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*-- 



THE 



NORTH AMERICAN 



REYIEW. 



EDITED BT ALLEN THORNDIKE BICE, 



VOL. CXXXV. 



Tro8 Tyriosqne mihi nnllo disorinune agetnr. 



NEW YORK: 

No. 30 LAFAYETTE PLACE. 

1882. 



coprwaar bt 
*MJH THOSNDIKB RIOB. 

uaa. 



NORTH AMERICAN REVIEW. 

No. CCCVIII. 



JULY, isaa. 



EMERSON AS A POET. 



Thb dcAib of the greatest of American men of tetters — a wan 
who wu at once an elemeDtal thinker and an elemental power — 
immodiateljf drew forth such a serins of tributes to hin gcoiiut 
ftod character, JErom sach a wide variety' of thongbtfol minda, 
that it ia difficult at this dat^i to say anything of liini whieh baa 
not been said before. Bnt perhaps, in snrveying him as a poet, 
iwmiB additioiuil reasons may be given in proof that he -waB 
' in the sense in whiuL the word is applied to the reoc^- 
;.^___ -iusters of mtng. 

In estimating the relative worth and rank of a poet, we arc 
bound t ' l<*r not merely hi« pownession of '* the vision and the 

flMolfy -I Imt the penetration and eitent of his vision and 

the orijnnAlity of his faculty. Did his spiritual insight go deeper 
than that of other poeU> of his age and generation t Did he 
advunoe bt^yond the recognized frontier of the ideal world in his 
time, and add a new province to it f Were his verses imitations 
or reveUtioDsf Did his puetie faculty work on old nmteriala, 
adding only an indi^-idual flavor to new cumbinatious of the old, 
or 'T ' ■ r<(»ftto or 5i)iritnaUy diseem new materials for poetie 
trf;i In the case of Emerson, these questions can be 

anawend only by a survey of what had been done by the great 
poeta of the eentury, when (to use General Sheridan's significant 
phratfe) he " took the affair in hand." 

VOU CXXCV. — NO. 308. I 



fS 



2 TES NOBTH AMERICAN SE?IEW. 

Everybody in the leoet aequAinted with the history of tlio 
Uteratoro of Great Britain knows that, during the later years of 
the last centnry, an insurrection broke out against the tyranny 
of the school of Drydon and Pope, as exercised by their degene- 
rate sncoessors. This revolt was called '^agoing back to nature''; 
and Bums and Cowper, each from a widMy different point of 
view, exemplifled it lu fresh and original poems. One uf Boma's 
MDgB, or one of Gowper's minut<e descriptions of natural objente, 
when placed by the side of the conventional verse, or rather the 
rhymed prose, of the time, made the latter appear thin in sub- 
Rtance, meager in meaning, and entirely dostitnte of any poetic 
quality whaticver. There was no possibility of a new Dryden or 
Pope coming forth to vindicate the worth of the old poetdc 
method ; that method was then represented in the vapid tranala- 
tions of Iloole and the plaintive imbecilitii« of llayluy ; and after 
Bums had sung and Cuwper had described, there could be no 
revival of the poetry of nature which did not deny the validity 
of the conventional canons and standards of "taste'* which t;uch 
critics as Or. Johnson had announced. Whatever may have 
been the merits of the wits and poets of the Age of Queen Anne^ 
it must be confessed that the rebellion against their authority 
ended in producing a new era in English poctrj*, comparable only 
to that great outburst of poetic ia^]>irutioa which occurred in 
what is caUed the Age of Elizabeth. 

The man who stands in literary history as the head and heart 
of this revolution was William Wordsworth. He it waa who first, 
among the poets of his day, aimed not only to describe but to 
interpret Nature. By constant communion with her forma and 
varying aspects be came at last to see that she was spiritually 
n/ifw — that his own soul was not only touched and inspired by 
intently viewing her external shows and appearances, but that 
the soul animating Nature was akin to his own ; and that if 

'* ni« diaMniitig intelleet of UAn 
Ware weddod to this goodly tmivsnM 
In lore and holjr paMion," 

ihe fentastie dreams of the old mythologioal poets would 
more than realized — would, indtwd, bo 

" A fltmpla peradtic* of tlw oosomoo dAjr." 

And then, anticipating this marriage of the mind which per- 
vadit; the universe of matt^^r with the mind of man, he profaSMS 
t« write in advance it« mystic epithalamium : 



tSOir AS A POET. 

" I, long before iho bUasfo] hoar urires, 
Would utuuit, iu loDely p«a««, the tponaal hour 
Of tfaU giviat roEununiDstion; umI by words 
Wfai'ih vpittk of nothing mora Uiao what ws a», 
Voold I urauM tha aeiutual from their sleep 
Ot death, HOd win the vacant uid the rain 
To noble nptants." 

Jt is needless to Btate how long Wordawortli workod, year 
yoar, in many forms ot poetic expression, to inculcate his 
poetM creed to an nnrespoxuiv-e and nneympathetic pnblio. The 
erved itAf-lf only became popular when it wa£ taken np by Byron ; 
and tht'U the Hpleodor aiul pubsion uf Bynm's rhetoric, made it 
•eecrpted, though it did not necessarily make it understood. 
Most of tht eminent poets of the century more or less felt the 
inftncnc« of Wordsworth's fondamcntiil coneeptiun of nature as 
qiixitttally alive ; in poem after poem tbey reproduced it, modi- 
fied, of oonrse, by their own individuality and way of looking at 
satore and mau ; but in no literary history of the nineteenth 
cmtnry has Word«worth'8 priority in the matter been fully 
reeognhMd. Now, nothing ia more eapable of demonstratiou 
than the fnct that^ in the summer of 1798, Wordsworth visited the 
rains of Tintem Abl>ey, and that in a few days he wrote the 
poem tmder that name which introduced into English poetry an 
element which it never had before, and has never part^ with 
flfoee. Chronologically, it precedes everything in the same strain 
wriHen by Byron, Shelley, or any other poet of the time ; and, in 
addition to this, the circnrastimceB under which it wop written 
plainly indicate that its thoughts and sentimentti hod long bevn 
familiar to his experience^ and had, indeed, been domesticated 
in his sonl before he poured them forth in tiioee memorable lines. 
In his note to tlie poem he Bimply sayt>: 

*' TbriATn Abbey, 3n\y, 1 litS. Ho pomn of mine w»a omnpomd under «ir- 
wMmrtaneae more pleaaanl for me to remnmber than this. I began it apon 
laariajf Ttntom. alter nrgnftif tho Wye, uid eonelttdMl U juet m I was enter- 
hig Bristol in the erening, nfter a ramble of four or five da^ with my eister. 
Not a line of it waa a)l«r«d and not anjr part ot it writt«n down tiU I reached 

Indaed, he only finished it in time to be printed in that volume 
of " Lyriind Ballotls," the conjoint produotion of Coleridge and 
himself, which at once marked an era in English literature, and 
gave the propriet<^«r of the copyright good eanse for moaning. 
CoQU^ the pnWidwT, tells as that " tlie sale was so low, and the 
wnaittj of novt of the reviews so great, that it« progress to 



TBB NOSTB AMERICAN REVIEW. 



oblivion seemed to bo certain." He print*>d fivo hundred oo| 
of a Tolum? that contained *' The Rime uf the Aucyent Marim 
and '' Lines written a few miles above Tintern Abbey," — Dot to 
mention " We are Sf ven,'' and other pierea of Wordeworth now 
universally popular, — and was ^d to get rid of them as best he 
oonld. Afterward, in eelliug oat Ma stock to the Ix)ugmana, ha 
found the eopyright of the "Lyrical Ballads" whb vnluod at 
HiV; and he had therefore the pleasure of returning' it to tite 
Antliors, aa a present which might be good for i«i>mething to 
them, though it had proved wor^e than good for nothing to him. 

From thia inauspioions iHfginning the grand poetic revolutioa 
of the uineteeiitli eentiuy tottered and stumbled on for a number 
of yoars, until Byron popularized it. The " Lyrioal Ballnds" indi- 
oated the two extremes of Wordaworth'a genius. In " We u« 
Seven," he showed that a simplicitj' of style bordering veiy 
nearly on the Uteral sing-tiung uf a nursery- rhyme might, if it 
had genuine feeling back of it, touch and nnseal fonnt^ns of emo- 
tion in the universal human heart ; that a poet ean be thoroughly 
ehild-like, abounding in the joyous consdouaness of life, without 
degenerating into obildishness, which is the pathMtic sign of the 
senility of that setv>ud childhood which is the dreadful rovem 
of the firib ; and that the refusal of the guileless child to admit 
the idea of death iuto her mind shows that the glad poroept^oa 
of the possession of life is a prophecy uf its ijideflnito eoutinu- 
anc& It is curious that this little poem — the one by which 
Wurdswurth is universally kuown, which it) in all sohool-books, 
and which ha.s been committed to memory by thonsands igno- 
rant of Iiis other works — wotild never have )>e»*u printed ha<l the 
advice of a near and dear friend of Uie author been taken. This 
friend foimd litUe fault with other pieees ooutained iu the vol* 
ume ; but he implored Wordsworth not to make himself " ever- 
lastingly ridiciiluiis'' by Including "We are Seven" in the 
collection. Men of original genius, like Wordsworth and Bmor- 
son, are easUy indifferent to the invectivee or gibes of their 
prrmouneed enemies. The real danger comes from profeaaed 
friends, who bt-g thi-m, from the bW3t of motives, to distrust 
their genius whenever its audacities give too violent a shock to 
accredited notioos of " taste." 

If "We are Seven'' reprewnts the shnplest expression of 
Wordsworth's goniilB, the lines on Tintern Abboy represent ita 
h>ftie6t Artistically it is almost perfect. Though written in 



TEE NOB.TB AMESTCAIT REVIEW. 



experience of bis readers. He hfls no niAthematdoal teftts by 
which to uunvict bis iinsympulbt'tif- ttritics uf Btiipidity or lack 
of Rpiritnal pereeptiou. Actiordiugly, just in pruiKirtioii lu ho 
departs from mechanical rules in annonnolng the results at his 
vital iiispirutiuii, liis very sii^jeriority to bii> critics fumiabce the 
grounds for his coudemmition. 

Wordsworth was, during the largest portion of his life, tho 
riotim of hostile criticism. It is commouly taken for granted^ 
even at the present d&y, that this criticism was provoked 
and jmtified by his own faults and absnrdities in carrying his 
revolt a.gain8t the uurrent poctie diction of the last century to a 
ridiculous excess. Jeffrey, it is persistently said, only exposed 
and bdd np to scorn the poefs puerilities, commonplaces, and 
obvious violations of good taste — that is, the literary sins which 
Wortlswortb conunitted through his passion for " the natural " in 
poetic expression. The fact is that the "Edinburgh Review," in 
its long fight with Wordsworth, objected not so much to " the 
natural " as to the supernatural element in his poems. While hap- 
pily ridiculing some examples of the bald realism of the poet in 
describing his rustic heroes and heroines, it admitted that he was 
a wonderfully ac<!nrate observer of external nature, and sympa- 
thiz<-d deeply with the primal affoctinns of the human bi>art. 
Its contempt was specially reserved fnr the poet's spiritual 
philosophy of nature, which it called " stuff" ; year after year it 
continued to quote those passages in his poems which are now 
oonsidered to provt? his originality and oxcellfinoe, as ovidenceei 
of his imbecilitj- of thought Indeed, Jeffrey wttii afflicted with 
» kind of mental eolor-blindneas in his criticism of Wordsworth. 
He deoicd the existence of what he was disqualified to see; and 
hbi dogmatism of judgment was in exact proportion to his lack 
of perception. The poet himself once declared, with ojiusuol 
bitterness, that Jeffrey, as a lawj'er, had ''taken a perpetual 
retainer from his own incapacity to plead against my claims to 
public upprobation." 

IVobably the subtilty and depth of Wordsworth's insight into 
nature is even now uiiappret'iat#d by a lai^ class of highly eol- 
tivattid men of the world- He tells us, in one of his prefaces, 
that the secret of the loftiest poetry is hidden from confirmed 
wf»rldling«, thitngh they may themwlves be c«rapotcnt to write 
brilliant and Udliug vuracs, and poea in popular estimation Cor 
poets. 



fl 



THE KOMTH AMERICAN BBVIEW. 



spiritiuU intCErpretation of nature. It most be taken for gruited 
that Wordsworth's expcrieace was the reeult aod record of 
genoine insight, and that it eannot be cnrtly dismissed as ** crazy, 
myetiea] inetaphysics,*' before Emerson can even obtain a hear- 
ing'; fur he undotibUHily was more craxy and mystical tiian 
Wordgworth dared to be, while indopendeutly following in the 
path vhich "Wordsworth had marked out. 

It wae a happy thought of a Boston newsp^Kir editor to 
reprint Emerson's poem of "Good-bye, proud WoridI I'm 
going nomo," when his death was annonneed. The verses were 
written when the poet was a teacher in a Bo»tun school, and 
his '* Sylvan Home" was a boarding-house in Koxbnry, only 
two or three miles distant, but at that time a mstio paradise 
uf woods, rooks, and luUs. lu tbese lines he miidc his fink 
po«tic declaration of intellectual and moral independenoe. 
Moat of the hours of the day he spent in teaching, by the 
accredited methods, English, Latin, i-Iouutiou, and rht'toric to 
youths and maidens ; and the dutj* was evidently a drudgery j 
for when, in the afternoons, he escaped to the coontry, he found 
many a secret nook, bearing no print of " vulgar feet, and sacred 
to thought and Ood;,'^ where ho might indulge to the ntmost his 
oommuuion with nnturo; and tlicn burst forth his exulting joy 
in his deUveranoe from tasks which limited the free expression 
of his individual genius -. 

" Oh, wb«n I am safe Id uj lylT&D heme, 
I tread on the pride of Cb«eoe and Hoiim»| 
And whea I am atrvtchod bueath tba jlnM. 
'Whvro tJi« ovcniug Htar bo holj shises, 
1 laogh at the lore and pride of man, 
At tlie sophist Bobools, and the learned «Ian; 
i^>r what an tfaay all, Id their Iiigli coooetti 
When maa ia the Imdi with Ood maj moetl* 

It is unfortunate that this poem shoold be generally oonsid 
ered as the product of his matnrer years, when he esoaped frotr 
Boston to his chosen home in ConoonL The verses are those <>£ 
a young college graduate, Buiipoi-ting himself by teaching school 
daring the period he is studying to prepare himself for a profM- 
rion. As the deeoendant of a long iLie of ** godly ministers,'* 
Bmcnon was natnrally drawn to the pulpit rather than to the 
diweoting-room or the bar ; and ho began his professional career 
■8 a Unitarian clergyman. Though, in a few years, ho resigned 



TfiK HOUTtt AMMUOAM MBTIMW. 
thmf ttm wift 0«i ttidr himm «• AnA; 



Aid, la MitoflMtfacMMM, iraA 

Aji fMr M [rrifiLnrt iTKfnvirulji oaa aid lu, RmffMn^t p rog rai 
111 litii I'lj'tMTi ilknurlion iMwmji not vo much a ^rovth as ale^. 
TImi \m\A\miiun of Urn littl« volanu oaUed "Nature" lifted Uie 
Ihm-«tI.i>i I '' tiititrlaii pfinwin inti) a lAsder of a now school of thoaght. 
Mild Nitw IOri((lnn<t (niiiNotTuiluiitaliMndjitoi ite «iisteDC(* from that 
nlmriiitiiK and HiiKK<-Htivft l>wik. lUi oirctUation was limited; 
Llitt HuUiiir'ii Hharn of tlin proflta of \\a aaia ooald hardly have paid 
IiIn lallni-'ii lilll for i\\rf*\ iiiontliii ; liiit it waa Htudicd as a kind of 
iM'W tf4*it|i>i| )ty a iitiiidMir of (mttinaiaatiK yoong studeuta in our 
iuilli^t(t>H, unit lit iiit1iii'iii-i' viiw liiilicnnmly <!!»[) roportioned to its 
i>lt-ntila(lMii, Al Dm Unto of itw piililiraliun, it was imposHtble to 
iiH«i>t tNluimtJxl nion auti womi<n in any Hocial circle in Boston 
wliliuiil lit'iirliiK ••Nittin-t'"diiM'nMiiHl — tho oldpriy scholars asaail- 
Iny initl tin' ytniiiKnr dt^fonding itj but Btill eorat' four or five 
huinlrml iHiplon of tho iKMtk itatdf aupplivd tbo public demand. 
Wtial U vmUiuI ** Ihn |Htpular tnlnd" was not then, and has 
iiitl KhiiMS lnH'U niiicih iUfitct<Hl by \Xw vuluiiu's in which Emer- 
(Mtii ooudpiikml bin orlt(inHl tlunkin^ into the Kniallest potwible 
mutiiuuM) but ililnlioua uf Kinrntoii have modo ivputationa 
bjr iho M^ttro. IliH MtntAQOM tmvi^ rnruish^Ml tvxtsfor sermonB; 
im< ywi ttxpukdod into %*vtlum<i«; and open 

iil«, I ' ''ry varic>l7 of on^nl, have gladly appro- 

luriaM lutd wxu^tnl uuk after tlmr own ftmhioa, Idnts and 
(Wrtw«| fmw Ihia omdloia a«ir aad tiuntrar. Hia 
\VWMN in akown by U» AmI tlwk OKwa tinid readen 
hV* Ml iftiAUw4i\A« r«*putfMflMa lo tl* gw al drift uf hta 

Uw '^'^' *-"*' " "-^'d br ftiwlinir wwwAiny in him vhieh 

^' tlual tttf^; awl jcralvfvlt? takuff tfa«t« 

UtUitk h iMtyb»«lUliMit villi frMMMtotfi 



*VF<.I ^' lU 



1% rrniiiiiftrrrim 



■» a pM^ 






THE NOHTH AMEmCAN REVIEW. 



They lire -with Qod, their homee sra dost; 

But Itere Uicir children jiruj, 
And, in this lleetiu^ lifetime, trasl 

To find the OftiTOW wvy." 

As ftv ae printed memoriaU can ud m, Emeraon's prof 
in his nhoeen directioD seems not so mnoh a grovrth as a leap. 
The publication of the little volume caUed "Nature" lifted the 
heretic tJnitarian parson into a leader of a new Rc-hool of thought, 
and New England tranRceudontidit^m dat«s its existence from that 
charming' and suggestive book. Its circalation was limitf^ ; 
the author's share of the profits of its sale could hardly have paid 
his tailoKs bill for thrw uioutlm; but it waa studied as a kind of 
new gospel by a nomber of euthusiastdc young stadeat-t in onr 
ooUeges, and it« inflaence was Indiorously disproportioned to Its 
circulation. At the time of its pulilii'ation, it wiis imposaiblo to 
meet educated men and women in any social circle in Boston 
without hearing '* Nature" disonsstnl— the elderly soholars assail- 
ing and tho younger defending it; but still sonic four or five 
hundred copies of the book itself Bupplicd the public demand. 
What is called " the popular m'md ^ was not then, and hriH 
not siuoe, been much aflFected by the volumes in which Emer- 
son condensed his original thinking into the smalleKt posgihle 
compass; bat dilutions of Kmorson have made reputations 
by the score. Pm sentences have furmi^hcd texts for sermons ; 
Mr paragraphs have been expanded into volumes; and open 
minds, representing every variety of eroed, have gladly appro- 
priated and worked out, after their own fashion, hints and 
impulses derived from this ereedlefla sfier and thinker. liis oom- 
prehouBivenese is shown by the fact that those timid readers who 
have an instinctive repugnance to the general drift of his teach- 
ing are still surprised by finding something in him whieh meets 
their ininiediat'e KpiritnaJ need : and gratefully tJiking that> they 
leave the heretical matter to sncfa spirits as find inspiration and 
nutriment in it. It may be said that, while fragments of Emerson 
re-appear in almost aU phases of modem thinking, he has left 
behind him no Emcrwjnian. 

In considering Kmcrson as a [Kiet, writing in verse, tiie ob-. 
jectioD oomea at once that his greatest poetic achievements han 
been in prose. The question is asked, Can you name one of his' 
essays in whirh th*; [>o<^li<! Henlimenl and fa4.Miky do not prodom- 
inate T While his command of verse was limited tu a few mc 



M THE JfOBTH AMSBZCAJf REYXSW, 

Ikeoatre ttit, •MUtlng to be many tlilngi, 
And Are bat oq«. Beheld Cor off, thoy put 
Afi QcxI aod dovil; bris^ them to tbo miiid, 
They doll ite odga iritb Ihvir monotooy. 
To know 0D« eleneiit, explore another. 
And io tiie MMwnd i»-*pp««rs the fint. 
Tlia ipaetom pkoonuiui of » year 
Btit mnltipUM the Image of » day,— 
A bell of mjrron round » taper's fltame; 
And imivonol Nature, tiirongh hor twR 
And oiowdad whole, an infinite p4u«qoet, 
B^aatd one note." 

In " Wood-Notee* we Bee Emerson in his moat rapturous 
mood. There ia inspiration in every line. In direct <wntaet with 
nature, he UiroTs oft every shackle of conrentionalitj, and sings 
as though he were the first and only man — the Adam, bom witb 
the birth of created things, and gladly and exultingly witnessing 
and welcoming the creation whose secret purpose and plan he 

diBcc^ms. 

" All tho farmn are fogitive. 
But iho Bab0tane«a sarvjv^. 
Ever fresh the broad creation, 
A diTine improTisation, 
ProtD the heart of God proneedB, 
A ainglo will, a million deeds. 
Onee slept the world an egg of gtOBe, 
And poise, and sound, and Ugkt was none ; 
And Qod said ' Throb 1' and there waa motloti. 
And the Tavt man became rairt ocean. 
Onward and on, the eternal Pan, 
Who layeth the world'H ineeasaat plan, 
Ralteth never in one shape, 
Bnt forovor doth escape, 
Like ware or flame. Into new forms 
Of gem and air, of plautu and wonns. 

The world Is the ring of his spells. 

And the play of his miraolea. 

Aft be giveth to all to drink, 

Thns and thus thoy are and think. 

He i^reth little or giveth mnch, 

To make tbem sereral or Banh. 

WUA one drop sheds form and foatiiira; 

With the Moond a special rat^ire ; 

The third adds best's bdulgent spark; 

Ths fourth givee ligjit which eats the dartt} 

Into the &ftb Umsslf be filngi, 

And OouKdoos Law Is King of Kings.* 



jixSBSOir as a poet. 



15 



Coold A pantheist bare defined the Universal Being as 
"Gemucmm Law"! Has any believer in the pcraonality of God 
0nr hit upon a better deflnitioD f 

EmersoD, iu an essay on art, dedaree that the artist moBt 
"dbrndiTidoaliM" himself, and become an organ tbrongh which 
tbe nnivenuU mind acts. "There iV' ho Rays, "'but ono reason. 
The mind lliat made the world is not one mind, but the mind. 
Every man is an inlet to the eame, and to all of the same." The 
delight we take in a work of art "' seems to arise from our recog- 
nizing in it thi? mind that formed nature a^in in motive opera' 
tion. ... A masterpiece of art lias in the mind a fixed 
place in the chain of being, an mneh aa a plant or a crystal." In 
'' The Problem," thi? I>e(>t known of all his poems, this thought is 
developed with woudrjful power and beamy. The Coimders of 
religion^ the great poets and artiste, all men who hare done 
IhingH whicli are universally admitted to he great and admir. 
•ble, were " disindiWdualizod ^ — the recipients of an inspiration 
from the *' vaftt boiiI that o'er them planned,^ and, in all their 
works, "building l>e»er than they knew." It is needless to 
quote pasaagcs from this poem, bet^anse so many thousands of 
roltivated p«opl« know it by heart But why \& it e^ed '* The 
Problem " t The answer must be sought in the versos with 
whieh it begins and oloseci. Like all poets and philoaophers who 
■re claased as pantheists, Emerson had a prononnoed, almost a 
haoghty, individuality. Thron^ont his life he guarded tliis 
with a jealons care. He never could endure th« thought of be- 
ing the organ of any fraternity, the disciple of any master, the 
represeQtat.ive of any organization, the spokesman of any body 
of reformHrs, however noble might be their objeots. His essays 
swarm with irriticisnia on the one-sidednesa of every philan- 
thropic nssoeiatiim of his time; and it may be said, as an illus- 
tration of the general impression regarding the purity, integrity, 
ttreagth, and Rwoetness of bis eharacter, that he was the only 
inaa in Now England who could criticise the " reformers " with- 
out becoming the object of their invective. It was impossible 
for Emerson to part witli his own individuality, even in celebrat- 
ing the achievements of the inspired saints, bards, and artists 
who had seemingly parted with thftirs. He did not desire t« 
'Misindi\'idiializo " himself, wliiln intensely appreciating other 
individualities. " I Like," he says, — 



16 THE NORTH AMEBXOAN BSVIEW. 

" I like a oburoh ; I like s eowl; 
1 lovo a ivopbet of the soul ; 
And on my hevt moniatic aiales 
PaU like 8w»et strkioa or peonve nmilefj 
TdI Dot for all his faith oaa sec 
WquIiI 1 UiBt cowl&d CUanbtnui be." 

Tlion bunt forth the magnificent lines which seem to 
destroy the individnal in the act of exalting him as the seleoted 
instnuueut of ft power higher thou Uimsolf ; aud yet the oonvlii- 
aioD agrees with the beginning. Alter all, it must Biill, hi> 
til inks, be Baid that there is something which distiiigaishoa the 
person who reeeivw the celestial impulse and aid Irotu all other 
persons. 

" I know wliak ny Uie fathera wiH* — 
thv) book itMlf before me lies : 
Old Chryaottomt best Aognatino, 
And he who blent both fai his lino, 
Tho younger OcUhm I^p$ or nunaSf 
Taylor, the Sbakevpeare of dirioea. 
His irorda are musio to my ear, 
I see his oowUd portrait dear; 
And yet for all bis ftdUi could 809, 
I would not Uie good faiahup bo." 

All this practieally means i " I would not he otherwise than 
what I am, Ralph Waldo Emereon.^ 

Indeed, however mnofa Kmerson may vary in his Rtatements, 
—at one time placing the emphatiis on thu universal iiitad, and 
at another on tliy iudividual mind, — the general drii^ of his 
writings goes to show that tho purpose of the gpirit which under- 
lies "Xatnre** is to build up intrepid manhood in humau uatun;. 
In " Monadnoc," the poet professes to l>e at first disgnsted with 
the eiowns and churls who have built their habitations on the 
slopes of the mountmn ; but ho finds oonsolatioo in the thought 
that they are the progenitors of a finer race to come. 

" Tho World-sonl koows his own affair« 
Foreloakiiig when hn would iirapan^ 
Fur tbe next ages, men of mould 
Wen embodied, well «ii*oiilod; 
Be «oo)a the pFeM!at*s fiery glow, 
Betfl the life-jmlee strong but slow : 
Bitter windfl and faiita atistvre 
His <)naratitinefl and grottos, when 
H« alowlj curee deorepit flMh, 



EMEJtSON J5 A POET. I7 

briuRS ft infsntilo ft»(i frftah. 
naw «x«rciBe3 ar« the toys 
And gamea to brmtlte his KtaJwart bojB: 
Thty bide cbeir tin]«, and well can prav«, 
U DMid were, their Uoe from Jove ; 
(tf the emoe staff, and ao alUyod, 
A« that vrhnreaf the ma la mado, 
And of th« filKr, i]uiok and stronft, 
Whose Uinbe are lovr, whoM thrlUa ua vmg," 

Bat what u tbe meotal mood in which the hnmau miud, Uft'Cd 

ibove its urdinani- limilatiiMi^L, sees into the heart of Nature I 

[EmersoD affirms it tu Ijc Uie luond of oestusy — a Itind of oeleatial 

hiiti.xicAtion whiPh, while it may blind the ey« of the soul to tho 

[di-ar p<,'rce{,)tioti of tilings as they ajijwar, sharpens and brightens 

perception of things as thoy really are. In " Bacchus" we have 

ktement and example of this inspiration. " Bring me," 

luis, — 

** BriD]; me wiDe, bat wise which novtr grew 
In the heMy of the grapt*. 

Or erew on vine whoso tap-roote, reaching throa^ 
Vudcr the Andes to the Otpc, 
Uoffcred no Bayor ot the earth to 'acape. 

We bny ashes for br»«d; 

We bay diluted wine ; 

Oire tu^ of the trae,— 

Whoee ample leAvea and tendtiU onrled 

Among tbe ailrer hillB of heaven 

Draw everlasting dew; 

Wine of wine, 

Blood of the world. 

Form of forou, and mould of ttatnies, 

That I intoxi(;ut4.>d, 

Ari'l by thn dranght assimilated, 

)iMj float at pleasure through all ntlnrost 

Tbe bird lan^fUBge rigbUy upelt, 

And that whit'b rosea eay so well. 
"Whie that la shwl 

Lihe the torrents of tbe son 

Up the hurizou walls, 

Or like the Atlantic BlresioH whieh nm 

^li«Q the South Sea ealU. 
" Wotw and bread, 

Foixl which n^«dfl no trftosntatln^, 

Ttaiitbow-llnweriu^, wisdom- fruiting, 

Wiie which is already man, 

F(>ud which teaeh and re«»on oan. 

roh. cxxx\-,— NO. 308. 2 



IS TEE ifOBTH AMERICAN ItEVIEW. 

" Wia« whicfa Mtunc is,— 
Utulo uid «io« are one*— 
Tbiit I, driaking IbU, 
Shall bou- far CbftOB talk with mn; 
King* iiubom ah&ll walk with ni«; 
And tkf poor ffraen akaU jtiat atMi jikm 
f¥hat it iriQ do tti«n it u moa. 
(^ulvkeuMl BO, Krlll I unlock 
Every orypt of every rock. 

*' I ihank tbo joyful jdioe 
For all I know ; 
Wiadfl of rcmomboring 
Of tha anDient being blow, 
And aMiniiig-ioUd walla of OM 
Open, and flow. 

" Pour, Bacehtu! the remfmbering wine ; 
Retrieve the lorn of me and mioel 
Vine for vine "be antidote, 
And the grape requite tlie lotel 
Haste to eitrv the old despair, — 
Reason in Xatore'* lotua drenched, 
The taeraorr of ages quenched; 
QivD them again to ahine; 
Z^et wine repMir what ihia ondJd; 
And whore Uie inleetioa lUd, 
A dazsUiig meiu'jry reviw; 
RvfrOAh Uiu faded linta, 
Bueut the afptd prints. 
And writo my oM adventnrM with the pen 
Wbiob on th« first day drew, 
IJ|>aa the tablota blue. 
The daaeiog Pleiads and eternal men." 

In this ]K*ni, published lung Wfort' the " Origin of BpdaW 
appeared, we have a theor>- of development and ovoltttiou 
far-reaching than Darwin's ; and EtuenH>u anticipates even the 
doctxiuc of tiaturul aeleotdon, in some of his other i>oem». Thus, 
for instance, in " The World-MoiU," he says that Destiny 

" The patient Deemon Bita, 
NVitli roene and a shroud ; 
He has his way and d^aU hu gUte,— 
But our« are not allowed. 



H<> scrvi'th the fiorvBut, 
The lirave be loTtti amain; 
Be kilU the cripple anil the stok, 
And atrai{flit hegini a^aiu< 



EMEBSOy AS A POET. 19 

For gods delight lo godj, 
And timut the we&k uide; 
To liim wbij ficoni« their charities, 
TUeir anna tiy open wide." , 

And. again, in the *' Ode to W. H. Chanmng," we have this 

.fttHlartttion : 

" The orer-god 
Who miuii«fl Right to Might, 
Who peoples, aQi;eople«, — 
He wli'j eitorminates 
Bsees by stronger ra«es, 
BUek by white faco*,— 
Knows bow to bring lioney 
Out erf Che lion ; 
Oraflii geutK'st scion 
On pirate and Turk." 

The general idea of the "snrrival of Ihn fittest*' re-appeors 
often in Emersoa'a writiugs. To benevolent lueu it seems the 
idcntiflc form of the theological doctrine of "election"; but 
£maraoD eoostdered it in connection with his theory that what 
wv call evil is a n.>iuidaboul way uf jjroducing good. The spirit- 
tial laws whicii regulate the tmiverse cannot be overturned 
by [>owerful iiulividuabi, for it is noturioua that what they deaire 
to do in viuiuttDii of these outl.ving laws meets nith such resist* 
ftnce that the effect produced is very different from the effect 
intended. Evil is good in the making, not a positive substance, 
t^Tit a mere imperfection of good. "The shai^wst evila are bent 
int4i thttt perirMiitiity which makes the errore of planets and the 
fevirre and distempers of men self-limitiug." "Good is a good 
iloolor, but Bad is sometimes a better." '*If one shall read the 
futnn? of thi^ rare hinted in the organic effort of Nature to 
raonnt and iiicliorato, and the corresponding impulse to th« 
Better in the human being, we shall dare afOrm that there 
la nothing he will not overcome and convert, until at laat 
^hall nbsorb the chaos and gehcnua. He will convert the 
luto Mnaes, and the hells into benefit." 

It i* in view of such sentences as these that we rou.st consider a 
tirv of Emerson's poems in which his theorj' of e\*il is somewhat 
loo bluntly expriHsed. SncJi is " Uriel," which has troubled 
many of Emerfttms admirers who were attracted to him because 
of the emphasis he laid on the moral sentiment. It was the very 
iol«nidly of his conception of the universal dominion of this 
wmtimetit which mode him deride all efforts to resist it. 



30 TUE NORTH AMERICAN REVIEW. 

Lea\'ing out of view, liowover, Eworsou's poetic philosophy 
of nattire and man, and the poems which gptrcially represent it, 
h« is still the author of some short piecee which are at once 
admirable and poptd&r. Such are "Each tmd All," "The 
Khodora," "The Snowstorm," "The Uumhle-bee," and "Poi-e- 
mnners," each of which jnstiiie8 tho di<!tnm of their author, thai 
'• Beauty is its own exciiBC for being." In "Forerunners," Uie 
poet tcUa ns of his joyous and resolute pursuit of unattain- 
altif: Ivcauty. The pursuit of hia " happy guides' reoults in die- 
apjH)iiitiiioii(, — 

" For no Bpccd of mioe avails 
To bunt upon thcLr shiniug tnU^"; 

yet, though never overtaken, he feels they are never &r distant 

" Tbeir omt c&mp mj* Kpirit btowi 

By aigns lETftAiotui a« r&inbowo. 

I thenoeforward, luid long after, 

Li«l«a for their barp-lik« laughter, 

And eairy lo my b«Art for dtys 

PMe« that ballovrs rudest w»7B." 

It is a marked distinction ijf this little poem, one of the moat 
exquisite in the laug:uage, that it teetifies to the possibility ot 
finding a certain content in following continually an ideal 
never reached. Most poetA eloquently celebrate their discontent 
when they learn that the earth they inhabit is different from 
the heaven they conceive. Byron is spedally enraged at what 
he confdderii this injustice of Providence. 

Emerson's philosophy in this matter was not due to a dull 
perception of beauty in any of its forms. No poet was more 
keenly susceptible to it; no poet ever shrank from deformity 
with such an instinctive repulsion ; and moral ugliness spei'-iaUy 
irritated him, not only beoAuee it was wicked, but because it was 
"disagreeable.'* Gfwthe's mastor]>iece, Faust, " abounde<V' he 
ODOo wrote, "in the disagreeable. The vice is prurient, leaitmlf 
Parisian. In the presence of Jove, Priapus may be allowed as 
an offset, but here he ie an equal lierii. TIio book is undmibtfdly 
written by a master, and stands unhappily related to tbe whole 
modem world ; but it is a vej-y disagreeable chapter of literature, 
and tubuses the ftutlior as woU as Uie tiraet^ Shakespeare could, 
no doubt, have been disagreeable had he less genius, and if 
ness liad attracti-d him. In short-, our Enirlirth nature and geni 
bos made us the worst critics of Goethe," 



SUSR80H AS A POET. 

Emerson felt in this matter like his own humblE^hco, 
^vroidanco of * uught unsavory or luicltan." And his " Ode 
iBeftCty'' indicates that the sense of beauty peoetratod to the 
oentfT of hi£ btdng, and was au indissoluble element in 
:tCT. 

" Who g»ve thco, O Bcfttttj, 
Tbo )i«ys of tikis bi«ast, — 
Too cndulgtui loverr 

Of blest and anUest, — 
Sbj*, when in lapud a^e* 
TbM knew I of oM T 
Or what wu the aervioe 
For which I was sold 1 
I round nut thy tbrsU 
B7 magioal drawiofTB, 
Bweei tjmni of all! 

lATfab, Isvifili promisor, 
Nigh penaadln^ bkmU to pit! 
GuMt ot million pointed fomn, 
Which in turn thy viiary warns I 
The fr^!<>3t leaf, the mossy bark, 
Tho aooni's cup, the ruiii-drap's arc, 
Tb« swinging spider's sUrer line, 
The ruby <if the drup of wino, 
Tho shining pebble of tho pond, 
TboD Insoribeet with a bond, 
In thy tnooienlaiy phtj, 
Wouid bankrupt natvre to fvpag. 

"niee, gliding throngh the sen of fornix 
Like tho ligblntng Lhroagb the storm, 
Somewhat cot to b« poaieued, 
fiomewhat not to bo caressod, 
No £e«t so dpet could erer find, 
No peifeel form coold ever bind. 

ThQ leafy doll, thn city mart, 

Eqoal tmphios of ihinA art ; 

E'en the flowing azure air 

Thou baat toufhe>d for my despair ( 

Anil, if I laii^iiali into dreanu. 

Again I niAnt the ardent befttos. 

QiiMn of tilings I I darct not die 

la Bcing'n dee|ia po^t ear and «ye; 

Leat thuro I iiml tho aame dewiver, 

And be the sport of Fate forernr. 

Dread Power, bat dear! if Ood thon be, 

tJamake mo quite, or givv Ihysell to me!" 



22 



TffE NORTH AMERICAN REVIEW. 



Emerson onw, in speaking to a friend, remarked that hf 
could write in prose by spurring his faculties into attiou, but he 
tiouM writ*' in verse only in certain hajipy nwnientfi of inspira- 
tion, for which he had to wait In our limited space it is imposai- 
ble to do more than to qnote a few verses in which this inspiration 
IB recorded. Here are specimens from " Wood-Xot^s " : 

" For Nahiri' beats in perfect tUTM*, 
And rounds with rhjTne her oTciy mae. 
Whether ebe work in land or tet. 
Or hide tinci^r^round her alcheny, 
Thou canHt not wave ihy Ftaff in nir, 
Or dip thy prwld!« in the 1«Ji«, 
Bnt it carves the bow of beauty ther«, 
And the ripples in rhyme tlie oar fomkp. 
• ••«■•• 

Who Iketh by the ni(*eed pine 
Foandctb a heroic line : 
Who livt'lh in a palace hall 
Waneth fast and Rpeadeth all. 

The roQgh and hwarded tontator 
Is h«tt«r than the lord ; 
God flilt the acrlp kud oanbtor, 
Sin piles the loaded hoard. 

Go wher^ he will, the wise man It at home, 
Hia hearth the earth, — hJa haU the anre dome. 

H« saw besnth dim aiel», in odorous beda, 

The eligfat Linnsa han^; Its twin-bom heads. 

And blecaed the monnmenc of the man of lllcwer«, 

Which br«athes his sweet fai&e throti^ the northern bowers. 

Lover of all thiii(*s alive, 
Wonderer at all he meeta, 
Wondercr ohiefly at hlmadt— 
Who can tell him what he isT 
Or how met'l in human cU 
Coming and past eternities T" 



From his poems nndcr the title of " Initial, Dfemonie^ and 
Cele«ti«] Love," lin'^s withont number might be cited in pr<M»f 
that he had studied this passion scientifioAlly. Hii report on ita 
voriouA maaifeatatioui} has the ejuictneas of the scientiftt oom- 
bin«d with the glow of the poet. Uis Cu{^ i^ repre«exkbed aa 
eiti»e<*.ially dangerous throagh his eyes. 



£MEBSON J3 A POET. 

' to th« pit of hi» »]r»*a a spuk 
Woald brliiff back dajr if it wfre dark 

He tivRS in hu eyes; 
Tktm da*h di^st, ami work ftn<! Bptu, 
And Imy aad aell, aitd loae anil vriuj 
He rolla tbem vritli doUghtiMl motioD, 
Jof-lides svell Ifaelr miml« oeeaiL , 
Tm botds be them with taught«5t rein. 
Tbat they may seize asd eaterlaia 
Tb« (^aoc« that to their gVooce (^pposeit 
Uke fiery honey ant-'ked from rosea. 

Deep, deep are loving eyea, 
Flowed with naphtha fiery sweet; 
Aad the poiat ia puiuliBe 
Where their glutoes meet." 



23 



Emerson has two pMme, " Dirge ^ and "Threnody/ whieH 
Ktaod for examples of what ma; be called iiitellectnuUzed patlios. 
The grief doe« not burst forth with passionate <lire(;tness from 
the heart, but is passed through tlie intellect aDd imagiuatiou 
before it is allowed expression in words. Teimyson's " In 
M^moriam" is the most strikini; iUustration in Englitth Utera- 
lam of this process nf restrniniiig amotion in order to make 
it» finer effeet« on ehara^jter permanent. The poet lays par- 
tiralar emphans on the offire of imagination in softening and 
eonsecratixig tJie grief which it at the same time makes endoring, 

" Likewise the imaginatlTe woe, 
Tbat loved lo handle spiritaal strife. 
DUfnaed the vhork throogb ell my life, 
Bqt in the preMot broke the blow." 

In Eioerson's *' Dirge '^ this spiritualized sadness is cxqnisitely 
expresswl. His dead brothers are Rtill kept sacredly near to his 
(ioul. f<jr they are lodgod in the memory of his realizing imagina- 
tion, and no lapse of years can make the sense of his loss of '' the 
strung, star-bright companions" of his childhood and youth a 
calamity to fade into forgctfulnesa. In essential pathos, what 
can exoeed the sorrow expressed in this stanza of the poem : 

" I touch tbia flower of ellkea leaf, 
Which once our childhood knew. 
!ta soft leaves woiind me with a grief 
Wboee balsam never grew." 



24 TUE h'ORTU AMEBICAX REVIEhr. 

The " Threnody" oa the loss of hi3 chUd — 

'* The hyicinthine boy, for whom 
Mom Troll miglil bro^k and April bloom, 
The Ki'aoiouH boy, who did adorn 
Tho world whor^into he w«s bom "— 

has more of the charact4.>r of au outburst of the heart under 
agonizing foeliug of an in-eparable oalamity, but its pathoA is 
still of tho kind which lies " too deep for learR." Indetxl, the 
solid manhood of the father, rooted in ideas, and strong to resisti 
the "blasjihcmy of grief," was nevpr better excmplifled thiui ij 
this tender and beantifol " Threno<iy.'' The father has noi 
followed the child. Is it irreverent to suggest that the anticipa- 
tion in the lino which conoladcs the jKiora he has now verittedl — 

'* Lost in God, in Oodhead found." 

There are stanzas in Emerson's poems which read like ora- 
cles. Their truth to our moral being is ho close that we shmiUl 
hardly bo surprised if they were prefaced with a **Thus saith 
the LonL" And, indetsd, Emerson announces them with tho 
confident tone of the seer and th*^ prophet. They rank with thi 
loftiest utterances which have ever proceeded from the awakens 
heart tmd conscience imd intelloct of man. Tho Concord Fourt 
of July " Odo " (1S57). which opens with the magnifloeut ii 
inatioii, 

'* O tendorly the hao^ty Uaj 
PiUii lu« blno urn with fire," 

closes with the inspiring declaration that 

"Be Uut workBtb M^ and irUe, 
Kor patUM in hit jAmn, 
Will Uke Uu! 8un out of the akies 
Ere ^«doQi out of man." 

The short poem called "Freedom" ends with them wnl-aninif 
lug lines: 

"Fre«<Iom's secret wilt tfaoa kcowf 

Coun»Dl out with desh and blood ; 

Loitor not for cloak or food; 

Kigbt thon fo»loat, ni«>< tn .Jo." 

Tho "Boston n>Tnn" (1S63), wluch Oegins with "ihe Word of 
the Lord," closes with au impressive wrao in which is eundiOiHOtl 



XMEBSON AS A POET. 25 

the whole divine lavr of retribution. What po«t before Emer- 
I Boa ever gave oye« to the thanderlM^lt 1 

"U/ wUl rulSlled shall he, 
For, in rlhytiKlit as in dork, 
M/ l.hiinricrbolt has nye« to bw 
Bis wny home to the mark." 

tn the " Voiuntarieis'' which arc infused throughout with the 
heroie feoUngei roused by thp ciWl wur, there is one quatrain 
that standa out from the rest with stortliog distinctaess and 
pov«r: 

*' So nigh to grandeur to our diitt> 
60 uaar la Qod to inaD, 
Wbcn Duty wbiapers low, Thou mtut^ 
_ The youth replieft, / efi»." 

But pcriupe the noblest of these aOlrmations of the absoluto 
•Uigation of men to follow their consoiences, rather than wliat 
■ppeara to 1m> their iuterestts is contained iu four liucs with the 
keadingof "Sacriflco." This quatrain is a poem iu itself,— an 
«|Mpoem: 

" Tlionab lore repine, and reason chafe, 

Then conm a voice without reply, — 

*Tia mn*« perdiHan to he aqftr, 

Wkm for tha tnUh he ought to iJte," 

The reaaon that such grand utterances as these thrill us with 
anwoate<l emotion ia to bo found in our instinctive belief that 
the pilot's «h&rart«r waa on a level with his lofty thinking. He 
afflmied the nupremncy of npiritunl laws because he spoko from a 
bd^it of spiritual experience to which he had mounted by the 
■te{M of si>iritnal growth. Tn rr>a<ling him, we feel that we 
an in eonuntinion with an original person, aa well as with an 
original poet, — one whose oharact«r is aa brave as it is sweet, aa 
Strang aa it i« beautiful, as Hriii and resolute in will as it is keen 
and delicate in insight, — one who tins earned the right to anthor- 
itatirely annoouce, without argument, great spiritual facts and 
priociplaa, becAuae his sotU has come into direct contact with 
them. Aa a poet he often takes strange liberties with the estab- 
Qibed laws of rhyme and rhjiihrn ; even his images are oceasian* 
dy i»Aig7naa ; but he still contrives to pour through his verse a 
flood and rush of inspiration not often perceptible iu the axiom- 
itta aeatenoBa of his most splendid prose. In his verse he gvveft 



TBE NORTH AJlEIUCJJf HEVIEW. 



free, jojouB, exulting expresskiu to all the aadocities of his thii 
ing and feeling ; aurl porhaps this inade>)uate attempt to Ket 
forth hia merits as a iwet may be appropriately closed by citing, 
from tho poem which bears the title of '* Merlin," hie own con- 
ception of what a poet should be and shotdd do ; 

*' Tb7 uiviid bvp wtU nerer pletso 

Or fiU mj cniTing e&r; 
Its chords slioold ring as blowH Ihs breete. 

Free, peramptofj, oleftr, 
No ilngUng Bcnnodcr's art> 

Nor tinkle of pluio striogt, 
Cui malic tho wiM blood start 

In its mystic spiingii. 
The kingly biiTd 

llast nnite tho ebordt nidflr and hard, 
As with hammor or with raft««; 
That they may render buck 
Artfol thundvr, which conrvyi 
Seenta of the Kohir ti««k, 
Sparks of the miperaolar blaxe. 
Merlin'ii blow§ srv strokes of f«t«i 
rhintiiig with the forest tone, 
When boughs buflet boughs in the wood ; 
Chiminf: with the gup and moan 
Of Th« ic^-imprlsoned flood ; 
WiUt the pttlse of manly heatla; 
Witli the Tofco of orators ; 
Witb the din of city arte : 
Wirb the cannonade of wars ; 
With th« marebM o£ th« briTe ; 
And prayers of ini^t finnn maityi'a care. 

** Grwt is the iirt> 
Great b« tba manoon. of Lb«« bard. 
He shall not his brain encumber 
WliJi the coil of rhytlun and number; 
But, leaving rule and pale foretboui^t. 
Ho aliall aye eUiab 
For hifi rhyme. 
' Pass in, pass in/ the angels s&y, 
' In to the upper doors, 
Nor eotuit «ompartm«uU of tt)6 floon, 
But mouut t« Paradise 
By tbo stairway of surpriBe.'" 

Edwin P. Wi 




» 



803(E fifteen ycArs nr more ago a man, long, lean, aiid leath- 
cry, cutercd the outer office of the Assistant Treasurer of the 
Uiiited Stat«0t at Xew York, and in a \-c)i(!e that told plainly that 
hib eame from ouu of the interior "deestricks" of the btate, 
taked for the Assistfint Treasurer. Upon inquirj- as to hii} busi- 

ne« with that uffict^r, he said that be was A B of Carta* 

wagnEf and that hr " hatl called to see Ijout a yintment, 'uef 
Cattaraufpis hed her puppohshin; 'uef ahe hedn't, he'd like 1^> 
make applicashin fur her shcer.^ Tlie rhiof clerk comprehended 
the (fttnatiou quiikly, and surmising that the question coiUd be 
Kttlcd with lesa trouble than is common on such occasions, he 
aaked tiie N'ifiitor to take a seat while an exnminatiun was mado; 
whereuiwn the gentleman from Cattaraugus slowly i)et'lod him- 
self of his overcoat and sat down. It proved to be as the chief 
flt?rk had sujiposed ; Cattaraugus had her pruportion. The 
record was shown to her representative ; whereupon he rose and, 
aUmtly infterting himB^^lF again into hie overcoat^ went sadly 
forth to Wgin his return journey to the remote regions of the 
Empire Stat*', in the cooree of which he had time enongb t^) 
ruminate upon the opportunities and the limitations of office* 
seeking. 

Thifi man was, without a doubt, some village pohtician, who 
Uionght that he had two ehauces for his '''p'Uitment": one, his 
etauu upon the party in pa^-meat of personal— may wo not say 
profeasioualT — servieefl rendered; the other, Cattaraugus's claim 
for "her sheer.^ Nor, aecurdiug to loug-eslablisbed usage, was 
there anything ridiculous, or even ■unreasonable, in his erpecta- 
tioD. Uis departure, without protest or importunity, wheu he 
waa shown that his county hud its full proportion of the ulerk- 
ahipe in the New York ofBco, showed ttiat he understood very 
well what he was about when he made his visit of recounaiseanee. 




28 



THE A'OJtTB AUERICA.N REVIEW. 



For this matter of pr*»p»)rtiouat« represeatation in the diPtribu- 
tion of what is called (.lovernmcut patroua^ is oue as to wliich 
the law is like that of the Mf^dcis and Persians. In tliat blue- 
book in which are recorded the name, the employment, and the 

f«alary of every person in the service of the United States Goverii- 
meut there arfl two columns, in one of whieh is also recorded the 
place where each was bom, and in the other the State from which 
he was appointed. A man bom in Maine may he appointed 
from Missouri ; that is, having become a citizeu of Missouri, he 
takes what our Cattaraugus friend would coil "a sheer of her 
puppob^hin." VHien MisAoori's proportion is Ailed, the gates are 
closed against her citizens until one of them vaeatee his office. 
This kw of the distribution of office is, a ootueqnenoe of the 
federative and copartnership business eharaoter of oar general 
Goverament, in which the States are indi\idnally represented, 
and upon wliich they have individual claims, according to their 
population. The principle is rigidly observed throughout the 
nianngcment of the general Crovemraent's ufFuirs. It forbids the 
nomination of a President and a Vice- President, or of two (.Cabinet 
officers, fi-om the same State, just as it does the giving of a 
county more than its »hare of the appointments in any one burean. 
Absolute find unvarying compliance with this law luay not be 
possible; but it« enforcement is sought, and by all politiciaus the 

I law is not only observed but respected. 

This Iiiw, like the constitutional requirement that members of 
Congress, whether in the Senate or in the House of Representa- 
tives, shall be readents of the States which they represent, and, 
like the variation in the several Slates as to the law^s and condi- 

[tiona of marriage, shows that the p<.»litical entity often called 

lerica, but more properly United States of North America, 

\ Dot in any proper sense of the word a nation. It is even mndi 

BBS 80 than ^e United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland; 

"for in rhflt, although a diversity a" to marriage obtainFt, so thnt 
A woman married in one part of the kingdom may bo uuiuorrieii 
in another, repreaentatiou in the legislotore is nntrammeled by 

^Teetroint of place. A member of Parliament has only to be a 

pSritish subject and chosen by n sufficient constituency. Polmer- 
ston, an Irish peer living in London, may represent the Isle of 
Wight; Gladittone, hving aLsO in London, may represent Edin- 
burgh, the capital of another country. Marriage, however, being 
at the foundation, of oiviUzed society, is the snprenie t«et of 



THK BVaHiESS OF OFFJCE-SEEKJA'G. 

nttkouli^. Notlung more socially ftli^iiin] than to cal] that & 
nation in oue part of wluub a womau in married aad at the same 
time in ongther liosbaudloBS — is one part of which a citizen is 
l«tptiiuiit«>, with all ooDBeqtieQt rights aud privileges, aud in au- 
oUier illRgitLniBtc. nttUiujs Jifius. The Engil^b people are a natioa, 
til - ■■! iini'thtT iiutioQ, thy Irish another, although they are 
uii ''ti.- kiiigilom, and th<iirunion is not federative, and is 

tberefare maeh closer and more intimate than that of the States 
which form our Union. In the eoDBideration" of the 8(il>jeet 
nt»w U'fore u*, it uhmild never be forgotten that the federitl and 
several character of our Government affects even the composition 
of OUT ci\-il nennee, and that it must nocessariJy, therefore, affect 
the ci^noetion of civil wrvioe reform. It cannot cease to do so 
without tt radical change in the nature of our political conatita- 
Itou. 

This Uw in the management of political affairs, and the 
poUtiaal eondition out of whicJi the law Imi) grown, and by which 
it !» aoftompauiiHl, have enmljiued with our sueial habit« to make 
potitica and office-seeking a bosiuess — a business followed with 
M singie an eye to {fcrftonal profit and advancement as any 
other, nut even cxuepting jonrnalism or the Christian niinistrir'. 
1 ahall ever remcmlK-r the remark made to me by a man who held 
an office of great influence and trnst and profit in New York — 
it WM nearly twenty years ago. I spoke to him about his posi- 
tion, aud he replied with sadness, ohnost with bitterness, "■ I shall 
never «!«asc to regret the day when I gave np my profession [the 
law] and went into politico After all, it don't pay.'' It was 
th« first time that I had heard a man avow plainly that he had 
taken np polities m a profession, trade^ or business, by which he 
ex3>ccted to gel money. Hut since tlieu I have heard ,the Hume 
adinisiiion in terms, or imphcitly, from many others who had 
** gooe into iioliticR.'' 

That poUtieii t^hoiiM lieeome a biiKinesH, taken np for profit, 
was not contemplated by the frainers of our system of govern* 
ment- It was supposed by them that there would be always a 
dan of ETUperior, substantia!, high-minded men, from whom their 
Irafi notable fellow-citizens would select those to whose rare they 
would cfHimiit the puliUc interests. Tliese men must be paid, of 
nrarBe; for ht?re very few conld afford to serve the publio unpaid; 
>iat it WHS not supi»osed that to a man thought worthy of being- 
a legidotor or a puhlio officer of position the pay ol his office 



THE KORTB AifERICAK HE^TICW. 



would be a matter of serious consideration in his doterminution 
to ent<!r the public service. The political poastitution and thr 
social condition of tho country, however, made tlie anexpected 
change inevitable. If there had been a Icisurelr class of even 
very moderate wealth, inherited and staid upon the land, tJi«? 
mtijority of the legislators snd inenmhents of high public offloc 
would have been selected from this class ; and, indeed, 8ome 
approaoh to this custom was made in our colonial period in the 
f(fw years immediately following. But in thp abwuce of such a 
das^, the fact that legislators were paid — i>aid for their duilj- 
services as long as they were in session, and paid also their trav- 
eling pJEpenfios — made, was stu*e to make, eould not, without the 
abrogation of human nature, fnil to make. (K)Utk« a business, 
followed merely for its mingled return of money-profit and ikt- 
tional inriucnoe. And as in trade the inferior and cheaper arti- 
cle always drives out the superior, and in money the debased 
coin or the paper promise surely imd soon 8upplant*i the staud- 
Hrd, so iu our trttding (Militii's the iTiferinr man — man inferior 
intellectually, socially, morally — verj" soon began to displace his 
superior, until, about thirty years ago, wo had reached a level at 
which a man like William Tweed might reasonably hope to sit in 
the Senate of the L'nited States, to represent the Irovemment of 
the Tnited States at one of the first capitals of Europi-, and v\i-u 
to be President. That it was so, no well-iuformed person wlU 
for a moment dispute. 

Now, in i-eferring to this nobmous person as an example and 
an illnstration, I have uot in mind his colossal robberies. Let 
UK t^t them aside, and suppose that be was as honest as a Turk 
ish porter or a Cuban slaver (both men who can be trusted with 
open bags of untold gold), and then, what muuner of mun was 
he to hold an honorable and an eminent position iu the public 
sen'ice of a great ixKiplo 1 To him, and to his like, the deso^nt 
—I will not nay from Woshiugtcm and John Adams «nd Al''3i- 
nnder Hmuilton, and their like; let us pass by the heroes — but 
froui ,Iohii Quincy Adams, frtim De Witt Clinton, fi-om Daniel 
Webster, with all his faults, and from the men among whom 
they were only the first in position and in power — this descent in 
like a descent from heaven into hell. And yet we fdl know that 
08 those men were but the eminent representatives of a class 
among whom our le;;riKlators and public oflleers were sought, so 
he was only the most successful {bocause the most daring and 



TBE SUStSBSS OF 0FFWE-8EEKINO. 



31 



imacmpalous) of a class of proft's^ioual poUlioiims who, igno- 
mat, coarse, low-bred, and low-lived^ were rapidly takiug outii-e 
poaiwMBOii aud control of onr pnblio affairs. 

ThU, too, waa iuevitable. In a commimitj* in which the rote 
ol i-very man who la uot yet in prison counts one. and no mtire, 
H aoon as the mass uf meu liist-artT their political powrr, thc.v 
will nw it fur their own pervoual advauta^. They will send 
to tb«iir legislature, not the man of the best ability and educa- 
tion, of the iai«t sterling t-haracttr and the most dignifled bear- 
fng^; ibey will send him whu will flatter their personal vanity 
and srrvo tht'ir privat« interests. Thoy will have their eyes open 
chiefly to the latter point; bat they will also find a pleasure in 
aet^lP iisidij the superior man in favor of one of thenifk-Ivei* — 
not always th*- man with the Rmootliewt tongue, but generally 
him of the fewest eerupl*^. Hence it is that within the last 
thirty years our legislative lK>die8 have deteriorated »o notably 
that now even the Senat** of the ITnited Stales, wbiuh is filled not 
by a [H>pTLlar vote, but by that of legislative Itodien, contain.-? men 
whoee pre»euce there or even in much inferior positions would 
have l>oen morally impossible in the day» of our fatheitn. We 
may deplore thia. but we cannot help it That it is so is no 
special evidence of uionU or iulelleetual deterioration in our 
people. It is merely that political power ha:* passed into (he 
hands to which, under our political constitution and "with our 
conditions of soeiety, it wa« inevitably tending, and tliat they 
who poMeae it are using it> so far as they are able, for their own 
pergonal pleasure and profit, and not for the good of the whole 
country.* 

It ia also ineWtable that the tnan who gives up a profession 
or a hosiness. anfl ''goes into politics," will soon seek other com- 
penmti(m than his salary- for the sacrifice he has made ti> the 

* Mr. Pormvi B. Raton. Id his Interesting history nf dvil servioe uid its 
rtform id (ir»st Bhtun — a work wliich, notwithManrling Iw Intrinuio merit, 
hMlitllf Ap|)Uoalnlity to tbe politics and«oaiety of the United tit«to^ — sayx: 
"NotiitDi; hks more rigniftaantly illastnUetl the groTrth sod predominance of 
pMtiMn lh»y»Tit(8 aatl httWta In this countrj- dariiis this gwnemtion ttuu the 
tiMtiy offlpt'ni originally opiMintabU, wMch are noif eMrtive. \t vraa nstiuml 
Ih--' I' 'ulJ think their direct choii:«wouldBe<ure better ofl9<wn» than 

th> . of apiMiiiitm^nt " (p. 390)- Nwt bo : what wan Ihoughi oi, 

wh»; ub« •o^b;. wm not bctt*r offlcprs, but nfflf^erawho wonld he directly 
audt>r the thuntn and at tbe be«k and ci'.] of tbe m«n oo irhoae rotea thuir 
tannra of oSe* dapraded. 



32 



THE NORTH AMEBSOAN HEYIEW. 



pnblio interests; and ho will not lie long in finding it Tlie im- 
Uien»e irnd rapidly circulittiug wealth ut' tiie country, luid the 
many vast basiness projects which are more or less affected by 
legislation, make miint\v-getting by jtolitio^ easy if not sure. 
Henn! it is that very few mon have taken an active part for any 
length of time in our general, or <iven in our Stat.eT iw>Utica dur 
ing the last thirty years without be<;oming at least inodurafcly 
rich ; unless, iudee<l, they were rich when they entered tlit« jwUti- 
cal ai-ena, and did &o to further their own iutereste and those of 
the great corporatlonB of which they were members. 

Politics cannot, however, be thus made a bosineiis unless it is 
mad«) profitable, iu some degree, at least, to all who tnke an 
active part in it. The rat'ii who furnish the furce wfaieb the 
political k'udera diroct, must bo paid, Ln one way or another, for 
their time, their trouble, and their enthusiasm. It is not to be 
expected that in a conntry in whieh there is not only no govern- 
ing ela«s, but no class of recognized sujR'riorily, men will d») tlK:- 
work of politicians who, except for a succe^ due to mere popular 
favor, are no better than themselves, and see the leaders profit, 
while tliey, whose favor makes those leaders what they are, stand 
witliont the pnblio gamer and get nothing. Politic* has thus 
lieconie a business for all who take any port in it. Office, oppor- 
tunity^ of profit, position, or advancement of gome kind, is looked 
for by all of tliat large class who ore known among their friends 
as [Miliiiinans. Even when tliey do not directly seek office, these 
men, when their party is iu power, expect {to tise a phrase com- 
mon among their sort) ** to have their shan> of what*s going." In 
many oases all thai they cxjiect is opportunity for money-getting 
in some way; and iu a country of such great wealth, such 
vast and yet undevelojied reeources, such business acti\ity, and 
such numerous public projects od this, those who eontrttl public 
afTaire have in their hands means of rewarding political friend- 
ship not inferiftr ut least to those of the id>M)Iule monnrchs of 
jiasl ages. Rewards of this sort are generally cxpeotexl by and 
besfcoweii upon the more important and socially reserved class 
of politicians. In this class, however, tliere arc some who, in 
return for their mcnwy and their coiml4'uanco, expw-t pusitiona 
that will add Ut their iniporUnoe: and there are nmuy who 
an' satisfied by pensioning upon the public incompetent and 
otherwise objectionable raemlwrs of thoir own families, who 
otherwise would be pemdoned ujion them. The mass, howerc 



BVSXNSSS OF OFFICE-SEEKH^G. 



33 



of thp iW'tivp politipiftns — those Trho serve on minor uoiumittece^ 
work ia putitieAl cluKs, help U) get ap public meciiugs and *'dem- 
oatrtratiuDSr^ lud {^ncrally do the work that tells at the polls oq 
dectioQ day, look for offiee of Bonie sort, Tlu^y du their wurk 
as iitbfjT meu do thr irs, for the return it briug)> tht-m. H there 
-wvrv DO pny or qd hope of pay, there would soon be no ivork 
dont*.* 

Uenc« it is that every prominent politician has followers 
who mnst be rewiLrded, He rowunh* them, if he can do so, 
by obtaining for thiun some public office with aft httle to do 
and as much to receive 06 possible \ and when he cannot do this, 
which out unfrfv{ii«int.ly bapitens, he rewards them out of his 
own [xn'kcL Mr. MoniftKey — the Uonoruble John Morrissey, 
priiK^flt^ht^r, professional gambler, and Member of Congress; 
(and we all know that there have been worse men in Congress 
Ihau he) — lieing aekcd tJio secret of political suoccsss, replied, 
^ Btick to your friends, and be free with your money." A similar 
rvply wafi miule to a amitor qtie»tion by a prominent political 
luadcr in New York, who is of Mr. Morrissoy's nationality, but of 
vwy different habits of life. And who that has means of know- 
ing will doubt that William Tweed's political strength lay 
ia bi» ability to draw after him a multitudinous uUeutage 
by hope of reward f Nor were his followers and flatterers con- 
flnwl to iho inferior popnlution of the great eitj' that ho ruled, 
or even to successful political tulveulurers. The men who 
sought him as a fellow direotor in their corporate enterprises, 
and who lent him their names to bolster his polideal pofdtion, 
wert men who euiJd serve him in one way much as he could 
nerve them in another. Should it ever be forgotten that a bronze 
statue of William Tweed was abont to bo erected in New York, 
and that the gentlemen wlio proposed to set up this brazen 

* It tmy not b« geiwnlljr known — I for ob« did not ntflpeet it audi t 
learned It from a ta&n who fa«d long been Be«kiii; & minor office (and mj 
•On- uliMirvatJoii ooufirmed bis InformatioD)— that uam who have at an sup- 
po— a to b«Tc inflncni^o at Wajdiingtou, at with ttuch offiolal potsoiu u the 
Po*UMut«r of Now Torit. or the Police Oomiiiuwionom, are now very gener- 
ally paid bj those olBce-ieokers lu whose &vor they one their infloMieo 
saege—fally ; the amoont of the honoraritan (k-t tn above all thin^ he 
Hfqniaitc lu our phraaeolOKr) dependinjr uymn the anxmnt of the salary 
DbtaixHtd. TUB if Dot nnanl^d by either purty bb bribedty, or "anything itt 
an oDl of the way," bat as rnvn oommiNsiuo ou Ijusineae done. The whole 
aiatUtf' «t«3»lR oa B businRAs footing, 

Xi-jU cxxx\-. — N*o, 308. 3 



M 



TEE NOSTB AMBSICAN RBVIEW. 



imago — if Ms own face ooald have been but mo1t«a down for 
it ! — were themsolvee — some of them, at leabt — not uuknowii or 
unhonopcd among their fellow-citizens I • 

Now, the worst fact in relation to Tweed was not himwlf, bttt 
the condition of society that made a Tweed posatble. For 
do wo not fill know, do wo not all feol with a moral cer* 
taiuty, that Mr. Tweed's clientage, or the greater part of it, 
■nspeoted, and more than suspected, that he was filling his 
pooket8 (and some of theirs) with pnblip. money dishonestly 
obtained, and that cvcu if they (his fellow-directors and com- 
mittee-men indaded) had certainly known, by secret informa- 
tdon, that it was so, they would have held tlieir peace and have 
given him their votes and t^eir voices, and even their hands, so 
long sfi he was not exposed publicly, nnd ko long aa they received 
their compcnuatiun — what t}ii> Cattoraugos man culled their 
"sheer" — whether it was money, or opportunity for money- 
getting, or office, or a participation in the ot^ies of the AmcricTU 
Club T We do know all this suffleieutly. or else wo are will/ ii 
blind or stnpidly ignorant 

In a country whose politics iu% at this moral level, and 
which there are at least two hundred thousand oiBces to be dis- 
tribut<Ni by tlic general government and by the States, is it strange 
that offlctvseeking has become a business, followed for the most 
part by men who are not the ablest, or the most admirable and 
estimable members of the community, men of whom, as a whole, 
Gniteao is not indeed a fair rt-prC'^sciitativCjbut whom, as a class, 
he does in sumo sort represent f Nay, must we not rather confess 
that that unlovely creature, the habitual office-seeker, is as 
ral a product of our political and social condition as the 
oak is of the soil which has been hiid waste by the removal 
the primeval forest f He has become a necessary part of onr 
political machinery, an important part; and, all ctrcnmstanGee 
being taken into consideration, it woidd be unreaiH>uable to find 
fault with the part>- leaders for using him. Kven statesmen o£ 
the higher sort find that the most and the beat that they oan 



' See the New York newspeperB of 17th Uueh, 1871. Among tkomi 
proposed to ere«t thin raonnment wen A. 0«k(*j Hb11. Mnyor of N«w T( 
H. W, Q«oet, 8tat« Senator, Albert Cardozo, Jud^ of tlw Soprems 
Riclwrd O'Qonnui, Cor]>oratit)a Counsvl, W. E. Bolwrls, Member of 
Itran, baae Bel), Com misn oner of C3i&ritieB, and Cbarloa P. Daly, 
Jodg* of the Common Plead. 



Busnnsss of offjce-seekinq. 



36 



tbc motivee and direct the forces of tho world aroimd 
tit ia, — to mtumge their world, not to make it. How muuh 
more iznpamtive is this neoessity apou the politician whost task 
is limited to the tsioiple effort to gtit his party iuto power, at to 
keep it thcr« ! 

Nor Khnll wo err if wo tt?cognize among those who look for 
■od doiro official position of a certain sort some who are of 
a dianetcr mnoh enpenor to tho commonly entertiuned notion 
of thi> offluc-wcking class. Aspiration to political phiue and power 
tft sot in itself to bo either contcmn(>d or condumncd ; and it is 
not only natonU but right that the man who has political in- 
flnenoe, and who uses it to the advantage of his purt,\ , shutild de- 
dra, and should receive, some benefit and ontward investiture as 
the stamp of his snoeess and the recognition of his standing; quite 
ae oatiirol and as right as that he who ministers at the altar 
shaD li\-e by the altar. The existence of such aspiration among 
the better cIush of yoong men who are inclined to politics fur- 
niabes the aslate and matiire politician with his mo«t efflcieul 
tools. The working of this motive is &>mewhat in thiswise: 

A rixing yoimg laMryer, in a small town in — well, let us 
take the first and topmost State upon the map — Maine, attends 
a political meeting, and being tempted to propose or to oppose 
sumo meiumrc in tho interests of his party, is sncccssful, and is 
talked about -y and soon, when some local election is approaching, 
be gom op to town and calls upon the leader of his party, whom 
wo nay as well call Mr. Maine, and telling him of the condition 
of things, says that he hopes that he may be able to du some- 
thing for tho Bucoesa of the partj^, and modestly hinte at his 
former little anooeas. Whereupon the great leader, who proba- 
bly nevi:r htjard his name before, beams out npon him, and per- 
Bapa laying hia hand npon his shoulder, says : " Ob, you need not 
leQ mean}'1hing a^Kxit that. Doyoa suppose tlml 1 am ignorant 
of your brilliant sucoees io that alTairT We have had our eyee 
apoo you for some time past, and look to you as just the man to 
aratttin the pnrty in the present important and delicate political 
crisis at Ponkinton. If you will only take the matter earnestly 
in hand, I am snro that you will carry us through triumphautly." 
Whfiovat a bolt of delight shoots through that young Ponkiutoni- 
ao'a heart, and he Ha>-s within himself, *' Good land t baa the 
great Mr. Maine had his eyes on me, and for some time, and 
doei he look to me to carry ns through at Punkiutou ! " Then 



TBE NOnrU ASIEHICAN REVIEW. 



goes he forth from before Mr. Mnino with his fnop .^hininfi: and his 
poises bounding, and straightway takds the rr)ad to Puulduton, 
where he goes to work, and works to the loss of alwp and the 
loss of hnsine£s, and, being a nle%*c!rinli follnw and popnlnr, bo 
carries his point. Then comes a letter of cougrutiLliiiioii from 
the great Mr. Maine, with intimations that if ho, Mr. IkUine, 
should over bi* elovatwl, by the choiee of his fellow-citixpiiH, to A 
position in which he should require the services of disere^t c<mn- 
8eIo)*s and persuasive advocates, his eyes must ne«da involuntfirily 
turn toward PmiklntfUL Whereuiwn that yuiiug man derlarps 
in hia heart that a sta(«sman of snch insight and such capatuty 
of appreeiatiou, one so altogether admirable, sliall nut lack hia 
ser\-iws toward his elevatiifn in a position in whuih he won 
need the eerviees of a discreet counselor and a 
advocate. lie works on until he be<somes the leading: Democra 
or Republiuau piiliticiau in his oomity ; and, finding bis busin* 
about to give up him, he gives up his business and goes into poli- 
tics. The great Mr. Maine — who still has his eye on Puukint 
and aaatbi thither some uf bis lieutenants, nay, perliaps eveu 
there himself and beams and breathes upon his aeoMe and his ; 
lowers — is at hist <rlevat*Ml and 8«vfarth and so-forth ! He l>eeoi 
Goreruor of his State, or perhaps United States Senator; aott 
then, to the surprise of Pimkinton, various bits of patronage well 
understood to bo at his disposal are given, not to the hero whn 
saved Ptmkinton from tho jaws of the opposition, but to uuheurd- 
of nobodies iu some obscure part of the State. The young 
tician, now not so young nor quite so modest as he was when 
first met him. seeks the great man in his elevation and recoi 
his services, and the bland and eheering promises of his pat 
*' My dear sir," he hears in reply, ** yon cannot suppose that 
party or that I am ignorant of the InestimaUe sen'ice which; 
labors and your l)riUiant talents have rendered us ; or that 
are destined in duo time to have their fining i-eward. These lit 
scraps of xiatronage that have been recently distributed are 
fit for a man of your pret^^nsions. We are IfMiking forward to 
greHter things, and it isnotimiMjeaible" — with ft dignified nASump- 
tioii (if modesty — " that I may be called upon to adWse in rb( 
to some important appointments really not unworthy of the 
eideration of such a man as you have shown yourself I • ' 
then you may count surely upon my best serviMs and n 
ful memory." Back he goes to Punkintoo, aomevbitt heal 



TSB BVSIXSS3 OF OFFICE-SEEKUfG. 



37 



^AiVted indeed, bat with hope new-kindled m his b*>8oin, and 
''•Bte ht' works for party and patroit, the former alwaj'S imphiug 
thi* latter ; and indeed he can do nothing el«6| for he is committed 
to Mm body and booI. Ho has sold himself to Mr. Uaine for 
liope» and promisw, and haa so boaad himself to him iu the 
«]Ka of aD his littio world that he must continue his aerrant 
uid ilavCf not only for consistency's sake but uecesaitys; for he 
has given w^ his bosinesa and gone into politics. And there we 
leave him. 

Tkv coontry is fall of Poukintonfi and their leading puliti- 
cians; and Mr. Mmne may be found, in some stage of develop- 
mesl, in every State of the Umou. Pennsylvania hn« him no 
taw than New York. Georgia no less than Ohio. Nor i» he a new 
eraotion of our timeft or onr country. He has lived in every 
oonntiy that has liwl butli poHticu and liberty ; fur he does not 
llouriith ouder despotism. Doubtless, there were Maines in China 
before the days of Cinifucius. What ia pecnliar to us in the 
eondition of puUii: affairs which lias just been set forth is that it 
miut needs be. There is no ridding ounjelvee of it without a 
radiual eluuige iu the structnre of onr politics and our sooiety — 
mdess, indeed, we are able to elimimite the trilling element 
human nature from our pmMem. WitJi those who c-annot see 
this, it would be quite Q^la«is to argue. All that we cau hope to 
do for the elevation and the purification of our politics in this 
Aonld seem, is to be obtained only by the removal of 
;l pltmdur. The oarcaas niuat be put not only out of tJie 
reach of the eagles, but oat of their sight So long as two hun- 
dred thonKand officos are continually to be distributed and redis- 
tributed in a country iu which one man is as good as another, 
and every man's rote oonnts one and no more, there will be at 
Inift ten seekers after every one of the two hundred thousand; 
— a noble army indeed, if it were composed of the cboieest mem- 
liera of society. The effeet of all which up<jn the country ia 
deplorable — morally, intellectually, politioally, socially, mat«- 
riidly.- 



* As I mfself bold ft place — one of yer^ snull importADoo — (n the pnbUo 
■WViM for nuuy ye«n, a deutmeiation of offleenwekiii^ on my put m&kei it 
■InoKfcDOMBBmvytornie to Hay that I did nut ask fur my ftppoinboeiit, nor mek 
H In any wny. It wu ofler*d to mo unexpectedly, and giTen Hppffificaliy on 
Um poonid that 1 wa« a man of iHtlcn, who had done the State some tittle 
■ttTkji, and who might be expected to do it a littlo more. I wua requested to 



THE NORTH AMERICAN REVTSW. 

A general consoiontniess of the shabby and depressing oon- 
dition of our civil serviee, and of the rcproofb it brings upon 
iia, finds its expression in what is called a " movement ^ for civil 
service reform. It is now generally felt by thoughtful and 
decent people that this making the minor offices of the Federal 
and State Govommenta tho spoils of ^axty victory is a custom 
constantly working toward political oormption and social degra- 
dation; and there is naturally a very strong desire among raeh 
people that the cuRtom may bo done away with. This feeling 
has been seized upon by some politicians and psene-politicians, 
and made the key-note of a political cry, which the leaders of 
each of the great political parties fear somewhat to bear 
as a slogan on the side of their opponents, but much more 
to find it adopted as a creed upou their own. Their natural 
apprehensions are, however, in this case too quickly excited. 
For here they — the political leaders on whit'hevcr side — are 
masters of the situation. A mere public sentiment upon a mat- 
ter of the minor morals, however widely diffused, is not to be 
compared as an active force to the ravening hunger of a raat^ 
body of men, each eagerly intent upon his own personal inte 
The desire felt by all who value political puriW and pu 
decency must, in the natnre of things, be a languid mo 
power in comparison with the empty greed of two mill! 
office-se-ekerS; and the terrible necessities of some hundreds or 
thousands of party leaders to have wherewithal to stop their 
mouths and fill their bellies. Leading politicians^ indec*d, will 
not wisely seem indifferent to the neoessi^ of ci%-il servioe 
reform ; but they may, without much fear of nnat-onable offense, 
neglect it, or manipulate it to suit their own necessities. 

Xovertheleos, the question as to the bettering and cleansing of 
our civil service is to those who are not poUticians, and who 

go thromth the form of mivldn^ nn RppHontion. and my Kponson WPfO Oi 
V«TplAUck, Luther Brniiish, William Curtis Xoycs, fieorKP TMniilt-toii Stroi 
Horace Groeluy, l>r. Bellows, I>r. Chapin, rntd Uvarj Ward Be«><'hcr ; tho 
ter of reeommetidation bsving liwa writtou by my Wend MonnsoU B. Firld^j 
tlie dSetotion of Ur. Brailiftli. Ait«r three or four yoon' HrviM I wu 
motod {to the eooimoaB salary of ¥3,000 a yw} upon the munUeitad rwt 
meiuUtioii of my superior offlcor, AMlBtaat-Collector (then Mtiit|{ 
dlnob, whom I bad not known before my sppdintmont, and willi whom 
relnllonii w«-re tbon offlelM only. Not long m^ I eitme apon a oopy of Ur. 
Bndbh's letter of reeommendatios, on whloh I bad IrreVBreatly 
•• Oreat ei7 aad littOe wooL* 



TMS Bosnrsss of OFFICB-HEBKINO. 

yet give Lhongfat to political affairs, one u( very great importance. 
All axch peristms f«^\, aud have long felt, that Uie general uSlco- 
aeekbig habit of which snch crimes as Ooiteau's and such men 
as Guitean are the natural ontcume (for there is no wisdom 
in blinking the latter fact), is so degrading in its inflaonoc that 
H abonld be broken np, if possible, at whatever cost of tho efB- 
cdeacy of mere party machinery.* The efforts toward this 
tniich desired end tlius far, although they have resulted iu 
'^moTement," in " agitation," both of a somewhat vague form and 
vneertain opcor&tion, and even in ''ariMK^iation," — not, 1 take it, 
of a strongly coherent nature, — seem to have the fault of ignoring 
three things : first, the political organization of the country ; 
next, itfi social and moral eondition ; and last, not least, hnman 
niiture — tliree forces of a sort not to be set aside easily and with 
ft high hand at this or at any other time, in this or in any 
ottwr country. If we are to have a Presidential election every 
fooryeATS, with elections of members uf Congress every second 
yeftr, ftnd State elections for Governor and State Senators and 
what not, and town and city elections no leas often, and there 
are two hundred thousand offiws to be distributed by the Federal 
and the State Govemmeuti!, yoti (cannot, while human nature 
remains what it is, prevent tho distribution of those ofilces 
fay the leading men of tho party in power among their sap- 
porters but in two ways : One, tho depriving them (by a law 
tluU can be enforct?d) of tho p4^)wer of thus rewarding their 
anoeenfiil partisans, which (our political coustitntaon and modes 
of pablic action remaining what they are) would inevitably lead to 
ft greater corruption iu legislation for the purpose of supphnng 
the place and the motive power of " patronage"; the other the 



' In tufl introdnotioD to Ifr. DonuBJi B, Flkton's book (haretofore refomd 
lo), Mr, 0«orge WUlIsm Cariia says liiat tbe cItQ Mrviofl raform movement 
WM bfgvn by Hr. TbomM Allen Jenekee, ft repreteautivs in Congrev from 
Bbod« lalutd bom 1833-71, wbOM attentiao aad that of manr otben " hut 
been drftwa to the Bttbjwt at thn eloM of the Wftr." 

If Mr. Cortis hftd road some articles upon the subject irhicb appeared in 
tbc "Coorier and Enquirer" bcforo tSOl, and a letter upon ft, mgoed 
**A fankw," whlefa appeared in tho London "Spoutator" a vousidorubla 
Unn licr<ir» the ead of the war, he woald probablf hare »»t back the hand 
of hU dial a f«w yi-ani. I am eure that he would at leaat regard tlieir writw 
%a DOW entitled to speak again apoo the question, and as one who baa not 
It ap lightly or oswly. 



40 



THE NOBTS AMERICAN REVIEW. 



allowm^ this powor to remain in the hands of tlie party leadfra, 
biit moclif^'ing aud liniitiDg its oporAtiou in a way thut would di> 
minish the ioterest which the office-seeking class takes in politics, 
or rather iu part>' agitation. 'With all who believe that the endless 
turmoil of party strife and bicke-ring in which we live, of which 
the one motive and the one point of public interest seems to 
be possession of ofliee,* has & tendency, strong and sure, to make 
Uie lone of our public affurs frivolous, and sordid, and corrupt, 
and who would gladly see the energy of our people turned to 
higher, better, more useful, and hapjiier endyavors, there can bo 
no doubt which of these alternatives is to be preferred. \Miat a 
blessing would it be to the country if thut political condition 
which is flgopcd in the fact that one President is hardly iu the 
■UTiitc House before political journalists begin to discnas who 
shall bu his successor, and psene-politicians hasten to nominate 
some maU; upon whom they set np the claim of discovery — if 
the condition of which this is the sign could be so changed thut 
ppopli' might be f*om|«'llij(l to rest for some liltJe whiln, say tmly 
two or three years, from sqoahbUng over offices, and have time 
between the periods of party strife to give themselves to some of 
the nobler and better objects of human endeavor, or even to the 
hearty and intelligent enjojTnent of life, which Americans do leas 
dian any other people under the sun, and thus to elevate them- 
selves above the position of mediocre money-getters and petty 
party politieians. 

Nor is the connection of office-seeking with party polities tho 
worst of it. It is bad in itself. It is tho sign of existing weak- 
ness and evil, and the cause of more. Tbat in a conntry like this, 
BO vast, and rich, and free that men swarm to it from all the old 
folk-hives of the earth, — that here there should be aeonsiderable 
body of young men, intelligent, and even moderately educatetl, 
who ore ready to take up with little offices of routine duty, 
briuging in a few hundreds, or at most a thousand or two a year, 
with no stimulus to enterprise, no reward for exertion, is to itaelf 
shameful; it is a reproach upon our socd&ty which cannot be 



* See tbe MWipapen tar four monlha befora and fimr moiiUM nfter tii« 
kMeuian of Vr. Gtoflald — see them nr^r atnnn the BrCceaiiao i>( Qi«iii.-ml 
Artlinr. The aeyn from Vwhtngton bi alwayi aboot offlou; alwaf* Uuit, fttul 
UitlfidH. 



lUZ BUSINESS OF OFFICE-SEEKING. 

gahuaid.* Wliat wp nrpit for the preBcrvation of oar self-rcBpect, 
Dii less than for the purification of our puliticg and tie elevation 
of onr civil scrviflp, is the extinction of this widvlv diffused seek- 
ing fwr iilTiro, sti tlmt a young man with health and stxenffth and 
life bef(jri) him will not think of seeking, hardly of accepting, oiio 
of thoae nnmbcrlees minor public positions the routiae duties of 
which may ha satisfaotorily and fitly performed by men of 
matnrer yeant, to whom character and ability and indnstry have 
nut bruuglit snocess; aud bow many Boch men there arc, only 
the charitable and dispassionate observer of life can know. 

To bring about thiii most desirable end, and at the same time 
to elevate our ci\'il ser\i(*, there could bo no better means than 
the destruction of the business of offlce-socking. Now, one groat 
defect of the jffoposed system of reform by appointment to the 
lownrt g^adei of office upon eompetitive examination, and to 
bi^^er only from the lower grades^ is thai It (Kirpetuates the 
biuinem of ofiice-Beeking, and not only so, but raises it into the 
position of a rec^jgnized ooeupntion, alnicist into that of a profe»- 
sinn, with teachers, examiners, aud degrees. What our politics 
and onr society need in tliis respect is the turning of all men's 
eyes away from the two hundred thousand offices, and the caufdug 
them to look only to the independent action of their own hands 
and beads for the ruHking of tboir living nnd tbmr suooess in liv- 
ing. On the contniry, eomjK'titivc examination mokes office- 
SM-king a career into which it tempts young men who, by the 
bcftllhy operation of the natural laws of society, should be en- 
gaged in agriculture, in the meehanical arts, in trade or (a very 
few of tliem) in the learned professions. 

Upon the question as to the worth of cflmpetiUve examination 
as a means of providing the fittest men for the public service, I 
shall say litUe, merely remarking that the ablest, most sagacions, 
most trusted, and longest experienced pnlilic officer that ever was 

'A Waaliingtoii pMTDspoodent writing in the perfomutnce of Ua rcgolu 
fonoticui preM»ot«d this ^tty sketch from real life to hin Radem, b eluirt time 

" OrtianU Qnut baa heea tprady annoj'ed bj oflhw-bniilcra wlillv in Washington. 
On rrM*^ uortiloit tbm wmi m coUiwUod of twratr-flTc or Ihirt}' of Uu-ju ui the rrttut 
Omrortbe Whh« HouM. wnltlDiI fat Uio Qvncntt to Unlati lita bnnfclast ami go oat 
far N-waDu Araoag ihctn were Ooagw i irocii, oSlnen or tJw anar, aad clBrgjmiBn, 
■Mil oD« taarluf ti]i Kx 10 b« cmDwl, aad tliar pneod towtil £t<»beneaULlb»|Kirdootn 
attxlnu rsiMv-tjinnn. Plnaltj-, abottt tt o'clMk, one of ibn dooita^ien ToM Mxax 
f^*l QeocnJ Qmjil hn4 ffone domt ttirou«li Iho kttcbmi ui boor jirarloiu. and 
walked ■wvr bma tbo tedk door In tbe dlRctton of FcaaarlTauJa ATeaac Xbo 
waltara dtapoacd wtttaonl ecnnoDjr." 



42 THZ NORTH AMERICAN REVIEW. 

in the civil service of the United States, Charies P. Clinch, for 
sixteen years Deputy Collector, and for twenty-one years Assiiit- 
ant CoUeotor, of the port of Now York," (taid to me, on Uie 
introdaction of the cxnapetitive examination test, that he could not 
pass the proj>08ed exaniiiiatiou for ihv lowest grade, and that he 
miBSnre tliat liis ablest subordinates could not pass it, althongft 
" some of the fools might " ; and that saoh examinatdona, althoogb 
they might find certain men who knew certain things, would not 
disQOTer, could not discover, did not pretend to discover, the 
fltnese of men for their positions in the long ran. 

On the other hand, appuLntment to the lowest grade of the 
service only, and only upon competitive examination, with ap> 
pointment to higher grades only by promotions from thd 
lower, deprives the Government of the services of matnre and 
experienced men, who are qnite capable of the duties of the 
higher places, but who cannot afford to begin at the bottooL 
Moreover, it also depi-ives anccessful party leaders uf a means 
of rewarding political activity, which, if used in a proper .way^ 
is becximing to them, and a fitting and not unsafe stimulus to 
political action. And it may Iw seriously doubted whetlier, in a 
country where all politifiians work for pay and mnst continue t^ 
do 90, the boet and most honost of them will consent to be wholly 
deprived of the privilege of recommending their supporters to 
office.! 

Is there no way of reconciling these conflicting forces, not 
only with each other, but with the conditions of onr politics and 
onr socie^'l It seems to me that there is. and that the much 

* The nuinbeiii nf theae ytwra nuiy be not exaetly oomot ; nor is it of Any 
lnqKirt«noo that ttiejr ^lioiild he. Tfa« Importftot tkot Ifl thai Mr. Clinfih, niier 
being in the Leginlulure of New York at a time wboD men like V«rplanok and 
BnwUah aud RagglcH wlto to b« found there, was (or thlrty-eeveo yean in Ui« 
servioe of the Uuited States &a Deputy CoUeotor and Assistant CuUeotor. 
Always a Democrat of the DemoonUs, be was bonorod aod tniated wfaioherer 
party was in power. 

t One uf the most astote and experienoed of British i^ntios of poltH<^ Kud 
BiMsLety, A. nayrmrd, remarking upon the fault found vriih Stcikdhal's (Ilcari 
Bayle's) pp.reanal friMid* for not doin^ more for him when thoy wan* in pCTWer, 
mT»i "It flhonld bo remamberod that a party in a combination of persons 
who nnlte their talents aod remnreM upon an nnd«rstajiditi^ that, in oaM <A 
•aoeess, the power and patronage Uiereby acquired sliaU be shared attkODgit 
them. Then i» nothing uvcvmarily nrotif; in Mieh a ISMigne) bocaOM tltoMi 
forming it may fairly ctidm credit for confidence in one another's honsaty and 
eapaelty, as woll as (or bsvia^ fixed prluoiptea to oirry oat." 



TffS SVSUrSS3 OF OFFICE'SEEKIxa. 

eleratioii of the civil serrio* might bp bronglit about by 
'■imple means — in tact, by the openition of usages and taws 
■Imdj w«U known in the service, with the addition of only one 
new ppnTifiionj and that thus the end in view might lie attiuned 
by the least diatnrlxmoe of existing conditions — a method of 
reform aiways songfat by pmdent aud practical statesmen. And 
although thuae with whom oiril service reform has become the 
cme groat erying need of the time and the country, and who, liJIce 
nuMTt professional reformers, clamuronsJy insiitt npon the para- 
mount Tirtne of their nostrom for the public weal, may turn 
ftWiy with disgttst from any remedy whieb does not tear away 
oOIbium with the nprooting and the pang and tb« outfrrying of 
denttstry, and which merely setiores the end without violence on 
the one side, or the glory of a ^lendid operation on the other, 
the better port of the public, we may be sure, wunld welcome the 
quieter and more natural process. 

Coropditivoexamination — a bad mcthodfor makingchoiceor 
determining fitness for any practical purpose, and weighted also 
politically with other ineonveniences — may or may not be adopted 
as the only entrance to the eivil service of the Unit<^d Statue; 
but Buppofdng it rejected, are we to assnme that there Rhoxild 
not be, or that there would not be, any examination at all as to 
fttnees for the service I Not so. I have found, however, that 
most of those who have given this subject some consideration, 
without being well uifurmed upon it, have assumed that, until the 
administration of I'resident Hayes, there was no examination for 
appointees to the civil service, and that they were accepted with- 
out question on the nomiuatiuu of party Waders. It may have 
bean so, in fact, in too many instances ; but if it were so, 
every case was a nolation of the rules and usages of the service 
as then and now existing — an example of one of tliose prevailing 
•bnsea from the existence of which nothing can be inferred 
against right use. 

Here follows a section of the general regulations issued in 
Pobroary, 1857, by the then Secretary of the Treaaury, Mr. 
Oathrie, whinh directly touuhes our subject: 



" 677. The CoUuctor shaald dbvot, in esuli com, a thorough nammatiom oC 
tka KppUeuil by expeiia in the departniE-ot or (jmoeli of biuinew ia wtudi be 
fai propoMd to b« employed, of whom one shaU bo the hMd qf the deparhm^nt 
(or bnuwh of bmiiuiMM), who will twrtif}- in wntiug tfae remit of nueli exomioo- 
lioa, and the Collector will forwartl meb oertiflcato to Uio Departmont with 



44 



TEE XORTH AMSMICAII REVIEW. 



the DouiD&HoiL In no es«e will it be permitted to an offio«r oC the 01 
to sppotntr OK one of his sulfordioatc-s, a mrety 00 hiB affieial bood." 

This regulation was properly in foree (whether opcirativo or 
not) in New York until tho recent adoptiou of tlie new syiEtem, 
and is, I believe, now so in force elsewhere. The r<-siilt of compli- 
ance with this order was a cortificata, of whioh here follows a 
oopy of the blank form ; 

" CusTOU HousB, Nkw Tore, 

" CoLLECToa'8 OrncE, — A Z>Mf*(m> 

** , , 186-. 

" Ar .- At yonr request wo have ezaminod as to hi* qua 

oatioBS For llio ofBrv of . and Teport thnt in oor opinion ba i» £< 

ia not] qtulifled to perform the datiee of tbAt offi««'. 

"VeryrMpftotfully, 



'To 



-, K»q, 



" OiStetor of (A« CmAwu." 

Attached to this was a memorandum of the ago, plAM 
birth, residenoe, and ocoapatiou of tiie appointee. A bliuik 
order of examination (of whioh I have in vnin sought a copj^J 
once existed, and this order, in thu case of Bppr>iut«cg to inferidj^^ 
positions, was issued to the bead of the department or bureau 
only to whioh they were severally nnminatod. It was, as I recol- 
loet (for I have received such orders), merdy a formal but brief 
request to the head of the bureau that he would examine Au 
bearer as t^) hiA fitness for such or such a position under 
and report the result to the CJoUector. 

Now. it needs hardly to be said that all that is required 
determine tlie BtiioiK of an appointee to office is a faitliful 
pliance with this order. Under a proper administration of puj 
lie affiiirs, it is to the superior officer's interest thnt he shn 
make tlin examination sufficiently tlionmgh to Ratisfy bimae 
For such an administration mokes the head of every bureau an 
department persoualiy responsible for the efficient operation 
his offloe. The work of his subordinates is his work ; and 
any def^ in it be is liable to be called to account Ho is, thi 
fore, the person of all others to whom the efficlenoy and 
prt?I)«r official conduct of bis subordiuut^ is most lmj>ort«< 
The Trcfl8tu7 order making him always one of the examiners 
dictated by eommou sense. If obeyed, it insures, as far as p> 
sible, fitness in the candidate, discipline, smooth and easy wu: 



THS BUSINESS OF OFFWE-SBEKINQ. 




g in the basineAs of the offioe — in brief, orderly and effimcut 
administration. 

That this moda of examinatioii is sufficient for \in purpose, 
aod that it can ht* xueA as a proteotion against pulitie^ iitllnenft^ 
I know by experience. On one oc(»sion, when an asait-tAiit was 
n*^>ded in the littlu burttau of whieh I was for aomo years the 
hewl. a yntmg man prosented himself with one of the orders jnst 
raerntioned. I ciamined Mm and kept him under my eye for one: 
momiog, and tbuii sent him with a letttjr to the Collector, saying 
that he wva not Bt for the place. Next day another eune, with 
the auno result; and then another and another, nntil I had Font 
buck five, one of whom was a kinsDian of a very inflnential per- 
lon indeed, as he let mo know, with a little flouriah. When I 
next pres<»nted myaeJf to my superior offleer, he had hardly bid 
me good morning when he asked me, using the dry point, if I 
hiEisted on having only Harvard gradnat4>9 in my office. " No, 
Mr. CoUortt^ir," I replitvl ; '■ hut I do say that a yonng man who 
takes that phioe should laiow how to copy and address a letter 
rorrectly, hnw to make a simple oalcolation, and how to behave 
himfldf to his superior officer and to strangers, which not one of 
those yon sent me did.'' He hesitated a moment, and then, me- 
fnlly smiling, said: "Yon are right; and you shall have your 
man. But if yon knew how I am pressed by politicians to find 
places, you wouldn't wonder at my sending you anything that 
got-a on two legs." Within a few days another person was sent, 
who proved fit and t»Jok the positiouj the duties of which he per- 
formed Bfttisfactorily for some years. 

I have told thii> 8t.ory because it seemed to me to present the 
whole oaae in a nut-shell. Faithful personal exaniiufitinn by the 
ior oiEcer ia, under existing Trfasury reguiatiuDs, all that is 
iiecocfituy to protect the sen-ice against the eflfect of political 
jireefmre. There remains, however, one y^iry important question : 
How shoU Collectors, and other superior officers, Seoretariw of 
Departments, Presidents of the United States themselree, be pro- 
tected again^ this political prcisnre for placest For, so Ifjng as 
them are places that may be had, or hoped for, by pressure, poli- 
ticians, big and little, will press for them. So long as heads of 
minor bureaus will accept subordinates on mere nomination by 
their aoperior, without examination and notwithstanding niani- 
(wt unfitness. Collectors and other like officers will, at political 
urging, send them anything that goes on two legs. 




46 



TBE h'QRTB AMEBICAH RSVIBW. 



The romody here is simply fixity of tcirnro during 
behavior. Let it b« once established that places are not to bel 
bad— that is, to be made — by pressure, and part^ leaden will 
oeaBCf must needs cease, to press. Let it be established that an 
efficient and wGU-condni.:t4>d <tivil officer is not to be removod 
except for cause specifically alleged, and politicians will recom- 
mend only upon a vacancy. 

As to the condact of politicians in this reepeet> I feel that I am 
able to speak witli some kmiwledge. Having held my position 
Beventeen years,* nnder eight smicessive cnlleot/irs, with all of 
whom I was in more or less confidential relations, and four of 
whom were my pergonal friends, I knew much of what went on 
which was not strietly public business. Moreover, I was one of 
the commission appointed by General Arthur, then Collector, in 
1878, on the reduction of foreo in the New York Custom House, 
upon orders from the Treasury Department — part of a movement 
wliich somo cjniieal persons declaitxl would result in the elevutinu 
of Mr. John Sherman to the Presidency, and the poUtical extinc- 
tion of {Jeneral Arthur — erroneously, as it proved. The other 
members of this Commission were the lato Samuel G. Ogden, for 
thirty-seven years Auditor of the Customs in New York, and Col. 
MaoMahon, Chief C^ork of the Fifth Division, f I believe that 
we all accepted our places on thisuugratefid commission with great 
reluctance. Certainly I did so, and endeavored to be treed from 
it ; but under the eircmnstimces wu could not refuse our services 
to the Collt'ctor. We all knew, of course, that in cases of nmioval 
we should be gnbjeoted to personal abuse, for which we cared 
little, and also to personal BoUcitatioa, which we dreaded j and 
we formally pledg*^d ourselves to eadi other in the beginning 
that we would bold no eorrespondence, by word of mouth or by 
letter, with any unofficial person on Uiat subject Interviews we 
would decline; letters we ahoold leave unanswered. X am snre 
that the pled^ wail kept by all of us; and we had need of its 
protection. Protest and petition poured in upon us; I, as socr&- 
toiy, naturally suffering the most Out of all this stood forth 



' I had nothing to do dinwtljr witli th« ooUeotioii of the oostctoi, Raid lb* 
Colloolor was my only soparior offieer — all penoua in Ui« dMzlot aoBOMMd 
with the Treastuy being his snlmrdinateii. 

t Col. UuU*lion von hlsepaulota, not vitbont kwi o( part of wfakt he stakod. 
UmMlf, in oor CiTil War. Ho bM proved as afioiMit bi th* «iTil M h* w— 
in thf mlitar; Ktrvioe of Uie Union. 





TME BUSINESS OF OFFICS-SEEKING. 

reanorkaUe foci. Although as the result of onr report some 
liandred men in the Custom I£oug« proper were (lif?£>liiced," 
nctons protral or pr.tition tame to us from a politician; all were 
from ** outsid^jrSj" hi^lily respootftblc and inflaeutial (that is, 
wMltby) men, who hod friends or kinsmen in the Bcrvice, and 
whn ])rot«>stcd against this diKpIa^ienieiit of the representatives of 
flo niach nspectability. Wc continued our oourse, guided only 
l]y the Collector's inntmctions and the requirements of the aenr- 
appeored to ns, aided in our inquiry by dfpiity- 
And chief clerks of divudons. Then these highly 
respectable protesters, who were not politiciaus, moved heaven 
and earth against us, and caused us to be smumouod to Wash- 
ington to account for onr misdeeds; which accountiug was made 
to Bodh purpose that that part of the embroilment was never 
beard of afterward, f 

Snc}i, according to my years of observation, is the attitude and 
the aotioa in this respect of the *^ machine politician," for whom 
ttioae who know anyUung of me will not aocuso Die. nf any special 
Uking, at least because he is a politician and a part of the ma- 

* I mp^mk firom mt^inory ouly. 

t It u p«rtiii9iit to Uw RobjMt of this artiale that I shoold mj b«r« thftt, 

Aduiic tbe kction of thia CommiMioQ on the reduction of for«», th« Collector 

(OviwrAl Artiwr) refrainfrcl ouUrel; from making Any anggestioim an to hu 

on wiikoB or tltiMo of Us poUttcal frionds, in regiuil to individualn. The 

dnutgw were left entirely in the bsads of the ConimissioD, the ntemberB 

dI which, wete ^d«<l only by the oTd«ra from th« deputmeot and the exi^n- 

«!■» of tliK public sflTvioe, mg rereoicd to thviD opon mqulrira addnw0ed Ut HiB 

hnda and rhief clerkii of divinons. It wa« not uatU the Cotnmifiidon pTB- 

feni«d Its <>ar«>fnI1y, I nwy uty ludnfrilly, propar<>d schedule of rodootlon to 

0(^e«tur Artlior, that he bad any coosoltation with them ba to the particular 

rMtdbi of thnir labon; and even then his auggOHttons were few, and were 

idervd merely as noggestlons. I, for one, was surprieed at his reserve m thU 

tmpt<!t But I reTn(>mber one suggestion of ehange made by him, which 

I than Teoture RC tlii« dittane« of time to make pnhlie. The Commission had 

|itBc««l. fur good riMMiD, upon the nhedole of remoTal In one Dlvljion, a name 

u to whieb Uie CoUector demurred. At Orst he merely raqtMSt«d that, if 

Umt* mtist be a redtwtjon in that oiBee, »om6 other name should be. eubstit uled. 

Wbaa be wia told that good reMoa existed for the ehoioe that b«d been mode, 

he tspluned that a member of the family of thi cleric in qnestion had been 

hto opfMment iin<l aaaallant, and that be wisbod tbun-furo to treat this gontlo- 

laaa wi" 'innal lenloney. Thii was the only case in wiiich he preeaed 

bs per- < X upon the Commi8Bfo& ; and he requeeted that tliuni might 

be nothing Mud that irotild inform Us ccnBor of hia action in the niaUer. 

KothinK, I btOimro, has oror buon saM about it imtU tiow, when that uuy bo 

toM which happened mntuk PUtneo, 



48 



THE NORTU AMERICAN BEVISW. 



chine. He dofts Ins hsfit for his client. ; hot. if his man is remov(Hl 
for ^od cause, porwoual or puUticAl, he submiU without prulent 
— it is the fortiiue of war. Whereas, your highly reRpectafale 
non-i)oliticiaa, whose unfortunate or iooffi(*ient kinsnwn or near 
friend^ once qnart^rod on the Govemmeut, is removed and thrown 
npou his handg for aid or support, rends the skies with his denun- 
ciation of politiea] oormption, and would know (in a verj' impres- 
sive niannor) how the public service is lo be kept pore and sweet 
if he is not to be allowed to salt it with a sprinkling of hie 
family and friends. 

Hence it seems dear that the leadinf? politician, if not the 
non-politicifln and the pfene-poUtieian, would be aatifified and 
yield graceftUly if the permitted recommendation for appoiatr 
mcnt to ofRw, worn it little or mu«h, were left in his hands as & 
part of the prestige of his position. The party leader in Omgress 
who knew that his right to recommend appointees for every 
vacancy nerurring in the contingent of his district — our Cattar- 
augus finend's *' puppohshin" — was ret«)gnized, and would be 
respected in so far as to place his nominee under exiimiimtion for 
fitness, woald be fx)ntent with suoh a reu<^nition of his position 
and prestige — a recognition surely not unbecoming, so far as he 
is coucomed. And as to the man to be appointed from his dis- 
trict, to whom oould inqniries as to his general qualifications be 
addressed with more propriety than to his representative in Con- 
gress t By the adoption of the nile of tenure during cfflcienty 
and good behavior, the party leaders' scope of reeommendution 
wotUd indeed be diminished; but in that diminution he would 
find actual relief, while, at the same time, he wcmld not be entirely 
deprived of a vahiwl and distinguishing privileg^i, which, rightly 
useil, is not without its proper benefits to all parties inti-restt-d in 
it, not excepting the public. The adoption tjf the rule of tenure 
during good bebaxior and efScienoy would, on tbo one hand, reHove 
party leaders and hends of dtpartinenLs of the prtsfium of a crowd 
of office-seekers, and on the other, of couri^e, break ap the boaine^^s 
of oflHce-aeeking. The two million loonsts of office, who now 
darken the sky of half a continents would be compelled to seek 
some other way of getting their living; and the spu3ioTU and 
debasing politictd activity, which is stimulated by the hojic of 
getting some sort of protU from party success, would be grmlunlly 
ended by the gradual failure of its motive power. 

One result of the adoption of the hiw of fixify of teunro 



THE BUSIKSSS OF OFFICE SBBKINa. 



49 



b« the reetoration at the members of the civil t^rvieo to 
Donnal place m poliUca and their constitutiuniJ rights as 
itixenA. Members of opposite partiea vho were in the eivil 
ioo wonld not only vote and work, each with his own party, 
coaCribate to it ur uut as they felt inclined^ with none to 
molest or to make them afraid, jnst as if they were engaged is 
any other occupation. As to saying to the officers of the eiril 
Mtrrico that they shall not take any part in politics, and that 
tfa«y efaall not give money in aid of any political canae or party, 
thftt it a feeble sort of t^Tanny that need not be diBcnisi^ at thiK 
stage of political freedom. It is a gross ontrage^ a more 
intolerable restraint npon personal liberty than that proposed in 
the tame of Jamea 1. by OUvor St. John, who, to attiun an end 
periimpB good in itself, wonld have deprived the people of the 
right of individoally offering the King money. 

Thus a reform involving little change in our political habits, 
ud the violation of none of the harmonies of onr political and 
loeial condition — examination of appointees by hemls of depart- 
ments or their chosen representatives, responsibility of those 
oOoan for their subordinates, and flxity of tenure during 
effldeney and good behuviur — wonld seem to be sure moans for 
the att^nmcnt of this much-deeired end. 

RicHABD Orant White. 



VOL. CECZV.— NO. 306. 



IIYDRAUUC PRESSURE IN WAU STREET. 



The popular Bopersiition oonoemmg Wall street is tii&t tbe 
great stock speculators control speculatioiL They are sappoeiid 
to make and unmake prices at their pleasure. When they detor- 
niine the market shall rise, it ri}»es. Wlien thoy determine it 
shall go down, it goes down ; and in the bands of theso flnaneial 
giants the outside public is helpless. Possibly ninety-nine men 
out of a hundred who think uf the matter at all uherish this 
theory of the movements of speculation. To be true, it would 
require that the half-dozen men recognized as great operators 
should hold in their hands all the elements that go to make up 
speculation. They should be able to give or withhold from us 
bountiful harvests; to blast the graiu-Selds of Europe when we 
have a large gnrplos to sell; to give as mild or severe winten, 
floods or drought; to call up the devouring swarms of grass- 
hoppOTB in the WcHt, as Moses cullod tlio plagno of locusts uiKtu 
Egypt ; to increase or diminish the stream of immigration pomv 
ing into the country ; to make oommeroe and manufacture 
flourish or wither as tiicy may will it. These are the elements 
that enter into specidation. It is these which make and unmake 
priOBB. None know this better than the great operators. Thoy 
know how narrow are the limits of their power over the great 
movements of the speculative tides recorded in the Agnree on 
the stock tape J and the milUons they have rolled up have been 
acquired by tlie success with which they have timed their sohomee 
to their ebb and flow. 

It is an axiom of speculation that you cannot bull stocks and 
com at the same time. What enhances the pri»» of 
diminishes the value of stocks. Good crops make high pri< 
poor crops make low ones. While wheat and com are 
in price, the prices of stocks tend downward. In the grasshoi^ 
per years, wbea wheat was two dollars per buahol, stores of 



Uht nulroadft, now qnoted at one LQiidred and twelve and one 
liimdred and thirty dollars, wore nailing at twelve and forty-five 
daHan. From this cause it comes that " tho crop question " ia of 
foeh tzuBoetident importance in Wall street It begins to be 
dJaaniMpd with the plowing of the ground. The information 
tfaeu »ought is the acreage retuma, and bow they oomporo with 
tfaoM of ^0 ycAT before. Large immigratioa last year means an 
mvBBse in the acreage this year by the occupancy of previously 
wute griptmd. The weather report is anxiously scanned as the 
plant grows. A special weather report from tho Signal Office is 
daily distributed in Wall street First oomea the great crop of 
winter wheat, harvested from the middle of Juno into the first 
part of July ; then the spring-sown wheat, coming in August 
and S«;pt«f9it)er, and yet lat«ri the bar\'e8ting of the com crop ; 
wfaile>, in tho SouUi-west, the cotton crop in picked from summer 
till faU, the picking moving northward with the season. The 
progress of the crops in Europe has been meantime watched with 
Boarmly less interest for there we must market our surplus. 
Short crops abroad and bountiful ones at home give the famieni 
I ready market for their products, tho railroads full employ- 
nmt in carrying them, the stockholders fat dividends j audfat 
di\'idends make high priees in the Stock Exchange. 

** It i^ no time to buy stocks when iron is falling," is the say- 
^ixg of one of the greatest stock operatorn this country ever saw ^ 
^Hid there is another one to the same effect : " You may safely buy 
^Btoeks when the price of iron is rising." The iron market is the 
Bbore barometer of the industrial situation. It embraces the whole 
flfild of industry in this age. Tho dogroe of activity in real estate 
and the building trade may l>e approximated by the fluctuations 
b the price of nails. Wlille tho basis of our wealth is what 
growM orut of the ground, the prewnt state of trade is indicated 
b^ the demand for iron. If it be falling off, adverse caoaea are at 
which will surely make themselves felt on the stock mar- 
If the demand be growing, industry is receiving a new 
enterprise is awake, new railroads are planning, old 
ones are extruding, commeroe is enlai^^g, tho people nm insking 
Boney, and stocks will rise with the widened demand for iuvestr 
nent seoaritieB. To keep thoroughly informed of the agricult- 
ml and industrial condition of the country, the few great 
operators who do most to give direction to the currents of 
Rpeculatwm maintain on army of correspoudents. They are 




52 



THE irOBTH AMERICAN BBVIJiW. 



keen and close students always. Novhere is tdnielj infonnation 
of more valne thaii in Wall street. Nowhere else may so high 
a price bo obtainod for it Time is an all-importaut element ia 
scientific stock specolation ; therefore the great operator has to 
be always on the wateh. He may see clearly that in, say, three 
or fourmonths tiiere will be a turn in the tide then flowing ; bnt, 
in the meantime, the adverse current may c-arry his schcmea to 
wreck. Time is everything; fur there is no knowing what the 
day may bring forth. The operator who in working the market 
to sell stocks, which requires a rising one for success, haa to 
remember that the chapter of accidents is in tavor of hla oppo- 
nents — the bears. ^H 
As the tide« of speculation ebb and flow accorrling to tfl^ 
industml conditions of the country, great schemes of stock 
speculation are always adjusted to Uiem as nearly as the oper- 
ator who is carrying thorn through can do it This applies 
equally to the man who is a stock operator pure and simple, and 
to the other who is not only a stock operator but a creator of 
stocks also — a security maoufaoturer, as he might be enlled. 
He is not different from the merchant or manufacturer, who gets 
goods at the lowest price possil)le and stills thpin at the best 
can obtain. Both the stook operator and the merchant may 
oaloulate the public demand or the public liking, or they 
get belated, and find that t^ey have laid up a stook of go< 
which cannot be sold profitably. As the stook operator sells for 
a fall as well as buys for a rise, he ia eocpoaed to error there. 
Looking over the general situation, he may judge that the 
market must decline. Ha goes heavily " shorf of it, and dis- 
oorers that he has miscalculated the strength of the forces at 
work upon it, and prioes rise in spite of his most strenuous 
efforts to depress them. He must then reconsider the sittiatioa, 
and determine what he shall do in view of his own reeooroos 
and the strength of the forces against him. Oreat operators 
vividly realize the unpleasautuess of being either "long* or 
"short" of tbe market when the public temper is against 
them. None ever gets where he has to struggle against the 
current unless by accident or miscaluulatioa. With vast 
oompreheu^ve schemes to carry throngh, extending over I 
periods in their operation, and involving nuUions of mon 
there ia nothing to do but to straggle against the adverse tide 
best ho may. Whatever his schemes may be, he knows that tb« 




mnst he can do is but to retard or aooelezute tha general move- 
ment. To tiie oonstant ettorte of operators to do this, as their 
TBrioas interests dictate;, is mainly dne those minor fluctuatione 
of prices in the Stock Exohange whioh aro like the waves on the 
sor&oB of the oeean oorrents, and make or mar the fortunes of 
the swarms of smaU-fry speeulators. 

Of the mass of persons — not profssriooals — ^who speculate 
m WaB street, about ninety per eent. bny stocks for a rise, and 
only the other ten per cent, both buy and sell — in technical 
langnagOf go long and shorts The public at large knows nothing 
of selling for a fall. It is, therefore, always on the bull side of 
the market when in the market at all; and, as a cousequcncet 
this is the popular side. The prophet who proclaims his belief 
that prioes ore too high and must fall finds he is prophesying 
tmweJcome things. Wlien prices are falltiig, the public begins to 
desert Wall street, which has no more interest for people who 
only spocnlate the other way. They buy when pricee are riidng, 
and buy most freely at the top — when the great operators, who 
have bought their stocks months before at low prices, sell 
oat. By aocnmnlsting large liura of stock, and by their brokers 
using the arts of the auction-room in making quotations^ prices 
SPB carried up ; but if the pnblio reftise to come in and assist by 
their purchases the movement is a failure, which mt-aus more or 
lets heavy losses to the men engaged in it. Thc-y discover that 
they have been lifting prices by buying stocks which no one will 
take off their hands. Wall street was lately treated to a most 
Hntspicnous example of this. The greatest wealth and most 
Mnte talent of the country were enlisted in an effort to raise 
priees. They were raised by sheer f(>ree of money, the brokers 
of the ehiof operators offering to bay and ba>'ing all that was 
offexvd of certain leading stocks, each day at a higher pri(U> than 
OQ the day preceding. But it was a frightfully oostly experiment 
to the men who did it. They had miscalculated the temper of 
the publia People would not buy, however much prices were 
•draaeed. The load became too heavy for the shoulders eveji of 
Ifae financial giants. They suddenly stopped buying, and the 
whole artificial stmctore of prices which had been raised on their 
purchases fcE with a roinons crash. The temper of the public 
had been growing colder and more distmstfid since July, and 
that now famous "pe^fing" movement was ineffectual to 
ehangc it. This was a case where some of the greatest stock 



54 



TEE NORTH AMERICAN REVIEW. 



oppratoTB of the age were eomplet<.'ly mistAken in their reading 
of the speculative situation and the ptate of tho pablit! mind. 

The course of pricee on the Stock Elxchange waa down- 
ward from the fall of 1873 to 1877, owing to the great panio 
and a saoceseion of poor crops. From 1878 to July of last year 
tbey moved upward, under the inflaeuoe of three years of bounti- 
ful han'Cfits hero and poor ones abroad, each orop being^ lai^er 
than the prenftding one and giving a oorrespondingly InGreOfitng 
force to tho influences making for speculation. In the eud came 
a wild inflation of prices. Good sceuritiee were carried np to figures 
far above their real value ; worthless stocks found buyers by the 
score ; floods of new securitios cauie upon the market and were 
eagerly snapped up; everybody had money to buy; seats in the 
Stock Exchange ro«e to thirty-two thousand dollars bid } and Wall 
street seemed intoxicated with prosperity, Nulhing was listened 
to but the phenomenal growth of the country. To assert that 
prices were extravagantly high was stigmatized aa want of 
patriotism. "Have you no confidence in your country t" was 
the enstomary reply, **The people are mad I" exclaimed one 
great operator, amazed at the extravagant prices at which buyers 
were et^rly contesting with each other for stocks. In the midst 
of this wild rage for sudden wealth, the nation was shocked lo 
itfi center by the assasisination of the President. Sad as was the 
event, it injured no material interest of the country; but it effected 
a complete change in the temper of the people. A vagne feeling 
of distrust and insecurity began to spread. Wall street, as 
usual, was the first to feel the change. Whether it be from con- 
fidence to distrust, or from depression to hope, a ctuinge in the 
public temper la felt carUest there, for into speculation there 
enters a large element distinotly sentimentaL 

Facts which no one would Iwliove or listen to before were 
now heard in silent aoqoiesoence. People saw, its if it wore a 
revelation, that the length and severity of the previous winter 
had inflicted enormous damage on the railroads; that the spring 
floods which acm>mpamed the melting of the vast areas of snow 
had been even more destructive ; that a drought was then scorch- 
ing up great sections of country which had previously escaped 
damage. In addition, the great trunk lines of railro&d were 
engaged in a ruinous war of freight rates. S{)eculataon began to 
loBO strength. The first blow full upon the bond market. While 
fltodos Btm continued active, now iasues of bonds could find no 



BTDBAUUC PRESSURE IN WALL STREET. 



55 



pnrohaaen. The crop of new railroad s<ihemofl gi-nwini^ up liko 
noahnmitu bod & sndden ohenk, for no one would BubHcribe for 
the bonds to build them. Railroad companies which were doin^; 
A thriving bninness on extennionB dipeovftrrtl tha^ thm twrads to 

^j«y for Iheni remained unsold in the hands of their bankers ; and 

le managers of some new enterprises, who w^re not ready then to 

tiietr bondfl on the mai^t, have not dared to put them there 

^JBt. The bond market, in fact, completely "played out," which 
biongfat in its trftin the downftUl of nnmerong flonrishing rail- 
mad ooncemflf which bad been paying dividends and making a 
fictitious show of prosperity on the sales of continuooa issotts 
dt these seenrities. 

ntim that time to this prioos of stocks have bnou on the down- 
ward coarse, and the speculative and investing public have so 
«o>Dpletely withdrawn from the market that, for months past, 
ttie large oommissioQ hoosee, which depend upon this class of' 
eostom, have acaroely paid nmning ezponsca. Nevertheless, Uie 
decUoe has been stnbbomly reeistml, and because of this reeist- 
aaee^ and the many efforts made to arrest it, the shrinkage of 
ptioea haa been spread over a muL-h longer time than would other- 
wise hare been the case. The assassination of President Garfield 
came at a time when the greatest stock operator of this or, per- 
b^n, any other day, was loaded np with an enormous line of 
oertain stooka. Three or four months more of such a market as 
Gnitoaa's buUet shattered would have enabled him to sell oat 
his beddings. The street and the pnblic would have had every 
dun ho chose to selL From various causes he had been nnablo 
to maricet his holdings at the time he hud calculated upon doing 
•0, and the assassinfttion changed the whole complexion of things. 
He was left to struggle with the adverse currents of a falling 
Biarket, and the history of Wall-street speculation since that 
erent ihas been, speaking broadly, the history of the efforts of 
a great operator of vast means, indefatigable energy, infinite 
resoorce, and unequaled talent in his line to profitably market a 
great load of stock, which the public has shown increasing diain 
■^rnft"" to take oft his hands. Twicn in this period be has been 
drxvea close to the walL On one occasion he was saved only 
because the men ^o were pressing him became frightened at 
tbo near prospect of his downfall, which thoy saw munt precip-. 
itaie A panic in which aU would smffer. They drew back, and ' 
the rebate was snfflcient for a man of his genius to extricate 



56 



TOE NORTH AMEBICAN REVIEW. 



himself. For a tiinn he seamed to havo turned thn tafalos on his 
oppouent&T and some of them be did paaisb badly ; but it was 
hopeless. Neither immense wealth nor the highest talent oonld 
create a boU market whnn the public, demorali2ed and dishmrtr 
ened by loases, refused to support it ; and another and wurve 
tnmble of prices followed the weU-laiown " pegging " campaign. 

If a rational considoratiou of tba tides of speculation shows 
how much they are due to the public at large, and how much 
less to the efforts of the half-dozen men recognized as the great 
operHturs, Hin asKertion will scaroely be challenged that the iudis- 
flriminate denunciation of the ujw and downs of prioee as being 
the effect of " Wall-street tricks '' is both unreasonable and untrueh 
When times are prospentus people flfx-k to the stock marke 
bent on buying everything offered; they do buy; they buy wit 
their eyes persistentiy shut to every evidence of the badness 
the bargain they are making ; and this goes on until something 
Romes which compels them to see what they had refused to 
see before. Then begins the general selling under which the 
market steadily declines ; and when the fall has been long and 
severe^ which it is sure to be if the prerious inflation of prices 
has been corrci<pondingly excessive, then comes the monjizing 
and preaching about " Wall-street tricks " and the wicked ways 
of the si>eciilator8. 

This bciug said, it remains to point out certain trickery prao- 
tico in the buying and selling of securities of which the public 
has a just right to complain. Its oorreot title is corporate fraud. 
Bemdo this, the little tricks peouliar to the Stock Exchangi'^ 
which generally take the form of oatdiiug those who have " sold 
short,-'' are nub worth serious oonsidaration, for they affect only& 
limited nnmber, and mainly the regular prof eesionals. But the 
frauds of directors of corporations arc aimed at the investing 
public, and bring henvy loss and injury to hundreds and thou- 
sands. Their effects are laost manifest on the Stock Gxchangv 
8im]>ly l>eoanse that is the oommon market for securities^ And 
hence these suandalous deceptions and flagrant breaches of tmst 
are indiscrinuiiftt<*ly denounced as "Wall-street tricks." Thry 
are frands planned and executed in the companies' offloes, and 
•would be done if Wall street did not exist and securities were 
marketed the same as potatoes. These &aada ore simply Uie 
giving of fictitious values to seenritics by mtsropresentation 
of facts and suppression of truth, and the destruction of good 



m'DRAVuc pressuhe ly wall street. 67 

taw for the proflt of tliose who have obtained control of 

Stoek-watering has an evil BouDd in the public ear, and justly 
ID by reason of its associations. Bat st^jck- watering per ne is 
uC m brand. It in nothing more, wheo legitimately done, than 
mJiziDg the enhanced value of a property. It is jnst as proper 
■ proceeding as that of a merchant who marks up the price of 
the stock of goodtt he ha8 uo hand. NKveriheless, it has an evil 
odor clLngiDg to it, for the operation presents such temptations 
to traad ou liie port of tJiose in control of the property, Uiat it is 
rare for the thing to be done withont fraud at some stage. Some- 
times it 19 a series of frauds from first to lost, enriching the few 
men who planned and executed it, inflicting severe losses on 
handruda of innooent investors, while the property itself ia irre- 
trierably injured. All this will be called a "WaU-street trick, or 
atodE-jubbery ; but in fact it is simply corporate dishonesty. 

Liet OS take one glaring example. Suppose that there exists a 
large corporation, having a heavy capital, and performing highly 
important functions in relation to the public. Its board of 
direotorft is composed of the leading men of the financial world, 
and a large proportion of the stock of the corporation is held as 
a permanent investment. Asother company i^ started as a rival 
to thf fiinner. It can i»ay no di\ideridi>, and is not likely to, for 
its promoters repaid themselves double their original ontl^ 
throngb the medium of a construction company, and they propose 
to make more by selling out. But this ooucera can and does 
injure the dividend-paying company, though not much. In 
oonree of time the leading spirits in each corporation come 
togeUier aecretly, and arrange what, in a term Ijorrowed from the 
giuubling-table, is called a "detd." The dividend-paying com- 
pany is to absorb the other, and to double its own stock. An 
elaborate programme is laid out, extending over many months. 
As the first step in it, holders of the dividend-paying stock most 
be indnoed to sell ont — "shaken ont" the street calls it. The 
corporate dishonesty begins at this point. The board of direct- 
ora meet, and in their official capacity tln-y issue a quarterly 
■taiemcnt of the tympany's affairs, which is a carefully concocted 
fidaehood from beginning to end. In it they represent that ban- 
new has fallen o£f to the most serious extent; that the revenues 
have ao greatly shrunk that it would be highly impoUtic to 
deolare the usual quarterly dividend; that a reduced dividend 



58 



THE NOSTB AMEltlCAy REVIEW. 



mast be declaretl, whioh, it is tme, will require most of tlie sur- 
plus iu the nompany's treasury to pay, but by careful economy 
they hope it may be fnlly earned in the fntnre. The issnanoe of 
this offii-ial falt«ehnod has been prepared for by ihf indu.strtoQs 
propagation of mtnors that the affairs of the compsny are in a 
tmly deplorable condition. The board votes the rednced divi- 
dend ; the men who are in the secret have previously sold their 
stock, and they fiPt to work to break down the market by short 
sales. The price begins to idnk rapidly; innocent iiivetntura arc 
frightened at what they see and hear ; they make hastti to sell, 
and the price goes on sinking with every lot offered- At lut 
it reaches a level where the coospiratora decide it is time to 
bny. They have covered their short contracts, and make their 
profit that way ; and under their baying the price rises as rapidly 
as it went down, which catches the swarm of Wall-street stock 
opetratora who had Iwen selling the stock short, and were not in 
the secret. When the men who arc conducting the deal get aU 
the stock they want, official announcement ia made that the rival 
eompauiea have agreed to combine, and the stock of the consoli- 
dated ooncem will bo doubled. This being done, the couKpimtors 
deeire to sell their enormous holdings of the watered stock They 
therefore meet again in their offlcial capacity as directors, aod 
issue another offieial quart<Tly statement, in which everything 
said iu the last is unsaid. The revenues are declared to havA 
increased iu a most unexpected way, great economies have been 
eflfected, and the profits of the quarter are largfi enough to 
allow a dividend to bo declared at Uie full rat^ ou the whole 
doubled capital stock, while the outlook for the future is such, as 
to give assurance that it will be continned and possibly increased. 
This official statement is just as much a falsehood as Uie lost WM. 
Here was one of the most seandalous examples of stock-jobbing 
which ever disgraced the flnaseial history of the country- ; bnl 
stock-jobbing in this case was only another name for corpor«te 
rascality. It was fraud against which the luvestor had no posabte 
chance to protect himself, for it was by the official action of the 
legal custodians of his property that he was frightt'iied into 
throwing it over. Wben too late, he discovered he had been the 
victim of a plot which these directors had concocted against him 
for theirown enrichment. The only feature of the opemtion which 
could properly be called a Wall-strwt trick was the incident&l 
catching of the "shorts" in the stock, when tie rapid rise in ite 



STDRAXTUC PJlESSaSS /*V WALL STS£ET. 

price took plfl<« under the boying of the acbemors. The short 
■dlera were badly bitten, bnt, bdng all profefutionals, tbey took 
die wiifl-knowTi riska of selling that way when thoy did it 

StDck-watcring, however, ia not the form of oorpo- 
rato fmod which in theee days most threatens the investor. 
Indeed, taken altogether, more mvestors have been enriched 
by >todc-wat4.>riDg than have been injured by the fraudulent 
practices which have so often oceompanicd Uie nptrration. 
The case cited above waa quite exceptional iu its rascality. 
The greatest danger to the investor of to-day oomee front 
bondf) and leasea. Where corporate dishonesty takes the form 
of bond issues and fraudulent leases, the investor is fleeced 
without mercy. There is nothing but loss for him Tlie profit. 
goe« entire into the pockets of the directors, and the property Is 
injured to the extent of the profit they make. There are stoeks 
oa the Exchange which are freely l>ought now at prices not a 
great deal below what they were selling for a year ago in the 
flash timM ; there are others for which it is difficult to find pur- 
ehasCTB at one-half or one-third the prices they were selling at 
then. Corporate fraud is solely responsible for thcso ruinous 
drops. A fictitious value was given to the securities by the pay- 
ment of unearned dividends. The money was obtained from the 
nle of bonds. This continued until the bond market went to 
pieoeSf the public refuKing to buy more. Thereupon the treaa- 
nriesof these corporations were soon emptied, one after the other 
Stopped paying dividends, the discovery was made that their 
bonded and floating debte had been enormoujdy increased^ and 
bv the time tlie facts were all out their stwks had sjink like lead. 
In one of tlicse cases the pricre fell a clean twelve per cent, in 
one day ; and this oame after it had already had a considerable 
&J1; neither did it touch bottom then. The general public, see- 
ing only the sudden and violent collapse, and ignorant of its 
oauae, denounces it as a stock-jobbing trick. The trick consists 
in the knowledge that certain men obtain of the rotten condition 
of the corporation. They turn it to account t)y selUng the stock 
short, and exposing this rottenness. Holders msh in to sell their 
investments, and the price sinks until it reaches a level corre- 
apooding to the real value of the property. In the special 
instance referred Uy, it uame out, when the facts could no longer 
be eoneealed, that the managers had been personally buying up 
worthlMfl roads, more or less remotely connected with the main 



TBE NOETH AMSaiCAJf REVIEW. 



Hnc, and snUing them to the company of which they were tfaa 
directors at high prices. Payment had lK*eD made in new iiisacA 
of bonds, and when these coold no longer be eold, money was 
borrowed npon them to pay dividends and keep up a dclneivc 
appoarance of prosperity. This went on tintU a debt bad been 
piled np of many milhons ; the men on the inside sold oat thcir 
stock, and one of them organized the rooToment which brokf^ 
down it« price in the market, and exposed the real condition of 
the corporation. Here, as in the other case, stock-jobbing wai 
another name for corporate fraud. 

In another case. Uie mune system of rascality was porBued. 
Quarterly dividends were pmd for a year, not one of which wan 
eamtn] ; nor, indeed, was the road earning tbtt interest on iti 
bonds. The managers of the property dodared that it new 
was BO prospcrons ; thoy published what purported to be comet 
returns of the earnings of the road oomporod with the previous 
year, showing an immense increase; and meantime they were 
selling their stock here and in Europe at high prices, talking 
grandly abont "sufitaining American credit," and violently 
denouncing the few who had ^nflScient penetration to see the 
dec^tion practiced, and to declare it. At the end of the ycftr 
the stock had fallen about one-half from its highest price, the 
fall being accompanied by just such "raids" as broke down the 
price of the other stock mentioned. The managers had sold their 
holcUugH long before, and they knew too well what the real valnc 
of the stock was to attempt to protect it agfunst the attacks 
of other operators who knew as much as they. Indeed, they 
made Oieir profit by going short themselves. 

These two cases axe fair types of the moat common forms of 
fraud now practiced. They are in great favor, becanso difflcolt 
of detection until it is too late for the average investor to pro(«cA 
himself. So long as the buj'ing mood is on the public, a per- 
peinal stream of new bonds can be poured out, and find a reod^ 
sale. It is one of the great modem discoveries in the world of 
Bpecnlatiou that "the public likes bonda.** We owe this dia- 
covery to the genius of the leading stock operator of this century. 
He made it early in his career. The pubho likea bonds, and wfll 
buy anything called by that name when stock can And no pnr^ 
chaeers. The discovery is now common property, and has giver 
direction to corporate fraud for ten or twelve years past Stock- 
watering pure and simple is lees in t&voT than it used to hi 



ariauuuc pbessu&e in wall street. ei 

■ad periups in the instSDoe before mentioned it would not have 
been Muployed had not the peculiar circumstoaccg of tho case 
nudft ao usne of bonds inexpedient There is a]vay» a greet 
ODtcry raised about stoek-watering ; some StatoA have enwited 
■tatatu against it. and it is much easier, and mut-b more politic, 
to inoe bonda. Bonds, therefore, are in this daj the favorite 
vehiele of cor]iorate fraud. As long as a company c&a. find a 
nady sale for its issues it can go along swiuimiugly, paying 
dividends it does not earn, and showing a surplus in its treasury. 
Companies make large profits by building extensions and 
porchasing branch roads. It may cost only fifteen thon- 
Btnd dollars per mile to boild the road, or to purchase it; 
bot bonds are issned at the rate of twenty thousand or twonty- 
Ats thousand dollars per mile, and perhaps sell at a premium. 
Tl>e difference goes into the eompany's treasury or into the 
pockets of individuals Hence, aLv), the large profits made by 
eoostmction companies. Thoy build the road and issue stock 
and bonds for double ita cost. If the times are favorable, the 
tme will be greater ; and, in one instance, a construction com* 
pony which bnilt and acquired a road costing in the aggregate 
oaly sovonte4.'D miUiun.s, issued securities of mortgage bonds, 
income bunds, and stock aggregating, in nominal value, eigh^- 
two millions. By the sale of these they more than doubled every 
doDar of their original expenditure. This, it must bo confessed, 
was a prize of unusual magnitude, and was made possible by 
the managers being lueky enough to bring their stuff on the 
market when the public rage for buying was at its height last 
year. A new company starting, the managers of which desire to 
deal generously with the public, or feel uncertain al>out getting 
money, will issue bonds to oover the coet of constructing the 
road, and give the issue of stock as a bonus to the subscribers. 
This it fair dealing. People who risk their money in a new en- 
terprise have a right to the profits of the future, if there be any. 
Bat one of the moat extraordinary things ever done in Wall 
street was the call made by one large corporation for subsorip- 
tioas to a new issue of ten millions of stock, the proceeds to 
be naed for building an important line of road to run in con- 
nection with the main line, and to make otiier improvements. 
Six months or so after it had obtained the money, the com- 
pany issued a prosp<!ctus for the organization of a separata 
oonpany, with more millions of capital, to build this very line. 



62 



THE NQBTH AMEBICAN RBVISW. 



Ofi 



Ui£ 



The orig:inal ten millions had gone, it is to bo presomadf in 
other improvementfi. This wa^ anuthor soheme whose eue 
was possible only in the rushing and thoughtless times of laet 
year ; and, indeed, the company^ coming into the m&rket raUier 
late with its new scheme, experienced (tuoh difficnity in getting 
sttbeciibers that it had to pledge its own credit to tiie new eater- 
prise, which was not in the original programme. 

Besides looking sharply after the bonded indebtedneM of 
company, the investor who desires to know what he is bnj 
shoiUd examine what lease and rental obligalaons a company is 
under. Leases, as a means of corporate fraud, grow out of the 
same willingness of the public to buy bonds. The directors 
corporation will buy up, at a nominal price, the stock of a 
netting road which, perhi4)8, barely earns ite fixed ohai^|;es. Thry" 
then lease it to their own rood, upon terms which will carry 
stock they hare purchased np to par or over. Sometimes this : 
done by guaranteeing dividends upon the stock ; sometimca 
stock of the leased road is convoked into stock of the 
road ; sometimes it is converted into ita bunds. In either <'aBe, 
the parent road \a burdened with an additional charge, and the 
directors pocket the profita. Bnt there is a farther u»e for 
leaMfl. Suppose that the lease is made on terms guarantcemg 
dividends, or merely guarauteeiug interest on the bonda. In 
these caseSf it affords the managers a convenient cover in tbe 
tntnre for raising money by now stock or bond issues under the 
name of another company. It might appear that this trick would 
be too shalluvr to deceive anybody. But it is not; and the feet 
that it is constantly practiced shows that it serves its purpose. 
There are certain companies whose reports, when they make 
them, show a hunded debt of the lightest proportions, and this 
showing is often greatly lauded as proving their stability. Tb« 
exphuiation is that they own half a dozen roads by perpetnal 
leases, and the debt is piled up in their names. Euunining tlte 
figures, therefore, we find that^ wiule the debt of the par«it road 
appears at some comparatively trifling figure, the item of interest 
ai^ rentals charge is enormous. 

Leases, iu truth, ore a highly dangerous temptation to fraud 
on the part of directors. In States where the laws are stringent 
on the subject, they present opportonitiea for private profit at the 
expense of the trostocd property too frequently availed of ; aod, 
in the State of New York, the monstroos doctrine haa been 



arzauivuc prbssvws nr wall street. 



63 



led tiy the oourte, at least by implicatiou, that the directors 
• eorponition have the right to make and unmake {>ormanent 
Imsm of the propuly they temporarily control, witboat the con- 
«entv or against tba protest, of the owners of the property^ 
C t^ the stockholders. This is offering a premium on fraud ; and 
to say that the comts nill declare invalid a leaee where fraud 
ewi be proved, is giving a stone irhen bread is asked. Evidence 
nf firand, as the law requires it in such cases as this, is eztraor- 
dtnarily diffleolt to obtain ; and if the fU'li/^nie has been deoendy 
vbD pilaiiDed and executed, it is wcU-uigh impossible. In the latert 
ease when this onlimited right of directors was affirmed by the 
eourtS) a great public soaudal was iuvuUed, in which judges, 
State offloers, and directors were implicated ; but it woe impos- 
ijhle for the contesting stockholders to get hold of legal evidence 
of fraad. The fsitlt was prtuiarily with the law. Directors have 
altogether too mnch power over the property of which they are 
temporary tmstees. They should be compelled to go to the 

loldors fur special authori/jition to do many things which 

can now do of their own motion. 
Law, however, is a poor remedy for corporate abuses. It 
may correct some, but there are many more just as bad which 
it eanoot, and which only a healthier public opinion can. So 

as flagrant abuses of public trusts are dismissed with a half- 
;alar, half-contemptuous remark about stock gambling, and 
men guilty of them are not a wit the worse soi;ially for their 
leedft, they will continue to make money, or try to, by what 
Is nothing but robbery of the investing pubbe. To extract a 
few thousands from the pockets of otiier stock operators only 
a little leas sharp than themsdves, by some maneuver which is 
truly a Wall-stroet trick, — that is, a trick mmlc possible by the 
mlea goToming dealings in the Stock Exchange, — is a trifl.e not 
worthy of consideration. It is not in such ways that the millions 
arc mikde. " Comers," for example, which are the estriMne form 
of these tricks, have nearly always proved dii^astrous in their 
result to the men who have successfully carried them through. 
The great "North-west comer" entailed heavy losses on its 
contriver; the ■* comer" executed last year left the whole 
oommoa stock of the oompany, nine millions in amount, a dead 
burdro on the honda of the men who planned it. They cannot 
market it, unless eume neighboring railroad company takes it off 
their hands in bulk to secure control of the road. The millions 



64 THB NOSTM AMERICAN BEVZBW. 

are made by taking them from the poeketa of the gBBsral pubtic 
It is the publlo on one side and the great operator on the other. 
The public is an ass. That is, it is an ass sometimes. When it 
is in the humor to be fooled, the men are there to f o(d it to tiie 
top of its bent It mmts to buy, and it will swallow anytiiing 
they offer, and believe any stoiy abont the value of the article it 
is buying, however preposterous. Woe to the man who rises 
then to warn the people of their madness t They will tear up tibe 
stones in the street to oast at him. The only oonsolation he 
has is the reflection that in a little while they wUl be cursing the 
men who deluded them into buying seonrities at twice their 
value, or securities rotten and valueless altogether. 



THE RUINS OF CENTRAL AMERICA. 



PA£T XL 

I ABRIVED at Frontera February ITth, on my way to the goal of 
thuexpeditioa — the phantom city spokenof by John L. Stephens. 
At Frontera I foond a curious cxiUeetion of antiques. The idols 
sod ftgores which compose this colleclion all mora or lesa resemble 
iktose found on the table lands, with pertain diffnrftn<ifis which 
ibov them to be more nearly allied to those of Falenque. The 
pottery is coarse, and the fl|^ures ill-shapeif, odd, and monstrous. 
The ownftr of the collection aays that he once bad in his posses- 
non ao idol uf potter^', some three ur four feet in heig^ht, in the 
interior of which was a human skeleton. This interesting relic 
was given to a French physician, and has disappeared. 

On the 26tb of February I embarked on a little steamer for 
Tfnorique. The following day we reached Montecristo, but 
tile steamer conld not carry us any farther^ owing to the low 
stage of water. I hired a canoe and thre« men to take my 
baggage to Tenorique, while myself and my secrettu-y, Lncien, 
dedded to go on horseback. We set out on the 1st of March, 
passing through a fine country, over a tolerable road, till 
we bad forded the Chaeamax, an affluent of the Usnmacinta, 
and which, in its course, passes near Falenquo. Here we 
t-uter^^d the unbroken forest, and soon began to experience the 
bardtdiipa of travel iu this wild region. As we advanced in 
Indian file, trying to keep to the narrow trail, we had to force 
onr way through the branches of the trees on either wde, which 
a oe med to bar all passage^ and not iofrffquently we found our- 
selTesentan^ed in the nmnerous Tines. After eight or nine hours 
of anintampted travel wo again reached the bank of the Usunar- 
ctBta, and were m fortimat« as to fiud a poor nuieh, where we 
obtained a few eggs and some maize gruel The first night we 
vou cxxxv.— NO. 308. 5 



66 



TBB ItOnTH AXEBICAN REVIEW. 



passed at €a)>ec«ra, a vretched village some three leagues distant 
from TcQoriqac, which place wc rcochod the following day. 

Tonoriqae is the la^t village on the pUin, and th« foot^hnis of 
the Cordilleras begin ftve or six miles away, and back of tJiem 
16 the mountainous country, the home of ^e Lai'.andonea. At 
Tenoriqne livu the wood-untters, who explore the most remote 
regions in the monutains in search of mahogany. The {daoe is 
h^id-qnarters for traders, who contract to delivex the precious 
timber by the thonnaDd tonK. Here I porohosod a stock of 
goods, Buch OS textile stuffs, machetes, knives^ salt, etc^ for the 
pnrpooe of barter with the Lacandones. 

Tenoriqne is situate about two leagues from the " boca dol 
rio" (river's mouth), where the Usiunacinta issues from its upper 
basin, forcing its way through the moimtains. The river haa 
opened for itself a tumilar passage considerably higher up its 
eourse, at the distance of some leagues from the Paso de Jucfailan, 
the objective point of our next laborious march. We cxpoct«I 
to be ou the road on Mtu\-h Cth, but wore delayed several days 
owtag to the difficulty of procuring the necessary force of men 
and mules. Af; for the man, they show great unwillingness to 
join the expedition, and though I suoceeded in getting mules 
from Feten, the animal « were in such wretched condition that 
they absolutely required a week's rest The delay was very 
annoying. One mi^t almost traverse Africa in less time than 
it takes co travel one hundred and fifty Leagues in this nuMrable 
country. 

I saw here a specimen of the tnarimba — the Indian piano — 
an iustrument consisting of bars of sonorous wood, which used to 
delight the aiiiiieiit Toltecb wiUi its music. It )mh four uctaveSf 
and above each bar is a hollow wooden cone to increase its sono- 
rousness It is played by two persons, one playing the accom> 
poniment, and both of them strike the note with sticks bearing 
on tiie end a ball of gutta percJia. They pa&s from note to note 
with a rapidity that could not be equaled by the most expert 
pianist. The tone is full, true, and sweet, l^e native airs aro 
all very pleasing and strikingly original. A similar instrument 
is found in nse among the natives of Natal, in South Africa, and 
its name, too, is the some — marimba. 

We liegan at la^t to move on the 9th of March. On that day 
I sent forward four men to make the canoe for our use, fftrtlMa* 
np the river, at the Paso de Jachilan. While waiting for tho 



TOE EUVrS OF CENTRAL AMERICA. 



m 



miles to be re«d.r for tho march, I had my ba^^^age and provus- 
iao8 packed. I took a good store of jerked boef, though every 
ooe 8ud there would be no lack uf freah meat- on tho way, the 
ftmstB teeming with poccahes, har«, wild tnrkeys, and other 
gwnft. The story of our maroh it is periiapa beet to give in the 
wordfl of ray journaL 

Matrk IStli. — We are on the road with lame and halting mules, 
tliat will in all probability givo out before we reach cun- Jestiuti,- 
don; but wo most take things as we find them. On the first day 
wa travol a distance of ten leagnes from Tenoriqne, over a de* 
testable rood that the people of the village represented as 
"superb." Perhaps it is — relatively. We find it to be a sue- 
osasioa of mud-holes, in which our mules flounder up to the 
girdis in mire. It is the road to Peten Itza, along which Cortez 
muM have marched, and probably in the time nf native rule the 
roads in tbift I'^jrimi were roadA indeed : at prt^sent, this big'hway 
lA simply a narrow trail through the woods, tlie branches of the 
trees oa both sides couUnuaUy threatening to sweep you off your 
fliiddle. Another never-failing souroe of discomfort is the plague 
uf inaecta. And we liave still fifty leagues of this sort of tra^xl 
befon oa. But we find some compeuKation in contemplating tho 
besnttes of natore in this great wildemests. We cannot but 
admire the magnificent trei-s, one hundred and fifty to two hnn- 
dttd fe^t in h'^i^ht, chief among them the mahoganie^s and tho 
eedars. Toward nightfall we baited in a great clearing, and there 
ancamped. 

Mnrrk \Gtk. — To-day we skirted the eastern side of themonnt- 
tan cthain whii>h forms the eastern bonndory uf the great upper 
Uanmacinta Valley. The road is still bad, and aa soon as we begin 
to aaottid the first foot-hills of tbo aerra we find again the cal- 
eanxnu formation of Yucatan, but upheaved, broken, in places 
traasfomwd by volcanic action. 

On the way. three of the mules went aattay and were recov- 
ered after a search of three hours. These animals have all to be 
WBtdied closely, for each has its own special instincts, and these 
you must study if you would control the beast. They have 
special names, too : one ia '* La Golondrina" (swallow) j another, 
**E! Indio" (Indian); a third, "the Empress," and so on. "El 
lodio'' is ft specimen. His peculiar trick is to hide in the woods 
nheaerer the attention of the muleteers happens to be drawn 
away far a moment When the train bas moved on, Indio rids 



68 



TRE NORTH AMERICAN REVIEW. 



himself of his packs aud ruains through the woods, 
done this twice, and now 1 force him to lead the convoy. 

March nth. — We were all Uus day without water. I shot 
three niunkejis, 

March IHth. — Reached the arroyo or pass of Jaahilan, and 
there we abandoned my secrotary'B horee, which had given oat. 
Leaving the Peten "road'' on the left, wo now took a coarse 
south -tifiuth-weBt through the woods, having been first <»mpelled 
to abandon two mulc'loads of baggage. We are now all afoot, 
and have a hard day's march over a rugged, hilly countiy. 

March 19<ft. — No event worthy of reoord. 

March lath. — ^A long and tcdiows march. We crossed the 
Ghotal River twice. Fell in with a monta-o (prospector for ma- 
hogany trees), Don Jos^ Mora, who for three months, aooutnpa- 
uled by two servants, has been in the woods searching for and 
marking mahogany trees. We came at Last to the npper Usdzda. 
ointA, which, a little higher up, takes the iiamo nf Rio de la Pas- 
sion. Hero we stAud on the Quatcmala border. The river is 
about one hundred yards wide, bnt the water is low and at most 
occupies only half of the bed. Acoording to the best informa- 
titm I have IxHrn able to obtain ooucfnung the sito of the city of 
tbe Lacaudones, it wonld appear to be about four leagues ap> 
stream from the spot where we are encamped. 

But where are the men I sent in advance hither from 
Teuorique to make a canoe T 1 signaled to th^m by firing a 
musket^ and toward eveuuig we saw two of the men asoendiag 
the river in a small speoies of canoe termed cayuau I asked 
them if the canoe was reedy. Thej- had felled a tree, they said, 
but the trunk was rott«u ; then they had ffUed another, and 
Tore now engaged in hollowing it out. I forthwith went with 
the men to the place, half a mile or so distant, whore the cauoc 
was being constructed. The work would take eight days mtfrCj 
at least, so 1 decided to do without the canoe. The little skiff the 
men had found would have to servo instead. I feared lest I should 
be anticipated in visiting the ruins, for I hod heard of an expedi- 
tion designed to penetrate thither from the (inat^mala side. 

One of my meu, who speaks the Maya language, tells me thai 
there are Lacandoncs Uving hereaboat, and that ibey might lei 
us their skiffs. I send this man to find these Laoandones. 

Toward one o'clock I descried a canoe with three men eo( 
ing down the river. Whea*e did it come from T Where wae it 



going f I hailed the men, and thej pat in shore. In reply to my 
qaeationa^ they informed me that they belonged to an expedition 
led by ooe Don Alfredo ; that their master was at the mine ; 
that, 86 thw party wa« without provisiouB, they had been sent out 
to find fiomo Lacandones from whom they might obtain victuals ; 
that so far they bad procured only a few tomatoes ; and that the 
party of sixteen men awaiting tiieir retnm were in danger o£ 
death by starving. 

Who is this Don Alfredo t The name says nothing to me, 
bat it telk me that another has preceded me by two days. I 
immediately abandoned the idea of employing the catfucas of the 
Laeandooea, and determined to make use of the eanne whieh 
faroo^t iheee men. " Here are provisions," said I ; '* take them 
for yonr comrades. Let three of my men go with yon, and pre- 
Mnt ray eard to your master, with the request that he Bend some 
one hero for me to-morrow." Shortly after the departure of the 
meiii the raeasengerB I bad sent to find some of the natives 
retnmed, having in their company an old man bearing a palm- 
leaf BOD-ahade. Other Lacandonee of the neighborhood had fled 
in alarm on the arrival of the white men, betaking themselves 
into tbo woods. The party having difiembarktMl, I found the 
new-comer to be an old follow of very gentle mien. He smiled as 
be grasped my hand, and locked abont him timidly. His raiment 
oooBtsted of H hHwe shirt uf I'^mrtM* cotton stuff, woven by the 
Lacandone women. Around his head ho wore a piece of the same 
imtf** n * l, probably to hide his baldness ; and abont his neck was 
a neoklaoe oonsistiug of twenty strings of glasH lieads, dogs' 
teeth, and a few pieces of coin. In his right hand ho carried a 
bow and arrows. In this man, miserable and degraded as he was, 
I saw the type of the Itsaes of Chichen in Tncatau. The profile 
ie the same I noticed in the- sculptures at Chichen. 

I obtained his bow and arrows in exchange for a knife, some 
salt, and a few flsh-faooke; but he would not part with his shirt 
or his aeeklaoo. He had only one shirt, he said, and what shoidd 
he do were he to givo it away ? I offered him one of mine, bat 
he laughed, saying that mine was too tliin. I proiniKe<l that, if 
[he wonld bring his women and his companions, 1 would make 
presents of swords, hatchets, salt, and stuffs. He said he 
bring them. 

These Lacandones, called by the people of Tabasco " Caribs,*' 
have preserved the custom of polygamy. They employ bows 



70 



THE NORTH AMERICAN SEVIEW. 



aiid arrows, the points of tht latt«r being made of hard Btone, or 
of biU of gi&HA, vrhen glaKS can he had. They are few in uumbor, 
and Jive each family separate, or in small groups of two or time 
families. They live in the woods, on the banks of thi* rivers. 
They cultivate maize, beans, yucca, eweet potatoes, the bauaua, and 
difltenmt flpoeies of froiU. They sere fishers and hnnt^rs^ and are 
veryskillfal in the ose of bow and arrow. Their household nteuEula 
are goards of all sizes, and a few vessels of very coarse p*ittery. 

March 22<1. — The place where we are ewAinped is very insala- 
brions : three of my men are down with fever ; I myself, thoa^ 
I have always thonght myself inTulnerable, am now a viotim. 
This morning I was seized with a \'iolent fever, accompcuiied by 
delirium, and this on the day when I was to visit Lorillard City. 
My pnLte rose to one hundred and fifty. I was in a pitiable state 
when the canoes arrived, yet either I must make the journey or 
miss the object of the expedition. As 1 entered the canoe, the 
Indiaut; said I should never return, for I was in a state of extreme 
debility. BtilL I reached my destiuatiou after three hours of 
boating. 

But who was the mysterious man that had preceded me t 
Immediately on landing I sought him, and our meeting was (» 
enough, here amidst the great forests, among picturesque 
and at a distaniie of more thau tlu'cc thousand leagues 
home. The noble, fair-complcxioned young man that cornea fa 
ward to meet me is an Englishman, as I discern at the first 
glance — plainly a man of the world, and a gentleman. We ehnke 
hands ; my visiting-card^ which reached him the day before, gavts 
him my name, which he reoognized. His own name he gave 
— *' AJired Maudslcy, St James^ Club, Piccadilly, Loudon " ; 
aa I stood for a moment wondering, with perhaps a rather doi 
cast ail*, he divined my thoughts. "Give yourself no oon( 
about me,'^ he said ; " an accident has lud to my coming h( 
before yoo, as an accident might have led to yon coming bef< 
me. I am not » rival, and there is nothing for you to apprcht 
from my being here. 1 am merely an amateur, traveling for 
pleasore ; you are a savant, and the city belongs to you. Nams 
it, explore it, photograph it, take moldings : yon are at horat 
hare, and witih your [wmiission I will be your gi^de, and we wiD 
work in compony, I have un int*'ntiou of writing- or publishing 
anjrthing. If yon choose, don't mention me at all, und keep your 
conquest for yourself alon&'* 



THE RUINS or CBNTUAL AMESJOA. 



I 



I wafl profoundly touched hy the ddicacy of feeling mani* 
fested, bat I coiild not accept the offers of my high minded fel- 
lov-trmvelor, and therefore we will, Uie frionds, sliaro the glvry of 
having discovereil this great and cnrioiw city. We lived together, 
w« worked toi^ether, we quit the place together. I taught him 
how to make easts. I gave to him my material for making vjiicts, 
ao thai he might make moldings of the sculptures at Tical, which 
piaee he was to Tisit- 

March 23d.— This eity, " Lorillard City," as I have called it, 
oaiuists of a moltitnde ot edifices — palaoee, houseB, and temples 
of greater or less sine — resembling those of Palenqae^uDd, like 
those of Palenque, erected on the tops of natural elevations, 
which the builders tamed to account, dividing them into snc- 
OMeiT« esplanades, accessibK^ by means of flight*; of steps. Wo 
And here the same hieroglyph characters iu the imHriptions, 
and the same persoiiages, with the same facial types, in the boss- 
reliefo. In short, the material I am collecting la this new city Is 
of the highest value, as proving its connection, its kinship, with 
other cities which I have recognized as Toltec. 

The new citj- is more rudely constructed than Palonquo or 
Comalcalco, but it must be stated that all the decoration has 
fiUlen away. As for the eharanters of the hieroglyphs, they are 
U wdl formed as those of Palcuque -, the bass-reliefs are even 
finer. Wo have taken casts of some superb bass-reliefs, and when 
they are put on exhibition in Washington and Paris they will 
excite no little astonishment. 

As at Palenque, the buildings show great irregularity of eon- 
straction. In tlie honse we occupy, fur instance, there are four 
door-ways separated by pillars of different dimenaions, and three 
of th«se pillars have each a niche iu the middle. The principal 
hall, to which entrance is had by the four door-ways, and which 
fronts toward the east, is a long corridor with sevend bqibU 
chambers or reoeeses, in which are sleeping-places constrncted of 
sto&c and cement A1>ont the middle of the corridor is a lai^ 
table, alsc> of stone and cement, which must have served as an 
eating-table • ve nse it for that purpose. 

The interior decoration has ^sappeared, the plaster has 
fallen, and the form of the vaults, which in every case are trian- 
gnlar, presents some differences with those we have elsewhere 
SMIL At Comalealco they affect the concave fonOf as also at 
Kabfth ; at Palenque they present plane surfaces; here I find all 



72 



THE NOBTU JMEBICAS SEVIEW. 



throe forms — convex, plane, and concave. Purthermore, the two 
weUr in the palaoB which we occupy come together without any 
keystone. Each paW« has a ma^ve vrall rising above the roof; 
this wall has oblong openingH like windows. 

March 24th, — The great temple is still standing. It is built 
on the summit of a pyramid one hundred and twenty-five feet in 
height, and faces toward the river. The curiuus decurattvo wall 
which rises some ten or twelve feet above the roof has a ntimber 
of window-like openings, all of equal dimenitions ; it reminds me 
of certain edifices in Yucatan described by Stephens. In tha 
middle of thin wall there once stood an enormous statue; 
base of this Atatue is still in position, and on the grooad be]< 
is to be soeu a lai^ picoe of atone which formed the left 
Tho roof of the- pdifice is sHghtJy oblique, ae in the buildings 
Paleuqiie. Thoro i» a grand frii«e, richly decorated, the oni 
mentation consisting of large human figures, three of them 
accompanied by arabesques or hieroglyphs. 

Tliu templu had three fine portals, with lintels and jambs of 
sculptured stone. Here we find bag£-reliefs of remarkable 
bttauty, and I have made a oast of one of them, wliich exhibits 
two human figures of the Poleaqae typo, each holding in Iha 
hand a regiilar Latin cross with fiowered arms. 

The intenor of tho temple consists of a long, narrow corridor, 
with openings in the rear wall into four oratories or little chapels. 
There is a similar i-hapol at tho right-hand end of the corridor, and 
at the left-hand end is a little dwelling-room, probably intended for 
the use of the servitor of the temple. In the Uttle chapel in the 
middle is a platf onn some two feet high, on which once stood a large 
idol, finely sculptured. The idol is now broken, its trunk lies on 
the floor beside the platform, while the head is near the entrance. 
In this temple, as well a» in all the other bnildiogs, the floors 
are atrewu with odd-shaped inoense-caps, ornamented with some 
monstrous figure. Down to a few yean ago, the Lacandoncs were 
wont to niwirt hither at stated seasons to praotaoe certain relig- 
ious rites and to bum perfumes in honor of the ancient local 
deities. These cups, therefore, are modem. The walls and roofs 
of tkeohapels are blackened by the smoke of the ineense, and the 
caps ore in nmny instances still fulh Since the fall of the great 
idol the natives have ceased to frequent the city. 

To the left of the temple is a palace with ale^ing-plocoa 
of cement, doabtlefis intended for those who eerred the temple. 



TBS RirUfS OF CENTUAL AMERICA. 



78 




lis palace, whieh is of the same arcbit^Mrtiim us tlie others, 

mt which U for the greater part a rnin, had a frontage of some 

ly feet. The great TeooalU— or perhaps the Fortress — ffUads 

the roar of tho temple. It ifi a pynuuid two hnndred feet hig^, . 

id on the great esplanade at its summit stood six palaces, 

of which only one romftins, aud that in ntins. Here I found 

maguiflwut sculptured lintels, bat so badly damaged by 

le tliat no ca«t eould be taken. Here, as at Palenquc, red 

'Bapote wTwd was employed for tiie lintels of the wider door-ways. 

fcTtu• qneBtum arises, la this the " phantom city'' of Stephens Y 
do not think it is, though it£ situation answers cloeely enough to 
te aoeonnt given by him. I ineline rather to the opinion that the 
ly spoken of by Stephens is the one diaoovered on the othei* 
side of Uie si^^rra, on the Rio San Podni de la Savanna, in the 
itefee of Chiapas. Thi^ is a very recent discovery, and the ruins 
■K declardd to be exceedingly interesting. I should very much 
like U* visit the place, bnt I am too much fatigued, and niy men 
an qnite exhausted. Bcsidt>s, tho question for the determination 
of which I undertook this eicpodition is settled. A city more or 
len cannot affect the results obtained. I will tlierefore turn my 
bee toward the City of Mexico, there to makt> the great castings 
which win pomplcto tho Ij-orilliird Museum. 

Th« rainy season is at hand, and work mnst cease. To-morrow 
I will make the last of my papier-macM casta, my photographs, 
and my plans, and on Sunday, 2Gth March, we will embark on our 
journey. 
Marclk 2Srt. — I have here again verified the observation made 
ytmr at Paleuque, on the age of trees as indicate by the 
growth-rings. I would add that these vii-gin forests 
hsvA no very old trees. The great humidity cau»i>» them to 
decay, insectA prey upon them, vines and orchids live on their 
sabvlanQe; and I am assured by old woodsmen that mahog- 
anies »nd cedars — trees that nw'st dostraction best — hardly 
live moro than two hundred years. Daily, as we joomeiyed 
igh the forest, though the atmosphere might be perfectly 
1, we heard tho trees falling. During a storm they are thrown 
^iawx by hundreds, and one is in danger of his life in passing 
HuKMi^ the forests. Hence, no argument for the age of these 
atus oan be hased on the age of the tree^. 

I am ever returning to this point, heaping evidence on evi- 
dtnoe, in order to prodnoe conviction. I therefore would call 




74 



TffJS SOBTB AMSJtICjUf BEVISW. 



the reader's attention to the furt that the monamentB of ^etl, 
near Fet«n — monuments whu^e age wo know, because Uwj oan- 
not dat« from a period ant«rior to 1430 or 1440 ; monameots 
that were destroyed or abandoned in 1696 — are in tho same eon- 
dition as tboee of Palenqae, of LoriUard City, etc f and the 
forest tliat fturroundfl them and is ]H%ying upon them has the 
same appearance of great age. 

I h^ve paid a lust visit to the neighborhood of the great 
temple, and now I quit it fiUl of admiration for the genina of 
the builders. Of a truth, these Toltecs hod a very clear idea 
of the requirements of comfort and beauty in the oonetmodoo 
of their dwelllngH, when we take into account the climate 
in which they lived. The pyramid was a neceeaity in these tor- 
rid and Insalubrione r«^ons. Then, what a magnificent view 
greeted the eye, as the spectator stood upon the summit of one 
of these pyramids ! To the north he had before him a chain of 
little bills crowned with palaces ; then he had a view of the 
beautiful rivi^r — iti KiimiuiT a tiorrent, tii the rainy season a great 
stream — its waters rising to the foot of the wooded hills azid to 
the cultivated uplands. Ijootdng southward, the eye aurveyed * 
vast plain, hemmed in by the ilistaut sierra. The inhabitants 
enjoyed a cool, pure atmosphere, removed from the unwholesome 
miasms and the insoot plagues of the lowlands. 

March 27th. — I sent out scouts this morning to explore the 
right bank of the river, where I was given to understand that 
other monuments wore to be found. This was an error, it 
appears, for no nuns were discovered. Nevertheless, eonadrring 



the 



importance of the city, it seems almost impossible th|^J 
there fdioold not have oxisted on tho opj»OHito bunk a sort ^H 
suburb. In traversing tho forest we fonnd everywhere nuns 
upon nuns, bnt none of them were in sufBcieuUy good state of 
preservation to bo photogrftphcd ; still, we found many seolpl- 
nred stones and door-posts, of which we made oasts. 

To sum up, if Lorillard City is not the "phantom <aty''of 
Stephens, it is at all events one of the mo-st important of these 
Central American cities — the cousin, sister, or daughter of 
Palenque. And nnqneetionably this discovery is one of the most 
brilliant results uf tiie present expc<lition. But time preaseBf onr 
provisions ore giving out, and my secretary is in so enfeebled a 
Btate tbtit he must return without delay. He is quite onabli' to 
walk, his legs are frightfully swollen ; from ankles to waiflt hia 



THS BUOfS OF CENTRAL AMERICA. 



75 



J ia OOP ulcer. How will he be able to eudnre the hardships 
journey f»f eight days to Tenoriqne f We shaU have to trans- 
port him on a litter. 

Paso dk YachiuN, March 29(A.— We left Lorillard City this 

ULonung at nix o'dook, and arrived here at two. I find my mule8 

and my men iu wretched plight. Most of the men have been 

ill, and I give quinine to three of them. The following nioruing 

I the old Laconaduue brought to me his two wives and four men, 

[uul 1 made them preeents of salt, madjctcs, and doth. " He is 

'a god,^ they muttered to one another. ^'Ue is a god, for he 

gives us so many things.^ Nevertheless, I cannot obtain from 

them a garment, but they gave me all their arrows and seven 

bows. The garment \a revoltingly diiiy, and they wear it till 

it falls to pieces. The cloth is as coarse as sail-cloth, but soft 

and pUablc. 

One of the women is young and handsome, but with bloodlen 
Up«. Ill all of Che pe<iple the flesh seems flnbby aud soft, and 
tbey have an amemic look. It is not e,asy to distinguish the youths 
from the- women; for all alike wear the hair long, have heavy 
nccklaoea, and are clothed with the same kind of tunic The 
woawDf however, wear two eagle plnmee in the hair. 

As 1 have already observed, theeo people are counterparts of 
tbe figures in the basft-reliefs at Chichen, having the same aqoiUne 
profflev slightly oblique eyefi, and small ears. The language they 
spwk is the Maya. They are very timid, aud arc to be feared 
only by those whom they conceive to have done tliem an injury. 
In many instaneea, they have given food to white men and guided 
them on their way. jVs for their religion, nothing is known on 
that point, save that tbey assemble in secret places iu the woods, 
and Utere indulge iu their little superetitionB. 

DAazBi Charkat. 



THE THINGS WHICH REMAIN. 



The oxaltation of sontlmeut produced by Uie tragedy ol 
President Garfield's death was an exaltation which, in the nature 
of thingB, uould not last. That ardor of sympathy, f tuiing ambi< 
tiou and auttigonisni^ tliat strong sunse of human brotherhood, 
which brought prineo and peasant, tho wide world over, to hold 
constant vigil oroiind one oouch of suffering, must perforca yield 
before the common duties of the commim day. Bat shall there 
not linger some trace of a softening sorrow^ some late remom 
of love, Uf strengthen and sweeten the things which remain T 

He who left us IuvimI U* 1>o loved, and through those veeks^ 
of anguish and in his restful grave, Qod gave >iim the desire 
his heart in full measure. Passed out from the sacred huah, thA^ 
tender twilight of the valley of Uie shadow of death, vherein 
we walked through the last strange, sad summer, is it not possi- 
ble for us to carry into the future's stress and strain something' 
of its long patience and its final peaco t 

Yet the spring had not begun to grow green upon that 
untimely grave, btjfore the passions of men raged over it with a 
vigor that seemed only to have gathered force from the tempo- 
rary lull. Strife and contention are not the worst things that 
can faappcil in so incomplete and imperfect a world as this. 
First pure, then peaceable, is the order of the universe. In the 
eoufliet over Garfield's grave, the attacking party was grievously, 
and wholly wrong : he is always wholly wrong who waits to 
the dead. But when the assassination gave the reform party : 
opportunity Ui be magnanimously just, it electMl mtber to 
factiously unjust He who takes unfair advant^e teaches hia 
foe to take unfair advwitage, and does bad work for his countiy 
and his kind. 

Bccauiie the aacriflee was costly, by so much it.s national 
aacred significance should never have been narrowed to 



TBE Tffmaa wbjcb eemain. 



vhi(*h are enre to be hotly diapntod and which can never 
be soeoessfuUy defended. It was not surprising^ that in the first 
ibodc of horror men ahoold dutch at any wild theory to relievo 
an overvhelming wrath and grief. Bat whf>n, aft^r a month of 
WBtdung and reflecting, onr " independent> uou-partisan " news- 
pttp«n oonld deliberately pronounce judgment, "There is a 
gofieral coiiaenaus of newspaper opinion in the country — repre- 
wnting public opinion — that the shooting of the President 
was one of the fmita of the spoils system " — they were lay- 
iogf the fuse and lighting the match for an explosion of reao- 
tlraiaxy anger from the " machine ^ newspapers at Uio first poB> 
Bihle momi?int 

Here is Guiteau, a vagaliond and a villain from the beginnings 
who abode not in the truth; base-bom of an honorable ancestry, 
organirftUy and primordially worthless, instinctively and imperi- 
onaly vicious, grotesquely oonsiBtent to the horrible inconsistency 
cS. hifl depraved and deformed being — mere human vermin. 
Unhappily, he cannot be considered solely as an individual He 
bdoogs to a class. In extreme development they become 
Qoiteaus and Jesse Pomeroys and Doctor Lamsons, bnt in leaser 
grmdca of villainy they infc*it society. The conntry people know 
them, and name them well " the devil's unaccouutables,^ fur no 
famoan logic lias ever hi^n able to place them. Honor in tha 
Uood x» no talisman n^ainst thc-m, for they spring like an excrea- 
oeBoe from the purest strain. What the Creator of the world 
ousaas, what be would have as laam, what is the preventive or 
the cnr^ has never yet been ascertained. In the lower Inngdoms 
we tnat them with tar and kerosene and whale-oil soap, with 
and hellebore and Paris green. But when they fasten on 
[vilixatioD in the shape of hnman beings, the coarse necessities 
human law seem as yet to force na to treat them as human 
ig(u When we sliall Irnvf risen to a higher life, it may be that 
a higher spirihial sense, a clearer perception of the essenee and 
(he dignity of human nature, will show ua that the only wise and 
humano thing is, instantly upon discovery, not with ignominy, 
bnt with tenderness, to release these nnhappy ereaturee from tlie 
doom of birth by the boon of death ; to relegate these marred 
and monstrous abortions to the Creator's hand, to be reduced to 
the deceno)* of noD-ezigtenco, or to be furnished and re-issued with 
htunan traits aooording as the hand and cooncil of God hath 
determined before to be done. 



78 



THE NOBTS AMEBICAU REVISW. 



Meanwhile, to swear them off npon an unnonnocted, umooeat 
political system is to coutinue the sacrifice of truth. " Nott" 
fAj9 the thrifty non-partisaa philosopher, avare, apparently, of 
the fatal weakness in his ai^iufuit, hut iu no wise difipoeed 
therefore to relinquish it, — " not that the spoils system inclndfis 
aesassinotion amoiig its methods, or looks kindly dd Gniteau,but 
in a general way it develops tiuiteaos." 80 does the family, fur 
Goitean 8prang^, fnll-armed for vice, from the bosom of a ovurie 
respectable family. So does religion, for (jKuteao was a Chmtiaii 
before he was a politi<:ian and after ho was an assassin. He is 
so pions a Christian that the profaneness of his jailers vexes hia 
righteoQs souL He twnipiea his leiaurp in Bible reading. He 
pressed into Beecher's church and proffered aid to Moody. Ha 
set lanee in rest against tlie infidelity of TngcreoUL He mmt 
supported any political candidate so openly and porsevcringly aa 
he preached Christ. He believed ao devoutly in Heaven as to think 
himself diWu^ly nommissitmed to send the President thither, and 
divinely guarded against going thcro himself. Lifting my eyea 
from this page I see the far-off glittering roofs that shelter a man 
who slew his own child, his helploaSf inno<xnit, baby-daogfator, in 
alleged obedience to a voice from Heaven, iieligi^iu justly ref oaed 
to be held responsible for his crime, but she came a great deal 
nearer to the Pooasaet murder than ever came our civil servioe 
to the Washington assassination. 

For, let it not fail to 1m? observed, of all the votrntiow) 
upon which Ouitvau has pushed himself, the public sorvloc 
was to him the most inhospitable. Wherever he had a ohanoe 
he was bad, but the public service gave him no chance. He 
beat his wife, so he first succeeded in winning a wife to beat. 
He was driven out of Plymouth Chumh, but he first got in. He 
waa roughly handled by the bar, but he had managed to aeoim 
some legal business. He was ejected by a lif insurance company, 
but not tiU he had revealed himself a 1>ook-poddler. He was turned 
away from taverns after he had swallowed many a mouthful 
at their expense. But at the door of the " spotk system " he 
knocked in vain. He never so much as Grossed its thrcfihnld. 
Our corrupt ci\'il sonicc would none of him. Blore than this, 
the office which he vainly sought did not come within the scope 
of what even extreme civil service reformers call the spoil* 
system. No one has ever proposed that the offloe which Ouiteaa 
wanted should be assigned otherwise than by Presidential 



TtfA* TUINQS WHICH RlSMAIif. 



ktment. If every Feform asked for were eatablished to-day, 

whole grade of such offices as tiuitcau desired would be just 
u aooesEible to tiie GuiteooA, and by precisely the same paths, aa 
on the aetiond of Joly. Tet these imdenied and imdeniabk* facts 
oar non-partisan pMlosophy steadfastly reads npside down, 
thongli forced to stand on its head for the purpose. The tempta- 
tioa was too great to be resisted. A man who wanted ofSim 
•hot tlu.* President. A horror of great darkne&t fell ii^ioq the 
kukd. Imttantly the civil service reformer iioproved the tdtna- 
tioo by crying; "A man who wanted a consulate shot the 
President, beoirase men wbo want olerkships are nut seleeted by 
abowd." 

In the agitation and excitement of the moment, such reason- 
ing filled the air and awoke no antagonistic roar. Bat it is just 
WM oertain that snch reasoning will not be permitted to pass 
sadiaUtinged into legislation, as it is that man, as a reasoning 
Mnnial, was not permanently shattered by Guiteau's bullet. And 
wben it 18 challenged, it is likely to be with a ferocity propor- 
Cioaed to its own fallacy. Hearts will warm witli hatred toward 
tb* civil flervioe reformers, exactly in proportion as civil servico 
nCormen nutde nnf&ir political capital out of hea.rts warm with 
lore. 

I name no names, for on this one sad subject the union of 
all hearts must and shall be preserved. I therefore quote 
bok impersonally the political moralist who says: *'Guitcau 
had neither the references, the address, the persistence, nor the 
penooal and bnsinees quaJificationa to secure appointment in 
pcirato business." But neither could be secure Qoveminent 
■ppotntment I Private business did sometimes take him on tri^, 
whilr tb« Oovemmeut, more shrewd, never meddled with him 
■toll 

** But,' oontinoes the philosopher, and I am making an actual, 
Dot an imaginary quotation, — **bnt no sneh lacks would have 
kopt him gut of the public service if his 'chums' had been 

agnized, or bis * backing' adequate!" 

^Iddios and gentlemen," said the showman, "this is the 
with which Balaam struck his ass." 
Ha did not have a sword," vociferated some Gradgrind of a 
)r ; ** bo only wtahod for one.'' 

** Ladies and gentlemen," cried the unabashed showman, ** this 
ia the sword which Balaam wished for." 



80 



THE NOSTB AMEBXCAif REVIEW. 



The spoils system worked perfectly in keeping Gniteaa oat. 
Bat if it had done exactly the opposite oil what it did do, it would 
have let him in. Wherefore, down with the spoils system I 

Gnitean was eommissioned, employed, trasted by no pnblic 
man. He ^ed no public office. He WBa accepted by no political 
party or organizatiou. He was uniformly rejected or ifrnored by 
nil political authority. The llepublican Committoe declined his 
proffered service even for the "stump" of an election oampaiga. 
Yet a religious newspaper, standing over the nnbnried corpse of 
the beloved Presideat, could make and did make the formal 
annooDcement that "the President was MHawdnated by a dis- 
appointed politician !" 

If Colonel lugersoll should dedans that Guit^au was one of 
the fntits of Chxistianity, he would make not a more irratioDal 
statement than they make who aflBrm that he was one of the 
fruits of the spoils s^utem. If he sbuuld saj that Garfield was 
shot by a clei^yman embittered by not finding a paj-ing pnljiit, 
he would make not a more immoral statement than they who 
affirm that the President was shot by a disappointed politician. 
It matters not whether a man call himself an infidel or a Chris- 
tian, when he makes these baseless asw^rtions. He is bearing 
false witness against his neighbor, and the truth is not in him. 

To assert that the fatal deed of this shrewd, silly, melodrai:.! 
tie wretch was in any sense the outcome of our political iii:-; .: u 
tions, is an unwarrantable insult to those institutions, to the 
dignit)' of American oittzenship, to the very honor of our birth 
and tiie quality of our blood. It is to slander our Bopublic 
before foreig-n nations. It is to put a weapon into the hands of 
every Old-World tyrant, and to forgo a cbaiu for the limb» of 
every tyrant's victim. The despot has the same right and reason 
to say that Guitean is the fmit of free suffrage that the civil 
servioe reformer has to say tliat he is the fruit of civil servioe 
corruption. Guitean is no more the fnut of the spoils system 
than the i-ose-bng is the fruit of the rose-bush. He is the firnit 
of no political, or religious, or social system whatever. Be is 
not fruit at aU. He is excrescence. He is disease. He is a 
malignant pustule of humanity which no known principle of 
moral or natural science could oaose or core. That lurid, arid,, 
acrid intelUgenoe, unguidod by consoientie, unwarmed by lov«, 
which serves Ghut4*au for a soul, is a result of inscrutable laws 
of the universe. It was but the frenzy of a people, wild with 



Tii£ TJuyas wsiCR seuain. 



ai 



grial^ and rage, and horror, wliioh snatched hiio out of the 
mitaing nb^rra of being, and set him atop a monumental civil 
terrwA cormption phantom. Gulteau is a subHtuuce as forei^ 
to cmr body-politic as was hia bullet t« the body of his illostiious 
riotim. What society has to do with him is to see that he is 
•afel " i ri a prison ee,U or property extraotied by the law. 

1 : ouiuatti, wholesale, and baaekaa aconsatioii doeci 

laiding miwhief to our civil eervioe. The enormona volume of 
the btoiiieas of onr oooutry, the rapid inci'cafio in population^ our 
Jop-haftvy aod foot-folao educational systom, educating boys and 
iris out of the valuable industries into Bnperfieial and L-umpara- 
Ively tisfilesa scholostiit a<v]uL<iition% has brought a constantly 
kereasiog preasoro for the lower and least exacting grades of 
lUio BCTvioe, which is well-nigh iut«iler«lile to the disjK^nsing 
which threatens to block the whecb; of Goverumcut, and 
which Bcrioualy hinders the public bnalness. This is a roal, 
Bndeni&ble evil, for the abrogation or mitigation of which all 
good citizens can oiiite, and to which may well be brought thu 
eareful attention, the wisest thought, the most deliberate judg- 
ment of the Republic To go beyond this, to stigmatize oiu' 
dvil servico as a mass of oorruptioD, to stigmatize offioe-seekers 
as greedy, unprincipled, reinorselesft, is to Raeriflee the truth, to 
snmse just antagonism, and wantonly to hinder needed improvo- 
menta. The great obstacle to dvil service reform to-day is civil 
KTiriee reformera. The mass of people who seek employment 
under Ooveroroent are as worthy citizens of this Republic as the 
macs of citizens who seek employment at the banks, and storeSt 
and desks. They are just as honest and just as resi>eetable as 
the editors and the clergymen who revile them. It is no more 
impacioas for a merchant's clerk to take his trunk and go to 
WaEihington to ask JUinJsUT Sargent for a plactt iu the fitreigu 
service, than it is for an Andover graduate to take his carpet^ 
bag and go to Brother Sargenfs in Boston to secure a pulpit 
to preach iu the next SiuuIhv. There are no more aud no greater 
babies and leeches among the foUowers of Aaron than of Moses. 
They have often been sore bested in life's battle. They are 
■ometizne* idamorous, often imreasonablt^, HaiQy often disap- 
ptnnted, too often exasperating; often, also, they are as strong 
and wise ftnd helpful a^^ those who rail at them, and who, upon 
cqiui inducement, will take their places in the throng of ofBee* 
aedters. 

VOL. CZXXT. — ^NO. 308. 6 



82 



TBE NOBTB AMERICAN &EV1SW. 



Oar dTJl service is not the roothor, nr the Btep-mother, or Uw 
tnotlii>r-iii-lavr of abominationa. It la aa pare, coDBCienttoiuir 
efflcicut, as any branch of pnblic or private stTvice. In its 
parsonnel and in it^ rettnlts it n^ed fear comparison with no dvil 
survice abroad and with no private cor[>oration at hom«. Fur- 
ragn newspapers, echoing siscercly enough, no doubt, the 
ealninnit« of onr own, may be eeon lamenting onr civil 
as a plagae-spot ujion the Ropublic, while at Xha very moment 
the diplomatic reprcscntaiivcs of those foreign nations ara <mlo- 
giEing in Washington the iuteUigenee of oven our lowest officiidi^ 
and Uie extraordinary celerity »nd at^nnriicy with wliieh they w 
able to transact business ! There was corruption under Grant, 
there wok corruption niider Hayes, there was corrapdon nndcr 
Garfield, tiiere is corruption under Arthur, but there is no more 
oorruption among the hundred thousand office-holders than there 
is amung a huudred thousand men solruted at random from un)- 
other employment. Tlie himuui heart is bom unto evil ap the 
sparks fly upward, but there Is no heavier shower of sparks 
flying up from the national trBOsury than from Uie life insurance 
wimpaiiit's, or from the school boards, or from the womc 
banks. The dishonesty of the New York City press woi 
wri-i'k the Government. By every possible test, tJio GoTcnunf 
service makeo the best showing. The very newspapers that 
one column with sweeping charges against it, fill the next 
umn with statistical proof of its ever increasing aconracy 
economy; and recognize no incongruit>% perceive no relation, 
between the two columns. Civil service reform will remain what 
it is, unreal, useless, harmful, so long as it is not founded on 
facts. It may manipulate legislation, create boards, ooquetle 
with conventions; l>nt the one thing which it will not do bf to 
reform the eivil service. 

Worse than the effect upon any industrial department of thi.« 
disregard to truth is its effect upon popular speech and thoughl. 
Exactness of f^prehenaiou, ■ccuracy of statement experienoe a 
conKteut depreciation of value. Falsehood in those who afisomc 
to Iki (he eoiist-rvat^irs of public virliif Iwgptfi not only 
tion but more falsehood. In the storm of charge and ooonl 
charge, the questions of honesty or dishonesty, ftict or runi( 
are a[)t to ho trampled under foot Integrity is just as likely] 
be scarred, vill&iny is just as likely to be overlooked, as eKeh f< 
iMdre it« own. 



TUE TillSQH Wmvii UK Ma r v 



83 



'*Oot of aJl tliis" (the Preeident'B sufforin^jr and tbe uiOion's 
aorrow), stkys » irU^ous Dcwspapt-r, — the loading orgiui of the 
liadiag niigious dunomiDatlon of tho leading intellectual seotiou 
of the emiutry — I neod not say that I r«rfer to my own modeet 
but belovtMi Muesaefausetts, — '*out of all this eomt;^ the leescm 
that upright and Gospel printuples must be introduced into our 
tuUaunal servieu." 

Woald any mindf trained to consecutive thought or to tiie 
meaniog of words, wreck its reputation on the possibility that a 
Government which — to meutiou but one thing — fund^ ite pubUc 
ddit aa this Quverument did during Grarfield's brief admimstra- 
don, is yet to Im introduced to Gospel principles T 

Or, to take auothir tack, granting upright and Gospel prin- 
ciplea iu be yet onkuowu to the national service, whore shall we 
look for a stock to iutrodaco more hopefully titan in the Ameri- 
can BiUe Society f Especially founded for the dim^uiiiuLtion of 
the Qoepol, that society must surely have an ample supply of 
QoqtiJ prindples. But tho Eer. Leonard Woolsey Bacon, nu 
■unu aul-burity, says publicly^ Jnly 7, 1881 : 

"Ihe imaBlUiiliim of the Bibla Boeictj ttu-f bn briefly dMcribed aa atwo- 
lale gorefnmeDt by a ring. UioUed by tho boiiuaI pussibUitjr of > mob. 
... By dexUuufl avoiding of diTisive qneationB, b; bapJdn^ down 
from tbetr right muI duty for fear of ad agtttttlon, the ouuu^iueut of the 
Soeiotj lain kept tbas far from the general knowledge of the pablic the nniTo 
iMOt Ihftt il« eotutitiition is rotten in every tunber. . . . The l0Dg«r 
UiUtiK at the eoxurtiluLiuiud i:oiiditioa at thu Bible Society, and the iaviting 
of ehxritable gifta, to be ilopanited whers Ibeir aecarity is coiutitationaJly 
is]p<Maibte> MwnM a $oaiiiliLl ofc&inftt public morals. ... I Boriooaly 
balbim thU fat, overgrown, likry monojwly to bo a public naiBaiice, , . . 
the prtoaipal existing hiadaxuiee tu tho eiraalatioa of the Holy Scrlpturea." 



When it sliall be charged that our Treasury Department is 
the priucipal exjating hindcrauoc to tho collection of the piiiilie 
reraDue and the payment of the public debt, that our Navy 
Department is what hills our commerce, and our Vo&t-Of&an the 
barrier to cuuuuuuicatiou, thou our civil sorviee will be reduced 
to the Itvi"} of the American Bible Society, and there will be 
more pi^rtiiienee in the lament of religious newspapers, and more 
djuoomment iu their craving for Crospd principles. 

The dead President, whose love and praise were upon every 
pulpit and pliitfnnii and newspap«tr in the laud; whose brave 
and ximple bearing iu the teeth of fate received such swift, 



S4 



TUB NORTH AMERICAN BE VIEW. 



sympathetic admiratdon ; whoBe intef^ty, 8t«adfastne«s, cot 
magnanimity'', long-BuEforiug have U^ea rccogDisu^^ out] omplut- 
sizvd, and tilmost apothi'osized, lie is th« iiame man dow — sUent 
i& his narrow bed, rejoioing in the Heaven of heavens — that be 
was ten years ago. The as&assin's bullet did not fire into him a 
sadden virtae. It was there before. But within theae tea 
years the same lips that laud him now have spoken of him in 
laoguttge we shoald be loath to recalL They have probably fbr- 
gotten it. The people have forgotten it. We may be certein it 
was well forgotten before he wa« nominated at (Chicago. Ha wai 
not the man mnrderonsly girded at. His name was not then 
afaarp-poiuted high enough to concentrate the desolating 
stroke. Ue did but breast the fury of an indisoriminate storu. 
Thotw to whom he was then bat a nomo may have foi^tten that 
behind the name was a living soul. But 1 remember. It was 
then a strange thing in my expeiienoe that a man's repnUtion 
sbonld Ue blackened for mere political effect. And I refer not 
oloue to his political opponents. Organs of his own pftr^ 
assailed him — not, I think, through malice so much as through 
a certain cowardice of respoctability. They threatened their 
own Speaker of their own House of Eepreseutativee with degra- 
dation and defeat if he did not degratle this man tfom tfae 
honorable position, his appointment to which had been bat the 
just recognition of his eminence. I name no names. I wish to 
incite no rancor, nothing but repentance and rttfonnation. I 
only pray newspapers to go back, not over their ueighboru' files, 
but over their own, and find the articles, some of which I hold 
in my hand at this moment, and which I out from thoir columns 
in their day, for no defluite purpose, but only to see whether the 
salvatiou of the Lord would ever cume — whether the Aathor 
this world cared to have chara*,'ter redeemed and truth tnid 
this world, or whether in the divine esteem the vindication 
character be less important than the formation of character, 
by the cmciflxion of that which a proud, Bonsitive, and honi 
man holds most dear. In the last campaign oar papers oam< 
plained bitterly of Democratic mud-throwing; bnt nearly eveiy 
clot of mud flung at General Garfield was sooopod up Erom ft 
Republican puddle I 

The tenderness of the nation for Mrs. Garflold, its pity 
her sufleriug, its sympathy with her sorrow, have been ovf 
flowing, inexhaustible, past all question sinoere. Indeed, 



THB TJilNOS WSICE RBMJJJf. 



ly was BO active that it rather o'erleaped its seP and 

^«*in« down on Ute other Bide. The gravity of the situatiou was 

mch as no absurdity could conqner, bnt in their insatiable desire 

to love juid snppoit Mrs. Garfield, men forgot tmth to tmth m> 

oomph'tf'ly that only Mr;^ Oarfleld'« own quiet, unasi^unjing, 

never-failing modesty savod the ideal. It waa perhaps their 

abmrbing grief that made men for a time oblivions to the Rolf- 

denialf the devotion, the lifo-long service of their own wives and 

mothers. Women did not, as they were bidden, admire and 

^anoljUA Mrs. Garfield; they watched with her. The great 

^■botherqneen knew what sword pierced through her own suul 

^hrlten her royal hnsbfind wae torn from her side untimely. The 

Vbe»utif ul princess remembered still the long watch, the slow dread 

of that deadly fever at Bandringbam. Every woman who has 

seen the chill of death settling upon the brow uf love felt the 

angmah alternating with hope, the patience trembling into 

deqiair. H(ir (Countrywomen hold Mrs. Garfield in their hearts in 

spite of all her ooontrymeQ'a foolish moralizing, because doubly 

and trebly their own is her smiling fortitude, her love that 

toaatered weakness, her qniet, steadfast courage, her faith and her 

fldeUly. They rejoice to see on the heights the same dear, 

steady light that illuminee the valley homes. 

But when respectable, Republican, religions newspapers were 
lolding up Mr. (iarfie.ld to public execration, who thought of 
Garfield? She was the same woman then that she is now, 
jving her husband thou with the some devout trust as now, 
kolding his honor then as dear as since she held his life. Nay, I 
low that Mrs, Garfield would cliooso, rather, even the desola- 
^tion in which she sits to-day, enahrined as well as enshrouded, 
than have been obliged to believe true the tales told of her hus- 
band iu tltose oalijumioos years. The merciless bullet was not 
BO emel to her as the envenomed tongue which would have made 
her the infe of a false and faithless publio servant, a betrayer of 
tract, a greedy and vulgar villain. 

The country has echoed with proud, fond praise of President 
GaHlelf s muther — how she nurtured him through poverty and 
hard fate, how he honored her through honor and prosperity, 
how she lived for him and in him, bravo, independent, always 
with keen and intelligent interest in puUlo affairs. But Mrs. 
Oarficld did not rear np her son after he became a eandidate for 
le President^. All the strong traits she gave him, she gave 




B6 



THS NOBTH AMERICAN BE VIEW. 



him fifty years ago. All tho careful' training she gave him 
was well-nigh finished forty years ago. Who thought of tbu 
old mother, of her painful lif«, her loving care, her wise ooonwl, 
hor tender heart, when tho reputable and religious newspapers 
were depicting her son as a craven miacreant I Nothing haa bap* 
pened since then to change character. President Oarfleld was 
ool a reformed drunkard. He was not a converted coward. 
He was not a redeemed liar. He was not a penitent thief. No 
word of e<nifo««ioii or rfinorse over these alleged vices or orimes 
ever fell from his lips. Ho is the same man now that he wae then. 
If he lived a rascal he died a rasoaL If he waa a rascal, a rascal 
Iwre himself thmiigh all the intimacies of college life, thniugh all 
the familiar outgoings and incomings of rural ueighborfaood, 
and among all the people tliat knew him best, as an honest man ; 
and when tlu! final teet carne — such a test as oomee to few of all 
earth's countless millions — he met it in a way that challenged the 
world's regArd, and will set his name on high so long aa the 
worM Ijwtis. If vic« did t)iin, what more could virtue dot 

If Oenoral Garfield ia not a villain, if, in whatever world 
waiting, he is a brave, upright^ aud honorable man, then a 
brave, upright, aud honorable man were hb own countrymen 
doing their clamorous best to defeat and defame. Ue lives 
to-day in their hearts, not because of their justice or their mercy, 
but because his strong soul overbore the sting of slander, waiting 
for deliverance the bnllpt of the asaassin. 

But it was a sharper jmin than tho murderet^s stroke — a sterner 
fight than death's. Let no man say that the anguish inflicted by 
slander can be exaggerated. There come« a time when the soul 
ifi lifted above its fierceat and vilest onsctt, meosurefi finite falser- 
hood, ignorance, and malice against eternal values, and parsncs 
its steadfast way, not only unmoved, but well-nigh unannoyed. 
But with a great sum great souls obtaiu this freedom. Hot 
bums Jhe flre and hmg, that tempers the steel that forms tbtj 
armor tliat shieliht a man against thette pr>is(>iied darta. The 
bravest may for a moment recoil when first his oharaoter is 
assailed. It is no shame for an honest, man to waver one dated 
moment, blind, paralyzed, totally unprepared, aa he roust be, for 
an attack upon his honesty. The rogue knaws in wimt quarter 
to look for the foe. The honest man is equally open to sQri)nii>> 
from all quarters. The fierce, strange, sudden onnlaught wrung 
from (rfirfteld's startled stml u .sharper cry than all the shock of 
battle or the fiery breath of death. 




TH£ THINQS WBICB REMAIN. 



87 



* Bsok to \im maiuiioD ««n the fleeting breftlli ; 
Cha BoQor'fl voioi< provoke the isilBot dust. 
Or Flatter; aoothe the tliill, cold ear of Death f 



On iht^ Arst Sunday after his welcome and delayed departure^ 
tiw pulpits. East and West and South and North, rang with hi^ 
l^prftuK* — pniue of his intefTrity, his ooura^^ his Christiaaity. 
HBut be did uot heed or need it. Cau praiae 

^f Of all the pulpits that extolled the dead, how many stood 
' forth iu his troubloms time to defend the U\*ing t Ilow grateful 
and hfJpf ul then to the throbbing heart, to the Btrained, pained, 
Mositive ear would have been the voice of religioQ raised to bid 
hack the tide of partisan detraction! Qow timely then for 
morality- and piety to say : " This man, asBailed, has been known 
through oil hid forty years as a dutiftd tjou, a comwientious 
etudcnt, an enthusiaetic teacher, a faithful hnsband, a bUmelees 
father, a loyal soldier, an npright citizen, a patriotic legislator, 
an aiufpott4?d Chriiitian, a strong man. Forty yeara of nublem- 
uhed and brilliant virtue shall not be swept away by the exigen- 
eiea of a political campaign." If such voice were raised, if 
religion did anytiiing except clear her own skirts by helping 
defile him, T neviT knew it. 

The lesson, then, which the aaaaflsination of Garfield should 

liefly teach is not to assassius, office-holders, offlceseekers, or 

of the disreputable and dangtrous classes. It is to the 

table and the religious, and that lesson is — to speak the 

! The Abana and Pharpar of civil service reform may 

liavti a loftier sound, but in this one tittle Jordan of practical 

n.'fnrTK must our souls first wash and be clean. Chir national 

^dangt-r lies not lu tlie corruption of people in office, but in the 

Hblsehood of the people out of office — in ourselves, so far as we 

^Bre the public which loves or the paper which makes a lie. It is 

Hbut lUways, jicrhaps not often, the falsehood of maUce or money. 

U is often the falsehood of oarelessness^ of eenKationalism, of 

mindfl untrained to reverence the sanctity uf truth, to discern 

jUtd to rwpeot the meaning of words. But 

*Bvtl l0 wrought hj want of thon^ 
A» wen oa bf want of heart,'* 



Id Prosident Qarfleld's great heart was no room for malioe. 
barbed flrrows of slander diflfused no blood-poison throngfa 



Se THS NOBTH AMEBICAN BEVISW. 

his spirit. He came oat of tiie fieiy fnmaoe, not nnrememlNrw 
ing, bnt gentle, genial, genorons still. It was no shriveled soul 
that knocked at Heaven's gate, bnt a man who had home Yob 
wrongs and his honors alike as becomes a man. He recks no 
longer of blame or praise on earth. He appeals to the pnUio 
opinion of another world. But it remains to ns to decide 
whether the American people shall render its blame or praiae <tf 
no valne by words without knowledge and withont oonscdence. 
It remains f (»r ns to discover whether there be not a more exod- 
lent way to serve Ihe B^nblic we love than to hound her sons 
throng life to honor them with whatever honors in death. 

Gail Haxhaton. 



FiXSE TASTE IN ART. 



SOGEBTT (nvilizee the world, and women civilize sooiaty. Never 
the hietorj' of social development has this truth found fuller 
'SUiutration than in the growth and ripening of a taste for the 
fine arte in Amerioa. In a country whore there iB as yet no 
korara rlmr. where the men are almost all engrossed from year's 
end to yem'B end by the most absorbing of all pursuits — the 
pOTiRiit of wealth, and, in the brief hours of respite from work, 
1^ the most fatiguing of all recreations — tlie pursuit of pleasure, 
h is clear that the male part of the popolation most be only too 
gUd to have their opinions and tastes, in all that does not con- 
eera Ibeir working life, directed and formed for them by the 
more omming wit and subtle intuition of their womankind. 
WamflD in America, to their honor be it said, find much that is 
uefol to do, much Ba£Fering to alleviate, and many hospitable 
■kd social dnties to perform, and, being the women they are, they 
do UiMB things with their might. Nevertheless, they have much 
low on their bands ; the wives and daughters of the rich form 
m trvlj a 'Meiaure rlajwi" as do the gentlemen of England. 
W«altfa is rapidly acquired in America, and, to all intents and 
porpows, the spending of it is largely in the tmnds of the women. 
What ooald ha more natural, under these conditions, than that 
tbe oonntlees ohjccts of luxury, adornment, and of greater or 
km Artiitia merit, which teem in the house of every prosperous 
Ameriean, shonld bear the impress of a taste feminine rather 
Ifaui nuucoline, exuberant rather than severe t What more 
Mrtaia than that this exuberance will, if unchecked, gain the 
iBHtay, even as we have seen it in the last few years creep 
iUmlthily, from the darkened interior of the bondoir that nnr- 
twed it, to the windows first, then to the eaves, then higher 
ikiO, BO that it hai overspread the face of our architecture aa an 
flBbroidflredTeilf 



90 



THE NORTS AMERICAN REVIEW, 



The qnestion of taste, as Sidney Smith showed admiiaUy in his 
Ibciliinwoti tliesulijwrt, in one of t\m widest aud most important to 
sotiit'ty. while it is cue of the most difficult to defloe or to reduce to 
ftcommon nieafiurewiththeotherperceptionBof man, Coneddcs^d, 
however, in its moiv narrow iuterpretatiuu, ba applied to the ap- 
preuiatioQ of what is most permaueuUy harmuDiuas iii the Ado 
arts, tite obstacles to a clear conception of what is, and what is 
not, good taste ant vai^tly diminished. Good tastt^ in art will sliow 
itself just as much in the selection of wall-paper as in the ehoice 
of a picture or of a statue, but it Mrill also show itself in the 
subordination of the paper on the walls to objeuta of greater in- 
terest Neitessarily in a country like ours, where every kind of 
luxury is in common use, much money is devoted to mere de«ior- 
ataoUf immense soma are yearly sunk in the ornamentation, both 
interior and exterior, of houses wbi<.-.h in a few years may be con- 
vtotod into shops by the advanee of the business qoarters of 
tiie great cities. This great expenditure is constautly justifii'd 
on the ground that it gives encouragement to the arts ; it is fur- 
ther maintained that reckless extravagance is a duty iueuirilMtnt 
on the rich, inasmuch as many of the working classes are thereby 
kept in activo employment. With the ecouomical fallacy in- 
volved in sneh a proposition I have nothing to do, bat the ides. 
that art, the beet kind of art-, — the art which has given master* 
pieoes to the world, — is enuuuriiged by a more than barbario pro- 
fusion of display io stained glass, tiles, and colored marble* j or 
that the men who paint good pictures and chisel good statoflB are 
a whit better off beuau^e huiiises are biult whose strange arohi- 
teeture out-Saraoens the Alhambra, whose garg<tylcs and flying 
buttresses seem to belong no more to them than the great staitue of 
Memnon belongs to (be Cathedral of Cologne, — the^e ideas aeem 
to point to a rmbcal miseouoeptiou of what art is. A tenth of 
the money yearly spent in the grotesque would be a prinoely 
foundation for an academy where men and womeu might study 
the beautifuL 

The result of all this is, of course, that even where there nre 
great works of sculpture and painting to be seen,— dearly bought 
masterpieces, to possess which is as much an honor to the country 
08 to the individual, — the great canvas or th« matehletw uuu*Ue 
suffers terribly by the undue exaggeration of its surroundings. 
The eye, accustomed to the endless kniokknack, bHc-4-braa, and 
arabesque, can no longer follow the pure Imee of a great etu(w^ 



FA.ISE TASTE IN ART. 



ftl 




or grasp tho drawing and tlie color of a master's painting ; rather 

Ams the perrertod tmderstan<Iing: ro^^ard iho fitatue as a pieco of 

tarmtoret while it vulue^s tho picture accoixliug a& Ma ui^>lnriiig 

KBts the room for which it was bought Doubtless the so^^ed 

mUketio party ia England have iiome true conoeptions about the 

naivenaHty of art. Tho beautiful, according to them, shouTd be 

in everything, — in tho great and the Email business of 

from the building of dwelling-places to tho clotliing of the 

; trom the pictoro on tho wall to the hair on tho head — 

which latter, by the way, there seems always to have 

been wnnn rnnnection in the artdittii^. mind. John Constahlii, in 

, 1822, writing to Arehdeaoon Fisbor, sold of a young tutist who 

' vtAed to eome to liondon: "Perhaps he prefers starving in a 

^ erowd, and if he is del^^nnined to adventure, let him by all means 

pKserre his flowiiig locks ; they will do liim moi-o sexvico thau 

the talents of Claude Lorraine, if he possessed them" — a piece 

of advice recently followed with success. The aeathetos would 

OBUt no detail, no matter how mean, in tho bii-sinoss of boautify- 

^^ing erory-day existence. If they cannot find tho beautiful in 

^bvcrytiiing, Uiey mean lo put it there, so that tliey may not be 

^^U^Hppointod^ just OB the (tunning alchemist used lo conceal a 

^fbmp of gold in his crucible before be iKgan operations, in order 

' bu moke a certainty of it. They forget that this minuU: attention 

tu detniLi drags tho miud from the larger and more human 

tboughta, wherein alone is the spring and source of art. 

k^^BT forget that truly artistic nations care for none of these 

^^^1^ For instaucOj the Italians, who ore without doubt the 

^^pdat finely and delicately organized people in Europe, and who, 

^^rhatevcT may be said of their modem schools, have done more 

. fur art than any other race, live generally in a manner as simple 

^Bi« it is free from over>- kind of affectation. The Germans, too, 

^Ki whom apowerful and versatile imagination has always been the 

Host prominent trait, are so entirely without that taste for luxury 

■hieh characterizes both the Engli.'di and American society of 

to-day that they are often called " barbarians" and " a coarse race" 

by people aa iuferior to tliem intellectually and physically as 

tWy are far behind them in true refinement of taste. The Ger- 

nuta, while poaaessing a great number of masterpieces of art, 

•adf what ia more, being cunsuioutj of uiidintini»hL'd power to 

cfeate objecte of lasting beauty, are tdugulurly indiiferent to the 

Mioor adornments of life. They will even, in their indifference, 



92 



TBE NORTH AMERICAN REVIEW. 



oatrage the moet ordinary laws of form and color with perfe 
oqn&nbmty. Italians, also, in their houaee show an uttor diKre- 
gard for what wo understand by taste. Hideons vases of artifi- 
cial flowerH are t<) be found in the "best room" of almost any 
middleclnss dweUing. I have heard Italians say of these, " Wdl, 
they are not so fresli as real flowers, hut thoy have the advantage 
of not smelling." Of coor&e I do not pretend that this carelcaB- 
ness about every-day surroundings is in any way essential to the 
cultivation of tlie fiue arts ; such a proiKisitinu M'ould indeed be 
untenable ; hot from the examples adduced it seems clear that 
those surroundings ore independent of the creative faculty, and 
it is certainly true that Italian simplicity throws Italian genins 
into a bold relief. 

There is a story told in Sir Thomas Mare's " TTtopia," which 
bears closely on the question of luxury and extm\*agance of taste 
in the small things of everyday tise. It is true that Morv; 
invented the history of the Utopians to explain his somewhat 
peculiar ideas of political economy, but the manner in which 
describes tlie position occupied by the preoious metals in Utoj 
shows that ho had a very just appreciation of the artistia vali^ 
of luxury. He says that: "Whereas they — the Utopians — i 
and drink in earthen and glass vessels, — which indeed bo curioui 
and properly made, and yet be of very small value, — of gold anl 
silver they make voseels that serve for the most vile usee ; not 
only in their couimou halls, but in every man's private honse. 
Furthermore, of che same metals they make great chains, fetten, 
and gyves, wherein diey tie their bondmen." Further on in the 
same chapt^^r, Mure expresses his profound contempt for gold in 
the following highly original and vigorous manner: 
marvel also,'' he says, ^ that gold, which of the own nature 
thing so unprofitable, is now among all people in so high 
tion, that man himself, by whom, yea and for the use of 
it Ls so much set by, is in much less estimation than the giild 
itself. Insomuch that a lumpish bloclchead churl, and which hath 
no more wit than an ass, yea and as full of uangbtineBS as of 
folly, shall have nt'vortholoas many wise and good men in subjec- 
tion and bondage, only for this — beoaose he hath a great 
of gold I ^ Whetber Sir Thomas, had he had an opportonity 
being introduced to the modem New York, would have retain^ 
that command of the English language for which he waa fanoi 
is a question I shall not attempt tu answer. That he would ha^ 



FAL8S TASTE IN AST. 



93 



th' ; ** ' 't a good opportani^ for compoaing a new " CTtopia " is 
e-\ probable. 

it u tnmerully couceded tliat AintTicatu) are more sensitively 
orgHaised than EngUfthmen — a fact due to the influences of oli- 
mato and life, precisely as meat and the flesh of game are inoon- 
testeUy of finer texture in America than in England, aoqoiring 
in deGcAoy what tht^y Lose in flavor. The keen perceptions of 
Americans and their lively sense of the hnmorotui will probably 
aare them from falling into the grotesque abaurdltieB of the fall- 
blown dMithoCe, which is a poor oreatnre, full of vanity, content to 
be a sobject for the oxperimonta of erratic men of gnniiis, rather 
than Co Goonpy the obscore position in society for whiuh ita 
Ofttnral qoaiifleAtions alone fit it Imitation, 6ay8 Colton in 
" Imcou,'* ifl the aiucerest flattery. It is pleasant to be flattered, 
of oounK, bnt would any thuiking being, calmly and on mature 
rsSeotion, assume the position held by tiie "lesthetes" under Mr. 
SoakiD, Mr. Rossetti, or Mr. Morrii^T American men, being to a 
great extent gnided in their culture by their women, will submit 
to living in hooses of strangely fantastic and meretricious 
growth, in which the motto "ars ariem celare" seems to have been 
nvened ; th«y will patiently suffer their decorators to live np to 
that injunction which bids men not to make the likeness of any- 
thing that is in heaven, or in the earth, or in the waters nnder 
the Mrth. But it is not in the nature of the American to make 
htraaelf ridicnlous, nor to constitute his own person into an 
objeot for redundant decoration. We see little here of that 
extreme affectation of manner^ speech, and dress which has made 
the coined name of " sesthete" a synonym for all that is cou- 
tUDptible in man and unbeooming in womnn. 

And yet wo may leani from the ajstbetes a lesson of real 
practical value. They are an enthusiastic and misguided body, 
bot they have a iMTong sense of unity — of the bond which binds 
the OMthetio slave to his master orffttm, which unites the poet 
wHb his readers, the artist with his public. They have found 
ont that to the consiBtent growth of a school it is essentially 
neoessary that the man of genius, who creates, should be met 
half-way by the man of taste, who appredates the work. If the 
tftistu) sense of the buyer does not meet half-way the artist's 
tinpiiliies and desire to produce something permanently good, the 
■rtivt will find himself constrained to produce such work as will 
find a market, unless, as too rarely happens with men of talent, 



■ 



94 



THU NORTH AMJSBICAN BEVIBW. 



ho is rad{tp«iident of a market And not only win the pointer 
paint down to his public, and the sculptor eai'vti the p»rU<:iilur 
species of idol which souiety has elected to buy, but the poet and 
the author will put tiieir mu^na in harness to chaae each other 
round and round the narrow oircna of proHcrib<>d popolar taste ; 
tlie siuijer \rili sacriflcf his voice f'tr the sake of vulgar effects, anrl 
the brilliant eonversationist will forever grind the satod old toims 
on hia soeial hurdy-gxirdy up and down the admiring lanes of 
Vanity Fair. Nor is thia all. A false taste, nurtured by igno-, 

' rauce of what is good, propagated by the vagaries of boundless^ 
wealth, and p<;rpetuated by the degenerate works of those who 
are obliged to live by the sale of their products, has unfortunately 
a permanent influenoe by creating a correspondingly false ideaL 
If the education of the eye, the ear, and the umlerstanding in 
early youth has any real effect on the taste of a generadon uf 
men, it is interesting to speculate upon the manner of minds we 
are Ukely to have among us in another twenty yuars. Evea-y- 
thing in social histori,' leads to the couolusion that ideas of 
beauty in form and ailor are acquired at a very early age^ 
the aggregate of these ideas constitutes the ^ ideal " of everj'' 
individual in matters of art It is extremely dlffloult to get rid 
of those first impressions ; they pervade the mind, by the uiteoi 
power of association, to the end of life. How many critics nxwT 
there who would care to enumerate the things wlxidi in reali^ 
give them most pleasure t How many persons are there who are , 
not pcrfeotiy oonsoions, in their inmost selves, of a predilectioii ' 
for some work of art or piece of music which has been hupo- 
le«sly condemned by general consent^ and for which any sui»- 
pected liking or even toleranoe entails testhetic damnation ^ Hnw 
many women are there who have the courage to dress as tJiey 
like, and how many men in New York or in London wear ties of 
the hues they really prefer I These oarcfuUy ooncealed longing* { 
for something not generally considered tasteful are the strong 
impressiorts^ the inalienable associations, produced by cariy 
habit, but which accepted opinion, that is to say what la for the 
time being " good taste," forbids the individual to display on pun ^ 
of exeommuiiication and loss of privilege. Uitlierto, 
in America, the impressions of tliis kind to whieh children have 
been accustomed have been singularly few, leaving the lulnd 

iS-eady for almost anything artistic that came in its way. Meaj 
grew up feeling that something wae lacking Co them, and not 



FALSE TASTE IN ART. 



wholly undenftanding what it was. Tliey soon fonnd ont, how- 
ever, u it beoame va^r to eroAs the ocean, that what thoy 
wiuitol WHS art, or, to speak a<rurut«ly, the seuKatious produced 
hy objects nf lu-t ; and with scant time but oniiimted money at 
tfaior (wmmand, they handod over to their vives and daughters, 
by tjwdt and very willinff consent, the task of snpplying the 
deficiency. The result wat^ tliat jVineriea bccsaiue omnivuruus — 
greedily absorbing everj'tiiiug that was offered her, buying here 
ami ordering ther^ coUectiag all kinds of good, bad, and indif- 
ferent wares, and paying several tiinee their value in good 
uooey ; eo that there was not a painter, seulptor, or hrocanieur 
wbo did not prick np his ears and lick hiit famished lips at the 
approach of the milliouaire fnnn the States, festering with gold. 
And so in a few years the aspect of domestic life has changed. 
ChUdreu arc arrayt-d in a manner to put to shamo Solomon in 
all hii< glory, not to mention the lilies of the field — which latter, 
howorer, they will probably closely resemble in some other 
respects; the infant mind is nurtured on picture books which 
rival the really artistic productions of Jllr. Walter Crane onJ3' in 
roqiect of titrange and unexpected coloring ; the student at col- 
lege deeorat4.>s his room with the uncomfortably angular attri- 
botos of Queen Aiine, or with tlie barbaric profusion which 
cdtaraeteriKes the tuUuon of a Long It^land Suund steamlxiat; and 
the grown man takes to himself a lot on Fifth Avenue or Beacon 
atreet, and, encouraged by his wife and hifl architect, rears such a 
pile to heaven as was not even dreamt of among the heathen. 

The beanttfnl in art is not fickle, but bard to win. There is 
not mui^h doubt, even now, as to the greater monuments of 
ereativo genius, as is shown by the willingness to pay auy sum 
for a real!)* fine picture or statue. But in the searoity of these, 
and In tin* tlct^irv for those sensalionR of enjoyment and Ratisfac- 
tion which beairilfal objects alone csn produce, a tendency has 
formed itaelf to experiment on the eye by every Icf^tiroate and 
iQegitimat«> itombination of material, form, and color. The ficti- 
tious idea that what is patched and old, if reproduced in foo-simile, 
MriU bo plejistng, is one of our most wide-spread errors. People 
forgei that whatever beauty there is in the architecture of the 
irr^nlar English country house, where the "Elizabethan," the 
** Queen Anne,** the "Tudor,'' and tlic "Norman" elbow each 
otiier for the mastery, is due chiefly to nHnantic association, 
reeaUIiLg, as many of those dwelling-places of ancient families 



96 



THE NORTH AIAERICAN REVIEW. 



do, the brilUant and sttrring tradittona of the hereditary lords 
a great race. Those homes of warriors aud courtiers tell a real 
story ; every addition rt'preuents au episode in history, every 
minod win;^ some viciu^iutudu uf fortune; massire material lends 
dignity to the strangest irregularities, while storm and rain, 
wind and sunshine, have mellowed the tints and softened the oat- 
liue, dealint; kindly ^nth the old house. But a fac-simile of the 
original, on a pigmy seale, with every turret and toiu-dle, ram- 
part, " jutting frieae, bnttrico, aud coigne of vantage" reproduced 
in inferior material and planted on the Newx>ort cliff, snggesta 
neither warrior nor courtier. Such houses have no right of 
existence — no rattan (Pitre — in thme days. The noznoroos addi- 
tions which, in the original, were necessary for the comfort and 
eonvenJence of an inereardng household, are senseless mimicries 
in the imitation ; for is not every man at liberty to build friHn 
the firnt a habitation in which he may turn around without injnry 
to his head, and which he may enter without danger of carryii 
away a part of the portcullis with his hatT 

Americans, like other rich people with whom wealth ha« 
been long faorcditary, have yet to loom the extent of its usee 
the limitation of its power. Bui since there is so much mt 
money got and spent hero th&n in most other places, the questic 
of its application is one of paramout importance. Beauty, on be> 
fore said, is not changeable, though difficult to win. Money will 
buy the best pictures aud the best statues, but no amount of 
mere money will produce an artistic whole. There may be VbA 
gold, the architect, the material, and the will, but these things 
cannot make up of themselves what shall be totus^ ttrea tlqtt^ 
rotundm — they cannot make a Versailles, a Miramar, an Alhi 
bra, or a Golden Horn. There is something more required, 
that something is the expression of a nation's true underetanding 
of good taato, or, as I preriously defined it, the appreciation 
what is permanently harmonious in the fine arts, as distingnisht 
from what ia the " rage " for the time being. If we tnm to tl 
remains of nations which preeminently possessed that 
tion, though t-hey made nsi* of the most widdy differing e3 
sions for it; if we look at tho work done by the Greeks, 
Egyptians, or the Saracens, we discover a great principle, wfaic 
is this: Tme unity and eomj^eteness of artistie eonc^pttou lui 
beauty even in decay. The single column standing by itself, 
that remains of the splendid dwelling-place of the gods, ia beau-^ 



FAJ.SS TA8TB IN AST. 



9T 



tifnl and hannonioas Atdll ; the broken capital, the frftguieut of 
BC^de firiew, are objecta in which dwelk yet a deathless grandeur 
and ■ymmetry which will survive so lung as an in<fh of that eur- 
tt/» remuns whereon the band of a nation traced i\a pledge to 
beaa^. 

" TIm rooliMB isot, decayed uid rant, 
Wni MAreo tlclsy the puBer-by; 
The towvr by war or terapefit bent, 
Wldle jt\ may Crown tni« batUnmeni 
D«iduu1b and daiuita the Btrmnger's eye. 
Eeoh iTied areb utd pUlftr lone 
PI— di h&B^tily for gtoriea gone." 



Bnt fancy Fifth Avenue redaoed to the condition of Thebes. 
Would the recent stni<iures of some of our Fifth Avennn 
ooillioaaireB in a dismantled and ruined state be plt^asing to eon- 
template 1 Or would the storm- worn relios of The Union League 
dob call up fancies of infinite grace and poetr^-t It would be 
as reasonable to expect the reaiain» of Pompoii to rival the 
Aeropolia — the richly decorated reeort of a pleafiure-seeking 
aod ephememl class to rear montiiuunts breathing the life of 
a nation. Thcn.^ is, indeed, much in what survives of Pompeian 
artf aa compared with the pure Ureek, suggesting the rela- 
tion in which aijtuol American cnltore of this Idnd stands 
toward what that cnlture mi^'ht be and may be. The same 
prufnaeneas, the same lavisliing of Kxpciuliture on unimportant 
details to the exclusion of all that is simple, the same evident 
desire to spend money abundantly without the discrimination 
to spend it wisely. 

Bnt there is something to be said on the other side. Wealth 
no evil in itself, nor is it any drawback to a full and permanent 
leorstaadxng of art It is the misapplication of it that is dan- 
the pouring of it into the hands <.>f venders of don>>tful 
io^brao and the opening of nnlimited credit for th<: ileaoratur, 
cannot bo expeot^l to reject th« opportunity for experiment 
display or the substantial remuneration thus offered him. 
)nt if a pfnrtion of this gold were spent in jiromoting and encour- 
aging a more serious tdnd of art than that which displays it»elf 
in tiles, and disports itself in the manufacture of improbable 
busts of prey and uncomfortable pieces of furniture, the steps 
toward a realization of what Americans really hanker for — a 
of artistic surroundings — would be more rapid, not to say 
VOU CBCtV.— NO. 308. 7 



m 



THK ttOHTH AMlihlCAS REVIEW. 



ninro graceful. Wo uaanot create a pft«t embnioing many inrndi- 
ries of feudal nppressinu ami rubbery, tntemwino strife, pinnder 
aud cavalierdom, nor can ve acqairv that romaatic ^iht oi ft^tiiiU 
worship which clings around the tombs of beheaded kings ami 
WDi-dtired pruiL>es ; uor should we dL>sm.- to dwell in houses and 
surt-ouiti] iiui-selvi-s with objects more apprnpriutf- 1^ Huch a past 
than U> the future wu have a right to expect. There aro vcmsxy 
who know this widl enough, and who feel that, the tvioofT w» 
nliaiulon mi elaborate and expensive media*valit>m, the Hooner 
sfaoU wo arrive at what wo most desire for ourselves aad oar 
children. Where so many ore rich, and where ao many are col- 
tivnting a tnio ta^ta and discrimination by stud>ing iho greott 
masters nbniad, not merely for the sake of learning the Iriek of 
diftingnifibini; between a Venus of Bahecs and a Madonna of 
Raphncl. but becAusa thoy really lo\-c the biiiutiful, and defttro lii 
love it Tjctter, there are of course not a few who already show 
adnurable jndfnnent. 

Thero ai-o buiidinpe in New York whinh wnnW adorn any age 
and auy countrj- — witness the Lenox Librarj', which is worthy 
to rank with the famous " Maison Carr6e" of NJmeB. Tbeire w« 
collections of pictures which compare favorably wirh any galli'ry 
of modem masters of the same size, aud above all then* is 
throujfhont the country a genuine striving after a higher deigrpe 
of art eultiire, and a most sine^ro detdre for what is !>i!flutiful, 
graceful, uud cuduringly harmouious. But th« beautiful thing* 
we possess are sadly handicapped by their Enrrotindin^.'s, and the 
fair proportiouH iif rmr most harmuniuiLs buildings are dn^uilv 
dwarfod by the efflorescent and Bemi'barbarouK embroiderini of 
their most nnneighborly neighbors. There is bnt oih' 'o 

be ufferwl up for t.h»! fiiinn^ nf American Hn*hitccturt> in n- 

can house decoration, and that is for simplicity and ^rraee ( virile 
the greatest boon one need desire for American artisl« itt that a 
tenth of the money yearly squandered in profuse and WMtefal 
omatneutatiou may be some day devoted to the parcbase of mmIl 
works of lasting value as they may produce. 

Feancis Makiom Crawporo. 




PROGRESS OF THOUGHT IN THE CHURCH. 



It may seem strange to say that, if the American people are 
drtveu away frum the Cliuroh, and from faith m the Chrift- 
tiaa reUgion, it will be the fault of the Chairch and of the Pulpit, 
BeUe\-ing is more natural to our people than unbelieving. The 
pATDotal luatiDct seeks a cuuHerving religion for the children's 
Baki>. Wliatever the father may desire of influence, of wealth, or 
position, ihtim i« always that mother, who judges all things by 
itvdr relation to the welfare of her children. To her the child 
it, the pivot on which the world tumii. The supreme quefttion 
with her is. What effo*'.t will new movements or dotitrinea have 
on my children T There is an ineradicable belief that Christian 
Korality is the safe road for childhood to manhood, and that the 
^aalitic8 enjoined by Jeeue are indispensable to success in this 
0ven if there shall be no other life. The household, there- 
is a hulwarlc against infidelity. The liousehold Is a church, 
strong and ineraditiable love of mothers for their ofTapring is 

prophet, and preacher. 
In nations where t}je Christian Ch\irch has been made partner 
»-ith the State in great oppressions, there may be a wasting revul- 
aon, and, >is in France, the popular instinct may be away from 
£uth, and the grossrat pf^;anism may for a time prevail ; but 
Dot in America, The Church here ha8 always been of the 



^oaliti 
^^riest. 



100 



THE NORTH JLMRRZCAU REVIEW. 



people ftnd for the people. Its niinistors have been leaders in 
cdncatioii, iu public spirit, in patriotism. There may bt dogmas 
and doctrines to be oiuted, but no vrongs to be avoided. From 
the colonial days men know that the churehes of America have 
been the organized centers of benevolence, and f!rom the.m have 
iBsuerl the faith wUioh sosLained the Colonies In dark days, the 
enthusiasm which has overthrown nationn) dangers. There baa 
never been an orfranized infidelity — unbelief has no gospeL 
Eminent and ^od men haVe been ir^dcl W church ereeds. seldom 
to nOigioii. The Booffiug infidelity which believes notliing, and 
seeks to eradicate faith, root and branch, is tmcon^nial to tho 
temper and good senae of Americans of native birUi, and of 
American odncati<in. From nature, fnim training, and from 
domestic common sense, as well as from a higher inapimtlon, onr 
people are indincd to religion. They may tolerate eb&nge in 
its institutiou8, tliey may amutte themselves with the wit <A guod- 
natureil infldeht, they may nppUiud intelligent doubt wfaieh 
refuses the weed» whieli have bc«n bound up in Uie aheavea of 
theology, and that nnboliof which aimply refuaes to take a part 
for tlie whole ; but, the rational reverence, the aspiring ideality, 
which work away from the gross and tlie low, will forbid tb« 
American mind to join in wasting skepticism. It will deroaod 
Bomething better for everything it gives up. 

That a great change, progressive and prophetic, is passing 
over the public mind, in matters of religious truth, there caa b« 
no doubt. It is worth our while ict study the nature and db?eo- 
tion of itf and the causes whic>h are pushiog it forward. 

We are passing oat of an age tu which churches are rcvereueed 
as divine by an ordiiuuioe of God. Men are ooming to believe 
tho ftmction of churches to l»e eminent and divine, but not tltcar 
structure and (nrigin. Churches have growrn from tho Qoceflsitiee 
of human natore seeking moral olo\'ation, as schools grow up from 
the neu'essities of int^'Uectnal development ; as t^h^mosynary ioiitil- 
tutions grow from the roquiroments of humanity ; a£ civU goreni- 
ments grow out of tho neowisilies of society. Qod created homaa 
nature, and. in a sense, all that is necessary Ut it. He oro a to d 
iron, but not machinery ; forests, bat not furuituru \ toxtile mb- 
stanees, but not garments ; oolors, but not pictores ; a religious 
nature iu man, but not schools for religion. The progrfiM of 
Buoh views will ultimately give strength to religious orguuin- 
tions; will take them away from superstition and credulity, and 



J'SOOSESS OF TnOOQBT IN THE CBUSCH. 101 

plnot them upon gmnndA of reason. Tlieir usefulness vill be 
UiMr prefiervatiun. But u dmiige iu tXw jihiloBophy vt orgaoiza- 
ticnui does not destroy or even enfeeble Christian institations. 
The actirity of Christian ehnrche» Bhow8 no decadence ^ churohee 
»pe found sjiriuping up in evcrj' nook and comer. They maroh 
irith the army of emigration. They spring' np in territories and 
nev ftaiea at onoe. Not the cabin, the conrt-honser or the sohoolt 
are more sure to appeiir on the pioneer line than churches. Tliey 
follow the plow, and epring' up at aeed from ita farrows. Nor 
are the l>enign activities of CfaciBtiaa chnrohes Blacking ; every- 
wh^« they arc fountains of bonevoleuoe. They wo in every 
village the organized centers of inflnenco for moralit>', for edn- 
eatioo, and for public spirit. The activity and whole benefit of 
th« churchy art' not to be fount] inside the uhurehcs any more 
thsn the benefit of the sun is within the son. The light-house 
ia m>t ffir its own iUnnmiatiou, bnt for those far and near npoa 
a trtNtbled sea. Churches shed their light thruugli all the moral* 
itioi of society. 

ChurcheA iu America of all soots universally inspire intelligence, 
and lead in foundiug and uoorishing schools for popular education, 
and institntions for higher culture. They follow the march of 
pDpolotion, and. almost faster than omigrauts build thnlr houses, 
the wgonized Christianit}' of the land lays foundationa of soimd 
learning. Sis millions of Africans have just passed through the 
Red Sea of war to thf promised lunJ of lihrrty. Alntady schools, 
oolleges, and theological seminaries spring up among them, 
planted and watered by Christian benefloenoe. It would be 
wrong to say that beneficenee is confined to Christian churches. 
But it u not to be denied that the Chriatian churches of America 
lead thf way in p\'ery movement for the eduoatifm of the eom- 
mon people^ for the redemption of men from ignorance and 
anpeistition. The impulse of sympathy is not occasional, fitfnl, 
hT*galar; it in organizf>d, steadfast, always aboimditig. 

Certainly, in no other period or nation ha.s religion been snch 
sn inspiration to whatever is humane, liberal, and generous ; lo 
whatever is pnre, tmCf and just; to wliatever is genial, sympa- 
thetw, and chivalrous in pubUc spirit; to whatever is brave, 
heroic and refulgent in just war, or indulgent and fruitfid in 
honiiralile peace. 

The religious sentiment was never so intelligent, or so strong, 
ia America as now. If it seems less intense, it is because it is leas 



102 



THE :fOnTS AMERICAN REVJBW. 



narrow. It now embraces a world of influences unknown nr nnfrlt 
in the Puritan period. Aspiration, reverence for (jod^ synijiutliy 
with his works, the reflnemontof strengfth, sympathy with all th&i 
is gonorous, maguaaimous, or jost, were never bo widely diffuMiL 
Men no longer are shnt up in a church and a family. These 
are but aaored altars who^^ct light and Are shinty though an 
almost iUimitablo sphere. Riches have taken the place of pov- 
erty ; with riohes have come art, knowledge, variety in social life, 
innocent pleasures interlacing life's daily burdens ; civil liberty 
hm brought duties and occupation to all. The religious spirit, 
diffuses itfielf as an atmosphere over all this firmament which 
declares God's glory, and the earth which is increasingly full, to 
men's apprehension, of his handiwork. This diffusion of the rv^ 
ligious spirit is more in consonance with the divine nntore, and 
with the best nature of the world — with historic religion itself, 
than that circumscribed element which is to be supplanted. 

A mwked change has come over the spirit of worship. In 
medifsval and mouarchic days, worship was veneration pivoted 
on fear. God was not yet a father, worship was not yet a love. 
To abase oneself, to fall prostrate before the unknown, to dwell 
upon one's inferiority, and to mortify one's natural and innooe&t 
impulses, was thought aeeeptablu to God. Veneration is not less 
than formerly, but its language and attitude are changed. Ita 
voioeis no longer the voice of fear. It has learned the maaners 
and expression of liberty and nf love. It haa bloaaomed, and ia 
more fragrant and beautiful than when in its early state it had 
but rude leaves. Those who have seen veneration only under 
black robes, in superstitious bondage to forms, and spcAking ibe 
language of the ascetic, do not recognize it as it moves with 
freer step, a voice of music, and in garments of light. 

Christianity as a law of sympathy was never so strong aa iu 
this age. Tlie brotherhood of the human family is reoognked as 
never before. The literature of onr age, at home and abroad, is 
humane to a degree never known before. Amid much that is 
pure and noble in French literature there is a rank and fool 
growth of sensuous and brutal paganism. The taint has infr-eted 
mort* reeent English writings. It is the peciUiar glory uf Amer- 
ican literature that a«i yet it has contained no immoral or oorrupt 
ing poets, novelists, or essayists. The (-Jernian language enrrie* 
with it knowliMlge and speculation. The French language con- 
vey science and art with elegant literature. The English 



PROGRESS OF THOUQaT FN THE CHURCH. 103 

languge aud Ut«rattire, above nil otiion^ carries knowledge, 
liberty, and religion. As that lanRnaRC is takinif preredenoe 
of all others and srftling itself all tiver the world, it diffome 
ihnt inspimtion which ennobles manhood, which teaches men to 
luuld trm States, which tempers justice with humanity, wfaicb 
r«iwM the humblest i?ili2eii to a participation in all civic affairs, 
nnd opens to every one alike every path to inftuonce, to fame, to 
wealth, and to iiitelligvnt happiness. 

A better spirit prevails muung sects. The lines of division 
•TV bnt lines, and not walls. There is no sign of outward 
mMshamrukl unity, but tliere is an increasinf; ttjrmpathy between 
torches of differing crewls and ordinances. Christians of all 
denominatioDfi come together in matters of patriotism, of ednca- 
tion, and .pf the reform of morals. Clergymen caxi nowpaas from 
one deoominatton to another without insincerity. One may in 
mooesoxm join or preach in the Methodist, the Baptist, the 
Praibytenan, the Congregationftlist ohnrehes, with no more 
unpntalion of having changed faith, or been insincere, than 
would a ritijcen bo chai-ged with civic indifference or insincerity, 
who in Buceession should reside in Connectiout, New York, Ohio, 
and Oregon. 

Churohett are permitting greater liberty of theological thought 
in the ministry than ever before ; not because of laxity or indif- 
ference, but because there is a growing conviction that great- 
heartedneac is more akin to the Gospel spirit than dogma or doc- 
trine. If men «m do good work in art, mechanic*, husbandry, 
or any other secular calling, they are judged by the work which 
they perform, and not by the tools which they iib6. At length 
oouuiion sense is permitting clergj-men to employ their ouni 
(ooU. provided the workmanship is good. Even that magnifl- 
cent sect that boaats that, like the eternal arctic zone, it never 
ohanges, baa come under ameliorating influences. It may seem 
to (wroe tbi? iceberg of iiges ; but its voyage is t-oward the Gulf 
Stream — the sun smites it above, and the warm waters gnaw it 
beneath. It will soon join itself to that ocean which, wiUi shore 
<rf many shapes, with bay or promontory, with many names and 
many idiinea an<l many temperatures, is the one great body that 
aiieeta the globe, and l>y its verj' greatness rubs out all ragged 
lines, and holds it^ own in world-wide unity. 

TTia Soman Catholic Church in America is brought under an 
iniriiiblB influcmco that will change or Hmit it more than all argu- 



IM 



THE NORTH AMERICAN REVIEW. 



moDts or oppofiidon. As & liiunan institutioa it hu as ranch 
right to live as any Protestant Cfaurch. Ita ceremonies, its litur- 
gies, its guTemments, its claims and theories, are for those who 
like them, hut are iraperative on none but those who *»hf»oi«- 
thmn. Unlike the laws of the land, they are not obligatory. 
Bnt in several respects the spirit of the age in inimical to thu 
Roman Clmi-fth. Its priesthood is an aristooraey of the lu'wi 
intense character in a nation and an age peculiarly poactratcd 
with the democratic spirit. It tcactbes with authority^ and 
demands the submissiiHi of reason to ita declarations. But, in 
onr ago and nation, Reason acts upon reasons, and not npon 
authority. It has therefore to oontend against the inrisibl*" 
spirit of the ago, which, in the long run, wears out all opposi- 
tion. In another I'espect, its strength is its weakness. The one 
paramount doctrine of th(< New Testaroont is the independence 
and self-control of the indti'idaa?. The spirit of Jesos and the 
impassioned pleadings of Paul were for the independence of the 
individusL Not that society should not integrate and organize, 
but tliat the final outcome of govonuuent and ;i(K>iety sfautUtl 
be derived from the magnitude, the arithmetical value of the 
intt^rs. It is in this direction— the sanctity of man as a 
child of God — that the great Apostle is most earnest and tHo- 
qnent. Every man shall give account of himselk to God; 
neither church nor priest can answer for him. Therefore, dear his 
path. Lay no hand upon him ; God is his master and judge. Who 
art thon that judgeet another man's servmitf To his own master, 
not to thy creed, government, or command, he shall stand or toll. 

The essential difference Ixstween Protestant philosophy and 
Roman CathoUo philosophy may be expressed in a sentence. The 
Catholic CHiuroh demands and forms a corporatr rmweimos, the 
Protestant seeks to develop an individual conscience. The one 
employs authority, the other influence. Both instruct: the one 
through a submissive faith, the other through reason. 

Here again the spirit of the age is against the hieranhy. The 
democratic disposition of our people, the teudcutaesof their Iaws 
and government, the genius of their schools, all work toward the 
Uberty of individual reas<m and the liberty ot the indi%*idDal 
conscience. Nature and government are exhaling an tnvisiUe 
influeoire, which, as clouds and rains and frosts in long oget rosp 
down very mountains, will at length bring limitation, idiaoge, 
and reformation to the Catholic Church. 



It is DO vneh »f onrs that it should porish. It itt tho gTAudesfc 
orgonizntion uf time. Its luM-ory is almost the histor}' ot tho 
race fur two tbungaiid years. lis afm is sublime and its achieve- 
maili< w<md**rful. It*!; faults h«ve been great, hnt what great 
gOTommfuL i-ao east tho ftrst stone t Shall monarchy \w de- 
i4<<oyed because kings have sinned T Shall republics be disfraa- 
ehiaed because Marat;, Hobeepierre, and Danton faftv<> binclcened 
the memory of the French Kepublie t It has healed as well on 
hurt. The huly men and women in her calendar fill tlie heaven 
of hinlory witli stars. Her missionary and priestly martyrs have 
given to homan nature its crowning glories. Her literature is 
an imperishable treasure. Hej- bymus have convoyed myriads 
through aorrowB and darkness to light, love, and victorj', and 
an BtiU dianting in the air, in every t4)ngne, to all witliln her 
commnninn, or out of it, as with angcil voices, words of divine 
love, of (Hirititian hope, of triumph over death, of immortality in 
boown. I am her eon, her brother, her lover; hnt, as son, lover, 
brother, I d^dre for this great sect such inspiration and pnrift- 
ealion as shall bring her into aecord with the inward purposes 
of Christiftnity, and reconcile her to the aim niid drift of di\-inc 
providence in this age and nation. Then, with fervor of joy, I 
can say; " Peace be within thy walls, and prosperity within thy 
ImUuccs ; for my brethren and companions' sake, I will now say, 
Puee be within the<t ; becanse of the honse of the Lord our God, 
I will seek thy good." 

In flvory vital age. when human intelligence in qoiokened, 
thert- will Iw certain ponimanding influences developed, which, 
from their universality, their iuvisibibty, and their unconscious 
influenoe, might be trailed oHmatio and eosmioal. 

Firat, It is supposed that the world is indebted to original 
thinkers, to trained investigators, to rigid experimenters, and 
that the eommon i)eoplo are merely the recipients of the bt-nefita 
which thej' did notliing to create. But this power of scholars or 
scientists to develop tmth depends very largely upon the intel- 
ligence and pympathy of the e«>ramon jjeople. They pivo force, 
cxtensiou, and enthimiasm to tho reault-s of learned labor. Tliey 
MTo the nurses who care for the children of the brain. They give 
Vttstenancc to those who explore. They form an atmosphere, a 
pohtie sentimeiit, around In vest! gators. Tliey give power and 
pmotical use to the <lry products of the inqoiring brain. The 



106 



THIS NORTH AXL'RICAN REVIEW. 



Inaction of popular intelligeace is, in many ways, as needfuTto 
Boieuce uud learuing as is the special Ixainiug uf scholars tuid 
sdentiats. Both are aeedfol for the production of a ayele of 
knowledge. WTiat is the voice of one man to the response of 
millions as an enforcement of truth T One man kiudlea the torch, 
but a million reflectors cateh tiie light and diffuse it. The Ttury 
twilight of the piiipit may btH.-ome noonday among the pewtt. 
When Israel stood between Mounts Ebal and Geriziin to hetir 
the law, at each gentenoe the people shouted ^'Ameu." What 
was till! solitary voice of the single speaker to the thunder of that 
groat Ameu wMch shook the mountain and the earth T The moral 
oonBcioiisness of people is the Amen to the pulpit. As Sunday- 
schools bring thousands of young men and maidens tu the 
humble office of teachers, they are taught to study the aured 
8eripturef< ; they are provided with helpers j they are made 
partners of the elorgymen- They finally form the jury hcfure 
which he plead.t, and the autocracy of the pulpit ceases. In thiK 
way scholastic learning is gradually laid aside, mere formal logic 
is ranked low, and the spirit of the people, for their own sake 
and for the sake of their children, demands a practical knowl- 
edge that can be converted to the naes of life. 

It is in this way that thi> pulpit i» changing its methods and 
material of sermons. No matter what becomes of Decrees of 
Election and of Reprobation, an audience of fathers and mothers 
imderstand what Fatherhood is. No ingenuity or ehM|Denoe ean 
persutbde them that a God, who for ten thousand years has 
labored to produce an infinite population of damnable souls, van 
with decency be called our Father. The common sense, the 
humanity, tlie moral sense which have grown out of the (Gospel 
are judging theology. Little by little the pulpit shrinks fpon 
mediffival theology. Ministers Arst gloss it by new interpreta- 
tions, then they prudently hold it in suspense, then doubt it 
then east it away. 

Second. Thcro is a strong and growing tendency to enlarge, 
the sphere of Divine Revelation by adding to the Bible th«] 
revelaticin of Nature, and of man's reason and moral roi 
adonsneas. which ore a chief port of Nature. Theology 
mainly regai-ded the revelatitm in Bcriptural record as sole uud 
exclusive. It hns looked with great suspicion npon ppflson, whil 
employing its might to forge arguments against it« plciuiry 
It has more than donbted Nature — it has degraded it, and 



it a liy-woni The school of the osirftic haa corrupted men's 

inindii, and made discord between the Bible and Nature. To 

I«KQ tu one's reason haa hwii dec-Ured a .sin and anore. What, 

then, ^all we lean nponf If a man may not lute his eye«, 

^jrhat mar he see with T It i» taught that man must take Qod':« 

^■rord impliciUy, without controversy. But how shall he under- 

^■taad the word withoat the use of his reason ? U there no 

Hbtiier word of Ood than the Bible T Have the bearens oeosod 

t« di-clare the giorj' of God, and the earth to show his handi- 

j wotkf Ooea God no long^er spcuk through man's moral con- 

I MOBsneest Ib man forbidden to nm hie own reason while 

- :nMnded to brlii^ve the reasoning of the Church t IHd God 

_'_ down and writ« the Bible? or did ho whisper ail its state- 

raentN in the ear of inspired men, who became meclianieal 

roportenf Has God been doing nothing for two thousand 

yemt since the completion of Scripture, which it is worth man'i; 

while to know ! Tliat God f({»e-aks through the Sen'ptures is not 

denied, since tliey are themselvos the record of human experi- 

enee nnder divine guidance and inspiration. When by their nse 

men have grown ttt larger reason, higher morality, deeper 

epiritnali^*. to a wisdom of life nnknown to antiquity', is the 

re^-elation of God through this advanced and poriilBd nature of 

DUU unworthy to l»e concurrent with the old, and to give to it a 

elearer and more rational interpretutiun T 

In an important sense the Sa<!red Scriptnree are of God. 

thsy contnin precious truth. By tbeir moral unity, and by their 

■AQord with human reason and intelligent moral eonacioasneee, 

thi-y justly hold authority over men's conduct and ebaraeter. 

Bui they claim no such mechanical perfection as bos 1.)een 

ed for them. They have authority only concurrently with 

human reason and rational moral sense. On an}' other 

ou, the ehun:h t>ecome8 a temple, the Bible an idol, 

and priests and theulugians the despotic interpreters of its 

meaning. There can be no qnestion that a strong influence is 

fBtting in to redeem the Bible from the haiid.<4 of a narrow sebool 

ology, Ifl open it that the sweet wind of jwrpetual divine 

Lion may blow through it, and to bring it into unity 

Nature, and to set before men the threefold divine revelor 

of hirt<»ry recorded in tlie Book, in universal hnman reason, 

d in til* laws and stroctui-e of the world its^. 

The alternative which every year will press m<Mre and more 




108 



THS IfOSTB AMBiaCAN RBVIBW, 



vehemently npun edncated and thiiiluiig meo, i» tiio cnfratiiiliis^ 
ment of the Bible or — infidelity ! 

Third, A tbird |p-eat movement in oiir tiiue w a tmtusitioti 
from the creeds of the pa^t t^j the formntion of crveds adapteil 
to the preeent wnnte and present knowledge of tmtlL 

Mnch of wbat is called infidelity \s a revolt from the errors of 
old theology. The Church, the Bible, the Creed, have htwn crni- 
founded with Iteligion. llelig^on is the state of a xaaxx^^ sonl, ic 
i» di^wntion and conduct. Neither ohiu-eh, book, nor Ihr-i 
is of value except as an edacatiug inatmmcnt. They ha- ■, _ 
Kaoredneaft of their own. They are mere servants. Mui alone, 
as a aoQ of GK)d and an heir nf immnrtnlit^', has an mlitfn'ut 
sanctity. Bnt the popular impression hu» been assiduouisly cul- 
tivated that a man falls into infidelity who do longer aoo^tta 
the reigning creeds, no matter how just, how pure, how 
beneficent his life may be. Heresy is dissent from a reigning 
creed. Courts and councils have again and again deiTidtNl Uiat 
hereey is subetantial ostracism. Men may be proud, self-seek- 
ers, worldly, self -indulgent— thus denying, in prairtieal farmK> 
every principle of (*hri£tian life, and yet be orthodox and uf 
relative good stauding ; bnt a saintly Ufc, disscntiiig from a lufr- 
baric creed, is not worthy of sympathy or a membership in tiie 
church. 

Onr age ik not in rebellion against clear, intellectual statements 
of religious truth. Bnt there is a relk'Hioii agHinst tlie tyranny of 
mediaeval creeds. It is not extravagant to say that a revolutian 
is at hand in rt^ard to the whole philosophy of ChrLstianity* and 
that this revolution is led on, not from restless impolience of rr^ 
gtraint, nor by novelty, nor by a worldly spirit, hut by \hv 
deepest moral consciousness of men who Inve truth above all 
prioe, and who value a Christian manhood above nil measnre>. 

The signs are in the air. Men no longer preach doctrines to 
which they swore in their ordination vows — or they givo t4i 
them new meanings, at variance with lustoric fact. It i" ^" - 
ginning to be permitted men to preaeh their own, vivv of 
anclippcd by creeds. Sagacious and eauliMtis men are (y. 
sowing seed whiuh they know will by and by destn^ old n<>t . 
Other men testify to change, by greater ze^ in teauhini; thL« old 
sjrmlxds of doctrine. Every age has a race of men whorl- •• '' — 
setves to the care of other men's beliefs, who appoint t) i 
tiod's aherift to hunt and run down heretics. They are vt 



biis>'. Men are eeasing to employ creeds as lines of separation be- 
tween sect and sect, and are elukking hands in a highi^r fitUow- 
ship orer and across them. Creeds have ceased to be employed 
as conservatories of piety. Orthodoxy oonfesfte» that truth can 
DO longer be kept in ehurch ur seuiluary by crtiedK, but only by 
living faith. 

AndoveT, next to Princeton the very JeruiMilinn of tleru- 
**^*-" of orthodoxy, triply guarded by a creed madu tight and 
Btnmg beyond all breaking or picking, and to which the whole 
body of its professors were 8wom to reswear every Ave years, 
has, slas I with some levity and merrimt^nt, Bhown to the world 
with what agility good men oould flyover it, walk aronnd it. They 
interpret the creed of Afty years ago, not by what its makers 
mpantf but by what tho professora think they onght to have 
meuit, and would have meant if they had received a full Andover 
oonrae! 

PmtriS, The development of physical science constitntes the 
gmtd feature of the last half-century. The doctrine of the Consvr- 
«aliM of Farcetiy and the discovery of tht» mothod of creati<m, viz., 
EvolaHon, while revolutionizing physic^ science, will powerfully 
reform social and moral theories. At length the flood of ignoranoe 
has abated, and the dove of tmth has solid ground on which to pnt 
its fcK>t. The study of the htunan mind from the »ide uf physics 
as well as metaphysics is productive of changes of the most radi* 
«] and important kind. Behgion has mnch to hope, and the old 
theology mnch tu fear from scientific disclotmres. 

It matters little that upon t^ome points the great doctrine of 
evolution is yet in discussion. The debate is not about the 
reality of evolution, but., of the influences which produce or direct 
it That the stellar world was not created instantly by the 
Divine will, but grfidually through uncountjiblo ages ; that this 
iaorganic globe was the product of lilowly unfolding changes; 
that the vegetable kingdom did not come into being at once, but 
br slaw ovnlution from tdmple to oomplex; that thf animal 
kmgdom developed from original simple forms, and attained its 
pitaent condition through ages of gradual unfolding from lower 
to higher; that the human race has been subject to tlie same 
great law and method of creation — may be said to be nndispnted 
among scientific men, whetiier Christian or not Christian. This is 
not all The presnmption gaiu» groTind that the chain of suc- 
cesBon is unbroken, and that, as civilized man unfolded from the 



110 



fBE NORTH AMERICAN REVIEW. 



barbaric and sava^ man, so the faoman race itself is derolo] 
trum the auimal kin^dum. 

At this jjuiut there is a halt. It la perhaps the most reroli 
tionary tenet ever advanced. It will be to theology what Net 
tun's (Usooveries were to tlie old astruuoniy. The repupiance ' 
men feel at defwending along such a road, and with Bn<Ui 
ancesb^, would foam and subside in a short time. It is not th^ 
rekroapcct, but the prospect, which gives such almost univei 
hesitation to the mind and imagination of mere scientific moralist 
Its admisRioa would be fatal to tbe theory of a plenary 
verbal inspiration of the Bible, still held by some. The first 
chapters of (renests have l>een a ftword in the hands of theo- 
logiies of old with which to fight the discoveries of modem as- 
tronomy. Next, they were sharpened against the advent of 
geolog}'. In both oonfiicti< God prevailed, and the truth was 
Tiotorious. Now, Ag^i) but upon a more tremendous iume. 
theology rensts evolation. It is an honest reaiBtaace. To admit 
the truth of evolution is Ui yield up the reitrning theology, 
is to change the whole notion of man's origin, his nature, 
problem of human life, the philosophy of morality, the theory of 
sin, the etractore of moral government as tan^t in the domiuaul 
theologies of the Christian world ; the fall of man in Adam, 
doctrine of original sin, the nature of ain and the metbod 
atoning for it. The decrees of God, its set forth in the Confessit 
of Faith, and the machinery supposed to be set at woric for manl 
redemption, the very nature and disposition of God — as tanf 
in the falsely called Tauline, but really Augustinlan tbeologyki 
popularly known as Calvinistic — must give way. 

That good men should dread the breaking np of syBbematie 
theology is not surprising. The scheme is elaborate. It rep- 
resents the teaming and thought, and, fur that matter, the 
emotions of the best men of the ages. Theology is a modei 
encyclopedia. It seeks to arrange whatever is highest in divii 
natare, and whatever is deepest and purest in the human exper 
enoe. Tlieology has been doomed the princely science, the noblei 
study. It has been a iMittle-gronnd. Men'K lives de[teiided 
their theology. On a right de^nidon was life or death, 
who ilid not rightly believe in the miracle of transabstant 
had no further use for his faculties. Thus, the Protestant and 
the Catholic, the Arminian and the Calviuist, the Ariou and the 
Orthodox, have built their theology as luUiona build furta. Tha 



PBOGRESS OF THODGHT /.V T3£ CHUBCH. Ill 

history uf religions doctriues is one ot Uie most wondrrfol 
mritAtious. of good mnee, of Hn-nexMRj and nonBenee. Tlia (J-reek 
mind spectUated, with its aiicustomed ingenuity, upon the persons 
ot the divine nature ; the Roman mind organized the ejemento of 
Uw, ju«tit^, and L'onecicnce, and gradually, a» the cborch became 
a great worldly power, opened up eschatology, or the issues of 
the etemitieg. The excessive ingenuity of the achoolmeu of the 
middle ages span finer and finer the gossamer threads of ethics^ 
luid wove fabrics as marvelous as ever come fcom Chinese hmins. 
Before the sdenee of mind had an existence, men treatifd the 
remote and inconi<eivable elements of the divine mind with per- 
fect aastirHnee. They knew Ood's thoughts and purpoKes ae if 
in confidential relations with him. The debate respet^tin^ the 
penona of tlie Trinity made tlie air lurid far hundreds nf 
yrasn. Because the Bible called God King, the kingly government 
of ancient and of medifeval days furnished the dements from 
which theology formed the theory of God's moral government, 
A few texts of Scripture were enough, whether poetry, 
narratiTe, or pictorial drama, to eataUish a doctrine. iiVom 
lite marvels of tie childlio<»d of the race, from the S6verit>- 
of the imperions Samuel, from the tender h>'miia of David, from 
the ituMiine rage of the prophets, from the dreams and visions 
of Exekiul, from the clouds, the trumpets, tlie horsemen of 
the ApocB^fpse, its auroral heavens, its Inrid dramas, its thun- 
dera and mysterious voiees, the banesi weavers of theology 
drew their tlircads and wove their theories, and stamped them 
with the Bible brand, and called men infidels who should set 
their feeble rea8on against God's Word I Thus it has come to 
pass that theology may find itself described, aSUtr its own man- 
ner, in the vision of Daniel : '* Tliis image's hcwl was of fine 
gold, his breast and his arms of silver, his bcUy and his thighs 
of braas, his logs of iron, his feet part of iron and part of 
day." 

In modem hands great change has come over tbeolog)*, as the 
reanlt nf inoreasing knowledge. There is a uniform tendency, 
away from the aristocratic and monarchic toward the demo- 
cratic; an effnsiou of tenderuess t«^tward man, and especially a 
revolnon fn^m the old representations of eternal tormeut, so 
imporUuit in the convictions of euergetic priests and flaming 
remalista. There is still great confidence of theologians in 
thedngy. Innovations are resisted. Men are cautioned not to 



112 



THE ifORTH AMSBXCjLN BEVIEW. 



lean to faaman roaaon, nor to set up their individual oonsoienee 
against the ripe thought and moral sense of the Church of ages. 

Wlieu wen chungf) in feared^ what viji^jrous fear must be felt 
when a r^rolution impends f But men do not yet consider how 
wide apart aro religion and the theory of religion. Theology, like 
the crustacean shell, may at first protect religiun. but if it may 
not be o-ast off, year by year, for a new one, it soon oppresses and 
even deBtroys. 

The dread of Darwinian views is sincere ; yet a Becret fear 
prevails that they may be true. But have men considered what a 
relief they will be from some of the most disgraceftd tenets of the- 
ology T Are they content to guard and defend a terrific sobenui 
which sullies the honor, the justice, and the love of Qod, againiit 
a movement that will cleanse the abomination and vindicate the 
ways of God to manT Even if the great truth of evolotioa 
led to unbelief, it could not be ao bad as that impionn 
and malignant representation of God and his govomment 
which underlies all mediit5vals and most of mudem theolc^. 
We shall quote from the Presbyterian Confession of Faith th*» 
account given by the Church of the origin of man, and of bis 
moral government, in the tight of which the scientific account of 
the origin of man and the nature of sin \& as health to sicknAfis, 
as life to death. Instead of dreading the pn>valence of tke 
scientific doctaine, Christian men should rash toward it with open 
arms and exnltatiou, as a release from the hideous nightman of 
ages. 

In chapter FV., sec. 2, is the statement of man's creation : 

" Onr flnt parents, beiog sodnced hjXht, sabUlljPftnd UmpUtlODof 
Sinned in eating tfap forbiddfo rniiu Tbtii, their sin, tiod wupiMsed, 
in^ to his will and hoijr counaol, to pennit, having porpOMd lo onl«r it to hia 
own glor7. Bjthiann tbev f«lt trom their orfjcinal ri|^t«oaiD««saDd dou- 
tatmion with Ood, and so l>»oam« dead in lia. and wholly defiled in aQ Um 
fa«iilti«i and parte of Boal and body." 



Next in chapter VI., aeos. 1, 2, is the account of the origin of 
sin : 

" They (Adam and Eve) batog the root o( matikind. the ffDUt of tliidr ria 
wiut imputod and the aame death in sin and oomipted naturo oonn>Tod to all 
their posterity, dasoending from tbem by ordinary generatloD. Pimm tfati 
original corruption, whuroby ws ar« utterly indljpoMd, disaUtd, and made 
Op|io«(« to all good and wholly iiiolJited to all evil, do proooed aU ml— I 
hMMa i M^ aa."— <Chap. vL : 3, 4.) 



Pa0a&B88 OF TBOVGHT Hf THE CBUBCB. 



Shotild a phy?<inan plof e a son of fifteen years in a piaffe hoa- 
{ntai, t*&|M>cliutr, m\y, trurUun that he woald incur the dieeoee, and 
tliat lit* would propagate it to inunmeraljle others — that he might 
show his skill in eomhatin^ it, would not tankage fail in ehar- 
at;ienzing the deed f Or, if thiA illuetratioii bo det^nioii inapt by 
iMkring out the power of choice, substitute the case of a father 
who Jihould placv bis daughter of seventeen years in a court where 
ho knew that slie would be surrounded by the moat uunniug 
courtiers, expert in scdactive flatteries, who should beguile, 
bewilder, and seduce the innocence of the child who had no expe- 
rience of danger, or example, or friend, and who should fall,be- 
ooUM) the mother of immodest children in endless succession; 
would snch a eniel experiment be creditable orexousable because 
bo oifiaiit to s«t up aft*?rward remedial influence? 

But tho most astounding part of this account of creation is, 
that (rod, when he hud created innooenoe and inexperiencct, per- 
mittod it to be debimcht'd. and went ou to tmnsmit tfl the whole 
homan race, tlirough idi time, the degi-adation, sin, and suifering 
of these divinely de«itroycd experimentalists of Eden. 

It appeam then, that the earth was a vast machine for the 
mannfaeturing of corruption ; that God him«f If planned that cor- 
mption ; thai instead of stanching the e^dl at its outbreak, be 
devoted the earth to the production of corruption. It appears, 
«l90. that the sin which they did not commit was imputed to all 
tlie mjTiody of human beings bom ages aft«r the sin wan oom- 
mitted, and that the penalty upon Adam's sin was the total 
derangement of every hnman faculty ; so that m^n oonld not be 
obedieotf but, as a part of the Divine will and arrangement, 
were created not only unable to do good, but by the whole force 
of <i(»dV deereA made opposite to all good and wholly incliMid 
fo all rril. This we are taught has been the business of God for 
ten thousand years — to produce infinite sin and suffering. 

Even this is but the beginning of that theory of creation and 
Otxl*B deeigu in it, which theologians dread to have swept away 
by the revelations of science. It appears that-, before a step was 
taken in thin mighty tragedy, there was a distinct purpose, in 
Ood, that this world should produce inntmuTuble wroU^hod 
jh>iiIj, whose sin resulted from the conditions of their creation, 
for whom no remedy was att'Cmptcd, who were made with the 
distinct and avowed purpose of furnishing material for another 
and after world, designed and built for the purpose of torment 
^mneaR, increa.<«ing forever ! 



IW 



TB£ NOBTU AMSRICAN REVIBW, 



" Bj the decree of God, tor tbp mftnIfestotioB of hLs glory, Mine am 
Angela uepredOBtiiiitt«diuito everlasting life, wad otben foreordaiiied to ever- 
iMiliig death. These sngehi wad men, tlius predefltiafet«d eod foreordjuned, 
bre parUtmiAri^ amd MieAoH^esUy de-Mffnttl, and their number ia eo certsia uid 
definite thiA it cannot bo either inr^tuMAd or tliminiAwd. Tboee of ""itiMiwJ 
that are predeetined unto life, Ood, 1>eforo the foandfttlon of the wofU waa 
laid, sfioording to his et^'nukl uid iuiuiutabte porpoee, and the ■aetei eoonael 
and good pleavore of hie will, hath chosen in CfariaL noUi evDrlaating ^017, oat 
of hie taer« free grace and love, withont 1U17 foresight of faith, or good -in>tk» 
or poneTeranee tn either of them, or any other thing in the creatign, or eOB- 
ditious, or eausee inuring biin thereto, and afl to the prmLse of hie glorj. 
. . . The rent nf mankind God waa plessed, acoonUnf; to the niueiarahabla 
eOQDMl of his own will, whereby be eztendeth or wichhoMeth mercy m h* 
pleaeeth, for the glory of his soTarelgn power oTer hla or«attit«i to paM by, 
and to ordalo tbem to dishooor and wrath, for their sin, to the pniee ot Us 
glorioDS JtuUoe." (Chap, iii., seca. 3, ifS, 7.) 

To one who employs a iiionU B&na^ bretl in the sweet 3i>irit of 
Jeetis Christ, this extraordinary representation of the divine 
natiure, and of the plan of creation, seems like an tinreal 
dream. Yet, it represents the work of i^od men^ of heroic men, 
in an obscure age, when absolnta monarchy fumifihed thn id(i>al 
of God, and when the citizen had no rights which the king was 
bound to respect. From such a mediaeval horror all Chriniian 
men shonld fly toward the rising revelation in scienoe, of Gt>d'B 
true work in creation, mth thanksgiving and gladness. 

This doctrine of the Fall of Man in Adam is not, as may be 
imagined, an extreme and antiqnated notion. It is fandaniRutal to 
the whole orthodox theology of the world. The system could not 
stand a moment if it be exploded. It may be summarily said to 
be the working theory of the (.'bristian Theolopy, br much to-day 
as it was five hundred years ago. Every man entering the minis* 
try of the Presbyterian Church is obliged to swear to hold and 
to teach it. There is no difference in that respect between the 
Catholic and the Protestant creeds. 



Within the memory of thift generation theee liirlconu doctrinn 
were preached widely and vigorously. The outburst of indigns* 
tion with which they were received was regarded as proof that 
man's nnregenerate heart was at onmity with God. Tliey may ^iill 
be preached, but no longer with oommanding sovorcifmiyt but 
apoIogeticaUy. Theydefondrather than assert thnii : But, 

inihemain,tbiaviewliessiIeDtiu thopiilpitltkfai'itr I is«pal- 

oher. Hero and there a good deacon remembers wtieii micJi «ound 



PKO(iJi£SS or TUOUaUT m TUM CliCUCffT 

,40' '^ *'*^ triumpbantly forth, to the coufutdon of heretics 

itou :-.„:■ is, and longB to hear again the retrc&hing souud. 
But the new gcncratioa, wbetlier of olorgy or htity, will not wor- 
ship it. Yet it is t<j-<hiy Iho only exposition, clear luid thorough, 
of whut th0 Cliurch had to say us to the origin of man and the 
mHhod of cj^iitiuM. 

Xot oiily ig the method of creation thus disfigured, bat over 
Ufinuuitt it liAR 1>een erected a scheme of reparatitm and redemption^ 
if nrit BO shot-king, yet equally fletitions and delusive, and des- 
tined to give lAace to a nobler view of divine nature and of 
Providr-nce, and uf the divine thought of the redemption and 
idc "t mankind. 

idcncy of recent scientific rosearchea and disdosnree re- 
Bpcrling^ Lho mind of man, and hi« origin and nature, will be far 
morv pronounced upon the theories of tkcoioffy than upon the in- 
ftituiiffns of religion. Chriatian eiurchea are legitimate orguuiza- 
tinn»for thedtvelnpnient of rehgious emotion and for the applica- 
tioQ of truth lo our daily life. Those churches which arc organized 
for tUxotioH will he leas diatui-bed than academical churches which 
bsTc hitlivirto aimed only to expotmd and defend a creed. But, 
cburdies whose genius it is to davelup religious thonght, as dis- 
Un^ibhed from religions emotion, will gradually change, and 
the devotional element will take the place largely of the tbeologie, 
aud the ethicat the place of the philosophical. 

When the creeds uf the past era have passed away we shall 
enter upon the creeds of a new era. These will differ not alone 
m their contents from former doctrinal standards, but they 
will ilifftT in the very genius and method of constnu^lion. 
Onr reigning creeds begin with Uod, with moral governnieiit, 
nith the scheme of the universe, with the great, invisible realm 
Iwyuud. These are the weakest places in a creed, because the naa^ 
ters they contain ore least within the reach of human reason, 
and bocaime the alleged revelations from God upon them are 
the inoiit scanty and uncertain. The creeds of the future will 
iKigin wher« the old ones ended: upon the nature of man, his 
cr-- ' ill, his Bocitil duties and civil obligations, the 

d<- s n-Bsou, his spiritual nature, its range, pOBgi> 

lobtios, education — the doctrine of the human reason, of the 
«n; ■' uf the will — man as an individual, man social and 
«tl . and from a sound knowledge of the nature of mind, 

dcv^upeii within the scope of onr experience and observation, 
vni. rxxxv.— SO. 309. 9 



:iG 



THE IfOSTH JLMSBICAN REVIEW. 



we shall deduce conceptions of tlie gnmt mind — the God ideal- 
ixed from our best aBcertaimnenU — in the sphere wiUiin which 
oar fa^mlties were corated to act wi^ oertointy of knowle/lge. 
Our vrec'ds will ascend from the knoH'n to the ncknovii, wliioJi 
is tbo tnto law oiid method of acquiring kuowliMlge. Ilitberto 
they have expended their chief force upon that which is bat 
dimly known. 

liie gnmt fear of the pnlpir, that morality will doetro; eptrit' 
uality, that to preach earthly duties i^ill destroy comniuiiiou with 
tiodf ecstatic vi&ions and the forms of transcendent devotjoual 
experience, will have no necessary realisation. Morality ia the 
indisponsable ground of spiritual forvor. '^ Blessed ore ^e poru 
in hoort; tkey shall see God." The root working in tihe aoil ia 
mother of the white flower shining in tlie air. An elevated 
morality Mustsoms into spirituality. An eminent spirituality 
sends down the elaborated sap to every leaf, flber and root that 
hdped to create it. Already the work is done. 

Between the heaven uud the earth there stands God in hmnan 
form, a man of such purity, wisdom, benefloeneo, that men bolieve 
that be came from above to trauslate heavenly life and love into 
earthly cunditious. Superior to hLs own age, he has found no rival. 
If one was needed to teach men how to think of God, how to under- 
stand his gowluesa, his meaiiingn, the geuius of God's life and dis- 
jwidtion, was not Jesus the very one f What power without osten- 
taliou I What inaght into the soul's most subtle secrets 1 His 
very obHciuity was as of one whose head was above the clonda. 
How much He thought of men, and how little uf all the things 
after wbieh tbo whole world rushed I What rigor of ideal purity I 
What pily fur those who fell shortof it! Crowns and kingdoms, 
and dynastic eminence oould not represent (1) sucJi a one. While 
ages have quaiTclled, debating the e^ndeneeis of di\'ini^ from the 
mechanical arrangements of d.^-nostic power, tbo true tests of 
godliness have been neglected. To prove His diWnit)-, men hav» 
trod down everj' vesUgo of evidence. They have desjiised m«?a, 
hated and slain, convulsed Idngdoros, soaked the earth with blood* 
and filled the Banetuary with infernal passiims, in flerr^ ar;^- 
ment to prove that Chrbt might be deemed divine t The Kigns 
and proof of divinity nnst be looked for in the sooL Lore is 
royal God is Love. Greater love hath no man than that he Uy 
down his life for bis friends. Jesus did it for lovt^ and ia 
forever King in the Beahn of Love. 



PS0GSE8S OF THOUGHT IN THE CRU&CH. 117 

Is Bach a nune to die T Will tlie world, when science shall 
have revealed all its secrets, find anything else so precious, so 
needful for hope, for comfort, as this great soul that stood 
between men and God, to teach them the way to Godt 

The future is not in danger from the revelations of science. 
Science is truth ; Truth loves the truth. Changes must come 
and old things must pass away, but no tree sheds its leaf until 
it has rolled up a bud at its axU for the next summer. 

Navigation does not cease when correct charts supersede 
faulty ones ; nor husbandry, when invention supplies new imple- 
ments superseding old ones ; nor muiufactnring, when chem- 
istiy improves texture and color ; nor governments, when Reform 
sweeps away bad ones and exalts the better. Religion is not 
destroyed because a new philosophy of religion takes precedence 
of the old. Positive faith may stagger while old things are 
passing away. To give a rambling vine a new support, men 
prune back its long and leafl^s stems ; but the root is vitaL 
New growths spring with vigor. Our time is one of transition. 
We are refusing the theology of Absolute Monarchy — of Divine 
Despotism, and framing a theology consistent with the life and 
teadiings of Jesus Christ. 

Henky Wabo Beecheb. 



THE ORGMIZATION OF L\EOIl 



It is a difficult thing for two meu occupying; different po«i- 
tiona and moving' in separate spheres in lifts t*) view an object 
and pass the same opinion npon its merits; it ia, therefore, no 
wonder that so many conflicting opinions exist regarding' tho 
present conditions of capital and labor. It is the opiuiou of a 
great many, honestly ent«rt»ulned no doubt, that the men and 
wom&n who labor do so under protest^ and that they only await 
an opportunity to seize the men who employ labor by the throat 
and despoil them of their powti-gmons. On the other huiid, Iho 
laborer of t^^n regards the man who employs liini as an enemy, who 
barely allows him to exist that he may reap profit from hi« toil. 
Both of these opinions prevail to-day; they are bnt the results of 
tho present system of settling dijsputos between capital and labor. 
Some me-n say that the interoete of capital and labor are Ideoti* 
cal ; but it is evident that the majority of those most intcrpstcd 
do not think so, or else these opinions would not pre^'ail. \V'bai 
is reirardwl a* a war between capital and labor is but a laek of '^>n- 
fi<lence in each other. Did each of these interests give a thouj^hi 
to the condition or welfare of the other, two-thirds of the griev- 
anco6 we luvir of would never exist. So loug an it pays one man 
bo bay labor at a low figure, and the man who sells hin labor 
wishes to get OS high a price for it as possible, it will bo a 
difficult task to oonvine^^ them that their InteresLti are i ' i; 

and, viewing the question from that stand-point they an i- 

tieal. Men having cmpital, the product of labor, to invest, form 
thenisolve»t into eompaiiit^ or assoniatians, and consolidate their 
capital thnt they may reap a greater profit trom their in vwitmcsnts. 
They Wlieve that in union there is strength, and that ' i- 

nation they can best protect Uieir iuti-reslA. The men v. i r. 

taking this action of tho men of capital as. a criterion to l' 
have formed themselves into companies or associationa that ihty 



TBE OSQAKlZATIOy OF LABOR. 



119 



tatty reap a greater profit from tbo iiivf?6tment of their capital, 
which in labor. Thti iiapitol of the former k the creation of man; 
thnt of tho Tatter is the creation of (rod, and of the two it is enti- 
tUxl to the moHt cousiderutioD, since no capital uouJd exittt uoleas 
lalK>r created it. But labor is regarded as a secondary conrndex- 
otion ; and that it may have n full, ji)t<t fiiliart* of tJit' values or 
capital it has created, working- muii have banded together in dif- 
fetfent aasociatimiB and under different names, Bn^ as the " M&- 
chiuitfte^ and Blacksmiths' Union,'' the carpenters', mulders*, 
maBons^ brirkliiyers', tailors', hatters', and shoemakers' uniiras, 
eadi eraft having it« own oi^auization. The history of the 
trade union reaches too far back, and would take too umch time 
ftod space to discuBS here. " The policy of the trade union, oud 
strikes," is what I am asked to explain. The policy of the trade 
nnion is to protect, its memlx^rs atfftiiist tho cncroaehmente of 
tuijiut employers, iudividually, workiugiticD are weak, and, when 
separated, Cttch one follows a different course, without accomplish- 
ing any thing for himself or Ins fellow-nian ; "but when combined 
in one comniou Iwud of brotherhood, they become as the cable, 
owUi strand of whieb, though weak and Imiigniflcant enough in 
hself, is assisted and strcugthened by being joined with others, 
and the work that one could not perform alone is easily acoom- 
plUhed by a (combination of strands. Each of these unions 
•ought t^) regulate HfTtiirs pertaining to its particular branch of 
trade, but the principal object of the trade union was to regulate 
tho number of apprentices, the rate of wages, the nmnlier of 
working hours, and to ussist each other in sickness or misfortune. 
Some of these unions have been successful in the attempt to 
ngulate the number of apprentice, bnt the greater portion of 
them have failed. The rapid introdnctiou of labor-saving 
mschiuLTy haa made it possible for one man or a boy to perform 
more labor in some trades in a day, than one hundred men could 
in the same length of time a century ago. The mechanic who 
has Bcrvod from three to seven years of an apprenticeship finds, 
in a groat many instanoea, that as soon ns he becomes a jonrney- 
mau his serviues are no longer required. He can only at 
rare intervals obtain employment where he can make any use of 
tho particular part of tho trade he has learned. Years ago, the 
"' Ii'«rinil the mnchinisi trade was required to run the 

li'i t drill press, to work at the vise and " upon the floor" as 

v«iL To-dny this trade has many subdivisions : one man runs 



120 



TRE NORTH AMERICAN HBVIBW. 



the lathe, another a drill press, while the ptoiiing and nlnttitig 
niadiines can tu'eompltsh more in a day, in llie way nf smt^otliing 
off the rough surfaces of the metals, Ihan the machiuLst with his 
hammer, cliit^el and Qle iian in a week, or amonth. What btu< 1»e*ai 
said of the machinist trade is true of a great many oTJier trades*. 
It is, therefore, of Itttlo avail to attempt tu rogolatc the number 
of apprentJiiert, when the mechanic who has served 3'ears ut his 
business ott«;n linds himaelf of leas consequeDce Uian a patent 
machine. 

The principal business nf the trade union, of late years, has 
been to relievo the distress of sitik or disabled members, and to 
try and secure a fair day's wages for a fair daj-'s work. In the 
multifarious branches of trade, capital ban its oombiuaUons, and 
whether intended or not, Uiey crush th% manly hopes of Inbnrf and 
attempt to trample poor humanity in the dust. To |>re\-ent '' - 
the trade union has re«orted to the strike- The only fault T . l 
to find with the trade union of the past is that it rarely sought 
for any other remedy. Arbitration was seldom resorted to, and 
if the idea of cooperating with, or assisting any other nnion, was 
hinted at, the loader of tlie trade union issued the edict *' Form no 
entangling aUiances with those of other trades." I heard that 
order issued by the executive officer of the Tirutherhood of Loco- 
moUvo Engineers years ago. Soon after, a strike was iaaaguruted 
by thai society, and tho executive oflBcer of the Machinists' and 
Rlaeksroitlis' Union gave the command, '• Man the ftxit-boarda." 
The members of the lost-mentioned union took the places of the 
men of tlie Brotherhood of Locomotive Engineers. It was nnl 
poverty or want that compelled them to do so, but roveojje 
similar act practiced on thorn some time before by the i ... : 
oi^anization. I have seen men engaged in iron and Bte«l worin, 
whose duty it was to prei)are the steel and Iron for market: skilled 
in the art of boating the metals, they performed but litUe man- 
ual labor themselves. The heavy work was done by labonrs \ 
while the skilled workmen elept, these men wore atl^mding to 
their work for them ; and though the skilled mechuuics cleared 
from five to ten doUora a day, they grudgingly paid tbo laborer 
a dollar and twenty-five, or a dollar and fift}* cents a day. The 
skillod workmen had a union, through the instrumi^utnlity of 
which they regulated the price uf their labor; the unskill 
meoi had no organization, and were forcod to content tli' 
witJi what tbo others chose to give them. 



T2TB OnOAmZATlOlf OF LABOR. 



121 



I 



t -wliilo the unskiller] laborer toiled, he learned the art- of 
innir the luetali* himself; and soon bectiuw m proQciont in 
bosinedse aa liis employer. lie then offered to do the work 
IcsM money; a redaction tif wages fallowed; a strike ensued; 
that anion dishsnded. The trade auioniBt seldum looked 
ond thi^ limits of hi« own society for the eanse of any thing, no 
what the effect might be. The Knights of St. Crispin, at 
time a very powerful trade society, wooid scoff at the idea of 
^SaJgamating vith,ori>oming t4> an undenrtandingirith the(>>al 
]lii>enf Umon. But when the work in th« mine slacked off, or 
wan rat down tn liiUf time, the Crispin was not required to mun- 
ofaetare bo many pairs of boot« and shoei;, and he felt the effect 
of half time in the coal mine without knowing the cause — for the 
eoal miners wear oat h gr^t many paira of boots and shoes in 
the year. 

The mafthiiUAta and bloeksmitlis employed in the conBtraction 
of |oc<mintivt,« paid but little attention to the laws of supply and 
demandf and, so long: a-s they had steady employment, made no in- 
qinriea oonoeruiug the state of trade in other locabties; but when 
an ti v erp rodoction of coal glutted the market, and the owners of 
the mioee struck against a reduction in the price of coal, by pnt< 
i,ting the mines nnder their control on half time, it did not require 
to many locomotives to draw the coal to market. The result was 
a soapensioa of a portion of the force employed in the conBtmo- 
tbm of ItK-omotives (tlus inMudcft machinists, moldors, pattem- 
raakvrs. bluek&mithH and carpenters). It suou bet^-ame Hpjiarcnt 
the tnule unionist tliat the strike conld not remedy this evil, 
id he befpui to lixik for a better means of securing Ht«a<Iy em- 
plnyiDrat at living wages. 

While the leader of the trade union inveighed against the 

'ocmio^ of '* entangling alliances with those of other trades," 

tmpioyvr b«d formed alliances with other employers of labor, 

when a strike t<Ki]c ]iluce, he knew where to look for men to 

the plams of the strikers. While the trade unionist waa 

the l»e«t means of supporting his bn'threu on strike;, hia 

was interesting himself in ha\-ing laws passed by the 

State le(pidiitnr«8 which made it a penal offense to engage in a 

ftrikr under certain comiitions. The narrow-minded policy 

that forbade entongling alUancee witJi those of other trades also 

lurmged any attempt on the part of working-men to int«r. 

with p«»liUoa. The l»der of tie trade union, honest enough 




l: 



oo 



THS NORTH AMEBICA.N HEVIEW 



in his convictions, no doubt, looked upon politi-it as a trado 
which rascalii alone sliould l«im. The result was that not a ft-w 
rascals found their way into our Stat« and national lo^idaturM, 
and vfl find the »tatute books of the various States dotc*^d Imm 
and them with lavs framed wholly in tho inten^at of capital— 
aomeof them for the prev*i;ntion of strikes — while Dot a thought 
ever (-ut^^n-d the heads of the able law-making slatosmcn about 
thu causes which led to tho atrike. If tho Stato has the right to 
enact laws for the proteotdon of the capital of the rich nuuii it 
certainly has a right to make laws to protect the source of oU 
capital— Inbor. lu their haste and nnxic^ to plonso the capitalist 
our law-makers sometimes injnro him as much lut they do labor. 
In illu&tnition of this I need cite but one act passed by the 
Pcuusylvatiia Lcj^islaturc. It became u law in 1877, and is 
entitled '* An Act for the better protection of passengers upon 
railroads and to insure the prompt transportation and delivery 
of freights." Section one of that act reads : 

■' lie it eoActM, ^ta., That if vrxy l<»oomotlT« ffi^iUuwr, or otbfr rflilroad 
omitloj'^ \i\vM any railroad within this State, eugaged In aujr strike M-irith 
ft TJow tn incito oth«rs to snob strike, or In fttrlJtcmneci of any aombinftHcm or 
preeonoertcd ■tmng«m«iil 'witli Any other penion lo 1>ring nbonf n ftrike, 
■hall abandon the looonuiUv» engino in his uhariro. wbeu •!<'=>< -t to tk 

pamenj^r or bright tnun. at any plnou other thaii the tl««'. n ..( hu^ 

t3«in, or shall rcftuo or neginct to continue to diMhaige hia duty, or lo jtro- 
««ed with said train to the place of destination, a« o/oreMld, hn nhall t>« 
dMnned guilty of a misdemeanor, and a|ran coiivicUoD Ibervof abaU ho flsad 
not Inm than one hondrcd nor more than five hundred dolIarB, and may bo 
Imprisoned for a term nok exceeding six mooihs at the diacretton of I2i* 
oonrt." 



The other sections of tbB aofe follow in tlie aarae ertrain. If 
the members of liie Pennsylvania I/trgiBlatun? worn aetuaitN] by 
a sincere desire bo afford better protection to the traveling publio, 
they would not have framed so one-sideil an act As it readji, 
only the emjiloyfe are roqnirod to look afl*?r the welfare of th« 
paBsengers. The railroad companies may stop their trains at 
any time or for so long as they like, so far as that a<;t is eon* 
eemed. If (he intention was to deal justly by ciqiitid and laljofi 
they would have paessd a law retpiiring f>f railroad eompauiea to 
give, say five daya^ notioe to their employes of any iutent on 
their part to reduce w^^ or of any change in tho mauag> 
of the road Likely to bring on a strike, and nlao roqairing vmiii* <y c« 



TBB OBGAI^IZATION OF LABOR. 



123 



to jrive fire days' notine of their iiDunnin^ne&s to CAntinnc to 
"work after rooeiving snoh notice, and then fix a penalty for fl 
i«fiBal of cither party to comply. Had that been done, it wonld 
havD aflnrdtHl ain[ili> protMitiun to paaseugers. and would have sc- 
niTwd the |in>tnpt traufiportatiun of frei^ts. Then wurking-iuen 
■wimld not have looked upon tho law hs the ereation of corporate 
capilnl — which it really is. The priin:iptil eflfeet of that law was 
to doprire the travdinfr public of the use of ouo hundred and 
twnrit ' locomotives, which were destroyed by the torch of 
the ii ry in tho round-houses at Pittsburgh dnring the 

greftt strike of 1877, and to faston. an extra bnrdon upon the 
indnBtries of that city, in the ohapo of tnci-ea«ed taxation, to pay 
for damages done to property daring the troubles of that year. 

A strike cannot change the apprentieo syst«m; a strike cannot 
r^DKive itnjast teohniealities and delays in the admiuistration of 
jnfltico, a fftriko cannot regulate the laws of supply and demand ; 
for if it cnts off the supply, it also cuts off the demand, by throw- 
ing eunsuitutrs out «if fmpl<t_\'nieni, tliereby curtailing their piu*- 
«bm«ng powenf, A strike cannot remove or repeal unjust lawa, 
for At hest the strike secures but a temporary relief; it may 
KaKilt in an advauee of wages, but if so it is a dearly bouj^ht 
vifiory. and at the first available opportunity*, another reduction 
\» tmpoaed. Tlio strike is the weapon of foree, and ** who over- 
comes by force hath overcome but half his foe." If the men who 
willingly \f>»ei one, two, three or six months' time in a strike, 
wimld continue to work, and set apaii. tho money thns spent for 
the purpose of creating a co6peratire fimd, and if the men vho 
Cfmtribute to their support- wouW Bet apart- tlie money they 
advauee for the purpfise of adding it to that fund, they would 
Boon amasa a sum sufDcient to erect factories or shops largo 
enough tt> give enipIo\'ment to their idle brethren. But I fail to 
Me any lasting got»d in a strike. 

The cause of so many disputes between capital and labor lie« 
tn the present wage sj-steni. Take awHv the labor, and eapital 
eonhl not exist. If you remove capital-, or any portion of it, 
labor can create more; it is, therefore, not so dependent on capi- 
tal a« prtpitiJ is npon labor. No sane man would think of invwtt- 
ing his (•apital in an enterprise, if he did not have the nasurance 
that he could employ labor to carry on his business. Since they 
most operate together, they must assume the proportions of a 
pfutnershipT in which one invest* his money, the other hia brain 



124 



THE NORTB AMBRICAN JIBVZEW. 



and muscle. If working-men were admittad to the councils 
tlio employers, and were accorded a percentage of tho profite i 
their iuvostmeut> and if more confidence existed between tl 
two, then strikes would be of rare occurrence- The worker 
aa much interested in the success of his employer as he ix hb 
self. If, instead of endeavoring to reduce wages to the love 
possible figure, the employer would content liimself with a 
sonable share of the pro0t<} of his business, and would call his 
cmploy&i in and say : ^ We will operate the business of this coi 
eem tofjether; all that we realize above a eeitain sum will 
regarded hs profit ; I am entitled to a certain percentuge of 
you are entitled to the remainder; when the market is fs 
our profits will not be so large ; and yon will at all times knoi 
how my business stands. It is to yoiu- interest to see that I pros- 
per, and I will always aceord to you the fullest confidence.'* If 
employers would look upon their employ^ as eqnala in the scale 
of moral worth, and treat them accordli^ly, there would be 
fewer grievances to record. 

Men who found the trade union too narrow and contracted to 
sTiit their views find all they have sought for in the Knigbts of 
Labor, an oi^^anization founded in 1869, but which was kept pro- 
foundly secret until the beginning of the pre&etit year. One roA- 
son for keeping it so dosely guarded was to shield its momi 
from being discharged, as they wen so often in the old 
nnion. 

The seed, if not proptrly protected, is easily blown awny 
or destroyed by the elements, but if sufficient care is takeoa 
to cover it in planting, it take-s root and grows. The rait 
wind, and sunshine, elements that would have destroyed it If 
were left exiK)8ed, now contribute to give it life and st 
So it was with tho Enightsof Labor. Had that body been ot 
izcd openly, public opinion and the opposition it would me 
with from other labor societies, would have prevnntod its proi 
But it was properly c<iveredj it took nxit and grew all over 
United States, and to^ay it aasiats in molding public opinion 
itself, for it controls several of our leading journals and n< 
no longer fear opposition. It teaches its mi>nibers to tfaiuk fu 
themaelvee, and that a full understanding may bo arrived 
"between employer and employ^. The workman and the nuwi 
faoturer may meet in the assembly and e:EchangB ideas. Bu&ini>£ 
men. meet with working-men within its fodds, wUora they > 



OSOAyjZATION 01 



I 



lliflir mntniil relatione. Tlie organization has adopted the motto: 
"That ia the moi«t p<:'rfoot governmont in which an injury to one 
fa tfao concern of all." Membere of isolated trade oniuoa are 
btcoming members of tlv- Knights of Labor; men of all creeds, 
■D nstjonulitiett, all oocupations (except lawyers, bjuikers, stock 
gmmblerSf and idlers), are admitted. The idea is to ''bring within 
the ffilds of the organization every department of prodnetive 
indnstry, making knowledge a etand-point for action, and iudos- 
trial and moral worth, not wealth, the true standard of individual 
and national greatncBS." 

HiU aasociation desiroe " the abrogation of all laws that do 
not bear fqually npon capital and labor; the snbstitution of 
■rbitmtiun for strikes ; the prohibition of child labor ; to 
Kcnrc for both sexes equal pay for equal work; the reduction 
of Uw hours of labor to eight per day, so that the l&borers may 
have more rime for social enjoyment and intellentoal iniprove- 
wnt, and be enabled ttt reap the advantages conferred by tho 
labor-fiaving machinery which their brains have created ; to 
jHrvftil upon governments to estAblish a purely national clron- 
Jalug mnliuin, issued directly to the people, without the iiit^r- 
rention of any system of banking corporations, which money 
•ball be a legal tender in payment of all debts, public or private: 
tbe establishment of oo<ipcrative institutions, productive and 
dtttributive ; the reserving of the public lands — the heritage 
of the pf<iph'— for tho actual settler. Not akothkr acre fob 

ftAlI-BOADB OR COBI'ORATIOKS.'' 

Cither reforms are sought for by tbis organization, but thcso are 
BDOng' the principal ones. It will be observed that political action 
nnst be resorted to In-fore wc can carry out those sebmues. This 
may lead to the supposition that the Knights of Labor is a politi- 
al oi^ganizatioD. In so for a« it teaches its members that the 
wih they complain of are brought abont by bad Icgislatiou, and 
that th** r^-niwly muKt come through wise, judicious legislation, 
it ti political, Ijut not partisan. Legislation, good or bad, affect« 
the man who (with pick, shovel and crowbar) lays the rails, as 
w«n as the man who guides the engine over them, or the man 
who pcxfccts the drawings for the engine. That they may take 
vnitcd notion when noceasory, is the reason for bringing them 
within tho fold of one organization. I can hardly enumerate tlie 
principal ulvantagcd and benefits to be derived tcum each an ns- 
aoeutioD i politicians assert tbat there exists no aecesedty for on 



126 TKE NOBTH AMERICAN BEVIBW. 

organization -where political questions are discussed. Until vray 
lately, worMng-taen entertained the same opinion, but neoessity 
has taught them that, in order to compel politicians to perform 
their duty faithfully, the people mnst be educated np to a standard 
high enough to enable them to judge for themsdves -whetfaer a 
law be passed in the interests of a class or for the public good. 
Labor, all its rights — capital, all its rights — no spedal laws or 
privileges for either, but " equal and exact justice for alL" 

T. V. POWDERLT. 



THE UNITED STATES AllMY. 



from Aineri(!a to Europe last year, I happened 
to HfcfBfor a fdlow-passengiir a Oumiaii officer. "Ja wohl!" 
remvktHl thii^ nLilitury servant of Kaiser Wilhelm, '* it is 
tnUy a great noiuitr}-, this .Vnu-riwin RepuliUe. I have Bi-en 
ils Congrcws. I have moutitM high in an blovator, 1 havu drunk 
bottotif al laf^ beer, I have seen swino slaaghtorcd by mAchincny, 
I hare elept in the car of Pullman, I havo voyaged in a rivOT 
steamier grand as a palace, 1 Lavo st^^n a torchlight procession 
three miles long. But, dear sir. in idl this great conntry I hare 
iseeu no annj". Wla^re is the garrison of New York ? Where 
th» giuTLsou of "Wtwliington 1 Where the puurd corps of this 
mighty tiHtioUj that Bixt^wn years ago had some two TniUionn <rf 
men audt-r iirmst Yes, I have seen not a few generals, and the 
ooimtiy nndoabtedly possesses numerous colonels; bnt whiirc 
oro itii IfigionH, where its moseos of infantrymen, where itfi 
cuiniseioni. its uhlans, its hossora T Why. there woe not so much 
as a solitiuy sentry on the S<'hlo8» of the l*residcnt )" 

The Kiiriiriso uf tlie Prussian Hauptniann was not to bo won- 
dered at. Of no nation which maintains a standing army are the 
troops so little en fvidcnce a& are those of the United States. 
, iVobably two-thirds of the population of tlio n'pubUc nevt-r saw 
M much uf its army as a company of lino infantry. The Haupt- 
moan's comments oocosioncd me to overhaul my own cxiwricuces. 
1 hud iqient n whole winter in the United States, and traveled 
over two-thirds of thi^m ; but I could not remember that during 
that time I liatl seen a corporaPB (mard of the regular ajiny. At 
the capital, it is true, then* ha*l Tioeii imposing evidence that tho 
rcpul - ily does own an army. The lod^g of no war 

dopor .1 tbt! world can compare for »pa<;iou3 splendor with 

that palaite overogniusl tlio White Houfie, in which the American 
Secretary of War uid the American General of the Army have 



128 



TOE NOltTB AMERICAN REVIEW. 



their ofTieiol hwui-quB iters. If, indwd, military boivanx werf' to' 
be Bcccptixl as a display of military' strcngtb, it cotdd be in thv 
month of no visitor to Washington to aver that he had ema 
nothing of the American army. There is a distn(;t of that boou* 
tifiil motropoliti in which ib Boema that almost 0VC17 SBOond 
bailding is occupied by some 1>raueh ur other of military or quasi- 
military administi-ation. And if the Dumber of ci\41ijui em- 
ployes finding occupation (or salaries) in these various boreanx 
were to be taken as the criterion of the strength nf the army in 
whose administration they are engaged, the assumption would 
be natural that the army of the United States is ae the sands of 
the Bca-shore formultjtudv. Bnt'Wftsbiugtnn vmx sliownot t-ven 
the ha'p'orth of army broad to all this quantity of aUniiuistnitJve 
sank. The (General of the Army nails a utilitarian si^ on the 
basement of Ids private residence, indicating tliat his "office'* \s 
within, but no sentry promenades the pavement in front. If th« 
divisional lioftd-fiuartcrs are visited, thoro is found there sen 
more ahowof military formality. On Governor's Island G^l : 
Hancock can, it is true, listen to the sounds of the bugle, and 
heartlip report nf the morniiiR and evoniuppnn; but the Chicago 
head-quartersof OeneriU, Shmdaii's eommaud, that stretches from 
the Lakes to the G ulf and covers an area larger than the continent 
of Europe, are located in the rented sMond floor of a men*antile 
building. The superficial observer might carry away the im- 
pression that the American army bears a striking resemblance 
to the tailjKile, in that it has a very big head and very litUit 
body, were he not iu the course of his casual readiug to csimc 
across the fact that its annnal cost to the cotmtry aniixn 
some forty million dollars. He reflects that on on aiinri! 
penditure of only twelve and a half millions mare, Oenn v 
maintains a standing army of 420,000 men* with the macli 
for increasing that strengUi to n inillion within a single v 
and the conclusion is forced npon him that there must bv on 
American army somewrhere, if only lie eon find it 

If the observer h:4)pen8 to be a Briton, theiv is for him a 1 
interest in tlie discovery and study of the American army. It" 
happens that the march of improvement in the art of killing haji_ 
left the United Stales and Great Britain the only two count 
<rf the civilized world whose standing armies ore profes'^ 
contradistinction to national armies. And there is tbiH a 
similarity, that the armii» of these two countries ore liiu ouly 



TSB mriTED STATES AltMT. 



129 



•mu«s of any importaut stuto of the civi1i2c<l woH<l^ whose duties 
in the natun of thin^ inu8t be confined to defensive and police 
work, in oontrndistinction to that other m6Uer of anuit^, aggres- 
tiou or reprisals dir<M!t«d against a foreign euemi,', if that tuemy 
have any claim to military reepeetability. I do not apprubend 
that Amerioons will moko demur to this definition. That Indian 
warfare in which the AmenL-an aniiy is fitfully eiigageil is strictly 
within its limits; and cvun in tho auiusomout with Mexicu, a. 
State that searoely can claim military respectability, a volunteer 
foroe was onployed. To my countrymen it may not be wholly 
palatable, bat this ciretunstauoe does not affect its acctu'acy. Au 
empiro which (exi-lns-ive of the Indian establishment) has a stand- 
ing army iwly onn litiiidred and tliirty thniisaiid strong, of which 
a lai^ proportion is absorbed in colonial duty and foreign gar- 
rison serrioe from Halifax to Sydney, and from Gibraltar to 
Hottg Kong, cannot in sanity adventure on laud hustilitli^s 
against any of the great military powers, that can put into tho 
field divisions against that empire's regiments, army corps against 
its hrigadea Britain may engage in importaut warfare, it ia 
true, BS an ally of one of the great military powers ^ but in doing 
•o ber attitude^ In a numerical senee, must be that of a more aux- 
iliary, 80 loug as she adherer to a professional, in oontnuHstinc* 
tion to a national army. It remains that, in essentials, the r6I« 
of her army must mainly be police work on a large bcqIo. Of 
Cbia ehuracter in effect were her recent troubles in South Africa, 
both with the Zulus and the Transvaal Boers ; and the manner 
of her disposal of these was scarcely snob as to encourage in the 
most saoguine a belief of her ability to emerge with credit from 
iiKR« serious ecterpriaes. 

By far the larger projiortion of the American army is on 
»ervic« westward of the Missouri River. The explorer in search 
uf it will probably gravitate in the first instance to Port Leaven- 
worth, because thut fort, standing as it does on the margin of 
the farther bank of the great river, is the readiest of access to 
the wayfarer from the east, and also beoause he will find there 
ihr lifad-inmrtorB of one of tho four departments that c-itjmprise 
the " Division of tlie Missouri." At Fort Leuvfiiworlli he will 
fled a genera] officer in command, whose personal expcrioncca 
havt! tmoQ widely varied, and whose aocmnulated wealth of 
information on military topics in the Far West is equaled only by 
his ooortcous readiness to communicate that information; he 



130 



TBE NORTH JMESICAK SEVIEW. 



viU find alfio a E«hool of instruction for officers tluu, bi<k fair, u 
it develops — at j)rt>,seut it is ouly in ila first youth — to take 
rank ae a staff college of a high order ; and he will find, too, a 
military prison which will furnish the investigator — ho l*eing 
a Briton — with some uuriuuti uutteriul for compariaoa and 
contrast. 

Siai* Hie rack and the knont were abolished, there ie, perl- ■!>'•■ 
no mure terrible institution in the world tliau a Britmh mil 
prison. Its spirit is relentles&Iy punitive. It make« pa 
of its entrants by the wanton cropping of thnir hair to tin 
bone. The " good " prisoner finds his only reward in execi . 
from prison punishment; tlie violator of the minutest rule ci [tu- 
eomplieatcd code of prii;ou discipline expiates his offcnst* in pun- 
ishment with stem inevitability and inflexible seventy. Labor 
that is ostentadously nselt^ and therefore doubly irksome, ic the 
somber alternative to yot more somber solitary confinement ; the 
prison fare is meajirsr and monotonous to a degree incredible on 
this side of the Atlantia No good conduct avails the prifiuucr 
toward tho mitigation of hia sentence ; he has to " dree Us 
weird" to the last hour. And when release comes to him, unless 
his crime has been hwnons enongh to have earned him the cod- 
summation of diBhonorablo discharge from the army on the eon 
elusion of his term of poni^mentf he goes back into thu rt:r ^:'' 
it may be inspired with so wholesome a horror of the mil 
prison tliat ho vow8 never again to incur the risk of en* 

gloomy portals; but more often with a sullen despcru -i 

creased in most cases by the hopeless burden of delit cnrtailiug 
hiB pay, that makes him worthlBBS as a »oldif r, and that prompts 
him to no ni.itt«r what recklesBaeas of effort to break the hated 
boods that hold him to military service. 

Had Fort Leavenworth military prison been designed w ■ 
contrast to this picture, the radical d^erences between it and a 
British military prison could not bo Htronger. Before its portali! 
are ruached, the prisoner destined for it has generally ucoaod to 
be a soldier. Adjudicated to be not worth keeping in the army, 
and ftir the sake, too, of simplifying the company Ixwiks, hv has 
been written off his regiment as " dishonorably discharged,* 
before he eomeg under the surveillance of Major Blunt. One* 
inside the prison, his hiur is left nnto him^ and he is aeiugnfd 
quarters in an airy barrack-room, far more comfortable than Lbe 
teofc or adubi! hut wbieh, as likely us not, he had been cMuupyiug 



liU company. Here he has his bed from the first 
; Jthf libf rty of uiireBtraineil w)uvoraation with lu« fel- 
Itiw-priaoners. Hia food is the liberal ration issued to the Ameri- 
cftn Boldicr, better indeed than the ration vhich the lattej- eats in 
reaotfl statiuus, aud (mpptt^meut-od in season by the produce of 
the priiton garden tilled by the prisoners thexnaelTes. He eats 
tin toad in the company of his fellows, in a spacious dining-hall, 
(nipped in a fashion so i-iviltzed aa would shame a British bar- 
*k-ro<im. The labor to which he is pnt is some handicraft, the 
ctie« of which meanwhile has a rational interest for him, and 
ihe oonvcnaoco with whiuh, acquired in prison; may furnish him 
with »n honest livelihood when again he shall be a free man. 
He is treated in everyway as a rational being, rather than, as is 
the oftae with a British military prisoner, as a dog thai has mis- 
behaved and that is ever watching for a chance to misbehave 
ftgsin. He is allowed on iudividnol freedom of action tliat is 
Mmply startling to the British observer of him; said freedom of 
)n I'omiilicated only by the oat*r wall and by the bulleta in 
rifles of tlio ])risou guard. OGcasiouully^ although rarely, he 
1 tile fool," and declares that he will work no more. Still 
!Hed, not as the misbehaving dog, but as the normally 
nmomU being suffering under a temporary aberration. He is 
ingfat into the presence of' the Governor, who '* has a talk with 
»,'' pointing out to him the folly of his conduct, and the con- 
thereof. Save in exeeptioual instanoes, this expedient 
I him to reason ; if it does not, a course of dark cell and 
broad «nd water prodnoes the result; and he returns to tho 
•hoesnftker's shop or tho smithy a wisei* and pntlmbly a 1>et- 
tar man. By good conduct he can shorten considerably his 
of confinement. 'When that expires, he goes out into the 
rorld, supplied with a suit of decent clothes — for it is held cm- 
Ity^to stamp him with a convict brand — the possessor of a .small 
tim of money, and ftf a railway warrant for his conveyance to 
le place of his eulistmc-ut. Yet further to mark lus rehabilita- 
ioD, if his prison conduct has been exemplary^ he receives a 
i!ir that entitles him to re^nlist in the army, if he should 
; 1. inclination so to do. 

Now, I have no wish or intention to contrfwt thf ^Vmeriean 
icnt of the mililarj- prisoner with the British treatment of 
lim, in a sense nnfavomble to the latter. "Different nations, 
"differv-nt treatment" — that is nil the length I care to go. Were 
VOL. CSXKV. — ^NO. 30y. 10 



yonTH AMEBIC AN 



I to argue for the adoption of the Ainerinan system in tliA 
British prittoD, there woiUtl confront me the conoluiiive reply, 
that saeh adoption iroold convert the British militarjr prison 
into a paradise to whirh half the army wo»M aspire, an*! v 
joys of whieh, ouce ta«Wd, would be reliiiq^uifhed with p h; 
tance, and pantingly striven for again. That this would be btil 
too tmc, I am Bodly nonsciotis, heoausc I know tliat Ui^% ane 
men in the British amiy who prefer even a British military prinm, 
to the performance of their dnty in the ranbs. But it by no 
meAns follou's, because the treatment of Port Leavenworth wonid 
be a paradise to a largo proportion of the British rank and file), 
that it is other than a severe punisbment to the misdemeanants 
of the Adu-rican arrtiy. So far oa my disoenimeiit goes, the 
spirit of the people of this repnblio has this eharaetcrtstic, that 
simple deprivation of liberty is to all, except debased habitoal 
criminals, so bard a punishment in itself, that severer infUctions 
engrafted thereon would simply be wanton refinements of cm- 
dty. In this view Fort Leavenworth prison is no elysiom to 
Uie soldier of the American army } and that that is true is con- 
firmed by the fact that few candidates for its joys present them- 
selves a Kc<><<jQd time, and that these few are ^niost invaiiably 
foreigners. 

Paradoxes are the stumbling-block of the inquirer ; and Port 
Leavenworth prison throws in his path a formidable ptiradux, 
or rather, indeed, a whole handful of paraduxes. I liavu tried to 
explain why it is no elysiwn to the soldier of the American amty ; 
but, notwithstanding, I fonnd it full. It holds dose on five hun- 
dred prisoners; its walls inclose over two per w-nt, of tlio actual 
enlisted strength of the American army, ilow comes this about ! 
The soldier must know that in committing military crime he 
risks the hated doom of suspension of liberty within tiie walls ut 
Furt Leavenworth. Is there, then, in the .American army any 
great proportion of rockless j)erpetrator8 of niilit arj' crime f Tlir 
reply comes that no army in the world exhibits gryat^'r snlv-r-ii- 
nation, greater habitiuU t^m^wranoe, more intelligent disci p. 
a greater absence, in ftuc, of all military crime, siivc, always, 
orime of one specific complexion. Of the five hundred iunuitoif 
of Fort Leavenworth, nine-tenths, rouglily speaking, are ri''; ; - 
tured deserters. Small as is the authorized ptrcngth of the 
Ajuerican army, it is always below that strength, partly liecait.«e 
of pancity of recruits, partly because of desertiunti. One uom* 



ptny eonunaDder out in New MesiRo told me he lost twelve men 
by djesurtiMti in thr».*p months ; a mointenanco of which rate for 
vi^t moDttih Iimgvr would have wiped hi* company eicau out of 
existence, bnt for reinforcement by recruits. The five hondnjd 
inmat«ii of Fort Leavenworth are only a feeble pn.>portion of the 
grand total of dt'scrters. They an* but tJif uuluoky ones whu get 
caught, and, as the American soldier who dest'rts dues not propose 
to get caug'hl if he can help it> ids recapture is rather the excq>- 
tion than otherwise. 

"PlcTity to do and little to g^t,'' was Mr. Sam Wr-Uor's depre- 
ciatory etimmary of the charaeter of hia serv-ioe at the '* White 
Hart'* The definition is a succinct explanation of the cause for 
a great deal of tlie detention whi<?h prevHiLs in the British army. 
Ib it applii^able to the lot of the Amenran soldier 1 Do men 
bold bftdc from the American army, do men desert from it in 
rarprinng numbers, and do men who have not dcsertod quit it, 
for the most part, on the expiration of one term of service, 
hetcaose its advantages are inadequate and its couditions se%'ereT 
Let UB go into the matter. 

Thf pay of the Amoriean soldier is thirteen dollars a month 
at the outBC't, fourteen dollars in his thinl year of service, fifteen 
in Ixis fourth, and sixteen in his fifth. His ration, to the foreigner, 
w startling in iU fullness and variety, with it« "twelve ounees 
park or baoon, or one and a quarter pounds salt or fresh beef. 
one pound six onnces soft bread or flour, or one ponnd hard 
lirvad, or one and a quarter pounds com meal : and to each one 
hundred rations, fifteen poimds Vx-ans or peiw, and ten pounds 
rice, ten pounds green coffee, or six ponnds masted and ground 
coffee, or one pound eight ounces t«a, fifteen pouDds sugar, four 
quarts vinegar, one and a quart«r pounds cundltH, four poiuids 
eoap, three and three-quarter ponnds salt, four ounces pepper, 
thirty pounds potatoci^, one quart molasses." There is "work- 
ing pay*" ff>r him to earn, at Uie rat« of tweuty-flve cents a day 
for luuiVillfil, fifty cents a day for skiUed labor. He enlists 
for thu moderate term of five years ; so that if he dislikes the 
•errioe, hta release ia in the not far-off future. When, after 
that ttTTii, lit- ifj disi-liai^d without dis<Tedit. ho stan<ls entitled 
to one hundrt'U uud yixty acrfs of (iovemmeut luml, which hold- 
ing lieoiimes his absolute property on a residence tbercou for one 
year. Nor n«'ed he be destitute of adequate oapitol wherewith to 
CfitcT on hi» farm. There has Ijccn placed to his credit the money 



13 



TBS NORTH AMERICAK RErCBW. 



valae of what proportion of the regulation issue of military cloth- 
ing his exercise of moderate care has absolved him from requiring, 
amounting, in his five years* service, to from one hundred to one 
hundred and Rixty dollars. Inclusive of thi«, without hardship, 
he can have accumulated savings amounting to some tax huadn*d 
doUarSf a sum amply sufficient to stock his gratuitously acquired 
farm, to which, or to the place of his enlistment, he receives fnt- 
transportation. If, again, he elects to make the army his pn*- 
fessioD, he may roenlist for successive terms of five years, while 
his physique holds good, receiving the pay of eighteen dollars 
a montli from his first reeolistment^ He may become a non- 
commissioned officer, with a maximmn of twenty-seven doUars 
a month pay in the Hue, of thirty-nine dollars in the enginnerB, 
ordnance and signal corps. And if he aspiro to commisaoncd 
rank, there is nothing Utopian in such hope. ^'Meritorinus 
non-commifisioned officers," say the regulations, constitute ont- 
of the three sources from which commissioned officers are 
drawn. The "enlisted man" of the American army may attain 
any rank in that arm. The present Adjutant-General began hut 
militarj' career in this capacity, earning his promotion then-from 
by gallantry in the Alexican war. It is the common belief in 
Europe that all officers of the American regular army are groilu- 
otcs of West Point ; but this is quite an error. Take the cavalry 
arm, containing four hundred and thu-ty-two officers. Of this 
number, thirty -eight have been enlisted men, cx>n]misaioiii'd 
directly from the lower ranks of the regular army. But this in 
nowise represents the proportion of officers who have bogun 
their military career as "enlisted men." Eighty first joined the 
army as private soldiers of volunteer regimontfi employed during 
the civil war. Thus of the four hundred and thirty-two cavalry 
officers In the American army, there are no fewer thau one 
hundred and eighteen "rankers," as officers who have risen fnjm 
the ranks are called in tlie British army. Thctie Anipri<'an 
"rankers" do not people the lower grades, as is mostly the 
case with the British "ranker." There are one livutennnt- 
colonel, five majors, one chaplain, seventy-two captains, and 
thirty-nine lieutenants. And it must be noted that in tliu Aiu' ri 
can cA\'alry there are no riding nuutters, who. in the Br 
cavalrt*, are inviiriably "rankers," while all of the adjuf 
quartonn asters in the Araericau cavidry c<.iinnu*nced tli 
lary career as conunissionod offloers, in contradifitincUan to 



BritiRh custom of filling these appointments with offieers pro- 
moted from the ranks. Thus the ''runkcir" offic«rhood of the 
Ajnericau caTalry is inrelied not at all by reason of promotioa 
trata the ranks to appointments^ t*> fill which, in the Britiah 
faiToLry, quit* thr«e-fourths of the promotions of this descrip- 
tioD are made. 

No army in the world presents to its eoldiers advantages and 
opportunities comparable to these which I have set forth. The 
^itifih army, like the iVmerican, goes into the open market for 
its recroitti : but it bids much lower. The British privato baa 
hia BhtUiug a day uomiuully, besides his meager ration of three- 
quarters of s pound of meat, and one pound of bread ; but he 
baa to Rubmit to deduction to supplement the inadiH^uate ration, 
utd for other porpoges he has some further pence of good service 
pay when he earns the same. As a nun-eommissioned officer he 
can attain a maximum pay of about one dollar a day. And, 
exclnding young gentlemen whu of late have somewhat made a 
praotic« of using iha ranks as a stepping-stone to a ivmmismon 
obtained by interest, ho can attain commissioned rank in perhaps 
about one-quortor the proi>urtion tliat obtains in the American 
army. Of the comiNirative advantages of commissionnd rank in 
the two servions, T shall spe&k presently. When he leaves the 
colors, khe British soldier completes his term of enlistment in the 
rea erre , reonving sixpence a day, and continuing liable to be 
nolleil up for iMir^-iee on certain contingencies. It may bo ques- 
tioned whether his advantages as a reser\'e man are not fully set 
off by his obligations; anyhow his sixpence a day, with liability 
to active serviiM.-, both histiug for a few years, raiuiot be put in 
Uie balance with the fee-simple of one hundred and sixty acres of 
tna land, and freedom to till the same exempt from any military 
obligation whatsoever. The British private is yet to bo found, 
who goes out into the world after one term of service with a 
hundred dollars in his pocket saved from his pay. If allowed to 
reonlist, and penuission to reeulist is special, he receives two- 
peoee a day more than in his first term. I think I have set forth 
his Advantages, if (!urtl3% at legist fairly. 

The British soldier deserts with considerable, and often indeed 
embarrassing freedom ; and this for various reasons. Many men 
are pr()fes«ional deserters ; others chiife under the discipline, 
which is undoubtedly firm; yet others desert with deliberate 
intent to better themselves ^ and others again from ennui of the 



136 



THE NORTH AXBRICAN REVIEW. 



gfrvice, or iMX-ausc they think they oannot be wonw off, ai 
don't uiuch caiv if thi^y W; But why does the Amcrir-ati &oIdi« 
desert^ vhcQ his advantages are so goodf Seldom, I inta^m*, 
firom sheer reckless devilry. In many oases, it ia told to me that 
he enli&tfi, simply to obtain transportation to the weet, wUlti' ho 
sees his chsneea as a civilitui, and a rivilian ho becoinea by th<.« 
simple procesB of deserting. A^^in, the military posts oat w»>*t 
ai'e mostly in tli« vicinity of mining regions, whurA tlie tfnitp- 
tation to be free to make fine enrniuga ia rampant. Kn ')- 
the raonutonous routine of military nervine ebafea aomuwh;!- 
the impulsive Auiei-ican nature, which prompt« to change and 
motion. And again a pltKtding, moderate certainty does not t>om< 
mend itself greatly to the idiosyncmsy of the American, who 
emphatically craves to bo " taking his chtmccs "; and burns ever 
for a speculation, even should the basis nf the speculation b<?, as 
it is with the deserter, a shrewd risk of Fort Leavenworth prison. 
It may be assumed also, that it is tlus n-Iiiotaiiee on tbe [wrt "»f 
the American to content himsolf on a certainty (unless, indc«tl, 
that certainty be the salary of a politicAl appointment,} which 
deters recruits from crowding forwanl to gntsp the unquestion- 
able adnuitages of a Rpell of i^oldiering, and which imi>els m 
many soldiers to be satisfled with one term of enlistment. For- 
eigners are more fain to offer as recruit& Englishmen join the 
Ajueriean army in considerable numl)ers, but by no means inva- 
riably of thii right stamp, ^f'-n who have been deserters will b« 
deserters again, and the ex-British soldier sighs for the ouoe- 
accustomed racket of the garrison town ; so that, if he does iwt 
desert, he rarely i*cenlistfi. The Germans come in incrcjieing 
numbersi, and are proner than men of any other nationality' to 
make a careei* of the American army. Tlie old-faxhioncd Ii-ish 
sergeant reported to have been onc'C oommou, who hod learned 
his duty in the British army, and who was a model non-com- 
rauMioned ofl9i»r, firm, Relf-respectang, narrow, opiniouative, is 
said to have now become rare. 

Almost every saying that, berause it seems apt, has beoom* 
provorhiftl, in%'olvcs a fallacy; and probably no dictum is more 
erroneouit, in a souse, than the one which propounds that tbo 
Brititili are not a military nation. There is a sense in which they 
are the most military of nations — and here occurs another para- 
dox — because Mapoleon was singularly correct when he coUcd na 
"a nation of shop-keepers.*' The paradox rcconoles iteolf In 



THE UNITED STATES ARAfY. 



137 



tiMire deliberatf^ly trade! — and that, too, if T may venture on au 
Aanarieiitusm, "fur everj' cent it is worth," and a good deal 
mom into the hargftin — on our military prestige, as oomprisod in 
trsditioiis, in rwords of glories, in oontomporary deeds of prow- 
fai. Our authorities show a certain astuteness, aud achieve a 
marlced flnani'iai eoononiy.by abstaining from attaching ordinary 
bosiuo&s advantages and attractions t^j the militui'y profession. 
That profession in England simply spells star\'ation, so far as its 
monrtarj* aKjieet is couc<*med. Hia rations, indeed, avert starva- 
tion fT%>n\ the private* soldier; but the poverty of the wage effeet* 
nnlly kwpe ont of the ranks men who seek in an emplo}'inent 
something more than the morA potontialit}' of obtaining existence 
by iL The pay of the British oltlccr ia utterly inadwjiuitx< to his 
maintenance in any fasliion other than a^t a genteel, aud there- 
fore doubly unfortunate pauper. If, then, tlie military prof<^8sion 
in Grrat Britain strove to commend itself to attention as does 
uiy udMir avocation, — dimply beoaose of intrinsic and sttbstan- 
tiftl advantages to be obtained in and by its piirstiit^ — it would 
att^Bct no man who should realize his (wissession of a capacity to 
du better for himself. In other words, it would gather the mere 
(lAris of the nation. 

Bat tlto aatoteness of the British iinthoritics, f or many gener- 
ktioius hu been adroitly directed to the successful effort of 
tbnnring a glamour over this profession — to the task, in other 
words, of getting » professional army ou the cheap. There are 
men yet in the British army who were cajoled into it by the 
prate of the rei-ruiting sergeant about military glory. His drums 
and fifes nswl to wheedle the villagers, and his streamers and 
gay nnifcdin dazzle the Beases of the bumpkins. lie is a thing 
nt thft pfisf, but his spirit still lingers. Tlie spirit of martial bun- 
einulM.' still interpenetrates the British army, humbugging the 
uti^m into overlooking its hoUowuess as a rational industrial 
Tocmtion. Each regiment has it.s colors blasoned with )>ygone 
Tictoriew, t« the nchierement of which it may or may not have 
cnntribnied ; recent campaigns, indeed, not being Fruitful in 
Tifltorim uf moment, have furnished additiuns to the bead-rolls 
on the etlk in the shape of skirmishes, the casualljes in which 
Lara bren as jwtty as the results. Uegimenta arc localized in 
name and bome-tiUtinn with intent to profit by the seutimeulal 
"ewunty fe*'Ung''of the simple yokel; and many are dubbed 
vtth famUiar nicknames, the martial associations cunniugly 



1S8 



THT, yOSTH AMERICATf SEVIEW. 



wreathed into which ore calcolatod to tompt iiito thoir ranb 
vagrant Totaries of the great god Alars. taken on trust. Medals 
are lainslily issued for cainpaigns in I'OtnpariKun witli wliii'h » 
cowboys' vendetta, or the Texan raid into New Mexico, may 
come within the category of momentous wars. The Yictiria 
Cross — a demoralizing distinction instituted to reward men ftir 
performing acts that ought to lie within their simple duty apart 
from the stimulus of any guerdon — is bestowed in a hap-bazard, 
dramatic fashion that inevitably lends itself to debusing intrigae 
and occasionally to a burlesque anti-climax, as ia a reoeut is- 
Ataoce of it« bestowal on a parson for dragging some horses out 
of a dit4;h. But all thn same, the Victoria Cross is not the letut 
aUnring of the baits thrown into tho water to disguise the 
intrini^io pover^ of the British military feeding-ground. Into 
the same (iat.cgory comes tho copious flush of decorations scat- 
tered broadcast after every petty campaign; the Bubgtautiil 
promotions and the inundation of brevets, which lattt-r, 
unlike those of the American army, carry their relative arm; 
rank, although they do not affect iutra-regimeulal po&itioa. 
Britain rings and thrills at a paltry success lurhieved b>' 
her saentifically armed trwope over a gang ot jingal-bear- 
ing or assegai-throwing savages, with considerably mar« 
eflfnsion than Germany displayed on the news of Bnurbaki's di*. 
comfiture, or Russia manifested when she heard how Gourko 
thraKbed Mehemet Ali Pasha into the Khodope Monntains. If 
Britain glorifies herself exceedingly on a sueeessful skimiisb <if 
the character indicated, such is bur military spirit under the 
judicious fostering of the authorities, that she e8t«ems a reverao 
scarcely less glorious than a victory. She contrived to winnow 
some martial prestige oat of the massacre of Isondula; aft«r the 
first shock she preened herself complacently over *omt» in ^ 

circmustanees in the discretlitable fiascu of Kuaki-na-Ki . , <) 
she has smiled encouragingly on the eflorts of one ri^^ent to 
furbish up a spurious laurel out of the wretched runt of Majuha 
Hill. Tho head of the realm is wont to telegraph her unfidUTijig 
confidence in commander and commanded after a reverse, with as 
punctual monotony as she transmits her cr>ugratulations nn a 
micoess. In fine^ those who sway Britiun and that Britain which 
is swayed by tliem, combine to exalt the military profession iaUt 
the position of a profession d'Sit^ ; essaying to feed with aagar^ 
plums men for whom the profession purveys very scanty fare of 



TBS USZTED STATES ARMY. 



139 



any othnr description. To speak coUoiiuially, Britain "rnns" a 
profeosioniU anny un what would be a dry oruBt, bat that it is 
herded with emx>ty honore and some nodal prestige. 

Tho American army is mn on a wholly opposite baeia. The 
initial stand-point taken in regard tu it seems to be that soldiering 
shall differ from no other calling' in being a bnsincss-likCt ade- 
quately romnneratcd avocation. How tbe lower rankA are paid 
hoB b^ already sho^'n. A second lieutenant in the American 
infantrj commences on an annual income of fourteen hundred 
dolbtfa, increafiing by ten per cent, annnally, for eonh five years' 
iarvioe in the same grade, until an inereafie of fort^' per cent has 
be«n reached. The corresponding pay in the British army is less 
than five hundred dollars a year — barely enough to pay t^te mess 
bOL A captAin in the ^Vmericon army enjoys an incomu of two 
r Chotnand dollars a year, increatiing ten per cent, f t>r each five years 
'of WTvice in that rank. Captain de Boot« nf Her Majesty's 
Plnngers might contemplate with more indifference the sbriukago 
in ihti parental rent-roll could he find himself in possession of a 
profeosional income of four hundred imunds a year, increasing 
[ by tiuiuqueuuial inHtallmeuts of forty pounds each. A colonel in 

uVmerican service draws an annual revenue of three thousand 

honilred (lidlHrw, rising by (|uiuquenmal installments to four 

I thousand four hundred and eighty dollars. A major-general has 

[aevcn thoosand five hundred dollars. All these incomes are 

FcxdosivB of quarters, fuel, tiud forage, on at least as hbenU a 

scale as that in effect in the British army. The spirit pervading 

the pay-scale of the oflBcerhood of the American army is that he 

who iM!l«etfi it as his profession shall have an adequate income on 

iriiieh to live, no matter what his rank, an income yielded by hia 

proftassion reasonably on a pur with the professional incomes of 

I other callings throughout the republic; whereas the key-note to 

the Knglish scale is that private resonroes must supplement the 

Inadequate professional pittance. There is no reason why the 

American officer, even of tJie junior ruoks, cannot effect savings 

from Ms pay. Indeed, it has been told to me on good anthority 

that when on service west of the Missouri " he cannot help saving, 

DJoleGS he drinks or gambles." 

Nov is the .\merican army a profession olit of which a man 
who bwomes incompetent for service because of old age, wounds, 
or ill health, is thrust out into the cold world without pro\'isiou. 
Its '^ retired pay ^ is unique in the libenUity of it ; and this sure 



140 



TIW NORTH AMSBICAN REVIEW, 



provision amply compensates for anj* inadequacy whioJi may be 
apparent In-twcen the sei'vice pay arul thu incomes yipldwl by 
soooMsful devotion to civilian avocations. The Railroad King or 
the Wall street roan may wax, bnt he may alao wane ; in llii* 
coiaitry of uncei'taintiti^ the millionaire of yfstonlay may be pi'U- 
nile«8 to-morrow, and the next day in the poor*boaee or the 
gutter. The ofBcer on service, with his moderate bnt adequate 
pay, as stable as the republic itself, need blanch under no finan- 
cial vicissitudes. He may look forward without a quake for him 
or hiF, to broken health or to the evening of his life. A second 
lieuteuaiit> iuvalide<l tUready during the first five yi^ars of bU 
service, receives as " retired pay ■' for the rest of his life $l/)50 a 
year. A major, in similar (conditions, receives a life penaon of 
$2,250 a year; if he has "put in" twontj' years' aervicf in that 
grade, his pension is $3,000 a year. I do not ask the British boy- 
sabaltem, his health p«?nnanently shattered by a campaign in 
Ashant«e or Afghanistan, to fancy iiimsolf Uie Ufopossossor *if 
a pension of JC21U a year ; or the grizzled major, worn out by 
long and hard soldiering, to conceive his retirement on the com- 
fortable income of £600 a year. Iniaginatiuu can undergo only 
a certain strain. Bnt what for the British officer would he an 
inconceivable ehimera, is for the American officer a plcaaant, 
matter-of-fact reality. Uncle Sam is cbai-y of hollow honors ; he 
has not his hands full of twopenny-halfpenny medals and ubfto- 
lete crosses, to Hing aa dust into tho eyee of his hous ; btit he 
pays them fairly while they serve him, and he retires them to 
decent and self-respecting competency. 

But if Uncle Sam Is a good paymaster, he in nowise believes 
in throwing his money away. He will have his fair day's work 
for his fair day's wage. And he keeps only hands enough to do 
that work, tso that the American army is not camlHTitl by a 
throng of idle generals, incomi>etent for command, yet crowding 
tha poster for promotion ; and of half -pay officers, who do n. -i 
care for or who cannot find employment He employs no jn-T" 
hands than he con utilize ; and when a man is no more At for 
work he has to accept his rotironicnt, with its decorous all 
Ue considers that he pays a mau well enough to do hitt •! 
holds that that duty includes the beet and fuUent the iiiau can do. 
Therefore, he holds forth to hira no store of honors and lavish fA 
vancemont as the reward for the duty-doing; and if he :> : 
tiusein, he gets scant indolgoncc. Uncle Sam doe« not sp^otd 



rm: united states army. 



141 



mnch time in iuventing excii.9PS fnr short'Comuigs. His axiom 
is a roaghly pructicai odc — " Merit oud success are syaooymoiLs ; 
failorc spells incumpetenoe.'* In all thiR he differe utterly ham 
his cotuuu. I>ume BritADoia. Her army i.i Dot a business 
profeffstim ; und no she traimot deal with it on biislDesfi 
prtticiplca. She mu.st stand by her failures; she mast not own 
to hers«!lj that they arv failures ; she must holster them up with 
« i|U)unt, stolid, almost paihi-tic constuQcyf although the world 
laughs at her and them. The story of tlie Crimean war is stud- 
ded thick with failures who were left uubeheaded beaiuse of 
uotiusini-es-like tentlemess for men betougiug to a profession 
whiuh is not ecmduct<iO on liusinv&K-like prim-ipka. Sir Richard 
Elngland, the hero of the arm-ehair iu the HykuLdo Pass, the pas- 
sive rreipieiit from the gallant Not! of taunts that might liave 
stung ou n^thetio apostle into maoliDess, lived to eommaud and 
tti l>«devil a <liWfiion before SevastopoL On Lord Chelmsford 
rwtt^l the responsibility of the misniftnairetiient that resulte<l in 
the catastrophe of Isandida, aud that officer u\med his iueompe- 
tenee to undertake the responsibility of snlMcquont operations 
and pniye<l to bi» rtrlievrd thcrefrnm ; bnt oven sueh an appe^ as 
this was ovt;rruled and he was retained iu command to prolong 
Aiid leave unfiniAbed a bniduess of which his incapacity ia the 
must abiding memory. Contrast sueh things witli eertaia 
eplMdes of the jVmtrieau eivil war. McClellan indeed got a 
long rope; bnt how short was the rope aouorded to Pope, 
who came east with a meritoHous record earned iu the 
vest, aud against whoso ehaucos of suoccss before 'Wash- 
ington a (jonounrse of circumstancds combined. A single 
battle, which was simply n<>i a uuocees, sitfllt'cd to roll Hooker's 
head in the saw-dust. The history of that war is strewn with a 
litter of commanders who ceased to command for the simple 
roatou that they did not succeed. Again, command to a British 
oAeer, whither he w;hi«ves failure or success, invariably results 
ineomvthingailvantagL'uus. He is never disgraced } he frequently 
is promoted : he always is decorated- England became a K. C. B. 
V ' ;i dimion ; Cbt^lm-sford was made a G. C. B., and hi* 

{: \.-n?i'hftgrine<ithrtt hewnsnotmadealieutenant-gcneral; 

pMicock, who marched three miles in as many mouths, was made 
a C. M- G., rather a ft^fble testimonial of merit, and nevertheless 
■ eoauplimcnt. Pnpp 1 find to-day a brigadier-general in sub- 
stantive rank ; he was a raajor-generul by brewt twenty years 



142 



TITB NORTH AMERICAN RBVllSW. 



ago. Meade, who won Qetty^burg, the most momentous battle 
of modem tiniPR, aud who tei^hnieaUy commanded the Amiy of 
the Potomac when Leu surrendered to it, died a majur-^ner&L 
Compare with Meade's scantiness of reward, and with Uanoock'6 
simple major-general's command of to-day, Oie honors heaped on 
Bir Garnet Wolseley for the Ashantee expedition — a creditable 
aiTair, doubUewt, but pace th« Britii^h Lion, scarcely comimraltle 
with Gottysbnrg'. Throe men of all tlie chiefs engaged ia the 
American ciWl war have attained exceptional, two, previooaly 
unexampled, honors^ with these exceptions, and with three otb«n, 
(the existing major-generals who hold to-day tiie rank Ihej tiion 
held) all others still in service are occupying position* of 
marked militar>' inferiority to those they filled nearly a suoro of 
years ago. Warren and Parke wore corps commanders in tlio 
war; to-day they are doing dnty aa Ueuteuant-colouels of 
en^neers. Gilmore nineteen years ^> was in independent 
command, with the rank of major-geueralj of operations against 
Charleston; and the reduction of Fort Wa^er, Morris Island and 
Sumter, ranks iu intrinsic niagnitnde above any mihtary operation 
in which Great Britain has been engaged since the Crimean War, 
if Lucknow and Delhi bo excepted ; yet Gilmore to-day is 8er\'ing 
as a lieutenant-colonel of engineers. 

V. St George Cook entin*ed the American army in 1827. He 
saw ser\'iee in Mexico during the civil war, and on the Plains 
against the Indians, and he earned the rank of brevet major- 
general. This veteran joined the retired list in 1873, aft^^r a 
serviiMi of over forty-five years, and the grade ou which hi> retired 
was that of a brigadier-general. Had ho been a British offioei^ 
be would ere now have survived into the rank of field-marsfaaL 
William C. Bartlett appears in llie "Anny Register" as a Ucnten- 
ant in the Third Tufaiiti-y; liis brevet as bripid^- - n^ of 

Volunteers is dated seventeen years ago. Such om , ftt»m 

a'Britifih view-point, as theset, were brought about by the rv^tum 
to a peace footing after the great war. Bnt no return of a BriV 
iah army to a peace footing would ever have brought general 
officers back to regimental wrvic^'. Tliey would have retired, or 
hung around on half-pay waiting to be absorbed. Sir Rv»^yn 
Wood had only local rank as a general offloer until tlie othrr 
day; but after Ranibula he never would have beun relegated to 
the command of the Ninetieth Infantry*. 

An English reader may object that the Ajserioan inNtaaeea 



TBE U2fIT£D STATES AHUY. 



jiutt cttod i^iiriug out of an exceptioDal and unparalleled event. 
Bat thf present baa its instances in supjHirf. uf luy uoiitrast, 
equally with tfa« past. America sent as it-s military &ttacb6 to 
Uie Russian armr for the campai^ of '77-78, a yonng engineer 
UentenanL That olBc«r hod to struggle agiuiist the disadvan- 
tages incident to tbtt inferiority of his rank. But lie did honor 
Co hill country and its army by MTitiug the Btaudard hixton.* of 
the Uasso-Tnrkish war, a work of &o great merit that the Roa- 
aian general 8taff lins Hdopteil it ah an obligatory study for its 
0,^)im]t^ — a work tlmt has become the t«xt-book of tliat war to 
evezT' stodeot of the art military. To-day this oiBcer is plodding 
along iu the rank he held before the Anioricau tmbaltern took 
rack among the niiliti^ry historianx nf tho world. The Roasian 
Emperor had conferred on him not a few medals and decorations, 
some in appremtion of his knowledge of his professtou, others 
hi compliment to that pc^rwrnal courage of which his constant 
prcaenob in the foref n>nt of operations was fruitful in occasions for 
the prtKif. But thei^e, in its au8t«rity, the nation through its Con- 
gress has dmied him the privilege of weariug, England also hod 
a military att^ch^ Trith the Rui^ianB — an oflScer whose rank was 
tiut of captain and lieutenant-colonel in the Guards. He wrote no 
history of the war; but his services were rewarded with afiill «^- 
ouelcy in the army, overstepping one hundred and twenty seniors; 
an appointment as aid-de-cunip to the Queen; the [>ositiou of 
6rst secretorj* to the Vienna Einljassy; and jtermission to wear 
the unler conferred on him by the Russian Emperor. Tlie Abye- 
Atniau expedition was almost exclusively on affair of commissariat, 
supplies, and transportation ; a medal was granted for it, but the 
fighting done in it wiis infinitesimal. For hift Kuei^e-ssful eonduot 
of this operation a British general was made a peer; rcccir(»d a 
money grant, the thanks of Parliament, and other honors and 
rewonlit. The offiet-r who in his capacity of qiuirt*rruast<^r-gen- 
eral so organized and carried out the system of suppl^Hug the 
Federal armies ttuvmghont the whole of the civil war, tliat scar- 
city was unly twice known and that plenty all but universally 
ragned, held that honorable and onerous position for twenty 
jvttrs with the rank of a brigadipT-general ; and when he retired 
the other day, had his major-general's brevet converted into sub- 
Ktautivo rank for retirement purposes, as an exceptional honor 
accorded only in recoi^ition of a career so meritorious. 

I have left myself scant space in which to speak of the equip- 



144 



TE NORTE AMERICAN HEVJEW. 



ment of the Americau soldier for wtive serviire; and this is a 
part of the subject which is mure tmited for a pruftissional junrutd 
than for a jrablit;fttion of general oirculatiou. A few words of 
detail may he ventured on. At the first plnow, an Enjrlish 
cavalry officer, aeeustomed to the pohtth and trimness of hia 
OTn command, might be excused for standing aghast iii horror 
at the nsjMxt of sueb a B<inndrou of horsomcn as that which I stm 
(m }»arade at Camp Cumming. ready in every item for active ser- 
vice. The aceonterments of Turkish Teburke^ses were waiwly 
dingier. What in the British army is known as " smortnesa," 

fvas here cleai'ly no object. But, as the impn^ssion of glovenlinesfi 
wore off, it howune apparent that to the minutest detail every- 
thing was contrived for and subordinated to practical ntili^. 
The horses were stout, hard^ active and wiry, Booiistonied to eu- 

.dnre hardship, and \o graze, and st&nd quiet when ptcket^jd. The 
saddles were of the McClcUaa pattern. lighU saving of the horse«' 
bocks, anil easy for the rider. The kit — carried in small, pendn- 
lons saddlebagij slung behind the cantle — was cut down to actmU 
DeoBSsaries, but no necesaariea for sensible campaigning were laok- 

.ing. The arms were essentially practiuHl, — uo saber, a Smith 
and Wesson revolver, a Hotchkiss magazine carbine (seven car- 
tridges), sighted t<o fourteen hundred yards, and carried nonv^n- 
icntly on the saddle. Ammunition for the carbine (sixty mumlil, 
carried in a most useful and accessible wai8^belt something like a 
bandolier; the revolver ammunition (thirty-six ronnds), cjurird 
in a less satisfactory waist-belt that might usefully be replaced by 
breast-receptadea on the Circassian plan. Men, lean, wir>*, tongh- 
looking fellows, wearing elothee there eould be nofwirof spoiling, 
adepts by training in tho rough border skirmish work that con- 
stitutes warfare in the " Territories," indiWdually and collectively 
self reliant, Tlie average weight carried by horse (tnioper and 
«iuipment in complete marching order prepared t<> t-iike Ihe trail 
right off the parade-ground) two hundred and twentj'-fivu |K>unds 
— sixteen stone English — being about three st^no less weight than 
that carried Ijy the British ti*oop-horse under similar eonditioua. 
The American cavaliy formation is in *' rank entire," on the 
parade-grunnd ; on serviw in tlie comparatively rare ex|>eriftu(» 
of charging mountfid, its formation was succinctly dr^wribed to 
me OS " devil take the hindmost." ; but fighting \vith the T " 
is almost invariably done dismnunteiL SuppUcut for > 
days ore carried on mules which accompany the colomn, resen'cji 



TSE UNITED STATES ARMY. 145 

following on wagons. In fine, a detacbment of American cavalty 
on march might, to the European conversant with standing 
armies, bear a suspicions resemblance to banditti ; but it is care- 
fully equipped for the kind of service on which it is employed, and 
possesses a practical adaptability that would probably occasion 
some astonishment in another kind of warfare, on tiie part of 
more conventional cavalry fresh from the barrack-yard. To the 
infantry, mvtatis mutandis, applies much that has been said of the 
cavaliy. It marches light, unincumbered by knapsacks ; it car- 
ries the ammunition purposefully in the waist-belt ; it does not 
bother with the bayonet incumbrance. It is armed with the 
Springfield rifle, a strong-shooting, far-carrying weapon; it 
wears neither stock nor standing collar ; it has the helmet for hot 
weather ; and its boote are susceptible of improvement. 

Abchzbald Fobbes. 



WOMAN'S WORK AND WOMiVN'S WAGES. 



OxE of the most subtle, most diffionlt questiona of the day, 
is as to the preBent and future condition aud position of 'working 
women. 

lu the past, the wives and women of great kings like Solomoi^ 
and Ca-sar Bpun the wuul and wove the cloth and made 
garments of their htulunds. Women then had plenty of woi 
and of as necessary and valuable a sort as that of men. Pe 
arch Abrahnin's wife made and l>aked the cakes for him and 
risitorg herHelf ; ahe was a working-woman. To-day aU thie 
changed. No qneen works^ no chieftain's wife works, no tradei 
wife works, no lady works, or wishes to work, or experts to woi 

Diit beyond that for reasons, there is now in^tifBcient woi 
for womeji to do, who are willing to work, and most work to 
eflcapo starvation. 

One of the principal caases of this inadequate work is that^ 
the variety and perfection of uur raat^hines have totally destroyc 
woman's great occupaUons of spinning, weaving and mi 
clothes for men, as well as nearly all fabrics for their oi 
wear. 

There remains only the nniveraal and never-ending 
nuuid for cooked food, which women in a good degree 
supply. But even that is in danger; for the public baker 
getting poftsession of the bread-making, and it is likely 
central and oouperative iwoking in towns will seize upon that lost 
one uf woman's industries. 

It seems surprising, but it Is a fact, that most women Ic 
upon this destruction of thost^ woman's occupations with com| 
cency, and consider that having nothing to do most be a 
ing. The result is that to^y woman seems to be the Ic 
valuable of created beings; that many wnmen, who are willii 
or arc forced to work, can find no work which tbey can do { 



WOSLAN'S WOBK ANU WOMAN'S WAGES, 



147 



UwoBMds npoa thoiLianda are strauded oud helpless : and others 
fliW driren by want into vice^ degradation and misery. 

This mortifying fact is not confined to one race or to one 
oontiocnt. It axista in all counlrii^ ; and mout iu those which 
call tbemoelvos " oivilized." 80 patent \». it that soch stat«meata 
IU this oocatdonttUy meet the ^e : 

AG«niUtt prof«eBor, who rejects HAlthnriao doctrines, oompnt^B that, 
laldng Cbe whole world for lui Bveimge, « wouao in worth itL>out 0D»-«i^th at 
m awa. H« Utinln UiAt thoni (lto st le&Ht two liiuulT»d aoil fifty miiliou un- 
tamrri«d women in thn world. As s role, oat of Europo, horses ore more 
vslniiblff ttimn membera of the fnir fwx. 

Id the Chinese civilization woman is of so little ralnc that 
oft^n a wet rag i» laid upon the mouth of the new-born female 
child ; and «> thero Ls ono woman leas in the world. The same, 
or a like practioo^ in a qoict way. prevuila in Russia, in Italy, and 
even iu New York. Now if women do not marry, and if they 
eannot find work, does it follow that we mnat practice and legal- 
ize that Chinese meth<Kl 1 

"WTio can wonder lliat the vigorous advocates of " woman's 
rights,'' 80 called, ore alive and earnest; that they aro seeking, 
blindly, perhaps, for lif^ht; are graspiog, wUdly, perhaps^ lor 
work f Why shtmld they not er>- aloud : 

'^Let us vote if that may help ns ;"* 

**Lei oa go to eoUege^ if that will help na :" 

•*Let OS become doctors, lawyers. poIitieiiLus, porters, seav- 
engeis, etc, if that will help us^f 

How to secure for woman, or to restore her to, her normal 
position and vnliie, is one of the foremoat qnestionH of the time, 
and ia aeoond to ntme. What can she herself do to become 
again valuable f What can she do to secure health, wealtli, and 
happiness for herself and for mankind t Are all the plans now 
wpg<'d wise, desirable, practicable, or even possible f 

Fint Must woman compete with man iu the hard work of 
the world ; mid v&n she T 

Let ua Hee what that has brought her to in some countries. 

The report of our Mnsul at Wiirtemberg* saya: '*In all 
porta of Wiirtemberg may be seen women splitting and sawing 
wood, . . . carrying heavy burdens of fuel, stone, et<*. . . . 
Utnbdiing with the flail all day, . . . mounting the WUU-r with 

* State Department Coocoliir Report*, 1676. 

vnu csncxv. — NO. 309. 11 



146 



THE NOHTU AMEBZCAIf JtEVI£W. 



bricks and mortar, . . . perfomung the dnties of scaTenger"] 
etc. Tliis t^tateint-ut uppUeti largely to wurnan in all parts 
Europe. 

The effect of this kind of work npon womflto ts to make lier ' 
commuu^ voarse, ugly, dirty — undesirablt;, exwpl an a beast ot 
borden. Do women iu America want to rival men in 
oconpations f 

Another effect is, that snoh women^ bo worktMl, produce ogly, 
diseased, and deformed cJiUdren. An American obser\'er at my 
side states that ho was so stnick by thi; number of deformctl, 
rickety children In the capital of Prussia, that bo connt(^, as be 
walked the streets, in half an hour, more than tux euch 
beings, upon whom the siim of those motbem had fallen. 

That eort of work necessarily compels ignorance, brataltty, 
and v\ee. 

In England, and in all other Ennipenn States, whole popula- 
tions are depressed, degraded, brutalized. They oeaaa to vol 
well, they become diseased iu many ways; but they never oeaMl 
to produce weakly and pauperized children. The cost of raising 
these sickly and debased children to the age of eleven is, at the 
very lowest, not lees than six bimdred and flftj* dollars eat^h io 
England — an enormous outlay to make ouly a poor worker and 
a weak man or woman. 

One more, and an important result of that kind of civilization 
is this : Just so far as woman is forced, or forces herself, into tho . 
labor market in competition with man, does she drag down and ' 
cheapen man's labor. She makes no more work, and only 
divides the existing work with man. 

And let ns see what iw tlie condition of woman in the labor 
markets of Europe, there competing with man. 

In i'ruseia, in 1867, there were woman-workers in agrieol- 
ture, 1,054.213; man-workers in agriculture, 2,232.741. Nearly 
one-half of the farm drudges were tbpn womf-n, and their 
number is i^teadily increasing. Wc shall sec presently what 
wages these men and women were able to get Admitting thai 
woman nmsi do those kinds of work, and that there was enough 
of it for her as well as fur man, what is she found to hv worth 
atiti 

Mr. Bras^, the great railroad contractor, reports that in Ger- 
many, as compared with man. she was wurih 1.60 francs per day 
to man's two to three francs ; but little more than une-baU'. Mr. 



woMAira WORK anb wouaits wages. 149 

Bnaay had no prejudices, he fdmply wanted so much earth re- 
mor«d at least ca»t, and oaxvd uothixtg ae to vljitt sex did it 

In Bussia, on piihlie works woman is rated with man as £17 
to £83 — the man is worth five times as much. 

Mr. Young ^ves the wages of women as compared with men 
^n Etimnitz in IST'J, at the same sorts of work as follows: 

Pl a wli gi — men, per ir«*k $3.12 

" woDwo, " 1.44 

8{niu]fln, piecework — men, per week 4.33 

" " '* women, *' - L44 to 1.02 

L) • (Uraaak fftctorj'— loeo, per week 3.24 to 3.60 

" " " women, •• . 1.98 

MiRL, iDMaoas, per week ... 3.60 

Woaiea, making rad can7iiiff morUr (Bohemian wijnieQ) 2.88 

En Italy b« givM wages of men at Genoa, average per4a7 — . .30 

or women (both witboal board) *' " 18 

InQfaent. fiMtwy bands eun~ men, avenge per year 131.44 

" " " " women, *' " " . . 7,'i.84 

In Kaoeliester, pteoera In mllli— men's wages per week a.00 

" " " women'fi " " 2.40 

In Boddefsdeld, woavers — men, per weok 0.80 lo 0.68 

" women, " 3.83 to 4.64 



It itecnu nselea^ to go on farther. And to prevent misoonoep* 
tion it may ho well to .'qiy, that there is and caii be no syst-eniatio 
rating down of woman's work. It seems that even in the more 
dext«rous kind of mill-work, women rate at sbont one-half the 
valuo of men, while in the heavier work of <mt-of-door life they 
ratff a greuL deal lower. 

Do onr women workers, however, know what competition, 
ignoruiee and bad goveruiuent have done with some sorts of 
woman's work in nome parts of Oermany 1 Do they know 
that women there are workiup for fiftj'-seven cents per week, 
with wltii'h they house, clothe, and feed themselves 1 

Is it beat for women to foree themselvea or to be forced hero 
Into such oocnpations as will bring them to that sort of eiviliMo- 
limt 

Some may say, *'A1I that applicR only to the effete dcspotr 
isms of Boropt*, and cannot provkil for a day in the Bunlight of 
Liberty." Is that truet This class of working-women (and men, 
loo), arc poiiring in npon us by hnndretls of thousands each year 
from Europe, and a poorer class ittiU are coming from China, 
ami >-et women-workers say, and men-workers say: *'Even now 



150 



THE NORTH AMSJlIOiN REVIEW. 



there is not work enough in Ihe United HtAtes for an at Uvhi^ 
wages." 

In 1870, Massachusetta, which ontM boaated her peojile of 
pure English blood, wtis already |Kipulat4'(l with ffireiguera 
deeoendfUitB of tliiit lower chuis to the extent of tico-thirds of aB. 

Laissez-faire (let things drift) is the cry of politicians and 
8chool>nLa6t«rii ; and we are drifting. If lUth- then wants to flow 
into oar welht it must flow. 

Let us read a few words from the Massachusetts Labor Tt*^ 
port of 1880, ui ordiT to get soma idea of what women-workers 
in the nulla there now are : 

'* In onr cotton mills especially tho vomen aod ebfldren Uritelj- 
the men, bfiing often from tiro-thirda to flve-BixthR of the whole, and tb* | 
portion of them in iit«sdily inereasing. And what ar« theM women 
ehildr«n but the Tory weakest and most d«p(tndtfut of all Urn people f 
bave no disposition to afdtate. They have no power to obang« any 
couditiou ot Bocitily if they would. * * * All that it poenble for them . 
to toil aoil scrimp and boar." 



IsthatthficiriliKation which the"solidmpn of Boston" dwdrL*T 

Wc must a&k senators and women to contrast that civilizs' 
tion with the civilization which prevailed in New EIngland 
women lived in their own houses and helped nu the farmt 
work. Judicious pwple ful to see that tliose dmdging woniun 
have improved upon the old, womanly business of wife ant 
motlier, of cook and washer-woman. They fail to sne that ll 
lowering of wages, by forcing woman into such occupations, can] 
do anything but iujnre her as well as the man— who might be~ 
her husband. 

They fail to see that mill-work is an improvement uu hocue- 
worfc : they fail to see that *' enlarging the sphere" of woiunn la 
such ways is doing anything but evil; and that the evil is mi the] 
incn-ase. Must woman then travel that roadT 

Sraiii-worif^tr Woman. — Wo eomo now to anotlier great depart- 
ment of the " labor question," viz. : Bmin-work. 

In all directions colleges and high schools are going np, in- 
tended to prepare the brains of girls and women to engagv in 
that sort of work which the world wants done, and which is 
to bo more honorabk' thou baud-work. Women <<'" ' 
'^tilanes no loug^r 8ui^klr titoir liatH«, but cmpluy a n< • 

Irish woman to do it Upper^Uss women have, as they tano)', 



WOiUirS WOSK AND WOMAiTS WAGES. 151 

liigber daUes thim to nurse and educate their children, " duties 
vrtiicli they owe to society " I Upper-class women's duties and 
tdeasures lie outade their homes; and lowerdaftB women are 
etmiing to have no homes at aU. 

QirU are being prepared daily by "superior education'* to 
cogage, not in cltild-beariDg and hooseworkj bat in olerkships, 
tdegnphy^ newspaper writing, school-teaching, etc- ; and many 
an learning' to believe that if they can have bnt their " rights'^ 
they will Ih> enabled to compete with men at the bar, in tile 
pulpit, tJie Senate, the Bench. 

And why nott If men can get from the world wages ranging 
from two thousand to fifty tlioiisacd dollars per year, why not 
women I To l>c sure, wealth is a disease, a mania ; but while it 
lasta why should woman not hare it f It is an interesting and 
a yet disputt^d queHtion, whether wtimen can or cannot compete 
with men in the hard br&in-work which ihe world now demands. 

One of the firet of the young women's colleges of Moasachn- 
setts {some forty or fifty yearn ago) liad for its physician 
Dr. B- — . He said to me : 

" Tbe college attempted Uu* suoA eoorafl of Btodies u prevailed in th6 lieat 
ooUegn for men. The women wen qaiok-minded, unhitioos, and determined 
14 ezo«l ; tbey worked wen, uid wen In no way inferior to in»n of the sAine 
•get. The Ksolt was ttuit witliin the tsu men thAn one-baU of all were in 
my hands for deraajfemeuta of tlie aexual orgaoa." 

His expressed belief was, that young women vxtiild not safely 
do the brain-work at young men ; and knowing the senititive and 
exacting demands of the great reproductive function, he doubted 
whether any but very exceptional women ever uuuld do it This 
opinion of Dr. B is enforced by hundreds of our best physi- 
eiaoa and surgeons j and while a few able phyjflpians exprt^s a 
contrary view, the weight of opinion and the crushing weight of 

experieuce soem to be with Dr. B . Uninformed persons 

point to exceptional women as eoncloaive proof tliat she can do 
it Iilxceptional women do not seem to prove anything. Let na 
eoiuider some physiological facts, well presented by Miss 
Hordaker, in a recent magazine artaelo : 

" A lar^ amomit of matter repreaeota more (oree than a small amoont ; 
aod this law mt-Iudes rilnl organiam* an well as icorganie niaaeee. 

" Tbe weight vt ail the meo of ehrilized ooontriea would exceed thai of aQ 
the wonteti by perhaps ftfteen or twenty per cent." 



152 



THE 2iOBT3 JMBBICAN REVIEW. 



Men have larger lungs, moro blood in thoir veins, and a 
greater power of digesliuu than women : 

" Th« KTDoimt of food Assimilated by mea exceeds the amoont aaHiiniUt«d 
by womeu by aboat twenty per oeaU" 

The weight of man's brain exceeds that of woman's brain : 

" A sunn avongo wuiglit of 40% ounoes may bo dodoeed (or the male, 
anil of 44 oonces for tbo female biuin." 

Again : Suppose two equally good bodies, brains, and stom- 
, each working perfectly ; one uses more food and makes more , 
lood than the other : 

-'Oonaeqaently the man will do more thinking in an boor than tlMJ 

woman." 

Miss Hardaker makes another statement, which cannot be| 
ignored safely, however much we might wish it^ via.: 

'* Tho porp«tutktiou of the human Fppcies is dcpendf^nt on the funetion of 
mttt«nuty, and probably twucty per cent, of the energj- of women between 
twenty auil forty years of age is diverted (or the maintenance of motcnmlty 
and itH attendant exactions." 



In other words, tho man of equal weight has twenty pCT cent, 
more to devote to work than woman. In matter he is as five to 
four. And that differenee can be overcome by no po&uble 
legislation. 

These are important facta which ablw women ought to know. 

Let US apply to brain-work the same economic statem«ul 
which we have applied to ph}*aical labor. 

Woman can bring nu added work into brain occupations; 
ehe must di\*ide that already existing, and by so doing mtuft 
lessen, perhaps halve, the wages of man. 

A consequence, a]>parently not foreseen by some senators 
and some able women, must be this : to take from tJie pre&cat 
male brain-workers one-hoif their wages, and so make it im))AH> 
Bible for them to marry and support, a wife and children. 

This must add to tho present lamentable crowd of needy, 
lonesome, and snffei^g women. 

Do we wish to do that 1 



WOMASrS WORK AND WOUAIPS WAGES. 



153 



tat leaviufT for the prttsent th«> difficult qapstion as to vonian 
^omptttiug with majj ui the brain-work of thm workl, let us tea 
wbst< the capabilities of woman for doing the hard work of the 
world really are. 

The qaotations horo presented are from Dr. Ames's book, 
•*Scat in Industry"; and we may presume that he and his 
coadjutore attsert only what experience has proved to be true. 

Backed by Dr. Ely Van Dor Worker, he says: "Woman iB 
bttdly constructed for the purposes of standing eight or ten 
hours upon her f«et. . . The knee-joint of woman is a 

aexual characteristic.^ Keeuforced by Dr. Clarke, he says: 
**Tlu) female pelvis being wider than that of the male, the 
veigtit of the body in the upright posture tends to press the 
Qjiper extremities out LiieraUy in females more than in males. 
Henoo the former can stand less long with comfort than 
mmleB.'' 

He cites Dr. Vun Hirt> a Genuau observer, iw U> the poJpnble 
eril effects of the dust of miila, which is peculiarly injuriouji to 
iromen, resulting in "oonghs, decided eunstipation, obstinate 
debility, and loss of appetite.'' 

In thtA mill-life the work, though not hard in its fdngle steps, 
becomes most exhausting l^ecanse of its oontiunous, uever-euding 
call upon the attention of mind and body. It also demands 
quickness. 

Added to these, perhaps nei-essaiy, evils, are the ignorance 
and caroleasness of the null-ownei-s, and the ignorance and care- 
lessBess of the women hands, who resist less and break down 
quicker than the men. 

Ignorance, childishness, and recklessness are not uncommon 
among women, *' Many women operatives will dance half the 
night aft4^>r the day's work, forgetting, or not caring, that tbey 
cannot lie in bed the next day like their richer sisters." 

Then come derangements of the digestive organs — e,g., 
pyrosis, oonstiputton, vertigo, headache, etc., generated by neg- 
lect of the calls of nature, by hasty eating, by the use of bread, 
tea, and cofifec, in ploco of meat and woU-oooked vegetables. 
Deraoged state of the sexual organs follows in any and every 
rarioty and degree. 

Out of this coiiio, and must come, many and various diseases 
— painful, exhausting, too often incapable of cure even under 
lavorablo conditions. Consumption is one and not the least. 



lU 



TKE NORTH AM£RIOAN BBF/fiJf. 



"With some diflSdence we here venture to snggest to our 
women- workers uiid to oiir Beiiaiors a uomparisoD by tliem df 
that life uud those results with the life in one's own home, even 
if the womAu is obliged there to suckle her child, to cook the 
food and wash the t'lothes of hor partner. 

Insanity and infiuito nervousness oome to those worker* 
with other diseases. Dr. Ame^ says workmen oome second in 
the terrible lists of insanity, and wurkiug-womeu make a grvat 
showing there. 

The results of these attacks upon the health of work-women 
(and including workmen) is uomethtog surprising. It has lM^ea 
found in England that for every death there are two cooBtantly 
sick. 

It has been fotiud that in Massachusetts aloue, in the one 
year, 1870, there was among the workers a loss of time equal to 
twenty-four thonsand five hundred and fifty-four years from 
sickness uud disubiUty. This was so much lalwr lost ; beside 
which was untold pain and wreU'hedness, and uncounted expwi* 
diture of hard-earned savings. Counting this loss in figures, say 
at one dollar per day, what does it amount to T To this — cd^t 
millions nine hundred and sixty-two thousand two hundred ftnd 
ten dollars per year in Massachusetts. 

This amount of nine millions of dollars could have been 
added to the wages of the workers had they known how, or bod 
they been able to keep well ; and then htwl done it. 

But it is a question, and a seriotis one, whether in such ocen* 
pations it is possxbU for women to keep w^ It is almost eertain 
that it is impossible. 

Let us observe some few of the occupations in which woman 
do engine, and wish to engage more, and, indeed, are forced to 
engage, as their position now is. 

TrpE-aETTiNo. — This rather fascinating occupation is found 
to be very hard on women if they etand at the work. The twiti- 
mouy of Miss S is given, who had for long been a t^TJo-setter 
and foreman of a compoging-roorD. It was : " I have no hesitation 
iu saying that I think I never knew adosen lady compositors who 
were well. Their principal troubles are those belonging to the 
sex, and great pains in the back, limbs, and head.'' 

Teleobaphv. — "With regard to this highly organiecd oecu- 
patiou, the same general statements are made, with a difforraee 
only : " Those at all familiar with the demands upon the nen*ouH 



VrOMAirS WORK AND WOMAN'S WA0E8. 

enei^ anil mniupiilative dexterity reiimred hy the processes of 
tidcgnphj, will Dot be tnirpnsed that Uie rapidity, readiness «f 
perception, f>tc., .... are fonnd t'O exf^rt upon the general 
and 8i;tfiaJ heaUh pf the youthfiU lady op'rator a most positivu 
nod injurious effect.'' 

A " lady operator '^ many years in the btisineiw reported i 
•* I have brokeo down several times from sheer ncr\'ous debility. 
1 have ' tamed of a^ ' safely, and was well in this and every 
€fOi£T partaenlar when I entered the office. Sinee I broke down 
the flret time I have never been ' right>' though much improved 
whm out on my vacations." 

C.'or'NTijJrt i)P MoN'Ey, ett. — Few oncupations would seem so 
attractive to the average workiug-woman aa the coonting of 
money in the treasnriee of the United States. It is found to 
demand " oonoentration, alertness, coatinned exercise," and these, 
with th<.- moQotoDy, work mischief. One of the oldest lady 
workers said : " Gradually they learn to count faster^ but they 
oiiotinHP in the work but a short time.^ 

The counting of the rattan strands at Wakefield is found to 
produce the Htime uulKoarable results. 

Of Stenography we hnvo the same report. — '* Constant employ 
therein would inevitably'break a woman duwu in a short tamp." 

SEi\'[NG-5lAcniSE Work. — Here is one of tin? greatest ot the 
mndem 'xx^upations for women, and it is found to be a donbt- 
fnl bltMsing. Dr. Ames states that from sixty-nine replies from 
pi IS t(i questions, forty-four carao declaring injurious 

'• ;o be undoubted upon thu organs of menstraatiou and 

the function itself." 

The troubles produw.'d by the rontinued use of the sowinjf- 
luachine are classed under some general heads ; 

Firxt Indigestion. 

Sfcoini. Huscvl&v pains. 

Third. I>i.4eaKos peculiar to women. 

FottrtM. General dDbilit}*. 

This catidogne of womau'H troubles is distressing^ and it is 
true. 

THh^ it seem as if voting was likely to remove them t 

What women are lo do, and what they arc not to do. what 
ihey can, and wbat they cannot do, are pressing qnesHonR. 

What women are noi to do seems ui present a vital matter lo 
them. 



156 



THE NORTH AMEmCA2f SEVI£W. 



The Rioht to Vote. — We must toach u[«^>ii the gnal> 
tion of " Woman-Suffrage." 

It will !iot b« improper to remind tlio advooate8 of this meax- 
nre that tlio right tti voU* has not saved uieii from moiit of 
evils which now tlu-catcu and alBict wouicn. and that those 
tions lie iiifiititely deeper, viz.: — in ^'fivo competition and iu 
ehoap labor" ; in tho ahsurd and unequal diKtributiou uf all cam- 
ings, and, also, in the entire absence of oU government and con- 
trol by tlie wiso and experienced in these Pnited States 
ever>' department of life. 

It may bo well to remind them tliat the right to vote involve* 
thought, timu, utmggle, and perhaju; public service of all sorts ^ 
and these must be an added burden for women to carry. 

How WoKKJ>'«-woMKN LIVE NOW. — It will Dot be questioned 
that, pbyKically, women are weaker than men, and that they need 
better care and letter protection tlian men ; that better eore and 
better protection ought to be secured by mamager — though ti^i 
often they are not Now, if this matter of competitiou with man 
in the labor markets and in voting is to be consummated — 
as Beoms possible — it may well be doubted whether woman will 
not suffer from it more and more. 

Already there has grown up a very eonaldersble and 
ing rivfllry between women and men. Woman often 
and believes that man is and has been her oppressor ; that ho is 
eoarso, bmtal, unjust, dishonest. 

The feeling of rivahy and hatred is growing too rapidly 
among women, and it is sure to be reciprocated by men. " If they 
are to assert themaelveA against us, let them rough it as we do^" 
is oommon talK. 

The keen eritieism by women of men is on the increa^ \ the 
keen wits of woman, sharpened by edueation, aggravated by h< 
eeuseof implied inferiority and weakness and injoHtiue, are teai 
ing to make her a disagreeable companion, and an imdesiraUo ; 
ner for life. Marriage ia becoming more and more dangerous. 

The life of the single woman is already hard and depi 
euongh. If this class is to inorcasc, and is to be trowded into* 
the working world outside her house, what must be the rosnlt f 

How the vast army of single women do managv to live now 
is known only to themselves. It is believed there are ' •- -: 
seventy and a liundred thousand womau-wurkers iu ta. 
New York alone. 



WUMAtPS WORK ANJi W0MAIf*8 WAOKS. 157 

A few words from the New York " Times" will serve iu a de- 
\o enlighten the women-workers who have not yet jfone to 
Tew Yoric as to what they mnal expect there : 

*U te Mtimat«4 that iwnM vlxty UioTUftiul womea In uid tboul Uiis citf 
I «arti their own lirioj^, and that the Damb«r st«adily iii<<r««Keiu Tliey nre 
' «□ gndes, from st^rvanlti to nodisles, bodk'keopors, artiatK, and manaf^ra. 
A mmber ar« memben of inuIUffent profeeslauB, — modioin^, joamaUsiD, 
JeatariBtf. a«ttii«. Not a f«w eam a good deal of monej', notably aotnsMa, 
M8llB«n, and dx«aft'«i^cen, luid oftco they acquire an indepeadeiioe. Tba 
|Ko6t» of afltraaaea are probably higher than thosa of any otfatrr feminine 
— Iftng; then oome miUinprs. asd next dresB-mokers. Leeiureni have madv 
aoniidnable ou)ii«y: Anna Dickinsoa cleared forty thousand dollam in ona 
fear. Aetre«es command higher Mlariea and mnrf lucrative enga^menta 
tlua •ver. UilUsore and modistee. after they have gained a faahiouable 
■•potatkHi, thrive famouBlT; but thi^y ore neeeasarily few. The bulk of thd 
•ex MDpleyed are 8oainatres»i'«, salosvromun, teacheni; the tescheni who do 
w<:U are exceptional; eopytnta and the like g^X very mea^^ compeOMitioD. 
Of the sixty thooaand fon^Ine workem, the avera^fe oaming is not orur four 
M1b« to four and a baU a week." 

We come then to another most important point : 
"What is Woman's Wobk.— Let ns use the wwds of Oaskell, 
{uotod by Dr. Ames : 

'Ko great step can be made till nbe ie snatched from anremitting toil 
made what nahirR meant hor to be,— tlia p«nt4>r of a system of aoeial 
lU. Domestic avocations are those of her peeollar lot." 

Dr. Pool Broca says : 

"b tbe normal condition of thincrs, woman's miseion ia not merely to 
inft forth cbiltli^n and to suckle them, but to attend to tbeir early ednoation. 
In the fathvr mimt providu for the eubfiiBtenee of the family. Ev^rythinj; 
ailpt:t« this normal order Qecosnarily mdooes a pertorbaiice in tbo 
rolnlioii of races, and henee it follows that the condition of woman iu 
eoelety uiut be most carefully studied by the anthropologist." ' 

Is offioe work so deligbtfiU! Is it to be gotf is the qnestion. 
Already Washington has oome to be a sort of refuge for hopeless 
women, and every senator and every M. C. shudders at the siglit 
** female lovelinoKs" eager for place. 

Is mill-work desirable f Women are nishing into it. Women 

tivas in 1865 numbered 32,239, or some nineteen per cent. 

men operatives. In 1875, they numbered 83,207, or some 

ity-six per oent. of men operotive«; and an increase of 

"•AntJuopolo«lr»l Berlew,- iBse. 



158 



TOE NORTH AJUESICAJf SEVJt'W. 



women-vorkers uq tbemst^lvea of nearl}- three bnndred per 

cent. 

Dr. Adler, of New York, has jtut presantoil »ome tateto nnd 

ftgorea as to female operatives in En^imd, wbioh it may be 

to read: 

" ixcsejlsxd xupumatNT or woianr. 

" The tcudeucy of th« preMnt day is lo more and moM entzkin woButt i 
indnsMkl pnrsulto. In the flax industrr iii Engl&ad tbtav wero eai[ 
la 1850, 40,000 women; iu 1676 ib« number had liseu to 113,000 wottto^ 
In Uie vrool iDdtutiyiii 18D0 the ornnber of womon employed ynjs 73,000; 
m 187fi itwui i'dti,OO0. Tho oottou ioduslrv in IHEO WM 183,000; im 
187B !t wiw 268,000. The number of men employed iu tbe eotton tadi» 
try St the same time had diminJahad ti> 1 1 0,000- Id our ami coontry a 
ilu state of things baa boen geoerated. In the census of onr own State- 
New York — for tbe yoor 1875 ttd find among tho (actor; operatires in gen-' 
era) that the number of women in lar^ly in ezoeas of the nomber of men." 

On every hand we read of a condition of things which comjtli- 
caJtm tho prohlem raueli, viz.: That marriage is growing more 
difficult for woman and less desirable for man. 

And why t 

Wht don't "Womes Marry T — ^Women do say and mt 
say : " If men will not marrj' ug, we must work to live ; *ven 
it destroys ns, and the wages of men, too." 

Experieuce in the only teacher of man ; and erporience has 
taught thti world that polygamy is [>emieioiut ; that progtitntiun 
is pomicioiis ; that the marriage or partnorFhi]) of one man with 
one woman is the beet social system yet do^istd. That being ad- 
mitted, why do not all men marry, that thus the whole bod}' of 
women may Xtc oo^upicd in the way which ought to Heuure tbe 
utmost possible of health and comfort t 

Tho (jncstion is intricate and the causes subtle. 

That woman is not married is owing U) a variety of reasons. 

f*irst. Her health. — So general now is her "delicacy" that it 
is said and repeated to-day that not one woman in ten can 
said to be a fairly healthy creature ; and this is true of aU cl 
upper and lower, workers and idlers. As a rale, women do 
know how to keep well and bandsomo, and they laugh at tJic 
who do. 

liecoHd. Her mental conditi<m. — If siek in Imdy, her mind and 
spirits and tompor are surely disturbed. She must be k^ 
nervous, possibly fretful and unhappy. If so she is lui. 
tbe helper and companion of man. 



WOMJJrS WOSK AND WOMAN'S IVAGSS. 



150 



Tkird, Imjiraoti cable thoories. — It ts qnito conunon for young 
woawa to fsncy they are to marry a man and be " happy " ; that 
tbey are to bo '* the idol of that inim,'' and to receive everjrthing 
nod to do Dothiug. That they aro not to be helpfid, bat are to be 
helped. 

Money become of first importance in tstioh a scheme of life ; 
and that few vorkmen havo or cau now expect to get, iu adequate 
qnantities for married life. 

Fi/urih. The average man is oft«n ignorant, rough, greedy, 
tfctumaL Uia coarser pleasures and wantH conaomo his earnings. 
ffis tB8t«s are thus vitiated, and the dull serenity of home life 
too often seenut undesirable. 

There is one more of these most apparent obstacles to mar- 
riagOf and that is, — the number of nnhappy marriages. The 
canses which have hero been touched upon will accnuut for many 
of these. The undue familiarity of married life will help to account 
for others ; for it is true in a degree, that ^ familiarity breeds 
cootempt"; and it is true in many cases that men and women, 
once married, treat each othor with less kindness and decency 
than they do strangers. 

And lagtly. Miiny men cannot afford to marr}'. 

Wages of able working-men uow riuigo fn»m two hundred 
and fifty dullarH to five Uuiidrod dollars per year, and are gradu- 
ally decreasing in all civilized States. 

It beoomes a serious question to any and eveiy man, not 
whellier be uaght to marry, but whether he is not imperatively 
forbidden to marry. It becomes a serious question for every 
trcHoan whether she sltoald bring children into the world to 
become drudges, or worse. 

It is certainly true that no sensiMe workman can afford to or 
win marry a ^ lady," — a woman who can and who will do no 
work. 

Bap RKwrLrts. — So widespread has this neglect indifference, 
ur ' 'ioD to marriage now become, that iti many couutrice 

th. -jf women themselves to ilhcit connectiouK is liocom- 

ing mitigated. 

Wo hare reason tn know that large numbers of well-bred 
women in England have given way to what they could uot 
i>,-Mf!t; that larger nunib^rs in Prance engage in the business of 
uuw<*ddt*d love, coolly, understandiugly,^ simply as a business ; 
and that in dne time they retire from their hard business and. 



160 



TBE NOBTH AMERIOAK SEVLEW. 



Beekmg new quarteni, resame t^at life of rei^eotabilitr oad vir- 
tue which for a time had been put away. 

Is that " progreiis'' — is that ci^'ilizBtio^— wbioh fc 
womon tw nnwx themselves; to enter into ft race in pompetitic 
with mjui, iu which she is snrv to go down ; which brinj 
her to starvation wages; which involves a ruin of health and 
temper; which forljidn all cnjoynifot of lifej which crushes the 
great function of her being; wliich make* merchandise of hi 
virtue; — is that a oiviltsation which women ought to adma 
defend, or presen'e T 

We aak that question of oiu* American women. We belii 
it to be the inevitable result of our financial civilization, 
upon laws of trade and Iais$eS'faire. We are sure that eom| 
tion — the right of tiie strongest to all he can get — most nsnlt 
evoDTrhere in tbe degradation of woman and the paoporizing 
man. It hiis done so everywhere, imd it ninst do so everywhw 
When women and senators shall IcAm that we-alth and poi 
are twin evils, and that they always go together ; that they ita| 
suffering, disease, vice, and crime; Uien they will l»egin to 
that something better than voting for a pot-house statesman il 
possible for women a^ well as for men. 

Pakac£1as. — "Roso-woter," and "free txade," and a 
laureate " may console the Empress of England and India, 
Uiey have not prevented and they do not console the iintr hundred 
and fifty thousand poor women who, acoording lo ProfecKir 
Fawcett, exist in London without adequate brood and with vc 

instifilcient virtue. Those fine words have proved will-o'- 

wisps to lead England and England's women into the miro. An J 
what remains? What can wumun du if she cJinnot and onght 
not to be forced into the hard and drudging work of tho world — 
hand- work and broin-work both t 

One thing idie nan do and must do ; she must make heraalf 
into a hoaltliy, strong, good-tempered, helpful woman. She eon- 
not be a man, and she cannot do the man's work. Sho can 
woman and can do the woman's work, which more aud more 
is instructed to despise. 

She cannot be an elegant person, the plaything of a man ; 
ill that state she is a Inxnry, like the Circassian houri; aud: 
workman 4'aii have hcj-, or will have her, in that dha^x'. She 
bo a wonmn, and she ranuot (with oxeeptions] be a " lady*''; 
thnn she can be the wife of a working-man, the mollter of 



WOXAJfS WORK AJfD WOMAN'S WAGES. 



)iMrf>n, the ko«por of hu honse, and his frinud and helper iu all 
busiaess of life. If colleges will help her to be that, if 
nting' will help her to be that, then let her have colleges and 
free ral&mge ; if not, theu she had better let them alone, and 
■edc a better rfinudy. 

In ttU the many plans for helping and advancing' the good 
tlie working-wonuLU (and indeed of ''woman"), one needs 
forget that i:dnc4itwn ought to mean tho Icaraing how to 
the whole being, the hand as well as the brain. Xo 
aud uo woman is ever a complete <^reature who e&n use bat 
Iu nearly all ednc^Uooal schemes now, the hand is ignored 
the brain in exa^arat«d; the resnlt is, millir.ns of brain- 
kted men aud women who, for the proctit^ai business of life:, 
lire as helpless and as lusdieBS as idiota. 

If braio-odacatioa is what woman now seeks — leaving out 
• hand — she must only sink to a lower depth. Wo all blunder, 
id we all 9in and suffer through ignorance : and woman more 
man, tiecause she is weaker and can bear less. 
We clooe this paper with a few suggestions : 
There is every year produced in the United i^tates a groat 
■nrploa of fooil and of all other neoeflsarids and comforts of life. 
And there are thousands of men already who get of that surplus 
c^ne miUioD dollars worth each per year. There are millions of 
others including the women we have been writing about-, who 
eanuut seeun? fiKnl euough to keep them iu deceut health ; 
khmuondd on thousands who are thus forced into sickness and 
degradation, worse than that of the savage state. Why is this t 
Beeauso the able brmus of men aud the generous suuLs uf women 
fcve m'ver attempted to secure any legal, fair, and humane 
irision and application of all this surplus wealth, which is the 
ly troe cure. Jndiied, they are yet so ignorant as to believe 
that brain-work needs and should have high wages; hand- work 
antaU wages! Both have been led away from the great and 
ily care, which is, that the strong must care for aud help 
weak, the wise the foolish, the old the young, and the yonng 

16 old. 

That must come to pass, or Christianity is a delusion and 
ivilifiation a failure and Society a ruin. 

OhabiiES W. Eluott. 



THE ETHICS OF GAMBUNG. 



Thr title of this paper is, in & s«Dse, misleading. There u« 
ao ethics of gambling. It is essentJally immoral. It recognizesi 
principle of right uad wrong. It bows to no spiriLnal autborif 
whether expressed in the form of a " categorical imperatiro,* 
which appeals to immutable ideas, nr in the conventioiDAl 
form of enUghtened public opinion, which rests on the monl 
sentiment of the generation. It sets conscience at defiance, uad 
elndea law. which gives voice to the average tsonvietions of man- 
kind. It is insensiiile txi tht^ disorder of which it h the porunt. 
It has no respect oven for the money it so earelnH«)y pusses from 
hand to han(L Among the mysteries of Monte Carlo, there wiu 
noite greater than the heedlessness with which piles ^if wealth were 
pushed aJwut. No person who valued pntperty, or respected th? 
conditions on which property was legitimately acquired, vould 
vent upon it Ruch utter scorn. The gamesters, one and all, men 



and women, appeartid wholly unt^wisciuus of the uses 



uld 



silver. The pieees of coin which they threw down or ; ip 

were but so many counters, representing no moral or SEWthetMt 
iiuuiity; neither beauty nor power; neither knowledge, chanwrtu', 
nor goodness; neither comfort nor elegance ; neither pnl»U*r nor 
private good-will ; neither utility nor grace. The players hnil no 
Bomple in carrying away as the sport of an idle mumcmt, in Aheo* 
contempt of toil and economy, a sum stifhcient to maintain a 
frugal, industrious; household for months. "WTiat monoy par- 
chased they did not really care for. The jewels, velvet*. mUds, 
wines, the gilding and damask, the servants and tuijoons had on 
precious quality in their eywj; the art was purely d ■ — '"-c 
This in the final condemnation of all gaming, that it in- r, 

sets the rules of life at defiance, vilifies cliarni'U'r, i\' t 

principle which society sauetiuus an tho basis of pernui^^ ... ~.ii\> 



TRB ETSJCS OF GAM BUNG. 



and oooUt pnts aside every con^iderution of rpntitndp which 
i the best remtU of tht* thuugLl and a»pirutiou of luonkijid. 

It is familinr tnowledgt) timt, even at the present day, men 
kviih on tbeir lices 8iinis which no remonstr&tic<>, perfiiinj^ion, or 
will extrat't from them in 1>ebalf of their ^"irtaea. 
Punoa not principle holds the piirse-strings ; desire not duty 
keqis the cnsh-book. It is seldom, indeed, that eouficicneo eon- 
trala the uxuhnpier, und when it ihx'i^ the ftiet is t^hronieled tie 
prodigioos. The world wonders at it and pasue^ on u« if the 
)n waa none of its concern, a mark of eetjeutrieity, 
^ of per»mal peenliarity, poKsibly an indii-atiou nf provin- 
ur tutored uarn>wiieHS. More money i» spent for tobacco 
fur bread ; more for spirits than for wine j more for wine 
I for luiths or means of preserving health and increasing vigor 
more fur amusement than for instmctiou; more for 

;- for«hureh»!s. Aetors, singers^ dancers, are paid ten 

tbnev tut iiiiifb Its leaehers and preachers are. The popnlur j>layur 
who eutertaitui people, mokes them spamnudically laugh or cry, 
tbongfa be pomecoei but a thin vein of genius, enacts the same 
part eontiniiftlly, and is not associated with any of the means 
_iriHireby human welfare is promoted, beeom«* in a year many 
richer tJian the professor who devotes bis life to the 
in and the diffusion of knowledge, or the pbilanthropist 
bis Buul for bis kind. To excite the nerves is a surer 
ly of gaininij; wealth and reputation than to strengthen the 
id. To Uiis extent are we still barbartuus ; to this extent has 
x-ilucatioa failed to lift men and women above their insthiets ; 
ii : have all noble influences — art, education, religion, 

" [iiry. love ui man, love of GimI, failed to siibslitute 

for inehu&tion. When people who will not give dimes 
charity give dollars to witness a foot-race or see a clown, it ie 
vtty g»>od evidence of the supremacy of appetite; in the masses 
mazdcind. To appreciate this one need not bo ascetic or puri- 
deal ; it iK not necessary that one should frown on amusement, 
ly that laughter is mad, or grimly insist on tbe preeminence of in- 
'■--luts. W'e protest against being supposed to cherish 
U[' ' I. idle prejudice in favor of seriousness or of cultiva- 
The fact mentioned is oue which lies too bn>adly on the 
>f Mjciuty to be visible from only one point. It is as 
> cbe ]iI(!fisnre-Aeeker as to tbe philoeopher, and is simply 
vou i'JUUtv.— NO. 309. 12 



IM THE yO&TH AMEBlCAy 

reoogni^etl, put in its plaoe^ reasoned on without beat, aa* 
witliout eeuBuriuimneiiS. 

Another oonaideration is in place h(^re — another fact which 
iR clos£;Iy related to the class just a^udt^d to. It is matter of 
oouBtout, uuivertuU, sup«rlknul ubser\'atif>n, that the mengv 
man prefers to get money by any meaua tliat 'vdll (avt htni 
labor, oveu though the mtiaiis be not quite repntable, to wtirking 
for it. In the commuu apprtheusiou, tha primeval <:urse etiU 
rosts on toil. They who find in work their rt • . their 

satisfaction, their joy, their Bolace under disappon ;,thab 

d^verer fruni temptation, lhi.^lr relief from languor, are atill 
vety few. The multitude ahirk labor. Witness the rage for 
specnlatioD, the crowd at the exchange, the throng of advcntur 
ers on the street, the disgraceful pheuomeuuu uf Ktork-gsiobliog, 
tlie great company of people who live by their wita, wait for 
something to tiu-u up to their advantage, haunt the patentoffloff 
dog the steps uf inventors, burrow muney, live un their Cric^tlSr 
bang to the skirts of sucee^ul schemers. Krery man of al>iiity 
has a score or two of eueoeesfol parasiteB who live on his boos^ 
vrithout shame. It is thought quite respectable t€ take tlie 
money of some one else who has earned it. Carlyli^ tivmendou 
preaching of the sanctity of work seemed to some exaggerated 
and stale a generation ago ; bat the gospel would be new and 
Btartliag. not at all of the nature of " good news," to the larger 
part of any modern eommunily, which, su one has muney, doe* 
not ask iinperti neatly bow be came by it. 

Add to this Uie passion for nervous excitement whieh betmya 
file inunaturit)' of our social de%'eIopmcut. and wo have onotber 
eanae of the mania we are trying Xa explain. The faseinatioa of 
betting maybe accounted for, in purt at least, by this pn>f)t<iLiritj, 
which takes men to the ^n-shop, maintains the bar of hntrlft 
persnadee men that they can attain felicity by atimulating a 
nerve. How long would horse-racing continue if the training 
and perfection of the horse wore alone considered f or foot- 
raciag, or boxing, or wrestling, if the clement of betting wee* 
loft out) The stakcvbook is a prominent feature on all oottteiou 
whieh draw tlio promisouooB crowd. The raffling at faira own ito 
popnlarity to the success that attends ever>' kind of appcAl to thii 
tmitioual pnipcnstty, and to the inoee&aiit dcnuuid for unrvoiss 
exoitatiou. The idlo passoDgers on. an ocean sceouuihip viU 



srmcs OF oAHBLmo, 



[ACnd Alftrg« 



tittmB 



tbri day, 



tJie 



es of tobacoo imokc, 
on Ui6 epwd of tiio vcsh:^ tbo HTunber of knots made in 
twraty^foor hoars, the probable day of reaching port. Gamiug 
ow«s Ha diarm to this love of excitement. JU>vti borrows from 
it a partioQ of ttfi rapturA. 

Hie law draws a distinction, and morality likewise, between 
pl&ying mth this excitement and playing uHthout it Playing 
ttiik it is gambling; playing vitMoui it 'ut innocent amnaement. 
Whist^ Itenqne, j^quet, euchre, and other gauies ore allowed, be- 
eante they may easily be played by amateurs who wish to pass 
an idle hour. Trente-et-quaraitte, rouffe-M^notr are forbidden^ 
bccaofie althongh they may l>e, they seldom are, played witbout 
peril to sanity. The l«dy ur gi-ntlfmaii who sits in a parlor, and, 
eolwrly, aedi^y, without noise, glare, or intoxioation of any 
•ort, idtB down to an innoenoas game of cards, is trespassing on 
no propriety. The eut'ertmumeut may be dull, but it is not 
«<«»iTi*l The man who plays the same gami^ under ciroum- 
itonma of exhilaratiou, the blaze of gas, the aocompaniments of 
dgarV) wine, stakes of money, the lost of gain, or the dellriam of 
lleaaara, commits a grave offense against morals. The sole dif- 
finisiK96 is that, whereas one keeps reason nppennogt, the other is 
under the influence of passion. Bat this difference is immense. 
It U, in fact, the whole difFrrenee between the moral and th« 
imsnoral attitude. The sJdll may be the »ame in cither oaae; the 
amotmt of calculation may bo presumed to be equal ; the choooei 
of favorable or unfavorable runs of fortune are no greater in 
on« MUM thui in the other; the risks in dealing, shuffling, canting 
the diw are precisely balanced, — but the one player is cool, the 
other i« hot; one can stup whenever he chooses, the other can- 
not ehooK hat go on ; one is himself, the other is beside himsell 
On this ground soeie^ may logically interfere, as it interferes to 
prevent druiikenuei», t« arrest suicide, to secure order. No 
gBioe would be forbidden that oansed no depravity of nature, 
that did not tend, in some <legree, to confound man and beast, — 
M no drinking would be frowned on which did not dehnmanize, 
no pleamre that <Ud not. degrade by weakening or perverting 
nervous enei^, no vice that was moderate in its indulgence and 
brooglit no shape of ruin in its trun. The overbalance of ex- 
ettement is fraught with danger. The game is sospeeted be- 
OMise it is aasociated with demoralizing passion, and is pursued 



IGO 



THE NORTH AMERICAN HE VIEW. 



an oue of tUo^' perilous du^accs by which men try to infuse to- 
maiiue iuto their otherwitte dull existence, to add zest to thedr 
experience, to drag some jKirtion of heaven down in their day. 
Tu procure this, one goes to the wine-tihop, onothLT to the huoM 
of prostitution, another to the glutton's board, another to the 
danee, another to laseivioiut inu8i<^-. Often th<> d(*v<it4.H< of p\v*^ 
uro makes expcrimeut of every kind of nervous exaltation, for 
the vices, like the \'irtues, open into each other, all eondueiog to 
one end — delirium. Tlie excitement raay be iiumieutjiry, but 
for the moment it is intense. It is iUusory^ but un ttmt very 
acuoont ia repeated. It is followed by exhauBtion, but for that 
reason eepociolly is goardiMl, suppLcmented^ protracted, as much 
as possible. Gambling is the moat fascinating booauae the most 
intense, the most lasttuf^, and the most social. It brings the 
greatest number of Ktiuiulauta together, and exerts their [xtwer 
on the most sensitive nerves. 

The distinction ia somolime,'* drawn Iwitween gjimiug which 
in harmful and gaiuiug whicii is hai'mlcss, tliitt thi? latter is 
rednccd to rule and is under control of skill, while the former is 
given over to ehonce. But is »uuh a diatinctiun quite valid T To 
say notliing of the elements of chance in games allowed, the ele> 
numta of skill in games forbidden ore worth oonsidoring Irom 
their nomber and weight. The amount of brain-force expended 
in solving the problems of the gambling table is amazing, Tho 
theories are legion. The calculations lie in heaps. Mathciiiati- 
danfi of eminence have tasked ingenuity in doviaing syBtenu of 
play, in computing numbers, the reeurruuee of suits, the laws of 
odd and even. The late Benjamin Pcirce would stiuid faaciuated 
watching the gyrations of skillfully handled billiard-ballfi. At 
any great giimbling resort the playera may be seen, note botdc 
iu hand, studying signs and numbers, the suocesaiou of eorda, 
the animations of winners and losers, formulating as well aa 
tlioy i^an the laws of sueeeHiifnl venture. Whatever skill can 
accomplish is allowed for. If skill were master of the whckle 
problem, gambling would cease. There is no reason to think it 
ever will be, hence a wide margin fur excitement, indefinite room 
for the play of passion. The flashes of suggestion oidy servH ut 
pique thL' rage for sp^L-ulatiou. Arithmetic ansistA madtn-iM. 
Science lieeuiiie:! au ally of distemper, by tautaliiing curiiMUty, 
provoking continuance, and prolonging the insune delighL Tho 



TBE ETBTCS OF GAMBLING. 



1«7 



I of the " hoU " owe n vast debt to the mathematician and 
?ll afford to keep one in pay to sing the siren song wbiah 
allurpH tiifir victims fai thu snare. 

The norvoUB excitement iucreaees with the amnnnt of the 
itekes. Where there are no stakes or small ones the exc-itoraont 
is rednoed to the smallest pi iint. He keeps oool who risks nothing 
or DO more than he can easily a£Ford to lose. He plaj'H for t^nter- 
(ainment and can desist when he will. Dnt he who pledg<« 
rac»n« t}uui hf can comfortably i>art with, who ventures all he han, 
perhaps more than is his own, becomes as crazy as the dronkurd 
or the opium eater. He retams to his temptation again and 
again. If he hiees, he counts on redeeming hin fortune; if he 
wiiw, he cannot resist the desire to win more. A strange irrita- 
Uty baonta him. A wild infatuation possesses Mm and drives 
\am to his ruin. 

Whence the singular charm that invests money f The gamb- 
ler does not value money, does not nnderstand its worth, attaches 
BO mpnifionncj? to it, dot's not care to keep it, flings it recklessly 
aboat. Yet, even his imagination is caught by some splendor 
which he cannot comprfhend, by some dazzling felicity which ho 
MHWtat^s with the silver and the gold, the sparkle of the wino- 
np, the flaah of jeweis, the Rhcon of damask ; glittoring possibiU- 
tin of power in* command the genii that minister to delight^ 
_Tbe thi^nght of being without money never occurs to him. He 

at Icant^ rich in his dreams. In fancy, ho lives in a golden 
^h bis abode 1>e a garret and his food a crust. To-day, 
on the threshold of Elysium ; to morrow, he confi- 
rm to tre^d the marblo courts. The N-agiieness of the 

n^,™:.i.u bewilders and invites. Uc does not eu\-y the miser; 

Iw doeM not envy the spendthrift; he does not envy the success- 

hi gamester. For none of these get the fnll measure of onjoy- 

■ent ont of thoir wealth. When fortmio smiles on him the 

■wnrld wiD know the meaning of the smile. They aro not in 

pa — he will he. His visions are all of some futtire glory. 

tnay fling awny monej' in charity ; ho may give it in aid of 
nme pttblie cause which stands prominent in the general eye, like 
a mnooment, a statue ; but these things are done, in part bocaoBO 
be is by instinct kind-hearted, in part because he is reckless, in. 
part becaiUK bo is willing that the world should see how mneh 
and bow little he prizes it Of real humanity, of genuine 



168 



THE NORTH AMERICAN REVIEW. 



public epirit^ he has none. Of the troe signiflfance of mnncyhe 
has no inkling of an idea. Not only is he dostitnto, an he vaaat 
needs be, of any perception of tJiie divine iraport of montT- aa a 
sign of man's supremacy over the lower ephere« of natnn^ b« 
equally lacks comprohenaiou of its higher social adrantagea. He 
ia animal and passionate throui^h and through. Ue dospisoa man 
and he di^episM woman. Ho regrftrtls the most prenioua, Uie ntiKt 
8a<;red thiug^. ae purchasable. He has no respect, no revweoce. 
He ia a materialist, a senaaalist, using manor to k«ep men and 
women in subjection, never to serve them ; owning and enslav- 
ing, never emancipating them. The inilndnoe of w<-altli in 
Bt«rtinff entorprifie, initiating progress, inangnratinginFtitutiona, 
inipolling c^^mhiiiid forties, he dot-a not appreciate or think of. 
Bather he endeavors to make social dignities tributary to his 
private aggrandizement. The tme man is ashamed ot Ma diifi*- 
ence to money. The gambler is not; herein resembling the menial, 
tlie alavo, the hase, scnllion natures, who lose sight of tho man ia 
his aooeBBoriee. The gambler loses the image of the manj in 
tact, thinks that he can put hims^ on a level with the best by 
wearing the finest clothes, the shiniest hats, the most inunaenlito 
boots and gloves. The passion for money Li, in hia oosa, «mo» 
ated with the taint of vulgarity in dress and monnerB. By 
swagger, bluster, stmt, he makes himself the caricatnro of ■ 
man, degrading o\'ery fine quality by some perverted aemblanec 
of it, and punctutdly reversing the providential ordej* viaible in 
the subordination of show to substance, and sham to reality. 
His trade is essentiolly dishonest. He differs from the ordinary 
impulsive sensualist in this, that whereas the latter falls and pidca 
himself up again, sins and repents, is composed of alternate 
layers of dirt and doily, ho pursues an oven, deadly oonrse of 
self-indulgence, too wary to tumble into hell, too Hlfilid to ri» 
toward heaven, an nnmitigalad animal. This may help to ex- 
plain the popular horror of tho gambler as a person past r«oov< 
er>' or redemption. The philanthropist desiwira of him. "Hje 
reformer leaves him alone. They who toil to reclaim the drank' 
ard and the prostitute give him up, for they discern in liim do 
capacity for revulsion. He lives on a thi*or}' whieii exclndcs 
repentaoee, contemplates nothing above pleasnro, draories no 
heavan beyond the senses. Tho charities of Mont* Carlf :^ 
famed all along tho Riviara, bnt the gaming goes on t\X. 
same aa if no touch of mercy ever softened the flinty heart. 



ETHICS OF OAMBLIAO. 



169 



brge gobscriptions sre a sop to Cerberoa. Maoh is said of 
oune taken there to exclude minors and irresponsible people ; 
>Qt the gnmitig still goes on, and all are admitted who Lave 
to loee; the " rrAprvtability^ is a lure to ihv iiiisuspeot- 
ig; the more reH|»ei'tal>le the more seductive, fur the guileleM 
•» nWDiired to their min. It is even said that the hopelessly 
Infiataated are in many instances warned away by the authori- 
tiei; bnl the ttneharitat>l>j dnuht if any are thus saved whose 
panes are heavy with coin. The exifstencr? of the bank is a i>ri>- 
ipti<m of inhnnianity. If maaUnes-s were rcspeet^^ it would 
be there. The otgeet is to take advantage of the ^amour 
rUoh hangs about the mere posso-ssion of wealth, and whioh 
ly foreshadows the ceh^stial prnphetry of the Ttlltmate eovfr 
Mguly of man over his circnmstanees. 

ir aCtenipc to ^t at the rathnah of gambling wonM not be 
leto if, in adJilion U> the considerations ab*)ve suggested^ 
t^ pndominancB of passion over principle, the abhorrence of 
labor, the fascinating illasions of wealth, — was not added the 
tbann of the unknown. The belief in ehanue^ in luck, is proof 
agaifuit argument. Fortune is still a goddess, and to her shrino 
ihrmig the devotees of pleuauru. The number t»f people who 
bang about the confines of the liidden world, and play with the 
dice-boxes of destiny, is amazing. Thej* is a morbid cnriosi^ 
Co p«r into the soeret.s of Fate and to get the start of Providence. 
Hence the liwnsed lotteries of Europe, The Italian govenimeul 
haa no more power to abolish lotteries than the Spanish govc<m- 
ment haa to abolish buH-fighti^. The populace will have them, 
bceaoae, although the bank largely wins, any individual ticket 
ly draw a fortune. Nobody knows what may chance. The 
winner becomes rich by the turning of a wheel. The loss 
be trifling, the gain bi in most cases enormous, and hope 
'Biakes the audea hang i>ven, if aujrthing inclines the beam 
l<»wanl aneoesB. The holder of the titikct takes every pro- 
eaatiun to get the powers of luck on his side, and very 
vonderfol these precautions are apt to be. The border land of 
Proridence is fwcniiicd by suporstition. The region of the 
anknown is a region of marvels. The wildest anticipations may 
prove to be the most promising. Nothing is so likely to befall 
as the iroprobnbtc. Tho laws of reason being 8n8i)ended, 
mimdes are ^KikM for as events of course. Where knowledge 
and tJuIl are at fault, the most random guessing becomes aouud 



170 



TUE NORTH AMERICAN SETISW. 



philosophy. The gambling-room is & nMt of superstitionA,] 
wbii'h fih">w what devices are reiwirt*id, to hy Iho artful dodg*' 
whu pruwl about hoping to meet duity oa tho blasted heath ant 
surprise him into surreudvr of hi« power. Oiio notes the day i>f' 
the month, and puts his coin on the corresponding namb<T of 
the table; aiiotb^T takes the number of the cab which brings^ 
luni to the easiuo, re^rding that as a talisman ; a third acctrpl 
09 an indication tho fi^rc marked on his entrance ticket, m if 
that were snre to bring luck; a fourth is content to follow the| 
goidanci; <>f the painter who ouinbered his trhamber at. tht« lioUtLl 
where he lodges. No Koman augur was ever more diligent in 
watching for eigns and omone. lie consults wizards and sooth- 
sayers. A sporting eharaoter, -visiting Monte C'arlo, sent to 
Paris for a pair of trousers, which hung in his wardrobe, of n 
particular pattern that ha*l boen described to Mm as laekj*. 
One of these madmen brought with him a spider tihut np in a 
box with a glass t»ver, the bottom of the box Wing )*ainted 
in red and half in black. The color the spidt-r staid on wo 
ehosen as the fortunate one. BeCiini laying down his gol 
pieties, he examined his insect to learn where ho should 
th«m. No f^ilur at sea, no savage in the wilderness, no nc 
mancer or alchemist or seeker after the philosopher's stone, 
ever more rredulona. 

The tteose of mystery is enhanced by the contrivances with 
which professional gamblers Hnrrnund their trade. Tho slow 
revolutions of the wheel, the swift movemnnts of the hall which, 
spun by the operator's hand, leaps from side to 8id<i of Its nar- 
row C'haimcl, turns, dauws gavly along, coqnettishly t&pping tho 
rim as it goes, till, spent at last, it stmnblee over the sUver 
barrier and drops into the prcdi'stiued Rqiiarc, are ^acinating 
the eye. The long table, with euigmatica) lines, fignren, worda^ 
spots of color, sqaores filled irith even and undven tmrnbrrs;, 
spooes stamped with terms of magical impriH, — pi»f| imfoir^ 
vtanque, pnnse, — a.ssists the illusion. The apparently lawl 
arrangemeut of numbers on the circle of the roulet.t«*, the dis- 
tribution of numbers to the red or hlaok colors, the varietion ofj 
possible combination, the seeming oapriciousnoss of tho 
which regulate the winner's gains, — certain deposits briugii 
thirty-five times their amount, certain others^ bringing 8cvnntM*a1 
times, eleven times^ eight times, twice^ simply the amount 
pledgedf — inoreaAes the mystification. An int^gent looker-on. 



TnH ETHICS OF GAMSimO, 



i^orant of tbp (*rchnicalities, is for a long Hmc unable to 
cLuiXiv-itr why tbf* playtu* wixu or loses — why the bank pays so 
xnnnli to this one, so little to tluit om>. Tbo habitual player 
finds in these riiatitfuld cointiinationa so many provocatives to 
Ills fantastical ingenuity. The rt^ahu of the possible is of indefl- 
nllti extent, and is fringed on all aidos with marvoL la trente- 
fUfmaranie tbe some efTei-t is prt>duced by the nnaceountablo 
nMcetision of tbe cnrds. tJielr number, the ceremony attending 
thi'ir Khiiffling, lurangemeut, selection ; the cabalistic aspect of 
thf I>o«ni; the ewiuures, triangles, void ex|)auses of color; Iho 
outlandish terminology of the gume, — all eonsplre to deepen the 
iin]H¥sKion i>f mystery. The routine is e^asily mustered, bat the 
species of glnmour which gurrounds it is probably nfver qoito 
destroyed. Saperatition is sensitive, and the mere sight of the 
noict funuliar signs may be enongU to stimnlate the senae of 
ny^ry in untntored^ pasaionato minds. 

IJambliug is a mania, a rage, an irrational, instinr^tire im- 
pulse^ like druukejiness or any other nervous exeitement, only 
more deeply rooted, founded npon a greater number of support^ 
a(«*ociat4*d with a larger variety of ncious indulgences, — drinking 
itself being only one, — and laying a more uomprehensive grasp 
on the imagination, more difflfult, therefore, to eradicate than 
in«rbriety or the social evil. All attempts to soppresa it have 
thus far been vain. In the reign of Louis XIII. forty-seven 
gADibling-houses were closed in Paris; yet Lonis XV. was fond 
of pbiy, and indulged in its excit'cment^. The Directory uuder> 
took to repress the license of gaming which hod broken through 
an harriers. Yet, under the Consulate, we find a ehief of admin- 
istnition fanning out the gambling resorts of tbe metropolis as a 
measure of police. Under the Revolntion the municipality ot 
Pans dealt ene^^e blows at the practice, and at last, in order 
to rnttmin esxHsniTe license, and also to prevent money from 
lwi\*ing the oomitry, the sji^tem of public responsible casinos was 
autliorisu^d. In I83fi. after long debate in the Chamlwr of Depu- 
ties, the public institution of gambling was prohibited by law. 
Tbe decree was pnt in force the foQowing year. From that time 
date* tbe rise an<l popularity of the G«Tnan watering-places. 
M. Bemuot betook himself to Baden. M. Blanc, with tlie aid of 
a iTother, set np n rival establisliment at Hombourg. Yet there 
is fioid to bo more gaming in France than ever. The prohibition 
of public play did not have the effect to dijuinish the number of 



172 



THS NORTH AMERICAN REVIBW. 



players. For one regnlnr aud rc^uluu^d establishment 
irregnlttr and anre^nlAted eetablUhiueDts, more or less fasUiv 
ble, more or less vulgar ''dubs" or " hells ^ have spruug up. 
The faahionable aru wiuked at by the police, the vulgar pro4ec( 
thAtnselvee by wearing some species of disguise. The Gfimum 
government sets its foot ou Honibourg, yet the time wan, it is 
said, whea the moBt orthodox kiiig uf Prussia bad uo ooDseieQi^e 
against the practice which in his old age he denounces. ThA 
'Rnglish are reputed to be an exceeilingly moral j)c<)ple, yet tbe 
English are in grt* at force at Mout« Carlo, and have, if dame 
Bomor speaks but half the truth, an indisputable social warrant 
for their participatiou in the sport. In fai't, public gambling in 
forbidden by nearly every govermneut in the oi^'ilizod world, bui 
private gambling is carried on in every citj', accompanied by or- 
ciuustaiiees of extravagance^ fren^', reckloasuess, aiid heartl£ss- 
nesa which the public establishments rarely exhibit Still, though 
the progress of extemilnation is slow, it is perceptible, That tl 
practice of ganibling iu put under a social ban; that law 
soribee it; that pubUo opinion assails it^ that the moral sent 
ment of every communi^ condemns it as a vice ; that it 
from comer to comer; that it apologises fur its existeuoe, abakes 
off its disreputable asaoeiations, slieltent it«elf behind respeetft* 
bility ; that no perwm who values his reputation will have any 
oonnctitlun with it is already a gain. The crusade against Monte 
Carlo deeer^'es to snooeed, for the casino there, aside from its 
intrinaio turpitude, poisons the social atmosphere of the delight- 
fol Hiviero, makes Mentoue a resort for advemturera, exaqxiratca 
tha evil propensities of Nice, and infects even such distant 
as Cannes on one mdo and San Remo ou the other. Should 
fail, that shore of tbo Jlpditerrunean will bo shunned by hi^ 
toned people. But should it triumph, the pestilence will sim) 
be driven elsewhere — to curse some other portion of Ood*s earlli. 

The truth seems to be that the practice will have t^i hv nx 
grown by the gra<]nal plevatiou of mankind above the iufuti 
tions of pOHsion. Nothing short of an incr^^ase of moral fe<>lii 
or of merely prudential feeling, will extinguish th>i insane fu 
As intemperance dis^pears by degrees, — the better v 
renouncing it, tbo more ftery spirits jfiving pliife to wine*, the 
heavier wines being succeeded by lighter, these being »lr-Tii,v ii 
less quantitie-s, and Anally passed by without remark, h 
vinous stimulant in e>:ooss beoomes diagraoefnl, — so wiM itc 



rSE ETOTCS OF OAMBLIKG. 



173 



f^ of giun1>Ung ceaae by the ac«amalBtiiifr prpssnre of 
_ iteneil iniiida Already the power of an industrial age is 
ftOtiDg on thfi old semi-barbaruus romfuiticbnii tu which tb« sys- 
tem tuB its rootjs, aad will at last pnt an end to it, along with 
otiur forma of 8eatinient.aliain. 

Aa I watched the players at Monte Carlo, it was evident thai 

Ae Vempur which animated Homboorg and Baden-Baden in tha 

day« of their fame, luul sensibly declined. A different class of 

poople crrtwded about the tables. The habitual ^rnincsters were 

there, of cuiinie — the adventurers of either sex; men and women 

greedy^ unprincipled, luxurious, di^pated; fortune huutcrs, 

triclnteira, dissolute idlers. Small proprietors, nnsnoceasfnl 

!re, vagabond functionaries, briofluss barristers, doctors with* 

(lAtients, nobles withoat wealth, people of too much leisure, 

restlesa, the unstable crowd the rooms. Bnt tha excitement, 

rage, the fury are confined to a small number even of these. 

in is infrequent \ snicidea are rare. A cautious, shrewd, 

liusincss air is conspicnons. Many a sober citizen goes in from 

rioBJty, puts down two or three napoleons, loses or gains, and 

away satisfied. Ue haa bought his experience, and is in no 

Igor of re^ieating the triiU. It is one of the anittsentcnt^ of an 

hour. In hoars of business it never occurs to him to risk 

io»iey on the rolling of a Imll, or the turn of a card. The estab- 

nhment at Mnnte Carlo depends largrly on this class of stmg- 

[^ing and good-natured vagabonds, who smile at tlicir traveling 

adventares, but belong to an industrial age nevertheless, and, 

honestly or otherwise, earn the money which they claim the right 

to aqaander as they please. This commercial, tlirif ty. nnpoetical, 

i^^OOmmon-sense, calculating spirit makes gambling ridiculous, if 

^ftkol oontcmptihle. It wiU excite no abhorrence of it as a form of 

^^Mneas. That comes mth a much higher quality of intelligence 

^^^P refinement. It is a step, however, tliuugli a short one, in the 

right direction, and sliould bo welcomed as one of the ngencioa 

which lift man out of the degradation of passion into the 

self-command of a rational Ixfing. Spiritual earnestness worics 

more rapidly and more thoronglily, but- for the present it works 

.leoB comprehensively and less steadily upon great masses of 

3le. It is tme that large cities like New York, Chicago, San 

leiMO, abound in gambling saloons; but adventurers will 

''tlw^rs flock to cities, and especially to the most imperfectly regn> 

Imted cities. Civilization means order, and order is at war with 




174 THE NORTH AMERICAN REVIEW. 

impulse in every form. With the reign of law passion slinks 
away into comers and becomes disrepntable. This is the first 
stage of its dissolution. The reign of law is, without doob^ 
extending as well in America as in Enrope. The dominion of 
passion is shrinking, and must shrink, more uid more, nntii its 
end comes. The simplest kinds of impulse will first come nnder 
controlj the more complex, like gambling, may yield more 
slowly, but yield they most 

0. B. FBOTHmOHAX. 



TIfE REMUNEIUTIOX OF PUBUC SERVANTS. 



its literary merits are nooMrned the " United States 
ister" is not worth much of a revit-w ; Imt from its 
ill mass of infomiBtion it is iwssiblo to cull a few very 
''Instructive facts. In it are recorded the salaries of the servants 
vt tlie public, and as a man's pay is justly regarded as a measure 
of the esteom in which his kind of scr^-ic^ is held, the iiiHlructiou 
whiidi the mmide republican citizen derives from the Clue Book 
will not be entirely unmingled with disappoiutment. 

Of all of the grand diviaione of tho public w.Tviw, that com- 
plex gathering of bureaiis, the Departmunt of the Interior^ is 
ffloct inttmatcly connected with our people. As its name implies, 
it i^ the guardian of the nation's domestic intereets. Through it 
the inventor securei* the reward of liin genius, the minor a title to 
hia claiiUf and the settler a patent for his homestead. It cares for 
the IncUan, and pensions the soldier. It watches over the prog* 
rasa of cdncatiou, and, through it« census, it nutee tho country's 
advance in it* thousand grooves of industry and discovery. One 
would suppose that, in order to find and keep men worthy of the 
important tmsts of this department, salaries more libi^ral than 
oonunon would be paid to a full corps of officers. The luterior 
Department lias oue assistant seeretary, at three thonsand five 
himdrcd dollars a year; the State Department, which is the 
repreJMTitfltive of the ceremonial, as the Interior represcots tiie 
du^tnal interests of the country, is served by three assistant 
taries, one at four thousand five hundred dollars a yew,, 
two at throe tlionsand tive hundred dollars each. In thia 
nnection it shonld be rcmemberod that the Interior Depart- 
ent is in the fxdl blast of active operations, and that the 
eiMrtmeiit of State, in common witii the War and Navy 
epnrtments, may he said to be on waiting orders, awaiting 
QU) possible complications with the outside world, and 





176 



TRE NORTB A MKRTCA y SEVIEW. 



woe betide the cnci^tic secretary who shall disturb its repoM< 
depart from its established {trogranune of how not to do it 

It is difficult to coucoive the unimitort-nuce of thu dalius of 
our ministers plenipotentiary to tho countries of South Americu. 
In tames of quietudu they aro but little more than ptmsiununs 
whose peusioiis are muiccessiuily embittured by au txile lo 
an unhealthy latitude; in times of trouble, and in the un- 
expected emergency of a demand for diplomatic talent, they 
are speedily sui>ers<-dMl by the special agout in diplomacy, a 
person who will always be found necessary and amply enfflcieot 
to attend to our fureign affairs. The least of thL*se miuisten 
receives a salary of ten thousand dollars a year. Our dftlegatot 
to the monetary commission at Paris were statesmen appoiuttfd 
for a brief period to study, discuss, and regulate so important a 
subject as ih& world's finance ; they wore allowed five thousand 
dollars a year. The members of the tariff oommi«ioD, apim 
whose report the commercial oonditiou of the country is n 
lai^y dependent, and whose duties are worthy of the oloBtitt 
atteution of the most able economists and business men of the 
nation, aro paid tea dollars a day. But, it is always pleaded 
itiken a man is requested to leave his private affairs and do a 
particularly difficult piece of work for the Govemmcnl at tt 
merely nominal salary, that he should consider the hon(>r of the 
appointment Granted that work is honorable, and that titere- 
fore the tariff commii^aioiier is more to be respected than the 
foreign minister; but why should nut the uaeleaB official tako hit 
pay in honor ae well as the nsefol one T 

It is hardly to be disputctd that the soldier did more hard 
work and hard flgbting during the late war than the gnilor, and 
yet, in matters of promotion, retirement, ot&, the navy is tJi'eated 
more Uberally than the army. Indeed, Congress has not yet fin* 
isfaed awarding prize money to the navy for property destroyed 
at that time. A Uke eqiiivaleot to tho army would make nuUiua* 
aires of some of our private soldiers. 

Much has )>een said about the iniquity of the Indian agestt 
and much injustice has Ijeen done to a class of men of whom 
only a very small percentage have been found oorrupt. Thn posi- 
tion of Indiau agent is no sinecure, nor is his r*r^ [ity a 
light one. In the eomuiunity of barbarians to whi: .. L. :.> sont 
he is president^ judge, law-giver, honker, commissary, teaober, 
friend, and a hundred tbiugs more. He should be brave^ hoMSt* 



THE MKMtTKSRATlOU OF PUBLIC SERVANTS. 177 



and wi»>; diplomatist and philanthropist in one. From 
Pain dtiwu to Meeker his has haeu a pout of exile, danger, and 
dweomfurt — and bis reward is, what I Goutnmely and an aver- 
age salary of less than fifteen hundred dollars a year. Mean- 
while, ihe average BiUary of onr secretaries of legation is upward 
»pf twvnty-uuo hnndretl dullai^ a year. Tlie Indian agent, who 
[stands iK'tween tlie M-ttlcr and the savage, and who in a legation 
in him«-'lf, is given rank below the expert in epistolary etiquette, 
un business it is to observe a pruper distinction betweeuj 
le and Kight Huuorable, His Uracu and Uis Highness. 
"Par the single item of rear-admirals on the retired list, the 
f eomitry pays more than twice as much as for all of the ^ixty-fivs 
iodian agents who figure so largely in the administration of our 
■Skira. There are forty-three rear-admirals on theretired listof the 
navy, roceiriug solarios of rort>'-fivo hundred dollars a year. In 
ntom for this handsome pension they do nothing, which is even 
hai than the duties of tlu^ n-ar-aiimiral in what is politely t^^rmed 
aetive aervice. The head of the Indian Bureau, the Commis- 
noner of Indian Affairs, is paid only thirty-five hundred dollars 
ft year, which is the salary of each of the uinoty commanders in 

It is evident that an honest and capable business man, with 
I'tfce neecsBary executive power, eaunot affonl to lose himself in 

Indian eomp and deny himself and family the blessings of 
oiviliBUion fur fifteen hundred dollars a year. Ho may make tba . 
■Krifloo from motives of philanthropy and a desire to benefit 
the Indian ; he may be an ethuologisU who wishes to study the 
haUts of savage tribes ; he may be a lover of nature, Ured of 
Ae trammels of society } he mr.y be an artist, a hunter, or a 
gBld-eeekcr, to whom the annual stipend is of secondary conse- 
qoeoee} but it is not safe for the Government to rely apon these 
Tare eluaea of men in its care for tlie national wards. Govem- 
■eata, aa wdU as individuals, cannot learn too soon that auy 
ptrtistent and systematie attempt to secure services for less than 
they are worth, will result in final loss, either to the pnblie purse 
or the public reputation. No one knows better than our mcm- 
%cn of Congress that we have a large floating population of 
Dntarmpnlnus place-hunters, who see in every public ofiice a 
"aoft snap,'* who coninder it an exploit to "beat" the Qovom- 
■Mfbt, and who are iudilTerent to the salary attached to an oflftcal 
I B dw " piddngB " are only good. To such men ^ Indian agenoy 



178 



TBE KOSTH AXERXCAU REVIEW, 



means eadden wealth, — to be followed perbapa by an ontbi 
and massaure. 

To numaf^ its vast landed and mining property the (rovera- 
menthas a real estate agent, known as tbo Commissioner of the 
Irfind O0lce. tTnder his dire<ction many niitiioim of aurca aiv 
sim't^ywl, rlaiwified, and dispost^d of 'ov^ry year, {tail 
grants, ranches, hoiiiest<'ads, mining claims, swamp. timl>er, &n< 
desert lauds, all come under his jurisdiction. His salary is, foor 
thousand dollars a year, a fair renmueration for a dealer in comer 
lots or western town sit^s. Huuls of divisious iu his office, men 
grown gray in tho 8er\'ioe, who have failhfiiUy and juiliciniLvly 
bandied the intorcsts of tlie people to the extent of inilliouK Hn« 
millions of dollars, and who are k<» overworked that they scan?!*] 
bave time to rea*! the daily paper, witli its standing juke aKn 
tbo idleness and easy times of the Government elerk, n-wivf 
cigbtecn hundred dollars a year. As one of tbo objects of thu 
writing is tlie comparative ctnnpensation of public servanta, i\ 
may be observed in this conuection that a "messenger, oj-lii 
assistant door-keeper " of the Senate gets the same pay of eighteei 
hundred dollars a year ; the uuting assi»>ttknt door-keeper gvl 
two thousand live hundred and ninety-two dollars; aud, to 
the comparison still further, a cnptjiin iii the anny reeeives, 
ring alluwanoes, eighteen hundred dollars per annum, the Ml 
as the politician's friend who opens and shuts the doors of th« 
legislative chambers. " I had rather bo a dnor-koejior in the 
house of my Ood, than to dwell in the tents of ungodliness." 

Nations, like individuals, have their peculiar traits of characU'r. 
One docs not have to go abroad to learn that Uie Uniti'd Siat<!ttj 
owe their principal fame to the indnstrial enterprise and invc 
ive genius within their lx»rders. Whatever we may W in wi 
diploraaey, and eommenM*, we an> pre«miuont in those arta 
peaco which bring comfort to the homo and leisure to the WMiry. 
The foreign idea of a Yankee is a working-man. who hamesf:i:'< 
tlie foi-ees of nature t<i do liU \a\mt for him f iir an idle man, wh< 
whittles a stick and develops a machine ; or a thoughtful mi 
who trains tho lightning to nm his errands. Our eollr*tion 
machinery was the world's wonder at the Phihulclphia Expwi*! 
tioD, and the Patent Oflice at Washington is a porxDaueut tn» 
chinery hall. 

In puro self-defense the Ooverumenthaa been obliged to tnat 
the Pftt«nt Office more liberally than tho Land Office, elau it« 



ims REHtmrsRATioN of PUSUO SEMVANTS. 179 

officials, ftfter a frw ye&rs of tiie valuable esEperieuco obtuiuod 
therOf w(mld g" ovor to ilie euemy and beeomo patent attorneys, 
and jtlead the inventor's case. Even now it is couunon talk in 
WiiiJiiiifftoQ that thu chair at tht- bead uf thtit bureau i» princi- 
}ially dft<irubk\ nul for its B^Uory uf four thousand five hundred 
d'llldra, but on OActiunt of the tfdncatinn In jMttent law that it 
affiinli* il^ ix:cupant, and bccauso it oonfers the privilege of writ- 
ing ** Ex-Commmiuoer of Patents" upon his buMnes3 eords 
when h<- . and, so to speak, leaves the gurriiioa to join tlio 

beleogu- r ! ^ xt.: 

Id a Qty where examinations for entrance into the public serv- 
in are too often a blind to cover the api>oiuLniuui of the pr«- 
devtined snewMsfnl ci>ui|H-titor; the standard fur sueoess b^ng 
established low cuough to include the favored one, the examina- 
tions for lubniseion Ui the Patent Offiue oorpe ore believed to be 
tax exetption to the mle. As far as the outaide world can learn, 
tlwfiK tests are fiur and impart iiil, and the best man wins; and 
idnoe the p<^iUtician is not usually i>n>ficient in mechanics, cheni- 
irtsy, physics, and tbo Idudred branches in which the ofKcial 
I: ' ^ at home, this bureau is especially free from tlie eanker 
<- I M-al influenue. If we search our public ser\'ice from 
Home to California, we do not find au opportunitj- equally good 
for The youn^ man of merit and industrinuK hnbit^, imd the 
«i|ie«-ia1 Hilncuiiun necoasary to secure the appointment. It is, in 
t only chance afforded the graduates of our namL-rons 

t I schools to devote their talents to the counti-y's service 

and nieeive a fair compensation for the same. As the Patent 
Offl^jo is t'Kpecially a rcil'.-x of the genin(( of onr republic, so is its 
adminuttrariitn orraui^^tjd ii])on the republican basis of a fair field 
and no favor 

The pay of the lowest grade of patent examiners, into which 
the novice enters, is one thousand four hundred doUors u year. 
Vlrom this, by snccessive promotions, he may at last Ih-couio one nf 
twenty-four principal examiners, at two tJiouMmd four hundred 
dollars a year, or, if ho have great success, one of three examiners- 
in-chief, at three thousand dollars. Tlit^ i>oninii»»ionerKhip, at four 
thouioDd five hundred a year, should hardly bo iudoded in his 
aspirations, as that office Is generally given as political reward. 

While vrry little is popularly known eonci^ruing tJie pay of 
]nibUc servants, it is generally the thoughtless verdict of the tax- 
{layer that, however small such compensation may be, it is prob- 
vdi- rsxxv.^ — NO. 309. 13 



ido 



THE TfOSTU JJtESICAK REVIEW. 



ably much more tban is earned. Let us we^ There is on«" 
branch ot the service with whose pay the people are £unlUar. 
This is the army, the solaiies of whose offimsrs lire, aoeording tn 
coumioii voice, quite insoOlcicnt. So well is tbi« fact known 
in our romances, with military lovera — and their name is U 
—one of the most serious obstaeles whir-h the nnvilist hdA 
overcome, in common with cruel guai*diaus, false friends, 
ions rivals, lost wills, and the like, is the proverbial impccuuiofdl 
of the hero. '*Uc is awfnl nice," drawls the langnid 8neii>t 
boUe, " but then he is to ineligible." Indeed, we havo it frui 
fto good on authority as the UoneraL of the Army himself* that 
a aeeond lieutenant shoxild never, on aooouut of his scaiilj 
means of subsistence, indulge in the divine right of m&rr 
a ri^ht which is open to the poorest laborer and the smolli 
farmer. 

Now, a second lie\it«naat in the army, at his appointanent, 
receives a salary of one thousand four Imndred dollars a ywu-, 
to Iw t)ubsiH]ueiitly iucreased at least every five years j he 
also gets his honsc-rcnt, liberal mileage for traveL me<li<wl 
attendance and full pay in time of illness, and other inci- 
deuial benefits; aud in his old age, or iu case of perma- 
nent inability, he will receive three-quarters imy on the ret 
list. The third assistant examiner in the Patent Office, 
the very best position open to any young man who, dcpeut 
on his ability and usefulness alone, desires to ent^r our a\i 
service, as it is called outside of Washington, is paid, as heruto^l 
fore said, uiio thousand four hundred dollars a year, without per* 
quisites ; aud this sum seems like riches to the b^inners in 
other departments, working as they do, for from four hi 
aud eighty dolhirs to nine hundruU diiUars a year. The diffc 
between the two classes of officials just compared is that all mea^ 
graduated from West Point become second lienteoaats, while tiw 
twenty-four thinl assistant i-xamiuers are chosen, a few 
year, by competitive examination from the hundreds of 
institntions of leai'ning in the land. 

If it is decreed that the second lieutenant is too poor 
marry, what will be the solitary fate of the assistant axaminer, 
and to what a lung life of celibacy must the aid in the Cf 
8ur\-ey look forwanJ, as, in his cheerless home in thi> garrvt* h(|l 
burns the midnight oil in adding stores of knowledge Ut tint 
tmirersity education which has alruady cost him yoats of study 



' dbd thcnuands of doUnrs, and for the use of which our Ooveni- 
mcnU KoiT' :rMown ae the especial patron of edncatioi), pays 

htinOie^Hit' -lu thirty-fiv« to seventy doUare a month? An 

objectJoQ to the proposed reform in the civil service is that, 
lueardiog to the plan, admission shall he only through the low> 
est grade, and the pay of this grade will be so small that yoann; 
men with consdotisness of any innate power will he deterred 
tram entering;. It is hardly wise for a person with native good 
•faiae and a libt^ml LMlocatiou — and, in spite of what the spoils- 
men say, such men are really needed — to serve a long appren- 
ticseship aa a '* copyist,'' or an " acting snh-assistant'' on 
Goremmont work, when the wide world, with its rich variety 
of promises, Ues before him, like an oyster^ to be opened. 

In order to take the laat census it was necessary to organize 
a eoTfiH of more thnn thirty thousand faithful and intcllige-nt 
mexL This force, eonsiderahly larger than the army of the 
United States, took the field on the first of June, 1880, and, each 
eoamemtor a<*ting under separate orders, they visited every 
family in the land, traveling every road and trail within its 
limita, and nnrobere<l and described nil of the people, of whatever 
olaw or condition, inventoried their wealth down to the smallest 
detaO, and noted the at^tivity, change, and development in our 
OTilizatiou during the laet decade. The organizer and com- 
nuuider of liiis army, the Superintendent of the Census, 
reoeivp«, for working days, nights, and Sundays through the 
brief two or three years that the Oensos Bureau is allowed to 
esifft, thf* sum of five thousand dollars a year. The humblest 
Ooogreasman, serving his country as a claim agent, pension 
•gent, and office-hunter for hia constitaents, gets the same 
refwnrd from an indiscriminating people. 

A number of the census force were wlected from the very 
first rank of our educated men, being chosen for their f amiliah^ 
witit oArtain special subjects, upon whoso history and statistioa 
I) reported. The maximum pay allowed them was six 

d' _ _ lay. Tliia is very good for a mechanic, but it is hardly 
the remaneration that a government pretending to be a patron of 
learning sbciiUil offer to its roost learned citizens ; a clerk to a 
Coognssaional committee which never meets gets six dollars a 
day. But, little as was the reward of those special agents, it 
«ermM like munillccnce to the lower grades of the Census officers, 
manv vt whom will remember their term of service in that bureau 



182 



THE NOUTB AMKBICAN ItEVIEW. 



as busmess idod remember a time of fluaDcial panic, or the 
EgTptuuiH Iook<^d back to the yoars of famine. 

To tlie arnhitecrs office (if the Trtjasiiry I)(.'|ULrtnient tluire u 
one civil engineer who is paid ten dolliirs a day. At the variota 
navy yards npon otzr coasts there are ten of tbiii profesauon. 
Tbeeeare selected by compeUtive exaiuiiiutiun, and receive salarici) 
ranginfT from two thousand four hundred to three thousand five 
hundred dollars a year and allowances, according to length of 
service. In the 'War Department thore are betwoeu two nnd three 
hondred civil engineers, engaged upon iuteruol improveniPtit^, 
geo^aphicol surveys, etc. Among them are to be found ^fraduaiv^ 
of all of our engineering colleges, and others who have Iearu<-d 
their profesfiion iii the no lees efficient school of lon^ 
In order to moke the position of a few of them more ■ 
a resolution was introduced Into the Senate, March 19, ISti7, 
authorizing: the employment, for the improvement of westeru and 
north-western rivers, of several civil eng-iueors. ni»t to exooed live 
in number, at a eumpeusutiuu not to exeecd tLree tliousiuid dol- 
lars per annum. The diiitinotion of appointmp-nt under chi£ act 
carrie-3 wiUi it a monopoly of the title of "ITnit^d StAti-s Civil 
Engineer," a salary which, low as it is, is greatly above the 
arerngo pay of other ci\nl eugimiers in gtjvomment employ, and 
that feeling of seeuritywhich comes froma tenure of office which, 
at leafit, apiiruaehes permanency. The passage of thiK m«annv 
was opposed by Mr, Sliernion in the following words: 

"This rcsdhition provides for gi\'ing these persous the jwy of 
a colonel of eug:ineers. What is that? That i» a way of fixing 
compensation that I thought we had abandoned some \*eara ago.'^ 

Perhaps the distinfjruishwl speaker thoTtght that a colonel of 
engineers is a man wlio, one of a thonsand, iii in command of a 
r^ment of civil engineers. At any rate he was uitstaken, fnr 
the pay of a colonel in the army ranees from three thousand Are 
hundred dollars t:0 four thonsand Ave hundred dollan a year; 
with abundant allowances. Even if his words were tmei wheri- 
would be the impnt))ricty of giving a man, ut the head of a prw 
fcssion which is gLMierally understood to be luoruti\is tho aalary 
of a middle grade of tli»? : I'ltid nrniy ? That men at the 

head of the ongineering \'- ■•n have served their connl 

under the pr<»*iaionH %i( this law, is proved by the name 
W. Milnor Roberts, who, certainly from no mereenarj* 
actod in this capacity for a lime. The members of his i 



TBS RSMUKKJtATWX OF PJTBLIC SEUVANTS. 183 



not Deed tfi bo told who MHnor Roberts was, but some of the 

icnil paUic who hear lose of their scientifie men than uf their 

not bo BO well informed. To such I ran perhaps 

loft ei' .. convey tho information by saying tliat, after 

long Ufo (if boQoruble work in his own country^ where, oinongr 

}ihtT iiQftortADt trusts, be was chief engineer of the ^'orthnm 

'ftcifie Railroad, ho was called to the Brazilian service — im- 

provt!mont of rivers and harbors — at a salary of twenty thou- 

itl ilollant A year. For similar work, our Uovemment, over- 

ing Mr. Slicnnnn's objection, paid him tliroo thousand dollarB 

There is a wide differQm» between Congressional 

and jmlitifial wononiy. 

A yonng officer of the army, engaged upon the improvements 

the Hudson River, once made a report, in which the following 

vrorda are found : 

'*I have triinl the plan of talcing yonng graduates from the 

pr Pol>'technio Institute at Troy, and am well satisfied 

Iha results. These young men are auxious to gain practical 

lowlcdge, and ajo willing to work hard for their pay, and their 

jrork is aocnrate and thorough." 

Thos writes the graduate of West Point, who received a 
while studying, of the graduate of HensselaeTf whose eda- 
ion cost him a large sum of money. The services of the lattfir 
individuAl are unduubtetlly as useful and necessary to the eonnbry 
as those of the former. Then wby — the people of the United 
8l«tcs win n&tnraUy inqnlre — why in the name of Heaven and 
anpublii-'an form of government, uliuuld one of these public serv- 
•ate ask, expct, or even permit a feUow-servunt, whose " work 
U aecuTSte and thorough," to •* work hard for low pay," which 
probably means enough for his Ujard t If such a system of lalwr 
and reward shall e\'er be neeessar\' in this eouutn,', it should be 
ontH'tineed in tonee of regret and not of gratification. Far better 
would it sound to say that the engineer worked hard, aocuratt-ly, 
and thorongfaly, for good pay, and that the Government hod thus 
eanoehxl a just d«bt It may be a shame to our public service 
that so many of onr officials get more than they cam, but a Ktill 
greater ahame is ours when any one earns more than fafi gnts. 
The former affects the public pni«e, the latter dims the pnblio 
honor. 

In happy contrast to the report jnst quoted from, the writer 
ooidd mention instances of other engineer ufilcers who, in mok- 



134 



THE KORTU AMERlCAIf RSVZEW. 



ing ongagements with eivil on^neerft, have uphold the diguity iif 
the Government by nsking " Viliat is bo worth T ^ instead of the 
meroenary question, " ^Tiat can wa get him torfwhiuh is rw»i3y 
to take advantage of another's niisfortnno and pwftt by hi« lose. 

The UuLt«d States iSeuate is the finest body of men in the 
world. Tlie HouBo of Bepre£entAtiv«s is — well, in consequence 
of the hist statement, it mnat be confessed that it is not tht- fint:«t 
body in the worid. From the House to the Senate It an acku^twl 
edged promotion and an advancement most eagerly prized. The 
latter i» tho cream of tho former, a large proporti<»n of itfl nnto- 
ber ha\ing served their Icgislativo apprt^nticeshij* in the He 
before being eallf^ np higher as a reward for taitlilid work. N« 
tjQcrcaae of salary, however, accompanies this promotion, 
unless the Honae is overpaid, which none bat the demagogn^ ' 
muintain, the Senate receives too little. It wonid not be hard to 
demonstmtp that men of their caliber, turning Oicir talents u 
other directions, could average a salary of twice five thousand 
dollars a year, bnt such a demonstration would not )w worth tho 
while ; tho question of their remuneration is their bosiueas, not 
ours. 

In some iiistonoes Congress is more Libe-ral to its friends 
JIft itself. While five thousaud dollars a year is the salary of bot 

)r and representative, the BecretAry of the Senate gets 
thousand and ninety-six dollars, and the 0erk of the Hot 
is paid five thousand one hundred dollars a year. Even 
reporters of Congressional deba^ get five thousand dollars » 
year, the same an the debaters themselves. 

Salaries in Washington appear to be affected by loesl 
inflnenoes, and it is significant that those officials who bAvo 
the most intimate relations with Congress — namely, tho m 
oua retainers at the Ca]>itul — are rewarded moat lilH>ralty, thi 
exposing our legislators to the soft impeacbmcut of 
good care of their friends — and perhaps their reUitions — ; 
the expense of equal rights and eternal justice. To iUustraXo, 
let UR take the jiositiou of messenger, that b<;iug au ofOc 
common to all deportments, and one for which tho samo 
of talente is ever^-where needled. In the Senate, which H is 
session only a poilion of the year, the messenger t: ' ' 
hnndrwJ and forty dollars per annum ; at the "WHiitH 
residfinco of tho Pre^dent, hois le-ss fortunate, recei\-ing tw 
hundred duUara a year ; in the execntivc departtueuts, trxxm &l-> 



TJi£ nEJiVA'JiRArioy of pubuc servants. 186 



handrud and twenty to eight hondred and forty dollars ; and 80 
on down to th« Cengns Office, the home of hard work, whiTtt he 
is paid tmm two hundreil and forty to eight hnndrod iloUarv a 
year. As it has not yvl been diatovored that Lho mcss^-nger at 
the Capiu>l is any more intelligent, active, ci\'il, or neat tbfiri his 
humble brothor of the Coast Survey or the Ceusua Offit*, the 
thoufrht natorally uristjs that an ecjuulisatiou of salaries would 
trt ■ if order. 

> taniling all that is Raid abont the extrav^anoe and 
\f at the national cjipital, Washington is really a oity of low 
taiaiies, as will b« shown by a compariaon of the pay of offleers 
in and out of that town. ThoB, the Aflsifitant Treasurer of the 
States at New York receives eight thousand dollars a 
; the Treaanrer of tho United States at Washington gets six 
d dollars a year. Tlie CoUeotor of Costoms at Now York 
paid twelve thousand dollars a year ; his superior officer, the 
lary nf the Treasury at Washington, receives eiglit thou- 
sand dollars a year. The Postmaster of New York city gets 
eight thousand dollars a year j the Postmaster- General at Wash- 
ington has no more ; and so on. The above instanr^es furnish a 
it^ idea of the general salaries paid for intelligent service and 
bitnneae capacity in New York and Washington, or in private 
and pablic life. It may be gratifying to some people to learn 
int those whom they are pleased to term leeches upon the pub- 
pur^ do not grow so fat in that city of corruption as they do 
places of a bettftr reputation, and that Government i>ap is not, 

all, the most nonrisliing of food. 
When we were boys at school, we were told that the good 
alone are great, but a wiereneo to tho Bine Bonk has. shown ns 
that they do not by any means get tho beet salaries. We were 
alio informed that indostry, intcgri^*, and probity were the keys 
that openetl the door to snoeees; neither is that statement vori- 
iled in the volume before as. Another maxira tn>m our jnvenile 
py-books i.s, that virtue is its own reward, and that is the only 
of onr youth which seems to be fulfilled in the Govern- 
servioe. 
Tnif, perfection in the public service is not to be hoped for 
this imperfect world. As long as human nature remains what 
is, fathers wiU continue to overrate the value of their sons 
id nephews, and we shall have nepotism } and the grand damea 
oarygpoMican court will feel a tender regard for thor pro- 




m^A 



186 



TBE yORTH AMESICAX REVIEW. 



tcg^ and there will be favoritism. Other things bcinf eqnal« 
bandRome women aud agreeable mcu will be ohofien cn'er the 
homdy and taciturn, and the official with a distiui^iishnl 
patroD\inic and fashionable wife will distance the bachelor 
without pedigree. Even under the inflexible rules whiih 
gnvRm, or are supposed to govern, advanwmunt in the artuy 
aud cavy. a man's promotion doea not <1eptjud tto mach apoa 
hiR own PXftellence as upon the death or retirement of si^me 
distant superior officer; and thus the maiu-spriiig of his antl 
tion is broken* Granted all this, and still our Govcnunc 
service should occupy a plane very far alwve its present cone 
tion; and it is public sentiment, without which presidential pi 
damations and CougrcsKional laws are dead letters, that \& dea- 
tined t,n work the needed reform. Some of those dm "i'^ 

sentiment will decide that the man of influence, who q. : a 

worthless relation or constituent upon the Guveniiiitnit, delibor 
ately puts his hand into the national treasury and BteaU th*,> 
exact amount of that official's salary. The spoilsmen obdm that 
one man can perform thu duties of a federal office as well as 
another. The public are beginning to see that the one duul does 
mot do his work aa well as the other, and to realise that lids 
difference is worthy of notice. Our students in school and wri* 
lege, and our workers on railway and farm, are now graded, pro- 
mote], loid rewarded according to their industry' and ability, and 
iodependentty of their political beliefs or famUy lies; some dsy, 
pIpAse G»m1 and tlie people, the same system will be intmdnced 
into the Gk>vemnieDt service. Then it will bo, indeed, an honor 
to have on^s name in the Blue Book; the possessors of the finest 
talents and the highest ambitions wUl eeek to be enrolled there; 
the capable applicant for office, unsupported exi^ept bv ' i 

moni^of merit, will not receive less conrnderation 
incapable offloeKseeker, with a State delegation at hia heela; the 
useless will not then take rank over the useful; the etiquette of 
the State Department will not be considered of greater imp«>r- 
tanne than the soienoes and iudustrtesof the Interior; iu tinieti 
of peace the arts of peace wiU receive as much enconnigonnmt as 
those of war; the disabled civil servant will get at least A tithu 
of the pension now given to the hale and hearty retired rear- 
admiral ; and then wo shall be in fact, as well as in name, a 
republic. 

Frank D. T. Carpestw. 



t^P'TKSIAN WELLS UPON THE GREAT PUINS. 
LABOB part «f the boU upon the great plaiitB oast of the 
T 31<iiiiitaui8 is, in compositioii and diaracter, similar to that 
prairies of the States which border Ufmn the Upper Mia- 
stjicippi ; and that it mxii!-. only the seasonable application of 
mter to make it qnite as furtile as the praine8, has been d«moD- 
stnU«d in varions places by irrigating it witli watcir taken from 
the riTera. Those plains oro not tho barren Raudy desert, worth* 
Ins for all human ases, that some have supposed them to be. 
^ Atthongh they aro mtif^h too arid for tlie growth of cultivated 
^Berapa witJiont irrij^tinn. there U almost everywhere a scanty^ but, 
|^"bi the aggregate, abundant growth of most, nutritions grasses, 
beside a ennsiderablc variety of other herbarooua plants. These ' 
grasaea are not uniitiali^, that come from the seed witli the early 
Rpriag Tegetatiou and beoome mature before the drought of som- 
taer aboold destroy them, but they are perennial, retaining their 
vitality not only through tho winter like all perennial pUmts. but 
llirough the severe test of tho snoimer dn>iight also. These ore 
t]» granes that, only a few years ago, sapportcd the immense 
I of >mffalo that roamed over those plains, and that now sup* 
>rt herds of domestio eattle which, although large, amount to 
'imfy a tithe of the numbers that might subsist up<:>u thosi' grasses if 
^Ifatfr for them to drink were everywhere conveniently available. 
The spaces between the nvers of the plains are, as a rule, 
rdestitnte of water in summer and early autumn, the smaller 
IS that flow there at other portions of the year Iteing dry 
llieD. Some of those spaces kre so brnwl as to make thorn pitua- 
Jy impossible to traverse without an artiilcial supi)ly of water 
' daring that portion of the year. To make these broad lands avaU- 
•Me for grazing purposes, it has Ijeen pro|»t«ed by different per- 
to procure the necessary water by boring artesian wdla j 




188 



THE NORTH AMESICAN BEVIBW. 



and others, more hopeful of procaring aband&Dt water from ftocli 
a tunurce, have proposed that those lands should be tliun irrigated 
for cultivation. 

This question has been to some extent publicly agitated (or 
nearly thirty years. In 1854 Professor Julfts Marcou, then geol- 
ogist to the United States Pacific Railroad Surveys suggested the 
practicability of obtaining water by meana of artesian wells npoa 
the Llano £^tacado of New Mexico. Captain John Pope, of the 
same surveys^ strongly urged, in his report of the following year, 
that practical tests of the question should be made by boring at 
various localities. An appropriation from Cnngress having been 
secured, the enterprise was undertaken under the direction of 
Captain Pope, and several borings were made in that region, all 
of which were failures so far as proenring a flow of water at the 
surface was concerned. Water was report«d to exist there, but it 
did not rise in the borings, and the whole enterprise was therefore 
abandoned. 

In consequence of the failure of these experimcnta, compam- 
tively little attention was given to the subject until the succeesfnl 
boring uf many artesian wells in California, and the reported 
similar success in some portions of the Desert of Sahara, again 
drew public attention to the subject of artesian wells upon the 
plains east of the Rocky Muuntuins. In 1880 an appropriation 
was toadc by Congress for the purpose of boring experimental 
wells upon those plains, and the expenditnre of the same was 
placed under tlie direction of the Commissioner of Agrieultoro. 
Under this act, Commissioner Le Due liwated one of the wells 
which it provided for, in the valley of the Arkansas Itiver, near 
Fort Lyon, Colorado. Many aecidents and vexatious delays 
oeourred in the prosecution of this work, and in the autumn of 
1881, after reaching a depth of about eight hundred feet, it was 
abandoned by order of the present Conunissioner of Agriculture. 
The cause of the suspension of this work was the exhaustion of 
the appropriutiun, and the report of a commission of geologists 
thftt had been appointed to make an examination of the re^on 
within which that boring was located, that the location wac^ in 
their opinion, an unfavorable one. ' 

Beside these enterprises that have been undertaken bylht 
Oovemmcnt^ a numbei' of borings have been made in the pUifit- 
eost of the Itocky Moimtaina by private persons and companies. 
Two borings have thus been 'made at Pueblo, Colorado, from 



AMTESIAN WELLS UPON THE GBSAT PLAJys. 189 





Dth of which a good flow of water was obtained at a depth of 
it tnclve hundri'd foet. Om- has bcou made &t Deuver, (-'olo- 
Tftdo, about eijjht huudred fetl dwp ; one at Cheyenne, Wyoming, 
•boat nine hnndred feet deep ; and one st Carson Station, on the 
y*«*ft« Paclflo Huilroad, said to have been thirt<et'U hundred feet 
deep; kll of which were unsuccessful. Vorioos other borings, 
>« flflj' to one hundred feet deep, have been made at different 
upon the jtlaiiis, by partiea in search of coal, or for other 
ail of which failed to produce any coosidorublc flow of 
the surface. It will thus be seen that of all tlio borings 
have hitherto b«eu rnado upon the great plains, only two 
iw be«n successfid. and both of these are located at Pueblo, 
Colomdo. It is truo that^ in view of the great extent nf the re^on 
over which these bDriugs are distributod. and the varying i^^ndi- 
18 of the strata in different districts, even this large propor- 
of failures does not prove that eimilar failnres will be the 
elaewht^n:. This proportion is too great^ however, not to 
lite Mrioiia misgi\-ing as to the result uf future enterprises of 
kind, without at least a change in the methoda which have 
lerto been pur«uod. It ia claimed, and no doubt correctly, 
that there were local or special reasons why a portion of those 
entcrpriaes r^ultcd in f^lnro* but thoro can be no doubt that 

Main oanditiona exist in that region, which are so general in 
p character as to materially affect the question of snccees or 
nre of all cDterpriscs of thi» kind that may be tmdertaken 
fsrt). It is the bearing of these conditions upon tho general 
lestinn which I propose to diseiiss hriefly; bat, before doing m, 
will be ueceasary to state what those conditious are. 
For the purpose of being explicit in the statements I shall 
make, they will be confined mainly to the region which 1 hare 
pfmonaUy examined as a member of tho geological commission 
that has already been referred to — namely, to that part of Culo- 
rado which lies t;a»r of the eastern base nf the Rocky Monntmna, 
id U} adjoining portions of Kansas, Nebraska, and Wyumtug. 
low far tiiese statementii will be applicable to contiguoiis por^ 
IS of tlic great plainfl, the reader will be able to judge. The 
loral Biibjeet to be discussed in this connection may, for con- 
veuienoe, be diWded under three heads — namely, topographieol 
ktores, geological stmcturef and met«orologieal data. 
The general aspect and character of the surface of the great 
IS is much Uke that of the prairie region which lies to the 




190 



TUB KORTH AM^HICAK REVIEW. 



eastward of them, with which, in(l«e<l, they are continaoius and 
would be identical, were it uot for tho aridity of the dim&ti! 
whii'h prevails there. They are, however, more eU^vat«d than 
any portion of the great pmirie region, the ge&eral rise from the 
neighhorhnod of the Missonri River to the base of the Rocky 
Moontuiis being ooustant, but so gentle 08 to be imporoeptiblo 
to the eye. Roughly stated, that portion of the great plaintt 
which is ospwially rc-fwrpd to in tlie follnwring discossions haa 
au average elevation above the Uvcl of the sea of betweeu four 
thousand and fire thousand feet. The principal ohain of the 
Rocky MonntAitiB, compoc^ed of a oompact mass of crowdi 
peaks and gorgoe, rises upon its western bordcar almost 
abruptly as a wall* except that it is bordered by a narrow fringe 
of foot-hillfl; whiln even the higher peaks, some of which ore 
more than fourteen thousand feet above the level of the s^ do 
not reach an elevation that in full expoftan.' to the iulluuuce 
of the aun would l>e alwve thu {rue line of pertmuial sDow.fiJI 
in that latitude. Snow is always present there — that ia, namiT 
ona small snow-flelds, some of which have an deration as 
low as nine tLous*arid feet above the sea, remain the whole wim- 
mer through, in the less exposed plaoes among those moantaiits. 
From those numerous sm^ nnnw-fields, and the eomparutively 
abundant rains that full upon the monutainB in summer time, a 
multitude of small streams arise. These streams find thtiir way 
out upon the plains, where they quickly unite to form the 
Arkannas and South Platte rivers respectively, both of which 
traverse the plains in an easterly direction. These moiui(ain> 
bom Rtri'sms are constant in their flow the whole year roniidl, 
but the tributaries of the two rivers named, which have both 
their rise and d^bouchemsnt npon the plains, flow only during 
the cooler months, and nro diy, or nearly so, during the ■am- 
mer and early autnmu. 

The geological Rtnictnre of this portion of the great plaiiui 
and of the adjacent mountains is very simple, and it may bo 
readily understood bythosc who are not goologiata. The mount- 
idns are almost entirely composed of aroluean oniitnitiAed rw^ks. 
which are mostly of coarse, iiregolar texture, and similar to tba 
grmnites in compoftition. The plains are underlaid by six or 
aeven separate formations of etratified rocks, which lii? in suo- 
cessive order upon eaeh other, and extend Like broad idHy*ts 
beneath the whole district, the whole being covered aa witlt a 



ABTESIAN WELLS VPOIT TBE ORBAT PLAINS. 

mAntle b; the Bupcrficiol depostta of the plaius. These formo- 
tiooa range iii g«oU>gicaI age fr<:>m tho Tertiary to tJio TriASMO 
iadanve. They huvt.' an uggrcgtite thickness ue&r tho mount- 
ains of about eight thousand feet; but they oridentJy thin oat 
nk{Hdly t«i xlxe ouKtward, so that b4M-ing« would pierw tlieai at a 
lew depth in tho eastern part of the district tbau in the w«:8t«m. 
The whole aeries nf the^ strata is flexod up abruptly a^inst 
the monntahis, and their uptumt^d iMlgfs outi'r hirgi^ly into the 
ntm et ar e of the toot-hilla there. Tho lowermost formation of 
the aeries U there seen to rest directly npon the arclueaii rocks ; 
but, whether beneath the plains other formations intervene 
bot wi-«n the archsean rocks and the lowest group of the si-ries of 
stnltift<^d rocks jnst mentiontMl, ia not kn(»wn. Thia, however, baa 
little praetioAl Itnaring upon the qucstioD of artesian water- 
supply, becanse it is belii>ved thtit, if water ehould not be 
obtained in tho Triaesic formation, the prohabilitieii for sticcess 
bjr deeper boriug are not encouraging. 

The throe uppermost of these formations, or groups of strata, 
vfeieb are known as tho Ijaramie, Ftix Hills, and Colorado groups 
rwquMjlively (the two lait<:r being of Cn-taccons age, and the 
former oecupyingan intenaediato position between the Cretaceous 
and Tertiary,) are sueh in composition and character that they 
may Ik? regHrd*.>d a** practically Impervious to water. The fourth 
fonuaciun in the descending order is the Dakota Group, of the 
CretaoooDS HcrieH. This \& composed of coarse, rongfa sandstone, 
aad being hut slightly compacted, it is doubtless an perviouit to 
water as any of the ordinary stratified rocke. Tho fifth forma- 
tion, the Jurassic, ia of an impervious oharact4?r ; and the 
idxth, tho Triasuc, is, in part at least, a penious one. In view 
of ih« facta which are yet t-o be Btateil. it may be reasonably 
presumed t}mt bf)th these perWous formations are really water- 
beariug. In the Valley of the South Platte River the first of 
these formations has been removed by eroedon, exposing the 
Moond. In that of the Arkansas, the first and second have been 
thus removed, and in a part of that valley the third formation 
has also been removed, exposing for a few miles the fourth, which 
ha« just been Bi>okcii of as a pervious one. 

If borings were \f* be made upon the plains between the 
Arkansaa nod South Phitte rivers iu the neighborhm)d of the 
ZDOuntahia. it is estiraatctl that tho first of tho presumably water- 
bearing funuations that have been montlooed may bo reached 



192 



TBE NORTH AifBRICAN REVIEW. 



at a dcpib of not less that two ibousaud feet, and the second at 
from six hundred to oi^^ht hundred feut deeper. In the eastern., 
portion of the district these two formadons may pn^lwhly 
rea<}hod by boring at a mnch less depth, respecttively, than in tl 
western ; because, as before remarked, the formatioas beoame thiu-1 
ner in that direction. Near the moantainfi,tberti are in thia district 
some isolated Tejiiary deposits not refenvd to in the Hcrife ji 
de6crilK5tl. These are of limited extent, and ris«! from oni 
hundred to two hundred feet or more above the general l«i 
of the plains. They lU'e nearly level, composed of c< 
pervious material, aud are drier, if possible, than the pi 
aronnd them. 

Ill the Valloy of the Missouri River the annual nunfall u 
quite Eufflcient for the purposes of agrieolture; but the amooot 
diminishes to the westward until the miniranm is reached, npoa 
the arid pltuns. The various ranges which wnstitute the Rod 
Mountain system are surrounded on all sides by arid lands, but 
the rainfall upon the mountains themselves is much greater than 
it is upon the pltuus and broad intervales around them. The 
following data illustrate these facts so far as they bear upon th< 
Bubject in hand. At Omnho, Nebraska, the mean annual rainf ulll 
is thirty-sue and a ({uiu-ter inches ; nt North Platte, Nebnuka, 
eighteen and a half inohes; in the whole of Colorado east of^ 
the Rot^ky Monntains, and in the adjacent portion of South*' 
cm Wyoming, an average of thirteen inches. Pike's Peak, only 
eightcion or twenty miles from the plains, has a miAn annual nun* 
fall of thirty-one and a half inches. The minimum mean annt 
rtunfall that may be depended on for raisin^^a farm-crop is u&doi 
stood to be about twenty-six inchf$ ; and in a region baring uo3 
greater rainfall than this, disastrous dronghta are likely to ooeur 
at longer or shorter intervals. 
, We have aeon that the three uppermoctt of the ftimintiims 
which underlie the plains, having an aggregate thi<>1rac»s of 
probably not less thsui two thousand feet, are practically imper-j 
vious to water. Because of tliiA, and of the excefwive drynoM ol 
tlie atmosphere during a largo part of the year, whioh eauses 
evaporation of the scanty rainfall almost as soon as it is prccii 
tated, none of that water can be expected to aoeomnlate in the 
strata beneath. Beside rainfall, there is no other primary sot 
of Tvater-snpply in all that great, elevated n^on. Tbenfo 
any supply of water tliat may exist iu the strata 1)eneath the di*- 



iSIAX WELLS UPOy TOE GREAT PLAINS. 103 

trirt I am here considering mnst bo dprivoil from tlie I'ainfoll 
tlut is piTcipitatod, not upon the district iteolf, but upon the 
a4JoituiiK mountuia district — that ia, that supply mtist come 
frtiin Uie wat^r that fallB npon the nptiimfHl edges of the forma* 
lions At tho foot-}iil]>>, and from tbitt which congtantly flows 
ocJXMiS ibem in the mountain streams that reach the plains. 
WIixIp^ as iH wvidont, tlifi greater jmrt of tliat vrater will flow oft 
to the rivers, a part of it will soakdowii through the two pervious* 
formations that have already bcea mentioned. The dip of all tho 
strata l>eing coutinDons to tho eastward, it is plain that this 
vmt«r will, by fn^vitation, become widely distributed in the two 
per\-ioiis f r.a, and be held there by the impcirvinus ones 

which twi- ' iti re.s{HJclivply. If the latter are pierced by 

boriugi* from tho surface of tho plains^ the water whi<ji has thus 
been cunfined there will, as is well known, rise by hydrostatio 
prtpinapg. 

Now, hit ns consider the views that have been expressed by 
Tarioas persons, both publicly and privately, upon the subject of 
nrtesiAn wells upon the great ploius. Some have expressed the 
opinion that those plains may be everywhere irripatod for ciilti- 
vaijoo by meaua of artesian wcUs; but they are mostly uf the 
(dius who bdieve that " water may be obtained anywhere, if yon 
only go dw^p enough." If sue-h a result were jMissible, e%-en ia 
ih*' most favored (lii>trict«, tlio absurdity of the idea as applied 
to the district in question is apparent when it is remembered that 
the annual mean of the rainfall of this district, together with 
that of the adjoining mountain district which is drained upon it, 
is much )es8 than the i&inimum amount that is necessary to 
raisi^ u farm crop. Beside this, inueh tho greater port of the 
annoat rainfall referred to runs off by the rivers whert% however 
anilAble it may be for purposes of irrigation, it is not to bt> oon- 
ndnred in connection with artesian wells. It is plain, Uierei'ore,, 
that if all the wells that might be saccessfolly bored in this dis- 
trict were in operation, it would not be practicable to irrigate 
more than a small portion of the land by tlmt means. 

But is it pnictit'-nblo to irrigate lands for socoessfrd fnriTiing 
\^' mctinfl of art(*ian wells! rerhajffi the best accessible infor- 
mation upon that snbject is cont^ned in the report of the State 
Engineer of California for 1880, from which the following data 
are taken. Up u* that lime almut one tliousand wells had been 
bored in lios Angeles and San Bemanlino counties, and Uto small 



TJis yosTM AJiSsiCAir Jt£vjj-:\r, 



a nnmhcr Rocm t<i bAV6 tieeu 1)onHl in other paaiM of the State to 
roccivo especial discui>!uon in that report. Tho dd6p<]r nulls an 
five handred feet^but the average depth is from ou« hundred 
and fifty to two huixlnnl feut; average com, fowr hundred 
dollars each; avorage discharge ot water per wcU, 0.1 mibw 
foot per Booond. Experience there showA that it takcg a flow of 
one cubic foot per seooud to irrigate oue hundred acres of land. 
The average well will therefore irrigate ten acroe, and tho aver- 
age cost of sufth a well will add forty dollars per acre to the 
original cost of the land. The greHt««t flow from any of theM 
Califuruia wells i^ that of the Buriiugame well near Compton, 
whifih amounts to 1.7 cubic feet per Bccond; enough to irrigate 
one hundred and seventy acres. The wut«r of thoae welJa has 
been found anitahle for agricultural porpoees, bat all art<!«ian 
water is not so. 

Let us apply the data furnished by the California wella to the 
anbji^.t of similar wells upon the great pUins within the diAtriut 
under disensBiiop. 

The character of the superficial and Tertiaiy deposits witiiio 
this district is such that it does not saem probable tlmt, uny kuo- 
ccssful orteainn wcUs loay over bo oblAiuwl in thvw. If rJiis 
judgment is correct, no wells are Ulcoly to bo obtained tn this 
difitriet of as little depth as the deoper of those Califfimia wfUs 
that have been rcferrtrd to. It has Ikwii oxi>laiuc-d ilial iht- iipfM-j- 
moet of the two presumably wat4-r-bcaring formatiOQA wliii'b 
nuderlio the district cannot probably bo reached between the 
valleys of the Arkansas and South Platto rivera at a loss depth 
than from twelve hundred t^t two thousand feet. The cost of a wc-fl 
of the Ifisser depth in this district n«f>d not, even under luv-i:prabl*- 
cironmstoneea, be estimated at less than six thousand doUans. If 
such a well should ^ield water at the rate of one t< i . ' " * : i-r 
seooud, anavBHigeresuItasfavorableascan be rea»oiKi .U 

it would irrigate one hundred ocros of buid; but the i-Obt ot' hikH 
a well would add sixt>' dollars per wxe to the oripuol i:ust of tfas 
land. These fact* are certainly very unfavorable to tlie propum- 
tion to irrigate the soil of the plains for eultivatiou by nii'awj' of 
artesian wells; especially when wo oonsidt^r the great riAJc of 
failure to get an adequate supidy of water, if any at all, the riidc 
of obstnictinn of the flow, etnd tho probabili;' '' ' a grvetUr 
depth tlian one thousand two hundred f«et mn^ r<jd. 

But why not go to the valleys, where the presumably wat«r> 



ABTB81AS WSLL8 XJTON TSS GB£AT PLAXNa. 195 

ring fonoAtiODit &r« nearer to thfi fiiirfocc f Firsts becauBe the 
VftU«ys Kre alnady well supplied with w&t«r ; aud second^ beeauM 
each of the two hTera that cross the district in an easterly diree- 
taoD ruDit upon an anticUual axis \ that is, the strata dip gently 
away from the river, both northward and southward, al^ongh 
the snrbuM slopes toward it. This condition of tbf* strata in the 
valley of the Arkansa-s in the prolmbly canse of tho failnro of tlio 
boring made by the Government near Fort Lyon. The success at 
Pueblo, in the same valley, but near the mountains, i« plainly 
due to locally favorable dips uf the strata there, whi<'h are readily 
re«ognixable at the surface. The Arkansas and South Platt«, 
eoc-h running upon an antioHnal, there is necessarily a broad 
synclinal axis or depression of all the strata between tho two 
riTere, which, together with the easterly dip. will cause the 
gathering of any subterranean water that may exist tliere by 
gravitation. This is the reason why borings are recommended to 
be made thore, although they must be deeper to reach those strata 
which, it is preeomedf contain water. 

These facts, opposed as they are to the hope of profitable 
irrigation of farming land upon the plains, do not necessarily 
prove that wells may not be profitably bored at many places 
there, to be used for other than irrigating porposcs. A well 
giving no more than one qnarter of a cubic foot peT second 
would be suiBcient to water large herds of cattle, beside snp- 
plying the wants of a small hamlet of people. There are manj 
portions of the phuns, bearing an abundant growth of grass^ 
but distant from any constant supply of water, whore the value 
of such a well would be many times greater than that of any 
well oonld bo for purposes of irrigation alone. That many wells 
of satisfiuitory capacity may be obtained upon tho plains east of 
the Bocky Mountains, there appears to be no good reason to 
doubt Neither is it improbable that in the vicinity of some of 
the mountains there may be found districts whcra wells as 
nwnemns, copious and as shallow as those of California may be 
obtained. But the risk of failure has hitherto proved to bo so great 
that no boring ought to be undertaken upon any portion of the 
great plains without the known results of a careful geological 
examination of the region by competent persons. 

C. A. WHrrE. 



Tou cxxxr. — vo. 309. 



14 



"^""•H AUERKAH 



*fo- CCCX. 



REVIEW 



^^^'^m^ 



1882. 



fr Is 



^«"^JCAl^,,^^^ 



*»«0der oT. ""*• Within ,T '"''•"ost tor . „ "* "»">■•« 

^'"^^ *>nonn„ed tho*^ . '*'" hatred tn ; ^*'^""".v pmyed 

15 
16 



1U8 



THE yOUTH AMERICAN SEVIEW^ 



form of politico] as-^pAsments. Not long Binoe, oo<^-AgbtB| dog- 
figfatfi, And mmi-liglit« were a part of tbe staudard amusements; 
and politics wore as barbaroojs. In the ftftccu hundred and sixty^ 
five secular days preceding 1871, there were one thouiumd six 
hundred and seventy-eight removals in the Kfw Yurk Custom 
House to enforce assessments, or otherwise gratify the gn^i^ tiud 
savagery of partisans, with hardly more public attention than 
to the slaughtering of so mnjiy hogs. In the past funr years 
not one removal bos been uade in that office or in the New 
York Post-offloe without good cause, and a repetition of tJie 
savagery of the last decade would make any admiuistnition 
infamous. 

The " great Senator from New York," as his feudal dependents 
called hini, was tlie areli-Bneere-r at civil »er\ioe refonn. While 
he now lies hopelessly mired in the spoils-system hog, Senator 
Miller, upon whom senatorial leadership has fallen in the Blmpin 
State, declares in a late sp(*ch, that ** the conflict between the 
system of patronage and that of merit is a» irrepressible as the 
old conflict between liberty and slavery," and predicts the eariy 
triumph of that rt'form. In Pennsylvania, the spoils-system 
chieftain, tottering to hia fall, has brought his party Ut the verge 
of defeat; so that, in sheer desperation, his faction flatly oon- 
demu the assessment extortion through which oluuc it has long 
been filling its treasurj*. 

lu tbo Senate, of which, four years ago, there was not a mem- 
ber prepared to speak for civil Bei-vice refonn, and where the law 
nnder which General Cnrtis* has lately been convicted for col- 
lecting assessments was so amended as to leave the spoils of Sena- 
tors uniuipoirtxl, the Pendleton bill, em>H>dying the true principles 
of reform and condemning asseeunentB, bos jnst been approved 



' At tint Uidre wa« an appeal for syuiHithf, but wbso (t appMTMl en 
the trial (after the "NehemiAh" laj«e) thai ooe from wbom he took moiny 
bad warned bloi that hit ooodtict waa orimioiii, all aymputliy waa ImpOMflifc 
Hta caAo reminda oa of that of Mr. rr«einAD. a sub-attontcf for liw FtMU 
office Departmeut, and a diaoiple of OonDral Carlift. B<i> »Tlt«« a t^amna 
ding letter, In which ho JMiideB a law of I'-oii^wii lo I>a "TmnittlfiiHnnal 
** A deoent rpapwit far the GOtiplinat« branches of (h« Oownunwtt dmaute 
that theJQdiciarjaboold preBume, oalil tho «ODtraryiB abDW^> ' "Tw haa 

beoa no transgressioa of powcir by Congrean," wmjw tiie 8u ; . iirt of 

Uia United States (Le^l T<>ndcr p«e^, 1 3 Wallaoe, BSl >■ Has Ux. FrM^aa 
ever eonatdared whether that pnwmoption wMah is daoaot In a Saprwaa OaBt j 
may not be beeoming even in a sab-attoraej T 



POLJTIOAL ASSsaaMsyrs. 



199 



hy % eommitteo, of wlucL a fuvoring member was Mr. Camoron'ti 
own eoUeague. Within twu years, mora than thirty reform atiso- 
matkms, extending^ to nearly all parts of tho Union, have been 
formed* which now support that bilL 

It is tnicii a tiiut*, when, as never before, thoughtful citixenfi 
ftre ot:g|auizing t^aioBt the spoiht ftyftt^m, and the lurger part of 
t2>e liest joiirnaUfiui of their party, and almost the whole Uterary 
and religions press are denouncing that Siystem, which Mr. Hub- 
b^ and his Ccaigressionol Conimitt^ have chosen fur forcing 
Uie mofft arbitrary, inaoltiug, and degrading part of that system 
upon pnblic attention. We do not question thmr seal for the 
B«pabliuan party.* Their mistake and misfortune havo bec^n that 
they have counted on the bbuding iuilneace of usage without 
ooinpr(->b<miUng the Mgnificance of its arraigmoent. 

Wh«u the ntaiidnte of this hydra-headed spoils system Caasu', 
declaring that all the world of our civil service should bow down 
and be taxed, was met by protest, scorn, and denunciation, we 
donbt not the professed aurprise of the committee was genuine, 
Disneli has deJBuud pluck to be an utter failure and inability to 
understand public opinion. 

In Boston, only one journal of either party, we are assurodf 
jnstifiee the extortion; and in the State of Massachusetts not 
more than fl\*e per cent of the Repubbcau papers appnjve it. In 
PhiUdr'lphia, only one or two papers apologize or remain neutral, 
while the rest condemn the assessment. In New York City only 
one Republican Journal of character — together with the oi^^an of 
ttw lobbjnsts — stands for the committee. It would, however, be 
unjust to the committee to treat thorn alone as blind to pnblic 
opinion. Most of our chieftains — called statesmen by their ad- 
miitrs^have shown as much Ittindnesa. Did the three chieftains 
who poshed on Grant to his fate at Chicago any better understand 
th« feelings of the people? Has Mr. Conkling, in New York, or 
Mr. CAfneron, in Pennsylvania, shown more comprehension of 
the public opinion of their States t But this is to bo said U> the 
credit of the committee^s chairman, that he is the first to oome 
before the public with apology and argument — feeble and ill- 
ooneeind as they have been. He justifies extortion from clerks 
and navj'-yard workmen, by ohar^g Democrats with boll-dozing 

' And the -writer wishes to mj thst tu) has Toted with that party from 
ita origiat "^ *^t ^^ t»c\» so de«p an interest in it« pronpnrit; that b« itt all 
tbo B«re anxioas to avert the danger tlin)at«uiug it trom this oonunitlw. 



200 



THE NORTH AMiBBICAIf REVIKW. 



and using tiasne baUots. The exoiisef bowevur, is oa a par with 
Ibe Iwy's d.cfen«e of his mother agAinst theft, by proving that a 
rival woman acroes the sta-eet had been guilty of burglary and 
ar&on. 

His other plea, that no one i« shown to have been removed for 
a failure to pay, is no better; it is even pit«uiis. tTnder the 
spoils system, before publio opinion had made chieftains uautions 
aud stealthy, removeds were unhesitatingly made, as they now 
arc indirectly, for refusals to pay assessments. Of late, public 
opinion has made it too disgraceful to avow a failure to pay as 
the canse of a removal. Ileuce, from mere cowardice, the tree 
cause has been disguised. But the whole uf the civil snrvioe hn 
been pat under such a sense of the peril £n>m a refnsal to pay — 
not the peril of removal merely, but of losing pron»»tion, of liard 
tasks, short vaoatiuns, long hours of labor, aud other disagreeable 
treatment — that the fear thus produced is the real cause both of 
the aesesaments being ma*:le and of its being possible to collect 
them. Hml political ossiwsments beea nnkuown down to our 
time, as they were down to that of Jackson, and now are tn 
every other enlightened nation, can it be donbtcd that an 
attempt, witliout sanction of law, by a mere partisan oora- 
mittee of Congress, to extort from a single rla.s8 of citizens — 
and that a class of small means and hard labor for the com- 
mon good — a vast sum of money, unmeasured, except by the 
oapriee of that committee — for defraying the election expensea 
of the party in power; can it bo doubted tliat such a prtipcK 
tdtion would be universally denounced ob repngnant to aU 
jnstice and decency, as without precedent in the taxation of 
civilized States, — as for more arbitrary and vncii^xis than anytliing 
against which Hampden straggled or our fathers fought T ff 
the collection of ship money was arbitrary, it was at 
attempted In tlie interest of the whole people, and was to 
used for the common defense. President Woolsey tells ni 
when, under Jefforson, it was supposed that a removal had 
made for party reasons, " single cases excited a seusc of wi 
through a whole State," and the anxiety in Congress yest 
to relieve the Pretudeiit of the charge of rciuo\'ing witbr 
tMuse. indicates a revival of that wholesome sentiment, bidnxl. 
(-here is good reason to believe that if the ofllcials at Wash- 
ington, Boston, New York, or Pliiladelphia would manfully 
confront Mr. Hubboll and bis committoe, affirming the asm* 



POUTICAL ASSESSitSyTS. 



901 



rights for tho«6 in the public service which belong to other 
ehaicns, insistiiig ou the Bome protection from those insnlting 
domandji for money by the minions of Congnu»ioiial coniuiittecs 
wliif^ every other citizen would reeent, and decLaring they would 
not pCQT <me cent so long as they are made the sabjecte of claims 
for gpeeifio nmu aa BOCflo d arbitranly against thcm^ or are 
approadied ilifTcrently from other citizene, there ie good rcasoa, 
pWe affltm, to believe so just an asaertiou of self-respect and the 
rights of citizenRhip would be received with a popular 
Ipplaase, which would overawe the administration — if it can be 
it to ronnive at. tin* extortion — wonld even shame the 
mturaberB of the committee back to their duty as logisIatorH. 
L^nt what rii^ht have we to expect the humbler officials to be 
riot« luid martyrs, whan members of (rougress uphold the 
by which the manhood of so many of them hae been 
for more than a generatioaT 
The charge for Mr. (lubbell to answer Ib not one concerning 
If number of officerH having the appointing power whohftve had 
n^.T^•e t<j llinist out the subordinate who has stood for his 
its. It is that the demand made by the committee is illegal, 
•^uninst, and demoraliziiig — unworthy the legislators of fifty 
millions of people, and offensive to the best membership and 
fiital to the purity and prosperitj' of his party. 

To this charge Mr, Qubbcll attempts no answer. He does not 
■eem to comprehend either the sense of justice or the stateman- 
ship from which it springR. His shift about non-removals is but 
an indin-rt eonfosHiou of guilt. For, unlt-s-s he adopts the code 
of the Kpoilsmeo, that might makes right in politics, ho must, on 
■omc theory, claim thai it Is intrinmeally right for the committee 
to coiforce the tax, and consequently the duty of the officials and 
klabtirers to pay it. How stands his plea on the latter theory t 
|8o high and imperative is the obligation to demand and to pay, 
that a gruud " Nntional Cougniasioual Committee " of sixteen 
mcraben, drawn from both houses, must be created in order to 
Munbine their wisdom and ;[>ower For its enforcement. Bull- 
doeing and tissue voting, the fate of the Bepublican party, the 
prosperity of the nation, are declared by Mr. HwbbflU to depend 
upon it. Tot, with an nmiiuistiuned jiowHr to make removals, 
and a plain duty to do so, upon his own theory, if his demand 
ia not complied with, bis committee (as he claims) allows any 
olerk to spurn that demand, and any tender of a door or a gate 



TBE NOSm AMERICAN REVIEW. 



to slam it in the face of the committ^o with perfect impunity. 
Snoh act« of defiance pl^nly say to the committee, "Ton dare 
not act on your own theory; yon know your demand is wrongfolf 
hence yon shrink from your pretended duty whenever the hmn- 
blest official stands on his righta by defying you.^ How geaer- 
sUy this view of the matter has been taken of late by the pnbUe 
servants Hppeara from the fact that, in 1878, the extortion wnn- 
mitt«6 sent ont about one hundred thousand demands and only 
got a response from eleven thousand five hmidred ; that is, eight 
of every nine subordinates whom the committee insnlted, met the 
uisult with defiance or silent contempt. 

Mr. Ilnbbell'B defense reduces tho whole proceeding either to 
pitiable begging, in which a committee of Congress appear, hat 
in hand, on their knees, boforo the floor sweepers and measeni^T- 
boys, eqxially ready to accept n nxpence or a caff, or to a pompons 
attempt at extortion by false fnvtenaes, in which nothing is in 
danger except the honor and reputation of those who preoeait an 
nnjust claim which they have the power, bnt not the courage to 
enforce. Here ik a scene for Nast. Mr. Hnbbell appears to have 
DO more sense of the ridiculous than he has of Justine. If this 
pusillanimous shrinking from removals, when they might bring 
milUons to prevent bulldozing and tissue voting, to fill the 
pockets uf members and to purchase a glorious ^-ictory for th« 
Republican party — had been made a charge against the com- 
mittee, its force would be apparent; but that snah cowardice 
shoidd be pleaded in defense, only such a chairman could make 
posaiblo What would we say of the commander of a preaa- 
g«3g, a foraging party, or a band of robbers, who should report 
nothing attainable in nine of every ten places visitedf m«nly be- 
OHIM nothing was voluntarily offered. 

Bat though the ertortionistA no longer dare remove — or let it 
be known that they secretly threaten to do so — they yet cnn- 
oingly contrive to make the fear of removal a terror to tiielr vie- 
tims. The public servants are solemnly warned that nothing bat 
their money can save the Bepubli^MLUi; from tlefeat, whm the 
wicked Democrats will remove the whole of them. Iliat pitiable 
sng^eetion is made in a stealthy form in Mr. Hubbell's cireolar; 
and the only influential New York journal which haa Bpologtud 
for BMesBmentfi han adroitly used that argument, and that ali^nc 

The tme rule as to raising money for par^ purpOMB is uot 
difficult to lay down. The duty of all citixena is the same, 



POLITICAL ASSESSMENTS. 



aos 




"wbothpf holding offlw or not, t« ranke reasoiijihlp poiitributiou of 

time and inoney, acconiing to their ability, for the support of 

Mond principles and of parties "who are faithfnl to them. The 

oAoer sbonld havo a fair salary for his work. His obligatiuD to 

pay money for a part}' i^ neither increased nor diminished by the 

fact of huldingr office. Parties are inevitable, and, within their 

jroper «pbere, useful. They elect presidents, governors, members 

it Congress and nf legialahires, thus controUing all policy and all 

latinn, and, as a ronseqnenee, (bTiwing into acti\'ity, in their 

and rewarding men of honorable ambition. The subor- 

itfls in the departments who represent neither opinions nor 

lter««ta — whose party views are immaterial for their work — 

^vbould be wJeeted on business principles, without peril of being 

eaoMiipted into the working gangs of any party or of being 

plaiidercid for paying its expenses. 

A party needs money for legitimate purposes ; and no party 

wUch is futhfid to its principles and gives the people worth}' 

.flMn for offlco and good administration, will ever api)eal to Its 

ibera in vain for the money really net>dod. It is machine 

[aaiu^eiDezit— enabling manipulators to monopolize politics as 

[« bottiMM, to extort money from the public servants, to spend 

comiptly and to deprive the people of freedcmi of action in 

oonventions — which has made worthy citizeus refuse to trust 

pnty leaders with money. 

Never have parties been more \itAl thnn they were in the 
period before Jackson, when assessments were unknown. Neither 
here oor in any other country are party lines more clearly drawn 
or is flddi^ to party principles more complete, or administration 
pnrer, than in Great Britain, where araessments are not at- 
HtrmpUMl. At this moment, in every part of the Union, parties are 
H Uithf ui and vigorous, and administration is honest, in the precise 
H' degTM that aeeeflsments are unknown and parties rest upon the 
&» action of their unoffleiul members. Tlie demand for assees- 
aeBti finds its strength in the greed of ehicftoins and mauipu- 
kian for money for purposes for which they dare not ask It, and 
of winch they dare not give account. It is a libel upon a people,' 
who more liberoUy than any other support their schools and 
dioritifw, and who alone snpport their churches by voluntary 
cahacriptions, to say they will refuse anything needful to main- 
torn in hcMlthy life those great parties, without which all history 
dum liberal government to be tmpoBRihle. It la an insult t» 



204 



THE NORTH AUBSICAlf RKYXSW. 



Buch a people to pretend tliat the better imh-U* will go down if 
it be DOt Bustftined by exti^rlion from the pnblio ecrrice. 

The Itepiiblicaii i>arty was biim of devotion to greftt piinci- 
ples, — by jiddity to which, unaided by assesameute, it advaoovd 
to power over a party whoee treasury was kept fall by extortion 
upou tJic public servauts; — and never did the power of tbi^ urw 
party iHigia to wane until its mercenary' aud parti^au mauagen 
reproduce<l the old Democratic methods for paying- expenua. 
"WTiat can be more preposterous thau for a party in powi-r ti> say 
it must reeort to assesBmente to fight its adveraaiy which has no 
offloials to assess T That plea, if not false, is an admiasioD that 
the advorsary is strongest in sound principles l4i whiiOi tlio pfio- 
pie are ready to give their approval aud their mouey. Stateemen 
would have seen that what was needed to keep the Repablieaa 
party in power was not more money extorted by fear and eat- 
pended in secrecy, nut more coercion of primaries and more 
despotism in conventions, but fidelity to principles, the fulfill- 
ment of pltnlges to purify the administratiuu^ open and ptitriutie 
■{^peols to the people for anppoH, the nomination of the bnsl 
men for office, and the suppreeaion of corrupt patronage — tep^ 
daily on the part of CongresflmeiL 

" Senators and representatives tlirong the offices and bureana 
until the publi(> business is nbBtructed, . . . and, for fear of 
losing their places throngh our influeace," the offieiaie give way, 
and appiiint the unRt persons we press upon them } " on&-third 
of the wurkiug-hours of senators and rcpreaentatives is hardly 
sufficient ... for appointments for office"; "to reform the 



civil service is one of the highest duties of statdsmanship 



1 



ask gentlemen what they think of political aaaesamcuts 

to be used for i»arty purposes T I call gentlemen around me 

to the shameful fact." " The practice affords an ulectioneuriag 

fund which, in many eases, never gets beyond the pockets of tba 

shyHtenj and the mere camp-followers of the party." Thew 

words, these pi-inciples, these assertions of dot\', from tba 

Bpeeohee and writings of the martyred statesman whom the peo- 

jje wanted in the chief seat of the nation, and now echo- ' *- — . 

bia grave, are the>' not worthy the attention of a c>u 

aud a faction by whom they seem txi be forgotten, and lo whum 

their wisdom seems incomprehensible f 

L The original spoils system had four fund amen t-al, mntuaUy 

supporting dements of strength; (1.) Absolute military vobor- 



dinatian of etuth grfule txi Umt abovft, frrtin the chififtAin to the 
mUers of the party. (2.) AI] plac«s &utl ealaries to bo given 
prnoarily &b iwrards for port^' work done or to bo done, and to 
ba hidd at the pleasnre of its managera. (3.) Every offittifil nnder 
obligalion to do gncb work upon the manager's order, on poiu of 
diaminMl ; and promotion, inoreaee of salary, and long vacations, 
M itnrarda for special zeal in tlint work. (4.) The [tayment by 
every official aod employ^ uf whatever assegsmonts ihe managers 
may he pleased to make upon salaries and wages, or pemaptory 
nmovalj the money to lie used by the mauagers, without 
aMoont or responsibility, at their discretion. Offiw wa» not a 
trust, but a peitjuiKite rented out — one part of the rent being 
work, and the oth(*r money j the duty of elmeriiig, pnuaiig, and 
playing flunkey being imptied. No other power was so temjiting 
as the money-collecting power, by which the partisan treasury 
oonid be snrcly supplied and the imrty managers^ pockets often 
filled— a power more absolute than any oriental despot ever 
willed over the earnings uf his subject*. ' 

Sncb reasons naturally prevented the extortion part of the 
nvtem being put in praotiee until long after the other ports had 
beoD enforced, Fmm the beginning proseriptivo removals wtro 
made ti> gain places for the dominant party ; and these casea 
bad reached thousands before the robbcr-liko audacity was de* 
reloped, which could say to an official of that party: "'Your 
DBOney or your place." But before the defalcation of the first 
^oU systtim collector, Swartwout, had reached a million, the 
political evolution of his offlee had beeomo Ravage enough to 
make that demand. In an investigation of his frauds by the 
Twtnity-flfth Congress, we find the first instances in Pedeml poli- 
tics of assessment extortion — though in a stealthy fashion — upon 
the theory of Mr. Hubbell's committee. Statesmen saw the dan- 
gar. On the 20th of March, lft41, Mr. Webster, as Secreiar\- of 
dt«t«, by order of Presideiit Harrison, isaued instructions declar- 
ing that "the payment of contributions or assessment* on sal- 
arieft, or official compensation for party or election ptirpoeea, 
wiU be regarded by him as e»»(«e for romoval." But Tyler came 
tn and Webster went ont only a few days later; and in 1842 
anBamtuitfi were vigoronsly enforced at the New York Post- 
^>K^ w and Custom House ; it seeming to be a law of descent tliat 
ev«ry sooccasiosi of a Vice-President should embolden the friends 
of ttais extortioa. 



206 



TlfE NORTH AMESICAN REVIEW. 



It took time to harden the pnhlic mind, lonjOf oocmiomed 
honest methods, to thftt kiiiil of robhety. But it gol hardtunl 
slowly. Mr. Calhoan says, a little later, thatj " what a f ew yfjon 
since would have ahocked and aroused the whole tiommnnitT, 
ia now scarcely peroeived nr felt, when it is openly avowed that 
the ofllces are the npoiLs of the viotors." This toleralioD of 
savagery in removals made assessment collections easy. U thu 
Democrats did not very soon — as the R^pnhlif^ans are now doing 
— exteud the est^J^tion to ofDcc-boya, janitors, messengers, rinvy 
yard laborers and washenromen — they oertiunly made it iti^it^ 
general, at least as early as Bnehanau's administration, dTihn^ 
which it was enforced withoat mer^y or ahamc fiia New Turk 
collector vigorously enforced asseesments, and in four yean 
removed three hnndrod and eifrhtynino ont of his six himdrftd 
and ninety subordinates. Then, frequently, the Government 
disbursing officers paid the aasessments before the public official 
got his pay. In those stalwart times party managers had the 
courage of their theories. An extortion committoe, chairmao, 
cdleotor, or postmaster, would have looked upon himself aa a 
poltroon, if after demanding an assessment to save & pm^ 
he had shrunk from removing a me»seuger-boy or waaber- 
woman who defied him by refusing to pay it Greed andidbvnt- 
erj* have survived, but courage and eonsistency are no more. 

General Dix had a noble sense of public Justine. A tetter 
from him to the chairman of an aldermanic extortion eommittrc, 
now before us, dated October 15, I860, when General Dix was 
Postmaster, is worthy the attention of both Mr. Habbell and 
Assistant Postmaster-General Hatton : 

" I have received your letter," says the General, "solic 
... the privilege of assessing the subordinate in 
ofR(w>. . . I may say of a majority of them that tho as? "'- 
proposed to be made upf^n them cannot Ije paid withn 
tng their families who are entirely dependent upon tli i t 
I cannot consent to be the inatmment of wrin^^ it\>ia 
aeoessities the means indispensable to their daily wanta. I ihti 
moreover, this system ... of asMBsing sahordinatea is 
wrong." 

Referring the aldermen to men of moans aa tha proper ptovoDi 



to pay, he adds, 



I shall regard it as my duty ti) pro* 



tMt them [liiR subordinates] from a system of political ext-ortion 
disgraoeful alike to the Qovemnont and ths country {" aud he 



POLITICAL ASSESSMENTS. 



aw 



ont the assessment ooUectors. The postal officers tiow 
by these extortion agents are no better able to pay 
than tiioeo of 1660, and their phiecti are not the gifts of chief- 
\mDB or CoDgFe»«niftn, bnt prizes iron by themselvi'^ in manly 

I competitions of merit. 
r We do not mean to suggest that the politician class of New 
Tork ever accepted the views of C^eneral Dix. Ou the oontrary, 
they have aoforoed assessments savagely, in that way gaining* 
|he money which has carried elections and supported cormpt 
rings and factions. The committees of the aldermanic dema- 
gogaes with whom New York has been cursed, have rivaled the 
committees of Congress and of the State Lcgislatiiro in the 
macilees industry with which they have robbed salaries and 
wages. Every ward and district^ and not these alone, bnt 
candidstef pot-house-patronage monger and chioftain, had 
mieot eumruittee or iigent. Not a chimney-sweep, ash 
1, scrub-woman, or messenger boy, on the public pay-rolls, 
the school teachere and chaplainR, escaped these uhiqni- 
wMesement sharkii. It wa^ then their cnistoin to stand by 
paymaster and exact the pillage before the laborer got the 
'means for his SiiiKlay dinner. Txmg and frequent vacations were 
given on the condition that the stJary unearned should go into 
the extortion fund ; and not infrequently was a portion of the 
\nry pledgiMl to tho Boss for his making tlie apjwintmeiit. 
umorala were held to be as certain consequences of refusals 
pay as deaths from the bites of mad dogs. The money 
ribed alike the press and the eltHrtioiis. Tweed, Cardozo, Bar- 
and the whole saturnalia of pillage, crime and corruption, 
the ftTiits. 
The Republicans inherited that system. In the early glow of 
noble sentimenta they scorned it. Bnt by 1866 a Republican Con- 
donal tiomraittee for ftssefiHinents was created, we believe, after 
Demoeratio model This sanction by Congress carried the 
Uon d<»wii through the lower life of the porty. In the pro- 
irtioB that prini-iplea were neglected, and abuses increased, 
BBBeeements, made larger, were more mercilessly exacted. Re- 
novala for neglect to pay were remorseless. In the sixteen 
nontha, from 1B69, OrinnoU, as Collector at New Tork^ removed 
tv« hundred and ten out uf his eight hundred and ninety-two 
sobordiuites ; and Murphy, his mooessor, in about the same 
length of time, removed three hundred and thirty-eight 






208 



TUE HORTB AMERICAN S£V2BW. 



It was ba<l enough for bosses, chieftains, and rings to h>>ld 
an the gat(?« of appointment, 80 that noDe save thoir nu&ioiu 
coiild eutcr; but deqiotism was made oomplete only when & 
power was added to exact from all within as mnnli money for 
their own tuw as tliesc dcsfrnts and patronage-mongors chow loj 
demand. It war one of the intolerable wrongs of despotic Britii 
kingR that they enforced " benevoleiicea, gifts, and aids'* froi 
officials and citizens under various pret^nsedr an oppresalo 
which the stalwart British people arrested by the Petition 
Right, under Charles I. But our stalw&rtasm is of another 
which takes sidce with the king or makes itself a hydra-hf 
despot. 

Tlio Federal !talaries paid at. New York are more than two mil- 
lion Ave handred thousand dollars, and the Kepublioans have gen- 
erally contToUed the State patronage. The Democrats domii 
the city and county, where th« annual pay-rolls are about 
million five hundred thousand dollars. The whole stock in 
to ho assest!<ed was, therefore, from fourteen to fifteen tniUion' 
dnllarR. Tlie temptation of the managers of the opposing paHies 
to come to a corrupt agreement for plunder, division, and im- 
punity WBB great indeed. That sudi an agreument was made 
and executed as to assesmng the Polioe Force and the Fire 
Department, and dividing the spoils — if not as to the School 
and Health authorities and others — is quite certain. 

How much money was obtained altogether, yearly, is one of 
the secrets of the plunderers. One per <»nt. on fourteen 
dollars is one hundred and forty thtmsaud dollars. But it is o«r>^ 
tain that as mnch as six jKr oent. in a yiiar was sometunea 
demanded and to a large extent coUeeted. A circular before us, 
signed by John Kelly (who justified high salaries in a speech 
on the ground that officials ore c^od on for osscMunents) and 
a present leading New York member of Congress, dated Sftptom- 
ber 30, 1875, plnmply calls for two hundred and fifty dolhu-s, or 
more than tliree per cent, on the salary of the \'- '■'■ and 
another of u little later diite calls for twenty-five d>'i : -ma 

notary public, of which there were two thousand — hence a 
plamp fifty thousand dollars was sought of them. From twvj 
hundwxl thousand dollars to three or four times that sum may 
oooepted as the annual aasefismect plunder at New York. Th('!4«] 
vast sums, extorted through despotism and fear, clamored fur hyj 
tlie chieftains, demagogues and shysters of parties among whc 



POUTICAL ASSESSMENTS. 



209 



divided, and whom it powerfully aided to inereBse and 
dctgrade, made freedom aud purity of electionB impoasible. It 
reddled the best citizens from poUtios. It made the invostigation 
uf custom abusofi a part of the regular basiueas of Cougreas, 
jrfaosp example largely caused them. 

Party managors, rich from the robbery of the ftt^rvaiita of the 
ily, ihe State, and the nation alike, eared little for public 
Ipinion ; asking money elsewhere, if at all, not from those who 
but from those who feared or were brib^wl. PoHtica 
r a trade. Pledges were so^mod. Loaders sold thcinseivoa. 
The primary organizations, no longer representative, were per* 
manent committees for extorting assessments, celling immiuations 
iuid dividing patrt»uago and profits. New Ytirk uity, for ex- 
anipl8> with about fifty thousand Republican voters, having lees 
than seven thousand mejnbersof primary oi^^anizatJons ; and no 
man oonld becomo a member without the most degrading pledges. 
In Aogost, 1871, Mr. Cornell, the present Governor of New York, 
■ys in a letter (whioh got into the pn?88): "A very large portion 
' tbo true BopiibUeans . , declined to take part in sueb elections 
it of frauds ; . . presidents of Republican associations 
t the direet employment of eity officials . , and the elec- 
of delcgat4» to conventions in nearly all the districts were 
farceH." In November, 1879, George Bliss, District Attor- 
ley under President Grant, declared in a letter to President 
Arthur, now before us, thut there were then less than thirtoen 
thousand five hundred on the voting lists of the Republican pri- 
maries of the city; that in nnmerons districts but a small por* 
in of them had a right to bo there ; and that persons are hold 
be members or not " according as they are or are not pr<?pared 
vole aaUsfapturily to the wmtroUing powers." It was a despot- 
founded on plnndor and fraud, by which conventions were 
IdoKod and the people were obaated through methods com- 
with which titwue voting is bungling and perilous. And 
these evils no responsibihty is so great as that which rests 
Oongresstonal extortion eommittees. It was the vicious 
jof money got by plunder, the debauching of the political 
ictj the Bnppreasion of the higher sentiment at the 
eldctioDs and the blinding influence of irresponsible power thus 
pecnred whioh made it possible for a mem politician like Mr. 
Conkling— without popular qualities, without identification 
with any great public measure, without doing an^'thing which 



210 



TME HOSTH AME&lCASi BEVIMW. 



the next generation will reoall with respect — to be « party dui|Kft 
in a £1*601 State — oonfldent to thtj momeat uf hi& t^ — utd 
then io go down without ooraprebending the cause. Mr. X*xky 
says George Oren\'ille, less tbau any etateenmu of his d&y, uDiltr- 
Btoud the effe-ctti of his uwu fuUies upon public opinion. Ttiu 
|»«enunence in unr timv must, despite the high claims of the ex- 
Senator, bo awarded to Mr. Ilubbtll, for he doe» not even yel 
eomprehend why his heru fell. 

The effect npou the pnblie aarvice has been aa diaastrona u 
upun its oppresaore. The aBaeeamont system dividea the offlciak 
into two clatiijtie, tiie landlord claiw and tho tenant class. The 
members of Congress, of legislatures, and of mnnioip&L ooimcili, 
aided by the chieftaiQ& and the bosses, — thefte are the landlord 
aaswesment-«!X to fling uud spoiLs-Hharing class. The sulwrdinatca 
and the public laborers are the assessment-paying tenant-atr-wiD 
olaae. It is so important that the landlord class should get 
offices and keep Ihum, that there is no limit put to their power 
to rob the salaries and dispossess the members of thti tenant 
elaas for that purpose. But not only are those eevking office or 
employmi^nt in the t>enant elasa not aided out of the extortian 
fund of the aristocratiR landlord clai», bnt they are not even 
allowed by their masters to prove their superiority by a fur oom- 
petition of merit among themselves. They must flrat get reeom* 
mend&tions, like a servant, from t\m ver}* landlords who annually 
fix their rent, before they have the least dhauce of a place eveo 
at wiJJ. It is true thai in 1878, there was a show by members <if 
Congress of putting a tiny rent of fifty dollars npou tbemeelTec 
But it was n farce and a failure. They even nominally paid but 
a trifle^ while they extorted eighty thousand dollars for thetr 
own use from that tenant oiass which it was their special duty 
to protect. The most merciless landlord in Ireland only imd^ 
on the rent provided for at the beginning. It is only the teaut- 
ttt-will holder of an office in this republic who is liable iKtlb Xu 
arbitrary rent and orbitrar)'^ ejootion at the caprice of his Inndli trd. 
■« ^Snch a system makes tho public Ber\'ant a partisan and fae- 
tionist in ftolf-dcfottfic. It tnlls him to oonrt the chieftaina and 
boases who hold power over lus earnings. It tells him that he 
has no right to his wages which the Gk>vemment ru«poct& ll 
makcw it iinposeiblA for him to feel a duty of coouotiiv » > '^'y, 
or exertion in behalf of a govermneut whichf without a .g 

his protection, sees him deprived of a great portion of lh« sularj 




and wages which il^ 

wrong done, not only by the coaoivaacti of those very legialar 
ton and by their miniops^ bnt for the sel&^b porpose of Eiecaring 
tbcsr own neleetum. It produoea a seuao of wrongs a dislraat 
and reddeasneaa of justice, a feeling of dependence and despair, 
alike damaging to pcrsuual manhood and to the natiooal char- 
aot«ar. If the offieiBl does not reoonp his loss, by appropriating 
time and money belonging to the public, it i8 only because his 
standard of daty \s higher than his GoTorament enforces. 

Pnblic opinion against assessments has been growing for 
aeveral yearB. The street-oleaning contractor, the Commisstoners 
of Chanty, finnie of the Police Commissioners, the Union Leagne 
Clabr the ComptniUcr, and the Mayor of New York — and even 
itct aldermen — have protected againftt them. A New York Re- 
publican State Convention haa resolved "that no official or 
office-holder should be gabject to ]|K>litical or partisan asseas- 
mcntfi, . . . and plain laws should forbid and punish all 
attempts to make or force snch aBscaamcuts." The extortion 
committees Beem t-o be shamed oat of assessing school-teachers. 

Such is the abuse which Mr. Hubb<^ll and his committee 
would increase and the Bentimeut.s nhlt^h they outrage. Thutsc 
enHghtened, patriotic sentiments, without a dollar or a friendly 
word from Congrci?s, have wrought a beneficent reform in the 
largest potftrofilce and custom-bouse of the nation ; bnt at this 
moment the pnblic servants there, whose superior merits have 
won their places, are beset by the mtulons of a Congressional 
committee, dogging and bullying them for their earnings with 
no more right than Arab* robbers harry travelers, nor half so 
uoeb excuse, for Aralis have never be«!n taught auvlhing 
better. 

Degrading the officials in their own estimation and that 
of the p<iople, the aasessinent system has repelled the most 
worthy, who shrink from positions where only unlimited cxtor* 
tioQ ia certain. The salaries and wage-s paid by the natioD, its 
own legislators treat as the legitimate prize-money of the 
dominant party, which it may use at pleasure to p<':rpetnate its 
power. Is it any wonder that Congress, BupimJy allowing 
its own members to devour the substance of the national ser- 



* TUa wu irritUto liefore wo hkd M«n th« BxtlctsB In the " R«mld " 
■ad " Krening Port," docliring Ur. Hubbell to b« of » BodouJn Arab JkniDj. 



212 



THE NORTH AMERICAN BBVZJUr. 



VBDts to seenro their own reSlectionH, baa iteeU falieu in 
eBtunation of Ihe people t 

The mandnte now being enforced, breathing the very spirit uf 
despotism, insults an intelligent people. Without protenw 
of ju^iiieatioii, if a majority was sure for the dominant party, 
the 8um to be extorted is measured by the novd of bribery, or 
extrautiouu iullueuce to carry the disthcts. If two per oeut 
the n&tional pay-rolls may be noir taken becanae needed, then 
party which, by its infidelity and niiirages shall have beoome 90' 
unpopular as to need a bribery fmid of ten per cent, may, for 
'Uie same reason, extort that sum. The only prlneipie is this : 
that every party in pow«r may rub the publii? 8«r\Tints in the 
ratio of iU own foUy and corruption, aud use the plunder to 
bribe the voters aud deoeive the people. 

The enforcement of this nefarious theory by the " Robber 
Barons " of politics was never so universal, so ahameleae, so bar- 
baroTis, or so indiscreet as at this moment. The Federal paj 
rolls call for more than fifty million dollars a year. On 
sum, the avowal is a levy of only two per cent., but the actt 
demand upon employ^ and small offleials is fiir greaU^r. If 
committee expect to extort only a fourth of the one mil 
dollars aud more they demand, it but shows tlie eff ronterj* of ihcir 
pretense of a willingness to pay, and that they havo no oompuno-ti 
tions iu excusing the landlord class and wringing the whole 
ruption fund from the most timid aud hnnibl(< of the teoaaf 
class. Very likely they expc<!t little moro from raerabnrs of 
Congress and great officials tliau the pittance thoy got in I87S. 
It is not sharks and whales they have the courage to Ssh for, but 
herrings and dace. Boys are bullied for a doUai- ! 

Could the curtain of secrecy be lifted, we should see a 
drag-net of extortion thrown out by the committee from Wa 
ington over the whole land from Maine to California, with cvi 
humble official and laborer — fmm those under the eea at He 
Gat* to the weather obwrvers on Pike's Peak — eutatigled in it 
meshes; and, busy among thcjii, for their prey, aseries of tax ex- 
tortioners ranging down from Huhh(^U the great Qua<'j;tor Ui 
little Hubbells by the hundred, eaeh paid a ouramiseiou * ou 

" Kot Habb«n, perhsp*, tor fae disiiitarMtadly took « twxoA Bn 
doUiU-B— oii«-tw«Dt)fttbnr llio whole — tor hIaownile«rMi' I 
dmibtlMi (tzpeotH ten thoiuund dolUra tbia yeir. Sarfi 
Wuhingbm ; Mid wbM gntitude tram the " Bhywten Wid cfttup-foU<'Httn ' 



POUTICAL ASSESSMENTS. 



213 



hUeoU^tiDnein trne Tiirkish fashion {to which tholarg:caniounid 
extorted lK,vi-tnd regular plumper rates are added). These niimonn, 
book in hand, are haunting the official ooiridurs and tracJcingthe 
publio laborers. They mouse around the bnreans for names and 
aalanra which all high-toned officials cont'emptnonsly withhold. 
Neither aox, age, nor condition, is spared by these Sfwils system 
barpicM. They waylay the clerks going to their meals. They 
hunt the Springfield anienul and the Mississippi breakwator 
laborers to their hnmbl« homes. They obtrude their impcrttnent 
fiaoes upon the teaeher» of Indians and negroes at Hampdon 
Sdiool aiitl tlie Carlisle Barratries. They dog navy-yard workmen 
to their narrow lodgings. The weary scrub-women are pereo- 
cutod to thoir garrets; the poor office boys are bullied at tlieir 
eruoing schools; the money needed for rent is taken from the 
Aged father and only son ; men enfeebled on the battle fields are 
harried in the ver}' ehadow of the Capitol ; life-boat crews, listen- 
ing on stormy shores for the cry i>f the shipwrecked, and even 
i^uif^ains and nurses at the bedside of the dying, are not exenipte<l 
from this moreiless, mL-rconary, indecent conscription, which 
re^ffodnces the infamy of oriental tax-forming. 

We know of the head of a family who hesitates between defy- 
ing HnlilM'U and taking a meaner tenement ; of a boy at evening 
school blackmailed of three dollars while wearing- a snit given in 
charity; and of a son pillaged of seventeen dollars when furnlliire 
of th*> mother ho supports was in pawn ; and many have consulted 
as as to the safety of keeping their earnings, whioh they need. In 
trffoj case there ia fear of removal or uther n'taliatitm. Pages 
oonld lie filled with such eases from the reports of citizens. A 
nuwBpaper before us gives that of a laborer, with a family, earning 
«*ven hundred and fifty dollars a year, pursued by a harjjy for 
ftflt^n dollars; and ulsu that of a boy of thirtt-en, earning one 
dollar a day, with another harpy after him for three dollars and 
sixty oents. To women and girls no more mercy is shown. 

In Springftchi and other places, unofficial Iti^wrera and the 
teiuint y'h\»» ot officials ai*e uniting for eonimon defense against 
the landlord class — an argument which even ao extortion 
o^mnutte^• con comprehend. Outrageous an the wrong upon the 
pmir and humble, ftu* greater would be the calamity could the 
committeF! mnki^ the landlord class pay its proportion and swell 

BbkU — lM7«ai1 whom, TVc^ddent Oftrilvid said, ft great part of swth 001107 
MeTrrgvtM — will follow him I 

vou cxixv.— NO. 3ia 16 



THE NOBTH AMEIOCAlt HE VIEW. 



the corruption fund to six or eight hundrod thoiisand df 
Widi so vast a sum, dftsjMttism and bribery At the eliMilac 
would make tho Kepublicau party infamous and seal its fate. 
For, whenever the American people shall tamely allow such simia 
to be pillaged from a tenant-at-wiU class of offlciols. U> bo tued 
by the landlord clam to reelect themselves, who will tUiuk oar 
Bepublican sj'stem has long to Uvol 

If a party is resolved to have more money than the peoplft 
will &e«ly give it, there wuuld, as in the case uf Ctbt«tLr. bo some- 
thing heroic in taking the amount required from Oie public 
treasury and expending it under the forms of law and a(u;ounta* 
bility. That method would not cause a tithe of the corruption 
and injustice of the present one. 

But, even if the whole tax is to be put upon one pow, mi* 
proteote<l class, the method should not be needlessly vaxatinQS 
and oppre«sive. A party, in its national convention, might 
BBseBH two or ten per cent, upon all salaries and wogee, and 
apportion the spoils between federal^ State, and municipal oooi- 
mittees. Theu a teaclier, scrub-woman, or miwwngtT-lHiy, hat- 
ing paid, cuuld take a receipt as from the captain of a foragiag 
pfloly, wbicli would be good against all other harpiois. 

Now, when the national lion and the State tiger and byaoA 
have taken their fill, their victims are still ut the mercy of tbft 
city wolf, shark luid [Kileeat<, whu conie as oftcu as they ore hnn- 
gry. Five grades of assessments at least ore made — national. 
State, mayoralty, ward, and district ; to which Imirs and chieftain 
claims must be addod. Uejre is a fresh case friiui Philadelphia: 
salary in postrofflce, eight hundred dollars ; federal tax, sixtoen 
dollars I State, twraity dollars; ward, five dollars; in aU, furty- 
one dollars, or five per cent. The newspaper befuro us show» that 
a New York letter-(.*arner, salary one thousand dollars, is taxed 
three per cent by Iluld)ell, and three by the State oommitb«— 
sixty dollars; and all city extortion awaits him. Soch is th« oo^ 
tom. The minions serving under oongreismcn only uinlNdden 
every local robber. And why, under tiiat precedent, may not 
any supennt4>ndent of u railrtiad or prison, any forejnan of a 
mill or a gong, any hcod-waitcr, or nurse even, raid upon irab' 
ordinates to carry a re-appointment or bribe a rival I 

Both nuniiriatiuns and iuflufiice are alrwidy ■■ ■ 
not Its well demaud payment for a nomination • 
forcing it, as annually for retaining the place in ]. . : -lonl Th» 



POLITICAL ASSESSMENTS. 



216 



prip« for nominations in New York seems pretty well OAUbUshefl, 
«ar five hundred dollars to one Uionuaiid dolWs for Uio Leglgla- 
turi^ wiJ two thousand dollars to five tlionsand dollars or more 
for a jndgeship. One jwlge has been sued on his ailegt^d prom- 
ise to pay, and the New York Bar Assoeiatiou Las already a com- 
mtttee for investigatijig the sale-s of jndicial nominationB ! 

Fur congn?«»mun to attempt assessments itdds asurpation to 
QXtortioD. The party has g^vea them no audi authority*. Its 
oUeropit^d excrdso is obnorioiiB and indelicate, hoonnse t-hey 
^rasp for the mon'?y to be iised selfishly for their own rcelcotioiL 
It is «A arrc^ont us their old practice of Dominating the Presi- 
dent, and as Bolflsh as the salflrj' grab or the franking per- 
qmaitc, which public opinion has suppressed. 

It ifl the duty of Congress to provide for all salaries and 
wagea, taking earo that thoy are jnsfc both to tlio public and to 
Us wrvaats; and cspcciaUy to goard the humbler of thotte 
Bervautft against extortioa and whatever else impairs their 
r^^ta, their moral tone, or their pffleiency. It is the right of 
the people in every district to choose their congressmen freely. 
It is quite snpcrflnoaj; to jwint oat that such duties and rights 
ore flagrantly rioUt«d when committees are created and used 
for wringing money from the fears of the pul)Uc servants 
elaewhaci in order to defeat the popular L-hoiL-e in particular 
<Uitricta Neither Charles I. nur Jame« II. did oo^'tliing more 
deepotic, infamous^ or immoraL 

Members of Congress have no right to spnm the opinions of 
Presidents, who best knew tho etnls of aseessmentcs. Three 
PreaidoDta in succession have warned congressmen. The warn- 
ing of President Garfield we h&ve quoted. President Grant and 
Py^sident Hayes, alarmed at those e^'ils, each in torn, by execa- 
tive order, attempted their suppression ; but congressmen, 
greedy for spoils and reckless of consequences, trampled on 
Ibeir orders and pillaged the subonlinatos, as they now defiantly 
make the issne with the people. 

** In whatever aspect eousidered (says President Hayes, De- 
Ottmlwr, 1879), tlie practice of making levies for party purpoeee 
... is highly demoralizing to the fiublic 8ei*vice and dis- 
creditable to tiio country. ... If the salaries ore but a fair 
oompcnsalion ... it is gross injustice. ... If they are 
made excessivo in order that they may bear the tax, it is 
indirect robbery of the public funds.*' 



THE XOETB AMERICAN SEyiEVT. 

Worse EtilL Confess has made it penal, and lienco it it; ta act 
of special impropriety for its ineiiibets to alt«ni])L n&stibsnMmtA. 
Section 1546 declares tbat " no officer of the United States lihall 
require or request any workman in any navy -yard to c^^mtribute 
or pay any siun of money for politLeal purjK>!«'&*' ; and u Imw irf 
1876 declares tbat "all executive officers or employ^ of the 
United States . . . (not confirmed by tho 8(niat«) are piu- 
hibited from giving to, or reoeiviug from, any other offictir or 
employ^ of the Goverumeut any money, eto. . . . for political 
parjioees.'' 

We have no space for words about tho contemptible attorney 
quibble of Mr. Hubbell, tbat he is not an officer of the Unit»!id 
States. (>f what in he nu o9i(!«rT The plain, d(KiBivt< fovtK ore 
that congr(>ssmon — forced by jmblic opinion — have put the braiid 
of criminality upon tho whole theory of assessments, as unjust, 
immoral, and disgracefuL Of all the officials of the oonutry, Lbey 
snrely are the last who can with decency connive at the violatioD 
of these laws. Mr. Hubbell's plea is only fit for the roblicr of a 
hen-roost. Did congressmen prohibit others levying blaekmail 
only that they might have the monopoly and all the plunder uf itt 
Do laws against bril>ery and peculation mean that eongrciwiiien 
may alone peculate and take bribes f May congressmen TiDlatfthi* 
spirit and purposes of their statutes — even if Uieir uLgloet or 
connivance has left them defective br agaiiu<L themselvt'^if Du 
they owe nothing to the dignity of their posittOD, or the bircter 
sentiments of a great nation f * 

Bat yet more. This last statute was passed in 1876 — when 
salaries were being reduced ten percent. — for the piu^)Oi»eof com* 
piMisating tbat loss by «uppreg8ing a plunder. Mr. Hale (now only 
nominally, we could hope, on tho Hubbell Committ«e), oppo«ed 
the redaction as nnjust, while favoring the suppression. Tet, in 
the greed for money to carry eleetions, the pledgv, tho record, 
all justice, all consistency, all mercy are alike disregarded 1 Nor 



"Itlshopcfol tbat BOOM memlMrs &re«ompreben<llnff pal>lJo«iilDiaD,aA<) 
cUr« declare their oim ; one a few days niitec deuQuneed nssMBueitU a* " bkKitl> 
mone; suokod rrom the tuius of labor"; nuutlier, as "a featt>ri»i; vtvo Uioi 
will taint tlie whole body politic, make oleodons a farM, and donLrox Uw 
repn'blio." Ur. Kasson, a Ropnbliciui leader oC promiMt, ttU— all Uhi tanoly : 
"t do eondomn Lhla eflort ercn u au invitation, uwiog to ibn anmmti aid 
IsdKoribable uffloial infioBDoe, whioh mak«a Uiew saburdiuates fodl t^a il«». 
ger of ref oslfig.'' 



POLITICAL ASSESSMENTS. 



217 



this aU. Members of Congress never lose a ohanoe of piw- 
aloud tlit'ir afTtftioii and genen)sity for the gnldier and 
i. Irvn. By sututy (§ HoG) they ostentJitioualy called on 

"buikers, manafactnrers, mecJianics and farmers" to employ 
that soldiur t^nss. They gave them precedence (§ 1754) in the 
pablio Hcnnc* — a jiwt pruvisiou, to which the eivil eer\'ice mles 
always g:ave effect. Now, a recent report to that body shows 
that from forty to fifty-three per cent, of the snbordumte officials 
ant soldiers or soldiers' children. It follows, therefore, that of the 
ninety-three thonsand dollars extorted by the IIubt>ell Committee 
ihos« mbordinates in 1878, not less thau troai tliirty-scven 
to fifty thousand dollars of it was wrong by oongreas- 
from the salaries and wages of these favorites of the nation I 
will defend that on the floor of Congress t Evt-ry one of 
these soliliers and children of soldiers is now being blackmailod 
agidn by the nuniun» of the eommittee. But Mr. Uubbcll vnH 
senire his own five thousand or ten thousand dollars, and there- 
fon areelcetion from the forests of Michigan, even if with the 
itAtion of doing more than any other man, with so poor 
lilyt to dishonor his eoiintry. There is, however, this offset — 
like Tetzel, he haji ruined his rilo bninnatA, and probably 
a accessor impossible. But he need n«>ver lack congenial 
ition sti long as Arabi Pasha needs money and the Egyptian 
has any left. 
The pretense that payments are voluntary ia almost too 
abtmrd for notice. Some eongressinenj with a demagogisni that 
^prtmld abash (.'leon, even vindicate the liberty of the servant to 
Tt fts in the fable the wolves did that of the sheep to be out- 
tbo fold ftt nighty but put thorn inside their pannches be- 
moming. It is the knowledge that the pnblic servants 
ilep>.>nd<'nt and in constant fear whicli alone emboldens the 
which is made for a specific snm — a demand no eom- 
wonld dare make of any unofficial person, and which every 
ptar9on would resent. To increase tliat fear tlio demand, or 
rather, bears the names of the whole committee, and 
tetlfi the viotiffl that the extortion " will not be objected to in any 
official quarter"— in other words warns him — we hope as falsely 
aacnielly — of no mercy from the President! The usual cruel 
irony about ita being "both a privilege and a pleasure'* to 
sole and helpless victims of Congressional extortion is not 
In other words, these mandates combine the logic of a 



TffE NORTB AMERICAN REVIEW, 



demogogoe, tiio insmaations of a Jesuit, the menace of % 
robber, and the cruelty of a Turk. 

Tbore are unquestionably some ready to pay : among tliem 
the lx>m fltinkevB, the adroit Bt'hcmers, the diseipliDod henchmen. 
They are everywhere found in the tenant-elass. In England, for 
6xamj>lo, Uiey an* foremost when a young landlord oome» of agi^., 
or a baby is bom to him ; forming processiona, firing gnaft, col- 
looting assessments tor presents; but always expecrtlng aoil 
generally getting a rich reward. So mi&cliievoua have they 
become in our service thai Congress has forbidden (B. S. \ 1734) 
" clerks and employ^ coUeoting money for or making prefienU 
to superior offlecrs"; the very abuse Mr. Hubbell is now furciug 
them to commit I These classes, together with lieada o< 
boreauB who seek promotion or long vaoations, are Mr. HabbelTs 
volimtory payers. They head Uie liiita which the niiniuDtf tak4< 
thi-ongh the offices, pressing for payment and scoring up □Qfr_ 
payers, for their fate. Every plea for reduction is min. 
ootdd give many examples. If the subonUuate fails, his tax 
charged against the head of his bureau. In a mandate of 
kind, now iM^fore us, from the New York State Committi'i 
October, 18d0^ a total of nearly eight hundred dollars is 
charged and demanded "aft dne from the employ^ in your of 
who have several times been asked to contribute the simis 
opposite their respective numes." In a letter* sent the next iL 
those who have not paid are branded as lUUnqnenis^ for Xws'a 
manhood enough to withstand a blackmailer. A Phihbltdphi| 
mandate before us, dated October 25, 1880, has these signifit 
mena«iug wonls : " At the closo of the campaign wo shall pint* 
a list of those who have not paid in the hands of the hcnd <^ 
the department you are in " — of course, to secure peraecntiou 
removal. 

But Mr. Hubbcira "voluntary payments" were best iHn 
trated when, last November, a New York police justice— (^ 
Hugh Gardner — left the boncJi for a room at the Astor Hon 
and sommoued before him the letter-carriers in tbdr nat 

* New Tobk Btatb Coxmittes, Bmrtucui C4__ 
Pitlh Avonub Hotol, "Svtt York, OoL 38, 18»(» 
DtAR Sib : Please eru« from tbe Itftt of dMn^ymmti I euat jrtPtt the i 
of * * and oblige^ Yoan truly, 

S. A. Oui>«3t, «m«t«F' 



POLITICAL ASSESSMENTS. 219 

uniioTm. We quote from the "Tribtme" and '' Herald." 
''Tribime": "Gardner, vith his coat and shirt-sleeves rolled 
up, derk with names of employ^ . . A carrier wonld ask if less 
woold not be satisfactory, as he needed the money for his 
family. . . The whole or nothing, and the whole was not long 
in forthcoming." " Herald " : " Among the first victims a one- 
armed carrier, who was wet and downcast . . . money coonted. 
'This is not enough,' said Gtardner, gruffly. 'It is all I can 
spare.' 'Then yon can keep your money.' He planked down 
another greenback. - . . 'I really can't afford to pay yon 
now.' . . 'I cant stop to tfdk with you,' was the retort. . . . 
*Thia is a shame and a scandaL' ' I dont think robbety should 
be tolerated,' said one. . . . This was the routine for several 
honra" 

Nothing so disgraceful to the conntiy has happened in Ihia 
decade. Far more creditable if Gardner, his clerk, and his 
papers had been stuffed together into a nuul-bag and sent to Mr. 
HnbbelL 

Is it by repeating such scenes — by perpetoating such a sys* 
tem^now when so many are ready to break from party lines, 
that the Republicans expect to increase their precarious major- 
ity? Have they no statesmen among their leaders wise enough to 
compr^end that higher public opinion, which is more and more 
becoming potential f 

DOBMAN B. Eaton. 



OATHS m LEGAL PROCEEDINGS. 



Events of importance which have recentiy oceorred In 
United States, in France^ and in England, are drawing pt 
attention to ihe subjeot of oaths, and are causing the iiiquin' to 
be made, OS what coaccivablo uso are they, especially in Icgil 
proceedings^ in this age of enlightenment f Not long einoe, in 
New York, a man was imprisoned because, bftving Bonie scniploi 
(whitth the court held did not fall within th** general i^roTisioitf 
of the law npon the subject) ae to the prescribed form of ihit 
oath^ he refused to l>e sworn as a witnesa. In England thtf cftw 
of Bradlaugh ha« led the majurity of Parliament to exhibit feeiL 
ings so conservative and narrow-minded as to causo clsowUe 
emotions of profound surprise. In France, on the other 
the ministry but a short time since introdaced a wise and Ubei 
measure iu refei-eiiee to the taking nf oaths. 

The only practical use of an oath is to increase the moral 
responsibility of the person to whom it is administered. It hae^ 
however, during many ages been employed for other po^Mieee. 
In later times it has been used as a means for harassing and 
persecuting those not of the same religious faith as the law- 
makers themselves. Oaths were prescribed wbieh none could 
conscientiously take nnlcss they beUeved exactly as the lo^sla* 
tore did. If they could not so conform their belief, they were 
excluded from all ofUces and emoluments and from testifjricg in 
oonrts of law, which, however, proved a greater iujiuy to others 
than to themselves. As laws have until a very \n' 
isted in America as well as in England, oaths hare i ^i 

which might easily be taken by the infamous Ivord fleffreys a 
by the more infamous Benedict Arnold, but which could not 
snbscribed by men of such pure lives and exalU^ pii'ty ntt Iii< 
ard Baxter and .Toiiiithan Edivanls. Uad the [ 
fucios or Flatu ur Tuscol lived iu and boeu mit ■■■.-, .. 



OATHS IS LEGAL PM0CEEDING8. 



or some portions of America at a reoent date, they would have 

found theiOM'Ivoe little better tliau outcastfi from liieir iua))ility 

take certain oaths according to tbe estabUslied form. At the 

imo time a ward politician, who oared no more for the sanctity 

an oath than for a puff of tobacco-smoke, wouJd have been 

littcd to swear as rapidly aa aa officer could administer 

oath. How powerful an influence would tho ceremony 

cert npon the conscience of Bueh a man t Conscientiotut men 

frequently restrained from swearing at all. Those who are 

eoD&cicntioutii will tvU the truth under all eircumstanws. Tlie 

remikinder of tbe human family do not place much importance 

jun the sftcrwlueis of any form. The absurdity of some of 

\tw rvqiiircmentB ia illustrated by oar fomous "iron-clad^ 

oath. Every luyal num who shed liis blood in defense of his 

mntry has been cotapellod to take this oath when iudactod into 

ly office. Ho could of cootbo take it readily enough. But 

what goml did it a+'LH_miphsh t For the man, however, who had 

participated in Ireasonahle practices or borne arms against the 

lawful government, a different and far milder oath was provided, 

)r h« t'diild not take the one termed "iron-clad'' without com- 

Itting perjury. Where is the reason or sense in such proceed- 

9, e«pecial]y in & country where freedom of conscience is 

iteed to all f 

Some men appear to believe that the Supreme Being regards 

itward fonuH more than real virtue, and that he will punish a 

son who tells a falsehood in one way with far greater severity 

than he will one who tells it in another. According to their 

riew of ihe ca-ro, a man under oath, making a statement which is 

bnt othcns'isc harmless, woulri be caused to siiffer more 

eeute agony in the future world than one would bo who, not 

ijpnd^r oath, toM a willful and malicious Ue, which {as ho intended 
h should) caused an irreparable injury. j\re we not to snppoee 
that it is the falsehood itself, and the intent to deceive, whii:h aro 
leonflidered by the Supreme Beiugt Or does he regard the par- 
jhculnr forms under which it is told I 
** It is laid down by legal authorities," writes Lord Hftrdwioko, 
^—"that what is nuiversally understood by an oath, is tliat the 
^Hi^noD who takcM it imprecates tho vengeance of (}od upon him 
^^f tho oath he takes is false." Oaths aro of very ancient origin. 
>«vticd by pritwtcraft to still further fetter the oonscioncea of 
victims, terrible donnnoiatlons were uttered against those 



TBS NORTH AMEBIVAN REVIEW. 



who made false onee, or who failed to do aa (hey had sworn ; 
the dark cloiidfi of tliat old snponstition yet ^htuliiw thv unrM.' 
wliich teaches that prcvarlcatioQ, deception, and eren willful 1 
are comparativoly harmless, but that iHvaJting- an oath is in:.; 
terribli*. Tlie prBctice of mluiinistoring oaths in judiidal procci.'d- 
inge existed for mauy ccutorics before Christ. The i^rieata of 
every clime and of every faith lent their arts and inflnenco w 
render the ceremony as inipres^ve as possible to the minds of Uk* 
uneducated. For themselves, however, they reserved the privileg« 
of dispenMng with the obligation so incnrred, when to fulfill it 
would prove a serious inconvenience. As the momis of renditriiig 
promises more sacred and effectual, the Egyptians, Hindoos, Fl!^ 
sians, and Uebrews, enforced the custom upon all grave ogco^ 
sious. The Gi*eeks and Romans adopted a Kimilar praetiiv. 
From the latter nation was derived the form now in common nsA, 
of terminating the ceremony with the words " So help you God.' 
History does nut reeord that thi-s universal praciice has at any 
time resulted in good, nor is it aho-n-u that in any instances it 
has proved more beneficial to the human race than the aimplti 
Yea, yea, Nay, nay, prescribed by the Founder of the Ohriattan 
religion. 

The administration of oaths is required in America T^iOil 
every trivial occasion. Any man elected to offba, however an- 
importaut it may be, is in every instance sworn to support the 
Constitution of the United States and to jterform the dutira of 
his office to the best of his ability, when in nine casea oat of ten 
he does not know (and never takes the trouble to find oat), what 
the Consdtntion contains, nor of what the duties of hia office 
consist. Under these oircumstances the sanctity of an oath can- 
not long be regarded by the people with any exaliod degree of 
reverence or of dread. 

Protests have at different periods been entered aguiiKt the 
ctistoni. The Friends and Moravians have refused on the one 
hand to take oaths, Frcelhinkers upon the other. One clasa of 
writers has treated the ceremony as absnrd, the other as profane. 
The governments of America and England have ascertained that 
in tho cause of justice it was necessary to modify to a ciTt^ 
extent tho strict rules which had long been estabUshcil us to 
the forms of oaths and tho admission of testimony. Now, as 
have already stated, the subject 1ms assumed great promin< 
in England and France, as well as iu America, by reason of 



OATHS IX LEGAL Pn0CEEDtSG3. 



223 




11 Jmlicial And juirliAmoDtary proceedings. The countries first 
fntioncd still rotoin many ancient prejudices. In both of them 
nlass eiifita which rannot rontpreheud the uie-atiiiig vt advance- 
ifDt and reform. They look back witt regret toward the Dark 
In England, whoro, aa Mr. Labonoh^re says, " the cliinoi 
)f nnreAstin has been readied, when an oath is taken ou a houk 
which contains the words 'Swear not at aU,'^ tho majority 
^^of the Hoofie of Conuuons objected to Mr. Ilradlaogh being 
^■Bvom As a member of Parliament, upon the ground that ho could 
^Bnot take the required oath, and then, when he did take it, ex- 
^^elled him for h&Ting done so. 

The Frencli Government, which appears to l>e pursuing a 
safe and enlightened pohcy, has scon proper, on account of the 
increasing antipathy to oaths and of the great changeA in 
ioua belief, to introduce into the Chamber of Deputies a 
which will give to the sonpnlou^ and the skeptical the 
^ht of merely affirming. This ocrtainly is a step in the right 
IdireoHoD. It was recently stated that in one ease, in Prance, a 
witness argued with the court for more than an hour before he 
would consent to be sworn. Another witness insisted upon the^ 
^-ivxDm-&] of the crucifix from the hall of justice. In another' 
^■Freni^h court the foreman of a jury wob discharged becanse he 
^FieTosed to take the pre^^rnbed oath. In England, where the 
^ Lnr*makers have, even in tMs age, seemed to regard a lai^ class ' 
<if liberal thinkers aa beyond the pale of civilization, tlie ^irit 
of advancement, to judge from lute proceedings in the House of 
Iiords, i^ipears to be making slow but certain progress. In the 
Con^dcmtiun uf such matters the condition of a man's eon- 
aoiene*.* t^hould have greater weight than that of his faith. 
Sbglnnd has never been more 1>adly governed than when neither 
Catholics nor Disacntcra, Jews nor FVeeth inkers, were pcmiittedj 
to fdt in the Legislature, and when every member of Parliament 
<K>u]d cheerfully suhAcribe to the Thirty-nine Articles of the 
church, and take every tcHt-oath devised and iu force during 
Jthe two preceding centuries. These men, so eminently orthodox, ' 
not, however, hesitate to plunder and betray their country. 
Jven those who have most strenuotuily advocated the necessity 
it oaths have admitted that a high seuse of honor was equiva- 
lent Ui a fear of future retribution. Thus, in En^jland, noblemen 
rho sat upon the trial of their peers were not sworu. They deliv- 
lered theh* vote or verdict npon honor. In America, the certificate 



524 



THE NORTH AMEHWAN lUSVTEW. 



npon honor of an offloer of the army is treated with tho cuune coq* 
sideration as the iiffid&\'it of another person, lii jadlcial prooocd- 
ings likewise, if a witness is nut govomed by a seuso of himor 
and of right, ur by fear of puniijhinciit in this pntsunt wDrld, how 
Alt in these days of iudependeut thought will he be restrained by 
the dread of pnnishraent in the vague hereafter t If he is a oon- 
wstent (Tu-istian, an oath cannot furthtir add to hi.s dft<:rmtaation.J 
to " toll the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth.'' IT ■ 
a skeptic, ho will either bo guided by a sense of honor or by fo«r 
of immediate punishment If a Chrititiau in belief, but not in , 
praetice, he is presumed to stand in greater fear of the peiialtii-tj 
of i>erjury in this world than of those in tho next, for if the fearj 
of future pumshment (in which he mni»t fully believe) does not' 
influence him nor direct Ma actions in other earthly affairfi, why 
ahould it aa to fulfilling the obligations uf an oath f The 6ibli|| 
Baya that a Ijiug tougue is au ubumiuatiuu to the Ix>nL Can ' 
it be a greater abomination becanae certain forms have takm 
place before the lies are told 1 

Whatever peculiar views any elasa may entertain upon the 
subject, nothing more sacred than tho presence of God can uuw 
be invoked in tho caoae of truth. In former times a diffc 
opinion prevailed. William the Norman, prior to his oonqnc 
of Kngland, compelled Earl Harold, his shipwrecked gut.-st, to 
take whet was then regarded as a terrible oath, to enpirart and 
assigt the ambitious projects of the Norman dnke. To render 
the oath more cflFcotive, William is said to have ooncoid'-d uoiIlt 
the altar upon which it was taken all the old bones ever njipix- 
tfuning to a saint whicli he was able to gather from the difTfrejil 
parts of Europe. William, for his chicaner}*, was n*wHrdtHl will 
the blessings of the Pope ; while Harold, tor his brave defeii!; 
of the liljertiee of his country, received nothing better 
anathemas. 

The forms invented for Innding a man's nonMiienoe ars 
various and peeidiar. Those most simple have bwn ' t ' i 
this country for general use. But, as Professor D^-• <i 

in an articlB on oaths in one of our cyclopedias, " Each witness 
is allowed to take the oath in tho form which, according to 
view, is the most binding upon his conscience." The 
and Romans swore npon the altars of their g'HK a eiwtoin i^nb 
sequontly introduced, with other Pagan ecn'iiii-iiics, wxiv the^ 
Boman Catholic Chnrch. The Persian swears by the beard, the 



OATHS W LEGAL PROCEEDINGS. 



235 





'Hindoo liy kiasinj? the finger or too of a Bralimin, the Parsee by 
lolding the tuil of a cow, the Christian upon tbo Gospels, and 
itf strict Catholic open Uie Gosjrtla with a oross. The Jew 
Bwom npon the Pentatench. In anoiont times he placed 
whoii mitking oath, npon o^rtain ports of a man's body. 
10 Chinaman from one proWncc swears by a burning scroU 
>n whii'h have been written certain cabalJBtio irorda. Those 
m another ]>ruvLnce take the oath by kneeling and breaking 
a diina saueer against the witness-stand; while those from 
ft thinl portion of that empire insist that the only niftliod by 
vhich their consciences can be bound is to have the ceremony 
adminuUtred upon the quivering body of a cock juai; decapi- 
iated and bbn'*tcd. Yet, aeeording to the autliority above 
qnotcd, any of these ndicnlous forms moHt be permitted in onr 
of jurttice. As stated by the same writer, the oath in 
icient times was regarded as an imprecation or an address to 
Supreme Being, calling npon him to visit with his vongeonce 
pvrfton who ehonld commit pcrjm-j'; but more rweutly it is 
led in the nature of a warning or an^estion that God 
fitly pnnish false swearing. As I have Raid, tlie forms for 
^oatlis now generally used in this country are exceedingly simple, 
'hey flhtiuld also be regarded as very impressive. Yet of what 
ivail are tliey t In the Territory of Wyoming, and in other por- 
tions of the United States, the person who, by false swearing, 
eaosefl the coDviction of another of a capital offense, is regarded 
^by the law as being himself guilty of murder, and is accordingly 
>rap<'lled to suffer the peualty of death. Such a provision in 
r tiite books will aocom]tlish more toward cheeking false 

• thaa the exaction of all the oaths ever invuuted by the 
inmng of man. 
Many of onr leading jurists are strenuously opposod to the 
n law which i>eniiitJs parties to suits to testify in their own behalf. 
HEThey insist that such laws encourage false swearing, and that 
^Bct« of perjiir}' are rapidly increasing. If suefa is the case, it 
^fteods tu prove that neither the fear of punishment in this world 
^iior in the world to come will deter witnesses from perjuring 
ktheflaflelves where they are iut^^rested. Mr. Juukin, a clergjinan 
^■rfao has written very fully upon thin subject, and who regards 
^Mfttba as of divine origin, says, nevertlielcss : *' Many deny that 
jHk ia lawful iu the sight of 6od to take an oath, while thousands 
who do not scruple to be sworn are ignorant or regardless of the 



226 



TBE HOSTS AMKRTCATi BE VIEW: 



flwfiil obligations they aseiune, and eyve^r irith nwhneas 
£nvolity, witbuut a pruper Bcnse of ilic criminality of snch eonS 
dnct So giievonsly is this ordinance prostitnted, and «o muii 
is itfl form distorted in our courts of juBtice, that it fail* toi 
lamentable degree to subserve Lliu enda Cor which it was 
etitutod." 

It appears difficult at Uie present day to eono^ive the 
ter of a person ^vho, neither fearing the penal ninctmcntB of 
against false witnesses, nor the dennndataona of God 
liars t a person who would not hesitate to rob hia neighbor of ; 
his possessions by meanu of false testimony^ nor to send him to 
the penitentiary or the gallows by the same instrumeutality ; ret 
who, in op|K>silion to his own intt^resta, would be restnuued trnm 
the commifigion of all these enormities soldy by tho sanctity of 
an oath nud the fear of the additional punishment in the fntnn 
world. He might reason witli himself that man, unable to prove 
his giiilt, wonld tMt punish him ; but that an omniscient God 
certainly would. Could not God as readily perceive and puniak 
the sin of making a false statement, by which an innocent maa 
would be defrandt^, imprisoned, or jndicially murdered T U any 
man does exist with the character just desoribodf he most olosdy 
resemble that robber mentioned by Irving, who had no scroplea 
wliatever about cutting the throats of se^^eral of his fellow-beings 
before breakfast for a small stun of gold ; but was thrown Into 
an agony of remorse when he learned that he bad been eating a 
piece of meat upou a fast-day. 

Nothwithstonding the dignity of our oourta of justice, the 
cnstomar)- methods of tendering oaths are far from impresmrc^ 
and to people possessed uf great Toneration are soiucwhat shot!:* 
ing. l^e person who administers them is not usually emineok 
for piety. To obtain the position of clerk, he mnst rather have 
evinced political shrewdness and profound sagacity. He iit Ear 
better acfjuainted with the vot^^rs of the Ninety-ninth ward than 
with tbe Psalms of David or the Holy Gospel*. He hardly 
to be the proper person to invoke the Supreme Boing to aid] 
faltering witness, or to denounce the wrath of Heaven n;M>D 
one who gives false testimony. Upon the opening of a tcnn 
court, one of the first dnties uf the clerk is to swear the 
jmy. Directing the one who has been selected as fomman 
stand up, he hnnneB through with the prescribed form in a mai 
acr scarcely intelligible to those even who are familiar with iL 



OATSS IN LEOAI. PROCBBDINOS. 



227 



The rest of the grand jiirj' are ihen swoni in squads and 
platoons, witliout having the oath ro}>oated to them, and at the 
ekwe \he loan o{ cleanliness and reflnnmeut is coinpellod to bow 
down and id»ii the same ancient and greasy volume, whifh for 
^reara hofl \>ecn used for siinilar porposcs, witii his next neighbor 
wboM month has never knoviTi a tooth'bmsb, whose Ups are 
dripjjing with tobaeco- juice, and whose breath is redolent of 
whidcy and oiiiuns. Is it remarkable that some should preftr to 
be Kwom with tbo aplift«d hand 1 Then as each witness takes 
tb« 8tiuid, the Supreme Being is again oaUe<l in bj the clerk to 
assist iu the jndicial proceedings and to brace up the wituoBS to 
do bU dut^'. Jeremy Bentham, in 1317, wrote of oaths in his 
•trange tilyle: "On the supposition that, by man over the 
Alznigbty, power should to this, or any other purpose, bo exer- 
cised or exercisable, an absurdity than which nothing ean be 
gn*iar, cannot V'' denied to bo involved; man the legislator and 
judgOf God the sheriff and cxecntioner; man the despot, God 
hifi slave. . . . God is a ne^igent servant indeed, but still 
a servant ; He disobeys the orders nine times out of ton, but he 
pays obodienco to them on the tenth.'^ 

In many of the Western States witnesses are sworn en masMj 
to save time. While the ordinary business of the court is pro* 
greasing the clerk finds it convenient to add to his own emolu- 
znents by inureaeiug the nomber of American citizens. On such 
ooeasioiis another oath is employed, the termination of which at 
A littlo distance sonnds very much like " s'port Uie Conshetu- 

abrui I'niU-d Htatea, so help-yeh God five doUnrfi, sir." To an 

enlightened American of the present day, whether he is an ortho- 
dox Christian or an advanced Freethinker, the prac-tice must 
app«ar not only useless and absurd, but reprehensible and per* 
niciotw. 

Do oaths at this time assist courts of jnstioe in arriving 
at the truth T Do they not rather, with all the cumbersome 
strictures connected with them, prevent the truth from being 
obtained in many instances? To exclude a man who is strictly 
moral, honetit, and uoniK-ieutious from testifying in a court of 
josUce for the reason that his belief differs from that held by 
a majority of his neighbors, while every fawning hjrpocrite is 
P< ' ' 1 to d't BO, is uii ubsiirdity. The alisiirdity, however, 
exi ( i: all the States of the Union until quite recently, and 
yet eoEists in many of them. This absurdity appears yet more 



THIS TfORTB AMERICAN BEVn 



conspicuoufl when we consider the present riowi entertnined 
by many on the Bnhject of plenary inf^piration and the gwat 
progress made at this time du liberal thought and in sgoofr 
tieifim. 

It ma^ be urged that at the present time a man, no matbr 
what his belief is, cannot be excluded from testifying on aiwonnt 
of that be^flf. But, admitting that to be the fact, what right 
has any dass in tins oonntry, where wc have no State r^gt<m, 
to impose a disagreeable form of this kind u\you any oneT Huvr 
can the members of such a class justify themselves in comiH-! 
ling any man in open court to make such statements in r< :> r 
t'Dco to bis religious views as may subject liim to distrust aoJ 
obloqnyT Such to-day is frequently the result when a porsoQ 
refuses to be sworn aooonling to the form most in use. 

If, as Jeremy Bentlum attempted to prove more than sxtj 
years ago, oaths wore usdees, absurd and pernicious, how imtft 
th«y be regarded in America to-day, from whatever stand-point 
we may consider them t He proved quite eatisfoctorily that the 
cnatom of taking oaths, especially of an ofBcial nature, led to 
continual perjury, and that men swore to do things which they 
hod neither the will, the intention, nor the ability to perform. 

To an untrammeled thinker, whether an advanced skeptic or 
one strictly orthodox in faith, etrong arguments must present 
thorasclvoa for abolishing all forms of oatjis. If, ils it would 
appear, the only benefits to be derived from them arc- an addi- 
tional uppeal or incentive to the person taking them to t<.41 the 
truth or to perfonu his agreement, then there is ccTtaiidy but 
little reason for retaining thorn. Upon the other bond, are theTA 
not numerous reasons for dispensing with thym f XJult>s6 an oath 
is taken strictly in accordance with certain forms, it is prononncod 
nxiU. Tcfihnicalities multiply about the mere form. Many pro- 
ceedings aro declared nugatory beoanse such formn havu uut 
been precisely followed. Thus iuterest-* of great \'alue an ira 
paired through the carelessness or ignorance of a clerk ornor -" 
While from past experience it appears that an oath is bin 
upon the consciences of bnt few, it is certain that it li.i'- i r. 
duded many conscientious men from testifying us to inipurliuH 
matters, and from holding ofUcee the duties of which they weni 
well qualified tn perform. 

In this land of freedom no purtieahir religious faith is reoog^ 
nised. Why should ancient forms of religion and of supcratiticin 



OATBB nr LEGAL PBOCEEDINOS. 229 

be insisted nponT WLile liberal laws have been enacted wbiob 
permit a person to be a£9rmed or to swear in the presence of the 
Srer-liTing Qod without making use of the Gospels if he so de* 
aireflf what benefits can accrue from maintaining a practice which 
shocks the sensiblUties of one class of the commumty and excites 
the derision of another T Why would it not be sufficient if the 
laws provided ample penalties against all who should give false 
evidence upon the witness-stand, and that the derk of the court 
should distinctly state to each witness at the commencement of 
his examination what those penalties were t Why not adopt a 
rule which in this enlightened age will permit all citizens 
of this great country — whether their beUe& accord with that of 
Washington or of Fenn, of JefFerson or of Parker — to give their 
testimony in court, or to enter upon the duties of office, on the 
same equality and under precisely similar forms, without enact- 
ing what may seem to be a sacrilege to one and a mummery to 
another f 

Edward A. Thomas. 



YOL. CXZXV^-NO. 310. 17 

17 



TOMADOES AW) THEIE CAUSES. 



The fatality and frequency of tornadoee in the great C< 
West have recently invested these phenomena with an int 
which must eontinaally deepen as the regions they ravage Iv 
more thickly populated. The tornado is a local disturbanoe^ its 
Bwoep limited, its duration at a given point bnt a few xnomeitt 
and it is tjpuedily exhau&tcd, like th& raving maniao, by 
paroxysmal expemlitore of energy. But if it lacks the vc 
geographical scope, the stately, ponderous tread^ and tbo 
Buistaining life of the oceau-hurriuaue or the regular continc 
cyclone, it& moskiKi, caglo-like movement and concent 
intensity moke the Meeting meteor, which strikes and scars 
earth as if it were hurled by a " eupemal power/' a more dreadc 
visitant and often a greater eng^e of de^mction. There 
to be a wide-eprcad impression that, with tho deforesting 
settlement of the West, tomado-\'isitation& have increased, ho that 
a prominent journal recently raised the question whetlufr 
frequency and deatroctiveness will not have " a pennanont 
on the settlement and prosperity of tho country." We are ei 
told that in some places the alarm created by these storms is 
groat that " the people are not only digging holeis in the ground 
and building various oyclone-proof retreats, bnt in m 
instances persons are preparing to emigrate and abandon 
country entirely.*' Whatever may be thought of such reportfi, 
the gravity of the subject warrants tlie present inqnity into 
nature and causes of our interior tornadoes, as well as into 
extent to which they can be foreseen and guarded against. 

In this inquiry the term " tornado," it is premised, will be 
in its proper sense — referring cxdueivdy to that type of st< 
whichf whether cyclonic or anti-cyclonic, is marked ^ ■ ^a^ 
rareCaotioD, so that liquid, and even solidf bodi«« m- , i ai 
up into its vortex, and which falls with more than " ht 
force'' upon objects in its path — not confounding it with 



TOItXADOES AND THEtR CA USES. 



" eydone," or the " thancler-stonn," both of wMch may be very 
dattnictire, but, nevertiieless, generally manifest less mtensity of 
ttction than the tornado. In many meteorologiea] works torua- 
doea fl^nre under tbo titles " whirlwinds" and " troTnhen^- and 
ar« sometimes termed ^'thunder-etonQK}" while marine tornadoes 
BW called ** waterspout*" ^"/rtmiftM th mer^J, and those of the 
dnart* ** dafit-stormB." Though the atmi>sphenc conditions which 
luaully attend tornadoes are similar t^^ those onginatiug the 
fwnoas storms ("Pamperoe") which, chiefly in Bummer^ sweep 
down from the Andes on the Pampas of Bueuos Ayres, the two 
pbenomeDA are distingoisbAble. 

The geographical areas within which the tme tornado is most 
Avqnently developed, will be found in or near the extra-tropical 
regionB, where the great anti-trade currents encounter the polar 
winds. On March 26, 1875, a tj'pical Indian tornado ooctirrcd 
in the valley of the Jumna River, about three hundred miles 
aouth of the Himalaya Mountains, presaged by " a fiery appear- 
anco or mddy glare" and "a booming, whirling sound as load 
u the firing of a cannon," uprooting trees and moving iu a 
** north-eastward " direction with the south-west monsoon. The 
Btmilar Indian tornado of May 5, 1865, slmck near Pandoouh, 
on the East Indian Railway, cutting a track two hundred feet 
-wid^ destroying the great-er part of two villages and killing 
twenty persons. The "dust-storms" of Upper India and Sind, 
doBOrihcd by Baddeley, carrjing before Aem several distinct 
uid lai^ whirling: columns of sand; the "vagrant" whirlwinds 
of Nubia, described by the AfricAii eijdorer, Baker, as ow.urring 
in April, May, and June, careering over the boundless dcsertf 
"traveling or waltzing in various directions;" the Mediterra- 
ueau " t^'phoons,'' as Admiral Smyth calls them, the Australian 
" borstcrs," and our own tomado->x:lt, covering at least thy whole 
Minusippi Valley, all help us to define the geographical parallels 
within wbieh these met*<prK arc mnst destructively felt. Europe, 
shielded by the Alpa and other mount«in-rnngC8, which serve to 
break the force of the anti-trade current, is comparatively 
exempt from tornadoes of tlie American tj'pe, thimgh the Italian 
tbnnd^r-storma and the hail-storma of Southern France display, 
at timea, foroe rivaling that of the tornado. Beyond the sixty- 
fifth parallel, Seoresby. in all bis Arotao voyages, but twice wit- 
nc4W«d ligfatning, and explorers of high latitudes {as Phipps, in 
1773, mod Parry, iu 1327} have passed whole summers without 



232 



TEE NOBTU AMERICAN SEVIEW. 



seeing it. We may safely oonehido th&t beyond fifty de{ 
aorth, while thxindor-etorms are not uaknowu, toruadoM 
soarcely poaaible, and it ia very doctbtfol whether a true tonutdu 
has ever been reported within ton degrees of the equator. 

lu thus denning the geographieal limits of this stonily we 
may hope the better to get at its real nature and canaea. A tor- 
nado congistA of a mass of air in violent g>THtion, within which 
there ia a center of rarefied air rising upward and flowing ont 
above, the veloeity of the sarronnding atmoepbere, drawn into 
tho vortex below, increasing immensely as it nears the vacuom. 
Though in ono sense a smfdl cyclone^ Uio tornado has a peculiar 
center, not disk-shaped, as that of the regular cyclone. One oon., 
diliuu of its formation is no doubt the excessive heating of the 
lower atmospheric stratum, and its consequent expansion to sacli 
a degree that the vertical equilibrium is destroyed and eonveetiou 
currents suddenly set up. A simple esqkeriment with, a pie<*v of 
smoking paper, placed under a burning drop>ligbt fitted with a 
chimney^ will show that the ascending smoke, in and after pass- 
ing through tho chimney, acquires a slight gyratory motiua. 
The same motion takes place in any body of suifaoo air, wbea 
the state of unstable oqnilibrinm is established, and it thflOtB 
upward. A fine example of this was observed by Humboldt, when 
crossing the high Sonth-American plateaux during the hot ae*- 
son. "The earth, wherever it appeared sterile and destitute of 
vegetation," ho says, " was at the temperature of 86° to 90c> ; not 
a breath of wind was felt at tlie beight at which we were on 
our mulca; yet, in the midst of this apparent calm, wbu'li ot 
dust incessantly arose, driven on by small cnrrunta of air whkh 
glide only over the Riu-faee of tbe ground, and are oocaaioiied l^ 
Uie difPerence of temperature between the naked sand and thi* 
grass-covered spots.'' But, In the case of the tomadOf some other 
force tliau that duo to the destruction of stable equiliV>' 
rinm is necessary to account for the tremendous and long-sua- 
tuned gyration. If a tornado could be formed by the simpl« 
action of the sun on the earth's emst, causing the snpenxicam- 
bent nir to ascend, even though it should be in large masses, wa 
should hear of t^nnadoes occurring over some parts of the oottu* 
try almost every day in summer. They wonld, moreover, instead 
of being confined mostly to the spring aud Ant half of summefi 
be most frequent in the last half of summer, when the maxtzauBi 
temperature of the soil is reached, and we might coBfldeotlr 



TOSNAUOES AND THEIR CAUSES. 



28a 



that tDaay arid regions, where tmvolers bavo nerer 
itend these etorms, Toold be tors and furrowed with 
eonnUoes tomado tracks. It seems evideut that the gyration of 
a peal tornado (whit-h is sometimes with and sometimes contrary 
to that of the cUtvk btindsj is uut men>ly that which every 
aaeending mass of air acquires^ bnt a motion initiated or 
inerenaed by the conflict of great aeriaJ oorrenta, one of which, 
■t leavt, is moving with high vduuity. "The whole column of 
gynttiiig air," as Professor Ferrel clearly puts it, " is like a tall 
flue containing very rarefied air, the centrifugal force of the 
gyratkuiB acting as a barrier to prevent the inflow of air from all 
sLdeg into the interior, and if the gyrations at the earth's surface 
were u rapid as those above, it would be similar to such a fltie 
witli all the draught oat off." Near the earth's snrface, however, 
the gyrations and, r-on^^c^iuently, the centrifugal forca are grcAtly 
dimmished by friction^ and thus the air is allowed to rush ia 
from beloWf and snpply the draught of the ascending current. 
The tornado center may, therefore, be conceived of as a rapidly 
rotating, tail, and somewhat cylindriool body, moving erect or 
slightly inclined over the earth, and powerfully drawing np into 
.its vortex all movable matter on the surface. The fonnel-^apod 
>ad is formed around the upper part of tiio central whirl by the 
ktion of vapor carried upward to colder regions, and 
^•lao, probably, by the condensation eEfected by the cold north- 
weeticxiy winds wluch rush into the rear of the storm. 

The progressive movement of such a meteor cannot be 
explained as is that of the ordinary cydono. The average 
velocity with which continental and ocean cydones travel, as 
deduced from hundreds of iustances, is about twenty-five milee 
if hour. But the rate of translation observed in tornadoes ib 
much greater. The Alabama tornado of March 20, 1B75, 
ftrarded seventy miles an hour over a portion of its track ; the 
Georgia tornado of tho samo date sped on its disastrous way at 
the rate of flfty-seveu miles an hour; the Illinois tornado of 
Jane 4, 1877, moved at the rate of tbirty-aeven miles an hour. 
The observed mto varies widely in diffcnmt cases, but, perh^Miy 
an averago of forty-five milea an hour is attained by this class of 
inns. The ocean hurricane owes its progressivd motion not 
ly to the general atmospherio surface-current in which it is 
i1>ddded, bat also to the fact that it is ceaseleasly, while dying 
In the rear, forming & fresh barometric depression in its 



234 



THE NORTH AMERICAN REVIEW. 



front If the tornado center is what it lb suppoaed to be-, it cjui 
hardly bo conoeived nf aa wortcitig its own way, with tb« 
tremendoas volocity attributed to it, by the process of ountiuaal 
renewHl in its front. Its translation miut l>e dae to the 
impulses it reoeires from tbo great atmoepherio cnrrcnt in 
which it forms, and ita velocity must be subetaatially that of 
any body borne along mechanically (as an eddy in a mahing 
stream of water) by the aerial current in which it is suspended. 
The "West Indian hnrricancs, while in the slow-moving trade- 
wind current, before they recurve on our Soatb Atlantic ooastr 
advance with a very tardy gait, and not infrequently romiun 
neariy stationary' for a day or two. The progresaive motiun of 
II tornado in the trade-wind belt would be much slower 
that of a hurricane in the same location. 

To get a dear idea of the tornado's beiha.vior, we may bri«fl] 
note the tacta reliably reported by Mr. F. A. Howig, a citizen 
Cirinnell, lows, in connection with the tornado whii'h over- 
whelmed that city on the 17th of Juno last. From thu can*fuUy 
written statement of this eye-vritnesa, it appears the OrinncU 
temxwst traversed the distanoe of about two hondrrd uilIl's 
four hours, pursuing a zigzag course. " It did not always \'isifl 
the eartli's surface, but often passed so far above as to inflict no 
injniy, but again would swoop down with relentless fnry, carry- 
ing destruction for a few miles to every object i» iu path." . . . 
" At about eight o'clock {p. u.) our attention was oalled to a most 
singular appearance of the sky a little eoutli of west from G-rinnefl. 
It can be best described as like the reflection from the setLioj^ tcnn, 
yet in this instance Buch could not be the case, nx it hml nut 
only disappeared bolow the horizon thirty minutes before, but 
position of the phenomenon and the mass of dark clouds beyon< 
would render such reflection impossible." Three or four hours' 
previous "ligjit, fleecy clouds" had overspread the sky, with In 
slight movement in any direction, and, subsequently (about 6.1 
P. 91.), " dark storm-tdouds, were seen in the western horizon, mov^ 
ing slowly upward toward the zenith." But it was not till near 
8.^, that the wiud, "which at flrst was u gentle breeze, increawd 
to a gale ; " and twenty minutes later *'■ the dreadful roar that 
preceded the eomiug of the destroyer was plainly hl^a^d in th» 
north-west." " The storm-cloud proper,'' says tins w ' i i 
terod the city from the south-west, cutting a swa 
the most densely populated portion seven hnndred foot wide 



TOBXADOES AND TBEIB CAUSES. 



235 



kiUiiip forty persons instantly^ displaiung two heavy freight- 
trmins from tho rmU», and earr}'ing upwa^ li^ht objects to a 
grettt heigfat, which were aft«rwM^ foand thirty and forty 
les durtont." In the Ctuciunati toniadu of May, 1809, tluiro 
^yne ft reeord of " violent crosa-eurreuts among the elooda," and 
a Himilar observation is generally made in tomadoea oarefnlly 
-1. In that which Mr. Howig so graphically de«cnh«s, the 
Deftrlng current was moving *^£rom tho Bouth-west)" but 
the fall of hail, and the roar " in tho north-west,^ indicated the 
loe in the latU^r tpiarter of an oppoung current 
The eaoses which operate in the initiation and translation of 
[tomadoeH are thus brought into view. The Mississippi Valley 
|i» ft gnkud eontiaeutal highway iu siiiumcr for the vapor-ladea 
ttmdfrwinds whiuh, entering tho Gulf of Mexico, are arrested in 
their westward movement, and mut«t find an outlet to tho uorth> 
ward. Moreover, the anti-tnulas, whii*Ji form the *' equatorial '^ 
it, are simultonconsly pressing northward, especially at that 
»n, as an upp«^r ainiospheric force, and after leaving tho 
'tPDpiea Rtro&m away to the middle latitudca with a velomty 
vlJeh, if estimated by the observed velocity of the cirms, drro- 
atraius, and ctrro-cumtiluB clouds, reaches, at times, one hundred 
and fifty miles au hour. As the liev. Clement Ley, the KngUidi 
meteorologist, has observed, it is nothing uncommon to see these 
^•'uppKr-curreut clouds" moving from the south-west at the rate 
' one hundred miles an hoiu-. Considering, then, the geographical 
ition of the Mississippi Valley to the great equatorial current 
Vhioh glides over it. ^iwliially descending toward the surface 
of the earth, and which is undernm in summer by the trade- 
wind current diverted northward from tho Gulf, it is not re- 
[inarkahle tliat oiir " Central West," bring also within reach of the 
winds from tho Rtu'lcy Mountain plateaus, should lie the 
^Boen*! of the most terrific aiirial disturbances witnessed on any 
|>art of the globe. Tliatthe existence of an upper current from 
tho tropics, flowing in a north-easterly direction in summer over 
kbe Micid«sippi Valley is nut merely hypothetical, a ^anoe at the 
wind observations made by the U. S. Signal Service at Pike's 
Peak, more than fourteen thousand feet above sea-lcvol, will 
show. The result of these observations for 1874, " agrees," as 
r. Woeikof states, '* with the generally entertained opinion as 
rto the prevailing direction of the upper atmospheric current from 
the weet-Bouth-weet, in the middle and northern latitudes." For 



TUE NOBIS AMEIUCAN UKVIEW, 



the five ypftrs, 1875 to 1879, tbo prevailing Trinds ftt this hl( 
mountaia station, as given in the Sigual Service aiuiaal rcporU, 
were both in spring and sommer, from the aonth-west, with a 
slight deviation in tiio Knmraor of 187G ; aitd during May sad Jmui 
(Ihe chief toruado-monthsj of 1880 and 1881, tht.' prcpouderaJDK of 
winds on th« Peak, as the Si^al Service monthly meaiu show, 
was in favor of the south-west. Were this lofty lookout staUou 
in Mi&sourit instead of in Colorado, the indications it affords of 
the eweep of the upper (or " retnrn ") trade current would in 
all probability be Btill more conclusive. 

This vast atmospheric moremcut, the intensity of which wait 
ments as the siunmer solstioe approaches, has apparent^ < 

to do "with the origination of tornadoes. Bning an on 
ascended air from the equatorial calm belt, it advances noi 
ward with the vemal ad\*ance of the " thermal equator," whirl 
Tsy JuDe, has followed the sun from *' the line," nearly, if 
quite, up to the lower Florida parallels. This movement 9117 
not be a steady " Q%if Stream in the airy" as some have reguded 
it, but is rathej- to be viewed as a sustained seriee of pulsatiuug 
from the medial line (the movable "thermal equator"), toward 
which the surface winds blow, and over which the air they briiig 
must ascend and be massed, and, as it moves northward ihivugh 
high regions of the atmosphere, continually descends toward the 
earth's surface. To use the words of Mr. Cktlding, of Copen- 
hagen: " As the upper currents of the atmosphere get beyond th«' 
tropics, the air grows header and gradually breaks itfi way (iu 
our hemisphere) toward the north, ^ongside of the cold air* 
current whiuh moves toward the eqnator." As the gap between 
the surfaces of the two currents depends on their velooItT, 
'^any chance stoppage of one of these onrronts," he reaeous, 
"will cause it to im])iiige against the other, either from th« 
nortli'west or south-«aat, thus producing an eddy which mora 
against the sim," and henee, the eddying winds tlitis fnrtne< 
" under extraordinary circumstanocs, may inrreaso t*> tornado 
or hnrricanea, with all the corre^Hmdlng natnral phenomena.^' 
The data hitherto collected, bearing on the nimarkablo cihazae^ 
teristics of American tornadoes — their enormous ppocressivt* 
velocity, their "swooping down," or deecending m< 
which make them so deatruotive, their dL^iplay of eii-iM-ncjil 
energy, the torrential rains that aocompauy tliuni, and, a baw 

* See "Smitluonua Report," 1877. pp. 467-9. 




TORJfADOES AND TBEIR CA USES 



231 



bU, the coineideiioe between the shArply marked period of their 
doeiurence with that in which the upper or return trade-wind^ 
fairrent must be pressing northward with maxim urn force — t 
go to ahow that the ezplanatiou put forward hy the Di 

ilogist and engineer of how these gigantic meteors may^^ 
foRn«df explains bow many of them actually are formed. A 
ftiildng con&rmatloD of this oonelusiou is presented hy Uie 
general direction of tornadoes, which is identical with that of 
tbe appw trade-wind and the anti-trades. The New Bmnswiek 
tornado ot June 19, 1835, the gi-eat Natche* tornado of Slay 7, 
1640, that at Cambridge, Mass., August 22, 1861, traveled, from 
w««tr6outh-we6t toward east-north-east. Mr. Henry Galver, for^ 
mearly of the Signal Bureau, who made a very careful study of 
these storms, reported : " In examining the history of over fifty 
tornadoes which have oceorrod in various portions of the United 
States during the last eighty years, I observe that tlie general 
ooone of these storms is eastward, with a greater or less dcfec* 
tkm toward the north." Therefore, he well suggests: "A persoaJ 
who aaw a tornado approaehiug from the west might escape if 
be rm southward, while he would very probably be caught in 
tbe rort*?! if he ran northward." We cannot conceive of a tor- 
nado rushing along over the earth's surface, with a velocity of 
siz^ or seventy miles an hoar, in a north-easterly direction, with- 
Dot sapposing it to he impelled by a vis n terijo acting uii it 
Kteehanically from the south- west If its direction wore determined 
by soirfaee-winds, caused by alternations of barometric pressure, 
and backing or shiftixig as neighboring areaa of high and low 
preasore altered their relative positions, tornadoes would fly in 
every direction, and not be so nnifonnly confined to a north-east- 
ward path. This is the tornado's normal path, as the most recent 
and comprehensive researches prove. The Book of Job, the scene 
of which was laid on tlio borders of the Syrian Desert — '*the. 
land of Ua" — was marvelously correct in saying : '' Out of th( 
Bonth (rometh the whirlwind." 

The peouliarity of tornadoes in descendaig from the higher 
afirsal strata and striking downward to the earth, while sweepinf 
nward, is in keeping with the foreg'oing deductions. Leopold] 
Bueh was tht> first to nhow clearly Iht* same tendency of tha' 
trade-wind and the effect of its descent ou the winds of 
temperate xone. Humboldt, ascending the Peak of Teneriffe 
{twdvG thousand eight hundred feel high), in the trupical Atlan- 




IE NOBTE AMEBICAN BEVIEW. 

tic, on Jane 21st (the Bummer solstice), w»b soaniely ftMo to' 
on his feet for the violence of the rottim*trfule, which Pii 
Smyth found, on the same cone, had no forc« at the altiUida utj 
nine thousand feet abovn tJie sea. The apparent rieociu^v^. 
of toruadoea over the earth in the paths thej tTaverse Beemr 
entiirely accordant with their being borne bodily forward in Uie 
slowly descending iipj>er trade-ciirrcntj which beeottiee u surfuffr 
unrreut beyond the torrid zone. 

Again, the parallels of latitude on whir!h tomadocA luKail the 
earth seem to varj' with the sun's vertical posiUou north or jM'tnh 
of the tropic, precisely as the whole belt of trade and anti-trade 
windri moves north and south, as the son advancee to the bt>pio 
or rec'edfs from it. Thus, these storms nmiaUy deaoend on 
Qnlf-bordering States in the early spring, while their irm| 
tions on the plains of tbe Upper Mississippi and Ohio Vi 
occur in early summer ; still later in the season, though 
they fall upon the Atlantic seaboard, north of Matyland — thi 
Alleghanies, in the more elevated parts of the raogef acting as a 
harrier which they cannot pass — but, with the Buu'a retnrat 
southwanl, and the " reniiajion of the south-westerly "winds,* 
whidi, Mr. Redfield points out, oeeurs in autumn, we hear do 
more of " Western Cyclones." • There are notable exceptions, 
but this appears to be the mle of their geographical range. 

lu tlii.s iu(|uii-y no attt>upt has been made to exjilnin thA_ 
intense rarefaction of air in the tornado-center, except by 
centrifugal force of the air-masses, set in violent vorticose motic 
by opposing currents. "Tho forces of nature are few 
simple," says Mr. William Bloj^iiis, whoso investigations 
nado and cyclone phenomena have been long and well 
and for the production of a tornado, in his view, ''only 
opposing currents of air, in a peculiar but not oncommou com 
tion, with a particolar configuratlou of the earth, not at oU 
infrequent,'^ are neceaaaiy. The central vortex, it sliould bo 



*A olaadfleatlon of ttrmty-flro tTpfosl tomitdoet (tlw mo«t deftntotin 
niGtoorf of this Idnil wliich hare become hi«tori«), with refsMiuw to tfat 
pareUelB of latitude at whiob they deMiondnl to the eutb, uul to Ih* iBOirfkS 
in wliich thoy oooured, allows, approximatety : 

Between Uaroh iBt uul April irith, Sre oocmrod in the meanUt 
33'' N. Between April ICth aud May 30th, eight oRcurrc-d io mcui 
3T> 4D' K In Juno, six occnnred In mean latittida 40° 45' N. 
]«t to Angost Slit, six ocntmd in mean latttode ^QP N. 



T0B2!AD0E3 AND THEIR CAUSES, 



239 



liil, mnst — at least in a long-sustained tornado — ho nu^ntained 

exooasive condensation and precipitation of ascending aqueous 

>r. The fact that toi-nadoea usnally, if not always, burst 

^on tho earth in the warm hours af tho day {between one and 

no rJi.), when tho lower atmospheric strata oro most heated, 

kows tliat the surface temperature conditions are also essential 

ihtJir development. We do not pro|W8o to difcRuss tho niecr 

lamicul questions suggested by the phenomena, but we cannot 

without briefly viewing them from a practical stand-point 

Can tornadoes ho Foreseen and pn-dit-tedf With a prompt 

iphic servieo, furnishing simultaneous weather reports from 

threatened districte in tlie morning of each day, a competent 

}rologist can certainly warn the public that the conditions 

fcble to the formation of these tempests exist, and, if prcueut, 

would often be able to give more Bpeeiflo warning. The 

leter does not necessarily fall with the approach of the 

St tetal tornado, and the mercury may oven rise in tho instni!' 

a short time before the well-marked agns of the storm 

But when an area of low pressure is passing near and 

lorth of a place, with an area of comparatively high pressure 

Straggling to get into it« rear, the (wnditions are present for the 

fonoatioD, or, more correctly speaking, for the descent of an 

■Iready formed tornado. As the critit-nl hour of its appalling 

approach draws near, the painfully still and sultry air, the 

itesiig« commotion in the upper atmosphere, " violent whirling 

of the clouds," *' send clouds mo\'ing in different directions,'* 

"the opper clouds moving briskly northward, indicating tho 

cziBtened of a southerly upper current,'' a vast volume of " inky- 

oud low moving cloud," sometimes of "dun," "dark- 

," or " coal-ftmoke" color, illuminated by electric discharges, 

■aooally in the shapo of a funnel, an inverted cone, or an 

flaas, are among the surest and most carefully observed 

pmonitory signs of the tornado's deafening roar, though Its 

noise is sometimes audible half an hour before its 

' IVith such sky-portents, it is obvious that a local 

icr-watcher, upprised by timely weather-bulletins of the 

gyMFt^n**** of conditions favoring tlio generation of tornadoes, 

jfonl d be in position to forewarn a Western village or town of 

^^■Bdlag danger. Bnt it is probable that, for local warnings 

|MHb kind, each community will always have to rely maiuly on 

iueU, or upon its own State weather-service. The successful 




240 



IfORTff AMERICAN BEVIBW: 



prediction of a fall-flodgod tornado ia atriuinpli yettobeTon 
by meteorology. For it almost Beems, 

" Tbe itrite of fleodM ia «d the baUUng elonda. 
The glare of hell Es in theee mlpboroas lightaippii 
Tliis U no euthly sCona." 

It is not beneatli the dignity of ilie ablest investigatom to 
And some safegnards for ihose commtmiUefi whose homes an 
liable any day in Rnmmor to be ravaged by this fell destroyw. 
Is there any escape or protection from the tornado t Undtfubt- 
edly there is. It is tme, the terrible meteor may descend witK 
fatal effect on any spot near the path of its propY^a, iivhAt«v«r 
may bo the topography of the oonntry — hill or dalf, or the flit 
prairie — in its ricoc^t motion. But as, with extraordinai? 
oniformity, tornadoes have always be«n known, in our hemi- 
sphere, to travtilfrom west-south-west to eaBt-north-eost^it wooH 
follow that a house or a town bnilt in a valley running; fMia 
souOi-east to north-west, or on the north-eastern and eastern slopes 
of a hill or range of hills, would be considerably sheltered, and 
the probabilities of a desolating Tigitatiou be greatly leaaened. 
Even a gentle "rise** of ground, a little west-south-west of • 
town, might suffice to alter the tornado's couive, causing it Ui 
rebound from the earth and pass over the otherwise devoted city. 
In selecting sites for Western farm-houses, railroad stations, and 
Tillages, it would certainly be very desirable to have regard to 
these considerations, giving the preference, ceteris paribut, to 
locations having an eminenoe on their westerly and sonthorh* 
sides. Retreat, on the clear indications of this tempoat, to 
collars or excavations, is often the means of saving life, '' Hun- 
dreds,** on the approach of the recent Qrinnell tornado, eay& iM 
writer who describes it, " sought refuge in cellars and oaves, and 
were thug saved from death, one only being killed who had takeo 
this precaution." On the open prairie, wher« no topograpbinl 
feature of the ground affords immunity, it cannot be considcml 
superfluous for every household, when possible, to prorido ituU 
with underground and storm-proof retreats, having' some means 
of ventiktinu in case the debris of wreeked houseo ^onM eover it 

Lastly, is there a probability that, with the olotcr eettlemuot 
of the We6t, tornadoes will become more frequent T TbflfC 
storms have been vaguely recorded in early annals nf Uie Misids- 
sdppi Valley; but it must be admitted by all who haveiuveath 



TOSNADOES ANT) THEia CAaSES. 



241 



gtttod aoioh reoordB that tornadoes of the type wo liave hero 
eon^dered wen rart'Iy witnessed by early wegteni pioneers, or, 
if witPOMod, the phenomena did not appear to them worthy of 
ipecdal and aooonte mention. Indeed, it wotdd be difficult to 
find in the many nairathree of western exploration an account of 
meh a tornado as recently destroyed Grinnell, though it seems 
highly probable that, had such a tempest visited any of the 
original settlements near the MissiRsippi with fatal reBolta, it 
would have found numerous chnmiclors. Historical accounts 
of hurricanes visiting the Oarolinas and the Gulf States, in the 
ncouirB of Drayton, Ramsey, Barton, Gayarr^ and other 
writers, extend back beyond 1700; bat wo find few, if any, 
Qotioea of clearly defined tornadoes occnning: in this country 
during ita colonial history. Had the latter disastrous storms 
be>cn frequent at the time Mr. Jefferson (himself a pains- 
taking meteorologist) wrote his " Notes on Virginia," and other 
ttttfulod and accurate aeeonntft of the meteorological peouliari- 
ttH of tho country, thoy would certainly havo figured in such 
disaertations more than they do. The paucity of references to 
weil-ourked tornadoes in early notices of Anioricaii cUmatohigi- 
eal ovents may, however, be easily ascribed to other causes than 
thu absence of the phenomena. In the old forests, from tho 
Gulf Stat^ to Canada, particularly in Wt^teru Pennsylvania and 
New Yorkf aa Mr. Blodget has noted, "tho tracks of those (tor- 
nadoee) which prostrated the older growth a century since may 
itiU be traced by the belt of trees of uniform niize and peculiar 
i^toot which grew up sabeequently." " From the due to tr»- 
goeocy which snoh tracks give, these storms," he adds, " must 
bt plaeed at very remote intervals for any one locality." But, 
after yftighjng the reasons assigned for the apprehended increase 
of tomadoee — denudation and deforesting of the soil, and con- 
Mqncnt diminution of rain-fall, and aridity of the conntry — they 
have apparently but little force. The clearing of the soil from 
iti original vegetation, by increasing its power to radiate solar 
heat, aad hence to initiate a oondition of unstable equihlirium in 
the air, undoubtedly will exert a very slight influence in the 
jrodofition of tbeae storms. But this condition is only one of 
sevenl meteorolopiutl conditions requisite for the formation and 
dSMW&i of a tornado. If aridity of soil was sufHcient to brijig 
about the phenomenon in question, it would abound in tho 
tniia>MiaBiaidppi Plains more than in the immediate Mississippi 



242 



THE NORTH AMBBlCAJi BEVOSW. 



Valley, aiid ia tnany rainless regions of the gloln^ in vrhieb \hA 
torni^o pnjpcr rarely oc«nrs. Man's agency un the ettrth inay, 
pwhaps, slightiy modify local climatic oonditicns. Bat, for tbo 
spedfle reaeous here presentwl, man is as powerless to work 
chaiige which will angment or diminish the nnjnl)er of toi 
does, or to disturb the ponderous atmospheric machinery whidf 
prodaoes them, as the pony fly is to retard or accelerate the 
motion of a powerful steam-engine. No snch change can be 
wrought, without involving a derangement of all the 
factors of terrestrial climate, and dtatroying its permanence 
stability. Plausible have been the various theories end pruphc 
oies put forth by some, announcing coming phyBlcal ohange* • 
grave import. But these meteorological c^astrophista foi 
that the rain-drop and the storm — the hombiest and the 
est phenomena of the atmosphexe — owe tJieir existence to 
same eyclopean forces, and that these forces are unabated hv 
any eliangne known to be going on upon the earth-H »x\\ 
We may safely turn for relief fn^ra euch theories to tliat pr 
tive promise which was given to Noah, and which abic 
nninvaUdated : '* While the earth remainoth, seed-time and b«^ 
Test, and cold and heat, and summer and winter, and day atid 
night, shall not cease.'^ 

T. B. Maurt. 



ARCHTTECTUBE IN AMERICA. 



IK Emerson said, " AH men lore a lover," it may be gud, 
vith almost f<|iia] triitL, all men luvo a house. For, on what 
foaadationa is the house built, if not on lore and marriage, and is 
not thi> primal purpose of its roof to shelter lovers f The most 
beftotifui bouse is not that on wbleh art has most labored, em- 
broidering it with her skill — carving it without and painting it 
within; but that which at onc<, and more and more with exam- 
iuation, ahows itself fitted iu its plan and by its proportions for 
baman oc«upation and flnjoyment. This is why, in every land, 
the cottage attracts the eye more strongly than die palaw, or the 
•abvtantial bouse of the rich man of the plaev ; it expreasee in 
Bmple forms, almost as by visible speech, the homely every-day 
ikMda and employments of its inhabitants, concealing nothing, 
diflguiaiug nothing. The kit«:hen, the wood-shed, the ironing- 
room, are in plain sight ; the bread-oven swells from the wall as 
it were the life-giving breast of the house ; the well, with its 
nreep or its pulleys, hospitably invites the passer-by with the 
prospect of a cool drink. A fastidious elegance has never taught 
the cottager to conceal the facts that cooking, baking, washing, 
and ironing, go on beneath his roof. No ardut«ct has sophisti- 
cated away his chimneys behind make-believe battlements, nor 
ipted his honest gutter to hide itself behind a seuBoless oor- 
Moe. Even tbe smells of the kitchen, which in a city-bouse— 
Eton only the chimney by which these smeUs are carried off — 
a constant uffenee, become appetizing In the cottage, where 
kitchen has it» right as a legitimate port of the building; 
and the odor of roasting coffee, baking bread, and even of roast- 
ing Iwef and mutton, are found in harmony, in their times and 
■ea«o»«, with roses and honeysucldes, when mixed, like these, 
with all the air there is Iwneath " tlie canopy." Did not Lord 
Bacou himspilf, most fastidiooa of mortals, praise tbo scent of 



244 



THE NORTH AMERICAN REVIEW. 



the Uoneysocklea "so that they be somewhat afar oinf And, 
who, on a fine day in spring op autumn, wonld object to seeing 
the " week's wash " hauging out to dry t Nauaieaa always seemed 
to me a princess of ths right stamp, she so enjoyed washing-day j 
and Homer, priueo of poets that he was, had the eye to see hov 
well the task became her and her maidens. And did not oar own 
Thoreau — he, or some one with as Uttle fear as he of an uncon- 
ventional imago — compare the clouds to the clothes of the Gods 
hung ont to <lxy after an Olympian Monday 1 

The cottages and email houses of the last century — scattered, 
not infrequently, over the older Xew England States, particnlarly 
over Eastern Massachusetts, and found plentifully in New Jermr, 
not so plentifully in New York — are the true type of a domeatia 
architecture fitted to our climate and to our general mode of livmg. 
No donbt, although they are built with few exceptions of wood, 
their original model could be fonnd in England, a country thft 
charm of whose rural building consists greatly in the fact tlut 
stone or brick is the material oniversally em{doyed. With ttw 
exception of what are called half-timbered houses, I did not na 
in England a wooden house. In the older villages of Maasachu- 
setta, along the coast, it \i as rare to find a house built of niff ^ 
matorial but wood. That the model the builders of these I^Sfl^f 
England houses had in mind, and which they modified to ibmV 
their new wants, was a stone model, appears, however, whowrer 
omameut is attt^mpUHl, or the graces of " architecture" are sought 
to )>e added to thH bare ueoessities of '* building.*' And in tha 
larger houses built by the earlier inhabitants, the whole extanul 
structure, and much of the internal fittings, is & direct imttatkm 
of stone-oonstruction. Those familiar with the old town o( 
Gloucester, in Massachusetts, will remember the baodaoue hotnei 
of Dr. Dale aud Captain David Low — the former still atandteft 
the latter unhappily gone— destroyed to head off an advaneing 
fire that ate up half the town. The house of Dr. Dale waa the more 
picturesque of the twoj its wtsU-ljalanecd proportiona, the pBt* 
fectly domestic expression of the whole, showed a feeling in the 
builder that to-day cannot be found among bnildera at all, and 
is so rarely met with in architects, that I thiuk I could uomber 
aQ I2ie instances I ever knew on my thumbs. Other ezamptn 
than those I have named will be familiar to my readers. Abun- 
dant illnstrations of their general characteristics may be found 
in Mr. Arthur Ldttle's "Early New England Inteiiarai' and 



ARCaiTECTVRE IN AMERICA. 



245 



se example, that of the Cra^e Hoii8e at Cambrid^, has on 
ibterest for aill of as, as having been tho hefwlquarlyrs of Wash- 
ingtOD while the army was in thoee puts, and later the life* 
lon^ reeidonce of Loufffellow. The exterior of the poet's house 
had notliinK* Ui r(>«omniend it, bnt t.h<^ internal arrangi>ment 
and fitting were comfortable, di^iified^ and, in parte, pictur- 
«aqiie. The entrance-hall, in particular, always seemed to me 
a model in its kind. With the exception of certain details, prin- 
cipally tfaoae of the chimney-piccc-s, there is little in these more 
pretending honses that can interest ns or be of profit in onr 
arehitectnral stodies. I might oall attention to the thorough 
way in which all the work about them is done, were cot this 
thormi^meea a charaoteristio of the time, shown in everything, 
ttom the exqnistta sewing of the women — an art as utterly lost 
oat of the world to-day as if it had never existed — up to the 
ftraming of wooden church-spires, such as that of St Paul's in 
Naw Torkf whii^h stood a huiidn?d yp-ars before it needed repair- 
faig. 80 welt built are these large houses of the colonial time, 
that it ia only from the feethetio side they oau be condemned for 
iktkt Borvilo imitation of stone- construction. Pra^^ttcally, they 
Mam to be as'cudiinug as if they were really made of stone, 
particnlarly where they have been well cared for. As houses 
mflrely— places where human beings can be heaUhily and com- 
ftartabiy housed — they ore without fault; they h&ve dr>', large, 
w«n*bailt cellars and strong foundation-walls j they are built of 
mandf wellseaaoned timber, scientifically framed, and without 
a ainglo oav of the miserable make-ahifts that discredit modem 
cvpantry ; and the skeleton of the house once set up, the whole 
waaoorered with w«Miil»Tn sheathing, wbicb, whether it was honest 
dapboarding or planks laid flat to imitate ashlar (the angles in 
many eaaee cut to imitate chamfered stone quoins), was always 
of tb» brst material and workmanship. "Within, they were well 
pknnod for comfort, and with ample provision for elegance ; bo 
ttit tO'day, when life, directly the opp<»Bite nf what it then waa, 
is fi\w*^i wholly external and given up to making a show, these 
haodaome old-time rooms easily lend themselves as frames and 
bad Eg wwmd to the luxury of modern fittings and fomiture. 

But it is in the cottages and smaller houses of the colonial 
tunai, and of the times immediately succeeding the Revolution, 
&at we find the best models for imitation or for suf^estion. 
TWy were for a long time despised or simply neglected, while 
TOL. fXXXV.— NO. ."ilO. 18 



NORTH AMERICAN IWi'lEW, 



we, in onr cnllow youth, wptti going through our "eliMEic' 
rnmnpH and " gothic" measles, and near to porishing with Ik 
dreadful visitation of the "■ Mansard " nialana. But, within » few 
years, these booses havo been rediscovered, an it werr< ; ihcir 
xntrinsia exflellencieH are recognized, and borne in miud by a 
sooro of young, ambitions architects, who would make better 
use of their models if they were not egged on by their own 
ambition and by the demands o*" their clients to play so manj 
fantastic -v-ariations on these elear and simple themes. Of coniw, 
no arehitect is (ixpected to bind himself to the copyiug of one 
portionlar model, mere it never so perfect Nor could be do 
BO if he would- The needs of no one time exactly resemble th** 
needs of another, and it would be abHurd lo expect the late nbi"- 
teenth century to find itself completely at home in tlio huoses 
of the eighteenth, or even in those of its own earlier yours. 
This, that we are living in, is a time of umversal selT-iudulgeun 
and love of ostentations display ; and how eould such a genera- 
tion content itself in the houses of its poor and ascetic auoestura I 
But, while one generatioQ differs &om another in this, that, 
or the other superficial characteristic, all generations are alike 
in substautials, and it is in substantials that we can leun 
tram the arc^hitecture of our forefathers. Tt was in a sense of 
proportion, of picturesqueness, and of comfort, thai the oM 
builders excelled; and it is in a sense of proportion, of pictnr- 
osquenesa, and of comfort, that our builders and architects 
are particularly wanting. There is, however, one importaot 
fact to be remembered. What we now arc obliged to ask otlim 
to do for ns, our forefathers used to do for themselvoB. We hare 
no mention of the arrival of the first architect on theec shores, 
but he was at least one thing that did not come over in the May- 
flower. Better-informed persons than I am will know whetikcr 
the old buildings of eolunial and revuIutionar>' times I havcbcfn 
praising were designed by professional architects, or were the 
work of mere builders ; but I believe there can be no doubt t!!nt 
the handsome houses in Gloucester, Portsmouth, Hingham, ( -i 
bridge, and other Massachusetts towns, — the houiK's that made odd 
Now York bq dignified a eit)', and those that still give to littl» 
Newport an air of consequence ; or those, again, to which rosM 
of the New Jersey towns and cities owe their ain ' 
makes the frequent discoveries of mastodons aui 
the soil seem quite in keeping — there can, I beUerc, be no doubt 



ABCffTTECTURE XY AMBBICA. 



247 



that all these boanes wer« the work of eimplo " bnlklera,'' who 
Icspw their trade and never r^red to ^vo tfaenutclvcs a fLuor name. 
An<l what U imp of thottv hoosf^a and r.hnrnhes '\^ also necesftar 
rdj true of the cottages and Hmall houses; for if architects had 
been needed to baild the h«tt«r sort of stmctores, thu lesser sort 
would never have been so ^ood as they are. The general ex- 
?eUfnpe that marks tlio dwellings of any people is a proof of 
the non-<?riatence of professional architects among that people, 
l^ere iuvhitect« abound, the art of building always deteri- 
urstea. Did arcbitetita design the houses of Venice T Architects 
m&y hare designed the bod oncs^ but never the good ones. Aa 
NHin as architect* got tlieniselvej! fairly established in Venice, 
tier shabby days began. But, to take more humble examples, 
sounder the cottages of England^ the chfilets of Switzerland: is it 
not evident that they are the spontaneous outgrowtb of a general 
good taste that stood in no need of '^ assisting." And even in 
Bngliuidf where the profession of architecture, owing to the great 
patronage of the noble and wealthy classes and of tlie Govern- 
ment, has reached a high condition of skill and tAchuieol taste, 
Bveiybody must have remarked the incongruity between its pro- 
Inotions at the befirt and those of the older people, created before 
titera were any architects otlier than clerical and monastic 
imatenrs. 

B\'ery old church in England looks built by the same hands 
that built the old houses that nestle about it; or, rather, church 
md houses look as if they had not been bnilt at all, but had 
ETOwxt, and growu out of one root. Let the best archit^t in 
England try to replace one of these old churches that may 
r'iianco to have been destroyed, and^ no matter how familiar he 
tnay Iw with the architecture of the period to which the old 
Bbnreh belonged, the now one will look like an interloper. 

It is to archit«cta that we owe all the n^y building that 
nffends ua in our large cities and in our country towns and fash- 
ionable Bummor quarters. And T will grant that it is to arcJiitects 
that we owe, nowadays, the few, the very few buildings on 
■rhich our eyes can look with any pleastu^. The work of the 
professional builders is always in these days an eye-aore, but the 
builders simply follow the patterns set before them by the arcM- 
teeta. A builder must fall himself an anihiteet before he can be 
Uiployed in any important work to-day. The man — I forget his 
^ftie — who built Mr. A. T. Stewart's house and iron shop, and 



TEE NOBTR AMERICAN SEVISW. 



many a stmcttiro hcsido, was called an architect ArcUteets, too, 
are refiponidble for tbe chiirebes on the Back Bay lands ot 
Bostoo. An ar<.'hit«ct built the une with the foolish friezu of 
sculptiue encircling the lofty, awtward tower, and wholly ol- 
intelligible from below I Costly sculpture — ugly aiid noiuUHi- 
gible, it is true, but costly for all that, and l>y Bartholdi, b 
num whose works seem by some fatalit}' to have been unloaded 
upon this bedeviled land, as if we had not Boulptors enough of 
our own, quite capable of work as bod I And this scalptim! 
is put, as I eay, at the top of a lofty tower, where no hamui 
eye, unless armed with spy-glasses, can make it oat — a pro- 
ceeding not easily recouciltnl with one^ notions of Boston, 
where, if anywhere in the coxmtry, the laws of (esthetics and du 
limitations of the art are supposed to be under&U»od, at least, if 
not spiritually discerned. Aud another architect built the chnrtli 
in that Back Bay quarter, dedicated, we suppose, to some female 
saint. »iuce it has for emblem on the top the ooniplt>tcst Saratoga 
trunk — to what end, unless an emblem, no mortal could ew tdl 
me, nor I by my unaided wito disoover. An architect also boiU 
the Art Museum, so finikin fine, with its heads of great men look* 
ing out of port-holes in the most tdiipwrecked fashion ; a sensfr- 
less treatment, although borrowed from that overdone Paviia 
Certosa, where so mndi is to be seen treated in an extravagantf 
ostentadona manner. This particular extravaganoe — medili 
run mad, as it were — seems to have tak«m hold of the fancy of 
oertfun of our architects; wo find it repeated again in the 
Sanders Theater at Cambridge, and in the Historical Sotdntr'a 
building in Brooklyn, whore that good seulptnr, Mr. Obn I*. 
Warner, has been called on to design the heads ot thi? shit^- 
wrecked pei*sonages. If I cannot like the outside of the Boston 
Museum, it is the outside alone that vexea me. Whi " ' -^ 
ant are the contents, and the management everj-way :o 

to Boston : a Museum of Art, with, actually, the ooUtcUou uf 
art-material its chief object, and a geueroua courtesy prciadiug 
over its management. But Boston has been as uofortnnaio ia 
her architects lis New York, though in quite another, ai ■ ^t 

be tliought, in a mory creditable way. The Hnsdnm of j ■< 

and the Memorial Hall at Cambridge, for instance, ore cxut 
of what comes of building getting into the handji of litvrii.r;, 
critical men, art-students, with their heads enuumvul full of !»■ 
membored hita of Old World orchitectorc, and their portfoliof 



ARCHITECTURE IN AMERICA. 



249 



stuffed wiUi pbotographa of mora and more bits. Gren "Trinity," 
the moflt eifoctive piece of building yet dnue in America— aud 
Mr. Bichardson is one of tbo few mcD, alas I how dolefollj Cc:w, 
wlto have the staff of a real architect in them — even Trinity owes 
tWD-third» of its ext«ma] impressiveuess to its tower, burrowed 
slmofft literally from the tower of the Salamanca CathcdraL 
Borrowing, borrowing everywhere; an orip^inal motive almost 
imni't)i£5U6 to find. For thd jiwjpln at large have no ideas on the 
t ; the " builders ^ have been sanbbed into taking a back 
•leai and keeping it; and in architecture, as in all our ftne arts, 
Qotaljly ill the art of painting, the field faas fallen into the pos* 
session of a set of clever, accomplished, bnt overcultivated 
poung men who have come back from French and Engbsh 
itudios, offices, and pedestrian trips, with a plenty of " material " 

K their sketch -l)ooks, much of it good in its own time and place, 
t, when worked up into houses fur tho avert^^ American^ as 
ilien to his mode uf life, to his needs, and to bis character, as 
mn be ^H>iiceived. Mnch fun has been made — and certainly too 
iBQch fun could not bo made — of the fact that tbe doors of Mr. 
Wm. H. Vanderbilt'B house on Fifth Avenue arc reduced copies 
»f the gates made by (ihib«rti for the Baptistery- of Florence. The 
niginal gates, owing to the rooted defect of their design, to their 
imiltipli cation of planes and of small parts, do not submit happily 
to rcdutttion ; aud these Vaiiderbilt copies have a mean appear- 
uioc, and are far from doing justice to the price that was paid for 
tbem. But, wen? i\\fy copies as perfect as could be made, the 
ibanrdity of their being where they are at all, would be no lees; 
iret to tills alMurdity the architect of tlie house willingly lent 
lunuetf, and art- writers, supposed to have reflected on the laws 
tbat govern art, have given their mjixui approval, iu print, to this 

»it tasteless proceeding. 
In fact, the art of architecture lias not received many worse 
blows in this country than have been given her by the three 
Vir " " !' housesrecentlyerectwlin Fifth Avenue — twoofthem 
b> 'ts of high reputation. Three such opportunities will 

not, It is likely, occur again for many years, and they have found 
[HIT- :-^- •■pcifa entirely unprepared for them. Mr. William H. 
7i. "s house is tho worst of tho three, and though there is 

i .-^ ■ ■ hat it is carried out in its present material contrary 

to i^. — .;- .. wish of the architect, who had intended a light- 
nlored stone to be used, it is not easy to see how that could have 



250 



TBE NOSTH AMSBICAN a£VI£W. 



made it look lesa like a ^^ntic knee-hole table than it does ftl 
preeeut. What an uif^jngriiity betweeu tJie (^laj-wly execotrJ, 
iU-deaigned band of foliage that belts the eotirc building — one 
slab the exact repetition of another, and alt having the appeor- 
aacc of being stamped with » waffle-iron — wliat an infongnntj 
between this machine-work and the borders o£ the famous gats 
of Ghibertif with their charmingly varied designs of Leaf, and 
fruit, and flower, and bird I Where is the pru&t, I muat aak, iu 
being a millionuire, if all one's money cannot comznaztd better 
design than thisT And how discreditable to the profeeeioii of 
andiiteuture in ttiis country is the fact that a man with Mr. 
Vonderbilt's enormous fortone, and wilUngnefls to spend it, cu 
find no bettor service than has been at his disposal in building 
this clumsy block ! 

It may be said that Mr. Herter is not an architect, property 
speaking, but a cabinet -maker. Xeverthelees, he is. I believe, a 
reguhtrly trained architect, and be is certainly a man of varied 
accomplishments. But, whatever may be thought of Mr. Herter, 
no one will deny that Mr. Richard Hunt is an architect. And, is 
an architect, he has certainly loaded earth with some of the 
most ungainly among all the Tmgainly structures that make our 
streets suc-h a misery to any one who cares for good building- 
Be spoiled quiet Beacon street in Boston, enjoying her dowager 
respectable slumber in the shade of the Cktmmou elms, by the 
erection of the ugliest house that I brliiwc has ever lieen bniU 
this side the Atlantic. He built the Lenox Library, with its rifly 
pediments and blank monotony of wall — a very fit tumb, how- 
ever, for the mummied treasures that are hermetically scaled 
within. Here again we Bee a very rich man powerless, with aQ 
his money, to get, artistically speeJung, his money's worth. And 
now comes the Vaadcrbilt house, on which another fortnuA has 
been lavished, and what is the reeoltf Nothing but a copy, and 
a slavish one, of the architecture of the time of Francis I^ with 
its entrance an adaptation of a French Benaiaaamto chimney- 
piece 1 There does not appear to be iu all this pretentious, foflsy 
building a single new motive ; it has to the student the air of 
being nothing but a patch-work made up of bits whotue original 
could easily be identified with a little search. Now, we laugh at 
the architect who, a few years since, was persuading as all to 
fM3cept his designs for civil edifices and for private honaea in tlit 
Norman style, the Perpendioular style, and the st}*le of Clio Pui- 



ASCHITECTUJiE Uf AMERICA. 



Bnt, on what grouuds is it any tnoro respectable to 

CpersoAde a rich man to accept a deslgu which is uoly a ha^h of 

Krcnch Benaisaanco detail, than to persaade a corjioratiou into 

itting ap a university biiilflinpin the style of English perpen- 

Oothic, ur auoUier to erect a priiiuu in a parody of 

>tian architecture I But all sudi doings make ns regret 

davK whcu we hod builders whuse eonunon sense and correct 

•yit could have saved us from \mng made ridieulous. 

If I wUhed to moke a complete sorvey of our blunders in 
arduteoture, I should need, not ton, nor a hondred pages, but an 
entire nnmtNff of this Hkview, for they meet as at every turn. 
Rnm the gigantic folly at Albany — a problem with which men 
original talent liku Meesis. Richardson and EidliU have strug- 
in rain, and lost far more than they have gained in the 
less task of bringing order out of chaos — from this dificredit- 
nndertakiug, to th^ vurioiis examples of Mr. Idallett's con- 
ceit and ignorance, that make the Qovemment a laugh tng-stock 
whenever it puU up a new post-offico in any of our cities, or a 
new olBcinl building in Wa^ngtoo, there is really, to the most 
hiipefol eye, very little outlook tliat is encouraging. Some relief 
had been hoped for with the advent of the group of young nrchi- 
teats who were so cordially welcomed, and who liave been rejoic- 
ing like littlci, wanton boys that swim on bladders, tlieso last half- 
doEen summers, on a sea of glory. Of their elevemess there can 
be no doubt, nor that they have given many of our rich men 
prettier t*)y8 to play with than they could have been supplied 
with at any former shop. But, after all, wo are beginning to 
And that the feast they invite ns to is a feast of seraps, and that 
the stxifc seems to be with them, as with uur women in the fur- 
nishing of their houses, who can invent the most startling novelty. 
After examining many of the-se fashionable houses, the impres- 
sion is inoWtabto that what should be the true aim of the archi- 
tect, the comfort of the occupants expressed with elegancy, has 
been lefteutiroly ontof sight, and tJiat the exhibition of the arohi- 
teo^ ingt^mous fancy in the invention of "^ dodges,'^ to be ez^ 
euted wit)M>ut the least regard to fitness or cost, has taken the 
placo of the Berious intellectual motives that ruled an older time. 
And the worst is that these offcnsee are perpetrated in the name 
of a style that was remarkable for simplicity and propriety in its 
amamentation, and for the erfrnfortablo digrnity of \t& plans and 
general design. It seems impossible for these young architects 



252 



THE NORTH AMERICAN REVIEW. 



to do anything quietly. They will not, if they can help it, l':t t2i« 
eye rest for a moment anj-where. And they employ omameni in 
a way iliat cannot escape the charge of affectation. At alt 
events, in nine cases out of ten, no reason cotild be ^ven why 
tliifi or tliat is what it is. Let any one attftnipt, for intttanw, To 
exjilain tlie ornamentation on the perron of the hou»<i latdy baiU 
on the west side of Fifth avenne, just above Thirty-fifth fttrwL 
If we met these eaakle-shells and ribbons in a French I'b&tean of 
Francis I.'s time, we should know that they were the dovioi? 
some family; but what meaning have they heret and how 
must be the resources of a designer driven to the use of tibbou! 
The architects will, no donbt, have reason on tht?ir side if \h 
throw a portion of the blame on the puUia The public, thi 
will say, insist on novelty, and eneourago ns, when we give them 
a little, to give them more. Great pubUo buildings like the 
dsce Exchange are undertaken in a purely meroenary spi 
without a thnnght given to the int.eUefrtufll credit of the co 
tion or to the elevatdoa of the public taste. Aearefidly thoogW 
out design, like that, for instanoe, Bent in for our Produce Ex- 
change by Mr. Withers, had no chance whatever — the drawings 
not even taken out of their jiortfoUo, simply bocauiu the etair- 
cases were put in the only place fit for the staircases of such a 
large building, namely, at the angles. And a design that met 
with great favor was one in which the w8ter*eloseto of the whule 
upper building were dischai^ed through one of the iron columns. 
that support the great main hall intended to accommodate 
whole membership of the society ! I could All my paper wi 
anecdotes of mismanagement like this, and the exposure mi 
do some good. The builders of old tune never made such hi 
ders as these. They looked to the main thiugs first — to tight 
air, comfort and convenience and hospitality. Too many of oajr 
architects look to all lht»e esseutiulb lauU 

CuiB&NCE Cook. 



CONSTITUTIONAL PROTECTION OF PROPERTY 

RIGUTS. 



Amoko the many interesting questions involved in the Uti- 
don which has been guiug ou fur some yeftrs, with regard to the 
lew Yortc elevated railroads, the right of the owners of 
jjterty on the strM^ta throngh which they pass, to recover 
compensation for tbo injury done them by the construction of 
the ToadB, is one of the most practically important In most 
cases of tJiL* oonfttrai^tion of r^lroads, the right to compensation 
in some dcgriH) is unquestioned, because land is actually taken 
from the owner, and the title transferred to the corporations ; 
and the compensation paid the latter is merely the pa>7U6nt of 
lis valne. But, in the case of the elevated railroads, a different 
juid more deli<'ate question haa ariAeii. In some streets of the 
no land has been ta^^^n at oil, but the value of property 
been materially reduced, owing to the fact that the structure 
rer which the trains pass bloetit np the street, darkening it 
id rendering it im»nvcnient for use, while the trains moving 
and forward close to the windows of the houses annoy 
occupants with a constant noise and the smoke and cinders 
the engines. In these cases, the actual market value of the 
)petty is greatly dinunished j yet the elevated railroads have 
far sncoessfuDy resisted all attempt£ to obtain ct^mpensatson; 
id it is probably safe to say that the general belief among thoso 
most comi>eteQt to form an opinion — that is, the opinion of the 
bar — is that the courts will never compel them t4i make compeusa- 
tion. That there ought to be redress for such an injury no one 
disputes. The State cannot commit an act of more high-handed 
injuRtJce than that nf aiithorizing a curporntion to do wide-spread 
damage of this sort without making compensation for it. The 
obetaoles ia the way of obtaining such compensation grow out 
of certain peculiarities of legal construction, which curiously 



leir 



IQS 



25« 



THE NOBTS AMERICAN REVIEW. 



iUu8trai« the confasioQ and oousoqaent injaetic« that 
attend the development of our jorispradence. 

The constitution of the State of New York noutains the pro- 
rieion commou to all our State constitutions, that " when pmBte 
propc^rty shall be taken for any public use by tho State, t^ 
owner shall be conii>eusattd.''* 

Now, KLDgular as it may seem, It has been decided by court after 
court that, to constitute a " taking " of property within tlio me«xt- 
ing of this clause, there muBt be some dlreot, actual, physical in* 
terferenne with laud or chattels. 

The Supreme Court of Peuiis>'lvama, in construing a simikr 
provision thirty years ago, said : " The constitntioual provisif 
for the case of private property taken for publico use, extends w 
to tlio case of property injured or destroyed. 'M Tliis may 
said to have been the prevailing view of the Ame-riean eoi 
down to a very reoent pei*iod, and it is plain that, under this ii 
terpretatiou, tbe claim of the owners of property diminished 
value by the elevuted railroads would have no standing wha^ 
ever. 

Within the past few years, however, a new view of Uie fol 
jeci has made its api>earau(», whieh has received the sauetlon 
a court of high authority, and under wliich property-owners 
would bo materially better ofT. In the case of Baton r<- the 
Boston, Concord and Montreal Railroad, t the facts preeentod to 
the court were as follows : The eorpurat ion, claiming to aot onder 
legislative authority, removed a iiataral luLrrier situated Qortb 
the plaintiffs land, which bs>d, down to the period of the 
struetion of the road, completely protected his meadow-ln 
from the eflfects of floods wid fn-shets in a neighboring riv< 
In consequence of thiB, the waters of the river sometimes floi 
over his meadows, cairying stones, sand, and gra^'el upon the 
Here there was nothing but injury, and no appropriation of 
whatever. Nevertheless, the court held that this was a taking 
the plaiutiflTs property, within the mi^aning of the oonstitutioi 
provision, and that the legiulature eould not authorize any sac 
injury without making provision for compensation. In 
ing this oonclnsion, tbo court first states the oommunly 
in terpretatiou as follows : 



" CotiaL X. Y., AH. 1, Bee. 7. % 61 K. H., GOA. 

tO^Ounor K. Fittaburg, 18 Peui. St., lf)7. 



CONSTITUTIONAL PROTECTION. 



25& 



'Tha constitDtiooal prohibition (which exists in most, or &II, of the 
StfttcB) hat receivetl !n boidb qoartera a aonHtractlon which rf>ndflr» It of eom- 
pftntivelf Uttlo worth, b«lng iDt«rpr«t«d maoh aa if it read, ' No person slnU 
be diT««t«4 of the formal title to property witiiout cv mpeosatioo, but bo tamj 
witfaoat eompcoaalion be deprived of all tfa&t makes tlie titlu rala&ble.' To 
oonrtitate » ' tftkhm; of tbfi proport^ ' it iwems to ham somotimea bean bald 
BMMBuy tlut tber« ahould be ' &n exoltuive appropriatioaf' a total assump- 
Otm of pOMeeaion/ ' a oompleta ouster,' an absolute or total eonvernon of tha 
entire property, ' a takiag tho propurtj- altoKcther.' Thciie views seem to be 
floimded on a mlKooeeptioQ of tho t«na ' property,' aa used iix the Tarioos 
Stat* •oulitatioiu.'* 

Ill a Ktrict legal ftenjie, they continue, land is not " property " ; 
tut the snlgect of property. Tlio t«nn property, although ia 
oommon parlunoe frequently applied to a tract of land or a 
chattel, in it^s l«gal t^ignificatioii ineaut< only the rights of tha 
owner in relation to it. Proporty is, in other words, the right to 
pooaoBB, lue, enjoy, dispose of, rent, sell, give away, deviso the 
thing owned; and anything wlnoh interferes with the beneficial 
enjoyment of all tliese rights substantially ditninislics them, and 
oonfiequently involves a "taking," pro tanto, of the property. 
^The right' of nsiiig indefinitely is an esseaLial qoality or attribute 
^fef absolute property, without which absulut'e property can have 
^Bio IdgaJ existence. This right of using neeessarily inclndes the 
Hright and power of excluding others from using the land. If the 
right of indefinite nse is an essential element of absolute prop- 
erty or pomplete ownerfihip, whatever physie^l interfejenoft 
umuls this right takes "property," although the owner may 
8tin have left him valuable ri^ts of a more limited and cir- 
^HjEtuiweribed natun^. He has not tlie same property that he 
j^Eormeriy had. Then he had an unlimited right, now he has 
^^only a limited right. His absolute ownership has been reduced 
^^to a qualified ownership. Restrieting A's unlimited right of 
fusing one hundred acres of land to a limited right of osiog 
^Hfae same l&nd, may work a far greater injury to A than to 
jHbUce from hlin the title iu fee simple to an »rre, leaving him the 
nnrBBtxicted right of using the remaining ninety-nine acres. No- 
body doubts that the latter fcransaotion would constltate ft 
" t^ng of property." Why not tho former t 

The ease of Pumpolly rs. (J re^n Bay Company ,• decided by the 
Sopreme Court of the United Stat<-8, closely resemblfifl the New 
Htunpshire case. In that case it was held that the backing of 

•13 Wall, 106. 



266 



TBS NOHTU AMERICAN REVIEW. 



-water so as to overflow tiic land of an individo&l, or aay otibff ■ 
snperinduced addition of water, earth, Band, or otiier material 
or artifioifJ structure placed on land, if dotiA undeo: {itatata 
authorizing it for the public bonefit, was a taking of projjerty wiUiia 
the meaning of the constitutioiial prohibltioa. The court Hud 
as to thifi: 

" It would be a very <mriotia and nT^iuitjtrfMtory rMolt, tf , tn wNUtefae ■ 

pronsiou ot coii.<ititutioQRl Uw, ftlirays vmdentooj to h».xe been adopted fcr 

ptotoclioii and iwDtirity to the righta of Uie individual as against the Oamet 

I tnent, and which hua nsMiirpd the cammendation ot jnriatu, Btatesaen and 

'eommentatoTB ao platting tho jiwt principles of the common law oo that nb- 

f )Mt beyond the powers of ordUiary legiittatioD to BbaDge or control them, It 

'aball be held that if tha Govommeut refnuos from the absolute oottveiHlaa of 

real property to the tuoa of tlie public, it can destroy ita vulne entirdy, ttn 

iafliot irreparable and pennanent injury to aay ezt«ut ; eaa, in efflMt, eubjert 

it to total destruction without mskinR any compensation, beoanae, ia the 

luUTOwest sense of that wonl, it ls^ not lak^o tor the publio iiicu Such a 

eonittraetlon would pervert the constitutional provinon into a rofltrietioe 

upon the rig:bts of the eitixen, as these right* atood at the ooouaoQ Uw 

Isatead of tho Oovemment, and make it an authority for invasion of prtvits 

light under the pretext of the public good, which Lad no wamint in the Uir 

or pn«tioei of our ancestors." 

Thia decision seems to treat the submerging of lands a= 
lent to the " taking " of them. But, obviouiOy, it is not tlv 
which are "taken" in such a case, in any true senso. The title 
to the loitds is still the property of the owner ; it is the benofldal 
use of them which is gone, so that as a matter of faol the differ* 
euee between this aud the New Hampshin; case is only one of 
degree. The Supreme Court, in aaying that the land is " taken *■ 
by overflowing, merely means precisely what tlie New nain^i- 
shiro court means when it says that the " property^ is taken by 
an occasional deposit of stones, saod, and grarel through an 
overflow or freshe.t. Aud the New Hampahire court itsalf s«js, 
after using the language we have quoted as to the ineaning of 
the word " property" in the constitutional prohibition : 

" If, on tha other hand, the land iUelf be regarded at ' proprrty,' tlie pme- 

^-tieal reeult is the BBmn. The purpose of this eonstitutiunal pmhibttion esauM 

' be ignored in its InterpTetatlOQ. Tfao Cramers of tho conititnlion intended to 

protect rights >rThii:h are worth protecting; not men empty litlea, or b»m< 

insignia of ownership, wtuc^h lire of do sabstiuit^ value. If tho land, * In 

[Mrporeal Hulntatico und entity' \a 'property,' still, all that makne Lbb 

of any value is the aggregation of rj^t* or qoalitlM whiflh tii*_ 

law usomos as laeidentB to the awuatalup of iL The eotutiLutianal 



lOSSTITOTIOifAL PI 



257 



rnnit hmve been iatcq^ided to pratoet all tho aaential elenunite of 
irliicii make ' property ' valoable. Among these elementa is 
hindlDeirtally the right of nwr, incloding, of coarse, the eorretipoiidjiig ri^it 
of cufaidiag otben from Uw om . . . . • phyoieil iDterfereuce with tho 
lutd, whiah «QbatftnliAll>' kbridgRe tlus right, takm the owner's ' proi^erty ' to 
isfll flo giwit an extoot lui b» is there1>7 doprivMl of thu right. To deprive 
one of the tow of hia land U depriTing blni of hiti land, for, u Lord Colc« Raid : 
'What ti the land bQt tho profits tberfror I' .... The pHvate injur; 
w tfaerabj' as oompletely effected u if the land Itaelf wks phTsicaUy taken 

v." 

Ait a matt«r of fti4:t, the land itself is never taken. Tho laud, 
the corporeal mibstance, always remains. The x***EiseB6ion maj 
be taken, or the entire titie, or both, or something lees ; and in 
ly one of these cases the only " taking '' that is poeeible is a 
iminution of the right of user. It may indeed be contended 
a diminution of the right of nser wbiiih is e-ffected without 
ly ebaoge of posgession ur title, as tu tho New Hampshire case, 
not a " tating " away of any property rights, hut merely a 
lestrucHon of property rights without any appropriation. But 
m just such destruction of property rights which the constitn- 
ional prohibition is intended to reach. Otherwise, any railroad 
pfaioh wiahed to avoid tho necessity of compensation might accom- 
plish its object by not attempting to acquire the title to, or '^ con- 
dfuni" any land, but by merely constructing its road; and ia 
answer to any claim for damages might contend that it had 
"taken" nothing. 

Prom a comparison of the early Pennsylvania case whioh 
we have died, and which may stand as repres^^nting a whole 
elau of contemporaneous deeii^ions. nith the two last decisions 
(by the side of whieh many others of a similar tendency might 
b« pnt)f it is obvious that the meaning of the eoostitutlonal 
clause ijrohibiting the taking of property without compensation 
Jiae suffered a i-hange, and that the eourts are now beginning to 
iow a disposition to treat any injnry or destruction of property 
a "taking." Tho meaning of the word "pnjperty" seems 
to be imdergoing a modification, and the word to l»e used in a 
different senso from that which was formerly current. 

There is nothing more difficult than to effect any change in a 
legal conception onco firmly imbedded in a system of jurisprU' 
f particolarly sneh a one as ours, in which general prin- 
are developed out of adjudicated cas«;a, while each Oflfifi iS| 
in theory, supposed to be founded npon and go\-emed by 



258 



TEE NORTH AMEBICAN REVIEW. 



another precisely similar j in vhioh, in fact, there is^ in Uieory, 
Bupposod to 1>o uo cliuage at aU. It is not surprising, Uiereforv, 
that wf! 8h<}iiltl tlud thti conception of "property" prevailing tiS 
a Tery recent period in the Uiiitwl States, \jo be still the uamii 
■which the word soggested to lawyers of the last centnry, whicb 
Blackstone elabonUad in hitt " Commentaries," and which hu 
toricaliy may bo traced to the arcbaio customs which auaweKd 
the purpose of law in. the forests of Oennany. It ia eaay tt> see 
that iu all early systems of law thero is likely to be a confnsitm 
between the terms used tf> express the thiug owucxi and tbcw 
used to define the ownership of it The word " property "iw 
find used in BlackMone to express these two entirely distineC 
ideas: first, the thing owned, and secondly, the entire aggresrate 
of rights and obligations with relation to it imposed by the l&ff 
upon tlie owner. " Real property" means land, " persuncJ 
property" means chattels; but we speak at the same time of 
property in land and property in a chattel These last ei* 
preesions corny from the Eoniftn law, as the word " property' 
itself is simply the I^atin equivalent for ownership. The reason 
that English lawyers of the last century' dist4)rted tbia legal term 
from its natiu-al use, and treated it as a convenient synonym 
for something radically different, is undoubtedly that they had 
not themselves reached any distinct conception of the natt 
of property in land. The feudal system was coherent, logic 
and intelligible. No feudal lawyer could ever have confot 
the land itself with the tenure by which it was held ur th«" 
quality of the estate. The fee was as distinct a c<;>nceptioM in 
his mind as any universitas of rights and duties in the mind <tf 
a dasftieal jurist But the fendal ^stcm was, in BlackstoneV 
time, already in a state of decay, and half-understood legal 
ideas derived from Roman jurisprudence offered a t«mpthig 
bait to any systematic writer on law. To a man of Blackstone's 
passion for symmetr}- and mere style, this was too tempting to br 
resisted, and the consequence was the production of a work in 
which we have neither the mathematical accuracy and imHa- 
physical precision of feudal law, nor the civilized classification of 
the Roman, but often a jumble of the two. in which ' -- '"'in ie 
made worse confounded by the assumption that it :. Arty 

tion of system and order. 

That the confusion with referenoe to everything relating to 
property, which we find in Blaokstone, was wide-i^iread amQiii^ 



the Ikwyers of lu£ time, there is abnnd&nt evidence. It vas a 
period in which it was often iincertmn whctlier cases would be 
decided npnn archaic principka, handed down from the time 
when Europe was still ovemm with savapfes, nr npon the pel- 
iahed and philosophical doctrines of right, clal>orat«d by thu 
irlMgifl lawyers of the Empire. A corioos and instructive 
iaitmee of tho first is to be found in thti opinion of Mr. Justice 
YateSf in the great copyright case of Millar m. Taylor, iu which he 
tnces ft close resemb^aaco between the ownership of Uteraty 
ideal, and That of wild animals, likens the pnblicadou of a book 
to the escape from tlie i^ontml of its captor of a fox or tig<!r, and 
heoee reaches the coaclusioo that there can bo no copyright at 
eommon law. On the other band, we have the decisions of Lord 
Uusfield, a judge more familiar, through his familiarity with the 
p rin c i ples of eqnify, with Roman than with English law, decid- 
ing ease after case without mu(fh more regartl for (H>mmon law 
principles than if they had no existence. It wau a time uf great 
Itfffti eonfnsion, and nothing is more natural than that this con* 
fnBon sfaonld by no means have altogether yet disappeared. 

The confusion as to the use of the term " property " produced 
kas practical iuconveniences at the time than might be supposed^ at 
least so far as land wasfionceraed, because any litigated question 
which aroee with regard to it had to be translated into the terms 
and ocmoeptions of feudal law, which were still used with all their 
ideety in decisions and statntea. All actual litigation still con- 
ccmedf not an^'thing so vague and indiscriminate as ^' property ** in 
lind, but f ee«, estates tail, reversions, remainders vested and con- 
tingent, freeholds, tenancies for life, at will, by sufferanco, ease 
nents in gross or appurtenant, and the thousand other varie- 
ties uf title antl estate, which the syst^matio feudal lawyers had 
been careful to olaasif>' and define. It was not until tjie word 
"property" came to he used in the written constituiions of the 
roitMl States that the seeds of any practical trouble were sown. 
8Uigalar as it may appear, no such question as that presented 
l>r the eonstmctiou of the elevated rHllrf>iulri has ever caused the 
BB|lisb courts the sUghteet difficulty. There b<Mng no written 
■xatiUiticinal provision on the subject, there has never been any 
''*«l»i^ fur defining the word " taVe," or the word " proiJerty," 
••d Pnliameut and the courts have always given the owner 
•"•s property lias been injuriously affected by the constmotion 
** P»bHo works of any kind, full redress, without rcganl to aoy- 



THE NOSTH AMERICSN mCVlr ir. 

thing PXf^ppt tho fact of injury. The Land CLan^Mifi Consolidation 
Act, passed in 1845, pro\-ided thai ibo owner should hnv^e coin- 
pcaiiatioa for land, or any inturost in land, token or ^injuiioiuly 
affected.'^ A single English casc^ which resomble^ in matif 
reepeotB that of the elevatwl railradds, and dei'idfd forty yvan 
ago, will show tlie difference between the American and KngUiih 
law on the subject In Tomer vs. The Sheffield and BothorluuD 
Railroad Company,* tho plaintiffs were the ownere of a stanli 
factory, near which the defendant*) built a railway station and 
embankment, by means of which the light and air were shat od^ 
and the premises rendered "dark, close, uncomfortable utd 
unwholesome, and Iciis 0t and conimodiuus for the purpose at 
manofacturing starch therein," and tlic other purposes for wlueh 
they had been used. Added to this, " large qnantitica of eartb, 
soil, dust and dirt'* were "carried, drifted, blown, scattered and 
spread," so that the fixtures, iniplenionte, and effects of thn 
starch factory were rendered " dirty, foul and clogged up,'* by 
means of which the premises "were greatly deteriorated in \'Bia&* 
The court held that tho plfuntiffs ooald recover. 

That private rights of this sort shotdd be more cffecttially pro- 
tected in England without any written constitutional gTUwautee, 
tbaa in this country where the subject is carefully provided f<jr 
in the bill of rights, is a remarkable thing in itself and is mdo 
tho more so if, as we believe to be the case, the esplanation of Uw 
matter is that the American judges of the lust generation were 
driven into a narrow construction of the prohibition by th6 ^m- 
fusion existing as to tho term "property^ among the Engluili 
lawyers whom they attt-mpted to follow. The original Boufv»eo( 
confusion has been admirably explained by Austin, who, in hii 
lootores on jnrispmdenoe, points out the various meAnings ol 
tho very ambiguous word " Property." Hi« analysis serves lo 
Illustrate at one or two points what we have been Bl^yisg* 
"Firsl comes the use of the word in ita correct or strii'l nenm, 
the same in which it is used by the Supreme Court uf New Ham{^ 
shire, if not by the Supreme Court of the United States— thf 
right of unlimited user. Then comes what ho culls tho "Ioo*« 
and vulgar acceptation," to denote " not the right of property ni 
dominion, but the subject of such a right, na where a hone or 
piece of laud is called my property.'* But Austin, who wiv* iiiTfh- 
ably nnaware when he wrote thiii, that on this side of tU*; waliir 



• 10 M. A W,, 426. 



CONSTSTUTIOifAL PROTECllOJt. 



261 



constitutional pmhibitionit fLgoinst any interference with 
propert}' were already beginning to involve us in a con- 
rtmy of serions dimnnaions over the meaning of that word, 
i: **I think in English law. nnloss u»od vaguely and i»opu- 
larly^ the term pro|terty is nut appliini to rights in immovablea 
(land). We talk of property in a movable thing. By absolute 
iwopoly i:i a movable thing, we mean what the Boman lawyera 
edlcd dominjtfjn or propriettu, they having no dititinetion be- 
tween real and j«*reonal proj«>rty. But in stm't law language 
the Urrm is not applied to a right or interest in imuuvabltw. 
An estate in fee simple, an estate tail, an estate for life, and so 

^1^11 never a property strictly sijeaking. An i*«tate in fee 
pie corresponds as nearly as may be to absolute property in 
a personal ohatteL" In other words, ss we have hinted above, 
feudal system of tennres admitted no such vague conception 
* property." 

If the vifws here suj^rated are sound, the proeef* of inter- 
ion throogh which the coustitutioual provision as to 
"pruper^** is passing, is one under which what Austin 
the ime or strict sense of the word is being substitute for 
the " vulgar acceptation " in whi<ih the subject of property is 
eonfonnded with the property iti^elf. 

That the second of these two views mt^t in tiie end prevail 
tad rcaider the first obsolete, no one who has paid much at- 
tention to tbe development of the law on the subject in this 
eountrj can for a moment doubt. At the risk of repetition, we 
ilull make one more quotation from Austin, because it shows 
more clearly still than anything that we have already taken 
from him, that tlie view of the subject adupted by the New 
Bsmpsbire Supreme Court is Austin's, as Austin's was that of 
the fiomaa law. He says : 



"The r^ifat of pnpnty or dotninlon ia rreolrable into two elsiDMlU: 
P\nl, Una power of tudn^ inilpflnitol/ the eabject of the rlgliL .... 
Saeoodly, « paver of czcliiding others (a power which is rIbo indeflnit^} fram 
adng the Mi&e sul>;o(!t. For a power of iadeOnite user would be iittorl; 
■■gtfofy, tuileea it were oonpled with k com>Bponil)ug power of exoludin^; 
oQimn geaenliy tnm sny participation in the ime. Tho pow<>r of user wid 
UiB power of Axcltudoo &r« lyqtuUy rights to forbesniiew on the part of other 
pnwmfl gvoeraU^ By virtue of tbe right or power of iadeOiiitely using the 
■ut^^Mt, othnr iK-rsooia generally arc bound to forbear from dlstarhtag tbe 
swaor In arts of nser. By rirtue of the right or powvr of exeludlng othev 
pVTKms geDerally, other pttrsons genentlly ore bo<aod to forbear fruin using 

vou rjcxxv.— NO. 810. 19 



262 



THE NORTH AMERICAN REVIEW. 



or meddUng witb Cho rabjvet. Tbo righlg nf user Kiid unltaiQii m m 
bleodod, that so ofleose iffaiiut the od« U commotily *u olFonM igihut tli* 
otlier. I oaii h&rdly prevent /ott frotn plowing jroor fteld, or tton niting 
a building Dpaa it, withcmt committing, at the same time, a trsspaoa An) 
on attempt on my pwt to oae tiia ssb^t (tui an aU«mpt, for example, to 
fiab in your pond), ia an int«cfoc«nM irith your right of uaor ai wvU u 
with yoor right of exolaaioo. Bat an offense agaimt ona o( tbffl ri^to 
ia not of uoevftsity tin offeofio against tliu olbor. If, for example, t nik 
ac-roBs yoxa fiptd. in order to Eborten my my to a glvvn point, I niaj 
not in tlio l«agt injure you In rfrspeot to yonr right of oseir, sltbauffa 
I rioUte your right of exalosion. Violationa o< tba ri^t of exeluiaa 
(when perfectly harmlees in thomBelvos) are treated •» itijiuiee or oflteaes 
hy reaaou of thoir probaUe off«et on Iho rights of uavr and oxelooion.'' * 

The decision of the qnrations uirolved in the elevated rail- 
road litigation will form an iateresting: episode in fclie bistorr of 
th^ intcrprf'tation of the word '* property" in the cluiises uf oar 
State ootuti tut ions. As we have already said, no land iu Ui(«e 
eases has been taken. The owners have the same "proportv" (to 
its vulgar acceptation) that they had before ; but, owing to the 
oooBtruction of the elevated railroads, their right of user, if not 
of excltu^ion, is gone. To take a case in which thero is no dispnt« 
about the facts: tbo building of the brunch of the ele^'ated roiid 
through Pifty*third street in Now York fllU the street, to within 
a few feet of the upper windows of the honses, with a straotori 
which darkens tlie whole neighborhood, while over it the passagi 
of the cars and engines produces noise, smoke, and dnst, wbidi 
render the houses nnfit for the uses to which they were iDt«ndeA 
to be put. Their reutad and market value is diminished, and 
the whole character of the street is injured. Now, this cast 
approuflies very elosely to the ease in the Supreme Court of N«w 
Hampshire and to that in the Supreme Court uf the United 
States. In the former case, as we have seen, no laud mw 
"t-aken"; in fact, land Ran never bo Raid to bo token nnlon w? 
nu-au by that that the title is absolutely tranaferre<1 from on« 
pcraon to another, and it has never been maintained that rail- 
roadB could escape pa\ing damages altogether if th* \ •! 

short of "condemning" and acquiring title to lanrL Tl> ^ ^I 

merely complained that his land was dimiuislted in its benedotal 
use or value to him by a deposit upon it of sand, Pt - -—^ 
grareh In the Supreme Conrt of the United Statoe his 
was that liis liind hiid been flooded, lii Dip- eiLso of t}i< ! 

railroads, Uie owqctj complain that their " property," J" 

■AnMlti <« jurtepradBBM, am. 



CONSTITUTIONAL PROTECTION. 



263 



right of iDdeimitc user, is taken. Babstitato smokoj dust, Dolse, 

■nd duknesa for sand, gravel, stones and water, and the cases 

an seeoD to resemble each other closely. Even if the '' taking" be- 

hdd to nxiuiref as liaa beim said iu innuy cases, a phytiical inter* 

flBmicA with the land, it would seem to make no differonce 

itber this physical interference were e£fected throngh the 

nt of some material subetaaoe upon the land, or by such 

m those called into play iu the streets of a crowded city. 

Whether the elevated railroad cases will be decided in 

ince with what may bo regarded as the intKlem iiioiuiiug 

word " property," or in acoordouce with the older view that 

the taking uf the land with the interference with the 

'^DJojnacDt of it, it is, of coarse, entirely iui^iossible to tt^ ; it is 

carious fact that, in the recent rcargunieut of the question of 

property owners' right to damages, little attention should 

we been paid to the historical side of the use of the terms over 

rhich the controversy has so long been going on. 

A practical objection haa been often made to carrying the right 

oompenaation to the extent roeugnized Viy the Supremo (Tourt 

!N«w HAmpshiru — that it is so liberal as to be imprautieable. 

fo ndlroftd can l>e built, it is said, without affecting In a great 

of ways the u«e to which prnperty is put, and thejie 

changuB cannot be taken into account and compensated 

rt beesuse it cannot be told in advance what they ore going to 

In one place, the construction of a railroad, for instance, 

%j hiVig about an alteration uf a mo»t serious character in 

. vbole Do^borhood, may make the fashionable quarter of a 

toim nnfaahionablc, destroy the pictnresqnenc&s of a view, or 

tki^lai fifih away from a feeding-ground. The consequenoM 

vagr be slight, or they may be very serious. Aa was said a geuera- 

tton ago by a learned judge : 



*Tb« openiiig of » now tboroughfare may often reiralt in advmnoing ths 

of ans uum, or a cImih of mea, and even od« town, at tbe expense of 

, Tbo ronstnioUuu of tbe Erie Canal doBirojod the 1)U8iueiW of 

kndnd* of tev«ra>k6«peni an«lc<Hnmon cturicn betw»on Albaojr and Buffalo, 

■itfrntly depredated the raloe of their property; aad yet Uiey got no com- 

JaA B«w rUlagnfl Bprsng ap un lti« lini) uf tlin canal, at tlM 

of old onu oa tbe former lino of travel and trauBpurtatlou. 

xlettroy the buain«M of sta^ proprioton, and yot no one haa ever 

TKIboQckt a railroad «bart«r tiBooosUtutional, b«»causa it (E»re no dama{^ 

^ *l|^*>w i* w- 1'be Hudiion Riror Railroad wUl aoon dhre many fine 

I^W^Mata ffan lbs rlwr f but oo one will think th« ehartvr f i^ beoause it 



SM 



TBE KOBTH AMERTCAIf REVIKW. 



dow not provide for the paymrnt of dasu^M to tlie bokt-owneim. A teV 
jkO, wotluhop, (ever hospital, or limatia uflma^ eioot«d b^ the GovcntBUl, 
tnay tiAvc thd olleet of rctlaeioe the value of a dwelUug-boue iu the iznnwdkte 
nei(;hborlu>od ; nnd yet no provisioii for oonpeiisatiiig the owner of tha bout 
hu ever boon made io mch a case."* 

Agam, it is said that the changes lavduoad by a railroad 
often beneficial ; that this ia, in fact, one of the mofii 
results of the construction of railroadfi ; in fact, one ot < 

cdpal objects for which the>' are built If damages in any eiM 
are to be considered, why should not beneflta be taken intu 
aeoonnt^ and why could not the owner, if his land it 
unproved in value, be made to pay the railroad for it, just aa tlie 
railroad jmys if it is diminished in value. There ure la tUs 
argnmcnt two fallacies which are easily ejcpoeod. In. the Srat 
place, with regard to beneflta, the matter is wholly separate ftva 
the question of damages. If the public ever come to think 
that railroads should be allowed to tax the members of the oota- 
monity whose lands they pass through, t<x the benefit oonforrad 
by them, it is, no doubt, perfectly competent for the logulatim 
to pass a law for such a purpose. It would be open to all the 
objections which may be urged agiuust ttie bett<>rroent sUitalM 
which permit assessmeots of benefits aocroiug throogh tfap 
opening of ordinary highways and streets, and to mor« tiortin^ 
bocaose the Ixtnofits conferred by railroads aifi vastly note 
wide-spread and difflcolt to determine aecnrately than thoN 
conferred by roads and streets, whi<^ gensrally affect land 
a very narrow compass and in a very definite way. But, grant 
that such statutes might be pasMd, there is no ovidenoe that uny- 
body thinks they ought ijo be paflsed, and no likdihood that tlxy 
ever will bo passed ; and until there is, any disuuasion of the diiB- 
culty of applj-ing them seems to be merely lime wast«d. A« to 
the other objection, that thOTe are all sorts of injuries to prop^ 
erty, for which no one over dreams of asking cctmpen? - 
the answer obviously is that this is merely the question *ti'xu 
arises in every lawsuit : whether the wrong is sudi that, on the 
general principles governing the odiuini&ti-atioa of joatioe, oom- 
pensation ought or ought not to be given. In ewry oaso ia 
which the question of the right to oompensatiou for injory is 
considered, tbere is always a preliminary question; wbe<bertbp 
act complained, of is not too remotely connected with the ixijnry 

• BadeBiraSxfiaBlonM.lIaror.fto., of nnM>Ufa,«Ocnict (K. T.t. 196. ML 



off B 



to be considered at bH^ or whether, if the cause is immediate^ 
tho duo&ges ore not so difficult to calciUate b» to make it oat 
of Uie question to give any redress. The reason why a tavern- 
keeper eonld not be allow«Hl to recover damagee for the injury to 
his bnsinoss by the construction of the Erie Canol^ is because 
hii cmiW not prove them by means of the oommon rules of 
t'Vidcnc*. He might bo able t-o show that liis business had fallen 
,off BiDce the construction of the Erie Canal, but how much of it 
ould be due to that cause, and how much to some other, no 
art of justice could possibly iisi?ertain. If it could, the iUustra- 
Tonld fail, because the taveru-keepcr would on the general 
prindplM of justice be entitled to redress. The reason is pro> 
aaAy the same in the case of the business of a stago or of a 
stoam-boat route destroyed by a railroad, or of a new village 
springing up at the expenm of an old one. A fort, jail, work- 
shop, or fever hospital may be erected without compensation, for 
preeiMly the same reasons. No property-owner could possibly 
prove in a court of justice the differenoe in value produced by 
the pronmity of such a building. The meaning of the word 
" property " in the eoDstittttious of the States has been coufused 
■IrHwly quite enough without this addtnl perplexitj-. The eubject 
of oonsequautial damages for taking land is too toehnical for the 
of the present diiwnssiou ; but we merely wish ta point 
it it is wholly sepanit« fmm the qucstiou of the meaning 
word " property." If the New Hampshire view of this is 
it will merely be settled that taking property is dimin- 
_ the value of ownership. But it will be just as necessary 
as it was before for the injured owner to prove the extent of the 
agrs *^^ ^^^^ >^ ^ actually caused by the ^taking," and tb&t 
ifi not too remote. 

A. G. Skdqwice. 




EARTH-BURIAL MD CREMATION, 



Time and experience test the works of nmn, and the higbwiiy 
of progress is cov6r<>d with tho fragments of oountlces inToa- 
tious. The creeds, the dogmas, the aocial regalatious of one Bgn, 
become the by-words or the antiqae cnriosities of the next Mm 
do what tliry can, and cumiiig generations pardon Uieir errors 
bat judge their works as they ought 

What is good, lives; what is bad dies — thi» is th** p^-nend 
mie. Wlien, therefore, a ciist«m likf^ that of burial haa oxirttt-d for 
many centuries, a strong presumption arises in its favor. Ita 
antiquity is offered as a voucher for its wisdom, and the mk 
that we have stated is rigidly applioiL Let ns not foi^t, hoif' 
ever, that, to respect a custom for its antiquity, no nnnattinl 
causes must hare tended to prolong it^life. Hosting solely upon 
ite intriDBic merits, it shoidd chaUi.'nge and survivu the acrutiiiy 
of unbiased minds. Judged by this standard, the air 'f 

burial avails it nothing, while our respect for the i-n^ If 

win lessen in proimrtiou as we learu how it was estftbliahed. For 
centuries, by the civilized nations of Greece and Rome, hnniia|^ 
on the pyre was the usage regarded as most houorablD fln^H 
appnipriat<>. At first, it is not probable that the funeral cus- 
toms of the Christians differed in any marked respect from the 
onstoms of tho»e who clung to the ancient faith. They iutorrod in 
the same places, and they even painted and engraved upon their 
eatacombs representations of the heathen gods and goddesses. 

The contrast in time became greater, and no sooner had th« 

Christian religion become a power in the state, than its ' " s 

always inimical to cremation, mado hast« to abolish th> -x 

They were inflnenoed in this, not by the Sf^riptiire**, fur Wlh 
Old and New Testaments are silent on the subject The caam 
ore found in a prejudice and a superstition. Cordudly hitisg 
the old mythology, it was easy for thorn to dislike its fblloirers 



KARTU-BUniAL ANIi CJWMATION. 



267 



enstomfl. The paf^ann of Kuropf> hnmed their desdf 

fore the Chri&tiansHtignititii»Ml biiniiiig as a pagan cos* 

>in. Being prejudiced, they refused to adopt a good habit that 

their enemioo possessed ; being illogir^, they totally disregai^ed 

the fa(.-t that, while flonic hc^thon nations had ueod the loroh^ 

pother? hod plied the spade, and thorcforo cromation, any mon 

• than inhumation, should not be taken as a symbol of paganiom. 

Another roaaon eontribating to the revival of burial, was the 

Ixdief in the body's resurrection. That the trumpet would 

sound and the doad come forth was a doctrine Utemlly aciueptcd 

iu a physical as well as in a Bpiritual oenstx Again, a notion 

waa prevalent that the Christian's body was in some peculiar 

sense redeemed and purified. It was "a temple of the Hnly 

IboRU** Though language like this may bafilu our comprehen- 

ion, yet the phrase sounded well, and had due effect. The old 

jt of one of the Twelve Tables, " Elominem mortuum in 

irN- HI* fw'pdito, neve unto," was set at naught, Tnanimatfl 

temples of the Holy Ghost" by the score were encased m the 

shes and earners of churohes, and many a moldering monk 

inint^-ntionally oounterlialanced the good deeds of his life by the 

that he generated after his death. The superstitious 

•verenoe in which the tombs, bodies, and even bones of the 

lints were held, enhanced likewise the love of the faithful for 

jnriaL The pious ^fnssulman turns not to the tomb of the 

St at Mecca with greater revereuee than did the early 

tian to the grave of saint or martyr. " In the age,' says 

Khbon, ''which fallowed the conversion of Oonstantine, the 

ipcpore, the consuls, and the generals of armies dovontly 

nXKil the sepulchers of a tent-maker and a fisherman." 

This was an ago of miracles, and the skeletouR of saints were 

lore valuable to the clergy than gold or preoious stones. '' There 

reason," adds the historian, "to suspect that Tours might not 

the only diocese in which the bones of a nmlofactor were 

instead of those of a saint. "^ 3y a heavenly vision, 

resting-place of the Martyr Stephen was revealed to 

^ncun, a presbyter of Jerusalem. In the presence of an 

innnnierable multitude the ground was opened by the bishop, 

and when the coffin was hronght to light,, the earth trembled. 

and an odor as of Paradise arose, which instantly cured 

fbe various diseases of seventy-three in the vicinity. In 

solemn prooesmon the remaiiu of Stephen were transported 



26B 



TUB If oars American rbyisw. 



to A churc}) constmoted in their hoDor on Mount ^on; "■} 
Uie ininuto partiplcR of thosf^ relioji — a drop of blond, or 
Bonpings of a bone — were acknowledged iii almutil every provini-e 
of the Roman world to possess a divine and mirocoloDR rirtae..'* 
The grave and learned Augnstiue, the tnost profound theuU 
of his day. in attesttn)* to the iunamerable prodigies which 
performed liy the relics of St Stephen, ennmerat^e above sermtf ' 
miraoles, of which three were rcenrrections from the dead, in the 
space of two years. These incidents of unquestioning and cfaild^j 
like faith, viewed perchance with pions rapture by thoHO who b*[ 
wail the skeptical spirit of our day, illustrate the iut«UcGt!iuil| 
oapoeit? of the age, and help largely to explain the preferenee of' 
the early Cliristians for buriaL The phantoms of the gra^'d re- 
vealed the constitution of the invisible world, and convinoedj 
them that their reli^on was fonnded on the firm baidji ol 
foct and experience; while the fragments of moldering soinbt, 
gathered with reverent care, shielded them from aoddont, mmd 
their diseases, and restored their dead to hfe. 

Well might the faithful adore the tomb when it yielded 
[K-iceless treasures. With a superficial knowledge of the historrl 
of the Christiaa Church, one can readily understand how Utftj 
practice of inhumation wmdd 1»« insured a long life on reccivinf 
the stamp of prit^tly appro\'ul. Even at i\i\» early datie thiii 
temporal power of the Church existed in fact aa well aa ia 
name; and public opinion was largely influenced by the 
of the clergy, — a body extrfmely jealous of their privilegea 
ready to brand with the name of heresy any undertaking 
teaching believed to be in the most remote degree ci^ble of^ 
affecting their dogmas or emoluments. As early as 385 a. i>« 
at the time when the bones of St Stephcoi first began Lht 
wonderful work, PrisciUiun was condemned to death as 
heretic at the Council of Treves. For fourteen hundred 
afterward the fagot, Hcaffold, ax and rack were in iKmstaut 
and hundreds of thousands of human victims were dcnu 
for the munt«nanoe of Christian dfictrines. 

When the noble Bruno was burned at Rome, the s] 
charge against him was that he had tanght the plurality 
worlds, a doctrine repugnant to the whole t«nor of BcripCai 
When John Calvin caused Servotus to bo roastud to deat 
OTcr a slow fire at CleneTBf the offense of the philoaopher hty ii 
his belief that the genuine doctrinee of ChrUtianiiy had 



EASTB-SimJAL A2fJ> CSBMATIOS. 



269 



lort ercn U-fon? the time of the Council of Kioiea. " Heresy ' 
iwaword whow elastic meaning cmbniced every offeDW), real 
or Imaginary, against the doctrines and regulations of the 
church; and the asaertioD of the Bishop of Lincoln, in 1874, 
that a revival of cremation would destroy belief in a final 
resnrroction, if proolaimed from one to fourteen eenturies sinoe, 
would have received universal assent 

To many it may appear that wo have wondered unnecessarily 
into derails of chorch history, hut the cause is found in the oft- 
ropcated statement of the anti-oremationistSr that burial is a 
Christian custom that has endured for centuries. Burial ia a 
Christian custom, aiid it bats endured for centuries ; but when 
we consider the prejudiod that gave rise to it in Europe, the 
AOpentition that nonrisbed. and the intolerance that ever stood 
rea^ to defirnd — when we eou»ider these facts tn connection 
with the well-authenticated cases of plague and epidemics that 
the custom bas occasioned — one would think that all branobes 
of Christians W4>ald gladly welcome any innovation that wuiUd 
consign the praotioe to a well-deserved oblivion. The whole 
qnestion of the disposition of the dead, as the advocates of 
indzLeration have again and again asserted, ia a sanitary, and 
unt a religions one. 

On investigating the condition of grave-yards, all sentiment 
cliutering oronnd the tomb is quickly dispelled, and a state of 
things horrible in it« nature and dangerouH^ in its effeota arrests 
otir attention. These form the strongest arguments in fovor of 
inoinerstion, and by their force seem to indicate that those who 
believe in the practice of earth-burial must be ignorant of the 
result of the custom thoy advocate. Scores of instances, in 
cities aod in rural districts, both in our own and in foreign 
lands, verify the assertion of Dr. Adams, of Massachusetts, that 
the " Christian chiuxjh-yard ia often a contracted plot of ground 
in the midst of dwellizigs, literally packed with bodies until it 
Itouomes iniiKtssiblo to dig a grave withont disturbing Immon 
boned; and the earth so saturated with foul fluids and the 
ifsianations so noxious as to make each choroh-yard a focus of 



Of the one hundred and seventy-one answers received by Dr. 
Adams, in reply to circulars sent to the regular correspondents of 
the State Board of Health of Massachnsetta, both in the United 
States and Great Britain, more than one-third (sixty-one) gave 



270 



TRE KOSTH AMERICJJf REVIE (K. 



thi>ir tw^timony in favor of the adoption of cremation u 
8Qbstitut« for borial And this was in 1874, when the snbjc 
was first being agitated in this country. 

At the outset it may bo well to notice & statement giin rally 
advan(H.'d by the believers in inhamationf whcDevta- tho «Lint,''J» 
arising from grav&-yards are spoken of. Tlwy inform na thai 
cemeteries Dstablished in country districts, for the rweption of 
the dead of cities, where each body is laid in a grave by it-^t If. 
are not open to the objection of being overcn^wded or dn' 
0U9. To this wo can answer tliat all suburban cemeteries -lu 
mately increaao their area or become ovemrowded, while Uw 
cities for the use of which they are intended expfuid in size unlij 
in time the alKnles of the living and dead converge together. 

Brooklyn furnishes an iUnstration of the evil of whioli we 
speakf being surrounded by a net-work of cemeteries. Within 
Qreenwood alone, since ita establishment forty years ago, two 
hundred and eleven thousand bodies have been interred. We 
can realize how startling has been its growth when we remem- 
ber that since ita dedication it has had neighboring burial- 
grounds to compete with, and that when its gatAs were firiA 
opened Brooklyn contained only thirty thousand, and New 
York but three hundred thousand inhaljitauts. Brooklyn now 
has a population of over six hnndred thousand ; and Oreen 
wood, once suburban, has become intra-muraL It need sur- 
prise no one to learn that the exhalations from this oemctery 
were recently complained of in South Brooklyn ; and oonsidtr- 
ing the thousands annually interred within neighboring burial 
grounds and the increasing density of our population, we can 
readily believe that tla- eviljinsteAd of diroiuishing, will increMf. 
Realidng the gra^*it}' of this subject, Sir Henry Thompson, !n an 
article in the "Contemporary ReWew" for Jauuary, 1874, Of 
dared that, by selecting a portion of ground distant some fivr 
or ten miles from any very populoua neighborhood, and by senii- 
ing our dead to be buried there, we were " laying by poi.»-»M '>' 
is ocrtain, for our children^ children, who will find oar re; 
polluting their water-sonrccs when that now distant plot i& i-tir 
ered, as it will be more or less closely, Tiy human JwelUnc^." 
This feeling is shared by other dietinguiiilied Riiglinh wr" 
and tlie London " Lancet'* of January 11, 1879, speaking. ^■ 
the neoe«sity of devising spooial meuorca for the di^KMuU of thu 
dead, said: *' The expedient of burial in suborban ocsmelemv » 




rrtcmporary. It may last oiir time, but the next penerati 
will be railed npon to solve the sanitary problem^ in a more 
permanent w^." 

Oravfr-yardu, wherever situate*!, are in their nature transitory. 
Within the memory of men now living, what nuinhers of burial- 
l^ondti i>n Manhattan Island have been built over, and their very 
loeatioiit) olUiterated. Even remote rural cemeteries, from the 
death of those interested in them, or from the necessity of open- 
ing new streets or cooptrncting railways, succumb to Iho march 
at improvement Beautiful as they sometimes seem, and harmless 
as the advoeates of inhumation would have us believe them to 
XtCf the putrid tononte of their vaults and graves contain the 
germs of contagions diseases; and disinterment is always under* 
lAken at a terrible rislt. The eiperimeiits of Prof. T^-ndall and 
others have shown "that certain organisms may bo boiled for 
hoars and may he frozen, and stiU survive to propagate their 
species." Gnun entombed with Egyptian miimmiee for forty cen- 
turies has been planted^ and sprouted into life. " By what author- 
ity, then," asks Dr. Peterson, in tho " Buffalo Medieol and Surreal 
Journal," ''i-au wp affirm that life departs from disease-germs by 
inhumation I How dare we preserve vast depots in the South of 
jrdlow fever /omiUs, ooffers of Asiatic cholera, and every year 
accumulate and treasure up small-pox, scarlet fever, whooping- 
oongh, diphtheria, and measlest" 

The sanitary w^wrds of nearly every nation show the force of 
the doctor*? qnestions, and illustrate the danger of which he 
speaks. In IH28 Professor Bianchi demonstrated how the 
fearful reap jwfn ran c<^ of the plague at Mndt'na was caused 
by excavations in ground where, throe hundred years pre- 
Tiously, the victims of the pestilence hod been buried. Mr. 
Cooper, in e-X[)laintng the causes of some epidemics, rcmarksi 
that the opening of the plague burial-grounds at Eyam, 
in Derbyshiro, ooeosioned an immediate outbreak of disease. 
Ho ahat di^seribes how the malignity of the cholera, which 
Boonrged London in the year 1S&4, was enhanced by the excava- 
tions made for sewers in tho soil where in IBfi'i thost^ dyin^ from 
tlie plague w^ere buried. Mr. Simon hiwl pn-dietoil this result, 
and wamt^l th*i authorities of the danger of di^tui'bing the spot. 
Bir. Eassie, in his siileudid work on **The Cremation of the 
Dead," tells us that in 1843. when the parish rhui-eh of Miuchin- 
hampton was rebuilding, the soil of the burial-ground, or what 



272 



THE yOETH AMM&IOAJit REVIEW. 



WAS snperfluons, iras disposed of for mannrei itnd depr«ite^ iu 
many of the uei^bboriiig gardcus. Afl & result tiio hiwn van 
tieariy decimated ; and the " Sooitary Record " udda, ^ thv suDr 
wonld have occurred, one would imiigiiie, eren if the Goffin'<!ftrtli 
had been absent." 

As high Bcientiflc authority \b seldom called ou to disooKT 
the origin of local diseases nnless it assumes a moligna&t or 
epidemic type, it is aafe to believe that tbouAauds of c&sea of 
illness and death are occasioned by the disinterment of human 
remains, without the true canse of the malady being suspected. 
Wbon grave-yards are dug up, who is there to look into the 
distant past and say : This man died of small-pox, pass him hj; 
and that cue of the oholera, disturb him not t Remembering thai, 
a few years sinec, the yellow fever for two sueoessive sunimers 
ravaged the South, how strong is the presumption that the seoond 
epidemic was largely occasioned by the burial of the victims of Uia 
first During the reign of terror that existed, men dropped like 
loAves, and, insecurely coffined, were hurried to common a&d 
shallow graves. Sometimeii in the country districts they wov 
biuiod almost where they fell. Aud judging the future by wbit 
has been demonstrated in the past^ it seems inevitable that 
visitations of this frightful malady will yot sweep sections of tho 
country, caused from the disturbance of infected burial-spote, by 
coming geueratious ignorant of tlieir content^ 

Thus far we havo oonsiderod only the dangers arising from 
exhumation— dangers that wonld be simply annihilated by the 
enlightened adoptaon of cremation. Independent even of dismUtr. 
mont, tho infected corpse, while hidden In the grave oui punnie 
its work of harm. In a letter from Dr. Joseph Akerly, embodied 
in a ptiblication by Dr. P. D. Allen, 1822, the belief i ' 

pressed that Trinity church-yard was an aotivo casis^ 
yellow fever in New York in 1822, aggravating the ii 
of the cpidemio in its viciuity. During tho epidemic iii New 
Orleans in 1853, Dr. E. U. Burton reported Uiat in the Fet 
District the mortality was four hundred and fifty-two per the 
sand, more th»i double that of nny other. In this district 
three large oemoterics, in which during the previous year 
than three thousand bodies tiod been buried. In oth«r distriot* 
the proximity of cemeteries soomod to a{^rav«te the disMse. 
Dr. Kanch personally obecwed, during the epidirmtfl v£ 
dtolera in Buriington, Iowa, in It^O, that the neighborhood 



BAETH-BUniAL AND CREHATION. 



378 



oemetfliy was free from the diaoase until al»n(it twenty 
itB had been made there, aad then deaths began to ocoar, 
and alwaja in tho diroction tiom the cemetery in which the wind 
btov. During the prevalence of the plague in Pans in tho be^^- 
aing of tho t;i[;fat«€nth ceutory, the disease lingered longest in 
the neighborhood of the Clmetifire de la Triniii, and there tho 
greatest uuubor fell a sacrifice. In a report presented to both 
Bonaes of the British Parliament, in 1850, Dr. Sunderland teeti' 
fted that he had witneAsed aeveral ontbrealis of chok^ra in the 
vicinity of grave-yards, which left no doubt on his mind as to the 
eonneotion between the disease and such local influences. 

Tltu investigations of the Massachosetts Board of Health 
Bhowe<l that diphUicria and typhoid fever were diaseminated not 
only by infections emanations from sickrooms, but also from 
the graves of persons who had died uf these oumplaintH. And 
Dr. F. Julias Le Moyne, after fifty yoara of medical proctiee, 
wrote: 



"Tb» inhomAtiin) of hnmaa bodies, dend from tbesn infeetiooB dtoetsea, 
reanllA in eonstaotl; loadingtbe atauwphi*re, and poUntdng the waters, wiUi 
aot only tho gvrms thM arife from nrnpln pntrefantioii, bat aJM with tlio 
i^^yMf^genns of the dueaaefl from wMoh death reaalted." 

^^^^Tothis noble physician belongs tho honor of first infcrodneing 
^^P^iation in this conntry. A life of observation had convinced 
him that tho present custom of disposing of the dead entailed 
pain, misery, and death u[Mm tho UWug. Believing, to quote his 
own words, that *' men ore always bound to act in conformity to 
Uie degrae of knowledge they poeseaft," he built the Washington 
oretnatory in the faoe of much ignorant ridicule and opposi- 
tion. Thu futuro will honor tlie spirit that guided him, and 
•ppreoiato the wisdom that his act displayed Independent 
of the dangers arising from tho interment or disinterment 
of thoBO dying teom contagious diseases, the eemet«ry 
poap on s oo eviU sui gfnerig. I>y8entery, low fevers, and 
oloarated snro thn:>at6 arc the disorders shown to prevail in a 
marked degree among those dwelling in its vicinity. The air 
likewise becomes vitiated and the springs and wells in the vicin- 
ity contaminat^id. ThoRC statements are not ohimerical, but are 
mmply vorided by proven foots. And it may be well io repeat 
here what was stated when considering another branch of onr 
subjectf that these alow, hidden, butever-eontiuuing evils attract 



274 



THS NORTB AHESIOAir SEVJ^W. 



marked attention only when they occasion epidemics. Until tboi 
tittle effort is made to disoover the fonntain of tnmbld, and 
unavcuuntnblij vaacs vt death arc generally attributed tu tiw 
mysterious wisdom of Divine Providence. 

Ill 1740 a fatal eiiidemio of tGV^r in Duiilin being distiuoUy 
traced to cmanatioas from the church-yards, intra-umral int-^r 
ments were prohibiteJ. New York City, as far bafk as IMH. 
fumishee another oxampk supporting our Biat>ement8. At tW 
time, according to Dr. F. D. Allen, who wrote in 1822, a batlol- 
ion of militia was stationed on a lot on Broadway, the r«ar of 
which bounded on PotterV Field, from which arose a vilo efflunum. 
A number of uoldiera were atta4^ked with diorrhoBa and fuvxT. 
and although removed at once, one died, thongh tho others rapidly 
recovered A case similar to this was lold to Mr. Chadwii'k by 
an English officer, who stated that while he and his commuiiil 
oocnpied as a barrack a building overlooking a Ldverpool 
cfanrchyard, they always suffered from dysentery. Instaooes 
are very numerous of illness of this nature, and also of throat 
troubles occasioned by the inhalation of ntiated air. Mr. 
EasBie mentions the interesting experiment of Professor Selmi, 
of Mantua, who "'has lately dificovered, in the stratum of air 
which has remained during a time of calm for a c^rtMin ]).'ni"i 
over a cemcterj', organisms which considerably vitistf the air, mhj 
are dangerous to life. This was proved after several cxouica- 
tions. When tho matter in question was injoetcd under Oie kMo 
of a pigeon, a typhus-like ailment was inducudtOnd death ensued 
on the third day." 

It is an error only too prevalent^ to require an unsavory siDeQ 
as an evidence that a neighborhood is unhealthy. It ia no 
more essential than that water to be anhealthy shouhl po«sess a 
disagreeable taste. Both of these fallacies extensively prevail ; 
and, as regards water, we doubt if there is a rural cemetery 
in this country which has not a well Bomewhere among it* 
graves, receiving abundant {talronage if it bos no offensive Uetfr 
The danger to be apprehended from this source, or from any 
streikms in the vicinity of burial-grounds, is forcibly pointed out 
by the London " Lancet," whieh says : 

"It U ■ w«U*«soertlJiic>d Eset tbst the surest ««mer And mcwt trmtM 
ntduM of symotic cootagioa ia this brilUant, enUcing-looklag wat^v, chwgid 
with Uio nitratAs which ra^ulL from oisanlo deoomjiositioii. 

" WbiU> (or examplo, «u the hiatM? oS Uio Bro*d vtmt ptnqt, wUak 



SASTS'BUSIAL AND CREMATION, 



275 



ao fktal dorittg the ebolen epidemic of 1854 f Wu its mt«r foul, 
•ad slinking t Unfortuualelf not. It wu th« purufit-lookliig uhI 
'owMrt eutieing wstor to be found in the neigtiborhooil, and [lonjile ciunn from a 
di>laiic« to B*t it. Tet there can be no doubt that it corned cholera to many 

wbo dtsok U We ue afraid Mr. UaddisQ wiU Iutc to ooufeM 

that aX proBent tha only known moLbud of milking organic maltur oertainlj 
haxsnloM U the proceaa of omnation." 



A* to \i\sk church yanls, Dr. Mnpother, who iiispected several, 
deelored that he "geuerally fouiiil them platted on the highest 
BfoX near the most central part, whence, of cotirsc, all peroolap 
inB descend into the wells." In 1877 a malignant epidemic 
)ke out in a section of Ehunore, Denmark, that baffled the 
Akin of the leading physiciana in their efforts to subdue it. On 
thy drinking-water in the affected tjuaz'U^r biding analj-zed, it was 
found poisoned by the corruption that had drained into the 
wells from an adjoining cemetery. Professor Bronde has (pvao 
it as his opinion that the water in all superfluial springs near 
burial-grouDds ia tumply filtered through accomolated d<^om- 
pontion. 

We have thus far considered the practice of burial entirely 
ttom a sanitary stand-point, and the facta resulting from such 
lination demonstrate the a<lv»iitagefi of cremation. 
UDpleoBoat truths conuocicd with inhumatiou ore concealed 
under a mass of false sentiment ; and on more than one occaBUm 
rben '* Unveil thy botRim, faithful tombf" has been sung at 
u-xuLs, wo have been in the perplexed state of mind of " Tour 
Joe," who, sittang on the fitepa of The Society for the Propaga- 
tion of the Gospel in Foreign Parts, wondered what it was all 
abouL It seoms to us imputwible that a more revolting manner 
of disposing of the body of a loved fi-iend coidd be devised than 
l>y flr&t frctiziug it, then encasing it in duuVdu oofllns, and bury- 
ing it six feet under the sod, knowing all the while that the 
grave will soon fill with wat<?r, and that worms and putrefaction 
will pursue thuir horrible work for yean* lu vMnwi. 

No amount of gush or sentiment is able to neutralize in the 
lagination the effect of these ugly facts; and without doubt the 
dn-jid of death ttmdf is 1argi>ly increased by the praotioe of burial. 
'"Thf mere cessation of existence,'* said John Sttiart Mill, ^ is no 
Bvil to any one ; the idea is only formidable through the iliuAion 
' tin:igination, whit;b makes one conceive one's self as if ono were 
live and feeling one's self dead. What is odious in death is not 



276 



TBE NORTB AMERICAN REVIEW, 



deaUi iteelff but Uie act of dying, and its IngnbrioiiB Kooompmi- 
mentu." 

The advantages of carematiou, and the magnitude and nmlt 
of tlie *!vils of borial, are bo well ehown by Mr. W. Cave Thonuo 
in his *' Social Notes," tliot we canoot forbear ijUoUng at lrni,*iii 
from Iiiiu in this connection. VrTiile unfolding tho condit: 
things in Great Britain, hiB words vividly illuetrate theaiku, 
nations of burial wherever thero is a dense population. He sa,p ■■ 

" Oremfttion {tuaros the purity of tbo KtmoiplMre uid of Ui» spring bMk 
of wUcli are contamiiutcd to a frightfnl and in«iil«ulHble exteat bjr the jrer 
eut system of luteTmeai, as we shall immedutely bIiow. Dsts ibsU ba ghMi 
which will jiat tti& otnto of things resulliiig tmm this •yst«m iu its noA 
appoUing ligfaL The registerod deaths la the TTnii^ Eingdom for 1*474 
weit> 009,747. Talcing this as an approxfanat« annual d a sth registi; fcr 
Grmt Britain, aud allDwing ten y«ars for tb* Qouplet« reMlution of th» bd^ 
under the preeent mode of intcrmunt — a period, it is bulieVBd, etmsidcnUf 
below tbo mark — we have in th^ kingdom nearly seTUi mUUonaof AmA 
bodies lyinp in vuioos stagm of d«c«mpo«itioo, and ^ring off noxlon eil»> 
latioDB by aaeans of peioolation to the atmot^there, and by sending iicm% 
oontAminatiug matter to the sabtcvraneaa resflnroin. Galoulating lor Loodas 
alone, there were, iu 1873, 76,634 deaths; there are, therafote, atam|t 
satimate, nearly a million of hnman liodies f catering In its '"""t^H** tkMi^ 
boriiood. Porttmately for the qirings, some of the eeiaetaries are <ia skyey 
soUb, and bodies interred in tbem are, to a corUiin eif«ut, loeked op la tMi 
6biy TsottB only to be a source of mischief when they are opened. Snais «f 
these grSTee have been deecribod, by one who is bound to know, ss *«i>7 
eoan pools of baniiui remains,' which gire forth thoir ncudoos gasaa wboasisr 
broken into for the purpose of srane fresh intcnnent, as many a noctmw bai 
exporicneod to his cost. Bodies, on tho other hand, which have be«o buri«^ 
in sandy soQs, are more quicUy resolred, say in some six or sersa yMis. 
tnt«nnenta tn sandy soils, however, ore mora Ukely lo endaogor the bwUth d 
the living, for by peroolation the flnids contaminate the apringn, and tho toA 
gases are exhaled into the atmosphere. ... It would be a good baiffsb 
Si we eonld obtain the adoption of cremation at tlie price of doable fses." 

The gaaes to which Mr. Thomas allndes will ride to tho mr 
fa<»o through pi^ht. or ten fi^et of gravpl, just a« cool-gas will da 
and there is practicaliy no limit to tboir power of Gaea:ptu Mr- 
Ghadwick, after examining some handreds of witne«ees, was d 
the opinion that ontomliment in vaults was a moro dangcrcRS 
practice than interment iu the earth, beeatiso of the UabQityo^ 
the coffins to hnrst 

III rho light of these revelations can wo wonder that 
neighborhood of crowded cemeteries has been reganled an _ 
hejdtby, or that ^e mephitic inflnences of his trade entails « 



KAMTH-BVRldL AND CREMATION. 



277 



gnkve-digger ft loss of at least one-third of the natural dura- 
of life and nrurkiiig ttliility. Realizing what burial is, it 
mmld seem oaay fur a cuulirmcd ioliuniationist to chauge hia 
belief and agr^ vith Dr. Aiielli that burial recalla the Middle 
A{C*Bt and even the tiiuca of barbariam, while creinatioa repre- 
■onta progrooa and civilization. 

Let us pass to a more pleasant branch of our subject, aod 
00b£id^ the remedy for the evils we have s^tokeu of. By 
naaas of the modem aad scieutlflc method of cromatioD, the 
haman body, withiu an hour, can be reduced to a few pounda 
of vlutaand odorless a8he«. There is iiotbiag iu the operation 
thftt oon shock the fecliuga of the moat seusitivo, and the process, 
niien thoroughly examined and understood, will be found its 
own be«t advocate. " I have stood," says an eye-wituoss, " be* 
fiire the threshold of the crcinatorj* with a faltering heart, . . 
X have trembled at the thought of using fire beside the form <A 
ooo whom I had loved* But when, iu obedience to his own dying 
request, I saw the door of tlie uinerator taken down, iU rosy 
Ugbi shine forth, and his peaceful form, enrobed in white, lajd 
UMre at real amid a loveliness that was simply fascinating to the 
ey^ and without a glimpse of (lames or fire or coals or smoke, I 
laid, and say eo sUil, tbia method, beyond all methods I have 
aeeit, ia the most plejising to the si-uses, the most charming to 

tnoagination, and the most grateful to the memory.*' Oppo* 
m to incineration springs diiefly from ignorance of the maa* 
in which it is carried on; aud to remove all uiisa{)i>rcheusioa 
it evutot be Um distinoUy stated, that the body wtfcw rests in 
flames, while during the entire process there is no fire or smoke, 
or odor or noise, to grieve in any manner the bereaved. Even 
the trestle on which the dead glides into tlie retort d(Kis not 
tnoomo heated prior to the body becoming inoandeseent. The 
active aad oousuming agent is simply air, raised Co a white heat 
— a teraporaturc equivalent to two thousand degrees Fahr. ; 
■ad \iiX»-^ cooli^ t«mitorari1y by the in-ru.shiug eurrent on the 
eyeniDy of l^e door uf the retort, causes the interior to assume 
hMiitifiil vibrating and ruddy tint^. Cue who hus luU'^ly wil- 
aeeaed it has said ; ** As we turned away from the incineratoz 
vhve we had loft the body of our friend, it was pleasant to 
lUnk of him still resting in its rosy light, surronndod and en- 
veloped by what seemed to us as floods of purity/ When all ii 
r, nothing n-moins but a few fragments of calolned bones and 
vou taotxv^-NO. 310. 20 



^a 



THE Nonrn American rrvtew. 



delicate white ashes, perfectly pure and odorlcse. In all candor, 
in not this a mure fitting destany for the cast-off body than tlut 
it Bhould remiun fur years ''a mass of loathsome and dcAtli- 
beariDg: putrefaction T " 

OF the different methods of cremation now in nsi*, the mmA 
rapid and complete result^s arc obtained hy lueaiuj of Ur 
Siemens furnace. It^ principle is that of regeneratire hest, 
and its essential parts are comprised in the generator, or ga»- 
producer, where tiie fuel id burned ; the regenerators, oouastiDg 
of four fire- brick-cell tni regenerative eharabors for gaa and lir,. 
and the consuming chamber, in which the body is placed. "H* 
fire burning in the generator is only an indirect agent in th« 
work of incineration, and this portion of the fumaoe may be 
situated at some distance from the section where the budr 'n 
oonsnmed. The generator is a speoiM of flre-briok oven, with 
an inclined plane, on which the coal is heated, and tiuc, 
burning with a limited access of air, produces a comboiti' 
ble gas, which escapes into the gas regenerator, the air at 
the same time entering the air regenerator. These ntgeo* 
erativo chambera vork in pairs; they are of oabicol ihapi^ 
with walls of stone, and the interiors tilled ^•jth a ui't- 
work of horizontal and vertical bars. By contai-t with il» 
combustible gases the chambers become intensely beoccd, ami 
both gas and fur attain a temperature equal to white htnt 
before rushing into the consuiaing chamber, whoro the XxAj 
is laid. Entering separately and at differont pointj. the gu 
and air then meet and mingle, and odd to the rcspeetirv heat 
of each that due to the mutual chemical action. The revolt 
ia a terrible temperature, equaling 2000° Fohr. While one pair ef 
generators oonvey the gas and air into the consuming chamVr. 
another pair are employed in carrying them away to th*' • i 
ncy, and in the passage thither the current of devouring; ... ... 

purposely delayed in the labyrinth of Isttice-fkfihioned Ulh. 
utterly eonsTimes all noxious vapors given off at first from lii-* 
body. The consuming ohamber is iron-rosed, and Uncd witii 
metal capable of resisting the highest temperaturo. Its interii>r, 
smooth, almost polislicd, and white with heat, presomts & 
and dazzling aspect; and, as the body is the only solid r. 
introduced, the product is (utnply the ashes of that b^r. 
I>uring the entire prooesa of incineration the remains ore hidden 
from view ; although, in special instiwoos, where amuigomaiit* 



EAMTS-BUniAL AND CREMATION. 



fur watching the operation have been made, do amoko or 
nnaightly tnuuformationg of the body woro observed. The 
heated hydrocarbon in a goetwoB form, and the heated air, soon 
change it to a traoaluwnt white, and from Uiis it orumbles into 
aihcs. By meaua of one of these fnmaceg, Sir Henry Thompaon 
rednoed a body weighing no less than two hundred and twenty- 
seven pounds, Ui five pounda of ashvs within the space of fifty- 
Ive minutes, and at a cost of less Uian a dollar for fuel 

''After Bucb brilliant results," says Mr. Ea£&ie — "results at 

loe expeditious, cleanly, aud wouomical — wt-U might Sir Henry 

lompeon challenge Mr. liullaml (MMtcal Iiispeotor of Burials 

jr England aud Wales) ' to prodnoe so ftur a resnlt from oil the 

>Btly and carefully managed cemeteries in the kingdom/ and 

fely might he oven offer him twenty years in order to elaborate 

the prooesBL" 

In despite of what haa been mentioned, should cremation 
to any one still present distressing featares^, let him remem- 
ber that ueithtsr science, philosophy, nor religion can demise & 
meihod by which an eternal parting from the form of one wo 
hftTB loved can be anything bat distressing. Let him remember 
thaif altliough Uie thought of cromation may oi-oode uuplcatsanl 
^-MOoationa, yet the entire process is complete within an hour, 
^febQe, hy bnrying, tlio revolting filatures of deironiiMsitiou txin- 
^BiuQe for years aud possibly for ccnturica. lu the words of the 
^Rreat scientist whose experiment we have rehUed, " each mode 
1^ of burial, whether in soil, in wood, in stone, or metal, is but 
another contrivance to delay, but never to prevent the inevitable 
change When the body is burned, and so restoi-ed at onoe to its 
original elemenU, nature's work is hastened, her design antioi* 
pated, that is alL" '* For more than twenty years," says Dr. 
Porker, " I have believed that the true way of dispoiung of the 
hnman dead is by rapid burning, — I say rapid, for chemistry 
fceaehfls us that decomposition of the body, when interred, is but 
ft filow process of combustion.'' 

When regarded from an artistic stand-point we see our at- 
bmotive eemeteries, notwithstanding their picturesque effect, 
presenting strange inconsistencies; while our climate prevents a 
display of the finest and most delicate art, and in fa«!t renders 
thon for almost six months of the year unsuitable for being 
visited. The magnificent and ponderous mausoleum, within 
which the Roman or the Greek would have deposited, seoore 



TUB NORTH AMERICAN RXYIKW. 



&om molestation, the etneraiT- nnu of liis anoaston, is planted 
by us directly above some lamented progenitor, as if to depmv 
him of the privilege of the re6amM:tiou. Oq every hnnd msbk 
orns de^tute of a«;hca cro\m lofty r-olumiui, &ud iDX'ertod toroln^ 
typical of creiiiation, meet tho eya Those are the bomnrcd 
tokens of a classic age, that in oar modem cemeterieB \am Ham 
anci<.'Dt meaning and s^rva no ob^-ious purpose. A mora sBnoui 
charge that can be brought against eemeteroes is the eDOmow 
flume of money annually sunk in them, Boms entlroiy di^iropor 
tionate to Qie services they yield. In an addr^is beforo the Qii- 
oago Medical Society, in advocacy of cremation, l>r. Chjfloi W. 
Purdy made some striking comparisons to show what a burden ii 
liud upon ttotiiety by tlie burial of the dead. Aeeording to his oare 
foUy prepared estimate^ " one and one-foorth times mora zaaauj 
is expended annually in funerals in the United Statos Ihas 
tiie OovcTument expends fur pubUc school purpoaea. Fanerals 
cost this coantry in 1880 enough money to pay the liabiUiies uf 
all the commercial faihiros in the United States daring the sauA 
year, and give each bankrupt a capital of eight thousaad wt 
hondred and thirty dollars vith which to rcsiUB« faaftiBOK 
Funerals cost annually more money than the value of the oon- 
hined gold and silver yield of the United States in the year 
1880.'* These fi^re«> fabolons ae they appear, do not includft tbP 
edormons sums invested in bnrial-grouud.t and expended is 
tombs and monuments, uor the loss from depreciation of prop- 
erty in the vicinity of cemeteries. 

As a return for this uupuralleled and ridiooloiia eoctrftTB^wnoi^ 
we have the funeral, the most doleful and melancholy thing ob 
earth, and the ordinary grave-yard, transitory and repolidre ia 
its nature and deadly in effect. When in addition to tbcBa tattt 
we remember that, notwithstanding the vast sums expendod, 
each semblance of poor humanity has been screwed up in » bos 
lor a decay as odious as it is needless, wa find it easy to agrat 
with the author of "God*s Acre Beautiful," who d<^lar«d ibi 
burial Kyst«m in vogue to be "the most impudent of bbegbotdl 
that haunt the path of progress." 

The money lavished by the citizens of New Yorii dniiiiK tl* 
past twenty years on funerahf and cemct<.Ties would haw sup 
plied a temple for the ufihe^ of the dead in «TBr7 way worthy 
of the metropolis. Added to and embdlished by eominff 
genefationsr its halls of statuary would foster art and rob d<-nib 



MAnnr-suszAZ awd (msMAnoir. 



281 



lutf his terror. There, cinerary nms of every defiign utd 
degree of cli?gaDco could be placed eafe trom all deeaura- 
Xone^ expended upon them would be better employed 
by bein^ devoted to coffins, whidi, nrithtn u ft>w hours, are 
led forever from t;igbt ; while, trom a iwutuDeutal point ot 
Tiew, it would appear lass ineoDgraous to dreaa witli roAM « 
beaatiful bronze or i^Uvcr vast^ containing the anhes ot a friend, 
than to tie a wreath of immortelles to the duor-knub of a gloomy 
vmult. Nearly fourteen years have elapsed since Professoore 
C<detti and CaatigUoni, "in the name vt public health and of 
ctvilisatioa,^ introduced in the Medical International CongreM 
■t Fkn-enee the question of cremation. A r^olntton at this con- 
greas was passed, urging that every xKweible means be employed 
to promote its substitution for burial ; and, three years later, the 
Royal Institnte of Scienee and Letters of Lonibardy offered a 
for the best pra<iical metiiod. Since this revival of 
itereet in tlie subject, cremation societies have been organized 
rly all of the large cities of Europe — in Italy alone 
ei^itcen having been established. The crematory at Milan, 
After being in exiHtenoe a little over a year, had burned more 
than one hundred and dfty bodies ; and that at Gotha. built by 
a& association of some of the most learned and thoughtful men 
bi flennany, fifty two bodies. Of the forty-seven men whose 
bodies were cremated at Gotha, nineteen belonged to learned 
pgofeaajons, fonr to the army, and four to the nobility. There 
were ton physicians. At the last meeting of the Copenhagen 
Cremation Society, it was announced that it contained one thou- 
sand ioJiT hundred raemlwrs, among whom were eighty-three 
physicians. The French Society at Paris numbers over four 
huudrcd membora. 
^B As an illustration of the views of distinguished Knntpeans 
^Bd this subject, it can be mentioned that one uf the most promi- 
^Kent of Danish thinkers, Bishop Mourad, who, during the war 
^■rith PmssiSf le<l the affairs of the nation as prime minister, has 
H^blicJy declared himself in favor of a law that would compel 
the substitution of cremation for burial. Lurd Boacousfiold, in 
^^nsidcriug earth- burial, wrote: **What is called God's acre is 
HhaDy not adapted to the country which we inliabit, the timee in 
^Bjii^ wo live, and the spirit of the age." Gambetta is a member 
^^^^6 French Cremation Society, and General Garibaldi in his 
wHl wpUdtly directed that his body should be burned, and that 



282 



TBE NOBTB AMEmCAN BE VIEW. 



Uie orn eontaining his ashes ehould be placed andcr the orsoge 
tree ehading the tombs of hie two little girls. 

In cor own ooimtry, altbongb pnblto interest io the eubjeel 
of iucineratioa has never become as extended w in Kurop«, 
the ranks of the creinBtinmfit.<i st4>adily iocrcase, and in rery 
many cities societies have been organized. 

That, in time, cremation vill be oniveriiAlly adopted, then 
seems no reason to doubt. We hare faith in a good enrtoan 
ultimately supplanting a bad one, and the superiority of inctnen- 
tion over burial is manifest. When the merits of tlie qnestioa 
are thomnghly appreciated, we shall not feel justified in storing 
up disciise-germs, and in poisoning earth, air, and water by our 
present custom of burying the dead. A re&ned scntimeot will 
teach US tho qnestionable natnre of that respeet which pmmptf 
the erection of a costly marble tribute to the memory of a 
friend, while his body is left to decompose In a water-floaIn<l 
grave boneath it 

Science and proven facte attest the wisdom of oromatioiit and 
in tiie words of the Royal Institute of Science and Letters nf 
Lombardy, we believe that its ailoption will mark a stage of 
progress in the oiaroh of civilization. 

AuGUBTUS G. Cobb. 



THE GENEVA AWARD AM) THE SHIP-O^T^ERS. 



an 

; It 



Aktkb a periodical discnsNon, coTering nearly ten years, 

ingress has flu&lly taken decisive action in the niatt«r.of the 

tribiition uf the money obtained by tho Oovenuuent throng 

ttie arbitration at Geneva. The delay has seemed needleas and 

nexplatuablo t4) evcrybridy except those who have heiiO familiar 

ith the progress uf the controversy and the causes which led to 

die protmoted delay. It is unnecessary to review the cansee 

Meh led to the arbitration, the prooeedinga, at Oenuva and 

debates which preceded it both in the United States 

and Great Britain. Our purpose is simply to give a riaumi of 

the action of Congress in the prfmisea, and a statomont of the 

existing law in reforonce to the dii^trihution of the money and 

the classes of claims that have been paid and are now entitled 

to a hearing in the new Conrt of Coramissioners of Alabama 

Claims. 

The money was paid by Great Britain through the State De- 
partment, on tho cightli of September, 1S73. It was deposited in 
the Treomny Department of the United States, to the credit of the 
Stat*; Depart mont, (lie draft therefor of fifteen millions and a half 
in gold, being indorsed in due form by the Socretar}' of State 
It was paid by Great Brit^ throagh three banking-houses, one 
British and two American. It is necessary to state clearly the 
fact of the mode of payment of this money in order U> under- 
stand subsequent logiylation in reference to it, and clear up 
certain mi^ly views that are entertained by persons in Congress 
d out as to tho precise legal status of the balance of the fund. 
has bepn said, the money wan paid to the Government of the 
^United States through the State Department, and has technically 
,e to the eredit of the State Department, and, consequently, 
"balance stands as an item on the books uf the Treasury 
epartment, tu the credit of the State Department, as a deposit 



284 



THE NORTH AMERICAN RBVmW. 



in the Treasury of the United States would stand to lbs cmlii 
of an individnal in whose name it was deposited. 

There was distributed in the paj-ment of jadgmcnta rendend 
by the former Cunrt uf CommiBsionerv oi Alabama Claims, which 
came int^ cxiatcnce by authority of the Act of Congreffi uf ihf 
twenty-third of June, 1874, alwut seven millions of dollars in 
gold. At iliat time guld was at a premium of nearly twenty 
per cent The jud^^eute that were nrndered in favot- of the 
various elainiants were paid in currency at four per cent, inter 
est from the date of the lose up to the time of the payment uf 
the respective jud^meute. 

The theory and principle of diBtribntion act np by Congrw 
in the law of 1882, ig tJiat the tiovaument, reoeiring thin moaejr 
from Great BritAin in a Inmp smn, took it without any direcCJaiL 
hint, or limitation as to bow or to whom it Bhould ultiniatelf 
auUionze it to be paid. The advocates of the uiii! -., 

both iu CougrcKs and in certain newspapers of the eoui..,: .. ....« 

endeavored to convince Congress that it was under a l^gal 
obligation, in the teehnical sense, to direct the fund to 1>e handed 
over to a total of forty -nnc ioRuranoe com^mnies tiiat paid looo^ 
Aggregating a little over four millions, caused by the acts of tbc 
Confederate oruii^ers. The aasertiona that they have made pod- 
stitute their argument one rfdmeiiotkd ahs^irdmm. Asserting tbcir 
legal right to the money pro rate, according- to their respectivf 
tosses, they have asked, beleaguered, and besieged Congreaa to 
pass a law gi^'ing them a right to the mon^. If, as they fat, a 
legal right existwl, where is the r^^nson or neeef^i ■ ^t/d(inp 

Congress to enact u lawt If the legal right exifi _ ..olytt 
was not necessary for Congress to pass snch a law. This woutd 
eeem to have eufilciently diAposod of their orgament, even 
before the ultimate action of the Senate, when out of a total 
membership of seventy-six senatoi-s only six were olitained to 
sustain this view, leaving a total of seventy tbat did not 
adopt it The underwriters further asserted tlieir right to this 
money, on the ground that, when they insured their p(.>licy-hold- 
ers against war losses, and took & premium ii<\U; uud imed 
the policy, in some easee — only a few — they took aasi giun e a li 
from tbc sssured of whatever might be derived the.r«aftaT. 
This aengtinicut conld only apply to the ordinary i^eAc nf fi V«i 
by the action of tlie elements, storms, rocks, founderi t- 

Bing, or some casualty of nature. In theae ooaee oi .^^A.-ittf 



rne oE^KrA award and the sbipownsbs. 285 



, dcstmctionB b\- the Coufederate cruiMts tift loss was totoL, 

plfi ftiitl L'jirgoen were usually biimed or sunk. Henw, thero 

coald have been nothing left to assign. "Where there is uoUung 

to assign, any furmal or pretended asaignnieiit pnssL's only 

what tlie BGsi^ar has; and the assignor baring nothing, the 

assignee takes nothing. The claim of tlio underwriters to 

the aasigmnents of the owners' rightjt against the Government of 

Great Britain t£ withont foundation, ftdlafiions and deceptxre. 

No right in the sense of a claim, or in any sense save the most , 

_a}Mtract moral right, ever existed on the part of these ownen. 

[t was finally conceded by the Government of the United States 

'In the Irea^ of Washington, adopted on the 8th of March, 1871, 

that no imch right, eiUii^r by international law, iuteruatioual 

|«ity, f>r international comity, ever existed on the part of the 

fnitcd States against the Government of Great Britain to recover 

hr tJie losses or eaptores by the Confederate uruifiers. This state- 

■1 assertion has become a formal part of the first article of 

uty. Consequently it at on<'e and for«ver set at. rest and 

of this assertion that the existing rights on the part of 

ship-owners, merchants, or anderwriters, who lost property at the 

ids of the Confederate cruistTs, lay against the Government of 

Jreal Britain. The special and sole condition on wliich the Gov- 

icnt of Great Britain consented to enter into an arliitrution 

\m Imnnd by the award of the arbitrators, was on the ground 

that no legal liability existed by any statute law, nny uiinieipal 

iw, any international law, or any iiitenmtinnal cotnity, that o^*e^ 

1 the most vague and indefinite legal sense honnd theGovcnuncnt 

rf Great Britain to pay to the Government of the United States 

ly money whatever for loss by these Confederate emisers. The 

isition of the two governments in framing the treaty was simply 

this: that the law whieh the commi86ionon> on the part of the 

Tinted Statee asserted had been violated bj- England in the bnild- 

ig, eecape and eqnipmmt of the " Alubama," the " Shenandoah," 

le " Florida," and other emisers, was mi-rely a municipal regula- 

of the United States, which she had sot up for her own 

idance in the matter of defining and limiting her neutral 

Cxons when other nations were belligerent and the United 

was at peace. It was in no sense an international rule, 

iere being no rule, no national law, no formal compact of any 

id, that bound the Government of Great Britain by the nilea 

ig the conduct of nations, there, of course, was no low 



286 



TWE NORTH AMERICAN REFTEW. 



to violate on the pari of Great Britain. If no law existe bo 
regulate the conduct of iudi^ndnalH in a State, thpre can h*< 
nono to viglatu*. If no international law, mle, or compa'^ 
exiBts between nations there can be none to violate. Tbfl' 
three mles set np in the treaty of WoshingtoD dcflning, 
oxplainingr, and limiting the rights, duties, and obligudoDs 
of neutrals, have established now an iDtcmationaL rule of coo- 
duct which binds both governments hereafter in oaso any mraibir 
cootroversy nrisce. The very fact that these rtJcs wer^ iuoitr 
porated into the treaty, they not being quoted or adopted froto 
any precedent, shows their prior non-existence. The thoruy. 
which underlay all the negotiutions between the two govcmmrota 
in framing the treaty was simply this : There being no law existing 
botwe<in the two eonntrios, there could be nono to violate : heoee, 
Great Britain was guilty of no violation. But for the sake of^ 
maintaining friendly relations between the peoplcH of thv two 
ooimtries, and in tho interest of peace and to avert the dire calami- 
ties of war, Great Britain consented, humiliating as it was, to 
enter into an arbitnition, and to be bonnd by the acts or award of j 
the arbitrat*>rs, which aha ultimately and honorably did, fulfiUinji 
her tei^aty obligations both in spirit and in letter. The spirit of 
the trea^ was the spirit of eqnity in the lai^rest^ most genemlj 
and most cqutt-ablo souse. It had its origin in an enligbteoe^J 
humane, and liberal conscience. The two nations, divorced 
law, separated from all legal obligations, entere<l into acompac 
of oonscience in the forum of conscience. This being the tap<J 
root of tho proceedings, tho spirit which led to the treaty, whi^j 
governed its formation, which framed it« article?, it is very clw 
that whatever might result in tho form of fnnds from such 
negotiations, would be utterly and totally clear from uQ. legdj 
limits or liabilities, from all technical obligations on the part 
eitlicr government, and especially on the part of the United 
States. Tho United States in these proceedings, and at Q^neva. 
acted as the voluntary gnardian and solo poeslblo protector of 
the rights of their citizens. Tlicy went l»efore the Tnt«matJoinB(J 
Tribunal by their i^nt, by their counsel, in their pleadings, aJMf . 
in their statements of facts, and asked judgment in tjieu* own oAnw. 
in their own behalf, to make such us* of aoy pay ■" ' '■ : 

be made in the judgment rendered thereunder, Oe- 
mane and enlightened oonscience they might see (it The ndvo- 
Mtes of the owners of vessels and cargoes, and the &hipM>wxMn 



TBS OENBVA AWARD AifD TBE aOlP-OWNEBS. 387 



" and <diippera, who paid war premiums against Ute hak of cap- 
ture, hAve always presented and urged their claima upon Con- 
gresB from this Rtaud-potut and upon these principles: tliat no 
legal liability existed on the part of the United States for these 
loases, auy further than might grow out of the measure of pro- 
tection which the Qovernment of the United Statt-a owes to oil ita 
btizens and all the property nnder it« fia{;. It is a liability and 
obligntion which, if enforcible at all, is probably not within 
tjnrtiidictioa of the courts cxceptiug as they are created, and 
lir'tion specially giireu to them at the hands of the National 
LcgislatoreL They went to Congress and plead their canae on 
thit grround of justice, on the ground of naiioniU duty, on the 
luiid of national obligation, to protect the property of ita 
titixens floatiug upon the high seas. In this spirit they con- 
and pressed their arguments to ultimate results and solid 
larioDS. The chief work has been for the last eight or nine 
years in carrying on this diacusainn to meet and dieposo of the 
ieal argnmonta of the underwriters. Their position was 
[i^huieal from first to last They had nothing but technicalities. 
Fiistioe certainly was not on their fddo.. They said they hnd 
i^Hearly there eau bo no claim in the proper sense where 
there has been no loss. The underwriters paid losses, to be sure, 
ttggrogattng, as has been said before, about four millions of 
hilars. But they got their pay for it. The dealers with those 
eompanies who paid their premiums for a periiKi of five years, 
paid just what rates the underwriters saw fit to charge them, and 
those paymcntit formed the difTerent funds out of which not only 
the loesofl were paid, but profits in all but four instances were 
made. There was a total of forty-one companies tliat paid htssw 
Bs the rosnlt of captures by the Confederate cruisers. The 
former court gave them an opportunity to come in and show 
II what they received in preraiuma from their deaJers, and what 
Htfiey paid out in losses to the assured, where losses took place. 
^^f the payments for the losses on account of eaptnrca exceeded 
the total amount they had received from premiums for insurancef 
then they took a judgment for the difiFer<mce, and the balanoe 
paid in 1876. 
There were three companies in New Bedford and one in New- 
)rt only that could show a loss. The doors of the court 
>re open to all the companies for nearly three years. Each one 
had an opportunity to come in and show ita balauee-sheet Only 



288 



TffB NORTH AMERICAN RRVTSW- 



fonr did bo. The lo^cal nonclnraon is that the rest tiod no leo 
to shuw; ill other wordfi, that tbtty liBil mtulo money out of the 
btngmeffi of insuring i^Hinst war risk^. To have paid then eoB- 
(tanitifl for whut t2iey paid out for war losses voaJd hftve Uyqi 
to have added a second profit to that already made unt of (htir 
pi^y-holders. It is but fair to state, in jnstioe to the mating m- 
Bftrance iotereet of the United States, that the pr^KmberoiM alid 
absurd claims advaiK^^ed by some of the oomijanics were 8ti{fpcmed 
by ouly a few. The rcasou why they erer gaiued any fodthold in 
Congress was beoause the argxunente ware teelmiAal, i^mmuoub, and 
fallaoioiis. Congresti ie in a large part made np of lawyets^ nun 
trained at the l>ar, and of long i-jcperienee ou the beiudL "Rm 
greater portion of them are from the interior Statea^ whmi tbtif 
is no ocean commerce, who neocssarily have had no penouil 
fiuniUurity with Hhii>ping, maritime law, or admimlt^ pnetiea 
It is a Eingular faet in this whole disonaaoD, that witli probafcif 
one or two exwptious, not a single member of Congrosa l!raa 
any State where hia practice had brought him in contact witL a 
knowledge of shipping and maritime matters, has been found tu 
advoojtte tlie cause of the underwriters. The largest vote tbe 
insurance companies ever obtained in the House was in iLesnii'^ 
mor of IdTG, when out of a tntal membership of two huudrod ttid 
ninety-lwo, tbey got t<hirty-fi.ve votes. Nearly all thwa ven 
from the Sonthem States, a few from the West, eoaroefy any 
from New York, and mme from New Elngland. The longer the 
discussion proceeded, the fuller the information that was aoquimilt 
and the clearer tbe light that was thrown upon the subJMt, th« 
lees headway the underwriters made, and the more profrreas vafi 
achieved on the part of their opponents. For the last foiir«r 
five years the advooacy of the insurance companies' claims hai 
been confined almost entirely to two or three r<' I in thi 

cit}' of New York. The one having the largast^ln oalifl 

Mutual, whose total amount of principal and intL<n!»t was koudc 
three millions and a half dollars, has bei-n Uu-ough iU advuoalA, 
directly or indirceMy, the principal opponent of the distzibntkn 
of this money in the mode that Congresis ibudly lias adopted. 

The law of June, 18b2, reuuacte the law of IBT-fc, except «o 
btr as It may be modified by this act; oroatca a court of t}jr<- 
judges and not five, as in the formur tribunal, and given to lire 
eonrt jurisdiction of two general classes of cloima. The fint 
daaa ia f<M* the loss of vessels and oargoes, freight ttJori«7, 



TBJS GBKEVA AWABD ANJ) TOE S£fIP^O^rNSBS. 289, 

eifects, and wapes of offlcars and o.ivws for tho time 
'ikay mra oneoiployed aft«r uaptare^ outil they got mJmployod, 
and Ifaetr incideDtal expenses, for a period not exoeodiDg^ 
twdve moatha after oaptore. Many at tbeae captures weore^ 
mftde in distant waters, and in not a few caacs oflBcera aud mea 
wore nnable to obtain emphiymeut for not only months, but jtmn. 
"Hm writ«r hod in charge one case of the steward and stewordeea! 
of a veaeel captured in 1863 in tho South Pocifio ; aud after lonf 
VitDdarings in CHiina and Japan and npon the Pacific coast of the 
Dailed Stetee, it was nearly four years bofore tlicy ruached their 
bOBiUB in New Bngland. The next dass of claims ineludes the 
IoM«8 by aay Confederate cruiser during the rebellion, whether 
that emiser had ever entered a Britifh port or soilod under BriW 
iA ftospioea. Tho simple test is wht^thcr the cruiser carried the 
Oonfederatfl flog, or (failed under (kinfedcrate authority by virtae 
of a Coofcderate commission- If it did, thou the owners of prop- 
erly that wa6 lost by the acts of such a vossd ore entitled to 
enter a case for indemnity and recovery of compensation, pro* 
▼ided they file their claims within six monthn from the organixa- 
tian of tiio oourtk. This time for filing claims cxpins Juiaary 
I 14,1883. 

^H The other class <^ claims is generally known by a short 
Hkrh of definitioa as ** war premiums.** This brief definition 
BBinpliflcd means simply this : lu Lime of peaco, when a vessel goes 
to Bea, the insurance, if any, is generally cffeeted only against 
nsk by sea, peril of storm, or rock, or fuand«?ring, or any casoalfy 
of the elements, or any act of nature. The ordinary clause in 
policies of tliJs kind a^in^t the actn of piratoa, as deeidod iu a 
test eaw, that of the ship ** Golden Rocket," by the Supreme Court 
of the United States, did not cover a lose by capture through Con- 
federate cruisers. These cruisers in a technical, legal sense, were 
■ot ptraces. IMrates are the roving banditti, the highwaymen of 
the sou, capturing and mai-anding without any eommission from. 
any authorized power whatever. A pirate is a mere highway- 
man, the unauthorized plunderer of the ooean. The Confederate 
orulsers were not pirat4.'&. To be sure they performed acts in the 
0»tur« of piracy, but in the sense known to the law their acts 
yrvn not ptraticaL Their seiznreB and captures were, by the laws 
of war, legal captures. Their acta, by the rules g<ivenuug hek- 
ligarents, wen lawful acts. The United States Mookading the 
ports of the Confederacy prevented the possibility of taking to 



THE irORTB AMERICAN BEVIEW. 



any port, for trial in odnnnilty, tbo lawfulness of Uiora s^sam, 
and prevented any formal art of i-oodenmation by a priae oomt 
Tbifl obliged them to destroy their prizes at a^a by bomiii^ or 
scuttling. If they had had any port of their own. or aii\ 
port, these prizes woidd liave l>een taken bef<)re a piTXt- ■ 
release or condemoation. But the blockade by the United StAtn 
of all the porte of the Confederacy, produdod them from ihepts- 
sibility of any prize courts of their own. It was too long a Ftqt 
toward an " overt act," for the sympathizing friendship for th* 
Confederacy, existing in tho British colonial porta, to uUuv i 
prize court, and prize proceedings there. That, clearly, on the 
part of Great Britain, would have created a legal liability, wliidi 
she did not see fit to assume. 

Some expressions of seotimcnt have been made that the Oonr- 
emment of the United States had no right whatever to girc to i 
court of it.s own creation jurisdietion to pay lofises out uf what t« 
known as British money, where the loss was caoaod by a cnii*rr 
that was neither from, nor had friendly asnstanoe in, a British 
harbor. But this is a mere sentiment growing out ot a mi«- 
ai^vrohonsioTi of the histozy of the proceedings, tiie nature snd 
spirit and purpof;e of the treaty, and the supreme and dectsre 
right which the United SUitee Government has, and has eien . ■ I 
inrefereuctitothodistributionof this money. The "Alabama" ;\li^i 
" Florida" were the parents of all the other eniiscra, big and IjU! . 
that sailed the high seas, and captured the pn>iierty of Amcriou 
citizens. It made no difference whether they cume from^ or bad 
Eupport and assistance in British waters or not As has iKm 
said before, the Utiittd States, as a suvcrviga power, ei'avising 
eovere^ discretion, endowed with authority to enact simple 
justice for the benefit of their citizens, have determined (and wiso^ 
bo) that if the loss was a loss on the high seas by a omlaer carry- 
ing the Confederate flag, and acting under Confcderat« aatburity, 
the owner of the loss, so to speak, is entitled to his pro niU 
share out of this fund. 

Tlie greater portion of this money will return immediately to 
investments in ocean commeroe. It« distribution will csdct 
rapidly and in mora ways tliau is gi>uerul]y uudert(t<WMl, the 
revivai of Amerioan commeroe upon the high bobs. ThA rerr 
passage of thit? act is an indication that Congress is realbdDf! 
the uccossity of legislative relief to the shipping mt«rei^ of 
the country. The detention of this money for so many ymri 



TBS OBTf^TA AWARD AND TJTB SHIPOWNERS. 291 



Uio Treasury, lias been cause for doubt to ship-bTiildcrs and 
'eliip-owDcrs, to exporters and importerB, whether Congregs had 
the remoteet int^-rest, or regai-j, for the occxm commcreo of 
Its dtizetu!. But uuw that it hat) taken action, and in a uise, 
liberal, and certainly jast and beneficent mimnor, it will revive 

Ibopo, ttud increase the espectfttion that Congress will con- 
tinue in the good eourse in whieh it has bf^uu; that it wiH 
modify its ancient and obstructive navigation laws; and will 
pCt«nd to the regulation of the tariff, so that the shipping tuteresta 
bf citizens of the United States will have a fair field in ooropcti- 
Bon with the eitizens or subjects nf other powers. At pnweut 
we ore at an immcnso disadvantage. Every foreigner who puts 
his money into shipping can compete with an Amaican with 
many points in his favor, and tlie result \a that Amerieau porU 
an erondod with foreign flags, and that American shipping is 
disappearing and diminishing^ in number and tonnage, in foreign 
ports. 

The imp«jrtant qnestion arises ; Will there ?>n money cnongb to 

) round T Will this balance of ten or eleven niilliuu!^, or whatever 

; may turn out to be, dependent upon the rate and time of intereet, 

ieieut to pay everybody in full for his claim, or must there 

gciierfU sealing down, and oat.^h one take his pro rata scm, 

Icpending up<*n these clemeutdY It is impossible to answer this 

luestion definitely. When the time expires for filing claims, the 

elerk of the court can easily give a summary of the amoont 

claimed, but this will not deten:iine it accurately, becaoso there 

^jriU bo oifums which cannot be proven ; there will J«i esti- 

^■nates of values of veeaels and cargoes and penwnal eifects 

^ftrhich cannot be sustained. There will be quite a largo 

Ventting down in theso directious ; necessarily bo. The claimant 

will uut recover mure than he claims, and, as a rule, he will be 

to claim all that he is entitled to, and perhaps considera- 

t>ly more than the court vnll think the evidence warrants it in 

The estimate, well foimded, is that at leiist oui'-fuurth of 

X '_ . _iiiSwillnotbefilediutime,orwiUfailof judgiaenlfur want 

of eompetent and suffieieut proof. It is now twenty years and 

■Bvex since these losses began. The ex]K'rience of the former 

P^cibonal fdiows impedimenta and difficulties impossible to over^ 

come. Numerona qneelions of law will arise : nice questions of 

jorifidiction and legal right to be passed upon. The Grovemmeiit 

will 1*e ubty represented by the counsel-in-chief at the tnal of 





292 



THE NORTa AMEBICAy nEnEV. 



onues before the court in Waaliingtoo. It will hn ably Pip» 
suited by aBSoeiate ootuuel in o^ttea aud places wfaero tbe 
olaunantN t«^de, 

Tho President has called to the head of the new oonuniBooo 
the lion. HezckiAh O. WcUb, of Kalamazoo, Ificliigaa, the Fn- 
siding Justice oC tlie former commission. Bi« asBoGsates wr 
the Hob. James M. Uarlun, of lorra, formerly in the Seaai« of 
the Unit«d States from thut oommonwealth, auil at otia tinif 
Secretory of the Interior under President Lincoln. Tba other 
member is the Uon. Aaa P. Frencbr of Maasocbusetta, emineot 
in his profeaaion. 

The oocaaion seems to jffesent a proper opportunity for 
some reflections and soggostions aa to the geuerul Miibjwt. 
First, it is evident that the whole proeeediugs — treaty, Oeom 
arbitnitirjn, the act of Congress, the Alabama elaim.>i— art 
results, in various forms, of the war of the rebellion. Tbeas 
losses, that have been and are to be indemnified, w«ro war laseea. 
They wonld not have occurred, but as a oonsoquunce of th* wir 
upon land. Supposing any sitimtion arisea in tlie futnrei aiiailcr 
to that whieli existed from 18tiO to 1806, what course shall thr 
" powers that be" pursue f What action shall they take, in rvf- 
erenoe to the ocean commerce of the UniU^l States t During \hf 
war i)erio<l, there were transferrud to foreign flogs, almost suleJj" 
to the British, nearly eight hundred American vesaols. lu tk- 
a^regate, about two-thirds of the American tonuagu passed from 
under the Ainericun flag to foreign fUgs, and none uf it has wna 
returned. Thu statutes of the Unit«d States prevent Uic re-rr^ 
istration of an American vessel that has been transffimHi bv 
voluntary act of the owner. One of tho first things Congiv>- 
should do is to repeal this law, and allow tho owner of a Te^Atl 
to transfer her to any flag he pleases in times of public ^ 
This nght is given to the subjects of Ureat Britain, a^^, 
subjects of nearly all the other maritime powers of Europe, Tl - 
powers recognize both lU whtdum and its ueoestdty, tU din^i 
benefit to the owner, and its indireoi benefit to (he Ooverc 
ment under which the property belongs, and by whirh it is ; :> 
tected. If capital is invested in laud or buildings, a municipal us. 
in the theory of municipal regulation, protects it ogunxt t^ 
vialenoe of the mob. The municipal tax is a oouudeautioa pstd 
hy the ciUsen for the s1^)port of polios and militia tonNi^ h s 
defense against the violence of moba. A recunt instiuiftB, twti o? 



TBE OEifEVA AWASD jUO) THE aHlP-OWNBUS. 293 



occurred at Pittsburg, Penn^lraiua, where & 

large amount of property in the custody of the 

iTonia Railroad Compaoy. Here the Supremo Court 

Pennsylvania^ after careful oonaidcraCion, held that the 

bounty of Alleghany, of which Pittsburg is the center, was 

able for Ihe^ losses, aggregiiting nearly two milliuns of 

Fdcdlars, and it was lidd hable to pay them. The only difference, 

so far aa taxation goes, between protecting proper^ on land, 

and upon the high seas, is, simply, that in the former instance 

(the e-ousidcratiou for the protection is a mnnjcipal tax paid to 
|he State, insuring State protection; whereas, in the case of veeselB 
b is a Federal tax, insuring Federal protection, where the State 
power cannot possibly reach. Theoretically, the money paid for 
[he registry fees on vessels, for the annual tonnage taxe^t and 
Other imposts of various kinds, goes through the Treasury Depart- 
ment to the credit of the Navy Department, for the purpose of 
boilding, equipping and maintaining a navy for the protection of 
veseels and their cargoes, persons and their effects upon the high 
I, where forts and land forces cannot extend any shelter or 
rense. The manicipal tax is for the police and for the militia, 
the very theory upon which it is assessed it is the cousid* 
tion which citizens pay the State for the police and militia 
iun of tlie property upon tlie land. The various taxes 
aa aoaoc dand levied by antfaority of Federal statutes go to and are 
to be used by the Federal power for protection ujun the ooean. If 
from inability, neglect, or inefflciency on the part of the munic- 
ipal authorities, the propterty of the citizen upon the land is 
lofft, the law provides, through the courts, indemnity and com- 
p«'iuiation. Special statutes in various States make these pro- 
visions. TTnfortnnately we are ntA aware of any provision of a 
tenor and purpose, by which the citixen losing his prop- 
npon the high seas is entitled to indemnity and compensa- 
ioa from the Federal power. Nevertheless, if the strict technical 
obligation does not exist, the moral obligation upon the 
. «if the Qnvernment toward the citizen, and the equitable right 
the citizen as against the Govenunent, certainly do existu It 
oannot be denied that it is the part of a wise and efficient govern- 
ment to do all within its power to strain every nerve to ita 
atmoet to protect ocean commerce, and especially in times such 
M existed during the late rebellion, or during any international 
eonfliei^ The chief sources of revenue to the United Statee are 
Tou cxzxv. — »o. 310. 21 





294 



TBE KORTB AHESICAU &EVIEW. 



dirucUy or indirectly ^m tho property invested in shipping br 
ite oitiztins. A wise self-iutereBt, a prudent foretdglit^ % poUo)* 
that lookit to tho utinofit wouomy of power, would uuturuUi uid 
inevitably le«d to the adoption of moasoros best calculated to 
pmmote and foster the shtppiui? iniereete of the country, and 
especially in time of w»r. There should be mt i > upon 

tho citizen by the legal power of the Govummeu ; ■ ; com- 

patible w!th the most economical and efficient u£e of the npital 
invested in maritime adventurer. Hi»torr shows that Greai 
Britain boa paid more careful attention to tills dcpartnucat than 
to any other. The resalt is that her merchant marioA is at the 
head of the maritime ptiwers of the world. The total conipld- 
ment of ofBcers and men, in vessels sailing from btnno and Cron 
colonial porta, ia in the vicinity of three hundred and ftfty thv«i- 
sand. A study of the legitdation of (Jreat Britain in this depart- 
ment ia a field that should be explored by the laj'men and 
legislators of the United States. The practice and policy which 
have Bucceeded so well with our Englitih cousina cannot fail l« 
meet with like resnlta if adopted by us. There are no real i 
practical differenoea existing between vessels sailing onder i 
Croes of St. 0«orgc and those sailing under the Stars and SlH) 
That force which has increased the fleets of Great Britaun 
inevital>ly increase those of the United Statea. Wo have tir 
more extended soa-coasts, bettor harbors, longer, larger and 
deeper rivers, larger mines of ooal and iron, better and heavier 
forests of timber^ than they have or can draw upon ontsidc> of 
tlio BritiKh Dominions. Scarce any limit vtnx bo j>lac«d opon the 
natural resources of the United States that can bo utilised aad 
are ready at band, developed out of the great arcana of natcm. 

Anottier roflcctdon arising from the liist'^ry of these 
ingB — the formation of the treaty, the arbitration at QaDi 
and the arbitration at Halifax, known aa the Fisheries 
sions — is that, notwithstandiiig t^t arbitration is a veryt 
able substitQte for war, and its loss of life and property, ytX It i» ■ 
very uncertain, unwieldy, and inef&oieDt method of ftettling inter- 
national disputes. Kaoh treaty settlement of inlerDation^ qiuc- 
tions is a special compact to cover tiie special ciroumstajuos of 
e ri rtin g cases at thei time. In their \'en,' nature they have vf* 
permanent character, as in the case of the Treaty of Waahin^on. 
They are so framed that disputes as to thdr iii««ningt au : 
pntes as to jurisdiotiou, iueviiably arise under tbem. When m 



United StjiUa presented its clfiim liefore the Geneva tribonal, 
and set out five different connte in its dedaratioQ, and the case 
waa puhliflhed in the Uritiah press, an outcry from her news- 
papers and her rostrums shook England to its center. There 
was a sodden and appalling fear that the United Btatett had 
presented a cause of action against Great Britain, the indemnity 
for wbich would be about equal to the tMnl British publio debt. 
What was the cause f Simply that the language of the treaty 
waa so indefinit« that it was wdl-nigh impoesihle to det«rniine th^ 
"k'wA and extent of jurisdiction that the tribunal of five arbitra- 
":•- hA<l under the pro^^sions of the treaty. The British counsel 
imniediiitely raised in formal manner this qntwtion of jurisdiction, 
presented it by a demurrer properly filed with the tribunal in 
due form, just as a qneatiou of jurisdiction would be raised 
under ft statnUi in a Fcileral or State court. The objet^f)ns 
of the British Oovemmeut, tbrough its eounsel, were aimed 
directly and generally at what were known as the indirect 
claimH. It waa a phrase coined out of the existing eireiimBtanees, 
and for the convenience of the hour. It meant nothings and 
dfiAned less. For a time it appeared as tbongh, from this dis- 
ouanon, the two oatdonB would separate and the arbitration prove 
abortive. * Bnt, as has been said, tme statesmanship is ever equal 
to the emergencies of the time. For the final judgment, for the 
salisfaotion of Iwth sides of this troublesome d^nte, we are 
largely indebted to the trained saganity and wise jndgmeDt of 
Caleb Cnshing, who was the (tenior counsel for the government 
of the United States before the tribunal. It was his mind that 
loved the wires which finally brought the two govemmenta 
her in harmony bt^fore the arbitrators. The result of this 
tte has been the chief bone of contention for the last six or 
ight years before the Congress of the Unit^ Slates, as to 
irhether thy tribunal rejected the so-called war premium claims 
outside of and beyond its jurisdiction, or whether it includcfl 
in tiie am<mnt of the award. From a ciosa study of the 
b1« whiflh hvl to it., of the demurrf;r filed by the Bri^b 
lovemment, of the pleadings of both powers before the arbitra- 
the whole thing becomes a sort of harp of many strings, 
which almost any argument or conclusion can be deduced, 
ly one thing can be made certain, and that is that the war 
?nuums were objected to by tht^ British Government; that 
iy were demurred to bv the British counsel as not within the 



THE NORTH AMERICAN KKYIEW. 



jorisdictioQ of the tribuDal, and that the tribunal took bochi 
action in reference to them. Precisely what the soope and Xtp^ 
effect of that aotion was, it is somewhat difficult to deLennint'. 
It is very certain, however, that when the arbitrators finally 
determined the amount of the award, fifteen milUons and a bslf, 
they did not specifically exclude war premiums by name. 

They did, however, specifically ezclade by name five othor 
classes of daimi^. They gave a reason for exdnsion in «w-li 
spwiific case. Now, it is only fiur to the arbitraton^ and logical 
also, to infer from that conclusion, that, inasmuch as they did outy 
when they fixed the anioimt of the award, exclude war premiaou 
by name, these were fairly included in determining that amoooL 
But, whether so or not, it can make no difference as to wfatt 
course Congress shall pursue in distributing the money, becaoM 
we start with the proposition, and pursue the theorj* all the wav 
along, that the United Statt'ts in disti-ibnting the money are not to 
be governed in the least by what governed the arbitrators at 
Oeueva, In the mattar of distribution, the Govermnentf U>» 
authority of the United States is sovereign, and exclnsivdy 
supreme. The point is, that tlio provisions of tJie treaty had soeb 
a looseness and indefiniteness about them that it led to diapatt* 
— that it was very difficult to avoid the absolato est^augemtfit 
of these two great powers. When we come to the Fisheries 
Commission at Ilalifax, to settle the right to fish ^thin a eertaiii 
line along ccrt^ provinces of Great Britain, wo find the same 
looseness and indefinitencss of expression that at one time 
threatened trouble between the two countries. The arhitr&bnn 
at Geneva were five, at HalifftT three. Only two of the arbitra- 
tors at Halifax signed the award of two millions and a ball 
Hon. Ensign H. Kellogg, of Massachusetts, declined to sign. 
Strajgbtway arose a discusaon in the public press and in Ui» 
Congress of the United States whether by the teams of Uu 
treaty an award signed by only two of three arbitrators ww 
binding upon the debtor Government of the United States, and 
consequently it was an open question whether the verdict at Hali- 
fax should be paid or not. Finally the question was settled by th* 
payment of the amount, although there are pr£<cedent8 to show 
that the United States were not lawfully bound by tlie teams of 
the treaty to make the payment on an award signed * ' t ' 
of the arbitrators. A similar question arose as to tli' - - 

Boundary line many years ago, between Great Britain and the 



TBS GSKEVA AWASD AND TBSi SBTP-OWJi ERS, 297 



States, and the oonuniesion to dctenuiiio tbat boundary 
totally abortive, failed to accomplish it« purpose, and went to 
puoee — did nothing. Tbe qaestion was left an opea one for many 
UDtil it was takou up and definitely settled by the treaty 
if Waahington. So we find historical instance after instanw of 
[mnote and recent dates, where treatieB have fmled; where inter- 
natioiml commissinuH have been abortive, on aocoont of the 
nncftrtainty of the language authorizing the action. 

The qaestion arises, What Bhall be done ? What is tlie 
wise and proper course to giiard against these contingen- 
deat What policy shall Im adopted to make these things 
eertain and definite T We can see no method except to change 
the policy entirely. A treaty is a qx>^^ ^^^ temporary con- 
tract between powers, the same as agreementa or bargains are 
between individuals. Now, it would be as wise for the State, 
within its own dominions, to attempt to settle disputes between 
individnals a« they arise from time to time, by special statutes, 
ipecial arbitrations, or references under those statutes, as for 
nationa to attempt to settle their difTeronces by the present mode 
of temporary treades and temporary internfttioiifl] contracta. Tho 
only safe, efficient, and permanent remedy is au international code, 
•nd as has been mapped out from time to time by various pnb- 
Beists, and especially by the Honorable David Dudley Field, in 
volume entitled " An International Code." To this we must 
iillimately come, or the civilization of the nineteenth century 
retrogrades. Here is a field which thuughtful men, which stn- 
denta, which citizens having a wise and prophetic interest in the 
futur*^ welfare of the republic, in its relfltions to the other States 
of Christendom, should explore, examine, and carefully consider. 
It is not onr present pnrpoee to go into particulars. We have 
no design now other Uian to neizo upon the preaent occaaon 
% fitting opportunity for general suggestion. 

J. F. M&l'NINO. 



'^^ 



Ef 



^ib* 



§: 




►RTH AMERICAN REVIEW 




No. CCCXL 



OCTOBER, 18S2. 



COMING REVOLUTION IN ENGLAND. 



AOIi&KD at the preseot moment affords bejoad doubt the 

!d for the stndy of the social developmeDt of oar timoB. 

siq>orflcial observer we are still the Chinese of Europe, 

to old forma and old revereucos, which have long iduca 

dififiarded elscwhnrc ; though a dofior examination shows 

that wo have entered on a period of change which will 

Hy carry lu far In advance of anything yet seen, either in 

iir Amerii'a. Few ediicAted Englishmen, if pressed for 

ibcrate opinion, would deny thai tht.>ro is every Ukelihood 

a complete social and political reorganization will be 

:pted In those islaiuLj before- the end of Ous century*. Even 

g the useless men and women who dub themselves ''soci- 

taui undercurrent of uneasiness may be detected. The dread 

I ** HfViilntiori " in sometinieti spoken aloud in jest ; more 

quietly whimpered iu all seriousae«8. The luxurious claasea 

at there is something going on below which they do not 

tand, while now Hud then the truth tliHl they are after 

a handful of drones amid a dense swurm of ill-housed 

nderfed workers forces itself in dimly upon their minds. 

nrse," said one lady, "we kuow the working-rlasHes can 

us if they are only organized, but what is to come 

Tbo deluge was to her bnt a BwoUen brooklet compared 

ling of the waters of democracy. 

osx&v. — Na 311. 22 



rhclm 



300 



TBE KOBTH AMESICAN SEVJEW. 



Now tbiB growing^coDBcionsness of w<?ia]ui«66 if^ if, i(— this tr 
tUat takes place, which sooner or lator is allowed to be certuin tu 
come, acts itself as a force on the side of the people. Tltn ** it 
will last onr time" sort of meu soon go the wall in duytt of ival 
popular excitement. Those who rofiiso to look tburoughly iato 
the problems of their owu age and oountry, oamiot foil to taake 
grave mistakee when brought faoe to face with the releiiU':^^ 
necessities of social erolntion, or even with a bodjrof eathaisiastd 
who know their owu minds. Ignoranoe end cowardice inf-uU' 
bly engender spasraodio injosiiee and Imp-hazard cruelty. And 
the worst sort of ignorance is that whicli neglects to take 
aoooont of natural laws, the most hopeless cowardice that whidi 
leads men to shot their eyes to approaching danger. 

Among the upper and middle classes in England to-day tben is 
absolutely no ideal for the future of their country. There is not a 
single idea stirring among tliem which can give hope to the old or 
oan fire the young. Materially it is the same. Neither of the pra* 
ont orgamzi>d Vjirliamentary pames offers to tie m&s of 'Bag- 
lishmen any real change for the better in their uwn condition, (t 
proposes measures which hold out the prospect of a blister let 
for their children. The bills before tlid Uousf of Commouit u 
1^ hoar cxclimvely concern the welfare of the middle eliui, 
conrnqnently there is an utter apathy in relation to them among 
the workers. Wliat does a man who has to keep liis wife am3 
children on five dollars or less a week care about the proTiaioas 
of a bankmptey act, or the assimilation of borongh and ooon^ 
franchise T All he knows is, tiiat somehow or other he his to 
work day in and day out to keep body and soul t^i - *^ ; that 
to-morrow ho may be unable to earn ovon the seam ii-e he 

at present gets ; and that then, f^om caoaefl quite beyond his 
own control, he may have to exchange the sqiialid misery of his 
home for the yet more squalid misery of the poor-bonse. No 
doubt such a band-tomouth workman rar(*ly reflecta on hi» 
social wrongs. Rut, when he does, from thought to action will 
he a very short step. 

Events just now move fast. Landlords, for Inst <:i 

scarcely help observing that in Ireland, despite ooer> 
a revolution is being wrnnglit which can 1w but tlii' ' ^ 

of a complete cliange of system. At first the monii..; ; -a& 
only A middle-class a^tation, yet see what lias Imtu done ia 
two years. Tho fnrniers are still discontent*.-*], but al'- --e 

they are pacified, the day-laborers make themtKlv* •!. 



TES COMING REVOLUTION IN ENGLAND, 



301, 



rho tmagiiiti, however, that the working-classes in Eng- 

Ll not bo inflnenuedr in the long run, by what is going 

on in Ireland, take a very short-sighted view of tho situation 

■ad its surroondiags. However favorable the conditions may 

k^i^ tbift kind of political yeast ferments slowly throagh the 

^■be*! unleavened niasa of tlie people ; but it does ita work all 

^Bte saaw. The undefliied fear that this may b« so aoooonts for 

Vyifl ixneflfflness referred to. What if siinilar stops shonld be 

taken on this ^de of 8t George's Channel T What if Euglish- 

mea and Scotchmen, should call to mind that though the land of 

Irdand is held by 12,000 people against 5,000,000, tho land of 

Great Britain ia owned by only 30,000 against 30,000,000 1 What 

if those who lire on the starvation wages graciously aocorded 

them by the hypocritical fanatics of supply and domand, with 

never the hope of rising above the wage-dave class — what if 

they, ground down under the eeonomical pressure into a deptii 

cd! degradation inconceivable to thoHC who Lave not vitaeesed it^ 

should demand the fruits of their labor from the classes who 

Kve in lnxTir>"on tin* pn)duco of their toil. Wlmt indeed f At the 

very thought of it a chill shudder creeps down the bock of the 

land monopolists and the capital monopolists alike, and they ciy 

■loiid in ohorus for more and yet more tyranny in Ireland, and 

haddle together into a ** LilK:rty ( ! ) and Property Protection 

^League" here. For they know, if " society " and tho workers 

^Hont, that the interests of the producing classes on botb sides of 

^the Irish Channel arc the same, and that should a struggle com- 

menoe it will be a furious cl&ss-w^r between tbe capitalists and 

middle oliiBS aided by the landlords * un the one side, against 

the working-class aided by a few thiukors, enthusiasts, and 

smbitioos men, on the other — a straggle beside which the old 

fight of the biu-gesses and men of the "new learning '^ against 

eand clergy would seem child's play. 
ODgtba wiM^U^ade»lof tbe ConnrrstiTe Partj in tbopMtUi«r*liM 
ucJ8t<Ml aome sort of vaguo hope tli»t an Alliance mifl^t 1)e fornoed 
the UiMJawners bjd'I the people ajfi^^t the cftpitolist*, Mr. DuirarU 
eertuolf Lud this Idea. Bat te carry it into effeflt <!jil]Qd, ami ctWn, for sacri- 
flcM at which OUT Eugtiiih ooblos and sqmTeB ar« quite iucspabl*. They talk 
I hOUly of pKtrioliHm, bat the; always Iceep their bands tight olanobed id their 
brMobe* poekcti. Of late this vfaolfi policy hua been thrown Bsidc vrith oon- 
ttxopi, ftiid Lord Saltebttry and Sir l^taflord Northoote make tio secret of their 
aoxletj to moke eommoa cause with tho plutoeraey in favor of tho "rights 
flf prop ar t j r* against the rights of tho people. A ConxervHtive progmnnM 
tnfly. 



302 



THE NOBTH AMERWAK RBVIBV. 



He who writes the hiirtory of clasa-wars writes the history 
of civilized peoples. A now, and — unless far more wisdom imil 
foresight is displayed by the well-to-do than now seoms likely— 
a bloody page of that history may ere long bo tom^ orpp with 
us here in tiie "Old Homo." In such oircouistanoes what coarse 
Bhould bo taken by any man who wishes well to his ooontxy t 
Surely to try to rea*l anght the signs of tJie tiroes, and to 
endeavor to convince others near and for that in such a hnttlo 
surrender is both nobler and safer for the weaker party than 
inevitable defeat As an Knglialniian who has had special 
opportunities of watehing oar social growth from many points 
of -view. I venture to think that the following may be of somo 
interest to the gr^at English-speaking democracy on tJie wefl(cni 
Bide of the Atlantic Ocean. 

It is a oommunplace to say that a hnndred years is a short 
period in the life of a nation, yet few perhaps reflect how short 
it really is. A man of seventy in this year 1882 — and nowadays 
our English statesmen are, so tft say, in their " teens " at fifty — 
might have conversed as a yonth of eighteen witit his father, 
who, if he had then attained likewise three score and ten ytan, 
eoulJ retain a clear personal remembrance of the events of the An- 
ericau War of Independence, and mnat have passed tbrongh the 
era of the Frencih Hevolution in the prime of manhocMi. Thus 
considerably loss than two ordinary lives carry ns back to a date 
which, in certain respects, social and economical, seems as remot« 
as anoiont history-. It needs au effort of the imagiuatiou to 
recall what EngbJid was in 1782. Keverthclesa, those who have 
studied the years immediately preceding tiie great war with 
France know well that at that tiiuo tJio opinions of edocated 
men were to a large extent in advance politically of what thiy 
are to-day. The writings of Thomas Funs, Priestlwr, IIorDc 
Tooke, Thomas Spenoe of Xewcastle ; the speeches of tite ddt^ 
Pitt, Burke, For, Sheridan, and Colonel Barr6, to say notiiing 
of the crowd of pamphleteers who in one way or another 
reflected the ideas of Rousseau and Yollabe and tb« general 
tone of the working-classes iii their ordinary' talk, all shadowed 
forth a political movement in England not very widdy diifsmt 
in its o1>jects from that which wrought so great a diange is 
France. A hundred years ago the Diike of Richmond fathend 
a bill in favor of universal sufhrsgo and annual parhamtmts, and 
a man was tri**d for high treason liecaaso he agitated for s 
Dational convention. \t \& c^iNsMilAugA. the mans of Bagbshmen, 



TBS COMUtG REVOLUTION IN BNOLAND. 



303 



80 for as they conic] give erpreasion to their opinion, fully 
sympathized with thu early phases of the attack upon the 
QMcieA regime in fVance, and would gladly have followed np 
UiK p<(Hcy so snecpssfully begun in America and carried on by 
ihu Fivncb in the direction of a c4jQiplete eufranchiiieaieutof the 
peuple. 

Yet here wo are to-day without reforms admitted to be 
necessary by Lord Chatham, and considered with a view to 
bnnginf? them fttrward from a Tory point of view by his reao> 
tionar^' son. The present Iloase of Commons, tbougli supposed 
bo represent thirty-five milHuns of people, is really elected by a 
little over three mUliona ; the Uouse of Lordn still baa the power, 
aa it ao disastrously showed by rejecting the bill for compen- 
sating cvioted tenants in Ireland, of thwarting, for a time at 
lout, any genuine liberal measura carried by the so-called popu- 
lar chamber. The Uooso of Commons itself also, elected as 
itated, consists of a compact phalanx of landlords and capitalistSf 
whose interests are directly opposed to thoce of the great body 
of the people. What Thomas Paiue called the game of ride 
ud tie still goes merrily on. Tories and ^Vhigs, ConservatiTea 
and Liberals, take tnm and torn about in cajoling their con* 
stitoeats, and enjoy the sweets of office as the rewiu^ for their 
dexterity. The cost of elections and tJie non-payment of mem- 
bers shnt out all but men of the well-to-do elassesr or ilie two or 
three specimens of the working-doaa who are ready to do their 
bidding. Now it ia clear that there most be some great causes 
to account for this remarkable set-back, since the revolt of our 
Ameriean colonies, and the teaching of vigorous mindB, both in 
Bnglanil and abroad, led the English democracy to look to a 
thorough reform of the contstitution, or even to the establishment 
of a republic as not only advantageous, but necessary. 

Mere political reaction will not folly explain Huch a strange 
coDapse. Donbtless the war against France, into which the 
nation wa« dragged by the aristocratic closft, hod a great effect 
!nio horror, more than half niannfocturcd, which was felt at the 
fate of Louis XVI. and Mario Antoinette, helped the rcac- 
tionkts and the war party. Burko and others did their utmost to 
fkn the flame. The Reign of Terror in Paris, exaggerated by 
Uw calculated panic of the upper classes intensified the popu- 
lar feelitig. And of course when once we wore fuirly at war the 
old dogged spirit of the victors of Cr^cy and Poitiers was rotised, 
the fhtal mirage of glory tempted the soflenug peio^'Ve oii^ «iA 



304 



THE NORTH AUEIUCAN REVIEW. 



iut'Cma] reorgsmzation was practically thnist (isi<l? id fihTor 
naval triumphs and glorious batties. H we lost^ it would ne 
do to be beaten lihe that j if we won, wh v^ all waa going 
Hurrah for old Euglandt To this day, also, the Freoch Bero) 
tion and the Kaign of Terror are ijuot^ iu abnoet eirery middla*' 
class household as standing warnings against any attempt of the 
people to organize themselves in earnest Who shall tKj, xafX^\ 
over, what an influence the common aohool-boolcs have had t 
this direction f Till witliin the last few years all history for the 
young has been compiled in the direct interest of reaction. 2Ji 
the least noteworthy, therefore, among the smaller aigna of 
ing change is the fact that at the present moment efforts 
being made to correct tlie ideas which have been current witk' 
regard to the leaders of the French Revolution among the worit- 
iug-elass. Lectures are constantly delivered and p&niphleta 
tribnted in the growing radical and democratic cinhs, 
run quite counter to the middle-class idea of that 
upheaval. Robespierre, Dantou, St. Just, Conthon, and 
Marat are rehabilitated completely, and held up to admirati 
as men who sacrificed themselves to the good of the h 
race. This, too, though they themselves all belonged to the v 
<^as8 which the extreme advocates of the rights of labor 
monly denounce. 

But deeper causes hare been at work than the shock of 
Reign of Terror or the satisfeotion of martial ardor. At the 
of the eighteenth century the long and bitterly cruel process 
driving the English people from the soil was pretty wdl 
pleted. The idler landlord and the capitalist farmer had qui 
displaced the sturdy yeoman of old time. Commons were 
daily stolen by individnals, and an increasing portion of the 
cultural population now reduced to mere wapp-eamfits to 
farmers, were driven into the towns, where they became 
wage-earners to the factory lords and ahop-keeperft. The i»cm<aA- 
iug power of steam, together with the terrible laws favoring I 
hours and prohibiting combiuation among work-peuplo, 
over the population of the cities bound hand and foot t^i tlie 
ters — tlie sole owners of the means of prodiietioo. The fnrioi 
destruction of machinery, which frequently took |itaee; the Inn 
violent struggle against the masters for sit' 
restriction of child and woman labor ; the poraiBt' t 

the workers, as a class, to obtain some little freedom, — 
how fearful the pressun must have been. Rvadsra of »> niicui 



TUS COMVfO REVOLUTION m ENGLAND. 



306 



sbbett can form some idea of the horrors wreaked on helpless 
'Vomen anil children, of the infamous tyranny practiced upon 
almost equally helpless men by the factory^ownere and their 
managent. The reports of the varions Gommiasions give a still 
more fearful pi<^ture of what went on. So grave was the deterio- 
ration of the physique of the poorer elaseefl in the rapidly grow- 
ig monufactnring districts, that positively a social ooUi^M 
reuteiied from this catuse alone. 

Meanwhile, the whole system of which this was a develcip- 
ment grew ^ace. Education there was little or none ; jastioe as 
betweea employed and employer was not to be had. The work- 
era were trampled under foot to a degree which the slave class 
erea in ancient Rome never stiffered from. In 1825 came the 
first of the groat indastrial crises which can be directly traced to 
our present syirtem of prodnction and the misery among the poor 
in town and cuantry alike was deplorable. Fifty years ago 
affairs seemed really hopeless. Men who still remember the 
sitnation in the years immediately preceding the Reform Bill of 
1832, say tiuit there seemed little prospect of the slightest modi- 
fication. The ahatocraey — though their power bad boon shaken 
'the middle dass — stiQ held, t^i oil appearance, effective eontroL 
lat with rotten horoagfas, sinecures, and bribery, they coold 
do pretty mncb a« they pleased. That very manufacturing 
jrosperity which had enabled the capitalist class lt> amass wealth 
[directly, also enriched the landlords in the shape of enhanced 
renta indireetlr, and thus increased their political strength. 
England was already established as the manufacturing power of 
the world, and tlio one idea of the classes wliich coutroU','d its 
development was that the laborers who made for them all this 
wealth had really no rights at alL But for the activity of a few 
ealf-Mcrificiug men, even the drst factory acts, which in some 
degree checked the hideous crushing down of the people, might 
Lave been delayed for years. 

Thus, from the very time when some hope of real reform bad 
dawned on the minds of Englishmen up to the miserably inef- 
fective measure of 1832 — a period of fifty years — a relentless 
social pressure was going on in the cities and in the country, 
which helped the partisans of reaction to an extent that can 
hardly be estimatwl. England, too, we most never forget, lies 
jontside the great European currents of popular oicitemenU The 
lays of July in Paris ( 1 830) which produced so great an cflEect 
9where, were barely felt hero at aU. Still the eoonomical eon- 



306 



THE NORTE AMERICAN REVtBVT. 



ditions of the workers wero such, and tho political dififranciu»>- 
ment of themaaseflvas so gallmg, that it was clear even then 
that Bome attempt would be made to remedy th<>lr position. M«ii 
of onr day have grown up into liberty, and forget how hard their 
fathers had to fight to maintain freedom of the press, right «( 
poblio meeting, and the like. Tho Chartist movprnrtit, which 
began a few years after 18J2, renewed iu poUlics the I>iike n( 
Bichmond's electoral plan of more than sixty years before — sw 
how slow it goes ! — the basis of tht« pnigramme being manhood 
snSrage, annual parliaments, equal electoral districts, and tfar 
ballot. But below this the leaders had hope of real social 
reforms. Fine fellows, indeed, those leaders were. Some of 
them are living now, aud known to me, and I do thiuk nobkr 
men with higher ide^ have rarely come to the front in Bn^rlif't 
politics. The spirit of the people was once again rising. Thut 
ware of revolutionary movement whieh at times seems to spread. 
MO man knows how, from eonntry to conutry, had begun to 
swell. The anti-oom law u^tation, which went on at the Mim^ 
time, though kept up chiefly in tiie interest of the capitalist 
chuis, served to bring the miseries of their social condition 
clearly before tho mass of the workers. Sack men aii Feurgnc 
O'Connor, Ernest Jones, or Thomas Cooper — to speak oiilv 
of the dead — hoped for a sudden and beutificial eliaupr 
for tho mass of their countrymen. Foreign revolutionists who 
were driven bore just prior to '48, fully beliovwl that in Itii* 
country, at least, with its great factories and iiiipttvcrished work- 
people, its great landlords and miserable agricnltnral laborers, 
its political freedom and general disf ranch Lsement, — that here, 
hero in England, the social revolution would now surely b^in, 
and tho proh-tariat would at length oome by their own. Alast 
prison, disillusion aud death awaited the English leaders; and 
their foreign coadjutors, worn out with waiting, still watch sadly 
but almost hopelessly for the da^rning of the day. 

That nationalization of the land, which is now so eagerly 
debated alike in the East and in the West, was a portion oX 
their creed, and though the true oconoinicjd ex' •' ■' ''■ 
iuduBtri.d phenomena by which they wero sun 
dear to them, most of the Englishmen certainly vnslied to irarr^ 
out a far more thorongh programme than thoy thongltl it pm 
dent to make public. But the movement of 1843 faUed, jianl. 
because the leaders did not know their own minds at thu criticjil ^^ 
moment, but chiofty ToeiiaMse \>ift. ^wi^Ia wore not r«ady for th«?;=i 



THE COHINQ SBVOLUTION IN SNOLANJ}. 



307 



ige, and the social evolution had not, — bas it yeti — vroriced 
'itnelf Dp to the needful puinL Yet the men who wiRhed for an 
immediate recognition might be pardontHl for thinking, in the 
years just preceding the shake of M8, that a complete change 
mold not long be postponed. Ireland was on the eve of that 
fearful frunine vbich ended in the death or expatriation of more 
than a third of her population; England was apiiroaobing a 
period of Kfrinus depreseinn, which could not, to nil app<.<aranoe, 
load to any improvomont for the mass ; all over Europe, as well 
u in the Bhtiab Isles, men bad befrun to say that anarchy could 
not be worse than tlie existing wwini oppression. Xo wonder 
thnt^ in England in particular, tho Well-to-do claBses drew to- 
sthftf in antidpation of prave trouble, and wild schemes of 
cing hostages of tho dan(;hters of the wealthy were discussed 
tho other side. But suddenly the sky clearctl. Emigration 
America and Australia offered an outlet to the more ardent 
ritSf of which they were nut slow to avail themselves. The 
iwells and Hampdens of the movement gUtdly took refuge 
Bjond sea, and expeudc<l thoir energy in new oonntries. At 
same time, the gold discoveries and improved commuiiica- 
I gore a marvelous impulse to trade in every direction. 
who left became comfortable and wealthy; those who 
ntnainvd bad at least enough to live upon. And so the revolu- 
tionary wave of '48, like that of ^89, passed by our shores, caus- 
ing bat the slightest disturbance, and the mass of the people 
wen left still in " that state of life '' in which it pleased their 
"betters* to keep thom. 

From that time fonvard^ tbongh political agitation has been 
abnoBt at a standstill — for what, after all, was the reform move- 
ment of 1966, or, for tliat matter, tho houschuld suffrage it led 
up to t — our development in other directions baa propceded 
.Kith a rapidity altogether unprecedented in human history. 
ikUways, telf^graphs, ocean-steamers, submarine cables, have 
' i thn jK-oplea of the world together, and have enhanced 
.Ith-prodneing capaoity of onr epeoies to an extent the 
could not have foreseen as being possible witliin so short 
> period. Those sciolists who attribute the vast enrichmeut of 
England to firee trade overlook tb<4 fact that the mutery of man 
crer nature has inereased in an almost iramuasurablH ratio dur- 
ing tho last Eve-and-tbirty years. We English, very lightly 
handicapped in the race, witii onr cheap coal, with our densely 



308 



TSS NORTH AMERICAN ll£n£H\ 



cron'dod cities and Bocialized workshops, with tba first-froiuot 
mecbauieal iDventdoD, with accumulated ctipital at oar ocm* 
mand, had the heels of the rest of the world from the start 
During the whole of this period, from 1848 to 1878, wo hod 
almost undisputed control of the markets of the globe. Our 
commercial and industrial centers, London, Liverpool, Mau-I 
Chester, Glasgow, Sheffield, Leeds, Binmng^om, Bnulford, Nvw^j 
oastle, not to mention such places as Middlcsbon/ or BamnrJ 
have increased in population to an extent scarcely to be sar- 
passed even In America. Oar agricoltural population Incl 
meantime decreased most seriously, and mere lounger towDc] 
such as Brighton, Cheltenham, Scarborough, EaatlHuirne, OlC^j 
hare sprung up to afford re&tiog-placcs for the growing nombcr^ 
of the indolent wealthy. But yet it is dear to all that the let^j 
and bounds of commerce, on which our nuddJDM:lai» flnandaaj 
are never weary of congratulating us, have given tax raottl 
wealth to the upi>er elassoH than eomfurt or wcll-heing to Uie 
lower; that riches are roUiug into the lap of the few, wbilv 
the many suffer hideously from recurrent depressions, whiiJij 
sweep away every vestige of their prosperitj* ; that unnwtrict 
competition simply degenerates into combination and rigid 
monopoly, and that the beautifnl theory of supply and demand, 
as applied to the working-classes of Great BritAiD, ppodncei- 
state of things so deplorable that philanthropists wring theizj 
hands in despair, and even the economist backs, whose Imi 
it is to chant the praises of my Lord Capital and nU his 
are sometimes startled into denouncing the ver^* system. 
champion. 

For here in brief is our present position : 

Firsts In no civilized country in the world is there such a 
monopoly of the land as in Great Britain. 

Secottd. In no eoimtry ore capital, machinery*, and credit M 
concentrated in the hands of a class. 

Third. In no country is tliere such a oomplete social aep«r»>i 
Hon between classes.* 



* Thin U ap^vmnt to Iho niMit inperfidal ohservw. Rnt tt it •iwitfsg ' 
Engliubmen of the upper eiBSSM ara atlea Igoonnt Lhat so it » 1%iu< 

well-known Anglo-Iudiau ufficial o( s radioal turn said not losu; nr" VJ 

lag of Indiui iDgisUtion : "Ifegislation In India bi, nf coitne, nn tr 

dlffiettlt than In Kngland. In England, yvxx know. 1/ ? ■ ■■ 

exaetlj'wliat a hoij of men want, vcm joat ask aomv ut \h' 



THE COMTNG REVOLUTTON AY El^GLAifD. 



300 



Hh. In nv coontiy is the oontraet bctwoca the exoessiTe 
of tho few and the giinding' poverty of th« memy so 

Fijlk, In no country* is the njaeUineiy of govemmeut so 
wMnAy in the bancU of the non-prodacing ehuwee, or are the 
people 80 cajoled ont of voting power and due repreiientatioii. 

Sixth, In no coautr\- arc the po<:)|)Le so dependent for their 
jieoBMary food on sources of supply thooBands of miles away. 

Sgomth, In no country is it bo difficult for a man to ritie oat 

the WBge-«aming class. 

Sighih. In no country in the world is justice so dear, or its 
administration so completely in the hands of the governing 
daatscs who make the laws. 

A few figures will bring out some of these }H>ints into high 
lief. 

Tbns, with regard to tho land : Aocordingeventothestatiatiaa 

the Bo-ealled "New Domesday Book," a compilation got oat 
sly in the interests of the landlord^ 2,192 persona hold 
^726,849 acres of the total small area of Great Britain and Ire- 
land, the people having been completely driven from the soih 
Mr. Bright's statement that 30,000 people hold the agricultural 
land of Great Britain is positively very near the trutli. R»okoii- 
iug rents, royalties and ground- rents, it is calculated that land- 
^tmners take not loss than £1^5,000,000 ont of their countrymen 

HC^Boatr and diwius tho liiui&OM gnletiy. Bat in India that eort of soejal 
Hfatfaetioc ia almost imposmblv, or quite oMlms." Now, FI1 be boima to nj-, 
I that vorthj gontleinaD does not number among his iiittmittfi n^qiiaintaneo a 
tia^ indfridnal who works daily at his trade, let alone aBkinK^rato <Unnfrr. 
Tet oar modern jorlst would legislate for him aud liic. with Uio profound 
OOOVfotion that th<> riglit Uiing had been done. Probably the idea of what 
tfae men wanted wonld be lilter«<d through on employer ; and he, doohtleoa, 
woolddiDe. 

The other day a great capitalist — & member of tho present laboral Qot- 
mntMDt — gave an entertainment to the repreaentatiTefl of the worldng- 
DMn'a elube of London at Lbo Sonth Konaington Mnseom. It wai all TBry 
ntee. Tm told, bat the tone of the fite waa prei^ mooh the aama aa it mut 
hrnn boen at a gathaiing eaU«d 1^ a teodal lord of old time, when he oon- 
deaeezideKl to regale hie retainenwith a roasted ox and "OxingB." Mot a 
aingic middle clana or npper class nan waa aflke<L Of course I am not say- 
faig that the working-classes are not as mnoh to blame for this Rtate of things 
a* iboae who lAlrouixe them. I think thoy arc. No vae vrill giro them the 
■Wial equality they have a right to unloae thoy claim lt> — of that we may aU 
Im vary nn. 



310 



THE KOSTB AMEBJCAIT nEVJKW. 



owing to the monopoly they enjoy. Much of tiiifl ra«t r«'ci:ii 
is, no doubt, hea^Tly incumbered. This, however, maki* it 
betted, but rather worse, soeiug that the tnort^ges cripjtlc tli 
p08M68or and previ^nt him frotn making irnpruvcinent^; icl 
there is no personal relation whatever between the mortgagee uid' 
the tenants or laborers on the mortgaged estate. Bad Muaw 
and Anieriean eompetitiou in years of scarcity kis-ping piieBi 
low have^ it is reckoned, reduced the value of land in Eaglanil in 
many distrieta not less than twenty-five per cent. The p* 
contage of bankruptcies and the registration of biUs of sale 
among farmers have of late years been something distrcaao?, 
and afi it is impofisiblo to grind the agricnlturAl laborer down 
any lower — his average wages ore but three doUars a wt 
and farmers chai^ him at the rate of eight pounds to twei 
ponnds an aero if he wants a plot of the land, whii-h w 
by tlie landlord to the farmer at £1 or £1 ll>s. — and 
farmers can't continue to pay rent out of capital^ a 
change must be close at hand. Agriculture ia still by far 
most important industrj*, involving the employment of mem 
capital and labor than any other. The ralu4 of agrioollnnJ 
prodnee alone is taken at tlirce hundred million pounds a xt 
on the average. A few years ago Hr. Caird put the landlc 
agricultural rents at sixty-seven million ponuds. A qrstcn 
the present, which has no elasticity whatever, and acta aa a ' 
live injury to the community, cannot possibly last much 
When reforms begin they will not stop short of the point wl 
takes in the agrioullural laborers. 

Who can wonder that, as it is, we are so dependent on 
eign countries for an over-increasing amount of food. Lw 
Ireland aside, the popidatiou of England, Wales and $<x>tlaiiJ ii 
1840 was, in round figures, 18,000,000, or mther over. In \m^ 
it was 10,000,000 more, or 28,000,000. During that period agii;^ 
cultural science has greatly advanced, and machinery, imjwruT*: 
conuuunications and the hke have increased the area of 
able cuKivHtinn. In 1840, however, wo imported a total 
of £27,000,000 worth of food ; in 1880 we iini»urted no 
£164,615,012, and this amount is steadOy increasing. Tet'^ 
the opinion of such experts as Mr. Lawes, Mr. Caird. 
I»cic<!ster, and ulhera that, under proper arrangV!? 
twice the amount of food might bo .profitably gr 
firitain that is now raised, and oar enormona importsiHi 



TSE COMINO REVOLUTION IN ENOLAXD, 



3U 



hiced to that extent. Tlio grave dau^>r of tbo dopendenoe 
ijHin sea-borne food vhich might be cut off during war with aaj 
ivol power^ it is needless to insist npnn. Knoagh that from 
point of view alao the land qaeetioa demands immediate 
ud emtio n. 

Bat again, to show the operation of cupitnJ and its absorption 
the general wealth. In 1B41 the wealth produced in Great 
Iritaiu has been tAlten al £514,000,000, tliough this seems an 
'orereBtunate ; at pret<eut the annual wealth pn>duccd can 
soareely be less £1,200,000,000. The working-dasa^'s, however, 
who produce this, take a very small share of it in return for their 
labor. The actnal number of workers cannot be put at more 
than ingbt millions — though this is a <iifnnuJt ti^m to gt't at — 
and the power they exert has been estimated at not \q&$ than that 
of one thousand millions of men. Yet the average wages of the 
working-classes certainly do not exceed fifteen ehlllisgs a week, 
and the totid amount paid to them would uot bo more than 
three hundred million pounds, as against nearly nine hundred 
Bulliou pounds absorbed by the upper, professional, and middle 
classes, in one shape or another. The last cose shows, too, that 
while the prcHluoing class is not increasing so rapidly in propor- 
tion ns the nou-produeing classes, including domestio 8er^'ants, 
the aetnal panpcr class is not decreasing. Ur. Russel Wallace 
eren estimates those who are more or less dependent on charity 
tt 4,500,000, out of our total poptdation of 28,000,000. 

Nor is there any possibility that nnder existing conditions 
this state of things will be altered. The tendency of improved 
machitien,-, used, nut in the interest of the j)eoi)k' at large, or 
under tht-ir control, but simply to enablo manufacturers to 
undersell their neighbors and produce cheaply, is to create a 
*^ binge of labor'* always hanging on the skirts of the market 
ready to be absorbed in periods of " good trade," only to be 
thrown out i^aiu when tho inevitable glut and stJignation fol- 
i)w. As to getting out of tho wage^^aming class, tliat, as a rule, 
ho|>ele^ and even if one fortunate artisan does, he but shoves 
, more needy man into his place. Sinec tho beginning of this 
jntory there have been ^o seven industrial crises, and the 
jshing effect of those upon the rank and file of laborers, as 
aa upon the small shop-keepers who live uj>on selling them 
ies and trifling lnxnriee in amall quantities, can only be 
lown by those who have seen the housets of the poor sold up 



312 



THE 2fOaTS AMEBKUy BEVIEW. 



and whole famiUes drivi>n on lo tlie "parish'' from no fml) 
irhatover of their own. Yet heru in England, drawing weftllh 
from all parts of the earth, no effort Thaterer is made ti> dis- 
tribute this wealth more fairly among the people. The luxuriou 
olaGses are qnite content to see their taxable profits alone nted 
at fifty million pnnnds, while below men are glad to wor' ' ^ 
seveuly-AvG cents a day, and eases of slieer 8tar\*atii>u ■^■. 
common. 

Once more as regards politics. That the House of LonUis 
a houiie oi landlord^^ is a tnte saying ; hut it Is worse, fur suuj 
of their "lordshipa" are landlords and capitolistx at the eaut 
time; and they, (jonsequently, no lunger^ as in former times, 
exen^ise any control over the capitalist daas. Look, howenr, 
at the composition of the House of CoramoDs, eletited, as I htm 
already said, by a majority of the adult male popiilntion, and » 
arranged that no poor man can possibly sit in it withonl lidp 
from others. The interests of the aristoaraey are ri^pn.*«enl«d 
there by 1G5 members; there are no fewer than 191 lond-ownen; 
bankers, traders, lawyers, manofaoturers, brcwera, etc^ sun op 
to 285. Ont of a hoose of 658 inemborB in all, but two meto- 
hers helung to the working-class — a hal^enny-worth of hrcad, 
indeed, to this intolerable deal of saek. 

Now hero, surely, is the making altogether vt a very pr^-m 
overtura if ouce the working^cIoBses understand their poM- 
There can be no mistake whatever aliout that. KuverlliL'lt.^i£. 
the external aspect of affairs for the moment is tranqoil ia the 
extreme. Never were the people, to all appearance, so duU 
Our agitators say that men have not half the spirit of the work- 
ers of twenty years ago, to say nothing of the Chattiste of '^ 
This is, to a great extent, tme, and the reasons for it are art 
far to seek. 

In the first place, the capitalists are more than «vftr macta* 
of the situation. Almost the whole press and Htr f :' ' 

country are devoted t« their cause. The work';-;_ . . :li'.' 
are free, and for the most part are quite ignorant of the t^^ 
that tlie wealth they see around them grows out of their (to'iilj 
paid bbor. Thon^ they can, as a hody, /pd the iron U* "i 
wages, though they feel the effects of tWs law in ortrnwi 
and short food, they still take it all for granted, and ihni^ 
— those that do think — that chance, or good times, or t«^ 



THS COMINO DEVOLUTION ZJf SNQLAND, 313 

strikes, may improTo tbeir condition.* Of the abftoIiit« 
leeessntj for general social and politieal oombiimtiou to briug 
about gcDoiue reforms, they know at present almost nothing. 
[onM>ver, above thie rank and file of laborers there stands 
le aristo«racy of labor — the trade-unions, who, though they 
kT6 done admirable work in thtt past> now block the patii 
radicAl reform. As an old trade* anion iRt said of tlii*in the 
other dfty, thoy are a standing protest against tho tyranny 
of capital, without the slightest idea of progress. Their lead- 
ers, to<), «v, almost without exc^^ptJon, more or lesa in the 
pay of tho ukpitalists — Liberals who^ in effect, usa them to 
keep back their fellows. This game has been played for years. 
If a working-man shows himself capable, ho is flattered ; and, 
fio &ir OS anything iu tlio shape of real revolutionary work goes, 
^^ squared.'' t It is amoaing to see members of the Trade-Union 

^^P *It U CroQi this iron law of vogvs that Uars hftfl formulfttcd Ua fiuiiOBS 
^^HbeoTery of snrplo!! voIdp. A man &p«opta trata shi-er D(?<.-es5Jty the compe- 
^^ition wmf[es of hta timo, and n^lU bin force of labor to tho pspitaUxt for th« 
WMk <n tbfl day. Bot in two or tiireo hounr' work— Ur. W. Hoyl« tihj^ on thfl 
*t«nkgei otie uid one-qoArtt^r hoiint' work — be will produce quite etiOQ^ 
■oei»l Ubor-valne to koop him or to r^fmid tho wb^m tho onpitalist pafx him 
at th* end of tho wor% or day out of tho rosolta of hU toil Tho labom-, how- 
«mt, does not wofk tbene two or throe houn a day only, he works t«n, twelvo, 
foart«*«n, er«n Kixlei^n, hoora a day; for he hna sold Us lubor-forco to the 
capitAlift, who caa '' exploit" tl to BJiy extent. Tho»e extra honra, tbereforei 
orer and nbove the time needed to crc«to tho amount of vcJtio represented 
l)j the wagee ninply cooatitule so innoh unpaid labor which the capitaliBt 
taltps in the afaspn of tJin snrplus va1ni> created by the labi^ront — the artialee 
of ntlUty, namely, on which bo tioa heen employed. That anrploa valne the 
Mbial iiapltalist divide* up with landlords, bankerf<, pra&t-moogera, and 
Othar t^uUemea at IsTge. When a workman first tliorooghly graapa thb 
Dire littlr* jngKleiy which in going on at his expense, he it) apt to get a tii5e 
wann in the expreuion of hia love for the capitalist and "»oeI«tj''in gen- 
■raL How odd! 

t TIm trade-onioniJitfl are a snuUI traetion of tfio workpeople of England, 
yet they oooBtantly pom aa if they reprenentod tho whole body. There 
ootild be no greater abmidity. They are not even agreed among thenuelvei 
OR any nutter of moment ; and are, in truth, to-day a courention or rather a 
raaetiaoary lxid> full of tjie oM "fads'^ alxjiit limitation of apprentieea and 
thu like, though meanwhile maohtnery le practioally aboliahing the nkUlfut 
baodlonftanian. The plan purtued by the oaplt«lieta ha« been very astute. 
They have found money for workinf^laefl movemoiite juat enough to carry 
Ihea La tho |>nint whisre danger inieht begin. Tlien the lupport hu been 
wltMrawQ. Thl» eystem vf pauper politict ha< debauohud mimr a prumislng 
wwidog-olaee leader, aa I intend to show aome day. 



3U 



THE NORTH AMESICAH SEVmW. 



Parliamentary Committee bntton-lioling members in tii&i \tm^ 
democratic of all gathenng'>p)aocft, tlio lobby of ih» Hoom at 
Cummons, bowiiig and scraping, indeed, wb«i), if the wtvt 
era knew tbcir real position, they would tallc as maeten. Bit 
this sort of thing Till not go on forever. Eoonomioal pR» 
ore is beconuDg too strong. We ore no longer absolnto mat 
ters of the murkotij of the world ; the deprussiun in agricnltare 
serionsly affects the home trade; bnsineBS t£ dull, oven tn 
the height of summer weather, and the next industrial criiu 
may absolutely force the working-clasws to sink their petty 
jcalonsics, and the trade-nnions their fancied enperioritr, in 
a more thorough movement than any yet contomplalod. 
while there are not wanting signs that another order of ret 
tionary agitation has began to ri^e. All through 
political clubs are being formed, at which aocial change* of 
most complete character are warmly discussed. The aame! 
the provineoA. Everywhere the elaini£ of labor to control 
daction arc being dcbat«d by knots of workmen • and invartat 
8o far as my cjcpexience has gone, from the socialist point of 
I do not say that there are many who are yet prepared to 
action — there are not; bat the number of workers who aiv 
taktni;^ the tronble to oongider is increaung with snrpriflisg 
rapidit}'. For iiuttanee, little more than a twtilvetnouUi a^ 
a few English men and women, moitly of the WDridng^bos, 
started the organization known as the Demooratic Fedf 
The programme includes the folleet possible representatiuu 
the people, and claims tw them full power over cvoiy 
ment of tha State. Among its other aims ore to obtain 
justice, nationalization of the land, and evoDtuolly the (rontrol < 
the machinery of production by the working-class. Alr^iidr 
have held some of the largest open-air meetings ever h^-ld 
London, «nd have lieen almoet equally successful in the ia^t 
trial centers of the conntry. This shows in itself that tiic pel 
cal and social stagnation is rather apparent than real ; that muc^ 
is going on of which no account is taken by Uioso who witili 
to see." 



' Th« following la the proftnunine of tba Domwmtia PodonUioB, m i 
M(1 BAnctJonod at the Jut eouferenoo: (1) AdiUt Bufrnge: <3) Amal 
Parliaioeiits ; (:i) Proportiooal BeprMaotkliou; (-t) I'ttjunnl a( llNitt>*n> 
SDilolHUclroLiuii expcuM-a oat of the rates ; (S) BrilKr;, treatlac, sb^c^ 
rapt praeUees at eleetion.1 to be mada Aots of feloov; (tl) AboIHIoo of tte 



ms coMmo REVOttrriosr ix EifOLAND. 315 

More obriooa tokens of coming change, boweTer, are not 
VBntiiig. Tho House of Commons, whieii has for thrw c<!nturiee 
exorcised imch prepondrraDt miluflU(!« in the State, is falliu4; iuto 
Dai vtFTsal discredit. TliLs is by no means wholly due to the strain 
vhioh lias bcfin pat upon all its traditions of free epoech by the 

P<l«CMmunation of a Li>>cral gnvemment to introdnce undisguiaed 
isin in Tivland against th>) jimt^'sts of the ropri^soutatives 
overwhcUuing majority uf Irishmen. The deterioration 
ignn before.* First of all, the House, which ahonld repre- 
•OQi uie nation, became merely the scene of party fighUi and fao 
tioa squabbles, and thug it has degenerated into little better 
Uian a msiTliuie for regist«ring the decrees of the cabinet — a 
body, be it remember^ quite unknown to our coustitntiou. 
Even worse than this are the long, almost interminable utter- 
aaoes of wearisome members on matters of no moment. Let a 
loeal question be once started, and all the iMtrcft in the House are 
immediately in full cry. They arc sure to know all about it^ 
it is so ntiitnportaiit. But still mon* depr^sKing is the dend level 
tjf ni«*lit>erity among the younger nifii on both sides of the 
BoDse of Commons. Tho traditions of oratory seem to haw 
twled out from among them, and men look blankly around to 
■ee whieh uf the industrious and pfunstaking gentlemen now 
posing as budding statesmen may artfnlly eoneeol under his 
apparent duUnoss the qualities requisite for letulorsbip in these 
stirring tiuies.t Formerly it was not so. tiladstone, Cornwall 
Lewis, Bright, Hartington, even Forster, DiBraeli, Lord Robert 

Homo ei Lordft u>d of all beredjtary authorities; (7) LegiftUtire Indo* 
pendence for IrelHOil ; (9] National and Federal P&rluuneiitH, Including Rop. 
roMBta^D of Colnuleannd DepoodenoiM; (0) NstionaUsatlon of theUud; 
(10) DiBsetablUhniQiit and Diieodowiu«nt of aU State CliarobeB; (11} Free 
JtKtictii (I'j) Tbu Riglit of ftliJnng Troalivs, of Dvcl&ring War, or Con- 
ehuBtig Peace to be veiitod in Uio direoL n^presentalivt^o of tiie people. 

' TUk point was admirably put tho other day in tlie "Newoairtle Chron* 

Thin journal bnlongs to Ur. Joseph Cowen. the member for New- 

U»-<iD-Tynp, and iit almoiit (ho ontj* nc-witpapcr in tho Viiigdom which treat* 

slilioa and social (jaMtioDa from an Independent rlemooratic point of ricw. 

tl bat repeat bcr« what ta common talk among political people. It is not 

' ol«Tar young men. in other reiqiecta are vranting among the metnben. 

MO wxita and lootiirv very well. What is laoUng ia that indeaerllia- 

•uorgy, lodepmndonco, imiginatiQa, eloqnenoe — that geonine political 

Mpsei^. In sborl, Mibich poabei s man to tlie front almort iii tpito of him- 

miL How ia it tho Irish memlmra stAnd out from the rack I Sorely beoause 

they ba'\'e a canee wUdi they lielieve in, and have a peopln at their baok. 

vol* cxxxv.— NO. 311. 23 . 



316 



TBE HOSTS AMEEZCAIf SEVIBW, 



Cecil, Gathome Hardy, had early given evidenoe of 
whifth pould fire a democracy or influeaoe ii senate. Wbit 
IB tbere ttmoug tfao BngHKli members under forty or fivb'S&d* 
forty — which is it of the loiidlordiug and consprvntive moi 
1>ags on the one side or the plutocrata, prigs, and profeason 
the other, of whom the like eonld with truth be said t Thr 
is, iandlurdii and uupitalists are alike played out. Their 
finanoe is stuck in a blind-alley. They neither of them 
polioy they can affect to believe in for themaelves or with 
thcT' can hope to stir the polsea of the people. In a wonl. 
House of Commons, as at present constituttHl^ is little more 
a middlfMjlttss debating club, with a party wire-puller tn ilia 
speaker's chair. To revive the memory of ita ancient giortM it 
must far more directly represent the hopes and fears, aspirattooi 
and grievances of the great body of EngtishmeOj nniat gSB 
strength and vigor in the free, bluff air of demooratio a^t 
and trust in the future to the mass of the people for fli]pport.J 

Meanwhile the very discredit of the p8endo-po|nilar 
bor prepares the way for rootrand-braneh reform. 
who is denounced as a revolutionary agitator, is n?aUy Uit> 
of the great middle-class transitionists, and with his disap{H 
ance a neir era will begin. An agitation for the abolition u( 
House of Commons would even now find adhmvnts. A little 
more, and the idea of a hundred years ago will spring agaio. 
and a national convention may foroe its way to the front Tt 
have outgrowu our political swaddling-clotiies, and in any oi«! 
constitutional forms are but the outcome of tlie social uA 
economical structnre beneath them. As Uiat ehaages, so mvA 
they. 

This decadence of Parliament is of conree only a qrtupton. 
But oTitnide, also, straws show which way the current is setting'' 
Apparent stagnation, general mediocritj', almost aoiveraBl liii' 
lessncss in grave ooncems, indifference to anything but tbe 
Buperfioial aspects of events — those precede alnioat e v er y grMt 
upheaval which the world has seen. To take au example «f 
indifference. Among the nglieet growths of modftm stHJi'ty >n 
the nnraerouB gangs of organised rou^is-^ answering to tk< 
hoodlums of America or the larrikins of Australia — who \anAit 
our great cities, and too often, not. content with mauling ooe 
another, maltreat the peaceful wayfarer. Yet in all the eritiinsW 
of the anonymous press on their action, from the ** Daily TbW 



THIS COMING REVOLUTION Uf EiTOLAXD. 



317 



*' upvard, not one writer took the trouble to ftualyze tfa6 
iftanner in whidi these people were fosterwl into their present 
brutality. Again, of late there has been a surprising increase 
of vagrantA and loafers — many of thorn, by the way, trained 
toilitiameu or disubarged shortrservice reg^ilars, who would be 
ugly fello-nrg in a street fight with their discipline and despera- 
tion — men who already render the highways by no me-ans plea9- 
anl tmveling for foot-passenprers. In some districts tramps of 
this kind have increased ten-fold in number during the last few 
yeara. Here, one would think, was a socml phenomenon calliDg 
for careful attention. Why are able-bodied men and women 
thus roaming the country f What are the causes which render 
lem homolt'ss, forlorn, and therefore dangei-ousT A bill for 
letr repression was lately brought in by Mr. Pell, a Conserva- 
»re, and Professor Bryce, member for the Tower Hamlets, 
a "philosophical" Radical. Neither professor, nor scholar, 
any otht^r homan being in the House of Commons, consict- 
«rod the question from the point of view that society might be 
to blame. lu the House of Lords, when the bill went there, my 
Lord Salisbiuy and my Lord Fortescuo said matters wore getting 
teriooB, and such ruffians ought all to be put under prison 
regimen. First drive men to waut and misery by social injus- 
tice, and then punish them because, poor devils, they roam the 
country* in search of food. Bravo, my lords and gentlemen, the 
bloi.Kly legislation of Queen Eli/ul>uth against " the sturdy beg- 
gars ** will soon be revived at this rate. 

Once morei. Here in London the number of the nnemployed 
iuw Bwolleu to almost an alarming extent, even during the sum- 
mer months. Idle, good-for-nothing, drunken fellows, said the 
litoliiit press; let tht^m 8tar\-e or go to the work-house. A 
riend of mine, a journalist of ability, who had been for two 
in South-east Europe, was shocked at what ho saw on his 
, and took up the quet^tion. He soon found that the great 
majority of these thousauds of worhlees people were ueithi^r idle, 
gCM>d-for-nothing, nor drunken. But the case of most of them 
miiiiiiiiiil to him desperate. H«ady to do almost anything, theo^ 
Was Uttrrally no work for them to do. My friend sent a note of 
his inqainea to a well-known Liberal jofimaL It was better, so 
wroie tlto manager in reply, not to call attention to such mat^ 
ten. ** It coiild do no good." Thus the easy olasses are shut 
oat from even knowing what misery there is below them^ 



SIS 



TOE KORTB AMERICJJT BETIEW. 



which any overturn eau only improve — while what may be the 
result of such neglect lq a troubled time no one stops to confilder 
for a moment A few other instances, and I have dona Whiit 
is called the "swcatinj'' system is iiiercasing in oTCry diivction, 
with the i-esnlt that young women actually work fourteen hou« 
a day, for six days in the week, fur a dollar a week, out of whieb 
they have to Qnd house-rent and food! Several oasca of thu 
awful slavery have lately ftgTued in the polioe eourtji. On Ui« 
railways and cWwhero thu tendency is to increase both lonpth 
of the hours and int«u8ity of labor to a point which means ooo- 
tinaous fodiaustion and early death — the deMh-rate of tbe 
working-classes is in itself a leeson when placed by the adu 
of that of the well-to-do. Lastly, the increase of prostitatioo, 
eepeeially of very young women and children, of late ye«r> it 
alone enough to show the utter rottenness of oar society. And 
yet, I repeat, all this paaaes almost without notice. Our statei* 
men and ee^nomifits, onr journalists and philanthropists, oor 
poUticians and jurists cannot but know these things in a sort uf 
way ; bat, as to attempting to correct them, that \b qtute aaotho' 
aflFair. • 

Now, let any intelligent American — he can find similar 
things, or not very different probably, within a stone's throw of 
him at home — come. with me into fiome of the dwellings of the 
poor. Here, for instance, is a hard-workiug family living in t 
sinple room; they can afford no more. Father and mother, two 
daughters, almost grown upj two boys and a little girl, pig 
together in it as best they may. The court is crowded, tho 
dwelling insanitary, the lur unwholesome. Yet the two Iwn 
and the girl g(> to tho b^ianl aeho'il for ''education,'' and relHrn 
with just enough knowledge to enable them to appreciate thar 
social surrouudings. They will, at least, be able to read and 
write, and know what is going on. Are they likeJy to incn^M 
the ranks of "conservative working-men f or to ro«t cootral, 
tmless humored with beer and tobacco, with arrangemeutH w1i;<>>i 
thus bmtify them f I judge not In the agricultural rr^ [ '. 



* Tfae ineremaa of lozarr among the npper snil nridtUn rUinwr It pM^ 
ttvely nmazing. Only the otbor day I wvnt itraiffbt from ft warkiapnao'* 

work-room to the Harrow and Eton nutob. laU w-'i-" "■- »■- '- ,tf ptm- 

Ability, I said to mytelt, Uiat, with tlie SDbool-inast*' . %wfal 

oontTfeM betWMn the waste of the few and tbv pliiv-iuug ui uio cubo/ an 
longeotObneT 



TBS COMJyO REVOLUTION IN ENGLAND, 



319 



liere there is plenty of room. I Lave seen nmLugemeDts quite as 
Educate childjreo, and tlieu seud them back to sw!b vou- 
titiona u these: is not thia to prepare revolatioa with both 
; 1 Stfll we hoar the old fatefnl aaswer, it will laet oar 
I say it will uot 
' For, apart from the lecturee of which I have spoken, booka, 
iph1e>ls aiid fly-le-aves are finding their way intti workshop 
id attic, which deal with the whole social question from VtiQ 
Ttrry bottom. Theories drawn from Dr. Marx's great work on 
ipitol, or from the profrramme of the Social Democrats of Oer- 
manjr ftnd the Collectivists of Franee. are pnt forward in a cheap 
readable form. Mr. Henry Oenrge's work on " Progress and 
>Terty,'' also, has already found many wnrking-class readers, and 
And more when the cheap edition is ready. The same with 
)r Wallace's book on "Land Nationalizatinn," thongh 
icr of these writers meets the views of the advanec*! school 
OD the subject of capital. Hut tho pamphlets and flyleaves — 
tome of wlueh are written by men actnally working at their 
tnde — produce a still greater effect. Our workers hare but lit- 
tle time, and too oftt^n little taste, for reading. With them, 
^^uorefore, short, pithy truct.s are the ones that tell.* 
^H In support of the views I hold as to the approach of a trcmb< 
^^Htt time, it 18 seareely necessary that I shoidd ri^>fer to the 
^^Pvirth of the Salvation Army, though this strangi? combination 
of the Convulaionista of the pre-rovolntionary epoch in Franco 
and the women's whisky war iu America is, thoughtfully coosid- 
end, significant enough. Moreover, in the really serious con- 
flicts which have taken place between processiong of these 
enthusiasts and the roughs, neitJier the poUoe nor the magls. 
tratea have shown mnch more capacity than they have displayed 
in dealing with the gangs in Lcmdon. While the elements of 
(litonltT thus gather apace, the omtrolling power seems smitten 
with a sort of paralysis. Outbreaks of brutjU savagery are 
thought worthy of far mure leniency than a paltry theft )>y a 
starving woman. At the opposite pole to the Salvationists stand 
the Secularists, who are iu their way quite as l>igoted, while the 
improper exolnsion of their leader — I had nearly said their 

lOM who Iwra r«wl Paul Lools Coarla's briUiniit "Psmphlet des 
ietM" wUl require no farther ^Tideneo of th» inflacneit which the 
ipklflC hu hkd on oirUlsed mfio. Tbose who hare not will tbaok me for 
oatUaf their atteutioa to UiKt ranoiu Uttl« btooburo. 



320 



THE SO&TH JMERIOAH REVTSW. 



pope, for Mr. Bradlaugh brooks no contradiction in hia Atbe 
tie ehurch, and has long sinoe regietorLKl Ui^s right to inf* 
b^ity — from the House of Commuus bos given them a l^;itiinafce 
grievance to agitata abont 

Aa to the Church of England, she has Btood so many shodu 
and arhisms without a topple, that even the growing feisliDg 
against all state chnrcbee majr take aome time to npaet h«r. 
NevertholesH^ many of the rising young parsons themseWca 
denounce the alliance vhich the ecclosiastical hierarchy has 
made with the mammon of norighteonaneaa, and proelaiu 
aloud that whatever modoru Christianity may find it con- 
venient to allow, the religion of Christ means more ur Usm ood- 
plfite communism. How many of these audaeions young men 
irill mik their principles in fat livings and preach gcnoral sub* 
sorvicnce to snoriug laborers^ I should be sorry to estimate. 
Enough that the ideaa are abroad quite apart from indiridua] 
baokslidings. If religionists of any '* stripe " niah to gain a per- 
manent hold on the woricera nowadays, they mant oombine the 
prospect of material improvement in this world with the promise 
of eternal happiuoBS in the next. Otherwise the indifferenor of 
the mass will be too much for them, the singnlar success of the 
Salvationists notwithstanding. 

Bnt some may say this gloomy picture yon paint for ns is too 
mnoh of one color : Is thoro no ray of light to irradiate the land- 
scape t For the great mass of the working-people of Bnglanil. 
under present social conditions, I say deliberately — none. On 
the oontrarj', the ftitnre ae«ms to be for them darker than ever- 
For nowadays we are not aa in 1848: the outlets are blocked; 
industrial crises when they come sie universal ; capitalifim dom- 
inates the planet* Electricity, which is already oleariy seen to be 
the great force of the future, and which bears the same relation 
to steam that steam did to the old horse-power — this ilUmit- 
able engine of production is also going without heed or pro- 
test into the hands of the capitalist class. The anarchy uoo- 
sequent npon the existing system of production and exchange 
will be only intensified thereby; the "fringe of labor,* the 
vagrants, the paupers, the residuum, in shorty will be intTcoMd ; 
the ri(!li will l>ecome yet richer ; the poor, poorer still. Even as 
I write the process is going on ao plainly that ho who run$ mitT 
read the result written on the faces of the people. An ritpital 
rolls up into larger and yet larger maaaea, the small ehop-keeper 



TOE COMiyG MErOLUTIO!f IN ESOLAim. 



8Sl 



pis onuhfld out b^ the cooperative aeeoeiations and fjie great 
TDAganne gtores ; hnge corporations carry oq bosiness withoat 
the subtest regard for the human machines they employ. So 
the whuel revolves, grinding ever tsinaller the mass of mankind 
beneath. 

Bevolntion ! What havo the workore to fear from rovola- 
tion I Their life is one porpehtal pfvolution. They are never 
sore of their home or their Uvelihood from one week to another. 
It \a reckoned that the working elaeses of London all ehange 
their homes onco in every two and a half years. And thaw 
homea, bear in mind, become dearer and worse as times go on. 
The Tery improvements in our great eitios mean closer crowding 
and worse aiH;onmiodation for those who really make the nation's 
wealth. What have they to fear from a general overturn f 
Nothing. And ere long theyll know this. '' We livixl in gar- 
rets forty years ago, we live in garrets now," said one of the most 
aotive of the old (^artistfi, who has lived and agitated to the 
present time. Nor must the fact be overhtoked that tliu great 
nuKhine industries, so far more developed here than in any other 
eoontry, though they have been the means of keeping the peo}^ 
down, hav6 also taught them how to combine. 

Thus, thou, discontent is growing with existing grievances; 
the same economical pressure which produces the discontent and 
grievances leads to combination ; the present lot of the workers 
it so bad as a whole that they are beginning to think no change 
aonild be for the worse ; ideas are gradually spreading among 
them which would lead them to strive for a complete over- 
throw; there is no authority above which commands their 
reiqtect or seriously strives to improve their condition, and 
the very increase of man's power over nature senea but to 
render their case worse. The working classes of England must, 
in the near future, be either rulers or slaves; aud they are 
dowly, very slowly, learning that the choice rests with 
them. A serions foreign war would very soon bring the whole 
to a head; for assuredly the mass of Englishmen would never 
•gain submit to heavy sa<Tiflces, which would only benefit 
the govemiug classes.* Democracies fl^bt, no doubt, bnt they 
fight for an idea or for their own hand. That revolntionary 
current also wliieh is moving beluw the surface in all £urupeau 

* As I write, the mlMra'bl» EgjptUn fighting bron^t opon ni \ij imiO' 
IvtfOB sad tacspftolty bu began, sod Alex&atlria liea in roiiu. 



322 



TUE NORTH AMSRlCAif REVJOBW. 



countries can ecarcely fail this tame to affect ns. The impolse 
will probablj? come from without ; but, ooltiss we were alnacfy 
prepared, it would have little effect. When suoh ideas are spread- 
ing, it nix^ but a spark to fire the train. 

If, however, the country is at present in a bod ooi 
for the many, which all must admit, there is etill not 
evideneo that the English |x^tlpIe, under better arrangot 
would soon rise to the level of tiie most glorious periodti of our 
past history. Those very lads who now fall into the dangerous 
elawes from sheer i(^orauoe and bad management — Uicre art, 
aceordiug to the police, at least three hundred thuuctand fuch in 
London alone — form, if taken early and tbon>ughIy fed 
trained, the flower of our navy. The race is really as capable 
OVIST. In America, in Australia, all the world over, the An( 
Saxon blood i& stall second to none. It is high time, tiicn, t] 
the great body of EugUsbmeu should take up their herih 
that they should make cununun cause with their Iriali bretbren,! 
well in England as in Ireland, in one continuous effort to 
the workers of both peoples from class d<jmination anc 
greed. There is enough and to spare for aU. Let, th< 
men and the women who make the wealth of these islands Lul 
those bunglers who trade upon their welfare stand back; l«t 
them trust to themselves alone to hand on a nobler indajruiil 
England to thoii- children, sinking all petty jenlonsies, nu» 
hatreds, and personal selfishuess in the endeavor to 
health, home comfort, and true freedom for tlie millions 
now have neitlior happiness nor hnpe. Then, iudeed^ tbal 
couc^-iitmtiou of pripulation which, under our present systoiu ' 
unrestricted competition, results in squalor, degradattuD, wd 
misery, will bo our strength, our safety, and onr grarttfi 
resource. Then, indeed, Englaod may hold out to all naliuo* 
aa example of social reorganization, which may yet give her u 
nngnidged supremacy among the peoplps of the world. Swli 
an England I for one sec before ns in the future: to bring about 
such a reorganization, I, for one, will never cease to strivft 



THE MORALLY OBJECnOX.VBLE IN LITELVTrRE. 



Tbe theoiy that literature ta simply an expression of hnnuu 
erience, and changes form with the clmracter of the sgus in 
rhich men give voioe to tht^ir thoughts, baa an importAnt bear- 
on OUT jndi^ient of literature itself. Tho theory, at^ appre- 
»endc-d by it*i most prominent U'a^bers, is thought to CKehide tiie 
;tion of a divine mind on one side, and of on infernal mind on 
le other. Even genius, as implying exception to Hcientiflo roles, 
elmt out M. Taine, for example, tric-s to reduce Shake«peap« 
rithin the limits of hia time. No eternal men, no uniTorsal 
iteratores are allowed. Bibles, being clasRified witli human pro- 
lactionR, are foroed into the framework of cont«mpomucous his- 
fj their enimmits being pared off and the soil about them 
in order to create a plain on which cattle may graze. Bat, 
ithunt pushing tbe theory to extremes, it is easy to see that in 
jumpiest, its least objectionable statement^ it mmtt modify 
ly our estimate of bookH. No aWolute stAndarfl of moral or 
intellectual opinion can on any snch theory be maintained. Like 
painting, sculpture and mnslc, literature will take the color of its 
epoch, will bear the impreBsion of its age. Goodness and bad- 
ness are relative terms. Clasflienl literature — liy which may be 
^nndentood literature of such perfection in form and such sober 
^Huaturity of ttubstance as to command universal admiration^ 
^Bnay l>e left out of account in discussiona like tho present Books 
^^liAt reflect tbe period in which they were written, and no other, 
are here in question. Of these it may be said that the rules 
^^f morality which tho period sots up most judge the mental 
^Bfoduct. 

^^ From this it follows that works that are obnoxious to one ago, 
^DT class of people, may not be obnoxious to another. And books 
^Bn which moralists pass severe judgment may be innocent of 
^^vU intent, and, in their generation, harmless. In the last cent- 



32* 



THE JfORTB AMERICAN SEVIBW. 



ttiy '* Tom Jones " was, we can easily believe, regardMl 
ohaste. The novels of Mm. Aphi-a Behn, which no decent man of 
this tlay can read, lay opcoly on ladies' tables, and were popiUfir 
with the faahion&ble pnblio of their day. The most objectic 
able works of Swift, Sterne, Rabelai% did not offend their 
temporaries as they du tis. The wurst productions of Qi 
Sand did not disgust her admirerB iu Pari^. The mach-malif 
Freooh novels meant no mischief, and in the original Inngnipt 
did comparatively Uttle, however objectionable they may be in 
translation, among English or Americans. It is not qnit** fairlo 
thunder the categoricul imperatire against Tolomes Uke tfaa 
" Decameron" or the "Ueptameron," thoagh we might serioocly 
oppose their reprodnctiDn or republication. Eveti iu moderu 
Florence or Paris their influence would be pernicious, 
of Boccaccio is past. The reign of the Queen of Na^ 
over. Virtue, both private and public, is changed. The boii 
throw light on the state of society they grew out of^ and 
therefore, historically interesting; but, otherwise consiikti 
they are of Uttlo account. 

For the same reason, books reflecting one phasa of hmnaa 
life, like Emile Zola's for example, cannot commend themBdrca 
to i>eople who live iu anoUier mental fttmo«phero. They wv 
insect growths, infesting certain unwholesome spots, and natu- 
rally confined there. Nuisancee, certainly, but local nnlsanees; 
useful, too, in their way ; pestiferous when out of place. A B< 
drain, an improved system of sewerage aboUshra them, 
day is short, though to the impatient, the inconsidorati!, 
swift of judgment, it may not seem to Iw. To avoid them 
ea^. One has only to change one's place, and they no It 
molest. Distance in KjMce is cfjuivaleitt to distanco in 
ia always possiblo to get into onotlicr world, though li^in^] 
day to day among men. The prcscaoe of these malignant 
ductions is ^milar in effect to the appearance of a swarm 
mo^uitoe« on a st^a-sidc piazza, or of a tramp at the door 
a sccladcd farm-house. The existence of snoh pestti 
accounted for, but tlieir advent is never blessed. Crest 
actual circumstances, there are eiroumstances to wliiah 
Edi<iuld be strangers. The prox-oking persistency of snch woikfc' 
and the facility of their dLhtribiition by the furoo of the wii 
render them obnoxious ; but a change of climate causea them 
disappear. In their native region they are comparatively 



TBE MORALLY OBJECTIONABLE IX LITEBATUHE. 325 



and nuiy b« easaally ftnd locaUy beneficial. Bemdes this, it 
should be remembered thai the tralm of their vitulity is stcod- 
ilr narrowing ; the range of their influence is limited by the 
level of oivilization ; as the moral atmosphere becomes pure;, they 
ore pushed farther and farther away from the empathies of men 
and women, and in due time they will be regarded as curioEities, 
a» indeed the most offensive of them are now. The " Decam- 
eron " keeps its old pince by virtue of a merited reputation for 
elegAUOO of style ami constrnftioo, bat innumerable volumes of 
inferior fame have withdrawn from human gaze into the dim, 
unA^iquented alco\'ea of ^reat libraries, where noue but soholars 
find them. Tlie conditions of their existonee have disappeared. 

There is a diatinction, too, worth noting, between works that 
are demoralizing and works that are simply coarse. The former 
are malignant, the latter are, at the worst, disgusting. The first 
(wt like poison, the last bruise like a blow, which hurts;, but in- 
jnres no vital part, and leaves the system unsr Athed. Books of the 
infeetioub, deadly class, which suppress conscieocc aud eucourago 
rice, are fortunately few, — at all events, in onr generation. They 
are not seen on rent* -r- tables, or found on the counters of book- 
stores. Private colleetiuns do not poflsees them. Their very 
names are forgotten, save by the carious, who look for them in 
tongoee — chiefly French. The others express that kind 
realism which is found in all ages, and, however it may 
iprove in form or relative proportion^ does not materially 
Il*»r in substance. To the first class are Boraetiraea aficril>ed such 
productions as "Wilhelm Meister." "The Decameron," "The 
>tam6ron.'' To the second belong such novels as " Tom 
lee," anoh pooms as the " Leaves of Grass," books objectinna- 
oertuuly, but not pestiferous, because vice is not their aim. 
It A story like " Wilhelm Meistor " shonld be placed in suoh a 
lU'-gory shows how subtle is the definition, for little wors43 than 
>ral indifference can be laid to the charge of that famous 
)T«I, — a grave charge, it is felt, but very different from an 
aocufiatiou of posiiivo lasciviousnoss. The volumes wuidd not 
smt the prurient inclinafion of a sensualist. Still, the dis- 
tinctiou whioh has been drawn between books that corrupt and 
books that merely disgust, is obvious. It is essential, t^x). Books 
that corrupt are, as a rule, fascinating, not disgusting. They 
aUract by a seductive style, a subtle seutimentidLsm, a charm 
of asBodation, a dangerous appeal to the fancy, an immoral 



326 



THE NO^TB AMERICAN JtEVIEW, 



flBsnmption of thp supivmacy of deRire over coiiseiencp. 
drug the soxil and stimulate the senHOs. Their charm oonsisUi 
their power to instill a sense of delight into the plcannsl 
indolgenoe, to mnVe t)ie iiohlf;r being forg^^t its noVtli^neas tfT 
induce the rational beiug lo forswear reaeoiL They are, tbrao^ 
and through, unbelieving. Their spdrit \& mocking. Thef tiiie 
the vulgar roalisrn of natnr«», clothe it with nUiiremtmt, mA. 
commend it to men and women in their moods itf idl»^ aniuuv 
ccnce, deigning to practice on them the trans form nttus rf 
Circe, — to turn thcon into ewiuo. Tliey aim tu dt^hamuuza 
They live in a sea of delidousness, and die when brought uptoi 
the dry land of thought The youngs the heedless, the inei|» 
rienoed, the sensual, are caught iu Uiis snare before the 
is Buspected. Their thoughts are not permitted to wander ii 
regions of self-recollection or self -reproach. Vice is mode eut 
lug, virtue is ridiculed, despised, oarieatnrcd. The sound 
laughter ripples along the pages. The reader has it in< 
in his ears, is nevw allowed to lapse into respect for Irutli, ' 
ptuity, dignity, or faith. No effort is spared, which may reuil 
the spell complete. 

Books that are only incidentally coarse have a loss subtle i 
lesii injurious influence. They arc not contagious or infectif 
They may hurt, but they do not poison. Tbey arc nut wl 
some, but they are not deadly. They speak of dingusting Uiinj 
by the way, speak cordially of them; but they do not describe 
them in false colors, or invest them with a deceitful chiirm, 
dwell on them with passionate delight, or magnify' their pm; 
tious, ur confine the reader*B thoughts within their atm(Mpb< 
They seem to say: '*Look and pass on." Tbcir authurs paint 
they see, paint it vividly, with such art as they possess; hat xhi 
do not intimate that the beauty of the lily is in the mnd vi 
pond. It is an article of their creed that whatever exists il' 
nature deserves to be recognized and oopiod. It is then, sod 
should therefore be produced, but they are not satisfied, — i 
Pidding and Whitman are not satisfied, — with depictrng 
of grans. The later preraphnelitcs arc not content wit 
rudiments of realism, but, beginning at the bottom, s^gure 
perfection of drawing and color. 

And this suggests another Important divt! . v. the 
moralizing inflnenoe of literature, as of art, <i moofa 

tfao intention of the author. If his ultdniatc aim is lofty, it ("^ 



TBS MOBAZLY 0S/ECTI02fABLE IN LTTERATURS. 327 



the mind of the reader beyond the range of iuddicate 

iLotion. And if his force of conviction, his caniciitucss of 

parpose, be strou)^, the eCTect of tho iudeceuoy is trifling. The 

WArBimess ceases to be a taint, and is scarcely moro than a 

^Ivinish, to be regretted^ but to be pardoned. Thiit is the oase 

|Bith Goethe's '^ Wilhehn Meiater." Certainly no one would read 

^h for the sake of its impurity, which oceapics an insignificant 

place in the story, and is quite unesaontial to its plot. It might 

be omitwd entirely without injury to the narrative. In fact, no 

moro of it is introduced than is necessary to ilhistra-te the aa- 

thar's theory of uultore. The translator of the work, — Thomas 

Carlyle, — a man of aiist<ere morals, incorruptible in thought 

nid fwling, persevered in the task of making an Euglisli ver- 

iBon because he was interested in the writer's evident ambitioiL 

™ln many points, both literary and moral,'' he says, in the 

preface uf the ilrst edition, " I cuuld have wished devoutly that 

he bikd not written as he has done; but to alter anything was not 

(my commission. The literary and moral persuasions of a man 
e Goethe are objects of a rational curiosity, and the duty of 
translator is simple and diatinet" • • ■ « Written in its 
thor's forty-fifth year, embracing hinta or disquisitions oa 
almost every point of life and literature, it affords ua a more 
rlifttiuct view of his matured genius, his manner of thought, and 
favorite subjects, than any of his other works." Tho ordinary 
novel reader, in search of a sensation, will soon lay the book 
iwn in dis^uKt, pronouncing it hopelessly dulL There is little 
>vemcnt in it; tho incidents are trifling; the characters are 
te, and, for tho most part, cool and quiet. But the criti- 
18 of the highest quality of excellence; the sagacity is 
. ; tho philosophy is calm ; the thought is profound ; and 
tone of mondity, the tendency, aim, spirit, of the whole j>er- 
lance cannot be characterized as other than iutellectual. 
riyle's admiration of Qoethe was sincere, and is of itself a 
lorantee uf the great German's real elevation of mind. £vea 
" Werther" cIaiius the truculent Englishman'^ honest praise 
its "strength and sarcastic emphasis, intermingled with 
ichea of powerful thought, glimpses of a philosophy deep as 
\ is bitter." Snrely it is lees than fair to call such a work dan- 
to ordinary morals. Would sensualists but try to read it! 
Nay, we arc not afraid to speak, in this connection, of Boc- 
mo'b *' Decameron,"— that celebrated book, the very name of 




828 



THE NORTH AMSRICAU REVIKW, 



which implies iodcconoy. Tho deacription, in the bcgianinic of 
the plague in Florence is a marvel of coDoiiu;, nervous writing. 
Tho character of " the patient Griseldft " might redeem any toI- 
ume from tho cliargo of purp<.»sed impurity. So far from ibaii( 
his art. to heighten the effccH of La^iWons tales, the writer \m 
touod down tho coloring of his original materials. His ItaUas 
is a model of gracc^ — »o distingroisbed for elegaooe in the ehoiw 
of words and for chonu in the arrangement of sentences that fh 
eonipowir earned from his countrymen the title, "Father flf 
Italian Prose." All this, of coarse, is lost in tranalatiou. Tli* 
langnage is unappreciated; the beauty of the forGign charttv 
torization is missed; the aecount of the pci>tilcnce is tmintcr- 
cstiug; the attraction of the lovely Oriselda is unfelt. Tlu 
uncdeauness alone is relished. Such volumes ehoiiM be left m 
they were written. 

In this respect Walt Whitman's unsavory " Leares td Grass' 
occupies a place in literature vastly above Oscar Wilde^s so-eaDtd 
" poems " or the earliest productions of Swinburne. There a « 
vulgar coarbeness in some of \Vhitmau'8 pieces, but the aim tA 
the volume is high ; so high, that it drew encomium from B. W. 
Emerson, who had no sympathy wh.-itever with dirt, A few of 
the poems are steeped in moral enthusiasm. A Bentimeot ef 
human brotherhood pervades them. The faith in progias is 
glowing nnd c»jnstaut. Tho trust in Prondcnee is unwavtadng. 
Soul is everywhere sovereign over sense, at least in the autbur'n 
design. Love for man may bo excessive, hut it ift goaofaic. 
Visions of tho future may be too dazzling for reason, but Vbvf 
grow out of earnest conviction. The man is a b^ever^ — an 
absorbed, an intense one, — as the intelligont reader must pcrwrra 
The author is not a prophet of obscenity ; not a teuchur of eea- 
snality under the name of " festheticism." He sings a pft'ftn U 
man in all his relations; and, in his own judgment, his soag 
would be incomplete if it did not voice all human deejrea. 

In saying this, we would not be understood as reoomu^ndlag 
such IxtoVs to ordinary readers, or to readers of any class what- 
soever. Tlioy itpo in their way and measure iDJiirions; but they 
are not demoralizing, corrupting, poisonons. CoorsmeRs is sot 
praiseworthy or useful. In fact., we disbelieve heartily in tbi 
theory of art of whicli Mr. Whitiuon is a diseiplv. A n'markahk 
sermon by Rev. James Hartineau, eutiili-d '' Thr Rcolm «t 
Silence,'' taught oa many yean ago that some things wurv too 



TSS MOJULLr OSJSCTIONABLE IK UTBRATUHE. 329 



low to ^ gpoken of. If we mast perform them, we do not mcn- 

tion the m in Kpet^h. If we ttisvum them, we du it »Montifical]^ , 

or profesaitimiliy. For the rent, they are avoided in conversa- 



ion ; and, as far as possible, in tfaoaght. They Berve their end^ 



^Bioi 

^Bsad ore forgotten. They are remembered, in order to be puahod 
H aade. They belong to tJie animal part of oar nature, not to oar 
~ rational being, which feels affronted hy their bare Hnggestion. 
No doabt, mnoh of the coarsenen referred to may be explained 
■8 the reieult of a natural reaction from the orerstrained Pari- 
tftnism of an aacetie age. Bnt Riich r^a^tion has fprne about far 
enough for the ends of reason or morality. There is really no 
ooeosion to earry it farther than it has reached. Realism, at 
present, is in danj^er of running into disreputaljle exaggeration. 
H boa vindicated iLgelf af^aiuBt the pretensions of an excesaiva 
MttUism, so tbat there is no chants of a return to old-time 
Mcetiam. To be ontapoken, frank, tudisguiacd of speech, ia 
fnshiunable. Now, it is incumbent on all the trienda of purity 
in literatare to iasi^ on beauty, as well as truth ; to leave things 
wUofa are, or should be^ behind, and pre«s forward toward things 
that ore before; to prove the possibility of aoiting imagination 
lli^rith faet. The present demand is fur cultivation, elegance, the 
j^pievelopment of taiite, the establishment of practical idea«. 
'' The simple truth is that, as they improve in goodness, men and 

^^iromeu put their grosser iii8liuct« buueath their feet Healthy 
^^eople are not sensual. However robust, however " virile " they 
^Riay be, they are clean in thought as well as in condiiet. One 
Vlus only to consider the inevitable tendency of high-mindod peo- 
ple to shun allusion to sensual themes, in order to become fully 
pennisded of the difference between what is above and what is 
below. We are not thinking of the ascetics by virtue of tlieir 
creed; the Ralnt*i bv prrifession, who dread and dot*-st nature 
iose it is natural, — who, like Plotinns, are ashamed of their 
ties, — who, like Borromeo, walk with downcast eyes, lest by 
laDee they Nlinubl t!«e a woman; men who read no book save 
leir Biblt, and read that on their knees ; who are blind to lovo- 
eea of form and deaf to music, and save themselves the trouble 
making distinettons by following broad, literal, formal gea- 
eralization.i| of opinion. Such men are in our days very few, and 
arti not hold iu honor. We are thinking of wholesome, active, vig- 
uruus men, — acholars, writers, students of pagftn learning, — dar- 
ing hi speculation, bold in intellectual movement i robust minds, 



330 



THE NORTH AMSmCAN REVIEW. 



who are noverthele&s alisorbed in literary pursuits ; enthtudutofor 1 
ideaa, reformers, regcneratorH, ilevoteee of thought, oonacioiu oC 
a hi^ calling as isstruut^d, responsible men of positioa toA 
diaroctor. Such, without exoeption, avoid aensuality as br u 
instinct, as a man spams the earth whun springing into theiur. 

In the mofteum at Berlin there is a amall statue of niarUf, 
frequently reduced in bronze. It is the lovely fijynn! of % 
youth in au attitude of devotion, — upright, firm on ita it 
with head erect, countenance tamed heavenward, anns 
tendMl. It is nude, of oourae, bnt the nudity is inddental 
inconspicuouH. Betcauee it was naked, a eonipulouB lady wuqU' 
not have it in sight, bnt put the image away on an upper ahoK 
iu a dark closet; yet a good, pure-minded, oonacientious drv^j 
man kept it for years on his lib rar>'- table as a ebarruing iwxt 
tive to aspiration. The nakedness did not offend him ; he 
not see it : his eye passed upward to the glowing fiioe and 
outstretched hands. To him the figure 8agg««te<l only 
It was a viAiblo s>*mbol of adoration, leading his thoughts ai 
from groveling things. Thus nature and graoe were oomhiiud. - 

Among the borrowed platitudes of the latest apostle of 
ffistheticism in the United States waa the somewhat stale doiv 
trine that art has nothing to do with morals. In a aeose the 
dictum may be aocepted as true. With morals nf any local ur 
partial school, with the prejudices or antipathies of a 
period, the dogmas of a narrow sect, genuine art has no oour 
It is infinite aud etc-mnl. Its genins is expansive, spiritual, 
Its air is filled with light. It is a winged spirit, ever 
npward into the sky, obeying its own law of aspimtioa. Bui 
is Car enough from being emancipated from mural resti 
On the contrary, it is most moral because least constrained. 
aecks by virtue of its freedom a perfect moral ideal, the limit 
whereof are internal, yet none the less fixed. 

The quest of art is beauty, not truth, except in the form M 
beauty. But beauty lies in levels, one above t)i ' -. and tht 
effort to rise from lower to higher involves .earor ta 

ascend from Kctisual to sensuous, from sentnions to inteUeotval 
and imaginative, until the highest poetic line is reached. Th^-R 
is an infernal love, and there is a eeleetial love ; but the passHv 
from the former to the latter rwscmbles the voyage of a iiavigat'ir 
round the globe. Leaving his port he steers right on, taking hia 
bearings from the sun ; but after some wedu of oailing tht- con- 



TBS MOKAJLLY OBJECTIONABLE IN LITERATURE. 381 



BtellAtioDB chaugo ; be is in strange seas ; his M)urEti has 
3vor deviat4»l, but he lauds at the autipode&, exactly opposite 
le point from which he starti^. The difference of degree has 
)niet a difference in kind. The few miles more liave brought 
to a new world, with scenery and coloring of its own. So 
Mit begins with sense, but ends with sonL If " Eestheticism," as 
its etymology importe, i» confined to beauty of the senses^ to 
objects which are seen and touched, it certainly has no concern 
with intellectual things, and may snap it-s fingers at moral feel- 
ing. But if it ia confined to objects of sensation, ita message ig 
inngniflcant, of no interest to thoughtfid men, and its prophets 
emnuot complain if they are despised. The lawy of iiterature are 
t2ie laws of art. Literature is a form of art. The best literature 
studies artistic expression, and though it may bear traces of the 
earth in which it grew, as is the case with Shakespeare, Guethe, 
Daute, the art effwtually triumphs, making of the earthine^s a 
ewnal spot not worth considering; to take the blots alone into 
aeconnt. would t>o gross injustice. Suoh a process would put 
Shakespeare on the shelf, and remand the Bible to the list of 
books prohibited. Has mind an intercut in the work T That is 
question. It certainly has none in pieces like '■ Charmidea," 
in '\'0liune8 like ** Laus Veneris." In David and Isaiah it has 
denthlffiiB concern ; to Shelley and Keats it is by no means 
Fsrent; in ^'Leaves of Grass '^ it has a stake. But in 
'Channidea" and ''Laus Veneris" t People of somewhat more 
ordinary virtue find it a task beyond their strength to keep 
supreme above passion, and it is the office of literature to 
them do it. When literature declines the ferrice, it not 
iiily is QtifaithftU i^> iia calling, but nmkes itself a pouder to 
Swift knew this, and Rabelais, and Balzac; and, in our 
Boesetti, Swinburne, Whitman. We need not mention 
lyson, the master of musieol thonght«, or Browning, the 
analyst of character. The eminent writers are interested 
problems of humanity. Many books Imve no higher pur- 
K>u than to amuse ; bnt these aim ut entertainment, which is at 
'*9e\, inmK'eut, tbuiiirh it may not bo elevating. No essav-ist, 
ttOTttUst, poet of America, can be accused of immoral influence. 
ThBrv is another saving, of the nature of commonplace, that 
:'i this eouueetion: "To the pure all things are pure." 
ipany it keejM) tlirows suspicion on it; for it comes 
UaiJiarly to tlie lii« of the unelean who cloak under the prov- 

VOL. CJUtXV. — NO. 311. 24 



THE yOBTS 



IVISV. 



orb th*>ir own depravity. " To the pui'o all IhingB are pop?," 
Yes, but who are tlie puroT Who are so impeccable that ihff^ 
can touch pitch and not be defiled, or can walk in muddy pltwi 
without soiling their white silk stockings 1 To be jmre is ta W 
more than spotless; it is to be out of the reiieh of spot C«n 
any man my that of himself t Unless he can, the awful woni 
temptation has meaning for him, and the tempter in aomiifed, 
whether he appears in the guise of wiue, woman, or soog. "AD 
things are pure." Are they? In whose idghtT Possibly in the 
eyes of the disembodied Wisduni, but in no otherH. WbofVK 
undertakes to study the processes of nature will soon, withooi 
going off his daily path, eome Qj>on disgusts, offenses, shamed 
so foul^ so unseemly as to eompel him to ttira nway witii loothinf;- 
He is forced to apologize and defend. He makes the best of a faftd 
business. He dares not call it evil; he L-annot tall it p»oA 
His utmost faith is required to justify what be sees and pf«- 
tices. He veils his vision and tnms away. The bar* eiirtenc*' 
of things which nobody ventures to deny is the standing anru- 
ment fur atheism. To drag them into the light, to snmraoii 
them with false attracUons, to make them racy and rflishiot"" tc * 
corrupt tasto, is little less than infamous; and this the iimlnri'f 
ba<l books does more fatally than FUiybody dse. 

It is not easy to escape the conclusion that oar m>Ml"ni 
paganism^ — the prevalent worship of naturt^, has degrmling tend' 
encies which show themselves in ever>- form of art Thr aihni 
ration for nattiral appearances is less coarse than it unM t*.* I'«'i 
it is more subtle and refined, but it may not, on thai oft^mnt, 
be less dangerous. Corruption Jwing associated with gn«^, i* 
doubly corrupting. Many an artistf no doubt, draws tna 
nature the lines of beauty which glorify his omvais u^ 
Ix'cause these flue lines come f^om nature, it is ossnmed iImU 
everything in nature is fine; that one cannot Iwrrow 
from nature. That, in a word, to be natural is to be 
Hence, a sentimental, esthetic materialism, the more 
becanse refined, and associated with a (.'ertain elegance of duo 
ner. In litei-ature thiN influence is even mure dangeroas tiiviii> 
art, for the reason that language is a more delicAte instniiMStj 
than pigments, richer iu material, nicer in discrimiiiotion, 
froitful in suggestion. Compare Fielding with " " 
pare Dickens with Hogarth ; " Heurj- Esmond " %>, . ^>f 

piotnres by Alma Tadema; Bofisetti the poet with HosMtti 



rS£ UO&jiLhY OBJECTIONABLE m LITERATURE. 333 



irti^U Tt*t uo jtaJDter ventures t« paint an imniodest work. 
Bubject may Iw iiniittereeting. external, meretricious, senti- 
itaL foolish; but it i« never iudeoent Shall literature 1>« 
ennobling than painting or eculpturft On looking at the 
ua of Kra Augelira da riwolc. aud leaminjo: his aversion 
the nude figure, one is remindt^ of the effort r»iuired to 
»pe the peril of sensuality. The corruption of the age ren- 
snch prudery necessary for saintly sotila. It ia necessary 
longer. Hut rare must still be taken to ke^-p soul uppermost, 
the roal artistti, whether with pen or brush, ar«* uiiudful to 

'Of this inclination to nature- worship Goethe may be called 
chief ijiaugurutor, though without n:'-siM>n8ibility for it« 
iw bjr meaner disciples. The "Wilhelm 3Ieister'' illustrates 
^artistic aspects better than any work that oeeurs to us. It 
not oontiuu a coarse word or an obscene allusion. Its 
?8t in art — literar}% dramatic, pictorial, musical — ia absorb- 
,f its discustfiont) are serious, its criticisms profound. But 
^lectof the moral judgment is absolute; ethical di^inotions 
ily set aside; men and women whose conduct is, to call 
fa gentle name, reprehenable, are praised for their eleva- 
of cbaracter ; religion ia spoken of with respect as the pecnl- 
ity uf a certain class of minds; its existence is acknowl- 
its forms are described with precision; but it is not 
ly commended above any other idiosyncrasy ; tie atitbor- 
of conscience is never admittctd; for the improvement of 
u\f cultiu% of taste is assumed as quite sufficient, nor is 
iy influence allowed for, except intellectual aicompliahment. 
Chat Thomas ('nrlyln should have endured tlie tnjl of translating 
fth a book into English is a marvel to be explained by his lit^ 
Bry discernment^ his admiration for intellcetnal performance, 
HdiBgnat at reli^ous assumption, ignnranc-e, and pretense, and 
fis high appreciation of the author's great service to mankind. 
Imerson's \i8ion, unclouded, pure, serene, turned away from 
ft oonteinplation of scenes that a sensitive conscience could not 
qn>rov<^- Were '* Wilhelm Meister " less admirable as a study 
fdia racten more engaging as a work of ftntion, more heated or 
in manner, it would be one of the most dangerous 
ever published. The quiet assumption that culture is the 
thing to be acquired, and that all experiences that may 
ranoe culture are iunt»;ent, is fatal to morality, and miplit be 



334 



TBE JiOSTU AMEBlCJiN BEVIEV^ 



wholly deatruetive. As it it*, the work ^vill ottiu 
serene minds, which cuu take the author at his hf»i i t j» 
hopnd that SQoh minds are not few, even in this generation 
nature-worehiperni. 

The passion of humanity, — very different, from the " i 
raasm of humanity'^ of which so mnoji hafi been aaid.— Out 
adores instiuct, exolta every human function, und eoeins lofwlj 
pleasure in mntctnplating tho auiual side of bam&n iuittii«,] 
fraught with similar danger to simple iMols. An a rei 
from the severe spiritualism of au elder turhool, it is tutt 
and exousahle. The eini'ore faith of its earliwrt apostle 
Chrifitifln conviction prevailed over their boast of " mi 
saved them from it* logical consequences. But the jmUaf^t 
mistaught. that is, the great majority of men and women. 
in imminent peril from the tendency to bestiality vrh'wh 
implied. "WTiere fine emotion is imkuuwn, where patriotic 
thusiasm, zeal for progress, the glow of charil-r, belief m 
possibilities of rational being, are wanttug, tht; rf<]i->)i for< 
and form easily l>ecomes excessive, and sensuality is all bat lot 
itablc. Then every kind of cxpresaiou becomes tainted 
impurity ; and works, the authors of which were innoc^t 
evil piirjMwe, minister to pollution. In idl modem literature 
predisposition is apparent. Kcniorkablc taleut sees ilie nn^lc, 
avoids it Moderate skill is incessantly exposed to sbipin«ct 
The unwai-y are dashenl ou the savage shore, conyiug their cr 
with them to destruetion. We are wi«e enough, we hopp, 
ae(|nit Mr. Matthew Arnold of all responsibility for the writ 
who mistake the drift of his speeiUatioim ; but theru arp sb 
writers, and, in our judgment, their mistake i» due to thv If 
eney iu which they as well as he ai-e eaught The writ*^ of 
opera '' Parsifal" assueiates the Eucharist with huicivious 
and some years ago we saw a fashion plate illustrating tfai? 
of a yoimg lady's skirt as she knelt to ree«ivii ilw saeruue 
These represent extreme cases, but the tendency which prvdi 
them is shown in other ways less offensive, though purl 
not less signifteont to discerning eye$. 

In the view of morality aU literature is objoctioonble i\ 
injures the highej«t interests of nociety. The gmrity of 
objeetion must depend on the seriousness of the injiUT., 
only certain deliverance lies in the consecratioh of lit 
to the service of purity, intelligence, aud taste. Writiw" 



TffS XORALLT OBJECTIONABLE IN UTEJUTVRE. 335 



Emerson, Wluttitir, Ifowt^ll, Longfelldw, ('rauob, Stedman. 
Aldrich. HcwelU, Henry James, Jr., not to mention ntlier 
bXftDiplee, are ro int-ent on tbo concerns of the inteUcotual 
natnre that they appear to be unoonscious of what may b« 
called lower wants. To snch &£ these the highest plafos most 
be awarded. Some defects may he pardoned to graiias, bat, 
in the end, dedn<:tion will and must be made for them, and 
to be 8taiiiIo«8 will be an immortal merit, t-ven when other 
immortaUty (ails. Really pare authoni dedicate their talents 
to ideas, «id make thoir readers feel it If the age th^ live 
in leaves its soil upon them, the !iipot iu allowed for and dia- 
^Barded. They never go out of their way to minister to a 
mpraved disporiition. and when they can they etep aside from 
tho mire that lies in their path. No writer belongs to all epochs, 
i ^ t every earnest writer stimulates whntever is beet in his own, 
PKtstiug to serve humanity in his generation, and not to excite 
the passion of the hour. 

1^ Tt ift too late, at the end of an article, to disease the means 

B which moral objections to literature shoitld make themselves 

|^KOowledg):d. The subject is important, but it is large and 

Qoicate. A single word only can be ventured in this connection 

to complete what has been said. There can be little doubt t3iat 

the moral stense of the commiuiity will, and should, ^et the seal 

of its condemnation upon evils in literary or pietorial art which 

«e ufTeneive to its feeling. This is done as iostinetively and 

taevitably as nuisances wbich are disagreeable to tiie senses are 

^^nqtprecsed by sanitary regulations. But several points merit 

ridenition. Tn the Arst place, the imUvidiuU conscience must 

be allowed to speak in the name of the general moral sense ; 

most the rlaini of any sect, clique, party, or association to 

for the community or to use the community's machinery, 

fadmittetl. In tie next place, there must be good reason to 

ieve that the mettsures adupt^-d will advance the moral condi- 

of sfM'jcty. Such a result might ensue from the presence of 

lorftl wns*> dtvidedly al>ove iht* level of thi* eouimuuit)*, which 

, be powerless to enforce edicts that would incite and eias- 

I^Cftle pAstrion. A change of atmosphere will often effect what 

•"Vicil^nt exertion of snn or wind v&n bring almut. In the same 

^^f' a sudden, vehement endeavor, sincere but misplnced, may 

*J*-*- bick the cause it has at heart. A few years ago WTiitman's 

'-'^yives of Grass " was sold furtively to the few who wished for 



IG 



THE NORTH AMEHICAA' liJCVltWT 



it, \Kr quality not cintitlin^ it to a Iarg« popnlar nmrlcAt. Kn 
thoiifiauds ask for it who would never have beard of it, exe 
for the clamor of its persecutors. And tbia resnlt is dae in 
main to possAg^ft iu the volnmo of whit^li tlin wrjU-r i.s pnA 
least proud. It left to the uatiirol laws of trade, Lhu book vtiu 
have found its own set of readers, and a more intelligeQt,< 
ettniing clftpR thnn will, undnr existing oirtnim stance's, Bppn« 
iL Ueuuucintion has attracted notice to the ubjetitionablv fi^ 
urea of the volurae, has brought those features info the fo 
ground, and has gained for it an tsvW name and evil comitoniu 
ship, neither of which it fairly deaerroe. A talat issue is 
Ticiotis appetite is stimulated, and the moral abnosphen- ifl* 
turhed, not quickfuud. Tlie ivgi'iieraU»r, wbn putiflos tbr 
that all people breathe, is more influential in promoting 
health of the oommunit}* than the reformer whu attadu jAitie 
lar disuasts. The ivformer hu» his place, but he hulds it I'Jil'ji' 
to the condition that the disease he attacks eudan^^rs tlte hi! 
of the whole social system; that it is infeetiouB in ehamfitr.*' 
sign of inward corruption, which will gain ground if not cht'ckpi 
When the complaint affects no \'ital part, implies no taint in iIk" 
blood, and \s. plainly tliiuiuitihing in ext'jnt as wvll as in dc 
it IB aaf e to let it alone. 

That the worship of nature Ut an indeflniu^ tli/^Tif pr 
iu this country, i-an hoitlly be dittpnteil ; thai, it is on thx in< 
is possible ; that, in its extreme forms, it is alarming and de| 
ing, may be granted. But it is (»uso for congratulAtion that] 
growing spii-it of refinement keeps men and women ow 
^t*ith its worthiest aspects; that its dangerous tendcnritv 
concealed ; and that a sharp revulsion will simply f>illow 
discover^' of the pit toward which it leada. Booktt, which « 
hundred years ago were uubluahinglj' read, would find no pat)- 
Usher to-day. Degrading literature is eonflnt^d to di'gmdt'i 
people who oau scarcely road at all, and who do not can> ta Wii 
l>ooks addressed to hearts or brains. Boeca<x!i(>^s '' DecamerOB* 
was published first in 1353, more than five hundred yean »(^ 
Mrs. Aphra Behn lived and wrot4i her soaudalons dramas and ulM 
during the Stuart dynasty in Elngland, about 168Q. Fielding 
his ** Tom Jones" before the middle of the eightt^uth eenlt 
Half a hundred years later.in 1793, the first edi ' ' " Wilhc 
Meister" saw the light. Our present peril iu . . l does 

in the writer's humhle judgment, spring from the blntf coaxwaeM 



Tiie MORALLY OBJECTIONABLE IN LITERATURE. 337 

phioh, after all, occupies but a small Bpac«, is fairly coimterbol- 
iced by an equally robust moral faculty, and is entirely subordi- 
it*}d to an iutellwtual purpose, so nmeh or from a snaky sen- 
icntaUsm vhi(*h obliterates ethical distlnctiouSf is infatuated 
with wlmt it calls '' art," " culture," " eeetlieticism,'* slides easily 
into indnl^nce. and tnist;? to "refinement" for the progress of 
hmuauity. This is the aetuol danger, — how grave & danger is yet 
to be teamed. At any rate, the remedy for it lies in a change 
>f air, another flow of the mental tide, rather than in the 
smplojnueut of specifiti drugs, be they pver so wholesome in 
lemselves. Thackeray says, speaking of Hemy Fielding, "As 
pii^ture of manners, the novel of 'Tom Jones ^ is indeed 
cqnisite ; as a work of construction, quite a wonder ; the by- 
»y of wisdom, the p<jwer of observation, the multiplied felio- 
>aa terms and thoughts, the varied character of the great comic 
keep the reader in a perpetual admiration and curiosity. 
it against Mr. Thomas Jones himself we have a right to put 
in a protffit, and quarrel with the esteem the author evidently 
has for that character. Charles Lamb says finely of Jones that 
■ingle hearty laugh from him ' clears the air' — but then it is 
A certain stat^ of the atmosphere. It might clear the air 
rben such personages as BUftl or La*ly BellaiJton poison it. But 
fear very muoh that (except until tlie very last scene of the 
r), when Mr. Jones enters Sophia's drawing-room, the pure 
ir there ia rather tainted with the yimng gentleman's tobacco- 
Ipipi} and pum^h. I eau^ say that 1 Ihiuk Mr. Jones a 'virtuous 
character ; I can't say bnt that I think Fielding's evident liking 
and admiration for Mr. J<mes shows tliat the great humorist's 
moral sense was blunted by his life, and that here, in art and 
there is a great error. ... I protest against Mr. 
lomae Joues holding any sm^h (heroic) rank at alL I protest 
u against his being considereil a more than ordinary young 
>w, mddy-cheeked, broad-shonldt'red. and fond of wine and 
Ue would not rob a ehnrch, but that is all \ and a 
pretty long argument may be debated, as to which of these old 
types, — the spendthrift, the hj^wcrite, Jonea and Blifil, Charles 
and Joseph Surface, — is the worst member of society and the 
lost deserving of censure." 
How the argument, if debated by Thackeray, would have con- 
eladed, one is not left to gnesa. Neither is it in the least doubt- 
ful that, in his opinion, society would be considerably cleaner 



338 TBE NORTH AJUESICAN REVIEW. 

without eiUier of them. To ns, it seems singular that then 
should have been a time when William Cowper could read " Jona- 
than Wild " alond to ladies, all devoat, sincerely religions peo- 
ple. They were not shocked by the grossness. By our fine 
moral anfdysis, onr subtle sentimentality, onr high indifference 
to old-fashioned prejudices, they might have been. To them, 
broad moral distinctions were not Itunpish, nor was conscience a 
i^nde conception. They did not refine the ethical sentiments 
away, but took tbem for granted, with sober, if nndisorixninating, 
reverence. Have we improved so much t It is a nice question. 
Of one thing we are certain, that a decline of principle is worse 
than a sudden blow, which perhaps arouses, at least does not 
kill, manhood. If the rough religiosity of Fielding has been 
succeeded by an intelligent humanity, an earnest hope of pn^ 
rese, a cordial veneration for providential law, our age has 
gone onward. But, in some shape, these great qualities most 
make themselves felt 

O. B. FBOTHDfGHAM, 



RECENT DISC0\T:RIES AT TROY. 



Tot being able fully Ut midcretaiiJ tlie arclutwture of the 
Bt Xkne preliistoric cities of Troy, 1 resolved upon ooutinniug 
!lo exeavatioiis here for Sve months more. My ex(>aTationit of 
t876 and 1879 ha^-iu^ enriched the Imperial Museum at Con- 
itinople, it was not difficult for me to obtain a new Jinnan 
mom liberal tpriiis, particularly as I solicited it through the 
low aU-powerful QcrmAU Embassy at CoustautinopU'. Whilst 
&iy former works here I had been limited to the hill of Hissar- 
lik, I was now permitted to make excavatioua wherever I might 
wish in the Troad : between Fropoutis, the Gulf of Adramyttium, 
the Hellespont, and the Ida Mountaina, under the condition of 
giving iwo-thinlh of the fiiidi) to the Imperial Museum if I 
ccarate on fleldd belonging to the tiovemment, or only one- 
it I explore lands belonging to private partaee. In thig 
itter case,! am held to obtain the consent of the proprietors. I 
therefore retnme*! to Troy on the 28th of February, and having 
keiit here, ever ainoe May, 1879, a goardian to watch my little 
wooden village, I found all ray barracks in good preservation. 
The country being very unsafe, the (iovemor of the Dardanelles 
gave me, at my request, a safeguard of eleven gendarmes, whose 
wagea are thirty pounds sterling monthly. These men are 
highly naefol to me^ for their presence inspires awe in the 
brigands, and keeps them at a respectful distauee. I therefore 
_ttie them as guardians of my houses, and as escort every morning 
riding to the sea-bath in the Hellespont. Besides, I place one 
them at every spot where I exe-avate, in order to force my 
to be honest. I have engaged three overseers, of whom 
i« a Frenchman, the two others Spartans ; both have served 
the same capacity in the excavations conducted under the 
of the German Empire in Olympia. As both are called 
Gregorioe, I have changed the name oi one of them^ who is a 



340 



THE KOSTS AMESICAir SEVIBir 



tall And poverful man, into Laomedon, and that of tho 
into Dus. I have iKsidua secured, for the whole time of 
excAvations, the services of two of the most eminent archit 
of Europe, naiuely, of Dr. Joseph Hiifler, who lias gained 
great prize in the xVcudemy of Vienna, and of Dr. 'VTUlioii 
Diirpfeld, who has carried the great prize in thf* Academv of 
Berlin, and hoa been for five years at the bead of the iechnioil 
works in the excavations of the German Kmplre at Olympia. M 
purser, I have again Nicolaoe Giannaki, who has served in tbe 
same capacity since March, 1S70. 

I refiommenced the excarations here on the lat of March, with 
one hundred and fifty workmt'ii, whieh has ever since rcmtiiud 
the average number of my laborers. I employ a large nnmber 
of ox-tcanift and horse-carts. The doily wages of the wortcmn, 
which were at fir&t nine piasters, or two francs, ha^'e gradntl!]' 
increased, and are now eleven to twelve piasters, eqoal to fntia 
two francs fnrty-four centimes to two fi-anra sixty-seven wntinws. 
The horse and oxen carts arc paid ouu piaster — twentv-ti 
centimes for each load. Only the first three days in Mareb 
had Bntith wind; aft'Orward wo had until the r^nd of Apr 
and therefore for fifty-eight 'lava uninterruptedly, a stroD 
north wind, de^nerating at least four timiis weekly into a w» 
storm, which blew the dust into onr eyes, blinded na, and tW 
fered with our work. At the same time it was very coU, t\ 
theriiiouieter often deseending below thirty-two degreei 
at night. The first flocks of cranes i>aased here on the 14 
March ; the first storks arrived on the I7th of March. The [ 
of Troy is much liked by this latter bird, and as many a* xweH^ 
stork-nests are sometimes seen on the terrace of a single vil 
house. But, strange to say, the storks bnild their nests al 
the houses of Tui'ks, or on trees, never on the bouses ' 
Christians; for, while the former have a sort of venorstjon 
the stork, the latter call it the sacred bird of the Turks, antl^^' 
not suffer it to build nests on their houses. 

One of onr first works was to bring to light all the k 
tious of Helleuic or Roman edifices in the still ant-xoavatcd; 
of Hlssarlik, and to gather the sculptured blucks belonginf ' 
them and to others whose foundations cannot any moR 
identified. Among iho latter, a small Doric temple of ponn 
stone desen-fss our particular attention, as it seems to br 
tical with the small and insignifioant temple of PoHm Athaiitr 



WENT DlSCOVm 



which, aroorrling tct Strabo (xiii., p. 593), Alexander the Great 

uw here, and probably also with tiie temple of that goddess to 

which, according to Herodotus (vii., 43}, Xerxea ascended. The 

iiMe»t of the later ediftoes ig a very large Doric temple of 

, marble, to whirh belongs the beautiful metope representing 

'hcebuii Apollo with the quadriga, which I discovered here ten 

ago. This temple is uo doubt identical with that which, 

^■ooording to Strabo (xiii., p. 593), was built here by Lyiumachus. 

Aa it is by far the largest temple here, I agree with my arehitects 

that it must needs be the sanctuar}' of PoUos Athena, the tute- 

luy deity of Ilium. I further mention a Doric portico of marble 

nf the Roman period, of which some Bteps are still in situ ; also 

two amnller marble edifices of Doric order, aud a very large aud 

beaatiful marble gate of the Acropolis, in which both the Ionian, 

aud tlio Corinthian order wera represented. Sculptured blocks 

of all these edifices may be found iu rich abundance in the 

neighboring old Turkish cemeteries of Kum Kioi aud Halil Eioi, 

^KWhere they have 1>een put up as tombstones. 

H Much larger than any of these buildings was the gigantic 

Htheater, which y cut out iu the rock Immediately to the east of 

Vthe Acropolis, and overlooks the Hellespont; it could contain 

npward of twenty thousand spectators. 

In the stage-building, of which the substructions are well 

jrwjerved, T found thousands of fragments of marble columns 

»f Corinthian, Doric, and Ionian order, as well as very large 

of splinters of marble statues, and a large kiln, in which 

lnU the statues appear to have been burnt to chalk. A head, as 

well a« many hands and feet of statues ; a relief -medallion, rep- 

reaenting the she-wolf saokliug Romulus and liemus, and a 

fountain, ornamented with a gorgon^s head, testify to the mag- 

of tliid theater, whit^k bi;h:>ugs to the Koman time, and 

have been built by Sylla or JiUius C'ft'sar. 

In the numerous treni'hes I dug and shafts I sunk in the 

>wer city to the east, south, and west of the Acropolis, I struck 

Uie snbsb^ctions of many large edifices of the Macedonian and 

(ininn X\uw, One uf theiii, whieh is decorat-cd with a fine pave- 

lent of marble slabs aud a long row of granite columns with 

intbian capitals, may probably be the Forum. In many 

we found mosaic floors, omoug which are some with excel- 

defdgns. In all my trenches and shafts In the lower city, to 

the south and west of the Acropolis, I found below the Helleuio 




312 



THE 2t'0BTH AMER2CJ.y n^riEW. 



RU<1 Romau tyliilcee large massi's of bnjkt'ii j»Mtt*"ry of tb< 
prehiftoric settlements. In a shaft sunk immediately sooth 
the Aoropolis, I found a well-presen-eil ruUef Mrulpt-ur« ttf 
HoniHu time, representing Hercules, and another headless 

Oiir most remarkftble discovbriee were in the three low* 
prehistoric cities on the Acro[>oli8 hill, Hissarlik proper, 
my excellent architects proved to me beyond any doubt that 
first Betlleis built here only one or two large edifiee^, which 
snrrotmded with a huge wall, two meters thick, composed 
larger and smaller stones joined with clay, of which large 
may be seen in my great northern trendi. Parallel with 
sonthem part of this wall, and only eight meters distant troBi 
is another wall, also two meters thiuk, of which oulv a 
remains. The length of this first settlement does liot cxee«d 
forty-six meters, and it« breadth can hardly have been greater. 
The architecture of the edifices is a great pnzzle to ns, for we 
have brought to light, at distances nf three met*irfi, five mfttfs, 
5 m. 30 c, and six meters from each other, five (tarallel iot 
walls, m. 90 0. thick, which have no cross- walls, and therefo 
fonu long saloims ; bnt we have only bern able to exoAvato tfat 
for the breadth of my great uoithern trench, say for a difltaa**' 
of thirty meters. The masonry consists of small stones joiood 
with eartli ; the clay coating has been presenxvl in several plnfftj 

"Wo may presume with the greatest protiability that this Sri'i 
settlement had a lower city, whieh extended on the plateau W| 
the sooth mid wi-st; nay, thy pottery I foimd there in ti< 
lowest stratum in my trenches and shafts, and which is ide 
tical with tliat in the lowest layer of tUhrii on tlie Aoropa 
hill, can hardly leave a doubt in this n^speet. 

This first settlement seems to have existed hoi's for a k>o 
number of centmies, for its dfbrix had the time to acenmii 
and to form a stratum having an average depth of 2 ni. 50 p. 

3Iy excellent architects have also proved to me that the enfl'' 
mous layer of burnt ruins, three and four meters thick, 
extends in a depth of from six to ten meters below the w 
and in which I. with Virchow and Bumouf , I; ' nAt 

of only one settlement, contains the ruiiii* of i 
tiuct cities, bailt of bricks, which had sncceede'l each other 
and which hud both perished in fearful e.ato.'.* ;' 
that tQ the lowe«t and oldest of thew* two i 
belong all the snbstrucdons of large stones, one to thrve mt't^ 



UECENT DTSGOVEBIES AT TROY. 



ai3 



lich I had erroneously held to belong to a distinct city. 

le moat remarkable buildlngn of this first burnt or 

seeond city in eaccession from the vii^rin soUf are two largo edi- 

floes, which are built purallel to each either, nod viAy gi^paruted 

byaciirri.iorOm.nOo. broad. Thiflcircnmstance leads U8 Ut Think 

that botii are temples, for if thuy were dwelUng-buoseii they 

ronld have one commou wall between them, a thing never foand 

^et in nneieiit temples. 

To the largest of the two edifices belong the blocks of bricks 

marked H on Plan 111. in my work " Ilios;' in which Mr. Homoaf 

had erroneously seen the remains of the city wall. This buildinf; 

I has foaudatioiitii of htrgo bhrcks three meters deep, whilst those 

^^f the adjoininjr building consist merely of two layers of smaller 

^Mtones. There is, besides, a great differonec in the proportions of 

^■le two edifices : that with the fonadatious of large blocks, which 

Hire shall call temple A, being thirty meters lonj;;, thirteen meters 

"broad, having walls 1 m. 45 c. thick, whilst the uther building witJi 

the weak foaudations, which wo shall coll temple B, is only 

twenty meters long, seven meters broad, with walls only 1 m. 20 c 

^■Uiiek. Thfre is, besides, a difference in the luasourv, the walls of 

^K<^mpl^ A having very narrow joiuis, the clay of which is baked 

in the same proportion as the bricks, whilst the walls of tem[^ 

^^ have bruBd joinlo, the clay of which has Ix^en but slightly 

^piurQt. It is therefore e\ident that A and ti were built at 

^bifferent epochs, and that A is older than B ii^ proved by the fact 

™ihat its east wall, which faces the narrow corridor ra. SO c. broad, 

is covered with a coating of clay m. 025 o. thick, whilst the oppu- 

RU* wall of B hftvS no sueh coating. But still mufh more remark- 
de is the fact that this clay coating i-^ merely baked, whereas 
te briok wall which it covers is in many plaoes vitrified. This 
i> c&n only explain if we admit that the brick wall was first 
bakod and received afterward the clay coating, which was in its 
ini exposed to a great heat when the oj^WBite wall was being 
£ed. But the baking of whole brick wails, and not only of 
>a8e walls, but of hngo city walls, Is a most extraordinary fact 
rhieh had never been found yet, and which turns up for the first 
in Troy divine. The leaking was done by huge woodpiles 
iped up and kindled simultaneoasly on both sides of the oralis. 
Po increase the incandescence, wooden beams, m. 15 e. toO m. 20c. 
^ diameter, had been fixed horizontally all along the brick walls 
intervals of about m. 50 c, the one abo%*e the other. lu aomu 



344 



TBE UOBTH AitESICAN REVJKW. 



rare cases the honzontal hollows in the walls pr. ' 
bnnung of these beams wen* It^it apeu citiiiT iuu-n orl 

inadvertence ; but in general they were tilled op with freah 
and baked briok-matter, mixed with vitrified piL'ceA of brif}:; proli 
ably with Buch as hud fallun Erom the walls during the ba 
operation, for we find oi^casioDally a potsherd in it. Aftvnl 
the walls had hetrn baked, they received on either side tfai; oii 
coating, which was perfectly smoothed, and gave to the tetopl^ 
and htitisi's an elegant, ajipeanuipe. It is more than prot 
that after the clay coating had been put on, the walla wcm iI 
second time submitted to the action of the Arc, — for it ia impues 
ble to suppose that the clay coating could ba\*e become rvdy- 
where so equally baked in the fire of the great catB&trApb& 
A second, but much slighter baking, is proved also by the 
camstauco that the coating of the inner wnUs of temple B 
baked to a depth of m.OSc. Iwlow the day floors, — beeaiuei 
can only be explained by the supposition that the floors 
only made after the walls had received the coating and 
exposed a second time to the action of the fire. The girti 
irregtUarit>' we see in the floors, which are in many places : 
or less %-itrified, but for the most part mearcly penetrated by i 
black vapor, and which have everywhere an irregolar 
convinces us that they have not been artificially baked, 
burnt and destroyed in the great catastrophe by the faUiii).' 
the burning ceilings, which must have been in the ahnj"^ 
terracci, and consisted of wnoden beams covered witli 
much like the terraces of all the preseut houses in the TrojM 
villages. 

Tlie clay floors of the temples were paved with slabs 
green slate, of which we found many still in W/m, and wlii^t 
must have given to the temples a splendid appearance. But, •* 
before said^ the breadth of temple A, inclusive of the wsUs, heiof 
thirteen meters, and the inner span more than ten meiera^ *< 
can hardly think it possible that the eeiliug cotdd have bc«Q i 
without the assistance of columns, of wluehf however, do 
was found. (Joluraua do not ocimr in the '"niail," but they 
mentioned in the ''Odyssey," where they are iin doiihl of 
But, if there bad been wooden colomns In temple A, 
oonld not have stood on the elay floor; they must havp 
bases of stone, of whicli none extstfi. Of capital intenaat 
the internal arrangement of both temples, for both hare, on tb» 



RECENT DISCOVERIES AT TROT. 




sonth-east side, au open pronaos or vestibule, which is, in temple 

A, 10 m. $5 c. long by tOD meters broody and separated from the 

adytnm (S6vent«en meters long by ten meters broad) by two 

pmrniding walls wliicli formed the docir. Precisely in the midst 

of the adytum is a eireular phitfomi of clay, having four meters 

m diameter and m. 06 o. in height, on which, probably, the 

BTDodeii idol may have stood. As the walls of the pronaos run 

Hiut on the south-e«st side without being joiiieil by any other 

Brail, their ends had to be consoUdated ; and this was done by 

Rtteons of wooden pilasters, called in Greek, pnraMades, in Latin, 

amUf of which ttix were fixed nt each wall-end. They stood on 

well-cnt and polished bases, of a hard, caleareous .stone, 1 m. 75 c. 

f, on which we still found tlieir carbonized remains. Each 

n of each parasUis of tlie large temple was in. 25 c. in diam- 

; the size of those of the small temple cannot be accurately 

led. 

Similar wooden parasiades have, aa fur as I know, never yet 

been found, except at the ancient Hera temple in Olympia, in 

which Dr. T)«»rpfi>Iil has proved their existence beyond any 

donbt. This Ol^inpian Hera temple datcci, according to Pau- 

firom the year 1100 B. c. 

Theee wooden parastad^s, whioli, a» Dr. Dorpfeld observes to 

1^ have here at Troy only a constructive intention, namely, tliat 

protecting the fragile ends of the brick walls of the temples, 

the foreruaners of the beautiful partutaths fantij of the 

( I reek temple, which have there only an artistic intention, 

and were perfectly superfluous in a constmctive point of \'iew. 

In the later Greek tempK^ we inviiriably find between the two 

paratfndes two coliunns, which may also have been between the 

onA' of theee Trojan temples; but their existence cannot be 

Jharaved with certainty, for, though there are foundations, there 

^fav DO base:;, like those of the pa nuitttdes, on which Ihc columns 

could have stood. The small temple, B, is differently arranged 

bum tlio loi^ temple, A, for itfi inner space, behind the pronaos, 

)» divided into two succoseive rooms, the first of which is 7 m. 

30 c, the second S m. 80 c. lon^; ; both are four and a half meters 

faroftd. The door leading into the first room is two meters broad, 

and exactly in the midst of the wall ; the door of the second 

room L« but one and a qnart-er meters broad, and placed at the 

tent extremity of the wall. As the wall coatings terminate at the 

door-orpenings, it ia evident that these have also been lined on each 



346 



THE A'Ofirzr AUERICAU WSVlEVr. 



sidp with a sort of jmraitUidfs, and, in fact, wc see tti 
remains at the beams, but cannot make out how man 
of them. As these 1>eam8 were not heavy, they had ni> baiKSof 
gtone. In the great temple the door which leads from the pro*^ 
naoe into the adytum is four meters broad. 

To the Bouth-eaat of the small temple we found a third no«, 
which we shall cull C, whose urchitt^cture is perftKttly similar, tor, 
it haa also a prouaos, the wall-ends of which have etjuallr Ixri 
f.'onsolidatcd with p<irnstafhsj each of sis l»enms, whieb i ■ 
large, flat, S4iaare »toue». Though this temple is only :. 
broad between ita walls, the door leading from its pronaoa to the 
inner apartment was 1 m. 50 c. broad, and had a well-oot mi 
polished threshold of good calcareous stone, which is ti 
meters long by one meter broad. The exoavatiou nf this tutnjjl 
is not finished yet, though I perfectly share ray excellent collafa 
rators* opinion tliat these buildings — A. B, and C — were 
pies* yet T eanm>t refrain from remiudini^' th»* render of i\ 
great resemblance to the hoosc which, according to the *' Uiad^ 
( vl., 316). Paris had built for himself by the best architeots of Truj 
for it consisted of a thalamos, under which we must ander«taod 
the innermost room, a dome, which wo understand for the seconi^ 
room, and an aul^, which word utherwiee means a court, bui swsdm 
to have here the some liigiiilicatioi: as prodomos. or entrance-1 
1 call the reader's particular attention to the fact that Ut>ta* 
names here the rooms in tlieir suceession precisely so as w 
them in B. Wlmt leads us more than anirthing ^se to 
that these edifices are templea is & newly discovered gale>waj 
which leads up from the south side, in a slope, to the cdiflcr 
and uppe^u-s to have served exclusively for the templHi. I 
to excavate it fix weeks ago for a distance of forty-five met 
as, for the mo8t part, I have to dig down to a depth of twd^ 
fourteen meters, I have not been able yet to finish its 
Afl its floor consists of clay, it can only have served for pode*' 
trians ; it is thi-eo meters broad, and has ou either ade walls 
meters high and more than six meters thick, probablj the sal 
stmctions of a gigantic tower, into whoso construction 
must have entered largely, for othcrwiae wv arc at a 1< 
understand the enormous maaaes of red wo'jd-ashes with which 
the gate-way is filled, and the extraordinary incaudesoencc 

has been here in the catastrophe, and which has lieen ao ^ 

that many stonea have been burnt to chalk, and that the pottvir 



nBCENT DISCOVERIES AT TROT. 



947 



either cmmbled away to atomSf or has mcltod into Bhapelees 
On either &ido of the road we see a neat parapet, 
15 c high by m. 30 c. broad. Iq the thick walls of thin 
my uvhitects reoognize two diflereot opochSf for tliu south- 
pass eonfiistA of Urger and more polygonal stones, joined 
ith a ooar»e brick material — that is, mortar of clay aud straw, 
hicb has become quite baked, and is perfectly similar to the 
lortar iu temple A. The more northern part of the gate-wallA 
Hisists of smaller, moni rectangular stones, joined with a light 
ay-mortar, which is perfectly similar to the clay iu temple B. 
, \Ay however, worthy of note that this day-mortar exists only 
L tbu exterior musonr>', and it may therefon; be colled a far- 
enetrating coating. The colossal masses of broken bricks 
»and iu the gate-way, and which evidently belong to the upper 
lOzy of the masonry, have the same height as those of temple B, 
unoly, m. 065 c, their breadth being m. ^05 c The up)ier 
.yer of the gate- way consists m. iW c. deep of earth and sand ; 
len follows a layer of debris of bricks m. 85 c. deep, below 
hich we see the whole space filled with red wood-ashee, and debris 
t brickti aud stones, all of which show evident signtt of the 
bite heat to which they have been exposed. Highly interest- 
i^ are the wooden beams, which stood at intervals of two to 
ro and a half meters on either side of the gate- way, and whioh we 
Kiognize by the impressions they hare left in the walls, aa veil 
i by tJie rarlxmized remains of them which we find in the round 
oles m. 25 c. deep and m. 20 c. in diameter, In which they 
!iood in the ground. These beams served to consolidate the 
■alls and to l>ear the superposed bi^ms. In various places 
-her« these beams have stood, the heat caused by their burning 
u been bo great that not only the calcareous stones have been 
imed into rhalk, but this chalk has become, with the wall- 
sating, one solid mass, so compact that we expi^rience the very 
reatest difficult in cutting it away with the pickaxe. The 
lite proper was, of course, in the great wall of this second city 
be first burnt city), throuf^ which the gate-road passes, and 
hich is a contiunation of the great wall marked C on the 
igraving No. 144 iu my work " Dios." I am now busily engaged 
L bringing this wall to light in its entire drouit, except, of 
)nrse, where it has been cut through by my former trenohee. 
his wall is wlaiiling at an angle of 45'*, aud of wdossal size. I 
ceavKted it on the west side, close to the great gate, to a depth 

VOL. C33tX\'.— NO. 311. 25 



£5 



34d 



THE Nonrn amebzcun uEviH%r. 



of fourteen meters wittiont reaching its Imitom. It 
fts it U an extremelr grand appearance, and, if we coa»c 
it formed merely the su'listntotiou of the great lirick wall, vliij 
mast have been six Ut eight meters hig^, vc can easily ooqc 
that, when the whole wall was still entire, the Trojans she 
have thought uo much of it an to attribute its constmctioD 
Poseidon and ApuUo. 

The people of the second city (the first burnt city) built 
great stone gate (see the engraving, No. 10 in " Dios"), but 
made it with only one closure, in f^nt of which was aa o[ 
place followed up by a vast edifice, which occupies the who 
space between tlie western part of the great wall and my 
northern trench (see in my *' Ilioe," Plan I., between Z — O and S 
— Z], and of wiiich I have brought to light the sulmtmeUoui io 
removing tboee of the small honseu of the tliird citi', which M 
been built in all direotjons over them. The 8nl>stmction5 of thfl 
large edifice may also be seen iu all directions beneath thase d 
the royal house of the third city, reprt-seuted uii<ier Js'o. 188 in 
"Dios," which I have left standing. Their walls, which an 
from m. SO c. to'l ni. thick, and cousist of Urge stones, [irovi^to 
us that this house must have had mauy stalely halls, which iraR_ 
paved with slabs of green slate. In fact, iis compared to 
edifice and to the three large buiklings, which wu presume te 
temples, the houses of the third city are altogether lillipat 
It is not certain that all the clay floors of the t^tartmentci of 
large house wore paved witli slabs of edate, many of the 
being completely vitrified in the great catastrophe b>> Oie 
of the straw contained in the clay. Now I think thia could ! 
have occurred had the floors had a secuud pavement of 
slabs. The quantity we find of the latter is, hoTrever, 
great. I am now euergeticaUy at work to bring to li{ 
remaining buildings of the second city, but the remaioinf 
between its walls is so limited that there oan only be t«« ' 
three more houses. 

The great size of the buildings of this second, city, the p<«i 
iar character of the e<l)l]ces A, B, C, tL. 
paved with day which leads up to them, or » , 
great wall (8ee wood-cut No. 2, B, in "Ilios") wiiicli pn»(-»' 
from the Acropolis in a south-easterly direcTi^f "< ■' «'■■->' 
variance witl> the Acropolis woUo, which ar»~ 
straiglit ; and last, not least, the masses of prehi»turic y*A.i 




A 



RECENT DISCOrsmSS AT TSOT. 



in my trenches on the plateau to the east, sonth, and west 
of the hill. Thin varied of facts proves that thti hiU Hissarlik 
served merely an Acropolis and Baerod Inolosure of the temples 

tthe second st'ttlere. whoso city proper extended on the plateau 
the foot of it. We have, therefore, in the eeoond city, a 
town before ns whicli had a Pergamos, with larga and stately 

riM, and Trhich, consequently, perfwtfy answers the descrip- 
Homer gives of sacred Hios. The new settlers, the builders 
of the tliird city, limits themselves to the bill of Hiasarlik, 
and had no lower city; they therefore iXBed, no doubt, the 
•tones of the old town to boild theiKt on Hissarlik. Judging by 
tibe smallncss of the honseii of the fourth and fifth settlers on 
ffissarlik, we may be certain that they too had uo lower city. 
The ruins of the second city, therefore, as they consisted for the 
awet part of bricks, and as for many centuries they remained 
exposed on & hard soil t^ the inclemencies of the weather, 
naturally disappeared. I now even beliovo in the tradition 
reported by Strabo (xiii., p. 599), that the Mitylenian Arctueauax 
na^'d the stones of Troy to build the walls of Sigeinm, for no 
douljt only the stones of the cit^' wall nt Troy were meant Many 
of the stones may also hare been used to build the .^k>liaa Iliam; 
but, in spite of all that. I am still in hopes of discovering more <rf 
the lower city wall of Triiy proper than the fragment represented 
under No. 2 1). In general, the layer of ruins and d^ria of the 
second city is 1 m. 50 c deep, but in many places the houses of 
Uie third city have been built so closely upon the remains of the 
SMond city that the ruins of its walls are mereJy U m. 10 c. to 
m. 20 v. de*!p. If the niina of the temples arc coraparativelv well 
preser\'ed, and if outside <if them wc find the foimdations of the 
houses of the third city much deeper than inside of them, ws 
can attribute all this merely to the lucky circumstance that in- 
side of the ttiraples the mass of debris was enormous, and that 
the new sottlers built their houses upon it, whilst outsido these 
edifices there wa« bnt Uttlo or no aecumulstion of rffTrw. Of 
gold, only a small frontlet and on ear-ring of the common Trojan 
shape (see in *' Ilios " the engraving No. 695) were found in the 
temple A ; of silver, a number of ear-rings of the same form and 
four or Ave brooohes of the shape represented in "Dios" under 
No. 151, all ftttftfhud tofretber by the cementing action of the chlo- 
jridc. Bat much more remarkable are the bronze noils, of which 
e> number was foond In the temple A, from m. 15 o. to m. 



a50 



TES SOUTH AMERICAN REVIMW. 



25 a long, and from five handred to eleven hundred and 
gnunjntia, equal to from two to two and one-half pounds troy i^ 
wei^t Nearly all of tkcm are qnadrangolar, and nm out ' 
a jtoint maoh like those represented in " IUob " onder Xo«. II 
and 819, which were held to be boltii or to have boen \mA \ 
keys ; but^ as we found many of these naila sticking poi 
larly in the floors, where they no donbt once retoinod obj( 
wood, there can now be no doubt that, if they were uaed at 
as keys, they certainly served principally as nails. Some of tlum' 
have a very large and think round head ; bnt the most rei 
are those which near their thick end are sorroouded by a 
and heav>' bronxe diisk of m. 10 o. to m. 125 o., equal to 
to five inches in diameter Bnt it 
partit^ular attention that the disks do not 
form au integral part of the naila, bat that 
they were stuek on tlie<m by means of tbtf 
quadrangular hole they have in thu o<eDl«r. 
give here a drawing of one of these cnrioas naila, whioh ban 
linly never been found before. 

These disk-naik are the heaviest of all, for they wd^ 
two and one-half ponnde troy ; they only occurred in temple Aj 
in temple B only a few of those without disks were found, 
the very large edifice of the second city, whioh ooonp^ 
whole western and nortli-weatem part of the Acropolis, 
found, in or close to the spot marked R on Plan I. in *'Dioit.' 
quite a small treasure of objects of bronze, couaisting of a qtud- 
rangular uful Ova. 18c., and another Om. 09c long; six wQ 
preserved bracelets, two of which are treble ; three small battle 
axes m. 105 c. to m. 12 c long, two of whioh have a holB o 
the smaller end ; a battlo-ax m. 23 c long, and two latp 
fragments of others. All these battle-axes have the form of 
that represented in " Ilioa," under No. 828. Further daw 
well pre6er\-ed small knivoft, nnd a da^^ m. 22 o. long, pc^ 
fectly resembling in shape that represented in "IUm," undfl' 
No. 901, Very curious are the two long, parallftl holes in tb* 
lower part of the blade of the daggL>r. The handle, ^xi^ 
is qnadruugular, was encased in wood, and its end was tofM^, 
round at hght angles, so tliat tka casing might attok to 
In the great catastrophe the blade was roflod np, and gut ' 
oircular fono. There was also found a Iano9-bcad m. ISo* 
longf similar to those represented under No, SOl-806 in " Uiu 



RECENT DISC0VBSIE8 AT TSOY. 



3&1 



r may farther mention a verj' curions lironxo rinp, m. 045 c, 

brood and m. 068 e. in diameter, which shows great artincio 

skill, and is not tinlike our table napldn-ringH; it is divided into 

conipArtin<?nt«, ea^h omamtinted with a croas. Bat hj far 

<e most important objiH^t tho little treasnre contuned was an 

idol of bronse, of tho most primitive form and fabric, with a 

head rosembliDg very mnch that of an owl ; it has no month ; 

the ears are Wnt ovo^r so as to form small rings; one of the 

arms is tamed round so as to rest on tho breast, and this proves 

to tut that it is a female figure ; the other arm is broken ; the feet 

are ahapeless stomps ; to the middle of the legs is attached from 

behind a prop or stay, m. 04 c long, which can leave no donbt 

that the idol was intended to be plaoed upright; it is m. 155 c. 

long, and weighs four hiuidre<l and forty grammes^ or nearly one 

poond troy. I think it likely that this bronze figure is a nopyor 

a rude imitation of the famous Palladium, which was probably of 

wood. It is broken into three fragments, to which lucky t'ircam- 

stanoe I am indebted for the good fortune of having reeeived this 

idol in my division of the antiquities with the Imperial Museum ai 

Constantinople, for the three fragments were covered with dirt, 

isnd altogether ondistinguishable to an inexperienced eye; thus 

^b obtained them in exchange for one bronse battle-ax. The 

^knaU treasnre contained further two rims of bronzo vans, and 

VEbe fragment of a bronze vessel with a large handle. 

Terra ootta whorls, lioth plain and with an incited ornamen- 
tation, were fonnd again In great abnndanco. Twenty orna- 
mented ones were found in one heap just in front of temple 
A, which circumstance leaves no duiibt in my mind that such 
whorls were nsed as votive offerings to Pallas Athena, the 
tntelary deity of Ilios, who, in her character of Ergan^, was 
the protective di^dnity of the working- women, particularly the 
weavers. Well polished axes of diorite were found again in 
large numbers; also four small ones uf jade, and immense 
quantities of hand mill-stones of trachyte ; mortars, pestles, rude 
hammers, com-bmisers, etc., of granite, porphyry, silicions stone, 
etCf also a great many well-polished sling-shots of htematite, 
most of which ocourrwl in temple A, One of them had the 
nnonnoas weight of one thousand one hundred and thirty 
graoimes, or about two and one-half pounds troy. Another sling- 
shot of hiematite, found in temple C, weighs five hundred and 
twenty grammes. There were also fonnd in temple A some 



352 



TSE XOBTS AdlERXCAJf SEVTSW. 



well polishnd fg-gs of aragonite, and qnit* a nnmlter of email, i 
marble idols like No. 197 in "Ilios." In tyiiiple B wero ttmsi^ 
more than a hundred perforated clay cylinders, like those rep- 
roeentcd under Nos. 1200 and 1201 in ** nios," which may hm 
been used as weights for the looms. Of bronze were found 
naafles of brooches (like those represented under Nos. 928-830 
in "lUoe"); they are in tlie form of nails with globular heads, and 
they were nscd in the prohistorio cities of Husariik instead of 
the not yet invented Jib«la. Of the same metal were tollier 
foond many knives. 

Of ivory was found a most onrlooa object> with five tetm- 
globular exeresicencert, in form rotieh likfi the object of Eeyptiiia 
porcelain ropmsonted under No. 983 in *' Iliofl"j alfir>, of ivorr. 
two corioas handles in the shape of dogs, like No. 517 in ** Vaca,' 
and a little ram. Of pottery, large masses of tripod-Tiiat« 
(like Nos. 273-281 in " llios ") and of rases with owl-hiwis \lik<' 
Nos. 227 and 229). The people of the third city have not alwiTf 
built their honses upon the rains of the second ; wo frtoqaeotlT 
sec their foundations in the midst of the old bnildinga, and some 
of them had been let down even to the floor of the temples, in 
the brick walls of which th&y hod here and there put their \argit 
jars. Immediately to the east of the newly discovered gate 
the second city^, but three meters higher, we found in 
great briek wall of the third city a curious gate, in tbo mil 
of which stood the sacriJlcial altur represented under No. 
in '* llios." Close to the latter is a gutter of rude slabs, wl 
may have served to carry off the blood of the victims. 
dicing down in this gate- way we discovered, at a depth of at 
1 m. 60 c below it, the substructions of a much more ancient ., 
of the second city, which is six meters broad, and must, like 
two other gates of this same sottlemeDt, have led down 
Acropolis to the lower city. Again, immediately to the 
the gate with the altar, but five meters higher, we slv .irtiff ' 

substructions of the great gate of the Aerviralis of >\.. ...>^ ;imm. 
On the outside stood Doric marlile columns with a tri^ypb 
entuljlaturo ; in the interior, the gat© proper wae formed by two 
Corinthian columns. 

Aft mentioned in the preceding pages, the great stnn« gau 
(No. 10 in " Hios " ) was built by the people of the sevotid city, 
who made it with only one olcsDre; but the subscqotmt Mt- 
tlera, the people of the third ci^, enlarged It and niiiUi it with 
a treble closure. My architects have proved to lue that 



SECEyr mSCOYEBlES AT IROY. 



303 



ftow risible foimdations of the gftte-posts irere theD not visible 
>ve the floor, remuautii of which may still uow be seen l>etween 
stones of the parapet, for Uur floor is m. 50 c. higher than 
pavement of the gate as it is now excavated Failber down 
gate-road the diflen?nce of the levpl is even 1 in. 50 c, and the 
of the thirtl city had probably no idea of the existence of 
boaatiful gate-road beluw their misemblQ uiii»aved road. 
Nothing is more curioos than to obserro hero the sacecs^ion of 
Boors in the great stately edifice of tlio second city, part of 
whose rains we nee in all directiunH beiioatli tbo njyal house of 
the third city. We soc there at first a floor of the second city, doq- 
nsting of clay and small pebbles, on which the third settlers hare 
btult a honse-wall, whose two lowest conrscs of stones must be 
reckoned as fonndations. On a level with the third course of 
KtoitvB may be seen the clay floor of the house (of tho third ci(y), 
whicii ia Om. 35 c. above that of the second city; hot in the 
oourse of time a third floor of clay was made ra. 40 c. above 
thp seeond fliHjr. I may still mention that sheila as well as 
ptitsherds of the second city are very abundant in the bricks of 
the tliird city, and that the shells are black wherever the bricks 
have lieeu exposed to an intense heat. 

Not the least interesting of my researches of this year was 
the exploration of tho two conical tumuli at the footof the prom- 
ontory of Sigeiuni, of which tradition assigns the one to Achilles, 
the other to Patroclmt. Three years ago tho proprietors of these 
tnmuli usked me £lO0 for the permission to excavate each of 
them : bat now their pretensions were much more moderate, and I 
obtained the permission to excavate both for £3. The tumulus of 
AchiBeA is situated at a li'^^s height, iTimiedititely X*i the north- 
east of Cape SigcinuL, and thus close to tho Hellespont Its diam- 
eter at the foot is thirty, its upper diameter fifteen meters; its 
Iowe?)t height is four, its greatest height twelve mctens. It had 
been explored in 1786 by a Jew, by order and on aoconnt of 
Choisenl-GouflSer, who was at that time IVench Ambassador at 
Constantinople. The Jew pretended to bavo snuk a shaift from 
the top (sec C. G. Lenz, " Die Ebene von Troia, nach dem Grafen 
Choisenl-Gouffler," Xeu Strelitz, 1798, p. G4), and to have found 
tho upper part of the tumulus to consist of well-beaten clay, to a 
depth of two meters ; to have struck then a cumpact layer of 
BteneA and olay, Om. 60 o. deep ; to have found a third stratum, 
Donsisting of earth mixed with sand, and a fourth of very fine 
Mnd, and to have reached at a depth of 9 m. 70 c. a qnodranga- 



354 



TBE yOBTH AMERICA2^ RSVTBW. 



lor cavity foar feet in length and hraadth^ formed of iim!toiii7,j 
and covered with a flat stoue, which hod broken under 
weight preesinf^ npon it. It ia not quite olcar whether th« J« 
meant the eavit)-to have been jn the rock or above it; ati 
events, he describes the rock aa consisting of gmnitt. He 
tends to have found in the c&\'ity charcoal, ashes impregni 
with fat, several bonejj, aniniig which wau a tibia, and 
fragment of a eknll ; also the fragments of an Iron sword, and i 
bronze figure seated in a ehanot, with horses, as well a$ fn£»j 
ments of pottery, exactly Bimilar to the Etruscan, some of whir 
were much burnt and iritrified, whereas all the painted vwstSil 
wore unhurt. But as no man of experienoe or worthy (if ooo> 
fidcnce was present at the esplorntion, scholars appear to bate 
distrusted the account from the first, and to have thou^l tlui 
the Jew, in order to obtain a good reward, had procored saJ 
prepared beforehand all the objects he protended to have fonwi 
at the bottom of the tumnlns. My proeent exjiloratioa of tin 
AchiHos tumulus, as well as all the experience I have gathotd 
by the excavation of many similar tomnli, aro altagetbo* foul 
to the Jew's account of his discoveries. In the first [Jaoe, I cu . 
aasoro the reader that the rock here, as well as ever^^whero d» I 
the plaiu of Troy, is calooreons, and that no grrmito rock eustr^ 
here; and in the second pltLce, tlial the Jew made only 
small excavation in the southern slope of the tomnlns, lodthal 
he remained far away from its oenter ; in fact, so ivt sirav 
from it, that, in the sliaft three meters in length and ImM^tb 
which I sunk in the top of the tomb, and precisely in its croteT) j 
I f onnd all the different strata of earth of which the tnmnloi i*j 
composed perfeoUy undisturbed. As my shaft remains «pM, 
and as I out out in it stairs, visitors can easily convince Uku^ 
sdvee that 



The upper Ujrer, m. 70 «. daep, consists oC Uaek eartU. 



" second " 

" UOrf " 

'• fourth " 

" Ulh '* 

" wtOi " 

" Berantfa" 

" eighth " 

" ninth " 



8ttii>l, cIb;, and small ■UftU' 
whil« ttnJ yeUoir clay, 
lIght-«olor«<l elsj, will) ni*^ 

stoneo. 
Wtti> clay. 

•and and li^l'«ntaTCd daf> 
Waok eanh. 
U|[fat-*o1'*rfd otajr. 
llgfat-coloTfil lump* ot ^*1 

nii««d with pl««M of i«*^ 

fltODO. 



SSOENT maCOVEBlEB AT TROY. 



355 



Thos wo get a total depth of C m. 50 c from the top of the 
_tiimQlns to its bottom, which differs by not l&ss 3 m. 20 c from 
d^ith of !) m. 70 o. which tho Jew pret«Dd8 to have reached, 
lOQgh in reality he appears to have oxcavatwl only one meter 
As in nil the tnmnli of the Trood explored by me in 
and 1879, I fonnd in the tnmnina of Adnlles no trace of 
bones, ashes or charcoal — in f act, no trace of a burial. 
Ot bronze I foond a curious arrow-bead without barbs (tX»xIvcc), 
which are still pmserved tho heads of the little pins by 
rhich it was fastened to the shaft; also tho fragment of an iron 
Of frofrments of pottery large quantities turned up, among 
'Srliirfi Uieri- arv a nnniber of pieces of that thick, glistening, black 
pottery which ia peculiar to the first and most ancient city of 
Hissarlik. But these potehords must have lain on the ground 
when the Itimulus was heaped up, because by far the greater 
portion of tho pottery is archaic, varnished black, or yellowish, 
with black or re<l bands, to which arclueology cannot ascribe 
a rvmutcr age thitii the ninth centurj- B. c. The result of this 
exploration has therefore been to prove that the account of the 
Jew employed by the French Ambassador, Clioiseul-Gouffler, 
in Constantinople in 1786, to excavate the Achillea tomb, is, to 
say the least, a fiction from one end to the other. 

The tumulus attributed to Patroclua, which is about four 
hundred meters to the south-east of the Achilles bomb, has 
been excavated in 1855 by the American Consul, Mr. JVank 
Calvert, of tho Dardanelles, in company with some officers uf the 
British fleet. They sank on open shaft in it, and dug down to 
the rock without finding anything worthy tlieir notice. But at 
that time nrchtcologtsts paid no att«ntion to ancient potsherds; 
in fact, it is only within a few years that the hitter have been 
considered as tho oomncopias of arclueological knowledge, and 
employed as the key to determino approximately the age of the 
ntes where they are found. I was therefore verj' anxious to exca- 
vate tho Putn>eins tomb again, in order to gather tho potsherds, 
which I felt sure to find. The diameter of this tumulus at tho baso 
t£ twenty-seven meters, at the top eight meters ; its perpendicular 
height fflx meters. I sank in it from the top a shaft three 
meters in length and breadth, and dug it down to the rock. I 
)nnd this tumnlns to consist entirely of light-colored clay. The 
}t(cry I found in it is much less abundant than that contained 
the Achilles tumulus, but it consist.3 also of archaic, varnished 
or yellowish, or red Hellenic t*rra cottas similar to those of 



356 



TSS NOSTR AMSmCAN SBYIEW. 



the Achilles tomb, and H leaves us in no doubt that both the« 
tumtili must belong to about the same epoch. This expluratiw 
seoniR tr> give as an additional proof that all the tumali of tx 
Troad were mere ecnotaphia or memorials. 

The most interesting of all the torooli of the Troad is no 
doubt the turanlns attributed by the tradition of all n 
to the hero Protosilaus, the first Greek who, on the arri^ : 
fleet, jumped on shore, but also the first vho was killed bf i 
Trojan.* This tomb was shown on the Thracian Chereonerasv^ 
near the city of Elaeas,! of which large ruins may be seen nWj 
the f ortrese of Sedil Bachar, situated close to the eartreme point «( 
the peuiiisula, and built in the year 1070 after the IlefrtrSi or 
1654 after Christ This tumolus lies near the farther end of th* 
small but brautiful valley of exuberant fertility which eitemU 
between fiwlil Bacharond an older — now abaudoued — Turftish 
fort, which occupies part of the site of Eloeus. This wpuklKr 
was not less than one hmidred and twenty six m-'i 
eter; it is now ouly ten met-ers lugb, but as it is undi i 
and has probably been tilled for thousands of years, it 
originally have been much higher. In order to facilitate its i 
ti\'atiun, its west, south, and east sides ha\'e been tratiafornii 
into three terraces, sustained by masonry, and i,'lnntr<l niili^ 
vines, almond-trees, and pomegranate-trees ; tlie top and ilm 
northern slope are sown with barley, and planted also with vinw, 
olive-trees, pomegranate-treea, and some beautiful < ' 
which latter WWdly ealled to my reeoUet-tion Pht]o>: 
dialogue between the vintager and the Phtrnician, and U 
elm-tree« whieh the former describes as planted nromid the toi 
of Protesilaus by the Xj-mphs, and of which it was siiid that 
liraneht's turned toward Troy liloesomwl earlier, but that tkcj 
also lost their leaves earlier and withered away sooner. AmotJ 
ing to Pliny%: "Sunt hodie ex adverso Diensium urbis, 
Hellcspontum, in Protesilai sepulcTO arbores, quae oninibos (w^■is 
quum iu tantuni aeerevore nt Ilium adisjuciant, inareeenut, 
susque adolescunf 

Id visiting the t4)mb I was amazed to find it .-' 
ments of Ihiek glaoeing blttck j«jtterj'; of bowls « i 

• Hrnnor, n., n., 606-70*. 

t Stnbo, XHL, p. 505 ; PatuaaiM, L. 94, 9 ; TsatSM I^raophran, 539. 

% In neroicU. 

« H. N., XVL, 88. 



TtECByfT DISCOVERIES AT TROY. 



357 



tubes for Bniti)enidon on two sides of thn rim, or of vases witii 
lUe verticAl tubular boles for suspension on ibe sides; also, 
frsffmenta of fj^lanciug blauk bowitt, with im inciKbd om»- 
tstiou tUleil with ohalk to strike the eye. Tliis pottt-ry only 
lit Tr«y iu the first city, and it is by far the uldesl I ever 
It is therefore quite uooonceivable how, after ha^nng l>ocn 
d for perbajw four thon«uid years lo frost and heat, nun 
smiHhine, it wiild still look quite fresh ; but it bewilders the 
d still more to think bow the chalk wbieh fills the ornamental 
eoiild bft^-e willi6t4*od for long agee the inclemencies of the 
us. I iilsti picked lip there many of the feet of terra cotta 
saddle-quems of traehj-te, small flintsawa fir knivoa, some 
efaammers of dinri te, together with u fine specimen like Xo. 1270 
in my " Tlios " : also, a certain nomber of corn-bruisers of silici- 
stone or graniti^. lia\ing brought foor workmen with axes, 
iv»?ls, baskets, etc., with me, I at once sunk, just in the middle 
the snmniit, a shaft three meters in length and breadth ; but 
laborers had scarcely been at work for two days whe-u they were 
ipped by order of the military governor of the Dardanelles, 
o, not being able to conceive how a man cau lose his lime in 
ng for an\'thing but gtdd, suspected that T nienJy ustfd the 
vatioQ of Kara Tgatch Tepessi, which is the present name of 
ilans tomb, as a pretext to make plans of the fortresB 
Baohar,aud to investigate the Hues of tur]>et1oe8 recently 
ionk in the Hellespont. But, happily, iu those two days my 
four workmen had dug down to a depth of 2 m. 50c., and had 
fouud targe ijuiuitities of most annieiit jtottery similar to that of 
the first city of Hissarlik, some perforated balls of serpentine, a 
anmber of excellent axes of diorite, and other interestiug things. 
Atadepthuf 1 ni,00c. tJiey struck a layer of slightly baked brieks, 
mixed with straw, very similar to the bricks found in the seeond 
d third city of Ilissarlik. I have still to add that prehistoric 
is also found for some distance in the fields around the 
nlns of Prot««ilans. Here, therefore, must have lived iu a 
ote prehistoric age a people of the game ra<;e, habits, and cult- 
as Uie first settlers on the hill of Hissarlik. 
I also investigated most carefully the heights beyond the village 
of Bonarbaahi, whiob arc called the BaU Dagh, and wliieh for 
Deati}' a century have had the imdeservod honor of being con- 
■idered as the real site of Troy. At the extremity of these 
heights, rains of walls and heaps of potsherds indicate the site 




358 



THS NORTH AMERStJAN REVtEW. 



of a very small, ancient city, crowned by an acropolis, the t« 
being 200 mulers long, the latter 200 meters long by 100 
broad- The ^-alls of the latter plainly show two diff*'rtmt epoflaj 
those of the first epooh are bnilt of large un'nTought bl4i<>]c\| 
joined with smallur stones; those of the second of wroi 
stones, wbicli havu been laid in ref^ular ooursos. These two 
tinct epochs I also found in all the trenches I dag, and in 
shafts T snnk l>oth in the Acropolis and in the lower city. Id 
a trench 25 meters long by 2 m. 50 c. deep, which I dug in tfae 
midst of the little citadel, I found in Che stratum of tbe swond 
epoch, wliich reaehed to a depth of 1 m. SOo. below the sarfaMr 
several house-walk of small Btoues and numerous fragments u( 
Uaok, brown, or red Ilelleaio pott«ry, for which I do not h«gtate_ 
to olaiin the fonrth and fifth century p. c. together with flnt 
black pottery of about 200 b. c. Below this layer wna i 
stratum of the first epoch, with a hoose-wall equally boiU 
small stones and masses of very eoarse and heavy ^azed 
or gray wheel-made pottery, which has been but very sligfatlf' 
baked, and is therefore of a light-gray fracture. This mt 
same pottery is also found at Hlssarlik in the lowest stratmn of 
dUtris of No^nim llinm, immediately below the Macedonian 
and it can by no means be called prehistoric j but it evident 
belongs to a time previous to the fifth, and it ia most 
of the sixth, century b. c. It is now and tlien intermizc 
that coarse, unglazi>d gray pottery which occurs in such 
masses at Hiasartik, immediately bolow the stratum of 
^olie Grreek oolony, and which I hold to be Lydian (me: 
" Hios," pp. 587-600). In this trench I struck the natural rock i 
a depth of 2 m. 50 c. In a second trench, dug on the east side • 
the Acropolis, I found the aoerunolation of difiris to be on!)' 1 nt 
50 c deep, of which m. GO c. belongs to the sccund, and m. 90 c. 
to the first epoch. I brought here to light the 8n1)stTuri iiioa d 
an edifice of neatly wrought quadrangular bloclcs of (>ongloolf^ 
ate rock, and tho same blaek, brown, or rod^glased or fluted He 
lenic pottery in the upper, the same very coarse, heavyj 
black or gray wheel-made potterj- in the lower layer. The 
also occurred to me iu the trench I dug at the west end of 
Acropolis, where the rock was reached at a depth of 3 m. SO c, 
well as in a trench dug at the eastern extremity, where, 
the same kinds of pottery, two iron natls and a copper oae 
found ; also, iu a shaft which I sunk 3 m. 50 e. de^ in aa aneieot 



BSCENT DISCOVEBISS AT TROY. 



Kling of the Acrupulia, aud in others which I Bank in the 
ivrer eit^. Among the ai-chiteotural onriosities of the latter 1 
nuy mention a large and a small stone circle, which are con- 
ttgQOQB. In a shaft sunk in the lu^er circle I fonnd very nom- 
eroos fragments of a coarse, ongUedd gray pottery, which 
reiembles the above-mentioned pottery. Of the three tumuli or 
KHsalled heroes' tombs outside the oitj wall, 1 excavated the still 
unexplored smallest oui', which is only 25 meters in diameter, 
and 2 m. 50 e. high, and which used to be attributed by the 
adherers of the Troy-Bunarbashi theory to King PHum himself. 
I found in it very numerous fragments of the same rude, heavy, 
glued gray pott«ry, of the first or more ancient epoch uf Btmor- 
basbi, which seem to prove that the tumulos belongs to a 
time previous to the fifth century B. c, but that most certainly 
it cannot claim the age of even the latest prehistoric city of His- 
sarlik. Of terra cotta whorls, which oceor by thousands in the 
prehiatorio cities of Hissarlik, only two were found, ami eveo 
these are in shape and fabric perfectly similar to all those found 
ia Novum Ilinm. 

I also excavated among the ruins of the ancient town called 
Eaki'HiBsarlik) which ia situated on the rock on the caKtcm bank 
of the Scamander, opposite to the heights of Bnnarbo&ht. The 
pottery I found there is perfeetlj similar to that of the first 
settlement on the latter, and must, consequently, be of about 
the same epoch. I also excavated in the ancient settlement on 
the mount called Fulu<Di^h, to the north-oxijtt of Eski'Hissarilkr 
where I found, at n distance of fifty meters from each other, two 
OODcentrict circles of fortifications, of which the inner one is 
UJcty meten; in diameter; but all the walls have fallen, aud are 
BbapeJesa heaps of stones. I found there only a very rude, 
UQglaxed, aud unvarnished pottery, which is certainly not pre- 
hl>«toric, but whose age we have no means of fixing even approxi- 
mately , but a very similar mde red pottery being (dso found in 
the lower stratum of Novum Ilimn, wo may proljably be near 
the mark if we assign it to the sixth or seventh century B. c. 

I also excavated on the site of the ancient city of Cebrene, on 
Mount Cbali-Dagh, near Beiramich. The altitude of its acrop- 
olis is five hundred and forty-four meters, that of the lower 
d^ five hundred and fifteen. In the acropolis there are only a 
few foundations of houses cut out in the rock, and a cistern 
6 m. long, 5 m. IM) c brood, 4 m. deep ; there is do accumulation 



8G0 



THE NORTB AMSRICAJr SEVTSW, 



of (Ubria, and no trace of walls ; bat iliese ware not seeded, 
rook dcscendiug rerfcicolly on all sidee except in one place. 

In tbe tower city may l>e 8eeu a grtMi mwiy fouudatttiucf 
uncieiit honses of Urgfe, well-wrooght Mocks. Tbe walkf wtoek 
aro more tliaii two miloe in ciroumferenoe, consist on both (Ma 
of large wed^like blocks, Iwtween wbicb tbe space u &IM 
up witb small i>tone«; Ave gat«« Are easily trao«d, and 
remains of an ancient causeway are visible pert of the 
down the gradual descent I excarated in more Uian tvc 
places in Uie lowra* city, but Htmck the vir^n nul t^verr 
at a depth of iean than m. 50 c, and for the most put 
depth of only a few inehcB. I found bt^re, in all my dileb 
glazed black or red Hellcnie potsherds, together with Qit fsj 
gome kind of but sliyhtly baked gray or block pottery vhiA 
I bad dug up from thd lower stratum in my uxoavatioiu no 
the heights of Bonarbashi and in Eski-HisBarlik, and wind 
must be of the aamo ago. 

In two of my trenches I struck tombs with human skd^lpa*^ 
In one I found a pair of silver ear-rings, an iron tripod, i 
bronze bowl, some broken bronze vessels, and two coins, od« oS 
sUver, the other of copper, of Cebrene ; both have au une aid* u 
ApoUo-bcad. on the other a he-goat head with tlic letter* K E 
All we know of the history of Cebrene is, that Aiitigouiwffl 
its inhabitants to abandon their city, and to settle dom 
Alexandria Troas. 

I also excavated on Mount Kurshnnlu Tepeli, at the fool 
the Ida Mountains; it lies on the Soaniauder; its altitoil£ 
three hundred and forty-five meters. This mount has 
been the site of succeesive eities. When, in the 
this e^utnn-, Dr. Clarke* visited it, it was still covered 
mius of ancient buildings ; but these have since been 
as building material in the neighboring eity of Beiramielit < 
nothing retualus now except a few foundations of vall^. 
excavated in twelve places on the top of the moimt, bnt ili 
struck the rook at a depth of less than onu meter, and osi: 
at a depth of m. 16 o. to m. 20 c. Strange to aay, I ^a^ 
hero again only scanty fragments of Qreek or Soman })<>tt 
with the pofUry of the second ojHwb. As the Bammic dof 
in every direction, probably all remnants of bomau 
try have been oarrit^ away by the winter mins. J h< 
* P. Btfker Welib, " TapoKiupbin de U Tnwl*,"' p, Ba 



SECENT DISCOVERIES AT TSOT. 



3G1 



tnnnnt to bavo been the atm of the ancient, city of Dardiuiie, 
whicli Homer (" Iliad," xi., 215-218) tells us was buUt at the foot 
of Mouut Ida. This city miuit neceBsarily buvu been on a spot 
whoso euvirfius were fertile onou^h to feud ite inhabitantd, and 
this is oertainly not the case with the higher placed riUa^Qg, 
Oba l^oi and Evjilor, whose land Imrdly pn>tlucos enough for 
miserable existonce of (iieir ecantv iH>])uJiitioti. We ought 
er to cooaider that Dordanic was situated in Dardania, the 
iniou uf JEneas, which, according to Strabo (xiiL, 596), wae 
ited to the sniull motmtoin-eide, and extended south to the 
itriot of Seepfdi^, and north to the Lycians about Zeleia. As, 
According to tie tradition preserved by Homer, the inhabitante 
of Dardauie emigrated and built Ilium, I suppose that the 
abandoned c-ity on Mount Korahnnlu Tepeh recmvcd other 
colonists, and was called Sccpfiie, becanse — aa Strabo (xiii., 607) 
mggeets — it had a lofty position and was riaiblo at a great 
distance. Jnst as, according to Homer, Dardanie was the red- 
deuce of the ADcient kings, so the ancient Scopsiit nunained, 
Aooording to Demetrius apud Strabonom (riii, C07), the resi- 
denoe of ^neas. It was situated above Cobrene (that is to say, 
nearer to Mount Ida), and Bepuratod from it by tlie Scamander 
{nil., 597). Strabo goes on to inform as that the tahabitants 
Sccpsifl founded, at a distAuoe of sixty stadia fWim the 
icient city, the later Scepsis, which stall existed at his Hme, 
which was the birthplace of Demetrius. It is probably 
tioal with Beiramich. 

In re^'ajtitulatiug, therefore, the results of my Trojan cam- 
paign of this year, I have proved that in a remote antiquity 
there succeeded eaeh otJier here two cities, both of which were 
destroyed in a feorful calamity by fire, and that the first of 
them perfectly answered to the description of Homer, for it hod 
a lower city and an acropolis, which latter contained a small 
Qomber of Large buildings and three temples. I have farther 
onee more put to naught the pretensions of the small city ou the 
Bali-Dogh to bo tlie site of Troy, inasmuch as I have shown its 
remains to be liUiputian, and it« most ancient pottery ages 
later than even the latest prehistoric city of Hissarlik. I have 
farther proved that the occuninlation of ancient dtl)ris, which 
exceeds in depth sixt^-en meters at Hissarlik, is quite insig- 
nificant in the city on the BaliDagh, and amonnts to nothing 
d-Hissarlik, Fulu-Dagh, and Chali-Dagh (Cebrene), and 



362 TBE NOBTH AMEBICAK BEVZEW. 

that, judging from the potteiy found there, e31 these pUuwB an of 
about the Bame age as the first settlement on tlie Bali-Dag^— 
that is to say, probably of abont 600 8.0. I have fuitliff 
proved that the two tmnnli, whioh, by the tradition of aH 
antiquity, have been attributed to Achilles and Patroclos, eu- 
not plftiTti a higher antiqnily than the ninth oentory b. c^ 
whereas the tomulns to which tradition pointed as the tomb d 
Protesilaus most probably belongs to tiie age of the seoondd^r 
of Hissarlik. 

Hbnbt Sohldeukm. 



POLITICAL BOSSES. 



" TldagB RfoM to be miwnanaged Joog." 



3oVEBEiaNTT of some kind is indispensable to government of 
Aever form. We have been accostomed in thiii uoimtry to 
i Uiat it resides ultimately with the pooplt^. To whatever 
nt this is true, it ia essentdally important that the popular 
be fairly and tmly expressed, and that it have its Iegfiti> 

I effect in government. 
^^ft>' millionfi of people have many minds, bnt their govern* 

' most, in a given case, on a given occasion, have a mind 

Will of its own, ami it must be elothed with power tu 

■ that will into effect; otherwise there would l>e anarchy. 

htjvr to make thu luind and will of tho people's government 
E^ at all times with the will of the jKoplo is a problem 
yet solved. Grant*_'d that constitntion and laws expreea 
>opiUar will, still they cannot execute themselves. There- 

t^e execution of the law and the administration of govern- 
' most be intrusted to human hands. At this point the 
Besses and wickedness of human nature have crept into all 
ittns of government ever yet establiithed. 
^ttt, though governors most bo human, and all govonunents, 

tore, ever remain liable to imperfeottons and abnaea in 
l^ttistratjon, roioo are good and some bad; and it not iiifre- 
^Uy happens that one administration ia good, while another, 
^ the same constitution and laws, is bad. 
^fixt to the founding of a government, tlie making of its 
has been regarded as the highost dnty and the greatest 
OREibility imposed upon niaiL The past has bequeathed to 
^ho live in the nineteenth century a splendid endowment 
his respect; and while mnoh important work in this field 

VOL. caoQcr^-NO. 311. 26 



3G4 



THJE JXOBTB SHS&ICAN 



remains to b« done, and no age wiQ be wholly reUeT«d from it, 
tbe great burden of government now lies, and Lenc«fortb mnst 
lio, iu the uburge of it^ admiaistratiou, and not in the framaz 
of constitutiona or laws. 

By a process of political evolation, the people in all hij^li 
eivilized cooniries have quite largely aeenred the ri^t 
make tiieir own laws. Bat while they have, by the toA 
represeiittttive forms of government^ so generally dtithr 
mooaruhical and aristveratio powers in law-making, they barv' 
nowhere iustitated and securely established the demoentie 
principle in the execution of laws or in the admimstration «( 
their owu governments; and it in the administration of 
law which most directly and seriously affects them. They 
laws for their own government, and they are generally reqnir 
to oliey them. Their rulers govern them ; the question is: 
shall they govern their rulerst 

The English-speaking people have bccu scekdng the trw 
answer to this question ever since they first had existence u A 
nation. In strange, devious, tortuous, and mysterious ways; 
toil and sweat and blood ; by the purse tuid by the sword ; 
crusades and oonqnosts and conventiclos ; hypasmreol 
and by heroic resistauce; by tongue and pen and press; 
other and innumerable conqneats in the universe of thoug 
action, they have produced a wonderful mechanism of 
tration, which, rightly adjusted and applied, will enthrone 
crown public opinion, founded in righteous tinnght, sovercipi 
over all nilers, and supreme over all forms of govenunM 
Many times in their history has this "higher law" of thi 
being had sway. Kings have resisted it; Presidents have 
regarded it ; ministers aud cabinets have rrbellpd agatait i^ 
and used factions and parlies and patronage and spoils 
usurped powers to make Toid its behests; but in the 
th«y have been compelled to abdicate the exercisa of aut 
or to submit to its sovereign power. Other and wiser 
presidents, ministers, and cabinets have reL-ognizeil and 
it, and have ameliorated the condition of mankind, and dt 
and received the plaudits of their fellow-men. By such reco^ 
tiou of public opinion, righteous rulers have gi\ 
life, — tJiut which aluno can make it offeotivc In . ' rk 
government 

" PuhUo opinion," says Benthamj ** may be oomidered li 



POLITICAL BOSSES. 



3«5 



of law emanating frum tbe body of the people. . . 
I the pemioious exercise of tho power of government^ it is Uie 
y obeck; to tin' btfnf^&uial, an iudiapensa'ble snpplenient. Able 
lead it ; prudent rolers lead or follow it \ foolish rolem 
pgard it.^ For ag^s and ages the world waa governed not tw 
Wicb in deference to public opinion and general interests, as in 
Hpdlenee to pergonal judgment and private ends. Man is a 
^hal being, and has social feelings; bat ho is aUo a selfish 
^png. and lias selfish instincts. As there could be no necessity 
vrr government withont soeiety, there can be no eomety without 
wvemnient'. But the trouble with both societj' and government 
^p CFver been that man's selfish instincts are stronger than his 
Bhal feelings. Therefore^ when men assoeiate for tJie accom- 
^fafament of a common political object> there is a constant dan- 
ger that a few who can, will use the power of all, not for the 
^mutable bene^t of each, but for the advantage of those who 
^p able to get control. Thus, a faction arises within s party ; 
n eontest for control of the faction develops a cabal, and a final 
^nggle for supremacy enthrones the political autocrat over alL 
Hparty government seems to be the best means thus far de- 
Miad for the enforcement of the general judgment of a nation. 
If this inetmmeni can be purmauently and suoees^idly um< 
ployed by factions and rings and political bosses to further 
their special and private interests, in disregard of the general 
welfare, popular government is a delnaiou and a snare for the 
pM>ple themseJvea. Let ua hope that the power of public 

ujiiuion is sufficient to hold in check this aristocratic tendency. 

Otherwise we should no longer claims with Lincoln, that oars is 

t "government of the peoplf, by the people, and for the i)eopIe''; 

hot we should frankly iioufess that it is a govcrumont of parties, 

tontrolled by factious, — factious ruled by cabals, — for the spoils 

of office bestowed by poUtieal boeaee. 

Progress in the science of govomrocnt has been slow and 

jvinfuL, but it has been gradually for tho better, from the dawn 
iMchnliKation to the present hour. Political boffles and factions 
^w impede it, but they cannot prevent its aymmetrical and 
^Kjfe^ de'Vulopmeut " What a dust I do raise,'' said the fly 
^^^rthe t'hariot-wheel. Down thmujfh many d>'nafitiee of 
^hEolnte or limited monarchies and of aristocraeieti, the r^gn 
the one or the rule of the few, have we come at last to repre- 
Itative demuoracy, the approximate sovereignty of the people. 



THIS HOSTB AitERlCAX REVIEW. 



The law of the ceiiUiry is rapid pn^resa in tliis direction in 
even' civilized coontry- Bmaneipation, extension of the Alemv« 
tranehifto, iucrease of popalar jwwer in legishUivt* tutwiiuliliM. 
Umitation of exeoutive prerogatives and powers, a more tigid 
aocotintability to the people in public adminiBtratioii, are )d£- 
liiflcaDt and beneficent signs of the times in wljioii vnr tivf. 
Absolutiam is dying out, and repabUeanism la dawuiuK in ^ 
Old "World. In this country progress has been rapid, if n«t 
regular, in the aame directions ; but its eontiun&noe is Uireit- 
ened by the development of monstrous and vicious mifthods tn 
par^ control and pnblic administration. The^e methods dkI^ 
no means original with us, or new among us, in these days. In 
so far as they aSoct public adminiBtration, they are ooev.i' ~'' 
government itself; and tliey have been reeorted to for t: 
trol of political partic'S from the birth of party govemtnnii 
They are an outgrowth of the natural tendency to srlf-aggnu 
dizp^ment among men. "Wherever aiid whenever a poofdo Itf 
submitted to monarchical govemmeut, they have be«Q md l« 
strengfthen the prerogatives of the Crowu against tho aawrtk* 
of the nation's right to govern itself. "Whenever the few lun 
possessed themselves of a share in government, they have ea> 
ployed tho same forces for the support of ai-istwrucy. Wbra 
at last the people have anywhere taken tho power of govn- 
ment into their own hajids, ambitions men whom they bsrr 
intrusted with it have too often betrayed their tru»t, and per- 
verted it to foetional or private uses. 

The spirit of onr constitution and laws is EngludL Osr 
fathers ** made " a oonstitution, bnt they made it mostly of id^ 
rials furnished from the storehouse of English history. Tby 
rebelled against a lunlly "bossism," which »l]owe<l then n^ 
share in the exercise of sovereign^ over themselves; aiidlli**' 
endeavored to esUtblish the people in their right T^ make •o^ 
administer their own law. For eentnriee a couT^wt had l«"> 
in progress, in thii mother countn,*, over tbo distribution <^ tt"' 
powers of govemraeat between king, courtiers, and pi>«>t»la> Ai 
every crisis tho kingly prerogative hod receded, and the yoff^ 
power of the nation had advanced. In tiat struf^lo 
rogativo and influence and onnning de\ii'e liad been 
to maintain the power of the crown. Dignities titU-*, pciuii'''^ 
tranehiwrs, patents, monopolies, and all imagi'-' ' urt favoP- 
were granted or withheld for this purpoaou ,(fi*iiMW>^ 



POUTJCAL BOSSES. 



367 




)wecl in perpetuity, iind their descent and sale reeop^ized as 
legal ; Bppointments to pabUc offices were regarded, not ns pnblic 
tmsto, biit as spoils of the reigning power, to be bestowed whore 
they would do the most to maintain its authority, or to advance 
the private interests of those who exereiftod it ; and the public 
zooDey was notoriously and sharaolcsdy used to carry ele<?tiou8 
and to bey votes in Parliament, iu favor of the Oovemment, to 
hold the people in bonds. 

Such, iu brief, was the inheritance of example iu the use of 
itrona^ whicli we received from the motber country when we 
Qp in government on our own account. If we have followed 
[And improved upon it in the face of later and wiser teachings 
the same, or from any source, the greater our foUy, and Uie 
certain and aevere the pains and penalties which we must 
Boffer. 

How stands the record on our own aocouutT Washington's 

Section to thf^Premdency emanated frum the people, and he waa 

Htder obligations to no political party fur it-. There wa:*, how* 

KSTf from the first, a conflict of ideas in regard to the nature 

^f the govemmeut which he was to inaugurate. 'Washington 

favored a national government, with uriHtocratio teudencies ; it 

looked to the unity of the nation and it was opposed to the 

sovereignty of the States. Among his contemporaries were 

many who preferred a government provincial and democratic in 

^irit; who in«isted on the sovereignty of the States, and sup- 

the theory that the Union was confederate and not 

itional. Hamilton and JeiFerson, the most distinguished repre- 

itBtives of those opposing theories, sat in tiie Cabinet of 

r«ahiDgton, which was thus divided against itself. The great 

over this conflict worried the mind of the nation for 

threo-quarters uf a centurj', and the issue was finally settled, 

•* we trust, by the triumph of tlie national idea in the late war 

Ethc Union. 
'Washington exercised the ]>ower of appointment with sorup- 
us care for the purity and effloiency of the public service, 
ring- regard, however, for ** political associations, so f ar aa 
proper." To what extent he considered this priueiple " proper" 
oiay be gathered from what he stated in reference to the selection 
of an attomey-generah On this subject he said : " I shall not 
bring « man int(t any office of consequence, knowingly, whose 
potitieal teuflla are adverse to the measures which the Qeneral 



363 



TUE NOBTB AMERICAN BBVJEW. 



Government aro pnrfiuing; for this, in my opinion, vottld be' 
gort of political suicide." Party lines had not then bet-n d£ 
and the political considerationa which had weight wew more 
patriotic than partisan. This policy was ([nite generally 
sued daring the administrations of Wafihington and Ac 
'Whuu Jefferson entered tJie presidential cliair, he oom| 
that most uf tie offloee were iUled Ly his opponeata. HuniM 
Jefferson declared that he would not make removals on acootml 
of adverse politioal opinions ; bnt he held active eLectionecriiijg 
agoiuBt his party to be mifQcient eaose for change. He oomadend 
Mb election a '^revolution,'' and he esteemed actiTQ support of 
his party a recommendation for appointment, equivalent to 
ico in the war for independence. The last qualification of 
mle as to fitness for appointment undoubtedly had refe 
to this aentiment : ** Is he honeett Is he capable I Is he fait 
to the constitution t" Still he studied how to place active pc 
cal supporters in the public service, without offeudinf? pol 
opiniun, much more carefully than modem Presidnnta havp dd 
He made comparatively few removals ; but he watched ouxioinJy 
for deaths and resignations to give places t^ his {luUtical adbiT^ 
eut«. He did not cut to the quick, and slaughter with a bmnd- 
ax, as Jockaon did, to fill the public ijervice with personal devote^a 
and partisan busbwackers, but he implanted the diseostr of uffiwK 
giving and office-seeking, which now threatens the soul and bod|r 
of our adminiEtration of public affairs with the mortal gangreoe 
of the infamous and nefarious " spoils system." For mow than 
two generations this monster has been clawing at the vitote ol 
the republio. Xo administration, by what*ver President, io tin 
name of whatsoever party, has had the patriotism and oourap 
to grapple with it and thrust it out of our body jHtlitic 9cm^ 
have seen the necessity of doing it, and have hjwi thy patrirttie 
desire to accomplish it ; bnt their wisdom, their courage, or tlwir 
strength, has been inodcqnatc to tlic task; and it seems at tb* 
present hour to be as rampant as it was under the iron rok 
of Jackson himself. Xo President, no party, not even a un^ 
generation of the prople is alouo responsible for its existi^c^ 
chargeable with its continnance. If my views of it& origin 
correct, it* Kcmi lies imbedded in thH fi^lfislt ti^ 
and it was planted among us, as a people, b< had 

ence as a nation. The people themselves shore, wilb tbcir rulers 
the infamy of its iniquitous life and doings, and kh<7 alon^ can 
put it to death. 



Bat m our own time tills moaater has grown io yet more 
hideona proportiooK. Not content with sapping thi> fouml&tions 
of government nt its center, it has roachc4 oat through innu- 
merable radii to the ciromnferenoe^ and it endrcIeB the whole 
poo[de in its coils. It strotchee »nt throogh the chaimela of 
goTomment to that power which sh^es and eoutrola the Qav' 
cTDinenc itself. It has proceeded from the le^timate domain 
iit the pabliu sen'ic«, from thu fields uf li^giiilutiuu and of e>zecn- 
tive and jndicial admimstration, into the forom of partisan 
irtrife, and there, more than anywhere else, it endang^Ts the 
citadel of the peuple'u power and aaps and niiDC« the pnblie wol- 
tur&. It controls caacosefi and conventions ; it dictates ]ilat- 
fonoui, and compels those who aj*o elected to carry them into 
i^ect^ to disregard them in their places of power ; it bribes many 
with the spoils of office, and it deludes moltitndes with false 
hopOH of ptihlic place ; it corrupts the elective franohise, and it 
ia fajit nndcrtnining popular confldeuoe in dcctioas by the 
^Beople; it. levit* cnntributictns npun t\w people's treasury, by 
^■tecssmcnt^ upon tlie salaries of their public ser^'antSj and it 
oonverta the alle^ance due from public officials to the nation 
into poUtical bonds to factions, cnbuls, and political bosses ; it 
makes common cause with pohtical black-legs to carry elections, 
aod it shields thera from punishment for corruption in the pubUc 
service; it brings obloquy and reproach upon honest and faith- 
ful pablic men, and it too often prostitutes the public press to 
ba«o partisan uses, and corrupts the public opinion of the land. 

If, as Mr. Emerson says, " Tho histor)' of the state sketches, 
m coarse outline, the progress of thonght, and follows at a dis- 
tanAC the delicacy of culture and of a=rpi ration," what will the 
next age eay of our " delicacy of culture and of aspiration," 
in regard to onr political methods, and their applioatioa to 
appointments in the public servieoY A (Ustinguished senator 
nid to mo one day, '■^ Civil service reform is : How to get the 
other fellow's man out and yours in." Marcy has the distinctiou 
of ortginaling iu oiu- pttlitics the expression, "to tho victors 
belong the spoils " ; but that rule falls far short of the neoessitiee 
d dttmands of a genuine political boss. Under that system 
'.• jxtrty was the victor entitled to the fruits of its triumph at 
the l)allot-box ; under this new dispensation, the political \>ow 
is oonqurror, entiUi?d, by nght of conquest, to absolute dominion 
over the political estate, which he may sublet to his partisan 
ta and henchmen, upon such terms and conditions of serv- 



370 



TEE NOnrS AMERICAN REriEtT. 



ice as ho may choose to impose. No matter bow haw the mtt- 
icea required, this feudal system in our puUticfibn?«.>d8n]Ti1titntW 
of camp-foUowers and puliiical tramps, irfao are inlHog to uki- 
the oath of foolty to auy political boas for an uHli^e, or a fo&- 
tract, or for a promise of one forthcoming. There i^ lhu» nati 
up imder tho rni^ of bossisro, as the emei^naies of the Ixwa 
require, a orop of minor boswis and professioDal offlce-srrbw, 
office-brokers, and political contractors, for every political h 
Tick. They are expected, and, nuder penally of losing the fai 
of the iKKses, are reiiuirtHi to "manage" the local poll 
countrj-. They mnst see that party caucnsea an* a > i al 

obcdionco to the will of the bosst^-s, without regard to the public 
interests or the general judgment of the party. They mrist vftsi 
delegates to conventions who will vote for the platforni mi'l 
the pondidatea of the bosses, without regard to the opinJiiH/i 
or the wishes of the communities in whose behalf they an I 
aet If a citizen aspires to be nominated for any office at 
cofnveation, he must " see " the boss and get " alntod " for ii, > 
he may as well pack hia carpet-bag and leave for home on 
next train. To "see** the hoes is to att^mi to him as politif 
lord and master, or to indulge in the innocent pastime of \» 
beaten by a slated candidate who will do bo. A politica] can- 
vention under this system merely registers tho edict of aoi^- 
solute political dictator ; and when at last the honeat mend 
political party have placed their candidatee in power by 
votes, they too often find tJiem to be the slaves of political 
masters, unmindful of their obligations to the people. 

Such a system uatnrally and inevitably leads to inidadmiiUBt:*' 
tion of public affairs. It substitutes tho will of the bofcwt for 
the will of tho people — not only in the selection of their puW* 
agents, but in tho direction of their public ollairs. It tl«at&»* 
leads to aristocracy and tenuis toward an autouracy is poiitie 
which, if allowed to prevail, wUl be worse than abeoliile 
arohy. Are the people really incapnlile of wirgovcnimeDlT 
there in homan nature a law of self.aggrandi&'mcnt wW-! 
by the courage and strength of natural leaders, onltnl viUt' 
cunning of crafty politietauK and supported fay th« instiort 
hero-worship among Ihn people thcmsolvee, osn be ini 
upon a republic against the will and contrail to the _ 
interests of the people t The answer dependa npon the V^ 
themselres. If through ceaturiea of heroic aaerifloes tbortaW 



POLTTICAL B0S8S8. 



Ilttt afthiPTed their sovereignty against the reign of thin law, 
trenchctl over &o strongly in the di\Tne right of kiugs or what 
»t, let OB hope they are wise enough and strong eaoogh to 
Bist ilK cncj*o&ohments when it is invoked to overthrow them- 
Itm on the scene of their triumphs and in the very citadel 

their power. 

For more than a eenttiry and a half after the rise of political 
Ertiea the spoils systetn prevailed in England. It was at high 
|i3 when onr independence was achieved, and its declint: dat4!S 
om that epofth. Political bosses have lived long and they die 
ird ; but they are powerless before the might of public opinion. 
» eentnr}'iu their history has witnessed greater triumphs for 
e Englii^b people on their way to self-govemmciit than the one 
si dosed. They still adhere to the forms of monarchy and 
istocrac}* ; but they have substantially achieved the right of 
If-govcrumcut. The crown still holds the prerogative of nega- 
ring proposed legislation, but it has declined to exercise it 
r nearly two huudred years. PrB<!tioaUy, therefore, the sov- 
U^ of Great Britain is less potential in law-making than is 
■■president in this country. In the control of governmental 
HH^ and in the administntion of the laws of the realm, the 
iglish Cabinet has, indeed, the initiatory power ; but the people 
(ve a negative upon that through tho House of Commons, whieh 
ijy no longer fear or hesitate to apply whenever the interests 

the public opinion of the nation requires it If the crown 
loes to an issue with the Commons, the appeal liee only to a 
m Section by the people. This issue may be made by either 
rty, when, in its judgment, the emergency requires it. In this 
nntry there is no such right of appeal against the veto power 

a President during his term of ofBce ; and as to policy of ad- 
biistration, it ean be altered only by the election of a new 
mise of Representatives, which may be powerless for reform 
linat the will of the Senate or tlie power of the Bxeontivp, 

the coiirdinate powers of both. Therefore, I conclude that 
B Government of Orckit Britain is now more sensitive to the 
wer of public opinion than that of our own country. 

Down to 1853 the power of appointment nnder the BritiBh 
Dvemment was monarchical or aristocratic. With thi.<) growth 
ent by public opinion a complete revolntioii has 
plaoD, and now the system of appointments is thoroughly 
lOcratio. The poor man's son has now equal opportunity 



372 



THE NORTH AMJEBICAif lUSYZEW. 



with the son of the premier to Becoro ofBoe in the civil 
his merits. Appointments by favor are there nu lunge^J 
slble ; while in this repabJicau land of liburtj and profe 
equality appointmeuts are still made abnofit eutirely by iotlu-i 
and that uot in obedience to nuttirol oristocmcy or worUiJ 
from purely personal, factional, or partigan considerations. Lit^ 
1871, Mr. Gladstone, addressing his eoustitm^nU, tajd : "As toUn 
olerkahips in my own office, every one of you hua jnst ag mocii 
power over them as I have." Shade of Ro1>ert Waliwle] 
wonder that Gkorge the Third orderwl hia yacbb to be in ! 
nesB for him to abdicate the throne before the onward marcli ' 
popular empiro wbioh he Raw approaching, when his nruii'>t 
refused longer to impede it by executive patrona{j:e or Iht 
public money to hold it in check. If I mistake not the si^ o( 
tho times, the day is uot far distant when our {>olitii!^ 
no longer able to bolstw up their ill-gotten powCT by 
plnnder, will cry for a yacht or any means of escape from 
iudigiiatiun uf an arouned and loug-sufTering peoplo. 

"Hiat a great evil stalks among us nnder the reign of bowsi 
cannot be successfully denied before the people. Some mesii 
for its thorough and fluid crudicatioD must be speedily found rcA 
heroically applied. No olafis suffers more from it than memtx^J 
of Congress and senators whose ambition is to seri'e tin 
country intelligently and faithfully. On the other hand, as 
view politics, no class gains more by it than those other siflB'l 
bers of Congress and Senators, who, regarding their higW' 
allegiance as due to their party, tiieir faction, or their owl 
political ambition, devote themselves principally to the sortot 
civil service refonn thus defined: *'Howto get tho other fdltff** 
man out and yours in." As the latter class appears to bv mora 
numerous, at present, than the former, reform by oongresnon^ 
action will probably be postponed until publiu opinion iflipc 
tively demands it. Therefore, what is now most ueeded 
organization and labor for the good cause among the 
Let the debate move on in Cougrose, in tho press, on tha n** 
trum, in the churches, oolleges, and in eouutry school-booM^^ 
Intrenched for two generations in our body politic, the ta A*^ 
uprooting the system and of providing a proper substit 
uot an easy one. It is a work which challenges the insAai 
courage, and the perseverance of our greyest public men. < 
of our most patriotic and virtuous citiJEeDfl. This geo( 



POLITICAL BOSSES. 373 

has now no other so great and important public responsibility 
cast upon it Jost what should be done, and how it shall be 
done, are questions about which tJiere are honest differences 
of opinion among our greatest and wisest men. These will 
disappear when there shall be a firm, popnlar resolution that 
something shall be done. At present I see no difficulty in the 
way of applying to our case the English system of competitive 
examination. The eminent success of the experiment in the 
great offices at New York justifies the adoption of a similar 
practice in all great departments of the Government. Under 
cadsting laW; the President may do this, and I greatiy wish 
that President Arthur would do it promptiy and thoroughly. 
The good work began through the Executive in England. Par- 
liament was even more hostile to it there than Congress is here. 
In my judgment this is the gateway through which the reform 
must come in, if it is to come soon. If not by President Arthur, 
let US hope that the people will see to it that it shall be by his 
snoceesor. 

John I. Mitchell. 



SAFETY m RAILWAY TRAVEL 




We have at present iii the United States, in rotirjil ni 
one huudred thousand miles of railroads complet'Cd and ia I 
ation, employing not less than half a million persons, and 
porting annually abont three huudrtHl and eeveuty-flve milSon* 
of paasengars. Upon this great system of roads then* o eean 
upon an average each year one tliouBond more or less 
disasters to traina in motion, either from oolliaiou, dei 
or failure of roadway bridges or rolling-stocky by which 
hundred and fifty persons are killed, and a thousand 
receive injuries more or le«8 severe. But the number of 
killed and injured by accidents affecting diiccUy the tniu 
in motion docs not amount to over twelve per cent <tf Out 
whole liist of killt^d and wunudod which is chargeable^ diractif 
or indirectly, to the milroad system. Aa far as wo out 
obtain information from the exceedingly inoomp]pt« nturs 
in this country, the whole number of persons killod and injutvd 
each year is not less than ten thonsand. Of this nnmltrr cmlr 
about one-half are connected with the railroada, either 
passengers or employ^; the other half being injarHl 
railroad crossings, or by walking npou the track, or abo0 
station grounds, oue-tMrd of the whole nnmber injt 
being returned as " trespassers." Of the whole utunber ^ho, 
the expression may be used, are injured legitimately, L c. 
sengers and employ^ one-third are pasaengen and two-t 
ai-e employ^. Of the whole number of passengon 
from accidents, something less than one-half aro iajimd 
oanses for which the railroad oompaniea are more or less 
responsibli?, while something mx)re thau one-half are 
accidents for which the passengers themselves are aloue i 
able. Of the whole nnmber of accidents to individnala, a ^t&t 
less than one-half are fatal ; of acddenls to cmph>y60 abO«t 




ire or h^ 

.-1 . - -mmI* II 



a 



aJLFETY IN RAILWAY TRAYBL. 



876 



per oent. are fatal ; while about tweuby-&vo per cent, of the 

laaltiee to pasbeugors are attended with loss of lift;. Of tbd 

rholo Dombor of persons injured in a year, therefore, less than 

per cent, aro passengers for who.to injuries the companies 

be h«ld to blame; and of tbo whole number kUlixl not over 

flro per eenL are pawengers for whose deaths the companies can 

be oonsidered aocountable. 

To see how immeasurably superior the railroad is in point of 
safety to all other modee of transportation, we have only to com- 
pare the number of uaeualties with the number of persons 
transported. It will, of course, bo understood that all such 
oomparisons are of the roughest kind, especially in this country, 
jrhere no system exists for collecting or preserving any uniform 
i>ta in regard to railroad operation. Of the 375,000,000 pcr- 
)DS aoDUoUy carried over the nulroads of tiie United States, 
>ut 1800 meet with injuries more or leas severe, while 460 
'are killed. Of the above nnmbers, 800 of those injured and 
20O of the killed may bo charged to causes for which the 
railroad companies aro to a greater or lees degree responsible, 
rhile tlie rest of the oasniUties are dne to the carelessness 
the passengers themselves. For every railroad passenger, 
lerefore^ who is killed in the United States, over 800,000 
carried safely \ while far every passenger for whose death 
le railroHd companies are accountable, nearly 2,000,000 are 
safely transported. For every railroad pasficnger who is in 
any way iujured, 200,000 are safely carried; while for ever}* pas- 
senger injured by causes for whidi the companies are respon- 
sibte, nearly 500,000 are transported without accident. In Massa- 
diuaettB — wlit?r« tlit* rtroorda hiivo been more carefully and more 
sy8temati<:ally kept for the past ten years than in any other part 
of the country— the number of passengers carried in that time 
was, in round nuinl>enii, 400,000,000 ; of which number 581 were 
injured, X'Jrl of them iatally Of the whole nnmber 250 were 
ajured from causes beyond their own control, the remainder 
Cering from their own lack of care. Thus, for every passeu- 
in any way injured, G38,000 were safely carried, while for 
jvery pasaeuger killed 3,000,000 in round numbers were trans- 
>rted without injur}-. If we comuder only those who wer« 
[iUed or injured from causes over which they themselves had no 
minil, the results are somewhat different. Thns, in Massa- 
chusetts, during the nine years from 1871 to 1879, the number of 



376 



THE NOBTB AMBBlCA2i REVIBW, 



passengers carried was 303,000,000, of which number 51 
IdUed by ona&eti beyond tiiyir owu eoulrol. For evtry 
killed^ Uierefore, 6,000,000 were safely carried. A& the aveza^ 
distance traveled by each person was abont 15 miles, the totii 
difitAure traveled by all before death happened to any otKi wu 
90,000,000 luiles. In other words, a puss<-ngtir with avora^ 
good luck would travel at the rate of 60 mUes an hour for 10 
hours a day, for 300 days in a year, for 500 years, t'it he wonlill 
go 3000 times around the earth, bofon> getting killed^ 

It has been stated on good authority that there wore actuiUy 
more persons killed and injured each year is Massaohasettd flfnr^ 
years f^o, through acoidents to stage-coadieB, than thore ore aov ' 
through uofideuts to railroad trains, notwithstanding the eoor 
mous increase in the number of persona transported. From tbtfj 
statistics of over forty years, in Prance, it appears that, in pro*' 
portion to the whole number carried, the accidents to pa^sengw* 
by stage-coaches in old times were, as compared to thoa* by 
railroads, as about sixty to one. The official returns in FnuM 
actually show that a mau is ssifer in a railroad train than he ii| 
in his own honse; while in England the flgnres show that lian^ 
ing is thirty times more likely to happen to a man than death by 
railroad. It is tttated by JSilr. Adams, in his " Kotes on KaHrosd 
Accidents," that the annual average of deaths by accident in tlie 
city of Boston alone exceeds that consequent on running all tii» 
railroads of the State of Maaaachnsetts by eighty per cent, *oA. 
that, in the five years from 1874 to 1878, more persons w«r* 
murdered in Boston thun lost their lives on all the raiLmodi i^ 
the State for the nine years from 1371 to 1878, though tho« 
yeai-8 included botJi tbe Hevere and the WoDaston disafitvrsi, 
or fift^' deaths. Such facts go far to prove the stat^mi 
made thirty years ago by Dr. Lardner, that " of aU means 
locomotion which human invention has yet devised, raOwi 
traveling is the safest in an almost infinite degree''; 
equally forcible statement of Ur. Adams, that **it is nut 
gcTB, but the safety of tlie modern railroad which eJnudd exduf 
our BpedaJ wonder." 

True as the above certainly is, it is still the fact that hsit'^ 
dreds of peraoiis are killed and wouuded by terrible cittAstrophf 
upon our railroads every year, and that trains ' 

other and plunge through bridges, while whole < pi 

sengcrs are crushed and mangled, drowned, and burned to doatii. 



BAFSTY IN RAILWAY TRAVEL. 

It ifl eqtmlly the fnet that by far the greatcir part of these disas> 
t«?r» c&D be prevented, if wo wire t« do it. By far the loTf^ por- 
tion nf the 8o-i-aUod accidecUt aru not accidents at all, but are the 
uutural oud im-vitable rosult nf hiwa perfectly WfU uuderetood. 
Safe as railroad travel already is, it is Bot safe enough if it can 
beinad« safer. That it can be made safer admits of iio quf^^tion. 
To understand the various causes of disaster is the tr^l t^tt- p to 
betaken. 

The various so-called railroad accidents may be divided into 
fotir dtteses. First, iujtiries to pi-rsoiis iu no way proptjrly con- 
nected with the railrootl^, citLor as passengers or employ^ ; 
Meond, injuries to the bands employed on the trains or about 
the roads ; third, to passengers who suffer from their own want 
of care : and, fourth, to passengers who are injured by causes 
for which the companies are plainly accountable. The propor- 
tion bctweeu these Beveral classcb iu Museaohusetts, for the ten 
years from 1872 to 1681, was : 

\?liot« aauib«r of pemnB iojorffd 309S 

Not dm>«tl]r coniieclfld with the roadi lAlB 

TUe ooinfianlM^ emplo^ 1108 

PuMiii;«r> injnnyl through tbcir own careWsoieH S22 

^^- VmMa*ugar% iujiirvd by cbubm bcfoiul Ihutr omicoottol SSO 

^V Looking in detail at the first class, which makes a little over 
f forty-five per cent, of the whole, we find that of the 1415 in- 
jured 1043 are returned as "^ trespassers," while the remaining 
372 were injured at highway crossings and at stations. A little 
over one-third of all the casualties in Massachusetts ore due to 
penons improperly walking, playing, or Ijing drunk upon rail- 
road tracks; persona for whose injury the railroad companies 
are not in the slightest degree *n blame. Indeed, (he companies 
take every possibLe precaution to warn people away from their 
tracks, while the State adds it-s authority by the eoantiueiit of 
Uwti against this sort of tres])uss. But the free-bora American 
dtizen seems to regard it as one of his privileges to be killed 
n rnilroiul tracks, and resists any attempt, either ou the part 
the railroad company or the State, to interfere with his 
,ta. Indeed, a few arrests, which were at one time made, of 
rs upon rHilnnid tr(w_'ks, were promptly followed by 
clioua placed on the track by the aggrieved parties, 
seems, therefore, but one thing to be done in regard to 
roost fistful of idl eausee «f injury, viz. : to warn the 



lere 



378 



THE NORTH AMERICAN RSVIEW. 



public plninlyf thoB throwing the \^o1a hluno npon Uie viotiBL^ 
This thti companies already do. It might be practicable to peti^ 
the track in certain places, as is already done in the- case of tfoub 
bridges j but this remedy ■would be of only limited applioatioa. 

With regard to the 370 persuos iojured at highway croisiitgf 
and at etations, these oaeeii, too, are in iiaiirly every insUuM 
cha^cablc to the victims themselves, tut town and city vroKiags 
are tiarefully guarded, while at the country roads suitable wammg 
is always provided. It i^ perhaps, a peculiarity of Amtvicaii nil- 
roads that the highway crosaings are generally nt grade, itvm tiL 
the midst of the larger town^ and cities ; and at u very Urgo didii- 
l^r of these (.^ruHsings the trains pji8s at liigh speed. It mi^l 
be supposed that the public would insist upou overhead cnw 
ings at such plac«s, as the expense of such would fall npo&ilu 
eompauieii ; but the reverse is almost alwaj-a the ease. The 
public prefers the risk of accident to the inconveniciioe of 
grade in the highway. 

To pass to our second division, injuries to employ^ we fliul 
the following cansea reoOTdcd during the ten yean from 187! to 
IrtAl, ill Massachusetts: Coupling cars, 322; overhead 
99; train accidents, 128; falling from trains, 1&9; locomfilii 
expIoBions, 14 ; other canses, 287. Of the aooidonts to emplo} 
tlierefore, at least two-thirds are due Ui the oareleeBDns of 
persons injured ; and when we notice the reckless manafcr in 
whioh the hands employed about the stations in makiog v[> 
trains expose themselves, the only wonder is that tha anaU-r 
injured is so small The large proportion of caeii: ' "Jp«i- 

We to coupling cars would seem to point to the dt: / »»i »_ 

good self-coupling device, or at any rate to a ooupliag i 
would not require the train-hands to stand t the 

With regard to overheAd bridges, while it i . >ir<rhapii 
feasible to rcqntro all new structures to hare a beiglit sufilcie 
to allow the brakeman to pass undti'r them white standing oo 
of the car, it wunld hardly bo practicable to reqwirv liiis of 
large number of the older bridges. In sach ease* the onUovr 
guard on each side of the bridge, arranged to warn Ibe brab- 
man in seaaoD, should be provided, and, what is not Inn cam- 
tial, should be kept in got>d order. 

We comft next to iiijiirii^s to paeeengen*, and wo find at ^ 
outset that more than half of all such casualties arise fn>m Iv^ 
of caution in the passengers themselves ; and in atanosl 



SAFETY IN RAILWAY TRAVEL. 



S79 



Uiis lack of cautiou couaists in gettiDg* od or ofF the ears, 

paraing from one car to another when the train is iu 

motion. This is doue in spite of the warning given by the 

companies. Indeed, as a general rule, when the officials have 

ondeavorod forcibly to remove pafisengere from this source of 

danger, the latter have felt themselves very much aggrieved. 

Many of the regulations upon European roadfi seem to aasuiue that 

the traveler has something lesB than avon^ common son^ and 

would certainly not be tolerated in this country. The ordinary 

fcvtJcr in the United Statos ** reckons" that ho is big enough 

look out for himself, and as a general thing ho certainly is, 

he would be prettj* «nre to object to a rule which fihould 

it his pwsiug from liis hnaX in the Piillnmn to the smoking* 

' ear while the train was in motion. Tell him, if you like, that 

by BO doing ho run8 one chance in a million of being killed, and 

quit« likely he would n-ply that he would take that chance ; and 

^■iiero may be no objection to his doing so, having it, of course, 

^Buderstood that he alone is responsible in case of injury*. 

^1 To oome to our last division, v\^, passengers kUled or injured 

^oy causes for which the companies are more or less to blame, we 

And that, iu a total tliruughout the United States for the nine 

jears from 1873 to 1881 inclusive, of 9523 accidents, 2980 were 

^^rom collisions, 11()9 from defects of roadway and bridges, 673 

^prom defects of rolling-stock, 844 from negligence in operation^ 

■^and 1287 from varit)us tmforeseen occurrences, while 2031 w^ora 

lexplaiiu^. It is wt)rthy of notice that of the above l-otal of 

accidents about 0000, or nearly two-tlards of the whole 

lumber, were unattended by either death or injury -. while less 

in one-six Ui were productive uf death. Looking a little more 

in detail, we find the following facts in regard to collisions. 

I^ATe divide these catastrophes into three classes, the first being 

^Blirhere one train runs into the rear of another, the second where 

^Rhe trains come together head to head, and the third where trains 

^Bieet at railway crossings. The number of coUisions for nine 

years tbroughont the country baa been as follows : 



1877 



Ibnr. 


HoktU 


CrcaMfg. 


riwr. 


Btat. 


JTead. 


CrotiBg. 


....187 


102 


.. 31 


1878. 


..142 . 


70 


7 


...131 


87 


10 


187fl. 


..206 


80 


.. 17 


.,.,141 


1 01 


. 18 


1880. 


...S74 . 


. 141 


.. 33 


... lOU . 


O-l 


10 


1881. 


...sea . 


. i4e 


.. 34 


....15» . 


08 


.. 13 











VOIi. CSXXV.— NO. 311. 



27 



380 THE SOnril AMERICAN REVTEW. 

Of Tarioos other canses, we tiud the EoUowmg : 

,. DefKtt Defeetn of Jfngiect tn Vt^fimmnm UamUmi 

"**'• of Sood, Jra«AiKffry. Opvratiom, Jcoidmu. JoMnlt 

1873 167 -.-- 73 - 101 .. 162 ... 316 

1874.. 139 ... 63 ti3 . . 141 .. , 310 

1S7G 206 ... 100 100 . -. 307 aua 

1876 125 ... 76 . . 108 , .. 160 ... 188 

1 877 118 - 66 85 .... 131 177 

1873 73 - 41 65 .. . 125 176 

1879 9* .... 60 .... BO ... U3 , IM 

1880 .89 ... 64 . 08 . 108 337 

1861 169 . 124 .... 101 . ISO .. StO 

The length of timo covered by the above tables is loo ihc 
and the general character of railroad statistics in this oonnt 
too tmreliable, to admit of di-awing any very general coudi 
from thoBe QgureH. We canuot, however, help noticing the « 
decided increase in the number of acoidents in 1881 — an huami 
which cannot be acr-ouut*.^ for by the new n»ml^ ' ■ '' ''*' 
operation during that year. The number of colli ..in- 

the past three years shows an inoreaee maob greater than 
length of new roads or the augmented amount of trnlflc tfca 
seem to warrant. This i8 in aooordance with the general 
ciple that the dangor of onUision increaara as the aqnarsi 
number of trains ; if we double the number of trains, w«l 
ruple the chance of collifuon. This form of ao«ident ia ■In 
sure to follow any considerable iunroase in the volume of trafi^ 
and the only remedy is to be found in more precise methods of 
moving trains. A system like the old scbedule plan for rounhij 
a few trains upon a single track road, will do for a while, u4 
under careful management and good luek, will &llow of a eerUUB 
amount of growth iu the trafflo; but tiiere oonuvi a time wh^ 
the number of trains demands, not an L'xtension of un otdqivt«a 
but a new and a different one. Railroad trains liave entered ud 
left the Canmiii Street Station in lAindtm at. Uir mie of oyer M» 
a minute for eighteen successive hours. Such work could Dirw_ 
be done by the mode in nae at Amerioau stations, where a 
men mn about fr<.im switch to switch; but it is made; 
easy and safe by the iuterlot^king system of awitdif 
England. The rapidly increo^ug number of coltiaious 
seem to show that tlie present s\*stera of controlling th# 
ment of trains ia bei^oming ontgrov^-n. Jnitt as soon nstiiis' 
is folly reoogni^edf we may be sure that American ingenuity *»' 



SAJ'ETY Ilf BAILWAT TRAVEL, 



jply what is needed in the shapi' nf aii iniprriTed method. 
Tonu arc so ^itAlly iutercst«d in this matter aa the railway com- 
panies, and very few serious disasters can occur vithout pro- 
icing the necessarj' change. 
Cloeely connected with the subject of collisions are two very im- 
>rtant points. Many of the worst di8a6t«rs of this kind would 
|V8 been prevented altogether, and (itbers rendered mneh 
fatal, had the trains been equipped sv'x\h a suitable ^siem 
frf brakes. The immense advantage of a brake like that of We«t- 
inghoose is now so well recognized that no argument in its favor 
IB Deeded. There are hundreds of cases •wYasn the whole safety 
of a train dep«*ads u[K)n whether it can be stopped within five 
boBdrcd or one thousand feet. It seems almost incredible that a 
heavy railroad train running at a rate of fifty miles an hour oaa 
bo stopped in fifteen seconds, and in a distance of less than seven 
bundnxl fe<.>t ; but it can be done, and if it had beea done, by tar 
the larger part of the worst catastrophes we have had during 
thti past twenty years would have been prevented. The next 
heat thing to stopping the train before a coUision or a derailment 
tlJcea place, is to make the cars in such a manner as to resist the 
tendeaey to crushing. The railroad train of twenty years ago 
was a loosely connected collection of badly made carriages, 
admirably dosigned to double up and slide over one another, and 

h the passengers by the op€rati<>n known as " telescoping." 

train of to-day eonRists of a firmly mode liue of well-built 
aged, so connected that telescoping is almost impossible, 
imd able, if occasion demands, t« resist very considerable shocks. 
Hie old train was a series of bbwks of various sliapes and sizes, 
arraogcd in a somewhat crooked line, and utterly nnable to 
resist any great amount nf compressiou without doubling up. 
le new train is like a straight and continuous, but somewhat 
*tic bLiam, which requires great force U) destroy it It ia not 
much to say that the Westinghonse brake and the Miller 
tform and coupling together would certainly have prevented 
three-fourths of all the injuries from collisions that have occurred 
in this country for the last twenty years. 

Looking at the second of nnr tables above, we find that acci- 
dents from defective roadway and defective machinery make full 
oa bad a showing during tho past few years as those from coUia- 
ions. Indeed, there hfts bet^n a regiJar inrreaee since lft78, the 
number of accidents, the nnmber killed, and the number injured 



382 



THE NORTH AHERWAN RKYIEW, 



having doubled since that time — a re&nlt by no meoiu 
to the iocrcased length of road or the increosod amouDt of 
An examination of the accideaU from broken rnjl fl , of 
five hundred and fifty-nine have been recorded during the 
nine years, shows that these occur mueh oftener in t'old than 
w&nn weather, and more frequently in eevero than in mild wut 
tersj the arrcidents for January, February, and March dorint' 
above time numbering three hundrc-d oud thirty- three, whil' 
number for Jnly, Angust, and September for the same Tears 
only ftfty-two. Roils break in cold weather from Tariouii nuseol 
In badly ballasted and badly drained road-beds thu track is mudi 
more unyielding in winter, and the shooks upon the rails mod 
greater. It is also well known that iron containing any 
siderablo amount of phosphorus is very liable to break 
sudden shock when the weather is cold. Rails made of 
iron do not break in winter, uii matter luiw severe the enld. 
Seaudinavia, 'ivith a chmate more severe than that of Amerui. 
accidents do not occur from broken rails, simply because in thit 
country none but the best iron is laid upon the railroads. Good 
iivn laid upon a well-drained and well- ballasted road-bed wtQ 
save nearly, if not quite, all of the disasters from broken raJk 

Wo come now to a class of accidents whieli aro, periu|M» 
mora fatal than any others — the breaking-down tif bridged Ie 
these cataatrophcs oU horrors combine — erusliiug, mAD(;l 
drowning, and burning, and here again our record is not at i 
enoouraging, the number of bridge diaasters in the rait 
Statea for the past nine years hanng been as follows : 



1873 1B74 1876 1876 
19 33 S6 QO 



1878 I87» 
21 17 



1880 1< 

IS 



If we left out the first and the last of the above tiwDl 
we might flatter ourselves that a gradual ImproveinoDt 
taking plane ; but what ore wo to say of the forty-three Ji* 
asters in 18ftT, whioli neems t.o be the worst year we hate pW 
had, and this in spite of the foot that wo have been aU tlM 
tune improving onr knowledge and our practice of brid^ 
building, and that wo certainly know more HlM)iit. kxwM 
now than we ever did before. 

Railroad bridges, whether of wood or iron, eaii 1h« w) 
as to be entirely safe under all ordinary enndilinni* of -iD 
and they can be kept under such inspection that no demrat 



SAFETY IN HAILWAY TRAVEL. 



383 




shall be allowed to develop iUelf. 'V^liilc', however, onr 
roads, a» a general thing, buy goffd liriilges and keep 
tlwm tinder ri^d inspection, many of the smaller roads buy 
ytxj poor bridges and keep them under no inspection at all ; for 
the examination of an iron bndge by the ordinary road-master, 
or the walking- over tliese structurciis by railroad oommisaionen 
a year, can hardly be regarded afl inspection. The Aahta- 
a brtflge, whioh broke down in 1876 upon tlie Loke Shore 
kilUng over eighty persons, fell, it is stated by the 
htive committee appointed to inveatigmte that disaster, 
"under an ordinary load, by reason of defects in its original 
construction, which defects would have been discovered at any 
time aft4>r its erection by careful examination " ; and the report 
adds: **The bridge was liable to go down at any time during 
^^he past ten or eleven years, under the loads that might at any 
^Kme be brought upon it in the ordinary- conrse of the ootnpany'R 
^Bosiuess, and it is most remarkable that it did not aooDer 
pbeour." Ualf an hour of competent and honest inapection 
would have cuudenined the Ashtabula bridge npon the day it 
was finished. 
I The TariflFville bridge — whif^h fell in Oonnectiont in 1878, 

^KiUing thirteen persons and wounding thirty-three more— is not 
^Bn unfair specimen of a large claaa of wooden bridges in nse 
Hb>-day npon American railroads. In point of design, proportions, 
'dimensions, and reputation of its biuldors, it was ftiUy up to the 
Avera^ of such structnres. It had been periodically inspected 
and pronounced all right. Wliile no competent expert would 
ever have pronounced it a flrst-class bridge, no pereon could say 
from IfMkiug at it tiiat it was not able to carry the ordinary rail- 
road train safely ; but when the right combination of circam- 
stancee came it fell, and exposed the hidden defects that caused 
the disaster. Though nominally a wooden bridge, like all such 
' structures, it relied entirely upon iron rods to keep the wood- 
work t<^5ether. These rods, it is reported, when tested, broke 
with a single blow of a hammer, very much in the manner of 
Cftst iron, und showed a verj* inferior quality of material. This 
waa a defwt which no oniinarj* inspection would detect, and one 
faich may exist to-day in hundreds of brijge^ now in use upon 
roads. We have in this country no system of control or 
speedon which can prevent the bnilding and the use of exactly 
(^ bridges as that at TarifFvUle. 



384 



TUK HORTB AJfEEICAN REVIEW. 



It may be aaked if uiiy railroad oompauy — beiug, of 
Awaro of its liability for damages — will knowiugly allow 
defective stmutare to be made or used upon ltd road. It is \ 
hap8 hardly fair in say that such things are done knowingly,! 
they an* certaiuly done heedlesidy, and the result is the smal 
Not leaa than half of the wooden bridges made npon our nH 
roads — and on many of our best roiuLj^ too^ — are built "trf 
mere c^u-ponters, who can do just one thing — perpetuate th^ 
blunders they hava been brought up to. Not one-half osr 
vooden bridgeg have ever been subjected to any corapoiatioDi 
■whatever, but have i>e6n proportioned by a kind of gooss-voiki 
based npon a greater or less degree of experience, it is truf, bttt 
experience of a very uuKystemado kind. Add to this that neari? 
all of our older bridgus were designed for trains and eugioei 
much lighter than those in present use; that there arc oubt 
disreputable eoneerus which build very poor and unsafe iron 
bridges, and nulway directors willing to buy such thiogi b#- 
cause they are cheap ; and, finally, that we have no efideot 
system of inspection, and we need not wonder that tweuty-foor 
bridges, on an average^ break down every year. At the taau 
time, wo must bear in mind that there is no need for this els* 
of catastrophes ; that any company can at any time Vmy a hridp 
of a first-elass ooncem, which shall be guaranteed absolutely < 
and permanent by the very >>est authority. 

We can have as much safety as we choose t<o pay for. Aa i 
general thing, the managei*s of our larger roads are well si 
that they cannot aiford to run any very great risks ; they 
intelligent, they are progretralve, tliey are liberal ; and we 
no better evidence of the skill and care with which tailvkfj 
traffic, on the whole, is carried on, than the fact that not 
paaeenger in a million is killed in this country by any csnsv U 
which the companies can bo held to blame. 

Except in one ur two States, wo have no system nt pabl 
inspection which has ever been able to deteet the wukk poinUi 
a railroad, or to prevent disasters ; and, considering the farm ' 
our govemmen^ it is quite doubtftil if we ever shall 
The way, however, to all desired improvement is very 
if the publie and the companies care enough about ai'K 
to exert themsulvea to get it. Wo have already Be^-n thst 
public is itself accountable for by far the larger part o( 
injuries, and to that extent it must mainly rely ujiou it«^'<' 



SAFETT m RAJLWAY TRAVEL. 



886 



inereased safety. A eareful examination of the various causes 
of railroftd accidents shows that thrco-fourths of all injaries to 
individtuilfl may be avoided by obeying' the following %'ery simple 
rules, ^rst. Never walk upon u railroad track or bridge.. 
Becotul. Never cross a railroad withont looking in both din^ctions' 
for a train. Third. Never get on ur off the cars, nor pass from 
one car to another, nor stand upon the platform when the train 
is in motion, no matter how (dow that motion may be. Be 
especially careful to regard the above rules when in or about 
railroad stations, and remember that the disaster, when it occurs, 
always comes In an imexpeotod form, and at an unsxpeoted 
tima. 

Of the remaining ono-fourth part of all accidents, the control 
of which is in the hands of the railroad companies, by far the 
larger part can certainly be avoided by means of the improved 
modes of construction, maintenanoe, and operation, which have ' 
been thoroughly triod and dt?monstratcd to be good. Well-paid 
and competent employ^ whose personal interest is thoroughly 
enlisted for tlie welfare of the road, a rigid system of personal 
accountability through every grade of serrioe, intelligent vise of 
the telegraph in train movement, well designed, thoroughly 
built and carefully inspected roadway, bridges, and rolling-stock, 
-these are the guarantees for exemption from railroad disasters. 

Gbobqe L. Vosb. 



THE PROTECTION OF FORESTS. 



Forest pregen-ation, a& a national qacetioiir mut 
occupy pubU(^ fttteution. The problem inTolved ia one of gniw 
import, and its sulutioa is not easy and caanot be imia&dist& 
The part taken by the forest in the economy of natora, and 
ita relations to tho wants of man, are complex, and the Am^arioas 
people ore still ignorant, not only of what a forest is, but uf tlw 
actual condition of their own forests, and of the dangers which 
threaten thom. The future prosperity and development of tlw 
countrj-, however, arc so largely dependent upon the preeerv*' 
tion of the forest that thttf.^ lessons will in time be leaned, 
although, judging from the experience of other eonntries, Oaj 
will be learned only at the coat of calamities which a betUi 
understanding of the subject might perhajw Imvn avertni 

It will be necessary, in order to more clearly comprehend tbe 
importanrto of thft forest question, and the dangers which threotn 
the American forests, to briefly consider their position and fluff* 
aeter. The North American continent may be most con\'eni«tly 
divided, in regard to its forest geography, into Atlontio and 
Pacific regions by the lino of the eastern base of the Rod? 
Mountains. The forests of these two r^ons differ as 
character and composition as the climate of E»r1 ern differs 
that of Western America. It will be «eeu, however, that 
position and nature of these different forests Iarcr«*Iy df^i 
upon the amount and distribution of the rain-fall which Hmf 
enjoy. Since the time of Mahomet, meu have been repcaUaf 
after him "The tree is father to the rain"; ho might, wilt 
greater truth, have reversed the aphorism, and declared the rtit 
father to the tree. Forests do not produee rain ; rain ffrodii** 
the foreists, and without a certain amount of rain they caw>«< 
exist at all. The position of the forests and plains oS Nortk 
America oan be explained npon no other thMry. 



I 

i 




THE TBOTECTION OF FORESTS. 



387 



The EaBtern Iwnler of tbe continent enjuyx a Kopioius and 
iraU distributed raiD-faUf tho forests which covered it in one 
unbroken sheet from Hudson's Bay to the shore* of the Gulf 
of Mvxioo were not imrpassed in vnrietyr weoIUi, and beanty 
by those of any i>ther pari of the woiid. If portions of this 
forrst were destroy«I, it reprodncod itself with aticlonL^mg 
rapidi^: and the energies of the early settlers were often 
taxed to tbe utmost to prevent the forest from taking' poe- 
aession again of laud which a^cnltun:'! had torn from its 
gnwp at the cost of almost saperhiunan labor and hardfihip. 
The western third of what has been described as the Atlantic 
region preseottj climatic eouditions widely different from those 
of the eastern portion ; it consists of the elevated plateau, which 
faUa Away from tbe eastern base of the Rocky Mountains, form- 
ings what IS known as tho Great Plains. Uemuie from the 
Atlantic, tlie Giilf and the Lakes, cut off from the Pacific by 
innmnerable mountain ranges, this great interior region receives 
n meager and uncertain rain-fail, Bufflcieut to insure, indeed, 
a growth of herbage, but not sufficient to sustain even tiio 
scantiest forest. Tbe transition from the forest-clad eastern 
portion of the Atlantic, region into its treeless western border is 
gradual; and between tlic region where the forest holds com- 
plete sway over the land, and the region where absence of 
moisture checks entirely the growth of trees, there is a broad 
strip of debatable ground, where a struggle between the forest 
and the plain is continually going on, and where there is just 
moisture enough to insure, under normal conditions, forest- 
growth. So wiually balanced is this (*truggl«' that any inter- 
Cerenoe on the part of man turns the scale. If he plants trees 
juftt Iteyond the area which the natural forest covers, th^ thrive, 
■nd the plain is pushed back a little. If he destroys the out- 
^tta of the fore«it, it will i-eeJaim them slowly or not at all, and 
ffae plain will encroach upon the area formerly forest-eoverei 
forests of the Atlantii; region at the time of the settlement 

the country by Europeans were rich and varied. Their main 
were a broad iwlt of spruce and pine spreading south 
Labrador over Canada and the whole of Northern New 
England and New York, with a long spur following southward 
the higher ridges of the Appalachian Mountain syRtem. The 
same forest extended north-westward from Hudson's Bay to 
within the Arctic circle, reaching the Pacific, greatly reduced in 



388 



THE NORTH AMERICAN fiffllBIT. 



vigftT and density in the valley of Uio Yukon- It embnu'.'d lii* 
Great Lukes aiid extended to the sooth-vest until olieck»»3 lij 
the dry plateau draini^d by the Saskatchewan and the Red fitvrr 
of the North. A second forest of ptues extruded in a nanvw 
belt, Ie!>s than two hundrod miles iu ^dth, along On^ rouL 
from the capes of Virginia to the Brazos River iu Texas. W«l 
of tho Mississippi the samo forest, ineroasing greatly in vridth, 
spread uurUiward over Ai^umsas and Southern Hiuauuri. Tin' 
remainder of the Atlantic region from the ocean to the eutcn 
edge of the central, treeless platean, with hero and there a 
exception where a peeoliar geolo^eal formation favored thr 
growth of pines, was covered with a dense growth of brotd- 
leaved trees, often of enormous sine and great value. Tbi^ 
different elements, the great pine and spruce forest uf lb« 
north, the maritime pine belt of tho south, and tha broudUand 
forests of the Appalachian Mountjun slopes and the baton uf tlif 
Missiitsipyii, formed the Atlantic forest-region. 

The distiibutton of the forests of the Pocifio re^on uotW 
clearly iDnstrates the inflnenoe of moisture apon forest-growth 
The rain-fall of the north-west coast is very large, esoeediiig ihsi 
of any other part of the continent ; it gradually deereaaei with 
the latitude, and on the coast at the southern hoondar}' of tk 
United States is reduced to an average oinuial preeipitaliiJDof 
less than ten inches, not quite one-eighth of that reccdved oo ti» 
southern coast of Alaska. High monntaia ranges, parmlld iritli 
the coast, and extending from Alaska tlu'ough the pcnJnsolii <tf 
Lower California, dissipate mnch of the moisture attracted troB 
the Pacific Ocean, leaving the whole of the va«t. int^riiT rtffieo 
east of these mountain ranges, and IjHng lietweeu thcni rjnri (h* 
eastern edge of the Pacific region, imperfectly snji 
water. It is a region of light, uncertain, and nnoquall 
ted rain-fall, heavier at tho north, ns ou tho const, and . 
graduaUy with tho latitude in nearly the same pro(>orlion. 

The whole of the Pacific region is composed of t>'" >• «" -f 
mountain rnngee and narrow valleys which form the r 
system. The precipitation of moiRtore, both snow and raui, :i. 
of course, header on the mountains than iu the valleys b«t«w« 
them, iucreasing, other things being equal, in proptvrtion lo tfertr 
height. Id the case of tho region in question, r' t.arn «Itfp* 

of tho mountains facing toward the oc^an r» l-ufcrp*^ 

cipitattou of moisture than their opposite eactorn oiie£. Tkr 



TUE PROTECTION OF FOKEBTB. Sf 

of llu8 region oorrcepoiid with ite rain-fall, Aloug the 
•west coast there is a atrip of forest uucqualed iu density 
by any forest outside of the tropics ; bat this heavy gfrowth does 
not extend east of the western idopee of the main eoast-rangen. 
It pnshee southward along the Califomia coast, where the rod- 
woods illastrata the maxininm of forest produetivenoss; it de- 
creases in density with the latitude on the slope« of the Sierras, 
dlsappearinf^ entirely from the Califomia ooaat-raoge sonth of 
Point Couecption. 

Throughout the Paciflc region the forest is confined to the 
moantoins. The great interior ranges are forost-ela*!, at the 
north the high"-^r on(,-s often heavily ; at the south these mount- 
ain forests are lights often disappearing entirely from the lower 
ranges. In South-eastern Arizona, and the udjatient parta of 
New Mexico, tbe forests, under the influence of heavier and 
tuore regularly distribiiU^d rain-fall, are, howevej-, denser than 
tiioee in the Honio latitude farther west. But the forests .of 
this whole interior region, north as well as south, are the forests 
of A dry country. Tliey are nowhere luxuriant as compared 
with the forests of the Pacific or the Atlantic coast. The trees 
have grown very slowly, and are often of immense age ; under^ 
brush and seedling trees, which characterize a Wgorons forest- 
growth, are wanting, except at the extreme north, or in the 
oaJions of some of thi^ highest ranges. Everywhere these forests 
Bu>w that their straggle for existence has been a severe one. 
They hold the mount^ns, but they just hold them, and no more. 
The drier valleys ari» tn^eless, or ucArly so. 

It is not improbable, in the light of recent scientific investi- 
gations, that even so recently as the time when some of the 
immediate auoestors of the tr^es which form these forests were 
growing, the whole interior region, now Iwlieved to be gradually 
ug up, enjoyed a more abundant rain-fall than it now 

ives, and that these forests thus originaily grew under mora 
rable conditions than at present. If thia h}-poth«sis is oor- 
reot, it will be oasy to understand why, under less favorable 
an'untHtanoes, their reproduotion will be difficult. Tim interior 
forests at the north may be expected, however, thanks to the 
present rainfall of that part of the oountry, to reprodnee them- 
%>-\vtn sli.iwly ; but so slowly must this process go on, that., judg- 
ing from the age of existing trees, roany hundred years will 
have pat>sed, If theso forests are destroyed, before thrnr sncoes- 



TBB NORTH AMERICAN REVIEW. 

sors can attain siiffieieut size to be of eooaumic imi 
Through all tho southern part of the interior region the 
gle for Life has been so severe that the stoutcd groups of trM«, 
whioh barely deserve the name of forests, have only sncowdtd 
in finding a foothold in the high canons about the heAdii iit 
the scanty streams. The age of some of these small ti«e« ii 
immense J few young trees are growing up to replace thtm 
vhich perish in the coarse of nature; and, once deetrojed, Ibt 
n^roduction of tht^ie forests is so doubtful, or most at least W 
so slow, that the possibility of it, even, need not be conxida«dq 
any prantinal discussion of the question. 

Unliko the forests of the AtJantic, those of the PikiAc 
are composed of a few coniferoos species generally of 
distiibution. Broad-leaved trees are idmost entirely wanting In 
these foroBte, or, where they occur, aro confined to the valleyH rf 
the coast, and to the banks of mountain streams. Ther nowlun 
form, as in tlif^ Atlantic region, an important element in the 
forest compoaitioUf and, economically, arc of little importaucc 

The distribution of the forests, then, over the continent, sbom 
tliat where th»? rain-fall Js heaviest the forest-growth is hmviORti 
that where the rainfall is light and unequally distribnt«d tli« 
forest is proportionally light; and that where the annual aveng* 
rain-fall sinks below a certain amount, about twenty inches^ th> 
real forest disappears entirely. 

It will be necessary, beforo diseussing the future of the 
American forests, to briefly examine, also, their actual eonditiia 
and the immediate dangers which Uireaten them. Fatal iuroidi 
have fdreiidy been made into the great jiine forest of th< Sorth 
Atlantiti region. Its wealth has been hividht^d with an nnspariOj^ 
hand ; it has been wantonly and stupidly cut, as if its reworcM 
were endless; what has not been eacriflced to the ax has bwa «!■ 
lowed to {Mirish by fire. The pine of New Eugliuid and New York 
has already disappeared. Pennsylvania is nearly stripped ot hw 
pine, which only a few years ago appeared inexhaustible- 
great north-western pine States, Michigan, Wisransin, and Hit 
nesota, can show only a few scattered r*-' uoM 

forests to which they owe their grtutest ^ i . -ibic 

not even self-interest has saved from needless destruction. 
is true of the pine forests of the Northern States is true 
lees Taloable and less productive pine forests of Canada, 
extent and character of these forests haro been Uu subject 



TUS PROTECTION OF FORESTS. 



'mtioh eiag^rfttion, and a* factors in thie country^s pine f;iip]>ly 
they need not be seriously considered- The Bpmce foresU, both 
north and south uf the bonndaiy, althongh of lat« y«ani heavily 
drftvni upon to fiimish a sn'bstitutc for the failing pine, are still 
extensive, and with proper oianagemeut uhoidd Iw able to meet 
for a long time any demands which may be made npon them. 
The southern pino-bolt is foiitid to be more important, both in 
area and oomposition, than hua^ generally been euppotted. On the 
Atlantic and eastern Golf coasts the timber aM«i<»iblf> to the 
streams and tu oxlstiiig railroads has been removLHl, and much of 
the remainder lia8 been injured in the manofactureof turpentine. 
We«t of the Mississippi River, however, a \-irgin forest of pine 
atill spreails far and wide. The whole cMutfaem pine Ix-lt is 
greatly injored by the annnal burning which it goffers at the 
hands of stockmen, who thus seek to improve the scan^ pastur- 
age which thcsi' upon forests aftortl during the early season. 
Theie Area destroy not only the rich surface humus, but aH 
•eedlings and young trees too tender to withstand them. The 
present condition of the twuthem pine-belt as a reserve of 
timber for imnxediuto use is satisfactory, but the future of this 
great forc^^t is, under oxisiiug inunag<'mont<, pr^-ciirions and 
doubtful. A forest in which a regular succession of young 
tr«ea is not coming on is always in danger of sjieedy and entire 
deatmction. A new forest of pine will, thanks to the climate 
of the Southern States, succeed the present forest ; but the soil, 
ro'bbed of it« fertility by the yearly burnings from which it has 
bng snfferod, will not, it is probable, produce again the species 
to which the^e foret-ts owe their great importance; others, of 
little commercial vaUw, will replace it, — 8pt*oie8 which are already 
too frequently springing up on the abandoned lands of the 
South. 

Under a sensible management, which should exclude ^m 
fkiuthern pine forest^ not oulj* Are, but all browsing animals for 
whoso benefit such fires are set. and which should restrain within 
pnippr limits) the turpentine industry, they might supply indefl- 
■ ;.- the wants of the world. But such management would 
: .,..ii-c somo little sacrifice of present income to future pros- 
perity on the part of the owners of this forest property, which 
Kold, perhaf>s, be too much to expect of them. It will be as 
)onlL to mako the Sonth understand that there is a limit to 
the extent and productiveness of its forests as it would have 



THE NOBTH AMESICAK UEVIEW. 



RD, a few years ago, to make the mbabitauts of Mabe 
PoDnsylvania realize that the pine forests of thoae Statu 
not ini^xhaustible ; and, Hkti Maints Penu^ylvjiuia, or MJchifsn, 
they will not believo that a forest can be destru3rcd nnt^ it 
is too Ut«. The broad-leared forests of the Atlantio rrgion, 
although greatly reduced in est«iit by the needs of ogricultnre, 
and culled, especially ut the Morth, of many of their best tnefc 
still oontain vast qnantities. of o^ and othu* voluabln hard- 
woods. Tlieir waluut. is praotieaily exhausted, and ot>ier tref, 
like cherry, hickory, and ash* are no longer abnndantt uid 
have greatly increased in \*alue. The flanks of tlie soQlhen 
Appalachian Mountains, and the States immediately west of 
the Missitunppi Kiver are still, however, covered vith hard- 
wood forcstfi, uusurpassed in variety and protlnctavei 
fully able, under proper maui^meDt, to long supply 
mands which are likely to be made npon them. The hriMil- 
leaved forests, especially of the *nithiTii Atlantic region, we 
injured by noimnis ranging througli them, to the entire 
tioD of all young seedling trees. Fire is the greatest eneny 
the American forest; next to fire, the browsing animal 
upon it the greatest damage; and the American people, in 
ally using their wood-Land for pasturage, have adopted the snrw4 
method to compass the final destruction of their forests. 

The heavy forests of the Pacific region are still almo«;t int 
other forests of this region, less prcKluetive, although from ll« 
position perhaps even more valuable, have already nearly 
appeared. The nnequaled forests of fir of the north-west ctuct 
hardly show the marks of thirty years of cutting and aumaOf 
increasing fires. In this humid climate, young trees of the i 
valuable sper.ies spnugiip Rf>quieklyni) land strippe«l«if iuiin| 
nal furest-cDveriug, and these new forests grow with such 
able rapidity, that there is little danger of their final extint 
Any attempt to estimate even the pro«)iietivR mpaoify of Ub»^ 
belt of forest is vain, although it is safe to aanniie Uut ^ 
contains the largest and most valuable body of coniftrons 
remaining in any part of the world. Tl»- . ' ■ - , f 

and fir which graou the western slope of the ■n\ 

still, so far as their mature tn«c8 are eoneemed, tact, 

although the increase in the number of forost-Aree i : i . 1 1 ^ iy^i* 
is alarming. The> Sierra forestis thanks to their usually inaeKv- 
ible position, have so far, for the znort part, esoqml Um oep^ 



THE i'ROTECriON OF FORESTS. 



tfs<'kR of iirn liuiiiwrmau. Sltious, and often fatal injury 
>n inflicted upon them, however, by the sheep which every 
ler are driven np by thotisands to pasture in tho tuxil, moist 
intialpine meadows of these hij^h mountains. The sheep, en- 
force<l by great bands of horses, cattle, and goats, oleao every- 
tliing^ beiforc them ; nothing bat the large trees and the moet 
•tabborn and thorny ehapparal escapo their voraoity. Every 
tree, erory bad, and every blade of herbage, is devoured; 
ig green is destroyed ; and the sheep tread out from the 
hveUy hill-fiideB the roots of all young and deliirate plants. 
The Sierra forest is, over most of its ej:t<.>nt, a. forest largely 
'ised of full-grrown trees, containinfr b"t f-^w young seed> 
.1 ^ . and littlo iiiiilHrgrowth Ui shelter aud protect theut ; its 
pDdition, then, is critical, and unless measures can be taken 
ibr effectually limiting the range of browsing animals, its total 
BXtinction must he merely a question of time. 

The bc^lt of red-wood forest along the California coast has 
■Iready suffered severely at the hands of the Inmberman, and 
many of its fineut and most accessible trees have already been 
removed. A large amount of this volnable timber is still stand- 

f'lees, however, than has generally been supposed; aud at 
present rate of consumption the commercial importance <^ 
forest will have disappeared at the end of a few years more. 
It will, however, owing to the large annual precipitation of 

t [Store rewived by this portion of the California coast, and 
unusual vitality of the red-wood tree itself, spread again 
through the canons of the coast rauge ; but centuries roust elapse 
before such new forests cau rival in produotivfness or extent 
|oee which Oaliforuia is now so rapidly diHsipating. The for- 
of tho northern interior region are still comparatively intact ; 
demands upou them have yet been made, although extensive 
dt*tructive forest-fires sweep bare every year great areas 
the moantuin sides. Tho northern forests are largely 
ipo«wHl of the valuable species of the north-west coaut, and, 
with proper protection, will long supply with fuel and bnilding 
material tho a^-icultural population now rapidly pushing into 
part of the United States. The great pine forest which 
ids east from the fliuiks of the San Francisco Mountains, in 
yu»y nearly alon^ the thirty-ftfth [tarallol of latitude across 
New Mexico boundary, ha& up to the present time, escaped 
injury. LesA valuable in its composition tlian the for- 




3&1 



TBJB NORTH AMSRICAH UEVISW. 



eebi of MouUna and Idaho, and yielding timW- of oompwati^ 
inferior quidity, this bro»d belt of pine is — oiriDg to its ii 
position between wide stretches of dea«rt — of i»nme itnporlaiHf 
to the futuiv devolopment of this re^on. 'VXw remaining for«t« 
of the interior region, including tboae uf lh« bijrh Colondo 
Mountains, are largely wasted ; the mining indnstrj- has alnacl; 
made senoos drains upon litem, and ftres are liefcing tliem op in 
every direction. It is hardly possible to realize the damigr 
which has been inflicted upon these furests during the paid 
twenty years; they are scarcely reprodueing themsi&lveft 
where ; and in a few years, nnless the present rate of destmr 
can be reduced, they will ha%'e entirely disappeared. 

The forests of the United States, taken as a wholes are 
capable of yielding annually a large amount of material, and of 
continuing to do so for many years. The white-pine forwt«,j 
is true, are nearly exhansted, but with this exccjition none of ' 
great sources of the country's supply arc yet in inimedia!*i 
ger of extermination, although the California rLMl-wi>i.«d 
long withstand the increased demand which a scarcity of 
pine will entail upon it. The offee.t of local exhanstinn is, 
ever, already felt in many parts of the country, and the 
stantly inereafilng distance between the forest and the ^w^ 
centers of distribution is advancing the price of all lumber to de 
consumer; the days, however, when the United States will e^ 
rience a real timber-famine are nut yet ven,' near, and w» t*^ 
still boast, although in somewhat less exnlted terms than fo 
merly, of the forest-covering so generously spread oni for ni. 

The proper relations of the Goveniinent, both g»>neral 
Hiate, to the forest have of late soniuwhat ot?rupit>d tlic put 
mind. The discussions which this subject has given ri« 
have, it is true, been generally vague and unsatisTactoryf 
they have appeared in so inauy quarters tbut their tdguiflci 
cannot be overlooked. The flrat point clearly to be Mttled to 
such a discussion is whether the Government can prt^xvly iot 
fere at all iu the management of the forest, and whether 
laws of trade may not safely bo trusted to n^gnlate. in tbt* Vi 
run, the extent and nature of the furest-covering tif the ooonl 
In the same manner that they may be trustM to regulate 
volume and character of other crops. 

If the area of productive forest could be eocteoded aa qi 
and with as much certainty, in response to the damaudi 



TKE PSOTBCTtOS OF FORESTS. 



coDSOinption, as the area of uUit-r irops can be oxtend- 
or if the forn«t had no other function to perform than to 
iply ilie wnrld with lumber, the laws which regulate the Btip- 
of any commodity, by the demand fur it, mif;Lt well be left 
work out thii futun* of our forAste. Hut a forest crop, nnUke 
crops, is slow (o matnro; it« area cannot be cxtvntlod or 
laced from year to year in rdspon8e to lar^ or small demands 
lumber ; and the long p<?riod which must elapse l>i>tween the 
growth of a forest and its maturity increases cnonnoualy 
16 riake to which all ci-ops are subjected. A forest fire may 
in a single day the growth of five hundred years^ and 
fwhat another five hundr(>d yuars can hardly replace ; the forest 
sabject, too, to dangerH whicJi do not affect other crops of 
ick maturity; it cannot always be extended at will, or ex- 
ided or renewed at all except within certain limits. The laws, 
i, which in thft long mn n'jnilate the Ritpply of wheat or com 
hardly Iw depended ujton ti> dwil exclusively with the futuro 
the forest, even if it« only office was to fumiidi lumber. 
The forest plays another and more important part in the 
teoonomy of nature. It is now well understooil that the infln- 
of the forest upon rainfall is not (fn'at. The removal of a 
from any region will not diminish the amount of rain fall- 
upon it; nor can the incrcaao of forest area in a slightly 
)ded or treele«8 country increase ita rain-fnll. The gradnal 
drying up of cnnntrio« once fertile within the history of the 
human race, bat now barren and almost uninhabitable, must be 
traced to gradual geological changes, of coarse entirely beyond 
le reach of human control, and not to tbe mere destruction of 
forest. It will be well to bear these facta in mind; the 
^pular belief that fore«t8 affect the rain-faU has too long con- 
the discnssion of the forest question and carried it far 
rond its legitimate limits. But if the forest does not cause 
to fall, it husbands it after it has fallen. It serves, to bor- 
an expressiou of the gardener, as a mulch on the earth's 
It prevents the water which has fallen from flowing 
"tnray too rapitUy over the surface of the ground; it protects 
springs ; it dola}-8 the melting of snow ; it checks evaporation 
and equalizes temperature; it breaks the force of destructive 
wioils : it hohls the soil on the sides of steep mountain declivi- 
ties and prevents it from washing into the valleys below. 

The flow of rivers in re^ona from which the forest covering 
cxxxv.— NO. 311. ^^H 28 




396 



THE NORTH AXEBICAX BEVZSW. 



bae been removed u irrpgnlar and Tmoertain. Hesfy 
dowing ov6r the froeen sorface of Uw groundf treed finun 
natural barrier frhich the trunks and roots of tree* offer to npc 
aQperficial flow, or snow, deprived of the shelter of the far 
est and ni&lting suddenly, reach the Btream ao rapidly that 
it is unable to carry off the anasual volume of iraier ; 
the banks are ovorflowi>d and finally destroyed, and deatne- 
tive floods ensue. If the river fl.ow8 from a Mgii moontsn 
range the dangers attending the removal of the forest tnat 
about its ftourcea are greatly inereaaed ; and the rapid meltbif (rf 
the great body of snow which accumulates at tdgfa dflvitinii 
dnriug the wint4*r months is followed by nuoe diaaatvona retnlta. 
Torrents are formed which erory year inoretae in foroe asd 
ext«nt; first the soil and theu the rocks themMlves aro torn fran 
the et«ep mounlalii sides and hurled int4> the valley below. *&» 
damage done, the stream, — which during a few weeks had pound 
down death and deHtruction from the mountain to the' 
natural reservoira quickly exfaaosted, dwiudlea into a 
brooklet or dries up entirely. Thia haa been the hlstocy 
many European streams heading in the Alps and other mt 
ain ranges of Southern Europe, and this most abnys be 
history' of evetT stream flowing from a high monntain rangu m 
which the forests whicb regulate and protect its flow are isisa- 
tiously disturbed. Anthem Europe has thus lost many of her 
fairest and richest provinces; and, judged by the dangtn 
which Iiavo followed its removal under such oirctunstoncea, it 
is perhaps not too much to say that the highest elaim fiircart 
and protection which the forest c&u make upon i!« . n thi» 

(H>wer which it ixwsesses to regulate and protf- ■■■>w at 

rivers. 

It is not, thoiL, merely as a collection of trees to be cut down 
and sawed into lumb^ that the forest most be regardid; 
although in its purely economic aspect the American fortet i« 
well worth the greatest care and jirotocUon. It now yieldaj 
year not far from four himdred and fifty million doUio^ • 
raw material, and gives emplo\'meDt directly and int 
nearly a million pairs of hand?, and its maximtun prodoeli^ 
capacity is not yet nearly reached. But tiie grt«t value <tf 
forest, in which lif^s its rwd claim to public consideraii 
ite capacity of production, however great they may 1' 
power to protect tbe surface of the groimd from d« 



THS PEOTECTION OF FO&JbSTS. 



397 



tte Uie flow of rivere, modify temptirtittm, and preserve the 
whioli falls Qpon the earth. 
If tho necessity and propriety of govemmcnt aid in the 
p jMe r va tion of the forest can he shown, in what manner can it 
beet be execntedf So far as ooneems the Atlantic region, the 
time has passed for government action. The Qoi'emmont domain 
in East«m America has either passed, or is passing so rapidly 
into private hands, that the Government has practically no forest 
left, in the Atlantic region, to prut«<:t. It should nut be asked to 
plant trees on the public domain beyond th« beit where trees 
grow naturally; for trees cannot be made, under any circom- 
stUkflea, to grow there ; and the proposition tK?casional]y advanced 
that, following the example of some Eurojx'^n govornnitrntj^, tlie 
nation should buy np waste land in the older States for the 
purpose of pUnting trees, can never be seriously entertained. 
Andf even if the Ooremment could properly interfere in the 
working of the Atlantic forest, there would be little real neoe»- 
sity for its doing so. That part of this region which was 
originally wooded can always lie recovered with forest without 
gr^ difflciUty; and that part which was naturally deatitut* of 
forest will remain so, until Rome gradual change in the surface 
of the earth shall have increased the rain-faU over the central 
ktean of the continent. So far, then, as the Qeneral Govern- 
is ooneemoil, the ext«nt and character of the Atl&ntio 
)raBt may be safely regulated by individual effort. If it 
^ttan be shown that private capital invested in forest property 
can aeonre profitable returns, capital will find no difficulty 
in raising forests in any of the Eastern or Central States; 
and capital thus employed, as is true in the case t>f other invest- 
ments, may expect reward in proportion to the intelligence with 
which it is applied to such new enterprises. But the forest, as 
has already )>een shown, runs riskg which do not affect othar 
crops ; it may therefore, perhaps, with propriety receive special care 
it the hands of State Governments. Fire threatens the forest at 
Svery stage of its existence, and a fire may often infiict as much 
lAgv^ iipf>n a fully mature forest ready for the ax as upon one 
tst emerging from thn seed; and, as long as such fires are 
Allowed to spread unchecked, there can be no security* in forest 
lerty, and capital will avoid such invi^stment. Stringent i 
^fitato Iaws, which nhall makt- punishable all persons starting 
forest fires, and bold them responsible for the loaaai oeoh 



398 



THE NORTH AMESlCAy SSnUlT. 



sionwl by such fires, must be passed by ovtry State; and paUH) 
opinion must make the execution of suoh laws passible, before 
forests can be geaerally looked npon as possible inTestmentt. 
Until tills is accomplished, there can be no security in holdlsg 
forest property. Such flreii are usually the result of groM c»^^ 
lesBnesB or wanton mischief, and it wunld not be difficult, ic & 
community roused to the importance of preserving the foreet, to 
fix the respoDfiibility of their origin. 

In the northern pine forests — where tlie damage canted bjr 
fires has far exceeded in immediate loss tiiat experiflooed by any 
other part of tiio country — they aro started, not in the d«uiv 
nneut forest^ but in the rear of the loggiu|f operations, whert 
masses of tops and branohes have been left strewn over the 
ground among the small and half-grown trees unfit for juarkt-t, 
but which, if protected from fire, might soon yield another crop 
of logs. Stich d6briK be<!omes diy.as tinder by midstunmer, am) 
fnruislies the best conceivable material to feed the flames ut i 
great fire. Such fires destroy, not only all trees which thetx luu 
spared, but so change the nature of the eoil itself that it will oat 
yield another crop of pine imlil the growth and decay of geuerv 
tions of other plants have gradually restored its fertilitj-. M 
the first step toward protecting the remnants of the whit* 
pine forest. State laws should be passed compelling the lo^'.*^ 
under the penalty of fine, or even imprisonment, to i r 
fully collect and bum during the winter in which the tn» 
are cut every part of them not carried away. That such a law 
oould be enforced, and that its enforcement would be followed 
by beneficial rcsolts, cannot be doubted. It would sligbtlv :l> 
crease the cost of manufacturing piue lumber to e&rry oui i:^ 
provisions of sueh a law, and its enforcement would entail immtt 
little expense upon the State; but if this legiBlatinu could 
prevent one such fire as recently drew upon Micliigan the *tt<«- 
tion and sj-nipathy of the civilized world, the mon(*y which it 
would cost to enforce it were wisely spent Michignn, Wis- 
consin, and Minnesota are in immediate need of such lawi^ if 
they hope to continue much longer the production of piiM^ 
because in these States, more than iu any other put of tfc* 
Atlantic region at Iea£t, a reckless disregard for the fatoiv nl 
the forest prevails — a recUeasness Iwru of th« very immoawtj 
of the forests which once co\*ered them. 

Additional and better State laws are ne«ded in many StaTrt 



THE PliOTECTIOtF OF rORS/fTS. 



399 



,,., 

« 



U> r^0^0$ the rangiiiK' of cattle and other browMng animals in 
Uie tc/ftBt. Tbo right of every man to use his wood-lands as 
putnro <'-anjiot be denied : it is equally evident that a man may 
bf prnperl}- ri>striiined from allowini;;^ his animals to rangi^ 
through liis neighbor's woods. Free rangiog of browsing ani- 
mals throngh the forest is the relic of a barbarous and nnproflt- 
a}>le agriotiltDre; and animals might with ih|iih1 projirifty be 
allowed to graze at will in the midst <»f other agricultuml crops. 
The passage of fencing lawB in States like Missouri and South 
Carolina, which had long Buffered from the free range of cattle, 
has been followed by the most marked and gratifjring improve- 
mont of the forests, and th« example slmuhl lie promptly fol- 
lowed by every State where such laws do not already exist. 
Apart from the benefit which the forest would derive from sueh 
l.'tri slat ion, its possagp, in doing away with the nwessity of fenc- 
ing cattle out of cultivatt-d laud, would moke aa enormous saving 
12m country's annual fence bill, the heaviest item in the coctt 
if producing onr crops. 

Forest protection for the Atlantic region, then, should be 
sought from the State, and not from the General Oovenuncnt; 
in the Pacific region different conditions in the forest necessitate 
diffeirent action. The General Government still controls ImmenBe 
areas of forest Kti-et4'hing over the mountain ranges of the 
Pacific region, and here, if anywhere, the experiment of gOT- 
ment protection of the forest can be tried. On the eoasi, the 
imatic, conditions will always insure forest growth, and if the 
ovemment undertakes to preser\'e any portion of the coast 
<Te«t it should do so only becanse it will Rcero a profitable busi- 
eas transaction to withdraw from immediate sole land which 
promises soon, with a larger demand for timber, to increase 
ormoiisly in value ; but it is iu the interior region that the 
uvt^rumeut can perhaps ent**r with more propriety upon forest 
ireeervation, as the forests of the interior cannot long sur- 
ive the wast^'fid and short-sighted methods of indiWdual 
eut. These interior forests either do not, under 
'existing conditions, readily reproduce themselTes, or do not, 
lieu once removed, grow at all again. They are capable, how- 
V if properly protected, of supplying for a long time the 
want* of a cousidf^rnbhi jtoptilation ; they protect the flow of 
.jftreams on which the agriculture of a large part of this region 
ust depend ; they guard the great California valley against the 



400 



THE NORTE AMERICAN BEVI£W. 



dan^rs of nountain torreols; and tlipir total destructioa cu 
be predicted with much coufldeuce tualesa actire protoeave 
measures can be adopted to save them. Under the pecoliu eon- 
diticDB of tiie distrihation and growtli of these interior fontitt. 
the pmuticability, then, of preserving certain portions of tbem 
as Oovemment forest reserves, is wortliy of the most mrelnl 
consideration and study. It would seem perfectly practicahle ta 
withdraw entirply from entry or sale for such purpose, for tba 
prt'^eut at least, certain forest Innds ^till VJonging to tho uotliit 
in Montana, Idaho, Colorado, Arizona, and California. 

It is, of conrse, imposgible here to indieate flsxctly when 
snob reserves should be made, or in what manner they could be 
best administered ; they should, however, of course b« 
with regard to the protection of important streania and 
preservation of a supply of lumber, where probable ftjti 
population will most require it. Such forest reservea, if w*^ 
sibly managed, would, at the north at leasts, continue to prodd 
lumber indefinitely ; and, entirely apart from the influence 
would exert upon the g;eneral prosperity of tho region, cooldl 
made self-supporting. The Government has. however, almdy 
ceded to different railroad corporations alternate sectiotu d 
much of the territory- in question^ and as Mich forest resm* 
must, to be successful, extend iiuinterruptetlly over largo wnm^ 
such a plan ae is sug^jfeeted could only be developed to its gmt* 
est possibilities through some arrangement between the OoTcn- 
ment and the railroads for joint forest preserrution. WluU 
benefits the eonimnnitj' beneBts, in the long run, the railroads 
also ; and thoao which cross the continent, or ponetmtc into tb« 
wilds of the Pacific region, might wisely join in any scheme for 
the protection of thcso forests. 

As one step toward a solotion of the forest n, the law 

known aa tbo Timber Cnltnre Act should no j' ; ; l*e aUo««d 
to disgrace the statute book ; origiaally intended to eneounf^ 
the growth of forests in the treeless parts of the conntiT', it hs< 
failed entirely in accompUsbing what it was honestly esipecled 
to accompIiBli. It has given ri»e to gigantic fraudfl, and hai 
already cost the Government several miUion acres of laud whkh 
have passed into private bands without any return what#r«. 
Apart from it>H worihleBaneas as a means of aecnring the growtli 
of forests, this law is deeeptive, and therefore dangerous. It 
ecooarageB the planting of txees where trees cannot grov tmlaii 






TBS PBOTECTZ077 OF FOBJESTS. 



artiflciAlly irrigated, and thus entaiJs li)sses upon honest settlers, 
nvcd in the belief that the Government would not encourage 

3ticable and useless planting. 
Looking, then, ovf^r the whole field, it is seen that the forests 
the ooontry, with h single imp4»rtdnt eiwptiun, are stiU 
kble of largv proUnction. It is evident, however, that grave 
should l>e ft'lt for their future extent and composition ; that 
in all the £at$t«ru and Central Sutes legislation is required to 
protect the forest from fire and indiscriminate pastnra^, and 
in the interior Pacific regiun ejcperimenU in furvst pru- 
ooold, perhaps, be wisely undertaken, unless this region 
to be entirely stripped of its forests. All protecti\*e legisla- 
tian, however, will fail u* Hi^cMmplisb the nwulh< expeeteil from 
it, unless backed by popular belief in the value of the forest. 
Such belief will come only with a better understanding of the 
impOTianoe uf the subje^'t ; and the American pt^ople must 
Ibbth several economic lessons before the future of their 
can be oon&idered secure. They must learn that a 
whatever its extent and reeonroes, can be exhausted in a 
tnrpnaingly short space of time through total di^egard In its 
teaatmenU of the simplest laws of nature ; OuU browsing animals 
hd flres render the reproduction of the forest impossible ; that 
&« forest is essential to the protection of rivers ; that it dues not 
ice nUQ'fall, and that it is useless tu plant trees beyond the 
ion where trees are prodooed naturally. When these lessons 
have been learned, forest protection in the United States 
be possible and can be made effectual 

Crables S. Saroent. 




NOVEMBER, 1888. 



iNGUSK VIEWS OF FREE TRADE. 



BTH AMERICAN REVIEW. 

B No. CCCXIL 

Kngu^ 

tB Colxlen Club held its aunu&l mooting rocently in IjondoD. 
I>erby presided, and made the spooch* of the evening on 
XVftde, the only subject RdmiBsihle on such oooasions. It 
'^wtby of the roputation of this distinguiuhed nobleman, 
ft one of the foromoet statesmen of England. His speech 
k&rkable for ita ability, an well aa for its ingenuong odmis- 
liat all the other nations of the world, together with the 
es of England, excepting New South Wales, Rre proteotion- 
I^ord Derby's despondency is somewhat abate^l, however, 
i action of die Finance Mini.>jter of India, who has reoently 
a step which Lord Derby considers wise, althongh bold, 
liich has "produced in India a nearer approximation to 
"tide than exists anywhere except in England." India being 
tiled in Downing Street, it is apparent from Lord Derby's 
lent that the doctrine of free trade has its home only in 
nd; and the tnforcneo is certainly a fair one — fnim the 
try of the Cobden Clnb, whose publications^ are sown broad- 
ihronghont the world, and alwa\*8 so timed, in the Unit«4l 
I at lea^t, ae to bo in advance of the elections — that the 
inl intereslA of England are largely dependent on the 

kbUshed in " The Uoohdkle Otncrver," Julj S, 1883. 

Kal Bmobor sinco Juiaai7, 1881, 923,860. Sw "Ab&qoI RapoH,* 

83, 

IDL, CXXXV.— KO. 312. 2d 



TBE KOnrS AKEmCAJ{ nEVIEW. 



spread of this doctrine in otlicr [iftrts of tbe world. It U' 
therefore, that we underatand precisely the ooaditions vhieh 
ID England, so tliat we may know what it is whii-Ji promplft iL^ 
«xtrw>rdinftry zeal shown tor the propagntion of a doctrbe «a 
dear to her people, a doctrine which, according to IjOtd Dttby, 
is more powerful and mor« salutary^ in ite influenoe ou nuuibaJ 
than religion. He says, " There Is nothing moro ccstoin Ihm 
this, tliat the gi-cat preventive of war ia trade. Religion bu vA 
servod to check wars; they never were more fretjiicul oTDon 
barbaronsly carried on than in the ages when faith was onahftkn, 
and when every man was a beUever. Forms of goTenuBcnt 
have not siifllocd to check war, for we have seen democrftries w 
pngnacious as goremments of anj other character, and I im 
afraid thai we can hardly contend diat even the general uien«i» 
of intelligence has done much to make men iieut^ealde. Bnt, H 
yon so connect two countries that neither can iujnre the otba 
without equally injuriug itself at the same time, yon ban otA, 
indeed, a perfect guaranty against quarrels, fur tliat is irapofis 
hie, but a better guaranty than any yet devised." One moft 
not assume, from what l^rd Derby has hern Mitd, that all Ite 
wars which England has entered upon to get trndo were not jut- 
ti^blo, bnt that, as she laid her strong hand upon pravinec ftfttf 
province, and opened her trade with tbt-m, they became pOMMMJ 
ever iifter with the tranquillity and gentleness of the hunh- 

GrcAt and enthusiastic teachers are apt to hohl extRnti 
\-iew8. The late Henry C. Carey, whose reputation is ro-exteoiiw 
with the world as a teacher of protection, aecribed even vjm 
astounding rosnlt« to his favorit* theory. Uo has more th* 
once asserted that protection is a universal remedy for oD so- 
cial eviU. Adopt it universaUy, he said, and, with th« bett«nd 
condition of mankind, ignoranoo, iuUonpcraice, and Tioe get- 
erally, will disappear. 

The mission of England is to sprca*! the knowledge of fc« 
great panacea for the healing of all nat lonR,-^ Free Trade. TV** 
can be ao donbt of the sincerity with whivh the doctrine is p«P 
agated. Experience has long since taught it as a tnith tliid 
&ere is no influence more jK>werful «« Uit> hurnm' niini Ibra 
that which is held to be tho basis of material pr>' ' 

trade lx«ing es»iontial to the proep' " *' 

adoption in otlic-r countriee of great i ■ 
may freely admit that it is not strange that ii)0 groal mWmrt •: 



ENGLISH YIEW8 OF FREE TIUDE. 



40» 







ce may readily contrul tbo minds of the people of England, 
porticolarly the minds of her stateBmcu. 
The condition of England Ib peculiar to herself. Her land 
in the possession of very few persons. Fonr hundred and 
?enty-one indi\idiials hold 22,880,755 acres, or more than ono- 
fourth of the United Kingdom. Twenty-one hnndred and eighty- 
>iir individuals hold 38,875,522 acres, or more than one-half.* 
Jixty-six ptT c<.nt. of tlie population are said to be urban, thirty- 
four per eent. rural. The agricultaral products are equal to the 
support of the population (96,000,000) for six months in the year. 
Her dependence for food for the other six months is on the re- 
tnm for her manufaotnres sold to other countries, her commerce, 
le earnings of her shipping, and the income derived from her 
ivestments in foreign lands. The mtun dependence for the 
srity of England is on her relations with other (Countries, 
as these are maintained tlirough her maniifacturcs and ship- 
^, it is absoIntL'ly necessary that wages and materials shall be 
Ef>pt at a roioimnra price, so as to enable her to produce and to 
carry at a lower cost than other coxintries. The necessity grow- 
ig out of the condition of England is that no duties shall be 
nied un food, on which her population is absolntely doj>endcnt, 
kor on cotton, wool, silk, jnte, and the many other raw materials 
ich arc the bases of her manufactures, and on which she iB 
loalty dependent for the meauB of supplying that food. 
" Pair Trade," which is the system advocated by the English 
landowners who desire protection against foreign agricultural 
products, Lord Derby fwiys, " i.s a ghost only, and not a reality.'' 
" Protection cannot bo rerived, because the artisans, the town 
populatifm — thoso who are not concerned in agriculture — are not 
hi the least likely to submit to a tax on food, and taxing raw 
materials would he pimply injuring our own industries." Free 

Itr&de in these articles is a necessity, and not a matter of choice. 
bi not, then, free trade a misnomer, and does not the practioe of 
England under that'nome come in as a Dcoessary port of a system 
K pn>tection which prevails through all the ramifications of the 
povennnent of England, and has for its end the welfare of her 
vubjcctsT Why a parliament, an army, a navy, a diplomatic 
and oonnUar sendee, titles of nobility, laws of primogeniture, a 
Bttioaal church, free education, telegraphic and posttd monopoliee, 
horbora, lights, and a thuunuud other things, all porta 
• "Pin»ncUl Reform Almanac." London, 1878. 





406 



TKB NOHTH AMERICAN BBYtSW. 



of a great and glorions whole viiioh has raised 'Eh^^xbA ' 
proud pinnacl(> on wbicU she Tests among' the other nalioui 
the world 7 The whole system ia a derelopmeut of ag« of 
thonght by the mind of En^ond concentrated om the wetCtre 
of the nation. 

Lord Derby well says: ""When diseossing free trade, thoraj 
a wide field of thought on which I do not care to eutor, bnb vl 
deserves serious attention. We are constaatly oalliag on Um 
State to control and regulate onr relations with one acoiher 
more and more closely : how long people are to work, how thev 
are to bo taught, what they are to drink, what sort of hoosee tbrr 
are to live in — in all these matters, and miiny others, we are pur 
petually calling on Parliament to interfere ;*" and again, *' I tm 
not arguing that that tendency is wrong; it is a vastqaiitiaB, 
hat I think its indirect effect is not fsTorablo to free trade [ fur 
the principle on which free trade rests is that of the snffleieDtf 
of the Individual to ulteud tu his uwu iutere^ts, and it ia natanl 
for the untaught man to ask^ if the State can manage 
business for them, in many departments of life, better than 
can manage it themselves, why is trade to bo the exeeplaoal 
Hero I^rd Derby has stated the question with candor^ and 
it not for thn atmosphoro surrounding his lordship, wl 
natural elements are surchai^ed with the material inl 
England, he would have gone on and said that the priflc 
carried out Ir^itimatoly would restore the days when tni^A' 
rights and the few lorded it over the many, or, in other 
state of barbarism. The assertion that free trade it a 
was never more suocessfully shown to he alwurd than 
Derby has shown it to be, perhaps undesignedly, in the 
just quoted. It is nothing more than a deludiug name for ft 
policy which suits the present ctrcimistauoes uf T^ngj^wi 
practiced there, it is necessary for the existence of Rwg j#ft fl, 
so far as other countries may be deluded by the t««obtiigs of 
Oobden Club, the interest of England will be advaneed, for 
tense anxiety now prevails there that the prese&t mark«t« 
her manafactnree shall be enlarged and new tn ^'^■i 

for this purpose, and this purpose alone, that :.daa1 

exists. 

Lord Derby's statement, that Now South Wales and lodi* i 
the only two bright and encouraging points in the aniv#iw ■ 
counts for the zeal and per&evorance with wluoh the Oobden' 



Club continaMi its efforts bo enlighten the people of the VaiteA 
Suttifl. So oo«mopolttan ore we, and so many in otir seaport 
dtiM are dependent on their Englisli bnsinetut, tiiat one muf^t not 
be Btirpmed if, on tliis side of tlie Atlantic, it meets with uo 
little aid. 

Am there is no other identity between the condition of the 
fnited States and that of England than a common language 
a common religion, it i;^ quite reasonable that each nation, 
■honld adopt a system of government, and of intorconrse with 
other nations, to enit her own circtimstances ; and it is equally 
reasonable that their methods should differ, even should there 
not be a nooossity for so doing, which nwjftssity, in our case, may 
readily be shown to exist. Each nation has her own pcculiari* 
tie^ and each has her own aims. Our aims are the good of the 
and thii nearest approaeh whiiOi pan be mnd(> to the wel- 
and happiuoss of each iiidividnol. With us the iudinduol 
is the center of interest and the source of power, and rulers are 
ereat^ by the people merely to execute laws dpsigned to secure 
to each individual the greatest possible participation in the good 
of this world. Our traditions all tend to one point, and 
it is, that each individual is entitled to equal privileges. 
The United States cover a vast territory, with a population of 
r-two millions^ increasing with amaziug rapidity. They oom- 
every variety of climat« and soil, with vast stores of min- 
erals and mineral oils. Their increase in wealth and productive, 
oeas is beyond precedent. Their national debt, which in 1866 
two thousand seven hundred and fifty millions of dollars, — 
cost of the abolition nf slaven,-, — is now one thousand six 
idred and seventy-five millions,* or a reduction of one thou- 
and seventy-five millions of dollars in sixteen yews, the 
reduction of the last QaoaX year alone being one hundred and 
fifty miltious. One hundred and U-n thousand milcaof railroads 
have been constructed and fM]uipped in an incredibly short time, 
at a cost of about six thouflaud millions of dollars.! Twenty- 
seven States are now competing with Pennsylvnnin in the niatiu- 
facturo of iron- In 1881 J the product of pig-iron was 4.641,- 
ton»>, the yield of seven hundred and sixieon ftimaoeSf on©- 
of which were out of blast, scattered through twenty*eigfat 

National Aeht of KnglAml, $3,843,518,460, and nosrljr etationair. 
t lUUmads tn Rngland in 18S0, 17,915 idUm, eostlnft $3,000,000,0^0. 
I " Ajmoal Beport American Iron and Steel Awocdatioo," Juie IC, 1863. 



TEE SOUTH AMERTCAK SIEVTSW, 



dtatdfl. The first steol rails vere made in KngUod tn lRo.% uid 
ia this oouutry in 1967. In March, 1868, thuir current price 
$174 per ton. The price has fallen annually in proportiuQ 
the increase of our manufacturefi, until now stpol rails are 
at $15, and sales have been mtult* as low a« $12 per boo. 
the meantime our production has reached 1,188,000 toiu 
1881, being greater than that of England by sixty thi 
tons. Before the 1st of Aogost, 1882, Colorado, from bs^ 
mineit, with her own furnaces^ converters, and rolUng-miU, hu 
produced and laid ten milca of steel rails. 

Had the United States continued dependent ou EngUnd fw 
this article, will any one pretend to say that the ] 'J 

have beoD what it is, and that the prices would i 
they have done t tt is claimed that wo can buy what we prodoee 
of various kinds <-hcaper elaowhere than at home. The preced- 
ing illut^tratiou ought to remove that impression, for, faowrnf 
true it may be, when the prices in foreign markets are oompan^ 
frith our own, what wonld be the conation of thom maric< 
were an annual demand made upon them of even onefourthj 
our present production 1 

Other manufactures, of cotton, wool, silk, ete., tat 
with a like rapidity, and, what is of peculiar interest, the? at 
springing up in great nnmbcrs in the South and West, and thvtr 
products are to be found side by side with those of the E adca 
and Middlt'! Stat-es, competing suooessfuUy in all the great i 
markets. Nothing need be said of the vast productions of < 
cereals, cattle, etc, which are swelling in th^ extent bvb? 
year. Wliut is now being done thnmgh the length and breadth 
of our land shows the fruits of a sj-stcm which was very dtcrto 
the hearts of the founders of the republic, — a qrstcm which iw 
to make the people prosperous and the nation : ' 'ulent. 

The protective system may be ealled, very i ., asjVbnfl 

of high wages, because it exclndea, withiu cbrt&in limits, futrijfii 
competition. Its very purpose is the prutoction of th- •--' "'" 
High wages means the circulation of money among- i 
As the circulation of the blood, of the sap, of the oir, «/ wfcl^-'t 
of light', of heat and cold, of electricity', of intelligenee, ■od >>^ 
loving-kindness, works out the Iiighest reeolta in nature, «> do 
the circulation of money in a coramnnity. Tt tends to rai* < 
lower strata in the social system, and gives to them the Md% 
they arc entitled to, and which they do not ehwwhcre cbJi'T' 



ENGLim VIEWS OF FZEE TRiLDE, 



409 



Mine extent Tt is assertetl that tlie HtlvanUigPS dumcd by 
or the workmginan are not realized — that high wagee pro- 
a high oo6t for the neooasarieij of Ufe^ and, cousequeutly, that 
irorkin^aD is no l)ctter off here than eLsewLere. Let tmy 
mokti a mtiifal e.xaniLuatioii, and it will he found that the 
ericao workingnian's food is much cheaper, that the substan- 
olothixig which h6 tuies cost« no uiore, and tiiat^ iu the eda(!a- 
tA hia childroiif in his associattons and in hia dwelling, ho 
great adrantages over the workman of foreign lands ; aud 
\ the frugnlj pmdcnt workman hero invariably acrmnulatee 
perty and acquires a respcctablo social position. The trustees 
be Peabody Trust, in their report for 1881, say that their 
dings in London are composed of 2787 separate dwellings, 
uh are occupied by 11,450 persons; that the average weekly 
lingB of the head of each family in residence at the dose of 
year were £1 Ss- 73d. or $5.90. The tenants are all working- 
pie of rcfipeotable rhftracter. Can an etjual number of tho 
10 class iu any city of the United States be found whose avor- 
eamings would not equal ono-haif more 1 
One of tho ad captandum objcrtdons to our system is that it 
Drs monopolists, and this is constantly repeated in langnago 
mlgar as it is inaccurate ; " that it is these monopolists who 
the workingnian of his hard-earned wages, in not i>ormitting 
I to bny in tlie cheapest mu'ket.'' The latter objection has 
ndy been met. But is it not absurd to speak of one ae a 
lopoViBt who engages iu a business in which any one, or all, 
be Ofty-two milliou inhabitants of this country, may competo 
Ih him, and not only so, but alao the inhabitante of all other 
lontries who may W indined to settle by his side T It used to 
the kings of England granted monopolies, but that power 
onger exista. Under our patent laws and those of other 
itrie-s, mouopolios are enjoyed as a reward for the exercise 
iTentivo genius, but only for a limited time; and by what have 
conntriefi benefited morel 
all the advantages our manufacturers are said to have, 
been the competition among them that they have not 
ore successful, as a class, than their neighbors of O&er 
No such fortunes have been accumulated by them aa 
amassed by the manufacturers of England, with the world 
eir market, l»efore their success awakened foreign rivalry. 
ormous was their capital that, for a while, wherever iu&nt 



410 



TBS NOUTH AaasszoAJir aEvisw, 



eftorte were made to introduce manMnm*, that mu'lcel^ 
feitedf in order to break down all rivalry. With the gnnrtbi 
capital, here and elsewhere, that policy is now seldfim reoirbd 
to. Xeverthelefia, at this iitotnent theru i« not to be found mx Uie 
surface of the globo a ncart'r approach to a monopoly lUao tlw 
comliined power of the manofaciorers of Free Trade EnglAwl, 
and the Cobden Club is the representative of that power. W« 
the wit of the United States not equal to ih^ own prot 
they would soon feel the baneful iniluenoee of the ezorcaie 
that power. 

Our farmers are Oie objects of the deepoet BoHcitnde and >y»- 
pathy on the part of the Cobden Club. " It is diJitAnce (colond 
by Belf-intereet) lends eucbantment to the view." Throo^ 
Mr. Mougrodicn's pamphlet^ of which it boaste of haring sal 
fifty thousand copies to this country, our fanners have 
told how much better they woidd thrive if freo trudo were 
polioy of tho United Stalea; bnt Thomas II. Dudley, E«i- 
New Ji^-rsey, J. W. Hinton^ Esq.. of Wisconsin, and o 
writers, have shown to them Mr. MongretlioD's faUacie«, 
they well understand that they, of all others, ore enjoyii 

benofiie of a system which has developed tlie (.'ouutry bo 

that, by the construction of labor-saving machines, the oort 
their crops Is reduced one-half, and that through the fadlit 
of transportation, a uniform and abundant cum^ory. and a ^ 
TBrsiJied industry, the most distant districts of our coimtry tun 
ready markets at pricM but Klif^htly luwer thou lliiKie i*onmuuiik^ 
by tho products of the costly lands on onr eastern slops; LqI 
Derby says: "Western farmers will not always : * ' ota 
Eastern mftnufa«^turoi-ft.'' This* is true. The nmiL r* 

thdr immediato neighborhood ate rapidly superseding thi>so it > 
distance. Were it not so, the Western farmers know well whn 
enterprise and capital were instrumental in opeuing tli» Wr 
for them, and enabled them to settle and prosper whwit it 
tiiought tliM hnm of industry would not be heard daring 
century. Nor are they ig:norant of the fact> which is posul 
unknown to Lord Derby, that no other calling: has been so ] 
benefited as theirs by tbe action of the Gfivemmi-nt. One \xi 
dred and ninety-oight million three hundred and forty -six Ihoc- 
eand acres of onr best land hav«» boen grant^l for Ihu ennsumptJi* 
of railroads, and four million four hnndred and flT« ibotisii>i 
aoree for the conslmctiou of canals, oil of whioh raiZroaili *^ 



ENOLISE VIEWS OF FREE TRADE. 



4U 



lals are in the Western and Southern States ; nor are these all, 

ir the same mimifioenoe has been 1>uRtowed upon tbeui for t^duca- 

kioQal purposos in tho grant of sixty-eight milliunt) of acres for 

>iiunon schools, one million two hnndrod and sixty-five thou- 

id acres for universities, and nine million acres for agricultural 

colleges, making a total of two himdred and eighty-one million 

thoosaod* acres of land, or nearly four times the area 

the kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, which contains. 

it^r-two million one hundred and nineteen thousand nine 

mndred aixty-one acreB.t 

Tho great tide of immigration which ia rolling toward the 

Teit proves conclusively that no farmers thrive as do the 

of the United States, and that they, in common with the 

whole comm,unity, are benefiting by a system which is as nearly 

pUiiversal in its inflnenca as any which has yet been de%*ised. 

** As to what is said abont providing a variety of oconpa. 

ions," Lord Derby says, " that is a plea which one can hardly 

suppose ia seriously urged." On his Lordship's princely domain, 

which consists of eicty -f onr thousand acres, X chiefly in Lanooster, 

may we not find u doctor and an apothecary, a lawyer and a 

divine, a tailor and a shoemaker, a butcher and a baker, a grower 

of wheat and a griuder of wheat, spinntirs of cottxm and spinners 

wooU and men of many other callings T Ko economist will 

)ute the great benefits which are derived from the close pros- 

lity of tho producer and tho consumer. His Lordship is so good 

manager that it may be doubted whether any of his products 

beyond his tenants to find consumers, unless it be that por- 

>n of tho game from his preserves which ho distribute-s among 

« his friends. It is one of the cardinal principles of tho protective 

^brKteni to encourage homo production and homo consutiiption, 

^■or llicy insure to both parties the greatCHt advantage. 

^H Under tho free trade theory, independence of other nations is 

^H||^ b« aimed at I Lord Derby says, '* tho Mish tliat a country 

^Hnd produce within itself all that it requin>s may snmt^tinies be 

duo to on ox^gferatiod caution. " If, in the Providence of GKxi, we 

are pomesied of every variefy of soil and climate, of all kinds of 

minerals, of a people who can work intelligently and use their 

prodnctA advantageously, and are willing to spare to others what 

• " Ameriran AlmanM " Tor 1 882. 

t " Piniuicwl Rnfarm Almftnao." fxmdon, 1878. 

I " FhuuiciftJ H^tona Almuuc." Loodon, 1678. 



412 



TBB NORTH AMEBIC AH REYiBW. 



{hey cannot use themsetrAS, there oaght to be stronger 
than Lord Derby and his associatee of the Ool>dea Club have • 
oi^ed why we as a people should forego tlio great udvantAj^ 
which liave been conferred upuu ui^, and not so cootml thum th*!. 
while we promote tlie ^od of lUlt we provido especially tor Uw 
welfare of the humblest 

Under the proteotiTe system there is the least possible ooo^ 
sion to send otir products out of the country, and consequent 
oar country is sobjeeted. to a miuimnm of drain upon 
strength. Like the owners of the Devonshire Meadows in 
land, who will uUow only oxen designed for the shambles lo Tixd 
upon them, so that no more than thoir aocomuIatiQn in weight shall 
bo taken fmm the land, so doee a tme eoouoouc pnn4:iple^ tim- 
bodied in our protective syBtem, secure to us the grcAteet poaii- 
ble advantages. 

While oiu* system has given to us great prosperity on land, tl 
effect on oar shipping interest, outside of that engaged in 
ooaeting trade, has been decidedly imfarorable. This indu3>t 
is unprotected, and lias to contend witli IhtJ low wages wl 
prevail in all other maritime nations. The cost of constrac 
cor vessels, and that of sailii^ them also, is greater by 
one-fourth — the equivalent of the difference in wages. 
greas has not met this question as it ought to hare been xai^ 
probably because the demand for capital and labor on land Utt 
been gi-e«ter than the snpply, and the superabundance of foreiga 
shipping had been more than equal to the requin^tments ut inM. 
As a nation we have not Buffered, for both our capital and oar 
people, withdrawn from the sea, have found more profitable aodj 
more congenial employment on the land in the railroad 
which is the most marvelous and attractive feature in 
dustry of the present age. 

Sir Charles Dilke, M. P., anotiier speaker at the Cobden u- 
niveraary, said : " I am convinced tliat protection haa bad • 
most grievons effect upon the political and social oonditiao ^ 
the modem world. Rnssian nihilism, (German sottial dpniucnu^- 
and French anarehism, are, in a high degree, the children <>( 
protection."* Lord Derby and the Cobdon Clab proclaim 
Free Trade Is superior to religion in spreading "peace OQ 

" Why hw Sir Charles m»do no »lla»ion to Ilia own pfluntr-' -" '* 
brod In tlie land irbers the religiaH of free trade provaUa, •• 
ootmtrjr, prove to be the nuwt radioal and are among the nxtft uvai'.c 



ENGLISH VIEWS OF FREE TRADE. 



good-will toward men." Sir Charles rankg prot«4>tioQ aa 
among the agencies of the DeWl. In Asserting this be Uttia 
ihonght that the men who in other countries exhibit these vari- 
ous aatanic phases in their struggles for lilferty of con^^i^if-n^ie 
and personal liberty, need only to be IrauspUnted to a cuimtry 
whero protection exists as it does here, where it and all its sor- 
roundings are bat expressions of the will of the pectpio, and 
th«y at once become the siistiuners of law, and atrtivo in the pur- 
suit of thoso advantages wliich are the rewards itt industr}*. 
The wares of immigration now setting over our loud contain 
many a soul, hitherto harrowed by oppression, and they, like the 
refugees from persecution in the last contiinr, will find happy 
]iome0 here, having nothing to excite other tlian gralt^ful ft^t^liiigs 
toward a government whoso purpose is to secure to all its citi- 
UDS the advantages of the most perfect cirilixation. 

There is a view of this subjor-t ou which the mind of the 
Cobden Club has Dot rested. Its eye has been so intent on the 
immediate advantages which our adoption of ita doctrine 
would bring to England, that the ulterior oonaeqaences of it 
have not been thought of. There is no one in England who 
docs not know that of all their raw products there is not one 
which we cannot produce in greater abundance, and that, beyond 
these, we have an inflnito variety of others of which they have 
none, and on which they are dependent The cost of all these 
consists mainly iu labor. Our tariff produces high wages. 
Take it off, wages fall, the cost of production falls. Who can 
deny that, with wages on the same level with England, with our 
inexhaustible supply of power, our skill, with all the raw ma> 
terials at hand, and provisions more abundant and cheaper than 
they can be in England, the United States will produce cheaper 
ihan England can, and be a competitor with her in moniifactured 
goods in all her present markets. Under low wages oar con- 
gninptioD will fall off, and we BhoU ceoso to be, what we now 
$rej among England's best and largest oostomers. 

Shotdd this come to pass, both nations will be sufferen. Am 
we are a nation of workmen, and ought to understand what is for 
our interest, sucJi a result Is not to be anticipated. If, however, 
it should come, we must philosophically sabmit to onr altered 
einmrnstances, and it is possible that they who bave worked for 
the overthrow of our beneficent system may find themselvee tiio 
greater sufferers. Our youthful energy and greater reaourcea 



TES IfOBTH AlfESICAir B£ri£tr. 



will give to us a power witli whioTi "England cannot cope in t]i« 
markets of the world, and ainyn bearing the fla^ of the Vmcu^ 
will oQoe more take the place of those nndcr the rod cross uf 
Geor^ on every sea. Our cost will be lives of onreautting toil,! 
witl) its degrading tendencies, instead of the present priviJt-jf«l 
which the protective system secureR to ua all. 

As we now are, wo can compare the coaditioa of the rnited 
fitatee to that of no other nation. We have aimed at ind«<peikd- 
enoe, and have secured it. Wt\ have striven for the greatest gnod 
of the greatest number, and are ruworded. "We have au privilof^ 
elassefi, and the emoluments and rewards of geniua, of inteUnet, 
and wtOl-direoled industry in all its forms, are denied to no otic 
We are not envious of other nations, and do not fear them. Tbo 
numerical insignificance of our army and of our navy prove* «or 
confidence in tiieir goud-will toward us, and we show our gooil- 
will toward them by receiving cordially from them all who pre- 
fer, from any cause, to leave their homes and. oast their lot 
among us. 

There is but one other point on which I shall tonch. I/»d 
Derby says : *' They have America to themselves ; they unwiKlT, 
as we think, are protectiuuitstfi against Europe; but, over ao am 
as large as Europe, within the Union itself, there axigU abaolola 
free trade. Their oxinstitntion and their geograpbioal 
do much to neutralize the mistakes of their policy.'' T. Bs] 
ley Potter, Esq., M. P., Honorary Secretary of the i " " " . Httl 
after au extended tour in this country, expressed li itiool 

to the same eifect. That part of our system which Lhoj' Ihlolc 
affects England injnrionsly, these gentlemen, in r - ■ ^ri*h 
all Englislimen, condejnn. Its opcratiim among on 
subject of thdr strongest commendation. It is unfortujia:' 
— perhaps more unfortmtate for England — that thf ivm 
Club has not shown its solicitude for nearer neitfhltors than • 
are. Is it not possible that its pions seal shoul" . .-^<i : [ 

directed tx^iwanl the unifieatidu of Eiiroiw {in" i j ■ iliiL-ri^iij. 
into a rcpablict Then free trade would, as with us, pnn 
within its borders, and a more liberal policy t^au otmi 
govern its foreign relations. One Messing woold et 
low: the people woiUd no longer be burdened wiUi the nMti 
huge standing armies, enormous navies, aitd a mulUti 
thrones. 

JOUK Wl 




Ip " Order is Heaven's first law," it is not the less one of the 
first requisites of the dae administration of justice upon the 
earth. It i& the conditlou upon which the usefulueBS of oonrtB 
largely depends. Honce it is that adequate powers have been 
conferred upon judges for its preservation. It is obvious that 
an authority which ooold be inw-kcd would soon fail to com- 
mand respect, and the lack of respect would breed disturbance. 
The power to maintain order, therefore, is vital to the institntinn 
and usefulness of tribunals in which jut»Lic>e is tu be adniioist'CrtKl. 
It was found at an early day that peace, order, and dignity, 
so needful in eoorts of justice, were beet secured by the power 
to punish those who wantonly abused them. The oorreetion at 
the common law was summary. The practice obtained as an uv 
rident in the oonrsn of judicial business and was tolerated from 
necessity; but its exercise depended so much upon the 
per of the judges, that statutes have been enacted, from time 
timo, defining and limiting the offenses which constitute cou- 
pt Such legislation was wise. At the first blush, it might 
that the i^ommittal of a citizen to prison upon the sole ao- 
Ion and knowledge of a single judiniul officer was a dt-nial of 
e right of trial by jury — a social privilege accorded to most 
ffenders. But it has l>oon delermmed that the provision of the 
loetitulion of the United States that the trial of crimes shall 
by jury, docs not take from the courts the right to punish 
criminal contempts in a summary mo<le. The same construction 
has been given to like provisions iu State Constitutions. It is 
obviou-s that flagraut offenses may be committed in the presence 
of llio fViiiri, and \ts ftctiou be SO impeded as to make direct and 
iramiHliatc puiiishment necessary : as where one is noisy, violent, 
profane, or where a witness refoMft to answer a proper question 
as to a fact knowu to him, or to produce a paper, tlieu and there 




416 



TUB IfOBTB jLMEBICAN SEYIEW. 



in his possession, tipon \rbic}i the righte of a enit^^r may dopt'nl 
In snch instances prompt and vi^rous disdpliiie must hkrt h 
wholesome influence. 

It is to be olisorved that the exercise of this power ii sot 
limited to disturbance arising' in the courtrroam, hat extendi (a 
Biieh as natiy occur witliout the woUfl, to tJie aDiioyance lif tk 
Courts An Act of Congress confers uiton eonrte the rigfat u^ 
pnnish any person for misbehavior in their presence, or so dot 
thereto as to obstniet judicial priK-f-ediiip*. So it has been held 
to be a contempt to perform militia evolutJont*, with musie and 
firing, near the ooort when in session. Even legitimate avooi' 
tions may oocasionally come vrithin the objection; thaft, if ntftt- 
Bftry, the proprietor of a plfming mill or Iwiler faetorj" might be 
required to enspend operations. If one should plant an appArttoi 
emitting noxious or disagreeable vapors, so as to contamioatftltf 
atmosphere of a coortr-room, or should from a distanoe disch&rge 
missiles so oa to imperil the inmates, he might be ordered to 
desist and be pnnigfaed if be did not. It would bo eairr to a- 
tend the enumeration. Of conrse, a noise tcmporarjr in ehanctv, 
where there was a good reason for it, like that of a passing jvo- 
eeBfiion, would not be dealt with otherwise than by the exeni«f of 
a little patience. As an illustration, once when my brothiT-ji»dp 
McCue was presiding at a trial with a jury, on St~ I'atriiJtV l?^ 
a band stationed In the street., near the Court House, stni 
snch diBOordaut musif- thut the trial waa suspended, theJutlg* 
good hiunoredly remarking: "For onoe in the year St Patrii-k 
has the right of way." 

The power of suppressing disturbances ftam witHont tin- i"mi 
is as neoessary as that of eorreeting those within it, thoutrh !'« 
snmmnry in its applieation- It is to be observed that the Plain- 
tory regulations are really restrictive, and have cun£idcrat4y 
abridged the power which hod been exercised at common law. 

The recent eommitment of Edmund Dwyer Or»y, Hi(A 
Sheriff, to prison by the order of Mr. Justice LawKn, ftw 
pnbhshing in his newspaper, after a trial, severe atrictnra upon, 
the condnct of members of the jury, has ju :' ited gnat 

attention. The publication, made after the trial . m no wity 

have affected the progress or the result of the investigation. U, 
as stated, some of the jury, while 8cr\ing as such, had beea 
intoxicated, that was a proper matter to puliUah— news io which 
the public had an interest The court might wdl hove colled 



mSOJWEB. IN COUBT'BOOMB. 



417 



"Oip jurors to account, lint fihonld not have awnimed that the pub- 
icatioQ was false or pen'erse, made: to bring^ the coTirt into disre- 
ite. If not true, there waa a way to reach and paniah Mr, 
Gray without the jngtibe himself BBBtuning that responsibility. 
The reason asf:!igrn?d, bs reported, is peculiar. He says: "I see 
perfectly well the design of these artadea. It is to endeavor to 
deatroy in thi' publiti mind tlio moral effect of the-8« couidntiouB, 
and to interfere with the trial of prisoners yet to be tried." The 
intent thos ascribed to Mr. Gray is assomed, — a mere conjeot- 
are. That intent niighthave been the sabject matterof interrog- 
atories to be answered in the conrse of an orderly proceeding. 
For aiitrht that appeared, the articles might have been inserted 
witliiuit hi-i jM'rwmiil knuwledg^, a thing Ukuly enough to 1iiipp«n 
At a time when, as High Sheriff, bis duties may have been of an 
Eaotiog and exciting character. What justice demands is free- 
lorn of inquiry. That had been aeeured,and to pnnisli for critieisni, 
mtrely as such, thcreaft^T^ was oppressive. Such a spirit would be 
^^t war with legitimate history. The offence, if any, was oonstmct- 
^Hye. It was not perpetrated in the presence of tlie oonrt^ — did 
^Biot interrupt it^ proceedings. It may well be doubted whether 
^Dlr. Jufctieo Lawsonwas legally correct in the course pursued; 
but ancfa panisbment oould not, after his manner, be lawfully 
imposed with us, and should be regarded everywhere as inex- 
pedient, if not arbitrary. 

A court-room is a place of strife, often of the keenest and 

bitterest character, where fortune, honor, life, or liberty may be 

at stake. Professional emulation frequently adds another ele- 

I^^Httt to the struggle. Having such passions and motives to di'al 

^^^B, the power of restraint by the court must be immediate, and 

^Kiast be kept in view and exercised. Bat, oven then, it is often 

^^ifflcult, if uot irnpussible, to preserve order. It may not be 

improper, in this relation, to refer to a recent case of monmfnl 

celebrity, the trial of the assassin of President Garfield. I have 

for the learned jndge w)io presided profound respect His service 

was exceedingly difficult, owing to the misconduct of the pe<^lo 

and of the prisouer. There was, as I conceive, but one course of 

procedure by wIiicL due order might possibly have been pre* 

served. The first spectator who encouraged and rewarded the 

interruptions of the prisoner by a langh should have been 

ezpcQed ; the second one committed. Had it been understood 

each morning that such a rule would be rigorously enforced, the 



418 



THE NORTB AMERICAU SEVTEW. 



interruptions woald have ceased. Even the prifloner W 
finding it irksome to appeal to an tmsympatbotic at 
might have relapsed into quiet ways. He had the right to in 
prwmt and to be heard. What oourse of personal repreasioo 
remainf^ t He had passed beyond the reach of pnniahiiieot 
for contempt. To have inflicted personal ehaatJaeineut vrot 
have offended the sense of a just and humane people. To Iw 
loaded him with irons would have been barbarous, and 
have brought the blush nf shame to the cheek of every lawver 
who rcmcnibered that when a prisoner was brought in for trial, 
Sir John Holt ordered the irons to be taken ofT, saying : " Wba 
prisoners are tried, they slionld stand at their ease.** 

It sometimes happens that, in moments of excitement, comiad 
create disturbance in the ooarts. Happily, but few instaiiMi ei 
such iniscondact can be recalled. 

On the trial of one of the anti-rent cases in Columbia Cc 
N. T., before Judge Edmonds, John Van Buren, then Attomt-r- 
Oeneral, and Ambrose L. Jordan, were opposed. Mr. Jordan wm 
distinguished for hiR ability, but also for a quick temper, mm! 
was often very exasperating in hie manner. Mr. Van Buren 
was addressing the Court, and, smarting under what he cot 
fddered a gross insult-, fttnick Mr. Jordan in the face. It 
been suggested that the blow was inadvertent, and gi\'en hi 
sweeping gestieulation. The blow was returned by Mr. J* 
and the Court instantly ordered that both counsel be impruooed 
for twenty-four hours, and adjourned the trial nntil the ae 
day. The act indicated great decision and independence 
Judge Edmondj:, who lind long been the dose friend of 
Attorney-General and of his father. 

In a case tried before Judge Hnlbert, in the Cify of Ne 
Yoric, Joseph L. Wliite and Mr. Bowman were opposing eoi 
In speaking to the jury, Mr. White referred to a colored wit 
as a relative of hia opponent Bowman said he was a Uar, and 
White throw an ink-stand at him. The Judge fined 
them a hundred dollars. There la no doubt that the 
relation of the colored witness, though foolish, was exas] 
and that the sudden tumult conld not have been foreseen 
Court It only remained for the Judge to prorent the 
of such words and acts, and that he did in ;> • manner. 

llr. John G. Stower was for several y< law.partn^ 

of Philo T. Oridley, who, as Circnit Judge, eaeoccded Jndi 



niSORDEB ZN COURT-ROOMH. 



419 



Uridley was qnick and petulant, ovt^ on thu bench^ uid 
been Dotetl for thosti quaUtiea when in practice. Mr. Slower 
Id. me that the first timo ho ever saw Mr. Gndley he was in the 
pt «f tlirowinp a volamo of the Revised Statnt^iS at the head of 
le uuumM.'l wh<i wa^ opposed tu him iu tlio trial of a cause be- 
fore ihr Court and jurj-. 

Oa the other haud, the action of the judge in the following 
cfcie, related in Colton's " Life aud Times of Hpory Clay," wa« 
w«ak and undignified. That author sa^-s : '* The next case in 
the history of Mr. Clay's defense of criminals is that of one 
WiUis, of Fayette County, who was aeouecd of murder, of 
pecnliAT atrocity. Mx. Clay Bnocced(.*d in dividing the jury so 
tbot they oould not agree. A motion for a new trial at tiie next 
MMSion of the irotirt was heard and granted. Mr. Clay did not 
object to this course, but at the second trial he startled the Court., 
in his address to the jury, with the annoancement of the prinoiple 
that no mau could be twice put in jeopardy of hi» life for the 
■uno offense. The Court interfered, and forbade the use of that 
ar^^ument, whereupon Mr. Clay, in a dignified but respectful 
manner, decliu'cd he v<t\)lA not proceed unless hu were jiennitted 
to takv that course, took up his bag and books, and retired. 
This defasive step threw all the responsibility ou the Court, who, 
apparently in doubt, or uverawed by the character of Mr. Clay, 
Bent a messenger after him, inviting his return and informing him 
that he should be allowed to manage the defense in Iiis own way. 
Be accordingly weut back, pressed the point on whicli be had been 
stopped, and on that ground, without any regard to the evidence, 
obtained from the jury a verdict of acquittal for the prisoner." 

The Court ahould have assigned otber counsel to continne 
the cai^e, or, as the li^stimony was all in, gi%'eu the jury the 
propt-r instructions, withdrawing tbeir attention from the point 
of Liw wbieh had been suggested, aud directing them to consider 
the teHtimony. and, from it, determine the question as to the 
jjit ttf \\\v prisoner. 

Counsel has the right to retire from a case even when it ia 

trial ; but he t^hoold not do so simply because he has been 
(«rrw.'t«l or overruled by the Court, or because he can thus 
embarrass or influence a weak judge. In this instance, Mr. 
Clay'fl ticmdnct was imiimpt-r, and created disorder. 

The judge would seem to have been timid and ignorant ; but 
the exercise of a Httlt) common-wuBe would have saved him from 
Vnl, (TXXXV.— NO. 312. 30 



420 



TBE NOHTH AUSRICA2! REVIEW 



disgraoe. His daty wo.^ plain and tninplt?. A« no prucher vould 
ebazige tho tone and rhai-ac^tur of \Xw cliureli B<?rvi<% b«caufieaiime 
distinguished personage was present, bo no Judge wortiiy ol niqKcl 
wotild change or modify his course in the t«mp1piif justieeboeuiK 
oonnsel of nnusual distinction liappcnud to be before bim. 

In this relation, a single fxample of thestxiugth and fimuiBB 
of a judgo in niaintainiug order in conrt may \u' worthy of bihi- 
tion. When the House of Commons cited Sir John Holt toappiv 
at its bar to auswer for a judioial act, lie n^fuswl to attend. "WW 
the Speaker of tlie House and stune highly privilegwi mcmbrrs 
camo and, with great ceremony, renewed that call, the judge «ud: 
" Oo back to yoar chair, Mr. B]>eaker, within theev Ovh minntts. 
or, yon may depend upon it, T will lay yon by the ht-eU in X«»- 
gate. You speai of your authority, but 1 tell yon that 1 nit ha* 
as an interpreter of tbij lawB and a distributor of jostire, Hn' 
if the whole House of Commons were in your belly. I woold ttX 
stir a foot.'* He waa left undisturbed ; the intermption of lioii- 
nesa waa temporary. 

As a general rule, a judge should not interrupt couniiel wbu 
is speaking to a case according to his ooncoption of it^ thuof^ 
Lyndhm-st used to say that one of the chief duties of a jodjE* 
was to make it disagreeable to counsel to talk nonsense. On tJk 
trial of the ForreBt divorce case before Chief Justice Oaklrt- ^- 
Van B\iren, of counsel for Forrest, in his remarka to tht 
deplored the faot that he was to be followed by able tu9s*^ 
Charles O'Conor, and " by the Court, j>erba]tfi, l>y lui nnfritwdlr 
one." He was allowed to proceed, but, later, the Chief JostJo* 
called attention to those words, and Mr. Van Bnr«-Qf who had 
uttered thoui inadvertently, made an apology. No one *«? 
believed that he had iutoudod to question the integrity of Utsi 
eminent jurist. 

Nor should judges who have quick perceptions fail to ctdtivrnti' 
s spirit of patience and of self-restraint Mr, Walworth, our l«t 
Chuncellor, fortunate in almugt everything, was unfortunate in 
this respect. An argiunent before him was gen<?nkUr a ^'^ 
dialogue. He was cnntinually anticipating the - wluch 

he assumed counsel wished to present, and was i >: :alcn. 

I remember more than one occasion when the happy eonwtioci 
and retort of connsol disturbed the quiet of the wmrl. 

Nor shuiUd a judge who hopes to preserve gmitl ondrr gvt isU 
a wrangle with counsel or seek to be witty at liis uxpflaw. The 



msORDBR m 



COURT-ROOMS. 



421 



W 

^^i|)ectators will be apt to syinpfttliize with ihu advocAtc, and^ if he 
'^W at all clever, eommrind his aadocit}*. The conflict betwrao the 
bifih judge and Ciirrau ii^ to the purpose. After the judge had 
intimated that Ourran's coUectiou of books was smallf and been 
ttild that it was better to read a few good books than to write 
bad ones, — a hit whicli the judge felt so acuU'ly that he ei- 
claimedt " Sir, if yuu »uy another word PU commit you,^ uid 
Curran had replied, '*If you do, my lord, both you and 1 shall 
have the pleasure of refleeting that I am not the worst tiling 
your lonbihip has cununitted," — wc need not be told where the 
laugh rame in. 

The excessive or misdirected zeal of oonnael may sometimee 
pvt> t)ie court trouble. In his valuable introduction to a volume 
of Daniel Webster'a speeches, Mr. E. P. Whipple says : "An 
eminent Judge of the Supremo Court of MasaachtisettSf in 
cvmmeuding Uie general dignity and courtesy which vliaracter- 
ized Mr. Webster's condtiet of a ea^e in a court of law, noted one 
exceptinn. 'When,' he said, 'the opposing counsel had got him 
into a comer, the way he "tramped onfwaa gomethiufr frightful, 
to behold. The eo\irt itaelf could hardly restrain him in his 
gigarjtic efforts to extricate liimself from the oonscquenoos of a 
blonder or an oversight.'" 

But, ajtart from such instances, and from the power to secure 
|p)od order by pimisliing those who rebel against it, other and 
higher inoitemeut.'i remain. In Brooklyn, the city in which I 
write, the people have respect for the law and for those who seek 
to administer it in good faith. The inlluencc of religious, moral, 
and intellectnal training is feit b the court-rooms. The citizen, 
whether he V a suitor, jiu-or, witness, or speotat^ir, conducts him- 
sdf as a gcQtlcmau. Tlio members of the bar treat each other 
with coiulesy, and, intent on the bu&iness they have in hand, 
generally speak to the purpose, and favorably impress, even 
when they may not comiuee, those who hear them. Good order 
in t-ourt-rooras may, therefore, be regarded as the normal con- 
dition ; and it is grateful tci add that, during a period of more 
than twelve years, of which 1 speak, the City Court has not 
bad ooeaaion to pnnish any one for misconduct or contempt 

Joseph Neilson. 



A PROBLEM FOR SOCIOLOGISTS. 



It IB a common idea in the comronmty, eveu among tbtm 
wbo are well educated, that a lanalJo is nBCf-ssanly on« wlin nvn 
and rages, kicks, bites, and strikes at all irho appntach hi:ii ; 
tears his hair and denudes himself of Ms clntbin^; And vha, 
being possessed of an overpowering inipulne t-u da^ih his brains 
out agaangt a wall or a stone pavement, ur to kill hi« kMpcr, 
must bo forcibly re^ti-aiiied by a strait-jackot or sume oUiv 
contrivance for keeping him in subjection. 

It is perhaps an unfortunate thing for somety that thi» idat 
is not correct, and that all the insane aro not the violent iod 
ferocious beings tbcy ore populiirly sopposod to b«. If tkrr 
were, we should know exactly what to do with them., and there 
would bo no doubt in tbe minds uf judges, jarie«, and espt--'"^' 
the newspaper press, in regard to their responsibility befi-: 
law. Moreover, we tihould uot often be called upon lo witoan Uk 
humiliating spectacle of u number of modieal genttemoi, aBUUB* 
ing to he familiar with the snbject of insanity, — maiij of them 
being superint«ndentB of lunatic asylums, — coming into ■ " 
and testifying : one sot, that an alleged murderer is entir 
responsibln for his acts by reason of being insane, and liuu 
therefore he ought to bo acquitted ; and the other, tliat he t> « 
caiminal of as sound a mind as any who ever stood in a dedc, 
and consequently entirely worthy of ending his wrefeehed hXe w 
the gallows. 

Bnt, so far from the majority of tbe insane oorre^wod 
the description I have given, there are very few, oompani 
speakiug, to whom it is applioable. Prom that extniiDL- , 
there are numerous gradations toward the normal rtate, till 
come to a class of persons relative lo whose mental sot 
there is more or Ibbb doubt Clearly insane from one 
vie w, they are as certainly sane from another : evidently i 




A PROBLEM FOR SOCIOtOaiSTS. 



bit! for their octe aocording to on« theory, Bureiy amenable to 
^^tistien aeconliug^ Ui tho other. 

^M Much lit the difference of opinion relative to such indlvidu- 
^■•k arises from the disjnmilarity of the vietes held by jnrisUt and 
^alienists in n;jf*u-d Ui what conetitutfts insanity. At no very 
Temote period there was entire uaiformity in this respect, but 
Boieaoe has advanced more rapidly than law, and many varieties 
of mental alieuatinn are