadala Bomanea' la tka exvKaaed bdlet that Z«ii«hla would narat bara 
aiBWBad bw^ll bad ake (tMsed bow tba aodden corpee would look. 

Qui aiaaaii ralinbilaiuaaritalnifnllT IbaiabaraaaBoriakoCaiMb pmlatuuut 
aa waald ha aaalad oat to a> aqnaUrsnOtr nan, and ada Miwn Ufa jwraaoafaa. 
Kattvav tt/r»%a, ypunj <w o1d,kaBdaaaM0rbU«oiu^ abo plantabaraalfoanfldantlir 
avBB tba raKt««««waad of Rax. 

or an (alaa dalBa npoa Iho eonpaaatoa of tba tnu aiaa thia [> Iba meat ii>«otoaB. 
Daw ha, than, la faclaalloa. Unk tbs Callea eraaiure ai the bar wtth tba TMaona 
wMkaoathar.vaiiiarlahlaawnhoDMl nadlaeomr, ta tbolUyor wanaahoodlM 
WM la Ui hoanai. ef a afieck at tka tDtUaaa that baaobaacad tbia ertnalna) oat of 
JinaiiaaaiiibM iiiiii ilalim — miTit rnirrtilm ir caat U aatda wttb loallilait. It la 
anu Lkaa. ler tba aaka ct tboaa h» lore* aad larer aa oaa. aa habica ol a llDar mould 
Ik^ huaMtt. that baoondimBoalawbrpltjtac aad paidaslaB tba doer. 

** What MaiiJar Rrac« will wo bava calaa^ 
Alaa, bt atmpv ditnsf 

aaror iha araalnaded motto, " De MarfiKa «« hM teama." 
» ttaa caUi« abeat Itadr br tka aaro adddcait oC caDdar r 

naallfal naiatad man la ant daralopad tn woman : tl 
'-'- ■aaaoaalimaderlmlaaltalobetoaadla 



140 



rffB JfOBTS AMERICAN REPIBW. 



Ill* debo<laK cflbot of tnoowiiTo (aUa. and Uis teol thM aaab rantlrad » trtclfle 
tlBort. SbebaaUltadooDBcleaonwidoiiUlTedraapeoltar praoedcst. 

TIm tnilam tbnt * bad wohimi b aU bad «b«^ Ml aohirt. aot hw. tba noma- 
atsndMJoa to mcror. Bratolh t«an, «^o1«C7, ai« w««poaB fn tfae nac of wblcb ckt 
t>M) »diipL 'n»t stw miplays thom uaorapnloaaly mid w«iU (miUBm to iinntfa- 
leMaoMh >m4 to radeiBptlve laavvn. Tbnttbay k»M(b«liuU with jndgaaadjBrj', and, 
•bo** fell, wltti tko pnbUo, maltlB« Into MfetitnwU*! btttlkM orer biNfekfaM-t^liI* n- 
pona of t&» agofelM of tho onuriRtiKl prlsonw. I« feaovldaBe* ttf bum! oowajdlaa.KMl 
of BhorUliUwlaMB U»l woulii nuit* Uto muiy IniiOOMlt soflW- iMtwd of Iba rvOlj 
few. 

Ill* 

tlU 71UCK Oy ^LLTTKRATION. 

ISR uM obont ttiM for » r—oltooT Tb* hoMj ot oIUUraUanlMwoUwan. 
f^MWftir lit) t-iT ilrp IiIb if t nnliwt <*nr ^^^Tn1ll nPl^^rntl— t ritfin* TriTtm twoooot- 
vriM boton h« WM old Miongli to ba uooyed br tboir ItenUro boat. To-dv tb« 
odttdrial PM MaUr ftdATta itMir (0 Um lowflrtag itAiidAfd. aad tbe bonM boMl-UaM 
howl fron OTaf7 pa^ ef tba dftOy pp o aa. It may bo worth wbUe lo raoall to tho 
llterarr ooBaalmeo tho ralaa of aUltamlliMi. In tba AaKkHaaion vona ika aOUonk' 
UvD IvUor vu Uw UUtlal lattar of aa liDoortaai 'vrord ; aa, dor tnataaoa. 

" No ^ntoa Fawett. no V^jroa blocU.* 

Thla BUMta » atrans but oa Uto thrUunlo nwvomaak wbloh not onlj commaodod at- 
taoUoM. but torilltalod to exp r a uu taii and aided numarr- Wbllo the tofoa of om- 
aaiiaBtalaaiuidawaathiuaBipbaiJMdoaUMoar,aUltoraUaa.brlla iMmituMo nae, 
aoON oaiiMd retao lo d«B«DonU« Into • colorluM uxl iBcOlKiiaal drvuv. Altiiousb 
lUnc JaoB*^ In Ua hlsh oatoom for oUltoifttlrv rorm, taU. "Lotoll row rent bo 
Lit«nll * 4allitar»tlTe|, jtit GaaoolgiM, on the ether hand, guftrdiag th* power of aUlb' 
*r*tloa ft* aacredtju ftlow his tnlatrSM^ safB! "Usn? «TtlarallUllllgalIlr»p•t^ 
oiomof etrnditawotdaaall befinnlnawttta one totter, tho whlchB(b«3mc laodeatly 
■aed) londetli gaod sntM M * veme : but tbejr do eo hiuit a loiter lu death, that ttaof 
ai»km\tOrmia>t,»aA»nmlitbU potUumm^ratttt XhantamXequidnimi*-' 

SlulceBpeara. than whom norwoxooplonrmHtdeUoatonkwlaniiMWU have aaod 
alUtonllait with Rnator rafflnament. pooed bb Uttlo Joke at aUltecalon lo " ftaglag 
raoks with tUverlos abocki^' and " Lorois I^bont'e lioaL" 

Tbm twa beta no ettier poeUo iiMichltHiry ao wlaineJ aa Uwt of allltontloa. 
BTarrdoDdaDorotseoliufoT thouKbt orpoeUoespraadtB oaa be more ihaa oooi' 
pouatodfor.aomcot cmrUtenu; bookitcre think, If thoronlr davbtaaooaat wh)(a 
pkper with word alt«r word UiKi»»iiw with Iho aaaio lotto', or run the eaiaa Towd 
■ODod lodoftth. Tkoir dcEtorooH iiiiiiiJ{>nlatIoa of o line beforo the rhfioe nnrt bo 
faoedlaoqiMlbotbelrebUitrtaMMrohaeoBUBOB Ok^iab dleUeoarj. It to a pity 
thatthasMalnbtianeana wokaowoftoaharni theaarwUhltetadoSoite pcoeoooe 
■hODld ba paraded about, atuflbd loto botntHuUo tbapea. uid plftoanled nilhlnwlj 
under ovor? are Ic the moat aeoaatloBnl forma. The MiulllMd mjm corolta whan It 
aMaadelloatoartabaoMd tnlo aalced ore-MtcUos trvo. "All aUltcntUon fbr tba 
■akoofalUMiMioa Is trllUiut.'' aaja Shtner lAnler. Inbhi-'SoieiMMtointagUabVnM.' 
Bo UMa ptoooeds teraoir to my tbat allttaratkm " that makge atir olalm oo Iio own 
oooouiit . , . Eshtit, throashtbolBflallodoeantatMHlceKlUllT which brooda at 
tho beitooi ot art, to be alwajra tawdiTi rolBar, and hitruiiTOi . . , and parbapo 
■oaiNodelbltecavUoacaabagtnathoatiideBt thah that all allltonUon wUob 
aUMoUutjattratloaaaaDUersUoala/owC.' Ibarotokea the Uberlr to lUUolao 
"lead," for tho wofd. to an AneileM, n tp r aeeea esaotlf tho attribnio wbloh odbada 
the eulllt^ted laeto. be it Tnlgarttf olthor of dr«M, a^itlaa. speech, or writli^ Vor 
allttarmtloii flbocM ba noad more dalloatoly than tho aaftronnnlng oHetta la a aoo- 
turn. It abonld hoaat tho oar low than tho aaldeai mmle of tho whippaarwm that 
Ufta Ha platatlTO ooda abora the nutltas of tho asntsMr leavoi at mldn Igbt. 

Lat ua now contrast a fow flnt^bnathBOaosbC fraai poets with aomo of tho Iwwii 
trombone blaalacoOedtrom the Joimiallm of onr dajr. I think It waa Oolartdfa 



143 



THE SORTB AMERICAN REVIEW. 



TlMbbAflMlOuUBtloaaf tbepoworitf aUtlonttlaa t0 mrrmtibio houC D«ir dU- 
(mnt from: 

"BMk«U of Bmt utd Bloed.* 

■"nt PntManl'ii PoUtr of Pap.* 

" TtoUMMi ol K VUe VolAiT o( Vts»." 

BnehMefciafBattierMe tatboBdrerUwineataCBewii, Lvtiu draw » pom fanwib 
tram Dm ntafo eC uHtlw Irro : 

" Tbo r*]nl tonM flkmo of the T<ni&e rear (loabca 
Vnna taut Ut tlawQt mbA ttawm to nrilL" 

WliMtiaFUMaQ)MaloISirtiibim«f>tmnu>rtA]ar notitlM noale tt h Braurnl ta mt 
Mr M Um Mnit* at Sftpplia to Uw HeQeneK. 

" Tbrangb tho wbtttUnc riovt utd niow"ot tb«a iiorniB aRKtiut strlo, we «in 
MTcrtlwIeai tun fraq tba mommit miiI (Mrtarona morntiiK papor to our alcove- 
iMokm or Um DlobM In our manMriUh and tbera ntt Ibe torturvd «je and v%r. 
" Albalt aofUr m «ttr Ban h«rrtlv«r nog was rlnglii<.''«HK Mm Bnirwnlnr ; may 
aucb soft Mno laoeulaM oa acslaat tboao braaoa oiornlac bU«i> I S Aaal UfaaUa- 
Uonol tbetrnaarUaUa valoa of alUtaratlon loaj bo lak«n trvm C EL SlU, «rboaa 
ptTcoptloDof tfaoflCaMaofwoKltotlwiwlit wMaaltaa m bb UId wa« patMls la Ito 
partial anfCiwi : 

" Lat UM bare llred mr Ute aot ooirarad. sdIQ 
Tta vaklBdcnd and ■■tmtaiied liow wa< bate.' 

Tlu>« la no fsar of Iha deear ot •cria. alUioagh natrapaiMra do pcrabt In lUaUnc 
that Tulgarttr of «na«w l oo tnanraa popvlar attanUon. Wa prar tor pnrttr at Uie 
polla Tha pm1ti7 of tba toiltob langwagg la tita datl71>r«M, UiaaUntlaaUoaorUM 
luud and rvlgar— what fnrolKnan oall the "Amerldut tjrpe"— laaM toomiuttMaafc 

tor. OorAmarlouKtrltlanvtUMtotacaNnopaittuiJoiinialaiiabaiaslatatvdar: 
bvC ratbcr. tliat of our vnlatly pcrtodJoal Utaraluta and dJmUed forearfo aad 
llt«riuT a«l)l«voiii«Dta It la tba atjle of WebaUr and Uawtheana, of LowaD and 
RoltaM, and of Bacoh«r at bla iMaL 

Aa I pea Ibl* aaatmoe mj bond (aUa apoa an evnalac papcr. tnatUi«Hvolr I 
bIuim at th« Importaat kaadlntra. Xm I raad. tba woida talca ta IhamiUna atfaU* 
cant inoantnipL 

" UoTiD« Asolnat Hlcrobaa I" 
" MaotT HauKi HIa Haul 1 1- 

I dmnld thlak ba arould. 

IV. 

OtfOTATio.'' Aim tttmavoTXTmi. 
FKVthlMCaadd mora to tbeoharmoFiiuod writing KodapoakLrut than opt and 
(alhittoiM qootatlon. Bayla Roei ao tar na to aaj thai tbera la aa mncfa InnmLSnn In 
tba happT >iM ol a UionKht round la a book aa In ortKlaaUng Uiat UiooKht. " Wbon- 
DTor W0 would pnpan tba nund br a (onlbla weal.'tara tfeaaldar Dtenall, "an 
bpnalnit qaolatltfaUaiTiapbeaiT pnlndlDcan the oharda wboaa tanaa weare about 
t« banuoolM.' Of wnno, Uka avorr otbor good tWag, qaatattoo aoar ba abuaod, aa 
It taoortaa b by tfaoao wbo quota IncwnacUr, bj tboao who quota for abow,— wbUh 
laMbartianMiaaaaprarnMonor Jawelt oAona^ panoo, orlbspafat ooan Indian,— 
and bjr thoaa who quota ao fMiqnratlf that Ibay bacotnn oam|'ll>n. The laat-naaMid 
praoUoa la fraqaantly tnw alwaya—wlliiaaa KoBtalfiia and llaalltt) tbo vtoa of 
wriiaT«wba,eanaeloiia«f ihatrowntaialleotnalpaTcrtT.laftltbelf ban boafea triih 
tbc tat ot other aian^: who. Uka tba old Ramana. that mbbad all Ihn other dtlaa of 
tha world Co dacofatothadr own. amphir tha laa thooiAM ud fllnatiatlau of oldtr 
amiera to baaoUfr (hair pacw. Oftlwomatgnotatloa, o( whlob w« pnrpoaabare 
toavaak.thamoaifmtAilGnnanbolUncn pnaaafe at accond-hnnd. Hnndreda of 
famJllnr qnotatlona, however. wUcta are comtlaiHllrdroiptitncIroKt nwo'a Upa and 
pana. hara not aron ibc ndvanuce of betiw laken lltarallr at aaeoML bat an taken 
tnm tbo third or thinkiLh. hand. U, atMr balnit quoted oncaartwlee oalr. a ireat 



SOTZS -H.VZ* COaaiEKTS. 



143 



iiilUrttbo«chtBrMtahlffiwiik''>wtt4la»UuM«d n^joMr," «bM. mint b* lu 
IMK 4ft*r UM t<v«a«ftb-k<ui4 qmoUttoo 1 Muat ha ut bo prorokvd to dImToir. 
•tM l( ka doM Bat urtwDjr fftO to mcMftiiM Um cfalUrw 04 bk brktu. wbto Uter u« 
»■■ » ■■ w p linwa I UtiotUiSMrMMnor MMtlft]oa*tMt«toMnadet of Uaopt 

" QmuB ndtah nmB ail, ffUnUhM, Ubclttu: 
SM Bala earn taeltaa, UiiJMt at Ium*.' 

AaoaclHClM vatm,atukmpwn, Untmi. Pofta. Oawpar. BrfOh and Tuar- 
•MtaaUvbanlBnUaltadairaala-BiunbartlMaotbiintfllMiUiaearaliioafuUBt 
■a^araKKMoftkabwdavho banauArad hwW mn mlMiBaUtloa : bathardljr 
•are<solaaaTB«Kap«i aoawUmM Um wonlaaM glnni laoomoUr : ffi airtliw 
anMaki8l*str«a|a tbna qalta tUAmit tna Omt ot Ihe aalbor ; ■»!, atala. a 
MaaM «r Ua« k aUiibat^d to a wnMg pgnon. T^iT ihit " mrrM-ifUmlil" flhalwa 
laafih wbOM worU an aa laukauaUUa qaan? of «w)4aUoa. " wboM bright irii to 
««l ««t * tat* at tk atan" vImm " aoUd aiaaMa «( Inwnlcd 1 u« nialad Mit la atof 
•rfaand pravwh*,** m- that Millsa, wbo nofca a«xt to Urn b tbo Bttnber of pan* be 
BItola Hr. BwiMi'* " ruuIUu <)aototlaaa,- ahoaU ba nbtaatod. U aotolraiNra. 
RUbMdOraal vrutobwibownbewMaq^laMrUiaBuaiUDiiftta woII-ir«rn Ho* ot 
tbapaaldr^i^ttM— "Oiutoaehof n«tar«tii&kM tbo wbola wm>M IHb*— faaabMs 
■ Ima i aahtaaaa. AUnaaf Jllltcia'a wblcb U altnoat onltonalrglvastMORMUj'lB 
Iku to which IM apeaka oC tuaa a* 

** Tbat Uat Isflrallr of sobt* mlad." 

ra<-U»«liWBlu-. ~ailaA,*lhaptaral. "ailBiU.'tas>tutljr nib^talncl. ttlsnotMar 
la MMMtv* tba InKatla&af " tlia IllUa *»aap of TwIrkoBbun,' wIm wu •» CMlUtoaa 
la bk rtinlna nf Trrrtt liiil ho f wrmnn that irait nf bli bitnnr liana 
** Wttouow llw «oaliw, apaod Um inlar Kuan,* 

wanM oaa di^ b« ■^dad br almoat «rA7 «d* wba tbonld alLnnpt to aao It, bj tiM 
■itM"t"-T or '•parUn«"(0*'"K«tB8.*' wb«R>br bolb tb« alllUnUoDKnd tha an- 
mfcw^ f dMilByaL Tbaralaa lln» to PTior'it "Henrir »nd Cruma" wbJohkla- 
TaHaWy Bk^aatad. DwwrPHag tbadreasatKnuaa. tbahiTiwura; 

" Ka loamr iluJi ibo bodtoo, aatir koad. 

KnajfiillbaaoaitoUtr dandar wakt, 
it sir mai baraiaBr at Maip* aKprvn^ 
na# b7 diKKMB, and MautUally mm"— 



br*iV«afc~aaItlaqairtad. BUmv Befkakj't (amllkr Una, 
" Watwafd Iha eaaaa ot aB t p Jf a tofeaa Ua war," 
I k la «Aaa aa Um Upa si Foiuib-gf-Jnlr aad plaUom wm/bon, k qootad by 
t B'lUwi led lyakaw aa 

" Wotwaid Um Mot <)( empire tAkn ita war." 

Kamt ttad H ar hy iBBi hara a uB Wad both trom mloqnatAtioa and fran ao-eallad 

■ ■ ■p iaT W W" ly Bia—iT Ualtawi. wbodaior aaend |M«tir vilkU Naham Tato 

<M Mr OkikMpBwa. toam tmy or flirtr roan agn tba Mholarlr llr. Bathaao 

■larttad Iba ■— g ~f "— at tba partE-Aiaac Chureb to Boatoa by adralnktactog 

iUMVMlp(laakUFrapraii< to thaaetltaiBrrpiMto. Uavtac itraa oat Cowpar^ 

MMMbvualnc 

*■ Thar* k a fonatala fllkd with bUvid." 
1* NBd Ifc Hd, aAer a aMBut'* panae. ludlxnaBtJr (tokimftl : "Tbklait atom 
taBaa^OawHrwrouitl Aabawrotolt-ltruiu tbiu~: ■poo'rblob barapcatadli 
(ran aanHRr- ** I alMiald Mka to kaow," bo oooUaDBd. " who h>* bad tba priaiuap- 
MMMtftarOowpar^paatiT. Aacbolr will itog onlr tkaflrtttouratwix^r Tba 

** ^rbOa Iba watota aaaror rail,'' 
h WMig^ l»fa, b a gtoitlwB - Ja«ia. Ia*w of mr aovL' k 
- WUk Iba UOowa tovad na roll." 



aouMtlBaa pamrud to 



144 



THS NORTH AMERICAN REVIEW. 



Cttsriesl qnoMtioB. wYildti Dr. Johuen mm oUlAd tbb pvoJe «f UUmtt sen «ll 
OTi)rUift«rerlil.lsKXMttmMladleraual7tnoe(T«et. In Ui« nnadikl raoniartlw DriUab 
MBMamthcraUAirnlBea which WlUlam Paltanar wob U ITU, In tb« Boom e< 
Uonuneaa, on * (Mt cooennlag « tooUUra nado br Sir Roltnt Wklpak rnn 
the poet B0r»c» WftlpolB. Uimi jiratnler, ■nvIbb, In nvlr ta * UirvU oT mwoiUIob. 
imtCiMd. h%» Innocenoe, kad Mild, 

" XU couBclr* ntbt Dotll poUeMcn omtpB," 

PaIt«D«7 obMrrtd that the hoootaUo ■oatlaniKa'a IaUb iraa m Iwd h U» poU- 
tki ; tM bad oilmioUd Uonw*. «rbo bad trTltt«D ~ Ntdia paUMoore oolpo." W41- 
poia then oAlsrcd to bet a khIium that be waa rifihL and Pultaner aoocptod lb* «bal- 
l0at«. Tba clock at tbo booM <*M etiM»n aa unpiM. and d«oMed ■cstoat lb* nfa- 
tatar, who at an«a taaa«d Lh« erolaea to bta rletorimw owMteoL Here wa mar aata 
tliatthaojniloalaavlaraaoftiBn altdbntad la Walpala, " ^i£ mam hat« Uwlr priatk** 
li a talajuotaUon of " All Utam moa liava tbolr prloa," which ba aald, aad aald t>Blr> 
otoertalopmMiidedpairlola. Theflnc wordlaiba toUowIm Unoa Iram Haiaaa^ 
Oda loOroaphns, • 

" .VfAU ca^ ab omul 
Parte boatniu," 

H aoDcUmaa exeliaa£ed for (uaw. A trita piwago In Iha aana antkar. to whlsh a 
WionB nwubw baa fmiuitUr beta mrea. U thla ta th« Oda to Uotnluat 

_ " (fa^n* Minpar aroiua 
Toidit Apolto.' 

Whon ttiaa* tiBM ate qnntad br awrliflr on raeraatloa. lu thar haTahMa, tsaalapea 
Che uBiluii^at that th« mind ahoold nat alwaya ba kfl|it on tba alMcli. Uw7 an 
Kraady mUnpuUnl. In nrlnii that Apollodciea not alwajs bend the bow, iba poat 
meaaa tbat iba god. who ts prapdtioua wtwn he ■trtkaa tba Irra, la aol almya anci? 
VlUmioa. 

AjDianK tba nartiwatutbated towronK peraoaalaonaaMrlbed bo Lord BoUoc- 
faraka. " HlatoT li pbOMOphr toachlas bj axamplw' BoUncbraka aUnplr aaja 
that ho had laaid tUa tn Dloayilus of Ualtoaniaeaea. So with aa otl-qaoiad aarloc 
altribatcd to AodrvwFletcbvrof galtoon. He doe* not attar II b« hii own. but 
anjra: *^ kaowa vnr wWiaan Litat ballend tbU,ltnBiakaw«rD p««TiiUt«d toDuJca 
nil Iba balladi^ ha naad net oara who ataoald mabo tbo laws, tA a DaUoo," AMod- 
tnctoUr. Bartlett.)Caadii(rcr*> "nanr-bcaded mouter' (tba mnldtiidel baloiv* 
ta"wall-lanBiiacad~DaaM. Martin Van Hnran'a " aabar. aacond Iboncbt" ■■ tba 
prapartjraf Hatibaw Hamr. or. rniher. ol Eurlfiiaoa 11 iayrobablf loTnOarnwd. 
tbat RaoatrarHSMDMl of wnlf wit and eatrar avI^Bni, that mon Hitngt hara 
baan wrandy attrfbuiad than ki anr olbar nodMO. To blm ara cndltad Cban- 
fDrt**"naYDluttaiw avanotmnda wichroavwatar": FDiicbA'a"lL la thti becbiatag' 
of thooad': tliaChaTaUard«Pnitti'i«»of on tticBoorboaa, that thcr "had Inoraad 
notblnic and foricottan aothlnic": Iba aayliiK- " Who would not adore hlto— ba la ao 
Ttoloiu r which nan imld of TaUojmad by Honbraml. not of Hontrond by Toiteimadi 
and " IVj« I* which Iho pdaco leaald to havaciclatmed wbca Lout* PbUIpp*. «a faia 
death -bod, iwDplatDod that be Mt tba torivrcw of h*ll, but which wax aaldundor 



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SECURED BY THE CAL16RAPH. 

100,000 
Daily 

Users. 




8RUTEST SPEED ON RECORD 1 1 



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■■■•Kill mlsBM, Bnil a, A> Mcllfidc vrrnln 
lUV criMd* IB ■ ■iMgln wltiuiw, JUliMV^iMnt, 

THE AMERICAN WRITING MACHINE CO., 

HARTFORD, CONN. 
ANCH OrFICeS;-23I B>«wHM, %. 1 

■. ilk tllMt. BMHHWtl. n • tMA hJk tA» 



THE 



NORTH AMERICAN 
REVIEW. 




ix-v^t"- V«l. 13*1 !(■, a. 



EtJtTSl> ar LtOVD BHYCB. 

February, 1890. 

THE GLADSTONE-BLAINE CONTROVERSY. 
THK HON'. TIOfiKB (}. MILLS 145 



-<:ty . Sir William ThoMshn iSg 

--- ^ -ilI E. lu Gqdkin 197 

(if SUic Ktnliu . . J|;fp£b&(>n Davia soj 

■i . , . RrAYTI'S WlUAK ajo 

■1 Ki V. itLiii^ H. Waru IJ5 

Vew Vkirr>r Shelley f't'iriA tifi 



KISAL WOHnS OW DIVOHCE 

Mardaret LtiL . 

The RtT. Pmup S. Moxom, D.t). 

koVeh and noKiiicvrs. 



i63 
>64 



Tbf iTrrailing hpidcmic . Cvbus Ei'SON, M.P., 

Chief Inspector, HcMth DejiL, N. Y. siiy 

^-cratic Idea . . George M. Towlk 171 

A. E. l*At.MH 97J 

SA«i'ri. YoBKC ArI,K« J75 

;.n < W. K. HlLKii >78 

^KW YOKK: 
KAST FQUIITEKXTIi STFtKl-n". 



C R EA M 

Baking Powder 

MOST PERFECT MADE. 

UsiTEO States T)i:i-AifniKSTop AuitircLTLiitK, I 
Washinctdk, 1). ('. J 

By an analysia of Dr. Price'ti ('reftin l^jiking Powtlcr, I find it p«r«illlj 
inountled, aad'l regard it &a the Tk-aI tmkin^' iinwilcr in Ikt- market in oTei? 

ct. pi:teie foi.MF.n, 

Lsle Chemist uf tlie L"niie<l StiUns HcpurUni-nt of Agrienlliirc. 



PERFECTION. 

SHIPMAN'S 

Fountain 




YUCCA! HAIR. 



YOUNC 



■ i.'l wHk 
dkniUuBJ luutD.ip-.'i 'J f. i 1 C CA> 

TUOM CO. 

Onnmnr— t »»T«iiim " Varrn " '"' ""' ""wx 
■A4Ba«t-ilarlIut )I noTpril tn^ htir • 'it. 

dMitnXT It U UMd^fib-i. It l« »1 '•" 

AnNtns. Tuun, II. r. iuuki-pj>. 

80X.D BY namoisTB. 




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ALWAYS READY 

wii.i. trmiTK 

WlTliOlT BLOTTIN0 

VbIU erary dcop of Ink la UmA. 

Prbws tHNii S3 to 9&1D. W« wlU n- 
turn lour luoncy It, ikf ivrOI <Uy«' irUI. 
f on oo nut IUkI It MUii>fM;lot7< 

iSALSEIPMAH'SSONS 

10 Mnmr ittrMt, Xnr TnriL 

mciimmciiauLf„ 



NORTH AMERICAN REVIEW. 

No. CCCXCIX 



PSBHUARY. 1800. 



THE GLADSTONE-BUINE CONTEtOVEIlSY. 

JBT TBI UOX. ItOOBB (J. MILLS, REi<RE»l{KT4TIVB IK C0HGRRS8 

rKOM TEXAS. 



Tbe " duel " bdtireeii Ur. QliK^stoiio and Mr, Blaine iras for 
OomniBrcul frwdom on odd aAe nnd oommorcinl restriction on tbe 
othH'. Each wd** wu repre«eni«d by it!t best man, and the inb- 
ject wu disnused with ^reat ability. Mr. Gtudstone opcoa the 
diicBaiioD Olid goea straight to the heart or tho controrersy. TTe 
abovs what commerce u, vhat it does, and vhat it has uccom- 
pliflliod for Great Britain mooe its einaooipation. II«! Bhowg that 
it baa iDcntaacd tb« aggregate voalth of the uatiou, givHa b«lt«r 
employment and higher vages to workmen, and supplied them 
with more, <.'lieaper, and better food than thoy bad ever bad befoie. 

1*b« (]Qe«tion ig not, aa hesav^, whether the rato of wages is 
lover in Groal Britain than In America, or vhotber the American 
workman iabvttcrofT than the workman in England. It is not a 
qoaatioa betwom cotmtrioa, but between ayntems. If the rete of 
wngM aloa« ii to be takoit as tho twt of tho wisdom of commercial 
nstriction, the jary vitl bo hang nnd thore oan be no rerdiet, bc> 
eanae tbe Unitod Stated has n-striction and a bigher rate of wages 

VOfK— T&0 dtKOMlBa «■ Fr« Tmil« kwI PixitMiJoD. baaon In Uta JaaiuuT 
MMfc«MTmammby Mr, Oladatowuid Mr BUm. hu kUnulad iMrtud 
mttmawB , Hr.OlMlHtfMai«aiu«ltbarau«orrM«tnte with KTMt MmMtaam 
«■■, wtia Ui MffltMit, Mr. BlNlnv^elabnntLeraplTlnbvtiair of pn>l«ctl(n WM |i«^ 
■ikari Mnnltaawiualj. Tha Hoc. luiRnr u, MIIU repllo* to Mr. DlnUis In tfaa pnmbI 
•^bar. aad flaMOor KcmlU. trmiata ot Uie ManiU BUI. w« cOBttava Aa <H«tini*«w 
M taa MaKA BatftlBr---IEDm« N. A. B. 

VOL. CL.— SO. 3M. 10 



THE yOSTB AMSaiCAU BSVIEW. 

than England, mad JScgUnd hua freedom and a higher rato of 
wagw than France, Uermaiij, Austria, or bo; othur oouatiy ui 
Ruropii that 1ms riMtrictioo. It ia uvidcnt from tfaU that dome 
other factor U exerciiring a potent inSuenoe cither in depre^ng 
or raisiag wagw. Freodom of comnu'rcial oichangu amy he one 
of the forces,, but there are olbergvouperatiDg with iL Mr. Glod- 
atooe shows that nincu Knglaiid adu{jt(.-d the policj of cuniniLTciat 
freodom the wagea of hei- working pnojile havu increased from 60 
to 100 per cent., and that from 184;j to 18B3 the income from 
capital increased 210 per ceoi., while tbo income of the working 
dasses increated 160 [tor oenU The wealth of both capicalist and 
workmen might increase tn either country atid under eichorsjrs- 
tcts. And that is what has occurred in both eouutrics, and in nil 
oouDtries where there are civilisation and stable govenuncnt. In a 
oouatry like oura, blessed with the riobest soils, the beet of 
cUmatet, good gOTeroment, mountains filled with eoal and oroi 
of ever; kind, with ample means of cheap and rapid transporta- 
tioD, with the forces of production ooustantly increuning through 
the invention of labor-saring tnachiaery, both wealth and wagee 
would increase under either iyetem. 

y And it is no test of the wisdom of either to show that wealth 
and wages have incrcaeed under it. 11 mast be shown that 
wealth and wages would increaM faster under one ejst^m tlian 
under tbo other, and to do that we must see what it is that creates 
wealth and wages. All wealth is created by labor, and thegrmtost 
wealth is created when the greatest sum of prodocta Is produced in a 
given time ; and that is done wbun the laborer works in harmony 
with the forces of nature and the auxiliaries which the invontiTe 
genius of man has supplied. If a laborer who is digging coal ut 
tl per ton, and who turns oat one ton per day, should iuvunt a 
machine by which in the same time he turns out five tons of coal, 
bis daily wagre would Hm', whether the tariff was high or low, or 
no tariff at all; und^if throughout the whole induMrial system 
snch an iocrease shonid occur by labor-saring methods, ihtjn 
wages woiUd rise throughout the whole, regardless of the tariff. 
But the qnestion is. Would they notarise higbar-mthciLLtJun 
with the tariff ? If tho worainanTwhen ho turns out his coikl. is 
prohibited from selling uuy part at it to anybody, his mr- 
pluH will be worthless. Aft«r supplying his own wants, 
the lemoiuder will be without raluo to htm. Dnt if the law 



THE OLADSTOMS-BLAJIVK COXTROVERST. 



147 



vhouli] permit him to mil to persons living within the same 
oonnty, bis markut, though limiteil, would give somti value to his 
snrplai. Then if th« Uw should be changed und bo should bo 
permitted to sell to all pvrsotu within tbo stiine State, bis oosl 
votild increue in value. U thcu he was permitted to »oU to all 
ponoQs in tho Unicod Stuteu, it would take ndditiotuU value just 
at tbe Doxaber of consurnera increased, wbiob would increaH tho 
demand aod cojucqui-ull; tho price. If be ia permitted to 
wll to any one anywhere in the world, bU product would 
find iti hi^host ralne. Tbtti we «co tlint just iu pruportion 
u tbe numbera of those who consume hia coal increoao 
does its value {Dcroase. Wealth, thoroforf. aoil wageit are iu- 
dsaaod by the remoral of all impediments betwi-on producers and 
MiWDnurt; and the convoreo of the proposition iu equally true, 
that vealtb and wages are decreased by every impedlmoat intor- 
poaed between the producer and coiisuinery 

A farmer in Brazil will innka more at labor expended in 
nUlng coffee than in manuEacturing cloth, bccuuse the soil and 
climate arc equivalent to so mach capital gratuitoiiidy supplied 
to blm. But ooffoe does not vupply all bin wants, lie muu Itave 
dotbing, and he can obtain it mox* cheaply by raiding coffee than 
by manofaotoring cloth ; but to enjoy that advantage be mnst 
have an open way through which to wnd bis coffee and bring hU 
doth. Here ia where commorca twoonios a ncc^^sfiity. If the 
Brazilian cannot have his surplus coffee transiKirted to the manu* 
bctaror, be mnst eel! in the home market, where every one has u 
■arploa u well as he, and where there ia po demand and the value 
of his labor ia greatly redaced. Tho same is the case with tho 
mauufactarer. It he is not permitted to send bin oloth to those 
who want it, and is compelled to sell it at home, where the market 
U ovenuppliL'd, be will Bnd ite vulne greatly redoced. 

y«t thi» is the policy of commercial rwtriction which Mr. 
Gladstone assails and Mr. Blaine defends, and this is the policy 
that the latter saya increases ualional wealth and the wages of 
labor. As Ur. (Madstona aays, oommeroe is based " npon the 
■aeqoal ittstribntion amoog mtn and regions of aptitades to 
pradBoe" the Ibiogs that aaLi>ify human want. The desire for 
gain is the mulivu thnt nctu».U><i thv diHtrtbutioD. Men only send 
away their ■urplua lo hoII when they can prolit by the nto in the 
diataot naarkot. That profit is obtatood wbon thu price is higher 



i4e 



THE NORTH AJTBRWdS REVIEW. 



nimj from homtt tfaan it is iithomo, anrl it 'u. higlmr in the dis- 
tant nuirket tlutn it is iu th« lium« murkut because it conld bu 
prodnoed, if at all, only at a tiighor ccwt. In the roarknt from 
which a thing is exported it ia prodoocd at the lowest ooit, and 
it will be proJu<M>d at the hight'iit profit if the way of Inuisporta* 
tion 18 open to those vho want it and can either not produce it at 
all or at a higher cosL And tho profit of the producer will be 
mach or little in proportion to the freedom or obstruction in the 
wa; from the producer to the oonaumer. Erery produc>ar haa to 
pay the co)«C incurred in reaching nurkct, and then haa to sell at 
the market price. 

y^f the market prico of wheat is one dollar [wr buuhel at Liver- 
pool, and it costs the Btissian farmer fifty cents per huihel to 
prodnco hie wheAt and iho AmtTieuri forty cet)t«, iho American 
will have ton cunts per bushel advantage in the competition. 
Then if it costs tlie Kussian twenty vaniB per buBhrl to rrach the 
market and the American ten. the Americiui luia the advautago 
of twenty coot« per boHhul iu the content, ami would make that 
much more prolit, and. if he had wheat enough to supply the 
whole dumatid, would soon drive his rivnl out; and if wheat- 
growing wiis a uoitiiiUeniblf imrt of tttisaian imltiatry, the loea of a 
market for it would bo a great disturbiince in ite makriul progreaa. 

Heiioe it is neceasary that the way from producer to consumer 
sboald b« free from obstructions and capable of lieing passed 
with the leiut delay ami theamullostospouiw. And " the legislator 
ought never to interfere, or only to interfere so far aa impemtire 
fiscal neceHsiry may re<|t)iro it, with thia luitural law uf distribu- 
tion." When the govenimcnt inlerfems and requinw the pro- 
ducer to p»y a tux for the pririlegn of Helling tn it^ markets, it 
nccossarity ruiies tlie prico which its citixona mual pay. If tlic 
object of the tax Is to restrict or prohibit the im|M:irtation of the 
article in order to give the market to tho home produeor whieh 
he conld not bold without it, on account of the greater coat re- 
quired to produce tho com)>etitig article, it imposes a double tax 
on the consumers of both the d'>meiitic ami foreign articles. One 
tax is paid to the government on tho im|>oi^l urtit^lo ; niiolher i» 
puid to the owncrof the dome<ilic product ) 

But thia is iiul nil thi< injury dune by the tax: pvrlinpa it la 
not the greatest. Wlion a pun-haser ia rfxjtiireil by law to pay 
mors for a domestic product than ho wonid othcrwiso hATo to| 



TBS OLADSTOKK-BLAlSE CONTROVKIL^V. 



p>f. ono of tvo thtnjT!! must nrcur : either that ainatiut of weulUi 
it iiuiiUulat«d, or it i» trun^crrcd from tlie pock«U of the man 
who earned it to the poclcots of the mnn who did not. If It is 
«nnihi1iLt«d, U oeMes to be n fuiiil for thi> purchase of mftterial, 
for tho psjrtnuiit of wtiges, or for llie pnxMiremeiit of tlie things 
tb»l BatUfr oar want«. If it is tmiisferrcd, it is taken without 
oonpontttion from one citizen iind givoD to uoibcr, and the dii- 
tributett vtwlth of niilliuii* is coucentratod id tlie pocketa o( 
buiHlrvdi. where it is less able to purchsfte mat«ri»]a, pay wa|;«i, 
orsAtisfr wanta. Uov, then, can import tuxes incroaao wealth 
And waxes ? llow can any law foat«r, eoconra^, or stimulate tko 
prodnction of weaJlh or wages, when it rorjuirw the Ul»opor to 
work two t]ti,TB to pmonre thiLt which he could without it obtain 
in uno d«T ? Onu dujr'ii labor undur such a luw is lost, and that 
whioh it wouldjiare enmed is lost. Accnmnluted wealth ia tho 
fnnd which ratist empioyand pay labor, and when it is increasing 
dtmaDd for employment is iocrewdng, and when that is inoreas- 
iD)f the rate of wiigi» is int^rviuiinj; ; bat if tho ratio of increase of 
wealth is retarded, the ratio of increase in the demand for 
«mploym«ut is retanicd, and the rat« of increaao of wag«a is 
ntarded also. 80 that tiix»tion deoreases, instead of increases, 
WMlth and wajfw. Tho Uw that governs the production of 
wealth and wages in not a(Iect«.-d by either Intitade or longitude, 
and It is joat the same in a large country uh in a smal] one, and 
a^liN with equal forco to a coDtin«Qt or ut> island, a crowded 
dty or a rural dirtriot. 

Mr. Blaiuo thinks that it might be wiaa stategmanship to per- 
mit the poople of flnwt Britain to buy their bread at the lowest 
ooct, bat T«ry unwise to permit the citiKcns of the Uiiit«d KUIos 
Uibay their sngar or their Bhooa on ihofiamepriueiple. UeBuystbo 
island of Oreat Britain Ilea far to the north; that it« sontbem- 
KKMt point is thirty degreesahove the tropics, iinil its northernnnxt 
point Dined&groM below thearolic circle; th»t theUnit«l .States 
if forty tinw* w Urg« as (Irc-at Britain; that its natural prodncts 
am tnnre varied, mora numerous, and (if mnrr vnlnablo character 
than iboM of all Eami)e. Admit all that to be tniL>; it only 
pTOTOi that in the immeuwextent of oar country, with its rariety 
of Mila* its diT-ervityof elimato, and its greatly increased capacity 
le pfodnMitho tilings that huuuui want« require, we are more self- 
nutatning and lass dependent upon others. Bat, after all, it pro* 



ISO 



THE NORTH AMERICAN RJSVtBW. 



dnoes neitltcr coffee, ten,, nnr spoes. There are gome things 7 
which ve mast look to other coimtrios and clime«. 

But, whftt 18 more imporUnt utill. thU immense country, prolific 
in Ihi) production of bo many things, will product; a tturplu« that 
will increase in proportion to the increase of its popalalion. What 
doea Mr. Blaiue propose to do with its «ccarauhitinggurplii,9? We 
mast find markets for it somewhere. Admit that Kngland has a 
"complex civilisation," that she liw fur to the north, and is onljr 
on«<fortietb of the siEti of tlie Union; what has all that to do with 
the oxportof cotton, whent, and provisions ? I^F ^o ra tn produce 
these cheaper than she can, and ih« can prodnoe pig-iroit and 
nulroad bars cheaper thsu we cau, wlij[_glifiiild, w4}-«ot-make the 
eichaugewlu£hJ&.ti£iiB%iiUjo both ? In commercial interooans 
the question to bo dotermiood it one of profit, and neither siu, 
dvilinitioii, nor geographical position has anything to do'with tt. 

Ureut Britain carries on her imraoaso traffic with foreign 
countries Wcaase she thereby pvee employment to ber people* 
increases their wealth, aod odds to their comfort and happinon. 
It is a source of gnjut profit, and she is extracting every dollar 
from it she can. She iii eeuiling the products of her Ubor all 
oTer and around the world, and distribtiting them among all cou- 
ditious of people, from the l)iKlic<^t cirilisation in America to the 
darkest barbarism in the jungles of Africa ; and by her «normotiS 
commerce she is filliiig the pockets of her people with wealth. 
Why should we not do it f Mr. Blaine favors sutMidixing steam- 
ship lines to nin between our home and foreign ports ; but why 
should we hunt commerce with other people when we refuse to 
take it whf>n we find it? Docs our continental position forbid 
ue to send our produntK to foreign coantries and to rei'eire theirs 
in exohan^ ? If our civiliuttion or geographical pouiioii demands 
tliat our exchanges shall be confined among ourselves, and that wu 
shall neither import from nor export to foreign countries, what 
good is to be accomplitihtHl by subsidizing ateamdiip liuM ? That 
Mr. Gladstone might favor liberal appropriations to steamship 
lines is quite natnral. English statramen having first removed all 
legisUktivo hindrances, baring negotiated trenli«3 with other oonn- 
tries by which taritl obstructions have b«en removed or greatly 
lassened, haTing sent out consuls and commercial agents to hunt 
for and prol«ct English commoroo, it was in Una with ostnblished 
English policy to hunt new markets and make a way to reach 



TETS OlADHTOSE-ItLAINE COyTHOVERSVT 

fiunn with l^nglinh prodncto. But upou wb«L grouut) csn Ameri- 
can Btatuuucii fuvor grsntioe eubsidieB to eteamsbips to hant for 
eomnerce which oar coDtinenta] potition forbide as to roceiro ? 

It is claimed b; Mr. R)ninf> thnt bctw{><in IS'Hi and 1846 GiBat 
Dritain iacreMed her iimtvrial wfjiltb l)«)-oiid all precedent iu Lho 
commerci&l history oJt ibe world. Bnt does it follow that her 
wcAlth came from her tax on bread that eh« ewcpt avay in 184C ? 
Tb« inrention of labnr>iDiving mac-hinery anil l)m utilizatiuii of 
Rool and Rteam in productiou grratly incremed her prosperity, bat 
ueilber of them was the prodaot of her Uix on wheat Her rapid 
development daring tlutt period waa cauevd by mulliplyin)^ her 
power of pnxinctioa, not by decreasing it, n^i hnr turiff did. Her 
growth in wettltU for the period b«twe(?u I8<J0 aud 1890, or any 
twenty years of that time, aoder free trade, far outstrips the 
puwtii uf tba fornuT jnirtod. Hiacu ebu ctust off Ihd last of her 
shackles to I860, — which we picked npand riveted upon the arms 
of oar people, — eh« haH left us sadly iu tlie larch. Having reduced 
Um cost of sbip-bttildiug and of the prodactx of her labor, she 
has swept our Tflvele from the teas, and is now carrying her own 
pnxlucta to market, and a lui^c share of those of other conntrios. 
HaTiog roTarsed our policy of commoroial freedom, and loaded 
the maMriale of oar mnmiduituro with additional eofit£, we ro- 
tlrsd within oar own boandarieti, and left her the unchallenged 
iiiliiliBiH of the was. Tlieo, having all her raw material frw of 
tax, and labor chrnper than any other country on earth except 
onra (and we were out of tho conteat), she took the world's mar- 
kti*, and hoIdH them to-day agaio-it all comers, and will continue 
to do so until we unload ourbnrden of taxation on materiuls, when 
w« can ami will produce cheaper than she can, and sbo must take 
a teoondary place in the cootcst. 

There can be no surer tei^t of the prosperity of a country thui 
the iaoreaap of its foreign trade, and no surer test of the retarda- 
tioQ of that prosperity tliau the decrease of that tnule. By going 
back to 1K16. when the obatructiro system may be said to have 
btgvi) it! oarMrt we see tbnt our total fon-ign trade amounted to 
USS.OOO.OOO. (See Stat. Aba. U. S. for 1888.) From 1800 to 
ISIO our foreign trade imu^iaied 41 per cent. During tho noxt 
dxtem yaara, under tho encoDtaging uud fostering caro of high 
Urifb. it deercuMd K3 per eeat. ; and from 1820 to 1830 it was 
D«t H> great as it was in the Bnt ten years of the century, during 



ire 



•mB NORTH AMERICAN REVIEW. 



n-hich " Uic higliwa; of n&tious was almost without a flag flo&t* 
ing on its surface except the flag of commercini tnnrftaders." 
Yet during that period, when all the c&rth soomod to bo in anna 
on land and bcs, our foreign commorce vaa greater than under 
the reetricting tariffs iu exiat«iice from 1816 to 1833. Our 
foreign trade began to dtwUno tjter 1816, and had fallen to 
1109,000,000 in 1821. Prom that time it begun alowlr to 
recover. It increased 30 per cent, from IB'il ti 18tj-t. The 
tariff of 1834 checked it again, and it had increisod at len than 
4 per cent, in 1828 ; and from 182S to 1832 it increased 31 per 
cent. After the enactment of the compromiso tariff of 1833, 
which required a reduction of the existing tariff 10 per cent, 
every two joats (not erery year, as stated by Ur. Blain«), 
onr foreign trade began to inoreaae rooro rapidly, and by 1830 
it amounted to $292,000,000. which was an increase in four 
ycnis of 65 per cent, lu 1841 it vaa ♦227.000.000, which it bad 
reached under the constantly-falling tariff of 1833. In 1813 
the reBtrictivo eygtem was again restored and onr trade again 
fell off, but Klowly recovereil till 18443, when it wki 1227.000,000 
— flgain just what it hod been in 1841, and 12,000,000 leas than 
it hiHl butiu in 1816. In 1846 n revenue tariff with low da ties 
took the place of the high tariff of 1842. The tariff of 1846 w« 
further reduced in 1857, and from 1846 to 1860, under non-pro* 
tectiTe tariffs, onr foreign trade increawod over 200 per rent. 
After 1860 wc returned again to rcetrictivo tariffs with higher 
duties than erer, and for the next fourteen years (from 18G0 to 
1874) our foreign ti-nde increased only 65 p«r cent. , instead of 
200; and for the fourtoen years of high tariffs (from 1874 to 
1888) it increased 23 per cent, instead of 200 per cent. 

It will be seen that vhenerer onr foreign trade increases onr 
agricultural products increase in prico; that distributes wealth 
through the great hive of agrionUnra) labor; that ngun demands 
the prodacta of roniiufacture, and tliat gives better omploymeut 
and higher wages to labor, and that brings prosperity to the 
vholo land. It was m nndor the falling tariff of 1833, and it 
vaa BO under Uie low^ruvenuu tariffs from 1846 to I860. Mr. 
Blaine oharges that the depression and panio of 1837 w«re the 
product of the falling tariff of 1833. It is a stratige argxtment 
that redacing taxation prodnooa depreeaiou, distreas. and bank- 
mptoy, and that Imporing high taxoa prodaoot wualth and 



rtlS OLADST0!iE-BLAJS'E OONTnOVERST. 



163 



proaperity, snd the hiplier tlio U\x thp gpnutor tho prosperity. 
But mcli is the logic of the sdrocatu of comiueniial reetriction. 
John QuiQcy Adsnu aid in 1883 "that tho rctnjasian of tatM 
■Bit, ra ita iiAttire, bo a meamro aliraya ih^noptable to the 
paepl«." He Mid of the conimittae for which lie spoke : " Tbej 
feel thedfflight with which aiij one permitted to enjoy the laxuiy 
ofMseoting to 8uob a remiiision tnuy indulge the bcnevoleace of 
hie disposiiion." Mr. AdMns, if alive to-day, wuuld be branded 
by PpnnnykftDia iron-msstere ta rd agent of tho Cobden Olub. 

ileury 0. C&rey, the advocate of high taxoe as a potent ioRtrn- 
ment ID the increase of wealth, etarUNl thnt argument abont tho 
paaio of 1637 and timt of 18oT. It lias often been exploded, bat 
It conie« tip smiling every time any one proposes " to enjoy the 
luxtir)-" of reducing taxeii. In 1S42 thd mme charge was made 
in the Senate, and Mr, Clay, who was the author of the Com- 
{nvmtsu Bill, said that " it woa not correct that the Compromiiie 
Act had occasioned the erabarraumente of the conntry." and that 
" it vas a great mistake to say tliut any portion of tlie omborraas- 
neots of the country hod resulted from i(." This "great mis- 
take " Mr. UhuDO has made. Mr. Clay said it wa« Bpeciitotion in 
lands and the expaosion of the earrency that prodaced that panic, 
and that the reduction of the tariff had nothing to do with it. 
The ctrcutatiou of the country hail increased from tI31, 000,000 
in 1833 to •2-^2.000,000 in 1837. The iiicruasul cinrulation, two- 
tbirdii of which woo jwiivr, uauitocl an npwanl tendt'ticy in prices. 
People who had money inverted it in lands that were constatttly 
riaiug ia value, and not only invested all they had, but borrowed 
all they coold and invested both uioiiey aud credit. The paper 
balloon cdlhipsc*], unil speculation and credits fell to the ground. 
£roii if rodncing taxes contd bring on a panic, there bad not been 
enough redaction at that time to afTeot anything. Eighty per 
cent, oi the rates of thft uriff of 1832 wore still in forvv. Ten 
per oenL was reduced Jonoary I, 1894, and 10 per cent. January 
i, I83€. The average rate of duly on dutiable goods (roni 1833 to 
1837 wan 36 pt'r cent,, and for the fivr years from 1844 to 184G 
Tis 83 per cwul. U tariff rates avi-mgiiig 3S |wr ccuL gave pros- 
pority to thf< country, as Mr. Blaine says they did, how conld the 
higher rate of 30 per cent, brinj; patitc and bankruptcy ? 

In 18&7, CoDgrats, Qoding a Bnr])lua in the trcflsury aud the 
roTenties inereanng buyoad all requirement for government ox- 



THK XORTH AilBRICAN REVIEW. 



petidUtire, agnin rodaced the taxea. aod Mr. Blaino csyt that 
ruduclioii of UixuiioQ brought on tbo psaicof tlialfcar. The 
panic of 1857 was prodoced by the same cause tbut prodaced the 
ono of 1837. From 1830 prices continued to riee till 1857.. when 
gold prices touched the highest point ever reached within the 
memory of men now liTiug. Buch your brought higher prices 
for All pro|>erty. People plnngad into spectiUtion again, buying 
property, puying alt th? money they had and going in debt for 
moro. Any one who will oxnmino the lUf of annoal priow in the 
report of the director of the mint for 1881 witl see that that j 
year sliowa the highest gold prices we ha?c erer had before or ' 
since. And any person who will, without preconccired preju- 
dice, read the history of that period will bo forced to the con- 
cltisioQ thnt it wna incrcgise of circulation, and not decrease of 
taxation, that brought on the fever for speculation which ended 
ia the banlcrnptcy of the speculatore. The legitimate business of 
Ibe ooantry was scarcely touched. The country was full of 
metnllio money. Agriculture, mnnufaeturtf, mid commerce hid 
distributed it, and confidence wus soon reistored and biuinaeB 
roBumcd its usual rbanneU. I 

The rereoue tariff of 1846 was passed July 80. to go into 
effect Oocember 1. Socretury Wnlkcr luid predicted in hia report 
that the passage of a revenue meanure wauld increase imports and 
exports, and would cuhiinee i\\e price of our agriciillnral products 
that liad to find a foreign market for their enrplus. The results 
proved how well he had reckoned. Before the Ist of December ^ 
came, the raluo of leading agrionltiirul pro«tucts rose in the Xew 
York markets 23 per cent.; cotton rose \^ff per cent., wheat 
17^ per cent., rye 18 percent., com 241 P^"" cent., oat«40VV per 
cent., and bariey S-4,\ j^er cent. Seven of the principal crop*, ai 
reported by the Secretary, had incrcBRed in vnlne $ll.'t,0O0,0OO, 
nnd he cstinutpd that tho increused ralue of the whole crop 
amounted to WSO.OOO.OOO. If our present obstractive tariff 
were reduced to the average rate of that of 1846, it would add 
again at Iwwt 23 per cent to the volno of onr rropa, which is 
claimed by the statiiitician of the Agricultural Depart me ut to be 
(oar thonsnnd millioiii of dollars ; and an increase of 23 percent. 
would add to it mni« than ♦flOf>,000,0(M). 

Botit is cjon^tantly charged that, if we lower our tftx«s, we will 
let in foreign goods uud rain our ntunnfaeturora. If this is true. 



TBE atAtiSTOSB-BLAJNE COSTRO^BRaY. 



1«6 



VOnld all bav« b«cn niiiu>d b«tv««n \^\G tind l^no, for oar 
inporuatid expurU woro cotiHtanUy inontudiug from year tojnar. 
Bat domestic prodnctiun k«pt. pace with the tiuwft> and oar mau- 
afactnrefl grew with the growth of our agricultnreand commerce. 
Daring Um deowlo from 1850 to 1840 our agricultural product 
incrvaaeil 93 por mtt luid oar mjinafactiiriiig product 85 per 
ooQt. Neither agriaalturu, ooauuerae, nor immiiraQCurM have 
ever Increased at an equal ratio dariug an^ doCMile through whioli 
we have passed either before or since. From 1800 to tB70 oar 
ttutnufactaring product only iocrceacd 80 p«r cent., and from 
1870 to Itt^O only .*>!< percent. Under thu revenue tarlOs from 
ISSO to lifSO the prodtiction of cotton goods inorewed 76 per 
ctrnt.. woollen goods AX pur cent., carpetitigi) 4S per cenU. men's 
clothing ih per cent., boots and shoos 70 per cent, paper 108 per 
ORit., printing 168 per cent., musical instramente I&3 per cent., 
ooal-tnioing lA'i, \iet cent., imu-mining 7^ per i*eiit., ntxnA dCK) per 
cent., fanning implements 156 per cent, bar, Aheet, and railroad 
iron lOf) per cent., and the cash value of fiirms 103 per cent. 

Certainljr these ioduatries wero not injiire>l \>j ontarging the 
market llanafaotarem of woo) were woiglitod down b; the tax 
of 30 piir sent, on wool and the same on the tinUhod prodact, 
ontil the act of 1K57 put all wool costing le« than twenty conta 
per pound on the free list. Then the woollen monufocturGS 
sprang forward and made thoir chief increase in three years of 
tbo too. OoM that look oh thongh the English had takoD oar 
borne market ? We were not anlv holding oar own market, bat 
we were beginning to take the market* of the world. Oar 
exports of all mrn^handise increneetl 120 per cent., cotton nianu- 
faclnfM vm piT cent., iron and steel 190 por cent., hats 300 pec 
cent., buot4 and shoot 600 per cent., weuring apparel ISO per 
cent., earthen and atone ware 300 per cent., glass 100 per cent., 
and tin DOO per oeot. Does not this look as thongh we were 
taking the Engliib nurk«t«, instead of their taking ours, as Mr. 
Blaine says they were doing * We were not only taking her mor- 
kots. hot the marketaof all other rivals, because we were making 
bottar and ohoopor goods. Does any advocate of commcrctiU 
natiiotioo anert that duriuf; any ten ycart of our history, cither 
befora or since that peno<t, we ever increased our exports either of 
■grioultnral or mannfacturbig products at un equal ratio? The 
■une prosporocu growth is shown in the enormoas incnwae of the 



IM 



TBJi ItOttra AMERICAN RBVIEW. 



Dfttion&l ireftltli, whioh {roni 1850 lo 1860 niu 136perc(ini. 
hfta nerer been approximated bi<fore or since. 

The mftrTeHoua growth of tlie country in all depnrtments of 
national inihistrjr under the freo-trade turilTt of imii and 1857 U 
not dcuicd by Mr, Uluiiiu, but be aitys it was duo to the discuvurv 
of gold iu CaliCortiia, to the OhmeAQ War, the Mexican War, the 
Irish famine, and nth<tr itdvcntitiouB ciroiinBtnnces. H<j forget« 
that the prinsperit^' had come and vr-jm firmly isitabliiht^ before 
an ounce of goM had found \\s way from the miues of riilifornU 
the channels of circulation. The Crimean W»r, occiirriiig long 
cr the tarilT nf 184S hml torn down the barriers and IH in the 
prosperity, had no ellect upon Iho country prior to 1^5.^, urhon 
it be|pin. It probably [ncreasecl the price of br^adntullfi in 1854 
and 18&fi. but It had no effect upon American manufactured. It 
is difficult to we hov it stimulntod the production of cotton 
goods, liatB, boots, ahnes, glass goods, paper, lunther, iron, or 
Bt^l. It H difficult to comprehend how a vsr in £iirojie could 
a<ld to the niitioiiHl wealth, except in stimnliiLing the export 
of food aitd army stores. Knglnnd and J'niucv cvrluinty supplied 
their own arms and ordoanco and qnarlermaster stores. Prioes 
touchol their highest point in ISri", after the war bad closed. 
Hut the aiaertiou that our owu war with Nfexico, which began 
and terminated before 1850, wae the cauw of the increased no- 
tional wealth from 1850 to 1860, and the enormous increase in 
importation, exportation, and oonsampttun, is beyond the bounds 
of conneption. 

The total production of gold in the United States from 1860 
to 1860 was |550,(K)0,U00, while from 18G0 to 1870 it was 1670.- 
000,000, and fiwm 1870 to 1880 it wiw 1700, WN I, (KM. Why did 
not the groater |>ro<liiotion of the two ditcadets after 1^0 give 
greater prosperity, if that gave the prosperity in the former 
decade? Tnalfad of that, the growth of neither natioiuil wealth, 
agricnltnre, man ii fact uree, nor eommereo approximated it. r^eaT. 
ing out the derade of the war, and eompanng that from 1870 to 
1880, when there was Ibelargtist goli] production, instead of rnor- 
iRona iiicri-u«u of prospority, thrre never hiu beeu a period in 
the hislorr of the country so black with disaster. For more than 
half the decade all tin* industries of tbe country were stretched 
u]K)n their backs. Themads and hi^ hwuy^ were QUed with trumps 
and beggars. Immigration wait falling off year by year, and emi- 



rut GLAUSrONK-l 



COXTJtOVKIiSY. 



Ifi7 



frratton inrreaidiig yew by year. State aft^r State iraa tottering 
uii iUt fuuDtlatiou uod cjilliDB uu tbo gonerul gorunimont for aid 
u> k«ep it on its feet. The central city of the iron and lA^el iii> 
dtutrj mu set on fire by etArriug vorkingmeii wlio wcro out of 
rmployment, ait<i ihcre wjL.<i not ]x>wit uiioujch in thi: Htute of 
fcoaiiylTaoui «ithfr to ituppreda ihti diMrdor or estinguitdi the 
flunoi. Poriog a Urge part of that dcctKlo it wa« estimated tliat 
three miUioiu of men wvtv out of work. The gold product that 
Mr. Blaitip tbinka contributed ao krgely to tbe proiparity of tba 
trep-tnidtf doe-adc ought to Imvc pruduccd tiio same cllvci, luid in 
• greater degree, from IHIO to l^W. The fact is that California 
gold had little to do with the materiii] condition of Ihecoantr^ at 
either period. Tbe great body of it left the coDntryogfaetasitvss 
taken from thu mince. Our circuhition in 18M> waa |£65,000,- 
000, ud in 1B60 it waa 4487.000,000, but we hud oxportod HOO,- 
000,000. I'he inurcflBo in our circulation had come from tn- 
orBBced prieeii for uor exports and deorcfwed prices for our im- 
pori«. Tbe Iriah famine coat its as mnch in tbe decliiift in cotton 
ao it mafli* up in tlic advance in providiuus, but, like the Mexican 
Vv, it waa orer iwfore the free-trude decade began. The Crimean 
War came and went, and 9till the prosperity continued and at an 
ineraasiug rate. The i^nralion stilt remains, UHiat produoed it if 
atubaokK^ commerce did not? 

Mr. BUiiue says that the periods of deprcesion in our homa 
naoafuctD nts were thogo in wliieti KagUnd most prospered la 
ber commercial rvlalions with us. In this gtatemeut ho in not 
Monrate. When Kiigliind is moat pnwpurotis, she ha« the most 
moDvy to buy wlmt wc bare to sell and what her wants require her 
to hay, and these arc mainly agricnttnral products. When she is 
mtwt prospL<roiiK,thQ makes an active demand on oar farmers for 
(mtloDr breoiktafb, and provimonii. This active demand alu-ay* 
raiaae the prioea of all farm products alt over tlie country, and 
(liitribRtM veoltb among the muasee of the people. Between 
1870 and 188] Kngland's prMperity enabled her to demand of 
our farmi'n. and jwy for, u large amount of their producta. The 
ralue uf iho arli<'l>-» wo aent her in 1881 amounU'd to l-tTTiOOO,- 
Wf}, au<i that mut more than half of onr total exports to all 
cvoDtriesi By her prosperity chiefly wo inoroasM our etporta ot 
agricultonil products from ld40,(IOU,OUU in 1M7!I tu |t7^0,l>00,lH)(l 
is IflSl. Tbia enormoai inoreaae waa the roimlt mostly ot 



168 



TBE NORTH AMERICAfT REVIEW. 



England's ability to buj from lis sad pajr as for our sur|das. 
The inorcoeotl doouiDd Torj groulljr incrcaaod the prictis of tliMa 
products, snd distrtbatod umoug our farmers » largo amount of 
money, 'i'bsre was an average increase in the price of com, 
wbcat, rye, oat«, biirlcjr, backwhi;at, potatoes, hay, and cotton of 
43 per uuit. owr thu priciM of 1879. 

Now, )i Engluod'a proeperitv enabled ber to buy and cotuume 
•200,000,000 more of our agricultuml producu tliiu year Iban she 
did last year, theiDcr«ased demand wouldagain increase the prices 
of these products, and if it amounted to 4d per cutiL., na it did 
before, it would add ♦1,500,000,000 to the Taluo of our crop, which, 
VR hare soeu, v& estimated at fotir billions. Tliis large sum dis- 
tributed among our farmers would soon bo distributed umoitg all 
classes. Nine dollan out of every ten would be .ipotit for articles 
to be consumed by ibu purchaser. Hov would the domostio 
manufacturer share in the result of this prosperity of England ? 
We produce annually about #7,000,000,000 of manufactnred prod- 
ucts. We exported last year USS.OOO.OOO, and vn imported, 
inclnding raw sugar, manufactures amounting to (423,000,000 ; 
so that oar total home consumption reaches about 17, 300. 000, 000. 
of which over 04 por cent, ts homo production, and lea than 6 
per cent, foivign production. 

Sow, when this large increased wealth — the result mainly of 
England's prosperity and what is left of our trade with her — is to 
bo expended in the purchase of manufactures, who is to reap the 
inoalcuabic benefits from its oipunditure ? Kinety-four poroent. 
willgu into the pockets of the homeprodnoers and home Uthorars, 
and C per cent, into those of the foreigner. This will create an 
active demand for bomo products, and an active demand for the 
raw materials and the Ubor to make thorn, and this again will 
increase the prie« of the materials and the wages of labor. So 
that, after all, not only is the prosperity of Bngliuid commnni' 
cat<d to our farmers, but througb thom it goes to the uanu- 
facturers. to the Uborere, and the producers of raw materials, 
and it doc« notstopyet. The consiimcrnnd the producer ore not 
ride by (dde, and never will hu. The merchant and the middle- 
man hare to supply tbc misi<iug link, and when, there is an in- 
eroaeod pro<|iict to bo distributed there is an active demnnd made 
on tb«m fur their svrvicus, and they obtain oonstaut empluymunl 
and bigber wages. 



TBS QUJ)8T0NB-BLAJNB CO\THOVBZSY. 



im 



Mr. Blaine'a mistake is the niJatake ol the system which he 
isiUU'mjitiux with bis eplondid abilitj to support, ivnd novrharo 
is this or any other coantry could it bnve choseu an ubler chain* 
pioD. It ie buing awailed at cvory puiut, aud it will roqiiin! al! 
of his toot aud tatoat to cover its retreat and prevent it from 
degenerating iuto n rout as it leavee the Qold. 

Tbe syRtem faUeljr callod protection maintains that commerce 
is a gambtiug derico in which one party wins iiitd the othmr lows. 
Tbert^DK if England makes anything in a tmde wilb us elie is 
lieneQied and wo art- injnrod. But the truth id both parties are 
benefited. W» can produce mucli that she wants better and 
cbisper ihiin she cuu, and she can produce much thnt we wunt 
diflAper and better than we can; and tbe exchange is heueticiiil to 
both. OurTist system of mannfactnrce stands upon the same 
solid and immovable foundation as our agriculture. There ape 
but few things in either that we cannot pn>due» cheajier than 
tbey can be produced elwwhere, and that article whoso coat of 
prodnotton U the lowest holds the market against all competitora. 
ThfOttghoiit oup whole history we have been csporting a Urge 
part of onr annual crops to others who could either not produce 
ihea at all or not as cheaply as they could obtain them by 
prodocing something else and exchanging their sur{>lus for ours. 
Xo tariff levied npoo agricnltural pro^Iucte can help them. It 
ean only hart them, as it does by prohibiting the import of the 
things that woold come to be exchanged for them, We hove the 
soil and climate adapted to the oullivntiou of grain and cotton 
aad to nusing the stock which snppiies the food for mankind. 
U yields a larger return for the labor oxponded than any other 
OOOOtiy. We hare more intelligent, eiiterpnxing, and skilful 
bnocTB than are to bo found in any other country. We use 
kibor-saTiitg machinery, and make our labor more productive than 
tbe tftbor of any other people. The^e iidviintjig« enable ds to 
prodneo a greater quantity in a given time, and at a lower cost, 
aad hence we can bold our own market against the world. 

Sac it is not in the home market that ouragricultnral interest 
ii Inpwilled. It is in the foreign market, and the danger there 
(tore nut comt> from rival products, for we can raise our pmd- 
octs and pay the costs of transpurtatiou to market and then 
undersoil with profit all riralfi. The danger is in foreign and do- 
neeiic lariSs ttiat prohibit oar enlranc« into the market. Some 



IflO 



THE NORTa AMERICAN REVIEW. 



yean ago ve exported brendstuffs aod pronsiong largely to' 
European markeU on tho contitiont. Tbat trade is dow almost 
destroyed by hoatile tariffs iu retaliation for our prohibitions 
agtunst tbeir maaufactured. Our productive capacity ia greater 
than oar capacity to consamu, and the excess is grovring greater 
year by year, and if wu are to be «hut out from our couaumert, thaH 
MirpluB miiet be thrown upon the borne market, aireudy largely V 
oversapplied, with the prices constantly low and constantly tend- 
ing to a lower level. The result is that ngricultural production 
ia discouraged, the output is decreased, and tho farmen are Icept^ 
straitened and with no prospects of bettering their oondition.H 
We have to-day twelve mUIiona more people than we had iu 1881, " 
and yet our exports of agriculture are 'i3i> millions Ins than they 
were that rear, when they should be i50 millions more, and 
woald be if the markttts were not shut against us. U we wonld 
open our markets to tb& products of other countries, ours would 
be doniaadod nnd taken in exchange for theirs- Bnt as long 
aa we refuse to take their snrplus they cannot take ours, be- 
canse they bare nothing else with which to pay. The solution of 
the difficulty will be found in the remoral of the barriers which 
we hare interposed against the admission of their produoU, and 
that will permit them to come and exchange with us, to the 
mutual advantage of both. 

Onr manufactnrers. like onr farmers, are standing antlly 
need of more extended markets. With the capital, machinery, 
and mnnunl tabor now orgnniied and cmbarkuHl in monufactnr- 
ing, we can turn out a third more product than our people can 
consume, nnd we must either have more markets and more con* 
snmers, or less product, lees employment, less wages, and leas 
profits to capital. 

Situated as wo are to-day, we are shut nut from the world's 
markets because the cost of onr prodnction is greater than tfaat of 
oar rivals. We only export a trifle of the vast product we mann- 
£actar«— abont 3 per cent, of the whole. With our productive 
machinery, with the inventiro genius of onr people constantly In 
advance of the world, with oar cheap and skilled labor, w« can 
produce, rlicnpcr and better, more than half tht producta which 
irinfT r-^0T<\ii of Kurope arc distribatiug throo([h tho 
J<t .' materials at the aame owt. En 

4uaia mitUons of textiles evei^ year, moat 



THE OLADSTOSE-BLAINE CONTROVERSY. 



161 



'h we can mako more cheaply thma she can, Bad give Iwttur 
employment and better wagte to oar people; but the llock- 
msBter mjb it ia the dnty of the govommeat to (rive him a bounty 
oD bis wool, tlu homp-grower on his bomp. thu coal-owner on hU 
eoal, and the mauufacturer an his machiuvry; luid by the litnd 
all the boQuUes are paid the cost of the prodnct ia so high that it 
caunot be lold anywhere but nt home, and there the home con- 
Romor Is bound to buy, aud puy all thcwj coets, or go without. If 
Oragnwii wonid remove the duty from all mnteriBls tbatenter into 
maonfiictare, then we ooulil bu^ them on equal terms vith the 
foreigDer, and, baring advantage of him in the ch«apnc<8 of oar 
Ubor, wc could houu sturt all our machinery and operate it in 
fall time, and givtt full employment and better wages to oar 
workmen. Therv \a no good reason why we should not makoand 
eiport the Urgesl part of the melal goods tbi. tare now made in and 
exported from European shops. With coHt af production broagbt 
to the lowest point by remoral of all tnxcs en. materials going into 
numtifactnre, we shonld soon recover our lo«t position M carrier of 
the world's oommeroe. Wo should soon see our commeroial 
Riarine In all parts of the world, and, instead of paying 150 
mUltons to foreigners to carry our commerce we should jttty it 
to QOT own people, and giro employment to thoneands of Ameri- 
can In oar canning trade. Bat before wo begin the contest with 
other nations wo must get rid of the Pennsylvania idi»L that it is 
tnUer t» hang a man than make a seaman of him. 

3lr. Blaina ays that in 1860 the popniation of the United 
Stat«i and Great Britain was oboaC the same, and that our wealth 
WW then fourteen thousand millions and that of Great Britain was 
twenty-nine thousand millions, and that at the end of twenty 
yean the United States had added nearly tbirtrihousand millions 
to her wealth and Great Britain nearly fifteen ibouaand milliouii 
to bom. With a nnnll error in tho statement of tbo wealth of the 
United SutM in 1800 he is correct. Our national wealth in 18W 
waanrer sixtaen thoasand millions, instead of under fourteen, 
and the gain of the United Statce in twenty years was twenty* 
sneit tboound millions, iiLat4wd of thirty. But doee that prove 
that bcoaoB* tbe United States lisd oommeroial restriction, and 
OtOBt Britain hut not, the former has surpassed her rival in the 
raes for wealth ? Let ns apply tbe same test to France. She has 
OonuDcnsial restriction, jast as we have, and if that is tho cause of 



VOL. OL. — VO. 300. 



II 



U-i 



TUB SORTH AXfKRICAy fifcTZEir. 



our 8iip«rior grovtb over England, it ought to produoo th« same 
effect in France. France is an older country- tlian Great Britain. 
18 moro populoas, «nd has been for yuan. GrcAt Britain got h«T 
artlBttiis from Fntnuu and the Lev C'oantrics during the relifpoos 
persecutions of tins Protestaim on tlw continent, aud that ww 
tlin^rm from which her manufuctures sprang. And yet iu 18B3, 
while France hud thirty-ticvon miilion people and Urcat Britain 
thinj-Gve million, the wealth of Great Briuin was $^,800,000,- 
000 imd lha.1 of Franco wtw (40,300, 000,000. OermaDj, another 
protection countrjr, had forty-five millioQ people and I31.C1S,- 
000,000 of wealth. Both countrios o]der than England and yet 
botli behind her. There is no connection vhotercr between any 
of theso facts and the isHtie joined. They are like the difler<' 
ence in the rate of wages between the United Stfltoi and Oreat 
Britain. It haa bepn claimed by Protectionists that onr late of 
wages is higher thari Great Britain's because wc have high tariffs 
and she has not. On the other hand, Germany and France have 
lower rates of wages than Great Britain ; and iher bare high 
tariffs, and she has not. Protection seems to be a principle that 
can work both ways. 

Instead of cUiming oar nutrvclloas growth as the logical 
resalt of commereial n.<«trictioD because it has n<!curred siitwe- 
quent to the adoption of that policy, it would bo more satis- 
factory to show how wealth is made and trace it back to that 
source, if it be the rightful one. IIow is the dollar, the nnit of 
the vast pile, made i* Thoanswcr must bo> By labor. I'hot is the 
producing cause of oU wealth, .^nd the largest wealth will be 
mods where labor produces the largest amount of products in a 
gireu time. These products will take their largest value when 
there U the largest demand for their consumption, and that is in 
the markets where the same articles cannot be prodDccd, or 
cannot be produced as cheaply, or not in sufficient quantities to 
sapplj the demand. Heoci- ' ' Q^M^BWiwta 

away from home, where it w « 
is not wanted. At home it h 
wanted ; away t" ' ' - -. . 
wanted. T^vt i 
buy . 
hit f- 
Xhifi r 



THE OLAl>STOSE-BLAI^'E COSTROVERST. 



163 



mU it at the higheat price h«cnnobUiin, lie is that much moroablo 
to bay uul pajr for the Harplus of otbeni ; ami all purlieii having 
Mcen to markets whorv ihctiti products ure vrnnted obtaia the bigh> 
nt priocs and aocumulatc the most wealth. Just in the propor- 
tivD that tbe nuirltet is closed and the product driron back upon 
the prodacer, jitst ao u the price decreased, atid the ratio of 
aroiimtiUtioD of wealth retarded. 

Thb is what prDtt.*ctioii docs. When protection puts tases 
upoD the goods of the foreigner that prohibit them from cotuiug 
b«re, he is rendered lo« able to taico in <)xchango the surplus 
which we are readv and anxious to give. Hu takes less of our 
wheat. Sour, cotton, and proviaiona; a larger surplus is left in tlie 
home market; the duniimd is decreased; the price fulls, uud the 
growth of wealth is retaMed. I'rotectioa, therefore, bastcucncd 
the height of the column, high s« it is. Had it not been for 
rHUicuous and pruhibitiong ou onr trade, it would huvo been 
greater. Oiir enomiouB growth is due to oiir rich EOtl, to oar 
i|ikndid climate, and to the prodootire cfflcioQc; of our farmers; 
mk) in manufacturefl to the gruat multipUcHtiun of luiu^liiueryand 
its prnductive power, and to the genius and akitl of our workmen, 
as well as to the tmmouao mineral wealth which wc huvo. and 
which we are taking out nf the earth and consuming at home and 
■bippiog to foreign conntricfl. The siij>enority of onr libor orer 
that of Great Britain may be shown by one item. Mr. Hill, for- 
merly statistician of tbe Slate Doparlmeiit, ia an argument before 
the Tariff CommisaioD in 1U82, said that in that year we, with 
5,SSO,000 handB, produced double what Great Britain did with 
5,140,000 handii. Oateley'a "World's Progress" puts our prod- 
net in 1&S2 at aix thonsiind millionii and Great Britain's at four 
thousand millionii. Kww that wonld show that tbe same number 
of hiWrvni ht^rv prutiucu AU per cent, more than they do in Great 
Britain. 'I'hi. accounu for our superior wealth. N'o pwple ever 
>«d or ort'r will inureaso in wealth by the help of taxa. 
,«iti1a can incnaiHe in wealth by being kept out of 
rrprodaota. Taking one dollar out of a man's 

ri. H'xw t:ikn taking a man's money and 

L«» his weulth ? 

jr^ist connection between his facts and 
: :ius to make statements about the 
.:id compare it with the growth of 



164 



TBE NORTH AMESICAIf REVIEW. 



Eagland^ It is aomewbiU eiraugo that it hoa not oocurrod to him 
to oompore his ovni country with any of thooe on the Contioecit 
whose (orei^i tnulo in imdor thoBRmc restnctioiis. lio will fiad we 
have excelled them more thau we havu EnglauJ. Coming to partic* 
ulare, ]io eajs tlmt Englieh atoel ruilii wcru delivered iu New York 
iu lSC;i at ¥103.44 ic gold und in 16^4 at 8b8 per ton, and tliut up 
to 1870 English mnniifnottirora bold the market ; bnt what r«- 
daood the price from 4103.44 to $88 he does not tell uh. It wa« 
certainly not our oompetitiou, for during the three yearn prior to 
1870 we produced lew than twenty thousand tons. Bnt in 1870, 
he says, andor the spocifie duty of i^S per ton, wa took the home 
market and held it until duriug the last eanimor the home and 
the foreign price were Kubstautially the same. He might have 
made hie etatemeiit still stronger and said that iu 1873, 1876, 1877, 
and 1878 the prices in the ITiiited States were lower than in 
Great Britua. But does thiit prove that tho high taxes put on 
the ntiU hare been beneficial to the people of the United States ? 
For the yeani prior to 1870 the tax was 45 per cenL and the 
prices ranged fi-om SlOC to (166 per ton ; so that tho duty at the 
lowest was m.70 per too, and on tho higlioat »74.?0 per totu If 
it was high duties that developed this inrlugtry, why did it not^ 
prior to 1870, reach the point claimed forit iu 18^9 ? The steel* 
rail industry ia Dew, and it started iB this country soon after it did 
in England. And as eoon aa our manufacturers could procure 
the patents and protect themselves against competition at home, 
and through the tariff be protected againiit competition from 
abroad, they went to work to amaas a grent fortune. Tliu pricea 
from 1875 to 1878 aud the prices given by Mr. Blaine show that 
we cau produce rails as cheaply as they can be produced in Eng- 
land, and when the demand is dull and pricca fall so thai Eng- 
lish rails cannot be imported and pay the heavy duty and be sold, 
then our manufacturers liave the market all to tlienieclvea and 
fix the price according to the demand. AVhcn the demand is 
great and tbn prices go up, lua tbcy did tu 1871, '7'i. and "73, then 
im{>ortatiouf(«l«iu.and the consumer pays the whole amount Qxed 

by the tariff on both|n|teUDt' -^ -'.ia product. 

Mr. Jilaitte^^ c balUJ^^^^g made by Mr. CtcToland 

ft) hil^^^^Btei- - the imported 

■rlWiSHHRm . ! never saw any 

ot -I of the aamo 



TBS OLADSTOXE-BLAINB CQlfTROVEJtSY. 



160 



kind tnfldn fn thisoonotrj, and pay therafor nearly or qnite tlie 

iaun« enlmuwil price wliicli the duty adds to the imported arti- 

lo>." Mr. Bkiue thinks " Hr. OleveUmra argament would hare 

. streDgtbeoed U he bad givcc u few cxamplci* — nay, if he 

glTtn ODe Dumplc — to sustain hiaoharge." I will do rnvMir 

Flhe pteasare of streiigthvniug Mr. Clereland'a argument, aiid will 

give him for Mr. Clefolflnd "a few eraniples" of the acaaracy of 

Llfaat Btatemeut. I will take steel rails to start with, [n 1870 we 

Qport«d 44,tX)0 toDB of 8t««l mile, for vbich vo paid )□ the for- 

iga msrkot 95i ppr ton, and dnty at t3S. The coat prioe in 

It markvt, duty paid, wwj t78, exclusive of costa of freight, In- 

Iwinuioe. oommisMoiifl, profits, et«. At the eame tione we prodooed 

1,000 tons; price at hrmo tl02.50. Id 1872 we imported 

''105,000 tons, (or which wc paid in tho foreign market $58. 17 per 

ton; dnty, %i9 per ton; together, #86.17 price laid down in New 

York, exclusive of froights and other charges. At the Bame time 

we produced 83,OlXl tons at tlVi per ton. In 1873 we imported 

139,000 tooi ; prioe in foreign coDntry, t64.43 per ton ; duty, 

,4SS ; making 192.43 per ton. At the same time we produced at 

'■fcome 115,000 tons ; home price, >120.50 per ton. In 1880 wo 

im ported 612,000 tons of pig-irou, worth lu foreign markets tlS.&4 

.-per ton; doty, #7 per ton ; whole cost delivered in Now York, 

rviUiont freight or other charges, tib.Si. Bvferring to the price- 

Uat of the Iran and Steel Assoniation, we find tho average price 

for that year of pig-iron tn Philadelphia was t:;8.no. ,In 1881 we 

fanported OTfi.flflO tons of pig-iron, for which we piud In the foreign 

•S0.6C ]»er ton ; #7 duty added made 197.66 delirercd iu 

■KewYork. At the ume time tho average American price was 

I31.3S pertou. In 1683 we imported I18,0G3 tons, for which we 

in the foreign market #18.77 per ton ; 17 duty added made 

)fi.T7 delivered in X«w York. The American price for the 

i» time VM $31.36 per ton. In each one of those oaeeB the 

imvUc manufBL'turer «uld hie product for a price high enough 

fWTCr foreign price, tariff, and all other chiirgea added. 

Tbeee ^ few examples " may be .accepted as evidences of the 

,B0fft to the homo consumer of the articlos which are dutiable and 

rhich ars imported. It \m do aoawer to this to say that for maay 

ohargeabla with do^ tho price here ia lower than in 

etgn coaatrio*. When it is, we do not import them. Whun- 

irar Uw ptko nsu high enough t« import and eell with dat; 



ido 



TITE ItORTff AMFJtlCAK REVIEW, 



added, then thi> eimilar articlo produced at homo geU '''nearly or 
{[tiite tho aimo onhftticed price." 

Tbc steel rails which Mr. Blaine say« wcrc worth 435 per ton in 
Bnglaod and thci samo in the United States are not affected bj 
the tariff. When the demand is email and prices are low, our 
mannfoctnrers fnlt below tho top of the tnrifT wall and supply 
them at stich prices ahnre cost of pniduction ati tliey can obtain ; 
but when the demand is great and pricce rise, the doni^tio maa- 
afactarer naes the tariff to lift his pricce 917 per ton higher than 
tho foreign price Then both tlio foreign and the domestic nils 
carry to tho consumer tho fnll tariff nitea. Mr. Blaine asks if any 
one botic7iH tlml sted roils could over hare been furnished as 
cheaply as English rails except by the steady competition of 
American prodncers with the English and amonj; themselves. 
What competition wm there among American manofactar> 
ers ? It waK a monopoly. Tlie mannf acturer« owned a patent, 
and there could ho no competition. Tliere was no competition 
against tlie English manufacturers, for the tariff prohibited them 
from com]>oting except when prices were so high that the English- 
man could send bis rails here, pay daty and charges, and make 
profits, though ftZS on the ton less than the American manufact- 
urer wae making. 

He cites another instance of the wisdom of tho tariff in bnild- 
ing up the carpet trade. He saya that in 18ti0 nearly one-half of 
the carpets used in the United States were imported, and now out 
of sixty millions paid anfiually for oorpets less than a million ia 
paid for foreign carpets. And he might truthfully have addod, 
"There was no reason why we should buy any from abroad." 
The woollou industry ever since 1824 has bad a deed body bonnd 
on its shoulders in the tax on wool, and it will never show what 
it is capable of doing antil wool and nil other materials used in its 
manofacture arc relieved from tariff taxation, and a revenno daty 
placed upon the tlniihed product. If wool, like cotton, had beon 
froe of daty from 18A0 to 1860, it would havn made th« some 
growth OS cotton mmmfoctiircB; but the SO-per cpnt. duty on 
wool greatly rcatncted. the domestic production, and it 
made but little progreas till after the tariff of 1857, when all 
wool under twi^B^k . - ' ■ n tbafnv Hut. Tn the 

three years bonHBHb miu)« a vury oonsid' 

orublo growth, lix. Bkiou t> m tthoo lie mjs thai 



TJJE QLADSTOSB-BLAlNM CONTROVERSY, 



U 



>la are chnapcr now tliiin they wcm thirty yiiurs ago. So \i 
rcrjrthiag; but tiuui^ people did not rednoe the prioo, or giv« 
tlwf}87pet-irorkers better wagoB, as he contvnilB. The prio« of 
irpetM hax bi*nn rB(l[iC4?d by ttie improved methods of mannfact- 
L>, Odd tliu wagrsof the workauu by tbu incnwscU amoant of 
work l>« dues in * day. 

Mr. Bhtine want-s to knoir That the tbonsands of laborers em- 
pyed ill gt«>l-rail inuQufucturc would do if tlio Uriff woro removed 
from stefl rail« ? The angwer is reiidy : they would make steel 
(latU. Hu himii«lf ahows tb&t wc c&d, and. when wu have to do so. 
>, produce atoel raiU as cheaply as tbey are produced in England. 
\ow, if tht? duty woro entirely removed, a ion of mile would be 
rery mncb chaapor; there would be u much grpatt>r demiuid for 
thorn and for the hibor that miikus them; that iucn-usod domand 
tWonld increase the wages of the men ; there would be more mils 
naadp, more railroads built, more tacn omployod, and a reduction 
h) tnusportatiaa ohargetL The only chaogo which would be miide 
it would be daaufring tonaybody would be the rcductjoa in tke 
>tlt8 of the manofaoturer. 

Hr. Blaine swrns to be elated nt the statement of Hr. Gladetone 
\i we produce cloth aud iron ui high pricoa, iuetead of coroole 
id oottuu at low prices, and ho proceeds to thniik him proforaly 
in the name of all tho friimda of hij^h taxM. But it acorns to mc 
that the farmer will not become hilarious at the proposition of 
BlikinB to incrcoM for him the cont of producing his cotton 
and hij graimt. The whole progress of our industrial nystem aud 
eoormou* growth have come through docrcouung the cost of 
lactton by otilieioj; maohinory and other ageacieB for inoreua- 
ing product. If this Western farmer could lower the preeout cort 
of producing a bnahel of wheat, there would bo n grciUer margin 
of profit between cost of production aod market prices. If a 
jthem fi»rmer could, by lalmr-saving machinery or otherwise, 
F'ndnoe the oost of making u bale of cotton one-half below what it is 
tonUy, tbe South would advance with oven greater strides than 
■he ta now making. 

Aa Hr. Olad»ione sayv, onr manufiLcturen are producing iron 
anil cloth at btgb prices, and our farmers hare to pay that 
acrvaaed ooat wbon tbor buy and conRUnic these prodncts, and 
fc n unneceuarily burdciiBnmo and exhiioHting tax upon them. 
If tb« tax on coal and oroiwere taken nff. Iron could bo jiroduccd 



168 



TBB NORTH AMERICAN RKVtEW. 



cheaper ; if the (ax od wool sad niachinerr und d;ca were taken 
o£f, tfa« OMt of pK»da<!iu£ woolleo goods would bo reduced ; bnt. 
as it is, the -price to the ooDBumer is enhunt^ bj' these taxes, con> 
sumptioD is restricted, uud many have to go vithoot who would 
otlieririge be enabled to bujr. 

Ur. Blaine seems to beUore in Bcarcltj, and that it would bu 
better for our farmers not to raiae 90 raaob gnia because the 
foreign market ia so filled that the prioos are uoduly lowered. 
What eleo would he hare them raise ? Would he hare them atop 
Toric ? The intereat on their debts dooj not atop running when 
thcj atop working. Would it not be better to let the fturiuerEi go 
on working and raise all tlie wheat theyoan and send it to foreign 
markets, where there are now, and alwaja will bo, conanmera 
enough to take it alt at good piices, if oar goremment will only 
let na take what they luiTO to gire in exchange and what wu want 
and need? EugUiid needs our food products, and when ehetake* 
them to the extent that we tako from her what ahe has to gin^ 
then ghe mant look to Tndia, Ruasia, and other conntries to make 
out hor anpply and toko from tlicm prodncta that cost them more 
to produce than oars coat ns. If we oxamine the Bdport on For- 
eign Commerce for 1888, we will see in a table prepared by our 
Bunwu of Statistics that the export price of our wlieat for a 
aeries of years has been lower than the export pries of any other 
country on the globe. What we want is not to lim'lt tbo product 
or to increase the coat of production, as Mr. Blaine seems to 
think, bnt to increase the ftoilitiea of exohango. An inoreaaed 
reeoguitiou of the natural right of our farmers to bay and sell 
vould be the true solution of the difBculty. 

Mr. Blaine docs not oontroreri the fact, stated by Mr. Glad- 
stone, that vagea have iocreaded in England since the removal of 
all shackles from her foreign oorameroe. But he ottribntee the 
advance to the emigration of ber workmen to the ITuited States. 
Both causes contributed to it. It is not a little guq>ri8iDg to wit> 
ness the facility with which Protectionists shift their logic Ho 
has been impreseing us all tlirough his very able article With the 
idea that it was protection that raised wages ; now he saya it is 
demand and supply. Mr. Gladstone used the same argument for 
free trado which Mr. Blaine had used for protection : in order to 
parry the blow Mr. Otaine contends that it was not free trade that 
iucifissod Kaglisb vages, but acsroity of English labor. It is Tory 



I 

4 



THE OLADSTOSS-BLAmE COtfTROVBRST. 



led 



ptiitjing to find Mr. Blaine mlmitting thnt (rages are rcguliit«d 
hf demand and sappljr, and tliat wlieu Bdj^UkIi workmon «ml- 
gnttod to tbe Uniteid 8tat«e, the labor 8upi>ty was reduced, the 
duaand for labor iocrcosod, and therefore the rate of wag» vaa 
inopea«cd. FoUowing it up, the inimignition here increaBing, the 
nipply decreaaed oorrespoodinglj tbe demand for labor, and re- 
tarded the iacrease of the rate of wages. 

Onr rate of irages, just aa that in England, is fixed bjr the amouDt 
of demand for work, the natnbcr of laborers read; to respond to 
that demattd, and the skill and capacity of the laborer to do the 
work reqnirod by his employer, lie in not protected by any 
tvilF imposed on the prodacts of his labor, and cannot be. In 
oomncm with the great body ol the people, he ie taxed t« put 
noBo; Id the pocketa of the man who omu the products, not the 
mtuole or tbe brain. Protecting hla product dova not protect 
him against competition. There are no protectire dnties on 
foreign labor. It is on the free list And so far as our labor is 
coaoerned, it has bad to contend against free trade from tbe be- 
ginainf of tbe goventment. Tbe tariff protects the thing that 
labor malcea, bnt tliat does not Iwlong to him ; It belongs to his 
Hnployer. There is a tax of Hereuly^Qv e cents on a ton of bitii- 
minoas roal, bat it dooe not inure to the benefit of the minor ; he 
gets forty or fifty cents a ton for bis work, vbicb he would get 
without tbe tarifT, jnst as the anthracite miner does, whoee oom- 
peting aKicle comes in free at dnty. Tbe tariff benefit goes into 
the pocket of the owner of the cool, and be may manifc-at a great 
daa) of seal for the welfare of hia workmen, bat be nercr givue 
thorn thesereoty'STe cents which Congress has impoee^l on the 
ton of coal for hia benefit. There is a tax on iron ore of seTonty- 
five cents, but th(< miner only gets from fifty to sereoty-6ir« cents 
par ton for hia work, and he nert-r gets the tariff benefits ; they 
go io tiie owner of the or«. It id the ore that ia protected, not 
tbe mnscie that digs it. There is a dnty of 96.72 on a ton 
of |Jg>iran, but the workmen only get from ll.W to 11.50 per 
Ion for their tabor, aud that they would get without the tariff, 
becamu no one is prohibited from competing with them. Thu 
prohibition against oompotition is only against the pig-iron, and 
that does not belong to them. Tbe manufacturer gets it and 
kfl^ia it. There is a duty of tl7 on a ton of «t«e1 rails, but -the 
laboittr only gets txmn 0.50 to t5, and thai he would get without 



170 



THE NORTB AHBHICAlf JtSTISfP. 



any tarifT. The >IT gO(>a to the ovner ot the steel ntlB, and h« ' 
keepH it, and if his vorkmen can Icoop iheir aonlg and bodios to-_ 
gether they will do well. 

Mr. Blaino aska. How can tlie Free- Trader expluia the fa 
that a gtiMt many nrticlofl miinnfactiired io the L'iiite>l SUtt 
lind ready and large sale in Cauiula ? He aays that ire have to 
pay the same tariff duties and higher transportation charges to 
reacli the Canadian market, and he appends a long )ist of manu- 
factured articles which we export to and sell in Canada in com* 
petition vith Knglish rivals. Before proceeding to answer hlA 
qnestiou, I must thank him on behalf of all the tax-ridden people 
of the United States for admitting away his case. There ia not 
A elircd of the web of controrcrsy left. He admits that we 
manufactnre onr goods, pay higher freight charges to foreij 
marketi!, and then bold our own against onr rirals. If «ro 
do that in the foreign market, we can certainly do it at homs^' 
when the foreigner pays all the freight charges to reach as and 
wo pay none. Then what is the u«e of protectire duties on tlioeo 
goods? No tariff can protect any article against comjietition at 
the place where it ia prodaccd at the lowest cost, becanse no arti> 
cle can comi)ete with it. There can be no importation and, of 
course, no competition. This admission must hare dropped from 
his pen in " the heat of debate.'' His friends will And it in all 
the rouds Ihey travel in the near future. 

The answer to his question is that ve do produce these articlee, 
and many more, more cheaply than they can be produced in any 
other country or by any other people on the globe. We have got 
more skilful and more prodactive labor than any other poople. t| 
turns out more aiitl better product in a day tlun any rinl, and 
while it may r«;eive doable the wages of others it does treble tiiS* 
work, and in some casos ten times as much. These aiticlas. it 
willbenoticed.areof that class in which tlwUborisaUrgecIement 
in the cost, and juAt as any article becomes further removed from 
the raw-material condition, just so it becomes further remored 
from competition. It is onr sapcrior labor that gives m pre-w 
oedence, and if we take the tax off the raw material we will addfl 
woollcnii, cottfins, iron and gleel, and many other kinds of manu- 
ftictures to onr ex|>ort8. The only item of woollen manafaclure« 
in this oloaa is carpets They are mndc of the cheapest wmdff 
bvaring the lowest duty, ^ov, if vn «sti jiay thtt law daty on 



TBS OLADSTOJfB-BLAiyS COSTBOVBBSY. 



in 



enpet woota aud pay higher tratuportatiou charges, and still holil 
the foreign iDarket, coiild we not sell more carpeta if we could 
prodnce them stiti lover ? Aiid, could wu not produce them at a 
l0Wtr CMt if the tax on carpet vool were taken oft ? And then if 
UiabaaT; tiu wore takeu odcomliiiigand clutliiiig wooU, could iro 
not largelj iucreiiM oar uxporU of woollen goods ? And if we 
eoald increase oar exports to Camula and hold her markets 
i|:miiut our foreign riraU, could wo not hold our homo markcta, 
vben the foreigner would have to pay the cost of reaching as 
bcion» he could compete ? 

t luudl; know bow to express my gratiflc-atioD at having this 
•doiiflsioD from so distingniHhi'd uit ndvocatc and so ablo a de- 
kndtr ol commercial r«sthction. With the bets os ho states 
them — and they are correct — there can be no Justiflcation for 
keeping any taxes on these articles. There mar be a reason for 
it. bat it is a reason tlint cannot he dvfciitlctl. A ditty on these 
goods can only Hcrve the maoufaoturcra in oac way. When tUvy 
tonn eombinotions and trtiBts, and make high rateii to sell to our 
people and low rates to sell to foreigners, there is do way to 
ioUufere with them, and they can sell to na at combin^ion 
flricca and to foreiguers at nompetilion prices. Many Articles 
an exported and sold to foreigners at lower prices than they aro 
to etttxens at home. The liirifT is a powerful offender that 
watches at the cate and guards aud protects the robber while ha 
is in the bouse spoiling the goods of the husbandman. 

Mr. nisine oontends tliat protcctioa not only increases the 
'VMltb of tbo protected manufaAtarcr, into whose pocket the ia- 
enaaad price goos, bat the farmer also, ont of whose pocket it 
goes ; and he rery triumphantly refers to the census of 18G0 and 
that of 18S0 to sbow tliat tiatinnnt wpiilth has been growing oil 
oTW the Union, in the ogriculturml Stiitos as well as in the nuiDn- 
fartnnng Staten. If be lind gone back ten years aud started at 
1H50. he could have proved the same facts under llie free-trade 
tarifti in existence for the ten years between ISSO and ISGO. So 
(be fact of iucn-Aee alotie is tioL BiiiTiclent to detcnuiuc (bo rela- 
tiTC merits of the two opposing policies. But let us compare the 
decade from 1850 to 1860 with that from ISGO to 1870— tbe Orst 
noder rannae tariffs, tbe other ander protective tarilTit. In 18A0 
the national wealth was 17,138. 000,000; in 1880 it wu< »1C,160,000- 
000 ; which ihowi a gain of 1^6 per cent. — a ratio of increase that 



m 



THE yORTH AMERTCAS RfSVIBW. 



bu neror bun tpproximatod during any dccado cither bofora or 
since the war. In IS'15 — in tlifi beginning of that period which 
Mr. Blaino Gbaracterixes lu one o( the moat prosporoug tb&t tbe 
conntry ha8 ever had — the natioonl wealth <ras (3,'473,CKM),O0O. 
In 1833, at the end of that seven yoan of fatucu, tbc QAtioQiil 
wealth renchpd «.»,0"1, 000,000, (I qnota from the tobies of the 
director of the mint for 1881.) This shows an iucroase of 2& per 
cent, in the scTen years. Let as now compare the iocreaae dar- 
ing the first seven years under the free-trade tariff of 
1846. To 1846 (he national wealth was «C,30;j,000,000, and in 
1853 it vuB »ti, 708,000,000, which was au increoso of 54 per cout. 
At the «nd of the next seven years nnder the free>tnide turiffs of 
1846 and 1857 tbc national wealth wm lift, 1110,000,000. which 
was on inoreAM; of CO per cent. Thie wus the last of the free- 
trade era in the United Elates. Since then we have bad thirty 
years of high tariffs, high taxes, and high obstructions to trade. 
Learing 1860, we leave the nntional wealth accumulating at a rate 
oxccotling 13 percent, per annum. 

Now let us compare the growth of national wealth in periods 
of seven years unoe the adoption of the protective puliuy. I take 
periods of seven years in order to make comparisons with that 
remarkable period from 182J5 to 1838, which Mr. Clay thought 
then, and Mr. Blaine thinks now, was the mo«t profiperous the 
oonntry has ever bad. In 1867, under the Btimtilating effect of 
high dutioe and restricted trade, the national wealth was t32,- 
&58,000,000, which was an increase of only 42 per cent., instead 
of 66 per cent under the lost seven years of free trade. Bui it 
may be said that this period embraced the war, vith its gr«at 
dostmctioa of vnlnce. Leaving this period oat of oonsidomtion, 
let ns take the next seven years. In 1874 the national wealth 
was 132,420,000,000, which waa an increase of only 41 per cent. 
over 18G7. In 1880 the aational wealth was Ht. 3 00,04)0,000. 
For the three or four years preceding it was incrpasing at % ratio 
teas than two billions a year. If we add two billions to the anm 
of «43,3OO,0OO,OO0, it will tnnkc «45,y0O,0OO,0O0 for 1881. the 
end of the Inet sevon years for which we ha\'e any oltlcial report ; 
and that would show an increase of 30 per cent. 

From thcsecomparisoiiait would Bcrem that the great AmerictD 
system, like the great Ammcan crawfish, was advancing baob- 
wards and carrying the ttouulry with it. If Ihow ttomparisons 



THE OUUiSTOSB-BLAiyE CONTROVERSY. 



173 



atford an; comfort or encours^empnt to the advooates of high, 
taxoa, I cerUialjr du out onvj tiiura whilo they grirw hilorioaa wiUk 
Uw i^eAnire which thair contemplation aSonlA. 

Ur. Blaine tliiuks be makes a stroug point for [irutectioii whvn 
heahowi that the New BnglAndStutes and N'ew Yorit and Pena- 
lylvania^vhich he calls t.>j otght manafactariag Btatea) hod in 
1860 Ifi. 120, 000.000 vi aggn^atQ weulth, und had incrmacd it to 
$16,128,000,000 in 1880, which he says is '^16 purc^ut. ; but let mga 
back to IHM) again, and see how tbej wore prospering nndor free 
tmda from 1800 to 1800. In 1850 thwo sumo Stattw luul aggro- 
gate wvallb amounting to (-j,;)30,000.000, and in I860 they bad 
•5,183,000,000, which waa an increnaa of 75 per cent. After 1860 
the; began their career uudor high protectiTe war dntieii, and in 
1870 had aggregate wealth araouoting to 1 14,360,000, 000, which 
wai an tocreaae of 180 per cunt, urer 1800, or 18 per cent, per 
aounra ! I gire it up. Protection did protect tho maDu- 
facturera while the government, as well oa tho people, was bn^ing 
at high prices to eupplj the consumption nucl waste oooBHoaed by a 
fpgmDiio war. But ItrtnuRoehow thcj furod after tho war was orer. 
la 1880 ihojr hod aggrogat« wealth amounting to tl8,7O0,0O0,O00, 
or ao increase over 1870 of )e» than30pereeQt.,or3porocnt. per 
aonnm. Xow Ihnt the war is over these tnanttfacturing Stat«« 
wottld be glad to retam to the ratio of increase they enjoyed 
dnnag the free-trade decade, which was 7^ per neat, per annum, 
iDSt«ad of 3 per ccot. per annum undur protection. 

Nest let us compare the grawth of the agricultural States 
namwl by Mr. Blaine under free trudo and proteutiou. In 1850 
ibs States named by him, except Minnesota, Kansas, and Nebraska 
(which wore not States at that timu), hud agerugutu wealth 
amotiDting (o |9ra,000,000, and iu 1860, under free tiado, thotr 
wealth amounted to •3,370,000,000. This was an increase at the 
nUi of 940 per c«nC. Now. from 1800 to 1870, under protection, 
tbeir wealth had grown U> 1 7, 7tl<^, 000,000, which wa« un incrcuso 
of 130 percent.; but that is a long way behind 3-10 per cent, 
vfaieb lb«y made in the free-trade decode. In 1880 the wealth 
oftfaiM laaHi States wu 4l 1,950,000,000, which was an increase cf 
60 per cvnL Xhoy inonaksod at 24 per cent per annom under 
frao Lrade, and S per ooot, per annum undiT protvotion. 

Lpt tti eonpan Manacbuietts and Ulinotd, one a manufactnr- 
ixtg Stats aud tba other an agnuulturuj Stato. Maasachnsette 



174 



rnt: sohth smkrwas review. 



bad ID 1850 188,000,000 Invested In mauuiactures and IlUnaEa 
had t6,000,000. MMsacbusotta had tSTS.OOO^OOO of wealth ; 
Qlinou had #156,000,000. Uaaaachusotts had 991,000 ii«opl& aad 
Illiaoii hnd 8^1,000 pwjila In tho contest for wealth Musuchti- 
BBtts had ihe advantage in pHpulutioii of 143,000 peuplo, of t417,- 
000,000 more capital, and fourlvuu limes a^ tnuch nuumfactur- 
ing capacity. With such advantages she onght to have left 
Illinois out of eight in tho ntco ; but at the end of tho contest in 
1860 Illinoif) had uaught up with and paaeod her rival, hariug 
acDumnlated 4871,000,000, whi1t< MassachaKutts had gotten t815,* 
000,000. Illinois fanners, unshackled bjr restrictions on their 
farm products, bod iucrca«od hor v<>a]th at 467 por cent., and 
Msmofanaetta manufnvturtirs hud increa.sed bent at 43 per cont. 
They nov start a newnu--e under the fostering care of a prol«i!tiTe 
tariff. This time Illinois starts with the advantage of I56,000,- 
000 more ntonoy uiid u half-million more people, hut when the 
contest was «nded in 1870, she had a million more people and ten 
miUiouH Iu88 mon»7. BUnois had increased her wealth 143 per 
cont. under protective tariffs and 457 per cent, under froe*trade 
tariffs, while MaRsachusctta made 4*J-per cent inorcAse nnder low 
tariffs and ICl-por cent, increase under high tariffs. It eeems 
from thia that the protective tariff increased the profits of the 
manufacturer, bat decreased the profits of the farmer. That was 
its history at the time. Now, with few exceptions, it is decrens- 
ing the profits of both. Ur. Blaine comiorta tho South by telling 
thorn that nnder protection they luivo since 18G0 increased their 
wealth 8*) per cent, or 4 per cent, par annam. If he will look 
back to the [leriod between 1850 and 1860, he will see that their 
gained wcnith aC a into exceeding 10 per ounl. per annum, instead 
of 4 per cent under proteotire iwito since then. 

The taipayera ot the United States, rccoguizing in tho practi- 
cal results of the protective tarilTs the truth of Chief-JostJoe 
MarshaH'ii utterance, that a power to tax is u power to destroy, 
are not very choice in aeloctiug the words with which they char- 
acterize the few hundred beneficiaries whose arms are in th^r 
pockets np to the shoulders. Thej hare sometimes distingaished 
theee large proprietors by tho mediaeval dcaignation of '^Bo^ur 
Baro ns." When they see the mannfucturers of steel rails, by the 
aid of tariff titxes, taking nnt of their pockets in twolro year* 
more than tlfiO,UUU,000, tuid all the mauufactnreni of iron and 



TltE OLADSTONE-JilAiyE COyTEOVEItSi'. 



\7S 



il ia tfaa umo time UkiDg over $600,000,000, it is hard); to 
r Buppoaed that the; will lue the mofit dollcat« terms to ooQTe; 
thoir ideas. One of these grntlemen, a luitiro of tbu saino 
ooantry m Hr. Oladstooe, hiu givt^a to the public hia opiiiiona as 
to thit buri wa; to ex])end tbd largo incomes which the; enjoj. 
The idoA of plain pvopln i^ thjit tbo pockot of tho taxpayer ia the 
blMt ptauM for them, and the plnoa trheru they rightfully Usloiig. 

\lr. (ilodsbuDo did not, in his diacus&ioD, uae oSeiisivc words 
in speakioK of the heneficiarioa of prot«otiou, and Mr. Dlaioe 
•faowa the lireliest BppnwiatioD of hia dolicacy of IcvMag, Mr. 
OlailKone is three thoofiand miles away. lie has not been 
fiantiliar with the remits of American protective tariffs for tbo 
laat thirty ycnni. Ue has not seen the farmers of England, aa we 
hAT* Ihoee of America, brought deeper and docpor in debt year by 
jvmr and forced to borrow baek at high interest the money thi^ 
waa extorted from them by "legislative decrees." Ue haa not 
•MQ English manuftictnrers, as we have aeen American mauu- 
facturerfl, closing down and diEchnrgiug their laborers becaaae 
oonaonura aro not able to buy their high-ooet goods. In hie 
«■■/ he limply diriuugsed a principle, without characterizing the 
wTongdooni. If Mr. Blaino could liitvc hoard "the Onind Old 
Mau" Cfty yearn ago, when, in the prime of hia young manhood, 
be waa supporting VUHers, nu^kiason, Bright, INiel. and Cobden 
wb«n tfaey were assailing the iivnrire and ^Tood of English land* 
lorda who clamored for the rL>tenti<jD nf t)it> lax on the brciul lb»t 
fed the moaths of tho working men and womeo of England, he 
might hare eaught the sonnd of an occaaional adjective aa it fell 
from Mr. <ihujgtono*s lips. 

Mr. Ulaiae most not think that strong langnngo of the kind 
qaot«d by him ia cooflnod to tho plain people of the United States, 
itimai it gou ID the moulba of men in high stations. The 
'aprotno Ooart of tho United States, holding thoir pUcea for lifo 
" ""'nflrjonceij by tho prejudices tbnc aometimes move tho 
multittidt, declared from the bi^poh that 



"Hi* "-'^■ ^^ ■ tMl uwpowwof Um BOTWRitarat on Uia praparty of tlia eiUmi. 

y* Wifa ^'*'^**UbMl0wli«paat*r(ired IndlrUnal* Ui kM prlrat* enUmrlMa. 
™-^* Bf t-^P*^^*^** (nrt«*a^ U noae Unalcai ■ robbVT l>oc»iitB U la doaa nndar (to 

"^^'^A ^ ^"'^'nen hare paa«e<t ever the bead of the great 
*^'***''**ti whohaa spokca for tho omaocipation of our 



176 THE NORTH AMERICAN REVIEW. 

labor and oar trade. A long life, pure and stainlesB aa the enov 
that falla on his own highland hilla, lies behind him — a life that 
has been aocompanied all along its lengthened way by a groat in- 
tellect and a pare heart — a life that has been conspicuoos for ita 
devotion to the best' interests of his own countrymen and of man- 
kind. The closing years of his life are consecrated to the eman- 
cipation of Ireland. In this last, noblest, and best work of a 
long and useful career, let him feel assured that the people of 
America extend him their heart-felt eympathies, and indulge the 
fond hope that his days may be lengthened many years; not for 
the weal of Ireland alone, but for that of England and the world, 

BoGXB Q. Mills. 



THE POPE AP^D ITALY. 



BYOAIL HAMILTON. 



Tub problem of IbUj chaltenges tha STmp«tthj of ehe world. 

Two wvorcigiu contend apon her soil for dotninion ; both be* 
qoMUiiKl br hoarr AQtiquity, botli borne oitwikrd bjr the irnuioli- 
bla current of modern tcudcucy. Bnt the on« digcerns tho signs 
of the Cioifls, cordiidlj cmbnuMS his opportunity, is eager to guide 
tbir flhip Hifc. with us litllo Iwu Hud coufutiion aa mav befal], to 
Uw landing vhcru ehe would be. Humbert stands at the bolm. 
tntchfol. graoioDs, oonotant, ciilm. 

The other partially dti^Turiu mid wliully diaapprores the sitna- 
ttoo, resiBtH tho teudenoy, thinkn the atrciim can be dammed up 
and ilriran back (o the good old times of mental xabjugation by 
tamponl sorercignty. Leo is bonie along juat as inevitiikbly «s 
Hambert, and just as rapidly, but ^trtiggiiug, plunging, fltnging 
agaiiut the rurrenl wilb vain and vociferouA violence. No spoiled 
child hurU down his toy with a more petulant wilfulneeit than 
Loo XUl. sIiowH in tlinistiug buck the fate that will not reinstate 
bim in the middle agea. 

Tho Pops ii a bonutifnl-looking old man. Whito iiitellcctnal 
(ace, bejuning bennvoltmne; snch sharp, thin, bold, olear-cnt 
feainrv* tu the mtnliillionn of thi> Cretans and the Ciceroa show; ii 
tall, fpan- figure; clasiiiv Ureok, Uubrcw prophet) old Roman, in 
the splendid Bowing robee. — lieadrance« slowly through the kneel- 
ing congrogatinn; women, binotc-robod. tirndingvoilcd and »ombr«; 
khi handsome Italian nobles Rupleudunt in white and blue, and, 

Uke 

"HoraUit In his twrnaia 
B«JU«K apoD one knN.** 

•ad hewad, eseh stately head : his tall Swiss gnarda gorgcons in 
(tic blaok aiHt ml am) yvllow laid In Michael Angelo's ohargo 
▼ou ci..— .\o. SM. ' la 



178 



THE NORTH AMERICAN REVIEW. 



three hnndnd jrearB ago, — who canDot gainu/ it. And M the 
holy (sthar passes eileatly up the aislo through the huslMd uni 
reverent throng, with aleoder band nplifted, boviog to right at 
him, buwiug tx) luft of him, bcntowing apon all wlSVe, Catholic 
and Protestaut, his paternal bleesiag, be seeau • holy father in- 
deed, the very picture aud persoiialion of ear bloaaed ratigion, 
such an one as Paul the Aged, true ricar of Jesus Christ; and It 
dooa not nmsd Pope Pius's gentle repreof to the wayvard, re- 
calcitmut Prutt»tuutgirl, "Daughter, the blceeing of an old man 
will not hurt you," to inspire the TeneriLtioa due to his ancient 
fame, to bia bontgn and suintly aipect. 

There came another day when great St. Peter's was open to a 
groat host which fiJletl, but vithout vnisli or crowd, the stately- 
columned ohurob. For the flrst time ia eighteen imprisoned 
yoars the Pope was to eaj mass at that high altar. The appointed 
hour wag eight in thm morning,, and it was a weary crowd that 
stood till half-post ten before the ceremony opened- One Heretic 
fidt I know Uiut would Hliako mora vigoruu^Iy at tbe author of such 
waiting than at any conceivable error of private judgment. Yet 
for one sublime moment oven [ forgot the waiting and ibo weari- 
ness ; forgot the storied marbles in which the ReformatioD found 
its occasion, not its cause ; forgot the yard-high monies in which 
tho words of Christ bare boon painted for eternity, and only 
puinted right, read always wrong, upon those lofty walls of Roma ; 
forgot the i>apal Peter aud his keys standing ever ready 
to lock the Goil-given reason and unlock only a man>maie 
heaven, — for suddenly the sttr of tho multitude was etilled. 
the great bronxo doors opened wide, and for.' approuching, 
IbrlHeil a strain of music from unseen choirs, as if heralding 
the coming of the King of Heaven. Only a moment, for it waa 
not the King of Heaven who entered, home aloft with iineoayand 
irregular motion on tho shoiddera of men, and ovury saorod 
Miootation vanished on the instant. Ponr men in red upbore a 
rod-aiid-guld chair in which sat the Papo la full view of tiu^ 
whole congregation. A plain white aknll cap praaaed his venerable 
white hair ; white idboiid rod uhaaubto leut each other intensity ; 
and his nchly-slippcr«<l feet, all gold and velvet, rcated upon a 
gold-and -velvet eashion. Four eilvor immpels in the dome 
above Mundod the stiver accord of heaven, and before and behind 
his chair rosegreat fans of feathers, roand, inset with peacock^eyea. 



THE POPS ANI> ITALY. 



179 



laomtlre, and iDdicattre to the faithful that the eyeaof the vorid 
■ra on the Pope, und hU on the world. The inuiiic held, strain ou 
■tnin msoDtiding, and th« Pope iraa borne on, bluoei ng aa lie went, 
I with one hand oatatretchud. two fiiigcrecit«aded and two incnrled, 
I aeoording to immemorial uBagf>. But the deepened and daadlf 
I pallor of hia (aoe. the cloeenew with which he grasped the arm of 
I hia nhnir. t,h<? rigiditj of his upright attitude, lent credit to the 

Ini&or tiiat tbv un«tcudy motion produces id himunortof eea- 
^ekne«&, and that, in conwrjucnco, heaBSumestha chair only jast 
Kfora his ODtranoe, to shortou as much as poniUe the dangerous 
vojage. 
Whoa mau had been aaid, and ho Itnd changed his cap for a 
goId-wrouKhC mitre, and put on a vhtle-aad-gold-cmbruidered 
cha«Dbk> for the red, ho was borne oat in the same way. By the 
lamotu bronze statu« of St. Peter, the fauiotis toe outworn 
with more famoaii kisses, the procesRtoH paused ; the Pope arose, 
white jiod iplcndid iu his soft, brilliant — luid aupjiofle at a 
veotnre we aay angelio — drapery, and prononnccd, or, rather, 
chanted, his beaedicciuQ,(o which the whole congregation seemed 
toahoat again and again reaponnTe "Vivas!"— aud among the 
" yivaa to the Pop© 1" there mingled some " to the Pope-King"; 
which tnrely savon of dialoyalty, but it passed withoat reproof 
tft tlirtartnnce. 

The rerolntioQ has been moHt generous to the Tanishing order. 

Italy could hare but one head, and that heud must be a bead for 

ibetaiable, tangible world, and not for the intaDgihte, spiritual 

wofld. Granting this, it ia impoRsible to wc how tb« kingdom 

mold bare dealt more honorably ur Ubundly with the papacy. 

While I write, the Catholic charches of this country are 

loiogwiththcIlruoolctlcrsofAjDoncancujdiQa] and archbishop. 

t ouy be doubted whether it is qDit« in aocordanco with the 

mity of tuUiuns forpowurful and prominent American oitisens 

bUcly and officially to advocate secession in a friendly foreign 

,tian. Yet that is what the archbishopsand cardinals are doing. 

. in thvir offioial capacity, they urge the discontented 

A lE^Ir ti) rebel agaitiBt their country and rtvo tho union 

twain. 

The argumcuu umhI ant prvciseir those naed in Bome, but less 
opSnly, nt>R> guardedly. Not lUat the Pope carca for a "little 
tioadlud royalty .** Ho wants only temporal power onough to oxo^ 



180 



THE I70RTB AMEmCAS REVIEW. 



oise hifl spintnal power. It is not a qncetioD, ssjra the AmericAn 
archbishop, of mere temporal power, hot of cpirttual indo- 
pendetice of another'a tempore] power. The Pope w»nt* merely 
so much pover as not to be "restrained io tlieexeroi<e of hi« 
moal important fit notions/' 

This paGlonil nppeol to ''two hondrod millions of people" 
mokes it worth white for the millions to ei&mine the degree of 
nstruint under which the Pope is placed. 

The Iaw of gnarnntees of 1871 giree an independent poetol 
telegraph service to the Vatican, free from national supervision, freeT 
from all charges and taxes. The Pope ie also eiompt«] from tUe^ 
oatl) of allG^iouce and may keep bis own gnurda ; yet any attiunj 
upon his person, even be it only insult, is to be punished oxiictlj 
as if it were an attempt upon (he King. The conclave 
cardinaU ii free from political or police investigations, 
enror;. eccletiiaKticit, and conriers of the Pope to foreign natioi 
enjoy the aamo immuuiti(%3 and the «ame prerogatives that 
given to Uie accredited envoys of the national gorcmRitint. 

I cannot see that the Pope is restrained from the exercise 
^ any important function of the holy office, except that of barnii 
Brnuo. lie has perfect spiritual frewluni, pnitiicat temporal ii 
dependence, singular immunity from muuicipiil and oatiot: 
burdens, roynl lionor^ and privileges. MX in vain. He reCus 
to bo placated for hi>t lost domtnimi. The state providre him 
imperial incotite, six litiiidrvJ thou^ud dulhira a year, uUicU 
will not touch. Tho state secitres hira a raa^ific«nt palace, and 
ho anlks in it, cnlliag himself a priioncr. Even if he were it 
priscinod there, it would still be an imperial residence, fc 
tba Vatican is not only a palaoe, bat a series 
palaces. The Vatican, says one authority, lias more than ti 
hundred stairca«v8, twenty courts, and forty-four hundred rooms. 
De Quincey tella us that Lady Murray mode particular inqTiirie* 
and learned that the toul number of rooma, including cellar? aivl 
closets capable of receiving abed, was fifteen choasaud. JuiL- i ,_■ 
from impmisfiion, I ehouid say I hud bt^'n through a millioo 
rooms myself. Investigation, however, is safer than unpreesic 
and wo shall do well to stick to Lody Mnrray'n 6Rures. Ai 
we rut it down to tlie eleven thouwinJ fiv' ' i ol^ator > 

we shall btill liavo ample niom and vergt > 

To tbo Pope's sjiiritital aoverwgnly his onae^ "V^ ^'^ 



TBB POPE AKD ITALY. 



181 



tkat aizteen hnniliwl pereoDB are neeeasarr. Tirentj chamber 
MmuU, one horulred and twenty house prolatoB. oqq huodrad 
■nd Mvenly privjr chsmberlaitu, one hundred and thirty lapeiv 
BBtnent; chambiirliuua, two bnudrol oxtm luid honorary chaitt- 
1ker1«iiu> Uti )uton<Unt6 aad stable-maeters. fifty door-kcvpers, 
ttiJierta tb« good " style" of tbc papiU bouse-kecpiiig. 

UoreoTsr, thU pHson-palace of the Vatican contains the 
world's nuMt^^rpioccd of art and luaming. Tbu gardens and 
graands of the Vatican are of such ext«ut that, if tbu Pope 
cvald not leave thorn, he would still be monarub of all he Bur- 
rera. But thor« ts nothing to binder him from Icaring them. 
I anlcrd ono of thti bigh di^iitaric« of the church in Rome why 
the Pope cunliovd himoulf to the Vatican, why hu did not drive 
in tha str««ia and sobarbs tike any other gentleman ; and bo 
MHitd five ine no b«Lter answer than llutt Ihe Pope would be in- 
mllcd by the mub. But Italy i» Catholic. Wby should shu insult 
the Pope ? How ran it bo that the people vish the Pope to be 
niiMtatod in temporul dominion if tbcy in«ult bim the moment 
W pals bi> foot on temporal soil ? 

The Pope is no prEsooer, but he chooses to call liimself a 
priaoner. It looks like pure childlahnau, ooDBtrnctive dishoneaty, 
and bod policy, — childishDeag becaase bfl can go where be likes 
and atays in tho Vatican only because he likes to stay there; oon- 
(rtmetire diahontjsty becnose in r<mot« corners of tho Catholic 
world t4V4lsy dtfvouL peraons are cheriMbing a wiitp of straw lu a 
p&rt of the hard bed to which the " prisoner of the Vatican," the 
holy father, is rnlaced — taking literally his charges against his 
ooantry, and knowing nothing of the rdal liberty and Inxnry at 
hia oomtnaQd. It muHt be bad p'^ttcy, as it was bad policy for 
ih* popes of the fourteenth centur)' to hide themselves in 
Arlgnoo. Mystery is oae thing; complete occultation is another. 
Tbe nuoifMted magnificence of the ceremonial at St. Peter's was 
aot withoat iu imposing feataros. oven to an hereditary Protest- 
ant, pncticalist, proaalctst. There is nothing to hinder an 
eqaally magniflcont and imposing display in the streets of Rome, 
aad it* Inftoonoft npoo »n Italian populace it would not be easy to 
limit. On lh« contrary, the Itoman world is learning to do very 
well withoat a Pops [i noTcr sees. 

It shtiuld not be for a moment forgotten that this is not a 
i|Dsrr«1 bwfwcso Catholic and ProteBtant, but between Catbolio 



18S 



THE 2>-0RTU AMERICAN SSVTEW. 



ftnd CflthoHc. The King h a moderate bat real Cafhollejtlw 
Qneen is n derout Catholic; ihe Pope ih a professional tm well u 
dcToat Outholic. iLalj is largel.v Cutholio^ but iU Catholicity ii 
largelv moderat«, not to say indifferent. Italy baa, perhape, no 
gmtt pntltueium for n church in vhioh she haa grovn np, and 
which «he has a little outgmwn; but certainly she liaa uo boiitility. 
It acems to me that slie looks upon her immemorial church very 
maoh ofi she lookii upon her churches, her palaces, her statues dug 
oat of the ([ronnd, her pioturw Cftrefiilly clieriahcd from the 
ruvngos of time — a )>eauttfu! and preoioua inherttanee ; a treaaara 
□ever to be reproduced and tlterofore nerer to be despoiled ; an 
eterunl Iteirlooru: but not vital to her future, like unity, Klf- 
govenimcnt, nationality. She nouriabos for the church no in- 
horont antagoniim, biii, on the contmty, regretathcantagontamc^ 
the church to u unlteil Italy. Rvli^ion ia her sentiment of the 
past. Natiouality ia her cnthusiaain of the future. 

An Italian nobte, high in the government serrice, but himself 
a Catholic, avovcd that the men in Italy do not go much to con- 
feKstion. "They have no time. The King goca once a year or 
so." Such men will not willingly fight against tlie church, even 
in the service of the Ring. My nobleman was not an cnthnsi- 
astic Liberal. " The Italians are babioet" he declared, in disgust, 
and he hates democracy with a very cordial hatred. Sharing the 
tondency which stmngere generally have to give people informa- 
tion about themselves, he assured me that we have mora aritito- 
cracy iu this country thun there u in the old nations, and that 
another hundred years will aee " the claMos"' reSstabUslicd here 
ae they are in Europe. It is the most difficult thing in the world 
for men to eco that nature establishes herself in classes, and that 
the object of democracy is not to prevent classification, but to 
leave each man free to clussity himself. A republic no more than 
an antocracy places all men on a level, hut it secures to all m«n 
perfect liberty to find their own iovel. 

If the church were aa clear>sightcd as we have been taught to 
believe her, if she could diiiCL'm the trend and Btronglh of the 
modem movement, there would seem to be nothing in the way of 
her continuance. .Men are far enough yet from being able to 
stand alone, nnd like to Iran more or leu hard ngninitt orgonisa* 
tion. Italy wishes only to go her own political way unhampered. 
She ia willing and sufficiently eager that the Pope should go bis 



TBS POPE AND ITALF. 



16s 



. iplritnal w»jr sqnflllir nntrammellotl. If tho Popo would not Uy 
hsods apoD her u^iritoriul rights, iihe would permit him lo save 
lier MKil with the gnaXeet good-will, iliii KpJricuul Hupmiiacjr 
•oald not only bo &wardc<d bat secured bim. 

Ttie Fopo 18 of iiiiothor mind. Uo ecerns to have adroncod 
Dol DIM itep furlbRr than thnt nay old Visoonti of the fourteenth 
oeoUxrj who ww goTernor of MiluD. ns well «s ibs archbiehop. and 
foBtMl the po«itioD so much to bis liking that he waa auiipected of 
•imio;j ul the supremacy of all Italy. The Pope accordingly asnt 
A Quncio to bim from Avif^on, ordering him to choose which he 
vcmld. the temporal or the spiritual power, for he could not re- 
tain bath. " Behold !" said the doughty arclibii^liDp. huring 
edobntcd moM in the cathedral in full ranonicnb, and immcdi- 
stdy thftreoftvr drawinf; out his sword iia goTemor, — " Behold !" 
h(* ttinrtdered to the astonished iiuni-to, " IW^hoM my temporal and 
my ipirittml. and tell tho holy father, from me, that with tlie 
one 1 will defend the other V 

Oar Pope has no eword to drav, and tho ninet«entb-ccntnrr 
wwotA, dtuwn iu hin behalf, hu not been wholly successful or. to 
bia credit be it said, wholly agreeable. But ho Btill hiut resourcM. 
If he cannot be a Bortrcign. he will bo u martyr. If he cannot 
prvrent the statue of Hninn from rising iu Rome, he can ut least 
lie «n the floor all day and cry about it. This is not only child- 
nhness, but spoiled-ohitditihneM. Bruno was burned. He vaa 
horribly tortured, and then he was burned alire. He was tort- 
nmd and bnmod to death for his npiuions. It is not u question 
for toanta between Catholics and Protcstanta. Both hare burned 
own for their opinions, and both might confess their sin and pro- 
Imi their repentanoe, or, wn may even put it, both might aj^rea to 
eabbrat** their gnwth in groce by rearing a statue to every man 
vbo wiH true enough to truth to bam for his opinion, whether 
that opinion vere right or wrong. 

To CTery liberal-mi ndrd man the sight of a Pope prone on the 
toor all day because a Rtatne is coneecratfld to the man nhom that 
Pt^s pnid^cenors burned is simply rcpuUire. It would be 
MiA atoagh if he were mourning becauee Bruno was burned. 
Ilksometbing worse when he mourns becaaeo be cannot bum 
luB. / jg not tnppoce that benignant- faced old man would 
'^/&nrn A Ov, hut it is difficult otherurlae to conjecture why ha 
^1^ n ui igh t aa well weep over Victoria. Why could he not 



184 



rUE yOliTU AMESICAJV REVIEW. 



hara fallen in with the procMsion to BruQo'8 ststne as easily isto 
the Qiieen'a jnbilee ? The British reroll against the church waa 
m rudicul u BniQi/B, tax toaa oooHionlious. aad far mora suocms- 
ful, at least to outwuivl a{ip«arance. But tho Pope sent one of hia 
chief afBcers to congrntiiUte tlie Qiteon on her fifty yoare ot re 
volt, while to Umao hn |miil i>fiU ihu tribitbt; of iiiij^ry jirnte.»tand 
{irustratiun. Tliu poliUuiil oomplicatton coiaea frum thv fact that 
thoro nrc thon^nda of men in Europo who stand in awe at the 
Pojio'^ teuM auU take gidu« with them, wiilioitt knowing ihiii, hit 
team are needless. It isagaitiHl this man, with hi« corisvcratcd past, 
with his orgnmzvd pru«ciit. pliitLiiig. plauuiriK-, scheming nguinat 
uiiitLMl Itiily, tliat :ho government must bo forever arrayed. How 
much of thu Qtru which has lined the King'd brow with iintim«ly 
furrows is due to the refractoriness of the Pope, we catinut know. 

If the Pope continncs refrootorj', it h not ea^y to sue for bim 
anything bnt failure. It seema impossible that Italy fihoold grive 
np her unity, should go back ondor the papal away, even in any 
ever so small part of her territory. It would seem that the in- 
horitci] affection, tho toluration, tho indifference- with whicli the 
Pui>c is reganled would flame into active lioi^tilit)' und another 
rerolntion, at any snob open attempt, Sa,id a man, sttLl young, a 
youth of Victor Emmanuel's revolution: "If the Pope shonld got 
back his temporitl power, we would kill the priests, first tbhig — 
beginning with tJie Pope." 

Yet he was n Catbolio. 

" Oh yos ! I am a Catholic, bnt I do not prootJM my reltirion*' 
— R8 calmly ns if ho hud simply k'^^Q "P polo- "You usk tho 
first hundred men you meet of their faith, and tboy will all sa; 
'Catholic/ hut if you ask have they attended mass to-day, oh, 
no! not one of them has been inside a church ; and it is the 
priosta' faalt, who conloaod their services with the cxistenco ot 
God." 

" But arcyoQ not. then, in danger of excommunication f" 

"Excommunication once meant disgrace and ruin. Now mun 
only laugh and say, ' Qood-bye.' I bare been excommuoioatods 
dozen times, yet yon aco lum Tory well." 

*' But tht'U how can reverence for tht- Pope reninin ?" 

"I took a Polish frifiod of mine the other day to *me of th« 
Popft's rcccptirinfl. T' " .-''', ■ ! i.- 

ing that he did not i , ) 



Tire POPE Aim ITALY. 



180 



Ight be vithiu lieariug ; but bariu}; told his itafe little politicn- 
reli^oas fib iu ri'piv, bo muniiurod under bix brooih to mo in 
French [what muy he tnvily lm.atiaXed], 'Oetulgng! YoiirPopa 
Uaoold [ool!'" 

UaquMtiormblj tf the Pope pomsta iu auUgouiziug the gov* 
eraiii«at, this feetJng mast iuoroiuse. UnquuiitioiiAbty the per- 
•oiikI rehitiouit between Popo nml King ktv bpRoniing ombittored, 
perhaps againit the will of buth. It in evmi uiid th«l thu Pop*; 
bat laanched agninitt the King the elfete thunilers of excomniani- 
wlioti — thQadbra which have now a scarcely more real rovvrlKim- 
tion thin the t'lodiau law which i*]ci;ommiiiit(!iLt«(I Cicero — accord- 
fsg to thjiC I'li^n interdii-'t which tho vicani of Christ all too 
nadily trungfi^rrul from the healhcu to the Christittu world, but 
fnmi which at Itut Christianity it«elf hse plucked the fatig. 

Pope Pius \i aiid to bare bad it epocinl u-enknew for tbs roagh 
old aoldier-king, Victor £intniLnuel, and ihu interchange of personal 
■Dd prlvBt« ooartciies and fmndUueasw, iu spite of public and 
(lolilical aatagcmisni, ia a mntter of common talk in Rome. But 
their RteoeBWrB, both, are more reBned. more echolarly, more 
tbouffbtful, perhajM one might Bay more earnest, at leaat more 
intent, mea. Eaoh goes, ineritablj and further, his own way and 
the dirergenoe most Increase. The n>latiunii must be ntraine*). 

Erta to the saperficiol observer the Pope ts on the losing aide. 
His Teapons aru weak, even when they are not obaolete. Hia 
poutionfl are poerile. The Labomls publish documents proving 
bj hit own handwriting that Pope Pins relinrinighed nil claim to 
temporal power : and the papacy respoude by publishing the 
Primv Ministf r'a youthful verses. What argument it that ? 
No dntibt the Terees are very bad. If 8ignor Crispi hatl pub- 
lished them, it might bare been a feather in the papiU cap ; but 
fii^or Cnspi liad the good sense to leave them in obscnrity. If 
th«j are ultra-religions, ©reu monkish and mediaval. It only 
■bows that the writer has improved and enlarged hi3Tiaion;it 
dees ttot ia tbelMst weaken the indorEemont of Pioe IX. on 
ICamlAni'a draft. Signor Crispi is, no doubt, annoyed by the 
•ppcttnimv. of hb crude rhymee, but they do not affect the fact 
*h- •orking for a temporal sovereignty which Pius r&- 

■ ""■ ' '■ Iittre of i)|>iritua1 authority. 

. >«eciiou of tbo archives of the Inqoiri- 
[a^a, i"i*i o«i iJk) day of the dedication of Bruno's statue they pab- 



186 



TBK HOttTB AMERICAS REVIEK: 




lUh to the world the record of his irlsil, the story of hb sufferings 
and hia death. It ia a terrible story. Two hnndred years hare 
kept well the avfal Beorot ; but ie tho horror Ic^uncd bocuiM tbo 
FropotriLndH Kidc, in n-buttal, tnriw the Uberal Prime Minister nnt 
at duont? He Umrn \m iionio, the hoiieewhich he h»a rented from 
thpm for many jears, but he willpasily find another hoasc. Still 
was BruQo burned. Bruno was horribly tortured and bnmed 
alivo by tho ohnrch for hU opinions. Reason does not roco^ize 
eviction ai argument. 

If the Pope were a» cleTer and the organization as perfect as 
thvy are aaid to bo, would they not recognize that the Italian na- 
tion is Catholic and. that it is not Humburlor CriBpi or Herti that 
is building statuee to Bruno uiid miiking liin's for Italy, bnt tho 
Italian nation f Ag Catholics and. more than that, aBcitizeuB.iirou]d 
Ihry n<it talco their constitutional part in making taws instead of 
etundiug off und forbidding, or — which lunounbs to mach the same 
thing — advising, Catholics to absctain from Toting? There ts oo 
4]ue8tion that the hberty of the chnrL'h whs metint to be aa care- 
fully guarded at the ontset as the unity of Italy. Cavour and 
Minghetti had no radical designs against Mother Church. Italy 
has legislated against monasteries, but even there with goaorosity 
and mercy. Sbo believed them to bo sloth and moth, but she did 
not turn tho monks helpless on the world. She permits them to 
live out their days in their seclusion of centuries. She guards 
herself against the institution by permitting no aoceeaion to the 
monastic ranks. She secnrcs herself from doing injustice, and 
the monasteries from just grieTanee, by paying them for the prop- 
erty. .She seqiieRters, but adroitly commands their loyalty by 
paying them in gorcrnnicnt bonds. 

The result is the speedy vanishing of the institution. In one 
immense estabhshment, fifteen lonely monks wander throagb tho 
melancholy white norridors, thongb I must admit the monks 
themselves did not look melancholy it all. 

" How do you occupy jourselres all day long Y" uiked an 
Aisdrican girl, whose yoatk|fl|^g|||i|ANtaHW|^||AM^IClt>, 
direotneas, earnest intel^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^bi^ — 
seemed, iudtted. to eliHt all '. ^^^^^^^^^V' ^^* 

Brother had ir^ ■•-=' --v^. Sa 1 1 -^^^^^^^^R*:—*'' 

shouldered, a > 
head to for ■ 



« 



4 



THE POPE AND TTALV. 



187 



a bump of Uiou^^ht on Ula round. Uaak hmd ; not a ray of reflec- 
Uoo in his large, dark eyos ; not a line of inlrasprctlon in hn 
bealthy, bandtome, boritie face. How did be occupy his time? 
— ao wooJvr. H« panned for one puzzled moment, and thou, ss 
apbiloBoplier wbo had foand umpli; Rnnwor, roplieil : 

" Wo lead tbB rie amtempMive." 

BUea bid gnod heart I bo does a cow ; and when he kindly 
■looped of bis own accord and plucked mv a sprig of luTcndor 
from the wcll-cnrb — porhape tCBtheticti would coll it a fonntain— • 
which Lorenso tho Magnificent bad given to his Iioums — a well- 
curb at magniflcent as the girer, witb stone and bronice and carv> 
io^ (inoaph to furnish forth a modern houee, and concerning 
which I had Mkcd him innamerablc quMtioDS,— I blessed him nu- 
awarea. But if he erer contemplated anything Gner or further 
tban his tbriring kitchen-garden, the winding river below, and 
ihe green hilU beyond, nn itign of it had touched his atoHd coun> 
tenance. In the chapel beneath sleep the Acciujoli — the famous 
foonder of thij house, hia monument, the handoome and brilliant 
yicbolas, friend and former of kings, patron of po^ts, borne from 
the annnj foutb to Uy bin bead beside that of hia bclored mn, too 
eariy lost, on the hciKhta that guard the homo nf his childhood, 
bii dear native town, fair Florence. Of all that etirring life, tho 
rU eaulrmplalii'f of my Chartreuse friend \s aa unaware as the 
rirer that curres below rb. Name and date he knows, but all the 
itTMB nf that brilliant and bitter career, full of promiae and splen- 
dor, and power aad diaappointmont, he hceda oo more thnn the 
great WDeflchal who liea at oar feet, heeding no more anything at 
all 

The Pope in fighting a losing battle, becauw the Time-Spirit 
M against him. Urganisattuu w etrung, but reason in stronger. 

The politiee of Italy are at this moment the meat interesting 
(n the world. ITipy are the politics of the world. Rome, the 
eternal city of the noul, Home, the mother of oar oiTiIiiation, can 
never }ii:ri.-li fii the realm of spirit. The great Roman Krapire 
in its going the splendor of the pagan and the 
thfl powerful and picturesque ruler of rulers, 
pnn bnt an attenuated thread of life till, 
,>-.;<;d. A pale shade borers still amid tba 
.jodM lorovor, with pitooni paasion. mooaoe, 
^« gates of Uring Italy, mistaken its ghostly 



188 THE NOBTB AMERICAN REVIEW. 

reetleesnesa for the warm carrents of vital blood, belierea that per- 
miasion would give it power to reannie substance and sway. The 
task of Italy is to coDvince that ghost that it is a ghost ; that the 
old Boman Empire is not only decently bnt honorably buried, as 
befits its storied grandeur; that, instead of a forlorn, beseeeching 
wraith hovering around portals that will never open, bringing 
disaster to the present, and npon the past mockery, its true spirit 
of order and protection should arise in might — its spirit of purity 
and beneficence, of cherishing to the weak and curbing to the 
Btrong and authority to the unreasoning, of self-sacrifice and devo- 
tion and piety ; should ignore all the limitations of earthly king- 
doms and become the Holy Spirit of the world. 

Gail Hauiltok. 




ELKCTRIC lIGHmG AND PUBLIC SAFETY. 

BY SIR WILLIAH THOMSON. 



BsoLAXO uid Auerioa are the fntti countrica id the irorld. 
Hence a remurkable foalare of almost every city Jn the United 
KiDgdom and the ITtiitcd Stnteg. which strikes with wonder all 
Ttntora from the coatincnt of Europe — cirniB cloiidii of electrio 
wire boverioi; porctmiallv ovlt the slrucle und houses. These 
cIot)d« do uot, to aay svaaihle degree, dimiDish ouch light of 
facftTeo an the liberty- losing owoors of domofltic lire-plaeea and 
itoun-boilers allow to reach their fellow-citizens ihroagh the 
Tohunea of black smoke ponrlng from their ohimnc^. Some 
peraoiu of tiuto objoot to the atrial wires as dimiDiahiug the 
beaoty of our cities. Thu same people would complain of a for- 
est of ahips' masts teen from London Hridge, or oomploting the 
rUta of gome broad avenue of New York, or reliering the dulnen 
or tbo Nqnalor of some little old city by tbcM;a, if ahips were an in- 
Tflotion of thi5 century and shipping industry not fifty years old. 
Buakin uloijuently admires ships with their miuta and sails 
aa tlw moKt brnutifiil and picturesque of the works of man. 
Some future Rufikiii will no doaht hv equally eiithutiiustic about 
tbe bfauty oi the gossamer lines of telephone wire, with their 
Seotle onrvee stretohiitg away by hundreds from stately standards 
fixed aloft ov>3r our houses, or from high cathedral doraoR, or 
from faturr Kifft;! toweni, and ornamonting whaturvr they touch. 
Uithcrio. howersr. coiuerrative sestheticism baa barred matiy 
»tie« of the coDtlQcnt of Europe from the larger benefit of elcc- 
Iricily in the service of man already enjoyed by .America and 
GugUud ; and would, in England, if it were permitted, sweep 
all tlrrtric cobwebs from the sky, and not concern itself with 
th« (joMiion of oxpeneo involred in banishing all telegraphic, 
**'' -id e>U-ctric-light wires to below gronnd. 

jrk In mntt citiM of Kurope is tremeadonaly nnder 
-'kd, H a rule, authority, except iu America and Eng- 
'taid, ercD in reepoct to matters of taste. The more 



IftO 



TBE SORTB AMERICAN REVIEW. 



serioua qawtiona of pablio Bsfety vfaiob the large deTelopmont of 
tbo kigb-picsBure altenute-current sjrKt«m with tmu&fonnen (or 
electric Itghtiug has forced upoD us, in the l&at four je&rs, hare 
Bouooly hitherto comft into acooant in dotonnining the rulc« and 
ntAgOB of contiacncal cities as to ovcrheiul &nd itndor^roand wiring. 

In Paris, the electric-lighting compauius, bound under utriu- 
gent regulatioiis of the city authorities, have all their conduct- 
on underground. There are no ejtcoptioaa to this ; nor are 
there any orerhead telegraph 'wires. Both telegraph acd tele- 
phone viroaare iosalated in electric eables, and ore pUxied under- 
ground in the excellent sever system of Puxis, except iu i»oine very 
nirc cases where a sttbsorilKr livee in the outskirts of the town, 
and bos an air-line to the nearest point of a coble-oarryiDg sever. 

In Berlin, all the electrio-ligbt wires are underground, and the 
lighting is all done by continuous currents at lour potential, much 
of it for out-of-doors, by arc lights in bridges of pairs, hetweeu 
conductors for the supply of indoor lighting, by Edison lOO-roIt 
lamps. No rules have been laid down in Germany to prorido 
against personal danger, there being practically none to provide 
against with 10i>-vol(s' potential ; but rules to prevent danger from 
fire arc impoecd on makers and users of electric-light tnsUiltatioiu. 

Iq Belgium, the telegraphic depttrtmont issued, in 1887, a care- 
ful code of rules for the cstablishmunt and om of eloctric-llght 
vircB above grouuil in all parts of the Belgian dominion, and espe* 
oially in the neighborbuud of telej^raphio and telephonic lines. 
Not one of these rulea has reference to poesible danger from cou- 
dttctors at high potential, because, in fact, iu Belgium, as in 
Germany, there have been hardly any high -pressure cleotrio in- 
stallationK of alternate cnrrent with tninsformers, and electric* 
lighting work has been done chiefly by ouuliuuous currents at 100 
Tolts or other low potential. 

Iu Italy there is no law reslrictiog electric iodnstry. In Milan 
and many other towns of Italy there are small stations for olectrio 
light, supplied through underground wires at low potential. In 
Milan and Turin there nro installations of aCrial vires at 2,500 
volts for forty arc lights in series. These isolated iuBtullutiooB have 
no doubt been put np with great c-aro, and do not seem to havo 
heen hitherto found dangerona to the pnhliir, A ""•."■* ..,-..,ll.^. 
tion for electric light In Borne, by whIt-iuiiv li 

fUls* at Uiirty-eeven kilomet r > ij 



MLBOTRIC UOETDiO AUD JPVSUC BAF£TY. 



IW 



will no doabt 1m realized before long. It Is duigDcd to tue 3,500 
bone-power at tbo falls, wbicb is to be tnaemitted by alteniiiW 
ourreot, at 5,000 volU> throagh atrial coadacLore over the country 
to the city j^ata There, bjr a tfaaa former, it is to be Bret reduced 
to 1,000 volts, aud distributed by undergruuud Hupplj conductors 
to numerous IransFormera in different parts of the citj, hy wbiolt 
it is to beiurtber rcdaood to tbe safe 100 volls for use. 

In pavinir* I ^^y remark that 100 Tolts in tho buuao is por- 
feetly safe to the user, whether tho curreut be alternatinff or con- 
tinuoas, as is proved b; large aiid Taried experience iu Eugland. 

There is, so far as I know, jost one city in the world, outaide 
of England or America or jtaly, in which high-prossQre overhead 
wins are nsed, aud that ia Tcmesvar, in Uungary, which lua boon 
thus supplied with electric light for many years. 

In England, any individual or company wishing to carry wires 
above tbe housM and siroots of our lown<i, or anywhere over the 
coontry, and having obtained permiaaioD from the proprietors to 
place the requisite bearing poles on roofs or other parts of 
buUdiogi, or on unoccupied ground, has perfect liberty to do as he 
phases in tbe air over town and country; provided that be comply 
with whatever conditions may be proecribcd to protect the public 
Mifety and tbe conveoienoe of pre^ioaa occupants of the air. 

Two years ago tlie Board of Trade issuod, under the Eleotric- 
Ligfating Act of 1688, very stringent regulations for safety, to be 
observed throughont tlie United Kingdom, in every case of plac- 
ing an electric conductor otherwise than wholly eoolosed witliin a 
boilding. A copy of these regulutiocs id appended to the present 
popor.* Tliey have been approved by the Institution of ElMtrical 
Eajriucers in consultation with tlio oRiriaU of the Board of Trade. 
If thny are thoronghlr and permanently fultilktl iu ewry case, 1 
believe their object — " the protection of the pnblio safety and of 
the lines aud works of tbe Postmtstor-Genoral, and of otber elec- 
tn»lin« and workfi" — will be effectually secured. So niacb being 
admitted — and 1 believe so much will be generally admitted — the 
quastion rumains, Can these regulations of the Board of Trade bo 
thorongbly and permanently fulfilled ? All that ia essential for 
pDblic safci.v i^ provided for in regnlatiotu 1, 3, 7, and 9. 

ilation 3 places a problem before engineers which is cer- 
ib beyond tiioir powers of fulGlmeot, llie bearing poles 



19S 



TBE yOBTS AMERICAU REVIEW. 



and standtrdt, the strength of the porcelain insulators, and 
lenjtoiu of the vires can certainly be so ammged that the wbots' 
stmclitre of a set of aSrial conductors will be as safe against 
brtftking down m any railway bridj^c. 

Under regulation 7, it may be remarked tliat the " orotaing 
conducUr" is the invader of u preTioiisly-occupied aCrial prov. 



n 



>r, it 



ince. The fulQItneiit of rule 3 by both the prerions occapan 
and tlie inradur eeeurcs, ipto facto, the fuUiliueut of rule 7. 
But rule 7 imposea on the new-comer — understood, no doubt, to 
be a provider of conduccon for electric lighting — the obligation 
of fpiarding against aa elccti-io coatact, even tboujEh the pren- 
onsly-i-xisting tclcgrjtph or telephone wires violato rule 3 and 
break dovn. 

If rules 1, 3, and 7 are fulfilled, rule 9 is unneoeBsary, unloBS 
for the protection of birds. If the two oondactors, side by sid^H 
or one over l\w. other, roiinti tilting the mjiina of a " high-presaure'^l 
circuit of 3,000 volta, say, or of 10,000 volts, be bare copper, it 
would be iu»t»ut death to a bird standing od one of thorn 
toneh the other with tail, wing, or beak. But no other crcjitt 
could be endangered by bare afirial conductors, even at ]0.( 
volta. if they fulfil rules 1, 3, and 7. The protection of bird^ 
was certainly not thought of by the Board of Trade, and we infer 
that rule 9 implies u BusjiicioD that the fullilmoni of ntivs 1, 3, 
and 7 may occasionally fuil in practice. The fulfilment of theea. 
rules can, indeed, be miulc practically certain. Bui at what cestM 
What of the cost for permanent muintcniince of standards, sus- 
pending wires, '•non-metallic ligaments"? And what of tin 
"durnble and etilcient material " required by rule 9 as an iosul 
ing costing for the coppercondnctor. whon we couHidvr that etei 
hitherto known insulating material titac could be used forcoatinl 
the wire cxpericnc«s de^tructire deterioration in the course i 
3rean, espmially if kept exposed to tight and to the vanatiotu of* 
outside atmosphere iu our climate ? 

Wo are forced to conclude that iu laying down these reguln 

tions, And in arranging for careful inspvrtion t- ^ .',--- 

GIment aa far at) praettoahle, the ailvijero of tii 

felt thiit the danger from high-pn-esure orcrlicod wires oouhj 

be absolately annulled. Th'^ T;.>nr Jo r-n»flr 

in most or lUl cams in which 

Lighting Act of 1&68 h- 




1B& 






196 



TBE NOSTB AMERICAN RSVJSW. 



nlMtliw Modiuita* «ad aupaa >bic *IfM, wb«s« Atbulivd to ro rpBt U . Aall be I 
oontaot oalj wtlk m>l«rtol of UiUyliuuLkt'ou itiuilty. maA *bUt bowaitecbad i 
guAidod tlwt, la MM lh«7 broak Kwkf, It aball not b* p«Mtbls tar (bam C« fall »wa 
cImt cf tba Mppoit. 

(PtM«etl«aaful«gT«|ib»iid tolepbona wliMtt«mtot«r(anne».| 

IS. la tbe mm of atcUl ooadtictan cu-rylnic •IuhmUbs muranta. tli* two «(«- ~ 
dnclora ooBHlbittav tb* Ibw vi4 Mtnrn tor ur etravlt •Iwll bo ran p«mSal wttb 
•aoh othw. ftpfl al > illilanoa m^kH. not wiwilbm dgbMea hmb— . 

(Ownvr o( oondnotor wp an ilhto far W OT artt.! 

IL Tbo owiMtr of •Tct7 »<rkl caadncMrriwIlberOTponribtofartbeeCBcteBcror 
errar rap pc*t to wbicb vucb oaiMlact«r li ottocbnl. ood werf aoiiport iIhII bo 
flfflolccitlr BMfkad witb (uobiiu«kliidk»tliiKUMewii«rafalpa( ibocaadaatorMitbe 
BoMd a( Trkd« ■boll ■»prav& 

OlAlllt«IUlBO«i.l 

JS. Etmt ■Crtkl coEid actor. (noladliiBlta mpporta and »ll lb« i>tr<ictBr«l poito 
Mid «lfotrleal LpplUoMBi aoil davlcc* b«longli>c t« or coiuiPct«d wlih audi cott* 
d«etorcli*ll b« dulT Mid cdiolanltr saparvlMd oad BoUitoteod brocon bsballottbe 
ownara aa t^tpir&m both nteetrteal and msahaiilaal eonJlCloim 

lUniasd oo«idii«ton to b« mnorod.! 

U, AnaArtaJeoiidn>elarBbaIlaot b« ptrmUtad to remain areetad after It baa 
caaaed to ba D*ad for the npplj at •■wrsT- noleaa tb« ownun o( ooob oondnetor 
iaiaod, wllbin arnaaonablollini:-. »RiiIn to lAkn It Intotuo. 

IT. Everr oftlkl oaDdocUir Hhall be pluocd and (umI with dno ngBri to eiectila 
Udm oad wocka (Tom luno to Umo luod. or Inlanded l« be iwed, for ilie poipoaa nl 
IdoCTopUooainaiaaloBUoDortfacctirraata la nob electric Uoca oad worka, and 
«<r«t7 raaoo n o b lw maoaa aball b« asiplvjad la tbo plodoK Mid hm at >M>1 ooadvct- 
ora to pMTcnt iajnrloua oOiMtloa, wttathar by lodiMtJon or otbarwlso, to aaj nob 
eIi«trlollaeaorworlEa.avUM earonta tbarala. 

ma.\. At)OtleBdaacf1feutK«nfT*MaleeadQetar«roetodaraaadIar thaaa|i|d)r 
of tneno'. aball tortbwitb, span roetlpt of tbeae resnlatUnk ba acFvod npoa tho 
Poat]iiut«Ml«i«ral, to8«tbar wltb a plan abonlns tba mode oad poaltion In wbleb 
rucb coniiuutor hereetvd. 

(b) Tlio Foatmaatai-Oanonl, npon couldarallon of ancb aoUeo and plio, tnor 
TconlrerKibalcontlon In tbo poalUon or mod« of «r«otla&, or mod* of oaa uanob 
oondiKtor, or ooqipllaoGe witb eodt otbor eondttlffiia ao bo maj think lltt Im*1iw 
raiaid to tbe pTotacUon of tho daotrte Unaa or works of tba Poatnaator-OoDoroL aad 
Kor tolloro on tbo part of tbo bodr or porwa owolnK or wtasi «r oatltlad to om, tha 
aoU eorutDctor to oo«aplr vrjUi «ueli roqiatnmeota, efaalJ badeamod to ba • ntwoMD- 
pUoaea with thMo raeuioUons. 

le.) Any natlM r«)uirod to be aerved npon Ibn Poatnaal«H3*B*r«l nailar tbaoa 
ranlotloDii majr bo Mirviid bjr bolnjc *ildr«mi>d to him and loft at. cr trooatolUad 
tbrouKb tbe po«t lo. the Oceeni PoHt-Ufflce. London, and any notlea nqnlrad to bo 
•crrod on the bodj- or poraoo ownltiK or oilnji. nr ontiUMl to tuo, oar a<<rla] oan* 
dwnor Dkor bo aRrrod bj beInK oddroaodto anob bodyor panoQUdloft at. or 
tmianiltted tbroagb tho iKMt to. tbelrarUaolBooarlBst-fcaownplacoofaddma 




* 



NEWSPAPERS HERK AISD ABROAD. 

BT £. L. OODSIN. 



It 18 Dov forty yean since TocqneTille coTDpared ■ newspaper 
to ft mnn ftaadia^ at ikn Of va wiuOow uitii buwling to pOBScrs-by 
k the street. Down to his timo tho newspaper press in &U coau- 
triw in Europe, and almost dowo to his timi* in America, was 
looked apOD as eimply. or m&iuJj-, an ill-informed und oftvu mar 
ligoaut critic of the government, Tbe fearlces and independent 
fnm «f our pvat-grandfoUifrTB waa a prees tbat exposed the ehort- 
eotnjnga of men in power in a style in wbich D« Foe and Junius act 
the CaatiioQ. Tbe ideal editor of those days was a man who ex- 
pected to be locked np on account of the boldness of his invee- 
tmaMfcamst the gorenimeut, but did not mind it. Although he 
Ueo leered nevB, his tiewa-gath«rin^ waa eo euboidinote to bie 
eritlcisai that be waa hardly thought of as a newa-gatherer at all. 
Too<{aerille*8 man bawling out of the window was not bawling 
oat the latest intelligence. He wss bawling about the blundvra 
and corruption of the ministry, and showing thcin tlie way to 
maege tbe public bostacsfl, but at the eame time making the 
Bunagement of the pablic buatueas dilEcutl by fipreading discon> 
tent axkd aaapicion among the people. Crabbe. in his poem. 
" Tbe Newspaper," produced in 1784, scourges the weekly jour- 
naleot the day for their assiduity in collecting goeaip and scandal, 
_biit Ui aerereat catire in reser\'cd for their oomnieota and oriti- 
" Blind thetnaelves," he says, 

" ibM* wTtn* B«tdei bold eat 

Suioe th&t time a Tery great change has come oxer the relation 

»1mV' - ""■ I ewa- gathering function, which the 

Sring into prominence, hu become 

I'll lIio oriLicat function has relatively 




108 



THi: NORTB A^rsRICAy review. 



declined. But the most momontOTu alteration in the position of 
the newspaper press has beea wrought by the iuereaee in the nam- 
ber of r^ers. Since 1848 erory conntr; in the cinlixad world 
has been devoting itsvlf to the work of popular education, with 
the result of increasing tenfold tlio number of persons Icnowing 
bow to read and write and ciphor, but knowing rery Itttlo more. 
Contemporaneously with this ha« be«Q the improvcmont in the 
means of truvcl and of triin.^mitting intelligence, thus literally 
making news- gathering a new and important calling. What waa 
at the beginning of this century the occnpation of gossips in tav- 
erns and nt street comers, had by the middle of the century risen 
to the rank of a new industry, requiring large capiul and a huge 
plant. \Vc Tfiad a great deal about the wonderful growth of the 
woollen and cotton manufacture since the application of steam 
to the power loom and the spi Doing- jenny ; but it is safe to say 
that these things, could they have foreseen them, would not have 
amazed Uurkc and JoIiusoq nearly as mnob an ibo conversion of 
" oews," as they understood it, into the raw material of such 
factories as the great newspaper offlcoa of our day. That " coffee- 
hoase babble" could ever be made to yield huge dividends and 
baild np great fortunes is something they would have refnaed to 
believe. 

Of course, this derolopment of news-gathering side by side 
with the criticism and comment took place with different de- 
grees of rapidity in different countries. The news-gathering 
grew in the direct ratio of the spread of the reading art and of tbe 
extension of the suffrage, and, therefore, grew more rapidly in the 
United States tlian anywhere else. Kvcry man condticta his 
business under the inflnenoe of some one domiaating theory aa to 
what will prore moat profitable. Accordingly, newspaper pnb- 
lishers early made their choice between the " leading ulicle" and 
the ncws-lett«r as means of pushing their fortunoA by extending 
their circulation. Few or none attached the same importance to 
both. As a general mlo, the American publisher devoted him»lf 
to news, and the Kuropean to criticifim or comniooL The foraiar 
found a much larger pul>Uc which wanted news, and f-arud coni' 
paratively little for criticism or literary form : the butei* fnntiil 
his account in catering for a smaller puT 
acting in the matter of tasle. The aprrabl 
Amorioa waa far more rapid from tho L 



soo 



THE KORTB AUSRWaN R£vt£W. 



atioc anil tliu Maniirchy uf Jul;, owoil nothing whatever to 
we c&il jounuUistic cQterpriac. They woa lumo u cdi 
writers simply. 

There coald hardly be a more strikiug illastratioD of tlie 
foRdoesA of the Krcnch public for cdiioriiil writing than the 
place which Mr. Jolui Lvmoiuc htu for over thirty ytrnrB held in 
FroQoh Mtecm, owing to hia articles in the Jnurnai du Dihatt. 
It is no iiijuetice to say that Umr merit lies maiuly in their style. 
His original contributions to the political thought of \iU time 
have been of but small importance, if, indeed, of any import- 
ance. But his elegance, his polish, the balance uf liis porioda. 
the care &nd gravity and judioiAl-mindcdness with which he 
statos hi« case and oxtmuts the wisdom of the occauion, have 
furnished. a rare sesthetic treat every morning, or three or four 
mornings in the week, to two generations of Frenchmen. Ko 
«ucb cnuneace has been achieved by a journalist iu ivay other 
country, and he is in the Freuoh mind the tyj>o of the journaliat 
in the best sense of that term. 

Of course, there arc now in Paris as groat varieties of joanul- 
iit« u Among ourBdvce ; but tboy oil try to aobiore succms by 
meansofetlitoriat writing of some kind, and not by nevs-gothoring. 
This accounts fur the facihty with which new piiperti are started 
in Pans, and the great gnccess which they sometimes achieve with 
hardly any investment of capital. The proprietors do not ooo- 
template the coUoctiou of news ns any part of tho onterprtae. and 
consequently have not to provide for the coitt of telegraphing and 
reporting. They rely for their success on a leading article of 
Bome sort, or on the /eutlleton, or on the theatrical and art criti- 
ciema. The storice which Parisian journalists tell each other in 
their caf6e ore not of their prowess as reporters, but of the 0cnuw> 
tioQ they have made aud the increase iu circulation ther have 
achieved by gome sort of e<1itorial comment or critiquv ; the 
American passion for aud glory in " beate " — meaning snperiority 
over rivals in getting hold of cows — they do not QDilcrstaiidt or 
thoronghly demise. 

Iu Kngland the equilibrium between the two functions of 
newspaper has been fairly maint«iu«d. owing to Ibo 
circumstances of the country. Its l'> 
largo colonial posseesiomi have, ever fw 
rise, given early and aocamta :: 



NSWSPAPElta HERE AND ABROAD. 



aai 



nine, and the proprietore of leading jauruats have from the first 
nn>rull.r caltivated it. Tba story of Itochjohild lajiog the foiin> 
ilmUun of his great fortane bj being the first to ruach Landoo with 
the novg of Waterloo i« oa illustratioQ of the importance wbioh 
nliablu for^gu ititc^Uigencu has bad, ever siuoe the b«giiiuing of 
the c«Dturjr, for the Briiii^h mercantile men and politlotans. Whut 
li goiog on abroad all over the world id of raoru importauce in 
L<mdon than in any other place on earth, and it ia fully aa import- 
ant for commercial purposes that the uetrs should be accurate us 
that it iihould be early. The TimeSf therefore, vbtcb has fur- 
aiihed Britiab jonnuilinm vith ita model, ban, from the first, calti- 
Talr^) accuracy with grtiat caru, tuid with corresponding gain, in 
wvigbt and authority. In truth, this authority tras norer seri- 
oiuly ahakeo or impaired until the Pigott affair. 

The r6\e of the American press in the growth of joumaJism 
^m been distinctly the dutvtopmeot of tmws-guthering ua a biiiti- 
BCM, leafing to the work of comment only a aubordinate place, 
•ad, in (act, one might aay a compnmtivcly iiisigniOcant one. In 
AsMiican n«mpapen, too, the field in which news may bo found 
hu been gresOy enlarged; ■ much larger chisit of fact« ih drawn 
on for letters and de«pHt«!hca. News in the journalistic moae hm 
Mrer been clearly defined. Taken literally, news is everything 
that a man has not already heard; but no journal andertakefi to 
iDppIy bim with news of thin oort. The line has to be drawn 
sonewherc between new« whiob may be umfully and legitimately 
MTcd Dp to him on bU break foat -table, aiid news which would 
either do bim nogoodorto which he has no fair claim. \^'^euenter- 
priss and boaaMS competition aro allowed to trace this line with- 
oot tbe ooDltol of either law or morality, it is sure to have as 
inany ligiagsin tt as there are jouruuls, and it ia equally sure 
that the commercial roealt will largely determine the qneation of 
l^ttttuuiy in the public eye. In a commorcial country, it is in- 
vfitiUile that the aoqaisilion of money iihnuld he the generally 
listd. as It ia the most easily reco;;ni£Mi, sign of sacceas. Aa 
-oe of this, the modea of acquiring it which only offend 
'' ■ ■. and are not legally criminal, are treated 
■rif^, or even, in iwme cases, call forth 
iinmunnublo. in truth, than the 
' '■ ■ with the eioes?«3 of the news- 
.: jounuUsm, coDdideriog the 



303 



TSK SOUTH AMERICAN REVIEW. 



enormonK rewards m monej. and even in soci&l cohb iteration, 
wliicli it pays and baa paid to those who work thiefieid with tout 
rij;;ttrd to the coarentioQa. 

There luw boen from time to time considorable discassion as 
to whelher newspapers are literature, as if the term lil^ratiire 
cuuld bo properly conQned to writitigit poaacaaing the qualities of 
Permanence and of artitttio fiDiiih. Unhappily, literattire ta what- 
ever largo boflieft of people rend. Newspapers may b« bad litera- 
iiirt>, but literature they are. The hold ibey have taken, and are 
taking, as the reudiug matter of tb« bulk of tbe popiila* 
tioi) ID alt the more highly civilized ooantries of the world* is 
one of tho most serious facts of our ticne. It is not too much to 
say that they are, and have benn for the last half-oGnturj-, exerting 
more inflnence on die popular mind and the popular morals than 
eibhur the pulpit orthe book prees has exerted in Srehnndred years. 
They are now nhapitig the social and political world of the twen- 
tieth century. The new generation which (he pnhlic schools arc 
pouring out in tens of millions is getting its tastes, opinions, and 
standanlK from thuui. and what sort of world tbls will produce a 
hundred ytMin hviiL-e nobody knowa. 

One of the most important peculiarities of newepapeni is tluU 
but T«ry f«w who r«ad thorn much eter read anything else. Th« 
notion that a confirmed newspaper-reador can tnrn to books 
whenever he pleases, or that the newspaper- reading as a general 
rule forms a taste for any book*rending, exce]>t ])crhaps noTots, 
finds little support in observed (acts. The power of continiiotis 
attention which book-reading eolls for — attention of the eye as 
well as the mind — is acquired, like the power of protracted hodily 
exertion of any kind, by continual train! ug. ending in the forma- 
tion of habit. Anybody who neglects it in youth, or lays it aside for 
a considerable period at any time of life, 6ndsit all but imposublo 
to take it up again. The busy man who eschews Uteratare, or 
poctpoQOS calture, until he retires fn)in activp indastry, 
Dsui^Iy finds bookrewling the moat potent soporiSc bii ou 
turn to. Now, nothing can be more danoaging to the habit of 
continuous attention than iiow.ipaper-roftdinL' 
tions t« the indolent man or woman, o r th* 
has had little or no mantel training, 

mind to be fixed on nnv ' ri,-ii 

and that «Tory topic fura- 



j>-., _» ;. 



TBS M>RTn AUBBICAX REVIEW. 



DBSg of life. But this mntQal hoetilitj of tlie two agencies vhioh 
most powerfully affect popular thoaght, and shape ttie conduct of 
both na,tionB and men, cannot but be regardod with great coDCcrtL 
Thoir raaottciliation— that is, the ooQTtrtion of the newspaper 
into a better channel of communication to the maases of the b«et 
thought aud moat accurate knowledge of the time — is one of the 
problems, and perhaps the most serious one, that the coming 
century will huvo to solvu. 

It would be very diflicnlt to forecast nowthe preoiw tnaoDCr in 
which thia problem will bo attacked, or the exact kind of society or 
government which the newspaper, as we know it, will, if it be not 
transformed, end by creating. It would, perhaps, be £oii;g too far 
to ascribe to ucwspapcra the place in Bbaping national character 
which Fletcher of Ssllouu sflcrilKKl to singers in that much-hock- 
neyed saying of his. We cannot say. "Let me make the news- 
papers of a country and I do not care who mokes its laws.'* But 
that newspapers bavo an increasing inQucace oti Jcgialatton, and 
that le^cialatinn affectii manners and ideas, there can be no question. 
Our society is, however, acted on by so many agencies tliat he 
Tould be a bold man who should u« yot undertake to calcnlate 
closely tho oSocU) of any one of them. 

£. L. GoDKur, 




THE DOCTRLNE OF STATE JUGKTS. 



ST JS7rBB»0N DATI8. 



* 



To DO Justice to th« motives which Bctnated thesoldien of th« 
ConfodemoT, Jt is atwdral thkt tho oaiue for wliicli the,v fought 
tbculd be furljr uudcnrtood ; for no degree of skill, valor, and 
derotioD eoa sanctify torrico in an unnght«ons caaee. 

We rc?rre the momory of Wiwhington, not so much for his 
aclupToanrQtiin Mtna aa for hiswlf-ubnegation and the imfniter- 
iog doTotion with nhicK ho defended the inalieUAble righti of 
tlt« poo]ilu of all thfi rnitci] States. This made liim " dnt in 
fWMe. first in war, utid Srst in the hearts of his conntry 
own," and for thi4 the ^reat English poet wrote : " Bat 
on* wen worthy of tho name of Waahinglon." Yet he 
wifl what no Southorn eoldicr in the wxr between tho States 
cooU, with imth, be called — a rebel — and, without mach ex- 
trarafanoe ia tho fij^re, was said to Imtb fought the battles of 
tho R«Tolatiori with a haltor round his neck. Had there boon uo 
inaliriialile righu, or hnd they not been violated, he could not 
rightfully haTobeen absolved from his allegianoe to the erown, or 
ooDMieationaly hare felt that he had not broken his failh as sub- 
Jael to the lawful powers of the British GoTernraent, in taking 
up amu against il. 

In 1776 thirteen of the British colonics in America sent dele- 
gatoa to ageoernl congreas. who there, for the colonics they repre- 
voC«d, mada the doolaration " thai' these united colonie* are, 

**!** l' '^i^V^^* ** **• '"^ *"*^ independent sUtes." 
T" ' thMM^jkp other British coloniee iu America, were 

*■ ■^^^^R Britain; and to jnatify thoir declaration of 

'■^jmifnment of the king for his viola* 

iiu aud rights was submitted to the 

VD ODRtamary among us annually 

itvnee* , and what Amen- 




900 



THE NORTir AMERIC^iN REVIEW. 



can baa rdaed his toIco agaiiut tlio conctiuioo dedacod ? Tbo' 
penneatiog priuclpto ww that ov«ry poopb bad the riebt 
to alter or abolish their gorenunent when it CGa4«d to answer the 
ends for which it was iiiBtitutwl. Each Stat« deeided to exereisoJ 
that right, and ull of thu thirteen tiuiled to auttuin ic. Great' 
Britain dcuicd tliu vsisttiucc of tbc us«ertcd ngbt and a long war 
ensuod. Aftor a heavy sacrifice of life and troatare. tbo Truaty of 
Paris was uefjotiaUid iu 1783, bv which Qrvat Briluin rocogtiixad 
the iiidopaiidence of the States aeparatel;, not as ou« body politic,j 
but seTcnilly, <!ach cue bcJitx named in the act of recognitioo. 

la tbo Ycar succeeding the Declaratioa of Indupcndcuce — i*. «.,- 
1777 — the thirteen , States by which it had been made lOst dolo- 
gat«8 to a geneml congress, and tbo; agreed to " certain articles ^J 
of ooufedvration and perpetual union between the Sutes " the; Hj 
reprcwDtcd. and that " the stylo of tho confederac; shall be 
the United States of America." That no purpose existed to con- 
solidate the States into one body politic is manifest from tho 
terms of the second article, which waa: " Each State retains its 
aovoreigiily, freedom, and independence, and every power, juris- ^& 
diction, and right which is not by this coofederation oxprosaly ^| 
dek-i;utvd to the United States in congress assembled." Tbo ^* 
meaning of this article is qnite plain, if it be borne in mind thut 
under the confederation the congress was of States, each baring 
one vote only, irrespecliro of population or the number of dele- 
gates in attendanoo, and tbe oxpreBslT*dolegat.ed powcni were mcb ^a 
OS it was agreed that the congress of the States might use, all else ^| 
being reserved to tbe States Beparat«ly. Under these Artiolw of ^^ 
Cunfoderation the w»r of tho Rerolntion was condncted. 

In tbo face of tlie T)ectaration of Independence, and of tbs 
Articlefl of Confederation, and of the Treaty of Paris, he who 
denies that in 1763 «Ach State was a sovereign, free, and inde- 
pendent rommunity must hare mach hardihood or little histo^] 
ical knowledge. 

After the independence had been gained for which kd muchi 
was risked and no little lost, when the cor' ' ":if 

was removed, the fact became apparent t': iW-', 

to administer the general affairs of the 1 \it»i 

semioa of ndilitionid powers. 
amend the Ariiclcfl of Confeden 
DOW form of govcrnmeDt which 



ace 



THE yORTS AifERTCAy ItEVTEW. 



Ml. Midison, in Th* Federalist, to the qnestioo, " On ffbat 
principle the oonfederatiou, which etauds iu the solumn furm of 
II comiiaot among the Stctes, can be snp^rsetled withuut the anan- 
itnotis consent of the purtios to it? " unitwcnc " By recurring to the 
ubsolatu ncuctaittj i>f tliu cibsc ; to the gntkt principle of self» 
preserratton ; to the transc^ndeiit luw of nuturu and of nature's 
God, which declares that the s&tely and hnppincss of society are 
the objects at which nil political ioEtitutions aim, and to which , 
nil such institutions must be sacrificed." y 

Thus the matter stood when the Constitution to form a muro 
perfect union vas adopted, not, lu hus been most unjustiiinbly 
asserted, by the people of the United Slates in mats, but by thdj 
people of the States, each acting in its own conrention and t>i 
tying at dilTer«at dates, the firet being Dcocmbitr 7. 1787. thai 
last May 99, I7W. In view of facta w generally known, or (if 
not so) aooessible to every reudt-r of American hiotory, it is anr- 
prisiiigthat some have contended that the Union was formed by 
the people of the United States as one body politic 

Though the States by a voluntary compact created a genei 
govenuncut and delegated to it onunicratcd powers, reaening 
else to themselvee. it hag been Attempted to deduce from theso 
limited grants a supremacy for the agent over the Siutcs, and, 
consequently, to deny to the States of the Union the aorervignty 
they posaosscd as Stales of the confederation. No one hoa at- 
tempted to show by wtiat grant of the Conititution it can be 
claimed that the States have surrendered their sovereignty, nod it 
seems absurd tn aseume that by implicatiou the gn-ut object forfl 
which our fathora staked all «u\o honor could hnre been losuV 
But ihey were too watchful to leave the qneatton open (or 
argument. Therefore, though thi* body of the imn-nniu-nl ws 
thought by its frameni to be snfllcienlly explicit in iu limitutioi: 
of the powers of the gqaermi govcrument to those expressly deb 
gated, yet, In an abundaooe of caation, almost coDtcmpomneonalj 
with the ratification of the compuct, two aoiendmenta were 
poitod and adopted is the following words: 



" AtUoto IX. Tba BDiusermlloa In th« CottMlttitlon of cvrtAla rlf hu "^jTi qm la 
eonjtmadUdeoyvrdlapkncvocbMvrvtelnafift- "■- ''- 

" aniek X. Tko poNiHW Mi rl>li»»i1 lo 1 1 
tfoB. ur imUMWrf bf li to Uu SOMk at* raiw.i 
IksMspta." 



THE DOCTRINE OF STATE RIOHTS. 



S09 



JotuoHflationidU. with more z«al thui reason, have argued 
that iho last two words in tho tenth amondmciit roforn.'d to tho 
whole peoplo. Rut this ih sorely unteDable; the only people known 
to th« ajsteoi wore the people of a State or commonwealbh; tbcj 
only had boon nuprvMuted in the Congrem or in tho convention 
Iwbich framed the Uouetitutioo. To th«m thAt inftrnmont had 
booa iabniitt«4 ; by them it tiiu) been ratified. The expression 
laid/ oonttmed munt meHn tli« Sialv gov« rumen tit, and the peo* 
pla of each State who held ri];hts they had rraerved from the 
oootrol of their SUte govemmont. Furthermore, the obvious 
parpose being to guard ngninst the lunrpation of ondclegntcd 
power, it would have been worse thiui dugwrtluoas by reeerration to 
proride protection for the whole jwoplo aga.inat theniM>lve& 

Id claiming aoreroignty for the States I must not he ander- 
Mood aa meaning tho Stnto goremmeDts. When tho word StaU 
b need, it rn^im the people of an orga.nizRd oommunity. The 
fouidorsaf the American Republic nererconrerivd or iiiteuded to 
ooofer sorereignty npou either Stat« or Federal governments. 

If the people of the States, ia forming a Federal Union, trans- 
(trred their sovoreignty, or any part of it, to whom was the 
traiufer made Y Not to the poopio of the United States in the 
^gngBto, for there was no such political hmly. The Article* of 
Cooffdciatiou in their front dcclurM that each State retained its 
■enniignty, freedom, and independence; that could only mean 
tha pwple in their organic clmrocter. In like manner the 
orlgiBBl constitnlion of Massachusetts declared : " The people in- 
habiting tho territory formerly called the Province of Maasachn- 
letta Bay do hereby solemnly aiid mutually a^^roe with each other 
to form theraselTfls into a free, sovereign, and independent body 
potitir, or S(al». by the name of The Commonwealth of Uassa- 
diusetts.*' In the debates of the convention which formed the 
Constitntion. as they are found rrportwl in Elliott's " Uebales," 
Ihare is abundant proof that the men who prepared the instrument 
retMfniaed wveroignty as belonging to the people of the Icdi- 
vidoal Statea; that there was no purpose to transfer it to the 
Fedfrml Oon-mmMit. or to regard it as being divinihle. The 
f^utM intnirted to the Federal (Jovemment. as their agent, some 
ions of sovereignty, but the performance of these by 
«j( the States did not involve a violation 
ffaa American theory; that sovereignty 
U 



aiu 



TRB XORTTT AMTRICAN REVIEW. 



boloDKcd alono to tlie poopl«, ncd tli« rwolutioiu of raliflcatioi) 
of the CaDHtilutioD by rbu Slaters show wliut1)i*r tli« purpose wu 
to traiufei' llie power or oiiljr to authorize il8 use. 

The UKuui form of raUQculion wiu< lut in thefollowiug examples: 
"Tho doIegat«« of tbo people of tbn Stat« of New Uamptihiru, in 
the name aud behalf of the poople of the Stutu of Now IlKinp- 
shire/' etc., and " th« delegates of the people of Virginia, for and 
in bohalf of the people of Virginia/' etc., do auont to luid niUfjr 
thtteuid Cou^titutioti for the United btat«a of America. 

Aa had been done by Maasoohusctte, Kew Humpsbiro, aod 
South Carolina in ralifying tho CooBtitutioQ, Virginia required 
certain amendmpnts as a more explicit guarantee against consoti- 
dation, and aocompaniod tho proposition with the foUowing dvclar- 
ation : "That th« powers granted ucder tlia Constitution, being 
dorived from tbo |R»opIe of the Unit««1 States, may bo rceumod br 
tliem whenerer the same shall be perrerled to their injury or 
opprcdsion, and that every power not granted thereby rvmoiua 
with them," etc., etc. For whom were the delpgutea cominia- 
sioned to speak ? Only for the people of Virginia. By 
whom had grants been made T By the States severally, and 
the aswrtion could only menu that to each of ihem all tindele* 
gated power runiuinod. Ind<Hi], thnru i«'as no other repository 
from which it could hare been drawn; therefore no other la whicli 
it could bare been said to remain. 

New York was the eleventh State to assent to the compact of 
union, and her rutiUcutiou was made mora than seven months 
after that of Delaware, and was accompanied by a docIarsUoa of 
the principles on which her aseent waa given, from which the tol- 
tott'iug extract is made : "That the powers of government may bo 
reassamed by the jK-opIe whonaoeYcr it shall become oocowAiy 
to their happiuesa ; that every power, jurisdiction, and right 
which ii not, by the said Constitntion, clcflrly delo;:atcd to the 
Congress of cho ITnited States, or tho departmentti of the govam- 
mcnt thereof, remains to the people of thu several Sutos, or 
to their respective State governments, (o whom they may hare 
granted the same," etc. 

Here, even moru distinctly than before, ts »tuw«red tl)e qaestton 
aa to who were tiik i>E()Pi.it by whom the powem might bo reai- 



urn 1*1 



ihi- Ci»u»ti- 



.a 



DOCTRnm OP STATE RIGHTS. 



2\\ 



w «^n of all tb& States to reform, or even to diasolre, tbti 
itn«ni. thojr would not have be«ii obatrnctiNl, as tb«y wok 
ier Ihc Conf«Jumlii>Q, by u pMgo to perpetual union or bj a 
Htion agaiuft any ultvration of thu Constitution except bjr 
30UB twiwDnt vt the States. Theri'fi>n>, iiiileaa tbc right to 
nsamme was a&serteil as belonging ta any Statu being a party to 
'i!u;t, th(! liwlnratioD was ii?pIi>«h and sromingly withont 
U«a«iium|ition vt the corrc'latitL> uf delegation. 
by lilt- piiblt3ht><l ilrbatM of the general convention of 1TK7 which 
E[«nHl ilio (.'otistitutiun, and of tli« Htuto conventions to which 
was Mverally «ubinittc<) fcr approval or rejection as coehshouM 
F^cci4]e. and b; thv rcsolnttoiui of ratilicalion, it is clearly ilemoii- 
tfA that they did not sunendcr thi^ir dearly-bought, mmi 
MTereignty, freedom, and independence, or commit the ub- 
irtlity «f fetleinptiitg to delognte iitulicniiMe rights. 
At that early i»cnod «P4'tjoiial rivnlry witg niniiife-^te<l, and 8otn« 
tiw most inAnentiat advoeate* of the new Union felt the larking 
!>r tit faftimi niiJ stiui^hL to provide agiituHt it by nieaiid con- 
it witli the perpetuity of iiw Union, Faction, with the 
idc&CY of majorities to oppr«flB minorities, was tlie recognixcd 
■■ failure in former fixlcrattona and repnblicn. To ptoteet the 
. ~^iat« from that oril, it wim nouglit tn Gei'iire a balonco of 
between the North nutl the South, by eo organizing the 
in hnuatat of Congrcfls that neither Bection would hiwc a majority 
bi}th. The purpoMi was goo<I, but the o-alculatiou wu bud, so 
in a uut-dial«Dt future the N'orth, br a wction, had a majority 
liotli honsua of Congrou and in the electoral colleges for the 
Lehoice tif the I*reiidciit. Purty did for many years control fac- 
tioa; and prineiples. iiidepondeut of latitude mid lotigi tilde, formed 
the renieiit of political parlies. Thus it wiis.iui lute as 1853. that 
ibas true patriot and friend of the Con^titiition, Franklin Pierce, 
oovld c4>tMcii-niii>ii<t!y ^y that, politically, he knew no North, do 
ith. DO EmI, no We»t. 

The wiw itate«men who formwl the plan for the new V nion of 
-W. wir ' ! . ■' ■' . n^juin-il ii miitariiil barrier to 

miinn iiri under the influence of Belf- 

ast of dominion. They could not have been certain 

' ' ing the balanoo of power between the 

\* :ily BneeKRHful. What, then, waatlie 

wm uf TiolatLtl compact and aggrMsion upon re- 



919 



TBB NORTH AMEBIC AN REVIEW. 



served rights? 2fone wm stated, bot the proposition to aathoni 
the employment of foroo againat a delinqaeut State wiu d«-] 
nounoed od all aides of the coaTention aud rejected without a 
division. lu the origioal draft of the ConEtttntion the term 
"national gorernment" was wiitten : to thia expreSBion Mr. 
Ellsworth objected, and moved to drop the word '*natitm/tV 
and retain the proper title, "the Vnitett States"; which motion] 
waa urmniniouslj adopted hj the convention. Both the coercion] 
of a State and the use of the term " nstioniil govcmnjcnt " we 
fimphaticol); condemned by the frsmers of the Constitution. 

A compact waa made between indepeiident Scatea by which 
expriwaly-enunierated powers were delegated to a government in* 
atitiited for their common bcnclit, which was a partnership with* 
out limitation. No mode of termiaating it wm specified, bnt Mr. 
Madison, than whom none was better informed of tlieojiinioneasd 
purposes of the members »f the convention, in the number of The 
Federalist heretofore fiuoted (which was an ar^meat to justify 
Beceesitin from the confederation) wrote : j 

" 1l Isao wtabllabod docuino on tbo snlOect of trKftUu tli&t all utfclM mn 
mntnanr oondlUon* vt each otiier: tlutt a broach of aiijr oao artkto U a brwcb oC 
Ibe wboto tnaV : mA tbM a farweli oMamltMd \n dtbar of tha partlw abaolna Ika 
otbofifc and aatboctMS them, If tliaj ploaae. t« praaovnca Um eeapact rlsAalad and 
vgU. SlioiUd It nnbaiipOr W mtetmtiTj to a|ipMU to ttioM d«Uoat« traUta for a 
JiHiUfl<^atian (ordlapoiuSHtcirtiatbaoowHnt at parttoaUr Statoa taaiUaoJatloael 
the Federal pMt,wUliweth*«oairUlalB«paTttM And It a dUHonU fauk to aasinr 
tbnmnlUpUedaDdlBpMiaatlafMotlauwtthwbieb tbejinaTto raufnoladl TM 
tlifwbasb«wB wtunltwaalaeaBbaatn ns aU to vail tlw Una wUeh tbk paia- 
ffmpb oihlbli&'* J 



It is unfortunate that the confention should hare thought 
proper to veil the delicate truth and did rot in plain terms an- 
nounce the right of a State to secede from the Union whenever » 
it should cooso to unswer tbo cuds (or whioh it was eetabU«he(J,fl 
Tiz., to insure domestic tmnquilHty and promote the general wel- 
fare. Our past hirtory distinctly shows how reluctant any Stale 
would be to sever ber connection with the Union ; and may ib not 
reaaonnbly be inferred that, if the right to withdraw had 
Koognisod, thoro wontd hnro been additional oare not to gir^ 
jufit oanew for the exercise of that right f 

Though not expressed, the exi»lpr>'— ■'' '^e vij^t ir*' 
aaorted and rarely, if oviu-, deatcd :• 1 1 

ho said that it was then for tb« first Uu 



TBE DOCTRISE OF STATE RIQBTS. 



913 



sre for the finit time denied. The acquisition of Louisiana 
in 1803 created muuh diitatiKfuction in the Now Kuglond States, 
tbe rsMOQ of wbioh WM cxpreased by sa emincitt citisvu at 
KunobDsatt*, who Mid that "the intlueiioe of our part of the 
Uakm iniut b« diiDiniehed by the ncquiettioa of more weight at 
tbe otbsr extremity." ("Life of Cabot," by T^odge, page 334.) 

In 1811, CD the bill fur the admiMiOQ of Louisiana oa 
% StAto of the UnioD, the Hod. Josiah Q>^>Qc;, member of 
OoDgroK from MusaohaBctts, said: " If thia bill pasees, it is my 
4dibcr»te opinion that it ii virtaatly a diuoltition of this Union ; 
tbat it will free the States from their moral obligation ; and a« it 
irill be the nght of all, bo it will bo the duty of eome, dofiaitcly 
m prepAK for a sdparatioD— amicably if they can, violently jf cbey 
raoit.'' 

The Ilartfonl Convention asscnibUid in December, 1614. From 
tbeir published report the following extract is made : " If tho 
Union b« desUued to dlawliition by reason of tbe multiplied 
•boKa of bad adnitniatnition, it should, if poaaiblo, be the work 
of p— ooa blo times uDd deliberate consent. . . . Whenever it 
•luiu appQor that the cftoses are nulicul unil ]>crmancnt, a sepora* 
ligo by equitable arrangement will bv prt-fumblu to an alliance by 
enutnuDt among nominal friends, but real euomic>." 

In 1844 the measures taken for the annexation of TeiM 
•roked threats of a dissolntion of the Union. Tho Legixlittiirc of 
Xaanchnaetti adopted a resolution devUring that " the Cum- 
OKniwealth of HaMachuMtls, faithful to tho compact between the 
pMpl« of the United States, according to the plain meaning and 
intent, in whiob it was UDderatood bj- them, is sincerely anxious 
for iu premrration ; but that it is determinetl, a« it douhts not 
the other States are, to submit to undel^^tad powers in no body 
o{ mm on earth"; and that " tho project of the annexation of 
TexM. aniws urfoted on the thrvshold, may tend to drive those 
SUtw into a dicsolntion of the Union." 

Tbe oxamplee cited are sufficient to show that seceaiion wu 
OM a new idea in 1861, and that ita assertion was not of Southern 
arigin- !ieft»r« leaving the subject, it may in general terms bo 
_ vtatcd tltat llie doctrine at Sute righte is not that of a section, 
minority, seeking the protoctfon of State sover- 
^real or supposed aggression of a usurping 
I Wtt a*ki.vl by what olauas of the Constilu- 



314 



THE SOHTII Al 



?H'. 



tion llic Stales mrrciiJorwl tlioir sovercij^nty and, by conKCiqn»nc«,'3 
n Stute lost its right to scoetle ; and tho nttaresL npproncli we hnre 
b*d to an auswer has b«en the inqairy, Whvrc is the right of it 
SUt* to sei^odp get forth in the Constitution? Thii marka cither 
an eradoii of tin* iiwiip or extrein« ignorance of the hialory of lh« 
Union. The Stutcs delefpitixl all thu rightu ami powers which tlu 
general govemment possesses, mid they u^ri'cd with mch othej 
that 110 Stale should oserciso certiun functions which w^re in^ 
tnist«(] to tho Federal Oovernmont as Ihoir agent; therefore i{ 
Mwnu not leu titan puerile to ask from what port of the ConstU 
tutioi] the right or power of a Stat« wiw derivptl. Every powerj 
function, or right which the States did not agree to delegate 
their common agent reniiiineil with them. No one of oiiiini 
information and intelligence tan deny that the StatM were sar- 
ereign. free, and independeuL when they cnterwl into the compact 
of Union. If they had not been sorereign^. they would not hare 
boon competent to form that treaty; and as none hare cTeii 
ottemptiMl to show whore or how their Rovercignty was lost, it mnst 
be regarded lut among the reserved {xiwers of the States, and hence, 
Btill being sovercignei, thoy had the nime &^/ power and right 
to sooodo front the Union which they had exercieed iu ocooding 
(oit. 

The declared purpose of tho Union wa« to promote the orb- 
KM. WKi.FAKK, and to secure to postority tho ni.t:ssiN-os c 
LiRKRTY. which the Stnttu had ucliievt.'d by the aaoriiici.'s of tt 
Kerolution. The men who negotiated the compact for a **nior 
perfoet tinion'" of the State? wero not visionaries or opltmiBli 
but profouiul students of the world's history, from which the] 
had learned the tendency of free government to breed faction and 
of mnjorittcs to oppress minorities, n-«ulting in the litrucutable 
wreck of past federations and the IcMS of tho liberty they were 
formed toBeeiiro. Tognard again« that danger, the rppreiiontfitirtn 
of the Sbttes in tho two honsoa of Congroas waa to be upporlionod 
BO as to securc a balance of fwwor — i. ir., so as to prerent either* 
the North or tho South from having a majority in '' 
The plan failed ; the North pot a mnjority in hoi, 
history repe:Lted itaeU. Under the power of Congnsift to lav] 
duties on ini[>orts "L(> i ' ' l^i^H^V' '''' i1*e comtuoli 

defence and general » i I^^^Ht- 

leviod not moralr for rerenue, but ar ' 



THS DOCTRltlE OF STATE RIGHTS. 



216 



mCaotnKW from foreign compettlion. Ai the manufactories 
are mainly at tKa Nortli and the exports from tbe SoutJi, 
ttU BMuare to JucreiM the price of imports for th« benc&t of 
derantio in&nufacttiKn at the Nortb wiij^ iiitiiqiing itn undi<lcgat4yl 
pevor, b; Motional discriminntion, in dijiregHrd of the obligation 
toeatalitjiih justice and promoto the gcncrul welfare. It waa a 
twofold injustice to tlie SoQtb, b; increasing the cost of ita im- 
ports and diminishing the value of its exports in tbo markets of 
Mchaage. In this connoclion I will qiiotn from Mr. B«nton, a, 
ctatannan of long cxpcric.>nL-:c and clo«c obscrvBtinn, and nnt par- 
tioaUriT friendly to the South. Ho safe: "Under Federal 
legislation tb« exports of tho South hare been the baais of tb« 
Fsdarol rr'V^niio." Ho nain(>s four Southern States ti» contribnt- 
ing three-fourLhs of the amtn&l expense of the Federal Oorem- 
mtfit, and adds : 



**0f Uil> gra«« WM »iiatt*Ilr f«>«bl>«4 by tlmn. nothing, vr aait hi ootUac.li 
rKvned to tlMa In Um th»t>* ^ go?«rninaat oxpcBditarv*. Thai «ip«»<IU«r« 
Sows in ui<ipp<MU*dlfMtlO]t-4l flow* norUiwkmllr bt da* uolfann. an.lntarrnpt«d, 
Muljwwlil itTBam. TUB ii tba roaaan ■why we«llb dUopper* (rotn Via Soath 
«ni ftoM «r tnoi tiM Kortli. r^dMnl lofflalaxbiQ dow ail thii. ... No UrUT 
baa am >rt ladadMl Vlrdnla. tba two OuolUiAa. and a«arrla. txevft ta lani—aa 
Ita hantmna UnpOMd tipon Umcs." 

It has, in rnodom times, been aaaerted by some in high position. 
If not of bigb authority. Ibatthc will of tho majority mu thclawof 
Ibe Uod. Not- BO thought the men who formed the Conslitutinn. 
Tharsaaghtlhroiigb every conceivahledoTico to protect iniiioriliM 
from the despotism which majorities are eror prone to inflict, 
and I mnst insist that vhilo cueh Htato retained its aovereignty 
it had a shieM against tbe des{)ottsm of a majority in it« power 
to withdraw to tbe precinots of its own dominion : and thiii, if 
Ibe majority were heedless of every appeal to justice and their 
compact, was the only remedy which seems to bave been left. 
Ite TocqiirriUe, In his "Democracy in Amorica," Vol. I., page 
3«I, writ^-s : 

1W laMartrr ta tlutt emntiT ntoiTim ■ prodlirloiu a«tuBt evtborllr aad a 
moni Inflavnoe wliiefe la mr*e«nlj laaa preponOcruii : uo »MlaGiaa axial irhieh tmm 
HCaAa ur au iniwli aa ratard lia t>ni(Tva). ta wMeli Indnoa II ta bead tba eonplalBta 
if Cbna mtuta U cnutM* npon it> pattu~ 

tbe Virginia Convention of 1788, said : 
.jiad mboftt of pawor hs tho attjortis tramplloB an tba 



S18 



Tne soHTn avkrwas rkvh 



tha wbolo klMsrr e4 «»elaal ond DwdgrM ropaUio, w« ■hmll Btid tlialr davtrac 
kkve K«4Mi«Ur fMttlUd bom lha»> on—." 

Id ISGI all the plans proposed to restrain the msjority ludl 
f^«d. The dangers whioh hwl beeu deacribad at belooging to i 
the condition ve were in had to be met. The Bouth, by bcr 
npreeentativcfl \ix the tiro bouwB o( Congi-cse, tried, by eeleot 
committees, to Hnd some possible monns of giTtng Hecurity to tbe 
Southern States short of adopting tba last resort, secession. 

The committee of the Senate organized in Jaiiiiar}', ISAl, of 
vhioh the writer of this article was a member, sought diligently 
to find eomo btwis of itdjuetmont on which a majority of the 
roombers reprcftonting the three politiciil dirisionsof tbe Sunuto 
cwuld agree. These diriaions were ktiown as the Radicals of the 
North, the Con»ervatiTes of the Middle States, and the Ultras of 
the South. The veneraWo Senator of Kentucky, Mr. Crittenden, 
had offcrotl the r<*olotion« which were roforrod to the committ«e. 
Mr. I)oughi«, Senator from Illinois, aft«r tho failure of the i 
oommitt«« to agree upon anything, called the attention of tho 
Senate to tbe fact that it was not tho Southt-rn memb«ni, 
naming particularly Tooinba and Davis, who obstructed measures , 
for pacification, but the Xorthem men, who had objected to 
eTerything, and on vhom he then called for a Gtatument of 
what they proposed to do, to which no answer was made. , 
Exulting in the reealt of their recent election, feeling power j 
And forgetting right, thoy yet dared not avow (he evil purpoeei 
-which thoy contemplated. One 8t«to liad already withdrawn] 
from the ITnion, and events in others were movittg with acoeler- 
atod velocity to the mtat conclusion ; yet the men who were soon 
to be most vociferous in declarations of love for the Union were: 
nlent when words might hnve boon effoctuai to save it. IL 
been butafewyearHsinnc a hearing had bvonrefnsod toubolitionlsti 
lecturers iu New Kngland ; but now tho eminent orator. Weuddli 
Phillips, exulting in thd terrible faotion which waa ruling in the 
North, said: "It does not know its own face and eallii it«olfj 
national ; bnt it is not national — it u sectional. Tlie Kopubli.: 
party is a party of the Xorih. pledged agaitiKt ; : 

Mr. Seward, he of the irrepressible rf^m^ 
garded aa tbe power behind the ilirouv ' 
rainiitralion, was a member of tbe ecp<' 



THE DOCTRISE OF STATE RTOHTS. 



SI7 



bat be aat Id the Senate silent under tlie challenge of Mr. Doug- 
ht, and allowed the laagnage of Ur, Phillipfi to go for what it 
WM worth. 

Kor the QnL timo iu the historj? of the country asectional csn- 
dUata for the Preudenc; had hecn elected. A majority of Lho 
IVeaideDta had been Southern men, but none of them hnd been 
elected as nich. They had always been nominated hy a pnrty oo- 
axtensiTe with the Union, and voted for in all the States; but Mr. 
lineoln hod been put forth on purely aecLional groundH and did 
Dot rcoeiTe a idngle Sanlhem rote. lie had announced that the 
Utiion could not couliiiue to vKUt half elavn and hnJf free. What 
then ? Wa« the Union to be dissolved ? Was slavery to bo intro- 
daeed inUi the NoHheru or Lu bo abolished in the Southern 
StatM f ThedechinLtioti woa an ofTence against the Couiititation, 
and neither branch of the proposition could he cxeented without a 
palpable violation of ie. Muay of the States had puased what were 
called perBonal-liberty Uwa, in direct ■violation of the coastitu- 
tlottal obligation to return fugitives held to wn-ice or labor under 
Umi Uws of another SUttc, which Kr. Webster in his great omiion 
b Virginia said, if persisted in, wonid he destructive to the com- 
pact of Uaion. 

The right of the South E>qually with the people of other seo- 
tiosu to occupy, with every giwcies of property known to any 
State, the common territory of the United States, was denied by 
the North, under the epoctoua and wholly untenable ptea that to 
take tUrea to the territories voald be the cxlonaion of elas^ery. 
niongh the ai:gument was upon a ful«i> ba-iis, it served the pur- 
poso of inftaming the Northern mind. At the South the propo- 
litioa to forbid a citiien who should migrate to the common 
lerriiory of th« United States from taking hia elave with him 
Was coniiidercd an offensiTe uud unjust denial of equality in the 
Union, and oa imch, but cot because of any money interest in the 
fMstlon, an inlense oicitement was created bv it. 

The eerions tronblei in tUoaoa were followed by the double* 
dyed crime uf John Brown's invasion of Virginia. He cane 
, ri... K"-<:ig gchool, and was fulfilling Mr. Seward'i 
>n\Pim would inviide the South. Though 
!Uo inTaeton was to disturb domestic 
' "t-o of the proclaimed objects of 
(Lod murder wen> its Bcconpa- 



S18 



TRS NOSTB AMERICAN REVIEW. 



niments. 'When Bron-n was tritn! with due formality, sentonoed, 
aud executed accurding to thv Iiiws of (lie land, itiasmiich u hii i 
crimes had been committed with open hostility to the South, fa«fl 
Tu canonized at the North and a hvmn to hi£ mcmor; became ™ 
the marching song of the deoliircd ont^mi^e of the South. For , 
Bomc ycura the abolition faotinn \ind homo npoti it» banner " So M 
union with slare-holdera," thon^h, as has bc-vn before Ktatod, when ^ 
the first Union was forme^l all of tlio Statea recogniied alave prop- 
ortj b; their hvra. It wae common nmoog demagognes in Uter 
times to excite prejudice ngHinBt that specicB of proponr bj 
describing it as a chattel, though it never wu more than a life- 
long right to service and labor, and that, vitb the right of incrcaBC, 
iroa all which conid be the sabjiicl of pnrchoae and sale. Withon 
further reciting violations of the compact which rendered H Toid 
Guflioe it to saj that aeven of the Stales, drliberntcly acting in the 
highest form of procedure, — i. e. , by conventiou of the jxiople,^ id 
pans ordinances of secesdon just aa they had formerly poswd 
ordinances of accofision by rcsolntiotu of ratification of the Con- 
elitution of the United Statea. 

Kow we have reached the point of inquiry as to wimt was the 
moral duty of a citiitca of a seceding State in 1B61. 

It is not proposed to discuss any qnealiou arising out of 
■Rbsequent ovcnt<. It bod, so far as I know, in all the earlier 
periods of our history been uutformly held that lUlegianco was 
primarily due to the State of which the individual was a citizen, 
and thiit allegiance to the Tniti-d Slates reaalted from the fact 
that the Stat« to which each in<liTidual belonged was by compact 
a member of the Union. 

When the Southcm States had, in the recognized mode of 
expressing their soverf jgn will,— that is. by convemion of the peo- 
ple of the State, — resumed the gi-ant« made by them oe ixirties to 
the Federal compact^ they, following the precedent of 1787, fomcdJ 
a new union siyled the Coiifedcnile Stutex of America. 

Tbe wish of all, and the general ojcpectittiou, was that the 

separation fihonM bo peaceable. For this r-r;-'- ■ ■' ■' 

acts of the Confederate Government was t.-- 
the United States Government to adjuit uU ' 
naturally arise in a dissolution of p^'-" ' 
were rejected, aa 1 fuured tlioy wuui : 
ever ringing in my ears, "If ire h:t ili* 



THE DOCTRIXJS OF STATE RIOITTS. 



di9 



g*t a roTtnae ?" Wilh coiUinaeil nssuriuice of ])eac«ful iiit«Qtioa 
thf FtiOeral OavcniRwut nimlQ ready for tvHr. 

At the call of their Ktntes, the jwople of the South, with nnex- 
unplotl unauiraitr, volantccrod to defend Uieir hearths, their 
ftlun, nod their iualieiiublu rij^hu. Urar-hairod sires tind beard- 
1MB MHti wen) in the «anie ratUcs; but proparation had Dot hcou 
made to arm niid er^uij) tliem, and thejr had little more than 
their brave bn^asta to ollcr for defence agaiDst thrtutcovd iu- 
TatioD. Vainly hud the South relied en the Constitution aa a 
(hield ; it was orushwl by the luaiWl hand (tf a fiictioMS majority — 
tiif enl trhii'-h Mr. Madison, in ttiu tent h number of thi- Ftd«ralitl, 
deacribod oa that which had covered with opprobrium federation 
mt a form of goTernmcut. 

I mak4 no etcuMitory plea that the men "thought they were 
r^ht"wheii, at the eall of their soveruigu State, they stakod nil 
aire honor in defence of the righu their fathers left them. If 
they were iiut right, then patriotism ia au empty name, and he 
vbn looks death in the face under its eacrcd inspiration may be 'a 
tnitor. If it W-trcaaon for a citizen to dcfeuil the State under 
■boae protection he Uvea, even against the Federal Government, 
tJM Convtitutinn has plaei-d him in the cruel dilemma nf being, 
in tlio event of conflict between Iub Statu and the United Stutce, 
lucesarily compelled to commit trcnaon a^inst one or the other. 
Thia florplr caitnot ho the condition to which our futhorc reduced 
UB when thoy entttreil into the compact of anion. Allegiance is 
everywhere due to the sovereign only. That sovereign, nnderthe 
Ancrinan ayatem, im the People — the People of the .State to which 
the individual belongs; the People who constitute the State 
government which he oboys; the People who alone, dh far aa he is 
ooncerned. ordained and eMtablishcd the Federal C'onMtitution ; 
the People who ncvrr delegated their aovereignty, and therefore 
retain (he power to revoke all agencies created by them. 

If the lovereigti abotishea the .Stjite goremment and ordains 
and o^iii'lrabos a new one, the obligation of obedience reqnirea 
|h to Lranafcr his allegiance actrordingly : there may bo 

_VH> vKUUti be divided, allegiance ; and this fact controlled 
of the army and navy of the Unite<l Stated 
ii'ral service camo in conflict with 
^::oai each l<> tho aovereign State to 



Jefpebsok Datis. 



BRITISH CA1»ITAL A\D iUIERlCAN INDUSTRIES. 



BY BIUSTtrS TVIltAK. 



Mr. David A. Wells, in liU remarkable work, just usned, 
oa " BeccDt Economic Changes," snys : 

•■UmiBldaMm,lnd«Ml. uUtbewtiolawa*U,a«rli>c tUVM r6us>tiiMUi»liMa^ 
UouoC olTlUnUaft. hu ten «a*k>Bc tipao Uw Ua* at •qvlpsiHa (of ladiulitel 
«AM,— ter«ciliiiit ftod pwrectiBS laola umI atiMhlnwr. buOdJtic worluluitM utd fkci* 
ori«*. and dcvMim liutrunMiiUdiUM tor smoj latenwcunuiilc&Uou (gc pcnoM ui4 
Uioushu. ftitd ui* chMp aicliAos* oC pninctM and wtTloo* : ihu, lUa aqulpioeiU 
h&Tinx at lost been mads mid)'. lli« work ot oolnc It tiMfortlMdnt tliMh ta anr 
dwr and gtmerktlon, lalrli bnicuQ ; and aUa Uwt smr Mramnaltr, uader prior or 
•ilailaa coDdllhna of um and oacMotapthm, la bcoomlm Mtw«t«d, aa It wan^ with 
ttacaanlu." 

Tfae Striking nnture of tbii thought is found in the foot tliat 
Almost every man who thinks at nil hiu hod his mint] turned in 
the direction of the excesses of ihe timu, — not the excessos of 
dUaipntiou or even of cxtmra^nce, bnt the extraonlinnrr ont- 
pDt of almost evcrrthing the world over, whether it be of lawyers 
or doctors ; of railroad* or penny weighing^ioiLchiaes ; whether 
of agriculhiral products to nach an extent that corn is being 
used in the Wo:«teru HiMa for fuel, or of numafoctures. as in 
making boota nnil shoes, and collars and cufTe, for lOO.OOO.OOO 
pooplo, with lew thnn two-thirds of that number to wear them. 

While this intense activity in industrial pursuits haa b«en 
proceedings at this rapid rate on this oonlinent, we hare been al> 
sorbing and reSmploying the money or capital a(yiiiir<t«l. bj oe» 
cupyiug our eror-widening arew and developing our onormou 
natiirnl resources. On the other hand, the iimaller and richer 
countries of Europe, trading with nattona otiipr thnn themsolti 
have been equally overwhelmed with production and titxc 
being able to absorb the proilncta of tlieir own iadi 
»1tc8, thoy hare scut thoir flurplos t ■' ■-■ ' 
while they hare taken in excluuigt- 
the vast balance due to them has r> 



SRXnsn CAPITAL AifD MfERlCAN INDUSTRIES. 291 

BT. This is specially the case with Great Britain, wbMe 
llion to-day U th&t of lovjing tribute on almok't etery other 
uuioo under the nan. If this tribute Is not in the sbape of & ])ro> 
lit on goods exported, if uvt in the elt&pe of profits from trade bv 
theuM of Eaglisb money withio the foreign country itself, then 
Mrtoinly by direct loans, and retarna in the shape of interest or 
diridends, does Oroat Britain rccciro tribute fram almost all othor 
ranatxiea. For instance, the great national debts the world over 
art) largely due in England. The reTonno deriircd in Iho shape of 
taterest from other iiationa by Great Britaiti, from the constantly- 
iaofCariDg obligations of gnrornmL'ntal borrowing, hiLS grown to 
cnoTDiDits proportions. The people of the United Slates ran 
measare how v:ist is the sum to be paid in carrying nationiil 
debt! by the cit*nt of tbcir own laiation for this purpose. This 
taxation, though excessive and long continued, with the object of 
•btit«ntting the national obligation, ncvcrthole^ has alwnyi boon 
tiglit«Dod by tho considcrution that the bulk of the interest wsa 
p^ to our own pc-oplc, and that tho drnia was a constanUy- 
dimlnuhiag, instead of a conEitaiitly- increasing, one. 
' This is hardly the eae^ with any other country, and Groat 
Britain profits by the }^wing noceReitie)! and the hfavy burdens 
of ottier nations. The amount of interest paid to Knglimd, eren 
by Itaasta, for money burrowed to create u pciux extjibltshment, 
in rsadiDets for poftsible war with England lien^lf, is no iucon- 
sMersble sum. Eaeteni countries, aa Turkey and Egn**« *p- 
jmrently in the last stages of governmental decay, are de|>L'ndcnt 
Bpoa Great Britain equally with the i^outh African colonipji. in 
tbsjr etkriiust iueeplions of governmental vigor. Central nnd 
8«atb American republics, vast dependencies like India, Australia. 
aiiH Cnnada. are all national borrowers iti rx>ni1on, the interest on 
vhoM> loans Is usually paid with the regulurity of clock-work. 
Baferrinjc to Canada, as n near-by jllastration of the amoiint« paid 
to Enzland, It mar Im> 8tate<l that it is efltintat^ that Iho goreni- 
nent^l. milTTivl, miniiripal, and mortgage indebl<-ilne*i8 to Groat 
Hiiiouutato 6M niillioiis of dollars, imply- 
-liich England levies on her colony for the 
to 'ib millions nf dollani ayear, paid by 
and, rtUhough it i« an agricuUnral 
the eiport of bniulsmila. 
I place all over tljc world, 



923 



THE KOBTB AMERICAN REVIEW- 



it will afford some idea of the enormous r«TeQU«s iu the shape of 
ioteraBt which Great Brituin is constAotly rcci'iviii^. But it is 
not solely by the revenoe from governmoutal luanx thnt England 
u i-ttrichod. In lliv public works of nunicrous conritrioi she is a 
pnrticipant ; and, indeed, in niniiy iiit]e[ieiideiit uxtioDHliLiotv, 
rich and pro«peroiu in themselves, EDgliali capital baa Urjfcly 
been uso<], eHpecially in etato and mntiicipHl improvcmcnUi. This 
in shown in the caso o( tliv construelirtn of lliu nupitot at Austin, 
Teias, bnilt bj' British money ; iu the uwncnhip of wat«>r-works 
or school bonds of Northiredtcm towna niid farm mortgages 
by British investment companies in the Pacific-coaet States. 
'Whether it Is to construct a railroad in India or a canal in Ilul- 
{^ria; whether it is to open and work n gold mine in the Tnuis- 
vaul, or to develop tbe great tin mines of Uunivy IViik, in Dakota ; 
whether it is to dig for nibii.^ in Sunth Africa, or to profita Dun- 
dee Scotch shareholder in sn Illinois corporation by affording 
lodgiug 00 a Pullman car in any part of tlie North American con- 
tinent, — no mutter bow, whyre, or when profits are miidc, tlio 
Driton somehow or other parti(.'i|»ites. The reault of this vast 
volume of iuterest, dividends, and profits, which (or many years 
hubGcn trending;, like the Gulf Stream, toward Great Britain 
and, like timt current, rendering ciistenco possible for so vut an 
Aggrvgatiou in so small a spiice, hajt been tho accumulation of 
money, and the creation of un aunuut income, far in excess ot , 
spending or ftbaorbiiig po«eibilitio3 within the island itself. 

But ill addition to the constant stream of proflte, iutereet,&ud 
dividends which from almost the whole world tends toward Great 
Ilritivin, there is an cqnidty steady tendency of people with mcona 
in that dinrctioit. Men who hare made their money in India, 
China, or any other Oriental land, wro certain to retnrn to spend 
their fortnnes aiMl the remuiudor of their lives in Ibuuaty cottntij 
where they think riviliziitiou haK reiirhi'<l perfection. The Bril- 
ish miner uf South Africa, tbo Kold-digger or alirep-farmcr ut 
Anstralia, the adTenturer in South or Central America, at tt 
Konelusion of bi» Ittbore, turns with iilnmrt iiii ■ 
his native land, ta «>iiji>y its comforts aiul Kpcii' 

Thus from all quarters of tlie globe, and in 
effort, the British cni>it«li>' ■' ■ ' ' 
being a stream of money re: 
proportions, steadily ineroosiog, and : 



SRfTISB CJWTTAL ASD 



7Alf ISDCtnttMM~ 



in that coQBtiy, «tti 
ing. For it 



m 



tlMt Sfa* 



Scotch ptfopk, vb* an t&* otsia raespinu •( thb BOMjr, an as 

«coDonucaI paopb ; tktf, aitf* fr«ai Um tJ Mi f ii lu — mUA thtf 

]_M ii uaght sad tb kabcU i< aeiMiiaBf into wtSA tktfan taimi, 

^pabtla <if rxuxvagBao* an hwficaUofH of a lack of good une, 

Kad that to Itw qBiettj aai vuhooS MteBtatno, by the aiMk or 

Vsdttaf-cantag ete, iftheMicit v»jtofc«afa<tiaiiiBthaUBh«r 

aocial ar arMCarttfw tnau nf aadafrf . Aa to iaatmmi iaeemmf 

bj MBBMrfal JaiiatMaaH. hj aeoBomf , aad faf other Inioancea 

ii Am J ig a cti P M . thia b Atuwn !■ th» nouHubla bet that mdoq 

ISM. vhaai iha innewa !■» ficnrai Snt ba;(>o, the tDcrace ia 

hm ben •3.r73,00O,00a Of tbb amoanc tba 

tba MfJialMt dam hm ioenaMd bem •990.000,000 

la WtM^jOOO/KA aaooanj. 

iim ol tha iDagnitaiie of th« anooat of eafnta] for in- 

a I lairfiin b iadintad bjr a table priatad in the Lon- 

Atuwiwig the nibieripCioBa to mw entflrpriaea 

■a Irftodoa daring tbo last cii ymn, which corapraam 

&Kta more cloqacot than pages of remarict: 

toMapMsJMferj«K. TWUl— toCTlHtoa>teeuMpilllllD>|Waft. 




.cinjtabW 



u.m.m 



im 

UM. 






rrjnjm 




^ *il W «■■ from tho foregoing that the amoaat gatiacribed to 

^ mi iialJagi for th« past jrear etjiiaU «8tA,00O'.0OO. The 

^^■^M ■HOW a safe one, in riew of tho constntit iocreasv mdU 

'■' » pnrioM jrenn, that iho total amount likely to be aiib- 

' ftoatiog new eiiierprisoa ui London in 19*»0 will 

'tLaiO,MO.OO(1— ^iitil to the almost fabalotw •um of orer 

I per day fvr owry biuuucws day in the year ! 

«tamimri;: « litt of eomi?aQieA absorbing 10 vast n tnm, 

' *! . iiifl London Ti'iMa of 

ri!ie com ponies flo»**^ 

.,f Uicm»relof»t«l 

half am acsttored 

will not uk« long 

At can bo prottiably 



334 



THE XORTH AMERICAN RRVtEW. 



merged into a limited compao}- will take on that form, an 
pii'blic become p»rt proprictorii of almoiit nil the TOnocrni" in wh 
prirste capital alone lias heretofore been conoemed. The rel 
ing of money hitherto locked up in these enterprl^s, in it« to 
begete a 6pQCuUti\-o tendency, for, in order to make it provids 
inoomc, it mnM be rcinTe«te<), in which process risks ar« run \ 
new TontureB madu, which would nerer have been dreamed o 
the capital had still \t^n tied up in a conservative, old-establia 
biiMneas. The whole list for 1880, as, indeed, the enorni 
amount taken by the public, indicates a highly-apecnktive coi 
ttoii of things, a oollapsie of which wonhl not bo surprising. T 
howi3ver, would bo bitt teinpumry, for even a collapse id 
ranks of .the niimerons tindervrit«ra who arc carrj'ing a bnr 
of epecnlatire subscriptions wontd not bo a permanent barrie 
farthorinrestments. For !t U apparent that there is a solid i 
stratum of capital, in raat sums, needing invostraent, which 4 
tbe bosTy offerings of so many jears, aa indicated In the forega 
table, have not bi^giii) to abt»}rb, 

All that has been said points in ouo diroction, and ono di 
tioD only, vis., the enormous aggregation of mnney in O 
Britain. While indastrial actirity has been going on all over 
worldtoanextentiinparalteledin htstorr, England has been tal 
in the results in the shapo of cash to a greater degree than 
other country, ami she mnst therefore become the great inrg 
of the world. " Concurrent with her auoueas in thus aijqairina 
vast an annual income in the shape of interest has been 
exhaustion, to some extent, of the cntdit of the countries w 
hare borrowed Irom her ; and it mast begin to be the quoatioi 
questions, for the British public, where money can be s: 
placed and an income assnred. Bngland itself, up to a late -pm 
has not been a bail place for iuvL'stJng money; but ita abi 
ance and the limited nature of the cotintry'it arra. with a < 
petition already existing in every line of life, make it difliicn] 
invest money in England with safely and profit. Ueretofora 
h«s l>een a safe medium for investment ; but tli- '' ■' i ■ 
dition to which the farming industry tu tin-'at I 
subjected is sufficient to deter capital from that 
railway and other public coD^truction, it tis vt[w~ 
country is so small, the public works are air 
the industrial activities ao great, that th' 



BMtTOa CaKTAL AMD AMEMtCAM . 






6i 



or iads»- 

r tavl Ihdr ettUt tm the ataaat. Kev 
b. AoMnfi^ Um C^>t, »4 mo tbt Somb 
bsT* ^ abaot ■■ BweJi m tbef can rt a ggw 
« ^ OBt te tte Ai|«vtiM fopofalie aJoM la 
^—rtinjg to ao lav a ms thaa •SOO.OOQ.DOO, 
Hi reveal of St bMt tta.OOO.OOO s jear. 
—a a— atfj in wkUA the alaacet aC tutaawrt 
ynAl br the En^Uh e^italU Moat ^m^ 
r it t^ Cait«d State*. Tbe va^t objeol4aaaa 
«< i^ AJBMncaa Bcpablie afford* to tlie mnnga 
a k nuMt {BitneciT* on*. Tb* Mndw ta 
: tlte growth in popttlatioa, to which all the 
; ihe aUbUttj of the fOTenuaent Dotwith- 
tlfgBdoc* internal eoofltct th^ the world has 
siaa of a great debt within itself and to its own 
than all. Ha rapid olil iteration, followed bja 
in the history of oationi, an all circum- 
■d la iapreaa apon the Britieh mtutl tbe cotiditjr 
rf that eoootiy. A peopte of the aame lineage, the 
the aam* lawi^ and the same literature, and with 
e^. it it no wonder that thrr turn in this direction 
t3t At ample oppnrtanittt-s which the coaiinent liaa 
((V^hKediirrpnianLsof the An; lo-Saxon race, sach nug- 
ba« bMn n-conltsl in the annab of tim». 
■ fw J T , then, tluit. with a conttnnt af^rogation of 
e eu tijion (insitL Biilain. with au iuability to make 

n. and, stilt farther, the 

.■itr>' whfrrfr it canbeeo 

"f the Vnit<^ 

.iiMi.nD all the elr- 

ly pubtiiilied it 

:b baa boen tn- 



336 



THE XORTS AMSRJCAN REVIEW, 



vMted in iniluBtriikl cnterpriMS in the ITnitad States boa equalled, 
in the Uet two years, about a inillioa dollam a veel{, nmounting 
in all to About 100 iBillions. The chief properties included, in 
these purchaso^ wore, iirst, certain Konr York brewerioe, at about 
Hto millions of dollars; then the brewing company at Poru- 
mouth and Boaton, owned by Jlr. Prank Jones, at a capitaliza- 
tion of six and a half mitHous; the Chicago breweries at 
another five millions ; the Bnrtholomny Browing Company, at 
Rochest«rj approaching a still further live millions : the United] 
States Brewing Compuuy at au equal amount, together Tilh thai 
still more imijortant purchase of the St. Louis Brewers' Aaao-, 
ciation, at no loes a aum than twelve millions of dollurs. In 
this operation seTQUteon distinct cilabliithriietitt) wore united, indi- 
cating a possibility of a local combiuation of interests, hitherto 
competitive, of iLc greatest possible aignificance. But the invest- 
mcnts have been by no means confined to tho brewery ititereet 
The great abattoir e^ablJshment of 3Ir. T. C Eastman, In Net 
York city, united with nn Knglish company, absorbed an invest* 
ment of Kttglish capital to the extent of over fire millions ; tlie 
Otie Steel Company, of Cleveland ; the Chicago and Northwest- 
ern granaries ; tho rillsbnry and Woehbum Flonr Mills, and tho^^ 
Virginia Pevolopment Company also absorbed considerablo^^ 
amonntfl. Tho City of Cliieago Grain Elevator I.Ino brought 
nearly fire milliona; the California Consolidated Quicksilver Com-^J 
panics, two millions ; and, as if to show the infinite variety of^| 
pursuits to which capital can bo dirorted, no Ices a sum than " 
three and a half millious has been absorbed in the purchase of the 
great patent- medicine establishment of Mr. H. H. Warner, at 
Rocheator, where the "Safe Cure" remedies ari» ma!Uifaetiirt«d. 
These and other indications, which eo con»taittly api<ear in Ihej 
iiowspBpors, would imply that a very vast sum hud already been] 
realized from Eiiglidi capital in this country. But it is a fact that i 
the amount, though large, is much less than i)©oplo supimse; yet I 
even at the rate of a million Jollai? a week is not inconsiderable. 
There are those who indulge in the belief that the English 
capital brought out to the United States for investment in 
industrial enterprises will hardly yield a return thut will be eat- 
isCactory; and that becanse of disapjtoinlment in the realiution of j 
the high retoms promised, the present tendency ia but a tem- 
yorary one. These propheta point to the fate which luw orpT 



B&mSB CAPITAL AND AXERTCAy V^DUSTRJES. 227 

taken not a few of the nulroai] enterprises in vhich English 
cmpitAl has buoQ tarfccly inlcnetui, ae in tiio Krie, the Keading, 
* the Wabaah. aud a few othiT projects; wlulu with equal fonxi they 
point to iho lo^s and disaeter which huve overtaken Euglisb in- 
TvntmentK ill mnuhing and cattle-brvcdiiig iu thu Wiutt. But the 
■hapv which British iuvestrauuta in industrial on t^priseshavetaVen 

I in tho past two years is widely diUcroiU from the invcslmt'atn in 
railroads, ranches, mort^Hges, or other previous expcriinciita in 
tbU direction. Whether it a from ibo experience of the put, or 
wht-ther prompted by the conservatism of tho leaders in this jm- 
portAtit muvutiiL-iit, iu onlur that it may bo permanent, nnd of the 
tuoat Bati&fuctory character in its rvsuitt), the utmost cure haa bcoa 
exercised to baae the operations on three great priQciplea : first, 
that the ^atest jtossiblo pains u exeroised to secure tho mo3t cx- 
hanative investigation of the properties to bo talcen orer; second, 
that the control of the organisation Is irrevocably placed in the 
hands of the English pttrtics who represent the new monoy put 
into the bosiacss; third, tliat the utmost precaution is take» to 
•ecnre tbo oontinuanco of the sorrioos of the vendor and bis f taff 
for the perpetuation of the raooan of the business, by not i^nly 
insiiting upon a rontmct for their continuons cniploympnt. hut 
by their retention of a hu'go proporttonato interest. Tliene three 
most important elements are u essential to sucoes in floating a 
property in Ijondon as the sun is to daylii^ht. 

With regard to the investigation which prceedos theae trans- 
actions, it wonld he irapossible to hare it more thorough. Tlie 
Eiutrurariitality chosen h tliat of an independent, inipartiiil, tad 

I expert chartered acconntant, from anmo well-knnwn nnd long- 
Htablisbed firm, whoM pociUon is sufficiently gnarantecd by tho 
fact that his firm are members of the Society of London CbarlcrL>d 
Acconntants (ohartared by Pai'liamrnt » century ago), famous 
the world over for their aceuracy, probity, and Honnd judgment 
In matten of book-keeping. Without a ccrtiflcate from a well- 
known firm, oriiidiTiduftl member of this organiisliuu. as the result 
q{ prolonged] jteraonal investigation, no attempt Lo float a projwrty 
could aiiccfctl. The re«ult is tliol nnmerous entvrpriiitM cannot 
■land the test of this crucial examination, and only those whoso 
elainu to pro6t spreiid ovor a number of years are plainly doniou- 
itrable by the moat impartial and rigid examination of evury 
detail bare anv chance of eaoccM. In addition to thb, aU out- 



528 



TFjK yonvrr aukrican review. 



side sources ot information are miule avuitiible, «-k1 reports u to 
the o)iaract«r. luiteiitMlnnttt, and general busmesi! repiitution of tlie 
pu-tic« ooacorncd ore mo«t carefully gloancd, and ovoo the dobt- 
paying power of the bulk of tho ouslumerR nsoertsinoil. So that, 
as far as is poseiblc, a perfect photogrujiU of tho buBiuess ih fur> 
nislied from both the inside and otitcidc. 

Uaving perfectly ipprcboudcd tho condition of tho businofie to 
be eold, both iu its past and jiivaeiit cundilion, the next more is 
to control it pei-fecttv for tho fiiture. The usual practice is to ia- 
corporate nnder the local law of (ho State in which the busEneai 
iti sitnaied (if it ia not already in the ehnpc of a corporation), and 
transfer every share of tho stock, except that which is nxjuirod 
for the qtialitication of local directors, to a truatee, who repre- 
Benta a Becond, or parent, company formed, nnder the English 
Joiut-Stock Act. This act is an extremely libcnil one, and nnder 
it millioits and millions of money Lave bctu tidmiiiiistcrcd with 
safety and profit, Tho Engliah wmpany, thos solely based npon 
the AmGrican Becuritica, is usnally officered by men of promt- 
nonce and puHition, vhose presence in a board of directorg ia % 
^«nHitc« to cnpitolistfl that thoroagli investigation lioa taken 
place, and that the buainess will be honcetly and tfliticutly ad- 
miuietered. It is trne that this soemst a enmhroiifl plan, and the 
objection seems well taken that men perfectly unfamiliar with the 
basincBS are placed in its practical control ; that to tiianoi^ affairs 
at long range had rarely succeeded ; and Hint the averni^ Ixin- 
don director— chosen iu many iQEtanccs because he has a boo- 
dle to bis name, and not a few of them are denominated "Qtiinea- 
pigs," because they pet a gninea for attending every directom' 
meeting — in banlly likely to add greatly to the ihretrd basi- 
nesa fiugncity csacatiid to success in America. But it will be 
fonnd that the sense of control which even this cumbrous plan of 
a joint English and American cnmpnny imparts hiui its adritn- 
tages. It provides against a recklexs and unauthorized depurtuiv 
from conservative business prinoiplee, and it insures a constant 
•oqaaintance with the busincsa on behalf of those wboso tnoaey 
baa gone into the iuveslment. 

Aa to the objection tliat details cannot be apprehended prop* 
erly three or four thousand mile-s away, it must not be forgotten, 
that the third condition of the trade is oIm rigidly aiUiored to, 
ria., that tho parties who have hitherto made the buainoa ■ lue- 



nurnsH capital Ayo American lyousTRiEs. 220 

oWiibaJl not ouly retain an interest &t l«aat eqnui to one-third 
«( the Hcuritiee iuued aa representing tho pty)p<?riy, btit that tho 
ne&vo nuiwgvment shall etill be vested in ttio^e -Khme ability and 
energy have ntsile the enterprine so conBpicuonsljr 8ucce«8fa] u to 
mrrit its roi-o);nitiiin iijr Briti«ti c»p!taii:<t:s. With this latter 
i-iunditiuii cunipbi^l nitli and a Urge iiit(-r«at maiiiLuiuod, And willi 
IhtJe interference from tbe other sido so long u the business U 
pajiof; a retnrn equal to its prerions record, it would seem as if 
erer; procantion had been L'xeroiM.-d. 

Tho foregoinn principle being rigidly adiicred to ia the in- 
VMrtnwnt of British cspitAl in American industries, there is good 
tCMon for the bultef that ouly those concerng which are tvuWy 
worthr, and only tho«e vhora pro6tfi for a series of yean poat 
■ffon) a mAonabIc gnanintee of e<)uiil auccesa for years to como, 
hare hod a cliance of crer being taken over. Should thia expecta- 
tion be borne out in tho fniure. tho ntnouut of capital to come 
in this direction will certainly he cery great. It la tme that tho 
prioc realized somctimca seems in excess of the possibilitiua of 
coDlinued profit on the cjipitnlir-ation reiichffl ; but it must ho 

ihome in mind that this capiializntion is haacA on a regular per- 
Bpotage of ascertained profits, Eprend over a series of ycara, and 
Ihat ntider ordin&n' circumstances the future may be relied upon 
to yiti'M OS good a profit as (he poat. Whether it will du su or not 
Mtiuiiiia to be seen, but all the conditions to accomplish thi« suo- 
ec«a seein to hare been complied with. It may be that in all 
CHea the ezlraordinAry eipectatiou raised for the common dtock 
will not be fulllltnl ; but for the debentures and for the preferred 
stock, which comprise two-thinls of the securitiea issued, there 
if a i«Monablc certainty for as safe and n« prompt a return as 
that from any rither field of investment now open to Knglteli 
capital. There will be, of course, in^tanceti ot failure from lack 
of good management, from misfortune, and hccaunc, pcrhapa, of 
the ehftDgod conditioiu of capital and admiuiitt ration : but it will 
be aeen tiiot alt reasonable proriiion haii hj>«n made againet this 
peasibility. tn not a few instances great adrantngo may follow 
tba introdootion of enlaryd mnnetan" faoilitie?, a cIo*e oversight 
^'ux OQtistant iuvcotigatiou by trained ancuiinlaiit^, and the rigid 
(hod* of hasiness which llio English proprietors are likely to 
St. Tbe obaocea would eeem to be about even that the 
;hljr*orguiixed eAtabUshmcnts, baaed on really profitable 



THK SORTH AMERICAN REVieW. 

trade, and bonestlj administered bj the men who hare crmt 
tliem and wfao are still largely iuteresttMl iu them, will conEitiuv 
to yield returns that will fulfil the reasoiwble expectAttous of our 
new English partners. 

It ix u oialt«r of suqirise, both in England and America, that 
Inrge and prosperous Qoncerna in the United States are iu Cbe 
market, and the impression eomcttmes \b imparled that the dis- 
position to sell implies a wcaknen in earning powor or over- 
vuluatioo iu the prioe demanded. But it mast be underatood 
tliat in this country the rapid growth of large esl«hli8hnieuts lias 
always bcvn ut the o^ipeiwe of perfect ease in money matt«r8, 
b(x»aso aotivo money is in snutll proportion to growth in plant, in 
tlie necessary stock of ruw matcrid, and In outstaiidiiign ; that 
outside facilities in the shape of bank accommoilations iirnl out* 
aide loans have had to be relied upon for active capital iu many 
instances, and the fact that the necessities of the buttiness require 
coQstnnt permanent oxponditure makeg the attraction of new and 
aotirc napital from abroad vory dilliuult to rexii^t. Kiirtber, men 
who have spent their Hrcs iu the promotion of great businen 
establish meats, possibly vith no son or worthy successor 6ttcd to 
carry on tlicir business, and needing some leisure undeuso of life, 
deem it prndont, in onlor that their bnsinoea may go on, to arail 
themsclvos of the opportunity to interest foreign capital, especially 
whi'ii that cupitul comfs in the impersonal shape of far-away 
aharoholdere, whose chief rf^<tiiirement is that thn policy of tlffi 
existing management shall be pcrpvtuat«d and strengthened, and, 
in a monetary sons(>, reltevMl. It is certain that the introduction 
of corpomtire proprietorship, accompaniod by ample foreign 
capital, will ^'catly contribute to the cona^rration of some of the 
larger establishments, and greatly aid in their perpetnatiou. Tlie 
fate that overtook the great business of Mr. A. T. Stewart, the 
possibilities that impend in numerous concerns after the death or 
inca])»city of the men whose genius and credit sustain them. 
influence the prompt accAptance of an offer of new capital and 
now ability, on the condition of a partioipation in the profits and 
the division of the assets into flbares that are much more easily 
handled than the bnsinva taken ns a whole, and in tlte distribu* 
tion of which a certain sncoeasion can bo accnrcd. 

Not the least important considenition flowing from the intro- 
duction of English capital is the posAihility of combinations, or 



BRSnSn CAPITAL AUD AMISRJCAN lyDUSTHIK'!. 231 

liilstionfi. in varioaa localities, of different cstublUbments 
Btofurv competing with each other. U is cvrtain that thia 
totdeuo; of the tim^e towards reducing the waste of expoQsivo 
competition in a conaidaratjoD that prasMs iu desirability from a 
]«oflt-4.«minR point of view npon oainerotu competing Mtabliah- 
■DttiitJ ; and notwithHtuudiog the serereat criticiem bj the press, 
and ndTcrw action hy national and State legislatures, so long as 
the liberty of the citizen to trade with whom he chooees romains, 
Ihia disposition will manifeBt itself. Jast how far the introduc- 
tiou of British capital will enconrago the tendency towards con- 
iali<lBtion and the elimination of competition, it hardly yet 

^^f^pamal, for up to this time the purcliaee of properties hat been 
jbaMtl wlety opon the distinctive earning power which separate 
MtablishmeDts show, and not upon their eominj^ possibilities 
nnder combination. Hiit this is clear, that tlio corporative char* 
BCter which each ivtablishmeut has to assume in order to fell out 
otTen grent facility toward amnlgamatioD, The impersonal char- 
acter of a corporation rids it of the prido of posecaiion inherent 
la personal proprietorship ; and the impedimenta toward a union 
of inti-regt*, in rivalry, jealousy, and faW or unjuet estimates of 
Taluo. are all n-niored. Indeed, it would seem as if the Tory 
facilities which the Knglishnien require to hate put in motion for 
their information and safety are the Terj first elements essential 
to eombinntiona among competing establishmonta. 

Further, it may he said thut the new capital to he introduced 
ts an instrumentality of equal advantage in effecting consolida- 
tions, and it it cerlftiil cnongh that juBt bo soon as it is apijarent 
that, in addition to thcproliUpromiM^I by distinct establishments, 
still better reeullscan baiecareil by consolidations, and the fUiau- 
^ donment of wartefnl methoda of production and ctpensiTo modes 
I of distribution, just so soon will the desire be manifest to cnoour- 
' age a consolidation of intereata. Snch n tondoncy may potsibly 
beewcntittl from want of aiiccessastheconseqneaceof thcmanago- 
KMt of anpamtp Mtabliehments at such long range om from Lon- 
don to America, and it \s one of the element* of advanUge which 
the English invcetora will always haTc in hand that, should com- 
'pftting wneerns not pay, being within msy facility of communica- 
tloB with each other in corporuliTe form, and with no porpoaa t« 
\mm but to secure profit, they can onfioiiragc a consolidation ct 
Ifaitanrta In Tmriooa localitiM* lessen competition, largely redaoe 



sas 



THS aORTB AMERICAN REVIEW. 



crp(>nsp-», and mnk« a good profit withont thn m><>(!<»ity of in- 
orcaiiin^' \yr\cv6 to u poJQt that will etiiniiliite the L'nuiLiou of uevr 
and competing establighmenta. Possibly out of the changed oou- 
ditions which impend fur Iar{^ individual indastriii] onterprises, 
in oeeumtug u corpomtivt form and then being largely abiorbed 
by protit- banting proprietor thousands of mi}ee away, tb«re may 
be fonnd elements prodnctire of a groat change in the principles 
which govern the busini?«s world. The j^rowiiig tendency toward 
climinnting competition bvuaii^' of its exci»t8Jrocoftt uud wajitc, ae 
the bulwark of Bofcty against exactioD, may have additioaal eu- 
conragement in this trend of British capital towajd Amerioa^ and 
reenlta far<reacbing and influential may follow. 

Vx* to this time the conservatire element among the inroston 
in Great Britain baa hardly been reached by the attractireaeu of 
American industrial soeurities. Tliis \i ahowu by the faot that it 
is not I he dcbcntui-08, or preferred stock, respeotirely at b and 0, 
and 7 and 8 per cent., that luis been taken, but the oonitnoa stock 
has been lai^ly absorbed, on wbicli a high premiam in the London 
Stock Exchange is possible. But with the eroation of more per- 
fect initrumentalitiM in theshape of regularly-formed iurestment 
rompanies, which are now being developed by some of the beat 
banking ability in both ooiiDtriee. and working together in har* 
niony on both eides of the Atlantic, an equipment will he afforded 
that nnll, with much le-sR expense, greatly enlarge the urea of gup- 
ply of money, and more perfectly control and investigate the 
properties offered. It ie nbundantly clear from recent indications 
that a regular busincas is now being developed in. the direction of 
English investment, in which eome of the best Suunoial minds of 
the country will find an honorable and pruSt-nble 6eld of employ- 
ments With the conaervattve tnveetor^ of Greiit Britaia onco 
satistied aa to tlio facilities afforded, and a fairly profitable retarn 
scoured on the investments already made, the organizatio&s re- 
ferred to will be most influential, and there can hardly bo any 
doubt (hat the supply of money for investment in iuduMtrial enter- 
prises here, which for the past two years has been at the rale of a 
mi llion dollars a week, will very soon equal throe time^ that amoant, 
and perhaps reach ss. high a Hum eventually as a million dollars 
n day. Even at a rate much smaller than thiK, the tnfinences Mt 
in motion may be most potential. U would not rei]uire more 
than twenty yean at tbia rate to placo Great Britain in control 



BJttTlSa CAPITAL AND AMERICAN r\DUSTRrB8. 233 

of oiw-half the iiidnstrinl cuterpriaea of llic L'liitod 8u(w, and lo 
tarn iho tide of money back from profit* and dividenja to sacli 
«n Ml*ut u to make this coontry pay a vast tribnt* to London. 
Alrvady the amount of iiitoresi rtmittt-'d abroad from th« Uniloc] 
Ststea to England, Ocrmany, and Holland, for goYenimciital, alate, 
nianictpal, railroad, and mortffige indobtudueas must approach a 
!iniMlr»d million doIInrBi»iin»fttIy. if the amount to bo invoettti 
from abroad should increase Ihrcc-fold in the next two decade*, 
twenty yeara benco wonid witness a repayment to European 
conntries of a som equal to three hundred mitlioa dollars aauslly, 
or at the rate of almost a million dollars ^ivr day for every busi- 
iiesa day in tbc year. This sooms a startling conclusion, and, an 
the bnik of it would go to Ureat Britain, it irresistibly brings to 
rocollection the fact that, though tbe American people jtronaously 
oppoaed, at the Boston tea-party and siibae^iiently, the idea of pay* 
ing (ribat« to England, the whirligig of time is bringing a con- 
dition of things by wliicU tbc amount is increased ton-thousand- 
fold, but nndor circumstanoos highly beneficial to both countrioi. 

It is impuaibte that there should hare been for so many years 
ao raat a a^vam of labor from Europe coming in the direction of 
the t7nit«d States without in time being followed br a common- 
sante stream of capital; and it is a re*3onifblc oonclusion that, 
while foreign lalwr has enormously beneBted the conntry, tlie 
smployment of the capital now and hereafter to arrive from 
abroad will be even more beneficial. For it U clear that the money 
now comtDg fromOrcatBritainoccRpiosa rastly different phtco in 
our economy from that which she contributes to any other conn- 
try. Here it coraea to ua, not wt loans, bearing irrevocable fixed 
ohaigBS. which must be paid whether or no; it comes as a con- 
tribntion to the bneincse capital of the conntry, taking itacbanoee 
of succeaa withibeaccamulationsof our own people. It takes tlie 
shape of a hnge iuternatioiial partner»hip, in which individiials 
on both sides eqnally participate — a partnership fo which the 
bargain is not to the dimdvantage of either, but a profit w made 
for both, lUo oxt«nt and tm^nitude of which no man can toll. 

No country needs money more than the United States ; ia no 
oonntry can it be more safely employed. The increase of money 
oqtttal has been small in proportion to the growth in the Tolnme 
olbanne6a.to the dcvL'lopmtriit of natural rcxonrccs, the growth 
of railway tonnage, or lli^ enonnotu ontpat of cotton, oorn, oil^ 



S34 



TITE NORTH AMEBICAy REiHKtK 



and other products. The banking fncilitiesarc abovn, b; the i 
tinuouB pre«urD of the jtaul few months, to be qaite inadequate 
to tbe ne«d9 of logitim&tc business — a condition that is intensified 
by Uie transitional itato of our chief monetar}' institutions, in 
their relation to the general government. But aside from this, 
the ability to onipio; more capital is eTerprhere apparent. Tbe 
South, vith itB manrellous ^rrovth and possibilities, the Northveat 
and its empire of wealth, the Pucifio coast and its rarietT of pro- 
duct«,— all are fields for enterprise for onr own people, whose 
capital, being angmcnlctl, or released from inve«tin«uU io exist- 
ing proeporous c^Ubli^binCQls, will stimalate our growth, and 
miiko this nation more than CTer the wonder of tbo world, to the 
pridi* and profit of the mother-count rjr tliat gave it birth. If to 
the opportnnilios alread; afforded within the boundaries of the 
United Status should be added, for commercial purposes, that 
vast region of " The Greater Half of the Continent" included 
vithin the British posBQesions in iV'orth America, so that the com- 
mL>roo of this countr}' ma}' become continental in extont and con- 
tinental in profit, no ono can ttll how ailtantagt-ntis may be tliis 
monetary ccnnuctton between th« two couQtric& 

It is not difficnlt to estimate the ultimate influences sot in 
motion by Ruoh a practical niiion of material intercals between 
the two great English -speaking nations of the world. Mr. Glad- 
Ktone, in hia Paris speech, referring to the prediction that at the 
end of another bandred years the population of this continent 
may be six hundred milliottB, rccoguized "the prospective and 
npproaohing right of America to be iTisgrBat organ of the power- 
ful English tongue"; and, alluding to tlio United Stales and 
Great Britain, added these significaat words, that " there was no 
cause npon earth tbal should now or hereafter divide oiw from 
the other." That the interests of mankind at lai^ will be 
advanced by nclose bond of union between the two great Anglo* 
iiaxon nations, no ono can donbt, and nothing will contributo 
more certainly to this harmony than the mutuality of fntere4t« 
which ifl certain to be creftted by the investment of British capital 
in Amerioau induBtriul nutijrpriiicii. 

Eeasxl's Viaua. 



\ 



I 

I 

I 



I 



THE AMERICAN BISUOP OF TO-DAY. 



BT THIt ]tET. JUUUS IE. WAKD. 

TnERB U a constant inquiry in a free country liko our Dwn» 
whsreChrirttianity is entirely contmllcd by volnntary sawclationa, 
for men wlio bave euch discern meat in aJIuir* tliat lliey are able 
to Entcrpret the signs of the tim«s and t-o give their fcllovra the 
direction wbicb tboy eUiuJ in need of. Krcry ilcnomination has 
it* vi«e tcndera, who iiru trusted and followed Iwcniise thoy are 
able to speuk by (hi* ctent and carry the rauk and Hie with thorn. 
Thf>y are natnnil leadi^rs, not crowned with authority, but the 
oatgrowlh uf the aoil. — mcu who huvo thu inalinot in uiomla luid 
in n-ligion which Chifif-Jiistice Marahall had in the interpretation 
q( tlio Conatitation, — mun who do Iho right thing at thu right 
lime. They gather a comtitneucy around tliom. uiul are influen- 
tial in thrir S('T(>nU deiinmination.^, bcransc they know how to 
organize |>uhlic opinion, and take thu lead in relit;iouii aSsira. 

Yon can think of Ihoee men Inoar Atnorican development, and 
can trace th«ir Iiand-prints in otir ecclesiastical history as you 
can trace the fnrruw of a jilnugh through a hrge fli-ld. Fmnciti 
U'ayUnd left sach an improsaon ii pon the Itaptiitt body ; Williain 
Kilery Ohunning had soch a gnidanc« of the earlier Unitarians ; 
Jonathan KdwtirtU for one gHHeration, and William E. Park for 
a later one, led the Congregational iata liko a flock of 8he«p; John 
Carroll JJrat orgauijod the Koman Catholic body in Maryland ; 
Francii Adbory Mt iu order the Methodist household when hid 
prrtarhprs lived on horeebttck ; William Ponn made the Pennsyl- 
vania Quaken a nniquo Christian sect ; the Uodges haro aet their 
mark in thia ccntnry open the Presbyterian bo<)y, and among 
ChBrcbmeri there hare been at IvuHt two bishops who bare ntood 
beid and ahonlden above others of their order in the ability to 
orgaiuE^ and develop a diooow into vigDrons and expansive life 
-^ohn Qenr; Hobart and Alonxo Potter. 



388 



THB XORTU AMERICAS REVIEW. 



not jot, to any appreciable erteut, diiMt or control Prot«tant 
thought. Th* rctligions lender in the Proteatant world i* tbo 
BDurt man who happens totura upland who secures unexpectedly 
the confidence of his Mlow-rfltKionista. 

The iduR which is behind otir working religiona forces 
ie not that of ChriBtiaiiity va an orgiinixed plnn for the rtMwliing 
out to the whole of society in a fjiirituul way that may be callci! 
conBtructive; it ie. rullivr, the reaching out to indiriduals in the 
community and jiprfiiitHlinf; them to accrpt, oa single pcTsnna, 
<l«QDit« religioiiB bdiefB which arc to Kcare to tb«iQ the pledge of 
beafeu and the certainly of et«rual bleasedneaa. Perliaps the 
pnrpoge of thecte two types of Christianity may in the end bo 
callfd identical, hut the method by winch Ihuy act upon society, 
if tli«y keep to their normal linos of work, la widely diffcmut. 
The one reachoa out to aoi'iety ua a whole, while the other regiinle 
the whole of the coinmnnity as a collection of individual utiils. 
Tbo ouo laya hold of uU the natund, thu honest, the social, the 
active, forces which have free play in a communily, and directs 
them to a spiritual end by lifting them tip to the point where tbcy 
take on a apiritunl impression and reoeiTe spiritnal lead; the other 
keeps more strictly to a highly sensitive spirilnal purpose, and 
intniduccs into the community ouch a principle of Kclection that 
& strict lino of demarcation is laid down, aud the mints and the 
sinnera are aa distinctly known in thid world as it is believe] that 
the sheep and tlio goats will be known at the day of judgment. 
By the work of the odd, where orgimic Christianity ha^snniciently 
gained the lead to express itself dialiiictly liirou;jU inrtitutional 
oa well as indiiidnal forms, society has roceived sometliing like n 
Chnstinn atmoHphere and a Chri^ttian color lUid lone. People 
tiave gained a re«])eot for Ohristiuu institutions, and, whilo 
Immanity has not been fully redeemed, its rices hare boon 
lessened and its way of doing thia)];a baji been improved. It is 
this more comprehensive influence of the church in eooiety tr>-diiy 
which people are in search of, and the influence of iho indi- 
vidtial or personal method of building up the chnreh 
of Christ, if it has not been greatly leesened, is more and more 
felt to be the use of one sort of power which nooda its comple- 
ment in organic methods to make it efFcctive in reaching spiritual 
rMnlts. More and more the evangelical mothwl wcins to he bar- 
ren of that kind of result which organizes the life of the com- 




THE AMERICAN BItiBOF OP TO-DAY. 



339 



^^Rtait; npoD a higher piano. It is Dot that ite lewlets are not in 

Hfarnutr or that the,v do not vork hard in rvaah resiilta ; it is be- 

caoa« they do oot aw all the agvacioii which liave been tranginit* 

ted through the historical church for the regGDcmLiou of sociHr; 

it u miiiiily iMSraitse llicy hiivc lost the inothod of orgniiiziug social 

lb tavctz vUlch th« mrly church aucomplifhcil through tho cplsoo- 

' pate — foroa which in modem time* biivcchietiylwenorganiied and 

cuutrollcd by that jnrt of tho CbrUtiau Church in which iX\e 

episcopate has been a central and rital reality and a groat work- 

ing forc«. 

It has been neoenary to make this statement of the difference 
hatwvcn orfpiaic and DViingi'liciil mcthottv of building upClirifllUn 
aocirty, not iu order to aswrtuiii whut thu biahuii in by cauonical 
right ID the cbnrch of Ctirist, but 'to see the place which he occu- 
not only in the historical churchy hut in tho direction of tho 
by wliich t)i« churcli brings iu etruii^uiiL itii1ueii(!e to beur 
oonatntctirely upon modern society. The American bishop of 
to-dny does not differ in his title, in bis fuucUoim. or in his 
aothoriiy from hi« episcopal brother of the first five Ciirislian 
IK eanlurios ; bnt hiit place ui in the life of to-day, and nnleu he 
takes accoaDt of the elementa which arc around him, and knows 
how to organize public opinion and found institutions uad repair 
(he leakages of society, he may bo au ex<-e]lent functioimry. but 
b« is aUn praotiually a cipher in tho Christian world. It would 
he bolter for snch a man norer to Han- benn taken out of the 
natural olisctirily where hr hclotigi-d ihiin to inakL* tt tntvcsty of 
the fonetinni of th<* epiKcopitl odicv, when ail men ure lunging to 
Me whatever orKanizin; power this oRicc may t>o6S0S4 applied 
■piekly a'ld nrvngly to thi> rp^jeneriition of society. 

Tbi^ .American bishop — and here I mean not the Jlothodist 
dupenntendcnta who call ihcmsolrea bishops, nor tlio Moravian 
'•-lieved rightly to bare a claim to this title, Qor 
> pale, whoso authority ia not doubted, but the 

•piceopate of that communion which contuina the largest number 
nf En Kiisb->i peaking poople in the world, and which in tliii 
country is oalhid by a name that belittles iU character — cuunot 
be si en ply an ecclesiastical functionary who ordains prints and 
confirms the children of the chnrch, trttling down to dio- 
OBtaa work strictly within ooctesiiutical lines and 1o^illg night of 
wb«taecais to be his proTidential place iu American life. If he 



340 



THE XOJtra AMBBICAy Bsvnsw. 



has not some oatiiral gifts for tlie control of men aail the iot«r- 
prctotion of lif« tuid cbsracttr, be had better not be a bishop 
at all : he will be simply one of the painful Cailnres, w&lking 
daily in the sight of ail men, viiich the commanity does not like 
to tolerAle. Society is so anformed, lo in the process of realizing 
winifithiD}; better, bo ready io b« tnoaldod, tlukt the leader has as 
diatioct an office aud opportunity in the collective Aiaericaa 
ehnrch as the Hebrew prophet hod onder the Jewish kings in the 
direction of the life of the people of Iitruel. The Episcopal 
Church )\t\& often lacked Jta opportunity in this country because 
political and social forc«a bare bcou arrayed nguust it, but to-daj 
its opportunity has come; the demand for constructive religions 
forces is everywhere increa^ng ; and of tho«e religious bodies 
which have a Protestant character in distinction from the Chnroh 
of Rome, it is chiefly the one thai presenta Christianity to the 
pMi[)Ie in the organic and comprebcnjiTe form which ha« already 
been stated. There ia thus opened to ils episcopate an oppor- 
tunity for serrice which is not to be thooght of at all as the 
building up of one communion at the expense of another, bat as 
the bringing into American society of a cooetnictivc and helpfnl 
elemont which the purely evangelical bodie* do not seem to bo 
able to command or to kuow how to employ. It is from this paint 
of Tiew that the office of an American biabop, in the light of his 
BociiU opportunity and uaefiilDeea, becomes, perhaps, more im- 
portant than it has ever been at any time einco the Apoatlas 
introsted to the bishopfl. whom they sat apart by the iaying-oo of 
bands, the guidimce of tlie infant church. 

Neither too little nor too mach is lo be made of the organic 
method by which the historical chnrcfa bus alwajn approached 
society ; nor is the epiwMpate to bo magnified, aa aorae who are 
admitted to its ofBces and functions magnify it, as if the respect 
iihown to the ofllce were an ackoowledgmeut of the superior per- 
sonal qualities of the man himself orer hb brethiCD. American 
bishops hare shown a great deal of iron and chiy in thtir making- 
ap, and sometimea their (jualiOcatiaiu for the position Iuto boot 
snch that nobody but themselree conld diaoover them ; bat it is 
pleasanter to indicate what this otSca may be used for than to 
point out the personal voaknesea of tboae who sink the oOoe 
in the man. lu order to do this one mast rvvert to the point of 
IsadeiBhip. There an- ocrtwD qoalitiea which yuo look for tn a 



THE A^ERrc,\y BISaOP OF TO-DAY. 



241 



bMbii]} AJtn matter of conra«. Hemustbvaa Iionust and devont 

[liuu), tlip Iius!>aml of one mfe. ono who has the f^l of adminis- 

tiun, 0111! whu kuowB how to appraich big fcUow-raon not onl^ 

spriest, bnt us a member of society. All these things arc 

■\ lonknl for in the uhoicc of a bishop, but the election to 

If bv the nili;*of the uuijutity, which in thu American 

HKtfacd. — as distingniflbod from the English method, which is that 

of •Pleclion bjf the primu ininlater, ronfiriuation by the Quwn, 

•iid ihiiu L'i:)nM.>cmli>iii by tho urtrhbiahop uf ihu proviiici>, or the 

loian method, vhJch is the sending by th« archbisliop of the 

ia*io of two or throoflnititblonnmesof pricets to tho Popo.who 

the selection, — Lt an iiDCi>nniii nicthod uf necuring a really 

jmpi'tciit leail^r. Tho worst hiiihop»4 in the American Episcopal 

Church have been thoiMs who wcru chudvii, not hecuiiec they were 

wanted, bnt b«4'aniie, when neither iiartv oould obtain tho pno«t 

it moat deBinil, tliey happened to bo so far without distiuetion 

^^H to be arailable randidutos. 

^fe The oseential poiot, tho condition that in first after tho implied 
^BtneM ia determined on, is tlint the man to b« selected for tb« 
^RfivcopAt offi«-e aUould be il iialtind leader of men, and iihould 
hsn practical ability to deal with the whole of life. lie bIiouM 
f, bumanly siicakin^, uii ull-iiniuiid muti. He shoiild be able to 
leal with the qncAtions nhirli rnmo licrnre him as one who aeea 
cir differvnt sides nnd loolcit at them not ae n partisan, but in 
beir totality; bat, mtistufull, in dealing witli Ohriiillnn people 
tvt other nnmea, he should n^nienitwr that it la hU business to 
begin with points of agreement rutlier than with points of differ^ 
loe, aa St. I'ahI did in hifl'oelebnttcd athlresH to Iho Greeks on 
Horn Hill. '^Ve haTo had i^nito enough of the epiBcopnl func- 
Uoniry, thi.> bishop strong in dutailn, the bishop of one idefl, the 
^Uhop who »])£:« English ciuiomg which are well enough in Eng- 
3d, bnt do not increaao reopect for the episcopal oUoo Id (roe 
^ttteliop who foista bis pc-rwnalliked and ditilikos upon 
Dnn in hia dioeoae like a spiritual autoomt. the 
biihop who ileals in admonitions whether they ore colled for or 
highop whoeo head U the light^jat pari of the whole man. 
■p who throws itway his opportunity mid can never regain 
aoT fnure than E^n oould rocorur his birthright, the bishop 
at all the contititiitinnal rights of the diocese and 
III . tobttbii just prerogative, the biahop who aays one 
TOU GU—XO. iVJ. 19 



243 



THE yomV AMERICAN REVIEW. 



thing and does itnotiior. the bithop who losra the conSdence of 
clergy bcoiiuoo he U u<it> true to tbcin, tbo bishup who tttruiiu at 
» goat Mid. svrulloirs a camel. Tbe*e arc soue of th« abuace at Ibu 
epiHOpftI ofllce which bare dUcrodited it in the judgment ot 
American. 

Tberti is an interprvlation vt this ofBccvin ita rolattou to other 
Cbrii«t(aD boiliee irhich, perhaps more than au; otbiT singlu 
f«Aturt', has hurt tht> Chri^,ian conwioiuoMS of America, and 
that is the -wid^Iy-prerailinK, but not anivoraal, attitude of the 
Anivrjcan efuscopate toward other Ohitatian hodit^s. AIncli caii 
bo said on both aides of this statement. Tbe ML'tnoria) Move- 
iiU'iit of ItlM did gnmt honor to moit of the Ajnericua bishope, 
ftild had the clergy in tha GeiMroI Cotireotion be«n ax broa'1- 
mindod as their biBhops, tha EiHseopal (^nrch would at that 
time havi' Ritundwl tcritu of unitr to other Christian bodlu ia 
the Uaiied States which the; coald hare accepted without diB- 
endit to tliemselres. The diffiniltT with aoiM High-('bnrch 
bi&hopa bai beea that ibay coold not aee beyond the bnitlMnenb! 
of the Protaftant Bpisoopal Cboivh. Bishop Wbittingbam had 
tbt« limited Tutoo, Low-Oharoh biabop6. like BUUop McIUsine, 
on tho othor liaBd, hare torn down tbe valb of aeparatioa 
itn ooiupWtely that th»y ^led to make othara sndnvtand in 
what the worth of tbe Bpiacopad Charch ooonsts. Xeitber ex* 
treom haa promoted Chnstiaa ooitT. and the fteqoenl hautt^r of 
the Amorioaa bUwp. w^kk i$ tnorc in his oiatiner than in hia 
thought, hm conflrmod the B^iA or the Presbnenaa to his 
lrB4litioRat hatnd of episcofiaoy as the "exeeimhte sum of all 
tiiUniM.** The cfiiMcifafee enrTwhrTr, etea to^y. Dieets tbe 
prejudice that b ia ool in hanaooy vith Atnnrieaa idea&, and jnet 
«») (at a* eittting Mdenaalioa help peraonally toeeafirn thij imprea- 

wiik thm AmpricKO. 



they p«t thawnalmt 



rnnpslhy 



pestle Md depriTw theosatna of tha e^iarta&itT to «aatnbnt» 
thra««fa the orfaniiiDc ag*w.T oi the t f iu wf t U a h*lpf«l demnt 
le Ancrtcan Avirty. On the ether habd. jmst » Car ax Amerfeara. | 



biahep* ar* it«tT' 



;!■ 



Mkd trnHa^ and hsro th« 



toj^apt thfirattrvto the 



' rare t--- 



\iat» 



ittf AvMfv 
of lMd«r 



soetrtr, ihey^ 



IT- 1 



infl 
tiOtt as 

ttthr 



iH«rtiSyo<it«^ 



■hii It 



vVaa » d»"- 



.rXt an Aokcncica , 



' AMSIUCAJf BISHOP OF TO-DAY. 34$ 

bidop u tnucli as K hurU the congregatloDi wliicli nre under his 
clurge. lint when he aei^s Iiia op]toi-hmity id thu social moTe- 
DMnU of the dsy, ami in the Christinu movemotite wbcra ho docs 
not ncrifice prluripl^, to give L'hmtiaiiiiy & brosdor aiid closer 
contact with the whole of Ufv, hu adds Um weight of hifi olfioe to 
h» Chritftian manhuod and takes a position which all mun respect 
^_-aiul hi>nor. 

^k ErorvthiDg cotuM hock to this point oF leadership, and to tho 

^TabQlly of a bishop to sve when- hu work lies and to do iE in such 

V a waj aa not needleBslj to wound people who have been tniined in 

a diffonuit hooiehold of Faith. It may bo siud Ibut thb is a 

voridljr. mLhcr thikii a Epiritiial, iiittTpretaliou of the bishop's 

office. It is c^rtnitilj an incomplete view. But if the limitaof 

this article permitted it would bo engy to show it« essQDtial 

harmony with the Xew Tertament idea of the ujwstolate, as 

itluctniU-d ill the luinidtrjr of the first orursuors ol the Cliristiun 

Church, sod in the ministry of that preeminent man whose b«in^ 

nil things to all mou wiw novflr the surrender of principle, but 

always the ufTering of himself. Tiideod, did these limits permit. 

it woaM not be hunJ tu show that the usance of leadi^riihip in the 

Foondor of Chrirtiuoily cotutistod of two elemout« — tho power of 

putting the mind of Jc6ua into touch with humnnitj. with all its 

varietjiw, andthonthe j^rocc of solf-efTaciiig sonicc. "oTonastho 

8oa of Man canie not to be miimtered unto, bnt to miniftter." 

Sarclr tho ideal of his ministry mn:it needs b^; the worthiest for 

any bishop I But in a community whose positive institutions aro 

cbieOy jiolitical, and iu whieh OhriHliunity is not developed spe- 

c^lly throQgh institutions and by an organizing process, tho 

^religlouti body that knows bow to diiiil with tho whole of life, and 

B t*> ettend its iutlui-nce through iivery grutlv and order in sijvjety, 

\iv a work to do outside of strictly church lines, which ia quite ua 

ini[ortant as the work to be done within ihcm. In this work the 

fArab der^ rnay hf counted upon to assifll, but it is the bishop 

whonnst take the itiitiativo and Iwid off. In onler to Jo this he 

tto* be ODencTiinbercd with duties which can be disoharged by 

ulhen; hr: must not wa«t4* his time in details; he mast work 

Ihroogh loctal chuiiniils and niieli the hi'art of society, without 

Bi|levuug hts miniatnttians at the altar or hisenpigcments to 

Wen ilotfk ; he must bo free to uee his opportunity at the turn- 

MW«uU of power so that the common life of tho dav, not le«s 



9U 



THK nOBTH JkMSHICAN REVJSW. 



tlisD the truly Chrutian Yito, shall be matlc to foe] thespirtluol 
inip«ct o( the rliiircli of Christ. 

it is because the evanjelioal bodies in Amorica hnye devclopcdj 
the iQdiridnal Christian lifo Mt the oxpen»« of the corjiorato ia- 
flut>ui-« of the church m an imttitatiou, that the Anierican bishop] 
bae a special icflunnfflj to-daT, if hf is e^iua] to the situation, inj 
ginng directioit to American society. 'X*h« poBition which tL«j 
presrnt bishop of Xo* York took with rvfeirnce to thv drift oti 
AtnerioaD life, at the rei:»ut celebraliun of the beginning of 
federal govemmont in this ntuntrr, ia an illDstratian of thia 
reaohing-oat to the direitUon of |>ab1io i^nioD and th« guidance 
of veciety. Bishop Poil«r could not at anj time hare viaelj ad- 
ministered xhf n^huko which be utmvd. Tbe strength of that < 
rcbokv wms in the Otnen of th« time and place for giring it ^nite 
as mBcli as iu the caoarage of tbo our who gave it. The serrice' 
vkioh Bishop Whipple has Teodond to the goTenuaent in behalf 
of the Indians is another instance In whk-h the ecdesiaEtiu and 
the nam hare vnrked together to kdvance lb« interests of a con< 
q&ered raock No nuua hae doM more to aMdiontv their Cflndi- 
ti«n or ti<wl firmer a£ th«r trieod. U ts in this social leader- 
ship, which ha< bohiod it the splritnal teadmhip, that the Ameri- 
oia episcopate, using iu o]>portDtiitT wise!;, can bring to bear 
a|KHi the wKolo of Amerioaa Kfe a oometiTC and wise in>< 
flMM* whieh. in its h/tf^f iMerpnttitMSi. nwau thai tliei 
ChristiaQ Chnreh is working nmstraettrelT in the oKwal and 
ipiritval hhvt tbapeofde in tW sane w%f that the nation 
«iHi«dInelaBa to tbairpafitiail file. TVm an anaple* 
EngKsh and )>hm1i sp i «a p a * es af this art of intMoea. swih : 
thoes of WilbetCoHw awl FkwMr and Stlwrv in oor own dar in' 
Ba^lsad. a»d those a( Oapa&loap and Unrboj is Fianoe, and inj 
the spintunie of KidiehB I^iniien a( aa twiier date, in all 
wUA «mt Indi thit wnm «srntd into sacastv at Urc*<^ witho&t 
■^aistitlm Uair daties » their Iwnii riali iiowwa, the dijt«tii 
■■< tfhli^ JiatwiMi iif Tliiislhw balsii 

TW Ai mI bmi BVi sBsya l Chntafc in iMa c—ntiT. wiA marij 
seT««tt bi ih ft fw enpi^ff*! ra <»ciiT«' wvH. is eMflcxing ih« efuaeo-] 
pat* in n%MMi l«BA«i«hi|k. Mgmasl^ in Uw a— u aierians oil 
cnukli;. vMav«i3idtaarUina<h»«R>fa ffcisataa and 
gwidsncaw a»4 * 'vmy hK|<a nMRhec- el ih«» WAap^ csfwdaDj 
tMM in MiHiHn^ ^MImkwMs* naM wnn ansBliA sn^ni 



rns Ait ERIC AS BISHOP OF ro-t>A y. 



245 



hai SDch K>FU of buElding up parislies and of Influencing general 
Mcict; as Wfrre re^uirotl in the early church; nn<l vrhcrerer those 
IDVO ftre working with a largo intorprotutionof theirmiuion, with 
the oonaciouanem Ih&t it mav lie wilhiii their pover to knit to- 
iler bcidiejj of CbristiaDs in n war which never will be entirely 
t, — wliich WAS the mission of Bishop Fniacr, — their hibora bear 
IcBtimony to u asv ol the episcojml office iu u wry large and free 
way for th« onda which liuvi! hero been aLated to be within its 
qiectal province. 

Tho recognition of this bronder undortitanding of what the 
Aniericiui bishop may Bcconiplisli has a wider bearing upon the 
fature of Chrifttian tocietj in America than those arc ready to 
acknowledge who live and more uud huva tb^ir being atrietly 
withEo d«uouii national lines. The mission of the American 
EpiscopttI Church Iic4 in the possibility of its contribatton of a 
better working system and a larger liberty under competent direc- 
tion than hta lifretofore lecmcd possible in tho wbole field of 
American Chrittianity. Tbe cpJBcopato ifl ralnnble bevaune it ia 
the method by which the C)]rii<tiaii Church can be kept as broad 
and inclusive as the whole of huninnity, and by which men can I>e 
kaptanited in esscntiolj while their individual wava of appropriat- 
ing tmth and develnping the epiritnal life are as nnrcstricted i\s 
tbe air of heaven which they breathe. The American bishops in 
offering this sort of epiaoopacy to tbe dtTi(li.>d Chrtatisuity of tho 
Uoitod States will be met by the olire-branch and the palm where- 
fnr th«y thalt ihow simply and only that their ancient order ia 
Hial to the church of Christ in the senile that it supplies! a method 
by which all Christians, with God'a bleftsing, may reach belter re* 
anlta :n the work which they arc trying to do aa ilie organizera of 
D)odttrT> Chriatcndom. 

Jtrui'S H, Wabp, 



A NEW VIEW OF SUELLEY. 



BT OVIDA. 



Adotb m; head in tho eUrry July uij^lit goes with wft, swift, 
silent movement throtigli the acontetl air. above the t«ll leuvM of ^ 
the alue«, hu<I under the gi-eou boughs of the scacim. a litttc brovrit | 
owK Fatnilte« of them Utc or the roof of thia great houec, and 
at suasot they ileaceuU and begin hunting for crickets and motbs^ 
and wat«r-beet1«e and mic«. Thes« owU are, in scientific nomoa-B 
clature, the scops eaniwla; to the peasantry they are Itnown as the ~ 
ehiu : by liihelley they vcn called the axiohi. I huve never ftjund 
any Ituliun who colled thta ovl asiok, but I anvpose thnt Mary 
G<>dwiu did, since she said, " Do you not hear the Aziohi cry T' 
Andhcmadeauswur, very truly, of Lhid cry, that it wagniQaiob 



"Dr wood Mtd ttreani. meMlnir iind monatala tUft 
And ftolda aad monbcB •^i■t■^ — 
Such *a noir vakt*, nor InM, oar vrlbd, nor bird 
Th« •awl «T«r •tftf«4." 



ear^^ 



The note ia very fnr-reaohing, deep and sweet and clear and mo- , 
lodions. one single note Gonnding' at intenrala of thirty or fortfj 
seconds through thr> still air of the snminer night H is said 
be a lovecall, bull doubt it, for it may be heani long »rtor tlic 
pairing acajou ; the bird gives it forth when he ia Ojiug as whrnj 
be ia eitliug elil), and it is uiiiuiilakably a note of coiitcutmenU| 
Nor do I think it is stid, aa Shelley ternu it ; it has a sound as of 
pleased moilitjition in it. and it has a mnllour thrill which ona 
heard cannot ho forgotten over. Fur rn^'sidf, never do I 
the call of Llie (■hiu (which is often Ueanf from May time tinti^ 
autumn, when tliese birds in HUst) vritbout rcnwn: 

boring Shnlloy and w'iliioj I'; 'hoar. 

Shelley ia more trnly a ion of ludy thim any one of bor owe 
poeti, for he ha" * ' , .r hot natnrvl' 

beauty, which cam 
that HhoUey ruui t>i 



A XEW VIEiV OP&BELLEY. 



'Ut 



not inUuuiWly aoqtiainUd with ItoliftQ laodKapc. Tbe «xc««cling 
tnithfulnc8S of his otworralion or ntitl feeling for it cannot «cr. 
toinly be Apprpcin.t4>cl except by those wliu have Uvud amongst the 
Mghts uuil KouuiLi wbicli took so close a hold upon his imagiiia- 
tioD and his heart. Few. perhape, if anjr, think of Shelley as 
»flen as I do ; and Ut mo hid wholo porsoDalitjr aoenis tho most 
Kjiiritual and tho mo«t grmputhetic of the age. 

Thu personality of Byron startles, cvptivntet, entrancea ; he 
flathui b>' \\i like a meteor — lover, noble, man of ploastirv un<l of 
tbe worlJ, ealitHiy and soldier bj turns, and a great poet always, 
Wt tho poota«tora and ftciolisU of the niomeiit ny what they 
will to their offorU to decn* and to deny him. Shelley's hait 
nothing of thiit dazzling and gorgeona romance, ta he has uolh- 
thing in hi^ portriuts of that haughty and fiery challenge which 
qieaks in tbo po«c Of the head and the glance of tlic cyoe in ercry 
pictare of Jiyron. vShcIhiy's eves guze outward with wistful, 
dreamy tenderiieiiii ; they an* the eyes of contemplstire genius, 
Uie eyes which behold tliat which is not fteen hy the children of 
ueo. That sweotne&s and spirituality whinh are in hU physiog- 

ly eharactorize the fascination wliioh hi« memory, like his 
mast exercise over any who can nndorstaml his sonl. 
NolhiDg la more unfitting to hiru than those wrunglings OTer bis 
mmaina which arc calN-d studies of his life and letters. The 
•oleinnity and bcnuly of his death aud huriat should surely have 
wccired him repoee in bis grave. 

fn no fitber country than Kngland would it be possible to find 
writers and readers so ntterly incapuhlo of realizing what manner 
of natnni and of mind his was that llit^y can presume to measore 
both by th>;ir foot-rtilu of otistom aud try to pre^s both into their 
cmaU piQt-]iot of conventional morality. Would he uot have said 
of hii biographen, as he wroto of critics, 

■' or lour anttiMjhjr 
It I am the MbtcImb*. j«u %n rreo 
T« plaa into • Mtuiil nltb IwltoK *aa' I 

What can his conduct, within the bond? of marriage or without 
tbom. matter to a world which he bloji&oil and enrichi<d ? What 
f- ■ -una] sorrows or failings bo to jieoplu who slionld only 

f' , *rt.Mt ill Ilia melodious voice ? Who would uot give 

tt 1 thousand ordinary women to make happy 

uiuU a tiuger as ho ? 



u& 



THE KORTH AMERIQAN REVIEW. 



THk grvatciit duty of a nun of ^nius » tn liiB own fienioii 
aud tie is uot bound to dwell for a moment iu auy circumstaDcee 
or any atmosphere which itijuros, restrains, ordepresaM it Tbe 
world has very Ittclit comprchcii^on of gonius. In England 
there is, raore thau uiijurhere else, the moat fatal teudeucT todrog 
gtiuius down into the hcuv; shackles of commonploco exiatonce, 
and to make Pegasus plough the commou fields of earth. 
English gomna has suffered gnxttly from tho pressure of middle- 
chuts Knglish opinion. It mode Crcnirga Kliot a hypocrite ; it hati 
made TonDj«dD a chanter of Juhilt-r Odvs : it hm put iu i-haina 
even the bold spirit of Browning ; and it baa kept mute urilhin 
the aoul much noble v«r£« which would hnve hud rapture and 
passion in its cadcucM. Tho tone of hrporriny. of rnritnniBm, 
of oouvetitionality, Itaa deeply entered Into the EngUiili chamc* 
tur, and hov much and bow great has been the loaa it has oauied 
to literature none will ever be al>le to measure. 

HhelleT aSmnchiscd himself in tta dospiCe, and for so doing ho 
suflered in hiK life and RufTeni in his memory, lie was a Rt>pub> 
linan in a time wliL'n rc')>ublican doctrines were associated with the 
horrors of the gnillotineand tbe excesses of the mob. then freeh in 
the public miud. lie would nowbc called an Altruist where he iros 
then called a Jacobin. His oxhortation to the men of England — 

" Hob or Kaslud, wktnfon pkxisti 
For tho Ionia who tay r* InwT 
WbanlBtv wrnrs wllb Ull and l-uv, 
Tlwilcti robcajrourljTKata weMi"— 

would, were it published now, bo quoted with admiration by all 
the good RodicaU, with John Morley at their head ; indeed, it ig 
astonishing that they hara never reprinted it in theJr manuals for i 
the people. It b woaderfu) that "TH« Masque of Anarchy"] 
has escaped qnotation by tho Inadont of the Irish opposilion, and 
that the linos written during the Costlcreagh administration have 
not \K^Ti exhumed to greet the adniiiiistnition of the present liord 
Londouderrj'. Shelley forgot, as porta will forget, hia own low, 
that the poet, like tho chameleon, should fved from air, not earth. 
What then wts doomed 90 terrible a political crime in one of his I 
gentlo birth and cullnre would nuw Im> ihr.iiirht ni 
and becoming, as thL- d''"""'r>ifh- nrfii.-ini, - n' ?.<.- 
and Rosebory are now 
the odes and sonnets wii.<j.i lUc 



VIEW OF BBKtLtir, 



24fi 



leoution would now procure him the gratitude of OUd- 
the huuor of thy NinfUfnth Century. 
" X pMpto KuTed Mid •Ubbad In Ibe wulUod tcM,' 

baliDH wtiicitluubeuu stning«]jr overlooked bv orators for Ireliuid. 

In politics, hud he liveil aov, be wouM have fared much bet- 
tir; to moral lilMrty also lio would, I tliink, have found more 
fr««4lom. Though the old hypocrisy clings still in go much to 
English society, iu much it has been sluiken off, and within thu 
Wt twenty years there has been a rcry marked abaudonmeut of 
conTpntional opinion. There h much that is conventional atill ; 
tnnob to tbc falsehood of which it is itiil deemed nccessarv to ad- 
hH«L If the Jnbil«e festiritiai have shown anything, they hard 
•bown the potentiality for gigantic powers of humbug possessed 
by thu njitiou in all claasea : no single Toice was lifted to say the 
tnith to or of the Crown, the country, or tho centory. Bat still 
Uiem is a grealor liberality, a wider toli-'rance, an easier indulg- 
eoci!; and it may certaiuly be said that Shclloy, if he lived now, 
wouUI neither be worried to dwell beaide Harriet Westbrooke. nor 
would Mary Godwin be excluded from auy eocioty worthy of 
the numc. Society is arriving at tho consciousness that for an 
ordimiry woman to expect the monopoly of the existence of a man 
of gemtu is a crime of vanity and of egotism so enormous thiit it 
eaouit be aocept«il in its pretensions or imposed upon him in ita 
tyrUDj. Theroforo it is wholly out of date and unfitting to the 
tjmMtosM] critics and authors discuffiing and embittering the 
memory of Shelley on account of his relations witli women. 

These relations are in any man indistput.ibly those which most 
nreal his character ; but they are none the less indisputably 
tboM with which the public have least permission to interfere. We 
have the " PrumetbnaR ITnlxniml" and "The Revolt of Islam " ; 
we hare the sonnet to Kiigluiid and the ode to the " Skylark " ; 
wghaTe thu "Good-night" and tb« "Song" ; and with all those 
rieV ' -" ' 'heir like given to u« by his bounteous and beaatiful 
you < vo dare to rake in the aahea of hig funeral-pyre and 

wii - failed lines of bis letters to find material for carp* 

ifliC ■ ur for ingenious niisconstrHcliou ? It adds greater 

^tiirror to death— this gn>[»iiig of the aextons of the press amongst 

mb, this unhallowed ecarcliiog of atieu bauds 

, "PS which wem written only to bo read by cjo« 

Tha coramuu mortal is frsed from such violation ; 



2fi0 



TSE XOSTU AMERICAS itEVlSW. 



he has left notliing beliiiul him worth the stealing; lio hu been 
H ilecurous AH'] safe creatHire, »nfl hts signature has btMiii affixuJ 
to bis WM'kly acnriDtits. liis liniik drafts, bis liunsehold ordora, his 
cptatled to hii chiUrun at school, and not a soul citrea to dtetarb 
the ilusl un tbuir tiod-ap liuudlos. But the mnn or vomnn of 
geuiun luu uo gfpulcbra bum-d ftoileep iu earth or barred so strongly 
that tbe vampire of curiosity cannot eoter to break in and steal; 
from lI(iloi»e to SbbtlcT tlio papor on which thv liumtiig words 
wliicii comtt straight from the heart are rccordivl it> tbn pn^T of the 
vulgur, and the soul bared only to one other soul bttcomes the 
sport of tlio«c who haro not eyes to see, nor eon to hear, uor inind 
la understand. 

I have uid ero now ofton, and I shall say tt as long as I have 
power to Bay suything, that with the private life of the mon or 
woman of genius tbe world has nothing to do. 

What 13 it to the world who was All^rctta's mother, or who 
wafi the protolrpc of Mignon, or who was tho I«dy of Solitado 
of the Klysian isles of the " Epipsychldion " ; what mattor 
whelhei- Shukc^peare blessed or cursed Anne lluthaway, or 
whvther pcrmnal paina and longinffs inspired the doctrines of the 
•' Tetrarchordon " ? It mutter* no more than it mattt'rs whether 
lie^biit's sparrow was a roal birtl or a metaphor, no mord than it 
mattors whether tho oonnen to Ccrintho wore written for the 
poet's pl«udin}*3 I'u propria pertona or for hid friend. It mnttera 
nothing. We iuiTe " Don Juan" and " Wilhelm Meister" ; wo 
have *' Hamk't" and tbe " Lrcidas"; we hare the songa of Ca- 
tullus and tbe elegies of Tibullaa : what wniit4 the world more 
than these? Abu ! alas 1 it wants those which aball pnll down 
tbe greatur stature to the lower : it w:iiiu thai which shall con- 
sole it for its own drear dalnc-as by showing it the red spot^ viii- 
ble on the lustre of tho sau. 

The disa^ for "documents," as they are eall«i in the jar- 
gon of the time, is only another name fr>r this insatlablr appctito 
to pry into the private life of tboso greater than their fellows, in 
tbe hope to find something therein wherewith tr ' '-'-i- •'i^^m. 
Genius may say as it will the nihil humanum a v: : i ; 

humanity alwaya sulleuly percairea thatgenitu is gt'iiius precisely 
becange it is something other than lium--"'"- ""nuixiiMtg beyond 
it, above it — never of it ; aomcthing "»■ i< aloof frum it* 

however it may express itself as kin ' • I'ljut the fcial of man 



A HEW VIEW OF SBELLEY. 



S.*)! 



U dtrlne is a doabtfnl jMstulate ; tiut that w)ia.tover ttivit- in 
ilivine to be fontid clotliccl in a human form ia to be found tti 
genius U IniQ fur ull time. The m^Bi of miin Uimljr feci this, 
unl thcj Tiiguck reaeDt it, and dislike goniiu, 113 tho multitude 
ia India aud Paloalino dit>lik(Kl Buddlia atid Chriut. Wheu tlio 
tigor teus it or the cross bears it. tbti nvm of meu are cotuoled 
for their o»n inforiority to it. fn the world Promethens is alwaj-s 
krpt cbaiufd ; aud the IJrc lie brin^ from licaren is spat apoa. 

"Ok, wiwpfar AfloBKbt— The gulch Dmua^ 

Tne paMbM-vrlnaed Hlotatera ol ibmitiht, 

Wlw war* hla Ooeka. irtwni aev ibo Uring MrauDB 

Of Ub rovBC vpttlt ha fnd, amI whom tia Uvibt 

TIm lOTa nblob «rM Ua nnoio, wBadcr not, — 

WaadM' DO mora, b«i* klodtUic Im aln to bnua, 

But droop tbata, Hhteea Ifaay ipnuig; aad tnaarB tbetr lot 

IloundUwttild heart. whwOinrtarlbeLr kWMipaI&, 
Tbey D«>t wtn gUber MRnftli, anrdnd a hoRMiaKalii. 



TIm Mil «( AdoaaU, like a atar, 
Bmow* rrom ttai- abedo wbsM til* BKraalBre," 

Every Una iu Shctley's rerw which speaks of Italy is preg;naat 

with the spirit of the land. Kach line is a pictaro; true and perfect, 

whether of daj or night, of water or shore, of marsh or ^fardeu, 

of silMico or melody. Take thia poem, "Julian and Maddalo " : 

"How faaftotirul b ntnaaL wb«a LIi« xl-ow 
Ot taavMi <wa— III vpoa • laud llko tha«t 
Ttatt pmrwikm ot «Kfl»9. Juljr I 

JLa tboM wbo pauM as wmdc datlgbUul war. 
Thousli bmU m pl»aMBt pltsrtinag«, wa aUod 
LqoUiiK upon tbe aTOolng, and the flood 
WMebUrl>e>*"*auwclE7aBd ikatbora. 
Pavad (rttb tha hna«c«f Ua iSt : tM boar 
A*d alrr AJiMh totruda tlw aartlL )tpp(i«r«d. 
niV miat. a h—TaB-WMWta l i balwark. nvnlk 
patwaon tlw aaat and itMt: and hSLlf Um tky 
Wm nofad wtlh olonda of rlrJi tititilKmnry. 
Dufc imnite al Iba MOilih, nrtilob illll ktsw 
Down tbc atoop «mC tato a wondfoui hno 
Srtatucr Umb bwalnci iro'd, a^a lo Iho tvui 
Wbara ttw awiR aun r*t paiwod in hto d«Mont 
Aaoog Um manr-Mdad knu— thcjr w«ta 
n«aa tanoa* Baganiiaa hllli. whlrh baar. 
Aa Maa bom Uda (hroosb tba bjirber pllva. 
Tb« llkaaaai «f a otBinp ot p«al:*d Mb*— 
Aad tbta. u It Um eartb aad aca had baaa 
■MHolnd InUi una laka ol lire, won; mco 
Thow mouDUiiia lowrrlnK. lu frotn warm of flaois. 
AroitMl Lba va4ioraiu aun. Croiu wbldi tlitncanic 
Tba imstoM pvyl* aplrU e( INtbt, aad mad* 
Tkntr TSrr poaka tiaiuparant." 



m 



me ^-onrs AMgntcAS nEriKV*. 



WhMTvr kiiovrs tlio lugooai of tbo lido anil of Miirono knows 
iho cxquUlto Juatuess lud wnehj of this dv^cripiion. I 
tlioii({til of it nut long ago whon^ iixiUng over the sliallnv water 
iiiiUie way to tlio dty from TurrvIIo, I suw lhi*Rinci(.-9cend bduDd 
lliv nwnnttf KuKaneaa hills, wliiUt the fall moon hang. «x»ctiT 
oppouU*, ovi^r the mora dutaiit cluin of tbo inbad moaatains. 
Then this *jpiia: 

« 1 Mv ft iA*M at noM lM«w ud ma 
Snlh tmaA Airh otncM. vkm la tha rsoi 
Ot U» anwi MMM vte iMi ikoM: IB «haa hM«% 

nM«rtM«lBtkita-4wfe*nrlteMiaa amm 
B«nMi^ Um Mt«M* «( Ito sMlekM can 
Ti»» Hw — llatfc»iN»»wte«ak.«at»— • 

bl CtNiM «IMl»l. M4 •^WC^MMMI *M«. 
IJ>>— <pJ«l*Wl>»fc» atw tMfc — < gl— i> 



(Mil 



■ •a»i 



Jii<y il tW 1 MikM WW taat —J g ifcort^Mi 



A NEW nSW OF SUHLLEr. 



3S3 



1b uot the digbtest exaggeration in tliCM lines, for exq^ui- 
•iU) w thfjr are, ihejr ratlior fall txi'low iliaii exceed the rupturo 
titd rial lit cuuntluat nigtitingulM iu lUiiaii wutnld by noon and 
nijrbt, »nd tbe mnrvoUoiis miinncr in vbrcb tlie etron^r singen 
vill tukc np nnJ dpvi-lop tlio broken Hongi of wcakvr birds. 



' It I wBTo » dead Ic*t Uton ml«htaK bwv : 

A «*T« l« p»nt boDMilh ttij poorer. «ad •tun 

*Tb« lmpul««of Ibx •trength. ml; loMitrw 
Than than, O «iwentrall*ble I It cren 
I WW* •* in «/ barfiQot, ksd muld ba 

" Tli« eomrado at tb; wuidartngn onir liHtrin, 
A« Uwa. trban ta onutrtp ibn sky^v Kieod 
Scam MMDwl a vbdon. I «tiuhl Do'er luro ntrtroa 

"AiihmitiihtbnlapnrDtiB tnj tan tuvA. 
Oht till rneaa* wkvckAlMtii ftcloadl 
ICaUapuntbotborasoflifel I bleed I 

" A beaTjr wal«lit o( bomn bu chklnod and bow«d 
Om l«a Ilk* Ut«« : btmelMn, •«! awirt, and prpad. 

** Mtiko m« th^ In*, erra m» tbo foNvt i« : 
Whu tr mr liwrni lu* ralllns like iU own I 
Tbn 1 umulL [tf Uir ntlghir hAnantitM 

"WOl uiwfrombMliatfMpauwntMil tan», 
Swwt QicmKh In wiTniw Bt Ibonch, >plrlL flcrce, 
Mr iVinc I B« tiMw m*. iBiiMtniMii M* I 

"Dclra midiMd UMaKbtaoTorUieaiimrw 
lA* altliKed Icni-m lo quicken m new titrtb ; 
And. far Uu liici4«latl«ii of (lUi rtn^ 

'*8akU«r. M (n«i •■ (U«HliaffaUti«d ImuMb 
AahM iwiil «p*rkB, lay wnrd* mwxiS nuuiklad I 
B> ikrutif h 1117 Up* 10 un*wnkei»d nuita 

"ThBlrvntprtafniwopbMrl Owlnd. 
It WlBtvmMk. Ma SprtBK b« far bxlilnd r 



In Uift " Oile to the West Wind," written in a wood wnshtd by 
Um Amo Wfttent, how coinpk-Wly hts spirit loses iticif in and is 
IdtfDtiflcd with tbe forces of Niitnre ! Iiow in every lino wo feel 
the iwwp and motion of thp rtronir Uhcrcio coming from the 
grmy Atbuitic, orrr " the saploss foliage uf the occun," to 



" wakia mm Us mimiiMr dmuM 
Th«Mn* HMUwnwMaa, wbarabelar. 
LnllMt III Um «dU of Ul* oirtUUbM atnaiM^ 
' DmUb b piimlov i«lo la Da W* b«]r, 
And Ht«r III alM^p oU ti>liL«;« luid (owot* 
QnlTOTiae '■tthln tlia travs'ii lnt«>ii**r dAf." 



UrtwD ihiit Willi] sweeps Up the chnniicl of the Amo. tbe yel- 
lowing CAnobmkmbcud, the ritshca thrill and tramblo, the mim' 



2M 



THE NOBTB AMBBJCAy ReVUSW. 



mcT'e vmitly nvgt* %To shakon from the ili*x and acacia buugba, 
[he river, slirrcd bv ihc bn>alh of the s«a. grown yellow and gny 
Kud swulU'u mid turgid, tUo luat swalluvr Qiea southward from bis 
home under the tiarea of gmnair or chapel, and tlio nigltUnealcs 
rirk.' from their hniiiitA jn iho thickets uf liiurol rui'l bny uiid £0 
nls(> where ibu shadowii of [udiun temples or of £{^tiftn palm* 
trt'fs lie upon the eaud of a etill older world. 

la ihaX moat beautiful and too little ktiowii of poems, "Epi> 
psychtdioii,'' the whole scene, though caIIuI Greek, ie Italian, and 
might, bu taken from the woods beside the Ijike of Garda or 
the forest-like parks whicli lie deep and coo] and still in the 
blue shadows of Apeniiine or Abnizzi. 

" There ATS thick vrMdi «rh«t«Br1ran fomuobids; 
And iiiaDf B fouulAln. rivulnt. mad pond. 
Am olear as alemenUl (tlaBiond, 
OrMicBBniorialiic *Ir:MMl fkrlwveind. 
Tlw BWMT Cncka mmdv br Um> Kou* wul dMT 
in* hicli Ui« rongli alMpbonl Ueada btil okce * ftmci 
Pkiree lnu> tlMlMr cnTFTiA ftnd baa-era, kud kalta 
Botlt round »ilb Iv;. which the walcrtolk 
Ilium toln^. nilb s^und thai novcrfal)*, 

Aecnmpniif IhnixxwidM^ nis:hii»g«l«^: * 

And on IheplnMlipoottlMl u.-ltliawc*t n'n: 
ThollKbtcleArelcinnnt trhich ihewhi watn 
!■ hCAVjr with the went of toiDon-riotrcn. 
Which tloaU like mlat laden wllb uiirttn iliaiNts 
And foil* utxm Ibc ajidlda Ilka tahn Mlosp: 
Antf fratn thnniowrtolMJiuidJawinllstNWp. 
And darl Lliclr arruwr odw Ih/tiush the far«lii. 
Till jou mlKht Ulnl with Ibkt ddlclnna iwln." 

In the vholc world of poetry Ixire luu n«rer been «ang with 
more beaut; than in this great jiovin. 

"Abnvl 
I uu not thlBo; I *b * put ot tJLM. 



Pllolitf UieFnia 
WlwMoounahMbeMKMkriMBt Otoolaia 
Bthirodl O too ooon i dowd, hj nwl 
For Id lbs IWda o( tmtnorUlltT 
UrMriiaboaMAtOrMlutTaworablDiwd Udae. 
AdlrloapreaoacalnK plaoodlrtnci 
Or dievU bar* moTcd buM* 11 on tbi* omUi, 
A rfwdow of Ibat aalntanaB. ban Ita fafrUii 

For ono Mintb«r. ihivnchdiMlMllBri 
SM!hdlltbr«iie». wllltf'"!-!'^ ••' '-'•tt| 



A 



A KEIV VIFAV OF SUKLLEV. 

A* breaoUlns lc*rc« la a cMittatMtia aiti 
I * ^ • - > ' * > 

Tbn dbj b Mmn iaiI tbtra vrilt dy wtik mo. 
To «bKlsiM'«r a( dull raortalitr 

1* BtBD. moAln « V ' T ' till; 

Ti> iIm Inlonsp, Ibc >. - rl.ilinUcv 

Nat lotllV, but IDI!. bl.: : tllOU BDitCll 

Kvcn*a*bri4«,d«llBlilinca*iIdeUvht«d. 
TtelMMU lucanw-;— Uitiledlnad StftrluurUm, 
VTtatrh «li*ll dmcMid upon n tm-juiI [irlaon. 
The wnlliitrvlilsli. lbefiiUa«re itrniis. tlilckwt 
Tbe ■caUBcU— tnti true luvc i>irvi?r >el 
Wu lliiuoaoalralticd : Iv ovcrleaiu all lence: 
Uka Uk1iLm1w> will) iBvWbIa vtolcaue 
PiMidac lu coatUiCBta- 



nb lale And tiMue at* mibc, uid I haro vowed 
"Rm* la tw lady at IbaaoUtude 
Aail I baFu atud ap Ma» ohMmbon tban 
Laolcliuc U)waM Uie itaMcn ktuAoni *lr. 
And l0t«l wUb Uic llvliie wluds. wliKh flotr 
Uk* imnt* Above the liTlnjt wmvvii huluar. 
I IMTC tCTii boobA aod miutii ibcre. uid at) 
TiMMO iMUvuMnita nlUi trbldt lUitti avirtw caU 
Tbr Intuni Irofu lUcrwdls. and tlio pcMi 
0«l at Ita iTBtv, Bul laako Uiq prcociil iMt 
^a UtvuiCbts and JAf* ntiioli tlmip, but <unn«t die, 
FoU«d wKlilo Ibelr own eternity 
OuralmpUi lit* wants liti to. aadtraotasiU 
Rltw not Ibe pato drudicu Lvxttry to wuui 
Tka aim* li woald adorn, aad UMeetam aUIl, 
Katui* irllkall bar ohllitrna. baonu ih« bilL 
n* itnw-dora. ta lbs ombuwcrlmc Irr. yd 
Kaat^vptirc loro-la meal, and the owls flit 
RowmI the BTBiiiaK tower and Ihc Tonnir »lnr* eUaoo 
Bvtwmn tkngotokbatabitlwlrtwllivbtdiuico : 
na apotted dc«r t«ak in tk« fr«*b inooitUfchl 
tUur" truritKlfi, and Ibo alow aneni olKl^t 
la i»Mjnred by »>» p«atii n( itMlr oaliu alaap. 
B* IU> aur borne In Ufe. aimI when y^ara b<ap 
Th«tr witnvrad hotm, lit* laavM, mi aar decay. 
Lat «a baoMua ttia avrrtiauslnc day. 
Tka llrlns nut oT tbl* Elyatan lale. 
UouBiou*. iniwpanibl*. on*. Hvanwhll* 
W« two will n»t. MUl rii. and walk i«v((ti(r. 
liodor Um roo< vt Una Ionian wvallur. 
And wandnr Im thu laaadtiwa. nr aaoenl 
1W muMT nuautAioi. « ban tli« blue brartaa band 
WllJ> Oichtoit »lnd>, lo •outii Ili«lr pnra«MUri 
(»r linear, wht-f i Ur pobbW-pitVDn »b«r«, 
Dftln ik« 11)1' k r^inl RIaara of thaw*. 
T^wnWoaaMJ ■■■•rliKaaa witk<wata«y.— 
PbMf tig and pOMMA by all ikat I* 
mtMn tint Mlm rtrruntatrmw at hllM. 
Aad liy ^h Mhirr. tlH totora and lira 
BaonN.-or. at tba noontld* bvar. Hirlte 
*^1kOT aofiW otd carara b(MraMin*7i*tok(vp 



A SEW. VIKW OF SHELLWV. 



urn 



bdH cherkf^I and «liipre(!«^ iu ila ilcvclojimpnt by all EngliRh 
LuflDcncoa brouglit to bear upon it. SlioUcj axiMi couipletel)- of ull 
MCstwB the tatter, aot od); bvcunso he dictd to early, but bccaosa 
bis whole tr^mperament reiiisled conTpnttonal proesure as n climb- 
ing i>Unt Tv»\fX.* Wing fjistened to tbt* eartli; flung it off with 
trnpatieDce, as the sbining plitmnge of the sea-bird flingii off the 
l«Mlf<ncoIor»iI rain and t)i<> colorloes sandn of the shore. Shdlrr 
had act onlr g«nina : he ba<l conrage — that moat rar«, most noble, 
and moit coBtlf of all forma of courage, that which rcjeufa the 
meaaurempnts and the laws imposod upon the CDmmon majorit]!' 
of mcu by conventioniil opinion. And this pmise, no slight 
pmisc. may bo given to liim, which cannot bo given to many, 
tliat he had the courage to act np to his opioions. The world 
had never doininioa enough over bim lu make liim fear it, or 
Micrifice his higher affections to it. In this, aa in his adoration 
of ruiturc and his instinctive pantheiitm, he was the tmesl poet 
the modem world has known. 

To ihc multitude of men he must be forever nnintelligiblo 
and alien; becaniie their h>wa are not his Iuvb. their sight is not 
his aij^ht, their hcnvcn of small things mukcH liis hell, and hii 
of Iwuutifnl visions and of pure puscions is a paradise 
they canuot even dimly bco the portaU. But to all pocta 
his memory and Im rersu must ever be inexpressibly denr and 
■ored. His " Adnnais " may be repeated for himself. There U 
■ beaaty in the manner of hia death which we must not 
gnidgo to him if we truly lore him. It fitly rounded a poet's life. 
That life was Rhort, measured by years; but, ended so, it wta 

on complete than it would have be«n had it stretched on to 
Who knows? — he might have become a magnate in Hamp* 
:hlre, a country squire, a mem1>or of Piirlinmenl, a sheriff for the 

uuty, any luid all things such as the mUEc-s would hare wept 
or; Shelley in England, Shelley old, would Imvo been Shelley no 

ore. Better and Hwm^ter the wares of the Tyrrhene Sea and 
ba Tiolet-sown grare of Rome. Sadder and more painfnl than 
L-arlicxt death ta it to witneaa the slow decay of the soul under 
the carking fret and burdensome conventionalities of the world; 
mora crael than the sudden storm is the tedious monotony of the 
-world's bondage. Th(> si*a was meroiful when it took Adonais 
«bo sang " Adonuis" from earth when he was yet yonng. H» 
aad hii friends, h« and those who wrote tho "Kodymion" and 
tOU «.— KO. 399. 17 



258 



THE NOnTH AMERICAN REVIEW. 



the " Manfred," wato h»ppy in Ifaeir deatlia : their 6(piriu, tmr- 
iiaUy young, live with ns and hare escaped al] oonuminHtiou of 
tlw commoDphiCQ. Byron might hare lir^d to vrwigle In the 
I^rdti over llii: Com Laws; Keats might have lived to become a 
London physician and ponoh fees; iShoIley might have lived to 
bfi Cuat06 R»tvlorum and to take his dnnghters to a court ball. 
Their best friend waa the angel of death who came at Rome, at 
Missolonghi, at Lerici. "Whom the gods love die young." 

The monotony, the thraldom, and the pettiness of conven- 
tional lite tie forevcr'in wait for tho man of genius, to sink him 
under their muddy waters and wash him into likeness with the 
multitude : Shelley, Ityron, and Ke*l8 esoa{H*d this fvll embrace. 

What may be termed the material eJde of the intellect rccoiws 
itesittaTtce in England— that is to aay, in the aristocratic and jwUt- 
ieal world of England ; wit and perception and knowledge vt 
character are (luickened and multiplied by it. But the brilliancy, 
liberty, and spirituality of the imagiuutJoD are in lb dulled and 
lowered. If a poet can find fine and fair thoughts in the atmos- 
phere of a London sqnare, ho would bo visited by far finer and 
fairer thongbts were he iitanding by the edge of the Adrian or 
Tyrrhene mn, or looking down, oagle-Iike, from some high spur 
of wind-vexed Aponnine. The poet ehould not live forever away 
from the world, but he shonld oftentimes do so. 

Shelley'd political creed — if an impersonal bnt intonao {ndigna^ 
tion can dese-rvo the name of creed — was bom of his hatred of 
tyranny and a pity for pain which amounted to a posaion. But 
lu8 nature was not one which could long nurture hate; and be 
says truly that, with him and in all he wrote, "Lore is celebrated 
ererywhere as the vAn law whirh Khould govern the moral world.'* 

The atmosphere of Italy hiA been the greatest fertilixcr of 
English poetioil genius. There t« something fatal to genius in 
modem £agliih life : its conditione are oppressive ; it« air is 
heavy ; its babit< are oltogotber op]»o$ed to the life of the imagin- 
ation. Ont-^f'door life in England is only associated with what 
is called " the pleasure of killing things," and is only possible to 
tboM who are very robust of frame and hard of feeling. The lu- 
tellectaal life in England is only developed in gaslight and 
lamplight, over dinner-tablea and in ciab-rooms. and altbnogh 
the country bouses in some instances might be made centres of 
iatoUectual life, they nerer are ao by any chance, and remain 



A STW vimr OF suellet. 



1260 



<m].v th« canotnarics of fosliion, of gtistrononiy, nnd of eport. 
The innumerabk' detuaiiils oii lime> the routine of social engage* 
moots, the jtrsMare of conTentioHH) opinion, are nil too strong in 
KogUiii] to ullovr the man of genius to bu liappj' tliere, or to reach 
tbcre bi« liiglivat and best development. 'Die many artificial re- 
Ittmintf of lifo in Kngluiid aru, of all things, the nioiit injuriong 
[to thepo4>tiu l(>nij>oraiiiL>nt, wtiicli ttt nil tiiii«!< is i)itickty irritatcil 
'Onil esuly dppreescO by its tnirroundings. TlicrL* is nul enough 
[inmre or epaco for meditation, nor frvvdom to Uvo aa the 
I«i(iMU or the fancr or the mind ticairea; and the absence of 
llmraty — of beauty, artiKtio, urehltoetiiral, tialiiral, and plnsidil 
Dpprea«v« and dulU the pontic iningitialion without its being 
lA frnm the la^k nt nhirh it snfTrre. 
Itl of a living gtatc!>iiiitii thai \w is otiljr grait in 
opposition. 80 may it be aaid of the poet trho tanchc^ mnndano 
thitigt. He lit only groat in opposition. iMillon could not hnvo 
, vrittan a Jubik-e Ude without falling from his high estate : and 
H none am care for Shnkeapearc wttliout desiring to expunge the 
■oucgyrlo on a Virgia Qucea writton for the Masque of Kcnil- 
^^jptli. Tho poet 1% lord of a spirittiiil poorer ; he ia far 
■' lUvTe the holders! of powers temporal. Ite holds the sensitive 
plant in hta baud, and fc<cU every innermost thrill of nature ; he 
ii taXtn to hiraaclf when he denies natnrc and docs a fnrced and 
unreal homage to tlii' decrees and the dominion of ordinary 
Liocietjr or of ordinary government. 

"BMk «r« kIMm to bim, tad u« his tM&' 

I Thill line might tlttingly have been graven on Sheltoy's tomb- 

I^Rtono, for it was eascotially the law of his soul. The violenoD of 

political imprecations is begotten by love, though lore of 

lier kind — love of jnaticv, of truth, of tolerance, of liberty. 

in of which ho beheld violated by the ruling powurs of the etato 

vA of the law. Shelley, with (he unerring visioD vhich is tho 

I birthright or genius, saw through tho hypocrisies and ghams of 

kings, and prii^slM, and chorvhes, tind count 11 •chambers, and 

.UTiventioiial mumlity. anrl political creed*. The thunder of 

[U« nperb sonnet to England which begins with the famous line, 

■■ Ab uU. and, bttni. doaplMd. and Ayl%% taatT 

tnm his he»rt'« depths in scorn of lies, in hatred of pre- 



S60 



THE SX>RTB AMERICAN .RKVICir. 



lenco, in righteous indigiuirion u a patriot ftt the corruption, ve- 
DAlity, And hvpocrif T of 

*■ Rolan wh9 ttoUlMr M*, naf feel. HOT kRow, 
But iMek-Ulw b) UMIr UlmOag OMtntor cimr" 

It 18 prrbaps to be lamented that tJie true poetic tompenuncnt 
iihotild eTer tarn iwide to share the fret and ferer of poHticHi 
Dtrifv. It is waste of the spirit of Alastor to ra^ against Swell- 
foot. But the poet cannot wholly eccape the inflnenoes of baser 
humanity, and, wntchtng the stni^lea of "tho blind and battling 
multitnde " from afar, he cannot aroid being movc^ elthi-r lo a 
passion of pity or to a paKsioD of disdain, or to both at once, in 
vii'w of this oombat, vhich secma to him «o poor and small, so low 
aod vile. Men of genius know the more transitory chamclor of 
those* religions and thoBo nocial tawg which awe, ae by a pliantjun] 
of terror, wwkcr minda, and thcr refuse to allow their lives lo be 
dictated to or bound down; and in oiac-t proportion to their power 
of rerolt is their attainment of g^reatness. 

The aonl of Shelley wa$. beifldes, deeply imbued by tltat wide 
pantheism which mnke« all the recmnd religions of men look so 
tritv, ao poor, so narrow, and an mean. 



tialrttslh* 



I t»v« teu4 IfeoM Mon «UtM la ipMU Kf. 
TM bahMM, whiefc Mrtnai^tM <*!>•—» 

TW ooar bau<« at <*w IkkM ud pook. 
An th» pavOkaa wtan Mck « wU Mia adkt 
Vmim >» wnm m» w**m ■tw^fcwi 
WMck M«Ml*i ktoain ia«Mfh tka wvna iMni 
ABi «kM IhM tanc •■« Ikt IklB tav a», 
TW »Weli tlMT WrctbiA wMhr itoM twnt toM 
AMwdi w •■• Ok* M«Mn IWm^ tiM ataU. 
Ttar tM* M Umk mA rate llMlr iMaaHWMA. 



V Mdl M«w i*a^ kav« ■■»» Mlv ■ n 
Vttm Hifc W— gr ■a> iat>>i i«i 

Or M Mitt 4SW adM« vlMa tWr ««b. 



Tb•k^ 



and de«p ddif Ht. 



A NEW VIEW or SHELLEY. gfl] 

"Hy Mill i» ko afictubUil boat. 

WUcfa, like a klecfiliic rwMi, Aetb fluU 
Upon Ui« MIror wktm ot th^ tnrMt MDflas i 

AHd UdM datli Ufc« ftB Mfwl ttc 

Btililt Um beln MndocUiKlt, 
WhUit ■!] tk» wtBd* arttlk Dwlady »j* liaising. 

U Menu U> llMt arer. tanrtr. 

Qpon tbat ouiir-wliidtiiK river, 

BMwvca auniBuaBt. woodk, MtsmiM, 

A iMndiM of wUderaMaH 1 
Tin. Ilka MIS In tinm bar bound. 
Boroa tolboooeui, t fioatdown.uwand 
lat« k aok profound, <if •TM-aiwcodliiC MtlUtd." 

Tbi* iatimaui eympath; with Nalurtv tliiii pt-rception of boautjr in 
thing* Men and noicen, ttiu deep joy in the ECQse of existence, 
makt the rety lUo of ShcUoy'a Uf« ; ho U tlio ideal poot, feeding 

"onUivtfrWklMM 
CM iliApea tb*t haunt tlMttghfa irMatnB w et." 

Tainc bus BUid, with truth, uf modern lift: : 

**IlmuB«a>roiH|)las prendre la Tt« en KTAod. virile d«Bva*infniMi iMNuiiouaoM- 
tnaanadMik nn p«Ul Uiui-4m timiuciijd dam UDOpoUt«wuTc«vlaK4n. tfl« t* 
wtltfaw In tho noootMliM b«7viKl Nsplct-J Id «a t«dulult )« vtenset l*«o«v«ttk(i 
ibn^ amaammif. Alnd d««agte I'^mc, oumow lew 7001, povrftit eosUnplM- Im 
VMI« iMvtun* tout* «ai a'dUnd at dint kii dtla d* 111001)01*." 

Uodern life gives you six ulcctric bt-lU beside yoar bed, but 
Rot one Mun or cltambcr tbut a great artist would cure to copy. 
The poot yawning among the electric b«llg becomes a oomnion- 
place penon, vitli a mind ulKtrured by a goiirniet's love of the 
table and the collar ; tic is the chanifleon who has lost hid luminous 
and magical powers of traosfiguratioQ^ond become a mere gorged 
liiard Bt«IT«>d with snffiir. 

Byron, SiudU-y, Wimlsworth, wore in their different lives so 
gmu because they had all the power to reject the drowsy and 
dulling' influetices of the oonimon world of Dien> and withdraw 
from it to Ifavcnna, to Lirici, to Rydal. The commonplace of 
life, whether in occapations, relationships, or so-called duties, 
eats away the poetry of temiierament with the slow, sure gnaw* 
ingot Ibo hidtirn insect which eats away the tiger-skin until 
where the i^hkn bronze anil deep sable of the shining fur once 
({listened, there is only a bald, bare spot, with neither color nor 
b««aty loft in it. There are millions on millions to follow the 
oosunon tracJci ind fnUil the common functions of human life. 
Wli-ii \\\.' iK-,cf ia dragged down to any of these he is loiil. The 
lied the (tar lice deftd in the Icitebeu fire, d^rnded 
AUd 1ujun.1I Wyotid rt>i!ull. 



FINAL WORDS ON DIVORCE. 

BY MABGARET LBK, At'TUOR OF "DIV0BCK;OR PXITHFUL AVD 

VSVMtHrVL," AM) THK KEV. FHILIP S, UOXOM, li.D., 

OF THE FIRST BAPTIST CUL'ROO, fiOSTOX. 



Wbek David coveted B&tbsbebu, he sent Uriah to the front 
of the battle. To-day, in tlie United States, Uathslicba tramps 
Dp a cauae ftr divorce, and Uriah liTBH to bcc his wife married lo 
hia inflaoDtml rival. 

1 am an American, and a proud one. For thirty years I 
hare been watching with admiration the progress of my coanliy. 
I HID inclined to think that our very prosperity has nourltthed the 
cril called divorce. 

Nov, vo are, ae a people, wholly independent of the laws that 
e^ntrol other nations. We have had a century of freodom, 
Mlacation, and elbutr-rooni. Wo have no excuiies to iirgo for 
making mistakes in marriage. Young peoplu meet itoriullr nitli- 
ont restraint ; they caniiot bu forcul inlu marriage, and Ihey 
po«ca> all the facilitiea for deliberation in taking marriage-rows. 
I am anxious to believe that the majority marry from right 
motives. 

Our high-prenore civiliKntlon has mnch to do with after- 
troobtiiB. Young people must enjoy Inxurioa which are (iiiilc in- 
coDtiitent with the young man's honest purse. Hence comes dm- 
content. 

Were marriage indissoluble, the old*faahioned rirtaes would 
pusiublj grow apune. Hut divorce is the open door. Selfishni'M, 
gT«ed, and vanity ninrder devotion, economy, and faith. A richer 
■nan trtands in viuur. I think that divorce appeals to the groaaer 
element* of our natnrv. 'Ilie refined, sensitive men and women 
who marry with Ju.U ideas are never heard of in divorce courts. 

OiTorao 11 not the settlement of nn evil ; it is tho begin- 
ning of endlew complications. I cm smased at the general in- 



FIKAL WORM ON DIVORCK. 



d(vt 



or alfinnative. Divorce is of two kimls, partiiil, a riuiud 
tt ti(tro, ati'l iihKoliitc, a rineulo 7rutlnmr>Hu. In ihe Gr^l case it 
U the legal jinH{it!niiioii of a rutntioa whJcli is not wholly di88olT«d ; 
In tbe »eooQ<l caae it is the complete fliiHwlution of the nukriUl 
boDd. Properly, a docreo of absolute divorce is th« legal rooog- 
nitioD of A diesolatioii thnt Ims alrtsady tak<>n place. 

Can tho marriiige-lie be <]iit«olved <avu by death ? Tlio DCgs- 
tite of this it would he difllcult to maintain. Man's power of «e\i' 
destruction is not confined to the physical realm. Marriage is 
i\aiUi u much a moral relation as it i^ a phyaical relation. Jdat 
u certainly ag one miiy dniitray his life by vice, or deoiroy hi^ 
moral seoaibitity by ettlf-abundoumi^nl to evil impulses, just so 
sandy may he destroy both the physical and the moral tie which 
be haa formed by marriage. That the laws govuming society 
■boald and must recognize such diMolntion is anqaMtJoiublo. 

There are both rational grounds and sul-ihI Decessitiea for 
dtrorre. To many minds tho Tery idea nf dirorceb repugnant. It 
seems to be a riolation of th<^ divini! nnl^r of human life. Rut one 
must uoC ignore facts, .\inputatiuu i» rt-puguuut lo u scosittvoly- 
organised nature ; but if a limb is gangrened it mnst be out off. 
The entire prohibition of dirorce would work lurm to individuals 
ood, through them, to eoriety. It seems pretty clear also that to 
some degree it would promote vico. It certainly would infliot 
great wrong on many innocent and defenceleiu people, la some 
ewee it would even destruy the family'. Society muat pruteoC 
itself as a whole, but in doing this it must not disregard indi- 
ridaal righte and noods, Indoed, as surgery of ton sares human 
life by cutting avay u mombor of the physical organism, so 
Rooitfty often saves the family by cutting utt a uuiious member. 

That divorce is needlessly and even dangerously frequent, eis- 
jiccially in the United States, one who has oxjiminod the statistics 
on this niattvr tyinnot doubt. Tliat decrees of divorce are often 
granted on iniinllicicnt grounds, and that multiform ovils rc«alt 
Cram the ridiculous facility with which divorce can now be pro- 
unnd. tfl e()aallr boyond quostion. But that divorce is soue- 
tioiee a sorrowful uud imperative uecessity, in the present oondi- 
Uvn of human society, can be denied only by shutting the eyea 
both to facts and to fundnmental ethical principles. Whilo con- 
ceding, huwcver, that divorce i^ somocimea not only neceoary, 
but also beneficial to societv, we must affirm tliat abeolute divorce 



TBK XOSTU AJIBRKAS ttSVISW. 



of Tier. Alnost all Utal eaa b« aoconpUihed b/ <liToro« U 
protcMtOB of iaaootni and h^f"*^ UKtiTidiub, and for the 
Kmtim of hooariMilik, ih* dnlnietMO of vMch b UirMtea 
the iD6d«Uty of btufaftod or wife, cwi b* socnrcd throiifcb 
•Bpkntiott. 

t. Ongtd difoned pt^ite to be Allowed to mury node 
■dmautaaoes 7 

Of ootuiB tUi qawtioa rafors oftlf to neb m biTe nc 
a dflorae of absolute diraroe. TW qplHoo if diflicii 
aiuvtr. Tbere are Atroag aryaiaenU in &iTi»r of • ' 
tioe of lAr r ii y to diToraed p waan e danag the in<- oi • 
partT to the dissolT«d marria^ mm a nmvnagaol the dir 
fclF**-*^ and viicL Bat iboee a r gu aaoh are not ooachiMfp 

Absohite di rave is JMtiiabk e^ aa a kcil decltt«U«« 1 
bel that tiki ■nriagt-tii tea ahwdr bam I'— Imt 
moid aakn is goae and the ialefiit* «C tW phnieili 
been dMUOTvd. la oaeb a <aa» tbe tiMdas of cba : 
Ma.wheO» wife or >■*■■! woaidawai tobc« 
K«ltyoMbaldif4. Xatn* pnhAitiM «l naniar ^ < 
»> «o n ii M ii l wwaM wdt <fl» ia uaUu bw h a nUbip > TV 
la tb> g«a^-<wh>roC At ■■niH' '* tberi^tonanj 
ii lo prt a ptanas —fiiMt TbeiaaatMal^Bari^to 
faKsd ia TvrtiabJat Iba fdM? and at tke aiB» tfav ;■»£> 
nsUa of tbe mMcaftt UfwwoCtbMCBcahT.aiBc h«n« 

(■^ *ad( »t iMMawd Bna tka ^tf *■■« tf kK oiHB. 

TW difcyrj ■Mia«^tW%tl i^ia^riw rfdmanaffl 
VttiMaaMMfa -iiiTia^i ■iiiimT-"- — ' -'--^ 
baKwH»tti»lMkaiUtMM»«raa^«tiMi9M. B«N 

Mftt ba tafcm te te dlMRMft oCaaaH 
Bk D tihH* ««M be M««d • II 

lwakba^kaa^(faAwM«-^^ aavml grmi 
ikt^i ba «HMaM^^ 1^ ii^Mirrtia or 41 
I «« Aotil a^ Aal «^ «« MMM <aawL Md «a a>« 

'It wi>^^ i^^ %> ^Jl. h*. «w m kA iV> paCfiifliv ftu 




VISAL WORDS O.V DIVORCE. 



207 



It U pretty clear that ir, in plucc of Che now preralent dirorce 
c vinculo. legal separatiou, a memd tt thoro, woro v«r,v largeljr 
ibstitoted, an retimnablv miglit bt^ ilooe, all tlic advaiitagea aria- 
BjE from entiro probibition ofdiroroc would be secured without 
w inevitable dtaad vantages aiid even positiri! eviia »f such pro- 
HibitioQ. 

3. What is the effect of divorce oa the integrity of the 

Uodonbtedly the etfeot of divorce on the integrity and morut 
liealtli of the famitf is often most barmful. Ouljra careful iiidiio- 
live stmly of domestic life in the United States during the past 
t«mty jrcAK can iiualify one to give a full und luieumte unsirer to 
lio above question. But, reasoning from well-knovm atid ac- 
cepted priDcipies of moral causatJoa, it la safe to say that almost 
alvajs diTom is an evil. It is true th»t sometimes dirorce Rares 
a family, aa amputation safes a life ; Init uotliing can mikke the 
rvmixly other tlian painful and porilons. £aey dirorco strikee 
directly at the sanctity and integrity of the family, and, therefore, 
at tliK founihitioua of social purity and strength. It lowers the 
idea of marriage, as u permanent moral union, to t!ie level of 
'a eontract depcudoat on mutual caprice. It stimulates hasty and 
ill-mode marriagee by the opportunity it alTords for their speedy 
liwolatton. It lessona the sanctity of wifehood and maternity. 
It depreates the moml tone of the home life. It maguifieii the 
difTicattieaof mutual adjustment between huabanduiid wife, which 
abore iu the tmperfectione of human nature. It chocks the dis- 
utioD to have children, who auiy be grave omborrassmcats in 
ciM of separation. It drives nvay the sweet spirit of pur« 
ligion, and deSlea the temple and sanctuary of domcalie life 
tb the unclean spirit of legulizi-d lust. It would be dinicnlt to 
Wo longaoge in denunciation of free divoroo that would be 
fxtravagaot. 

It ifl too early to determine the full effects of the epidemic of 

divorce wbioh recently has spread over our country: but unloeathe 

tnt tendency is very greatly checked, we may be sure that 

il corruption ou ft wide acale must follow the decay of that 

pure dom^tl^ life vhieh has its spring in hunomble and 

•auduring miurii^. ttaro and diDlcull divorce may coiuierve a 

family life. Buy divon'e promotes u freedom of sexual 

JQ9 in eocie^ in which tbe family cunnot live and tbrivc. 



968 TBE SOSTB AJiB&ICAS BETieW. 

4. Does the abaolat« prohibition of divorce «here it exi^ 
oontribDte to the monl pnntr of socieir ? 

This is a qaeetion of ttct. In Sonth Cut-ins dirorce is not 
allowed, and Bififaop, in his "' Marriage and Dirorce," " quotes 
jadicisl testimonr to show that tbe eifect of this sute of thin^ 
is to bring about a partial recognition of concubinage. The 
portion of his goods which a married man mar leare to his con- 
cubine has in (act been fixed bv s:a:sie.~ (Ency. Brit., 9th Ed., 
Tolnme vii., page 304.) It is pre;ty safe to sar ibat where pro- 
hilution has been absolsie there has no: tberv'oiv been the 
greatest moral parity of 8»x':e:y. Roman Carbolic coimtries, 
where divorce has been forbidden, b-j: where sepuaiion has been 
allowed for canwj — for example. Itdly a=i Spain. — have acaroelj 
been exceptional for social par::y. Like eri^onKd celibacy, tbe 
entire prohibition of divonre wo:i^d s««si to promote concnbinage 
and illicit intercoarse. Leoky says: 

tf V** oanvpO^ mar £U Ite li^7a^« vftif^ ns aonzolcd ±= tMpotel Bom* ■*•- 
nu th» >Tl»»r« of « TtCT Iks* *Bxai «t tua^t rtx^t." ,Wm. tf Em. Mar- 

The <j=es::o2. however, is ::-■': a s:=:r'-e -r-e. M;:ch depends 

on the gs-tr^il :~:irll:^r:: .ir itii r.:.-ni^ :r^-:7.i .f ^ W'.\r'Ie. Great 
fwtdoni of iivor.-e C'tr.ii-.'T -t- -j.:::* isx-il :nir::-rti:y nnder 
frrnis of ".iT. A":*.'-.-.:!: yr;>.i":.:;- v. ■s;rks "i--:.; ".:« eviL On 
:hew'-;>. :~e S"i;--;>:;,-'-j.* :f ix-.vr-.;":-? i::i ;irtf:i' reasoning 
alit* rviz: v -'Zi ~i::::j;-i::j; ;: >:- -r;-: "^tj ;- i-T;r:e as a 
r.ccessi^ i;:.: ^?r\:;v; saf., j-.-.ar.-, ,■ ;'-; :*::■..'•". i,r;i, I'-r^-zifh the 
Sr.-'y. cf i-.a:-.!:.;'. iii.; .-..-. .;s ■«...:,■.: ",f;. 



NOTES AND COMMENTS. 



ATVBBpnaent wriUnctbccpldciiilaoriaffrrppccppuntobeftbtttlag. Toa y 
fnlirrvly that It b ImtIiib m to not powlblc Wa •IwmM, tlt>mif«r«. aot kllow 
tUl«m«aU ta Ibc [raUlo pcvw, t« tbo vA^t thsl tfao oulbrMkU wkalng, l«Bitalvad 
— tol^ bacowlaa pt r ri — ■ of »gpo iir « to ctw c* Uwtt Mir iadiaoe »a ■lUck. 

Tb* jKcraflbv tfildcaite otlgli»U«d. or Maeaa to hftra ortgloftlot. In Ruiwl« 
•hoot Karanba- L im Aeentdliv ta iha EnrotMui pmm kMoaBta, OB»-hAU ef Uie 
popMlMloa of SL PMoHbum <"*>« BtuiokMi b; It wiihiB tbTM «Mln of lu Biiinar- 
nc* In Um eUy. Tlw wulbcr at \he Uma c( Ui« o«tbn«k was onnmallp wmrm 
■sd hoaiU. TiMaa odadlUem wara psobablv Iha mStiintc vmvam. Br DaMtabar U 
UwdlanuB h«4 nirnart «Tar Mtlra lorUMra Kvropa, and In tbe vplnlaii of Uw wrllar 
U iwohwl UJa eomBtfr fcbaat Peeambar W, Ilia aaoanala nlietlMTieKsw Ycakw 
Bi^aa behn^ tba dvubtfol honor ot harlax tud Uic Snt oaao. WKfala Onoan dv* 
i< Daaaabor A a* wklcta data tbe Ant caaoa w«r« raportad la Ktw Torfc. fullr 100,000 
j^araasa bad baao aiflMad wllb la ^ppr in (hat oitr- 

na»Be«afcanailoalitUMt tka AiDerie<ui«i>ld«iDlol*ld«itlaalwlLli thaRutaUn. 
n« diaaaaa la daa la aeoM mler«-«>isuilaRi r*nUi In >nd hr tha air, aMi prolMkly 
ate by dtttblDC aad etber nutarteL Thta mioro-MmnDiB infaota Um hmnut ifa- 
taM, kItIbc riaa Ga Uw aymiKoma paenllar U Una dlaeaaa. but la ao dadnK It la rapMly 
jtwyift b? weprotaoUatlallgamoa In tbi bnmanlxidr. 

O b aM »a i i qf tba blgheal atandtng dlfltar npon tb* nbtect of eooUfim, aotna 
faeUlnc Ibai n la htchlr moucknia. othcn Ibat II la allcMly in, and otbanaUU that 
It caahM b* tnuulttad tmm gat io n to pcnon. Tha wrainanti adraaead by iba 
laUar la doCaaoaedbalroptote an thai iu raped aad alaioat almtittaiiaMiB dllTa 
rfan pavdvdaa Lba M«a ol pvnoval oonUslou Tb« estnatvly ibort parlod of Ibcv- 
baUea lcnd*alaoi«dii|>ror«lt. In lioita«lxiU> perxxia wbo c«aDot b« abow to 
b»«w beao inhi^cUd la I>m> diiM*** irt aalitnil wllli It onn aft«r anatb*r, a (•« tionia 
wBlf latarv«nlBc 1m(w««i aach cibm, Tboa. t oo. Ihey aay. prevlDaa epIdeaiJoa fcava 
•eaafndaiidbandUappaaredeBttrcJTartcrniiintiicaibartaoana. If, tbcNfOfa, 
It wara oonUiiSaaa. tba diaaaaa would tw kvptallvalora loogarperlod: laOaad, it 
TnaM 11¥ii nUinrrnritiirlnriaillniara narar onllrHy laava ua. 

Ob lba otbar baad. Iba adrooalca ot tbc cwatMCloaa tbaory point out ibat lba 
MMawalwayalUlBwaibaiBalnUBcaoroaaiiDerMaadlrard. tn boaplial warda tt 
baa baaa obMnrad to aAc4 patlaata In ravnlar oidar, trartlBBB from bad lo bad. 
Tbay ateo qnata anaiaroa* Initlanrtm ol coBtaKloa frotn lalbotad "'"''■'"g, IM(an> 
flie. 

tl msM U admlltad (twt ixHtbar tMo Kkr» ulUfactOillr prorad tbalr Ibaory. 
ta tha writer II api^kr* to Nt ftiymtiftKutdbaaac latlMOfdlnaryaMapCattaaof th« 
larMktbonchltlat>rabaU]raatyillcblly ao.farbe baa fraqaaatly aaea oaa or two 
vaabwa of a lanra ramUy aflMdal wbUa tb« Mban tbo«gb aooHd t» tba dlaaua. 
■Oayad lauanaltr- lu paopaeatloa la dne lanaly to lafacUoa. 

Tba parlod «t Ineabation apptaia lo ba ftom ajghtaaa to twaatyftwr boiira. Tba 
MaKtaavtmnttyaiiddaa. Patiaata amaidaln of aMTortac or chilly oaBaaHoaa down 
(b«ir badu TarUfo afUa. exoeaalTB fniatal boadacbe. ud steal pratnthn. In an 



STO 



TBE yORTff AWERICAN JtEVJEW. 



vxcNdlngiT •borttlinB tbel«inpentaroriM»»aU«bln •muo ca«M a* US* Fabr. H 
TttrtMBCCOiritMrlotliOMVwityoIttMtattMekfroinUI* tolOt*, oromiilnnirp «Ma 
riM* to IMH' Pabr. Tbs pnlM ia MO«l*MWd. but not la preportlMi ta tfc« Mffe 

Twa dl<ilaet TutetlM of Um Jlwa hftvo mppatroA la tU* •pUemlo-lbB (etirt- 
eolar. oriMtrraw,K»dUi«uUMtrbtU. TIm lontwrta ridm enawioD ; Uui Uller moat 
HT«tv In lu eOfeeU. Tke (etirlculu. or narmoa. lorm la etiwaotartMd br Uia 
•rBpeona mltaaJy DDmUosad luid by aeTore vain* MirlbMBd briMlMMaloUM 
booaa •( iho lower ■stmnlUca. bock, nnd blpa. Tbe proatntlin ta bM daagBnxiB 
uoapl to wGalumcd aiid dabllltuod Indindnak. 1 Iwvo knvxrs a( bulana death 
bonlUMid tb*t mwafaaaindparaou. U. iMworar. tngasdM^ > bkmI >m*raU4 
f«m of " tb« btnefc" and aereral aolddea at ynMaa eaSfertnc fran h bave been i*- 
ported. A» OiaJlaea«afJ«igrBimrb«iitiiaUet»fawoaem-ltttbaJ«)iita,a»pMUHyrtifaa 
t«w«r«Tir«nnIliM,aoitMV«reliimlMCOo<uaMUlB. ThatoDgiMlBOaat«d,tb«br««tli 
(onl.aail theb<»r<boai»tlp*t«tl. A *«rr cari««a ■fmpmn In a lew oaaea la thai atf 
euloiMnuH oruptlon. orwtiiob I harg Inown >tx wall-aiubmUoatad aaaoa. avs of 
vrhlob vara reporlod u Um Board of H«all h or New T«rk 4t euaa of aearIM favat. to 
chMaljdldUienMbraMBblaltaatartbnlnttaa'dlNMa; aoM tlifoat and atTawbmr 
toasnaworaalaopraaant. 3a twalrs to twcair boontbla raab totallr dUapDearHL 
Tbe fkancb A«adoBi7 of ModlclM diKuasal thia eraption at aene Iraglb. ud, aa far 
aaldaaalpraaaiilaaanialo, flocldoJ ibattt watduetoaatlpjrlM). wUoh baa baaa 
ao aomnwaljr vacd la tba InaducDC of t^ dlMiaCb In ftro «f lb« caaaa MpocUdt 
howavor. no Dicdtdaa of aaj Uud Lad Iwca adadafatatad. 

TImi calarthal Itina of lli« eptd«ml« 1* laaitad bjr tiMMinia prodiornal Bjuiptoins 
aa tkcfcbrtciiliv: but, to addition t« tboM, tb«i«*i« aaaMfai^aDdcouiihlng. dua to 
a»iiii(«i.1on at tb« mneona mambrann of Ibn rMptralorr tract. Tbia iriaiHiain 
iwulta ia a broaokllla of iba smallor, or oaplUorr, bnodil. or area la a broaekft- 
pnaananla. Tba eyoa ore eoatfated and natcrj. finiaa naara nrm nifftr fmniaraii 
eaian1iartbaMotnacb.andtia*a^lii ccaMqaanea^ pcnIHaat nmlttoB. TbaMBM 
ot taste, ai well ai that ol himU, U In Rtanr laalawoaa, twapovarilr loaL 

Tbn frtiriniilnr foTBi almoit inrartaMT tcrailaatM In noanrj la nua thlrtr^lx 
to forti'-cbcbL bwnn. Tbe oaiarrbnl varletr. bowoTer. laaU lon«er. (aUas tnm 
tbrae taalao daya to ran Ita aoate counew Oonroleaoenoa from both la alaw, bat 
•at^clallr K> from tba catarrbaL Tbe palleni b weak and nlltnc tor anna Uoa. 
TtiD ■lltcblnat «x«ritloB eaoaa* profaao paraplraUoa, and relarae^ fai conaeqaaaoa, 
oaidlj ucc-unL Chruate oalarrb ot tbaalrpaaaau m It apt to be left after aa attack 
at the calairba) fenn. 

The nana ooaUa^iaa* Inftneaca l« a mlanemer. aa U ap>pllM aalf to the oatarrhal 
variety, and tkiaprahahlrn^ora In onlyaboal ItparoenLof (be total anmbaref 
oMa. It araa tbta name and Ihe daaorlpUon of Um catarrhal fonn that adshid Iba 
pbrOclaaa of tba ooancnr and dnlarad U>a raMenltlnn of the diaaaae. 

Malaa appaar M ba aflbetedtaorofrtiiBmllr lbanreniaU«.nad IboaatoDawtas 
onUUior oocnpaUoaa oKire traqaanUr than tlioae eniptored wltlila. CUlttm laain 
Inaatofallnliieotto it. 

^ ffrfjijM la tai«l7. If aver, tatal In Itaalf. ezotpt lo tba asrd. Il it, bemnr. 
blBblrdaoRnroaa toprnon" n>Ti>rI»K riutn MT«re cbroalo allsiantat vnoh na eon- 
■ninptioa, Orlffbt% dlaraw. arr<s:ltoii« of tbe heart, ot«k Poteaaa exna«lr«Ijr 
dabllOatad fRxnanreanaetraqortiUfaiiMaRih in lunlhct*. 

PbyAiIaBa hare been Mruek with the rewinblAnce of lit ar^ppe to deninie ferio-, 
Of dandr lever, aa It la aotnetltnea called unanimnl of tbe i beuinatle uiranioa id 
tha Jolnta, which RtToa the patient a atllT. daadlfled walk. Tbajr are doabtlaa 
cloarly allied. 

Tbe tieattnent of la trrippe U rarlcd aoroewbat wttb tin irnipu-iai maaralMl, 
A taaattre at the oaaet: aatlprrliM or. batter ttill. phanacatlac. tor the bnadauha 
nnd farer: araactoraata. aedadvaa, ani Infaalatlonn of tba laimpuniid Uaeiurvat 
beaapta, and aUani for tba oatantel form i t«nIo Aoana of qnlola* durtu^ mat^w 
oaaoedofcrvat good. Tbe ancaadra awe a ltn g mar b* "miIi^IM I? tbe b«wm lahaa 
to oantTol It lu other dlaeMoa. 



leoTsa AND couuExrs. 



tollawlas pnmcUvit meumuM ihonlid b» tnllowad. m^ttlMUr bf pcnoM 
kvataadlMr fma ollm k IImiwH . by tbtmrn miflcrliiit tram dmnto diH4Mi, Mid bf 
Wmt wsm chtllitnv tial to Um pcraoo. Adopt ftplhliLDoariifaliw 
dlal«aatak«roBriii«*ltnarula>rl7. Arvid iKivbounk EMi>tM>doan as nuoh Ha 
pBHfMtk ««P«cUU)r al Bbthu flhun cro wJcd placea. pFuMIc mttiagi. etc. Wlim In 
tk* vpan 4U kM|i la moim: arold wtulng iba fccL On eotcTinii a houi* rrmova 
eraamu or wnpw al uncc Eaop avraf Ikma Uhmic taflbriaff (rom U)o dlMwae. la • 
yuni, aroU vxpovure and «kmm: adopl ncmlar kablta and tin ir«U. On thi> Omt 
V»ptasi of Um dlacaa* do not attempt to tnat ]ioimvlf> but vead at once for a 
pkr^Maa. 

AfooddMJbaa boeaBaid brklunlsi* nmoenUnc tke probabUllj of lilMlMa 
iDttDwtoitfeapnaHttvpMteailc Icnnnuldo batter tlwn la quota a pancrnpti on 
lUi BOblMt tpan an ahl« aOltorlat In t)wN«vYork Medieal Reeordot DMamber 
U, laiL wUcb voieea azMtlr mr oDlnioii: 

"WaabMrrallMtMOivIocllngat alann pnTnlli iMt thla wMvinlo Im a vn- 
maae to ebolwa, aa «rM Um «aMln Ifil and DU:. Tbi-rc har« booa. boirarer, phnlV 
tf alwdMk cBridetnlca MlUiaut a nronodlnK iadnenu, uid • sraai maar InllUMU* 
fgttmalea wftboui aar aMMielate eboMVB. TbamlcKxintnnlaRuar (ha iwodtawMM 
•NaaMaefttlaUTdtiTtvcMaa ar« the dboaaoa tbeniadToa. Tb« cholonsvmUvM 
feiirauraadanlL iMlnfliMMEiijremi In tliealr. Ttia rnlatloo bctmiea ib» tvredte- 
mmi* tMW bcm, n bellere, |inrclr occldc«t«)." 

Tbor* la «va(7 prnbablllty that wllbln n raw ivmIu /o ffriypr will Iwre bcrame a 
Utfar of Uia paat, and that, bartay thtaacd iha raaka «t the alcUr aod &g«d . It w lU. 
Uka oar dear old bUcaud, to QtlUnd to laaric aoiMber nlle-atana In ttao hitunj ot tbe 

Cm cm ED90N. M.D 
401 tba New Tork U«alth DvpttrtancnCI 



n. 

vwuo or -m* OKJWKsuno idu. 



^V la "LMOhklliDaila,-' a NBiarkaUa coltaotioa of hb lat« t*MBS. VIetM Hiwb 

^KMOMd tho rAla of a poUUral proplMA. LoaklncfarwardlotheiweniMboenturr. 

^^S* da(9and lliaii la ttial aentvrT. while America wonU oidolm. In wonit«r, 
"■WhMt I had »laTo> I " EnroiB weald, wtib a afatuldar, retort, "Wbatl 1 bad 
ku«ai' 

Um dawa ot tli« twe«MlMh cvntury U oloae upoo ni : and It doea Dot aood a rorj 
kMM Bbiarror to poo that Uten K ibo world over, a maDJfMt londency to fulfil tLa 
p*^ rt«a«b poafa pfophntry. NorU tiiU t«Ml«a«j fvoilliuid lo the AnxniFiui, oc 
«vm to 1^ ftllMpaM. oonttnanl. In the pnwnt ymx, tho Rnat empire of JApaa. 
** tba land of potllwuM aod Bnuwfnl arU^* wtll aoiMr tolly apm tfaa oxpnlnMiit ot 
■o— titttHoa*! ■onnmoat, nodaUad apoo Uioa* of ttia wwlan eotutlMtloiial 
■lni«. TlMUI(laan«(p«liueat.a>d mar, ariorall, laU 'sadaplltaalt totkBpro- 
aM dandlUoB aail eren Ibe motiuor tbo Japaaaaa peootfc do«« not niter tbefaol 

I tbu Iba dcjoccntto trtna of imvoUt Kirnararninmt tea capUnowl Ibcmlndof ui 
OrtMUl miHMrcb. imw mOanvJ with abnoJuta pawcr. and tha IBlnda Cd hi* ehlef 

j a«UT«ad«to«m Nocwtnld it luUuvrrnnn oao faJliir« ibat ttilatdek,aaaRpluil«d 
la JapaMa* thotiKbt, and •«ri<nt*lT, tfaonxh laadoqnalctr, pvt inin pnutlral ainct. 
»iiiBUaoCMm«l»u«MHl,to<ntu*lat«clnto vicovaus grawlbBMl fniltloD ttwrr. 
Xflt Um i«(Mllanl l< Hw rot*tA ««p uk«a \>t tbo Sbab Na>n-od-dUi «f IVnia. 
TMi t U w wm lnjIM pc4(uiUl« haa «<ijor«d an aWilnteMM ot power wUch It not 
■■■■Batad, partiapN. anrwbtf* MBHrnx IdngrlddMi AotloiM. Ilia Htci and propcHj 
(dManb|aeta.nMandaU.Brci!anpde(«lyatlb»dlapaBalafblawUland wUb. Tba 
nak. bffwenr. tu» tiarsllcd uneh. baa elMvTod nlantelir, and bm UnM 
aialai r—w ■ «trllM»< prooaw wMcb ba* both br^^iaad and qnlekgaadbla mind. 
Baaowa-vnudaUawlaaMBii toatiulr Enropwn tnKllnllona nadlawa bowUr 
«*« •?**■"«■■'''''' P""'"'*»t'«i tn Pmla:anddeclw«a(bat.U Iblacanba 
dM^bnlawUhitUtaunandarM AHQt, ^f bU ptwocMlro i»a will niako contUln- 
aBMUM teaiwoof JVr.tja^p„^aB,ani. 
•* »» '■■•■""« bi whioh abartara mawmltm. luliac In andMit dM- 



THE yORTH AMERICA N REVIEW. 



w<4nwlr*MtMpe«dUa tbftt •r«a «•« MtcapttWMtUy fttmlHiif wlih Ui»o«ld nrfap- 
UcB to wrlt« rfAwn w Immi AMMMga (Mu «uaBa»)>. la lh*t pttg* *ad ft hftU, tutw- 
Q*wr, 1 dkoarwvd so Imi tkaB H*wit«aB bhuii ■iiuta word* «mUbad. mm la- 
■artcd, KBd MUM sulMtituted for Uiow whicb atood In the arlKliwL How eottld itrii 
cKQur I t Koottm tlut I MUtot iiih1mM4Ui4 It «t kit. 1 rAnnot Ibbik thui • wHUr 
w<niiaBwk8M>«steadedft4iwtaUinfMa>«MnnnrKloBe.uui irtMludBBeUBlirlaB 
open tafor* him when beoapbd gat lbeatruA.iuiw u it pomiblo Ibnt b* UM to 
GOIV hlD ■aeumMj r 

loptaUdamonilaK^paper mmI Ond » mlnlaber o( royute wrUlnc « latlarlB 
wlklcfa be qaolwi Ihwrnm MHqrtoc : 

" Pm- NBinn ever tallliral !■ 
To tb«in tb»l trsBt btr (nllbfaloMK' 

RnwrMM to dombUnn vmt UisIIIh to bin, but ir bo hm& t«lMH dawn the volvoM af 
pootna. Uule«d o( tnutlnf ta Ui miMMXT. hawonJdJwTafoaadtbatRnatwMi wnta: 

" To nu-A <u Imil bar UtblvlBMib'' 

TaonrKHi. In Itia fin* pomn, " In tli* Cblktran^ Itacpltal." wiota ; 

** Wooitxrrnl cvrM ha h*d dnnn, O tm, but Uwj «M loo oC htn 
Ua WM (Mpptor tuli^ Iha liiiU« iIiab la tTTUe la mt* tM liah,' 

Kot lanjt aco I hbw k portlca of thtu qootod in thto (aiUan : 

" For II waa «M or tats 

. • . Bs wMfbadirof tulsct^kal/etJiMihawaaotMriiictfaaUaik'' 

CtUmUj Um qaotor fai tbi* om* trvatad kla nsmarf, k«d ao cams to crtot But 
httd h« wir rifhl 14 do Utia In nutut IM«ad«d lar pDbUoMIoa 1 I tbtak iter* Muuvt 
ba two aiun>«r» t« Um qttaatlML 

1 hud tlta plwwnraoT WaCaalng th» otbar day to ■ mort totanatliEf aeoemt. mil- 
la>l»KWt«rl7benalt.«<Dr.AncltaaEavw4i'an«ttaodaefHtaNLn woafe Ona 
VMMM* IB U VMUtndwtr LravnMid BM. It waatliuhi whlcb ilieaiiak* or ilia at- 
tnaw«dnMMeurete«llBa»klnt4uautlaDa,iM(«rwriaiig dom «t«b tbe nort 
(MBlllar paHBffw irltliBut KOtnc 10 the aTlti>>&] in arder to lanm tccvnet. and 
Mk>wtncth»p(UKtaaaoao(ib««iKliMl«ni<T with tlie ntnostoan. Itwoold ba 
■wB If b ar watda ca tbte bwid wwM ba laacrlbnd la loHwa of goM fcbora the daalt of 
•TMrUtMWT wariMTthrawlwatUwwwU. If tha niU,/UnM AiiMOk/atMia tm 
•aM*iM.pc«ralMtalUM»tankBMr«flM(daooofwoA«reiaMbarttUl«dbr m 
lM«n«c( qwrtkttai- 

I wottid am ba gndMataod aaw«aiili^ Ibat adMptatieBa *i« norcr ftdMLafUt^ 
B wailBrta Wia wib*»t>>t*na of oaa word fw fcaotbar Im a qvolUloa will brfac out 
rMirnaMtlii(pr««lMi7: but ta datnit tbl* yov »«M aoe bt«*k Mth with faar 
rtadar; ymaMbowid tDbidloaUlalilMt.sltb«rh7 tbanw of lialla or br a plalB 
nataiaaat tt tto Itoi. that ro* >a*awedMad tbatwUab yoa b>ra qa<H«d. Uma. 
a— la.atBodallbBtBiaT. Pt^mfcbaobUliiad br tbnwkc tha r*«HUt tcnaa lain 
tbapMloUiepaallnBoUa mamt. 1*^ ymagtMalw bnanoa'a *""11nf lla» 
fKNU-Thafrablna': 

-A^dSat^BlwUjjaTj 



^SSS^^i^t^ 



Tbnwbic Uli bto lb* pnaad taMK «a MMoM baiK 

-A ajISa rwa iladr.ifm itea «laM 



■*tkM«a<vaal4ato 

ranianAtant.' 



nal «aea aol a iMnMa If >ip)MM la lkH>Hi 

,abiatf wlUktewanb: mA ttei. I tbtek. aa a 
mat (M ib« >Mi«L (d iha naiM - 



>'»nMdac bM«» 
wbwai%MM4»«C 



n k 



NOTES ASD cojotEyrs. 



SftS 



*''t\Mmt~ tmU tar tmtui. w-ltha trluoiptMit «lr.polaUfiKtalheInD<adiu<lMi or 
Um «ka|KcrmiMoiiniWubUiKtoDlaStaiT-Kiiv^~WtilteUlU*."''-Uwr«la wUU 
Baifmfo M»)i abunl Hoont VatMagUiu." 

I hod tod E(n«tM«'>poeta«wltbo«iiaidetabtecar«>*tMl to ■ fonii«r eonvcnktloit 
hk4 et^itosed cnj ooavtctloa tital fa« hiwl «tllt«a aatblag reliitljtgta tko axiat 
lUnaiuadha VThJlv MtranUls*. Bui II looksd w tf 1 worg »l f»ult. for oa tii« p»ga 
fedA opan tafen im I Mad: 



' Btm7 nan I Uft ar bend, 
Oano'v NSW Uwtknd wMtoHprwd. 
Sovtfc frea Saint lAwnsM t« Um Boaad. 
Fton OUaklU Mut u tlM Mabound " : 



I ..^....^... 

^Hpaivlneed. I t««k aRaarlf a piKM n atty to eannlt Emertws i& ih« ortglMl. awl fanttd 
^FttM wlMt Mr. lUnc r«prMBiii«d aa bavlsff baon wriiUn in raToMnoa I0 Maiut 

WtaliiDiitan beluDira to EMianoti'i nubia postn. "HoBMlJiook.'" Tha aaeeiul Una, 
IwwwTvr. ibouid raul 

**9ea Naw England uitdunpruil,'* 

aad "OauklU' bi tpallad wlthn**K.' Unc would not an j raadar of " Th« WhR* 
HlOi^'baJnitUlad-aa m; Mendiraa— In Uiab«U«f tkat Ihe Unoa wm« wntbntaalf 
attarad bv Honnt WaaUsKtm and not bj BIo«i»diu)ckt b Uon cIUmp rtK>>t- or 
I Id an MUbork pUjlna MM and tooaa wttn bla randsra fn aiMib » fuhlooT An 
I Uka Uda ta Icm mjQ j coadaMd than SUrr Klnv'a inlauke. In lUs aanw book, 
tt aaUoc Uw OonaaoUeiiC River anpty into tbe Sound at New Uaran. 

CwillwaMw nnwilamio In bandilBg nanucrlpla and laguirr amonK iilbmi Od- 
■vad In andt wcnk hnra anAoed to totm a vtry fltm ouavkUan UtaC narelewinwa In 
4«<4l&4U nocof tliob«»ettincalBVot Ut«rarr "ofkct^ Tne authors wbo can tnut 
Ikalr vMDKirlM Imptldtlr bt tUt napcci aro Ytvy few Indeed. I( ibur* an aajr sucb- 
IWoaIr a*CoriUa la tnvarUy ararj qnotelien b/a p«naDal oxamination «( tba 
•rtClKnL nil* tAkM MOM Uma, but ft nakoa meeantj e«rtaln ; and II Cb« pnwttoa 
^wtfd b iBBMa Mfrawal. It wonld nMi«n>tlr Ihcbtaa tba laboraol or«rw«rk«d and 



pnllanon-Ulod adiUMH. Uaj tbe tbua cpccdUy ««n> wben nlonc witb tba 
All KlRbta Rcavrred' U. Um porUb ol vat booki tbaM ibaU ba Inacrlbad, 
AM Qoomiooa Vartflad by tba AttthaT 1 

AttcBu SMcaaoa P^oiuik 

IV. 

n artcois a snr t 

BiK la tba twnigTwalMi of a dlvlno l&« i but tbare U no dlrlno Uw as&laaL 
I : Ibarafoi* auldda la nol a iln. 

Tba UoMlO taoorda and UM Xaw TMUmeBt nMbIt etRlil InntAiMva of auJclda. 
TK. AWwakiL Jndfoa. ts.. S»46: Bnmaon. Jadgca. itI. S^i Saul and hiaarmot- 
btnrar. L Snmnal, ziiL. *■»: AUlbopbel. II SanDai xrll.a; ZlMirl. J. Klni*. xvt., 
»: RuJa.ll. Mareabaa*.xlv..37: Jndaa Imriol. MatUMw.nttlL.S. 

Mmbo. «b(i llrad In tltc bM bnlF«entuiT telocv our LranL talla ua tbnt In tba 
Mnadof lonli*. mm of UMt>r«Inda«,|Mfaouatitr roaraot ag* war* pannlliad ta 
laanndt anldtlo. aailirroonld iiotoOKcr enjoy It f^ ami were unOt to Mirvu inn r*> 
Tbey tartulaalcd Waal afeaUTaL Tbry Ktrdad Ibdr brow* wltb nfloml 
I nad, mblog a cap of tbo Jnke at bemlock or ot poiipln. Mnk InBcoalbly 
WvteUlataapi. 

AfM«IJai«n»n*|K>i sa Alhuilan ralddawna ndjudjttd cnlpnbUi for havioK 
dafrir«dlb« M(nilJM-al<Lelllic«,aiid.uaallgnia,M*band«s«aaiWKtiay burted. 

fcjM alaa Kid Ibal l( waa tiD4 lawful (nrany analodoprlraUinMLf oruraibfr- 
naunc wa war* vtaoad tm nartb aHanlcllenu n'p«at.ikivd waougbtnotto^loap 
■ a itoti nUlMnt panuUaton of the uuU Snuide wa« raiw InUraaM, rorpahUo 
■itMnn rtvMaulMd llw parpitnitor with atoral cowudloa. But PlniaKb tmlaea 
taMrtLHaaM tor fala anoooM In MwoanliDK tba potaon by wMcb ba rtacnad htauair 
mattecraalLyof AntlpnicT. TIm muuUaof llouaan bloody wllb aaUilaBCblar. 
Il MMirtnMBaAaavTldaMourmMilTtetJCuda, BMoUoond by Um mulua of tbo 



XOttTH AMBRTCAy REVIEW, 



8Ma«,WDil «aMnirMC«*l W piit>ll<^ iriilnlnn . UmlorUiolnpwUdriiMtrCTerr bbw 
rdgn WM laAttgUTated tiltb thr Ul<»d of niiuir lillimB. An olDctnl InUnwtlan tKitt 
Kiun tMd IbcuiTKl UiacU>pi«uur«o( UieKmpnrar wnatantunoojiii to AMoteacs 
oTdBfttK IllhBHtlUttMtUelpftUd hlHiiMnUon bt* TdnnUrr dMtb. Ma inno- 
MUM wuiprsoinad, UsMdr WM bokomUr titutad.aiid hlsAuiaijr wtn*U««rMt to 
tob«tMfalt«tMa. 

Th« rtKbt. ttntr. and prt*f lairsor ulf-tmBOlAUon ww« M QfiirenKilr cooMiled Uiat 
Bopont arvrltnrqnuUoiLed ilwin. TlricU, liowi^reT. teoiui to BnierUtB mmimi wm* 
piK tot. a dcKrfbtBK ^I^uoM'a vlotl U> lUdoa, lui Mum ibat Iba ibadn of MlcliUia 
won asd uul oiproard * tIIHbkimmb to nndnra povenj kad kdrcrallr iwUenUr U 
tlwj oovld bo Allowed to raturn la toHb. But Uw ciutoai •*■« pornuuicntl]' oatAb- 
UttMd. And iJtor Um Mpridou maiHAonw c< Tlberiwk CkUgnU. Noro, Aud Domlttea. 
toJald* bccWAiA fkaUoiMlile oi-sd utuiag Um Etomna woowb; and this fvaUdse 
«eeai)MdtTwa>ooiT««t«d onlrbjApnwlAMAltonthktlbebodlM of nJl fooAle nd- 
oldAA •boald LhaMofUr be «xpoMd. naltod. In Uie Foruim. 

CSeoTOADd BnitiwoondoinMid(niiado.uiAthoh[:«rirr«lo A troAtlw ivproAch- 
Intt Caio as iiuiUr oT bnt>lotr aud oawArdiC«^ bac atiwwAnlii vrlthdrDw kU oiiB«ura 
AndaTownl a ctaoogevf Opinion, and DoAllr bnltAted Okto bj lAltliift (m bt< sword 
AtPbUlppL 

HowBTcr VATlabl* tbo oplnlona ot IndlrldaAlK mlstit be, tbe Aacfcmt Imws reooR* 
■ISBdUietlBbioriQicldr'. At MAncUloA. FVmim, In Aacleni Uawa, UMOcoAlvkopL 
potMtt wbleb mu BUii(iliud to potviia itho BATt milllclaAt rcnaoaa for daalitoiE Ui kill 
thtmiilroB. This was dona wltb tfaa rlew of pnvantlnB haMr a«toldMi And to ytve 
tbo would-bA •cir'4«atroy«T line tor du« rtfl«<tloii. In lAdln oldown aM«n»lbl7 
doadrnd to bv bura«d aUtii on (lirir tiTvgljondH' fiiHiral-|iiluii ( but, tlunkR Uf OhmI 
BillAiB, that, with othiir Jienlhen kbomlnAtloo^ hAaaaAtad. No leAcnkl prAdiTlt)' 
Ut Unicode hiu bona miuillMlcil by Kgy|>ll«nii. P«ndAB& Aufrluia. «r oUm« AACieat 
BAtlona. I>«t IsolAted IttBtAHMis liar« oMvmd. 

Gibbon Alludaa Ui tbo nnlnlda gf Cbs wtfo of OivTmlliui In thn Unii cmlnry, nnd 
•n>rHMa nrprtae At tbo pnilMS bealo wsd on thlt Act of d«epAlr b7 Socomoii. an nocl^ 
alaMJo blatoTian, irho obaarTca tbu " tbo wite or Oecontlus va* n CbrtaUnii," aMI 
tbAfhardanUimuiirnrtbr nf hBrraUBlanAadorintnonAJfAmA." UlbboA mcnUoiM^ 
Aleo, that A Cblnoaa BiuiM'ror. driron Iried bis tlirouoby UenslilB KIiad Id tbelhtp 
Montb oenLuiT. "MMtided il f auEnd-pllc. and nro ordm UmU nftor fa» Iwd aubbod 
blmaelf, tbo llr« tbould bo kindled by blaottoiuliuila,' And Uina «oaaiuniaAt«4 tita 
abdication. A comspoudotii doaoKbiM a u)u*t reiuArkablo aulchlo In Sbanshnl noi 
vat7 long Ago. II wui tliatot Ayoong widow, who r««olT«id tomd ber »liArabl> 
«sUt«ae« An«r tba dOAlh at bar lnubund, • vildow not botng panultted t« rMnanr 
tnCtdna. AsnTproceaaluo WAaformed. Andpfocaa S ad toAACAlfbhlftMiltbod with 
■lAU atfordlns tho best viim of tb« aaorlflM. Tba woaun cbAttad witb bar Maada. 
pnrlook of a onlhilon. oa nnau j a Ultl« ohlld. n mon Ud It wUb n aocklnM. aeuiorad 
aowcraomons thaapocI«tDri,and Uwn chMtrTnllr plAood hor bond In Iba aoow uid 
■wunft herMirtntoelcrnlir. 

Jaiiaii, nlth[>uicb AD aatlunt bbiIod. baa bvconie Ho nudonlied IbAt Ibe hAil-liArl 
hAi tAllcn luui " Innixntous desuetude." 

Now. wbnt U ibcroAscn that. ntilw1tbalAadlagthoat«MK«of thrtAia, ropruoCor 
■uligiutiltloii hnm lliii rooartla ait wbltib Ihn Oirti<bu) rt>li](ian I> fonailed Aod *UB- 
t«in«d, iboro ftbootd h«T« bMu, amI Mill l», to munl " ooAvletlOB tlMt antctde ta »a 
unpardoaAbloBlBl Then la not, froaa 0«nAiti ta RArolAtlon, a alnglo cAmmuKl- 
rnrnt A(alnM mileldo. In th« atirht c aw i i nddacad rrom tb« Jvwtok r«rotd4. tbft 
teola Af« almiilr aut forth wiiboul ouoimeiii- Tbu pnvAlenl bcll«f la baaed «n talao 
dcdocttona nnd Intgrprct aI lona of Holy WrIL Tbeaedadoctloaaand InlarpralnClaaa 
irare addicaw rt . ci(>niaTl«a nffo, to Anlcnotaat and cradiiloun lalty. who recelrad tlicra 
wltbbnmUltr 'uidavre. The peoplo al tbal Unie kMw no beiLer. Kino auibenCl- 
OAted ibdrcbnrlcra vritiiA "hu Diark,"and noble* uaeda* tliclr aenl ibn baft of U» 
dngsor. T1i< ItaUnn blrrarclir irH)aat<()ll(Ad all knowledc*. Tlieir A«iLliarlt7 WM 
n«gf[iiUed aa dlTbrn All bnnAn b^nca In Cbrtaloadoui won aaUack tKun Uw 
orwllo to the gnxe, to anolBriawtto dl«ql|iBne. 



HOTES AND couMEyrs. 



917 



t» Ihc B^ani at powor la tAkvuod tokenx^lU cmnsnuip: «ul Wbapttaa. 
lNWt>cU»l rsl«?liLiim. ■nricnLu' conlonicNi. pMi«ncc. curttuo iiiic<toii, oonMcraMd 
taqrtml. ■>■■■■». «tc. . «tc.. OT«iry uuui. wcmuui, baiI ohlkl wu aipoaad t« sa iiiniliiiian 
InrawMt. mUivu. and iRqnUIUMsl. !%« Blbl« ma mU a book oblalMMa bf tli» 
Ulljr, wtHX iadecd. mtN loo ICBon&l to nad It. ovsn tt ibo kiumpt won pannlMllilaL 
Tbtr wen toU by Um prlwU ntwt wm In II. uid thar took it for snatad ttwl to 
vannrUMprtOTU'UuitniCtlooamlBtAtinDerflUwIrnlvMlon. TttboandlUoaoCtiUiisi 
coaltuw* tar minnl ccotuiiMi 

TlMlntoaclkl piockunotloa la rocvd to mUcLM wm lamed hr Um OoddoII of 
Im«k In ibc TMT ^a Till* forbade ab7 barUI Mrvloe tot Uitae ir*' rMnlo h ffll 
<pr(ii (Vo-Bxl nwrfrn ; to nhkdi itm added, abomt TM Um lUnltaikio " If tboy do It 
*T *'"■ *'™'*F""" "* Ui« devil." It wufuftber decreed "ooaoertdagtbeoe who. b7 
M»f fodlt. InSM d««tUi uo ttivuHilTto, let tber* b* no eouroeinoreUiMwf tbMo la 
the obhUoD 1 Mr for ihaoi who an punlehed («r Ut«4r «riii>ee ; aor «Im]| UmO 
raerpm ta ottHai —to tho gmre with pali*." tWUUno.) 

Tbee* esinaca Ome auuui law oattbla tu to wadantasd tb* obaaqnise of Opiulta, 
ae K* Awih la " Hanlec.' Xiwr(rKli«'1irotbor.d«iBaiuta Ike full (UJac*Kleenoioa7< 
Tto priart MpUei : 

" Her obaequlM have baaa as fftr valatB^ 

Aawrltave wananLj; bnrdtailiiraAdttubtrul: 
And, but Ibkt fnatMauBMd aycsirartUiaordvr. 
Sbe ilrawld la srouiu aaiaiictlQed bavelodg'd 
TID tiia taH tnunp; for (ilujitabie praren. 
Sbaidft Wata. aad iwbUe* iLottU b« iLnnva ud li«r. ' 

nakeopoare waa appanallj "a hantic," but bo (till ealortaliMd thm tradlUon 
a^ihirl mOtUe, tot Bamltt tf • 

~ O Utmt thU Uv too tolld fl«ali woqM nelb 
Tliaw and raaaivs lijeU Into a daw I 
W tbat Otr EratlMtlnn had aol (UV 
Uto oaaon 'valnK BPU*akuclitar r 



Aat ImapemBmT* '. 



_ " jlcahut aetf-danakter 
Then Is a problbdUon bo dfrlua 
Tliat etavena mj weak band." 



AaA looo tmtmio JM^t^! "Utbovvrllt i>eedj damn thrMlf, do ]t b amondall- 
eat* wa/ Utaa drawnlaf.' 

BotwaoB Iba Ooaadl of Bfaga In MS and ibe ago of Sbitkupeara a tliomaad 
yearo bad aiapaad. aad Uia penvaalea of Uia landamhla wtalh of Ood bad beeena 
umnaL 

The Word at Ood l« rteely (imbiifld now, and la no iMtfv read witb l«ar aid 
trrmbtlag. Ilie bod; of a luirldr U iio lonfc«r barled In Kasland al a rwHl-«roMlM( 
wiibaetabadrirenltinmeli II. Boi ttir liallaa bknirtty attl) refnaee tbocerpee 
"ChrWlaa" tnirlaJ la -roaatvnLe&~ KTOond. Yd tt to doabl/ul wbetlMr aiMih es- 
doMoncf ibeaainiaJ bcdy kaa anr detelciiona etftat on tboKPOd etaadlm ot tbe 
■Vlrllval bodf at Ita reaarrectien, wbea Ibo qacsttoa b not, " llow did be die T but 
" Hon liaa bo Ural r The good old Frimd, Wllilani Pwn. aa cul? ■ulTDO.pr*- 
BCtlbed In kU cAartar l« PMUMfltwaa " (bat U our t^rtaa, ibroocb umpuilan or 
■trientbnlT •baU d«ainr hdnaelb bla eMate. real and petaonal. •halL netwIlbMand- 
1(«.aaMand ta fatt wlf». cAdMna. or telatiotia, a* It be bad died a natnial deatb." 

In OMdeni UaMi ITnuiea BOil Kniflaad bara bee* moat noted (or tbueatuUniDSoir 
tfeti mortal eoU. but of lata yeare oar own peovte hare been eaiulatlnt Itun. and 
««r daOr jiaiwi Midoin atipaer wItb tbte departaiMl of iliclr raoord bktnk. 

meMd epklemki la lo be demoted bacauae It depttm tbe State af eUlHaa. 
Dat bow rmn It be prrtrntttli New York b»« iiauMl a Uw tor paaMUafl anob 
■lieaiiila till! hrirr fi i rrnlK la baTc beea raidcrod I Tbi- law. bawanv.atrvn ■■ 
aaaJrounlltoMloflotbetbUia ttioromhly. 

Keftillll BBat be brvuif bt about l>y oMiral auaaloD, not by tenor. 



278 



9WB NORTH AJJERICAIf REVIEW. 



PhiaUy, avtcldo, Uiougk not n In, Is s w«a]cn«aa «nd a. folly, tt t* taerv mnatr 
to etidtifv tbo burden* »•■) roapciMtbUllIv* of llf« t^BD to divert oar siatioti, la p«ak3 
(Hglit U, pcrk«|M. Uie T«r7 crM* Af rlotor7. A tnan iiMjr ba r«i«d wltk cmtm, 
Ir«ttodllVMtr«MitlM.kMldmpewl*iittnsTtfir;biit wtiototiiMfMMtapJi trialif K» 
miMi bnTrir mHUlB th«B. ukA ba wiD Bad Us itraarlk caiillrina4 by ibaHlMtpaB*. 
Ban bUtb In » Ood Ipvlnft omntpotcnt. kad wtM. " Trust In (be Lord, kod do 
good;*) alalt UiO<a dw«ll In tb« Uid, sad Tfrtir tfaon ihaU be frd." 

Samcxl Yorck ArLaft 
V. 

LUfBUBDMM B rUXCK. 

Ite world haBBlnT*liMi> nor* or (■■■ pmilad onu tba rMoparulTs powor 
dkplvfld br FMiiMb and Ibo •MnotabU bftva bMB ploMvd lo«i|ri«imltbrUM*x- 
IWrttv^ of an ititfiMlTrr imtMtl pnutrlTrtiTmhtpiTTMrli. Utirr^wTrrrBM hiiTrtT H iTfi 
UunnonopoUnUaooTUiomU. Inr««r issa, wlMnUieorciiaf Uiavorldiraraftxed 
■pan r«rlaaBdhwvr«Bd«fful«nH)«ltl<»ii. Uw mum old quMtlon tatmdvd lta«lf opoa 
ttU tbovghUul pvTMiw, wid Ibo •uine atiawvr wa* ■wwnUlr cl'vo. 

It ■oeiatd •• If »o otb«r aoluUon could oxplftln tb« rdittivc jirtmp^tj of lUi 
aoumtry. wbleh imiiporta tlia aneooil Ikrycat amif and aaT;r at Kai«p«, aad curtM a 
CttodlDKtaK tratom with onbowed baoK. Penoiuwho have not bem MUaAad wUb 
this sxpIaaaUoB expected that Home ot the IntcrnaUonal co mniaiM IteU at tha 
ITtvneb oap4lal dnrtnx loat niinmar would throw a aaw Ught upon Um aniilact. 
TImt wvra not dcertvad. for tttcn wu cnueb dlMnuBloa of the theoM to Iba «oo> 
cnmaaon ibi- land uEid the laburuueMjons. Vortoos eeUiaaus wen pnoeatad. Bwce 
or leasavthcinllr, add out ot tbctii alt haacomiiacleanrundMalaadlag at tfaarala- 
tloa at the titat f^ncb mpubll« Ut natloiMl vrognMo^ Inet«ad. bonrrcr. of bclac 
anaiianof uaall laodoimcni ehaUprorcdtoUtquEU) tbccaalrarjr. }tKiuaalwT« 
nodoabt aa to the oxbt«noo ol an oppraelvo landlordbm In Franc*, aad male* ■ 
ooropailaoa with thacondltJaaof Uiln^ajuat aftar Iho RaroJaUoaa palnMetudT. 

Ona of Uia ffraateBt rvtorniB of tb« Revolution waa the levjlnf ol a irood round 
tax en lh« landa of th« nobllltr. wbloh comprleed a vnrr lafga parUoa ot lbs caltl- 
vable anrtaoe of the nation. Tta noble* would not nw ttntm and would not lat anjr 
oaaetoi naa tliam. A fiiellnii tlwt wbuMver tbotioUUtr poMMMd ■tnuld baoMto 
tobvwot the pi.bllowaa probablr with tho Iternlntlonuta a atKiDcar reajMXi fbc 
laxliw fhnwi lends ibau a clear Ulea of wbat part laail |ilur* tn ptttduoUon. 

Ataarrato, tbo cx«niption waa taken airar and ilio nobles' lands woe beaTllr 
buioil. and ImUt tbat asompUon hu pracUcaUr been rertond. ImmMiNl]! i*> lb« 
ppoaiiBMofa noUltty.bul ot a laWr arMocmcy tbat pnawaae aiutaa whidt. 
placed bee t de Iho— ot thoaalo-BeTolqtlon daye, wo<»]d by no moans maka the ptiM- 
«nl owaora bliuli. 

ThaUwurirKlhAdfliedlbe land tax at 9Ki.W.00a (ranca. IftUa tax badra- 
tnalned In opMstlon upon tho tame baila,— that le to eay. ttpon tbe ravanoe frota tho 
■raaad.— It would produco taday mnro than tJOMBOJOOt tnunn, aUiea tba revenna 
haatnatMHad moro tbao avo-tnld. Bni Uia trlonipliiuit rannilnn rrora Lha HernltH 
lion taw no Kood in thla ayiLam. ltwaa«pcot«d to tho wollf of Um iiraat pbnia- 
cmla, Tarfol, Qneaoar. and otbetib and haat« wa> made lo imdn tt bj throwing tha 
buidcn or taiaUon npon labor b; tneans of lodlroct (npdtr wbiobobonid be inoro 
favarablo to tba monopollMis of tb* land. How BUadilf thia waa dona mar bo 
Judired tmin the rollawlnff table at lodnotlon* accorded to landed prapaitr by tha 
rcactloaary Kovcrawcota alaco ITS : 

IaihIIbi (a 1T9D 9(0,400,010 ftaacb 

Krdacttoat In franca. 

17W flUOMogi 

ITM 1I.0MJN» 

iiS ■ *JISM8ft 

IM.... F. UMMOk 

in i.Atii.aaa 

Sfi , , ..„. a*a.ioa 

, i.,. ..1... ...... .J. kODDJUl 

m :. OMuot. 



yOTES AND cosnrE.\'TS. 



While tb* trMMaAoaa RtiMM of DuUrtftl pravraM In Uw prutat otoBtn Ii*i<t 
BtTwHathelMiiUMiliiiwwaoTKlwB. tlwUiKwtbcr pr MwttnllT bw* UHwi IqUm 
warn 9I WKVnjM trrato*. »11UI« man Ut*t on»-tlilr4 what thejr *^(« ai>«>iati4md 
jfmr* *t^ A> tb» «(*« of tb* ^«obd 1> ia,tOi,0n hect>rai, tlda glvsa but twa m 
Uuw traan par bwun. 

Tbia ledacUcB tt ««t bmroTw, anflMMit (or Om Uadad pnyrioMnL wnb tto 
artWltrnir itf IMItct Tolal, tmt wUh nana ot bli ItiiplwtlnnnI huiifier, tlicy dnaaMid 
f« Ahnr Mnmpthmik Tbni' ham rnrnnUj nctiwllr liMticsiwod « cuniMlcn lAplv* 
Uadad oMMM • eomphiU tRodanj rrom taiklicD. The iMter of ibia mareBMBt haa 
ki^ l>an !iw. cxuxlxiA of Jowi Uftplinlc Sar. tba homioibIM. Ho la ako. lb nukj te 
ranvked In paMlun. Cbo Inumate fnomt of M. «« RaUuebtkL 

AaldCia<rftrb«(bBl«alinIoirBtlBfttnlabadb7 tihcfbllffiilav laoid«at : ITo iraa 
IinaHil BBi hmg »g« at « (mt dbiaw !■ iWk OmT«riatioa Uoraod upon thn 
rrvmtartbacrTor(r««lw>dln An«ctoa. "landolacUM hom thias bw«."*Ald 
M. i^, ftma^Xx; "th««««« too w»nr t*xo*an ovr land aow;! want to mm It fraa 
(Km all tazatlMk." 

Tba yWB o< " 111 ugi iw U TB HbqnUtoa." far rb* tall frwltlM at wMA M. Say la 
lalairtnv. bubraurbtfttwnltlMdoHitiuuier n( luw praprlvtor^ For a lowt Ubm 
Um eenUMT waa tba pomUr ballaf: and It mar ba doubted eran tiuw if Uie Pnoiah 
paofto ban abaadoaed tbetr loiic-cbnlabnd dclualan. A>k a Ptcncbman what 
nakM Ua taaatrj mt prntpofont-tlMt t^ rctatmij to lia eontinioatal nelKtilior*— 
■MlWwUlnvlrtballlbtbolaixvBUibcTOfaiBaUlaadadpnvrteton. Tbhballaf 
tea bM« •tnwtfainad by tb« Mtnal nxtusDoa of an enarmoni nutnbttr of aoMll pro- 
latttuii Maeh prwhwaoo h«» bpwt ytff n tothia pbueof Pnanh Ultr, and It baa 
baaalbaltocb thsaa of ^Mit a««rr iiwoch on Iki rcTana ta Parts (or baU a 

Bid th* tmiUe wHh tbb la tkat tb« srovHoton are all tm ntuUl. Put all 
' pHMHtou tociibar and Ibay would rwpreauiit ootr Iba HnallMt vorUea of Uw 
I WW. Tba loulltr Df UwluutapoaafaMd bjpeaMata wbQ caltlraletbMii 
IvwdoeanotaioMMlalHitbpaitof Uw wholaara^ or biill,0(n,*iKi bectaraa. 
nta iMit. aa painful to nraeh tnidai baajMt ana oHotaHir rocavnlcul. la a ro> 
pgRp«Ulab«dlaMTcar<»itbad0e«niilal acrtcnlliinl Inqalrr from BTI toiaBft M. 
TlMHiiit flliiinimiif FMaoh acitoBltBra. amd— ■ hlBMalf w toltow : "Dntotir 
mmdt calUraMra. if ibaj tana Iba laiiaoaw laaXirltr tt tb* Uatel pntvlatora ara 
Ckt (root e«lU*»tln|| tbo laiSMt aiufaoo ofonraoa On thi> coatnrr, tfaajr ooaapf 
tmt a *«r7 aHall (Tactloa of lb It l*. tb«ii,aa crrar tobedovethattbelandof 
rraoM la ta tbo haada of tb* nnaO oulUralov*." 

Unfllikflbliic aa tbla ooMrfaatloiw offleUl la la tb* faoo Of an aafdaaunt datr. 
hta word! ara as Mar* atrlklac tban tb« foilowlnit flRvna pnaoaud br tbs HlnlMar 
af niwaiiiiMltHHiiiNliiii iif Uad-boldtDft ta fnaen 

KnmlMV of Total ar«a nroentace Psreantaca 
UumI In of of 

• i*ihooui«».... vSmjm a.nMW um tan 

tiaS ~ .., 1.MI.M7 ^OMMT U.tT 111* 

kkMlUHaiMlonrar UK IM IMflMOt OM HJI 

TMaltMbloloUcKllaa... lunuM lUAaM MObOt VKM 

la oibor vote rapor ooot of tba total nambOTef knded pr o vrt el a ta pa w ionlj 
Mpar oaket tbo aatlra aroa of tbe coaaur: U par oeat-of tbs nanbar of pr»- 
prMen owa U var MDt. of thoana; U potent, of Um total iraabor of mpricten 
pt^MMTT p«roeat of tbe t«4al area. 

Abont nln« tnllllon b«etar«« *r« c seoptod br toaaot Coraioi* aad llvn matloa 
by (bo mtiiwf fanncq-*. who thtm Ilia liarTa^ vlth Itio ptopHotOi*. Kearlr 
alaotaMi tnUtlan boetarei U» «Blllralod bjr propHotnr^ or tlUf* 4* ratting 
•Itb tha aid of ■alorlid mrtenMa aad dOfDoUlea. Tban Bra inlllloB beotana 
an tUM br tba paaaaata IbomaalToa, witk ihotr irtma aad ehlldna. Bat tb»a 
an ptoprMoia ovraloa mum tban IDd.OH boclarw <l*T0t«d to tbe plaaaora of 
Iba rtiaM, Kbiah par aliaoot ao lax. 



TltK XORTU 



REVIKW. 



RolhMliIU pOMOWMAlrovHr mora than tOS^OniiMUnttetMMU SM,linMVc*): fml 
ba doM txit wlih La cqttlv&lei nil in for Umi chuw. Wb«B h* bufa »aa>Ulfi, ii« 
de«oUBbMtba«ni«(tirM.UUwM ai« ■ar>>*d<(lr«*oii(tii«latabtUuita,Bficliiia 

rnmat hu mllUoiuof tMmara wk» nra emahod br morWWM^ Tho ir&lue of 
Uins morliMna rbM to Um monuous llcvra ot ntOKLIBUaO truca. ot >I.«U.U».U». 
TboreanwOUouot tooilod piopdcuin aoBuMll ihAtUio MlnlBtcrDt tliuoM pn^- 
hnvd to let Ibem ira unrccordod. b«>Ucvlii|t that tba cuMt of mnrdlnc noutil bu 
KrvMtor tbut the rorenao dcnvaUe Uicrrefram. 

l*r«b*blr not lor in&u/ ewituriM luu tbo (urbcv bwd mkut pootlf cuUlvaUtL 
OOcIkJ InTpBtigitlinaB ibow that (vi»t)iir-l of Kmnoe 1> UAmitf nniraltfriitfi] i an- 
«Ui«rthInlrl*U*butlMlf huTMK whU* thatblrd tfebd prMtnce* iwjnriuiK »t ttll 
oKly nnOvr MndttlMU that w* pMtUreljr KHndUis- 

Tb6 ptMiiion af ibo Franeli aoveninwnl In rtgmiA t« teMtlonlalikcI^dilr'a 
toward bnwlR; wbrn rou boo any prntierlr. t*x It- Tbe bnrdno ihnl rAltim tha 
kKrlnaltuilic ii Hoiniiili to dbcaurnm oultlvuian. Tbo man Iw votIl* luid pmdncea. 
lb* mora •naoslrtlr l> ba tbo nrtlm of tba t«> oullcctar. WltliadlivctUi on 
houMk wliUlinra. doon. tic. and on ttll twTtsvitM^ mcar. tobMXKV cm., he laatwplx 
rolOK rannd and round In the umc tirclo of mAklac And pajtaiK. TIda IdcA Omck 
* KruiMih pwuaat roncnttr. whrai. mm out ttr Cb« TvfMMod vblia of tfta-Mlhcdinw 
becrlnl: "HrOoi I 11 bmum timt I wMcr«>t«dfar only t-wv tbfiiK*— l«iisko«U I 
«ui and p*r t« Ibo BOWnunoot all I can.' 

So cttlw ffTOW and tbe «aantrr b dMortod. AbvcnlAcUin {wnvaili bftr* a» iitnoh 
a« iind nor* Dmh tn Ei^and. Tht ODilfntlon rrom Uwcounttx toward Iba dtlM 
and tbo fadoMrUU MOtrN KTow<t from j-rair tn faar : tbe rtcaI adale* bm eatudaf 
til* void In the (onntrr. UmdH arv milled &0 kosar exoupt witb (Jia snaiaat 
troiibla: (laid wnrkon> nod eatilui allies ah un huid. wbllo iba tadiuuial wofkman 
wa(t» balwaan Ibanualvw a d«w«ra.ta rlvabr which tower* aalarlM ta a ninn 
area below whai laatrioUr aetxmuy lonpalr ih« laboror'a atnovUi and nmr bJa 
OaaOr- 

HUllona u( houMBt hova no wlttdowa, and nllliofu baro 1>«1 otm MlUloaa «C 
lamllloB nat moat bat twloo or tbrec tliaiw a roar. Ufias oft cluatnula dartntt aiaor 
monlbaaadon Ua«k bmd of a delootttUa qoalitr- 

W. RHKn. 



M-vealfKlUk V< 



"ri'i TynTpjufli 



«nl. I Sill Ko. S. 



THE 



NORTH AMERICAN 
REVIEW. 



SDtTED BY LLOYD BRYCB. 



March, 1890. 



FREE TRADE OR PROTECTION. 
A Continaotioa c/ M« Gladttont-Blaint Coninmft/. 

8EN1T0R J. S. HOBBILL , 



381 



The Qocstion Clabs and the Tariff, 

The Secrstarv of thf V. Q. C. 301 

Coniieg Men in England Justik McCartiiv, M.P, 310 

Sit Wm. Tfaomson and Electric Lightinf;, 

Georue Wksting mouse, Jr. jji 

Why Am I an Agnostic? — 11 R. G. Ingkbsoll 330 

Family Lile Among the Mormons, 

A Daughter or Brioham YotJKo 339 

" I-ooking Backward" Again Edward Bkulamy 351 

Lively Journalism Max O'Rell 364 

Our Uniratcred Empire Gbn. Nelson A. Miles 370 

THE LIMITATIONS OF THE SPEAKERSHIP. 

THE SPE-IKEE, Tde Hon. Thomas B. Rked jSa 

THE EX-SPEAKEB, Tee Hon. John G. Carusle ... 390 

NOTES AKD C0MMKNT3. 

What the Fair Should Be . . P. T. Barmuu 400 

Li(c InsurarKc in the United States . . John M. Holcomue 401 

The ' ' Power in Canada W. H. Huntkh 404 

Het'. . ig William Matkews 405 



Ko. 



NEW YORK: 
3 EAST FOURTEENTH STREP'S. 






\ 




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UnITEU StaTKH I)r.I'AIiTMKNT OF AOIUCOLTUBE, J 
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By an analysis of Dr. Prieo'a Crwim liukiiig IVwJtT, I flnrt it carpfally 
compOQudedj antl I regard it as tho IkisI IxtkinK iiow<ier in lliv market in CTorr 
respect. PKTICn L'ofj.IKIi, 

Late Clieniift of tlio I'niti"i Sinti-.^ l)k-ii:trli;ii'Tit of Acrii'iiltiirti. 

C ALIGRAPH 



GREATEST SPEED! 
BEST FOR MANIFOLDING, 



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LOWELL 




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PRICE. - EIGHTY. FIVE DOLLARS. 

for MccoDut of ai)**!! (onlivla anil 

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•RKKCH orriCES:- 937 mnotewx*. Mew Vamk. 
14 wear «iH BrNiiT. CiicinHkii. O. 



F'lir Tiff.rly i.tuF a oebUtvy Ij.iwjU cikri'^Ui h&TD 
boi-e asknuoilodttwl br all to bo 

Tbawurd 
" Lnn'Kt.1." 
aPPKAKS IN 
O A 1' I X A k 
LKTTKUN In 
lUc buck uf 
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(•n, and Uudjr 
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the i>it ll»r n. 

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tnidA-fmrka. itcd 
bo niro ffiu i[oL 

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CAHPHTS. 

TtimCKOodaaraliivkriablpfiill wMtCi. Hilt] amj 
tMi bitd III a litrm) Ttulcir ot doOgiu, wblcb fur te< li 
tthjus utd colorlBK ara utwquaJlod. roiulcrjng 
Ibcci <£p(cliLl]j rtiiiiro]>rUl« (or arUiittc WiidbIi 



THE 
BEST 



IHVKAIMa 

an iroojid «)mu 
a hoUot^ Wide, 
nbJcfat3iaL'iiiU<d 
8UIM Oiiirt (1»- 
cJdod 111 ba n rkUd 
tnde-nmtlE. TIm 
rtldc la In tira 
•eUd pleoeai wUb 
Ui« iMtua o( tbo 

■.OWELtt 

c u n I' A H Y 
■tftiQpM vilbln. 
BBWAnSOF 
miTATiani!!. 



CARPETS 



NORTH AMERICAN REVIEW. 

No. CCCC. 



MARCH. ISiiO. 



FREE TRADE OR PROTECTION. 

A CONTINUATION OF TOR GLADSTONK-BLAISB COXTROrBBST. 



BT TUB noy. jrsrnr s. Mon&n.L, cnited states sen^tob 

rSOX VERMO!(T. 



APOUKT FOB THIS AIITICLB, 

Ant extended armament of the Right Honorable W. E. Glad- 
iton4( mnst alwaya afford lunpU- nvidencfi of f^real alnlitr, ne well as 
wealth of Icaraing, and it wontd baro t>ooii proBamption on my 
part to Bc5(!i>pt the tDvitatJou la reply tu Iiih ruc«nt article Jn Trb 
KouTH AiiEBiCAS Review on " Free Trade or Protection/* if it 
irent not that "Protection," the easy aide of the qneetion. had 
been allotted tu mu. Jt waj a further cucoaragoment when I 
loaodj apon examining in detail Mr. Glaflstone's free-trado Argu- 
mentation, that I could slncorely reciprocatti some of hi»own words, 
and saj, While we listen to a melody presented to u^ im new, 
the idea f^radually ariara in (he mind, " I hare heard this before," 
wid U has been beard by me so often from onr Democratic rerenue- 
rt-{orm frieuda that the refrain, if not a bore, excites neither de- 
light nor alarm. 

Bamembering, as I do. the miuterly speech of Mr. Qladstone 
when, ae Chancellor of the Exchequer, he opened the debate on 
the budget of 1853, and also h\a later olo^nent ■eriea of romark- 
abte spcecbeH for three d»ya hi Ilio MiJIuthtan campaign, I o-an 
bare no feeling bnc that of the bigheitt respect for one who must 
bo regarded aa the foremast livug etatueuuui of onr mother* 
oouotry. For tht^ diMitision ho appears to hare formulated a 
vor.. rt..— so. 400. 19 



TBB AOItTB AiTERIVAN BBVIEW. 



rule, after tlie mnnner of llic Marqais of Quoeiulierry, wlifch I 
caniioi refuse to acct'itl, Lbiil " in tlio arena of discusi-iou" ouo 
must Uki' liu chance as " a common combatant, Dntitlod to free 
0p(^cch and to fair troatoieut, bat to nothing more." 

It is my purposo to controvert some sfaare of the froe-trado 
aasortious directly, bnt for th» most part by the goueral scope of 
my reply, at to copy at length all of the etatcmrnts to be refuted, 
and to follow «ach with a special repl;, would cover too much 
epitcc. Happily, Mr. Gladstoiio does not sweeten free trade by 
another name ami conceal it by what, in America, has been 
styled its " varioloid," ret'enue refortiL 

Mr. Gladstone appears toliavo bad tlie enbjcct of " Free Trade 
or Protection " on tho anvil evor since ho was ohaUcngtMl b> its 
discuBsiou by Mr. McKay pending the Presidential election of 
188S. Ho admits the victory of protection in that election, but 
strives to convince Americamt of tht-ir folly. His great ability as 
an iniitructor may be admitted, and his teachings in Great Dritain, 
where he has had experience, ara deservedly of the highest 
authority; but in America, where wo all regrvt tluit he has never 
set his foot, they are as unworthy of practical application and aa 
muck out of place as British laws for the regulation of the gov- 
ornmont of India would bo if appliod t« the Dominion of Camtda. . 

THE LOGIC OF PACTS. 

It will bo claimed by me that the logic of facts and n»ults is 
more worthy of acceptance than any theory, however plausible it 
mayaeom to bo, and that by thix ten American proteotion baa 
long been triumphant ; not arguing that an excess of protection 
would he bonvflcial, but iu favor of such moderate and healthful 
discrimination as will protect American industries, from their 
birth tu maturity, ngnin^t destruction by foreign competition. 

Protectionists deny tlmt there is any possible svientilic eystem 
of tariff upon foreign imports which merits and requires univer* 
sal application. It is a question of practical experience rdono as 
to what may b« best at the time for each and every independent 
nstion, to be most intelligently determined by its own legislative 
authority. 

Hr. Qladstone assumes, in substance, as Free-Traders gen< 
erully assume, that free trade, or the let-alone revenue system, 
whicli was started in 184G with the repejil of the Corn 
Laws, and practicjiUy atlopted by Great Britain leas than tbirtj 



iEB TRADE OR }>UOTECTION. 



jmus ago, it boMvI oh ttcifiUiSc truth, rmtuml luw, and moral 
virttic, applicable Lo all njitioug and to all times alike, sad that 
any otb«r syet«m ia not ouly false, but wasteful and uachrUtiau. 
Thti overlaiidod economical diacorery nppcarg to haro been qd- 

^knnirn to Bavoii and Tjocke. Newton and Paley, nnregardod bj a 
[rait majority of cnligiitened Chriatiaii natious, and espooiallj 

ratire^nled 1>y tho IBnlUIi colonics. And y«t it s««ni8 almost a 

']M-r«oiul grief to Ur Gladstone Dial tlio ITiiitcd Stutos should b« 
anwilling to aconpt the beatitndeo of free trwto, altlioitgh Uritish 
tntereitta, aa he ctstnu, have prospered, and will prosper, iu spits 
of Atnrrican ailherencetoprotoction. Why not, then, let iia alone ? 
If tiio wholo vorld were ono vftet Vtopta of couimuiiisiic 
brethrvn, and pwordg wore to be beaten into ploughshares aaid 
ip«ara into pruuing-bitolta, tree trade might bu the accepted gos< 
pel of all iiit^niationa] iutc-rcour^, uud the glorify of patriotism 
ihaiia«d afl a reproach ; but tho world is a conglomerate of diffei^ 
rat now of men, having discordant ambitioiu, highor and lower 
conditioiu of civilization nnd wvallh, mnny religious crocda, un- 
equal physical and mtrntal rigor, and aptitudes and habita as di- 
wae as color aud climate. The idea that there is any ccouom- 
ieal principle, whether of ecienct*, nature, or morals, vhich should 
b« left to it# own conree, aii<'. tlu.t nothing should h« done by any 
people llirough legialation to change or to elevate and incrcfwo 
tb«lr iodmtria] jiower. it the fetich of Hritish Frce-TradorB. Aa 
well might all eocial rirtuee Lfo left unprotected and without leg* 
itlation. As troll leara all indiiriduals without the help of ednsa- 
tion u to teiive the nation without such help. It ig nothing less 
thui the old fallacy, " Shoot without taking aim, and you will b« 
sure to hit tho mark." Can any friend of Jrelnud, for instance, 
3r years of close contact with a great frcc-tr^du kingdom, and 
ith two-thirds of its productive aroA abandoned to pormaneut 

Fpagtarv, belii-rc that tho free-trade policy hna been best for Ire- 
land ? The iublime rirtuc of having no prejudioes in favor of 
tbeir own country does not seem to have taken root in that part 
}f tho United Kingdom. 

JXbEBrAlD [laiTESIl LABOR nBKRPITED BT AUEKICAN TRO- 

TE<TtOS. 
Mr. Qhulitono claimfi ihut other nnttons. and uboTO lUI others 
)r (j'nited Staloa, Imrii- <l">'ii'<xl iinmeiiM benefits through Briliah 
ifrw-tmdo iogiiilation. If thU should bo admitted, as it need not 



984 



TBE M)Rft 



'SRICAN REVIEW. 



be, wlij, then, Klioiild ttio United States vish to reTo]uticmiz« Hnd 
chuigo itit {Kwilioa by » chaago of its rcTcnite policy f Itiit, Iio 
siiys, " We [Great Britain] have not oa this gronud any raeriU or 
anj oluimis wlintewr. Wo lugiijlated for our own beuoflt bqI an 
aatisfled witli the benelitK ve hare received." Other oatioiu nrv 
also satisfied tliut liave legislated for their otni benefit, though 
adrerw-'ly to freo trader a», with l\w. csn-ption of the Britannic 
]«!«, the whole of Europe and Aiuoiica now adheres t-o the doc- 
triOA of protection. The peo|i1ti of every nation moat be allowed 
to comprehend boat what will bo for thoir own bcueflt, notwith* 
gtatidin^ tho graet^us ffTortfi of Britinh ntateiinien to promnlgato 
tlicir prcceptD uiid exi>ouud tlieir Tirtuoiis cxuiupte. Few out- 
eide of Croat Britain wilt care to dilute that free trade may now 
be her wisf«t polier, and perhaps a parainimut neocaiity ; nor will 
any one doubt, were it otherwiBe, that the policy of free trade, in 
8pit«t of the moral suhliraitj now claimed for it, would bo swiftly 
changed, whellier the Tory or tho Liberal party wens iu power. 
British wealth, however, waa founded upon the most stubhom 
measures of ])rotection that tho world has over known, which were 
only discontinued after they hiul accomplished their chief and 
greatest work, — tho general perfection and fliiprenuicj of their 
manufactures,— Oil protection, with aa enterprising peopio, is d«- 
signed to oocomplish. Protection was no longer needed, but 
cheap liread and cheap wages were the British problem to bo 
Bolred by free trade. 

Orcat Britain formerly not only exacted heavy protectare 
duties from mcrchnndiRO imported into her homo territorioe, 
but she pitileti^y nmnopolized huth the exjwrt and import trade 
of her numerous colonies, — drnwiiig sustenance from the bosoms 
of her own daughtere, — from which tho fortnneo and titles of 
many great funiitiv« wuro created and the mercantile power of tho 
kingdom established. These colonioB are now far more pronper- 
ous under thoir own protective policy, but the mother-country 
continues to be largely their creditor, and stilt proBta by a large 
share of ihcir trade. 

After nearly 400 years of the tnosb nnexarapted protection, 
Great Britain acquired tho eommand of capital, maohinory, aleani 
power, and of long-trained labor, including even that of ehildren, 
liy whii-h to comiiete ■ncmwfully in tlie cbiof markets for thn 
trudv of the world. Ucr hibor Uuriug the long Beoson of prot«o- 




FRKE TRADE OR PROTEOTION. 385 

tton, thonj^h iitvor «iitkin^ Lo llio level of \\\a Continent, linJ lonj^ 
'been nnilerpniil, b; dinut act of ParlianiQnt nntil 1813, and iiu- 
ilorpauil tu tltift day by i^Iosb dumiuutioii. It may Ixi traa tliat \\w 
wagM of British workmeu have iidvaDC«d in the progrctw of tlui 
ige «TMi under thp avBtem of frc'o trade, not po«f A*c, ergoproftltr 
ikiK*, bat becatuc their be^t workmen hure had a whip in their 
own hands, and fur 120 bavu hud thv power in one woek to 
Itnuuplttnt tlicmeelve« to America, wburu Lhi-y could bu b«-ttcr 
f«xl, better clothed, better educated, and bctl«r housed, ur where, 
with fever hooni of labor, thoy could odd frvni 50 to IW per 
cent, to tlieir vagei. Amcricflti competition has thus compelled 
an increase of free-tndc wngi-.<i. nliich niiisl be con(v<lod, or their 
beat IMD vonld dettert the niiinuracturt-n. and the bittur. it 
<honld be confused, do not eeem to be grateful to the Ajneri<:An 
promotora of such good workii. 

It fuUown that tlie Untish workmen liare derived and Btill 

' derive ao immenae benefit from the syatem of Aracricau protoc- 

Ition. We clAira do merit for this because w© also "have 

I legislated for our own benefit ntid are 8ntiefte<l with tbo 

\ benefilji wo bave received." The number of British irn- 

migranta to tfao I'nitod StutcA, for the year ending Discern- 

bcr 31, 1888. was ITI.Hl, more bc-inR from Knglund 

than from any other part of the kingdom, and » large proportion 

l>eing mechanics and skillod workmen. This does not include 

tbo many tboaftands arriving through the bank door of 

Cuitodu. of whom no nccotint in mudv. This coaseteas flow of 

British immtgrauts eupplicsa multitude of fxitotittal reasons why 

vagea in Eoglund "have become both gcuerally nnd abaolqtcly 

higher, and greatly higher, ntider free trade." kfr. McKay may 

not have been entirely acciirato as to the wages paid in Wigan, 

tbodgh (hero is nnlimitcd proof on the general subject of tbo 

great dispiiriiy of Britisb wages wbea compared with Amerieun ; 

but the living testimony of these tbonaands of British immi> 

gniita is on iucootestable support of tlie American couteaUon of 

proCeotion ngnituit all tlie^iriefu 

Workmen ia (irwt Brilaiu, when out of cnipIoymeDt, are said 
to hare no resource bat tbo workhouse, but Amoricnn workmen 
generally own th«ir own houses, tnke tboirown newspapers, and 
hare money in savingv- banks. The inoreaH In wages under pro- 
tection eaonuously increases the power of cottsumption by wage- 



386 



Tax HO&Ta MOSBICAJi BEVtBW, 



poruers and br thpir fumiliM. wliile freo tnde ooljr increaBM Uio 
luxuries of the rich, and the common people God tbem bejond 
thdr reftch. 

Slarery in America, not oaring fur the wt^esof labor, long 
(redded maov Soulberii .Siutee to fr«e tmds, but, hanog parted*! 
from slavenr, the; an notr fant fludiog rvaaona for a dirorce from 
fiT* tintie. 

Kr«c trade does not even profess regard for th« vagM of arti- 
sans, and in iMKed wboUj on the idoaof siipplnng the demonda of 
tbe oonxnraer at the lovest cost. How the artniea which delre in 
mines and work in mills and factortea are fed and lioiued, »da- 
o*t«d and paid, doea not concern th« "dismal science" of Fre«>, 
Traders — if only thoy can be elwaplv piaid. Tber start in tbe rao*! 
b; challenging the competition of tbe lowest-paid laborera of all 
tbe world. That wagca ander free trade» ia snob a race, can be 
equal to wages under protection is glarinj^f prepwterwia. 

Mr. Gladstone asserts thnt '• in yoar pn}tm!t«d trades 
are hard pressed by wages." Tbe fair iofervncc ia — reversinf; 
proposition — that profits of capital are not hanl pressed b/ 
under free trade, In otbrr wonls, wages most be bard iiriMwJ 1 
free trade, and this U painfully exhibited bj tbe preeent ahonnii-^ 
ing Btrikee of Britieb workmen. 

Ur. (fladstone gins Sin Giflea as aatbority on British 
and cUims that from 1833 to 18S3 the wages paid on 
mannhctnres of Bradford and Uadder«ficld have adranccd 
and 30 per c>c>nt. \fhv go hu\ s» far when the fviaiptete eojor- 
raent of fn-o tmdo is onlr cUimed for less than thirty rean ? It 
woald possibly he mwe fair to assame that ranch of the adi 
cbum«d may have occnrrfd long bofon tho era uf free tnde, 
America n go back no farther than 1860 to claim an advanoe __ 
more than double the amoont specified in the wa^es of bborere, 
both in faotoriM and on farms. But, as Mr. Gladstona Aom 
JMisi that waged are not higher in America under protectiob l_ 
in Great Britain undw free tiadp. it would bmcb eaperflaoaa 
offer Btalittiea] proots of the wide difference kDown to eaaf, _ 
chiob tbe public oa both Hdes of tbe Atlantic are not alt 



ritfa 



getbcr unfamiliar. One frMh iUnaltatMO of the diffemice, 
•rer, mar not b« iDoppoftnaa. Tha late great wi«»4liilte of 
UiodoQ dockmrn **■ mads to obtain aa innaaav of on* wtmr 
honr._&l. (la e«u.), (tM4«d of M. (10 cMta). per Iwnr,— 



rR£E TJUD£ OB PSOTBCtlOH. 



287 



and the {ucreua> of one pciiuT per liour has bet>n reckoned ua 
croviiiiig ?icionf. Butthe 'longshoremen, emplovwl in ihe uine 
kind (if work on tiie docks of Kuw Yurk, arc piiid 30 ccnU on 
hoar (or day, uml 40 ccnu an hour for titglit, work. Treiro c«du 
an honr waa Btoiillj r«fiist(>d in fn^C'trudv Loudon, while SdO-per 
eoQi. higher wa^M <till preruil onder protectiou ia \ew York. 

riiOTECTIOS riTS TOR CHIEF BURDES OX TIIK FOHKinXKlE. 
PruLMTtionisU clAim, asBUmarck claims that protection putt 
die chief bimlen upon the fnmigner, who is compelled to pajr tll« 
dntj' or give an oqtiivaU-ut by rvducing the price of his prodncts. 
They also claim iKat, in the lung run, tho consiimofB supply thoir 
WBQta at lees cost than would bo possible without protected home 
ootapetttion. For example, yeAreagonioqnettocarpets brought Is 
to $8 per yard, but under protection, ami owing to a loom invented 
by an American, they aro nowaold at ♦1.50 per yard and fiomctimw 
forlesa. Beasumor atopl rails in 18C7 brought 9164) prrtoii, bub 
irith a protective duty Ibo pricv in 1885 was uuly 928.50 per ton, 
and 937.JiO in 18K8. From 1867 to IKSd thore were made iu tlio 
Unitcfl States 15,803,011 loiw Of atecl raila, and 1,254I,8.!>7 tons 
were imported. This new indnstry gives employment to many 
thouBanda of people, and proHcntu only n single example of many 
ahowing the creation, as well as the incn^ase, of the wage fund by 
protection. American niilroodit unquestionably obtained their 
atecl mil« in the aggregate at far I«ae cost than would have been 
posaibleeTen with free rails and dependence upon foreign supply 
aod foreign prices. When the Amcrtoan demand in 1S72 
eicaeded the homentipply, the British price at once waa advanced 
from 230 shillings per ton u> 3;>0 shillings, and again in 1880 ihe 
British price was for the same reason advanced from I70 ahilUugs 
par ton to 200. This shows how merciless would bo the grood of 
foreigners were oar manufnctures suspondnl forUrk of protection. 

BOMB MASUrACTCBBSSarB HDCH OP THE COST OF THaitSPOBTA- 
TIOS AND DlSTSIBimON. 

Home mantifactttres planted in every State aloDgsidfi of the 
(armer lar;?t>ly snvo in distributioa the hoavy oost and waste of 
king tnLnsporttition. Foreign merchandise landed at some sea- 
iMfft must Iw diiitriliiitcd at great expense acrota the whole coaa- 
try, and exporUi of grain must be freighted from the romoteet 
hitcrior States to wnports and then w-t^'^ the .\tlnntic. Both of 



£68 



TOE XOBTU AMEmCAS SUiVlEW. 



these outlars are cither wliollv aToided or greatly reduced Ur the 
presence of home nmnu facta res, wliicb are »otd (th«ir value buiug 
well known) by the wholoealo, ae well an the retail, dealer for a 
much smaller commiBsion than are foreign goods, of the cost and 
merit of which the public aru ignorant. 

The immediate proximitjr to fanners of manufactured in an ad- 
Tantage so great that thu holdings of farmers, iq evor7 locaiit; of 
America where eucb proximity cxietd, cuu n>adily be aold for 
mor« thnn 50 percent. aboTe the price of land where maaufactitrM 
have not been establiihcd, and auunalty yield a much krger iticonie, 

Americans prefer to make n home market for all of tbelr 
sgricaltnral products, and not to depend upon uncertain and 
oloaiTc foreign raiirkcts, Krory ship-load of wheat or corn ex- 
ported not only impoverishes the fertility of the land whence it 
wnfl taken, but tends to reduce both the price abroad and iithome. 
Krtw Lnwiu in America would cripple, perhaps mln, both agricult- 
ure and nianufactorea, and protection is aocoided to both; for 
here it is applied to both, and t«nda not only to shield them from 
harm, but hoa operated to increase the wages of agricultural labor 
finally with the wages of employeea In mannfnctureft. — which 
ahowB that any prtttoncc about unprotected labor !$ wholly false 
and intended by Amerioin Free-Trudcw only to deceive. 

We hare no class legialution, and prot«ction protoots ono-halt 
of the popuhitioD no more than the other; wool as well as cloth. 
All of our people are now freo to labor where they choose, where 
they can oani the most and recoive the highest reward; and the 
man who to-day works on the farm may to-morrow, if ho pleosoa, 
find employment in the mine, mill, or factory, and obtain tho 
customary wages awarded to like skill and service. 

PHOTECnOX rKODDCBS THE BEtlT WORK. 

Protection tnms ont not merely good work, but the iMai. 
Local competition alwaya pusbfts the boat to the front American 
locomotives are received in Australia, New Zealand, Sooth Amer- 
ica, and elsewhere, as ecjiial to any in the world, and aa chettp. 
Some British manufacturers and traders stamp ihvir cotton goods 
with American trade-marks becanse similar American goods, 
wherovor known, fetch tho highest price. Honw-fnmishing and 
iaddl -ry hunlwure, lockx, joiners' tools, watt^huti, silvurware, juw> 
t\T}-, paper of all kinds, and nutny other articles of Anioricao 



I 

I 
■ 



I 



ritSe TRADK OS PHOTF.CTIOS. 

lure ant often both superior to and cheaper tliiin Kimilar 
blw prclttced abroad. Oar agriouUnrul iin|>lcm<;nu lire rooo;^- 
niaed everywliera as the boat ioTeiitions ot the nge, American 
winng-machineti and carriages ea«il>' take the load of foreign 
Cuhioiid and foreign nuikcs. When Mr. (iliul^tonc |in!«>t9nU.-d to 
bia fonsetcr an uto, bo did not iteek for one of Englidb make, but 
fotuid the best and presented one of American make. 

Mr. Oladatoiie declares thut under high diitiea they bad the 
" worst corkii in Earope." This vm deplorable, but if they had 
only iiiIopt«d the American remedy of the Maine law, thuy would 
not even have had 
I "Toifatprarcnwbadoorklba tnjUar'KCMj.** 

il the demand for corks vonld suddenly have been estopped. On 
oar part. It iji remembered that, prior to th« dcrolopment of home 
manufacturer, America Vu forced Ui accept such sorry foreign 
gooda aA were ofTered, and here was the great dumping-place for 
inferior and Bnimma^m articles. vrUich. like Pindar'a razors, 
vore"i»nde only to eoll." Frot«otion hoe bronght relief from 
nich imposition 

Mr. Gladstone would be hnmorona, and endeavors to plunge 
the odrooatesof proteotiun into the miro of a rtductio ad absur- 
dum by Myiog : 

"UiliapiMMirafatMt f6rth»lcs{Mto*.«TUtnk«i)patu]«niplojinU«CAiiiilr; tbOst«at«tt 
pawtUlakifiaunLnroiplli^. tlMnlHo RrtUih PuUkBAnt Ifixtmplt gralMt o<VCtt to 
tntet net oolr vboaL buL ^iiMpplM." 

^ Tliia tropical illiiatration, ihongh dimmed by ageand longservlce, 

H ^owa that Frec-Tmduni claim not only n monopoly of trade, bnt 

of ot)mmon-seu«c. The pineapple argument may bo dismissed aa 

btoo far- fetched. 
But Mr. Gladstone appears fond of extramea and pnmics the 
aubject by ailding the following : 

"U proiooUoD bn. M lu ohii>Qpiam (or vlrclnM) k«)d. la Itaalf •■ cconootlaal 
|MdkeiilCliaM>lnllM«pboreur prudticUaaUiaHBWptafloaabeknn U traUt ta 
Ikaipharaof pkllMopbr, arloTlrtw) In Ui« aphan of flunite. la tlibtaM, ran on 
ntbBT«U«ia«chQ(lt:KitlMl.wkII« nor* protoctlon U MMKNoleiil xvi In mii- 
biT«s "Mh go»4 ftn<!< lU tnll d«T*lopn>ont oslr '■> the prahlMtka ol tottlt^i lr«^ " 

It may be obaerrad, " ia the sphere of philosophy," tbal in Ibe 
aaae of (Ire, water, and air, though all are naeful aonranLs. no one 
wooM tay of pillier. " Yon cannot have Uw mnch of it." The 
vDpportMH of Ataerieait proLeotion, on their guard against all 



990 



rffE ^^ORT^ AMERJCAJT RSVlBtF* 



HutoiilAl extremes, propose to rcdiico, *» tlioy liavo radoood pro- 
l«ctivo legislation, vhcrev<>r nml whenever the prosperity of their 
countrytnon requirus it, aiuj ure in no itsugcr of being burned or 
drowned by protection, tliougb the; cannot escape an occasional 
gnat of frc>e trade from the tnado-winde across the Atlantic. 

JCvidoDtly Mr. Gladstono woald enforco tfao reverse of bis 
propoiiition, or that "yon cannot have too much of " free trade : 
doubtloes feeling that other naliouti cannot )iaro too much of it 
to suit Great Uritain. If free trade is one of the moral virtues, 
however, as ecenu to be claimed, ie it not rather recklws, <* in the 
sphere of morals," to disregard tho wisdom of clogaic a^c« hand«d 
down by the axiom. In metliu luli'ttintuf iHtf In tbeir hard- 
pressed corn, iron, cotton, and silk iudustrice. are there not manf 
Englishmen ready to say of free trade^ " Good Lord, deliTer us 1"? 

PKRK THAUK AHONQ THE STXTtS. 

Certainly Mr. Olndglone lias a fondness for the li^c of 
treme ci\»m, and ho aske, in relation to Iho greater profit in ke 
iag luhor and capital at home, this question : 

" But 1( thU mdl; la mi. U Ihero he UiU Inborn Irrtttltj In the prtiMrlple lt««lf, «kr ' 
w t)i« Hvarttl SiMlmot tbe Itnlon procludsj mini apiilyiiiK It vlthln tbcdr o*m •■• 
■pMtire borders I " 

If thia were asked with the oxpoctntion of serious eonsi deration, 
it might 1>t4 answered that Io<'ji1 tariltti between the States wontt 
not only be inexpedient,, but impossible to enforco. and they ar 
properly superseded by the far better protection afforded by the' 
general government. As a nation, wc ure one groat family, or, as 
he calls as, " a world, nnd not n very little world," where each 
one of the members contributes to the general welfare, where free 
trade has a special and exceptional domain for its proper develop- 
ment. and where it« results are benc(i(»-nt. Ak dcprndoiicios of 
Great Britain, wc were annually robbed and hod no protection, , 
and therefore dcetarcd onr independence. It was a great point 
through Ihi) naion then established to escape local State tarilTs, and 
national protection was secur^ in our very earliest legislative act 

It may not bo im[>ortiiicnt now to oScr a llolaud for rui Oliverij 
and U> inqnire, if there be inborn fertility in the prinoiple 
free trade, why it in not beneficently applied to the sererul larj 
and populous colonies of Great Britain by the omnipotence of thi 



FREE TRADE OR PROTECTION. 



391 



IritUI) ParliAineiit. Surely a measure of tliia tnnscendcnt tm- 
ponwice, which kwpa her legialatora constantly awaVo looking 
wHh unziODS pityafl«r tho fiscal Rnd moral intoresU of th« 
tJoited StHt«s, ghonlrl not permit them lo nlcvp whnn it equallj 
concerns (to borrow Mr, flIaJetono'a phraeca) Ihe oKiste. robbers, 
and imposition that are so mmpaot in British colonies and ^9- 
pendencies— ^.'mbrscing one-8«>venth of the land surface of the 
glohe and noarlf onp-fourth of ils population. " Why Iwholdest 
tbon the mote that U in thy brother'a eye, but conxidcrcst not the 
botun that \a in thine own eye? " Ia it poMible that Mr. Qladstono 
thoald have been nntnindfal of those great possessions — virgin 
fields for the planting of iinnduitonitecl free trade — whon be 
penned the following eloquent seuteiK^? — 

"Hut* npnni bahn Um Uilaktnc mttMl whtn IliU Rupmmo qiioaUon la propmadiid 
» Tiata M tnaanniuc all ordlnu? llmlutloa u reqnlm lui aUaoM pttiarhiuiuui 
tarn sod •svttorfoa af Um awntalcro In a«dor to rmbreM Ik" 

America won tho battle for the colontsu in 1776, whon they 
were not sufTered by Great Britain to work in the mum refinif) 
manufactarea even for tlieir own consumption. The oroction of 
•t«ol farnacfls and slitmilU in ony of her American plantations 
was prohibited. The exportation from one province to another 
by water, or even the carriage by hind npon horeebark or in a 
cart) of hats, wool, and voolleii gowla of the produce of America, 
was alao wholly prohibited. We hare changed alt that. 

PKIMAfTY. 

Ibtr. OliuUstone is pleaHed to sny 

" tbat Ui Uit«n«ttoa&l trniMcUoiu tko BriUih ll*(^m Tor the pcMMt «tJor* a «0B- 
teMtlfcl p«lma«r; Uu>t no eaunUy tii iha wafM ahow* itnjr nKiuwHljr to wrart II frmi 
N&a«NTt It teAtnarlMi: tint. II AiiMrfoaihall flunklr adopt kadaU*(Ut7 nMlnUIn 
»g«t«aBarftr*alra4a.ahcwUlbrrtaftt«M. yrhapa not alow deffraoA. onutrfp dr in 
Um noB. taiA oUI pnobahlr tkka \hm plara which at priMt b«l«oca to u: but itet 
•ba wUlaot lojura uibr tha oparUSon.' 

When oil the great marketa of the world arc drying np na to im- 
port! of maanfactnres, and are being supplied by their own home 
products, how is it poasible that the United State* wonld not, aa 
a rJYal, injure British trade by coming to tho front and tnVing 
the place and primacy which at present belong to Great Britain ? 
Tbair goremment. is making ambitious efforts in every quarter of 
tlie globe to obtain an incre^axtt of its foreign trade, and, if that 
ii now diminiflhing, or inHufliricnt for one. how can it be enough 
for two, or for both England and America ? 



2»-i 



TtTS yOHTtI AJIHRICAy RSVIK^', 



Of course Mr. Gladstone is eincoro. Ue 'u among tlie firut, ' 
□ot tlio foruQiotit, of loyn) Englislimflii, and coiild not ho jn<iiic«<l 
Ut adrocate any measure tbat would nol benefit liia own oountr}'. 
lie sees that free trade with America would nfTer a prodigioiu 
Diarkot for British manufactnree, and thiit ahaorliiiig admntoge 
hides everything beyond. But it will not bo forgotten that the 
luiiderH of Great Britain, he praudlj eminent nnmn); them,* not 
very long since were quite willing thai such priniiicy an we tlit-u 
alone pnjoyeii on the American onntinent should be nulliiied and 
overthrown, and for tboir udIawIuI aid in that direction unule 
an atonemunt of |15,0(m,000. 

But Mr. Gladstone plainly and bitinlly huilds all of his t-nsllcs- 
in the-air relating to our pritnacy upon onr producing more wheat, 
cornt cotton, and utinonl oils for foreign export, and says that we 
should not invest " in milla or (iictories to proditeoyarn or cloth 
whiL'h WH could obtain more cheaply from aliruad." It follows 
that he would 'hare the |>nmacy wholly restricted to agricultnml 
exports, and i« nhlivioua of the fact — wliilt? his own country fnr- 
uishcH a very limiteil and about the only foroign market — thai our 
prwent exports of these prcnlucta operate adversely upon our 
agrienlttiral intereatji, and that the poliey of Americiin protection 
is vigorously maintained in order to create n larger body of eon- 
stiniers at home and to give to ngricnlture higher rewardiL Why 
ehonid not America hare ib< own homu market ? Surely imhire 
ie not agaiuBt it, morality is not against it, and if freo-tnulc 
ecience ia against it, so much the worse for the science. We must 
make the market we do not and cannot elwwhere find. We have 
fonnd that often lecis has been obtained for h very large export of 
Cotton than for a mctlium or smaller one, tihowing thatan cxcona- 
ivo crop pays the least profit. Some of onr Western States have 
also found the largest crop of corn most valuable as their cbeupeet 
fnel. and the wheat crop in some of our territories, like that of the 
apple elsewhere, when very large, pays little mere than for the 
han'csting. 

Beyond this, Rnesia, Kgypt, India, and other conntrics leave 
us to supply only a pitiful sliare of any deficiency of Euroitean 

* Up. GUdstoBo VM \ Soulhen t]rai|wthljwr, nbd tn the ItMhntk riflwt* on tht 
MeoKnl<l''a'f ■liBSoathern Onnfodivner Mid : *nt l> not. IberotoTc, frasn IniliiTV^ 
W W- U h But any wlwanato or woflhy oltfwt an [hg fit of the Worth-thnt 1 nnalil 
vMitirtLto JMoem* ta th« Mmawut tomi the wloiiUan of Uis buiIod ot Uie bonc^ 



FKKB THADK OR PSOTECTION. 



ftrope), and that at tliv minimum (iric^a. South America, 
■ml i>nr great Ameriam deacrt, iinjiro»fi! hy irrigmion, may also 
ioon prove the ntsrvols of H^e iign in the prodiictioti of food crop*. 
An incrtuae of tliH utipplv' from an; qtinrter would instaQtlj do- 
|in»t foreigu prices, luuviiig for Americuii exports Iobbcs instead 
of profits ; and oar lanntQg mt«re8t«, with increaeed crops and 
without an increase of oonBiimera, wonid sink to the levul of those 
now H> greatly dvpr^sced in Cireat Itritjiin. Agnin, if, aa siig* 
geatcd, wa were no longer to protect and Hiip[Kirt home nianu- 
foctur«a. or inveetmeuts in "niill^ ami factoriije," hut put our 
hom« market of U5 p«r cent, in limbo, or the paradise of fooU, tn 
onU't to increase tho 5 \»t cent, (not including cotton) which wa 
occasionally have of auch exporta, bow Jong woulil it be before 
the priccfi of the productsof foreign " niille oud factories " would 
mount fur above the present current ralea in. America ? Our 
manufactures, outside of hout^hold industrios, amounted in 1860 
to$5,3C9,S"9,191, and it is estimated wilt reflch (7,000,000,000 in 
1890, W(TR w» toHurrenderthiH unmatclioJ field to free trade, 
the immense capitij invcslcd must be brgely aaorificed. and thou- 
auids of laborers turned adrift, " the world all bcforo them where 
to choose. " Kuropc&na, with their 

-aMKMUat 
ll«d« glwlow roininor." 

would rush to fill the void with their product*, upon their own 
teniiH, and for thoni a new world would have been diecorered by 
fne trade. 

Purchasers of homo products arc nure to retain capital for the 
wage fund of laborvm in their own country and keep it in circu- 
lation; but when purcbaacB ore made abroad, the capital goea to a 
bourn wheuoe it never returns. 

The increment of capital employed in British mnnufactnrea is 
apparently becoming unrntisfnctory and doubtful. If thif were 
not HO, why arc there ao many milUoiia of British capital at the 
present moment fleeing from their free-trade home and running 
Ui and fro iu America ua sup)ilici>Qts for any random employment? 
Kridently tho wage fund for English workmen would appear to 
ho anftable and on the wing. 

Aa to the charge of waata In pmctlcat protectiou, it would bo 
«qnatly just to charge the bleesings of the falling rain and the 
beat tt the tummcr ann with undiif woete. It will be lufllcicnt 



294 



TUB NORTH ASIERICAU REVIEW, 



for an American to point to the fsct tLat the United StatM air 
_18fi0^ notwithstsoding tha boiiitdlcics Iokshs of both North and 
ttb ID tlie liitc war, luu mnch mora than doubled its wealtli and 
Dpatatiou, and eiucc 1865 has reductKl its public dobt b; the 
Urgfi sum of tl,C03,4'J(i,i>76. so that onr yearly interest ohnrgo^r 
capita was in 188S only 63 cents, whiis that of Ori>JLt Britain was 
t3.75/iprc(i^iy/i, or nearly six tiRies as much. When any eqnal 
prosperity shull bo rittiblo among tho people of Great Hritain, it 
raay be proper to rneditikta ou the felicities of free trade. In this 
debt-paying race for the primacy, the British are just now only 
iu eight, and Amoiicaiis org not hard pressed by any rirals. 

Frpe trade miserably fails to offer remunerative employment 
or any vitality to thu forcos of tiio great mieH of tho people, and 
the waste of Uttcnt power is enormous. The dinsioa of the 
Britiab population nceordiug lu occapation, as sot forth in their 
own itatisticnl publicntious of 1889, was : 

AfirlcBllvral atiil tndaatrtal ■■i--t>. 1MU»M. 

laMUiltA. nnsoeaplMl, luid iian-pradnotlv* UkTOXTlS 

Is not free trudu responsible for \.\\\i extraordinary excoss of the 
non-prodnctiTc populntion? Those plethoric millions of mere 
drones surely cannot all be justly charged to the aristocraey. 

THK UIXDKK PAKTS OP RRITI8II FKEK TBjLIiK. 

It will be proper to inquire. What is the practieal system of 
British free ti-ade, wliich AracricaUB are so urgently pressed by 
British fltatesmen, and by ofcbore whoarenot stateamen, to adopt? 
It may have worked wvll or ill lor Great Britain ; but what is 
there about it thut should lead Amcrimnsi to remtanco the legis- 
lative prouedeuts and tlio wisdom of thuir falhers, and toabundon 
the highway of their past and present malchless prosperity in 
order to follow a later-bom cxpcrimimt of onr foromoeit riral in 
commerce and manafacturca ? "I fear the Greeks even vben 
they bring gifts." 

To answer the question, we are limited to a survey of the sol- 
itary British exninple, forn' other nation tnmts free trade asany- 
thing bettor than a delusion and a snare. Free trade opens in 
Great Britain by levying a tariff duty on imported maonfwtnred 
tobacco of 84 cents to 92 cent* per pound ; on unmanufm-turod 
tobacco, 104 to 116 cents per pound ; on cigars, 11.32 per pound; 



FSEE TRADE OR PROTECTION. 



2gfi 



ISc^ntB jtcr pound; on ooffoe, 3 cents per pound — it 
)unil or prcpiui<<i, 4 c«nu per poand ; on cocoa, rav, 2 cents 
«r poand — if manufactured, i centii per ]K>uiid. Anions other 
Bina sabjcct to duty uri; ctirruuts, figx, rutsiiis, plumn, pmnea, 
[jtoup, piokloa, Taruish, viae, gin, and all other spirits. Tbeno 
luties, it will be obserTod, bear heavily tipon laboring jieople, who 
^ouAuine not ten than 90 per cent, of the articles from which the 
largeet part of BHtiah tariff roronno Ih obuiincd. The so-called 
rcTtmae dut; on tobacco, supplied from Ammca, amounts to at 
IcMt 1,600 per cent. The duty on tea and coSco is the auno 
opon the lovest grade as npou the highest and choicest varieties. 
The free-trade idea is to place duties on articles not produced at 
home, instead of on such aa are or onght to be produced there, 
and ia the revctto of the Amorican idea. 

But thin model free-trade tariff failed to yield (in 1888) more 
than $98,1^,000 of roTenue, beiug only a tittle more than one- 
quarter part of the sum (fSTS.SOO.OOO) required for the ordinary 
support of the British Government, and our British friends arc 
compelled anuuully to cxbuuut all the rCDourcoii of extreme taxar 
tioD to cover the enonnoos deficiency of thrioe as much more. 

This dismal but ineiorablQ aequence of the frec-trnde system 
has been in America sCndiuusly kept out of nght, vhi>re it forervr 
HahonlJ lie, except in the emorgeQcj of a great war. and it vill be 
^enough now io catalogue its many sore titlce. Supplemental to 
British free trade, and inseparnble from it, will be found the fol- 
lowing : A laud and house tax, paid by occupiers as well as by 
ciwnen ; a tax on legacies and encccuions ; a stamp tax on bills 
of exchange, receipts, and patents ; a tax on carriages, homes, 
maa-serrants. guns, and dogs ; au excieo on gin and all other 
^spirits; and a tax on incomes. The woes of our robellion gave ua 
HsU theexperience in this sad lineof taxation we shall crer eoTOt 
VOolya nation strugigliDg to preaerre its existence, or to protect its 
K people from famine and sudden death, would be willing to toler- 
ate so many Brianwn arms clntching at the pockets of the people. 
This onerous system of taxation is mode necessary by tree 
tntde. and by the pondoroaa Britioh public debt. The public 
Hdobtof the United States, lees cash iu the treasury, is tl,063,- 
^bot.SM. while in 1&8S the debt of Great Britain, with about 
Hkalf as much popnlatinn, waa £:05.5:;>,ft73, or •3,.K:,8:5,365— 
almost thnw and a half times that of the United States. 



ssa 



TtmSOBTa A^tESICAlf JeEVJEW. 



Revenue for t)i(» support of gorcrntnciit must b« hmd, but 
British s^tem presents its roTotulionar)' odiam. ani) Amoricac 
hare lost uothinff of llioir uticiont rcpogniince fur »Luoij) sml ex- 
cua tuxes. Tho Uniteil States, however, ia paying off its public 
debt u]>uu tlie oauter, aiitl raises its rftveuuo bjr iluties ou impnrUi, 
scarcely f«It by* taxpayers, bat wliich are a great encunragemeut 
bo homu industries, luid to IcYict] that the foreign prodnoor raoBt 
poy for hia entrance to our market. Pedlcrs are matlo to pay a 
license to sel! their " truck " by each and every Stale ; auJ why 
Bhonttl not the foreigner, exempt frooi all local taxea^ who seeks 
to sell hia prndaots not merely in one Htatc, but throaghoat tlte 
whole Uniini, W required to piiy for the pnvilejEro ? 

Gre«C nritain has an annual deficiency of food prodaofot and 
it Menu necessary to obtain a foreign supply for more than one- 
half of her people. Without the command of the sen for trans- 
purtution this supply might bo cut off ; and, to obtain means of 
purchasing it, it is also necessary to export manufactures and 
andersell all competitors in foreign markets, or her people mast 
go without their daily footl. 

Free tnulu appeared to flourish until itenconntcriiil too many 
proCuctire turitTs of other nations, now aoivcnol, and ualiltelr lo 
be aboUahed. Tbcy are OibriUtars that everywhere fi'own niton 
thoae wbo aro plotting to enpersede and destroy the home indns- 
tries of otlier people. British Free-Traders hare found tt hard 
to kick against ouuh pricks, and now beg the help of America. 

"No other country," Mr. Glndstone says of America, "has 
the same free choice of industrial pursuits, the same option to 
lay hold not on the good merely, bat on the best." And yet this 
free chDicu. which gives to our people tlie control of all their 
natural forces, he would now limit, and give no option of mills 
and factories. America docs not tlimst its indnstrial theories 
npon Great Rritnin, and will be happy whether protection or frw 
trade shall prevail there. The large snbsidieH that are paid to 
British ships for uirryiug foreign mails far transocuJ what tliat 
service might be obtained for if free trade were allowed with 
foreign competitors, and the annual rams also paid to large and 
fast-going steamers, to be utilized first for trade and fecond for 
war purpose* when needed, furnif^ examples in the highest fields 
of protection ; and we only lament and critioiH our own siiort- 
itomiogd ill the ifaiUQ service. 




P£l^ TJUVk' QR PROTSCnoJt. 



207 



HOKE CUAPTERS OP OLORY TUAS Of SUaUK. 

NotwithAtondiiif; our luioicnt fitniilr diRtctiUirx, <\teml Ri'iuin 
nasi be cnKlilt-il with moru oliapttini of glory than of shamo, itnd 
America i» now moru Crniljr Aud tetiJerlr attached to her people 
than to thosti of any other iiuttun, uiid «houIiI be clHimml lu thoir 
belt and most powerful friend, more espeuitillT einceCirCAt Brit«in 
•wros to bo Btcp br titrp Ameriemiized by the uxteiision oT the 
right of suffrage. Still we are now asked, in subijtiinco, to plod 
contoDtMlly with haml labor, to raide corn and piuttire herds, to 
difltuisd our artiBOtiii, aitd fort-go mochiiicrr and all the forceaof 
aleam-fnj^nw, without which no niitioii, either in \\&w.u or war, 
can hope to be jjreat or«vun iiijL'pcudont. Thii eolfishni'jts of 
thoae who merely seek aii exU^naion of- British trndc nia; ask for 
tbia, bnt not those who more prize Amorieun power and American 
fraternity. In Knrop<<, Orcat Kristin, if not miiireproaoiitcd, lias 
no alUea, and, among nit tirst-clasH powi^rs, not one earnest friond. 
Woald it Dol be a bhmder for even British Fr€e*Trader« to pro- 
mote our ncccptanco of a policy that would bo sure to redncc the 
United Suites to the rank of a second-rate power ? 

Mr. QIadstone bestows lofty praist.' upon the nnriTallcd strength 
of our oonntry by an elrMjaent recitut of the Amerieim odvan- 
tagoa oTer all nations, of our immcn^ territory where there is 
QOlhing that the soil wonld refncic to yield, the rare excellence of 
the climate, the Taet extent of coat and other mineral rosonrces. 
the inveatire facalty of the people snrpassing all the worM, and 
■ams up aa follows : 

" 1 ■lippBW tfcro b no other oouaUy of th« wholn omUi la whtob, If wpcamhlnnto- 
f»thtT tb* ■nrfaw wid tbat wblch it bolov the aurlacc, NaturobubMnMboontlful 
lonaa. Tb«tBlneraJ maociMM of our BrftAonlc liilo barn, wllh«cil quaalloB, prln<4- 
p>D]r MiAtribaUd lA lu comnMctkl prw'ni&rae*. D«t nbea ire nMt«b tlMBi wUli 
them of Aoerloi, U b LUUimt i«*lui BrohJIagmc." 

Yet in the face of all this, with a continent in«t«ad of «n island, 
with twice the populntion of Grant Britain, and with more of the 
natural aptitudes for the widest fields of manufactures than can 
be ohiinicd even for the people from whom we sprang, Mr. Glad- 
•tone would pliice " the most inventive nation in the world" in 
anbtwnience to British free tnule, and confine the .\mcrican peo- 
ple to thti production of notl/m, corn, meats, and mineral oiU, 
■ml have thnffl nhaiidon more millions of nianufaotares than are 
■unoatly prodaceil by (ircat Britain herself, and sink all ambitions 
VOU cL.— NO. WK SO 



908 



TBS sosra amsiucan 



for tfao pmiwlinn of any prndncU "we could obtalD moi 
obonplj tmm ahmad." ThcRati-climrnxof tlit^argutneiit ismt1i«r 
(WQBi>icniout,BU(t the Aiovm-aa ]<«ipli* will b« in no ciood U> trail 
wttb a " brokeu niai^" their ambitioD (a tbc dnet, and viU «ar-j 
reodor ncttbcr llieir maabood nor ibn boOQlifal giiu of aattiro. 

MOKAL ASrSCie OP nSB TKADB. 

Aftrr all the coonoinical argumenU agBinst protection appearj 
to ban* Ikvii txincIiidM]. btit aoi vitbont mbi« mi^nnga u to 
tbtfir efficiency, Mr. Gladstoae somnums tobisud for the fioal^ 
■mdU all ihci terrors of dcnondstioiu He cannoc finixb vhatfl 
be cailli bin ** indit-tmpnt sgrnitutt protaotion" nntil be has anathc- ~ 
maliKd it as " iitonll y m well as eoonc»mi<»Uy bad" — uot that^ 
all Prol«>ctKMii«t« are bad. bat tbat tbcey«t«m t«Dds to harden allfl 
"iDttf pooitin mAB/Hntm." This is an iodictmeat with wbidi^ 
all nationa an grsdondy cor1^^>d except tb« Britisb, and tbe 
British may stand np and thank God that they " an not aa oth 
ma atv. MioHMWets, nnjiut, adoilenxB* or vna m tiua pnl 
ean.** Th« 'verM. bowewr, will be dvw to believe tbat 
tnde was adopted, or is now npfaeM. for any otb«r reason than 
its lappovd adnntagca, not to atoral, but to British nutensl 
and Inkdin;. iolereata. If any nation baa exhibited mora of 
purvlr financul lalfljibnMa than caibnuder» tbe bbtory of some 
UritUh adrainistratiou, it bae n^t been recorded. This part 
of tbi* indiclmciit against protaMrtion is as grmtaitons as It wontd 
be to ny tbal tKrt all Free<Traden am liars, bai tbesyvtem tends 
to baidon all into positive faloloatton. Tbongb w« mi^bt bigblyj 
appnelato die good opinioA of Mr. Ubdrtoae, he Imrea u 
BO doubt thai it cannot br won «nl*M «• "fnttkly adopt and i 
ily maintain a vrHna of tn* trade." ITe nHM, bowwnr. 
and steadily maintain tbal tbe tenM are t4M> eifirbiianu 

Ift bis |«t^e<k exbactetaoB to AMriSMBOB t^ aeUsbic 
mani Mpeet* o( tiM s—Hb»> vq^iBg Pnlaelivaiitt to be xood i 
w«^ aa SPMt. Mr. Gbubtone tvfgtilt tbal be and bis eoamtryniea 
are not ontitwlx vitboat sin. awl nuy not. t h e w fo s w, ■■* tba first 
•tmM arrme lb<r Atbsf tc crva to bit AOMicicMK. Bat ocben bare 
not tortotter. ^ ^c^ua by {reed tot tb« trade 

of tV i-t 1 , *^ ; r..- i^ncMb war pow«r wMcb fowwd, aad 

ooi: . tbevwuB trade apdn Chia^ by wbkb tlw 

Indiac <. ^^^^^wn aoaual idcoom of ocorfoffty i 



FREK TRADE OS PROTECTION. 



209 



JAlliini; that tht- rttligioii of Gi-c»L Briliiiu, }>(>lilicuUyt:stahlishcd, 
m*jr hoTe wmething too much of perfnnctorj support througU 
tbe auion of church and euito; that it« taws uf priiiiogonituro 
wan ordained to ronke the firat-boni rich and ».ll the re>t of the 
&mUj poor; und thi^ Iho suit uf the Uiiii^J Kitigdom ia in fcwur 
bauds thai) that of any other couatry in £arope. 

To rof iito the chnrgo ngaiti^t protection of a tendency to solSsb> 
OCM and lw;k of nioralitr, Anivrioaii Proteclionixts niny, with 
more plraanre than U affurdod by ahowiug tbut Frec-Tradera 
occupy a glasfl houae, torn tbe light on all their past history, and 
o0«r the cridenco of the equality of thoir laws and citiK«n8hip» 
tbe nprooting of tho inherited tuirs of primogcnicnrD, tbo uni- 
Ternl edacation through common bcIhmIs, the liberal and lipon- 
t«ncuu8 support of C'hriittiaii chiircbee, the extinction of bumaa 
(laTvrr originally planted by the mother-country, tbe free homo- 
it«fli(l3 Wi the landli>«g, tho disbandment of our vatt armies at the 
cloM of tbe late war, and their prompt return to the peacofHl pnr- 
suita of l)ri>, tlio notional maKnaiiimitr exhibited after victory 
o?er rebellion, the payment of our public debt cren before it is 
im, the liboral p«n8ion8 to those irho have suffered in patriotio 
r>c« (perhaps nnnaiiUy exceeding for like scrrices all British 

^ropriations for the liuit century), tbrt higher dignity and 
raqwcl oocordod to women, the pAlonml care of tbe poor, aa well 
M of the insane, tbe blind, and deftf>mute8, and tbe general 
•batiiico of ail beggnre. 

Wv appeal finally from Ktr. Gladstone (o Mr. James Bryce, 
thoauthor of "Tbe American CommoDweallh," whose work bua 
already placed him tn the rank of Gibbon, Motley, and de Tocquo- 
rillc. Unlike Mr. Glnditono, — except that he is also a member of 
the BhtiEh Parliament, — he ia not a partisan, and hni< demoted 
jeara to the study of the United States and its people, visiting 
trery State of the T*iiioit for the sole purpo^ of impartiality and 
klit«ric veracity. That Mr. Bryce ia competent authority on qiiee- 
tions of tbe morala and selBehness of Americans, none will dia- 
pate. fjetting forth American charsoterlgtics, he says: 

" TbtT w« * BKirkl uia w«U-«aMIitM«d pMpto." 

" The KratM« ot innpennoe. obutltr, Imtafnlnea^ and mi«rat probUf !■ scMne- 
whal MalMr dim l» mot ol tba irrMt ti«tiau of Bnra*&" 

"Nowbar* an aoBUOY pUUotbrapki ud nforoatorr «c««cIm At wwk." 

iv«Ibm I u pww m; ukd it«.) 

" III »«rka r4 octfta bvitcdrpnce n« CQiUtlT Ij—WTTlMBl. porbapi aoiM ttU 



90a THE XORTU AMEBJCAX REVIEW. 

Mr. Brjce ooodades his greaU work m the foOoving pngnint 
words: 



*• il ■nrir« h— iffll ■ Inai tImi rf !«■» 

■■llllfcl liMlilH limit II II oelr of malcrtal waO-hriBC but of IktallaMMHd 
kantaBH. wfeieh iliiii liii jii illiliii 1 ifniiHi JiiliMiil irf tl»M*wtolaak 
MOt «t tbc fsTiond tev r>r wImmb be^«t lb* iM mi— hUfcaf lii h«n I 
ItefciHftloni. bat t the wbato body << tW paopie.~ 

Jrsnx S. MoREiix. 



THE QUESTIOX CLUBS AND THE TARIFF. 



BT SAUDKL W. UEXDDX. 



\noso thochuigea prapoaed in the Svnuto Tun(T Hill, wliicb 
|)Mse<l theSeriBte on J»naary33, 1889, wflsafiincrcM* in ihfldufy 
oil tin ptaUs from one uent, tlie preitcnt mie, to two cents per 
pound. Wliile the bill irgujet pending, the Massichiuetts oon- 
strnien and workers of tin plate, to the number of over thrM 
bundrod, eignod and forwarded to the lion. Ilcnrj L. Uaires and 
the Hon. Goorge P. Hoar, the Senntora from UasBuchusetta, a 
oomniiinicatioD in which the following specific t|nestions were 
atlced : 

1. Wbf doable Um>Ux OB UnplitMl 

1 Wbr Bot lot Umoo •iiIerfrMordtity f 

1 Wbaarolo ba beacflted bj tkilna u* npcm Uw Uniilalu wd ootuniroB t 

«. To Mbatn Oojoa <iipn;t tba prapOMd imoraaaaor t&x will to p»ld— U> ttl* 
tJaltod fliuw TTMMfT. or tu ffVftto pnaonti to Indues tbem to nodeitaks tlw 
BHMBtKCwv of tin piUl«« r 

I. U to tfa« UHw, vlwt c&Mko* do jov UilBk Mar wotkinm new tdia la tida 
cftiaUTW^wUtUadbi— UliiaoMABriftcii«nwn»lownpkTtfc«m,torwfcw«wlo 
th* MpMl*U)r vsIHHted Welahacn who would tt oaco MMk Rcfa vaptorBMl bar* I 

It will rcfldily bo admitted that these consnmers and workers of 
tin pUt« had u good gronnd tor eoneidcration tu the roprcBcnla- 
iItl- of lh« Iron and Steel A»»ociation, Mr. Jainca M. Swank, wlio 
at thu mmu lime din;c:lod a letter to Senator Altistm, as ehuirman 
of the Senat« Sub-Committee oii Tariff Bcvtsioa, in which he ad- 
TDcatod Htrongljr tho inoreara of the duty on tin plate, and even 
admitted that the pric« of tin plates would be increased to con- 
aamon an a renalt of miiting the duty. Nererthelnn, ao f or as ve 
an informfd, our two S«nuiorspuid noattontion whatorcrto these 
(]ucetion8, and the attempt of the Mossaehnaotta tin-plate workers 
and consumers to obtain the jastiflcation for a change bo vitally 
conoeminf; their intemta was ineffectnat. 

Tfas idea, howuror, of aaking spcotilc questjona with regard to 
the effi'ct* of our prMent tartti upon special branche* of jodastry 



903 



THE SOfiTII AURRrCAy »nmKW, 



appejirod to find Tavor nith nomo of our young men who havo 
become uit«reHU?d in ecoiiouiic r^iiestioiK. Sinc-e Uie tariff had 
come to be tlie most ituportaut mnn iu our tiutioimi politics, it 
vu usumcd tliiit there munt be a large ntimber of p«o])Ie vlio 
would like to )mvp more dofinito knowledge upon the subject, 
Tlitt Umu was <>sp«<'ially opportune for oducationat work. A 
praetdeiitial contort lind jiigl been decided and politics were (jnlet. 
Uoneet arguments would not be reetnun^d by anxiety for party 
wolforo. By tl)« roothod of qneetion and answer, or qnoetiou 
and refuuil to iinawer, or question and neglccl to ansu-er, it wati 
tliongbt itiHtihowbolti snbjoct oftftinlion might be overbauk-d. 
Qaesiions Bbould be sent to thow reprraenting both sides, and 
answers from I'rotfctionisls or Tariff-ritformcrs should be cqnally 
welvomo. 

As these yoang men had no special iotefcsts at stake and, 
therefore, could not afford to inT«At htrgeanms of money with the 
hopo of a return, a cheap method of spnmding their infonnation 
WW desired. " Why not make the people thequeittiunera ? " Tho 
idea developed, and soon eltibs, consisting of Ave or more 
members each, were organized in various towns and cities of the 
State. Ir order to facilitate the circulation of the questions and 
the publication of the ansircr? in the prcM, a f^oitcml secretary 
was ctectet), and the conttoltdaled orgmaizattona became known ju 
the United Question Clubs of Miu^aohusetts, with a posC-oflico 
box as their exiwosive headquarters. 

The first sot of questions reccired treated of the daties upon 
fish, potatoes, coal, iron ore, and iron. There vero seven Bepurutx) 
questions, but, for tho Bake of brevity, I will make a "com- 
posite" question of the whole : "Do you think aiilt Gith, smoked 
herring, froccn flnh. potatoes, cool, iron ore, limestone, and iron 
ought to be taxed ?" ThcM questions, addreasod to Senators 
Dawes and Hour, and Keproscntatives Andrew and Cnndlor, of 
the Third and JTiuth Districts ratpGctively, were forwitrded to the 
varions clnba for tho signatures of the members. Twcuty-threo 
cIuIm rcepoudod, aud the questions, duly signed, were forwarded 
by tho general secretary to the congressmen to whom clicy were 
addivesed. 

Repa'Benbitire Andri'w idone made swviflc replies to these 
questions. Heexprcsscd himself aa opposed to tht IrapoHtion of 
daties upOi^HB|A3 named, aud stated his reasons at length. 



Ttl£ QVESTtOS CLUBS AXD THE TARIFF, 



803 



A p*rt of bia anav«r to tbo questions on coal and iron is hero- 
with pvtin : 

~IiiK*w HnitwwtakftatlNoTkEioaUAwra M be faaad deDont* ol troa ore of hlgb 
qiwlUj . id cak<lB« «om1 lu gntt ahamimoan of chv boat kikil, and at ohamieaBrtMf 
UuMtoACi, all Irlns vtUila • ruc« «t tU mllM from Iba mb. l« Uw ahon of »Uok 
U07wlrMbofaN«B(it*ndciaav«rU4lnioiraBforouriuo:arlbeT vnM b« aiMt«d 
Mt hMvw iDio the bMben of Bktk, fHirlUad. PorUn««Ui. Mtd Borton. Wo oould 
llM«kenippUed«1tb|ilsHranak<ramtVi<i|ll«Ua, ooftl U fl « COM, uwl ook« *t 
n.aftUa. . . . lt«r«Mi>dMPimMT>wtlft.weintLMpk7from9U to 9ta « bw 
•DrplptKn.94&UwCof OMl.uiiIfrotn (SiaS&MKtaa fnr enlu. . . . Osrtnw 
TOka la New Bncliuid. nbtch kbto ampIoymMit ui thouiwndt of onr pooiila, ara 
hstaiC doted, trlndlnc nv^ aniline out. or colus lo rtiln. oa sccoimL of bocb ttaa tacfc ol 
tbeorudo Balerfalaaadaf (beaUaonplranandatoel and otlMr waats tnatartala, 
vttlcb wa ODflM dertraln raatanantlUM Iron Catn and Sootb Anwrloa and Mber 
^qIbU. la ncbaage tor flnl*h«d pr»duoi«, bat trou wUsb prirlkfta wnarapfoliibltad 
hrtasatlaa.- 

The publication of ilr. Amlrcw's rcpltf^ in tito tuime of tho 
UnitiJd Question Chibs drought forth n storm of ridioulo Trom 
prMectioaiitt papers, which dwoted so much of their raluable 
space to denouncing ns and our methoda as to caaas ns to fe«l 
tbut wo were, after all, of some imporUncc, and that onr shota 
wore Uikiug effect. The Itostiiii Jounial Ihotight it neccasiiry to 
vnrn Repubtiains to if^ioro the Question Clubs, aiid declared that 
the ahortcflt why to extin^iish thorn was ''not to notice thum." 
The Journal itself could not practise itfl precepts. The Uostfin 
Advfrli*fr arietocmlically insinuated that the qite>stions, signed 
a» tbejr were largely by work ingnien, would not wurraiit replies of 
Tolun from public men. Several colnmnii wowld not exhaust tho 
ridicule which Hua burled at Iho Qut-stion Club-i. This ridioulo 
only served to help as by arousing the curiosity of tho people, and 
the advertising oost ns nothing. 

Roj>n'*entJitiT(! Cnfuiler did not answer oar quastioiis. The 
fact that he wju u Ri-jmbliean Ooiigressman probably deterred 
him from an boneat expression of his views. Ho did not oven 
inform ns that he had chanjied his faith from that to which bo 
adhen^i in l:^Cfl, when ho iwid. nt a groat meeting held in Chick- 
cring flail to promote the riHtuction of taxation and the reform 
of tbo tnrilT : 

"All af Uuin VoeA. Mai, lumber, aad ltmi)*K In a nwaivrecttt off mm na by 
Iba snataa hOHboa ot laodem UioM. Um tori (for tbo Ualtod auua." 

The Boston AJivrfi-ftr declared that it was " instilling to oar 
OcmgrwtiQea to ask them <|tiestions nbonl the tartlT." What fol- 
luwa •how* bow Senator Davus was iusuUed by our queatioas. 



THE XORTH AHERIOAJf REVIEW, 

White ho dill not favor as wiili ontegoriosl repliee, still ve were 
Terj glaJ to reeeiTB from Iiim a letter couvuying such evidence 
ot the kiudtjr K^\ni in which he received our qaestiona that vk 
felt sure, on what wd nondtdercd very good 2nnnd8> that oar 
moromcnt was not so contemptible as the prot«ctioDiet papers 
would bare the public bulieire. Refcrriug to the repetition of the 
(luevtious oil itie djflereut sigaed blanks i-eprcsenling the rartona 
olabs, hesaj'e: 

"Tliwr* *r«a no oeeadonfor thia romildJU* mctkod o/ appraacli. for *ar one <rf m]r 
C«>iatl(uM)t«,Da woll a> the miill'aim wbo hare olcBcd UiinMi [wprrw, I* •nlltlAil I^J 
my opialaa on »U ■nhJa.^lA of pabllo oonoeni. . . . ThM« sentlAineB Entarm i 
thktthor*(i*ll|i«l qiMMlons to mit from 1 1 mo lo tltna. Tlibt t* eammeadaU*. and ' 
llM]r*M«BUU«lt(> aroiixetriil anawer. whloh tliav ahBll h«v« UbU tlBWvCrOM 
hm.' 

Id order tliul thti rupttm of Mr. Andrew iiiiglit be Lcst«d, tboy 
were forwarded lo the promiuont iroa-tuanuCactarers of Kew 
Eogtand, with a roqiieH for an cxprouioa of opinion. The rf«ull 
was eminently satiiifHctory. Rupliea were received from the Hon. 
Peleg McFarlln, treoxurer of the Ellis Fonndry, South Carver, 
S£u&., who lias 80 persistently endeavored toehow tlieHepubUouns 
of New Kngland that the high tart^ oa iron, crude, scrap, and 
pig, is ruining our iron indHstriea ; Mr. A. N. I'arlin, treusurer of 
the Magee l''iirnace Company, Boston ; Mr. James C. Warr, of 
the Frauconiu Iron and Stvcl Works, Warulmm. Maas. ; Mr. Z. 
Talbot, manufacturer of shoe-iiatis and tacko, Hollieton, Maaa. ; 
Mr. y{. B. Uart, treasurer of the Rhode Island Tool Company, 
Proridenco ; Mr. I^wis S. Judd, proprietor of the Pairhaven 
(Man.) Iron-Works, and Cionenil John 11. Rccd, treaauror of the 
Bay State Iron- Works. 

All of these gentlemen iudoKed the views of Mr. Andrew 
rholly or in pari, and the publication of their replies in the 
lewling papers of New England attracted wide attention and 
oocaaoucd much diacutuuon. It ought to bo uolicod tliat tlic 
above-named gentlemen are not " neionary doctrinaires," nor 
rc'coivci's of British gold, nor, as far as wo am informed, members 
of the Cobden C'hib ; but that they are practical business men. 
I herowitli quote from the rarioas letters. The Hon. Peleg 
McForlin eaya : 

"IlIaMsnaUDieabiil a alaplMmUHtoondlUcm wblcb UirMlan* dlMutcr la Llut 
wlilcli Inirarwi raoooiK •• - - 1™ Lh« rnnnnr rmuonaMn l«ill nlti ol U vn mot . iid 
Ritorrin on Iron, a M^lraniA wUI not oatrer. tiew Btictud wU Inl * 



TRK QVKSTIOS CLUBS ^j\7> THE TAlilFF. 



305 



^BMtaralsi In *U hot KMnnM et ttkSe. BeorM ol mltla wllbin bcr boriMw. nffw d»- 

Ur. JfioMS 0. Warr speaks in do uamGuning terms when lie 
says: 

**A* «M vrtio tiM bo«ii Mt BMcfcadgtng monbaraf ebs Ropubltout party framUio 
llBi«o(K4orf[uilutliMi.l«nl«riurP««tMtagftliMt tiM deebina advooktAd brwflM 
■Unp Bp—btrii. ino«« BMlova Ums wIm, dnrfoR tb* lkt« oaipalgn. thU N«w bif- 
iMid, havbic wltbln th« iwrtaf barbcatta Ikki «■ ebMip m avt^tttuibaiiriv 
4««ad la Ua Uoiud BUUa. and oool •• dhMp m any ilnt ms b* Uid dova In anf 
oIlT Mat of Um flllncbwiilta. afaall mi i Ifli rf bar lollliiiriiilllL fOoodriM nianliliiii 
■kopa, nail, lack and aborcl (kctorlMi bailor, octoaL and IooobioUto trarta and bar 
oUmt trasircrttac aaubHahaaata o( a huadnd tittOa. la ordar (o aaUstjr Uia whlma 
aad fannka of amw few eitrambta In Xir*r Enslaml, wbo, InduBaood bjcunolni 
Paaai^raBU MphlatrUa. ai« cad«aTorUig to commit Un RcpabUcaa paKr t« Um 
aJrawcT a( iba aidddal Ibcorr >bu prDtacUon M AEDarlcaa naniitectiired ilioiild 
teoaiiiidaolkr aaton-ork tbo proUUUon of rawiBatcrl«t*t«thoa«8ia(ea vbic^ 
^MMiiuth>rtiiikal«a«DOttopi«daeean)r. UUienlarioo«< Ui« RepabUcaB pattyla 
Ui pall down oaa b7 oas taa (nat lnd««tHat a( K»w bclaad. than I bnv* tbaroagb- 
1^ maoBdomoed ■(. aad bar* all thoM TMn 1>««a voUnc Mlb tfae wronc panr* 



■ si 



A« a reeult of the di»cii«»ioii or tlie iron t|Q«etion, the Boston 
'oumal fdt obligud to bnak iUt rule to "quietlj i^on)"iba 
Quv&tion Clubs, and aomc r«fiitfttio& of Sir. McFarlin's views vtt 
att«iujittid. This psper b«ld tbat 



"tlM nici'ailocw of tba Irae (adailrr bara tM«n oeeadiNwd pritnarlly by cawtdera* 
tkiaaor ooataalaaM and traiwportaclra. and proHtnltr U> Ui« dedrwl kIndaoCora 
aadeaal Tboan an nattan Willi wUob tfeedaVoaplrlroBbaallCUcoriuiUitaK 
ledcb" 

In otbor words, thA Boston Journal sayi in cffoot to oar iron- 

nfacturers : " You eaa't do it, ond wo won't let you try." It 
Bniut be A blind adherence to the party whip which cnusee this 
orsOQ to oppose th<! efforts of our iron mon to rovivo tlioir 
iDdnatries by a rwluclioa of the exorbitant dtitiiw upon iron. If 
thvdaty on pig-irou " Itu little or nothing to do" with tho state 
of our iron indostry, why not remove it, or even reduce it ? If 
that were done, nni) then irou-mnniifaclnring ehould prove a 
are, our iron men would hare to nocept the result, juNt as tho 

ew England wbeat-growers did when the wboot centre moved 
vott. A^n. the Jourrml takes a etill weaker poration when it 

lys that, niter ail, 

■■(wmprtlUan, B»t avralr amanff Mlna-awnara. h-il ta vraa a trt^tcr v-lmt ba- 
IwMa fMl(Kt ravtOB. bu trei»fc l prlooa Aowa ta a paini at vueb Canadian «m1. of 
a^aaUtranliad toihapaivoaallir wbloa Ifon-mautfaetarata da^lra II, oaoaoi mm- 
MMfaBy eoin|Nta."r 




' Aimat I. ISV. I aepiambar 1& I A 



TITS Hosm AJtsaiCAX Bsrzsvr. 

If tbe datT -^n lyal w ittopenUTe. vhy bo( T«a«T« it? 
CanmJuin ««1 c^mnnot conpot*. what Dead U there «f fceCfilBg ft 
nmAtm dat; apon th« uriff-boolu i Let n ti; frea ooal. Btid if 
PnuujrlTaiuft can do better lor Xev EngUad thui "*"— '"l nU 
aad Kpod. 

Aad ereii weaker » tbe po«itifin of Mr. Junei M. 8vutk, Mcre- 
tarj of ibe Iran ftod Su-A Aasocialiuo, wba is pulicakHjr ezdtsd 
orer the elTortA of tfae N'«w KngUod iron men to obtain free iron 
ore and coal. lo a ircent Bultriin article be isade the fi^towtof 
•titcmcnt: 

*"Tb» till III iiiiiwi dam DM MtMga Ki fen* tte c^Umiaa *t caltMteOkl»ar 
anwvKiBtiMlcUaaa. Wkr abovU 11 Im aakad la auam* ««*Brfl7 tn^MdUi 
n>«llai»Mai>eadaa wUb tb« troa ImJmHit s< S«w ■ nl«iil I" 

Overlook in£ tbe aiistako in Sir. Swank'* prasuMC, — for thft 
gOTvmtnent does, by high dnttea, forvo tbe prodnction of 
uigar in Loaisiann. an tnduiiti^ wlilcb, on the i«itiniODj of Ibe 
n>£&r-pUoter« tbeniE«kc«, conld not exist Imt for tbe protectire 
doty,— it is (Mwr to prore him wilfnlk inooruutrot U« faili to 
nnderataod titat tbe X^w EnglAJid iron niea ask for no govern- 
ment inierrenfioH in their bcbalf; but, rather, for a reoMvat of 
tbe goremment/irfivji/ioN, cottaietiDg of exorbitant duties upon 
tbeir mir materials. They want a fair olionce, and Mr. Swank 
i« not willing that tfacy should hnrp it, dospitn tho stat^^nenta of 
Mr. Androw Carnegie, aa quuted by Mr. McFurlin in theyountoi 
of August 10, 1889 : 

" Sa fmi- — tanlxu aampMtm In plc-troa U n c wonniHl . tf w ba*a imlAxiiion that 
«nkle.lt«r««iMbe«oKAaeill« tbo iMlnart dIatrlcUaf tUtcounO?. wbMW cUaap 
twiiHincUH>n by «>t«reoBJdbeob4abMdIn>ai lti«aaMr«aDf tB^urtlua la K«ivp« 
la IkalDtiTiorof Uiia courUrr iron !• airaulj'iuuiarMitnndat k> lowap^loe ibmt 
(oKtCB Fvodtttwn ocMld ■«* alfBrd ts mnA UmIt pMdvct ucrotm tlv« AtUatioaBd 
pay. In addlUm. kuva iMm o( tadfbi lUr tww^aflartea br nUl l> oHar b> oompaU 
la Uw lauftor wUb AoMrteaa ftotuotn-" 

We also hare tho teetimony of another prominent Ponnsyl- 
Tanian to tfae effect that n rigoroas reform of our iron lorilTe will 
not liurt Pfniipiylvanlft. for which iState the R»)sfon Jotirnal 'm »o 
Bolicitoiiii. Tbe Pliiladelpbiu Rtrord. uf ^'ovt-nibcr ;iti, 1889, 
quotM tbo following from Major L. S. Beut, president of the 
PeoniylTania Steel Company, of Steelton, Pa., tbe groatost in- 
duitrial plant in the State: 

"niT«nMrreeomM)d I'Q aoD irt^tratt In L>n«rpo«l *n-l wnd aU«l nlbt t<i Lbb- 
don. VtikL Amerltan Indiuutw not twit !■ rcM oppurtuultj huA not lacWMlva 
iKOUttkiB Bor KMtrfoUuB.' 



THE QDK8TJOS VLORS AND THE TARIFF. 



307 







Ag*in, Mr. Siratik U a soaIous Hdrocate of dmibling tho tu.\ 
on tin pUtes in order that t)ic t in-pliito industry mnj be " tonvd" 
in PenuEij^tvanift. Anil iti his letter to 8<!niitor AIIiiMn'a comniit- 
t«e he eiiipluuizi'i! the point that blouk ttu h free of ilutv. 80 tbnt 
mericuiwto-be tiii-phito-maiiufuctiirere coulil gei tbvir nw 
iul (blgck tin) on aa advantageous U-nus at) England, 
ore ig ttio itpoctacic of n I'onnfiylvnnia ma^niitc, willing llutt 
by abeavyduty tl)i> price of tin ]ilateH Bbould bo auitiourlint higher 
to oar consumers, accepting joyfully the fact tbnt bluck tin is 
Crea of duty, and srlfi«bly denying the right to uu equul cnjoy- 
lent of free lair mulcrial to bis ffllow-ciliacne in New England I 
Space does not pi'rmil me to trmt in di-luil Ibu (|tie»itiou« and 
iMWwers upon other commoditioi. Tho " wool questiong " were 
nnawered in detiiil by the lion. John E. Itituvll ujid the Uon. 
William £. Ruascll, but wi-rc ignored by the Uon. John D. Long 
and Repreaentative Koilney Wullaci-, of the Eleventh District. 
The M««are. Ru(«i'll nrgued strongly in favor of free vool,and ex- 
pTBtied themselves as firmly convinced that the present duliea 
irere a burden mlbvr than u benefit to the farnifr and the wovl- 
grower. In rcsponae to a re^tuest for bis opinion on tbese answers, 
Kr. Robert Bleukie, tho uoll-kuuwn wuollL'n-msnufncturer uf Hyde 
Park, replied, fully coucurnng in tbeTiew«of these gentlemen. Ah 
* further indcirBement of the opinionit of the Mc-^rs. Russell, we rc- 
far to Ibe [Hitition for free wool preparet] by the Atfurn'can Wool 
R*p9r(*r and presented to CoDgrcM, which, np to December It!, had 
eived the signuturoA of S17 wool-mauufacturereand merchants. 
Tlie QuMtion Cluba now numbered dfty, and that number waB 
iwacd early in AngURt by the twcntj-flre new cliiUi whose 
tSibon signed the lumber qucntione. Again, the Itepublirun 
igreaBraen neglected to reply. Mr. .\TCliar 1'. Lyman, traw- 
irer of the Lowell Man ufaetii ring Company, made in reply a 
■trong np|K-al for the iY>n)ovaI of the duties on lum1)er. Acting on 
lb advice of GL-noml William V, Draper, of Hopedale, Mass., to 
nd our rjneiitious to " producers of lumber." wo received «m« 
ry able rtipliL-B. Mr. fieorge F. Talbot, of Portland, Maine, for 
irty yoar» a tirnlwr-land-owncr, bono eicellent testimony to the 
tperons condition of tbe lumber bnainess under tbe reciprocity 
.ty vrilh Canada. Uc concluded oa follows : 

**n«4atraiiIimilMrkCp«n>tcal)i«inU(lr<tro-lor tumbvTto t4ic cnnxaimir; it !■ 
atterty b m Iw a» ■ pwMeUaai nAtoaOU « BUMUkTw nuptiH Ui Um Tr«M«rT, 
■b4 It <w(tit M be alMlUhad." 






aot) 



TBX XOJira AVKRXCAS susvusw. 



TiMqQMUolu on skipping received the BigDAtnres of 221. of 
BottonV prombivnt nerchanto. The pnUicfltion of the- quMtious 
log*Uier with ih« tuuoefl uf the tagatn occukmed much dU- 
eiunon. The chief eScct of Uicm qoMtiooi wu to revive the 
qoestioii of KolMidin. Throtigh the ioAoiraoe of protectionist 
jomnuili, which hmra peratiteotly maiolaiiwd that England applies 
the doctrioe of prot«i4oii in a verj high dc^n-c to Ucr shipping. 
aiul hsT* viltoli; Deflected t« cUt« that Englood doM not p«j 
oat Buttwr 10 htt aliiits <ic«pt in return for ecrrieo renilered, 
nuiT of oor people still belieTe that Enjjtand paji direct bonn- 
tica. The number o{ people holding thai belief a, thanks to tiie 
agitation of the rabject^ oooatanUy growing leat,. The reply of 
the Hon. Darid A. Wdli is «zluDftiT« and effectiTe. In coQ- 
daitiug his trmtment of the Eubudj- qtiestioa, he saji : 

lh» hiAv. as Bmac wA ika Arrtwtdi ■»(*«» t MM k M* araOi bBwtf of Ut 
■v«BHWaiw7«HdlmvMUM«( tat «hM aaa Mr«*Mn Bar canrlac bv 
— ^eaJ wv ttiB av K te emNlr tta m^ w •< ChaVatlaASialM w> 

nr— 1 nmiliin iilitiii r iifi fa nifriiil^ Tti '" AndiikH 

> i C> MrityOwa H I I> ao»fc— a»»«f ^ »ii ^ « Uf* * llr ai r aw 1^ p«ip«M of •IdlBC 
fctfc» t Wil« «T «BttMM>d— *y*»J»«^«<»ttTW»h ■■ Jill i*1i,— J»o»t«» Ck> 

r'^"T n imiiiiiif rmaiTmr n [- rr I - r* ttt iiTn--"T'"rT'1 FV- 

Thers can ha no dooht of the in l e wat that haa been awakenfd 
and thr inatnaction that has been Imparted with refcrooco to i\v> 
tanff bv the Vniled Qaefition Cluba. The Rqmblicans. reaUxbg 
the growth tii the tarUf-ntfarm asntiBiail in (Ke State, deaned 
it expedient to M> tiu- modtfr the «Doe«ipt«aBisinflT proleotlTB 
kUitttde of Um Cfairago platfnnn of 1886 aa to insert in their 
deckwtioM of praeiplea for lb* StU* cuapiicn the foUoving 
dama: 



1 



• 



A—atM wr^mm «( |ii iiH^lw *• a _ 

The lV4Mnnt»tK. m tW vOmt head, beldl? anaoanoed theni-^| 




■Ana in faTnr of a 



-rri^vi. of the tarif. and nuulc the 
^- '-^mpaigii. whik the Bepuhhcaiu 
.iewe to f«M ^ait. In tlie 

■t«aaMi 




A 



COMIXG MM Df E\GLAi\D. 

BY Jcany h'castbt, ilp. 



' Wbo »rB tbe oamlnf mm in En^lmd jitxt now ?" U a qara- 
tion often adtcd oM of late I t&ink when the ^cetioa bss bma 
put to Bw it g«D«ill7' ban refcreaes to lb* eomiitg b«i in poli- 
tk-A, Mit, and l«tten ; for I do not soppoae tny on* wonkl care 
naeb for my Dpiuion u to the ooaing men in. Kneaoc Onlj tlic 
wAar dmj niM frieoda wm ^ecamng the qoHtion a» to our 
ncja |K^-Uiir«4t«w Brovnitt^ it deed ud TvuiTeon is very old. 
Tbo place niut aooa be Tieaat. Who ta to fill it ? W« have 
abeoluta^ uo |ioet left ot the ofdw of TeiuijraoD uid Browning. 
Swinborn* hat shot his arrow bibber than anj crtber llriug riTal, 
but althoach Swinbaraa baa lafaJj la bw worfca been potiiog on 
loiraltT like a guneBt, ud adntettag nnlt; «$ if be were already 
a eoan poM. 5VI the OMOwrjr of loaw of bii Ifrical blaspbemingi 
is too strong, I sboald think, to aDov bhn aaj chanoe of inrita* 
t>(M to bccocoe the e nec eaor of TenD.noe. Wittiam Morris b a 
meet ain{er. end in his arder a Inw poet ; but be u too open and 
anwed a Social Demoefat to hare CDcb a place ofTerMi to him ; 
and he cntalnljr wonlil not accept it even if it were pooible that 
cooM be ottered. We bare then a little cituter of poetx and 
teia ; ttue terr giftad and charming, bet not one of tbeoi 
rvy unmg or original. Bemdee, it baa to be iMBcmbered that 
among the men I hare meatieoed, and aouu^ the men and 
WMBBB I am tbiiikinx ol^ then 11 aoae ''cemii^.'' AH hare 
oeoie ; bare giren tbeir cMacare ; ban- gone ae Car as they ate 
UWy to go. They an past middle Hffc U there be aar roang 
•tnag siagw with onginabty and geoiua. I do not know of hira : 
bia Mtig or hii name hae not nached my ear*. The coixlition of 
lhii»|ff U mudi the Hain» -<t>> tHe department of l)t«iatnre in 
rbieh I am nanelf m.-- < eooMned— I meui the novel- 

Mtvorah. V >^vi«>fuJ Dowltstf, m«n asJ viinicD, bare 



l'>0|t kf 



•>Kti 



f..r 



many yaan. 



COMIfiO MEN i.V EXOLAND. 



311 



I 



I 



kc 



There la not one nmotig them whoso oipncitica und wIimd Hmitn- 
tiims arc not )>«r{e«tly n-rlt known to us all. It eecms iiiarvelluu* 
to mo that 60 mnuy really good novels shoulil bo pnidiieoil tn 
Englaiid every year ; and yet we buvu for yeara cvued to hear the 
tound of anything nvir. 

Bot the worlii of politics is cnriouely different from the world 
«( Uttort Hii'l art. In Iht' political world of England a mati can 
burdly pTor bo raid to have giron his raeasupo. If Lord Palmer- 
8tau had diwd at the age of gixty-five. the world would u^Tcrhuve 
known that it had lost in him H reuIlvKrpiit i'iirliamontary orator. 
If Robert Lovo, now Lord Shorbrooke, had died Ht tho afc« of 
flfty-firc, JHitt when hiB fp'oat battle n^uinBt democratic reform 
vaa over, he wntiU! havn be«n n>menibt>n>d as one of tbo mo«t 
brillisnt rarltamentarfdelMiUTit that ever lived. Prom thnttime 
be dwindled away — or, m Carlylc eays of somebody, ht; " dwiiidltHl 
upw&rds." Uo faded into th« House of Liords and waa gone. 
Time aetB hardly any hmiu to pogfiibilitics of lato distiut^tion or 
mdHen decay in our political life. When wp talk of coming men, 
therefore, we havo to iipcak with cautiou and rvserrc. Wc b»Tc 
to i^e«k of men who at this liotir eccm to be coming to the front. 
Om dare not be contidcnt; thero arc bo many changes. A few, it 
wry few, yfwrs ago, every one in and out of Parliament would 
hare said that tho coming man was Sir Cliarkia Dilke. 
Abont ihe same time was thero a single olieerver, however keen, 
who would have rentnrcd to &ay that there was anything i» Mr. 
Balfoar? Yet again, about the aame time, tho almost universal 
jadgmeot of thu ilousu of Ckmimons — I fur myxelf did not accept 
ib— ^ieclared Mr. John Morlcy to be a hopeleta Parliamentary 
iulare.— 4 mere student and mnn-of -letters out of jitucc. At the 
prcMUt moment the most powerful public man in Enghind after 
Hr. (iiadetone himself it uar]ueationably IKr. Farnetl. Ititt if 
Uom« Itate wore carried, it ia not at all nnlikely that Mr. Pamell 
would withdraw from public life and be never more heard in pol* 
itiea. Some one who left England ye«terduy with hia mind fully 
made Qp to tho belief that Mr. Parncll its tho coming man, and 
who lived away from civilization and nowKpapers for a few years, 
might comt- back to find Kr. Paroeira political career already hot 
a £nat memory. 

Still, ander all tboae roeerve«, we may tell of the politicians 
'«o aeem to be the coming men. Every realty joflucntia] poll- 




.:.t 



3JO TUF. yo:.TH auk^.i-.a:-- F.Evir-i'. 

ticiar, :l Ezcij:. : i* viir-Tr :- rirlli-ri: r iit-fiis to be there. 
It. zr.j y-..i-z~7 l^y~ '.':.-:rr -s-rr i'iV. :id~Ti:;il y-:!:c men who 
:t^::L::;-: - ir ::. ::.v : :^:f ~ a:.: :.:: ;r:=i ihe House of 
(.'■■■::■.:::■:■:.-, ^r. i ■^;-"> r.:-rr :l"v.^^: '. ^ .z^ :■:■ Parliament, 
]iu: :: ii :: : ^ r, -t. A r .i^ i •_'.:::. ^'. .i: i:i:y row hiu 
I'- go ;:.: ::.- H i^-- :f )':r.r.7.?, T„t.-v /.jj :-~;t. for some 
yvari T^i.k ^ :..:'.:■: ■ s-.i:. l : ::.j: 1 :.j ?'-r:e* '"'f Par- 
I:am-:L:..rv ;.:-l- -^■.■. :...i ":ri:. r ::.:: :- :;:.::::vrruptedlr 

:■;. I :.i\ '\..,.'i..:.: ■.■i -.he succes- 
-..:■:.- '. -.[.:■ c •".■-;:"'.er.t an.l the 
:'..:'.. -.1 '.: '.-,.1 r Tiii :;;v greatest 
. .1-.: ::: T.'..; 1. ■:.! '. r:v;i; was well 
'r !-;- .,:. ■ ^'V.i'; '.■.-; Waipole and 
..-: ■.'.^,r i'.:: : a I.-.:-;-: ar.'i a far 
:..: ■. ■=! J-..: PI-.:: t'.iy.r.inc and 
:;:.". I ".-r. :■'.:. N :»■ f-.r the time, 
■r.-.T. •'..: '...'. ■ : :':.■.■ loaiivrs has 
.■- t" :.«■:■,-.■.-..- i; :-■ ..f the House 
'. i-: "■....: :::■ :i- .i:. r-7;i:.T:.;:ii rival to 
TV is :'..: ::. -: : -^erfui 'ivbater in 
the y.ir.y. : ■:: ':.<■ r...:.'.< ■ :: ::'.. v:::::v!y i w^r '.■■■-'. :i.:iv. tliat oc- 
v::j iv i !■" f ::■.■:' 'y " y I': -7;:..: ; :.i. ■ ;.:.y ..?v ::- is ;iway in the 
H'V.-t .; I, :■ > ..-. '. .x:.:. : ■,■■-:. ,;■ -^ -:-■ vU "■;->. c;'.:i>;i:one. 
C.>:i;:::j ::.^:. :■. !...: -^:.-v :l-v!-:/ ;;V- :. :.•.—:■.- iv;i-: :>"v that I 
I'aii si-v. I i ■ !. : >^v :i - ::\i!.j 'iUi?: :■.- ■ :: :'..-.- ■.-::•:■ ^'.li- of the 
fii-\-l '.<T A c ■:■-::: ^ \t^<T..:\i r. :':.- ■-.'..■.:. 

!'■.:; '.:'. :.^ : -.<: v:r r;:-.-!: ;!< .*■. .. .v- '■::■. : ■.,■..'. :v.i:i of very 
rt:i:iirk:il'v : -v- r ;;■. : ] r ::.;-v ^ :;\- f ■-'..■.'.•.: "•.I :\h:^-,\\Y arc. 
Lit ;;> ; ■^ ji*: w:;:: ; , i,' .'>.:v,;-i-. .?. ;- :^:y ;.:> :!.: !i;v:i in ofiic-e. 
'I'iiiro CLiV. ;■■.■ '..'.''.- i.:^:: .-.. ■'. :,- : :. - '..:■'..■. ■■:" ;:;^■ nv.-n rising 
iv,.\:-. .>:; :::i' {'••:.H-r\.i:':\-,- <'.-. ■ ^ :'..■ H ■.,—;.:> :;;i:nt,- is Arthur 
.l;i:tii ^ lidif';;-. Mr. H.:": ■-■- :i- :■.;;■ !!■ i-.^ -..f (.'.-.nunonshas 
luti: s; ii- ri ii'; . -;7:iv.j:. . U . ,- ' !:; P..:[;:inivn: for maiiv 

y>;(r-. ;ir:'! };.: ; :■■ ^i'.. n: :i,i!;i\ ■ j:.-:. ::;, H^nsi' nf t'oninions 
fu;: "I'P ,;--,-:;:i « ,.^ :■:■..;;:■.;: r-v.: w..,: y:.:i:'.:wz nf man he was, 
Kvivy;.. :y -■ : :,-.■■'. '■■■h:i ;i- c'.-. wt :■:..: - ■:; .■:" priggisii ami feeble 
w:iy ; f,;'.: .f -!■'.:'-■..■:■..■:: :iv.; :i:*; . •;-.:; •, ; ::iiS"rt of aristocratic 
ai;-; l:i;:,j;:i.i \ ■ ■■.'.-.•.■z ]'.'!i::i,i;L:; :.■ \-. n-.v.;:; :..:i.ili.'il and onconraged 
by ^'in-' »!J -r'.y .I'lilif;;. S.^rjio ii;i-t-rvtrs ih.'Hght there mnst be 
sunifiliiiig ill lii:n, UvaiiSL-, as ;hiy ar^'v..,.!, a man eould not have 



y.-'y.i 0. lUt.'f 


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w. rrhjvf :".v 


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gr-.-arer Y \ .i: 


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th"i;^':i :::-/ fS: 


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c;:iivl. T;-:-; 


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wh"ni ar.v •::.%:. 


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Mr. t:;:a i'-; -..v. 


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i- ■ 



COXISa MEN in ENQLAKD. 



818 



■Tl that ajipcftmnoo vt geK-coneelt If thuro waa not somethin^f or 
uthor to iw wtlf-cooceitc-d about. He Diade niuii^ xja-oulieitj, all 
ncntlj tuid pr«ttily tiirtied, and wrought oot in the raoel thoroughly 
^proved academical fashion. Possibt; it wa« in ouc ecneo rather 
against him thai) for him that Lord Salisbtir; was hia uQolv ; it 
set otf too much his personal insij^niQcanco. 

lu 1880 Iho Consoirative government suddenly appealed to 
tho country and w»ro defeated, aiiJ Mr. Gluclfltone came into 
office. Then Lord nandolpb Churchill furmtnl hie (umouK Fourth 
I*arty. Tlie Fourth Party consisted of four racu — Lord Randolph 
bimaulf, his close friend Sir Ilonry Drummond WotS, Sir John 
fiorft. n oli'ver lawyer and kct-n debater, and Arthur Ralfonr. 
Thv chief end and aiui of that juirty waa to worry tiic Icadera on 
both sides, but more especially the leaders of the sido to which 
the four Kroo Compftnions themselves belouged. It mnst hnvo 
b««u a delightful task to I»rd Randolph ; and, indoud, the whole 
four seemed U> eujoy it. Halfottr was most constant in hia at* 
tendance and paid his duu contribution of epc«ches. Theeo were 
tho days bofor& any nilea had been passed preventing or restrict- 
fng obctniction, and we al! made as many speeches as wb liked. 
Mr. Balfoar did his fair share of the obstructivo work of his 
party, but he did not count for mnch in the opinion either of the 
party or of the Honiou I remember once likening the Fourth 
Party — it whb in a speech I mada in those dayii in the Houec of 
OtramouB — to the immortal Throe Guardsmen ami their suddenly- 
found companion, wlio afterwards became their leader, our dear 
old friend. D'Artagnan. The tatter, of course, I identiScd with 
Lord Randolph ChurxihUl ; Sir Ueury Wolff with Atlios ; Gorst I 
likened to Purlhos, and Balfour to the sleek and self-complacent 
Aiamis. The comparison told very well at the time. I noticed 
vjth aome interest that it was afterwards reproduced in seToral 
newspaper articles without qnotatioii marks or any n-ferrnce to 
original aatborship. Through all ttieso years of tho Fonrth 
Party, and throngh all the limitless opportunities they gare for a 
man to show great political ability if he had it, Mr. Balfour never 
made any mark. 

In 158(J the Tories came back to office, and, of course, they 
fonnd it neoowary to bny up the Fourth Party. So Sir Henry 
Wolff WIS dispali^heil ou a misMn to Cairo, and the other tfarvo 
trn»-Uocca were made mcmbcn of the gOTommenl. 1 do not 



▼ou CL.— xo. 4(W. 



21 



314 



TBF yosTu AJiESiCAy smnew'. 



know if there is in ParttamenUrj hiRtorr an; other inetaoM* of m 
wholo Psrlijuneotaiy put; beiag svaltoved tip and put ont of px- 
istcnce in a singie da;. Mr. Balfoar waa made proaidcttl of tlio 
LooU-Oorernment Board, and did not in the leaat advance his 
Parliamentsr; r«pataiian. The Tory ganmrntnt ware iu)t atrnng 
in nQmben; their fete dep^ndfd nltogethar on tb« nrte of ihi« Iri^h 
momben : the Imb mcmbcn comhionl with the libenlB cm an 
important raotiuD and the Torie* were tamed oaL T' .:»v 

in &Er. GladstaDe.and thencsme theilonM^Rtileinotioi ]•-• 

fnt in the Honw of Comipona, and the geneni eleetionx and thv 
retnrnof fjord Sallshnrr to office, — and soon begvi tbemal career 
of Mr. Balfonr. Hr. Balfoar was made Secrvtanr for ScMitland in 
the first instance, and in that office be bad notluiig particular to 
da And I wvll nMoptnber a inow; ni);fat in the winter — it wm 
about the Christmas time of 1S86 — whvn I *aa niited in a New 
York hotel b; a rrporter for one of the dail; pi^n to bring roe 
the news that Mr. Balfoar had been made Chief Secretar; to the 
Ifoid-Ueutrnant,— in other wordi, Secretuy for Ireland, — and to 
aik me what I thought about theappoiDiment. 

I oonteM that I ihooght it teemed }ike some stroke d drt^l 
hnmor in one af Mr. Gflbert'a most topff;-tarTT pieoeo. Mr. 
Balfonr now w*t to stand up in the Hoaee of Commoiu and face 
Olad^iuno, Haivoart, Morir;, Pamell, Sexton. William O'Brien, 
Ileal; ! It looked ridtenloaa. AH the «ame^ tlio appointment 
inado Ur. Balfour. It tonwd bim into a Parlimpntanr debater 
fr*» Earing been acQUeg*^lebatin£-aac»etj prij. He hiw become 
one of the bv^t debaters in the Hottee, It ie needlcAs to sa; that 
IB deacrihins b>°i ■« » nceees I am not denribiBg hie Irish policy 
■a Moeearfttl. I am speaking of the defanter. and not of the etatee- 
man. I do not jwt know— aobod; knows— wbethvr Mr. Balfour 
U a itatesman or not. He has not had an opportnnitr giren him 
of showing an; claims to statesmanship. He has nnd^rtakpn ad 
inii»^i»iblc tadc— to KoTvnt Ireland at the pnsent dii;b;coercion. 
For such a task •■ that statwwuufaip tsof no «m ; btwu nrv of 
no OM : Jai'k wonhl be w good, m his uaftvr; an idiot as dooil aia 
«{». Statasnuuuhip will . --sn to w»lk op a wall, w 

t*jnm|< t«nw his own A;> it Hr. Balfonr hud an 

fiir debate, and h« 




COHJNO MSN LV EXaLASD. 



S16 



loug to be leader of the Uonse of Commons^ it the Tories continue 
in |>oTer. He mrely ii;. to all appenrAnce, a coniinj; man. I 
ehaold think timt fi>r tJio work of iviilly gntAi i)latrAmiin»iiip he 
would be found wimting in sympathy, JDKt as, no far ^9 vc can 
ninlcti out, he Ib djiuiualified fur genuine eloquence by want of 
imugiimtion. But he is a man with a fulnre. To be uotliiji^ in 
^the nonae of Commons for a dozen years, and then eudilcnty to 
[et up and bvcomu the leader of the IIou«c a an achievement to 
noted in pnlittcal history. It is to Mr. Bnlfour's advantage, 
that ho is for the present rcliercd from any dn<tv] of rivalry 
9n tbtt part of his old colleague and leader. Lord BandoJph 
IMiurthill. That nninsing jmlitican jumped ofT the coach in tlio 
lopc of upsetting it and hurting somebody, and the coach went 
in jtlKt as nrvll. or bott«r, without him. Ilo had his tumble for 
I do not believe he is ex tingn tithed by nny means. I 
lie 'm iuextinguialuible. But hti light U dim for the 
lament. 

It eecma strange to speak of Sir William Ilarcourt as a com- 
ing man. He is more than eixty-two yearn of age ; he has bL'un 
more tlian twenty years in the House of Commons ; he hai^ held 
various high administrative ufliccs ; has been Home Secretary ; 
luu boon Chancellor of the Exchequer. And yet I do not know 
)W any one cutild novr describe him as other than one of the 
[>nilng mtn. For he has never been leader of the House of Coin- 
lons : be ha« never been Prime Minirter ; and his chances of bo- 
Feomin? one or b^^ili hare suddenly grown greater than over they 
. werv Iwforc. He has changed his opiniona with such astounding 
^T^idity that no one can be surpriftod if there is in many political 
Irclui a fiTUiin doubt of hitt BiuLtTity. But the ««e grcal qucs- 
io»i tin whieh be changed bis opinions is a qnenlion on which 
Mbor ii>cn whose sincerity nobody has erer donbted bare changed 
•eir opinion*, too. and as quickly as he. If he bad gone over to 
»» »oii-OIwi«tnne ai-ie,— for that is what it w,— he would have 
"" ''wIlhI with delight. If he hail consented to Uko office nn- 
./ '*• Tories, — as his uld ctiUeaguo, Mr. Goscben. did, — he 
' "»»o had almost any position he coveted. But he choeo 
■-»in with ilr, Gladstone, and has therefore bad to sit In 
■a ahadc of opposition for three yean already. He is, 
lit things, a splendid fighter. He can always sbow the 
iti«port — and Bolingbroke declared that the Uonse of Com- 



fHv ^ojera amemicas xeview. 



wg% ISkm Ikt ■■■ who can sbov it ipon. During 
>«r dnc aHMaas W hv 4i»c n^u^y aXi the nal fighting 
WtW pvtj: at kMt. ^mik all tint Kr. Glwblotw Miold ttot fiwJ 
tH>MiaEn«gdit«4ok H« hn but llw good s»tiae lo be m- 
sfctBMB ia hk tttadBMB la tke Hoom^ and, u 31r. Gladstooo i< 
no laagv a flu a rf to Iwip bts baon thnni, all iba rough btUtlu 
«f ike kttB part of liw «ittxi^ i« Ivd br Sir VTiitiam llorrxrart. 

W« an c«tt<*aaUjr ulriin «bo t» lo be tbv ciext lentlcr of tbe 
libenl partT, or, nihcr, «bo is to be intrusted «itb tbe dat^ of 
twdim tla fwtj vhMi Xr. Gbdctooe caonot atti^id. A RmcI- 
ioal BiHbBr wd to as last aavioa : " I don't eee any guud iti 
■rgviag ^a ^aaatia^ The tsan who is leading ti llie leader : 
•ad caa aay eae doabt thM Hareoort leads lu ?" That is ono of 
tha waaBM «h; I vpeak of Sir Willtam Haroourt as etilt ii 
coad^ aiaiL Had I been vritlng on this lamc inbject three 
jvaia a(«» I Aeald no« eten hare meottoQcd his name. 

Tben caa be no doubt of th« gnat iDt«11ectaal power of Mr. 
Joha Mort^. Mr. MocWr is, after llr. QLadstone, the man of 
KUMt powcrfal intrileet in the EogUsb Libera] pai-ty. Krorjrone 
bdtcTec in his aincwtj. He ia becoming immeneel; popular in 
tha «MBtrv and oa great pronncial pUtfonns. I am avsunxl tlmt 
ha daads ooxt to Mr. (iUd«to&e in popularity. He has not as jret 
had very long cjcperienoe of I^irliamentsry life, and, according to 
all the rrpiUr good old naxinu of ParliamrularT wi«4lom, he en- 
tered ii too late for snccaea. The one only L-oinmt-ut which hu 
10 be made ou the application of thut marijn to him is that be w 
a tfnocees. Them cannot be anj possible doubt on the subject. 
Ho is the only mui on the front oppositiun bench who could di»- 
piilo Ute K-ttdorsliip with Sir William llarcourt. He \\a& greatly 
impmred of bite in debating (tkill and power ; and, indoed, I 
think every sjicech Be makee is an improvement on the speeeb be 
hiatle jti8t before. An onitor. pprluips. he con I il rimit b*- ; but 
rlipro is an eloqneDeo of oxalt<d tboiiKht pot into nublu liiti. 
which eometimos carries tbo sympathetic listeuer rtway. r 
were under ihi' sjKilI of tby born <" 
a iort of ohurui, I tliink, about li 
revluw ereu, vrliieb Mr. MorlvjEt. 

is deetinod to retain. Hr -- 

(-amp. If he fails to b<^' 
order. I tlihik it will be 



I 



4 
I 



coMiNa uss m enqlasd. 



317 



i^nchtiMl to u c«rtjiiii {>eaainii&tu In political: because his t«nd- 
ic^ 18 ratliiT to Iwlierc that thiags vill gf> wrong th«u to feci 
ired that tbpv must come right. Ue lackg uiioiul spirits ; 
rattd it votild be lianl indeed to uTerrste the importanro of ani* 
I ma] fipiritN in the big gtragglcs, the rough-and-tumble tjghta, of 
Bn^isfa ParUamentarr life. I have heurd it said that he cannot 
bt a locciHsful leader bccAoso b« dislikos speech-making ; because 
he niakea ipoeohcA as a matter of duty: bi?t^-aim« liis flrst impulse 
is to dt still, while the flrst impulite of a different sort of man 
vould be to rise to his feet. But I do not thinV there is ir-ich in 
that. The most successful party leader the lIouM of Commons 
has knoirn in late years bates opeech-malcinfi; fjuite as mueh aa 
Mr. Morley does, anJ only get« on his feet wbea he fe<>l8 that it 
would not be right to remain silent : I mean, of rourse, Mr. Par- 
nell, who has managed to make a little handful of men do the 
irork of a grt.-ut army. 

And Mr. Lahouchire — what of him ? Is he not a coming 
man? "Alas: J know not." as Hamlet says, Mr, Labouch&re 
Ua coming man if he really wants to come. He has many od* 
TaatAgee. Be is, in the Qret pUice, a man of great talent; ho ia, 
in the neit place, a man of grent conmge; and be is, in the third 
place, — and thia <'onnt6for a guoddc^l in Kngliith jiolttieal life,— 
I a rich man. He can take a high place if he will. But he must 
Grst get the avrnige Kngliahmim to take him eertonsly ; and will 
he care to do that ? iCvL-n if he begins to try it, will he not get 
tirnl of the effort and gtre it np ? Will he erer be able to reeist 
the temptation of startling the ordinary Britiab Philistine and 
molting him '-git np"P I believe Mr. LaboucbAre to bo aperfectly 
sincere- man in politics, as in other things. I beliere he hoi a 
profound conviction of his democrntic code, I connot fancy his 
I being afraid of anything. I believe he hns that generous weak- 
neas which mnlcra a man insiinolirely inclined to champion a 
■> whpTi it \i weak, to help a man who is down. But Mr. 
long amuMd himself and the world by playing 
, ft piklitinni ftircfur that I am not certain 
to get rid of the stage attire and cou- 
litt working democracy certainly beliere in 
'tin all democratic platforms. 
.Hit grow on him more and 
:.jU« power behind him — may 



318 



rns yoBTu ajosjvas revtsw. 



bring tum si la«t to pbjr opctdj ukd aiovedljr bis own Krioot 
part. I ssj to plaj it " openlj and STowcdlj * ; for I beliere bo 
has alw^i been pbjtng H acrioaslj to fa J aifl etf . Lvt bim phy it 
opnlf, anvBdly, te the Hoom «( Coaaom and tn Um oooBtry, 
and I do not see »bat is to pseraiK Um frem beii^ odb of lbs 
flrst and foremost of tbe coaainf man. 

Mr. lahowrh^e's pofitioal ooOeagoc. Mr. EnMOmgh, fa, to 
aQ appearaDoas, a cowi^ man. 3Cr. Bradkai;^ bat eaz^oUj 
enltiTBted tb« How of CosuMXts. He evm* id iritb tbe repata* 
tioa of beti^ UBOog oths- tbiags, a pcal platlonB otator— a 
TCfj BeaneriBBi «< tbt Usst Bud wutiiig and Sbe proTtncsal 
■ififtin^ lie bas a porerfo] form and a most tmBendooa Toaoo. 
Vbem after a looc stnqcRK be vat at bst aUowed to take btf 
seat in peace, tbe House siiibiiiiiiI tbaC it via ia for freqncBt and 
poodcnas riietarkil eunitstaeM. Mr. Bndlaitgfa gare tbe Booae 
D o tb i ng of thcfcJD J. Henmr, so £ftr ail know, madea long si)«i>ch. 
He slwars goes etnigbt to tbe poaot, aad «ben be baa ■aid vbot 
be wants to aj h« alwai^ sifci down. He is reallTaTCf? eloqaeot 
and powcxfnl q«aker, «ub a remarkably tmptecsjva Toice, and it 
oust be a teoptatlon to mdi a man to ht himself foUjr oat nor 
and iben. Bat Mr. Bndlaogb is ahrajs eoneoe, and tbe Hoose 
ttoT knows perfectly wril that be. si least, wiQ nenr bore bit 
andimoe, Tben be bas devoted bims^ Tvr; efas elj to vbst we 
call the " bocitMB of the Howe''-^o cnouaitleea, and privata 
biSs, and all tbat sort of work wbidi yaw pt^lsr oratnr genei^ 
ally diedaine witb a lofty disdain — and tbe noose Itkee a man wbo' { 
looks aftar its work. Moraevar, ha is a maa of tba nost winttiog 
eooneqrcf naanar. He baadisBrBed tbe dislike <tf all bis fanner 
political aad r^igioiu eppa nenia - and be bad a good many of 
t h e m b y bia anxiety to obUge, by \M wtlHagwaa to nuke graoe- 
fnl eonwa^oaa. by bi< genial tolenOioB of datarsMe of ofunion. 
Heia^IsbOBldtbiuk. deattoedbeHaia long to beacMmberof a 
liberal admtnistntioa, a»d em of a tjbend csbtneC 

Aay Aaerican who really knova SnglaDd^ politScal and aoctsl 
bfe. and wbo baa known both for th* last tra or a dosBB yean, will 
. netbat meh » r.!T.>.»>.n;t» — .^i 



i^reawitbi 

a marreDoas pb«ix«teii' 
M Buny yean rinoe Mr. 1> 
iac fior diar H^ - 
Cowun- 



■''i a puMibtHty ereo — is 
al biriary. It ia not 
:^3.;t^:i. feiiu^Uag Gke a laan ttgbl- 
. the lobby of tbe Ilaitae nf 
\»l tba oMBtbeai' prirata 



COMiaO HEX /.V KXOLAM}. 



819 



entrance, odH tliru«t Icto Palace Vard b; a wliole clastcr of 
policemen. No eucb scene had evur Iteforu tukuo ])lar« in our 
g«li«rHtion. Tim ou« which ne&r&st prvcedcil it woti wlion the 
gftlUut emmon, Lord CtK^hnuio, afterwarda Karl of Paudomild, — 
unu of the verj last of the old brood of een-kings, — edoapcd 
frum the pmoa where he waa lodged on an QDJQSt charge, and 
boldl/ assumed his place in the Uuueo of Commons; vas ordered 
to be removed, n'siatcd TJtb all his ^gantio strength, and was 
dragged away at la^t by sheep force of numbers, carrying with him 
a large portion of the wood vork of the bench to which he vm cVmg- 
iug in a despenite spirit of re^tiatunce. CochntQe aflerwurih! iiumiihI 
into the House of Lords. 1 venture to predict that Mr. Brad- 
laugh will pan into a Liberal cabinet. And, as Mistnus Meg 
Bodjt Bays in Scott's romance, " What for no ? '* 

What of Sir Charles BubhII, the grea-t sdrocate— the greatest 
ite the Knglish bar bua known since the beginning of the 
Ifi he a comiDg man ? Uas he any higher point to 
roach ? Ho may, of conrso, in time become Lord Chancellor, 
XTp t« the prpRent the office of Lord Chancellor cannot be held in 
£nglanJ by a Itoman ('atholic, and Sir Charles RubbgU is a Itnmon 
Catholic. Biit do onodouhutliat, if the Liberals came into office; 
they vould abolish this absurd and unomaloua retstriction— aboliah 
it, |)erha[>fl, won for the mere luike of enabling the office to be 
tendeml to Sir Charles Roaaell. But vould that greatly enhance 
his position ? A Lorrl (Chancellor goe« out of office with hU party, 
and then ho becomes a mere peer and can never go buck to the 
bar — can nerer again phiy the part which made him great. 
** Gont and n poerageat Qfty " Disraeli deseribcit ns the sncc««8 of 
the bar. Was there ever in recent times a iiiuii who retained any 
mil powur in pnlilirs after hv had become Lord Clmncellor ? At 
oottiirte a detbroued Lord Chancellor did in some instances retain 
his influence over thellonseof Lords imd even the political world; 
bill ill OUT time (he acceptance of the office means tiomcthing Ulce 
** eraiH-nition " — to use the phrase applied in the reign of the sec- 
ond GtfirifG to a public man pnt oat of sight by a moment of high 
place. If I do not call Sir Charles Jtnssell a coming man, it is 
only bevuuao 1 do not see anything be has yet to come to which can 
pnt hiQi any higher tlian the position which by nnireraal consent 
be alrenfl^ . . * in Kngland. 

1 shoui.: aiad to reckon Mr. Henry Powler among the 



ago ZBE KOSTB AMERICAN SSVOW. 

coming men of the Honeeof Cmnmons. Tbenameol Kr. Fowler 
u not^ I bncj, moch known in the United ^Bies. Bat be ii » 
Teiy rising pnblic man. He is s lawyer and a banker ; he nat- 
oraDj nndentands affairs well, and he ii aa admirable debater, — if 
not eren an orator, — with an impraniTe manner and a strong and 
moBcalToice. He beld office onder Mr. Gladstone*! kadenbip, 
hat he bad no great chance of distingnishing himself. I^telf be 
has been coming more to the froat. Of coone there are eerenl 
men in the House of whom mnch might be expected. Take a 
man Hke Profeesor Birce, for example— who is to saj how tax sach 
a man maj not go ? Bat such men are not at the present time 
coming men, according to my reading of the words and thcor mg- 
nificance ; tbey are not to the front just now ; they are not doing 
anything in particular ; nobody is talking abont them. I hare 
pnrpoeelT refrained from Baying anything about my own eonntty* 
men and coUeagnea — except for the few words I bare eaid abont 
Mr. PamelL I hare said nothing about men like Lord Boeebery 
and Lord Spencer, because I am convinced that the time has gone 
by when England coald really be governed by a member of the 
House of Lords. Even if Lord Spencer or Lord Boeebery should 
ever become nominally Prime Minister, — quite a likely thing in 
both cases, — ^yet the man would not really hare advanced one 
step beyond bis present p(»itioQ. The rating spirit in the House 
of Commons most rule the country. 




SIR WM. THOMSON AXD ELKCTRIC LlfiHTrXG. 

BY OBOUOB VEBTlXOHorSK, Jit.. PHIUflliEKT OK TUB WRyTIKO- 



I 



I 



The artirto on "Elertrit; Lixhting and Public Snfi^tj " by 
Sir WiUiam Tliomwa In Uio t'cliruury number of tlic ^'okTU 
Anceicax Review pooeaee uiiuiiual iutoretit by ruasoa of iu 
cicu- auil furciblu pri'SL-iilacioii of the prm-atitions wbich luiTe 
been adopteil by the authuritios in Great Britaia to secure to ths 
public tbo iitntottt paasible degree of safety from electric cnrrents 
ooaTVjwl by overhead couductors, uiid oepccially becauao it fnr- 
nilbes an aduqtiaU} explanation of tbc nnusofll namb«r of ditfi- 
cnltiM and Tatalities vbinh bare occurred in vonncction with each 
CDikdactora iii ibe city of NVw- York and in certain otber lot^alitiE^s, 
where the ath-miitcd muuicijial regiilation of dectric circuits lias 
beuQ of such a chanict«r as to a^ravato tenfold the very evils It 
has been dtagavd to rcmore. Of the points die<^ut)ite(l in this 
article, the one which shonld receire thn most carofnl attention at 
the present tim«, on acconnt of its bearing npon the immcdiiite 
fatnre of the electric industries in the United States, is that 
which has refervncv to the rwent action of tbo untborities in 
Great Britain concerning the granting of "provieiona] orders " to 
comptuiies proposing to undftrtalro the electric lighting of manic- 
ipalitiee and munictpAt districtR. It is only ncce»<ury for my 
pnrpoee to qnoto his ronolndon, which is as follows : 

"RiwU voDBidMvd. tnSMd. u n»w deOnlMtr rwal*«4 that tlw dMrftatloa of 
dMliliifiiinnj ftrllirht nlr"""" •*•-'-— -'•■""-"-* yinijAr— ia^Utebr 
■ii*l» growil emadvaan, wwd pfciM for oMrylmr Uil» Into tlMet hMt and mmobI- 
laim ■iiiMjiiM Ifci ■iiiliiwiMMlilwll fiilnriliMl ihmiI " 



An examination of the Board of Trade regulations npppndiMl 
to Sir William's article discloses one fact of controlling import- 
•iHW, and that is that not only mast electric light and power con- 
doctors, even when aafelT and iw-curelr crvcled anfl iierfectly 
nniintaine<l, W 8urroniule<i with coHly aaft'guArde. hut ert-ry 
tdefcnpfa. lel«phon», or other wire ronst b« cqnally well pmtectwl. 



aas 



TBS mSTB .KMERSCAS REVJEVf. 



at cotuie at a carrespooding cxpsBiB. In locaUtlM haling an 
exteaavt n a t w wk ol tbeae vim. an attempt to Mcore eafetjr br 
tt* li^ MiforeeBettt of tbe Bo«rd of Tndo ngfolatio&d mnj voD 
CMiM Sir WiUiaiD to icmark that " the fatfilraeol of theM tnloi 
can, todflid, ba nude pcaetirallj oertaitt- But at vMat eoiit f* 

Id asm of the eipericoee wXnaAy bad in thia cuuntnr, It mar 
Ik tak«D for f rviU>i] that no aaueperaon vonld aov nniJertake to 
CTDci airial «l«ct(ie light and pover TinM in anr lociilitj in 
which tg l fl pa fih ortdafilMae wirea vera Dnmeniiu, if oumiwllMl 
\o eomplj ctrictlj with tbe ngnlatMoa of the Boan) of Trade. 
Iq fact. th« cridrat dctwininatioa of the authorities in Great 
Britain to VLrluaUr prohihit the ue of a£ml electric light aud 
power wiK« in oiiiM mar ha oonatniad aa a flnal determinatioa 
that the problem of Hfe electrical diftribation can be sulrwl only 
by naoiting to tbe lue of nndergroond coodactora. One might 
almost go 80 bu" aa to aaj that theee ngulaliouA are in themaotrea 
mfficieat. by rendeiio^ atrial electrical distribution in a com- 
narcial eense impoesible, to do awa; with the neceesit; for their 
existence. 

The eoormoai pecnniair damages which, in obedience to pub- 
lic clamor, bare bcvD iQflictvd upon those electno-lighling otnu- 
pantea in New York city baring their eondactorfl overhead, 
maialT because of iU-secured and abandoncil telegraph and tele- 
phone wires which peraiBtod in falling down np<m tJiein, hare 
sufBciently cmphikttzed the fact thai it is uut worth while lor anj 
electric conti>aiiy doing bosiiieas in that city togife fnrthercon- 
lideration to tho problem of distribution for light and power 
•ervico other than by means of underground condnctoni. IX«iee it 
will appoar that much remains to be done towards the soluttoa of 
the real problem : the necessary rvgiilationst and even tn a grntt 
moa«nre tho considomtions on which theee are to he baaed, are yet 
to be farmnhited. Instead, therefore, of devoting further space 
to the dtacnsuon of l\iv BoHrd of Trade regulations, it would seem 
more deairable to consider bow we may guard against sumo of the 
difficnltics and dangers which are liable to occur in the diatribn* 
tiou of electric light iind ])on-i>r('urr«ntit by nioaii' * ■"■ r^round 
mains; not unmlndfn! of th-' fai". that ilic i. "!.irch uf 

improvement may . i are ample and 8af- 

tcii-nt for tojm^^i. - -rorae than naelcsi 

Dr the cot 



StR WJtf. TBOHSON AJiD ELECTRIC UQHTltfQ. 333 

Befoi« undertaking to fratna specific regulatioae for guAnling 

■gniiiitt the danger wliieh le to be npprclionded from c-tc-otriv 

uurrvnU tniversing underground oonductord, it ia important to 

ascertain with as macli avcuracy as poesiblo its cluiract«r and 

oxtflot. So far aa coucM^rus the consntners of electric eiiergj in 

any form, or the general public, the dungcr may obviously be 

H divided into two cla«e«i : lirel> the risk to persons from pliyeical 

^L^otact v'itli a conductor charged with Glwlridty nt a high t«itgion 

^B|[^ pressure; aud, second, the risk from fir« originating from 

^Tth* bcat-«n«r;gy of tb« electric current and«r certain conditions. 

H Concemiug the Srst cla5S Sir William Thomson says: "I may 

I reuiark that 100 volte in tho house is pcrfoctly sofo to the uaer, 

whether the cnrrcnt be alternating or continuons, ivi is proved by 

I large and varied experieucu in Giiglaud"; hencti the ouly prucau- 
tloD tieceuary to guard against iojnry is to prevent the poggibtllly 
of contact with a conductor charged with a high-tension current. 
Before proceeding to discuss the danjfbr from fire, it is, per- 
haps, desJrahU) to give the reader Homo idea of the difference in 
this respect betweuu the behavior of the alternating and thv con< 
tinooasc-urn^iit. It is now ipiitc generally understood that in the 
genemtion of eleotiicity for eletitrio lighting and similar purposes 
a coil of wire with nnited ends is cau«ed to iqiproach a mag- 
net, by which operation a pulsation of clectridty flowing in a 
definite direction is produced in the wire ; and when the coil is 
withdrawn from the magnet, anotbersimilarpulftatiou is produced, 
but Ifaia time in the opposite dii-ectlon. Tbo repetition of this 

■ opention produces a succe«ion of pulsations, alleniatJng in 
direction, which is termed an alternating cnnvnt ; and in what is 
known as the alternating system of ditslribntion these natural oiir- 

Pmnta are uhmI in the distributing mains directly, as they are pro- 
duced by the generator. The production of what ia known aa a 
eontiaaons current involves the changing of every alternate pul- 
udion byn crimplir-iilcd mechanical contrivanco called the cum - 
u mutator, which, tliruugli two seta of brashea,— one set taking all 
^1 of the positive carrente, and the ntbcr all of the negative) — csases 
thowiccoiMM »t]a all to flow in tbo e-^mo direction, consti- 

(nting wlui: v^Oy tcrnu-d a din'ct cnrreot and usually 

spobio of BH a continnoua current. This cnrreot is similar in 
nil,-:- - - '- *V : genpratod by the woll-knawnchemical batteries. 
- siterndting current Is really the natural current, 



334 



THE SORTB AMESKAX BSVISW. 



and hafl "been known u raoli for half accnturr, vot it is only 
wilhin H verj fvw veara that the appliances for iu iitili/Jttion ban 
been broaght to anOScicnt perfection to b« of pnu;tical ntllitj, 
and it is only atill more recently that its inherent adrantages o»r 
the direct current for nil puTpoeee of electrical diHtribntion ara 
becoming n>c(^ize(i and appreciated. The fandamt<ntal and oil- 
important advantage, in this renpect, which the alurnatiog our- 
rent poeaeawa orer the direct current mides in the fact that an 
iiltcniuting carrent, when made to tmreree a coil of wire, is 
capable of inducing or croatinji; in an independent coil of wire in 
the neighborhood of the first coil a similar alternating corrvnt of 
eqnal energy, but r-apahlc of hartng ita pressnre or its quantity 
Tnoditled to any required extent — a result vhicfa the oontinuoiu 
current ie utterly incapable of producing. 

Thij important eliatacteristic of the altomating earrent nmden 
it poesilile to generate an electrical energy of auyde«Ired low preaa< 
nre in a local system of conductors attnated at any point, yet huT- 
ing no plectriral connii-tion, of any character wkatoTer, with the 
main conductors. Br means of aaapptuattu known ua conrerter 
or transformer, which consists of tittle ebe than a mass of iron and 
copper inelooed in an iron box, the eleetnoal energy traT«rsing the 
main conductors is converted into magnetism — a perfectly inert 
and harmlcw form of energy, capable of prodncing neither heat 
»or shock, nor of being appreciated by any of our senses — and 
this i« reconrerted into eleotrioal energy for local distribu- 
tion. The iiil<'rpo«itlon of this absolutely harmless form of en- 
ergy as one link in the chain of effects secures, nnder proper and 
well-understood condiUons, an absolute safety from Bre which it 
is impossible to obtain when the continnoas current ia used, for 
the reason tliat the latter nceesaarily involves an unbroken and 
direct electrical c!onnectiou betwoen the distributing and the con- 
sumption circuits. That the distribulion of electricity by alter- 
nating currents of high tendon, the trausformatiou of the sune 
hy conrertcri into low-tension cnrrenta, and the absolute discon- 
nection of the two systems of <■«, arc becoming -lenerany 
recogniaod as features of ok . importance, ifuhnndantlj 
testified to by tli« almost univenal adoption of those charactens* 
f ■ " : ' ' ' "L'hUiigpIaiits in Droot I!' nti- 
I >ai(mca. whllo in the V . i^ea 
uor» th« "f tbo centml-rtiition plants which have 



Sm WU. THOMSOX AND SLECTSIC UOHTrXO. ^25 
erected duriug tb« put year arc of the alternating 8;a- 

ThoRceul dtjitresstiig calamity io Wosbington, which rcsalted 
in tlie death of the wife aod daughter of Secretary Trauy, agum 
enforce tbu Ii-^un ibat of all tho dungors which confrout ua 
luiae aroao imniiuetit and Qon» so difficult to goard against aa 
tboee wbiL-b arise from Are ; and it is ecarcely oeccfisan- to Mjr 
that Che coiiliiiiial apprt-heiidon thftt a Qrc uuty origirmte atany 
moaeiit fmm wires connected to undorgronnd electric mains may 
bfMMmc aimoMt unbcarablo. Wo are but too frcqnontlj rvinindttd 
of this danger by suoh occnrrenc<j8 as the recont deatructivo coq- 
flagraiioii in Boston, whi<*h is believed to liave roHulled from aa 
I'lectrie cnrrent, or other fires in N*uw York oity daring the past 
few monlha doo to tbu same cansc, uiuong which may be men- 
tioned tbu atiddeu and complole doittruotion of tht- IVurl-Stn^et 
electric-lighting sutioa, which is unJerstoo<l to have been caused 
by an imperfection in the low-tension underground maim receiv- 
ing their fltipply thert'fnim. Thcite disasters, as well as the inci- 
dent related in this tttiriEW by Mr. EdisoD, who iitatcd that a 
contact between the mains of bis underground cirouita, at tho 
comer of William and Wall Str^etti, resulted in bnming np tho 
iron and copper of thtf uotidiietorH, and the rediiuLton uf the 
paring-stones for several feet around to a molten mass, show that 
it has brcotno imperatively noceesar; to recon«der and reriae tbe 
prcecDl ruled and regulations^ and to adopt suoh now ones aa may 
be found necessary to remove this omnipresent danger from fire 
caused by electric onrreDts. 

In considering this source of danger, it should be borne in mind 
that electrical flrea are rwults which are due directly to the quan- 
tity or volume, and not to the tension or pressure, of tho current. 
The welding together of massive iron burs is quickly and perfect- 
ly occompltabed with an electrical pressure of only one volt, 
althoagh tho volume of curnjnc is, of conrne, enonmntis. In the 
Otfe cited by Mr. Edison, hail the same electrical energy been con- 
veyeil at apT»><iiirr«of 2,0(iO volts, instead of 110, no suoh destniot- 
ire develojinititit of beat cuiiM have been possible ; or had the 
mains of the system referred to by him been subdivided, instead 
of beicir iuterronncrtfd into one enormouK net-work similar to 
that of the pLM-pijiie lygtem, the v>t]iimo of current at any one 
Itoiut would bare been wholly iuuile^uatu to produce effects like 



TVS xoffnr amoocak skvikw. 



Iham 



It wtmmkf naedbo' 



ih^nlong 



ijiitfM «f dwtiie muat eMUtmM to t» nigwcatetad 
mkI all tbtt ciaetrieitj of lov tcnoa ud 
grait qaantitT tlvt on be M ftiB w l bf *"g*»"' «'f 1,000 to 
S.flOO hene-pwvrn pQond into thaa.aBlaa£nuqr«TCOiiidcatlj 

ii( IB aadcfgnvad enoilwtfc Xo iMt* cfae ti r c pin tn ioion 
gnst iViIiiiiI'mmi ■ heaei ei m cnolae* takes ptaoe be t ween two 
wiiw eedU pamblr be drriacd tban the Lntcrronr .:>m o{ all ibe 
naiiMb for tbe rLaiuo tbat it enaMw tbe agg ieg ato cnei;g7 • the 
vimle lUtMB to be nddettlj- ceweeatimted &«n crery ^'incttoo 
span eone oM pocBl ; aadlliii itvqnOrtiiM w1wtb«r the ooot 
oocnra to t]u» Mnct or within the wmDs of a baSdiag. 

A TCTj imp ort a nt, bot little^Bifaraiood, lonts ot 
(rooi fire anaee fioai us Imo^ o( owtftt CrMi B&deiiEfM&d 
taakatf whidi is taken up br water- or ([Bs-pspea. Wh«T« tbe 
aaoaat of win inkeceoiuMeled is larp^ this leakqp is eofficinit 
JoKghta ww ii lrfm hta nnvberof bnfaaa efce li Tdjae if thej 
wem attached to tbe wine tn the nsaal maiuMr. If. thrn-foi*-, 
as./ vtn baring a direct oooaecCtaQ with an nodergnHuul main 
n aecMeDUllT brought into eootacc with a gift- or wat«--]>ipe, a 
lie Bar be inrtaatJy startM io a place vhdlj ooaoaaled f rum 
obae r r al ioo ; or if the electric wins are Uid andemeath a flrnr, 
aad their iasabtioa ig defeetiTe at anr point, eren the aolotMB Ot 
soap attd «al« ssod in serabbi^ ma; ^tabUsh a path for tbe 
eketrie caRenl. whkh will be leOowvd in a few minates by a 
welMenloped 6rv. As the wins in baiUings beoome tJder, 
their iaaolafciaa is iikeljr to booaaw man aod man defeciire. and 
with the lipst of time wins eoee vefl InaBlited. e^ocMlIj in 
sitoatioas in which io^iectioB is difficalt^ will, when tnooBBoetioo 
with an imperfect sfiiem of dietribotioo, beoonie sMUves of danger. 

It is ooaoeded hy all fudtiar with these fatten that eoaiact 
with a ccndoctor chftrged with an ^Wtrtcal prunuw of one han- 
dred Tflltjt or lees is not in the leeet deogecoas to penon#, whether 
tbecnmnt be dliect or altematiag ; bateotsr as the finvrisk in 
UiildiiqEa ia cwKi«n»d, It malw a raet diftrsne whether a pn*- 
tm of one hniidnd orof IFtyTolta i« need. In ezpertAettts which 
hare been mad* ernraalT to d'tnniae this diAnmcfi. it was 



found that a Ore conld be easily started bctwwntwawtrMwitb one 
Tolti of direct current br lh» tnnutnn* from fficb water 



BUi WM. TBOMSOK AUD ELECTHIC LIGBTINO. ^QfT 

H ii Gonunonly naed for olMnsing, whild it wm quite impotribla 
tn do so with a prewnre of fifty Tolt* of altpmnting current. It 
would, tlirrcfcrr, scorn io follow from those con&iderationa that 
the itbandoumcut of the practice of c»:mcctinj: the street msin« 
duvctlj with thi- wJr«B in building will remove at onc« and 
ab8olut«lv tiio most inimluent Src-risk which otherwim is orer 
prannt ; while by taking one step further, and redactng the 
pnssnm on th- winw in I.uilding8 *o. e&y. fifty volt*, vc kIiuII so 
diminish the poseib ^itici) ■ii the occurron» of a fire that there can 
BO longer be any ground for "i" aligbtost approhonBion on thig 
score in the mindn of those enjoying ^he benufits of the electric 
cum-nt Biippli d from ant!*- ,TouniI maiiis. 

The aufllciency of tranafonners or coUTerters to absolutely 
prevent electrical conneccion between the sfroet mains and the 
wires within baildi' . baa metimea been qnestioncd. An in- 
mtigation has altova that in *\i" conrcrtora constructed by some 
manufacturers the coil connected to I j high-tension mains is 
wound upon a form - uo^bin,and Ii.-;:econd coiKonnectcdtothe 
bouse virog is then wonnd -''Jectly npon this Dnit coil. It ia not 
itranga that with convertem of this coiifltructton contacts haro 
somfltimcs been formed bctwoon the Iiigh-tensioii and lov-ici iiion 
wirf-a, from which, at lea»t in some instance?, serious result.^ have 
followed. In a properly- construe ted converter a wholly different 
coarse is pursued ; the two coils are wound sepH.rate)y npon separate 
form*, each layer of each coil being cffcctnally insulated from all 
others, and when oomplotod ouch ooit is curefulty wrapped with 
insulating material, after wh:ch they are placed in '.loaition, but 
at such a di^lttoco apart chat it is iinpoesible for the cur- 
rent to pin from one coil to tho other, iven if the insulation 
wen) not perfect. Kany thoiuiinds of such con.Ttr:! have been 
put iu use by the company which first introduced th: alternating 
system in this country, and there has never yet been u single in- 
stance recorded of an accidental connection between (ho bigh-and 
low^tenaion cotl. All converters are, or should be, placed in fir»* 
proof idtuatimiH at the point where Che wires from the street main 
enter the building, and acceeaible only to authorixcd peraous. 
Under these conditions it is evident that it will be Impossible for 
any peraon within the building to come in contact with wires 
carrying a greater preasure than fifty or ouv hundred volts. It is 
Bcuody neoeaaary to point out that, so soon as the requiremcnta 



338 



TH£ KORTB AMERICAS REVtBW. 



tor safety are fnHj ondcrstood, the dm of itunffioleni and don- 
gcroas fomui of noiiTcricrs or tnuujforr.en will lie prohilnted. 

One point which Hhuuld not bo ovorlookc<l, wliUo coDSidcriug 
tbe quustiott of KlectricjU dUtribntion. u that witU refereaoe to 
Um space now HTailabte in oar city streets fur uadvrgroaod woric 
One of thn ducta in the subways as nov coostnicted in N«ir York 
city will accommoitatc a pair of wires capable of carrying, say, 100 
ainpirus of current. If the pre«sunj wera to bo limited to 200 
Tolls, as some bnve propoccd, such a pair of wtrea vonld aupply in 
ordinary practice only -t(M) incandescent lampd, and tfaoOB mast be 
vithiu a limited distiuioo from the etation; bnt if the praiBre 
were to be increas«d to 3,000 Tolts, theao aame wires voald snpply 
no lees than 4,000 incandesoent lamps; atid, miireoTcr, theae 
might bo at a diRtaiioe from the station many times freat«r. 
IIcDce with the low'prcsauro current it will reqairo at Icnst ton 
dacts to provide for the same amount of lighting over a Email ana 
as could be effected with one duct at a pressure of 2,000 volts, 
and this ts true even in an extensive distribation. 

The immediate dangers from undergroand condactors art of 
two kiudtt ; one aming from coutocts which may occur between 
the clcctrio vires, and tho other from explosions of gu which may 
accumnlale within the manholea. The frequency of tlie Gist will 
depend ujion the number of wires, or, speaking more accorately, 
npon the quantity of current carried ; while the latter aremor« 
liable to occur where there arc many conduits and manholes. It 
■eems clear, therefore, if by using hlgh-lenF<ion currents the ex- 
tent and area at thi; maia conduits can W rt-'dueed to one-tenth of 
those required for low preasnre, that there is eveiy reason to expect 
that, when all Iho a<lTantsgea are fully undiiretoml and appreci- 
ated, the use of ii high-tciirion main current will be onforcwi purely 
from considerattoiiii of safety, without referencK to eocmomy. 

Coucemiiig the violent explosions of mixed air and gas in tbe 
subways and nianholcfl, it has been obeenred in New York that 
they are <|uitc as liable to occur in cui<«e whore the wires are used 
ezclnsiTcly for the telegraph or telephone seriice, or for low* 
tennon currents, m where they are used for high-tensiou ourrenta. 
This is not surprisiujj, as an eiplosire mixture will ignite quite 
OB readily from a sjKirk of half a Tolt aa from lUO or ],UUO volt^ 
pressure. Experit^nco has shovn, howeTerj that no ozplosiwia 
have occurred when the manholes have been pro|H>rty routilated. 



Sm WM. TUOMSON Am> ELECTBIC UOBTZyO. 829 

If electrical firee eao b« abMliit«I; gunrdod agsitut b; a cxnn- 
plete ciMtricfU »rpiirRtion hetw««n tho slreot-mnin wirraand thow 
vithin buildings, with & limttalion of the pressure in the laxt- 
oamed to fifty volta, und if eoch conditions can bo rcadilj' com- 
plied with, may it not be adrantageona to make thoee conditiona 
compQl»ory ? U oondiiftji, Bubways, and even sections of etrcet 
paretnent can be destrnyed by large-quantity tinrrentfl, ought not 
the qnantitT carried by each conductor to be limited ? Tf the 
practice of intcrconni>cling alt the maiiis in a district is fraught 
with danger, ought not tbo practice to bo abtit«d ? To these 
queationg my annror is : 'I'ho xyRlom of altcmatiDg currants and 
converters admits of thew measures of safety : Diimely, nn abso- 
lute eloctrical separation of ttio street mains from the mrex iu all 
boildiugs ; the reduction of th*- preeenre of the irurrent to 
fifty Tolts vithin all bnitdings; tho limitation of tbo qnantity 
of enrront carried by street mains ; the running of each pair 
directly from the sfatiou without interconnection in tla- streets, 
thus securing the highest degree of eafoty, .rre^ctire of tho eco- 
nomical atlyantflgm, which ara neither few nor QDinaportant. It ia 
much to bo dcaired, in the int«riiat of the publin, that a thorough 
inTeatigBtion of this nrholc subjoot Rhonld be matle at 'he present 
time by competent and (Ualntoreslcd authorities. It is my own 
belief that such sn inTeetigation would lead to the adoption, 
among others, of regulations substanttally »a follows : 

1. No direct electrical connection ehall be pormitt«d between 
street mains and wires within buildings for either light or power. 

2. The electricul ])rcttsurc on tbu viros within buildings shall 
Dot bo permitted to exi-eed one hundred volts. 

3. Each puir of f^reet mains shall be limited tu load or volume 
to an amount not exceeding one hundred amperes, and uvvry nucb 
wire ahall be provided at the genemting station with » derjce 
which will automalicnily diernpt the circnit in the event of asud- 
den iacreaflo above the iiuthorized load, 

4. Within btiilding.^. the Ic>ad for any one pair of wires ahall 
not ctsceed that rec^uired to supply one hnndred sixteen-eandle- 
powor lamps. 

To these fundamental regnlations it is, of course, apparent 
that imuiT fiubeidiaiy ones must be added ; bat it is ccrtAtn that 
such a system :j *hat above outlined may be made to conform to 
such regntatiorts as 1 have indioated. not only without additional 
ttZpcDse, bat with agnat and positive gain in economy both in 
constmctjoti and t-iHTotion- Oko. W'ESTiisoQOitsB, Je. 

TOL. CL.— SO. i(H). a 




WHY AM I AK AGNOSTIC? 

lir KUItKICT a, INUBUS01.L. 



I»AJIT II. 

Tub Christian religiou rests on miracloa. Thvre am no 
mintcles in the realm of science. Tbe real pliiloaophor (Jtws 
not seek to vxuitu woiidor, liul to niako ttiAt pUiu which wus 
wonderful. Ho doea not endeavor to astonigh, but to onlightcn. 
Ho is perfectly oonfidont that iboro nra no nuraclus iu natam. 
He knowa that the mullicinatiual uxpnssaion al Uiu aunie 
relations, contents, aroM, numlwri. and proportiona must for- 
ever r«main tho same. Ho knows that thero nro no mirsclee 
iucbemistrv; that tlie ntlractions and repiilBioos, tlw loveaand 
hatreds, of atoms are constant. Under liku conditiona, bu is 
certain ihat like will alwajrs happen; that the product over haa 
been and forever will ho the same ; that tlio atoms or particles 
unite in definite, unvarying proportions, — so many of oitu kind 
mix, mingle, and barmoniao with just so many of Einother, and 
tho iiui-plus will bo forever cast out. There are no extTplionk. 
SubatancM are alwav's true to their natures. They hare no caprices, 
DO prejudices, that can vary or control their action. They are 
" the same ycslerJay, to-day, and forerer." 

In this HxiHlne^, this constancy, thi» eternal integrity, tho 
iutelligout man has abaotnto oonfidenon. It is nsoless to u>ll him 
that there was a time when fira would not conmme the conibii»- 
tibte, when water would not flow in obedience to the attniclion of 
graritatiOD, or tlut there ever vaa a Irii^cut of a moment 
during which substance had no weight. 

Credulity should be the ftcrviint nt intelligance;. Tho igno- 
lant have not credulity enough lo bul!vvL< tho actual, bt-cauBu ihu 
actual appears to be contrary to the cridenoe of their aeuftca. To 
them it is pltiin that tlie tun nea and sets, and they have not 
crtidulity eiiougli tu Uiliuve in tlm rolary motion of the (•artli — 



WHY A3t t AN AGSOSTlCf 



8S1 



Fis to sftj, they have not int«lligencG enough to cflinprchoufl 

klMurditioa iuTolved in tbair belief, aud thu perfect harmony 

stwMQ the rotation of tlia o^rth and aU known taau. They tniA 

[their eyes, not tlieir rauou. f Iguorauco has ulur;ays hcuii and id ways 

I will Itf! »t the mercy of ap|icnninoe.) Credulity, lu a rtilo, botieros 

[eritrjrthing (txcupLthG trutli. The semi -civilised believe in astrol- 

f,but who could convince tbcm of tbo viutncea of astronomical 

the speed of light, or the iiiugtiitud<> uiul number of aunv 

E«nil coiist^llalions ? If l{«rumuu and Humboldt could ltaT» 

Ibvfurc Hiviigtw, which would haTehccnnTg&rdiNliiisagod? 

rhuD men knvw Dulliiuji; of mucbsinica, nothing nt tho norre- 

Intfon of force, und of lU indostructibility, tiioy wpre bclicvcra in 

[]H>r])i>tual motioti. So when chomJRtry was a kind of Bleight<of- 

hand, or necromancy, something accomplished by the aid of the 

supunuttural, people talked about the transmutation of metnls, 

Ihu unircrtul wlront, and the philosopher's stone. Perpetual 

[motion would be a mechanical niiracio; and tho transnintation of 

; nutals would be a minv'lu in cliem):itry; and if wecould make the 

: TMolt of mnltiplyiu^ two by two five, that would be a mimcle iti 

[jnathematics, Nooueexpecte to find a circio the dtamoter of 

which is just one-fourth of the circumference. It one could find. 

Iiuuh a pjiyle, then ilioro would bo a miracle in geometry. 
Id other wordit, there are no miracle* tn any science. The 
DOmcnC we nndcratand » question or Nubject, the miracnlouH 
neoesimrily diMppeare. If anything actually happens iu the 
chemical world, it will, under like conditions, happen a^o. No 
om> nood take an account of thi» roault from tho mouthg of otbore: 
, all can try the eiiwrinient for themselres. There is no caprice, 
^BmuI no accident. 

^H U La admitted, at Iciut by the Protestant world, that the ugu 
^f of miroclee haA passed away, and, consequently, miracles cannot 
' at prvaent bo established by miracles; they mnst bo enbgtantiatcd 

I by the testimony of witncMei who are mid by mrtuin writers — or, 
rather, by uncertain writers — to hnre lived svrend cvuturice ago; 
•ad 1Mb twtimouy is giren to oa, not by the witnesses them- 
nWea. not by por»oDa wbo say that they talked with those 
witncMQS, bat by unknown perttona who did not giro the sonrcot 
ofili ■ ■ ' ■ .ri. 

! '1 . I kj : Can miracles be established exoepfc by 

uinclM 7 W« know that the writers may have beta miat«keu. 



889 TBS NOBTH AMERICAS BEVIEW. 

U \9 poMiblo thftt ihty BOkj bare mauufactured those sccon 
tbeauelToa. The witnoaios ma; bure tolU what th<>; knuw to 
nntrne, or thty maj have boen hoaestlj ileoeiTed, or the stories 
may bare been truo as at firat told. Imagiiintion may hare 
added Kroatly to Chom. so that after suveml conturiue of accroiMu 
a very simple trnth yraa cbaagcd to a oiiraclc. 

Wo iiiu^t admit that all profaabilitiefi miut be against miraolos, 
for thu rc^isou that that uhich is probable oannut by any pOHibility 
be a miracle. Keithur the probable nor tbe poaeible, ao f ar as man 
10 concerned, can be miracalooa. Tbe probabttity thoreforo nys 
Lbat the writi'-rs and vitaeaiw wn either mUtaken or dialionoit. 

We must admit that we bare never seen a miraole onreelvM, 
and ve mnst admit that, aocordtng to onr experience, there are 
no miracles. If ve hare miiiglcl with tbe vorld, ve are oora- 
pelltd to Bay that to bare kuovn a vast nnmbor of ponoiu— in- 
elndingonrselrec — to be inutaken, and many othera who hare 
tailed to toll tbe exact trnth. Tbe probaUlitiea are oo tbe side of 
our axperienoei and, conaoiiaantly, afatnal the mliacaloas ; and it 
is a Deoeaaity that Gxo fne mind novn akmg tbe path of least re- 
aistaiioe. 

The effect of testimony depends on tbo intdl^uioe and bonesty 
of the witneMaad the intelligMioa of bim who VMglia. A man 
Uring in a communitT where tbe supemstnral is expected, where 
tbe miraculons i* snppoevd to be of abaoat daily occumico, will, 
as a rul«, beliere that all wonderfnl things are tberetaUoIfaper- 
natural agenriea. Ue will expect providential interference, and, 
as a cott«equ«na<. bb mind will pome tba path of least r««iBl- 
ance>, and aill account for all pbcnomcaa by what ia bim is tbe 
eauieet method. Sitch people, with the beit inlentiooe, honestly 
bear Eabe wttneas. Tbey bar* b««n impoMd epoa bj appear- 
aooH, and ar« rictinia Ot dfllaaon and illaaoD. 

In an age vhen nadio( and writing wen nbstaattally on- 
kxMwn. aad wbM btaloi? itattf was bat tb« vagneat bearaay 
handed down trwa dotage to infancy, nothing was rescaed from 
obtirMKi otnept tba «oaN]«rfal. tbe mincabma. Tbe more mar- 
veUtMU tba ilory. tbe greater tbe intereat cacitcd. XarTators and 
hnnn wre alika icav>nutt and alike boneat. At tkat time 
; VM kwnm, nothii\g in^<r«l<-l. ^ tW cfdariy coarse o( 
laakfokm and aabnmlcabla cbai* of «a«m mi 
»vrM waa goreniad by CHprkai Ererytbtnf was 



WBY AM I Ay AOmSTlCf 



888 



At tho mercy of a being, or beinj^g, who were themselves ooi^ 
trolled b; the sama \tamione that dominated man. Fnigtni<nt8 ot 
facts were takeu for the ifhoU, and the deductions drawn were 
honest and moiistroas. 

it is probftbly certain Chat all of the religions of tho world 
have been believed, and that all the niiracle« have found credence 
in counlloes brains ; otlR-rwiec they could not have been pei^ 
pctuated. They were not all born of cunning. Thoee who told 
were as hpoesc as those who beard. Thig being so, nothing has 
been too absurd for huroan credence. 

All rcligiuas, bo fur lut 1 know, claim to have been miracalone- 
ly foundtnl, iiiiraoulously preaorved, and miracnloualy propagated. 
Tb« prieeta of all claimed to have mesaagee from Qod, and olaiued 
Uf hare a certain authority, and the miraoulotu has alwa^ been 
appealed to for the purpofls of sabetau tinting the message and tho 
tothoritjr. 

If men hclicTC in the supcmatuml, they will acconnt for all 
phenomena by an apjwft] to aupernatum) means or power. We 
know that formerly overythihg was acconnted for in this way 
except aome few simple thiuga with which man thongbt he was 
parfectty acquainted. After a time men found that under like 
conditions like would happen, and as to those thinga the supposi- 
tJon of snpematural interference was abandoned ; but that inter- 
hrmoawas still active as to all the unknown world. In other 
woids, aa the circle of roan's knowledge grew, sujierustiiral inter- 
fenmce withdrew and was active only just beyond tho horisoa of 
the known. 

Now, there aro some believe™ in univereal special providence — 
that ti, men who believe in perpetual interference byasuper- 
natnrul power, this Interference being for the purpose of puni«h- 
ing or rewarding, of deatroying or preserving, indiriduals and 
nations. 

OthcPB have abandoned the idea of providence in ordinary 
mattiTf^ bnt KtitI lielieve that God interferes on great occasions 
and at critical morueuts, especially in the affairs of nations, and 
that hid presence is maniff^t in great diraeters. This is the com- 
promiae position. Thow people believe that an infinitobeingmode 
the oiiivorw and impresswl upim it what they are pleaded to call 
"hiw«."»nd thfn left it to run in aceonlnnoe with thoae lawa 
and forooB ; that aa a rule it works well, and that the divine 



TBE XORTB AMERICAN RSVIEW. 



maker intcrferus only in cases of aocidnnt, nr at momeats when 
the machine fails to oocomplisli the origiuul dMigti. 

There are othora who take the ground that all in oatanl ; that 
there oevor haD been, never will be, never can be anjr JDierfer^nce 
from withoat, for tba rCHHon ihut nature eritbracM all, anJ tl 
therocan be no irithoul orbeyoud. 

The lint cImm arc Tlieiats pure and sEmptc ; tbo second 
Tbeistti as to the uukiioirn, Niitiintli«ts as to the knovn ; and tho 
third are Nataralisti vithoat a touch or taint of eaperaiition. 

^Vh&t can the eridcneo of the fint class be Tortli ? Thu 
qucatiou u answered b; reading the hUtory of those nations that 
believed thoroiiglily and implicitly in the supernatural. There 
IB 110 couceiTalite absurdity that was not established by tlieJr 
t«itimony. Every law or every fact in natare was vi(dat«d. 
CliilJrcn were bom vitbout ptirvnte ; men lived for tbouainde of 
years; others subsisted vithout food, vitbotit sleej) ; thutuaads 
and tbousandf were poeoonnod with evil spirJtD, controlled by 
ghosts and ghouls ; thonsands confessed themselves guilty of tro- 
po!tsib1e olTcnccM, and in roiirts, with the most aniomn forms, 
impossibilities were substantiated by the oatke, afiirmattoiis, aod 
eonfwutions of men, women, and children. 

These delusions were not contniLHl to ascetics and peasants, bat 
they took poaseg:4toa of nobles and king* ; of people vho were at 
that time called intelligent ; of the then edocattrd. Ko one de- 
nied tbciw wonders, for the reaeoii that dental woe acrimc puuisli- 
nble generally with dcnth. Societies, nations, became insaiw— 
victims of tgnorunce, of dreamH, and, above all. of fears. Under 
these conditions human testimony is not and cannot be of the 
slightest value. We now know that nearly all of the history of 
the world ie false, and wo know this because wo hare arrived at 
that phase or point of inteUoctital development where and when 
we. know tliat effucts must have ransos, that everything is naturally 
produced, and tliat, consiequciitly, no nation could ever have bt<eri 
great, powerful, and rich nnless it liad the soil, the people, the 
intelligence, and the commerce. Weighed in these ccalee, nearly 
all histories arc found to be fictions. 

The same is true of religions. Kvery intelligunt American is 
satisfied that the religious of Indin. of ilgypt, of Greece and 
Roiuo. of the Aetecs, were and are false, and that all the miracles 
on which they rest are mistakes. Oiir religion aloae is etooptod. 




WBT A3I I AS AOSOSriC f 



336 



I 

ft 



ft 



Ev«i7 intelligent Hindoo diacarda all religions and all miraclu 
except his own.' Tbo qu««tioD in : Wheu w-ill people s«« Ibe de- 
fwUio thcirown Iheology tts clearly na they perceive the same 
d«feota in every other ? 

AM the ao-called false religions vere BubHtaatiated by miroclet, 
by signs and wonders, by pruplicts and martyrs, precisely aa onr 
own. Our vitnesMs are no bett«r tlian theirs, aud our success 
1b qo grcutcr. U their mtrticle& wer« talee, ours cannot be trnu. 
Katuiw wu the same in India and in Palestine. 

One of the comcr-»tonei of (JhriHtianity in the miracle of 
inspiration, and thi« eamo miracle lien at the foundation nf uU 
religions. Uow can the fact nf inspiration bn established ?/How 
ooald even tho tii«pir«d man know that he was inspired ?) If he 
was in(luence<l to write, and did write, and did expre^ thoughts 
anil facts that to him were absolutely new, on subjects about 
which be luul proriously known nothing, hovr could he know that 
he had been induenced by ud ialiuite being ? And if he could 
know, how could he conrineo others ? 

Utuit is meant by inspiration ? Did tlie one inspired set down 
only the thonghts nf a ttnpcmatnrnl l>eing? Wiw he 8iinp]y an 
iiutrument. or did bis personality color tho moaa«g« received ami 
glren ? Did he mix bin ignorance with the dirioc information, 
hiii prejudicoR and hntreda with the love aud JuKticoof the Deity ? 
\l Ood told bim not to eat the flesh of any beast that dieth of 
itaelf, did the aime infinite being also tell him to sell this meat t« 
Umatmugcr within his gates Y 

A man saya that he is iniipirei] — that God appeared to him in n 
draam, and told him rertain things. Now, the things said to have 
bora commnnicKted may hare been good and vise; but will the 
that the cnmmunicfttion is good or wise eatabliflh the !»• 
itiou ? it, on the other hand, tho communtcntion is absurd 
or wicked, will that vonclasirely show that the man was not in- 
fpired ? Mast wn jn.ls.' from the oommanicatioD ? In other 
wonls, is our reaeon to be the ftiuU standard ? 

Howconid the inspire*! man know that tho eomratinic&tion 
wu receire^l from Ood ? If (iwl in roality ghoald appear to a 
baram being, bow could this human being know wfao hod 
■ppmrcv] ? By what standard would he jodge ? Upon this 
'{ucation man han no experience ; lie is not familiar enough with 
UiQ nperaatar&l t« know gods crcn if they exist. Althoogh 





S3tt 



THS NORTH AMBRTCAy REVTBW. 



thoannda h*Te pretciidcd to receive tne«Bigi*J, Lbvre hiu been no 
tnesBage la wlucli there vas, or m, aaything Above tbo iDTeiiLioa 
oi man. Tb«r« ar« jast u wonderful tbiuga in the uninspired M 
in the inspired books, nnd the prophecies of thebonlhen havcboea 
fultllled eqaaltj with Lboiu! of thn Juileau prophets. If, then, eren 
the inspired mau catmot oertaialj know that he in indpind, how 
id it posoiblti for him to demoDstrate his inspiratiou Lo uthere ? 
The last solution of this qutution is thut inipiratio)! is a miracle 
about which only tha inspired can have the least knowlodgo, or 
the least eridonco, and thia knowledge and this evidenoe not of a 
character to abBotntely uonvtuo^eveu the iodpirod. 

There te certainly nothing in the Old or the New Teetament 
that could not have been written by uninspired human beings. To 
me theru is nothing of any particular raUo in the I'entjitonch. I 
do not kttow of a Kolilary scientific truth contained in the Are 
books commonly attributed to Moboh. There is uot> as for as I 
know, a line in the book of (3oneei« calculated to make a biuoan 
being better. The taws contained in Exodus, Loviiicns, Num- 
berB, aud Deut^^ronomy are for the most part puerile and cmel. 
Surely there is nothing in any of these books tliat could not liave 
been produced by itninepired men. Certainly there is nothing 
calculated to excito intellectual admiration in the book of Judgut 
or in the wars of Joshua ; and the same may bo said of Samuel, 
Chronicles, aud Kings. The history in extromnly obildish, fall of 
repetitions of useless details, without the slightest philosophy, 
withonta generalization bom of a wide surrey, Kothiog is kunwn 
of other tiations ; nothing imparted of the slightest value ; notb- 
iog about education, di^avery, or invention. And theste idle and 
atapid annals are interspersed with myth and niimde, with (lat- 
tory for kings who supported priests, and with onrses and denun- 
eiations for those who would not hearken to the roice of the pro- 
phets. If all ttie historic hooka of the Bible were blotted from 
the memory of mankind, nothing of raluo would bo lost. 

Is it poftslble that the writer or writers of Fimtand Second 
Kings were inspired, mid that tiibbon wrote "The Dt^clineand 
Fall of Ihe Roman Empire" without supernatural assistance ? Is 
it possible that theauthor of Judges was simply the inslmment 
of an infinite Ood, while John W. Drappr wrote '• Tlio Intellect- 
ual Devclopmciit of Europe" without one ray of light from Ihe 
other world ? Can we beliere that the author of Genesis had to 



I 

I 
I 



be inspired, white Dftrwin experimented, uoertiuned, and reaobed 
oouclusioQS for btmself ? 

Ou^lit not iho work of n God to bo raetlj superior to that of 
% man ? And if the vriters of the Bible w«re in reality inspired, 
ought not thai book to be the greatoat of books P For instancu, 
if it were coittondud that certain statues bad beeu chtsellod by 
inapir«d tnea, such stataes ehoald b« superior to anj that unin- 
spired mao hafl made. As long iia it is admitted that the Voniis 
do Milo is tbo work of mun, no one will bvlievu iu iiispin-d 
sculptors — at least until a superior stiituc haa been found. So in 
Iho world of palutuig. We admit that Corot was aoitispirod. 
NobodjT olainu tliat Augelo bad gupematural asgistaoce. Nov, it 
■ODLeoneshould claim that a ocrtain paintor wua iiimply the in- 
strumeDtalit; of God, certainly the pictitrts produced by that 
painter should b« eu]icrior to all othcra. 

I do not Kc how it U pottible for au intelligent human being 
to coDcIude that the Song of Solomon is the work of Qod, and 
that the trag«ily of "Lear" was the work of an uninspired man. 
We are all liable to be mistaken, but the tliaci aeemii to me a 
greater work than the Book of Esther, and I prefer it to the 
vritinKS of Uuggai nn<] Hoaea. dSechylua is superior to Jeremiah, 
and Shakespeare rises tmmciosarably aboro ail the sacred booka 
of the world. 

It does not seem posutihie Uiat an; human being erer tried to 
Mtablish a trath — anythiug that nnlly happened— by what is 
oallad A miracle. It is easy to understand how that which waa 
common became wonderful by accretion, — by things added, and 
by things forgotten. — and it is i<asy to oonoeive how that which 
vaa wonderful be<:iuno by accretion what was cidled anpcriuitnraL 
But it does not seem possihle that any intelligent, bouest man 
ever endearorwl to prove anything by a miracle. 

As a matter of fact, miracles could only satisfy poopio who 
demanded no eTidenoe ; elie how could they have Wlieved the 
miracle ? It also appears to bo certain that, even if mimuk-a hud 
been performed, it would be impossible to establish that fact by 
faanuui testimony. In other words, miracltie can only bo estah- 
Ibbed by mincled. and in no erent coutd mirnelee be evidence 
except to those who wore actually preeent ; and in order for mlr* 
oelea to bo of any ralue. they would liavc to 1>c perpetual. It 
matt aba bo romembared that a miracle actually performed oould 



3S8 THE NORTB AMERICAN REVIEW. 

by no poasibility shed any light on any moral truth, or add to any 
human obligation. 

If any man has ever been inspired, this is a secret miracle, 
known to no person, and suspected only by the man claimiDg to 
be inspired. It would not be in the power of the inspired to give 
satisfactory evidence of that fact to anybody else. 

The testimony of man is insufficient to establish the supemat- 
aral. Neither the evidence of one man nor of twelve can stand 
when contradicted by the experience of the intelligent world. If 
a book sought to be proved by miracles is true, then it makes no 
difference whether it was inspired or not ; and if it is not true, 
inspiration cannot add to its value. 

The truth is that the church has always — unconsciously, perhaps 
— offered rewards for falsehood. It was founded upon the super- 
natural, the miraculous, and it welcomed all statements calculated 
to support the foundation. It rewarded the traveller who found 
evidences of the miraculous, who had seen the pillar of salt into 
which the wife of Lot had been changed, and the tracks of Pha- 
raoh's chariots on the sands of the Red Sea. It heaped honors on 
the historian who filled his pages with the absurd and impossible. 
It had geologists and astronomers of its own who constructed the 
earth and the constellations in accordance with the Bible. With 
sword and flame it destroyed the brave and thoughtful men who 
told the truth. It was the enemy of investigation and of reason. 
Faith and fiction were in partnership. 

To-day the intelligence of the world denies the miraculous, 
;' Ignorance is the soil of the supernatural. . The foundation of 
Christianity has crumbled, has disappeared, and the entire fabric 
must fall. The natural is true. The miraculous is false. 

ROBEHT G. iNOERSOf.L. 



FAMILY LIFE AMONG Till- MORMONS. 



HY A DArOHTEH OV BttlUHAM YOUKO. 



Tre common etah>ment that plani) mnrriaeedobMes faiuhands, 
degrades wires, aiiil bruUlieea offspring, u fslm. It was not tlio 
ewe in aneieQt Israel ; it ia far loss eo in this oalighUoied age. If 
tuiy onr irishrA to pmvi^ thin, here in Ulah nnt mi.-ii, women, and, 
above ull, children to npcuk lor ihvmmhci. 

My fnthvr, Rriglmm Young, hiid fiftT^six living children, all 
bom heaUhy, bright, mid without '■ spot or blemish " in body or 
mind. Thirty-one of the nnmber were girl* ; twenty-five were 
boja. Soren died in infancy, tbrco in childhood, eoveu mora 
ic« nacbinft matnrity. What bright momorles wo chfirifh of tho 
fliapprttmM wo ipcnt bonoath our fiiilicr's tt-ntler watoli-curt), ev[t- 
plem»ut«d by the very sweetest molher-toTe ever given to mortola! 
Kver thinking of U8 and our welfare, fn-thrr vm particularly 
oiuioue nbout oar edncation. Dpprivtd of ull ndvaubi^ce in his 
yonth bat th« oltcn-montionod "thirtM-n-da^'s' echooling,'' lie 
determinwl we nhonld have tho opportunitiwi he had miFSod. 

Such Bcbool)! ari our firat uncii were ! Acront thn road from 
the Uon Iloiue stood the big, bigh-ceiliiigud. tong-wiiidownl, 
one-roomed scboolhonse. At one end vaa a Kmidl i-ntry-woy, far 
above whiel swung the bnaon-voiced bell in Us lofty epire^ 
while nn one aide waa n tiny wing for tlio nro of the teachf^r. 
Wbut a merry, noisy Btamping of feet io the entry jnat befom 
nine o'clock, aammer and winter I The room miiat bo thirty feet 
high, with long, deep windows on one aide, Here we alt are, a 

ticw, ^KK''"K> nt^rry little crowd, looking npon the nnlttcky 
■ohool ma'am or maater as a aort of moral neceuity. What laxy 
loteDoctnul bappimw in ilic coul, brt-vzy, spring niomingi io sit 
down after the lengtliy fervent prayer and hear the leaclier call 
oat ! " Fiwt Re«d«T», codm to jt>ar ohw I" There we gntlierod. 



THE aORTB AMERICAN RKTIEW, 

{o7(m8 r>f little legs unabla to reacb the floor, kicking back and 
forth, while Httld rasUesa toiigucd whispered, face) oltRrDatcIv 
raised ia qucctiooiiig ghincet to "tvncher," or hid with quick 
gij*£le behind tho hook. 

In tho yonr 1S6S the Unirerflitv of Deserei was organized. 
Thoae of ua who were siiffirienll; adranced at once eDtered upon 
the jcor's ooti»c. Tho old couuril-house, where the school waa 
first opened, saw a happ; crowd of young people that finit ycnr, 
who accepted such innoTstions aa departments, class-rooms, 
offimM, and a Faculty with cheerful oduptatton. The yonng Idea 
Bhot bntvfly towurd ihu iiowly-riscn sun of Progrewj, tipping the 
arrowa with intelligence and perscTcmncc, even when the feathers 
were qui Itod into euch points as the rapid dingramminF; of sen- 
tonccB in place of the old " Mary's a noun bccuuse it'ti a name"; 
aa concert reading, which sorely taxed nnueed tongut>« ; as weekly 
compositions, which were a sod ucciaaitj ; and an the order and 
regularity which marked the every tup of thv bt'll. 

In my papers is a relic of the second university year in tho 
shape of a modest printed paper, cnllod the Collt^i^ f^ntora^ 
OD whoM ctHtoHiU slafi ui)pc»r the names of two of Brigham 
Young's children, n son and daughter, among the weighty list of 
editors; six there were ia all. 

Let any one wlio vishc« to know the mental calibre of 
polygamona children aek the genial and learned Dr. Park, who 
bos stood at the lititd of this unirersity for twenty yesrt), whnhavi) 
been his brightest and keenest pupils. Ilis unhesitating answer 
Trill be a convincing argument for my position. 

About that time— 1868 — the hi'st »t«rtngniphur in the territory 
was engaged by my father to cotue twice a day, one hour before 
school, two after, to teach all his children tho useful art of 
phonography. No need to dwell oq tho seventy c. eighty eagM 
pupils who crowded the schoolroom for tho first week or two, or 
on the slim oonipAny of Rcven who faithfully clung to thoae 
tronblesome lines and curves through the whole two-years' oonnin. 
A black silk dress had br-en promii^ed by father to the gitl who 
sbonld first report his sermon in full. It was won — it would not 
become me to any a little unjustly— by a doaprocentiy-deod sister. 
Our cruKly, lamo, hiirsh, red-haired but gwnl U'nohi'r ttilil ui; all In 
his niisty, cmaty way, the very finrt week, just how wuwoulilai?t; 
and thereafter, aaouonnd another would fnil to Ap|>ear, h« would 



FANILT LIFE AMONQ THB UORMOSS. 



841 



MT, triumpluinlly: " I told you bo. You aro a laey Mt; cftn't 
liftif appreci^ue tho advantagoe ronr father laviehcs upon yon," 
ptilljiig liU titTT red wbiitkera rcficntfiiUy as he Ulkod. 

Ma.«tc wan, from before tiiy reiiu-mbramre, the conRtant com* 
panifin. bor«, aiitl comfort of father's family. Bimecif a natural 
muiiouD and n fine baae singer. \\e> early bought musical in- 
BtramentA — piano, organs, and n bi>nuiifiil harp— and procured as 
compotont musicnl tonchcrs for the children ae the country af- 
fordnl. We iiilieriu'd. almost i)nir(«nally, hix taste in thin direc- 
tion, and tlit> old pimio iti the long parlor was mrely allowed to 
l«t ita weary ki'ya, hnt was over langhtng noder Pbcbd's or Ket- 
tle's liands, gij^hint; imdur Kiinnie't; or Kllie'g skilful touch, or 
Ipxtaning or rattling bi-neuth tlio infliction of more juvenile 
leoniera. 

How pleasant were the sea^ns of evening prayer when ten or 
tweke mothere vitb th«ir broods of children, tof^therwiih the 
vurioufi old liulice and orphans who dwelt under the Hheltering 
care of this roof, came from every nook and comer of the quaint, 
old-buihioncd, roomy honw at the sound of the pniycr-bcll. £ren 
the bell has a memory all Ite own, for no matter how faintly the 
■ound came to our distant ears, we always knew whether father 
rug it or some of the others, tfe bad a poculiar, measured, de- 
liberate ting-tan^ that could not he Bncrewifnlly imiUited. Once 
vbon in Ht. (tporge (a towu in Suulhcru Utah) I said tu liim at 
biB prayer-time : 

" Father, wp can't qnite gm tlio same ring of the bell that 
you do," Wo were generally protty good mimics and prided onr- 
aclrcf on tKo acorn plishmt-nt. 

*' Ctiu't yod, my daughter? Well, I belicTe you are right 
about that ; hat liBten, — ting-tacg, ting-tang, ting-tang, ting- 
tang, — four timea you ww." 

I triod, hut Homehow the hell refuRFd to Bonnd exactly ns it did 
in bitf haude. He smiled, and again riiiKlng it etowly, remarked: 
** Wer« it poMible for me to suddenly step into my home in Sail 
Xmke City to-night and ring the prayer-bell, every one in the Lion 
Uooae would know 1 wa« at home without any anuouuocmeni of 
my arriral." 

To tb« clang of the familiar bell we crowded from upetairs and 
downatairt, ench one taking hie aoonetnmed plnro, mothera aor- 
twuKled by their children, while nvnr father sat Aunt Elizu Snow, 



3^ 



TITE SORTIt AMERICAN SEVTEW. 



ths hoQorod plitriJ wife of Josoph Smith, tho prophet A litUo 
Rtorry or grave chat; queiititiiiii uskvd vaA aD4were<1; then Uieqniet 
paternal retiiiest, " Come nov, let luhare prajXTS," sncccedwUiya 
fltibdocd rustle as every kn«e bowed aud evury tongue wan atUM 
while the itenrTOico prayod for "the poor, the needy, the sick and 
the afflicted, the widow and the fatherleH, that Tie might boastay 
and n Bt«(t to the agfd aud a guide to the yonlh." Tho prayer 
was always a short, simple, earnest one, nerer too wearisome for the 
tiningt rcstkes listener, while tho sweetly eolcmn huab of the rooin 
held a ciiltn over even L)io Imby's langhin^ voice. 

"Wilh the gi'iiuml uinun, ull ruHtiintHl their iieatii and were at 
liberty to return to their rooms or to tiUiy and hour tho chat that 
usually followed. Somotimed, especially on Sunday evening tbe 
girUwonld bo rcfjui'^ttil to sing and play,or wo wnuM all join in a 
hymn. Afterward father would kUs tho children, dandle a baby on 
his knee with his own particular accontpanitnent of " Unk^e tooille- 
ladle-iddleHiwllc," eorprieing bahy into round-eyod wonder by tlie 
odd noise; then ii general ;iood-night and we would al! aepArate, 
hthcr returning to his duties in the oQiee. What a bletswd timo 
that regular, uevcr-neylect«d prayer-time wa^I For every one 
complifd with one of the few unwritten ]awa of the household 
tliat nothing but sickness was an eicuso for ahsence. 

In Bummor wo wi>ro happy with onr school, the frequent May 
walks, picnics, swimming in the " fuut," and ull sorts of summer 
games and luiiuaemeuta. In winter, acbool fur tho days, varied 
by ekating and sliding down hill ; the evenings were ever short to 
us, for they wore filled with private theatricals, oom-pnrchingand 
popping, munuhing apples and walnuts, or making molasses candy, 
for which A large hook was hung in one of the lower rooms to 
" puU" the candy into u creamy whiteness. 

AVo had our troubles. We thought them very real in thoae days; 
but their chief vause lay in the violiuion of »oma necessary nilu of 
discipline. Our meals were served promptly, and the unlucky 
wight who was an hour behind time was apt to gD bangry till the 
next meat-time. This seemed serero, but it made na prompt and 
punctual. .Sometimes, too, wo were apt to imagine that aome 
were more fnvoreil thnn others, and that their supply of a dainty 
exceeded the slnct mcodure of justice. 

^Ve were so numerous that we seldom went b«yond our own 
home for omusement except to rui oocaiuomd dancing party or 



VA3SILY UFE AMOKQ TBE HORMOSS. 



343 



theotT*. InitMd, ytt got np thmtres and concerts, pftntomimea 
and miiisLrcl shows, with tiuvearied vigor aud fun. Fatbor waa 
seldom su bus; that ho woald not spend an hour or so witnessing 
thf thcjitrical performance or aiding in tho iinol ritcM of pulling 
ciuidy and braiding it into creamy sticks of d«licions sweetoeM. 

One of roy ststera, Dura, a bright, bemitirnl girl, when twelve 
y«ui of a^ wrote a play which b]i« culled '• Lotc and Pride," at 
the performauce of which she wm principal character, BtagQ-mHii- 
agvr. cMtumur, and muaicuui. For this little phiy, which oon- 
taiu«d tlic Inver, diatnirttKl maiden, aud villuin, with <)uit« the 
orthodox d^nuurmKHl , we were allowed to borrow coetumcs from 
tho r^gnlur theatre ; and we were surprufid in tho opening 
of Lhn piece to sec fathvr step in, ucc<jui|>unii'-d by tbc manager of 
the llieatro, H. B. Clawson. They, to be enre, were "compli- 
mootury" witueuaos, but the rust of the uudienco paid foradmifl- 
fioQ in good straight pins or proper candles. 

After the girls began to " f^row np," boaus naturalty apprarcd 
on the wene. Otie trait of father'a which sarpriaed strangels uot 
a little was bis excellent memory for names, faces, and iDcidenl«. 
When be met John Smith, uiy, for the Hrtit time, hin inf|niriuB 
were oftentimes so searching, so minute, an to ever^ member of 
Smith's family, as woU as his history iind progenitore, Umt ever 
after, no matter if year» elapsed; he conld readily recall every ono 
of the numerous Smiths and ask kindly after each one. This in- 
formation was sometimes obtained from outaidu fricudSj bat it 
WM always obtained. 

Eapecially waa be particular about thoee who onma to aasociato 
with his children. Young men wore closely questioned and 
scmtinimd. On one occa«ion. jnst ns he wn« stepping into bis 
carriago, he «w a strange young man about to enter tlie house 
gat«. XnstoDtly the flood of usual questions woa poured out 
upon Ibe ombarnuso^ yonth. Apparently not q^aitc satieQed with 
ttw answers given, father a«ked, abruptly ; 

"Are you a Mormon ?" 

"Well," floundered the lad (whose parents had token him 
away from Utah and the church when a child, but whose longing 
for the loved K04.'nN of ohildbooti had brought him bock when a 
man), "slighlly." ]-'atli«r burnt into biH quiet, niitltuw laugh, and 
oftai afterwards, in Kpcuking of the young man, whose name was 
ikipio Kenner. would jocosely call bim Skippio Sinner. 



844 



rnE yoBTii ajuebioan rbvww. 



The long " parlor," which wju prayer-room, reception-rootD, 
mOiiic-rooni sod boot room, wm asnallT BUed on SnndajcTeoiagg 
with a quietly gay crowd of youii); wotni-n uid their " bcnoB," 
Music «nd lnuj;ht«r, jcnt nnd repartM, filled in the cveniiiff till the 
clock struck ten. Lncklceswas the youth — or, at leut, so he frit 
htmHotf to bft— who came upon the ec«no before " prayer-time " — 
A not regular honr, owing to the preas of fathers bueinciia ; the 
young man would bo kindly inrited to occupy u prominent scat, 
otid porlinps aekcd to be "mouth in prayer." 

Ah. vtAl ! the lads lived through such ordoals, and after 
uiotlicr8 and father lind gone, the long, narrow parlor would glow 
and srtntilliit« with tlio ciiamu of bright evM and witty tongues. 
i'rom]>lly at ten o'clock, if the adieoB hail not already been 
said, tht' young iwoplo were apt to bo starth'd by ihe sudden ap* 
pearance of tlio President, loaded down with hats of all aha|>eB 
and «»»; parh young man would be asked kindly and plfasantjjr 
to select hie owu, and the good-nights vero exchanged iu the 
eosaing hurry and embarrassment. 

OiM night there happened to be about eight or t«n eouplcw, 
most of whom were already engagcil lovers. Nov, as walking in 
the street was out of the question, and at) the parlor was the only 
TMort, it was fonnd to bo b Tory unsatisfactory pUc« for a lover 
who would, if he could, whisper sweet notliings, or even venture 
tofiti'ul an arm aboot his Bweetlieart. Put it to youraeli: oould 
you be unreservedly happy if, crery time yon cast a loving look 
or offered a slight c-arcss, there were eighteen pairs of dii>iitt«r«eted 
era objerving the performance minntcly, eighteen roiccg to twit 
you in a graduated scale of ridicule ? I never knew who made 
the proposition on that particular Sunday night, but certain it 
was that u\ the course of the evening the one large lamp on Um 
centre-table was discreetly lowered a trifle, white around it in a 
oloM barricade etood a cimall army of books, shocked, no doubt, 
to find theniiielTes so ignominiously stood upon end and compelled 
to stand witncKsea to the tove-scenea enacted in i«n convenient 
ooniers and window reoeesea of the darkened room. 

Very charming, no doubt [ But some etray wind carried a 
whiir of what was going on in the parlor to the Prseident'a oar. 
T/fsei tlian a quarter of an hour of the happy gloom had bt^on en- 
joyed before the parlor door quietly opened, and on the ibreshold, 
lighted candle in hand, stood fatlier. Without saying a word, he 



FaMILV life AMOyO THE HORMOXS. 



345 



vilkcd slowlr and deliboratcl.r np to tho first conplo, holding his 
candle down id their v(«ry tacea, Innke^l keenly nt them, thoD 
to th« next couple, repeating hia former Bcnititiy, und so on, 
clear aronnd the room. Not a word said he, but, pulliug dowQ 
the scandalized books niid puttiog thorn graroly in their places, 
bo tttnied on the full blue of tho lamp and vralkcd quietly out of 
the zfMm. 

As a physiotoigica] fact, of the flfty<8ix cbildreo born to 
Brighum Youug, not ono vus holt, tamo, or blind, all being perfect 
in body and of sound mind and intellect; no defects of mind or 
body sare those gvnoral onoe shnnxl by hutimuily. Tho bujs 
are a sound, healthy, intlDstrious, and intelligent group of men, 
noted eTerywbere for their intcjirity ai:d for tho rxcellent care and 
attaotion beetoired npou tlicir fiiriiih«d. In ^hort, tho name Young 
is a synonyms of a good, kind, faithful husband. Among them 
are lawyers, merchanU, a railnHul kiog, a banker, an architect, a 
civil engineer, and a nianufaottirer. One of them is a colonel in 
the United Stiitvs army, vhilu several hare graduated from tho 
Annainlie naral school and from the Aun Arbor law school. 

The girls are finely developed phyeii'ally, quick and bright in 
intellecl, high-Dpirited, and often talented, especially inamogical 
way. A fuw of them were licJiiitifnl girU, and are still handaomo 
vtHQon. AM are uico girls, bind indiapoeilion, generoas and social 
in their nntiirce. In short, outndc of one or tvo of cither nex^ 
they are a Eaiaily that any man might well be proud to call hii 
Dvn. This is givoQ by way of argument, not boasting. 

Tn doecribing the fnmily of Rrigham Young, I have In tho 
maiD doifcribed the large polygsmvus families of llebcr 0. Kim- 
ball, Daniel H. Wells, Orson Pratt, and others, who are or have 
been oar leading men, with the various difTcrvnces of chsraotar 
and mind naturally inherited by the varioiitt children. 

Tho women, or " wives." as they were affectionately termed, of 
tluee Tarious families, oadoubtedly saw heartaches and sod hours. 
Do tbey not suffer, let mo ask, in monogamy ? Our mothers were 
tlia pioneers in this new order of things, and they tiad no experi- 
•noM of elders to goldo theiii, no friendlyvoicc to say, "Uorc did 
I atumblu; t«kc hc^l lest ye too fuIL" Yot thoy wer« rastaiaed 
by tht! knowledge that their sorrows were such as broadened and 
deepened the channels of their beings, and their leare water«d intc 
existence the lovely flowers of nnsetflsbncss and charity. 
VOL. CL.— RO. 100. 23 



846 



mra ax^rioas agviEw. 



la saying this I would oot imiilj that the "trivfs" were at 
all the meek, liuinble eUres oae migbliafcr. Au^- oqk who tbiakfl 
80 is at liberty, erea at this dit;, to cixaniin« tbc curru ot Attot 

T '8 tnoath, obMire thf glitter of Aunt E 's eyes, liiilon to 

the tvo^gMl vharpJuOH uf Aiiul 11 '& toaguu, to mark tlie 

proud poise of Aunt A 'a head, the firm lines of my motber't. 

Aunt Z 8. L *e, and U. H *i lacM. Nay, nmiiy were 

the thrusM given, someiinies nialicioujtly, anon rrckliiuk, often 
thoughtlessly, while inisttnilenitaridiiigK were of freqaont ocnor- 
rence. But the one retreat of iiiU'tice aud prayer, the geoeral rukof 
" forget aiid forgive," added ti> the wise conduct of the hneboDd, 
who sympathized with none or with all alike, mndo it poeaible for 
the bmve hearU to overcome their own weiiknewwit and «elf(8hne«s. 

The poIyg:iinou»i womuu of TTtah kiiuw the value of the expe- 
rience tliey have gained, nnd, to a woman, weidit refuse to ex* 
change places with any other, be she queoo upon her throne or 
BUpposad sole queen of her Inisbtind's hmrt. 

One of my welUIuved friends hod a happy, contented family 
ia which were three wiTt-nniid many children, — this in the "good 
old davd of yore," — and ho laid "justioo to tbc- lineaud rigbtoou»- 
neaa to the plummet" in the manugemont of his domeatic affaire. 
So equally nnd well were his ntuntions iiud time divjdfd itiut few 
except intimate friends knuw which was finiL and yhich was last 
wife. I bare travelled with him aud his first wife, and have noted 
with plcA»iinj bis constant attention to all her wii^hes and wanta ^ 
reHned, rt^tierved, yet courteous to all, lu! wiis to his wife tt>nderuen 
itself. Nothing conid exceed the sweet geutlcncas with which 
this father of twenty babies watched and guarded every sepamte 
"bit" of humanity that came near him. I have been with this 
man, too, when he first enjoyed th« compimionuhip of a young, 
beautiful bride. Not a whit more devoted or tender was he to her 
than he had been and was to the cherisliM] wife of several yean ; 
indeed, that would have been imiHuuible, for ho woa to Moh 
and every one all that a true, affectionate hnsbojid coahl be, ThfaJ 
same friend has many bright, beautiful children ; on one occasion 
a atmnger cnsnally asked a little girl playinjj in the door-yard : 

•* Where does your father's Bret wife live ?" 

"I don't know," truthfully answered the child. She had 
never heard a word said ubutit (irvt or last wife in her whole life. 

Some people who arc violently opposed to polygamy aro fond 



FAMIIY LIFE AifOtW THE MORUOXS. 



I 
I 



of relating fitorip« about the cnieltj men areguiltj of to tlieir 
wueft. An inciJcnt I n:tiill in this mini's rntnily wil) servo 
to nfaoir Ihe " block-crow " foundutiun upon wliicb most of theeo 
fftoriM aro built. Uv and his ibnw wived uru all great rompa. A 
euidjr.pulling could nev«r take place without UbenU quantilieg of 
the ioft staff gotnx down some one's neck, while everybody's 
htir hung in f[;rctii ujiU of candied swectncsB before the freou 
WW over, rnictii^uJ jokes were of frequent occurrenco, aDd 
DM drop of water wns the aigual lor puilfnls to follow. On 
ODO occasion adipperful of wutcr begun ihe romp, and at last 
«U three wiTea united in one grand luoiaQlt "to get even" with 
tlieir " li^o lord," — he waa a inati of largu stature, with sinews 
of tleel, — whereupon he claijwd hia strong arms around all three, 
sad by sheer funic of riuhoIu drugged the whole etruggliug, laugh- 
ing group to the pump ootside the door, and ducked aod soDMd 
tham till all cried for quarter. 

" Ah !" Boid a cha:ioo paaeor-by, who bod watched the whole 
perfonuaooe, " that's the Blianieful way in which these poor 
polygamous wumun aro foreed into submisgion. " Indeed, he told 
the fltonr everywhere, with sundry ingenious embelHshmenU of 
how he had seen these poor women dragged by the hair of the 
liMd to the pump, and then: nearly drowned before they would 
give up ami promise nbmlience. 

It may not be out of p\tuM hore to speak of the many tourists 
who come to Utah with preconceived notions, put themselves at 
once in the biuid^ of our political and nioml enemiee, hear the 
•took -in-trade of the few spostatei who are constantly engaged in 
ntailing the earns bloud-curdting Btorit>ii that have lH>«n told 
for tbe last half centnry, and after two or three days go away 
with an unnltvmhle conviction that polygamy ia answerable for 
erery heartache in ilyrmondom. I could add an entreaty that 
stnogor* shoald make their inqniries of those who have lived the 
new order of marriage, and should Imlbb their conclusions on the 
eridences of their eyes and reasoning fHcnltie«, rather than on 
the huaring of si'cond-hitnd, fiibalons stories. 

Statistics will bear me out in saying that there ore fewer pan- 
pors, fewer criminals, fewer insane amung polygamous than among 
monagamoiia families. It is a welUkauwu fart hero in Utah that 
there are fewer physical defects and gri-ater intelligence in plural 
bomea ibaa in the aamo grade or class in tuonogaoiy. 



' g|B TBS SORTS AMERJCAy BXTISW. 

Tb« ■liliiMMil that potvgnnj «iU nokeagodof a maa 
notlitn^ to me. ilj tnak tupiiiiott i» that men vQl tMCCMarilyJ 
begodlike who rater iMaii n, when will dwell womak, tbir paRr,] 
tbe better part of hmnamtT. Tbe e«n of a Urge EunQ; nalonUjr ; 
incrcaocd a man's aaxietus and eapafaititie*; and it la Utase Terj j 
forcea which aait« to ennoble sod derau any man vbo accet 
tken eheeifoUjraad falflli Utem buthfnUj. 

W^At wwumn'a napect would Dot deepen for the nuui tite BiwJ 
gtiardtag ber ova fMUogs tenderlj while ftill gentle and kind 
the jTODltg wife neeatl; takes beBcatli hia nwf; wfao would 
mfifim enty act. w«i^ every word, that uo bear! given into bis 
keejdag might noDweaearilT soffer J WoaU ihe Dot rvr«rvac8 the 
nan who emgbt to aoothe erefj heaitaBbe and bind ap trtry 
Toond Bade by thii nev order of tblafi f Shf might, the Mr- 
taiBlr woald. enfler in girin^ op a sbafe of that time and atti 
tion that bad bean all ber own. bat ber tore and eateem wobIij 
decpea (br Iub wbe had a^cd and obbuoed ber wQIing con*eDt«1 
and who tb«a bdped her to fndwUly riw from under Motber 
Ere'e cnrw, and find that life bad aba pfoblmM, aims, and |mUib 
for her in which to awaken and dwdop the gifts and talcnla ffrea 
ber by a wiao Fktber. He^ aSao — woold be not find hii lovi^ 
deTotion d<«>pened erety hear for the noble woman who bad oon- 
aented to this thing that they mifht be f^iritoaUy bleespd 
Osniiy; eoMBg her kiudtiei^ ber forheanuiee^ b«r growing 
affection for the ywug wife, who in ber cam was funking sel* 
Mineea in this straggle for the highest and best — would be not 
feel that God had bkased him aborc bit exiMctatiocu ? 

XowbM* on tb« face of this wide euth is tbe love of hnsbandi 
for their wins and wirra for their faoshoada ao intense, n tbrill- 
ing, ami <o divine as it U her» in Utah. Men go by hnndredsinl 
primnsr by thonande into willing exile, rather tban 8Bcri6oe 
hearts of their belorrd companiooa. Women cheer thrm in tbili 
drtcrminatioo, aepantiqg for th» life in the glad hope of 
•tental rsonjon. wbkb no law, nu court of psbBe opinme, e 
em- deny to them. To be tnip In this lit^ thiwigh trial and 
Mptntion is preferred by thoie faiihfol people to tbn btenking < 
Bolean oovenaots. 

In connvftlun with this idea of the atiilu" ctaltntioa of 
bnabawl. and conaqaent ondoe debttem*Qt uf the wm«. iK m»^ 
oBu an iiluetmeiucu When a body of Amaricaa people unite Ma 



familv life among the NOiLVoys. 



349 



State and elect « C »Gomor, lUey choose « innii IxK^atise of hi$ honor, 

kintegritj, »ml iMijn'riur iQlDlligoauc. lu Chv eamv waj Mormon 

tomco Bclout tt husband. The afTnctions of the people twine 

iQii th(>ir chosen hL'ail, if he U worthy, mid hiii |>n'si>iiue i» 

Mnuil and cuurU'd everywhere. I( i;^ so with Mormon lius- 

twndB. 

The Srorrnoti women uv working fprandly at tho wx problom 
>f th« itinet4:ii.'iitb century. The/ are bc^iiiiuiig to move oot on 
indftpemlent tinea of bntituoBs, of ftrt, and of tho profeuiooa. 
Their nuritiil ruliitiona rnuke tiii-i un q^j mntter. The vumati will 
ftlvajn be the hea<] and genius of tht- bonic, but whether it ia a 
corollary that ebo ahitll forever wmh dishea und Krab Qoore has 
become a gnive qneatioti. The rapid proj^ress of the age linds 
read/ disciples in Moriuou wives, who feel the natunil cniring for 
home life and children siiti-stled, yet withal have ample time tor 
the development and caltivution of every fncnlty within thorn. 

Content in knowing hentelf beloved, and wedded to n man 

rboae parity of body and mind U equal to her own,, while liis in- 

vlligeoce U one def^'ee higher, hig wisdom a rock upon which to 

[leao in ererj emergency, the plural wife muji from ber own 

[tlireebold, look oat into tho broad world mid choose such enter- 

vriaa m the fvehi henulf adnpted to, the twenty years of her mid- 

[die life spent in tlie care and rearing of her children the while 

is (iiiietly studying and preparing herself for that fnrtiier 

>n. At the end of lior ohild-bcttring jicriod she may, while 

aidiiijc her own and her huHband's family with her wisdom and 

■ experience, lauui-h out inlu her cboseu vocation, nwdy to add the 

[init« of ber exi>er)i>uce to the great problem of hnmauity. That 

am 18 the development of each individuality to its highest 

l>ilitr, the viie care nnd renring of dependent ohildbood, 

[and the i>eace, happinean, and well-being of all God's ehildreu. 

[That polygamy, wisely and faithfully practi^ied, will be a grand 

factor in the bringing to pasij (hia millennium of nsvfulncas ami 

happinett, I aincrn-ly bollerih 

In the foregoing pages [ have spoken chiefly of the temporal 
or worldly Bide of this mutter. It has, however, a spiritual a«i>ect; 
itia a <|ue8tion, in fact. that, like theaonl of man, is composed of 
two iadiviftihle jmrta, the spirit and the btMly, the eptntnal and the 
teoponhl, neither b«iQ;; complete vitbont the otbor, tho two 
uniting to form a boantifnl, complete whole or entity. 



3S9 TBI yOSTH JJIXSIC J-V REVIEW. 

Tht jziL-^isrr :' ccr cti^i^zr^, bmited br tlie pRJadiced roioe 
of zht As-erl-.-ac rs'rCi.-. i**^ f-.-sr.-wi poIj^vDj froB our beantifal 
^erriiorr. We irf * brrce::. crrLaced. and ftpfntmi people. 
We •» h-oDesuT -^leki:^ :o x-ztizm. » «« txgsn orer fifty jean 
aeo H> ^. a JkT-iibi>i:z^. Jiv-f'farizz p«ocLe. Hete, as a fitting 
cl«t :o mj carz**: c*:r: :^- r>* a cleaivr Tie* of this rexed 
4^^<E«ci>>ii. I vifh TO skT 'c :1a: aifCkkec. pcvjadiced. American 
pcbli'*. T-,vi iiT-j sTTiji tr:^^ Mr-rra-jc. bicids ihe power to aolre 
ibi ^Tifa: cz^kioz of rcre. i .it Eirriire : bas too wtD Tet meet 
:h* iaK?. — I i-:T ::■:: '--■■». 1 »-:■*■ :^.■c wien. — boi come it will, 
for :: is Tr:":^- tr-i: "Tr:::! ~>.ill I'X'k ii->wTi from bttTen, and 
Eii:'-:«-c=::-?af ihill sr-l-r "t ^:=: :i.e lairta." The pit^resa of 
to-iiT will carrj j;- c--: :r, zi-* r.vk* ir-i reefe of the marriage 
kji:;-:=. azd w::i t.-z will :: r»f=- W2ir;h«»» joor Nufci shall sink 
ic:o ~:«T7 *- i iiKT*,-!?, rT ri I: :- tz-? ccr^oir^ tide of adiaiice- 

SrfA Yorxfi Gatis. 




I 



"LOOKLVfi BACKWARD" AGAIN. 

Sy EDWARD BBLLAHT. 



I dok't iDiud admitting thxi [ have greally enjoyod the pivasant 
things which Iiave been nid about "Looking Backwanl." and 
am much oblig*^ to tliutte vbo bare fouDd iL connielcnt with their 
cooioicDOM to "ay them. At the same time, I have read fuch 
aericpUA criticiHius of tho book nud its plan of industrial reform as 
have como to my notice with jftcaler interest, if not greater 
ptttuure, tbnn the congratulatory notices. AVbile holding it ' 
lUxolatcly beyond question that the next phase of iodnatry and 
Mcivty as bawd npoti it, will be a plan of national co4)p«r&tion. aod 
that this plun cannot be pvnnuneiiily bused npon any other prin- 
eipt« than imiTersal indnatrial service witlt equality of material oon- 
ditioQ, I recognize that tho details of such a (xiuperatiTe organtza*'* 
tion may bo greatly variud coiuisLutitly with these principles. '^ 

Though Tadi-ance in " Looking Backward " a scries of details 
of BUcb an organisation, which seem lo me not unrcn^nablo, 
I have been far from considering them as nt>ce«iiarily the beet 
(lorices possible, and hare accordingly been on the lookout 
for volaablv critictams and aaggralions. Perhaps this statement 
may be taken as a snflicicnt rcsponeo to tho large class of oriti* 
dams of " Lnokiug Ba*;kward," which hare nddrei**pd IhemselvoB 
to minor detaiU of the maniipr of life deplrlrd in the book. 
Theae, and vveti many more important points, may be safely left 
t« tho rulora to settle. l'hi< thing for ne to settle— the only 
qKHtion which " I Milting i tno k w anl " has rai)t(>d which it U 
worth the time of lerions men to diacuu — is whether or not there 
baa coma to be. boiween the iDte1le<ct and the conscionce of men 
and th« actual conditions of society and industry, eucli a degree 
of ity and opposition as to threaten the |>©mianence of 

the 1 ~. -...fi order, and whelfaerthere in enongh ground for faith 




y BKFIXW. 



in Ood kod Duui to jxutitj ft liope tbaS the preaeaU onliir mftj be 
tvpboed br one duUoctljr nobler ftod more h nm aiML 

The main objectioa vlueb I nuke U> the Bitkle by QenenI 
WftUcr ID the FebrswT .4/fa»/ir, endtlvd " Mr. BeUunjuid the 
Kew Xaiioiuitist rkrtj!." b ihat ii UrtolW fniU to take into oon- 
•iilentMXi this Ul^«r Mid only reaDj uopansot acpecC of the anb- 
jteU Om [a tMapled to ask wlwr* Gcnenl WjOker bu Uvcd, 
thftt b« it Mo M diieaa ** Lookiag Baekvanl" sud NsLionalUm 
whoUj vithoBt rabnooe to the pnaeat oopnicaleiikrd rcnnetit 
Id the miadf of imd, which alacw haa girta the book it« diottlft- 
tka «ad the novcMMt iU in^etma. Dom he not fcnoir that 
thirty jw% Mgo " Looking Baekvmrd" wootd hxn tiUm &>(> and 
that the reasoa it ha« not diatt » to-da; is that mthtn tbu pariod 
a gnat mrotatien has taken place in the niDde vl leaiiiBg men 
and voBca aa to tha Beccasty and piMAtUty «C ndioal aodal 
reform f 

A ehtioiem of " LoeltiBg Backward " in the Janoaij nnmber 
of Oke Ckmlm^trmry Bt ntm, bjr the eminent French economist, 
fiattlo da lAvckTc ileakTith the abject in a maiutcr eo strongl; 
contmtiag with Geaeoal Walker** Mperfidal and often fiippoot 
tooe Ihot perhapi I eaioot better iadieale raj nteontng than by 
a ((aotatMa fram the tAoang pangnph. M. Larekye aaje : 



4 






iwvtH^ Mr. Willi Mjl 

n I '-- T-- -TTilliiiliw ififci 



««MiMe»llMMItttfa»«iAtetWkM ritflMMAto-wMk. FWvklHltW 
t hfc ^ af IMi w«*M ■• Ml ta iirwliin tH* tta kn «l JmUm, ■«■ lUl 

U, Lavileye then qnote* Dnpont White : 

«Mn ■HieiitliB w aKkia M*taa«< ite Mt kMta 
e » i» w vai (Mrs 6mtb raowd ikaa vrcr. rrtm lU* awUi t »«• ww Naa 
»N«M4KMWMi«««ft 1 — j ^1 ~ ' I mini I - [ I. II 1 ■ ij I Lt. _iliiir 
a fc —<*■ « ■»«» fcHJt»W»t H i — l a l i l i tWt«*M«m»k*»b)>MeiiwMdt 



. Ik^ oa Geoenl Velker't 
ty eaELChn." 



SN 



TBt AUKW AiixjtfCAy Bxntsw. 



. to thtuDCKUit of militATj •tiaciplinc tbtjr ARfobjpcted to. There 
u« aoB)« oDv or two hQudrvJ thonnnd poM-olBae enpfejeea in the 
roqoti;. Has (iracml AVklkcr boanl «aj Tttmonof a propOMd 
whnlwilii deMrtioa on thw pvt b/ mmob of tlw wnritj of 
llirir (UidptitM ? DoM ba nnlCTsund — to dsb om of bu own ex- 
priMBin M to the indoatriii] ArrtiT — that " tlwnr ftre ubliEnl to 
turrrndn- will. |<ower of cboioe, fntdon of m/Oitntnt, »lmoet in- 
liiTidualilj**? If not, will he tell OB whj tbej khonbi hare totio 
•u »b«a tiwir naml>er dmll be mDltiplinl a hondml-fotd t 

Jiut bet* let BM My fa powing UmI tb* al^t pncaniioa of 
loiAhig aboat tben. befoiv {jmnj; into eoanlttMu efer Ibe |ilau 
«f tbt KatfanalMta, would geo^nUy t«r«al to oar critka Uit 
VDridng |triaeipki of tb* Katioaal pba alraadj in partial opant- 
tioa in coBtanpatsiy iwliHtiyf pol it iea. and noietv. Tbcro b. tiH 
deed) aotbit^ in tbo Xational fiaa wbieb does not abeadj exirt 
as a Kcm or ligorMts sbaoi ia tbc pnaeat order, and tbJs k » 
tmplf becaost XtrtaaaHwi ia ardatHm. 

Bat perhaps it ob^; ba objaelad that tbe p r i a a nt KOTenuBeat 
iplnyrf mmy ndca wban ba phawii. tbaftbu work i« Toloiitaiy. 
Tbt NfilT ia tbe im plat* ia thai bis votk aaat. ia fad, be n- 
gaidad a* oow pnlm ? , iMMveb ai ba, Kka «Q at aa.aMt votk 
ar itena^ Ha paniM Waaa bb plaea aalda ba caa 0ad otbar 
wvrit lo do, and be voaU have this liber^ aadar tW Natiooal 
yJMi. with tba a d d iti sa ri ad iMT^ a t^t a al i r aai l Iri i la gBAaase 
wnM rMvida all j mOttt heBtin fsr Ma aba denad to 
cbaasa aark or lacataoa. Tbe Xi tio ael pfaa is evca m> abitie 
tbalik«inpff«auta«aakabiaftbaMlaf Us 61^ aftaravay 
WwC«ii»»,tfWAaa' iiBllaiuMiaa fMrtcr ar balf tba 
ia»t of aip|«rt af vtbir cMnak 

la Ti»« of tba ii f i m ii l iiii ff iia law abidk OaiNnl Wdkar 
baa biba. H ai^ir ba aad la 0tm iiHIiati ibM iha aM^ i»- 
VHlMataMhicbsCvMa tbaiifttMy^pifesaiwdKalMa^^iistba 
fcai th l O a kttar ylanw ^a i>^.dn^ J^r. ■■' -f^iini im tba 
Riaaadaa abitb tbaw mA-. -rma^ JUl abla- 

ssfK^Ki^maaam,^^ «a tba 
mhrthm 



aU»»% 



bsKM 



14 



to eve*} 



" LOOKJSa BACKWARD" AOAlit. 



3ff5 



eitEs«n, whether able to work or not. As in military mntters the 

dutT to figlil UiHiuditioiiL'tl upon tho |ihvt>i(>ul ubilitv, while the 

right to protacdon M conditioned only upon citizenship, m ire 

woiilil condition the obligation to work u{>on thu etrou^b to work, 

hill the right to support upon cUixoiiahip only. 

It wonld, initiH>(l, appenr that in using; tht> military analogy I 

hod nnwtttingly Hc-t a Himre in divcm wuvg ior GvnumI Wnlkor, 

for hi" aayii iii auolhcr plaof : 

"la Mr. BanoBF^MiiiTBllwUibopBM allkCbMiil ora lo cdIdt oqutrtLlent pfa;*- 
InlemdlUona. TImoAcwb »aA prlvaM* *ra to Imv in uU napoctatlieBBino, tbo 
Wgl)Mtti*rlmE ■» pr ef oreDoe yhatoTw pt«c \Jb» hmmubI. atoolUolr do taMarlnl 
aouUvMloii txiac kirudod to tbo icroatawt powovtaFTodnoUooor in KdmloJB- 
tnttm. No'*, Um raU U racy diffkowii fntna tUa la thanalamioa of Ui«elvll]a*d 
woeU, Mul Mr. IkiUamjr would do w«U to )m oftnfol, leM, in Ukrtnc <nt tbe prin- 
flM* of p*d«d Mwanla MnrMpMidb^ to gMid*UMUi of rank, h« ilioald omit ft 
fiiMiiii wliliili niijri»iiMhlilni1iiiiTniil iiiiiTinfnn iii iilinmi " 

A coneidcrablc exp«rieiiC9 of criticieme of " Looking Back- 
wanl" bygpntlpnien who had befln prevenlcd by prees of more 
important buBinem from ruailing the book had prepared mo for 
some curious Htutt.-mi-ut« of wluit I had put in luid what I had luft 
ont ; but [ was didtinotlj etartled to Ictam that Ihu principle of 
gnd«d KwaniB corroBpondiog to ranks had beon l«ft out of tho 
conrtitntion of wlial Oenoral Walker calls "Mr. Bellamy'B army." 
rpon consnlliug the book igoin. I was plea««d to find that my 
recollection of it was correct, and that, in fact, a special and 
charnctfrintic featnrp of the industrial anoy is such a system of 
"rewards corresponding to gnuhitione of ranlc " as makes dili- 
gfDOO and B«hievement in the public eorvico the sole and 
mro nrenne tn nil social dlstiootion, poeCH of anthority, and 
honors of ofHce. 

It is quite tnte that the proviaion for the physical needs 
of all is the ume, biocaiiw thow nocda are the same, and 
becauac it is a rital principle of N'ationnll'ini that nil forms of 
Bsemeary work, from the wavengcr's to the stateitman'ii, are 
eqiinlly worthy. The ijnestion which arises on this mitiundor- 
atandinjE as to tbe nso of terms is whether Oenrral Walker fairly 
•■■ public wntiment in roling out any kind of rowird or 

> ' . L'icept moiiuy, as eOeclual. I submit that he ig not a 

lair reprpsertatire in this respect of the sentiment of men in 
C- ' .r<n probably of his own serions wwind thought. 

'■ ibut it \i the diflcronco between the salary of tbe 

liiatenant and tbe captain, or the honor and authority of tho 



mi tmkM firi^t hf At ma^f hm^ thm faj mi 

' nlknafc.hiitW 

■flii totteivm* <f Ih* 

MiUm*)f hnd erf th« ^na apim tb« 
laacpittkai tin aoim of Uk sUicr 
■ Mrdad Aoe, ii the tatkmiaf : 



M.M SMm Am 



Wrfkcr 



i 



l»thtfcrtyfa«,aiiM«w1rtpiMn» tt the earn, i B#«kera 
nj or imflj tJMi tW mom «( dotf ■■< the deBi* of 
jk]oii« will iaflacnee all Bsa waMtitmHw. Am hai jtut bccQ «^ j 
plkioM], ifafl rvvMnli of snthori^, of aoesd imnk and paUie proni- 
, iwaoe, an beU oat to voiken aa the prbv of diligeaoe. ia a 
■antr id vhicb tb«; Derer hare bees btooght to bev apoa 
i^Ma aator* atwlvr oar iodiutna] or aoetal mtiiw before, mmm- 
lUiamrUbegaii. Tliaoiiljiiieeatiresvlueharaidiuinat«d Dnder 
tfca Nalioaal plan an Uie desire of inordinate wealth and the few 
of poTerty. 

Bat it U ID raia that we pOe op other nolivet ia place of Uitt 
loit of gold and the far of w^nc Oeaenl Walker refaaaa to 
allow that any other caotiros thim theao an c^mble of moriog 
nen to any adeqoate deirree. " Bnm the oh^a of mankind, to 
tha pTMent time^" be aajs, " the main ^ar lo exertion hu been 
want.'' 

t):<! n^tif rj] ^VoIkvT vnr eoiploj a tramp whn was workios on 
ail' for •omethinj7 to 611 it p Did b« find that 

wcl ac puretjr and Milelj want, waa a profit 



-lOOKiya BACKWARD- AOALV. 



3S7 



tile Bort of labor ? Has he not fonnd, on the eront niry, Ihut the 
rurk of a man trbo bu) a home. moDc; in tbe bauk, and an in- 
•nnnce on his life, a man with whom want is out of anj immedi- 
consitliTKtion, in worth (tre limes as iiiiieh ])«r hour a.« that of 
lie tntmp wlioni he would apparently hnvo us iH;wpt iw the iJi;»] 
laborer? Want, indiM.**], ao far from being tbe nuuaepur to work, 
: the motiro of only the worst work, wliije j:oo<1 work is done in 
proportion in which fear of want in absent, and the instinct 
of Belf-developnient, of ambition and honor, reputation and 
power, takea its place. In no wnj is tho impotonrc of want naa 
tpar to exurtion mor« Btrikingly itluattated than in its failur« to 
Blimnlate preoisely those olnfisaos of soeiptr which feel it moet. 

TUeio are thousands of wretched beings in thin and every other 
oonntry, life-long idiom, paopeni, ragubonds, who will stArro, 
freeze, and ciidurv uvory pang sooner tlian accept work, even 
when it 13 offered to thcin. la it asked what Xationntism will do 
with this class ? Tfao answer is straight and swift. It will do 
rith them what theprrsent nrder cannot do; it will niuku ihom 
^work. K((iiality of riglit^ meaos equality of duty, and in nndor- 
tokintf to guarantee the one the nation will nndertuke to enforce 
the other. 

Oenernl Walker accusos me of militaritm. [ confoss an nd 
mirBtioD nf the solJier's buflincso as ilic only one in which, from 
,ti») start, men throw away the purse and rcjeot orery sordid 
idard of merit and a^^biovcment. The very conditions which 
Nationalism promisee — that is to kay, socnrity as to livetihood, with 
dnty and the love of honor lu motives — nre the actual conditioiu 
of militory life. Is it a wonder that war has a glamonr ? Tliat 
tmour we would give to the pcacefnl purmita of iudastry by 
tking them, like the dnty of the soldier, public itervice. Some 
have said thai Nationaltaro leqnires a change in hnman natore ; 
it men on turning mldiers do not become better men, do not ex- 
srieDoe a ohange of heart. Thoy aro m«rcly placed nndor the 
inflnence of different incentives. Make industry a public aorrico, 
war now is, and you will win for work the Lnspirutioa of war. 
For 1^ -nrtion of Qcneral Walker's argument next to be tok^i 
up, I beepeak . - 'icular attention. He obserres : 

^^Wmm ibo pi.««t— r "* m UMtm to whtcb •raryoM •lumldlHn anaoflli aad ta 

,lnvblokUorandlUaMorii(o«hiiulil cmmb to ba udDiMi and aWni. tnxii 

nara bmI m4ti tlmli (or Um (tittira tboitUt ho WwhhiHI and Uw aooetamriet, 

t«ad w> bImiww Ittunrkm <tf tUn ■hwiiil vomt o—fly K> alt— wro LUiwH, 



acB 



rsx xnerB AMEUCJLX . 



4 I «oiiU atk GcBCnl Talkw vImI&m^ Uitt " viU, rak dnm* 
ctf ft itatB in vUck «« Asdd hn* CMHffb aad U ipan of aaoflft- 
■riMiaJwiiBiitlp lanriai. with^ rn » t1 icwi^ Trt «i — df labor 
wd aa »&xwCj abovt th» fatan, « BOt pranaelf lb« id«l wiucfa 
■n a< M apMid ou- &JS Asd ^ftai fa ■qriag to ndiw for tlia 
bmAi of o«nti«f9w obt fliwiHa^ tmt cUUvm. aad oar rala- 
li*K VobU Oaanal Wslkir tc*di m tfc«t ta •eekkoK thii uImI 
Cartttmhw aad AomAmt to vw« nath* mk ol baeoaiBg 
ftljBMus ? PniteUf ML W4 DM. tW vbale XatioaafiBt 
IBUfMJtiM n Manlf tfaau iMftBid o^ wfifciijt this ideal eret^ 
Mttfar UMdlta^ Ikdeffil hm mm^aai I^m^ for tb« 
MMfc pwt HMBBC ft fnfti^ *• nili ov ctel*, ni bj coa&tMd 
Md MMMtad acCMB I' »WMfl aaoBMB faraO. Genenl Walkar's 
paiat^ tkes, ^faws to b* tbtt wUlt tte iAKt to Inaar oar cMWdi. 
tisB is Mtoaaaddhk^ sad ««cr a aaltor of datj , so loas aa it is 
paiwiil tadiniaallt. hj ika torthiil af aatoal hiirfraww^ h 
teooM* IM.iiiMiia Ua towaat tfc* wcimi of motoal mmC 
aaea aad eoOperakfaw la ailaftod. I tkiak llm iiilii ■ill jiImII 
ttet Ida Mt ii^twato m. cWauv tfcfe | 111^1 at fimfral 

Walker^ MiaMaaaaalWaart aaidiaaij id poirfy eri^aal 

^ coofiribatioB to laaal m k m n vUdi kac nwirlT baaa ■«]». 

Thin an rarw thai fit MHill"|iaiiia nwnnnrin.iii. 
vitfaa fccfiactkMBatkaaBaaaivact W i^ aAv aU, a Satioil- 
■sk at heart; " Uwra a«a Jti B |ixW that an nanSac ; then ara 
pofaw that dtpc«NaiBdU«hi and tNail WeQ mt w» kiafc for- 
aard-— (analy tlw mb m • XaKM«a&t>-** to a balMr itoto, 
in vhieh mank af Uw lianhafi of tha kaam laMdirawi ^1). bj 
wma^ ova tffartak ha** Vr«« w > w d. Bat it *«s bd BriUaij 
«bo> said thai ia the svmi of I^mt bawva^^aaU tott aot hnad.' 
gaito right. C ia n a L AM IWI iMy «»a w thu tWr AoaH ao» 
eat lUr bnatl ia tha swof sT ether p««c^»N btwa. 

U sOaaoai eonliot of 



ch»< 



.rwcal Talfcaraaja: 
lafthJayriA- 



«£ odssUt aad 



CIIJ 



MaU ha 



"LOOKUJQ SACKWAMD" AGAIN. WO 

Tniiiig to lire in the country, and consequently there would be 
m general nisb to tbe cities. It eeenis very oviileni to me tb»t 
GcDcnd Walker would nevur have rnijoMl thia poiut had lie not 
b«come temporarily tnUe<l op as to whicb Bide lie hold a bri^f for. 
Surely no one cnn Itoow better than GoiieriJ Walker that it is 
pnnnsely iu thia niutt«r ot MjuuUziiig lliu wlvatilageit of country 
vith city life that the present industrial nystem hao scored one of 
ilta mMt oompleto and signal failures. The abandonment of the 
^.bam for the town is conceded to be ono of the most alnrmiog 
features of the prt^sent social HituutiuD. What on earth waa 
General Walker thinking of to call attention to the fact that, at 
thft preeent rate of the ruiih dtyward. the abandon oi cut of thi* 
country bids fair to be completed long before tbe Kstionaliets 
bare a chauc« to try their liandsP Could there be a more strik- 
ing illastration, if for the pwrposo of tbe figure .we may identify 
Ucnerul Walkt-r with the Gy.<itcni hv dcfi-ndi*, of » niim with an 
actual and coloesal beam in hU own eye animadTerting upon a 
Uieoretiuul mote in tjumehody's elw ? 

Meanwhile it serves onr purpoeo (liat Oeueml Wulker should 
hare raised this point, for it gives me an opportunity to remark 
that a direct tendency of Nationalism will be to rhuck the exoess- 
iw growth of the eities at the expense of tbe conntry. A central 
control of pnidiioliunand distribution will, to a great degree, de- 
Btroy the adrantages whicli, under the comp«titive system, great 
cities hflTo over villagra as lucalitlva for inanufae luring, and the 
roHiltwillbo iodastrial.uid as a consequence social, deoentntlizn- 
tion. The coSporatiTe featnree of the National plan will, indccti, 
gimtly increase the ple-aaures and conTenienccs of city life, but 
not relatively more than thuy will enhance tbe attractions of tifo 
in tJio Tillage. 

I ahall now take op the severest charge which Genond Walker 
Dukee against Kationalism. IIo snys that what ho justly vallu 
*' the fundamental projtocution of N'ationati>im," namely, that all ^ 
workora shall abarc allko in the uutioual product, is *' disbonest. " ' 
That there may be no donbt as to his position, he add« that " to 
iaaj that one who produr-es twice as niueb as another shall yet 
have no mora is ptdpublu n>bbi!ry. It in to tnnko thiit man for 
half his time a iilavi' working for othu-m without reward." ^ 

Here we have a very explicit statement that the prodocer 
ehould have what he produces, and^ as a necessary cousefiuoncfl. 



390 



TUB NORTH AMERICAN REVIEW. 



that thaBon-prodnceraboiild have Qotbiug, for evidontly, i( the 
producer bos sJI lie producci, there vUl bo nothing loft for tho 
non-prod uoor. Moreoter, if it be "dUhonest" for the venli 
worker to iibun! oqually with the strong, it vould obviously ba 
HliU more ao forthe idler to get anything at all. N~ow, underthe 
present industrial sjstcm it is tolerably notorious that tb« bardMt 
worbere and chipfest prodocers arc the poorest paid oiid irorat 
treated, while not only do idlers share their product wilb them, 
bat get the lion's share of It. Is Geueral Walker willing tbatthe 
pnrsont indueirial system ehall be remoilollcd on the pl&o ho lays 
down as the ouly honest ono— of gi^ng the whole product to the 
producer ? IS so, the Anarchists ore to be oongmtiilated npon the 
anlor of their new dinciple. If not, he certainly owes an ex- 
planation to the friends of the proaent lodustrial eystem for gir- 
ing away their oxsq bo completely. 

f Let mo snggost that hi« explanation may be rory simple. In- 
stead of the word "prodttoes," he should hare used the ph raw 
"eaji get hold of." Thu eimple change makes all the difference 
iu the world. To say a niaji \s entitled to wbat he " prodncea" 
is to inrite inalant revolution ; but to aay that a man is entitled 
to what lie " can get hold of " is to state the fundamental priuei- 
ple of the present onler. 

( Meanwhile 1 will briefly mention the grounds on wrbich 
KstiomUism. insists that the weak worker shall share equally with 
the stronger, or, to put it more broadly, that all men and women, 
while required to render such service as they may bo capHblo of, 
sliall sharR aliko thiji total product. This law nsults from the 
fact tliut Nntioimlism contemplates society, hotli coiuomically 
and morally, not as an accidental conglomeration of mutnallf 
independent and unconnected molecules, but as an organism, not 
oomptet« iti ita molecules, but in its totality only. It refuatts to 
recognise the individual as standing atone. or as livingor working 
to or for himself alone, but ineieta upon regarding bim as on 
inseparable mcmlwr of humanity, with au allt^aace and » duty to 
his fellows which he could not, if he would, oast off, nnd with 

'claims upon his fellows which are equally obligatory upon tbctn. 
In a word, Kntiooalism holds that every one is born into tbe 
world & debtor to society for all he cnn do, acrcditor to socictv for alt 
heneuiltt. [t.^(<'wo^'>e a pIiiH by which this gnat ex<;Iiiui^uufdutica, 
this diach nroeol respouaibilities, may be effected. 



I 



Pcrhnpti Qencnt] Wiilkcr will be Me to itoo that with this plan^ 
which ooufits all btiiDiui beings equal purtuun in a biuinuss 
carried on frcoi geaeratioii to f;oti«ratiou, from the beginniuf; of 
humanity to th« end of the world, and indefinitely fiirther, tho 
pructice of Satunlay-night HKltvmeiiU betwiH^ri the memUTx of 
the firm, with mutiuU ImnilwAehings aa to farther responslbilitica 
for oud another. wouM fiCAroelj* be conriatcnt. 

A defect of (ioncml Walker's method ex & social philosopher 
ifl that he overworks his surageii nnd Polynesians as illastnitioDg, 
when he ooald eaitiljr find much more pertinent iLiuilagtpa in the 
couunonity about him, if he would only look around » little. For 
example, in going on to argue that a u aifonn rato of compeuaatioa 
ia rainons, h« says, "Snch a levelling downvarde would end all 
progren," nnd addrt that there are plenty of tribes nnd races in 
which it is in full operation. Unfortunately for Nationalism, ]ie 
remarks. " They are ull raieeruble enibrut«d savages." Now, tho 
trade-anioDs of America and England are, to a very bug^ ex- 
tent, buaed upon the principle of a uniform scale of wages, and 
on this basis bavo been doing the world's work for a long lime. 
lb win, doubtless, be % paiufnl atirpriso to them, and, indeed, to 
the oommnnitie^ whose work they do, to leani that they are " all 
miserable vmbnitoil savages." Is not General Walker a trifle harsh? 

Tbo limits of this article compel mo to pass on to that por- 
tion of Gpupfal Vt'alker's paper in which ho diiwiuHiiea the aims 
and ends of tb<> VatlonalisL party. lie oomptuins that he finds 
m statement of the means 1^ which Nationnlints propose to ac- 
oomplish thotrond of hitving all industries operated in tbo inter- 
est of and by the nation. Now, I may be permitted to »ay that it 
is entirely General Walker's own fault if he does not know just tho 
•tepa by which Xatiunulist^ propose to muke a beginning in car- 
lying OQt their programme. In public addresaop, in artidcH pub- 
lished in recognized organs of the movement, and in hearings 
before tegislatire committecH. there hag tieen no laek of explicit 
rtataments on thitfsnbjmt from the beginning of the movement. 
In this n-^jH-ct, indeti). its history fruni the i<tart has been a prac- 
tical n^f station of the charge of being impntctical, brought against 
tt by miodry eritios who have not eared to know the tmtb. 

In the ntixi \t\tu'n, 1 niti.«t correct d serious misstatement made 
by Oeoernl Walktar. tie says in a foot-note to his article : 

" WMla Ik* tare of the book vom to •)••» In Vta and itkkM tn VKO. Um mw >Ute 
VOL. CL.— XO. -WO. %1 



863 



THE iVOftrif AMERICAN RBViEW. 



bM b«ea IB pBrfMt oimMlan for • 1mic uiko. Tlia cnu <liaacB !■ apdkBH a< u 
h»viwc ftaa pifcpa hmanUiwotMlT. ttooutfi tlurtmiil* raRnaUonaCtbslaliuttW 
■no jr.' 

This Btatemciit U wlioity uritliotil fotindation. In ttie eermon of 

Dr. Bartuii llio cbange is )lcst:iil)i.'ci a» luiring Xnxa i-ffontecl "in 

the time of one genrantion/' aud vUuwlivro is epukou i>f u having 

bten coniplotod "early ia the Iwentietli (jentury." There is 

nowhere in the book the sltglitest fouiiUatiou for Gtineral 

Walker's iloctnmtion that " the great change is spoken of asli&ring 

taken place itistuntinicoualy throtigli the Bimple famution nf Uie 

induetrial Avmy." it lias alwava b««u my own belief, ant) 1 think 

that of NationaJitJts in guncrul, that, always subject to tlie leading 

^of eventt), the process of lite uatiouulisnltoti of industry will be 

' grudiial, first embracing certain 9Pmi>pii1>lio businesses and 

extending to otherd ns indicated by their fiput-'iiil conditions ; the 

,coiitrtiUiug idea being always U> aroid deraugcueut of buiiincGs 

JMid undue hardship to indiTiduals. CouOscatiou is nut a method 

^f Kationalisn). 

For the benefit of those who may share the self-inflicted 
ignorance of General Walkur, I will brieSy etato what, to begio 
with, Nntioiiulists propos<<. First and foromost. thev favor ad 
imniediiLt« and radical improTcment in the whoul xyst^in of 
the country, which shall give the children of the [wor equal ud* 
viinhigcit with tho^ of the rich> so far as regards the puhlic- 
echool syetem. In the school-room they would bvgiii co liuild the 
□cw nation. To this end tliey propn«t(> rniiiing the limit of com- 
pulsory education year by your, as rapidly as pMblic sentiment will 
permit. They propose making the compubory jicriod for all 
j children cover the entire period during which the schools aro 
open, instead of a part of it, m, for examplo, in MaMachneotts a 
beggarly twenty weelcs in the year, the m^hools being npun nearly 
tnice that time. They pro])OBe to make thi employmeiil of chil- 
dren during term time or school hours a niisilemeanor. In 
caaee of great poverty they propose such proTieion for the partial 
support of children as may bo ncoMwry to eiinble them to 
atlond school. 
' The Nationalists propose the immediate assumption by the 
muuicipulitics uf tbt- liuuLiu;;;, lighting, and nurfaoe and utcvatod 
car lines of towns, with all other services now p<irfonncd by corpo- 
nitlonB. ^JitaiK <:>pp'-)W and protest against the gmnting of any 



'*LOOKiya BACKWARD" AGAIN. 



sea 



norv |mbUo (ranohiaw to individuals or corpornlious under nny 
droamatoaoes. IM Uio peoplo attend to their own bunineai. 
I They propoie tbv oHtiopaliiuitiou of tolepbones and telcgrupba, 
and ttic aetiiiitiplion of tim express biuiDesa by the )x)st-office. 
Thoy propose iiiiti(*ual votilrol of the nulroihls of the country. 
They propoae that all miuoml deposits hi-'rojtft«r discovered or 
opene«] shall belong to the nation. They propose national con- 
trol of nil cold minca now in operation. 

A hoily of 1,1^00,000 workingmen would by these measures be 
token into the pablic aervive. It in proposed that Ibis foroe 
should be orgnuiaed on a thoroughly bamane basis of steady 
employment, rensonable hoan. pensions for eicknciw, accident, 
and Bge, with liability to diacborge only for fault or iucomptitoueo 
after a fair heariuf^. 

A specific plan ia proposed by which politiual exeentivos wotdd 
bedeprivMltif ititliteoce through putronoge over the inilu«triiil 
•err ice, and iu abuse forpartimn ends rendered impoHsible. 

It ia churned thut the publii; control of these branches of 
baaitiesa would result not ouly in the grwt betterment of the eon- 
dttion of the employees, but also iu far grouler nhoiipDVfis and 

loieuay of sturiev. Take the ringte instance of tho coal husi- 

M. Instead of abutting down the minoa whenerer the demand 
i[Kinirily slackens, and putting op pricce as soon as it starto up 
aipiin, the government would work the mines continuoasly totlieir 
full rapacity. Instead of piling up tlio pro*Inct at tidewater to 
dug tmtispurtjuiou at any increase of demand, and IbuH excuse 
exlortionace prices, the coal would be forwartled as fast as 
mined to distributing centres all orer the country, from which 

>riitnmcr» conld be promptly and con\-eniently 8er%*ed, The 

'Joe of coal uudt-r these eonditiang would never exceed the 
ttgnrea ropreeentod by the cost of mining and the actual freight 

ider favoFabte transportation conditions, nor. with suitable aceu- 
ittUtions at the distributing points, noc<l it vary betwooQ winter 
and nunmur, or between mild and severe seoKoiiii. 

Lwk of space forbids me to dwell u[>on the ofTect to pariro 
our Irgfdatire and congrcasioiiikl lobbies, to put an end to stock- 
gambling in its chief fono. and to terminate the wholesale 
swindling of tho inrosting public by railrond promot<^'re, specula* 
ton, grabberu, and wreckcm, which would nisnit from nationalis- 
ing tb« railrooda. Edward Bellamt. 



LIVELY JOUUNAUSM. 

DT MAX o'RRLL. 



8peak of electric Yijiht, of {ihoimgrnplie and gTBpbophonee, if' 
jou like ; speak of those ibousutii] uikJ one inTentioiu which hftvo 
comv out of the Amoricoii brain ; but if 70a triah to mention the 
greatest and most wonderful Achievement uf American adjvitjr^ 
do not bcsitato for a momcut to give the palm to American 
journal i»>m : it is simply the nee plm ultra. 

You will find mme people, I wimtt, whu condemn itii load 
tone ; othem who ubjecl to )t« mcddliuj; wilh private life ; oth^rB, 
ogiun, who bnve aomething to saj of its cunl«ni]>t for statuniuiits 
which ure in pcrfuct nccordftnco vith strict truth. 1 even believe 
that a Ki'eiicli writer, whom I do not wish to name, once taid that 
verjr fuw elatomeiite to ba found in au American pajier were to 
be relied upon— beyond the dal-e. People may eay this and may 
say that alHiut Amcrioan joumaliftm ; I confess that 1 like it, 
eimply beoiiise it. will supply you with twelre — on Snndays with 
ttiirty — pagc6 that are rondublc from the first line to the last. 
Tee, from the llrst lino to the last, inuludinj; the advortisemente. 

The American jounialial may be a man of iettei?. but, abo'c lUl, 
he muat poaeees a bright and graphic pen, and hie ecrvicM arc not 
re<iiiired if he cannot write a racy article or paragraph out of the 
meet trifling incident. Ho mnrt relate facts if h« can, but if he 
cannot, so much the wome for the fact^ : be must bo entertaining 
and turn out something that is readable. 

Suppose, for example, a reporter haa to eond to his paper tlia 
acconnt*of a polico-ooort procooiling. Therois nothing moro Im- 
portant to bring to the offico tinui the case of a nervantgirl who has 
robbe<l her mistress of a pair of diamond earrings. The Knglish 
reporter will bring his editor aomclhiiig in the following style : 

" Mary Jane Smith was yesterday cbiir|r('d bofort' Mr. Ho-wnd- 
So with -a pair of diamond earrings from her mistrvea. U 



LIVELY 



s{ij)ears (but, liut Mmirlii}', aa iln. ti. weiii tu livr room to dress 
for dinuer, ebc mis^ a piiir of diiimoiid eumiige, wliich elia 
usually kept in a little drawer in her bedrooiu. On (juestioiuDg her 
tnaid on tlio Biibj(4-t. ebo roeoivod iiicnbcrent ariKwers ; snapicion 
Ihat the mitid was tlie tbivf nrvue in her miiid. and . . .," und 
hdlf a columo iu this dry stifle will be published iu tbc TYmn, tho 
Standard, the Daily Xttcv, or any other London moruing paper. 

Now, the Aniflrican rcporwr will l>c required to bring eomelb ing 
■ little moro ont«>rtiiining if he hop«« to be worth bis salt on the 
staJT of hifl paper, and he will probulil; get np an acoonot like 
thin: 

" Mar}' Jaue Smith is a pretty little bruuotte of some twenty 
niDinion:. On looking in the gluim at her dainty littlu oars, she 
fancied bow lovely n pair of diamond cnrringg wonld look in 
them. So one day iibu thought iihe would try on those of her 
laiHtresB. IIow lovely she looked ! said the looking-glass, and tbo 
Mopbistopbele« that is hidden iu the corner of every mau'e or 
womau't breast mioti ftiiji^getiLed that she should keep them, . . .," 
etc., etc.. and the whole will ri^ad like a little atory, probsUy 
outitled somethiug like, "AaotfaorQretcbcu gone wrong through 
the lore of jeweU." 

The heading has to be thooght of no lesa than the paragraph. 
Not a lino U to be dull in a ]iaper aparklin? ult over wilh eye- 
ticklere of all lorts. Ob ! thoHe deliciouH headings that would 
rosuHcitato the niuat dvttd of the dead and tonke thcin sit up in 
their gravet ! 

A short time ago a maa named ^mith woa bitten by a rattle- 
■riukc and truatod with wbi^koy ut a \ew Turk hospital. An 
Koglitb paper wonld bnve just mentioned the fact, and have the 
poragrsph headed, "A man curiil of a rattlctuiako bit<! by 
wbiftkey"; but a kind oorrcepoudent scuds me the beadtiigs of 
this bit of int«lligaiiee in five New York papera. They arc aa 
follows : 

]. fimith in all right I 

8. Wbiskuy doos it ! 

3. The Buake routed at all points I 

4. The rejitile is nowhere ! 
6. Drank for three days 1 ! 

I^ a batch of offioialii bo diamiswd ; do not suppoae that au 
Araorieaa editor will accept the news with Auoh a heading m 



fWK NOKTU AMKHtCAN RXVlStt*, 



"Dismissal of afficinls." Thf n'porl4T will have to bring mkuc 
liibcU that will fotoh tlie attvntiou. " lluncre aX the Ciutom- 
Uwue " or ** So nuuty beads in th« tmakets 1 " wHi do. Now, I 
maintnin that it rwinirca a wonfi«>rfitl imagiiialioa, something lit- 
tlv short of gviiius, tu be Hblt<, (•rt^rr day. to hit on a hundml of 
socb heading But the American jonrunlist doca it. 

An American paper is a hngo cnl)ei;tinti nf ehort Btorice. Tfa>f 
Sunday etlition of tho New York ir<>r/./, the Xcw York Beralii, 
the Chicago Hwald, tho Chitsigo 7>i'iH«#, the Boston ffmild. 
tita Boaton Globe, and many other*, is aomethin; like ton rol- 
omes ot mucdluMous hicnUare, and I do not kaow of auy 
fechierement to be oomparod to it. 

The etcamer that brought rae to Amm«a a few we«ln a^ 
vhen ■OHM hundred milt-s from Sandy Hook, waa boarded by tb« 
pilot, who hroaght the \ev York papm with him. After being 
dvad to the worid for qcotIt a fortniKbt, wc pasaragen pounced 
«pon thrm. The first ii«in that caught ray eye waa headed, 
** Mn. Nash takes her tim«- oter it.'" It appears that a fonnt^'lit 
before Mrs. VaA Had bad a baby, that a week later she bad prv- 
lenled ber bnshand with a aeoood, aod ih&t ibe day before a 
third bad conw into the wocU. liow. I mm nady to admit that 
iu Fiance and in Englaadt vbere things are don* in the oM- 
liiAkiii vays, Mrs. y^ woold have taken only one day to pre- 
•Mtt Xr. Nash with this nnmanaa fastily: but wbai is tb* Ba» of 
ooodnf to Amertoa if it ia to see things doae aa ther are la Ae 
Old Worid ? •> Mn. Na^h takot bcr tine or«r it !*' How can- 
dUl W«hii«lyl bavgood-banond! H^ tiaM &r Mr. Na 
lo pttt a mof to it, I akieald tarf. 

I <»niK>t dobettarthantoootpawanA—Tcmpyf taaatora 
wlwe* 1^ goaiK t^ aitadak an hkaOed aa as to tmiawiialrfy 
iCrik* Ua ram«iii. A Um waks ^» I Wnd mt fr«e«4, 
OhImmI CWifaa R. TiyW, editoraf that wmj wmeemtml |sp«r 
liieBDitaa 0Ma, gitv an ialeneci^ aUnai ao iow^fiM bafai* 
tb* amabcn of tU Xew Sb(kad ClaK of BattM. Be Ban- 
twwd tfcai U>» y ip t ii tor ar* Mai y^a kad w moA righl lo 
■Mk* lifci A lp rtaJw ■ctaflth* m Ite ^Mfe as amy 
It t^ OtsMt is «( opiaiM t^k jeuiia&fia ii acn 
j»raal»aa«sMwu !i ■ ii, l^iwe wftfchMa. U 
■at to nu^ MMK tli» U^Mt ai aaNh««ff 
ta be MChiag bat a 'ni-MMarmiri Miaiyris^ I apia wick 



UVELY JOVRNALlSit. 



367 



Now, is journaliBio a uommorci*! enterprise ? Well, I cnnnot 
help t4)iuking ttiiit iL it, cfipetitalt; in u dcmocrucj. Tho people 
of a demiKtmoy like Ani«ri<!ai aru nduoiiUil in politics. Tboy 
Uiink fur liiemselviw, luid can> but HtLlv for tlm opinions of Aaah 
and HUch » joiimalii»t on nny question of public interest Tbe; 
wont nowa, nol liU-rary cttauvd on nowe. Wlu'ii I hear sotno 
Amoricans tny that they object to their joumaliam, 1 noswer thut 
joarmUiste ans like other p«oplti who Btipply the public : thoy 
kMfp the arliolu that U vanted. 

A free country poeaessea the gorernment it dcaerves, and tho 
jourtialism tJuit it nuts. And u people active and basy as tho 
AmoricanB are want a iournalimn that will keep tlioir int*re«t 
awake and amosu 1 hum — and they get it. Thu aruniKo Ameri- 
caii, for example, cares not a. pin for what liia representatives aay 
or do in Washington, but ho likeo to bo »ciiiiaint«d with what is 
goin;; on in Europe, and that is why tho American jonrnaliiit will 
f^ivo him a far mure detailed aucount of what is going on in tlu; 
J'aliice of Westniiiister than of what is biting said fn the Capitol. 

In Prance jonrnnlistn is {>cr»onal. On any great (jucstion of tho 
day. domestic or foreign, the Frenchman will want to read tho 
opinion of John E^eoioinuo in tho Journal dea DUtah, or tho 
opinion of Edwani Ix>pkroy. or may bo that of Henry Rochofert, 
Every PrRnchmen if Iwl hy the editorof tho newspaper ho pntron- 
iiea. Buc the Frcnchmun is only a demiwrat in name, and 
France has ma<le the mistake of eetablisliinga rcpnfalic before 
she made repnblicans of her sons. A French jonmatist signs his 
artlcW and is a leader of public opinion. Every succi>Baful 
joamalift has ■ chance to bo elected a represcDtatiTo of tho 
people. 

In America, or in England, the jotinialiift has no per«on- 
•lity ontiide the literary olaases. A leading article in an Eng- 
lish or American paper will attract no public notice. It will only 
be qooted on the European continent. It ie the monthly and the 
weekly pa{]cn or inaguinea that now play the part of the dailica 
«( bygone days. An article in the London Spfrtntur or fiafnrdafi 
Anri<>«>, ortn one of tho great American monthly magnzincA, will bo 
^uot^Hl all over the land, and I bcHcvo that this relallvoiy new Jon r- 
naliatn liaii now forever taken the place of the old one. In a coantry 
whert everybody rooda, men aa vt^] as women ; in a oountty 
where nobody take* any interest in politics oataide of the State In 



368 



THK HOHTU AJOXRWAif JtEl*I£\^. 



which he livos. the jonmaliat has to tnrn ont everr dsT all the 
newii he can guthur in the tntwt reiulabtu form. Ponnerljjonmol- 
iam WW a bniucb of literature ; now it u a q«w8 store ; 
and U BO not ouly in Amerimi. The EugliEh prea Bhom 
sJgDi of the same tondoucy, anil so do tlio Porisifto {lajwrs. Take 
the London Pall Wall Gazette and Siar. and the Paris Pigaro. as 
illuRtratianii uf wliut I ikIvuiiuv. Aad us democracy makes progr^eB 
in EDKlaiid, journalUm will become more and more American, 
although tht) EuglUb ruportor will have some trouble in trying to 
compete with his American cou/rire in humor and liruliaeea. 
Undttr the giiidunco of piititicul luiidL-n<, the ncwsjuiperB of cod- 
tinontal Kuropc direct public opinion ; iu a dcmocmc; the dcvs- 
paiiers follow public optnioo and c»ter to the public taate : they 
are the servantgof the people. The American says to his joumaJitts: 
" I don't cari' u pin for your opinion on such a quoftion. Give ma 
the news and I will comment ou it myself. Only don't forget that 
I hare to do fourteen hours' vork to-day and that I want to bo 
amuaad." 

So, at I hare said elsowhere, the American journalist 
mnat he spicy, UtoIt, and hright. lie must know how not merely 
to report, hut to relate iw a racy, cateliing stylo, an accident, a 
trial, a coaSa^ation, and he able to mnke np an article of oao or 
two coIumiLi upon tlie most intiij^niBcaat incident. lie must be in- 
teresting, readable. His eyes and ears niQBt be always open 
every one of his fire senses on the alct-t, for he must keep ahead 
ID this wild race for news. Uc must be a good courereationidist 
on most subjects, so as to bring back from his interviews with 
different people a good store of materials. He must be a man 
of courage, to hruve rebuffs. He must be a philoeophor, 
to pocket abuse. He muat be a man of honor, and I hare 
always found him no, Whenever I bare begged ui Aiucri- 
CBO reporter to kindly nbetain from mentioning this or that which 
might have been said in coavetsution with him, I have invari- 
ably found tliat he kept his word. Rut if the matter is of pub- 
lic interest, he is, before alt and above all, the serviuit of the 
public. So, never challenge his spirit of onterpriso, or ho will 
leave no stone unturned until he liao found your sooret and ex- 
hibited it in public. 

I do not tliink th^^mm-ican journalism needa an apology. 
It is the natural J^^^^^oircumstaucvis and the dosiocratiQ 




IIVELV JOURHALTSit. 869 

lim« wc live in. TheTh(:ilrc-Kmii';«iB ie not uow, under a re- 
public, ujiJ x>n)ljuibl; nitver ag:uii will be, wliiit it wiu when it wiu 
[dioed under tliu [Hitrouage Aud suporTiniou of the French Court. 
Democracy is not cftlcuUtted to foster literature &od the fine arta 
like moiiarcliy, with it«courta)id its foBliionsbleeocicty. Journal- 
ism cannot bo uow wluit it was when papers wore read by people 
of culture culjr. In ademocrac/, the stage and joarnaliiiai have to 
pleasR tho niaasos of the |K>ople. As the people become bettor 
and Wttur cducattMl, Ihc stage and jourualUm will rise with tliera. 

What the people vant U oewH, and thoy have it, and jounuds 
are properly called " nowspapon." 

S]>ii<ak)ng of American joumalism, no man need nae apolo- 
getic language. 

Not when tho proprietor of an American paper will not bc«i- 
tAte to !t[M>n<l thoii»indR of dollars to provide his readera with the 
miunt^t dvtaila ubuut cumo great EuropMU eveut. 

Not when an American paper will, at \xa own expense. Bend 
Ur. Ilenr/ M. Stanley to Africa in auunjh of Liviugetonc. 

Not M) bug as tho American press is vigitaat, and keeps 
iU thousand cyea open on the iDtereetu of the Amorleau public. 

Max O'Ukll. 



OUR UNWATERED F.MriRE. 

BT NBLSOK A. HILES, UlUGADIRfi-GENeHAL, V . R. AKUV. 



TtiosB pioriiM>r« of AuivHcilii civilixntion who hid the fortitude 
and enterprise to cross the Atlantic tind plant their ooloniw upou 
the iatiospitahic shores of this continent, in order that tiiey oiij^ht 
be freo from the (ymnny of momirchiL-u) govemoieiilauiid Iwttor 
exercise the rights and privUegvauf iudopvudeutliie ; whofor gen- 
erations contended SfEsinstaanvage foe, felling the forest, clearing 
and ciiltivnting the Bddo to obtniri isuatcnauoo for themsclvc* and 
thfir l»mili^-«, luid who early i.-slHl>lirihMl institutions of leariiiiig 
for the bonelit nf »)] du^cx, and eventuall}' iuatigiirated and es- 
tablitihad n mu«t perfect syatcm of gorcninient, must of necessity 
havcliod within tlienisches the heroic elemfinttiof character which 
tuive made people ;;r«at niid profiminont in nil Ages of the vorld. 

Possibly if iheru is one moral inflnence tliat has contribat^nl 
more to the sticceHii of that pt-upic during thu put three hnndroil 
years than any other, or which will warrant their proqwritj and 
perpetuity in the future, it is the home life of the settlers of this 
country. Nothing could bo more beautiful and sacred than, the 
tradilionn, memories, and inflnences that are embraced in thntono 
word home ; and ini measurably is Ihi^ the fact when it is blessed 
with tbo assurance of tndepoudcnce uiid compctvuco whicli 
characteriEd the liomes of our country. Loyalty to American in- 
stitutions is Bssured by bonds of citizenship and tho actnal owner- 
ship of that blessed portion of t-nrlh, howeror hnrablo it may be, 
that can bo callwl an American home. The simplicity and purity 
of sHch a life is one of the glories of oiir oountrj-. The free air of 
heaven inspires pun though t4 and noblo actions, industry witboot 
araticQ, tuxnry without intemperance, economy biondc-d with 
charity and grneroeitj ; and it is these associations and surround- 
ings that Jn^^^tributed to our physical and moral worth as a 
pOOplo. 



OVR VNWATKRED EMPIRS. 



9n 



In contnulistirctioii is thai iiiifortuiiaio cIbsb of people who 
huTo euught tkiH coimlrjr titiicr for a pluce of rcfugo or itu liiiylum, 
crowding our cities luid towns, inhahiltiig the alleys, breutliiiig 
(ottl air, anil living ujion Hiniiucl und unwhulttiume fuod, tliL-ir 
iOea of liie ooRUimiiiated eTon beneath its natural »phcr» by the 
aaeociations and inSticncos lioutsUuitly buforo tlium and ftnrrotind- 
inj; thorn, llcnco, any mcMiiro that our goreriuneDt can adopt, 
ttiat will, iu the main, promote thi> gt-'ncrul good ot Ihi' |>Mopl4-, 
by which the true American character and epirit can be sus- 
taioed and encouraft«d, ia, tndci-d, woi-tliy of careful coaaider»- 
tion. 

A« we review the act* of our goTcrnment for the pablic good, 
prominent among which appear tlie iniprovenientti to our griMkt 
natural water<coiirHes and harbora for the welfare and beneOt of 
commerce, and the intcrchniigc of products of our country for 
thoee of others, although then: may haro been unwise diecrirain- 
■tion aicd iti tacli appropriations, yet, in the main, they hare un- 
doobtedly been of national bent-lit. The llomceti^ail Act, by 
which the T*n public doumiu hsu been surveyed and tnibdiTidcd 
into BDiaU tracts and placed within the reach of an industrious 
peofilef is, perhaps, the modt judicious siDgle act of viliich our 
gononuDcnt can boast. \eit in importance may be mcnliuued 
the Pn!#n)plion Act, similar in effectand with results as far-n>acb- 
ing and beaeficiHi. The Tiinher-Culturo Act in another, and ons 
of more boncDi than mo^t peoiile rmliw, for t}ic rapid dostruc* 
tion of our forests must in a few years produce a timber famine if 
it is not counl«ractod by the cultivation of forests ; and aa 
thew are developed the disaxtrons electa of drought, loma- 
doei, and cyclones will be diminished. Another rom- 
mooduble act of the f^ovurumcut has been the appropria- 
tion of vast tracts of our pnblic domain to the cstublidbment ia 
Mob Stall! and torrilory of agricultural collegea, by wliicb moet 
aaefal knowledge btu been diaseminated to every portion of the 
Untied States. IasI, but not loast, faaa been the aid given by the 
government in the way of land snbsidies for Ihc construction of 
the great tranacontinontal rmilwa}'8, by which the nation's loyalty 
and nnlty are bound by iron banda, and the people of one section 
are enablnl to communicate readily with ihow of another, not to 
mention the beuefits that have been assureil lo the commercial 
iiit«rw*4 of tho conntfy; and while ihoae methods bare beon 



979 



THE AOHTH AMSSJCAN REVIEW. 



criticisud, «nil iit Eumi; n-spoiTls rorulfrnmml m iiijadirinufi, it nit 
b« Kmcoibored that tlio couiitrv At large biu becu ^rontly bone^' 
fited. The price of ever; alu-rnate section of land held by th« 
goTernment vm immediately cloiiltled, and the goTemnittiit realimi 
two dollant luid (iftv i^ents per ocro iaatGad of dqu dollar and 
twvnty-Qve o<;i)ls for flrery acre sold ; and the ralae of eiicsh lands 
was increased fully 100 per o«)it. orcr what it woold hoTc been 
Imd tbor roIIlailll^d remote from any meaoa of commanicatiou. 

In view of the fact that there are vast areai of the public do- 
main still rvuiaiuinf; uuoccupied. which seem to roquirc nn intel- 
ligent and judicious system of iniprovem«iit by the goTernDWDt 
in order lliat tbc beat results may be obtained in their eottlomout, 
and in order to prcTeiit a small percentage of the people from taking 
poasMBton of the wau>r-courBC« and holding them cxc-Iusivoly tot 
their own benefit, thereby sbntttug ont allothera from theoccupa- 
tion of a much larger portion, and practically controlling the aw 
of hundreds of acres of public land where they are entitled to 
one, it might bt! well for the govomment to iuuugurute some 
iiyHtem by wliicti these lauds may be utilised and colonized for 
tbc benefit of the home-bailders who ooiutitute our beet popu- 
lation. 

There U another view of this mAtt«r which should not fait to 
be duty considered. Witliin the last few years we tiare witnessed 
the tBrriblc ri^ults occasioned by drought, and half-crops hare 
boon reported throughout many of the States and territories. Ws 
have also noticed that this has roauttod in a very large percentage 
of laud, in several of the States and territories referred to, being 
placed undur ritry heavy mortgages; and should this impeuding 
evil continue for u. series of years, no ono can anticipate what may 
follow. That goi>d r«sulu< can bo produced by a scionliBc and 
judicious control of the wator-coursoe of the we&teru conutry is a 
fuel eo well MtJihlished that it does not re<]uire argtitiieui. We 
may have reached that period in which attention should be drawn 
to tbis important subject; and it is not snrprisJng that the qucs- 
tiou of water-storage and irrigating works in the arid regions of 
our waetem country has been engrossing the attention of tlie people 
of the United States, ee|)ocially the citiitens residing west of the one- 
hundredth meridian, more in the past few years than ever before. 
While tlie pe ople of nenrly every Suta and territory west 
of that J^^^^^tui?G carefidly considered the i^uestioTi, and 



OUB VNWATERED EiiPIRB. 



933 



Ihetr legiHlatorB hkre eiiiu:t«H Iuwh Ixfuring iijmii it, the Hcd* 
erul Qovernmont but rMcnttj (oolc up the niutlcr by act of Con* 
press aatliorizing the inveetigfttiou of this Eiibject to ascertaia 
to nhaX extent the nnd regions of the United States can be 
benefited bjr irrigstion. It »liiiuliited that >100,000 be a[H 
propriated for topographical surveys for the fiscal yew 
enduif; June 30, lS8f>, or any i)srt thereof, to bo used by tho 
Tery able Director of the <»eo!ogicaI Surrey, Major Powell, 
with the approval of tho Secretnry of the Interior, for tho pur- 
pose of ascertaining the f«uiil>itity of providing reservoirs 
of wator with a view to establish a system of irrigatiou of tho 
landt in <)UD$lion, and Major Powell waa directed to make his re- 
port to Congress »t a« early a dute n« wa« practicable. Upon his 
report and the roconimendiiticins of the ftecrelary of tho Interior, 
the $100,000 wax supptcmenled by an uddifiouul appropriation of 
tSSO.UOO daring the last session of C'ongrees, by the ji»8sage of an 
act for the further ioTostigBtioD of tho aridrcgion. Acommittoe 
of Senators waa appointtnl to visit the arid regions of the different 
western States and terrilunce the paat Huinmer. It completed iu 
work of investigation: was on the rood some Sflr days, trarnDing 
in that time about l^i.OUO miles, and taking (he (estimouy of 
hundred of witneoses. 

These were tho first Federal steps toward the nlilizatiou of 
what U commonly called desert land. The bill reaerves all lands 
that may. hereafter bo dengnated for rcserroirs and ditchca, and 
the lands lo be reclaimed by irrigation for such rceervoira, from 
thedste of the passage of thoact ; and provides that the Preai* 
dent may from time to time remove any of the mKerTations made 
by the bill, and in his discretion, by proclamation, ojien any por- 
tion or all of the lundu reserved by the provision to suttlenient 
uudet the homeat^ud laws. This, however, should be moditied so 
as to Bx the price of ouch lands, improved by the general govern - 
mrJit, as will compensate it for the expense of such improvement. 
Thevums appropriated, it is hoped, are but the commencement 
of neceasary appropriations for irrigating parpoaee, a* they will 
•caroely cover the lunonnt roqoisite for preliminary [nveetlga- 
tions, without in the leiuit considering the vastness and extent of 
the work to follow. Tlie eugincem employed in the work are 
r«qnired to measure tho various 6trc»iu5 and sources of water 
supply, select sites for rewrvoin and other hydraulic works noces- 



874 



THE nOSTU AXKRJCAK REVTEW. 



tuj for Bton^ atitl utilization of vatcr. niakv luapa of amblo 
IftodB ■arToj'Cd, ud fiimi«ii full JnformatioL for the uso of C'oD- 
gren id oon&idcritig farther Ipjjislntion on the subjiwt. Tlivjr mre 
&t pretcut engaged in tht-ir iurratigntioiii: and tninevs. 

Tho JapiitieM have practised tbiit improved ejitteio of ogricult' 
nra for tboaaauds of jeurs. although their coantrf is bleaaed with 
u much rain-fall an tho fertilo valleys ou tho eastom slopo of oar 
oontincnt. Thej viewt-d tht: matter in its most practiual light, 
asDg raBerroim aiid cutchmcnt bafiina for the storago of wator 
when it waa ut flood, thus prevontiug dcatrucUon to growing 
crops, and diffusing tho vater m etorod to the low lands bjr a 
n>giilnr flow in periods of dronght. Kven the Chinese have been 
able, bjr carvful, intelligent, and |Kitient huabandrr, to relAin the 
fertility of tbeir eoti for thousands of yean. 

The Dutivea of India, by their eydt^ui of wcll^, (aukii. and 
reserroira, hare oontoudod againet the calamities of nature for 
agea. ThoTstoro the wnter brought by tho moiiaoon and husband 
it for use throughonl the whol» yoMr. In mme of tlie districtx 
tliejr buTo fommd larKe artilioinl laketi hjr olwtruetiiiji the rircra 
in the vallers ut the moet arailabte points. The English govern- 
tnont hiu stpent millions of pounds sterling in furthering the 
iitlereslti of t)i« cultivniors of tho mil in India by ntttkiag per- 
manent chanaeb, which csrrv off the water, secnrcd by meona 
of dam^ ut nil kcbkous of the year; and by obatructing the 
bosoa of the valleys so aa to form imoieDse reservoirs, con- 
dncting the water from them over the Belils by means of 
canals, from which the goremnient derives a valuable revenna, 
and b; which the droughts, forrnorly ao frcqnent and fiitul. 
candii J fiuniiic and disease, bare to a great cxLirut been nhriated. 
Not only have Ihoso judicious measures benefited tho 250,0(>0,000 
of people of that country, but their proi^imrity has aeriously af- 
fected tho markft of tht- Attirrii-aii farmi-r. Although irrigation 
in India has h&en majutained for generations, thu Eugli«h gor- 
oniment aawlho neopjwity of improved works, and right hberally 
hiw it iipjirripriiii I'll funds for the varions improroraents. The out- 
come of it ha" Ijlh-ii that thuincrea^vd numlwrof srjuare miles now 
onder cultivation, in exccw of what was cnltivatpd before the im- 
provements w^^uueotoil, reaaltfi mainly from the utilization of 
land fi»rmorj^^^^H|bji drought and HikxI. In n great portion 
of India tli^^^^^^Hkpend entirely u^wn irrigatiovt. 



OUB UNWATERED EMPIRE. 

I SpsnianlB wtvA Uoiicaiis in the fionUiwest^m territories and 
ithvru Culif'jniiu, many yean before that purt of the country 
came into tho poasendon of tbe United Stales, bronght tlio mach- 
Dwded foaroe of life to their lands generally frout small iitreains 
by their lystem of acoquaJH and xanjas. I'licre are to tbia day in 
tbe Sftlt Itiver Talley of Arisoiia whaL appear to b« the reniaina of 
ui immeaFe system of canals, which no doabt Minted & thoutund 
years before Columbus diBCOvered Auierica, aad nidixl in tho pro- 
duction of enongh TegeUitioQ to snstiun a population many times 
tbo nnmbrr at pmvnt in that tfimtorr. The engineers uf to-dav 
are rnnninf; the* lines of their cUauuels alou;; thu watvr-routee of 
that prL'biutoric race. 

ThiH baa been a prominent question in the history of all th« 
western Slates and l«rritoriM, and, by being brought to the atten- 
tion of the general public, the necessities and nscfniness of irrigft* 
UoQ may in time be oitended to all needed parts of tho country. 
In some parts of tho country the system voiild prevent tbe deso- 
lating effecto of drought, and in olhera, by the uhc of rescr- 
Toira and dams for storing the waters, the disastrous flowla 
that almost periodically destroy growing crops and injure 
rontcs of travel and commerce would be rendered less frequent 
and dcstmctiTo. Tho small amount of work neci'jwiry for 
making lands bordering on a live stream proof ugainet 
■nj drought occurring in any part nf thia country ix remarkable; 
lodit is even more leniurkuhlc to witne-ss wilh what pASsitencsa 
tbo agricullnrist mm bia crops withering, bhuted for want of 
wat«r, almost erory Bummer, in the different parta ofourconntry, 
iiheu th(> roramly b so near at baud. There is not a piece of hind 
■old in the W»jt in regard to which the jitdicioua purchaser does 

^nqt took well into the question of bow many inches of irrigable 
water iroes with the land, aa it is the most important factor to be 
ronsiderod, Tho wat^r^right. tho number of miner's inches that 
aan Im> used, and tbe coMt price per foot per acre, aruall matten to 
M Donsitlered. 
Tlistory t^arhes us that irrigalioii is tbe oldest and snrcst 
method of intelligent agriculture. It waa understood in the earii- 
ast da>i of tho eomi-eiviliMvl meeannd practised in Kgy]>t. Persia, 
and Assyria ages before the Cbriatian era. The richest and mo*t 
prodnctire regions nf the earth have bc«n cultivated for thousands 
of yB«n in tlui luauncr. The valley of tho Nile, rarioaapartfl of 



THB KOBra AMERlCAy BBVtEW. 

£urope, and a gK«t portion of lodiu buvo slwaya de]>c>nd«d \\\>rm. 
it f"r t!i<i prodncU of their floil. Sotno portiona nf Kr^vp*. which 
tbe Nile did not irrigau>, were watered bjr catula filled b/ taking 
tu them the waters of that great rifer, sod the people wrre im- 
presscNl with thv necottity uf kfl^ping these cuiala frcu and abob- 
etnctixl and always filM with liring watM*. 

The [oUowing n>«olu[ion was prosnnlcd iu the platform of one 
of th« political parties in a weatera State some time ago B8 bd im- 
portant mettsnre : 

- RrWrnr. Tlut tb« wfttan of tk« etmU iNknafa Um lua Umt brlitBU, u4 w« 
fiTorand wlU ftld *" »»»*«*»*«i»j » ii»jl mj .mi».j— fc*Mi»i« gjKa at at Irrii^UM 
llMt kMkslatbobaMatertlM trvlfMsru prbaur B» Um ■■■tttiX rifbUdftha 
Hputan »ad ftppNtirlMap : a ajaum odamDaA tv tka voraraBiCDt. rr«a la all, 
«4tr tb» cMitrat of BO elan of pmotw, Mkd crtablUlMd ancl inatntekMd kf a 
nnwnKdMtTBd rrom timnm nhnm tfaparMam wDl Iwlli. W« bottofiUawmUrli 
tk«vnwl7«' tfespaoiri*. ftad UMt U iligald te n ■«•« ■■ to Hcan ^e srMtart 
■OBd to Um gnaloK BBBba- c< paopk." 

Tbe goveniment of onr conntij has an important miffiion to 
perform, now that it has once taken charge of the work, and it is 
preeamod that it wilt continao until a time when tbe whole irri- 
gation gystctn will b« under its control, with one idmple law gov- 
erning it alike in lUl the States and territories. Otherwise, there 
is danger of oonftieiun uiul clashing of intereiTta An to whether 
it will be taken charge of by the Federal Government rcmaina to 
he seen. The enormons amoant of money required to plaoo tbe 
desert lands in a prodnctiro state wonld have to bo fnmtshcd by 
the goveniment, an it would be impoRitible for tbo States u-ud ter- 
ritories to complolc such a system ta ts iu contemplation ; and 
the funds ezpendeil should, by awell-matnred and comprchvnmva 
plan, rerort again to the trcaeary of tho general government from 
the sale of its liindu thiit: improved. 

Tbe people of California interested in irn^atiou. at the State 
Irrigation Conveution in 1887. prcw-ntp-d tbe following propori- 
tions in tlic form of amendmentH to tho StAl« constitntioQ : 

'•P%r*t—Thn dadantloa that meg utitnl Anmm mnA water nnrM U pnUIo 
pronertr. 

"Stcorul-Tb&L Lbft ApproprlnUm for tcacflclAl ■wsirf uf wmtik tUmMa loaM bo 
nuuin QBilcr iMitaUUTV wW nwn L 

-■ntfnl-Tbat kU water ao at>|ir«priia«J la Uw aWakdMlam lntaia.pHb- 
Uaiuo. 

"/*»rt» -R»tea aiul fwiu fur tia» *p„ to b« (iMd hj- pnUk >«llrartl7. *«» mm* 
DOt noeed T P« «*nl. » "Pll*! aeiu.ll, Bxpeuded la ogutnuMM tnt(«l]a« 




OUR UffWATERED EJtPIRE. 



877 



The Lt^skture of Wjonting territory tiae adoptod the vator 
IsgiBliition of the 8Uit« of Oolorndo, wbioh it ootiBidcrod tho but 
in uae by any of the Statee aud urrilorie«. The subject hoA lieeo 
dlacpOMed at length in tho variotia reports of the goveniore of dif- 
ferent wcKtem Stak'fl nnd turritnriud, iiml all tho western States 
y^faM^^OMtcrod and cared for irrigatiug cutorpruoa; and their 
I have inreated millioiis of dollarci, the rerenne from trhicb 
makes It a very pruHlablc invoatueiit aud benefits the people and 
the conntrj adjacent to the plant. 

Kow let ufi coiisidor the area of the rejpon vherein the aurreys 
are to bo mode. The area of our country ooiuiBtc, according to 
tbo rooonU of the Agricullurul Df[Nir[nieut and other BOuroM, of 
],S00,000 sqnare miles of arable laud, aad an equal amount 
equally divided In pastore land and in mountain and timber, — 
Alaska not buiug included in the e«tiniato. Of lliu arable land it 
requires a tittle orer 30O.0O0 eqnaro miles to prodnco all onr 
grain, hay, cotton, sugar, rice, and regctableR. The extent 
at the Icrritory west of the one-hundredth meridian 
is estimated at 1,3(^,0041 square miles, of which over 
one-fifth will not admit of cultivation owinje to ita rugged, 
mouDtaiiioiiH chAriioti>r. while the renuiiniiig area requires only 
water to make it Hurviceulde either for ugricultiire or pnAturage. 
Of the milliou «quure miles that can be made productive, it ia 
estimated that 150,U4)l) square mites can be redeemed, being equal 
in area to one-half of the land cultivatt^ in the Unitc<l 8tjkte«. It 
viQ be fieen at a gUinee what a vast population tli» land in ques- 
tion will be able to support, and the immense benefit tliut will in 
time accrue to the goTemmcnt iind the people. 

The precipitjition cf water in thcmountainonH portions of the 
arid belt arorages about twenty inches yearly, although in ports, 
in some years, as much aa setenty-fire inches has falleu, causing 
floods in the streams, frequently creating destruction in the arable 
low land, and the mnst of it diitappearing in the satidy wastes, 
where the average rainfall is scarcely Arc inches. The tcoeor 
amount falling on low deaert lands iind th« grt>at«r in the mount- 
ains, tho plan fur obstructing the mountain valleys or cafions, 
whersTer it can be done lA advantage aud at small cost, should in 
all oases be pnnmed to completion. When- natural catchment boeios 
aist, — and there are any number of them in the mountains, — tho 
gorsmraent shonld reserve Lhetn for future irrigation purposes. 
fOL. CL.— Ko. 400. 25 



■mr SOBTB AMERICAX REVISW. 

PriT»t«onlerpri9o8, mindfal of the «diranta|{ea and Urgo retttrw 
for money inrcstod niid tlic inJifffrcnce sliown by the Federnl 
Goremment, have tuken up muiv important eitOB ffir roMmroire 
vhich drain areas inaD>r square tatlce in ext«Qt, and control the 
w&Uir for Tnfit diitrirtA. <l>ii the iiurfiioe of the arid regions it is 
C8timst4-«1 tliMi abuiit fifLoun IdcIim of water falls aDniialtr, most 
of which can be ntilized for the one millioD acres estimated to be 
produocire for paBtnrago and cultivuiion, br the use of reaeiraira, 
canals, ami artesian wells. Aii over four-Bfths of the odd million 
square milw can otU^r be used for pasturage for the immmae 
hcnts that now roam the valleys and mesas, tliis will requtre 
very littlo water when compared with the land to be cultivated. 
Ncisrlr all of the arid region embmees nmhic lands favorable for 
Rgrieulture iu all its pluaes, from the cultivation of the prodocts 
of the north temperate zone to those of the tropics. Where 
irriKatiuii 'm tiet'd in tht; ni)rth, th» evttson for watering is gener- 
allj- not longer than three mouths, bnt ta the Muth it umbmccii 
at least eight or nine months of the year. As mnch water is 
naed at a time us would nsnlt fmni a daj-'s serere rain. A prao- 
tioal knowledfEe i^ miniitilv, a» ton much water is linble to pro- 
duce more injury than benefit While the irrigated furms are 
larger generally in Colorado and Utah, in Southern California 
twiMily uun.>» M m much as one family can well care for when de- 
voted to the cultivation of vinui, fraito, or alfalfo. 

That emimml jonmaliM, statesman, und Mhotar, Sir Edwin 
Arnold, recently passing across the continent, mwie this observa- 
tion : 

" NothloK Itfu itmc-Jc me mora lit atT vbUt to ADwrtc* Uwn Um alon of jvn 
eiama, Vctir «rrh>nlfi nnd *1n«jkn]a win « nnvlMlaii to dm. Vou wDl bo tbo 
vlnMnwrara at Ibv wurhL Thon, In jinir Mtrrtiruah pl&teaiu rm onljiwad Irrlga- 
UoD lo iwUc Uiom rmltfuL The land I a>w tn Nevnda la almoM oxmMj Bka whU 
1 aaw la India nnd AinMa. nhJohhaabccoiiindc *o prodncttvab" 

Dividing the area to bo reported npon by the Oeological Snrvpy 
into three diviHions, the fimt would embrace the land whose eatd^ 
era limit would bo nmr the one-hundrndth meridian, and its 
western boi-dering the foot-hills of the GoclcT Moanlains, neur the 
one-htindritd-:inil-fifth meridian, while its extent would reach 
from the Kio (Iraiidc UJTor in Tuxum to the r'lmadian boundary. 
The second division woidd have its eastern limit ucitr the one- 
hundred -and- fifth meridian, and its western boundary the Sierra 
Nevtula aiitl Cascade ranges of mountains. Much of thisdiviston 



ODB ONWATKRKn EUPTRK. 



870 



iss uiountatnoQS wrantry. The streams of the weet find their 
sonrcM near the aummiu of the moiinlAin peaks cororcd with 
fltsmslanow, nnildrrive thoirmuin NUjiply from the rains and snnw 
that fait within the great baaia through which the; course to the 
ena : and it is on thia vast mountain region tliat the low lands and 
foot-billfl will have to dopoud for the wntor to make them beauti- 
ful in the garb of natnre. Il« caiioiut can tw formed into great 
catch-baiins for retaining the raius iu their seaeon, while natural 
lakoa arc nDmcroua thronghout ita length. 

The State of California, bleaaed with prosperity derived from 
its irrigating works, comprisw most of feho Iwt division, and it it 
fiuit being popalated with an intelligent olaas of agrienlturigts, 
hrniight thither mainly thmiifrh the richness of the soil, the pub- 
lic enterprije nnd success of irrignting works, and the assured 
prosperity of the coaatry. The cbangM wrought in places in 
Oalifomifl which not long ago wore oonsiderod ralnt^MS have beon 
indeed wonderful. Where once it was thought nothing but aage* 
brush and cactus could grow, the laud baa been cleared, ditches 
bare been formed, tre>e9 planted, crops cultivatetl, and the land 
placed in « higher state of cultiTation than many favored locali- 
tieg of the eastern and soutliem Ststoa. In ten years villages and 
oitJM hare Kpmng up where before cojrotea starved. In fact, it ia 
impoanble for one to conceive how much a country supposed to 
be utterly wortblese can bo bonefiteii by the use of water, uiUobb 
he ha^ seen «uab effects. To pant from the hot, arid rogiona 
Into the fertile valleys of Oalifomiu is an gladdening to the 
vjw of the beholder as the sight of an oasts is to the traveller 
in the deecrt. To see the countless acres of trees with 
their ripening fmit (for itonie kind of fmit ia ^ways in 
acaaoB in that region), the unlimited acrcfi of grapeii, fleld« of 
wheat, barley, and alfalfa, and everything breathing life and 
health, is to see the blessed use of water, husbanded and cared for 
and approcialM in alt its worth. From land valued at lc« tlian 
$1 per acre it han incroased throngh the medium of improvements 
of land ait joining, and the benefit of a mire supply of water, until 
one acre is worth as mnoh as one hundred would have been had 
not the systems of irrigiUion boon astabliebcd. No part of thi« 
coiiDtry hAA attained snch ntccc»8 in irrigation as this. The 
praetice of it hu i^mul from this 'part nf the country to all partA 
[ California, Arucona. Utah, Colorado, and otlter Slates and 



380 



THE yortTB AMERTCAJf TiEVtKW. 



tcrritoriefl. Wjtbont iiripation, except in oortun moiet lands 
these beButifiil Tallejg and low Innds would once more revert to 
de**rt waste's. 

It is tt well-knovt] fact that after lunil liiia biTotne Uioroaglily 
cuUiratod by irriji^tion Ie« water is r^ttjtiired; and it is eafo to 
assert that tkoueftuds of acres of eo-cuUed do^ert lund may bocome 
ndftptoil for agriouUiinil purpons without the continued liolp of 
irrijpntioQ. ImmvdiaUilj' following tho vetubtittbrneut of an irriga- 
tion dustrict. after tlie canals wilb their lateral ditchea have bv«ji 
completed and the cultivation of crops has commenced, the plant- 
iug of treee should be oncouragnl. Tho eucalyptus variety is mostly 
planted in Califomia, and the ooltonwood in Ariiona and New 
Mexico. The fumier haa a very rapid growth, and as a wind* 
brealc and a protection to cropd it Is used exIeuBiTely, although it 
la very oxhangting to tho Boil. Coincident with irrigation shoald 
be tree- plan ting, which would in a shart time not only change 
the appearance of the oounlry, but supply tho wood which is 
oeoessary for fuel. It would hardly be possible to ettimnte the 
ralue of trees in their neefulneee toward reclaiming arid 
lands, and too nmch cannot ho said in nrging the profuse planU 
ing of them, tn fact, it would he well for the government, in 
Belling land reclaimed by it through the irrigation wnrlcs to be 
established, to make it computeory on the purchaser to plant a 
portion of his acreage in for&et treea, Tliey would only reqniro 
thorough irrigation during tho first year, Ic«b of it tha aecond, 
very little the third, and none at all thereafter. Tree-culture, i 
oapecially thu phinting of troca indigenous to tho country, should 
by all meaiu be encouraged. 

As ve Teviov the past, we notice tho action of the anacntpn- 
loas and the iniatiahle following in the wakeor bunging nponthe 
flanks, and very oft«u ecvn in a poHition fur in mlviince, of any 
humane, progreeaive measure which may be adopted for thebonetit 
of mankind or to promote the welfare of a worthy people. It is 
wonderful bow difficult it has been to ward off the aohcmcB of 
these araricions cre-atnreB; and in a mpannre of thin kind, which 
baa in view the welfare of tbe entire putiplc, safcgnurda cannot bo ^J 
too strongly applied to protect it fi-om euoh contaminatiiig in- ^^ 
fioencea. It iu a fact to be regretted (hat many of our moat com- " 
mendable meamre«^ whotlier municipal, State, or oatinnalj whioh 
have giivn us avenues of commerce, works of art, and many im- < 



OUR UNWATERBD EMpntE. 



881 



prortiinoDiii for the public good, wli«tlter potrioUc, faunuuio, or 
beneficent, hare be*d ombarraased and contaminated by tbetonch 
of tbeae creatiin«, and the pnrposo of tlio d(>«iguer has oft«D been 
marred and debiued by the contACt of those who »ee nothing in 
an; pablic or progreaiTO mcaenru other than iLo opporinnity to 
gratify their craYoii and ^elBsh dc«inM. 

Moraover, it should be distinctly understood that there are 
bandrHiH of sqnaro miles of onr public domain whore it would be 
atter folly to spend mom money than the amount necenaary to 
aaoertain the fact of Mieir worthloesacss. Daugord uf thia kind 
flfaotUd be avoided, and the gorcrameut should systeDaatically im- 
proTe what property Jt poflseasefl worthy of aucb expenditure, and di- 
Tide itupiuauchanuinnertbaiiLcan beciiltivated by an iiidaitn* 
0D8, enterprising, and intelligent pixiple, who will build for thom- 
BetreHand their posterity homc6 that will udorn and beautify any 
State or territory, thu^ encouraj^ng ^u^d sustaining the true ipirit 
and character of American cilizenB, ajid promoting the general wel- 
fare of our entire country. Ar we can point to the past with just 
feelings of pride, it is hoped that our future may be as bright, 
prosperotu, and progneaivc 

Nblsoh a. Miles. 



THE LimATrONS OF THE SPEAKERSIHT. 

BT THB BON. TUOKAB B. BKBD, THE SPEAEBB, AND TITE BOS. 

JOHN (1. CARLISLR, EX-SPRAKER, UF TUS UOOaB 

OF KUfJUUBKTATlVKS. 



Mn. REED: 

VVuKX the putiona of the hoar hare oubtkled, when flliboster- 
ing has beeu forgottarij auit men have returuud In tbu Duliun that 
poblie office iiupUea publio dutits, the ntxua ^eftcribtxl but faintly 
in tJio VongrtjmQtuil litcord of Junuorj 30 wilt bo read with 
amasametit, eren by somo of tboM who partidpat«d lu acton. 
The very fact thai a groat couBtttotioual qnwtioii was met on n 
great occiisLoa by mere exploelont^ of turgid rhetoric and rank di»- 
order will aeera almoflt iuoomprohoosible on any bwia, aod quit« 
so on the part of men eo omiucut aa to be choeeu among thirty 
thousand of their fellows for high politics! ofUco. 

The Uonao of ReproscntatiTOS is u budy of men 330 in number, 
rei»tiaimting a vitet extent of country, with ijiLoreste and wantA so 
raried that no oaUilogue could fiilly enumentt thou. If any one 
sapposes that each quoBtiou reccivea the deliberate judgntcot of 
oaoh and nil the members, he is indulging in a dream of duty per- 
formed which has no corroaponding reality, llie great majority 
of the bills which pasa OoDgrett paM on tbo authority of corainit- 
tMS, or of members whose reputation cnrrtes tliem throngh. Of 
coarse, thi» ia not; true of public billa of general concem or of 
national importance. Such bitU hare fnll oonsiderattou, due 
debate, and proper attention. But bills of local interest, affecting 
distinct rogiotu, and concerning unall nntnbots only, are daily 
pawed without u etaudiug vote. Indeed, th«rc hare been many 

li piLB8i>d without the atterance of an attdible sound, bocause 

vn the promoter, amid the general certainty, would forget to 
^ob> for bis bill. 



TUB UMITAnO^'S OF TBE SPBASEftSBlP. 



This WM preciKly nrhat wax cotilem plated bv the framun of 
I tbe Coiulitation. U thu ntajurity of Ihu mviDliLTJ wcru on tbo 
spot, vitliiD «outid of tht! tnuiatoiioi), if ilibj beard tbe bill read 
at th« desk iui<l tbe roicd of the Speaker putting the question, 
there ooald be no human probability that any measure would 
JMM detrimental to the Ilupublic. In pun<nanc» of this vIgv, 
urery da; for a buudrud yvAn tbe House hae pueAcd billa, iu the 
toloj innumerable, without even a count, by mere cIet«rminatiou 
of Tolume of voii.-<>. Even when a more cortaiu method of decision 
was demanded, and membere stood in their places and wore 
coaut«d, thunHanilH of bills have gone tbrongh on a votti con- 
feoBcdly lt»i thjin a titiorum. When tbe writer uf tbJM article re* 
FDtljr declared that b« had heard Mr. CnrliBlc aimounce such 
fbjlla u duly postied a hundred timee, be w»e altogether too 
guarded. He ought to have said a thouiuind times. 

It in wvll to (;uiu pruhetid juHt what tbis menna. Every such 
bill bad to be signed by Mr. OArlidlu pentoDaiiy for tbe wry pur- 
poieof certifying that it had jHused properly and oonatitutioually. 
Krei^ cnch bill passed by loss tluui a rjuorum prosont and voting, 
and signed by Mr. Carlisle, was, tberefore, an a»i«rerstiou on hia 
part that a quorum need notTote. If it was not, how could he 
justify his uctiou ? If it bv needful to hare a quorum in active 
partioipation by %-oting, how cnnid he dare to sign a bill which 
he himself had decbired to the liou^e and the world had not the 
aboolate requisite? The only reply to this home question yet 
attempted is that, inasmuch as tbo journal dn«» not record tbe 
vote, oobody can qnoetioo it, wbich is the same as saying that the 
Constitution oan be ooustitutionally violated every day in the 
week, provided the Hotiae Journal faLsifiea by omission. 

In tliis connection, also, it must be noted that many bills on 
which he himself decbired in open Uoose thai lees than a quorum 
bad voted have been signed by the Ut« Speaker on the very day 
of pamge, and tberefore before tbo jonnial was even written, much 
law approved. Uow could tbu have beuu done except in happy 
constitntioaal reliance on the well-foanded hope that the journal, 
when bom, would not stuta the fact ? 

Tb« ftober truth, however, i« that all these proceedings are 

triotly eonBtitntiooal, and would be if tbe facta were Joumalisad. 

preanmptioo always is that tbe body is legally conatitut«d : 

I a majority ift bliuro — a quonim^ready to do bmsiuues. U 



884 



TUB SORTS AMERICAS REVIEW. 



anybody d(»ibt8 it, h« can say m and b&Te the legal inference 
verified. This could bi» properly doiw by the Speaker's ooont. 
And here it is well to remark that, after all ibHt has been said of 
tbo dreadful tyranny of the aacertaintncnt of a quorttm by tbo 
Speaker, and after all the hyati-ricH of the newspaper bead-lines. 
it iawmewbal improving to ivmfiinbcr that the "actual count by 
the SpeiUcer tliat a (i»onim " ig or " ts not proMnt" was oxpresdy 
recognised for one ptirticular exigency by clanae 3 of No. 
XVII. of the old rules. While, therefore, the frieuda of easy 
obetmctioD who wish to lie in ambasoode, risible to the eye, but 
invisible to the law, are obliged to admit that, oitL^ide the roll- 
call of yeas and nay^, a quorum need not partioipate, yet they 
cliym that the preccdcnta of a hundred years have been viotatitl 
ill rccogniiiiag the fact that u quorum of the Uouse woe ttctnally 
preaent wlica the roll-call, owing to the voluntary miscouduot of 
raeniboi's, did not show n majority actually voting. 

The phrase, " precedentH of a hundred yeani" is simply rhet- 
oric. Our fathers knew nothing of tKi^ modern system of meta- 
physics whereby a man conld bo predent and absent at the same 
moment; could be visible to demand his yeas ami naya, and 
inviaiblo when they wero called. It did not occur to their simple 
mindj« to glonfy themaelvea for being silent, while they felt it an 
insult to havL^ that silence pointed out. They thought that oppo- 
sition meant voting ^^ainst a bill. Ucnqc BlibnsccnQg is of] 
modem origin. It had its beginning aa a businera io the Houne 
of Reprenentativas at Washington. Thence it spread all over the 
conutry, until from one end of the United Statcfl to the other 
mere inertia had got to bo a match for both ballotd and bmiuc.1 
When fllibustoring began, it took a wliole pohtical party in 
block business. In the last Congress it hod ripoaed to suoh a 
degree of imposeiblo perfection that one man held the conntry at 
bay. The doctrine of tlie "rights of the minority" seemed to 
have cutminatod at that moment. ^H 

But the trying time for all ill-doing is the summit of pros-^B 
perity. When Mr. Tweed wanted to know " what you were go- 
ing to do iibont it," he had challenged both the ingenuity and tbOi 
cunragu of mankind ; and from that time it wtw Tweed agaftuA.I 
the world, and the result not doubtful. Had filibnatoriiig oon- 
flnedii^^^^e House of Hepresentativeti or held itadf within 
%p ili mi^'li> I>.irr tlouriiiiicxl long and had many de- ' 



TUB LrUTTATlOSS OF TBE SPKAXERSHIP. 



886 



fendera. It was n convenient method of domandinx (lebaU.i, of 
caUiog the attention of the coaDtrT to violent iwliticitl ucasorcd, 
and d«»crve<.l miuiy ot the oommendstions it then reooived. But 
when in I88::i itcommeneed to bo the ooounou mutliod of prevent- 
iof; » decUioa of election rases, snd Snnllv in 16^9 reestablished 
the Lihernm Veto of tho old Polish Diet, whoruhv u single mvm- 
ber became tho arbiter of dcetiny, uvor>' nuui of «ous« recognized 
the CftCt that the pnictice was doomeil. 

MoreoTsr, filibniiteriuji,' went uu growing in the direction of] 
another disaster. It reachod the State legislatures, where thel 
people could see it foco to faoo. It cumu down to muDicipuiitiosi 
and school boards. It invaded even the owemblios of tlie 
ohnrohes. and Rule XXV. umoug the Ruleit for Judicotorieel 
adopted bj thd Presbyterian Qeueral Assembly of Penngylvanial 
bears witness alike to the evil and its suppression, when it doclaroBl 
that "Bilent mombon" "must bo considered as acquicsciaft I 
with the majority." 

It ia no woQdur that the nclieme of opposition by not voting 
lidly. It is so niucli easier to sit stitl than to argue, 
are restfal to use (he uttmctinn of gravitation than to 
ucliKiit aervona energy, that it was not in haman nature to re- 
frain from the nse of this powor, which hud tho high sanction of 
Congress and " the precedents of a hnndred years." But men 
never remain re:L«nnably bad ; tUey almost always carry badness 
to eicces, aud thervfore to correction. And thns this scheme of 
iilencc, which worked so well in the distant aluiosphGre of tho rh- 
tiooal capital, moa met its death when it got down to the regimm 
of bu«ina8K. Washington is far nwny and only little understood ; 
but alnan whoeie oontnict may be adjudged void and bis business 
o«reer ruineiJ by this doctrine of cor]xrreaI presence and parlia- 
mentary absence soon begins to understand one jiliice where the 
rights of mioorities ought to toare off. Hence when mnmoipal 
bodies began to imitnte their superiors, mid tried to break eon- 
t»ot«aB well as quorums, tbo gUdsomc light of jurisprudcnoe 
WM soon shed upon thooi. and the parliamentary fiction that a 
man present could truthfully declore himself absent disappoared 
from every plnce except tho Capitol at Washington. 

In fact, there doc« not soom to be a single case where any 
oourt has dnilt with this qaestion except in one way. In 
Maine. In IStJU, in tho .State-Steal Case, the c<'iirt doclar&d that 



ItOKTH AMERICAN REVIEW. 



where a board of aldernien, seven in luimbcr. bin! wnt to the 
Oorornor aad ooonci) an ulockioo return which tlio board was 
bnuiid to nwlce, and th«r« appeartMl on the paper three names 
otdy, it vtOB to be presumwl that tbt>«e men had acted l^olly, atid 
that iho three wareamajorily uf iheqtiorumpreMDt, uid sufficient 
for both notion and aatbenticatioa. In Illinois, years nfgo, in ■ 
ou» whore eight oldornMO wore prasent aud five was a quoruio, 
four Toting and four remaimng silent while tho major gave the 
casting vote, th^ court d«K:Ur«d ihe action Ittgal, and added a son- 
Icnce which \s rich with that saTin^ common-aeiise which is Lho 
buBLS of all Uw : -' Then \a uo propriety in giving to a refusal to 
TOt« more potonny than to a rote cast." 

Jnst here it might bo well to make appUcation. On ono qnee- 
tlon iu tho HouHU during the late diDturliances 163 membvraToted 
in the aflirmntivR, and 130 of tho Iluruoorati) remained atlout. 
Kvery ouv of tho« Democratic votoa and thirty-two more coalil 
not have dofeated the motion^ and yot it is claimed that their 
mero silence did what their voted, rednforced by two-and- thirty 
more, could not. MureoTer, acoording to that aaoie ingenious 
theory, any twoof the 130 silent men, by voting against tho motioUf 
would hare eonatituliouftlly cturied it I If this be so, it hA« the 
disadvantage of not appealing to the common-senso of mankind. 

The Sapreme Oonrt of New Hampshire, by the mouth of 
Chief-Jastice Doe, has declared that where there weru 8bt< 
aldermen in all and six were proaont, of whom three voted, t 
vote was a valid one, even if but two voted in the a.lTirumtive. 
The Chief Justice alao adds words wliich must seem almiwt nide 
to aomo of thoae goutlemen, lawyers in tlicir own countrj-. who 
voiced their fooliiiga on th6 29th of January. " The exorcise of 
the law-making ihiwct." says the Chief Jnstioe, " is not to bo 
((topped by the mere silcnoo and inaction of some of the law- 
makers who «« pnaunt" If these legal gontlemon cared to mak 
a diftlog"* of it, they could assure tlie Chief Justice that, owiui 
to the sonnd wnso and ateadfastnees of tho House of Representa- 
tives, not only ■• more sUonoeand inaction " oould not "stop tho 
law-niuking power," but even maltitndinous TOciferoaanew tuid 
oaito violent action failed to do it. 

On the 10th of last D«eember, jast alWr the opening of tUia 
L|^OD. the Supreme Court of Indi*!*, \n Q»4 Oompany eg 
,Ule, pi«««l ngM||fa£aB6tiou v^^^ "imttdABco ot iBju-ni 



I 



RuiihvUl*J. 



letu-oiug. 



TBE LmiTATJOSS OF THtS SPEAKERSHIP; 



S87 



lowiog fta unbrokoD line of preccdonU — *• preoedents," let us My 
iu luiigna^ noT become itnraorLil, " — pnxwdonts of a houdred 
youn" — in favor of tlw doctriue tliat a mau who a present and 
can act is pan of a quoram, and cannot b; mere ailenoo escape all 
the reeponsibilitioa of his office except tboae of pay-day. la 
bmgnag* vbicb rocalU the terse »0Dt«nco of the Illinois court al- 
ready qnoted, the Indiana judgM dtxitare, aa if they had in mind 
the very Hoiue of BvpreaentatiTes that now \* : 

** ll U lMMioel*«Ha tlMt tk«lr fltlMkMalumld be aUottod gto^ut roroo Uian Uwlr 
aeUTa pppBrtttna. . . . CvHoiiily llie utiniMt that ewi with tbn ralntaat tlogo 
of plftunnittr b* aUaMd la that tiMtr touw miut te eouDtod a«*tnat Um mmHi- 
tlm.' 

" If nwmhvn iwn i u l dadra to dafMt & nuwmra, tlwj tavaL vote aipUiiat It. tor 
tuetlon wOl not keeoKivUak Uitlr porpon. Tbotr fOmM H mxuxIomsum nUmt 

~ TW rate <ra haw ovoricd la • rcn? oM ouo." 

It really tevnid iiL-nUeflB to cite itny more lognl authorities. and 
yet tho oourts conld fnmisb us with many more decisions aa 
Boand and pertinent as those already given. 

In Tiev of the head-lines a'hich lutve omnmerited the daily 
jonrnals of one of the partica of ibis country fur a number of 
Weeks, IB it not strange to note that not on« itiuglc court siigtuius 
their viflw of a (r"?*' constitutional question .' It really look* aa 
if it wnfl not HooiisliLutioual question at all, but a (.'UuBtitutional 
[certainty. For not only are the judges against them, bnt the 
Rtateamen are> and the politicians also. 

Oovemor llill's decision hud already been spread before the 
people, and need not be more than alluded to. It is, however, 
proper to say that bis views have been acqniesced in in the great 
Slate of New York, and while I do not pretend to have any 
knowledge of wliat events Kiirrounded the then Lieatcniuit- 
Oorenior's notion, it wonid not be at all aurprisinf;, in view of 
> the powerful resaoning there dispUtyed, to learn that his action 
had the prior approval of great lawyers and possibly even of 
)gnsat jndgea. 

l^Dneaseo has twico furnished examples of the record of tbow 

' pTHont and refuiint; to vote and the puasage of bills on a yea-and- 

uy vote which did not disclose a quorum. If those acts were 

[oTor called in question, nobody haa yet cited the decision over- 

Uinivtng theio. 

An amaodment to the State-Bank Act was passed in Ohio in 
Vallandighjtm'fi day in the same way, the Speaker announcing 



,bna< 



Isikc 



OU^B 



Wpii*» laJ ill 



tbc 



I A«rak>«rtbeVi 

>M» Off the 
Am thnr amii 
a: And jet nd 
tkM mbJMC «( 

: mag for tkB ««7 



FfBitesT^deeWM 
b1S8Sl 

fid Dot via quite j 
viikvkkk th0T«q«Md kfaeir* 
tfcw 8gm* Seaate, yec it vm di^ 

kiMi oC ■vpnK wiud «w 
MHoHHaf DufagHnwgp 
■ Mil II b*i llMIMUlllllil 

criM SB pNMBt aad n- 

na is iiltBlkal vith ike 

the nl« of tW HoQtt 

— rt At wfc» «» fnmnt 



inddartl 
fiK h M i wi iig of 

that thaw 
at. There 

vwiatha 
that thaw. 



B not ffiadoaed by accaal nBoe oa a nB-oriL 

la the ftaaqliaai a 
vhiA adme «itt ea i 

ilMiri Thm had 

leettdBfii^the I ' , the 
ta vote. Scoeter lh|buB, ib the cheiiv deeij 
Oeaaenti vhe Jw jpil the jiae lad aaji vccv 
ew Maiili ilMiBfa lew, awl mif itij 
dheirthe Hsa qptabon anae, aad he pffvaptfy de 
vhedevaaded the jiaeaad one were not tho«. 
ffriwdi of tjTBnar of that pcried. ia the penoa nt itr. Coepet^l 
ide the poiat that the Pair eaaweaMl mil lheQk«fa- a»^J^j i 
that he vae DOC ! ti w» Mi. heaaw, that the fiwt pni>d|Je 
had wbI ww or othir thea aad th«w iw tM iad a gnat Afaia, aad 
the fliMTi thereafter behavni aad obetnciun i rami, A wmm at 
the nd>«lMU aoOMtiMae rine ta th* dtfaity id (Actaal aariaf 

^ debatee of the CVioetttB- 

' *a«ld nanvn aajr i^d* 

o< th« CnwiiuiHuu 

■1 rheihx thaee ■ ujC a 



UMJTA TION8 Or TBE SPSAKKRSmP. 



389 



qnoruni, the Const itutioii provides u iray to gtl ntie. It is not 
by rt'Coriliag those preseDt u voting «ith«r ym or nuy, biibbjr 
rooking the abwnt pruseul. It provides for tbu supply of what 
is laoking. That vhich was lacking wiu< s c)ti(iriiiii. It itiipplieci 
that lack by " mu-Qtlaiico." Aituatliiuotj hIuiid w.-ia aad 'a imctus' 
aary. Is it incouceivable thit our auccetore sbuiild hAve tried to 
mpply by " •ttendanoe " h lack of n quorum if they knowr that 
"attenduioe " would not Bupjtly ihi- lack F \Vh}' send tor men if 
that was not tbe remedy ? 

AloDg vith thiB doctrine of the inTisibiUty of the viable have 
ooroe some spovious argomcuts which, by dint of frequent reixiti- 
tion, tiftve tAken on the importance of furmaliw or acceptc-d facta. 
Among these is tbe alleged duty of the majority to furnish a 
qaomm. Why should good Democrat, washing their hands, like 
Pontius PiUte. of this matter, and desiring nnty the quiet audcou- 
reiiient aeclofliou of their uvru Mfttci, be compelled to cniboiit to 
tho oatrago of being noticed in order to enable legislation to 
mAfoh ? Let the majority have their ineu l)(>re. Let every Re>| 
pnblicaD be in his seat, where he belongti. nnd there wonld be nof 
trouble. 

This sonods well. What could be more simple ? One hun- 
dred and flixty-eig)it Bepablicans present und voting is all we ask. 
Uafortunately, this is a world which even Congress does not ut- 
terly absorb. Sickueea and death and busmeu crifies dol 
not spare even CongroBsmon. In the stragglcfl over the/ 
election case of JackwD and Smith, two men were ab- 
sent on ncconnt of uanses utterly imposnble to be over- 
come; two more came at risk of further sicknera and 
pitrhn|ia of their lives. At the iipxt crisis, when on the adoption 
uf tbe new rules it seemed desirable to hn.vc all the Bcpublicaus 
there, Mr. MnKinley, who waa in good health on the prior oc- 
casion, dared not le«ve his room. Mr. Morrow had taken tho 
place of Mr. Rockwell on the sick-list, and a death in his family 
bad sent Mr. Van Schaick homo in place of Mr. Caawell, who 
Ovuld uot bo with Bs on the deoirion of tbe election cose. Slaoy 
Bepromntattvea in Congresa, moreover, are men of afTairg, bosi- 
nfl« men who cannot cbrow away their enterprises and elose up 
thirir aliopa etitin-lr. If the country wiuits their serrices,— 
wd tto men oro more nseful by reason of the very ability and 
jtKlpMnt which put them in the fare front of thohnsineM world. 



THE UmTATlOm OF THE SPBAKEBSUSi: 



381 



' imwaadiDgB." The powera aod ilatiea of Uie Speaker are not d»- 
flned in the OntuiitutioQ or iu an^' statute, bnt are to be ascer- 
tAined from tbe general practice of parliamcntarj bodies aiid from 
£uch mice aa tlic lIou«6 of ltoprcecntAiiv«8 ma;, from time to 
timu. we proper to oilopt. The frnmers oi the CoiiHtituLioii were 
familiar vilh the law ami practice of tbc Britiali Uoufie of Com- 
moaa, th« ^nial ti<gis[utive assembly of their mother- cod ii try. and 
it 18 not anreaaouabie to snppoao that when they provided for the 
dectioD of a Speakor, they had in contemplation a prceidtng 
oQScvr with nnbfttantially the Baroe powem, dutie«, and renponRi- 
htliliu^ a« hat] belonged for munyconturies to the prwiding officer 
ill that body. 

While the right to enUfgc or restrict th&sc powers, duties, 
and roiiponnbilitioi by its own nilea wan cxpre««ly conforr»>d npon 
the iliKtae of Repreaentaliras, it cannot be supposed that tbo 
aiithore of the Constitotion intended, by tbia clause, to aulhonKe 
the exercise of a power which would deetroj or impair the free 
repreaentatire ehanictor of tbv body itself, Like all other powers 
dob^ated by the CVmstitntioii, the authority to make rules niaat 
be (MnBtrued and exerciaed in harmouy with ibe punoral spirit 
and plan of our ri.-piiblican institutions ; und tbeivfort^ uu^' rule 
which confers upon the Speaker arbitrary power and allows him, 
at his own will and pleainre, to deprive mcmlwra of the right to 
mak« onliuary parliamentary motion* and have them voted on by 
the ITonae is an inexciuaUe sDrrendcr of ilu- privilegea of a free 
oonatitooncy, and a f^Ton perversion of a power which wa« con- 
brred for the rerr purpose of promoting and proeerring the ia- 
dependence of the repreaentatiTe. Members of the )Ion«« do not 
act for tbemselvea, either in making rules or pacing laws ; they 
act for OiB people whnm they represent, and whenever thoy pat 
fetter* upon their nwii limlM or slific their own voioee, they in- 
flict a gri«To»s injury upon their constituenta. 

Arbitrary power can exist nowhere in a free gOTemment, and 
If it be trao, aa now claimed, that the pf)piitBr bniiich of the login- 
latire dopartment has ln-eu suthunr.i>d to confer such power 
upon anyone man, no matter what his official title may be. it ia 
cfaar that there if a defect in onr Fvstem not heretofore deteot«d 
bjT the most van>fDl ami intelligent ol)mrTer9. Tlic Consttta- 
tion begins with the declaration that "all leginlative power herein 
giuiled shall be Tostcfl in a Cougroas of tlxt United States, whicli 



TBE LIVlTA-nOSS OF TUK SPKAKKKSHtr. 893 

118 evi\ bad boen propoeed, — a remedy con6i9tf>ni willi tin, f'on- 
BtUutiuQ uiid Ihv fxivdom of parluunontiry prouciHlinge, — there 
vroatd hare been UtUe, if any, oppcMition from the tninotity. 
But tliero wus no nec^-Hniitj for sucli nuliejil ch&»gei( an have been 
nude, and notliidg hut tlie most iinpcmtive necewit}' coutd (umUh 
on eicuse for tbcm. 

It ftppMrs to be popalarlj supposed that the old nilM Afforded 
groaler opportuuitie^ for obslructive proceedings thaa were 
aflonltMl bf the role* of tegishttive bodivc generally : but. in fact, 
sach wati not the caso. In thi* British Iloumt of Cotntnons tb« 
♦pportunitiea are now, and aiways havcbitu. much grcalcr than 
tbejr ever were iu our Huubu of Hvpr^t!(>nutiv(!8, nnd while mucb 
incoDveuieoue has freqaently rei(iilt«d on account of dilatory pro- 
ceedingfi in thoCommuns, no KngliabstBtvsman has ever Tentared 
t4i propoHv Kuuli radical and oppivttdivo n-gnUttiDuii tn have just 
beeti adopted here. In onr liouEe, in addition to the usaal par- 
Uatnentary motions vhieh are allowed in the Cooinione, we have 
always had the previous qaeaiiuu (which cuts off dehati^), and for 
a long lime tiieni bas beeu a rtilt; liiiiiiiiig HiHvchcs to one hour 
Mdk Iu Cb« lIoii9e of Commons there is no prerions qaostioo, 
and Hfi (inler limiting the length of 8pe«ehes. I'riorto November 
i7, It^, ihu oulv limitation upon debate wag an order nuule in 
18(M that, " if any man speak impertinently, or besiile the qnes- 
tiiHi io hand, it stands with Ihu onlem of the llmiGe for Mr. 
Spoaker to intermpt him ; and to have the pleasure of the Uoum: 
whether iJiey will further hnr him." But tJiin kos found insuf. 
fioienl to restrain momherxand prevent tliem from consuming the 
time of lliu IIouM) uxeli-mly in discussing irrelevant qucdtiona and 
repoatini; llie aame ar^uinent^ ovor and over ; and, con^ucntjy, 
on the '•f7th of November, 18^'.!, the followiiifr onlcr was made : 

"Tlwifli— Imi. Ill llm ebalRnut ot WtynimA M*nm,iaMj cull tbo MUanUnii «t 
UMHoMM^arartaseoBuiUtM. to OMttawd tiMlov»DM or Udloa npeauni m 
IIh part «(• Dianbar : and BUT direct thoaienilMr Ui dJaeoMlDOs UaapMcia.' 

lliii does not stop debate, but only comjwls the ofTonding 
metober to cease speaking out of order, and it ia lees rcetrietiru 
than the mle which has for a long time prevailed In the House 
of ItoprGsentatires. Onr rale requires every member, when 
■peaking, to couBno himself to the quoit ioit under debate, uiid it 
la nut neCMBor; to wait until ho had Uvn ^iiiltY of "oontiiMii-d 
irr»)viraii««." but he may be called to order by tlio Speaker or any 
TOL. cu— KD. 400. 20 



THE UVTTATlom OF THE SPEAKERSHIP. 



395 



of UeprowututivaB, vhich has been rcadopted, arid hy no mouns 
WA 9oveTV afi our constitutional provision which stithorizes tho 
■ctuol expulaoii of a member. 

The rules and orders of the OoramoDs to which reierence has 
h«en made wera adopted to arrest a aeries of ohitiruntiTo praoeed- 
ings which bad alrcftdy prodnoed (ho most alnrmiug rosnlts, and 
which, if persisted in, threatened the ptuice of Ihi) empire; and 
they are mentioned here for two parpoeea : one is to sliow that, 
notwithstanding these rules and orders, which by many were con- 
sidered harah and unresiWDabie, tho opportonitios for oVstniotioii 
and delay are still p-eater in the Commons than they ever were in 
oar ElouKe of Representatives; und Lliu uther \* to ebow that, even 
in the presence of ao grave a crisis us then existed, it was not 
deemed consistent with the rights) of indiTtdnal membiirK, or tho 
frMdomot the body collectively, to confer upon the Speaker aacb 
extraordinary authority as is now veiled in the Sjieaker of the 
Heuseof R4>prewntatives by the new rules just adoptod here. 

These new rtilee go far beyond ail precedent here or elsewhere, 
and confer upon tho Speaker the abeoluto power to refuse to 
entertain any motion whatever if he chooses to consider it diU- 
tory, although the motion itself may be clearly in order and 
vxpreMly authorixml by tho very mien under which he ia acting. 
iTor lustauco, whun a motion in uuder dL-butu. the following mo- 
I AK expressly provided for : to adjourn, to lay on the table, 

the prcvioiiH (fnoxtion. to ]K>st|>rmo to B day certain, to refer, 
to amend, and Lu puotpuut- iudelitiitely. These motions are al- 
wayv in order when any matter of leguilatinn is under considera- 
tion, and yet by the new clause — inserted, it is understood, at the 
instuDce of the Speaker himtetf — he ts authorized to refuso to 
vntprtuin all or uny one of them upon tho ground that in his 
opinion it is duuIp for the purpooeof delay ; and there is no appeal 
to the llou9o from his derision nnless he may see properto fiennit 
it, IxeauBd he can held that tho appeal itaolf i« a dihUory pro- 
oeediog. One of the rules which has "Yigted evRr since Cougreai 
was organised provides that the Speaker ahall " decide all ques* 
tiomi of order, eubjert to an appeal by any member" ; but tliat 
oflicer is now cli^tbed with tho power to deny this ancient right of 
appeal, and make bis own wi)l the law of the Honso. 

N't! sucti puwur wa« evtrr hvturv canfernM] upon a presiding ufG- 
a deliberative body, and it It safe to aay that the Ihmm uf 



mS KOBTH .iMSHlCAS REMKW. 



\it>ftmtmt»iiTKa of tb« Uomxl SUtM ia the 01U5 leglalatiTewmiB* 
Mv in ibf* oiviliwd worU Uwt would oonsent to part, evcD tt-in- 
|H>r»rit.v, witli the tight to ooiutrao ita own rnlM uf procmdi&c 
ttU<) protoRt ilsvlf o^tut improper decinutu alTrctinjr the Hghtej 
uf it4 iDtinilwra. " Tbo nltimstc Bntlioriir apon mil poiou is the 
Iluoap iuwif." my* Sir Thomu Rnkinc Uat. in hit gnmt woric 
on thw " bi», l*nTi)«)CQe. PmceediDgc, aad Usage of pKrttAiueiit''; 
bat this b 00 ioagfr tni« o( oar Hoas* of Ri^m»entatjTee. Thia 
jrawer, which is iaba«nt ia efMT fne repnsetitatire bodr, hu 
Iwoa ilWiHonh'Ir mrrendfirM]. That the Honae dtstiootljr and«r- 
•tucil what it was doing ta elcorlj slwwn hj thu fact that, dorisg 
tb* «o(wdi>ratioa of th« now rales, it rejected a propoMd amenil- 
nwnt ihai *' Um Spsaktr ahall not. in anj eatt, rffase to eatcrtaia 
an appMl ttvtm his decidaa.** This amendmoDt was rejected I^ 
a strict partT rate, em? Democrat praaent voting {or h and era; 
Kepuhlkaa pntaat ntii^ i^ilul iL 

The Ott Mtft»t i»tt pravM«B that a n^jerity of eadi Honae 
'* slkall ocittslitate a qaomm to do hasJMea." and for more than s 
haiMlred rears ii hac beea mniftwml; keU, vbcBaner the qaestlon 
ards«^ that this neqnirad not nerslr that a n^jori^ should he 
pvesMt. hdt thM n«h a ■ajortll Must actaallr partidpste in the 
■nukoseiMa «( hwsMi—. awl tiwC ^rben the yeas and nays an 
takwt and MUand mfiM the jomal, thai ottrial noord is th« 
otmAaain aad uchMire enridsoo* as to tba Bunber praent aod 
ttHmc. Dmriagditpi!ws»fcniwsiiiiogC<mwt.b»fcgeralMhMl 
htm adopted, aad thswfa w htfcw the Hum s ^j mpferred gpoo 
the Spacer aayaaih w i lj «iw the ^mnai, he held that vhca 
th»7«ae aad ii^vef* tribm. awl lenthua^jaanua *ot»d, ho 
had a right to cwot «<ah8fa p n iii —l and net rotil^ oaose their 
MBsatttht aUHtd ■(«& A* jewwLawl hr Ais ■•«» show 
the ni ili n ii tt m i^aanm aari "4» hwuHv" ia the Utmae. 
Sow the new raise eosiam a thMm athami ^ the -'peafcar to 
4am* the ckrh to aoto the aaM« oC wiMliiiei wWaie pt^t 

to toaJte a MMTHs. and neoM ihaM in 



the jaanal to h* «o««tod and ""-"--' m 



the 



T^ n«M •< thr Qmsw to ewiVwr^ t>« ^^«bIt? «=> d^ie« the 
^ Hull o|»» M 



TSE UMTTATIOXS OF TBE SPEAKESShJf. 



397 



tational queetioo; bat the practical effect of the rule, for tbo tiroo 
beiiig, will be that in u House coiiaisling, u-bon ftill, of 330 mem- 
bent, of wkom 16B cQtiBtUubea quorum, the Speaker may tluclai-o 
thu miMl impurlAut bills powcd when the n^xiril eliuus that 
the; were voted for by ono member only, if tbera uro enouf^h 
oiben present to make a quorum. Unleeti ntl pnrrioitfl pre- 
siding officers were wrung, tills is a Sagmul viol»tiuii of tlie 
Coastitution ; but whether so or not, it is certuinly a most Aan- 
geroui innovattoD upon the BottUil practice of tho Iluuw, und, 
itutead of being n reform, it is s movement in thu directiou of 
loon, unjust, and improvident legislation. Tho wudoucy iu recuut 
timet! ii to require, bvexpreosoonBtitutional provit»ion,theufBrmu- 
tim votti of a majority of uJI tbo mumherBflucted to legtHlativo aa- 
■Offlblies id order to pASd bills, and to uiukeit impcruttvu iu cirory 
oue tliat the yooa and nays shall be taken and entered upon the 
joaraol. In some of the State* thiK proviitton applies only to bills 
appropriating muoey. or crestiug public liubilili(L<t, or imposing 
taxee, while in others it applies to all matters of legiithilioii ; but 
towboleTerexteot it goes, it indicutee cleiirly a growing disposi- 
tion among the people to bo moi'o caroful iu tbo dulegutiuii of 
power to their reprewntatives and to roqnire the rote of actual 
mijoritios to enact hiws. 

Jt is true that tb« power now conferred upon tho Speaker 
has been exercised in wmu uf the .State legislatun>« in times of 
high political excitement or bitter persunul contosta ; but tlie 
dtflpaiwtiomitti judgment of tlie thoughtful and conaerratire jieople 
of the cuimtrv cnndomus it, and n» conslitutiimiil conrentiou bas 
ventured to declare in terms that a minority could pass laws even 
though tbe majority were abeout or Hilent. 

'Svl only is the power of the Speaker increased by the cbungea 
in (ho rules already referred to, hut in many other ways (he con* 
trol of bosiaess is taken from the House and placed in his hands. 
Heretofore all public bills bare been introduced in open eessJon, 
aod rafenvd to their appropriate eomniiitces. their tUleo bnTJng 
been first read in order iliatercry member might know Kt what sub- 
jocta tfaey rolated. The Speaker usually directed the refereooet 
but always in the preaeoce of the House, and if uny member 
doobt«d thu propriety of an order of rofureuce iudie»ted by him, 
foch mamber bad the right to move to refer the bill to some 
other coranuttec. aud lure it read in full, au tliot a rote 



> 



I 



TBB UmTATlOm OF THE 8PEAKER8mP. SM 

mittre cUiming jarisdictton, nron the report of tho commilteo to 
which it »M erroueoufllf referred. The priribgo ot the member 
U notr taken awaj, and if he oiiinot aocare ananlmoun ronwat to 
BCnd his bill wht'K itrcollf nughl to bavoi^onriii lliu first iiutaiioc, 
and«r the rules hd most tppeml to u conimitLc« for relief from tho 
•rroQOoait action of th« S{>i>akt.>r. 

The wloptioi) of the new rales is in many respects n long slep 
in exactly the wrnng diroction. Thin in espociidly tho cuwt eo far 
M ibay ralato to tho povora of the Spcakt>>r. IMomi ehould have 
aeouMnoMl by curtailing, iiuteail of eiteuditi^, thi< uuthurity i>( 
that officer, and the control of tho IIoiiso itiM>lf over iu own pro- 
ceMllogaxhould hare been cnUrged upon some jiUit whinli woald 
bare pmrc-nti-d uan-asoualilo and fiK-.tiaiifi obntrtiRtion wid doby> 
but at tho aame time given ample opportunicy for dWibcrato oon- 
dderation and action. Under any system of nilcui that can be 
devised. tb» presiding officer in a body so niitnerous aa 
the riousu of KcprmontatireA will nvcoHKirily haio more 
power timn ought to bo intrusted tu any muu iu thu country ; 
and Qo matter bow Just and impartial he may be, there will bo 
occasions when bo cannot pscajte thu imputation, at lesAt, of unfair 
and arbitrary action. In tho oouflic-t of opposing interests and 
opinicias, he is often compelled to decide important queations 
witbnal jrropvr timt^ for couaideration ; and, even if he is guilty 
of no int^'Uttonal nbnse of his groat authority, he may do an 
actual inJuHtice which cannot afterwards be repairod. The 
nmple power to decide wlint member shati be recc^ised 
to sjwak or Buiku a motion when more than uni; rises, 
•ppMn) to be noeesMry in order to prevent constant 
■tmgglM and confuuion on the floor, and yet it is a power 
which often enables the S|»eaker to determine what meaanres 
shall b(< talcnn up. and in therr-foro incondstent with the absolute 
(reedojn and equality of mvnibem. When auch resulta mav fol- 
low the exercise of a power bo simple and noceasary as thid, it is 
not Ntmn;:'- that the iidvoc«tt« of equal rights in the House shoald 
look wiili Home degree of ahirm upi^m eveiy proposition to eoufer 
additioiukl authority upon its prcdding' officer. 

J. Q. OAUjaLB. 




NOTES AND COUUEyTS. 



401 



r to pomlMr (MllBt- Th» JIagUahwBi br axAiaple. lound Um TukUU raorabuil 
■ mMto M»d BrtMB. wttb hk Utoinhto m tof away from gBwar*! morter h tba bf 
lrtiiin>iow». TIm poUahod FroDcbBiMt (ou»d tb« do*p<M>l ChlDMiMti M dlgnUod 
•ltd u aonrtoona M kitnaolf. Tb« (I«nnan trucl«n ■>») fitna«r« «r«r« aurvriMd la 
iMn tliAt Am«ria»RAdK))MUtMN>*eM«dfftrnUiicIii>fJ»<n«nUMid had miwl* tnvtm- 
UflMBCxeaadl^ in muiy liutsnoH tbolr own. Ttao lnfliMiuw wcortod b^ Uio dtMMni' 
toBUaBB(aoiBtuaipv«ctJetdlafanBniioii«vbaD tboriMUr* manMd to tbolrlunaM 
tMd » iroMlarrvtIrtondMliicellhetniwDUwiKVulu' wlud. XMth Bm-nwdlngto- 
t«mfttloiuJexlilbttkMiluMlncj«u«dknowhid|eMid tiAclllc fMltng, mud tbeas wdl be 
rtUIfviUiarenlMocedwticn Ui*grMteflt«Miitr7ln ibQ world opOMharptMi, on « 
titmH tmaimnmrj. to Ibe ladutrlal and commarcl»l trluuriila cf Uia two taend 
ivbdrw. 

TtiRcbacil7aaepU««tii t)i« t'pil«dSt«t<« to bold tbo vartd'a (air, nod thai la 
Kow Tock cltr> No o»o «ppr«clkt«w or luliulrf* lb* vntorpHw and eonncr of owr 
Rt«»t VtotcndllM tDorotboD I do^ bat tun siin: their popuIaUoaa wlUvoBMat to 
pMt aaU* MlBcb cotuddoratlen* tn ordtr [a loake lb« «xhlblUoa of % a amdit lo oar 
npofatta te tb« blfboM 4«(r*«. To oxpoet oror; rlaltM' Ic AiMrios (a Uavel balf 
war acroM [he eantteca', aft«r m^dnc the oomb )oiini«T. «roaM hnvo the ama 
aOKt upaa praapottln vMton u Uia ihoiighlta an JjBwleaBaf « ionnuT te8t 
nUMiliMg tB«Md oC Ijcndoo. Aidds (tmh ttaat.Na«r Yorttaov iii«[iopoliB,BMl 
th«femaKHtdt]r(it.AA«rtcalatliabett AmcrioaaMiueL AKaiii,to ooiudderttig Um 
AiBiKlalancccaaaf tb«talr, oradopaadniMoAflaericaaTWtaniapoaUKipMiplowtio 
*MCU.naLooce.butbaira dtuca er ■ acoro <rf ttaw. and »y tlwtr ilmliwtoa Met 
ttBe^ Now Yuk !■ rlrtoAUr mr c<nti« of pgpolatka. It la of May booom to liw 
seoplaof Doateo. rhJbdclphlo, WaaUoRtoa, PIttabius. BkUlmon. QMgtvOli,UiA 
aDttofinatdtteooltbeBMt. wbooo oombiawl popuUtloa UprabaUy twMijr orona 
kaodnd Una* that la a alalter TMfhia around of aaj otker dty tbat hu bean 
Mtfowd fartbooxpodtloti. Tlo fair mom not ba off tb« Uaad. bowercr. Tbo 
baatitnffir it. la mf inigiaeot. In t!i0 ewt adoM^ by (bo DommltUo At Ibe ncnb nd 
oCOntMlPark. 

WkM BOnl fealDro would I propMO r Now, I ifOl pnaeul Itie Fair OooiiultlM) 
wUhenaodBr Idoaa— amldoa thatnlitlit brlDctaa tn a todlltua of niuMiy. la ibu 
tawsun at Boolak, tn EK7pt> Ilea tba BommjUad oorrpaa of Ramtaea tl., tbe 
Pbuwibaf tbeExDdits.intbtbato(U«daacbt«r, tboHTlour o< Iduacakand Mber 
!■■ mwUniililiuT iiflbii I iijiil Hbyptlan tandUrof tbat era. I bad aatluntaod an 
■aaallaofleritoKKTlMlaitOoranmaMaaKiecb as IHMKO to aHoii ma to «(blUt 
tkow ranalna la Enrape aad Um Csttod SiatoK I wUlretbifiiliAinr rlghtofpilodty 
ef dabn In llio Uen to tbo ftir OoumlMoa. Lot Ifaora obtain U« loan of Umm 
movtwurralioab^an tbeCe7ptlaaao*cnunont,aMl allow tbo Kl^odlva l«Mnd Ua 
own KJdJero lo ff«ard lk« qoAaa Think of U>» ataptAdoBtiMaa of tb» Inooaendtjl 
To oEhlWt to tUo iwopta of tbo nInMMBtb i^ntarf. In a oonnuy not dtaooTorwd 
iniUa.aeo or Xmi rovH afi«p hbidMth, thooofpaeof tlio klos at wboin wehnva 
tha cnrllMt reoonll VomUm. too. Uibl ibat eoriMO la ao pa<MU)> pmerrod mtuir 
QiMMBdaafTaaralnUietoaibtWtltafeatiiraaan aluDatiHrfact; w patfeoi Uuil 
aini7 maa, wman, aad cltUd wbo looka upon tba naanar mar know tbe couulo- 
naDoa of ttaedaoMit wbo ovnlod w craM aa Inflnanoe n^on tbe bMonr of Ibe world . 
Aad It mlglit be • maful t)M«Kbt lA tbtoKeneratlQa, praad 01 It* wfentlOcaadBMobaa- 
kal prlaupba. lo bear la latwl tbat tbe art Ibat Kubalmed lb* body of Baateeee ao 
IvteoUr h loei, witb a (rent nutoy otfaen Ibat wen kaown to rcaiate anli^nlty. 

P. T. Baanmt, 

n. 

ura imoiuxoB ik ma rtrmto rrrAJVK. 



I Mill HI ol laaartac hoMB Uvea la tbe aalnral oatgrnvtb of • etata of cl7ll. 
I aad la aa aMaatlal part of tL Tbewbola fyatswof iiebBcaadpitvaiacTadUa 
naCeaaAallaBaninafwIaiitortaBt taLtMw•l^belnKof Um coanmnnUy Iban 
Idoeelbetdeaaf UfblaaaTanM. NodaMof iaanclal tnatUatluaa whlrb lEMborUM 



403 



THE NORTB AMSRICAS RKVIBW. 



mftU aunij and raid«r poiAla tko sn^t iuid«rtalilaga vltf » part nocv tnifertaat 
(han do tboM d«TiM«d to tli« bulDeOT at lUo iBasiaaca 

| «W t i«*« y , kna«B««g* bi ODLMpataw twTOod Um iBuoMttatvmMib oflta iMmptch* 
tkafa- iifiukl bMBflt »mA to Um CTMkt adruUga ■>( Ha endltari. Bj Um miu 
BMuiatlMlB<l*MMl !■ anttblad U okptaHM M> tiJMiU aaJ to n— thwii. m< <«ly 
hrUamnivniaklnRlforUwtatUMoauuiwntelirafM, UtethMOi^tirklMiuuu 
aloM UMl UW BuiorllT nt iBdlfldoOi out eonaateaUaBiir flwmtii Um (wmOu aod 
h*p | iln ii wUok MoonpMir tbaiwnnndHlUlM oC Um Cunllf ralUIm: and (li« r«liM 
of tntiiM aatirtt ou In ua oUmc way ba aasd h •. pnanu c«p<uL TbU idM wm 
vgTT ola«riy MX iBilli la Ua paUUon to Ito BigHih PHrthuncitt fof tb» liMMfWMODa 
of Uio Eqnltabla Gam^taij la ITCI. Tlila poUHon n«!lMa"llialEr««(niunbaaa( 
B. H.'m avlifaota, wbaaoaubalac«ii«e priadpaUr dapeuda «■ Cba wlwlga, HlpoMUuaod 
oibortnaoniM p^raUa to Ibom dntef UmIt BktvralBTM, or ontbatKvAUaiWM 
f»uUi«lraaroMllnkd«tv«coiipMloB^lftbor, udhidutiy.m tot dMlrana of «b- 
loriae IbKi a aoelBtr tmmmmia^ tba Htm of •MihatkM', fci4nlartoaxtMid.aftar 
ttgfa-iiaaaaaa. thabMattt et IkatrpnaiBt Inttamea to thalr AunOlaa MulraUtloM. 
who Bwy nUiarwtM ba radneed to axtraBo porortr ud dlWgaat br ttio pramftlna 
da*tli of UmIt aeraral kaabaadi^ lUbai^ ud Mondi^ vrMcb bamaiia IMaatkn tha 
paUllaaan hunbtr apprvhviul cwuot bo aflbcCiianr oairled iMo exscaiioci wttboai 
H. U.la Borat autLorit]' to Intorpovftte tbcu (or tbal pnrpoM.' 

Thia ■woolalkia. whtofa who Inoacpaimloal tine following ra«r, mL m-h piobaUi' 
tbo flnt In wUeh aunjttaloc raaonUliic adcotUic prtadiilM f^rla t niMl « rooUurid. It 
hM pToaacviad tbo boalnaaa wttb aaCvtr a«d prodt U> lis noiBbara Iron Uial Uum to 
Um pr«M«tt dsf, k padod of UB yaaiv, uid dow ■taod* UMSooIlodi It. Indeed, It la 
•qoAllAd, In flwuteUl MNogtb.bT'aityotliorooqKmtkioat iM>rd«aoriptlMk, 

A Mmtnct whtrh a^rMMi th*i, tit eofuridarMtoK tt tho ftvatnt paTTuant «l > 
««n*li> lum. k much latcor on* wfll be paid at tbo ba^enlnc o( aoina fnlan, hit 
maoTtaln, nvrnt. can only bo aulafod Into wttli atfatT bjr a kaowledso of wbaa that 
aTOBltrfB prabahUr Uke plaiM,ud thaaxeondoaorannnber at Nlmilar oontraea 
iw*ilfl<t<1 J *«TB* '" aWmiiMi* iha ■iwMut rd nhaiwui Tlia rtatlatloB ot the noTtaHly 
of tbo gvMval popolatton bnvo baeo laliiarMl wltb wo mndk care and aoounor that 
tap tow irhlA KPTonii the dpalli-tato Is well nndew*ood. Inaoj-onaiiniiaUjlatt* 
nuimft to dvawajr wltii tbocdboloC daalti frnna local cnanaii a aeries of ooouinala 
could nloly bo wtloiod Istoforttw pagmoatof napeciiad ann at tbo denfth of encti 
auHabor la rotun tor an linnBadtolo oontrlbotioa. whlob wonld raiy In nccotdaace 
wllfa tbe ntM oC Intomt at wUeh It aboold b« Hsaatod that Uw fund m-wuld bo 
Improrcd. iliiiiMimlatlnn |irnirnilli>j iiinb a r ti-init If H-rtrn iirnaititn. ■uiUJ.m 
tlM> wbolo, oooompBah a (ood work, but aa It woinld Inrolva t^ old and tb* r<nuw> 
tltoatrong aadtba fMbla. noMoCUie taullriduBla would necivaaltlior aioro or 1^ 
thon oxaet JuUm. bt praetleay tbanfom. Um rooag and atraiw wonld docliM to 
oaat Ihdr tota witli IboH whoae ooadlttoo would reader prakaUe Um onrUor Hkataittj 
of Ikilr oontneta. Ttifl»«aabanowai-olocaipalllncBanMnlDoaMbatloaa.aadaB 
tataUtntfoa wUc^ abDoU open lla door* to all oooian wooM aoon foal ibe (aial olhew 
(tf B aeleelloo walaat tt pronipled br oeV-hiUieet, whloh would wpeoHj esltaiMt lio 
rwauroea apos aar baol' poMtUo to bo oalahllBbed. 

Hoaco It tiaa be«n (ouud aa fr a w r to adopt a atandard for admltolon to Uf*- 
tpanraaoo cogp(icatlpn> by *lii<--b ao gwat h oq n aHt l ea ohall «zlBt.«ad loadmltoatv 
thooe who abaU ba fonad It Pbjriloal annlnatloB and porMual aad eamilT r«Mid lo 
pooacaa la tlw hlgh«aCdagi«e the alomaaUoC loncairUr. No dapartoroo wotthr e( 
BMnttenfremtblaprlnetrlobBra rat been waatarad by the oompaatea of iba United 
Wataa: but tha pnutioo ot acoopUnc Inrartor Utaa haa been adoplod with aaob mrcaw 
br aoma of tba moat akurnltr- and iBtaitlKaatlr-eoBdnotad oompaaleaot thowoild 
thai K«Miiu probaMothat at aodMaatdar ifaia pUawlU atleaat laetfTva fait 
Mai In tUa omintr;. ^^^^^^ 

TbearsicDi usnally adurl ^^^^^^ « peraoo found aot to ho uit lo Ui a ataad. 
ard of ftnl daaa ta lo %iM r '**r> to lb* rml •«« m will brtng Ik •« to 

tiM axpoetatioa ot Uhs • ** aaaoglate wbo eoaaoaaaa anaa of lAa 



AOTKs AitD cojatnyrs. 



408 



taotna Ukalf to prodOM pnoHltm da«£h. la proof «f Um pctMHIy of Mflatr 
■»V)l>aBgUtlaiii»Uiod.aodar>om4lJw«tl«<lh<OTott(»l«g»<Mto<lo«iibitttBttdiiMttBO 
to «U nlawM. U will to liit«fMt]BS to clW Ui« expMMiica of ■ oompany new aior* 
Umd torif 7Mn old, wbooe obaerraUona ooror » DUnilier vt Urea ofoU rartoUM 
quit* nlBdeBl to ilNiMDstnta UM} foMlUUcr at thoohcuie. A careful tOTvaUg^ 
tionof Um Bctnal BuaMBtT •■ ciMnpand wlib tbu to tooxpeolMl byaMiuMlMd 
tablatMMd«paa«ito(lr*nt-oUMilBkaBlu>wedtlM(aUowlaKraBalU): bpoMd M 
riik aattTMMOVpM "MlMt."4lTB> : actm) dMthii sn : rMl9 of actul to Mcpacud 
itnattit. flffl riiiiii'l liiitiili Killnii aoMptod mi ma adiraApw, •cconUav t« tikoa^ 
mmad agi*. Uplift; octiMl de*tlM,(8t; r«Ui> of Mctu*! to expected do*Ui^ JSI. 
"nwitim UiBtUM ot|^Mitliil«CHleil to be allaJocd by tho Mtlag-op of iioil«r«Tanwv 
Btm fak UpoMibl*, topot Um Socletr *D nwpMl o( ttiMn on tlw nau f ooUmg •« If tbey 
bardbM«iMtaet.ltlslln>«Ui«t the pTMOeal ontMBUoCtUatftblnlathAt., mmm- 
1am thrM.Uw8ooM7hwMM«alradded«nilB(lMtanaib«roryMra totlioacMof 
dapnslatad UvtK ThedUllKaaM laaonaalLlxmrercir. ibsl IIumt IwInlriytOKliiMd 
tboCtbodaUcaiatMk iir ■miwiiiiiiiiI lioi fMimiilhi Imiii il wlib aubnuuillBlJuiitlM tp 

XHh TliMtlHrfllMMbW." 

Bttk lwnr«T«c aandttotod, Uf • Inawanoo haa appeaM w> stnuaslr to Uw aeoeHl- 
IIh of Mankind I and haa tteea ao CMCcrlr adopted a* anpptrlnK a olearly-daAiMd 
wmH, tbat aumbmloe* nwociaUiMU bom of iKftomiux! and fnud Iibt* apptalod Mc- 
oaaafnltr to t^ beet tnaUncta at huDiAa nutsro. It U An tiii/ortuaato fhMitrtnriltlti 
atthia baatnew that, whOathapirtivciplM thAt uad<rll6 m fotudkUoai am not at all 
dM«iilta(ocMipralienakHi to Uieponm nl mvUiuirjr luUilllmiiinii. j<il en iimlwilaiiil 
!■■ of tta«B iwnUrM men Una aad aU«DUon Uuui oaa nwtoisatltr be clven to 
ikaiaVaei. Adraiilaseliaabetntakao of thiaqnaliiy dm only todetraudby (»•• 
^(o iW aaocHc la a. but to aoinatt upon the ime and loKlliaiau protooUon whtob 
■bocUtf to tba aolo oUcct oC tho botfaeai^ maay KbeoMe wkioti an calcalaud to 
dlvart Bora or leoa of tint rnnda lalondad for tbo atdmaM) amelhaMloa of Iha (amlly 
u ■pemlaUre eoda. 

lb oanaeaoooipraheneiunctf tho masnltndoatrewljr attained bjr tlUe bnalnoas. It 
nar to miA tbat In Now York State dnrlns Um y«ac IM Uioca wan about tldrir Ufa- 
luiuaaoa caupaaka la active operatlaa. harlaw outeUndlnR at Um doao oT the year 
obUgatbiae aaMunUag tooMre thaa tSrHOiOOMM. Tbeae eorpcntloiw bold al tbat 
ttnapeoportr to theainoimtof oreg fSnjIttbJUO, tto gteatar part of whieb vmtjumi* 
■y at what la tachaleally known at tba "MMire" mnd. Thla may be hrlefty 
4aaoribWl aa Itaa mm whtah. calralalsd by prladplaa a pfio rod bj nany yoan of 
axpedcaoa.los«tberirll^tboprcailtuna to to reealvad. will aallloa to dloobatre tha 
■aldlUlaBaalbsyinatiua^ TbevaaamelBaUtTitlau toi'enoetv«yl. iDlbeaBsregala, 
paMaluiiii to tbeamoimtortLTTUaXttOiaad tore paid tomatnbcn aiul ttob'tamlUae 
la rartoni wars •l.MXOOD.-aa Ttor baTtt.UMroft>re.paIdoiitOBaeeoaittof iiMiurad 
•■d rwanil imiirkcia. and mw liald for tbo olUnMto aalliAatJan of Tmlatwidlitg 
aaiaaiaaiila, a eiun Urgw bj flTOiOtaiW tban that wblcb toabewi paid In : Ui» 
latatMt lacalTcd oa Um InroMod fnnda banns be^ eiilflclenl to par Uia expeoMa 
eC oeadnctiag Um btHloeea In addition to Ifaa ^t-mootioacd amooiib 

A ooDiUaiatlaa of Uia opoatioaa et Mfk bMmamw would BMnely to Mni|llet« 
wlUioue Ito ataUuMat t^at eoDperatlvB or aaataanaeat aodeUeaopatallaic In Now 
Tart.BiittoapaakofaTaatnnmberfaaltoraecUPDaofttoooQiitiy.pMbabljrbadoiit' 
alaadlia at tbla dato ecrtlBealaa to the aqnb»r of OTar tBtflOt. lBMan*eha«ixiaat<tf 
tkMea«rea»mtadonotatJp«lal« for doflnllopariBrni*. but make thorn contbigoat 
vpoD tba W Bi f pt of eoQeeUoBa lerfod at <u)r«r1«tii ixrioil f. fre^aently sabaeiiiieat to 
Um matnritr of Um olalnuu It li nat praetfcable to aUU with evoo ui approarb W 
accatacTttoaumealucftoaMMMOcoTMedby thoBL Tto antiu ttabid to to paid Is 
caaaaqoanea of aRManta. aad Ta«r«e«nt«l bf the poilclaa of eanwlty onMpaiilai. 
«■ not allndad to. bai en of lana ainoant. 

Whan It II mtudd«nd thai tto bnalnaaa baa bean derelopad to Its iriMl 
numUodachlenr wltUa • period of aboatttdrlyTnuR. the total aHoti of all Aiuart* 
«aB oanvMlaa dolac fawteaaakiyerwTnlt HtatolaMOtaM'rinchMDtoltlUniuaia 
ttafltariaidaa oaaOMl to avoMed ttot Ito aratom aaawna a danaad whkth te nal and 



tWTES AND COJOfEATS. 



405 



otnoxfma t«rt-b(Mka raraored tton Ui» aUM Mtieo^ of OnUito. Oii Ui« um* 
|r«>Vliiee all* bM ImpoMd ■ Mp*nita aoboal ifsUu, wblch tintcUcoUj dlvom* Iwr 
yaopUriwnfHunU lUU •dtwaUon. Two ^oaiaaiiiUM grew «p aide by akto, rot 
■ffaW.mnwtmilB»oMw<»1dlegJa;aaaaf«dom ftfur geDcnUan bawme pwtokH* 
m ibn kartUaa or tuta. 

it la, bowarw. the srowth In QnBbec of the Fraooli-CwBadlui Moal tuat hw mad* 
Um ritnallm aenU tNoraod aun poUtkait InisniMiddlli^ In Caiuda ttten bara al- 
war* bMB two faoM. Indeed, fuAn norcr neetrti tho mbcUob of Ibc eoDaim- 
tlmuywaarrtataaU docift<>cb laHgiingfeCBaWma. and la w» Intact, Unclicrao» 
fui orat«t7 on oooasloa baa iilarlflfd Um itoltr and |p«at Iot« tbat aro dtdand to 
uxin. Tba Ia(t 1* otfaeririw. EV«q •oopo la der«lap U* gvalua baa boao dTon Uie 
OhmiKm. and Ibcaa latter tlay i«actilai;ia( iboeliiu«b harvpowflrtaUr oanUUnud 
t« dlvw]t*»M^ Tb« hatrilant lal«rv*l«(l otbM AuMctoana br fab plctwrmqa«o«m, (17 
biBi<ni<a) aaaoclatiMia; for bia own p»rt bla cbM catq wiw Io bborniid malltplr- 
pLrroeiiCof CiUwMaodttillit ItKo tnwtfalBeMlD tbvcvr' fllltd ni>tli«ni«iaBri*nrhIa 
dnUMUtMatbtrChuKb. Now Jaanliand URmnonUne b*ve nppUmMl cbeGal- 
UeaaaakMparoI tba«aaaalaiMi>t tba tMoplo- TbcnareAnMlaiUanalMisar. oBty 
luiHMMUifA. TIm wu^irrr Ol tb« nalkiDallit mu flnt bnnrt thrvogboni Um adta- 
Uon Uwt tottowed iba toM o( Rial. Tlw ball-toeod tender mm wIUi Um aFinpulir 
■ndpttTdnntbamaftrrraaUiaralLb b« had In tba mlMlon of tba Franch *Tv%fllm 
lBAin«tak rurtaUbniMliMirtotlamBobanillB hand uodortbeneirrfsloM. Tba 
tiiODph <f pollUBal OaiboUman la to be lb« trltunob of the FYencifa-Cknadlnn rae« ; 
ar, aa It la dallr tnngbt In aU tli« aoboolii of ihn (altbful, "tba nroaa plaiiMd to 
Jaoqnca Oaitlar OB Ibo bank of tho 8L I^wrcnMi In at once tlw alsa of onlrMlon and 
Um Blsvlawa irmbol ot tba Fnocti-Oaaadion natlonaUtr.' Afaln and acaln U ti 
«B>d tb*t "t^ Ri«al*r th« cmMmanOt tb« iwopla In tbodarKT. tbontwra »!•<) 
aMd pradaut and natlanaliaUi) la aphit boonmaB Iba tdaiKT'; that " tba tUy Iba 
Waaah-Ouadlan paa^le PCftat harinc plaoed Ihrtr dcaUoMa In ibahatMUoIlboIr 
ftMHwanM baafaUldarrartbalrconntrTandllMOntlftan.' 

HtlltloufnvorbeliicUioaqafokaad kj noeinouna. and by tke bdlat ibal 
OBdar (b« Andtnr at Uw cnwa Um Fmwh ^^"— **»■■ la appointed Io mla tlili oonU- 
Bvnt. an onUie peopto hare anralted h) tba ftctJvn mlllUa ol the CSiuieb «r Itoina. 
AAdbrarobandaelbaTo tbcT already cot of Uw fntaro pronilaod tbelrobedUncato 
tbeatatomfl «f vrioabh FVob QnetKA tbat "oonaacratad abode o( tba CMboUo 
blUk'thatoradsr baa bean boor brbonr Umut bnck. and of Uw Kncttob aoUlo- 
noou. aa kw tba etiangtMU of PraUatantUn. aearir (dl at lUs neauot o< writdiV 
h«T« bean anctad li>t« CatboUa pail«b«a. Land* tbat tor Dpwaida of « oeotviy 
won b«id In fn* KnslUb tenw« are now UUod br nvach-Caoadian bknemn, wbot 
tor tba |tM7 of tb*lr raM, anhnitt Kindly to " La KahviQur " M>d ibo vldla «f Ui« 
UUAfntberar. ManlMba atfogictM ta thnir off tbe dual alHdal Un(«ago and 
appanla achool arxUm vltb wtdob aba wm bvrd«Md at hirlb. Slmtehtny waat^ 
wstda to tbe HxMklaa ar« rrant tenltariea, wbna n fyaneb Canndlan la aa ran a 
riBbta«araawaUawsonawbitar*>da]r: yet baTolbar noteaoaped tba aanmallklal 
laeocnltlon of the PrmobCaMdlan lil«a. In norUtem and •aatoni Onlnlo a T«rf- 
inUa armrot oecapaUoa I» bur bmndlnc a new)}ii«bcc. BrctrwbneBl. Jean 
PnUrtoaoclctlea keep tba liyaaeb^laaadlaii oolmiirt Inloaob wttb UMocntraBlBS 
pftecdpletbat "Nrw rmncie^iBlMloanf dvOlatkinilienMadTnMeaBorald bran 
nUanoo toTiniiiiulprobioUOD botwaan r«tl(lanand thciitatn.* 

I^atatnent Bn-rtoalB (boa ■maantluit Atnerica mitli allll another prabl«mof 
nemand eraeA. the Socl«t7 of .' laua tn (]uebeo boa Juat b««a endowed out of Ibo 



ppMo la wiiyi et tbat prortnaa. 



W. B. Bcnrm. 



IT. 

'VvoTW.'oayaJobnMUtoiw-laatMas. nail tetboAtnli^t^- . . . Tbouffb 

n|ttlM'«rl»l«'>'''n'^''o« WwvM Inawtii pluj upoo Utn oartk, •■> trtlUi be la Uw SiJri. 

<radol^|ttrioiu>7by Unanalng and proMbttlng to doubt bar rtrwMttli. 1^ her and 



«)e 



Tt/K SORTft AUERWAy RfTJVffH'. 



(•iMbonlciKsiilf; who •Tvrfcomr truth pKt to Um wnraa, to • traa and apemtm- 
fwiuim-r 8*Mi lbetmmor*cn«lUUBk«rtaad.trMM<IiracU7,TattfMI«dr.U 
UbcftdrKaamwatartJvth. It vrMKoUrMUbr ForbentofamMOflnnaa tUakw: 
"All lb* mth tlMt J' — hM wriltMi ia not irvvth > tmtli pMt of tlw Mm wtlok 
nektaakV li*i^*'rilU» Tli«oMKlT«aiiM»wiMU niunlMrof knows truth*: Um 
ottMvg4voBni«,pa*ba))akOn«lnilK, but. In dotnc •«, opaoii fc«far« hm tha p j OfotaJ 
•B iBtaHy of wdDMvn tmibt." Of uAuy & powoful wrttcr It sMr >>« m1^ BiwtmmM 
(vf«uucl,/«MmtlU«Mlj«i*. Wtiat vHt«rwaa«T«vratud«a wim mora almn, not 
tonrbomr.bf Clutotl»«Kiuvt«ttMAO*vM IlsDMl Tnt II ««■ Hiibm wtMh IQ 
blaraiwt«etoMlacto.i«iltto«41ou*t«Br«ltjttiailofDliuut vliiloMiiiUM of laOalti 
•Ml liccfet^ and UHMeaa polled BictaiiliralcUiw M aaocBit to fatsber prlndpla^ tn 
ordH to plao»pbIkMO^T <*■>•■ lupnsnnbl* baala. KaA m titannHsbt«l mmi hr 
fQUgtoBBnppf>wodtl>TabUcatUtto<HiUtto^»cciitlc*l tfc>otltfcb>»Bauctf tbohawa 
iImt Might do. It itmM b»Tn ■tipprB i td •laoaU lbo<a i«»t mkbhwmW aCUacmo- 
■■ala for im ImnutcriAl soal vrhJch bav* enlwuod wad «oi»o*4wl tk« wbol* worU of 
tbongkl. KAiiCvinild IwTsMaiAlaod ta"Uado|niUIe •lumfcer*'; K«id trooM tukrs 
MaUaiwd hit adliMlWi to Latin; »aA Um draur nutaruilani oT CoodUlAO wouM 
«fllb«Ml«idiic«wlbeMh(Mto«rmMa In t1«w «( Umm iMta. It hmmm bt w 
thai. If Ihw U aajthlnc npoa irtdeli CauMteii kmi ifciwld frown. :i U open Uw 

il III I II 111 [nil idiiiiilli iiiiirmiTili til iiiirila ijiwilin In ■inHi iwiiaiitmip ottk» 

a<M[i«lliMUlr. or npoa paltmrwutdj^forbinv. 

AcdetcoLed dnuuMii oaetmhX : "1 faro KixidDeaa KUMitau»d ttBtaaBMr* 
tlMB I hot* hodMM ~— * mohtt Bsrlnc, wectbr of Iha xraU haul bviB which U 0»B» 
Wo wovJdBBpplaBMiil II with ADoUier : "1 Iutc truths thoiwaiad IIiiiimiiiiiui Mmi 
I batowtor.' laoUavoUi™*'"''' bvaa dwd »^ (t»»»»^ii.fj fc^— yA i..|i|.fg— . 
tba d«C*«tica «( hatr-tnadth d«vtetloaa (nn MHcC oRhodasr-tte'maco.^wr 
•aCtr. ttea Ihtt twoocnlttoa «d tnth. Tho iMnaiiac UbaralUy aad obafttr Cbal 
afc— adariw anr ttiaaa andaUr HwiialM tMnmnbaraCawtk OkvUttoai^ bntCba 
•pOTlWlabT *o naaad MttlDat. Utdlk* tbrtr Maaur. who iraipilhfll hIiH tti 

diaciattlw(dinea.aiid«CaBcaiBacald«d r-*"- -* -■ ■ —n t mliilniliirt difti 

obBO*: ntiUkalha Apoatletaal.wlmalM)MMKtilal<>Bj«larUMpolBlaoCraaMD^MMa 
iMd ir— a Um tattb or obaerraacw wUoh b« aoogfat to ■miHiiii and Ua vwn.-«haBa 
!■•■ dal%lit la K^OtUiUf trivial dUMvaooa o(oplaIoa:aBdih»|cUr. tnlcnacople 
pcdli1t*-'*-iTtTfT -— — ^*-ff ■^*-*' Ch rirtf d« M fa at Tariaaoa. m to tt,^ ml-^ 
rfl)»olft«Bd*H»pot«aiMOllMathogiaat ftwid aM na tai daotrlMvaptn wblehaBaf* 
i^raed. No watakdeg anv saantod Ua awatw^ dwalUag man Ti^Omattj ■» — da 
Ibcy, »«hiiLjuiaM. tbconlMdoxT of Itocfr btortiw Jwp luut. or, IT UrMa^ UwtW 
IhalriHltW— "Tn^ ^-—"— ■*■'*■""-*■ ■'"■-**iiTaH »ar h« n ^)>>fffhiHr 4>a 
aTOtnwa tatlMBHt ladkolUi woadartai doc which tke team took wOk Mat av- 

lafcr*-" — ' ' ■rr-*— *—•■*•""—*•*-— - "• — * — jni li^im frrw Wi-t 

jl^toaeaattaravdlodotUafM- mm* tto^ Iha <MrM waaoaaMaot llMtUaiMt tai^ 

tKMT. l»fc«aUMa iMWy Mlwlaa—— ottfca — aw^ mM ii^.^.^ aiid.wi 
entltac Un «*cah IbaM waN toad k Ma *W Mifc aaiaw thfcaito Ik^oo o< iwtt. 
ri.^*.. natdtrl— hm i n M lii i l ai-a— aatthalfcaJartarit^^alaltwaCUMdaj. 

whadetoiClaaTOfTpaVrdmMMa inn amhkhad ^fif*"— "— r il im ^ 

t^B rfitataa twth. *rwr •**««•* Mfenakdawapanjwaitoa^Maka^ito 
tia^ (taiandaa aa ter aa th«9 «•■ aMiiM • Hottta •« rHal irwm. aMarU^ 



I«»aa NOi W 
M^ Ko MOB ma im wUfcwH t 

(dbfeallifaiaaa 
r-taMBoatoiwoi 



Wa ba«« aa v«vuh3' wtth iha oUan aa 

at tW MM. hat ika wToI? Za^ 




•»* biMf 




H0TS8 ASD COVyKfTTS. 



4Xft 



Btand. *-)Tott0laT*nUdTa«ilti«;-HkdaiMdea«vto>««M(llonr,"litlMw»r 
t* ttt bitaektd l« oBv'a IditkB''; and whas ona ooiuldan how tbo mwiUJ otsaafl tit 
Uitt«Miidj IB our ter ■*« •nfMMod br c(>dI1r«aI *ait klmoM osdulr* hOTol-aiid 
■DwifHpsr-rMritns, frboMo watHl«rUMl. Ihajr lunihc. or an vasblo lo (Uiaol, Um 
ptwwK wa t of* dqctriad tbcotogy* Bal loarurkMk tliadlMiiMUoa batwDon vital 
and bod-tIuI tniUMi to buIM mp pwUtlon walla ou oi liirlal dlfbmian of vpUloo; 
to ntiavtba **>iail-das" crj' of "b»fvilol"al »rtrj man wbo pvahraa p r ogra—lv* to 
afMaOtbMlocT'.'A'lvkoLhi'il^t'tUiMUton.ttiat "tbe llgbt we Kav« B»fawd wu 
lllvMiw,iutteb*avorRlaTlB7nn. bat br It todlMMTM onward thtnssmerttnmot* 
n«maac loMwMfa': t« hold up t« pnblie aujpfolOB vrerj nan whs aanmuuMia 
wlwttw tUiiInBi«o«HNfiil inatbod of neonoUlns aeplptnral tmth wttti human 
waoa.-tt oaalfJlciary to tbrn vmn WXrtt oT C hHstlMlty. 

Wii«a aban w« loara tk*t man wUh dlBenat bttaaTBaraatM and menial peoiUar- 
IUaa«aBiMr«r boldp4«elacIjlt)oaMii«Th)wa of tmtb ; thai, "a* tba imlpbkta of 
baa faui BaTer bo tliaaaniaaatli*cartH)iiataotlran,UwiaKb Iron la evMjwhtm and 
alwa^v aaawiHaHj- tbaiMa«,ao. ihongh truth llMdf la lnTarUUo.tbB9intUiat« of 
tnlhntaatalwaradlflbr bofBtbaBcowiMtaof tmtb" I Wbcaaball w«leaf« that 
worda,«Tinwb«Daioatettiuila«l]' iu«d,nr«b<it JntpvrtKitarnibula of tboasfal, tbo 
nMinwl iikMUtoiiaarcipvfiivdan. blntaof taaaalay, IcDUtirniilpiH, whicili o»n gtrv to 
aaolIicT ontr a parUal poanaaalop ftf our gonaatonsnea* ; thnt tiiera ta bantljr aa ab- 
Ktiaet tarm to any laniroiwe which ponveTain«dHtrUio lunamaaiiliigla twadir- 
far«nC.tnlnda: and hnnno that a wtikt nr ppnaker whn. froB ttia Inadoqat^ at 
laiiKiMca,arUalaokaf akUlln ttiriwc lt,app«ara to nttav daanrona baroalua. ntay 
rat. wtMapMfaoUr nndarMiad. bo ton»dvart»eOy orthodox t 

Aawmdacaa BManlba aanoa thine on^loperaona who ara parcholodcaUj llw 
aaoau and wbo bart) bad theaaaiaflxpeilMioen It In eridaEDt that, to apprdiend per- 
factjy tbatbinMCbtof anatb«inan,w«iMed tokaow bla ladlTUnaUtr. bta paat bla- 
toir: w« antai ba «M rav90T< wlih Mm; and flvaa than wymay tailtupwiatratoto 
Um eaatnl laiiilnr «( hla worda, Uio vtrr con of Ua thovght. Ic la aUlod br Um 
btocrapborof Dr.CfaaliiMiv that tba Iwo icianl dlvlnaa. Obalmww ami Sdiarti in«t 
one iKr ta Edlobaritb and bad a kmc had eager drbul^ oa aavlng faith. Stroot atltt 
atraatWMfiaced, andOTgamaatanorargMaMiitiTaa vlgeratulf pUad; bat In vain— 
tbar oaald aot a^*e. At kaflli, hia tlma or pattanee bavins baaa asbAnatcd. Clial< 
lava braka off tha lalarvtow, and, ahaltlna iba hand of Ua appanent at partlnff. aaldt 
"^f )rM*lihtaaaam)r vMwadrarlraoddlatlaaitljratatad, raad a tract rallfd 'Hln- 

dEB>MMtaB«IlattnBth«0«apel. Wtij-,-*«xoIalm«d8tnail.''that'i(lia verr tra«t 

I polillabed mjaeUt' If the prafaandeat tiieoloRlaaa and tba laoat tndae, balf 
MttUng wrtifltik who wcOgb and Mt M tbo botMoi every tern tliC7 naa, an Ibns 
taafftMllnlbdrelllarlaWnMkathamaalvaaBadanlOOd, what can be mare unrr«Mn- 
ahln ituut to dsmand a falL eiaet. aad loRloal aapwadon of Iruth in t>yi>rj hivnilr' 
pnpandaennea or nagBaaarily htcoaiplota aowapaper artlclaf 

Lot na raiMfabar that It 1* Um noUaat aad tnanat a|4rit* that ar« moat Ukalr to 
hatroaMad with "abaHnata qneatlonbmk" It la on aneb aoula a* Kobortaoa, of 
Mghloo, who ar« txM lofal to tba tnlb to b* aalUlod with prat«mdm] nliitloDa of 
dUBnKlai^ wbo wOl not "Buka thdr ledeaiMtbliad." bat will (km the >^ipwitr«a of 
Uia mind" lin tfaer lar Lhem. at whaieveFoaalaf akapprakaBaloaanddaavadatton 
br Iboir tarathrvo. that tliooioRica] donbtoirelKh moat hoavUy. Let aa tefneBber, 
aawla that It la h^ bU ttrtmiliMf belief Ihat evnr tnan ahould be Judcnd : not by 
tatadonbtA baiby wliaCha bellove* nolwithinai»llDit hiidouMa. It If tbogmiaval 
potoUac of Uw i«ow that maat datonnlaa tfae oouna of the ehlp. thoocb abe laboia 
wlthUMwavaK OtaotUiat the nakae aowaad theaaloBgdrvnItt aodaeevato 
ha mUIbs ta Iha wrong djnctloa: rat wbo itiall aoeuo her of devlatloib tfll ha knowa 
what tampeate bare aaaalted her, aad whathar aha wtU or wU not OMfea iba port t 

ItMBwiMMthMolareU orroT.ttw ooaaUntdeoandatteaof It la imMmllT aalf- 
dalBa tlBc Itslvaatoth* faiae optolona a EMtltiraB taapoftaneo. hapoaaa on tha 
t— «1aa«1nna of thaaa artaa hear thorn a tja t i m u4 , deepana tha Boortedon <4 the «nr- 
ttt. and naaiaa a anniHthr tot the otafaet of eneb Ineeeeaat atlaoka. *■ Uort hefetka," 
■ajre Wbat^r.'-araBaAatlicA bjr thaonhodox.' 




POWDER 

Absolutely Pure. 



KHi] vMMniuMHB, Mm>* •auniuitnj u&i iliii qi4Uart 
Initr at ■">• umi, tlarl wolcbti •lunar pb>>4>luU|io«drn. 



VIOLETS 

BY THE 

TK the coot sluide of ihs oUt* 
^ tteesof Southern France the 
riolct is cultivitted in greit 
£uuititic3 for Colgate's superior 
So«ps, Perfumes, kod MChct 
Powders, of which 

Cashmere Bodquet 

is the r&vorite. 

This sweet subtile TtoleCpef> 
fume, which Is usr<I so ]ibrr«llj 
by Colgate & Co.. eiv«9 un- 
equAlkJ aJeticMcy <nd teSnctncnt 
to I heir Sosps and Perfumes. 

COLGATE'S 

MPS rf PERFUMES, jl 




NDERWEAR 



A now Fsbrlo for UndDrweBT 
•uporlor to Silk or Wool. A pro- 
toctlon against Colds. 

Sold by leading MerohanU. 
Catsloguea Bont on ■ppMoAtlon. 

WAB5EB B8 0S. S:.!} UroddnttT, N. U 

«^lBBil.SAUarT57£ 




W. Baker &Co;s 
Breakfast 
Cocoa 

trom which the excMM of 
oil hna bocQ romoTcil^ 

Ja Absotuteiy r$ire 
and it 1m Soliibte^ 

No Chemicals 



s 



ar« qrmI Iu Ilh iirepnmlioii. It 
mor* than tUrie hmfs Hit atrtngiS of 
Cwnn mtxad wltli Storcli, A n ow i wrt 
or Sugar, and is tliErcfora far nor* 
ercKiDiiiIcal, eottintj leas than one coil 
n eup. It U (iGlirlituH, oiTuriahiDf, 
stn?n|:tbcaiB^, £A.>-:it.Y niiiE»TBi), kmI 
adniimMy mlnptetl for Invalida na mU 
as for jierToufi iu licallh. 






J 




SAVttMiT'rink VriMV. tnw Tf Hiui|w icdiil xmu> 4|.ir .n i ij « wnaf- 



««l.l««iX*.«. 



THE 



MORTH AMERICAN 
REVIEW. 



»■ iifctim*.! by AU.m TUOanMEB RICX. 



BDiTEt) BY LLOVn BRYCE, 



April, 1890. 

T>;«/-;p![nc in the Nary . . Vpuirai. Porter. U. 5. N. 409 

and Correbtioii . titASxts Galton, F.R.S, 419 

X- '.he Indians. ili^HOi- Wmfi-Mt, of Minnesota ^31 

TliL r South . . !%x-(iov. I^>WRV, of Missiii&ippc 440 

Flaws in rn]{CRK)IIiMa .... The Rlv. Lvmam AwoT-r, D.D. 448 

C" T -3 V rAE. Barr 458 

Tl. _ ' - . . MAiTRR*.' - PoWDtKLV 464 

Eaglisli and American Hmtk Markets o. &. Bvkce 470 

SoctAlisni in ncrm^nr Oswald Ottckdorfer 4S0 

Society in Paris , Mauaml Auau 490 

THE TARIFF DISCUSSION. 
TUB HON. W. C. P. BaECKlNKIDQE . . .505 

NOTES AMJ COStMBNTO. 

The Dcfomatioa of QiailoUc Btoote . . . Marion Harland 517 

CliangM in ■ I'i'I "■l^^l 'ii-.i,T... >'.>t.jn 531 

"WTUI Amei: H; ■. Mm,:-I-.',;i N f!iH 533 

Why " Mailbcc of Congress" ? JutlAK PJtocTOR 535 

^•K\\' YOUK: 
Vo, 3 F,AST FOTritTKKXTII STIIEET. 



^CREAM 

Baking Powder 

MOST PERFECT MADE. 

UsiTEu SrATEs DEr.MmjwNT or AtiRicru'i UK, ) 
Was 1 n. V. f 

Br an annljMfi nf Dr. Price '« Crwim ; 'iwOer, I findH «irrft 

(HHtuded, AQiTl ivifanl it a£ tlic WM )>4ki)is itowiU.r in the market m ev( 
cut. 1»KTKK fOIXiKW. 

Jjulv C'ht'niiBl. ijf the l"n*l'_-<I Niftit's ni']>ariiiU'nt of Apriciiltiin-. 



CANCER OF THE NOSE. 



In ifl7! a irore apiK-nnit on my 

hmc, ind ^ri-«' lapitlty. A-> i:iy 

failiri .'lail litiiu:!, anil my liuv^iir.il 

<JU'l •>{ it, 1 bi-camc at»niuil, n:i'! ■i- 

• jI'.l-kI tny |>hyiuikn. ilu t^ 1 

na gojd, and Ih« tore grtv. I 

wim< "m cvcty T»ay, unlit I lia>l *viiUu4i-<l (hat [ wsa tri iji< 

(rutii lis cScdb. I «'.i!i peruisdcil lo laVe S.S.>,. anal a lew bc-t- 



tlc!> cuicd iTir, Tbh 
icmc* hill) Uilctl. I litvt.' I 

Mh^. M. T. Ma , v. ..,. i..,. . 

Mrs. Geo. I*. SEnootc, a hi]:l>lf culiir.itMl >nd pstiir 
CMI, Afk., wfiiM UQiiciilnlc t>( At>iU 91. 'lyf ; *' ' '" 
ISB? my cyti became iullimtd, aiul my »Jijjii 
(lisijriiucd Nocliinj; I aieai:r>cil \t'.th 



liift meil- 



T. 



nir. 1 
' of liy uiT I 



luiil for »onic (ioie loy lif« 
in-; plivikiun'- of ilie <vn. 

lIlT 



li inadcincpcnBaiicnil^irdi— wiiu 

I.LIW." 

SWIFT SPECIFIC CO. 

ATUST,*, UA. 



INORTH AMERICAN REVIEW. 



No. OCCCL 



APRIL, 1890. 



DISCIPLINE IN THE NAYF. 

3/^t) D. POBTKB, ADMIXAL OF TUB UNITSD GrTATES HAVY. 



"Obdbr IB Ho(iv«n'i4 first liw," and it is a lav that goTems 
1 oUasM of society. It arises from the mental and moral troiti- 
ing wliicb oDe receives in early daya — the fuiitidatioti of manners, 
including the comprehemtiun of knowledge which may cnablo quo 
to entor into competition vith others for the prizes which fall to 
thow who can stand the ruloa of military or any other discipline. 
Wben a boy starts in life to pursneauy career, he should ex- 
unina himself carefully to ascertain if be is mentally and physicully 
qualified to conlend with tho di«ciplin« he will be called apon to 
faoo, for in cvory occnpation, greu.t or small, disoipliuu is likely to 
be tlie stumbling-block of the youthful adventurer. 

Uiaoipline, in plain English, means "to train, form, educate, 

iiutruot, drill, or rrgulato," either by one's self or by another. 

Mot* especially is it npplic-d (o the military and naval professions, 

wliere to the tyro thv rvgiilatiuns may nppoar extremely arbitrary, 

althoagh to the iuitnicted thou very nibw are the life of the 

■errice. tfany persona hare an idea that uaval and military 

, regnlUioD^ by which umioa and ebips are brought to such a state 

\itt perdition, am gomething terrible ; bat, compared with ccdee- 

' taiilcal discipline, Ihey are really qnite moderato. 

There is no btii^incss in life that can bo suoc«aafully carried 
on without discipline, which mast be eufliciently strict to keep 
orery man, woman, and child ut tlt<-jr work ; and sometimes the 
Oveneera aru no lynumical ttiat they far exceed the limits which 
woold be alloired on board a reesel of war. 
TOL. GIu— VO. 401. i7 



410 



TffE KORTH AMKMWAX REVIEW. 



I 



Tbero have donbtle<68 been oaeee in the navy where oAceT* 
have eiceedml their authority auil have failed to aiaclwr the first 
principUt of discipline, — vir,, to control tlii'ir tumpur, — but my 
own e.xporivnco tcacht's mv Ibat comuianiliatf uQiwni liavu uftvner 
«hat their eyee to brcaehes of dieclpline than looked around in 
order to punish them. 

Thia Htticiu properly conoema the diaclpline of the United 
Stfttea navy; bnt our nary ie so amall and of ao liUlu inipcirUnce. 
compared with thoec of the other great powers, that it hardly 
affords a Ueld for a displiiy of ability in bringing the discipline to 
a high Btandard. It is an intenwtiiig circumstance that in 1799 
we had a larger navy afloat than we have toniay — tliirty-threo 
Teasels carrying more than eight hundrod gtins, commanded by 
glorious old Coiiiniodure Truxtttn, who taught the French that 
tfaeyconid not with impunity violate our nenlralily. 

We may open our eyes rery wide as the enterprising nevs> 
gH4horer publislm to the world the " barbaritios " coniciiLtod in 
the navy, but there is no comperimin between naval diiicipline to- <. 
day and tlie iron system of 1798 : tbey are as ojipoeite as summer fl 
is from winter. Wlien Tnixlun arrived in the West Indies, the ™ 
Britisli, who had a large fleet in that tjuarter, were greatly aston- 
ished at the facility with which the Americans adopted the dia- 
vipliue of the ItoytU Navy and \vA Ihcm in many things which 
tended to make the Bquadron more cOicteut. At that lime, as at 
present, Orpiit Briliiin hud the largest and best-disciplined nary 
afloat, and this preeminence ahc will donbtless continue to main- 
tain while her fleets are n^ilated by a purely naval administration. 
The English inheritpd thwir naval training from the Vikings of old, 
who from the frozen uortti laid dei^late thecoasta of Europe, and 
even carried their vietonoiis anns throughout the McditurraDean. 

After William the Conqueror bwame miwler of England, the 
island gradually tncrcmcd in mnritime importancv audL-stsbUshod 
British influenco the world over, and from Great Britain we liare 
inherited the regiilatiuns which have made her prcCniinrnt na a 
naval power. Prom Great Ilritain, aim, wciuheriti-dull uuronral 
attributes, and had our navy ptogreiteed as bas Ibat of the mother- 
conntry, in pro|Kirtion to onr pnpululion and wealth, we would nt 
presKnt be one of the greateal of naval powcro, with adiscipline that. 
would enable us to carry out any cntoriirisc: we might undertake. 

Dat the I'nittd States bare never been a great naval power. 



DISCtPUXE IS THE NAVY. 



411 



Our cfforLa in tlial direction baro botn sponidic. and what one 
ftdmioistratiou uiigtit undi-rtako to eetubliab nnuttier would wt 
aaide for somctltUig diametnctillr opposite; eo thut in the coareo of 
years the so-called navy of tUe I'ihUmI Statos has niidorgoQe more 
cliangeM in orguiicutioii, diticiptine, etc., than anj oLlier service 
in the world. 

The first |K>sitire regulations for the government of our navy 
weri* propured b; tlio Board of \avv Commissioners in 1915, jitet 
after tlie L'tuw! of thi< war willi Oreat Brttaiti. TTp to lliat tinio 
we had bc^u eopyiiig the Britiifh regulations, I'rery ODnirauiuling 
offioer adding to bis gdnaml ordor-book ue nct-mcd to liim mwt 
dccinible. The hoAnl of Commissioners a<lopt*d the British iiy»- 
tem with Home modiCuutioiiit, mid oiir discipline beciuuH maeh 
like that of tliD English. It was rather severe, it ia true, and 
emacked somewhat of tbc Vikinge and huccaneens; but it wns a 
delight in the daya of ray youth> and for many yceva aftorwardii, 
to visit an American man>or war and see Ihecleunliueas, comfort, 
and diecipliu« that pervaded the ship. For aught I know, the 
dbcipline may be l>etter to-day, buL things do not seem to work 
«D smootldy as of yoru, and the rceutUi do not correspond to the 
tim« and tronblo pxpendcd. 

Of late jeam I haTo been atruek with the avidity with which 
the preas haa sought opportonilies to ceoKtire the navy for ita 
Bhortcomings. The aervicc does not receive a fair repreaeiitatiiin 
for any mistakca made by it« officers. If one man commila an 
enror, that ia no reason why the whole Rorvico sLoatd bo con- 
demned. Nothing t«nda ao much to break down ditcipline aa 
farious onslatighta on an oflicer who haa made himself liable to the 
ordeal of a court martial. Kvon the tncjuirat culprit in civil life is 
seldom prejudgtNl by the press ; and an oflictrr in the nary ehouM 
at leaat bare an oqnal chance with a )iri»uner in the Tombs, and 
receive a fair hearing before being condemned by public opiuion. 

Thedieciptineof our nKvyis at prcsunt very mild, — patriarchal. 
Id fact,— although it ia within the power of a commanding officer 
to make it unpleaaaut for an [naubordiDate officer or man. 
If anything, the t«ndency in the aervice ia towards what has been 
called " nioll_vco<ldUiig " — that is. a commuiidiiiK oflicur iti bo 
Mtsloui to fiuifh hia eruiae with ntisfaction to all hands and the 
Nary Department that he granu his men more indnlgenooe than 
arc rvqnired for their bealiii and comfort. I^enienoy as well as 



rU£ SORTH AHEHWAN KKVISW. 



Mvcritjr nuiy be carried too far, xixl although the ooinmnnrltng 
oflioerof a sliip is diopoacil tu bo vurjr niilil. be ebouUt see tluic 
discipline is not ueglected. 

On Diy Brat ncquainMiiec vith tho nnvy. in 1833, tbcra vmi 
but cue kind of punisbumnt for the meii iu vuguv ou Hbipboiutl. 
Th»t iras hj tlio iiae of the cat-o*-aiue-tail8, a relic of barbarism 
baitdod dtivn from the time of good Queen heea, wbo prided 
herself ou the nnvj which rcpulwd the '■ lnri»«ible ArtnndA " of 
t<>i^ limes its own Ktreiigth. Under the discipline of early timea. 
of which the press-gang and the " cats" were snrh potent tactore, 
the British nuvy caplnrod or destroyed uoarly evvrytbing oppoeed 
to iL Whipping vaa coiiiddered the best means of disciplining 
a crew, whereas, in fact, it made more bmtes of the aailcirs, who 
in those diijrs bud ]K:rha{>a amrocly eiintiment enough in them to 
appreciate the degnulatiDn to which they were eubjected. liow- 
erer, the mort remarkable circumstAOCHof nil is that in the early 
days of the United States nnvy this barbarous euitooi should bava 
taken gnch deep root, and ibnt the pcupic of t\m country should 
80 long have tolerated a practice ao disgraceful. 

It h trtie that the dieci])line of our nitvj was of the beet kind 
[ far as having duty curried on to snit the commanding ofilcer of 
Bel Tag coiic-erned, aud when the "cui" disupjieared from 
the fierrico in lUbO, not many years before the spirit ration was 
abolished, it stood on a new footing altogether. Some of Lbo 
wifiesl old sea-doge deelanxl that the navy wan mined, and, with 
the abolition of flogging and the stoppage of gi-og. could not hope 
to escape sAeol. It ts strange, bnt true, that many old seamen 
who were partial to the service for the sake of the grog, which 
they received three times a day, were equally opposed to the abo- 
lition of the "crtt," Till! '-cat," they argued, was a wholesomo 
terror to worthless loafers ubont decJtd, and the only means of 
making them do their duty. As for the grog, it is well known 
that St. Paul recommended a little wine for tho stoniaeh's sake. 

These two ovente, so important to the monU improToment of 
the navy, had the strange effect of driving some of the best 8ea< 
men from the service, which woald seem to in<licatc that their 
love for the navy was nox. oijual tu tbi'ir foiidnem for grog. It wiu 
remarked by fueof the hist officers i>t the navy, who uftorwardd 
held a high pOHitioD i" the Confoderat* service, that.slionid the 
*i SdflKwn overboard and grog abuliahcd, the iia*7 would 



4 

i 
4 



DmcifLiyE ly tbe navy. 



413 



i«rtPi»rT>cnbIe to mftintiiin proper diicipHne ; but thow in favor of 
thrtH<w departtiFR had tho latisfBction of sooing tlio nnvn) iorviiw 
R^enerated, the saUora working ibe ihipa and fighting the guus 
in a manner never excelled, white Inv and order, witbont which a 
ship is but a flouting Iil-II, wuro fully niiiirituincd. 

If to-4j»y any one were to propow to rcintrodnco flogging and 
the spirit ration into the nuvy, be v-otild be ridicntwl by everybody. 
It is true tbal iu okltn times slup's crews worked In a livelier 
way. as a nile, than they do at present; but the eervira has ad- 
Tanccd BO far on the road to moral reform, and the condition of 
affaint generally in fio much improi^etl, tlint it would itceai bett«r 
to adhere to the Roman maiim, " Futina lenie." Ibaii to try for 
BQcb great speed in everything, to the detriment of comfort and the 
moral attribo tee which fihoold diAliiiKuisb an Ameriimi reasol of war. 

No one can anticipate the ordeal throngh which ho must poM 
diirinf; a tlire«-yt.'»ni' cruise in a ship, eay, like tho "Chicago," 
of 4,500 tons' displacement, and with nbont 400 officers and men. 
Tho commanding officer of mich a «hip baa a great responiiibility 
on hU shouldors. Uv finds himiclf face to face with all the dif- 
ferent elements in the naval servioe, and to contemplated with 
the deepest interest by all on board, who wonder how much com- 
fort tlipy are tn have dnring the cmise with I heir prospective 
commander. The captain, meanwhile, feels ieolat«d from tho 
rest of the world, nncertnin if be hw n friend in all the throDg 
that clusters at the gangway to witness hiii rimung on board. 
Perhaps he does not know a single ufTicf^r in the abip, and it fi 
probable that ho never before laid eyes on any of bis crew ; still 
lie is expected by tho government to take that vessel around the 
world, Bturtlng witli everj'lbing in confusion, and bring her bock 
after a threo-yeara' cruise with all in perfect condition and the 
ship's coinjiany wtisSed with their treatment 

To comply with these conditions, an officer must hare dignity 
of oharacier and temper nndor perfect control, bo familiar with 
the rq^lations of the navy, be agood judgeof cbaracterjand ablo 
to discriminate In regard to the nnmerous <)uoalions that are con- 
stantly rauwU for bin decision. He )uu four hundred pairs of eyes 
erer on tlie watch, and his trvugressioiis, great or small, will be 
Doted and used against him, should opportunity offer. The com- 
manding oCRcer is alone responsible to the Navy Department for 
any inefficiency in the ship, and he has not always the means of 



4t4 



THE XORTIT AMERICAS REVIEW. 



mnking hor pf^Ricnt withont pnforcingianiiic rcgiilntion whioh mi 
ii(Ti«rt Lbu (.'ouvenieace of those oti bunrd. 

There sre elements in a rrascl of vm thnt cannot fllw&yg bo kept 
at rest. Id Mmo coses thow cletnentfl pull in difforant directiotia. 
Th^n indt.<tK] i» the capLaiD a aubjeut fur pity, since bo must 
reconcile all differences that occur. 

When a ship retnmw from a eniise, the Tlonrd of Inspection 
and Survey, which coiiivd under my euperrisioii. hne to ascertAia 
if tbo veesoi is in all rospeots ready for any daty thnt may ))« to- 
(luired of her; if eho is clcun and in order, uud her crew proficient 
in gnn and mil drill; if eTrrr dopnrtnient of the ehip is in perfect 
condition, — in ehort, if the rvgulutioai of the nary hare heea 
complied with. Fre<)uently the board vill append to their report 
a rt-cunimviidution like the following: "The board are of opinion 
that it would bi> apprupriuie for the Nuvy Department to issue a 
letter of approval to the captain, officers, and crew for the Sne 
condition in which the ehip has been brought home." 

This is Raying a good dt>al for the diitcipline of tli^ serrice, 
considering thnt in no other nary is there such a coemopoUtAn set 
of sailors. They represent all the nations of the earth, with a 
large proportion of thi; ili:«ecnc]untfl of tho VikingH of the north.- 
Sach are the elements that otir naval ofiiccrs have to drill into 
shape to defend tlie honor of tho flag, and it may b« truly afflrmed 
that the tlniled States n«vy is mannpcl hy foreigners. The task 
of un officer in. then, a hard one — to drill a crew many of whom do 
not understand the English langaage. 

By a report of tho Boiird of Inspection and Survey I was mode 
aware that when the "Trenton" sailed for the ProIIIo she bad, 
out of the four hundred persons on hoard, hut eishty who could 
speak English, and that moat of the crew were Scaridinorinns who 
had never before served in our nnvy. Still they were a fine set of 
men, capable of performing any dnty. How weil tho oflicera fiil- 
filled the task of drilling this crew of aliens in a short, time was 
illustrated in the harbor of Apis, at the Saraoan Islands, when 
tho "Trenton" and other vessels voredestroyod in that awful gale. 

None who experienced those hours of uncertainty can over 
forget them, and those who appreciate oar navy will ever romnra- 
her tho diMcipline oxhibited in the three American vcsschi 
throughout that hnrricane, which ptac4>d all the ships in the 
harbur^^ilkK. upon the bottom or apon tho boach. On the 



DISCIPLINE m THE yAVT. 



41fi 



Inidge of tho *' Trenton " stood Uic intrepid Rettr-Admiml Kim- 
berij, who fought nndcr FaiTngut at Port Undeon, Grand Gulf, 
«nd Mobile Bay as first lieutenant of the •■ Hartford," ooollj 
mtching everr phaao of ihc Htorm. and prefnrvd to take odraQ- 
tage of any chance to saTc the ship and crow; Captain T^irquhar, 
whoMdUcipliof? WM of the firmest, but oiildcst, form, and who 
bad taaght in a few tnonlhit hi>i licltirogoncous crew to more Ulce 
a flingle man, with Lieul«uaut Brown, the narigator, at hiii side 
aiding and supporting him.— u)l an culm us if on parade. The 
cjeof every one iii the Bhip was upon them, and alt were inspired 
bjr tbcir example. During the itorm there was no coafunon in 
anyof tbeshipii; alt wuaconductMl in Ihc most scuinmnliko manner; 
and, though tho United States lost three veicsels. tlie record made 
b; tlic nary at Apia will ever stand as u monument to diKL-ipliuu. 

When the "V'aadalia" went to the bottom, the commander- 
in-chiof, thinking to oloTato tho spirits of the "Trenton's" crew, 
ran up the American ensign, which was almost immediately 
blown to ribbons. Yet the bravo ofllccra and Builon paid doe 
tribnto to the flag nnder which they were serving, and gave three 
hearty cheers, which were heard abore the roar of the elemente. 
This was a touching event, but not more so than one which fol- 
lowed. When th« storm was at its height, the band of tho llag- 
abip was dirocteil to play " The Star-Spjingled Banner." Then 
came " dome, Sweet Home.*' llie sound of the muaic carrying 
inspiration to the ears of thom grappling with dftAth. 

The "Vandalia" was upon tho bottom, her oiRcers and men 
lothe rigging, the cuptain washed overboard and drowned ; the 
" Xipsiu " was thrown upon the beaoh by the fury of the storm, 
vbeK it was thought ehe would go to pieces and all her crew 
perish ; tho " Trtnuon " wna lying at ainglo anchor, her otber 
chnimi having imrU'il. with her fires extinguiiihed. within twenty 
feet of an angry reef over which the whole ocean seemed to bo 
pooring, while the only thing which saved the vessel wa« the 
nndertow which kept hor np to her anchor. Heanwhilo tho 
oflloera never faltered ; they aeomed to Boom the elements that 
wer« nipng them to destruction. 

Whilu in this deplorable situation, tfau Itritish frigate "Cal- 
liope," flnding that sht-cotild not hold to her unchon, slipped bor 
cables and put to E«a under aleam. .Such was tho fory of tha 
blast that fur a time the ship did nut seem to move. Again the 



416 



THB WRTB AitESlCAtr SSV1XW. 



" Trenton's " crew mumcd thu rifcgiag and gave throo He 
cheen, to whicli the " Oalllopv's " t:rt>w iraruedlnteljr rmpotHled. 
The Brituh ship wtcmttd uupin.*(l with uew life and crept out to 
sen, the only Teasel tb«t eecaped aiwcitUi«4. 

In the wholfl conreeof in^ nnvnl sxporinnco I bnvp never known 
a oaso of more perfect iliinipline than wiui exhibited uu boani the 
"IVenton," kud the officers who saved her for bo long a timt! 
from Koi"S <"> ^^° reeH nuj congnitulatv thenuelTea on bciug 
ideiitiSed with «o glorioae an vT«nt and on havinj; nddcd Uurole 
to the AmoricMti navy. No greater exhibitioii of cionrago^ aea- 
mansliip, and discipline has erer b«en chronicled, and even if w« 
did low the beet nort of that little navy which haa rigorously 
BtraggM (or so many ywre for a trifling axpatuioa, it went to thu 
bottom, torn by the coral reefs of Apia, with a halo of glory which 
wilt never be diinmed. 

I thiutc I may juntly say Lliat the same vonnige and discipUae 
which were exhibited in the squadron under Kcar-Adjniral Kitu- 
berly wonld bo shown in almost cTory rossel of tbo sonrice if 
placed in the snine situation. The eame spirit auirnatea the 
bnuta of the officers of the navy. There may be exceptions, but 
they are few and far between. I hare been identified with Iho navy 
for sixty-six years, and haro eoldoin known a cjuse where there was 
n want of diaripline, brsTer}*, and ammiLnahip in time of danger. 

During the war I liad under my command three huudred and 
aerenty-five resaels and some 00,000 men and officera. and do not 
remember a oaso of cruelty and injiibticv fnmi ufHcers to eeomen. 
The discipline was mild. Hundreds nf offences were condoned 
because there wiut not time in thoee litem days to be wastad in 
coiirts-martia] for cases that could be dealt with in a milder way 
without violating the luv. 

There may be Bomctimei loo much law and not enough jus- 
tice. It is uot the severity, but the certainty, of punishment 
that deters men from committing otfences. Except for crime*, 
the pumabmenttton bnnnl ship iihould approximate in a mauuer to 
tboee U8«d in private families. As much can bo obtHinocl from a 
child by Betting it upon a chair ami letting it cry itRelf out as by 
braising itsflc«h; and inmilitary courts theofficem would do tliem- 
aelrea more honor by leaning towanls humanity than by enforcing 
the most rigorouapiiru6linient« aud gaining the uamuof martiuets. 

Errors in yj^^^^^ings of naval general courta-marthil nn> 



18CIPtl,VB ly TBB A'JPK. 



417 



jiomable, and there U stringiMicy in them which pcrliapfl might be 
abiiCed : but the rorising power lia« authoritv to modify svnteiicee. 
And at the matter comes before tho Judge-Ad rooatc-Oeocral and 
thn Soerabir; or the Nftvy, it is to be stippoeed that tliete gcntlo- 
men will view all cues vithont prejudice. Should tbero be too 
inoob ri^r in the sentence of n wulor, it is not the fault of the 
naval officer if it is carried info executioD. 

Tho nnvy of the United StAtee lies under one f^reat disadvan- 
tage in regard to manning its ships : that is the lock of » rvwrre 
to draw upon for seamen: and the onlv Americanism whioli qsihu 
among the crevs in the service is that little leartm of TAO borg 
who are under inEtnictioD at the Newport tiviniug slAttou, to- 
gether wiUi the training fosseU which obtain their crews vearl; 
from these embryo stamen. This is a syntem which is big}il}r 
prized by the nary. 

The policy of tliis country has always been opposed to the 
onoblisbment of large military organ ijtations, on tho ground that 
they are antagonistic to our system of govvrnraunt. Tho abaunl- 
ity of this proposition could be easily dcmouetnited. On what 
principle the people of the United States liave allowed tlicir 
mercantile marine to go to decay, no one can tell. It is owing to 
the low of our merrhiint retuela and t)iA fuel that tho Amoricao 
flag is seldotn seen abroad that wu have so much difficulty in man- 
ning our nary with Americans. If we oould have a pun- Ameri- 
can crt^vr im t)oard each ship in the service, thi're would be little 
or no severity rcjuircd in maintaining discipline ; for as regards 
raoiml chanicter. sleudiuess, obedience to regulalions, and a tore 
for the ocean, American seamen are unequalled by any afloat; hut 
tbey ship in small numbers, not liking to be crowded with 
foreigners — people with whom they have few associations. 

On the introduction uf steam vessels and the establishment of 
ocean lines the magnificent fle«ts of American sailing vessels, 
vhidi carried passengers and freight to Kuropc, were brolcen up. 
Tbeir commanders, officers, and cr«V8 were quite iH)ual to any- 
thing we had in the navy, and in regard to carrying sail and 
making quick passages they were ahead of the majority of old 
naval officers who were brought np to take a reef in the tojuaib 
al nndown. The discontinuance of tli« lines of pockets woe a 
gnat loM to the navy, for (hey provided tho aervlco vith petty 
offloeis and leading nion of American birth, tho finest seamen in 



KlXSniP AXD CORKELATM. 

BY PRANCIS UALTOy, P. ft. 8. 



7bw intellectual ploanircs arc moro keen than tboM onjojed 
'by a person who, wliite lie ia occupied in same epeeia) inqtiiry, 
inddeoly porceivcg that it odniitB of s wide geDeralizalioii, aud 
that his reeiiltfi hold good in previoush'-untniBpe(rt«d diifrtions. 
The generolitatiou of which I ftm aboat to epeak aro«o io tins 
my. 

In B book of mine called " Niitural Inhciritnnce," publiBhed 
about H year ago, I showed that the proMcmB of family likenesa 
fall entirely within the scope of the higher Uws of obance; that 
w« wore therobr rrnd<*iYd capable of defining the average amount 
of fuoiily likeness betwijea kiiismcn in eaoh and ev«ry degree, and 
of expitning the freqnunry with which the family likeneas will 
depart from its RYcragH amount tn any eiwciQed extent. It 
followed, Tcry unfortunately for the general reader, that the 
problems of family likeness do not admit of being properly ex- 
preaeed except in the technical langnage of the laws of ohuace, 
Mid that it is impoHsible to diacuM them adc^nutely except 
through the incdiiim of mathematics. 

After the pruof^ of my book hod been finally rerinK) and had 
out of my hands, ic happened that there was a delay of a 
I few monlhit before ita actual pnblicntinn. In the interim I was 
Ibtuily at work npon o new inquiry that had bi-en unggeatnl to me 
Ibjr two eoncnrrent eirciimatance<t. One wta a renewetl disonasion 
''Unofig anthmpMlogiitsag to the information that the length nf a 
^putEoular bemi- — iay a aolitary ihigli-bone dog out of mi an- 
sient gnre — might afford cnncoming the ntatnre of thennknown 
to whoni it t't'ff'D^od. It Berm"d to me that the anthrupolo- 
had not diKiMi^i'd their fiieU in the bcvt itntislical man* 
awl that they ought to have adopted a different form of 



tISSHIP ASD VORREl^ATIOfT 



491 



crosswa^n ; ia mark & scale ajipropri»t« to the stature acrow ths 
lop Rtid aoother appro;iriutc to the loft cubit (that Ja. the length 
^m the bent «lbow to the extended Sngcr-tiiM) down the Bid«. 
llipn I bp^^ati to "plot" the pture of obserTations of statore and 
cabii in the mtao peraons. Suppose, for cxaoipli", au eatrjr had 
to be dealt irith of eCatare 69 iDchQS,oobil 19 Inches; then I shoald 
put a pencil mark at the intersection of the linca tlmtcontepondeil 
to thow Talaes. Aa I proceeded in thin way, und ils tho numbor 
of marka npua the pa{M>r grew iu iiumber, the form of their gen- 
end diflpusition bpcamo gradaally more and more defined. Sud* 
denly it etnick mo that their form wa« closvljr aimiUr to that 
with which I had beootne verjr familiar when engaged in diacuaa- 
ing kiiuihips. There aim I beguu with a Hh««t uf paper, ruled 
crouirayB, with a i*eiile ucroes the top to refer to the statures of 
the aoOB, and another down the eide for the statures of their 
fsUtora, aud tbrre also I had put a pencil mark ut the spot appro- 
priate to the atnturc of each son aud to that of his father. Re- 
flection soon made it clear to me that not onlj were the two new 
problems identicitl in principle with the old one of kinship which 
I had already solved, but that all three of thorn were no more 

I than special caees of a much moro goncral problem — namelj, that 

I of Correlation. 

Fearing that thin idea, which had become so evident to my- 
self, would strike many others aa soon as " Natural Inheritance'* 
: pQbll&hed , and that 1 shoald be justly reproached for liaring 
overlooked it, 1 made all haste to prepare a paper for the Royal 
Society with the title of "Correlation." It was read some time 
before the book waa publttOied. and it even made ita appearance in 
print (Froc. Roy. Soc.. Vol. 45) a few days the earlier of the two. 

I Unluckily, through the hiirry of pr«paralion, I now find a aad 
nnmberof numoricnl blundurB In its tables, though none in the 
theory or ftirmulua. 

I hope to bo able to give in this brief notice a Just idea of the 
law o( oorreUtton, but it ia quite out of the question to do more 
than explain itji ilnt and prinripiil rosnlt. I tnut it will soon bo 
perceived by tin' reader Uiat a great v'urioly of importatit queationa 
can be apjiroaclie*! only through its methods. 

The flr-J ntrp will be U) cxfilaiii the rliururter of t}ie connection 

tUtat uniloi tH.i ri'lated cventj ; the next will be to «how an unex- 

vted oooKoquctiuo of relutiuUBhtp. Then the conditions will bo 



4M 



nzr yojtm ammucax stivtBw. 



IwantMl oat maim mhoA aMMftamatka mmj be applied to tin 
^ncunuti nf niktvd mnu, sad one or two ot Uio nfly tmporUuL 
MMlb IV vltieli thir Um had viQ bs doRnbed. 

It It bv Um ba^ «f ft Mwcaaisa of «iftn|ileM, nthcr thin Ifj % 
fcnul iMwtiMk ikfti tlw aauu* of refauuo vill be most quicklj 
•ffmlNHbiL OmmAh- t»o ■■■ o( th« ame raoa aod caantn. 
Tlwir iWBOl* MMHtoj, belfc Iwbb a»d praliaBuui, hw been ibo 
fMMh TVmv ia<, tibmJBn, a esMidtnbla ftatonnt of tdvtitit? 
IW auB ttl tht tiABW«M vaAir vki^ Iter csmc into rxisM&w 
Uw* *M aW ««• tw acter MwHeal avaola in tb« conditioni 
Um vkM««a m vUok ^^f fiaa. nd ttan is tbc fooil tbc; feod or. 
(%ttt»MlkrkMid.aaEkaf liUHMibafbMBaabjectcd toA rwi^ 
«9 a( tt ifcii fi ii Ikat h««» a^ KUd bia «ft*^^«'Jr 'O'* special] 
|« «iMii^aMH% iftai* H a «acteiB BcwHa bacveao tba two 
teNnaadHi* bt»a w » iAwrik* aa tW •■* hand and oooipMe 
aitflMJ^y «ii (b* nAm It s o^ ta tj pr et tbe aTcragv aitamre 
«t Ifeil Btiaiii Ik i^MI ta •■« ifaiMilwKiti tbat admit* o( 
iMMWMwiMt. $k«^i» «a «n« M at oiMplv : thoa 1 toaad 
Uak tit M^ WMM^OTMr wbg tf i ia jh i of BngtishmM 
Mlnih « aaMliK. tt» tmmmm ! < ■■■ iba awsm of tbc 
k4 WMk Mk iM » aAn below 3 



•»i4«MriteaB«b»«* 

iftalMMaf tWK 

• kMbaaatok*! 



T* MBIT fSfnaa th« lanie 
* I* w «nM bci tbal tba 
■■■AaB wS diSitr lav tb» 



l4rt<ai«WiH)Baft) 



yiitliii.iii^bi^ vmk. 



l-A^^r^nt 



laySHIP A\t> CORRELATIOS 



4S3 



final prevoloocc of a particular quality in each indiTidual case may 
JDstly be aacrtbod to " Aocidunt," b«can»o the rasulu, lu I eliowed 
iu mjr book, vere disposed in uuurumiit}' with the laws of chauce. 

I fear it is uvcesary to dign^sa during a siiigli: parugnipli in 
order to iusieit upon the scientific mcainiig of tho wonln *'aoci- 
dent" and " chance," which u rooted perversity of thought, 
»moDg theologians principal];, leads many cdncated mon to nii»- 
interpret. There u nothing whatever in tht* idMi to he attarhi^ 
to cither word tliat is in any way contradictory to thu regular 
ooam of cause and effect. Either wortl expresses the fact that 
St the moment when rt*rt»iii vuuDtKt camn into play the p«rt.icnlar 
oombinalion of the iiidopeudeutly varying surround ingn was sach 
■a to prodaco an unexpected effect. If the same combination 
of ctrconutanceB ia experimentally repeated, the causee will 
again prodnco the nuno cffccl we before; bnt the rocarrence of 
tbe combinaliona without predetermined arrangement ia, judging 
from antecedent experience, bo nntikely that a similar accident 
may never occor again. 

The general character of the conditions of which we wore just 
now speaking, that may have had uu extremely important in- 
fluence during the stages of incipient existence, may reasonably 
be supposed to be connected with thu accidental positions of encb 
Mvenil element, amid the nwarm of ultimate elements, at the 
moment when any fresh stage of stnictare was impending. Uetle 
as is known ahoiit thniiR inviKibli< ultimate elements, it Ik agccr> 
tauunl, through the rapid changvs in the intvnml appearance of 
the owner, that they move considerably among themsclres during 
tlieae early stages. Any one of the elcmcnta A, K, or C may bo 
equally sattable to beeomu a eotk^tituent of the incipient strncture; 
bat if it he impoesibU tor more than one of them to enter into it, 
U is a fair hypothesis that the element whioh in at the moment 
accidentally neareiit to the line of tcneiou will be included, and 
the others thereby excluded, ^nch ncoidents as these may reason- 
ably be supposed to have differently alTected the form and 
itructiuv of aaeb brother separately, and to have been a chief 
oauae of their observed diversities. 

Thoro are. moreover, many cadscb of n mixed charncter, 
noftbvr whiilly identical io tlioir action npon the two bnithnmnor 
yet wholly dilVri'tit, but irliirh may be treated an if they were 
iliridble into their two contnutod groups without introducing a 



xiysmp ASD coasELATios. 



43C 



Tf the ETflnigD time of arrirHl of tlie other clerk wue flfteeu min* 
nte» before four o'cloclc, unci if ho urrivetl on thu atiinc ilaj »t tea 
puiODtcs before four, tlicii liu would be five minutoa Jjite; and it 
U this live minutes plut that w« Iiavo to coaipare with the ten 
minatcw/^/tM of the otht>r. AvxTHgos hftve no mora to do with our 
preH'iit cotiNidvrationa tluu tbo pu^ittOD of the ptirtitiuliir ejiot 
,on the facu of a white wall where a buirs-eyc is paiutcd for 
|j>istol practico hu to do with tbo way io which Uio markB are die- 
1 tribiitud around the biiirA-vvi^ thiil ure itiatlu by the ahotx iiimed miil 
fired lit it. Duparlun.1 it unu thing, atid llie puiiit dejiartcd from 
U another. The problems of kinship and correlation deal wholly 
with dcpartnrcis or vuriations ; thvy pay u» direct regard to tho 
control form from which tho dopurtum or viiriutious an! meas- 
ured. If we wurt! DiijsHuritig dtalurua, aud had niadu a mark on 
I our rule at a height ei|nal to the average height of the race of 
[pcnoiu whom wo wcro cotiflidcriiig. then it would be tho diatanoe 
of thv tO|i uf taaXi man 'a head from thut mark, uj>ward or dovti- 
ward 08 tho c»i» might b«, that is wauud for our use, aud not 
U< distance upwunl from the ground, lu speaking of tho couples 
cf brothers, nnd of men of the flame nice who were not brotheni, 
it wiu the di3orcnco4 oC stataro that w«ro noted, and not the 
obaolutG ataluriM. DifferuneiM of ittature ara identical in valae 

I with diHerencoe of tbo departure of oilluT stature from the 
STon^ of the raca It ia, howeror. unitvr the hitter aspect thut 
the matbcniaticiaa has to consider it. 
Functful (<saiu[iK>j like that uf the two clorkfi are iiaofnl, be- 
caoM they thoroughly analyze tho cauera uf relation. I wili take 
anothorof thflsame kind of examptra in order to cmphueise the 
diffiTonce betwL'GQ rclulion and correlation, of which no explaim- 
tion has thus far been attempted. 

Kiippow tiiero are three commercial veutnroe a, b, and e, 

whilst daily pro6u Tory indopi-ndontly of one another, and 

tJiat a certain iovaatur, whom wu will call K, has one share in a 

ri h. whilv- a wvoud investor, S, hot Mveral aharoa in 

in c Thu total proflt«. day by day, of R aud of S 

ivJaled togvtber bvcatiHe they are partly dne to an loreat- 

L*' . but they will vary on different scalea, 

uf the profits of U, who boa only one 

lie i«ga vida than tboae of S, who has many 

■ow. 401. J« 



430 



THE SOBTE AMERJCJiy HSVJEW. 



acnljr pnetkal MatiKman, that tbora if truth m the tboofj 
that aD vambQit; u mixi!i of Uw iuae kind. The theory nsta 
DO thcgraonds thai aQ Tmnabflitr ia doe to an uaooaat«d nambtfr 
of mnD IndapaDdaBt inflaanoM. wtiDK nrioMdj to diffmnl 
OHOL Xatbanstieiana ar* «ble on thflM pordf afaatact fvCNUida 
todenlopa Bn^Urif beaatifal law. knoint as the tavof fre- 
i^eooy of emM-. It b the bana a{ the higher tta t MiicB , and it 
towtieJ npoo aoch U*b of ehanea as thoae vhieb enable as to 
caleslato tfa* ivUtira Iraqovaey of nun of look of dtfferrat 
let^tha. The rmahs are m pneijB aa poaBUe. It t«IU, fnr ex- 
aai|ilt.that if oor-half of all the depaitaraa in aanmof mouaiTt 
lie within lOO noita uf dlfta&ce from tb« rnmovoo arenipt^ ihrns 
qtiartoni of them wiU lie within 171 Dults of diGtanuc. Thia 
ktod of iDfnnnalion 19 now readilj to he ohtained in all Demled 
tarietjr from wfll-kirovn tsbl(« that hato beeo calciilaii->l ft>r tho 
purpoee, and which refer *olely to what may h^ rallrtl '.he riAxiA- 
ard or the norm&l form of rariafaiHtj. 

Mow, when a series of meaanraa are rabmittrd Vi a coin{ 
siatirtioiati, it is a Tcry atniple matter for him to dieco\cr whrtl 
Hmj nrj nomaUjr or not. It tb«T ranr normallv, then th« 
scriea of measarea b snb}e«t to all the muneroiu and beantlfnl 
properti«s that bare haen diacoTered in tbs lav of trcqucno; of 
error, and the tables jatit sjiokcn uf will appljr rij^roosly to theoit 
If they are <]BaBi>Domuil, whicb is the ooumon case, then the 
laws and the tabled will be appliml with caotioa uml c<^>Rtmon> 
aeoss prndeaoo; the mora w>, the mon ihejr depart from the 
normal type. Lengths of limbs tut with rer; fair appmxima- 
tioo to the Domiul tv[ic. In what remains to ho said I ahall 
speak oulir of Kuch vuriablcs as ma; be treated as iionnBl. 

A oarmal sj-Etem of variablea is clniitered niorv cluselj about 
Itacenlr« iban at a distance from it. and it fades awaj* into nothing 
lueson either hand tliroiigh ntpiilK-incrcu^inE dogrem of spnrae- 
nou. One syrtem difTcrs from another only in its greater or lew 
spread or dispersion. If every me-osure in tlio series that bas the 
wider spread wrre uuifomtlT shrunk, it could be made identical 
with the other. As soon us the sc^de of dis[M>nsioii of a sjatson of 
irariahtoa is known, tho whole system is absolniely deSned, For 
instanco, wo know thut mch and such it prrcrniage of all the 
raciuurcscotitainu^unt vltl bo foun<1 between any twodiitauces 
from lU c«ii^|^^^^Bay bo named. It is oxtrcmelj easy (o 



klifSHIP Aitb CORRELATION. 



4S& 



~in«aetirti the Bcal« of dii)p«r8ion in dilTererit ways that oro till 
muttiBlly conr^rtiblo (one of whicli is to aecertdin the ao-callMl 
*'prulMiblo error" of h linglo obsorvalioD), bat which I vuouot 
dignw to expliiin. 

Tho duiupHcuI ralae of the scale of lUsperaioD identifies a 
particular normal s^tstera jnet as coinpl«t«]y as that of th« length 
of ■ mditis idi>iititii>s b iwrticulnr liizc* of circle. Agnin, aii rirrira 
have VQriouu propvrtii-'A aud rvlalioiidfumlliartorijailerft at Euclid, 
BO nonnal syslenia of rariableH hare their own peculiar properties, 
which enable tinmerouB probletna to bo worked out couccriiing 
them, and mako it |K>$»ible tocxpn'sain pruiMm! and definite Un- 
gnago all that hiw bevn vagaelj shadowed forth in the preceding 
pages about correlation. 

For instance, it was said that the stattirea of a couple of Eng- 
liahmon. takon at random, were eqnnlly likHr to dilTer nmre or 
to ilifft'r \l'iu than 'i inuliw and 4 tentliH. Theory teucliefi us 
that it followa from this that the stature of a single EngliKhman 
la equally likely to drpiirt inorp or to dc|Mirt Iosa from the average 
atatare of hie racu by that amount divided by the Mjuare root of 
3, ny by 1 and 4 teutha, which gives iho reault of 1 inch and 
7 tentha. Observation confirms this. 

A moat interesting projkerty of regre-esion is brought into 
CTidonce by the theory of normal rariability, and ia fally con- 
ffrmod by obeorrntion ; namely, that the ratio of regreuion is un- 
ohangwi, whatever may 1m ibe amount of the departure. In the 
caM of brothers, the ratio of R>gre?<8ion is aa one to two*tliin1a. 
Therefore, if a man exocetis (or fulls short of ) theaverngo of his 
race by one inch, one foot, or one decimetre, hia unknown 
brolKera will probably cicoed (or fall shori. of) the avarago in 
(|ao8li«n by two-tliinU of an inch, of a foot, of a decimetre. In 
tiie coae of a man and hii aon, the ratio of rvgreMion is a« one to 
one-third, and similarly in the caK Of a man and his father. So 
wc can now appreciate the pomplotenoaa with which the ratio of 
ragreasioD measures correlation. A single ralue nifliceH to con* 
, tliB whole of two HVfitRma. 
boD doaling with carrtlaif<i dimeiiaioiiB of the same person, 

mast take their several sr^tttcs of disperaion into the accoant. 
Thus in reapect to the left mtddlp-finger and the statnre, ob- 
HTTatiim shnwrnl that a ile[wrturc of 1 inch lu tb« Suger was 
■MQoifttwl on the average with one of 8 inches and 19 hnndredtba 



430 



THE XOBTB AMKBlCAIt UeWSW. 



«t an iBCh m the Matnre ; ud Ihst » departure o( 1 inch in 



ith 



of 



inodrvdtht 

of BQ inch ID ll» fio^. Then ia no Danrrical r(<cripnx:it7 in 
IhMvflcwet, heeMnrtbeacibeof dup«nioo 9f the leecUu of the 
flBf«r voA of the ebitan dUbr grmtlv. being in tb« ratio of 15 to 
17&. Bat the 6 bawIradUu mnttiplied into the fntoLiDn of 175 
diTidcd br 15, and the 819 bandradths ioBlU|died into tbat of lA 
JiTidrd br 175, coixnu- in pn^ the identical ratue of 7 tanthj, 
vhkfa ii the ia4Bi of their oomlation. 

Tbe |mi|wae ta sow falfilM that I bad in view in wriUttg this 
article, of giving a notion, that ibould be true as far aa it want, 
of th« chief lav of comUtJoa. Thoae vho care to learn inoro 
abOQt the nibie«l majr r«fcr to what is anid in tbe book and in the 
nenotr already quoted, to which it i> likely that 1 mar be able to 
make addicxnu liefare k»;. 

The |:atB that has been now aehlered U the dtaoorer; of the 
true and entirely anforvaean method of lookinf nk eorrelatton. 
Tbe Dorelty ol tbe idea ia well enmpUficd bj tbe qoeetion raind 
at tbe ontsei, of the ibi^h^mte nftd the pnhahle ttatare of tbe 
man to whom it bcknijcd. The old notion was that, the arerage 
lenglh of the hone being ao and eo, and tbat of tbe statnre of 
men of tbe same race being ao and ao. then if the bour were, laj, 
a tweutieth part longer than the annge of anch booea, the 
statnre of the man to whom It belonged ihonld he animated at 
onc-twentivtb more than the aTerage atature (nbject to certain 
corrections). This «e now perceive to be doablr errooeotij In 
principles We have nothing to do with twentieths or other fine- 
tional parts of the arerage length, and there ensta M dinot pro- 
portion between the total lengths of the bone and of tbe aotnalljr 
BHOotated atatore. The idea of Tegrrttion beinga factor in tbcae 
relations has been hitherto qaite nnsuapected by auatomiatA. We 
DOW Me that it neecasaritT |>Ute an eseeatial i«rt in them, nod 
that ita vsJaeofturda an adminhle measure of the ckwenoas. or 
weakness, of correlation between any two eeriea that aaTcrall; 
vary in a qnasi-normal manner. We can alio oonstmct t«ble« 
limilar in form to tboee spoken of in the earlier part of tUis arti- 
cle, wholly by calcalalioa from the following fire dnt« : namely, 
tlie averages and the scales of dUper«ion (" probable ermr") of 
either of the two qnasHOormU srrie*. and tbe ratio of ngreanon 
from either of i 



KtXSBIP AyO CORRELATION, 



431 



'rtusre teems t(> bo a widv Held for tlie ippliciitioQ of these 
ineUiods to sociaI prublcius. To titkv n possililv t-sfimpio nf nacli 
problems, 1 would niention ttio rclutioD between pRUpcriittn aud 
crime. J have oot tried it uiyaelf ; but it \a e&ey to see that here. 
u in eTery caxe of relation, miccen would Jargrly depend on find- 
ing quiui-uoniuil m-Hl's to duul with. Both puupuriam and rrime 
admitting of many deSnitioiia, it would be uecea^rv lu reetriot 
the mciininga of those words for the purpose of the inquiry, m 
that the csMm to be dpatt villi nhull be fiiirlv homogeneous in ro- 
Bpect to &11 imporutnt circumstaucc-jt. Tn do this is the buainen 
of the etatistictan, wlio beconice awured of the aoandnen of hia 
judgment in deviling his reatricUouia when be finds that hia 
statistics are or a qansi-nonnnl character. If he is able to snccoed 
in this task in the present problem, the rvlation between pauper* 
ism and crime would bo rigorously expressed by the simple 
methods already explained. 

In conclusion I must repeat what was said before, that it is 
impossible to go deeper into this sabject without using very tech- 
nics! loQgaage ami dealing freely with conoeptionn tliat are, nn* 
happily, quite unfamiliar to the large majority of uducaLed man. 
I oaii only flay that there is u vuet Seld of topics that foil under 
the laws ot correlation, which lies quite open to the reocarob of 
any competent por*on who caros to iavfistigate it. 

i-'HAXClfl Qavtos. 



StY UFE AiTOXa THE rSDTAm. '48d 

dren, anil will gMIy liio for hh people. He is a tmc friend and 
» liiit«r eiM?mT, I liiire never known of nn instaiiof where the I 
Indiau vaa tiie flrat to Tiolutc plighted fnilb. fieneral H. "ttT"^ 
SibliT, the chief factor of the Northwewl Fur Compftiiy. mj* that 
lor thirty jeais it was the boost of die Sioux that they had nerer 
taken the life of a white ntaa. The Hon. Henry M. lUce, the 
chief factor among the ChipiieiFsvi;, bears like testimonj to thctr 
finn friendship and liune«t)-. 

Thirty yetirs ago oar Indian system wns at itfl worst, It vaa 1 
mbhinder and a crime. It reeognized namoditT tribes ae indo- 
pecdeDi nations. It destroyed the ndTiwiry \njwvr uf the ehiefa 
and gave nothing in it6 place. It recognized no persona) right* 
of property ; it gave no protection to person or life ; it pnniehed 
no crime. Its emoluments were rewards for t^litical Ecrrioc, 
and mott of ita aolemn treaties were frameil to nse the Indian as 
a Icey to unlock the public treasuty. At Wmi It evrtablUhed 
benthei) alin&liouH^ to gnuJuato savage paupers. Three vbiti^ 
men paand a sleeping Indiau. One said, " I will kill the damned 
redikin," and drew his rifle and shot him. So one was puniehod. 
An Indian woman ilied in a border Tillage from bmtal violence. 
Tbe agent wai appealed to and said. " It it noueof roy businp-ss." 
A mixed-blood killed uu Indiau woman ; hu waa arrested and eont 
to the nearect United States fort. After three months in the 
giiurtl-hooBO the Secretary of War ordpred bis digchorgo, saying 
lliat Lhere waaoo Inir to punish au Iiidiun. 

It wa« not Ktmnjie that the {Mior heaUion, mrrounded by cvU 
infinvneee. were dragged to a depth of sorrow which their heathen 
fathers nerer knew, and that robbery and wrong brought n per- 
ennial liarve«t of blood. Statesmen and philantfaropistK pleaded 
in vain. Duingca were mode, but tht- syst«m was unrefortnoil. 
Heen-lnry Barbonr aaked Congress to remove tlie bnreau from 
the War Pepartment. It was done ; bnt spurious coin is not 
-...,1,. ...^yi ijy changing poekels. 

ml* HilviHed mc not to nndertake any Indian miwions. Id 
my htiybiHid 1 lixteneil to iho sttirics of an old Mttdier of the Mo- 
hawk. «li<>^ lifi> tiotl be«n spent among tfae Indiana. A aainted 
I nuitber t4Ui(tbt me to defend the weak, I believed that these 
wr' ' ■' wefwehildri'H of one trod and Father, and tliat 

hi- iL< be loved tis. I carried ii where I love to 

t«k«uuyiiiing wlueb trouble* mo, und I lowcd that, Ood being 



UFE AMONG TBK ISDIAS3. 



old man sitting on thebunk of (heuppvr Miatissippi. Icalln] liim. 

anduid: '* Friend, como and dine wilb mo." Aflvr diuoer I 

BAid ; " I have plenty of provisiouft. I afaall be la tbe Indian coua- 

ti7 a vraok longer. If yon will go with ma, I will fc^nl you, and 

^when we part I will give yon all the ttore* I hin'u left." lie said : 

Hi' Yon bdTD a kind heart. I thaukyon. My old wife is sleeping lu 

^» grate Tondcr. I caunot go away from her, for elie will be lone- 

eome." 

I held my first Indian conncil at Gall Lake. The Lord 
Bishop of Hocfaester said to mo : " An Indian council has all th« 
dignity of the Uouse of Lords, with tlii« difference — that the 
Honae of Lords never listen ; the Indians always do." The 
speaker risea^ chakee hands with the principal men in thoaudi* 
mce, drops his blanket from bis right sliuulder, leaving his arm 
free for gestures, and in a simple, slnightfovward manner preocnts 
his sohject, enforcing his argument by nimiy illustrutiuus drawn 
from nature and daily life. They never interrupt a speaker. The 
last words of every speech are, '* I have done." 

In tliG«e early vi»it8 I heard many stories to make my cheeks 

blush for shame. Tbe Ojibways justly claimed nrreurs of more 

than #A0,0UO andcr old treaties, which hul never been paid. 

^Tb«y lold some of the most beautiful lund iu Jdinuesola for one 

Hpent and a half an acre, under the promise that ic should beeome 

Btbe home of a friendly body of Indians, who would be a protec* 

V'UoD against their enemlea, tbe Dacutahs. The treaty was made, 

and the country was immediately opened for white aeltle- 

neot. The Daootohs had sold 8^0,000 acres of their reservation 

upon the plea that they needed more money for cirilieation. 

Tli#y waited four years and never received one penny ; it was all 

token for claims. This, and tbe withholding of their annuities 

for two months, precipitated that awful massacre of ISSt! in which 

800 of our citisens wore slain. It is not eaay to answer ihesn 

overtnte diaries of robbery, or even to condemn the Indian for 

bis SIDB. 

^K On a vtait to the Docotob mission a Bcnl]i-danco was held near 

j^Rlie mimon-honse. I wi^ indignant. I went to Wabasha, the 

Doadfduef, and said : " Wabaslia, you askod mo for a missionary 

aoiJ tMcliLT. I gave them to yon. I visit yon, and the first sight 

_ " ^ brutal iC«l|Mlaiic<3. 1 knew the Chippcway whom your 

^i^gaon hate mnrdered J he bad a wife and children; hu wifo 



J 



430 



tnR SORTH AMSBJCAS H£V1KW. 



\» 'Tyitig for litr IiiipiImiimI ; Iii# childrx'n hiv '.r ihtir 

tiillter. Wnlinahit, tlii.> Until Sjiirit lii-iirH hm r rj. Ho 

18 nnsry. Soino day lie wil) uk Wuhuho, ' Whiare is joixr ml 
brother ?' " The aU\ chivt emil«»l, drvw his pipe from his moaUi, 
blow B cloud of loiukv upu-nrd, and said : " WhiU u«n go to 
war with bla on-n brother in the same coantrf ; lcit3 mure mta 
than Wiibtubn can coant in all h'\» life. Great Spirit uniitw; 
mxt, 'Good white mitn ; ho liufl my b(K)k ; I lovi; hiiu \orv luucb : 
I have a g«o<l pliioo for him bf-umMiy.* The Indian is a wild 
man; b« luis no Great Spirit book; he kills oncmun; huaicalp- 
dance ; Gnat Spirit Is nuul^ and mm, ' Bad ladtan ; I will jiat 
bini in a bad placp by-and-by.' Wjibasha don't believe it," 

The Indian hns a koco appreciation of hamor, and ia llk« a 
child in hin niirthruloess. No orator can net the wcuk poiata in 
bis advomry'g nnnor or eilenco a foolish 3pf:ik<'r more quickly. 

OldSholi-buh-Kkoug, the hoad chiof of Millu Lac, bmught all 
bi« warriors to defond Fort Ripley in 18CS. Tho Secrotnry of tJi« 
Interior, and the (ioviTnur and Legislature of Hinneaotn. procu> 
iscd tht-ee Indiana that for this act of bravery thoy ehould hare 
the spi^ial care of thegorernmeul uiid never be removed. A few 
years Inter, a special agent was sent from AVashiugtOD to ask the 
Ojiliways to C(ye tlioir lands tt»d remoTc to a couulry north of 
Leech Lake. The agent asked my help. I saJd : "I koov 
that country. I have camped on it. It i« the moet vrorthh'ss 
strip of lanil in }lliniu>iiota. The iDdinnii arc not fools. Don't 
attempt tttis folly. Vou will surely come to grief." lie cmllfld 
the Int^ians in council, and eaid : " My ml brothera. your grrat 
father hua heui-U how rou Iiutc been wronged. He muid, 'I will 
send them an houL'st man.' lie looked in the North, the South, 
the Bout, and the West. When he saw mc. he said, ' This ia ths 
honest man whom I will send to my red children.' Brotheis, 
look at me 1 The winds of fifty-five years have blown over my 
head and silvered it over with gray, and in all tliat time I bare 
never done wrong to any man. As your friend, I ask you to sign ] 
this treaty." 

Oid Shah-huh-skong sprang to his feet and said : "My 
friend, look at mc I The winds of more than fifty wiLlcra have 
blown OTer my hend and silvered it over with gray ; but they bars 
not blown mif brains away." 

That council was endeil. 



ifY UFK AMOSO THE INDJASS. 



437 



D o^nt who bad iron the distinctiou of w niilitin gcnenit dv- 
Bired U) impruis tlie Indians. Druused iu unifunn, with ubapeau 
ai)d flwoni, ho said : " Yonr great father thinks that one rauwa 
wb; he has hiul ho much trouble witti iho Iiidiuno U that ho has 
alvays <ciit to t bom civilians. This time he eaid. ' These red men 
aromirriora; 1 will send Id them a warrior,' and heaontrav." 
An old L-hief iltusv, drow a long bri>ath and said : " I hiivo 
hmrd ever rinrc I was a boy that white mvn hud thi-ir great wur- 
riora. I hare always watitfid to eeo one. 1 hare looked at him, 
and I am now ready to dip." 

Sinco that (Ir«t visit, afl«r I had made a viaitation in tho white 
Sold, I went into the Indian connlry and travvUed ciioh year from 
A(H) to 1,500 milus on foot or in a biroli-lwrk canoe, py\n% from 
Itiditin Tillage to villa^, to bt-nr their talc of (sorrow and with a 
brothor'e hi<art and hand to try to help them. 

At flrnt we w»w very littlo fniil, 'I'he work wemcd hojwicwi. 
The Indian nii'dicinu-men, who made ^ain of their pvopic, weru 
onr bitter foeir. Old Sbah-dah-yeiioe, the leading Diedicinc-man 
of the nalioti, wiw my Alcxuiidfr Coppersmith. A Christian 
Induui ditn) iu tint triiimplis uf faith. Itis last words were to ask 
riendfi tn follow him to th» iithi;r hnmo. The next day all tho 
inliciue-mcn of tho baud dtsuppeart-d. They were gono a month. 
>ne day they came biick with blackened fa«es (Indian monraing) 
id in rags. The |M"iple aaked whftt it meant. Tho medioine- 
RD aaid : "It Is tmi awful to t«l]." After miteh pemiasion, 
Iheyrevflaled thcawfnl secret. Thoymid: 'MVctniTelled farintho 
'toFMt atid held a fast. The Grt>al Spirit 8howe<I us the other 
world. W<' saw this Christian Indian witndoring alone. lie 
told D* ttiHt when he died he wont to the white man's heaven and 
ukcd admission. The angel at the gate said : ' Who are yon?' 
lie »aid : ' .\ Chri^stiau Ojibwiy.' Thu iuigel ehook hia head 
Mid said : * Thia is a white man's hcarcD. Xo Ojibway has ever 

IGvme here. There aro happy hunting-groands for the Ojibwaya, 
Ton tnnst go there.' lie iravollod until bo came to the red man's 
heaven, and nxkcd uiliniHSJon. The angel at the gate asked him: 
'Who aru you?' Uc answered : 'A Christian Ojibway.' Tho 
■Bgel ahocik his bead and aaid : 'Thu Ojibwaya oro tnedioino- 
necu If yoQ are a Oiristion. yon must go t^i the other bearen.' 
oor man wonhl have to wiiniler alone forerer." 
\ Sbah-dab-ycticH had a grwit dcairv to haw his no edu- 



THE XORTH AltSRJCAX REVIEW. 



cated. and ve faroogiit liiin, «itb other Indian chtltlrm. to 
KaritMolt. At inLyeiJc iniu the border ptoflo would gatber 
about tb« «4j;on and sajr ; " Wonder what be u gtdug to i 
do with tbeae Injua oliildren.** "Perbape he thinks ba can 
make Christians wik of ifaera.** " It ctut't be did. ' " Yon mij{bt 
as well tome a wnaM*!.* Foar of theso bof a bfcamo ministerv tit 
th« oborab. This old nMdicin^miui learned Iiom hU »on to 
believe fn Jeans Cbrist, and i liato never known anj nan vbgas 
whole life was more thoronghly unbaed witti tlw spirit of ChrtO. 
In his old a^e I hare known him to walk tn Iteii Lake. bbtmiLt 
mili?«, to tcti bis people of thi> loro v^h tillol bin heart. 

In those earir davi mr riitts to Waahisifiton wen nft-rep«al«d 
etohee of blij^htM hopca^ I found President Linr^ln a willtng 
ti8t«ner. [ toM him the storj oi tb« nnHBBt-n of 18^. when 300 
miles of our border was one track of blood. Aa I rtpeated Um 
ttot^ of specific act» of dithoDestr, tb« l^esdent said : " Did jron 
enr hear of the Sontbera man who boaght mnnkert t* piok cot- 
ton ? They were ({aick ; tbetr long. lUm llngen vonid palt ont 
the cotton teter tluui iwfroes : bat ho foaitd it took two •orarwKn 
to watch one monkcT. Thid Indum basinea iteeda tea bonai 
men to voteh one Indian vgoot." 

From the martTred Piondent I recrirvd tha htgbact compU* ' 
meat erer pud to me. He aid to a friend : '*Ab [ Ustaned 
to Bi^i^ Whipple's story of robberr and abame. I felt it to mj 
booU"; and, risiag to bis fall height, be aai^ " If I lire. Hum 
accorted sjstem shall be wfornjed." He w«taTd hare done it^ 

I Secretary Stanton tatd to General Hallack : " What dow 
BiAop Whipple want? If beoanwhere to tell as that oar Indian 
•yatem is a »ink of iniqaitj, tell bim wo all know it. Tell him 
Ibe United States gOTemment iwT«r rodra sa es a wrong nnta tba 
people diNsaBd it Vlhta be reaches the heart <tf the pei^tla. tba 

Jndians will be saTed." 

Aa I recall tboee oarij days, there comm to ma raanj iwaet 
mtmofies ol the beraiam of m; Indian frieoda. AD that ifaeds 
light on the daji when I wai walking on my heart u the tterj of 
Indian braTenr. Other Dar, Taopi, Wabaaha, Good Tbaoder, 
Simon AiMgmani. Lotmao Xaainioa, Wah-han-ca>n»-ta. and 
manj (ithers were henwa h tba wodd iBeaanree heraea. Taopi 
etiffM to hit gnv« a oHtlSMlc wyiog. " Tfeofl. a vwmdcd 
is entilM to the lascini gmtltado of the Cnited Sutce for 



MY UFK A MONO Ti 



480 



J. with other Christian Indiaas, rcsciipd '^00 white women and 
children liurin^ tlio Hioax via." He dietl of a broken heart. UtR 
laet words to roo went : " The Great Spirit has c»II«d me to j^ 
on tbo hist joiirnnr. I am not nfraid, for Jcens ta going u-ith nu>, 
and I shall nut be lonetmine on the road." Bear old Goo<l 
Thnnder, chief of econt«, b living at Birch Coolcj*. Ha came 
Lto hUold homeandtmnghtelgliU' acres of land. Ho said to me: 
f" I hare came back to my old homo. I cannot \ivc M-Jthonc a 
I* tipi Walton,* when* I can worship the Grmtt Spirit. If yon will 
build raj people a church, I will givo you tweniv acres of laud." 
Ko gueat iamoro wetc'Otne in m; home than tfaii; Christian chief. 
GencraU Tenr, Miles, Stanley, and Custer havo again and 
l«gain bonie tribtilo to the fidelity of theite !iicfoiit)>. After Oencntl 
'uiter returned from the Black HilU, he wrote to the Rev. Mr. 
ninman : " I cannot allow these sconts to return to their homes 
without bearing testimony to their fidelity. [ not only say 
they have prorod good Boldiera; I doubt if any village can show 
thirty men of mors ntemplary rharaeter. .Among many plpiwant 
^^incidents I recall one Sunday tn camp when suddenly I heard 
^Bhe familiar tune, ' Rock of Agee.' Knowing that caTulrymeu 
^Fvere not noted for hymn-eingin^. I followed the sound and found 
^uhat the Bon^ of men who roamed oTcr these prairies in barbarous 
^ftrildneai were engaged in tbo worship of Clod." 
r^ To Eramegahbowh. Bad Boy, Shuh-bah-skong, and other faith- 
ful loals we owe the protection of our northern frontier. Many 
of them hare gone before to the laud, as Itcd Clond once said, 
** where it is hop<«d white men will tell no lies." 

In the hopes which come to me at eventide there are none 
aweeter tlian that in onr Father's home we ehall meet many of 
tbeae men of the trembling eye and wandenag foot, to whom wo 
were permitted to give a brother's sympathy, a brother's love, and 
a brother'd pjayenu 

If I do not weary your reailera, I shall be glad to tell thom 
what the gospel has done for these red men in leading them into 
til* light of Christian civilization. 

U. li. W'UH'VtE. 



TlIE NEEDS OF THE SOmi. 



BOBRRT LOMTIY, BX-fiOVKBNOIl Of lII64ia31Pl»I. 

r AM invited to diHvnss tliis ntvde ol lliu Soatli oi I Imrofd' 
lliem during my occupancy' of thu vxccuUvt' ot&ca tor eight yoaca 
in Mtfsissippi. 

The Hubjvct implicB thut the Soalli has poniliikr ncmlm not com- ^^ 
man to ntlitT fieotions at the countrr ; and this ii, vntortunttXeiy,^^ 
true. ThB posiliou o( titu South U isolat«l. h is ual rcmlu'nxl ^* 
00 by riASon of diffpTences in ditnat«, «oi], produclioiis> or Uftturml 
rusuiircoB, thoug'h tbvw uxist ; but It ariscti ciiicflii' from politics! 
di0orL-iicM orifpnatiiig in tlio inatitutiuu of slavery, Uiv dcdtrtic- 
tion of which hae radioillr L-hau}!t<] the labor of tlie country, Ihia 
cliaRf^ creating new induetrira irnd enterprises. It will be rcineni* 
herc-d that grmi, impartial, and philosophical luitid^ long vnara 
ago prcdiotnl ciiNietcr and ruin to tho£ti cx|>0ftc«l to Iho orttonla 
through wliioh the t>outh bu poaeod. 

ThoRiu .IvfTt'nton bcllored that th« two races of which tho 
84(UthurD StatsK »ro tn&iidy cotnpceed could not Uto LT|utilIy free 
under the some gorernrnent. In Ibia opinion ilc Tocijuevillu 
ooncnrivd, as did dielinguieJiiil hietorians of Europe, one of irliom 
jravc tho West Indies m on cxamptc where tho progrwa of civil* 
izaliuu bad been urresteil and both r»L-c« mined. 

The South has HUrviTcd tho ordeaU and the trials ihrongh 
which it has potted inRpire courage and confidence for tliu future. 
The progress that 1ms been mode in tho post ten years and the 
noeda of to-day art iusi'[»ttrably connt-ciod. Tbt uuo must bo 
iinderslood to comprehend the other. 

Without di«cu«siug the policy of any [wlilic-al party, it turn Ik 
truthfully stated I hut from I6<;7 to IH'ii the lawa in Miuiddippi 
were not euTureed, and life and property Imd but bltle proteotioa. 
"" wcni cxhaiiBtrd nnd their wmrcra dried lip. 

pi to the Tisilile, laU);iblu rt-KJurceK of the 
T'-sl.iTKres Uil-»iiithniil the Soutbeni Stut«e 
auud by tho ie«Uflnet) of iic>;(otiuhlti bvutl^ 



THE JVKSDS or TBB S017TB. 



441 



ipital flod from the conntry. Farms were abandoned or for* 
fvitctj uiid aoid for taxes, and a steady stream of emigntion, oom- 
po«ed of the beat material in th« Soatb, songht liomw elMvbore. 
The great natural rasources of tbe uountrj remnined iindRV<>lopcd. 
Not a mine waa opened, not a factory wu eatabliabed, not a rail* 
road was built Trade and commerce were paralyzed, and the 
8tont«st hMita datpeired. 

Tbe foregoing can be rerified by the official atutistice. In 1869 
tbe State tax in Miatiesippi was ten cents on ^100; in ]87t, forty 
ceat«; in 1372, eighty; in 1873, one hundred and twenty-five; lu 
1874, ODD buadrod and forty cents ou 9100; and the coaaty and 
mnnioipal taxea itmreABed in the same ratio. NotwithRtandingtbil 
bigb taxutiuu. tbe public debt incretused in like proportion, show, 
ing a large excess of cipeDdiltires OTer receipts. More than 40 
per cent, of the lands wore sold for taxes, embracing alarge qnnn- 
tity in the Vitzoo- Mississippi delta, c<inul in (crlillly to the 
allnrial soil of the Nile. 

Amid the general depression tbe {leople made a eapreme 
effort to pick np their burdon, and by renewed energy win pros- 
peritj, and they sncocoded. From that time onward it has been 
a steady march unoxamplod in the post exporienoe of even this 
rapidly -growing country. Tho increneo in the aiNHed raluo of 
propcrtyin tlieSonthern Statexsince tliat date is enormous. The 
mileaof railroad that have been constructed, the value of factorioi 
that have been eatahlishod, aiiioant to many millions of doUars. 
la Mij3issippi, daring tbe time meatiooed, there hns been an in- 
oreaae of ninety thou^nd children in tbe common schools, and 
Uioamoont expended in 1889 for their support was orer tl,000,- 
000. The people sbaro liberally of their meani* for educational 
parposes. Tbe resources have been sufTicieut toeetablLsb splendid 
institutions for the higher education of the youth of both races, 
and at the niino time to bnild and Hupport ajiTlums for the 
afliiotod. In addition to the liberal support for the purposea 
mentioned, tbe greater jxirtion of the lands forfeited for taxoa 
baTc been redeemed. 

These are substantial eridencea of proRperity, and they 
domoniitrato tb« struggle that the Southern people have made 
10 Rcnporato and build up their fortunes. 

Tba needs of the .South are organised or RyBtonatixed 
labor, capital, and Ims Icgtslatjon. I dissent from those who 
vou cL.— xu. 401. :;» 



THE SEEDS OF THE SOVTB. 



■ttfJ 



difllcaltiea to which I refer, much bu b«eii sccomplUhrd; and 1 
do not besitate to say that the progress of the Stnto duiiag the 
poat t4ii ytvn, under homo rule, in ull that coi)tnbnt«3 to the 
greatQfis and glory of a StaUi. and the bappiQees and coQtent- 
ment of her people of erery cXau, creed, race, Hx, and condition, 
will compare favombljr with that of other States for tJio aunio 
period. The same may bo said of vvcrj- other Southern Stat«, 
and of gome cvcu more. These facts iadicato more ulmrijr tbau 
any mere words tluiL tb» true need of the South i< to be permittod 
to parviie without moloitatioQ the career upou which sbo ia now 
eniharkcd. 

BcaidM syet«Duitizcd labor, wo want capital ; for it most be 
roraembered tliat tn gel th<? gn>Ht agi'tfulluml iutere«ts on a Srm 
and progporoui foutiug required all the home capital at command. 
With the exception of Texas, wKich haa five times its area, Mis- 
lippi ia the lar^ost cotton -growing; State iu the Union, and it 
;ht to be the lurge«t cotton-uititiiifituturing State in America. 
One of the great needs of MiesiMippi and other cotton Stataa is 
capital to etttnblish factories, cspeciiilly those of cotton and wool. 
The productions of the earth arc usually maiiufactureil where 
thcT are mode or found, and why capital has not sought invcwt- 
ment in tUl^ induetry hero fa diOlcult to undurstaud. It cannot be 
charged to nnjufit lawfi, or to oppresai re tax;)tion, or to mtiigoveru- 
ment. I iwriouaty doubt if there arc a mittinn and a half of 
people in this or any other country where lawa are more Impartial 
or moro faithfully exc«ul<M] than in Missiiwippi. 

Our climate, prodiirlions, and conilitiona generally aro moat 
faTomblo fur the manufacturing of cotton. There are cheap 
bud, cheap labor, cheap fuel, and the raw material raiaed in pro- 
fofiion. It may also bo staled that in many localities we bard 
never-f siting streams of watpr, and the weather ia never too cold 
for operators to do a latiafactory day's work. 

While on this subjeot, it is not improper to aay that the Wes- 
son Cotton Factory, having only the Illinois Central Railroad for 
transportation, ships goodn l,4.tO milea to Boeton, and there coni- 
pat«i with cotton E^>ods of every description roaniifactnrpd within 
fortt milM of Bfitit-m. The same may be said of New York, 
r^ ^ Cbicugo, Cincinnati, and other large cities 

:■-■■ of tbt- great needs of the Sooth is capital to build up 
and vsublish fuutorics. Certainly where all the conditiona anil 



TBE ySEVS OF TBE SOXJTB. 



440 



itieeTllB inoidBnt to the existence of peculiarly dietioct and differ- 
ent nuM, equally free uoder tbe same government ; but in their 
trials, and in the hope of bettering their condition, uppcaU wer» 
nutde to tbo law-nuikia^ power for aay relief that could b« ang- 
gest«d. Too much legixlalion baa been th* t>anL> of the country. 
Change ie not alwan improTement. A lav which may not be 
of the best, but with which thoi^w oatirt^riiw) iire familiar, ia hotter 
for aociet)' than fn^quunt chango) in the liopi! of impronng tbe 
Uw. That in praiaeworthy eonwrvatiim which cling* to what ia, 
ami] ABsnrod of something better to Bubstitute for iL 

Tho gloomj- prophecies of those who apoke for posteritj hare 
not been fulfilled in our history. Or«kt decda and virtntn arc the 
k>gitimate offspring of grw»t trialu. To solve euccossfHlly the 
graro social and polilicul prubloms with which we yet Htnnd face 
to face, and to mljuxt dilTerencea and peculiarititw of racea so aa 
to render mutual help, inatiMid of pntting a clog upon both pnhlio 
«nil private intereats, are objects worthy of the loftiest nrabitioo, 
and In which every citison high and low muy piirticipate. 

Robert Lowby. 



rz^ws Of maBssoLUsii, 



w 



thorn v«re in that -epoch no pri»otiti, and no poMibilitj 
of providing Ibuni. thut banishment from tho ounp dui^ 
ing the wandcringt in tho «-ild«niett vu puniBhincnt 
vorao than doath, and that as late as 1000 A. o., in 
Bngland, two hnndrod and eixty^throe criiDM were cwpital 
offenoea, tho Motatiu codu dous uot seem to be oxtraorilinurilT 
hanb or cruel. When one reflects that in the Orient to-daj the 
life of nv9Ty citixcn is at the morcj of an ab8olnt« dospot, from 
irboae dDcifiion thert* is no up|>Ba], nml that nnilfr Mows no man 
coald be deprived of Uf« or pmpert.jf L-xropt after trial and con» 

\ Ttotion bj his peers, the jadioial system which Ptoses established 
does not Mem by contrast exceptionalljr bnrbsric. 

[ might asiare JO u that yon are qoito mistaken in sappoainfrthat 
GhristianB say to the healhen : " You must examine your religion, 
and not only so. but you mnst n-ject it ; and unless yon do reject it, 
and, in addition to such rejection, adopt oars, yon will bo v'ternally 
dnmniKl." I d» not recall the namn of a fiingle living teacher in 
the Christian church who holds any aueh doctrine. Joaeph Cook 
and Dr. J. L. Witbrow hare stood in the Tcry forefront of the 
oonesrrativc party in the orthodox church in its-nxront contro- 
TATsies concerning the futnro of the heathen, and they hnTO both 
contended vigonmslj that an acceptance of Christianity is not 
ssential taaalvnUoa; thut. im the cotitniry, niyriadit uf pagans 
rill be found to have ent«r(Hl into eternal life without any ItuowU 

1 edge of Christ or his nligiou. But it -would probnbly be of little 
use in a public debate i.n point out Ihcoe and kindred errors. No 
man tikes to ackiuiwledgt> publit^ly that be has been mistaken. 
The only result would be your reply, perhaps, that a code which 
punished f^nbhath-breaking with death was barbaric, and that, if 

'the acceptance of Christianity is not c^ontial to salvation, it is 
not legitimate to lay snch ntreBs upon its acceptance. Tfans tbo 
argnment would b« dimply shifted ; there would be a new thmst 
and a new parry, and the fencing would go on as before. 

1 do not propose, thoroforc. to cuter into any controversy with 

[yon; to answer in detail your criticianis on the Bibte, wbiob seem 
to me to grow almost wholly out of & misapprehension of that 

1 book, nor yonr criticisms on theology, which seem to me to grow 
partly out of your misapjtrebeusionii of the theologians and partly 

Loot of their mieupprehcnsions of the Biblo. But I shoald Itko to 

[adt yon, and those whvagroo with yon. or who, without agreeing 




f fc >i II ■— « ^i 



FtAWS ly ZffOERSOlLTSX. 



449 



on Hit sorrowfo] GnifrmA of ihe prceent ; qo dirinit; in man Ul>er- 
nncliog in tbo ttvnrts of nil who vill give it admission, and most 
of all in the lieort uf him wlio, becaiue be gave it free entTsiice 
and vielded il absoluto lojalty, is proGminentl; the Son of God ; no 
Toioc speaking in the voices of mou tliu lunguogc of diTinity, 
but iu u patoi3oi earth, — if youorosarcof thU, and src connnc«d 
that onr blighter hope is a delusion and a snare, you do right to 
attempt to dispel the illiukiu niid v&kon tia from the drenm. So 
one might well exbHuat his Bkill to avaketi from bis pleasing 
Innacf one who viu a prince in the asylam ward, but would be- 
oomaa paopcr when rt'tumed sauc to Im home. But if I nnder- 
stand yon aright, yon are not Burc. Thua etoqucntly, in the 00- 
combornombcr of tbi» Rktievt, yon atnte your conclDsioQi : 

"LetwInbaaMtwtUioiiraolTM. tn Um vTMsa«e of oooatlaai mntorta: ataad- 
tmbwwlh ih» toBBdlMs hearcD ■own ihlck wiiti ctmUlhitleiu : kaoitlBsUat 
■■liilinliirf Willi laiihliaf iwiiliMiili i<'|i«ai an^inf i iwj iiiliiil Ihii ■■■■iiliw 
M— llmi, fcaowlag that the dipbwt Mat JeAm wimloB ; faclteg Uwt y do! wlUi 
the BBtMrllcl*) >ul Um rd»tlTD, ftad Utat «ra mn (MvTcr ttlvded br tbe raal, tlic aIimk 
liite.~lcca» odmll Ui» Ila»lt»ilona «Caar alod*, utd t«t «« b»r« lk« cow^e uii 
the MUQitor to wj 1 We do ko( haow," 

YoQ do not call yonrwlf an atlii'iat, but an agnostic. Tott 
do not know timt there is no God, but you do not know that there 
la one. Well, let us for tbe moment grant that wc are all agnoe* 
iica ; that ve none of ns inow that there is a God; tbat we only 
b*T« fftith tlint thero is one. Is it so impomble a faith that 
loyalty to truth requires its orerthrow ? Is it so injurious to man 
that loyalty to lore HKiulrw Iti overthrow P I bollero, indeed, 
that our faith tu God Tv»ia on tho sarest of nil fotindutiona — on a 
snonal acquaintance and fellowship with him. Herbert Spencer 
tn hardly be aocnscd of being enbjMt to tho delusions andenper- 
>r an ignomiit and prieiit-riddpn intellect. It is Herbert 
Kho saya : " T*iilike the ordinary oonsciousnett, the r»- 
Itgtous conaciinisiiesB is concerned with witat lies beyond the 
A brutethinks only of tho things which can be 
inl, tniitml, etc , and the like ia tmo of the nn. 
taught child, tho deaf-uuitc, and the lowest savage. But tho do- 
Teloping man has thnnghts ahont extstencee which ho 
rtgards as nsaolly intangible, inaudible, inirisiblo; and yet which 
he regards as operative upon him." It u in this consoionsneas of 
God who lies beyond tlie ipherc of sense that our faith tn God 
foandcd — a faith which in uno form or onuihcr bus charactvf' 



450 



rSfi KORTB aMBBICAS SXVIEU. 



i«sd the gTcatert, the pn)rnnn(Ie«t, thv mort luminous thinkort of 
all ageg; tbo greftto«t pbilotwpfaers like Socnitm, tho gre«tc«t 
poets tike Goethe, the greitU«t stalesmoo UJto GUdBtoni!, tlie 
ICreateet ecieatiBta like Isaac NowtoD. On the one side U thi* 
fnith of the viseat, tbo bc«t, the noblosL of nijuikind ; oq the 
other— what? This answM". "We do nol know." It irill 
hanlly bv sincerdj contended that this fiiitb, so witneesed, is so 
imitiuuul that one who does not know h boand by hi& loyalty to 
truth to attack it. 

Is it, then, ao injarioiu to mookiDd that loyalty to hnmftnity 
reqnirea him to attack iif 

He who aeks bis nelghlMr to be candid intut hitosulf show 
candor. And 1 am quite of the opinion that there bave been, 
and still are, conceptions of God so injnrious to man, becaose so 
degrading to his idcxls. as to arouee in the lover of bis kind 
inlcneest inilignntioii. It is not witlioat good rtuwon that the 
Bible ooiintA idnlatrj the wont of all sins; and I think tlut 
there is more in common in the old Hubrt-w pruphoi's Ire and 
your own temper than either yon or your critiia would be 
willing to eoncede. I fully agree with Platarch that sapor, 
stition is as much worse than atheism as a ImuI gtxl is worse 
than no gn«l nt nit. In so far its yoti wiHh to emancipate men 
from their terror of Ood, I sympatbixo with tho rc6ult which 
you arc cndvaroring to accomplish. Bnt surely you know tliat 
there arc not a few Chri^tiim ministers, though {)orh»j>fl yoa do 
not know how ninny, who are endeuTormg to achieve for their 
fftllow-mnn the nmif emancipation. Surely you know, to menlirm 
no others, what my predcce68or in Plymouth Church did by roico 
and pen to exorcise the demon of fear from religion by invoking 
tho nngel prpsenco of lore. Surely you know tlut lie woe not 
alone ; and that tho faith of the Clu-istian pulpit to*day. dim, bat 
growing clearer, narrow as yet. but growing broader and more 
inclusive, is that faith which tho Roman Catholic Fabcr 
expressed for all of ns so cxquiitituly: 

- T1s«rc't a whhiDcn In Owl's iMier 

Like tii« irHeoM* o( tba ma; 
TbMe'aaUndiMwIti >tl«jB«Uoa 
TbaltB mora Uwn Uborty.' 

Is this faith in a Father of whom tho whole family in beavoa 
and earth ia named — a Father who nntlpntlands what is tnystery to | 



FLAWS Iff INQERSOLLISU. 



m, and who nnt vt chaos In erolving a Dew created world — eo dead- 
ening to hanuui eerisi bill tics, w> diacourajci"8 ^ human endeaTor, 
aa dwarfln^ to humnti growth, that uq« who does not know 
whether it is troo or not. ghould fool hinnwU appointed to over- 
throw it? Feur hath tormeul.aud I would gladly join (orc«e 
with 70a in eodcttToriuc to rid the world of ihia lormeotor. But 
nay it not be that perfect love is moru efToctual than perfect ig- 

■ Qoranoe to ca«t oat fear ? 
Th« mystery of life'! Who ia not at times opprwsed by it? 
Whoao faith iloos not fiomi-tiuiM fail ? Who do(w not Hometlmaa 
cry oataleo. " Woilo not know"? He who doea not eee that the 
whole world groaneth and travailutli in paiu together until now, 
ha* itndiod life to littlf purpose. If the object of life ib to pro- 
: daoa the ^rpaWst hsppinetts of the grealv^l miniber bvre and now^ 
^^ It is one long, coutiuuouit, unhrokcu blunder. But lore hu 
V higher aims than thit>. It ceekn to gire character, not happiness, 
y Wbuthor I am happy here or hereafter is a matterofsmatl concern; 
whether I am trne, pure, noble, manly. 14 the only question worth 
consitleriiig. I luk aciuncB to interpret life for mp, and it re* 
plies, " Lite is a struggle for exutence; tliR remit i» the rarriral of 
UieBttaat." I ask religion, and religion replica, " Life is & battle 
with temptation ; the rcntilt ia eternal life to the rictora." Tlie 
phrawa arc different ; the answer is the oame : stm^te — battle ; 

IBDnrival~lire ; fittest — victors. And if yon a^roo with me that 
character in wm-th more ihau Donditinn, life than place, being 
than hnppinesa, yon may possihly ulao agree with me that, when 
the end is wen,— that end which le not yet,— we ahull oee that 
life wim adipteil to prodtiue cluirat^tci'; that the sLnigglo wna 
adapted lo produce the fltiusL 

If you itak me, ('onld not omnipotence have created the 
Htteitt without the Htrujcifloi virtne without battle ? I reply. " We 
do not know." We only know that wo can conceive no way in 
which L-onrage can ho pnoduciKl wiilmut danger bravely enooun- 
tercd. nor paiirnce without burdenii bravely borne, nor love with- 
out Mlf-di-niuJ chcorfiilly cndurctl. And so the fnith in a love 
which pnta iia children into tlie battle, hindu hardens on their 
sfaouldera. offer* then the crosa, and itself enters the battle, bean 
the hiinlen, and enilnres the crom with them, seems to us neither 
inoonjfuitoiit with life nor inconcvivuhln by thn rewion. Yon do 
not know. That I can readily undcrataud. But why, since you 



«8 



TB£ KORTB AMBRJCAy REVIEW. 



do not knnw, Khonld fOD imdoavor to taVv from hnmanity • &HIt 
anil a liopo ao illumiiutiug and inspiring? TbAt I do not to 
tcadily nnderst&ud. 

But ve osa not »«rcly thcitts— we an Christiana : vq boIi4T« 
in God ; we bcliew also in (Jfarisliaaity. What is Clirmtianity f 

The Sret century of the Ctiristiftn en vrm the darkest wfaicli 
the world has ever seen. Poetry liad died in Greece, philosophv 
ID Rome, prophecy in Pulc«linc-; iu placv of letuah wim Gamaliel; 
in place of Socratc* was Philo. Liberty waa booDd, gMftgpd, KoA 
given orer to the wild beuta to bo devoured. Sotioty was di- 
Tided into two clanncn mnny panpers and few rich. Piib]iooar- 
raptioa whs not even a public rliagraoe. Olotlony Hud dnmlcen- 
noBS wore Gup arts, and licontiouimoss and prostitutioD n reUjpoo. 
Tito laborore vnn slaves : publio .-dnoation tbvro was none ; tnar- 
riagu was a partncrsliip difmolvablti at tli« wilt of eitht!r partoer.j 
In Pale«ttue, also, decay, though not ao complete. Thnulcs lo thai 
Bystom of pnblic edacatioD which Mosos had founded, there 
WAS a parochial school for tho children of the pctMntryJ 
in ovcry villnge that tuul » eyoHgogue ; thnnka to the rwtiic 
tiotut which MoneK had put about slavery aud polygamy, tberol 
veiT few or no slarcs in Jewish households, anil not, a harem in all 
Palestine. And yet oven in I'ulflstine the church bad fallvE 
under tbo dominion of « corrupt and infldel priesthood, who we 
ngnoeticsin tlioir creed, though they were still rituoUsta in Lbt 
practice. 

At this time there Appeared a young man of thirty Wlit 
brief life and simple teaching woro to revolutionize the world.1 
Ilis nuror wont beyond the bounds of his own Utile proviooeLj 
He gatherud a few hundred of the common peasantry about him, 
and taJke<l to them of truth, duty, lore, God. Most of his' 
teaching was convursstionni; not more than five or six of what 
can be called htR public dtHcourseii hiive been prL'^crvod to us, and 
these only in fnigia«ntary, imperfect, aud sometimes conflicting 
reports. Hn message was very siniplo. and yet the world has noftj 
yet becomo weary of Itstonin" to it : and to-duy, when a Heuryj 
Ward Beecher. a Phillips Brooks, a Dwight L. MooJy, qtilotlyj 
ignoring the additions and corruptions of a later schnlasticiBni,| 
goes hack to the r! iplo teach: t of this Galilcim rabbi, tbmuga 
pntluT to liear the Ic-nchius. as tht-rdid when it was lirst girc 
the shores of the Lake of Genuesaret. 



FLAWS /.V nrOSRSOLUSM. 



408 



This Galilean rabbi told tlie«e people that he bad como 
[from God to tell cliem ubout God ; that be vna a wituces and 
rt«8ti(ied to wbat bo bad t»xa and beard. lie told Lbiim that the 
iForld VM Dot orphaned ; that it had a Fulhor in bcarftn who 
loved bis cluldr«n, cared for tbem^ HtUTcred vitb them. Uc told 
tbetn that all meu wore brethren ; that ilistinctious betvoen riuh 
and poor, high and loir, caltared and ignorant, between Utibrew 
nod Qnuk, botwecu Jow and pogaur diffcroDcoaof ritual, of creed, 
of condition, of race^ wcro of do conser^iiencc ; tbnttho onlj die- 
tinetloQ of coQBeqaence was between r^hteoasaeaa and uurigbl- 
eoameBB, truth and falsehood, lirtue and rice, love and malice. 
He told them that life was for serrice ; that to be ueoful was to 
be groat ; tliat to bo oGlf-donjing waa to bo happy ; tfaitt sorrow 
rigbtty borne was a blessing, not a bane; that the way to overcome 
evil was by love and patience, not by force. Moeea bad told 
the Jew to lore bis Jewish neighbor as himwilf ; Jesiia told 
him that the npoetutc and heretical Samaritan was hin neighbor. 
Mow* had forbidden cra<;l and diiiproportionate paniahmenta : 
only maim, be eaid, the one' that mainii ; kill only the ouu who 
baa killed. Ghmt wont further. Do not puniab sin at all, he 
said; cure it. Love ia better than jnstice ; a penitentiary than a 
prison ; a roformatory than a jail. Ruist not evil ; do good to 
them that despitefully nseyou. Uo«o3 had told tbom that God 
woa justice— too holy to oleur the guilty ; Jesus told thorn that 
God was lore — so holy that he would cure the guilty. Uc treated 
lia aa a disease ; God as a physician ; life ao a hospital. Forgire- 
Dcas of siu, delivoranoe from gin, waa bis misnon. He told tbom 
tbai not igiiomnoe, nor wretchedness, nor race, uor eren sin aepar* 
•tod thesonl from God ; that the more the soul needed God, the 
raadior was God to give the help of hia companionehip. 

He not only tuu^fht thosethings; he lived them. Ucc-tred noth- 
ing for wealth ; aotighl noL offioo nor phico. Applaiiao vrm distasteful 
to hlni ; he eschewed it. When men would have shoated hia 
pnuaes. he batio them be still. Ue wu as gentle oa » woman, as 
heroin as aknii;iit. The wrongs of others aroused his wrath; 
mong* inflicted on himself aron«od only his pity and hia love. 
The ohurchmeniber whodevoured widows' houses and for a pre- 
tCDC* made long prayers, he denounced with ringing invectives as 
■ hypotrite ; the apostate who betrayed him with a kiiu, hu bade 
fftthtlio farevoU to with the appelhition of "Friend." lu all 



«i 



THE lilORTB AiteJUCAS UKVtEW. 



UiEs he declared that tie was «mply fulfllling \u» Pa 
will, rerouling his FVithcr'u truth, doitig his Father's ' 
actuated by big Father's spirit, and mutifeeting bi« Kutbere 
character to raeu. UU whole life and teaching were ono 
co[ituiu(;uii indictment of the social and the eccle«ia«tic3il order 
of bifl time ; and the scwiol and ecclosiaBtical order ooai- 
bintxl to crash him. But the nutboritin wort oomptUod u> 
move cAittiously becaose the couimon pcuple loved him. By 
the aid of a betrayer tliey tniced hitn to his retreat. Tbs 
three tniat««l dUoiplus who had uudoriaken to watch, that 
they might gaa^d against surprise, fell asleep. J««us di*- 
daincd to tl«e and luavo them to bo arTMted, put liiinst>ir betwaen 
iJie policv and his own twcraaot followers, bud« the hitter escape. 
surrendered hJniself, and was led away Lo dcatb. Thu sluuuufiit 
atoiy of cruel abua>, th« rMplendeot story of divine HiiHurinK lure, 
I need not hem recall. His douth seemed to have exlingnisbed 
tbe last light from the beaveiui and left the world in the nigbt ol j 
an utter despair. 

Out his disciplee did not long dtep^r. Id the belief that h* 
hod riwn from the dead, they roao from a despair that was worn 
than death. Within thirty yenre after the cruciSxiou of Jeeua, 
fislth in his resurrection had become the imtpiiAtion of tlieohnrab. 
With ati unprecedented nudactty, thu followers of Jmus had 
ondertakcn to convert the world to this faith, and in. that faitb 
to loyalty to thoir nia«ter and his teachings. Tlu>ir early buo- 
eesses are iimong the marvels of history. Pugun temples lK>cuma 
Otuistian churches; pugan feast-days Christian festivals. In Ihruo 
oenturios the faith of the despised NoKonmo had become the rco- 
ogoized relijrion of the Hom»n Kmpirc. Bnt the conveniion was 
too sudden to be complete. Whilu thi3 cburob was converting 
paganism, puganism was also converting the church. Prom that 
day to this tbett3iichin^ and influonro of Jt«ue Christ have been 
eontcndiog with the pagnniuo wliich ii> inberent in us ull. The 
banished gods were reehristened as saints, and camu buck again. 
Thebonigbed idols wore rfnamc^l apoHtles, and remaiut.'(l to be wor- 
shipped as before. The |)olyllK'iatic throng of uiodintura between 
deity and man were imported into the chnrch. The doctrine ot 
the brotherhood of mnn made n stm^le for existence in Alex- 
andria, bat was no muti:h for the (ureeM of wealth and ambition 
arrayed acainst it. The doctriue of the Fatherhood of Ood vaa 



rtAWS 7.V WQERSOLUtm. 



405 



duiuDcd. if it tlid tiot entire]; di8»p{)«ttr. Tlie old pagan dread of 
Ood camo back agnin iDtofaumKii coosciousnosL Perfect fou 
oast ont lore ; God became a terror, religion a law, faith a creed, 
vorsbip a ritual. 

Vet th« Dov life could uot be destroyed. Krcry age 
has produced, now within the church, now without it, pro- 
testaots agniiiKt the paganiism which maetjaerades in the robes 
of Chnatiaaitjr. Uhrist und his truth arc growing ck-urer in tbu 
■pprafaoiuton, atroDgL-r in Ihn heart, of hia church. lu that ohurob 
tkerci arc, of course, narrowness, intolerance, cmcltry ; that is to 
mjr, the church ih uuwU- upof men and women, and there tiro nar- 
rowneas, iutoleranoe. cra9lt;, in the be«t of ug. But these "belong, 
not to ChnBtianitjr, but to the pa^inism with which, in tho 
church ua without it, the apirit of Chri^ttaoity, the epirit of 
gontleness, gcneroaity, scnrice, self-sacrifice, is contendinft- 
Tb«e are aeen nt their worst, not withiti, but witfaoat the ohurob 
of Chriit. Ouuut ToUtol liaa ahown that in one Rueaian cam- 
paign more liree have been Bacrillccd to tho deronring spirit of 
ambition than hare pcriahvd in all the religious vara ami pcrsc- 
eatioDB of tho ChriHtian church from the be^numg of the Christ- 
ian era to this date. The powers of evil which have made their 
lair in the very church of Ood are not yet driren out of it. 

We do not pretend to have fully comprehended the teaching 
of (be Kfutcr, still less to realize in oorKlvee his life. Never- 
theless, the L'niteit States could ill afford to lose tho church 
deaplle lla faults — Us too narrow croeda, ita artificial acholaa- 
ticisin, Ma emphasis iiuw ou doctrines, now on ritual, ita 
eehismH and sirpiirutiims, its bickerings and strifes, ita fashion, 
ita pomp, ita aocial cxctniiiTCQca, its BOmetimoa aristocratio 
temper. It dova us no harm tu have crilics, whose keen- 
nsm of Tidon is quickened by prejudice, point ont tlivoa 
faolta to aa. Still, du^itu thoni, Uic church is a conaervator 
of cirilization, on ednmtor of good-will, an almoner at 
charity, and the nrliool of a uoble, though defective, rorcrmtoa 
and faith. It comjwli uiuu to thluk of other things than atooka 
and bimds, lands and hoaaea. It tania their miods toward con- 
klderatiuna of jnittioo. meroy, and truth. It oalla men to refloofc 
ou noble Hvee; to look for an hour a weok on the Jncomparsblo 
life of Jeiui Christ, and mi<asuru thoir own lirm by hia. It 
mlntatcra comfort at the coffin and countj^ iu the inarket-plactL 



tiO 



THE NORTH AME&ICAX REVtKW. 




IL Ea UiQ reservoir from wlitcb need dnvs ita . 
ffltftiTal of tho cliurcli becomes HocpitaJ 8u[i < : imUU 

Uio trMaoro of thoM tbui niiuut«r tn anpkid iiprvice to tba tick 
atid Uio suScnDg. It in to tlic cliurch men look for endowmenbi 
of u;ltiin9, collc^a, all bonoTolcnt itistitutioiu. Aji(1 it prcuchu* 
gospel of pence on eiuth aiuJ good-will toward men, the inlliiiiTioo Of 
which is seen in iQDumvrabl« prirate rilU of peraoDal tiencTotcnoa. 
The most stalwarc anti-Bointtntuit> in bis OKlmcr and more can- 
did momonU, c-iui hardly question that, wcro the Uomnn CAthohc 
ohurcb abolished by iiiBtiuituieous decree, \IA pneiils bonieheduid 
iu churches closed, and the restmitilng influence of thai form of 
the Chrietinn religion liikeu airay from ita ailhtirriitH. the di«a«ti!r 
to American oommanitie* would be eimplj awful in it» propof- 
tion«, if not irretrievablo in its resnlta. Tbo church hac booti 
and still is n Th«seu9 strngglin^ with the C«ntaiir; it is itself 
half Thvtfvus, half Centaur. He whr> deoin-s to %\sy the Ocntaor 
should be careful to so aim his blow 08 to help, not wound, Tbewns. 
The teaching of Christ, the spirit of Chriatiauity, aocm to mc 
Tory simple. Tboy are that dnty is love, tliat lifo is eerrice, tlutt 
erery man is my hrottier, tliat Got} is the AIl-Fathor, and that he 
is cleansing, purifying, educating, deTcloping, perfecting Ills 
children for a more harmonione lifo to come. We W-litne that Jomi 
Christ is the Son of God, because we belJcTc tliat be camo from 
God, becauNj in him there was, without dimness or darkn««t, 
that light of God Bomo ray of which trembler in the dark- 
est heart and life. We belioTe that he is the Savionr of man- 
kind, because wo bolievo that through liim mankind is coming 
to know God, to receive God, to live in and with God, lo 
be<MJme sous of God. Tbo Chrietian spirit is the ajiirit ol 
loyalty U) Christ ; making Christianity not merely our creod, 
but our life ; making our own duty love, our own life mn 
vice, our neighbor our brother, and God our Father, und find- 
ing in him the power to live this lifii of lore and sorvice whioh 
we believe ie endless becanse it is dirioe. This faith wrougbt 
into the life of society would put an end to its dincordi ; Trangfat 
into tauuj a Christian bousuhold has tnada of them types of what 
all society might become, if it wore reorganized on tbo eimplo 
bnt radical principle« of the Sermon on the Mmint It ia the 
oomfort nf the iinrrowing, the strpngth of th« teiuptud, tbn [teaou 
mpotft'tosscd, the purifier of tbo einfulj the a])holdur and 



I 



rtAWS TN mOERSOLLtSM. 



457 



of tbc unliiiisiied and the immatun!. If one who doM 
not know whether this faith ia true or not att«mpl« to Uke it 
from the world, b« should consider eeriounly whether he boa some- 
thing better to bestow in its place. 

1 havi* not in thin puper ilisruiisfd the mimclea or the inspira- 
tion of tho Old Tcstaniuuti jiartlr bocaoec thoso topics, in vny opin- 
ion, oocnpT A sabonlinat« position in the Chriatiaa faith, and I 
wished to consider otilj' e&»t>titia[)i. On hiuturical evidence which, 
aftor n soinewliat careful weighing of the matter and a somewhat 
ooriiful study of tlio arfpiini-nts on both sidon, seems to me to be 
<\miA adequate, I reffard a& historical the oventa aarratod in the 
four go«i;iL>U ordinarily rL-giirdtKl us miraouloiu; tho historical 
eFidoucQ for tho analogous evonts in the Old Testament is not 
tMiaolty strong, and some of them ereota are clearly not historical 
and were not intended br tho writera to ho so regarded. But I 
fully agree with yon thattheordorof nature bus norerbcvDTiolated 
or intomipt«d. So that it would appear poseiblo that our difference 
of opinion u[M>n this subject is due partly to a difference of 
de6nition, piirtly to a difference of historical judgment, and only 
portly — possibly on) r in a minor degree — to a dlCoroQOO of rcligiooa 
faith. 

Aa to the CM Tostainent, I <!onfesa myself naablo to 
uoderstiind how one possessing a literary, not (o say an ethical, 
taste couM write the sontencca, ** To mo there is nothing of anj 
particular value in the Pentateuch. Thcro is not, so far m I 
know, a line in the book of Oenesi« calnlated to maJ:e a human 
being bettor." 1 should snppose that the magniSoont psalm of 
prain to tlio Creator with which GeneKis opens, the beautiful 
legend of tho linst sin and iXn fiil<:fiil consuquonces, the inspiring 
story of Abraham, tho first self-exile for oonsoionoo' sake, the 
romantic story of Joseph the peasant boy become a prince, 
would Iiare attinrlion for any one if he could 5nd a charm in, 
for example, ibi; Icgunds of the Uound Table. Uut OenaeJa is not 
!the Bible, and Abraham and Joeepb are not Christ; and what I 
wish 1 might commend totbe candid considoration of thoee who, 
like yourself, seem tn mo bo throw away the wheat becaose it is 
not wholly winuowiit from the chaff, is the Ohristian faith in the 
bru'' ' ' "f man, faith in the Fatherhood of Qod^ood faith tn 
tbt ; ^ ^ of sina. Yonra respectfully, 

Lyxax Abbott. 

TOL. LU— 50. 401. 30 



CONVERSATIONAL niMORAimCS. 

BV UR& AMELIA IL BARB. 



Words oro realities : the; havo the power to ovoka idem, 
whioli ijhull fivokc fiicU ; ant) it is frotn sd iotiuretit Kvnso of 
right, aiid a subtle sensd of valuoe, that we saj '■ wcmU and 
ddeds," uot '■ deeds and worda." For even between such grave 
aviUna libertiango of words aud lootenees of conduct, immoral 
ooQTfrgAtion U Uio more dcgriiding imd peniit-'iuua of Iho two. A 
vicioosltfe preaches its own lutuou, und bears ibe tiuuiehmimt la 
the public eye ; bat Ticions worda enter the pertain of the ear to 
duBla tho heart, and the looao-lippod toaguo of ono wonnn, hesi- 
tatiog, and lQ»iiiuatttig wiisuftl itnagee, comipt« all who hear h«r. 
Sho ha« the infamous pr«rogatiro of being the soarco from which 
moral sewage pcrcolatoa into minds whoBQ numbera she cannot 
astimute, and whoso defilement U a wrong passing her power to 
redeem. 

Tho proatitntion of the ear is a fa<>t whose solcmoitr ie too 
lightlj regarded j for a. girl who will listen to impure talk will 
aleo do impure thing!). And in respect to our private intercouree 
we are a loow-zoucd, Iree-uud-cuoy goncmtion. Women Ulk with 
aach other, and also with men, on Rubjeota wliicli fifty years ago 
were scarcely gjioken of, except in "adide9''and alliisioua; and 
young girls htivc a familiarity with the names and likelihoodgof sin. 
of which the maiden of {laat geiiemtions was absolutely ignorant 

It ia ofteu eaid that 3nch ignorance U unwise. tliAt life should 
DOW be taken on a broad, pbilosophicjil \tmh, and that whatever' 
is true is also proper. On the contrary, nothing' i« giun«lby| 
diveating human lifo of certain royaicrica, and much is Icuit. 
Matrons may converse iunooently on eubjecte whiuh young girls 
should not listen to ; which thpy cannot listen to without losing 
somethui^^f tbr bloom of innoceuco that men bare always 
resp^^^^B&he grunt chm-m of mwdenhuod. Married women 



CXanrKRSATIOKAL lUUORAUTlES. 



450 



tnugine that tlieir puzzling ellipneH itod myeterioas ttUusiona 
an regarded by young girls irtth iiidiflt-rence: the com U by uo 
meaas so ; a pninent unriosity U urousod, ojid they have opened 

iSac tms^inaltou ttie dfior into farbiddcn ^rxiDod. 

r The modesty of » young woman ts the t«ct pnt bofora all her 
perceptions, tbc jnstiact which resists vliateret ia forbidden, the 
blind di^cemment, the mate indiraior of what should not bo 
known. It makwt the wDsee cin^uniHpeot, uid it pn'YeiiUi youth 
from Rtepping pa-uiuturely out of its iunoccnco. Surely it it the 
duly of mothers and inatrons to hesitate ere they renioro thi« 
delicate veil bctu-eon the itonsos and the innocent mind ! 

I Loose, unguiirdod talk botwoen women is, howorar, the least 
of the eoDTti national immoral i lien of our day. Kven young girls 
DOW taJk with men on subjeote scarcely proper, and in langaaf^ 
which ia still more doubtful. For our active life Is beaet by 00 
many complications of purposes, impnlses, and sensibilities that 
nothing now sooms no very bad or w very good to us. Such quea> 
tions as pro9Lit«tion and MalthiisiaD doctriniai arc oouragcoualy 
gone into, and conversation about them is carried on in n free and 
un«Rtbnrra69od war. Women of whoso lives good girls should at 
lout B«em to be ignorant are topics of diseuHsion. It is easy to 
admire tliat convomational frBokness which calls a spade a spade, 
bat qudu need nut be put into garbage heaps, and a reticence 
that is almost diHsimutatioD about certain matters is a feminine 
Tirtne very near akin to modesty. There are bad people in the 
world, hut yonn^ girls shoutd never be near enough to them to be 
aware of thu fact, 

llDforiuna(vly,a)sot there are reputable women who, not hav- 
ing intellect, try lo compoBS notoriety by saying and doing 
Btartling things. \Vilh auducinns daring thciy discuM choraotcra 
whom they wouhl consider it a defilement to know; the peculiar 
features of their friends' marriages ; the scandals which have 
oailB*d pending divvrces. There are reputable women who do* 
light in slipjtcry confidences and perilous tamiliaritiee. There 
are fast girls who eonnider propriety an attribute of old 
noldfl. and who otter donblful speeches and slung phraAes with 
an air of intentional itmartnca and hopelcas nnniliaces which 
Toald bo diiguitin^ , if it were not so pitiful; " awfully jolly 
^la" who luive a prufeaiiioiial Jabber so slippery ajid cvaiive tliat 
(estare is more to be trusted than its ma8(|Herading initials. U-t 



480 



THK HOkTa JLMERICAy BETIEW. 



nok girti iWigi»i iKftWlrM motten leaching the bsi 

■lu^r *B tlMV ^>^ duffklcfs, and it any b«]p tbom to an tati- 

Hto of it» tamocilitjr uid intriiuk vol^^^. 

Puv. reflDed kapuw* h one of tbe oiADjr ckanns of nMt* 
voBu&lMod, aad (trii vfa« tbUk it "ttov" ve not w latoRit- 
iag M th«v oonader ib wa iri w . Perlupeal Mwptioniil momenU 
thoT m«T b* sinnnQg. bat wbatemr a tba aui«e <^ Uoghter eoa> 
Uiru wilbiDittbtdeflMiitsofoatitenipi. A girl who has oeaied 
«nct raefcct for liaadf ^aedOr becooMt « boce, aad «00Der or later ^ 
■be riU tMT9 thit t»t* mde eUv lo bar wiib an nnapniajt 
ffmakiwas. 

Tba pnaant hzitr in tbe Bwcili of ooaTsnation hiw cone 
Iron various eanaea. One ba« fwrtaiol; bnii an impniilcnt and, 
|i*rtiaps ta xoaur iaztanoes, aa Docleaa and sponoue cliari^. 
7«cT«r brfor* in the hialetjr of ChriaMmdom haw miehasio vonta 
been th* subjects of so msdi attm^ML The broad !Uxon aamat 
daaignating tbm. anqiaiiag in tboir coademtubtion, nnmUtalEa- 
bk in tb«>r oManing, haT» been pat amis for otJierv eophomiitio 
oaoogb for good Metaty, and tbw vaBanaUe things hsra bam 
nada namahla. It ia a ver; B%nifiraiit braainng-dovn of daoaat 
barrieTB. The "whore" and the "caorteaan** hare become 
*' falUn u*t«nr and '' nufortainte* " Magdalana" or " lorwita'; 
mad a aentuaeotal «rnpatbj baa &auliariaed roong girla vitb 
eonditioaj of vhirh tber ought ahaolatelj to know nothing. 

To aeek and to mxt tbe loet ta trnlj a noble misxioa. bat U» 
mind on ia ooft one for nnaiuriMl girls. If morml ecatenjting ta to 
he done, let those men who bare couceiTed Uiemaelref *' called " 
to preach repentance do it. And if women are adrantageooa in 
the aerrioe, tbara an notben in Zarael, than ar* widows who 
have anpty handa, and aatmnawbo bare danghtorw of their own. . 

Bat the truth » that theee " moonUgbi** and " inidatght 
ataaieai attaet girls bjr their nHnantic naawa, and bjr th 
of impr opri ety that attadiaato (ban. It mar beaalcKi. 
nuke tu wicked to know all abont the wicked f Ve certainly 
expect that knowing aboat the good will nuke as good. Tba 
role will work both ways. Tbeae darlc-Ufe atndiea are dangerooaL 
Can we touch pilch axtA not bo deSled f Can we go into lfa< 
hannti of ain and not get a ttroog nmf{wn of then ? To gti 
the r<ninx^^BMteal iniight tnlo the mrtboda of imini 
has dao^^^^^^be facta. 



COyVBS^ATIOSAL IMSIORAUTtES. 



401 



And if thpT go, thun they ha«'r^ dnne what the; consder a 
»t dmrity. ftiiJ they ini'vitjibly diwire to talk of it. Undor 
the guise of roligioa they cuo do bo. But talking of fallea women 
is talking of rice, no matt«r how mnny textg arc introduc«d. 
And into what perilouB pbiotM walkx thut girl who talks with men 
of her Mngdalens, their wrongs aud sorrows, their repcutancod 
mill tbeJr relapsoa ! Hdw beirriors slip away a8 atichiuLity begins 
to bo lookod upon as mi^fortnno ; when nion ars regarded m the 
■odaoen, and women as their viutims; when any caw is siippotMxl 
in which a woman U not in lierMtf a iiufllcient guardian of b«r 
parity ! Yet one has only to go among a certain very respectable 
clnas of society to got the improsaion that the most interefitiug 
state of womanhood is woman at hnr lowest point of degrada- 
tion. Certainly this is a wrong atmoaphere for inexperienced 
youth. Good girls should dwell outside the current in which 
BQch subjects arc spoken of. It is not given to the generality 
of men and women to visit Corinth, and not do oe Corinth doco. 

The excuse for these imprndenoea maybe found in the fact 
that women will commit immoralities in the mass which singly 
they would shrink from. What modest girl would tallc of the 
heroine of "Traviata" to her lover? Vet with that indecency 
ganerated by numbers she will sit for hours in the crowd of the 
[theatre, wlmiring Ihe'lnxury, the splendor, the jisasions, and the 
3W8 of the dying prostitute. She will join the chorus ador* 
ing " La Purichole" and giggle over Schneider or Aim£c. Surely 
this is tt seduction worthy of the attention of those parents who 
know the wisdom and kindness of the divine prayer, " Lead us 
not into tempLntiou." 

Parity of speech is as much to pnrity of action as ktud aud 

gOQtIo Speech is to poooe and good-will ; and never ia a woman 

so ondfgnified and so nnlovely sm when tittering words of doubtful 

propriety. There may be ev»-n no question of virtue or vice in 

such talk ; but it takea the edge of modesty, and she has no causo 

of oCoDco if, after them, men approach her with that air of easy 

inaolence which they readily (alt into with a woman who, having 

l|. oeaasd to respect hermlf, has also ceased to respect them. 

^V Aoother provocative to immoml conversation in our modem 

Vtt ' ''[.' erotiu HteraturD of the day and its promiscuous circala- 

P : I .'I in the form of cheap oorela and in the columns of the 

naw^pen ; the details of divurco trials, the publicity given to 



OCarVEBSATIOSAl IMMORALITIES. 



488 



Tb«n> are othur and very distinct conTenuitirinal immor- 
•Utfes, \tvt tbe one leading toward ttonsualism la the most geii- 
end and the inoBt datigcrons. For monj women, more thought- 
Iw ond mlgar. perhaps, than wickoti , not only tolerate 
itc lm[M>rtiuHnc'e, but find il laughable and "fnnny." And it is 
worth consideration that rach shady talk not only diaintegntteg 
the purity of woniBn's chunirtor!, Uit also ha« a deiDoraliiiuK in- 
flauiicc upon niou. For inon are themaclrw elevated by the respect 

< they pay to good women, while thoM who porniit them license, 
though it be but in words, drive Ihem bilo contempt and oyni- 
ciim even morr rradily than women who are tickle and false. 

Something alike to thi^ degradation of virtue by the tongue ta 
a certain degradatioQ of religion, in which Bacred things, cither 
through doeign or excitement, are spoken of in worda admitting 
of a acnenai mRftning-— a common excess in emotional prayer-meet- 
ings, and among elderly women who have abandoned lore for ro- 
ligion. It is A sacrilege in itself, and a cause of sacrilege in all 
who lr«t«n and hare not the moral courageto eipresa their disgust 
and diRapproval. 

I The qu(»tion of itociul lying and of its kindred immorality, 

' " talking of aejf," is too wide to bo cntprwl upon at thia time ; 
but who has not been a passive eufferer from that clamor of f»a- 
ceit and itivasion of arrognneo which lead young men and women 
to continually hoMt themteWefl the envy of one 8«x and the idol 
of the other — tlut odious egotism whii-h has no more shame in 
parading itself than a peacock has ? 

Flattery, jralonsy, calumny, Batire, snubbing, etc., hare each 
■nd all Uicir ajiectal characteristics of immoral tendency ; but 

I nna. in order to obtain proper reflection, are bent looked at in ihe 
abatracl rather than the concrete-; and it would br u gn^at point 
gained if gnnwiinns of girb set themeeWes peremptorily and posi- 
tirely against all conversation tending to sully the innocence of 
joath, or to bring about between the sexes that familiarity of 
•peeoh that leads to contempt, to broken Caith, toaio, to moral death. 
Thi« it tho canker in the roeo of youth. There is a kind of 
alTrnnt m i>xborliition. 

Anklia E. Bark. 



TUE PLEA Foil KIGIIT IIOUKS. 

BY T. T. rOWDBBLT, OBKBIUL HAMTBB WOBKMAV Of TBS 
KXJ0HT6 OP UHOB. 



Okb of tbo prinoiplefl of (*rguiuei} labor b to "rvduoa the 
hours of labor to eight per diky," Atid at tho prewut tiue there ii 
ui ii^tation going on Ibroughout tho United Stntoi uid EngUnd 
wliioli has for its object the aoconiplkhtneitt of thU lookod-for 
result. 

All uniplorora of labor ebiim to bo workers ; thoy asBDrt that 
the; hftve to toil M veorilv as ilo the moil vhotn th«7 employ. 
Tbey vill t«H lh« advocatfl of the tdiort-hour vorlc-day that then 
U 110 necesdt; for a shorteniog of the hoara of labor, and that a 
mao should be allowed to work as loog ai be plcaisea. That all 
employere aro workon ia truo, bnt thore is this difference botween 
them and their eiupluveea: the employer may work one hoar Often 
ns ho pl<?ig8C8; the workman must work whether it pleases him or 
not. The umpluycr cnjoyM a profit on each hour of labor per- 
formed by the employee, while the latter has no sliare in th» profit 
vbaterer; he Bimply receives all that he con wrest from hia em- 
ployer. Competition obliges the humane employer to adopt 
the same methods as tho tikinllint, or go out of bodnflM, 
und, a« tt oonaeqiienco, the lowest rate of ooropuDBUtJtin for vhtch 
men will work is all that be will pny. Justice seldom enters ibtu 
the udjtiBtnient of wages; nocossity is tlio standard by which they 
are regulated. 

PniviouB to 1826 men worked '' from sun-up lo Bun-down," 
and they saw but little of their homes on what was then rigidly 
obwrvfld as " the .Sabbntb." 'I'he wlontment of tho borne g«TC 
the bead of the family uo c<mceru, for he apentbut a short time 
in the house. Uo knew but little of the wants of tho household 
\vtBo that pertained to food ; and 1o the fact that he went 
» tbo purpose of supplying tlw family wilb food wo owe 




PLEA FOR EtOBT SOURS. 



I 



I 



term "brt^ad-wiiiiifr" u uppliod lo the Ubonir. To be n 
breud-iririDer tths all that the vrurkmui of tb« lost cvutun wpired 
io ; BOd yvt he groir Uivd of the conteet, for it brouglit bim but b 
BcantT portion of nhat hp Btruftglwl for. In 1825. the agltstioa 
for the eaUblitthmvot of ihc loD-boursjitti-m begun, and it con- 
tinaed DtitU it was officiall; raooguiied by the President of 
tho Uuitod Suuw in 1840. t>trikw, contvntioQS, disputes, uid, 
VBry often, btoodehed, at length brought tbo t«u-huur system 
into opcrutioQ. und wilh it« final adoption the workman became 
uobitious of beiiig uioru tliaii a brcBd-wianpr. 

The steam ntilroad was tbcn courting comnieroial acquaint- 
iiDce, ami in rapid sequence conio tho tvlogniph, tho lightning- 
exprvw) train, aud tho daily paper, with it« record of yesterday's 
procevdinga. luveDtion look ncvr life in every department of 
trade and itiditatry, and we aow Qnd oursclTes able to do in ft 
minat« wbni it formerly required hours to perform. Since It^ 
the ogencie* of production hare gained a power and force that 
ynrv not doumed powible during ihi' yvnn which rolled between 
;be dawn of the Chri^tiau era und that ditto. Prerioua to tbat 
tin« bnin work wua not «upposcd to bo entitled to any morocon- 
lidention than band labor, so far as the hours of servicv were con* 
otiniod. Until recent years it was not supposod that the dork or 
the employee of the couuling-hoiisc should remain at his jKist a 
idiortcr number of lioiire thon tht<iiiechauic or the laborer. What 
was wonted in order to alluw all men to kbor was light, and the 
lijpht came. 

Fewer bourn of loil mean more time to rvail. mid after the 
adoption of the ten-hour system the workman took murcof interaat 
in the previa of the land; ho had more time to read; and, that fact 
once c«tabli«h(<d, it booamo a paying invoKtment to advertise in 
"the papers." The uumber of puiwrs b«^n lo iucrease, for the 
mjuaos hod more time to read; having more time to read, they 
learned wbut wii« going on thruughoiit tho world, and they^ 
natnrally aoi)Qired new lAstea and desiroe. The adornment of the 
homo becnme an objt>(-t with the miui who ccmld stw bis home by 
daylight, aud ihu <ii<tnau<l fitr artidua of home consamption and 
adornment iiicr^awd very rapidly. The " oldest inhabitant " baa 
only to tnrcl biu^k wme fif t T y4«re in nemory to see a home with 
bare floors from cellar to garret, m ved-off Btnmps serving as ohidn, 
ftone dishes oil the table, and sheepskins for bUtokeU. llo will 



406 



TBK SORTU AHERICAtf SSVISV. 



remember tliat the workman of that day Vwtd in a log hut. and 
hbitt ho hod to stiifT tlit* ('rftcks with Tirsh mud eivi-ry fiUI ; ikiU ft 
coat of whituwiuh vaa a Iuxar7,au() that cumed bet>f and uaUin^ 
were regarded as detlcacit^. U vaa ytrj easy to nipplj thcae 
wanU, and hod men oontinun] to work on for as mar.y hoars u 
they wore ablo, they would never have dreamwi ol improTing 
thi-ir L-onilitinn. 

That the cuiiditioD of tba workman baa improved wonderfulljr 
is true, bat to no one ran the credit of this be giren isave the 
workman himself. IIo alouoKiugbt for the me«aa ofimprore- 
merit, «iid bis orery st^phaabmn conleiitDd by thoae for whom he 
toQed, and by alht>n! who noxur gave a thiiii^ht to hii sarronnil- 
ingfl. It istme that philosophers and philautliropi^ts have spoken 
in favor of the ** man who worked," but their pleadioge and 
writings had no more effect on the minda of tho wealth-i^oCters 
tliau hua a zephyr ott thu Kil7t<l Tow^r. Tu look back at the sani- 
tary condition of the workman 'shomo and snrroandings ia to lewn 
that, if hu hud hud t<j work on thu insido of fuctory walls at that 
puriod. hu would hare lived but half as long m ut the prMent time. 
If the man who lired in a ]og hut, where "the wind whistled 
through the chinks," waa obliged to work in the stilling atmos. 
phere of the prejient-day factory, he wonid die of lung trooble in 
A very short time. Workebop, means of transportation, dwell- 
ings, and every surrounding have changed, and for tbo better. 

Too many adrocates of the eight-hoor day are in ignorance of 
the vital principle whinli underlies the agitaiion. They ai^e in 
this fashion : If the houni of lubor are cat down to eight, the idle 
men who hare Socked to this conntry will be employed, and we 
sliall be corrccpoudingly happy. FoUowing thai eourse of t«b- 
eoning to its logical conclusion, we ahonld liare to cot down the 
bonrsof labor still farther in a few years to accommodate the idle 
thousands imported to thia country by steam and mil way com - 
punios ; and after the nnmber of tho nnemployed inereaMd again, 
we should have to rednoe the hours of labor again and again until 
tho unemployed of Europe and of Asia had landed, when we 
should have nothing to do. 

On higher gronnd docs tho dncere advocate of the ehori-boar 
work-day base hU agitation. I'hc titiit) mlntion of the worlc-dajr 
problem will come when tho workmun becomea a sharer in wbat 
ty the Uborer ia considered by hia employer to 



I 



Tin: PhRA FOR EIGHT HOURS, 



467 



' no mora » factor in ttip fiet<i of prorlaction thun the spndi* which 
be bandlea. The laborer has no other interest in the work he 
perfomu than todniw pay for the work tlone at the cud of the 
week or month, n'nrkman and employer find their interests to bo 
tdsatical id but one particnlar — to gvA tho most oiit of each other. 

Tako an omplojor who gives work to one bandrwl men. The 
Talue of their labor we will rate at %i a day. Ho pays them an 
average of tl a day each. Ills profits will equal the total wagoa 
pud, and in twenty ycara he may retire a wealthy man. Hov 
farea it with his workm«ri ? They rentuin poor and relire only to 
the poor-houav or the cemetery. What do the riches of tbo one 
represent? Unpaid labor. To labor, then, belong the vast sums 
that rich men leave after tliom to erect poor-houBes and cbaritablo 
fnstitationH, which would not be necessary if the workmen wore 
paid what they earnvd. 

We have the &(o«e8 Taylor Hoepital in Scranton, to which 
the miners of this valley will he admitted upon receiving injuries 
in the mines. That hospital ropresent^ tSOO.OOO of their own 
earnings, which by right belongs to them; and yet tbey must 
enter its door as objects of charity because an nnjuat system 
enabled one man to rob them of that enm. Had the miners of 
this valley been Eharcrs fnmt the bi-ginning in the earnings of the 
mines, bip) they received a jnit shore of the profits which their 
labor envtod. thny would to-<lay be in a position of indepomlenoe, 
and when nuHfurtuoe overtook them they would not bare to geek 
admittance, for sweet charity's sake, within walls every brick of 
which is oemcnt(-d in their own swent and blood. Hnd they boon 
sltsrera in tbi' proHta, every hour of toil [ierformed by them would 
be an hour of profit also, and they would And pleasure in work- 
ing as many hours as they desired. They would work as tbey 
pleased) and would not bo driven to it. The inceativo to bibor 
for something more than a raogter would be there, and each one 
would bo a part of that which he cruiited. Until such a day as 
that comes we must agitate for nhorter hours of toil, so that men 
may have the time to 'prf{iiiro for tho Ryst'cm of the future. 

No one now tbinkn of retiuiring the bank clerk to work ten 
honrs. or even eight. His mind wonid not stand the strain, and 
i " part would ftlwi dway. Tho work of the futore wiH 

- in its nature, and will call for more exorcise of 
iba bruiu tlian of tho hand. Witness the rapidity with whioh 



408 



TOE yohTS AMKRJCAIf A£VIEW. 



women are being cmwilifd iiitii the plHC(><i mjulo tncunt 
men, ao<i we reoliso that i( k no Iouj^it bin-ugiti, but elLill, tlutii 
nquired. Ko man or vonian cati work u long at an ocoopatloD 
vhich requires akill as at ono which calls for no exercise of the 
mcoUl powen. Tarn tostatiaticv, aad it will bo iieeit that tl)» 
meohonio dioa many years in advance of tlie dar-laborer. One 
exeroiges the muaoleti alone ; the other exerrises bnla aiitl niiucb. 
The double wear ends existence more quickly. Brain work will 
Boon bo reqnirod Jn all callioga, liiid if for :io oth<T than a sanitary 
reason, the hours of labor sboald be reduced to the oigbt-faonr 
Blandard. 

Men who woric short boun are better (tdacated than thoaawba 
do not; they huvo moro time iu which to study. A tbioki&x, 
Btudions man vill learn that overexertion ehortens life, and he 
will giiunl sgaiiist it. Tliou^nds go to eiLrly groves throagh orer- 
woi'k cvL-ry year, Had until the struggle for extstcnoe is ahortenfd 
by cutting down the honrs of toil, this condition of affoin will 
continue. 

We see the miners and operators of the West oombining to 
curtail tho production of ixwl. and wo see the farmen of tbo VPoat 
bnrmng corn and grain as fnel. AVe notice facloriee sbntting 
down every now and then, and when wo ask qne«tions, we are 
told, "These periodical dcpreewoM must conic every few yaire." 
These periodical deproaslons need not come every fow years, and 
tbey would not come if wo had an oighl-hour work-dav in exict- 
anee and workmen were ediicaUnl in the ficience of government. 
Oapilalisni cured but little how long men work ; ite rule is grasp- 
ing, and it drives whom it controlB with pitiless spur. Must w« 
look to Wall Street for reforms of any kind ? Evt>n Wall Stn«t 
il«eli will answer " No." Must ve look to men who6u eveiy 
instinct is in the direction of acquiring extra millions for a relief 
from " periods of depression " ? Must wc look to thoao who con- 
trol the currency of the country for a proper mtera of finsnoo ? 
If wo do, things will grow worse, and in the end we must turn to 
the intelligence of the masses for a reform of the eviU that ars 
now growing upon us. Uow can the maaaea bo educated if they 
are obliged to work long hours when they get a chanco, and fret 
becaass thpy are idle during "periods of depro«aiou" which 
give the Atuu-cbist the best of arguments and incroaw the number 
of his Roti 



THE PLEA FOR EIQHT BOUSS. 



468 



The manufacturer complaias thut be must keep hia factory 
rUDiitDg long liours in onlcr to pay his toxos. Wa oliouUl study 
the qoMtion of taxinj; lunit for full value for use, and know tliat 
his impmveniente should not be taxed out of his hands. Tbe 
moQufitctn rcr complains that bo cannot pay tho int«re6t on bor- 
rowed »ptt«l nnlcj(9 b« workft bis fuctory long lioor?, Ho ehonid 
Btndy the quwtjoii of Gnaiice, and luarn that bis government, and 
not its cui?ini(<8, should regulate aiul control tbo volume of cur- 
rency, tbat it muy bocomo n circulating medium, instead of an 
intorwt-gatboring machine. Ue complaine of cxocesivo freight 
ehargee, and dctlarea tbut be must work long hours in nrdor to 
meet hi8 obligHtionR Ijflt him unite with tbe Knightfi of Labor 
and tbo I>'urmci'a' Alliance iu demanding that his govoninient 
control the avenues of traneporUitioa and dietrihution. To study 
bov to oolvo these problems, men must work fewer hours each 
day. 

Should thin nincb*de«ired reform be innugnmtcd by strikes? 
is asked. Not rirci-iiHarily. In a given txx:tipation or trade 
the employers nnd workmen throughout the country ehonld 
agree on the ectMbltahment of the eight-hour work-day. To 
institntfl it by meauti of a striko in one part of tho country 
wimld but place the short-hour i^mployer at the mercy of Xua long- 
hour competitors. To demand the ejuuc rate of compensat ion for 
abort hours ns ii now paid would be unjust. To meh the eyfltem 
through would nnaettle uJTaira; and for that reawn KniglUa of 
E^bor ask for a gradual n^uclion of the houra of hibor. We hu- 
Itcrre that, anless workmen are educated to understand the full 
and true rsuotis why tboir hours of labor should be reduced. 
tboy will not retain wliat they get ; and for this reason we appeal 
to their reasoning ))owon rather Ih&ii to thoir powers of endur- 
aace in caae of a strike. Employers as welt as workmen will soon 
realise that the Mhort work-day will bu the mont beneRcial. In any 

\i ita introduction will soon be announced. 

T. V. POWDERLT. 



ENGLTSn AND AMERICAN BOOK MARKETS. 



BK OUVKK B. BtTHCB. 



Ax AssBKTiON made in u recent mugiurino ftrtido that theni 
tweuty reatlurs of books in the United Stales to one iu Ureal 
Britain oiilv exuf^entte a liitlo a prvvaluutcoriTiclioD. D(*clara* 
tioiis siniitiu* to this arc continually put forth, not onlj boro, but 
abroad, until aloiost every odo hus como to believe llic<iii to W 
tmc. And jet it is «isy, I think, to show that the<r kit nn- 
Bii|)|>ortoil by facts ; itnd my proecut purpoeo is to murshal a little 
illuminating testimony bearing tlioreon. 

TIa* method of publisliiti); utid circuliitinfc books in one 
country may yielJ larger prolita than the methods of other 
couniricef — as, for instanoe, the high-prict^ books for (Hronlating 
libraries in Englancl compared with the tow-priced boolte iu this 
country, — but a fair test of tho reading activity of any people 
lurgc-Iy lies in the rowiurds Ihcy are willing to )M>y the authors 
whuee books they perutie. A comparisou between the prollts of 
authors in England and authors in tho United States shiivs a 
striking dilTerenee. When I remember how cnormoas were tlto 
gains of Hir AVulter Scott, how brilliant were llio profits of 
Charles Dickens ; when I recall that llulwer i^ceired a Imndrod 
thousaud dollars'* for tho privilege of printing a ehoap edition of 
his novels for ten years ; that Qeorge Eliot was paid thirty-Qrc 
thousaud dollars for " Boinolo," and mode Aevonly-flve thonaand 
dollars out of "Middlemarch "; that within three months aftor 
the publication of tho fourth rolume of Macaulsy's " UJjlory" 
the Ijongmans sent him a hundreil chouKund dollars, I wonder in 
what rairy-biid these things could have occurred. 

1 know not what Tennyson's arrangementa ar^ with his preiont 
publishers, but at one time he received tho fixed sum of twen^- 

* It MsnatoniaartvtMhlK In ilic treooBntpoiiivaTl tma Vt ptkvn 1 cIiaII harat 
DiAke. to ^i^yHHa UuiJLiDOrlcaii ■inn^ilfnit* "niilyWift tor Uie PnalNh muttD- 
urji 



I 
I 



EXaUSB AXD AHERiCAN BOOK aTABKETB. 



471 



five Ihontaud doltara a year for his copyrigliUi, vhvther he pub- 
luifaeil anjrthing Dew nr not. It would bo iut^restiug U> compare 
tbsH BgaK* Willi LoogfclluwV yearly r«ccipU. Trolbpo tmoklj 
telta ua jam wtiat lits received fi>r Itis aovola, which in inaiiy in- 
BUnces was not less tliao fifteen Uiouiuuid dolUni down. Mr. Itoe 
waa the niiiet Hiin^i-aHful of recent American novuliatd, nnil yet it 
is donl>tful if unj of \m much-read uovels yield«d bim tuoru thaa 
IhalC thisamiinnt. AntboDy Trollopo's pricw were not at all cx- 
i, every Englbli uoTeUst in the first r«nk obtaining as 
a few considerable more. Bumt- sitj;r|o biwkii id thia 
[country, Kuub as *• Undo Tom's Cabin," "The Wide, Wide 
I World,"" Beu llur," UavuyiebUd Iboir autliorsa large profit; but 
' I kmiw of no aiitbur ))ubliiib(iig nipidly boolc after lumk whose av- 
erage rvoeipu arv at all equal to tlioae of English authors of oorre- 
Bponding rank. And if we compare exceptional books, England 
fltjtl pays much more liberally tluin wc do. Oeorge Sliot, m 1 
hare already mt'ntiuui?d, is aaid to have made seventy-five thou- 
,sand dollara from " Middk-mareh." " Ben llnr," krge as the ro- 
Itnms have been, can scarcely equal this. 

If a di4)nt«restcd person dusirod to ascertain the comparative 
literary aotirity of two connlri«i, he would naturally compare the 
Flitursry Journals of each wilhlbe other. Could there bo a surer 
' tot ? If we placf bofiire us copies of the Athenaum. the Sttiur- 
[liaj/ Review, and the Specfalor, we see at once what is guiug ouin 
Itlio Eugliftb world of letters. If wo place hy their side the only 
ftbro* Amorioan poriodirnls with whi<*b iximparison can be mado, 
|tb« yaftim, the f'riltc, the LiUraru World, the differeuee is 
ither astonishing. In a copy of the Aihtnavm now before me I 
[count thirtT-»ii columns of book announcomvuts and adrerltae* 
iieiits; in the Nation of the same date aboat spven columns, the 
jlatUQS being of equal length. In another number of the 
Ithtnttum 1 find twenty-tbrt-e coltimnt, against four columns iu 
[the Stiiion of the correeponding iwue. The other Araericau literary 
fjoumaU exhibit a limilur disproportion iu comparison with En- 
glish jountubt. How are we to account for tliia remarkable dif* 
Bocd? Is it to be belii>Ted that the lesser actirity pertains to 
''a.mnrb lftrg^■^ body of book-bnjren ? If all olhor evidence was 
tcloerd agiiiuct as, this fact would be sulKcicnt to show in which 
]d bouks are the more bought and the more read. An examina- 
in uf these aiiDoimcomenu by detail is oxoooding^y saggesiivu — 



419 



THE HORTB AMBRMQAS RSVIBW, 



hero M few liooki caaipArmtiTelf vithin tho Iil^lior range of thoaght; 
there M mncb ftctiThjr in orerii' bniDrh uf iaifllft-lnal rffort. 

Erery ODO knoin aomeibin; of the ^r«at circulAtiuj^-libmr 
syitem of England. The nuigititDde of the Mudio library is of 
hntf proof of the exiatoice tlwiv of ■ toit- Urge, alert, and eaflvr 
book-readinx oomniDQitr. We have manj librBricat iu LhtSRoautiy, 
— pablic tibrarie*, circulating libraries, freo iibraricte, — but tbvir 
aggregate censomption of books is maeh belor that of Hndiv'a. 
In troth, it ig not DDOommoB for Mudie to take on the daj of 
publication more oopieaof a book at a high prict: than could be 
sold tbronghoat the United Statoe at slower prioe. When* lor 
instwoo, Anthony Trollope'» antobiogmiihy wns published, Mudie 
anbccribed for 1,500 copies, tbo nituil prii-e bring flvo dollars. I 
think any pobllsher ber« will bear me out in saying tliat it ia 
doubtful if so many coptos could be sold in thia oonntry even at 
half the price. TUe book waB pabliahed hero iu cltcAp form, at 
about twenty-five ran la, and had. no doubt, a very f^od salc^ Bad 
it been pnblished in England at that price, I am Justified in my- 
ing that the sale would hare raicbed lome immense figure. When 
Froude's " History of Kufctnud " was Srst published, Mudie snb- 
■cribtd for a thousand oopica ; yot no publisher here thought it 
prudent to maJce on edition for this market, althtmgh a thoitaind 
copies, at the nsnal price of works of the kiml. wnnid have iiisnrMl 
the pnlitisfacr againttt losa. Thcee instances indicato tborolnmv of 
Utidie's buBtnes. The ordiuary edition of a Lhroe-rolume Engllih 
novel is fire hundred oopies, the greatiT numbor of which an 
taken by Mudie. Published here at a dollar and a half, tlie 
edition could not exceed two thouHind copies, or if in paper 
covers at fifty cont«, five tbouannd might be reached. The 
English edition raufit be estimated to have for each copy from, ton 
to twenty readers, conniing each family aa one reader. 

Mudie'a rentml citablishment ut I^ondon and his branches in' 
all the towns are so large, so vital a fact in Knglieh pnbliabing 
that they render the issue of many hooka poiaiblu that could not 
otherwise bo printed. This eyetom, morcorer, grenlly iuc-rttiuce ibo 
rewards of