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NORTH AMERICAN 
REVIEW. 



HmTKD BY LLOYD B&YCE. 

July, 1894. 

THE PRESENT ADMINISTRATION OP NATIONAL 

AFFAIRS. 

B} Rx-S|Makt'r KRKD i 

Problems and Perils of BriiiBh PoIlUca . PKur. GotDwin Surni it 

Tbe Posu) S^rrico at New York . Hok.Charlks W. Davton, t^j 

PotimaMtral Ntvt IVrA. 

Fraoce a&ct Boglaad in Eto'pt Mauams Ai>am 34 

A I^st Word on the Soulb CatoliDa Liqoor Law : 

I. Bjihe GcivKRiroR OF South Cakclima ... 46 

II. By ibe Mayor oi" Dahlimctos, S. C. . , . . 53 

Hov to Make West Potni More Uiefal . . . F. A. MitcitsL £1 

The Aitnsand Mclhodaof tb«'*A. P. A." . W, J. H. Travhoh. 67 

t*n-»vt«*Jefihe Am*rit(tn Protective itmteiaiion. 

Hit at the Holy SepulcJire, 

The RiT. GoDFRSY Schu.lino. O. S. F., 77 

rUt-CommUnarg (tftiu Hoty land. 
Our Fimily Skeleton ..,,,,,. Clark Howell S8 
Row to Protect • CUjr from Crime .... Thouas Oyrnk;:, leo 

Supi.ofihe Xrw Kwrft Pallet Otpt. 
IN DEFENCE OF HARRIET SHELLEY.-I. 

hy HAHK TWAIN loS 

NtrtHS A.ND UOMMUNTS. 

The PfOKpe c ts of Meiico Walter M. O'Dwykr uo 

Tbe Dangeri of Vatchiatlon, . . WiluauB. Hiddik, M. D. 134 
Ii Covptry UfcLooely' . . C. H, Ckandall 117 

NEW YORK: 
No. 5 EAST FOUnTEEXTII STREET. 




Trr A«n«mt Vt. 




ihe pUi>o, pioducing atl ihr ikliifhtfu) 
cflcciiorknunilolin. I lean bealUcJwd 
enljr to 

We are prepared to c«cti»rigc EY«T<it 
Piano) vontvinirg Ihit and othrr valu 
•b1« pit«ril4 on pinnot «rother makcv 
For pailicuUn adiltrn 

Tbe Jolin Church Company. 

ClKiiuuU. Chlcaen. 

Tht Pl«cu»pban« cull ba MUtd ui aay U»r1in t 
EniaK I'uno 



'LIZ 



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BEST LINE 

TO 

ST PAUL] 

MINNEAPOLid 



IRON AND STEEL WIR 

FO R ALL PURPOS ES 
ROUND DBiWR RODS OP IROH AND STRRL, STEEL WIRE B&LR TIES. 



WIR-E RO'PE 



or All Sizcft and Dcscrlptionw for Holntinii, RisSinBi CI«Viitor*. Ctc^ Ctc^ Et 

PATENT LOCKED WIRE ROPES. 




AwKura* ADTAVrMnB aw Tuuk tbM'Kn «nc: .-ni.'dH ukkatbr DORAnil.lT1 

ehu rooM of tka onllnuy make. Ksiwricooehu Mbowii Lhftt nndtr UmllAr Aoaititlw* a I>}«k«— 
WinRbtninlll irMprram twolpitu^ilmM Balofut M *■ nnllnwT irtre ruca ol niaiil illjiiriot«r 
aLnddtiiluiitiaur!*]: BHftOrB tiURFACB, whteh redixiM tbo hmat, noi oitir of lb* rop« lU'K. 
btii of (bo drnniN aad ahnarea oa wblob it mna, to a mltunuia. T]l« la(«rtockln( of Itw «r)r«t render* 
~niulninilln);'*impiiMible.Biird in tlio ovant of > wire breattoK Lbn wtMti crninar nroln<<c; I>K)ir 
WBIOIIT A>D 8IZB Ul»B K^M 0( IM Old slrk ot «arN«paii4uw •tntmrth; NO TWIiCr if 
WOHKino. 



THK TRENTON 

Works and Office at TRENTON. 
NSW TOitK QtPlCV. ■ 

COOPER. HEWITT &. CO. 



IRON COM RAN 

NEW JERSEY. 

1 7 rtvirlinCf SI 



THE NORTH AMERICAN REVIEW. 



VOL. CLIX. 



THE 



NORTH AMERICAN 



REVIEW. 



RB-nrABLIgHKD BT ALLEU T&OBimiKZ Riox. 



EDITED BY LLOYD BRYCE. 



VOL. CLIX. 



■'.- . . . :" :•;••' 



Tros Tyriiisque mihi nullo dbicrimina agetur. 



NEW YORK: 
No. 3 EAST FOURTEENTH STREET. 

1894. 



OvrriBht, 1891, br u«ra bbtoi. 



AU rtffhta reaenei. 






NORTH AMERICAN REVIEW. 

No. CCCCLII. 



JULY, 1894. 



THE PRESENT A])MIi\ISTRAT10N OF NATIONAL 

AFFAIRS. 



BT ES-8PEAKEB REED. 



Thr present administratioa has been in power a y«ar and four 
moDthfl. This woaid ordinarily be a very short period by which 
to jndge of its value to the people of ttiis country. But since 
March, 1803, OTcnts have moTed so rapidly and have been of such 
Berions import that most men's minds are already settled as to the 
verdict which will be rendered whenever the opportunity is 
offered. 

In fact, the verdict, so far as that means the concentrated opin- 
ion of men everywhere, has already been rendered. So nniform 
has been the expression of opiaicn that all who speak to the peo- 
ple on this subject are entirely relieved from the need of arguing 
the question, and are forced to confine themselves to more com- 
ment, anable evea in that to avail themselves of the things which 
were most striking because those things hare been worn out by 
the tireless discussion which has ensued. Wo have had plenty of 
leisure for discnssioD. Business has not distracted our thoughts. 

It is true that the course of human history shows many 
changes from prosperity to adversity, and perhaps it is too much 
to hope that the time will ever como when the race will be 
•xempt from periodic disaster even as severe as that which is 
upon us now. Nevertheless, if we are ever to have a more uni- 

VOL. CLIX.— HO. 452. 1 

Copjnibt, 1SV4, bjr Llotd BtTci. All righto iTWr»ed. 



C3«B ac* 



THE SORTIT AilKRICAX REVi£W. 



form conrao of priKporilv-, it mtiet comu from snch oonsidention 
aa wo muy be uble u> give to tlio cnuscsi wliicii leai.1 to our mi»- 
furtunea and tho incideaU vhioh attend them. Knowledge of 
tbii duuKue is itie first prelirainarT to the invention of i-emedioit. 
I*»rty gOToraraeut being ao evidentl/ the 8o!e kind of govern- 
mant. poaaible Ju auj country at aJl free or tiiTtHzed, it is strange 
tJiiit men do not grasp tlio idea and keep it alwayu in thoir miuda 
tliiit wlmt govorQB n ooiintr; is not tho in<!ividaal or iadividuala 
who occupy prominent places, but the purtjr which Burrouuds 
and supports them ; tb« party, thu 8QUli[nt.-nt8 of which are really 
the guiding and coutroUing force. Human, beings are so consti- 
tuted that each luana upon the other, aud all ujion each. Of 
oonrse the sentiments of tho party out of ofUca are not without 
their force, even npon tbose ap|wrently holding the reins of power ; 
but the main impulse for good or ill comes to an administration 
from those which immediately surround it. It has in itself very 
little original power. Of coarse it may get strength from the 
whole people, and that atreugth on particular things mny be so 
great that party may be overiiddeu and measures may become law 
which party policy does not dictAte, but this can only be when 
tho party itsoU is so discordant and broken that i( can hardly bo 
oalled u party. 

For many years the Republican party, onder admmistration 
after administration, pursued a course w proper and suilabLo m a 
whole that the deeerred praise beetoved apon it became a rock of 
otionco, Bud tho sneer injected into the words "pointing with 
pride." which we had juntly plaowl in onr platforms, did us more 
harm than uur good works could cancel. In this enrious world 
more than one Aristidee has gone into banishment beoaoao the 
world got tired of hearing him called the Just. 

When the Demncratic party came into power there were DOt 
a few of those who hiul voted against it who gave ihomseWes 
Bomc consolation in the hope that tho possession of power would 
vorh in that party a change which would be of advantage to tho 
whole conutry. Being out of power s long time makes tho mem> 
hers of a minority parly nnreasonable, sospicions. and incnpable 
of those sensible allnwances which mast bo made for the short- 
comings of those in office. Tho; get to think of their oppononte 
not aH misgu)dc<l, but-'aa wicked. Xor usn yuu ever enlintly 
oxcludo a lolaority from influvnoe. Kven their unjust out- 



TUB POKSE^rr ADStlSiSTHA TION OF HA TIOuVAL AFFAIHS. 3 

' * ■ ■■■ tii*<ir effoct. Heuci* theru were tli(»«; who liopcd that 
I . ti>:;uc<]uf the difOcultiKS ol guverumuut would ho prees 
npon the tiefrcomers, that, ateadiod by due seaaa of rospousibUity, 
th«y wontil unite upon Mine r«iuoiii4b1o courso of cori'luct which, 
whilfi it might iiot be of the best, wouUl at lenst not bo of tho 
wont. 

TbuiooiMolkbory hop« hai hardly been naliuxt, imd yol Lhu 
BCperieooe nbicli the Oeiaocraoy have bad ia misgoveraing the 
rnaBtrj, oon joined with Uiat rebnko which the ooaotry seems so 
likuly U> admiuiiler promptly at the ftrit opportnnity, may secare 
to ui h«re»ftor an opposition lent gangrened with envy and more 
reatouablu in it^ ostiiuato of tho doiag^ of tliouo vho bare the 
problema of gorerauiout to soItq and its reapuiiitibilitios to en- 
ooiuiter. 

At the same time the ooantr; at large, tind especially those 
tnnn who pndu Lhefnaelrca on being ubovu purtisausbip, will loam 
that there ore odds in parties, and (hat it is not tho proper sub- 
jout of a los6-up wbich ibey will have. 

Of ccanOf we all knew as a matter of theoretical knowtedgo 
ibat the only way in which its ubIoAt lonler could ooom to bnng 
kUfiarty < i>}t«ut wa« to inreot that charming phrase. 

*' lam u < t," which senred at once us a designation and 

BD ovuiioD ; but ffo were very far from luiving a realizing aetise 
of the real discord which reignpd througbon L It is not by words, 
but by ootiutis, tbat men show what thoy ibink. 

It baa b'.-un owing to tti io diftuord and lactcof ogrccmcut among 

tlwiroppoiinnts iho pout yuar that tluMO who varo the rnlers of 

thia Roaotry from itjCl to IS'J') liare bwa able to show to the 

<-r in power or out of power they hare the aame 

^ — — :^ .-ondorud thu hib-tory of the AmcriRnn people 

bMwuui thorn <lat«M a bistoryof prosperity and progrooig nnoqnalM 
liy ^ irs. \\'hi>nciT«r there lind baen oay portion 

of t.. „L' enough to euablu us in turn tho scale to 

the aide of tight and good gorernmeot, the Republican party baa 
not Xnxrx wautiog to the coautry. 

The history of the latit year miuit liavo been a hitter disap- 

poiotDimt to many good men who, not sitisQod with a reasonable 

' uf good goivni incut, sought tx> And n fntiire bolter than 

. by throwing Lbetnselros into tho hands of u party wbii^b 

woi and is th« enwtion of para opposition, a party which bad 



THE HORTU AXSRTCAlf REVIEW. 



never bwn foronytliing iu particular, hot eimply ngainit orery- 
thiug ill geoerul. n<iw theee men could have hopfKt foranyttung 
battbediBnia] resalt vliich now darkens the cauDtrj they arc pmb- 
ably at this moment ulrlng thcmselres with moreof anger than of 
sorrow. Of coufec these men, and with tlicm many partiaanB of 
long standing, are noir ropcnting vith exceeding bittornen of 
spirit. 1'hvy are also bringing forth vorks moot for repcntancu. 
No clectioD, however triTial, nrhich gives men a ohancw to Bhow 
their feelings h»s been neglected. Wherever tho clecuona faikve 
been on a scale great enoagb, the dieguat of the people bau taken 
on tho Inrgrmt poiwible proportioiie, and tlio poopio have not 
failed txi emphasize what they meant. In Oregon, where the 
PopaliBln hoped to render the verdict nnccrtain, the votors have 
left no donbt and giv^n no (dgn which could he mistaken. 

WhntH horribly diiuippoinl^d coiinlrj it ie, and hae a right to 
he ! Bewl over Mr. Cleveland's inaugural, which perhapH con- 
tained bis aspirations and the hopes ho had uf tho future be was 
aboat to cuter npnn, and compare it with the events which have 
happened and thoae which aro impending. Itead tho second 
paragraph of page 3 of the lir«t volume of the Record of tho 
Fiftythird Oongrosa, iu which tho inaugural in published, and 
note the Bevoro meosnre which was to be meted out to the " im- 
mense aggregations of kindred entcrprisee and combinations of 
bnsinces intercBt^,*' which was tho President's condensitioa of tho 
word " trusts," and compare the hope with the fruition as uhovn 
in the Senate debate and tho Semite vote of June Sth ou the 
SDgnr eohednle. Compare tho homily on " paternalism " aud the 
daty of having our *' judgments unmoved by alluring phrases 
and nnvexed by seltish interests," with tiie Jaues amendments to 
the Tariff bill aud tho nnerriug certainty with which you can 
pick out the utterly uDscllish intercets which prompted their 
introduction and the purticuW eonatora who have laid thoirselSsh 
intercets a sacnlici> tin the altar nf their Democracy. 

TIm inaugnral al«o attracts attention, upon rereading, by 
another phrai^e : 

" When wo toar aside," aaye the President, "the delusions and 
misconoeptioiiB which have hliodod our ooQutrymen to their con- 
dition under vicioos tariff lavs, we but ahow them how far they 
have been led away from the paths of contentment and pros- 
perity." This was Mid March 4, 1893, when all mill wheals 



ruBi 



'ADMtV(lSTIlATJ0S0FIi4TJ0}tALArFArRB. 5 



irere tarDin^, factories were bammiDg. tnins wcro loaded, and 
the loboror wiu recoii'ing tba largest hire tbftt labor ever kuow on 
tiuih since Adam left Etlen. Mr. ClOTol&Dd's&dmmistratiou and 
friends liave oartaiiilj " torn aside" a good many " dslnsiona aud 
miaconoopCions," but, " blinded as our oonntrymen wero to tbrir 
coQditton nmlor vioiona tariff laws," they never miatook tha 
Sloagh of Dwpottd for tho ** pacbB of ooDtontmeut aad proapor- 
ity." 

Another part of the iaangural coutajna aomevcrjr fitting words 
in re£BnI to itie spoils aysteiti, iiitinialiug that officfa slioiild not 
be tha regards of partisaaactirity. Of coaraa this alao meaoa 
that oflieoi ahf>nld tint be osod as rowsrda for legialativc action, 
and wo an) all quiUi Bure tliat the two letten of Seontor Vost^ re- 
cent] j published, vhirh inCimato that conformity to the Pres* 
Jdctat'fl vtows 00 irjittcre of legislution is the indispensablo prcrc- 
'|Qiut« to th« rocepttou of a ecoator's " adnce" as to ofBcea in 
hi« own Stato, wcro errDoeoDS ns to factor mJEtakoti in diaoom- 
lacnL We ara quite ears also that thd advice of Bottou Derao- 
enttic newvpapers to ase olfioes for purposes of legialatioa was 
iMT«r fnltoved. 

Thi« Uevibw has not pages cnoagh to contrast the inntignral, 
which was promise, with thn facts, which an; faldllmont. 

We havu Torr UtUo to do with foreign natiuua, and there i$ 
notbinft which tronblee us Ies« than oar foreign affairs. Judging 
txnn what hoe buppeatid ia the little sphere in which we do 
mora, tt U lucky for aa that rolling ooeaDS, for the most part, 
diride at from tbe net of the world. 

If foreign nBein meaoi for as peace and war, trade and com- 
ffi«i«c, life aud death, tbu coantr; would haye been iu as bad a 
ColUpoe of distmitasto diplomacy as it ia aa to bneinesa. Of 
000180 [kavo not tbo alightest deiign to rehearae the Hawaiiao 
aftur which excited so much juat indignation, hut hm latterly 
CaDen so dead that Ibo oonntry hardly noticed the other ilaj the 
Uel that the Senate in oo ambignoos phrase reechoed the demand 
of the eoantry that the people of tbo^u ialandg gtioiild be lotalone, 
and tbervhy administered to the adminislralion that rehake which 
would hare bren ao much more Taltuible if il had b«?«n more 
prompt. Jt took the pru»ent Sonato moro thxin a year to como to 
the ooBclDiion which th<! coantry reached on sight. The Uodw, 
vitli Uoremor UcCreury chairman of foreigu »Oam, is stiU sup- 



6 



TSS NOftTH AMERICAS liEJIEW. 



portintT the President Butthe Ilottae is Democratic hy one hnn- 
drcd majority', tbi; Scimto bj* oiil; three. 1 coinmeatcd some time 
ago in this Review on the violation by the Wilson Bill of tho prin- 
ciples Inid down by the Domocrac; in ouiiveiitfon asaembled and 
made part of the platform which coiidacl<?d their partiouis to 
pover. That lend has been followed throaghoat, and to-day almost 
all tho other piftnka of that platform at* swimming aeparate in 
theviut gitir of human miiiery whioli their promiiios mock^ k«pt 
not eren to the ear. 

Washington, the State> is monming over bheswann of Goor- 
ginnfl tiewlr imported into tho oHices thore to show that homo 
rule in a platform and home rale in practioo do not ^ hand in 
hand, wbtle Washiuglou, tho city, sees one of the best places pla- 
cating a Kansas man who voold ta^e nothing vise. 

Last mouth, two days after the Oregon election, another die- 
tinctivo plank was ripped off and linng into tho stormy sea. Of 
course this is the best that could he done with it as with all the 
rest, bat the oventahow8oflio«- little value are all the declarations 
of s party which haa no real anion of principle und purpose. 
Kerertholoss the dofoat oi a measure which had the deliberate 
Htnction of the party in coBTOOtion nsecmblod, by a vote of 173 to 
302 in a Uousu where tli» Htrict party majority is eighty, and the 
real majority ia one handred, was an event siguificant of tho nn- 
traetwortbinees of thoee who did it. Tho way also in which the bill, 
which was mado the vijhiclo to bring before the House the repeal 
of the State hank tax, wm kicked into tho waste basket after- 
wards, bad in it a bcfltttug touch of the ludicrous ; so aliio had the 
fact that otgbt Democrats who two years ago before the conven- 
tion met Toted for repeal, turned ronnd after it became a porty 
pledge and voted against it. The House discnaecd the qnestion a 
week and a half, and then the whole thing — bill, amendment; snb- 
Btitntt. uui nil — dieappearud, leaving not a wrack behind. 

But all the3« thin^ are small matters hardly worth the lime 
already spent on them. The groat crime of the present admEnts- 
tration of affairs has been its tnmtment of the tarilT question. 
The treatment commenced in tho Uomuvnitic platform, with its 
wild denunciutiou of protection and fanatical ludoriwmcnt of free 
trade. Hnd the ]i«ople ol thia country taken the tintde serionaly 
there would have been no trotihh-. Had aiiytiody believed the 
Democratic party te bo in cameat ft wonid not have Uvod tbrongh 



TJtePR£SeyTAliUJNTSTRATT0iyOFNAT10i\Al AFFAIRS. 7 

half th« olootion duT. Dm e^erybodj ihoaglit it only a political 
iDBQCBaTrc. a ]iL<4t desperate iittf^mpt to T>eat Mr. Clovelttnd, and all 
hut a four bclicTcd that the rcjoctcil plntilr, whinh had some BCnie 
in it, woDid be foaod to embody the roal dotormination of the 
. party trhea it went really into action. The protectionists in the 
Democratic party did not dream what a powerful weapon they 
were patting into the handii of their enemies, or how powerfnl 
the Soath was auil how mocb the organization there waa wedded 
to fn!o tnuli), and how Uttl? the repreBentati vea from that lootion 
woold listen to the established indngtries of the coutitry. The 
old Sonthero Bourbons have been the bane of the Democratic 
jMTty time out of mind. Naturally attaching thunuolrcs to it 
tmrnuH it ia farthest in the rear, they drag it backward, and, 
whnMffer it ia in power, the nation with it In the present 
llouse, OTganiBed with a Sonthern man of that stamp in the cliair^ 
tbo Committeo of Waye and Means wuu to composed that North- 
ern indattrinl acntimont had little inflaenco, so littlo that the 
only representative of Korthem manufacturei allowed on tlie liat 
nfnaad to Tota for the reenlte of ttieir labors. 

It ia too late to disoQSB the bill which they presented to the 
HoQW. The coantry ha« discns«ed it fatly and has made tip its 
opinion thereon. So bad waa it, even from the Democratic atund- 
point, that the Senate Finance Committee, even with all the 
changed tbey coald make themaelTes. were compelled, aa soon as 
the reaalt of their lucnbrationa eaw the light of day, to pro]>ou 
more than four hnndred changes before the moat brisk traRlo 
that the hi'ttory of legiiilatioa ever saw ooald make it poftsible to 
■eoors ita paaaage, and eren that ban not been euongb, for more 
than one day has witnessed the adoption of amendments the sole 
porpose of which wna to obtain Totce by the nm of those "al- 
laring phnuMii" and "selfiah interwla" which the inaugural so 
feelingly deprecated. The lovely programme of "free raw ma- 
terial," an " alluring phrase" which was to captivate New Eng- 
l*nd, haa given place to those " selfish intcrcets " of senators 
who demanded "taxed " coal and " taxed " iron ore, while the 
fknnen' wool was despised both aa a source of revenne and as a 
proper subject for protection. 

Perhkps the nvost nrpritiDg exhibition of all baa been the 
eondact of the Senate on the sugar question. The protection of 
lagsr rafiolng might be Jnatiflable, and was justifiable ontbeprin- 



THE NORTH AAlKHtVAX REVJUnf. 



ctple that M groat au article of coiienmption should be bronght to 
tho market b; AmoricAn labor, and that in this, ae in alt otbu 
products, this nation shonid do its ovowork aad proeerve itaovD 
market for its ovn people. So atso a people vho desired to pro- 
duce (be TAW material of an urticlo which has bvcomo such a ne- 
ceesit}- of mo<)eni civilised life as augnr has, might vol] beatow 
the public monojr in the form of bounties to (»tabliflb an industry 
at once profitable and ittdiepongable. Those vho contended for 
protection an a principle of national growth in wealth and poirer, 
could well afford to euetaiu all rcoKonablu efforts lo make di in- 
dependent of foreign prodacers. Bat that those who denonnoe 
all protection as robbery, who proolaim it oa all occosioDS and in 
ever; instance to be class legislation, could by a solid part; vote 
not only tax tho people perhaps for all time for the bcnoftt of a 
portion of a single State, but give these prot^hs a year's bounty 
beeidee> pasEea all human understanding ; when you add to that 
the fact that the greater part of that portion of the tax whioh 
&IIb to tho reQiutni will inure to tho bcuefit of one of those " im- 
mense aggregfttiona of kindred enterprises and oombtiiations of 
bnsiness intereste formed for the purpose of limiting produotim 
and fixing prices," which were so denonttced in the inangnral, 
the performance, if it rcceirea the L'refiidontial »anctioa, will pasa 
all hn man language. Without trenching for a moment on the 
proTJnce of the investigating committee of the Senate now at 
work, it will uoL be unjust to say that all this, so utterly incoosiatent 
wtti- nil former and all preeent profeosiona, was doue because 
Hoirn lenatorc represuntiug their cooiititacnta wore nut iu tha 
leaev moved by the " aUuring phrtees " of the Democratic plat- 
form, but laid hard hold U[>on those "Belfiiih interests" with 
whioh the President thought wo would be " unveied." 

The sugar clauses were not for revenue only. They had a 
commercial value, when tnmehitfid into votos, which could not bo 
resisted. I do not refer lo any aoandal or make any insinuation of 
that nature. The ouly reference is to the useoJ those log>roUing 
meaiiH from which tariff reform was to free us. The revenue waa 
not needed, for the income tax was always claimed to bo ample 
toaupplythodoficit,andif tho friends of the bill are to be beliored 
we tax the people of this country, and create a surplus, not to 
supply its needs, but lo obtain rotee by appeals to ael fish interest* 
and those entirely local. Is not this something which recalla tho 



TRS PJtBSElfT AHmmSTRATIOK OFNaTIOSAL AFFaJBS. ft 

wonJfi " oiil minuting utrtKity of claea legislation"? How on - 
(urtiiimtf It 18 for a pMty to hnT« gono into action -with ao large 
■ml intcmiLiDg n vooabulary — " ctilminiitiDg atrocity of class 
ion," "frand," "robb*rj," "paternalism," "selfish 
Bteroats." Iloir qooer they loolt now, tbose ohildrca of tbo 
■wifily vibrating tongne as they lio eido by eido ia their last 
itiog'plaotiH. Thfiy votq lovely Id iheir lives, and io their death 
sywro not divided. 
Tlia limits of thin article preclade any full disonssioD of the 
aotion o( the Senate, and Euch a diacuesion in the lirelieat hands 
wnald Iw vpftrisomo. Honco one can only tonch npon the points 
inoit salient, the pointn whii;h have )i|ieciiU Bignifloance. Kothing 
■liowB better than ibo cotton suhodnte the oarc which the Sonth- 
cn lOHi baT« for tbeir own iudustrice. "Ad viOorezn" does net 
predomioate there, and yet cottoni are aoetnbto in their character 
tliat they need flpceiUcis ni little as any thing on the list. Con* 
tn«ttbi« LruDtmoDtirith that which woollens rocciro, und yon will 
realize that while eectionalism may be rebnked in words it may 
r^n triampbaat in docde. There, among woollens, whore epocifics 
are most demaoded by practical men, whore and erral nations are the 
lost dangoroOB, "ad Tslorrms" lead the way to fraud and the do* 
action of induntriea. If those two schednlesshonld ever beooroe 
law, watch the effect, and then see that sectionalism never again gets 
liatooar laws. We in the North are anxions that the Sonlh ghonld 
I profperonii. We are thnit anxions for a soander reason than 
ititDeotaltsm, we do not aay it oa an alluring pbmse, but are 
itcd by wisely eelfi^h interests which are inceDtiviu to bnmjui 
Vio wish the South proeporoux, so that the Sooth may 
link aa wo do and »c[ii)«|p!^^ bickerings may coaw. And it iti jast 
■y to bring Uio South to our induiitriat Icrel as it ijt to lower 
lu to tbcira, and far more proGtable to this nation. We do not 
iforo sorrow over anything the Sonth mny get in the pro- 
tariff bill, but rather reJMce. We ctiuld still mort! rejoice 
if all other tQilustrics all over the coootry were as well treated as 
tton in the coarser grades. Cotton also in the finer work could 
ir the bettor treatment whicli we shall «omo day give it, to the 

hoDofit of both North and Sonth. 
We do not complain tliat fjoutbern rice is protected, but we 
at aee just at what point of ooothorn latitude the robbery lu- 
Tolred in protootioa to a^riculturiU prodncta melts off and ia ab- 



10 



TttE NORTH AMERICAN RBVIBW. 



Borbfid in what s^ome to be & anivemil solvent, the tariff tor 
reTvDtic only, which rundcrii it both pure and peaceable. 

Of the effectft wbioU this choice of Domucracj far tbegor- 
eroment of tb« country has hail apon uragee and labor I shall not 
Bp«ak. Not one singlo word is needed. Those whom tliieaaijectof 
tb« qaeation concerns know better wh«t it means tbaji any humsn 
being can tell tliom. I only paaso to nolo that that problem ol 
loverittg vag«3 tomoet prices, which se«mod to fr«« tradcn prating 
about " lower pri(!e6 to oonsumere " eo easy to solve a half-year 
ago, does not grow any leea dtffioalt of aolotion as the days go by. 
Who is reeponHible for all thia and the handrod more things 
Thioh might bare been described ? Some ot those gcntlomon 
who helped to create the great fame which the pieaident had iu 
Iiis former adminstr&tion charge it npon him and declare that he. 
flinglt) handed and alouo. could hare prerented all these disasters 
and created that idual ropublic which four years ago came oat of 
the horn gate of dreams and clothed itself in hia language and 
theirs. How unkind and uujuHt all this is. Why cannot thoso 
men see, for they assisted, that all that the president created 
four yoHTB ago waa creatod not with stone and iron and mortar, 
but vitb the p«ncil and thg ruler. A loftier pyramid than 
either of the three that stand majeetic on Jigyptian sauda can 
tower on the smallest pieoe of white paper. But real pyramids 
mean etono and struggle and sweat of men. Thuy mean not only 
the king, hat I^jcyptians swarming to do the work. The work 
these modern Egyptians are swarming to do is not the building 
of oternal pyramids, hut the strewing of the shifting sands which 
lie at their feet. 

How long will it be before the cbildron of this Rftpablic riae 
to the fall knowledge of their faith and rest on tht> foundatjon- 
atone of their iustttutiouii, that no one man can make or mar, but 
that all the people Unally come* and ore the only Uaniel that does 
finally come, to judgment. 

It is true that the last year demonstrates bow careless the jodg- 
ment of our Daniel may sometimes be, and how great are the costs 
and charges of his court, but there is always an appeal, and to- 
day neither snitor doabta what the next judgmunt is to bo. 

TaouAS B. Rbbd. 



PROBLKMS AfO) PERILS OF BRITISH POLITICS. 

BT OOLDWIN HUITU, D. G. L.» LL. D. 



Tqb proHent arms in Enj^tand bu m ipociAl interest rr>r 
Anitncang, u it has led in an uncxpcctod wav to a pracLicu] 
ei>m{Hu-i9on of political experieuc« between tUe twoj^reut bi-uriclie« 
or tiw Anglo-Saxon nc«, ami made English stateemeu for tite 
8ret time tarn dieir eves to Amcriciin iniititiitioDS. Ttio attempts 
Lwbich hare been made to defend the conceuion of a separate par- 
[tUnwDt to IrvkHil hy lui appeal to the succesa of the federal 
it«iD in the UDtt«tl SMt«« are obvionsiy tina%'aillng. The poeU 
Itton of an American State in the Union, in which nil the States 
iTo the aame lueMiire of local Helf-gnrcrnment i>nil the 
ite share in tfao gorcnimcnt of the confodorutton, alTords 
BO prao«deitt for the pro|>o8u] to confer semi-indcpendeDce 
OD ons portion of the United Kingdom. Tlmt tmoh a no- 
tion afaonld have been for a roomont entcrtnined onlv show* 
ll^ow ignorant of each other the two Aiiglo-Sjixon communities 
lave hitherto been. Iitelcud of being au exauiplo of the sncceefr- 
fnl appliuaiiun of home rule, in the Irish acnae, the United States 
l«re a tremendous example of civil nar broaght on by the eeponit- 
imof State-right ; trhile the practical prevalence of the national 
OTrr the fvderal tendency luus of Uto been a leading (euture of 
American history. But what is at once anrprising and important 
in the roconrso of Briliah Confien'aUves in quest of safeguardi 
itut rerolntionary violence to the conservative elements of the 
aei-kau Cenatitntion. Hitherto Uiq Amcricuu Itepablic has 
b*«ti tlie bagbear of bh« Kngliah Ckiuserrative, as wae soon with 
lijoui ~ "t in the sympathy Hhown by that parly for the 

'<ii ~ h. Now British ConntTvativen arc looking with 
wt»tfal oyca to the American Senate, to the President's veto, to 
th« Siipreme Oonrt, to the clauM of (Ik* Constitution forbidding 



TBE SOUTH AimkfCAM RKVlEVr. 



legislation agstiui th« bith o{ coatracts, aud gmenUj lo the 
feeuahtr «g«ia9t rdvolatloaar; change whjeh lit* writteti Cotuti- 
tntioD aSunia. 

Republicaa Anwrtea is in bet moreoooaerratire than mon- 
archical and aristocFBtio EagUnii. Tbo mtBoa is [lUio. The 
framen of the AoraricaD Oooetitutioii looked democracj in the 
face. Thejr did their bedC to organiu it aad to provide it vith 
aafegaards, though, being ool; vise men, not inspired propheU, 
they biled to foresee all the dangers, DOtabl; the dancer of party, 
which Washington cTidentl; regarded sa an ac«ideutal aod tnm- 
fli«iit urtl. But Engtaod has never looked democracT in the looe, 
never attempted to orgsnixe it, or provided it with aafegaards. 
English stateamen and Englishmen geoerallr have floated on in 
the belief that, having aiiffictent safvgaanht in their berEditary 
monarchy and their ahstocratto Upper Hoose, tbey could aflord to 
make the Houee of Commons as popukr and demoenitio as they 
pleusd. Meantime the House of Commoni, thanks to its solecom- 
muid of the parse and to the general triamph of democracy, has 
been beeoouQgBQprome, and basdrawc toitii«lf, not only tfae legis- 
lative power, but the rirtoaJ appointment of the executive. Tb» 
monarchy hns practically ceased to exist as a political force and 
dwindled to u social apex. Its legislative veto baa not been ex- 
ercised in any important cjuo since William III. vetoed the Trt* 
enni&l Act, and its last exercise of anthority in tho appointment 
of the executive was the dismissal of the \Vliig Minlittryby 
Willtnm rS^. Nobody thinkB it strange that in the midst of this 
dangerous crisis monarchy should be disporting itself in the pleaft- 
nre haante of Italy. The Hoaae of Lords has praceicall; ceosed 
to be, what in theory it is, a coordinate branch of tbo legislntun 
in everything save the initiation of money bills. It now claims 
nothing more than a snepensive veto, the exercise of which is 
Bi>rce1y challenged by the Jemocrncy and met with threats 
of ending tbo Hoqm itself. The lioase of Commons, 
meAnwhile, through SQCcesnve extensions of the fimnchisc, 
in which the two political parties have been bidding aguirist eauh 
othvr, has been growing more and more democratic. The process 
is still going oo. A new r^:istration bill has been brought in by 
the iCadical Government to give full efTRct to the ascendiuicy of 
nambonr, strip properly of itaonlyreniatuing advantage, and thus 
nap the lust link beLiiie«.'ii repi-osentation and taxation. Payment 



PROBLBiia AND PKRILS OF BRITISH POUTICS. 



13 



of lucQilwrv is appkrentljr coming, and when it comes it will levd 
•bout the 011I7 bulwark of « practicnl kind which coneerraUsm 
rctniiui. Alrcadjr tlio rnnjoritv or the Uouso ot Ooinmoiu is not 
oril}- mdicHl, bat revo1utioiiiiry,aind is doing the will of the wage- 
earuiag ohiBs. which, hariog got politics! power iuto its bande, is 
iDcllDed to use it for tlte purpose of industrial and oocial change. 
Reoeot legialstioa by the House of Comtnons has bcvn dis- 
tinctly flt>oialijtio. The Eight-Uonrs Bill is au interference with 
tlie frofdom of adult mule Labor, and witli tbo ountraut between 
tha adalt. miib< laborer and his employer. The Employers' Lia- 
bility Bill atao infolved an abrogation of liberty of contnicL The 
next moaearei it sct-ms^ iji to bti a grant out of thtt taxea (or pou- 
■iona to agod luborors, which, by the avowal of its promulers, will 
be likoly lu vnuil an expenae of a hundred million)! of dollars a 
joar— a different thing, beitobservetl. from a grunt of army pen- 
aioiMf or auy pensiona, for u a|>eoi6c purpoeu ; though all pension 
Il«t4 aliki^ uru linblc to aUwm when the pension agent gels to work. 
Tim [kurty from tvhifb tliuiM miiuurus emniiul^) reliuus the name 
of Liberal ; bnt in truth it is no longer Liberal, it is SocialisUc. 
The only Liheralit, in tlio oM sense of the term, now remaining in 
England aro Uin llurtingtoniiuu, who«4 sontimouis aro practically 
identical with those of an Amerii'an stuleaman. 

Thu dangur of a reroln tin nary cbniiKU is onhanced in the vaae 
of Urrat Britain, by her hcin^ tlio centre of a world-wide cm- 
lie. If a demagogic and rcToluiionary ABsombly, the creature of 
le-nmons and the Chui-mi-GueJ. could not be tnistcd with 
Ibedoiliniea of its own cumniituity. much luu could it be trusted 
rilh the di^tiniui of colonies and dependencies scaticrctt over the 
Fg'lob*. The British rulun of India, with ita subject population 
of two hundred and eighty millions, and with all itn ditttcultios 
and perils, may wi>ll tremble at the thnnght. 

To end the upper ctianibvr or to strip it of all authority by 
kniTing it a nominU existence, and thns to make the House of 
Emmons tht solo as well us the nuproitie power in the state, is 
he aim uf the revulatiomiry party. To mend lli» Dpper chamber, 
make it again a co^nlinat«> branch of the legislatnre, like the 
ksivrioaa Senate, a real roetraint on the oxcessoB of a popular 
looM, and a substantial barrier aguiiiat revolution, is the aim of 
ligbten«<l Conaervativea. This is the groat issue of the hour. 
lighteoed Conwrvutivea see thi&t this cannot be done without 



TBB NOSTB AMERtCAy BBVIBW. 

diTestinj; tho irotino wholly or in part of its hcfoctitnr; oliftrsoter ; 
that iha iieniditaiy priucipto, wliaU>v«>r ms; liavo been its (unction 
ill an earlier sbage of ciritiicutioii. biV8 duite iu work atid had ita 
dny ; that while in tho Middle Ages the lord hod arduous datioa, 
mililarv, adminitttnitivcr and judicial, to perform, and was thua 
saved from sybaritism, HybancUm is tho inevitablo t«ndenoy of 
the niudern man of wealth and hereditary rank ; that tho rooord 
of the Hoiieo of Lords during the last two centuries will not bear 
CMmintition, being simpir Iho record of the reaistanoo of a priri- 
l^etl onlor, and of tho landed interest which that order repre- 
BeiittK), to all chan;;e, even to reform of the criminal law, the 
improTement of security for pcrsuuitl liberty, the abolition of 
slavery^ the emaucipatJou of the press. But what shall Uiko \,hA 
plocQofthe hereditary principle, and on what line tho lloase 
shall be reorganized, are problems not enay of sohilton. No con- 
stitnencics for the clfctiuu of a Seuato pruaent themseWes Ilka 
tho States in the American Constitution. The mere injectiOQ of 
a certain number of life poors would by no meang meet the exigoii> 
ciea of the chm, and would in itself be lui I'npromiiiing exj>«dienC, 
since the hcrcditar)' and life sections could scarcely (ase, and as 
often aa the life nDembers were outvoted by those whose oiUy title 
to a share in legislation was their being "tho eons of their 
fathers," popular clamor and a cry for the abolition of the 
hereilitary element would eusue. 

The idea of a nomiuativo senate XA ooudemned. not only by its 
anpopular character and the veakaeas which its want of popular 
basiu would entail, but by decisiTO expvrience in the colonies. 
notably in Canada, where Uie nominative senate is n hopdcgg 
failure and the nomiiiiitions are little better tlian an addition to 
the fund of corruption in the hands of a party government. A 
baaisof the elective kind, as nearly equivalent to tho States of the 
Union as (Jront UritainaffordSfBeematobe supplied by the County 
Councils newly institnt«<l in plaoo of the Quarter Bcstdons. com- 
poiictl of county magnates actiag as justioc« of the ))eaoe ; by 
which the rural nd ministration has hitherto been carried on, 
together with the councils of cities. To a House elected by these 
bodies it h.T8 lieen proposed to add a certain number of members 
appointed for epecial qualifications, uuchos haTJughuldhtgliolBve 
or command, notional or iniporiul, being the head of professions, 
or bnving done eminent service to tlie state. Snch » houw 



PROBLKUa AND PERILS OF BttlTlSIT POLITIOS. 



10 



light. It h Lli<iiij*)it, command rntiomil allcgianoe aud form a 
Hying {joint fur nuwuiutble KKisUnce to rerolutiou. It would 
not be Itkffl; to be reitctionar;, or to do more thnn give tbe delib- 
•nt« opioioQ of tbo nation tlio asooii<iiint oror doniagosic vio- 
leniw mid f^unU of [lopiilnr [Nisaion. Tlio bi-camor»l gystom, com- 
pow yonr vlmmhcrR jw yoa will, hu ite tiihorent (JinuWantagai : 
it u libllo In dtKulloek. to tbo withdniHrol of giiidunce and con- 
trol from the popular cbamb«r. aiid to tlie weakening of it« 
Miuio of rMponaibility ; but tbo ejetara is too dcx:<plj aoAted in 

^£Dg]anil to lis changeid, oepecinJly when the nation is oroudug a 
iDgerous ford. 
Sofipoijiiig a 8obemu to ho fratnod, tho dilllciiltj of getting it 
adoptt-sl in etiU great. There is a Boction of tbe Uouw of Lords, 
Qnfortanutoly inolnding tho leader, which clings to heroditnry 
Iirivil«ige and will do nil it can, opetity or furtiretr. to stHVe of? 
refomit a oonne in which it will bti uucnuragod by tho parting 
my of popnlftrity which has shone upon the House of Lords 
aince Lhoir pnuerration of national nnity by th« rojection of Homo 
Rule. Thi*so Tory opponents of reform hnvo powerful though 
utiiintnrid allitss in the rerolutiouiata of the Uoti»u of Commons, 
wbo da&ire nothing so litUe as a recoostniction of the upper 
cbamber, wliioh would muke it an oEFectivo cnrb, and who would 
couily And prutexcii for trrcRking the measure in itn passage 
through tbcir own Ilouas. It has boon suggested thut the Qooso 
of Lords, were it so minded, might turn the flank of tlie resist- 
aniN> in tho House of Commons by a resolution of self-reform, 
limiting ihn praotioo of sitting and voting to a s^^lect boily of its 
memherf, wliiluall would preserre their eligibility to the select 
iy as well as thrir titlcn and tbuir sociul rank. The Ilonse 
inu Uma ago divested itsolf, by a formal resolution, of ttio iuTidi- 

'otM privilege of roting by proiy, while tho biy members iiifor* 
iwiUy renounced their power of voting on legal appeals. This 
plan, however, would call for a good deal of solf-aacrifloe in a 
quartei when: much setr-suoriGcc is not oontmonly found. 

On tUo other h»nd the lindicala hiivo no moans of abolishing 
the rtoiiiuj of Ijords or doflkiug it of its powers without Its own 
consent, otherwuo than by rerolntion. To oonstrnin the Crown 
to swum[i by new creations a majority of hundreds wonld be 
rerolntionnry, and, if it oaoM to that, (he next thing wonld be 
piril war. 



16 



TBB NORTH AMERICAN REVIEW. 



The rsorf^nizaUon of the Upper House nt rnrli&mDiit nl bII 
eveDt« ia the viUl quoetion of tlio hour. Upoti iL» ftolutiou, not 
only the escape of the coantry from revolutioo. but the preaorva- 
tion of its iiiHty dependi. SJiico llio sarreiidor of (lio Houbo of 
Comtnong to Irish dignnion the Housq of T^nU hss become the 
gnardifto. not onlr of the Conserrativc institutiops, bub of tb« in* 
tegrily of tho Diktion. 

It 18 not only the decadence of the hereditary principle that 
enioroes ftchnnge in tho conetitution of the House of Lords. The 
power <if the BriliKh imiitocnu--y has rmted nut so much on tbo 
pedif^CB, which in tnibh do not go back to the Norman concjUMt, 
as on tlio ontniled eetates. By iin iiristocmcy mid gentry M on- 
toiled E>6titt(>» England was in fnct nited entirely till 1H3'J, u'ht<u 
the Bcform ])iU udiiiiLt«d the commercial idcmcnl to a share of 
power, and continncd to he largely ruled down to the recent ex- 
tcngion of the suffpAgo. But the rents of the entailed cutfitw have 
now been fearrally reduced, and in some cases almost aniiihiliLtefl, 
by the fall in the price of wliettt, which swma likely to coiiliua«, 
for the Argentine isuowexpurling, in addition to Russia. Atiierica, 
and Hinduetin ; while the ivh«at-);roffiugnreaof Hindustan eeemii 
CHpable of imlelinit« extension nnd of being rendered more pro- 
ductivo by construction uf railways and improTement of imple* 
mcnt«, Hindu labor being at tlie enmc time extremely uhuap. It 
8c>L'ms hnnlly possible that the land in Engltmd slioald continue 
to mftintain squire, farmer, and farm laborer. Miuiy of tJio ealntos 
ara moreover bunleiiud with mort^^cd and with rent clmr^us in 
favor of widows and yotuiger ohilili-en, which remain fixed n-|i)]« 
the rents decline. Manaiona are he'mg cverywhera let by Ihvii iir.- 
poToriflhed owners, who retire to economize etBcwhcre, and in the 
puluoe of A noble family in Ptcciidilly dwelU an Amerienn mil- 
lionaire. Economical reToliitiou, am usual, diawa potilicul and 
social revolution in its train. The weaknces oCa peei-age with- 
out rents will soon be seen. The accidental ooinotdence of this 
ecouomical cat.i->tro|ihc with the political and social cri.>iis la a 
eiagutar and momentous feature of the eituatioo. The pulitical 
anoaiioB of the landed gentry of course gnurp the opgwrtiinitr of 
hasti>niugand complvtiiig its fiJl. The nvw Parigh Councitd are 
the engines by means of which they hope, aa they ray, r^j diseo. 
tabliah theeqaire. They are using tho taxing power for theaacne 
end. What raral England will b« when the manorial aud largs- 



PROBLEMS AND PERILS OF BRITISH POLITICS. 17 

farm system which forma its present organization is aboliehed 
Radicals, provided the political roYolution is effected, are not very 
anxious to inquire. 

Home Rule, aa a popniar movement, is almost dead. As a 
popular movement, indeed, apart from the agrarian agitation, it 
never had in it much life. What the Irish people wanted was, not 
political change, but tlio land. It was because they were per- 
suaded that an Irish Parliament would give them the land that 
they shouted for the political cbtmgc. Having got the laud they 
care little for political change, and they could scarcely bo lashed 
iDto showing the slightest resentment when the Homo Rule Bill 
was thrown out by the House of Lords. They have contributed 
but sparingly to the Home Rule fund, while the hat has been sent 
round among their friends in the United States ; a symptom which 
is the more significant, as they are very generous by nature and 
usually give freely to any object near their hearts. All the agita- 
tions in Ireland for the repeal of the union, when not combined 
with agrarianiam, have been utterly weak, O'Connell's agitation 
not less than the rest. But there are still the eighty Irish 
Kationalist members in the House of Commons bent on having a 
parliament, government, treasury, and patronage of their own, 
and these have the fate of the ministry in their hands. Nor is 
disunionisra, or what the Germans would call " particularism," 
now confined to the case of Ireland. To get his Irish measure 
carried, its author appealed to provincial jealousies and antipathies 
all round, Scotch and Welsh as woU as Irish. The spirits caine 
at his call, and while other countries, formerly diaunited, such as 
Germany and Italy, are now united, or moving in the direction of 
union, while in America herself nationality has been prevailing 
over federalism. Great Britain is suddenly threatened with disso- 
lution into her primal elements. It is one tiling to devolve the 
business of an overloaded parliament ou local councils ; it is 
another to split up the realm into its original nationalities and 
undo the work of statesmen who have been laboring for ages 
to form a anited nation. The first may be a necessary measure ; 
though the main reason why Parliament is overloaded is that it 
wastes its time in faction-fighting instead of doing its business. 
The second is manifest ruin. Yet to the dismemberment 
of the nation the madness of party is ready to resort, if it can 
win the game by no other means. Let other nations whioli 
yoi., CUX.— NO. 453. ^ 



16 



THE SOIiTJI AM£:RlCAy BBVimV. 



baro gJTcn tliettuelvet over lo the ni]« of pirty protlt bj th% 
example, 

All dftri};eruua qoettious aouiu to have boon bruu^lit to a hnul 
at oow by tl)« uloim wlii?h tho framcr of the Irish Bill niUed to 
[lat wind into tlio Hiipping iitils of his Iritili barque. Tbu uezt 
BjEbt.Hp]iarttutIjr, will bo ubout tho dittcAAbUEltmcDluf the Obnrcfa 
ill Walot, wlitui) Hr. Uliuldtoiiti proinued the Woleli ou cotxlitiou 
of tlivir •iipi.'orlkig luu Iri^b policy. Tho tkttthor of " Tho Churoh 
in lu Ilulstioii to tlio Stato " tnny porhap* be congratulated od 
not hnviiii; remained in oflice to tacu liiu foruier lelf upon tbii 
iuuu. luurvd 08 bo muet hii by this time lo charges of iucoit- 
iiBt«n<sy, ftnd pretematu rally gifted aa be is fritb the fiicalty of 
OKphmution, bis jHwitioR would hiii'dly hnvo beoD pleonkut, cspu- 
ciully u« b» would b&To bwn hrouj^lit into direct collisioji willi all 
hit lliKh-Ohiirch frieude, vlio, wliilu tliey curud corapHrntivcIy 
liltlu fur tbo tutubliahod Cbarch of Ireland, a strougly Prot«:aUuil 
oonimuDiuti, will fight dvaperately for tho oslablished Churoh of 
WoIm, in Lho fiito of which they believe that of tho whole Kag- 
lull catabli4hmL'iit to ha iuTolvod. The cfltabliahcd Church of 
Waled muHt ]{0, tltotigh it ia hardly, lui soioo Americiui journalinta 
Bc«rii to think, woiw thiin the lu'iiiisitimi, the extermination of 
the Albiguiisu:!, or tli« biiuihioi'u of St. tiivrtholomow. Thui^tab* 
lithod Cliureh of WaloB muKt go. »nd in time the eatablishod 
oburohM uf Eii^Iuiid und Scotlittid will follow. Yvi uiio roald 
wiih that so great a oliange ad this must be lu the epirituul 
organixntion mid life of a iiatioii could l>u muile by lianda mora 
ttiridvr and rureretitiHl than tboae of infuriated poliCicUus, aud 
thmujcli auinu process cuttnvr Ifaaii afActiori fight. 

Soglalid oE oourso ehures tbu guu«ral uur«flt of tho irorld. 
8hi) shares tho decay of tbu rulJgioud beliefs by which the social 
fniitighiu hitherto been largoly aostained and the pertnrbiuiou 
wiiioh fullowB. Shu bharun ihu failnru of trust in a future life oa 
the sc«ue of compensation for poverty and suffijriug iu this life, 
which hna hitherto rt)concilod tlio loss fortuautfi to their present 
lot. Shu KhHn-Jt thedisroiitont wliich, when religion cfiMes to 
breathe coutcijtmont, in iucvitubly one uf the first offccta of popu- 
lar eduootion. Sho sluirce tbo proraleuoc, iu the dim twiligUt of 
popular knowlcdgo, of social cbinier4« aud r^TcrieJ of all kinds. 
She Hhures tho nnbnppy e{Toct« of tiro aharp lino of diviiion bo- 
twoeu lho omployi-r and the wa^<earuor witb tho Induittiul 



»BOBLEMii -LVi) I'EFIIIS OF BltlTISH mUTJCS. 



le 



fooTiflicU lo which iL givvs rise. She shares the ilungor arising 
Xrom the cjigvruces of tho mauw to txao the |)olicical power of 
which th«7' h*ro bocomo poaseuod for th« purpoM of tniDAf erring 
the pfti{M-rty of thu wvoltliier ctu-iHeti Ui iheiu selves. Of the in- 
iluatriiil dixiiirlMnc«s »riJ jienU (the has a purliuularty large shure, 
uving lu tho gnnL Duiiibers of h«r wu^e-eamers, the hirge pro* 
,|»>rtii>o whiob her fovtory-hiuid^, mccliunica, ai.d minoi-s bear to 
'lwrg«aursl popahtUnn, tlioii* collection in inflammable masMs, 
juid tlwir lingular Uok of uutiomd feuUng ; while the setisitive- 
ii&ts of hur vust cotnnmrcial systuii). purtly tnado up of tuduatrioa 
which arc rather lu'tiljciul aod fuctitioua tliao growths of bor owu 
«9il. oxi>i>ecs h«r to cauuttroplios of uo oixlitmry kind. 

Tboro is a gunuml compluint of the detcriomtion of British 

tsutmmariihip. Ouu in alwara iiiciiiiud lo mistrust laudations of 

tho pujit at the expense of tho present, but itcau hardljr bu doubled 

Ihat (u digitity at all tiveuu thoro htta boon a duoline eiiiue tho 

dajri of Pitt, Canning, end IVd. Kzten«ioD of enffrogo liua 

■ broaght with it tho atunip. \»r wua tl possible that Htat«iman- 

■faip could necapo thi; eSocls of a rtmX oxteuaiuu of the fratiubiae, 

or the De«d of demagogic arts. This may he merely a stage ia 

tho political cliiciicion of tho people, m all the disturbaucoe and 

perils of thv time may be incideiiljt of a period of ferrRentatiou 

from which Ihu sirciim will ouc day run calm and cU-ar. But at 

preMBt it 18 difficult for uuy iiidupeudent, lofty, utid commaad- 

^ns flgnro to appear in the [wlitical field. Cavoar and Bisroarok 

wrn wA tho offspring of the oiuciib or the platform, but of high 

aalional endoaror and of tlio hour which would have the uiau. 

Let evolution and tho philosophy of hicttoi-y say what thoy 

will) mncli dopvnda, L>.4p«oialIj at tho great turning points, on 

jwraoRal action. If Minibimn had not dio^l, or Nnpoloon had 

Ited. eveuta would have takun a widely different course, la 

{Iwid at thia tiioiiieiit amidst all the cuufiidior}, uticortainty, 

r»nd Inveotution, with the gulf of rorolutioa boginniug to yawn, 

the appinninod of anything liico a commanding lignro, espooially 

jaah thai tom ubofo [lariy. might turn the wavering scale. Theru 

some uaon of bigli mark, but there cau hardly be aaid to bo a 

iiaaoding Sguro on tlio scene. 

Lord Salisbury owea the OonserTatire leadership iu part to 
bifltoric male anil princely wealth, but mainly Co ability and 
oliunuitcr. lie u a powerful though uot a duished nor always. 



TOS yORTH AXEKICAX nKVTEW. 



it is commonly thoagbt, an adroit or disoroet spoakei'. DiploAi- 
&oy is his line ; ho proFors it, as aristocratic stute&muD olttiii do, 
to domosUc politics. Of domestic politico he lias tiot made a 
scrions study, jior is thcro anything to sliotr that ho grasps acid 
is prepared tu deal ritli tlio situation. Ei« Iciaiiro a uadvrstood 
to b« spout, not in working out political problems, but iu chom- 
istr/, in which "he is an adept. In regard to hr>mo poIitio« ho 
hKowb aomothingof ariHtocratic indoleiico and nonchnlniioo ; nor 
can desporato effort or ttie ruadincss to run risks for vrliich a 
gTvat CTim may oall he uaturully expected of a gmndee. In 168fi 
Lord Salisbury, miscd to pover at a most critical juiicturo, with 
a mujority of u hundrctL in tho House of Commons, instead of 
grappling with tlio qui^stion of thu Imur and trying to rodmss 
tho balancQ of the constitution, n>lirt>d into tho Foreign Offio« 
Kiid iitiowed the frnita of Uuiootst rietory to bo lost. Hie ono 
fixed dim appears to 1» tho retention of an hereditary Tlonse of 
Loi'd^, not that ho is uctuatcd by any narrow or sulfish spirit of 
caste, hut ho regards berQditai7 Aristocracy 03 tho beavcn-ap- 
poiotod antidote to domot^rutic excess and ba»enesat. He even 
goot 80 far in his efforts to stare o9 rerorm frona the Hoasa of 
Jjoi'ds aa to appml to thu jcidoiiny of tho rerolutioiiary party in tho 
Houee of Commous. Ho aUo clings to Church utablishinont, to 
which his allies, the Liberal-lInioigBts, do not alitig, though they 
wish the (jitextion to be treated with teuderriesg and inodeniuon. 
It ia unfortuirato thai, being set to stem rerolutioD in tho intorcst 
of gradual and rational progress, ho happoos to concoatrato upon 
ItimHelf all tl)o popular feeling agiiiiidt caste. He ia, moreover, 
in tlio wrong Honso. Tho Consurvuiivc party is proud, and has 
reason to 1w proud, of its loader ; but fatal eitperieacu auems bo 
have shown that it is not skilfully led. 

In Mr. Balfour there is a union of practical vigor and ooar- 
age with soneibility and culture, which never tails to intorost, and 
which has impresHed not only American lookei's-on, but the 
people of Ireland, by whom, whon lio visited their island, tho 
Unionist secretary was remarkably well receirod. la debate ho 
is very prompt and ellDctive, and no fault has been found with 
his leadership of the opposition. Why he is not exactly u oom- 
maudiug Qgnro, or more generally regarded as the destined de- 
liverer of the oountry from its perils, it is diEBoult to eay. Per- 
haps bo is rather too much of a tac'ticiau. His opposition lo the 



PnOBZJOtS ASH PSRJLS OF BRJTJSH POLITWS. 



SI 



Homo lliile Bill wu diatinctlj tactical. It Uthd to make a 
broad imprcstuon on Iho uatioiial mind, such fte would hsTe beon 
mftdo bv i\ great nntioual etatesmim of th« old school, and all the 
tooUcal skill vfiM not crovnod with n single victory in Committc«. 
Strategjr baaed on the Ixipc uf divisions in the enomir's camp Ib 
always v&ak ; sections inay qtittrn-l nmong thenisvlves, bnt, at the 
<loctsiv« poiot, they aU prefer the frying-pan to thefiro. Mr. 
Balfonr Bhon« n w«k spot vbon, to cnptara votes, be flirtii with 
bimctiLlltKm iind vromun suffrage. 

Thii Duke of DoTonsblro, bettor kuowu by bis former title of 
Lord Uartington^ was in bU yonth reganled as a loanger and a 
mat] of ploiuiirc. EIo wiu in pnblio life as the hetr of a great 
Whig bouse, bat was sapposcd to consider it a bore. Oomio 
stories cnibodyiug thiit belief wuro carrent. Uis higb rank 
and vast wealth left acarcoly an object to vhiuh his arnbition 
conid aspire. If in 1875, when Mr. Glndetono for a 
the oiirds, ho was mnde proviginniU loader 
in Ur. Gladstone's place, it was muiuly 
with mora gnce than one of tbo older 
ri'»l lewler when it pleased the real leader to 



moment tlirew up 
of tbo opp«isilioD 
becansc he con Id 
m«Q jfivowity to th< 



nitora. But vhttn the unity of the nation was in peiil by the 
•WMsdon of Mr. Glndstoae to tlomo Rnle, Ijord Ilnrtington nobly 
roaponded to the call of duty. And ho hiis eTur since lived 
laberiooB days, days which must bo doubly laborious to an on- 
ambitiousnud pluiisarD-lortng man. As a speaker he isoootent 
to talk good sense, without pretence to eloquence, though with 
dignity and ofTcct. Tlio confidence which his character inspires 
Is perhaps tbo iionrcet thing to a bold (ipon tbo entire nation poa- 
SDMed by any of tbo leaders. Like T4ord Salisbury he is now In 
th« wrong Houso, though his prceoooe in it odds to its etrongth 
at a critical juncture. 

Nothing in these events is more striking than the forco ahown 
by Mr. Ohamberlnin in holding BirminghatQ, with ull its dcrao- 
oracy. fast to the Union cause. His speeches of late, both in Par- 
liament and oat of it, have beeD most effective. lie is aniiaea- 
tionably a mna uF roal mark and most play a leading part in 
whatever is to cume. To call him n turncoat and a wandering 
rhetorician, a^ LonJ Hw^cbery does, would be absurd. The groond 
oCqoamsl between him and Lord ICuBebory*s party is that on the 
great qnestion of the day he refused to turn his ooaC It is tme 



22 



THE NORTH AMEBJCAX SEVJEW. 



that MDie of th« socialietic att6T«nc«B of hii early dnys, hovwror, 
still cmbarriuttt him. It is tnio alfto tbnt lie has been regarded 
rattier as a luunii^ipal than n national politician. Ou the other 
hand, lie is free from the inilolQQoe> the timidity, and the formal 
emWrasstnents of the grandee. He could dare and risk some- 
thing for th« country. 

That nocini feeling still goos for Bomcthing is apparent when 
a party which is shouting for the abolition of the House of Lordt 
lindR itself ooiietraiQed to accept as its leader a lord vho Iiaa oerer 
boon in the House of Commons, and «ho has less of a record than 
any prime minister since tho beginning of this century. Mr. 
Gludxtonti himself, on whose recommendation hia BucceHsor was 
chosen, lias, amidst nil his political dcvclopmeiitK, prcserv(<d his 
fv«ling of traditioaal reverence for the aristocracy and the Court. 
A greater contrast there could hardly bo bctvoen two loaders oC 
tlie same party than thathetweon Mr. Gladstone and hU snocessorf 
the first ttppenting to the rolitfions public by defences of Moaiie 
coemogony, the second appealing to tho sporting public oa the irin> 
ner of tho Derby. Lowoll used to say of Mr. Gladstone that he 
bad ft unique power of improvising lifelong convictions ; his con- 
viotinmi. however, when improrised, wcro inteusc. His successor 
Buldom speaks without confirming the general belief that he is a 
polllician of the sporting order, and is running for the political 
Derby. Ho may bosnid almost to arow himMlf an Opportunist. 
He tellsyou that besoes nothing wrong in the established Church, 
and tliat he is ready on demand to pull it down : thathc is a seo- 
ond-chamber man, and ready on demand to abolish or reduce to 
impotenCQ tho house of Lordt; ; that he considers the consent of 
England indispensable to the alteration of the compact of nnion, 
and that be is ready, if he can get a largo majority, lo niter it 
without her oonsent. One day he is visibly angling for the sup- 
port of the Liberal-Unionist*. Finding they do not bite, he 
next day makes a thorough-going Homo Kulo speech. Mr. 
Olndstone has always been opposed to oggrandisctment and to 
military expenditure. Lord Roeebery owes his popularity largely 
to bis reputation for Imperialism, with which he combines a 
pledge to dismember the. nation which is tho heart of the 
F.mpire. Lord Ro«olicry*s opponents nil acknowlndgo his great 
address, his singular obarru of manner, his unfailing Tcodinoss 
and livelineu of ^>eech. Hia oomparaiire youth, for be is only 



PROBLEMS AND P£HtLS OF BRinSH POUTIC& 



23 



fort]r-6T«, itiTWtfl him rith a certain glAtnour, and hie emiiwRco 
on the tarf, while it halps him with tho sporting olnsg, is not 
likely to tlo him much hnrm with the X<)T)>Conformiatoonaoit>ncc, 
iioir more political than religions. Uo has the verj cents itlcruble 
odriuitagunf a perfectly open choice among all tho principles, 
Itolipiw, «nd co'lrs^^8 wliich may socm condiicivo to tho mnintcnaooe 
d[ lili party in power. The only cloud nn hin horizon ia the prob»- 
liUlt; tbftiK poidt wiltboreachedktwbicb the grand seignearand 
tfao Bocial radical will part. 

So rapidly is tho scene ahifting that forecASt ia hardly possi- 
ble, even for those upon tho spot. To attempt to dcQno the sitn- 
ntion i* liico shooting at a running deer. The strategy of the 
gorcrnni)>nt, which it calls etatoBmaueliip, isdiructMJ to two oh> 
JMt9: tlio inrentitn of a profitnble qiiarrot with the Heuee of 
Lord*, and the dioolution of the allianco betwe«n the Conserra- 
tlre and Liberal winga of the tTiiionist party. To atLAin the tlrst 
object nieafinres are bronght in. such as the EmploycrK* Liability 
Bill and the Kight-nours Hill, wbieh the Lords uro likely to ro- 
JMi, and the rejection of which may embroil tliera with the 
trndt-iinions. For the iittjiinment of the second object Home 
Rnlo, wbicb nnikxs the two wings of the Uuionist {nirty, is kept 
in the background, aa far as the necessity of rctaiDing Irish eap 
port will penoit, aod qiiestiona which diride the UntoDiatB, such 
M Walsh Disestablishment, are bronglii to tbe front. After all, 
tho OTODt will ¥«rf likely be decided, not by any one of tho great 
tssTiM, much loss by a general jndgmenl on national pdJey as a 
whole, which far tranacends the mental power of the masses, but 
by ibe last thing which has happened before the eWtion, if it ia 
iif a kind to interest or Rtir,the ]>eople. It is beliered that on the 
hut ix-citsiun some of the metropolitan elecUions weretnraod by 
{Hrpdlar iiidigtialion at the arreet of n respectable woman aa a 
ttrei't-walker, tbrongh amistake of the police. " Go, my, son and 
m* with hnw littla witidom tbe world ia governed." The volN 
knnwo wordM of Oxcnatiunia are hardly less applicable to popular 
than to royal government. 

If any American U enough of an Anglophobist tn wish to see 
mriiforttine Ifcfiill thucradloof his race, it is not uulikelv that 
hiN wish mny bo fuirilkMl. Htill tti<-'rc isforcc in old England, if 
Ibe iiuiii cau be foiitid to oull it forth. 

QoLi>iirty Skith. 



THE POSTAL SERVICE AT NEW YORK. 

BT THE HON. CHA.tlLE3 W. DATTOIT, F08TKABTBB AT KBW TOBE. 



"NzJLRLTftll the malls to and from the other oKtioiiB of the world are 
denpatched from or received at the New York oSitie.~Beporto/ Poatmcuttr- 
QtnercU Biseellfor ItttS. 

The cliiot oiul of a postal service is the moat rapid and unerr- 
ing delivery of mail matter. The postal system which secures 
that result is the best, and to the beat postal service the people of 
the Uiiitud States and all civilized peoples holding commnnicar 
tion with our country are entitled. 

The cost of the postal service in the United States is far in 
oxcesa of the receipts for postage— the reports of the Postmasters 
Gononii showing, with monotonous regularity year after year, a 
largo dedcit. The main cause of this undesirable financial con* 
dition is to be found in the hea7y outlay necessary to provide 
for tlio traunportiition of the mails, not only between the 
groat business centres and throughout the more densely populated 
sootiona of the country, but to the remote and sparsely settled 
portions of our vast territory, in many coses over routes where the 
{wstago oil the mail matter conveyed is but an inconsiderable 
fraction of the sura paid the contractors for its conveyance. Of 
n total expenditure of ^81,000,000 in 1893 for all postal purposes, 
nearly 141,1300,000 was paid for mail transportation and items 
incident thereto. The contrast between G-reat Britain, whose 
postal surplus is over $14,000,000, aud the United States, with 
its deficit of over $.5,000,000, is readily accounted for by the fact 
that while both countries have the same rate of inland letter 
postage, the trunsportiition service of the former covers only 
121,113 square miles, while that of the latter extends orer 
3,694,000. 

This annual shortage in our postal accoants, however, ia an 



TBB POSTAL SBRVICB ^ HBW YORK. 



3.> 



ttDftniidsble iiictilont to oiir i>ogit1on m h g^vnng and ^et " an> 
flnUhod *' country, and to seek » r(>mody through aQ incroAso of 
letter poaUi^ voald in my jinlgrnorit bo mosb unwiso and impoli- 
tio. TUo botioQt« rostiUing from nn olliciont system of null 
trtnaportation to evory portion of our land are too iini>ort«at to 
tM IgQorad or ref>trictod bocitiiso tho p««nniary rotiirus derived 
from that sarnoe fall below its coat. Its maintenance is a pubtio 
niiiMNMity, and I bcliere tho i>iXi|)lo, whoso wulfaro in alt direct 
liou i« to largely dopeadcnt on it) etBcieaoy, aro qutto williug to 
praride the necessary fands. But aa the cost of mail trana- 
portatioD i« the primary oanso of tho doScit, and while the 
pmlu) rerenues mainly nccrne at the larger post offioes and 
throughout Ui« older and mnro thickly popniatod States, and 
while tho Borrica on nnramnnoratiro post roatos is mainly of 
boaefit to the roddente of the newer States and Territorie«, it 
voald certainly aeem unfair and illogical that appropriations 
QOoeuorj to improre and exteod the postal facilities in the larger 
dtJM abotild bo rcfusod or opposed by the roproAuntatiTos of those 
mivl oanstituenoioA who enjoy tho iuIvAiU»go» which others are 
taxed to provide — eapeclally a> improved and extended facilities 
at the Ui^ of&oea iavolTM improremeat and extension ever/- 
wb«n. 

Thorfl are in [jondonoiRht " District Post OfHcos,'* each in 
ohargo of a Postmaster. Within the delivery distrint of oaoh of 
tlwsa offloea there are from 40 to 173 branch and sub-post offices, 
the ^[gregabe nnmber of which is 795 — mnking a total of 803 of- 
fio«, at all of which stamps may bo parchosod, and lottors and 
panwils piwtod, and nt noarly all of which money orders are iiamed 
and paid, tetten may be regiKtered, and Life Insurance Annnity 
and Saviaga Bank bnsineas may hi- tmusacted. At all tho larger 
sub-offices then ia alao telegraph service. The population of 
[/lodon in IS91 was 4,£ll.431 — :m that thcro is in thatcityapoat 
ofOoe to erery 9,^8 inhabitauU. The nnm!xirof officem and sab* 
ordinatos rognlarly umployoil to the London local postal service 
li ]0,B9S. of whom 5,866 are letter-carriers, in addition to a large 
" anxiliary " force, available for extra duty whenever rwjuired. 
Tlio amount paid tho lattitr in (Mjnivaloat to that neoesaary for the 
constant employment of 1,000 additional men — so that the actual 
foroe is very nearly 11,04)0. 

In Kair Vork thoro oro : 1 Qononil Poet Offico, 18 Branch 



2C 



THE aOHTH AIIKRIO^IN RXVJKW. 



Post Office-Stations, and 24 Sab-at«ltouB. at all of which, in ad' 
dition to oi-dtiinry postal business, moaej ordors inaj bo prooiirvd 
nncl ]taU\ nnd letters roistered. The resident population of Konr 
York, as showu by last manioipal oensuB, ia l,801,73it — and on 
tiiut basis there is allowed one post ofUce to each 41.900 of its 
people. Itut during the hnstoosa hotinof ooch scctilur dnj the 
popalation Is inorfiiwod by tho inflax of a larj^o proportion of tho 
itdult mnla reaidents of Brooklyn, Jersoy City, and numerous 
other cities, towns. &ni\ Tilla;:;c8 located within a radiiu of 50 
miles, all of wimm reoeivRmid post tlieir hnsiaoHS correspondence 
nt New York ; and considoring this foot, it is entirely eafo to 
esttmnte that the proportion of post ofQoei to popalation in New 
York Is as 1 to 50.000. The number of oflicers and employees of 
nil ^odes is 2.873. 

This contmst between the postal facilities enjoyed by tho roat- 
dutnts of the chief city iu Bitropo and those roiichMfod to nxidenta 
of the ohief pity intheUnitod .Statog is not gratifying to our mnni< 
cipsi or national pride ; and one of the least agreeable incidenta 
in the official life of a postmaster at New York is the receipt of 
written and oral comparisons, miide by foreigners and travoUers, 
between the service hero and that provided in Lrf)ndoo and otbor 
European cities. 

During: the six inontlia ending February 10th. 1894, there 
were received at the New York Post OBice, in open transatlantio 
mails, 11,770,116 lott«rs, of which 3,487,0&5 were oddrossod for 
delivery in tliis city; nUo 20,930 sacks of newRpxperg. printed 
matter, etc.. fi,4^4 of which contained matter for dititributioi] in 
Ibis city. Tliceo flguree do not include mail received from Sonlb 
America, West Indies, and overland from China, Japan, Australia, 
and Hawaii, nor mails roceiv^ in BOnlcd sacks to bo forwarded, 
nriopened, to Chicago, Boston, Philadelphia. St. I^uis, and other 
Urge cities which exulmnge diroct mails with Europe, 

During tho same period, the number of letters and postal 
cania made op in open and closed mails at the Nfw York Post- 
ofRco alone, was I4.800,{if)6 in addition to printed matter. The 
totnl despatch consisted of 00,376 sacks. 

TIk! last puhlished Ktittistics of tho International Bureau at 
R<<mo (which acts as a sort of general agency or clearing-housa 
in all internnlionni postal nffairs) shows that tho nomber of pieces 
despatched iu 18d2 in mails from the tJnil«d States to all other 



TBI! POSTAL 8EBVICS AT NEW TORE. 27 

eoantriu of the Poetal Union wa4 10?.997>787. No roport k^- 
])e«ra to huTe boon made of tlio nombor received here ; but from 
Iha proportion jiren in pravioos atatemonta it may satel; l)a asli- 
inated at not less thun 100,000,000. 

Ib 1S53 tho tranaatlantjc mail scirice hero was confined to 
fanr fUanuhip lines, making 101 round trips; the number of let- 
ton oarried dnring that year in both (tirectione waa 6,$00,9&0. 
In 1803 iLia servioo waa porformod by twelve Bleaniahip linea, 
making 634 ronnd tripa and convering about 65.000,000 lett#™ 
and [loula) cards. Prior to 1854 tho rate« of poslage on letters to 
Korope and beyond ranged from fifteen to flfty-ninc cent* per 
half onnce, and tho coal ol Transatlantic serrioe in 18A3 waa 
#1.178.833, when fire and one-half aiillionsof letters vore carried, 
Wbils ia 1S33 a littlo oror iSQO.OOO viki paid for that service in 
OVryins over aixty-Sro laillioiis of lottora. 

The First luWrnatioiuU Postal Oonforonce grew ont of tho 
mgftestiou mode in 186'i by Pofitmaster-General Montgomory 
Btair. nnaltiDfT in the formatioa of the present "ITnivental Postal 
Union" and the establislinient of a nniform rate of postage for 
Iffttera at fivA oents per half onnco, and for printed matter, oom- 
iMrciat paperti, and mcrclmndiiiA snmplos, one cent per tiro ounces. 

In 1859 Poatinastor-GeneriiJ Holt, in hia 6rst annnsl report, 
..Mid: 

"ItltdiwJr&blA lhfttthfii(Iepiirta«nl shall have Uiit pow«r La B«od for. 
WftM th* rot«Iga niAlI« »• ofleo MAiutro, re) labia vMiel oan beloundtouia- 
**7 them, %bA tb»t tb« ohIljpitioD to prefer th« Americkii to tbo foKign 
■iMniBlilpi ohaU ooIt oxlnt whaa tbej wU on ttafl moh) day." 

This atAteimanlike ntteranco did not fail in its effect ; and in 
1874 Poatmnater-Oflnoml Oroswoll nrrangod for the ftarrtage of 
niaiU, vlthutit dincritninaUon an to nationality or on-nership, by 
the Tettols which bad Hbowii by their records their ability to de- 
Urer maila at their destination in the shortest time. 

Tho British offion furnishes the Fo«t Offlco Department Mt 
\Vaibin[;tou with n weekly stntetnent, showing the exact time of 
tho arrivals of mail at the London Post OfRcc, and the mails to 
bo forwardod henoe each month are aaaigned by onr department 
to tho resseli which, according to the record of their three im- 
laediately pn)oedinf;ea8twar<l Toyogcs, delivered the mail in the 
•hortasl time in London. The Briliith Postal Administration 
Iiai adharDd to tho contract system, whiob is liable to inrolre 



36 



TOE XORTS AUSRtCAU REVIEW. 



dolsj> to westward boand traoBBtlantic mails, Biioh u ocenrred 
wheu the " Botlmia" was given pri-fercnce over the " Alaska," 
sailing on the same date, and landed Bereral hundred sncks ol 
Britiili mitU in New York a wdok after the arrirsl of the ktter; 
and, fts shown. in morp recent ingtancos, where British msils, 
despati^hed from Liverpool hj ships of contract linos on the siime 
date at which ftwt vesMcIa of the American lino left Uouibiunp- 
ton, hnre not heen received here until two and three days after 
the arrival of tho latter at New York. 

If the pORtal adminiiitrations of ajl conntriog daspatching traoa- 
atlatitic mails could be induced or were compelled to select on\j 
the fiiatordt. eliiiw using the most direct routes, without regntrd to 
conaideratioQa of aational favor or of private or corporate inter- 
ests, the "certainty, celerity, and 8ocnrity"of transatlantic mails 
would l» greatly promoted. 

The New York Po3t<Uffico is the exchange and bmking' ol!ioa 
for thegreater part of the poatal money order business (domestic and 
jnt«rnacional) of the conntry. For the fiscal year ending JuncSO, 
1S93, there were 3,916,691 money order transactions, aggregating 
♦113,702,698. 77— b«ingHii increweof nearly 288,000 in the num- 
ber of tranmwttioni) and of over $4,000,000 in the aggregate amoDut 
thereof. It is tho "Extihaugo Offiod''ior the ccrtiacation of 
money orden lo twenty-three foreign conntriee, and alao acts as 
tho intermediary through which money orders issued in the DDitod 
States may he paid in other foreign countries. The transactiotM 
incident to this portion of the money order business during last 
year aggregated over ♦18,000,000. The scitloracnt of money order 
aeeonnts with foreign countries is effoolod through this office, 
which during the same period purchased over ♦11.000,000 in 
European bills of exchange to he applied to that purpose. 

The ]x>8tmiMtor9 at over 900 money order offices in the United 
States r«mit their Hiirplns fnnds by registered mail U> the Poflt> 
mutter nt N«vr York, vho deposits the same daily in a depository 
dcsiguatod by the Pc«tmafiter-Unneral. From 130 to 13JS such 
remittances aro received daily, and their aggregate annual amount 
U nearly ♦35,000,000. 

One fact in connection with tho rntoroationat money order 
system i»of more than ordin.117 interest and soggestiveness — and 
that 16 Ihu large excess of money-order remittancea sent from this 
office to other oouutrioA over the amount reoeived here from 



FO^TAl, SEUVJCK AT 



70RK, 



29 



■broad. Tli(! tuial exceaa for 18^*3 was over (1 1,000,000, nearly 
#9,000,000 of which wss trattsmittcd to four foreign countriea — 
Great Bribiin, G«rmAuy, Italy, and Swodco ; and uutwitliiituud- 
iiig tli<^ genorsl financial <IoprcBsion (txistitic during that year, 
tho iimonnt scat to tiio«p nountritwi (exceeded by orer $300,000 tlia 
inm tnu!l«mitted durin); ISOd. 

During 1SU3, 1,153,431 rcj^iHti^ivil IcLLvra mid parceU wero 
d«1iT6riMl, and 1,201,40*? receiv.;*! fyr i-egistration— the feo« on 
wliicfa Ainaunt4>d to 1103,313.48. The number of regietered 
packigoa and ponchnii doiipatched whs \,1-i*,ilh\. New York la 
also tlio only " Kscbattgo oflloo " for ull re^iatc-rod inailn ex* 
ebaa^ betwoeo tbi> United Stat«fl and transatlantic coaiitrics, 
and tvery letter and pnckage includod in tboDO maila muBt lie 
rec»rdcd Xitttv. 

Tliu value of rcgistiirud imckogcs of conrM cnnnot lie ncou* 
ntuly luuortjiin^ ; but their duily iaspootiou would courinoo tho 
moat casual observer that millions upon millions in bondH. stocks, 
oarraDoy, ooio, jewels, oto., pae« tbroii/rb tho bandj of tho om- 
plovMS hero oTery year. Tho clerlcA who have: charge of tho isufo 
whero packagiM of known money taIuo aro placed ruueivo rcapeo- 
tjvtity Mliiries of only $700, $900, $1,100, aud $1,4(.I0. The 
valu* of poetago stampa csucolied on roglstorod mail matt«r 
hcrv amoii uta to abont $1 7:2,000 per year. The pay-rolt of this divi< 
■MO attd Cbi) salurr lint fur rcgietry cicrksat the branch shittons, af • 
frfcgat«nbout $1^0,000. [not)i«r words, the etampdoanceltod upon 
n^atered articlos originating in New York city pay for the clerical 
labor derol«d to the entire regintry bnsine-ss, aud to nil matter 
handled rt^iurdlrasof orif^in, foreign and domestic, inuludiug the 
enormous excbaugo office bnatuesi to (he reac of the world, the 
largest in Aztstenco, aud the very large city delivery bnsiness^ the 
largMt in tha world but one. 

The ouliier at tbo Now York offico ia in ohargo of the satee of 
stamps, poetal cards, stamped aavoloiMfl, etc, and each day each 
olofk in Rliarge of stnmpfl is oblij[ed to balance his account in 
lauh. The total vnlu? of 8t»m[)S recMved for the fiscal yeur end> 
iiig Juno 3u, Wj'S. was $7,098,833.09, and the total salee 
•7.l37,-i$3.M— All iuowwe of more than $750,000 over tho sales 
in \vb^. 

Th«m are at present ninotoon branch stAtions in Now York 
city, each one of which is u fully ufjuippud Post Office. Station 



-80 



)K77/ AMKIilCAy UBVIRW, 



" P," situated at the Proilace Bicliaoge, <! id an nggregate bo 
avaa for lh« yaax oudiiig Juno 30. 1893, uf $:icil,G5U.0tl for salt 
of stAinps — 9-1,372 iti numlwr of ragisterod letters Bod M-ticlu, 
^31,f(3S.67 ill uioitey ordoi-ti, and ia tha largest BniDiih Post 
Oflice in t!ie t/uibed States. Tliirceon of thu^u siutiousruuk 
Grat-cljiAa Puab OIHoes : »n iatereeting fact when auoB " flisfe- 
clott'' officer od Albauy, Troy, Indianitpolis, Newark, S;»ctiM,| 
and many othora fall ootiiiiderBbly below those bninch stotioi 
in th« volniiie of [loslxl huiiuoss. 

ExistiQg couditioiis iit the New York offlco will doabCless aoonj 
bo largely iinproTodj U|ioii the report of the Postal CoinmissiOD^ 
appointtid by the Postiniutcr-Qenoml to consider s reorganizjttion 
uiid irierease of tlio Mveral bniuch stationa, siib-stattoiiH, and 
stamp a^eucies. While nil that is now needed may uot be accom* 
pMshed, for lack of appropnatio7i, much of bene&t will ensue. 

The entire force at this office numbers 1,325 carriors, 1,614 
olerkd, 34 aupurintendents, and 100 Htanip ageuU. The Post- 
nmstcr rectitvcs asalury of 43,000 par uniium and gives a bone 
for (500,000 ; the cashier receives 1:1,600 per buuuni and gives ft' 
bond of 950,000 ; the superintendout of the money order depart- 
ment, S:},'-J00, bond CoO.OOO ; registry department 43,200, bond 
*60,000. SitperiiitoudunU of etntiona " A " and " D " r#CMV« m 
ealuryof $2,&0U ; en pert ntend ants of stations *' K" and "F"eaoh4 
$2,200; - IJ," " C." " a," '* U," and " P." each 13,000 ; " 0,' 
• 1,800; "R," "K,"and "L,"cRch $1,700; •• W " and "J," 
♦l.aOOeacb; ••M"«nd "8," eaeh «1,000; and " T," •1,400. 
The avci-ugo salary paid to clerks is tSiS. Many employees 
vitb families receive but $400 per annam. 

Th« carriers' hours are Hmitod to eight by Uw ; the clerks 
have no speciBed hours of labor ; and in the registry department, 
money order depiu-tmoat, in the general post office and branch 
stations, the men are not unfroquently oalled opon to work frooi 
12 to 14 and sometimes 18 hours a day. 

The Classification Dill, now before Congress, will, if passed, 
Bt;cnre to poHtal clerks and otheri in the service, compeusattou 
approximalely commcUdtirulu to Ihotr doeerts. 

CoDsidering tlie fact that the total rolnmo of basiooes at the 
Kew Yoi-k posi oDice for the last flscal year was npwards of 
•7.000,000, and that it< nob oonlribntiou to the revenue of the 
OuvoninieDt was opvrards of •4,000,000, and also the fact of 



TUE POSTAU SBIiVICE AT ^EW TOJtK. 



SI 



^UtMe auormou« trauntictious and lh« luadeqnato compeusaliou 

uliowetl Olid {laid to uti Uie force, our oitixena should aoi oulj 
l>« b>j;lil7 gmiiliod with tha ufficiuuoj of tboM who do such 
Oftoroui and r«8poiiublu work, wlntro t«m]itjitioii a aggravated 
by tha antitllnQiii of piiy re4.-eivi;d, but uhoiilJ lidartily rvooguizo 
Ab aloiotl luroriobU houoety und zvu) of tlioeu who ao thorougtiljr 
]>«rfurDi tlie dvtiula of tliU great aud exaotiug public service. 

Tli« proMHt method ot ecuding idaiIs tetwccii tho G«dcri1 
Foit OlQeo and tbe Rniiicb Officii Stations in by tlm old-fiubioued 
wagon survico or b; miisJtcugLT surrioc on tho elcvat«d niilroads. 

' OwUig Ut ibo bkck of iir<j}>er fticilitios, tbe clcvuted miliouds 
%rt unnblfl to ntn oxpre«« trains except duriug tJic morning oiid 
•Tcning, tho rosalt being tbiu it takes one hour for u letter to 

iTvaoli Uurlum from thit Qeucrul Post Otficu. Numerous etig* 
£«stion4 have been niude looking forward to baring tlie pn«u- 
Kuttio tube sysUMQ put ia operation in New York city, but owing 
lu tb« largo exiiunao tUat tlits would outuil, no pemou or corpora- 
tion has boen f'Hind willing to pui in the plant at an experiment. 
The aam of ftllfti.OOO ia uuw paid yearly for tbe tniiiHportalion 
of tlie tuajU iu tbo city ; but it is certain that the ooQBtanlly 
increMiog bulk of tla> maiU will, at uo diutiHit day, rvnilur the 
■mploymunt of Homo RX'iins fur tboir moro fii-quont niid rapid 
tramiportation aii ahsotuto nocessity. Tho inventive genina of the 
AmvHuao will, duubltuas, solve tbio prubluin, to the sutisfootion 
oi the Department, Congress, and the public. 

Tbis being no exchange ofHoe for foreign mails, for money 
or<Ieni and rt^iatcred matter, also the receiving oQloe of 'i5 per 
cent, of all dccond-clacti matter mailed in the Uuilocl SUit«a, lis 
nuk pruelndos oompurisomi lu to coat of tnniutemince. Thore 
are no two poat ofHcea iu the country workiug under the same 
conditioiif. Kacb office should be conducted according to ita 
Kurrouudiags. The delivery aysU>m iu auch citiea ue Keokuk 
Hboald not be cotittolled by oonditiooa prevailing in New York, 
nor should nalariw of carriers, clerks and superintendents in New 
York be regulated by tlio cost of living or tho character of work 
ia such places aa Yiinkton. Nur should tho larger ofSciMi of the 
oountry be subjoctod to tbe uudless confuaioo, Criction, aiidaa- 
noyance arising from tho " duly ooQ«idered" cerrespoDdenco aod 
' red tape "' of deparLmentuI clerk« at Washington. 
The poatul syitDtn of the country, organized iu ITtiiO, when the 



33 



THE NORTH AilERJCAN ItEVSKW, 



])opalation vas nbout 3,iK)l>,00U, ia etill condacted od the »ame 
general principle : Clint is to eay. postuiasttirti iit the largest 
offices are charged with maxtmutn responsibilities and a niinU 
mum of power ; oven to the uxpciiditiiro of tiro ixais for a pcD- 
lioldvr or a bottle of mucilage, itiilcss by writlvu diriHiliou of the 
departmoDt »L Washiui;toa. To illustnito : it ia desinilile or 
necessary to change or establish u branch statiou. The postmasLer 
niiifit cominiinicatu that fact to tlic depftrtmont ; the department 
rofore it to a p(>st olGec iiupootor, who invostigatca without any 
obligation to consalt the |>o4tmaiiter ; tho place is selected on the 
rocomniondntion of tho post office iiiepector, and ttie postmaster 
receives word tliat the post, office in^)coLor will be aeiit lo sec that 
the elation is properly fitted up. This post office Jnepcctor may 
be ono appointed from Kev Mexico, while the selection of a 8it« 
and the fitting up of a station in any Urgu city should be 
based npon intimate knowledge of the poet^l nwds of that. city. 

Such a etttle of uffairs is eought to be remedied by Po«t- 
master-Gvucrul liisscll, who says in bia report for 1S93 : 

" [ vroiitd bfl glkd if tfa«M <tb« potfroRlcM at New Tark. Ch(o&g«, Pbtl- 
itdclphM, Do^toa, SU Loab, Claclnuatlt Broakljrn, &»n Fnuiclaoo. ilalU- 
more, adJ Pli(«buric) could bo placed lo a da» by themnelvL-ii tkiid ttic ap- 
proprlatlnn* mmAt tot them \\j OnnRrvM dtnsct, wltbout t.h« Interference of 
raleasnd methodB a« lo allowancm tlut ue properly Kpfnnable to oUmt 
IHMC efllooa.'' 

This proposition has unfortiinntely been defeated by therefnsal 
of theCommiltco on Poiit Offiixannd Post Uoods oT the prvseni 
Congreeist'Oiipprovu it. I bolicvv, huwurer, that the sound business 
Bonecof thisphui wilt ultimately previiil, and as a rcDiillregpnusibiU 
ity will be nccomjianied by power. Each Post OfUco so classed 
will th»s be enabled to regulate its management in accordance 
with its environment, resulting in greater efficiency, in inorense 
of business, and still further, in a compensation to the men who 
do tlie work, propor^onato to Che extent, aniouiit, and import- 
ance of the work done ; and my jndgmeiit fiirthur is, that the 
outcome of this plan will be additional rovunuo instead of a de- 
ficiency in tho Post Office systom. 

The New Vortc office will, within » year, probably yield a 
net revenue ol about 65,00u,0(H>. Its work stops neither night 
nor day, holidays nor Sundays. Its force ia insnllicicnt and ortir> 
worked ; the accommodations provided for most of ila branch sta- 
tions utd its main oQlno are unworthy the system which eo largely 



THE POSTAL SERVICE AT NEW YORK. 33 

helps to maintain that part of tho government which it repre- 
Benta. 

Mach haa been said regarding tho feeling of jealonsy existing 
towards the city of New York in other parts of the country. 
So far as the postal service is concerned, such a sentiment 
should have no place ; because whatever is done to improve the ser- 
vice here finds immediate refiez of benefit everywhere tliroughont 
the land. Tho sooner tho merchant can have his order for goods 
delivered here, the sooner the goods will be delivered ; and so with 
tho constant interchange of finance, no matter how far distant 
the point ot interchange of letters ; and thus it is that tho per- 
fection of the postal service in New York means that other cities 
of the Union near and far, will grow towards occupying corre- 
sponding positions in the problem of postal magnitude and postal 
perfection. 

There is no branch of the government nearer to the daily lives 
of our own people and to " all sorts and conditions of men " the 
world over. True economy in its administration consists in lib- 
eral appropriations, carefully and intelligently expended; and 
for erery dollar so properly invested the government will receive, 
fts it doee in this city, a plentiful return. 

Chables W. Daxton. 



TOL. CLIZ.— HO. 452. 3 



FRANCE AXD EXGIAND IN EGYPT. 

BY UADAU ADAH. 



Ar PitA.xcrF rrtfiisfH] to shed Rgj-ptlun blood and to take pB 
iu tlic otlioiubouibunltnuiit of Aluxuiidnat elio oughtall tlio more 
ooergeticallj to have prepared horsolf for her pcAoefuI struggle 
ftgainst tho occupant of Egypt, tbufl servmg her owu interosts, 
those of the oppi-essed people, and of those numerous coloniospf 
stmngcra, which give to J^K7pt faor [toculiar charftct«r of iutor- 
nationalitj. 

Eveiry struggle allotra of the choice of arms. Nov what can 
one think of a combatant who is simple enough to change bii 
weapon every day, and imprudent cnongh when he begins to tiw 
it well to deliTcr it over to his adversary ? This it what the French 
govornmout.hiisd<>no ill Egypt since its occupation by tho English. 
r shall first take for example a series of facts — as to the rolatioo- 
ship which the traditional poliny of France should desire to soo 
continued between the govommcnta of Kgypt and of Turkey. 

France bad perhaps sustained Afchemet AH in exaggerated 
fashion against the Sultan ; Napoleon the Third waaeogertoobtaia 
flrmnns which would deliver Egypt, nnder Ismail, from oicessixe 
vaasulBgoaudsniiotiotiitsinboraationality. Tewfik, un ascending 
the Khedival tbrono, careful about tho opinions of the foreign 
colonies in E;{y[it, hud no idea of going to Constantinople to 
jeceiTC invefititure and to make a personal act of submission. 

When Abbaa I'lu-ba ascended the throne the English had not 
ontortaiaed for an inBtaut tho idea of Bending tho young Khedive 
to reoeivo investiture at Constantinople, in spite of their conviction 
that one day or another— if Sgypt returns to her traditions of 
vassalage — it would be llio colonies of foreigners, always ready to 
resist tlio occiipaliou of Egypt, who would sufTor most The 
Foreign OfHce has long known that at a given momDiit the Porte 



riU?fCE AMD EHOLASD IS BOVPT. 



zs 



may hare dijitomatia. Qnuncial at military Do«d of Bnglnnd, and 
at that momcut the may extort from it t)io protectonto uf Bgy^it 
M «lie extorted tlmt uC C/pnis. 

Th« Kngliah adviaore occupied theinsolpps only with negotiat- 
ing with the Snltan on the subject ol tb»lirnuia of iorostiture to 
be rccoivL'd at Cairo. 

-The negotintions had for their ohj«ct the tranflfoi ming of 
EffpCi aflniitiislntlioD o{ tho tcrritDncs of Akaba a:id Siiiiti, ia 
Arabia I'uCron, into atleHtiitire incorporalion into Egypt itself, so 
that wbou thflday of tot-U absorption should nrrivo Knglaiid iihoiild 
poaaeas an important fronlliiron thu Asiiktic cuiisL uud both bnukit 
oa the north of th« Itcd Soa. 

Fruiiee then )mtl a iliplomntic biiocprs with which it woidd 
faaro boon wise Lu rmit coiiUJiiU'*!. Tho Sultan repliod to the 
Kiigiiiih dotnands by ptiblialiing an iraile declaring that Akaba 
and tb« poiatc oocujiii-d by I'^^ypt on the uut sidoof tlio Red Si-u 
should be ooraprised in tlic Turlciiih vilayet of Hcdjaz, and that 
ftir ths poniiifliila of HId.'ii tho iiintnx rjittt wotihl bo niHiutained. 
Thcgrtiund, for the first time since " the occupation," was solidi- 
tying undiT our feet 

Tho KliviiTo had felt that tho inflnonco of Krance, com- 
bitK-d with thai of ftusaia atCoiiMtaiitinopIo, Rfiiild orcrcomo that 
of Bngland andch«ck iL The nativo populutiau folttlmt we were 
aoi poaairo in tho faco of what wits occurring, aud this was au 
adraatage which ehotild huvo bucn satiafnctory for the time, 
Bnt our diplomacy — r>Ra knows not in truth why— and at the very 
time when tlio young Khedive wad trying to eiicourago the pride 
of tho natires hy hiB own pride ; at the rery lime when ho was 
allowing tho fureiga colonics to forasoo the possibility of snmu 
day finding again, in Abba* 11., a proper roproAcntative of the 
Khtwltiato of iMinail, toaviiig to the fnreign colonics the froe 
piny of a drtrdopmcnt wldch was exercising itself in favor of 
grttieml progrcas ; at that hour, I aay, onr Uinister at Cairo, fol- 
lowing either hia own individual idea or the instraetious of our 
gorertimeut, commenced a syatemaCio effdrt to delivur the Vioeroj 
of Bgrpt again to the complete Tiusalago of the Suluin. 

Our diplomacy was thus made to servo the ^itn^e tntereats of 
Kiigland, the Oltoman tnfliicti(>c being that on which finally £ng- 
lUb diplomacy has most pnwor tu ael. 

The rvacript of the Khedive on hia departure for Conatanil- 



36 



TBE SORTn A^F.niCAS REVIEW. 



nopla was lamenCable aud of extroine im]x>rUnoc in tho sense thnt 
I inilicata; In aptiointing Ri»x Piichs, KaimAkAn. thiU in to 
uj Itngont, AbbAa II., iiaRil a plinii>o tlikt noUhor Mohomot Ali 
nor Ismuil nor T«vrlJk wout'l buvc employed : 

" llaTio{{iniu[i!niT«nE<!nienl)i bj tbn icrace of (rod to repair toCooBtan- 
ttnople talar oarrtMpeDCtDl honiBRoMt tbe foot of our auinuM MasUr, hU 
Mnji;*tf tb« SulL&n, oLo." 

Tiiiu vovit^o. wliicliBtiporficiAllj might appear as a provocstion 
to KtiglanJ — t.lie English nrliriwrs Iwiiig opposeJ as a matter of 
form to it — Freiiob diploiiiAcy gloriod in as io a aiiccfigs, and 
bcr colony at Cairo had the imprudeitco to applaud It, Tho 
Sulcaii, who is onsof tlm Quest and moiitastutB diplomats, took 
care not to neglect »acli advaDtngcs. fie covered the young 
Khndivo with flowoiB, but be made him follow the jcrand Vizier — 
thus reminding him that ho was only a simple *' Vali/' and that 
Egypt iBBimpiya Turkish province. 

Thns, for an apparent success, French diplomacy forgot its 
tr.iditiniial pidioy: KgypListi autonomy, and its separation from 
Turkiitb authority. At that moment i ultcred a warning cry 
whioh, htul it boon hooded, might haro sared the situation. 

To-day they are talking of a dirvut understanding between 
London and St.-\mbonI, and wo have there, as I »iid nt the com- 
mencement, not only changed our weapons, but surrendered our 
arms to England. 

If Franue continues to act blindly so as to ando the work 
of Ofty years, she will create with her own hands dangor for 
tbu future. A direct nnderataodlng hotireen England nnd the 
Porto may one day be very costly to Downing Street, butwill help 
it to conquer a legal title in Egypt in tho oaaicat manner. What 
renultj} for nnr policy and for the indepondence of Abbsa 11. as 
regards Kngland baa the voyage of the young Khedive to the 
bunks of tho Bosphoros ha<l ? Itraults more than negative. 

Through tha flowers that wore thrown to keep up appcamnoM 
boforo the Mussulman world there wns administored to the 
" raasal" at Oonstantinople a lesson which the English advisers 
of Cairo would not buvo repndiat«d. 

Certainly Abdul Ilamid could not answer with too mnch 
baaghtiueas the sapplications of n faithful poople, wboae spokes- 
men addressed him in terms like these : 

"OKh&lilT, w« bnmblf «ppr«Ach tb*«,ln aabmluins tathu, \hAt th« 



FRANCE AND ENOLAlW IX EOVPT. 



wha chtao into cmr eoantry, with Mm pratextn *b<1 with 
(AMPlMK, p*-rio<llc^ll]r rvpttkttd. lORiawkj, Nm&lnft In oc«iipAUon. 

" O Kbaim. It b th« Und ot Biopt. It la the BAcred Boit, It la th« door 
w»y of Urcc* Kod Uedla*, vrboae i>eop]« oooaa liciora llie« is t4i«n, on ae- 
count uf tilni wbola thr vtcar, Kodlh]rT«pn«enuiiTr.toKn(Iorlbeabonuk|iB. 

" ItMMfWe hint witb laror bacaoae b« axKl w« Rr« tiUudlj ftabjeot to Iby 
will. 

** DrliTOr n* from the preMoic* at tb« ittranmp, far wo uq llks (be bird 
eao^t to tb« net of tb« tDAPer. and put ao cud to our tribal&iloa by tlie 
p«w«r«t( tb» aword ol lti« KIidIIIsIc.'* 

Bat *o far Che young Kbodivo hu obtaiiiod nothing, not even 
tbo recall of tlio OUorniin Cominiaiioiier, of whom Abbm 
Helmi Paubx coinplahiwl us not being Hufliciontljr oppcwetl to tbe 
Kugtiab. 

It is an iUuBiou to believe that tbe Porte wUl ever break witb 
London, wbore rightly or wrongly sbo expects 1il>1{i in the hour 
of Iliiaacinl oritis. or political peril. It U thoniforo a grave (aull 
to have argixl the Khedive to go to Ditlms>Iluj;tcht', iind to have 
AoooQtuatvd by aot aiul bjr wortl the hotuagu tuiJ by llie vuHauI at 
tbo foot of bia august master. 

If our diplomacy answers the fears of the "previsionists/' 
aa to the " o|i|>ortuuUt " |>nlicy, by alleging that nothing has 
been lost, I would remark (beyond the bad rusuUs of the 
abandouriiunt of a ti-aditioual polity, and of the grcat«r intru- 
tioti of Turkish uulhurity iu Kgypt) that iu the place of uu 
anient young Kliodive. impatient of the yoke, desirous of eu- 
fniiobisiug hiinwlf, and thinking himself ouimble of doing so — 
and ill ovDSi-^jiiuucti duteniiiuvil to pu^li bis way uhiwl — wu shall 
«M) a Kbvdive more prudent, less audaoioiis, as u result of tbo 
coaiweb of patteuca that liiivo been given him. and who for tbo 
futare will reflect twice before nosutning a roaponsibility, or nuik- 
tug a bold duciatoti. 

Ko persouulitj is more ongnging than that of tbe young 
Kbadive tryiug to (ind uu ontk't through all the obstacles with 
whkbheitHUrrv^iindedand with wliich thcpathwayeof hindt'stiny 
w blocked. Who kuowB if the KhatiS did not toll liim to submit 
hiiBMK to Knglaad io tbo budc maaucr that his Cntlier. Tewfik, 
app^amd to sobmit hioiBolf. 1 uae the t«rm "appeared," for 
Mr. Cbailia Long. lata United States Consul, ex*coIonel in the 
Bgypiian army, and cbief of tbe American Military Blission 
Qoder Tewflk, wrote to mo after a speech by Mr. Gludtitoiic : 

"Hr.QUdstoavpralsMTvwOkiaiid Amoim th«hltbertouDkaowaqu»ll- 



THK NORTH AlffERICAS REVIEW. 

tl«aof the lat«Kl)edlTehaKtt:ribiit*« to him loyalT^ kdd deretian t« GrMt 
Britain, 1 know injuoir tltvcxminiry. TowDlc tolit in?, la an Intrtvii'n' ihn' I 
bod with liim Id lW(f,CAaf A«cwrK>x tht UnffHah.Htat h4 d4t«tUd th«in eor- 
dinils ; and h* ex^latned to mt the horror anj ik* hatred hs /ett/or 
thfir liawinaiion and oecMpatiat* of hit couiUry. vrhich weight korrMif 
upon Mm." 

Towfik nnablo tocotitrol himself eliovcd liU spirit of revolt 
BguJiiGt t)iu opproHSor, atui svcretlj placiMl liiiiiKHlf iii oommanica- 
tioii wUIi tlie \iili(»iiHl piLTt^ of Egypt. Ttii-n ho died Bud- 
deiily. His ilcutli fuMltdd tlio wuhud of T^nl >:>iiiiabiirj. WiUi 
TewHk atid hiswcrct opposition getting more and morfl coura- 
geous, the noble Lord Imd atixiouHly availed tlie approaoli of Iho 
guneral elections. Thtia, he wan r«ady for all aiidaciliua. 

Tlie Terj joiin^ Khodivo vlto succeeded his father wm of an 
age to submit without the leu^t reservation to the moH abwlata 
tiitoliige. But note thi» mlKchiincc — itt iho lii^t coniruHiid givcu 
bj Lord Cromer the Erigtisli pupil revolted. 

In an intorriow Lord Cromer oxplninii bin diapleasiiru in irordi 
vliicti give a shuck of cold to one's hoiirt. He atud of Abbaa II.: 
"H» is yonng, he hw^ not t/ct suff«n4 like kts father Iheeftdso/ 
rebfilHon, and pfrhaps he doe* not iffJ know tht pov>0ro/£tu/iaitJ.™ 

Will the jroung Kliodive bo vtctorioim orer his tjrrants, or trilt 
he be vaiu|uirthcd bj thumV 11 in to bo desired tliat ho may be 
clfTcr and callable, so that bo oaii extricate hiin»cl( from the 
English machiDiitiona, and train tbo Kj^yptinn pitople, fio tittle as 
y«t prepared for it, to iL8.-dmi1iite tbe iduu of nationality. 

A book of tbe bighoat iuU-ruat, which uiivciU the thoughts of 
England aboat Egypt, whose author ia Mr. Milaer, appuors to rae 
to saro up the questiou as follows : 

PMHTe obodienoe of the Khedivn of Kgypt, who h bound to 
consider all "advice " coming from Enghind aa an " order." 

** We liave ouly tbe right togirecoaiuel to l^ypt," says Mr. 
Hilner. 

But Ijord Qranvillo, who is not often ucciised of being vigoroiii 
in bia expressionii, showed clearly to Sir Kvelyn Baring iu lUtii 
that counsel did twt differ from command. 

" It U ladtatwuMble," wro(«I«ord OMtuvllTe, "(or tbo (coTernnutat of 
Bcr KiOmy> that tbe ndrlnegtren the Khedlre be(nllow«!d. Ttic mlnbiwn 
and EtjfjiptlknKOTemors mAo do net/bUota IM* poli^ twu&t raeign their 

IMMIliONS." 

Mr. Mitner further cit«8 tbo phriisc of Lord DnSeriu : " Tbe 



FRAKOS AND KimLANP LV EOYPT. 



Bll-powrrful band of A reeiilent viU soon linve onrbotl all under 
Wis will." 

ThiK Abbts Puoha can noithor chooeo nor clmngo oiiQ of bin 
mlaiiten witboat tho Antlionzution of bis Eiigliiih ndviiiHr. 

This pretonnoti wm m^vlu public on tiiu ucuitaiuii of what is 
knowu in Kngluiil oa tlio coup d'etat of tlie young Kbodivo. In 
wtiiU diplomiitio (Convention di'l Llio dvlii^to of England, faUariud 
b^ tlie K(j;>'|itiiin Gavormneot, ncqaire tho sovereign rigbt ot vefof 

Biigliuid liiia not atteiuptud to jusLifjr her tcoiporary occupation 
except by pronlaimiuj; iu an olBciulact. at tho bottom of wbioh 
U ttie aiguuturo of ber ropresontutives, that eho oocnpivii Egypt 
only to maiutftiu intorual poaoe to aid in the proper working of thu 
Bdministratiou, and finally to givo up Egypt to Uic Egyptians. 

Porfldy and fuliwliood I 

Tliv most nncere man ia England, tho odttor of Trvtb, Mr. 
liubouchi<ro, wroto : 

"TlMrctU snvItT o( the Blcostion Is thai, up to the prmont Uma. w« 
baf*Ja«tlflcd oaroceupAtloo aud the Tiolatlon of the underlaklnfts nblcb 
wc h»To fftrea Biirofxt, bj mnklnj^ Um pretext, UiAt wa u« prolotif{lng 
Ibo peilodof tbeoocupalluulur lhogri«t«rKappln(«« of tbo KfcrptiAns. It 
\m iMt p<i«tbl« to pltt/ tbltt gums &nx tongur, auil to g«t peupl« to b«tl«v« 
w< ate lo oaracat. 

" tUahUj or wranglT.tbcBKTptUaa like better to Korci-DthcnuwlTeatban 
to be Kovwned b; oa. Tb« HcLlon of AbbiM In no mMilteatlr approiMl br all 
bla people, that ve an BiNntfthenlnft oar garTtsona. do( to defeul Bgrpt 
agalast Cbe Sood^auae, t»C to defeod our oceupatloo ajialnat the Bgypllaaa, 
ami jrot weBMCOaaldartiijrtbaalinplKCxprciuloa of tbo natural aaplratleoa— 
Im (aoorot OQf departure— aa a crfmu o( high tivaAoo. ■ . , Like the 
Irish, tbe BKTPtlaan waat bema rale. We cannotcalltblaseotLmeDt patrlot- 
tani with Iba Irinb. anil troaatKi wllh the Biaptlami." 

Voi<x« are lifted up from timo to timo in KngUnd against the 
ejnicism of Uio Egyptian occupation, but they aro mrc, and pro- 
voke the tmprecutiona of tho majority of th« Liberal party it^df, 
in ipita of Ifao promise* mado by Hr. Qladstono wlion ho naa 
Itudor of the Opposition. 

OoDcoraiag the Bine Book pnblitli<^d in ICaroli- April, 1803, and 
the diipatch ot Lord Roeobery to Lord Cromor, which recalled 
to the young KhciliTe a leason too soon forgotten, the Olobe 
deol&rcd that it is 

** dear tbat England nndcr aCooMrratlve or Oladttoolaa Govefntacnt 
wUI not rvtreaL before ber rMpoaalbillUei." 

The mockery of a ipeech of Mr. Glodstono, who humorously 
proTod timt Fnince hod not the aame ripht« in Egypt u England ; 



40 



THE NORTH AitERlCAN REVtEW. 



the oomcdjr of the iitterpeltntion of Sir Cbarlf« Dilko, Btatiug 
afUT lliia public declaration Uiut " even if the I-ib<;nil Oovcru- 
inent dul nQihittg iowarda corrging oui Hji pnaainri ofeeaauUurn 
be. Sir Clmrlce (author of ffrra/or tiritaih), it<i\i\dt not propose 
a voteof want of eonfiiteuee." All wt'tit to prove tliiit the Litwriil 
\vaiy, Uitiu in iKi\v(.-r, liiul hi it8 i>olicy towanlti Fmuoe uue more 
fuult tliiiu tlie Coiieei-vativos— irnpcTliueut hy]»oori8j. 

Mr. Miiner argues " tlmttlio Egyptians ar« iiicnpabloof actiag 
for tliomeclTOfl as flol<licr«, ag u-iiU lu in civil aH'airs." Thoy have, 
he says, ueci) of buiiig cummaiided tuid suppurled by iudividuala 
of "a 8uj>erIor race." 

English prido ie unboiiuded. Do we not knov by Iho 
Standard of May 11, 1S93, 

*' That tbcro only la one Rntplrv on Ula cttrtb, tlie Rnfcllnfa Empire, aod 
that tbe Enslinb nc« belaoBs Co what Haoiulajr calls ' the bendltarjr uri*- 
lutmcj or buinaulL]'' ' t 

£rom time to time a loyal epirit tolls tho truth to hU country, 
but ho is forthwith chisat^ iia un ccc«iitric individaal, like Mr. 
[>ab(iachere or Mr. Wilfrid Blunt, who published an articlu iu 
tho XiHtteeHth Century which attracted gonerul tttteution> in 
which ho confronts England with tho falsehoods that sho bad 
hoap«d on the bvnofltB of hor occupation of Kgypt. 

A charat^tttristic illiistmtion of the tendency of the Hng- 

liiih — to find iilL-utical nsiiourcce in all argunicntii good, bnd or 

ooutradictory — is tho astounding reply of the Palt Matt Oatdtt 

of March ^{>, 1^1)3, concerning the picture of chao« and disorder 

mado by Mr. Blunt. 

** All Uist Is tmlH*. bnc 1( It were tni« It wootd pror« tbat Baglaad cau- 
not abandon Uftypt-" 

UiiKkilfulnoBS, oontradictionj Hisorder, waste, adtninistra- 
LiTO injustice, incQicicucy, uusurpaased orimcs of "crcaturui" 
iif tho JCngtish. cvuelU&a of the police — such is rery nearly tho 
balance sheet of occupation, lloro and thoro certain mousLrosi- 
ti(^ like tho odious article in the ligyjitian Otttet/e throw a siniiilor 
light upon the Egyptian situation. 

" The lino of conduct of England," ventured to write tho 
official orgau of England at Cairo, "ajipcars to be to allow ihc 
InhabitAnls of tho Up|)or Nile to die of hunger, j'lut until those 
who survive have arrived nt siieb a state of utter focblciieflB that 
the work of oonqucat will itlFcr no further diflicuUy." To satisfy Lbe 



rRA/fcK AND KNOLAND /Jtf eOYFT. 



41 



bondhAldtyni, to pay tbcm ii high jnt«r«iit, siioli is the nolo id«al of 
hvr KDgliKh aiiTisui-H hi Kjcvpt ; llii-ti under oorer of tliis guamn- 
leo to ruin uiid sturrc Kgjr]it<, so im Lo )tlut'e her more uaiuly at its 
tuerojr. Tlio holder of E^YpLinri boiids only sees one tliiiig — 'i1 
inilIioD« of eurplua in 18u:j for the public rcvoDuo of that year, 
Mid 45 niiilions of Rorplus dopositod for tlio payment of the d«bt. 
As to Hgjjit, if iibc oxlmuHU Htid deruum lioniolf, whut iloDs that 
inuttar lo tbo bondfaoidor? Wbeu tbe Kiiglisb epvak of Ihuir 
ItftTil Usk, when thoy e|M<ak of a reserve fund of the debt, of the 
cultivation and purfecU;d crops^ and of abulitioii of Bitkfiaiitt^A, 
now driven nwaj, thej ttil) Dothing new to those who hare lived 
ta Bgypi undvr tbo nigix of [ninnil or Tcwtik, at tliu cpouli of 
Uie couLrol of the coudotuiuiuni. At that period, things 
worked at looat a» wall as now in KgypC Tbora was a rtal 
rumrvt fund, mx>X the debt diniiniitiied, wherejis it lias increased 
So pur cent, during Knglish ot.-uu{KitiuM, yrhiuh is a purtiuent 
tact. As to the coDtnwlc for publio works bnd Bupplivs 
Ul«i«, DO £g:.vptifln will admit that thoy arc tmneact«d in 
raguUr and legal faahioD, which is al«o a matter of some 
gmrlty ! 

Theaa aaserlioDS bare obtained for mo the honor of being 
rpugbly bandied by tbo partisan Kiiglish press of Kgypt, but they 
were never wrioiisljr denied. 

Lord Granville exaggerated, in 1884> tbe reported ruin of 
Bgypt Further than thid, by QuauoiaJ quuUtiouji, of whiuli art 
tli« Eoglish are tniistcrs, and throngh all the jogglery, tbe 
balanoe of Iho budget of Cairo goes on impronng. 

But, while tbe apparent ruiourcea grow larger and tuUaries 
and pi)iisio!t8 iuoreaHe, Eiif^tiitid in multiplying new oflices. She 
often undertakcd public works wbicb ore frequently as excessive 
in number as tbey am useless. 

Yea, Egypt pours into Rnglish oofTors more money than she 
luid into Kgyptian coffufK, but nuilbur i\iti ftHaht nor the gcuoral 
commerce bovouiu enriched in tbe aaiue proportion. It is, thero- 
Jorvi by czbonetion and not by tbe creation of now reaources that 
tfala has been done, and it remains to bo diitcovered if Kgypl has 
found in tbe coat of her new administration any compcusation for 
bar sacriBcsa. 

To that one can anawer " No," for the English thenuolres cfc 
Cum an) forood Lo admit to what an extent all tho public ser- 



43 



THE SORTB AifERJCAS RBVIBW. 



viocs are neglected. One of ray friendu wrote to me from there 

sonic timt- u^o : 

" Xbo BAnitw; condition of BRrpt Is Ibe c*iim of dAlljr complalnu. In 
Si{jpt,ooD>taallf tbreacened wlLlictiolers from luUia, the appropriiiUau 
(ortttoltanr pnrpcne* oiil; ^nanuaUi to mroalj Utouwuid ptHindii for the 
cm ot lU live mUIiODA of (Dl>&t»liuitB, wbUe bb« rat« ot mortalitj reaebes 
ocmNlonftlly uixi; jxr lliviuftud." 

TIio defective orgHuization of tlie Tigyptian u-mj is notorioas. 
They Iuitc not, mon^ovcr, couaod to Icutl tliem to certain defent — 
in fighting the Suudmicse. 

Th« iuati-uction of the army is deplorable, and wliat thej have 
learned comos from llio French and Ainoricun niiiutioDs, which 
the Kiiglish wish Huppressed. The only thing that the Kiiglisli 
huTo bovn forcvd to kvvp intact 18 the military echool, which id 
in tho bauds of a Frenchman, Larmf'e Pacha, who conid not 
be n>|)hii'(>d, " Ibe Kngli«h nut having suOiciout iiiBtriiotioa 
to take charge of the school." This is the ^ftt^t'phrase used by 
Loirm^e Pucha to Colonel Chiiillc Long, who rrpeatud the words 
to mo. In an iwcces of nicoholic foltv did not an oflieer of tho 
army of occuputiou hum the prmiioua dooumenu and scientlfio 
reports, the fruit of thirty years hibor, of tfaeofficen of tho Fr«Rob 
and Amcricnti mitusiona ? 

The English have so little faith id their famoua reorganization 
of the Egyptian army, that they constantly rejjiiforco the army of 
oocnpation, which from 3,000 men has beeii increased to 10,000, 
thus further exiianating impoTDrisbed K^vpt for this new expense. 
From time to time tho English generals drag a portion of Lho 
native army to tl:o Soudanese frontier. Then tho tragi-eomedy 
rucominonces. Thoy repel an incursion of der^-tshos, a certain 
number of Egyptian soldiemarc killed, and thus tho "Soudaucfle 
peril " BO dear to Lord Salisbury is reiiowed, 

It would be Deccwary to devote manypagcfltoproTethal E«g- 
laiiiJ deltbomtely lowers the standard of sliidiea for tho youth of 
Kgypt, aud that slio endeavors to keep tbem in a state of 
ignorance which guamnteea the invader BCtutiat tho chums of 
a host ot young and oducuted patriots. 

Those who continue tho work of Mr. Milner will have a good 
opportunity in a few years to dcchiro that ihe E^^yptinns are with* 
ont any personal valor and need to be led by a anp^rior race. 

All the docuD)enl« that have btM>ti rommuDicated to me, and 



FRASCB AyD KXOLAXO IS «JrPl. 



43 



Uiat [ bare cnuRCil to bo pitt>lt8h«i) and circulated by nil llie 
DiHans in my power — by tho prau, bypamphleU and by rapiibUca- 
tiua, fltc. — if I could f;ivo them In a iliart review ai'ticlv, would* 
witliMt possible rofiibitioii, couQrm wlml I buYo just udraQced. 

ll«r« Ia one uf t)iu (iooutneiiLs that I hiivc reoeired from a 
Crusty wurco, ami th»t I liavu nlroiuly publinhud : 

"Horlgapo on n«l m(ftii> «iul Und In Ritrpt, which (roin t&'tS l>i 
UBl lfioraaa«d lo th« enoruions extent of 30 [mp wot., a.re ntlll IncriM- 
Inft OB ueonnt of th« Kverltr witb whieh uxom ak c«Ue«tM froca 
tbe farmer. Tti^ morttpiRMj* pi]rcb*»« for £15, »aiiiCll<uo« fo^ £10, laitd« 
wUkb ttio or {tircejFMrs atco were worth £30 tbu (ud-lui. At the prwi' 
snlmoinniit Llip losd* of Luwor Etopi.bttonfftitg ta na/Cvf fanntrxnn 
■nortcait^il at au OTerace nit of 10 per ceat. Aft » niiUl of UUs. la 
•boui tuurr»r* ibalMlf aflbww t»>M-raff«r«laMUieirUii(U.' 

All tlial is tbe frail of tbe occupation and ol tliosyttematio ex- 
ploitation of tbe t4>il«r, wlio ruettirsagaiiiat tbeEiiropeaiiadanger- 
oai and daily increuing hate. On every side h« runs against 
EngliAh ini placability. Spiirnod, drivon back, ho in on all ocoi- 
•iont tli« prtfv of thoso wlio invaded h\a oouutry, with tliosotomn 
promlao of bxlping him to govuru it, and Lo delirer up B^ypt 
to the E^yptian^. They tell the orppresaed one that he is poor 
and without iDteUignncc — and tbey try to make him poorer and 
mort rtupid. 

If I wen) U> enoinarate at length tbc English traps in whiab 
Ptmnee and her s^nts hate allowixl tliemselres to bo caugbt, 
tliolist would b« a lamentable nno. 

Tbo prDJi>ct ol judiciary reform as expounded by Mr. Scott 
one of tbe gmveat daugera to which foreign colonies are 
pibnd in Egypt. 

The matter maybe ioimmedupaa fullows — natiro jiiriiidiction 
is not yet in our hands, but wo ore prvpiiriug Egypt for ita dea- 
tiny of icrvilndo t« ourselves. 

We will people it with our friends and creaturet), and ve will 
■0 manmuvre that by and by tbe life and property of Biiropeamt 
will be entirvly at our di^rttlion, and then wu will dispoao of 
Egypt, We will Biirrwmd tbc fiuion of mlivd tribunals and 
Boliro tribunala with all the appmrancoi of guarantees and all 
intaglnablo promises. We will employ all tbe terms known to 
dlptomaey, wo will yi<^Id, we will make formal conceaiions, but 
wo will gain our point. 

Wbfu wt' nboll no longer be hampered by the Connular Courts, 



44 



Tan NORTH AMERICAN HKVIKW. 



TCetigea of u former epoch, and when we shaJl have learned 
thfi poMrer of the Court of Aluxandrui, wo ehnll my to bite Powers 
Umt, haviog Bupprosse*! for tlnj Kg_vptia.iis purely uatioual jurw- 
dictioii they cannot r(H|uira uh to miiiiitaiii for their benellc on tbo 
soil of Kgypt nil Lliew foreign and dletiiivt juriiulictioiu. " The 
ar<;umoi]ta invoked for tlie creation of the Itvform tribuniUn wu 
will aso ill favor of our rooombiuatiuns/'eay tho Kiiglish, aud 
thus the Cutisulur Cuarca and tha "oapitulatioiia," tha only pro- 
tection for Egypt ogHiriBt our CduI xciiurf, will no longer exlit. 

What havo we done up to the preseut limu to atrugghi agnioBt 
tho tnAiiuMivroa of our rtvaU, of our eaemies nt Caii-o f By whub 
acts bars wd pruoticnlly and oontinuiUIy protoote>l iCgypt agaliut 
bur gmdual nuizuru by purlldioua Albion ? W-hun have we taken 
iu liaiid the intorestd of tha opprassod Kgyptiau p««ple f Wd 
bare done nothing in furor of the opprcaiMd onea and, worn 
still, ve have b«on opposed to the abolition of foi-ccd labor. Our 
agent'* have ofteu uppuarud not only to be tired of the ooutest 
agairiKt England, not only to be povorluus to coiitinuo it, but more 
than once the attitude of our Mirtistvrs at Cairo haa been, as one 
of our national IX-putii;;4 rucuiitly informtnl mc, "u source of eu- 
couraj^omenC to anti- French enterprises- " 

And it ia at tho solicitation of our agents that our governineDt 
Hm given \\s consent to tho wor^t measures against tho future of 
Prance and the Freaoh colonies in Kgypt 

Except in two intituncfs — that of tho lioeote lav, and 
tho Bolion of the 8ultan aa to Akuba and Sinai — let us fniukly 
atlinit that i«inco 188:} we have given up all courageous, in* 
teltigent, and far-seeing resistance to the English invasion of 
Kg>-pt. 

But now At last wo clearly understand the rAlo plaji'd by 
Guglarid for tho past t«u yo&ni — which is established by a thou- 
sand proofe— that in place of increasing the pr<:5tigo and author- 
ity of the Kbvdivu, she has towor«d and broken them; that 
tUBtcad of aiding the native oapucity in its dflvelopment^ she has 
uuiply crushed it; that sooner than holp the local element, or 
enlighten the national spirit of Kgj'pt. Kngtand would weaken 
them, and place her sinister influence upon thum ; that, in short, 
instead of working; for the reorgauixatiou of Kgj'pt for thu bos^fit 
of the Egyptians, she lias with implacable hat« done lier best to 
make auch roorgautxatioii impossible. 



FRANCE AND ENGLAND IN EGYPT. 46 

It is necessary to conclude. To-day we hare tested the 
probity of the Liberal party of England and its loyalty to its 
promises — let iis struggle with the only arms that remain in onr 
hands. Let ns defend the rights of the people of Bgypt ; let as 
also protect those of the foreign colonies ; let no concessions 
be made as to treaty rights ; finally let us co-operate by otir 
support with the Khedire, not in intrigues, but in his legitimate 
sovereignty, with the final aim, in accordance with eqnity and 
with the law of history, of restoring Egypt to the Egyptians. 

JUUBTTE ADAK. 



A LAST WOKD ON THK SOUTH CAUOUXA 
LIQUOU LAW. 

BT THK nOH. B. R. TILI-MAJT, OorERKOB OP SOCTH rAROLtSA,' 
AKD TUB nOK. W. F. DARQAK. MAYOB 
OF HARLIltUTONt B. C. 



GOV. Tn.(.MAN: 

The trX|tt.Timmit of Ifgislaticm for thti rontrol of l\w Uquor 
tnitTic wbioli hue been mvlo in .Si>utli Carolina, during the year 
boginniiig Jnly» I8d3, has excit«il widespread intcrost. In pro- 
Ttoas articlei in TiiK Rkvikw 1 have gitpii my opinion aa to the 
merits of tho DiapenMirj s^stvm, togctlicr with Huob fouta u weru 
th«n obtainable, tctiding toshov tbesuperionty of thePiepensary 
over tbo licensod saloon, from a t«ui|)oraiico standpoint. Kverj- 
tbing prninisi>d Hspcvdyaiid almost total en ppre^^inn of the illegal 
tnillic ill lifinor, wUeii, on April 10 lust, the Supreme Court bj u 
Tot« of two to otio dccloK-d tho Diftp^-nsiiry law uuconstitutioDiil. 

It would be difHcuIt to d&icribe th© nurpriso and disfjiirft mani- 
fested by a large tnajoriLy of our people when tins int^Iligenre 
rouchod thorn. Th« constitutionnlitiy of thu law had booiiitiistsiiicd 
by the United Slates Circuit judgo ; eovi-noutof eightof th« Slate 
Ctroiiit ji)dgo8 hadBU8tuiiii<(l ihv law ; the Tiicjuor Driers' Afoocia- 
tion, of Charlcgton, had onjiloyed the best legal taloi.t in Ibo 
Stale> and bad rcooiTi-d it as Llie opinion of the uttonioya that the 
lav W1I4 impregnable uid c«iuld not b« altnoked on ita constitu- 
tionality. The Supreme Court itself, in s previous cose arising 
ondor it, in Mav, 1803, unanimouely declared : 

" The onlf question rvally [iirolved ber* b wlielher "ftld »et rtolat^ the 
oonntlluilon la (oTbicldinK <!"> KnotlnK o( iJccmva u> raUtU spirituoa-* 
liqaore beyond ttw3Utli diir of Jaoe, ISRS, axtd to ihatquesllOQ w« hare coi 
fined aar HI teulton.iuidbkveteftcbed Lbeeoocliuiotithftblbeaald srUlM^K 
in tffect an act to rtffttiate th* taU o/ aplritumts Jfi|uora,— to do whkb it 



A l.ASr WOHP OS TBE SOUTH CAROUSA UQVOR LAW. 47 

onlrenUlf mecHtnlzod,— (( Isqaltocloftr thftt Ihers to noililoK oncMMUlu 
tbMullafMblddlnfi lb«f[rftBtl''Kof liceaMw to mU liquor vxcepl la the tnui 
Mr rraKribi'd )n tbcKt." 

ToaggTftr«teU)cettaiitioa tliedinsioDb«tTedu tbe judges iru 
mtanf; politicnl liitcs, the diucnling jtidgo, who iipheli) tlic cod- 
ititntionalilj of tlie law, being h reformer, or "Tillmanite," 
rhile tlie two «iatrol)iitg jadgM are " uiUs," and belong to tbo 
.old rigi'NC. The friendi of tlio taw oatuially denounced tbe de- 
'eiiion oa a political and purtiuitn one, and tbocbaitgc of bn~« by 
the jndgcfl from the poBition held in the prcTious Mny, in tlie 
Chester chko, already cited, together with the forced and inconec- 
quflnti«largumc-nta adduced to enstaiti it, lend color to the eharge. 
For faffetched, nnnatural, and strained cotistniction and illog- 
ieul deductions, this decision will Bland ne n monnmeiit to show 
liow far Judges will go when prejudii-es or feelingn are allowed to 
inflsencc their niiiidt). (iooOwIu suys of Lord Coke tbi*t " where 
pnoedcDt (ailed, be had roconree to the invention of a principle to 
jnatify him in deciding as ho plniKcd." Our Court ba« gone 
fnrther than this. It hiia " iiiTented " new principlea and orer- 
luraed tbe best osUiblishL-d old ones to flud excuse for this de- 
dsioo. It out-berodd tlerod and out-c«)c<M Coke ; and so mnddy 
wsa tho deoHion that no two lawyers in the State eoiild ngrc« m 
to what wan the iitdttu of the liciuor truRic nnder it. Tbe only 
thing made clear wa« that the Court declared the Dispeoaary lair 
to b« unconstitutional. 

Let it be nnderstood that tbe Act upon which they were paw- 
ing was the fint Dispensary biw, approved December 24, 1893. 
Alter considering the law in all it« beurings and having 
lSmcI experience of ita benefits for six inonths, the General Assom* 
hly bad itrarigtbened it, rlariflod it, and improved it in I>«c«m- 
ber laat. Aa every rjuealion of oongtitntionality bad Ven pre- 
erntcd to the Conrt in Hay^ 180S, two months before tbe law was 
to go into I'fFect, if the Court had any doubt as to it4 coudtitution- 
ality It was clearly its duty to stop tbe State from committing tbe 
wrong of "driving its citiKensout of bosincsa" atid of *' monopo- 
lizing" the liquor tradic for itaslf. But the judges could not thou 
•OD aa clfarly aa they did a year later, when they iisperted that " the 
Disponaary law conflioU with the following aoctions of our State 
eonxtitution : 

Artlct* I, SM-Uaa 1 : " All mm are born frwa and sQual— «intowed liy 
Utalr CfMilor wlib arrUlii laalivaable righrs, atnonff which mre tbr H|^U of 



4ft 



TTTK sonrn AtfRmcAN rbvtkw. 



ttoioylnKKiA dttnnAina itieir II vn anil libertlM. of ftniiijritiK, pottsttmlaa. And 
proceciiuK properif.xndHcckineand obtoiolRK iholr fiaietyMnHuipfitaeaA." 
Sffclluii M of LIii: Hame aicicli- : " No jienou kIiaII Iw deii|M>il«il or dinpo*- 
■onnfit e( blA property. Iminutiitlfvi, or pririlp([tt«, or dcprfvrd o( hiu Ule, lllh 
ertrioreaute, but by cb« Judgment of taUpeen or th« lAwot thsJuid." 

In order to present tbo arg^amenU which I ahull odvatico to 

show tbo couBtitutioDolity of tbo lav, I must briefly give the 

groundfl upoQ which the Court ororthrew it. Qaottng the above 

pani{;ruplis from tho Stato conetitntion, they iiext declare the law 

to be in conflict olno with the following from the 12th acctioD 

of Article 1 : " Nn pcraon eball bo prevented from holding, ftcqoir- 

inf;, and transmitting property." After expatiating on the in- 

alieimble right of personal liberty and prinito proporty, tho court 

qaotes with unction the following from ik[r. Jastice Bradle; (A'n^ 

Ahlolft b\ S. Rsporia 388) : 

" There in no mom n&cnMl rl^lit of cillzcnnhip than tb« Hftht to punou 
tuiiDol«et«d B lawrul ciDplojmciit In K lawful manner. It b nottilnx more 
nor lefta Iban ttto aarred right of iattor." 

The idea of Bpeaktug of tho liquor traffic as uD iaalieiiable 
right of " personal liberty and pri>iito property," or describing 
A bor-kccpor standing behind his connter and dishing oat 
poison aa one of those possesBing the "sacred right of labor"! 
To bolster the claim that the li^^uor basinera is legitimate, tbe 
Conrt then cited the decision of the United States So prorae Court, 
Lcisy vs. Hardin (135 V, S., page 100). This is tho celebrated 
■'original paekage" caee from Iowa. TheOonrt ignores altOf(othor 
the fisct that Congress by tbe Wilscm Act ban overridden the Su- 
preme Court in that caae and has expreealy pliiC4.tI wliiskvy under 
the absolute anddirect control of the State Legislatures, poseeasing 
none of tho rights attaching to any of tho ordinary articles of 
merchandise under tbe Interstate Commerce law. 

The judgment goes on flounuoriug from one non-sequiiur to 
another, and onnouticeB the following: 

" Now, while tho pover of tiio Icslitatare to toaot such laws aa luaj be 
dosmod ncocaaarr and proper to rctrultite the oale of IntoxicaUiig Uqaors by 
anyperaon withia tbeUmlM of theSlato. inordcr topmreator at leaalto 
ndooe an ftr iw poixlbk ih« nvilt which ara apt to flow from such a tralllc, 
IsoOQCed^d, yet wci caaoot regard the IMspeoaary law aa aoeh an act.~ 

Indeed it mast be a contradiction in terms to speak of an net 
of such a charofitor as this is as an act to roguUite the sale of liquor 
by the people of the State; for it is diQicult ti> &oo how an act for- 
bidding a sale can be regarded as an act regulating such sale. 



ALASTWOnOONTlISSOUTaOAROlJSAUiiDORLAW. 4Q 

That which is forbidden cannot well bo n)gulit«d. This u th» 
VC17 profandi 1/ of legal ac:umi?n and oommun4ense ! If liquor 
i» forbiddnrt to be solil by any odd, excepting bonded Stat« 
offioei««aad thoso olficcra aro forbidden toecll itunlci^ilhaabetti 
tihemically lumlyzed uail placed iu ccrlain sized senlod pnckaj^os to 
b* sold within Ctiruin hours at s certain price, under restrictloiu 
Dftining tho purckiuer of crery package — minors and druukardii 
beiDK boiTod the right to parchaee — H this is not a well-rcgnlated 
buiiUH I woald like to know tho memiing of tho word " rogu- 
liUed." But tho Court proclaims aland: ** You haro created a 
monopoly, and the State usurps the inaliouable right of her 
dtisotia." Lot as seo. A monopoly, iu law. ia a fninahi^ 
or priTilcge enjoyed by eome ono person or corpomtion, 
from which alt othon are shot ont How can tho Statu goT- 
animent, which is tho reprosentative of all tho people when 
it aoHinies control of a recognized nnisitnce to protect the 
people, and ases tho c-molnmonts of the basinws as a fund in 
the State TVoasury for the benefit of all the people, be said 
to oroatfl a monopoly ? If a monopoly at all, it is n monopoly of 
the whole for the benefit of thu whole, both as h matti3r of police 
roi^latioo and ai a matter of profit, nai is the very ontithceid of 
n monopoly. An tho profit feature is purely a matter of adminis- 
ttsLiou and may be deslroyed, and a loss created by a change in 
the price, there ia no principle inroWod; and when tho Court an- 
twuncos M it dooa, tJuit if there were uo profit in tho basinoas it 
wonld bo oongtitutionni, it aurrciiders its whole contention. 

Digouning the queHtton of the State going iutobueinoas in 
oosnpotiliou VFitb itii citizens, tbo Court tells ds that thifl is nn- 
cooatitntional. It is idle to deny, for otir experience of nice 
months hiUBbown it to he tnio. that the .Stale nlono can handle 
the liqnor traffic as a hnHiuess with any degree of sutiafucUon in 
miniiaizin^ the nuisance inherent in it. When tii^eiiHes were rc- 
f}uirud and lii|uor allowed to be sold only in incorpurated towns, 
ai was tho law hero prior to the Dispensary aystem, a monopoly 
wai oreatod in two waya. The towns had n monopoly as against 
tha ooontry (decided by thiasame Court to be constitutional), acd 
those who obtained lic^nBca, which were fixed according to the 
jndgmtntof the municipal anthoritics, obtained a monopoly nnder 
im>l«ctlon of the SUilc liiw, for which a price was paid, and the 

SUt* was buund to see this monopoly protected. Tbore were 
Tou cui^. so. i5-4. 4 



50 



THE yORTH AMERICAN REVIEW. 



reflations, both manicipal and legislatiTc, sgainet snlM on San* 
day and sales to minora. Tbey have Devor been eaforoed, and ex- 
perieiioe shows that they cannot bo enforced, eimply becanw of 
the iiolitical influence exercised hy the burke«]>era apon the offi- 
oeiB charged vtth that dntjr. It cannot well be claimed then that 
the rale of liquor by tho State ia a " busiQCM " in the ordinar; 
acceptance of the term. She aeanniwl control for a epociSo pur- 
pose ; tliat of policing and reffttlatiug tlie trafnc Tlie proSt la 
au incident and, m I have shown, may be oliniiDated; bat ia 
necessary, in the iotercetof temporance, toproTfluitbe eucoorage- 
motit of roniiuinptiori by making the liquor too cheap. Knt it 
is not euch a bad things nor has it been bold QncouatitutJonat 
bj our conrts. State nnd iiiitionAl, for the United States Qovern- 
roeut or for the 8tate govenimouta to go iato " hnsindss." Tbe 
United States Ooverument ia In the bnstQ^ia of transporting the 
mailH, hae made it a monopoly, aud pruloct« that mouopoty by 
stringent laws. It in in the biiRincss of tnanufactaring anna and 
building ships. It is in the busiucss of printing and engraving. 
Tho United States also went into the business o( building rail- 
roads, very extensively, about twenty-Svo years ago, (and gtviag 
thein away.) if not directly, still indirectly. The State of New 
York long ago went into tho busiDCSs of building canals, greatly 
to tho benefit of her people ; the State of Georgia wont into tho 
business of building rxilronds direct, and still oicnd a line from 
'Atlanta to Chattanoogii, worth nine million dollars. None of 
those things has been considered nnconstitutional. But when- 
ever sCM^iely liM attempted, through l4>gi8lation, to stifle the erils 
of the liquor trallio tbu courts have always been prone to throw 
obstacles in tho way and place the conatiiation. State or national, 
in the pathway of reform. It ia a sacred word, but many eins 
are committed in ita name. 

Our Court has reversed its own opinion inside of twelve 
moutlis. It ba> enunciated doctrines of law, in its recant 
deolaions, that are contrary to all the aooepted principles and re- 
peated decisions of the United States Supremo Court. 'I'akc 
tilts opinion for instance. On the question of the "inalienable 
right "of the citizen to sell liquor, upon which so much stress has 
been laid, in MnglcrTs. Kansas (US tl. 8.), Mr. Jnstioe Har- 
lan siud : 

** Sncb a right dot* aol labtm wllb citiseiublp, nor gmi U Im said that 



A LAST WOHD ON THE aOXJTH CAROLINA LIQUOR LAW. 

Ike gOT«nim«Dt liil«r(«rt* with or [mpalni aoj oiw's oomtitnUooftl 
rilbUof llbwtjorof property when U tI«t«rialncB ibftt Uw mMiafactur* 

. ■■dMlaollatoxlMlInt; drlokb fori(i^ti«riil or fuitltlilu*! dmm k WTtragv 
t*<wam]Pbeoo«i«ban/ul tunorlnl}-, aadcoiuUtuio t.ticrotora abuslonalD 

I wklflb DO ooe maj enKiifie." 

Agiiin, Mr. Jaslicc V'uM, in Orowley tb. Cbrlatiaiifleii (137 it. 

8.H^rtn, 01): 

" Their •*!« la tb*t form nwr b« ati«otBt«Iy pr«biblt«(L It U a ^uostUra 
tit iitiUlc espedleocT and publin luorftlllj ottd not of fcilciml l»w, The police 
iwirer of Ibc St«lr> U fnllr conpvlc-nl to rctfoliite tliD hmtlRns, to mIctKAle 
luevi1a,or (osuppri.-«*llcnttrcly. Thtre U uo [alierrat riitht la Acillnsu 
to tall inioxlcatinii liquor* \ij nslHil. ft I* not k prlvilvK" oT ■ cilisvn of tD« 
•taUorof krillieti of I hi' Unlttid Stmt«n. Thu nMoiicr biiiI extent at regH- 
iMtod twts In tiiB diKreitori ol the gaTemlnit amhorietc^.'' 

Oongr o M hu s'looo pnt liquor at vliolosalo or in original pacb- 
lagei tn tbe same category. 

Then talie this opiuion on the constiLalional power of the 
Ooaonl AfiMmblj of a HUiUs, in the ca«i> of Giozza Td. Tieraaa 
<148 U. S. Jliporlt 6C1), b; Chiot Justice Fuller: 

' Innapaci U« uf th« ap«r»tion of the bxtoral o^ a all tut loo, nod rvstriotloOB 
linl (u be lahcrmi In the natiiD? ol Ataorlran Inattt lit Ions, the Keoenl 
rntsUUiat there km uolimlcaUoiM upon tbe luitislalirepoireror the )«eli«. 
latarvof aSlate.esocpl lh<)^ lintKUfHl hj lUi whtl«n constitaclon. There 
1* nothlofl; in tli« ConBtJtattan of TeKOBrentrlcting the power ol the legis- 
lature in reference to I be •*!« of liquor; and It la ncll sottlcd thai the !<■]{{• 
Ulur* lit thai Slate hiM the pow«r to nRiilale the modi and manner, and 
lb* clrcii<ti«tMKc«, under wblob tJta liquor traSIc mv b<f conducl«d. and to 

, Mrrovnd tlw rtRbt to ponup II wHib nucb eondltiona, rwtriciiviw, and Unl' 

. tetiaiia u th« Icdahtture maj dM-m proper." 

It irould Ik- difiicult to inako language ptroiigcr or to put the 
qaoftioD at muo in a more clear and oonrinoing light. There id 
a nidica) itiitiitcttou hctween the power of Congress, under tlie 
..tlaiied Stated CouHitiilioii. and Uie powers of a. Logialature of a 
'Btalc. In hrict it is the acoepted role, anil nniversatljr reoof;- 
nls«d, that the federal govemcnent hw no rights, nor poweri;, and 
Con^roas caimat lr>^iRtat4<, except under an explicit gnuit from 
the fL-dcnilcuiistiEutiuu; irliilo the Sute LegiKlatareacsudo any- 
thiog and enaot any law not forbidden by the .State conatitutione. 
The sectiona of our 8tato constitutioD which hare been quoted 
by our Supreme Court as conflicting with the Diepeuaary law, 
and therefore nullifying it, oau in reason receive no such inter- 
pretation. In fa<!t they do not bear on the question at all. 

Meet meu wouhl no doubt contend for the inslicuablo right to 
drink whiskey ; uo eeosibto raaa, of this time, will c»}ntend for 



m 



THE IfORTH AMERICAN REVIEW. 



sQ inatlenablc right to sell tU There beinj; oo prohibition, ex- 
press or itnplicil, [ii onr oouBtJtutiou lo prevent tlio Stato'i 
BolIiDjr liqaor in the exercjfle of its police power, the argumeat 
fftlls to the gronnd ; and the people, throngh their repr«fl«nta- 
tires, bitYc the right to pass on the wisdom or unwisdom of the 
lav in giieHtioQ. It is usurpation pare and sitnplf, for the 
jndgua to HliLiid np and sa; to them, ''You shall Dot regulaU- 
tbeliqnor traffic in this mnnner." 

WUl the people of Sonth Carolina gnbmii to this ? is theqnoe* 
tian that modtlr interesta tliu oulsidc world. UqIcib I am ej^re- 
^iouftlj mistakou, the; will iiot. Ouce before when our Suprmno 
Court, in 1833, attempted this kind of usnrpalion the Legislature 
met and nbolislKM] the Court. The people in the United States 
arc the isourco of all political power. They are greater than con- 
etitutioDs and courts. They make and can unmake both. Por- 
tnnatoty, at the ooming election in this State, the quoetion of 
cfllling H coDRtitntional (>nnvoritiort will be Totcd on. The Dis- 
jionwkry will be one of Iho priuciital isanesia the camfmign abont 
to b^iit. The fricudg of lempcraii<» may reatcosy. The South 
Carolina ezporimcut is not dead, nor is itlikoly to die. ThoDis- 
pcnwiry liiw is stron^r with the people since the deoieion of the 
Court tliau it u'ae bi'fore ; and if it be nccesinry to givd the direct 
power to the Slate to enter into busine&i, the people will incorpo- 
rate it in the organic law. I repeat it lu my doliVcrato judgment 
that the Diitpcnsnry EVslem has come to stay, and that if it h not 
coiiatituLionikl it will be made ao. In fiice of the decifioiui t 
have citeil, however, and the arguments advanrfj, it appears to 
mo imTMSsiUc for nny reasonable man to deny that the law 
is a legitimate exoretee of the jtoltve power, and that it ia jnst lu 
constitutional for the State to sell liquor as for the State Lo licenao 
its sale. If the Stale can prohibit its sale altogether — and this 
no one is bold enough to deny — the State caa do aoythiog lets, 
Ifor the whole is groater than any part. 

B. R. TlLLMAK. 



UAVOR DAROAN: 

Oov£KKOR Tillman'8 article entitled " Our Whiskey Rebd- 
Uoa"in the May number nf the NmiTii Amkrican Review ia 
oalcnUted to mialead the tbiDking public, and as a repreaeotatire 



A LAST WORD OS TUR SOOTH CAHOLf.V.i LIQUOR LAW. 53 

Dirliagtou I fed it my duty lo present a few facta, for tlis 

KkstioD of which 1 innte investigation. 

Oor people are not cbaropions of vhiskey, and the men vho 

tnaiaUin tbeir rights &s ag&inst Oovomor Tillnmn or any 

eLie, as a rule, sr« not itlcalifled with tbu liquor buKiuwii ; on 

the contrur; some of them are strong probibitiooistd. aud am 

odfoeatM of {MACO, taw, and order. I T«iitQro th^ opinion that 

"Dot on'^•t«^tll of ihe itvUuri of liquor in tlii>; Stato lu-o native 

CaTDliniiiM. 

A fow yrsm ago the people of thta old oommoiiwealtli. tired 
•od turn by the troables and triola incident lo the war, broken 
1)0 ipint and fortiiao, and 8triTini; to adjiigt themselvM to 
the uw order of things, had tunitid tlicir aLLuntion to tbe 
baildiug Dp of Itieir broken fortunes, aud were learning and 
[tBMbug their diildron iu tliii iwd school of adfersitv, )Kitieitc«, 
wdonuico. Tbry wure giving but a piiuive attention to 
poUtiot, vhiah they allowed to bo run by men whom tber liad bean 
taofht to li)VL> and honor fur their patriotiam and sacrifices. 

In IHWt 4ii)Tortior Tillinaii roao up with charges of incipient 
rottann«aa against tbo powora that he, ontorcd upon an active 
craado of ngitution, made charges against every hotly and every- 
thing lliu ]KH>ple bad believed in, arrayed otau ngainat (i1a«ii, »{i. 
kiMMled to tbu prejudices of the " wool hat" and "one-galluB boys," 
cited tbi) farming population against tho towns ; aud made the 
iMt vxtraragnnt promisea aa to the good that would follow bis 
He made overtures to tho FsnneiH* Alliance and 
l^'Aiaiaod their inpport. To hustundard llocktd nit political mol- 
eattteata and soro-bcad politicians who had for years failed to 
in office from the Demoorutio party. He waa elccli^l. His 
bjaot being accumpliehed and no rottenness or crookediicfis 
sppcariug, he had to confess that his charges were nnfounded. 

Ho realisation of the many pronitacs boiiig a|>|>uiviiL From his 

fint adauniitration, in the next campaign ho told tliv pMple that 

the Legislature hod failed to do its duty, and that if Ihoy would 

liim a Legtilatore that would do as ho told them, he woald 

We all the reforms ho had promiood. ) n tliiit cuinp»i)>n of 1898 

Dim ijua mn for olHce was belief in Governor 'i'illman. iu 

^«Oit of the ooonties no ono could be elected, no matter wbo or 

how capable, nnlaas lie professed to ho a " TillniAuiLe." 

At this Deraocraltc primary tho Probibitioui^ls had a bnx 



THK yORTH AMEnSCAN REVJRW. 



wluTO each voter wiu roqooited and urgod to voto for or k^uiut 
prohibitiuQ. Tbe result of the primary tviui about 10,000 oujor- 
itj for prohibition, and both hoiiKes of tbo Ijt)gi«latare ware orer- 
whelming-Ij- rjirrieil by the "Tillmanitea." When the T^ejiislature 
met, ttcvcrul proliibitioii biUti wcru mtrmlucod aad thu light WM 
OQ bflttr^en prohibition and higli lioensc. Tho majority of tho 
" Tillman itas" wore pledged t> prohibition, hot Onvemor HU- 
man is not a prohibitionist ; thtia thoso aubaerrient so^adled rep- 
peaentativcH nf the will of the people were "hetwixt the devil and 
the deep soa"; they baJ promised their confltitnenta to voto 
for prohibition, and th^iir cnistcr did not wish prohibition. 
So when he, within forljr-eight houra of adjauniruont, 
had prepared his now celebrated Dispensary bill, ami taclced 
it on M on amondmont to a prohibition hill, then about to be 
pniued, by Htriking out all of the hilter except its title, and anh- 
fltitutiag the Diiipeiisary bill, it passed. It is not iiuppciiied that 
one-half doxen members of either houae ever beard of aiich a 
■y;itoiu boforo, and it would have bc«n an itQ;K>8^bility for nuch a 
meaKure, so introdticed, to pa*i tbut or nny other logiiilatiTe body 
except Qudur this peculiar condition of allairs. 

This Didpensary bill hiu been dealared unconstitntioDnl and o 
■ubvcrdioa of Ihu functions of gorenimont, by our Supremo 
Cuiin ; henee it )9 iHolew to diicass its merits or demerit-t. 
Though extroiiiely stringent and dnutiu in itJ m:iny prOTutiona, 
having been gotten up harrie<lly, it was very imperfect, yet it 
WOOgDised local option. A diepunaary coutd not be placed in a 
prohibition town or county, and before it uould bo eetabliahed in 
any town a majority of tho freehold votora had to Join lu a peti- 
tion for it. 

Id 1893 when the Legislaturo met, onotbor Diapousary hill was 
passed, and ita meiunres were still moreaevereand arbitrary. Que 
or more djgpoasariea could he eatablisliod for oach connty iu tbe 
Siulv, with this difference : that to prevent its catabUshmcnt n ma- 
jority of the rotera of tho township iu which such dispouaary was 
to bv locflted hud to bo ohtniocd to a petition requeatiug that no 
dispensary be OfitshliHhed in that t^wn^hip, whereupon some other 
place conid be designated. In countiea, townji, and citicH where 
liquor-sclliug was prohibited by law a dispensary oould be estab- 
lished upon A petition, signed by ono-fonrtb of tho qualtOed 
voters of 3ucb county, town, or city, being fliod with tho connty 



A LAST WORD Olf TUB SOUTH CAROLlNd LlQUOli MIT. 86 

oommisaionors, or tovu or city coanon, reepeatively; then an 
election wss roqnirod to bo hold, sabmittiag the qaostioii to 
the Tot«ri of such coantjr, town, or city, and if a majoritj of 
Ui* ImIIoU OMt wu found to be for u diepeuBurir it wiw r&- 
qoired that one be established. Id two of the prohibition ooaoties, 
1iViUiam<biir;gh nml Mjirion, an excoption frm mode, and dispoD- 
■arlei could bo MtAblUhnl withoat Bach election. In the neigh- 
boring Upwo of Tiininuudrillo, whuro liqQor-wlling had b««a pro- 
hibited for years by its chiirt«r, a diapeasary was established with 
the aid of aogro Tot«« utid agaioet the oarnost protost of tho most 
Intelligeiit rotem and property-owners of the town. Than it ap- 
peared to be tbo policy of the adminbtration to establish die- 
pensariea wherever moDcy coatd be made ont of thorn. 

The Diflponeary fdw amply provided for its enforcement, ou- 
tliorixlug tlie appointment of an many conttablos as were deemed 
Moeassry. The methods resorted to by these conatables in th«ir 
MBich for oontmbiuid liquor were often aa annoying as they were 
novel. Of all tho rcck1f»i acts of the Governor, the telectinn of 
some of these men hu« been the moxt uii{winlotiab]e. Wliile a few 
of them are sensible men of cxperiencei most of them are desper> 
ate characters. 

On Ibn morning of March 28 the ftHthoritien of Darling- 
luri ruceived a luiUfT from the Governor slating that the Dis- 
petuary proSts would be withheld after April 1, for the rea- 
■OB that ho bad been informed titat tho police were obstraoting 
the ooostableii in the discharge of their duties. The Governor 
nys that this letter " added to the anger of the mob." That this 
letter added to the auger of anybody in Darlington is an assnmp- 
tioQ on his part, as wo hid looeived lettdra of this nature before, 
and the aatliorities, having ileLermiusd to teet the question in the 
courts at tho proper time, were not concerned abont the Govvr- 
Dor's commnpicatioDS. And lu a mutter of fact his information 
was incorroct ;en the contrary the police, in aooordanoe with their 
inatructionB, rendered every assistance to the constables, and ao- 
compauied them in the raids, 

Tho Govcmor'e atatorocnts that " lar^o numbers of armed 
nen gathorecl lu the streets " and that " the five or six ooostables 
in Dorliugton were followed by this armed mob, which guyed, 
cnned, and abased them," are withont foundation, the fact being 
that DO ooutebh) ur body of coustablus wua ever followed in that 



68 



TH£ yOBTH AMERICAN REVIEW. 



town b^ any armed mnn or bodf of men ; and yet after this body 
tii five or six conslableB bad oxecntod every prooess in thoir hands 
except one, and h»l brokea into one prirali- ujiartmunt witbout a 
warrant, meetiug with uu rcsistanc*, C OTcmor Tillmau ordered 
from Charlestoo his chief constable, witli a force of serenteeD 
men, armed witb pistole and Winchci«ter riflci. Bvforo doing 
this he bad onloi'od out tbe Diirlingtou Gimnls, vithoat tbe ro* 
qacjt of any civil officor in thb county, and on the next day, 
irhru his band of conatablcs arriTod in Darlington, bo ordered 
the Samtcr i.ight Infantry to r«pArt to the sheriff at Dai'lington, 
in face of tho fact thai he bud been assured by the sberiff of tbe 
conuty. the mayor of the toirn, and the captain of the Darlington 
Guards that no troops voro nooddd, as no tronblo vaa antici- 
pated, and all was qniet. The ordering of these oonetablca 
to Darlingtoa was announced in the morning papers, and 
naturally caused apprehension and excitement all orer tbe 
State, and especially in the ueighboring town of Flor- 
ence. Tbe advent of this unasuul number of armed men 
into onr peaoefnl community excited anxiety among onr best 
citixens, as no cause could be nasigned for their coming, yet there 
was no aftscmblago of piTsuns, and uo demonstration whatever. 
A few of the citizens of Florence and Sumtor, being appreheosire, 
came to Darlington, and as they with oar people could eee no 
reason for this display of force, they naturally supposed that Got- 
cruor Tillman woald order bis constables^ backed by the State 
militia, to search private residences, oven of citisens who did not 
make bar-rooms of their homes. They met therefore in an orderly 
manner in tho Courthouse, and ptuKiod rcsohttious to tbe effect 
that they did not propose to hare their reeidoocea searohod by 
whiskey constables, and notified tho constablea of their action, 
but Bt the aamo time informed the alleriff that any proceas placed 
ill bis liauds oonld be serred without resistance, even were it for 
tbe eearcli of a private honse. They had no intention of protect- 
ing any one who made a saloon of his ro»don<<e, but fully in- 
tended to defend their homes. This mei-tiug was not uompneed 
of whiskey sellers, but in it were some of tho best men in the 
State. They aK^cmblcil as thoy bad a right to assemble, made 
their mtostions known, and quietly dispersed to thttir respective 
homes. These are the conspirators la whom the Oovctmnr so 
itly refers. Upon the following morning the only r»- 



A LAST WORD OS THE SOVTB CAROUSA UQOOR LAW. fit 

m&uiUie warratit in tbe I>»nde of ihe coDsUblee wu BOrved vith- 
ont the least interest or clomonstration on tiie pnrt of the ritisvns, 
and in the afternoou four of the conKtables m-ent to one dejKit 
aod nineteen to the other to take their ilcparturo. 

Governor Tillm&n saya: "Two boys, citizons of the town, got 
into n 6);ht lit the depot where the mnin body of the oonstablM 
vu. One of them, who was whipped, mn up town, aur] returned, 
followed by an anuot) mob." The fact is that tbe young man 
sliaded to. on hia way to town, in the ooiaibns, met five other 
Toong men wnlkinj; to the depot, one of whom n-u« to take tho 
train. He j;ot out of the omnibnH, told them be Imd biwii ioi- 
poaad on, and wiehed thorn, to retnrn with him and 8«o fair 
play. To this they a^icreed. It torna oat thatof theee fire yooag 
men, three bad pistoli od their persona and ptuticipatM ia th« 
fight with the cooatablea. One was killed, and one ahot in fiTe 
different places. This was the composttioii of the "armed 
mob" which followed the young man back to the depot. In 
the fi^ht were two other citizons, hes^idoa the chief of police 
with on« anaiiitiint, who were commanding thepeace. Tbeae men 
arm«d with piatols, ull, except one, of leaa than 3rs calibre, were 
pitted against nineteen conatablce armed with the most improved 
rill*.>« nnd pistole. 

We will notuttempt to give an occonnt of the fight, how it oc- 
curred, or who precipitated it. The record has been made and 
by the tioTvnior himeclf. That tbe inTcistigation by tbe coroner, 
ftnd it* romUta, ahould be ab«olutoly unprejudiced, ho appointed a 
military board of inquiry to sit with the comuer'sjury, toheartbe 
•TideDce, tJiroagb tbe coroner to examine witne^se^, aud to make 
its repiirt to him. This board was composeil of four oFOcera and 
OM private, who were fromdiffcroat eectionsof tho State, uncon- 
nected with and utikuowu to our i^eople. After reviewing the 
rridpDce, they in a written report nnunimouely found that tlie 
ntnatablea atortril the trouble, that two of them were guilty of 
feloniotii murder, and that lifieeuothcr« wora acoCMorioa. When 
thia ODoHiot waa reported up-town. a mile distant, the aheriff and 
mayor calle^l on the captain of the Darliugtoa Guard* to naeiBt 
them in maintaining tbo peace, aapponing at the time timt the 
fidht W.1S Btill g<'ing on. The comi>any tiirmnl out immcditttely 
aod niarchc^l to tbe scene with the shrsritT and mayor, where th^ 
(onnd the porticipaots hud all diapersed, and that quite a number 



;>8 



THE SORTU AhtERICAS liEVIEW. 



of citizens ba<l started in [)uniuit of th« constableB. FoggQS wer? 
toiiuediatel; started by the writor in alt directions. Before the 
arrival of the officers on the aceuc, some of the citizens vho had 
preced<-d tbcm, being nader the impresaion that the constables 
hnd gone aorosa to the other depot and got on the train then 
due, ran tothecrosaiug vhere il nsuiitljr stops. The train did not 
Hbop. lUiU they fir«d into it as it ran by. Thiii wa» the only un- 
lawful act committed in the town of Darlington. It woe inex- 
cusable, and WAS coudomned by all. The only palliatiofi Id 
that the men who committed this deed were wrought up to a state 
of frenzy by scuing Die dead and bleeding bodiea of Uieir frieods 
and comrades, and supposed the perpetrators of Ihia daiitardly 
deed irere on this train about to escape. 

Aahaa been stated, thit eyosof the State were on Darlington^ 
and when it wiu b«ralded abroad on the evoDiag of March 
30 that the oonstables and citiKcns had clnahcd, the icDpres* 
eiou prevailed, ttiat Governor Tillmun, in fultilment i>f his many 
threats, had ordered tho constabulary to ficurch private hooECs; 
tbnt our citizens were defending their bomce ; that the Qovemor 
wished to back np the constables with the State troopfl, and kuow- 
iiij; full well tlrnt ho was capable " of giving commands of Bach 
an ontrageous kind aa to override hiw, decency, and joBtice," 
when ho ordered out the troops of Columbia and Charleston they re- 
fuged to respond, and cho«e rather to cast theirarms at his feet. Ue 
caased by his untoniml action this improssion topreviul throngh- 
ont the State, and the troops were right and acted properly with 
the lights before them. Our voluntoer troops as a rnlo are com- 
posed of the very best elements iu the 8tate. They &re intelli- 
gent and know as well when duty ooJU and will respond aa qaiokly 
and endnre as long aa any in the United States. They are the 
mon, and those who lead them, to whom Sonth Carolina will look. 
and not in Tsin, when her real trouble comiw. They did right 
in refusing to obey; and had the real facts, as they were subee- 
quontly learned, been what they were at that timesuppoBod to be. 
the Ciovcrnor could not have massed at Darlington a corporal's 
guard of the n^galar troops, and by the Ume fais fanners reochod 
here bbey wonld have been met by the best men inSoath CarDlilu^ 
and some from other States, and among thorn woald hare been 
found many a " wool but" and "<me^gallu8 boy," lU he is pleased 
to call tbem. But we are thankful tliat the facta were not 



A LAST K'OfU) OiV THB SOUTH CAROUNA UQUOR LAW. fid 

they were etippoe«d to be, as the Oovftraor tried 
lo mnko tliom, aod as he would hare liked thorn to bATO 
been, at least until Ue fonncl that thero wore men sttll left in 
Sooth Carolimt. In response to the many offert o( RHistance we 
wired promptly the mil ntate of Rlfairs. When it was aMvrtaiiii>d 
that oar people were willing to have troopa come hert:, then it 
was that the Governor of Hoath Carolina was ooahled to march 
some 300 men up the hilt and down again. The Governor also 
sayti, "\ wiia Informod by the sherilT that the civil aathoritiea 
Writ) powerluas in Uorttngton, and was u«kcd to order ont the 
rallitis." One uot in posseaslon of the fiirtA would ioppoee tliat 
tba shorilf had requested the Oorernor to order out the 
militia. ITic fact is, tlie sheriff miule noBnch nsjucst ; and prior 
to the coiifltct, when the officers of the Uarlington tinards and 
Snmter Light infantry reported to him ttnder the GoTomor's 
onlcrs, ho expressed gtirprise and told them he had no need of 
them ; and thin fact was reportnd to the Govenior. 

Again, the Uorcmor sayif, " One of the moet potent factors 
TO the SQppression of the rebellion was theseittireof the telegraph 
linos and tlie railroadis." It in hard to say whether the Oovertior 
was aerioas iu making this statement or whether it was a piece of 
fiwjctionsnoss on his part. The only point in Koutb Carolina that 
this place could net at all limee cemmanioate with by viro was 
Columbia ; and as tor trains, wo could liavo bod as many as we 
denred at any time. 

Ou the 31st of Morch^QorerDor Tillman issued aproolamalion 
declaring that ; 

" Cerraln pcraoni barr UMmbtrd Id tfa« OoaotlM at DftrllDKtoa aad 
noMBoe. nud arcnow Id opcu rel>elllonaicaliMC(h« aaUlorlty of tta« Oov- 
•maittat ul thia BiAte. and It baa beconae impractlenble to entonc tbe ordl- 
aarj ooutM ot Judicial prfKMdItut oi llie lawn at Lhia St«Le,'* etc 

This was a wanton exercise of power, as certain persons had 
not asHffibled in the counties named in open rebellion against tbe 
aothority of the goverumcnt, and it norer was impracticable to en- 
force judicial proceedings ; on the contrary every proocsg had been 
fully executed without resistance, by tJie ofHcerschargftl therewith. 

In restoring the civil etutus ou April 5 he issued another 
proclamation in which, after reciting tbe terms of the first, he 
says : 

"Tbaonm^ndlfiamnvrfilhaii Juxt InformM in* tbat Ih* Inaanc^nU 



60 TBE NOBTB AMERICAN REVIEW. 

bftve diBpennd, uaA that peace Mid order are natored, and that the civil 
anthorii lea are now able to employ and enforce the law." 

There was about aa nmch accnracy in this as in the other. 
The commaDding general never made any snch report On 
the contrary, wlieu the Adjutant- General of the State arrived 
in Darlington in advance of the commanding general and his 
troops, and on the night after the day of the fight, after revieving 
the situation, he reported to the OoTemorthat "to all appearances 
the town was unusually quiet," and in his report says " aa a mat- 
ter of fact it was unusually so," and that the people " seem not 
only quiet, but sad, depressed, and melancholy." In the face of 
this information the troops under the commanding general, ar- 
rived the next night, and he reported that " good order and 
quiet prevail in the city." 

W. P. Daeoah. 



UOW TO MAKK WEST TOINT MOKK USKFUL 

IT F. A. MITOHSLt I.AZB CAPTAIN AMD AIDB-SB-OAMF, V, S. T. 



Tnc annnal cxamiimtiona nt Woet Point have boon concItidcM], 
■thI a new oIms of ftx-c>ulet« is tnrncd out to grow oM m 
c»ptuin« or lionteniuits in tho iirmy, or to sook it diflorctil kind of 
promotion in oiTil life Tho Military Acndcmy remaina the aame 
u when our ratbers* unil gnuitiratliers wetv gnuluatod there, to 
be atlAched lo the army 88 brpTet eccoinl lieutenants. Ameriaui 
nDiicmilicfl harobccn cnnntnntly enlarging in crery wnso. Tbcro 
are more conr5«, more profcason?. uiorfsliidi'iit*. Why, then, do 
tho West Pnint uailcls Btill conetiliite the 8»nic little bnltation ag 
flfty 5«ri ago ? 

It may be comidcred an untraminted innoTntion ta snggotit 
BDjr ohiDgtt for liVc«t I'uiut ; iiidcfd low poo|)lo consider any 
change Decenary. There ia a growing disposition to arbitrate 
diapnted inlematloDal qneations, and nar every day seems mora 
barfaaroua Rnt it in qucotinnjihli^ if iho tiniv boa yvt come when 
any people can uITltU to tivglc<.-t luititary educniion. As the 
Supnmie Court is l)iu lirml nii'unfi of eotUeiUL-iit of u)l constilu- 
tioiuU qneslious by pearotui methods, to U war a final refugo 
nhtm all prAcefid mnthoda hnve failrd, 

Tbrc« tnain i-lvtticuta enter iulo the mititury dependence of 
the United 8tatea ; the Regular Army, the National Guard, and 
ths Volntiteers. In time of p^iaoo thcrn is but littlo connection 
faetveea the firat and the si'cond, and no cotiuccliou between tho 
aeoond and tho third ; for thu \'oluDt««rB foroe only ezista in 
tiii« of war. Tlie Regular Army and the National Qnard exist 
always ; and eince iu time of war the Itogulur Army is ospeoted 
to learen all tha United States foroea. and the N'ationai Guant is 

* Tli« wrttar'* EUbar. Unul^ UeKalRlir Hltrhal. nu a Brutukianf WcaiPMiai, 
•tHa«(ia»i ibcwnwr'cbraUMr.MlMOnMbv MeKslsU' Ulickel. «tu Er^iluMa 



TBE IfORTB AUEBICAN JiEVlEW. 



to form abaais for the V'olunteeri, & oonuection between the flnt 
and the second is a proper subject tor ooasideraliun. Prior 
to tUe Civil War no fttt«mpt had been made to disfieniiuato 
any iiiflucnco of rtgiilars tlirongh tbo National Giian). Of 
late yeam a few offioem of the army have been detailed for ilitly 
with the State fortxw ut diQttriMit p<HQts, btil tiader the present 
system it is questionable if thoy can be of fiervice except ue drill 
masters. Thns fiLr no direct woll-catnbliebed link botweon West 
Point nni) the NaUoiial Guard has eren been BuggeBt«d. 

West Point, when it was cslublishi-d, in ISOi, wiw intended to 
turn ouL«oitic lialf a hundred cwiola a jenr to serre as ofliceni for 
a force of about :W,000 men — a representative standing army for a 
nation of ten or firt«i>n millions of people, whoeoonly antieipiitionB 
of war wore with ladiauH. The true value of Uio Military Acud- 
omy did not become apparent for fifty ve:ti« after it was instituted, 
for the only two wars occurring during this period vera that 
with England in 1813, which occurred Bimultaneouely with tho 
foil mling of the academy, and thewarwith !lIcxico,acnmparatively 
small affair. Only a doeiNi years after the Mexican war tin- nutiou 
suddenly woke to the conscionsness of tlio fnct that slie needed a 
greotarmy. A striiRKlo was upon her more gigantic, morocitcndcd, 
of greater rarieLy, than any tlie world hiu ever seen. A million 
of men were enlisted us volunteers. But where were the ofliccrs 
to come from ? There were perhaps 1,600 in the regular army. 
but no niore than were ceee&surr to ofBevr that army. There 
were perfaapn 1,500 West Point graduates in civil life who could 
be called 00, and this was tho limit of the nation's resourccH in 
odtieated ofhcci-s. Tlicre was the militia, bnt beyond the drill in 
amu thoy were very ignorant of military serriee. The conse- 
qnenco was that the war had no Roonor opened than agrcatdcmaiid 
Bprangupfor West Point graduates. Tho roluntvers must be 
drilled, clothed, feil, armed, and furnished with mumuiiition. 
Aseietant atljutants-goQcriU wore required to superintend the cl«r- 
ical work ; ordnance ofticerg to fnrniiih arms and ammnnilion ; 
engineers tu conntruct forts, railroads, bridges; quartermasters 
and coininisaaries to distributeclothiDgaad food — in short, a small 
army of especiully odncatod officers was needed to fiU the staff 
corps alone. After the men hiul been enlisted, organized, and 
equipped, they must he fought. Fifty thousand oflioers were 
required to lead them. 



BOW TO HAKE WMST POtXT MORE USEFUL. 



03 



The eomparstiTdy fev West Point officors aT«ilabIe were 
madp gt^noml officers, in 6omo com* ColoneU in tbc Hda, but 
rar«l; could bo obuined for auy loss im[>ortHnt }N>Bit:on. Tlio 
bulk were plucol wben: they were most needed, in the Staff 
Oorpst Ab eiigitiecre, assistant ailjutunttt-goncral, quartorinSHtors, 
ooamianriee, ordQ»nce ofllocrd, the; were soon exhausted at 
UiehekdqnarU^nof thw Arruy at Wimbingtou, or nt tli« main 
fiolnti of Drgnnixution and tnpply in diffvrent parts of tlie coun* 
try. The old army, depleted of moat of ita oflficeni, wm filled up 
withcittwn appoinlmcuti. The inilitiii, after serving u few 
months under ito own organisation, sent many of its memlKrB 
into the Tolnnteerato sorto aa offlc^^rs. Btit orem with tbu militia 
toflraw from, the balk of Toliinteer officers at the outsflt knew 
no moro about tlio military avrrieo than the nivr rocniita they 
commatided. Tbc mltiliit ofBccrs w«r« largely arailablviu driit 
nusters, but all, except the Went Pointers, w<>re lamotitably ig- 
norant of that code cJednco>l by long eipcriofice for the manage- 
ment of mi army, the " Army Itrgulations. " 

We«t Point gr*diiitt«s Dix^ossurily to«k the toad at the start 
and \w\>\ it to tbe fininb. At first there wiu », diopoHition to give 
a prrfrrenco to those who wore in Lbo old army at the opening of 
tbc war, and to regard thoee who had resigned as of secondtiry oon- 
lideratioii, but it ww eoon discovered lliat tliuee who had left the 
army tor civil puKiiits wcreof equnl value wit li tli«irooinradotvho 
had confined themselves to tbe duliee of n soldier. Indeed, they 
had in many instnnces added to their value by an oxjterience ac- 
fjuirwl in eivil engineering, transporting goods, and other peace- 
ful duties, while an atuenoe from army rotitiue had rendered 
them more patient and effiuieut with volunteera. 

The retalt of orgnnizing this iniprorisod army and pntting it 
into Lhu field ofGcuroil by men not familiur with army system 
was a gro)d dead of suSuring among the troops. The nation could 
afford to give them clothes, fool, equipments, transportation ; but 
alltbeae mutt be distributed. Itis thodntyof theofncerto aeethat 
tbaneceeBitiosof hiamon aroprovidcil for. But few of the olTiceni 
«f (he volflutoen upon their entry into the service knew bow to 
properly write a ruquitiiiion. While requiHitiotisii>r oTcrooatswere 
iMingrettirtted for infonuality, the men were diitted by November 
wind*. Tbcy wero often delayed in getting mtiona, shoes, blank- 
■ «ta, ladood, any or every thing to make their ox|>ostiro cuduntble. 



04 



TUE SOUTH AXERICAS REVlEtP. 



Onciii need of food and clothing has very litUo patience vrilh one 
who doaics bim on account of iiifurmality; Utrrefore, there arose 
from th« AtUntjc to tlie Miaeisdippi the cry of "rifl tajH." 
True, tliore m\* rod tapo m nbandftnoo, but not eooiigli to pra> 
vunt a iiumbHror dUbureing offlcers haoging aboat Washington 
for montliB iiftur the close of tho war, lu ■ rain endeavor to settle 
their KccoiiDttf. Had each rL-gimciit bucn able to secure e<hicat«d 
staff disbursing officera, there would hitve bc«u compunitivety liu 
tlu trouble. Hut as the West Poiutors wore few and tbo mililia 
h»l never bevn instructed in aught snve the drill, there nerc do 
more (idncalud disbursing ufTiccm uniiUbto than for the main 
de])t>ts of supply. Had the militia who served aa officers of the 
vohinteon been something neurer to reni soldiers IbiuD Bimiply 
drilled anhliers, there would haT6 been a sufficient namber to 
supply ni)d equip all the volunteers. 

Coneidering WkhI I'oiiitcrs ob Icoderfl of armies, they mode the 
Bfltno showing us in the staff corps. At the outset civilians with 
no niilitflry L<diieAtiun, but prominent an political lenders, were in 
eoine instances given important cunimiuid, but uh the war pro- 
gressed it became apparent tltat tboeo who were educated in tbo 
science of war, if they were no more eflicient, at least inspired 
greater conlidence. Nolnithntanding Ibe guod work iichieved by 
citizen leaders, iioono of them ever wns intrnstad with Iheoonimaiid 
of n largo army. Of the West I'oiutcm nn iniportuot fret wiui soon 
dcnionalratc-d, that it wua notoeecnliul for won geneml uQicers 
to have served continnously in the regular army. Those gradn- 
alMi who wore appointed from civil liie proved us sucoossful in 
^nemlHhip na thcxte who had been always excluRively soldiers. 
Indeed tlioro WU8 often a dispoution on the part ufageoanl 
whoae education had not been applied aa it could only be 
in active oiril life, to attach too much inipurtanee to the 
rules of war leorned from books, to the exclusion of practi- 
cal commou-eonse. Of four great leaders who cnnio oat 
at the end of the war u ocntral figures, two had kfi the old army 
for civU pursuita. Oraut and Sherman were resppoiiitmeDts, 
Thomas and fjhoridan were regalar ofRoers. But it u safe to any 
that of ilie West Pointers uuarcat the rank and file (colouoU. 
lieutvDniit-coloncIt, or majorg), tho«o who were in eivil life after 
survieu with tlie old army wt^ru most eflicienl with volubteors. 

Ibe war taught ua then, first, that a military edocation U 



aOH' TO MAKE WEST POIST MORE USEFUL. 



60 



Bntid, und iecouJ, Uiat no di«idTantAge results from the eju< 
ooloJ wldit-r going into civil life in lime of prace, to resnme hb 
meiiiul tttid physical equipment in time of vrar. Why, then, hu 
Wort Point, afiiir the nnCioD bas been Uugbt this lonon, been 
iiifr«red to remiuD in the satng status lu wliou it was founded ? 

Ill tho first jiliictf, tlicrc was a ip^at deal of prejudice engen- 
dond from the fact of ao manj Viesi Point grudu&les onboriii)* 
UiD ConfcdeniLo Artny. .Sceondlj-, as has hvim stated ubovc, many 
(^cur< whoM KiipD lind not b«on en1nr;;ed in uivil purKuita wero 
lou much wedded Ui llivury, ond among a unmber there was an 
ill-didgiU«od coiiU^nipt f'jr the vnluntvucr. These causes lU'v now 
largely loet sight of, but it will bo a lou^ whilo bcforo tho nation 
will forget that «t Wost Point ahe was educatin;; men to turn 
against her in time of her necesBity. and any altotiipt to enlarge 
lliu Aoadtiiny would Im met by tliia iiiiporUint, though illogical, 
argument. The mnni caiiso to-day for k-aring West Point »s it 
i« is a well-groii nded opinion that she now turnip out mor^ ofllcorg 
than are required to oflioer 30,000 nteu, and thut 30,000 men are 
enougli for the standing army of the United Slates. 

The war dvmututnitod, however, that West Point gradaatos 
•r« necessary in caie of occd, and tliat after graduation no det- 
riment nisuits from entonug civil lifc> ; why then should not Vfoal 
I'oiut turn out nivu in fur greult-r numbers to enter upon civil 
pursuits at griMluating Y And ae the National (iuard is tho next 
tnoiit important rcionrcc in caw of war to the rcgnlar army, why 
bbould not ihetu! young mvu pay for their eduoatiou by s dialed 
t«nn of Korvice with the National Guard ? 

Oenorml Grant has buen quoted as saying tliat thero should b« 
1,000 men at Vfoal Point ; but if he left a plaa for putting and 
Iceaping them thoro it is not known to the writer. To uducate a 
man fn oiiu or more branches of the military servtco would require 
from one to four years of training. The full course of four 
ycara la now oonsidertid a prn^ivr timo to oJuoato cadets 
in all the brancliw, to enter the army as olficent. An ad- 
dittoaal nnmbar of cadets might be appointed to study, some 
ouv, flonie two, and ^ouie th rev years, to be itcatlercd ut graduation 
through the National (inard, to iransmic what they have learned 
at W«*t PoinL The tbrco-ycar man migbc choose a number of 
■leoilvfii lo include all except the bit;her aluiliej of the fourth year; 

Uw tvo*ye»r man, such studies m would be best fitted to go with 
TOU OUX.— MO. 452. 9 



m 



TIW SOllTU AitRRWAN RKVIBW. 



lirstlrillingin stRfFntid lino iliitips; wliilutho oni>-jear idkh would 
iiirii])lv \ta ilrilk-il pcrhiips in llic liii« m»(1 inslruct^d in a Hiigle 
8l«ff rorpe, stinljjiig wliiil most nenrljT pertiuned to hlsBperialty. 
This woiiIJ ;nvc ti;i> etudout an op|iortunity to Iwconie iiroficient 
lis Ml afisisUint adjtium-goneral, nii Brtillcrv offloor, n carnir; 
ofRcor, or in biicIi olher corps »» )ie might elect. 

It ia not tlie purpose of thia pupor to 8iigge«t a pUo, btit Lo 
indicato tiiD cxpodiuticy of otlucaliii;; more young men at Weet 
Point to serve with tho National Onnnl. Two important points 
i^Mtmin : to discover the uddiLiaiiul ctjiitpment mid exp«itse 
essential, nnd to nialce a practical atiLtua for the Weat Point 
gnidnato in thn Kiitiaiml Guurd. Tlie former would be a piirt 
of the general plan of 4><)iicnting more men, ftnd fihould bo troatod 
by an experienced gni<]iial« of the Aciulomj ; th« Inttcr portaina 
csjifcinlly itt the Nntional Guard and eliould be treated by an 
rxpcricacixl National Otiardsmnn. It would doubtless inrolro 
cbnnfTCB in the laws gorcmitig the StAt« forces, and ^rmitd l>o of 
little or no value uiiIvbs the men were more dinK'tly hroii^lit under 
Iho control of their officcra and Llie Stale or Genenil Government. 
Their ntiit-na aa poMieis alioiild b« inteneifictl as far aa possible 
without iDtvrfcritif,' with their condition as citizens. The vrinters 
should he devoted to iiimniction ; thn mimmor cnmmpmonta 
should take on Hiicli discipline an prevHiU at Went Point. 

Such a oomiinimalion would brin^ West Point up to tlie 
status of the greiil AiiK'-rioan nnJTersities (Ihongh in a niililarjr 
line), which hnt'« entirely outstripped it. Aa at the nnivcrsalty, 
there is the student purgniiig the regular acadnmical courfio, ao 
■At West Ptttnt is the aulel being educated to ofllcer the rcguUr 
army. As at the university, there ia the gpecial-conrao man, so 
at WMt Point we aliould have tlie student in tlie duties of qtiarl^r- 
uiasteror comtnisaary, or of an infantry, artillery, or cavalry 
officer. The Nntional Ouard, which Ih now a vast improvtimi'tit 
till the militia prior Lo ilic Civil War, would take a etill greater 
otride forward. Every year wonld see several hundred Woet 
Poititerg entering tla organisation to bring its discipline up 
towuni a regular-army standard. Lastly, in case of a great war, 
we wonld have the vhola National Gunrd ready as trained 
iwldiera, ioiituHd of baring to make auldicra of raw material. 

F. A. BflTCHEt. 



THK AIMS ANF) MKTIIODS OF TIIK "A. V. A." 

■T W.J. H. TRAVKOK, PBKSIUKNT OF TIIK AMUBICAX fROTRCTIVK 

ASSOCIATION. 



Ir TffB American Protective AMOciatiou owed an apology for 
its exiil«Doc vitherto tbepcoplooftheUuittid States or to hnman- 
it; at lurgi?, I for on« should uol be among iU apologut£, nor 
atiould 1 At tliis moment occupy ralimble space, and to nic and 
tiioM I wrro muoli mom valuable timc^ in a ooodviucd exposi- 
tion — not defence — of its principlofl, and th* conditioM which 
bavo brou;;]it aboat ita rxiHtCDCtt, in repl}' to Mr. I^throp'sar- 
tirlo entitled " Hostility U> Roman Catliolics," wlucli appeared in 
tlio Mtty niimbor of this Keview. 

By way of profacc, 1 •n'mh to ntuto that, doaying as I do tho 
catholicity of the Papal chnrch uiiil tho pretensions of tlie See at 
Bniue, it nonld be iiiconmi^nc in mu to tise the torm " Roman 
Cfttholic "or "Catholic." Tbtreforc in Bnbstiioting " Papist" 
i.sod " ri^ncy." 1 but wish to be understood as alluding Iv that 
veoleiiaatiail gorernment of which tho Tope is tho head and to the 
foUowen thoreof — not iu any eeuiMi with a dMire to be discourteous 
or deritfiro. 

Ur. [^tbrop basaslceil: "Why should not Catholics enjoy 
erjnal freedom, M citizens, to hold opioivus ou morala or educa- 
tion, to ongnga in politics or gnrornmrnt, to advance thorn ?" 
The ({uvstiou is a pertiucut onv, and the reply hinges u[)Oii 
Ihn dfllinition of the tcmi "Catholic" — the prefix "Koman" 
,lMiDg conceded. Wob«tcr dcflnca a (Roman) Catliulic as "an 

lerent of tho Church of Kooi»." We bave now lo dvlermine by 
•Ti(lMn<^i whotlier lh« ussumptions of tho l^pal ohnrch ar<« con- 
nst«nt with good ritir^-nship. 

Tberv ia no obscurity in the position taken by the United 



THE SOBTR AMERICAN RKVIEW. 

SUtoB in the matter of nllogiancc ; the StAt« requires mmt 
]}brfcct nTiiI complele lidelity and obt^ioncc to the Republic. Th$ 
Toice i>f thti Pupuoy is no Ives nncertaiu ; it dt>maii(Ie tbo anqnali- 
fied ot^Jieuce of iu (nlhurcuU to the Pontiff. Thus Cardinal 
Hauuiug, apeakicg in the name of the Pope, has Bald : 

"IwkgonledfreDoclvUpon-eF; I am cb«ra>ijecCo[ no dvll pow«r: I 
am thft auttJQRC of no priniw, and 1 el&lm to h* inoro thnii thU. I clslm to b« 
Uiesupr«m« JadgsAnddtrectarof tA» eomtcU-iicca of cuc-d, of ilie peaMote 
that tit] tboflcldt, and oE th« ptinoi UmtsiUnpoD tbc thraac; aftfavbouso- 
hold Ibftt site In tbo shade of prlracj, and tbe lc«lal&lure that makoa laws 
tar kinKdoniH, I aw aolc, liu^r, niiprriiin Juttftc of what Is rlicbt and wronjc- 
Movvover, we declare, afflnti. deline, and praaonnce it to b« nwieaaauT to 
aalvattou to vvery Iiuiiioq crraturo ic bn milijccc to Ibx Itotnan PaallS." 

All of which luay bo found In Quirions (Appoudiz J., p. tiSS) 
and the Tabht of October 9, 1864. 

I now quote from Manning'* l/tcren and Civil ABeffinvet, 
p. B4, where the Cariliuiil says : 

"ICis clear ilini t'be clril power caanat ileflne hon far ttic ciroatnfer- 
Mice of faith and morals cxl«ind». . . . I( the cbnrch cannot flxtho 
limits or Ita jurisdiction. (4)en either uobodf can or theBUtemaar. [Iut the 
Btat« caiiuot- uuleitii it claim tu t>c Chu dniHMtltorr ami rxpovitor of the 
C%ri«tlan nvHation. Thtyrforc H is tho chnrch or nobod;. ITiIm ImI sap- 
position lend& CO chaos. Nan- if this be reieeted, the ehnrch alono eaa ;an'l 
if the cburob can Ox the limit* o( lis juriMllcttDii, U can fix tft« timit* vfaU 
tfthtrjttritdictivru." 

Tbe same authority, in Casarism and Cliramo-iitanism, p. 

36, M-gDM : 

'* An; power fpbleb Is Independent and cnn alone fix th« llmltaodii 
own Jorixltciton, and can Iherrb; Ox tbe limit nf all otberJuriMlietloBA, K 
ipno/attv, suprcmw." 

The following from an address delivei-od by Pope Pius IX., of 
infallibility fame, July 21, 1873, ie jierttueul : 

"There are mnnj emm KgardiBK Inrallibllliy : bat tbemoitnulloloQS 
o( rU la that wbk-h Inclndes, In that doRma. Iti(> rlftbt of dnpoalnit bot^t- 
algns, aod declaring the people no longer bound b; tbe obliKatlwn ol Sdelltf . 
Thia RIGHT basaow and asatn la criUcalctlctHDstaiiccn l>oea cxvrcbcd by 
tbopontlffe . . . ftsortfciaw&anotCbeiublllbillty.buttheAin'BOBlTT 
of lli« Pope." 

It is denied by many thiit the Piipnry dpinaiids the temporal 

allegiaiirc of Pujiiiitj!. Let mo qaotc the foUowiug from an ijn- 

cycliciil of 1.60 XIIL, November, 1883 : 

" We exhort all Caihollea to devot« careful atK-ntion to public mat- 
tcia. and t«ke put in all munIot|wl sfTainoMd ol<<ction«, and all pu)>II«iKr- 
-vices, oiccdofis, and Kxtlinrintt*. All Catholic* must make tbetnsetnM felt 
aaacclTeelvDunti ladallfpoUlkal lifo la cocnlries wbcntbOT Ut". All 



THB Ants Am) METBODS OF TBTE "A P. A.' 



> Oukoim •hauld PxrrlUitiir povBT to cauw (]i« catwtUulionaof uatMto btt 
aodollMl on Utu prliiciplBa ot tba tm« cburch." 

The Revised Statatos of the Uoited States docltre : 

"TlioKlJeiiHMklogeitlnttwhittmTiiit iniikfionUi to rpooanra forerer all 
illeglaik«D and fldelitj tonor forelicnprluoe, i>3l#ntat«, 8t«t«, or itoverblgntj. 
In puUealar that to whlcli be bM Men Hubjiicl." 

The obligatjon of tho o^illi of uUegiubce to the United SUtee, 

from the pojtit of view of a Papist, may be meMared bj the (ol- 

lovin); : 

" No cMUhft an to b« k*pl U ibny arc agalnat the lot«r«Bta ot the Chimh 
at nomc ~— Offffrtki Jnri* Cawmiei, Leipslo od.. 1830, |>. llOft 

Again: 

"Oatit* whkbarooKMliMCttiBCtaurcbof Boutc arc aot to bo called oatha, 
tmt pcrJuriM.'-ZUd. p. 359. 

Again. Tins IX. asserted to himself the riKht to auiia! the 
conBtitntiong and lawB of certain coiincri<«, riz., Kev Graaadu, 
ill 18^3; of Meiifo, in 1K')C ; of Spain, in l}i55, and of Anstria 
in 1S68. a«e ArerhisHimum, Sa^i. 27, lS5'i ; yunquain Fort, 
Doc. 15, l8S<f; Nnno Vtalrum, July H, 18SS; Alloeutio Sun- 
(fuam Certf, June 2i, 18G8. 

'Iliv foiTgoiug, it irill bo scon, are authorities of oompnratiTcly 

modurn date. Oqo authority evvii more nsceat deaen'eii inseriioa 

here, ander the head of cinl allegiance — 

** Wb cotnuiaad alt whom It concerns to rc«o)CalM In yon (Franelaco 
SaloUU aj apouolk; deiruatc. Eba snpraiDe power o( Ibo delegating ponllir; 
«« caaina-<d Uiai ibey |tive7oaaid,oonn]rrenoe.aiidotMidIeDoalnBlltlilnBM, 
tbai thfj reeclvtt «tlJi rereraure jonr Batntarj admonitUwa and onlera. 
U'baievcr •aetancoor ponaJiy^otiaball duljrdc«Iareo. Inflict agatnat Iboae 
who oppone oorantboritj', w« will rtilff , and. with the. anthcirltr ftivi^n oa 
by tlie Lord, will cDnsc tolM obocrTvd ipvlolablf uutil cu[t'll|n> sntMactlon 
beraade.' '' SoturUtudanding canatitnHona and apattolie ordinance or 
ofAcr fofA£<wNlrtiry.''~Kxlract from cacj'clir>il ot I'opc Leo Xltl. to the 
Papal clergj- In ibe Tniud ijtatca, JaaiuuT SI. 1A*2. 

Thus wo see Uuit the Papal hierarchy declared ita ooDipIete 

soTereignty over the state, luid, in utter difirogardof the constita- 

Uoo and the Uwa of the laoil, decrees that the Papal Bat is snpc- 

rior to the voice uf the people ; and that the Papists of the rnitvd 

Btatce yield actjaieeouocfi and obedience to this assumption of 

aatbority ia shown in the following : 

" W» rIoi7 that w« an, aodi witb God'* Mcavlng, shall coatiatK to be, 
not Lbe AmrHcan cburrh, nor the cburcb Id tba United Scat^-t. aor a cliiucb 
tn atiT nthrr -'-rt'se. rJ<;ln»iTC or linilbtHl, but au lutccial pail o( iba oao 
, oatoltc Chuich ol J«mih Chrlnt."— ile<« et Decrtta CoKr 

vortHSi* terlii. f. Lxxrt, (UaJtiiDOro, iatt.> 



ro 



rBE NORTff AMERICAN RBVIEiW 



" Nor w then* bi the world more devoted >dh«rentB ot tba CsttioUe 
ChnKb, the See ot Fel^r. and tba Vtctar of CtiriNt tbui Lbe CklfaoUca of 
the United SUtM."— /bid. 



The pOiiition taken by the Papacy n^udiog matters of ttst«, 
as illusLrakil hy Ihc uuthoriticji quoted, and a hundred others 
equally aa pcrtitieut, form the (uuclameutul rcoftoua for tito uxiet- 
ence of thfi American Protectire Association, although itiadoabt- 
fii) whether, if these coudllioua had exiuled as a theory ouly, Ibo 
organization wonIO tver have been anything mora than a mere 
Dame. It vas the antiTC and aggrcssire application of the tem- 
poral claimB of the Papacy by ita subjects in this country that 
made the perfection of the "A. P. A. "not only possihU', bulanao- 
taal necessity, oar legislators, for the greater part, being either 
nnvilling or too cormpt to deal with an isenu in which thotr per- 
soniJ interests had become inextricably involved. 

Mr. Lfitbrop makcd aa uururcunate reference to " ballot or 
bullet." TluB erpreesion has been need, bo far aa I hare beeo 
able to learn, excliisively by momboni of the Pupal church ; 
notably by Mouaipior Capel, who threatened with "bullet*" Ihe 
Hohool-ta?: collector ; atid hy the Jesuit Sherman, vho, from the 
public platform iu Chicago. le»a than six months eince, advocated 
the uae of •• free biillet* " In preference to free speech. 

Opiniima among Koroanisls may differ us to who ttcoka to 
" trail ' Old Glory ' in the dual" — he who hauU it down upon St. 
Patrick's or any other day to replace it with the ciublem of 
another nation or race, as so frequently done in New York and 
other largo cities, or ho who decluree that il shall bo ull-sofliciont 
for thodo who Uve npon American soil. To the members of 
the Ameiicau Protective Aanoci&lion there can be no (jDCStion 
of its all -sufficiency. We have had many inittancea of priests of 
the Papacy refuaiug to admit to tboir charcho:! and cumotcrir-s 
deceased niombcrs of the Q. A. R. until the "stars and stripes " 
had been lemoTed from the coSln, 

" Arms in Catholic ohnrcbea " or rumors thereof, is a matter 
that needs neither conHrniHtinn nor refutation. It is aafliciont 
that Papist aocioties, from which non- Papists are religiously ex- 
cladod, anncd with rifles and bayoueta, cruy be eeeu upon the 
public Bt^M^tB at any important Roman Cathohc celebration. 
Wiy thc»e armed oompaniea exist or whether thoy store their 
arms in oharchw, oooTcats, or lodgorooma and armorieat are 



THE AIMS AXD MKTU0D8 OF THE 



I', a:' 



71 



mftttera vhich come within Mr. Latbroj/s proriaoe to (Jctonnii)e; 

it is ouougli for me that lK>tti mou and Arnis uo actnal and Ti^blo 

auxiliaries to the Piipitt i^hiircli. 

rarenthoti(K)l^ the following item from the Now York World 

ol April 27, dated from Sao Joao, Costa Uiua, April 26, it siguifi- 

cant : 

"BdatloMbccwewi the KorcraiDontaud tliocburcfa {Mrij ore utralacd, 
owluK to illxnTcflea of artum aiaretl in convtiutn." 

I bflTo yet to Icaro that Goiioral Sheriduu v/aa as "good" a 
Pkpista^ Mr. lAthrop would make him appear. If tho bravo 
gcocral was a " good Catbolic " lie bcliovod in Uio temporal power 
of tlie Fopc ; if b« did not so b«licT«, be wa* a Fapiiit onl; Id 
ttaaia. It i»- aa utuuh a Koro»y to dvtiy a dogma of lbs Papal 
cliamh m to deny the charcb iuelf. 

Ur. Lathrop refers Ruucrally to thoeo "oalontsl fiunilics" > ho 
were members of the Papal church, and particuturij' to his own 
pedigree, nuiging over two hundred and sixty yeuni ; yet ho iicg' 
Iccta to ioform the readers of the Koktii Amekican Review 
that nearly nil — if not all — of these ancestors of whom he is justly 
proad wcni nut Papist* in any teuM of tho word, and among tho 
aignatnrcs upon the Declaration of Independence I fail to di«- 
ooTer one btma-/Jf Roman CatlioUc. Carroll, of Carrollion, was 
the nearest approach to a Pupist, yet ho wa^ eridcotly a most in- 
different one, and the hist to sign tho Declaration. 

Mr. Ldtlirop mya : 

"We<I{oniMt<.'-«tb<)lic«)ar«boui><l toolMf tbftlaws of tb« sUte wbea 
thc7 w* Dob ooDtmry t« Lbc law of Gof.1." 

Very clearly pat ; and as Cardinal Manning wtscTiM diut " it 
(Uie Churcli) can fix the limits of all other jurisdictions" bo&id«e 
iti own, the reaaon is easily diacoverablo why Pupi^tJ op^ioeo the 
[mbtic school, and, in defiance of the Constitution, demand public 
money lo support sectaiian institations, and why, also in defiance 
of the Constitution, it han for ronny years putit uhmI the ^rurb of 
sanctity as a muans wlifircby to absorb the political offices of the 
ooantrr, at in Kew York, Chicago, St. Louis, New Orleans, San 
Pranciseo, and all other iinportuut cities of the United States, 
wherein from 60 to 05 per cent, of the public olliciuls arc papLsta. 
"Neither the church nor its Americun mombcm are trying to 
Ejtown the public-H'^bool syitctn," lilr. LAthrop asserts, bat 
1 prafor the authority of I'ius IX.. who deuonuoed the 




THE yORTH AUERJCAN REVIEW. 



pnblic schooliias " godteKs" nnd threatoned with &nath(>ma all 
wbo dared Ui send thuir children tttcixsto. I would also refer Mr. 
Lsthrop to the decre«a of tlio Couacile of UuJtanoro upon this 
matter. 

Mr. I«tfarop ifl DDdoabtodl^ a "good CotlioUo," for he quotes 
St. Tliomaa Aquinas lu bd Batfaoritf npon " what constitntBii 
cause for revolution bj tho poopla" The reference b most happy ; 
and before n^tumiuji St. Tbomae to tho shelf I take occaeioa to 
refer to Vol. 4, p. 90, where I Qnd the following : 

"ThouKlifaerelk.sfi. call who are not 'jiood c*thollcii'| maiit not b« 
toleraud liccaust^ thms iletterro II. we ma*t bcM- wltb tlicm, till, by a ucond 
ulmooitlon, tli97 mar Ix! t>t»Milt)t iNUtIc Co tlw TaUh o( the cburcta. But 
those who. afc«r atieL-ond admonlLion. reoi&iD obsUnata In their wirora, 
niut not otx\j bo L'Xi!ommuti{«aii:d, but ibty moet ho <l«lf r«r«d ovw to Um 
•scalar power to b« «izL«rtDlnaCed.*' 

In paaeiDg let me c«U atbentioa to an eztmct from aaother 
Papal authority— tliis time a docree passed hy the council of 
Latorau in 1215, and declared b; the Rt. Kov. Bishop Foley, of 
Chicago, under oath on Dec. 3U, 1870, before the Circuit Court 
of Kaiikakuc, III., to be a law of tho Papal cborch to-day : 



" Wo «xeoinmmileaie and anatheuiAtlxe OHiy horoay that nan lb) head 
a^^sloat the boly orthodox or cfttholk fitlth, eoodoiuntai; all beretica, by 
vrbatvrer name tlivy maj l>» kuown, for thougb their ftw<« dlOer, tbcy mk 
tied Cofcatbor b; tbcir UiU. Socb aa arc DQndctaacd are to be dcUvereid over 
toihenecvlarponenforpaalaliuient. Iflafmen, ibelrgoods muaibeooo' 
flaeatad. . . • ScouW powemof aUranksanddeKreNkni tobe warnedt 
Indaced, and, if arceManr, compelled bjeccleeUittlcal censute. to swear Uiat 
tboj will exert LbemselrM to the ntnio«l In the defeooe of the tafili. aad 
extirpalo all boraliii* <l«noonc«d by the church," olo. 

In the whole range of history was ever a stronger argument 
tb&n this snbmittol as a reneon for the oxUtenoo of an organiza- 
tiOD for tho oomwrvation uf American liberty f 

The asBumpttou of the I'apacy to control in politica was illoa- 
tratod most iolly during the recent debate upon the ciTiNmurriugo 
bill in fiangaiy. The moment the state claimed the right to 
legalize ciiil marriage, the chnrch created olmoat a revolution to 
defeat tho claim, acting npon the aelf-aaeerted right of t/^ntn^ 
iU o«m jurtMiiction. Even so with our public whoola ; the statie 
dcclaree that they shall be uon-Bectonan, yet in defiance of the 
state the ehnrcb sends ita nuns and priests into tbe public whools 
of PeuDsykaiiia and elMwhero to toaeb Papal dogmas. 

The ConititalioQ declares that no appropriation shall be iiiAda 



TUE AOa AND MBTU0D8 OF TUB ''A. P. A.'* 



73 



for sectarian purpases ; the chnrcli. ttr/ininy Us otCH Jurisdiction, 
cIchuikIh n portion of the public money for tho support of 
Ilomieh parochial echoote. Tho SUto liocUnw tho right of free 
fi)>e»ch; tho (Jhurch {wruiits iu sabjocts to reject this principle, 
ud they attack and attempt to murder public Isctnreni at !«• 
fajRltc, In<l.: K.tmmx City. St. Lodib, and soorea of other places. 

Olowly allio<l to tbo priooiplo UiAt anderltce tho liberty of 
eoDflcience \&fr«tdcm af speeeh and of the prens. 

The First anioadmoitt to tbo Constitution roni^K : 

** OotwreM »baU tnaku no Ut* , . . ukrl^nK tho trt«dom oJ apeccb 
artliiiiiKa*.* 

Yet. in tliw light of LhiSj Leo XIU., in a letter, June 17, 
1885. says : 

"Sueh a ilatj tobcdEcnoel, while IncumbeBttipoci all wltboat execpUoo, 
tswoM t/rietig taonJoumaJii-t* Kho, II iho^vercnot «nim*icd with th« 
tpirit c/ d43riUtjf ami *utimC*.'ion «> atti**Mj to esory CAtholi«, would 
help to exiend and BrcaU; KiofTiivate tb« dtIUi we cteplorc" 

A writer of the CathoUr World, in au article published July, 
1870» entitled " The Catholics of the Niuetoonth Century," ex- 
plaiDs tho position of the I'apiflts on the queetiou of free s|>&och 
and of free press. Uo aays : 

*"n»c*apmRacyaaecrt«d fortbc Cburcb Id matter* of cduoatlODlmpIlM 
IfceadtlltlODflJ and oogtute foncUou of ibe ooD>or«lifp ot Ideaa, and ih« right 
to MKiBbM i^d appTOTS or dliapprova all bookN. publicaUooa, wrttlDg. and 
aUflcaiwea Itiuodcd lor public InstmoUoo, eollgbteDmenc, or »at«ruln- 
awM, and mperrUlon of pU^e* of aratuetiMnt. Tbi* I* tbe prlnelpie upon 
-wlkleh Um Cbarch has acc*d In boldlng over Ut th« civil antboriUM for 
pwaUb irwm t crlmlnaU Id tbe world ol idcM." 

Yes, Oalilco was a splendid exatnplo of the Papal " censorBhip 
of ideas,** WjciifT. lines, Bruno, and tnuny thousand riotima of the 
Spanish iDqaisiUon are a few other earty inatances ; and the 
attempted nftsawinatiou of pnblic speakers within a few months in 
tbe United States niny b» taken as illustrating the later days of 
Home's censorship, leuviu}; no room for doubt (in the liQman 
tnind) that the Papal iMaat, Semper eadtm, is quite true. 

In marked contrast is the behavior of members of the " A. P. 
A.* wbeu the defendcni of Kuiue have attacked them either in 
pnUic or priT&to. Thers Is yet an instance to be cited of a blow 
Struck or a shot Grcd to avenge eithvr an insult to ProtoataQtism 
or Ifac order. That cause is a poor one which noeds force to 
dofuiid it against moral argument It is strange, too. that where 



74 



THE NORTH AMBRICAX KEVIBW. 



tbo Toioe of ciril anthoritj has been nused in vain ofpuiut riot 
and bloodshed tliejirie^U luire beeuabic to restore peace with a 
fews vords ; notably in ihti cities jaat named. It serves to em- 
pLasize vliat the "A. P. A. "and PapcKy alike baTC always olaimod 
tbat the Papist places th« cburch ubrtro tho state, and canon lav 
»b«To civil Ibv ; Bach divided Allogiunce is impeachable in llio 
liflit of tho Amuricau Coniititution. 

Pennit tie Papacy to carry out its axgressirc policy, as deSDod 
in its canons and decrees, atid tta methods snch as have bcea pnr- 
sned iu tho United States for many years pogt, and what would 
become of our boasted constitntioiial prerogative of free Bpe«eh 
and free pn-sa ? 

The minor issaes raised by Mr. Latbrop may be disposed of 
in a few lines, l-^ret : 

The American Mechanics do not admit any one to their order 
who is not Americau by aattvity. Again, why Bhould they not 
"wearaworda atehnrch" — evea aa the Kaighta of St. John and 
other Papist Eocieticg wear them ? Why ehoald they not exclude 
Papista from their order, with the example — half a contnry old — 
net them of the Papal ordcni excluding non-Papistjt from Ifrnr 
military, eomi-military, and " benefit organiiuktions" ? 

The American Protective Association haa not, nor ever had, 
any "organ." In my address to the Snpramo Council iu Itlay 
last I for the first time advocated the eatablifshing of one. 

The iu«ertion that the A. F A. has urgL-d commerctat pro* 
Boription of Papists, either directly or indirectly, is absolutely in- 
correct. On tho contrary, it baa constantly set ita fiace agaitiat 
such an nn- American measnre. Asamatterof fact, the "sacreoy " 
of the order aj^ainst which Mr. L^throp inveighs so bitterly is 
oiitirelydue to tho fact that members of tb« "A. P. A.,"wheu sus- 
pected or known to be euoh, have been ao meroilesaly boycotted 
aa to drive them out of basineag, and not aofroquantly out of the 
towns and cities in which they lived. 

In mgard to theallogodpnrchiiseof amuby the "A. P.A.''<A 
Toledo, Ohio, the report, like the a*sertion, is false in Mo. A 
oloaae in the constitutioQ of the order prohibits uuy but legal po- 
litical measures on the part of ita membership. A military body 
orgnuiziug under tho charter of the order would subject tho mcm- 
bera thereof to expulsion. 

The organixation dooe not reooguistp its members as "ProtesU 



TBR MXS ASD METUODfi OF THf: "X P. A/ 



76 



■nta" (rom a rvligioiis point of Hew, bat only hj reosOD of the 
fact tliat they pro/e/tl ogaiiiBt ooclcsiasticism aiul corraptioD la 
the attnin of state. ComphKinff in its moniborship,ae it doe*, 
Jews, thco(inphiBt«, deists, spintaalists, free-thin kern, adTdDtists, 
uid other believera in Doity, it caouot bo considerod u " Protes- 
Unt" from a religions staadiwint. 

Regarding the iiutt«rof eo-ealled '*A. P. A. rioU,"Ur. Liitbrop 
is jnat iw liimoDtsbly igoornnt as npon otiior mnttors oounootcd 
with the orguiizatioD. lu tb« case cited, the prera of Kansas 
(jity stated that tlio mob eet apon ttiid endeavored to murder the 
l«otur«r, tbdt he hnd to &y for his life, etc. In the Cnlumhaa 
matter Mr. LAthrop is cqnully at eca. Tho tncU aro that a young 
^irl wat detained at a monautio inBtitntion iigainiit h«r will, and 
was releaiMxl by due Ic^l prc»co»i. for tho dctaUu of which I refer 
Mr. LAthrop to the Coiambas court recnrda. 

Mr. Lathropr while orincing tho mofltnnmiatakable and inox- 
ooittble ignorance regardiiiR the "A. P. A.," hu had the exlrcnu'ly 
bad tast« to dcooiiuce it ad " ignorant aad stupidly mulicionn." 
nani words neither break honee nor etrengtheo a weak oiuiao tn 
the eyea of tho int«Uig«Dt, and, moreover, the organization re- 
ferrad to doos not oonstder an nmondmant to tho ConittitntioD 
oeoeaaary to prohibit seotarian appropriatioui ; for the reason 
that the Constitution has folly declared itaelf npon this point. 

I would eagg«et that Mr. Lathrop consult tho fnodamental 
principlea of the Union sa diligently on be has the interests of the 
Papacy. Another glance nt the Constitution should conviooe 
him that denominational control of public schools is unlawful. 

"If roligiun itself or the political rights of Cstholtca be 
Ibreateoed, the Pope may advis* dofensiva action, either by ab- 
■t«Dtioo from Totiug or by the formation of a party, etc." So 
tfOOtm Mr. Lfttbrop, yet he denounces the " A. P. A." and kindred 
■oeietiea when they aesert tliut llomiuiisra is political as well as 
eocleeiastical. Where in the Constitution does Mr. Ldithrop And 
proTifHoo made whereby a foreign priest may deflne the rights 
and (lutica of American citixuns ? 

The Bohools of Switzerland am referred to. Mr. Lathrop is 
all abroad ; this ia neither .Switzerland nor the Vatican, but the 
United States — a fact which seems to have been overlooked by 
hiffl. 

Are there not bisbcipis aad cardinals in the Papal charob who 



76 5'HB NORTH AMERICAN REVIEW. 

can Bpet& for the Papacy F Is it that the Papal anthorities m% 
aa afraid to place themselvea upon record as oar leginlatorB Boem 
to be P I might well be excnsed from replying to Mr. Lathrop, 
for he oflScially represents no one's opinions but his own, while I 
have the honor to represent those of more than two miltiona of my 
fellow-citizens. 

I tniat that whosoerer hereafter nndertatea to defend the 
Papacy and impeach the " A. P. A." and kindred associations will 
be a person of some authority in the Papal chnroh, whose utter- 
asces may be placed upon record to stand for all time. Meaotime 
the "A. P. A." continues to grow and thrives amazingly, iDcluding 
in its ranks acholars and statesmen of the first maguitude, who, 
oompariug the canon law of the Papacy with the Conetitntion, 
have come to the conclusion — Mr. Lathrop Qotwithatauding — 
that he who professes to be a citizen of the United States and a 
subject of Eome is an anomaly dangerous alike to the Bepublic 
and the Papacy. 

W. J. H. Tbatnos. 



LIFE AT THK HOLY SEPULCHRE. 

ST THE ItEV. OODPEtBY eOBri.LIIfQ, O. S. F. 



Uavt Americans bavo rinted the Holy Sepulchre irhiletrarol- 
liogin PiUeatiQe, and toamtefrom all parts of the world yearly 
go OT«r tbe aacred ground ; bat Lho writer eajoys the hooor of 
tuttiog been tfa« fint citizen of the Uaited Statai wlio took up 
Ilia abode in that reocrablu odificft. 

Thfl Uhiirch of the Holy Sepulchre compmea within it« w«lle 
Uiesituof Calvary as well as tb« Tomb of our Saviour, as th«y are 
only aboat Riity fact diRtant from each otb«r. The ideatiby of 
thcM holy spota hjM uf lute been usuuled from Toriona quarters, 
bat the vpry fact tbalCTcry opp»ueiiLof the Inulilioual site hna 
fl»i) hiD iniagtnHr}'itaoctuaryou a different spot is ODough to prove 
tite ainptioestt of their asaertiooB. Orieatal and occidental lrHdi> 
Uoa has always poiDt«d to the one spot veaerated by them all. 
ft ia uot my purpow, hovercr, to enter upon adisoniaiioD ra 
gardiog the autbeotiuity tif the IlolyShriavs, which is prorea by 
an tinin tempted chnin of witnesses whioh ix»a never tost a link 
(rum LiiG ili-ath of Oliristto tladrian, (rotaUiulrian toSt. Helena, 
from St. Ilulpnu to the Unuadem, and from thEiir duy until t^e 
proMDt tiaiL*. BcUeTerB in thu Skull Hill and other new Calrarya 
'' Iv Soputchres aro modest enough to suppose that the 
i< and iwiontuts of 1,S00 yearn were ull blind and mi«- 
guided aiilil tbeiie new llieoristc appeared. But, excepting a few 
cariosity seekers, nobofly visits these now silcti of Calvary and 
tb* Holy Sepulchrv. and to-morrow wo may hear of <omo other 
oucs made to order to suit the latest ideas of some seeker of 
urolty and Eome. 

Tbo Chun-li of the Holy Sepolchro is situated at prcnent 
within the walls i>f the city, in tlio northwestern pari, iif Jornsa- 
Iwn. This (act is tbo chiof atom bliog- block of the opponents 



78 



THE NORTH AitKRJCAN REVIEW. 



of the trailitional flanctnnrv, mf^oriptaro tollii as that the Sa*!onr 
waa crucified without the gaU). The plate of the crucifiiion, bow- 
eTor, T» added to Jcrasalem about the year A. I). 41 by H«Tx>d, 
aad was sarronQdod by a wall. Recent excavations made b; the 
|{nii3inn.t Hhvo bronght to light foiindotJons of the aecoud walU 
thus ttHtablitihiiig the fiic't thut the Actual Basilica of tho Holy 
Scpulchrt lay without the walla although near to them. 

On my lir^t risit to the Holy Sepulchre I was surprised at the 
dilapidntod condition of tho Boiitlica, which certainly oujfht to be 
one of the ma^t h[>autiful churches iii the world, since it corers 
soch jirecious ground. That it is not is due to the fact that 
the Turkish govenimentowns it, and thut notatiiul cud be driveti 
into the walls with«ut bug negotiations with Pashas, CoosalB,aQd 
AiDbafisadon). If it depended upon Catholics. I am snra their 
genercMuty wouM erect a temple worthj of the greiit mrsterios 
folfllled bencaih itsdoraea. But tbo^t/u/iM ^tut \& etnctly enforced, 
and iho Oriental dissenting CKristiaus of theOreek and Anucuiun 
ritos, who look tipon tho Latins, thoir Western brethren, as in- 
tmiiem, jealously back np the Crescent and bafflt' every elTort to 
Diuke any rvpaira. An incident which happened onljr some twelve 
yeare ago will illustrate this fact. The mosaic tluoring on the 
part of Calvary belonging to the Franciscang being considerably 
damaged and worn oat, the Superior, who is called Custodian of 
the Holy Sepulchre, concluded to have it replaced by a new one, 
nnd for that purpose opened nogotiatioiia with the Uroek Patriarch, 
conceding to the* (Ireeks tho r«pair of one of their saoctuarics. Tho 
conditionsweremntnallyagrct^dnpon, and iheni'w marble flooring 
was ordered. When it was ready to be laid the Custodian notiOed 
the Greek Patriarch, who then withdrew his consent, ns some 
connttT-inllucnoo had been brought to bear at>on him iu the 
moan time. The flooring hail therefore to be stored away for 
future nae. and the question remained in abeyance. 

The Church of the Holy Sepulchre is ofBciated by the ffltins 
— AS the Western Oatliolica are commonly called in the Ba*t — by 
the orthodox Oreeka, and by tho Armeaians. all of whota have 
their reapective habitations within the B:isilica. Tho LaiIob are 
reproseutod by the Franciscans, who have been gnardians of the 
Holy Places since tho year A. P. ViZ^, they having been ofBcially 
dcaignatod and recogaUed as snob by the Holy See. St. Francis, 
their foandcr, was himself a pilgrim to the Holj Land, and left 



LrrE AT THE HOLY SKPUlciIRE. 



TO 



I of hit ditscijiles there, who of U^rvanls bocame the succcssora 
of Um Orasndcra and pslatiluthed a prorince, which iit xtiU u&lled 

piheCnHlotIv of the Molv Land. 

The hiiftory of the en centuries the*e |>oor Friare have 
Bpint io the fcaardianahip of the Holy Sbriaca U written with 
bloody charnuters. Ry hiindnNls and thousitods they hare Tallon 
a prey to Muhomedan penccutinn and tn pmUlence. But thair 
ranks have alwaya boon Gllnl by now voluuteors coming from 
OTflry country. Great is the work thoy have performed, but 
in thoir humility thcv have never ptraded it before tbo world. 
They hare kept aliTo the apnrk of Christ iaii fiiith among the 

^BAtivcs; thur have worked for otTilisatiua aruuiig Uiom: benighted 
I who took pride iii ignorance, establishing echooU wbercrer it 
Was )»<t^tb)<>. so that burdly an Arab con bo foaml liviui; within 
tbetr juriHliction who in not fairly well educiito). They have also 
been a guide aiui a protection to the pilgrims who foroentaries haTO 
flmskoil t/» [*<>l(-»lint'. Ercu llic MahiimtHlaDfl o<iuhl nut liflpadmir- 
iog their disiti tercel ed liroe of incri6cc, a^ is proven by the tirtnonB 
ot various 8ultaiis who recugniaed them oIQciuIly oa the representa- 
tirei nf Weiteni Christianitj, giving them permission to establish 
tbunmclrua and L-xbortiiig tlui Muhomcdana not to molest thuin. 
They were known all ever the Ka«t aa the FrUrs of the Cord, tlie 
latter being the diBlinetivc mark of the Franciscan order, oiid 
lormerly mi Kuropean was allowec) to enter the Turkish doniininns 
Dnloi be wore either tho costume of the oouutrjr or the habit 
of these friars. 

Life at the Holy Sepulchre is exc«edingl]' intereating, both 

.00 Bccmiut of tlie place itself and the many religioaii observanoes 
of tilt! thfLt! offiotaling communiliiit, and also with regard lo the 
l^lgriaia and vieitoTs. 

The reliyi'ina functiona and ceronioiiioa arc of a ooiqno 

''ehuncter.eonibiiiiog IbcFplendor^otbotli the Eastern and WceCcru 
ohnrcben. Tho sacred litargy is celebrated daily at midnight by 
the tlin>e recoguiwd oommiiuitioe, the Gn-vka odiciHtitig first. 
Ttui (Ireeks have pre<ierve<l the old oriental liturgical ohant, 
which is similar to that of the Kastem nations. At first it is very 
disagrewabW to a European ear, but when vrdi executed is pleas- 
log to tbo«B Camiliar with it. Thoy make no nee of the 
organ for accompaaiment, as the Liutrumorit cannot well bo 
adapt«) lu tlie Htrango modulations uf their voicee. About one 



80 



THE NORTn AXBRSCAN REVIEW. 



o'clock they begin their mniw, ami this ceremony vane* in 
length auU itolouiuily uccordin^ to the (outs. Tho rutri«rcli uod 
the biiihopa wear gorgeous refltmcntx, and on these oomuioiu n&o 
crowntt instead of mitrmi. Neverthelugc the Ort-uk rile does 
not convey that dignified and devotional grandeur with which the 
Latin rite impresses the mind. 

The Armenians colchrafo after tho Greeks. Their litargy is 
moTO grare, the chant huing nneven and mournful, and being ao- 
compiniud by the souud of littlo bells atuclii^d to disks which are 
currifti on long stems by acoljrt«3. Chnrcii-bcIU are not in favor 
vith them. They use instead, « in otrly titnos, a voodon or 
metallic plank, upon which ther etiike with hamnierH. The 
Doifie thu« created u Ouafuuiui; and disagreeable. 

Neither the Greek nor the Armenianchnrch, Wthof which are 
rcproeeutcd at tho lioly Hopulchre, is in union with tho Catbo- 
lio Church, although they do not differ videlr in diwtrine, of 
in regard to the Sacntmente. The tgnestion which separates 
tbein from the Catholic Church is the supremacy of the 
Pope. The; are under tho immediate control of the Saltan, 
who practically elocts and deposes their pntriarcha. For this 
reason it is not always the worlhiocsa of tho candidate which de- 
cides whether or not he in to mount the ratriarchal chair and 
unworthy men are not infrequently enabled to thniat themselTes 
into prominence, to the great detriment of their churches, 

Hotli tho Greokg and Armenians arc hostile to tho Catholic 
Churoli. being jcalouK of the rlglils and privil^a that hare 
from tiiuc to time been accorded to the latter by imperial 
firmans. Only by constant vigilacco can the Latins elude tb«ir 
plans. Yet it often happens, eKpecially at Boililehem, Unit tho 
Greeks or Armenians try ii i-oup d'eUtt, and then violence ban to 
be met with violence', as a fait accompli would only cetublish 
a new precedent. The Franciscans there have to be always 
ready to Uy douTi their Uvea lor the prcwrvation of thoir fight*, 
and only last September a brother who stood up for the righu 
of his chnrch was killed in cold blood in Ibc grotto of ihu 
Nativity. The Pranciscana never act except in self-defence, and 
are never the aggressors, although European non-Catholic papere 
would make it appear to thocoatmry. An nppoal Xo thoOovom- 
inent is of do avail, for both the other parties, being Turkish 
BnbjecUi, hare the sympathy of the anthoritiea. The IaHhh 



LIFE AT THK UOLV SEPULCHRE. 



SI 



hiiTO to proaont tboir cUims through tho Froncli Consul, wlio 
gooemJty siijiislB miiUew hy making ixinpesainng, knowing woH 
ODongh (bnt Fraoce is no longer in a ptMition to prewiribe oon- 
diUoDi. UofliilcB. Uicw Consuls care verj Utile about theso 
roligions afTatra, n fact ^-tiich nnco caaue't a high Tnrkiah official 
at Onntftniitiiioplo to ronuirk tn tho French Ambnanulor who vas 
pleading snoh a question: "1 am very much BHtonisheil that Vour 
Kioellency tokos auoh great intorcst in the religions orders liTing 
is oorcoantr;, einco ;on havo oxiloJ thorn at hom(>." 

TliQ Hfo of tbo FmncUcans nt the Holy Sepatohro cqnals in 
noatority that of any nthor monustininstitDtion. Tboir habitation 
is wane than ttiat of the Tnipijiiilji, bccaum the latlorhaToat 
leiut the oommrKlitioi which, tlie rnto allows thorn ; and it ia 
wonw thnn a hcrmibigOfbecaQK it lacbii both nirand light. Itit 
more of u pri.inti thun anything else, for the rooms otn only bu 
oompared to duDgeons. th« one exit bt^ing through the door of tho 
Harinoi, whi>:b is oloaod cxoopt at corlxin Uinita, and thero in no 
window from which ono oim got a glimpse of thu oity or snr- 
routidirig (■minlry, nor is thcrcovL'ii :i giirdon. The convent is a 
perfect labyrinth of Btuirways and tunnel-like corridors. 'X'ho 
cells are so dark that n light is rotinin-il during the day; and 
thoy an so damp that tbo vrnlU aro mouldy, wator ooxiag from 
Ihem ciintinQuIly. ThU in of conrw very unhealthy, and in 
oonseqnt^nce none of tbo Failierg is obligod to reraain at tha 
llolv SopnI<'hr* longer than four or six niontJia, irhcn they are 
rrlitivod and ernt to anotlu-r convent ultbough lioinc ImTo remained 
thorv UDintvrmptodly for thirty years. 

Tho ct'll I occupiodwi.8a little room, just lM:go enougb to con- 
tain my hnl. a rongh pricdieu, a rickety chair, and a Hmall table. 
A tmall cquaro opening uoar the coiling, giving out on the torraoo, 
•vrred for a wiodov. The only object to besocn from there iras 
the minaret of a Turkish moeqtie near by on which tho Muexzin 
would appear nt staled honn ringing his call for pmycr. Tho 
ono plnco whore we could breathe a little frcah air was on the 
t«ntic«, a flat sqnnro on tho roof wallod in on every side, 
which has only existed einco l!i70, whou tho Emperor Francia 
Joseph obtained it from the Sublime L'orte. It was formerly a 
stable^ and. as may bo imagined, tho proMOCC of tho lioreoa orcr- 
beod oted to keep thu Fntttors from etociiiug, and disturb them 
al their doTotions, besides endutigoring titeir iivt«, as they DeTor 
VOL, OUX.— HO. iS'J, Q 



83 



TBE NOBTU AMERICAN REVIEW. 



knew the moment tbo oM building might coUapee sail bary 
tbom beneath it. 

The dav in the Iloly Sopulcbro Im^qs *t midnight when the 
l^nciscaDs repair to thn choirtosay the mntinii, which lost until 
sboat bnlf-ptuit one. After tills the; take a short rest and 
then ssj their mi^ssea. The greater part of the dajr is occapied 
by Toiioaa officer and moditatioos. Tboir spare time is de- 
voted to the spiritual wnnts of the pilgritnB, to atady, or to liter- 
ary work. The meals aru mat fiom the coiivout of St. Savior, 
which ta about five miniiles' walk from the Holy Sepolchre. 
When the IkuuHoa is cloaod the food is passed in through an aper- 
turo iu tho main d'lor, 

Pilgrims w)io wish to pass a night at the Holy Sepulchre are 
provided for in tho convent and can msisi at the ofDcea. DcTOot 
travellers gladly avitil themsclTcs of tliis privilege, aod the Rmperor 
Prancis Joseph once passed the night with the fathers and 
shared their ht!mbt(> fare. A marble slab in thu refuctory reminds 
the visitor of this fact. A night spent at the Holy Sepulchre 
iaone of the most imprcssire experiences of a lifetime. When 
the doors of the Uasilica are closed, the visitor may wander at 
leisure thnmgh the Kitcnt halls of the temple, which, dnring 
Lent, are lit up by hnndreda of lampa; the chapel of the Holy 
Sepulchre being adorned with a crown of lights glittering in 
all colors, tiroapt of UdEsiftn pilgrimi may ttsoally he heard 
iutoning one of the soft and plaintive melodies pooaliar to 
the Slavonic race. I always found that Calvary impressed the 
pilgrim more than the llnly Sepulchre, Yet tho Sepulchre is 
the seal of roracity attochod to the work of the redemption, and 
its authentirity would never have boon recognized had Christ not 
arisen the third day, showing his superiority over death. Henoe 
tho veneration we hold for the Tloly Sepulchre, and the pro- 
eminonco of Dostcr Day over Good Friday. 

Tho influx of pilgrims and tourista to Jeruaalem has incroostk) 
wondorrully within ibe last t«n ycitrs. They come from emTy 
land and D^nally remain for Floly Week to witneaa the ceremonies 
at the Uoly Sopalchrc. The Frunctscans bavo a pilgrim- houee 
which is chIIwI Caai Nova, when* they have alvaya ex tended a 
Gonliul hospitality to visitors, rogardlese of creed or uaitonaltty. 
They have exercised this charity over since their establishmeotiu 
Palestine, and in many places, such ua ^'axureth, Uouot Tabor, 



LIFE AT THE HOLY SEPULCHRE, 



83 



»odTib«riiw, tlirir hospicfl ia the only refu;roirIicre a traveller may 
find rcit sf Ut a long jnarney on horseback. TLo records of Ibese 
boBpicos slion- hriir highly the rimlur!) have approciuted the kind- 
11M8 of the fatbcre. who do overythinfr in tbeir power to make 
fftimogers feci at home, without ever utking any oompeiiitation. 
At timp«, however, it has happened that some bigot has ]>euDed 
in a fonii^ lanpmgc an insult to these kind hosts after haring 
eojoycd tbetr hospitality. 

I'he Freneli Irivo organised an Hiinital pilgrimage to Jorusalem, 
which ^nendly taVe-^ place about Pentecost, and have buUta spe* 
cial pilnrim-bonsc culled Kotre Dame dc Prance. The piljcrims. as a 
rnlc, remain about two weeks, and always create a great ecnatiou. 
The shopkeepers, eapeciallr th<! veaders of religious articles, await 
tlieircoming with ini|)atiencc, as they eenerally make large sales. 
Indeed the natirea dopeud nearly entirely npon strangers for their 
livelihood, as otherwise Jerusalem has very little trade. The 
(icrmani and Auslrians liavo also tbeirpilgrim-housea in Iho Holy 
City. Tlic Anistrian hoaso is ntoatcd on the Via Dolorosa, and lias 
been honnrod hy thu prc^nce of the Emperor, his nufortunate aon 
Rudolph, and uther mumberHofthv Imperial family. Sjiatn or- 
^aalxes an oocasional pilgrimage, and so does Italy. The 6rat 
English Cntholie pilgrimage took place in IS'.iO, when, for the first 
time since tlieCmnadca, the balls of thu Uattjlicu resounded with 
EtifrLisb hymns. It was hi-oded by the Duke of Norfolk and Uie 
late Bishop Clifford. America bad itjpilgrim&Ereinl8£9. Itwas 
handed by the Very Rev. Charles A. Vinutni.and nombersd about 
100 penona. A beantifnl silk banner from the United Stfttcs was 
dspoaibed at the Iluly Sepulchre and ia displayed there on great 
fwtlrals. 

Busaia sends the greatest contingent of pilgrims to the Holy 
lAnd. During Lent all the strvetn ore crowded with them. 
These people, wbo mostly all belong to the lower cUssee. are clad 
in the heaviest garments and even the women wear large boots, 
which mn»t lie very cnmbeniome under Llio scorching sun of Pales- 
tine. Tboy are not very scrupuloua in regard to cleanliuesa, how- 
CTur, and for tbla reason the fathers who arocompellod to mingle 
with them are often compelled tobnru their clotbc«. TbeygCDor- 
ally lead a very frugal life and rinit all the holy places on foot, 
often walking for days at a time. Many of them Derer see 
tbeir homes i^D, but find a resting-place in Palestine. Nearly 



84 



THE fiORTH AVRRJCAK REVIEW. 



bIL of them buy their shroutis in Jcnifalein. They genfrnlly 
leftve on tbo Hol^- SutanlMy of the Greeks, immediately ictter 
vitnessingtheceremoDyof the Holy Fire. 

This function takes place yearly. It ie pretended by the Greek 
clergy tlmt the holy fire f*1lB from heaveii, «nd all Jcrnsilem tnrna 
on t to see the spectacle. On the prerioRe evening agniat miiny 
Oreeke from the neighboring vitlagea axsemhle in tlio church 
And poes the night there, and at an early hour the Basilica is 
orowdcd Tith pilgrims. The oxcitement groirs oa the hoar for 
the ocremony approaches, the Turkittb troopH being ordered oat 
to prevent any distiirbauco. About one o'clock thu Greek clergy 
form a procoseion around the TToly Sepnlohre. Then the Ore«k 
J^triarch, together with the ArmcniAa bishop and a fev doaoons, 
is locked in the cli:i{Mil. Mcanwhilo the people onbtido, cspo- 
cialty the peasants, shout and aiug with wild enthusiaiim. Every 
one atLcmptx to get near the round opening in the wall, from 
which the holy Arc is to bo h»»dod out. When the moment at 
last urriveis and it is given to tlio people, every one Uj^hts his bnnoh 
of candles and in a moment tlio Basilica U ablaze with light. 
Itidere on hoi'sehaok are in waiting to bring the Arc to Bethlehem, 
hyddn. Jaffa; and tho pilgriiasoftoaoftrryitaefar aaMofiCowaDd 
St, Pelorsburg. 

One of the most inooiigraons sights at tho Holy Sepulchre 
is theTiirkifih divan, just inside the entraitC'P, on which a couple 
of iudok-ul Moslems recline, gazing with appurout itididervnce 
at the deroat pilgrims who pass through the gate, but realty 
Bcrolinizing tliem with a »iow to eolioiting bakhxlteeAh. 
These men may be styled the jailers of Christendom, for they 
posacea tho riglit of opening and closing the Uaeilica. This 
privilege has been hereditary in two fiimilies for ccntaries. 
To on« of them belongs the right of kec-ping the key of tho 
gate, and to the other onw the privilege of opening it. Wlien 
any one of the tbroc oommunitica living in»do tho Itasilicn 
desires tho gate to be opened, a serTant is signalled to onll tho 
represontativcB of tho two families. After u long delay — bocauao 
an Oriental is never in a harry except when he wants a favor — 
the two men appear. The gate can bo unlocked only in the 
imsenco of the tro. the old rcjrulalions prescribing the attend- 
•ooo of both, as tho one holding the key is not allowed to open 
the gate, and vtc» verm. After having performed their duty. 



UTB AT TOE HOLY SBfULVBRS. 



86 



the/ repiir lu tlie iliran, and proceed to liglit the nargtUh and 
tan t>ifl tinzicr upon which thov miikc their coffe«. Charcoal 
and eotbw hare to be ftiriiishcd them bv tbc fathers beeidei a 
nipood of monoy, tbo pricu of all reaching about one dollar for 
«Kchoponing. The gate onl; remains open till nbont eleven o'clock 
in the forenoon. On fcativulit, when anjr of the Patriurchs muke 
Iheir solotuii entraitce, l>alli vin^ of the ^ale are thrown open, 
•oil the price for thic ran^'es from (tre to ton dollars, couauls 
and other distinguished visitore being expected to give extra 
hakk»h(t»h. 

Ui'epito ull thiK servitude ihiuga have changed a grout deal for 
the better sioco the Crimean War. Before that time these heredi- 
dilaiy janitors exacted [»buloii8«nms for opening the door, the 
oonwqucnce being that it ofti'n remained rlnsied on the commnni< 
tlM for months nt u time, i^ilgrims who could not i*H;r the en- 
tnii«o fee were detained foreix montlu or a ;ear awaiting the 
arrival ofsomo rich iravellerwho would pay their way iiiio the 
banlica, andmanya one haaretorned toICurope witliont ever hav- 
log iccn tlto Tomb of our Ijord, althongh he has stood before its 
gat««. If anr one of the fathers died, the giite bad to be opened, 
and then the jiinitors levied another and higher tax ou the poor 
friars, besidcfi which n special {lermit for biirinl had to be ob- 
tained from the Government, which whs gcncratly given in the 
following tornui : " Wo hereby allow u daiaued Fruuk dog to bo 
buried." In order to avoid (hcee vexations, many a father was 
bnrin) in tho cellar of the oonTonc, within the llnsilirm, whore 
the reinaiiiR still repose, or more often the fathers resorted to ■ 
nun U> nludc the vigilance and rajiacity of the jtiilirs. The 
corpac woold be dre89e<l up as usual in tho habit, the hood being 
dravn low over the face, and two brothers, propping it op on either 
aide, would le;id it out thntngh the gate early in the morning, na 
though they weretiikiug the corpse out for a walk, whilst iurcuUty 
they were conveying it to the burying groand. 

'I'hoM- and worflp hnmiliationa the friars have had to Buffer 
foriix centurini. They were formerly strictly forbidden to build 
ur make tho alighteel repairs without tho written permission of the 
(!im11, which always involved such expense that they coald not 
afford it. Snch work had therefore to be done sarreptitiously or 
by night, and they ir^re nbtiged either to fill np tlic unoccupied 
niuuu with the dubria or to carry it ont by degrees iu their aleevee. 



86 



TBB SORTB AMERICAN REVISW. 



The Tnrkaoompcllcit] tho friars to pay thorn ut evopy opportunity. 
When drought pntvitilud or when rain fell too abundiuitlj, 
when the looosts devoured the oropa or pestiloDce broke oat> 
when the Pashft's child took sick, the fmrs vero cbai^od. 
When the Cadi or Mufti choBO to take aoothor wife, the frUrshad 
to Rpiid him presents. The Pasha of Damuoue made ft Tisit to 
Jerusalem nc&rljr every year, which filled the friars with, new 
terror. Upon arriving he voald B«nd for the Superior, and tell 
him that being in SDuncinl strait? ho needed «o many thonaand 
dollars. The Superior would protest on hia knees that he had not 
the required amount, whereupon the Pasha would hand him a 
parte, sayiagt " Well, in that catjc I wilt lend it to you,'' and then 
taking the money back would contfider the friar us his debtor and 
charge him besides a heavy interest, for which be demanded a 
certified ivcvipL The amount of money which has been spent 
in Buch ways on the Bmall convent of the Holy Sepnlchre would 
snffioe to have built the most gorgooae palace. 

Owing to the confinement and continuous work at the HtJy 
Sepnlehre the fatheni living there are often allowed to lake oo- 
caaional brief vacations which they usaatly spend among the 
Tsrione convents which are scatien^ through the neighboring 
country. These journeys are generally made on foot. While 
setting out on one of these holidays some years ago two of the 
Fathers, while walking along, were suddenly surrounded by a hand 
of Bedouins, who took them prisoners. One of them managed 
to make his e^jipc. but the other was carried oS into tho moun- 
tains of Moab, beyond the Dead Sea. Seeing that resistance 
would only aggravate bis condition, be showed biuuelf willing to 
aasiat bis captors and thus ingratiated himself with them. In the 
ooarso of time be mastered the Arabic longaoge perfectly^ vu 
provided with an Arubie costume and came to bo regarded as one 
of tho tribe, bnt his longing to regain fain liherty nefer les- 
sencd and finally grew so inteose that he resolved to devise a 
plan of escape. An idea oecurred to lum one day and he decided 
npoa its immediate undertaking, althongh it would take bim 
years to put it into execution. During the various strifes in 
which the Bedouins were engaged ho always remained at the 
camp, for they trusted him in everything excepting in matters of 
warfare, and ho was never allowed to accompany them on their 
military excursions. After their next departure he repaired to a 



LIFE AT TUB HOLY SFPULCHRB. 



87 



fioliU'7 rnla and taltitig a stone from tlie ancient bnitding be^a 
to engrave nn itiBcription rhoroon in Lstia girjug his history, 
imitating llie old epigraplie be fonric] therp. As bis looU wer« ei- 
trenwly poor Iho work prognMsed vcrj slowly, and hewasofcoiirw 
ourcfot to bury llio Bton« iu thograaud vlioti tbc Itcduuiiu ruturnod. 
The Slieikli had often pressed him to toll wbere the hidden treas- 
orm of Die ruiut?d oil)' woro to bci found, and when the inscription 
wu oonip1i!t«l theFriiir took him to the ipot where the rtone was, 
pretending ho bud jitat diacoTLTcd it. uiid tclliug him that it 
wan worth ite weiglit iu gold on accoaat of the iuscriptioD> 
and that it would be immediately parcbasod if presented at 
th» convent of the Fnmcisonns in JerDsolom. The Sheikh wu 
tit first incredulous, bni his greed for money gained the npper 
band, and he decided to take the atoue along when next going 
to make pnrcbasee in the Holy City. Jn tbe fnlneea of time he 
promnted bim&elf and the stone lo the Superior, who was 
■lurtlcd at reading the meuago and hearing after fifteen yeara 
of tlio friar who had long been mourned as dead. The 8beikh, 
readingfrom bis features that the i-alneof the stone must l>e great, 
greatly r«joicc<], and dnnhlc<l inhi:^ mind the Bom bewiu going to 
ask for it. The Superior tulil him that the atone had an immense 
Talne, bat only if the peraon wfaodiscorered it conld be produced, 
oteTeryibingdopondod upon thosite where it was found and the 
elroumsbtnoefi attending il>i discovery. The Slieikh left in disgOBt 
and decided to let the mutterdrop.buthisavariceagaiapreraited, 
and after eomo weeks he told the friar that he wonid hare to pro* 
parv for o journey to ■Jornealom, threatening him with death, how- 
OTpr, if be would make known his identity. Upon their nrrival at 
the convent they were shown into the reception-room, and treated 
to cigarettes and coffee. The Superior then asked to sec the Snder 
of the famona stone alone and retired with him into an adjoining 
room, from whence the long lost friar woe immediately spirited 
away Into the labyrinth of the confeut. Iu the mean time the 
Superior liad sent notice to the Paaha of the city, who promptly 
•ent a detachment of soldiers to arreet the Bedouins, ae thej 
wen all wanted for other offences. 



OODFUEV ScuiLLLfO. 



OUR FAMILY SKELETON. 



BY CUttK BOWBLL. 



If the coiiolusioas of Mr. Joliu F. Ilntnc, in hU ghaetly bx- 
hibiUon of the d»c»ytDg n-mnantft of " Our Foniilj SkcUtou," in 
the Jiiuo isfluo of Tus Kevikw, aiu eorracl, it follows tlmt two 
things are trno : First, that the ci-odit of the Statoa of the South 
i^ now bolovr |mr, as couipurul with that of bho SluteB of othur 
seotioQs; aud Second, tbiat tbis conditiou, if properly atat«d, in 
the direct reuult of the pant n>pii(liatiou, hy the Slatoi of the 
Sotith, of large pArts of tlieir boiiiJed indehtiHlnees, which re* 
pudiution is thutskoloton that ]llr. flumedm^ from thcSouthcru 
oloset, and flunuU iu the e>«s of capitul a« u m«iince to diirurt 
it from the chsniieU of Southern iuveatment. If, therufore, tt 
can })e demonatrated that the credit of the Soathem States is 
not only as good, btit bettor than that of soma States which havo 
uo reoonl of rupudiatiou, and that, ta n wbolu, the credit ol tlio 
Sauthoni .SUitus hears fiivumblo coniparisoawilb that of the Kjtntes 
of any othor ecctioD of the Union, then it follows that "our 
family filiplcton "of rc^pndiiitioii is no longer efUrnciotis for the 
iiBo to which Mr, Uunio would put it, to wit : As u sc&rocrow to 
frighten cupital from the Held of Sonthcni Inreetnieul. 

In the flret place Mr. ilumo does not corrootly express the 
itentiment of thv iSouthorn Stal«a in hi» i-tTort lo make it appear 
tliab Ihoy arc dieincliut-d to a dl^uisiou ot the quvxlion, uud that 
" to many Southern p<!opk> the utihject U rather a delicate one." 
Ho duplores the fact tbiit the Southoni governors who recently 
ooiiferrcil .it Richinond. Va., for the purpose of calling :itU'iition 
to the advuutii<;oK oSmcd tu cupiUl iu the developiiiuut of Suutbvru 
resoin-ccfl, otnitled from their proceedings an inspection of the 
skeleton, and, oxcnsinj; i>>(iir retioenee on the ground that the 



OVS FAMILY HEKLBTOS. 



m 



nibjoot wiu n temlor oao, Iio justifles faU attack on Southern credit 
by tlio statement tliat he '*doeB not tee] boaiid to follow their 

In tliQ commonilubin work put on (oot bjr the Sontlipru 
govvmom ut RiclimoDiI, thu qneation of ropudJntvd State bonds 
wu not L-onitidorttd, beoauso sucb disoiiwion wns not one of the 
porposeaot the conference, uot because the question w&a a dia- 
tMtefiil ono, but on noconnt of tho fiict that the praiseworthy 
effort of tliu SoRthern goreniore Ui invite the atteutiou of outside 
capiUt to ihe rich fieldB of nnderplopod rosonroos in the South, 
wu biuipd on abdtiiliitit cvtdoucu that ilio disustabli^hed crodit of 
the iioutb, reaalting from the chaotic con Jilion following the war, 
was thoroughly ro-oetablisbrd, »ud that cuiiGilunce in Southern 
ipciiritioa wii^ I11KV rvgidiittnl by the same conditions that contiolled 
the estimnlR of tliv <:n-dit of any other section, the prime fautor 
ill whioli ia the Boctuity of the obligations offered, not under paat, 
bat nrider etialiiig couditiona. 

tr, na Mr. Uimiv holds, it be true thut tho npndiation by the 
Sonthem St»te$ of bondn iaauod contrary to law, many of thom 
admittodlr ille;,'nl> nnciinstitiitional, Aud wnr^o than that, mon- 
itTonily fntailiilt'at, has iiijnrL>d tbc credit of thoSontlieniSiJitva, 
ttiia would, at onco, become evident by public diitcrodit of the 
aecoriliofl iiuiieil ainc^i then, tlio Talue of which, according to Mr. 
Huniu'd theory, would bu miuiifcBtly bi'low Ihal of the siMsuritioB 
of Slates whose crv<lit hnd not b«en i»jure<l by repudiation. Ami 
yet wo find tlwt Atubama five pur cent, interest bonds ore quoted 
b Xew York at from 100 to lUS : Florida (!'< at 137 ; I»uisiana' 
4'eatnf); \oi-th Carolina K'm at M7 ; South Cun)Iiita4)'e al from 
08 to IOC ; TcnnoaBCc (witltiiicnt) 5'» at 105 ; and Georgia ■i^'a 
at from 110 to 113. Among the States which bare not re- 
pudiated, Connection! .1('h are qnotn] at 100; Klatno 3*a at 
from 1>* to 00 ; Mu«iachusett« 5'a at 10<^ to 107 ; Ithodu [ahuid 
e'a at 100. 

Tlii^re has not be«n an issne of Georgia bonds in the past ten 
joam whirh was not reudily disposml of in N«w York at terma 
Btmngly cxprtiuiTc of the gowl estimate that capital places on the 
credit of the State. As it is with Georgia, so it is with other 
Southern States, tho cr^-dit of which, under the new order of 
tbtngii o<it:iliIiiilieil with tho reorg» nidation of ulTaini after the re* 
couatructtoa lutfislattires had sapped the vitality of every Southern 



90 



THE NO&Tn AMSRICAN RBVIJSW, 



State, vras soon readjnsM to n nonnal basis, gainin; etreoEth 
year after ycnr in proportion to tho degree of recovcr^r of the States 
from the radt; shock of war. 

Those who »re not familiar with tlio facts cannot appreciate 
the condition in which lht> South was left after the v»r. WiUi 
its Msets halved, ils debts more than treblod, oominercQ prnatralix), 
and ita lociiil condition pliiccd on a new basiii, thebunlenti of the 
Southern States hud in it few ycuni incrt'tifivd in mora tlian treble 
proportion to the decreaac of tlieir strength to bt-ar ihcm. Hud 
conditions not been so uatorially changed by the war, I belioTC 
that the South would have cleared itself entirely of the record of 
repudiation by paying dollur for dollar cren for the proceeds of the 
bonds whicb were unoonBtitutioiial and utianthurizod, or by &r- 
riviogat uaatisfactorj settlement with the bond holders, even had 
it become necessary to go to the estreino adopted by Mlnnvcota 
of cluuring its record of repudiation by n compromise settlement 
of fiO cents on the doltur, At the beginning of the war almost 
erery Southern State had just about us heavy a toad as it was poe- 
aible to carry. Bnt their obligations would liare been satisfactorily 
disposed of in due time Iind not tbe war precipitated a conditioQ 
which forced adiffcront trvatmcntuf thoquostion from that which 
would pTobably utUerwiee have been adopted, la tbis connection 
etjitistins throw valuablo light on the strikingly digproportiooate 
developraeut in the tremendous decreaseinthe taxable busts of the 
SoQtIi between 18430 and 1870, and the enormons increase in the 
bondrd iudobtednuss of tbo sarao States during the same period, 
which was the era of germination and development of most of the 
repudiated bonds. The 6nit of the following tables is taken from 
tbe valuable treatise on "Repudiation of State Debt^," by Pro- 
fessor Soott, of the Ohair of Political Economy of the Unirersity 
of Wisconsin, atid the second from an ortiole of Mr. U. V, Porter, 
in Tho Inttmaiwnai Review : 



VALLIKTAXABLKIUaUOr TBI BODTanUI VFAm. 

UB». vm. 

Virsinu •Bl.ffi'51 ViM.PTR.Isa 

Korib CnrollBa IttHJli 1M.ST8.W 

»uat.h CtroUaa (mnsilfl W.»i.-i.3n 

o>«nuk Kiaaf.sir w.j<oi»id 

P1aria> (suites ».Un.H3 

AUtMs* •nmnj ii£M£ja» 

LobMum tJB.TBI.lM iaMl>.SM 

AriwMM t»n\.m tLfGnjia 

Twan— UMOUn tu.7iU.Ul 



nroe«t.«f 

deorcaae. 

an 
ci.i 



OUR FAMILY SKELBTOS. Q\ 

tXOR£U* tit BTAT* bum BRTtrXKX IHO UIO IST* IMD IML 

liw. WO. 18». rttflriSlSfc 

Tititeu »*'-2S9fi' ••'■as.-*" touuja iSKSio'mii 

icuoiiiw *.tmjai» 9>aDo.au ^uks^ii l>.geoiM 

iCuvlliw. «.«IMM ^MMn T.tUJM U.?SS.aM 

. 2jrtv.i» tMt.ua io.aM.ow m.w.ua 

- .- *-'*''?S uw.«n ijiijw Mia.w 

MiMlMrat Nana i.ige,w nftuu 3,iM>n 

LoMaM j-jSi'lff tt>.(in.7t3 UA'U.Ria <o.iis.tm 

nuHMo SU*UH sUN.Mt a^awJttl «ijb3.uii 

In thd Ust of the above tables it vil) t>e obHervod Uial nioet of 
the SUt« debut in 1880 shsv s vMt. increase over tlioee of i^Hd, 
notwithatajidiat; the fuct that tlie figures given for i860 nro tboee 
left after tbe weediug out procoaa of ropudialioii of titinuthorized 
bonds. The iMt column in t)i« above table reprcsonta tbo bigheat 
poiut reached by tbo dobi of tliij SiAiea, including the bogut 
bonds, after the uliminutioD of a litrge part of whicli tbe flgnros 
indicating the debts in 18S0 nrmain, 

It \i uot my purpose to enter iuto a disctusioQ of the merits 
ordemerila involved in tbe repudiation acts of the Soathorn Stutc». 
Koroould 1 do so in the neoeganriiy limited spuce of magasine 
diBCUMon. The record of every Suite is made, and the action of 
cMoh wua the rMult of mature deliberation. For ruueona satte- 
factory to the States thenuielvfs, tkwi Trhich have become a iaattc>r 
of biBlory, a large part of the boa(l«4 iudebuxluess of tboae Statea 
waadeolared to be illegal, aDauthoriKod. mid uuconbtilutiouul, and 
and tlic StAiee felt themselTea juBtifled in repitdiutiiig ubligaLiona 
to which Lbey lia<I been committed without due process of law, 
ami by oorriipt officiale whose record of barter and aalc of tbo 
credit of their respective States forms apart of the reoonsLnictioQ 
history of the South. As for myself, t take tbe broad position that 
for every dollar borrowed in good faith on tbe legal credit of any 
Sute a dollar abould be paid. Going further tlian this, 1 think the 
«|tiit)i<s iuvolvod call for Uio ec-ttloment by tbo States of snoh 
bonded obligutiona as were taken in good faith, and the procevda 
of which werL' clearly used for public purposes. But for such 
bonded indcbtvdneBaas was 6xed on theSoiitbern States by thoea 
who overtiirnod both human and divine law to obtain anthority 
which did not exist, and who ustod the good names and credit of 
Ibe Soaiberu States by which to obtain money which they poured 
like Water down the channeta of their riotous and unooafiine de- 
mand for pillago and plunder, I do not think tliat either equityj 



m 



TUB NORTB AitESIOAH RKVIEW. 



jaetice, oi' law slioold reqairo pnymont by tho Stnt«s which were 
eo]jftlj»bIy robbed, and which, gsnerallx upeaking, did noteTen 
r&ceivu tlio benufil rcaiiltiug from tho procoods of tho bonds to 
which their nomos were bo mercilcsly pledged. 

lu Wii treallsG ou " The Laws ol Public Securities^" p. 5, a 
weil-known authority on the snbject (Barroagbs) says: 

"All wb«deat wltfaarmbUeageal or officer mast takft OOtlM 0< his 
powers. U«dcHTca bliftuthoritj from tho Ian irhlch kutborixes bU »p- 
polDtmeiit. No puraoouay profeaalKaDranceof tli«flz(«ab ol the powftr* 
o(ft piibhc BKeni." 

This \& a brood principle of law whicli not only jastiSed the 
Btntea «f tho South iu refusing to meet obligations which did not 
belong to thotn, but which also proveaca such action from men* 
acing the good slandiiig of their credit, for, under the nowcondi- 
tiouscHtubiiahed with tlic reorguiiieuLion of iuturunl ttfiairs aft«r 
the South had obtaine<l poueasion of itaelf, a basis of credit was 
establighed from which it would be aa reasonable to eay that the 
Southern States would depart as it would be to charge that Penn- 
sylvania, Micliigau, Wisconsin, or Minncaola would ropndiutc their 
obligations of to-day beoanso they hud done so in the past. 

Iqutite from Mr. Hume's articlu, iu which, aftordwoUing upon 
the fact tliat tho dovelopmcnl of the South hiu been materiiilly re- 
tarded by \{» lack of crcilib. and by the fcur of capital in entering a 
territory in which the repudiattoa "Kkeletou"aL»lks, the following : 

"UeorRta l«tb« Soutti'* nKOfcnixed )a&il«r la w«tl()i and eiit«r(irlte, but 
mont ofGvaraU'lirtillrondsKre in r«c«ipar«' bunilfi. It is not so macli Ihab 
oauide napltal avoids th» South. Th«n Is pleni; ot It seekloK ber eoal. 
iron, and timber Unda, and cvoo mmioon ha«« di«appe«r«d In bar luckleM 
'boOBMr'cltiwaod tuwaa. Why in U, then, tbat whan wo COM* to tb«ir 
nilroada, tfaelrntockitareMbuncMid bj inTCAtoRt, and eroa tbelr morUta^ 
MMTurltlr.-* KO at murdvroun dlni-auntif T Is II not b««aaM!, bcinn qiutsl-pabllc 
lustiiutioua, operatltuc under State loi^Ulatlon and auperrlaloD. tbey abarc to 
acaiialderablocKMBt tbodittcr«dtlof tbvir leaal maateraandaiMiuomC* 

After this Mr. Uume prxtceeds lo show tbut not only all tbe 
railroads, but corporations generally, including the countios and 
towns of the South, "are more or loss sufferers in the some way." 
It IB a pity that in ii ehargn m grave tho anther should oontent 
himiielf with a mere statement, williout giviu£ either facts or 
figures to sustain it. Instead of the conditions being oorrectly 
stated, ttie exact revereo of tho aituation described by Kr, Ham« 
is true. Neither the cities nor tho coiitities of tJie South are any 
greater sufferers from lack of credit than the countiee or the cities 



OPB FAMILY SKBLETOff. 



of tny othnr inwtioii of tbo conntry. On the contrary, thn credit of 
thecity of AtIanLAia]?ilC-0(i;;oil, nuddurhix the put docwlu she bu 
Dot iaeuod ii boud which hta not been promplly takfii nt aii exceed* 
ingiT low rate of interest. S<> it in withall of thu iLwlhigSoiUhflrn 
oititn, whurR the regtriutioos of thu laVF huvc been cloarty uoiupliod 
with in the use of their credit. 

As to the Southern railroads boinj^ ioTolrod la rocetrorship 
CompHcstions as tho result of the rcpudiatioo acts of Soathern 
State*, the conolmioii is toofnr-fotehed to invoke Mriouioonnder- 
•tkia. SufBco it to «uy that atmw of the gruatoit railroad ajstoou 
In the Diiited States and Canada are now in the hands of reoeirers, 
and thoro i« not a Stata in the Union wlioso mtlrond mileage is 
not serioiisly htTolvud in rcceivoriihip litigation as tho roault of 
pnwiirly the same conditiotu that hare led to tbo appointment of 
nxMiivom for soiuo Southttrn roaiis. A m<Mt uoUiblu inHt.'iuco U 
that of the vast system of the (Tnion Pacitio Railroa^l, and even 
thf fact that tho govorainiiDt, it^Mf, waa its sponsor was not satR- 
eieot to kvvp it ont of rtneivonihi]! coits. f hare not the statia- 
Ucs before mf, but thu prubiihility is that Lli^y will ehow that not 
lejs thaa thrwe-fonrllu of tho railroad milua;;e of the United 
Slatm is now tn the hands of the cotirta, and being adininislerod 
by reoMToni. Kven in States with siioh nnc^nentione't oredit as 
N«w York. Ooitneotioat, and Uaawu^hawtt^. tho Now York A 
New England Railroad baa feoently joined the reoeireiiahip pro- 
cession, in which it mitrcho^ side by side with some of tbo groatost 
nitroad «}'«emsof the New England^ Middle. Western, and Pacific 
BUt«s. 

And yet fcbe gumt Bnoiicul firm of Droxel, Morgan & Co., ono 
of tho strongest banking instilntioos on earth, did not atop to do- 
cry the credit of the Soathern 8t»t*u when it Higuified ita willing- 
ness (o iindortuko tbo roorganisatioa of the Rant Tcnneaseo.. 
Virginia & Georgia and the Richmond & Danvillo Bystems, 
which travene tho States of Virginia, North Carolina, SoQtb 
Oarolioa. Oi>orgia, Alabama. Mississippi, and Teiuiosseo 

It is a fact not generaUy known that an Attorney •OonBral of 
New York dolirered an opinion in which ho stated, officially, 
that, after a carvfal investigation of the facta, he saw nothing 
that ahoald in any wise impair the credit of tbo State of Oeorgia. 
I refer ta the decision of Attorney-General O'Brien, which was 
«Xt«asiTclj circalated when rendered, and wUioli waa given as tlie 



rms K0R7H AMERICAS JtEVIKW. 



retutt of a call for his oonBtmction of a statute of Hew Yorii, to 
asoenajii w)ii>ther tliai etatatti would permit sarinj^bmiks in Kew 
York to ioT6Bt in an iB8U« of three and h half miltions of Oeorgia 
bonda, tioltl at a pruniium in 188S to wvl] known New York Gnan- 
ciore. Tlic statiitv rcfurredto allowcl "8aviiigsbaiil£s to invest 
in the stoclc^ a>i^ bonds of any State that has not within ten years 
defaulted in the pitymvut of principal or iiitore^t on any debt 
aiithoriied by any legislature to be contracted." The petiUonera, 
bciug the purchiuors. wero rcprcaoatod by Eon. X, J. Ilnm- 
mond am) Mr. Put Calhoun, of Atlauta. who were 0|ipoaed by 
tfao holders of tho ropudintml bonds of tho Slat« of Georgia, 
whose cminHel wore Mr. Hutchins, Hoccircr of the American Na- 
tional Bank, of New Vork, aud an t-x-Muuibvr of Coiigrosis from 
that State, ami ex-Chief Jiistico Loehrane, of the Snprcme Court 
of OiiiTgiu. Couijsel fur th» p«titioui-r8ailniitted tliaiGt-urgia had 
not iMiicI the interest on tlierepniiiated bonds, bntconteridi.il that 
bocausc they were nnconetitutjonal iEAues. they wore not in any fair 
BUHse a "dobt au''iorized by any Icgialaturo to bo contracted." 
Afler a full lnvetiLi;;aLion of the merits of tho cue, Attomey- 
Oeneral O'Bfiwn rendered a decifiion, in which he took tlie posi- 
tion that most of the repudiated bonds of the State of Georgia 
bad been iesiiod uucouatitaliouallv. Still ho thought that a 
certain rery gmall portion held by certain parties ought, under 
the ctrcittnstancvfl, to be paid on tho doctrine of ««toppul, said 
parties hartng purchased <x.'rtain bonds aftrr a resolution of the 
General /Vflaembly of (Joorgia rccogniziug their lalidity. TIio 
Attornt'y-General thought that under the law of Xcw York tho 
queation of anconatitutionality crmtd not probably be considered, 
though nnder a tt^cluiirMilysaTinge banka could not invest in the 
bonds. lie took [Hiins to aay that there was nothing in the in- 
TestigatioR which should, in tho slighteat degree, impair tho 
credit of the State, and this decision, aud particularly the last 
statement referred to, was complained of severely at the time by 
tliojHi who were necking to discredit; the State, they char^fing that 
it was a voluntary indorReinent of the Stjite of Reorgia, which tho 
AtlornBy-Qeueral of the State of New York went out of his iray 
to give. 

Aa for derelopmont. railroad and otherwise, the answer of 
Oeorgia aud other Sonthern States completely refutes the argu- 
ment aud annihilates tlio conclnsion that repudiation has reduoed 



OOn FAiTtLT SKELETON. 



9& 



LU 



rrodit. Slid roduceJ credit JiM roUrdod dCTcIopmont. Proof of 
Uie facl ihul moro oiiUido cnpiut hM aongbt inTMtmcat in 
the dsTeluptncnt of Georgia tbuu in probabljr any «t1i6r State of 
the Union of the same popuUtion, in tlie past fifteen years, ia 
Ab«olato proof of the unsound iiess of Mr. Hume's charge tiiui 
*ith«re(l roaoupcng awiiitiiig ilevolopmcnt nro tho indiroct rcsuU 
of thi> repudiatiou by thu State of atmuthorizBil debts. 

For tlie imat ten or filtecu years the rcooid of nllrood- 
bnildiiig la thu United States sliova tbab Georgia has l«d, 
aIni'Mit PTory Ti-ar, in tho mileago of new roods. Tnken u * 
whole during ttiut time tho mileiige of new railrotula built 
in Georgia by tor mirpaasea ibat of any other State iu the 
nion. Moet of Ibe capital put in suoh developuieut haft 
mo from tbeot]t4i<le, itnd tl^c rvpadiatioti ''skeleton" had no 
terror for it. Some of the groatost milrond systenu in tho 
Uoit«tl Slates have pushed thtir linen into and throagh Georgia, 
and tlio remarkable udvitucu niado iu the railroad develop* 
mflbt of tho State ha« heen bnt tbo index of that which has 
kept pace in the improvoraont of other rceonrcos. As it 
luu twen with Georgia so it had bran with other South* 
Statea. the railroad and generiil devulopmont of the 
ulh Atlantic and Gulf States baving b<3et) more marked 
for cho suiiie period of time tbAo that of any section of the coun- 
try. Mitlionti upon millions of dnllars— mostof it onlddccapital 
— bare been iuTcsted in nnlockiug thu mineral resources of Ton- 
BaMBe, Goorgia, Alabama. Virgiuia, and Weat Virginia, and to a 
grwiter degroo than in any oiher territory of the asme area, bare 
the untold irnu. cnni, mineral, mtu-blc, and hnrd-wood induxtrioA 
of thuM StaUM rcapnnded to the quickening touch ol outside 
capital. 

In Florida, which Mr. Iltiino mya " in responsible for four or 
live millions raoro"of repudlaled bonds, and the dovelopmont 
of which from the demoralization of repodintion. if Mr. flume's 
■rgnuDiit he true, wntild bo eenoiiflly retanled by the loi>d of 
cnTdit iuctdent to repudiation, wo And tho most remarkable evi- 
nov of lh« recent work of outtiido capital tobo found probably in 
ly State In th« Cniun. Eminent N'orthem capicaltsts, ranking 
among the groiilest (umnciers of tho country, are there vying with 
ode auuthor in tho nppiireut effort to see vrtiicb can put the moet 
mon<.'y in transforming that beantifnl land of sunshine into tho 



96 THE HOUTE AXLLJC-ay l.r^-f^- 

garden spot of ibe e'>c^:ii*'i.-_ ~7i..m\. mV^Amn o: yrriwcL noi- 
tul hare been erjteadttc ii niilii.u tls: rul:-uai r^^aHCs. «aii- 
lishmg steamfb |- lints, y.tii-^— ,.;'i,!^ : ji -oi-nr. 'wji^vzzii iinaia rn. 
earth, and in &;;i?rwisi bfi£..T.j i.: tii"- surfeliriia r'.rs T'liu'J. 
naturehad beEi.>Tii£ zrnir lilt KJ.V: ■ ' t** -T>"7ni." gr-n itif r X;'."LHic 
Mr. Plani, nor Mr, ~;kr-*^. !■■'.- M.-. I'>,k::it„ h;-- lis. t'lrh: ia» 
stopped 1*3 incairf- ir;.:- li* issctr- .it-jt-i ]z. J'^i-r-'iii'f r;7iiiLiiB*i 
obligations. D->r hts ihi ^-reil; ■:■' :it s-iLit 'itvtz. Jtssti-fl :ci; Tii' 
by sHch Tvp-.^'ET-.-.-n T:.'* se:. v:.:- Lri: B:ti^l_TX ■Lissr mnw?" 
there in saca a';'::-;is.z!C* ■.li; i; 1* ;:ii:i-e=r!.'f ;.:■ £wt> it t-iI lai; 
details of laeprr-zr-r^ ;' x'l* Siiis-. 't^^-r^ il».:,;sS«i lisaniel''"-** •i»i= 
the past isamiTT^Tvf Tvy.-Tl, ^ui t'-.^: ilr rc-£aei,T i* *=. rcea 
book of brilliaa: p.-aiiist f'^r F'-_..-!1l*j fr~rr, ■*"!.*;<; r^r 3.fcT 
havo been ihe ojsjhj'ja- 'jialiL^ :o re :--iij. ;::■;.. liij ir-^oa «a: 
to-day. nor can iLtr *-ilr; kz^z. Ei.:i-r Tbe T-fc rsstr: ::::■== :' ;-■? 
reorganized fDndamf-:)'^ I*t cf ii=- 5-^:-e, wii/-. a? v-ii-tr Sum* 
have (lone, has ihrowi: er^rr pvslV.e 5ifer::ir: ir:-=- 3 ::* ^reii:. 
rendering it, like :hai oJ *t»:t oiber S:-:i:i---.i Si*:*, af aecir; a* 
that of aiir State in the U:.:<>n. 

lu thid conaeetion, i: out b? we-^j to c^il aiic^siios to the Eac: 
that the power of the S'^tee of t"ie Sja:h to c>5n:ra?i .teb:* was. 
before the war, praciica'Jy nnlimii^i. as ompare-i w^:a tae re- 
dtrictiona placed by the States upon thetaK->e= a5:er :he war. 
Tho iu>coaaity of this limitation was evoiri^] from the dear eiperi- 
uiioo bought from reconsiraecion legislatn ret, which wooM have 
broktm the Bank of Eogtand if they had had the same oppor- 
tiiiiily to trifle with iu credit that they did with that of the States. 
wliiuh their iianrj^ed charge came near bankrupting. The fanda- 
iiiinital law of most of the Southern States, like that of a large 
iiiiijority of all the States of the Union, now inhibits State in- 
diirHuiiiont of corpomtion secarities — a fruitful source of corrugv- 
tiori and plunder before the war, and particularly dnring the re- 
oonBtniction ora— and forbids the use of the State's credit for any 
other than administratiTe. educational, or other ench emergent 
purposes. I am aware that a favorite argument of those who hold 
the States responsible for all repudiated obligations, even though 
admitted to bo unconstitutional, fraudulent, and unused for State 
purpoees, is that innocent holders of the State obligations should 
not bo made to suffer the penalty of the misuse of the State's 
credit. And yet to hold the Scato rosponsiblo for an obligation^ 



Sua FAMILY 3KELliT0N. 

}r tlin tniLking ot wliich it biul given no nutbority wlimtsoeve]', 
wtrnid lis to put a pruaUum ou oorniptio-i wUich vrould, K each a 
principle lield good inlaw, imperil bheoreditof erenthostroDgeet 
ftiul n«b08t of tho States of the Uqiod. Carrnng tbU argomoat 
ki il« logituU conclnsion wouli) fonw tho Jiiikid ijtatos to rcdooiu 
•nnr ilolUr ot ooanterfeit moaoy in the hanila of innooent liolders. 
Ml tho gT0t2a(l tbat tbej ocooptod tho luouuy oa tJieir fiutli that 
the CDTernment was book of it and was reeponwble for it. 

Tho gOToramont iUoIf osLobliabed tho procMant that tho iti- 
DOMnoeof tbo bondholdor was not to be consideroil as oTerooming 
the iltogality of the Issae of aecuritio«held, !□ tbo adoption of the 
Funrlooncb Amendment to tboConfttitution, wbiob oompellod tho 
repudiatiun of d«bta contracted either for direct or indirect aid of 
Uu) roMlion. Miliiona of dolbmi of bonde*! iudobtcdnoss of tho 
Suuliiuni Stales were thus repudiated b}' thu FeileiulGoturiimeut 
iUclf after tbo war. Nor wore the dvbta so repudiated incurred 
diriMlljr in aid of the rebellioQ, though they were placed, coq- 
Htriictivtily, In that {.'alegory, Vast amounts of money were 
nisctl oil bouda by ^>uuthcm States, not in aid of the Ooitfoder- 
■oy, but for tho abtolaUi protoctiou of life against tho rsntges ol 
dectitntion and otnrviitiou. It is not strange, thorcCoro, that 
under the pocuhiir coiidilions oxidtin>; at tbo Umo, tbo Unc of de- 
marcalion bctWMUi suub obligaliouii tw the Southern States wore 
forced to diabouor, and others which they did dishonor for roa- 
aona fally aa satisfactory to thctnaclvcdt was neoeasarily vuguo. 

Xlie conditioaa of the South before tU« war and after the war 
widely difffml. A now order of thingn grow out of thu aabea of 
the flrai left by the Northern armies. Tbe cbungu was even 
greater than that in which tbo now republic fonuit itaolf when 
Um Cohniial armies cut tbu Uiiitod States from Ktigliiib territory. 
Then Uio wmo homogonoons people, fresh from the strife of war, 
tumod to the vocations which thoy loft when tbcy wont to tbu 
fieldof battle, and devoted thuiroQurgioi witb renewed eutbuslaam 
U> the opbuihling of industry and commerce ou the same lines 
that th«y had poraaed before. How different with the Sotith 
in 'B.*) ! A new era of industrial deTolopment and commurebil 
poiaibitllies dawned with tbo freedom of ahive latmr, by whtoh 
tbo atteutiOD of ibo South liad been eonflaed almost entirely, 
ntoit DDfortuuately, to agricultural pursuits. Tux valuations 
bud iMtm cut in half, and when the South finally awoke to a real- 

VOU ULJX. — KM, A&i. 7 



96 THE NORTH AMERICAN REVIEW. 

garden spot of tho continent. Untold millions of Northern capi- 
tal have been expended in building vast railroad systems, estab- 
lishing steamship lines, constructing the most beautiful hotels on 
earth, and in otherwise adding to tho murvellons gifts which 
nature had bestowed upon the state of perpetual sammer. Neither 
Mr. Plant, nor Mr, Flagler, nor Mr. Bisaton, nor Mr. Duval has 
stopped to inquire into the issuos inTolvod in Florida's repudiated 
obligations, nor has tho credit of the State been lessened one whit 
by such repudiation. The men who are spending their money 
there in such abundance that it is impossible to keep up with the 
details of the progress of the State, havo satisfied themselves that 
the past is a matter of record, and that the present is an open 
book of brilliant promise for Florida's future. Whatever may 
have been the conditions leading to repudiation, they do not exist 
to-day, nor can they exist again under tho wise restrictions of the 
reorganized fundamental law of the State, which, as other States 
have done, has thrown every possible safeguard around its credit, 
rendering it, like that of every other Southern State, as secure as 
that of any State in the Union. 

In this connection, it may be well to call attention to the fact 
that the power of the States of thcSouth to contract debts was, 
before the war, practically unlimited, as compared with the re- 
strictions placed by the States upon themselves after the war. 
The necessity of this limitation was evolved from the dear experi- 
ence bought from reconstruction legislatures, which would have 
broken the Bank of England if they had liod the same oppor- 
tunity to trifle with its credit that they did with that of the States, 
which their usurped charge came near bankntpting. The funda- 
mental law of most of the Southern States, like that of a large 
majority of all the States of tho Union, now inhibits State in- 
dorsement of corporation securities — a fruitful source of corrup- 
tion and plunder before the war, and particularly during the re- 
construction era— and forbids the use of the State's credit for any 
other than administrative, educational, or other such emergent 
purposes. I am aware that a favorite argument of those who hold 
the States responsible for all repudiated obligations, even though 
admitted to be unconstitutional, fraudulent, and unused for State 
pnrpoees, is that innocent holders of the State obligations should 
not be made to suffer the penalty of the misuse of the State's 
credit. And yet to hold the State responsible for an obligation. 



ova PAlilL Y SKtU^tiTOff. 



m 



In tha miikiag of whtoh it hiid fpTon do anthorit; whatsoovert 
W0QI4I bo to pat a prBmlum on corruptiou wUieli would, it such a 
principle hold good in law, imperil theci'Oilitof evon Ibostroagost 
and richest of thu Status of tho Union. Carrying this orgnmont 
to ha logical ooDoltuiou would forcu tho U'uitvd flatus bo nKloom 
wary dollar of ooanterfeit moaey iu the hands of innooeot holdera, 
00 the ground that thv; ucouptod the money ou thoir faltU that 
tho govominfDt wab bnck of it and was r«epotigible for it. 

Tlio govcmmaut itMll ostablishcd tho precodont that tbo in- 
lof tho boitdholdurwM not to bo considcnxl aa ovorcoming 

itUqgality of the isaae of soouriticeheld, in thu adoption of tho 
Fourteonth Anieadiiieut to the CouHtitutioD, which compelled the 
rsptidtaUun of dehte contracted either for direct or indirect aid of 
tbo rebollion. MlUiooa of dollozs of bonded iudobtcdncu of tho 
Soatberu States woru thus repudiated by tho Federal OoTcrumeut 
itwlf after the wivr. Nor woro the debts so repudiated incurred 
dirMtly in aid of the rcbellioa, though they were placed, dou- 
ctroctirrly, in that category. Vast umuuata of money Tcro 
raiwd on bond<t by Southern Stutcet, not in aid of the Coufe<]er- 
wcy, but for tbo abaotale protection of life against tho raragm of 
dotitntion and starvation. It is not strango, thoroforo, that 
uodor the ]>ocaIiar oondtLiomi uxieting at tho time, the line of de- 
tnaroation between «aoh obligations u the Southern States were 
foraad to diaboDor, and others wli itih they did diahouor for reo- 
•ons fully as satisfactory to thonieidves, was necessarily vngiie. 

*£lio conditions of the South boforu the war and after thu war 
vtd4ly diflvrvd. A uew order of things grow out of Lbu uhes of 
the ftrefi lefc by thu Northern armies. Thu change was oven 
gnmtor than tliat i» which tbo now republic fonnd itsolf when 
the Oolnntol ormifs out the United States from BnglJHh territory. 
Thun tlio aamo homogeneous people, freah from tho strife of war, 
tnmiol to the vocations which thoy left when they went to the 
Odd of buttle, and devoted Uieir cQorgiea with reuowod enthaslasu 
to tho upbuilding of industry and commerce on the same lioea 
that tbey had paiBuod before. How different with the Hoath 
ia '6AI A uew era of industrial doTolopmcat and commercial 
IKwaibiUUfiii dawnod with the freedom of slave labor, by which 
tbo attention of the South had been coofineU almost entirely, 
nasi nufortiitiately, to agricultural pursuits. Tux valuations 
had bin!u cut in half, and whnu thu South finally awoke to a roal- 

VOL. CUX. — NO. Aii. 7 



96 TUB NORTH AMERICAN REVIEW. 

garden spot of the continent. Untold millions of Northern capi- 
tal hare been expended in building vast railroad systeme, estab- 
lishing steamship lines, constructing tho most beautiful hotels on 
earth, and in otherwise addinjj to the mJirTellaus gifts which 
naturo had bestowed upon the state of perpetual summer. Neither 
Mr. Plant, nor Mr. Flagler, nor Mr. Disston, nor Mr. Duval has 
stopped to inquire into the issues involved in Florida's repudiated 
obligations, nor has the credit of tlie Stiito been lessened one whit 
by such repudiation. Tho men who are spending their money 
there in such abundance that it is impossible to keep up with the 
details of tho progress of the State, have satisfied themselves that 
the past is a matter of record, and that the present is an open 
book of brilliaat promise for Florida's future. Whatever may 
have been tho conditions loading to repudiation, they do not exist 
to-day, nor can they exist again under the wise restrictions of tho 
reorganized fundamental law of the State, whicli, as other States 
have done, has thrown every possible safeguard around its credit, 
rendering it, like that of every other Southern State, as secure as 
that of any State in the Union. 

la this connection, it may bo well to call attention to the fact 
that the power of the States of thcSonth to contract debts was, 
before the war, practically unlimited, as compared with the re- 
strictions placed by the States upon themselves after the war. 
The necessity of this limitation was evolved from the dear experi- 
ence bought from reconstruction legislatures, which would have 
broken tho Bank of England if tliey had bid the same oppor- 
tunity to trifle with its credit that they did with that of the States, 
which their usurped charge came near bankrupting. The funda- 
mental law of most of the Southern States, like that of a large 
majority of all the States of the Union, now inhibits State in- 
dorsement of corporation securities — a fruitful source of corrup- 
tion and plunder before tho war, and particularly during the re- 
oonatruction era— and forbids tho use of the State's credit for any 
other than admiaistrativo. educational, or other such emergent 
purposes. I am aware that a favorite argument of those who hold 
the States responsible for all repudiated obligations, even though 
admitted to be uncoustitutioniil, fraudulent, and unused for State 
parp(»es, is that innocent holders of the State obligations should 
not be made to suffer the penalty of the misuse of the State's 
credit. And yet to hold the State responsible for an obligation, 



98 THE NORTH AMERICAN REVimv. 

garden spot of tho continent. Untold millions of Northern capi- 
tal have been expended in building vast railroad systems, eatab* 
lishiQg steamehip lincB, constructing; tho most beautiful hotels on 
earth, and in othorwiso adding to tho marvellous gifts which 
natnro had bestowed upon the state of perpetual summer. Neither 
Mr. Plant, nor Mr. Plagler, nor Mr. Bisaton, nor Mr. Diival has 
stopped to inquire into tho issues involved in Florida's repudiated 
obligations, nor has the credit of the State been lessened one whit 
by such repudiation. The men who are spending their money 
there in snch abundance that it is imiwasible to keep up with the 
details of tho progress of the State, have satisfied thomselres that 
the past is a matter of record, and that the present is an open 
book of brilliant promise for Florida's future. Whatever may 
have been tho conditions leading to repudiation, they do not exist 
to-day, nor can they exist again under the wise restrictions of tho 
reorganized fundamental law of the State, which, as other States 
have done, has thrown every possible safeguard around its credit, 
rendering it, like that of ever; other Southern State, as secure as 
that of any State in the Union. 

In this connection, it may bo well to call attention to tho fact 
that the power of the States of thcSouth to contract debts was, 
before the war, practically unlimited, as compared with tlic re- 
strictions placed by the States upon themselves after the war. 
The necessity of this limitation was evolved from the dear experi- 
ence bought from reconstruction legislatures, which would have 
broken tho Bank of England if they had had the same oppor- 
tunity to trifle with its credit that they did with that of the States, 
which their usurped charge came near bankrupting. The funda- 
mental law of most of the Southern States, like that of a large 
majority of all the States of the Union, now inhibits State in- 
dorsement of corporation secnrities — a fruitful source of corrup- 
tion and plunder before the war, and particularly during the re- 
construction era— and forbids the use of the State's credit for any 
other than administrative,, educational, or other such emergent 
purposes. I am aware that a favorite argument of those who hold 
the States responsible for all repudiated obligations, even though 
admitted to be unconstitutional, fraudulent, and nnused for State 
purposes, is that innocent holdera of tho State obligations sliould 
not be made to snffer the penalty of the misuse of the State's 
credit. And yet to hold the State responsible for an obligation. 



OUR FAMILY HKSLETON. 



or 



in tho mnking of which it bad given no authority whfttsoorer, 
wonltl be to put a pramlum on corruption which would, if such a. 
principle held ;;ood inlaw, imperil thQcrflctitofoTonthoBtroiigoat 
nod riohueiof the Stat«a of thfl [Tnton. Uarryiug this argumuut 
U> Ht logical cOQcluiiion would force the United Slates to radeem 
enry itolhir of ooantorfcH t raoDojr in the hands of innocent holdora, 
on the groand tliat they oooepted tho monoj on ilioir fnitfa that 
Ibo Kovenimenl vaa back of it and was raspoudible for it. 

ThogorernRiflnbitsdf eetablishcd the precedent that the iu* 
nooenooof the bondholder was not to bo considorodos oTonoming 
the itlogiitity of tho issun ofHiicuritipiihold, in tho adoption of the 
Foortoonlh AmeuduQut to tbc Cunatitutionj which compelled tha 
repudiatiQii of debts contract«U either for direct or indirect aid of 
titt roboUion. Millions of dollars of boudod indcbtodue&a of tho 
Southern StAtci warn thus rcpudiutod by tho Pedcral tiovurnmuiit 
JtM*lf iiftor tliu war. Nor wore tho debu so ropudiutud iucurrod 
Uin»<tly in aid of tho rebellion, though they were pUiccd, con- 
8tmotiT<;ly, in thsl cattjgory. Viwt aruounta of money W4ro 
mtftoU Ob bondti by Southern States, not in aid of the Coiifeder- 
mj, but ior tho absolute protoctiou of llfo against the ravages of 
ilestitntion and Htnrviitioii, It in not strongo, tfaoroforo, that 
iiDdrj tliv puculiur coudj tiooii uiiuting at tbo timot the line of de- 
mantation beiwoen such obligatioiu) aa the Southern States were 
forced to dishonor, and others which they did dlBbonor for roA* 
KKis fully us satiiifuclury lu tliuniHolvoa, w:ut uoDesenrily vogue. 

'SSttK coiiditioits of the South beforo tbu war Mxd »fter the war 
widely differed. A now order of things grow out of tbo anbos of 
the fires left by tlio Northern armioi. The clungo was oven 
greater than that in which the nuw republic found ilscif when 
the Oulouiat ormiue out tbo United States from Kugiinb territiiry. 
Then titu ^uio homogonoons people, fnuli from tho strifo of war, 
tnmo<l U» tho vocations which they Iuft whun thoy wunt to tho 
Ueld tit battlu, and devoted thuir energiea with rr.newt^d enthusiasm 
to th« upbailding of industry and comuicroe on tho aatue lines 
that thoy hod puFBDOd bofore. How differeut with thu Sooth 
io 'Sft I A Dcw ura of industrial devriopmeut and commercial 
possibilitioa dawned with tho freedom of slave labor, by which 
the attention of the South had been confinod almost entirely, 
rooit onforiunately, to agricultural punmits. Tax valuations 
hod bccu cut ID half, and when the South fiually awoke to a nmt- 

VOU CLIX. — NO. 452. 7 



96 THE NORTH AMERICAN REVIEW. 

garden spot of tho continent. Untold luilliona of Northern capi- 
tal haro been expended in building vast railroad systems, estab- 
tishing steamEhip linea, constructing tho most beautiful hotels on 
earth, and in otherwise adding to tho marvellous gifta which 
nature had bestowed upon the state of porpetnal summer. Neither 
Mr. Plant, nor Mr. Flagler, nor Mr. Disstoti, nor Mr, Duval has 
stopped to iuqaire into the issues iuvol7c<i in Florida's repudiated 
obligations, iior has tho credit of tho State been lessened one whit 
by such repudiation. The men who aro spending their money 
there in such abundance that it is impossible to keep up with the 
details of tho progress of the State, have satisfied thoraselvoa that 
the past is a matter of record, and that the present is an open 
book of brilliant promise for Florida's future. Whatever may 
have been the conditions loa-Iing to repudiation, they do not exist 
to-day, nor can they exist again under the wise restrictions of tlio 
reorganized fundamental law of the State, which, as other States 
have done, has thrown every possible safeguard around its credit, 
rendering it, like that of every other Southern State, as secure as 
that of any State in tho Union. 

In this connection, it may be well to call attention to the fact 
that the power of the States of the.Sonth to contract debts was, 
before the war, practically unlimited, as compared with the re- 
strictions placed by the States upon themselves after the war. 
The necessity of this limitation was evolved from the dear eiperl- 
eiice bought from reconstruction legislatures, which would have 
broken tho Bank of England if they had hud the same oppor- 
tunity to trifle with its credit that thoy did with that of the States, 
which their usurped charge came near bankrupting. The funda- 
mental law of most of tho Southern States, like that of a large 
majority of all the States of the Union, now inhibits State in- 
dorsement of corporation securities — a fruitful source of corrup- 
tion and plunder before the war, and particularly during the re- 
construction era— and forbids the use of the State's credit for any 
other than administrative, odacatioual, or other such emergent 
purposes. I am aware that a favorite argument of those who hold 
the States responsible for all repudiated obligations, even though 
admitted to be unconstitutional, fraudulent, and omised for State 
purposes, is that innocent holders of tlie State obligations should 
not be mode to suffer the penalty of the misuse of the State's 
credit. And yet to bold the State responsible for an obligation. 



OUR FAMILY SKELETON. 



07 



lu tliu nuikiug of whiob it had giren uo aatborJty whateooTOTi 
woDld bd to put a promlum oa cormptiou which would, if such a 
prinaiplo hold good inlaw, iin[>eril thocrcditof ovonthoatrongost 
and richouL of tlio Stutea of tho Uaion. Carrjing ihla arijmueut 
to its logical conctasioo would force the United States to rudeom 
OTvrrdollar of ooautorfcit motioy iu the huiida of innocent holdois, 
<in tho gi-oDnd that they accepted tho money on tb«if Caith that 
the fovernuioiit waa buck of iL uad was raBponaiblB for it. 

Tho goTeratnent itself eatablishiHl the prcoedent that the tii- 
noconcttof tho bondboldor waa not to be oonsiderodaa ovcrcoiuiui; 
Ui« Ulogality of tUo iuuo of socuritioshald, in tho adoption of tho 
Fonrteonth Ameodmotit to tho CoDBtitution, whiub compelled the 
repndiAtion of dehti! contraoLed either for diroct or indirect aid of 
tbo ruUuHioi). Millions of dollnni of l>ontle<I iiidobtedtiosd of the 
Southern Statu were thus repudiated by tho Federal Qovcniuicat 
it«-'lf after the war. Nor wore tho debt« go repudiated incurred 
tllrcclly in aid of the robellioQ, tboogh they vera placed, con- 
•tnictiTely, in that category. Vaat amounts of money were 
rMBod on bouda by 8outbcrn Status, not in aid of the Confeder- 
ucf, but for (be absolaUj protection of lifu against the ravogiis o( 
destitution and starvation. Ii ia ool straugo, ihoroforo, that 
under tbo pecnUar conditions existing at tho time, tho Uno of do* 
tnarviitiDn between Midi obligations lui the UoatbDrn Hlatoti wore 
fofoed to dirihouor, and oihurs which thoy did diiihoDor for rea- 
sona fully us aatisfuetery to thL>mseWoa, was neceaearlly nguo. 

Xl>n r^onditioiui of the Sotith before tlie war and after the war 

widely diffiTud. A now onlvr of things grew out of the otthos of 

the(!ru« lufc by tbo Northern armioB. The ohango was eTen 

groator than that iu whii^h ibe now republic fonnil itaalf when 

tho Colonial armies cut tho United States from Engliith territory. 

l*h«a the same bomogsneoua people, fresh from the slrifa of war, 

titnuKi to the vocatioua which thuy left when cbcy wunt to the 

field of battle, and devoted their cnoi^et with renewed enthueiasm 

to tbo upbuilding of industry and commeroe on tho uiub lines 

that tliey bad paraucd before. IIow different with the South 

in '65 I A new unt of industrial development and commercial 

poMibtlitieii dawned with the freedom of slave labor, by which 

tbe attention of the South had been confined almost entirely, 

mint anferlnnatelyf to ngrionUnra] pursuits. Tax Talnattona 

had been out in half, aiul wbun the South finally awdu to a real- 
VOL. cux.— HO. 463. T 



06 



TJIH .VOHTU AMKRICAS ItEVIMW, 



gardea spot of tfao contiaont. Fntold luillions of Northom oapi* 
tal haro been expendtMi in building viuit niitrouil sysiemn, tifitub- 
tisbing )stu;imrliij) lines, uoiistniulin;; Lha most buuuliful hotels on 
earth, and in otherwJw aildins to tbo mirvQllous sifts whJoh 
iiBtiirolmd bestoweil upon (bestutti of pcrpotuid Buraiuor. Neither 
Mr. PUiit, nor S[r. Flagler, nor Mr. Dlsaton. uor Mr. Dnvnl has 
stopped to hitjuiro into tiio ijtauos iorolvud in Florida's rcpudiatod 
obUsatioiu, uor ]mi tUo credit of theStato been Icsaonod ono whit 
by sncb rcpitdintion. Tlio man who are spending thoir nionoy 
there in sucli nljiindiince that it is impoistble to keop np villi the 
detnils of tbo progress of tbo Stntc. bnvo uatisScd tbomselvos that 
tbo put is a Qutlcr of record, and thiit the prcsont is nn opon 
book of brilliant promise for FloriJa'a (uliire. WHiiilever may 
have been the oondition!) leading tn repudixtion, the; donot exist 
to-day, nor cut) Ibcy (.-xiat a;<nin under ibo wist! restrictions of the 
roorganizod iiindiimoDtal law of the State, which, as other SUtM 
have done, baa thrown every [lossiblo eafuguard around ic^ cretlit. 
rondoriiig it, like that of orcry other Soiitborn State, u« secnre as 
that of an; .Statn in tbo Union. 

In thisconnocticn, it ma; be w<dl to call attention to thi; fact 
that tbo power of the Slatoa of lUo.Sonth to contract dobta was, 
before tbo war, praotioally nnlimit«d, as compaxed with the re- 
strictioDs placed hy tho Statos upon themsolve)i ufUir ihu war. 
Tbu nccossitj of this limilation was erolrci from tho dear cxperi- 
enoo bonght from reoouatr notion legialaturoe, which wonid have 
hrukun tho B».nk of England, if they lind hiid tho saiiie oppor- 
tunity totriflo with its credit that Lbcy did with that of the 8Utos. 
which their usurped charge camo near bnnknipliiig. The funda- 
mental Law of moil of the Southern States, like that of a lai^e 
majority of all the 8tat«s of Iho Union, now inhibits State in- 
dorsement of corporutiou 8«curLtie»— a fruitful source of oormji* 
tioQ and plunder before the war, and particnUrly dnrinjt Iho re- 
ooiutrnctioQ era— and forbids tho use of tho liJtatc's credit for any 
other than adminiatrativo. cdnoittional, or other such emergent 
purposes, lam aware that a farorite argnmentof those who hold 
the States responsible for all rcpudiutod obligotiouo, orou though 
ailmitt«d to botinciinatitutiomtl. frttudiilont. and unused for State 
pnrpotos, in that innocent buldcrs of the SlJito obligations should 
not be Qiade to suffer tho penalty of the misn»e of the SuJe's 
credit. And yet to hold the Scato ro^ousible for an obligation, 



OUR FAMILY SKELEWN. 



87 



In tho nmking of which it had given no aathority whfttsooTer, 
woald bo to pat a promliim o» corniptioti which woald, if Buoh & 
priQcipte hulil good in law, imjicril thooroililof «ron thostrongest 
and ricbwb of tho States of tho Uuion. Carrying tbla urgumoai 
to its logical ooDclasion would foroe tho United Statea to re<Ioom 
oTory dolkr of counterfeit money la tho hands of iaui>cont holders, 
OD tho groand that they ncooptod tho cnonoy on thoir fnith that 
the govonuuent was back of it and was r(«[)onAihle for it. 

The goTernment itself established tho prooodent that tho in* 
noccDco at the bondholder was not to be considoixd as overcoming 
tho illegality of the iuno of BOcurittcahoM, tn tho adoption of tho 
Poorleonlh Amendment to tho Contititution, which compellod the 
repiidiiitiou of dcbta ooutractod either for direct or indirect aid of 
the rebellion. MiUiooa of dollars of bonded tudobtednotis of tho 
Soothom StAtc4 wore thug repudiated by tho Federal Govommont 
Ibtelf after the war. Nor were the debtH ko repudiaUM) incurred 
ilirvotly in aid of the rebellion, thuugh they wore placed, ooo> 
itmotirely, in that cat^ory. Vaat amoanta of tuonoy were 
raisod on bond* by Soathern States, not in aid of tho Confedor- 
aoy, bat for tho abaolate protection of lifo against the raTagvs of 
destitution and Htarvatiou. It in not atrungu, therefore, that 
aoder Uie pecnliar conditions existing at the time, the Une of de- 
marcation belwoon sueh obligatiou8 as the Sonthcm Statoa woro 
fORWd todislionor, and others which they did dishonor for res- 
sons fully OB satisfactory to Ihemsulros, was neoeasariiy vague. 

"ilho conditions of the South before tho war and after the war 
widely differed. A now order of things grow out of the ashes of 
the Sros left by ths Northern arraiee. The change waa oven 
grsKber than that iu which the new republic found itself when 
tho Colonial armies out the United States fnim Kngliah territory. 
Then the same homogenoous people, froith from the strife of war, 
tomod to tho vocatiooa which they left when they went to the 
Bold of buttle, and dorotod their energies with renewed enthusiasm 
to the upbuilding of industry and commerce on tho same lines 
that tbeyhad porsaed before. How different with the Sonth 
in '65 t A new era of iodnetrial developmoot and oommoroial 
powibilities dawned with the freedom of idave labor, by which 
tho attention of the Suutb had been confined almost entirely, 
most unfortunately, to agricultural pursuits. Tax raloations 
bad been cut in half, and when the South Haally awoke to a roiU- 

VOU <I1.IS.— NO. ^t. 7 



98 



THE NORTH AMEittOAS REVIEW. 



lEMtion of tlie fuct that it was Id fche poBWvioD of its ovn people 
oiu^Q more, it waa astoniab^ to find that its OTorwholmiiig bur- 
den of D6W iud«bt«dn(WB had. inci«ae«d in thrico tlie proiwrtion of 
tli« decroneo of its Ability to psy. Irresponsible, corrupt, and 
despotic ofticials had gotten hold of the lodger of itg crtidit, and 
had Btampod debt, dtibt, dubt on every pajje. No people under 
the flun livur fuood suob a task. Tho lack of limitation on the 
credit of tbo Stato, which had b«ca safely gnardod and prot«ctod 
b; tho coiisoi-vatism nnd tho hoaor of the people, had been taken 
advantage of by a hordu of conuomnt dcrriahce who, if thoy had 
been permitted to continnoth«ir mad oaroueal, would have placed 
s greater debt on tho Southern StatoB than could have been mot 
by tho comhinod uatioiia of Knrope. Yet aiich were tho instro- 
monte chosen, amid such sarroundiags, to abaulre the Southern 
States, by vtrtno of tho Fourteenth Uonstitntioual Amondmont» 
from OBrUin portions of their bonded indebtedneea. Thos 
dirootod by the governmout to roorgauizo the fimdameDtni law 
of the Southern Statoa, they paid morenttontton to thodntails of 
making robbery easy than to the Hpecial work of rupndiation an- 
signed to thvni. 

On regaining po«eeaetoti of thetr capitala, and reenming the 
administration of nffnira, the |>eople of the respootivo Southern 
States addressed thumaclTcs at once with becoming energy to the 
work of roetoratioQ and rehabilitation, and to tho more inti>ortant 
task of eetabliehing laws and regulations to meet the requirements 
of tbo DOW order of things. This great task theyeoon performed, 
and HO wisely did thoy oxccutc it that the credit efltablished by 
the Southern SLatoa ou tho new basisi and iindor tbo now era of 
tbeir progress, was at once put on a firm foundation, which baa 
btH'Q stroitgtlienod year afUir year by the oovcr-failtng teat of ex- 
perience. It will not do for Mr. Uume to point to andent evl- 
dcucea of dishonored and unanthorixed debts which are being 
hawked about the stock market of Now York, at a few cunts or 
the dollar, to eetablittb hia charge that the credit of tlie Southern 
States has boen Mrionsly impaired by sacb repudiation. The only 
dcinoRStmtion of the correctneas of his proposition would be the 
failure of tho Soutbt-ro States to m^otiate loans on their crodit, 
nnder roasonable tenos, daring a oomparattvely rocont period. 
Instead of this being true, tho record of daily stock market qoo- 
tatioDs shows that the obligatioDB of the Bouthern Slates since 



Uiey have fully gained poiisoniori of ihemselvvs and have adjusted 
Uioir l»«ii to moot tlio now oondittoni growing oat of the war, 
fluttt side by side, and under emeDtiBltjr tbo aime terms, with 
tlioeu of tbo States of vTi^rv other part of our common coantry. 
Sioco it luM booD domoDStratod, therefore, thiit the credit of tbo 
States of the South is uut now at the low ebb Mr. Unino argues 
it to be, and since it isclearlj (]«moiisLmtod that their cr«dit com- 
porus favurably wttli the Bt&tiM of other Bootious wtiich have no 
reoord of repudiation, and since theee two propositions form tbe 
promise of Mr. llumo's duluful L>oiioiii8ion of thu direct result of 
putrepiidiatioo, it followH that, Iwing wrong in his premise^ hi« 
oODclnsiou is eqnallj urronoous. \or its it dumunstmtod that this 
ooncluHion ii wrong, on the principle that hia premise is incorroot* 
(or the actual «ridonce of etutislicii and of flnancial records, 
oorroborAtixl by the daily details of tho unprecedented dovelop- 
iMnt of tlio rosourous of the Southern States, by the influx of 
outside Capital) pruYeo both bis premise and his conolosioua to bu 
(al«e. 

Notwithstanding Uio fact that the alTairs of the South have 
boeoma thoroughly udjust«xl to profailing conditions, and that 
tlw credit of every Southern State U thoroughly eetablishod, 
I would not bo understood iu> taking the position that thoy Bbonli) 
oTon now refuse to pay a siiigio dollar which can bo shown to havo 
boon used lioneatlr fur public purpowN, and for which the State 
got value reoeiTed^ even though such a loan did not conform 
atricUy to thu technical re^niromcnts of the law. If it can be 
satisfactorily dttmonstratnt that ninong tho repudiated bonds of 
thi< Sonthorn States tlipro is any part of them which ropresents 
luuncy obtained fur the Stut«, and used by the State, which baa 
not yet boon paid, then the settlementof such should, and will be, 
made in dun time. It was Qoooasary to apply a herote remedy to 
aafii the South, by cutting from it the sored of the reconstmctioa 
thievery. If in applying the remedy iojuBtioe was done, in the 
QMeaaity for immodiato and inoiaira action, correction will no 
iloubt bo made wharevor conaervativo sentiment is oouvincod 
that correction is due. 

OU.BK Howell. 



HOW TO PROTKCT A CITY FROM CRIME. 

BY THOMAS B¥BNB5, flUPEKlHTKHDENT OP THB KBW YOHK 
POLICB DBPARTMKNT, 



A niscrssiOH' in the public prinU of tho wiijs and mauu of 
preventing crime is not uHogtthcr free from tlunger. For ono of 
Ihemoiil important of thoAo is tlie proserviiLioii of abBolulusocrocy 
on tli« part of tho nioii wLooe bushiess il is to protect the peojile 
snd their propertv from criininftls. To exposo thcroforo in detail 
tlie nivtliode of tho police would bo impruuticabte horc. It woohl 
do no good and i t might do considerable harm. Tho best tliat 
can bo douo in an urtidu of thta charactor is to djeal with the sub- 
ject In it« larger aspects. 

In the Griit place, it is now pretLy gonorullj andcrslood that 
oriine is creator io the largorcitios than olMwhoro. Tiiia ia due. 
Dot moral; to the fact that whore a great number of puopio are 
gatberod there is sura to bo a larger number of criminalfl than 
whoro tho oommanicy is less oxtenRive, but to the uttrautions thai 
larRo eiticB offer to those who live by prcjinft np6u thoir foUow- 
boings. In other words, orimitiabi Cod more opjiorlunitios for 
tho proQtablo exorcise of thoir wits iu the great central ; be- 
Bidos, thoT can elude detection more easily there. OotuoqaenUy, 
it is of tho groatctt importaiioo that tho utmost Tigilanoe be mod 
to protect these places. 

Not many years ago, New York city was infested with 
criminals of idl kinds. It waaimposaibtoto walkalon^tiientrcota 
without robbingap against them; indeed, they were no numerous 
that they notaally elbowed rospoctable people off the sidewalk. 
They consorted with politicians of a low order and with gamblers 
and the like, and they enjoyed such immunity from punishment 
that thoy developed a really amazing cOrontery. It was bit that 



now TO pROTfxrr a city frou crobs. 



101 



radical measores most be taken to root th«in out and to protect 
tlio citj oKUtist them. So radiuil meiuiuree were taken ; io a 
oouparatiTelj tbort space of time every one of those men wa« 
HnmmoDed to Police Headijuartera and ordered to leave town and 
to keep away. Thoj all left and meet of them have kept away ; 
those who returned hare had occaaion to regret it. Such meuti< 
urea inaj eoem borah and onjuBt ; it may be thought cruel to 
arreet men on no speoiRc obni^c and drive them from their place 
of reBidcQco. But the |>ullce knew what tbej wure alKiti t when 
they did this ; they knew that these men wore profewioual crim- 
inale, that their very preeence in a city was a menace to its safety. 
At any nite. the prooeedinge caused New York to coaM to be a 
hotbed of crimiuality, and tranRformed it into a place whore soll- 
reipecting jieople could live without fear of pnblio danger. 

Now York, howerer, has, of course, still to be protwted with 
thn almost viptance. Just oa criminals flock to cities, so it is 
their tendency to Book io largest nnmbcre to the largest city in 
the conntry. Ooneoquently, New York is the plaoe in which 
nob only those in this country, but those who coma here from 
abroad, would naturally like to congregate. When we consider 
the fast number of inlets and ontlcta that New York has—more 
than any other AmericHU city — the problem, hnw to keep it vigi- 
laiitly guardetl, ia svtsn to be oue of eitraordiniiry diOicuIly. 

Korexample, n foreign criminal fleee to this coontry. He lands 
in Now York, abaolntoly untrammelled, us free as the most law- 
abidiug citizen in the lEmd. If lie were in Euro^ie, bo would be 
marked oa a tickot-of-leare man, or he would be known to the 
polic« there, fnr the European police are rery watchful ; or he 
would be checkod by the passport syotem. Bat once on American 
■oil, in Nnw York oity, ia lost among two mtllioiia of pi^ople, 
and practically begins a new life. If he continues to lead a 
criminal life, he has possibly an added advantage over the police 
by following foreign methods of crime, with which they may not 
be familiar. 

Within the past few years Euro[w has sent to as the moat 
dangerous kind of criminal that exists at the preaont lime — the 
Anarchiat. It would surprise the American public very greatly 
U the nnmber of Anarchists now in this oountry were published. 
VThen theue men are hounded from their own lauds they seem to 
gravitate here by a uatural attraction, and most of them display 




109 



THK NORTH AMERICAU RBVWW^, 



a fondnon for taking up rosidoncA in Nov York oity. To tho 
police the; preaent a peculiarly difTtr.uIt problnm, for they do nol 
beloug to the aaual tTpo of orimina] and, as a rule, they are far 
saperior in intelligence nod edaoatioo to most of the mcmbora of 
tho criminal clageM. Moroovor, they ase tho most terrible forces 
of nature, forcea that the onlinary criminal would not think of 
using. Among those I haro talked vitli — and I hare had very 
intimate relations vrith a great many of them — I hare obeerred a 
rcligioiig, porhap* I would better siy a fanatical, spirit. Thej 
have dodicatud theniBelveti heart and aoul to their peculiar beliefg; 
and they» that is, the lendors among them, etop at nothing, not 
ereit dentli it«olf, in their efforts to put those beliefs into practice 
iu terrorisingthecommiinity. Xmakoparticuhki mention of their 
" loaders," for, as a matter of fact, only about one in ten of the 
Anarchists is really act! re ; the others merely follow the guidance 
of the more during spirits. It would be a mistake to suppoM 
that vhen they leave the monarchical coRntriosand come hero they 
do not carry thuir revoluUuuary principles with them. They are 
opposed not merely to old forms of government, but to all govern- 
ment ud wo understand tho term, iind they would gladly destroy 
our republican govornment if they had an opportunity to do to. 
On arriving bore, however, thoy Snd the authorities reaily to meet 
them, and thus far they have been held well iu chock, la New 
York an incoasaat watch in kupl upon them, and any movo that 
they might make hostile to the well-being of the citizens would 
bring ttgrtinHt them tho full power of tho hiw. 

All thin will serve to suggest a few of the difflcnltiea which 
beset tlioBu whose dutyit is to protoct from crime a city like Kew 
York. Those diffioulties are enormous, but I believe that thoycan 
be overcome. The burden of tho work rests, of course, upon the 
police, upon their alertness, their efficiency, and their diacipliae. 
It is upon tlieir disciplino that I lay tho greatest stress ; to do 
their work efficiently it ia esaeDtial that tlioy bo thoroughly or- 
ganized and under perfect control. Each policeman is sssigned 
to a certain district, and on him the ]ieople in the district rely 
for protection. Now this protection does not consist merely in 
the arrosting of those who attempt to commit crime or who have 
committed it ; on the contrary, this is only a sooondary port of 
their work. Their most important duty consists of prewntinff 
all attempts at crime. This, nf oonrso, ran be done only by the 



BOW TO PROTFICT A CITT FROM CRIME. 



103 



eierciw of the most anreraittitig vigilance. In the first place, 
«Mh policeman must make himeolf thoroughly aoqnnini«d with 
everything ooucorning lusdistrict ; he must know the |>eoplo and 
their hubits; he muit finil out, among other things, who thoae 
■TO that babitui^y roraaia awuy from hoaio till Into at night, or 
who appear on the streetd oarly in the morning. The honest 
men who aro obligod b; thoir work to <lo this have no occaaion to 
foariuoh vl^htuco, for, far from being an impertinent interforonce 
in their bnsinoss. it is a protection to them, hs n matter of fact* 
onlj tboee need fenr the intruiious of the poliodwho have Chem- 
■ulroa K>mething criminni to conconl. On tho tncceauit watcb- 
ing of each dixtriot by the policeman in chnigo of it, nwts the 
entire pnitootion of the citizonB of a city. In my oxperionco, 1 
hare luund the cioluioging of policemen from one district to an* 
other at intorvalii adTiintageous ; it broadens the man, rsaoTee 
him from any poauble hrofwhesi of dnty that might rpgnlt from 
too cloao a fiimiliurity with one district and one set of people, 
and ia in every way Wnefioial to liiin in thu exercise of his duty. 

Bnt, of oourse, no poticomon, howorer rigtlaDt thoy may bo, 
are able to oopo with all the crime In a great oitj. A keen-wittod 
and oooicie&tioaa detoctive force must co-opomte with them. Such 
a region as Wall itreet, for example, possessed very great attrao- 
tious to clever criminals in oil great cities. It is important^ 
therpforp, that unusual methods be tried to protect it. Until 
within nxx-uL years, do less than olorcu niUIioni! of dollars vers 
stolen in Wall street. Itut since extraordinary efforts were made 
to prevent farther stealing there, by the tute of the detective 
foroo, the robberies have ceased. This illustnitea the importance 
ofa thorough detootiro service; no city should neglect to ket^ 
Uiis service up to the very highest standard, 

Ooe point of great imiwrtiince in dealing with criminals is 
this : they mnitt be kept a« much aa poaaibte apart ; thoy must be 
prevented from organizing, and, if they arc organinod, the organ* 
ization roast bo broken up. To aucompIiAh this, the greatest 
skill Is neoew&ry ; they must bo met on their own ground and 
beaten at every one of their giunee. Nu quarter should be shown 
them : tliey ihonld be made to feel that the heel of the law Is 
apon thrm and that they are mero dii»t beneath it. In other 
wonli, thoy should be taught that they arc utterly insignificant 
and that the law baa them completely in \Xa power. In this way 



104 



^BE ffORTB AMKtaCAir OBVIKW. 



alone, I beli&To, cud they be ftaooeasfally doalt witli. Mj ex- 
puritnco hoB tuuglit mu to look apon criminAHk; aad crimiDalBiQ 
a wholly priwticfti way. J hftvo no sympathy with tho«e who re- 
gard the matUjr from tlie seutiiueDUl puiiit of riew, and who mniii* 
lain th&t criminals, imtfiad of being puniahed, should be won 
overto right living by love and kindoMB. 

B«foro touching upon thie subject, howd7er, I want to mnke 
clear just what I mean by criminals. I distinguish between those 
who yield toteraptatioD and commit one crime, and those who re- 
peatedly commit crimes — tboee whom we know aa " professional " 
or hardened criminaU. With regard to the Grst claae, I can uy 
that they often dosenro to be treated with lonionny, for in this 
way they may be saved from ruiu and from orimiui^ lives ; but 
with regard ko the second olaes, I am of the opinion that it is im- 
possible to reform them. They iire sent to prison, not merely to 
be punished, bnt to servo as a w»mtng to others ; that is, their 
puriiabmeut is given chiefly as a preventive of other crime. When 
once a man serves a terra in prison, I have very little hope for 
him ; for while there he lives in a criminal atmosphere, heoomes 
in contact with other pvi«ouorf, who talk to him about tboir 
crimes, and who teanh liim new ways of committing orime; so that 
he Iflsves the place more taint«d than be was when he went into iU 
Yet I do not mean by this to cast a reproach upon any of oar 
prisons. Our prison eystom is by uo moatu ideal, bat it is the 
beet that fans been devised so far, and prisons are nooessorj ovils. 
The greHt danger from them, as I have already iiitlnialed, comes 
fmm the intermingling of the inrontcs. lliit this cannot be 
helped. Prisoners are hnman beings and thoreforo gr^farious ; 
if they were kept consUntly in solitary coufioement tbey would 
simply become mad. 

As for the sentimental treatment of prisoners, I have, for 
many years, observed it« workings very carefully, and I am con- 
vinced that it does them neither good nor barm. Those ladies 
who present prisoners with flowers are uo duubb very kind- 
hearted and very well-intentioned ; bnt their labors are wasted. 
The priaoneis like to receive their vtuts, for they afford diversiona 
to many monotonoas lives; bnt when they go away, they ar« rid- 
icnled by tho very ones on whom they have spent their tlmo and 
showered their gifUi. Some of these ladies nrc given nick-names 
by the prisoners, who frequently refer to them by these nunes. 



HO?r TO PROTECT A CITY FltOM CRIXE. lOfi 

Tbii vill, perbaps, illaBtmta nn vol) oa anything else tho way in 
which thfl prisonera re^nnl them. 

Those p«oplo who took at criminality from the aentimental 
pMnt of view apparently do not realiio that with hardened 
oriminola it bpcomea a btisinMe, which tliey pnrsoe very mnch as 
nonnal human beings pnnmc thcirB. Iniieod, from the peyoho- 
lo^oal point of viuw, ^o criminal in u mogt intomting itiidy : 
ho is depraved, suspicioae, and absoliihtly withont honor j tho 
proT«rb about "honor among thieres" has no foundatioa in 
truth. Itflhoaldbo bomojn mind that thocriminal class, though 
apparently exceodingty nnmernii!). makes altogethfr only a very 
maall proportion of the total populutiou. Tho more pcoplo bo- 
oome educated, the fewer criininaU there are. By this I do not 
moon that edneation of itself noo«»surily {iromotea morality, for I 
bKTo known well-eilucRted men, of good birlh, too, who baTo 
been tboronghly dishonewt ami cornipt : hnt simply that the more 
inttiUigonlu man becomes the more plainlybo sees the ri«k he runs 
in committing a crime. Tho average criminal is utterly rcolc- 
Ism • he does not stop to eousider what will happen to him if he 
ta caught in hia law^breaking. As soon as he does stop to con- 
sider what Che comtoquuncea of a crime th»t he thinks of com- 
mitting will be, he shows that there are poBmbilitic« in him of b«- 
ooniing a Iaw.aliidiug citizen. So it follows that one uf the best 
««ys of protecting a commonity from crime is by raising tbe 
standard of iiitelligenco among its mcmbors. 

A good tiud is said nowadays about tho eausos of crime and 
abont crime as a heruditary diseaso. I have observed that most 
of the crime coinmitlcd in New Tork city is due chiefly to two 
eoosea. drink and environment. The first canse needs no ex- 
planation ; ))crhapa the second does, us I wish to emphasize the 
distinction beiwoon heredity andenriromnent. I harewscn meneo 
pormpt that it has seemed to mo as if a tendency to cwmmit 
crime mast bo in thuir blood ; bat, on the whole, I do not put 
much faith in tbe theory that criminals are bom with an trre* 
mtible tendency to cvit-dolng. I know, however, that the ohil- 
drrn of firiminals are very apt to become criminals themselves. As 
a nile, oriminnU try to conccvil tho oharaoter of their lives 
{mm tbdr olilldmn ; but when one of tho paronta diaappeon 
from home forthn^e or fixirrcAra at a time and when the homo is 
the rosort o( oth^r crimirnds, the children are always sharp 




106 



THE JiO&TH AUKRICAN RKVIEW. 



enoaghtoKO jusb boirttiiiigsstamlandsothe; fall rory naturally 
into Ticiou0 ways. In a greiit ciey it is suppoddi] tlint poverty is 
a1t» the (Mam of much of tho criroinulity ; bnt this is not tlie 
iact ; snch crime as it doea cause iti comparatiruly slight. 

Thero ia another great utU aboundiug in largo cities that haa 
puxzlod good thinking nion for liiin<ln>da of yeara — tlio social evil. 
In my work I have riatumlly liiul uvc«aion to atady thin queatioD, 
and t have como to the conclusion that it is the most baffliogof all 
the Idnda of crime with whldi tho fnw has to d«ttl ; indeed, so haf- 
fling that I huliuvc itcHtniutbeezt^Tmiiiated. There are those who 
maintain that it ought to be regulated by tlio authorities, that it 
should bo confinod to a certain duttrict in tho city ; but I do not 
agre«with these thRoncs. la my opinion it should bo kept iia far 
from tho public vtuw nA possible; if it wore relegated to any 
particular quarter in a city, ic would aimpiy crent« a plague spot, 
a markod plnco, vhicli would thus bo giTcu a dangerous publicity 
and mnde a blot upon tho community. These people who in- 
dulge in scusatiouol crusades agaiiiat tho social ovil Uike a ftarftil 
reeponaibility upon themaolvce, and, far from accomplishing 
any good, they do an untold amount of harm. In tho flnt 
plaoe, they are inexperiencx-d ; all tliuy know about crime and 
criminals is purely theoretical. Many of thani, moreover, are 
nothing leu than faoatlos. They drive tho degraded from tboir 
own hanata aod force them to hide among reapectable people, 
where they are far mora harmful than they wore before, bucanse 
they hare greater opporiunitius to spread vice. Moreover, 
they caueo to bo die^wniiuatod iu the pnblic prints the moei 
shameful acconntR of vic«, which cannot fail to do a great amount 
of injury. Tampering with the social evil in a very tivklinh game. 
Ttie more the public bears about it, the worsu for the public. It 
ia the bneinesfi of the law and of the police, who are supposed to 
aid in tho carrying out of tho taw. to protuut tho public ; in 
my judgnipnt, therefore, the polioo in their efforts to emdicole 
this crime must take particular care to keep it as far from public 
notice 08 possible. 

On the whole, I believe that during the past twenty-five years 
a T«Ty distinct odvoQco has beea made in the protection of citips 
against crime. The law is more cffcotnally enforoecl tlinn il ever 
has beeii before, and the melhoda of preraotton and detection 
have become much more skilful and effeoUve. Bxtradition 



BOW TO PROTECT A OITT FROM CRIME. \(ft 

treaties hare nov been mado by the United States with nearly all 
the other countries in the world, and it is therefore most diffioalt 
for a criminal to elude justice. It must be confessed that under 
our system of government any S]r8tem of police mnst be more or 
less handicapped. For example, in European countries, a crimi- 
nal may be arrested and held by the authorities for a time in 
secret. In this country, however, such a course of procednre 
would be impossible. A prisoner is brought into court the very 
day of his arrest or the day after. This method of dealing with 
those who are accused of criminality has its advantage for the 
accused, and there is, of course, a measure of justice in it ; but, 
on the other hand, it often handicaps the poHco in the detection of 
crime and of its perpetrators, for secrecy is an important element 
in this work. 

The publicity given to crime by our newspapers is also a 
frequent obetsclo to the detection of it ; yet the papers, of 
course, render an incalculable amount of assistance in the ferret- 
ing out of malefactors in a great many cases. Publication is a 
warning to criminals ; but it is, besides, an appeal to the country 
for aid in detecting them. As soon as a criminal's description 
is given in the newspapers, thousands of people are on the watch 
for him. Consequently, at the present time, the means of de> 
tection of crime and of bringing its perpetratoni to justice are 
remarkable, fiat, as I have already pointed out, detection is 
only a secondary consideration ; those improvements in the police 
system are most important which are in the direction of prevent^ 
ing crime ; and the more our reformers work in this direction 
the more practical will the results of their efforts be and the more 

beneficial to the community. 

Tkokas Btenbs. 



JN DKFENGi!: OF ilAUlilET SIIKLLEY -I. 



BT MARK TWAIX. 



I nAVB conunittod sins, of oourso ; bnt I hnro not committod 
enough of thorn Uj untitlu me to thn puninhment nt reduutioo to 
tho bread and water of ordinary Utemture duriog six years when 
I migtil bnvo beeu living on tbo t&t diot spread for tho riglitooua 
in Profonor Dowdcn's Ltio ol Shdlley, if I hod boon justly dealt 
with. 

During thess six yean I hare been liring a Ufti of i)oacef ul 
ignorance. T wna not aware that Shelley's drat wife vr&n nnfiutlr 
ful to him and that that was vhy ho do4ortod hor and wi[>ed the 
stain from his scnaitira honor by onteriag into milod ralations with 
Godwin's youug daughter. This waa all now to mo whon I beard 
it lately and was told that the proofs of it were in this book, and 
that this book's rerdiet is accopted in the girls' collogea of 
America »ad its riow tanght in thoir UWrary olassos. 

In each of theau six rears inallitudu^ of young pooplo In our 
country biivo arrived lU the Shelloy- reading age. Aro these six 
multitudes unaoquaintod with this life of Sholloy ? Porhaps tbcy 
aro ; indeed one may feel pretty sura that the great bulk of them 
are. To thoso, then, 1 oddresa myself, in tho hope that Bomo ao- 
couut of this tx)mantio historical fablo and tho fabalist's toanner 
of construoting and adorning it may interest them. 

First, as to its Utemry stylo. Oar negroes in America hare 
seTeral vrayaof entertaining themaeilres which are not found among 
the whites anywhere. Among these invontions of theirs is oue 
which is porticnlarly popular with them. It is a competition in 
ele^nt doportmunt. Tlmy hire a hull and bank the rsptiutalors* 
Mats In ri^ug tiers along tbe two aides, leaving all the middle 
stretuh of the floor frco. \ nikv is provided as a prize for tbo 



IN l>EPEyCE OF UAJUUET SilELLEV. 



100 



winner in the com])eliUoa, and a bencb of uxperta in deportmeot 
is appoint4M[ to avnrd it. Sometinios thero arc aa many u fifty 
oontesUnt'i, mute and female, nnd live haiKlny] npectiitors. Onoafc 
ft tiau iho ooiiUwlaiiU ontur, clothcxl rogArdloeaof ozpeaaoin what 
oftch cxinudora tbo porfoction of style and tastu, luid walk down 
the TBOuit central ipace und 1>ack again with that multitude of 
oritical eyes od them. All tliat the competitor knows of Duo aire 
and gnuu ho tbrowd into bis carriage, all that ho knowa of seduc- 
tiTt)«xpr«sRiun he throvg into hlsconntenanco. He may am all 
the helps hu ou.ii deviM : watcb-chaiu to twirl with hU lingers, 
caoo to do graceful things with, snowy handkerchief to Houriah 
and ^t artful clFvctA out of, &hiny now storopipo hat to aosist in 
his courtly bows ; and the colored lady may have a fan to work 
np htr cITeota vilh. and smile OTor and blush bobind, and i<h» may 
add other helps, acconling to her judgment When the review by 
iodiridual dvtail is OTor, a grand roriow of all the oout««tjints in 
prociWion followti, with oil tbo Hintnnd groccaandall tho bowingB 
and nnirkinga on uxhibitioii at otiuu, and tbia enables tbo benob 
of experts to make the uoccssary comparisous and arrire at a ver- 
dict. The Buocessfal competitor gets the prize which I liaro 
before Dkenlioned. and an obnndnnoo of npplanso and envy along 
witli it. The ncgroM h&vo a natnu fur ihia gnivu doportmont- 
toitmameut ; a luune taken from the prize contended for. They 
call it a Cako-Walk. 

This Shelley biography is a literary cako-walk. The ordinary 
forms of speech are nlMent from ic All the pages, all the {wra- 
graplis, walk by suJatuly, eli^antly, not to say mincingly, in their 
AiiDiIay-bcwt, shiny and sittek, perfumed, and with bouionniirea 
in their buttonholes ; it la rare Co find oren achanoe sentence that 
has forgotten to droBs. If tho book wishos to tell us that Mnry 
Oodwin, uhild of dixtooii, hml known afniettons, the (act Buuntof't 
Tortb lu this uohby outfit: " Mary was herself not nnloorned in 
the lore ef pain "—meaning by that that slio liad not always tmr- 
olled on oophalt ; or, as some authorities would (ratno it, that she 
had "been thcr<> horself," a form which, white preferable to the 
book's form, is still not to bo rooommondod. If tho book widiM 
to bell us that Harriot Shulluy hired a wi^t-nnrae, that common- 
place hct guts tamed into a daticiu^-mastur, who duos hi^ pro* 
foaiional bow bt-foni us in pnmps and knoo-brecches, witb his 
fiddle nader one arm and hts crash-bat nndor tbo other, thus: 



110 



THE SORTTI AXKRIVAN RRVTSW. 



"The besnty of Uarriot'a motUerlj relation to her babe wns 
nurred ia Shnlley's eves bjr the iutroduution into liis hones of a 
Uiraling qufm to whom wm delegated the mother's teaderest 
office." 

Thia is parhapii the strau^csl book tbftt bu Boon tbo light sitieo 
Frankenstein. Indeed it ia a FranketuteinitBelf ; a Fronkenstain 
witli the original iuflniiiljsuiiplemenlcd b}- a new ono ; a Fnink- 
Bteia with tUc reawuiug fuoullj w»iiting. Vet it beliovea it 
reason, and isalwaja trying. It is not content to Icnve » 
^Doantoin of fitot atonding in the olear siinshino, where the Bim- 
pleat reader can peroaiveils form, its duttuls, and iu relation to 
the rest of tho landacape, but thinks it must help him examine it 
and iindcratiuiil it ; an iu dnfting mind Bottles upon it with that 
intoat, but alwujB with one and the saxao re«olt : there is a 
obungo of tcmperHttiro and the monntatn is hid iu u fog. Every 
ttrai> it Beta up u promisH and starts to reason frorn it, there is a 
Burpriao in store for the reader. It is etrangely near-sighted, 
oroBa-eyod, and purblind. SontotimM when a laaatodoa woJiu 
acriMi tho field of iu rision it Lakes it fur a rat ; at other times It 
does not ftee it at all. 

The mtUeriaJs of ihia biographical fable are facts, rumor!), nnd 
poetry. They are ooniioctcd U^thorand hnrmonizcd by thu holp 
of niggcation, conjecture, innuendo, pervoraion, and semi-sap- 
presBion. 

The fable baa a distinct object in view, bnt thia object ia not 
aoknowleilgol in set words. Percy Uyanho Slu-IIey hna done 
something wliioh in tho caae of other mt^n iaoalIe<l a grave crime; 
it must be shown that in liis caiie it \» nut timl, beoansa he does 
not think aa other men do about theee things. 

Ought not tliat to be enough, if the fabulist ia serious F Hav- 
ing proved that a crime ie not a crime, wna it worth while to go 
on and fasten tlie rcsponaihility of a crime which wa^ not a. crime 
upon Bomebody else? What is the use of huuting down and 
holding to bitter account people who are responsible for other 
people's innocent oots f 

Still, the fabulist thinks it a good idea to do that. In his 
view Shelley's fln^t wife, IlHrriet, free of all otfunco aa far as wo 
barn hiHtorical facts for gnidanoe, must be held unforgivably 
respouaibk' for ber husband's inuooent act in deeorting her and 
iking up with auolher womaD. 



Uf DEFEUCK OF eARRiST 8HSLLKY. 



Ill 



Any ODQ wilt vuipoot that this task luu its difflcalticA. Any- 
one will divino thftt nice vork in ncooaaarj linm, caubions woik, 
wily work, and that thoru is mjtertaiiiinetit lu Ik) biwl in watching 
ths miiKiciun do it. Tliore is indeed eutertainmonc in watohing 
him. lie arniiiKCB liia facts, bis ruuiora, tmd his poema on hia 
tabis in fall Tinw of the bouse, aod shows yon thnt everything is 
there — no dooi'iitioa, orarytiiinf; hir and alKirQlKiuril. Atii] this 
is apparently true, yet there is » defect, for uomo of his beet stock 
is hid in au appendix -l>a(ikut twhiud the dnjr, ami you do not 
conieupon it until the exhihitiou is ovprmtd the onchautment of 
yonr mind uccompltahcd — as lh« magician thinks. 

Thoro is an Insistont atmosphere of condor and fairaoes about 
this book which is engaging at firttt, then a little burdenaome, 
then a trifle fntigning, then progreasively suBpicious, annoying, 
irritating, and oppri^s-tivc. It takes onoHome little timn to flod 
out that plimsne nliitli Bocm intended to guide thu nmdiir aright 
are thoro to miBlHul him; that phmsos which aet>ni inteniied to 
throw light are thun? to throw darkness; tliac pbmses which 
Mflm intended to interpret a fact arc there to misinterpret it ; 
that jthnues which ecuin intended to foroBt&ll projudicc arc there 
tocrcotoit; Cltut plinucji which sooin antidotes ore potaons in 
disgntse. The nalcwtl fiicU ilrrayed in the book eatublieh Hhelley's 
gnilt in thiil one episixle wliich diadgures his otherwise Huperla- 
lively lofty and beautiful life, but the hietorian's careful and 
methodical miaintcrprotatioa of them Iraosfors the rospousibility 
to tlio wifo'ii Rhotildent — as ha persuades himitotf The few 
ninigrK facta of ILirnet Shelley's life^ as funiishiNl by Uiu book, 
■oquil bor of offuuou, but by calling in the forbidden helps of 
rumor, goeatp, CDuJ¥«ture, i ruin nation, and innuendo, he de- 
stroyri her character and rehabilitates Shelley's — a» he believes. 
And in truth his unheroic work has not been barren of the remits 
bn airn<y] at : us witnosa the assertion made to me that girls in 
tho ojllti^us of Ainurioa are taught that Harriet SbcUoy put a 
stiUQ upon hor buabaud'fi honor, aud that that was what stung him 
Into ropurifying himxolf by deserting her and hischild and enter* 
ing into scandalous reUtionii with a schoolgirl acquaiotanoe of 
hia. 

If that assertion is tnie, they probably nw a reduction of this 
work in thoec collets, maybe only a sketch oulliuod from it. 
ftnoh a thing m that mold be hanoful and misleading. They 



NORTH AMERICAN REPIKW. 



ouglit to cast it oat and pat tlie whole book in itA ]i1aoe. Tb 
vouUi not dcociru. It wouttl uob doccivo tlio janitor. 

Al] of this book is iuberostiog on aocoant of the aoroerer'a 
muthodfl and tho attracttvenoaa of some of hts oluracteri and 
the ropRUivenoss of tho rost, bnt no part of it is so tnuoh 00 os 
are the chttjitera wherein he tries to think ho thinks ho sets forth 
the caasos which led to Sbolloys doAirtion of hJa wife in Ltil4. 

Uarriot We«tbn>ok was a eohoolgirl eisteoD yoan; old. Sliol- 
loy WM teeming with advanced thoaght Uo bolievod that Ohru- 
tianity was a degrading and oelllsh superstition, and he hail a deep 
and siuooro doure to rescue one of his HiiiUira from iL UarriuL 
was improcwd by hie various phitodophioa and looked upon him 
MB un intelleotaal wonder — whioh indeed he wua. Ue bad an idea 
that she could giru him valuable hdp in his scheme regarding 
bis siHk'r; therefore he asked her to correspond with bitn. Shu 
was (]uito willing. Shclloy was not tUinkiiig of love, for he jrw 
just getting over a paieioa for hie eotiain, Harriot Ororo, and just 
getting woll 8toopo«l in one for Mim ITitchonor, n sohool-toiicbor. 
What might happen to Uarriot Wcatbrook before the letter-writing 
was ended, did not eater his miud. Yet au older person oould 
b:tvu made a good guess at it-, for in person Shelloy was ui beaati- 
fiil AS an angel, ho was frank, swuet, winning, unusgumiug, aud 
so rich in nnaelfisbnesses, generoaittes, and magnanimities iliat he 
made hie whole gunomtion sooiq poor in these groat qualities by 
oompariMn. Besidee. be was in distress. His collie bad expelled 
bioi for writing an athoisticjil pamphlet andnDlictiag the rareraud 
beads of the nniveDiity with it, his rich father and grandfather 
had oloaed their purses agoinai him, bis frieniU were cold. Nocea- 
aurily, Uurriot fell in love with biin ; aud so deeply, indeed, tlrnt 
there was no way for Slielley to save her from auiuide but tit marry 
her. Uo believed hiinsolf to blame for this slate of tbingn, 80 tbe 
luiirriage took pliice. He was pi-otby fairly in lore with Harriet, 
although ho loved Miss llitchencr better. He wrote and explained 
the o&so to MiKs Hitohcoer after tho wedding, and ho could net 
have been franker or more ntuve aud leas stirred up aliout the 
dicumstanco tf tho matter in issue had baoD a commeichil trana* 
action involving tbirty-five dollars. 

ShoUoy woe nineteen. lie was not a yontb, but a nian. He 
hod never had any youth. He was an ernitic and fantaatie ohild 
daring eighteen years, then be stepped into manhood, as one 



ly DETKNCS OF aARRlET SUELLKY. 



113 



«tep« over a dooraill. Ue mm curiously uiataro at ntnetoou in 
biB ability to do indopomleot tltJnking oa thd doep ([nMtioiu 
of li(o and to arrive nt sbnrpl/ doQnita dooiaioDfi regarding 
ibom, aud aliuk to them — stick lo them and lUind by tlieiu 
■t cost of bnnul, fricudsliipfl, eatoDin, respect ami njijimbatioti. 

For llid Buko of hiH opitiiona h« waavUliiij; tosuurilico all tboso 
ratoable tbings, and did lucrilico thorn ; and went on do- 
iug it, too. whon be could at any mnment liavo made bimsetf 
rioli and Hapfilicd hiniwlf with friviido aud tnteom by coiupru- 
saiiiDg vitb bia father, at the moderato «x[>oqu of tlu-owiuiic 
OTttrboard oim or two indiffuraut det^ls of his cargo of prin- 
olp)«t. 

Uoand Harriet«lopod toSootbiudaudgot murriwl. Thoytook 
MsiQ^ iu Kiliuburgb of a aort tuuwerable to their ))urse, which 
VM ibout empty, aud th«re their lifu waD a luippy one and grew 
daily man ao. Tbey had only tliomselrea for compaay, but tb«y 
uooded no odditioiia to it. Tboy were as cosey and oontontcU aa 
birds iua oust. Ilarriutetui]£«voiiiiig6orread aloud; aUosUuiitudiud 
and triod to improve her miud, hor husbaad instructing her in 
Latin. 8ho was very bouuUful, ehe wtu inodast, quiet, gunuiuo, 
and, according to h«r husband's tcaliiuouy, she had no fine lady 
airs or aapinUiuna about her. In Matthew Aniold'a judgmunt> 
abe was "a plMtiug ligurv." 

The iwir romainod dre weeks in Ediubtirgh, and then took 
lodgijigs in York, where Shelley's college mate, Hogg, lired. 
Slielley preaontly ran down to liondon, and Hogg took this oppor- 
tuntty to make lore to tliu young wife. She repiilsod hiiu, aud 
reported the fact to her husband whoo be got back. It seems a 
pi^ that ShoUey did not copy thiti croditible conduct of hers 
aoDM time or other when under temptation, so that we might 
bare aeon tbc author of hia bit^upby hang tho miracle in the 
ikiM Mid sqairt rainbowv at it. 

At tho ond of tho Qrst year of marri^o — the most trying year 
for any yonug couple, for then the mutual faillngH are coming 
one by ooo to light, and tho uvccasary odjuBtraunte are being 
nude ia polo and tribulation — Shelley was able to reooguize that 
hii marriags venture had been a safe one. Aa we have seen, his 
love for hu wife had begun in a rather shallow way and with not 
aaoch (oroe» but now it was booomu deep aud strong, which 

^titlN hia wife to a broad credit mark* ooo may adinit. U« 
IfiU CI4X.— MO. l&V. b 



114 



TBK yOttTH AVERrCAl 



ndtlrewiM H long and loTJiig |KN)in to lier, in which both pataaioii 
aoit wonbip appear: 

HxhibU A. 

Olhou 
WlioHc d«Kr love jt'**)"!)^ uiwu tbe gloom; patb 
Wlilcb thtfl looe spirit tnivvlsd. 

. . . wUc tboa Dot turn 
ThoM' ti|>lrlMw«mlug ojcs ftnil look on me, 
Unt.il [ )m Mmirvd thai Bftrlb is Ueftivo 
And UoftTCB b EatUi I 

4 • • • • • 

HarmbI lei itoalh lUI mortal Ue> ilIiMOlve, 
But oun shall not bo moiUl. 

Shelley kUo nroUj n sonimt to her iu August of thta Bsme jrcar 
in ceIul>ratioii ut her hirlliday : 

Rnraanow with Lovt) aod VirUui'a ulov 

Mjtf tbjrimwithDriiigMODl notoeaae to bom, 

Still rao.j thino h««rt vritb thotie pure Utougfato o'oritow 

Wblch force from miuc aa<;b quick and wftrm retora. 

Was the girl of sevenhten gliul and proud and happj ? We 
may conjocturD thut bIio wa& 

TUut wod tho year IS12. Aaothor year paaeud — etiU happily, 
stiU BuccaaHfully — a child vasborn in June, 1KI3, and in fiiepicm' 
Iwr, thruu mouths later, ShuUey addresM-s a [)0»m to this child^ 
Unthe, ID nrluch he iminta out just whcii the Uttle creature is 
moet particularly doar to bim : 

SxAtbU C. 
Dearot wtHn lucMt tby t«iid«r tralu exprass 
Ilie inu^ of tliy luotber'* k>T«lineiw. 

Up tothis point thu fubulisl counsel forShfllloy and proeecnbor 
of hi« young wifu has had eaay sailing, bat nov bis trouble begins, 
for ShoUey is getting ready to make some niipluafiaut htiitary for 
himself, and it will beoeoeBBary topat tiidblameof it ou thu wife. 

Shelley bad made the acqmtinlanco of achamilug gray-haired. 
Toung-hearted Mrs. BoiuTilte, whoso fac-e " retained a oertain 
youthful beanty"; she li^ed at Braoknell, and bad a yonng 
daughter named Cornelia Turner, who was eqaippod with many 
fa«cinatioua. Ajtpareutly these people were aufficionlly euntt- 
meatat Hogg says of Mrs. Boiuvillo: 

" rho anatvr p*K ol her Mwoolatw wsra odiona. I ftCDcnlly found 



IN DEFENCE OF HARRTET SBELLBY. 



IIA 



tbere t<ro or thrM MBtimsnUI founa; hawtwn, an emiiMfilly ptiUoaoi>bIokl 
ilaker, nod vcToral vrry anaopUsUoftMd nwdlMl praoiiUonDra or uwdioal 
■tuJi^uta, kll of low orltfln «nd tuIsu wid oflbnaln nuaaera. Tttejr aigbed. 
lomnl up ibelr ejM. r«tAll«d phlloaophj, such aa II wh." Mc. 

Shelley moved to nrnckiifU, Jul; ^il (this ia still 1813), pur> 
poieljtobo uear this uuTholosomo pr»ini>-dog«' UMt. The fabii- 
liit M^s : '* U wiu ttie entrance iuto a world more iimiAble ati<j 
ifiqautte than bu bud yet kiioTii." 

" III this AOjLiaintatice the uttraotion «ru mutnAl" — nnil pres* 
ently it grew to bo very miiluitl indoMl. iMtwovii Sli(^llo;»ud Uor- 
nelift Turnw, when tUcj got to stndyiog the Italian ])o«t« to- 
gothur. Sbotlojr, " regpoudiug liko a treinuloas imtrument to 
QTerjr breath of pauiou or ol sentiment," had hia cbunoo hera. Il 
took only four days for Cornelia'a attracliona to begin to dim 
Ilarriftt'a. Sbelloy arrivMi oa tbo 37th of July; on the Slal ho 
wrote a Rounct in Harriet in whioli '* one douwtg atnody the 
Itttio rift ill the lorer'n lutti which had aevmed to be healed or 
nerer to have gaped at all. wliea the later and happiur sonnet to 
lantho vaa vritlen " — in September, we retneiuber : 

BxhMt D. 

n-KMINU. TO KAHBIHT. 

O Ummi brl^c Son I BeDMtb tta« dark MiM Him 

Of iraatani dtotaneo that KibUron de»«cadMt, 

Anil, KlMintog Iov«ll«r aa tb; bttams d^cliaa, 

Tbj uillion bnca to vttrj vapor taadeat-. 

And orei eobwab, laws, aod rtovo, aad stnam 

SbMld«at tbe Uqukt raaglc ot ttay llsfat. 

TIM calm Barlh, with tlir parUiiR nplrndor bUKbt, 

Sbowa like Cbo vitlOD of a )wau(«oUB dTeam ; 

Wbat gaaer now wltli aiitronainie «r« 

Conld coldly eoant ttM< upoU vrlthia thy iipbetel 

Sucb w«r» tbf loTcr, Uarrli^t, oould lt« Aj 

Tb« thouffhta lA all thnt make* bia paaalon dear, 

Aad turning aanHtoaa from tfar waHncanaa 

nek da«m [a oar eloao-«TUT«n happlneaa> 

I cannot And the "rift"; etill it may be there. What the 
poem narmji toaay, is, that a peraon woald be coldly ungrateful 
irfao could oooatuit to oount and oonsidor littlu spots and flam in 
Mcb a varm, great, satisfying enu aa llurriot it. It is a " little 
rift whioh had sneined to bo healed.or never to hate gaped at all." 
That Is; '* ooe d^tei^ a little rift which perhaps had never ex- 
isted. EIow does one do that ? How does one see the invisible ? 
Ui« tho tabiiUst's secret ; hu knows ho* to datect what d<>«e not 



lie 



TBE NORTtt AMKRICAN REVIEW. 



exiit, he knows lioxr to Ree wlial ie not seoBble ; it is \m ^tl, anil 
lie works it maujr a liin« to poor dead Harriot Shellej'ei deeji 
damage. 

" Aa yet, howoTpr, if thore waa a speck upon Sbeliey'e happi- 
nce> it wm no more than a Rpook " — moaning the one which ono 
deteota wliere"it may never Imvo gaped at all" — "nor had 
Harriet canse for diecontcTit," 

Hhellcy'a tjiitin instructioDB to hiawife had ceaaod. "Prom a 
U'ftubor be had now bvoomo a pupil." Mrs, Boictvillo and her 
yonng married diiughl«r Cornelia were teaching him Italian 
poetry ; a fact vhicli warns oue to receiTc with some c-antion 
that othor statement ihat Harriet bad no " cattee for discontent. " 

Sholky hod stopped iuBtrncting Harriot in Lolin, as before 
mentioned. The biographer thinks tliut the bany life in Ijondon 
tome time buck, and the intrusion of thi? baby, aoconut for thin. 
Those were hindrances, but were there no otbera? He is always 
overlooking a detail hero nad there that might be votaablo in 
helping iis iindorstand a sitnution. For inRtnncnj whon a man 
has been haitl at work at the Italian jKWfai with a pretty woman, 
hourafUtr hour, and responding like a tremnlous instrument to 
every bre«th of passion or of sentiment in the meautimei that 
man is dog-tired whou he get« home, and ho can't toach hia wife 
Latin ; it would be nnreasonable to expect iL 

Up to thiA time wo liavc subtuEtted to having Mrs. BoiiiTille 
pushed upon us as ostensibly conoerned in these Ualian lessons, 
bnl the biographer drops her now, of his own aooord. Cornelia 
" perhaps" is solo teacher. Mog% says she was a prey to a kind 
of sweet melancholy, ariiung from cHusea purely imaginary ; she 
required consolation, and found it in I'etmrcb. Ho also says* 
" Byaslie entered at once fully into her views and caught the soft 
infection, bnjstliiitg tliu tenderost and sweetest melancholy, as 
every tme pootonght." 

Then the author of the book interlards a most stately and 6nc 
oomplimeut to Cornelia, famished by a man of approved judg- 
meut who knew her well " in lat«r yean." It is a very good 
compliment indeed, and she no doubt deserved it in her "later 
years," when she had for gonorations ceased to be sculimeutal 
and lackadiusical. and was no longer engaged in enchanting 
youDg husbands and sowing sorrow for yonng wires. But why is 
that complimaQt to that old gentlewoman iotraded there? Is it 



m DEFEAVR OF HARRIKT SHEJJ.ZY. 



117 



to mako the reader belicre sfao wad nrell-clioaeD and sofa nociot}' 
tor a youn);, scntiincntoit haoband ? The biographer^s derioe 
wu not vqW pliuinod. That old porson wiu not pr«eont — it was 
h«r other self that wan tbere, h«r joiing,EentiniL>ntHl, melnncholy, 
warm-blooded self, in those early sweet times botore antiquity 
Iiid cooled hor off and moafcd bor back. 

" [n choosing for friends Bxinh womon as Mrs. NcwtoD, Mre. 
Boinville and Cornelia Turner, Shclloy gave good proof of hia 
inaigbt and discri mi nation. " Tbat is tbe fabulist's opinion — 
Harriet Shelley's ia not reported. 

Early in Augnst, Slicllcyvafl in London irjiaiXa nlwinoney. 
In Sept«niber he wroto the piu-m to the baby, already quoted 
from. In tbe Ural week of October Sbelley und family went to 
Warwick, thou to Bdinbnrgh, arriTing there abont tbe middle of 
the month. 

"Uarriet vaa hnppy." Why? Tbe author fnmishea a reaaon, 
but bides from as whotber It is history or conjecture ; !t is 
bacaase " I he babe hail borne the journey well," It has all the 
aspect of one of his artfnl devices — Hang in in his faTorite oasoal 
vsy — the way he bos when ho wants to draw one's attention away 
from an obrioos thing and amnm it with some trifle that is leu 
obrioas but more useful — in u history like this. The obvioui 
thing is» that Uarriot woa happy because there was much terri- 
torj between ber busbaud and Uornelia Turner now ; and because 
the pertlouft Italian lodsons were taking a reAt ; and because, if 
tfaera chanced to bo any respomlings like a tremulons imitniment 
to evory breath of passion or of soutimeut in stock iu theao days, 
■be might bo)m U> ;;i;t » share of tbem herself ; and becaase, with 
hor husbitud liberated, now, from the fetid fascinations of that 
BOntimental retreat so pitile^y described by Hogg, who also 
dnbbed it " Sb^ltey'^ paradise " later, she might hope to persuade 
him to Atay away from it permanently ; and becaoso she might 
also hope tbat his brain vonid cool, now, and his heart become 
healthy, and both bnun and heart consider the eitantton and 
vmolvo that it wmild be a right and manly thing to ntand by ihia 
girl-wife and her child and see that they were honorably dealt 
with, and ohorisbed and protected ami lovei) by the man that had 
proniawl these thing*, and so be made happy and kopt so. And 
becansp, also — may we conjprturp this ? — wo may hop« for the 
priTilegu of taking up our coxy Ijatin leeaons again, that tuied to 



U8 



THe NORTH AMRRICAlt SSVISW. 



be BO ptooaant and brotifrlit ns bo near together — «o Dear, iiuleeil, 
that oftea oar headH touched, jtitit as heads do OTer Italitw 
leosons ; and our handB met in csbu&I and nnintentional, bnt still 
mofit delicious and thrilling little oontAOte and momentary clasps, 
just aa thoy inevitably do ot«t ItAlian lessons. Suppose one 
ahonld «ay to any yonnjf wife : " I find that your hniband is por- 
ing oTor thu Italian poets and being iustructed in the betuitifnl 
ItoliaQ laugnago by the lovely Oomelia Bobineoo" — vould that 
ooay pictore foil to riao before her mind ? would its poBsibilitioa- 
fail to suggdst themselves to her? would there bo a pang 
in her heart and a bituih on her faoe ? or, on the contrary, vroalil 
the reinark give her ptcmnre, mike her joyoiid and gay ? Why, 
006 needs only to make the experiment — the reault will not be 
nnoertain. 

However, we learn — hy authority of deeply-reasoned and Bonrch- 
ing oonjeoture — that the baby lore bho journey well, and that 
that waa why the yoang wife was happy. That accounts for two 
per cent, of the happincsiD, bnt it was not right to imply that it 
aooounted for the other ninety-eight aIm. 

PvACOok, a Bobolar, poot, and friend of the Shelleya, was 
of tlieir party vheo they went away. He used to laugh at the 
Boinville menagerie and " was not a favorite." One of the Boia- 
viile group, writing to Hogg, naid, " The Shelloys haT9iDa<]e au 
addition to their party in the pemon of a cold achoUr, who, I 
think, has neither twto nor fcoling. This. Shelley will pcrceiro 
Boouer or later, for his warm nature orarea ayrapathy.'' True, 
and Shelley will fight his way back tbero to got it — there will be 
no way to bead him off. 

TownnI the end of NoTombor it was necessary for Shelley 
to pay a biiiiincss viuit to London, and bo conceived the projeut 
of Icflving Harriot and the baby in Edinburgh with Harriet's 
sister, Eliza Weatbrook, a sensible, praotical m:uden lady abont 
thirty years old. who hod spent a great part of her time with the 
Family since the marriage. She wau an cmtimabla woman, and 
Shelley had had reason to like hor, and did like her; bat along 
abont this time his feeling toward her changed. Part ol 
Shelley's plan, as he wrote Hogg, was to spend his London ereu- 
ings with tho Ncwtons — members of the Boinrillo Hysterical 
Society. Bnt. alas, when he arrired early in December, that 
pleasant game was partially blocked, for £Uav and the family 



IH J^RFKNCK OF HAtiRJfiT SHKLLEY. 



119 



jurivett with him. We ore left deatitato of conjoctanw at tbis 
poiothjrUiobtognipber,an(lit in my duty tosupplyono. I chance 
the ooDjectoro that it wms Klixa who inUii'rored with that j^tnc. I 
think she tried to do what she ooiitd tovard modifying the Boin- 
rille coaneotion, ia tbo intcrust of bcr young sister's pence nod 
honor. 

If it ip« Bho who blockod ttmt ^me, eho was not strong 
enough to block the next one. Before the month and year were 
oat — no date giToii, let uh csal) it Chrititmika — Hhellsy and family 
wero UMtod iu a furnished hoiue in Windeor, "at no profit dia- 
tanoa from the BoiDTilloa " — these decova etiU residing at Brack. 
ueU. 

^?hat wo neod, now, is n misli^ading conjcctnre. We get it 

with cbxtraotertstio promptness and dtjirarity ; 

" Bol Prinoo AthuuM found not th« afpid Zodofm, th« Mend »f bb 
boTbood. la anr wand«rlnita U> Wlodnor. Dr. Liod bad died a jeor aloce, 
and with htadeotli WtndsorrouxthaTolontirorStaAllej. Ita chief ntCrKtloD.' 

Still, not to montion Hhcll«y's wifo, thoro wiut Bracknell, at 
uy nt«. While Braeknell remains, olUolaco is notlost. Shelley 
ia reprewnted by this biographer sa doing a great man; ookIobs 
things, but to my mind thi« hiring a furuishetl house for three 
moulhs in order to be with a man who has been dead a year, is 
the oareleasest of them all. One feels for hira — that is bat not* 
nral, and does a* honor besides — yet one in vexed, for all that. 
He ooald have writUm and asked about the aged Zonor»s before 
taking the house. Ue may not have had the oddrem, but that is 
nothing — luiy postman wnitid know tho aged Zonoras ; a dead 
postman would remember a nnmo like that. 

And yet, why throw a rag like this to us ravening wolves P U 
it seriously supposable that we will stop to chew it and let mjr 
preyeaciipa? Ko, we are getting to expect this kind of dfirioo, 
and to givo it merely a aniflt for ccrtainty'n sake and then wolk 
aronnd it and leave it tying. .Shelley vaa not after the aged Zo. 
nonts: he was pointed for Cornelia and the Italian lemons, for his 

warm nature was craving sympathy. 

Hjlke Twai^. 
tie Bs ooxmRiKD.) 



NOTES AND COMMENTS. 



THR PROSPECTS OP MEXICO. 

tr irill not nirpriM obnervers of Mexican kllkin to find that Aonstln 
il« Ilnrblriv, thi) *d»|itnil heir of the 111 tatMl MazImllUn. eoniplaiDi of tha 
"«vll tb&t b&s Accnii^d l-o Cb« LaMd n!t>nbHoi of AmarlcA Iram tbn traniv ol 
tb«irf«diA&l patlttclans for blind ImttAtlon of ttte lD«tlnillon<i of tb^ Unltod 
Stklctt." ThinnULcmcQt which h« mftkea in tta« Jaa« namb«r ot this Bs- 
VtBw, la entirely cQ[uiI«t«DC wliti l;h« uurow, rstcOKnide policy of thefol- 
lov*em at (be Ural Uurbitli^. who, (ibrlinpn, kDOvrlng no belter, lrl«d to tooDd 
an rmplrr In tbei country «-blch he hod ocrrtd to nncne (rom Spuilsh min- 
rnl«. FoTtonftlelr th« Llber&tor l&llpd In that otlcmpt, cIm the frncdom for 
which HidKlgo and Morvlua died init^bt Imn) profiled ItUle la the Hexie&D 
people. It UBOt«wort;bf (hat miM-t.lonitry [Kirtim hidu thoir ninlator par- 
poM hf uuillnfl Ubenl Muitltutton*. In Franco. Boalnniror eoDCuwlM bh 
OHoAnUt do«t^K b; denunda for ferUioit of (he eonstlroUon. Tbe txtrtmo 
French radicals who would overturn ILc conscrvktivo republic of Thiers and 
Camol nre likewlitt! Anlcut ailToralr-i nt revUion. while la 3paiu tbv name 
of Don CKrlrm In kAwclatod with rank tonrlntn, attcrlj In oonlllct with the 
liberal prlnclpjen eiiKruf led on ibo couftCltntluu. Tbe Mexican people Idtc 
and rr^viTcuico tlie roiuiUtution of ISS7. It Luaure* peacaFul prOflrMui no far 
as any const! tntlon ran do so. So longRsIt to tbesaprflmelaw BO«mp«ror, 
king, or dictator la the gnise of prMldentoaaeierclaeauihorily In Mextco. 
ItreptvAenta thft collectlTe wisdom of tho Mvxloa pnnplc, iiharpeQ«d faj 
long ycant of titrife aKaluitl domeitio (oc« and foreign Invmuloit. The conatJ- 
tutloD of 1807 ban Htood the tent of thirtrxivicn jeant. dnrloK which tho 
coootry baa seen the rise and fall of dktaioretalps. Imperial and atb«rwl<»c> 
aa welloaaperiod of itcacei. tbal allowed thc]>cople tOHcratinixu tbe merits 
of Ihc Hupn'm<» Uw. Undor It the ropnWIc hon waipdatronaand pnjoywl 
liberty and prosperity. That tbe Mexican people oberiata tbe repalilic and 
tbe knpreme law whieb MrrM a« tta foncdBtlon was t^eo In their heroic tg- 
ttUtanee ta the boM attenipt which NapAlMin III., aldnd bf Mexican traitor*, 
Boade Ic estabtlkh an empire on tbe pjIusoI natiounllllmrty. Tbo Uealconi 
Otmteatcd bravely ercrj Inch of fcroond with the Inradvrs and didnotdeabt 
iiulll they foTCM) the Irlrolor. blaaonod anew, aa It waa, with tbe Tlctorlca of 
Seboatopol aad Solfcrino, to retire before ttm IndignaUon of on outraged 
people. 

Prtnoe Itorblde asaalla openly and bj implication tbe admlnlmratiaa of 
Pre«tdbnl Diax. Tbe merlta of that odminltilratton can be eatlmated bent 
bj rm-Alling the condition of the ncpublic In ItnB. when the vietor of Puebia 
OMumed th« relaa of powfr. Mexico waa then the Uhmael of ooUobs ; 



ffOTEfi -IA7> COSTMHyTS. 



131 



'<P^iUHnA(lelntcTn>UTM3 WMt dented llio repalillc bT Borapean ponrera, tfakt 
luidBhown Indecent hula in rxcovnlxlnii the rmplro which N>|h>I«>d III. 
Iwd prontotcU toincrcaMCho praaclfre o( the French armj Mid ch««k tb« 
iDlliunccof tlid Unltad RtftLm on UiIn eontinonL Bveo Seoelaiy BruUi 
wtUiheld the h«aitj. pmtDpt recogntUnn lo whl«h ths nvir ^vsldml 
waft t^hiy entitled. Tbo wann rcsai^ ■>' [Jvacral Diaz for this eoontTT, and 
hiiaxprWMddeein tobaon tb« mosi tricDdlj ti-rmmltb iUnoveniincnt 
u>d people, trer« met will) cbllllB|tindlff«reacftbrth«B«^BtdmIni«Uat Ion, 
wbidi protiMd lt« deouuuU wltb it penUtenoy tliitt mlKht li&ve rendered 
Sfajlock Kreea with envy. Tbc flnanclftt lu writ ■« Ukc Indantrial ooadltloo 
of tbe ocunLrr waM deplorable. The ropublli; nna nlttaoutcredUatbome 
or abroad: ihera w«rano{tieorporated)>antEHeicept tbeoDoLoodoaeoaeeni; 
rilvar waa tba enlf tvmaef ; no bill* or noton wore in etimlatlon ; tba talaa 
0(dmDCBtl« oxc^haoi^e wereexr«a«lre. There wim norallread la thia «Mint«7 
oC9II^OOO»qanrF milr* except thnt which connecled the Cltj otMexieo with 
Uwpoit ol Ten Crus. a distance of 309 miles. At the e«pi(al »nd throVK''- 
ontlha Interior crime was rainpant, panvlyaloj^ itiiluntrj' and reiiellEnK tlie 
iKvaatmene ot rorelsn c&pltal. In brief, Mexlro wiu> drifUnji towards «b«o- 
tateaovchr at fai^t aathe most vicious anarcbl-it coald desire. 

How dlOerent [anoie rhpirondltloo efthe ■Isterrvpuhliel Hexleolsoa 
rriandl7t»rtns wtthall ihs Earapean powers. Hirr mlnUleT* ars treai«d, 
«Hth dl«tlnetl«a at London and Paris, a* well ssnt Berlin And Madrid. Tlte 
mlsoBderatandinea wiib thl» coantrr have giren p]a^6 to tb^ frlmdUeat In- 
tarooaran.aa mltcht beMCD b; the splendid display of Mezlcao prodacta 
at tbe World's Pair. Tliupublli' credit Las bevu restored, aud (he nalfonal 
BnaBoenbavD been pot In soodordrr. At the cnpltAlarrtbrNntlonal Bank 
with as oDlhorlied capital of 93>.OOu.UOiM&S,riJO,<!00 paid upt; ^he London 
IlaitlE. who«e capital U tS.an.flOD (t.l.<)axani) paJd upt ; aiwl (he lnt«maUoiinl 
and Mort^rage Basil, with like eapltsi (93.MO.0uO paid np>. Banknotes re- 
di*einabl« In eoin an; In jienerai use, (aellltAling trade and rednelns the 
bardeahOnM rat«a of dotneitii^ exehange. Two ttunlc railriiiad* connect tbe 
eapllAl wllh tli« Rio tirande, where thvyneectbo Aiuarloaa sjalem, render- 
laiiiC poaalblc to make the Jonmnj froatlMCttrotHesIcoto New York 
la IIB houni, and to L'blcafco In M boor*. In addltloa to tbeee trunk llaes 
la another, whiob coodmms Uurango with the Texan frontier at Kaffle 
I'aM. Hnnch tine* from the Hextran Central to (lUailnlnJorx and Tainptco 
Dpt>n upeitenslvnnglonsof both arable and mlnenl land, and provido tbe 
Interior wlib ready acMt^a ta on Important port, nmeh nearer to tbe Unlt«d 
States aeahAard than Vera Cmx. This remtrktlile progress in railroad 
htilldlnK, frsiinht with Kreat henefitM to uiliiliig, fwrlmUnr*-. and maonfiM'- 
tares, lisH been snppleoieDtcd br the ci^tuplctlon of anollier lallrosd from 
Vera Crus to the capital, as well as by tbe constracilnn of tbr railroad that 
uctMidafroin Paebla [oOaxaca,alIiu)LbatiDay yecforui part of the oonif- 
DCDtAl sjrMeoi that will estond from flndaon** Ray to PntaifOtiU. 

ThIstnatMlalsdvanoenient basbeen attended with sovIaI and Indnstrlal 
pragrOH. Order rvigna iliroaf^onl the Kinbltc. The Klo Grande border 
lua eeaaed to be atdu>ciat«d with disofdar. AnMncan and Hnropean eap< lal 
bas been iarested freely In miiHyi and nianiifa«tnr«<L PubUr school* have 
been eatabllabed lo lance nnmbcr, wblle hearty eacoursKenient bas bona 
()rui to all reaearehes ealcutal«d to lieneflt mlnlnK and affricnltare, 

As the molLof th«RrnLiIyingpruKremiii rsiltoad hdlldlnji and public 
linprunfttieDls, tbe domesllu and forvltin trails ol tbe repabllc baa Increased 



133 



ran north America:^ review. 



cocKidcfKblf. Dnplto Uie depr«Mlng ioOnencc ol Ibu un>u,abto prioa at 
Btlver, tfaa huddaI cjiportn aujil itnporiA In rrcont jtKn km InrKelj- la cm c — 
of tbow In cbo jcan that proccdod the DIax rffjime., tShxAXaK BmarMiM 
thAt trhCD arecipriMf Cfl raatf ia u«:![OtJat«d Uw conuneree at lUexlco wllb tbU 
coanUy vriti vxpnad rupldljr. ThI* m«r« outUiM} o( whkt h>x bwin dOD» 
sltiM GeniiraJ DIkb be«ame praHldent miMt ■aUarj' imp«TU&l obserren that 
tho whh tB tAtlior to the thoagfat', wli«n Princ« [turhtdc d«elarea Ib&t "Jt 
fUeaetni fevling of lEnpeDdlng cnllupiM! la Dotioc«bl« lbro6]{hcMlt lb* 
c-ountry." lu cbu pr«ieDoe of viiefa tcrovrlh na " c«ll»p»o" is piMilble. 

The grncnl i-JTcrt of tb« Dtui rinivtf ba^ been to damonstnitr the blea*- 
Injpf of p«aooBnd loFiorctae that malittn spirit which woald nloaC orer a 
"collapw," and «cek rcdrm* of Krlcr.inci-t, re»l nr iniaxinarj, Iijr c jn«tilraej 
and armM fi>Tce. Unth nvoliitlo allots ralEed Id that achiMil an irinaln ara 
now old In jean and hare lost the poleat Influsnca which tb«f aserelwd 
foFtnt-rlj la urate and national aftalm. In thcirplac« baa j^rown upagenen- 
tlon of j-oung tu«n, «>di]Cftt^ la thft public acbooU aud tralaad to ItTO bj 
boutmt labor. Tbi-oe joanx wen arc the hope ot Attxlco. Thuf po*Mas Iba 
martial spirit of thrir race, but ibcr arc flmi anpport«ra of taw and order. 
Moro than the auchoHty ot auy exccuLjirc ihtry will utrve to keep Mexko In 
tliopathaof iieiLcr aud cjitahliiili a hpnlthy titate ol public opinion. 

Prinmlturti!<leKi>e«Ot ladenonnco the Uiianclal poller of the pmcat 
M«xlran Goiernnicne. Tlicm waa a time whan the Meziean finoDDea wers 
oa puaeliuK as tbn Bchlmwi^-noUt^iln quaatioo. Th«7 antBOlonfTeFln* 
polvrd in what »e«mi»d iii(>xtrieab)u coufatiion- Duriugbbillrat t«rat I*rMl- 
<li-nt Dibs, aid«dbr mcrcantiteoonorrni, ooodnctcd the KOTcmment without 
ncrcri) financial slnMs. The raformo that he ntado In tho mLlltarj and dvtl 
MrvloosuJIlccd to ualco the re^iptfi and expenae* mcoaurabl}' ourrespond. 
The averaKB anniiat ntTuniut from IW to IHT7 had bctn oiilf #16,000.000, 
owinjt to tb« inabllltj ol the ROTeramtnt lo colkct more, as well a« to tiM 
d«pr«aBed oondlUon ot the oountrj. But when Uie blunders and waatefni- 
nnaof IhcGoosalexadminlatration il^lHa-Ab, eomhlnMl with tbu rollraod 
KHbaidiM, had d«pl«t«d tb« t<«aaurj. the Hnanclal attnoxion erftatad the 
IcIiKiniicBt forwiiodlnfpt. Pivaldcnt DU<, who bad bocn [«-elect«d In ISH, 
met the cmcrtiVQcr with bis cnttomarj resolution. With tlio full con- 
curT«nc« of ContcrpsB be uinaolidatul tho public debt and effected an a^ree- 
menlwiUi Lbo DrlclHh hondholdcrK whereby the paxmcntot intcreabwaa 
r««ainad on the ■ecurltlea h*Id bj Ibem, aoionntlnK to abtint •OO.ttUl.OOO. 
Tbu heroic act ot national baneatl' waa politic a« wall aajuitt. It placed 
MiMicoongood tcrmn with thaftnonelal world. Itopeiwd to liar, oapeciall}-, 
(h^exchanfiofl at London, I'ari*. and Itcrltn. It la lald that «v«n Prtnoa 
Ui»marolt lout Uio«aa«tioa of bis bound judsaxol to tbatljiaDtflal aid which 
theUonnan bookan gave Uoxioo. Mexican i-utciriisve nrr« oo lonftcr 
bouoed by Bucopewi flnaiidrrv, Forclitn capital waa luvwted (reetj la 
Mcxkan r-otnpanlra. Impoilant public improvomcnta of a prodnctlra 
character were lulliat«d. Tbe public credit improred ao roach tbot the 
tteaaurf waa abia Ut makn a oatinractcrj amngemenl for dunporor; loana 
witb the National Bank, a^ well as to effect abroad a loan whereby It paid 
off tbe railroad snlMldlea that formed a vexatious Itcn on the revenue froia 
Import dntioa. Tbia ilnancial r«vlpal wa» att«ad«d bjr tbn dciTctopment of 
tbaboolttnit aystem, wbkb has proridrd the couutr>' "Itb a sound paper 
eiUTvacy, redceinolitain ftilvcrcotnh; rlio baiikit Ibcmadwa. Prince Itar- 
bida anma that I*r«aldeol Utaa bae " burdened Uexlco with adobtol 



NOTES Aim coatMExm. 



138 



taOOtOOfVXn.' in tbe llgbt ortlM fan«oing tvttt tb* value of tbat delntlve 
Btatanwit ma; fw Mtiowtw]. 

ntM flBkDcisJ Kfarma, of coarw, rendered It impentJTS to IncrNM«> tho 
pnblle r»v«iui0. TbU •raNKti&rdtittiii tjuk, nwing to tb« oompAra live par- 
wif of th« people, »n<l to tbe Btubboni r««lBl«uoe wblcb wo«ltiir IsadoTrn- 
erahkTvoOTcred to all tonoaof direct l«z»(lan. Itwea dfOcuti. aIm> tode> 
tire more rc^'cuuc (toci the cvatonu without crippling the (orelgn trade or 
retarrilnjt lailir rerorma, d«aigDcd to promoto home Indnattr without Im- 
palrlo£ (b« protM-tlr.n nli:ch IE n-ceired. The Uexitrau Goveroniint. 
■wilted bra patriotic ConftivBs.proired equal to the einerg«ne J. In tbe year 
18]S-70thepubli(i revonno wAo $n,iiU,lS> (tilrnri, whoroof flA,tnt,077 wan 
d«rt««d(romcu<itAin*, and 97,310,448 froiu iutoraal taxation. HIkIiI jvara 
bier, to IS8B-S7, Iho rvvenuc was 93S.UBvO()0, wliL-rcof ca»totn* yiolded 917,- 
fln,«)0. and Intcnial lAxnllDO tl^SSB^OOa Thus did Mexico bnvclj under- 
take to meet ber public eogaitenieBU. By theeierdiwof rii[[doconomj- tbe 
tr»asnJ7 itefrajred ttw KOTemmrnt wtpoDiwa and paid ths Intereet on tbe 
poMlcdebt, with a warn mncb Una than tbe public expendltores oT tbeeltjr 
of New York, which wer«.iQ IfflS. «3S,3V.ae.S in ROldrafn. 

Them lit no wamint (or ibn amiiinptlon whirh Prinre IturWde makes ao 
glibly that President DUs hsN«n(abllKbed a dktator<h<p. HU retlraoent 
fromofflc^at 11k cto*e of hi» lliBt t«na will utlbr]- moot poople tluU Ua 
heart waa not Mit oo ortiUrary power. He reapeddrigtdlj the national eon- 
atllullon. rte ban not encroached on tbe antboritj of CWigreae cor nn ibc 
ladepeadenoo of the JmlleiarT- Hia cabinet mlnlaMn bare inrluded 
stateaoico of hlith character, Boeh aa Botnero, Uarlaeat. Komero Kubio, 
and lAnanUxir. Such men eouki not be partlra to a diriatomlilji. 
They belong by tralelDg and repuratlon u> a different aebool. Thai Prml 
dent Diaa U now aervlng a foorth term tu no waj implka danRor to the 
repobUcan lo'tltutloDB of hl4 conntrr. Under like cirx:uni«taace« Wa«h- 
[aaton or Llocolu ml«ht have dcrmcd It a patriotic duty (o rciuako In office. 

Thefieaerat iilabllity of Mexico la wecuro. The dincorr-rj of coalflrldi 
Id tbe north, the btowIIi of t-t>r ore l/nflic wlib the Unlt4-d Slat's, the e^ttah 
llahmenLolextenalre reduclion workeat San Lnla Potoai, the application 
at Ancfleaoinnthods and capital to mlalntc tbe Inereaae In Lho prfxlnntlon 
otnffV.flOfb^and tobaixo~all theao. com Mned with the ateadj-ac^rnmD- 
latlOB of wealth. Impart iitren(rth to the eammoB'wealth and Inspire oob- 
flde^ea [b lla advancemont. The dcclioo In the vaJim of allvrr, of eourM, 
oanaceaooie concent at the national treunry and aniong forelicn tradera, 
hat It do>« nut alTcct "O lerlounljr the laricc rolnniv of domiMl-lo conanicrce 
which h carried on nith llltte rcRanl to l-hc fluctatlona la tbe price of the 
while metah The prospects o( tbe country are alao reodenxl brlffhter by 
tbe uodoutxed capaHLf of Ita aoll to rolM the •URar.eolfea. rrulw. and other 
tropical prodnrta for which thin country dl»faur«eH over $100,00(1,000 anou- 
atlr. Nor can tbe time be remote, when In thia " Irrloatlon age,' It will be 
found ihat th«axhaB«tIfte>aoppUM of water b«n»ath the Mexican aoll are 
really aBveateraovrce o( wealth than h«rinlnn of icold and illrer, which 
jUMea orer9»,000,inOyOOO tn the period from ISSJ lo IfiflD. 

The Bctaal Afcnrae render more etrikloK tJie foreKolngdctallH concerning 
th« xeiivral iloTeloitment of Mexico. In the jc&r Id^fiO tbe rcrcmtn wan 
9:tL?!4.TSl; till' exprodllun^k. 9TIi.aS8,3iaL In tbe carreni dscal xear, which 
will end .Fune m, IHB. the mvenue I* i-xtltnitMl at fri-I.OTI.OS^ while ibeex- 
paodltare la not espeeied tn exoeed ^U.OH.XJL Tbe total debt. JnnaJa, 



TBK NORTB AMERICAN RBVIEW. 

IMS, wu $ni.4l0,510, iBMt of whicti wAa Incurred looir btton GaaemJ DIu 
c&mc lnu> power. In IflBSMnxico had fliWOcnllnit at rnilWAy, thr getna <uirD- 
inita beinc 9£3,iXI0.QCXI. Tbe capltAl liiv«stcd tip to 1^1 Ln tbeM mliroactA by 
BnRlUli coraiMtniu WM £14,601,3^ ntcrllan, aod bjr AaMrkfta compaaiea 
taM,ia(l.fll9(Pniwd6iateacolni. TheregifttendcapiuloteompuileaforTnml 
la London <nUlwkr, luniL »nd minlDgt fnr oprratilon* wholly or In put in 
Mexico Mnonntcd In bbaywralSHV-SitCotbe larfie »um of £53:111.827 Bterlloft. 
Tbe oobiBfln o[ tbe UexlMn mlnUi (or lb« wn joara— 1883 -8310 IWl-tt—waa 
$3B(^WS,anK, All uinnal Avcraga of nmrly 93).i)0O.0i]0. Thin cofraiiA wa« mcMtlr 
Alivnr. The nrsi^ure^s of the tljr«« baiikH alroady nmmiHl ntDuunlcd Ib VXB U> 
$S1J3M,U7l, The foreitcu cotnmcrcc rtcw with tba otiitcntl growth o( Um 
cQuntrj, t ho Import* for tho year 18BD-PD liarlDK bMO 9S3,Ol8.fltlO; Lhe exporta 
iai,ii»,3^. The bulk of Uiitt ira<le wu with the United StAtnn, the new 
r«ilro*(lNh(ivlnittiirnrd thr unnmprclAl current stronKly in thtsdirpctlon. 
In 1873 th« imports were oolT 92lSOOaOQO; tb« exports oiilf S25.3(«.aao. 

Waltkr Ueadb O'DvmcB. 



THE DANGKBS OF VACCINATION. 

A NBV llAUrsBlltK tarmer took »b orphan hoj to brInK ap ; thabor 
told the nelsbbors tbnt be wu renulftrlr whipped without bi-iii}; accused of 
HroDKdolns. Oneof them tnxlc canCiouM inqiilrlr*. Tho old lumor said : 
" Jobn Is M KooA « Imy n* I «vcr iww." "But bepiMjsrou wblphlm. U 
that •of " Tea.- said the old man, " I whip bim for few he will be ngly." 

ThUK. for (ear WI1 may K"t ti!ck If i>Tpaii!d to th« conUglnn at xmall- 
pox, tho old and the ynun^t- I'^c woak and tho stronj;, tboe« who never take 
ADf (UnoAto and thosi; of impure life and blood — all arc eomp«li«d to b« madft 
■Ick. CompclUoK R«ti«ral vaccioaMon ba«aa«a a fow caao« of smallpox 
bare occurrad In anycammunltr Is a^ absurd a^ pnalabing children for 
fear they will do wrooK* If this motliod of tircrenllon In m> a4iooe>Mfal. 
wb) uoL ini)]>ow«r thu phyxIdanH Lo 1>U^-<1 and pbjralc tba rocnmualt; aprlnn 
and fall to ward oft other dlieaset I This custom waa oertalDly In vofiue In 
Jenner'a time. But let us inqnlre : la Tacclnallona iiraiurtjuut Donalt 
laallj modify Binallpox. or la thfl dl««uMe natuntlljr mildvr (n Domo ra«m than 
Id others, as la llieca^e In other coaCagioas diaaaaaef To w tut extant doea 
It aid In <mpi»rviiaiiif; the divca"of 

Is it our sole reliance lu aUmplojc oat sniaUpoxt or are sanltai; 
mean urea an potent In tJiUaa In other diaraaca tending to iMcomu epidemic t 
llaathe ettac protcm of this ccntnry Id medlral sdenco and aanltary 
knaHl«dK« nolnttnenca in controliine and modftyioK "a reinital la not 
vaociaatioQ credlt4!d witb all thiMalnHoRnCRa in making up atatfaUkM I iiarm 
an array of alaUfltlm pro and con nettle so vital a questlonl Daring our 
elril war the writer had change of an lD«lo4iiftt wb«>r« tbere were l.SOO men 
and the amallpox among them; «vrry peraan within the tnclontire who 
eonld be penuadt-d t» »ubmil to Ute operothni waa Tacdaatcd. aud a cara- 
fnl record wa<i kept of cacb caae; many of tboae Taectnat«d. whrrv all tfae 
rrgnlrcmcnta o( "Jrnncr" went fulfilled, bad the oonfloeDt smallpox, 
while sereral. wbo had uerer lM«n rarclnated. had the llichteat fctndof 
acvcxiled rariolold. TbOu{t1i edncaii^t tn IkIIvvq In i-acetnation. the niaa 
months' axpertencti eunod ne (o doiibt iti efhrary, and «nbHH(aeat la<rastl' 
gaUon and peraonal expsMonce have produeed a well-graonded belief that 



NOTES AND COMMENTS. 



1S6 



vacdnation U the but pcrrcctnd KBd moHt danxcroos buuibug th« trorltt 
■varaaw, 

Vaocluation origlaatwl la tbo Ul«a tbat klaapox beara tbe samo relatloB 
to tba animal that suiallpox doos to raati, thooicli tho (Minvr only allboU 
Uia tamalo, irfaUa tbc Ultvr U iiu respecter of vtx. Aa kluupox never altovr* 
lUoU upon lbs male anlual. the dlacass la nob taken Into th« ajatoin by tiks 
(owl or drink ot cbo oonr, cIm U wottid alBeM mate and (cmale alike. Dr. 
Jaanar Uaoed Ibe diaeaae in tho tow to tbe bands of mllkmcu. who 
m i k ed Uia ooira aftw workloft over borraa tliat had Lnu Kreane or 
aoaCRbn, but the record does not ahow wbeth«r It waa th« diseased boraaa 
or tb« mnedkei iu«<t to ears the ncratcbM that caoMtd tbn kicepox 

Klnopox la •xtT«inol]r rare cow, for ovf'rj'bodj known «nouii[h to vraab 
Ua baod* aft«r haodllug diiMuwd animAlts. Had Dr- Jeaner's mlUcoMa 
known tlie Importaaoo ot waabLng tbtlr haada bafocc nUlklns the cowa. 
what an Imowaw amoooc ol aoObrlng tbelr koovrlcdjiQ would bavo aarod 
thr huinai) family, la It aorptitlDB Qpdcrnnch circumalancca that It waa 
dllDeall to RVt the proper Tlraal Then, aa now, It Is only known bj ICa 
molta. II vaodnatad and ytni eacape bar Ids small pox, "tfa«v[nuwaa 
Ipwd, ' It you kad tba diMaau lightly, " tb« vlrtiJi waa good." II you had 
HBtallpox aftvr rt«enl vaoctnatioo, "tba vira* was not Kood." IfnoCvao- 
elnat«d rccetttly, "it h^ run ouu" U yon BuDor uniuuallyafCar vaoaina- 
Uon, you iuit-o Ika aatietactloa ot knowing It muaC baTo been "impura 
TtntSi" It smaUpox b(te«Jn« apldcmlc. "It was for want of Roooral vac- 
doaUoa or tlie lue of poor vinta." If It dccrvajied. " It waa the r«ault ot 
lacdnatlon." 'Ibe doubt aa to B«tl log ths proper rirun haa rtatlj been tbe 
atrona**l akflivotin malntalulnic Jt-nuer'asyBtemof TaccloatlOD, torlttor 
■labed an cvurrcady oxpintiativii of all it* talluna aa well aa apparent aae- 
cam. Wc havQ shown that tho wholo system waa bom of Ignoraneo. doabl, 
and aDC«rtalDtj, knd we pf opooc to show that it is contiuuod without any 
poaitire knowlcdKc »■ to what ft* rc4«lca will be; tbat it b opposed to n»- 
SOB and coninNQ-Muaa and uuMipparted by medical acJoncaor by^enit; 
tbat ihooe wbooagbt to direct public opinion on tbesobjecl haruadfrontf 
InoBntlre tofarorltscontioaanoe; that no (air estUnataof tba 111 results of 
TMClnatlon can be niada so long aa— tor obvlooa reaaooa— they ara aop- 
pneaed by Uioae but qualltled to apeak u I tlMtu; tbat wtiat pbjMlnans 
iiUMa aboat vaod nation la but "a dropin tbe buekvt " in t.'oiupaniton to 
what tb«7 do not know. No on* knows u^h«ttier the rirus is ffood or bad. 
except by Its resulta. Noon« knowa whetber tb« i-iroa will b« taken Into 
the ftystcm or Uirown oS, and It abaortwd bo one La wise aaoogb to for«tvll 
what Ita rcaulla will be. bsoauaa no ooe knova aoytUue ot tlio ladliidaaJ's 
■Moepttbtlllj topolaonor conUKion. 

No man b wtae enon«b to dtriue tbe r»siili ot ptitUnR any anltnml pobwn 
Into Ibo •yatein of anybody hy Tai^ainatlou : It may he harmless, or It may 
be llkea aparkto tliemagaxlna, M-ttiiig In inotlonnnaeenordoniiantforcaa 
which ahall Injarc health or result la death. 

To Ulostrate: A wonum. wbo bad not had oocaalon to call a physi- 
cian for mora than twenty ycara. was compelled to bs Taodnabvd. Uer aru 
btcame fearfully twoUen.tbedlMaaeextended.a&dabedled after six weeks 
oUnicnsneatledn^. Tho pbyni clan vaoelnaiwl others the aama day witb tbe 
aaaae rima, and halt ol them cspcrienocd tba usual rasnite ; in tbe rcat It 
dM not take. Noonsoaoldeay she would bsvebad cbeaniallpox II expoaed, 
•be pntorred to take the ilak, aua ahould bare bean alkiwed to die ft 



138 



THE NORTH AMEBIOAN REVIEW. 



BAttml dsatb. ln>U«&d of miR^rlnR h; law t«afold mora than the THMt 
orimlna). Snoti (b th(> modifying lnflucnc« of age. conMJRitlon, and bmhlt« 
of lir« that no phjaielan will admit tbat h« treat* all bit l>ati«ii(a a]lk«. 
tfao«j;U Uw.v b««w Uio «a(u« d[»t*-« : r«t pMpl« are Tacc[aat«d ladlscriml- 
lutcly, made aick Iwt tbcj afaotild baro a iHaeano that no pcnwa on oarth 
la wise Bno«i|[h to naj tlicjr would baTc, oven II cspoMd. Pbjskiana will 
aeknowledoetliat wbattbejr doMof A-notr about the Indlr (dual need of rac- 
«lnatlonandIUmodtMO})eniiw/( Kmatly rxceetlii lbeJr|i*wi/ifir Icnowhdiic^ 
and tlia ruuon liM Id the fart that llio vrhole system Ual vartanoe with tba 
tuIm thatgnrarn them l.i the control of other dlaoaaes of eontoAloiK ehnr- 
aet«r. Instead of nialdag p«oplo »Ulc at tta« approach of othor f ortn* of con- 
laftion, thcT eoJolB the most earelul UrlogaiLdnvotdaQDe of uvuj thing that 
tcnda to mako people IIL 

Ourkuowt«dxeof ottaermeanaof pTereDtlnjt and modlfj-inK smalliMX 
baa aaolhl baaiH of coinnion aeuac. wvtl nuHtained by acteriee and rxiwri- 
ence. aod equiUly adaptwl to all fornu of coDtaniooa dUetaaes: which, 
tbovgb vlsorouslj' applied, and elTecUvely. the reaalta are all errdkod to 
vaoeinatlon. All diaeaaaa reaulUng from conlaiitoa aud llublu to liworna 
frpld«mlc h«v« a period ot Incabatian, dovtlopmnut, and diKlin«, while 
oaeb follows Ita own law, the infeotiau of measles nevor prodorlng any 
dlaaaao but mcaslea, and bo of each form, and the vaHattoa a* to tnildnna 
or aererltjr Is due to Ita onrlraiimeui. CoQU«lon la like a plant iu that It 
miut find aaoll aolLed to Its jcrowth. or U Uof no elTrct— harmltm; heoca 
Itia that one ponon In a family mny have «miillp<>x and all the mt ewapa. 
aaln theCoUawlnfcinsunce. Tbe writer fontu) a reCarned wldler In tlte 
Mcend utage of amatlpox. turaoanded by pareota and a larga family o( 
eblldren, who hitd nwor boen raortnated. The aoldlcr waa mnt to Che peat- 
houae, th« fatnllj out of doort and vaocioal^d, while the houiM waa tbor- 
onghly ftiailitatcd ; reniilt. no one had tbe smallpox, nor did the vaccination 
lake In any caae. Ol those In wbom the coatotflon doca Bud a tDclKcaenti 
the raolUng dlseaao ta more or Ica^ aerero^ aocordiUK to the Keoeral bealth 
and condition of iJin tndlvldual. 

The fundameuta! fa(:t«, upon whlcb all aatborltlBsmti«e.experliinoe cor 
roboratlag them, are that caiefut IItIob and Kood health do not out; want 
ofT contaeioaa disoaae but icreally modify It ; tbat lb« WTerliyof <!oot«RlmtK 
dlsMwe depends upon the condition o( (bo blood. It (Bn«t tharetere logic- 
ally follow that initad health, orapnreeondltionof the blood, will protect 
(lom aad modify Htnallpos 1b tba fam« ntloaaltdoo In ntcKvloe, searlet 
(erer, or other forme of oontaa:IODa dlaeaaa. If aach la the caao— and who 
will deny itt— there are no clalmi made for faeeloatloa that thia well- 
eatabllabod principle does not fully explain and aoconnt for; they are almply 
tha naolt ol w«(l known and eslabllshed prlndplea. eqally applicable to 
all forraa of dlaeaae. 

Can It be tbat He " whn apake a* never man apakn" did not aotlelpare 
Che wisdom ol " JeonW and hu (ollowers when hoaald, " Thpy that a»« 
whole hare nonc«d ol thn physktan"! Ilocoriityi ntnc withoot Ijtiiiiroillcd. 
witb lancet and lympb, to make the healthy lataot and the octOKonarlaa 
aletc. 

la It not better to destroy eontanioii by the nae of disinfectants than to 
try lo control It and ntodifr ll« reauiu by pollnUng the ** crimnon atroam of 
Ufa" wlib an animal polaon of doubtful arl|[lD. the coase<|Denoea of wblob 
DO penOB can foretall t 



NOTES AND COUJIKXTa. 



WT 



Ukfl nitrf other nvll IImI InfMta •ocl»tr< vacciiiiAllon ttM ito pooiuiUr; 
. Inoentlvr*. Bvurjr smallpux te*n In our IftrKvcititMcbMigcNSpfrardB ol 
I $W(XaOO frontbo oitlKo^' pockoto to thow of thu phjr&lclaiM. which, it Is 
li*Um) to NappOM. lucliuea Uieui to luiloraA *' the jmpular whlrD." and 
aiftkea It to dlfllciill to net *n unbiawMl rvoord of lh«dlsa«trouBCoaw- 
qB«a«Mof TseclnMloiL. Howott^n hu the wilt«r heard phydeUM aajr, 
*■ 1 do Bot bellara in Jeimer'it BfnUm at VAcdiuuiOD, bat mm Jong u P*<>pl« 
■to, aitd want to be Tacdnal^d, 1 »Iia1I (cralllr th«m ' I 

Wc bclicro tliOM' ({uvU-d repraicat sg lance a claw thai, werepb jakUoa 

, mpdnd to [wrfonB the aarTicc jTatdltOOslj-, the ajrrt«tn noald not bo oon- 

' tinoad a dooule. To compel old and TOang. the fluofw and (h« weak. ih« 

hvaJlby and lliutw eafaeblcd bjr dincaiw, to snbcalt to vaccina Uon, nn<lpr 

cil«tlnsclr(-niniitatic«ii.l«c«ttaln)r a datijferoui cxpadloot, oot HBrrant«d 

bj reaaoB or our knowledge o( Ita rviults. 

WtUJAH B. UtDlIKM.M.IX 



IS COUNTRY LIFE LONELY t 

It la often Bolltvr. ratlrod. to a vertaln dcfp«e : hut doas* ■adndeJ lite In 
the rouoLry nteonmtilj breed a Eeellugol loueaomeoess. Irfcaotne diMOQbaab, 
and a bo un alc k uoat for Uie clt j t ThU la a quMtion tlmt muat Intoreat any 
who 00at«m[tiat« a ehaaii« fium dtjto conntnr. Oim will aay th« aoawer 
dep«ada on Iba penoo who makfii that eh>»g«, aod the answer haa nmcli 
truth. Another will aay that It depend* on the location of thKCoimtry 
bom*, atid that, too, bu an Important beariuff. A house «ltuat«d In a low, 
narrow voUcjr, with uo otbvr habltattun In slj^t. surrounded bjr wood* 
and Bwainpa, will) scarae alovalrot^cct la tPcw, would indeed be lonclf. tl 
oojcbl'to belaoelj. aiidltoughft to breed aucb dlitcomvuc aa to diiw th« 
ownar to Mwk a tuora cli«erfnl location. 1 will add u> tbrw two Important 
ana went thin third o.'w : That one'* lonesooient^n In Ibe country ilepvnila 
largely upoB nne'e will, oiw'e attitude toward the eouutry. If yon Ix^jln 
oouatry life feeling that jou are a foreigner to IC, and never int«ad to be 
aalnrallMd, then you doota voanell to dUllke It. Nature will never adopt 
yoa Intober larittrlibcrtiea unlcw you will be adopted, and tlio eby dcnf- 
lena of tnuh and brake will never (pvei you ai afcllow-clcUcn. But If 
yon drop this alkn aplrlt and r«eolre to cnoqurr the country IKc by openly 
•nmndcriag toltacfaarma, bbanyon will win a ipiuifyliiit aacveai. 

A yooiMt coopte bind a pntty farm oottage oimt the wrlt«r laat year. 
Tbey were people ol the unguine aorU Thuy took a Uiree-yeam loaae of it, 
with tbe Intent ofbaylnti. The man wiu QOtvrlthout cont^u Hethongtab 
b« iRMwall ahont the country, all about (arm tog. He asked ooadrloeaad 
look none, ilc hired a man at high vriigca to ron the farm. Tbe home waa 
newly painted and tbo rooms were dccorat«vl, mi ae to resemble a san-ly 
ally apanoient-boiiM. Tbe nuui bad to be In Ibe citjr long bonn every day 
bnb Saaday. He gave orders bo hi* tanner, nod tbe farmer tried hhi 
baet to carry tbeoi oat, Tba newcomer** Idna of faimlnii were tear- 
fully and woadt-rfully made. Of courae the young hiuband waa a loving 
■POQU, and the pair bad no end at pretty llule names that they called eaeb 
otbar before UiaeooBiry (oik. Otherwlee they wonld never have etayed tbe 
■awmer thrf>ngb, Bot long before >utamo the young amateur tanner bad 
qaamkd wlib lil« hired maa, and both bad to consult lawyers Anolbor 



128 



TOE HORTB AMERICAN RSVIEW. 



fln»qiULrf«l began with the Undlnrtt. Thayoang wtf*— «b«wM t«cr reanp; 
will) & yoang cblld— got uaiiUvnUily hoiueatck. Early In th« (mJI tbtf 
oompramiaed Uis 1mw«, ucriOccd tbau' new tools and implemcDta. &Imu> 
doii«d (ralta and eiom luid the itlorioiu air and tlaUtd learoft ol autumn, and 
fledt>aicku>a"Qiecllul« flab In Lbecitj." 

DMUiCjUketbflGOtinUjr t No, If ooam&jrJadmfnimthelr nportain th« 
ellTl "It was Cbo moat laDMome place. aud uverj-tlifng waa ao d LtntcrMAbloI" 
Did Uiej kooiv how to aniay the coiiotrjl Tliac U Ilia mom purUnont 
quMtioQ. Rfcabad tbey, liut thttjaawnot. Tbeyncvvr vcre Mwm towalk 
through AToodn or flelds. "niej Quvcr called «ii a tivlsfabar. They wem no 
"lDBWoBi«"ttiatti)Biratajrcditi tfaatllulc.noni; decorated room »• Lilt bad 
bMo tbeir prison, or lodwd A Hat on a twelfth Htmr. Tticy cultivated uo 
plant or flower with tliclr owu baDds.nor porsunally carrd furtuij aijEiualii, 
peU) or poultry. They did Kodrlrinjt m a atlft, aedate faahton. wlcb a boy 
driver. TennlH, rowiii^. Iltblnft. sHlnimlug, cnxjuet, akeccbtns. bounlnlDK. 
bateball, cricket. Uwn parliea t No, they veerv uot for Uiuiu I They were 
too *' luuMioina.'' StrawrUefl by tbo light of the moon t Ttw Idea would 
hare given them a ahoek. 

Ofcounathcnc people doecrred their («t«. Bat then anmaBjaeaalble, 
nUttvated, opcuairttort of pooplc vrbvvrUl (nt Iobmobw Mlid bouMaiokon 
thflarerag«cotuilrr fanii, foriaatODOC. It latrue. Let na ooofhM. wa hare 
l><:cD loDctlj ouRulrcfl. Hut leCua not farKct that It may be • KO"^ thtuK to 
bo lonely Bonictluie^. To parapbnute an old proverb^ In lonellnen tharc la 
atreoRth. Tbelciae livu In the tmmd tree. rugged, storm-defianc '"TUa 
good thing aoinocimrs to t>e alone." nroie n, wiw pooU Tbero ar« tlinea 
when th« spirit lo man nrgti t« aecloalon. When a man l« lonely, the 
eternal Veridaa apeak to bim, a« they may not apeak In a erowd. 

A tnaa need not be aohappy bocaoao be U aoUtary. Ask tbo aptrit of 
llobiaaou Cnuoo — uumalcreatlau that outlives realiti««— It bo did not more 
Kreatly enjoy biK llfi! on the dcacrt laUnd than any cxpericnocH In tbo 
haanUofclrilUcd man. Brerj UtUe farm, or country oottaKc, or artlAt'» 
box In the wooda.mnybeaCniaoe'alalaud to any one with the adventurauM. 
apprectatlTeaplritot Jlefoe'ahero. We foJIow " LeathvnUMkUiK'' throUKb 
the foreat. and are charmed with bla intimacy witii nauiro, a roTarent 
(amiliarity (hat leada bint, atop by et«p. " through nature up to natnra'a 
Uod." Yftt an; en« may be cduAal«il bytbetorcat U be go«a th*i«,aBt» 
another uoircnltj-, latcodliw to loam. Wo aro not to Imitate " llawkeyet' 
nor Imitate auytbiujf. but to linton, and to mkome the awful lonellneae at 
the frooda until w« get a niewiaee from It, remembering that o(t«a the 
lonely IItw faaTc been the icreat llvos, and that the true lover apoaks only 
wbeo there la uq ibirtl pariy preauut. There le a plant In tbe hotbed or 
gvaanhouae. It la erowdod, (trowing tall. Indeed, but aplndltng. If yen 
laave It tbeie It maypoeslbly bloeBom, tmt will bear little If auy frutt. 
Transplant It to a fre«, broad Bpaeo in the open air; ab.itwiltul It la 
"lonely." The ran fttnk«« itdowo, and atormn b<>«t it into the duitt. Uut 
enrc for It, watch It, and noou It beeina a broad, ntnrdy Krowth, bloaaoma, 
buit*, and beoomea what lb ncTer would bare been In the hoihrd. 

C. D. CrakoalI. 




BICYCLE 



•ddn (a the [ricann o( CTclinB 
Vo'i ImI •*eiiit — on if>is< yoot 
life. DOC tuiic or tea trom hotmt. 

"6. & J. PNEUMATIC" 

tiiKMni Awmr atVlihiui ram) 
•tinplnl aod Niint aiado—bM 
ti««ii ilinow uniitrullv adapuu 
—ia kuown •)! oi«( (he noild. 

Rambler Bicycles 

kH Imx Ihctn. but tl T^A inittt 

■»! JtifM ■10 rHfiritb Uien 

Ml font Uv»rtt4 HhMl. 

•■I MfMiiHOM o« lb turUea" 

pteveai duwetiiu* ixJe •llpplof. 



LIB •( RMM*ra Md -«. dr 1. Tim MARUAt," 
Ikw M BtfUrii acciniiB— bif uil (oi 

tOVXcMWUi*. 



•OMtuuv * jimnT Nra. co. 



4 






MA 

Syri 



KNOWLEDGE 

brings com for I and improiixmcni. aiwl 
tends Id personal cnjoymcnl. when 
righltyused. Th« many, wholiwbcl- 
ter ihan others and cii}oy life niore. 
wii(ii«"icxiicmliiurc. by more prom pi- 
ty iiiU)iimi£ tlic world's best products 
10 Ihc needs of physical being, will at- 
test the value to hr;iltK a( the pure 
liquid laiath'c principles embraced i\ 
the rcmctty 

lis cJiccllcnce i» due tv its prc.-^ntinK< ^M 

in the Ibrm most ucceptabic and (jIcas- ^M 

ant to the ta.stc. the refreshing and 

truly beneficial prupcitics of a perfect 

hivuiic. cQcciuiiUy ckftatiiig the sy*- 

trm. di^pellinE CoMS. HeadacbcB umI 

Tcveis, And permanently curing Con- 

itipalion. It has xi^en Mli.tfdClion to 

millions, and met M-iih the uppraval 

of the mcdicnl prnfcMion, because it 

acUon the Kidneys. Liver and Dowcb, 

.fcrily free from crcry objcctiunsblc lubsiann. S 

in bO cent and $1.00 boti!" I«ii ft is ma 

Kit; SVIirP C<). only.wh.; -Ifm 

ip of Figs; Jnil. tvtng *tII i, ■ ti"* 






■^ ^«/rfct Tf% ^^j-v 



.r-f. 




POWDER 

Abaclutely Pure. 

Cfcam of lartar baking powder, 
best of .'ill in icarenio); strength. 
atal United Stales Government Food 
Vrtu 

Royal Baking Powder Co., 

too W«U St., V. T. 



ecchan^ Pills are for biliousaess, 
headadie, bilious headache, dizzi- 
, dyspepsia, bad taste in the mouth, 
rtbara, torpid liver, foul breath. 
ow skin, coated tongue, .pimples, 
of appetite when caused b/ con- 
ation — and constipation is the most 
u«nt cause of all t.{ them, 
DC of the most Jmpoitaiit things fot 
rybody to learn is that constipation 
5 more than half the sickoesa in 
world, especially in women ; and it 
alt be prevented. Go by the boOk. 
tlte 10 D. F. Alleo Company, 365 
al Street, New York, (or a Utile 
c on Co.ssTiPATioK (ttscauseit, con- 
ence», and correction), sent ftcc 
bg are not within reach of a drug- 
ibii pills will be sent by mail, >5 



Unlike ttie Diitch Process 

No Alkalies 

aiv iitrtl in liip 
pr«p*rialaii n' 

.BtoKo.'s 

Breakfast 
Cocoa, 

which iM attiuf 

I III ۥ Iff ftttf'' 

ami Holabtt . 

It has n^rv Miln ihrrr timet f A ' ' 
of Coma mi3i''l villi Sutcb, Ar 
Suimr, juiil i* far untft.* pi'(io>i|iu ■ 1 , •...>.rv 
ItM than on* rrHl a riffi. It i> •IrlklotWi 
DcKinxliinit. mil Kitiif iii(ii.m,i>. 

Sold by Crocera ev«r)rwhar«. 

W. BAKER & GOTdORCHESTER, MASS. 








'•.) 



FOK THE LAtJMBKT. 



'RIKE! 



•MakUtilli l-f-ar. 



iii-* l«r«JL#^"" **uiii«>itl>-«iiiffT»iniar «C'Liir^ 



V«l. lift) »«, », 



THE 



XORTII AMERICAN 
UEyiEW. 



KttiTKO nr LLtiro anurtc. 
August, 1894. 

THE RESOURCES AND DEVELOPMENT OF THE 

SOUTH. 

n.r tb«* Hon. ItOk'F SM lTII,Sf>crptiir> oftho Interior 119 

': UniteJ Sut«s , . . Chari.cs H. Ci.\ur 157 

;ica . . The Arokntink Mtmistrr 150 

, . . Sknator William V, At-utM 15*; 

My Cnaiemporarics Jm-KS CtkOSTiE 165 

THE LESSON OF THE RECENT STRIKES. 



L Br OBK. KXLSON A. K1LX9, tr. •. A. 



|8« 



II.»ri>^' HOV ■"">RHAJtPTOW, , . . - 

/ i:/i«intti.iion4e nf Baiiraad*. 
III-BrBAItk. -■ „-blNBON, 155 

IV. Bjr SAKtTXL a^HPGBS, . . , . _ 301 

Prttldtnt itfthe Atneriatn FtdrrttHirA itf Labor, 

rnyiUli W'_'!i.mr(i ami llirli Pri'llitnl rrnmls, 

I hi: Ki^ra il.»(i. Si J :i-* E. GORST, M. P. 9Q^ 

'. Gunaoc pA».Mi»jfi I.ATHRor 3i8 

I <>■_ Liu<i-i_ u: cvcpresentalivat antl ibe Hou>« of Commons, 

The Hnn HAVNtt 'r*v!,oil, 32$ 

Summrr A^ivtors . . . ' nh.v J35 

IN DEFENCE OF HARRIET SHELLEY.-ll. 

By MAItK TWAIN . . 340 

NdllC* ASD IW.MMKSTS. 

A r.-i-i^ fr.r Tfff Iinji.n.i Tttc MaRi^UIR nr I^BNE 351 

Katb Gankkti' Wklu ij4 
1 :>C i^U: i'cc^lJcilt C^^.^i-.L . , GtM. RVSa C HAffttlMS 3$$ 

.\K\V yaUK : 
\r., T r.NS'r r'M'];!'(:i:.viii sTitKrrr 




Da yoa litie Maiutolin Mutk ^ 

1 1~ Ea, you will 1m> ctiinrusl M lih Ifc* 

Plectra=phone. 

Thin U ■ ni-wlv |Milontrd jiiwhnwM ttrr 
ilir pr.ino. imvluri'iij ill ilir ilrtiiihlfi-l 
rlTrci«o(a tnanJuIin. Itcjtnbi-attaclicd 
only 1u 

Tfter 



We are prwp3re<t lo cicAjinKe Kvercll 
Pi.iiXHiotitaiTiiog OiiK and olhcr valu- 
iibic puicnti on piano) of olhcr makct 
For pjrliculari itlJii^n 

Th« John Church Company, 
CliKhuiMt. Chkas«. 

'ni>nicirm-pbai>a(«nbaMlikil la>lvOMt(M 
SvtrvU ^*44. 



A^'%'%^%%^'%'%' 




BEST LINE 

TO 

ST PAUL 

MINNEAPOLIS 



IRON AND STEEL WIRE 

FO R ALL PURPOS ES. 
EODKD DRAWS RODS OF IROX AMD STEEL, STEEL WIRE BALE TIES. 



WIRE R0?E 



Of All Sizes "iKJ OcEicriplions for Hol»tlnff. RiKGflna* Clcvators. Ctc*« Etc.. Cic* 

PATENT LOCKED WIRE ROPES. 




Amkko TiiK Ai'Vaxiim:* nr TitXiX Koi'Es Ah« ; nut-H «Rft.tTKa Dim .tniLITr 

tllAri rO|iDa<l(IIi4>ixilln<r; ninkit. l:it>«iu«iri> ha* 'linvn Itint miilrir nlmilar nxclillnnB a )„>rk-il 
Wlrr lIopE iTili -' i ri- 'r. , ■ i— ■ - (f r-r "-:•-■ -I" t~T.- \-, nn onlluarr wlro ro|w "' '^r 

■iidor Ilka nil.' ><ii->iiM ^[ in v. i:. . i .<Iu«ii«tl>n mur.no* vnt' ''. 

bni or tliv drill: I ; i . II um, TtwUiMrlorlixiu ■ . ■■■< 

"■ «m!rHBMl!lK " III i-ii>.i".li- Jiulilll:^!.- l^pDJi 111 » «lrt" bmaklDir '•'• filHH OBll.i ;.t-i>iri .. l.t..«K 

\V*<lii;iM \!tu siZKUwnropoioCUiaoMKrl' of oontavMiJma ttnniltUi NO TWIHT IN 
Wiilthi^a. 

THE TKKNTOM IRON COMPANY,^ 

Worka and orflce at TRENTON. NEW JEH3Ey. 



NORTH AMERICAN REVIEW. 

No. CCCCLIII. 



AUGUST^ 1894. 



TUE RESOURCES AND DEVELOPMKNT OF THE 

SOUTH. 

BY niB no!r. jiokb smitb, SEciterrARY of thb ihtsbiob. 



Iryrm wUb to iaterMt tSio penjileof the South to-day, talk to 
thefa of Uie reeourccs And doTtilopmeiit of their Mctioii. Once 
Ihoy onjoj'wl moro the eloquent words of the politicnl orator, but 
now tbo plain biiiiness prcMntation of quMtious coauocted vith 
nutterial growth Sndii tho most utContivo lii!toiiora. 

The Rinnnor in which the Sotilhei'n Stutes have stood tho 
flnanoiat Iriala of the past eighteen mouths hiia directed to (hem 
general att«utioa. It has caus«d Cftroful oouaiderotion of tho cou- 
dilioni of (ho acction, both hy tho pra^ ami hy invogtont. What 
progress will tho South make In the near future upon the lines of 
matrrinl growth ? This qiicatiun is ouo which iotoreats oil 
portions of the ITuioo. Careful inrcstigiUion will oauso the 
Atuiwer to be most oacouraging to thoeo now atrood; dwelling in 
that seotion, and moat adrantogeoua to people outside of it. 

To properly nndentlaod the poaaibllitioa of the South, its imat, 
as well iw ita present, mnst bo considered. Nature has favored 
it with a climate pleasant in wint«r, and uot oppreeetve in 
aummer ; with a fast expaiist} of territory suited to every variety 
of agricullural ptirsnit ; witti limitiou undevelopod veiiUh, 
irilh ample Irou, coal, and lumber, alongside of uotton-Bolds. 
It ia true tliat other seotlmia tiava outstripped it hcielofore ill 

vou oux.— so. 453. fl 



130 



THE yoRTiT AyrrnrcAJf rfview. 



tho ftoqnjroincnt of ve«Uli, but Lhi» hns hiHiD due to conditions 
no longer existing; and now for the finit time tlia whole resourceB 
of the South arc to aaaert themaelres, freed from any htmleriog 
influences. 

Gxperience hu tunght that the highest progreei onn only bo 
made when the individual strangUi of every citizen ia developed 
to itB greatest cupacity. Tim pnMluccra of wealth are the 
masBM of the people controlled by wiso, jndiuiona direction. 
Any system which takes from the laboring people hope and 
aspiration lo»dons proportionately tho creative power of the sec- 
tion where thfty dwell. 

The institntion of slavery divided the South into throe clasaea ; 
the wealthy ulavc-owner, citltirated, generouSi and brave, but. na 
amlc, with an income ample for his wants, devoting his time 
rather to the ornamental than to tho practical ; the poor wlijtog, 
competing with itlare labor, and with itcArcoIy any opportunity to 
improre theirconditioii ; the slaves them»(.-lvc:j, compelled to give 
to work every hour suited to labor, with no inducement to de- 
vise means for increasing resulu Trom the application of their 
energies What mattered it with them? riicreasod results 
woold not lewicn the hours of their labor or benefit tliem. 
They labored for what they ate and what they wore. They re- 
ceived that without regard to what they did. They could not in- 
crease it. Tliey were obliged to have it. The work they accom- 
plished was forced from them. 

Had it not been for tho institution of aUvery, checking white 
immigrntion and hindering development, the Sonth, with natural 
resonrcea in it^ favor in 1860, wool d have been the greatest maua- 
facturing and mining, as well as agricultural, section of the Union. 

In spite of this drawback it ia surprieing to see what had been 
accumpltshod in this seotion by 1860. At that time the value of 
tho farms of tho whole country wa9*8,0OO,638,00O, of which the 
farms of the Sonth were valued at t2, 300,000,000. they having 
iacreaawt from 1850 to 18G0 >l, 300,000,000. The agricultural 
product of the South did not consist of cotton atone, but was of 
infinite vaiioty. The following tAblo givee a few itoma from tho 
Census of 1860: 



YMid. In SouLb. 

Can „ aH.15S.0MbuabBto 

whBii ujui.<m - 

T«1vo Kidinal**U>aBl>l*r«l' fSi,i<T,Mn 



la nnalnte at tba oBaaltr, 

MSRJOObwIuls 



THE RESOURCES ASD DBVELOPilB.VT OF TBK SOOTB. 181 

Tfio tuUU uawssfd volun of property in the Utiiteil Slntes m 
lt»60 was • 13, 000, 000,000. Of thie tlio South hft(ll>>,2*>0,000,000. 
no«rl5 ono-hftlf. At tliii ttmo also thirty per cent, of the «ntiro 
batikiii;; ciipiUl of the couulry wus in the Sotilb. 

t*or four jCGirs the arniie« fought upon Sontliem 9oil. Th« 
fltrugglu wna doepentto ami tho d«etruclion of pvraoiutl property 
«)mo«t cAntpIelc. At the cIom of the war the South hwl lost 
niniiy iifhiT l)Oit moii. Hor Ubor, owing to the chango from 
•livory to freoilom, was entirely <[t>nioni1iKe(I. It hnd hean itc- 
customed to idloncM except whuru work was ruqnircN] by the onler 
of the owner. Fr«^ from euforcod Iiibor. tho first impulao of 
tho negroes was to follow uo oc«upatioD, but to enjoy the privilege 
of eutiro leisure. 

Aoothrr grieTouB bunlen fell npon thissoolion. The negro 
became at ouc« Iho tool of di'siKniug mon who moved •South, not 
for tbo purpose of Itmling homea, but to use tlio freedmnti hs n 
poliUcal tool in obtaining possossioo of thsofUcej, and to consume 
bj unjust taiatlonand by ofHcial thierery tho little which the war 
bad left. 

To ooutrol tho negroes it was neoeaeary to cl&im their aile- 
gionoe by reason of the great service rendered iit aelting them 
free. It wainoceauiry to fill theirmind^ with distrust and ImtreU 
of their former owners, to play upon their prcjudiecis and to blind 
them to their beet interettts. For a number o( years this con- 
dition existed. The nogroes were restlossof control and impatient 
at the thought of labor. Kven thoso who were unabto to read 
aspired tu polilicikl Icodvnihip. Uul in timu soniu of tho men 
who came South for politiciil control turned their attention to 
hii8iui«i, imd dcveiopt'd into good citisetis. The uegroee, also, 
began to reallie that tliey weresimply being used as tools, and 
distrasteU their white politiati lewlera. 

Tbo negro race hud lived for Mveral gooerationt in slavery. 
Dnring that time great conlidenoe, aa a rule, existed between the 
negro and Iiis nuuter. Many iuslanccs could be given of the 
strung affection felt by tlie one for the other. It itf no rvflecUoii 
upon the race thiit the circumstances under which thoy were 
frotd produood a temporary feeling of hostility on the part of tho 
nc^ro towards bis former master, but as the hold of tlie car|H!t' 
bagger twgau to leswn. Friclton rapidly coosod between the white 
nuA and the colored man io the South. 



THE IfORTU AMBRSCAN RSVWW. 



Good govcmmerit bad been restored in ii««rly every portion 
of th<3 Soutli bv IStiO, Slid for the tirat ttrnu tlie section uoutd. b« 
fuirly said to liare adjusted ilwilf to the new conditiou of affaire, 
and to be in a position lor the first time to use iU rMOurcoetoUio 
b&st practical effect. 

Toappi'ocUto tlio torribto lofls that tlio South had oadiircd 
during these twenty yuars, it is necessary to reiuemh»r that the 
total wealth o( the soction had depreciated, from 18C0 to 1880, by 
l^.'HK), 000.000, the deprcoiatiou having continued during practi- 
cally the entire time, $300,000,000 o( the araontt being properly 
cliargoablo to the period from 1870 to 18K0. 

The broad acies of land, however, reiniiined. The miuoral 
rcsourcea were still to be developed, and the gronndwork from 
whioh wealth could be created had been but littlo injured. 

Tlia progress of the South from that time forward may be con* 
sidered the beginning not of growth by the SoiiLli, but of growth 
by tho South with free tabor, and under the changed condi- 
tions which the war produced. The OApacity of the white peo- 
ple for endurance, their fortitude and nerve power, hod boon 
shown in n manner bnyond quostion. Content to leave th» past 
a memory of pain and pride, again permitt*3d to live free, with 
hope renewed by honeat local govcnimeiit, they regiiincd ioflu- 
oQce with the colored race, and both sought to develop the 
section which both recognized as a peminnent home. The ne- 
groes eonoider ta ridiculouii alt auggeatiouii tor their remorol, and, 
with few exceptions, tho whites rDatizc tho beoefil to the section 
from the work of this kind and hardy race. 

But what hs« been aocompliBhod since 1880 f Referring to all 
thofio StateJt cliLisilled as .Southern in the figures befure presented, 
the OuuBUii ihti)orts of 1800 tihow an iucroase io assessed Taiue 
during the preceding ten yeara of $1,815,000,000, while the in- 
cr«4so in true 7nlue was $3,893,000,000. [n ten ycnrs the value 
of the products of the Sontli increased from $1,200,000^000 to 
♦4,000,000,000. 

Omitting;, Iiowovor, some of thoao State* ooniHioiily U«rniod 
Southern, and confining the inquiry to those to which the 
conditions under consideration most fully applied, tho fuvoroble 
indications from I860 to 181I0 aro eren proportionately greater. 

The following table from data nnv in the Ucniius Bun.'uu 
gives for the States named the peroeutuges of iaoreoM in true 



^^^^ TBR RESODROKS AKl> DEVELOPMSNT Of THE SOUTH. ISS 


■ 


^H TolDAtion of rftikl nii'I |i0rsoiiid pro^Jtirty, ozpetiditarM for public 


^H 


^H Kboots, vuluL' Kit miitiufitctureil |>rodiicl. ralue of fariu lauila and 


^^^1 


^H itnproTomviiLe, and valuu of fiinn prodnots. 


^^1 


^H iMCMiUi Fta oRxr. im-int. 


H 




Tnin r^MKf 


Kzpnidl' 


TaJdooI 


TaIim of V •-- „, 




Ilea of tMl 


ntMof 


tnuatM- 


^^^^^^H 




uidMrwMJ 


pnUlo - 


nrad 


Md llU - JSSi. 


^^^^H 




luvvulj. 


•ehoott 


■JiMlau*. 


nroTNiiriii*. 


|IIUU BL-W. 


■ 


^H Ttrvtnla 


ti.n 


niB 


T0.» 


ir M 


r.«i 


^H Wm VuvikU .. 


M.U 


TS.fl 


W.« 


ii.in 


a.«T 


^^^^^^H 


^^K KmUi Oikrailii*.. 


M.Tl 


ST. IB 


iM.gg 


3a.tt 


s.« 


^^^^^H 


^^^^H aa«ta OkToMaa 


»;« 


f&.B 


w.ri 


H.SO 


M,]^ 


^^^^H 


^^^B &^^ 


43,47 


w.u 


1S.8S 


31 36 


^^^^^H 


^^^B nsnOft. 


2M N 


Ul TS 


tn.» 


tn.w 


e M 


^^^^^^H 




n.M 


».« 


ta.m 


U.Ti 


a » 


^^^^H 


^^^^H Tmw«mm ....,,. 


u.n 


U.43 


M.IS 


II, » 


*■«!? 


^^^^^^H 




U.M 


<7.» 


iTT.ai 


«a.as 


^^^^^^H 


^^H MiMiMll'PC. 

^^^V tmw. , .... 


W.M 
lU.S 


SI. it 

SUV 


m.8» 

3.S 


ST.M 
«.T* 
IH.tS 


19.13 
ll.h 


^1 


^^^^^ Arluaaaa 


M.tl 


IM.S 


SI:S 


a>.n 


n ai 


^^^^^H 


^^■^ Arar. p*f«MiU4« 


H.TS 


M.« 


JO.tt 


IT.B 


■ 


^1 Ut ItaoTMM. 


^^^^ft Ttio itiidy of thew Sguros indicat^fl tbo gon<>ral growth and 


^^^^V liMltliy develupmeiit not of fta old, bat uf & dbw oountrj. Ttiu 


^^H 


^H deTelopmcut of the South prior to 1860 bud been swept awa; by 


^^H 


^^^K war, aod b; the aub3<>qtient ooaditions heretofore doscribed. Its 


^^H 


^^^V ni8oar<:fts wore in 18t!0, and stillara, Bcurcoljr touched, white those 


^^H 


^V of the Easlem aad Middle Stston are oomparatively in uge. 


^^H 


^H The following table, also from the Ceusns Buroan, shoirafor 


^^H 


^H the Btatos named in it, p«roentagc8 similar to those oonsidered lo 


^^H 


^H eoBDection vith the Southern Stfltee. 


^^H 


^^g UOHBURFSKOBtT., UtO-iao. 


H 


^^^^^ Tnw valdf 


EXIMDdl- 




VAlavor 


Vatnoot 
product*. 




Uaa«f Nkt 


l«rM«( 


tariD lAUil* 


^^^^^H 


^^^M 


indMnaoAi 


public 

MbOOl*. 


iqrod 
pnxneu. 


MlddB- 

pnrvmanU. 


■ 


^H VatM^ 


A IS 


ii.a 


It.B' 


A. 370 


.n 


^^H Sftw HuBpttiU*.- 


A. w.a 


<s.» 


U.W 


A. U.lb 


s.rs 


^^^^^H 


^^K Vormiwi 


A. IS.M 


«.« 


SI.S 


A, «,» 


A. T.T8 


^^^^^H 


^^^^^B MMnMbnwIi) , ,. 


«.» 


n«i 


U.71 


A- 1».7« 


IB 19 


^^^^^^H 


^^^^B Abode iB-ood. ... 


1I.M 


ia u 


M.n 


A. 1S.I» 


l«.M 


^^^^H 




T» 


»« 


D71 


A. 11 S 


A. .U 


^^^^^^H 


^^^B K*w Vnrk ... 


».n 


Tsn 


M.n 


A, SU 


A, ».n 


^^^^H 


H.fl 


MM 


581 


A. » V 
A. J.W 


A. 2.10 
A. S.M 


^^H 




>m 


S.M 


M.H 


A. «,sr 


A. U.U 


^^^^^H 


^^^^H t»4Um» 


U.M 

I7.SI 


KM 
4B.T8 






A. IT.ID 
A. «U 


^^H 




^^^^^ Anr. pamntac* 


»a 


».n 


fi.S A- It.Ot 


A. •.» 


H 


^^1 |A> UecrMM. 




1 ^! 



f34 



TUB NORTtl AMKHSCAN REVIEW. 



I'orhaps one of the most noticeabln iiidicBtionii of progreaa ia 
the t&ci that in ton yeani Ihe public schoolsof t.ho South increased 
expenditurpii 99.53 per oeut. All tbu people of a seotion must 
be free and all edacated to iosQre progress. Ttie Sooth is de- 
termined tiiut illiteriicjr in itd E«ction shall cease, that every 
child shall rooeive » lair odacatioD. The pcroeotages token to-dity 
would be oven more atriking, but the exact Qgiiras cannot he 
obtained. The one State of Georgia has Id the last thre« yt'ars 
inereiuod her appropriation for public Kchools more than 1(K) per 
cent. 

The Southern Slates isbow a percentage of inereaae, daring the 
time considered, in true value of real and poraonal propertj, and 
in value of manufactured product, nearly twice as great aa that o£ 
the Kartem and Middle StiitoA named. 

The Kasleru aud Middle States show perceatagea of I'isa in 
value of farm lauds and improv«uiettU amonnting to lO.Oti per 
cent, and of farm products staonottng to 9.3U per cent, vhile 
thu Southern Statoa incrciucd iu Tdluo of farm laad« aad im- 
proviimentH 40.ii8 jier coat., ami in (arm prodncta I7.S3 par cent. 

The total acreage iu the Southeru States namod 'u 500,000^- 
000, the amount in cultivation is 100,000,000. Thrce-fonrtba of 
the uncultivated land to suited for form purpoM^. Tb« groaa 
product from agriooltDre in the South for 1890 vas 24.1 percent, 
on the value of iuveatmeiit. In the other States of the L'uiou it 
was 13.1 per cent. What an opporlonity this section offers to 
bomo-eeokers I Tlicj wilt Qnd land cheap, and the people rondy 
to reooivc them with lioapitalitj. PoUtiual affiliations no longer 
affect aooiol relations io the South. 

The land ia most varied in its nses. The lofty elevation of the 
Piedmont region funiiahes a climate eimiUr to Now Kn^Iaud, 
while the low hinds of the Qnlf States are saited to semi-tropical 
produola. Between those two can be found every oharacter of 
soil, and the farmer can chouae the locality and raiM what he 
pleane. Locationa can be found iu which wheat, com, cotton, 
ud frmt can be eaccesafalty oaltivated in the same field. Tbo 
trnob faruu furuish great results, and from Kurfolk aloue is 
shipped annually over $6,000,000 worth of vegetables and fruits. 
While the South produces over GO per oont of the world's cotton, 
its groin crops arc now nearly equij (o its cottoa <)rope. 

It was claimed that, io It^d, the cotton industry mast go 



TBE liBSOVliCKS ASD DEVEWPMliST OF THE SOUTH. 135 

vith Blarerj, yet the cotton crop of iSM wiu ubout twice tbat of 
1860. 

The Pliiladelpbia Tt'rtir.^ baft said: 

"Tte fact tbkt tbcSoathfriiSut*»ti*T«ni*.Jo guth i» rem ftrkaJ>lr good 
■taowtniE sliic« tbe Bnaaciftl pnsinuro I'Omiiieoced bsft begun to sllmct Ibe 
ktMntioaodnreslon from the Sortb and Went. A good de«l o(c»piUUbu 
alr*ai)r br«ii pUced bj ilirewd opmlon likeOoafai, Vatidcrblli, Corbin, 
■udothmla Alabama. Toxa». Vlritiuia,NortbCiut>liuB. ondaiberSoatbeni 
Btaiu. tod many coionlvs ot lawlllgmt wacc-mnura hmn beon plaoted la 
loCftHtiM wbenit U bellercl b«n<lleait emolntnc&t will follow." 

Tlie etaoding timber of the South is equal in taIua to tbat of 
tb* balADC« of the Union, and the annnal output of the eaw and 
planing miUe grew in tbeportiMl from 1880 to L892 from 138,000,- 
000 to •117,000,000. 

Theiron oro is witlmnt timif, and a oUib^ment of the cnropam- 
tira cost in the SoDtliern district and the Kortbcm district, 
propared by Hon. Carroll D. Wright in 1801, shows an adran- 
tage of $3 per ton in favor of the 8outh. The incroaae in the pro- 
duction of iron bv this aection since 18S0 has been 500 per cent. 

The coalfields of the Southoni States cover orer 00,000 milee. 
which, »8 Mr. Ooorge W. ArmBleod stotoe in The Tradeeman, is 
saren times aa mach as in Oriiut Britain, and more than in Rns- 
aia. Orcat Britain, QermHnv, France, and Belgium combined. 
The coke Is excellentlv adapted to use in manafactores. Sinoo 
1880 tb« production of coal hfta increased from 3>0O0,O0O of' 
bushels to 25,000,000 bnehels. 

But the mannfactare of cotton in the Sooth offers the 
moat iariting Held for induatriul grovtb. The Soath prodacea 
over 60 per cent, of the cotton of the world. Only aboat one 
third of onr cotton in mniinfoctored in the United States. The 
balance goes to Europe, where its ralne is increased threefold, 
creating thereby t600,000,0O0 each year vliich properly belongs 
to til is country. 

KTeryadrantage is offered for the manufacture where the cotton 
grows. Tbe climate permits uninterrupto'l operation for factorioe, 
every month of ibc year. The raw material is nthand with cheap 
coal for eteam, or ample water power to be obtained at reasonable 
prices. Ijibor cnn lira with lees expense than in New or old 
England. While no discontent exists among the laboring cJuBsas 
Id the South, still a large portion of the service required in cotton 
fiMttorJM cau bo there obtained at a low dgure. If England is to 



136 



TUB ICORTn AMERICAN REVIEW. 



continue onr chief competitor in tbe manafactare of cottoo goods, 
mrelj moch negro labor csn be foniid in the South to compete 
with Eugiish white labor is the cotton millB. 

Perhaps tlie negro ib intended aa the laborer to mannfactare 
cotton as veil ag to hoc it. There are reasons t^ beliere that 
CYontoalljr the yellow race of tUe Kiwt will prove a formidable 
competitor in this liao of huciitibes. If so, it may be necessary 
to overcome them by the ase of the black Ubor in the Soutb. 
It is certainly trae that all iudicatioug point to the mano< 
factiire in the Soath of the cotton there grovn. It woold change 
the Yoluu of the crop annually from t300,OO0,O00 to abont 
#1,000.000.000. 

The manufacture of cotton has increased in the Sonlh sinoe 
1880 from 342,048 to 2,171,147 Bpindles, and the Talne of the 
anaiml prodiu-t from HO.a.'Id.OOO to »54.200,000. 

The remarkable oxjieriuiicc of thcSonthern milU during 1893, 
scarcely any of them quitting work, and nearly nil of them pay- 
ing good diviJendti, furnishes uoncluiiive evidence that theSoath 
is tbe beat locality for the hnaiocM. 

Mr. Kichard TI. F,dmundsin tbe Manufaciuren' Record has 
veil eftid: 

"The tamber tituineaa btui eoricbed n larxe part of the Nortbirest; 
cotton mnDufnctHritiK baa added liuudreds of mlllioiM to tbe wealth of New 
Engluid: met aod Iron IsUi* buta of nxHt of Pennsj-lTanla's enomuMis 
Indtutrial activity. Tbe South cofubloeatlicM tour— lumbAr.eottou, Iron, 
asdcoal. Tb«j eaa bo ulIllKodat • lower coat tbao inu)7oth«rMetion, 
and tber will add to the Sovlb tb« foorfold wealth tbat lh«T l>aT« «r«a(«d 
cbenhcro." 

Judge Xelley may not have been right when he said, " The 
Booth is thu coming El Dorado of American adrouture," but ho 
dealt with simple truth irhen saying, "It is a coantry upon 
whitih th« Almighty has with most kviab hand bostowod his 
richest material gifts." 

Hoke Suitu. 



SRA POWER OF THE UNITED STATES. 



BT CnARLBS n. CHXUP. 



The discussion of the eIeiueQt« and elTecte of aea pov«r evokod 
bjrCtpUin Maban'e books iiu been (ruitfuJ of euggeatioa as to 
the (ig}[n-j^te of iiavius ami tlit> political caTi»«K]ue[i(;t>s ot aujie- 
riorilj at sm. but littlo has been sHid of the iudividuality of 
slilpa. This, c>f course, ie from tli« point of riew of tlio etatos- 
ninu and the diplomatist, but the share which tho designer and 
hnildi^r of eliipg hits in the production of sea power remains to bti 
ezaoiined. 

Priiniiril; it iM worth n-hile (o rcninrk that Cuptain Biahan's 
th«nie ia by no mcuu^ new. thu tval uii.'ril of his hooks reatiug in 
Ui« fact tliat he has gireu a new force to old and welMinown facts. 
Long ago the wisdom and foresight of En^jlishraon diacerned 
the raln« of BM power before the; poueeaed it, and Lord 6uX!on 
made it thecnbject ofan easa; as laminousaa it was prophetic. 
Tliis eaaay oc«tirs in hia work on the "True Greatooaa of King- 
doms and Eatatai/' and the following pithy extract serves to ex* 
hihit the train of thonght: 

■ "To Iw ni*»l*r or the aea U in Abri<lfteiiKnt of » nraoarcbr- Wv wa tba 
KNAtcffectaolbktUnbr sm; tli* Battle oI AcUam decided tht Empire ot 
lliaWorld; tfa«B»uleot LspintoarroAtetl IbefcreatnoMof thaTnrk. Tbere 
be EDAnr t'saitiplrft wbcre sea Hgbu hare twen final to tli« War. • . . Tbli 
BOtib iNOorTala. tb^t be wbo coannaudt the a«a It at ereat libectr and maj 
lake aa mueb or »* llulo of thn vrar «« h« will, wbviru ihow that be 
•CPOniimt by lutd am ntanj tlin«4 D«rertbet«M In great ■tralt«. Snrelj 
at Ifali day vltb oa of Bnropc the vanlkge of alKngtb at aaa (wbiefa U oae 
Of ibe dawcrlM of thto Kiogdom of Great Brltalul b snsat, because unt of 
Ibc Unxiloiaa o( Europe are not luerclf liilaad, but gtrt wltb tbs aea moit 
pari of tbelr Mtupans, and bccauw U»t wudUi of b.itb ludln bvjdm Id Kreat 
part but an ■rrmanrj Xo Ibe commaDd ol Ibe Soaa." 

The phrase hore i> indved Baoooisn, but the thonght is as fresh 
Qow aa it wa« then, and in the concluding sentence one may find 



138 



TUK SORTB ANERTCAN KEVIKW. 



a prophocf of Ihn Britieh conquest of In-1ia. and tho nccesrity of 
keepiiig open tlie aea road. Captain Mahan'swork, hovever, loees 
none of tt« luurit from the taci Itmt Itiicoii "blnzed Mie W117" 
for Uim : on tli« contrary he is rather to he coDgrilulatod on hav- 
ing BO diAtingiiished a prodoceesor. 

Ijoaving the diplomatists and the stntegiats to piinue their 
geiitTaliuitioii!!, 1 v-iU try to poiut oat the office of the datqI 
architect and builder in the oreatioa and nuuDt«nftDOO of eoa 
power. 

In a rooont intorviow published in a British journal. Captain 
Mahan with much pith and force dcacrilKd tho basis of maritime 
snpremncy by Baying that the battloflhip is to fleets what infantry 
isto&aarmy; but whenprosscd by the reporter to particulnriu 
thotype which he considered most cffoctivo, Clio captain de4:linod 
to olltir an opinion. Tbis abstention vas creditabti; both to his 
sonnd jadgmcnt and good taste. There arc many types of bnt- 
tleshipe, each one vitb ardent partisaos, and had Captain Malian 
expressed a prodiloction for one type it would have bfen tnkon 
aa a challengo by the adherents of all the othcre. Thin exhibita 
good judgiDCiit ; while on the poiut of guod toxtc ho h rjnite 
properly content to leave questions of design and coastructioQ 
to narid ftTchit«cte and bnildera. 

There ttrc some roiisiderations affooting type and 8120 of battle* 
ships which are of general interest and siifTlciently non-tuchnloal 
to be caaily comprchfindc<t by thearorage raader. I ebal) oonfine 
my observatioDB to this chiw of eubjocts, bocanse the purely 
technical qnefitions inrolred in platiiiing and constructing ships 
conld be made neither interesting nor instmclive to the readers 
of a popnlar ningazioe. 

Ncccsisanly io conformity to proratHng ideas and practice the 
employment of bntttMhipa for the enforcement of son power in- 
volves tlieir operation in Heets or sqnaiSrons. The experience 
of war may and probably will modify prevailing ideas and set a 
limit to the number of hAttlMhipi; tluii can be safely or eflectively 
manceQTred in squadron. It is more tiian probable that at a very 
c«rly stage of action tbo commanding ofUcor of a modern battle- 
ship will find it neceesary tosignal for every captAin to do the beet 
fa6can. I'oathly fleet oreqniidron laeiics a« now received and 
understood will be fonnd to impede or even destroy the efficiency 
of modem bultleishipe. 




SKA POWSR OF THE ONITKO STATES, 



13M 



Koavtioti liuvirig t)4;curr«<l botweea ileoU of modarn battlo- 
ships, the Loctieal coudilioiiii must be somewhat oonjeotaral oral 
leut theoretical ; but ttie experieaco of peace drills and rosaoHi- 
vrM bu domoiiat rated tlut the elements ot difficnlty and danger 
dn« ta modem appliunceBBacompiireU with the conditiona of tlie 
, Ifroat «eii-Sg}iU or history bavo boon mnltipUod man; fold. 
For eiamiilf. Ht Trafalgar lb© " Victory," " Temfrniire," and 
" Hedonbtible" were foul of each other for a considerable period, 
and acme bietoriaiis say that tbo " Biiocntaure," Admiral 
Villenenvc's flagidiip, vao alM foal of tlio bnnch at one Lime. 
None tit these shl[)e of the liue sustained any iiijiirv vorth men* 
lioning from the fonling alone. 

I presume no one imagines that three or four modem battle- 
ship* ooald be fotti of eoch other tor many minates before some 
of tbem would begin to sink from Ibe effitotti of contact alone, and 
IrrMpectiye of any execution done by their bmltoriesor torpedoes. 
This ever present danger ts'egnally great from friend and from 
[U/t, Aod the fuct that it must Iw vastly increaacd by the circum- 

Don of action will tlevol re upon the commnudor of the dnet and 
Upon Gocli one of hia captaiDs ru^nsibUitlee which Rodney and 
Nrlsoti and their captains nerer dreamed of. 

These facts fluggeet a wide range of problems embracing not 
only tiutticB. wlueh i% out»idc of my profinee. but design, etruc- 
tnre, miina'UTring applianueii — \u short, everything that pertains 
to lundlnen, controllability under vaHoiis conditions, and ultimate 
safety after a maximnm of injury. The fate of the "Victoria" 
domoiutrated that subdivision into water-tight compflrtmcnta U 
naaleas if commnnioation between any number of them is left free, 
and tliiit water-tight duors. at Xnsisti at, arranged in that ship, can* 
not be closed against much bend of in-rusliiug water. It also 
demonstrated the fact that the tactical diameters of shipa, asawer- 
taincd by trial jiingly in smooth water, and under the most faror- 
able oouditions, caunot be depended ou in fleet manteuvres at Ma. 

Above all it demonstrated that captains differ in capacity and 
in promptaeas, and that such diflcronco operating in the brief 
time allotted to a single maiiU3nvre may easily be fatal U> a ship or, 
ID action, to a flr<ct. Tbii is acase of the ]>ersonal eqcation; the 
operation of the hamiin factor, which is always une<)aal to an im- 
msoanrable degree if we consider the possible extremes of capa* 
eity and incapacity — bat at best always subject tu error.aud hence 



THE KORTB AMERICAN REVtBW. 

oalcitlated to defout or mar in greater or less degree the effioiettoy 
ol tlie iiiofit skilfully dc»gnod and most perfectly coaatructed 
mechaaical dovicea. Tliig is a fiiiidanienlAl fact, haring tts 
origin iu the organic weakuteBca of hiiii^an uaturo, and licncu un- 
aroidnble. At boat its coQseqacncea can only be mitigated. 

Last November io a paper read before thu Amerioan Society 
of Naval Arc]iii«ct», discnssing the practicable size of aliips, I 
ased the foltowitig liuigiiage : 

*' There U Another llmilatloo to prMticablnftin wbleh bu noC b«oo ri«iI' 
tJoned— tb« ship aMf bwomv too Urg« for the captain. It Is tb« taxi that 
while wc am; iocrew w the dlaenaiooa K>t abipa tbo nixc of man It a fixed 
quaotlbr. £ mcika this in tho phfvloBl «« wall wi Iho DODtal Mnao. A »Up 
UuotlUceananur whlchcanbo dMilrd la BecUons.MtcbcftpaUeoflade- 
pciidcnt Kotloo. She muitt be oatnmftDded luid in&iiieilvred iBOne piece sad 
by ooeman. 

"[ bare during inan; years ofabaerrallon and experience In my pvofea* 
lilon Kci-n notuueli o( Ibe IminAn tnctur under Miob drcuiiuttjuiccs (elrmni- 
■tan»a placing t be )Itm of ao manjr men in anhip at The meref of onemaii), 
that thit climioatian of Et In tvttj poeaibl« direction has Usconte oimoM a 
passton with mo, Iu an; ahlpdevliED It I> the 6n>t prla«lpIo with me to 
provide aa manjabnoluU; and uuu&&UK«abl<) qtiaUtloaof p«rti>raianca and 
aalety aa possible and to place them brjond inaiiipnlatlon." 

For the reasons that I have already slated lliese obacrratioDS 
originally wado with reference to trans-Atlantio passenger retsels 
apply with tt'U-/old force to battlofihips. A« iho epoed of any 
fleet is that of its slowest ship, m will its tnanopuvring power b« 
limited by the capacity of iUi poortut raptaia. As it mighteasily 
happen that the stowoat or least handy aliip and the poorest 
oaptain would be joined, tho quality of the other shipa and the 
ability of the other uHicerB would go for nothing. 

In view of the oomplei character of iho shijw themselveB and 
the Uifiiculty and danger of manosuTring them nnder ihe moat 
favorable conditions, as pointed out, tho experience of the first 
gonora] action vill demoii»tnit« the iiccoeeity of having all tlie 
batlleshipa ill a fleet lis nearly aiikoiLi potuible in size, type, and 
capacity of performance. Sncfa proTiBlou would not c>iUHlize 
the poraonal factor of different commanding officers, hut it 
voald at leaet giro them all an e^iial chance at the start. 
For iliia reason 1 have always considered it unwigo to inuUiply 
types or to iieriously modify thoiio which the biwi Judgment we 
nro now able to form approves. Tbo practice of the Engliitli, 
French, Kassians, and GGrmiuia has heea contrary to this idea. 



8EA POWER OF THK tTlVITKO STATES. 



HI 



Ettcb new iwimiuisirittiim of tlioir miviea bus brought Id uow typos; 
notil their aavy li^ta prcscut an almost bevilJerttif; varfoty. For 
oiaiaplo tttu |ii««iioul MeditormuMri fleet of England iriclndes ten 
biittlu«tii]M<, coniiirisin^Bix difToroiit typex, xnil milling in speed 
tmm Iheold " [Iroadnaii^liL " uf 12 kiiot^ tr) tfiu "Hand" at W^. 
Of Ujumi atx typM four nra ahiffly raproeontinl, Dumcly ; Out 
" Dreadnanglit," old>f»ahioned doulile-turrctod mouitor ; tJie 
•'Ssfwpar«i1,"8i8t&r-Bliip lo the Into "Victoria"; tho "RumillieB," 
modtini biirl)ctU! Wttlealiip, and tho ''lloiid" modi>rn doublc-tum-t 
battlc-ahip. Another ty[K; han two n.*prc«entativc«, tlio "Xilo'^nnU 
" Trafalgar, '' doul>lc-tnrn.-t biittlesliipf, 3,000 tons smiUicr than 
the "Hood"; while the aiilli lyp© liiw four repraseutatWw, thu 
" Anaon," " Caii^Mjrdowu," "Colllngwood," and *' IIowe,"bar. 
butto buttlooliipa, of the Admiral ctoaa, from 3,J>U0 to 4,>iOO tona 
BmalltT than tho " HamilUcs." Thu tcstiinoayinUio "Victoria" 
Court of Inquiry ehourod not ouly the difference in the capucity 
of oaptaitui already reffrred to, but also ooiuiderable difference 
between Uie wrernl ty^tca of shipathemselTW om tohandinew, even 
■t a maauuvring npeud of eight knots, which was dictated by the 
OMy nadirat draught spted of the elovrest ebip, the " Drood- 
nangfat." It in not oasy to Imagine whal the oouMqnenooa of such 
diaorepuncy in the nbility and prompliieiB of offioera or in the 
pover and haadineea of the different ships wonldbe under the 
vutly altcreit coadilioDS of action. Of course the English h*70 
been aocumnlatinf; dilferont types during mnnyyenrsof nctire 
coimtniRtion under difTerent and disngrecing adinintltiee, and 
hnviug the iihi]»i on hand must use thern> no matter how motley 
the resulting fleet. 

The«c obM-rvulions bring lu to a minroy of tho comparative 
lEtnatioii of iho United Stale* in this reaiwct. Our iiavy has not 
accamutateil an lustortmcnt of battloaliip types, and hence is free 
to pursue tho desirable policy of itniformity. Our vpry Bret 
attempt at battleship design produced a typo which I consider 
tbefairesteoRipromiseof nil divorgfiUtquiUitiesand necesntioeyct 
reached oaywhero. The re.<iuUiiig nhip carries on n displacement 
of 10.400 tons armor and urmanienl superior to British ships of 
U.lfiO tons, is uqual to them in luauoeuvHng speed, and lutioh 
qnicker and handier nnder helm. 

Oor accond t^ffort produced a ship which is in lODio reapocta a 
modiflcatiou of the first. The changes are mainly iu the direc* 



THE NORTH AUBRICAfT JKBITFIV. 

Uon of groiit«r free-boaiil aiiil « kitot mora of Kjioeil, inTolr- 
iog 1,0(M) tons more displacenteiit, by vrliicli the all-aiouQil sea- 
going olficicncy is cxpocte^ lo Im iuorefts«d ; but m » figbtiug 
ship pureauj gimple I think no oiio oontonds i\\\\i tho " Iova" 
is au improTemeut uiion the " fmliana" oImh. Without going 
[uto detail of tbo difforenccH botwecn the two Bhipa, I will say 
generaUy that the '* ludiauft" clasa ia ablo to combat any riret-nttt: 
battloelitp afloat 08 Co nrnior and armament; eh« hns as muoli 
ipeed aa will ever be needed for mancouvring purposes, and hor 
coal capacity IS suflictL'nt for any cruise that the policy of the 
Halted States vill eT«r require iu war. 

When to these off^nsiro and defensive qtialities is added the 
fiiot that Ui« "Indiana*' developed on her preliminary trial a 
raadinessof responticund fididity of direction under helm little 
short of niarrellous iu view of hur dimmiaions and weight, shu 
becomos by great odds the handicat tirit-rut« huttluehip afloat. 
In the language of her uarigating officer on that ocoaaion, " aha 
steered like a pilot hoat," I eiibniit that it does nr)t ru()uiro the 
Iraiuitig of a navul tautictiin t^] ftce that a fleet often " Indianas," 
oompuct, handy ships, alike in all leading (jiwlitios, would haro 
the ten diverse and unequal battleships of the British Uleditcr- 
ntnean tloet at an inltiuJ disadvantagQ of tremondoua eSvai, and 
thin without taking account of individnal snperiority. 

Th«»u cousidt-rutiont) M>vnt conclusivo agaiti^. muHipIicaiinn 
of typea and in favor of adhering to one which eo pluiuly moct« 
the requirementa of onr national ailuation aud policy. 

The composition of a butllesliip fleet under aucb nonditJons 
would minimize the tactical dnngers and diftirialties referred to 
earlier, but thotso would still rciuatn very groat, uud nothing cau 
mitigate them except ftvqiient and arduonadrill in gquodron of evo- 
lution, so that our captatntt may become familiar with their wea- 
pons before being called ujKin to use them in actual battle. Thera 
will be scant opportunity to drill a battleship Br|uadron after the 
ontbr«6lt of war. From this point of view it is to bo regretted tliat 
Secretary Tracy's programme of 1890, contemplating eight, battle- 
ships, was cat down to three, and sound policy diutatea ita early 
reTfroJ. 

Passing tiov to another braucb of tho eabjoct, I think it n 
auittor of regret that some of tho most distinguished adrocute^ of 
the battleship policy have deemed It u part of tbe argument Lo 



SBA POWER or THK esjTED STATES. 



143 



deprociiito thu rsluo of cniisor^ and coniinerco dustroyera aji an 
olomrnt of SCA power. Cupttiin Miiliaii does thU hy inference, 
nlhvr Ihau oipreulj ; bnl tlio Suurotary of thu Nary in bia ad- 
mirable report for 1893 (pp. 37, 3S), poiiitedljqn««tioii»tlie milU 
tary valao of iinarmored veesels. He emyt : 

" The tnllltArr tbIm of a comui«rc«^e«LrorliW fkwt U eaally OT«rratc<l. 
Onlkvrt <lir*ei«(t agattut ao eneniT'a wealth afloat aro capable of doing 
Iptfat damago ; . . . bat uiumpporUd bfabipaof (be Un«(h*lrapir>iU4n<i 
ar« never itp^rlnlve of a trAr Daring tho tireotj jean from IW to 1612 
Frcufh cntiMD and pdraUi-r* captured tuaay tboa^anda of DrillKh rraiiela 
and rac^oea, but tbrao captures optralrd uioro to provoke a apirlc o( (l«. 
(«nnkncd huatilllj uaong tbe BriLlali pco|>le tban U> create aocb dibtiVMt or 
alarm as wouid pnt an ead U) ho«tllltl«s. lEngliab lin»xrf'batLla ablps 
Iiutead of •callcrlng lo eoavoj merobant tmnIo. hunted and deslro^ed tbo 
French ▼asMlii of war at tbe Nile, al Cape St: VtaoetiL, and Trafalgar, la 
tb« cueaa lime. In Rpl(« of b«r loaMui of n»r«haat ab'pa and i heir cargo«^ 
BokI>"<1 continued tOKfJ^* Hcb b}-iirrcviun>«rci;. • • ■ 

"OurowD CItII War tum!«bcaa morervooDt aad famiilar pcooC of mf 
•taleniciii. Tliecruiiir^of (be Alabaroaaud bar slater-ahlpa were Qncom- 
iDonlyaacocBaral. ScniRic-n rlvallrd ttaecxplolta of Jran Baraod Da Ooajr- 
TroiiJn. Ula aucceM delighted tbe CooredemUa, but It did not beiteflt ifaeir 
oaoaa. ... la tbe niean time in aplte of deprntatioua American cooinwroe 
Soarlvbed. Comioorea deaCroyfng waa Irritating, bat It acconplUbed aotb- 
Ing. It woald hanbeen laaffMtua] ereo i( th«rConfcd<<ratea badpoaaeased 
t«o tim«a aa auay oraUen, oimtpiwrted aa th«j wero by Une^t- batlle- 
abipa.- 

Seoretary Herbert's argament of facU here 18 ingeninuAlj 
doptujcd, but his point of riow aoems limited to the special outi- 
dilione which h« had in mind. In botbca«eehc ciUn — England's 
contMt with NipoleoD, nnd otir Civil War — the strnggle wiu for 
lift). Na[K)1eon's suoceos u he liuil planueid it would have rule- 
gated England to the status of Denmark or Ilollnnd ; while the 
oousm|tieiiced that would haru uttendoil the success of tho Con- 
federacy cannot b« mcMorcd. In thoonecaati itnnia KngUod or 
nothiag, in the other cose the Union or nothing. lu either oaso 
the superior naval power could afford to lot ita comtnerce go by 
the boa^t if neceaaary in order to employ Ha Heets in strategio 
openUious beiirittg directly iipou tho (ortnaos of the struggle. It 
is true thnt Kronch oniiiterij nnd privateers cnplnreil mitny 
Eoglish merchant ship« and cargoes. But in turn the English 
cmiten capturvd so many Preach ships of their cliui that hy the 
end of tho Napoleonic cm a grcjit innny. perhftpa a majority, of 
tbe British frijatM in oonimidsion wore of JTrench buiht, or now 
abtpe rebuilt on capturcU French models ; so there was some 



144 



THE A'DRTB AMBBICAlf BEVltlW. 



compeii»ition, and m for French commcroo the Rnglish croiscn 
simply swi-pl tiie aca clenn of iL Nor am 1 prepared to 
agree nilh Secrolory Ucrbcrl'a light cstioute o( tlio cffoots 
produced by the *' Alabama*' and her consorts. It is tree 
that thej did not diMiide tho stnigglo, but the; mndo it 
iufiniteljr more difficult, cwtly, and painful. If they did not ma- 
terially buiu-Ql the Courederitcy thuy did help Hnglaud to uii 
amazing extent. Comiag just as they did, nt » turning point 
vhcro new materials of construction and new devices were becom- 
ing factors in the contest for commercial anpremacy, the Con* 
federate cruisers cleared the seas of our old merchant muxinc, 
and, before we could recovei* from tb« blow, Englaad bad occupied 
the gronud. 

In Tiew of this fapreaching result, the operations of the 
OourL-deiitte cruisers cannot be fairly estimated on the bans of 
their immediate deva8t4itions. The Geneva Tribunal awarded 
•15,600,000 ID settlement of the direot damage they did to the 
United .States aided and abelled by England. Tho (jnosiiou of 
conseqaentittl damage, which far surpassed the other in import- 
anco, was ruled out of court. We got the motssof pottage; England 
got the birthright. That has been the cneo with every treiity we 
have iiegolialed wjlh England exi:ept die trmly uf ImJupvudence. 

Viewed in the light of these notorious historical facts, it is 
clciir that no theory citn be sound that leaves the Confe<lerate 
cruisers out of the culcgory of sat power. Tho fact that Ihoir 
operations inured to the benefit of England rather than of the 
Oontederacy was not accidental. On the contrary it was with 
deliberate pnrposo to that end that they were built in English 
yards, armed with IJuglieh cannon, ooaled with Kngliali coal, and 
manned by English seamen. Tlio Confederate fljig tliat they (lew, 
so far as it pretended to represuut the pnictieal object of their ex- 
istence, was a fraud. Their destruction of our commerce may 
not have honied the Confederate cause, bnt it operated beyond 
mciisnre to promote Englaod'i dominion of tlio sea. 

It is worth whilii to pursue this survey of the value of 
cruisers as an elumuut of sea j^iower by recalling briefly some 
iocideutaof a gratifying period in our own naval history. 

In 1813 we had three frigates of forty-four gum, three of 
thirty-flix gnn.1, and two nf thirty-two guna, together with nine 
sloops and brigs rangiug from the " Hornet "* of eighteen guns 



SEA POWBB OF THE VmTED STATES. 



UB 



III thrt " EnU»rpriM " of twoWe. Ther* was no ehip ot the lino. 
V«t thU littU' ticitt took Ihu offensive in the face of Eugland'a 
Wft power At iu 20iiilh, and, Aiiletl by u swurm of prtviiteers, not 
only nivngiMl lier commeroc, but ahocked tbe Brilieli sciiso w it 
bad never b(«n sliocketl before by ropeutcd viotorJes in dutis bc- 
tweon craiicra of tvjiial rate. Comnio<ioto Porter did what all the 
orniwni of Fnuice luwi uot boon abie to do, wbou liu dontroyed the 
British whale fishery in the Pacific. He lost his ship in battle 
ugoinst a snpcrior forco, it is tnio, bnt noi uutil no more British 
wlialeships were left for him to destroy. Johnston Blakeler, in 
tho " NVw Waap"of eighteen gnna, cruised right in the chopa 
of tho Channel, tiftou in sight of the Brigligli iihorD, and sunk 
two Britiali meo-of-n'ar of bis own claaflt bostdea deetroyiug many 
morohnntmen and Bending at least one valnublo prize horae. 
Warringtfin in tlie " Teacock/' and Biddle in tho " Mi>rnet," 
Mgbtc«n-gim sloope. made aimiUr cruises iu thv EuaI Indien and 
oEI till' African coust. 

I do not think there can bo tinj t^neation that tho operations 
of oar oniisers in that n'ar materially aided lo prepare the British 
pahlic mind for tho peace of ISlfi. Apart, however, from these 
historiciU facts there '\a an element in the peculiar )>olitical nnd 
goographieal Bttoation of the United States which imparta to tho 
lamuampowcramcaningdifFerentfrom thatoontemplntod by any 
other nation. Knglaud vmploja sea power to keep open the roads of 
hercokMsal commenw, to maintain touch with her outlying poflse»> 
Bioas and dependeneioa and to cnforoo her status as a llrat-ruto 
power in the Kuropoan system, which her smiy alono could not 
do. France and Russia desire sea power an a connterbaliuico to 
England and in ftirthcranco of ulterior designs which await only 
opportunity or pretext for development. There are signs which 
indicate that this pretoit or opportunity may uot be long de- 
forrnd, 

Iu no such prohablo or poesibte complications can the United 
States be involved. If she ever figbte again it will bo Lo uMcrt 
tho dignitj of her Hag, to vindicate existing riglitd against ag- 
gresaion, or to enforce the principW of intvrnntionKl Uw. From 
this point of view bnt two nations can be our foes within any 
renaouabto range of probability. These are Spain and JStigtund. 
In a war with 8p«iD onr ctmtegy would noctesarily be offensive, 
with t4>rritnriiil nprmtinni confined to the West Indies and our 
VOL. cux. BO. 463. 10 



TBS .yOSTtl AMKRtCAlf RKVIEW. 



cmtsing flpct directed agaiiutt tho commert^n of tbo Ptiilippinee. 
In n war wi til England our lmttleKbi[M wviuld l>e n^uiri^il for 
cotst defence, and to breuk blockail«&, while our oniiBeTB wuald 
find emplovment on etery sea within their radios of actioa. 
There can nnrer hv inrafiioii of the Uitit«d Statoii on any scale 
BnfBci«nt to mnko our territory the thoktrc of considornblo tnili- 
tiLTv operationii. An enterprising enemy podsasaed ot command- 
ing tva power would conAnc his activity to foraya upon nnpro 
teoted seaboard towna and conimQDiiieni and to blockadoB of oar 
more important comjncrctnl port^, H«nco except (or matining 
shore batt«riw or in repelling daioents upon the coast onr army, 
regular and volunteer, would be without occupation no far aa de- 
fencL- \i concerned. The bnlk of the rcsiionsibility, and witb U 
the laurels of eaccoss, would fall to the share of the itary. 

This fact is well nnderatootl by onr poiwiblo enrmiofl. Hence 
their attitude toward the United States and their bearing in any 
cotitroTCtsy with ns will be exactly regulated by our ca|Nicity (or 
nSTfll defence and reprisiv]. The meaning o( eea power to the 
United States, therefore, is mainly of deterrent Rignificaoce. 
That is toflay, theposxesiton of a fairly powerful and quickly 
mobile naval force by the Uuitcd States, ao constituted that parti 
of it would be iiistaatly available for vigorous defence against the 
att4icks of hostile battleships, aud the other part for swift and 
summary reprisals upon the enemy's commerce, would materitUiy 
affect the tenor of diplomacy ami avert war. On the contrary 
the abHenc;e or inauflicienej of auch equipment would invir-o war, 

'I'lie Tiew which the Britieh Admiralty tikoa of tho value of 
cruii<er« irKi <jommerce-de8tpoyer3 as elements of aea power is 
strikingly embodied in thoir latest designs of that clan, the 
■■Powerful" and "Terrible." These are to be cruising ships 
pnre and simple, lightly armed itnd wholly tinarmored, and yet 
they arc of 14,300 tons displaoomoat, which is & trillc larger than 
the " Koyal Sovereign " type of battleship. They are intended 
to bo "deetroyera of commerce-destroyers," and the logic of their 
existence is simply thatofao answer to the "Columbia "and "Hln- 
neapolia." They would, of oonreo, prey upon tlio commerce o( ftD 
enemy, but that object in their design is rather incidoDta). Their 
primary mission will be to proteotthe British iiierohant roanne by 
hunting down and destroying hostile cniisera at aea to pri>y upon 
commeroo. Doubtleee two raoie " ColombiAs " on our side would 



'£■« OF THE UNITED STATES. 



.jjrt iinHH i n rf *7 aoolber pair of " Puwcrftils." IF asked to offer 
Itt ^riftlOtt u't« (be " IVw^rfiil '' chus, 1 alionld pt-obnbly say tliat 
tboy Mwm orer^rawn. Tlieir desired epeud vil) not enable thom 
to cntch t)io "MiiinaqMlis," wbile thoJr flret cost sod crauing 
expense niuit be conniderably greater. 

With nil d no roepccttu tho judgment of Secretary Horbert, who 
dnriii^ hi.« IcgtslatiTo Rnroor bnd morcto do with thcanthoriutton 
Mid fi iiiincial provision for tht; iit-iT nuTy tliun itny other one filat«B- 
nuu of the p«rlod. I craphiUicallj dts^entfrom hisTiowii ns to the 
Talne of an»rmare<] cmiAera in the Btim-total of eea power ; and 
tDoh diasont, as I haro tried to ehovr^ hu much broader founda- 
tion in logic for the tTnited States than for any other nation. 
Wlicn I speak of cruieorsin thiaiienMl in»aii commorco destroyers 
proper, of tho "Ooli)m^bia"and *' MinneapolU" class, and arnioriMl 
Toaacis of high s]>cvd and great endurance, like the " \«w York " 
ind " Brooklyn," which, though not quite as fast as the " Cohim- 
bla" and "Minneapolis." have gpeed and endurance enough to 
DVerbaul any comnicrcint ship afloitt. except a rory few of lh« 
lateei traDs- Atlantic grcyhounde. And I wonid by all meano in> 
olndo in a gnbordinato but ttill important capacity tho " B«lti- 
moro ** cImh. 

Aa for vessel!) ranging from the gunboat claww np, excepting 
the clan of llio " Baltimore," possibly we have enough of them. 
When tho " Raleigh " and " Cincinnnti " and the new gnnboata 
are nniehed, and tho "Chicago" is provided with modern en- 
ginoa. the nnry will hiivo one cniiaer of 5,500 tons, six of from 
4.000 to 4,500 tons, four of uboitt 3,000 tons, thrve of 3,000 
ton*, three gunboats of L,700 tons, and six of from 870 to l.SUO 
tons, nvAtlahle for genortti «ca police dnty. All tho old «hip« will 
havo disappeared throe yearn from now, so that the main bardea 
of peace cruising or sea police duty wilt fall upon the 33 rcsecU I 
haTorniiniciuted. It will probably be the jwlicy of future ad- 
miniBtratiotu to keep most of tho larger crniscrs, both armored and 
nnarmored, in readinntia for service, rather thnnactivelyempleyed 
Inordinary limes, and the same will be true of our battJe«hip8 
except OK they may be from time to tirae engaged in e(|itadrons of 
drill and cvolutioo. 

Events nf the puit three or fonr years have kept oar available 
force of amallnr cmiMrji and gunbonta busy in all parts of the 
world, and it u a qiieetion wbolbor the H rassola of the cUsaes 



TBS SORTH AUrSRICAJf JCKVIEW. 

forrod to e«n do the work of the fotare with mfficiont niRr^iii 
for necessary overhaul and repair, becaiuw it is w«ll knuwn tliat 
Bbip8, like men, run down rapiilljr with overwork. Be tliat as it 
may, I will not contend that tho craUbre and gnnboata of the 
smatlfirolasses constitute a verj important elonicnt of eea power 
for war piirpoiiee or as a deterrent force. But I maintain that 
the larger protected cruisers of tho *' BaJtioiore " clu^ tbo com- 
nieroe destrojers pronir, and tho armorod cruiaore do constitute 
sucli an clement of tlio first importaaec, and tliut eonnd national 
policy dictntcs a nonsiderahle incraaao in thoir number concur- 
rently with tbedevelopmentof an efleotive fleet of bnttleshipc 

licturuiiig to Captain Mahsn, it eeema but just tosiv that tho 
chief value of his books — aa, indeed, it was apparently hia princi- 
pal object in writing thorn — lies in tho stimulus they have given 
to univeraal public opinion aa to the abEtolute nocCEsity of adequate 
naval strength to every maritiniu power which aspires to com- 
mercial rank and proOt. He has demonstrated wttb tbo force of 
a syltcgism that one oAunot exist without the other. Thia is a 
groat public service, and though h ig theme was of neocgaity mainly 
based upon European history, Oaptuin Mahan's deductions and 
conclusions are none the leas valaable aa a guido to the naval 
policy of the United States. 

Opinions naturally differ as to what the details of that policy 
should be so far aa the programme of conatruction is concerDod, 
but men qualified to judge are practically unanimous tu tbo oon- 
cluaioo that wo should proceed much f urtber before calling a halt. 
There is also n consensus of opinion that in the " Indiana" class 
we have struck the type of battleship, in the " New York " or 
" Brooklyn" the type of armored cruiser, ni:d in the'' Columbia " 
and " MinuoapoUs " the type of oommerce deiirojur reepoclivoly 
beat sotted to our national needs. 

Question as to the advieability of multiplying purely harbor 
defence ships of the "Monitor" or "Monterey" typos, or of 
bnilding a considerable fleet of torpedo boatd and torpedo cruisers, 
tbosgh important, are anbordinate to tbo topic of battleships, 
armored crnisers, and commerco destroyers. That the number 
of all three of these latter types should be increased hardly requires 
argnmont. For my own part I Imvo not atlviscdaud would not 
advise the adoption of a fixed ehipbnilding programme calcalated 
to cover f u tare operations for any comridomble period. B(i 1 1 would 



SEA POWER OF THE UNITED STATES. 14fl 

and do advise twlherence within conBervative limita to types which 
hare oot only proved satiefactor; to our owe naval anthoritioB on 
trial or in service, but which have repeatedly been prononnced 
by the most competent foreign judgee who have personally exam- 
ined them to be superior to anything of similar class abroad. 

We have made great and rapid progress during eight years of 
naval reconstruction, but we have not yet rebuilt our navy. In 
fact about all we can reasonably say is that we have conclusively 
demonstrated our domestic capacity to rebuild it. 

This grand and growing development of the shipbuilding art, 
with the enormous impetus it has given to cognate and contribu- 
tory industries in every part of the realm of usefulness, is the con- 
tribution of the naval architect and the marine engineer to the 
sea power of the United States. 

To the brave men who make up the personnel of our navy 
may safely be left the task of using whenever duty calls the tre- 
mendous weapons we have made for them to enforce that sea 

power, 

Cbables H. Geaup. 




ClVri AVARS IN SOUTH AMEUICA. 



BV HIS KXeBI^LBNCV THE ABQBXTIKR UIHISTEK AT WASHING- 
TON, B3TANI8LA.0 8. ZXBALLOa. 



Tn E promineut mcu of SuutU Aiuoricaare alirftys eaget to knov 
more about tbu United Slates, to dtudy the development of its 
ctvUization, which has nnfolded m rnpidlj and assumed sach ex- 
traordinary proportions, atid they huve alwu/s been anxious to 
aasist )Q itfl ooDstitationul growth. Much of tbU h&s bcoa the 
neceeetirj seqcence of their political edocation, nnd the ititere«t 
felt hiu tiatnrally been grMit4>st in those republtcs where the 
fedont ■ystem of govoroment hus Uwn ttdopted, a method orcoted 
by AmericttQ cotiaiituunciea. Tlic experieuce gained nnd qoes- 
tioDB solved by the United States; the voids of visdom which 
hare fiUIeii from tIicli|>8or iUgrodt statesmen, such as ITsiniltoR, 
MadiMii, aud Jay ; the profoand learning evinced by such jurieto 
M HBrehall, Story, and Cooley ; the disconrsea of Chty und 
Wobetofr ttad the mesugce and speeches of iU great I'reeideutti, 
became the fonntaini of political knowledge at vrhioh the South 
AoiericsD Duttous drauk deeply ; this knowledge thej hud to 
analyse; and its resulta, for want of traditions of tbcir ovnit they 
followed in tlio biiililing of their own free inetitntions. 

When a South American lands at the port ol New York or 
i$nn Francisco for the 6rat time, he cotaM with bis mind filled 
with ploiuiug illusions, like a man who npproaobee a dear old 
homestead, aronnd the hcanhstono of which his aacestors 
gathered. Ho feels that there really exists a strong political and 
social tie between tbis great Bepublic and those of Spanish 
America, amonnting to &8ort of political relationsbip. The Con- 
gnwset and I'an-Amorican gatherings during the past ten yean 
have also contributed in a great degree to strengthen this senti- 
ment aiul ttio natural impressions of suob a traveller. From the 




CIVIL IVAKS m SOUTH AMBaiCA. 



IBl 



Tery beginning of bin reuideoce in tbia country ho in fnot tubes 
the pleasure and onjoiM ttiu plea8iri>< inipreuiotia wbii-b uconlial 
welcome by theprosa and a warm social roueptioti uuit« in produc- 
ing. It i» this feeling, lurising from thospontADOons hospitality 
and fruikneu «bown toward stmngeri and tlm social facilities 
extended to distiuguialictl pt^rsoLs iti tiiu Utiitod States, which is 
auch a delightful peculianty of tho national ctiaracter, that car- 
riM aw»y tho European and eucbant* the ISpuni^h American. 

It may, howerer, be remurlud that these demonairations grow 
more out of u deairo to get nearer to the Spanish- American peo* 
pies and to know them better than out of any jnat appre- 
oiatiou of tltotr economic, politicoir^ sociol conditions. It lb 
always a aourco of great Hurpriiiu to the trareller in the United 
Stal«B to find that the other nations of tho New World ar« not w 
veil known there as they are in Karope. The press is somewhat 
bettor informed Ihuu the commanity at Urge, but the exigencies 
of modem jdarnalism are xuch tliat whateTer it muy publish daily 
Is neceaaarily of the briefest and most cursory nature, being 
confined to occasioqfd acconats of sensational and extraordinary 
oocarroaces. The s^ial and ])olitical circles are not so well ao- 
qoainted with their ucighburs. Some of those groups scarcely 
know the very names of a few of the Spanish- American countries, 
and their ideas about them are as Tagno and confused as if they 
coacoTDod ngions hardly yot settled or oven axploredt hidden in 
the depths of troekless fonuta or beyond distant seas. 

I have experienced these impressions. Now smd then I have 
met in this countr>- ladies and gentlemen who could discoss the 
Argeulioo Kepublic with tho same well-informed exactness with 
vhiob they spoke of affairs in the States of New York or lUiuois ; 
but these are rather cases indicating uuusual curiosity on tho part 
of Indiridualii. Mycountry iH oortainly not one of the Inuttinter* 
eating upon the immcass Southura Uoutiueat, and yctthe greater 
INirt of DLy good friends in tho Unitod States hare honored me 
with utunberless iaijuines about itu political and physical geog- 
mphyand concerning its habits and customs. Sometimes articles 
bavoappoircd in reviews and magazines, and eren books bare been 
published. withs^mepntODoeoffamishiug new and correct infor- 
mation, hut thoy hare generaliy been i>o filled with mistakes and 
such a jumblu of the real facts as to do injustice to these lepob- 
lics In South .America. .\1] this shows tho meagre results that 



162 



TUB UOmU AMEHlCA^i REVJBW. 



have thns far been accompliBhed in tlie political, social, or Htor- 
ory circles of tliiii country by tiie riuioas Pui-Atiicricaa cou- 
gr>e«8cs thot h»vc bven helii, the numcroui odebrtttiona ond re- 
oiprocal official oourtesieB t>xch»aged, aii well ae by tho work of 
the " Buitiiu uf tho American Bepublic*." But such resalu 
hare been attained in other circles and aometimos of the moat 
eatisractcfry character. Tbo morchantB baro eagerly soiaod the 
offered advaDtuges, and tliBir ^Nimmorcial intercourse with tbu 
couutries of the Xew AVorld baa lucreased from luontU to month 
to much miitnal profit. 

Tho reasons for this lack of information in those political, (so- 
cial, and litorar; circles, concerning the elstor conntrics gf the 
three Americao haviiig a I^atin origin, appear to me to spring 
largely from three fact«. Uue of th««« ie the deScient teaching 
of Spanish- American geography in the schools of this country. 

lu the Argentine Itepnblic, a child coming from agruled 
Bchoal can give a clear and full idea, not only of the 
UQitedStatcaasaixatioD, but also of it« various States. There 
ia probably not a similar American school where thelike would be 
found to exist ■□ TOforoncc to tho Latin Bcpublics. Slilt thcfact 
thjit, in cempariHon with tlie Northern Cotoseus of the present 
ej)och, they are but amall imlions. does not diminish the interest 
that sbonld be felt in studying them ; and tbid eootiment sbonld 
bo greater among tho people of tho United Stated becunse they are 
vitally interested in opening for tho products of their indastrics 
the ricli markets, capable of an enormotm conaumption, which 
the commerce of Enrope has hitherto monopolized and spent so 
mnoh to retain. 

Tho second resson that occurs to me is the lack of good, rapid, 
and obeup meaua of conununicatioUj so that the thonaands of 
Amuricuu travelers are not attracted southward, bnt, eager for 
instniction and diveruon, rash to the numerous resorts in the 
oontral and western regions of their own country, and swarm 
across tho Atlantic to the Old World in inureasingnambers yearly. 
The very few, however, who hare visited these soulheru lands 
hare come back enchanted with their ejpericuces. 

Tho third r«iiaon may bo laid at tho door of these very Span- 
ish-American oonntries, for Uiey have scarcely done anUhing to 
make themselves better known, and the result is that even to this 
tlmu it is almost impossible to find in the English lauguuge any 



CrVIL WARS Iff SOUTH A3tERICA. 



108 



[vnuible general informntion about them, «xcopt pouibi; »ome 
monotonoQii and humdram litoratnre, not Blways complete or 
I!k«1; to iuiluco ImmignitloD. No mutter therefore how oa^rly 
tlitt itiformiitioii might be sought, there hna htaen Terj little where- 
irlUi to satisfy tho craving. M7 ex^icricnce in this special matter haa 
Inwo a very tryiufi; ono uiitl very complete in its vny, for tho liOga- 
tiou anUcr my chargo hiitt li(^-n ilaily beMngbt by lat«l)igeut in- 
quiries for iulermtiug infurmutiua regarding the literatarD. 
eoienoe, and social economics of the Argentine Republic, as well 
H0 t1)u more eommonplooo dati for mere bneiuOBa piiq)oso8. 

The approitch to eaoh other or the different flections of the 
Mew World proceeds but slowly. Tbu S|MUiisb-Amori(:ano)nutries 
have DO mariuo, nor ba%'e they tinRlcient capital to outtirate mora 
intimate relations with fori.^ign peupled. In tho United States 
the shipping intoresta hare boon allowed to decay, while 
capital and onurgy hare been concentmtod upon dometitic enCnr* 
priaps aod internal improrements, learing the buainess eiitorpriKes 
of Europe and its commercial marino to almost entirely oontrol 
the fertile Qolds of Spanish-America. This siuguUr insn- 
latioD has seemed to me worthy of special notice on my 
part at this time ; it is u condition of thingx thut will 
soon disappear when all the countries of Uie New World, hftviug 
easy uiid fwyjuont commnnioition, will be bound by neighborly 
Uh; because when ondenttood it will dispel the mi«talcen 
ideas ooDceniing South Americiin rorolutions which are held in 
the United Statoi, aud oorreot the seuUmcnts of compassion, not 
anfreqneutly mingled with contempt, with whiuh thecilizena of 
this republic regard tlioso countries moiit agitated by ilomostio 
disturboKCfls. 

Tho civil wars which hare occnrred in South America oaonot 
bo undcntood in tho United States, nor the causes leading to 
litem be osplainod, except by au intimate acquaintance with the 
social structure and conditions of each particnlar country. Nor 
is tlie auqirise nnmiturul which it otxuuioned here by tho pro- 
longed ootiditioQ of anarchy reaolting from some of those inter- 
necino struggles, but it is explained by the forgctfatnees of th« 
organio couditloos under which those republic* were formed. 
These rerolnlions are not the work of one man, although they ul- 
ways follow a personal leadership. The despots and the reroln- 
tionlsts are equally the product of an organic iutemul conditioiu 



164 



SOItrn AMKlitCAX REVO 



The States of the Ameriwin Union were founded by enligbt- 
eocd pei>plo, vomprisiuj; uiuong their Domber many roligioas en- 
thusiasts and miRiionnrioa, versod in mnttera of ^roromont. 
Thej hroQght with them as the htuit: uf their eolonioa u moral 
capacity, habits of eiteem and obodiouco for tho regalaiions tud 
dovn for tlie goTernment of civil socio^, aavellaa thv tnulitiooal 
regard for justice ««d reapoct for law opoa which rests the civiU- 
zution of England. From such sceda there sprang u like vonntiy. 
Tbo United States, comparatively near to Europe, thus recelred 
from its most advancod centres the basis of its popniation, which 
oztormiimtcd tbo native Indian, or isolated him in the wosteni 
solitudes, wtlhont any admixlnrt* of blood Bzucpt in very rare io- 
stancea. The Spanish -Amcrioan coantriee, oa the other haady 
were founded by military men of the Middle AgeSt who came 
from 8oothcru Kuropv when tho feudal system was tmporative, 
and at a time when ideas were neither clear nor welt-settled oou- 
oerning the civil and political principles which served for the 
goYi^rnment of all civitizod lands. Besides, the soldier element, 
ovcrywlitiro and ut all timee imprudent and TOotueeomCf did Dot 
receive tbo support of Kuropean emigration. 

The eiionnuuH disUnoes and the barbitrism of the new regions 
impeded tho nutumt citrrt^nt of settlers which begun to flow from 
the Old World, reducing tho colonizing expeditions mainly to 
soldiers and eikmp followers. One of the moet nnmorottsof these, 
which started fur the immense region lying below thu tenth degree 
of sooth latitude on tho continent of South America, did not ex- 
ceed two thonsand poraons. These troopa soon eiiccaoibed to 
tho nuoccostomcd climate, perished with want and by tho hands 
of their Baraga enemies, so that the early European colonies, the 
nuclei around which stttlomeuts and civilization gathered, were 
constantly decreasing in nnmbera. 

In order to maintain the oonqucMt and contiouo tho spread of 
civilisation, tho fjorereignsof Spain and of Portugal initiated a new 
and wine policy, which had for its purpose tho peaceful snbjeotioD 
of the indigenous element and its mixture with the colonists com- 
ing from Earope, Thus there was provided, as a basis upon 
which the nntioual struotares were to be erected, proceeding from 
theae colonieti, a new race of Creoles in which the native element 
preponderated by the number of itn individuals and families and 
even in the propurtiou of blood. 



Crvjl WAS8 m 800TB AMERICA. 



\T£ 



The oatire traditions of either nuconilitioaii] sabmtssioD itnii 
obodieiioe to the Chief, or of implficablo rebellioD agaitui him iu 
case of a revolt, vrnra iYm oiily rtitcm of licreditury political scieoee 
irhicfa the new social commtmities had for their gaidnQce. An 
Jofusion of tb« blood of tho warrior olemuut A Karopean fcudal- 
ism, 80Dietimo3 rebellious against its king mid at others patient 
nnU) dfiith, iDstead of umi-liorutiiig, ouly uoo«iitimtod tho offetits 
at the law of %t>c\a\ horndity in Spanish Amorica. Thew notr 
iKK--iiil flrganisms had therefore an the basic principle of their 
puliticitl goTorntncut \Xm fatal foruiula:~^««po/mM, thai is to 
mst abeolat« aubmissioa to the chief in power, or revolutxim by 
thoM wlio rcttiBtod tho tyranny of the despot either hecaiiBO they 
wereeagor toaabatitotoHomething elw for it nrWcaiise thoy coald 
no lougitr endure ita harden. 

The brutal and ignorant maaeea were thua dividvd into two 
jiftrtiw. Both depnded u[iou foruo. by habit aad tradiiion, and 
tl]«reau1ta arrived at were in truth not likely tobeaolutioos baaed 
upon riglil principlc-it, order, or juatico. Thcso ignorant and pa8> 
aionate maaaee needed to be directed, and tbns there aroao among 
Ihenicertiinleadersondaimiminduni. Like the Ciw^iqiies, orohief- 

' tains among the Indiana, they fon :ided tbeir aothorlty upon force, 
npon tbeir cunningand the terror whtrb they inspired, orelse they 

.■WMored adherents by their geucrotttr and by tlio shelter of tbo 

' weak; thus in v&riona ways sutiafying the savage or timid instincts 
that awajred the passions of the nncivilizcd hordeaof which the 
body politic was muolycompoaed. The sociologic erolntion, from 

'the tragiurcbtfllioDsngiunsl PijcarroiuPerndowntothurucuDtrov- 
olationin BntKil, famishes uawith materials to formulate this law 
— that pnhlic order in lAtin America is socnrc in direct ratio to the 
progresa of education among tho maisefi, and the extent of the 
Biuopean immigrution, which ouuntorhakaoca them. 

TbeBraailiau revolution, in fact, began soma three years ago 
by opriaiugfi among Iho "cowboys" along the Kio Grande. The 
"oowhoya" are a headstrong and a warlike clas!, whose ide&R of 
right are aometimos confuted by their couQdcnce in the arms 
they always carry and ioQueuoed by etont hearte cooatantlj habit- 

.tutcd to danger. Their eiitbuoiastie teiiiperameDta ar« naturally 
naceptjble of being inflamed by that one among their leaders 
who aeema moat inclined to respect their arrogant and eelflah life, 
«iul tbcy are dispowd to rebel against taws paa»ed at a remote capitAl, 



156 



TBE NORTH AMERICAN RKVIKW. 



whan Buch laws molust or interfere with their freedom orcapricee. 
They starUxI & revolt, but in tlic moro fldvaiiccd portion of Bra- 
zil, through tlio centriU regions where San Pahlo ia tlie tne- 
tropoUt and vhev the benefits of a umTeralt; have been felt, 
an well as along tho Sonthern littorul having Rio de Janeiro as u 
focal point, und in tho North, where Bahia and I'cruambuco 
take the loud, there wan no respdnse to the moTcmcnt. Tho 
reroH of the naval Kqaadrou, which carried into the raukii 
of the insorgents some Tery prominent and reapectable officers 
and followora, vaa accidontal and does not conflict with, tho 
principle BDjrgested. A bitter rivalry hud brokt-n ont bctwwn 
the miY:il forceii and the army, and tiiere wiu much paasiooate 
folly, which the Brazilian CApitfil contemplated coldly and vith 
Bome contempt, rofasiDg to take the part of che former. 

Id other Soath American coanfcrieB public order is more sol- 
idly established, and mach more so than is generally believed io 
the United States. Of this Obitc is an example. Its terrible 
nvolatioQ in 1891 was an abnormal and extraordinary npriaingi 
vhich aasnmod tho form of an organic (inestion, that of a conflict 
between the Congress and tho exccntivo power, complicated by 
bitter social ant»gonisma of traditional character. Now all 
is serene, and if the government of Chile coutinuea to 
parsae tho policy of prudence and toleration, which has per- 
mittnl many places in tbo Congrcgs to be liUod by those who 
were defeated in the field of battle, conquerom now through the 
ballot, the moat remote feara of distttrbanoe will dJiuppear and 
Chile will be able to continue ita wise and patriotio evolnLion. 
educating ita masses, extending its governing clatis, tnidittonaily 
limited, with the best elements rising from the ranks of tho 
people, nodor the redemptive ioflaeooe of the schools and the 
ooiversities. 

The periods of peace which have been enjoyed by the other 
South Ainorican conntrics have been each trmeof longer duration, 
and these intervals hare permitted the growthof a conserratlve 
sentiment as well oathecnUnre of thebodyof the people. If the 
political eitnation of all of these natii^ne does not allow the exer- 
cise of that freedom which could bo wished, it is becaose tho num- 
ber of competent electors is lesathsn the nnmber of those who are 
utiprvpariMl to oxeroisc the pririlege which the law of nnivcmal 
flufliage has bestowed upon them, and who are dragged along by 



CJVtl. WAR3 IN ROUTir AMKtilCA. 



187 



fear, by gntltnde, or bjr the infinence of moaey, those efBcaoioaa 
meiuis of dealing with the rote and qvcd tho lUo of tlie Indian 
Bfldtho ignorftmn*. Bntthetirae hns oome when, ovon in thoso 
oonatrics loast regnlarly governed, ihoiio abomiaable tyrannies do 
longer exist which haro been the shame of the Kew World. 

On the other hand, it is not always that the events which 
tranfipire in Spanish America nro appreciated at th«ir real ralae. 
It constantly bftpppng that mere police aSraya or doctoral difl> 
pntea are deHcribed abroad u "reTolntioDK." Tbi« word lias been 
tuwil and abnsed until ithaabeooma meaningless. In the Argon- 
tine Rcpablic, for example, tbo time for roTolotions haa goao by. 
We bare too much wheat and com to plant and horrotit, for rorolu- 
tioDiats to prosper. Novcrtlieleea, my natiTe laud ba< tberepnta- 
tionin Europe, and even bere in thta country, of being arepnblio in 
rvTolt and incapable of self-goToramonl. Tlio etatietics of ite morel 
and mntcrial prosperity prove the contrary. Prom 1869 to 1893 its 
Lpopalation had iiicrea«ed from 1,800,000 inhabitants to .^ISO^OOO. 
The amount of European capital invested in it, principally 
Engliah. French, German, and Italian, alwaya foresigbted and 
veil informfK), exceeded eight handre<t and thirty-eix mitlions of 
dollars, in gold. ItH common public schools, established and con- 
dnoled like thoeo of Massachusetts, with many teachens from 
tiiat State and from MIchigiiii, for thirty years past, have build- 
ings which are actnnlly piilHcci>, nnd some of thorn cannot be 
rivalled by those of any other country in the world. Ktgbty 
. photographs of these echooU full of scLolani were exhibited re- 
'oently in Washington to many distinguiehed people, and ttiey 
were greeted with ezpreesions of Mtonisbmont and admiration. 
/'They ore royal palaces," they said to me ; and yet in them we 
' an DOW educating under com pnlMiry laws more than three hundred 
thouaand children of both sexes, who will form part of the sov- 
ereign pc«pl6 of onr future. 

Our national revenues incrcmted in 1883 to 1124,000,000 ottr* 
nocy, and alt the contracts allecting our foreign debt of ^00,> 
000,000 were fully complied with. 

Sooh eridencea of progress and such proofs of vitality certainly 
do not correspond with reports tliai my country is ungevemable 
and in a condition ol anarchy. We have not yet attained the 
height of perfectiMi. In a country organized under the federal 
ijstem there ia always more or lose disturbance of tbo moral 



HS8 



TBE NORTH AMERICAN REVIEW. 



oqnilibn'nm, for nil the SUton havo not roncbod tlio some adnmofr- 
tnent in thfiirpolilical tiducation, urdonot poasenthssaino iinitod 
govorDing cIom moved by dUinLereati-d aud patriotic tnotiTeaL In 
Bomc of our States tlie natnher of unStelectorsstil] predomi nates, 
while in others, moro adTsnced, the irreconcilable ambitions of 
the ruling and cnttnrod cinseee koep them so diridod that 
thfiy have lost their power, Ind aro defuiited by dittciplinod 
minorities though less competent for tlie exercise of the 
power of government. Thew anomaliee, complic»ted by the 
ardent character of the people, result in electoral canipaignB of 
the moat excitod character and in party strifeu which are de- 
ecribed m " rvToluttons/' withoat reaeou and to the greet damage 
of the conn try. 

It is tme that the Argentine people, originally composed of 
warlilte and heroic herdeni of cattle, have wwted torrentit of 
blood in revolutions and national wan ; bnt they are now au in- 
dastrioQS, active, and hardworking people, providing, after the 
United States, the favorite field for JCnropcan invcsttnenU and 
emigration. They have a capital of 600,000 cultivated lnhabi> 
taiita ; a rich and most advanced system of public instructJon ; 
and a policy of conciliatioa in the conduct of their domestic 
affairs and of poaco by means of arbitration in iutemationn] 
mattern; they afTont conclusive proofs of an aanred progress. 
The transformation has been as complete ua it has becu rapid. 

Such are the fruits of forty years of constant and energetio 
labor for the instroction of the mnssM. Popular education has 
been the safeguard of the Argentine nationality, and it is to-day 
the immntuble bcuis of it« iudepeudcnco. This teaching has per- 
mitted the reception of the honet^t immigrant like a brother and 
Enropcun capital as a benefaction, our people being tumindfnl of 
ancient racial hatreds, dlsr^ardlng religious antngonigms, and 
without jealousies or native snperttitlous. Kducalion. European 
immigration, and the wealth gathered by a combination of capi- 
tal with the strong arms of a people upon their fertile soil, will 
save aud vindicate the name of Boiith America when all the 
States that atm^le for this end, and endeavor to correct the evils 
of the past, Bhall have secured the transform ation in their orgsoia 
Htmcturce which is energetically being accomplished by the At- 
gentlDsBepublic. 

E9TA>tISJ,A0 S. ZBBJU.L08. 




HOW TO PURIFY XATIONAL LEGISLATION. 

8T SBXAT«R WILLIAV VIMCBKT ALLKN, Of MKBKA8KA. 



Is TTconsUtent wUh soond pablio policy thut members of either 
HoQM of CoD(nr«M bo deemed, during their terms of office, froo 
to (leal in etocks and bonds tho Tnliie of which is linblo to bo in- 
crsuod u a direct coDH0qnenc» of CongroiiioQal legulatioD ? I 
have noTor ut aor limo boltcvcd tliftt it wits coiisistoot oitlier with 
good policy or gouil muraJH. Tbo qneption, howevor, bad cover 
praeed itself speciully Hjioti my atteoUou tiDtiltI)« occasion of tho 
ilobate in the Senato, during the extraordinary session of 1893. on 
the bill to repeat the tilver^parchiue clauoe of the Sherman law. 
Tbu puiat iru then raiiscd b; one of tbo Bonators from Nevada 
who offered a reeolution looking; to the appoiDtment of a commit- 
t«» to inquire whether any Senator was an owner of gtoctc in any 
Vatloual bunk. Tlie purposo of the resotntion manifestly was to 
diworer whether Sennton who might vote for the repeal had a 
dirMt pcTSoiuI intortft in anch repeal — an iotoroat grealor than 
that of the frenenil pablio. Thta interest, it was assumed, would 
attat^b by reason of the fact that should the goremment coaee the 
[flsu&nco of Treasury notes the function of itnpplj-ing money to 
the people of the United States would, in an increasing meuorc, 
dcTolrc on the nntioniU bunks, and would be a source of greater 
prollt ac'crniug to them by reiuoa of the passage of the proposed 
mMsare to repeal the 8ilTer>pnroha«e clanae. 

Xa&y S«!natuni did noi di'uui tho rc«olution quil« germane to 
tho mbjoct under oontidt; ration. Whatever opinion may be en- 
toriainod with refereiUM to that point, tbore can be no donbt that 
the gfluenil quostiou Involrcd is oiie that mast sooner or labor re- 
oeiTo the serioiiii attention either of Congress il«olf or of tho p«o- 
pl0. During tlicdiicnuion iipoQ that rosotution it wad broadly 
aacrted in the Senate that a member of either Hou£e of CongrasB 



160 



THE yoKra American revibw. 



h*d &n aoqueetioiLftble right — moral m iroll m logftl — 1« be p«- 
cuniarily intereeted iu slocks and Iwuds whooe value might bfl 
dupeudeut upon hie official aclioQ. The scope o( the coatendoD 
maj be gathered from a remark madt b; one of the Senators from 
New York. "Senators have a right," said ho, " if tbej ai« 
fortnuate enongh to be able to do so, to hold stock iti national 
books or State banks, or in aof other instJlatioms. They hare a 
right to be intereated in matters of finance, directl; or indi> 
reotlj ; and »ny rota which thoy maj giTe indinietlj upon thit 
gnb]cct> namely, with reference to great pnblic mcuaroe, will not 
be nlTect«d by any pecuniary interest they may have." 

I couf«88 that this laognage was a sniprise to me. Up to 
that moment I ha<l not ooncsired it possible that any one would 
be boldenoagh to jnetify the holding, by members of either Uoose, 
of stocks and bonds whose value might be increased by their own 
TOtea. 

IndiMUMtng the qnestion in the Senate I took ocauion to 
say : 

"Ithlnk I nm wilhtn the t>ouiidB ot iratb when I mt ttt«r« ar« & great 
■nan;— liimdreda of thoaunda, U not mlllloos of people Iu tbla miion wbn 
bellers thki much of tbe losl^UtloD that eontea trom Congraw U InflnoDoed 
bj the porvon'tJ inMnnbi of mnnboni ot Congroat. If ch«7 &r« mlstakM In 
iheix bcilel, U)«ii it is du« t« Ibe membus of thU bodr Mid tiM otbtr Honaa 
tbac tboy [tbo people] be full; intormcd and eDUj|ht«scd upon the aabjeot, 
fora widen pread atu pi clon issometlmon almost as dstriineoLal Inltaofltct 
apOD ttic public aa a rereUUao of Ibo tnilb." 

With a Tiew to bringingthe matter formally to the attention 
of the Senate at some time when it could be diecaasod on its mor- 
itii. unaffected by particular meesnree, I introdocod, on Jane 6th 
last, n bill of which the following is a copy : 

A BILL 

TO PBESBRVE THE PlfRITY OF NATIONAL LBGtSLATION. AND 
FOR OTUBR FUBPOSES. 

Bs-il enaetM by tkt Senate and HoMtt of RrprtMntatiwa of the UtkUtd 
81 aUs of A mtrUa f n Congrt^s atttmbUd, That from and af Ur tfa« paMag* 
ot tUa Act it «liUl b« unlawfalforany Sonatoror BaproMUtaliveoC the 
United StaUa, durinti; bb tenu of offlc«, to own or bo ooDOcrood dltcctlj- 
or iDdlrecUj In owolng. liuTf nK> or Mlliog. or In aaj maaiMr dealtoK In apac- 
uUtircatocka, the value of ihleli may. Id anf maoner, depend upon a vote 
ol Coagrasa : nor shall anj' surb Sa^nator or Reprcanntatlra, darlnit tbe tenn 
of hU said (Met. be a member of, or In any manner p««uu(arllj! liit«reat«d Is, 
any board of trada, atoek «xebaag<s naUonal baak. or other orsanlxaUon In 
wbicbap««ulatlT*atooltaai«l>oa|^toraotd. 



sow TO PVntFY HATIOSAL LEOKLATIOS. 



161 



Sac. 2. Thftt uiy Micfa United Sutcv Seiiiuor or nepreNntallTc wbo 
shall be touo<I{[alli7o( tIoIUIda an; of Ibo pro>-l»loiuof tbJa Acttbftll for- 
feit hlnofllce, <uiil. upon proi>er rcMoiutlon. hIibII liocxpellvdfroin UMbondi 
t>t Congress to whieb be btloogs, aii'I. lb mldltlon tli«reto, ho shail b« salv 
]«ct- to indktiuent, proseeuUon, aod coavlcUou tor aucb offtatu In aDjr 
Oolkd Sut«*GircaLi court wlt^la ibg dbtricl in vUcb aucb offeooetaor 
tamj be oommUtvd. 

SlOift. Tbu tiL-reaflcr, before any Hocb Senator or ItcprcaeolatfTelo Con- 
gniBlsadmlUcd tobisaeat Uiereia, lie aball be r«>tuiml. lu ailitiUon to the 
oMhnoiT reqolred oC bim by Ian, to takaftsd aubaeriba tlwfollowiiigoatb : 

"And I fiirtbaraiot*aoleinnl7a««arfor«fflrai,aatl)eoaa«marb«)that 
I will not, durii^ my tara or office, bn; or soli or be in anr oianneroeB- 
oemod lu bujriuK, aelUng, or owuiok uaj apeooIallTe atocka. or bcoouio r 
Dumber of anj bo«rd of trade, stock cxcbanirei natloaa] bonk, or other or- 
caatMClon In wblob aiMculallve xucka ar« boutcht or nold." 

WhflD the bill is reacbod in ita order for deUite I shall move 
to ameDd it by proecribiDg a penalty, in additioa toexpalsion, for 
a riolalion of ita provisions. 

Is there a ooccfrity for tbc enactment and enforooment of a 
law of thu) chnracter ? Within the limits of the present article it 
would be practicuble buroly to indicate -vory few of the rensoiis 
wbiob I ooDMiTe to be controlling on tbia qaestion. 

Tbo law has condensed the wisdom of tho agea into the raaxim 
"No man can be a judge in his own case." All human ex- 
perience has demonstrated bejrood the shadow of a doubt that it 
woald be putting hnman nature to a te.'t altrtgethcr too aevere to 
expect a wholly impartial exposition of law from a judge wbo wae 
bimaelt pecuniarily interested in the rentilt of n suit tried before 
him. Hence in this conutn- itha« become an uiideviatlng rulo for 
jndgea not to ait in cases in which they are peraooally concerned. 
Shoold they do eo, the rule is equally well settled that their 
judgments wonid bo abgolutcly roid and of no effect. The 
momenl it Hhould appear of record that the judge was pecuniarily 
interested in tbc rcsnit of a litigation tried before him, he would be- 
ooine ipoo facto deprived of juri^iction. This is apon the brood 
groand of pablic policy — apon the ground that to permit judges 
to act In 8uch cases would be to encourage corrupt practices on 
(he pnrt of tho Judiciary, and would lead to groas injustice. 

It is well known that tbc judiciary of this oonntry is of the 
very highest character for probity and integrity. Yet the law. 
wiUi a merciful regard for human feelings, doclincs to permit any 
Judge to sit in his own case. Why should not this benefloent 
rule be applied to the leeislalire as well a« the jndtcial hranob of 

VOL. CLIX.— SO. 453. II 



THE NORTH AMERICAN REVIFAV. 

the GoTertimoot I* If, in the cane of un inlerpreftr of laws— 4iid 
sneb, in the last aiialjaU> a jud^e mwA bo eoid lo bu — it is too 
macb to expect that he vill oiKorve the Btriot«8t impartiality ifi 
acaite in which ho is himsolf pc«;nuiarily iuterested. wh&l divinity 
Bbuuld hedge It f7uil-er of laws to ahield him from the oporatioti 
of the same priociple ? Wiiat diep&rugemont of bis chsracter 
can be invoked in a hiv whioh woald have the effect of removiog 
from him even the HUBpiuion of wrongdoing ? 

Congress poasesses exclusive legiiihitive jurisdiction OTsr nil 
matters aatiooal in character. Whetlier for good or ill iU laws 
oponto witli fill] and dircot force upon all citizens within the 
oonSnen of the Republio. Why bIiouM not it« members, chnrged 
with Euuh grave ruspuiuibilities, and executing for the entire na- 
tion m delicAte and far-ro&chiag a truat, be compelled to observe 
the same degree of propriety tliat the laws reqaire to be obsorred 
by members of the judicial branch of the Government i* Why 
sfaonld they not be required to refrain from practices that would 
coiiRtitnte a eerieus ofTeut-'e in a judge of the most obscure local 
ootirt ? If it would be too much to expect that one class of public 
oflicials, and thoee acknowledged to be of the higbest integrity 
nnd probity, can act impartially in a ca«e in wiiieh their private 
pecuniary interests uonfliutwithan impartial performance of tbcir 
public duties, what good reason cau be urged for exempting from 
tlie opcrutioR of the same wboleaome priuoiplo another class of 
public scrrants of nece^arily no higher — inasmach as there can 
be no higher — degree of int«^ty and probity ? 

Doubtless some critics will tiay that my reaaoning would lead 
to the exclusion of Sonutons and Ituprciicutatiroti from engaging in 
any honorable private occupation during their terms of office, or 
inveeting in any property which, as an incident of the geooral 
prosperity iudnced by beneficial legislation, might be increaaed in 
value. But my langoage will not bear this int«rpretation. I seek 
by the proposed bill merely to restmin Senators and Represents- 
tires daring their terms of ofBce from owning, or being concerned, 
directly or indirectly, iu owning, buying, nelling, or dealing in 
speculative stocks, " tht value of which may in any manner de- 
pend vpon a Bote of CbngrMs." I am snre the country demands 
thi&oftbea, just as a private employer would demand of one 
whose Ntrviooa be had engageil that hf should refrain duriog bis 
term of service from entering into any bosioesa tbat might con- 



HOW TO PURIFY NATIOSAL LEOISLATIO.y. 



163 



Diet with th« interesU of (be employer lnlruat«<l to the cam ot 
the person employeil. The tine of demarculton ia cleur. la ordur 
ttuit the prohibition may tnk« effect, tliu stocks niid bonis must 
bo o[ n ohanH:tar to bo diroctt; affected by a veto of the ^luator 
or UepmeutatiTe. Mo man of ordiuarjrobounraLioii or experience 
of life uontiJ linro the sligliteat difHcutty iti distinguialiin}; such 
AtocksitDd bemia from tbom In which iuTOBlinont would uot bo 
prohibited. 'I'he distiiictioo is pUin, and capable of rwdjr en- 
Foroomeat. Id my judgment every mnn who enters the pnblic 
MrvioD agrees, at lea«t imiiliedly, th»e he will not enga^ during 
hia term of otlico iu any private sorYtce, or bo ooni:wrDod in any 
privato buaiite$9, that might oonSirt with bis public duty. 

The topic would admit of wide expansion, bnl I will uot par- 
gae it. I will simply aay that in my jadginent the perpetuity of 
the Republic depends in a very largo measure ufMtn a higher pa- 
LriotiGm, « more exulted voaception of public duty, and a more 
rigid lidolity to the common wolfive than ih couHiBtent with the 
theury that mombort of the national Le^Iaturo may he engaged 
in speculating in stocks and bonds whose value may bo affected 
by their own rotes. 

The statement has been made, and dwelt upon with emphasis, 
that tboro is no statute making such sjwculatton a orimu or pre- 
aoribing a punlnhnient for i(. Thai must \k nmcodcd. It is for 
UuA reason that I havo pru}>Utfixl the bill to wlut^h I have mfurrDd. 
I think a grieroos neoesaity exista for the enactment of a atatato 
that will effectually put a stop to the peroieious practice. Should 
that hill, or one containing tiinitlar provisions, beoome a law, the 
ofTeodiDg member eliuuid not only be expelled in UiHhonor* but 
should lie snbjovt, in dur form, to indictment, proeocotioii, and 
conviction, a« he would be for the commiimion of any otberurimo, 
or as wonld be the case with any ordinary criminal. The higher 
and more delicate the duty impoBed upon men. the more rigidly 
should they be required to refrain from doing aught that would 
bring into qneetion the purity of their purpofte«. 

Honoo, to the oath which, by the Coogtitntion, is required to 
be taken by a member of the national Legiidature before being 
permitted to oconpy his seat, I would add a provision by which he 
would swear that, during his term of office, he wonld not bccon- 
eemfd in buying, »elling, or dealing in speculative stook^, or be- 
oome a member of any board of trade, stock exchange. National 



164 



TSB NORTH AMERICAN REVIEW. 



iMnk, or other organisation " I'rt -which tpwulatiw stocks ar« 
bot/ght or sold." These sareguards, rigidly enforced, snd eopple- 
mi'tited by an enlightoned critical public wntiment, woald acoont* 
push a pnrpow which erery patriot must dMtra to aco accom- 
plished. It iroDld place the coantrjr apoa a sounder basis of pub- 
lic and private morality. Some degroo of political corruption will 
alvays be snspecled bo long w public sentiment tolerates a dab- 
bling by memberii of Oongrcea in Bpeculaliro siooks. There will 
always bo more or loss newspaper criticism of the motivce of leg- 
idlators, and constant Boggeetious of tho wisdom of iDquisitorial 
jnrogtigation into the private affairs of Senators and RoprMento- 
tivoB. 

1 admit that an ideally perfect repabiio la cot of tfao qaos- 
tion. " Times cbauge, and men change with them." The per- 
fect work of to-day may, a few ysHrs henoe, be demoiutrated to 
be anything hnt perfect. But this is no reaaon why the people 
ehould not require of their public serraotd the same degree of 
fidelity to duty that private employers would require of thou 
whom they take into their service. 

Socent investigations into the method of transacting the pub- 
lic busint'ss have coiirinccd mc— I say it with all duo respect — 
tb»t a higher ideal of public service than that which at present 
prevails is of the utmost importance to tho country. While legis- 
ktion must always be in some degree imperfect, ag men are imper- 
fect, yet it should he fnuncd by men of high ideals, inspired by 
sach patriotism and love of country as will always subordinate 
the more pornonal interest of the legislator to the vastly greater 
interests of his coantry. 

W. V. Allbs. 



MY CONTEMPORARIES. 

SOUVKNIKS OF SOMK CELKBKATEU PEOPLE OP 

THE TIMES. 

BY iVLSa VLAKHriK. 



I TStKK them U nothiuKBwoeler in tliovrorlil, uftcr the joj of 
liriDg wiLli those whom one lovei, than the rpmembrimoe of tbow 
«hoia oue baa loTed. Agv which briags maof dijsltlusious also 
hi> it« oonttoUtions. It allows one to claim from the past what- 
erer, vithur nffcotiai^or rooiiLrkabli}, it muy contain. 

In looking bockwurtl at tlicso oue hm known in former timet 
one lifes otie'a lifu ovt*r u^iii, but without the trouble of it, linil- 
iag ereii ici the (lisappoiiidiieiits of the puat a certain niclaucholy 
Mt entirely vithoiit charm, jaataa after one has recororeil from 
licknow on« firtda in conralosconcu something indescribably dc- 
liglttful. I do not in any sonw) mciui to «ay by this thiit life id a 
tDorbii] thing, for which the rumedy wuiild be repose. No, 
uiilhing so avails OS the bnnittn struggle to fltrengtlien the inonit 
aii4| Riuiital forcos; but after the oouteat, wlmt ia more charuiug 
ttiao to recall it ? 

It has been my lot to knovculebruted people — nearly all thow 
who have mtwle oor Umat illustrious. I hare either seen 
tfaODi in tliuir glorious and sometimes sovereign old nge, like 
Victor Hugo, or at their dibuts, olHcars uud poor, but dream- 
hlg of glory and fortune, like ^niile Zota. I have aaso- 
ciate«I with Hicbetet. whose ardent wordH made me eutbu- 
siastioat twenty. I have, though very young then, been treated 
as a friood by Sainto-Benve. I still hear the roioa of Alexandra 
Dnmaa the elder, recounting to main bis boasting tones his re- 
membraooofl of Naples aud uf his collaboration with Garibnidi. 
Emila Au^^er, Ui wbi>ai ParL« will soon erect a statue, fortueil one 



166 



THB XORTH AMKRICA.W RRVJEn: 



of the affeotioDs of m; joting life. I Kooll&ot Alpbooae Daadet 
at twenty yeatn of agd, lisndsome lu a Hiudoo god, but sick, so 
thikt, as he was starting for Atgeris, ve s&id, "Tbo |H>or fellow, 
vc shall 8C0 him iio more I " He was then known only as tlie 
author of tlio delicious poem of thu Poubk Convtr*io7i, aiidof the 
romunoe of the Chaperon Rautjt. Since then he has become 
one of the raastfirs of contemporary flotioii and of the French 
laiijcuMge, and, thank Ood, we have seen him ag^n, and we «ee 
bim evvry day. 

Onr son!) are now makinf^ thcirappcarnnce, and L^on Dandct 
CODtionos hia fathor'e ^lorioua iiamu. Rouently in viaiiing tlie 
salon of the Sociiii SiUionaie ties Beaux Arts in the Chiimp de 
Mam, I Htopprtd boCoru two pictiircw namhered S77 and 678 ; one 
represented " Old l''esgels," the othortbo armed tc9»1 ■' Devasta- 
tion." The two marine pictured are signed "Q. HngOt" and 
"Q. Hugo" is Georges Dngo, the grandson of the great poet. 
Htt hud learned to work in crayon before he became a 
eaitor. Ue was at saa for itome years and while on board 
contiuut;d to ]>aint in addition to big other labors. Ue is 
now an artist and exhibitor. Well I sou it uU a;fiiin — he quite 
Hmoll and I drawing figures, soldiers, and Euuiivcafor hiia during 
the siege of Paris, while his father, Charles, and his white- bearded 
grandfather, Victor llugo, vatcbed my pen forming Sgares on 
the paper. How time pawes I Victor lingo ia dead, demi also 
and (before him) is my fnend bis sou Charles. And the small 
child of whom the poet then sang in " VArltPHre Grand-pin" 
now Imndlos the brash. 

" Oo on ! Another xou&tq I " ho would say long ago when 
I stopped. And Victor Hugo sinlliug would remark : " Obey, 
I admit but one tyranny ; indeed I am not satisfied with admitting 
it, I prtxtlaim it. It is the tyranny of children." 

At that lime I had a projeut fur publishing a book — a nort of 
protest of liberal youth against the Bmpire — under the title, 
Memoire tVun Ilumme de TrttUo Am. I wished to bring forth 
in it all the grierancee which with oar repubticnn aspirations we 
had against the Imperial riginu. I waited till I was exactly 
thirty yearsofagntooomnienoe that book. When the timeoamc, 
wn had aoinethirig else to think of than writing ! Did we eren 
know if we wonid e?er write again i* It was in December, 1S70, 
and the enemy was at onr gates. I put off the MimoirttTun itomme 



jif K coarKUFOKAjafcs. 



lOT 



d* Tr$Hta Am \a tho lust moment, and tlicn put od a soldier's 
cloak. To-<]Hy as [ think of liiAlprojoctoil book wliicb will imtat 
b«publis))i?<l, Igiveil a ili(T«reDt title and form in my mind. 
Man Apoiidn his IJFo iu building ciuttloa in the future. As I 
iraitcd in those dnys to b« tliirty b«fore irriting tbo flnt line of 
ih9 Mhmoire iVuH ffomineilt Tr^rnto . 4 lu (whioh wua never penned) 
I km iraitingto-ila/ for the end of the pn<9«ent century to [mblish, 
at the oarticHt dnw» of the twentieth century, a Tolnme of my rec< 
oIlvctiouH uud iinprossioiu, wbioli I sUalt call Soueenirg du Sxicle 
dernier. But, of coursu, to realize tliia new drcnm Ood muft, as 
we wy, lond nia life. To all his plans Victer Hugo always added 
" D<ii volenio." It h ptrhiipa wftll, therefore, to make ha«t« and 
not to defer thoacoumplidhmont of any work whateyer to a date 
Biod by onraclros, which fate may not always permit na to 
reach. Du we know, indood, whether or not we ahull linish the 
page that we hiive l>egiin ? 

The Memoir (hut 1 widh to preserroof celebratail men I hare 
knuwii — writers, |xditioiiins, pninton, comedians, eoldiere — will 
help niu to coinjwae my Stiuvenim du Siiela dernier, when tho 
ninetaeulh century shall have given pUce to the twentieth. 
Perhapa at that time the fame of many who are eminent as I 
write may have suffured damug*!. iSvcry now generation isaevore 
enough upon thiMO who have preceded it, and oar young people, 
who found a nt-w literary or artistic aohool every fifteen days, 
willingly class (heir cldcra among tho " luvaiideit." 

It oramB to mo that wo were less anxious to scalp those who 
w<nt before ns. AdmirattoQ for the masters was one of the 
virtnea of our youth. I rooall tlmt one night at the llrst 
reprt-sentution of Le Lac de Olenoxion, a weak FreiR-h atlap- 
tation of one of Dion Bouoicault's plays, at the Ambigii, I 
saw, from tho top of the second gallery where I hod bad 
diflioulty in securing a place, two youiig men enter. They 
took seats in the orchi-atru, the one smiling, lively, restless, fair, 
and noisy — the other iUr«a4ly stout, quiet.and nimostafay. They 
werfi Kdmond Aboat, then in full rogue, and Franoisquo S«reoy, 
who was serving, but already with brilliant sttcoees, bb Stst 
campaign as dramatin critic in the Opinion Xttliotiale, Tbe 
■IjCiit of those two young masters in journalism put me in such a 
state that 1 listttned no lougcr to tho pluy. I believe that 1 did 
not miu much. I watched Bdmoud About; I watched Sarcey. 



TBE NORTH AUERSCAK liUVJEW. 




Tbej were aaluted bjr nil. Tho actresses smiled outhem. "Ah I" 
] thought to myaelff "Shall I over bo able to follow tfaoir foot- 
il«iu?" 

To-day I am persaaded that not only if poor About, who Is 
den], bnt my friend Sarcey, who ia strong and in good condition, 
enterod a thnitra the youug people would not eay to them> 
n1tu» " WouM thnt I might some day be ltic« hioi I " bat rather, 
*' 1 winh I could wring hid neck this very day 1 " It ia progress ; 
Sarcey knows it well, and laughs at it often. 

We editoil at that time a small litoriLry paper which appenr«d 
every week, and vrbtch ma colled Diogine. This journal, 
■atiriciU like all yumig ptiblichtiona, carried in front a piotiire of 
Diogenes, with a lantern in his hand, looking for a man among the 
groat men of Paris. The great men at that time were after Victor 
Hugo, AlcxMtidre Dumas or rather the two Damaa* Th&ophile 
Oautier, Jules Janin, Sainte-Beuve, Jnles SandMa, Ars^ne Houa- 
saye, and muuy others; and among dramatic artists Frfidirio 
Lemaitre, M^lingne, Samson, Ilegnier, Provost, Mme. Plessy, 
Augustine Brolmn (or rather tlft Hrohans, Augustine and Ha- 
deleiue). Ihichel was dead. I had soon the funeral leave the house 
in which she lived in the Place Aoyule not far from tho reaidenoe 
of Victor Hugo, on a January morning, and I recollect the enor- 
mous head of Aleiandro Dumas {pire\ like tho forehcud of u good 
giutit, towering above tho crowd that bod gathered t« take a lost 
farewell of the tragcdiennf. 

The day after the funeral, Oranier de Oaasagnao wrote in his 
journal, l^ Jihpeil, "Tragedy is forever shroudL-d in the tragt- 
diuDuo'a uofSu." Oranier do Couagnac did aot foresee Saruli Bern- 
hardt. 

We sought therefore with Diogenei' taDtom for great men, 
and when we found them we gave them the respectful salntatiou 
of our twenty years. But we looked above all for youruf men, 
oud I remember having seen one night at H. Pool Ueurtoe^ia 
the Avenue Kroohot, a thin vouug man, with very fair, nearly 
golden, hair, and with peculiar dreamy and fixod vyua, who had just 
published a first volnme of rersee. There was alittle pioce of hia 
being performed at tho Thfidtrode I'Odtou. 

"And tho title of your piece is ?" we uskod tho yoQUg poet 

'• Its name is L» Pannani." 

It was Francois Copp£e. 



AfK COlfTEUlORAJaES. 



ie9 



I bad bmn strnck by tlio rpMmblatico of the author, sooq to 
be celebrated, to Victorien Sortlon. Ami I bad alao aeen Sar- 
iloQ, DoniD yean berora in tbe humblo compiliiiR office of tbe 
Dio^ine in the Paaaago Sanliner, to which ho ha<t come to tbaok 
Qi for an article that bad treatwl of ono of h'u flnt ptooM, hia 
tint siictiOM, Lt» Pattaa de M>mrh*, Uy first article for Oiogltm 
bad a{ip«ntrvd in the auoio number wilti u wrclchiMl {tortrait ropre> 
aentingVictoripDSardou coming oat ofanegg— a tbio, einaciiiteil 
Sardou, tlie profile aharp, hislonghair falling in stiff rings close U> 
his hollow ohvekg, II Stmloii who rofwnibhMl Honaparte in ItiUjr 
Diucli uiort' (.hull KrancuiH Copp^-u did Victorivu 8iirdou. 

I did nut knuw tbe author of tiie Fatten ite Monche other 
than from tliia distorted picture, antil one tnoniing I saw u thin 
jQUDg man equoozwl into n black surtout, biuhigh wcU-modolled 
forehead aumiounttKl by thick bliiok hair, enter tlie office of 
oar little paper. Bright eyea lit up bis face, vrhicb wtwi of an ex> 
tiBordinary fineness, but what atnick me most aboat his expre^ 
don was the amile, slightly ironical, though amiable, which gave 
bis profile the aspect of that of Era«uro. At that time 
(I apeak of thirty ycara ago) M. Bardou had aboro all the 
Oteaarean riaage of tbe young Conqueror of Toulon, and ho bud 
alao taken Tonlon, 1 mean to say that ho bad gained there bis 
first Tictory and the most difficnlt one, — that which opona the 
giitG« of the future and decides a whole exiiiteiice. He wiui thirty- 
tiro years old and, at oncv, in one night, he had thrown from bim, 
like a too heavy cloolc, all the years of that nobte miaery which he 
bad conqaered. I do not know of any yonng man engaged iu 
the atruggle for life in Paris whose career was moredignilicd and 
ooarageous than bia had been. It ought to scrre as an ciamplo 
to all artiats who dream of fame. 'and who despair becanae ebe doea 
not oomo to them at their first Rail. Before iiia repntatioa waSM- 
tablilbed, or more correi^tly before achiering hia first encceat, 
Victorieu Sardou bad worked atronuouuly, manfully, to gain 
before the millions of the Cnture a commandiuf; place. Quite 
yoDRg, baring already written a trugody which he deatiued 
for Rachel, La Rein$ Vtfra, and one Bernard Falttsy, Viotorion 
Sardou thought he had won his place when he prodnccd a comedy 
in T«ne at the Od£on entitled La Taeenie d*i £tudiatUs, which 
was outrageonaly hissed. It reprosentad some German itu- 
dents who were drinking beer, after the fashion ot German stn- 



170 



THE mOBTB AMERICAN' REVIEW. 



d«nta, And the «tndeDta of Paris thought tfaat in pn^soDtinjr 
tbflM drinking-scciKJS the aathor of tbo aev plnf insuhod the 
coDege youtlis. And how they protesited ! I do Dot know whether 
the piece vm fiuiaLod. but ut all uvciita it was brunglit to un end 
in the midst of an indcficribiible tnmnlt. The poor TaverM rfw 
Jaudianta had alaorerybad luck. In the middle of nn imjiortAiiL 
loTO scene, on which Vintoricn Ssniou had counted much, the gHn 
suddenly went out, and for ftilly a quurtcr of an hour the whole 
tbefttie was pluu^cd, like Orestes, id profound darknew. Tlie 
audience availed LhemeolvM of tliia opportunity to make a deuJ- 
cning uproar, while tho nnfortnnnto author, broken-hearted at the 
sliipwrDck of bis hopun, hrlpod behind the aocnee- 

But Sardou wit£iiotone of tbow who allow themwlvcs to bo 
beaten. *' I have never been unsueceasfii)/' he said to mo one day, 
*' that the failure has not rebounded and coiidncLud me to greater 
Bucceaa." He was cost down by tliat tcmpcsTuong dUrnt. He said 
he would lift htmsclf up a^iu. Hut ho hod to live and, a« Kmilv 
do Oirardin had said, the frcat thing in this world ift to tndurt. In 
order to eudure, that is to say exiel. Victorian Sardou worked at 
all the honest trades that a poor scholar could And. He wrote 
bifitoricul etudics at ono eou a line for l-'innin Didot'e Hiotiraphie 
UnivtrstUe, every line of which cost him two or three hours of 
reeearoh and labor. He showed uie an essay on Erasure written 
at that period, a marrel of rare learning. The Biographif of 
Uidot contained u life of Jerome Cui'dan, by him, wlitch showt-d 
amount of cniditiDii which vas extruordinnry. It wu abo 
turated with thetipiritof the sixteenth century, wbiuh Meyer- 
beer's fluffvtnois and Micholet's writings have brought so conspic* 
uoualy forward, and of which he later on miulo ttui.'h ii tbrilliug 
episode in bis Quo dratuik of I'atfit. In order that he might not 
fall the next time he should try his work at tlietbeatre, he divided 
bis time between two occupations— his hingrAphienl work and his 
mt'fier ot drnmntic author — and the means which he employed 
to learn were both «ini]>Ie and very heroic When ho went to the 
iheatro he listened with paasonate attention, noted the good 
points and the fanlts, and returningto hishome he voald rrcon- 
struct and rewrite his play entirely, labor which otlien: would have 
found unuecossnry, but which enableil him to ucquire the touch 
of a maat«r. Ue has besides, much liit<'r in lifCi utilized io bis 
work thoee fragments and exeroiatw of his youth. 



uy coyTBMPORdmES. 



171 



All thU work, however, nervoil meroljr to proTide a bftre lir- 
ing for liini, but did iiuthing in Lli« wny of Kniiring oomforL 
Beiag Qn&rried lie wielied to give a HtUo luxury to Uia wile. 
Tfaen 1)0 loved his books. Ho ofton found hiiniiolf in inti* 
mate coiiTvr«tti(iii with a young miui, « pool, rtanittd Edmond 
Itrxrlir, wlio idmi drwiuit-d of glory uitd tvlio, wliile unfiling, lilird 
a rory ntwlt-at poailioii nt tlio Puria Custom lloueo. Itotibe mid 
Sardoti exchanged their drcums and the rooouiiU of their cx- 
periwiCM. " Hah !" Bftid Ronhe. "You will juihicve jour aim, 
joa are teniiam^d far thn ntrugglt!, but I will never Uhtk tbn timo." 
NcTCrthelcn gturj eiiiilL-d lintton E<lmoiid Kuclic. Throujth the 
CIhi doors hb saw ouc day comiug into tho litlto otTico whicii he 
occupied ill the Custom House a nmn tli«ti very liltk' known in 
PariB, who hnd come from Gernmiiy to 8e«k Applause from the 
PuriNiuDH. " MimKifur," Ruid Im lo ItiH-lie, " they t«l1 riii^tltatyoD 
spvkk (JtTniun well iind nli^i that you know my works; I ULttlntrnna- 
lator to pniBout tlivm to the French publit.'. Will you colliibonit« 
with uie Eulb!)! irnuBt-itioii ? I uin Richard Wiignur. " ItM^emedto 
Itochp as if it wuKthfl Mfuoniili in person who entered the Oustotn 
Uuusu. lio triLiinliitcd 7\tnnA<iu«er, Lo&engriu, and the Flying 
DuUkman, and SiLrdou aaaittted in perfe<jting the work. After all, 
Hoclio Itud giiessHl correctly — ho had not time to wait. Consumji- 
tion currirtl hiin off, and •Sardon wrote u preface to his postbu* 
moua {Hiunix. 

Vietorien Sardon himself was losing p^itionee, and at the time 
that M. ilouliguy, the direcUir uf tht; Uyiiinast?, aocoplui) bis 
Paiieif lie ifourbt, the future author of xurh famoutt workti miM 
poadvring aa to whethar ho should luave Franco for the New 
World. He had even made inquiries as to the next boat leaving 
for Americn, as ho wished to aeek hia fortune in Now York, 
when M. Momiguy wrote to him, " Come : your play isacoeptod." 

"AI«o," Sardon told mo. "I araa littluKuiicntitiouaund I have 
always bad confidence in my star. For insluuoe, one day whcu I 
was profoundly muUncboly I Ktop|>cd by a po^l at the aide of a 
door, which I can still see, to allow a large wagon dlled with 
enorraona building atonoa to pou down a atroot to my right, 
SuddftiUy, withoDt any reason, I loft the place where I waa and 
movwl a flhort distanoe away. Scarcely had I (|uitt«d the post 
where I bad been a few aocondg prerioaaly when one of the lai^ 
atones all pficd from Uic wagon and crushed — yea, literally cruabed 



172 



TBE NOltTir AMERKAy WiSlTfc'ir. 



— & poor devil of a walor-csrrior wlio liad Gteppuil into the pla<M 
vhioh I had just quitted, and which I always look at in pasaiag 
dong that Btrcot ; and I said to mjeelf us I vrr,tch«d thnm carry 
the corpse to a dru^ store : ' It i« yuu who ought to bare 
died if fate hiid ho willed. Kate protects you. It's a good aiga 
— Forward ; aiid courage ! * " 

This incident which I hare told, amoug the many that I know 
of Sardoii, liaa always struck me most forcibly. When he CAtae 
to s(.'6 Qs at the office of Diogin* ho hud already emerged trium- 
phantly from tliBt period of dark Borrow. He had enoonnterod on 
his way a goud fairy in the person of the comhlienm Virgiuiu 
DSjaxet, who played Ltt Ptaniires Amiex da Figaro for bitn. a 
Bmart aiid juvenile piece which revived the spirit of Beau march ajs. 
lie wns soon going to bring out Xos intimes, a brilliant sacoeeset 
the Vaudeville Theatre then situated In ths Place de la Bourse, 
(where afterwards I saw Charles Dickens on the night of the first 
repreeciitatiou of L'AMve)ai\<i Victorieu Sardou glowed under 
the Bret kiaaosof glory. 

He fascinated me from our first interriew, and be asked ine 
to visit him in the Phice de la Bourse, lie gave me tickets for 
his next play* Not Intimcii; and oa he hud guu^isd mu to be a bib- 
liophile, he showed mo his old books, of which some were pre- 
cious, and which he had picko^l up at the stands on the quays for 
two and five sons. 

1 remember titat Brst vixit. Victoricn Sardou lived in the 
corner of the Place and the Hao Notre Dame dcs Victoiree, in a 
mnall apartment under the slat«d roof. In faet, it resembled a 
little the garret of Honapnrte, tieutenant of artillery, on the qnayt. 
Snrdou worked thoro at a table or on a shelf ; everywhere one 
saw books, books stitched, books in old bindings, mauuftcripts 
and heaps of pa|H?rg. When ho was writing, his bead ww always 
ooTcred with a velvet cup, and on that day ho was dressed in a 
red flannel coat like tbo shirts worn by the followers of Qari- 
baldi. It waa front that vidit that our thirty years' friendship 
dated, a sentiment whose strength and depth I have experienced 
more espcciaUy in certain hours of trial. 

Who would have said that I should one day take part. In the 
6rsl thentrc in France^ in one of this young debutant's plays? 
Nothing conid have led me to think that I would bo the 
Director of the Coia^it Franeaiat and I little dreamed of it. I 



MY CONTEitrORA fUKS. 



178 



ita7o seon Sardoo at bomo in tlio ChJlt«aii dc Atarljr, which lio hnd 
filM with priiiooly mritios; I bnvn seen Iiim chittt)D2 in the 
woihIs, wftlklnji briskly ; and wo hara soarchcd for the traces of 
th« fugitive Aiidr6 Chonier in the environs of his dwelling. I 
have Been him happy amidst hin own, between his charming wife 
and his children, wlio are hia life. I bnvo eeea him on tho stage 
directing the reheiiraii] of hia work, itietilliug the siicnid Hro into 
the aclorB, the ninsiiciHn.1, tlie 8iip«rnumeniries— «Tcry one. For 
me he hiu remained IhuidriU of Hfe, a man better equipped for tfao 
literary battle than any I have t^ncoantered : cnUinsiaBtic aboTA 
all, interosl«d in everything, attracted by every work of art, by 
every qaoetiou, and by every problem ; kiiowiuj; everything, road* 
log everything, understanding everything. He ponrs forth in a 
dtBcaesioD on litcrutnrv or in the defence of (ho itilcrutts of the 
Society of Dramatic Anthon, or in the directions given to the 
scene paint«r or to the architect, a weuith of entrancing eloquenoe. 
Ru wouM have mad^ a wonderful journalist, a unique debater. 
And how ecnipulone he ia ! After the enspeiision of hia drama, 
Thermiddr, ho resolved to trunsposo the play into a novel. Ho 
was to hare called the book [m Tfrrcur, but will this work ever 
an the light of day ? Sardou has it in the shape of mcmoruu- 
dams and notes, and these already make a formidable maas. 

" When will you compile the book, dear friend t" 

"When I hare all my notes : but it will be a world of trouble 
to reviM all that dramatic epoch." 

One day Sardou would go to visit the dormitori«s of the 
i/ife/« I,«ux« U Qrand to refind there the traces of the dnn- 
geoiwof tho terror; the next he would have the doors of what 
remained of Kobenpiorre's honse in the Rue St. Honore opened, 
and he wonid say to me, " You know the houao is not demoliabed, 
aa ihoy say, and I found it, even to the room where Maximilian 
ilept ; I will show it to yon. I've worked that all out from the 
plans — when shall Wi- go and see it ? " 

He is now busied with the reetitntion of Athens, the Athens 
of the Reoalssanco. for a drama which he intends for Sarah 
Bernhardt. He knows the smallest turns, the atones of Arropotis, 
as well M he was acquainted with the subterranean pesssges of 
Bysantinm, at the time when he wrote Theodora. When we were 
putting Thermidor on the stage it was a pleuiritre to see him car- 
rying the properties ooe by one, like an ant in on ant-hill, now 



ran iVOKTH AJdERJCAy RKVJEfV. 



with a }>late bcurJnt; a revoluliounry iiiecriplion, iiml Agtkin with a 
tri-colorod flag tvliicli lia^l Qguretl of uM in tim Luiiiultiioufl ratika 
of tbesoctions. Ami plHcarda of thuporiod, and iu n^miiaperi, 
aiici busts of Ijepelletier, 8iunt-I'arge»n, or of MiiriiL One dov ho 
wan quito ]ilvii8od wlivii I said to him: " Do you know whom 1 will 
^vd joi) to play a sinnll rol« I* A relation of Danton'i!" 

" What ! A nihitioii of Daiiton's ?" 

" Ye». my iloar frimid, a little iiioc9 of the Miuistra <Io la Jaa- 
lice; on the lOtU of August Miidemoisello Diuiton will come. 
She is a modol lo tbo painter Cidu when sbo U not drosstnnkin^. 
It will bo <;urioiu enough tlint & roiatioii of Oantoii's should 
ngtire in u drainH tii whioh yon represent Rubwipierrc*!! fall." 

'• Yiii, it would be curiotis. Where is she, tbia niece of Dan- 
ton's ?•' 

Tlio next day I hod tho young girl brought to the theatre, 
aiid hor face, though vory agi'oeabk-, liiul smmcthing of tho tragic 
cast nf the tribune about iL 

" Yc«s, yc«," eaid Sardou, "she rBstnihli-a hini." 

Butitwasmuohmor« striking when I pitta powdered wig, saob 
as Bantou woro, ou that young head. Then, ea thouijh called by 
a sort of Biulderi gnrnmons, we thought wa saw the man of the 
revolution, ho who hears in tho sight of history tho burden of a 
dismal peiiod, but of whom Roger C'ollanl eaid that be was 
maguaiilinuTie. The vtBJuu wuh uoitiplcte niid thut child rcpre> 
seiitod to us Danton in hia ronth : Daiiton nt twenty years of ago, 
Daiiton before tho eruption of '80 and tho thunder of '^i. 

It was Ibis MItc. Daiiton who-figurvl at tho broakfu^t where 
LabuBsiire toW Marelial and Mile. Lecontenx how be took away 
the filu of papona fmm Die L'oiiiitf< dt< Satut Ptibltu. Mile. Uanton 
found it qnilR natural Lo play for the llrat time on thestage of the 
Com^-dic Frau9ai8et Ixttwccn M. C'oqnelin and Mile. Bortet. She 
did not play there long. Thermidor wu4 8tt|>ptva8ed on the seoond 
representation, and Mile. Danton retirtid into tlie ehade. Ido not 
know what beuarne other. 

Victorien 8ardou amused faimaelf with those ilotaiU which 
pleased htsarttstic nature. That practical spirit that left noLJiing 
to ehanoo as he sarreyod a rehearsal was at the same time a 
Bonaitivc soul wIiomo feeling): were easily toaebed. I reiuoni- 
ber seeing bim Buildenly burst into tears when I told lum that 
Smile Augier waa proatrateil by a mortal illness. "Oh, poor 



MY COSTSMFORARIB8. 



lis 



Aujgtvr ! " T)i« (liiy of the duatb of Viclor Hugo 1 vreut. m I did 
daily, U> the little house whero Ihn ]K>eb Uj it> agony. As I was 
about to erittr 1 met Victorion Sjtrdou, Iub eyoa rod. " It is all 
oivt," he BuiO to mo, and \w wnpt agnin for llio gmat rihii vho 
hid t>wn tlu> adminitian of hin youth. But uven in that nmoUoD 
the dramatic author did iivt ItMo hin avciirucy. 

" You iaw hitn die ?" 1 ashed him. 

" \o, but Ihi^ is how [ knew tl vtm over. I vm ftwaiUng id 
tholiltlii riiom Mow that in wliich Victor Hugo was Ijrlng. I 
hrani notliing ahovu rnd, no moTement, no sound. I miid to my- 
■flf : Thii siti'tn^ti ia tlint of eupri'inc I'xpectiitiou ! All at onoo 
aboro me I heard precipitous and rapid steps, the noise of chain 
[inihfd about, giving one to imagine the excitement near the 
dMthbiMl, the abrnpl nu)V(>ti)i.-iiti) of ({riuf. Oue (uinnnt miHtiike 
such tuiundff, and I Niid t<i myself, ' Victor Hugo is dead !' " 

This wai really the druuiMtic author inugiuing, diTining, 8e«- 
ing tbo scene and pU-luring it by a sort of special Tna^nHtism. 
Anj man who baa not tho sense of laovemont and of lir« might 
be A superior jHteb or a profound philonophor ; he oould norer 
exprrai tho truth on thu theatre. 

As Sanlou vm pnying to M. Tlilore, then President of th« 
Republic, the uusloniary visitof acandidat* (or tho Acadamy, he 
astonished the historian of the Considnte and of Kurope by speak- 
ing to him of the transformHtiuii of tho modem theatre throngb 
the spirit which the new writers bare iofuaed into it by tho cor- 
rectness and wealth of details. 

" I have stopped at the comiodies of K. Scribe," said ST. Thlera. 

" Uonsirtir le Pn'-sident, have yon etoppcd at tho fnrnitnre 
of tbo time of Louis Philippe ? " rcplic<l Sunlou. 

" No," and he tookiHl around him. 

" Itave you gtnpped at the classic grouping of furniture 
round the chimney-pieoe, as in the time of Mndunic R^camier ? 
No I Tbore are arm-cboira in tho middle of your room, BOtne 
near the firo-placi}, some littlo stools, a sort cf very pretty ordorod 
disorder, which permits of conTersation apriugiug up iu all the 
corners, giving nn animation to the room which it bad not when 
the older arnuigcmont of furniture gave it a classio aspect. 
And what vnrivty in the dniiwriesi That Japanese tiltc beeide 
the IjOniM XV. table, that Chinese scroen before tho white Marie 
ADboinette chair, copied from the model of Trianon ! Diversity 



176 



THIS yORTH AMERICAN REVIEW. 



U the Aim of the modem fnruiiilier. Ono does tint WHnt rifrtdilj 
anymore, but contriut; aud our furulturc. like our aotioiiR, Is 
ulwaya sigaiBcant. In tlint respect oiir comcdittris of to-Jaj differ 
from tlioeu of tlio tim« of M. Scrit>c. M. Scrilw put a sofa at 
eacti end of tlie lUj^ and inva.riabl; n tabic id thocoiitro. We 
put Ktauds in all the corners, small f umituro everywhere, aiid the 
tublo whurfi it suits us." 

M, Thiers was singularly interested with this little lecture 
giveu with all kinds of picturosqiie gostnrve. 

He smiled and said to Victorien Sardou: " I understand now, 
my A<Mc confrhre, why Moli^ro wuseo good an anthor. He had 
been an upliolaterer." 

Thoae words " My dear con/rhn" ware in effect a promise 
that the statesman's rote wonld be given to Sardou. M. Thiers, 
ill fact, roied For him. 

luthiaiittratitiYcquoHtiuu of stage furniture it is strange enough 
that another theatrical manager, Alexandre Dumas [fils), be- 
longed to a soboal totally oppusvd to that of Siirdou. Alexandre 
Dumas, {fih) am* but Utile for details. In the layingont of the 
action of hispiucoeliconly girei! eummury indications. First Aot: 
A Salon ; Third Act : .Same ag Jimt act. Such were the in- 
strnotionB fur most of his comediea The stage- manager arranged 
theslage as pictnresqiiely as he could from these vagno direc- 
tions. 

Not that Alexandre Dumas does uot indicate to his ai-tiele witb 
perfiwtart the intorialionH which he desires, the exact expros- 
sion that bo wauls. IIu knows very well what he wishes and he 
luia it executed as be intends it shonJd be. Nearly nil dram- 
atiste, be^des, indicate well, as they say in a theatre. Octave 
Feuillet rood his works atlmirably. Edouard Paillcren ia a reader, 
and I would say a ver>* sujwrtor actor. Hu speaks with the ulmost 
precision ; he shows the exact gesture t))at must be made. I am 
absolutely of the opinion uf Mr. Qot^ the oldest member of tlie 
staff of the Vom>di«, who voluntarily said that ** An anthor who 
reads bis work indifferently makes it belter understood than au 
actor who reads it very well. He has a more correct idea of it 
and ita movements." The comedian acts better but does not read 
so well. 

Rut if, like Sardou, like Fenillet, Alexandre Dumas reads «z. 
tremely well aud indicates to the performers the very iotouations 



UT COXTEarPOIiARJES, 



177 



thejr mail «Dip1ov, ho troiiblm hirnoelf lees than S&rdon about 
tlia MiUing, tlio frame of his work. When ho wm prodnciog 
his works at the ThC-itrc du Gynmaae, Le Iftmi-Monde, J>iaM 
de Ly«, La Femmf de I'laudt, he Itroaght the munusi'ript of bia 
work to the director, Ibfr. Uuiitigny, kn<l »1Iow<m] the play to be 
reheanod vithont the slightest lueislAOCo from him. It wiu not 
till U]0 Btiil thnt ho ciunu, took a eciit in front of thu sta^, and 
oritioised the pcrfononDcc from the point of riowof tho xadtencc. 
Muntigny wss an ineompanible djroccor. tt is truo, after 
buTiag Wn (itrange to ssj) an inferior dninmtic author and a 
ttiodiocra cuincdiau. Thcct- Bingalaritine are not rim; in artistia 
life. Oue migiit sajr thul Mouli;;uy, tho author of Ihat tiielo* 
drama Lti D^-outvrte du Quinqvina, which vnHtIv 8mii£«il .Tiilea 
Jnnin, revolnlioiiixed ami modern iz«i1 tbi'iitricHl S'^eiierr. It wa« 
he (tho circiiniitanceBcnnm to have no importance, hut the reform 
dutoB Xrona it) — it voa he who firil got ttcton to lay down thoir 
hata while playing. Thiaappears inRtgnt6cant, but it in chsrai-'tcr- 
biic. They had always before hi*l<J lhi.>ir hate in tt)eir hamls on 
the atnge like the inarqnises of Molttyrc or Kegnard. who always 
|inl their plunivd nipa under their nnn& Honlifpiy caino and 
said, "Pat down your hat," and it made ii regular revolution. 
It was the erilrance of life and of truth into thit ronim of con- 
Toutinn. And my friend KriinciiKjiie Sarcey naid : '' YeA, the 
tboatrc iaaconvvntion, but arouveiiLion to which thi< grcatuit 
poaaible appearance of truth must be given lo make the illuaiou 

■QOOBRSfnl." 

Alexandre Dnmaa thinks a little more than he nted to do of 
tbefltaging of hia plays, but, like the clat«<io«, thv eoiuplicatiuna 
or the luxury of Bplendid scenery are indifferent to him. " My 
pieces," the author of Pmni-Jtomlt onco said to me, " do not neod 
to be well fnriiiidiKd." 

He trouhles himself more uboutwhatthoee personages aay and 
think than about what they do. Id listening to Alexandre 
Samufi' clmractvrs 1 cannot help thinking that I htn&r DiiniaA 
speaking himself. He loreii glory, but he would hiive. aboTe all. 
In the theatre, action, thu inlluuiiire which tho theatre girc«. It 
would never be be who would proclaim tho theory of "Art for 
Art's sake." Dumas {p^f) conid havo taken Scribiiur ad 
nnrritvdum for liifi motto. Dnmiui (JH») would only aay Ad 
f>rotiaiid ant. I recollect tho way lu which hu upliiiuod this 
VUL. CUX. KO. 453. li 



ITS 



THE aORTH AUERTCAN JiEVIEW. 



rlesiro lo me — the dwira for liatUo, for the sake of hatUe, and 
uot for victory luid lis triiimph*. 

Do jou know what would be my dream ? it would be to give, 
without aigtiiiig it and in Riid-Bummcr, when Puris is empty, 
uTid is fiojouniin^ at the soa-ehore or watoriDg [ilaccs, a piece 
which I shonid have writt«n vithoiit even thinking of the 
public ia the fullnttas of my idea — let it he paradoxical or 
irritating. The critic yrould not bo inflnonccd by tho aiUhor'a 
oatne, the reportore would give no account in advanco of tlie 
coming work. It would bo as when a cju<« is tried with clumtd 
doom and M. X. or M. Y. wonld freely discUwo his opimon. 
The qucatioii of rocoipte woiild tiut exist. Tho lirsl uight would 
not attract those eternal Inungcri} who go to the thcatro an they do 
lo the racoB, and who finish by makiiif^a sport of art. H the 
piwM were good, it would succeed all the same bfiforu this scry 
liniitod public, and in any case I should havu hud the Joy of 
Belting forth truths io their entirety, without being obliged to 
mutilate them so tliat they might bo acceptable to the crowd. An 
artist's di'eam, eagy to realiie in imtt>;iuatioii, difficult in reality t 
They wonld eoon giiesB the mime of M. X. or of M. >'. Tho style 
of Dumas j$/« is uot of a sort to remainlong iin recognized. When 
he gave, in rolhihomtion with Armand Diirantin, or rather 
under the pHeudoiiym of Armand Duruiilin. that liTcly and 
entrancing dnvmn, l/iioUe Parauqu^t, produced at first wiUiout 
tho name of any author appearing on the bill, Pranoiaqne Sarcoy 
cried out on the ftret night, " Tho author of that pioco la Dumas 
j«/5orthe deTil !" 

And Duriia« esjierionced a special sousatioii of pleasure at see- 
ing hia work, under another's name, make its way iii the world. 
Ho has latoly told this etory iu llio preface to a new volatno 
which he calln I^ Thidtre ilta Antreg. Tho habit whiuh he hsa 
of puttiug a preface at the he;wl of his works iu ro-oditiug 
them, hue become a neoeasity for liiiu. For that is a trait which 
be has iu common with hia father. Ho writce much aud bowrit«s 
qaickly. If one wasto publish his volnminonsand intorectingcor* 
reipoudetice, one would ai-rire at a total of rolumei which would 
eclipse that of tho works of the author of Trots Moitstjiubiirta, 
ocly Dumas (jf/s) has remarked that the public regard fertility, 
that virtue of strong pens, aa a fault. Rapid in tho ciccntioD of 
his works, by a rare and inherited gift, he isoondemncd to act 



UY COIfThMPORARlES. 



179 



contrary to bis own natur«. And to vrit« na maeh as pleaeu 
him withniit jmblislijiig uioro Umn in vntntod of liim, ho writes 
j)rL'f:u:«'« wiiii-ti iirp mcKlelti of ilisciiaeioit, and ltU>riiry njooUfctioiia 
M\i\ iL-tUm, Mic cutiipilutioD of which will, by iknd by, form a 
DollMition of rare value. 

Whuu 1 tbtuk tbal they once took hiiii for nii author wliu 
wrote with difflcQUy, incapable of remod«1ing a iscono oiici* lio 
bod flninltod it. I bavo suDn him in my otlice reronii« in half an 
hviUT \\\« denouement <jt bis comedy /VanciV/On, after a rohunnsal 
which be thought doubtfal. " Bnt it is excollcnt/* I said to 
him; " tliPre is nothing to change." " No, no, I know ray trade," 
be auiwonKl ; "that mij^lit bo hotter :" and in a few momenta 
il waa botter. IIo wrote Danieheff la a ftiw dit,>-6, IfelotM 
Paranquft nearly in a few hourti. " Yvs, in tlie carriafco, with a 
pencil, my daar friutid ; my fingera were tir»d with it ; thoee were 
foata of strength that I would not do again to-day." 

Ili> wonbl do it again if it were neceestry. I wne looking; at 
bim tiio other day. lit; is robust, bid ticod hHd high and firmly 
plnntcil on nn athlotio body. Ivrpn think bo is [Mrfortingaptay 
III Marly, nour hie neighbor, Sanlon, whioh the pnblia will bo ad- 
niitttid ta ]>au npon, but not thiit niri' iiml anourmouc atiminer 
pnblic, of which he dmainsTor an ideal work, bvit the great publici 
Lt Jlcrr Omne*, which bus always hailed, bim with applauiu' einoe 
the Dame aux Cameliat. 

X have drawn hero in my tnrn only rough and rapid tketahoB. 
But theao notes, )f they oeum ouriou», can t^n^ aa porlraiia en 
viad of IhoM I have known and, I can say, iu speaking of the 
aun of t«-day, of those whom I hare loved. 

JULB8 CLABETtE. 



THE LESSOX OF THE RECENT STRIKES. 

JtY OEN. KELSOK A. MILES, U. 8. &.; TQBIIOK. M'ADE DAUPTOV, 

t'NlTXII RTATES OUXUtMilOliKK OP RAILROAD^; IIAKKY 

P. R0BIH80X. EDrrOS OF THE "RAILWAt AOK"; 

AND BAUVEL aOMPERS, PJtESIDENT OF THE 

AUEftlCAN FEDERATION OF LABOR. 



RKNBRAL MILES: 

The present etstns of labor, and «ppecially the recent strike 
knovD Hs the Ampricnn Railway Union strike which extended 
throagh tlie great producing xoneof thecounlrjr from the AUegha- 
nice to the PaciHc Oce&n, ombrftctag tbe tenritorj that yields the 
great staple products upon which oar people generally depend, ii 
fio gntTo n question that il shonld be considered with the greateet 
impartial it;, candor, and fairness, ^-outside entirely of any po 
liticu), religiouei or personal interests and prejudioed. So fu* u 
I am concerned I bolicvo I can sincerely eay that Juy sympathied 
have been from boyhood to the preBont timeentirely with the man 
vho labors in any boncut and houorublu oocupation. Iteared upon 
a New England farm — the beet life and health-giriDg ex])erionoo 
a boy could poesiblyliarc — I was fully acquainted with erery kind 
of labor roqnircd of a farmer's boy, as were my ancestors before 
me for more than 250 years, or from the time when western Mas* 
fiuchuautts was the frontier of cirilisation. My early manhood 
was Bpeut in mercantile puntaits, requiring the stricteet economy 
as well as rigid industry. For four years I was ongagwl in a 
terrible war the result of which determined the vital qaeation of 
labor and the condition of the men who labored in this 
couotry ; oad result of it being that in a largo eoetion of 
oaroountry the man who labored was raised from the eomlition 
of a slave to that of manhood and citiiou^bip. For twentr-Sve 



THE LESSON OF TOE RECEXT sriUKSS. 



181 



jea.T» I bav0 beon largulT enpiged in whiit Ixas not b«va iriHptly 
(loecribfidaa "tbewkr of civiliz»tion,"-~protectiag lliu laborer 
•Bgaged ID tho coaittnictioD of the groat traas^coatiQental roU- 
mjn, tiie miners' camps, tho homo butldem, and tbo wttlers of 
Uie Wealero Territoried uxxd States. I have truTollecl Tory many 
timM back and forth across the oontinout, anil rUited every .Stale 
uud Territory of our country ; aud thoro in no class of laboring 
OMll who have my sympathy and comoiitcansiclftnktioi] to a groitter 
degree Iban tbe brave iu«ii whoHncounter all Uie rt!ik!i and bard- 
aliipi luciiieiit to thoir duties npon tbe great traoiiportation liiiea 
of (lur ooiinlry. exposed to th« sororitiee of the viiryiog seasotut 
and all the viciwitiide^ of their haxardoog oocapation. 

Tbo nondition of labor U attracting the attention of the 
thoaghtful tneu, not only of this, but of allothercouutneti. Dur- 
ing the period of some d50 ye&rA of development since the ori^i- 
do] flOttlemoDt of thUooantry, tho oonditioQ of tho laborer has 
changvd entirely. TTp to within the last taw deoadea orery com- 
munity had tu its westward a boundless territory of rit:h tiitlda 
where the man who labored cosld at any time locate and estub- 
llah in a few years on oatate amply sQfllcieiit tor bis family or re- 
lations and of great and purmaneut value. All tbia iv now 
changed. For the last few decades the tendency has b«en to the 
congregating of the people in larfce citios and tovna ; and a feel- 
ing of discontent, anrest, and diMff'^ction bos bocomo almost uni- 
Tersal ; until tho feeling between the man who labont uud iiisem- 
ployer is at present surely not sutisfactory. The employer has 
too little confidence in bia employee, too little cotuidenitiou aud 
aynipfttliy for bii condition, and too littlo interest in his welfare ; 
while, on tho other baud, Lho ti'iuployee \i^ u feuliiig of hostility 
and prejudice, in many instances amounting to almost actual 
batred of bis employer. To what extant this feeling hna been 
tngttodered kod promoted by the demagogueti, the profesaioiuU 
agitators, Xhn men of the press, the forum, the pulpit, and 
the stage, we leave them to answer. The coaditions of our 
ounntry lukTO been snch us to orrato and promote great oorponi- 
tioiis, trusts, and combinationa of capital ; while labor, on the 
otbur hiindf has kept equal pace in combinations, confedenitioua, 
labor anioos, and acoret orgauixationa wbioh control tliousauds. 
if not millions, of men, extcudingorer every section of thu c<mn- 
ttjt The former bHVi> been and can be all controlled by judtcioua 



ia» 



TBS NOBTS AMSRICAU SXVISW. 



lo^ilatioD and plain, poaitive law. Tbo principal weapoDs or tbe 
labor organiza-tioas haT« beeu tiie atrike and the boycott — the 
strike to paralyse indiuilries, oBncl the icsponsion of basmcssand 
tlie increase of wagu, and the boycott ta prevent men who 
do not dcsira to be coatrolletl by the labor auious from obtaining 
work, in mnny cuoa rabjeotin/ thmn to aeriong phydoal and pe- 
cuniary iujury. It is a singular fact that strikea have been most 
violent and Eertoas iu the mining oommnnities and among mea 
connected with railivayB, 

The most serious part of the quoetion U the extent to wbicb 
oar seventy millions of people are aiTeutHd by such a combiuatioa 
OS the reoent strike uf the Anierioan Bailway Union. Consider, 
for instance, the most recent strikes of this character; and b«£ore 
considering thorn in their other phases it will be well to look at 
the conditions of tlie buHiuesn interesta in oar country. For many 
years inflution has been the prevailing tendenoy, the extravagant 
exaggeration of ralaea, doing boeinefis on borrowed capital, paying 
A high rate of int«rejit, branching ont into all kinds of echonies 
and speouUtions. To a great extent, the conatniution of railways 
in our coniitrjr has been overdone. The percentage of railways 
that are not earning enough to pay the inti;rcst on their bonds 
and stock is very large, oepccially the great tranfi-contiiiental 
lines. A few yeiirs ago a single cliroush line, oonsiating of the 
Cuiottund Central Paciliu roods, was doing the entire business 
across the continent. Now we hare the Southern Pacific: the 
Atchison, 'I'opeka & Santa Fo ; tho Denver & Itio Graruie and 
Oregon Short Line ; the Union & central Pacific ; the iviorlhera 
Pacillc ; the Qreat Nortliern ; and tbe ri val to ail these, the Cau»> 
dian Pacific. — praotioally aeveu groat trans oontinentAl eysteuia. 
1 believe It is a fair statement that none of these roads is now 
esruiug enough to pay the interest on its bonds, toeay nothiog 
of tbe interest on its stock. Tbe same may be asserted of a 
large Bumbcr of roads east of the great Mieeouri. Yet, uotwitli 
standing this fact, a few weeks ago the employees on tbe Gr«at 
N^orthern went out on a strike, and that property was seized and 
held entirely beyond the control of its owners. There weru thou- 
sands of men in the country who wonld have been very glad to take 
tbe phuies of the strikers, could they have done so with safety. 
Almost tbe same condition existed npon the Northern Pneitle 
when that road was soaroely earning its running exjiensoa. 



rax LESSOR of the rbckkt strikes. 



163 



The Doxi striku of importanoo wu of tbo operstiTos of the 
mfDQiln thec«atrA] part of tho ooimtry betvoen Colorado and 
PftDnB^lvaiiia, in whieli Terv mauy milliona of property *»« 
^nlBed and held by the miners for the pnrposo of forciDg aa lu- 
cTMHe of wngcn. Following this vua u strike of thu einplo>-ce& of 
■I niHDnfiM!tahnf( compiiny in a ainglo villutge aad ooauty iu tJin 
i!t(at« of IllinoiB, aod afk<r tbat a strike on nil railway Unoi tw- 
tw-wn the Allpghaniw and Pacific Ocean. And next a strike Id 
Uirailvuud by all labor orj^uixations extending over tho oulire 
ruunlry. Nov, suppose tbia Bhould occur, and the five hundred 
thoiitnmd, or million, or eren two million union labor meu> if 
tlu'iv should bu HO many in tlio United SlaUts, ahooid stop labor, 
itnke, and resort to the deprodationB recently committed in 
the city of Chicago, what would tho other ten uiillionii of 
able-bodied men in the United States, all subject to the legiata- 
livo and exocutive departmeuta of the Qovernmeut, be doing in 
auuh a crisis ? If thia strike of the op«raHTeH of the lines of the 
rwlwajs were folluvod out it would practb:illy menu tho seizing 
of iniioh more than a tboueand miiltou dollars' worth of property 
and the holding of it for an indefiDite time, regardleea of the 
rights or desirea of the owners, the aUolate paralysis of the busi- 
ness of the country, and immeasnrable injury to seventy milliontt 
of peopiv, to auy nothiug of tho incalcahiblo losa and suffering 
that muBt neooisarily follow. 

There la scaroety a family that is not in some way int4>rt>fit<Hl 
in the peaoefal and uninti>rnipted communication of the mil ways 
of the United Rtatce. All producers, farmers, mannfactHrers, 
mcohdiiic^, and men in all positions in life, are iatorestud in the 
daily (.-ummunitju.ljon, in the peaoefal and certain operation, of tho 
great linea of commerce of thiscouQtry. Millions of people are 
dependent upon them for their daily food; and if the lines should 
be blocked and purul^zud, famine, iie^tileDce, and death would 
orenluulow thou^inds of villl^{e8 and cities thatare now enjoying 
life and proiiperity. It would be like the nutting of the groat 
arteritis between thehe-urtaud the brain of tho physical system. 
In Illinois, the home of Lincoln. (Iraot, and Douglas, the dying 
admonition of the lattor of whom to hit sons was to " maintain the 
coostitntioii and obey the laws uf the country " — luid here in the 
city uf t'liicago— llie result ia bvst illnatr^ted. It ia the com- 
ucrciol centre of the richest territory on the earth, the ?allcy of 



184 



TJiK KORTIi AMERICAN REVIEW. 



tbe MUfEissippi^ or that region stretching all tbo way between the 
Aileghauics tuiil thu Itocky Mountiiiiit). The pnxliicU of thift 
valley largely centre at Chicago. Tbesupplios anil nc-cressitics 
uf the populutiun occupying that region are distributed from tho 
city of Chicago. This great prospority uud busiucsa eut«rpri»e 
have remlted in a grmt demand for cheap labor. It ia sare to say 
that Ihia city ctrntainu niorv than a milliua of people who if not 
bom in a foreign land were bom of foreign-boru citizene, who arc 
gathered hero by llie aiiccees of JtHgrealeuttirpriaeauiidiudualrieu. 
There va« tirentj- three tmnk lines of railway ceutriug iu this 
city. inierocoutao-calliMltitrikesofar paralyzed the indastrienof 
tbiiicttytB toabsolut«ly block the tran^jpurtutioo of fniightipaaaoQ- 
ger, Aiid mail traiusou thirteen of the trunk linea, and on ten tbe 
business was partially paralyzed, aJthongh there were tens of thou- 
saiKln of mull in thia city and region ont of employment, and who 
would bo very glad to take thu places of tho men who havu 
Abandoned theirpositionu, but did not dare to do eu on aciiount of 
the reign of terror that was instigatod by the so-csUwl utrikera 
and their B)'mpathi2er«i. 

The papers of the city «tuto that during Uioatnko more tliao a 
tboiuaad freight ciira were »et on dra and burned. Forty-dre 
trains wei'eettJUL'd and fired upon by tho mobs along the line of tha 
nilways. Buildings, slation-houseK, and rtiilroiul property were 
set on fire and biinicd. Innocent people travelling in thecars 
wore injured bjr rooka and piooes of iron aud bntlcU thrown 
throtigb the wiiiduwd uf tbo cjirg. Locomotives were alarted 
on the trucks and sent wild along the roads, endangering lives of 
bnndreds of people. Ou July 5 a mob of ten thouaaiid 
people gathered in cue part of tho city and moved nearly three 
niil«s along through u deiue part of tbe city, deatroytng and burn- 
ing property, and tho universul cry uf that mob was ** To bell 
with the government! " Uow near tbiacomeo to tho carrying ont 
of the declaration of the anarobists of Pennsylrauia, who pro- 
claimed that they were " opputtod to all private property, and, aa 
the state is the bulwark of property, they were opposed to all gor- 
ermneut." I need not stop to inquire. 

The district where tbe greatest amonnt of depredation and 
moat fiendish atrooitiea wora oumniitted was occupuHl by u clau 
of atrikcrs aud their uympnthixers who woro the colors or em- 
blems of allegiance to their ditjtator, Eugene V. Deba, and bis a«- 



TUE LESSON OF TUB RKCENT STRIKES. 



180 



Boobtes, Bwhtt« ribbon or pitiou of cloth ou the toft lapel of Che 
ooat ; and. ia fact) hundrodsof men vere forcttl to wearitamoag 
Ui« mob b; tho Bo-c&llc(t Btrikore aad thoir sjrmpatbisen. 

Auotlivf important feature of thi« ii>«urpation of power Is that 
the great food-producing centre in iu thU dUtriut. The furmera' 
cfaiof products, meat and bi'cad, are conceotrated hcroiuid thon 
distributed toalteectiouB of tbia and other c«Qutrie8. The stock- 
jninla were pnujticnlly setucd and hold by the mob ondor throats 
to bam the yarda it auy uttempt wsm made to move the tniiiut 
bringing in or diatriboting thiii great food supply. 'l*ho same is 
toa«m« extent true in regard to nil food aud ftivl aappliea. Tlie 
wiring and holding of the aveniu^-« which morvd tho foo<l gath* 
ered and diatribated at Chicago meana auJTering luid banger to 
mtUiuuduf po'jpUi iu itiuDv partM of the UiiitiKl Htalca. aud It ia 
aafe to say thitt this conditiou of affairs would still continue had 
itDOt bwn for the action uf the Kodorul, 8tat«, and municipttl goT- 
emtMOta in execution of the laws of the land. 

What is said or the amount of language usi-d iu any case la 
not altognthor Bignifi(;aiit except when it is considered by whom 
isid and the circamatancea under which oxpreeeioD is girvn to 
the thooghl. Ho who aaid " [jet uvhave peace" wna in a position 
to girtj thuse four words grntl signiflcjiuoe. So was the (leneral 
of the Arniy in ItiSl when, in addressing the Society of the Army 
of tbfl Tenn«»co. he said, " Beware of tho men who make war 
oeceaaary." Thedec-larution of {'n-Hidunt Clttvi'land whi^n he laid, 
" It is the pUiu duly of ihv local authorities to uiainlaiii peace iu 
that city" ; and again, "In this liour of daugur and public dis- 
traw di«^^ii84ioii may well invo way to aetive effort on tho pnrt of 
all iuautliority to ru^lorv obedience Iu law aud to prut«ct life auJ 
property," w one of laatiug siguiflcauce. Snch is the case also 
when the Ohicago 7Yr;ietr eays, editorially, as it did on the morning 
of Jnly;th: 

" SurJ) riotoan ouibreakB ma occurred last niictit oo Iheiraclta of the 
BaltLiDM, tbtt AiUin riMit, and otbvr railwkfii trxnaoi fur « inuninnt ba 
tolnatad bj tbt ptoplv. Ttipjr in«ril CttAConiUmtLkUonof «v«i7 ni«xi, tw b» 
•Uiker or other riilrca, but mtwlof ■!! If be be ■ striker. Man ibso Ihfti, 
any rapMlUou o( ib^ni ahoold l>« &r«rt«d witb powder and bail sod cold 
•to*l if UMmMMry. loti tbora Iw no (ni»tklt«*tMQt ibAt. Thin nat Ion, thU 
State, tbl4 vttjr, will Dot t«lifm« v»atUlt»iu, InoeudUrikin, rulfUnUutk" 

Thin condition of sffnirs reached snch a stage of inearroc- 
tioD that the Haver of the uitv found it ueoeesary to appeal tu 



rflj? Konrn American rbvjbw. 



theOoTemor of t)ie StaLe for five re^ments of State troops, iho 
ipp«Al being immediately nsponded to bjr aa order of the Gov- 
ernor placing tliecntin; brigadoHt tbo disposition of tho tnaDioijial 
«x(K:ntive. 

Now the people can jnd};e whether the acta which drew forth 
these expressions are io the intenat of organised labor, or whether 
it ia red-hot anurchy, insarrectionary and rorolationary 1 W« 
assert tlint onr goTeriimeiit. eutubUshed b; onr fathom, and which 
wa have muintaiued, is tho best goreramont for nmukiud (hat 
haserer existed on the face of the globe. Possibly the coadittOQ 
of our citiiuitd is batter to-day tlinn it oror will bo in tho fntnro. 
bat it is the \*^t HjKtom of government not only for the rich man 
hut for the poor and the hmubte. It is the poor nmu's home 
and his glory : and the beauty of it all is that our oitizeos have a 
Ijeatcfid method provided for redressing all wronga iind of im- 
proving their (condition. The one great glorg of oar sy gtena of 
govcnimeutj and what our fathers proclaimed it to be, van tba 
iodepeDdoDcc and abeolute seonrity of life, property, and tlie pnr< 
suit of happiness. 

Tho great qnestion now at issue before the American people 
ia not a local one ; the question whether one manufacturing con- 
cern iu ouo village, or county, or Btato shall pay its emtiloyeem 
more or less, whether It is doing bosiuesa at a profit or toss, ia 
not tho vital is-sno now. That question may be settled in anyway 
to-duy and a simikr one arioe to-morrow in iiny other village, uu 
any railroad or in any factory. The quciition is, Sliall lifo, per- 
flODal indepeudonce.aud the righteol property be respected in 
this country whether belonging to one or many Individ nols ? 

Ir the property of a coqx^nition or company in which the 
kboringmuu, the e«pituliit&. Uio widows and orphans, tho saviogs 
banks, properties in which any or all our people are interested, 
cannot bo respc^itcd and protwtod, then the cottage, the hamlet, 
and the little personal property of tho liiimblest citizen is iu jeop- 
ardy, liable at any moment to be coufiecatod, sciised. or doatroyod 
by any traveltitig baud of tram|)g. Then any combination orooy 
body of mon that threaten thepoaco, the prosperity, the personal 
liberty, the lifoand property of onr citizens mnst be regarded 
as revolutionary and danguroa^, and it is a misfortune thai the 
laboring men employed in rAJlrootl transportation have been mis- 
led by tbo baninguea of profe«uouul agitators into an attitude t>( 



THE LESSON OF THE RECKP>T STRIKBa. 



187 



this chitracter. The ioBurreotion muHt be met and orercomo id 
one of two ways : firat by the strong arm of the roanioipal, Stat«, 
and Pedoml goTornnicnte oiiforcing tbe gtiarantee to all the peo* 
|ile, from tlio liiimblh^st to the most etalleil, of perfnct aecorily 
in liffr uni) )iropurtj-. Ottionrbe ourguvcntmvut woulil be a ropo 
of sand. The other method of meeiingthd oristBU for AmeriCAti 
muohood to assort it^ priuciples. Hon iniuit take ddu either for 
anarohy, secret conclaves, unwritten law, mob rioleoce, aoil aaj< 
Tennl cIuwm unilur the rod or whitu flag of sooiali^m on tbe oiio 
bond ; or on thesideof c^Ubli^od gortninicnt, theenpreuiacy of 
law, the mainicnauco of good order, uiiivenuil peuco, ubeolnte so- 
curity of life mid projierly, the righu of personal liberty, all 
audor tbo afaudow aiid folds of *'Old Ulory," on tho other. Tbe 
rwl. white, and blue of our luUioiuiI colors arc the emblem of law, 
iudepondenco, security, uud peace ; aud when tho crisis comuii I 
have tho atmoat confidence in the intelligence, the manhood and 
patrioUini, of the gniat maas of our citizt>ns north, south, cojit, 
and vest, and bcliorc they will manifest their allegiance to 
oor existing goremment and to the tnamtenance of law and good 
Older. 

Vfhile the millions of our people living in tranqotllity and 
bappiucao tvd m lightly tho power of Lho (Jovornmenl mi to 
scarcely realize its exiatcDce. yet tho Constitntioii was framed by 
oar fathers with such consummate wisdom that the anthority of 
law aud tho supremacy of tbe government to meet any emer- 
genoy, ineorroctioa, or rebellion arc ample sad onquostiouable. 

Washington suppressed the first eerioos insiirroctioo by coa- 
■JODtraUog a hirgo body of troops at Pitbtburg, Pa. Lincoln and 
other Presideuld have followed bis exuiupW. Preciidvut Hayesi 
did tbesoine tbingiu 1677 in PeouBylvaniaaodotherHlates, To' 
day the frceidout not only has tbe authority to use all the land 
and nuvol forces of tho United Stitcs and of the differnnt States, 
amonnting tonaarly a hundred and QfCy thonsaud armed men. 
but erery pstriotin and law-abiding mtiseu among the twelve 
niJUioiu of able-bodied men in this coaatry will heartily support 
him and the State govornors in the maiutenanoe uf btw and 
iinler. 

Now would it not be far bettor for the laboriog men as well 
us a] I tliouv'htful citizens to turn thfiriittrntiou to improTiug 
the coDditiciti of our jieoplo in other and more peooelul oietbods Y 



16s 



TBE NOSTH AMBRICAN REVIEW. 



There baa buon too much coscentmUon in the citieii. Mora of 
our people elioald get ent iuto the oountrr, into the pure Air and 
nraong the biriis, fiowera, and gpwsn fields, where they may cnlU- 
vate the Kn>"»<^ ; 'or really all wealth comes from the gronad, 
dircctljr or iudinictly. Thcro is ample opportunitj for the oooa- 
patioD of millions of men in addition to those now oagaged insuoh 
pureuitd. As tla- iroportulion of the vast hordes of cheap labor 
from China has been stopped on the Pacific Coast, is It to the inter- 
est of orcry intelligent luhoring man to stop the importation uf the 
nst liordea of cheap uud degraded labor unloaded on our Atlantic 
ooast f ViQ have no lue for and should not receive any more 
than what can readily assimilate with oar intelligent, self>reiipcct< 
ing, industrious population. Then let us turn onr attention to 
the iraproTemeut of our vaat unproductive arid lands which by 
judicious, systeraatio irrigation are capable of supporting millions 
of people through the methods of improvement so succewfuUy 
pursued in India and other couiitrini. JjCt us pay more atlenttou 
to commerce, to the end that our shipe. built and manned with 
Americiin labor, and transporting onr products to every port on 
the face of the globe, may give additional occupi^ion to our reao- 
hit«, enterprising men who are now ororcrowding villa£es> toviu, 
and cities, many of whom are engaged in eemi-manly parsuita, 
and in numoroQs other ways and methods improve onr condition. 
fn brief, let an not blow down the beautiful arch of our sov- 
ereignty — the hope of humanity, the citadel of liberty, independ- 
ence, (he temple of happiness for all mankind. Itather let ns 
follow the avenues of peace, iatelligcnce, and tmc manhood for the 
improvement of our condition as a nation and a people; uphold- 
ing, supporting, and maintaining the Bupreraacy of law and civil 
government, and cherishing and protecting in all ita grandeur 
and boneBoonce the bleascd inheritance roucbsafeil to na by the 
Fathers. Nelsok A. Miles. 



rOMMISSrONKR HAMPTON: 

All tlioughtful and patriotic citizens not only deplore the 
condition of affairs brought about by the dtBgracefol and danger- 
ous strike recenlly inuiigiinitedby designing demagogues, but they 
ore anxiouBly vuuHidering what remwly uHn be found to cure the 
present evil and at the same time to prevent a recurrence of n 
similar one. The conservatiTe and law-abiding people of the 



THS LESSON OF THE RKCEKT STRIKES. 



180 



oonulry aatRrally look to Congress to arcrt tliu lUngcr LlireBt«n- 
ing ever]' private iind pnblic iut«re3t Id tliu couotr;, for Iho tdo 
itnth'iritir to do so lies in Ihiit body. If otir presooi lave are 
neitber Htrong ODOiigh nor Htriogent enougli to protect the V6Bt«d 
riglitHof onr citizcne from mob lav uud commnnuitionotiibltiatioDfl, 
Uiere surely must be jHitriotUiu &Qd wisiiom sufllciftQt in the Uw- 
miikmg<)<']>i)rtmcDtof tbeGoverainenl to frame euch lavs as will 
guarantMs protection to every citizen, vhile, atthflBsmo time, in- 
Qicting condign pMnishmcntoa tboeo who trample on the righUof 
thciir fcUow-cttiscnii. Noooedonioe the right uf overj bibonug 
man to seek remnoersiive vages for his work, and ho is at perfect 
libortvtoqiiitthst work whorthelhinkB his labor ja not adeqaately 
coiiipentalwl, but hiR rights atop there. lie hiut no upmblano* of 
righl. inlaw or morals, to prevent another from Uking the place 
he has given up. WhenemployM«, from some real or fancied in* 
justice done them, give Dp the positions tliey hold, tbey oxercioe 
a clear right; but when by tbrpata and violpnce they force othora 
to join iu unlawful combinatioiis to invade the vested righto of 
their fellow>citizens> tbey become law-breakers, and ehould be 
treated ascriminnls. 

If the«8 views are correct, then the inatigatora and originators 
of the recent strike bavo b«en guilty of » grave misdemeanor. 
For the men who tbroogb ignonuioe or four have been led into 
this nnlawtul proe«dnre I have great sympathy, for many of them 
are ignorant, and evil advice baa caniod them to evil courses; but 
for those Icuders who, aiife from personal danger, huvo incited this 
oommnniatic movement, no reprobation can be too atrong, no 
ponishmont too aovere, and in the int«r««t8 of law and order it is 
to be hoped that they may meet tlteirdeiierta. It is time that 
the strong arm of the Gorernuient should be stretched forth to 
uiaintiiin the supremacy of lav, to protect those who are innocent 
sufferers, to pnnish those who are gniltVj and to rcpregs, with a 
atrong band if Deoesnij, the anarchy and oommunism which now 
bring disgrace on our boasted cirilisiitiou. 

The pnUio press has stated a very siguilicant fact in oonoec* 
tion with some of the recent riots, and it is one pregnant with 
grave and iar-reaohing oonslderations. It was annonnced that in 
some instancos the mob of rioters who committed gross outrages 
was coBitKwed entirely of foreigtierv, none of whom could speak 
oar UDgnago. There has lieen of late a strong conviction gr«w- 



100 



rae soteru AVRRrcAx ri 



iug np among thinking men of both of the great politicel partiet 
in the country tbut our immigratiOD and naturahzation laws were 
too lux, and that the United StatoB were becoming tho dnmping- 
gronnd of the worst elemeiita of foreigu {tupnlatiou. While this 
feeling is t|uito widolj cuieruiuod b; cnaii; of all shaded of poliU 
ioal opinion, ncithur party has hud the couib^ to grapple with 
this (incstion nor to take action to avert the dftn]^i>r which throflt- 
pHFi our iiiHtitntious by the uuresiriuted iuHiix of peoples ignorant 
of our system of goremment, ODtertaiDiog in many cases hostility 
toallforrasof government, and who, drireti from their native 
lands* como hither aBoommtitust«uiidanarchiats. Immigrantsof 
tliin cloes have proved a moat ])emiciou8 oontribntion to onr oitisen- 
ship, and they have been in many, if not in most, cases rusixinKible 
for the riotone natbreiikH which hare inBicted sach incalciilabte in- 
jury on tho couutry. Of courev no rcUcction ie muunt on those 
honcat immigrants who have linked their destiny with ours and 
who by their labor and their character have done so much to pro- 
motethe b^st intereat« of the country: hut it ^eeras to me that onr 
land ehouUl no longer bo tlio refuge of thuscum of all Europe, «nd 
thatcvcry mnn who makes this his home, whatever his nationality 
may be, should, while holding his fatherland in tender memory, 
become nt heart nn Ameriran citizen, with all his hopes, all his 
anptrxHona, all his patriotism, ceulred in tho land nf bis adoption. 
Onr country will then be peopled and governed by true and loyal 
Americsn citizens, native and adopldJ, and a homogeneoos iwople 
will work in harmony to build np, to gnHid,and to honor the 
land of thuir choice. No nobler incentive to ardent patriotism 
than this can be conceived, no object worthier of uttjunment. If 
every American cilixon, native and adopted, could be actuated by 
these motive-R, commnnists and anarchists conid no longer be 
allowwt to bund thowsolTes together to bieuk (he laws of tbe 
land, to dMtroy public and private pro]>erty, or to inaugurate a 
cnisade marked, as this present strike has been, by robbery, 
arson, and murder. 

There can be no possible excuse for conduct ench as that 
which has characlcrixed tho acta of tho lawless tnobn, who, in 
dedanco of all laws, divine and hnman^ blindly and raadly 
struck at the very foundation of all organized society, seemingly 
only intent on inrolving tho whole country in common min. 
There oad bo no palltatioo for oatragee noh as they have com- 



TBE LE8S0.W OF TOE SECEXT STRIKES. 



191 



mittod, And tbeir coodact has 1}een m Mnseile«8 u it is ineTCOB* 
%ble, for if in tfaoir mad nige tboy bring about a vnr of labor 
BgaioBt capital, iliore«*u bo but odo nsult to it — a diatuirfiiia otto 
to t}io unginaton. Should rach a fearral conflict oooar, tliu 
miagnidod m«n, who, nnder the inflneDoe ot evil coonteU, seok 
to remedy tlieir griemQcea hy Dnlawfnl mcniu, would ineritably 
be the BSTermt enfTorcns, for not only would all their moans of 
linlihood ba avcpt away, but htmdredB, perhaps tbousunda, of 
them woald lotie their lives. 

I huve said that this eLrike w»s inexcDsable. The ostensiblo 
nwaon giren for it by tlic strikers ia thiit Mr. Pnllman did not 
pay his cmploycoaeiiflicitiat wages. In answer to this charge, 
Mr. Pullman says that lie cuunot piiy more for the manafaotnni 
of a oar than tlio pri(» ho can obtain for it from the railroftdi. 
Every biisiaess man mnst admit that this aoswor is conclnsive 
and logical. Butudinitting, for tho sako of argumout, that his 
omployws wero right in their contention, do<w thiit jtigtify a 
msort on thuir [iiirL, not only against him and his projiorty, but 
■gaioatall property, private aa well its public ? What jnsliBcS' 
tion can bo offert-d for the order of tho loulcm of all tho tabor 
orgaoisatiooa in tho country, oonooctod in any mannor with tho 
railroads, that each member should ut ouce throw ap bia position 
as evidence of sympathy with the Pullman employees ? 

And above all othor inexplicable qoeations suggested by the 
tctioQ of the Pullman employeea, what Mmbhmco of right had 
these men, who kml rolunUrily left their employment, to com* 
bins unlawfully with men whose object ws«the deetrucUonof the 
nulroaclaand of property of all other doscriptionep Tho workmen 
of the PoUman company were not coanected with railroads iu 
any manner; their solo bosinfiss was ia the oonstractlou of sleep- 
ing can, and yet, when they threw np their position, they joined in 
tho work of wrecking the roads, obstruoUng travel, stopping tho 
nutls, and defying the laws of the Uud. Another strange featore 
in this matter ia tho action taken by A. K. U., an organization in 
■o wise oonoacted with the Pullman company, bnt, notwithatand- 
ing thi^ fact, this body ot railroad employees decreed that uo 
nulroAd ihoold use PoUnuui con I The railroads, many of which 
were nndcr conlracL to use tbaee cars, naturally and properly paid 
norespeot to this orderemaimting as it did from an irresponsible 
sonroftf whoroupoa these sympathetio strikers of the A. K. U. 



198 



THE NORTH AMBRICaK REVIEW. 



became eoemioB of the pnblic peace, and resorted to riolenos, 
robbery^ tud bloodgho'l, to enforix^ their l&wloas domands. And 
theao things are doneoa oar own ijoil, where it has been theproad 
boast that the lawa were supreme, gaiuuntooing to everj citizeD 
equal righta I Bat it aeetna that the auv doctrine annonnood by 
the A. B. U. pTit« tho railroads of the coootrj outfiide of the 
pale of the law, leaving the Fast intenKbi of theiie corporations, 
M well aa those of thoir boudbolders, nt Uie mercy of any mob 
of ignorant or rioions meii. To our shame, too, there are men 
in high position who npbold the«o careless proceedings and who 
defend tho perpctrntors. We have snrcly fallen on 8tr»Qgo and 
evil times, snd coii&errative men of all jutctiona and of all parties 
(should devote all eflorta to the rcetoratlon of order and llic ouun- 
tenance of lav. There is not one present Tested right of 
iodividualB, of cor pontti 0113, or one of Hovoromeat ownership of 
property that would be satv if thn criminal acts recently oom- 
mitl4»l by riotous mobs in several of tho Slates are ponnittod 
to go impimished. Life itself would no longer be safe, for 
in more than one inetiuioo murder was added Ui tho long list 
of atrocities wbinh marked the carnival of crime that held 
mad siray of late in many portions of our country. And 
the hollow pretence given by those strikers for the outrages they 
committed is tho assertion that they vcto endeavoring to ud 
the former workmen of the Pnllman company. Kvery interest of 
tlie country is to be sacrificed, every vested right is to be trampled 
npon, every principle of law and of morals is to be violated, 
simply bccniuo workmen engaged in a particular business cannot 
obtain the wages tbey demand. How could these workmen be 
possibly beuofittid by the lawless and indiscreet conduct of such 
misguided sympathizers f No right, no principle, can bo oetab- 
lishod by tho commiaiion of a wrong. 

For this nnholy alliance between nnemployed workmen 
and the disreputable and worst elements of uur pupidation to 
sncceed would, indeed, Iw the conseoration of n crime. The 
Presidont has been criticised, oven donoanc«d, beoaaeo bo at- 
tempted to prevent tho consummation of the urimea oontem* 
plated against the peaioe, the honor, and the welfare of the oonn* 
try; and the grontid npou whioh this nttack on him is based is 
that hie action haa been in violation of the rightu of Ijtatw). ^0 
ouo upholds whatever of State's rights is left to us more enrnesily 



THE LESSOlf OF THE REX^EMT STRIKES. 



1»3 



than myaoir, bnt I can see no foroe in the charge tliut Iho Pnisi- 
deut biiit, bv liis oooreo, oicwdod thoaalborily coiiferrwl nn him 
by cbu CotisLituHon sail the tuwsmailo tnpuraaaDceofthatimLrn- 
meut. TkoKC who bold Ui«t the Prcaidout hae, byeeudtJig Federn] 
troops tothe»oeuceof iIUordcr.exceei^edliifipoTer predicnto their 
opioioD 00 S«c. i, Article i, of tbo C'oaslitatioo, which autborizM 
Congraai to send troops to atijr tState " to protect it against in- 
raaioQ, and, on applicutjou of the Ivgieliitiire (or of tlie executire 
whan the togitlature cannot be couvonod), against dom«etic rio- 
knoe." The mcaniug of this provisioD is perfectly clear. CoDgrcw 
is aiilborized to send troopa to au; State on the call of tbo legisla- 
ture, or of the Koreraor, undor certain conditions, when the 
uuthoiicie* of Mioh &tat« ax« unable to ropet iuvaeioa 
or to repress dorneatio violenoo. Bat thote who criticiso tbo 
acts of the ProAident forget that Congress has eoaoted 
lairs which confer on the chief magistrate larger and wider 
powers than thoM giren to Congress by the ConstilntioQ. 
Tho aatbority for the czcrciee of tboae powers is foaod 
in Sections &298 and 6'i9Q of the Revised Statiitei. A referenoa 
to these laws wiU proTe that the President Dot only has abaolnte 
power to call on the Federal forces to sopprees " an; insnrrection, 
riolenoe, anlAwful combination or oonspinoj " occnrriog in aay 
State, and indeed it is made " his dnty to take snob measnrea, 
by tbo employment of the militia, or the laud and oaTal forces of 
theViUted States, or of either, or by other meaaa, as he may deem 
naoaoMfy, for the rappreasioB of snch iuuurrection, domestJo tio- 
]«aoe or oombi nations.^ Tbew qaotutioos from Section 0390 
are safficient to show faov ample Is the authority of the President 
to deal with sacb cases as those confronting him now, and it 
should bo a sonrce of heart-felt congrstalation to all lav-uhiding 
citixeus that the executire chair is now filled by one, who, know- 
ing what hi« dnty domnodcd of htm, bad thecoumgc todischarge 
it promptly, fully, and fearlessly. Tbere u another potent 
reasan why the Federal anthorities ahonid hare been called on 
to tiit«rveae in snpprosaing the rioU which oocnrrod, and why 
the shield of Fodcral authority sfaould hare be<<a interposed 
(or the protocUoQ of property. The goTeromeQl ban millio:i8 of 
dolUn ioTOsted in the craDS^»nLineoUI railroads, secorcd by 
mortgagee on these roadd, and it was the clear duty of the Praii- 
diDt to aw all the means in his power to guard thia immeos* 
TOU CUX.— HO. 463. 18 



[94 



THE NORTH AMERICAN REVIEW. 



property from destruction, for the whole coDutry U interested in 
iti prevBTTatiou. Litwletjd mobs hare not ouly stopped traffic and 
tniTcl on tbfise roods, thus cntting off the legitimate reTenae duo 
to the QoTernmenI, bet they hare in many inetAncoa destroyed 
the roads and bum&d tho bndgc;3 oo tbcm. If each outrages are 
permitted to go unpunish^, our l^iws are a farx^i, for they give 
protection neither to life nor to property. Every consideration 
of duty, self-respect, honor, interest, demands that the tnujesty 
of the law should be rindicated whatever tho cost of doing so 
may be. Every bumaue man most feel profoand sympathy for 
all honest toilers where labor does not yield proper remoneration; 
but uo le^slation, no gorcrnment, no earthly power, can rectify 
the immutable law by which the gifts of fortano ore dietributod 
with an unequal hand. It hus been so pinoe thu begiaoing of the 
world and it will protiahly so coDtinuo to the eud, or to the mil- 
lenuiam, for our Divine Master said, " The poor ye hare always 
with you," 

AH civilized nations have tried to solve the labor problem, 
and alt have tried iu vain. In this country the couditious tend- 
ing to a solution are more favorable than in any other* for with 
our boundless and fertile acres now lying wfute, every pradeni 
man can acquire a home at a smull oost, and a landowner is 
rarely an auiLTchlst or a socialist. If the vast army of unemployed 
Utborera, or of those whose labor is not adequately compensated, 
could be settled in theij own homes* white thoy might nob accu- 
mulate richer, they would be indepeudeiit, and the fact that their 
homed were their own would make them uonservative, law-abiding 
citizens. The danger then of snch strikes as have recently cou- 
Tulsed the coantry would be lessened, if not averted. What will 
follow now that this strike is suppressed, entailing untold 
suffering and wideeprcad ruin on the raisguided men who have 
taken part in it ? is a snbject for serious consideration. It is to 
be hoped that when the normal condition of affairs is reestablished 
the railroad authorities will deal gently with all their employees 
who, voufisitiug their wrongdoing, ask for reinstatement. Uauj 
of these men were led astray through ignorance, aud others wer« 
forced by threata to join their comrades, Theee men deserve 
pity, not ponishmont. For the unscrupulous leaders, who, at a 
safe distance from danger, exposed their unfortunate dupes to 
probable death and to certain ruin, no condemnation con be too 



TtlE LESSOS OF THE RECEST STRIKES, 



li>5 



emphalio, no paolsbmont too severe. Whatover may be the oat- 
como of tlic nubapp; condiUon of affairo now prentiling^. i>very 
pitriotic citii^en must clioribh thu fonrcnt hope thitt, vliile Iho 
supremacy of tlio hwt h maiatmuut], a mtiafactor; aad pcucoful 
adjnttmeiit of all dtlTerences may be arrived nt, and tliat the 
coDDlry majr be spared tbo dreadful coD^eqQences whloh woald 
follow an armed coaflict betweea tabor and capital. 

Wads HAMPtOK. 



UR. ROBINSON: 

It U ili iM lus Plato (and therefore presumably older), that 
though rOToIuttona break oat oa tririal oooaaioiu, the uuderlyiug 
onaaa are noTer trtrial. Thejr uriso o«t of amall tbioga, but 
oteuf great ones. 

Tbe gricvniico of the men at PnUman — ilie(]iioitioD whetheri 
they ationld n'ceive 25 uout^ more or lesa tor a daj's labor — wasl 
not the caitse of the strikes and riota vhicfa followed. It] 
iraa only an excuse for precipitating a conflict which bod been al- 1 
ready decided npoa, and which miiat liave oome sooner or later, -i 

Those who hare been in any mea^nro couvemmt wilhthocur- 
reuta of thought in what are known as " labor circlea " haTe seen 
the cloudu that were gathering, not only for montlis pustj but for 
aome years. Had the country not encountered the financial de- 
pTMiion of the hut tweWe months, their breaking might hafo 
been delayed for nome time yob. But it was a qoeation of time 
only. The etorm could not have been Gnally arerti'd. 

Long before tlio financial crisis of 1893, the leiwlors of certain 
labor organizations talked freely enough of their plans and am- 
bitiotiin, even outside of the lodgorooms. These plans and am* 
billons, it should he distinctly ondcrttood, hare coatemplated 
nothing lo«s than a goneml indastrial rebellion, throngh which, 
by mere force of numbcn;, the labor organizations of the country 
pTopoeed to obtain control of the legiBlatiTeaitd administrative 
machinery of this gororumcnt. The cardinal CouetB of the ap- 
proved modem labor doctrine are two: 

(I) The workingmen, — by which is meant the wage>earaen 
by manual labor, - being the chief producers of the wealth of the 
muDtryt are entitled to the gniding voico in ita government. 



196 



THE NORTH AUERTCAX REVIEW. 



(ft) TI16 n-o'kiagmenj irhen properl; orgtmized and onder 
prop«r leadership, are stroug enough to take by force, if nwxeanrj, 
tliat to which they nro entitled. 

The chief obsUtcIe which the labor IpaJeni Found in.the way 
of iKting upon this doolrino was the lack uf thatprojier orgiuiiaft- 
tioD which vaa coofeesedly necMsary to enccess. Conaideritig 
the employees of the railwcys alone, there were, two years ago, 
Bome 850,000 men employed on the roilwHyB of the ITuited Statea 
in all capacities. Orer 700,000 of these were included in the 
various olasaes of wage-earners by manual labor. Each of these 
clftssee has long had its particular organixHtion. Some have bad 
more than one. Buttheaggregatememhersbipof alltbeBSorgau- 
iutions (unions, orders, brotherfaoode, and associations combined) 
amounted to lees than 150,000; m that more than throo-lonrtbs 
of the entire working forces of the railways were *' uiiorganiiod." 
Moreover, there exieted |eaIoasi«e between the diilerenl orders 
and brotherhoods, which prevented their co-operatLng when 
tremble aroee, and more than once it has occnrred that railway 
companto* hare come victorious out of formidable atrikes largely 
by the asaistance of these jealoueiee, and by the activity dla- 
played by one organizatioo in helping to defeat another. 

For many yeara there have boon at iutervala attempts made to 
barmoniiie the differences existing between the eoveriU orgamza- 
tii>ns, either bo that they might, while maiutainiug their individ- 
ualities as separate orders, nnite in alliances of offence and de- 
foDoe, or so that they might bocomo murj^ in one comprofaeo- 
eire brotherhood. In the hst three or fonr yean, the attempts 
to achieve " federatioD " of the railway orders have been namer- 
ous, and on more than one occasion have betd oat aome promiae 
of siiccpes. The practjoal reeulta attained, however, were inaig- 
niScont. Then aroae the order whioh has of late beeomo 10 coo* 
spicuOQS, the American Ilailway Union. The Union, iniitead of 
aiming at the consolidutiou of existing orders (the uonstlLutlon of 
the Union doctaring thia to be "impracticable" ) began by eo- 
liciting recruits among the 600,000 or w of "unorgouiicd cm- 
pIoyu%i," truBtiag to its ultimate sacoesa among theae to give it 
such commanding strength among railway orders that aoODer or 
later the other orgauiaatioiu would be compelled to suffer them- 
mItos to be abeorbed into it. 

This prooeas, which has been going on among the railwivy 



TBE LBSSOti OF TBB RECKKT STSIKES. 



197 



Torkcn, lias been ilwolt apon at some langtli becaas» it is 
typical of what liiw be^i done in other lines. An the railway 
Union liu oriseu. so, ittlowiojj for differenooe in eonditiotiM, Ibero 
bare been created the other Uuions, Coanoiln, and Fedcraliona. 
Korhasit boon aooidentiU that thrae movenient« towards eon- 
aolidation have gone on ooiicurreutly in dilTerunt ficldii. Kach 
morenient maascd a oortaiu number of regiments luto a corps ; 
hut the leaders hare always thoronghly anderaleod and have de- 
liliemtely intended that thoee coq^e ahooid, vhcn the time cnmo, 
ooKipanite together, aa one grand army — each separate, yet all 
utiite^l, when unity of notion is required," in the words of a pro- 
Dunciamcato iiisned over a year ago. The objeota for which this 
army was to tw united have t>een already oiplaiood. 

That when the coutUct oamo it alioiild bruuk out firfit upnn the 
nilwaya was perhaps uatund. inasmuch «s by striking ut the 
arteries of commerce the ntal part^ of the eocial organism could 
be mo»l i|iiickly rew^bed. None the \en9, it was in large measura 
aUo an iu:cidciit, au accident growing chiefly out of the hot-head- 
cdlMBt of certain of the leailers of the Railway Union, lu its 
eaMHce the disturbance was no more a railway strike than it vm 
■ PuUraon strike. The men who loft their places on the railways 
had no grierances. Tbey bad no more coucern with the affairs 
of the baildero of freight cars in the Pullman shops than had the 
Auootation of Iron and .Steel Workers or any other labor organi- 
aaLion. Their only conoeru was Ihit common one of whnl is 
kiiDwn 08 the cnuae of organised labor. Thin is the eseealiul Caj;ti 
to be borne in mind : that the outbreak was net an outbreak of 
eert«iDemployc«sof partionlar eompanica against whom they cod- 
oflired themselves to have grierauces, but it was a demoDstration 
in behalf or all organined labor against all classes of employers. 
It waa an insurrection of cortain sections of the wiigo-ourniu}; 
alaaa against constitntcd society. That it was happily cenitned 
within comparatively narrow limiteis Lbo rcsultsimplyof tbo fact 
that the more experienced leaders of a few orgaaixatioos regarded 
tbo late outbreak as prematura, and the seaHO (when so monj 
men are anemployed and ready to take strikers' places) as anpro- 
pitions for the final conflict. 

The American people are extraordinarily patient and slow to 

ttk6llanii> It was not until the etrikera htui opt-nly langbed at 

lite b^WictwiiB of the Fe<lenil courts — not nntil the mob was in 



1»8 



rSB NOBTB JtUBRICAli RBTIEW: 



actnal rediatanQe to the military torae ot tl](> United States — not 
antil loiig atLor tliiU point wua passed nt which in any other ciril- 
iied conntrj of the world the trains of the blockadod lines wonld 
buTc been moriog agkia bctvcon lines of bayooeta— thiit tbo 
fjeueral jtubliu apf«itrod lo awukeii to bveii 'an approximate 
nnderstandiug of what the crisis gienifled. Kren now, to the 
public mind, the oatbrcnk cbi«;f!y prcMtntu itixlf oe a quarrol 
bolwcon cvrluin railwiiy cooipauiea and tbctr employees, which, 
nnfortnnatL'ly but only Incidentally, develo])ed later into open 
lawlessness and an opposition to the Federal authority. The 
rererae is the truth. The «trtkc was primarily a domoniitralion 
of foroo on behalf of organized labor against the general social 
conditiotiB of the coontry. It was only aecidcntal that >t oocurrod 
on certain railvays. 

U in noLiceAblo that the first, of Iho public utterancce which 
aorrvd to eet tho public in some mcasQre npon its guard — the 
first open defiance of the Federal aiuhority — did not come from 
any railway employee or officer of tbe llailwuy Union. It wtut a 
leader of the Kcderaiiun of Labor who Unit declared that if tlie 
goTcrcmeut should interfere the membera of all labor organiiu- 
tions would be called out from one end of tho country to the 
other. Since it has become erident that the government did pro* 
pcifio to interfere, others baro become o^uolty frank. The proa- 
dent of the American Railway Union declared that "the first 
shot fired from a aoldlor's rifle will b« the signal for a roTolntion, 
and ninety per cent, of the people of the United States will be 
found on one side agaiiiat ten p«T cent, on Uie other " The 
alrikers repeatedly laughed at tho idea that tho United 8tat«s 
troops ("ft mere handful of twenty-five thonsond men") conld 
prevail against " tbe masses of organized labor." 

As hae already been stated, the more sagaciona of the 
labor leaders did not approve of the courae of tho American 
Kailwuy Union. Tliey conridered tbo time for a general revolt 
of the labor orders to be ill-chosen, and thought tliataai«iu 
belli more likely to command popnlartiympatlty than the cause of 
the men at Pullman might have been awaited. The work of 
fedoratioQ, moreover, is still far from completed. 1'here are 
ranny orders which have not yet givou their adhesiuu lo the 
"sympatbetic" idea — the idea of a commoncaase of all working- 
men, by which the griorauce of one man a^inst one employer is 



THE LESSOif OF THE BECEXT STJilK£S. 



199 



tlie qiuuTel of all omplo^oni sgaiDit noctetj. Eren unoag Lhc 
nulwav nr^nizations, then; arc sncli orders m tho Order of Bail> 
way Conditctora and the Brotherhood of T/>oomoHT« Engineers 
which havo no coTnradcahip mi\\ the Railvay rnion, and vhich 
boro thomnel vex villi dignitj in Iho recent arinii. On thete 
grounds, tho Icndvni of eomo of thv otiior organisations, vbild 
eDtirol; in sympathy with the gc'ticral aim of the Americftn Bail- 
way Union, donbtcd tho wisdom of making tho insnrrootion 
general. 

Tho phtnsof campai^,whi<7h havcbcensolongmatiiriDg. will 
not be abaDdoiied bocauw one premiiture iiiid ill>adnsed eionr- 
non hasmiecarriod. Tho writer has no wish to beannlarmiflt,biit 
it is dasirablo the pooplo of the United States phnnld nnderatand 
tboronghly whitt thc"oaiuQof orgauiunl Ubor" means to^y. 
The leaders of tlio canM may not consider that the enda which 
thoy aeok to attain will necoMarily bare to bo attained throngh 
bloodshed and bv the force of urined rebellion. Tf it ahonld prove 
poasible through the instnimetitality of the Third Parly, and by 
combination with thoTarionsmifioellaneoaaelonient«ordiBCOol«nt 
which are now abroad in the land, to ronch by peacefnl and con- 
atitutionnl meune that maatery of nociety nnd that control of the 
outchinery of governmeut to which they aspir*, they would nn- 
qaeattonably prefer it ao. But let it not bo forgotten that, what- 
OTOT their preference for ponpornl means mny bo, they fully belioTO 
thenuelTu capable in the laat resort of having the power to gain 
their ends by force, and cleorly contemplatij tbo posaibility of 
having to nae that power. 

When Senator C, K. Pavis, of MinnewU, wamod the members 
of the American Knil tvny Union of big State, before the goYCrnmont 
had decided to iuterircne with ita military force, that they were 
" rapidly approaching the overt act of levying war npon the United 
Statoi" be only stated a fact which was already entirely fAmiltar to 
the leaders of tho Islwr orders. They knew that they were embark- 
ing upon rebellion. Tbe word had no terror for them, because, as 
we have seen, they believed themselves to be strong enough to win. 

This is the situation which confronts iho public. The labor 
orgoniitationB do not include n majority of nil tho workingmen 
of tbe United States, nor all tbe organizations inspired with tbe 
laine lawleea and desperate spirit. In some organ ixat ions, whose 
loaditra arc partioe to tho conspiracy, it is uncertain bow far, io the 



200 



THE NORTH AMERICAN RtVIKW. 



last resort, the rank and file of the mcniliors would giro those 
leaders tbe support wbich tbej connC npou. Tbere still lemaiiis, 
boverer, a BufficieDt residnnm of treason to make the prospect of 
an suit«d uprieiog aomcthiag altogether loo serious to bu lightly 
treated. Tbo forces of rebellion have npon rheir eide some mem- 
bers of the TJnitod Statea Senate, more raerabors of tbo lower 
floase of CoDgres«, aod tbreo or four goveritorH of States ; ihoog]) 
how far tlieee gentlemen bave their ejes open to the real meaning 
of the doctrines which thor onconragc, choy alone perhaps can 
say. The movement itself ia not strictly a movement of anarchy, 
tliongh it would faave all the forces of anarchy opon its side. 
lliat it is a coaspimcy against the public peace there cuo be no 
qaestion. 

Forewarned is foreanned ; and if tho people of tbe Unitod 
States are wim' it may not in the end be an unfortunate thing 
that the American Railway Union Eaw tit to take up the cause of 
the Pullman strikers. It has given to the country a representa- 
tion — as it were in drees reboarsal— of the part which organized 
labor proposes to play in the national drama, and which it tciU 
play, unless forcibly withheld, when the right time arrives. The 
isBue of the batUe which threatens wenld not remain long lu 
doubt. Tho Republic is nut yet in iLs dolnge, and will know how 
to cope with rebellion when it comes. But while listening to the 
pleas of labor agitators and the champions of organized labor — 
whether in the press or from the platform, in legislative halls or 
from fiiibernatorifll chairs — it iswell that tbe people should know 
and remember that it is rebellion which, these organisations con- 
template. It is rerolation which they hope to attain — by peace- 
(d1 means, if may be ; by force, if must. 

Tho car of the country is always ready to hearken to the cry 
of tho workiugman. The faeArtof the country ia tender and 
qnick to be tooched by the tale of tbe wage-earner's suffering. 
But the country cannot afford to be kind or soft-hearted to treason. 
Let no man flatter himself that these latest strikes are do more, 
and bear no deeper signilloanve, Ibau other strikes which have gone 
before. Former diaordeis have been but sporadic onthreaks, re- 
sulting from local canses. This loeL is the development of a 
deep-seated maUdy, a cancerous growth, which has been dclibor- 
ately implanted in the social system of tbe country, and has boen 
fostered there till it bos slrnck roots, which will not be torn out 



THE LEitSON OF THE nBCIUfT STRIKSS. 



sol 



witlioat the rendliip; of titiene ntiil tfao spilHog of blood. Its ex< 
tsteace is a meDncui to tlie uatiou. 

H. P. BoBINflON. 



BCR. (lOUrKRS: 

On Prtcoi-ation Dny, May 30, tS94, Jniigo Orocscnp. of the 
U'Dit4!d ^UitOH Couiid, in hie oration cotnmemoratiTe of thu <1ay, 
took occwioQ to say that " thu growth of lahor organizatione 
rnnst he ahecked hy liiw," yet when tho BotiniU of his voic« had 
scarcely diml away we had in the midet of ua the greatcat mid 
most oxtenaire l»hor strnggle that has erer takoD placo amoug 
tho wffljo-workcra of America, and jKiRiiibly of thii world. 

TboaBADda of milee of railroads in all directions have b«cn At a 
ntandntill, and nearly a hundred Lhouaind workmon in voluntiuy 
idl«ne«a to Hpcore what they regard aa juatice to their fellow work- 
mra. U has btvn qneatioaod whether tho boyrott or strike was 
wiM or whether it iraa JEHtifinblr. Oti tho firat qn«ation there 
may bo soma dilTeronre of opinion. It may sinoerely be donbted 
whether it wan wise for aa organisation such as the Araericnn 
Railwiiy Union, within a year of ila formiition, to attempt loin- 
augnratc a movomont which, in it« incoption, of ueoeifsityi u- 
anmfHl gigantic proportions. 

The policy or wisdom of entering into ao great a movoment 
without conanltation wiUi, or against tho advice of, the older rail- 
road and ho»a-fi<ie labor organixationa of tho conntry is open, to 
eeriotiB question. N'or will 1 iiltx^nipt from the nanal standpoint 
of trade dinpute to justify the atrike. SuDkieut fur me are (ha 
facta which provoked it and to which I Bhalt alludelater; but that 
the railnwlmen deliberately entert-d a oonteat which entailed 
many sacriOi-'os and dangon id •□ attempt to redress gricvancos 
not of their own, but of other workmen, who, baring become 
thoroaghly enervated and impoveriahed, without organixatlon 
or previons nndcnttonding, in sheer dcs|)cration threw down 
their work, ia indeed to their credit, 

A little more than twenty yean Ago George M. Pallmaa cod* 
edred the id«iLof starttiig. In connection with his car shops, a 
town — one that should bear his name and hand down to posterity 
m tnonaraent of his enterpriM and philanthropy. He built honsM 
{or his omployeas to live in, storra to make thoir parchaBcs in, and 
ehan>hea to do their pniyinji In. The workers were told their in* 



}3 THKSOVTH A KKRICA 19 RKVIKW. 

tereslsaiid Mr. Pultman'ii wcri-oneand tliowiino. Uiat what wonld 
briiift dim a greater prosperity would redound to their adTftntage. 
The; wero warued that to b«lonfr to n tmdc-ntiion vonM be in- 
imical to their _;»(»/ entfqirise, henue irorkini-ii who vonid pur- 
pOM formiag a anion uiuoiig thorn would bo dit!cbarRe>K regarded 
aa aoommon enemjr and driven ont of town. They were to de- 
pend entirely upon Mr. Pullman's generosity and Joresiglit in all 
things. 

The rcenlt w&g that tlio workers nt Pallman were hnddled to- 
gether in the (outwnrdlv) neat hoaseti, for which they wore 
required to pay higher rents than are paid for similar accoramoda- 
tiong in Chicago. They were reduced in wages oa often an the 
neattons wonid recar and opportuiiitleii either arose or were made. 
Tills WAS carried on until laat Febrnary, when a reduction iu 
wages was offered varying from 26 to 33^ and in a few instances 
SO per ccn t. 

Here are a few figures which may he taken as a fair crit«noD 
of the extent of Ibu rxMluctiou in wages offered: 

Prioe per pioM, ISBS. FrloeoArad.UM. 

HftklMtlrollornMr* %B tL«0 

Prkiueirark «*r MaE I.K .Tt 

CaiUnxcarMM •■•■ LW iM 

Uaklnc m»C'U«MM t)naM».. M .U 

C'uilUuc bruMeKoupot.,... Uft LU 

RtMktmltJi •rork. pliUIonB.. I OD IAS 

TrnokMUing , .IS .M , 

SlMDlDK carlndira imjOt ilASO 

T)i« workmen being driren to deBj^ration, a meeting was 
held. Who called it no one knows ; how it came about not 
A ve«tigc of cridenoe is at hand. It was held and a com- 
mittee appointed to wait upon Mr. PuUniau or a represea- 
tAtive of the oompany, to shew that it wiu absolutely impoeuble 
to live on the wages offered ; tliat a middle ground should be 
Bought; that if wages were to be reduced the rents should also 
come down. Instead of the request of the men being considerMi 
by Mr. Pullman, the committee was Kamniarily dismissed and 
discharged almost instantly. Is it surprising that these men in 
their mdoawakcuiiiK. Qndiug thumsetvcsinjured and )nBtilt«.-daDd 
thcirfpolCMmen discharged and blacklisted, and themBelvoawitb- 
out an orgaoioicion to protoot or defend them, without the 
means of properly laying their grievances before organized labor 
of the country, etrock work, declaring that they might a« well 
remain idle and atarre aa work and slowly meet that fate ? 



TUE LESHOS OF THE RECEyT STltJKES 



908 



Orgwiii»d lu.lK>r of Cbicago beooniEng avare ot ilie uDuinal 
commotion at Fnllmiin did not bold agaiust the workera of that 
tonm ilktiir pn'TJouA reftiBnln to nr^nixe. Tt vas readily np- 
[ireuiaU'd tlmt theac tnon hud bocn wtiolly misled b^v (flleo prom- 
iww and covert threats. Relier i-ommittees were at once formed, 
and it ts Urmlr declared tliat the aTcragp workmen of that town 
buvo faiT-d Imtttfrnnco tlioj engiiged in the contest and frnternized 
with tboir fotlow-workmcQ than they havo for the paat tvo yoon 
wbilo working. 

It was daring this time, wben relief oommitteefl from the 
Pullinan ntrikons voro making their Tisiu to organ iisationa, tbut 
tlio American Bailway Union vus boidinK its first convcDtion 
io Ohioago, and a coraniiltee catled upon it for ita fiDoiicial 
and moral assistance. A committ«« from tho convention vu 
appointed to wait upon tbo company with the retiaeat thnt tho 
inattoT in dbputo might bo submitted to arbitration. Tbo com- 
mittee was told thai there was nothing to urbitratfl and that thu 
oatnpeny refn^vd to discuas the mutter ut all. iD^nlted, liu- 
milinted by the manner their disinterested efforts at restoring 
amicable relations bt'twcrn .Mr. Pullman and his former aervileom- 
ployecfl were received, the committee mad« itn report. The con- 
Tcntion in a moment reflected the feelings of tbo committoc, and 
tbongh at tint snllcn, silent, and indignant thoy resoWod amidst 
tbu wildcat ontUntiuiim that unlose tbo Pullman company either 
adjuated tho matter in controversy with their empleyoes or submit- 
ted it to arbiLriition tho member^of tbo Amoricau Etailway ITQioD 
would not handle Pnllman cars nnd would aak all workmen to act 
likewise, Nohood was given to tho retiuest, rcaolutioD, or threat 
(call it what yon will), and the groat boycott (strike) was on. 

1 can scurcely bring myself to the bolief that the conrention 
imagined that the movement woald be as eitendcd as it be- 
came into, nor that it would loot as long as It did. Be that oa it 
may, wc certainly fonnd oarselrea in the midst of one of the groat- 
est labor sirogglM. 

Now comas IbeqnoHtion repeated : Was the strike wise or jus- 
tifiable? lUe answer to which must always depend upon the 
obamct«r and posittoD of the party giving ft. As to tho wisdom, 
time only oin ti<ll. Since " nothing saccoods so well as sncoeas" 
in all olTorts of life. 1 pn^samf) this plomont will finally set its 
futttuB upuu this considoratiou of tho suhjiM^t. Bat was it 



2(M 



THE NORTtr AMRKICAft RRViRtt\ 



JnstifiHblB ? Prom the etandpoiDt of the employer. No. From 
the standpoint of a labor organization having an ngreernent with 
nn employer wttoee proviaiaiu a ittriko wotiM violate, "No. From 
tlio Btandpoiutot tlic A. R. U., baring tio agreement with either 
or the railroad oompanies inTolveil, aud uxpri-BHiug the inarticnlnto 
protest ot the masses agsinat the wrongs inflicted upon an; of 
theirbrothsrs and their yuaruing for jtiiitice to uti mankind, Yi»; 
a thousand times tm. 

It is aomethtng not yet fall,v understood how thoroaghly or- 
ganiKed tabor stands as the stnrdy pioneer of all the hopes of the 
masses for justici) and humane conditions, of thoir uapirationa for 
a nobler miahood reaaltaot from an equality of opportnnities. It 
is lu co»sequeuoo of these foots that or^Diz«4l labor feels itself 
freqnently called upon to espouse the capse of those who hate 
neglected tlivir own interiMts, und wbo have won antagonised 
any eSort to bring them within the fold of organization. Labor- 
ing men feel and know that the wealth produc«ra would certainly 
avail tbeinsolvcs of their only menus of defending and adroncing 
their position iu life wem it not thiit they in many iaslancee bad 
their prejudioee aroused and thoir Igooranoe of actual oonditions 
preyed upon by the iiistruraents of thoir oppression in the 
hands of tbo corporate and employing class. But the men 
are on strike, the police armed to the teeth are on guard 
to protect life and property, the militia aro ciillcd ont os- 
tensibly for the same purpose, and the r^nlar army of the 
United Stales are marshalled into the fields by order of tfao Presi- 
dent to enfons) injunction?, rcstniining " everybody " from even 
writing a letter, issued by the Judge who only a few days before 
expressed the firm conviction th;it the growth of labor organisa- 
tions must be checked by law. 

Is it not somewhat Ktrnnge that the prortaions of the 
Iiitenttute Commerce Law, a law passed by Congress in com- 
pliance with the demand of the people of our country to protect 
them against the greed and oatragootis disoriminations of the 
railnuwls, can be distorts to such a degree aa to appall its 
authors and promoters, und should be perverted from its true 
parpose, and made to do serrioe aa an instrument to oppress the 
parties to whom it was never intended to apply, workingmeu 
engaged inu content to redress grievances. One may look almost 
in vain for the restraint the law has pat upon the avarice and 



TOE LESSOS OF TUE UECEST STRIKES. 



209 



injuaiiou practised by the milroiul corporationa. The reform 
eleueuta in onrconntr^r w«ai to have unoonscioas]; created their 
own FranlcAaBtoin, tbo brtutb of Ufo boiuj; iiij€«t«d iuto it b; 
plutooracy In tbe sbape of ill-gotten gaiua. 

Thero ia no iloeiro nor ovcd a teodency on tbe |)art of organ- 
tsed labor to bave its movement go beyond tlio limits of the law, 
but I Bubiuit tbat iburu a a aluiiOpoint from vbicb this 
great [>robl(;m alionld be cousidered other thao a judgu'B 
fnjnaetion, a poUconian'tt ulub, or [bo poiut of tbe bayouut. Tbe 
fact of tbr m.itt«r in that indaaLrial conditions have chaiigod to a 
Tondorful uxtvut wilbiu thv |>a«t ttiirty yvan, that wualtb bus 
been accumulated ae DOT«r before, that cev forces are at pUy id 
tho prodaotioQ and tnuiaportatjoii of wealth, aud ibat the eiril 
law of onr States and oouotry has simply Dot Icept pace in 
becoming accommodated to the allercd conditioD4. Do what 
JOQ will, decbiim as yoo ouy, indastrial and comaieroial dorel- 
opmamoa&QOt bo contiDed within tbe limits of laws enacted to fit 
past dfXBdos tbe theoriae of which are sought to be applied to 
modem conditions. 

Civilization of tbe past and present is based npon labor, and 
yet the laborer has no standi ng nor proloetion in tbe economy of 
onr life. It may well be oskod, if the state refuses to deal 
oat some d<^oe of justice and goaroiitoo protection to labor, 
what iuteroit luw Ibo hiboror iu the state? As a mutter of fact 
the orgnniKations of labor onj eudeaToriog to B«.%iiro that protec- 
tion and guaranty to the worldugmen whicb tbo etat« luts 
failed to tak» 4^<^i^aQce of. Without organization the worlcmca 
ironJd fiimply be reduced too much woree couditiou tbau the slaves 
in ante-bellum days, and all attempts to etraiu tbe law, constrn- 
ing tbe exerciso of natural rights to bo criminal, will only react 
upon tbe beads of tbe legal prestidigitiitora. 

Jf in monarchical EugUud. with ita old and efletc traditions 
and cmsty customs, rarliament can afford to liberalize its laws 
and Iegali2a the a:!tioD of workiogmen engaged in tbo maiiit )n- 
anofl of their orgiinizvtions and their effort to obtain better cou- 
ditioDS, oertaiuly iho Bopoblic of these United 8tat«s should not 
only keep pace with that spirit, bat advauce beyond it, and not 
bring the ontire military and civil forces to aid the strong and 
help cmah out the weak. 

LtttMH" cuuDot, and will not if U ooold, utilize the proceea of 



206 THE NORTB AMERICAN REVIEW, 

BecariDg legislation by the ase of money ; it relies upoa the justice 
of its cause, the nobility of its parposcs, tho humaniziug influ- 
ences of its efforts. 

Mr. Fnllmao, it is said, is willing to speudmillionsof dollars if 
necessary to bring his former employees "to their senses." 
That is to say, he is willing to spend millions of dollars to bring 
his workmen to the sense of their utter depcudeaco upon him. 

This is evidently his purpose. It is the purpose of many an- 
other corporation king. He and a few others may possibly win 
for the present, bnt the people of America, when once aroused to 
a sense of the wrong inflicted upon them, will not be slow in so 
shaping our laws aad industrial conditions as to surprise their 
most supercilious critics. 

We insist upon the right to organize, the right to think, to 
act; to protect ourselves, our homes, and our liberties, and work 
out our emancipation. We are confident we ^hall secure them, 
and that the world will stand surprised that they were accom- 
plished through the means of an enlightened public opinion and 
by peaceful means. 

Samuel Ooupers. 



KXGLISU WORKMEN AND TIIKIR POLITICAL 

FJilENOS. 

BT TB2 UIOBT UOV. SIB JOHN B. OOUT, K. P. 



la OTery coustituency In tlie United Kingdom the waj^-earn- 
cit and those whow ioteroets uro like theira furui tho ovorwhelm- 
\ng mnjorlty of tbu elvclora. Tbeir politicuJ [xjyrer, if tbey knew 
how to oae it, woiiM Iw irrceistiblo : tlmj c(?oliI confer tlio ^»veni- 
moDt upon whoiuiwrer they would, lu tho Uouso of ComraoDB, 
00 the cotitniry, lubor tjuostiuiu are thrust iuto tho backgroiiiid ; 
prominence » given to penpiuil sqdabbles and party nianceuvrw 
in which Llm workora havo not thu alJ^Hituat iuUruet ; tliuru is uo 
Uijure for the discussion of ihom subjcuia which direuUy affect 
their wolfaro. What is tho uxplaualioii of this stnuige ooutraat 
betweeo the oioaipotetice of the workiug class io tho coontrjuud 
its impoUrnco in I^urhsmeut ? 

At elccliotis the " workioguiuu" la ttlnyn brought iiromi- 
neatly to tbo fore. The olecUon addrsesea of cauilidates are 
filled with prof«saionB of devotion to his welfare. But so 
soon OH the friunda of workura buTe Buccccdud in penuading 
tb«ra to givre a majority to th«ir poUtical party, their X6«l 
far Ihu tutero«t« of lubor is choked by cares for other mutters 
more in)|)uruuit to tbeir fucendaucy ui Parliament. So fiir from 
BBCoooiivegororuineiils making it Choir first object to supply the 
wanU iiml gmtify tho wishoa of the class to which they appeal 
almost ezcluaively when seeking power, social legislation is with- 
cot scrapie pat on one side to inuke way for meuurea by vhioh 
thu party in power hopes tooonsolidate its poditioii, or is oompulled 
to boy the adb««iun of tit supporters, or for those discudsious 
about th« personal ooudact of diattiiguialied iadividuale, in which 
political people take so much delight. During the two years that 



3oe 



TBE yORTff AMERICAN REVIEW . 



the proeuDlgovomiaout Uasboau io office, its aotiUry uoliiovo- 
ment in social legislation is a lav for regulating the hours of rail- 
way servants on a plan drawn ap bjr a oomtnitteo of the former 
Iloufo of Comnioiu. A very limited oxteusion of the liability of 
i.-ni[ilovtirii for uucidonta to their workmen was abaadonod, bocaasa 
tbe Qovoramvnl quarruUod with the House of Lords upon an 
amcLdment of no practical importance. The Radical partv have 
tried to bide their failun' to legislate, b; taking jmrt; credit for 
adniiBistntCire changes in ttio Home Office and Doitrd of Trade, 
whtcl) Ui»ir leaders found in proj^roim when thuy sucoecdod to tba 
govvruruout. £vorybody who htui been behind tbe scenes in a 
government office kiiovd how littk' the partv color of the Purlia- 
montarj Itegul for the time being affects snch derelopmeuts. 

The reason wh}* tbe class ao powi!ff ul at iho pulU is so impo- 
tcul in tho House of Comniom ia not far to seek. It is b«canae 
it has uo jiolicjr in which the workers generally are agreed, and 
no leaders whom the workers generally trust. 

The lindical \Kiny tries persistently to turn Uibor questions 
into party queations, and to ntpreseut themselres aa the sole 
friends of the working class. One of these leaders wont so faros 
to declare a short time ago that in reference to labor questions 
there waa more diffcreuou b(.<twL<eu tbe boat Tory and the wont 
liberal than there was between the worst Liberal and the boat 
Liberal. But in spito of their indecent zeal, of which tho ahovu 
Is a specimen, to arrogate to thomsolvca the leadership of tho 
labor party, tbcy fail for sorcral reasons to gain the confidence 
of the workers. First, they have no policy, except the extension 
of franchises and the multiplication of elections. The workers 
look to America and Australia, where the development of demo- 
cracy is complete, and purecivo there Ubor traublus wonw than 
our own; Ihoir faith iu Radicalism is shaken by the apectocle. 
Next they arc committed to important sections of their followors 
to carry out ur^auic chaug<«. Until they have eetablixhed Uouk.* 
Kule in Irolaud. destroyed the Church in Wales, and carried ont 
other items of the Newcastle programme they will not bo allowed 
to devote the time of Parliament fa social legislation. Lastly, 
they are embarrassed by a largo namb^r of rich cupitalt^ts among 
Ui^ most rained supporters — the "worst Libenita" for whom 
an apology has to be made. It is diflScnlt for a rich man with 
the best iDleuticns to acquire real sympathy for the suffering of 



KSOUSU WORKMUS .ISD TUBIH WHTICAL FJUEyDS. 300 



tbe poor ; il is Impowiltila fur capiULigU, aa a clasSj to profur tbo 
{Dt«rMt« of the workers to their own. 

It is ftti otitiiblitiliL-iI priaciploof the loudorsof th« OouMrvBtiro 
p»rtj to tti&lEo oo (lecUratioD of policy in oppoiiition. The 
maxim i* handed down na a Iraditiou of tho grunt Sir Robert 
Puel. who woaM s»;, " When I am ciitled in, I will prescribe." 
If, ther<?forp, iUe pr(»ont Icudoni of tliut purty haro il tabor policy, 
tfafij aro not likely to r«voal it ontil tbo next time they have a 
niajurity in piirliainent. Moreover tlioy htiTeu UudubleobJButioQ 
to Diftku promistfi nnd raise expectntiorta which they ilo not 
clearly see their wujr to fnltil. They hiivu never imitatixJ the 
politiciil proRi^aoy of their opponents in arro^faliug to thoinselTcc 
tho title of tho solo friends of Ihu workiugman. The Conservii< 
live piirty hjis in reUtioci to labor questions one great iidTantage^ 
which the people are beginning to n.-iL)i]n} : it is not pledged to 
oi:gaQio cliange, aad hua thervforo iu office more leisure for social 
legislation. This ia tlio explanation of the uadonbted fact thnt 
more of the recent laws for the beiieSt of the workers have been 
poased ander ConscrTutivc than under Itadical lulniinistratioDs, 

Vo indeiwndent Labor party in tJio House of Commons at 
proaont exists. The uamo ia usurped by a section of tlio aup- 
portjers of gowmineut who take advantage of their poeitiou us 
trades-Qiiion leaders to claim the working-claas vot« for the party 
tu which they belong. They havu no definite policy upon which 
they are all agreed, and they must oo critical occasions postpone 
the interests of htbor to those of the government, or the parly to 
which they are attached would cast them ouL To make an in- 
dependent party in Parliament, two conditions are <»ecntinl : 
Srvt, a leader whom the members of the party will follow ; and 
secondly, a policy or a principle to which the party is able and 
willing to riiK-ridce without remorse the interests of tho Conaer< 
Viitiv« and R^ulioal parties alike. Mr. Parnell and the Irish once 
had snoh a party. When the kbor leaders are in a position to 
fulHI, a* be did, these two conditions, an indeiiondeDt hibor 
party may become a reality. 

Though there is comparatively little that changes in the law 
can do to improve the condition of Uie workers, yet there are 
certain measures which have a tendency in this direction and 
which could bu carried without dhaking the fouudulions of society, 
withont allering the laws of pro^wtty, and without letting la 



VUU OUX.— NO. i&Z. 



14 



210 



rSE yORTH AJUERJCAy RKViEW. 



violent or revolutiotLar.v ohunge. But iu reference to IhoM. no 
political leader hu any deQiiito plaa co recommDad> and at pre*- 
eut there is tio prospect of niiyihiiig praaticut being done. The 
public eDthuHiftSm in wanting which, in our Ooiiatitutioii, is ro- 
qnieite to turn a. project into a law, and this want is not likcljr to 
be supplied until education haa made the workera far better 
judges of their owti intoresti and neccsgities. Lot ue proceed to 
examine some of these qiiestiouB now ripe for action, and inquire 
vhat arc tbe particular oircnmatances under which each of them 
hasht:«Q brought for the moment to a ataudatill. 

First of alt, there is the qacsllon, vhich a Royal Commission 
has been oonsidermg for three years, how to settle trado disputes 
between cinployer and employed without a labor war. Every one 
admita that it U doxinible to have some method more ratiotmlaiid 
lees costly than a strike or a lockout. But jnst as every one ad- 
miU the folly uud viokedneea of war, while the peoples of the 
world continue to convert tlieir youth into soldiers, and to vaiite 
tiieir hibor in manufacturing inatrnments of destruction, so, in 
Bpite of the ackaowMged folly of the system, workers go on 
strilciug, employora go on locking out, and the public sentiment 
in favor of iuduetriaJ |K>ac« rcmuiua a mere piou4 opinion. The 
capitalist knows the losses vhich a strike infiicts on his in- 
dustry ; tbe frorkcrs arc avraro of the heavy tax, in the shape of 
0011 tribut ions to their union, which Ihey have to \my in times of 
industrial puace, uf the Iom of wage^, tha disiiipation of their 
property, the starvation of their wives and children, they have to 
endure in an industrial war. But each party ie contented with 
fniitlo^s lamentiitiou ; neither stint itaelf up to energetic 
reform. 

The Royal Commission oFlAbor, after three years' oonsidcra' 
tioQ, could recommend nothing moro practical ihtux the encoar- 
agcmoDl of voluntary tribunaU of conoiliafcion and lu-bitratiou, 
hut they pointed out in their own report that suoh inslitittionB 
could only succeed in orgunixed tmdee; and it may be estimated 
from their report that the unorgitaijed exceed the organised 
workers in a proportion of at least siic to one. In faot it ti the 
weaker party in a tnule dlipute that oaUa for coDciliatiou and 
arbitration. The stronger will not hear of interference. The 
Homeetead strike in Ponuaylrauia in 1892 would have been 
aTort«d if the employeri who were the stronger had becD willing 



ESOUSa WOHKMKSAttDTaStRt'OUTWALyRiENIfa. 211 

to ncgotiBtfi, or it any pabUo autlioritjr tiod ezut«d oa|wblA of 
forciug Ibum to do ho. 

It was proTeil, in the inrpatigation of tbo causob of this strike 
by the Houw of ItcproBontatiTefl RndSonato of tho United Sttiioa, 
that the nvlimtioiia propost^J hy tlio employers vtero right ; that 
th« men wuro ready ftud anxions to nsgotiate ; that thej would 
hare yielded at nn onrly sbige of tho oouflict bvfure bhKKlshed luul 
tuken place ; but that tbo mauiigiT of the employon pemsUintly 
tvfnwKl to moot them. The roflult wtm that olevon peoplo wfm 
hillod, atarge iiumbor uuiincd and injurvd, tho mon lost £200,- 
000 of irages. the company tncarred a hcary toes of which the 
amount has not b(<«n stutod, and tUo public woro put to aa ex- 
penM of £88,000 in guards, militia, and pitUee. If any pnbllo 
body had been oharged with the di)ty of mediating at the beginuing 
of the trouble, and hoA poasesKd aothority to bring the parties 
together, all this would have boou arerttid. Aud it must bo re- 
membered that it ii not only those publio seiuatioual itrikca that 
have to be labon into account. There are potty local labor dift- 
pules going on coiitinaally alt over tho indnatrial world, which 
together catise a sum uf laisc-rj' gr*;ator tbiin tli« coDSpiciioits mid* 
fortunes of tlic grttaler strikoii, which alone attract tbo attention 
of tbepuldio. Where is a |>olitical force to be found that will 
compel thu gorcrnmcnt and legislature to lake tliiii matter lu 
hand, and think out a Bcbumc for the nitiouul sotLlomcnt of trade 
dispute* ? The capitalists are interested in prerenting tbo wuto 
of capital which labor wars occsiuon ; but iu tbo case of unor- 
ganizedUbor, withwhich tlioy chiefly have todeat, tbey feel their 
poaJtiouao strung tlial they do not desii-e outside interference ; and 
in organized trades, where they are weak, they doubt whether an 
award adverse to the workers would be carried out. Tho labor 
leaduTB, who rvprosent organized trades only, rely exclusively on 
their organisation, and tliey look ii|>on the holplcssucfts of the 
UDorganixed as a valuable means of driving them into combina- 
tiuD. Tbe nation, it is Inie, lias the strongest moral right to in- 
terfere, for it has not only to defray tho cuets of keeping the ring 
while tbo fight goe« on. but boa its intereets aud welfare joopar- 
diied in all the runJSoationa of il« complicated iadostries by the 
fCoppogo of any particular branch. But pablio intereeta are not 
•apported by the educated opIniOQ of the workers, and are swamped 
in the Uotuo of Uominons by thoae of capitalists and Irudos-nnion 



tl3 



TUB NORTH AMESrCAN REVIEW. 



membtn. The flre-aixtbs o{ tho worlc«re, who, being defoaceleee 
iaatrad^dispnto, wonld gain by theMtablishmeDt of any powar 
to fUnd beCvoen tlieinaDclan aareasoiiKblci-mployer, are damb, 
ignorast, and unrepreaeutedin tlie Hoitae of Commons. Then: 
if DO forc« ftt preseot to overcome the iDertis o£ gorernmeut and 
PkrUMneot; aud theofltoblUhmentof tribunals of concilimtioDatid 
orbitnition i« not yetintbiti tlie sphere of pniclicitl politics. 

Of al] labor c|DC(il!uiia there ift none upon wliicb tho workois 
are more usarly of one micd than the movcmeut for shorten* 
ing the boum of labor. Tho <io«ipa for more tcisuro i^ houonibla 
to the worknrii. tt in begotten, not of idluncsH, but of nn asptru- 
iion after higher Ihiiigit. They wish for opportuuilius of better 
culture, nobler fitiiiily life, and occupations fitting them for the 
poaitioQ of citt]M.>iiH. In a very lurgc number of iiidtii^lrtea the 
ibortening of bouni wouhl reiult, as experience has nhown, in 
greater efllciency uf lubur, incrcuBcd output, sod beUtT work- 
manship. lu unhealthy trades the reetriction of the time dur- 
ing whteh the worker is exposed to daiijjer and disease is cidled 
for both in his interest and iu llint of the connnunity upon which 
thecofllof louiutaiuingdisablcil workers ullimutctyfalli). In such 
cullingsuii those of railway and traia men, where shortncfti of time 
cannot bocemjwuoated by iiicrcuso of olficiency, the restriction of 
boars mlgfat call op some from tho army of the unemjiloyed into 
Ihe ranks of actiTu labor. Fruiii every poiut of riuw, the cud aimed 
al is diwirablc. Jtiit no practical method by which the aim of the 
workoncau b« fulflllod 14 yet invented. The joint committeee of 
■omsof the highly organizctl trorles in tho nortli of England have 
•aooaHfalty dealt with the question of hours; und, hastily geuurat- 
Ixiug from this oxample, the political world decliircH that the end \b 
best to be attained by tradeB-uniou effort. Yes, it possibly could be 
so attained by tho organised workers if they wore prepared to run 
the risk of having to go through the Hgonies of a strike ; but tho 
Qve-sixths of the workers who are unurganiKL-d, uud umougnt 
whoae indOBlriea tlio wortit eiaiuples of unduly long hotirs are to 
be found) cannot obtain their object by this method. The organ- 
ization which makes tliQ Northumberland miners or the Cleveland 
ironworkem so strong is for thoin an iuiposaibility. They luo 
compelled in any qoostiou bo yield to the Tiews of their employers. 
anlen some outside authority comes to their support. U has 
taken many years to indnoe the mnnntaotnring departments of 



KSQUHH WORKMEN aSD TtlEIIt POLITICAL FRIENDS, 213 

govern m on t, which nre the servanU of tho p«op1e, &nd profoes to 
tw Riodel Hriiployera of labor, to follow the oxampio sot hy the bost 
employora in the privftto trodo. Thu Kight-Uoiirs Minera' Bill. 
to which tho mitjority of tha moinbora of tbo Uouso of Ooinmons 
pl«>l>;«tl llierni«)lv63 ftt tlio i«t eleition, h*j m;wle alow progress 
in Purliumonl. For the gonuml Lml y of wurknr« nothing St being 
doD«. The uuireriti] GighL<IIount Bill everyhoclj knows to be im> 
practicable. Tho tnide^-iiriion oongrossiM puaa unnuully nMolii' 
lioni bjr ororwhulmirix mitji>ntiM in iU faror ; bat tradM-uoioD 
leuloN Iiave nospeoin! knowledge of tlie case of the unurganiued 
worlter«. anil no nundate to speak on their behalf. If there U to 
be mny authurily to wliioh workers generally can appeal fur 
the ciirtuilniunt uf boitrit of labor, it muat bo a local authority, 
which willliare to daoids theqoestion with regard to local oirouni- 
Ktnncoa. Ko party in the state has yet committoditielf to any 
Bchomo for the crootion of such im authority, and tbora ia no 
•troug publio opinion to Bapi>ort it if it did. 

The exiaUiDce in our groat cities of ma»ea of nneroployod or 
liTiIf-CRipIoyetl workers \» admitted to bj a nntiooal danger, and 
i\ia ijupstion how \M doil with them to bo tlio most argent and 
didicult politiciU probittin of tho day. If modern civilisation ii 
destiaed to bo evept away, thia 18 the cbisj whirli U most likely 
to act tho part which tbo barbariaiu did towaids tho lEoruiin 
Empiro. In the orgaoizod trade* the inevitable want of work in 
abick times or in tho iiiLonrals bctwovit the cluso of one job and 
the beginning of another, id dealt with by tbo nnions. The 
worker, for Ibe time ont of ern|>loyment. is snbiidixeil ont of the 
common fund; he was formerly helpol U* And work by being 
providkH) with the innins to trnvul about in search of it; now tbu 
more rational mode ia adojited of indicating to him, by means of 
information flitppliod by the brannbea of the union, the particu- 
lar place in which work U likely to be found ; hiii distress and 
diflicultv arc thus reduood to a minimum. But in the unorgnn- 
txed trades, wliiob I oaunot often enough impress D|x>n the 
raader contain the vaat majority of the workers, the raaliidy of 
want of work rages anobeckod. Invention of maiiUinory and 
fihaagw of ^hion aro ooatinnnlly swelling the ranks of the 
**uiukillcd" with worken whotw akill is no longer wanted. Of 
tlie men who i\svA to nmke dre»ing-ca9ei in London must bare 
ioft ih« trade lo wliiuh they were brought up, and the rosidno 



3U 



TBE SOtiTII AMtCniOAX RfHriEtf. 



dugout a mmrablo oxiat&nce in it, bocaaM dnMsiiig-caaes hare 
gone oil t of fnahion nnd <iroai)i»g-biiga Kkto oomo in. Tho youiig 
Inboroni from the country leavu tlio tillAgu of the soil, in vhioh 
tliey haro no proapoot b»t tho trorkliotiao, for the butter 
wugM whtoh tho town aSonla. Thoy botlcr their condition by 
displacing older workers, tviA when tUoy grow old aro tUomiwlTea 
(liHpbuHKl in tarn. Ttiera nro seaaou indastriea in great oiUes, 
like dock and waniUouAO labor, wliere long periods during wUioh 
tho workers ara not required is a regnlar incident of the calling. 
Tho miBory of tho8o wbo ai-o half employed ii aggrarated by tha 
chronic poverty of many in full work, Oi>mpotition and thodo- 
iniind of the public for tlio cheapest article hava produond the 
greibt. sweated iadnstrles of E;ist London, tho cabltiot tr^i^lo, and 
tho ready-mudo clotliing trades, in which tbotisands of people 
work at baroly itnbftistonco WAg<3s. Tlut this ma^ of hatf-starrod 
lialf-employed wor!cer« U a national danger no one will deny. 
It exists in A.tnoriodu and Australian cities as well, whc-ro ono 
would have thought the abund-int rirgin soil afforded au in- 
oxhnii8tit)lo outlet for surplus popnlation. It aooms a nnirorsal 
diet'uHti of the m'idorn city. If tlic-re is no imminent danger of 
revolution, bocittuo tho famiDbing uuemployod uru too apathetic, 
and in many cases too sensible, to ^ro ear to Aiiarokiata and dia- 
tnrbAn of pnblic ortlor, there t^ a constant tendency for tlie class 
jiint above tiicm to sink into their ranks and so swell tho chronic 
mischief. In the oaaa of London there Is ihiti furtkor curious 
phenomenon, that while thero aro in the town hundreds of thon- 
eaodi of men clamoring for work and starving for want of it, 
there are in tho country within thirty miles of town tboneands of 
acres of hind lying derelict, and bringing forth lliorna and thistles 
instead of food. How to apply this wasted labor to this waatod 
land 13 a problem which &eenu to baffle oar accumulated wisdom. 
8omc of tbe local atitboritioa, who arc witling to try experiments, 
are controlled by the colder oonusels of the central government 
authority. The d(>populatiun of the eountry and thu congestion 
of labor in the towns go on year by year, lamented, but not 
stayed : and all the leading statesmen of alt political parties can 
contribute nothing moro helpful than to throw cold water upon 
every scheme of remedy that is propowd. 

One prnctjoal suggoaliou basboca made, which would not cure 
the evil, bat which would mitigate ita intensity, and aiforl kiqc 



BSaUSH WOHKHUS ASD THRTU rOl.tTlCAL FlitEHDS. 2i(j 

mouarc of its oztont — tho cHtahlighmdnt of labor regietrioa 
throughout the TTnitorl Kingdom. This would bo an imitation 
ttud dcTolopracnt of what iho boat of the trudvs- unions hiirc alrettdy^ 
done for their ovn members. Experiments have beeu tried by 
volantaiy owocutioiu, ami by mnnicipnl autboritio«, with safB- 
oient SQOoeas to justify n continuance of the efTort. What ts nnv 
moat wantdd is some oontrtl c1(>arin|;»1iouse, whero the cxpusm of 
dfimAnd (or labor in one locality caQ be balaoood against (ho 
eiOMS of supply in another. The piseea where there is the 
grwtMt nub of applicants to the registry offlco are precisely 
tboM where there is the wont chance of einplovment being found. 
Thiaoontral clenring-hoiiso can only b« olToctiTely supplied by 
the Central Qorernment; but the Central QoTemment will not 
fltir^and there iaeTeryprospert of th^ local moromont dying out for 
lack of thifi piece of ri*quisito machinury. It in said that the trades- 
anion loadersare oppoaod to labor registriej, bccauito in aaLriku they 
might be Injurious to the side of the workers &a proTtding em- 
ployers with ontsido labor. As long hs society exercises no 
function in a Rtrike, except that of keeping the ring and seoiog 
fair play in the tight, the trodea-anion loaders ore perfectly right 
in Jealously safeguarding the interest of the strikers. But even 
if this barbaroiig system is to continao, there eliould be no diffl* 
oulty in deviniiig inch precaationd ns would prevent labor r^la- 
tries from being so used. 

For more than a quarter of a ocotary it has been admitted 
that the law of the liability of an employer for injury to his 
workman was mijnat In 1880 an inadequate amendment of the 
law was poMod, which it has ever since been admitted required 
to be amended. Suece:Miro gorernments and siicceesire Parlia- 
BMnts have ill saoo^sive bills attempted to deal with this qaea- 
tion, bat wo still remsia exactly whore wo wore fourteen yean 
»^, Aa to the workers* interest there is not the slightest doubt. 
Place upon tliceraploycr the obligation to componsute the worker 
for all aocitlcnts which befalLhira in the ordinary coarse of his 
employment, and from this obligation allow no contracting oat 
The risk becomes part of the oosti of carrying on the industry, 
and can be provided for ad sach. There is no tujustico to the 
employer, bocanse, Ihe obligation being known beforehand, hecan 
rooonp himself by ihe price of his service on his prodoot. Bat 
the mattar has to be dfwtt with, not in the iutoreet of tho work- 



218 



TBE noRrn American review. 



erg, bat in th&tof poliUcal partinni. The gorerament proposal 
reatriotB tho right of tbaworkmaa to oaaes Id whiob negUgeuce 
OAD b« proved. This was done irith the full oonsent of the "la- 
bor mombers." Their motive 1 m\\ notstoptodiBoosa; tho reasoa 
thej gave, that they desired to iitsare the safety of the worker, 
vu alwunl. The omptoyvr isalready liable for the ncgligenoe of 
himself and his foremen, and the gOTernmoDt propoaal adda no 
farther raotire for preoaution. It was pointed out in vain that 
the proof of noglig»nco wob difllcnit, costly, and oncortain ; that 
no solitary worker could face the coists of a lawsuit ; that the 
same plan had been triod in Gormany and failed ; and that at 
least three-fotirthB of the accidents that took place would be nn- 
proridcd for. The government, which had its trndee-aoion 8up> 
porters to oblige, etood firm. The opposite side proposed tbat, 
as the workers had to make independent proriston for tbree- 
fotirth;) of the accidents to which they were liable, they ehotUd 
be allowed to form societies and sell for an adequate considera- 
tion their limited right against the employer. On this the par- 
ties joined issue and iiuarretled, each hoping at tho next election 
to gain the working-olass rote by the position it has taken up. 
If the workers had known their own interests, and hod poeseasod 
enough power in Parliament to give effect to their will, this neo> 
csaary reform in tho law woald long ago hare beenoarried. As 
it is, it is impossible to say for bow long it has been postponed. 

Few persons deny that it is right to forbid tho omploymont of 
yoting children as wage-earners. The raiaimum age at whinli 
they tihoiild be allowed to work was fixed by the Bcrlia Con- 
ference in 1890 at 13 years. This was done with tho unauimous 
consent of the reprwentatirea of all European nations, in which 
tho British were instructed by their gorernment to join. Yet 
the age in the United Kingdom is at this moment 11 yean, and 
tliero is no preecut prospect of its being raised. To have to forego 
the eamiugd of children is no donbt a burden upon the families 
of many of the poorer workers, but it is one which to do tliom 
justice the great majority are ready cheerfully to bear. A great 
number reoogDizo that to giro a good education to their children 
fs the sorest way to bring about in the next generation a solid 
improvement In the condition of the people. 1 hare witnessed 
both in Qreat Britain and in Ireland noble and touching eiamples 
of the saoriQco by pureata of their own immediate gain for tho 



BSOUSB MORKMllN Af/n THF.tR POUTICAL rttlESDS, 217 

Bttlceof the futnre welfare of their alilldren. Tbe trades- nnioQs 
hxre at all their recent congreasM passed with praotical anani- 
mity rasolntions in ftivor of raiding the age of exemption from 
hibor. Tho difi^colty d«w not come from that side. There arc 
lome iodaitries in which the employment of ohild-labor is oon- 
Tenleut ; ft is dispenaed with in similar tmdes on the contiDent, 
where the necessity of bringing np the jonth of the oonntry to 
be effloioQt soldiers makaa the government more Tigilant and 
nofe eiigent Bat the oxutenco in Farliunont of this adverw 
Interest Is enough to make a party govomment retiiotant to stir 
in the matter, in the absence of any strong popalar force to pro> 
pe) them. So soon as the mass of the peoplenot merely iK:<|aieace 
in tbe odrantage of edQeatton for their ohildnn, but resolve that 
DO trade intereat shall obatract Iheir welfare, and have aoqaired 
the power to make their represoutativee in Parliament give effect 
to their will, British children will enjoy those rights whicli oan- 
tinenUI children have already obtained- 

If the soi-iul (!on(liti»n of wortccrR wiu satisfactory, their class 
voold have no greater interest in pbiUnthropio legislation, than 
any other class of the commnRJty, But so long as the majority 
of the poor belong to the working olnsH, and so long as the major- 
ity of the workers are poor, and are sure to beeome panpers if 
they live long enoagh, these qneetions as to the treatment of the 
poor by society havea epocial interest for them, and are generally 
thoogh crroneonsly treated u working-class questioos. Happily 
philanthropy has uot yet been monopolized by any political party 
in the state, and sach matter? as edacation in all its branches, a 
more rotionul cystem of dealing with children who commit 
oSfiDCCs aguiuDt the Inw, the prohibition of the letting of dwell- 
ings nnGt for human habitation, the building of better homes for 
the people in town and connlry, better provision for destitute 
children and for thow who by blindueiut. deformity, or otlicr af- 
flictiou are incapable of earning their own living, and peostous 
for the deserving aged, are still disotUMd withoat party animosity. 
Dtfeoasion will resnlt in practical reform when the people whose 
interests are most affected liave power to compel the Oovemmcnt 
to take the matter in hand, and when a more enlightened pnblio 
opinion forbids the miseries of tbe yoang, the aged, and tbe 
afllioted being UH«d by society as s coDTeoieut object-leason for 
leaching llirift to tbe uble-boidie*l. JoHX E. Qobst. 



CATIfOIIC LOYALTT. 

"aTeeply to the president of the a. p. a. and 
to bishop doanb. 

BT OEOBOE PABSOXS LATHBOP, LL. D. 



Mr. Thatkob's first point is that tlie TTuited SUtes require 
cotuj>lotc lldelity to the Bcjiublio, and that tli6Pa)){icy U " uo less 
MMcertftiii" (though he nieitiit " cerlai»") iu deniaudiiig "un- 
qaaliBod obedience." This \s not corrccL It should read 
" apiritnal obedience. " Mr. TrBvnor'* ooiichigion, that obedience 
to the Pope invalidati>8 the fldelilif of Catholieii to the Republic, 
ia also, oi cuai'^e, tnitrue. Bui in attempted aupport he brings a 
paasage from Cardinal Manning, which he garbles and misappheo. 
The words, 

" I ackiwwIcdKO no cirU power; f un tho aul^oct o( no olvfl power," 

which be represents Cantiiul Manning ao putting into the moath 
of tho Pope, a1>8olutelv fit/ natof-rur in the piuwgii as written b; 
aiauuing. (Mr. Truyuor, ihereforo, at the stArt, commita him- 
self to a sheer fabrioatioii.) This throws grave doubt on all his 
other extracts and references ; and I shall answer merely the 
pointa he raises by Ihcni. 

Purthennoie, where Mauning »aid really, 

" I acknowledge no dvll sMperior. , , , I olaim to bo tbc «iipr«nia 
JudceaiidfliiecloroftbecoasclcDcwiof mm.' etc., 

be spoke of the specific cose of the King of Italy, whom the Pope 
regardeduansiirper because of hia itirasion of territory rested 
in the chnrcb;aJHl nal of civil powmigrnKraVi/. [n the same 
Bonuoti, also, the Cardinal points out clearly that tbo churoh* 



CATHOLIC lOYALTY. 



219 



thct beginning, enjoined obedience to tho civil luithoritj of 
Ibo (itut«, anil fituod side b; sldo in co-opcmliuii with it.* 
With rvpinl Lo the next paesagc, tbat 

"irUieeharvIieanflz thm lltiilla of lU JarladtcUou. (t can Ox tlu IlinltH 
of ftl1oUi(irJurU(lli'tlotuL."Biid iNKUprcme— 

r«rt«tQl; it ia, in Uie moral fivid, anpremo. If it ami it« hvnJ 
wero Bibjcct to anj one kiog, country, ropublio, or autocriit, thun 
rwir wholo fiiith as OhrtBtinns wonlil doiwiid on tho whim of 
that one kitif;, countrr, mptiblic, or autocrat; which wonld bo tho 
some as to say that the king or t)it> republic is Ood, and 
to aatiiblish a worship of tho Btato ns the supreme power. 
But tliv Tuith of Uhri^tiuiis docs not so depend. It rests upon 
Christ — it mast bo free : nulthcr it nor unr consciences ntay bo 
eualaTed by luijp stato or temporal power. 

Bnt, while the Pope, a« the Vicar of Christ, cannot be snbject 
to an; civil power, wo individnal C'ntholicB are willing and loyal 
oitiiena of tho ooantry in which wo Uto, to which we give our 
allegiance. Kfr, Trajrnor infers that thochui-ch and the Popo 
■asort a right to dopoM sovereigns or annal const itn lions, and to 
absolvu the people from obedience to oithor. Tho following 
words from Cardinal Manning himself refute this inference : 

"ThceirU kIli>({Uncfior CftlhalicB U mi ntidiTlriril lu thftt «f till Cbri»- 
Uaaeand or»l| lata vhoreeognUe a dlTloe or montl Uvr. Tlie civil ■]!«■ 
gUace of no miui Is unlimited, and ibcKtorc the ciri] allegiance of all moq 
wbo believe la God, ornroROTerni^d by coawlcocc. In in that acora dlTlded. 
In ttii-i mote, aii<l In no other. c»a II be said wf lb tratli that tbe clrll alio- 
tf oocv d C'litholic* la dlTidod. TfaociTll allavituioo of evrrr >>)«n la Cbrlatiui 
Bssload Is limited hjrcooteltOOeaadtbeUworOod, waAtKeeivitaUaffianet 
itfCaikfdtcaiM ItrnUrd ruilhet- iemnormert.'— letter to Ihr Timm, Londoo, 
l» Nplj to Mr. Oladitoiui'a Vaiteea* Dtctwt, .S'avcmb«r7ih. 1)171. 

Let oa explain what ia meant b; Pins IX. 'a reference (July 
ai. 1873) to the "right "and ••authority" of the Tope, formerly 
used in deposing sovereigns. Under the feudal Byslcm many 
ilatea and princes sought the protection of the Pope and became 
raasala of Uie Holy See. Both tlic p<wple and (ho heads of 
gonrnaiv'nt, then, vera Catholic. By his spiritual authority and 
hia feudal right, both recognized by them, he could dopo«o ralen 
when thpv violated principtea of faith ur moraU, in oondnot or 
in govrnmient. It wa^ a pact to which the »orcreign« themselves 
ooDionted. The depoetng power is no longer e;ceroUed, Brea 

• MawlDg: »xt*€lattioat »nM<u, VoL ilL, pp. Stm. 



220 



TffS yORTU AMEHICAX RSVISW. 



were the wfaolo Atnericnn people or n great majority of them 
Catholic, the Pope could liimlly dvpoee a tIjoIo pvopio govern- 
ing thcmsclTCe throngh their cxcuutiYoe, ami woiiM not wibh to 
do 80. The attribntcil advice of Leo XIII. to Catholics to take 
part iu politics and eiert their yavnr " to cause the coiuitituUonit 
of states to be modelled on the principles of the true ohnrch," 
would show only that the Pontiff desires them to be ncUre 
citizens, and to haru Clirititiuii principleo embodied in the etato. 
Who but an nnti-Chriatiun can object to thia ? Has not all the 
best and most fruitful effort of the modern world beeu directed 
toward making government and society Christian ? Mr. Traynor 
trioi to show that a " papist " taking the oath of ullugiance con 
bare no regard for it, because the Cutholie canon lav says : 

" No oaths are ki bo kepi It thoy aro afCAlnat (h« Cburcb of Booie," aiul 
tbaC kucl) oathii are " perjurica." 

Vihat iha canon taw means here is that it is uuhiwful for a 
Catholic to take an oath against his church; just as the gov- 
ernment of our coniitry makes it nnlawful for anj citixen to tftke 
ItD oath of conspiracy ugainet th« nation. The OhtiTolidoM not 
ky or mean that tho Catholic is permitted to take an oath 
UDst her and then bi-eak or be false to it, but says he must uot 
take any sncli oath at all. An oath of ullegiancc to the United 
States contoiDB nothing hoi;tile to tho Catholic Churoh or tho 
Pope. Hence it is lawful in every way, and is binding upon both 
native and nalnralizod Catholics.* There is a plain code of in- 
terpretation, by which the words of men innst bu taken to mean 
what they say. This oodo we may call a Primer of Sincerity and 
Common Honetity. Mr. Traynor and Bishop Poaue must abide 
by this code, in order to understand Catholic citizens of this or 
any country. 

Mr. Traynor dcchircfi that Fine IX. 

"aaaertait to bimseir thvrisht toannul t-UeoonitttalloiiiiaDd Uwiio(««r> 
ik\B CMintrics, New Grenada, Mexico, S\^M.lu, AuMtIb." 

It is aboolutely false. Popes do not attempt to annul the 
constitutions and laws ot f ottntrics. On tho contrary, they conn- 
Bel Catholics to obey the constiliition. the goremmeot, and the 
laws, even while they warn both statea and ludlriduals that 
certain hiwsare hostile to Chriataio fnitb and morale and ought to 

' On Ihli •IcnoDUrr mlowC <4 aatawtnl oftlha. mo firownMn^ WoHu, Vol. I. 
p. ia; Vot. U, lf>- <T<. "h 



CATHOLIC LOYALTY. 



SSI 



bo reformed. A rtfttetn«nt ia Loo XIII.'s crodontiale to Hgt, 
SaUjlli, that peiuiltlea inQioted 

" igBliMl tfaOM wbo opm*e oqr auihoriiy " will bo ntithrd " notvrltb* 
MmDding conBlltatloiiA «Dd apMUrilc ordlnatiMsorotbuto UMOoauar;,'' 

ii paraded oa declaring " pa[>ul euTeroignt)* orer the state " t Tot 
it has uothing to do irith the stat«, or political aOairB. It is ad- 
drMted to the hierarchy, and is a charoh ordinance aimply. Tho 
phrase about "ooiutitatioDs/' etc., refers only to church cotiiti- 
ttitioDR or decieea. 

Loo XIII. induced Irigh Catholic*, in their efforts for homo 
ralejto work within parlianicntarr, const itatioosl Uneo. In Frunco 
ho hu lod those Catholics who were inclined to oppow tho n'pab- 
lloao ooostitaUon to accept aud obey iL To a Spanish dctoga- 
tion of pilgrims nambeting 10,000, ho rec«ntly said that thay 
mast aphold the existing monarchy, although a majority of 
IbcM pilgrime favored another royal branch.* In Germany, 
although the Btsnuirck goveraineat had pnaaed stringent taws 
a^nit Catholics, bad emptied their pulpits, deprired tliem of 
the Bocramenta, and exited their rcligiona orders, ho oooDaelled 
ooiMtitatioDiJ, legal agitation only; and it ho* restored religioui 
libeKy. These instoooes prove the papal respect for law and 
order and notional goremnient nadlcr widely differing circnm- 
stanoeo. 

The eicerpts giren aa from Aquinas and a deore« of the Lat- 
eran Coancil of 1216, regarding heretics, show iu their terms 
that the church recognized the autonomy of the secular or state 
power, and left the puniehmoDt of heretics, who might bo, and 
often were, dangeroua crimiuala, to the state. To-day the church 
condomns polygamtgtii, auarehists, and bomb- thro were, heretics 
who deny the hiws of Jod and the church. Hut it learos their 
tomjiorat punishment to tbo elat«. Leo XIII. 'a admonition to 
Joamaliits of docility and obedience did not ask Congress to 
abridge free speeoh, but si tuply uphold the gentle and orderly free 
speech which obeys divine law, in preference to licentious and 
ttotent apecob. With regard to the Pope's advising Catliolio 
political action when religion is directly threatened, IHt. Tray- 
nor asks : 

**Wben In tbs CoaatllutiOD dow Ur. I<«throp flnd provUloo mad* 
* frntU Fiiton npori vt bU midt^m, tiwa RonM. Aprtl S, OH. 



222 



TBS NORTH AMERICAN REVIEW. 



whereby a foreign priost tanj deftoe lb« rlgttU »ii<t dattee ot Am«HoM> clti- 

suur" 

I find DO pTortsioD in the Ooastitntion wboreby oqj- imtivd, 
foroigu, or iiataraliJieJ anti-Catholic bigot may dt-tiiie the rights 
and datiM of citiz«Qa. Tiie Couetttutiou, with the l»ir», doea 
that for as. It also prorides for the ** free exercise" of religiou. 
One of the most 8a«red tbiogs In the free oxcrctso of religioa is 
tho nao of ootucionce and loyalty to Qod. In thiii v-e DAtamlly 
look to the Church and to its visible head, the Pop, bclieYing 
them to be dirinely conetitiited. Mr. Traynormar perhaps took 
to the 3,000,000 Yotors whom bo eaye ho raprCMutt, aa the directors 
or AMittaots of Ai> oonsoienoe. 

Bishop Doane, a member of the L. P. A. I., who {» most em- 
phatically hostile to Oatholics, objeota to oar Catholic poeiliou ; 
becaa8«, as he asks, "who is to douido the question " between a 
lav of men and the lav of God ? Will Biahop Donno decide it, 
in case of a dispute F or Qtieon Victoria, as the head of the An- 
glican Church ? or the majority of » Ooneral CoDvention of the 
Proteetuiil Kfiiscopal C'buroh in the Uiiiti-d t>tatos? Id either 
ovoot, it vonld be decided by Biahop Doano's indindual eon- 
aolenoe, or hy causcieiioos ou which ho relied. WotiM wo, on this 
account, be right in condemn ing Bii^hop Doane as iniitoruuB to 
tbo United States ? Certainly nuL Nor hn& ho uoy more right 
to charge na with disloyalty bccansa we look to tho Pope. 
Neither >Ir. Trayuor nor Bishop Doaue briuga an atom of 
real proof to support the tatter's charge that the Pope asserts " hU 
right to temporal sovoruignty and imperial dumitmtion and 
uniTersal cootrol." He aaaerts a local temporal aovercigntj only 
0¥©r the territory given to him long ago bj the stale. Beyotitl 
that be ia bound in the interest of clTilizatiou to exercise a spirit- 
uiil authority over all moukitid; an authority wkoso solo force is 
in the oonaciencee of loyal Chriftiaas, 

The Oonstitotioii contains uota word BaatainiDg Mr. Traynor'a 
dictom that it forbids "appropriations foi' sectariaa purposes." 
It docs say that 
"Cftaicraas >hftU nuk« no l^w rcepMltog an entaUiehnkeiU vl rcligioo." 

But there Is nothing in this to restrict tlie people in a " free 
exurcisD of their religion," guarontord by tbo same ameadmeiit; 
and such free oxoroiac may involro their right ascitixcos to ask 
or vote appropriations for purpoaoa oonuectod with robglon. 



CATBOUC LOVALTY. 



233 



Biibop Dotno mjs fao has tUo most cordial sjPDopathj vitli tl)e 
tbeorjr of " duttiiittt religions teucbing, ii« port of any thojvttgh 
g^tfm 0/ fducafion" (Review, Jaauwy, 1894); yet lie Btontly 
contciidii that no religiotia edncatioo should b« girdti ia tha 
poblic tchool* fliipportod by taxation of tho people. It would 
Appear, tlicn^ tbut bo wiBhpg tho peoplo to mnjntsin sohools wbioh 
do not give " A thorough education." Ou thin point we Catho- 
lics hare jaat aa mach right to expresa our rievB as nishop 
Uoane or the prwident of ihe A. P. A. We object — with tho 
atrongest kinii of right oa Amorican citizons — to being brow- 
beaten or tntimidHted, under a presumption of diKloynlty, when 
tiny of ua make eiprc«sioiia favoring u eystem of ptibJio insLruc- 
tioQ e<tuitable to all citlteoe. It is our accasers, really, who 
are liable to saspicton of thetr loyalty, for their worda and 
actfona aro directed plainly against Aniericau free ipeeoh and 
eqaality. 

Bishop Poone eaye of Catholics that " neither indindnal char- 
acter, individual ntteranoos, nor indiriduAl actions are the t«et." 
Why not, pray ; wfaeu in his Tiew of his own iritiMniihip. he oon* 
oedos the utmost weight to individual conscience, action, utter- 
sDce? This is Bishop I>oane'8 method of brushing aside such 
iotiaDCM of Catholic good oitizonsbip ns Chief Justice Tanoy and 
Oeu. Sheridan. Mr. Traynor'a method is to assninu that, though 
Catholics, BQch citizens are not " good Catholics ": which is not 
proof, but only faliw aasertion a^in. Probably they would dis- 
IMwe, on the same plan, nt Ijord Kuseell of Killowen, tho present 
Cath<^io Chief Justice of Knglund ; of the Engliith Catholic 
Harqaiaof Ripon, formerly Viceroy of India and now Secretary 
of Stato for tho Colonics ; and of Juetico White, an American 
Catholic recently nppointed to tbo Supreme Court of the United 
States. But soch aa assertion attacks the good faith and loyalty 
of the goreruments and nations thcmaelres. The eminent men 
nfetrod to are good and pnctical Catholics. If, then. Catholic 
religion and character are d isloyal to the state, have the realm of 
Great Britain and the l*residoDt and Senate of the United fjtatea 
acted truasonubly in giving them public office of tho highest 
trust ? According to Uiahop Ihjanu's and the A. P. A.'s theory 
that Catholicity inrolres disloyalty, most not the French govero- 
ment bo denounced us traitorous toward trance, for honoriug 
Iheir dead prceidont, Caruot, with Catholic serriccSi and u«kiiig 



3^ 



TS£ XOItTU AitEJtrOAy RBV2KW. 



other natlonB to do the Mime ? But this would be preposteroue ; 
and HO is tbo tiioory. 

Mr. Traytior wUhee that " a person of aome Hutborlty in the 
Papa) Cbiifch" would make an iitten»ic« "to bo pluoed on 
recoi-d to stand for nil time." Soch un utterance wm made by 
Arx^bbiehop Corrigan, Juno 3, 1694, !n a sormoD it the Gutho- 
drol ill Now York, as follows: 

" Lore for vb«t Is tnie and right !■ tti« ooly principle cbM Hboiild gnlile 
tholifpol iudivldutil, state, and church. ForjrearatbaijiioitileaortlMiCliurcb 
hkTC oAurud thaLltwastfaeslkve ol ambition for temporal power. Tho 
fact U and alRajs boa been Juattbe Matraiy. Tbeohurcli baaCTcr b<eaoa 
tbeUdeoIrigbt,audha«aflTercunied (aror for p^wcr in tamporal aflUn. 
NeUberliuilaverfoiterttd nbdlloa. On tba conlracr Ic boaatwayibw 
the right band of thastatet «afbrciiiK obedience aud aupportins therlgbtftiLl 
exercise o( power."— CofAoJfc tfcwa report. 

Finally, in one of the very encyclicals that Mr. Traynor al- 

ludfls to with Bncli off-hand familiarity, occurs this decisive paa- 

Bage: 

" God haa dirldcd the charge o( tbo baman raoe between two power*) 
tbe ecdelBBBtlca] and the ciTll, one set over dlrloe IbUigs and the otiier orer 
human tbtaiK*. Rach in aupreme In Itmttwa MaA ; eac/i kaa ctriain UmUa 
trUhin tc/iirh it is nftrielnL . . . WbAmoever In btunanaHUmU Inanj 
nunDersacred.penainlng to the saltation of BouU or tbo woimhipotGod 
and the like, belongs to the ehureh. B\tt ail otftfr things rehieh art ent- 
bra^fft i« the etvll or polUieai order are righttf ttibj^etto the SltUt."—liaej- 
cUcal on tae Cbrlittian State, N'oramber lat, 1889. 

Those eitracta answer Mr. Trayuor'a inquiry whether tJieie 
are Dot biehopt who can apeak for the pupacy. 

GeoROE Pabsons Latbbop. 



THE HOUSE OF RKPiiESENTATIVES AND THE 
HOUSE OF COMMONS, 

BT TRB HON. HAM1TI8 TATLOR, UNITED BTjLTBS HIXISTER 10 

SPAIN. 



Tk hU Ktmtniblo article nniler the ahovo title, which appeared 
in the March aamber of tho itsTiEvr, the Hon. Uilarv A. Uerbort 
bus Baid« with his aaual force and clearness, all that can be aatd 
in favor of the cfflcioncy of tho lo^slativo machinery employed 
b; the lloiiiieof Representative* as oontraatod with that emplojed 
by the Ilouaa of Commona. There can be no qucttioD of the 
aontidncM af Mr, Herbert's main oonclusion that, despite the hot- 
tite crilJciem often direct«d by the press against the ptrgoniul of 
tbo Hotiso of RoprotODtativeSj it is ucvortholoes tnielhat the body 
as a whole may challenge compHrison for integrity, Qdelity, in- 
dusU-y, and ability with any aimilar body in the world ; that 
" taken altogether there can be no better guaranty of the capacity 
of the people of the United Stat«a for solf-government than tho 
cbmcter of the men they Bend to Waahington to make their laws." 
Bat aftor that admidsion has boon made the fact reinaina that, 
OotwitluUiudtug the high arerage of pereoaal excellence which 
ebanctarises its Indiridoal membere, tburo is a widespread and 
long-standing oonviotion that the Boase, in its corporate c*[iaoity, 
docs not ufQoieatly and promptly dispose of the j^ruut ittid com* 
plioatod maaa of IvgiftlaCive wurk yearly oast npun it, — a cunvio- 
tion which accounts for Mr. Herbert'^ opening statement that 
" the one factor in the Am(*ri(;iin ^veromeiU that iHsubJooUMl to 
more adverse criticism than all others comhiiinl in the Honso of 
Kepnaeutativea. " Sinco tliu cloao of the civil war thpro han lieon 
n growing eonviclion upon th? jwrtof the American people that 
tboro iiioractliing ni<lii-ri]|v wrung with the proeednre o( our 

rot. ous.— Ko. m, ' 16 



sse 



rne sorth AMsmcAy review. 



popaUr chamber, aDd that aDme sveepiog r«fonn or nadjustmont 
mast be made in onler to inoroase iu efficiency. On* olau of 
critics bavti contented thenuelves with nimply depreciating the 
character and ability of tho membors tbunuclrcs, while anothor 
and mora thoughtfal claaa have fancied that the desired end can 
only be attainod through the aabstitutiou of tho EngliKh cabioot 
ByKtem iu the place of our American committee lystcm. After 
many yearn of patient inTestigation into tho origin, growth, and 
practical workings of English and American parliamentary auem- 
bliea, the writer haa been furcod to conclude that tho growing in- 
ability of the Hoiiftfl of ReprMontfttivea todoall thatiii required of 
itcaunol bo truccd to pereotial duGcioncics upon thv part of i te mem- 
bura, neilhor is the remc-dy for such evils as do exidt to be found 
in the sweeping change which certain thoorials have udvix-ut<:'d. 

Tho most romaricablQ trait which our federal constitution has 
■o far developed is ita olaaticity — ita wonderful capacity to grow 
Bud to expand with tho growth of the ualiou, and to adapt iteulf 
to new coiiditions, without ot^anic change in the iastnimont it- 
self. This good resalt is the product of a foresight which waa 
wise enough to intrust to Oongreas a range of legislative action 
sufficieDtly wide Cor the tA«k of aJaplutiou uud ruadjuetmont im- 
poeed by a national development so vast and rapid aa to havo no 
parallel in history. The ooniititntional power given to Onngreas 
to regulate ita own procedure in brond enough to enable it to so 
reorganize and rciMljuat ita rclatioaa with tho Exucutive aa to 
secure all the practical advantages of the English cabinet system 
without more than a modillcation of tho AinoricsQ committee 
system which has become part and pnrcpl of our political life. 

When we remember that the Uouku of UupruHtutativeJiisreally 
the workshop of the oonatiintion, it is surprising to see bow well 
it handles the vast aniuiitit of businuas which of lflt« years has been 
oael tipou it by meaus of the old and now inadi?quate machinery 
with which the fathers equipped it. When tho first Congress mat, 
the population of tho United States was about tbrim miliioos and 
a half, and the totitl number of bills offered in that Congress was 
lees thau throe hundred. Our population now exceeds aixty'thnw 
millions, and the total number of hills offered in the Hoaae of 
Ht'preieii tat ires alone dnring raoli concrau usually exceeds ten 
tbousatid. As the volume of business in that Jjouw has thus io- 
oreaned, and iwnew mbjects otlagialation have come Into exist- 



TUB BOUSE or RKPRKSByTATrvl':S. 



287 



en«6, the old eommittM system hw BiDi|)l/ be«ti expanded br a 
mnltiplicAtion of tb« Btandin^ committ4>«fl which nov number 
fifty-nix, Knd bj a dUtribntion of the viwt jiirigdtotjon origiiuUly 
TQMed {q tho OommittM of Wa.vs and Mcana among many 
olhen. Tho praoticnl difficnltT whioh bna ariiteD out of this 
qntom of division and sobdiviMon is a lack of leader* 
ship or dirooting power through wbich tho attontion 
of the IToiise can be promptly ooncentratod upon the 
few vitdlly important Bubjoots of national le^'fllation which tihould 
be lifted np ont of the mass, debated and dispofled of in adraoco 
of all nth^r biiBinPfi*. The ability tn iKrompliBh thnt nocoeaaiy 
and pracLicsl reMiilt ii the diHtingtiidhini; fi^iLliira of ihoKystem of 
onblEiet goTemmenb which preriulB in every partiameiit in the 
world except onr own. Back of tbia lack of concentrating and 
dirocling power, inheront in thp headloM c«mmittw systera, 
■tand the nnorgantxed relalionn of tha Executive with Congrosa, 
wbich ititvnttify the difficulty. The primary piir|xtau of oar 
system of parties is to secure the periodical preMntation to the 
conntry of two or more comprehenBivo politicnl programmes 
which each party promisM. in the «%'enL of succms at the polU, to 
pab into praciicnl operation through actsof Congress. The party 
platforms in which theM programmes are embodied always hare 
been and tiJway« will be, for an obvions reaaon, Tagiie and shad- 
owy on the rital ieenes. The people are always called upon to 
indor*i* gt^ot-rxliiios rather than concrete proiH>Jtition». Kot until 
after the rictonona party has ontorcd into poasesflion of tho 
encnttTD pnwer, with or without majoritinii in the federal legisla- 
ture, doM the viul ami pmctit^iLl quesiiou ariito a« to the chamcUtr 
and sco|)e of tho two or three leading acta to bo oITered in Con- 
gresB oftconcrcto exproasions of tho party platform. Under the 
StngUsli cabinet syiil^m no difBoulty can arim aa to who is au- 
thorised to transform party plt-dges into propo««l schemM of 
lAgislatioQ, for the Blmplo reiuton that the cabinet it«clf U a 
political committeo armod with the power to draft legisla- 
ttoii. and to offer tho mme in tbe Honse of Commons aa tho 
official RXproasifin of ihe pfirtr whli^ii it rt-presenta. Under our 
partiamcntary system a Tcry different condition of things exista. 
The Pnwdent and hiit cabinet, m roprcaontattvoi of tJic dominant 
party, haro no sjKwiftI right lo ini^rprpt the party platform which 
tboy art expocted to carry out, neither do they povMM the power 



THE NORTH AMERJCAN RSVtBW. 



to draft, to offer or to dcl>iit« the proposed ftcLs tlirongh wbose 
iuduvDCO alone it cbr be made effectiTe. Thej are held respOD- 
sible without being iillo^M to Bp»&k or to Mt dirMtly. As tbo 
right tu iuitiute legititatiuii h practit^ally vested iu the oammitteee, 
the President and liis cubiitet are forced to rely upon their politi- 
cal friends thereon to draft such But8 aa the dominant party ia 
foppoaed to i^proT<^ and to conduct thorn throufrh the chamtwn. 
During the debatan which ensue, tho President and his cabinet 
can only bo heard throngh the mouths of " friends of the adtnin- 
istratiori," who apeak withont any official authority. The difB- 
ciilties uri«iug out of this syBtem of organized conCuuon reveal 
two weak epota in our syatem of federal government. 

The flrat difficulty consists iu the vaut of power in the Prflii- 
dent and his cabinet (a power nniversAlly conceded elsewhere) to 
sit OS a political supremo court, nad to intcrprut tho party plat- 
form by reducing its geiieml stat^menta to the concrete forms of 
proposed acts of CougreBS. Tho second difficolty oonsists of the 
wantof power ill the cabinet to offer such proposed aots in the 
honsM as the ofiicial oxprceeions of the p*rty which it ropre- 
sents, to insist under the rules upon their early oonsideration, 
and to take part, in the debat«g u)K>n them. 

Under every parliBmentary system in the world except onr 

own thoee two ftimlumcntal rights are secured to tho ozocntive 

as practical expedients absolutely neceoeary for the prompt and 

orderly considorutiou of great national measures which have a 

uatnral precedencu over all other bnainess. All existing cabinet 

systems cxcupt our own are modeled after the English, and that. 

we should not fail to reraerabcr, /«tj tfem detetoped since fkf mah- 

ing of nur federal constitntion, in order loenable the reorganisied 

Gnglisli democracy to transact the vast business of an empire 

upon buKlnesa principlve and in accordiuoa with the will of the 

majority. As Mr. Biyce has well expressed the fact : 

"In 1T97, when tb« Constiuieioiul CoaTeatlMt out » PbilMdelfibU, th« 
c«bli)ctt.fit«ai(>f|[Ov«rD(D«at wa« In Bnjdwxl atlll untuatute. IC WM ao 
snnMure that lU tro« uawrc bad oot bo«a perceirod,"* 

The fathers had therefore no opportunity to seo the workings 
of tlin English constitution iu its modern form, they had do 
IcnowlMlge of the advtuilages of cabinet govenini^nt as now nu- 
derstood, and omsoquently it cannot l>u a^nmud that tbe^ n^ 

■ 7*4 Amrriemk anwMKWMttJk, tqL 1, p. SI. 



7BB ItOUSB OF BSPRE9RNTATXVSS. 2jSg 

Jscted it aa nnatiiUble to oar r^^mlifcion. For the want of BOin«< 
thioj; battor tb«y cquippud tho two hotisea with the legislative 
maohineryknowQ oa the cocomittoo system; and in the e»rlf dftjs, 
when the volumo of legiiitative worlc was very umall, that systom 
was iul«quat«. Bat thuorigiaal condilioiuliava wlioll; chaoged ; 
the growth of popolatjon has been gr«at, and an Mr. Tlorbert has 
■aid, "th« t&terwtt embrocod in tho legislation of Congross haro 
tnultiplied OTen mora rapidlj than [wpulation." Outof the oast- 
ingot UiU TMt inoreaao of legislativo work ii[>on tho primitive 
oommittoo ajvtem grow the canfles which account for tlie state- 
mont felroady quoted that "tho ono factor in tho Amorican 
goTcmmijrit that is stibjeoted to moro adTorae criticism than all 
otbein combined is the House of ReprcseutatiTea." 

The parpOM of this article is to combat Mr. Herbert's state* 
meat that " orery Mrious objooLion urged against its (the 
House's) raeihods bj ita critics grnwt out of organic causes"; 
and to couteiid that, through a brief act of CoQgnws supple- 
mented by a corresponding change in the rates, the relations of 
the two hoasas with thn KxocntiTc maj bo so reudjustcd as to 
■ecaro all the praetical business adrantagcs of the cabinet sys- 
tem, without au; organic cbange iu the conslilution. and with- 
oDt more than a modification of the existing committee system. 
8nch an act should vest in the Atnoricau cabinet the Uiruo powers 
DOW reeled in the oounoil by the Swiss Federal Constitution, 
which are the right to appear io both houses, to propose meo^- 
aroa of l^slation, and to debate them, without the power to 
vot& Thns could bo aocared to tho cabiuot the slt-irai)ortant 
right to draft and initiate legialntion upon those questions of Tjtal 
national interest to which the Bzecutive utauda pledged. No 
iUnsion was e?er more complete than tliat embodied in the idea 
that the preaent condition of things cun be improred by simply 
giving to the cabinet minisLurs porwission to sit in the houses 
with the right to debate, without the right to draft and offer 
meaaaree which are to b« made tbc subjects of debate. Par- 
liamentary gorernmcnt is simply another name for goreroment 
by party, and in all eaoh governoienta party is the steam-power 
which driros tht coostitutionni machinery. Under the Knglisli 
i^stem tbs cabinet is the conduit through which the steam-power 
b applied to the maohinery. The first step in the process is the 
draftiag and offering in the Oommons of the schemes of Icgiaia- 



890 



THE NORTH AMERICAN REVIKW. 



tton vbich the doDiinaot party has promisod the people to enact ; 
ths secoud in the driving of such tneuauren to a, legal conoluHioa. 
UnleM we are prepAred to arm the cabinet with the power to taka 
tbo 6nit atpp, iill elTorta to secure any of the benefits of the 
oabiuet eyatom will So tueleaa. Then ia &o kek of oooBtita- 
tioiial power in Congitus to pass lach an act ae haa been indi- 
cated. Under the proposed arrangement no cabinet miuUter 
would buufjmo in any sonso "u member of cither hoaso." The 
mcmbera of tbo cabinet would simply appear at tbo bar of the 
honssB by tbuir invitation, submit measures for their considera- 
tion and debate them, withont the power to \oUi. Such a 
method of communication would certainly not oonfiict with 
the uiaxim which deoltirce that the three dupurtmuntji of govern- 
ment — legishitive, executive, and judicial — sball forev«r remain 
separate and distinct. Ab all Btudonts of our constitution 
Icnnw, that mnxim was incorporated into our system in the same 
limited and rustriutvd buum in which it wa« uudor«tood iu the 
original from which it was taken. As Mr. U&disoQ baa exprecsed 
it in the Fcderalut : 

"On the ftlUthtsBt view of lb* Brttlih «oa«lltatlon we mnu perceive 
ttaat tbe leKlal&iJve. exeeoilve. and Judiol&ir departmanu are Ity do nuisns 
tetallf •cpiiratc *Qd dktinet tram eocb other." 

And thou apeaking of the constitutions of the States be said : 

"If wc look lalo thecoootitutioDsof iheoevenl 3t«t«*. we Bod that. 
notwIthataiidlnR tbo eiDphnticAJ. And, In <ume iiMtaoeat, tbe unquAlffled 
twins In vtbleh Uic ailotu baabvea laid dawn, ihere Is not a slUKlolnMLanc* 
In wkiioU Lfaa Mirrnil df pttri.n]eDia ol power bave b««a kepL abaolatflly aap- 
arate and diatlaot." 

In the making of our feileral coustitation, after the sum of 
federal power, originally vested in a single body, bad beondivided 
between the three departments in the limited and <)ualiBed aeiiM 
in which such division wns understood in the State oonstituttona, 
each department was organized in accordance with English ideas 
in so far us they could be applied to a "composite slate" at 
ouce fodenil and republican. It can hardly beooQteaded that the 
new and qualified relation which the cabinet (withont the power to 
vote) would assume to Coagn>siS under the proposed act could 
offend in any way against a maxim which bu always been applied 
here in tbo same limited sense in which it has been anderfitood in 
Kngland. if Cougr'>sa poasoBSM the power to past the aoi, ic cer- 
tainly poascBsea the power to so modify iu rules as to giro to tbo 



tK nOOSB OF REPReaKtiTATTPlSS, 



331 



wbinet that i)ruc4>di.'iico for tlioooDaidonitioii luiil di«piitchof gmt 
nntionat mewuros which is gnaraQteed to »ll otht^r Cikbiueta Qodor 
Ibo Karopeau oonstitatioas. Undor the committM ivatcin u 
now orgaoEzud " che serenJ greoit cotntniuens conlrol iii turn" ■ 
under tho modified system proposed the cubinut would simply 
hftve it« ttinu The projrased sat should limit the initiativo of the 
cabinet to the few f^at snbj&cts of a purely national ebamoter 
which Bbould hu rormuliLi«d before Congross moeu, and which 
ahoutd be promptly preaeuted for legiatatire action hm soon as the 
MBsioQ begins. In that way a natnnil diviBton of labor woiihl be 
broagfat abont under which the drafting and odvooating of only 
a few vitally important acts would pusa to the itabinet, while the 
Houm* tbemselTos would still reserve for their committees the 
initiauve as to the great mass of busineui to bu diaposetl of. Thos 
the commitlcu HyHtvm would only be modtllcd to a limttud oxleat 
by the tnumfer to the cabinet of the duty of formulutiug and ad- 
vocating tbe few great national meunrus to which the dominant 
party atanda pledge^!. At the meeting of Congress such meas- 
ures would always bo ruudy for pn>»euliition and debate as tbe 
official expressions of the party intrusted with their ena^itmcnt, 
without the long and awkward pause which takes place under 
the existing gj-stem. Under the aatbority to press such measures 
to a conclusion in admnce of all other legislation, the cabinet 
would have tho power to save the country from the long uQcor- 
taiutiiis and delays which will ottun occur to play havoc with its 
boaiiMes interons. Kvery indiriduol and orery corporation po^ 
Besses the inhuroutri^ht to consider grave and urgent matters and 
to diflposo of them in advanoo of everything oLm. The mission of 
the cabinet system lii to arm parliamentary governments with that 
simple and indispensable power now so oonspioaously absent in 
oor own. 

What hiLS BO far been said has procoodod upon the aEsumptioii 
that the party in possession of the excontive office', and armed 
with a limited initiativo in legislation, will always possosa a 
majority in both Iioum'^ upon which it may rely for the enact- 
ment of its prnpoeola into laws. But suppose a contrary coa- 
ditioD of things should exist — that the par^ in poa»Msion of the 
Presidency should be iu the minority in one or both booses. 
What would then happen after its measures had boon rejected by 
an adverse vote ? It is certain that the ordinary rwutt which 



' nottrif .utKRjcAN m 

follows nndcr the Engli^b cabiuet aystom — it rosiguatioQ of the 
minutry or adiasolulion and an imniddiftte appeal to the people 
^-ooald not toko place luder oar own withont an organio change 
in tlie coiutiCiitjon vhich no wisw man would ad7O0at?. But Uifl 
iiupcfiil f«aturB of the oasa ia thut no organiu cbaagH is neceswrj 
iu n constituttoD wliich expncfisly proviilee for direct appeals to 
tho peopl* erory two yoftw. Wliea periode of ton or twenty y«iM 
aro Cttken into account, it will bo found that andor our lyatem of 
biennial Coagremional elections appeals are mora often mailo 
upon parliamentary questions to the American than to the £ng- 
lieli ok'ctore. It la only necoaBary thut we should utiliKO such 
eleotions more perfectly than ever before as the moao^ of aaoer. 
taining the will of the people opon praoixe and definite queotions 
already reduoed to the forms of acts of Congress. Th« iuevitable 
result of the propoaed change would be to draw from the party in 
possession of tlio Prosidcncy mora explicit and authoritatiro declar- 
ations in the form of welUdlgested schemes of legislation which 
the oppmition would be forced to meet by connter-scbemea opoo 
tlio same subject. With the great issues thus formulated and 
crystallised, onr Oongrossional elootions woald soon become, in « 
sense wliicli they hare never been before, real battles of ideas, in 
which the electors would have the opportunity to give notumply 
a general voto of confidence in a man, but a pointed oxpresaion 
of approval or disapproval of well-understood sohemoa of legis- 
lation. The fact that niider the proposed plan the mtmaters 
would always remain in office until the end of their tarmB, after 
an adverse vote upon the niMwnree offered by ihotn, would be no 
drawback wbat«Tor. Such is the rule under the Constitution of 
the Swiss Confederation, whichj from its federal character, ia 
strikingly like our own. As Mr, Freeman has expressed it : 

"Tb» SwIm BtOcni Constttatlon bM icr<;r«l poiuM vf ilkeoeas with tbst 
ot Amciirs, Aod thecoDsllCutianof (hotwo booiwa of Uift Fbderal legMa- 
lure t> clearly borrowed (rorn the Amerlcaa mode)."" 

Under the Swiss sy&tom the exocattro pover ts rested, not in a 

president, but in a council or cabinet of scron which holds oflioe 

for three years. TbeOouncil apportioustliedepartments of state 

among its own mombeni, and " the membors of the Conncil bare 

the right to speak and make proposals in either bouse of the 

federal legislature, bnt not to vote." f ^Vbon the moasureg pro- 

* RauT Optra ftaaldaaUnl nnrfnuiaDnL 

t/Md. llivSwlMPraaMtnUiilmiiljrl'lMUlntCfUwCMUMa 



ftiS HOUSE OF RKPRESK.yTATIVES. 



Ss» 



poeed by tbe Swiss mtnlstera are defeated in the l^it]atare, th«]r 
limply roCura to their dmk* and go on with tbe buainess of Uieir 
depttitments. a form of proom^nre which haa stood the twt of ez- 
perianou, Wc haro thorpforu a most oatiafactory precedent upon 
the ono rital point at which m must dcpwrt from the Knglish 
modol. The SwisB oonBtitQCion, like oar own. is fwleral; and iu 
fmleral legislature consisu of two chamben. The Swiss ezeoutJTe 
Council or cabinel holds for threa ^rcars iiutead of foar ; the Swisi 
ministers possess the right to ait in either house, to initiate Ivg- 
ishitioii uud ta debate, without the rifjht to vote ; and when the 
rota npOQ measures proposed by them is adverse, th^y remain in 
office aoti) the end of their terma It ta therefore pcrfecUy prao- 
tioablo for ua, by meaos of a briof act of Confess coupled with a 
oorrespondinj; moditination of the mlea, to engraft open our 
headless committoe system the two efficient business prinoiplM 
which distinguish the Snglish cahinot system ; and then at the 
point of departure from that Byfltom we can Have ouraelTes from 
any orgaoio change by appealing to tho people in the old way at 
the oougresiional elections. That such a modified oabinetsyst«m 
— under which the ministers may sit in the chambers with the 
right to iuitiato logiRlatiuu and to dobiite. without tho right to 
Tote, and without losing ofiioc Qpon an odr^rse vote — works well 
in pnujtice is fully eatublislieU by the experienoe of a federal 
system strikingly iiko our own. 

A careful review of the whole matter must lead to the con* 
closion that tho House of RcprcsentatiTcs haa been for a long 
time subjected, as Mr. Herbert aaya, to more adverse eritioism than 
all other dopartmeut« of the gov«rnraent combined, simply because 
there are in fact radical dcfccta in ite now iQadei]uato machinery 
which inflict serious iQConT«nienc«e upon the IcgialatiYo bosinoas 
of the country. The nation coutinnea to complain simply becmise 
there is somethiiig to be amended. The trouble so far has boon 
in mistaking the real cause of the difHculty, in abtrihuting the 
vices inherent in a ttjstcm toperaonal deficiencies upon tlio part 
of men. Any hopeful ellort at improvement must begin with a 
correct diagnosis which will indicate with unerring precision the 
points at which the friction occurs. In readjusting the ma- 
obioery of a system like our own, which is to a great extent an 
adaptation of another to nvw conditions, it is certainly wise to 
look to the Bubsequeul developments of that other for light and 



9M 



TBB SORTB AMBJUCAy REVIEW. 



^^Idaocc And ;et in adapting English institntionii to oar wanLi 
W0 muEt rcmutaljor lut the f&tbon did that they can only he 
applied BO far aa onr RpeciaJ oiroomRtanoet warrant in the li^ht of 
that principle, inherent in the raoe, which oomwentla judioioDs 
amendmenta snggested bj experience rather than notel exp«ri- 
moiits buiicil upon <i-pn'ori principles. The sog'gwted reiuljiist- 
ment of oar legislatiTe machinery in it« rclationa with the 
Exocutivo through congreosional action only, forliStid as it ie at 
every stop by precedent and exani])le, oomplies with erery oon- 
ditloa which the most coaaonrutivo reformer may impose. 

The good rcenlta which would surely dow aa collateral codm- 
queuees from the proposed change could not fail to be considerable. 
The improvement wonld begin with the national platforms, which 
Would uuturnlly became more preciife and definit« in Tiev of the 
fact that the cabinet of the victorious party, an ita official organ, 
would be at once called upon to traiiaform ita pledgee into acts of 
Oongnss. The right of such a body to apeak officially for the 
dominant party, and to construe ittt gcnuralitioB, coald not fail to 
improve a political »yatem which now scatters at the very point at 
which it should concentrate. And tliea iho character of the work 
to bo performed by the oibinet ministers in drafting and debating 
the groat national measuroA of legislation wonld certainly dmw 
into those oSoes the very wiaeat and most experienced statesuieQ 
the country could furnish. Every Preaideut would bo forcod to 
snrronnd himself with a trained fighting force in which untried 
men could find no place. The debutes would inevitably bring 
into collision t)io j^rcut minds of the opposing parties tn a much 
tnorepoint«d manner than at present, and the people voold witness 
the proceedings with a keener interest and a far more porfeet no- 
deratanding. When the measQiw of the Executive wore approved 
by the honaes. everybody voold onderstand where the credit of 
■nthorehip belonged. In the event of defeat the hostile majority 
wonld be forced to offer counter-mcusuros, for which it would be- 
come directly responsible. Ju that wsy dotimtc and well-uaderstood 
iainea would be made up for the judgment of the oloctora at the 
next congressional election. And thus the whole system would 
beoomD more quickly and more surely responsive than ever before 
to the conch of pubUo opinion. 

Hakvis Taylok. 



SUilMKIt VISITORS. 



BT CATHIKIXB B. SBLDBK. 



FoKHKBLT itwu tho "sDminur boarder" whose ckims had 
to be met and whoeo delinquenniw botnetimes attracted pabUo 
att4*titioQ. Within tbo pmt few yuan, howfirur, tlto uamb«r of 
thoae who owD cunntry homoft, ujid who entertain tlieir friunda in 
tb«ir rural retreata. baa so greatly increa&ed that tbeBummer vigi- 
tor boa become as couspicuuua u invmbar of socictj as bis for»> 
roDQer the boarder. It is to this claas that a few words of wam- 
ioga«wella« oDcoanigomcnt nmy now bo jadicioualy direotod, 
tot tbe season is here whea the host and gaest alike neodnot only 
tbe gpnr of good intentiou, bat tbe bridle of discretion. 

Thcra are nndoiibtedly many compltcationa oonneot«d with 
UHt«rt{uning in tbo city ; bat on tbo whole it is compantivoly 
simple, for in moat oaaea the visitor is only a " mealer," and when 
therepaatia ended solicitude for the time being ia uvur. In the 
coantrx* bowerer, it is qnite different. In addition to the ond- 
Um sQoceuton of mwb th«ro is the uc«d of proridingaa anioter- 
mptad series of amuaements. 

Since vinting ii gottiug to be more and more a feature of 
coantry life, it bebooresthe honsekeeporto make mora sjatematio 
pronsioD for it. It is hor duty to tvarn what it may bo eipeoied 
to girv, and reoognixe thoBOaroesof pleasure and pain Involved in 
this phase of social life. In the coantry arti&cial aid^ to enjoy- 
ment, compared with those of tbe city, are exceedingly limited. 
TboniCora people are throwa upon naturo and npoa their owd 
wealth of reaoareee for enlivenmeut ; and uuIobb they have a 
natural or Hoqairad aptitude for self-entertainment tbey should 
not {recjueDt tbo hoiuea of those who would like to conduct their 
Ihftf on aaotbei ba«u than the gbire and uoiae of an «leotho 



^ fBE H6RTR AMERICAN RKVIf^W. 

lighted oiiBtvnco. It is bat imtural and hamau tbui persons of 
Bociiil instincts ahonld wish to enjoy the society of their iriendsi 
and for th« kind-hearted to wish to do orerything in thoir povnr 
U> Dialcti th^ir vU\is pleasant ; but t.he giicstfi iihould we thiit their 
dem&nde arL- uot tou rigoruuti. Tbuy should not rvdt HutisQcd 
with being " something between a hiadrancd and a help/' bat 
tboy should oot^perate actively with the faoet«BS Id cootHbuting to 
tlie pleasure of all. 

Uoworer willing tho American man may bo to play wuU his 
part in social matters, he is seldom the etar of the company. Uis 
anxioaii prooccnpation with the world of bnHinoMmnicM him only 
too glad to transfer all sooial carea and renponsibilitiea to his 
vife, aometimea even relintinishiiig hia rights and duties so far as 
to worn almost like a guest in his own house. It is tborcforo to 
the wife mther than to the hiiRbHiid that \ep. mnat look for the 
" endurance, (orwiight, strength, and skill" to niiniBter to the 
pleasure-seeking voyagers who ttike ship upon the aiimmer sea of 
adrentnre ; many of whom, hv tt eiiid, nro to driven hy theoxigen- 
oioa of our feverish Hfo aa to be the unhappy viotims of pliysical 
depression or what is known ea " bmin fiitigue." The hostess of 
even limited experience is quite accutitomed to hcttr from the lip6 
of the newly arrired visitor, " I am tired to doath^" and a day or 
two Inter the wmarks : " I was nevor so dull in all my life," *' 1 
oouldsleep the whole day," " I hare the appetiteof an anaconda." 

Intimations of physicnl eshansUon iiach as the above are far 
from being prophetic of unytUiug tbut is/^/e-liko or exhilarating. 
But better things might bo hoped for if those who are thus ai- 
flicted would only conduct thomselves wisely. 

It la very easy for visitors of anypenetrntion, if they once 
admit the importance of no doing, to become infortncd of the hahita 
of tho honaohold with which tltey may temporarily be thrown, not 
only as regards the more eitornals, but so far a« the temper, the 
house gvist, is concerned, the nrderof thought, itsflerioos occnpa- 
tioDS, and its amnsomcnte. Fartlicrmurc if servants ora not 
abnndint^ a viUingneH might be shown to lend ahelptnghaod, not 
obtroBiTely, bnt effeotivelyf and without being officiong to assume 
some small share of the family burdens as well as the lion's ahaie 
of it« pleasnreii. Many thingx may hearoidud whichgivo trouble^ 
and some thmgs done to save it There is also room for the dis- 
pUty of a nice tact in ceasing to be a gaest and becoming a mem- 



BUMMER VIJirmSB. 



99T 



ber 0/ Ibo hoosohold by mMDa qC a lympAthetic nndentandiiigof 
its DMds and denrw. 

The foregoing i-oquircments may nem to make a heavy do* 
maud upoD the casual visilor who comes hot for a few days or 
ft VMk at mo0L Tho da^ reetiag npoD Bach as theM U light, 
and may ho rv<]uced to n lew simple rulos. To SDch an on« it 
may be saiiil, nmku you tsclf asagTMable m wiUun you lies. Avoid 
looking as if yoo expected some novel etitertaiiimeDt every 
moment. In other words banish from yocir face tb« " VThtt 
noxt ?^' expression and go at the appointed time, not with an in* 
jnred and aggrieved air, but with Ibe oountunauce of one who has 
bad good measure at least, eren if it has not been pressed down 
or is not running over. Absent j'ourwlt in yoor own room 
or out of doors a part of each day. Now every man and 
wonwD should have either some duty or pleasure which 
makes it neceesary for their own welM>eiag to withdraw 
thenuelvot at leaat for a part of each day from the com- 
pftDiODship and tho presence of others. They should alTeot an 
oocnpstloD if they have it not, and invent an excuse, if necessary, 
for leaving those about them to seek the refreshment of nolltade 
and systematic work. For a risitor to b« tn widence from nine 
in tho luoniing ontil cloven at uighb is too exhauBting to tha 
mental rwources of any bnt the mo^i giftod of uiortals. There 
are few who can stand the tost of bo reckloss a demand upon the 
wealth of thospirit;and BDcb devitalizing practice can only bein 
harmony with tlie lives of thuue who load uu utterly purposeleae and 
wasteful existence. It is tlie disreganl of this feeling which 8omo> 
timee makes the life of tho hosted a state of buniiugc, su that 
aiMOg her natural freedom her hospitable motive ie c^nenched ; 
not from any failing on ber part, but from tho laclc of consider- 
ation on t)ie part of others. Every right minded woman ia pre- 
pared lo giro her gueats the best that is in her, bat she should 
not be expected to be " on tap." aa it were, all of the time. " It 
is the part of a wi»o man," says Cervantes, "to keep himself t> 
day for to-morrow, uod nut. to venture all his eggs in one baskcL" 

It is only uf lute yeorv that Amerieuiis,wilh their ever-abound- 
ing ho«pitality, have been able to bring ihemsetveB to the point 
of SDggesting, by direct Ktnt^^'rncnt, any limit to the length of a 
visit; bnt now that the cntilom biu become general, the deaigmited 
tiow hi of the Dattut! of a hiw, uud, if violated, brings its |>eua|- 



288 



THE NORTH AMERICAy REVIEW. 



ties. The hostcm knows bent when it \» time for her f^mi to 
dqwrt. She U well svare of the Datnre of her reiiourcmi. uid if 
she hu osed them to adrant&go a visit of three d&js ma; be a 
perfect snc«w, whoreos, if it is prolonged thi«« daye more the 
nddod hours irniy be utterly vapid and onprodoctive of pleatar* or 
profit. If a viidt of a week is Huticipatod the same resonrcbB are 
■lifTcrentlv manafrcd; by stretchiog they may become sotiiewhat 
attenoated, bat all the same they may be counted npon with te- 
curity and a»cd with jnd^ent. For whether or not tho bostOM 
is B peiBnn of "cheerful jetiterdayB" it in abeolntelyimperative abe 
should be 01)0 of "cuDfldent to-morrows." She must be able, lor 
the peace of her own miod, to lay her plana with reasonable cer- 
tainty that they will b« corried out. ToncbievoanyBortofencceea 
she must be niindful of the maity biuall ileLails which iuiitiru the 
fimooth running of the household machinery. Just in projiortiou 
as all knowledge of frictioa or caro is withheld from the gnest is 
he in danger of erring from a sense of false seouri^. Where 
everything gliduH aloug m ea«ily and his ploauure ia so amply vts- 
cared, ho rDn«tho risk of forgetting the means by which soch 
results arc brought about, and ho is apt to think so long as lie ia 
woU pleaded hia going or staying is a matter of nmall conaoqacoec. 
Hat this IK BOmotimea an unwise cooclasion. 

NcTerthelesH it does seem hard when a mortal haa fonnd just 
Ihocouditioua that suit him, to be obliged bo uproot himself and 
journey towards a teaa congenial fftate. IlemuAt remember, how- 
ever, ho has haci no part in making tho homo wbow comforts 
yield bim ho large a share of satiiifaction, and that he mnatfae rUk 
of beingincliidod among that portion uf humanity which, like the 
cnekoo. is perfectly willing to ocenpy another'a home, so long ae it 
may bo saved the tronbto of making its own. Such nioo calculation 
is. of CDumc, unnecessary in the caao of well tried and approved 
friends, buteven these, like little Joe,had best " moveoa'' atthe 
natnral terminus of a visit. It is hotter to loavea regret behind, 
tho winh on the part of onr friends for a «pe«dy ronewal or intor- 
courso, rather than have tbum eullcr from a M-uao of impoverished 
vitality. 

There are ideal risitora a« well sfl ideal hoeta. Both to enter- 
tain and t3 visitare fino arts. Complete sueoetia in either relation 
depends not only upon the powvr of udupUitiun mid amiability, 
bet opoa the store of natural gifta oracquiremcats the individaal 



BXTMMEIi VlSfTORS. 



SS0 



iDft^ poMMi. TlivnfoT* it u »oll for ever; one to look to bis 
qoalifioationa for giWug ploatare amler oooditiona which *re 
■om«what exacting. 

With all onr geoeral diffusion of inatrnctlou En America, edo- 
PAtion, BO farot* it affects the whole condnc^t of life, lus not yielded 
Its fall poiwibilitiBii, nor will it do so until vo noogQJM not only 
moral worth, bat iooisl charm as Deceesary to anj barmonioa* 
aohemo of lining. Notwith«t«adlng the time and mon«y spent 
Qpon teaching ina«ic we havo rery littU music in our homes. 
It (b atmoRt as ntro with us as it is freqnont in £arop« for two or 
tliroo purwins Lo join in song or play together upon different in> 
struments. Indeed we hnve no songs which are the common 
property of a room full of cither cultivated or illjteratt) people. 
It wu a part of the cdnootJon of onr parents to commit po«try 
to memory, and it was their firm bi>lie>t that no other mental ac- 
qniiiltion is so unfailing a source of pleftsnre and inspiration. 
In the country oajM^ciallyj a well-rcmemhored Btoro of poetry 
i« % good thing to have at on«'s tongue's end. To bo able 
to read aloud with intelltgeoce and skill is also a charming 
accomplishment and one CAHily ncqairod, since there is no dearth 
of good toachen. The occattions n-hc-u conTontation naturally 

. flags ftro the ones whioh faruisb the opportunity for either of 
Iheae agreoable pastimes, both of which, toaay the Ifast, may he 
ooQsidered more inspiring than asking oonundrnms. This last 
form of mcnt«l exonjias may boolaistfiod among onr national vicea. 
It is the one kind of entortaiameDt that is seldom lacking either 
at die bourding-hoDso table or on the verandas of oonnlry homes, 
lu conclusion it is almost needlexs to say that reticenoe on the 
part of visitoni concerning what they may have seen and hcnrd in 
lb« hoosos of others is of the nature of a sacred obligation. 
Under certain oircumstanCM it is eron well to have " cobwebs in 
one's eyes" and ootton in one's ear*. The family is very much at 
the men-y of the sojourner, and for this ri\a»oii. if for none other. 
the order of living should beone of dignified rcwyrre, 1*he pre«- 
enoe of a oongoniftl guest is a great help towards maintaining a 

IWMmly plan of life. It is apt tocheck thv uDneoeaeary dittcnsxion 
of personal nutttera and to direct the conversation into wider 
ohauiiels than tho petty iiit«r<«ta into which the family talk too 
pften flowB. 

C B. Rrldkx. 




IN DRFENCE OF HARIUKT SnELlKY. 

BT MkJOL TKAIX. 



u. 

Tbb yeftr 1813 is just ended now, itnd we step into 1814. 

To r«ca]>iCnlat« : bow machof ConieliaV society has Shelley 
had, thus far ? I'ortioBs of Anguiit ivnd September, and four daya 
of July. That ia to say, bn has had oppoiiuoity to enjoy it, more 
or leas, dtiriDg that brief period. Did he vsnt some mor« of U ? 
We muBt fall bnclE apoo history, and then go to ooDJecturing. 

" lathe ewlx p«rt ol tba Tcai 18U, 8beUor tna • freqnenl vlattoraC 
BnckDclU- 

" Frequent " is a cautiona word, in this author's moath ; tbo 
very cnutioniiness of it, tho vngncnoM of it, pty^vokes entpioion ; 
it makes one anspeot that this frequency waa more frequent thaii 
the mere comuioii overy-dny kimlii of frcqneiicy which on« is in 
the habit of iivpragiiig up with the auaeaaming term " froiiiienl." 
I think BO bectiuw they fixed up a bedroom for him in the Boin* 
rillo hoii»e. Oiie doeHn't need a bedroom if one is only going to 
rau over uow and then in a discoDDftct«d way to respond liko a 
tremulous iostrument to every breath of paasioD or of ttenUmoiit 
and rub up ono'a Italian po«try a little. 

The young wife was not invited, perhaps. If she whh, she most 
certainly did oot come, or she would liara stmighteiied tho uxtm 
up ; the most ignorant of as knows that a wife would not cadora 
a room in the oondition in which Hogg found this one vben he oc- 
cupied it one night. ShoUpy wiw away — why, nobfuly wn divine. 
Clothes were smlU^n;!! abiitit, there were bookH on every sido: 
" Wliorovor n book could be laid was an open book turned down on 
its faoe to kei'p Ita pluoo." It soitms pUiti thiit thf wifn waa not 
juvitcd. Xo, not tlmt ; I think sho vu iuvjtiKl, but 6&id to b«r- 



IN DEFBNOS OF BARRIBT SHELLEY. 241 

self Uwt the coald Dot beiir to go thero aod lee aaolfaer young 
wonutt toacbiag howU vitb bcr husb«Dd oror od Italiui book and 
making tbriUiug hand-ooDlaot« with him aooidentalljr. 

At ramarkod, he was a f requeiit visitor there, " where he (oand 
an aaiefnl reatiag^place in the hoase of Mn. BoiDTille— the whii»- 
biired Maimnna — and of hordaaghtcr, Mrs. Tumor." Thii aged 
Zonoraa vat dec«Mod, bat tbo wbit«-hiur«d Maimima was atill on 
deck, as weaee. " Three charming ladies entertained the mocker 
{Hogg) with cap« of te<i, late hoare, Wielaud's Agathou, sighs 
and smtlee. and the celestial nunna of reSned sentiment." 
'*8acb," Bays Hogg, " were the delighte of Shelley's paradiM in 
Bracknell." 

The whit«-haired Maimuna presently writeg to Hogg : 

' 1 will noi bmT« rou dnptse hi>ine-«Duo ptouuras. 8fa«ller Is making a 
trial of tli«m wlUi na " 

A, trial of them. It may fairly be called that. It was Harcb 
11, and he had been in the hoQse a month. She continuos : 

Sbellvj "lOEwlbvaiM'well tbstbe UrccolvedUilcaveairrunbllDK " 

Bat be has already left it off. Ho has been there a month. 
** Aad begin k coiina of tham blmMll." 

But he lias olresdy begun it. lie hiu been at it a month. lie 
likes it so well that he has forgotten alt about bis wife, as a letter 
of hii rareaU. 

"Bntamif. I Clilnit 1lI« mind sad body want i««t.** 

Yet he has boon retting both for a month, with Italian, and 
fcB, and manna of nentiment, and late hours, and erory restful 
thing a youtig husband could need for the refreshment of weary 
limbs and a sore conacience, and a nagging soose of shabbiness 
and treachery. 

" BU}o«ra«naft«rwtMttbetiMDar«r found have ndted hbpoTMsnd 
his trmaijuUllir. U« la rMolvsd to take & Utile cure ol Uio toraver, io pity to 
IIm laUw, wklcb I sppUud, and >lwll Koond wUa *11 my mlgbt." 

But she does not say whether the young wife, a stranger and 
lonely yonder, wants another womaa and her daughter Cornelia 
k) bo lafisbing ao maoh inflamed interest on her husband or not. 
That young wife is always silent — we are novor allowed to bear 
from her. She must have opinions about such things, she can- 
not be indilTerent, she must be approring or disapproTiog, anrely 
TOU CUX.—XO. 453. 16 



24S 



TSB NORTH AMBRICAIf RSVIZW. 



ahe would speak if aho were allowed — eTeu to-daj and from her 
grare aho would, if she coald, I ttiiok — bac we get ooly the otber 
itde, tho7 keep hor silent always. 

" He ban derply inlBrestrd m. In iho courw of joar Inllmwy he most 
bare m»d« jaa feel wbat we doit feel lor btm. He la aeeUnK a boiue clow 
ton*-" 

Ah— h« is Dot cIoM encash y6t» it Beems— 

"and It bo raee##da w« ahall have an additional bmUvo to Isdaoo 70a to 
oooi« amoiig as Ui Ui« i>uu>iu«r.'' 

The reader would puzKlo a long time and not gu«« the biog* 

rupbor's commeot upon the above letter. It is this ; 

"TbaMaoimdUke tvocda at a oooaldcrau and Judicious CritndL" 

That U what be thinks. That ii, it is what he thinks he 
thinks. No, that is not quite it : it ia what ho thinks he can 
Blupcfy u partioularlj and nnapeakablf dall reader into tbinktne 
it 18 what he thinks. He makoa that comment with the knowl- 
edge that Sht^lioj is in lovo with this woman's daughter, and that 
it is because of tbe foaotnationa of Iheue two that Shellejr haa de- 
Bcrtod hia wife — for thia month, oonsidering all the circam- 
Bbuiow, and hie new passion, and bis employment of the time, 
amounted to dosertiOD ; thut is it^ rigbtful name. Wo cuuiiot know 
how the wife regarded it and felt about it ; but if she could hare 
read the lottor which SlieUoy wan writing to Uogg four or firo 
day* Ut«r, we oould gaeaa her thought aud how she felt. Hoar 
him : 



"IbaTebeeaatarlng withUra. BolnrlllB for Uhi last monlli: I haTS 
wcapnd. in tbe aociebj of all tbaV pbUo*opbj and trieadaliip combluo, tro-n 
the dlsma^liiK soltCade of mjwXt." 

It is fair to oonjectnre that he waa feeling ashamed, 

"Thity hare mvivcd in my hi5arl the expiring fiaiue of life, t have felt 
n)T«elf Iraoslatcd t4 a paradiM whii^h fuu notblof; of mortalltf bnc It4 
tnui«IU>rin<aa; mjrboarlalckiiUBst tliH view ot that u«c«wli7 wfaiob will 
quIcUj dlrldc cue froBi Lbe dcllghbtul LraDqoillitT of (Ud happj hoine— £oc 
it baa beoome ray bome. 

"EliEaia»Ull vrllbut)— i>otb*ral— bnt wUlbe wltbnw wh«ti tbv Influito 
mallM ot daatlay foccea in« to depart," 

Sltza is she who blocked that ganifr— the game ia London — 
the one whore we wore purposing to dine every night with ODB 



r.V DKFENCE OF HARRIET SUKhLEY. 



943 



fit the " tbne ehanning Udioi " who f«<i t«ft and nunDft and Uto 
honnto Hogg at Brsoknell. 

Sbell«y could send Mixa aw&y, of oourta ; could hftvo cleared 
hor out Long ago if so minded , just as he had pruvioual)- done 
wifch a predcceosor of hen whom he hud first worahippwl aod then 
turned sgaiuBt ; but {terhaps she wu useful there u a thin oxcnw 
for ktuying away himself. 

" t an now bot liuta IndlMd to cantaat tbia potnu I Mrtalnl; tuUa ber 
wIUikII tnjr liva/t ajiil •oal. . . . 

" It U a algbt whleb awaJccna an Inexprmalhlo MDUtlon of dlsRoaC and 
bom*. toaMberearau mjpaarUUl* Ianth«, In whom 1 maj bercartAr 
llndth«coD*otstiOooIa7iDp«U)T. I*oin«tin>«« te«I (alnt with tbo fatima 
flf checldnRChvowraoiHDg* oJ mrunboaadcdabborreucctortbikmlBarable 
-wreicb. Bnt abe b ao mora ilian a blind and loatbaonto worm, Ibat conaot 
aw to atinK-" 

-* I hATo bccnn to learn lUllan ajtaln. , . . Conidia aMtiui me In 
tbis lanfmagv. I)t<l I not onc» t«tl jou that I tboui^bt b«r ckiUI ami r«innr*«d I 
Shela tbe n*flr««af till*. iMalie la tlxtrnvr-nwi af vvMyMilng bod. Sha In- 
b*rtt«all Lb«<livtnU7 of ber inotli«r. ... I bave aomi±Lim«9 forftottoo 
UMt I am not an Inmac* of thU d«ligbtful home,— tbai a titno will coai* 
wbleb will caai me affda ioto the boandloas ocean of abboired Boctei r, 

"I bara written uucbiuit but ooaetaua, whlcb baa no mcaoiuid and 
that I bavc onlj written in thonglit: 

Tbjr driT]r]<M>k>i nink In mj lircoat; 

Tbf (iFDll» words atlr po4m)d tbnr* ; 
Tbuu bail disturbed Ibeonlr real 

Tliat wan tliR [lortion of dcapaif. 
Sat»da«d todaty'a hardcoatrol. 

1 c«uld have bora« taj waf ward tot : 
Tbc cbaiiH tbat bind tbit mined aoul 

Had cankcrad tbcn, bot cnufacd It doi. 

"ThUI-i Ibn rUian of adcllHoufl and dlnleuipercd dr«am. which pnwca 
Bwajr at tli« cold clear light of raomlnft. Its minMo^InK excnlli^noc and nx* 
ipiUlte perfeetlotM have no more natltjr tbaa ths color ot an antnmaal 

UMt." 

Thou it did not rotor to his wife. Tbat is )>kin ; othorwiae he 
would bav« ftuid no. It is well that bo otplaiiiod Llint it has no 
tnsaiiing, for if he had not done that, the proTionowft reforenooa 
to CoTD«]iit aud the wa; be hna come to feel about hor now wontd 
' ttake ua thiuk she was tho ponon who had inspired it while teaoh- 
iog biin how to read tho warm and ruddy Italian pooti darinf a 
moiitfa. 

The bit^raphjr obaorvos that portions ot this letter " read like 
tired moaning of a wounded creature." Guesses at Iho nature 
' of the wonod are permissible ; we will hazard one. 



9U 



THE NORTH AMERMCAN RRVIKW. 



Bead by the light of Hhelle/'a pnrious history, his letter Beenu 
to be the cry of a torturod coiueieaoe. Until this time it vu * 
oonacienco that had uerer felt a paog or kuoVD ABinirch. Itwas 
the ooiuciauce of one who, until thid time, bad never done a dig- 
bononbte thing, or an uiigenerous, or cruel, or treacberoon thinji, 
but was DOW doing all of theeo, and was keenly aware of it. Up 
to this time ShoUey had been master of hia nataro, and it vaa a 
Dutare which w&n as beauLif ul and as nearly perfect as any moroLy 
hnnian naiare may be. Bat he was drunk, now, with adebaaing 
passioa, and was not himself- There is nothing in his prerioua 
history that is in charactor with tho Slioll«y of this letter. He 
bad doQo boyiiih things, fooliah things, even crazy things, bat 
never a thing to bo oabumod of. Uu bad done ttunga which one 
might laugh at, bat the pririlege of laughing was limited always 
to the thing iteolf; yoaooald not laugh at tho motiro back of it — 
that was high, tbiit was noble. His most fantaitio and quixotic 
acts had a purpOMe back of them which made them fine, often 
great, and made bli') risiig laugh seem profaoabion and qiienohod 
U; quenched it, and changed the impulee to homage. Up to 
this time be had been loyalQr itself, whore his obligations lay — 
treaclieij was new to him; be had nerer done an ignoble thing 
— basancsa was new to him ; bo bad aever dono an unkind thing 
— that also was new to him. 

This was the author of that letter, this was tho man who had 
deserted his young wife and was lamenting, bouanse he must leare 
another woman's house which had become a " home " to him, and 
go away. Is he lamenting raairiiy because ho must go back to his 
wife and child ? No, th« lam<int is mainly for what he is to leave 
behind him. Tlie pbip-sical comforts of the bouse ? No, in bis 
life be had nerer attached importance to such things. Then the 
thing which he grioTOa to loare is narrowed down to a person — (o 
the peraon wboBo "dewy lookn" had Runk into bis breast, and 
whoM seducing words had "stirred {iviMJU there." 

He was ashamed of himaelf, his conscience was upbraiding him. 
He was tho alare of a dt^rading lore ; ha was drunk with bis pas- 
sion, the real Sholley was in temporary eclipse. This is tlie Ter> 
diet which bis prerious lustory must oartainly deliver upon tbia 
episode. I tliink. 

One must bo allowod to assist himself with conjectorM like 
f.hese when trying to Sad his way through ftlitoniry smmp wtuob 



W PKPKlVfB OF HAnnrRT SnF.U.KY. 



Mft 



hu an many mUleading Hngarltourda up u this book is furnished 
with. 

We h&vo now iutItikI at a part of the awtunp whvra the diffi- 
raUien and perplftxities aro going to bo i^reftber than aoy wa lum 
yot mot with — wh«ro, indwd, tho flngorbnardt aro maltitodiiiDDi, 
and th« most of them pointiat; diligently in Ibe wrong diroctloo. 
We are to be told bj the biography why Shelk-y doaertad his wife 
and ohitit and took np with Oorn«>lia Tnrner and Jtuhaa. U wu 
not on account of Ooroelia's stg'hs and Mntimentalities and tea 
And mannn and latn honn and %o\i andNwont and industriouB od- 
tif^miiuU; no. it w&s beoauD« "his happinau iu bis horna had 
bewn wounded and braised almoxt to dentfa." 

It had bWD wonndod aod bruiwd alroMt \o death, in thia 
way: 

lit. Tlnrriflt pernindad him to set up h mrriage. 

2d. After the intrasion of the bshy, Karriet stoppoa readiDg 
aloud and etndyjng. 

3d. Hnrriot's walks with Hogg "commonly oondnoted oi to 
some fasbion&bln bonnet-ahop." 

4th. Harriet hired a wet-narte. 

Mh. Wlttm an operation was being performed npon the bsby, 
" Harriot stood by, narrowly obaenring nit that wm done, but, to 
the oatonishmeot of the operator, betraying not the Biaaltest sign 
of emutlon." 

Uth. Kli» Westbrook, aiator-io-law, was stJU of the houae- 

bold. 

Tbo PTidenoe against Harriet Shelley is all in; there is no 
more. Upon these six coants she stands indicted of the crime of 
drirtng her husband into that sty at Itruokiioll; and ttii« orirae, 
by thew helps, tho biogmphical prosecuting uttomey huset bim- 
self the task of proving upon her. 

Dots tlie bii^rapher («U himself the attorney for the proeecu- 
tioo ? No, only to himself, privately; publicly he is the posiion- 
le«, diflinterestfd, impartial judge on the bench. He holds op 
hiii jntticifil iuvUtia iMffore the world, that all may soe ; and it all 
Iriea to limk so fair that a blind p«rson woold aomotimea fail to 
see him slip the false weights in. 

8hclley'6 happineas in his home had been wmnded and bruised 
almost to dmth, tint, bcoanm Harriet hod pomtad«d biin to mi 
Dp a carriage. 1 cannot diHcover that anyeridenoets offered that 



S4d 



THE NORTB AUERTCAS REVtSW. 



abe asked him to Ket up a carriage. Still, if she did. was It a 
besry offence ? Waa it ani<]Qe ? Other joung viree had com- 
mitted it bofore, others haro coinmittod it since, Shollojr had 
dearly loved her in those Tendon days; poaiibly he set up the 
carriage ghtdly to please her; affectionate young bushandn do auch 
thiDga. When Shelley ran away with another g\il, by and bye, 
thia girl persuaded him to poor tho price of many carriages and 
raaoy horses down the bottonileea well of her father's debts, bat 
thiA impartial judge Rnis no fault with that. Once she appeals to 
SlieUey to raise money — necessarily by borrowing, there waa no 
other way — to pay her father's debts trith at a time when Shelley 
was in danger of boiiigarrostftd and imprisoned for his own debts; 
yet the good judge Unds no fault with her even for tluR. 

Fimt and last, Shelley emptied into tliat rapacious mondioanfa 
lap a sum which cost him — for he borrowed it at ruinous raUM — 
from eighty to one hundred thonsand dollars. Bat it was Uary 
Godwin's pupa, the eupplications were often sent through Mary, 
the good judge is Mary's strenuous friend, so Mary gets no cen- 
mine. On the coiitiueut Mary rode in her private earriagtt 
built, as Shelley boasts, " by one of the best makers in Bond 
street/' yet tho good judgo makes not even a poasing comment on 
thin inif^nity. Let us throw out Count Ko. t^ against Harriet 
Shelley, aa being far-fetched and (rivoloua. 

Shelley's happiness in hia home had been wounded and 
bmiaed almost to death, secondly, bc-caiisc Harriot's stadi&s " had 
dwindled away to nothing, Bysahe had ceased to ejpresi any in- 
terest in thorn," At what time was this ? It was when Harriet 
" bad fully recorered from the fatigue of her first effort of ma- 
tcrnity, , . . and wasnov in full force, vigorand effect." Very 
well, the baby was bom two days before the olom of Jane. It 
took the mother a month to get back ber full force, rigor and 
effect, this brings us to July 37th and the deadly Ooraella. If a 
wife of eigbtooQ is studying with her husband and be gets smitten 
with another woman, isn't he likely to lose interest in his vif«'g 
studies for that readon. aud Is not his wife's interest in heir studiei 
likely to languish for the eaiM reason f Wonld not tho mere sight 
of thoee books of here sharpen the pain that is in her heart? 
This Ruddeo breaking down of a mutual intellectual intereet of 
two years' standing is coincident with Shelley's r»-enoonnterwtth 
Cornelia ; and we are allowed to gather that from that time forth 



In DRFEttCE OF HARRlST SBULLSY. 



347 



for ooAilf tro mouths ho did all hU alu<Iyiii(( iu tlini ponoti's 
aocitjl;. W« fool »l Hburty to rule out Count Xu. % frum lb« iu- 
dietnentagAinit Harriot. 

Shelley's hihppine«a in !iU homa had been ironndcd lutd bniiued 
•IniMt U> dutttU. thirdly, beoauBe Harriot'A Wka with llu^g com- 
monly led to Mnu fjuhionable bounut-ithop. I offer no palliiuton; 
I only ask why tlio disjMusionnte, impartial judge did not olTor one 
biintielf— merely, i mean, to offset hia leniency in a similar cum 
or two wharo the girl who raa *way irith Ilnrrtdt'* hudband woa 
tha thoppor. There are aeveral oooanons where she interested 
h«rael( with shopping — among thorn being walks which ended at 
the bonnet-sliop — yet in none nf these oases does she got n word 
of blame from tho good judge, while in onoof thom ho coror« tho 
dMd with a jagCtfyiDg remark, she doing the shopping that time 
to find easemeut for her uiiud, ht>rcliilil haviug di&d. 

8boUej'a happiness in big }iome had been wouudwl and bruised 
almost to death, fourthly, by the introduction there of a wet- 
Dane. The wel-nume wua introduced at tho time of the Edin- 
burgh K>journ, immediately uft«r ShL>II»y had been enjnying the 
two months of study with Cornelia which broke up his wife's 
Btudies and destroyed bia personal interest in them. Why, by 
this time, nothing that Shelley's wife could do would hate btxin 
aatisfactory to him, for he waa in lore with another woman, and 
was never going to be conteuted again uutil he got back to her. 
If ho had been still id love with hia wife it is not oasily oonoeir- 
able that be would care much who nuned the Uiby, provided the 
baby wa« weU auraod. Harriot's jealousy was asmrcdly voicing 
itaejf now, Shelley's conscfenoa wu aasaredly nagging him, pea- 
tcring him, persecuting htm. Shelloy needed exonsea for hii 
altered attitude towards hia wife ; Pruvidcnco pitied him and acnt 
the wot-nurse. If Providence hod eont him a colton donghnnt 
it would liave answered jnat ua well ; all be wanted was some- 
thing to BikI fault with. 

Shelley's happiness in his homo had boon wounded and bruised 
Almost to death, Oftbly, becauw Harriot narrowly watched * sur- 
gical operation whiuh waa being performed upon her child, and, 
"to thoastoniflhmeni of the operator," who waa watching Harriet 
fautead of attending to hia operation, she betrayed " not the 
imallest sign of cmottou." Tho author of this biography waa 
not ashamed to set down that exultant Hlander. He was appar- 



S48 



TBB NORTH AMERICAN BSVJJSW. 



entJjT not nware thtit it tm a tmtM bnainess to bring ioto liia 
court a witaoM whoM name he docs not know, aail wlioee char- 
aot«r an'l veracity thero is none to Tonch for, and allow him to 
strike thia blow at the mother-beart of tliia frieudleea giri. The 
biographer Bays, " We may not infer from thia thai Harriet Jid 
not feel" — why pnt it in, then? — "bat wo learn that thoao 
abOQt her conid bcliero hor to bo hard and insensible/' Who 
were thoad who were about her ? Her husband ? He hated her 
now, because he was in loi-e elsewhere. Her sister ? Of coorw 
that is not charged. Peacock t Peacock does not testify. The 
wet-aurae ? She does not testily. If any others were there we 
have no mention of them. "Thoao about her" are reduced to 
one person — her husband. Wlio reports the oircumRtance P U 
iJIogg. Perhaps ho was there— we do not know. Bat if he 
B, he still got hie information at second-hand, bb it was the 
operator who noticed Harriot's lack of emotion, not himself. 
Ho£g is not given to saying kind things when Harriet is his sub- 
ject. He may have said tbem the liuie that be tried to tempt her 
to soil her honor, bnt after that ho mentions her usaally with a 
8De«r. "Among those who were about her" was one witness 
won equipped to silence all tongues, aboliab all doubts, set our 
minds at reat ; one witness, not called and not callable, whose 
OTidenoe, if we conid but get it, would ontweigh the oaths of 
whole battalions of bostilo Hoggs and nameless sargeoaa— the 
baby. I wish we hat) the baby's testimony ; and yet if we had it 
it would not do as any good — a furtive conjecture, a sty insinua- 
tion, a pious "if" or two, would be smuggled in, here and 
tfiere, with a solemn air of judicial investigation, and its poai- 
tivenoes would wilt into dubiety. 

The biographer says of Harriet, " if words of tender affeetion 
and motherly pride prove the reality of love, then undoubtedly 
«he loved her first-bom child," That is. if mere empty words 
can prove it, it stands proved — and in this way, without commit- 
ting himnolf, he gives the reader a chance to infer that there isn't 
any extant evidence hut words, and that ho doean't iako much 
stock in them. How seldom he shows his hand I He is always 
Inrkiog behind a non-conimiital " if " or something of that kind ; 
always gliding and dodging around, difltributing colorless poison 
here and there and everywhere, bat always leaving himself in a 
position to say that his language wilt be found ionocuoos if taknQ 



tff tiKFtayrrK of ftAnftrfcT sbfllxy. 



US 



to pieCM A&d Qxan>iD«<]. Ho clMrlr «xliJbits a nt^adr an<) never- 
rolaxitig purpose to raak<> Harriot the ttoapcgoiit fnr hprhusbund's 
Qnt great sic — but it is to tbc general view that thin is rcrealed, 
not in tlic details. Wm inatdious literature is like blue water; 
you know what it ia that makea it bine, but too cannot prodnm 
and verify any dntAil of the cloud of microecopic duet in it that 
does it. Yonr adrcrasry can dip ap a glasRfal and Hhow you that 
it is pnre white ami ynii cannot deny it : and he can dip the lake 
dry, glnns by gliuia, and nhow that every glassful ia white, and 
prove it to any Olio's oyc — and yet that take teat blue and yoit 
can awoar it. Tliin b»ok ia blac — with slander in aolation. 

Let the reader examine, for t^xample, the paragraph of com- 
ment vhich immediately follows the letter containing Shelley's 
Mlf-oxpoinre which we have been considering. This is it. On« 
shonld tnspcol the individaal sentences m thny go hy, then pass 
thorn in proceuiou and review the cnke-walk as a whole : 

"Sbclle^'ahApptneu tn ht*beiiiQ,a« UoTldoat framtliUpatbcitk l«te«r, 
bad bMD fkUllr BtrickeD ; Ic U ««ldeut, alio, tliM b« knevr whero dnlr Uj; 
bnrellthkt bin pAii waa to i«ke up bin burden. nlWnllj and aorrowtallr. 
and to bur It hcocelortb with the aulvtneaa ot deapAtr. Bui wa eao 
panaira Ibat be acaroclf poaacaaed tbe atranjitb aod fortltudA ne*d(al for 
aneowi In aoeb an attampt. And claarlr SbHlcy hlmwlt wu aware how 
parUoua It waa ts aomipt that rMplt« of bllufol eaa« wblch be aaja^ed in 
Ibc BelnTllte bouaehold ; for c^ntle Toloea and dfwf looka Knd word* of 
■ympatby conM not fall to rrtciad bim of An ld«al ot tranquillltj or of }07 
wbleb conld navar b« falo, and wbieb ba mnat baiwefortb atemly exoluda 
Irgm bia ImaciBalloD." 

That paragraph commits the onthor in no way. Taken een- 
tenco by sonleoce it twerta nothing against anybody or in favor 
of anybody, pleads for nobody, accuses nobody. Taken detail by 
detail, it is u innocent as moonshine. And yet, taken as a 
whole, it is a dastgn against the reader ; its intent is to remove 
the leeling which the letter must leave with him if let alone, and 
put a different one in \iA place — to remove a foeling joatiBed by 
the letter and substitute one not jusUfied by it. The letter itaeU 
gives you no nncertain piotnre— no lecturer is needed to stand by 
with a stick and point ont its details and let on to explain what 
they mean. The pictnre is the very clear and rcmorsefnlly fiulh- 
fnl pictnre of a fallen and fettered angel who is ashamed of bim- 
self ; an RogeJ who beats his soiled wings and cnos, who complains 
to the woman who enticed him that he could hare borne his 
wa/ward lot, he cwid have stood by bis duty if it had not been 



S6r> 



TRS NORTH AMSRICAN REVIEW. 



for her IwgHilpnifltit* ; an nngel who raiU »t the " lioundlew 
ncoan of Rhhorrcd F<Ktioty," ao'1 ragca at his poor jiiJiciona eister- 
ia<law. If there is any dignity about this fpoctaola it will monpa 
most people. 

Yet when the paragraph of comment i» taken as a wholo, 
tho pictnro is full of diguity ami pathos ; we have before d> a 
bltLmolp-RS and nobti; spirit stricken to the oiti'Cb by malign 
powent. but not conqiterei] ; tempted, but griindly patting the 
temptation away; eDmoebcd by &ubtle coils, but eternly resolved 
to read them aud march forth Tictorions, at any peril of life or 
limb. Curtain — slow music. 

Was it the puipofie of th*; pnmgraph to tako the bod taste of 
vy'i letter out of the rcader'ii month ? If that was not it, 
, ink was wasted \ without that, it haa no rclovuucy— the 
ranltiplieation table wonUl have padded the spAoe as rationally. 

We have inep^ctod the six roasoos which we are asked to be- 
lieTe drove a man of comipicuous patience, honor, jnstice, faimesa, 
kindliucfis, uud iron Itrmucee, ronolution, and atoadCustness, from 
the wife whom he lored and who loved hira, to a refuge in the 
mephiUc paradise of Bracknell. These are six infinitely little rea- 
sons ; bnt there were six colossal ones, and these the connsel for 
the dextruction of Uarrict Shelley pcrsisty in not considuriuj^ very 
important 

Moreover, the coIosaiU six preceded the little six, and had dona 
the mischief before th«y wore boru. Lot ns doiible-colnmn tha 
twelvo ; then we shall see at u Ktanco that each little reason is in 
turn answered by a retorting reaeou of a size to orenhadow it and 
make it insignificant : 



1, KantoC ■•<• up imil»B». 


1. 


CORXKUA TvaxBB. 


1. HArrlaiitofNKndrtds. 


s. 


Cob SB LI A TCRWER. 


t. Harrltc lOM to tKniMMkapL 


8. 


CORKBLIA TrsKSft. 


L BArTUt nkwB w«(4tin«> 


4. 


Cornelia Tdknbb. 


1. BwvIM hM* tM nnah M4>»«. 


6. 


OOKNSLIA TtFBVeR. 


1. MtMMd MUr4»>UK 


6. 


00KN£UA TCBNEB. 



Assoon as we compr«hond tliat Cornelia Tamer and the Italian 
lf«6ong happened before the little six bad been diacovered to be 
grieraaccH, wo nuderatund why Shelley's happiness in his home 
bad been wonnded and bruised almost to death, and no one can 
peraoade ua into laying it on Harriet. Shelley and Cornelia aro 



IN DEFENCE OF HARRIET SHELLET. 251 

the responsible persona, and we cannot in honor and decency al- 
low the cruelties which the; practised upon the unoffending wife 
to be poshed aside in order to give ns a chance to waste time and 
tears over six sentiments! justifications of an offence which the 
six can't justify, nor even respectably assist in justifying. 

Six ? There were seven ; but in charity to the biographer the 
seventh ought not to be exposed. Still, he hnng it out himself, 
and notonly hnngit out, but thought it was a good point in Shel- 
ley's favor. For two years Shelley found sympathy and intellec- 
tual food and all that, at home ; there was enough for spiritual 
and mental support, but not enough for luxury ; and bo, at the 
end of the contented two years, this tatter detail justifies him in 
going bag and baggage over to Cornelia Tnmer and supplying the 
rest of his need in the way of snrphis sympathy and intellectnal pie 
unlawfully. By the same reasoning a man in merely comfortable 
circnnutances may rob a bank without sin. 

Habk Twais, 

(to bb caNTnnTBD,) 



NOTES AND COMMENTS. 



A CASE FOR PREK IIUPORTS. 

TDS rCiftJcr need not l<« alarmed or curiou* Id tb« hAlI«f that U)1« ia ta 
pn)T« ha Intcrcallnit itAllctlckl p«pcr. NotbitiK «' the Idnd! The ftto tmporta 
opokMt of u« DOC CTflu r»w mu^rikl uacd In the world'a motiafMtane, Tbe 
cbief uticle indtied -wtifch mislit be (reed from dut; is a iblnR wbkh It 
••RtUnt onooKh ncnrer to (uk for ancb trrAtmcnt. bcoiuKii It bM cODac(«nM 
CBOOgb to reJolc« In mbj dm/ put upon tl. Wliether jro^i can Impoft U 
or not, or wbeUter 70a would «* l«b to have It tree, inuiit bo Judged afi«r 
jtm hnnr of tb» •ztont ot the piwroJoDni of th* thioft In Knitlatid. 

Tl)« thing to wbkh 1 allude in tlic jHitilic pwformftBoe of public duty 
fraeef the acc«pt«oee of public money. It ■■ tb« doing ol U1>»r Cor lore, 
la Iovo'b labor loalf Thac Is bclnjt a»ked nonadaja irhcu people wlah 10 
pa; small aalarlca and bare thu cuvrglca ot tbe aalarled wliolljr at their calL 
Public work done (or nothing rapAnn ih« rmiil-ijnwnt o< iimh wboaraa 
lltUclndt^ni-ndrnt, and lnd«p«nd«i)ceUiiotalvra]rBCoaaidcT«dan Indlvldiial. 
sltboOKb It maj tm de«nied a nailooat. virtue. No ; proteaahMMl pallllclaoa 
aaj polftJM, and all aToeatianH ot mm inlluimmd by politLca— aud what Is 
there that in not inftanRcrilUf tliomt— should bu unilortak«n hjitboMirTant* 
ot tt)« public ; and bow can a maii b« a real B«rr&ut uulf«% b« ae«4.'pt p«y, 
aad does exactly Ml his master tcllo bimf How eanaoountry wllb vucb 
old-fangled Ideaa aa ibow tDTolvcd In an unpaid Houao of BaprcaeDtallroa 
tall to be couAlautly piovlng tLaclf wotully bidiiod the timeiil Fancy a 
wboleohanilMrorrcpTmantAtivtM priMumlnK to rrprpwint a public itratul- 
Consljl Fancy leufslatora who do not recelre inlkane money I The tblDft 
nUMt sorely be an eaormity. ^vereigim ara the Unt terranta ot their 
people; whore luuh cliin'n U n aovrreign ibe dollan abould be paid to 
tbelrMrrantt, tbedelegatee. Where ihMe reedve no pay the ooverelgotj 
of tbe eillnpna can hardly be properly acknowledged. 

The Ulc Lord Biamwcll, In soeaklnft at a public dinner o( the work ol 
• •aUMgiMi Mkld thai be " had tailored as ouly lueo di> In this conntjT when 
tbeyrMetTSnopay." Thn obnervalioa wiutjuntn tor much U done by rItUetia 
wbo"war)c llkenljai«n,"aa the esptewlon was in oldnlaTeiy days,wltboat 
the "* keep " tbe oeBro enjoyed lu unlimited food. The Commooaaie oow 
oertalnlyoaklng tor" conimou*.'' that h their keep, a very rvasooabla i«> 
qiiMeaeeocdlng to AtnericAn Ideiui. But It niiut be remeitibvred tliat ttMt« 
are not »o many men In many of the UnttedStUc* whocaii atTord, aa "tneii 
of Maore," to givd l.lmc to public affaire, m tbere are In Kogland. In tbe 
Ulaiid kiogdoia there am tboufand* who hare little occupation bat Uia 
UI« of olub and MXleCy. It In not a reproacb In Eiiitland to aay of » naa 



AOTBS AlfD COMXEHTS. 



96B 



Ibkt he bka naprafMsloo, u il nrUloly mad mMt wholMOfMif bio AbmiIob. 
[3<at the Loiaand folk In UrlUla bai'u fciwi raucfa o( IholrUaa ba tfan psbllOk 
Nor ta it * UM wlun Dbbkm aw uy, "ThAok ^ou (or notblng." Tlw pntetiM 
has spnred DeauB nadi nuner. and baa bean larstlj inslnuuenlal la BCCDr- 
laalmpartlalltraod lodepcodeDce In tbe OODdDct at alblra. AlUioucb la 
Uw dajB of Loid North and Kitig Qearga toim oonaUtaaocioa and niral 
TOUa war* UrKctjr bongbi, yvt ibo mambera of ParUam«&t were tbomaelvea 
Cm* ta gsDoral from anj stupklon of being brlt>«d, and the babli ol gra- 
loltoua [kuhlie •errioe baa renderMl the eonttiiiwnclea aad tba Uovm Car 
purer Id Lmtlaad and SMtlaad tbao la rooel couotrka. No ona draaaaa ol 
belacalde Ui "kvI ai"aclLainuau u( comuillLoce, norcati a mill iooa ire ti- 
fluoOM Totea In iba Hoiuebjr the u«e of 100007. Can this b« said olaowbcret 
Tba well to be pure eauaC hare pure aoarces, ana Uie aunrccit iu Brilala an 
pun-. Till) ai^tioo of lural puniotia uadartaktng to be juitleo« ut the paMlk 
onoemb^sre of oountj cooncila, wlcbont pa;* tbroiva npoo tbem a vaaC 
UBonnt of travalllog and bard work tor wblcb the j rfcgalve— *itlinatton and 
rcap««tt IlanUj. Tfac^aacriflc^ their cntitorlaud often also tbair beaUb 
Iu nndcTtakioii duties wbtcb ore well pertoriBcd bjr tJtcm witbout fee or 
reward. Too m«r aay that" pw>ltlon" and power, or Ibe lore of ttaeea. la 
abtbe bottom of tbUocUati. All buniaa aeUoo ia alioyed, but U 700 get 
gold of 18 oarata an you not •aiinlled, and do yon Dotprafer it to aocna 
natal lliat geu aaally dirty as ibe wia which la compoaed of It paaees (no 
band to hand I U you ean t«njpt tuen hy th« bribarj of bot»r. It U better to 
doao. lliaa to attract tb*ni only bf tb* balto(aaofl«ainanfBcl«ot paf. 

Bat Ibe ouImiaaliDit loaLauce sbowta^ to wbataa axt«ut tberetiauca 
oa Tolnutaiy kivIoo le plaood Ilea in the cud of the blfcb-aberitC The high- 
aberilt of an Enjclisb count j wa^ a very u^oX'jIi aod ailll U a vorj orDantaB* 
taliOlDoer. Let unaesbow dUTetvnt lu dllltoieot paita o( our AoKl^iJazoB 
world tile duUea performed bra aiietlirarr. la theWaatha inajr t>e obliged 
toanniuiOiililepoaa«,and, at tiieheadof Uieluiproviaedbwoea of order, pur- 
•aa armed tneo aad (ouduct, if doC a battle ruyal. a baule repaliUeaiL ou 
behalf al Joatiee. lint in tbo old land tba abertlTa utmoet duty la eaae of 
Ibe non-arrival of the proper oScar would be to see that a eondetnoed man 
waa deoeBll; bun^c. The Aiaeriaaa ba* fair pay and litUe raalc The Bag- 
Itabman baa do pay and (treat rank. Durlnu bU tenure of uffloe he ha« prc- 
•adaooe orcr erar; ooe. BatnotetheadvantasoUi tfae public dcrlTod (roiu 
thebabltof r«nderiait''Maervlc«. Tbe public reqalmthehlgh^beriiT to pay 
for all tlio dlftiilty of rvprcaenlaUou ol Justtee. He must " run Lbo abow ' 
tor tbem. lie baa to enKagagoKMonaly apparelled (oototen, a Kranrllj daeo- 
ralad coaebnun, and. otoraexpanalveatill, floe boreee and a Orat -rate car - 
rl^te, bnldae. In many cases, halbcfdlora and other aervanta, to luake the 
people admire the Judgee wbusc aorrauC be iai Tea, be In ihe mete lacquey 
of the Jnilsea whom be mmt attend OD drenlc, wboan) hardly auppoecd to 
speak totbelrgoricroaaalaT'el Ha la named tor all this aerrloa. and. wbaa 
named, maat pertorm It. It be decllaea, or nina away, or aeoda word thai 
ba U yachtinR in the UeditorraoeaD. or "malimreta~ in any way. be la 
fortbwitb flned £SCtt. The olBoe only laata one year, so that tbia 
hea«7 linpoet U Urltd on many In cacb eoonty. Ytt there la little grum- 
Uitig aud very little nUitkiD^, It Ik eooaiderad an hoaot^-ao honor Uoaerva 
the public, and pay fur the naUk. loataad of being paid by tbvm. Dot tba 
further conalderatiou o( the glory and tnartyrdatu of high nherilDi la Uw 
hraphlait anl oranrbaiiiiiiif; to (be Icetlngs to be longer dwelt ttpou ; aulfipf 



TfTS NORTH AMERICAN REVIEW. 

It t« »ftk the qaeatloa : la not n BrfLUh hlgb -vbcriff r«w matwla.1 worth 
latrodadaic Into tb» Uiill«d &t«t«*dvty fr«of H« would *dd oolur lo cba 
aaUookl lite, uiil would coat uotbliiK* 

IjOKmt, 



TOO UANT CHILOEISN. 

HijrTOttbetCMtetMtor leaMuliuciMuperi^in we afraid of ttttclnR b«ck 
ItsBrowth to the freqa«nc]* of births under n-retvhcd cooditloiu. One bft- 
sUw to ^uwcloD wbollicr bI tor all sweet ch»rltr or dignified phlUulhinp; 
has not acted wttli aa onwlMreliceHce: whether. ioaLead at coonea [o 
lit«nUiii« aad tbeulotc;. ootieKeMltleinentH and mlwionarlm abould not 
baw taught tbe iii»eaiplo;iKi the rvlaUon )>«tween birtba and paapeTlsni, 
Yet botk Mdal and natlooal lite todsy recOffnlK the diNCt Mla- 
tloDof morality and onn of Itaphaau.peraonnlparitf, to polltickl eooooiajr, 
are1atIolMblpwhichiaiiiorvaDdm»r<«eonipr«h«adeil uwiDgCoLbeincreaaing 
derolopmoDt of othlcs, eocioloKTi and actcnce. Amoag the problctni wUch 
defy practical bacdllug Ihia Is the most oompllcaiftd. Yet It ia the bobtdm 
rcauD wbf there i»acJ)lld]in}l>lrni to eolrc, whj childlabor coaptcmeDta 
adalt labor, and why churchM Oder aollttl* consolation to the uacbarebed. 
(or tbe cburvbea aMHumi! that tbe panperlam in marrlai^ ii JiutUUblo. while 
tbat ol lllpgtt)ma«r U criminal. Tha [Muipi^iain which arlaa* (nm marrUfta 
la the redult of th« worst eleai«nl8 at «harafter legallsad. Ifi America. 
wharc tbe boondaiinofwodlock arc practically l>ouodl«a«, it ta Dot dcair- 
abl«, CTcQ wdre it poasibiis, that tbo state ab«uld rcgu1at« manlago tnucli 
fnnber tban It now doca; (bcrcfore luust the aoclologist turn for aid to 
•ociety In bis atrufoilc w^lh pnaprrl<m. 

Society ahoold inslat upon Ibe rljcht splritaal and phyakal condition* 
for birtb. It aboold becuiutidcrcd mora tbau a " pity^ wliea another child 
Is bom into a bomi! too poor to r«ceiv« It. Tbe underiytneMlflebneasof 
Baohan ereDtahould bo rccognUftd, far It brin^ motherhood under wrong 
oooditions of hojilth and money. Imlcad of each birth beioj^ tbe rcault ol 
mature cousidc ration aud hallowed love, clilldreji too of i«a am boru aa aal- 
mabarcltarn. Tubeaure tbe cblld baa a father whom he caa call by naaic. 
Better that there had ncYerbeoa a child. 

No one b«altntea to declare that it la want of aelt-reipect and morality 
which bring* wrong [t-jii]lu ouUiiie of marrlago, bat It la aUo tlw want ol 
tbem which bvgot« evil innlde the tnturlaa? tvilalJun. Tbou^b tbvrw U 
nothlcf; mori> dlffleult than to find tliu equilibrium between self-ie^wct and 
MU'i|acrlflc«, j«t OQ aucooaa in fludlng it depeadB Individual aod national 
prea«rvatt«n. Tbafartol i>einK wife and iiu)lh«r or bnsbaod and father 
should imply diKaity and Joyouanuaa, no matter bow huuible tbe hvinv. 
BecaoK It Is difficult far«ORi«ty tomake tbn un^klllcdadaltoqnal to tb« 
ak Iliad adult ia moralltr, society latryiDsiO'day. Aral by orKanlxattonand 
oo-oparvUon, and nrconilly by teachius, to produce tb« true value of irurity 
to Its relation lotheRorummentand the indlrldnal. that nnither the family 
nor tha stale ahould be overrun by ablldreo wboae parents are not eom- 
patent to care for tbem I 

lu ragard to toachias, the dIflkulUaa are great, Aaaoon aa ose adraocoa 
beyood the aliuplost subject* of hygiene, oi>e la met witb the dlffermc* of 
oplnioa atnuoK phynlclana. When each one has bU taroritc way of making 
ftmUBtard platter, no wonder thai each baa hla own notions sboat cverytblnie 
Pise. OuBdoctorracoiumendafrequent btrtha,aDotti«raidf1scsagalnat them. 



AMD COWaENTS. 



9SB 



It p]ir«loIoicl(«l factsue tMwIit to a)uk« cImb. tbfliVMVMira to baaofBVin It 
whoMLn)prMal»ii«t*l«iiatumBruczclt«(l|b7 t-nt mnitli pUIn ■FfiUng, TrhllT 
there nrrothem wbo need the mont open MMchlnK tn order to itttlD uij Imim> 
St. T&UcataafcwpcrsoDSReDonUljAni wiser tluu popuUr lecturaa. Ifapa- 
elAlIy tM Ulks needed t>r luotbejv and the annioUi<ir»d glrltt who eoixM 
traoi wrrrwbm to tfa« city. 

Tb« MKHHl ambod ot «iieoara|rlDg pnrltr b bj orRaniuttlon, nocta aa 
reformatory hoBca like Ua^dalcii aud «tb«r di*aRr«c&bt; 1&b«ll«d)ioiiMei 
liitlirwcUj preTantlva oiKUibcatioiM for warkJux Klrl»i Ube CUrUtUuk jL»- 
vocUttuna^ Prlendlj Socictlea, clube, etc; and t^ie dirvct and cdctcMlagb;- 
Irarhlin: work o( tbo Wbtl« Cronn aod Horai Bdacatlon A^aodatioos aod 
ItWMMlai Darlly work of tbeTcnipctance Uaioni. U^ppOj ttaoM whoM 
claarlmtgl't ukea purity aan»turo'» open lawttwdoo dlacoona sare that 
of nrTaiVDoe, for to thntu paritjr la tbe mjatlc lawlattonof p«aoe and 1ot«, 

It laoolwameaalODo wbo rcquira ttui abelter of orsanXeatioiui aod In- 
BtmetloOfbiit bojaaad joncgtn«a. Tberelaoo donblo utondanl of »onU- 
Itf, ttiougb the luctliodaofadTocatioK it (lep«adui>oii tbe Miwblcb ia lob* 
loalrnclcd. M«u are wore ooaccmed with tbs practical ba»ca of morality 
Uiao wltb ItM aootimcDt, and with the pccaDlarr aappcta of domeadc life 
tlian wltfa Ita phyitical aud mental &ulIi»riDK. We all ntaj need p)unn» 
oopiida for mot^ UlH,yetthe vcrfliitanglblonamotpurltjniakaanaalow 
tu tornialata ruloa tor ItnnTOWtb. Under tlieinildanoe ot th« wla« In iplilt 
and knowlMtge, much can be done to create a highar atandard of marrlaite 
and to proporllon the number of birth* a.ccardlag to tba baallh aod InoooM 
of parenD.. l( tbo boinu«xi«U DrtiuM-lt; for the aake of tlie ludivldoaL tt 
czJsU BvwndarUT lor itiu sake of tbo BCatc. Tbcrctorc, aajr boawinto wUcb 
•noontlBaall} bom the InafficleDCchikuvD of IneAoieaCpAreob^ Dot ool; la 
• dlaeonTort Ln ICseJf, bat U also toniisliea metDbera for ttw aniiivs of the 
BiMmplojed, which are tinkerlnx and hlndcrins teglalatian anil damanditm 
br tbe brut* force of number* tbat ihe »tat« eball support Ibem, 



THE LATE PRESIDENT CABNOT. 

" All that T poaa^M of «trpniith and de votml nfw belonii« to mr ooontrr." 
Tboae worda are from a m«asa^ ol th« late Marie Francis SadI Camot. 
communicated to tbe Chamber efUepiitJM Bioe da^ after hJa election to 
tJi« offic« of Prealdeot of tha Freoch Rapabllc. 

Tbo blacoeleaa rictim o( tbe latost political aaMuloatloii camu verf near 
belns»n Ideal cxeontlTe head of a ftrcat nation, lie had manjr cnnrDtlat 
qualUlcn whiob eapcclalljr tlitod bim for thr time and place. To hia lot rqaalljr 
with that o( Bltber of his prcdcccisMins. fell tlie labor of luouldlDg Into (orni, 
out of fractiooa political factlomt, a bomoKeneooa national aplrit whioli woold 
mnalder tfae liit«restj< of coantry auporior to tboae of party, to lb* p«r- 
formaa«e of tble endenakiog he eoaotioterad, from the flrat, tha oppoaltloo 
ot embittered faetionn inclt«d by pett^Jealoualea, andoftcniiMtaloed by Im- 
pUMp«r*ona] motivMOf the n>OAi«jniat«r aod unpaCrh>Uc nature. Moa^urM 
of liDpoctaac« to tbe welfare of tb« nation prevcGtod for tbe oonxldf^ralion 
of ihotTprcaetttatlveaaf the proplr. worv otten dcfcatod to fcratify the 
petty apiteofadlaalfeclcd cabal. Tbcae frequent defoata of coTBroment 
pnpoaitiona compellod Uief realdeat to witaeaa a prooeaaion of oomlag aad 



}}*mi 



S86 



TBE NORTB AStERICAX REVIEW. 



RoiDR csblaeta. wblch dtMitpnand from vtavUkesceamBpoo bbacMirkaof 
a moTliig pttuoram*. 

llo was ofUta «aaaur«>l for nol b«lDft mora ot a leadnr, and for not al- 
tempUuR to vootrol tb« ever-reounfna (aotiooal vasarles which mads tbelr 
appearaBMlntbftCbamberof Depntiea. But InaplU oIadvloe,opposltUn, 
and adrcnu erIricUm Irom miitiy qoArUtn, ho remained to tha and of Ua 
caraBf tbe«trictlf connUtatloual bead of th« gOTeramODt. R«pablleaa to 
the core. Is the bvat acuM! ot tbv ward, ho «Ter acknowlcdftcd t4ie will o( 
tbc people aa aapremci and, wbcu oxpnw«cd tbroujib tbatr cbooxB repre 
KmatlTdi. udbeHltaLiiif;!/ ytuldi'd IiLh offlcialotiedlence to tbeiroommandii. 
In fenderlog thl* imptlciL obedience to what be conaldercd to be \toe 
im|iiiiillllilllliiii»l ■iilliiiilij III III liliii hhiiiimIiihIIiii will of the pcopla. b* 
earrlad outbta proeone«lv«d idaas ot offieial duty, and eaoaped acciuaUona 
of anjr attempt al uanrpatioo of powont wblcb. If opportunltlM bad pM- 
MO tod themMlvM. tb« encoilM of bU admlnlittratioa would hava 
■nadc. In hU quiot way be ancoecded to «xercislDg an amount of 
laflnaBM In tbs Intereat ' of Rood ROTcmntcnt tbat baa ncrcr bc«n 
■p^aeUtod. and, probably, will D«T«r be known. When ncccHarr be 
Beret bcalLat«d bo effaoe aelt, bnl when be had a clearly deflued eon- 
atltatlooal rlitbtaa the extcatlre, be acted promptly, and. uauaJlj, wttb 
aouod satraclty. It may be aald of PrenIdeDt Caniot that be wan in so r»- 
apwc great. In tbo popular aceeiitation of tbat t«rm, bat be waa atroni; la 
many dlroctioDi, aboundiag in Kood (altb, and Lrue In all tbingH. He waa 
B«v«r found wantlbft. and n<iter wAn(«d without balng foand. Ho po»- 
aeaaeda lofty and p«rfectly patriotic Heuse of hia gT«at raapODsiblUtlaa, and 
waa aotldaK ta hie cooiplcto dctotloo to public datlcs. 

Be waa never accused of boln)t a politician of the profeaalooat Staaip. 
Ilavini; by hla elecllon to Uie Prealdenoy reached the aummtt of hla 
ambition, bo haoiahed all IboufhWot contlanlng la ofllca att«r iba expira- 
tion of bU pmldenUal term. Ills only amblthmiru to adnloliMr tbc 
duclvaol hla i^at tnut purely. a»d for the good of hla eonntry. 

Tha Palai^not the ICty«ri«, while It waa the offldal raaldonoe ot tb* eblaf 
of the oatlon, waa,aU(>, flrot and aborc all, tbe pleaaaot family home. Its 
doatMtletty waa«rerywh«r«tapp*n>at. lu moral aUnoapbera w«* pecfeet, 
mdimdar thaKoldanco of th«KoodasdaccomplUh«dwifcof the Proaldeab. 
tt became the llTloKGcntre of a great ebaiitaltle movement of farreaoblnit 
Itiltueuce. Tboae who eiperl«uced the la[«r hoapliallty of ibn B1ya(!a oonid 
not help b«inR Impmucd with the unalfwied cordial Mimpliclty anil perfect 
breedloR wllti which they were received and entertained. Poaalbly, nsTer 
before were oftlelal funi^tiona lai^ldeut to a areat ofDoe to baauUfnIly tooad to 
Vb» pitcfa ot a homely wrleonui. The whole entoK-rtma waa in parlaet keeping 
wilb the man and womaju. Both wero trcie front any appearance ot pride 
arrogance, or oetentatioill The atmoapbere arvand tb«m w*« ae ewect and 
pur* M UuNlKb bom ot wing tlowera. 

Xa tb« UBaaaiaatloa oi Preaidcn t Camol *ro behold a new kind of maitjr- 
dom. The 4enda of mtwule araabroad with morrier for tboir watchword, ud 
ibwillnot bo their fault if thacloaaol tban(iiM*enth •-«niary does twc wl^ 
neea a ropetltion of tbaBceneaof the Hlatoenth century, SU BartboleDUw'a 
Da^, nod tboae ol the algbteentb cuntory'a Beign of Terror. 

BvsB C. BawERT*. 




Tiie Kkt'trupolse atl ministers 

tjgt!d by absorption aa a cuni- 

Ive B^nt; by this iicnv inclhud of 

iplying that grcnt vitallzor — 

ty/feii — luvalUIs tliat aro couiiil- 

iitctjruble ai'O often cured; atl 

Ion Coiirtcit. Corrt*ponJence 
liewtrijiiire Book tnaUnlfne, 



■ V 

l.'Oi 

1 In 



AbM. Kdllor CAKiilan JJrwaii. 

ileclrolibration Company. 

1133 BrofciwBjr HevYodL 




Vou'd Choose Smooth Sailing 



m •■• Btai.fi •Uifc "Uc* ••>••■■»" 
ARAMaT. 



^^ RICYC1_FS 



BICYCLES 

■mm M naMMM afbMt AthnMa «M 
MpttfMctd fMnt fc* Wihfc, ( H iniH^ 
«v « !■ Ii l :iiht 41*«]rt r«tl«tic 

III! W t Mi ^ •■ M (MM ar 



T- 1 1 nainiMfT 



Oomull/ ft JeHery Mtc. C*. 

OtOfB. Soon. WmM^hk. M*sV«A. 



KNOWLEDGE 

brings comtoi'l and iniproKmitni. arvl 
Icniln tu per«onj1 mjoytncnt. wlicfl 
nghlly ii«efl. The mJtn)r,'wliAl>v^l>el- 
(er ihan oihi^rt ant) enjoy lilc more, 
with lesse»iicn<!iture. t»v mor i- prompt - 
ly aiUplmj; il>p M(.r is 

to Ihf nrftU o( pti'- ■(- 

ie*l the value to h<-.>itii iii thr juire 
lK|uid UKaiive pfmL-ipl«<i eret)r;icr''l in 
the remedy 



§yRyp©F*Fis§ 



hs eicfilencc is dur lo iH (""cnlinj, 
in the lomi pn'si uccoptAblr ami plr.B^ 
nni tfi ihr U«le. Ihr refrcih^ng •nd 

Inilt' Iieiirl;i-;,i[ I Fpjit-i''-. ijf ;i ncrrrrt 
LlK-Klt'r . v- 



!■ rn. '\ 



■i| 



I 

4 



met Wttli lt>i A^'piuval 

(imrrttion. because it 

acts tin : i ■ ind l)u«wts 

e from every olij :ice. S^TVp 

"iw cent ami Sl-Ou nir u •., nui it I* mxnu- 

.SVKI P CO. C'lilv. >^Ho«r nitme i» pnnin) on 




POWDER 

Absclutely Pure. 

A cream of lanar baking ponder. 
Highest of all in leavening strength. 
— Laint Umienl Sttifet Gmtrnmfr.t Fajd 
Rtpotit. 

Royal Baking: Powder Co., 
loe w*» St., V. T. 



TAKEN either 

HOT 

in Winter or 



y.H1.MilT\|-MJN:l 




ICED 

in Summer. 

ChocoIat=Menier 

b Delkious, and aj> NourUhins lu Meat. 

MCMER b never oblijicd to appul to 
authuiiliesin support of Ibeorics wlicllicr 
ccrliin aJtilictalioiis arc injurious or not. 
Chocolal>A1enier, whclhtr VJiiilla !bvur<rd, 
swecUned.OT plain, is the choice^ product 
mnmifacl iri-d liom these three articles, anJ 
is ZLitbout aJii/leratioa. 



'Hk VUUSGHUCtHlUK 

CHOCOLAT 
MENIER 

J'f MUM-* MMWMI. 



I> Iw hatH I >l HI t4lf. 

tcni III* lunr aatf rm' 



^'^ No Alkalies 

— OR — 

Otlu^r riicinlciilM 

nn> uii.ll In Iho 
|ifi-|uml(in of 

W. Mil k Co,'s 

\ Breakfast 
'" Cocoa, 

tchicb Ut liliMff 

ami ttniuMe. 

It bu morf rtaw Mrrf limtt Iht ttrfngtk 
of CiMTPti miii-'I witli Sturch, Afrif*ri>at or 
8uiniT, ami U far tunru enintimi<rul, (vnfin.r 
/m« iJ^ait an« cent a evp- It U tlrlii^ioBi, 
Quuriiliiiig, and kahii.v i>iiiK«TKD. 




Sold by Grocers ewerywhem. 

W. BAKER & GO'DORCHESTER, MASS. 




rOK THE BATH. 



c 
c 



e 

3 



sr 

tn * 

n 

o 







' 6 






Klskltalh V«Br. 1>u« rfnw4>H oali-BiiU" •)»(»»»• t|>KM. %a\. |Mi Nm, 9 








TMK 
AT /^ T\ m f T lie T~l T~\ T /^ i TkT 








NORTH AMERICAN 
REVTHW. 




« 


1 




B«>MlttMUM<1 hv ALULU THOKHDIKS lUQm. 




i 


KDITKD BY LLOYD BRVCK. 


September, 1894. 






THE LATE LORD CHIEF JUSTICE OF ENGLAND. 










By thu PrpHVDt Liirt) Chief Jatttlcv. . . 257 




e 






The Resalts o( Democratic Victoiy, 




;c 






Senator Henky Caoot Lodge 368 




■= 






Calhortcuro &nc) ApaJsni . The Right Rer. Bishop Spaluino 378 




-■ 






rbe Sigotncance of Modern Poverty . , W. H. Mallock 388 




:z 






CHINA AND JAPAN IN KOREA. 














U 






Lite t'Hitnl y/d/tji Min(»terto Korta, 










tL-Br DORH&K WUITB STEVENS, 308 




1* 






i'iittnMtiir i<f thr JafMtntitr l^f/iitional H'tuAinfflam, 




fi£ 










ca 






lU-Occrttarg of Uyatton at Ptkin. 










Our Utile War with China Rfar-Admiral Ckusuy, U. S. N. jti 




•• 






The Peasantrvof Scotlaod. 











The Rev. Prof W. O. Blaikie, D. D., LU T>. js; 




1. 






Concerning; Acting ... . Richahd MAK^iruLD 337 




~ 






The UcTclopmcDt of Aiirial Navigation IIirau S. Maxim 344 




'^ 






IN DEFENCE OF HARRIET SHELLEY.— 111. 














1* 






N(n'SS AND OOUMKNTU. 














u 










P 






- The Rcxling of Poor Children . . . Alvah F. Sanbokw 377 




















The Good-Government Oubn Puffti-t- Tt'cutR. 381 










.•i^crtiarg qflha Council <if O^otl-U^v^rttmt^ Ctulft. 










NEW YORK : 










S'o. » EAST FOUBTEENTU STREET. 










Ldiaiwii T P*m t 


1. 


^ 


1 


i-„_ . 1 



I 



Do fuu lili« Ariodolfn Muiicl 

If «0, jrou will be tliiirmcd wtth llw 

Plectra-phone. 

Thw U ft ficwljr pjtrnird iituicMncni for 
Ihc pUno, |>nii]uc>i)g all ihc tldltihirul 
cflccu ofanuiKlolin. It can be attached 

^^ PiANa 

W« ara prtptml to nchftngc Evtreii 
Pianos tontaining Ihii and <tlhfrvalu' 
able paienU on pianocof other Tniili«K 
Tor paiilculata nddtcn 

Tbe John Church C«a)pan>>. 
ClMdaaati. Chkar*. 



Ematl naao. 



]urlinOton 



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Minneapolis' 



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FOR ALL PURPOSES 
RODIID DRiWH RODS OF IROR AND STEEL. STEBL WIRE BALE TIES. 



WIRE ROl. 



Of All SiiCM and DoBCrlptlons (or Hotfttlns, RIsffInc tLUvacors. Ccc, Ctc^ CtC. 

PATENT LOCKED WIRE ROPES. 





I!f 



Amonq TBI ABVijtfiABKB or TUMB ftor-BBARn: .ni ■ II UHl^ATItK DVttAini.rr¥' 

Uian rniMisof tboMnlfbaiT nak*. KlPWlMiavlua atiowii Itinc nndi-r iimil&r ecndltlaw a. Lockwl 
Win IU)|ii) will w«*r fnnii tw4 la lliri''' ''<*"-•"■■>''""' '- ■■' jrdltnry wJru miw nf ^ul tllaRi«(or 

BdatUkitmalMrUUHnOOm Bi ' ' < ■•.tic wuar. aoionU nf Ihf ro(u> lia^lf. 

( ot tlie nruiiiaiuin slMHive«On ithi Tlia inlcTli>rkliiit ct ili«wlr^t rvndvn 

"5™'"*'*^'?lt'"''V«*'*'e. ftiirtloct.i ikiBK Ilia (!n4i crinirX nKiJtini; kKa* 

WKidiHT Axn MlXK ttuinroitM ul iiiiioi<iaifi« »( oorrMtNifi'lliir •tranicibi NO Twin* 

THE XRENTON IRON COMF»AN1 

Works and Office at TRENTON, NEW JERSEY. 

NKW VntiK MKKICE: 

COOPER, HKwi T'!- ;~ cf*.. ir l^nrltn 



NORTH AMERICAN REVIEW, 

No. CCCCUV. 



SEPTEMBER, 189*. 



THE LATE LORD CHIEF JUSTICE OF EXGLANR 

SOME REMINISCENCES. 

BTTITB POESKKT LORD CaiRF JC8TI0E, TEIC BIOST HON. LOEU 
BCBSBLL OF KILLOWRH. 



Is Ihcfie linr>s I propow to speak of Lon! Coleridge as I knew 
him at tbu Uar, ou tiio Bunuh, iind ia HocicLr. It is nut tny 
parpoee to speak of bis esrly life nor of hia career at Eton anil 
at [lalMol, wliei'i! ho laid tlio foundation of that vide scholarabip 
which in theao dull, jirotaic, pntoticat dajs is gntdtinlly becoming 
rarer ia tboM who aohiovo grcut positions otthor on tho Bonch or 
in political liti. 

H« was calleKl to the Bar iu 1847, and be^n his career with 
mnnj' fuTorabls attending plrcnni stances. His father, still on 
the BaMch, was a respected if not a great Judge, and Mr. Colc- 
ri<lgo broogbt with him to the Totnple the repatation of npo 
Bcholarafup, and, from the Union at Oxfor^!, the promise of re- 
markable gifts of epeecb. To these he added a distingniabed 
preaeooeand a voice the beauty of which 1 have not often known 
murpaMed. Indi-iHl. if I except the roices of perhapa Sir Alex- 
MidiiT Oookbam, Mr. Gliidstoae. the present Sir Robert Peel, and 
the late Father Burke of the Domiuicaa Order, I shall have »x> 
bansted tbe lirt- of thoee who mny be said to hare been hia 
VOL. cuz.— MO. 4£4. 17 

0«t7H|kl, 1*H br I-Mt» Sana*. AH rt«kUn*(rM4. 



S58 



inSNORTBANBRlCAXREVIKW. 



Knperiora in this respect. At the Bar, hU rise was rapid ; bat, 
until tho Ifltor years of his professionid life, and, indeed, oatil 
aft^r he hnd served m a Law Oainer, I have reason to thtnlt that 
bis income did not approach that of nuiuj men in general practice 
at tlio Bar in recent timee. 

His Circnit (the WMtem) did not iatrodnoc him in an^oon- 
tiderablo degree to the hesvy commentisi work which abounded 
in those dajs at the Ouildhall aud on th» Xortheni Circuit ; bat 
after he had obtained his silk gown in 1861, there vera few of 
tboee eaaes known nowadays as "caiuM eiUbres'' in which his 
Hrviees were not eagerly sought after. It was my own good for- 
tune to have been concerned (playing Ycry minor parla) soon after 
I wiLs called to the Bar, tn thrue causes which bronght him great 
renown. The first of these wtts the Windham Lnuacy Caae, in 
which Sir Hugh Cnirns and Mr. ,Tohn Karslalce appeared for 
IVindhRHi; Mr. ColeridgH for the tad^r wbum Windham bad nmr* 
ried; and Mr. Moutagu Cliambers and Mr. Field, now Lord Field. 
for General Windham, the petitioner. I hold a watching brief 
for Lady (Jiiihilici, the mother of Mr. Windham. If Sir Hugh 
Oairnn'H npeeeh was the greatest and Mr. Moatogu Ohambers's the 
most vigorous, Mr. Oolej'idge's was certainly the most gruccfal 
emd eloquent delivered on that occasion. Uis peroration ran 
Ibiu: 

"K I«neitlierin7dalj uor luj InclloatlOD to say a slriKle word In (sTor 
of prafltincr or of vice. '.Stolen walera are aweei anil breitd vnicn In "ecrot 
la pl^DwinC. Bat ha knowi-Ui not that the drnd krv lti«f«, and thac btT 
BiMiBU are In the depth* of bell.' F>r b« it fmn me to east r Bbadow of 
doobt upon till} trulli of tttotut aabllmc and tremi-niJou« word<, but nothlnK 
can bo mora abftiird, knd evco croel, than to lake n Manet ImniiJouK rirw of 
Ur. and Urs. Windham'* liic, to cONdjiind oln aod vtc« witli iswuiltr, ax>d 
to accept ImmoralHr and IrreUKivn lu proofs o( Ivsal iaoapacl^. U 
relluion la to be invoked t>f the otbur side, I bftvo do heaitatloa la sayltig 
that 1 woold far raUiar b« Lbc Magdalens wko waahod her IHtIds MAtt«i'a 
feet with bar tears and wiped Ui em with Iba halts of bcrboad than the eetf- 
caronlocciit Pbariaee who eoodenined the wom&a because ebe wa« a Unaw. 
and who trl<^ r^plnma hlnuelf before AlmlRhl; tiod upon the tixitfr rtgn- 
lailt; ot his deoorouB life. Dndpr any otbor circumstances, 1 wouldaak 
your rcidict for Mr. Windbrun nith ihouimo*! eonlldcDniaDd with abeolate 
Mrtalnty o' auoccet ; and evea In thl* caie, In »pii« of the raouutala of pre- 
Judlo* which baa W rii Axcit-rd, I appeal to foa, «rltb nil the earncetnraa and 
enewr whlc:b lean commvod. andia the aaue of law. honor, and Jaitlce, 
(OeequltUr. Windbam aod bU wife of tha Olllir aud lofaiaoDi ebantes 
whiefa hare been ao cruelij. ma ruthleaalj, and «i> baeely prewed agaUut 



THE LATE LORD CHIEF JUSTICE OF BXOLAIfD. 909 

In FHi^erald Bgninat XorthrOte, an nction broaght by a Bon 
of the lal« Ijard Fitzgerald agninsl tbe Reverend Dr. Nortlicote, 
Preaideot of Osoott College, for expalsion from tho school, Mr. 
Coleridge rcprcsuotud tho plaiultS, wbilo bin grout rivul at tho B«r, 
Mr. Karaliike, reproaentfii! the derendant. Mr. Culoridge de- 
livered io tliat triul most magterly apeechea both id opeoing Rod 
in reply, eventually winning tbe rerdict for his clioat. As aome 
of tbe periotu concerned in tfa*t com are ititl Jiring. it ia proper 
to 9ay tliat ttio fjrounds on whioh it was sought to jualify the ex* 
pnUion involved no moral imputation npoii tbe ptipil expelled ; 
at tlic iiiiMt, he was accatted of breaches of disoiplinc, nnd of hnv- 
ingtnken part in the formation of a kind of Mcrot society umongHt 
theitudont», whioh in the opinion of tho Hathorities of Che ool- 
h^ was likuly tn prove aubvi^rsive of discipUna. 

The action of Sattrin against Starr was ono of the moat re- 
mnrkiihle Ra^eA in which ho was engiigod. It was an action 
bronglit I>y nn Irish Indy who bad joined the braneh eBtablished 
at TIiill of the religions onler known aa the Sinters of Mercy. 
The Superior hail, in fact, complained to the ecclosiaHtical an- 
thoritioa and coni[wlled tho lady to loavo the conTent ; and, 
thorenpon, she broaght nn action in respect of the expnUion uul 
for libel. Tlie case excited great iiiti>rmt at the lime — great 
intftreat natnrally among the Catholic commnnity. and still more 
anaongst the non-Catholic community. It Ik not, I think, nn- 
charilablo to ny, M to tbe Utter, that it was anticipaied, if not 
hoped, that tho fntjniry might throw a lorid light npon the in- 
cideots of conTentual life. In this rosjwct, tho disappointment 
wai great. Tho incidents of the case were devoid of senitAtion, 
Atid. iu any other connection, woald have beOQ devoid of interest-. 
No grave moral in)pntatioii u-as made against the plaintiff, and 
no terinng misconduct wax, on her part, alleged agaiiuit the com* 
muutty of which sho hud bceu a member. Her caac was that, 
without cfloae, eho had been expelled, and that, without jQBtJfica- 
lion, her conduct had been ropreeeniAd aa incorapatible with 
nonrentual life. The cnsa for tho convent may be fnmmed ap 
in a sentence : That Hias Saurin bad no vocation, that she waa 
incapable of submitting to tho atriot discipline foand neooMtiy 
in religious eomnmnities, tbat she broke lioands, spoke vben 
iheooght to have been silent, and did not observe the amalt raJM 
of oo&Tontoal life ordained by those in authority. The charac- 



960 



THE NORTB AMERICAN BEVJSW. 



t«r of the eridetice may bo illuatrsted by an amnging incident 
which occurred ic tbe course of the cross-esHinination by Mr. 
Coleridge of Mrs. EeunodT. a Udy who hold the oSlco of VLn- 
tre«s of Xovici>8. Mrs. Kennedy mentioned among other penca- 
dilloes thai on one ocoaxiou she h»d found Miss Saiirtu in the 
{utuLry eating gtrawbcrries when she oagbt to have been attend- 
iog to a class of poor cbildr«s, or »omo Buch doty. Th« croee- 
(■xaniinnLion proceeded thus: 

■r. Co)*rldg« : " Bkllni; MtrAwbcrriea. kaIIt 1** 

Mra. Kmib«(I7 : *' Y«s, air; nhe wMOKtioff RtrmwhorrtOft." 

Hr. Col«HdK« : " How tbockinft | " 

Hra. Keoafdy : " It wM torblddcn. rir." 

Uc. Culcriiljn: " Anddld jon, Mre- KcDofrdr, rcftUrcoMldertbeniras 
»nj harm in thatf 

Mra. KcDDtdy : " No. sir, not In Itnelf. anr more lb«n thm; wu ttxf 
barm In eatlog an apple ; but you know, sir. tb« mtschleF that cams from 
Lbai." 

In the course of his reply, Hr. Coleridge was seron upon tfao 
ladies of thp community for the soriona view they toolc of the 
moat trivial things, anil, while admitting the good work that they 
tiooompllahod, attacked thorn with bitlcrneee in relation to tliair 
conduct towards the plaiutifi. It was an impressive and power* 
fill fipowh. One fljwh in it can recall. *' ttontlpraon," ho said, 
" I cannot help thinking tlmt p«)ple who devote themseWes to 
that life imitate too exclusively one part of the life of our DiriQC 
Ixird , and forget the other, — they remember and imitate the forty 
days in the Wilderness and the lonely honrs in tho garden and on 
the monntain, and they fail to bpar in mind the marriage of Oana 
and the Foaat of Bethany." He obtained a \erdict for hisclient, 
but questions of law of a serious Icind were ultimately raised. A 
mle for setting aside the verdict was obtatnoil, and the litigatioii 
was then dropped. 

I cannot forbear mentioning in connection with this case a 
distiiigiiifihed contemporary, at the Bar, of Mr. ('otcridge, who led 
ttgainst him in this litigation ; I mean Mr. George Mollish, nttor- 
wards Lord Justice Mellish. No two men could be more dis* 
similar. Mr. Meltish was of smfdl stature and weak physique. 
He was an almost constant sufferer from goat He wm a great 
lawyer, and without any exception tho most looid argaer in bane 
I have ever heard. A cjue like the Oonvcnt Case was quite oat 
of his ordinary line ; bat he threw hiau«lf into it with the great- 
oBt seal, and, although Buffering acutely from an attack of goat 



TBK LATB LORD CBJEP JUSrtCS OF esOLAJ/O. 381 

and reqoiring eocli moniing and evening to be treated by liis 
doctor to VQuMo Uim to bo proeent in court, bo stuyod tuanfoUyat 
his post, and de)ivere<l for the commnnit; ono of tho Snost nm 
vritis speochoB I ever liHii'ued to. 

Sir AlexHDiler Cockbiim tried the o&se, and it afforded a 
strong iUustratioQ of a pfCuliaritjF in tliat remurkabto man which 
Uio«e who pmotised before him will recognise. He began by 
being breast high with tfat* plaintifl, and so oontiauud during the 
earlier stages of the trial; but, as the case progressed, and espe- 
cially after !t(r. Melliftb's opening speech, he speedily tarned 
rotind, and did all hv could to socuru a verdict for tho dofendaDts. 
But it was too late. The case was of a kind not unnatnrfllly to 
exoite prejudice agninst them, and the minds of the jury oould 
not b« turned back f rem the direction which the earlier action of 
the Chief Justice hud given them. 

Ur. Kjiraliike, aflarwards Sir John Karslake, was Ur. Cole- 
ridge's great rlTal at the bar ; they went great friends as well as 
great rivals. Both were mon of fine presence, Mr. Kikmlakc, 
howcrer, bviii^ the toller. Uo was onoo doscribod io a Wvaturu 
Circuit paper as " rising at grott length " to reply on the part of 
the plniiitilT, and a story is banded down from the time of Lord 
Chief Justice Campbell (for the truth of which I do not vouch) 
io oonnection with him and Mr. Sum Joyce, who vaa aa remark- 
ably short as Mr. Karslake was remarkably long. It was motion 
day in the Queen's Bench, and on Mr. Joyue'u rising to address 
the Court, with his head just appearing above the bench in front 
of th« bar. Lord Campbell said : 

" Mr. Joyce, when conD»oJ address the Court it is usual for 
counsel to stand up." 

" My Lord," protoatad Mr. Joyce, " t am standing np." 

A little later Mr. Karelako ru«u from a benob at tho back of 
tba court, which sloping upwards gave him even greaterappatent 
altitade Uiuu he posaassed. Thereupon Lord CampboU is said to 
hare remarked : 

" Mr. Knralaki.', altiiou^b it is usual For counsel to stand np 
when they address the Court, it is not necessary for them to 
stand on the b«noheB." 

Ahbough Mr. Coleridge and Mr. Karslake were both distin* 
gaiahed advocates, thuy were advocauis of very dlfferuot typos. 
Tha lattor was on cxceUeut mAn of busioess, poaeHsed of grcut 



262 



TSE SO&TB AMERICAy REVIEW, 



muMry OTer detiLitu, and hail h Blrenuons power of persistence 
which WM very effective. Mr. Coleridge poMeutied tho gift of 
Inoid ez[XMitiou, aQd bad higlier qa&Iiu«e as ao advocate than 
Ur. Kafslake. He commanded a more b«flatiful diction, a finer 
roico, and ho was endowed with a power of iRtagioation and o( 
pathoK in which his riral wiut deficient. It oaod toboiuid of Mr. 
Cok'rtdgu tlial lie was worst ict a losing and boat in a winning case 
when a blase of fireworks was wanted. I think this does not do 
him justice. I have known him fight difflcalt cases strennonsly^ 
and winning cases modestly. Ele was, taken all in all, a remark- 
ablu advocate. 

Nodonbt the case with which his name will be principally 
linlced is the Tichhonie case. His oroej-exami nation of the 
claimant was at the time the snbject of widely divergent opinions 
at. tbo Bur. Por my onru pure. I thought it, nud still think it^ 
the best thing be ever did. It was not a oroas-examinatlon caloa- 
Isted, uur should I think evun intended, for immediate effect. It 
was not like tho bnlUaQtoron-examination of tlie witness Baigent 
by Mr. ILiwkinK (now Mr. Justice Hawkice), in which the ob* 
lerrer could follow the point and object qnestioa by question ; 
but it was one the full force and elTeet of which could only be 
appreciated when the facts, as they ultimately appeared in the de- 
feuduut's case, were finally disclosed. When, indeed, the Hube&- 
queut proseoulioQ for perjury touk place, it was then seen how 
thorough and searching that crom-oxauii nation had b««n ; how in 
effect, if I may use a foX'hunting metaphor, all the earths had 
been cffvctnally stopped. 1 am glad to find that my opinion of 
that crofts-exsminatiort has recently beea corroborated by so emi- 
nent an authority as the Master of tbo Rolls, Lord Esher. I 
must not be anderstood in what I hsTe said tu depreciate his great 
speech tu the Tichbome Oaae. A more masterly exposition of 
complicated facts combined with a eearcblDg criticism of the 
olaimunt'K evidence has rarely if ever been delivered. In these 
great efforts, he was powerfully assisted (as Sir John Coleridge 
was alnnvj retuly to ackuowlnlge) by bisable jiinioiii, Mr. Mstbew 
(now Mr. Jusiii.-t; Mathuw) and the late Lord Bowea (then Mr. 
Bowen), whose recent doaib Bench and Bar alike still deplore. 

My reference to Mr. Oderidge's partiiunentary oireer will be 
brief. In 1805 be was returned for the City of Exeter, and in 
1866 Mr. Gladstone appointed him Solicitor-General, while in 



TBS LATE LORD CHIEF JUSTICE OP ESOLAJIl}. 



] 871 lie fucceeded to tlio offico vt Aitorno}--Ooimral. Be VT«nC into 
rurU&mctit with grent pr««tige ; but, nlthoagb he won forhiniselt 
*ni|wct«d pujitiou thiTO aud umer^'od vitli credit from th« 
WTere ordeal of that cnticul asKmbly. it cauQot, I think, tw nid 
thiit his snccess or hia ropuiatiou thuro etjuulled Im Hucoeaa or hii 
TepatatioQ ut the Bar. Tfor u this remarkable. He had entered 
ihu Hu:iM of CommouB compurulivuly latu iti lift-, when ho was 
iu hU fort>-dixtb ;ear, and, as a rule, I tliink it will be foand 
that tho men who have achieved gre»l reputations lu the Hooao 
of ComraoDB are meo who have eotered it jouii^. Moreover, it 
it difficult for a lawyer iu great practice to give that time atid 
cloao attention and atudv to political quostiona without which 
norjaalifiod auocora oaqdoI be attain«d, even by tho pououor of 
coaaiderable natural gifta. Coke uiid, " Lady Ckimmou Law 
broolteth no bed-fellow"; and so it may be said that to Lodj 
Politics almost exclueivo court must bo paid. Sir John Coleridge 
was always better a« tho mak«r of n set s]>cech than a« a Parlia- 
mentary di^bnter. Ri^ best Ilunse of Commons performance was, 
I think, his Hdiuirable siH;cch iu 1866, when he moved the Uat- 
versity Test Abolition Hill. I recollect, later, being in the House 
of Commons when an amaaing scene occurred on the occasion of 
sqieeob by Sir John Coleridge when in office. He was advocat* 
ing what are now known a& Women's Rights, and he had mode a 
graceful and impressive speech, when, fnllowing him in debate, 
there roee from tbo samoQovommeatbi-acb (itwas not a Qovem- 
meat question) from which Sir John Coleridge had ejioken the 
burly, mirth -provoking fignce of Mr. Dowse, then one of the 
Imw Officers for IroUud. Mr. Dowse set himself to demolish the 
argument of his loaraed ooUooguo, and very humorously ho made 
tlie attempt. The general tenor of Mr. Dowse'a reply may be 
judged from a sentence : " My honorable and learned coUeagae," 
said ho, " dooms to tbiuk (hat, bccuuao some Judgce aro old 
women, all old women are qn&lilied to be judges." Oo the 
whole, Sir John Coloridge did not got on that occasion the 
best of the rally. 

Mr. Disraeli is supposed to have spoken of Sir John Coleridge 
•a *'silTer-tOBgaed mediocrity." Tbisdoea not do him juatiM. 
Tlml he was " silror-tongned " is trae ; but that he was modiocr* 
ia a judgment which neither his contemporaries nor posterity 
will iudojM. Uo certainly could not have made the great Don 



304 



TS£ NOKTH AMERICAS REVIEW. 



Ptnrific9 Speech of Sir Alexander Oookbuni : bat ibtn, vho 
could ? 

Id ISIS Sir John Coleridge became Chief Justice of the Odm* 
mon Plti&n m Buccussioii to Sir Willium Bovill, and be waa then 
cr6at«d a peer ; and in It^o, on the death of Sir Alexander Cock- 
buru, be became Lord Chief Justice. It is noteworthy tbtit, 
whereas each of his predecessors had been dewribed lu bis pMtenL 
of office BH Chief Juatico of the King's, or Queen's, Bench, he for 
tho first tltne was described as " Lord Chief Juatico of Kuglimd.'' 

His jodicial career is too recent and too well known to jasti^ 
me in dwelling upon it at any length. He is undoubtedly en- 
titled to bo describtJ as a strong judge ; and when the case was 
eulTicivutlv important to prompt him to take {muiui, his judg- 
ments ghowed a brood, masterful grasp of the principles of the 
luw hi> elucidated. I do not think be pogeeesed the great ^rn- 
thetical and analytical powom of Sir Alexander Cockburn at bis 
best, nor the vigorous oommou-sciue uf Sir Willium £rle, nor the 
wide, tcfifal erudition of the late Mr. Justice WiUee, nor the in- 
timatt> knowledge of tho ¥arleu8 branchcB of commorciBJ law of 
the late Lord Rramwcll, nor the hard-headed logic of Lord Black- 
burn (I do not refer to eniiueul judges still on thti bench) ; 
ncvert'belees he cannot be said to have lacked any qnalitj essen- 
tial in a gr^t judge, tjomo of his jadgmenU may well tuko rank 
with the best of bis time, and manyof ibein aremurkud by an 
elegttuoo of diction and posseeti a literary merit not often met with 
lu judicial records. His judgments in the litigation of the Duke 
of Norfolk in relation to the Kitzulnn Chnpel, in the caso (com- 
monly known as " the Mignonette Ohm" ) of the acumen Dudley 
and Htophon (charged with murder in hariug, under stress of 
hunger, killed and eaten a boy, one of their crew), and in the 
nmarkable commercial case Jcnown «s the "Mogul Boycotting 
Case," may be referred teas good examples. His direction to the 
jury on the trial fur biusphemy of Ramsey and Foote in 1883 in 
regarded aa a departure from the law upon that subject as pre- 
viously laid down by eminent men — a departure, bo it added, 
vhicb bus, I think, reoeived the sanction of the profenion gener- 
ally, and a departure in consonance vritb the tiBCT and more 
tolerant spirit of the time. That charge, in effect, amoanla to 
this : That it is not a criminal act to attack in decent and con> 
sidered argument even the fundamental trathB of religion as 



TBS LATl 



CHIEF JUSTICE OF E.VOLAKD. ^05 



ganerally reoeiTed. Lord C'oleridgo bad great infinence with 
jnrlfit, and alw treated thom wttb groat ooart«3jr and coDBiden- 
tiOD. He luado it clear what his ovrn riew of a cue waa, while 
carefu] to remind jarora tliat it was their right and dnty to de- 
termiuu disputed qtiestiofiH of fiiot. Heroin bo acted ii|>on 
Baooo'a celebrated advice (lie woa a ooualiuit reader of Uacod) to 
Hr. Justice Uutton : *' You shonld be a Hght to jnrorB to open 
tbeir ejres, but not a gtiide to load tbem by their ooses." 

Id diacharge of what maj bo callod the ooromoaiHt duties of 
bis judicial olfice, it is doubtful whether Lord Coleridge baa 
over bad auy suporior. Ui« stautly aud dignidod preaence, bis 
voice, hi« ean; command of sclioliirly and dignified apeecb, all 
oonmbuled to iuvost what ho aaid with uu iutereat quite apart 
from the sabatoQoe of bia utterances. 

I baro hitlicrto spo)f«n of Lord Ooloridgo in his public career 
at the Bar, in Parliament, and on the Bench. It. was in private 
Mcioty tltat he waa most oharmlng, and in which be bad prob- 
ably the largest circle of adniirors. As a riieoHtetir he waa dd- 
WTpawed. Ui^ mind was stored with anoodotoir, infinite io 
number and in variety, many of them abont distinguished men, 
aud many of them about ])olitical CTvnl« ; but vhilo he was an 
excellent atory-teller himself, he was also (and the two qualities 
are not commonly found together) a most tolenot listeoer. 

1 bad the honor, in company with the late Lord Ilannon, the 
late Lord Bowen, Sir Horace Oavey, Mr. Bryce, M. P., and Mr. 
Harten, Q. 0., formerly Member for Kilkenny, of visiting 
America with him in 1683. We were invited by the Bar of the 
State of New York, and meet of us were snbAecjnently the guests 
of M.r. Villard, then the president of the Northern Pacific Hail- 
road Company, on Die firat throngb jonrney by that route aoroaa 
the continent to the Pacific slepee. Lord Coleridge did not accom- 
pany ua on tbispart of our travels; but tu several of the New Eng- 
land Statcfl he received marks of honor, and all of us enjoyed the 
proverbially geuoretts hospitality of the great American people 
This visit added a large onmbor to bis budget of ancodotca which 
be used to tull with much eajoymuDt, althnugh now and then soma 
oftbem told against himself. Oeiiirous of information. Lord Oole- 
ridgo was iuquiriug from Ur. Erarts, the distiugniahod Hew 
York barrister, formerly Secretary ot State, how AmericaD law- 
yers were remunerated for their work. 



266 



THS NOBTB AMERICAN REVIEW. 



Lord Coleridge : " Pray, Mr. EvarU, how do clients pey their 
Uwjers with yoa ? " 

Hr. Briu-ts : " Well, my Lord, they pay & retaining fee ; it 
may be ISO, or it may be 95.000. or $50,000." 

Ixird Coleridge : " Ye« ; aiid what does that coTer ? " 

Mr. Erarta : " Oh I that la simply the retainer. The roat is 
paid for as the work ia done, and according to the vorit dono." 

Lord Coleridge: *'Yee» Hr. Bvarts, and do olieuta liJce 
that?" 

ilr. Erarta : " Nota bit, my Lord, not a bit Thoy generally 
My. 'I guew, Hr. Brarts, I should litca to tcnow hov deep down 
I ehall hare to go into my breeches pocket to boo tliia biuiuMB 
through.' " 

Lord Coleridge: " Yes, what do too aay then ?" 

Hr. Evaru : "Well, my Lord. T haTe invented a formtila whioh 
I have fouod answer very well. 1 aay : * Sir, or Mudumv. oa the 
caso may be, I caaoot undertake to say bow many judicial errors 
I shall bo called upon to corroct before I obtain for yon firal 
juiitice.'" 

Lord Coleridge used to tell withglooananecdote concerainga 
dinner given to him in Chicago byadiatingniabed lawyer, where a 
ooliapsoof the banquet waa threatened owing to the too vigilant at- 
tention of theaheriff'sotTirerwho held awritofjS./u. over the hoet's 
goods and chatteU. However, the threatened danger wa« averted. 
On the same occasion, he had stipulated and was assured that 
then vould bo no epeoches ; but, to his diseomtiture, he bst hia 
boat retire into a corner with bis secretary before dinner waa an< 
Qonnoed to aetUo the final prooh of a tpceoh which lie later de> 
livervd with muoh suooess at the banqoet. 

lord Coleridge was a good deal bothered by that prodnot of 
the nineteenth century, the iuterriewer, and on his way to Obi- 
cago one of these gentteineu, failtug otherwiHO to draw him out, 
began to belittle the old country in the matter of lakea and rivers 
and monatains, and even men. Lord Coleridge bore it all 
patiently ; finally, the interviewer said : " I am told, my lord, yoa 
think a groat deal of what yoa call your graat fire of London. 
Weill I gneea that the conflagration we had in the little village of 
Chicago made yonr grwt fire look rery small." To whioh Lord 
Coleridge blandly responded : " Sir. I have every rasaon to believe 
that the great fire of Loudon waa quit« aa great aa the people at 



TBB LATE LORD CHIEF J08TICB OF BffOLAltD. S07 

that time tlesired." He had been tttcd, «nd had ipfcchifiod 
moch, and bcjD much Bp««cliified »t, dnriitg bi« American visit, 
but it mast be adniitted there vm a oortUQ moDOtony Iq tha 
tbflmes oboaen by the orators of the Uiiitud SuUw. They were 
tbe groatoMS of Qrest Britain and her children, and the perhaps 
■till gmtet- greatDoss of Americs and hat ctuJdroD. Id bii flnJU 
tpeech at PhUiixIetpbitt, Lord Coleridge referred to this, and, while 
ocknovledging. with exlroiue oourteey aud grace, thu kindneea uf 
bia reception, he wound up by sayiog : "1 might, perhaps, io 
tbU coDDcciion, rofor to aa amnsiiig epoech of our great loxioog- 
rapfaer, Dr. Johnson, wlio, accordiag to that prince of biogra- 
phera. Boswull, addremwd bim ihua : ' Sir, yon bsvo only two topics 
of conrers^ioR, yourself and me, and I am heartily sick of both.*" 
Thta was said so graootully, and with inch good humor, that no 
one thought of being offended, and certainly Lord Coleridge 
therein thought of offending no one. 

P'ow men in hii position are without eoemiee, and be was no 
exception to tho ^eaenil rule. For myself, 1 know him as a kind, 
ooimidenius iind tft^nvrou^ friond, Htondy in his friendships, and 
probably coustant also in hiH diatikes. There are mntiy now 
living who tmve ei}torieuce<l kindness at bia hands and who can 
recall, b* I can, with gratitude, words of encouragement spoken 
in times of doubt and diflScultj. Thceo count for much in the 
early career of a barrister struggling toemerge from the unknown 
crowd. No one. however, will gainsay that, by his death, a great 
flguro has piBBed away. Ue waa iotelleotnally, as he was physi- 
tiiUly. head and shoulders above tbe average of his contempontries. 
Be had a high mnse of the dignity of bis great offico and of its 
importance. For jibovw twenty years he sat upon the judicial 
bench, and I believe that during that long period he did honestly 
strive ** to do right to all manner of people after the laws and 
luagea of this realm, without fear or favor, affection or ill>will." 

BuHSBLL OP Kiuowur. 



THE RESULTS OF DEMOCRATIC VICTOKY. 

HY BBNATOR IIUNKY CABOT LODOtE^ OF UASaACHCtjEITS. 



" And eTci^bodj- pr&bed tbn duke 

Wbo Cbis BiYSt dKht did win." 
" Bui wtutgood came of Ic at iMtt" 

QnMb Uttle FeterklD. 
" Indoed I do not know," Mid he : 
" Bat 'twos ■ fMnoas vUUtrf." 

Many Americana liavo naked Petorkin's question since the 
Domooratic victory of November, 18M. That it w»a a victory 
there can bo no doubt, tuid the skulls and bonos consoqucnt opon 
it cau be picked up as easily bs Patorkin picked up the HkuH on 
the field of Blunheim long &tU>r thv clivers whieb t;re«t«d the 
winner h&d died aimj into silence. We are able now at this dis- 
tonoe of time to look back oror tbo Inst oightwa mouths; to snrroy 
the desaliit4>d liold on whi<:h the viet»rit have since camped, and to 
see just what the Democratic victory of IS^Z bos brought to the 
people of the United Stutea. 

It was a queer army tliat won the fight. Its officers and soldiers 
were recriiited from mniiy quarters, andlt ia not without interest, 
now that tbvlr nuiiu objoct of gettiug into jiower has been ob- 
tained, to look them over. The great maaa of the forces camo 
from the South, where the outworn traditions of forty ynus ago 
still hold away aud where civiliziition and thebusineauoonditioDaof 
the Kortli are only just beginning to make themsdree felt. The 
next largest couMugunt was supplie<I from the lower wards of the 
great cities of the North and woa typified by Tanunany Uoll. 
Last and least in namberB, bnt most important of all in their own 
Opinion, were those persons lu the North and Bust who announoed 
in 1884 that they represented tlie conscieiioe and intelligence of 
the country. The solid South and Tauimany vera to tnpply the 



RESULTS OF DEMOCRATIC VICTORY. 



368 



Totes, and the prnprietors of the oonsoienee and intcltig^noe of 
the oounlrj were to ^uiilo this partv of reform, proride it with 
principles, give it moaey to spend, hold the offices, and in seaaoo 
and out of Moson ting pnons in pmiso of their candidatn for the 
prendenoj. It wM a curious oombinalion. Side hjr side with 
the aotid South w«re arrajvd Tainmaa; Hall and the bund 
who believed in the New York Evening J'ogf, "clothed in 
while eamito myetio, wonderfni." Prosident Eiiot and Riohard 
Oroker, Edward Atkinson and John Y. McKano, Carl Scfaui-x 
and William F. Hh«ehau, tliu Reform leagaoe of New York 
and Ha$sachaaetta, Bat Sbea, of Troy, and tbo tvronty-Kven 
election offlcers fornioriy of Now York city, bnt now of Sing 
Sing, were enlisted in Ltie aame anny and were fighting 
for a oomraon cauM. There wore wide differences among 
them In habiU of lifo and political methods, but tfaey 
were all tariff rofornierH, they were all agreed that 
the HcEioIey bill was a "oulminating atrocity," and 
tl>at the llepublican party wasarery liud party indeed. Uow- 
erer widely they varied they were all roformon, and hov«Ttr 
tbeir methods differed they ail aougbt lo get votes for the same 
candidate. In the closing honrs of th? campaign that candidate 
himaeU went up to the wry motmtuiii-tup of virtue and reform, 
■nd in a speech at the Lenox Lyceum denonnccd. in thut fresh 
and pleasing style so traloved by his admirers, the wickedness of 
the Bupublicaos in spending money at elections. No one could 
fail to bo impressod hy such un exhortation at anch a moment. 
There wero scoffers, it is trne, who suid at the timo that money 
was spent in eleoiioos by both parties, and that the Bepiiblicans 
were no worse than their neighbors, bnt this carping criticism 
was scarcely heard in the general acclaim which greeted an ex- 
tiibition of virtue so great as tluU at the Lenox Lroeum. Sulf 
aeqnent disclofinree bavo enabled us to gue«s at the facts which no 
donbt saggest«d to Hr. Clevclutid tlio iieccfwity of throwing his 
Task influence against this growing evil of onr politics. We have 
learned lately that it was ju«t alwul that time that patriotic mo- 
llvea prompted a nuted gift of fifty thonnjiii'l dollars to the 
Democratic campaign fund, and that the Sugar Tmst opened its 
purse to tbo l>L<mocratio Committee of Now York. These wore 
otroam9tanc<« calculated to alarm a great patriot, and hence, no 
doubt, eaasod Mr. Cleveland's denunciation of the infamy of 



370 



TBB NORTH AMERICAN REVIEW. 



WTig money in plpctions. It is trae tliat vhile this raOMj ap- 
pears to have be«n with the Democrnts, thoiufumy, accordiog to 
Mr. ClereUnd, was with the Republicant. This ceenm an odd 
arran^omeut, but it sboutd not be CorgoLten that the waja of re- 
formers as lately oxbibited to an interested people arc theauelVM 
odd. 

With aa army thus constituted and with this laat cry for po- 
litiail pnrity upon the lips of their leader, the Democrats carried 
th« country. The Kopublicuu party, wbicli for more tbnn thirty 
years had controlled the country, wore beaten, every branch of the 
goremmeut passed into Democratic hands, the misdeeds of the 
Republicans were to be exposed and undone, and Ihe "calminat* 
iag atrocity " lay at the mttrcy of tlic victor. 

It was B prosperous country which theae victor* wors called to 
gOTcru, When they came in, busiueea waaa4;tive, latrar was well 
employed, and men had a roMonable confidence in tbe future; 
when tbej came in, there was peace at homo and abroad and 
honorable relationa with all foretg^Q countries, gr<M and smaU. 
When tbey came in, however, men diflored with each other polEt- 
icatly, the national goreniment was respected by the people in all 
its branches, and thora were uo EcnndulH rife at AVasbington. 
Bttt after all, this was only a general and familiar well-bcinf:, and 
miiny evils and inequalities existed, such ob have always existed 
among men, and from which hamanitybasnever been free. Such 
a hum-drum condition, with its slow bat steady progreas, did not 
content tbe party of reform. Ordinary and fjeiicral prosperity 
might be well enough for the Bepnblicaa party, but it seemed a 
poor thing tothe party of reform. Theywere going to give na 
somethinjc f»r better than this, and, if we could believe their 
moderate aud truthful statements made before election, theiroom- 
iag into power would be followed by aomething little short of an 
earthly millennium. 

So they won their victory, bub, somehow or other, the mil- 
lanniam did not at onco appear. It was not, of course, to bo ex- 
pected in its full flower until after the fourth of March. 1803, 
bnt its near and certain coming ought to hare fllled every one with 
delightfnl anticipation, and made the hearta of the people sing 
Cor joy. For some reason this did not come to paea. After the 
country had loofaed at the rosnlts of tbe election for a few days, 
tbsra seemed to be a general ebill instead of a generous glow, and 



THE RSSULTS OF DSMOCIUTIG VJCTOBY. 



271 



bdsiDMe heg^n to heaitaW and stop in itsforvu^ inor«ment. At 
iMt the fourth o( March arrived, the gorernraent changed htnd*, 
and the BcpublicaiiBwcre fioiilljr out of the way. Kight«eit 
months har« passed aiiioe then, and we are now in a position to 
reckon ap that «Artbl5 millenaium promised by the part; of re- 
form, and eeoezncUy what It has brought us. 

Let Ds loolc fimt at thoae matters which arc peculiarly witJlin 
ihn prorince nt the adinini8lraiion itaolf, Aft«r appointing a 
eabinot of nnoommon brilliancy and distinotion, Mr. Cleveland 
toroed his attention to foreign affairs. Ho ia aboro all thiogi a 
raformer, and no doubt has a profound contempt for the Hon- 
trino that, however parties may change, continuity in the foreign 
policy of a great nation iti deairsble. He therefore set to work at 
ODCe to overthrow the Republican poltoy in regard to the Ha- 
wuian Islands. With tho qaick imagination for which be is M» 
oonepicnoni he invented a new ofiicer to carry out this change. 
He devieed a " Paramount Commiaaionor," and acat Mr. Blount, 
of Oeoi^a, in that capacity to the Bawaiian Islands. He accred- 
ited his " Punimount Commieaioner " to tho Presidenl of the 
Provigioiial OoTBrnmenl, whom he styled his " groat and 
good friend," and then, in bis blunt, atraif^htforward fanhion, 
instructed bis commisiiioDer privately to do his I>c4t to overthrow 
Ilia "great and good friend " and the Provisional Government, 
aud to bring about the restoration of that interesting eoveroign, 
Qoeen Tjilinokaluni. The preliminarioa went well. Hr. Dlount 
linnkKl down the Amei-ican flng and ordered tho American forcaa 
oS tho island. But tho Proviaioual Government, with the per* 
vernty which soraetitnes attaches to persons not properly versed 
in rafornit declined to be either hauled down or ordered off. It 
ma very annoying, and before stronger moaauree conld be taken 
Oongresa got together and the Hawaiian policy of the administra- 
tion has disappeared. Preaident Dole, the nnregcncrate, is now 
the head of a permanent republic, and tho formor queen has 
becoma a claimant in Washington. The Hawaiian polioy, how- 
vrer noble in conception, has failed in practice. 

Since then tho administration, casting about for some other 
Sfltd of Dsefnlness in the Pacilic. has lighted on Samoa. There it 
proposed that we should wilbdraw. M.r. Bayard said in London 
tliat Sir John Tharston was a meet ezoelleat man and a most 
txeallent governor, and that w« had bettar gira np Samoa to 



979 



THE NORTH AMERICAN RKVISW. 



En^^land and letSirJolm take oWga of it. A foreign policy 
which consiEts ia giring np things hae on« merit : it is geuoniUjr 
snocQBBful. It is Always easj to give nwny something valnablo, 
etpacially to Englanil, to wliich this MdmlnistntcioD appears to be 
strongly attached. Uuluokily the German Emperor was one of 
the parties to this Samoati agreement, and he remonstrated and 
the Seoate rotnougtrated; aitf] bo this glorions policy of self-sacri- 
fice in Samoa hns been chocked. In justtoe to the administration 
it ought to be suid thai this check is not dao to any shortconiing 
on its part. 

If there was any one thing npon vhich this admin istration 
was partJonlarly strong, so far as tlie deolaratioos of t lio President 
went, it WM in thv Hold of Oiril Service Reform. What a record 
lias there been made] II is altogether too serious to speak of 
ironically. The selection of Mr. Proctor for president of the 
Civil 8erTico Oommission vae most adinirablo, bet the rest of the 
story is adreary one to any one who is interested iu the great 
movcmiMil, which is slowly, but surely, Litking the olfices of the 
government out of politics. The Post Oflice Department is fol- 
lowing in the footsteps of its predecessors ; it ta neither better nor 
woree, and is, as it has always been, the victim of a bad syHtHin. 
Tho liioting of the rnterior Departmunt has ncTer tteen equalled 
in Our time, and isouly surpasst-d now by that of the Treasury 
Department. Nut content with seizing every place ontsido th« 
claesiBod serrioe in those two departments, reductions^ promo- 
tions, «nd removals, as has bpen shown by reports of the Civil 
Service Commission, haTu bvca mtvlc to an unheard-of extent, and 
with a discrimination not merely in regard to politics, but. what 
is far worse, in regard to race and section — that is, sguinat the 
colored people and nguust persons of Nortlieni hirth. The 
spoiler has even reached out in the Trooaury Department 
and seized npon tho Coast Surrey ; and the head of this 
scientific bureau has resigned because ho would not be re- 
sponxible for the Survey when the officers in it were given ap 
to political patronage. The Consular Service hos always boon 
the prey of politics; bnt never has it been ohauge«t with the 
merciless Ihoroughnosa and rapidity exhibited by Mr. Qiiinoy or 
with sach absolute disregard nf the needs of the service and of 
its importaneo to the biiBtness of the country. But the worst 
thing that has happened to Civil Serrioe Beform is the ruling ot 



THE RESULTS OF DEMOCRATIC VICTORY. 



S78 



Uio AUoruoj-'Oouonl tluit oirotilan doHumditifc couiribatioiu of 
penons ei»|iloyiHl b; the goveramQiit, It sout hy mid\, uro not ii 
vioUtiott of the Iaw against political asaeismeDts. This ruling 
niilltfica that lair ; and if austuitityl ihrowa Uir whole gofernineiit 
scrvioo upon once mcr« to the oviL d^eloai of p'jHtiuiil uHscsameDta 
which ii has ItikoD yeura to d&jtroy. The Koase of Boprewo- 
tntirM baa contributed its mito toward tho breaking dowu of tho 
Oitil Service law by pawiog by a party vota an act to throw tho 
railway mail sotvice open oacc moro lo tho spoils systtim. 

Thece matters of foreign policy and of domestic admiutstratioii, 
however, imjiortsntas th«y aro, hnvo boon lost sight of in t)io leg- 
islative efforts of the Dcmocratio party in Congriyis. Disturbed 
by the popular unoasinem cuuecd by their Tictory, the Democratic 
I«adertnad the Ddmooratio preea set thanutelrea in tho winter of 
1893-D4 to tho work of iiaproesing oa the public iniud that the 
existing untiaaiiiMi wa« dne to tho danger to be anticipated from 
the opomtioR of the Sherman act.' Thia had tho effect, iutonded 
by tttanlhore, of diverting attention from the Demacratie party to 
the act in qu^sliou. But it algu had auutlit^r and a very bad re- 
mit. Insteiul of allaying t)neasinei>s ilgtininlaled it and cliaagod 
it rapidly to a fooling of duop alarm and anaicty. After the ad- 
mtoiitratiou came >□> iustead of calling Cou^rcas together to deal 
with the silver qaesttoti, which they theinselTi's had tlesuribetl as 
BO pressing, everything was allowed to drift and iiothiiig wajj done 
tochcck thogrowingaiuticty. In April, by way, we niuRtnippoee, 
-of eoolhiug the alarm of the business comorinDily, Mr. Carlisle 
■ugge«ted in nn intervitiw that it might be neetuuiary to pay the 
traasury notea in silver. Two days of terwards the Presilent con- 
tradicted formally ttiv statement of hi^t svcratjiry. The rcanlt of 
tbeso varyiug opinions vna not fortutiatu. Iiutood of promoting 
eoofideoce, they acted like a spark in a powder magazine, and a 
panic began in Walt Street, which spread m rapidly and disns- 
Lroualy that tho I'rosideut was Hually forood to cult Congress in 
extra Kttiou ou the 7th of August. There ia no need to rv- 
hvoTve tbo events of the extra eeasioiu The Btrongely assorted 
army which hod won th« November victory now began to march 
tadifferet)tdia'<:tions,and in Drniocmticliandathe Svnatabeoiune 
apparently unubU* to act. Aft^r u bitter struggle a compromise 
measure waa formulated, which met with the approbation of the 
administration and of nearly all tho Democratic Seoaiors. Sena- 
voi- CI.IX.— KO. 4M. 18 



274 



THE NORTTT A}rERICAy nRVIKW. 



tor Hill, of N«w Vork, however, stood oat for Blwolnto Hnd un- 
coiiditional repeuil, uq'I whea his altitude became kuown tba 
Pi'Cdi<Iuiit autiouQCcd with gn»L protiiptuesj that he took the same 
Tiew. The compromise fell to the ground, the compromiMi-a felt 
A j^ood deal of anno^Aitcfl at tho desertion of tho ndminiBtrntioD, 
and the Kilver-purohiLiliig clausiw were repeated. The repcul wu 
umiuciitlv wise, but a great opportmiiiy wm theu lost in uot tak- 
itig udvAQtikge of the situation, lu might have been doae, to se- 
cure legisUtion necessary U> protect our ji^ld reeervos and to for- 
ward some proper solution of the great cnrreiiey (inc«itinn. We 
are now reaping the bitter -fruits of that fitilure. Our ^old re- 
aerftiS ai'e rapidly disappearing, aud the go?emmvQt hns no 
authority io issne bonda to buy gold, wliile the Democratic Con- 
greos lias refused to pa«s any l«^iii.huJon looking in that direction. 
We have, however, the consolation of knowing that the Prendeot 
at the crisis of tbc silver strui^le stood quite «« firm as Senator 
Uill for DQCOsditiooal rept;al and was not at the time diacor- 
orcd to have diisctiMed sympflthotically the tarms of compromise 
with those who advocated it. 

The purchasing cluuises of tbc Silver act were ansoand and 
wrong. Tlmy were properly repealed ; but eqiinlly wrong with 
the cIhuscii thcmt-elvefl has been the utter indifFerence of the Ad- 
ministration to tho ciirretioy (jiieetioii and the complete failure of 
the Dciuocrate, from the Preiiident down, to make the aligtiiest 
effort towaitis '\\a twlutiun. The rept.-ii) of thu silver clansos 
'brought DO relief to the stricken hasiueas of the country, and it 
thorvfore scemod to the Di'mucratic i>url.y » peculiarly (it moment 
to atta^-k Tiolcntly our iudustriiil syiitem and to add to the grow- 
ing dsugcrs of the curi-eucy queatioQt which were affecting tho 
busineaaof the world, the perils and uucertaintiesof auiodtistria] 
■■evolution. They have boon eugaged in this congenial task dace 
lust December, and the consequent losaeti aud Hufferingaof the ooun- 
try have been beyond computation. The reform began with the in* 
trodoclioa and passage of the Wil)»n bill in the Qouaie. As aii 
CTposition of the principles of the Chiciigo plutform, which de- 
clared protection unconstitutional and n robbery, this bill was 
hardly a success. It wa« fitll of protection administered as a 
preference chii-jly to Sou them intcrt^ts, and in this way threw 
overboard all the principles which the Democratic party had bwjn 
advocating. But as a mcosore for tho destrnctioQ of Kortborn 



THE RESULTS OF DEMOCRATIC VICTORY. 



indofltrica and for a compEete dislocation of tbo indtiDtriul Bystera 
of tlii> oouutry, it was a Bhiriing encooss. The party which 
farored a tariff for revenufi uiily tlirov reTODUO away with 
Hplvndiil prodigality, and, lurniDg from indirect to direct taxa- 
lioD, iinpoHod iti u time of profoaad peaco aa JQComo tax ppon 
a particular claaa of tbo people, aJtbough tliul tax bad never 
bsfii r«fiorted to in thia country beforo except as a war mtiaii- 
urv. This bill, which abandoned all tlo principtea of tbuso 
who voted for it and which upon the reoommeudation of Prosi- 
deut ClevoUiid iti hia meBSOge embodied an inocime Lax, camo to tha 
Senate on (be fimt of Fobniary. The. Deniooralio inembert of 
the Finanou Oammittoe cooaidered it for about ecTou weeks in the 
Kcliuion of some gtirrut or cellar, and then reported it in rather 
more extreme form to the Senate, Thereupon they found thai it 
ooiild not p}i88 the Sonate, and after farther meditation and acon> 
fcrenee of Uomooralio Senators, it waa detorminvd to amend the 
bill so that it coiild command forty-tlireo Democratio votes. 
When it reappcarpd again in the Senate in May, it was sccom- 
patiied by Mme 800 ainendmentfl which formed the price paid fur 
the votes. In the long dcb'ilc of two months which cumed, the 
maiuier in nhich the bill waaoonstrncted wiut pluiuJy brought to 
light and certain featnrcB of tbo measure came out in bold relief. 
Soathern todnstriea were well cared for, and where tbo Sontburn 
bappciied u> be alao a Northern indnalry, u in tho case of cotton 
textiles, the latter waa well cared for too. Brery subject of the 
tariff in which atrast was interested, from sugar to mutchw* ma 
protected, bnt tho smallvr industries imgnarded by trosts or com- 
binations suffered iievervly, utthotigb not so sererely aa in the 
House. Finally it became apparent that tbe great controlliog 
force in the make-up of this bill was the Sagar Trust. 

Thifi nieaHiiro, constructed in this way, passed tho Senate on 
the 3d of July. With n>mi!rkable preacience tbe President, on 
tbe M of Jnly, had written a private li;tl«:r to Mr. Wilson, chair- 
mau of tbe Ways and Mcaua Outamittee ; and this letter, in wbioh 
the President foresaw so uocurately wliut would happou in the 
fature, was raad in the House of Eepresentatives three weeks 
later, after the couferrees had failed to agree. It was a somewhat 
aDoanal method for a Pi'e^tdent to take, in order to inform Coo- 
greM of bis viowi*. but rtijs did not detract from Uie gonoral tn- 
bervtt of tbo oomamnicatiou. Tbe Pnwiduut pointed out that 



370 



AMfiMCAK HBVIE^.' 



the men vbo made the Senate bill were gniltj of "{i«rMy and 
dishonor," sod tbat the gruul Democratic principle of free coal 
and fre« iron, tho oolyprinciplo which had gnrrirui of tbo coll«o- 
tion iti use before thu eteutiou, niu^t be vindicated at all liazarde. 
Thereupon the Senators who iiad had tills reform murement 
worked on them alreailr id the Bilrer qneetion, rebelled. Thoy 
opeoljr acouBod tbo President of haviof; approved all that vas 
dODO in tho formation uf h Senate bill, mid, what waa far worse, 
thej provBd il by wituesaes of undoubted truth who tihared tba 
Fresideufs ■viewa. 

Before thin article can appear, some decision will have been 
reached, ia all probabilitv, as to tho taxiS. At tho moment of 
wrilin];, however, that valued measure of reform is still lying an- 
settled after five we«k8 of wrangling in Oie hands of tho Demo* 
emtio members of tho Oonferonce Oommittce. The beat thing 
that cnnld happen would be itu duft-at, but if it should pass in 
Bome form it matters but little what that form may he. The bill 
cannot bu otiierw lee tlitiii Thoroughly bad. It rs BUed with pref- 
erences and with the groaaest favoritism. It has no economio 
principle of any kind, it guortls tho trnat«, and is black with 
eoaudals. The point of contention at present is not oonoomod 
with tho merits of tho bill. It is roaolvod into a simple qneatioD 
of whether the President by any meana^ good or bad, can obtain a 
persuQul viclorr over Senator Qomiau. This no doubt hae an 
interMtiug side, but it baa no more bearing on tlte general wel- 
fisre of thu country or upon its economic system thau the aettle- 
ment in the prixe ring that Corbett can whip Jackson, or Jacksoa 
Corbett. The President accepts tho sugar schedule and desires 
to have fnM oooland free iron. Senator Qonnan favors daiiMOQ 
eoal and iron and has with his fnends offered to give np the 
BHgar duties, which the House, acting for the President, deolioed. 
The President apparently is ready to take care both of tbe Sngor 
Trust and the Dominion coal company and is devoted to froo raw 
materials. Senator Uormiui dceiresto protect coal and iron aiid 
appears to take bnt a secondary interest in the trust. The great 
movement for tariff reform has reaolved it«olf into this ignoble 
persons] contest within the lines of tbe Democratic party. 
WhatoTor the result of tho porsonal struggle may be, the bill, if 
if Hny bill is poascd, is aare to be a thoroughly bad one. 

I p4»Dted ont at tho beginning vrhat the Democrats fonnd 



TBE RESDLTS OF DEMOCRATIC VICTORY. 



977 



whon tlwrr oaiii« iu : » prosperous ooiintir ; pwoe &t home and 
abroad ; no Bcandals iu Wssbiu^toii ; and respect for tbe gOTem- 
meiit of the coontr;. look nt it to*dfi,r. In tbe hands of its Dem- 
ocnUio majority, tho Sonnto liM fluulc in popular cstimulion and 
Uio Pruidfiubu eugai^od ia nseailiiig tbe Scuato and trying todic- 
tateto the Bouse. ThuBcaiidal uf the Quincy lithoKnphic contract, 
of the armor-plate frauds, of the GoTemmttnt Kxposition hullding, 
and, bUrkoflt of all, of the Su^ar Trust, uro all flBj(raut in Wash- 
ingtou, and three of them enbjectaof OongreEuonaiinTestigatJon. 
We bare made a pitiful exhibition of ouraelvee in Hawaii and 
Samoa. Th«Civil Sornce has boon plnndorod, and the patriotic 
work of building upour nar; has been stopped. Gold i;i pouring 
ont of the coantry, and the reeerrMBpOQ which the grrat fabric 
of the curreac; restsare Tanishing. Business is proetrat«, labor is 
nnemployod, fltrike* and disorder hare broken ont all over the 
country. It is idle to try to explain away those things by saying 
thvy are Uie results of Bepublican legislation, for they did not 
eiiet before the 4tb of March. 1893, when the Bepablicons ceased 
to rule. Thoy are the results of putting (Mver in the hands of 
an incompetent and ill'auorted party. llieOoDgreeiiional elections 
are at hand. If the people have learned the lessons of the last eigh- 
teen montbg, tbe result of those elections is not in doubt. There 
really it only one queiilion before the people, and that is whether 
thoy like the results of Democriitioictorv. If they do, they will rfri 
turn the Democratic party to power in the lower Qonae. If they 
do not, they will take power from them and keep it from them 
for many years to come. 

H. O. LODOB. 



CATnOLlCISM A\n AI'AISM. 

BT THK RIOHT BET. J. L. RPALOINO, BISHOP OP FSOBIA.. 



Facts are stronger Ibuo arguments, and it is litile better than 
a Taste of words bo reply to the cliarges which are now from maQ; 
•idea brought aguirut Catholics hero iu the United States- From 
the earliest colonial period they have baeii here and have been 
loyal aud doToted citiiens. They have takeu part in erery phase 
of private and public life. Tliey have mingled with Uiose ol 
other faitha, in iittt family, in the professions, id the tnd«, in 
commerce, in lef^islative assemblica, and on batllelieldB whem the 
nation'H fate luu hung upon the is«ae. Like other men. chey 
bare had their weaknesses and their faults, bnt among (beee lack 
of loTo for America has had no place. They founded oue of the 
thirteen colonies, and were the tirst in the New World, the first, 
indeed, in all the world, to make freedom of couacience an orgauic 
part of the conetitntion of the State. Their action marks an era 
in tho progreea of mankind. Wbon the hour came to bn-ak the 
bonii which united the colonies with Kngland and which hod 
become a fetler, none more generously than the Catholics hear- 
kened to the trumpet call.and in the darkest days of the struggle 
Catholicti from Burope mingled their blood on our battlefields 
with that of our fathers. If long tenure, if fidelity, if honorable 
deeds, have aught of eOBcacy, Catholics have the right to bo here, 
nor has this right erer become forfeit by any act or attempt of 
the Catholic Church in America. 

Whatever controversy there ma; be as to other times and lands, 
her course here hasbeenoneof honor, of light, of peace, of benefi- 
cence. She has devoted herself to works of religion and ba- 
manity. She has done and is doinjt more for education, for the 
orphan, tho aged, tho sick and the fallen, tbaa any other oburob. 
She has never attempted to diotat« to her adherents iu civil mat- 



CATHOUCiSSi AM* APAlSM. 



STO 



Ion, nur has she sought to control political parti u ; atiil if Iter 
followvra are to a Urge extent Poinocratd rather than Bopobli- 
cans, thtA is not due to the ioOneuoeor int«rfi)ronco of priestsand 
bUhopa, who aeldom know or care to what political part^ the 
raotDbcn of their aougrcgationii belong. Cattjolios, though gen- 
erally Catholic only in name, have been aud are baay, often too 
bnsj, with politics, mpocially wiLb itiniiiL-ip:Ll politioB ; but this i^ 
a common right of all American oititens, and in twatres where 
there are gmt aumhersof OatboHoti, somoof thom inovitably will 
be foaiid among tb« politioal sohcuerft. and ooaaequently will b« 
more or loaa implicated in the hypocrisy, trickery, and fmad by 
which our whole politioal life in tainted. A bad OathoHo lk no 
better tbaii uuyothor bud man. Ueis not a Oatliolio in truth. 
bat sinc« the Catholic Church, whatever tho^e who do not know 
her spirit moy think, ia patient, broad, and tolonint, ahoisgloir to 
ex|iel any oii» from the fold. loth to pluck np the cockle lent Che 
wheat abo bu iiprooLod. The reckK-si grwsl of our great money 
getters has led them to induce thousands of the pooj-ost and cuoat 
ignorant laborers of Europe to oomo hereto supplant more itttolli- 
gent and consequently more costly workera, The40 people, many 
of whom aro Cathoticii. uvichur uudordtand our language nor biivu 
any right ooneeptionof onr civil and political lifct and whoo Ihey 
are thrown out of work and brought to the verge of starvation, 
they aometimee listen to the app«aU nf Anarohistii and resort to 
violence. The church is not responsible ; her iufluence, on the 
oontrary, ia Iho only moral and civiliung force which is brought 
to bear on thc«o poor people. Far from doairing this kind of 
immigration, the American bishopi and priests would be glad to 
have it ceiue. 

Towards our fellow-oitixene who are not Catholioe oar be- 
havior ie and luts been without reproach. Wc have never Bought 
to excite pngudice againitt those who differ from us in r^ligiuus 
faith : much liwi hare we songlit to persecutn any man for coa- 
Boience sake. No body of Catholi«i3 in Amttrica hw cvi>r fostered 
or ia any way encouraged those who wrig;;Io au'1 batton in the 
Btth and animiLtitios of miui, and who make a living by going 
from oity le city to appeal to the prurient imaginations and oor- 
ropt faearta of the vulgar. If here and l<iere these cowardly 
attacks have led to violuace and riot, thu omptoyora of the men 
whose only argument ia ontra^eoiu insult are responaJble. The 



280 



THE yof 



Q»tbolic paetors uniformly ndviBe their flock;* to koep aw&y from 
these men and thu plucos ia whioh tUuy hold tboir meetings. 
No body of Ciitholics, in this ooantry, not under tho bftn of the 
church, have uvlt formed tbenuQlvas Joto secret oath-booiud aooi- 
eticj. for good or eril ends. Our blahops and priests bare no 
hidden polinj, no doop laid BchomcH, oC anj kind. Oar lifo is 
nndisjfuigad. our ohurohes are open to all, our books may bo had 
by orory one. in our schools thouBaode of Protostautts are thrown 
honrly into most intimate contact vith our teachers : as iwrraute 
and partners, ua friends und rulatioos, iru are interiniugled with 
the wliolc people. Whoever deeirea iDforniation about ns has not 
far to suek. What then a the cauBe of the abu6« trhioh ie heaped 
npon iif, of the distrust of which wa aeem to be the objects ? 
Why has it buou thought DecuHsary to or|;anizo eooret societies, 
whioh hare spread rapidly thronghont the ooantry^ to oppose 
and liurt us ? 

These are fiir-rp.a<:'hin2qnMtions, and to answer them 8alisf»cto> 
rily in brief space is diOicull. At the rout of all such uutbrt-aks and 
movements tborelies t)ie traditional Protestant riewof the Catho- 
lic Clturch, whiob. though it has long oeasod to have aay meaning 
for enli;;hteiied minds, still holds swihy over those who are too 
busy or too ignuraut to ho able to n.vKtt againat inheritod proju- 
dice. They etiU heliere that the Catholic Church ia the Soarlet 
Woman and tho Pope the Man of Bin ; and that Oatholicd con- 
sequently are capable of any crime or baseness which it may oocnr 
to any one to impute to thorn. They beUuro that Jusuila oro 
oanning liypooritea who are never happy anlesa they are doing 
mischief ; that nunnoriee are prisons, or worao ; that priests sell 
permiwion to oommit sin »nd are ever ready to betray any conn* 
try Ihoy may belong to at tho dictate of the Pope. All this, to- 
gether with vtiatever etaa of horrible a pervereo or corrupt Ima- 
gination maybe able to conjure npcoacorningas, tho trno rictinu 
of the Protestant tradition are rsody to beliore; and, though such 
retanlod minds are become oomparativoly few, they are still 
numerous ouough to form a nncltius around which may gather a1I 
tho»e who, whether honestly or from motive of self-interest, are 
gtad to enter upon an anti-Oatholio oroBode. The Orango Moia* 
ties couHtitute a centre of this kind for tho AptUsta. No mora 
bitter, blind, or fauuiiciil religious spirit exists than tlieira. Its 
prejudice isuarelievod by a suspicion of doubt, its h&tredts as gen- 



CATHOLICISM AXD APAISM. 



sei 



uine M it is QDreasoulng and narelentiDg. und, like a winil-fiinned 
flame, it leaps forth with mad glee vheaevor there i« hh oiiixir- 
tnnit; to do harm to Catholics. Hare il a force rewij at haad, 
In Eoglish-spcakiiig conatries, for thoM) who wish to stir up 
religions strifn. What arc the causes whicli have lod so 
na&y Amerioina who Lave uo aympsthy with Oraogoiem to form 
nil allt&Doe vith the bigots of this sect for tho purpose of jwrne* 
cntitig Catholics ? The Mpid ami vigorous growth of the Cliiii-ch 
iu Ain«rica haa, I euppuso, excited appreheitsiona of <langer 
ftmoQg thoee iu whoso minds its inflo«noe is aesociatod with ignor- 
ano*, supers titioD, arnt corruption. Our SQoecas, too, largoly due 
to immigmlioTi, may havn Hr()iiKe<l joaloiiiiy ha well as fear; and I am 
the more wilIiuK lo bcliorc this uk I observe, uu many sides, that 
the envious rivalry of Protestant deooniinatious among them- 
Sfllres u n chief canee of their veaknoss. In thoiisunde of vil. 
lages whore onif ohurch and one ca]Hiti[e minister would find sap- 
port, Uireo or four coDgregations raprMonting difTcront Eects are 
flitablished. and they are all feeble. The resultii* diecouragemcut 
and indiffer«nce. Among Catholics themselres, in the'last fow 
years, a certain ^irit of bonetfolDcsa became, hero and then, 
manifest. VTbenasyet, loaving aiddeonr aocoesions from Europe, 
our hMses arc greater than our gaius, some of us began to pro- 
claim that America was to be made Catholic at no distant day. 
Though thosn ntt«mQC08 woro uioroly the oxprettsiou of zea), the 
outburst of a perfervid t«m])er, they arnuiini] unkind tliongbts in 
many whost; dislike of us is more genuine thuii thrir love of tol- 
«rfttioD. To make matters worm we began to quarrel among oor^ 
■vlree. National difforences of thought, sentiment, and custom, 
which reach so far and go ao deep, threntenwl to prore stronger 
than the harmonizing and constructiTu force of a commou roli- 
giouB faith. It happened, as it nearly always docs happen when 
tbe controTorHia) spirit is let loose, that the retil issue cAme to be 
not tmUi and justice, bnt rictory. In tlio beat of conflict wild 
worda were spoken and overbearing deeds were done. The re- 
porters, who 8C«nt a scandal as rultnree • oaroass, rushod in, and 
the ooantry was 11ll«d with sound and fary. The loyalty of 
German Catholics was called into question. They were aociuad 
of conspiring with a certain Cahenxly. a citixtm of Pnusia, 
against the interests of this country. Cabensly himself wtai m 
powerless m b« was unknown, and, if harm he could do, he conld 



TRE NORTB AMXaICA^ BSVIE«'. 



do it onlj by iDflaeneiRg the Pope to do wrong ; and the Ofttho- 
ItM who inade aach an outcrr ftgainst CftbtDsljism Momod rtally 
to dread lest the Po[>e ehcnld be induced to do a foolUli 
or wicked thing. Their temper wag ooQtroversii.1, but 
the bigots took them Berioaalr. Intelligent people among 
Q8 know the Pope would not if ho coald, conid not if he 
would, hart Aoioricft ; but to mallitndoa tbo cry of danger from 
the Papists is as effective aa Dalila'ii shout to Sumaon that the 
Pbilistiues were upon him. The Furibantt school compromise, 
leading as it did to discnaslona which attracted wide attention, 
was aoothcr caase of alarm. The JDcldent itself vu noilher 
novel nor important, and it doublleiis wonid have escaped pablie 
notice had not the impreeaion been made that it was the start- 
ing of » scheme by whioh Cathollca hoped to get their share of 
the school fund. It was, tu fact, a local affair, as to which 
there was no precnncorted agreement among the binbopx, the far 
greater number of whom thought eucb a compromise undesir- 
able, nnncceptable eren from the Catholic point of riev, and 
all that Rome could be induced t« concede was that what bad 
been done atFnribanlt might bo tolemtod. Word had gone forth, 
liowerer, that Faribsullitm was a cunningly devised scheme of 
the Jesuits, by which they expected, while getting financial sap- 
port for their own schoola, to utidermino the common echoola. 
The charge was as false aa it was ridicnioas, but when public 
niBpioion is aroused assertion is as effeetive as proof. 

The FaribAiilt episode, in itself insiguiflc^ut, bocnme the 
occasion of Bending a papal envoy here, and of establiahing 
a permanent pnpul delegation Id Washington, which, from what- 
ever point it be cousiilered, is an adair of grave moment. 
From the beginning the American bishopflr wheoerer cousulted, 
strongly oppoeed the founding of such an institution here. When 
the qucsliou was put to the archbishops at their meeting in New 
Tork, in the fall of 1892, it was their almost unanimous opin- 
ion that it would be unwise to appoint a delegate far this country, 
and there ^eems to be no reason to donbt that the bishops, bad 
the matter been propoeod to them, would liave taken the same 
view. The question of a delegation is, of oonrse, not a question 
of faith, or morela, or discipline, or rule, affecting Ibe whole 
Ohnrch ; fant one of ecclesiastical policy: and those whoM 
knowledge of the country was most accurate and intimate 



believed thfll the eetablUhmout of a jtaiftA deli^tion bere wotild 
be bad policjr. 

Wbothor tboy bare boon jastifiod bj tbo oveot, so far aa tbe 
iotenial affmra of tlin c)iur<!h are oonoeraed, it in not neoeanry 
ber« to inquire ; but Dial iht^ Dt-lej^te has beeu and is a soaroe of 
afcrength to the Apaists there can be no doubt. With us, aa in 
tbe Frot«ataiit world generally, anti-CatboHo prejadice is largely 
anti-papal prejudice; and when the organe of public opinion mro 
filled with tilt) Buj-ingft and doings of " the Americaa Pope/' who 
tboiigh a foreigner, with no intention of beoomiog a citizen, ig- 
norant alike of onr langaago and our tnulilionn, vas aapposod to 
have supremo authority in the cbnrch in America, frosli fuel was 
throim upon the fire of bigotry. The fact that bia authority is 
eccleoiasUcal merely, and concerns Catholics, not as citiscmi, but 
as membere of the cbumh, is lost sight of by the multitadee who 
are porsasded that the papacy is a political power eager to extend 
its crantral whereTer opportunity may offer. This feeling, which 
has oxiati*d among uh from tbe beginning, li'd oor first bisbop, 
Carroll of BaUimore, who was beyond doubt a deroted ohnroh- 
man and a true patriot, to make an official declaration in 1797| 
on Washin^n's birthday, wherein hRaffinDod tiiat the obedience 
we owed the Pope is "in things puruly spiritual." And such bas 
been onr uniform belief and teaching, as whoever takes the 
trouble to read what, those who have tbe best right to epeak for 
ns hare written oil tbistinbjoct will see. 

Varions oansea^ more or leas intimately related to onr religions 
life. huTing conspired to prodace au anti-Catholic outbreak, tbe 
morement receired added force from sonrcee apparently foreign to 
the matter. In the long continued stmggle between empIoTcrs 
and wage-earners, capitalisu have come to look upon tbe labor 
anions as an obstacle to the sooccistal management of their 
nrioos baunesaes, aodarothoreforeanxions to weaken or dissol re 
thoM aaMWiationa. When the Orange spirit began to become 
more active, it naturally occurred to the managers of railways 
and other enterprises in wbicb large nnmbers of men are em- 
ployed, that religious fanaticism might be made use of to diride 
tbe kborers and undermine tbeir onione. For tbis pnrpoee, then, 
and not from any hatred of the Catholic religion, for corpora- 
tion* bolug ■oallesa mast be indifferent to religion, the Apaiits 
were enoouraged and gained much inflnonce in some of onr large 



284 



THE NORTH AMSmCATi UBVIBW. 



cuTTJiif and manD facturi Q^ concerns. It happened alio that 
the gri>at«r number of thti^e fniiutics wer« Republicans, luid tbej 
becAOie a M>urc« of ombarraeenieot to (be partj. It was impoft- 
fiible to ignore them, and, at first tboagbt, tho simplMt thing to 
do seemed to be to connive at them. Very soon, however, they 
became so strong that ooiiniTanoe ceuwd to have a meoning, and 
then, not Laring the conrage or the will to expel thorn, the party 
which freed the negro began to enconrage the bigots who have 
gotten up a religious persecution and are Btriring to deprive 
CathoLicii of the rights of freemen. Many l>emocnit«, too, 
whose hatred of the church it stronger than their lore of liberty 
and fair play, hare gone over to the Apaiels. 

From this brief atatcmtut of the causee which bsTe lod to the 
riio and favored the spread of the new knownothingiitn, I turn to 
oonaider Home of the charges which the leaders of the crnsade ad> 
Tance as u juetitication of their evetcDialic attack upon Ameri- 
can Catholics ; and ae they are neither new nor true, the discus- 
sion of them must neeesKArily bo eomcwhatuniutereatiug. There 
in, first of all, the time-honored objection of a divided and incom- 
patible allcgianco— the coutcntion that Catholic<i, sinco they owe 
obedience to tbo Pope* causot he loyal subjecta of the state. The 
ODBwor is obvioiiB. Oiir obedience to the l*opo is eonflnod to the 
domain of religious faith, morals, and discipline ; and since the 
state, with us ut leadt, cliumft no juriddictiou over such matters, 
there can be no qnestion of conflict. We have, and none are 
more thankful for this than the Catholics, & separation of the 
Church from tho State, if it bo nrgcd that to draw the line of 
deomrcation is difficult, I reply that in the genera] course of 
tliiiigs this difficulty prceouls itself hardly at all. That it may 
arise all oonfess, bat It may ariee just as easily for Prot««tutla ai 
for Catholics. Ai) men to our age— and this is one of the 
roost far reaching peculiaritieA of Christian cirilixAtion — hold a 
double allegiance, and are prepared. If needs boj to appeal from 
men to God, from laws to conscience, from authority to reason, 
from numbers to jnetice. "1 will obey all the laws of my coun- 
try faithfully," aays Uiiskin, "so farasgoch lavs or commands 
are cousisteut with what I suppose to be the law of God; and when 
they are not or seem in any wise to need cbaugu, I will oppoiie them 
loyally and deliberately, not vith malicious, concealed, or disor- 
derly violenocL" The Fopc has never attempted to interfere in the 



CATnouctsu Ayn apaisst. 



285 



cmt or political afTuira of tliis counlry, and were ho to fttlcmptto 
do 00 his sctiou would 1w r«Miit«d hy the Calhollcs more quiolcly 
tliftn hj oibera. Oiie reaaon vby oiir repreftentatire meu hsre 
ol VHJ8 opposed t bo appointment of a papal delegate for tbe Uoitfrd 
States was thoir on vitlia^cw to give oar onotniM even a pratoxt 
far acouiiag us, a« citizoiui, of being uadnr foreign influence. The 
Pope IB our religious, not our oiTiI or political, superior. 

Deeds, mors than wortU, prove, aud have proven, both our 
pftthotifia and oar Catholic faith, and thoro is no reason why wo, 
more Uum others, should make protestation of our loyalty. To 
protest Is half to confass, as to exhort in to r«proach ; and to 11 rge 
American Catholios to lore their coantry. which is as dear to them 
u their hoart's blood, ia to imply that ihuy fail in this high daty. 
Oar record for ijatriotiam is wlthoiit blot or stain, and it i^ not 
oecsoMary for us to hold the dag iu oar handii when we walk the 
fttreetSt to wuvo it when wo speak, to fau ourselves with it whoa 
ve are warm, and to wrap it about us when we are cold. Let na 
hope, at least, that in speaking of it we shiiU never stoop to the 
rolgar elang of *■ Old Olory," wliioU is only a leaser desKcration 
than the shots which riddled it irhen it AoaU-d amid the battle's 
smoke upheld by lioroic handa. 

Another charge, which, like the brook with its eooscIcM prat- 
tle, go«s OQ forerer, is that Catholioa are foes of the oommon 
schools — as the amiable Kpisoopal Bishop of Albany pnta it, that 
"they do not love the public ecltool system nor the theory of 
nniferBa) oducatioD." Were it not that most men become the 
riotims of oft-ropeated aieertiou, it would be difficult to explain 
the contiuuaiice of this accu8:itiui), for uur posictou on the ques- 
tion of edaoation is at onoe simple atid widely and aiithoritaClToly 
proclaimed. We bolicre that religion is an esacutial otemeut of 
human natnre, and, ttiorefore, of right mlncation ; and where it 
ii poasible to do ao, we (uuud and maiulaia schools, in. 
which, along with other things, we t«ach also what ve heliere 
t« be religion, loasmiich m this is not done in the common 
achoob, we find the nystem defective, but we do not con- 
demn it ; for in a country such as ours no other system of state 
achools seems to be possible, and wo arc openly and without reser- 
ration in favor of free sohoola, and. consequently, in favor 
of a achool tax. For my own part — and I think I exproM the 
OatboUu view — 'I not only would nut, had I (lie power, destroy 



986 TSS NORTB AMERICA?^ REVIEW. 

the pablic-school sjsteai, but would leave nothing undone to de- 
Tciopuud perfect it. I bcltovu in free Dcbools. iu uiiivcrital educa* 
Hon, snd, wboraver public opiuioa is aufBoiently eiiligbtened, iu 
coirpiiUory&ohool attendance. The objections which the bishop* 
of Wiscongin and of Illinois nrgcd against the Bennet L«w and the 
Edwards Law were based upon the fact that theae hiwa were an 
infringotnunt oit tbo principle! of frvvdom iu umtUsrs of education. 
If here and there individuals have made efforts to get poblio 
moneys for parochial schools, the CRthoHo bod; is not to be held 
responsible for their acts. 

The attempt to commit the Catholics of the ntneteenth cen- 
tury here in America to all the deeds and utterances of those 
iu the middle ages is futile. Wo do not hold that the Popes 
bare never hacii in tbo wrong; nor are we bound, to quote 
Cardinal Kcwmttu, " to defend the policy or the acta of 
particular popes, whether before or after the great reTolt frora 
their autlioritv in the sixteentli c«ntnry." if the public law of 
Europe in the eleventh and twelfth centuries pormitted them to 
declare forfeit thu atithoriLjr oF ivrauuioul princcit and emperors, 
it docs not follofr that they arc permitted to do this now. We 
are Ciitholica, but we arc wluo men, and though the easeuHal tenets 
of tJie fnith are immutable wo ourselves change with a chang- 
ing world. We accept with frank sincerity, with cheerful 
nc(|uiosccnco, the principloe involved ia the rule of the 
people by the people and for the people, and arc ooutent 
to abide the issue. Why, then, ia a country in which all 
have agreed to make freedom of conscience and liberty of worship 
inalienable rights, in which ttisafandamentAl principleof public 
life and rule that uo man shall luffer hurt because of his 
religions faitb, is a secret oath-bonnd society, whose one great lum 
is to subvert this primary article of our political creed, suflered to 
eiist and encouraged in its nGfnrions schemes ? Why have hun- 
dreds of teachers been expelled from their places simply bocanse 
they were OathoUos f Do not Catholics like others pay the school 
tax ? Is not ever; career open to tul»ut ? Why are men hired 
to go from town to town, not to diactiss our doctrines and prao 
ttces, but to insult, mock, vilify, and calanmiate us f No Amer- 
icAD Catholic certainly can object to the free digcaenon of his 
religious beliefs ; but abuse, liee, and forgeries, while they can 
bare no tendency to advance tlie cause of truth, provoke to vie 



CATBOUCISM AND APAJSM. 



287 



lenM, and where there is liberty there shoalil be protection from 
sucbvantoD lad maticioaa attaqks. Let tliulftir-mindodreftdajij 
of tho noDiorouB ApKist uewspapera which ar(> isold on the streets 
of nearl; all our cities and towns, and then aalc tlienueWea wbetbor 
Boauae wbiob is upheld hy suchmcihodaaad defended with bqcH 
weapon* is not self-oondeoui&d. Their oived is a or&ed of spite 
and hatred. Their ways are Mcret aud durk; their urguniDntaare 
lies and forgeriM, and their victims are generally tromen whose 
onlj crime IK thnir inl«lligonce and their religion. In the proa- 
ODvo uf ult this. BiithupDouuo, iu the spirit ot HWOutDcae and light, 
asks na to take a more coaciliatory tone. IIo would doubtlew 
adriao the lamb to conciliate tho wolf, for which tlio only possi- 
ble conciliation is the having the lamb In itd maw. This ont- 
buntl of anti-Calholio hatred will p»6S away, of course. TheAmer* 
to«Q people lore jneticeand fair play ; tJioy lire and let live; their 
fery genius is goodwill to men. Thej are not bigots or faQatic*, 
or persecutors, but in the meanwhile Apaism ia hartful to the best 
intoreate of the coautry, it divertit attention from the momoutoos 
problems wbiob an presatog open ne, it separatee friend from 
friend, il sows the seeds of suspicion and distrust, it miiko« inno- 
oeiil victinu, and is doing all that it is possible to do to verify the 
saying of a well-known EDgli^bman that tho only oirilitod coon- 
try in which it is leaa pleasaut to live thau in the United StatH 
ta Bussia. 

But I must raalce an end. One of the diaEdrantoges under 
which tlio magazine writer labors is that when he gets well 
into his subject, the editor, regai-dteas of Uacbetb's oarse, ia 
florfl to bo the flrst to cry. Hold, enough \ 

J. L. SpALOtKO. 



THE SWMFICANCE OF MODERN POVERTY. 



BT W. H. MALLOCR. 



The recent development, throughoat the civilized world, of 
UioM tbcorif-s, moru ur less ra^ue. or those cuiu[>ouailB, still 
Tftguer, of fivmp&thios, animosities, expoctAtioc^, and aspirations, 
which go hj tho nnmo of Socialigm, End whioh »ro all identical 
in one point at all «vent», in biding, that in to sajr, a prot^t agaiiut 
the existiug orgAnization of wcietj*, and the existing institntion 
of property — this re'Cont derolopmeut of Socialism is dae to a 
Taricty of catise^, but it mainly depends for its vitality not so 
much on thecrios orou facts, anon a oertaiu simple belief, vrliicb 
bardly amounts to a theory, wtih regard to facta. The belief I 
refer to is the belief that civilizatioo, aa at preaent organized, and 
devoloping itself accortling to tho laws which ita f^mistitntiot) 
Deoeosarily imposmon it, not only oBen. no hope to th« ^^reat in- 
dustrial Diaiuos. but is coDstantlj tending to make tb«ir position 
worse— to narrow their Uvea, to curtail their freedom, to lower 
their incomes till the»o roach the Btarration lotcl. and to make 
ovon thio minimum of subsistenoe hardorand moredoubtful of at- 
tainment; wltilet it is constantly tending, on the other baud, to in* 
crease the wenlth and luxor/ of the very few, swelling fortnnos 
which are overgrown alrcadj, and gradnally omahing moderate 
fortonea out of extstenoo. 

This is the riew which was formulated hy Karl Marx, with 
regard to modern ciriliitation gonnrally, and with regarf] to Gng- 
Iftod in particular, wher« he said that all th« teDdoncics of this 
cirilization were to be s«en in their fullcfltand most fatal develop- 
ment. He wan not the Srat person to hold this view or to state 
it : hot he was probably the first person to array it in tho guiae 
of a noooBsary and scientific truth : and ever sincti biatimo it has 
occupied a foromost place iu the toacliiugi of all iiocialiflta, and 



TUB aiONISnCAKCE OF MODSatf JOVEHTY. 389 

forma ma oTertitre to all their formal tnanifeatoefl. Here, for 
iiutwio«, wc have it in the Erfurt Progrftmine of the Ocrmao 
SociftliHts in 18»I : 

" With tbla grovlog idodopoIt (wbleli b tb« eMcnlUtl chATMUiWIo of 
tD0denietTlliatUoamBOVorKUil>c<l]ic<M^*l>ai>d Inliaud Uincnuthiagotitof 
exUUaceotCbcthaUcradNniall IndDstrteabrlDdiutTlMofGolcMMlgrawtb, 
lb* d«v«Uxpmeiit o( cb« U)ol into tii« iiiuhine. ^nd « gigantla locnMsIs 
tlM ptrodueCtTeiMM of bamfto labor. But &]] ibc Ailvanbitimi of thla rarotn- 
Uoa ftremoiiopalljtciilbjChA o*pll«lliiM itnA th«gTw*t InndovnM'ro. To tb« 
proUtarUt «nd th« npMly sinklnit tolddle gUMui, Ui« aaiall trtut^^mpo o( 
U)« tonn.Mid lbap«Mwiil proprleton, I'briiiRauilitwvuilaR unrartAinC^ of 
«xl»t«i]c«, locrDMitiit miMtr, opprculoo, Munrltads, (tngndAlloo, aodex- 
plolUiloa. 

" Kver KTcXc KToini tbe majui of th« pixilourtat: aTn* *wt«r Uw umj 
of the uDeniplofpit. ^rcmhupcr ibo cootrMt bet«r«a tbsoppreMoraad tlw 
on) rawwl. ever fiercer tbatvrar at oUueftbetirwDboiirgeolMftnd'proleCMrtU 
wbleb divide* modsm aoeity tnUt two boatil* cMnpa. uid la Ui« eommoa 
elumcCoriatJc otcmy ladnstrUJ eoaatr;.* 

If we tarn from Earopo to America w« find preciaoly th« same 
kind of staWiDQut in the writjogs of Hr. Henrr Oeorge. H«, 
too, ttsen it M the overturn to hU bcst-knovn work. Our oxinting 
ciTiliziitioQ, he ujm in hii introduction to Progreux and Pen- 
»rty 

" ilniplj w1d»iw tba golf between Dtvca mad Lannu. . . . Tba mm- 
ciAtioD o( pavcrtf with progrtam In the gr*At eoigmA of oar U»m. . . . 
AJI Ui« laer«*««d w«klth ivbteh modom profireM briage kom bat to baltd 
Op great (ortuaea, t« iucr«»ae luiury. aud inake abavper Ibe ootitrkat be- 
tween the ilo«a« of ilava and the ilouee of Waat." 

ET«ry SooiaList or Bciui-»ociikli8tio teaobcr, erery reformer or 
ac;itator, who sets himself against existing inetitutioDB, takoesome 
■tat«mt<nt of aimilar purport for bis text. He uaea it to excite, to 
intoxicate, or to madden hiit hearem, with a view to prvparing 
their tniuds for the reception and aesimilation of his teachingB. 
And he does so beoaose he Andi it Dooeaaar; to do m. Tbo nbove 
behef, in fact, with regard to existing cinlixatioa, does not indeed 
form the logical hasis of SocialLstn, but it oroatee the onl; atmo* 
■phiire in which Sooialtsm uan practiooll; and popolarlj fiourish. 

Now aa to America, in connection with this DUttaTt I am not 
qnalified to speak with safKcieotly precise knowledge ; but as to 
the chief ooDntries of Enrrtpe, and England in partionlar, it may 
be said with the nimoet oonfidcnce — a confidence deriTed from 
tbemoBt aathoritative and varioos information — that the above 
b^Qt 18 altogether wrong, that it ts not 9ply pot the truth, but 
TOl. CLU.— HO. W4< W 



300 



K/JS yORTB AMBRICAU BB\ 



&n absolute inversion of tlie truth. lu BagUnd the kvenve 
fortQacaof tbu Hub ttre distiiiotly, eveQ if not grmUy, duunnisiugi 
penous with laodemte fortUDce, oi from £150 to £l.i:>00 a year, 
are iacreauDg taaUir thiui uiiy other uUsa ; whilst no iar as oou- 
oems the tnorease of tho iudividun) iucome, tha areraga increase 
hai been groutcaC among the laborio^ and wa^e-eamiDg mauee. 
Mr. GiScu, for inataaoe, the Statistical Socretuy to cho Board 
of Trade} to whom Koj^Ush Sooiaitati, whonarer it may suit their 
purpose, aro accaatomed to appeal aa the grcAtest living authority, 
hai declared that bo far as "the iudiridual iucomu "\i coucerood, 
"i( would noC ho far short of tlio mark to say that the whole of 
the great material improTeinent of tho past fifty years has gono to 
the moaMia." And whatever test we apply, the same coQolosiou 
ia forced oa ua. 'Riii dulsm-j nob ouly receive ae u whole larger 
inoomce, but their iucouiea procure them more oooiforts and lux- 
tirtes ; they inhabit better bouaoj, wear hotter oLothcs, they con- 
sume per head an increasing quaotity of broad, meat, butter, tea, 
sugar, aud tohacoo ; and, as Che last censua show^, (he number of 
persons, such as clowos, jogflers, singers, and the humbler 
dais of actors, who mioister ozclasivcly Co tho amueemeut of the 
poorer olsBsss, has iDcrea«>«I daring the post teayeora by as much 
afl 80 per c«nt. If thu .Socialinuc view of the ttCuatlon were true 
in any particular, we might imagine it woald be true iu the fol- 
lowing— that even though tho number of modorate incomce was 
increasiug, the number of employers and small independent 
tradesmen vasdecreasing, many small factories being merged in 
a fev larger factonee, sad many small shope in a few gigantic 
emporinnu. But evoa this, when tho matter is eoamined, 
appears not to be the case. So fur as it is possible to arrive at 
any concliisioii, the number of manufacturing firms and retail 
shops in Loudon has during the past ten. years kept pace with 
the inorrasc of che population, or has even grown somewhat 
faster ; whiUt the number of separate textile factories, instead of 
dlmiQishiDg.as KaH Man predicted, increased from 6,807 iu 
1870 to 7,465 in 1865. 

It is not, howorer, my purpose to go farther into detail*. It 
is enough for ray present purpose to observe that the whole So- 
cialistic view of the existing HituatioD is vroDg — certainly ao fiwas 
regards IJurope, preeinincutly so far as regards England ; and f 
))elieve I am right m sayiog, with regard to Amorioa also. At all 



THE SrOSZFICANVK OF MODERlf POVERTY. 



SOI 



ereots \t tho case of America differs in any rospeot from that of 
KogLaDd, tb« diSerence is duo to somo other o*um than the 
inodDrti system of indiutrislism, for th«t is pntcticallj tho mno 
iu boLb tlitxfe countriBs : aud tho natural teudenoy of that sys- 
teODi u IB shown by England, which is its moat comploto example, 
inttMd of boiag, ae th» Socialtate sav, to uiftko the rich oTor 
ricbor, tho poor over pooror, and to crash out the middio cltiBsei, 
baa been for the pa^t fifty or sixty yeaurs, aud ia at the present 
moment, to make the rich more Qumeroaa indeed, bnt elightly 
poorer ; to multiply the middio olasa f*r faater than tho riob> and 
to lift tho mawea of the ]ieoplo farther and further above poverty. 

Aud uow hariug said this by way of preface, let me proceed 
to the main point with which t wish, in thcae few Jtagee, to iloul. 
If the tcndODcice of our oziAting civJUsutioa are really what they 
have jnst been Htated to be — it wealth iustood of being merely 
flawing into the reeorvoin of tbo few, is also difFusini; itself 
throughout tho entire cammuoity ; if the galf between the rich 
and the poor, ituteml of uvor wideaiag, as oar Socialistic nuuiifos^ 
too* say It 18, is reull^ being Glled up, partly by the multiplica- 
tion of the middle-class, and partly by a rise in the wages of the 
wurki ng-<:lius(.'«i — how is it thut a view, so diametrically opposed to 
tho truth, should gain the ready and wide acceptance that it 
does ? For the Socialistio view is Tery far from being held by 
Sociallnts and reTolutiooixts only. Many ardent defenders of the 
existing order of things are to be found who boliove that the 
Socialiatd praotioulty speak the tratb, and who, oa they look round 
them ou society, ore diatractod almost eqaally by a despairinic 
oouoii.-:i oc the growing misery of tho majority, and defpairing 
alarm lur the civtlizatiou which such misery socms to tbrvuUm 
and oondemu. What is the explanation of this ? 

The exphuiatiou is that in spiu^ of the absolnte falsehood of 
the SouialttUc riow, there tirua large unmberof fauls which maico 
it eminently plaasible, and to all tho large class of poraons whom 
we may call tcimwrnc imprtssionUta, seem to be daily adding fresh 
proof of it! truth. *'ln the t'nit«d8tat«s/' says Mr. George, "it 
is clear that lujualor and misery, and the rices and crimes that 
spring from them, everywhere tncreaee as the village grows to tho 
city, and thu uiaruh of dovelopirtcnt brings tho adrantoge of tho 
improved mtittifwlaof producljnu and exchange." T'he whole olaas 
of foots which 1 alladti to is summed op in this statement — astat^ 



THE HORTH AMSRICAX REVIEW, 



ment which is indubitably true ; and it will apply eqaally well to 
England, or to any other country where modern industrialism has 
ettsblished itself. What I wi.th to do tn the present article is flrst 
to give the taci^ in question the fullest and frunkoet recognition : 
end then to point ont that their significance ia totally niiaintor- 
pret»d by Mr. Ooorgo and pcreoua of eimilar sympatliiea ; and 
that these facta themnelTeii are perfectly compRtible witli that gen- 
cnil progress which it ia the inti-rost of the agitator, the Socialist, 
and the nofitrom-monger to deay;andtopointout finally, not that 
we ehould digrogard these facts — not that we ahould diaregard 
"thia squalor, misery, and vice," — but thiit we xhould look at 
them from a different standpoint, and consider thom iu a different 
spirit. 

Let Ric begin then by ingistiug on the simple, the obviotis, yet 
constantly overlooked explanation of thoiteemtng paradox Chat a 
town, a cummnnity, a nation, may as a whole be growing con- 
Btantly more prosperous, and may yet contain an increasing num- 
ber of squalid and miserable porsone. The explanation is that 
wherever the modern induiitrial aystem haa been introdaced — in 
whatever country and at whatorer spot labor has been masaed 
together and put into operation by capital manipulated by intel- 
lect and ability, tbore ha« not only resultci] an enormous increoso 
in the production of wealth, Ifut there haaboeu altut an enormons 
iucn-jise in thu population : and thus, though the latter has not bean 
by any means f)o great as the former, and though not only the actaal 
groM product is increased, bnt the gross product per head of 
those employed in production, nnd though the share taken by 
each meuibor of an overwhulmiug majoritvof the population may 
year by year be steadily increasing also, there may yet continne 
to cxirt B minority — a rcsidnnm which for some reason or other 
ii outside this general progress ; and the absoluta number of those 
who compose this reaidunm may increase, and yet the number 
relative to the population may be stationary, or actnally dimin- 
ishing. 

Let ns take nioh a ease, for instance, as that mentioned by 
Mr. George— the case of the tillage growing to be the city — 
growing, in a very short time, aa has often hnpi>ened in America, 
from a community, say, of five hundred persoDS, to one of fifty 
tlxKiBaod. Now let ua suppose that in the village nineteen- 
twentieths of the iababitants were weU to do, and only one-tweni 



TBK SIOmnCANCB OF MOr>ERN POVERTY. 



SOS 



tleth were poor. That will givo nsa pauper daaa of twenty-flTe 
poTsons. Atid next le*, na auppoM that the vfllase faas grom 
into tfa« city ; nnd that bodio oue who roniombere what the place 
wu whtMi n YitUge takeR s cerutu of lU pauper class now; and 
linds, ae he verj w«ll might, that the puopore have noir inoreaaed 
to a thoQM&d. Here, then, within a radius, let tia say, of one 
mile, the modeni induetrial system hasproducad a thousand mia- 
erable human beingii, where before there were twenly-fiTe only — 
it has added to thvir number nine hundred and euroutj-tlre p«r 
BOOS ; and yet the proportion of the miserable to the prosperoua 
WKc fur greater formerly than it is now. In the old dnya there 
was one unfortunate human being to every twenty fortunate ones; 
there ia now only one to fifty. Theactual numburof paupers has 
inoreaied twenty-fold ; the proportionate amount of pauperism 
has decreased by more than one-half. 

If we wouldjudge of therelation in which progreaa Btands to 
porerty* it Is the rolaiiro amount of poverty we must consider, 
and not the abeolnte amount. To adopt the oppoHite course is 
ntber madness, stupidity, thoughtleecnoes, or dishonesty, or a 
mixture of all foar. That this ig so we cun aee very easily, by 
turning from poTcrty to two other dreaded evils — disease and 
death. Ab population increaaee in a giren area, there will be 
more cases of iUness within that area than there were before ; but 
this is no proof that the inhabitauu are becMiming leas healthy. 
It is quite compatible with an improrement in heftltli, throughout 
all classea. And if we consider death, the caeo bocotnc« yet 
olfarer. If there are fifty tboassnd people within an area of four 
square miles, more people will die within that urea than died 
within it when it contained fire hundred only ; and yet the death 
rate may none the less be lower. If then, vre would c«timate th« 
real character of modem prt^reas, so far aa it relates to the poor^ 
est and moat miserable claasea, what we muBt oouaidor is not the 
actual number of the poor, bnt the rate of pauperism ; juat aa, if 
we would estimate the result of this progress upon bcttlth, what 
we must oonnder is the dcatb-nttc. and not the number of deaths. 
In juatice, howerer, to those who forget this, or who reneon as if 
they did not perceive it, let me repeat what I «iid just now — 
namely that many of these persons reason as they do, neither from 
madnesB, stupidity, nor di^onesty, but simply from thoughtlees- 
DMi. Their emotions harry them away, and do not giro them 



»M 



THE NORTH AMERICAN REVtKW. 



time, or Icato them patience, to thiDk. And an «Ton gr««t«r 
nnmber kmsoq thns, owinj; to a different, and vet Allied c«a8« — 
nanioiy, ipnoranoe. Prompted by tht noblest anii the most un- 
Belfuli motiTee, they make thcmselTes familiar with the detaiU of 
Uie poverty roand tbem ; and the t«rrible nnd pitiful speotaolea 
of hamao (infleriQg and helplessness which crovd upon their 
notice, and of which there seema to ho no end, so fill their minda, 
BO oonfnse their Bympathiea, and caat so ^mster a tthade over the 
vhole social laDdscape. as to maVe them fral that here, and no- 
where else, is the eare tost of what modera progress is doing. 
X!ach (reah case of misery which they come across seems some 
(rash evidenoe against society as at present conBtitated — fresh 
eridenoe that its evil infiuence is inoreaaiug ; and this eridence is 
to their minds so oonclosiro that it tends to leave no room in them 
for any other cTidcnce that might robut it ; and renders them 
contemptoons, impatient, or indignant, when the existence of sach 
is hinted at 

>Jor, to say the truth, can sach a state of mind be wondered 
at. Owing to the diffasioa of news which has helped to make 
much snffering pnblic, clie spread of education whioh has given it 
a voice of its own, and a sysipathy with sofferers, which has been 
qaickened amongst all Glasses, partly by a fuller knowledge of the 
condition of the suflfirers, pnrtly by the action of those compli- 
cated causes which tmra made the individuui more sensitive than 
in mder ages to personal ptun and hardship, the persistence of 
pover^ amongst great and growing wealth has naturally tended 
Co force itsotf with inoreaging vividness on the imagination of 
everybody — even of the moal careless ; and if it were not for the 
existence of dispassionate statistical information few could proba- 
bly resist, and none disprove, the conclusion that the rate of 
pauperism and mtaery wasautnally increasing also. The fact is, 
in sliort, that if we conftno ourselves to the merely pliilanlhropic 
and emotional study of poverty— if we go to it with eyes dim with 
what Killy sentimentalists delight to talk ahontas " the great pas- 
ffion of pity," the spectacle of poverty in tho modem world is 
almost Bare to prodnce the impression that poverty and mfaery 
are ever inoreasing. But this impression is neither more nor lev 
than a gigantic optical delusion, which every wise and every con- 
soieniioiu man should not only fight against, instead of onooura- 
ging in himself, bat should avoid commnnioating to any other 



TBB SIOyiFTCA/fTK OF MODKRN POVEaTT. 



S86 



{MTson, jart u he vtmld, if he oonld, nvoiil vommanlaiting 
opblholmiit. 

Tb« retder mnst not for a singin mompnt enpposc that what 
Xbkj (s meant to disoonrago pitj, or kindnon, or th« ipirit of 
practical benevotencs; or that I Qudon-at« the imporUnoe which 
the fact of modem porerty ponenea on moral, aocial, religions, 
and political grounds ulikc. Bot I do say that, thonf;h it ia 
poMibte to aeaign to it, on many gronnd« (though tiot on all), 
too great importance, it i« a mittnlce — it is worm than a mis- 
tbko — it ia fatal to the boat intArcst and hopen of the poor them* 
Helves, to gire pOTerty an importJUioe that for a moment otw- 
abadovs orehata oar eyes to the fact— vbioh nfter all is ten timet 
more important — the fact thnt if ono-tonth or on«-twelfth part 
of a growing population rcmairu, aa it does in Bagland. half 
deatitnte in the midst of richi>8, nine-tontbs or (as there is 
better reaeon to Migto) eleven-twelfths of it are asaiired iharw 
in whatever prof^oss may bo made, and are sare to be fooud, if 
we compare one ten y^ani with another, to be enjdjring ooDdt- 
tions which are in every way improving steadily. 

I say if we compare one ten years with another ; and I say 
this for a reason which I must mention ne a supplement to what 
IbavFRnid already. I have pointed out that the main cause whioh 
mokea the Sooialtstic view so plausible ia the ineritable itioreaae 
which baa talceo place in the nnmber of the poor within given 
areas, within walking distance of given spots, within the eye- 
right of each observer, though there haii been no tn<>reaBe, but a 
deereaae. in proportion to the eorronnding popniation. But 
there ia another cause which also auiste this delusion. This \a 
that, thoTifrh the progress of the maases aa a whole has been and 
is coiitinuoas, it is a progress which resemblea the incoming of 
the tide rather than the flowing of a river. It is continuons if 
we consider it ia ita general coarse oiid for extended periods; but 
It ia varied by temporary retrogress ons. Wages which daring 
one decade may have advanced forty per cent, may at the bcgin- 
niog of the next decade decline twenty per cent., and aeveral 
ye&rs may elapse before tbey riio above or even roach theirformar 
level ; and the tllecontent and even the RiifFering caused by snob a 
decline issare to be more apparent than the Mtiafaction that was 
eanaed by the increase. Thus the delusion (hat growing pover^ 
is a resalt of modem progress ia prodoced not only by the 



aw 



TBB NORTH AMERICAN REVIEW. 



fact that poverty etiU oxista ttmon^t ft amall minoritT of tlie 
pojiuUliuu, but also Ijjr many incideuta in the economic biatory 
of the majority, who are reaping the benefits of this proj^reu in 
every circumstancu of their lives. 

And DOW I«t ino return to what I fraa just now saying — and it 
is tbo main point on which I am hero anxious to inaiat. Instoil- 
ying the tendencies of oar exigting indDsCrial aystem, the first 
tiling which it ia ueoctuary for aa to coniiider ia the offecte for 
good on the T&jt mujority of the population which domoQilrably 
flow from thia system, mid are altogether peculiar to it ; and not 
the unhappy condition of a email minority, which ia merely its 
accidental accompaniment, and which, if no jndge of it by ita rel- 
ative nuigiutudo, the existing industrial system oot only dota not 
inoreaae, bat t«ndB gradually to diminiali. 

I might insist on this moxt important truth from the point of 
Tiew of the mujority. I mi);lit iutiisb that wo had no right to ran the 
risk of upaetting a system on vhich the oertain welfare of eloron 
men depends, for the eake of a donbtf ut chance of conferring somo 
benefit on a twelfth man. \ might point out that of all formsof 
■ocial gambliug anch a conrae would bo the most rtMlcIeaa, the 
most imbeciW, the moflt desperate. But this point I here pass 
over entirely. 1 Khali urgo nothing from the point of Tiew of the 
majority ; I shall confine myself entirely to the interesta of ihe 
nafortunubo minority. The worst prvparatioa poasible, then, for 
dealing with modern poverty is to exaggerate its extent and ita 
significance. It Is quite true that if we take individual cases of 
want, squalor, and degradation, it may be impossible to exagger- 
ate their tragic aadnesa or horror, or to feel too deeply with re- 
gard to them. But individnal oasee. in so far as they are related 
to the social question at all, and in tw far as they seem to saggeat 
the neoeesity for any social aotion, stand on qaitea differontfoot- 
ing to that on which they stand if we take them as so many in- 
dividual appeals to out aympathiea. Viewed in connection with 
society, the most senons thought which the individual caae of 
suffering guggesta to ns, is not the relief of the individoal soSeror, 
but the extent to which social arrangements have, either posi- 
tively or negatively, been the cause of his snfFering, and the social 
action by which we may be able to reduce the number of similar 
cases in the fnturc. We mnst, in short, view thepoverty-fitricken 
section of the community as a diseased or suffering part of 



ruts siosfji'rcjLWB of modern' i^ovebty. 



Sfl7 



% body, of which the Inrgnr piirt is Boiinil nnd vigoroiiR, 
and iocreuaiii^ id huiUtb nuti eti-ongth. With the body 
polttio it ia juiit as it in with thv body of tho indiridnal. Acuta 
Inflamnutiou in od9 pluce, nr a email brokeu boue or n iiinftla 
OTantraincd muscle, may cause p«in ao scuta that the patient will 
inugloe himaelf anffonng in every nerre, and terrify faimgelf by 
CkDoying that «rery orfTin ia ili«eH«d ; and fooliih friondfl will 
imagine that they beet expreae their sympathy for him by mpeot- 
iug wliat ho says about himself, with even greater emphasis ; they 
will commiaersta him for torturw which they really create by 
BDggestiiig th«ro, and will b« anxious to tr««t him for diimieiefl of 
which hia system does not hold even a gerio. In mob casea the 
biuinea of a doctor is plain. It is hia business to be calm when 
tbesnfTerer'afrioDdsaro hyBtaricol ; and, Instead of agitating him- 
self over the exti'Qt of the man's Emffcrings, to show to him and 
his friends hour limit«d and how local is tlieJr oause. He will 
eveo, moat likely, show the truest kindnesa by a little roughoeas. 
" Pool," he muT say, " there is nothing radieully wrong with your 
stomach, yoor intestines, yonr heart, yonr lutig», or your liver ; 
and U yon get any quack to troat yoQ as il there were, yon will 
b« causing the very evils from which yon are clamoring to h« 
onivd. What you suifer from is a wound in your hand, your foot. 
or your shin-bone, and what wo must do is to render this pnrt as 
healthy as tho rest of yonr botly ; whereas, yon and yotir friends 
woald be for making the rest of your body as diMued as the 
suffering part." 

And in preciaoly the same spirit will evej? rational reformer, 
whether he ig statetunau, philanthropist, or political economist, 
approach the body politic, with regard to the disease of poverty. 
UndeteiTed by appearancns ho will proclaim the great tmth that 
society, as nt prevent oonHtttnted, has none of thoee tendencioe 
which Mr. George and tho Socialists attribnto to it. He wilt 
point out that, with the exception of a small minority, all classiB 
are increasing in materi^il (»mfort; and that the great problem, 
with r«^rd to poverty, which the statesniaD bus to solve, is not 
how tj> revolutionise our institutions in the iuteresle of tfad un- 
fortunate, bal bow to absorb the nnfortnnate into the society 
which tho SoeialislA are nnitons lo destroy. Empirics and tm- 
preesionists, like Hr. Gvurgc ami the Sooialiets. may go, if they 
like, into every town in Rnropo and America, and collect cases. 



9M 



TB£ NORTH AMERJCAK HEVtKW. 



in «ndlfies tfaooHuids, of mittrj in tlie midst of civilisation. 
They onBily coulil do bo. But reasonalile men ehonld inform 
tiiem that as an argnment for any fandamental reform — any re- 
form that BtrikeA at tbe roots of the exiciting order — theoo coont- 
Um cuee are of no toIqo at all, nutil they are coropar«d iritb the 
oaaeg ten times more oameroos, which ebow.the effocta of pro- 
great on the ¥aet majority of tho race, and the diminntion in the 
proportion of those whom the mabenul benefita of tliat progress 
fail to reach. 

Let mo once more buiat, vtth the utmost emphaois pouible, 
that the TiewH just set forth are in no way designed or escalated 
to conflict vith that deep concern which eaffering excites in the 
heortsof the noa-saHerers, and eepeoiaUy in the hearts of molti- 
tndes omoDgBt the richer nod the richest classes. I linTeeaid notb- 
ing that ii decigned, for a moment, to make light of tbe social 
problem which poverty, in tho midtit of jirogrees, preeeatsio lu. 
The importance of poverty, from many points of riew, is not kes- 
encd by the fact that poverty is proportionately docreonng, or atoll 
eTenta not inoreiuiing. For the importaneo of the namber of an> 
fortnnate persons, within any given area, is. from many point* of 
Ti«w, to be measured, jnst aa tbe efficiency of an army is. not by 
its relation to the popniation, bat by reference to tho aro« in 
qneetion. Fifty Uiousand discontented men may be s grcAter 
danger to a million proe]>erona men than twenty disoontentod 
men may bo to a hundred proeperona men; thongh in the Latter 
case the mte of <liRPontent ig twenty per cont, and in the former 
It is only Qve. But in devising methods for meeting and obviat- 
ing the danger, and in onderstanding its natnre and ita causes, it 
mokes all the difference in tbe world to us whether wc recog- 
nise or do not recognise tbe fact that the natoral t(!nd<^ncy of onr 
existing civilisation is to decrease and not increase the relative 
magnitude of the poorer classes, and not only to incresae the pro* 
portion borne by the proeperoos classes, bat to add to tbe pros- 
perity of each individnal belonging to them. 

Whenever, therefore, the agitator and the revolutionary come 
before us with their lunontable statistics of misery, and aak ns if 
these do not rlifiprose onr afscrtion oa to gonprnl progress, onran- 
ever is simple : These stntiAtics, if reliable, prove that there is a 
large number of persona whom we mneteamestly endeavor to help, 
bat they do not prove that there is any existing institution 



THE siamncAifCB of modern poverty. 390 

vhich ve Bhonld endeaTor, for that purpose, either to reTolntionize 
or destroy. Socialists voald aocentnate the accidental evils of 
civilizatioD, so aa to make it intolerable to as many persons as 
possible. The true sariors of all classes alike are those who 
strive, so far as may be, to remove or to soften these evils, and 
then to convert the enemies of the existing order into its friends, 
and to shov even the roost miserable that, in attacking it, they 
have this to lose — namely their main practical chance of becom- 
ing, as a class, more prosperous. 

W. H. Kaluwk. 



CHINA AND JAPAN IN KOREA. 

BV THE HON. ArOtTSTIKB UBABD. lATB 17KITBD 8TATRS UUTiaTBB 

TO KOBEA ; DnRHAM WniTB BTSVBKS, COCKSKUm OP 

THE JAPAJtmit LKOATIOX AT WA^HINOTON; 

AND HOWARD MAHTtK, BX-BBOBKTABT 

or THE UyiTBD STATES tBGA- 

TIOM AT PBKIH. 



MB. HEARD : 

OftKJOK in this ootmtry niDs so Rtrongly in favor of Japan, 
aud agaiust China, aod Qpoo wlial I conceive to be sdcIi in- 
BotBoieatgroandsj tbat, beliering it to be the dnt}* of cror; ono 
vbo can to contribote to tho general enligbtetuaettt, I venture 
to add my mite. 

It eeenu to be thoaght gafHcient tbat Japan has reaolatolj 
entered on tho path of wefitom civiliaatiou, while China holds baok, 
for one to arj^c thafc tho chief aim of Japan, in case of saoeeaii 
vill be totielp Korfu to the enjoyment of the same privileges, for- 
getting that the Sr.'tt object of a conqaeror is to get as maob as 
posaible himself oat of tho couqaeaL Ab an iUuatratian, which 
will be acceptable in tbe Unilsd States, though I might not use 
it elsewhere, oven England, tho conntry. par ezcalistut, of con- 
qaeet and civilization, io believed to think first for herself* In 
matierg, tor instauoc, relating to India and Egypt. 

Japan haft uDquoettooably the predominant commaroial in- 
terest in Korea, and her vieivs regardiog the development of the 
trade are worthy of Heriona consideration ; bnt the manner in 
which she adranoea her views — whether by persaaaLoQ or oannon 
ball — is a fair subject for criticism. The anmberof hor snbjects 
in the open ports on the 3Ut Dooember, ISdS, was 9,133, and of 
Chinese 1,604. 

Korea is a poor agricultural country — though riob in poaii> 
biltties— entirely destitute of roads, and her progrsM ander th» 



cms A AKD JAPJJf IN KORSA. 



801 



otrcmiutaaoee, and coiuiderin; the short time which bna olnpaed 
siuoD she wu opened to the inflaenoA of foreiga ideua, Lfta not 
been wholly coDt«mptit)li>. In 18M, the Brat year of which wo 
bare trustworthy BtatUtiuB. she imported gooda from abroad to 
the ralaa of $999,720, and exported goods to the value of 9737.- 
635 which iDoladed %ZVi,<yiZ gold. In \h'n she imported 
•4,598,485, and exported <i3,296,490, of which «8a-^,751 wiu 
gold, makiog the tatal ralae of the trade in 1892 t7.894.975. 
Inlttdl the total ralue vda td.311.g90, which van the largest ever 
reached in one year. Of theae amouDto fully half of tho imports 
and more than nioe-tenthB of tho «sport« should he crHitod to 
Japan. The total declared and nndeclared ex|K>rt of gnid is aui>- 
poae<l to be uot far from W.OOO.OOO lumually. of which a ooii- 
■idorablo portion goea to Japan; but as most of it is unilechtrod, 
it is impoulblo to follow it. When Japan was opened to foreign- 
en she was snpposed, from her large supplies of gold and its 
small TalQo as compared with silver — aboat3tol — to poeaeea 
Tcrj rich miQH. The truth was in time ssoiyrtainod to b«, how- 
ever, that sho bad few gold mioes, not very productive, and 
thai mnch of her gold came from Eor«a. 

Japan hua also almost a monopoly of tiaosportalion. The 
Nippon Yusen Katsha (Japaooeo Steaitwhip Ootapany) runs 
Bteamara between Kobe and Tientsin or Xewohwang, touching at 
MwgMaVi, Fusan, Ohemnlpo, and Chvfoo. every fortnight 
tbrooghont tho year, and daring the sammer other steamers ply 
belwoon Chemulpo, Fnsan, and Kobe OTory few days, A Chiuese 
Btaamer mak(» the voyage from Shanghai to Chemulpo, via Ch»- 
foo, every three weeks. These atTord the only steam oom- 
ninnioation, but a large numbur of schooners and junks ia 
employed in the carrjring trade. 

Another sonroe of revenue to her, whiuh ia not inoladed in 
the above flgnres, is in the fliheriee on the sontbem coast. Hr. 
Hant, the Oommissioner of Onstonu at Fnsan, eatimated the 
valae of the yearly catch in that neighborhood at about auiUioD 
aod a half dollan; hut owing to the light ohargas and ioanffieioDt 
penalties of the Convention, Korea gets almost nothing from it. 
Any alteration in tho fisheriee would, 1 fear, hardly be to the 
pecnniary advantage of Japan. Her proaent attitude towards 
Korw imaistihly reminds one of the wolf sad the Iamb in the 
fable, " Ton are distarbiog my water," says the «olf, standing 



IHF N0R73 AMERICAS BEV2BW. 

ap itream, and prixjeetts to devonr the innocent. *' Yon are in- 
terfering with my trade," sajra Jupan, " I must put dovm tbeae 
robelliooa/' and takce Korea by the tbroat. 

What are tbQs» tronbtes vbicb Japan (eels called apon to sap- 
pren? There have been at timet in eTerjprorinoe risings of the 
people against extortionate officials, bub there has been no polit- 
ical ontbreak for many yean, unlese the late moTemeot of the 
Tong Hiik, or meo of the Enstcni K«ligion, may be so oonddtired. 
This began to aHsame a aeiiouB aspect in the spring of ] 893. Early 
in Mnarch of that year, s body of men DDmbering aboat thirty, 
coming from ouu of tho southern piorinucs. knelt down before the 
palace gatea in Sooul, and asked Ittave to present a petition to the 
king. The scroll, lying on a small red table before them, bora 
tho inscription : 

"TbnpoUUoaorKutiJccMnrdffiKmiit Ptx>vlniM«, Mbolan, of whom Ibo 
chief la fak Slang Elo. hombl? aubmlta: 

" The r«li(tloo of the Ut« Ch e Chftf Wo wa« «ODd«liUied aa hercajr ftnd 
•DK«iT< though [a rvftlltj- Ita toftchia^ wcro lo r«^»ect Hmtmi. to purily 
tb« h««Tti to prot«ot tbe natloD, sad bo trauquULIa* bbo people. N«w ibie la 
mgritxABOe 10 be redniwed." 

And its reqneate were said to be: 

fSrst, The rehabilitation of their founder, who h«d boenput 
to death in 1864 under circumstances of ignominy. 

Seoand, Permiuion to practise their religion. 

Ik was asserted that the petition alao sought the ezpnlBion of 
fbrngnors, but this wa^ )>trcmioTis!y denied. Tho tenets of their 
faith, ao far as they could be ascertained, did not appear to for- 
eigners particularly objectionable, but after two or three days the 
Kiug refused to receire the petition, and ordered the petitioners 
and all connected with them to doparc. He Further adnioniiihod 
them to abandon their false doctrines, and return to the true 
faith (of Confucius), or he would be compelled to raise them 
nearer haavou (in other words, tako off their heads). 

It was believed that great numbers of the Tong Hak — many 
thousands — bad taken advaalage of tbe examinations being held 
at this season in honor of the Crown Prmoe's birthday, to intro- 
dace thumaolrcs into the city, and mmora that some thirty thou- 
sand of them had collected at Po Enn, in the aoath, to march on 
Seoul, becoming current, a good deal of uneusiueeB was felt 
anioug the Koreans. People tJtought that the Tong Hak niast 
have suddenly booomo very strong, or hare strong political bock- 



CHINA AND JAPAS tS KOREA. 



903 



in;, to dare to rUk tkonuelvm openly in S«onl. Uervtoforo tbey 
limtl been aoized and killed without cenmioQy, bat now the; 
aeemed t<j Avtj ihi Buthontii<«. What did it meaa ? There wu 
erideoc ducuinptMura iu high pUcos, ud moa wliisporod that 
the Tai Wiui Kun was at thoir bock. 

The Tui Wim Kan is th« father of the Klag, a man of atrong 
dianctur, Doireraallj respected, and regarded as a typical, pstri< 
olio Korean. As itroiigly oppMed to the Qiimd and her fonuly, 
thfl MIds, vho Hrvo tho chief pliioes of power and profit in ttw 
kingdom, and who are ualveiBally hated, be '\i always looked apOD 
as a possible leader of rerolatioii, and the recollection of aa at- 
tempt which wao made upon hia life the year before,* at" 
tribatod to tho Queen's party, was thought to be iufiuencmg him 
now. 

Foreigners did not, as a mte. believe that there wai serioas 
oaaiu for alonn. TruCi oflensive pUicanU hod boon affixed to the 
houaes of two American miaaioDariea, bnt thi« was thought to be 
tha work of diaoharged servants. Even the moat alarming m- 
mon rcpreaeuted the iiunrgoiitR a« pmutically unarmed, and they 
appeared to b« a motley mob, which could be easily di^pcraed by 
afewdiBcipliut'd, doterminedmen. A violent mauifeaio ol the 
Tong Hak was rvceived in Seoul, aaid to have been forwarded by 
the Governor of Cballa Do, in which foreigners and Japanese 
were vebomeatly attacked, and ordered to leave the country; but 
men sent into the sonthoni provinces to the places where there 
were said to be large masses of malcontents came back, reporting 
that they bad found no snob bodies, but that everywhere tboy 
had heard t Jos of the dreodiol thiogs vhich were being done in 
Seonl. These men, however, might bavo been dooeivod, or might 
wish to deceive ; but Boman Catholic priesta, coming from the 
same districts to the capital, told the same story. Everything 
wu quiet there, but «T«r]rtfaing in diaorder, they vera told, in 
Seoul. There was strong indication of a manQfacturad excite- 
ment. 

The JapaucMf alone of foreigners, aeemed to take the matter 
au tiriwx. On April 13 the OODSOI issuad a private ctrcular Ut 
hia ooantrymen, warning them that there waa danger of attack, 
from which the Korean authorities would probably be unable to 

'lMB»«r«n|ULliUtle(iMiltEukLMIYaBOa MCBinpt w— Bud t. and tlul mucit 



\gOi THE yOKTU AMERICAN RKVJEW. 

defend them ; thnt they mnat proparo to eond th«ir woR)«n and 
ohildren to Chemalpo at a momeurB Dotico. Touu^. able-bodied 
men wvro directed to report at bia oiBce for instrDCtions. 

At this time there was a good deal of tension betveea tho 
Japaneao Minister, Mr. Oishi, and tho Korean KoroigD Office, 
owing to B claim for indemnity for damage sniitained by JapaosSB 
mdrohanti ia coriscqitoncc of a prohibition of tttn export of beans 
at WdDBaOi which wus pushed vith more eneri^ tbsn oonrteey. 
It vas a common remark in S«oal that Mr. Oishi wonld be 
delighted to have a pretext to intorforo by force in Korea, and it 
IB not imposwble that a reflection of this nature iadaced the Obi- 
neae Miaieter, Yuan Tsxa Kwao, to reoall tvo heary crutaere, 
which had touched at Ohomnlpo on their way to China and bad 
been allowed to depart. 

Mr. Oisbi wan known to haTe viiited the T&i Wan Knn. His 
apeeches and writings regarding Korea b«for« leaving Japau^ and 
his ndioal conrse in politioa, bad oaneed great alarm at the Palace 
when his appointment as minister was made known, and it was 
feared that he came as the preonreor of Kim Ok Kinn. Tbia 
famoas rebel was reported to bo at Nagasaki, waiting for the ball to 
open. If Japan desired nothing bnt peace and pleasantness ia 
Korea, as she iiAKerts now, she could not have mode a more unfor- 
tunate appotntuieut. It wasa direct intimation to the OnTeriiment 
that im " energetic" policy was to be inaugnrated, and Mr. Oiahi 
immediately proceeded to demonstrato the validity of thefearahiB 
name bad provoked. Up to this time Japan had been repre- 
sented by gentlemen, whose courtesy and oharaeter had gained 
for them the liking and esteem of all who came in contact 
with tb«Da, Korcand and forctgucrs. But now u chill was in the 
air. It was felt that Jupan had obanged her ]K>lioy towards 
Korea. 

In Tiev of all those circumstances, it is not perhaps strange 
that the opinion was held by more than ono ponoD in Seool that 
the whole Tong Hak movement was engiQtiored in the Japanese 
Legation. I did not m>'Belf think so at the time. I believed that 
the Tong Hak were playing the Japanese game, though they did 
not know it; bnt by the light of more recent erents, it is per- 
mitted to doabt whether, if it were not originated, it were not 
fostered and fomented there. " Cuiprodnt $t»lWi U /f^r" if 
tw tne to-day, as in the days of old Rome. 



CRTNA AND JAPMI t\ KOREA. 



80S 



In tbis oonnection, a t«legram received to-^y, wbil« I am 
writing, is int«rMti[ig. It ttates that: 

■■ The KiDg of KoMM h«-» appointed bi« fatliM-, tbo TftI Wan Kud. to 
bav« Ute oootrol of bis piibHc affaln. oo J lo dlreeC tti« ntTrm\ etc Tha 
■?f[""l [in iiiliil»ui mu nniuinotied to tli« pala<!ii ii^Txral dAjrn ajto and In- 
domwd Lbat rslonii»bad bMu luaajcnrMed, witb Kfereoce wlib wlilch be 
would bewnuMlted tram Utna to Uma." 

Tblfl intelligence comes from Japan, and, if it is not true, It 
indicates what is there considered as probable or desloble. 

MUit tvo or Ihrto moutlui the ozcitement died away, the 
Tarious asaerablages dispersed, and all voa quiet. This year we 
have tiad a reTiva] of the Toiig Hak morotnenl, slroDger, of 
coarse, a* it was not pat down originally bv forre and the profoM 
flhodding uf blood ; aod it i« thia which baa been the occasioD, if 
not the canse, of tbt> recent acttoo of China and Japan. In her 
tronble Korea tiimcd to China for help, as bei' best friend, and 
China aune, never neglectful of an oppoitnntty for posing ai the 
beneficent auEerain. 

K maj here sav a few words on the rexed qaoation of rasaal- 
■ga. The ralatioQS betwoan China and what she formerly called 
h«r Tnbntaiy States — Antiatn. Tonqain, Sintn, Barniah, Korea, 
etc.— and what she now culls her Vassal Stat^ti, wore and are cari> 
ona uid peculiar. The daties and reiponribilities which were 
racogniaod in mcdisPTil Enropo between vassal and sovoreiga — of 
■arrioe on one side and protection on the other — were bore 
onknown. Thu iuforior power invariably took the iuitiatiTo and 
reodored homage, if so diBpoaed.aDd the superior receiTcd it with 
dignity and condeecension. The act was purely volantary, and 
might be omitted through long interraU withont in any way dia- 
disturbing peaceful relations. " It is the re«pectfn1 homage of 
uu inferior to a superior, and not that of a fief to a sovereign. 
It is the sincere regard of a disciple to a toucher/' * 

China was looked opon by these suteltitee as the Central Sun, 
the Fountain of light and beat. Her power was andoubtedly su- 
perior^to that of any one of them, and they sometimes appealed 
to h«r for protection. Her books were their clamics, and she fre- 
quently Invested their rulen with the insignia of royalty. Even 
in JapaOt every gentleman was expected to know the Chinese 
• Ekv a. W«llB WUUuM. la flM JtmrMol <if llu K. C. BnuuA tf the jtHMie m ■ 

VOL. CUX.— no. 454. W 



SOB 



TUB NORTH AitRRtCAtf REVIEW, 



Utflmbnre. Her pooitjon was nob nallkc that of the Pope, vlth 
hit retorout circlu of OutboUc states. 

Korea differed from the other tributary etatoa in that iu 1637, 
ftfter bar cooqaeet bj Cbina, «ho made a treaty iu whtoh slie 
promiKd to Bend annual tribute. 

The introduction of Europo&aa into Bastom lifo in modern 
times channel) China's point of riev. Siam had fallen awajr 
almost without u murmur, but when Aiinsmsud Tonquin yielded 
to the dominiou ojf tiie French, she protested, though long before 
thoirallc^tsace ha<] beva practically tormimitcit. Aswe oil know 
when FiuQcoaad the United States wished to call Ohiaa to ao- 
cMmt for ofTenoes committed by Korea, she denied all responsi- 
bility. She aided in maicing onr treaty in 1863 ; indeed without 
her active oesiataaceit never could have been made. No doabt 
«bo thought Korea would bo sufcr from foroigaattaolciC she wcru 
r«oeiTed into the family of nations, though she had many mia- 
giringa, as vas proved by her attempt at the last moment to bare 
hemlf recognised in the treaty as sovereign. Tliiti attiimpt hav- 
ing failed, the king wrote bis liunoas letter to the iVcsidaut (aud 
afterwards to the heads of other states, as now treaties were 
formed) in which he acaled that he was tributary to China, though 
independent in the maaogemenb of his internal and external af- 
faire. President Arthur replied substantially that he waa pleased 
to bear this, as the United States eould only make treaties with 
iudependent powers. This Qxed onr status. Whaterer may have 
been, or may be, our opinion with regard to the relations formerly 
existing between China and Korea, it hue for qh now no practical 
significance, bat no sooner bad the treaties boon signed, aod the 
step take [1 become, so to speak, irrevocuble, than China saw the 
mistake she had mnde ; she had no intention of giving up her 
sovereignty, and she has been trying ever sinco to get it back. 
Favored by the sapinoncM or iadiScreuco of the truatj powora, 
little by little ahe baa made considerable progress in this direotinn, 
and herinfluence in Korea is now more actively powerfal than 
ever before. \n this of coarse she has had the support of England. 
Before the treaties ohu only interfered when asked to do ao ; now 
■he is always present. 

Apart from any question of rassalago, however, theie la on* 
qoGstionably a strong fwsling of respect and affection entertained 
by Koreans for China* growing ont of the kindly treatment which 



CBTNA AND JAPAH Ui KOREA, SfTT 

hjN bran the oharMt«ri8tie of Chinese intarooune with them, at 
a rnle, though there hav« bveu marked exc«ptioni. 

Itis far otherwise irith Japan. Hlio U bated by^rery Korean 
trom the XortUorn Bouudory to the Southern 8«o. This hatred 
ia a logaoy from the Orest loTagion three oentaries ago, which 
1«ftthe ooantrr desolate, and from which ahe has never reoovorcd ; 
and it has heen rerirud and inteusidod bj the policy which baa 
been UMy punaed. The commoa people treat the Koreans with 
rudedea, and the questioos between the two goTeromenta— «noh 
as the Qaelpaert flsheriee, and eepecially the Bemi indemuitv — 
have been ditcnaaed with aurimony. and haro left great rankling 
and bitteraon behintt In fact, the course of Japan in Korea, 
since thecoining of Mr. Oislii, isoulyexplicableon the theory that 
it is Intended to ooaqner and rednoe the people to snbjeotion. 

Korea needs radical reforms of all kinds. The King is en- 
ligbUiDod, bat uufortUDutely his early efforts at improTemoot 
were ill wlvised, and reBu1t«d in failure ; whilehiti oobtus are cor* 
ru pt, stationary, or TBtrogrado, aQdiiDpodoall progress. HerpoU» 
tical fntnre is h mont interratiag problem, bnt diacoasion of it 
would load us tuo fiu-. 1 will only say hero that I coosidar her 
independence aa a drst condition of progress and of safety from 
tuterested attack. This, too, was the opinion of gnch men as 
IT. E. Mr. Ton nrnndt and Kir Eloary Fiirkea, as prored by the 
followiug eitracte ; 

"IbopeKoratnuf notp«MtDtothfllr<RiiMian) bands •ome fla* day. 
Theepralagof HkkoilatsMtvwl Yi«M>,aiul. If Lba KnntAna went not sticll 
feoli, tbftrwooldSM that the op«nlag of tbdr country woaid iMthalraal- 
vMka aUo."— Sir Umttj P*rke« to Sir Drookc RAbertaoD, 8«pU IS. 1H7(. 

**Th« nreat fear ot ttie CliLa«««. haifevcof. Is Uiat the aame thlnn wtileb 
ba»Iliqpp«a*d irith re(ianl to the Loooboo blanda ouj Ttpt m t itaflt with 
ngard to Kora*, «nd th^jr ar* entalDly not very l ar lrom lb* tmtta In anp- 
pottBgbhati«U.tloaab0t«Mn Japwi and Korea most end loOlMr or labsr la 
aa ann*d conflict. I haw told tb«ffi taenty tim«« tlut tbebestnMsnsoC 
prtTeDtloK Ku iktccmpt by Japan to ««lce K»rc* would bo to Uirow that 
ixfaaujopeii to foroiga lntecaoar«e."'-Q. £. Ur. tod Brandt to Sir HariT 
ParkM, July 3, IfiTfl. 

Hy only ohjoct in this paper, whioh I have written with relno* 
tance, was to put my cotintrymun on their goaid sgainM undue par- 
tiality for the party which I cannot but look on as tbo aggreBsor. 
This partiality is natnral. The Japanv««ftroawonderfnllyprogree- 
sive,'high-apirited, brave, ingeuiou8.enterprifling,coarteoaB people, 
artistic to their finger tips and mtwt aiiraotife. FaToritas as they 



THU NORTB AMERICAN RtCVTBW, 



aro. whou Ihoy assert that tbej ar« atilmuUMl bj the most poocof ol 
intentions, the impalae is to believe them. But all geaUeQeea 
seemi to go out of their nature when Korea is ooDcvrned. There 
wore no horrors from which thoT shrunk in th pit last inTaaion, 
and the crj " On to Korea!" will always raise tht .1 iugo Party in 
Japan. It is this partj which Unow gaining the aftoendancy, and 
to which the Government oeema to hare finally yielded. 

And now, to sum up, what oonelii^iong do wo aniro at 7 

I'^irstand foremost, that Japan, while proteitting that she de- 
sirex peace, has preparud war. Stie hna notstndiod late Baropean 
history withoat learning the enormotis advaotage of putting your 
adversary apparently in the wrong. So far aa wo know now, she 
hsfl adroitly forced China to take the first OBtemiihIe at«p towards 
war, and so alienate gonorul sympathy. U naa as certain as any- 
thing earthly could t>o that £or«a, if in trooble, woald turn to 
China for help; that China must aeud troops, in despite of the 
treaty, and the resalt was inevitable. For her motivc^s we have 
not fur to seek. 8ho is umbitions, and China is her hc-n^ditury 
enemy. And, just now, she ii distracted by internal dissension, 
and hopes that war abroad will give her peaoe at home. 

China is anti-progreml ve, not to say retroactive. She will 
delay or crush devolopinont ; but if Korea falls into the hands of 
Japan, Ood help her I The historina wrote of her last descent 
upon tlie peninsula: "Thus ended one of the moat ne«dleae, 
unprovoked, cruel, and desolating wars thatoror cursed Korea, 
and from which it has token her centuries to recover." * 

We must not forgot, however, that this oocura-d three hun- 
dred years aj^, Hud that wars ore not made with rose-water. Oa 
that oocBslon, as now, Japan was ostensibly striking at China 
throngh Korea. Lotus hope that no such words shall need be 
spoken again, and that out of the shock of bottle a new Korea 
may riee, independent, neutmlize<l, if not protected, by agree- 
ment of the Great Powers. She cannot stand alone. 

AVAUSTISTE IlKABn. 



KR. STEVENS : 

War between Japan and China has appeared probable on 
Boreral occasions during the past twenty years. To many of tlioee 
who boat understand the situation in oostorn Asia tt has seemed 

*AMltli««aT Riaaaiiiont ot Kioto, nadvr whleti ll« lh« mit of OT«r MOiM 



CBJNA AJfD JAPAN IN KOREA. 



ao0 



ioeriteble. Tlie forces at work in tlio two Ituuliiig empires of tho 
Kost Are so difforcnt in their origin nail m dirersu in tbuir operik- 
UoD Uiat coroftil ulxiurvuni have moa, ia tliii friotiou irbich baa 
marked their contact for yean past, the sort harbinger of eventnal 
coUUioD. " A house caimotsUuul half slave atid bulf freo;" twu 
cirilizations which once had much in oommon, but which aro now 
totally dibumilur, coulii not long abide siilo by sido without a 
Straggle for supremaoy. 

Now that war i» aa actual faot, and while the paasioiis which 
it arouses are at their height, even onlcwkem who have no direct 
iotcreftt io the atrifo may unconsciously becomo partiaaiu> and it 
may b« no easy matt«r to eroko a calm aud impartial judgment. 
HeTerthflleea the writer veuturea to present a few oonaiderattoiu 
which to faia miod prore cooolusively that Japan is not reapon* 
siblo for the outbreak of hoetilitiea. Tills he must do at tho risk 
of being couaidered a prejudiced witui-ason aooount of his con- 
neeiion with the Japanosa Government. Although he has no 
hesitation in frankly acknowlvdgiug that, next to bis own ooun- 
tjy, Japan must always hold tho highest place in his affection and 
respect, tiiuce the qaestioD ia ouo of Coot and not of soutiraunt hu 
ia contented to meet this accusation with the tacts which he is 
able to prwent. In doing ao^ bowevor, it is only proper to add 
that what be ban wrilteu in on his ovm rtspoiiiiibitity entirely, and 
partakes in uo eeuae of an official character. 

The relations of Japan and of China to Korea date back to 
««rj early times. Both have conquered her, and she has sucoes- 
lively recognised each aa aaozerain power. It wonid be idle, 
faowerer, to attempt to de&ne tbvw claims to suzorainty, whether 
arising from conqnest or from mataal arrangement. They were 
of a j)«culiar charaotor and posses* do practical signiflcanoe under 
the mles bj which states now govern their relations to each other. 

Japan's chum lapeed long ago. Obiuu has virtually abandoned 
hers ou several oooasio&s. To the United States and to France, 
respeotively, when they demanded reparation tor injuries sns- 
tatoed by Uieir cilizeos in Korea, China eipressly disavowed any 
re^Mnsibility for the octioaB of that country, and looked oti with- 
out protest while each of those powers in aaooetaion sent military 
expeditious against Korea. 

Cliina made no objoction when in 1876 Jqian concluded a 
txvtj with Korea, which in distinct terms aseorts the inde> 



310 



THE NORTH A3iERtCAN REVIEW. 



pondonoe of tho Korcun kingdom. Nor did she intorferoirtwa 
sercnil yoam [»ter first tho United States, sud thuit otiier Weet^ 
em powers iu rupid uucoesion, entered ioto ttich trenUet with 
Korra 88 could only liave been ooocladod frith au autouomous 
aUte. And, tinallj, in 1886 ObinaagTMd to tbe Tient^n Coqtm- 
tion with Japan, tban which there oould not hare been a mora 
ooraplete sarrender of what«rer alleged Kuzeraia priril^^ the 
might up Co that time hare etill claimed the right to exerciae. 

To theee examples, and to others that might bo citod. tho 
only answer ever made '\» that China has long maintaiood "r«lit- 
tions of bonevolonoe " toward neighboring weaker atateSr which 
cannot be precisely explnioed by the deQiiitioiiB of iDt«m&tioiuil 
taw, but which noveriheleea giTe her tJie right to asenme a certain 
Bupervition over the allain of tlioae conntrios. Whatever maj 
havo been tme of tho past, when tho Wott had notoomo into clow 
contact with the East, and when China claimed anzentin rights 
OTsr all the world within the limits of her gef^raphical knowl- 
edge, sDch a pretension to-day is a manifest absurdity. It is 
more ; it is an oflo&ee against the law of nations when, oa in the 
prMeotoase, the claim is at times openly disavowed, and then 
surreptitiously utilised to the injury of innocent natioDS to which 
tho alleged subordinate or tributary oountry is bound by covenaoti 
and obligations aasnmed as an independent state. 

Yot it is precisely Bach an exerciaa by China of her ehadowy 
olaim to suzeriunty over Korea that baa led to war with Japan. 
They are not battling for the poeaescdon of Korea ; Japan hoa dis- 
tinctly disavowed such an ambition. They are Gghting becaoaa 
China persieta in playing a rdle in Korean affaire which menaoea 
not Japanese interests alone, but tho interests of every nation that 
has relations wi th Korea, and the saccess of which means the per> 
petuation of all those abusos which have rodoced the Hermit 
Kingdom to its present level ; the deetrnotion of the germs of en- 
terprise and progress ; perhaps the final extinction of Korea as an 
independent state. These are strong expressions, but the writ«' 
belieTcs that & rortew of the reUtioim of the three oountriea for 
the past twenty years will confirm their aoouracy. 

Prior to 1876 the intercoarao between Japan and Koiwn had 
lost much of its ancient importance. Japan had had hur own 
tronbles to contend with, and during the aiormy era which pre* 
oaded the Restoration, and for yean after tho onlmination of that 



cam A ayo japan w kohha. 



311 



grokC morsment. douiuatio ftdairH alMorbed tbo atteatioit of her 
2ovomia«ut aud people. Bui vith Uio proKrcw whtcli ciune u a 
OAtnrel Bdquence of iho new order of thioge — ftbove all. with tho 
growth of ail QtiiUid national spirit, which was, perh»iHi, its moat 
notable resalt — the impurtance of promoting tho wolfaro ami 
safety of tbu oiuijire hy defining and strcugthouiug itn rulatiooa 
with ueighboriDg states, especially with Korea. Uicame appanat. 

Korea ia a natural bulwark to Japan. Its staw of conaplete 
iaolatioa at that time ttirited aggreuion and poutble couquesC. 
The Preach and American ezpeditioiiH oaly a fow yearn before 
hod abown that Obtua wad L-ittitT uuwiUiug ur unable Lo dufond 
thointegrity of the peaiojulnr kingdom. Other oatioiu laight 
not bare boeo so louiont as Krsuce uad the Umted States bad 
been, and the occupatioti of Korea by a strong foreign power, or 
a partitioQ of tho country botweon BOTcrul such powcre, oon- 
stitnted a grave moDace to Japao. Other so-called tributary 
states of CtUna had been thus abaorbed ; and tliore could not have 
been a stronger aognry of a similar fate for Korea than China's 
own actionB had furnishod. 

Xo 1876 an attAok by a Korean fort npon a JapaaMO man-of- 
war making soundings ofl the ooast emphasized the neoeesity for 
some dedtiito treaty arrangement between tho two countries. A 
mission waasent to Korea, and on the 2Cith of Febroary, 1876, a 
treaty of piMOo uud friuudnliip was ooucluded. 

Article I. strikes the keynote of the whole instrnmont. It 
raads as follows: 

"Cho*»n belaiiftaladci>cnd«iitStato,«nJoj* th««aniaMTcral£ii rlshla 

"Inorder to prove ihcslacdritrol (-be frlendahlp exiBtlnic b«tireen lb* 
liatlOQ* tbeir int«rruanir ahAll hffOoefarwBnl be carriMl Vb In (e mm of 
eqaalltj itnd ooart*^. Mr.b sToldlng the givlog of oflhuM bj arnmmDce or 
manlfMbttlonft of iuvpiolon. 

" Id the flmt iUMUuea all rulw and prvoadeaU that are apt to obitntei 
MMdly ltit«rManM tbAll b« tAtolljr ftl>roii»t«d, «Bd, In tbftlr»t«Ml, ral«4 
llbsnd And In cra«n) »•«•, fltu>»««are flru ftsd pftrpstOkl ptMe, •h*llb« 
ceUblbbod." 

Japan might have taken advantago of tbo auprovoked attack 
upon one of her public vessels to obtain a dominaDt position in 
Kore*. Instead, she made a treaty containing no stipaUtioo 
which can be oonstmed as trespoas upon Korean rigbtSr or as 
an affront to the amaur propre of the Korean people. This is 
certainly strong proof of the sincerity of her deaire for the Indo- 



813 



TBB NOKTU AMISRICAU RKVJSW, 



pondenco of Korea, OoafimiatioD may be found, U ueodcU, iu 
the cordiality with wliicli she luibsequetitl}' woleomed Lbo estab- 
lisbmeDt of simiUr relations between Korea aod some of the 
Weatom powora. 

The Treaty of 1876 was followed by a vondatlal growth ia 
the trade between the two couDtrieu, until t<Mlay Japan boldi 
the leading commercial position in Korea. Bat the harmony of 
theii^iQtercourse hoa been more than once mdely shaken by the 
loourronce of tbotw iuLurual dititurbauoca which aro unhappily so 
common in the peninsalur kingdom. On two oceastons tho 
Jujjsneia Legution at SuonJ was buraod, the Minister obliged to 
fly, and anoffeiuling Japenese were slsnghtered in the streets of 
the capitut. On nuitbor occasion did Japau exact roporution 
ineomRicnsurate with the injary. She recognised the impotonoy 
of a weak government, and oouAoed bor demaudd to apology, and 
iDdemniiy to the Japanese who had suffered by theoatbraakof mob 
violence. Logical reason for this leniency can be found in the 
conditions which prevail in Korea. That country ia curaed by a 
system of public admiuistration for which it would be dillicult to 
Snd a parallel. Cormption extends tbroiighout every branch of the 
public servico. Officce are bought and sold, and tho revenaee are 
farmed out to the highest bidder. Offioials swarm over the land» 
and the people are ground down by their ezaotiona. A few power- 
ful taanilies divide the spoils, and at times plunge the kingdom 
into disorder by their ^nonal quarrels. At other timus the 
peaoantry revolt and uttiimpt to throw oS their burdens. Tba 
pnwnt sovereign, however well meaning ho may be, is powerless 
to carry out hia good intentions. The fault ig in the system ; 
the system ts borrowed from China, and China seems determined 
to perpetuate it atall hazards. In all of Korea's domestic disaen- 
sions the hand of China can be traced. Her Influence is secret, 
bot none the Ic!^ puttiut. Sho shirks responsibility to other 
nations, but heeitates at no means — cajolery, bribery, menace^ 
to dominate Korea. Whatever objoot her policy may have, its 
plain rasalt has been to paralyse progrosa, and to leave the oonntry 
W«tk and defenoelesaB, a ready victim for foreign aggnadon. 

The evenlsof December, 1884, gave the Japanese Government 
an opportunity to define the relations of Japan and China to 
Korea. During the disorder which prevailed in Seoul at that 
time the Chinuo troops bad attacked the Japanese and had bees 



CatSA JJVD JAPAN tS KOREA. 



:»s 



repulaoi]. lu eettting tho qneetdona at iflsue vith Korea, tbo Jsp- 
AQese Plooipotetitiiiry insUtad npoQ (i«iilttig dtroctly with tho 
BCoraati GoTorniii«iit, and would not admit the right of China to 
interfere in ati/ way. Thfl question of tho eolliHton betweoo the 
JnpttQoae luid ObtooBO troopa was, h« arj^uod, k mutter to he kU 
tied directly between China aod Japan. The Chinese GoTern> 
iDUut iU!qiiiu0L-t.<d iu this viuiv, and tho reeolt wiu thu convention 
b«tin»Q Jh|mui and China aoncluded at Tientsin on Iho l8th of 
April, 188&. By tho tenn« of tbat convention tho Bignatoriesboand 
thonuHilvw to ruuiovetlioirtroo|w from Korea within four months. 
They f urtbormore agreed that they vonid [wreuade the King of 
Korea to omjiloy military inatractors (neither Ohinew nor Jupau* 
eoe) to drill troopa for tliu piirpoiie of protecting tbe peaco and 
tranquillity of his kingdom ; utid they alao stipulated that neither 
power ehoald send troops V) Korea when serious iateraal disturb* 
ances occorrod thoro, without giving timely notice to the other ; 
and that the troopa no nent ihonld be vrithdravn when the dia- 
tarbancM were at an vud. 

If Japan hoped that by this agreement she bad plao«d Korea on 
the high rood to r«(orm, anbitcquDnt evonta have proved that hope 
to be futile. It ia true that dfwultory attempts hare been made 
tocarry out the improvements coutomplutcd by tbe Oonvention, 
bat the nme ogonoioe whioh mode Korea what abu is huvo oper- 
ated to neatralise thoir good efftict. Hatters hare gone from bad 
to wona. Not Japaneae alone, bat every foreigner who has had 
deolingB in Korea haa foand himaelf confronted by the dIfB* 
uultiwand umborrasdmvuLssoprolitioin an irapoToriiibed country 
abandoned to misrule and oorrnptiou. Tbe dry-rot of ChioM* 
couserralism tuu ponradod orerytbiog. China herself, with her 
wonderful vitality and her abundant reaooroea, has snrrived the 
lamn ordeal. To Korea it bus been a living duiith, 

For Japan the questions to which this state of things gi?e8 
rin are of £ar more vital importonoo than for others. She baa 
been obliged to relinquish the hope that Korea could under 
preeont oonditions mainloiu the indeponilenoe ao easential to 
Japaaeae welfare, and y«t theneoeaaity of Korean independenoe 
to har own safety has become moro and more apparent with tha 
progreai of eventti in the Rast. 

The agrarian revolt which ooounod in the spring of this year 
Atniiahed the Ia«t object-lesson, if that were reqoired, of tbe 



814 



THK NOliTJI AMERICAN RBVtUW. 



prossiag need of dntsUc reform in the nfTAirB of the Kor«&ii king- 
dom. That revolt waa due tu Uio mual citaKO, tbo arbitrary and 
opprcttirc (M»ctioTi8 of Koronn officials. In iuolf it waa hftrdl/ 
more important than the maaj idmilar uprisings againet tjranay 
and oppresftioQ of which Kor«a has been the arena. Ab an Judex 
of causes which, if not corrected, most always operate to keep 
Koraaat her prc»ont 1ot«1, it sorvcd a usofnl purpou. 

Unable themaelrea to oope vritb the revolt, tlie Korean au- 
thorities called upoii Ohiua for asatttaace. It vru rendered with 
a preoipitaacy which smacked of precoooerted arraogemoat. The 
" time!^ DOtice" denundwl bj tho Tiontein ConvflDlioQ ^to ba 
giiren to Jitpnn v<h of tho brloreet and moRt perfunctory charmo- 
lur. Moreurur, th6 ourt anrioancement wan ai'oompaoiod by thu 
8tat«meat that OhJDa had sont this aid to "the tribntary coun- 
try." Japan would have bean more than human 11 eho had not 
taken up tho gitgo thus carclotsly thrown down. She also sont 
troope, and to doing no she acted clearly within the rights Moored 
to her by covenant and by cuiitom. No uatiou has greater in- 
berestB in Korea to protect than she, and none has ftuJl«red more 
in tho pa4t under similar circnmstoncee. To guard agaiiuta rep- 
etition of injury was merely the e^terciae of ordinary pmdenoe. 
Besides, there has been no ooocealment of the fact that the Japau- 
080 QoTernment peroetTed in these events an opportunity for the 
pennanont amelioifttion of Korean affaira. An isolated agrarian 
revolt might have been easily ntppreMed ; the problem in thiioaw 
wail rather to exttagutnh the causes which had led to the coostant 
recurrence of such revolts in Korea, and thereby to rcti«vo that 
country of the neceesity of calling upon either Japan or Ohiua for 
aid. Thiitwaa the view of tho case which tho Japaneaa govorn- 
meut frauklj pn!«ent«d for Chins 'h consideration. They invited 
the Chinese government to jotu them in devising some plau 
whereby the administration of Korean affairs might be so im- 
pn>Te<l as to place them npon a just and stablo basis. They 
claimiid no right that they did not concede equally to China ; oil 
that they asked was a fair and cquituhlu odjuatmunt of difficulties 
which threatened the interests of both conntriea. Ohioa'sansw 
was oonflnod to a simple deouad lor the withdrawal of the Japan- 
eee troops. The revolt was suppressed, she claimed, and thorn 
vas no longer any neoeuity for the presence of foreign troopa in 
Korea. The details of this negotiation, so characteristic of (TlnaeBe 



CaiUA AND JAPAN JN KOHBA. 



810 



diplomacy, voiild be lailkroua, were it not for the tngjc eon- 
V»qaenct« wliicli hu«e rollowod. The ChinoM troop* hud hardly 
landed id Koroa, oertatnly ttic; liiul not tlrvd a ubot iijjaiiist ibe 
iflbela, when appAreotly the promptitude of Japao in folloviog 
China's cxutnple took the OhineBeand tbeir Sgr«aa abottora hy 
•orprific, aod the reb«llioa was npprraiod. Then came th« dc- 
maiid for tlio withilmwa) of the troopn; and thi> iteration of that 
demand hsH been the hoIq reply which Obina baa duij^ed to make 
to .lajMin'o proposda. It ia the only answor she has mado to the 
powon whiob interroned In tbo intereaU ofboth partfea to effoot 
Ml amicable adjuetmciit of the dilTnroiit^M between them. If at 
one time dnring the progretm of the negotintionii she aeemed to 
yield to ropKiwntiitioas made in tbo iutca-ata of peace, the result 
bae prored that it waa merely to gain time to prepftre for thocon- 
Rict which she ooniidorod inevitable, and which abe apparently 
waa determined to do nothing to avoid. 

Japan, if ehe bad complied with that demand, would hare 
staltified hereelf. Not only would there hare been no aBuranoe 
that the rerolt which had been no miraculously mpprassod wonld 
not hare broken oat »ga.m wilb a violence rcdonbled by the weak* 
neis which the Korean government bad ehown, bnt the oer> 
bunty would hare ronmined that the aamo oansos would hare 
produced the nmo effects, and that again and ogun Japan would 
bare been oaQed upon to euoonnt«r the same riska with the unie 
bootleea reaults. la it therefore a mattot of Kurpriae that she re- 
aolved to roach the root of the difficulty, and to exterminate it 
once and for oil, with China's aaaistanee if poeabU, bnt, if not, 
by the exercise of the power which is of right hera as the one 
most vitally interested ? Uer attitude may be summed up iu a 
word. She has czproBtly disavowed any idea of territorial ag- 
grandisement, and ahe has no designs upon the independonoe of 
Korea. Ou the contrary, tbo consomraation and the perpetnu- 
tion of that independence ore the rery objects for which she is 
atririiig. In raUuning her troops in Korea — the point npoa 
which moet streos has been laid— she has not only kept within 
the strict letter of her rights as deSned by her oompaot with 
China, but she baa token the moet effective means of carrying 
out the ispirit and tbo purpose of ita obligations. In doing this 
■be bM bo«n forced into a war which sbo bad naad tmacy hooor- 
lible nuuis to avoid. It woald not be beooming in her friends U> 



810 



TBS ikV&ra AUEhiCAN REVIEW. 



anticipato theresolt of that war, bnt in Tievof all that lias boen 

itnerted, this mnch may b« said : that no fear of domestic rovola- 

tion or dutarbance has fomud her to thin iggae. and that Hhd 

wilt aw) trhaterer adrantajje fortunu may bring hvr with juatioe 

and moderation. 

D. W. STsrurs. 



Ua UARTLV: 

To WESTBRH nations at leoat, the most interesting and 
aigniScant question at issue In the " Ohioo-Japaneae war in 
Korea"ia tho rmultant " Frogroia " or " ExterminatioQ " of 
modem civilization in the " Qormit KiDgdom '' ; tlid erax of 
tho present fight between the Tokio and Pekin govommoobs. 
Especially ia it oi interest to all Americans, for to the United 
Stuios is dito thu credit of hariug "opoued up" bo tho world tbo 
" Land of thu Morning Calm," m, indeed, they formail; ^'opened 
np " Japan. 

Tho oatire world muet be fully awake to the fact that the 
8UCC088 of Japiin in Korea mcann rufonn and prograes — govcrnmen- 
tul, Booial, aud commercial — ia that unhappy ootmtry, meaaorea 
already iutrodu»od and urged by the Japanese, but rendered 
almost failures both by tho inertia and lack of pablio spirit in the 
natireS) and a more or less active oppoiiition on the part of China. 
The mcoe&H of the Chiuosu means the forcing bock of the 
Koreans to Oriental slnggtahQees, superstition, ignorance, and 
anti-foroigu eoutim.eiit and methods. It ia a oooflict between 
modern civilization, us represented by Japan ; and barbarism, or 
a hopelessly antiquated civilization, by China. The one is op- 
holding the " lawe of nations " ; the other maintains to tho bitter 
end its imperious ideas of vassal states. That knowledge should 
command certain sympathy, it would soem, for oar litlte friends 
from the " I^nd at Gentle llannera," as Sir Edwin Arnold calls 
Japan. 

It ia difflcmlt to define the exaot nature of this quarrel. Both 
nations have for a long time claimed a snxerainty in Korea. 
It has been acknowledged to both by the continual payment of 
tribnte, an exceu, however, to China. Of late years this tribate 
has oaaaed, and the independence of the penlnsnla has been practi- 
cally acknowledged by Uie toleratioD of her treaties with foreign 
nations and the seoding abroad and receiving at Seoul of dipio- 



cmsA Atm japah jn korxa. 



817 



Butio eDToys. Cliin* haa 1)een making repeated offorta to change 
sit this by protcste At tho Korean ooort, by efforto t« ro-uitablub 
Ul« annnal tribnto to ber^eU, mid, Qoally, by placing a definite 
MpioniLge over its monaroh aad his adTisera in the peraon of a 
"reetdent,"or viHual officiat reporter. Japiu never yielded to 
China, even in the timoa of its axistenoe, the rifrht of these 
exactions — ^zactions sfaa herself claimed and received hundreds 
of years ago — and haa silently, hot none the loii fervently, 
yearned for conditionB that vonld enable her to defiantly forbid 
them. She now feoitt bonelf in rach readincw ; it in the popnlur 
deeirc of the government and of the people, the entbusisstio de> 
mand of men and officers ansioue to demonstrate, not entirely in 
a Belfhih waj*, their entire Stness to hnndte the empire's modem 
army and ottTy* whose tautica thoy haw " at their fingers' onda," 
M to ipeok. 

The oniversal service system naed on the Ettropean continent 
ill that on which the Japanese army is organized, ltd men are 
well trained and fall of that enpril so essential to the soldier. 
But tb«j aru not hardy, a rcenlt of the immoml practices of the 
oonntiy, and enter service in a mora or lets weakened condition, 
vbile their amall stature is prejndictal to Western minds. They 
■ra, ai a result of thin physical rvdociion. however, agile and 
aetiTc, and might be likontd to the ChiuaDon as athletes to 
gianta. That these qualitiea are aniveTsa] enongh to l>e regarded 
. aa trifling waa evidenced some yean since by a prominent mem- 
ber of the Japanese I^egation in Waahington when witneasing 
the expert climbing of our cadets at Anua|>olis. flie indifferent 
criticiam was, "We have monkeys in oor land that could do 
belter." The Japanosn fleet is now almost too well kno7n to speak 
of. Her ships of war, of which there are abont fifty modern etcam 
Tsaaels, are seen in every port in tlic world, and many of them 
rank among the faateat. Many foreigners are among its offleers, 
and ber affection for and sympailiy with ns were shown as amat in 
the aelcctioQ of an American aa the fliat foreigner to command 
oneof boraqoadrons. Ilcr coffers are sufiicieiitiy well filled for 
present needa. while b«r credit abroad ia good. 

Opposed to her the Chinese army is alao well drilled and 
trained and composed of raarreloua marksmen, whether wiih 
bow or rifle. Time and again I have seen wouderfal target prao- 
tioe by ber monnted archers : riding at headlong gallop tbey 



818 



THE NORTH AMBKICAfl REVIEW. 



wontd rarely foil to bit a sniBll ball lying on ibe ground; and tbe 
accuracy of th«ir men witU the nfttdTe rifle, which has neithor 
fltook nor sight, henc« no slioulder-aim, bat which rests on tbe 
hip to be dtBcharged and \* lighted by a f iim, is most extraor- 
dioory. Where sach personiJ skill exists, the miztnre of anoieot 
and modem equipment in iti army can scaroely bo deplored as 
oreatiDg an iaefiSoieiicy. 

During the var of 1843, a typical Cbinaman, in command of 
a Chinoite war jank, boarded one of the British gunboots before 
hostilities be^u and aHki>d to see the oaptaio. On muetiug that 
officer the Chinese commiindeT proc«oded to remark that he, 
himself, va8a"good ften " of the British captain and he had 
QO doubt that the lattur waa ulm a " good fleu" to him. Under 
tlieae ciroamstances he made the propositioa that since it vaa 
oTidontly iindesirabio that oue " good flcn " shoold injorfl another 
"good fleti," when the impending attack beigaD each captain 
should have liU gans loaded with "fire-physio" only, and "no 
balls." This, he insisted, woald make "plenty fire, plenty 
RDoko, plenty noiao," and the inoideiital adrantagee would bo 
obviouB and mutual. There is also a ludicrous, and probably 
authentic, story of the make-believe man-of-war, with a funut^ 
and smoke, but no engines — nonstmcted by the Chinese on one 
of the rivcra of which the British were trying to force thepassage^ 
Intended, without donbt, as a ruse to alarm the amaller foreign 
craft, and to deter It from paasing up a stream, in the npper 
waters of which 50 formidable an antagonist awaited them. 

TUc political atmoephcro of China is so rarely disturbed by 
any break iu its conditions or demands from "abroad," the two 
methods above cited fully illustrating the gentiral lack of serious 
oontemplation of any casus hclii, tliat, aa in the recent case with 
the Japanese, hor onemies come apon her in the night aeasoD to 
find her "Iamp» untrimmed." Thix inctrtia has boen oscribwl to 
all sorta of causes. Official debauchery and corruptiou ruoDing 
rife over land and sea, misappropriation of millions rot«d by tbe 
throne (or tbe army and uary budgiits, oo naqconohablo couceit 
and OTereetimate of their owu military and naval capacities — all 
have been ai:ged as reasons for tbe lethargic condition of this 
maas of much despised civilization. These conclusions of a 
speculative, often uninformed, and nsaally prejadiciKl worid at 
htrgB as to their innocaous desuetude are not wholly correct, 



CfBWA ANO JAPAN W KOREA. 



319 



The Ohinese are a KaperlnUrQlypeaoeablo nHtiou, elM by vhat 
force are thMo Tsst maesefl of human botnga kept from flying at 
oaoh othpr's thronts and iodalgiag id the laxary of iniitQal ex* 
terminatiou 9* Uur miUions tram. The denstU uf popalation 
and the tangled comnianity of interests woald» it woaid seem, 
lead to oter-rMiirriagqaarr«lB»nd strife, in thu land of too many 
jtrorincM, too mnnv prcfocturos, too mnny distriots, \oq many 
riUagM, too many familius, too many peraona. Wherever there 
iaaBufficient expu-nee of water, her warriors may be foaod OQ 
largo sqoadroas of junks; whorerer there an mouotaitts, milliong 
bnrrow their way into dvfilca and roceiaM, troopa armed witfa 
shield and spear, bow aud arrow. She is not asleep. A few 
.itoare' outing will show one aqnads of soldiers aroied with Uem- 
agt«n broech-loaders, match-lock men, and trim 8t«4m gnnboau 
'mounting Krupp breprh -loading <!annon.- \ nijchfii rejroso at 
tfae vayeiile itiD or temple will be broken at isarly dawn by the 
rattle of musketry or the roar of oannoo at their target practice. 
I am inre that no condiliona of non-readineas hare intlneuoed 
ber in the ■eoming apathy or he«itntion aa recently maaifoitod. 
Th«r ideal warrior ianot'OurB. But then is site not to us a land 
of contmrietiea ? In educating ber offioors she encourages per- 
eonal prowens and ekill rather than any iiistniction ia military 
tM^ticB or maDourring or in any of tbe requiaitee of a strategtBt, 
and little attention is pud engineering, fortilioatiaa8» or even 
letteni Id gBD^rsl. To the eyes of a westerner the sight of long 
lines of warriors in petticoats is not a reaaeitrinfE one. And an 
umbrella or two and fr«<|neut fans up and down the ranks arc 
not conducive to a oonTictioD of soldierly rigor. The eharaater 
for" brave " alwajra foand written on tbo backs of their nniforma 
instils a donbt by its assertion, though It was an unkind witticism 
of some writer that it " was placed on tbe back because then 
UD eaomy wonld tee it often««t." But their orerwheimiug nnm- 
buni and tbe> tough fiber of the troops are facts offsetting the 
brilliant but less solid qualities of the Japanese. 

O'be central figures of Che war ure, of coarao, H. B. Ia Hang 
Chang and Count Uirohnmi Ito — Prime Ministers of their respec- 
tiro countriee, and men, I do not hesiute to say, well matched in 
cloTemese, rortalUity, and shrewdness, though fie former is by 
nature and e.vporience a thoroagb commander, whilo Count Ito is 
purely the voterau politiciau and diplomatist without military 



S20 



THE HORTB AMERICAN BKViEW. 



record. The two noblom«n an personal friends, and II. E. Li 
was probAblj tnilnenced in his Lardy war nctioa br a hope of mam- 
taining puuco through diplomatic and penosal efforts with Oonnt 
Ito. They hare both rnn serious rwks owing io tlieir suspected 
leftning to foroigncre, nnd in tho CAse of IL E. of Cliina narrowly 
eacaped the fate of a mighty CliiaoBS mandarin many years a{;o, 
vho waa degraded to the raiikei for hid " knowletlge of and gym- 
pathy vitli Barbarians," as we ore cuu tempt uooaly called. 
Yet tho highest honors of those two men aro in great part dne 
to the rcsatts of their nnaltering faith in tho valao of foreign 
policy, of foreign priuciplm of progress, and of foreign arnii. 

Koreat the cock-pit, ia a poor stniggliug, etrtitting little 
kingdom with Taalting ambition and empty treasuries. Its long 
onn iftrotchos ODt into tho sea a« if imploring protection rrom the 
grasping natiotiit behind it. 

China's exactione, liaasia'e aiubition«> Groat Britain*^ objeo- 
tiona, aro all old stories to the pablic. It ia certain tbut the last 
tff o groat powers nro watching dcvclopmonta with joiUotis cy«B, 
fur the aeaport^ of Korea are to each much coreled prize*. Buwia 
is impatient to aecure on her ecflboard a dealrable terminus tor 
tho great " Trana-Sibenan Bailway," instead of that now cont«tii- 
plated at Vlodirostock, a port closed by ice four monthR of th« 
year, and dhe :ti prepared to go to erery extent to prevent any In- 
terference by Great Britain or any other power, if snoh interfer- 
ence conflicts with her interests. I am not sore that she haa oot 
Dtirrci) np the present strife that she miglit fish to her own ad- 
vanlagi' in troubled waters. England dreads any territorial ag- 
grendizemeat for Bosjtat the probable resttlt of a coatiQued 
straggle, and I bolicvc hor already indirect effort to bring the 
war to a close will be followed np by eameet endearom to indnco 
the United Statos or Germany to arbitrate. Japan undoubtedly 
has her eyee on Korean territory, ihongh her war-cry is " ro* 
form." Baoocca now means a foothold there, and she will tako 
it and as much more as 8he ean get. Korea's safety aeems to 
He ID her own weakness and the jeolousios of great powers. 

UowARD Martin. 



OUU U'lTLK WAR WITH CHINA. 

SOME niTIIERTO UNWRITTEN UISTOHY. 

BT BBAB-ADMIAAL PEIBVK CROSBY, L*. S. N. 



A PBV books on roligion thrust inlo tbo handt of a young, 
buutical, and impiilsive man oiioooame nearcfiasing thediimem- 
bermeDt of a groHt empire, uid uctiiully brought about agr&ro 
diffiQult/ bubwoeu that ouuutr/ and our own. 

Id IWt. aflitin in Ohina, specially along thoaooooast. wereia 
a bad oondUioD. Tlio oouutry hud Chen hardly recovered from the 
oxhanation and expense of the opium war with England, piratea 
mragod ita borders and rireni, nnd the reigu of tha young Em* 
peror Tan Kwftug was nahcrcd in by widespread famine and pesti* 
lenoe. In addition to chi», the sentiment of the people vaa 
eepecially bitter Hgaiu^at foroignori, whom thuy considered respon- 
sible For the intro<Inotion of misdionanee, the opium traffic, and 
other things which thoy bud b««n broaght to place in the samo 
oat^ory as horrid evila, and the Emperor wu regarded with dt»> 
like and snaplctou on sccount of bis inability to resume again 
the inviolate excluureneBs which had once characterixed the 
Celestial Empire. Unable to conciliato or help bia snbJLTts, the 
yooDg man at last retired to bis palaoea and passed a life of idio* 
oeas and pleasure, leaviug the offices of tbo government in 
bands that were nnskilful and oorrnpt. The natural ae- 
qaeooe of this was that the land was abandoned to misery 
and vice, a condition that bad often in Europe pared the 
way for great aoclal rofonnatlons. In this case the reformer 
was a remarkable man named Hung Sew-tsuen, then less than 
forty, who had, in his twentieth year, gone to proeont bimrclf at 
an annual oxaminatton at Canton, and them fallen under tbo 
influence of Lenng A-fab, a prcaober and colporteur, who had 
pnt into his hands a number uf books compiled from or explano- 
TOL. CUX. — NO. 424. 21 



822 



Tilt; MOJiTU AMEiUCAU REVIEW. 



torjr of tho .Scriptarcs. At lirtil these books had little effect on 
the yoaag man. Ami liui resdiug thereof was careloati and saper- 
flcinJ ; bat in 1847 a frleutl nrged thect agaiD upon hia utlt'tiliun, 
and together the two made au exbauattre atudj oi the priucipleti 
of Christtanity, Tbetr idolatrous early education made it impos- 
sible for tlioiu to c1cnr)yttnderKtuiid alt tliat was before them, but, 
bearing in mind the horrors of thu time and the advantages of a 
strict moral diacipliiic for the suffering people, they buoamo fired 
with religious enthtisiosm and began to prencb the creed as they 
andorstood it Converts were widoiy made, the ottempts at 
oppression were firmly and successfully resisted, and finally, with 
Qunibcrs growing continually, they were encouraged to attack 
and destroy the temples and prie^ta of idolatry wherever found. 
X'ho Emperor, becoming alarmed, despatched a body of 
Imperial troops against tbom, but those were defeated with 
slaughter in 1851), ami the " Tai-ping HebelHou" gained head. 
The rebels started off on a march of (xinqu(»st. subUueil tho pror- 
iuoes of Kwang-si and No-nao, and, in Uarcfa, 1853, took tho 
flourishing city of Naukiug. Up to this time their discipline had 
been tborongh and valuable. Their punishment of crime was 
swift uiid suvf^re. Itut now it became evident that there was too 
much political corruption, haughty tauaticism, and beathenisoi 
mixed with their efforts at Chriatianity. 

The world had Xxvn thrilled trith the news that came from 
Nanking of this wonderful movement, begun, offloeTcd, and 
led by " heathen from the wilderness." It secmod as if a new 
nation had bocn bom and oe if the prophecies of Isaiah were 
about to be realized. Nov the tide tiirnoil ; theirdisoipllne grew 
lai ; a campaign against Peking failed : they were expelled from 
the neighborhood of Slianghai and Kingpo. and their forces were 
scattered and demomliEcd. The last sad scene of all tho bright 
promise they had given was in 1864, when the remnant of thoir 
host was defeated and butchered, and Hung 8ew-tsuen died by 
his (iwn hand in the hour of the destmction of all his hopes. 

IC was at Shanghai, in 1854, that oar little difficulty occurred. 
At this time the rebols wore in full force in tbo vicinity, and 
twenty thousand of the best drilled and moat experienced of the 
imperial troops occupied a race-courso near the city, fortifying it 
and nsing it as a camp, whence they made frequent salliosagujiut 
the rebels. At the mouth of the river was a fleet of war jnnks and 



OUR LITTLE WAR WITH CHINA. 



ma 



othor reeaclB, nndor tbe ooramaiid of AdmirtU Ho, of the ImperiiU 
N»TY, wbilo bighor up by tb«ir rospoctive consulates were two 
English ineti-of-wsr anil tlia U. S. S. "Forumoittb," cotniOHlildd 
by CupUiiu Jubu K»lljr, of our own etervice. 

The opiam imuggliog which had occasioned eo much embar> 
nasment to the Chitie»e Oovernment was now going on ubout aa 
OBti&lt and AdmirnI Uo and the civil authoritiea on shoro were 
doing all in their power to put n Kt<ip to th« illcgnl traffic. The 
preaaoce of rebels and the aaaistance furtivuljr girea them at 
timea by foreign merchantmen, together iritb the iatoua hatred 
of the Chinoae toward foroignere, mode Uio authorities rcry arbi- 
tnry, and wme of their actiotu wore not only tmjQst, but beyond 
the proper scope of their povem. Erery thing was done to annoy 
the Bnglisb and Amerioaa botite as they pftBeed betwmu tbo ibips 
and the shore, ani)>aereral times the foreign quarter of Sbaugbui 
was invaded by bands of ruffians, composed ot hangers^o of the 
imfwriiU ciuiip and Aomotimos of tht' eoldiors tbomaclvox. This 
spirit uf rancor and thu lack of prolcction afforded aliens by the 
native powera at hut rouwd tho foreign oonsulii to meet together 
and take measares among themselres for the safety of their own 
and their follow-citixons' iuteresta. The Taoutae, or Governor, 
was accordingly informed that, as bo codM not protect the for- 
oigners, they would protect themaeWes, and the men of the oom- 
muntty armed Uiemselvea and stood ready for desperate eroer- 
geneiea. 

AboQt this time Captain Kelly, of the " Portsmouth," was in< 
formed that a pilot-boal, manned by Obinese, but flying the flag 
of tbo Called Stales, liad boon burmlml by n boat from Ihu Ohi- 
Dese maoH>f-war " U. Cooipton," (lie flag hauled down, uud her 
crew taken on board that ship, mode fast to the rigging by their 
long qnenes, and pronilBcl »n early execotion the nf<xt morning. 
Captain Solly promptly di-spalched LieuteoanlJohu (>uc«it, (wlio 
afterward distinguished himself la our Civil War) to inqniro ialo 
the outrage and dcmiind the proper reparation. Mr. Guest 
prooesded on his mission in a boat manned by elevea 
armed mpn, and boarded the "Compton" alone, haring 
previously iustruoted bis sailors to follow him at once shonid bo 
give aeertaln signal. On finding the captain. >fr. Onest imper- 
aliv«ly ili>ninnded the release of the pnaouors, inquired by what 
right they had been taken from a vessel flying the Amerioan flag. 



324 



THE NORTH AXERICAy REVIEW. 



aud promiwd a strict inveetigRtion in regard to tlie liauUng (Iowa 
of the flnx icaelf. A fuvr aurlir repUei followed from the ChiDeaa 
Oftptain, and liis followers began to handle their musketa and 
press toward tb« Amoricaa oSicer, thuir Hcrco ;«lIow i»e«s gleam- 
ing nitb haired and anger. Mr. Qacst promptly ordeied his 
men on board, aud, catching the csptuin bj th« collar presented 
his piatol at liifl head, and pronitiicd him instant death if a shot 
were fired. This settled the busint-tu), and Mr. tiuost returned to 
the " Portsmouth" with th« pilot-boat and her crew. 

Tlie next daj' Captnin Kelly had iin interview with our Coa- 
Bul sod infurined htm that he muet demand reparation for the 
insnlt to the fl»g, and that the imperial Chineseehip " Compton" 
should be required to hoist the American flag at the fore royal 
masthead and Uro a Eshite in open day. In nbunt two weeks the 
Consul wrote to Captain Kelly announcing that the Qovernor 
would not answer bis commnuicutiou excvpt verbally, and that 
he {the Oooaul) therefore referred the mu^tter to Captain Kelly's 
att«ncion. The "Portsmouth" at onoo got under wny and 
droppe<l down among the whole Chinese fleet with the intention 
of capturing the *' Compton " ; but Wore any dcinonstratiou was 
made the captain of that sliip came on board the '' Portsmouth" 
and annoiinced that he had orders from the Qorenior to make 
anyrepnratiou titatCaptain Kelly de^red. That officer responded 
that if his prerious demand were not complied with he would 
either captnre or sink the " Compton " in tho midst of her con- 
sorts. The salute was fired tho next day. 

This episode bo exa-iperated the Chiaese that from this time 
forwari the imperial troops kept constantly annoying the fot^ 
cignurs, who were in the habit of taking thuir ikTtvraooQ walks 
and ndoe out on the rsco-oourso. The Governor was again ap> 
paaled to by tho oonsals, but they were informed that it was not 
the rt^ular troo)3e that committed these acts, bnt a troop of camp 
followers, and that the Chinese Qorertimenl had no anthority in 
the matter. Things continued as before, getting worse daily, 
until finally a body of the imperiulists attacked a gentleman and 
lady, wounding the gentleman in seven places and forcing the 
htdy to fly for her life, pelting her with bricks and mad as she 
mu. Otiiur foreigners were fired on and attacked at the same 
time, and a small guard of English mannes who turned ont to 
the aiaiatauce of the fagitivee were being roughly handled, when 



OUR LITTLE WAR WITB CBINA. 



8S5 



Gaptoin Kelly, tieftring of the occnrrcnca, landed & foroo of 
Armed sailors ktid the maraadcn were drifea back to their campe. 
Captain Kellf then attacked thorn Again, and, being beavily rein- 
forced by tlio EugliBh marines and soldiery and a body of militia 
baatily rocrnited among tho Americans in tbo colony, captured 
and bumod the nearest camp. 

Tho next day the oo&mls officially notified the Chine-se an* 
tliohticB of what had ooonrred, and tnformod thorn that if all the 
camps in tbo ricioityof thorace-conrso wore not eracuatcd bylp. 
m. of thnt day they woald be captured ani) bumod to insaro the 
safety of tbu foreign residents. Reply was promptly niudu that 
the oampa in question were occnpied by ^,000 Imperial troops 
and it woald be well for the foreigners to reflect before undertak- 
ing desjicrate measures "Accordingly," says Cnptain Kelly, in 
one of his letters, with a delightfnt simplicity which is worthy of 
comment, "we landed at three o'clock, the Engliah nombering 
SOO Eaitors and 50 Tolunteers and the American forc« coosisling 
of 76 8e«nien and S£ armed American rt«idents.'' 

The EngUsh and American commanders then went forward 
io reconnoiter, accompumcd by their rcspectira consnls. After 
they had made a carofol examinatioD of the work before tbcm, 
Captain Kelly proposc^d that thoy shonld attack in separate 
bodies, the BnglisliadTanoing by tho right, and the Americans 
by the left flank. At this time Captttin KuUy was joined by 
thirty armed American merchant sailors who plaoed themselros 
under his ooromaad. Captain Kelly's proposal being agreed to bj 
tbo Rnglish commander, Captain O'Colhihan, tho little party took 
np its position within 200 yards of the imperial batteries. 

The Americans had brought two light fioldptecee with thon^ 
and at •( f. M. precisely these began throwing shells Into the 
camp, an example which was soon followed by Captain O'Cal- 
Inlian, who opened n sharp fire of musketry. No rotnm being 
made from the enemy's batt«ry. Captain Kelly ceased firing and 
ordsrod a charge. The Engtiith again followed his example, and 
when the allies came within fifty yards the Chinese opened 
fire. The first volley killed one and wounded four of the Amor* 
leans, bat the gallant little party advanced so steadily and kepk 
Bp so aconrafco and inceesant a fixe that on their qniokemng their 
paoe and advancing right up to tbo breastworks the Chinese broke 
and fled in disorder. The Tolnnteers, now fearing that tboj 



336 THE NORTH AMERICAN REVIEW. 

wonld be too late to participate in the Tictory, left their gans 
and went rushing to the assault. Seeing the Americans without 
the protection of their fieldpiecos, the enemyagaia opened a heavy 
fire and forced them to retire to the shelter of the gnns. 

At this juncture Lieutenant Guest was ordered to make a flank 
movement with the "Plymouth's" men and reach the camp under 
cover of some mounds on the left, while the howitsers fired grape, 
from their position, on the coarse, which was still swept by the 
fire from the camps and embankment. Lieutenant Qaest's party 
quickly reached the mounds, and their fire put the imperialists 
again to flight, but the ditch being found impassable, the camp 
could not be entered until reached by the English, who, having 
gallantly taken the position before them, fired the part which the 
Americans had deprived of its defenders. 

Captain Kelly now moved his force to the north end of the 
course to hold in check any body which might advance from the 
Soo Chow camp and so cut off the return of the English, who 
were compelled to march the length of a little stream before they 
could regain the course. His arrival was in good time, for he at 
ODce descried the banners of a large party advancing to the path 
by which O'Callahan must retreat. The guns opened again, and 
with such effect that the enemy retreated without getting within 
musket range, and the conflict was over, although large shot from 
the war juuks in the river now began to whir over the heads of 
the attacking party and plough up the ground at their feet. 

One of the American gentlemen who comprised the volanteer 
force which served the guns, writes in regard to this occasion : 

"So far as >o raw a recmlt SB mrself could Jndge, the Tolnnteera showed 
nnder fire the courage of old Boldlera, but we all cooceired aa especial ad- 
miration for the gold-banded geotiy, as we saw the iadifference with which 
Captain Ketlj and bis officers walked about when the patteriog npon the 
e&rthand the wblstliagin tbealrsbowed that nearly everj square foot had 
Its baUet." 

Captain John Kelly was a capital seaman, but a qniet, peace- 
able, harmless appearing gentleman, and few meeting him in or- 
. dinary life would have suspected him of having been one of the 
leaders in so gallant and desperate an exploit as this, where less 
than four hundred men routed and destroyed the fortified camp 
of twenty thousand trained, hardened, and well>eqnipped soldiery. 

Pbibcb Cbosbt. 



TIIK PKASANTUY OF SCOTUKD. 

BT TRB RRV. I-Ei>PESaoB W, O. BLAIEIK, D. D., LL.D. 



PftOnADLT it ITU tb« "OotUr's Suturday Kigltt" of Buma, 
ninforcfil perliniM by Sir Walt«r Scott's " Unrie Dfans," thut 
g%ve dcflnito form to thut coacoptioti of the Scottish peanotrj 
vhicti for a long time has held possession of Ibe genonU 
mind. It is doubtfal, howerer, whether «t anj limoifuch men 
were mon to th« g«ncru1 mass than BtAre of tlio Qrst niugni- 
(ade Are to the other lights of the firmament. Th« Buuipto wan 
better than ttiB HttK'k. All thnt could be SiUd for the man of the 
people woo Ihut there ncre influences &t work in their Dp-bring- 
ing that tended to produce an indostrioas, iDtelligout, thrifty, 
Mrlf-oontrolM, nnd godW people; on the whole, these inHiU'Dces 
were fairly efficient, whilv iu aclect cuseii they cutmiiialed. and 
gave as the Christian hero«g vboee memory we delight to honor. 
It vaa the strong band of rettgioo that was the leading force, 
the fear of God, foil by CovomuitLiig memoriw, gave a gianf* 
strength to oonecience; it sbeolntely aiinihilated the idea of Hclf' 
indnlgence in ilsoommou forma; it act plain men "to scorn de- 
lights and lire labonoita daya"; and yet it did not Icai'e them in- 
different to the rewards of industry or cortioss of snecoM in life. 

Of course there were exceptions. Too often John Barleycorn 
relaxed the moral sinews, enfeebled the wilt, utid left the char- 
acter sclf-indulj^ed. flabby, and good for little or nothing. But 
there was enough of the bettor spirit to put a stamp on the peas- 
iiiitry generally; to give a character of ita own, fur example, to the 
" Black Watoh " and other crack regiments of the army, and to 
insure success for Scottish em igrunta inculonios and foreign conn- 
tries. "The Scot Abroad" was a sturdy cnitomor, notwith- 
staadiog hU weaknesses and prejiidicee, and bore the itatnp of 
the national motto, Iffmo m» tmpum lacta$il. In England 
the Scot had a kind of mouopoly of gardening and other em- 



33d 



THE NORTB AUERlCAy JiBVtBlF. 



ploymonts ibatdemand spcoinl skill frnd intclligetice. There is a 
stor; of an Abunlonian, head-giirdprier to an En^lieb nobleman, 
vho was once asked bow it happened that his countrymen nsunll; 
filled such situntioDs. "Oh," ha replied, **yon English arc 
KOod enough at oHinnr' things ; but for garden«n, and minis- 
ters, and a* kimie o' iioad-wark, it's hie vo msnn come to !*' 

Hotr is it now f The nineteenth centHij ht« been a terriblo 
reToIutionist, mid in sonio rc^iiocits it hMmade " the olden timo" 
Terj oldoii iiidoed. Has it r«volaUonizDd ibo Soottiah pi-uant? 
Carlyle believed it had; his grand old father was, be thoaght, 
uitimui Hofnatiorum, the Inst of a noble nice. But Cnrlyle 
looked with prrjudioL-d, not to say jaiindicc'd, evea. Whnt misled 
htm wa» that pe&sante of the Janit^ Ciirl^vlc Aod David Hope 
breed, though tliejr ehone aa constoUations or gronps, shone only 
hero and there ; in their own neighborhood they maj have left 
QO Bucorasors ; bnt it by no meiins followed that there were 
no Buoh ftlnra in other parts of the eky. *' Vizei-e/orlM ants 
Agamemnona," and there have been grand speoimeiis of Scottish 
peaeautry since the cUys of the Eoclefeoban mason. Nell 
Livingstone, ten pedliir, the father of the great mlsnooary ex- 
plorer, was quite worthy to stand beside Jumee Carlyle; and so 
wofl John Pnton, of Tortbonrald, Dumfriesshire, stocking wearer 
and afterwards colportenr, the father of Dr. John O. PatOQ, now 
famous as one of the most chivalrous and BuccoGsfal of modem 
mUiaionaries. That little Torthorwald ootta^, withits "but and 
bon " and cloaet between, lay very near the gate of beareu ; the 
■■but," the scene of the clatter and rultlu of luUf a dozen noisy 
haudtooms ; the " bon," of the whole family life ; and the mid- 
rootn, of daily communion with beavon, where the pathetic 
echoes of the old man's trL-nibling voice would occaeinnally be 
li«drd pleading as if for life, but from, which he would om«rg« 
" with the happy light of a new-boru umile tbat seemed to be 
always dawning upon his fiice." The ontlook from " A Window 
ill Thrums" reveals tiieu and women of similar type; simple 
batnot stupid; icflexiMe ia their seiiM of dnty ; their eaminga 
of utn falling far below even "the liviDg wage/' and yet with a 
dignity of character arising from their interest in things unseen 
that poverty oould not deatroy. If Oarlyle had taken a wider 
survey, he would hare found stars of the first nuignitude atiU 
Bhiuiug iu SooUaiid, if not in Ecolefechan. 



TBE PEASaATSr OF SCOTLAND. 



Not a few sucli iostaucee could b« produced, nnknoTtt to 
tame, iUustnititig a tbint for knowledge, a klKtrious diligeuoa, a 
wlf-deiijiag heroUm. a moral ami aptritual eleration bardljr 
ecUpsediu formerdaja. Ofallilieold featareft, perhaps the thirat 
fsr ItbowIiMlgo retains its atreugth best. Whareparenta see a lore 
and apCitudo for learning in aay of their soiu, tboy are Btitl its 
willing M of old to do their almost to gratify it. Wo know tho 
cwo of a miaistor of the goapol, who. besides being a devoted 
prsacher and pa«tor, has done eood litomry work, aad who came 
to study for the ministry under the following oircumstancos. 
His brother and be were coarerted at the eaino time, and both 
were Beiz«d with an intense desire to become preachers of the 
gospel. In Scotland, the uocoasary studies reqnir? at Idutseron 
years, and tho pfuroots, at the utmost, could help but one of tbe 
brothers. Each was willing to surrender bin own wis}i and help the 
other, but the difilculty was to decide which was to be taken and 
which left. They agreed to refer the matter to their minister, 
but as he thought their gifts and graces equal be ooald not deoide. 
At lost it was ro«oIvcd to docidotho case by their ages, but it vaa 
to tlie younger that this gave the advantage, us both wero beyond 
tbe customary age. The elder helped bis brother, bat remaiacd 
ID his own occnpation, anil both are now, in their way, serving 
thstr Master. Mr. Crockett, in his story entitled " The Stickit 
Minister," has worked oat this line with some painful additions ; 
tbe self-denying youth who gave up the ministry to help his 
brother tostiidy medicine died of illnuss cnuftt-d by his hard work 
and expoflare, and did not eren enjoy tbe gratiGoation of finding 
his brother gnttefnl for his noble socriBces. 

Oases are not nncommon of young workiogmen struggling 
like Darid LrvingBtone to teacb themaclros tbe elements of Latin, 
and cherishing the hope ilutt by careful saving of their wages 
tbey may be able to attend colloge and get a liberal edacatioa. 
Tha example of old John Brown of Haddington, the famoas 
aaihorof "Tho Self-Interpreting Bible," huastill its followers. 
The SOD of a poor weaver, and compelled tlirongh poverty to en- 
fC>g«Mituelf as ashopberd* with ffliwraUeemolnmeota, be con- 
trived to gain a fair acquaintance with Latin and Greek. Eager 
to poness a copy of the Greek Testament, he got a friend to take 
charge of bis dock for a day, and at night sot out on foot for 
St. Audrows, a dist«nc« of Iwenty-iour milesj to make his par- 



330 



THE KOSTB AMBRSt'A2t REVIEW. 



obase. In the book&eller'B flliop were some gentlemea, oa« of 
whom, amazed tliatRucb a boy shuutd make such a porctuue, 
said to him, " Boy, if you cad read that book I'll give it to jron 
for nothing." He acquitted himeelf to admiration, and robamod 
like Jacob's son from Kpypt, with hie purchaw and hia money to 
the bargain. A cukp of a farm-hoy who had taught hiniM-lf the 
rndiments of Latin, and who, under tha guldauce of a neigh* 
horiiig clergyman, ia preparing for a nDiversity, is known to 
the present writer, and donbtlees there are many more Buch. 
Bnt the way of advancement for sacb youths in now easier than it 
wan, chiefly tbrough the institution by private beoevolence of what 
are ailled " CTruoitiiar School Bnnatriea." the object of which is to 
enable promising lads togain by competition eume of money to 
help them in their studios ; the fact that thcBo aro gained by com* 
petition taking away the Hemblanco of charity and preaenring 
their indopcndeace undamaged. 

There haro boon eercml uotable instancet of lata years of 
Scotchmen in the poorest conditions of life making their namea 
illustrioiiB by their eontributiona to natural science. Hugh Miller 
belongs to a past generation ; but within the easy recolloctiou of 
the present we tare had Thomiw Edward. Bobert Dick, and 
John Dtmcnn. Two of those, Mr. £dward and Mr. Dick, hare 
hail their hiograpbies written by Mr. Samuel Smiles. Ed ward, who 
was the son of a private soldier, andhlmsetf a working ahoemaker, 
through an irrepressible piuteion for natural history, collected 
mauy apecimeufl and discovered new species which lie classified, 
described, and exhibited. He was made a Fellow of the Linnman 
Society and of the Boyal Physical Society of Edinbnrgh, and ob* 
taiued from the Queen a pension of £50 a year. Dick, a tait- 
taught geotogiet and botanist, was a baker in Thurso ; andDun- 
cao, whose achievements in science were commemorated in Oood 
Worth in the days of Norman Maeleod, was, if we remember 
rightly, a weaver in an Aberdeenshire Tillage. We fear that this 
worthy man was too like other propbcte who get but scant honor 
In their own country ; bat on one occasion be bade fair to got 
more honor than he desired. Some idle lads haviug taunted him 
that, with all his science, be could not get f niit to gro» on a soli- 
tary juuiper bush, he told tJicm to come back in autumn, and 
they would Bee. Meanwhile, nndcrstaiiding how to fertillxetbe 
juniper seeds, bo brought from a disiuix-e the uoodod {lollon, and 



THE I'BASAlVTRr OF SCOTLAND. 



m 



whan tbo lodi camo to act, lo aud bcboM, an ample crop of ber- 
Hm 1 They tlionght lie must be Teril; a mtrlock. 

Tl)« practioo ot fiuutl; worHbJp in uudanbtedl; mnoh leas 
common than it onoe wnfl, but it is by no meiuia extinct 
eveu in the poorwt oloaa. And iho deep camettnesa of the 
olden tim« is aUio met with. It is th« happinces of th« 
prviont writer to b« Hcqiiainted with not a fnv mnn in 
country diuricta, usually small formen and mechaniua, who 
hare b«en called to the office of ."elders" in their ooDgregi^ 
tioDs> and who are held in profound reep«ct for their moral 
tiitej|;rity and high oharacter, at well aa (or their consifltent 
Ohriatian profeasion. Keitber has it been his lot to oomo in con- 
tact with many who were hypnvriteft. That there are iruch no 
one cwuld deny ; but they do not bear that pro]iortioQ to the 
raoka of honcRt men that one woold infer from what one reads Id 
fli?tion. From novels oue would Biipjiose thai a pnmonnoed re- 
lijfious man was just as likely to be a hyiK>crite as not ; this, I am 
oonrinced, is quite untrue. 

But apart from particular instances it hu boen made abnn- 
dantly evident, from thurecent hiiitoryof theProsbyteriiinCharoh 
in Scotland, that the great body of the Scottish pwwantry Itave 
Dot lost their interest in mutters of religion. Fifty years ago, 
when the Proo Obarch gate up the emolnmont« derived from the 
State, there were oaoes without nnmbor of both men and women 
risking and eren losing their whole means ot support, as tlio Cot- 
enonters did in former days, out of r^ard to oouscicntions con- 
viction. It was when he heard of the mioisters marching to 
Canoninills that Lord Jeffrey said be was protid of Iuk eonniryi 
and that in no other land would ancfa a sacrifice bare been made 
to principle ; but tbroiigbout the whole coantry there might have 
been fontid eoinmon men and vomeo of the like spirit, farmers 
who lost their farms, tradettmeu their custom, servants their 
plaoea, teachers their sohools, govemessea tb«r situations, iu the 
flame oauee ; not to speak of the bitter scowl and furious scokl- 
ings to wliiob tbey were expoaed when the gantry choee to open 
flre upon them. The times arc quieter now, bnt deep in many a 
heart aleepa the olden ftpirit, only needing to be roused to show 
itself cttpable of the same aacnfioes as before. 

fiomebow the typioal representativo of the godly cottar baa 
always boen a man ; bat it needs bardi r to be said that inch men 



333 



TUB KO^TH AMERICAN REVIEW. 



would liare been tunch mora rare but for Ibeir godly mothers W 
fore them. And manyis the noble life of toil and struggle that 
such mothers have led. There cotnoa Acro«s mo tho rocollectioti 
of a poor voman knovn to mo soono yoaig ngo, tho vifo of a 
drnoken husband and the mother of a large family, who used to 
titnigglu from early mom to pust midnight in a crowded, staffy 
apartment, adding to the employmenteof wife, mother, nurse, cook, 
nnd housemaid, that of tho dressmaker for b«r neighbors in order 
to keep horfamilT respcntablc. Norer n ronrmnr did I ho«r 
from h«r tipa ; on etho wont, Aoi'tiuc. paticot. cvor-plodding. aud 
not without hoiie : nor. I may add, without reward ; for at tho 
eleventh hour her husband was roctaimod, and somo of her children 
turned oat splendidly. 

Some years ago a beautiful picture of a peasant mother vas 
gliven to the world by hor d&ughtor, tho uubhor of a priie easay 
on the Sabbath, which waa puMislted under farorable aaepiccB. 
"I owe all to my parents," cho sHid, "but eepeoially to my 
mother; herwmestsnd indefuligable cxertiong, in the faco of 
diffii;a1ltes which would haw appullMl any common mind from 
attempting euch a task, together with herceaselecs wutchftilucBt, 
secured for na such an amount of knowledge and formed in ns 
such habits as rai&ed us nbovo tho temptations that usually beset 
youth in the hnmblo walks of life." The income of the family 
was Hmull, and the number of tho children wiut unuauully large : 
and, moreover, their home was situated so far from church and 
school that th^y were unable to attend either. Here waa a case 
where in ordinary cireumstanoes the children must have grown 
ap like heathens and Ravages. But through the tact and care of 
tho pareuto it was quito othorwii>e. The mother used to tokv tho 
ohildren one after another four times a day, and give them a 
iiliort lesson, oven though the might be standing at tho wash-tnb, 
The lessons idie would teach them were not an amusement, but 
ftMrious business that muet not bu trillod with. Horuover, she 
trained them to anderstand from their very infancy, that the great 
Qod of heaven had sent them to her and their father to be 
taken care of, loved, and taught ; and that God wonid he highly 
displeased with her if she allowed them to bo untruthful dis- 
obedient, or quarrelsome A prompt and cheerful submission to 
parental control was the Crst habit the parents sought to form ; 
other good habits wore added with comparative ease. Every 



TBB PEASASTRY OF SCOTLAND. 



B33 



one wtB tntincd to bo uaoful. If the raoilier had to siipply tba 
pUos of ichwluiut«r, the f lUher iu lik« nivwor liad to bo pastor 
on SandAjB. Afler faJiiily worship, he would j;ke them a hjnin 
or puMge of scripture to leam, and iu Ane weather the aumEiier> 
hooM! or the clump of trees near their cottage would furniflh the 
requisite {iltico of study. During Uie aflertioon the raothur would 
r»ad to them or ihey would read nil round some suitable book. 
And bootu were very scsrce. Ooce, a loaf from a hymn-book 
was found on the edge of the bum, and nothing could show 
better tho scarcity of the printed pago than the avidity with 
which it was seized and tho hymn commttt«d t« memory. 

Quite recently a ehephcni's wife, whose path to the far-away 
church lay through » uittadow uluiig the banks of a quiet etreum, 
remarked to her minister that, instead of finding the wny long, 
she could bare wished it longer, for she Boomed to bo walking along 
the twvuty-third Pratlm — " Hi> k-udiith me beatdo the still watura." 

Wo have givon samples of & claaj o( peasantry still to b« Found 
iu the country districts of Scotland, although it is not ao com- 
mon as before. For many things bare contributed to chango the 
poopto's habita, and to change thorn for tho worse. 

Cue of those things is the creation of large estates and lai^ 
farms, and the diminntion of the number of crofts and small 
holdings. In former days a gruat partof Scotland consisted of 
small properties, oftoii farmed by tlieir owners. Where the 
propertien were larger, they were divided into small farms, tho 
Leoants of which coustilutod what may be called tlie " cotter '' 
population. The trend of things for the lost two cetitnnes has 
boon towards enlargement both of propertios and farms. Large 
proprietors, eager to increase Iheir territorieB, have been on the 
watch for small pru{>ertiea, and have generally acquired them 
whenever they cttme into the market, mortgaging them heavily for 
tho price. Till quite recvntlv tho law allowed proprietors to make 
strict entail of their property to their own offspring from gener- 
ation lo generation, and tliis was commonly done, for it raised tbs 
Btstna of a family wboQ it owned a fine estate that coald not be 
alienated. Now, however, there are legal factUtios for breaking 
entails, and in consequonco bctodiI large oitateshave been broken 
op. 

Still, however, the property of the soil in Scotland is in very 
(ew handit, and some of our noblemen own enormons tracts. And 



334 



THE NORTH AilSHJCAN REVIEW. 



with largA propertiee tliera hare come large fanus. In somo 
HJghlaud difitricls the policy of evictiug crofters aud amall hum- 
ors, aud tuniiiig tlieir land into huge sheep farms and deer forests, 
was carried out in man)" cases with the most mthlctt Mverity. Id 
other parta of the country tho change has been effected more 
quietly, bnt with the result that in amaj dtatriota amall farnu 
are not to be gut ; no unn can bo a former unless be Qsb command 
of a large amount of capital. 

These changes have been much against the peasantry. For a 
young man starting life as a Itiboror or farm servant, th«re is no 
outlet now in such districts, uu way of improving his oondiLtou ; he 
muet be a laborer to the end, dependent on the farmer who em- 
ploys him ; and when through yean ho becomes unfit for bard 
tabor, hii pra^poct is truly dark ; indeed bo has no prospect at 
all. Young men in nuoh circumstances prefer going into our 
towns in the hope that they may findmoro promising employment 
there : or perhaps they emigrato to the colonies or the United 
Statw. It is tho uuif'orsti! lamentation that our rural population 
la decreasing, while the towns are growing ; for the towns are 
neither so hcullliy uor so fuvorablu to mond H.iid spiritual charac- 
ter. A friend writes me that twenty-Sve yeai-s ago two of hta rel- 
atires wbob«gna life at; farm eerrants contrived, by extraordinary 
economy, to save £600, tUrough which they were enabled to rent 
first one farm, then auothor. of 130 acres. TUeso were rare cases 
oren twenty-fire years ago, the difficulties being overcome only 
through tho extraordinary energy of tho young men, and to-day 
tho difficulties would be still greater ; but in days of old the trimsi> 
don from laborer to amall farmer was compnrBtircly easy, and 
while the prospect gave ati impulse to the laborer it aatidlted him 
when it became a reality ; and the same prospoct lay before bis 
sons. 

I am afraid that it cannot be said that the same thrifty habits 
prevail now lunoug our peasantry that wero so murkod iu former 
times. Scotland was miserably poor a hundred and Sfty years 
ago ; although with tho exception of outlying Highland districts, 
it DOW presents little difference from England. In those days 
unleoB people were thrifty they could not live. With tho growth 
of wettlth the itleadof the common people have booome higher, 
and I fear thrift lias become rarer. The present writer was roach 
surprised, on occasion of a recent visit to a part of Aberdesushicw 



THK PEASAXTRY OF SCOTLAim. 



wilh which ho hid been connected long ago, t« obwrre a great 
change in tbo aocUl lifo o[ tlio pooplo. Thoy woto bettor boneedi 
bpltcr clothed, and boUvr fed. In many onsett^casei of farmen 
renting perbiips n biiiidrcd ucrcs — i»Bt«ad of tbo wretched "but 
»nd ben,*^ with the daj- fioor and lfa& boi-b&d, there were uioo 
cottagM of wvvral •{NtrtmoiiUi, curtainod and cnrpoted, with 
|ihotogrB]>bs and otiier work* al art on the wnlU and a |>inno in 
the ]iarlor. For mywlf I rejc^e !n such iniprovement*, nor do 
I tbiiik that thoir effect is ueccesarily hiirtful to cbaruoter. On 
ibe voulrnry. I WlJevu witli I>r. Cluiliuore th»t tbo deairo for a 
better et)'Io of life is a wbolesonio stimnlus to llie poor, and that 
it ia favgrnblfl ritther than otberwiiie to tbo iniproremont of the 
clMractvr. Still Ibow vho aro niiicb amouK the poor believe 
that thrift ia not nov pi'dctJscd ne it iniglit be, and from tbia 
ohrioua onlt4 cnaiKi. Wbi>r« waatofiilncaa gbt« n footing there is 
u tuniptation to the mother to go out to work in order to increase 
theramlngx, limviug tbu funiilv to ibu care of aoinc Mmall girl 
who can be hired for a trifle. There is also a temptation tu aoud 
the children ont to earn their living by anything that offers, ia- 
atond of apprenticing them to a tradn Hiid thiia providing for thn 
future. Dninkennuee, too, haa played turrible Imvoc in too mmuy 
casea with oar working people, and thoagh tbe country population 
are eomparoUvoly free from that vice, yet tboee who go to settle 
in towns are terribly eipoeed to it« insidious ai.lTiinc<>, and when 
they fall under ita influence, become aa bad aa any. 

Wo cannot rntorge on other inlhieuooa ttmt have tended to 
RHKlify the chai-Actei' of our peasantry. Our railnays and tele- 
gnpba, iiritfyiug our littlo country, iind obliterating Im^d and 
proTincliU landmarks : onr cbenp preas, flooding us day by day 
with all kindH of ucws, and lolling us how wo should think and 
act and foid in reference to everything ; tbo rapid epro>ad of 
faahions in dreas, enpei-Beding the "mntcbcs " and " mittens " 
of foriBor days, and making tbo dreas and appearance of all 
degreea raoch more aliku : ihn political privilfgcH ooniemd on 
the whole people, compelling them to think and aot on nattfra 
common to them and those of higher station ; the enlorgod loopa 
of education in (he Board schools, opening up new avennea of 
knowletlgo and quickening dormant faculties — bBT« all had a 
sensible influence on the Scottiab peasantry. The nnaopbisti- 
catod simplicity of former days ha« given place to a more wido- 



THE SVORTir AVERICAX REVIEW. 



aiTflko outlook— to more regard for intorMts and righta that vore 
Hitle thought of in dajrs of yore. Thig, too, cftiinot be oom- 
plaiutfd of ; and if only deep principlB Us at the bottom of the 
obanicter, it canaot do harm. Bnt it makea the sitaation more 
risky, and probably increases the aamber that fail in the battle 
of life. 

In social matteni, the great battle of the fnture in Scotland 
01 list bo connected with the land. Smnller properties, smaller 
farms and more namerousallotmenbi to laborers are ererywliere 
Deeded. Hsppily a feeling is alive in all cUutei that somotbing 
ought to be done to check the eiodns fnim the country districts 
and make rural Ii(u more attractive to the young. Whether the 
parieh oonnoils that will soon be in opeiation will effect much in 
this direction remains to bo eccn. The eontiments of the present 
Prime Minister (Lord Itoseberj), recently oxprcMod in reply to 
an address from the London Ootinty Conncil, and the views ho 
oheriRhes in reference to the relation! of the several classes of so- 
ciety to ciioh other, entitle him to very cordial thanks at the 
hands of all friende of the people, and if carried out would hare a 
wondorfiil offecl iu checking revolutiouary tendeucies and pro- 
moting the stability and prosperity of the country. 

W. Gabsek Blaisie. 



CONCKRNING ACTING. 



■ T BirnARU MANSriKLI). 



IIaks Cbbistum AifDEEsKN onco attended a pcrformftnce 
of Kliakespeare's TemptJil aa preecnted by ah actor of great rcpu* 
tatioD. llo etttod oftcrwtrd tiiat in spito of tho mftgoiliconco of 
tbe production, whirti bo dcecribed at great length, liu would 
prefer seeing tlie play in a baru, providal tlie acton engaged 
■poke their worda ctmrl;, and with sense aiid fwling. I 
liDl quite of Mr. Andersen's opinion. The extr&Tsgancc of tho 
gtagc to-day is nlnrming. It in not only ulnrminR : itintheniin 
of tbe pure drama. There teems to bo ajiervemiou of (lie advice 
00DC«rning tho mirror and nature entirely in favor of inanimate 
objects, and we are called upon to atlnnro tho ingenuity of the 
rawtcr carpenter and tbe Odelily of the scene pmnt«r, to the 
almost entire cxtinotion of the art, ^r et eimph, of the actor. 
What is tbe art of the actor? It is tbe expression in voico. in 
word, ID feoe, and in form of tba emotion born of tho silnatioa 
deTJsed by the author. Tbe voice ntnst bo tbe voioo of tho 
peculiar individaal portrayed by tbo actor, attuned to (ha 
oinociou, it muBt be ellber Iiarsb orgentlo, wtruomo or repellent, 
powerful or feeble, bnt it must never betray the limit of tho 
organ. Tho words, no matter whot tho voico may be, miut bo 
comprehonsible. That is the first duty the actor owes tho 
author, at least. The eye, tbo month, tjie figure, most be to 
harmony. 

An actor, in portraying various characters diAoietrically op- 
posite, has no right to offer his own personality in each. That 
is not tbe art of acting. Tbe hnnnen sense of a man wbo lias 
learned that the more tbe pnbUe is fsmiliariHid with tbo individ- 
nolity of an actor the greater hia popularity, is a poor excuse Cor 
bad acting. 

TOL. CLIX. — Ko. 451. 22 



33B 



THS aOSTH AMERICAS REVIEW. 



The tnie etndent will merge IiiinGvlf in the cbaruetcr lie pn- 
BonU, nud ho will prctoDt oaoh cruuturo m lio coQceivcs him, or 
M the author has painted hint. A man who »aunot bo envelop 
himself in tlie robe of the part, who caunot be this man to^lay 
and that man to-morrow, no matter how smart a fellow he may 
be, caniiot be considered an actor. 

There arc numberless profenionB open to clever people with- 
out -voices ajid without otiior neceesu*/ reqair«meuts for the 
stage. Thoj may be statf^mcn, and some actors of reputation 
acem to enjoy an ability in that direction far beyond any qttalifl- 
cation for eur art ; they may bo priests and partous ; they may be 
barristers niid lawyers—in all these parts they need never rob the 
puhllo of a view of their own estimable peraonulity ; upou the 
stage they must It ia absurd for Fngin to be Romeo, and Ro- 
meo, Roncdict — you may label tfaom, but thci'o ia no dccoptioa» 
and the art of the actor m deception. 

Time was when un actor dMlaiuicd the lines of Sbakeopeare^ 
and that was enough. It isn't enough to-day. The world does not 
stand blill, nor does the art of acting. Declaiming is not acting; 
tlie actor must pretend to bo what he ir not ; he must be what 
he pretends to be. There ia a royal road to uuccets — it Is hum- 
bug. There is no royal road to succesa on legitimate lines :-^t 
means ondlca labor, heart-ache, sorrow, and disappoiutment. If 
yon desire to bo on actor, yon most choo«e the latter — ^yon will be 
welcome. The aotor, lives for his art; the world may see the 
pictures he paints, the lessons he inculcates ; he breathes life 
into thpm for n moment ; they fade away and die \ he leaves 
nothing behind hitn but a memory. The aotor has no conneotion 
with scenery and tnechaniam, be does not perceira them — he 
should not know that they anrronnd him ; the picture of the 
place, be it what it may, is the creation of his fancy, and what he 
sees there he contrives to commnoicate to his audience. He can, 
if he will, bring with him the salt uir of the sea, the perfumed 
atmosphere of the boudoir, the flower-see iil<>d zephyr of the 
grove, or the dank hrcath of the cloister. Uii day is study, his 
evening the rvetilt. Ue should have no opinions to buy, no critics 
to placate, no axes t« grind or wires U> pull. You can buy opin- 
ions one way or another, you can win hosts of friends, you can 
grind aies and pull wires, and achieve wealth and tame, but you 
will not achieve art I And tho crowd of sycophants and oour- 



COXCB/tNIKO ACmtO. 



330 



tfers cannot still tbe voice vitbin that tetU jon arei? hoar, 
■' You're a lie 1" 

T)o not l>c tod Rvaj b; tnon wbo t«lt joa to bo origtoal — in 
otbcr words, to be odd txid ecceutrio *nd to attntct attoution to 
jroarself by these monna. Bo not strive to bo original ; bIt'itb to 
bo true I If jrou sncoeed in being trne, yoit vill be original. If 
you go forth to seek originalitjr, yoii will never find truth. If 
joQ go out to seek trutb> yoa mar ditcovor ohgiuatitj. Do not 
bo d&xsled by tbe imooesa of cbicanury or oharlaLanism. Tou will 
not find it BatJHfjiiig, for, however much voa ma; impross olhera, 
yoQ will never believe in j'oursolf, unle.<» yoa are insane. Tbe 
mediocre actor goncmllj enjojs popalaritj, bo offends no one 
and arousca do jealonsies — and mediocrity is «uy of comprehcn- 
aion. Tbe mcrobant will lell you that the meat products are 
nnaalable. 

Tbe actor who plays to tbe grouDdlings, wbo boa a good word 
for ctery one, wbo has never racked his nerves or tortured his soul, 
who hiu not earned liis bread and salt wilb " Kummtr und Notfi," 
vbo bas not realised the otter impossibility of ever nccomplisbing 
bis ideal, who is not striving and amrching for the bettor in art, 
who i« content to amass wealth br playing one part only ; tbe aotor, 
in abort, who ia not unaalisficd, is a poor fool of an actor. 

It ia impossible for an actor to attempt an ardnous rdle and 
bariitg donn hia full duty to bo as unruffled and calm and benign 
aa a May morning. 

The very oentre of his soul has boeo shaken ; ho has projected 
hlmaetf by force of will into another Wing, another ajdiere, — lio 
bai born living, acting, thinking artuther man's life, and you 
oanoot expect to find bini calm nod aoiitiog and tolerant of small 
troDblea, dumpml back on a dnug heap after a flight to the moon. 

[f, when the cnrtain has fallen, yoii meet this clever calculat- 
ing and diplomatic pcrsonogr, know that you ore not in the 
preeeuoo of an actor. Ho \», no doubt, a tbooiand times more 
pleasant to enoonnter. more charming In society, jprafiMtmux to 
the fatigued, barussed, oflcn humiliatod and misnnderstood 
newspaper hack, — but he ia not an actor. 

Tbe actor ia »ui generia, and in the theatre not to be 
judged by the onlinary ralea applied to ordinary men. The 
actor ia an extraordinary man, who every ovening spenda three 
bouni or more in fairvluud and iransforma hiniauU into all kinds 



840 



THE S'ORTB AMERICAS EEVTSW. 



of Olid crcatnrcB for tbo benefit of big fellow men; whan faa ie> 
tttniB from fairjlaad, where he hiM h«en a king or a beggar, a 
crimiual doomed to doatb, u lovor iu dv«pur, or a bannted maa, 
do ;oa faacj the aspect of tlie world and its peoples u not tiugcd 
with some cliugiDg color of his living dream ? 

U is an open question vhether the trne actor should b« soen 
in society (Edmund Ki^in hold that ho should not), or irhether 
Le should romain a myst«ry to bis fellow men. Tho writer is of 
the opiiiioQ that there is no reason why an actor off the slage 
should not behare like an ordinary mortal and enjov as 
tnncb as he may tho plvasurus of life. Hub the writer is also of 
the opinion that tbure is uo ncoesaity for uu actor to boar about 
faim the pungent odor of tbo eouti»»vt. Thora is no claim on him 
to deport himself in sjiy other wise than an honest man wlieo 
he walks abroad. He cAn refrain from ualliiig attention to him> 
eutf by means which would bo ridiculed if employed by othor 
men. He ncod not wear hla hair long, or gaze fixedly into va- 
canoy, or pretend to be lost in poetic ihouglit, or fftridu or iweo, 
or wear odd garments. He may, in abort, behave like a man, 
unless ho has made up hia mind to demeau himBoif into a iwram- 
balating adrertiaement 

The actor's art will he moro widely lionorud by thinking men 
when they discover in the actor the nnoetentatious manners of a 

simple gentleman. Men wilt not blamo tiic actor for encentrioi- 
tice or idiosyncrasies which he may hare inlivritod. or for which 

nature or ill health is reeponeible; they will accept thora as they 

accept thorn in other friends, but they will be swift to perouivo 

their assumption for a purpose. 

Aside from the personal opinion of individuals the public has 

no concern whatever iu the private Liie of the actor ; it belongs to 

him as much as it belongs to the lawyer, the painter, the writer, 

or the architect, or to any other free-born citazcn. 

The stage is the actor's studio and gallery of exhibition ; away 

from it bisdeodaaroof no moment, and man; actors wonld be less 

known and others more popular if the world judged tlie actor 

only by his work. 

Society, as a whole, cares very tittle for art. True art vithoot 

the bambug is as little toloi-nted iu eooioty as a nude flgure. 
Concerning the condition of the Drama in Europe, the 

writer recently discovered in a French Mii. by an unknown writer 



COXCEBJitna ACTUfO. 



sa 



the following (oirjr tale aud he has taken soihd pkins to trftoslato 
it. The MS. is ovidsatly not oomplulo, (or itbnwktoff Abruptly, 
but uoDo tho lou it may chanoa to intoreat : 

L'SRPANT DBJkm D> LA BBOtXUB. 

** Aboat thirty or forty years prior to the ooiiolnaioD of thv 
I9lh (Jtriitary u chiUl wiu bom ia bondou, in Bujjiaud, to a nor- 
tain Mousit^ur du U Itecl&me, Tliis geaUeinaii hod iiuurivd a 
young lady in his own etatiou of life, a Domoiaello RegardcE-moi. 
Tha infant had a number of godparents. They woro indeed so 
DumeroQa il iji impooible to name them all. The inotb popular 
vaa a Japttneso idol, a hidooui and grotoaquo peraonugo, but an 
extraordinary farorito in tbo aalooa of the wealthy ; M. ImprtNS- 
Biout8t«, vbo was received and admirod overywhorv (or tlie reason 
that nobody nnderstood what ho tolkoil about ; Messieurs Jaun- 
dice and Longhair, who wore always arm in arm, and many 
otberv. Thnro wuru ulao godmotbvrK : Uudaiiio Mire-Romaine, 
a itoQt lady who had lived at the Fr«aoh Conrt and who 
worea garment whichroBomblud a sack. She had four daaghtera. 
The eldetrt. Mum (7hin, wna n middle-aged, lingular person whoar- 
nuDgod her fadiMl yellow hair iu a tuft over u lour forehead 
and who«e chin seemed to uy forever to the reist of the body, 
* Come along, follow me.' 

"The second eiitt«r was named 'Oraap.' She mu a faded 
flower, and tlio process of several divorce Buita hod slightly tor* 
uahed the lustre of bor early boauty. This young person had an 
enga^ng manner of throwing out her houdD aa if to snatch some- 
thing, and she rarely frequeutud any house where draporios whloh 
■he might clutch were not hung in profusion. The otiicr two 
giris were twius and were called Cling and Flop, and tJl four 
sisters were gancnilly (oUow«d by long-haired and pate-iaoad 
youths who spoiee lilce women aud wore corsetA. 

"The infant hul other sponsors, and Z must not forget a 
renowned virtuoso who could whi^iiur to a piano, sit upon it, 
tickle it, beat it, dost it with his hair, aud all the wlule extract 
from it the most heart- rrnditi^ melodies. 

" Not many mnons aftur the birth of the child, Monrienr and 
Mndninci do la ReolAme were receiviug their friends iu their 
Buburhau villa. It was Saturday evening. Hoasienr de la 
Uecl&mo hud pubUehcd, to hia entire utiifactioo, • weekly 



849 



TBB IfOnm AHERICAH REVISW. 



joornftl called • PanI Pry,* of wliich he wiw tho proprioWr and 
editor, and he wiu now enjoying, in the boeom of hU famil; aod 
of his iLumeroas coutribabors, the full delights of au oiuy oon- 
Bcieace and of lawful crime, hong linee of carriages strebchod 
like tho wrponte of Ijaocooo from his door, for although no one 
aokaovledged the aoquatntanoe of Monsieur de la R«ol&m«j no- 
body dared to rcfusv his inTitation, and as Madame de la 
RvcUme'e diawing-rooms were Bhroaded in Cimmerian darkncea, 
it was eaay to be present withoat detection. The gueats hariag 
depart«d and tho servants liiiving withdrawn, tho lights wore tarcod 
up, and Muuiiieur de la Beclilmu produced from a cupboard a 
flttcon of rare liquor wbtoh had boeo preseoted to hira by a young 
orphan girl, coQceroiug whom ho had generously auppreued a 
very valuable paragraph. The clock in tho church near by, in 
which Momiieur and Madame de la BecUme owned a pew, had 
juat cliimed twelve, wheu these estimable people were disturbed 
bya violeat Qoiftc la au adjacent pautry. Both the lady and 
gcutlcmnn spmug in alarm to their foot. A roioo at Monaiour de 
la Becldme's elbow isald quietly : 

" ' Do not di«tarb youreeU and do not bo afraid/ and tha 
worthy couple boheld a gentJdm&n, who had a red face and a 
buld head uud who was in full oveoing dretn. 

*'* Sir]' exclaimed Monsieur de la ReoUmo, 'this intrusion! 
I must beg you * 

" ' PurdoQ me,' aaid the stranger, ' for my somewhat an- 
ceromoniouB eotraiice. I am a Oeoie of whom yon have do 
dou bl beard. My name is Venale — and I always come in through 
the pantry. 

'"lam horc.'continaed the Goiiie, pouring himself oat fully 
a tombler from the Barou before Monsieur do la Becl&m.o and 
imbibing tho liquor wilh a gentle Kigb, 'I am here to spook to 
you about your boy, whom I dedtiue for the highest honors, pro- 
vidiug you agree to my terms.' 

" ' Sir, ' replied Mouaieur de la HecUme, * I am highly eoa- 
siblo of tho honor yon do mo, but I hove already decided upon a 
{ttOfessioQ for my son, that of a wealthy man.' 

-*' * Pardon me,' aaid tho Genio somewhat coldly, ' yoa are 
probably anuware that yoa owo all yoar good fortuDO to me, and 
that by the simple process of taming my booknpoD you, you would 
bo utterly ruiuod ; however, X will ovci-look your impertinence this 



co.vcERyiNo Aerms. 



(mi 



litoe. u I lun cxoe«nvoljr fonrl of yon, bat you tnust gire me r de- 
Ctuve reply at onco, because I hare a supper engogemenL with a 
pFomincDt public iiiaii.' 

"UonBlearde I* ReelAni« belDg bow thoronshly fright«ucO. 
usurad tho Oenio that be wonUl cooMut to RDythiug tbe Qeaia 
proposed. 

"'Very well, tboa.'ssid tho Spirit. 'I ahal] claim the right to 
6!imt«a your aon, aod I shall boetow upon bim the ancient name 
of ' Drame/uut] since yoa have been so boepitablo ami obliging, I 
shall obtain from my intimate friend the Prime Minister tbe title 
of Baron, and your sod will, therefore, rejoice yoor heiirtfw Baroa 
Draaifl do la Recllme."* 

" Both tlie overjoyed pareaU were abont to giro ful]6Xpre«gioi) 
to their gratitude when, hy a alight movement of his hand, the 
Geule pocketed Hoosieurdela RccUme'sgold repeater which had 
been lying on tho table at the publishcr'e plbow. 

. "'I DCTor accept wordi,' eaid tho Ocuio haaghtily. 'From 
this day forth I shall watch ofer your eon. I ehnll guide 
every step of hia life. I ahaU be wherever he la. I ihnll 
rub) his dvetinr. Above all I shall make him renowuod. Daruu 
Dramc do ht Kccl&me will eurpaes, will BUpcrucde, all who have 
ever borne the name.'" 

The hut wordfl, spoken with great majesty, were ao- 
oompanied by an action whiob embraced two solid silver caa- 
delabra and the Geniu diauppeared. 

Here the MS. had b&eo torn, matilatcd, and is do longer leg- 
ible. 



THE DEVELOPMENT OF AERIAL NAVIGATION, 

BY HtBlH 6. MAXDf. 



Ik lf^90 I tried a seriecii of experimonti with a vlaw of asoer- 
taiuitig liQW much powvr vm requin^ U) porform artificial flight. 
An Rccoant of theee expevimeDts written bj mjsolf^ and eolillDd 
" Atrial NuvigatioR — Tbo Power Ucquirud," uppcurvd in the 
Century Mugazinc of October, 1891. The appanttua Died io 
thcSD experimontii wag construL-t(>(] with groat caro and wag pro* 
vided with all eorU of delicate itiHtrumeDU wtiicb enabled me'to 
aecertiiin definit«lj the exact power re(|nired for performing 
urtilicial fiight on the ASroplone eystom driven b; sorow pro- 
pel Inrs. 

Aa 18 veil known, when one dies a lcit«the conl holds the kite 
ii^iiiiiitt the wind. The wind passing on the nnder eidc of tbo 
kite strikes it at an angle andrpises the kit« into tbe air. If 
the wind be blowing at a htgfa roloci^ — say 36 tnilce an hoar — 
the kite will lift from one pound to Uto pounds per square foot, 
tictrunltng to the angle at which it 19 held in the air. If tlto angle 
be flight, the amount of etrain on the cord neoeaBaiy to hold it 
against the wind will be found considerably lees than the weight 
of the kite and the loud which it is able to lift, particularly so if 
the cord pulla in a buriiwuUil direction instt-ad of at an angle. 
It is also welt known tJiat if a kite be propelled in a calm through 
the air, say at tb« rate of 35 miloe an hour, the effect ia exactly 
the snmo. Suppose now, iiistead of the cord for holding the kite 
ngainct the wind or for propelling it against still air, that a eorew 
propeller should bo attoobed to the kite and that it should be 
driven by some motor. If the screw propeller could be made lo 
give a pnah oqiinl to the pull of tho kite, and if the roaohinory 
ior driving it should be no greater than tho weight that the kite 
would be able to carry, wc should have averitable flying machine. 



TUB DEl'ELOPMeNT OF ATRIAL NAViaATTOIt. 845 

In m; 6rstexpcrinieDts to aaoertoJtt the power re<)ttired, the 
ii4>roplanei employed were formed of thiu piecoa of wood, Iho 
under side being iliglitly concave luid the top lidQ slightly con- 
vex. Thwc aeruptnuee J wuti utiu to propyl rotiod a cirdo SOO 
feet in oiroumfer«uc« at a ipecd say from !£0 to 90 milefl an honr, 
and with the pianos at any desired angles. When the incliuatiou 
irai ] in 14 it wiui foond tbat » thrntit of C ponndii on the screw 
wbuld lift 14 liniu fi pounds, or 70 puondB* on the plane. It wai 
also found in thcfie experiment* with a plane eet atan anji^le of 1 
in 14, that ub much tu 133 potinda could b« OHrried with the ex- 
pendituroof 1 horse powiT. These oi peri mentis, which wuro very 
(all and complete, and which embraced many different kinda of 
eorew propellen and nt'ropluncs, di'monstrated that a two-bladM! 
wooden propeller with a pilch slightly greater than the diameter, 
was tbc raoetodrantagoous, tbe propelling power being very great 
and the lose by slip comparatively small. Niirrow a^rophuiefl 
eligUtly coucare on the under Hide, Kot at n elif:hb anglo and 
driven at a high spe«<t, were found to lielhemoet eflioient, nndany 
distortion or bnggiiig of the aeroplane increased enonuously tbe 
power required. 

Having; oHcerUiim'd experimentally the power rtKininvl, 1 nt 
once commciioed expcrimeDt« witb a ricw oC dvruluping the 
oeoesaary moUvo power. Everything considered, 1 believed that 
•tMni power would be more eftlcient for the weight tbsu any 
otber BOarce of energy. First I made two pairs of compound en> 
gines, tbe bi(;h*pres«tir« cjrtinders being 5 inohoe in diameter, the 
low-pressnre cylinders 8 inches in diameter, and all having a 
stroke of I*^ iucbes. In order to make the engines as light aa 
poauble, the cyttoden were made iiboat ,', inch thick, of a high 
gradeof Quid oompreaaed steel. Theralveohamben andposaage- 
waya weit] mada of aesmleti steel tobes, the whole being nMtly 
riveted together and brased with ailver-Rolder. 

The crank ahuft waa of comparattrely large diameter, but 
hollow, and of highly tempered steel. All the piston and vulro 
rods, and also the framework of the engine, woro couttmoted Of 
hard and thin tiibaUr stool. When the engines were finished 
they were found to weigh 300 Iba. the pair, or 600 Iba. in all. 
The bigb-promre cylinder waa made with a considerable amoant 
of olearaDoe, so as to aToid danger if water should go over with 
tbe itMm, uid the piston valves were made to cut off at { stroke^ 



346 



THE NORTH AMERJCAff JtKVllSW. 



while stdam waa out off in the low-preasure cylinder at % etroke. 
lielieTJQg that on some occasions I migbt ruquiro to put on » 
trcmcndoDfl Bpnrt. I placed a. dim] of nn iDJector Tulve liotwecii 
tho hi;;b-prvH9uru cttctua diri-ctlj from the boiler niid the oxbaasl 
Irom the higb-presaure cylinder. This injector was provided 
witb a spring valvu regulated in sach a manner thai in case the 
boiler pretssnre shoaUl rise nbore 300 pounds to the sqaare inch, 
ixtltcad of blowing off steuni nt tho aafet;-ralve, the steam would 
open a passage direoti/ into tbo tow-presSDro cylinder, and, u Ute 
peHuageway yraa annatar uud arranged to be more or lets large in 
proportion to tbe eteaiu parsing, lUa etvam in falling from a high 
to a comparatively lov prOBsnro vaa made to do acertain amount 
of irork on tho «xhaadt steam, thus incniasing tbe prossnrain tho 
low pnjsgore cylinder without greatly inorensing tho back prennra 
in the high- pressure cylinder. Thia is a new feature, which. I 
Ihink, has never been uacd on a compound engine before. 

Tho Srat steam generator was constructed of a rery large 
number of small and thin tubce. It waa constractod so as to 
admit water at ona end of the nerieH and to draw sLeam from the 
other end, and to bo rcguluUi the fire as to convert about dO per 
cent, of the passing water into steam. This boiler was of great 
lightness, not weighing without its cosing more than 300 pounds, 
and WHS heated by 60 eqnaro feet of flame ; bnt it was found im- 
posaiblo to so r^tilatc the flro and tbu water anpply as to have 
comparatively dry steam without deeiroying some of the tubes. 
If twice as much water as is evaporated was pumped through the 
boiler, itstood the beat fairly well ; hut upon any attempt being 
made to reduce the quantity of wntor, some of the ismall tubes, 
which were of copper, would invariably buret. This boiler was, 
however, remarkable because steam could be raised in aboat ten 
seconds, and on some occasions an sniplo supply of steam was 
made to run the ougincs up to 300 horse power. 

The first boiler having failed, I at onco determined to make a 
boiler on a new plan, but before doing so I tried aseriee of exper* 
iments so as to be sure of mj ground in my eecond attempt. I 
obtained a quantity of copper tubes | of an inch diameter, -^ of 
an inch thick, and 8 feet long- Four of these were connected 
together and provided with a forced circulation ; Lhey were then 
placed in a wbtto-bot furnace and made lo evaporate at tbe rate of 
Z^k pounds of water per square foot per liouruta presBoreof 400 



THB DSVKrXtPilENT OF AORTAL SAVJOATION. 347 

pounds to the square inch. Hsvlng stood this test, a siagle tnbo 
VM placed ia a whit«-bot fumaco sinuUrly connoct^d. with a 
view of SuiliDK tho banting prosBtire under ntcain. It exploded 
1,660 pouudB to the square foot. Some bundreds of ttibiM 
were then tested with one ton per square inch pressure of cold 
kerosene oil, and aa nene of them ahowod any signs of leaking, 
tbenew boiler wns constructed of thR«e tiibea. Tho j^nniind form 
waa aomewhatnmilar Co the water-tube boilers employed on Utr- 
pedo boats in France and England, except that the tnboa were 
relatirely luuoh longer for thctr diameter and bad tw)oe na many 
bends in them, and to insure circulation a down-take for the 
water ontcide of tho firebox was provided. The feed-water in 
coining from thu pump piuued through a rery elaborate network 
of fine copjM-T tuU-a immudiutcly over tho boiler und at a pressure 
30 pounds greater than the boiler pressure. A spring valve no>- 
sla was inter|>osod between thefe«d-wiitor hcntcr and the down- 
take for the water in such a manner that Iho escaping force 
of the water operated powerfully on the surrounding water in 
the down-take, and thos secured a very rapid circulation throogh 
the long liud slender liibeii whioh foruiod tho main beating sur- 
face of the boiler. This new boiler has proved itself to be very 
efficient Indeed ; tho network of very fine tubca which forma the 
(ood-w»tor heater greatly reduces tho teuiperaturu of the oscHping 
products of combustion, so thpt the heating of the top of the 
casing of the boiler is never great enough to burn paint off tho 
amokestock. The new boiler was first teaCod to 410 pounds oold 
water prvusure, and then to 32fi poundH BtL-mu pressure. Having 
ooiopletod tlio now boiler it wiis placed in position, and ex]>eri- 
mente commenced with petroleum hnroers. The new boiler had 
a very ranch reduced firobox. Whereas the fimt experimental 
boiler hud what might be ciUlcd 40 sqaiira feet of grate aurfitcc. 
the new boiler bod only 28 square feet. In ordinary boilersheated 
by petroleum the famaoo is EtappHed with one or two very power- 
ful jets, burning against brickwork or fireclay. This, of course, 
would be quite out of tho qnestion with a flying-mB«:faine boiler. 
HoreoTcr, with suoh a liglit boiler it was not advisable to hare a 
very intonse flame ; what was nccesBBry, of conrse, was a very 
large and even flame, so as to heat all tubes equally. The first 
burners experimented with worked all right for about 100 horse 
power ; bnt whenerer any attempt was made to increase the flsme^ 



TUB yORTa AUERTCAU- REVIEW. 



great uneTonnces in the flume oocurrcd, 8omc parU of Iha firebox 
being i)llc4 with flame, while olher parlfi hail no flaniuatall. 
After muob experimenting I Onally decided to use naphtha, 72 de- 
grees Beanni6. 

Tiio na]>htha was pumpod into a small and exceeduiglj light 
T(>rtical boiler, wbcro it waa heated with a flnmc genoratod from 
part of tUi awn oontentB arranged in anoh a manoer that when- 
ever the preHHura of the gae or tlie vapora uf petroleum ex> 
ocodeil 50 pounds to the ftftnare inoli the flame irae nutomuticollj 
ahat off, while if the preeenrc fell slightly below this the flame 
mnu turned on so thiLt, no mailer how mnoh gac or mpor was 
drawn front (he boiler, the pressure remained congtant. This 
unall boiler wua auitpended bj apringa in sncb a manner that 
vheneTer the weight of the coutente exceeded 40 poundtt, it 
jnored the boikr slightlj dowtiwanls, which operaUwl upon an 
escapement on the pumping mechanism in Micli a manner that 
when the weight was greater thuji 40 ponude the stroke of the 
pump vriudiniiiiished; while if the weight waa less than 40puuuda 
the strolco Wiis increMeil. This apparatus was found to work 
ndmirnbljr ; and no matter how mncli or how little gas was drawn 
from the gencnitor. tlio weight of liijiiid and pressure of gas 
alwajra remained conetant. The Ta[>or vrnui led from the gener- 
ator through a pipe in the fnrnace, vhore it became euperheatvd, 
and then wasblown through a epocicH of an iiijeotor into the fur- 
nace, sncking a large «]uantity of air through h suitable oj^oning, 
which could bo regtilutvd so ue to make the gas of any desired 
densitf. 

Man; burners were experimented with, the Bret one having as 
many as 14,000 jet« ; the one finally adopted had 7,G50 burners, and 
was so arranged thatnuy amount of gas might be consumed without 
any aneTenuuta, smoking, or blowing* Having perfveUid my 
boiler, my gas generator, and my pumping apparatns, so that all 
worked smoothly and anlomalically, I utlacbodapair of very large 
and carefully made linen-covered wooden screws to the screw 
shafts. Tticsc screws were 17 feet 10 inohcs in diameter, 
and had a tligliUy inereasing pitch, the mean pitch being 
nther more than 16 feet. It will be understood that the 
hoiler was placed upon a platform abont 8 feet wide and 40 
feet long : that the engines and dcrowa were held by strong tnbalar 
braaketi above the roar end of this plAtform* and that the whole 



TUB DEVELOPUEST OF aSSJAL SAnaATIOX. 841) 

VU mounted on four Bkol wbocls ; Ihut there wiiro springs inter- 
powd botveon tlip nzlrtroM of thdut vhfwln nnd the pktfomi ; imd 
also that there weru vcrliual tuboa and wireN altaehed to tbo plat- 
form wliich held thfl large aeroplane, which u about iKirt/ feet 
hy fitly fftut, in itoeition. 

Atthosanio time that tho exporitnents wero going on with 
tbo btiment and boilers, a railway tnw'k 1 ,800 ft>«t long waa being 
laid, mtid tbo franiQWork of tho rnikchiiio wm bfitig brought to n 
atato of completioa. Upon moTiog the machiDeoD to the track, 
triiig it tip and attMbing it to a dysamometor, I fille-d tbo boilor 
with water, got up ateam with a alow fire in about tbreo minutM 
and Btart«d m}- enginea, wheu everjthiug was foand to ran very . 
flmooihly indeed. 

With tfOOponndfi proMorc to tli« square inch, the thrust of 
the Horewawoa abont 1,400 ponndii, bat by running the proHuro 
Dp to Sits pounds to tbo squaro inch, the thrust of the ■cn'wa 
went up in the first instance t« 1,1(30 punnds, and finally in a 
later trial to 1 ,260 poundit. Those expcrtmenta should hkro boon 
tried on a railway track of ooneidffrnblo length, bnt w 1 was only 
able to get a clear traak of 1,800 feet, itwud found nooeiMary to 
provide auitable mechanism in order to bring the ntikchine to a 
Mato of rcvt without injury. Tho best apjmrutnafor this purpose 
WM fotin<l to bo n aorlM of rery itrang ropM stretched ouroa the 
track, each oud of the rope being attached to a capatan, and 
each capstan being provided with a strong plank which acted as 
a fan. This apparatns stopped the machine witboab the leut 
abock. 

The 6ret experimonta were tried without any cloth on the 
frunework and it waa foond that when the machine waa liber- 
ated it atHrtud off Tory quickly* in fact bo qnickly that it newly 
threw down any ono who waa Btanding npon it. 

After bafiog tried several experimonta with the naketl frame- 
work, the main aeroplane wag put in position and a few run« 
mode, but t)ie bagging and distortion of the cloth waa such that 
it r«quirt^l the full power of the engines with a ecrow-throet of 
2,000 ponnds to drire tho machine nt tho rate of 35 miles an 
hoor, and the lift did not exceed the thrust of tbo screws. Thia 
aeroplane was then removed and a new one aabstitoted. The 
Bsoond aeroplnne waa made of two thicknoasee of cloth completely 
inclosing tl)o framowork and arranged iu such a manner that » 



300 



TTTE AORTff AMERICAN REVIEW. 



portion of the air conlcl pass throngh the loirer sido and prodncs 
R slight pressure of air between the two Ihicknesees. The t<^ 
ndcnoQid thoroforo bng apwnrds nnd tsko the lift, while the bot- 
tom side hnving practically themme presfiiire on both ru1«« vonld 
reniain perfectly straight and would uot bu ilietortctl in the least 
b^- roDDing. 

The first OKperimenta irith thi« new aeroplane vera tried with 
a Borow>thrust of aboat eight fatindred poundi, and the lifting 
povror wu uctuully moro than with the old uvropLaue with two 
thoDBand poaudd thrust. Upon iacreasing the sorew-thruet to 
one thousand two hundred ponnds. the lift of tho agroplane vaa 
greatly incTcawd, so that the front wheels b«r«ly tonohcd tha 
track. I saw that it would not do to rn n at a ^cat«r speed, so I 
putonBotuo vary heavy wheels, weigbiag six hundred poimda 
each, which I believed vonid keep the machine on the tra«k. even 
if I ran the engines nt full speed. I then grestly increased tho 
thrust of the screw, uud, finally, ran orer the track with a acrew 
thrust of about fifteen hundred pounds ; but, nnlortiiaatelyt I 
met a alight gust of wind coming from an opposite direotion, 
which lifted the front end of the machine, wheels and all, com- 
pletely off the track. 

This accident, although it did not injnro Lho machinery in 
the least, showed the weak points in the platform and framework 
of the machine, and 1 determined to rebtiild it completely and 
to discard the heavy wheels. While the machine was being re- 
built 1 put up on each side of the railway track and about 10 feel 
from the rails a second track (iaverted) of beSTj woodeu joists, 
and proTided.the now machine with fonr additional wh«el8 placed 
at such a height that when the niachtne wu ndsed one inch clear 
from the lower railway track, these new wheela on outriggers 
would engage tbe lower side of tho joieta and thus keop the ma- 
chine from going off tho track. This arrangement has been found 
to workexceedingly well. Ii in certainly a great improvement on the 
old heavy wheels, which not only mmlo tho starting and stopping 
of the machine more difScnlt, bat also failed in keeping it on the 
track, Tho upper rail enabled me to make a large number of 
runs and to note carefully with saitable JDetrumeats exactly how 
much the machine lifted at variona speeds. HaTing finished n 
aeriesof experiments and ascertained the lift of tb« maitt aero- 
plane with a great degree of nioety, I placed the fore and aft rod* 



TBS DEVEtX>PSiEST OF A&RXAL IfAVIOATION, 861 

(lera, wliioh wen* iDiended io isteor thonuctiine in a verMoal di- 
rection, in txwitioQ, fttiil made Beveral ratu witb tboM rudders at 
different luigles. Thfty were found to work exoeedingly well, 
and I was able to doproM or elovAto either cud at will. The nia- 
cluno had been prorided with tea auxiliary lu^roplanes, which con- 
iriitedof balloon cloth stretched TOrirUghtl; on fram«B,and which 
coald be placed one above the other (laperposed) on eaoh side of 
ihe machine if reqnirod. Of these ten neropUuoa only tour were 
hcIdhIIj nsed, the lower onoe which extend on either side of tho 
maobiao 30 feet, and the upjKir onoti which oitcnd 27 feet emch 
ndeof t4ie main aOroplane and which htiug ap tho total width of 
Ibo niiichiiiu to 104 foot. Thvw loug and cuuiparatiTely narrow 
planes were found, a< expected, to b« more efficient foot for foot 
than the main aeroplane. 

The first triaU with these planes in position were made oo tho 
dUtof JiUj last on n perfeclly calm day, and ibruo runs were made, 
the flrtt with 100 poandH prewiure of steam per sqaare inch. 
Thospeed wttA 36 uiilM an hoar and tho maximum lift S.TfiO 
pounds. The second run was made with S40 pounds of atoum. 
The speed recorder on this occasion tailed to work, but ft is pro- 
bable that theirpeed was 36 miles an hour. The maximum lift 
was 4.700 pounds. Then orerrthini; was made rcadjr for a final 
te«t with practically the fnll power of the enginoa. Careful 
obwrvera were stationed on ench side of the track, and I took 
two men with me on the machine, the duty of one being to 
obacrve the prcBuurQ gauges, and that of tho other to observe and 
note the action of tho wheels on the upper track. The machine 
WH tied np to a dynamometer, tho onginos started at a boiler 
prsMure of 310 pounds and with a itcrew-thrust of a little more 
than 2,100 pounds. Upon liberattug the machine it darted 
forward with great rapidity while the screws rotated at 
a terriflo rate. 1 turned on slightly mora gsa and the 
preasurQ almost instantly rose u> 320 pounds to the sqnara 
inch and blew off at the safety-valve at that preesare. Alter 
ninning a few hundred feet, the machine was completely 
lifted off the lower rails, and all four of the upper wheels 
were engaged on the upper or safely rail. After running a 
few hundred foot in thi« position, tho speed of tho machine 
greatly increased ami the lift became eo great that the rear axle- 
trees holding the machine down were doabled op and tho whoola 



THE NOBTB AMBBXCAN RBVIBW. 



broken off. The machine then bccamo liberatvd, tbe front md 
Iwiug held dowD unl}* on one aide. ThU sw^jed the uiachino to 
one Bide, brought it riolentlj against the up[>cr raila, uid stopped 
it in the &ir, tJie lift breaking the raiU and moving thvm out- 
ward abont tim feet. Stwm WM, hoTOvor, ebot off before th« 
machine slopped. The mschine then felt to the earth, imbed- 
ding the wheels in the turf, sboviDg that it had been stopped in 
tlie air, had cotne directly doum. and had not mored after it 
touched the groand. Had this lost oipcriment been made with 
a Tiew to free flight, and had the upper rail been removed or the 
wiieeU taken off. the machine would certainlj' have moimted in 
tbe air and have travelled a long distance, if necossarr. Aa it 
wae, tho lift ccrtaiuly exceeded the full weight of the machine, 
the water, the fuel, and the men by 2,000 ponnds, and was far 
beyond the regigtering limit of the dyuagrapliH, the penoil being 
drawn oompletely across the paper on the recording cylinders. 

Theee experimoots at Ilaldwyn'i I'ark are the Gret that haTe 
ever been attempted with a machine rnnning in a straight line. 
Tho prime object of these experiments has be«u bo demonstrate 
whether it is possible or not for a large machine to bo constructed 
sufficiently light, powerful, and offioiont to actually lift into the 
air its own weight and the weight of onu or more men. All 
other flying machiueis which Lave ever been bailt in the world 
have pvniLSleutly stuck to the earth, and this is the first occasion 
in which a machine has eror been made to raise itself dear of ihe 
earth. It liaa been lulmitted by all Boienttsts that a« soon as a 
machine could be mudu with motors powerful enough to aottialty 
lift it in the otr, aCrlal naTigatioD would become practical. I 
have demonstrated that a good and reliable motor can be made 
with sufficient power for its weight to drive a flying machine, 
that a very heavy flying maohine may be made to raise iteolf 
in the air with water, fuel, and three men on board ; and that it 
may lift, in addition to tdl this, 2,000 poanda It now only re- 
mains to continue the experiments with a view of learning th« 
art of manoeuvring the machine ; and for this purpose it will be 
Dooenary for me to seek some large, open, aud level plain, and to 
commence by making flights so near to the ground that any mis- 
take iu the steering cannot resnlt in a torioua mishap. 

UlHAM S. MA.XIU. 



IN DEFENCE OF HAKRIET iiilELLEY. 



BT HABK TWAIN. 



Iria 1814, it ia the 16tli of March, Shetley has written hii 
letwr, be luu baen id tho Boinvillo pftiudie« a moutli, his dwurted 
wUu u in bur busbuntlluu honw. Mimhivf hud beeD wrought. 
It w tb« biogmphcr whi> concudua thu. Wu gnmtljr uovU mmo 
light &Q Harriet's side of the viuo, now ; we ot^ to know how 
*ho eQJoy«d the mouth ; but there Ib do waj to iaform ourselves ; 
there Heems to be a strange abwaoe of doouiiieuii and lottere and 
diarioa uo that aide. Shvlleykupla dinrjr, ibu uj>prou«biiig Mary 
tiodirin kept » diary, bur father kept oiiv, hvr Lalf-sistur by mar- 
riage, adoption, and the dispensation of God kvpl one, and Iba 
entire tribe and aU it« frieuds wrou- and ruceiv«d lott^rs, aod tho 
leltens were kept and are producible when ihix biojcrapby needa 
them ; but tUero aroooly tfarua or fourecraps of Harriot's writing, 
and uo diarj. Harriet wrote plenty of letters to her hudbatid — 
nobody koowa where they are, I siippow ; she wrote plenty of 
letters to other people — ap|iareutly they buTu disappeared, too. 
FeaOtfck tays ehe wroto good letters, but appnreally intereated 
people bad sagacity ooongh to miilay them in time. After all her 
industry she went down into h«r grave and lies silent there — 
silent, when she has so much need to speak. We cau ouly wonder 
attliia mystery, not acvountfor it. 

Ko, there m no way of duding out what Uarriet'd atato of feol- 
iog was during the month that Shell<?y was dtspurtinx himself id 
llie Bmclcnell paradise. We have to fall b«ck upon conjecture, as 
our fabniisit does when be liaa nothing more substantial to work 
with. Then we easily coojccturu that as tho days dragged by 
Sarriet's heart grew heavier and hutiviur under Its (wo burdena— > 
YOb. CUX.— »0. 4d4. r^ 



304 



TBB NORTH AMEBlCAlt BSVIEW. 



shame aad reaoDtment : the ahame of b«ing pointed atsndgo«ip6d 
about u a d<>e«i-ti]d wife, and resentiDent sgaiiist. the woman wlio 
had beguiled iter huabaad from hor tmd now kept him ia & dts- 
roputublo captivity. Deserted wives — deserted whether for cauae 
or without c&use — find email charity amoo^ the virtuous and the 
diacreet. We coDJccturc that one afternnothor the neighbors ceased 
to call : that one after another they got to bciug'- engaged " wlieu 
Um-nct called ; that finally they oue after the other out her dead 
OQ tb« street; that after that she stayed in the houM dartimea, 
and brooded over her son'owe, and night- timoe did the same, there 
being nothing else to do wi th the heary houra and the silence and 
EKilitudc und the dreary inuirvahi whioli sleep ehoold have oh&ri- 
tably bridged, but didn't. 

Yes, mitichief had been wroagbl. The biographer arrivee at 
this conchision, aud it is a most just one. Then, just as yon 
begin to half hop« he ie going to discorer the canso of it and 
launch hot bolls of wrath at the guilty maiiufucturera of it, yoa 
have to turn awa« di«kppoirtied. You are disappointed, and yoa 
nigh. Thia tti what he sayti — the italics ai-e mine : 

"'However the miacblof mair bAre bean wrouabt— aiMt at this dag no 
one can vMt to heap blain^ on anjf buried luad—" 

•So it is poor Harriet, alter alL 8tern juRtioe most take it« 
coune— justice tempered with delicacy, justice tempered with 
oorapassiou, juatioo that pitiea a forlorn dead girl and refuses 
to strike ber. Bxcept in the back. Will not be ignoble and tag 
cho harsh thing, but only insinaate it. Stern jnstieo kooirs aboot 
the carriage and the wet-nurse and the bounet-shop and the other 
dark things that caused this sad mischief, and may not, mnxt not 
blink tbem ; ao it delivers judgment where jadgment belongs, 
but softens the blow by not seeming to d«liver judgment at all. 
To resame — the ilolictt are mine : 

"Bowev-vrtbeiaUchivf may tuvo beau wroagbt— and Kt thin day na 
ooocaowlah to he*p blame oo an; buried hitad—Uia ctrtatn fkat miau 
cauaeorcauaeaQfe!f*fiiIirunonlKiweejiShttiei/and Mt wife totre in op- 
eration ttitrinffthfcartf part of t/U iftar ISU." 

This shows penetration. No doduction conld be more ac- 
curate than this. There were indeed some causec of deep divi- 
aion. But next cornea another disappointing sentence : 

"Tv {n«M at t4i« pKolw DUare of tbeae caiiMS, In the abMnee «( deQ- 
■lu itatamMt, w«n ohIcm," 



nr DETsycE of barriet shelley. 



3A6 



Why, hd haa already beeo gnessiDf at them for several pages, 
and we bavo boou trying to outguL«4 hiia, Hiid now all at a lad- 
den he is tired of it and won't play any more. It is not qnite 
fair to UA. However, bo will got over this by and byo, vbon 
Shelley commits his next LudiaorettOD and iiaa to tw gucsaed oul 
of tt at Harriet's expense. 

"We may rost content with Shfllley's own words" — in a 
Cbaucery puper drawn u|i by biin three yuara later. They were 
these : " Delicacy forbids me to say more than that wo were dia- 
Qoited by incuruhle dt>uioiii)ioii£." 

As for mc, 1 do not (juttu soo why we should rest content with 
anything of tbe sort. It is not a very definite statement. It 
doea not Decesaarily muim anylbiiig more tluia that he did not 
irUb to go into the t<ftlioiid deUuU of those family quarrels. Del- 
icacy could quite properly excuse him from saying, "1 was in 
love with Oorneliii alt that time ; my wife kept crying and worry* 
io^ about it and upbraiding me and begging me to cnt myself 
free ttom a coDueolioii which was wronging her and disgracing 
us both ; and 1 being etung by thocte reproaches retorted with 
flerae and bitter speeches — for it is my nature to do that wben I 
am stirred, especially if the target of them is a person whom I 
bad greatly loved aod respected before, au witnees my various 
attitades toward Miss Hitchoner. tbe Gisbomes, Harriet's sister, 
and othont — mid liDiUly I did not improve thi« mute of things 
when I deserted my wife and spout a whole mouth with the 
woman who had iufatnated me." 

No, he eoald not go into those details, and wo excnse him ; 
bat, nevertholces, wo do uot r<38t contont with this bland pruposi- 
tion to puff awny that whole long disreputable episode with a 
nn^ meaningless remark of Shelley's. 

We do admit that " it is certain that some canse or cantH 
of deep division wore in operntion." We would admit it just the 
same if the grammar of the stntctment wore us straight as a string, 
for we drift into pretty indifferent grammar ourselvea when we 
aie absorbed in bistorioaJ work ; bat we have to decline to admit 
that wo cannot gneas thoss cause or causes. 

Bat gneBSing is uot really noeeaanry. There is evideaou at- 
tainable : evidence from the batoh discredited by the biographer 
and set out at the back door in his appendix basket ; and yet a 
court of law woald thick twice before throwing it out, whereas 



850 



THE NORTH AMERICAN REVIEW. 



it would be & bardj person who woald ventare to offer in saoh R 
pljtce a good put of the material which i^ placed befoni tlie read- 
ers of tbiB book lu "evidence," and so ti-ented by this danD|; 
biogmpber. Amoug Some Icttvns (in the appendix- basket) from 
Hrs. Godwin, detailing the OodwiniAii aliaro in the Sbtdleyan 
events of 1814, she tulls how Harriet SbeDey came to her and her 
bosband, agitated and weepiug, lo implore them to forbid Shelley 
the house, and prevent his seeing iinry Godwin. 

"Sb« relat«d lh»t laat NoTciiibcrhc had f4llra la love with Bin. Toroftr 
and paid hor hocIi tDukod atteacioat Hr. Tancf , tho basbond, hod carried 
off Ua wUe (o Deroiuttira." 

The biographer flnds a technical fanit in this ; *' the Shetlojs 
were in Edinburgh in Novembor." Wbnt of that ? The woman 
is rooalling a oouversalion which is more than two months old ; 
besides, ahe was probably more int«nt upon the ceulral ami im* 
porUut fact of it than upon its unimportant date. Harriet's 
quoted statement has some fionse in it ; for that reoaon, if for no 
oth«r. it ought to have been put in the body of the book. Still, 
thiit would not hare HUfiwered ; even the biographer's enemy 
could not bo cruel enough to imk him to let thi^ real grievance, 
this compact and substantial and picturesque fignre, this rawhead- 
and-bloody-bones, come striding in there among those pale shams, 
those rickety spccti-e^ labcllod WtT-N'inttiK, Bo3lNBT-SilOP,aDdeo 
OD— DO, the father of all malice could not ask the biographer to 
expose hie pathctio goblius to a competition like that. 

The fabulist Gnds fault with the utatotnent because it has a 
technical error in it ; and ho does this at the moment that he is 
famitbing ns an error himself, and of a graver sort. He says : 

■* ir Tani«r e(in-i«rf aft h<ft wife to Deronihtn be brouffbt h«r buk, and 
ShcUtrf wkxitAjing wllb hcrftodbcr tuotlter on tenii* of iMidiAl iotlmAc; 
In Hanb, I8U.' 

We accept the "cordial intimacy" — it was the very thing 
Harriet was complaining of — but there is nothing to show that it 
was Tnrner who brought his wife back. The staieraeul is thrown 
in as if it were nut only true, hut woa proof thut Turner wad not 
uneuy. Tamer's mw«i»ent9 are proof of nothing. Nothing but 
a statement from Turner's month would have any value here, and 
be made none. 

Hix days after writing hia letter ShuUey and hit wi/e were Uh 



/«■ DErSSCE OF UARIUET SHKLLKV. 



867 



gether again for • inomenW>to get remarried according to the 
rit«H of ttio English Cbarcb. 

WithiD tbreeir««k« the now hnsbami and w if o were apart 
again, and the former woa back iu liis txluitiuB parailitie. Tliis 
time it is the wife vho does the deserting. She finds Cornelia 
too atroDg for her, probably. At an; rate ahn gncn awar with her 
bab7 and sister, and wo bare a playf iit fiing at ber from good Mr*. 
Boinrilli*, the " mvirterioas spinner Hatoiutia "; she wboee "fauo 
was as a damsel's face, and yft bt'r hair was gray "; she of w)mm 
the bicigrrapher hna said, " Shellev was indeed caught In tui almost 
invisible thread spuD around hitn, bnt QDCoaaciousljr, by this 
sabtlo and bonignant onchantrass." The snbtio and benignant 
enchantress writer (o Uugg. April IH: " Shellev in again a 
widower ; his beauteous half went to town on Thursday." 

Then Shelley writes a poem — a chant of grief orer the hard 
fat-e which obliges him now to leare hi« paradiao and takeupwltb 
hia vifo again. It eaems to intimate that ihe panuliso is oooling 
toward him ; chat be Is warned o9 by acclamation : that be mnst 
not flTeo rentare to tempt with one last tear his friend Cornelia's 
UBgenUo mood, for her oje is giaxed and cold and darea not en- 
treat ber loTer to stay : 

BAibit E. 

• >•.•*• 

" PauM not t th« tira« U pant 1 Ercry Tole« ertea ' Aws j I* 
Tempt not wtih one lost t»ar thr frteml'H iiDgnDUtt mood ; 
Tbjr lovfr^« *jt. Mt gt&»d mad oold, A\t*% not eotre&i tl>7 stof: 
DuCr uid derollctlon tpiHa tho« back to «olitadc.~ 

Back to the eolitade of bis now empty home, that is I 

"Away I 4wmT I Co tbj sod and allant bom* ; 
Pour blttfr Ivain on It* deetoloted hasTtb ." 



Bot bo iriU bars nwt in tbo grare by and bye. Until tliat 
lime comes, the charma of Braeknell will remain iti bta memory, 
along with Mrs. Boinville's roico and Cornelia Tnnior's smile : 

"Than la tbeirmTaBbaltmt— jctv till ttn pbuiCom* Sec 

Wbicb tbac booM and heartb and iDudeo nttde dear to tbee eiewUle. 
Tbj icmembfanes uid rcpeotaiie* and dMp muaioga u» twi traa 
Fmn th« maMe of twovolOMud tba liatal «l anaawntBiiiUiL' 

Wo eannoi wonder that Harriot ooald not stand it. Anjr of 
us would have lefu We would not eren stay viib a cat that was 



3AB 



THK NORTH AllERlCAff SSVIKW. 



in thiR oondition. £ven tlie BoioTiIln coald not foidareit ; and 

m, u we have seen, ihey gave this one notice. 

"EftrlT lu Uaj, Shelley mu Id London. nvdldBotrst deapalrof recoD' 
clllatlunwitbllsrrivC, nor b»d ha ceased to loT» her." 

Shelley's poenu are a good detU of tronble to his biographer. 
They arci constantly inserted as " evidence,'* and they nuke much 
confusion. As soon as ono of them hae proved one thing, another 
one foltotrs and proves qnite a different tbiog. The poem just 
quoted shovg that he wne in. lore witK Cornelia, bat a month later 
ho is ioloTo with Harriet again., and there is a poem to prove it. 

" Id tbis piteous appe&l Sheller declana tbat be faaa dow do grief but 
eme— the jtrlef of iiftvln^ knowD Mid lo«t htii wjfe'n love." 

lirhlbil P. * 

" Thy look of love bu power to calm 
Tbestonnlwt pasnloti of mf «onl." 

Bnfc withoQt doubt aho had been reserring her looks of lore ■ 
good part of tbe time forten months, now — ever since he began 
to lavish his ovn on Comolia Tumor at the end of the previoas 
July. He does really seem to have already forj;ottcn Cornelia's 
merits in onu brief mouth, for he enlogtiieA Harriet in a way which 
nilee all competition out : 

" Tboa oolf rlrtaoDS. ireDttc, kind. 
AtDid a world of hal»." 

He complains of her hardness., and bpgs her to make tbe con- 
cession of a -'Blight cndnrnnce"'— of his waywanlnesii, perhaps— 
for tbe sake of "a feliow being's ksting weal." But the main force 
of bifl appeal is in his closing stanza, and is strongly worded : 

" O tTDst for once no errlnit guide I 

Bid iba reworseleiu frallDsAM; 
Tin tnAllce. Uh ruTcnge, 'tie pride. 

'TIs anything bat tbea ; 
O deign a nobler pride U> prove. 
And pitj U thoa oui»t not love." 

This is in May — apparently towanl the end of it. Harriet 
and Shelley were corresponding all tbe time. Harriet got 
the poem — a copy exists in her own handwriting ; she being tbe 
only gentle and kind person amid a world of hate, according to 
Shelley's own teaiimoay in tbe poem, we are permitted to think 
that the daily letters would presently have tnelted that kind and 
C«Dtle heart and brocght about the rccouclUatiou, if ther« bad 



CT DEFEyCE or HAHRIET SHELT^Y. 



sm 



T>wn time — but tboro wasn't : for in a very few days — in fact be- 
fore tbe8th of June— Sheltej- was in \oyemlhanotknr woman! 

And so, — iierhapo wliilu Harriet van walking the floor nigltts, 
trying to gtt her poem l>y heart — licr liusbund yiaa doinfE a frosJi 
one — for tbe other girl — Uary WolLitonecnft Qodwln — with wd- 
iiroeiits like these in it : 

ErMbit a. 

" To ipcnd r««ni tliiu and ht> rewarded. 
km Ihou, ftwoi-t lovi*, rc«]ult«d tn* 
Wbeo Km* wvre b«&r 
. . . thj Up* did lUMt 
Mine tninblltuf;; • • * 

Ucatlo and good and mlM tlaoa art. 

Nor can 1 lln If (boa appear 
Augttl bat Uiraelf." . . . 

And so on. " Before the clone of Jane it wan known and felt 
by Mary and Bhrllev that each was iuciprciuiiblv dmr to tbo 
other." Yes, Shelley had found thia child wf sixteen to hia liking, 
■nd had vooed and won horiri the ^iiToyard. Bat timt if noth- 
ing ; it was better than wooing her in her nnniery, at aoy rate, 
where it might have disturbed the other cklMren 

Moweter, ehe wm ft child in years only. From the day that 
she wt ber ma»(!ali nc grip on Shetluy he wtw to frisk no more. If 
she had oconpied tbe only kind and j^ntlo Darriet'A place in March 
it wonld hare been a thrilling spectiiclo to sec her Inrado the Uoin- 
Tilte rookery and read the riot acU That holiday of Shelley's 
voald have been of short daration, and Comelta's hnir would havo 
been as gray as her mother's when the eervices were over. 

Hogg went to the Godwin residence in Skinner Street with 
Shelley on that Sth of June, Tboy passed through Godwin's 
liltio debt factory of a bookshop and went upstairs hunting for 
tbe proprietor. Nobody there. Shelley strode about the room 
impatienlly, makiag its crazy floor rjuake under him. Then a 
door "was partially and softly opened. \ thrilling voice called, 
'Sbelloyl' A thrilling roioo answered, <>[aryl' And he darted 
DDt of tbe room like an arrow from the bow of thu far-Rhootiojf 
King. Afcrryoang female, fair and fair^hairetl, pale indeed, 
and with a piercing look, wearing a frook of tartan, an nnnsnal 
dresB in London at that time, hiid enlte^t him out of the room.' 

This is Mary Godwin, as dc^crilxwl by Hogg. The thrill of 
tbe voices ahowi that ths lore of Shelley and Mary was already 



380 



TBE NORTB AUSrOOj 



npv-ards of n fortniffbt old ; thereforo it Wl been horn withtn 
the moDth of May— bora while Harriet wae still trying to get her 
poom bj hwrt, vo tbiuk. I must not be oaked how I know w 
mach about that thrill : it is my aecret. The biographer luid I 
huvo [irirato wairs of (iuiliuft oui things when it is nQceaaory to 
lind them out and the oiistomary methods iftiL 

Shelley left London that daji and waa gone ten days. The 
biographer oonjectitres that he sprat this interval with Harriet in 
IJath. [t would bcjuiit like him. To the end of his days ho 
liked to be in lore vith two women nt once. He vtw more in 
love with Mi3s Liitchener when he married Harriet then he wu 
with Uarnct, mid told tbo lady bo with aiinple and unoeu.<nt&tiou3 
candor. He was more in love with Cornelia than he was with 
U&rriot ill the end of 1813 and the beginning of 1814, yet ha 
supplied both of them with love peems of &□ eqnal temperature 
menntime ; he lored SInry and Harriot in June, and while get- 
ting rendy to ran off with tha one, it is conjectared that he pat 
iiL Jiis odd time trying to got reconciled to the other ; by iind bye, 
while still in lore with Mury, he will make lore to her lulX*sister 
by marriage, adoption, and the Tisitotion of God, through the 
medium of clandestine letters, and ahe will answer with letters 
that are for no eye bnt hiit own. 

When Shelley encountered Mary Clodwin he was looking 
around for another paradise. He liad taatee of his own, and there 
were featiirps about the Oodwin establishment that strongly 
recommended it. Oodwin was an advanced thinker and nn able 
writer. One of hia romances ia sUIl road, but his pliiloHophical 
works, once bo esteemed, are out of Togue now ; tlieir anthori^ 
waa already declining when Shelley made his aequuintance. That 
is, it was declining with the pnblic, bot not with Shelley. Tbey 
had boon hie ranntt and political Bible, and tbey were that yet. 
Sbetlcy the infidel would himself have claimed to bo loss a work 
of Oo<l than a work of Godwin. Godwin's philoeophies had 
formed his mind and interwoven themselves into It and become h 
part of its texture ; he regarded himself as Oodwin'n dpiritital 
eon. Oodwin was not without flelf-appreoiation : indeed it may 
be conjectnrod that from his point of view the last pliable of bis 
name wan surplnsage. He lived serene in his lofty world of 
philnsophy, tar above the mean interests that absorbed smaner 
men, and only came down to the ground at intervals to paaa thtt 



;.V DEFSflCg OF BAfiltXBT SHEIZKT. 



mi 



fast for alms to pay bis Hebla with, and insult the man thiit ro- 
li«Te4 him. Sevonil of hi« principle wer« out of tliu orilitmrv. 
For vxBtnpIo, he waa oppoced to iDarriage. He wu not awnre 
chat hit preaohiDgs from tbia text were but theory anil vind ; he 
loppowd be was in etunect in impIorioK people to lire together 
without m&rryiag, ontjl Shelley furoished him a working model 
of his echeino and a practical oxnmpta to analyse, by applying the 
priooiple in hit own family ; tho mnttor took n difforont and aur- 
piiaiag aapflct then. Tho lato Matthew Arnold eaid Ibftt the 
main dofoot in Shelley's ntake-up was that be waa dentituto of 
tbe aonae of hamor. This opi«odo must liavo escaped Mr. 
Arnold*! attention. 

But wu bare said enough aboat the head of tho new paradtoe. 
Mrs. Godwin ia described u being in eoverol waya a terror ; and 
even whon hor sool was in repoM she wore green spectacles. 
But I fiiiiipnct that her main aaattnuittTenoaawaa bom of the fact 
thai iho wrote tho letters bhiit aro oat la the appondix-boakot in 
tbe back yard — letters which are an outrage and wholly antrust- 
worthy, for they say some kind things about poor Harriet and 
t«U aome diaagrooable initbR nboat her hnsbond ; and thiwo thiiigs 
moke the fnfatilisk grit hia t«eth a good doaL 

Nujit we haro Fanny Oodwia — a Oodvia by oourtesy only ; 
sbe was Mrs. Qodwin's oatnral daughter by a former friend. She 
was a sweet and winning girl, but she prosently wearied of tho 
Oodwin paradiaor and poiaonod herself. 

Laat in the lut is Jane (or Claire, as ibe preferred to call her- 
■elf) C'lainaont, daugiiter of Mrs. Godwin br a former marriage. 
Hbo was very yonngand pretty and accommodating, and always 
ready to do what she oould to make things pleanat. After Shel- 
ley ran oft with her pari^ister Uary, she became ths giual of the 
ptur, and oontribubwl a oatarol cbUd to their Duraery— AUegn- 
Lord Byron was the father. 

Wo have named the several mombcn and advantages of the 
new paradise in Skinner Street, with itA crazy bookndiop ander- 
n«Uh. Bbelley was all right now, this wus a bottur place thao 
tbe other: more variety, anyway, and more different kinds of 
fivgmoeo. One eoald tnrn nut poetry here without any troable 
atalL 

The way the now lovo>matnh came about was this. Sh^Uey 
loM Marr all hisaegravatioiLs and sorrows and griefs, and abont 



ses 



SBRJCAN REVIEW. 



th« wet>narae uid the honnet-nhop »nd the snrgeon and the car- 
riaf% and the nster-in-luw tliat blocks the Loudoo f^mo, and 
sboat CoraeliA and her mamma, and bow tliey hod turned bini 
ont of the hoiiae after maklugso mncli of him ; aud how he hml 
de»ert«d Ilarriut and then Harriet had deserted tiim, »iid how thp 
reoonciliation woe working oloug aad Harriet gottiog bor poem 
by heart; and still h« was not happ;*, aad Mary pitied him, for 
^« bad had trouble henielf. But I am not gatiafied wiih thia. 
It reada too much like atatigtJcs. tt locks <mocthne«9 and grace, 
and is too earthy and bnrinma-like. U has the sordid look of a 
tiadef-union prooeasion out on strike. That is not the right 
form for it. Th« book does it better ; ve will fall back on the 
book and have a oake-walk : 

"It was CM« to divine that aomo rcgtltas grtef poewa c i blrp : Maty her- 
Mlt WM DOi nalouMid la tfac lor« of ^aXa. Hi» fpoicrcrai ir»l in htr (stbvf'a 
bthalr, bl« splrlltui nonshlp to GoiIitId. hts reTcrvnce for her tnoifarT*H 
memor;. Nen Kuanuit«e> with Marj of hU c.ic«ll«i)or.* Tbe neTtrienda 
could not UclcKubjTCt* of dlKOOunif, and nnrtwin^th thitlr words aboot 
Mary'H moiber, and * PollUcal Jui tl^,* aod ' ftighu of Wom&D.' wvis two 
jounjc be«ru, eMb feellOR to«rard> th« ot>ii^r, *acb perhap* naaware, 
Ucmbllitg \b tb« dirvollou of tlio oUier. Tbe dvatra to aMvaite the atilT rin|t 
of one wboao bapploeM bat ftrovru prccfons to ya ma; beoome a bunt^r o( 
tbe spirit as kcoD us luij other, and this hnniKr now pooMNwd Uarr'n 
licart: when berFjwi rPBl«d uiineeo on tsbcUej. It was with a lookfoll of 
the ardor of a ' HOoiutD;; pU;." 

Yes, that is better and hna more oomponiro. That is jnst the 
way it hapiwned. He told her aboat the wet-narae, she told liim 
about political justice ; he told tier about the deadly 8ister-in*lav, 
she told him aboitt her mother; he told her about the bonnet-ohop, 
she marmared back about the ri£hta of wonutn; then he assuaged 
her, th^n she aaauag(>d him; then he amuagcd her aome more, 
next she as«iiaged him some more: then they both aasnagedone 
another simuttaneoosly; and so they went on by the hoBrassoag- 
ing and assuaging and assuaging, nntil at lat-t what was the ro- 
ault P They were in love. It will happen so every time. 

"Be bad married a woman who, as be now peranaded hltnadf.had 
nerer tml7 lortd bim, wbo loT«d onlj ble fortuMKiid bU tank, and wbo 
proved ber MlflahncOT \>j d«HrtloK blm in hia mifcrr.** 

I think that that is not quite fair to Harriet TVe have no 
certiunty that she knew Cornelia had turned him out of the 

* niMt tbowu after wH|iiBraat«Mct bit axoMlMMe. Thalhaitaod raadj 
la S m t i bli wtt* aad cblld wai one o( (bam, appar«ailr> 



IN DEFKIWE OF HARRJET fUTELLBY. 



3flS 



f)oa8«. He vent buck to Comelis, and H«rriet may hftre snp- 
poecd tbat he was as happy with her aa CTor. Still, it wa« jndi- 
oion* to b«gin to \vf on Uic whitewash, for SholleT ii f:oiag to nood 
maar a coat of it now, and the sooner the reader beoomes used to 
the intruBion of the braah tho sooner be will gfib recondlsd to it 
and stop fretting aboat it. 

Aft«r Sholloy'a (conjectured) T«Jt toTTurrlet ftt Bath— 8th of 
June to 18th — "it Hflomii to hare been arrangod thut Shelley 
iboold henceforth join the Skinner Street household eaoh dajr at 
dinner." 

^'othioft could bo haDdier than this ; thiofi:* will swim along 

DOW. 

" Attbongfa BOW Sbrtler *>" comlns to boltm Uiat liin wcdd«d nalon 
with Bantet w»a « ihliig of the pa«<, bn lud not cvaArd lo record brr wlUl 
aOHctloiiateooMWeratloo ; bewn)UtolwrfrMiaeoUj.aDdkcptb«rla(aniiad 
oC Ua wbanaboua.' 

We mnit not get impatient orer these corions inharmonloua- 
neeaesBad irri^i-oncilabilitios in RIioiHi-t's uhmractor. You can soe 
by tho biographer'd attitude toward them that there is nothing 
objectiooablo aboat them. Shelley wag doin^ bis beet to malce 
two adoring young creatnrea bappy : he wm regarding the one 
with affectionate oenaideratioa by mail, and ho was UBSuaging tba 
Other one at home. 

"Unbai)!? Hurlctv rMldIng at Bath, hod pvrliatM n»T*r d«aindthaC 
tto bfsaeb botwecn honolf and h»r huMbuid fthould b« irr«tArftt>l« uid eooi- 
plMe.' 

I find no fault with that eentcnco except that the "perhape " 
18 not athcUy warranted. It efaould hare been left ont. Is aap- 
port — or ahall we aay extenuation? — cif this opinion, I aabmit 
that there ia not sutBcient eridenco to warrant tho uncertainty 
which it implies. The only " OTidenoe " offered that Harriet was 
bard and proud and standing: out nf^inet a reconciliation is a povm 
—the poem in which Shelley beneeohea her to " bid the remorae- 
leM feeling flee" and "pity" if she "cannot lore." We bare 
just that na "eTti]ence." and out of its meagre materials the 
biographer builds a cobhonra of conjectnrea aa big aa the Coti- 
■eam; oonjeotnrc« which oonrine« him, the proi«enting attorney* 
bat ought to fall far short of convincing any fair-minded jury. 

Shelley's loTo-poema may bo TOry good evidence, but we know 
well that they are " good for Uiis day and train only." We are 



364 



THE VOSTU AitEl 



able to believe that they spoke the troth for that one day, bat 
we know by cxpcncnvc Ihut thoy could cot be depended oo to 
speak it the next. That Tcry supplication for a rcwarmitif of 
IlHrriot's chillnil love was followed tio auddenly by tliepoefa plunge 
into an adoring passion for Mary Godwin that if it had been a 
check it would harr> lost its value before a \taj person could h»To 
Kolteit to the bank with it. 

nardneee, stubborn nei*f, pride. Tlndictirenees — theso may 
aomctimoe reside in a jouDg wife and mother of nineteen, but 
they are not nharged npiinRt Harriot Shellny out«ii!o of that poom, 
and one ban no riglii to insert them into her character on such 
abadovy "erideDce" as that. Peacock knew Harriet well, and 
8he baa a flexible and persuadable look, as painted by him : 

"H«r mtu)ntfnw«r« ROod, and her whole Mp«et and demMnor guth 
msnUrsl «intto*lioo« p[ pure a*d trathful tiKtarc, Uiftt tob«oDc« Iab«rcoai> 
pABf irks<o kaow bcr tborouichly. She iT*a food of bar liiuband, and ao- 
coramodated bvneU ia ctct? mj to bin taat«H. If thrj mixed la society. 
•h« adomvd It; II tb«f lived In rotlmnvnt. «1m wa« MttlkOed ; If lb«r trav- 
•U«d, abe enjoyed tb« cfauijce of Mcnc," 

" Perhaps " the had never desired that the breaeh sboold bo 
irreparable and complete. The truth ia. we do not even know 
that there wae any breach at all. at this time. Wo knowthafctbe 
hneband and wife went before the altar and took a new oath on 
the 24th of March to lovo and cherish each other until death — 
and this may he regArded aa a sort of reconciliation it«elf, and a 
wipinft out of tlie old grudges. Then Uiirriub went away, and 
the sister- in -law removed herself from b«r society. That was in 
April. Shelley wrote his "appeal " in May, but tbo eorreepond- 
ing went right along afterward. We have a right to doubt that 
the Rubject of it was a " reconciliation." or thai Harriet had any 
mspicion that she needed to be reconciled and that her husband 
was trying to peraoade her to it — ae the biographer has Bought to 
make us believe, with hix Cotlsenm of conjecturea built out of a 
wastC'bafiket of poetry. For wc have "evidence." now — not 
poetry and conjecture. When Shelley had been dining daily in 
the Skinner Street paradi«« fifteen dayH and continuing the iove- 
mntch which was already a fortnight old twenty-five daya earlier, 
he forgot to write narriet ; forgot it the next day and the next. 
Purinjc four days Harriet got no letter from him. Then ber 
fright and anxiety rose to exprwsion-beat, and eh« wrot« a lott« 



tN DBTEJiCS OF BAHHMST SMELLEV. 



365 



to Sbellftj'fl pabliih«r whioh loonii to fotmI to ua tbat Shelley 'a 

l«tters to her btiiJ b«eii Lbe ouBtomory aflecLionate letters of han- 

buid to wife, and bad carried no appettls for reoouciliatioD aod 

had bot needed to : 

Bath tpoitmuk Jiilj 7, mh. 
Ur Deak Sir : Yoa will Kn-iut; obllga iii« by kI^IiW tUo cocloved to Ur. 
Sboltey. I would not troablo yuo. but It I* now (our daj« tlnce I bave hrard 
framliiai, wblcfa lotDflUkuage. Will jou wrtt« b; noirD of peat aod l«ll 
w» wh*t ha« bo«ooM) n( himtu I aitrk;* f^ocj uiiuathiugdnkdfiiJbM bap- 
pcDMl U I do not hc&r (rom him. If 700 t«ll dw ttakt be la wvll I sball hoc 
eoni« to London, but if I do nol bear from jou or Llm I ibkll Mrfalolj raoM, 
M 1 cABnot «n<lvrn ttii« dro^fol »t«t« of *u*p*o^* ^ou mw hl« &Uad *Bd 
jon <ui leel fur ant. I nMiwin joum tmly. U. & 

Evm wilboQt Peacock'a tostimoDf tbat " h«r vbole atpoot and 
demeanor were manifeet enianatiotu of a pure and tratbful lu- 
tare," we abould bold ibU lobe a iruthfnl letter, a siuoera letter, a 
loTJQg latter ; it bears those marks ; I ttiiokit is altotlio letter oft 
poraoQ accuatomedtoraceivinglotttirafrom liurhuflbaodfroqaoQUy* 
aod tbat thoy bare bocn of a wuloomo and Mtiafactor; son, too, 
this long time baok — eversiuce the eolemo remarriage and racoiu 
ciliattoa at the altar, most likely. 

The biographer follows llurriet's letler vith a coojecttire. He 
conjectures that eho " would now gladly bnvDr»traced hur stepe." 
Whioh m<)aua that it is proven that slin had stops to rctraoti— 
proven by the poum. Well, if the poetn is better evidence thao 
the letter, we must let it stand at that. 

Tbea the biographer attacks Uarriut Shelley's honor — ^by 
anthortty of random and cnvorifled gossip scaveogercd from a 
group of people whoae very namos make a person shudder : Mary 
Godwin, mlstreas to ShcUey;ber part-sister, discarded mistruaa of 
Lord Byron ; Godwin, tlie pbiloeophical tmtup, who K^tbers bis 
share of it from a shadow — that is to say, from a person whona bo 
shirks oat of naming. Yet the biographer digiuSeia this sorry 
rubbish with the name of "evidence." 

Nothing remotely reHombliiig a distinct charge from a named 
person profeeaiag to know, is offered lUQong this precious "evi- 
dence." 

I. "Shelley Miwed" to and so. 

S. Byron's discarded mistress says that Shelley told .Uary Ood- 
win to and eo, and Mary told htr. 

3. " Shelley said " so and so — and later 'vadmitted over and 
over again that b« bad beao in error." • 



TBX NORra AXERICA?' REVIEW, 

4. The unspeakable Godwin "wrote to Mr. Baxter " tbut he 
knew 8U aad ao "from unqueatioQable aathoril; " — Quuenol 
fumiibed. 

How any niKii in his right mind could bring himutlf to dofile 
the grave of a shamefully ubuRed and defenceleiu girl with theM 
baiieleas fubricatioiu, this manuCucturcd filth, is iuconoeivable. 
Uov ftny man, ia his ri^ht mind or oat of it, could ait down tmd 
coldly try to perauude anybody to beliere it, or listen patiently to 
it, or iade«d do unytbiDg but ecoS at it aad deride it, is astoa- 
ishing. 

Thu ohargo inaiuuabod by those odtoas ahiadors is one of the 
most difficult of all offencea to prove ; it is alaooae which no mso 
faiLs a right to mention oveu iu a whisper about any womuii, liTing 
or dead, nnla<(s he knows it to be true, and not even then unless 
he cuu a\K> prove it to bo true. There is no juetiQcation for tbo 
abomination of patting this stuff in the book. 

Again.tt Harriet Shelley's good name there is not one scrap of 
taruiebiug evidence, and uut even a &crap of evil gossip, that 
comes from a source that entitles it to a hearing. 

On the credit side of thu account wo huYo strong opinions 
from the people who know her beat. Peacock aaya : 

" I feel It due to ttie memorr ot Harriet to state ray moat decided goD' 
viction thAt tier conduct iM k wICb wu aa imna, a* true, atabtolutclj IvAXr 
le3B.as tbatoCaajwIioforauab oooduct ar« ta«li] mosC Id taoDor." 

Thornton Hunt, who had picked and published slight flaws 
in Harriet's character, saya, as regards this alleged largo one : 

** There b not ■tntCD of evidence or a wbitper ot Mmadal Aftftiost her 
before ber voluniarj' dcp&rtun frooi SbcUcj." 

Trelawoey aays : 

"Iwavusaradbyt^e erldcace of tbo few fti«odfl who knewbotta Shel- 
ley and bU wi to— Hook bom, Hojoi, Peacock, aui oue oi the Oodwlos^ 
tnst HonriL-t waa pvtlL-cUj iuiiuccut of all oITciice." 

What exuuite waa there fur ruking up a parcel of foul rumors 
from maJioious and discredited sources and flinging them at this 
dead girl's head ? Her very diifenoelesanesa should haro been her 
prot«ction. The fact that all letters to ber oraboat hor, with 
almost every scrap of her own writing, hud been diligently mis- 
laid, leaving her case destitnle of a voice, while every peu-stroke 
which could help her husband's side had been as diligently pre* 
tjcrved^ should have excused her from being brought to trial. H«r 



jy D£F£KCE OF HA&BIST SUELLSY. ■^ffj 

witDMMi bavo all duuppuiirttd. fct wv itofl hor aumtnoued ia fa«r 
gravb-oloLlies tu plaad (ur tbe life of tier chanotiir, witfaoat 
tbe help of an advocate, bofora a dinqualifiud Judge luid k packed 

ilurridt Shelley wrote her dUtresaed letter oo the 7tb of Joly. 
Oa tlie 38th her bnslHuid rau away with Mary Uvdwio and bor 
part-aimur Claire, to the UoutinouU Ho deaerted hia vife when 
hercoufliiometit was approaohiog. She bore him a child at the 
end of Xovembor, hie inietreea bore bim another one aomething 
over two moulba lat«r. Tbe truautawere back ia I>>ndoa before 
oitber of tboso events occurred. 

On one oooajiion, proMtiUv, Shelley viu ho pressed for money 
to support his mirtruwwith that be went to his wife and got eome 
money of bis that wad in ber bauds — twenty pounds. Yet tbe mto- 
trvM was not moved to gratitude ; for later, when the wife waa 
troubled to meet her engagemeuti, tbe miBtress makeH this entry 
in bur dury : 

" Uanitft Modt h*r ertdlWn k«r« ; nut} woman. Now we ktaUl h4r» 
to ebanf* our led||liig«.'' 

ThsdMertud wife bore the bitternoas and obloquy of her situa- 
tion two years and a quarter ; then she gave up, and drowned her- 
■alf. AmoLtb aft-orwurd tliu body was found in Ibewater. Three 
veelu later Shelley miirried bis mistress. 

1 must beru bualluwod to italioise a remark of tbe biographer's 
concerning Harriet Shelley : 

** Thai tto Oiot of Bheiity's dMriitu IKe two vtare which immtdiaieln pr4 ■ 
ndedherdeeUhteniUd to cava* tha ruah tictwhUh broughl ktrti/etoUa 
et«9$. »etma ctrlain.'' 

Yet her buaband had deserted her and berobildren and was 
liTiDg witfa a ouDL'ubiue all that time I Why should a person at- 
tempt to write biography, wheu t h« simplest foots have no meaoiDg 
to him ? This Ixjuk is btten-d with as cTwm stupidities as that one 
^4edaction8 by thu page'wbich bear no discoverable kinship to 
their premises. 

Tbe biographer throws o£t that extraordinary remark withont 
any perceptible disturbance to his serenity ; for he follows it with 
a BeudrnQTit^d justidcatiou of Shelley's conduct which has not a 
pang of con»cioiico in it, but is silky and smoath and tindulating 
and pioua— a cako-walk with all tbe colored brvtbren at their beet. 



368 JHB mSTS AMERICAN Ra'VIEW. 

There ma; be people who ctin road thac page and keep their tem- 
per> bnt it ia doabtful. 

Shelley's life has the one indelible blot upon it, bat is other- 
wise worshipfally noble and beautiful. It even etanda out inde- 
straotibly gracious and lorely from the ruck of these diaaatrons 
pagea, in spite of the fact that they expose aud establish his re- 
sponsibility for his forsaken wife's pitiful fate — a responsibility 
which he himself tacitly admits in a letter to Eliza Westbrook, 
wherein he refers to bis taking up with Mary Godwin as an act 
which Eliza " might excusably regard aa the canso of her sister's 
rain." 

MjLfi£ TWAIK. 



NOTES A\I) COMMENTS. 



TBB CONCEITED SBX. 

It )■ OMially agreed Cluit man <■ tbe raon conoHM, nod trooiftn tfaa 
TaJoer, nex. Tbe rapardclal mind, Indolently content wlcb ttie aurUee ot 
Ibiuga. HCDordBV rvady b04pllNJIty to a dbUuctiun IIihc npftri'K It ibr iroublv 
of tlilDklng. TtM men ■tnooouK mind of the mtUI pbllci«o]ihpr will not b« 
|Hltoir*ritb tnettttacauidlAlwU. It Brants tb«oiteru&l dutincllon. bat II 
InaUto on looking below- eztcn»U. lt««k* wbcUior tb« vtnotioB* whkb w« 
Mdlouocetl hnd TKnlly uru not Id «aMoe« Um aun*. borroifliiR tlic ooltv 
wblcb xMiiM to AittbntiUAt* tiusm ftom tba reuel itai boMa tbetn. Water 
la water wbeUwrooQULliied Id arcd vaM oraKTccn. Yet in (he odd cam 
It look* red. in CbeotberitreeD. AndBowltbcouDeltorvaalCy. AtbuUom 
ItUalmply the Iuto of admlnttUm. In tbe male aex tbbi piMloa becomca 
a doouiiid, In the t^malB It i« almplyad^alrc Ttwmoro bijiU; dsTalopMl 
toembtn oltbemale aezuvoooMlonaof tti«tael that tbej bare no aopet- 
tor* In the wboU MngB ot oTKRBic life But tb« tacnt gifted woman alwaja 
baa tlw mora glCt»d wan to look up lo. Ucaca man ai bin beat proudly 
fnla t bat ad intra I loo la biv dno ; wontan at brr t>Mt owrely hopeti that U !*■ 
Ue can only look around on bla eqaala or down on hU Infcrlora. Slie ntnii 
alwaya look up. Ic la tbe dUTerenoe tn attitude ibac conntltutea tba appar- 
■D( dlOeniuoti In tbvi euoUOD. CoDDoit ajiks tor adnilratioa aa a rtgbt, 
vanity cravw It lu a boon. 

But bm wcmuMiiCopand make another diatlnetion. In It^ beglnnbisi 
(^u«clt or vanilf ■■ a Ttrtua, not « Ttc«. It U tbg cooMlooa Mna« ot no W aawt 
ohllKfuic man to lira up to bla noMuw. It la tba dealra lot ad ml ra UOB . 
kccpiuK woman up to Ibo plana of plcaalag. In otbcr worda, lb la a moat 
powerful laoonllvn to rf^t-MemlnR and rtght-belng. Eicactly wbcro tha 
virtue abadea off Into a rloa las ahe queation to detennine. But lu a broad 
aoduriieral way we can any tbaC wbaoarer Uio coaulottanaaaof ilmiilim 
admltatioo or tbo dsalrs (oradmlfatloo Is overweienlng and overwlielmt&g; 
vbenrrerltlsnlloor tbecauseol Ilea: whenever It Indueoa tba Individual 
tebeoOtaHlve, ovarbeatiBg, OTfldlenlooa; whentrer It l»«da to ibe aaerlilea 
ol prtiwiple, boner, and (eU-rv^pact; whouover it rntalla tba dUeombrt 
■ilotbirra— tbeu ItUa vic«, and la properly allgnuiUaiKl by Lbe unploaaMtl 
namool coooelt orvaoiiy. 

Now, In wblcb aex la the Inordlnato tore o( adnUraliOB attcndxl 
with Lbs greater loaa ot principle. Lmib. and ai>lt-r««p«ct— hi which 
(Iota It take on tba mora o&eual**. overbearlns. suit Hdieulona abapal 
That tbe conoelt of man la mope orarbcartng t.ban tbe vanity of woman 
la aelf-ovldeuL Fovmaala tbe atrongar nsx, and it In the tcudeaoy ot 111- 
dlnetad aUongtb to ba ovarbaariag. Dodoabtcdly tbla laacgadlcton ct 
VOL. CUX.— 110. 154. a 



370 



'TBE NORTH AMERICA}/ REVIEW. 



nilDrt that (■ iu>[ilHU«Dt mnd vtxAtlgtw lo olhsf mlada wblcb arebiouclit 
in coniAcl UHranltb. BuCat Ivui it b ax the meritof ttulbrnlDCM. AL 
least till- man beltevealn bliixeir. fin cradlU bimseU wllh the qnalltlM 
upau whlcb bo Goac«lta hImselL The face oaa; not b« a U«( ; to hint, bo«> 
«>v«r. It Is & fact. But » wanisa'* rtuiitj i« nerer catircl? trnthfali i>ov«r 
cotirclj- aiDCcrc. It la tbo wild dtnlm to liapre«s br appurluK t« be m>iq«- 
tbiuiic winch she Is not, and wbicbidie li»llncth-cly known nho U roo. Ki» 
a cunfrsaiuH of woakneiM In Ibo vrn* attempt to pat on a abOH of atmistb. 

A vko I bat Is tuvtcd upon an booesC mlBconcvpilou of fict is IntlBlIelf 
leas barmtul thaii a vice tbat In ba«ed u|iuu a wIUmI dUlurliun uf faec A 
lial* really Lbu odIj ttreaL criuio rhat a human being can commit. W«ll 
Bod wisely did the old theologiaDs, when cut log about for a naou wbicb 
•bOUld held op the ea^oiy of DionkiDd lo tht: utlormatt dctcstalion, brand 
him and BtigniDtisc him foicvcr aa Ibo Faiber o( Lto«. And becauu tb« 
TftDlcjof uroiiivu b fouudcd upoa uutmtb, it la inortt ollensiin) and rldlo- 
aloua, and Kutulla a greater lizut of [irbiclplo, of boDor, of «clf*rcspect, ttutll 
tbeconocIC of man. 

Ittitnot thftanlv«rftal Mruggla of woman to look like «uiiuithingaU« 
Lbajitaeneltl Tim niaid wants to look like fanr inistnwa, Ibe matron llk«« 
tnaldeo, \hv braieu atrive to app«&r tn&ocvnl. tb« (luiOMnt Xa appear 
b(«z«iL It \n not vloioiuiuevii, but tlii« sarau pcrrcnitj of Tanity, whldi 
make* tbef[iri of tbu period (or, in si 111 mora modem «UnK, tliojSn-cf«-«U(<« 
Ifiri} t>eck to imltoio lb« taaouvra and lUe «ppe»rsuce of tbe harridan on ilia 
ntrvctn. Tbv bioudo djrua brr bairdaik, ihu hiuurttebleacbailU Paint and 
ponder are called lii to oonccnl ihi? dclccb« ot Diiliiroor charaTBceaof time. 
Bulladounadllata the pupils until tli«y aro Urji^r thaa life. Tlitbb corsata 
cramp the vaiat Iota ImpoHaible atntillnMiii. Hi|(h hM^ jdre tbo iow-atat- 
nndRdF««ptivDappwiaDiieof hclKbL Pads fill op with telaeboodibs dad- 
clendaa of outline, and 4errc(oproT« that, witk woman atli.-a3it,liRniva do IIcl 
But th«»o u-v coinuioiipliici.-*, yoia axj, So niuvh tbe woroo fur tba kaz 
if thejr «i o if> frequent as to Kiovr inio tbo reMicai>cd comnmoplaeca o( life. 
But aderall, rou Insist, ihrynro mere bamlcM vanltlra. Notabll of It. 
In alt but. intention, ttiry are actual crimeaof a rerjr KrteTOuasort. A crime 
laaDolteDcenKBlustlbedriitiiiuiornaiUT*. Natnra baa twoitmt andt in 
vSvw-limt, llif proineasaud perfecHon of tJie rac«. and, Mcond. Itis com- 
fortoriho iiirilvidunl on ttaa Jottmey upward, iilie looliB with loilblng 
upon uu; oni> vrbodellbcratelr blo«k« her In the attempt to a^care cither 
end. SherutblcwlroHcaailmcauB lo cle«r tt.emootof her waj.anclarma 
ua with aoom and wrnch so tlwt wo will aid her. Uenco ottr batted ot 
crime and crimlnahi; bouce the laws which socIoLj' huaMdi>a4aiti>C Ihem. 

Now, woman i* doubl>'guillj,tiiasmacto aa b^ouiTAKliix the Irovcanoas 
Of dreaa.abe toibaacilflceatbe comfoit of ttio iiKltvidual and K*'lMrdi£ea 
ibAhlshorvTOlution ot the ntoe. She forfella her own hpaitb by t akin n 
polsononit dnig« for hvr complexion, bf using potoouoBfi dnifia ou h«r baJr, 
bf the Haddcaobannoofelothliigwbjeh that eariou* miaoviuer "full Area*" 
ciiiailfe. Sbo turfcitsher owncumtort by aqaeesing b«r walkt iriio liii'it vor- 
■ela and ber tvtc Into tlghror ahoce. But it is her owti individual comfort, 
you eay.hc-c own Indirtdual health that ftho aacrlflcca; she Ua niaityr to 
faabloo. No, not a martyr, for (he very word faAbloo Indicate* that women 
•in lo tliia way bccaoae other women do to. Every woman, tburefore. la 
r«*pon>thle (or tbedii«omfottot the wholesex. No.nota martyr. beeauM 
tbare are oth«r than individual InKrwta, other tbau acx Intereata, at Btak«. 



AOTJCSf AffD COMliEyTS. 



971 



If wonwa McriRi.-c«b«r hoKltb, itbe tb«r«bj Impair* berpowcn of tiMMraKy, 
ftb* «gtalla •lUtcriuK upon ponierttr, mad lb« poaftlblUtiwofireKkiMaMabbat 
iliaj pluoKn her tlcsrcnilAntM loio erroraatidcrlaM«, 

In tmet, iinn tm nMblos witoUnK save oMJlolotHi lat«at to make lb« 
womao Ot tbe p«rlad ibemoat (rlf(hlfulcrtinliiAM&extoteD<«. Thai ab— ooa 
of iDMiit would Bu fur ii» alMolre bet in an j vourc ot morala. iBooraBea of 
tba law «sniiM>» no mun, bnt wo mtut allow It lo exeuso woman, b«caaw 
aba la not an enilt^l; rattonal btlng. It la h«r rcaaon tbatlaatfaull, not 
h»rooiuei«Bca. )»b« rnctiua well, ooly ibo dOM aot kiMW, Uar nrf Taalljr. 
bam hil aa 1 1 Is, baa au a ttraiatJio moll ve. a motlvo, inoicoTer, tbM U flatter- 
lag to Ibe other aes. She aacriAcoa b«r comfort, lier health. In order tbab 
■be luajr attract inon, or, ralhor. aoato particular man. Kcliici, wfao knew 
women, and wlio, like olber •tndcota of tlic acx, lored them ao dearly Lbab 
bo tceoeiiind all tbuirfanlu. onea ntmarfced oraiiitioivMica that, whan Uioy 
wriU.oaaejtelson tbepaper, aodthflOtheroD sompmaii. To ba «ar*. bo 
makea ao exemption of tb*Coont«aa Uabu llabu. Uut be cxplalnathat iba 
ontjbaaooaaja. Ho own« that male autbara hava th«lr pr«Judk««, that 
tber writa for or ai^luct ooinetblDg, for or againat an Idea, for or acaluat a 
partT. "bat^wotnrnBWajni vrrfte (or or acainataomepartkalar man, or, bo 
BXpraaa It more comcJ.lT. oa ac«ouDE of aonta particular man." Now, wbab 
lalmeotMiUioreMe* la troeot women lo all relaUooa of life. 

Wabavo daacnbtd thia aa an aliruUcic tnotlre. Unrortunata); it la 
BoCalwayaoo. Tbodsalra lo attraetdoas not always maantbedeain be 
plwiia, to eomton, to add to lbt> happlneas ot tba peraoo In vl«w. Or ercn 
If that la aa iDO<d«fltal object It ia not alvrajH tb« roaall, from lb« perplai- 
Ingcotitraat often preaeatod bet w«eu woman* Intentiona and Ibeir oul- 
conte. The main abje<rt of women la oonqncst, power, aupiemacy. Tbef 
waalnuiDattbdr prrtty foct, Tfaejr Ilka to toriunt him, aa oaojcbtr ehll- 
dreo torture flteo. The; tike to plaj with him aa cala pUy with mJcc. Tba 
uatapbont ara oocparfact, Clilldran, even naughty childnin, are auperlor 
tofltee. Cata ara aapenor to nloa. But women Hod elatloa In tba vary 
laei tbatit la thaaapcflorbelag whom lor the moment tbey an dominate 
lag by wiles and canning, 

ItSam»oowere not ao very atrong, Delilah woold not rajolcoao muck 
ateonteuiplattngbia tempocary wcakneaa. If Merlin w«re not the wiaeat 
of man, VlTlon woold not bak« sucb aaprvmc dellKbl lo making a fool of 
btm. Tbe lanity ol women, being talne lu oiaeuce, tejolcea In auch rcTersal 
of ibe realonodition of ItilngH. TbU la truu not only o( tbe Helena and 
daopatraa who havaancrftleed their own countriea and plunitad natlooa 
Into bloodabed fn the effort to nuke men tove tbsm, but ot itie tboaeaDda 
ofeeqncttes and Jlltjiatid tbrewa who, from dreumitaae** beyond Ihetr 
(H>ntral, bar* bvcn obliged to eoot'iit thcnuulvca with the hombter rdta of 
uiaklogcominoaplaeeaieo mlvenit/le laa cowmooplaoe way. 

lu aU (baea oaaea It U tbe (prctaclo ot weakneea allowed to triumph 
OTcratrangtb. beeauM of that *ery Btreofcth. The otaateriog foroo of a 
Knak paaakm raakaamanohlTalrouKlj-HabcniMlveto iboofat^CQf hia paa- 
alon. Tba weaker piriy, dreased In tbe brief authority wllllagly rellD- 
qolabad by the etroDger, la liable to be tbe eroal tyrant wblcb waaknaaa 
la power baa alwaya proved ; not tbat woman la cruel conecloualy and of 
malica prapana*. Man, when b« 1* a tjrant, la a mere brata, eoaraaly 
Indltfaraat to tba volTerinK* of others; but itoinan, whan Intoxicatad 1^ 
tb« WiM of 'aaJty, baa no auaplcivu frf tbv eS<jalttt« Mt^n of Mk (^rt«tM 



37S 



rmS SORTH ANSRICAiV KEV7EW. 



mhicb Kliu can uvl Aot* luOtct npoD ttae nun whom ftlio lovM, prorMad bo 
aiMo loicM tior. T^vo and haUi am aa ctowlr allied I 

Aolerer Frenchm&n bks said, kod irich aotttt truth, that ia Eogland 
wonaa in the Inferior of m*n. Id Prkitco kbe in bia c<)U>l, aud in Ain«rie« 
blsaapertor. Indeed, mitu la tbls couutrj has deferred to bcrtmlooK tbM 
womui la l><!({iniiUiK to (hi:ik alic \itut the fo(c« ihaloooipel* d«fnr«nce, axid 
DOttbe WDOkncKs ihsl troos it. Sbe b*.« fougbt bar vtmy (alow lautf arc- 
nUMOf IntellMlUAl effort bilberlo closed U> ber. tbAt aba la begisaing to 
look upOD tha very dladol a* btirv. Sbo but ctvii, in Iinr exa)t*<I mnmimlii, 
v«gu», sad drftaniH of a Rood time comlnK when tlie connia ma'culln^ iac«l- 
lUrenoe wblch hu aa long islBinuiagQd tbinga In Mt norld will be replaced 
hy th« ilmtr intuicionti and nobler innlincia o( tho opprcaacd sex. Ia abortr 
the rariltf of womnu In thi* day, wbea al>« it> ao st-reDuoufti; imitating tbe 
moMCuIuicaalinal trhoiu nhn deapLwaMi Ateplj, b brglaiiliiB toaoHinio a 
iiia«cul!oo tlRfCO ; It Is a aort of peeudtyconctH. 

With man IhaooatrarrU tbe CAML Doubt ia in tbe air. Tbov la an 
upbaaviil of old tra^litiona and ooDTi-ntlniialit.lMt. Not only tfac Hupereinict- 
or«,but tbe lerj roundatloas, of old (allha and old beliefs are tbrcatencd 
wltji an nihil at ton. Witb no Arm ground to atand npoo, (be a«lf-confldenee 
of tb» poaC boA vanisbcd. IMitbcliaf in Ar«r7thifig InvolTaa dliitMUof la Aoa'a 
a«U. A ttuapea^loit of Judgtuent ou all dbput«d quMtiou*. on all que»ttoiw 
tba(caapo>*ibljrbaaa«tfcJ«ct of dispute, lead* loaatupcusiooofjadtCBkcnt 
aa laonc'aowDaMlItT tOKfappta with ^uch quc^tlon&i JimoMo, " [ do not 
tcaovr." Ibat ia iha attitude wliicb tlic mun! advanced luan of to-daf acboola 
hlm««l( to OMiiino. But affnwva ii arm a word tbat conid Isxu* from tbe 
llpaofa woman, especlaUraDndranoed woman. Sh« "kDOwslLoll." She 
iaalwnraoook-Bure, without tliealIg)ii£Nt appKbenalon of the condftlooa 
of r«llODalc«rtalnt7, Sba ia a pn^lonale adTocat*. Botnhe haanoeoB- 
■clenea, oltbcr In itttoek or d«r«iioe, Tbe angpls are alwars on bcr side, tho 
derilaagainnt lier< U nbc iairrelititoui, abc Ua abrivkins albeUt wboaoca 
only impontnm and fraud In tbonrcat laltbs that rolled out from thabMrts 
of saitoaa. It she is n.'ligtouA,Hbp known tlint doubt la derU-bora, ibat 
humbly boronftrwi jour Inabiiiij (oriiiic with the injatcrjr of cxUt«nce la 
wUfuli; and wlib prond and wicked deflaDoe to elose your ejes to tbo 
IlKht which aba acea aud wbtcfa, therefore, you oojtbt lo ace. One virtue 
mtut tndcr^d b« conceded to lier. Wbctber ahafat cluimpioaing the adro- 
«at«a of tbe Bluber Critieitm or whetber ah« la polullnic out tbe absurd 
and danRcrouK orron of Darwin or Sp«neer,sbe<loewit with tb«lmparli»tltj' 
of one wbo baa never read tbcta, or, barlnc read, baa not the aliKbteat 
compiebeBelon of tbeJr real meanlnfc. 

Above all tblnjis> the advanced woman la a E^eat reader of cliaracter. 
Sbe dlepenaet with al I the absurdlj (Ardy laetboda ot obaernUlon, cooiparl* 
BOD, anal yalB, ^be ia rcodf nta glance to ciaa«lf;everr new variety of mui 
or woman. Tim air of Infaillbilitj with wbiob she will diseuaa llie iuuvr 
eRMAIont, the accmt aprlngx which more tbs oetiona of any erara ehaoM 
acqnoiataore, illnatrate* her cageroeas to elmalate knowledge whece tbe 
re^nUlte coodltioos of aceurate Inforaiatloa ar« abaotutolr and obvlooalr 
warning- Of Che eudteaa dlTersltj of individual teinperauienc, of tbe lo- 
trfcadea and conlradloLiona of human aaiura, of the abj-xmal deplbsof 
pecBOualltr. abe haa no oo&e«pllOtt. She Lran*htin everyilifDK outaldeot 
baraelf Iniotenniof hcroivn couiciouvieea. 8be iuipu[«a berownuodaa 
of tbongtal and fcallng to otbar individuala,Jnnt aa tta« pHmitIm aarafc 



ttores Am> coiiits.\'Ts. 



878 



projects falniMlf. lib wntlmenltt. nnd hu inuuiKoiui low ores the IniinlnniM 
world aron nil blin. In btr liruu-t atti; dr^plara IoeIc. Sh« Is cotuKlooa tb*C 
horlalnilloiitiant Umupednr toany m»r« mental proceoa. Y»t no noman 
ot aplrtt ever aubaklt(»d wltbout an eiploklau to lbs Imputation of twltiK 
lUoglBaL Wbjrahoulil ah«T Waa It manor (roman who InrenUd that moat 
alMnftnlaryaf all rormulat,— «o iilnipl«, so b^autitul, m «a»llf a«IJo*(cd to 
rrtry arKuiu*riit tltat mtifbt ariar.— " It fv, bccatuie It U"l And with all his 
boActcd supcriorilf, baa ntoa errr moatcrod tho true principle of lofclosl 
teihM^ CbaC If jou wani toitay atlimle wordiipoo nanbject joinnaBtstartoflT 
with aUMratnndupon anothrr out) Jcct whirb hrvmopotalblarelatioa theratof 

Tba MiranMd womiD o( lo-dar. In «hon. la aa connlted and mI(- 
MoMeoC na can be. Klal« wicb tbc now ot her cnpacltF to do vamny 
t&lasi wbleb horirrand'iiotbar would baredtamad linpaaaibl«.ab«l»l«adf' 
t« do aajtblDK tbat man baadoo*. Har oaly oew plaint la that aba ta ttlO 
debaiTtd bom oaan^ (hloga whicli abe «outddoquii« aa well, if not batter 
tbao mas. T«t we wero rff[ht In cnllinx her conceit a /^acudo-coocolt. Ita 
atridcnLandblaiaalarrofCauce buan undert jlag seose o( tmpoience tbac ia 
at ancahutDoroaaaod pathetic Dr.Jobiuon'aoflHiitoUidaajtInxCbMawoaiMi 
praacbinKlalikeadoKataadln«OB Kataind legs— Cbe wonder lan'l that It la 
dODSsawDll, but that it la dooe at ai) ; thla asTlnsl" tiiiuallaiit audaotalr. 
ItlaacoaiiM exagtc«ratlon of tbn troth. F^t no allow for thaeoanaota* 
and the exAjtgeratlon. and with tbta alto «an«e still um tt Tnr nnr pnrpnaw 
Tonmlftbt Ima((lneadog Uobuc<l with baman ooatcloavocwtatandlnit oa 
itahlud Icinau^ aboutlitgoot with Kreat i|lt«i "Seo t can do ihla >^ well 
■a s man." Bui fOU coald neyer imi^c'ne the coUDterpropoahion— ^u 
eanU neTer Imaslaa s mao shoatlmr, " Sec, 1 ran do tbU aa wall aa a dOK." 

Now.s wainui'aBbrl1lsel(-«aaertlveneBahaa tbe aams qtuUltteioFcon- 
sdoiM wsakaaasuid liillnnltj. She la eonlinaallr boaallntc. 8hs ta eon- 
tlnuallrdrftwtnjcsttcatlon to b«r own partoymanoe- and compartng tbein 
wltb tboaa ot inaa. At the Clileago BxposlUon abe muat «vcti lu*« s 
Womaira Pavilion, for Ihcexploiiailon otihe »«z. ImafflnvaiiiaD'e pavltlon 
•ttbe naaiufalrl Tt>CKlur;r'>f Ibelllylauiietliiiutandtbe glarj of ilic oak Is 
another. Wotnan r«D nvvrrbe the cqital o( mao In cither phr-tlral orniMital 
•iTvngth ao long aa abe la handicapped fay the burden of poaalble nuit^mlty. 
Nature do««not lay a burden of Uiat kind on any crualurawUbout taxing all 
the ener^loa. nieotal aad physical, to coninbiito toltJi Muppirt. Nor do ws 
*grt* vrith Ueor)tc Ellat'amliogjDiBt, that woman ehould*r« this burden " bi 
a pM>r ni«k«shlf t aort of a way ; It ba' hotter ha' bwti left to the nan." Aa 
tho mother of lli« rao«, man, It muitl hn e<misrded, would bo a tki)nr«. Not 
onlyphyalcaJly. but oicataily and morally bv U unlSI ted for •« holy, dellcAta. 
andbeaatitolamlasUn]. An tbc loader and tbc flgbtrr IntJw bsUle ofUto, 
wonisn woald alao be a failure. BerTanlty conla bcr mtichat pnaenutt 
ontM the hun>an rsco murb. Ou nnt trt her add to that coat by tte pacwto- 
OODceltof anaaunsdmantJi] <v|ualliy with man. Let berliowareof adding 
toUw fallorea of Ilia a rrcaiure wbo has thrvwn aaltli* hnauty and noC 
aaaunad aUea^tb, wbo haa ccaaod to be a woman and baa not leamrd to ha 
a man. WiLt.LiJi S. Wajjio. 

TBKORNGICS OF THE TUHF. 
EvxBT DAtloa has bad Its ruliaR aport. At prasiot, so fu as tk« grsst 
olUea In tbla oountTT. BoKlAod. and PV«aoe srs ooooa r aed. tbarsoJagoC 
Munnia^bnd rtuuiLDR boraes Is ifaa miMt promloeot paatima. Itbwbsc 



374 



TBS XOSTB AMERICAU REVl£W. 



IteOlrmpUnBamM wflTO toGrc#c«,orwh*t thtoontataln tlia fcUdt&toriil 
AresA Bad (^harlot r<ie«« w«rf> to Borne; whAt thsbnII'tlgbtaAM to the Spaa- 
iib pe»pl«« In Europe or South AtnericA. It vraj bo Ukid that mor« peopl* 
«T« lDt«re«t«d It) b^aball or tonnU la this con titij tb*a aT« followtrs ot lb« 
TAcei. Cricket or teonU mhj oallat iDore dcvotew iu KnKlvid tban r«clDft. 
WcnrcRtful tobclirvc chftl IidI'Ii iiropoalUonnArE true. Mid ftlao Chat tb««laM 
who aphold the cantcalBolbftll field Mnd court aro moreicrcatly benrlttedb7 
Ibelr recrvaclon, aid abow greater rellaem«nt. aa a cIknh, ebaa th« raM-solttC 
public StUItbp fact remain* Ukatborae-racinfc lit uDo of th« "faahloaaUa" 
dlT«t«lon« In rltl«s like N^w York. No contests ot baseball, tennli, cricket, 
rowinf^. rifle-abootiDK. ^at? lit racing, atbletit^a. or football draw inch erowda 
aa go to MO tho Subnrbati liaDdle&p ran at Cooi^t- Itlaod, th« n«rl>f In 
GofiUnd, or IheatriiitKlo for the Grand Prix o( PaH^ In tb« rlcioilT of 
New York ibere h radnR ao eveir tair dar (rom iMrlr in Maj aniil NuTem- 
berortator. Joromo Park, Morrln Park, SliMpsbcad Bar.and HiDmantli 
Beacb are aappiecnontcd bjotbi^j* low repaCabIs racvconreesiu aupplylnc 
Ibe demand tor excitement; and dlTcralon. RaoeeourM* at Saratosa, OhI- 
Cairo. I.outKvl]1e. WactaiuKlou. Uetrall, aod other lar^e cIUm alao flml a 
pacing patronattP . 

To p»ople who never analyzed the attractions of tb« turl It ma; aaeoi 
U)«xpllc>abln how hone rkclnjt abould tnaintala sneh a bold on tbe pmblk. 
OwlnK to tbv atmo«pbor« of ftamblinK tbat surronods tbe aport cnaar 
people will nerer enter a rac«oour>«. Tb«y Jud^ of tbe rbarao(«r of Ibe 
div«nloD b; what Lbojr read, bj what tboT liaafff nc, b^ what they sm of Its 
rcaulta, by ic« devotees. Wbea we aocouot for Its populaiitj ft wttl be eU7 
toiM whoLher or noit tbe turf dene rve« pacrooaRe. We enter fnto ttilt 
analysis knowing t>]at the naentlon in almadf prcjudflod bjr most readera, 
bat yetwkh Che hope tbnt «o prominent a pliSM of pment day lite Is worth 
eonaidaraUon. We must mucmber that some people of wid« and eswllenC 
repatattmattend th«rai;rt*, oeca*<onalif at loaat; that tho crowilspiVMBt 
caotTeargrowlaxicer; ttiaLacMily newourw hM tb>s year be«n added to 
New York's attnu'tjoiis, that another at Saraloica in prapoandi aad tfans tbe 
■port appears to tnc KnlolnK In favor. 

Tho big raceiraurafa at first attract people out ot cariosity. Aa a apes- 
lacie alone ooe niifcht say that !t were worth while to go ooce to mm tbe 
tborongbbreds, like lean HmyhoiindK. Nprlna into a mile and a bait straits]* 
for atakcs which r<^aeh twenty and evrn forty thousand dollars. The bril- 
liant iloeot naonnlcd JO(<kej«, retplend&nt In coior^d ailk, the \ot\g aad 
broad oval or atralgbtawaf track, the Rrand-atand, black with people and 
flattering with ribbons and banners, all comblite to make an attractive 
acene. This mlEbtaafflcotoidTconc a falrrctnmforbisflftjcentaor one 
dollar admlsaioD (ee. bis bait-day vA time, bis taltroad fare to and from the 
tiack. Bot oa« would not go many times to aee this algbt, howetcr pretty. 
Day after day the spectacle U theMine. The eaiae lean, n^rvy horaea, or 
oncaalmoiit thA aame la appearance, are ridden ; the same colors adorn the 
ronaded abonlderH of tho whita or colored Joekeyi ; tbe aam* flaga flutter, 
and the sam« croivds oUoior on lh« atAnd. One who baa carried a scaaon- 
pass to a track, and InlicTcn hiui»<ilf a lover o( good hor«e», may coa»«l«o- 
tloualy aver that the laocs as a ntcic npsctacle ikmo bcoomc so drearily 
DtonotODoiia a« not to tempt oue to walk a lilock to aee ibem. Yet the 
pablle, U they do not gamble, bare no part to play bat that of apectatore. 
Tbe/ must remain paattre, sod are not apaired to Imitation aa tn watcbtoK 



N0TS8 AUD C0MVKXT8. 



S7S 



■tUattc cuiie>, for Iuubcc. " Ab,' tAjv tbvnrlog eotbiulMl, " ron musk 
ukean laUrascln Uw wvenil boravs. Jut look at Salruor roIuk to the 
pouoow." 

Well. OHO wbohka nul columns In pniw of «>me wonder ot lh« far! 
will aUamiy b*r« aa (ittfrMt In sa«h » rMtnK-m&ohiti«. To mb b-ilvAtor 
run * mile In ODc mluatc tbirt]r-llv« mwX • bslt nccvnd*, I«a»«olni( by *cr*- 
ral •eoond* tbo world'* record (or a talk ; or lo Mt FirL-as! lower bcr own 
beat racord of 2iU tor a uilo and a UaU, as wa» done teoeotly. utaj ba 
owmocmbltt forunjol Ibe twcnt; lo thirljr tbouwnd spcctatora. Rat one 
rvtact Ma Salvator aod Fircnil noc aTery ilaf. KT«n ir ooe did. Ibo repa- 
tltloB would atfia hrei'd a tkuie lor a cbange, Lboutfli IL bq lor a ra«a ba- 
twccaacowandadoakv)'. Then, bow cotild ooe poitlbly tak« an Interest 
Id tbe Individ nallcjr of cacbof tha s«v«ral hundml oth<^ booa» In in«lnlni{f 
No, It U impoaalbk lo foat«r aucb a niullipliclty ot ((raduaied iotom*t« tbai 
In vacli raee one aball know wblch ban« he wlalio* to coma la flr>t and 
wtiicli McoDd. " Out." aays tbe racliiK ootbtulaat, " Joat. put Qredollars la 
tbematual poola for aooie hone to win and anoUier Co run afcond, and jon 
will fael lb« keeoeat lotorcst.'* Tbie frank admlaalon la ■ moit Iraportaal 
kc7 to the popolarttj of raelDg. If tbe nuui wbo poea to Llie raeea out at 
«urlo*ltf , for rocraatlan, or bt'cau■l^ it la '* tbtt correct tbiag,''ooco dMCtada 
tot>«»iagooabor<w>to"ifi«Tv*Mi hl« Inutmt," be I* -rrrf likely to becooB* 
one of tbe ncrrou'*, anxiou* llirvcii wLv folluw the races dally troni Uaj to 
Novccabcr, wlnotajiaiid luiloK.eactt pitted asoiiut all tb« rcit, and prajlnc 
to tbe xoddeu ot Luck to keep hU variiiKa on tbe locreaae and that ot bii 
fellowaoo tbD durcaae. 

It la not naccMar)' torvoonni UioaTllsof gambllDs:. Tbey are trlt«.bat 
tbatrdrotb ot mlaerr will ooF^r beiold. Uealtb. frleDd^r«piiiatiou, boma^ 
bapplOfM, and life liaeltar« vinualtj caat In the balaaoe. Fortnna can 
win alio! U»aM from tb« ntan, wbo, if ho wiait. mnj only double hla motte; I 
Verily, Fortnn« vikii Ir^im^tidoon odd«. \Fatcb Ibat ovrvou* inao rtitioiac 
blaajeovcr tbo boiBc4 in (be paddockl Ue fttacica his favorite 1h out of 
condition and be rncM back to ibe botllngalasda to place a bet on aooia 
otbrr bora*. Ha Rufata for a footlnic with erowda of otbera, at laat Mcara* 
fala ticket, ranalotbe botnaatrolcb, and hla beart tbumpa mora nolaotlj 
than tbat ot thopoor brola who ■iraxiC'C!' liotne under wbip andapai^- 
beaten I Socb Is hia dallj life : todaj- cxaU«d bj luck, to moirTOw depnmd 
bj the unie d«DOD. Uow long can bo stand tlto atrainf How loag will 
biafatuiljl If tber« are ptcanurcHand iiioooMtLfealttrea In raclnii It !■ cor- 
taloly a aad lulatalta that Ita corner alone »boald b« tiauiblioK. Tbe appar 
enllj Indlaprnaable adjunct o( brttine )• k«ptnpat all the raf-crountra. 
U bookmakerti anarreated tbti]- are baited and otberwiaa prat«ct«d bf tbe 
racliuc aaeacHatlon^ 

One mlglitRiflotloa olli«r)nHu*nce* which fttve Unpatoa to tbe popti- 
lailty of raelni;. Tbe u««ip«p«n Klva not onl; a eotaoin to tbree 
eolomiM dallr to Lhle "port, bol th«j nend oomo of (beir brlKl>(«<)t wrlten 
todescrlba the dfiaiU of Iht^ ronlesi*. mrn who can write entertalnloKir 
about tbe moat monotonouaiwrlpaol Hcranib)e% In dost and mud. Aft«r tbe 
clemenlof Bambtlnd tb»rsceroar«e<> ilepi^nd uio«t larKc'r iierbapa ob tbe 
•aptMWt Rtren tbem by the prvsn An Indorvpnipnt of eonaldarabla welstat 
la added by man j fsembm of tbe faablooable and weKlcbyctaM who drtra 
to tbo r*<«e In fonr-lo-banda aad otbarwlw display tb&lf wealtli oa tbe 
race-tracka. 



THK SORTff AWERICAK RBI 



Tbo ApoloRT for raoioK U that it foraivbea r«cn>ftUoa. Bat raoiMaon h 
not irboll}- n good tbitiK. K H la product! ru of evil nwalts. SotDfl ot tlic 
mtrotu o( tbo (Brf intxbt perfanpft ba worw) omplajcd wer« It blotted oat. 
Otbere noold doabtleaa be In betccr &ToeftCloi». One may ur thmi ctU in 
race KOlDs depend* oa tfae m&n and hU UnaBclal and pbjsleal aJiitii; to 
stand dlaalpathm. or hia moral abtlitr to ttaad templatloo. A taaif-boUdaj 
spent in wateblovt tborougbbtvdarao. b; th»Ma^aboc«,apaata«a rcUat from 
biuiiMU Eoutiuo IU3lc» harcolMs BQOiigb. But if it load* to r«iuii of blind 
elaaibUiieaft«rtb0fa'«« godaot Cbaoce, ev«n tb« fir«lwt«pcMi hardly appear 
bonocenL Supportcrsof tbe turJ claiai tbat raolog l«ad* to a bclicrcucnt ot 
tbe oouutr^'s stocic ot honMi by the u^e ot Imported thoroofchbr^ sire*, bj 
carefularlcirctonln hror-dliiir. olc. But.coac«dtngCbanlaaMnetmtb in thU, 
Cbotortmea mu«c admit that, alter all, tbe tliorauirhbrad la prtt-enHnaotly 
Ot 0&I7 for racintf. Wu can ralno topical Raddle bonss. trottttsj) hone*, ear- 
rlain bones, draught boraea, wUhoui any farther InfnaioQ of tboroogtabred 
blood. Few people want faeera or bunten. The caat-off eoltaand «f(od 
horiM from the raotagatablce bring lovprleo*, for the reason that thenogb- 
bradsate&ot eepeotallT fitted for any other ove. Tbej are apt to be ob- 
Btreperon^ tn hamcivi. ofl«n llerr and ntirvlUhltt for aoj ame. It can be 
olAlmcd that, a pan tliorousbbrod may make a ^cood t rolt«r or saddle horee; 
andfienatorStanford. orCilifiirDla, had KTvat faith in thomuRbbred blood 
infused lutothp Amerlcnn trotter. Without purAuliis tbe Bub}oct further, 
It ntied only belaid that i( thoroughbred blood Is valuable In breeding bonea 
foroeher than raeinsporposea It will b« found ooc and used wltboat regard 
to radnji ; and Ic maj he fnl)^ ait cfFoellm If the b«at colt* and homa* have 
Dot Ibeir HUtoins aud TttaJitr puuuded out by a racecour^u career. But we 
are oousidcriog oepeciallf tbe moral aapocta of t^o turf. 

This leads to tbo fin^ conaidaratloa wo haTu to oOer for the makinK up 
of a verdict on raclnic. Are horses aboaedomtbeturf I I* cruelty practised! 
If cruelly is pracdwd. why do not hunuum soolettea Inlorfeiwf Thia last 
qoerf we IwiTe to tbn Kod^tles. Tbe first two questions can Iw ansirered 
byqaotatloaafroci] tbe Tery writers who help support tbe turf bf thelreoter- 
tuning rwparCK In tbe aowspapera. To be sure the heaving Hank, tbo blted- 
l)Uiaidee,«adrld]{ed bodloo that rvitUter tbe whip's aetirity, are not often 
dllatedon. Such aightaaro too coinmoa for the cbrouloler to pay attention 
to, except occasion all}-. Uor«orer they ran bardlj bo mode altnolire cTcn 
bjlhe banlriM.-0. "Iiorscy" taste ot the inreterateraceiioer. NooDellkei 
the BlKtil of bloa<l. and here arc KcnUy-bred ladies lookloRoal TcU Ibeiii 
not to look at the tired, dust;, bloody brula Rewill be washed, bandacad. 
and doeured up for another raee. 

Br»ry race ROer know* tbat tn nearly every raee eoeorraoreof the hortca 
are spurred until thdrsidtn bleed, whipped for«BOi>dpartof the lost furlong. 
audBMdetostralaeTerynerfc.toadQD, aud blood- vessel In tbeeflorl to mould 
UtD decrees of Chanco. Occaalonally a hone break* neck, or limb, or fetlock- 
Joints anapi a tendoo. brulsra a Join t, orotberwlseliurta hiasalf Irrentsdlably, 
Many n ma.Ti who Bilmlres good horses and « fair raoe would attend raoea ft 
borse* wore not jo cruelly laslivd, spurred, and driven to their last atooi of 
endnnnee. "Thoie little whips aikd npuni may look barmlaia," aald an oM 
bocaeoisii, "bat they are madt to burl." Horatmea kaow that moat boreen 
wUl run veryctowto, Unotfully opto, tbeir otmMt ability without wbipor 
sfMir. Would It not be better to drop fraux tha raoe^ al* auiinals who must 
Deeds be tortured to make them extend tbemaelvesl U would t«nd to (b* 



yrss AifD coMUBirrs. 



an 



bTHttlDIC of A more vrllllnK. Bt«ut4iBUtad rocn o( borvw. If whIpaMv imcM' 
■M-r u> uLarl a ^orae up, wtiy uolrasulflt Jockeja to kllgbl plcc«ot rattui 
OTft n>p«*B end, iujit«kd of allowInK ttwiua oT tbe rlllalooua, cutUng GatfiUt 
wluUebane, kndstaeit Spun atiould be&boUab«d altotfcLbvr. 

On«ottheftDp«rtoruif«ctionaot A trot tine rute is chkl IClanrel/cz- 
p«di«Dt to wblp a honwi, A gfloA trotti^r will do hU beat wlthoae « irblp, 
•ml Ui« Ull«r will onljr tD*lce biiu brt^k and ran. l&dMd, Mfto ezbiblUoe 
of ftbtrong Inherent trait andcareful tiaioiuK lu Um aniuwl. uidakill In 
UM(lrlrer,trottinicraceaina7 claim Burkcdauperioritjovcr raaDiognM*. 

But to auui ua Uambliiuc aud a cruel, blaottoii abua« ot anjotato are 
obrlooa asd ugly biota oa aoj abowinK that Uw turt cau luako aa a Imim- 
fldal aonrca of rMreatkm. It la aoioxp»ct«d ibat tbvpopalaritrof noUiff 
— tranaieut tboanfa It ma/ be—wlU be muob alliiet«d bj tU* review. We 
Bajronly IkclpMinc lataiai opinio at or to atnactbcalMMaalnadj fornxid. 
Ittbaiorf laanavll, ooa •boial<L Klra it do haJModonomont. If It U oolr 
ball bad It aboold b« rcfonaed. Jm In doallait with tb« U(|Uor tralBcit 
mar not bft moat eap«di«Dl i« empJojr prohibitive moaaana. Fbarvlaaaa 
wcapDD tba( la roalatlaaa, aad wbfch aoy one maj wl«Id to aoma asteati 
nod ibal U puhUoaeutltDeBt. If tbal can become moulded intoiijiid l*w 
for ihrt |i[TT*nitnaot gaBU>ll(ix uxl cruellj on racclracka. th*ti, a» racarda 
all lUliiDocvut (eataiw wahaartUTBay. *'Lodr lite to the Tort T' Bactng 
aaaapaetacielaao paaalva a reenatten tbai Uoao never rank la benuflclal 
malta with gam«a or apoita which am actively particlpatad In. 
Bat ther« In a way of trffaf{«on«Iuitlon« of »pe«d b«tw«ea horaee wbicbia 
qwrtamaolikc icoatiemaiilr. aod muwldsbi which baa regard tor a borao^ 
faallnffa and powcra, aad wblcb la not a nkere nwnof -(^tUnK ncbeme. May 
aoeh tadnft pr«Tall over tba odlooa pnctleea bow prcvatcDt I 

c. u. cauTDau. 



THK BEADING OP POOR CHILDRBN. 

Fob a loDK tlm<i I bavfl bad exoeptlofial opportunltlea of watcblDB tbt 
readioK of tbe cbildfen of a poor dly nrlgtiborfaood. Every waok-da/ 
avtnlngforbatf an boar altar dlnLvr i7 U>7:JA the parlora ol thaAndonr 
HoBM an open to oblldran who wiah to take booka borne to read. Oar 
antira library la eootalnad inaaingic r«va)vlitg bookeaaa, bat In LheMxinw 
o( a UtUa ovar • yaar It baa aginabow auppUaa naora tban SDO chlldnu with 
DUwa than 2,600 bodis. 

A.I1 along ibe demand for fairy atorlm ba« been |>benomeDaL tttaaa 
eeaaa from boyaaad Kirln alike, wltitoat dlattactlon of age. How tar ibia la 
eharaeiariatio ot the cblldreii ot wofklng people I do not know. Our ygojig 
p«(^la an, for tb« moM part, of Irish parentatfc, and wo aUrlbnta moeh of 
tbclr pasaloo tor tba Imaglnatlva totblaOlllcatrslo. Strangely aoot^ (IK 
maybe bccauM thfir critloal fMioltlea are not aofflcicntlj developed b» 
adatltof Hdv dincriiuiuatlona) tlwy mneh prclcc booke tbat aro all CacttO 
IboM tbat aiu a bleodlng ol Caoc aDd Cuicy. TboaiUatorkeaia aanond oolj 
to fair; talev U) popularity. By blatoriest*' war booka" tbe boya onU Ibaml 
moat b« oodcntood Anedcaa blatorlon, ood alway*. by prefcroDca. tboM 
deallog wit b tba OlvU War or the RerolntloD. In tact. Uie appetite for Amar- 
lean bialor; la to ravanaBa tbat tba twoor tbreo dry hiaiuricnl taxt-booto 
wUeb bave aomvhow crvpt Into tba abalvaa liava baao ffn«dily davennd. 

Uookaol traTel and adrKjuoFB banaooBaldenbleTogaB,leBa,bow«T«r, 



378 



TBK NORTB AMERICAN REVIE»: 



ttma foaM nstormlly b« Bxpoctad, In view of Ui* ttcl thai tba nujorlty of 
tbe librarr patroBsxre bj^s. 0( the S.ea)€OplM meiitlOD«cl,SB3h&Teb«eo 
boob of pure &dTentar«, And 38t books of ttsvcl. TbAt tbe ttnmbeM ol fairj 
t*lc*uid liiHtoricitrocordvdakTOoiitj 38! Aid SI4 ntpectlvvlj Lftftupleodld 
Uluattalioo ot tbu way In wtiicti unoxpUIucd fieur«a maj U«. The Uutb Is 
our Dujipl J boUi ot tairj book* and war booka b»a twen Bltanuilallr mcacnH 
Willie tbo ftopplf of books or bra vol ftod adTcntDrc buboeownpte. DkQj 
uaodftttaBAiidUlk wich tbechiidreu leavaino nxmifordoabCtliat, witb 
tbaircboloa Allowed [re« range. IKij prr cent, ot tb* ttatlnt oacpnt would 
lu««bMn laLr/BUuiM. and at loaAl balf of the TemAlnlng flfljr p«r oeni. 
"wftrbootn." StoriMoticbool %aA home life, anukUkLt ofgunMaBd aporU, 
funny t>OOk*.ballulNftndnitrTAtiv&pociiia,>odad&pt*ltoofl of nB(Qr>l*ndKp- 
plicl •oieace«c« rocclvcd FritliaoioodoKrcv of intcrviL The old favurit««, 
Bvbtnmm CVmmw, SwUa FamUtl BoHiuon, AraAian A'l(/U«, Tom Srvttn, 
Cneie Tom'a CtiMn, and JfolAor l9ocw«cbarinli«te «9 everfwbQio. Of the 
■uiutard noveiiNta Cooper, bcott, and Olckt-ii* aru rsad, but witb do great 
iMgn» of ardor. 

Calls forspscial boolcamafOfUD bfttraoed to Obansesof fmgUXSUOJbMt 
thetbeacrea. Tbttau Istaporarj demand waa created t»r OHtwi* TwtM, 
Bip Van WinkU, the Merfhant o/ VtnUe, the Thrtt MutlutMt^ 
and e««D for TeDnjaoD'a Bet^ket. Tb« rca»oti (or such otfaar aiM^oUJ call* 
aa HickLuaaa-Chathaa'a CitUcn Btntaparte, llan-tbome'a ZToimc vf the 
Seven OabUa, Sootl'a UartnUm, the Uvea of B&vulockt Clivfli Gratlao, 
and Sir Fraucia Drake. Gvots^ Kliol'n Daviei Derwtnia, and Tom Uoon^ 
BUtory Of IrtUtnd can oolr Iw *urinl»ed. 

The eajtemeui with which (taudllr covered, coplouilr lUoatrated 
quartoa are aetzed and borne awar. ^fiitardliMu of thrjr conicnta, cliowa as 
appreelatlaa of the pletorial, and in, on that aeoouDt, little lif at alll to b« 
deplored. Still we are glad to have U>e oeoaeiooal chanoo whiob the reblsd- 
Ing of the quartoe give*, to insUt Uist piotuixs and colored [lapcr, do not 
taakoB book. Aod thU loeMin baa lu cfTccU Cvrtatii uapruLi^aUouH duodocl- 
moa, which were baidlT lookad at In the beginning, haro at laat become 
prioM tavorilca. Itla IntercaUns tonOM that the sirla roada bo}a' book* 
with avldltjr, while tbeboja will not knowlojtlj looch olrls' books. It a boy 
get* a gtils' book bone bj mUtake. he barrlen tt back with tlietrankeet 
Bipnaalona «t dbvnat. 

SoimuniatBgthlnfiB happen. Thefow bora who cannot read lake oot 
booka aa aaelduoiulT aa tbo otbcra, with a heroic datonnioatioD to Iw " la 
the awliD " ; (arLbormorc, tbo aamc wllllDgDosa appuara, aa la adult BoatoB 
B0det7i to fetita atloilratloa for Uie hooks approved by ihe aodal leaden (In 
bhia oaso the leadera ot the "ganKn"). A boy was haacd advising hla 
yoiuiBar brother to take oat the "Tale of Troy." " Dat*a de book yoa'se 
wania ter K't." he said, " dat'll tell yer all about New York ao' de Uowery." 
Another boy whom I hod naUoad naaiog longingly at the top abalroa, on 
whldi tba worka of Dickens. Thackeray, Taanjeen, etc., were ranged, 
•Idled op to toe wltb an abashed appeal that he be allowed to take out "a 
work." Plainly he looked on workaao aomothlng too high and mighty for 
•neb as ho. Hla" work*'aecare4l. bo displayed a dneaooro for the boys 
who look out "pleoher booka." tjooaosr tbey were oot."higli enough In 
school " tortAd " worka." Ot couhk, many o( I beac children fictholdof aod 
read aensaclonal newspapers and the wurat sort of papercovered literature. 
ffocaUtbat,tbeirtaKala,OQthe whole, still healthy. It will remain ao If 



NOTES A.rm COMMENTS. 



8TO 



plsBt; of Uwrlgfataart of bookkuv brought lnt« thett midat ft^dlMpt (b«M. 
TDt-j kiunr tberv U « pabllc UbMrj, but tbtj bA*e not li>«rrird to une It, (1«- 
tened, bo doubt, bj dUtftac*, tlw t*d l»pc of Kiiiatt refcnace*. tho looog- 
T«al«Bt obacoriijorihe MtAlDgo«,«nd th« dAOoerof locufTln^ fioM. Oar 
UtUv «*W of book« luda up nfttarallj to th« Public Libnrj. and by Uklmt 
Iromibeicaaour OArdStOOCMdOOAl booksfor iberblldren, w tnajTbeaMe 
loiimntoilfmulaU! them to take oat c&rda o( ttivlrown. Tkla would b« 
ftdlulnctandpeinuaeat (tain. 

Altajt F. SjuieoBJt. 



BFSTT^B^S FHKNCn CANADA. 

It w«a m Francb CitaftdlMn prnmiitr wbo d«c)u«d, unld deafanlny 
pUDdlts,tluttbBlutgnB ID detaaee of Brltl4b couKfCtloa wotUd bo flr«d 
bj « Pr*oeb (XoMdlut jiunner. I1L« ardor wa* rewarded bf hia •ovenign, 
wbo pr>>ai)fKlf craat«il h[iu a knl|{t)t and aidA-d«-««iBp ob her paraonal ntaff. 
Ibe Uotalnioo haa not Erowu tm? old aino« tbat patrtotie period waa 
|lcaiKMtae«d, and^rvt \t !• troui tba Upt of two pfouitnent loaden of the 
naaeb Oaaftdlaas, tbo ODO a Liberal ox premier, tbeotber a Cocwrrailr* 
ex-Ikntf^naat^oremor. that ttie aerartng of Uw imperial llr, anil Hiparfttlou 
from tba Brtt lab IlafC.an)arg«d, *rfi)inior*or1«u*Ioqaeuc« of pbraae. Tru« 
botbBiauaoMiiaraoatofaJabat prMeoc. It 1« atao tru« [list tb« vnleo 
wnicb pleaded vriili Micb rhelorioai cITdct for tbe coatinaanr^i of tuo old 
NlaUonoblp balooced Uiod« who oceciplml a high and lueratlTeoffloe. A 
few feara ago no rMpOtttlble Canadian l<>adM- woutd have (a««d tbo «kelM« 
with the err of Indepeadeaco To dar no Bosllab leadar would attecapt IL 
Aod jet tho loyallj of Freoch Caoada seeou, on the aur^ice, U» be 
■dDcere. A cbief, high In tbe eateBm of the French UbcraU, once said. 
"Fnoca Rare at life, but SofllaQd gfi^n us Jlbertr, treedotn. and 
■alfgoremaaeiit.'' Tbe ontbont caoaed applause, and tbttra waa waving 
of handltarehiefa, while tb« more emotional !□ tbo aadienea alMd Unn, Not 
loagago Frecbttla'adntouof "Paplnoan" was produced Id QuebM Utf. 
Ttt« berolo and patriotio paiMaa:«a, of «rhi«h ihore ar« manf In the plaj, 
w«rc nppUudcd. The Riij(liKb militar? ot&cot*, prototjpM o' thoae remark- 
able warriura familiar to tliu apoctatora of au Iilvh dnuoa. were, o( course^ 
hiA3«d wbaaerortb«r preieiitiid tbenualres. Tbelr lo|-al aenllmenla were 
gTveCMl bf tbe jontlui In the gnllcrlw wltii exMruiooa load and deep. Tba 
fMelluK evoked doabUaw was Inherited Irocn thatrctsdiea. And JM tboae 
baU'growQ !»;■ wokM wUllogLr Ogbt to maintain Cfaa Canadian coinUta- 
tlon. TIm derotkni o( tbo Pranell Caaadlana, a« a wbola, to Great Britain, 
dMptte tbe Inveetlves e( the damasoguea, U Btrooc Tbe Cbareb. aiwajA 
wise wbere her own Interests are eoooeracd. coooarases British MOOeotloa, 
•nd teeeoM her flock to obey the lawt and roipeei tbe natbocUlae. Is 1817 
the Cborch Hilled with the BnaUab o|ipn<Bai>n. Ataa earlier time, when 
the marauder appeared on tbe aoeae. end put temptation In the way. tlw 
power! nl ana o( tbe blerarchf waa raised aloft, aod sgaln it Irlumphed. 
The Church in Canada nnderataula her people. Sbe thinks (or nianfof 
them. But borown aafvi; la bnr fine Choogbt. The peoiea of Puia gee* 
drUllbarty to th« people of QoebeOt bat, aaTs Parkmao, " tbe eooQtunr 
lefttbdr religtoue eTStcoi nntooebodr and through It they bare Impoted 
upon tb«mMlvce a weight of oocle^iaetkel lotota^e tbal find* (ow equate In 
Hu BWiC Cattagllc oounuie* of Europe. Sucb guardlanehlp l« not wltfaoul 



THE SORTS AMERICAS REVIEW. 



eertain ■drftotagea." "Bob,'' be adda, " wb«o Uchrollr eaardaed It aids f« 
aphold KMMi of bbo (Amor rirtncsi U llwt can t>c called « Ttitaa whiob ii«ad« 
ttaeoonsUutprewooeof anatloel to k«ep It from flacaptnK; baC It la fatal 
to Iho mpaUJ robtuinew and moni ooonsB; and If Fftneh Canada weald 
(vUUlu uptntlonsit mu^toraMt totw onaoCtfafl moacprlBBt-riddaiiconi- 
iBnnltieaef tbcmodrrn world." 

Ttib deod'lMle between Upper and Lower Canada, In 1868, w«s tha real 
(atborot cau(cd«rn(loa. Etoit''*'* ProMstant OnUrio sod Frvneh Catholic 
Qsebw wer«at loggarbvadicoatlaaaU/. Ptaollcallyt tlura wer« two pn- 
nilan. Coinpll<:atloa« arme Iroqucotlri and naloa wltb tbeotber prorlocea 
>»«""■ a BeoeMlcy. Two jean laMr Nova Scotia and Kew Braoawlck 
antvred the coatcderacy. and tbere wa« peace fora titne.acoallUouROt- 
enimeDtbelaiitne rn«u1tof tboooaipact. lAt«r.ttMotbarpcQTliicM.BanQg 
tfco eoloDf of K«wtaandland, beeataa part o( tbe IXxnlaloo. JkSvet • qnar- 
tarot aoofltnrrof unton, daring chtcb two rebellions In tbe Nortbweat 
broke eat and wer« aaporeaaad at fcre»i eoMt, CaniuJa find* horeolf wllb a 
probleai wblcb cannot b« notved uff-liaud. U lavolwe nolbinK Una ibau (be 
futoniot tbe Britlab PoMcuionaoa thU aide gl t bo Atlantic Occaii, Im- 
parial Federaiiuii bavioti died aClll-borD, maj be diiiolftwd. Id tbe brlKbt- 
•at dajia of ilir prefect bo faaidble plan waa ever propoaed by Ifae apoatloa ol 
tbe moveawBt, and iJioasb oo^nion wm much aoalnst tbe Idoa la Eosllsh 
Canada, Frencb Oaoada produrad but one aapportar ol tbe odm. and be 
wa* lakewarn. and bnRgad for completer iofonnatloa. Three oUMf plana 
arvMig);usl«d,Tta.; ThecoDtlnuanreof the preiMBtCoIonlal *7atem, Iad«- 
pcndetiMi, and Anacxatloa to llie United Statea. The atcUue qito U favored 
bjrtho &ngllabji«n6r«lt]r. Tbe French CaoadiaD dcrzy— moTlDK ever ds- 
Uberatel; tOMardacban^ ofnnj aorC— IlkowUe daaire to keep Intact tlin 
ivastotaeataof tblnitv. A nilllloa French CanadlaD* are already dooilciled 
la tbe StabM. Ther are CruKal and Indottrlous and make good cJUx»as. 
TbeCliuFch. however, would keep them at bome. bat Ibey ueturally go 
whither they can better Iboir (ortanea. Life in the Repnblie, the eurts 
tbtok, U far rooro liable Co temptation than life In tbe Utile Canadian par- 
labe*. C-ortain it i>, the eailvil French Canadian youth k»ee muob of that 
Teiieratioa and rcepuot Tor the clcxsy which be had always at home, whera 
he doffed hla cap to the holy father aa be paaaed bim oii the road, and the 
Mxnbrc noiitaoR Allud a large place In bin cyen. The Church, t*)o, la bis flrn 
oonalderatlon, and hiirelleloua datlea. learned at achool, are oercr nes- 
leotad. AcroM the border, however, be Uvea itoder leBareaCralnt He fol- 
lawa tha taahlonn with greatAr care. He aitenda maaa, of courM, hnt the 
at«enoeof the tntlDBiform ofblaeecleMaAilcnl tulviHerin tbeatreetabasan 
rflfeot npon hliu wbich la not enlhrallinft. In faet, he aeon leamalbe 
Anarlcan art «t not veneratiiiK ^e clotb, and thU tbe bome eleiK7 greatly 
dtollke. The Church In CorOAdaia secure ao long aa BrUiab conaactloa con- 
tiunfis. Tbu people ore held In closer commaalOB with It^ nod no prieac 
wtmld ndvooatc an alteration of tbe present oolonla] ayslem. 

Indepeodeitoe and annexation may be coupled tofcetbar, for the adop- 
tion of Uw fonoer woold surely lead to tbe latter. 

A geoemtloo affo. Baroo Lfssar statvd In Halifax that ahoald Canada 
desire aeparatlOD from tbe Hother Coaotrj. Koglaod would not fir* a Ran to 
netiwlnbar. He spoke witli the full authority and eonient of Ih? Colonial 
OSm. His apseeb wm reoclrcd with morttaoatloQ by tbe loyal Nova 
SooUanaa bat tbe wound waa soothed when Lord Dullerlo arrived In 



ifOTES AND COMXKflTS. 



881 



Oiliada. Thlo iHaUnguUliBd dlplotnkl i>nniedUt«1)r b«>itaa to atido Ibe mU- 
efclaf wiDDghl bf hi* pr«de««a«or. lla pn»«!lt^d tbe ilfKtrtua of British 
conti««Uan *qJ ntiUonftlUBlty, ftnd ort(od Ca^iiulk talMtiiM l«the«mptr« 
And to henaK. HiaKUcc«»«onlii liu-u b*n Uuxtil th«e«ia9 t««iou. And of 
itMjttn tbe BriUsh pren, wblofa (or deoMles hkd pr«atioKliT iiitioiHl 
Cmm^k Aod the Cwwdlkiu, bKT«opaaedtti«lri;ilaniR*fortna diwaiaion of 
CwudUo qoeMlodm. In eonlnMt fa ttia esndoo*. of ttia ParitUn pfow, 
w&icb.tboudb ttaej attract btio ITrvnob Oaaadlaa hawit^ ;Ii>Id ootblnain 
ntani. In Franre a commlsaloiier for Oaaada la malntalDMl. and ho Alh 
bis ofSce worthily, bat a Freneb lumpapar ranly (cfento tb* 1)(l\ a*pira- 
tlan. aod morKinvnt of tho dfst*nt asloar, which ones b«loa);t4 to FrutM. 
Tbo pleaillnfi tor chaDgv mmM matnly from tfa* Prvaeb loaden. Tb* 
Tank and Hie. aad parttcularly ihoae who IItv In tha eouatry, ara canioTit o 
take tblujcuavthcj are. But tbe loaders danand otaaoiie wdaoever ibc; 
can tliid a rekl Of a faaded Brteranea. 4rsara4ca,a FreachletdBr adro' 
uitud ana^iaLion. but b« bad baan dapoasd frooi a blob po^IUon. UU law 
partaar, who bad no slna la anmri-r for, was not to op«u. He oolj aaplred 
to iDdepaadanea. " not (or the uilolAetfon of a rata Mmtlinaiil. nor for Iha 
Sradfleatlon of an Idral drMim, but hrc>ii]>.o I ««• alao in l»di>|M>(M)t>n<:« Ilia 
aatoiraardaof oard«ari.x)llnt«r«-<t4.' Hit chief la Parllamrat wa« no Imt 
oampoken. And later, wn hara Ur. Jowob B^jal, an oii-llcato>>ant-BO<r- 
emor, dcmaodlna ladapeodanea, and taltlim m tbat anncxttlon maj, vtih 
Bdncy, ooiue aftomrnrda. AnoUier Frsacb orator wanut Quahea Pmrlnca 
lo have Indcp^ndnncr alona, to bo o>ato< tba Oaaadlao uni.jo. and aeC up an 
wtablUhmcat aa tbs banks of the St. L«wren«e. "loorbufto ao Othar 
' beacon of HnlTBtion than tbu eiiadel of Ouvbi-c.'* Of ooarao. tbia ia ahaar 
SOBMnKD, but it glvn* an id*a of iha rMtlriM upirlt which pnrrailt. 

Tti« w<itkn<«4<»r Pivitrh Canada In lh« l'onft!d«T«ti'>n it oirtngtolba 
tcndeocT of bar paopla to lira apart from thalr BoKliah oicopBtrlot«. Tbcy 
lacktbcaplribcf aaltj, and the doatn to bolld una healthy uallonal fMlloK. 
Tber flsht penlBtentlj to gala petlr ottjectn, whila cbelargaalruaamabaa- 
doBcd. Thej will (lalbbtQOTrra qii«iitloaoIlaD|niair«. and alloiallwBDSIIsb 
tOWlDtlMbMt C&toK% nndrr ibelr rery ajea. PoUUral fefllng rnnahlxb, 
■ad doMas an elMiIOD campaign thvlr pmi* rln<c xvith rltafwratioo, 'Iba 
editon are qatek to inraka the aid irf tba eonrt* agtlnat tbelrcontanpacarias. 
wbll* th* politicians ara aa often foand dereadinif tbamwlrea from charg*t 
of "lander ai thej- are ht bringing causcvaKaiosl their riiniU la tbe tanie 
Ikld. Tbt French uaraa (be Idea Cbat the Eaullah do not llkatfaeai. TfaK 
bowcTcr, is wrmff. ThBRoicll&bMe mncb to admire In tbcir French (elloir- 
dtisena.and atrireaI«raf«tocaltiTa-.e (ricnity r.-lationa nrltn tnem, Bat 
(•o knur aa tbe Praocb people of CinadapermHdeniaimcoaa U) Inttiaie tbelr 
I paMlooa, and force tbem to pull down. Inataad ot bulldinnap. iha tubrtc 
^•fwuedla in7, Ja«t MO loan will erloeaaneh aa the one now ra«init over tlui 
Iwetarlaoaebooldprxeail. and dentmy that htrmuny on wblob ao ntn«h da 
penrt*. [nd*peade««e woiild pal Canada at tba m^rey of the United States. 
Annexation wQttldtneTltablr (allow. And tbe United Statea wauid, at 
onoa, ere«t each prorioce Into a State, and Qurhoc would low what abe 
traaaorea and raluea iocmc, the conaervallon nl liar lawa, ber IangilA«a, nod 
bcflnvtiwtionfl. TbeofRdal laagaaga of tbe Sla(e ot Qnebeo woald ba 
Envllah. TbaCbarcb wonUaaJIlBraa aollpae. or attoaatbeabom of mocbo' 
lw!f power. Tbs Klara and Sirlpoa, aod not the trf-color. wotild Oy from tba 
fco oa a topa, and la at<r< pattU would aink. in a (aw yeara. to a metBor^ of 



THK NORTH AMKRICAN RSVISW. 



^« put, when BritaJD aIIowmI ber Preacti ooIodj to do wh&tlt ptcMcJ, <»j 
what It Ukod, ond t^lnk what It bad ftmlad to, wlUiout iitt«riiis a pr«t«M- 
lax word. Aonexftilap may be tbe DotnlniuD'n pollUoft] desdnr, but It vrill 
not be Francli Canada irbJvb vrlll bciwflt Uie mmt b; tbe cbanKc ot lUc and 
of caosti Wt.\iaa. 

GVOBOK SnCVAJIT. 



THE OOOD-GOVKRNUBNT CLUBS. 

Tbr importaocB ot ttaaiw-oaJtcd Good-{>oremtDrnt Clab* ot KewToric 
CItr, as faccora to salTtnK cue probtem ot maaldpal reform, caonot iioir be 
denied. Tfaeimrowlb baiibMa«or«pld, audttiepovitiua wblcb they occupj, 
wltb ralutou to ttio twa nvat nBltun«l p^rtr orRaolxnUoiiRin ttisoUj' of 
Newr Turk. Iiso little nadentood \>j t ba outside pubHc, that It maf Interent 
theraaderaof tbe NonTn AHsnicuBr Rrtiew to learn eometfaing of tfaets 
clubs and the rcmilte th«r conlld-<nClr vxp«cc to aehUTe. 

lu tho tlr«l|)lacci It «bould be imdenlood tbat tbe Good 'Gorerament 
Claba are local orxiuiU*CloiM,CDmpaeed of rotcra In tliccityof N««r York, 
vrbode^lrv toobtoiafor tbdr cfiy peroianeut retorin in liatcoTerament. 
Tbcy derire ibelr meflBberflhip Irani all claasea and ate »trlctlr uDn-partinan, 
BO tar ftt national pal Itlea an concern rd. Bach club Id detltpaatod by a letter 
of tbe alphabet, aodhulti kudqnacten in •owe particular irardoraiaaui 
blj dtsirioC ot tbe eliy. Tbe membera rcajding In n district belong to the dob 
ot that dinCriftt, end eocb Rierob«r«an mny from ttmo to tiia«chaiiic« their 
nMldcfieo ar« Iranilerred to the ctub cuvennx the district iu^o wblcb tbey 
majmove. Bach club tuw lie oira ooovtltntUm and b»u-d o( officcra. cbo 
constitutlana of all the oluhs bejnit atmllar aa to tbclr tuudameetAl prlo- 
oiplcH. Thu uieintxiro aw elected aud pa; au entrance (ee and annual dnM. 
Nooneia ellelhle to tneniber»btp who doc:* aoC Kiocunlf eubacribe to tbsl 
priuelplee ot tb» Good -QoTeni went CIuIm. 

AtltlMolntMaotarotgauUed are banded togetberunder what la known 
aa the Oooaillotioa ot the Confederated Good -Go rem men t CInb*. ThU eoa- 
•titatfon poj'IdeH for a permanent eentral committee, called a Council, oom- 
poaed of reproaunMtircacbOMO annually by tbeelube Id lbs eon re deration. 
Tba ponretB ai ihie couacll arepnvicrlbei by tlioconacitntlon, andareoOQ- 
fined todoalinx >^"'h "unh mtUerna^iafTcct the wliule ot tlie city at New 
York. Tlilile»te« toeacb clabGomolebeRUtooomr lnileiUlnt(wibbniatl«n 
airi'ctdiiR tiaeapMlal dl«crleC. aod enooara«es,aH wellasstreDKtbenB.local 
pride. Scvnral at tbeelubtatreadyoGcapy comfortable cInlibou«e«,and every- 
thing la done to pronwts social intereoum* amoaft the lopmben. Tb«K la a 
wide diversity In the methods pumued by tbe clubs In itCrsiigbheaing their 
urs<^"i>^tl'^'° tbclr ropoctiro district*- They nroKOTcrntd more or kaa 
bylbeaondittoaftoudreqaireniealaot tbe locality la which tbeolabaiay be 
ftltnaied. The work olomanUimcolnba laatlll ROinic on iu dlabrlcts ot tbe 
oity not already corered. aud tbe preaeoc Indications an that by tbe 
aniumo thi-re will be at leatt ooa Good-Ooveraineat Clubla erery one ot tba 
ibirtj districts of the dtjr. 

To all thoee who have oaretollystodlcd tba subject of moniclpal govern- 
oMat In the United Stales, aud tbe eanses that have prodac«d ttiu compt 
aad waiEcIul DMthodDof adnilolstcatloQ now ptevaUluK taoorclUci, It baa 
beoooie mwit erldcui that " party politics" lie* at tbe root ot the eril. It 
Will BOt be neoessai7 (or toe to take up spaos bet« In Mtdlng fortb the rarl- 



iroTxs AXD coMUsyrs. 



^ jamenm lejullnjcup totbUeoDclBtian. B^try dttlaUfitad 
A^VMItled i|iiM»Uans. Hineu mimlrlrMl rslorm firm bfc«in* a mktlar 
of pablk- liit«r»%t, ba^iclvdii hU tteHiaovf to (be •anie eS«ct- Th'evldanea 
produced bzfoiA luvdtlgktliift e^nainittae* ba^ tiuo aikd tima ag»ta 
prOT*d b»7oa4 kII qaMtloa chat p<raiAa«at tvfonaia ttia gov«r;ia>vat ot 
oarcidnlii fta ImpottitbiliCTau loug ks ibis evilmuaiu. Tm tbu Unoc- 
«noe, Itxliffrmiicc, Dr|iartiM»ti*li*p o( th« ftTvimpa rot^r la <nir larcc cities 
bM, op to iliti that, rendered luclle nil eSiaru oa tbe put ot would be 
raformeri* Ut elimiuaU p&ri7 politics la voting (oc mmiicipit o(Qc«i«, 
At timM wb«D eoiTiipUoa and siLraTajt«neo la tba ftilmlulaimtiuu u( our 
elCr 0o?«raawBt bars btaonu •», lUffrnnt aa to aroaaa pnblio MalluMaC 
to Ml axu^rated plich, tb« diiwDa hav« Alrt^wd what were popalarif 
knoiva aa " wforto MBditlatvu." Tli«« "r«rvriitcaa<iidiil«4" hkvp, a*anU«i 
baen houcat men, who Haanied ofDca trltti tti« itlacere laUailun of glvlag 
BOOdKOVBrDHMObU^liidroliT- lu" -mo (pitcanratbvrbava fulfilled bUvicood 
InlODtloo. aud »a lonx oa tbcf hire bald odli-e ibi'lradiuUiMratlon ban baaa 
baaia«t. and earruptloo bai baaa lUpitrBawd. In tba raabmajoritj ot caaea 
tka aocalifd " nfarw candtdatat." oo aatuulng offl«a, hara baao aUa to do 
tltllaor nothlnt^luthe '.v«r of britterinitthepnraillngBtatsot atblta. In no 
ease baa tbere been any [itrmaiMitit reform ac«»[iiplU:a«d by ib«aa *pumodle 
nphraTaUof public trnUmoat, and lodiT wa aro atlli fioofronttd with Ibo 
fawllou ; Wl>-vt vliivlt bo don« ti>*irc«r« p«rioai>«atgoodKOT«rnu>«nt In our 
diieaf Tile aiisi*er o( lb« GoMl-nuverumaiit Cluba m: NoclTurt to aecara 
permanent n-forn) In oar tl:y Kovoniracnt can cvor be 8uocea«(ut until bba 
national patty ni|CBalsat»Dn<(, an ancb, shall keaplbair baud* off municipal 
aflmlrK, and tha ckii«u aball caa«« CO ba bound by national pu-iy tiaa whan 
vMlTig for mantclpal olBcBn. TopnnnuuIatbaTotanofNiFW Yorkciiy that 
tbia aiii>t*«r la tbeoraUcoUy tra#, and. baring tboa p«r*D«ded tUem. to In- 
due* tfaam to a«t aeeardlagly, are tUS chief puf poMa of tba Uood-Gor*min«at 
Ctuba, lu olbvr worda, tbe f oundcn of tban* elnba ballava tbat wcunnji ra- 
fonnleB'"'at'<>n*'><'«'*^*''*KK'^'^ ox^o couSlea wU) not, of tbeui^lrea. ba 
aulBclanb to trcam permanent rt-fonn nnlcMt aucb Kood men are nQHiinatcd 
aad elecC«d opoB uioalciiMl laauotaljne. and wHhiiulresard to tbo Is^oea 
tkat dIvUa tba natlotul parclea. TUey further believe tUac thnOKb no local 
urnanlmtlon of a nallaoal party oaa tbia r«iuik ua broiubtaboat, far ib* 
toltovrinit rwaaona: lat. Sncb otBRnliWIoa* mnat nrcraurily be ^''■■''■l 
and contToll«d by party eip^dlaney In aoUctlai; acandldatalor manlclpal 
OfBen. !M. i>ucb eandid«t«, bawever banent and ablr, mnit be mom or leaa 
Intervs^vd io. If uot plcrigrd to, tliA bal1dlaf{ up and »(r«ngtb«riloi( ol tba 
•TKaU'EBtioa Ihtt noifiiuaWd and «li>cie(l bitn. Sd. Tb«cUino In rotlait 
tor floch a gandldatel* apt to be ladueiiixd nior« by tbo facL tbat be la 
the nonilDce ot ttiooaMunal party to whlcb aucbclllaon may bekintt. tbau 
byanyoonittderatlunol lllar«'« lii bbeoandldata hiinaelf. 

It may ba objaolad tbat the abora r—aoatog. It tnia, appIlM aqualiy to 
all caod>dit«« for pahllc Dfflw, wbotber Btanlclpalarnntloual. and tbat ibs 
■yitcot of pnrtf nouiitailona u a Bcc«uary Incident to party govAmBaeat. 
Wblle not drnylog thla, I woQid poltit oat tliat thi* ayaictn, wbieb may 1>« 
a neoea^arr a^U luit«parabl« Iraui our aclietoe of SCat« and fedcrtl Ko<ran)- 
naaU batomea a totally unneceaaary and tuucb f[r«al«r otII wliea applied 
lo municipal coTcrnntcat. Tlielasuf* upon walcb ibotirusrcat naiiooal 
partieaata divided arc not the same u, and bare kKltiiaai«ly no rclailoa 
to, tbelooal tasuaa that abould dlrlda tba eltltena ot a city. Under tba p w 



:86t 



ysTU AXEmcA.y review. 



snbsjiiitfliii of natiooat iwrtr noiiiinii lions, ibc dtisen. In i>wtl0|i bift voCa (of 
mnnklpal candldue*. ts compellod lo rot« upon Imtes otbor IIiad tbcMC U- 
(ectiuKilie besciateraiUi of liU city, and ta the name uf imxi; tofmlty n 
ukvd toMArifUnitiw vrnlfnmof hlMdcrfartb* bcnaBtof tbnskiLoiial parCj 
to wblcta be mar bplons. 

It haa otMD been aaaericd, and with truth, that manielpaJ Ronnrntaot 
UauMntlftllj a bii«iniMa, and abodldbe eondaotad llkt an^ otbw lavao baki- 
am*. l>Kall7 evurjr dly UacorporNUoa, with aJI tberi^lita aad HaVilUlea 
9t a coipuration. tn tbis Ua K^veramool d Iflten fundatnco tally from car 
State aad federal KOToromRnta. It-t Inbuvabi at a corporate hody aroMpar 
a>« and dlaUoct trom ttioe« ol the State, aud ahonld bo kept mo. How 
can thU diuLiiii'tiDu tie t>ncUatlI; atalutaineit. If fta exacatlTa la ohoaan 
wlihoac Kftaid Co th«M InterMta, and iu oHicvni «lect«d aolely wllb a vieir 
to tta« bearing aueh eleeilon ma^ hare on Stale and natloiial poUUn I 

Convinctd of ch« truth of thia propoallion, tbe Oaod-Uarcrnineat Claba 
ar« ontaniied forlb« purpoae ot pcMnadlnic tb« public tOftce«|it It. Know- 
fnn that orKa&iaailun )■ essential lo political «uccc<i), tbej hav« d«;eraala«d 
to build up a permancDt cltlzvoi* poity. to ibc vifl Uiat ovcrr voter karlttjc 
atbcATttbe beat lnt«rcala ol tb« city mar. lo ToUaKformuofcipal oandi- 
datea, be actual edw>l«lT by conilderationHot petaonal fltnvHalu tbecandi- 
dua and th« local lisaaa bo repnaeota. That auch n parpoia ii tinpa«>Ubl« 
ol peallaatlon w« do not believe. ErarFday U brlouiDti home to th« cttliaoa 
of New York th« plain fact that only by matat iticb method cau we hope to 
MMOO our city fror Itt present dfgra^laUon, The wondcrfal, almoat apoB- 
t«u«oa», growtb vl tbe«e oluba in Taitou>i sxttauit ttt tliu cliy provi}« tbia. 

At a recent couwutioa of th« Good-Ciuveromtiat Club i bold Ja Kdw 
York city alstc«n cluba. axurcsaimK a mcmUsrabip o( tlve tbouaaxid, were 
repreacuted by fornmlly elected delegates, Tin^ conreailon adopted a plat- 
fonnxettins fori.b ttio prim'iplvn to wbkU Ibeclubtatood pledEeJ, and end- 
Ina with tbD f ollowlnif app^ : 

" Waaaraaally appoalloAil clitcaiui to UUI10 inrappartof theae pnnolplsa aad 
lntbaalaotli»oroSlcial4 •rtio will uliuinlitor toe city fOTanunaiii wliboat rebf- 
onoa lo national puty poliitoa." 

The Good-Gorrmincnt CInlia oonoem then>oclrea solely with innnlcfpal 
aibln, nnd their members are ai liberty M bo oa atnmRly partUan aa they 
pleWM In State and national pollitca. LifelonR Itepubllcaos and lifelong 
Seuiocrata are wtirkloK aide by tide In ihew clubv. wUh the »lnRl« parpoaa 
tt rasculog tlilH city from the clutcbn* of tb*a national [latty ur;:uaiiatloDS, 
■ad nnotiag cbd adntitlitratloD of lia affairs tr^mtbe loau«ac«of party 
poliUCfc Wh«n it)« taken iDtooon'idcnlion that! be llrat oftbeaeeltiNibM 
baca UiaxIateoM for little over a year, nod tbat moM of them were ornaa- 
lltd irlthia the laat elx inontba, the rapidity vclth wUcb thlt idea of or^n 
laed Independence In mncilripal polltlu haa apread tn a moat eurouraglDK 
iDcUcallon of the alrcogih of (be movcoKUt. That tbese clubs are jioweiful 
factors In the eotuliijf municipal oampaiitn l* even now admittad by the 
leutdeiaof all poHUral omanlxatlotia, howerep mocb ther ma; be oppowd 
to nnr theories and deride our pttrpaaM. We are folly prvpnrud to mrol 
«itb defeat at llr«t,a&d will not be dl»coiirafi«d aboald vre bo iteatvn At tiia 
polla next NoTembcr. Tb« ifOOd-GoTentment CIgba have eome to stAj. 

I'UIOU^ TtX'KJIK, 

Stcrtlaiy <tf Couneit of tht Cor^ftdrmttd 0ood-Gov«mn>4nt C/ufra. 



NOftTHROP'S 

STAMPED STEEL CEILING. 




Matt UURABLr and DCCORATIVC 

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Mere 
a little, 
there 
M little- 



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buy a bicycle 

5k' it KllM— woil. bclWr— 
t>u t>r(ier 

Get a Rambler 

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Eacfi 0(1(7 tmiaiilcctl. 

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Iat kil veUht* mi siyln 



CaiUHCM ft« 11 irr KifiMii 



£<1MU IMWa* 



:», •• ^ 



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( 



« 




KNOWLEDGE 

hrings fiMii!';jrI .jtid liii;ircjirtr.rii!, 
lefiU^ lo jjeiioi'iil i-iij'i Villain. «h 
rlghil) UKd. Tile many, who lirctwt- 
ter than others and enjoy life n)Orc, 
wlthl«'«^«*)K'n(Iiiurc, byiiiorepromin- 
ly AilajilLDg tlie worlit's brM pfriduclt 
w llie needs ol physical being, will 
lest the value to health u( (he pi 
liquid laxaiiiT phiuripln tmbroceO 
tiie iwiniy 



^Vm 



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lis rjtdlrncc is due loita presenlin _ 
in the iarm muai Acccjiuhlc and pleas- 
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splendid American Steamers 
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tl<'Kctii 'o Axrhlikdil or HyAnej iillitW 
'Hvnl HnnOwkh latkiwla snij ^ltal■H. t«<i)i| 
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PURE, HIGH GRADE 

Cocoas and Cliocolates. 

Intra rvuuWei) 




AWARDS 

Mill tiKir Goods 

at LliF 

CALIFORNIA 

'liJwinter EipositJod 

■niiir 

BREAKFAST COCOA, 

nut th* uMt or Alkilln or f U'lcilcalR oi (>>•., tk 
•t>w>luMlr>c>lDl>la,B»il <vMa In" tbkk una c«Dt 
Ktup. ^^_»_^_^ 

SOU R CROim EVERnMIRL 

W. BAKER 6 COTdORCHESTER, MASS. 




3 






n ■ 



Il 



NORTH AMERICAN 
REVIFJY 



K*-MUil>*>*lw4 l» AliUMia m 






KDtTKD BV LLOYH UltVck 

October, 1894. 

ISSUES OF THE COMING ELECTIONS. 

I. B) tbp Him. WILLIAM L. MTISOV. . 385 

II. K> tbelliui.TliUHASU. KEKD 394 

Aitronomy and Religion Sit Epwin Ake«ou> 404 

'Vtot Vezil d( llw Tteisury . Tbe Hon. GfORCi S. Buutwkll, 4.16 

KxStrreiatTt <if tkt Trea^Hrj. 
The Transailaniic Mailft ... J. IIenkikek Hkaton. M. P. 414 

HowShallthc IndiansBc EducaicJ ? . Senator JahesH. Kvtt, 434 

Chnirvtan oflkr CammitI**. on JiduattUm. 

THE MUNICIPAL PROBLEMS OF LONDON. 

By the Lord Mayor of London 448 

'RcorganixatJon of tbe Personnel of the Navy, 

The Hon. Wiu.iAM McAdoo, 43; 
Ajtaittant Svrtitirg a/the Savy. 

The Primitive ChIM Dr. Louis Kobiw«i« 467 

Si<Ie'Light.>i on the ExploiUtion of Egypt, 

The Hon. Freueric C Pexheld, 479 
ft. S. TKiilamatif ^grul and f'mutU-Otntrai to ^fpt. 
The Rf:naiisaiir;c of Woman . , . Lady HtMBV S0UKR8IT 490 

THE CATHOLIC CHURCH AND THE SALOON. 
By tlir n«NtU«r. Arcllbi.shoplKKLANU. . . 49S 

NUriCS A.\U L'OUMKNTS. 

Droujhe Fires Filix M, Oswald $c6 

nic Prejwaicc AgairUK Fyreign l'ftr»8«^ . . Lucv C. ButL 509 
A Needed PrufpHion J. Livusav Reid 510 

NEW YOUK: 
No. 3 EAST FOlTRTEENril STUKMT. 



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■ — - - BioEraphtcal Notes and 

AutD|[raphs of Celebrities, testifying to excellence' 
of " Vtn Mariani" 

pMHai 41 Bdulcvmrd tUBMHoaa M&Ttftnl it. Co;, 



NORTH AMERICAN REVIEW, 

No. CCCCLV. 



OCTOBER, 18M. 



ISSUES OF THE COMING ELECTIONS. 

Br' TBB HOIT. WILUAM L. WILSOK, OB^IBJUK OF TUt 

VTATH Jial> HBANB COUVltTEK. ANJ> THK IIOX. T. II. UEEIl, 

BX-SPBJlEEa OF THE HOUSE OF RXPHESEHTATIVES. 



MB. WILSON : 

The ramltsof the electioDS of 1800 and 18d2 p1a««d the Dem- 
ocratic p«rty in control of tlio Fedonl GoTcriimoiit on tb« Fonrth 
of Huoli, ltj*J3. Although a period of thirty-two yottn had 
ehipeed eince its lael poneseiOD of Buch control, aud other and 
terj dIfDcult public qaceiions vera dow tobe met and dealt with, 
it« fundamental and hintoric principles were aa directly applitwble 
to oarrout uieacw u they vvor had beou in the more than hundred 
years of the party's existeDce. Sinc« 1^71, with two conspienoae 
and warning eicuptious, the Americaa people had given the Dem- 
'ocrata enpremacy in that hranch of Cougrrss which is directly 
I choaeuhy themoelrcs. Under other parliamentary govcrumcnta, 
I nipreDiaey, in the popalar branch of the legialatnre, would baTe 
r earried with it, virtacdly, the full lawmaking power, and in most 
cases the eiectitiTo powenileo. Bat under our constitationalayt* 
tem political rerolntiooe muet be longer and more pcniiatontto 
mako thft will of the people {Mtcotiol for cbanje tn both of tboM 
dopartmenta ; and wilb one vote in NoTada, equal, &o far as the 

[Beaate ia concerned, to one hundred votes in New York or Penn- 
voL. cux. — MO. 4a&. 25 

Coprmkl. UK l>)r UatB HbToL All Hfhli TWWTwd. 



386 



TlfS NORTH AMKhlCAN HEVJEW. 



sylTaoia, it is poeeible to coDooive of a permanent inability o{ a 
Tnst nnmerionl majority nf th« American people to put into law 
their wLHhcs and IhuirdftiisiouM at the poUa. Nov that we are 
about to go to the conntrjr again for th« electioa of a Uoiuo of 
Bepneentatires, and in oo^tbird of the Statoe for the election of 
Lcgislatarea which are to choose United ^tatns Senators^ tbu issae 
is preaented to the people whether they sliall oonUnae the Bemo- 
oratio party in power or ahall tarn over the next CoDgrom to ^c 
B«pablic«DB. Such ao iwae should, and I believe will, be set- 
tled not by anch criticism aa that of Senator Lodge in his 
paper on " The Kesnlta of Democratic Victory" in the 
September nnmber of the Nobth Auericak RR7IBW>or by like 
railiog in Republican papers against the doods or omuoions 
of their opponents, but npoD a ivriew of past experience with 
both partiea, and from a knowledge of the general polioiea and 
tendencies of each when iiitru»t«!d with power. 

TS'heu the people voted the Detnocratio party into power, after 
longand deliberate debate, they did sobeeansot M President Hnrri- 
SOQ admitted in his but message, they were in faTor of a " new 
policy. '^ That policy included not only a reversal of much past 
Repablican legislation, but reform, through cIoeerresponsilHlity to 
the people, in the administration of the goTemmeDt generally. 
The chief reforms caUod forty thopopular revolution may be thus 
Riimmarized ; first, a repeal of the Sherman Act for the purchase 
and storage of eiker buliiou ; aecOKtl, a repeal of the Federat JSleo- 
tion Lav ; third, an administration of our penaon system alike 
just to the soldier and to the taxpayer, and which should carefully 
discriminate betweenjaBticeBud liberality totheone, and profligacy 
and partisanship at the cxpenao of the other ; /ouWA, greater 
economy in public ozpuiiditures ; fifth, an exteosion of the reform 
of theciriUerrice ; and loitly, but preSmiuently, the repeal of the 
MoKJnlcy Bill, and a return to tarilT taxation for revenno only. 
So loug and no important h mtalogno aeemH like " reformation in 
a flood," and any party which could carry out such a programme, 
even under the moet fovorsble circumetanoes, should deaerre the 
gratitude and support of the people. But no fair man will sit in 
judgment upon the efforts of the Democratic party who doea not 
reoogniiso that it has been hampered by two great obstacles, at 
every stage of ite work, for which it was not itaelf at all rMpon- 
siblc. The Qrst was that iu control of the Senate proved to be 



laSfTBS OF THE COMTSO ELECTIONS. 



367 



more nominal than real. In a full Senate it wonlil hare hud a 
majority only by the coitting vote of th« Vice-PnuideDt. With 
tbo oxiating Tacanoies in tliu S«uato it ooald ajMre bnt ono roke> 
and etitl bare a majority. And no one will deny that party 
foolty flics retbor lightly on moro tbun ono Senator accredited 
to tbo Democratic {Mkrty. Tbo aeoond was that the party 
came into powor when Uio sky wan oJroady darkotiiDg with 
tba oloods of a fln&noial etorm, and that the storm 
soon broke in great fury, dospite the laithfnl effort* of the admin- 
utration to allay it. 

Of coarw partiKans like Mr. Lodge are qnick to charge 
tbo new admiuistrotioD with the lesnlting disastcn, but other 
people have longer and better memories. For montba before 
the Harrison ttdmioistration ended, tboTreasary was in grmt 
pfloniuajy itraitf. Ifow taxes otdow issaes of bonds would have 
been needed to meet ordinary ninning expenditures, had not the 
Sbennan law paaied to the available easb of the Treasury mor* 
than fifty million doUan depooted by the National Banke for the 
redomption of their notes, and had not Secretary Foster, by a 
change of bookkeeping, atill further increased that cuah by twenty 
million dollars of token and aabeidtary ooio, not before treated na 
a Treasury auot. The (^retary biouetf frankly informed the 
Ways and Ueniu Cotnmittoo, just prior to March 4, 1893, that 
additional Income of at leant fifu* millioa dollars a year wonid be 
Qcetled fur the eaay running of the goremment. Moreover, tbe 
free gold in tbe Treasnry began atoadily to diminish from tho date 
of the piissago of the Hberman la4r. 

Jt was QDiIer these supremely grare and difficnit cironm- 
ataaoea that tbo Democrntio party took the reina of gororn- 
ment for tlie inaugnration of its " new policy." Tbe long 
tbreateniog finaucial panic camo and soon hardened into a 
cerere commeroiaJ crtsm. For neither waa the Democratic party 
responsible, nor for the vicious laws which, if they did not beget 
the panio and tbe crisis, oertdnly quickened their oomiogand 
added to their fury. Ixe work had to bo nndertakcn, therefore, 
amid thorn ' ' couusola of calamity " which, as Mr. Burke said, 
"are seldom wise," and in the face of a rising ontoiy from 
partiaans like Senator T»dge, who use the logic of Qoodvin Soadi 
and Tont«rd«o Stoepio, to charge that the physician bimwU va« 
tbe cause of the very ills be waa called uiwn to cure or to alle- 



388 



THE NORTB AMERICAN REVIEW. 



r{at«. Let tu ooiuider, briefly, liow far the Democratic party, in 
spite of these obetAcles, has eacc&eded id efTeotiag the Bevoral 
measures of r«form demandod of it bf tho people whon thej pat 
it into power. 

And lirHt lut to the repeal of the Shenn&n Iaw. Thin repeal 
w&H prompU; urged b; tiie Presideut upon tho extra aeodon of 
Congrees, which he had called lor that parpoee, and was w 
promptly carried through a D«niocra.tic llouso under Pemocnito 
leadership, althoagh, it is bttt fair to add, not as a strict partj 
mBasare. Whatever buuffit wus to bo had from such repeal, ao 
tur ae th« exiBting panic van concerned, was lost} however^ hj the 
long delay in the S«nat« ; and right hero I may say, both as to 
this delay and the almost culpably long ooDsideration of the tariff 
bill in that chamber, that they were chiefly dno to the refoaal of 
the Senate to adopt any rales providing for the termination of 
debate. It being one of the earlier traditions of the Senate irhen 
its nuinbora were much fewer than they are now, that no Senator 
would speak on any matter except with the purpose of serioag 
discusaJou, there was little need for such nUos in former yeara. 
But the reason for anoh unlimited debate having long oeoeed, aud 
the absence of such niles having led to gross abnaea, it is m- 
tolerable that, the popular will shonl