(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Children's Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "The North Carolina booklet : great events in North Carolina history"

Digitized by tlie Internet Arcliive 

in 2011 witli funding from 

LYRASIS members and Sloan Foundation 



http://www.archive.org/details/northcarolinaboo1903nort 



MAY, 1903 



North Carolina Booklet 




No. 




GREAT EVENTS IN 
NORTH CAROLINA HISTORY 



^^ TRIAL OF JAMES GLASGOW, 
AND THE SUPREME COURT 
OF NORTH CAROLINA, 




$ 1 THE YEAR 



THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET. 



GREAT EVENTS IN NORTH CAROLINA HISTORY. 



VOL. III. 

1. May — The Trial of James Glasgow, and the Supreme Court of North 

Carolina. 

Kemp P. Battle, LL. D. 

2. June — The Cherokee Indians. 

Major W. W. Stringfield. 

3. July — The Volunteer State (Tennessee) as a Seceder. 

Miss Susie Gentry. 

4. August — Historic Hillsboro. 

Mr. Francis Nash. 

5. September — Some Aspects of Social Life in Colonial North Carolina. 

Charles Lee Raper, Ph. D. 

6. October — Was Alamance the First Battle of the Revolution? 

Mrs. L. A. McCorkle. 

7. Novembei* — Historic Homes in North Carolina — Panther Creek, Clay 

Hill-on-the-Neuse, The Fort. 

Mrs. Hayne Davis, Miss Mary Hilliard Hinton, Mrs. R. T. Lenoir. 

8. Decembei' — Governor Charles Eden. 

Mr. Marshall DeLancey Haywood. 

9. January — The Colony of Transylvania. 

Judge Walter Clark. 

10. February — Social Conditions in Colonial North Carolina : An 

Answer to Colonel William Byrd, of Westover, Virginia. 
Alexander Q. Holladay, LL. D. 

11. March — Historic Homes in North Carolina — Quaker Meadows. 

Judge A. C. Avery. 

12. April— The Battle of Moore's Creek. 

Prof. M. C. S. Noble. 



One Booklet a month will be issued by the North Carolina Society 
OF THE Daughters of the Revolution, beginning May, 1903. Price, 
$1 per year. 

Address MISS MARY HILLIARD HINTON, 

"Midway Plantation," 
Raleigh, N. C. 

Arrangements have been made to have this volume of the Booklet 
bound in Library style for 50 cents. Those living at a distance will 
please add stamps to cover cost of mailing. State whether black or 
red leather is preferred. 

EDITORS: 
MISS MARY HILLIARD HINTON. MRS. E. E. MOFFITT. 



VOL. Ill MAY, 1905. No. 1 



THE 



NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET 



"CAROLINA! CAROLINA! HEAVEN'S BLESSINGS ATTEND HER ! 
WHILE WE LIVE WS WILL CHERISH, PROTECT AND DEFEND HER." 



RALEIGH 

E. M. UzzELL & Co., Printers ai:d Binders 

1603 



OFFICERS OF THE NORTH CAROLINA SOCIETY DAUGHTERS 
OF THE REVOLUTION, 1903; 

REGE^'T : 

MRS. THOMAS K. BRUNER. 

VICE-REGENT: 

MRS. WALTER CLARK. 

HONORARY REGENTS: 

MRS. SPIER WHITAKER, 
{Nee Fanny DeBemiere Hooper), 

MRS. D. H. HILL, Sr. 

SECRETARY : 

MRS. E. E. MOFFITT. 

TREASURER : 

MRS. FRANK SHERAYOOD. 

REGISTRAR : 

MRS. ED. CHAMBERS SMITH. 



Founder of the North Carolina Society and Regent 1806-1902; 
MRS. SPIER WHITAKER. 

Regent 1902: 
MRS. D. H. HILL, Sr. 



PREFACE. 



The object of the North Carolina Booklet is to erect 
a suitable memorial to the patriotic womien who composed 
the "Edenton Tea Party." 

These stout-hearted women are every way worthy of admi- 
ration. On October 25, 1774, seven months before the defi- 
ant farmers of Mecklenburg had been aroused to the point of 
signing their Declaration of Independence, nearly twenty 
months before the declaration made by the gentlemen com- 
posing the Vestry of St. Paul's Church, Edenton, nearly 
two years before Jefferson penned the immortal National 
Declaration, these daring women solemnly subscribed to a 
document affirming that they would use no article taxed by 
England. Their example fostered in the whole State a deter- 
mination to die, or to be free. 

In beginning this new series, the Daughters of the Pevo- 
lution desire to express their most cordial thanks to the for- 
mer competent and untiringly faithful Editors, and to ask 
for the new management the hearty support of all who are 
interested in the brave deeds, high thought, and lofty lives 
of the N^orth Carolina of the olden days. 

Mrs. D. H. Hill. 



THE TRIAL OF JAMES GLASGOW, AND THE SUPREME 
COURT OF NORTH CAROLINA. 



By KEMP P. BATTLE, LL.D., 
(Professor of History, University of North Carolina). 



The territory, now occupied by the counties of Lenoir and 
Greene, was cut off from Johnston in 1758 and was called 
after the royal Governor of that day, Dobbs, whose Christian 
name was Arthur. He was a Scotch-Irishman of Castle 
Dobbs in the county of Antrim, a member of the Irish Par- 
liament, High Sheriff of Antrim and Surveyor-General of 
Ireland. He was an author too, but his books were of ephem- 
eral interest. He was industrious and, I believe, honest, 
but was so lacking in tact that he had many quarrels with 
his Assembly. He did not, however, deserve the insult of 
having his name expunged from our map. As early as 
1759 he was enthusiastic in resisting tbe encroachments of 
the French and showed his statesmanship by urging on the 
great English war minister, William Pitt, the importance to 
the American colonies of expelling them entirely from our 
continent. 

Still in 1791 the name of the good old fussy Governor, 
possibly because his nephew, Richard Dobbs Speight, then 
a Federalist, was in bad odor politically, gave place to Lenoir 
and Glasgow, the former in honor of a King's Mountain 
hero, then Speaker of the Senate, the latter after the Sec- 
retary of State. 



This Secretary, James Grlasgow, was one of the most trusted 
men of the Revohition. In conjunction with Alexander Gas- 
ton, the father of Judge William Gaston, and Richard Oogdell, 
grandfather of George E. Badger, he was one of the Com- 
mittee of Safety of the ISTewbern District. He was major of 
the militia regiment of the county of Dobbs. AVhen Xorth 
Carolina, on the 18th December, 1776, adopted its Consti- 
tution and took its place among the free States of the earth, 
Richard Caswell was its first Governor, Memucan Hunt its 
first Treasurer and James Glasgow its first Secretary of 
State. He was one of the venerable men who formed the 
first lodge of the noble order, hoary with age and crowned 
with honor, the Free and Accepted Order of Masons. His 
autograph is side by side with those of William Richardson, 
Samuel Johnston, Richard Caswell, Richard Dobbs Speight, 
John Stokes and others like them. 

Behold the reward of dishonesty and official corruption ! 

The name of the great general, who saved our State from 
subjugation after Gates' tragic defeat at Camden, ]Srathaniel 
Greene, has supplanted that of the obliterated Glasgow, the 
Avorthy William Wliite took his place in the office of Secre- 
tary of State, and on the records of the Masons the dismal 
lines of disgrace are drawn around the signature of the poor 
wretch, who was weighed in the balance and found wanting. 

The same love of lucre, which often in our day drags to 
ruin public officers, entered the breast of Glasgow. It was 
in 1797 discovered with horror that he had been issuing 
fraudulent grants of lands in Tennessee and momitainous 



Xorth Carolina. He had been cheating the State for whose 
liberties he had suffered. He had been cheating the igno- 
rant, who had relied on his integrity. He had disgraced 
a high and honorable office. He had many accomplices, men 
of plnck and daring, who hesitated not to cut through dif- 
ficulties with the knife of the assassin, or to destroy incrimi- 
nating evidence by fire or poison or the rifle ball. 

Eminent public services, high ofiicial position, extensive 
family connections could not among our ancestors screen 
criminals from punishment. Glasgow was indicted for mis- 
demeanor in office. It was more convenient to have the trial 
in Ealeigh, where the public records were kept. A special 
tribunal was constituted by the General Assembly for the 
trial of the accused. The act was drawn by the eminent 
Judge John Haywood, a cousin of the popular State Treas- 
urer of the same name. At least two of the Judges w^ere 
to meet in Raleigh and hold the Court. While so convened 
they were authorized to hear and determine on appeal causes 
which had accmnulated in the District Courts. They were to 
nieet twice a year, and to sit not exceeding ten days at each 
term. Both the Attorney-General, Baker, and Solicitor-Gen- 
eral, Jones, were ordered to prosecute, and a special agent was 
authorized to prepare and arrange the evidence and attend 
the trial. This is the solitary instance in our history of the 
emplojTiient of a public "attorney," charged with the func- 
tions of an English attorney, as distingTiished from the bar- 
rister. The act was to expire in the beginning of 1803. 

The accused sought for one of their counsel the man of 



8 

greatest reputation as a criminal lawyer in the State, Judge 
Haywood, who drew the act constituting the Court. They 
paid him a fee of $1,000, then considered enormous, to 
resign and take their case. The people generally much 
blamed him for what they considered a desertion of his post 
for a pecuniary consideration. His emigration to Tennessee, 
where he was elevated to the Supreme bench, is thought to 
have been caused by the popular disapprobation, which was 
intensified by his attacking the constitutionality of the act, 
which he himself had drawn.* 

Glasgow and his accomplices were not content to trust to 
the eloquence and skill of Haywood. Certain documents in 
the Comptroller's ofiice were evidence necessary to conviction. 
It was determined to abstract them and to burn the Capitol, 
in which they were deposited. The plot was laid in Ten- 
nessee in a room in the inn adjoining that in which lodged 
Judges McKairy and Tatom. They overheard the plans of 
the conspirators, and, after consulting with the District At- 
torney, afterwards President Jackson, determined to prevent 
them. 

Samuel Ashe, of an eminent family, ancestor of one of our 
ablest Supreme Court Judges, Thomas Samuel Ashe, was 
Governor of the State, after long and able service as Judge. 
A messenger was despatched in hot haste to warn him of his 
danger. The task was diificult and perilous. The roads 
over the mountains were little better than Indian trails. 



* While non-professional men may have been of opinion that Judge Haywood violated 
propriety, I think that lawyers do not consider him blameable. K. P. B. 



Over precipitous cliffs, in the sharp winds and snows of win- 
ter, through swollen torrents, through the dense primeval 
forests he sped his way. He carried in his bosom the letter 
which would save our archives and ensure that there should 
he no miscarriage of justice. If his object had been known 
his murdered corpse would have fed the hungry wolves of 
the Alleghanies. Governor Ashe was prudent, and to this 
day the students of history know not whom to thank for sav- 
ing our early records. A trusty watch was set, and soon a 
slave of one of the accused, Phil Terrell by name, was caught 
in the act of breaking into the Comptroller's office. The 
prosecutions were successful, the accused were convicted and 
punished, while the poor negro died a felon's death on the 
gallows-tree. 

THE SUPKEME COUKT. 

But what has the crime of Glasgow to do with the creation 
of the Supreme Court? Our legislative history shows that 
this great tribunal was indirectly caused by his fall. 

By the 1Y77 Judiciary Act of the State of E'orth Carolina, 
following that of the Province, in 1767, the State was divided 
into six Judicial Districts, of from four to eight counties 
each, the courts being held in the borough towns of Edenton, 
ISTewbern, Wilmington, Halifax, Hillsborough and Salisbury. 
In 1782 the District of Morgan (now called Morganton) was 
added; in 1787 that of Fayetteville. There were three 
Judges only. The courts corresponding to our Superior 
Courts were held in the towns named. Any two of the 



10 



Judges could hear appeals. In 1790 the eight districts were 
divided into the Eastern and Western "Riding's," and a 
fourth Judge added. Two of them in rotation were required 
to hold the courts in each Riding. While the new arrange- 
ment was more convenient to the Judges, their appellate 
functions were less satisfactory to litigants than under the 
old. Harassing delays and diverse decisions of the same 
questions of law were not only possible but frequent. And 
the tired Judges, worn out by tedious travel over almost 
impassable roads, were unable to give to the subjects thor- 
ough and satisfactory attention. All lawyers and their cli- 
ents were keenly desirous of obtaining a more uniform appel- 
late tribunal. ' 

The Glasgow Oourt was in the right direction. Pressure 
was brought on the General Assembly to continue longer the 
parts of the act providing that there should be a meeting of 
the Judges to hear appeals. That body, economical to stingi- 
ness, at a time when land was taxed by the acre and the State 
revenue was less than $100,000 a year, doled out another 
three years' existence, but with the childish provision that no 
attorney should speak or be admitted as counsel in the Court. 
In 1804- it was made a Court of Record, and the opinions 
ordered to be reduced to writing. In the following year the 
name was changed from the Court of C<3nference to the Su- 
preme Court, and the limit to its duration removed. In 
1806 our present system of having Superior Courts in every 
county was adopted, and two more Judges added. In 1810 
those who held the Supreme Court were required to write 



11 



out their opinions at length, for which tliey were allowed extra 
$100 each. They were also required to elect a Chief Justice, 
the choice falling on John Louis Taylor. 

Although the meeting of the Judges at Raleigh to hear 
appeals was a great improvement on the preceding plan, in 
1818 the General Assembly was induced to give us the price- 
less institution of a Supreme appellate tribunal, composed 
of learned Judges whose sole business was to decide questions 
of law on appeal. They were fortunate in securing men of 
highest character and recognized ability. Chief Justice Tay- 
lor and Judges Hall and Henderson. The Court has had a 
most useful and honorable career, and is firmly fixed in the 
confidence of the people of our people. 

I have shown how a great and valuable institution grew 
out of a notorious malfeasance in office in the Executive 
Department of our State, even as Samson's honey flowed out 
of a lion's carcass, dried by the desert wind. While we 
should not hesitate to chronicle our short-comings, we should 
felicitate ourselves on the fact that such acts of misconduct 
by our public officers have been exceedingly rare, and that 
those appointed directly by our people, or by their legislative 
agents in the General Assembly, have as a rule been very fair 
rej^resentatives of the intelligence, the honesty and incorrupti- 
bility of the State. 



THE LORDS PROPRIETORS OF THE PROVINCE OF CAROLINA, 1663: 

EDWARD, EARL OF CLARENDON, 
GEORGE, DUKE OF ALBEMARLE, 
' WILLIAM, EARL OF CRAVEN, 
JOHN, LORD BERKELY, 
ANTHONY, LORD ASHLEY, 
SIR GEORGE CARTERET, 
SIR JOHN COLLETON, 
SIR WILLIAM BERKELEY. 






iT 



VOL. 



JUNE, 1903 



No. 2 



THE 



North Carolina Booklet 



i t 




GREAT EVENTS IN 
NORTH CAROLINA HISTORY 



NORTH CAROLINA CHEROKEE 
INDIANS. 

BY 

WILLIAM W. STRINGFIELD, 
Lieutenant-Colonel 69th N. C. T. 




PRICE, 10 CENTS 



$ 1 THE YEAR 



THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET 



GREAT EVENTS IN NORTH CAROLINA HISTORY. 



VOL. III. 

The Trial of James Glasgow, and the Supreme Court of North Carolina. 

Kemp P. Battle, LL. D. 
The Cherokee Indians. 

Major W. W. Stringfield. 
The Volunteer State (Tennessee) as a Seceder. 

Miss Susie Gentry. 
Historic Hillsboro. 

Mr. Francis Nash. ' 

Some Aspects of Social Life in Colonial North Carolina. 

Charles Lee Raper, Ph. D. 
Was Alamance the First Battle of the Revolution? 

Mrs. L. A, McCorkle. 
Historic Homes in North Carolina — Panther Creek, Clay Hill-on-the 
Neuse, The' Fort. 

Mrs. Hayne Davis, Miss Mary Hilliard Hinton, Mrs. R. T. Lenoir. 
Governor Charles Eden. 

Mr. Marshall DeLancey Haywood. 
The Colony of Transylvania. 

Judge Walter Clark. 
Social Conditions in Colonial North Carolina: An Answer to Colonel 
William Byrd, of Westover, Virginia. 

Alexander Q. Holladay, LL. D. 
Historic Homes in North Carolina — Quaker Meadows. 

Judge A. C. Avery. 
The Battle of Moore's Creek. 

Prof. M. C. S. Noble. 



One Booklet a month Avill be issued by the North Carolij^a Society 
OF THE Daughters of the Revolution, beginning May, 1903. Price, 
$1 per year. 

Address MISS MARY HILLIARD HINTON, 

"Midway Plantation," 

Raleigh, N. C. 

Arrangements have been made to have this volume of the Booklet 
bound in Library style for 50 cents. Those living at a distance will 
please add stamps to cover cost of mailing. State whether black or 
red leatlier is preferred. 

EDITORS: 
MISS MARY HILLIARD HINTON. MRS. E. E. MOFFITT. 



VOL 111 JUNE, 1905. No. 2 



THE 



NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET 



"CAROLINAI CAROLINA! HEAVEN'S BLESSINGS ATTEND HER ! 
WHILE WE LIVE WE WILL CHERISH, PROTECT AND DEFEND HER." 



RALEIGH 

E. M. UzzELL & Co., Printers and Binders 

1903 



OFFICERS OF THE NORTH CAROLINA SOCIETY DAUGHTERS 
OF THE REVOLUTION, 1903: 

REGENT : 

MRS. THOMAS K. BRUNER. 

VICE-REGENT : 

MRS. WALTER CLARK. 

HONORARY REGENTS: 

MRS. SPIER WHITAKER, 
{Nee Fanny DeBerniere Hooper), 

MRS. D. H. HILL, Sr. 

SECRETARY : 

MRS. E. E. MOFFITT. 

TREASURER : 

MRS.: FRANK SHERWOOD. 

REGISTRAR : 

MRS. ED. CHAMBERS SMITH. 



Founder of the North Carolina Society and Regent 1896-1902: 
MRS. SPIER WHITAKER. 

Regent 1902: 
MRS. D. H. HILL, Sr. 



PREFACE. 



The object of the Nokth Carolina Booklet is to erect 
a suitable memorial to the patriotic wom.en who composed 
the "Edenton Tea Party." 

These stout-hearted women are every way worthy of admi- 
ration. On October 25, 1774, seven months before the defi- 
ant farmers of Mecklenburg had been aroused to the point of 
signing their Declaration of Independence, nearly twenty 
months before the declaration made by the gentlemen com- 
posing the Vestry of St. Paul's Church, Edenton, nearly 
two years before Jefferson penned the immortal l*[ational 
Declaration, these daring women solemnly subscribed to a 
document affirming that they would use no article taxed by 
England. Their example fostered in the whole State a deter- 
mination to die, or to be free. 

In beginning this new series, the Daughters of the Revo- 
lution desire to express their most cordial thanks to the for- 
mer competent and untiringly faithful Editors, and to ask 
for the new management the hearty support of all who are 
interested in the brave deeds, high thought, and lofty lives 
of the North Carolina of the olden days. 

Mrs. D. H. Hill. 



NORTH CAROLINA CHEROKEE INDIANS. 



By WILLIAM W. STRINGFIELD, 
(Lieutenant-Colonel 69th N. C. T.). 



INTRODUCTION. 



It was my intention, in the beginning, to record only my personal 
recollections of those Indians left in North Carolina after the Removal — 
known as the "Eastern Band of Cherokees." While I have not confined 
myself strictly to their story, such was my original intention, and 
for this reason, I have made no mention of many prominent members 
of the tribe Avho were identified with the "Nation" rather than the 
"Eastern Band," notably John Ross, Elias Boudinot, and the "Cadmus 
of his race," George Gist (Sequoya), inventor of the Cherokee alphabet. 

It would take an article such as I have written to adequately de- 
scribe their present condition and surroundings. However, as we 
are told "It is a foolish thing to make a long prologue and to be 
short in the story itself," I submit this sketch without further expla- 
nation or apology. 



It is not of the mythical or traditional, but of the real 
Cherokee that I write — and not so much of the ancient as the 
modem. 

Mrs. Helen Hunt Jackson, in her "Century of Dishonor," 
says the Indians are peculiarly the wards of the nation. 
While claiming to be as good a friend of "the poor Indian" as 
Mrs. Jackson, I cannot altogether agree with her in some of 
her statements and conclusions. As I mention later, I had 
several hundred of the Eastern Band of Cherokees in my 



6 

command during the Civil War, and since that time I have 
lived near them. I can, therefore, speak from a personal 
knowledge of their racial peculiarities and characteristics, 
such knowledge being as necessary when writing of the Indian 
as when writing of our other race problem, the more vexed 
one of our "brother in black." 

A great deal has been written about the "mountaineers" 
of Western North Carolina, but very little about the native 
mountaineers — these lords of the forest, who roved from one 
"happy hunting ground" to another in this beautiful "Land 
of the Sky" for centuries before the white man came to dis- 
turb their Arcadia, and, eventually, take their lands. 

The name ' "Cherokee" is a corruption of "Tsalgi," and 
has no meaning in their own language. We find it first in 
the Portugese recital of De Soto's expedition, published in 
1657 as "Chalaque." In a French document it appears as 
"Cheraque," the English form "Cherokee" appearing as early 
as 1708. 

Linguistically the Cherokees are related to the Iroquoian 
stock, their marked differences being due to their long sepa- 
ration. 

The Cherokee language had many dialects, as is the case 
with tribes scattered over a large territory. We find these dia- 
lects divided into three principal ones — the Eastern, Middle 
and Western. The Eastern, also called the Lower Cherokee, 
was spoken by the tribes in South Carolina and Georgia. 
The Middle dialect was originally spoken in the towns along 
the Tuckasegee, and is the dialect used by most of the Indians 



now residing in the Qiialla Eeservation, Tlie Western dia- 
lect was spoken bj the tribes of Tennessee and by some in 
upper Georgia and ISTorth Carolina. It is the "literaiy dia- 
lect," and is spoken by those who reside in the West. 

It will be seen, therefore, that Adair's classification of 
"Ottari" (among the hills) and "Erati" (lowland) will have 
to be rejected as insufficient. Also the derivation of the 
word Cherokee from "Cheera," meaning fire. This element 
was held in great respect by them, the "sacred fire" being 
kept constantly burning in their "town house." They be- 
lieved if this house was destroyed by their enemies the sacred 
fire would sink into the ground, where it would continue to 
burn, though unseen by them. The older Cherokees believe 
this fire still bums within the mounds at Franklin and Bryson 
City. Some of their men, who were in the Confederate ser- 
vice and stationed near there, claimed to have seen smoke aris- 
ing froiu them. 

We are told that the Cherokees were the most intelligent 
of the tribes, and that it was due to their military prowess 
that they were able to hold the most beautiful, picturesque 
and secure homes of all the American tribes. Their love for 
their mountain home was, and is, intense, many of them dying 
of broken hearts when forced by the Federal Government to 
remove to the West. Of this blot on the escutcheon of our 
country, I shall speak later. 

They possess a keen and delicate appreciation of the beau- 
tiful in nature, and their language is soft and melodious — 
when spoken by them. Their most beautiful names lose 



8 

tlieir soft resonance of sound when spoken by English lips. 
Tlage-si Se-le-tah, my Indian name, I like still to hear 
from the lips of my old comrades in arms. A pity it is that 
the euphonions names given our mountains and rivers by 
them, such as "Tocheeostee," "Zillicoah," "Wayeh," etc., 
should have been replaced by such prosaic ones as at present 
designate them. 

The Cherokees, like their kindred, are very credulous and 
superstitious. They people the dark solitudes of the moun- 
tains with spirits, evil and good. The "Devil's Court-house," 
"Devil's Looking-glass," and other places believed to be the 
abode of His Satanic Majesty, were carefully avoided. 
Bravery atoned for a multitude of sins, and it was always 
the most courageous in arms who were most esteemed. 

Many beautiful legends of the Balsams, whose majestic 
peaks, gloomy forests and sparkling cascades appealed 
strongly to their imaginations, are handed do'SAm to us. The 
following one is taken from Zeigler's "The Heart of the Alle- 
ghanies," and is as descriptive of the scenery now as in for- 
mer days : 

"The Indians believed they were originally mortal in 
spirit as well as body, but above the blue vault of heaven there 
was, inhabited by a celestial race, a forest into which the 
highest mountains lifted their dark simimits. It is a fact 
worth noticing that while the priests of the Orient described 
heaven as a great city with streets of gold and gates of pearl 
and fine gems, tlie tribes of the Western Continent aspired to 
nothing beyond the perpetual enjoyment of wild nature. 



9 

"The mediator, by whom eternal life was secured for the 
Indian, was a maiden of their own tribe. Allured by the 
haunting sound and diamond sparkle of a mountain stream, 
she wandered far up into a solitary glen, where the azalia, 
kalmia and the rhododendron brilliantly embellished the deep, 
shaded slopes, and filled the air with tlieir delicate perfume. 
The crystal stream wound its crooked way between moss-cov- 
ered rocks, over which tall ferns bowed their graceful stems. 
Enchanted by the scene, she seated herself upon the soft moss 
and, overcome by fatigue, was soon asleep. The dream-pic- 
ture of a fairyland was presently broken by the soft touch 
of '- a strange hand. The spirit of her dreajn occupied a 
place at her side, and wooing, won her for his bride. 

"Her supposed abduction caused great excitement among 
her people, who made diligent search for her recovery in their 
own villages. Being misuccessful, they made war upon the 
neighboring tribes in the hope of finding the place of her 
concealment. Grieved because of so much bloodshed and 
sorrow, she besought the Great Chief of the Eternal Hunting 
Grounds to make retribution. She was accordingly appointed 
to call a council of her people at the forks of the Wayeh 
(Pigeon) river. She appeared unto the chiefs in a dream, 
and charged them to meet the spirits of the hunting ground 
with fear and reverence. 

"At the hour appointed the head men of the Cherokees 
assembled. The high Balsam peaks were shaken by thun- 
der and aglow with lightning. A cloud as black as midnight 
settled over the valley, then lifted, leaving upon a large rock 



10 



a cluster of strange men, amied and painted as for war. 
An enraged brother of the abducted maiden swung his toma- 
hawk and raised the war-whoop, but a swift thunderbolt dis- 
patched him before the echo had died in the hills. The 
chiefs, terror-stricken, fled to their towns. 

"The bride, grieved by the death of her brother, and the 
failure of the council, prepared to abandon her new home and 
return to her kindred in the valleys. To reconcile her, the 
promise was granted that all brave warriors and their faith- 
ful women should have an eternal home in the happy hunt- 
ing ground above after death. The Great Chief of the forest 
beyond the clouds became the guai'dian spirit of the Chero- 
kees." 

The Oherokees dwelt in villages, usually near some stream 
where fish and game were plentiful. In Echota, their "city 
of refuge" and their capital, their councils were held, and 
there lived the Archi-magus, Oconostata, and the prophetess, 
the famous ISTancy Ward, their "Beloved Woman," who though 
not as well known to the general reader as Matoaka, deseiwes 
as high a place in our regard as the Virginia maiden. This 
city of refuge was like the sanctuary of ancient times. Here 
an enemy, or even a criminal, could abide in safety. 

The first account we have of the Oherokees dates back to 
1540, when De Soto, the great Spanish explorer, traversed 
the southern and middle part of their domain, searching for 
gold. This march was one of destruction and devastation, 
equalled only in later times by Sherman's "March to the 
Sea." 



11 



In the century following De Soto's mardi there were 
numerous hostile incursions by the Spanish and their Indian 
allies, in which they carried off many Cherokees as prisoners 
and sold them into slavery in the West Indies. Being 
stalwart fellows, they were more valued as slaves than the 
less hardy negro. These incursions were usually from the 
south, as any one familiar with the topography of the coun- 
try will see how their interior position kept them long from 
any intercourse with the settlers on the co^ast. 

Cornelius Doherty is the first w^hite man of whom we 
have any knowledge as living among them. In 1690 he 
settled among them as a trader, and I am sorry to chronicle 
that his influence, like that of many of his compatriots, was 
rather more degrading than elevating. Under his tutelage 
they soon became expert horse thieves, and the whites in 
retaliation would incite hostile tribes to make war upon them. 
So many braves were captured and sold into slavery by the 
colonists, that at last, in desperation, they appealed for aid to 
the Governor, who interfered and stopped the nefarious trade, 
securing thus, with but few lapses, the future loyalty of the 
tribe. 

The French made and accepted similar overtures along the 
northern borders, but their persuasive powers were of no avail 
among the Cherokees, who remained friendly to the English. 

It would be impossible to definitely locate the original 
boundaries occupied by the Cherokees, but they covered an 
area of at least 40,000 square miles, extending from near 
Pittsburg, Pa., on the north, to the Santee in middle South 



12 

Carolina, covering, as will be seen, the Appalacliian, Blue 
Ridge and Cumberland regions. 

The Cherokees are not without the trait possessed by all 
other Indians — thej are good haters as well as fighters. 
Adair, who lived among them for forty years, has this to say 
of their thirst for revenge : 

"I have known them to go a thousand miles in pathless 
woods, over hills and mountains, through large cane-swamps 
full of grape-vines and briars, over broad lakes, rapid rivers, 
and deep creeks, exposed to the extremities of heat and cold, 
the vicissitudes of the seasons, to hunger and thirst, to fatigue 
and other difficulties. Such is their over-boiling, revengeful 
temper, that they utterly disregard all these things as imagi- 
nary trifles, if they are so happy as to get the scalp of the mur- 
derer or enemy, to satisfy the supposed craving ghosts of their 
deceased relatives." 

While contact with civilization has subdued the wild nature 
of the red man somewhat, much of his spirit still remains. 

ISTot long since, at a game of La Crosse on their "reser- 
vation," between the clans, so great was their excitement over 
the game, that the squaws, when everything else had been 
"put up," cut off their "raven tresses" and cast them into 
the pile, which, as is their custom, was set on fire at the 
close of the game — all joining hands and dancing wildly 
ai-ound the bonfire, while they made the welkin ring with 
their uncanny war-whoop and imeai'thly screams. 

The Cherokees had and have many redeeming traits of char- 
acter. They did not alwaj^s put their prisoners to death, 



13 



but adopted some whites into the tribe, turned others loose 
and allowed many to "run the gauntlet" to freedom. Their 
houses of refuge I have already mentioned. 

As we look backward, shame to us ! the atrocities com- 
mitted were not all on the side of the savage. It seems in- 
credible, yet history teaches us (white man's history too) 
that the Plymouth Eock settlers and their descendants not 
only scalped, but beheaded their prisoners. However, as they 
hanged and burnt witches of their own flesh and blood, they 
were no respecters of persons. The Cherokees being further 
west and south, knew little and suft'ered less from King Phil- 
ip's War, but they heard much about these "northern bar- 
barities." 

It is only too true that the early settlers, as a rule, utterly 
disregarded eveiy personal, private right an Indian was ever 
supposed to have. Treaty after treaty was made, only to be 
broken before the change of the moon. After treating or 
ceding away all of Kentucky — that "dark and bloody ground" 
— ^with parts of Tennessee, Georgia and Alabama, still the 
white man reached out for more, and took it, until finally 
little more than the backbone of the rugged mountains was 
left, and, as will be seen later, much of that was taken ! 

At the close of the Revolutionary War the Cherokees, bro- 
ken in spirit and shattered in fortune, made a final peace with 
the whites. They were at war with the Creeks and other 
Indian tribes constantly — ^retiring to the mountain fastnesses 
of Western IS^orth Carolina and l^orth Georgia, 

In the Creek War they were appealed to by the great war- 



14 



rior Tecumseh to join him in a general uprising. This chief- 
tain had been made a general by the British, and he made 
a personal visit to the Cherokee chief, Jnnakiska, at his home, 
and at the town house on Soco creek, in Swain county, which 
was near the home of the late "Black Fox," an old Method- 
ist minister. 

Tecumseh is said to have used his most persuasive arts 
and flattering promises upon the sturdy old warrior, but he 
remained true to his friends then and ever after. 

It is a peculiar and, to the writer, a pleasing coincidence, 
that the vital conference was held here, where, on February 
6, 1864 (improperly stated March 6th in "ISTorth Carolina 
Regimental History," Sixty-ninth Regiment), the writer, in 
command of two hundred whites and one hundred and fifty 
Indians, fought back, and but for lack of ammunition would 
have captured the notorious Kirk with his five or six him^dred 
followers. 

The Indians were led by a grandson of Junaluska, and both 
whites and Indians were descendants of the soldiers of 
1812-'14. This was the only time during the Civil War that 
armed Federals were in their midst. The Indians remained 
loyal, but were greatly excited. It was impossible to keep 
them quiet. The war-whoop and crack of the rifle resounded 
everywhere. They followed close upon the heels of Kirk, 
even across the Smoky Mountains. However, this is antici- 
pating somewhat. 

When the War of 1812 was declared, Junaluska, at the 
head of eight hundred Cherokee warriors, did valiant ser- 



15 

vice for the United States, and, at the battles of Emukfaw 
Oreek and Horse-shoe Bend, their services were indispensable. 

In the former the father of the writer, a pioneer Methodist 
minister, then but a lad, was shot down in the immediate 
presence of General Jackson, and would have been killed 
and scalped but for the timely succor of the General, who 
personally aided in carrying him to the rear. He bore, 
hence, on his forehead, an honorable scar to his grave. 

ISTorth Carolina remembered Jimaluska, and as a slight 
reward he was given a farm in what is now Graham county, 
where he afterwards lived, died and lies buried. His grave 
may still be seen on the outskirts of Robbinsville. 

Another great chief, by many considered the greatest, was 
Yonaguska (Dro'wning Bear), Tall of stature and of com- 
manding presence, standing six feet five inches, and of strik- 
ingly handsome presence, he possessed qualities which made 
him both loved and feared by his people. He was consid- 
ered by Colonel Thomas to be as great a man as John C. Cal- 
houn. Certainly a man who melded as great an influence 
for good over rude warriors as he deserves a place in his- 
tory. He knew how to appeal to their superstitions as well 
as guard their weaknesses, as the following facts will show: 
Having been addicted to the use of whiskey himself, he 
realized its demoralizing influence, and determined upon the 
reformation of the tribe. And now he proved himself to be 
a master! With the cunning of the Indian and wisdom of 
a statesman, he appealed to their superstition. He fell into 
a trance, which lasted for fifteen days. During that time 



16 

the warriors, twelve hundred of them, marched and counter- 
marched around his supposedly dead body. At last came the 
time for burial, but just as they were ready to perform the 
last rites — according to their custom — the dead chief was seen 
to move, and the well-known voice was heard again. 

In an awe-stricken silence they listened to the voice of 
their new prophet. He told them of his long service. How 
he had always tried to serve their interests, and how the 
"Great Spirit," in His great love and pity for them, and grief 
over their excesses, had called him to the '^'happy hunting 
ground" that he might return and warn them. Tears 
streamed down the faces of all who listened, and they were 
eager to do the will of their prophet. Colonel Thomas was 
asked to write a pledge, which the old chief signed, then his 
followers: From that time the use of spirituous liquors was 
abandoned, any violation of their pledge being punished at 
the whipping-post. A good remedy at the present time ! 

A lack of humor is characteristic of the Indian — but Tona- 
guska was not wanting in this trait. Some one having brought 
a Cherokee translation of Matthew from New Echota, he 
would not allow it to be read until he had passed judgment 
upon it. He always held to his Indian faith, and was very 
suspicious of missionaries. However, after hearing several 
chapters read, %vith a ginint of satisfaction he dryly remarked : 
"It seems to be a very good book. Strange the white people 
are not better, after having had it so long." 

During the life of Yonaguska pressure was frequently 
brought to bear upon him to induce him to move west with 



17 

his people. Tliis lie always indignantly refused to do, and 
he counseled them to the last to remain in their old homes, 
as tliey might go to a State where their liberties would be 
more curtailed than in ISTorth Carolina. He died at a very 
old age, a year after the Removal. 

Of this removal, a Georgia soldier then, afterwards a colonel 
in the Confederate service, had this to say : "I fought through 
the Civil War, and have seen thousands of men shot to pieces, 
but that Cherokee Removal was the most cruel work I ever 
knew." The manner of removal is indeed a stain upon our 
flag! 

This treaty (1835), it seems, was demanded by the people 
of Georgia, and enforced against the wish of the Cherokees, 
almost to a mau. The Federal authorities (Jackson was 
President) hesitated and delayed in the matter, Jackson, no 
doubt, remembering the valiant service of these same Cbero- 
kees at the "Horse-shoe." His conscience pricked him sorely. 
A burning, stinging, acrimonious debate rang through both 
halls of Congress. Democrats for the bogus treaty, Whigs 
against it — the latter led by Clay, Webster, Everett, Wise 
and Davy Crockett. ' President Van Buren coming in, was 
disposed to give more time, but Governor Gilmer of Georgia 
was relentless. The Cherokees must go ; and the majority did 
go. But how ? Seventeen thousand were forced to move, 
two thousand left voluntarily. 

State and Federal troops made the move. The Indians 
were hunted down like wild beasts. Many of the ofl&cers and 
soldiers protested against such Cruelties; but the Cherokees 



18 

had to go. Soldiers guarded every one everywhere. One 
old man, when thus surrounded, calmly gathered his children 
around him, and all, in their own language, commended them- 
selves to God ; after which he said to the astonished soldiers : 
"Take us where you will, our God is with us." 

Another brave ran off to the mountains, was followed for 
M^eeks; finally he came home and was found at sunrise half 
starved, prone upon the ground between the graves of his 
father and mother. Another notably cruel case was that of 
"Old man Oharley." In his party were his wife, his three 
sons and their families. They were ordered in a rough man- 
ner to "move up" ; a soldier at the same time prodded the old 
squaw, who was foot-sore and weary, in the side with his 
bayonet. Exasperated beyond endurance, Charley and his 
sons sprang upon the soldiers, and in the confusion which 
followed one soldier was killed. The Indians made their 
escape, but later, hearing that others would suffer if they 
did not surrender, Old Charley bravely came forth to his 
own death. By order of General Scott he and his two sons 
were shot, their friends being compelled to do the shooting, as 
it was thought this would have a salutary effect on the others. 
And so the work of removal went on ! rlunaluska said of 
General Jackson: "If I had kno'wn he would allow us to be 
treated so, I would have killed him at the Horse-shoe." 

I quote from the ]^ineteenth Annual Report of the Bureau 
of American Ethnology concerning this tragedy in the lives of 
the Cherokees: "The history of this Cherokee removal of 
1838, as gleaned by the author from the lips of the actors in 



19 

the tragedy, may well exceed in weight of grief and pathos 
any other passage in American history. Even the much- 
sung exile of the Acadians falls far behind it in its sum of 
death and misery. Under Scott's orders the troops were dis- 
posed at various points throughout the country, where stock- 
ade forts were erected for gathering in and holding the Indians 
preparatory to removal. From these, squads of troops were 
sent to search out with rifle and bayonet every small cabin 
hidden away in the caves or by the side of mountain streams, 
to seize and bring in as prisoners all the occupants, however, 
or wherever they might be found. Families at dinner were 
startled by the sudden gleam of bayonets in the door-way, 
and rose up, to be driven with blows and oaths along the 
weary miles of trail that led to the stockade. In many cases, 
on turning for one last look as they crossed the ridge, they 
saw their homes in flames, fired by the lawless rabble that 
followed on the heels of the soldiers to loot and pillage. So 
keen were these outlaws on the scent that in some instances 
they were driving off the cattle and other stock before the 
soldiers had fairly started their owners in the other direc- 
tion." Indian graves were robbed of silver medals and other 
valuables placed with the dead. Some future Harriet 
Beecher Stowe may here find the truth to embody in a story 
of the oppressed ! 

The Eastern Band of Cherokees, of whom I am supposed 
to ^vrite, were, originally, the fugitives who refused to go, 
and could not be caught ! 

Colonel William H. Thomas, upon whose shoulders the 



20 



mantle of Yonagnska fell, needs no mention at the hands of 
the writer. As his history is so closely interwoven with that of 
his native State, it has been often written. The Indians lost 
nothing and gained largely under his leadership. Although 
a Democrat and true Southerner, he, at first, refused to take 
the Indians into the war, until forced to do so by public 
opinion, then for local defense. As the emergency of the 
times arose, a company was increased to a battalion, a bat- 
talion to a regiment, the regiment to the "Legion," and 
finally to two regiments, two battalions and a. battery of ar- 
tillery. ISTone of this, however, has place here except the four 
Indian companies. 

In thus going into the Southern army the Indians were 
actuated solely by their respect and veneration for their 
chief. Colonel Thomas. East Tennessee, where most of their 
military duties were performed, was just across the great 
Smokies from their homes. As one of the regimental ofiicers 
of the "Legion," the \^Titer can truthfully declare that in all 
of the conduct of the Indians towards the Federals they were 
always humane and generous, with no excesses beyond those 
of ordinary soldiers. In only one instance did the savage 
come to the surface. At Baptist Gap, in the Cumberland 
mountains, September, 1862, in a fight with the Federals, 
one of our lieutenants — a splendid Indian warrior, and a 
grandson of Junaluska^ — was killed in a gallant charge. His 
followers were so much incensed that they dashed for^vard 
with their war-whoop' and battle-cry, and before tliey could 
be restrained they had scalped several of the wounded enemy. 



21 

This officer, Lieutenant John Astoogastoga, was a handsome, 
manly, Christian fellow, and would have been a man of mark 
in any community. Many of the Indians later on during 
the war had many good opportunities to desert, had they 
wished to do so. I must say that I cannot believe the state- 
ment sometimes made by Federals that the Indians deserted 
whenever they found an opportunity to do so. 

As many intelligent and patriotic whites differed in opin- 
ion about the war, it would not have been so surprising had 
the Indians done so. A few months after the collapse of the 
Confederacy, I had occasion to travel through the Indian set- 
tlement, and I was astonished to> learn how angry they were 
with the whites for surrendering so tamely, as they thought. 
It was more than a year after the close of the war before 
they would permit those who had fought on the Union side 
to return to their homes, and then only at the command of 
Colonel Thomas. 

I wish to say, further, that while there was some confusion 
and drunkenness, their average behavior was better than that 
of the whites. I think it worthy of mention, and germane 
to the subject, to further state that the Indians were the last 
troops to surrender in the South — east of the Mississippi 
river. This surrender took place in the town of Waynesville, 
on May 10, 1865. It should be borne in mind that the entire 
Department of Western ISTorth Carolina, being isolated, after 
' the surrender of East Tennessee reported directly to General 
Lee. After his surrender and the surrounding and capture 
of Johnston's army, the Federals, in the meantime, having 



22 



pushed fomvard, tlie Department was cut off from all com- 
munication with the outside world. 

A truce had been called, when very unexpectedly Colonel 
Bartlett of ISTew York (Third IST. G. Federal) broke loose from 
flag of truce agreements at Asheville and went rapidly over 
Buncombe and Haywood counties stealing horses. 

Colonel Thomas, with three hundred Indians, and Colonel 
James R. Love, with three hundred men, confronted him 
at Waynesville. He was driven into the town and sur- 
rounded. Colonel Thomas, with his Indians, retired to the 
mountain west of towm (Mt. Maria Love), which was within 
shooting distance. Hundreds of camp-fires were built over 
the face of the mountain, and the night Vv-as made hideous 
by the war-whoop of the Indians. One Federal was killed 
and many more wounded by their sharp-shooters. 

The bonfires and hideous yells had the desired effect. The 
following morning Colonel Bartlett sent out a flag of truce 
and asked for a conference. Colonel Love, with several of 
his men, and Cblonel Thomas, with twenty of his largest and 
most warlike-looking Indians, stripped to the waist and 
painted and feathered off in fine style, entered the town. 
An agreement was made by which the Legion was paroled, the 
officers and men being allowed to keep their arms. 

This surrender had a salutary effect upon all. Both whites 
and Indians returned to their homes and began work on their 
farms — tlie Indians the most peaceable of all, and less to be 
feared. 

When these Indians were allowed to remain in the East a 



23 



small annuity was allowed each one. This fund had accu- 
mulated and had become quite a "plum." As we all know, 
"carpet-baggers" loved "plums," so it happened that the Chero^ 
kees were not allowed to escape the fate of their unfortunate 
white friends. This would not have happened but for the 
unfortunate illness of their much-loved chief, who waS' 
stricken in body and mind when his services were most needed. 
Rival claims for the chieftainship arose, and great confusion 
ensued. The younger generation growing up "knew not 
Joseph," and were the easy prey of designing men. How- 
ever, the best citizens of the country, duly appreciating the 
gravity of their own and the Indians' surroundings, lent a 
helping hand, and alleviated much suffering. 

For the last eighteen or twenty years the Federal Govern- 
ment has not been remiss in its efforts to train and educate 
the younger Indians in the necessary and useful arts of living. 
A Training and Industrial School, with extensive buildings, 
shops, gardens, etc., is in full operation on the banks of the 
beautiful Oconolufty at Cherokee, formerly "Yellow Hill," 
at the old Ameechee ford. How much, permanent benefit is 
to arise remains yet to be seen. 

Recently graduates from this school and Carlisle, Pa., were 
on the streets of Waynesville — ^husband and wife. She, in 
the usual way, had upon her baek a great load of baskets, and 
a papoose. He was loaded down with a bow and arrow. 
She made the baskets, carried them to Waynesville, sold them 
and bought him a pair of shoes and a hat. For herself she 



24 



purchased a red bandana and some artificial roses, which she 
displayed with many grunts of satisfaction and pride. 

Many tourists now visit this Reservation, and it certainly 
calls up a curious, if not startling, train of thought, to stand 
upon one of tlie many beautiful hillocks surrounding this 
school and hear the beat of "long roll" and the full swelling 
notes of the "Cherokee Band" of twenty-four brass horns, well 
tuned to music, daily drilling upon the beautiful green sward. 

On the "Reservation" of one hundred thousand acres of 
land immediately surrounding the school, the Indians are 
now fairly happy and contented, and with each returning 
year are better able to support themselves. This school is 
located five pr six miles from Whittier, IST. C, by a good 
driving road, on the banks of the beautiful, sparkling and 
romantic Soco and Oconolufty rivers — one of the most fa- 
vored spots in this beautiful Land of the Sky, "where God has 
written His love in trailing-arbutus, flowering azalia and 
many-tinted rhododendron; and has recorded His majesty on 
heights where centuries have slept, and woke to find their 
brows unclianged by marring stroke of time's rude pen." 



Worth (^aroZmQ- 



^- 1 







North Carolina Booklet 




GREAT EVENTS IN 



NORTH CAROLINA HISTORY 



THE VOLUNTEER STATE 
(TENNESSEE) AS A SECEDER. 




THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET, 



GREAT EVENTS IN NORTH CAROLINA HISTORY. 

VOL. ill. 

The Trial of James Glasgow, and the Supreme Court of North Carolina. 

Kemp P. Battle, LL. D. 
The Cherokee Indians. 

Major W. W. Stringfield. 

The Volunteer State (Tennessee) as a Seceder. 

Miss Susie Gentry. 
Historic Hillsboro. 

Mr. Francis Nash. 
Some Aspects of Social Life in Colonial North Carolina. 

Charles Lee Raper, Ph. D. 
Was Alamance the First Battle of the Revolution? 

Mrs. L. A. McCorkle. 
Historic HomQs in North Carolina — Panther Creek, Clay Hill-on-the 
Neuse, The Fort. 

Mrs. Hayne Davis, Miss Mary Hilliard Ilinton, Mrs. R. T. Lenoir. 
Governor Charles Eden. 

Mr. Marshall DeLancey Haywood. 
The Colony of Transylvania. 

Judge Walter Clark. 
Social Conditions in Colonial North Carolina: An Answer to Colonel 
William Byrd, of Westover, Virginia. 

Alexander Q. Holladay, LL. D. 
Historic Homes in North Carolina — Quaker Meadows. 

Judge A. C. Avery. 
The Battle of Moore's Creek. 

Prof. M. C. S. Noble. 



One Booklet a month will be issued by the Nobth Caeolina Society 
OF THE Daughters of the Revolution, beginning May, 1903. Price, 
$1 per year. 

Address MISS MARY HILLIARD HINTON, 

"Midway Plantation," 
Raleigh, N. C. 

Arrangements have been made to have this volume of the Booklet 
bound in Library style for 50 cents. Those living at a distance will 
please add stamps to cover cost of mailing. State whether black or 
red leather is preferred. 

EDITORS : 
MISS MARY HILLIARD HINTON. MRS. E. E. MOFFITT. 



VOL. Ill JULY, 1903. No. 3 



THE 



NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET 



'CAROLINA! CAROLINA! HEAVEN'S BLESSINGS ATTEND HER ! 
WHILE WE LIVE WE WILL CHERISH, PROTECT AND DEFEND HER." 



RALEIGH 

E. M. UzzELL, & Co., Printers and Binders 

1903 



OFFICERS OF THE NORTH CAROLINA SOCIETY DAUGHTERS 
OF THE REVOLUTION, 1903: 

REGENT : 

MRS. THOMAS K. BRUNER. 

VICE-REGENT : 

MRS. WALTER CLARK. 

HONORARY REGENTS: 

MRS. SPIER WHITAKER, 
{Nee Fanny DeBerniere Hooper), 

MRS. D. H. HILL, Sr. 

SECRETARY : 

MRS. E. E. MOFFITT. 

TREASURER : 

MRS. FRANK SHERWOOD. 

REGISTRAR : 

MRS. ED. CHAMBERS SMITH. 



Founder of the North Carolina Society and Regent 1896-1902; 
MRS. SPIER WHITAKER. 

Regent 1902: 
MRS. D. H. HILL, Sr. 



PREFACE. 



The object of the I!^orth Carolina Booklet is to erect 
a suitable memorial to the patriotic women who composed 
the "Edenton Tea Party." 

These stout-hearted women are every way worthy of admi- 
ration. On October 25, 1774, seven months before the defi- 
ant farmers of Mecklenburg had been aroused to the point of 
signing their Declaration of Independence, nearly twenty 
months before the declaration made by the gentlemen com- 
posing the Vestry of St. Paul's Church, Edenton, nearly 
two years before Jefferson penned the immortal !N^ational 
Declaration, these daring women solemnly subscribed to a 
document affirming that they would use no article taxed by 
England. Their example fostered in the whole State a deter- 
mination to die, or to be free. 

In beginning this new series, the Daughters of the Revo- 
lution desire to express their most cordial thanks to the for- 
mer competent and untiringly faithful Editors, and to ask 
for the new management the hearty support of all who are 
interested in the brave deeds, high thought, and lofty lives 
of the l^orth Carolina of the olden days. 

Mrs. D. H. Hill. 



THE VOLUNTEER STATE (TENNESSEE) AS A SECEDER. 



By SUSIE GENTRY, 
Regent "Old Glory" Chapter and State Historian D. A. R. of Tennessee. 



"Yes, give me the land that hath legends and lays, 
That tell of the memory of long vanished days; 
Yes, give me the land that hath story and song. 
To tell of the strife of the right with the wrong: 
Yes, give me a land with a grave in each spot, 
And names in the graves that shall not be forgot; 
Yes, give me the land of the wreck and the tomb. 
There's grandeur in graves — there's glory in gloom, 
For out of the gloom future brightness is born; 
As after the night looms the sunrise of morn, 
And the graves of the dead with the grass overgrown 
May yet form the foot-stool of Liberty's throne, 
And each simple wreck in the pathway of might 
Shall yet be a rock in the temple of Right." 

— Father Ryan. 

The "Volunteer State" is rightly named when we call to 
mind the times she has seceded. Never heing a colony, she 
is remarkable in having made three attempts at secession — 
and her large measure of success in two of the three efforts. 

The secession of 1861 is of too recent a date to be of special 
interest to the general reader, but the two previous attempts 
hold much for the descendants of men of both the "Old 
North State" and Tennessee. 



6 



To the I*^orth Carolinian and Tennessean it is interesting 
to read of the discovery of Tennessee, so to speak. Chisca, 
an Indian village, is believed to have occupied the present 
site of that notable cotton mart^ — Memj^his. On the morn- 
ing of its discovery by De Soto in the spring of 1541, his 
soldiery rushed disorderly into it, robbing the homes and 
taking many men, women, and children prisoners. The 
ruler, Chisca, was ill, but would have rushed headlong into 
battle, but for those peace-makers — the women — and the 
cooler-headed of his attendants. 

De Soto called a camp, and the next morning some of the 
natives advanced without speaking, turned their faces to the 
east, made a profound genuflection to the sun, then turned 
to the west and made obeisance to the moon, and concluded 
with a similar but less profound reverence to De Soto. 

They had come in the name of the Oazique, Chisca, and 
all of his subjects to bid them welcome, offer their services 
and friendship. 

They were also desirous to see the kind of men who were 
to rule over them. A tradition had been handed down from 
their ancestors that a white people would come and conquer 
their country. Thus met these two warriors of widely dis- 
tant lands — one acknowledged victor and ruler, the other a 
defeated king ! The Spaniards remained in Chisca twenty 
days, during which time they built four piraguas ; about 
three hours before day on the twentieth day De Soto ordered 
the piraguas to be launched with four troopers of tried cour- 



age in each, and thus was the "Father of Waters" first crossed 
by white men in Tennessee. 

Except the four piraguas built by De Soto, the cabin and 
fort erected by La Salle in 1682 was the first handicraft of 
civilized man in the boundaries of the State. 

It was at the village of Nequassa (of the Cherokees), April, 
1730, that Sir Alexander Gumming met the Cherokees and 
demanded of them obedience to King George. Here Moy- 
toy of Tellequo was made Commander-in-Chief of the Chero- 
kee nation. From Tenassee (their chief town on the west 
bank of the Little Tennessee river, a few miles above our 
"Tellico") was brought the crown, five eagle feathers and 
four scalps, which they requested Sir Alexander to lay at 
his Sovereign's feet. From this ceremony came our State's 
name — the changing of one letter and the addition of another 
to "Tenassee." 

The Treaty of Paris, or of the Peace of 1763, was a trans- 
action by which France ceded to England the territory now 
comprised by the State of Tennessee, as well as a large 
amount of other territory. In this cession of France to 
England the rightful o\vners of this vast property — ^the In- 
dians — ^^^ere entirely ignored. The Indians, as was natu- 
ral, objected to the numerous excursions into their hunting 
grounds, and finally resistance was resorted to. To pacify 
the increasing hostility of the Indians, King George issued 
his wonderfully generous and logical (?) Proclamation of 
October 7, 1763 — "That a Sovereign only has the right to 
purchase lands of the Indians." 



8 



Again, in 1768, Captain Stuart concluded a treaty with 
the Cherokees at Hard Labour, S. 0. That vast area be- 
tween the Ohio and Tennessee rivers was uninhabited by the 
Indians, but was the pugilistic field for their many desperate 
conflicts with their enemies. Its title was claimed by the 
Confederacy of the Six l^ations ; by a deputation from them 
a formal remonstrance was presented to the Superintendent 
of Indian Affairs against the continued encroachments upon 
these lands, May 6, 1768. Accordingly, a convention was 
held at Fort Stanwick, K Y., October 24th ; 3,200 Indians of 
seventeen different tribes were present, and ISTovember 5th 
a treaty and deed of cession to the King was signed. 

At the treaty at Hard Labour the Indians had assented to 
an expulsion of the Holston settlements, and as a consequence 
the nucleus was formed of the first permanent settlement 
within the limits of Tennessee, in the latter part of Decem- 
ber, 1768, and early part of January, 1769, 

When, a year later, James Robertson ("the father of Ten- 
nessee") and his confreres — collaborators in hardship and 
ingenuity in dealing with the Indians — founded Watauga 
settlement, there was a latent idea of secession in their minds, 
although an humble petition was sent to the J^orth Carolina 
Assembly as late as August 22, 1776. 

North Carolina at this time held about twenty-nine mil- 
lion acres beyond the Alleghanies — from these mountains to 
the Mississippi river — all the region which now is within 
the boundaries of the great State Tennessee ; and this vast 
domain was acquired without money or blood on the part of 



North Carolina, she having used aetuallj King George the 
Third's theory "that a Sovereign [State (?)] only has the 
right to purchase lands of the Indians/' confiscated all lands, 
south of latitude 36° 30'; the other unoccupied lands of the 
Cherokees she had gained through John Sevier and his brave 
comrades, who had been of not even one dollar's expense to 
her for several years ! 

The war with the Cherokees having happily come to an 
end, and safety and prosperity again reigning in the settle- 
ments, a treaty was made with them and signed July 20, 
1777. In April of the same year the Legislature of jN^orth 
Carolina passed two acts of importance to this new-founded 
government — that of encouraging the militia and volunteers 
in prosecuting war against the red man, and in establishing 
"Washington District." In this district was all the territory 
of the now "Volunteer State" — and the budding flower of the 
seed of secession from ISTorth Carolina. In ISTovember fol- 
lowing Washington county was created, and justices of 
the peace appointed and the establishment of Courts of Pleas 
and Quarter Sessions. 

James Robertson and "The jSTotables" (men well kno'wn 
to history) really formed a government, though they did not 
so call it ; still they were living without the laws and protec- 
tion of either iSi'orth Carolina or Virginia, though just on the 
boundaries of both. jSTorth Carolina and Virginia each 
claimed jurisdiction over this section, but the claim never 
extended further than slight discussions in State papers. 
They were entirely self-dependent — an unsupported, unpro- 



10 



tected outpost on the ragged edge of civilization ! Having 
no regular government, it was necessary that they become a 
Isiw unto themselves ; therefore they thought out their lav^^s, 
or rules of government, and lived by them in comparative 
comfort and satisfaction. 

These self -proclaimed laws of James Robertson and the 
]S[otables were adopted in 1772, and are believed to be the 
first written compact of government west of the mountains. 
This "Tribunal of I^otables" exercised every prerogative of 
government except the infliction of capital punishment, which 
for some time was necessary ; and yet this government was 
the outcome of a man stealing a horse in the public thorough- 
fare. From what a small acorn does a giant oak sometimes 
grow! 

For a number of years this form of government performed 
its functions with satisfaction and success to the people, but 
M^as in a reality a secession. It served its purpose of fitting 
certain men for places of responsibility, and a people for 
Statehood, and then ceased to exist. 

From the ashes of Robertson's rule, or government, sprang 
Phcenix-like the "State of Franklin" — the first independent 
secession ever known of a State. This vast territory, by 
an act of the JSTorth Carolina General Assembly of 1783, had 
been ceded to Congress. According to this act ll^orth Caro- 
lina was to have authority over all this section until Congress 
should accept the cession. 

The members from the four Western counties of Wash- 
ington, Sullivan, Greene and Davidson were present, and 



11 



voted for the cession. These men seeing their well-being 
and protection, as a section, was of no special interest to the 
mother State, crimination and recrimination were freely in- 
dulged in by both North Carolina and her independent off- 
spring — the "State of Franklin." 

This self-willed child called to mind that in the Bill of 
Rights, adopted at the same time with the State Constitu- 
tion (in 1776, at Halifax), a clause had been inserted au- 
thorizing the formation of "one or more governments west- 
ward of this State" ; and believing that Congress would not 
accept this cession of land in the prescribed time— two 
years — and feeling that the settlements within the prescribed 
boundaries would practically be excluded from the protec- 
tion of JSTorth Carolina and Congress, and with no author- 
ized government, it devised means whereby it might extricate 
itself from the many and unexpected difficulties by which it 
was assailed and surrounded. 

This was done by assembling a convention composed of two 
elected delegates from each captain's company to devise 
means of protection and redress. These tbirty-;six men, 
whose names are well known, accordingly met at Jonesboro, 
Tennessee, August 23, 1783, Davidson county having no rep- 
resentative present. Jonesboro, as we know, was named for 
General Willie Jones, of ISForth Carolina. 

John Sevier was chosen President, and Landon Carter 
Secretary. During the meeting the Declaration of Inde- 
pendence was read, and the independence of Washington, 
Sullivan and Greene counties suggested. An appointed com- 



12 



mittee drew up and presented a notable report to Congress — 
that it accept tlie cession of North Carolina, and that they 
be recognized as a, separate government; and should any part 
contiguous to Virginia ("Frankland") make application to 
join this association, after making such request of Virginia, 
that both should enjoy equal and like privileges, and one or 
more persons should be sent to represent the situation of 
things to Congress. The report was adopted by a vote of 
many men whose names are as sentinels in the history of both 
[N^orth Carolina and Tennessee. 

The plan of the association was drawn up by Messrs. Cocke 
and Hardin;, and after certain deliberations (in 1784) a 
plan was adopted to send a suitable person to Congress, and 
to cultivate public spirit, benevolence and virtue, and pledged 
themselves to protect the association with their lives, for- 
tunes, faith, and reputation. 

Some trouble arose as to this measure, and the convention 
broke up in great confusion — some wanting to secede, others 
opposing it ; before disbandment of this meeting the General 
Assembly of ISTorth Carolina, then in session at ISTew Bern, 
repealed the act of secession to the United States; appointed 
Attorney-General for the Superior Court, and ordered that 
the said court convene at Jonesboro ; organized the Militia of 
Washington District into a brigade, and appointed John 
Sevier Brigadier-General. This was done in opposition to 
the appointments made by the government of the ^'State of 
Franklin." General Sevier expressed his satisfaction there- 
with, and advised "no separation" — as did Tennessee's "sil- 



13 

ver-tongued orator," Mereditli P. Gentry, of a later period, 
but who finally gave his all — brains, health and wealth — for 
his loved Southland. But the people were not to be advised 
or controlled by North Carolina, she having, in her treat- 
ment of them, proven a veritable "step-mother" ; so they 
proceeded to hold a convention, of which Sevier was elected 
President, and P. A. Ramsey Secretary, The people who 
had revolted from North Carolina continued to maintain 
and enjoy their government ; but the Constitution was yet 
to be ratified or rejected by a convention chosen by the peo- 
ple. Such an assemblage met, when John Sevier, the Presi- 
dent, presented the Constitution of North Carolina as the 
foundation of government for the new State ; with some 
modifications it was adopted by a small majority. This 
Assembly at Greenville, Tennessee, was the first Legislative 
assembly that ever convened in Tennessee — November, 1784. 
John Sevier was chosen Governor, and filled the other offices 
with men of his own choosing. 

Governor Martin, hearing of the organization of the "State 
of Franklin," wrote Governor Sevier, inquiring as to its mean- 
ing. Governor Sevier promptly returned answer as to what 
had been done, and the reasons therefor. An elaborate mani- 
festo from Governor Martin and the Legislature of North 
Carolina proved of no avail, as the people had had a taste of 
self-government, and were not disposed to give up their sweet 
morsel. 

This state of things continued until the latter part of 
1787, when a Sheriff from North Carolina was commissioned 



14 



to seize upon the estate of Governor Sevier while he was fight- 
ing on the frontier with the turbulent "red man." The order 
was executed, and about sixty of his negroes were taken cap- 
tive, but were afterward rej)levined. Again Governor Sevier 
tried to make reconciliation between the "State of Franklin" 
and the "Old ISTorth State," but to no purpose. 

Soon after, on July 29, 1788, Governor Johnston issued 
a warrant for Governor Sevier's arrest for "high treason 
against the State of ISTorth Carolina." 

His highly dramatic trial, and escape in total darkness 
from the one-roomed log court-house at Jonesboro ; his rapid 
flight over the mountains on his fleet-footed race-mare, brought 
for his flight by his staunch friend, Dr. James Cozby ; his 
expatriation and subsequent re-instatement ; his serving as 
the first Congressman from the great Mississippi Valley in 
1790, are well known to all. 

The "State of Franklin," soon after Governor Sevier's 
impeachment, ceased to exist as such ; but North Carolina 
saw the expediency of a final separation, and this was effected 
by the second cession act, dated December, 1789, seventeen 
years after the first seed of secession was sown — like the 
century plant, a flower of late fruition. The "State of 
Franklin" was hereafter kno^\Ti as "The Territory of the 
United States Northwest of the River Ohio" (see "An 
Ordinance for the Government of the Territory of the United 
States Northwest of the River Ohio," passed July 13, 1787), 
again as the "Territory of the United States South of the 
River Ohio," by act of Congress of May 26, 1790. 



JULY IN NORTH CAROLINA HISTOHY. 



The fleet under Philip Amidas and Arthur Barlow anchored 
on the 16th, 1584, in Trinity Harbor; Miller assumed charge of 
Government, 1677; on the 13th, 1716, Charles Eden was ap- 
pointed Governor; in 1777 Major Joseph Winston, Waightstill 
Avery and Eobert Lanier obtained the treaty of the Long Island 
of Holston — securing lasting peace with the Cherokees; North 
Carolina Convention met in the Presbyterian Church at Hills- 
borough on the 21st, 1788, to consider the new Federal Constitu- 
tion ; engagements at Pacolet River on the 14th, and at Earle's 
Ford on the 18th, in 1780. 



m 



i?i 



I 



I 



THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET. 



GREAT EVENTS IN NORTH CAROLINA HISTORY. 



VOL. III. 

The Trial of James Glasgow, and the Supreme Court of North Carolina. 

Kemp P. Battle, LL. D. 
The Cherokee Indians. 

Major W. W. Stringfield. 

The Volunteer State (Tennessee) as a Seceder. 

Miss Susie Gentry. 

Historic Hillsboro. 

Mr. Francis Nash. 
Some Aspects of Social Life in Colonial North Carolina. 

Charles Leo Raper, Ph. D. 
Was Alamance the First Battle of the Revolution? 

Mra. L. A. McCorkla. 

Historic Homes in North Carolina — Panther Creek, Clay Hill-on-the 
Neuse, The Fort. 

Mrs. Hayne Davis, Miss Mary Hilliard Hinton, Mrs. R. T. Lsnoir. 

Governor Charles Eden. 

Mr. Marshall DeLancey Haywood. 
The Colony of Transylvania. 

Judge Walter Clark. 
Social Conditions in Colonial North Carolina: An Answer to Colonel 
William Byrd, of Westover, Virginia. 

Alexander Q. Holladay, LL. D. 
Historic Homes in North Carolina — Quaker Meadows. 

Judge A. C. Avery. 
The Battle of Moore's Creek. 

Prof. M. C. S. Noble. 



One Booklet a month will be issued by the North Carolina Society 
OF THE Daughters of the Revolution, beginning May, 1903. Price, 
$1 per year. 

Address MISS MARY HILLIARD HINTON, 

"Midway Plantation," 

Raleigh, N. C. 

Arrangements have been made to have this volume of the Booklet 
bound in Library style for 50 cents. Those living at a distance will 
please add stamps to cover cost of mailing. State whether black or 
red leather is preferred. 

EDITORS: 

MISS MARY HILLIARD HINTON. MRS. E. E. MOFFITT. 



VOL. Ill AUGUST, 1903. No. 



THE 



NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET 



'CAROLINA! CAROLINA 1 HEAVEN'S BLESSINGS ATTEND HER I 
WHILE WE LIVE WE WILL CHERISH, PROTECT AND DEFEND HER.' 



RALEIGH 

E. M. UzzELL & Cc, Printers and Binders 
1903 






OFFICERS OF THE NORTH CAROLINA SOCIETY DAUGHTERS 
OF THE REVOLUTION, 1903: 

REGENT : 

MRS. THOMAS K. BRUNER. 

VICE-EEGENT : 

MRS. WALTER CLARK. 

HONORARY REGENTS: 

MRS. SPIER WHITAKER, 
{Nee Fanny DeBemiere Hooper), 

MRS. D. H. HILL, Sr. 

SECRETARY : 

MRS. E. E. MOFFITT. 

TREASURER : 

. MRS. FRANK SHERWOOD. 

registr.'lr : 
MRS. ED. CHAMBERS SMITH. 



Founder of the North Carolina Society and Regent 1896-1902; 
MRS. SPIER WHITAKER. 

Regent 1902: 
MRS. D. H. HILL. Sr. 



PREFACE. 



The object of the Nokth Carolina Booklet is to erect 
a suitable memorial to the patriotic women who composed 
the "Edenton Tea Party." 

These stout-hearted women are every way worthy of admi- 
ration. On October 25, 1774, seven months before the defi- 
ant farmers of Mecklenburg had been aroused to the point of 
signing their Declaration of Independence, nearly twenty 
months before the declaration made by the gentlemen com- 
posing the Vestry of St. Paul's Church, Edenton, nearly 
two years before Jefferson penned the immortal ISTational 
Declaration, these daring women solemnly subscribed to a 
document affirming that they would use no article taxed by 
England. Their example fostered in the whole State a deter- 
mination to die, or to be free. 

In beginning this new series, the Daughters of the Revo- 
lution desire to express their most cordial thanks to the for- 
mer competent and untiringly faithful Editors, and to ask 
for the new management the hearty support of all who are 
interested in the brave deeds, high thought, and lofty lives 
of the I^Torth Carolina of the olden days. 

Mrs. D. H. Hill. 



HISTORIC HILLSBORO. 



By FRANCIS NASH, 
Of the Hillsboro Bar and Member of the American Historical Association. 



The progress of settlement in Orange county presented 
tlie nsnal phases — first, the Indian trader ; next, the hunter 
and pioneer, and then the settler, ^Yith his pack-horses, his 
sturdy helpmeet and five or six children, his axe, his strong 
health and dauntless self-reliance. A clearing is made, a log 
cabin is built, and there in that home in the wilderness, 
free from all artificial restraints, he and his — nature's chil- 
dren — thrive on what she provides. J^eighbors come to par- 
take with him of this freedom, and continue to come until 
Lord Granville's agents, with their surveyors, enter upon 
the scene, and grants must be sued out and quitrents paid. 
As the settlements grow more numerous, civil government 
appears — first in the form of the tax gatherer, and then in 
those of the Justice and his Constable. Soon a new county 
must be formed and a central location for the county-seat 
selected. There a to^vn must be laid off and given a name. 
To it come the merchant, the lawyer, the tavern-keeper, the 
artisan and the court ofiicials, adventurers, all, in the peren- 
nial pursuit of gain. Rude in its beginnings, the town is, 
however, the emporium for the trade and the headquarters 
for the politics, the news and the fashions of all the country 



6 



about it, and to it great crowds come at the quarterly courts 
for a holiday — a holiday that partakes of the strenuous char- 
acter of the people themselves. The best shot of one com- 
munity pits himself against the best shot of another ; the 
cock of the v/alk of Haw River must try conclusions with 
him of Little or Flat River, while the friends of each look 
on, restrained from indulging in a free fight themselves only 
by their interest in the main event, and so on, wrestler with 
wrestler, runner with runner, race-horse with race-horse, and 
game cock with game cock — a strong, free people, as yet but 
half-civilized, unconsciously preparing itself for a great 
career. Meantime the stock of drinkables at the various 
taverns is growing smaller and smaller, and the self-important 
Justices are sitting in the court-house trying minor offenses 
or settling minor disputes between man and man, and puz- 
zled occasionally by some astute lawyer referring, in hope of 
enlightenment, but in a helpless way, to ISTelson's Justice, 
Gary's Abridgment of the Statutes, Swinborn on Wills, 
Godolphin's Orphan's Legacy, Jacob's Law Dictionary, or 
Wood's Institutes — books required by law to be upon the 
court table. 

Hillsboro, as Hillsboro, began to exist JSTovember 7, 1766. 
It had been, at that time, a town for more than twelve years, 
but its growth had been very slow and its history uneventful. 
Since 1764, though, it had been an improving place. A 
number of young, energetic, able adventurers had located 
there between 1761 and 1764. Edmund Fanning came in 
1761. He was born in 1737, in Connecticut, son of Colonel 



Phineas Fanning ; graduated at Yale, 1Y57 ; studied law in 
]^ew York, and came to Hillsboro, then Cliildsbiirg, as above 
said. In March, 1Y63, he qualified as Register of the 
county. It is generally thought that extortion in this office 
made him rich. As a matter of fact, his income from that 
office was small. His income from his law practise was, 
however, very large. He was the best equipped lawyer in 
the province, appeared on one side or the other of every liti- 
gated case — even the Regulators employing him — and there 
was much litigation. Besides this, he speculated in real 
estate and was a partner in a mercantile establishment until 
1769, when he sold out to William Johnston. Thus he grew 
rich rapidly, and this, concurring with his haughty manners, 
made him many enemies. He built himself a fine house and 
was instrumental in the erection of a commodious store and a 
handsome church, and secured a parson for that church — 
Rev. George Meiklejohn — and a school-master for the town. 
And it is believed that it was through his influence with 
Governor Tryon, and Tryon's influence with the Earl of 
Hillsboro, that the clock that still keeps the time and 
strikes the hours was obtained from the King. He had a 
good library, and was, too, liberal in the loan of books to his 
neighbors. He returned to ]SI"ew York in 1772, after the 
Regulator troubles, paid a short visit to North Carolina in 
1773, was Colonel of Loyalists during the Revolutionary 
war. Governor of Prince Edward Island, 1794; made an 
LL. D. by Yale in 1803 ; General in the British army, 1808 ; 
removed to England in 1815, and died in 1818. There has 



been no man so harshly treated by our historians as this man. 

In late 1762, or early 1763, two young Virginia lawyers 
came across the line to Childsburg — Abner and Francis 
ISTash. Abner removed soon after to Halifax and I^ew Bern, 
though he continued for many years to own property in 
Ilillsboro and to practise in its courts. Francis qualified as 
Clerk of the County in March, 1763, and continued to re- 
side in the town until his death. They came of a substantial 
English family, that in the time of the Commonwealth 
espoused the cause of Cromwell, and at the Restoration re- 
moved to Pembrokeshire, Wales, and located near Tenby, in 
that shire. John, son of Abner, of this famil}", about 1730, 
came with his wife, Ann Owen, to Virginia, purchased an 
estate, called Templeton Manor, in the fork of the Bush and 
Appomattox rivers, and afterwards became quite prominent 
in the minor political history of that province. There Abner, 
the third son, and Francis, the fourth, were born — the one 
about 1740, and the other about 1742. 

Of the merchants of that period were James Thackston, 
a partner of Fanning, and John Dowell, a partner of Francis 
I^ash, in mercantile ventures. 

With the coming of these young, energetic and ambitious 
men, the town took on new life. At Governor Tryon's sug- 
gestion, probably, its name was changed to Hillsboro, as com- 
pliment to the Earl of that name. In 1767, Kev. George 
Meiklejohn, a tall, dark, raw^-boned Scotchman, with harsh 
features, slow, deliberate manner, and the broadest of dia- 
lects, came as minister in charge of St. Matthew's parish. 



A market-house was built over the intersection of King and 
Churton streets, with w^agon-ways through it. A handsome 
church was completed soon after, and in 1Y68 or 1769 the 
wealthy Scotch merchants, William Johnston and Ralph 
Macnair, became residents of the place. Much more commo- 
dious residences were erected, and, though the men out- 
numbered the women, there was with the new stock of goods 
some show of dress and fashion. Mr. Fanning was noto- 
riously careful of his person, and his raiment was of the 
most expensive material and the newest fashion. In this 
little society he was the model (and envy) of the lesser 
beaux. There was some culture, too. Besides, Mr. Fanning, 
Mr. Johnston, Mr. Macnair and Mr. Thackston were all 
educated gentlemen, well acquainted with books other than 
their day-books and ledgers. Mr. Francis jSTash is said to 
have been handsome, and, though high-spirited, singularly 
gentle, generous and warm-hearted, and was educated as the 
well-to-do Virginia planter educated his son. Out in the 
country, but near enough to form part of this society, was 
Colonel Thomas Hart (he of whom Captain Smyth writes 
so admiringly in his ''Travels in America"), with his bevy 
of handsome daughters. And Mr. Meiklejohn, with his 
abundant but cumbrous classical learning, his Scotch fond- 
ness for strong drink and his Scotch capacity for resisting 
its influence, must not be forgotten. To be able to drink 
steadily and freely with all the guests, without getting drunk, 
was a great accomplishment in those days. Says Waightstill 
Avery, passing through Hillsboro about that time : "The 



10 



evening was spent with a great crowd of lawyers and others. 
/ narroiuly escaped intoxication." 

These were some of the men whom the Regulators pro- 
posed to regulate. I can deal with that disturbance in a 
summary way only. That the people had just cause of com- 
plaint against officials is true beyond doubt. A loosely drawn 
and ambiguous fee bill gave an opportunity for each man 
to put his own construction upon it ; and, as human nature 
was the same then (only more so) that it is now, the officials 
construed it liberally in their own favor, and the agitators 
construed it strictly against them. Of course calculations 
made upon such a totally different basis resulted in a differ- 
ence that could not be reconciled. It was easy to convince a 
people always sensitive to the encroachments of any man or 
set of men upon their rights, that these officials were all 
rogues, fattening and growing rich upon what they had ex- 
torted from their own hard earnings. And history is in 
this regard constantly repeating itself. The ignorant but 
free masses, when there is a real grievance, always respond 
to the appeal of the artful agitator and hate the real or 
imagined oppressor with an intense if not savage hatred— a 
mad passion that we deplore, while we respect the spirit that 
inspires it. It is a racial instinct, inbred in their nature, 
that when wisely controlled by education and enlightenment, 
makes them a great people. It is, it seems to me, admiration 
for this spirit that has made some of the historians mistake 
the nature of the Regulator troubles and insist that the Eegii- 
lation was the bea'innine" of the Revolution, In truth, it was 



11 



never directed against any existing political institution. 
They expressly disclaimed any quarrel with King or Parlia- 
ment or Assembly, Tliey demanded that dishonest public 
officials should be removed and punished ; and Governor 
Tryon not complying with the demand so summarily as they 
desired, they, inspired by hatred and revenge, proceeded to 
administer this punishment themselves. So they were an 
organized but irresponsible and uncontrollable mob — not a 
great people in the first throes of a struggle for independ- 
ence. Fanning they hated with a cruel and relentless hatred. 
His haughty carriage, his pugnacious nature, his bull-dog 
tenacity, his rapid accumulation of wealth and his undis- 
guised contempt for them maddened them. In March, 1768, 
they lay in wait for him to kill him, along the Salisbury 
road. In April, 1768, one hundred of them came to town, 
forcibly took from Sheriff Tyree Harris a horse upon which 
he Lad levied, tied the Sheriff himself to a tree, terrorized 
the citizens of the town and fired several shots through Man- 
ning's house, he being at the time absent. In 1769 they 
caught Sheriff John Lea in the country, tied him also to a 
tree and trounced him soundly ; and in September, 1770, 
they broke up the Superior Court, whipped John Williams, 
Thomas Hart, Alexander Martin, Michael Holt and others, 
and would, have whipped John Gray, Thomas Lloyd, Francis 
I^ash, Tyree Harris and others had they not "timorously 
fled." Judge Henderson, that night about 10 o'clock, with 
his thoughts still "much engaged on his own protection," 
stepped out a back way and made his escape, leaving "poor 



12 



Colonel Fanning and the little boroiigli in a wretched situa- 
tion." They first severely whipped and then made a prisoner 
of Fanning — like a huge tiger cat, with its prey, keeping him 
over for the morrow to make more sport for them before they 
should devour him. They stopped short of this, however, 
contented themselves with disgracing him further^ destroying 
his furniture and wrecking his house, and drinking or spill- 
ing his wines and liquors. 

Then came the Johnston bill, the battle of Alamance, the 
return of the army to Hillsboro, the trial of the prisoners, 
the execution of six of them, and the departure of Governor 
Tryon and Edmund Fanning to ISTew York — events that 
must be passed over with the mention. 

With the end of the Regulator troubles came renewed pros- 
perity to Hillsboro. Several valuable citizens were added to 
its population. Among others, ISTatlianiel Rochester and 
Thomas Burke. Rochester was a man of decided parts, 
afterwards became a prominent man and patriot, going to 
Maryland in 1783, thence to jSTew York, where the city of 
Rochester was named for him. Thomas Burke was a son 
of Ulick Burke and Letitia Ould, born about 1747 in Gal- 
way county, Ireland. Some family trouble made him, in 
1764, come to Accomac county, Virginia. There he studied 
medicine and probably practised it for a while, but soon 
gave it up for the law. He came to l^orth Carolina in 1772, 
and, after some hesitation between Halifax and Hillsboro, 
settled at the latter place in March of that year. He had 
married Miss Mary Freeman of I>rorfolk in 1770. He "was 



13 



of middle stature, well formed, mucli marked by the small- 
pox, which caused the loss of his left eye." His was a short 
but very remarkable career. As a lawyer and statesman he 
ranked with the ablest before he was thirty years of age. 
He was, too, an energetic, zeal-inspiring patriot — a man of 
fine executive ability, having the thorough confidence of the 
people of the State. With all these solid qualities, he was 
very high-strung, very susceptible to external impressions, a 
good deal of a humorist and something of a poet, as well as 
orator. In short, he was an Irish genius, with o-reat virtues 
and serious faults, brilliant success and woful failure, exces- 
sive joy and heart-breaking grief, laughter and tears, side by 
side all through his life. 

Governor Martin came to Hillsboro July 2, 17Y2, with 
his household and suite, to spend the summer. The citizens 
of the town and section made the most of this visit, met him 
in gTand cavalcade on his approach, escorted him to his 
lodgings, entertained him and his suite most royally, dined 
and wined them to satiety, and witnessed their departure, 
the latter part of September, with regret. 

While here the Governor visited the Regulator settlements, 
had interviews with James Hunter and others of their 
leaders, and assured them of his earnest desire to serve them. 
James Hunter says of this visit: "This summer our new 
Governor has been up with us, and has given us every satis- 
faction we could expect of him. * * * j think our 
ofiicers hate him as bad as we hated Tryon, only they don't 
speak so free." In the same letter he says: "Morris Moore 



14 



and Abner 'Nash have been up to see me, to try to get me in 
favor again, and promised to do all tliey could for you" 
(William Butler), "and I think they are more afraid than 
ever." Both parties were evidently trying to gain the favor 
of the Regulators, with the advantage decidedly with Gov- 
ernor Martin. It is possible, also, that the Atticus letter was 
written soon after this visit, for its authorship was by many 
at first attributed to Abner JN'ash. 

Until 1775 the life of the town presented no striking or 
unusual incidents. There was a quiet attempt to put the 
militia of the county upon a better fighting basis, and there 
was an independent company organized in the town, and it 
was assiduously drilled by an old British corporal — an 
unostentatious preparation for eventualities that they were 
willing to meet, but hoped to avoid. Late in 1774, Mr. James 
Hogg, a Scotchman of wealth and culture, came with his 
family to reside at Hillsboro. He himself was of the same 
stock as the Ettrick Shepherd, and his wife, Miss Alves, was 
second cousin to Sir Walter Scott. 

The first provincial Congress (the third convention) con- 
vened at Hillsboro in August, 1775, and held its sittings in 
the handsome church that stood near the site of the present 
Presbyterian church. This was the first instance of the use 
of Hillsboro for a place of meeting for any general repre- 
sentative body. This great Congress — great in personnel and 
great in results — has recently been described in the Booklet^ 
so I will pass it by. Its time was kept by the same clock 
that is striking the hours as I write — then in the tower of 



15 



the church, and now in the cupola of the court-house. The 
members were entertained very hospitably by the residents 
of the town and its environs ; and, though some from the east, 
all high livers, suffered from a change of climate and water, 
and one died, on the whole they found their stay pleasant. 
Governor Caswell was in bad humor when, some years later, 
in the midst of a similar epidemic, he called it "an infernal 
place." 

At the beginning of the Revolutionary war, society at 
Hillsboro had improved distinctly. There were fewer bache- 
lor dinners, less dining and \\dning, and more family life. 
Edmund Fanning, with his fine gentleman manners, his 
show of wealth and expensive habits, had gone. Mr. Macnair 
had married Miss Hall, so it is thought, and v/as living one 
mile east of town. Francis ISTash had married Miss Sally 
Moore, and was living just west of the church. Thomas 
Burke, with his handsome but unmanageable wife, resided 
near town on his farm, and they were visited occasionally 
by her somewhat gay sisters. Mr. James Hogg, with his 
family of sons and daughters, was living within a stone's 
throw of the east line of the town. Colonel Hart was still 
living and active, and one of his daughters had married 
Jesse Benton, and another John Taylor. Colonel Thomas 
Lloyd, south of town, was growing old and feeble, but one 
son-in-law in Orange, John Hogan, and another in Kowan, 
Adlai Osborne, were as prominent, socially and politically, 
as he had been. And ten miles west of town were the 
Mebanes, always prominent in the social and political life 



16 



of the section. IsTine miles west of town, too, was Winindale, 
the Slimmer residence of Mr. Samuel Strndwick, noted for 
its good cheer and hospitality. He would come up from 
Stag Park each summer with his French wife and two young 
sons, the older of whom was in a few years to have his 
romance that ended in a tragedy. 

The sons of Hillsboro during the war volunteered freely 
and served willingly wherever duty called them, but no bat- 
tle was fought near the town. There, however, troops con- 
centrated, and there they took refuge after the battle of Cam- 
den. There, too, a ruthless and hungry and despairing sol- 
diery preyed upon friend and foe alike until Mr. Burge in- 
terfered. I have told the story elsewhere, and have not space 
to retell it here. And after all the trials and deprivations 
of the fateful year 1780, Lord Cornwallis and his army came 
in February, 1781. On the 25th, though, he left the town 
little the worse for his visit, and the streets about the court- 
house the better to the present day for the cobble-stones placed 
there by his soldiers. 

General Francis ISTash was the only prominent citizen of 
the town killed during the war. Desperately wounded on 
October 4th at Genuantown, he lingered in excruciating 
agony until the 7th, attended by Dr. Craik, Washington's 
ovm physician. Thus was ended a short but very promising 
military career. As the chill of death was creeping upon 
him he said to Dr. Craik: "^I have no favor to expect from 
the enemy. I have been consistent in my principles and con- 
duct from the commencement of the trouble. From the first 



17 



dawn of Revolution I have been on the side of liberty and my 
country." 

Thomas Burke was elected Governor June 25, 1781, quali- 
fied June 26th and entered at once, energetically and effi- 
ciently, upon the performance of his duties. Coming up 
from Halifax to Hillsboro, he arrived at the latter place on 
September 7th or 8th, 1781. On the morning of September 
12th, a grey, foggy morning, David Fanning with his Tories, 
and Colonel MclSTeill with his Highlanders, raided Hillsboro 
and captured Governor Burke and his suite, and, without 
any efficient hindrance, carried them safe to Wilmington. 
In a short time Burke was transferred to Charleston, where 
he was paroled to James Island. There the Tories attempted 
to assassinate him, and he appealed to General Leslie, the 
commandant, for protection, but in vain. After waiting six- 
teen days, and no notice taken of his appeal, he, on January 
16, 1782, broke his parole and made his escape, and after 
some negotiations through General Greene with General Les- 
lie, that were fruitless, he returned to jSTorth Carolina and 
resimied the reins of government. The criticism of his course 
by the public, the exultation of some of his foes and ill- 
concealed contempt of others, and the coldness of some for- 
mer friends, so preyed upon his mind that he refused to stand 
for re-election in April, 1782, retired to private life, found 
temporary relief in ardent spirits, and then, attacked by 
disease that he had not stamina to resist, succumbed to it on 
December 2, 1783, and was buried on his farm near Hills- 
boro. Governor of a State struggling for independence, by 



18 



the unanimous suffrage of its Assembly and with the univer- 
sal approbation of its people, when he was thirty-four; dead 
of a wrecked life and broken heart when he was thirty-six, 
and buried in a grave so obscure and unmarked that now 
probably not a dozen persons know its exact location — surely 
this was the great tragedy of our Kevolutionary history. 

I must close, however, with the following, written by him 
for a lady a few weeks before his death, and when peace, and 
wdth it independence, was in plain view : 

Let bards who give voice to the clarion of fame, 
The worth of our chief and our soldiers proclaim; 
Such only can Washington's glory pursue — - 
Too sublime for our notes, and too bright for our view. 

But let softer scenes, which we hope to enjoy 
Henceforth, gentle fair ones, our voices employ; 
Our husbands, our lovers restored to our eyes. 
Our cheeks know no tears, our bosoms no sighs. 

No more shall the dread apprehensions affright. 

Of soldiers by day and assassins by night; 

Secure, bright and cheerful our days shall now prove, 

And our nights know no tumults, but transports of love. 

To make home delightful henceforth be our care. 
With delicate skill the rich feast to prepare. 
To converse with variety, freedom and ease. 
And, with elegant novelty, always to please. 

When mothers, to rear the young heroes to fame, 
And infuse the true spark of the future bright flame; 
To deck the young virgins with graces refined. 
And embellish with sense and good humor the mind. 



AUGUST IN NORTH CAROLINA HISTORY. 



Manteo was baptized and made Lord of Roanoke on the 
13tli, 1587 ; Virginia, daughter of Ananias and Eleanor 
Dare, and granddaughter of Governor White, was born on 
the 18th, 158Y ; Governor White returned from England in 
1590 and found the colony gone; Henderson Walker, Gov- 
ernor, 1699 ; in lYlO, Edward Hyde arrived and took pos- 
session of office ; Provincial Congress met at Halifax on the 
20th, 1775 ; battle of Fort Hatteras, 1861. 



THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET. 



GREAT EVENTS !N NORTH CAROLINA HISTORY. 



VOL. Ml. 

The Trial of James Glasgow, and the Supreme Court of North Carolina. 
Kemp P. Battle, LL. D. 

The Cherokee Indians. 

Major W. W. Stringfield. 
The Volunteer State (Tennessee) as a Seceder. 

Miss Susie Gentry. 
Historic Hillaboro. 

Mr. Francis Nash. 
Some Aspects of Social Life in Colonial North Carolina. 

Charles Lee Raper, Pli. D. 
Was Alamance the First Battle of the Revolution? 

Mrs. L. A, MeCorkle. 

Historic Homes in North Carolina — Panther Creek, Clay Hill-on-the 
Neuse, The Fort. 

Mrs. Hayne Davis, Miss Mary Hilliard Hinton, Mrs. R. T. Lenoir. 
Governor Charles Eden. 

Mr. Marshall DeLancey Haywood. 

The Colony of Transylvania. 

Judge Walter Clark. 
Social Conditions in Colonial North Carolina: An Answer to Colonel 
William Byrd, of Westover, Virginia. 

Alexander Q. Holladay, LL. D. 
Historic Homes in North Carolina — Quaker Meadows. 
Judge A. C. Avery. 

The Battle of Moore's Creek. 

Prof. M. C. S. Noble. 



One Booklet a month will be issued by the North Carolina Society 
OF THE Daughters of the Revolution, beginning May, 1903. Price, 
$1 per year. 

Address MISS MARY HILLIARD HINTON, 

"Midway Plantation," 

Raleigh, N. C. 

Arrangements have been made to have this volmne of the Booklet 
bound in Library style for 50 cents. Those living at a distance will 
please add stamps to cover cost of mailing. State whether black or 
led leather is preferred. 

EDITORS: 
MISS MARY HILLIARD HINTON. MRS. E. E. MOFFITT. 



VOL. Ill SEPTEMBER, 1903. No. 5 



THE 



NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET 



"CAROLINA! CAROLINA! HEAVEN'S BLESSINGS ATTEND HER! 
WHILE WE LIVE WE WILL CHERISH, PROTECT AND DEFEND HER." 



RALEIGH 

E. M. UzzELL & Co., Printers and Binders 

1903 



OFFICERS OF THE NORTH CAROLINA SOCIETY DAUGHTERS 
OF THE REVOLUTION, 1903: 

REGENT : 

MRS. THOMAS K. BRUNER. 

VICE-BEGENT : 

MRS. WALTER CLARK. 

HONORARY REGENTS: 

MRS. SPIER WHITAKER, 

(Nee Fanny DeBemiere Hooper), 

MRS. D. H. HILL, Sr. 

SECRETARY : 

MRS. E. E. MOFFITT. 

TREASURER: 

MRS. FRANK SHERWOOD. 

REGISTRAR : 

MRS. ED. CHAMBERS SMITH. 



Founder of the North Carolina Society and Regent 1896-1902; 
MRS. SPIER WHITAKER. 

Regent 1902: 
MRS. D. H. HILL, Sb. 



PREFACE. 



The object of the North Carolina Booklet is to erect 
a suitable memorial to the patriotic women who composed 
the "Edenton Tea Party." 

These stout-hearted women are every way worthy of admi- 
ration. On October 25, 1774, seven months before the defi- 
ant farmers of Mecklenburg had been aroused to the point of 
signing their Declaration of Independence, nearly twenty 
months before the declaration made by the gentlemen com- 
posing the Vestry of St. Paul's Church, Edenton, nearly 
two years before Jefferson penned the immortal National 
Declaration, these daring women solemnly subscribed to a 
document affirming that they would use no article taxed by 
England, Their example fostered in the whole State a deter- 
mination to die, or to be free. 

In beginning this new series, the Daughters of the Revo- 
lution desire to express their most cordial thanks to the for- 
mer competent and untiringly faithful Editors, and to ask 
for the new management the hearty support of all who are 
interested in the brave deeds, high thought, and lofty lives 
of the North Carolina of the olden days. 

Mrs. D. H. Hill. 



SOCIAL LIFE IN COLONIAL NORTH CAROLINA. 



By CHARLES LEE RAPER, PH. D., 

Head of the Department of Economics and Associate Professor of History, 
University of North Carohna. 



The social life of any people has so many phases that to 
discuss it in a very limited space is almost impossible. To 
trace out, with any detail, all the social aspects of ISTorth 
Carolina during its colonial period would require much 
enevgy and time, and this tracing would fill the pages of a 
book of large proportions. Such a tracing, if done by an 
historical student and literary artist, would, however, be a 
thing of great interest and value. To my mind, ISTorth Caro- 
lina as a colony is still virgin soil for such an artist; the 
social life of its colonists is still almost wholly unknown. To 
be sure, we know something of certain phases of this life, but 
only in a loose and disconnected way; and we know almost 
nothing of the economic life of these pioneers. 

To know the different races and religious sects which came 
to our soil during the first hundred years of our life, where 
they settled and lived from generation to generation, how they 
supported themselves and their families, how they married 
and intermarried, the kind of homes which they established as 
the centers of their affections and the birthplaces of their chil- 
dren, their ideals of marriage and the purity of their homes ; 
to know of their educational opportunities and standing, their 



scliools and school-masters, their libraries and literature ; to 
know of their churches, their ministers and acts of devotion 
to the religious ideal ; to know of their social intercourse and 
pleasures, their holidays, their frolics and drinkings, of their 
low as well as of their high status of moral conduct — all of 
this would be most valuable and charmingly interesting. 

But much of this can never be done, at least at all accu- 
rately. For such a picture to be made for us would not only 
require the student and the literary artist, but also the sources 
of information ; and many of these are no longer within our 
reach. Pioneer peoples, as were our early ancestors, the set' 
tiers and colonizers of ]!^orth Carolina, are not the ones to 
leave behind them full records of their life work; they care 
rather little whether the future shall know them as they were 
or not. Though the records left us are meager in many 
placeSj still from them we could, if we would, reconstruct a 
picture of ourselves, incomplete to be sure, during our infancy 
as a people. 

It is the purpose of this paper to begin such a work, to lay 
the foundation, with the hope that at later times we may be 
able to build up certain parts of it, somewhat in detail. At 
present many of its parts could not be constructed, as the 
material for these is not yet collected. However, there are 
some phases of our social life the records of which have been 
brought together, and of these the historical student can now 
speak. 

The colonists who settled in the province of North Caro- 
lina were, to a large extent, from England, directly or indi- 



recti J. There were, to be sure, some otlier nationalities 
among them. A few Huguenots, a very few, came and set- 
tled near Bath and on the Trent river, between 1690 and 
1707, bringing with them distinct ideas of industrious and 
sober living. Some Swiss and Germans, from the Palatinate, 
made a small permanent settlement at the confluence of the 
ISTeuse and the Trent rivers early in the eighteenth century, 
founding the town of 'New Bern, one of the first in the 
province. Other Germans, from the south-western part of 
their fatherland, came and settled along the Yadkin and 
Catawba rivers, then the western frontier of the colony. 
They reached ISTorth Carolina soon after 1750, having come 
first to the province of Pennsylvania. These brought with 
themselves their purity of religious devotion and their ideas 
of simple and active living. But next to the English, in 
numbers and strength, came the Scotch-Irish and the Scotch, 
from 1730 to 1770. These settled along the Eno, Haw and 
Catawba rivers, and in the present counties of Bladen, Cum- 
berland, Robeson, Moore, Richmond, Scotland and Harnett. 
And with these came ideas which have had much to do with 
our political, industrial, social, intellectual and religious 
growth and development. More churches were built, and 
these became centers of great activity. Schools were now 
established throughout the middle and western portions of 
the province, and many of these became famous for their 
learning and influence. 

These colonists, whether of one nationality and racial traits 
or of another, left their mother or fatherland before Europe 



liad become a great industrial country. The Englisli colo- 
nists came to ISTortli Carolina when their mother country 
was still in a primitive condition and type of agriculture, 
industry and commerce, before the great industrial revolution 
had come, when the economic life was not much advanced 
over that of the feudal period. Crude tillage was to be found 
everywhere in England, and scientific fertilizing and rotation 
of crops were as yet almost wholly unknown. Their manu- 
factures were still entirely of the guild or domestic type, car- 
ried on upon a very small scale and with the least possible 
skill, method and organization ; their products were made in 
the homes of 'the artisan or of the small farmer, and for the 
most part by the hands of unskilled men and women. The 
trading, as a rule, was not extensive and in a comparatively 
small number of products. The other colonists came from 
countries even less advanced in their economic life than was 
England. 

In every case these colonists, whether English, Swiss, Ger- 
man or Scotch, brought with themselves when they came to 
our soil the institutions of their mother country, social and 
economic, as well as political and religious ; and they could 
not do otherwise, as their ideas, customs and institutions were 
inseparably connected with themselves. For the most part 
they were accustomed to the farm ; they knew little about the 
skill of the finished artisan, of the sailor or the dealer in 
merchandise. Having been farmers in the old world, it was 
most natural that they should become farmers in the new. 
The necessities of the situation drove them to that occupation 



9 



which they knew best, both by training and tradition; and 
they soon found a soil suited to an easy living, being easily 
tilled and fertile. All the first colonists, and for the most 
part those who came during the eighteenth century, took up 
farms and established homes along the chief rivers, on the 
fertile lands of the valleys. Here it was most easy to pro- 
duce their grains and breadstuffs, much of their meats being 
supplied out of the abundance of nature, out of the rivers and 
from the extensive forests. Here also it was possible to trans- 
port their surplus products to their neighbors, to the other 
colonies or to the old world, water being an easy means for 
such transportation. Finding the soil so fertile and fish and 
game so abundant, they cared little to enter the industrial and 
commercial fields, except in a very small domestic way. To 
be sure, they must manufacture some articles — ^materials for 
their cabins and houses — 'though in some cases these were 
brought from England, some implements of tillage and of 
transportation, canoes and small boats, crude mills for con- 
verting their grains into breadstuffs, the coarser cloth with 
which to cover and protect themselves, hats and shoes, and 
some of the utensils of their housekeeping. But their manu- 
facturing was on such a small scale, even during the latter 
part of the colonial period, that this part of their life never 
became a very important one. There are no records of the 
colonists of iSTorth Carolina making complaints against the 
famous trade acts of England, as was done by many of the 
ISTew England and middle colonists, these acts having practi- 
cally no effect in colonial ISTorth Carolina. This very fact — • 



10 



that no complaints were made against the trade acts — is 
strong evidence that we did not carry on any extensive manu- 
facturing, for had these acts restricted us in a material way 
we would unquestionably have complained ; we, as colonists, 
were quite fond of making complaints, and even of going as 
far as violent conduct whenever our rights were infringed 
upon. In commerce the colonists did something, but never 
to any great extent. They sold the surplus products of their 
farms — corn, tobacco, cotton, meat and hides. They also, to 
an extent, sold clapboards and ship timbers. 

Being largely agricultural in their occupation, it was very 
natural that towns should develop very slowly. In fact, dur- 
ing the first forty years of their life not a single town or 
village was developed, and during the latter part of the colo- 
nial period there were only a few. As late as 1750, almost 
one hundred years after the beginnings of the province, there 
was not a single town with a population of one thousand. 
Bath had been founded as a town in 1704, !N^ew Bern in 
1710, Edenton in 1714, Beaufort in 1723, Brunswick in 
1725, Wilmingion in 1734, but these were very small and 
unimportant, even throughout the whole colonial j)eriod. 
Charlotte, Salisbury, Hillsboro and Fayetteville were organ- 
ized as towns between 1758 and 1762, and none of these dur- 
ing the colonial period became important for their population 
or industrial and commercial activity. In short, town life 
never became very attractive to many of the colonists of North 
Carolina, and what few towns there were became much more 
important as centers of political activity than they did of 



11 



conunereial, industrial or social life. Thej were centers of 
local government, and often of political conflicts. They were 
places where a few products were bought and sold — not places 
of their making. The surplus products of the farms for miles 
about tiiem were taken there and exchanged for a few simple 
articles, salt being a very important one, and now and then 
converted into currency. At times they were centers of 
religious devotion and of intellectual life. There churches 
were erected, but during the last fifty years of the province 
more places for religious worship were to be found in the 
country than in the to^ms. Here were a few schools and 
libraries, bit there were more in the rural districts. 

So, then, for the most part our study is of the farmer, and 
of that farmer who lives, as do all colonists in a new country, 
close to the elements of nature, with environments on every 
hand which create and cultivate individuality and self- 
reliance. As we have seen, the l^orth Carolina colonists did 
not, as a rule, congregate together in towns, nor did they so 
often live clote to each other in the country ; they scattered 
far and wide, «ver moving westward in search of fertile lands. 
Their families were large, as is always the case with colonists 
in a new and fertile country ; a large number of children 
was the ideal o: each family. Parents living the life that the 
colonists must live, and having the strong, vigorous blood 
which floM'S in tie veins of pioneers, were blessed with a great 
offspring. And to rear these children was a very simple task ; 
as a rule they npaid their parents the expenses of their rear- 
ing, even during the first twenty years of their life. 



12 



These N^orth Carolina farmers, during the colonial period, 
were as a rule much unlike the farmers of Virginia and South 
Carolina. Thej were rarely great landlords, as was the 
case in these two provinces. The territorial policy, both 
under the Proprietors and the Crown, looked to the establish- 
ment of a system of small land-holdings in ISTorth Carolina. 
Six hundred and forty acres were, as a rule, the largest num- 
ber of acres granted to any one person. There were, how- 
ever, a few exceptions to this policy, but only a 7ery few. 
To be sure, a few very large tracts were granted by ihe Crown 
to certain London merchants, but these were made for pur- 
poses of speculation rather than settlement. This policy of 
small grants made it possible for almost every man or hoj to 
become the possessor of a farm. To lease this or to purchase 
it did not require much money, as the quit-rent| were small 
and the purchase price low. With easy and chetp lands and 
with large families, it was most natural that mafriage should 
take place at an early age. Marriage at thirte^ was not so 
unusual, and at fifteen was most common. Thtre was there- 
fore a high birth rate; the population increasjd rapidly by 
means of the excess of births over deaths an|i as a conse- 
quence of much immigration, especially aftei? 1735. With 
such a territorial system we would not expect to find many 
great farmers during the colonial period of Iforth Carolina, 
and they did not develop to any great extenj. To be sure, 
one farmer could purchase the lands of some of his neigh- 
bors, especially so during the latter part of fhe period, and 
this was done here and there, but to no gi^at extent. In 



13 



short, then, we must study the farmer colonists, and for the 
most part of the smaller type. And in this particular the 
subject of our study is quite different from what it would 
be were we to study the social life of South Carolina or 
Virginia — the homes of great landlords, with the show and 
power of feudal barons. 

ISTow, having defined to an extent the subject of our study, 
and having given to it a certain general setting, we are able to 
take it up someM^hat in detail. We may now study our far- 
mer colonist in some particular phases of his social life. The 
remaining portion of this paper will be devoted to that phase 
of his life known as his education and culture. 

I believe that it is now well established that most of the 
colonists came to I^orth Carolina for economic, not religious, 
reasons. They came to improve their means of living and 
to add to their wealth and well-being in the material things 
of life. To be sure, the prospect of religious freedom was 
also attractive to them^ but it was by no means the determin- 
ing element in their coming. After they became colonists 
they paid no great attention to the securing of ministers or 
the erection of places of worship. As evidence of this, there 
were but two or three Anglican churches in the whole prov- 
ince prior to 1729, though this was the established church 
from lYOl to 1776. There were during the early period a 
few places of worship for the Quakers, but not many. After 
1735 the Presbyterians and Baptists established churches in 
several places in the western portion of the province ; and so 
did the Germans after 1753. But upon the whole the first 



14 



hundred years of the colony saw no great religions activity. 
There were, as we have seen, only a few churches, and there 
were at times practically no ministers to serve these. So that 
upon the subject of religious instruction not much can be 
said beyond the statement of its great scarcity and ineffi- 
ciency. 

What was the condition of secular instruction among the 
colonists ? Here the picture is even less bright. During the 
first fifty years of the province there were but two or three 
little schools, and during the latter years, while there was 
an improvement, still it was by no means marked. It seems 
that as late as. 1776, when the province was transformed by 
its citizens into a state, secular as well as religious instruc- 
tion was in a low status; education was still almost wholly 
neglected by the great majority of the colonists, and so was 
it now by the masses of the people in the old world. While 
this was the condition of the bulk of these farmer colonists, 
still some of them were well educated, either hj private tutors 
or in the schools of Virginia, 'New England or old England. 
However, most of the farmers lived an easy life, a life near 
to nature; and though they were unpolished in many ways, 
still in them the love of personal freedom became a gi'eat pas- 
sion. For a long time the province was very thinly settled, 
the population being along the rivers and streams, which were 
often far separated from each other. The means of conmiu- 
nication between these settlements and between North Caro- 
lina and the outside world were very few and inefficient. In 
fact, the American colonists as a whole were far away from 



15 



the great heart pulse of intellectual life and culture. They 
were separated from England and Europe, the source and 
center of this life and culture, by more than three thousand 
miles of space. To traverse this space during the seventeenth 
and eighteenth centuries was no easy or quick task ; it re- 
quired months. ISTot only was North Carolina, as the other 
provinces, separated from home by this great distance, but her 
means of communication were far less efficient than were 
those of many of the other colonies. She had few good har- 
bors and few ships; she came in touch with the life of the 
old world largely indirectly — that is, through her neighbors 
to the north or south. It was therefore most natural that 
education should develop very slowly in North Carolina. 

As we have stated, there were some educated and cultured 
people in the province of North Carolina. They had libra- 
ries of their own. There were some books in the colony as 
early as 1680, and three or four libraries during the first 
decade of the eighteenth century. Most naturally these were 
in the northeastern part of the province, the oldest and 
wealthiest part. In the Cape Fear and western sections there 
were no books prior to 1750, but from this time to the close 
of the provincial period we find books and libraries belong- 
ing for the most part to the Presbyterian ministers and 
school-masters. 

In the education of the colonists, whatever it was, the 
Anglican Church played a most important part, especially 
so during the time prior to 1760. In fact, all of the educa- 
tional effort in the whole province prior to this date came 



16 



from this source. The English Society for the Propagation 
of the Gospel, which was formed about the first of the 
eighteenth century and was in operation until the close of the 
provincial period, took the leading part in this work. It had 
great influence upon the colonists, especially in giving 
religious and secular instruction ; it was the great teacher 
of the ]^orth Carolina colonists for more than fifty years. 
According to Dr. S. B. Weeks, whose statements are always 
found to be accurate, this society sent to the colonists at least 
six hundred bound volumes and a large nmuber of tracts. 
It did more than send books and tracts. It sent missionaries 
and teachers, and established schools a well as libraries. As 
far as the evidence goes, Charles Griffin was the first pro- 
fessional school-master in North Carolina. He came and 
settled in Pasquotank county in 1705. He was during this 
year appointed by the vestry as reader, and then opened a 
school, the first one in the province. This was attended 
by a number of cliildren, among whom were Quakers. Three 
years later, in 1Y08, the province was to have another 
teacher — Rev. James Adams. He was directed by the 
Society for the Propagation of the Gospel to settle in Pas- 
quotank county and to assume the control of the school which 
Griffin had established. Griffin was transferred to Chowan, 
where he opened another school and acted as reader and clerk. 
In 1712 we find record of another school-master at work in 
the province, at Saram on the frontier of Virginia as well 
as of Carolina. He, like Mr. Griffin, was a layman, and his 
name was Mashburn. That he held any position under the 



17 



vestry we cannot find out, but that he was under the general 
direction of the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel 
there is sufficient evidence. 

These three school-masters carried on for a few years suc- 
cessful local schools. Wliether there were others devoting 
their energies to the instruction of the youth of the colonists 
during the proprietary period, 1663-1729, we cannot say; 
if so, they have left no records to speak for themselves. For 
some time after the Crown assumed control in the govern- 
ment of the province, local schools were apparently unknown. 
As far as we know, Rev. James Moir, a representative of the 
Society for the Propagation of the Gospel, was the next 
school-master after Mr. Mashburn. In 1745 he opened 
in the to^vn of Brunswick a little school, using the first story 
of his dwelling-house for such purposes. In 1759 Colonel 
James Innes, by will, left his plantation, ''Point Pleasant," 
near the town of Wilming-ton, his large personal estates, his 
library and one hundred pounds sterling, to be used for school 
purposes. Apart from the donations of books and tracts by 
the English missionary society, of which we have spoken, 
this was the first gift made to education in ]S[orth Carolina. 
Four years later a high school was opened at Bandon, not far 
from Edenton, by Rev. Daniel Earl and his daughter. Mr. 
Earl was a minister in the Anglican Church, being the rector 
of Saint Paul's Parish of Chowan. This high school of Mr. 
Earl's was to be followed by others of the same type, by the 
academies of ISTew Bern in 1764, and of Edenton in 1770. 
The academy in 'New Bern was established by a Mr. Tomlin- 



18 



son, most probably under the influence of the English mis- 
sionary society. His efforts were so successful that the 
society gave him an annual grant on his salary. After this 
school had been in successful operation for about two years, 
it was incorporated by an act of the provincial legislature. 
It was by this act made a public school for the town of J^ew 
Bern. The trustees appointed by the act were required to 
take the oaths of the government and subscribe the test, 
thereby becoming public officers. Though now made a pub- 
lic school, it was still under the direction of the Church of 
England ; its master and teachers must belong to this church. 
But this was ^most natural, as the Anglican Church was the 
provincial establishment ; and it was in accord with the pro- 
visions of the schism act. iSTot only was it made a public 
institution, but the legislature gave it financial aid. A duty 
of one penny per gallon was levied on all rum and other 
spirituous liquors imported into the iSTeuse river for the 
period of seven years. The academy of Edenton was char- 
tered in 1770-1771, with practically the same provisions as 
the one in I^ew Bern, except the one granting financial aid 
from the provincial government. 

So far we have traced the efforts and their results of the 
Anglican Church in the cause of education during the colo- 
nial period. We have also spoken of the two successful 
efforts on the part of the provincial legislature. This body 
made several other attempts to establish schools for the prov- 
ince and to found a public school system, but they were for 
one reason or another unsuccessful. Had such a system been 



19 



established it would have been under the direction of the 
Anglican Church, as the provisions of the schism act re- 
quired ; and this act was in force in North Carolina, theoreti- 
cally at least, from 1Y30 to 1773. It practically forbade 
any one keeping a school, public or private, unless he was an 
Anglican in regular standing. Had it been rigidly enforced 
in the province of J^orth Carolina, our paper would now come 
to a close, as there would have been no other schools for the 
colonists. But, luckily for ISTorth Carolina, the provisions of 
this act were not rigidly enforced. The scattered settlements 
of the middle and western parts of the province and the great 
numbers of Dissenters in these localities, especially after 
1740, made it impossible for the provincial government, 
which had its residence for the most part along the sea coast, 
to carry out such provisions. The result was that western 
N^orth Carolina was to have during the last few years of the 
colony's life several academies, apart and distinct from the 
Anglican Church. Of these we shall now speak for a few 
moments. 

As we have stated, many Scotch-Irish and Scotch Presby- 
terians came to N^orth Carolina from about 1735 to 1770. 
These came by different routes, but when they reached the 
province they to a large extent settled in one section, the 
Piedmont region. Here they mingled and intermingled with 
each other. Here they established a good many churches, 
and wherever a church was established there they also built 
a school. These Presbyterians were the leaders of the intel- 
lectual and religious growth of the colony during its lat- 



20 



ter years. They were an energetic people ; they were vigorous 
in teaching others their ideas of a moral and religious life. 
And not only this, but these ISTorth Carolina Presbyterians 
were to be stimulated by those in the provinces to the north. 
As early as 1744 the Synods of Pennsylvania and ISTew York 
began to send missionaries to the Presbyteries in the south- 
ern colonies, especially in ISTorth Carolina, and these con- 
tinued to come until the close of the provincial period. In 
the number of those who came in this capacity to our prov- 
ince, and many of these became famous for power and influ- 
ence, Princeton College could claim most of them as her sons. 
It is perhaps safe to state that the Synods of New York and 
Pennsylvania,, under the leadership and inspiration of such 
an institution as Princeton College, had more to do with the 
education of ISTorth Carolina during its last fifteen years as 
a province than all other forces combined. They did for the 
colonists, especially those in the western part of the province, 
during 1760-1776, what the English Society for the Propa- 
gation of the Gospel had attempted to do during the first fifty 
years of the eighteenth century. The schools — and these were 
of the classical type — established by them were great in their 
influence. To do more than name them would not be in har- 
mony with the other parts of this paper, though a detailed 
statement of their history would be most interesting. The 
most important of these high or classical schools were : Crow- 
field, near Davidson College, opened in 1760 ; Caldwell's 
"Log College," near Greensboro, with the famous Dr. David 
Caldwell as its master, in 1766 ; Queen's Museum, at Char- 



21 



lotte, in 1767 ; and the schools of Rev, Heniy Patillo in 
Orange and Granville counties. ISTot only were these schools 
for the Presbyterian youth, but for the sons of other religious 
faiths. ]^either were they local ; to them went boys from all 
parts of the province. They soon became the really great 
educational centers of the whole colonv.* 



*For a much more detailed statement see Week's Libraries and Literature, Week's 
Beginnings of the Common School System in the South, and Raper's The Church and 
Private Schools of North Carolina. 



GOVERNORS OF NORTH CAROLINA.* 



PROPRIETARY GOVERNORS OF ALBEJIARLE. 



William Drummond 1663-'67 

Samuel Stephens . 1667-73 

Cartwright 1673-76 

Thomas Eastchurch 1676 

Thomas Miller, Deputy 1678 

John Culpepper 1678 

John Harvey 1680 

John Jenkins 1680-'81 

Henry Wilkinson 1681-'83 

Seth Sothel 1683-'89 

From 1689 the Chief Executive 
is called Governor of North Caro- 
lina. 

Philip Ludwell 1689-'93 

Alexander Lillington 1693-'95 



Thomas Harvey 1695-'99 

Henderson Walker 1699-1704 

Robert Daniel 1704-'05 

Thomas Gary, Deputy 1705-'06 

William Glover 1706-'07 

From 1708 to 1711,, utter ab- 
sence of government. 

Edward Hyde 1710-'12 

Thomas Pollock (acting) . 1712-'14 

Charles Eden 1714-'22 

Thomas Pollock (acting) . . . .1722 

William Reed (acting) 1722 

George Burrington 1724-'25 

Sir Richard Everard 1725-'29 



THE ROYAL GOVERNORS. 



George Burrington 1729 

Nathaniel Rice (acting) 1734 

Gabriel Johnston 1734-'52 

Nathaniel Rice (acting) 1752 

Matthew Rowan (acting) . 1752-'54 



Arthur Dobbs 1754-'65 

William Tryon 1765-71 

James Hasell (acting) 1771 

Josiah Martin 1771-75 



*This list is compiled from Redpath's Encyclopedia, Moore's History of North Caro- 
lina, and list published by Dr. Kemp P. Battle of the University of North Carolina. 



23 



GOVERNORS OF INDEPENDENT STATE. 



Richard Cas^vell 1777-'79 

Abner Nash 1779-'81 

Thomas Burke 1781-'82 

Alexander Martin 1782-'84 

Richard Caswell 1784-'87 

Samuel Johnston 1787-'89 

Alexander Martin 1789-'92 

Richard D. Spaight, Sr. . .1792-'95 

Samuel Ashe 1795-'98 

William R. Davie 1798-'99 

Benjamin Williams 1799-1802 

John Baptista Ashe (elected 
but died before qualifica- 
tion) 1802 

James Turner 1802-'05 

Nathaniel Alexander 1805-'07 

Benjamin Williams 1807-'08 

David Stone 1808-'10 

Benjamin Smith 1810-'ll 

William Hawkins 1811-'14 

William Miller 1814-'17 

John Branch 1817-'20 

Jesse Franklin 1820-'21 

Gabriel Holmes 1821-'24 

Hutchins G. Burton 1824-'27 

James Iredell 1827-'28 

John Owen 1828-'30 

Montfort Stokes 1830-'32 



David L. Swain I832-'35 

Richard D. Spaight, Jr . . . 1835-'37 

Since 1836 Governors have been 
elected by the people. 

Edward B. Dudley 1837-'41 

John M. Morehead 1841-'45 

William A. Graham 1845-'49 

Charles Manly 1849-'51 

David S. Reid 1851-'55 

Thomas Bragg 185o-'59 

John W. Ellis 1859-'61 

Warren Winslow (acting) . . .1861 

Henry T. Clark 1861-'62 

Zebulon B. Vance 1862-'65 

William W. Holden 1865 

Jonathan Worth 1865-'68 

William W. Holden 1868-'71 

Tod R. Caldwell 1871-'74 

Curtis H. Brogden 1874-'77 

Zebulon B. Vance 1877-78 

Thomas J. Jarvis 1879-'85 

Alfred M. Scales 1885-'89 

Daniel G. Fowle 1889-'91 

Thomas M. Holt 1891-'93 

Elias Carr 1893-'97 

Daniel L. Russell 1897-1901 

Charles B. Avcock 1901 



INDUSTRIAL EDUCATION 

AT THE 

AGRICULTURAL AND MECHANICAL COLLEGE, 

WEST RALEIGH, N. C. 



One hundred and twenty Scholarships for needy students. 

Courses of Study. — Agriculture; Mechanical, Electrical, Civil, Mining, and Chemical 
Engineering; Textile Industry; Dyeing; Normal Courses for Rural and City Teachers; 
Summer School for Teachers; Graduate Courses. 

Expenses.— Board, $72; Lodging, $10; Fuel and Lights, $12.50 ; Tuition, $20. 
For catalogue and information, address GEO. T. WINSTON, President, 

West Raleigh, N. C. 



E. M. UZZELL 6c CO., 
PRINTERS AND BINDERS, 

Cor. Wilmington and Martin Streets, 
RALEIGH, N. C. 



No. 6 




THE 



North Carolina Booklet 




GREAT EVENTS IN 



NORTH CAROLINA HISTORY 



HISTORIC HOMES 

OF 

NORTH CAROI.INA, 

PART III. 




I PRICE, 10 CENTS 



$1 THE YEAR 



HE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET. 



GREAT EVENTS IN NORTH CAROLINA HISTORY. 



VOL. IN. 

The Trial of James Glasgow, and the Supreme Court of North Carolina. 

Kemp P. Battle, LL. D. 
The Cherokee Indians. 

Major VvT. W. String-field. 
The Volunteer State (Tennessee) as a Seceder. 

Miss Susie Gentry. 
Historic Hillsboro. 

^ Mr. Francis Nash. 

Some Aspects of Social Life in Colonial North Carolina. 

Charles Lee Raper, Ph. D. 
Was Alamance the First Battle of the Revolution? 
Mrs. L. A, McCorkle. 

Historic Home^ in North Carolina — Panther Creek, Clay Hill-on-the 
Neuse, The Fort. 

Mrs. Hayne Davis, Miss Mary Hilliard Hinton, Mrs. R. T. Lenoir. 

Governor Charles Eden. 

Mr. Marshall DeLancey Haywood. 
/ The Colony of Transylvania. 
' Judge Walter Clark. 

Social Conditions in Colonial North Carolina: An Answer to Colonel 
William Byrd, of Westover, Virginia. 

Alexander Q. Holladay, LL. D. 
Historic Homes in North Carolina — Quaker Meadows. 

Judge A. C. Avery. 
The Battle of Moore's Creek. 

Prof. M. C. S. Noble. 



One Booklet a month will be issued by the North Caeoli^ja Society 
OF THE Daughters of the Revolution, beginning May, 1903. Price, 
$1 per year. 

Address MISS MARY HILLIARD HINTON, 

"Midway Plantation," 

Raleigh, N. C. 

Arrangements have been made to have this volume of the Booklet 
bound in Library style for 50 cents. Those living at a distance will 
please add stamps to cover cost of mailing. State whether black or 
red leather is preferred. 

EDITORS: 
MISS MARY HILLIARD HINTON. MRS. E. E. MOFFITT, 



VOL. Ill OCTOBER, 1903. No. 6 



THE 



NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET 



"CAROLINA I CAROLINA! HEAVEN'S BLESSINGS ATTEND HER! 
WHILE WE LIVE WE WILL CHERISH, PROTECT AND DEFEND HER." 



RALEIGH 

E. M. UzzELL & Co., Printers and Binders 

1903 



OFFICERS OF THE NORTH CAROLINA SOCIETY DAUGHTERS 
OF THE REVOLUTION, 1903: 

REGENT : 

MRS. THOMAS K. BRUNER. 

VICE-KEGERT : 

MRS. WALTER CLARK. 

HONORARY REGENTS: 

MRS. SPIER WHITAKER, 
(Nee Fanny DeBerniere Hooper), 

MRS. D. H. HILL, Sr. 

SECRETARY : 

MRS. E. E. MOFFITT. 

TREASURER : 

MRS. FRANK SHERWOOD. 

REGISTRAR : 

MRS. ED. CHAMBERS SMITH. 



Founder of the North Carolina Society and Regent 1896-1902: 
MRS. SPIER WHITAKER. 

Regent 1902: 
MRS. D. H. HILL, Sr. 



PREFACE. 



The object of the Koeth Caeolina Booklet is to erect 
a suitable memorial to the patriotic women who composed 
the "Edenton Tea Party." 

These stout-hearted women are every way worthy of admi- 
ration. On October 25, 1774, seven months before the defi- 
ant farmers of Mecklenburg had been aroused to the point of 
signing their Declaration of Independence, nearly twenty 
months before the declaration made by the gentlemen com- 
posing the Vestry of St. Paul's Church, Edenton, nearly 
two years before Jefferson penned the immortal ITational 
Declaration, these daring women solemnly subscribed to a 
docimaent afiirming that they would use no article taxed by 
England. Their example fostered in the whole State a deter- 
mination to die, or to be free. 

In beginning this new series, the Daughters of the Revo- 
lution desire to express their most cordial thanks to the for- 
mer competent and untiringly faithful Editors, and to ask 
for the new management the hearty support of all who are 
interested in the brave deeds, high thought, and lofty lives 
of the ISTorth Carolina of the olden days. 

Mrs. D. H. Hill. 




GENERAL WILLIAM LENOIR. 



FORT DEFIANCE. 



BY MRS. RUFUS THEODORE LENOIR, Sr. 



This ancestral home, called by many of its friends "The 
Fort," is located in a lovely little valley some twenty miles 
from the source of the Yadkin river. It stretches along the 
river on either side for five miles or more and nestles among 
the slopes and foot-hills, sleeping, as it were, in perfect peace 
and security, while the blue mountains guard and keep watch 
over it on every side, its beauty ever changing — dark and 
grand in storm, brilliant when bathed in the golden sun- 
shine, soft and fleecy when the purple mists hang over it; 
even the seasons vie with each other in bringing their own 
peculiar and precious gifts. 

It was to this favored spot that General William Lenoir 
came soon after the Revolutionary War, and in time became 
possessor of almost the whole of it, giving portions of it to 
several of his children as they in the course of events married 
and left the roof-tree. 

On account of its many natural charms and because of the 
congeniality and unity that existed between these families, 
the gayety and happiness of the younger members — of whom 
there were a goodly number — one of its lovers many years 
ago called it "The Happy Valley," and the name still clings 
to it. General Lenoir built his mansion in 1784-'85, and one 



6 



can liardlj realize in this age of architecture that it was a 
wonderful structure in that day, the people in the surround- 
ing country coming long distances to behold and admire it. 
He chose a site near an old fort, from which the place takes 
its name, and it is of this fort that I write, quoting in this 
article a description of the old home as it was a quarter of 
a century ago. 

This fort was built on the east side of a table^land, on 
the very edge of a precipice. It was built of logs, in the early 
history of the country, when the Indians were numerous and 
troublesome. The women and children were often hurried 
into this refuge, while the fathers, husbands and sons de- 
fended theln. The -family cemetery, a beautiful and quiet 
spot, commanding a view of a great portion of the country, 
is on the site of this fort. The first one laid to rest there was 
a little child who died while in the fort. Many arrow-heads 
have been found about the place, hurled there, no doubt, 
from the bows of the wa,rrior who made desperate efforts to 
hold the dark, deep forests which he loved and of which he had 
been lord so long, claiming them as his o^^m by prior right; 
and stout and brave hearts they must indeed have been who 
contended with this relentless and obstinate foe. Whether 
the red man has been wronged we do not stop here to enquire, 
but he has been driven far westward, and his Happy Hunting 
Grounds are now broad and fertile fields. His bones and 
relics mark his retreating foot-steps. Across the river from 
the fort is an Indian burying-ground, in which have been 
found many curious treasures buried with their dead. Two 



very large and heavy battle-axes were found in the creek 
below the fort many years ago, and one other relic worthy 
of mention, said to be the finest specimen of the kind known — 
a rare and beautifully polished stone eighteen inches in 
length, slender and shapely and tapering from the symmetri- 
cally cuiwed head to the end, smooth and black as ebony — 
thought by those versed in Indian lore to have been held by 
the ruling chief as a badge of authority when sitting in coun- 
cil. Many others, showing wonderful ingenuity in workman- 
ship p.nd ideas of proportion and finish, are still preserved in 
the old home. 

If these hills and streams and fields and mountains could 
speak, what tales would thrill us, of hardships, sacrifices and 
sufferings of the whites, and what cunning and cruelty of 
the red man, so exasperated by his wrongs ! But I must not 
digress, but pass on to the old mansion, and by permission 
of the author of "Hand in Hand Through The Happy Val- 
ley," I will give a description of it in her own words, as it 
was at that time. Mrs. Oertel says : "The home to which I 
would lead my readers is known by the very belligerent and 
bristling cogTiomen of 'Fort Defiance.' The name is far, 
however, from giving any idea of the spirit that pervades it 
or its inmates, but is derived from an old fort of that name, 
w^hich in the early history of our country did service in the 
line of defence erected against the Indians. It was located 
here, just behind the spot where the residence now stands, 
upon the edge of a steep set-off, at the foot of which a creek 
flows. The former site of the fort is now the grave-yard, 



8 



where a goodly family group, members of four generations, 
are quietly waiting for the resurrection. A strange fascina- 
tion clings about this curious old house. It is so quaint in 
construction and the air about it seems so thick with memo- 
ries that we cannot help loving it. In the center of the build- 
ing a spacious room running through the entire house, from 
which a stairway with heavy oaken banisters leads up to the 
second floor, is called 'The Hall.' A large fire-place with 
panel work above and around it fills up one end. In the 
corner the grim old clock stands, ruthlessly ticking away the 
hours and days and years — ticking slowly and solemnly, as 
if it had upon its beating heart a remembrance of the many 
lives it has 'seen come and go in this old home, whose hours 
of birth and death have been numbered from its dial, as if 
it had gained through all these years, watching the fleeting 
human shadows which have passed before it, a sense of its 
own steadfastness and of the importance of its mission." 

This "Hall" has been largely used as a dining apartment, 
although the family dining-room is at present to the right 
of it. If its walls could speak, what tales they could tell of 
merry times in the long ago, of the family reunions, the 
birthdays and the wedding feasts ! 

The antique sideboard which has so often groaned beneath 
the dainties piled upon it still keeps its place near the old 
clock ; there seems to be a kind of comradeship between them, 
as if they could say "You and I" to each other, and a sort of 
stately, old-time spirit lingers about them both. There are 
doors, front and back, leading from the "Hall" into the 



open air. Behind the smaller dining-room is a bed-room, 
and from it a second stairway leads to a suite of rooms above, 
from which again a second stairway rises to the old garret, a 
perfect curiosity shop in its way, being filled with all the 
paraphernalia, the waifs and strays of a family life a cen- 
tury old. 

To the left of the "Hall" is the parlor, with a room 
attached to it, and a third stairway enclosed and winding, 
with odd little drawers in the wall all up the sides. There 
is no connection with this parlor part of the house and the 
rest except by way of the piazza, which stretches the whole 
length of the house, festooned with trailing vines, grapes and 
roses. ]Sr either is there any connection on the second floor 
between the apartments to which the three stairways lead. 
The modern ideas of convenience find no place here in this 
respect. The kitchen and servants' room are detached from 
the house, as is the usual custom in the South. 

"Roses either side the door, are 
Growing lithe and tall, 
Each one set, a summer warder, 
For the keeping of the hall — 
With a red rose and a white rose 
Leaning, nodding to the wall." 

From the central door a wide walk leads out through the 
garden. It is bordered on each side with spacious beds of 
flowers that seem to flourish here as nowhere else. Surely 
never anywhere else do leaves unfold and buds bloom where 
they meet with such a gracious, loving welcome as here. All 
the sweet old-fashioned flowers find plenty of room. The 



10 

old spicy pink, the sweet william, tulips and hyacinths, 
the hollyhocks, the jump-up-johnnies, the blue corn flowers, 
sweet-peas and poppies and great clumps of annunciation 
lilies are not crowded out, though they stand in close prox- 
imity to many of the new and more pretentious blossoms; 
and in the winter the cold-pit is full of the newest triumphs 
of floriculture. 

At the end of the walk is a secluded nook, covered and 
shaded by century-old cedars and surrounded by the old- 
fashioned box, dark and cool at the hottest midday, jocosely 
called by the family "The Lovers' Retreat." Indeed, it has 
been said that in the course of events several engagements 
have taken place in this romantic and cosy corner. Around 
the entrance roses and lilac bushes flourish, while in the 
early part of the day on every side the eye is gladdened by 
the clean, pure faces of the morning-glories which run riot 
over everything. 

Of course, to those who have lived here so long this gar- 
den is haunted ground, peopled to their loving ken mth 
forms that others see not. Among them there is one, a — 

"Little maid with wondrous eyes, 
Not afraid, but clear and tender, 
Blue and filled with prophecies," 

as she looked dreamily out at "life's unlifted veil," whose 
lovely, happy life was interwoven with its flower-life like 
warp and woof. Looking out beyond the garden bounds, on 
to the mountains, gi-een pastures, rich harvest fields, and quiet, 
solemn woodlands lie. To the right the gTomid descends 



11 

rapidly to the same little stream of water before spoken of 

as running dowTi below the family burying-ground. It flows 

through the barn-yard, giving drink, bright and fresh and 

clear, to the many fuU-uddered cows gathered therein. It is 

like the sweet idyl — 

"The lovely laughter of the wind-swept wheat, 
The easy slope of yonder pastoral hill, 
The sedgy brook whereby the red kine meet 
And wade and drink their fill." 

Beside this stream there stands several large old beech- 
trees with great overhanging branches and white roots, with 
their multitudinons arms stretched and intertwined in the 
most fantastic way. They have a weird, elfish look, especially 
by moonlight. 

"On the left the sheep are cropping 
The stout grass and daisies pale. 
And the apple-trees stand dropping 

Separate shadows to the vale; 
Over which, in choral silence, 

The hills look you their 'All Hail'!" 

Jnst behind the house, between it and the garden, stands 
a huge catalpa-tree. The old giant has basked in many a 
summer sun and braved many a storm. An aged grape-vine 
throws its snake-like form up the trimk and around its 
branches and gracefully intertwines its leaves and sprays 
with the large plain leaves of the tree. 

Several smaller houses are grouped about, in one of which 
stands the loom, where wondrously fine fabrics are woven by 
hand — not only jeans and linseys, but fine dimities and table 



'• ' ^ ■'- . , ■ 12 

and bed linen and tasteful carpets. Though in these days of 
steam macliinery goods could be bought cheaper than ther 
can be thus manufactured at home, and very much trouble be 
saved, still so many of the poor people around have been in 
the habit of depending on the old home for their subsistence 
in these various industries, that the present mistress feels it 
her duty to keep up the old customs. 

In front of the house is a circle of grand old spruce pines. 
They are strong and vigorous and are magnificent in form 
and solemn and stately in their intensely dark-green foliage. 

The mansion was built by General William Lenoir nearly 
one hundred years ago, the work of construction being com- 
menced in 1Y85. It was a laborious undertaking in those 
days. The frame is of heavy oaken timber and still in a 
state of excellent preservation. General Lenoir lived at that 
time in a smaller house on the opjjosite side of the river. 
The nails were made by hand by the blacksmith on his planta- 
tion, and the most of the heavy lumber was sawed with a 
whip-saw. 

The cornice which still adorns the eaves, the looking- 
glasses and other articles, were ordered from Liverpool. They 
were received at the port of Charleston and hauled all the 
long way in road wagons. 

General Lenoir was born in Virginia. His grandfather 
was a French Huguenot — one of four brothers who were 
expelled from France at the time of the revocation of the 
Edict of the Nantes. He came to America in his own vessel, 
and in one of his vovasres to or from his native coimtrv after- 



wards, his vessel was lost in a storm, carrying him. to a sea- 
man's grave. General Lenoir was rather a stern man, of dig- 
nified demeanor, but it has been said of him that his manners 
towards the fair sex were like those of the knights of the 
olden time. He was exceedingly kind to the poor, and his 
doors were always open to receive the traveler, as there were 
no taverns in the country in those primitive days. Perhaps 
the best account that could be given of his life is contained in 
the epitaph upon his tombstone. The matter of the inscrip- 
tion was left to his friends and associates in public lifa 
This is their estimate of him — their tribute to his memory : 

HERE LIES 

ALL THAT IS MORTAL OF 

WILLIAM LENOIR, 

BORN MAY 8th, 1751. 

DIED MAY 6th, 1839. 

In times that tried men's souls he was a genuine Whig. As a lieu- 
tenant under Rutherford and Williams in 1776, and as a captain under 
Cleveland at King's Mountain, he proved himself a brave soldier. 
Although a native of another State, yet North Carolina was proud of 
him as her adopted son. In her service he filled the several offices of 
Major- General of the Militia, President of the Council of State, member 
of both houses of the Legislature, Speaker of the Senate, first President 
of the Board of Trustees of the University, and for sixty years Justice 
of the Peace and Chairman of the Court of Common Pleas. In all these 
high public trusts he was found faithful. In private life he was no less 
distinguished as an affectionate husband, a kind father and a warm- 
hearted friend. The traveler will long remember his hospitality, and 
the poor bless him as their benefactor. 

Of such a man it may truly be said that his highest eulogy is the 
record of his deeds. 

A very interesting incident in connection with the battle 
of King's Mountain is related by the family. When the call 



14 

came for recruits, as Major Ferguson of the Britisli army 
was coming up the country with his command, intending to 
embody and organize tlie Loyalists beyond the Wateree and 
Broad rivers, and to intercept the mountain men who were 
retreating from Camden, every man who had a horse started 
for the scene of action. William Lenoir was then living in 
Wilkes county and joined the forces under Cleveland. He 
was made a captain, and his two friends, Herndon and Jesse 
Franklin, afterwards Governor of the State, had also some 
official appointments. These three made a compact together 
that they would stand by and succor each other in whatever 
circumstances they might be placed. As the command was 
going up the mountain there came a man beckoning and call- 
ing, "Back! Back!" and he pointed out another way, which 
they took, and that proved to have been the only way by 
which Ferguson could have escaped. That man was quite 
unknown, had never been seen by any of them before and 
was never seen afterwards. 

General Lenoir always said it was a providential inter- 
ference — that it was God's will that the Federal forces should 
be triumphant, and so He led them by the right way to cut 
off the enemy's only chance of escape. 

There is also treasured up in the old home an English 
officer's sword that General Lenoir picked up and brought 
home with him from the battle-field. It has a fine, keen 
blade, upon which is engraved this legend in Spanish: 

"Draw me not without reason, 
Sheathe me not without honor." 



15 



His wife was of an aristocratic Englisli family and a 
thorougli church-woman. She was so situated in life that 
she was cut off from all church association. But though true 
to her church and never uniting with any of the denomina- 
tions around her, she had a large and loving heart, full of 
generous impulses, giving out its affection to all who called 
themselves Christians. She was so amiable and good that 
her children used to say "Mother not only forgives an injury, 
but really and truly forgets." She was a cripple and walked 
with crutches for the last ten years of her life, but she was 
always contented and cheerful. 

Mrs. Oertel closes her description of the old place by say- 
ing: "A grandson of this worthy couple is now owner of 
the venerable home." This grandson, the youngest and last 
of his father's house, is still spared to it, strong and hale 
enough for one only two years from fourscore. 

One is gone — a gentle sister, so closely allied to the old 
home and The Happy Valley — ^the "Aunt Sade" of all the 
connection and friends whom she loved — so faithful and so 
loyal to all the "family traditions." 

"Life's work well done. 
Life's race well run, 
Life's crown well won." 

She has been called to the peace and blessedness of Para- 
dise. 

Three generations bearing the same name — Rufus Theo- 
dore Lenoir — now live in the old mansion, and the happy 
frolics and joyous laughter of four-year-old Eufus Theo- 



16 

dore III. eclhoes through the halls that were for a time so 
quiet. The house has been necessarily remodeled and much 
of the quaintness and the "savor of the olden time" has given 
place to comfort and convenience. 

Other changes there are. The old sun-dial that in the old, 
old time stood in the middle of the garden, surrounded by 
sweet-fringed pinks and thyme and camomile, is gone, and 
the old-time flowers are supplanted by others. The rows of 
lavender that so delicately perfumed the linen closet are 
"sweet memories of the past." But the dark old spruce pines, 
tall and stately, planted more than a century ago by the hand 
of the first master of the house, still stand around and woo 
the whispering winds. And the tulips, jonquils, crocuses, 
snow-drops and hyacinths, sweet heralds of spring — "the 
same fair things lift up the same fair faces" — coming forth 
out of their winter's sleep, perfume the air and gladden the 
hearts of all beholders, as they have done, year by year, since 
they were planted by dear hands a century ago. But the 
restlessness and aggressiveness so apparent everj^vhere has 
found its way into this "Happy Valley," and the sound of 
the falling of giant trees on the mountain sides, the noise of 
the ruthless saw and the steam whistle are heard on every 
side. 

But God's works remain. His mountains stand around 
unchanged in form, the same soft mist hangs over them, the 
balmy breezes blow, the bird-songs thrill the air, and the same 
quiet peace — foretaste of God's perfect and eternal peace — 
broods over all. May the same peace abide ever in the hearts 



of all those who know and love "The Happy Valley," ever 

bearing in mind that this same favored spot, this sweet vale 

that no works of man can destroy, is a precious heritage from 

the old Revolutionary soldier and hero. General William 

Lenoir. 

Oh, if by Jesus' pity 

We gain the Heavenly Rest, 
And find the loved and sainted 

Who slumbered in thy breast. 

Shall we the Crystal River 

See gleam in land so fair, 
And learn. Sweet Vale, thy beauty 

Had helped to bring us there? 

That all thy charms so goodly. 

By a gracious Father given. 
Were pledge of joys eternal 

And perfect peace of Heaven? 



PANTHER CREEK. 



By MRS. HAYNE DAVIS. 



About the year 1750, Joseph Williams and Rebecca Lanier 
of Granville county were married. They moved to what was 
then Surry county and settled about three miles from the 
"Shallow Ford" of the Yadkin river. They owned a large 
body of land and many slaves. They seemed to prosper in 
every way. In the course of a few years came the call to 
arms. Joseph ^Williams responded at once and was soon in 
command of a regiment and served all through the war. 
Mrs. Williams, who had three sons, took charge at home and 
managed all things well. Before leaving for the war, Colonel 
Williams had laid in all kinds of supplies for his family, 
and we have little idea what that meant in those days of 
plenty and comfort. After a time came the news of the 
approach of the army of Lord Comwallis. Mrs. Williams 
had an infant of only two weeks old, her fourth son, and 
as the British army approached, she took her children and an 
old negro woman, and sought refuge in the woods, where she 
remained until the army had crossed the river at the Shallow 
Ford, When she reached home she found that all of her 
supplies had been entirely destroyed by the army, nothing 
having been left. They were not as ruthless as many in- 
vaders, as her home and the quarters of her negroes were not 



19 

burned. We can hardly imagine what it must have been to 
her to be again under a roof. Her infant child, named 
ISTathaniel, had contracted a heavy cold while they were in 
the woods ; and, not having even the barest necessaries of life 
left, and her husband away in the field, she decided to return 
to Granville county, where her family lived. How she was 
to make the journey was a most serious question, and one 
that we cannot realize. It tried her to the uttermost, but her 
brave heart did not quail ; and after arranging for her two 
oldest boys and the negroes, she mounted a horse with her 
sick baby in her lap and a boy of two and one-half years 
behind her, and, alone, made the long journey to Granville 
in safety, much of the country being forests and a great deal 
of it swarming with Tories, but she was unmolested and at 
last found the rest which we can see she sadly needed. Her 
child was ruined by the exposure, the soft place in his head 
never closing, and although he lived to be over twenty years 
old, was a constant care to his mother, who was devoted to 
him. To the end of his life she kept him in her own room. 

Her family were French Huguenots, who left France after 
the revocation of the Edict of the IvTantes. Among other 
things, they brought their Huguenot Bible, which was lost 
when the old homestead. Panther Creek, was burned. Colonel 
Williams' Revolutionary uniform and cocked hat and many 
other relics were destroyed at the same time. 

After peace was declared the Williamses began life again 
at Panther Creek. Colonel Williams was still active in the 



20 

field, several times helping to drive the hostile Indians back. 
On one of these expeditions his command camped on what is 
now the site of the city of Knoxville. Colonel Williams is 
said to have remarked, "Some day a great city will be here." 
He raised a family of ten sons and two daughters. Several 
of his sons were graduated at the University of JSTorth Caro- 
lina. 

1. Robert, "a man of distinguished attainments, great re- 
search and acute intellect," was a member of Congress from 
179 Y to 1803. He was the Adjutant-General of the State 
during the War of 1812, He built the brick house in Raleigh 
down on Fayetteville street, owned by Mr. Roulhao after- 
wards, and then by Dr. Kemp Battle. 

2. Joseph. He ovv-ned a large body of land in what is now 
Yadkin county, across the river from the town of Rockford. 
Among his descendants are James D. Glenn, of Greensboro, 
and Robert B. Glenn, of Winston. 

3. John. He made the trip with his mother across the 
State on horseback. He settled in Knoxville, Tennessee. 
He was colonel of a Tennessee regiment and fought at the 
battle of Horseshoe Bend under General Jackson against 
the Creek Indians. He was Senator from Tennessee and 
Minister to Guatemala. While he was serving in the Senate, 
his son, Joseph L. Williams, was a member of the House of 
Representatives. Captain Richmond Pearson Hobson is his 
great-grandson. 

4. JSTathaniel, born during the Revolution and ruined by 



21 



exposure when only two weeks old, when his mother fled from 
her home on the coming of the British army. 

5. Lewis. He entered public life in 1813 as a member 
of the House of Commons and was re-elected in 1814. In 
1815 he was elected member of Congress and served con- 
tinuously until 1842. He died in Washington in 1842. He 
never married. 

6. Thomas, Lewis' twin brother, moved to Tennessee and 
was long Chancellor there. 

7. Alexander lived in Greeneville, Tennessee, where he 
owned many broad acres. Judge Snead of Knoxville is his 
grandson. 

8. William owned the Strawberry Plains Plantation in 
Tennessee, which, during the War Between the States, was 
ruined by the Yankees, nothing but the land having been 
left. Major Stringfield of Waynesville is his grandson. 

9. James died comparatively young. 

10. Nicholas. He inherited the home, Panther Creek, 
where he spent his days in ease and affluence, dispensing a 
most lavish hospitality until the end of the Civil War, which ' 
brought with it the changes which broke up so many Southern 
homes. The home was built in the old colonial style, and 
the garden was famous for its hedges, flowers and shrubbery, 
of which I am told but little except the tin box is left. Mr. 
ISTicholas Lillington and his family live at the old place. 
Mr. 'N. Glenn Williams, another grandson, who owns much 
of the land, lives near. 



22 

11. Rebecca, tlae oldest daugliter, married Colonel Wim- 
bish of Halifax, Va. She was one of tbe two first pupils of 
the Salem Female Academy. 

12. Fannie married Colonel John P. Ervin of Nashville, 
Tennessee. His sister was the wife of John Bell, the last 
Whig candidate for the presidency. 

The Williams family were famous as high-toned men and 
women, always ready to answer with their best to the calls of 
State and country, and their descendants are numerous in 
many parts of the South, 

From DeBow's Review, J^ovember, 1860, page 583, by 
James Colton, the following extract is taken : 

THE RESIDENCE OF NICHOLAS WILLIAMS UPON THE YADKIN. 

"Approaching the house, the scene before him reminded 
the writer of some of those splendid old baronial possessions 
in England which have been so graphically described by Sir 
Walter Scott in his brilliant stories of olden times. 

"The forest of oak, pine, cedar and chestnut formed a com- 
plete circle, leaving an open space of about ten acres, in the 
midst of which the mansion — a neat and antiquated-looking 
building which was commenced before the Revolution and 
finished after its close — ahnost entirely hid from view by 
wide-branched oaks, which flung their gnarled arms over a 
thick carpet of the most delicious greensward. 

"On our left, as we approached the mansion from the large 
gate of the outside enclosure, is a meadow of tall, waving 



23 



grass, and on the right is a lovely flower garden — shrubbery 
which Thurston might have envied, environed by a beautiful 
juniper hedge. 'No one who has read Milton's Paradise Lost 
can look upon a beautifully arranged garden without being 
so richly reminded of the charming Garden of Eden, which 
his strong imagination so richly bodied forth in that immor- 
tal poem." 



CLAY HILL-ON-THE-NEUSE. 



BY MARY MILLIARD HINTON. 



As one journeys east from the capital of ISTortli Carolina 
over the Tarborough road, he sees on the right, after crossing 
license River, a quaint colonial house standing high on a hill 
clearly outlined against the southern sky — a speaking memo- 
rial of a Revolutionary patriot, prominent during the latter 
part of the eighteenth and the beginning of the nineteenth 
centuries, and 6f a fascinating period that has passed away 
forever. This is "Clay Hill," the home of Major John Hin- 
ton of the Revolution. The antiquity and the very air of 
departed better days, and the gloom, which permeate this 
landmark of Wake county's early history, suggest courtly 
manners, stiff brocades, powdered coiffeurs, high-heeled slip- 
pers, knee-breeches and huge buckles. Later the uniforms of 
buff and blue, and the intrusion of the Tories. What a con- 
trast to the valley below, where progress and invention have 
left their stamp ! There a modern iron bridge spans the 
ISTeuse, and the quiet is broken by the mighty rush of water 
over the dam, the buzz, ever constant, of an up^to-date electric 
plant, the puffing of a gasoline launch and the occasional 
passing of an automobile. "Clay Hill" has witnessed many 
stirring events, and numerous interesting scenes have occurred 
within its walls. Could a fuller record of its past history be 



25 

obtained, liow valuable it would be to a student of social life 
in ISTortli Carolina, since the mode of living here represented 
the customs of the higher aristocratic circle in this inland 
section. Here a lavish hospitality was dispensed, some of 
the most influential men of that time in the State — names 
familiar in our history — having at one time or another par- 
taken of the courtesies of its genial host. Here gay hunting 
parties, sumptuous dinners and large weddings were some of 
the occasions of gathering together the distant planters, states- 
men, soldiers and their families — ^the beaux and belles of 
long ago. Here has been known the vandalism of two wars 
and the secret meetings of the Ku-Klux Klan. 

Major John Hinton came of an old and honored English 
family. He was the eldest son of Colonel John Hinton, one 
of Wake's pioneers and Revolutionary soldiers, and of Grizelle 
Kimbrough, his wife. He was born in Wake county, March 
14, 1748. During his childhood his home was a log cabin, 
(the door of which was in the top of the house, entered by 
means of a movable ladder), surrounded by thousands of 
acres of primeval forest full of wild beasts and roving 
Indians. This section was the hunting-ground of the Tusca- 
roras. I^ear the site of Hinton's old home can still be found 
traces of an Indian burying-ground. There were no neigh- 
bors in that vast wilderness. Later, however, from the east 
came Colonel Joel Lane, whom tradition styles "a dressy 
widower," and settled at Bloomsbury; while some ten miles 
to the west Colonel Theophilus Hunter, senior, founded 
"Hunter's Lodge." Between these families existed the most 



26 

friendly relations, resulting in marriages. Eventually tlie 
family of ISTathaniel Jones located at "White Plains," about 
fourteen miles away. Then, too, came JSTathaniel Jones of 
"Crabtree," not a blood relation, tbougb connected by mar- 
riage with tbe builder of "White Plains." 

Major Hinton, being the eldest son, soon learned self- 
reliance. While his father was adding to his vast landed 
estate by taking up new grants of land, he also took up 
numerous grants from Earl Granville. These contained about 
six hundred and forty acres each, the usual amount bestowed 
on the early settlers of the Province of Carolina. After com- 
ing into possession of his inheritance on the death of his 
father in the spring of 1784, he was regarded as one of the 
three wealthiest men in his county, as well as one of the 
most influential. There were large tracts owned by him 
around the present town of Raleigh. On March 26, 1776, 
Colonel John Hinton sold his son John a tract of land con- 
taining 640 acres on Neuse river, for "the sum of one hun- 
dred pounds proclamation money," which shows the value 
of real estate at the beginning of the Revolution. He owned 
a number of slaves who were fresh from the jungles of Africa. 
These ignorant savages were soon enlightened in the arts of 
civilization and proved useful servants. As a proof of the 
kindness of theit master, these slaves were devotedly attached 
to him. 

On June 27, 1765, at the early age of seventeen, John 
Hinton, junior, married Pherebee, daughter of John Smith, 
the founder of Smithfield, North Carolina, and Elizabeth 



27 

Whitfield, his wife. The bride was but sixteen, having been 
bom October 16, 1748, and childish even for her years. 
Often she was frightened by the boyish pranks played by her 
husband. They settled at "Clay Hill," where they lived 
happily till the war-cloud overshadowed the colonies. 

"Clay Hill" is the second oldest house now standing in the 
county, the home of Colonel Joel Lane at Bloomsbury (now 
Raleigh) being the oldest. Major Hinton erected "Clay 
Hill" hefore the Revolution. It is well built, only heart tim- 
ber having been used, while the nails are of wrought iron. 
Though more than a century and a quarter old, it is still 
in a fine state of preservation, and there is no reason, if care 
could be taken, why it should not stand many years longer. 
At that time in this sparsely settled back country it was 
really an elegant residence, without a superior. Such work 
then was a tremendous undertaking; on a river that is not 
navigable, with no town near by and only deep, muddy 
roads leading to the outer world, made the task of building 
almost impossible. The name naturally implies the character 
of the soil of that particular eminence — red clay. The 
grounds were covered with the greenest grass, shaded by 
stately sycamoresi, tall elms, and cedars. A neat white 
paling surrounded all. The main entrance faced the ris- 
ing sun. A porch, whose slanting ceiling is plastered, 
supported by four small fluted columns, extends the 
length of the front side. From this point one has a 
fine view of the surrounding landscape: for miles can 
be seen the graceful undulation of the hills, intersected with 



28 

valleys, crowned here with forests, there with well-tilled 
fields. Through it all slowly flows the ISTeuse to join the 
Trent at JSTew Bern. Bathed in the golden sunshine of 
autumn, softened by blue and purple tones, this is a 
goodly scene to gaze upon, recalling vividly that fairer "Land 
of the Sky." The single front door opened into the parlor; 
on the right a door led into the small but inviting dining- 
room ; into this opened the butler's pantry. Through this 
butler's pantry all meals were brought from the outside 
kitchen (since destroyed) over the stone-paved walk. Back of 
the dining-room was a bed-room without a fire-place. The 
builder of "Clay Hill" deemed such a luxury as a fire in one's 
sleeping apartment unhealthy ! Adjoining this was a dressing- 
rooms and closets. The parlors opened into a square back hall. 
From this a stair-case, with a quaint, plain balustrade, leads to 
the upper story. Here are a large hall-room and three cham- 
bers. In the lower hall are two out-doors. In this hall the last 
mistress of "Clay Hill" on smnmer evenings sometimes served 
tea from the daintiest china. The wainscoting on the first 
floor was high, but was replaced later by some about nine 
inches deep. The rooms, whose walls are hard-finished, are 
high-pitched ; the wood-work is ornamented, but is not elabo- 
rate. The small windows have tiny panes and blinds. In 
the plan of the whole, convenience was regarded. There is 
a cellar in which were stored choice wines. Originally the 
house was painted white, the blinds green. The furniture 
was mahogany and walnut. The silver was of the severely 
plain colonial style, exceedingly white and only marked with 



29 

tlie initial "H." A certain ladle has been in the family for 
generations and descends to the eldest son, who haS' always 
borne the name John. It is now in th^ possession of the 
seventh of the name, a resident of Georgia. The family Bible 
also passed to that branch. There was a large collection of 
handsome cut-glass and elegant china, a set of India china 
and other dainty pieces. 

Guests at "Clay Hill" could never forget the lavender- 
scented linen and the spotless napery. A few books com- 
posed the library. There were many substantially built out- 
houses on the premises^ — in fact, all necessary to the manage- 
ment of a large, well-ordered plantation. Some of these are 
still standing. On the south was the garden — a typical old- 
fashioned one, intersected by carefully kept walks bordered 
with all kinds of flowers. Here bloomed in profusion roses, 
jonquils, hyacinths, crape myrtles, snow-balls, lilacs, sweet 
betsies, honeysuckles and lavender, the very air being redo- 
lent mth their heavy perfume. All the herbs found a place 
here, viz., tansy, rue, thyme, sage, mint. 

John Hinton, junior, never wavered — ^his feelings were 
with the patriots. Though loyal to the Crown till tyranny 
reigned, he decided to defend the rights of his native land, 
risking life and fortune in the long struggle. On August 20, 
17 Y 5, the Provincial Congress met at Hillsborough and made 
preparations for the approaching conflict. On September 
9th CongTess appointed officers for the minute-men in the 
different counties. The officers chosen for Wake were : John 
Hinton, Colonel ; Theophilus Hunter, Lieutenant-Colonel ; 



30 

John Hinton, junior, First Major; Thomas Hines, Second 
Major, Major Hinton was present with his regiment at the 
battle of Moore's Creek Bridge, February 27, 1776, and took 
an active part in that decisive engagement. 

During the war Major Hinton was compelled to leave his 
family and home to the mercy of those most ruthless invaders, 
the Tories, but happily they escaped alive. On one occasion, 
when he happened to be at "Clay Hill/' a band of Fanning's 
fiends, knowing of his presence and that he had in his pos- 
session funds of the unrecog-nized government, came upon 
him at night. The guide to this band was an enemy whom 
Hinton had once found stealing at his fish-trap in the JSTeuse 
and fired at him. It was never forgiven. This man re- 
mained in the yard as a sentinel while the gang forced an 
entrance into the house, breaking a panel out of the front 
door. Major Hinton saw the hopelessness of his position, 
but determined to defend his sick v^fe and helpless children 
at all odds. In the fierce struggle they fired upon him, 
wounding him badly. They demanded that Major Hinton 
should relinquish at once his precious charge, but he refused 
to comply; whereupon they seized him, tying his hands in 
front, bound him to an arm-chair and beat him unmercifully ; 
still that strong will yielded not. As a last resort they threat- 
ened to hang him and made preparations for the act. In the 
meantime a thorough search was made. The coin, tied in 
bags, was locked in the secretary. Suspecting this, they said 
they were going to break into it. It was then that his wife 
said: "Don't break it open; I shall unlock it." Throwing a 



31 

blanket around her, she rose from' the bed, unlocked the desk, 
lowered the lid and slipped the bags of money under the 
blanket and retired to the bed safely. In the interval Major 
Hinton, unnoticed, undid with his teeth the knots in the 
ropes tied on his wrists, and, slipping out of the house, dis- 
patched a message to his brother. Colonel James Hinton, to 
come at once with his troop of horse to his aid. Thinking of 
some silver spoons that had not been hidden, Mary, their 
little daughter, snatched them up, and, escaping from the 
house in the darkness, rushed into the garden and concealed 
them in the bed of pinks, thus saving them. The vandals 
seized upon the patriot's wearing apparel and the frightened 
slaves, and after finding their victim gone and hopes baffled, 
departed amid volleys of oaths which waxed but the stronger 
when the stolen clothes were found to be much too large. 
Ciolonel James Hinton and his troop, coming up at this criti- 
cal moment, started after the Tories in hot pursuit. They 
finally succeeded in overtaking them on the Hillsborough 
road, nearer that town than Raleigh, and capturing some, 
hanged them to trees by the roadside as a reward for their 
fiendish conduct. Then they returned to "Clay Hill" with 
the slaves. 

In 1779 Major Hinton represented Wake County in the 
General Assembly and again after the Revolution. 

In 1788 our legislators decided to have a permanent in- 
stead of a migratory capital. Wake being the most centrally 
located county, it was voted that the site selected should be 
within her boundaries. ISTine commissioners were chosen to 



32 

locate the seat of government. Only six acted. They were 
Frederick Hargett, Chairman ; Joseph McDowell of "Quaker 
Meadows," William Johnston Dawson, James Martin, 
Thomas Blount and Willie Jones. It was Major Hinton's 
desire to have the capital on the banks of the ISTeuse where 
the little hamlet of Milburnie once stood. His brother-in- 
law. Colonel Joel Lane, was equally ambitious to obtain 
the vote in favor of the present site on his land some six miles 
west of the ]!^euse. These two were among the seventeen 
tracts offered. On the first ballot the votes were cast as fol- 
lows : Hinton's tract on the ITeuse, three votes ; Joel Lane's, 
two; the land of ISTathaniel Jones of "White Plains" (near 
the present village of Cary), one. They adjourned to meet 
the following day, March 30, 1Y92, when Joel Lane found 
his land accepted, while Major Hinton's obtained but one 
vote. The decision was a most bitter disappointment to the 
latter, and from that time a coolness existed between the two 
families, supposed by some to have been due to the conduct 
of Colonel Lane on that occasion. Tradition claims that he 
gave a dinner to the commissioners and that they partook too 
freely of the choice wines to vote clearly. Had Raleigh been 
situated on the river its scenic beauty would have been en- 
hanced, though probably the course pursued has given better 
health to its inhabitants. 

The slaves formed an interesting, unique gToup in that 
colonial home. There was "Blind Jim" (totally sightless), 
who always saddled Major Hinton's riding horse and brought 
him to the front door. Then there was that couple who came 



33 



from Africa and who never learned to speak English well — 
Old Mingo and "Mammy Kizzy," who was a princess, the 
daughter of a king on the dark continent. She wore bouquets 
of natural flowers in the holes in her ears. As a dairy-maid 
she excelled. She instructed the children and grandchildren 
in that especial branch of housekeeping. Jeffrey was another 
trusted slave. Major Hinton once sent him up^ the country 
horse-back. He was much astounded some time later to see 
him return horseless. Upon inquiry he learned that Jeffrey 
had swapped the horse for some reputed wonderfully fine 
species of peas ! They were planted and found to be equal 
to representation and ever after went by the name of "Jef- 
frey's peas." The carriage driver, Buck, was a brother of 
"Uncle Brisco," who was Colonel John Hinton's body ser- 
vant during the war, belonged to the "Gunny (a ODrruption 
of Guinea) stock," and was a remarkable negTO. He drove 
"Peacock" and "Phoenix" to the second carriage brought to 
Wake. It was a high vehicle, entered by means of steps 
lowered from the back. The old cook was an unusual charac- 
ter. One day she went into the cellar for something for din- 
ner, and could not resist the temptation of partaking of the 
rum. When foimd and reproved, she replied, "So I suits 
master, I don' keer." She prepared to perfection the Major's 
ideal spring dinner, "a boiled chicken and a bag-pudding," as 
well as his favorite salad, a bunch of lettuce leaves and mint 
tied with a shalote and dipped in dressing. There was one 
Johnson, an uncle of President Andrew Johnson, who was 
employed to superintend the women spinning. 



34 



Of the many weddings wliicli occurred at "Clay Hill" the 
first was that of Mary Hinton to Henry Lane. Their daugh- 
ter, Margaret Lane, was also married here to the brilliant 
lawyer, Moses Mordecai. She was married in white satin, 
Empire style, and her trousseau contained enough handsome 
silk and satin gowns to satisfy the fastidious bride of the 
twentieth century. It was here that Judge Henry Seawell, 
nephew of ]S[athaniel Macon, came a-wooing and won his 
beautiful bride, Grizelle, second daughter of Major Hinton. 
These rooms in those days echoed with the exquisite music of 
his violin. He had a most serious rival in Theophilus Hun- 
ter, junior, of '^Spring Hill," wealthy, aristocratic and of 
prominent position, whom her parents preferred to the poor but 
handsome and gifted young lawyer, who caime to the county 
with only his license and a horse. This partiality was shown 
by the treatment bestowed upon their respective steeds. When 
Theophilus Hunter, junior, rode over to "Clay Hill" to pay 
court to the choice of his heart, his horse was taken promptly, 
stabled, fed and groomed, while Henry Seawell's was allowed 
to remain tied to the rack and paw the earth in his fury 
and craving for feed and water ! At a hunting party the 
latter was given a bird gun and the poorest stand in the 
country, where deer were never known to pass. Gro^Hng 
weary of ill luck, he retired to the house in quest of another 
dear, with domestication the object this time. He was more 
successful with the change, and that day won his suit. They 
were married at "Clay Hill," April 17, 1800, by Cargill 



35 



Massenburg. After the marriage Major Hinton highly ap- 
proved of his son-in-law. 

Major Hinton was a devoted Churchman^ religiously ob- 
serving all the feasts and fasts of the Established Chiu'ch. 
There is now in existence a jjrayer-book containing his auto- 
gTaph. He was tall, large and fine-looking — a perfect gen- 
tleman, very refined, with elegant manners. 

One of the favored members of the household was the 
favorite dog, "Venture," an immense animal that always 
accompanied his master on his rides, faithfully guarding his 
horse when tied. 

Major John Hinton died October 19, 1818. He is buried 
at "Clay Hill." The grave-yard is back of the garden, sur- 
rounded by a rock wall. His grave is marked by a plain 
granite head and foot piece and bears a simple inscription, 
now nearly obliterated by time's touch. Beside his lie the 
remains of Pherebee Hinton, his wife, who died December 
19, 1810. Their children were: 

1. John Hinton of "Stoney Lonesome," who married 
Sally, daughter of Colonel ISTeedliam Bryan. 

2. Mary, who married Henry Lane. Her remains are 
interred at "Clay Hill." 

3. Samuel, who died soon after graduating at the Uni- 
versity of ITorth Carolina. 

4r. Grizelle, bom May 26, 1782, knov\ni to a large circle 
of relatives as "Aunt Seawell," who married Judge Henry 
Seawell of "Welcome," Wake county. 

5. Willis, who died young. 



36 

6. Betsey, who inherited "Clay Hill" and died unmarried 
in May, 1865. 

Betsey Hinton, called by a host of loving relatives "Aunt 
Betsey," was the youngest child and a fine Christian charac- 
ter. As a housekeeper she had no superior. With her lived 
Mrs. Grizzy Eyan, youngest daughter of Colonel Joel Lane. 
An overseer attended to the plantation. In the sixties the old 
home experienced another warlike intrusion. It was in the 
spring of 1865, when Sherman's Army was indulging in its 
"vandalic march," that the families on the adjoining and 
distant plantations flew to the Capital for safety. No art of 
persuasion could prevail on the mistress of "Clay Hill" to 
leave, believing her presence would protect her property. 
Some slaves and a few white women and children alone re- 
mained with her. The enemy were scouring the country. 
One night she retired, to be awakened by soldiers breaking 
into the house at a late hour; the yard and every building 
were filled with Federal soldiers. An entrance was forced 
into her very room and this lady of eighty-odd years was 
driven from her bed. After ransacking the premises, they 
departed to apply the torch to the paper mill at Milbumie. 

The great change of fortune and the weight of years were 
more than even that brave spirit could endure. She died a 
few weeks after the surrender. After her death the place 
passed to the nearest relatives out South, who sold it, and 
thus this historic home became the property of strangers, 
wholly unappreciative of its quaintness and history. What a 
sad change ! To-day the fences and garden have disappeared, 



37 



many trees have been ciit do-s\m, cotton is cultivated on the 
once beautiful lawoi, some of the out-buildings have been 
burned, others are dilapidated, and there are signs of decay 
and neglect about the old homestead itself. 

There are no descendants of Major Hinton's sons now liv- 
ing in ]N^orth Carolina, the name in that branch having be- 
come extinct in the State. 

It is to be lamented that we Americans do not retain the 
English custom of entailing the family seat and revering 
every relic that bears on a noble past. 



READING FOR SCHOOLS 

Old Time Stories 

of the 

Old North Sta te 

By L. A. McCORKLE. 

A book which every school child in North Carolina should read. 



Pratt's America's Story for 
Ameriea's Children, 

A series of Historical Readers adopted for the e&rlier grades, which sets 
forth in an impartial spirit and in a strong and fascinating style the 
main facts of the early history of our country. (Five Volumes). 



Home and School. (Classics), 

Thirty-nine volumes graded for all schools, and offering the best reading 
to be found in the world's literature for children of all ages. Complete 
texts, carefully edited and printed, beautifully illustrated, durably bound 
and sold at low prices. 



WRITE TO THE PUBLISHERS FOR CIRCULARS. 



D. C. HEATH & COMPANY, 

BOSTON. NEW YORK. CHICAGO. LONDON. 



NOVEMBER, 1903 



North Carolina Booklet 




V^'^VVVVVVVVVVswftj^VV'WSss^^ 



No. r I 




GREAT EVENTS IN ^ 

NORTH CAROLINA HISTORY 

I 



I WAS ALAMANCE THE FIRST 
BATTLE OF THE REVOLUTION? 



Mrs. L. a. McCORKLE. 




PRICE, 10 CENTS 



$ 1 THE YEAR 



THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET. 



GREAT EVENTS IN NORTH CAROLINA HISTORY. 



VOL. 111. 

The Trial of James Glasgow, and the Supreme Court of North Carolina. 

Kemp P. Battle, LL. D. 
The Cherokee Indians. 

Major \y. W. Strinfffieid. 
The Volunteer State (Tennessee) as a Seceder. 

Miss Susie Ger.try. 
Historic Hillsboro..- 

Mr. Fra'icis Nash. 

Some Aspects of Social Life in Colonial North Carolina. 

Charles Lee R.aper, Ph. D. 
Was Alamance the First Battle of the Revolution? 

Mrs. L. A, McCorkle. 
Historic Homes in North Carolina — Panther Creek, Clay Hill-on-the 
Neuse, The Fort. 

Mrs. Hayne Davis, Miss Mary Killiard Hinton, Mrs. R. T. Lenoir. 

Governor Charles Eden. 

Mr. Marshal! DeLancey Haj'wood. 
The Colony of Transylvania. 

Judge Walter Clark. 
Social Conditions in Colonial North Carolina: An Answer to Colonel 
William Byrd, of W^estover, Virginia. 

Alexander Q. Holiaday, LL. D. 

Historic Homes in North Cai'olina — Quaker Meadows. 

Judge A. C. Avery. 
The Battle of Moore's Creek. 

Prof. M. C. S. Noble. 



One Booklet a month will be issued by the North Carolina Society 
OF THE Daughters of the Revolution, beginning May, 1903. Price, 
$1 per year. 

Address MISS MARY HILLIARD HINTON, 

"Midway Plantation," 
Raleigh, N. C. 

Arrangements have been made to have this volume of the Booklet 
bound in Library style for 50 cents. Those living at a distance will 
please add stamps to cover cost of mailing. State whether black or 
red leather is preferred. 

EDITORS: 
MISS MARY HILLI.ARD HINTON. MRS. E. E. MOFFITT. 



VOL. Ill NOVEMBER, 1903. No. l 



THE 



NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET 



"CAROLINA I CAROLINA! HEAVEN'S BLESSINGS ATTEND HERl 
WHILE WE LIVE WE WILL CHERISH, PROTECT AND DEFEND HER." 



RALEIGH 

E. M. UzzELL & Co., Printers and Binders 
1903 



OFFICERS OF THE NORTH CAROLINA SOCIETY DAUGHTERS 
OF THE REVOLUTION, 1903: 

REGENT : 

MRS. THOMAS K. BRUNER. 

VICE-REGENT : 

MRS. WALTER CLARK. 

HONORARY REGENTS: 

MRS. SPIER WHITAKER, 
{Nee Fanny DeBerniere Hooper), 

MRS. D. H. HILL, Sr. 

SECRETARY: 

MRS. E. E. MOFFITT. 

TREASURER: 

MRS. FRANK SHERWOOD. 

REGISTRAR: 

MRS. ED. CHAMBERS SMITH. 



Founder of the North Carolina Society and Regent 1896-1902; 
MRS. SPIER WHITAKER. 

Regent 1902: 
MRS. D. H. HILL, Sr. 



PREFACE. 



The object of the ISTorth Carolina Booklet is to erect 
a suitable memorial to the patriotic wom.en who composed 
the "Edenton Tea Party." 

These stout-hearted women are every way worthy of admi- 
ration. On October 25, 1774, seven months before the defi- 
ant farmers of Mecklenburg had been aroused to the point of 
signing their Declaration of Independence, nearly twenty 
months before the declaration made by the gentlemen com- 
posing the Vestry of St. Paul's Church, Edenton, nearly 
two years before Jefferson penned the immortal ISTational 
Declaration, these daring women solemnly subscribed to a 
document affirming that they would use no article taxed by 
England. Their example fostered in the whole State a deter- 
mination to die, or to be free. 

In beginning this new series, the Daughters of the Revo- 
lution desire to express their most cordial thanks to the for- 
mer competent and untiringly faithful Editors, and to ask 
for the new management the hearty support of all who are 
interested in the brave deeds, high thought, and lofty lives 
of the North Carolina of the olden days. 

Mrs. D. H. Hill. 



ALAMANCE. 



i??i- 



The following poem by Seymour Whiting should be memo- 
rized by every child in ]S[oirth Carolina. When this poem was 
written no monument had been placed on the old battle- 
ground. The monument which now marks the spot was 
erected in 1880. 

No stately column marks the hallowed place 

Where silent sleeps, unurned, their sacred dust — 

The first free martyrs of a glorious race, 

Their fame a people's wealth, a nation's trust. 

Above their rest the golden harvest waves. 
The glorious stars stand sentinel on high. 

While in sad requiem near their turfless graves 
The winding river murmurs moaning by. 

But holier watchers here their vigils keep 

Than storied urn or monumental stone; 
For Law and Justice guard their dreamless sleep, 

And Plenty smiles above their bloody home. 

Immortal youth shall crown their deathless fame, 
And as their country's glories still advance. 

Shall brighter glow, o'er all the earth thy name, 
Our first-fought field of freedom — Alamance! 




MONUMENT ON ALAMANCE BATTLE-GROUND. 



WAS ALAMANCE THE FIRST BATTLE OF THE 
REVOLUTION? 



BY LUTIE ANDREWS MCCORKLE, 
Author of "Old-time Stories of the Old North State." 



"Constructive historical work deserves and gets more credit 
than does destructive work. To overthrow the idols of our 
forefathers is considered akin to sacrilege; but the time is 
come when we are compelled to bow our heads and acknowl- 
edge that some of our forefathers were as great rascals as 
some of us." 

This remarkable paragTaph introduces an article entitled 
"RegTilators in a I^ew Light," which appeared in the Char- 
lotte Ohserver of January 25, 1903. While few of us, I trust, 
are willing to admit the "soft impeachment" of being rascals 
ourselves, fewer still, doubtless, are willing tO' accord this dis- 
tinction to their forefathers, and say in earnest what Burns 
said in jest: 

"My ancient but ignoble blood 
Has crept through scoundrels ever since the flood." 

"The average history of Revolutionary events," our enlight- 
ened critic goes on to say, "gives but one side of the question, 
and even that side is whitewashed." After such a bold 
announcement, we are not surprised by the recklessness with 



6 



whicli the writer proceeds in his "destructive work." That he 
succeeds in showing the Regulators in a "new light" is un- 
questionahle ; but that it is a true light will at least admit of 
some degree of doubt. 

Such sweeping assertions as these arraign a formidable 
array of writers of eminent talent as men incompetent, by rea- 
son of carelessness and partiality, to perform the tasks whicli 
they undertook. Bancroft, Lossing, Hawks, Wbeeler, Swain 
and Graham were not only men of recognized ability, but 
were untiring, painstaking, conscientious seekers after truth. 
With one accord they believed and stoutly maintained that 
"the first blood shed in battle with the troops of the English 
government in support of the principles of the American Revo- 
lution was the blood of l^orth Carolinians, and the first battle- 
field was the soil of that State" at Alamance. They had pur- 
sued their investigations under a profound sense of their duty 
to preserve the history of their country for the instruction of 
future generations, and they gave the results of their inquiries 
to the public as truth, to be cherished with honest pride by 
every patriotic American. ISTow it is charged that theirs was 
"constructive work" — the construction of an idol to be wor- 
shiped by a credulous people, and that it now becomes the 
bounden duty of the destructive critics of this generation to 
demolish this idol in the interest of historic oertainty. 

The causes of the Regulation movement, culminating in the 
battle of Alamance, it is alleged, were "ignorance and veur 
geance on one side and vanity and error on the other." The 
"flagrant and unjustifiable wrongs" under which the people 



groaned are thus laughed to scorn, and the patriots of 1771 
are represented as the dupes of a cowardly demagogue who 
was using his influence to avenge personal grievances. 

Possibly no two facts in American history have been more 
doubted and discussed, and in consequence more indisputably 
proven, than that the battle of Alamance was the first battle, 
and the Mecklenburg Declaration the first declaration of 
independence in the revolt of the colonies against the Crown 
of England. The latter was the natural sequence of the for- 
mer. And yet, just as during the Wars of the Eoses, there 
were patriotic Englishmen who sided with the house of York, 
and others with the house of Lancaster; as during the Pro- 
tectorate there were patriots both among the Roundheads and 
among the Cavaliers ; as during the Revolution some good men 
sided with England against their own countrymen, believing 
Toryism to be a religious virtue; as during the war between 
the States there were conscientious Unionists who fought in 
the Federal army against their own neighbors and kindred; 
so for the last century there have been among us two parties — 
the one believing, the other refusing to believe, in the patriot- 
ism of the heroes of Alamance and in the authenticity of the 
Mecklenburg Declaration. 

By far the ablest and best equipped advocate of the "de^- 
structive theory" in the former instance is Mr. Francis IS^ash. 
of Hillsboro, IST. C, In a most interesting and admirably 
written paper on "Hillsboro: Colonial and Revolutionary," 
he essays to prove that the organization known as the Regu- 
lators was "an ignorant, headstrong populace," "all criminals 



in a common riot," moved by "imaginary grievances," and 
led by "an unscrupulous fomentor of strife," who bas since 
been elevated as a "sentimental hero." He would bave us 
believe tbat tbe battle so long regarded by our people with 
patriotic pride as tbe "first fougbt field of freedom" was "lit- 
tle more tban a neigbborbood riot," and denounces tbe asser- 
tion tbat "tbe same spirit inspired tbe Regulators tbat in- 
spired tbe Sons of Liberty or tbe Lexington Minute Men" as 
"sentimental slusb." Tbe battle of Alamance be would bave 
us believe was but "tbe after-clap of a. disgraceful riot." Him- 
self tbe descendant, if I mistake not, of a gentleman wbo was 
a victim of one of tbe few outrages cbarged against any of 
tbe Regulators, tbeir self-assumed title a stencb in tbe nostrils 
of bis family for more tban a century, Mr. ISTasb sbows some- 
wbat of tbe unreasoning spirit of bereditary prejudice, and 
writes witb a zeal worthy of a better cause. I am persuaded 
that he is not just in his denunciation of tbe Regulators, 
albeit they may have been unduly prejudiced against tbat 
Francis ISTasb whose honored name be bears and whose patri- 
otic blood flows in bis veins. 

Mr. ]!!^asb bas undertaken to overthrow the position on this 
question of many men whose testimony is incontrovertible, 
and seeks to break the force of documentary evidence that is 
overwhelming in its mass and conclusiveness. AVbatever may 
be said of Hawks, Wheeler, Swain and Graham on tbe score 
of bereditary bias and local prejudice as being natives of North 
Carolina,, the same weakness cannot be charged to Bancroft, 
Caruthers, Lossing and Foote, all of whom are a unit in their 



conclusions in the premises. These men were natives of other 
States, and, with the exception of Bancroft, they all visited 
the scenes they described and gathered the facts, not only from 
documentary evidence that had been handed down from colo- 
nial times, but in great part from men who witnessed or' par- 
ticipated in the battle and in the events preceding. Thus, it 
is seen they had at their command not only the records to 
which Mr. jSTash appeals so confidently, but the testimony of 
men who were able to communicate the facts at first hand. 
Not a few of these, it may be added, were Presbyterians, to 
whose testimony, as it will be shown presently, Mr. ISTash is 
himself disposed to defer on all occasions. 

The statements of Bancroft, in his "History of the United 
States," edition of 1854, are for the most part quotations from 
the letters of Governors Tryon and Martin to Lord Hills- 
borough, Secretary of State for the Colonies, and from cotem- 
porary publications in Philadelphia, New York and Boston. 
This great historian tells us that he had a very full collection 
of papers bearing on the Regulators, and he declares that "the 
blood of rebels against oppression was first shed on the 
branches of the Oape Fear river." Nor is the opinion of 
Dr. Oaruthers to be despised. He lived for forty years in the 
section which had been the storm center of the Regulation 
movement, being the immediate successor of Dr. David Cald- 
well as pastor of the historic churches of Alamance and Buf- 
falo. He gathered many of his facts from "old men of great 
respectability, who were then living and remembered the for- 
mer times." When he used verbal testimony he "took pains 



10 



to get an account of tlie same thing from different persons or 
fro'm the same person at different times, for the purpose of 
comparing them together and ascertaining the truth." And 
he tells us that ''the Regulation is now regarded by our 
greatest men as the very germ of the Revolution in this 
State." Dr. Hawks tells us he lived "where the spot on which 
the Regulators were hanged met his eye every day/' and 
declares that "God made the flower of freedom, grow out of the 
turf that covered tliese men's graves." He also had a personal 
acquaintance with cotemporaries of those who laid do^vn their 
lives at Alamance. 

The RegTilatprs were, in Mr. ISTash's opinion, "an ignorant, 
headstrong, lawless populace," as they were regarded by 
Edmund Fanning and his associates. In this view, however, 
he is not sustained by the testimony of men of eminent charac- 
ter who were associated 'svith some of the Regulators. Dr. 
Oaruthers tells us "there were many men in most of the upper 
counties engaged in that affair who were then, as their de- 
scendants are now, among the most sensible, upright and 
respectable people in the country. Most of them had enjoyed 
the advantages of a Christian training, and at that time had 
the ministrations of able and devoted men. The parishioners 
of such men as McAden, Caldwell, Balch, Craighead and 
others were probably something more than semi-barbarians 
and were not likely to be an unprincipled and lawless rabble, 
but many from these congregations were not only united with 
the mass of the Regulators in their addresses and petitions 
and all their legal methods of obtaining a redress for their 



11 



grievances, but were actually engaged in the battle." He says 
further : "Tbose [of tlie Regulators] who lived in the region 
in which I have been acquainted seem to have been regarded 
as honorable in all the relations of life, and were much 
esteemed as men and' citizens." 

Dr. Foote, like Dr. Caruthers, spent years in the section 
involved in this disturbance, and enjoyed a personal acquaint- 
anoe with the immediate descendants of the Regulators. "The 
descendants of these people," he writes, "who were at the time 
treated as rebels and stigmatized in government papers as 
ignorant and headstrong and unprincipled, hold the first rank 
in their country for probity and intelligence, have held the 
first ofiices in their own and in the two younger and neighbor- 
ing States, and have not been debarred the highest offices in 
the Union." 

Mr. !N^ash himself admits that the four men whose names 
we have of the six who paid the penalty of their patriotism 
on the gallows at Hillsboro did not answer the description 
"lawless and ignorant." James Pugh made a manly defense 
of his course in the speech he delivered on the gallows, re- 
buking Try on for dereliction in duty, and "advised him to 
put away his corrupt clerks and tax-gatherers and be a friend 
of the people." Benjamin Merrill "was an honest, upright 
man." Of Robert Matear "little is known" ; but against the 
statement of Caruthers that "he with Thompson had never 
taken any part in any riot and was a Regulator only in sym- 
pathy," Mr. ISTash thinks the fact conclusive that "he was con- 
victed at Hillsboro and executed, though six other convicts 



12 



were respited and afterwards pardoned." Surely Matear must 
have been "ignorant and lawless," since his oharacter and 
record were not sucli as to conunend him to the mercy of that 
humane Governor who refused to listen to the Regulators and 
shot down Robert Thompson, an unarmed man, with his own 
hand ! Messer's integrity may be judged from the fact that 
he was permitted to leave tlie State in search of Hermon 
Husband, having promised to return and suffer himself to 
be executed if he could not bring Husband back. He failed 
in his effort and returned in due time to die for his offense. 
Many others who were numbered with the Regulators, such 
as Thomas Person, Cblonel Bryan and Captain Raleigh 
Sutherland, were men of "unimpeachable character." If 
Mr. Nash is correct in saying that at that time "the most 
moral communities in the whole section were those over which 
a few Presbyterian ministers held sway and exerted an influ- 
ence for good," then the weight of evidence seems to be 
against his position, for we are told that "a large proportion 
of the men in Dr. Caldwell's congregation were Regulators." 
True, Dr. Caldwell's letter to Tryon, in which he declares 
that the people of his congregation are not in sympathy with 
the Regulators, is often quoted ; but those who make use of 
this letter for the purpose of discrediting the Regulation 
movement invariably fail to state that it was written in 1Y66, 
five years before the battle of Alamance, and at a time when 
Dr. Caldwell himself was a comparative stranger in that 
section, having settled there only the previous year. In the 
five succeeding years he and his flock had ample occasion 



13 



and opportimity to ohange their minds, and it is certain they 
did. Besides, "the people of Orange and equally of Eowan 
and Mecklenburg were unanimous in their resolutions to 
claim relief from the Governor." So we find "the most 
moral communities in tha,t section" engaged in the contest; 
for the congregations of McAden, Caldwell, Balch and Craig- 
head, who, to use Mr. leash's phrase, "held sway and exerted 
an influence for good," extended over this section. Dr. 
Hawks tells us that "when the final struggle came every one 
of these spiritual guides, to a, man, was on the side of an 
oppressed people." Even Hermon Husband, who figures in 
the pungent periods of our destructive critics as "a selfish 
stirrer-up of turmoil, a fomentor of strife," seems to have 
been regarded as a man of some character by those who knew 
him, Clerk Fanning and the Hillsboro lawyers excepted. 
Says Caruthers : "I have conversed with a niimber who knew 
him personally and intimately in their youth, as they were 
neighbors, some of whom are yet living, and they all speak 
of him as a man of strict integrity and as a. firm and sincere 
advocate of what he considered the rights of mankind. When 
people find they have been deceived by a man who has 
courted their favor merely for some selfish end, they usually 
turn against him, but this was not the case with the people 
he represented." Dr. Caldwell thought, as Caruthers was 
assured by the family of that distinguished patriot and divine, 
"that Husband was a little headstrong and impetuous, but 
he believed him to be honest in his intentions." It is known 
that Husband was a personal friend and relative of Benja- 



14 



min Franklin, from, whom at various times he received mes- 
sages and pamphlets. Although Husband, bred a Quaker 
and deprecating all bloodshed as contrary to the law of Christ, 
fled at the first gun at Alamance, it appears by no means 
unreasonable that from Franklin he may have derived many 
of his opinions, and that, though desiring a peaceful solution 
of everj difficulty, he may have been actuated by motives as 
pure as were the motives of those who afterwards laid down 
their lives for the cause of liberty. Very certain it is that 
the agitation begun by the Regulators had made good head- 
way in Granville and Halifax, as well as in Orange and the 
more western counties, some time before Husband took a 
hand in it. Think what we may of his conduct at Alamance 
and afterwards, we are, in strict justice, compelled to accord 
him the verdict of contemporary public opinion. And while 
we would make no "sentimental hero" of him, we have no 
right to attribute to him selfish and vengeful motives. 

Mr. Nash does not discuss the "causes leading up to the 
War of the Kegulation, except as they affect the history of 
colonial Hillsboro." Having thus left out of view a large 
part of the facts bearing on our question, he persuades him- 
self, and would persuade others, that the whole movement was 
contemptible in its origin and spirit, and that Alamance was 
only the "after-clap" of what all must admit was a "disgrace- 
ful riot." Cbnoeding all the facts alleged as to the riot at 
Hillsboro, we are by no means compelled to regard Alamance 
as the "after-clap" of that unfortunate affair, and much less 
are we required to admit that the men of Alamance were men 



15 



of anotlier spirit tliaii that which animated the Sons of Lib- 
erty and the Minute Men of Lexington. The tmth is, the 
disturbances around Hillsboro were but the temporary out- 
flashings of a spirit of deep resentment against corrupt offi- 
cials which pervaded the whole piedmont section of the 
colony, and was felt even on the distant sea-board. Before the 
Stamp Act bred defiance in the east, the people of the middle 
counties had long been groaning under the exactions of the 
officers of the law, and simultaneously, though without con- 
cert of action, "pleading in the anguish of their souls" for 
deliverance from the extortions and abuses of power under 
which they suffered. It would hardly be possible for dis- 
content so widespread not to evoke some lawlessness. When 
men bred to count themselves freemen have seen law dis- 
regarded and justice trampled under foot, what wonder if 
they fail to respect the law and its officers ? When wise heads 
are convinced that foul wrong is being done witliout rebuke, 
hot heads will sometimes plot hasty vengeance. 

And what more natural than that the Regulators should 
have cherished an "especial antipathy toward Hillsboro" ? 
It was a very small village, chiefly known to them as the 
home of Edmund Fanning, whose abuses of the law had made 
him odious to the people; as the home of the lawyers who 
justified and defended him, making his cause their own, and 
as the seat of a court in which a judge had flaunted his con- 
tempt for a long-suffering people in their faces by fining the 
chief culprit a penny and costs when convicted of extortion 
on six counts. Goaded by a sense of outrage, some of these 



16 



men, in an oiitbnrst of indignation, undertook to "administer 
wild justice" after their own fashion. But it is a well known 
fact that these outrages, instead of being excused as the 
"overflow of exuberant patriotism," as Mr. I^ash would have 
us believe, were deplored and "condemned by the great body 
of Regulators." Because a small nmnber of rude "fellows 
of the baser sort" were gnilty of lawless conduct in one neigh- 
borhood, it is neither in accord with "historic truth" nor with 
historic justice to hold the entire body responsible for such 
conduct, and much less is it right on that account to impugn 
the motives of all those men of piedmont l^Torth Carolina who 
for ten long years waged a fight for their liberties. This was 
precisely the uncharity of Governor Tryon, according to the 
testimony of his successor. 

But in referring to the "so-called extortions practiced upon 
the people," Mr. IN^ash concedes that "the charges of public 
officers were in some instances oppressive" ; and yet, in his 
evident anxiety to establish confidence in Toon's view of the 
"discreet and steady behavior of Colonel Fanning," and to 
relieve his character froan unjust aspersion, he tells us that 
on certain papers Fanning "was entitled to a charge of eight 
shillings, whereas he made a rule, out of abundance of cau- 
tion, to charge only six shillings." It is matter of well 
attested fact also that, "out of abundance of caution," to 
re-imburse himself for occasional generosity and keep his 
famous wine cellar well filled, Colonel Fanning was wont to 
charge $15 for a marriage license, for which the law allowed 
him but one dollar. 



lY 



Governor Josiali Martin, who succeeded Tryon very soon 
after the battle of Alamance, was undoubtedly in a position 
to know whereof he spoke. After spending some months in 
and aroimd Hillsboro, he wrote to the Earl of Hillsborough, 
Secretary of State for the Colonies, as follows: 

"NoETH Carolina, Hillsborough, 

"August 30, 1772. 

. . . "My progress through this country, my Lord, hath opened my 
eyes exceedingly with respect to the commotions and discontents that 
have lately prevailed in it. I now see most clearly that they have been 
provoked by insolence, and cruel advantage taken of the people's igno- 
rance by mercenary, tricking attorneys, clerks and other little officers, 
who have practised upon them every sort of rapine and extortion, by 
which, having brought upon themselves their just resentment," etc. 

Referring to this letter of Governor Martin, and also to 
the petition of the people of Orange to Chief Justice Howard 
and his associates, Bancroft says: "The people had no re- 
spite from the insolence of mercenary attorneys and officers, 
and were subjected to every sort of rapine and extortion. The 
courts of law offered no redress. At the inferior courts the 
justices, who themselves were implicated in the pilfering of 
public money, named the juries. The sheriff and receivers of 
taxes were in arrears for near seventy thousand pounds which 
they had extorted from the people and of which more than 
two-thirds had been irretrievably embezzled." In 1769 Gov- 
ernor Tryon himself wrote to the Assembly : 

"The fact is too well known to admit of a denial, that in a 
long course of years past great sums of the public money have 



18 



been lost by the negligence or insolvency of sheriffs and other 
collectors with their sureties. And it is presumed that in the 
same course of time considerable sums have sunk after they 
were lodged in the public treasury, whereof no account has 
hitherto been made." 

Were it needful tO' add anything to these statements, we 
could rely upon the facts mentioned by Bancroft, that the 
petition of the Regulators was signed by about five hundred 
men and was fortified "with a precise specification of acts of 
extortion, confirmed in each instance by oath." He had in 
his possession a copy of that petition, with its signatures. 

Against all this mass of evidence, conclusive to any un- 
prejudiced mind, Mr. JSTash brings up the address presented 
to Governor Try on in the Assembly of 1770 by Robert Howe, 
Samuel Johnston, Maurice Moore, Cornelius Harnett, Abner 
jN^ash, Joseph Hewes and Edmund Fanning, in which they 
"condemn without stint both the motives and the acts of the 
Regulators." As these men, with the exception of Fanning, 
were afterwards "distinguished patriots," Mr. ISTash would 
have us consider their opinion conclusive as to the status of 
the Regulators. But he fails to tell us that these men, except 
Joseph Hewes, were all lawyers, and, Fanning only excepted, 
all from the eastern part of the province. The fight of the 
Regulators had all along been largely against the la^vyers. 
They had plainly stated in one of their protests: "It is not 
our form or mode of government, nor yet our laws, that we 
are quarreling with, but with the malpractice of the ofiicers 
of our County Court, and the abuse we suffer from those who 



19 



are empowered tO' manage our piiiblic affairs." Can we won- 
der if tlie acts of mercenary individuals had brouglit odium 
upon the whole profession? l^or can we forget that the 
people of the searboard had not felt the heavy hand of extor- 
tion as the poor farmers of the interior had felt it. The 
Governor residing in the east, the officers of the law would 
be held in check there and would hardly dare to practice the 
oppressions that were common in more remote regions. Be- 
sides, the east had been longer settled and was more pro'S- 
perous through its flourishing commerce with the outside 
world, while in the interior there was little either of coin or 
currency, the people subsisting solely upon their small crops, 
and their trade being chiefly barter. Hence, men from the 
east were hardly prepared to appreciate the motives (even 
though they may at a later period have followed the good 
example) of the Regulators in fighting "for the liberties they 
had inherited." 

The Regulators, says Mr. !N"ash, "demanded that dishonest 
public officials should be removed and punished; and Gov- 
ernor T'ryon not complying with their demand so summarily 
as they desired, they, inspired by hatred and revenge, pro- 
ceeded to administer this punishment themselves. So they 
were an organized but irresponsible and uncontrollable 
mob — not a gTcat people in the throes of a struggle for inde- 
pendence." 

Were the Regulators a mob? Let them answer for them- 
selves. "We tell you, in the anguish of our souls," they said 
to Governor Tryon, "we cannot go to law with our powerful 



20 



antagonists; that step, whenever taken, will terminate in the 
ruin of ourselves and families." They had had experience 
with lawyers and had grown wiser because of that sad expe- 
rienoe. "That is all we want," they said to the Grovernor's 
secretary — "liberty to make our grievances kno^vn," so con- 
fident were they of the righteousness of their cause. This, 
surely, is not the unreasoning spirit of a mob. Their deter- 
mination, as set forth in resolutions adopted at one of their 
earlier meetings, was: 

"1st. That we will pay no more taxes until we are satisfied 
that they are agreeable to law and applied to purposes therein 
mentioned, miless we cannot help it or are forced to it. 

"2d. That we will pay no officer any more fees than the 
law allows," etc. 

Again, let Governor Martin, who seems honestly desirous 
to deal fairly by them, answer in their behalf. The "tricking 
attorneys, clerks and other little officers," he writes to the 
Eiarl of Hillsborough, in the letter already mentioned, had 
"engaged government in their defense by artful misrepre- 
sentations, that the vengeance the wretched people in folly 
and madness aimed at their heads was directed against the 
Constitution; and by this stratagem they threw an odium 
upon the injured people that by degrees begot a prejudice 
which precluded a full discovery of their grievances. Thus, 
my Lord, as far as I have been able to discover, the resentment 
of government was craftily worked up against the op'pressedy 
and the protection which the oppressors treacherously ac- 
quired, where the injured and ignorant people expected to 



21 



find it, drove (some of them) to acts of desperation and con- 
federated them in violence, which, as your Lordship knows, 
induced bloodshed; and, I verily believe, necessarily." In 
the adroit special pleading of Mr. JSTash, the craft and strata- 
gem' of Fanning is being repeated in this year of grace 1903. 

The Regulators, says Bancroft, "asked no more than that 
extortioners be brought to fair trials and the collectors of 
public money called to proper settlement of their accounts." 
Tryon made promises, only to break them, until they found 
to their sorrow that "his Excellency was determined not to 
lend a kind ear to the just complaints of the people." And 
such was the craft and cunning of Fanning an,d the lawyers 
who aided and abetted his rascalities that the RegTilators were 
doomed to disappointment in their sanguine "hope that naked 
truth and native ignoranoe would poise the superexcellent 
flourishes and consummate declamation of their powerful 
adversary." Certain it is, however, that something more 
than the "superexcellent flourishes" of Mr. Nash's specious 
argument will be needed to "poise" the right of the men of 
Alamance to be regarded as patriots contending for their 
liberties. History has given its verdict, and that verdict is 
not likely to be changed by the arguments of those whose 
methods and animus compel them, to become the apologists of 
Fanning and of Tryon. 

Mocked in the courts, stigmatized as "outlaws and rebels," 
again and again deceived by the royal Governor, these men 
whom Mr. Nash denounces as a "lawless and irresponsible 
mob" twice retired quietly to their homes on receiving a mere 



22 



promise of redress^ — once wlien they had gathered seven hun- 
dred strong at Hillshoro, and again when five hundred of 
them, had assembled at Salisbury. Here again we do not find 
any spirit of irresponsibility and lawlessness. 

ISTor were they men of lawless and cowardly spirit who, 
without a leader and in large part unarmed, stood before 
Tryon at Alamance, desiring naught but permission to pre- 
sent to him a, respectful petition laying before him in ample 
detail all their grievances, "in full hope and confidence of 
being redressed by him." Td have submitted to his peremp- 
tory and insulting demands would have been to exhibit the 
cringing spirit of slaves. So, with the courage of martyrs, 
those of them who were armed stood their ground when Tryon 
precipitately began the battle. Thus was given, as Caruthers 
says, "the first expression of the principles and spirit which 
covered the men of '76 with immortal honor." 

When Captain Raleigh Sutlierland, coming with a force 
from Surry to help the Regulators, wept on hearing from a 
distance the gmns of Alamance, because he was not there with 
his countrymen "who were shedding their blood in defense 
of their rights," he was animated by the same spirit which led 
General Francis l^ash to say, with his dying breath, on the 
field of Germantown, "From the first daAVn of Revolution 
I have been on the side of liberty and my country." The 
difference was, that Sutherland was first to recognize that 
dawn of Liberty's day. 

But it is urged that the men of Alamance were not fighting 
British troops, and that they were not fighting for ind^ 



23 



pendence. As to tihe first quibble, it is sufficient tO' state tbat 
tbej were fighting;'' the same sort of a force that suffered de- 
feat at the bands of Sbelby and Cleveland at King's Moun- 
tain — colonial militia, flying tbe British flag and led by 
officers who represented the British crown. As to the second, 
the same argument would prove that Lexington was not a 
battle of the Revolution at all, and that in fact the Revolu- 
tion did not commence until July, 1776. The truth is, none 
of the colonists at first desired independence. The common 
demand of all was redress of grievances. Only thirty-seven 
days before the battle of Lexington, John Adams declared 
"that there are any who pant after independence is the 
greatest slander on the province." 

Once more, it is said that the men of Alamance did not 
come thither expecting to fight. Neither did the men of 
Lexington. We are told that "the night preceding the out- 
rage at Lexington there were not fifty people in the colony 
that ever expected any blood would be shed in the contest." 
The patriots of Alamance were stigmatized as rebels, and 
suffered the spoiling of their plantations and the burning of 
their homes, and some of them were executed as traitors and 
rebels. According to the British view, the men of Lexington 
were nothing more nor less. 

Compare the utterances and the deeds of the men of Ala- 
mance with those of the men of Lexington. They of Lexing- 
ton instruct their representatives to demand "radical and 
lasting redress of their grievances." The Regulators, when 
promised a respectful hearing, are so sure of compliance with 



24 



their just deraands tliat they cry "Agreed! That is all we 
want — liberty to make our grievances known." On the vil- 
lage green of Lexington free-born Americans swore "to^ com- 
bat manfully for their birthright inheritance of liberty." 
Oil the greensward of Alamance the Regulators, counting 
themselves free-born, gave full proof of their resolve "to 
know and enjoy the liberty which they had inherited." 

Word chimes with word. Deed harmonizes with deed. 
The same spirit of freemen, ready to die for liberty, breathes 
in both. At Alamance there burst forth in a, battle for right 
and justice the same undaunted spirit of love for freedom 
that afterwards flashed in the Mecklenburg Declaration of 
Independence, and later flamed at King's Mountain, at Gow- 
pens and at Guilford Court House. ]^or does it alter this 
fact, that some of the Regulators, forced by Tryon to take the 
O'ath of allegiance to the British government, afterward fought 
in the ranks of the Loyalists against their own countrymen, 
as some of those who had oppressed them were in the ranks of 
the patriot army. This is, in truth, but another argument to 
show that theirs was not the irresponsible temper and lawless 
disposition of a mob. They kept their oath out of regard to 
solemn obligations which they considered binding in the sight 
of heaven ; and it is matter of history that they were promised 
as loyalists all the redress for which they had fought at Ala- 
mance, and under a Governor wdio had declared his convic- 
tion of the justice of their cause. It is matter of history also 
that the Presbyterians of Mecklenburg hesitated because of 
their oaths, when independence was proposed, and disregarded 



25 



those oaths only under the advice of their leaders. If any 
fact in the history of the United States is well attested, it is 
that the fire which flashed forth at Alamance was not 
quenched in the ashes of defeat. It left embers burning from 
whicli, as the years went by, there was kindled throughout 
Surry, Anson, Eowan and Mecklenburg and across the Alle- 
ghanies in the independent "State of Franklin," founded by 
refugees from the country of the Regulators, a flame of 
patriotic fervor which, uniting at last with the fires of Lex- 
ington and Bunker Hill, swept away the entire remnant of 
British power in the colonies. In the State of Franklin, the 
immediate offspring of the Regulation movement, independ- 
ence was a fact before it was dreamed of elsewhere. In that 
little Commonwealth in the mountains no British flag ever 
waved and no officer of the British Crown ever came, and 
there the people, outraged and outlawed by British oppres- 
sion, "set to the people of America the dangerous example of 
erecting themselves into a State separate and distinct from 
and independent of the authority" of the English Crown. 

In view of all the facts, attested by cotemporary witnesses 
and admitted by royal Governors, we feel constrained to be- 
lieve that what Bancroft says of the men of Lexington should 
be, in all its particulars, held applicable to the heroes of Ala- 
mance, and to them only. 

"There they now stood, with arms in their hands, silent, 
fearless, willing to fight for their privileges, scrupulous not to 
begin civil war, as yet unsuspicious of danger. The ground 
on which they trod was the altar of freedom, and they were 



26 



to fiirnisli the victims. Thej gave their lives a testimony 
to the rights of mankind, bequeathing to* their country an 
assurance of success in the mighty struggle which they 
began/^ 

Let us hold their names in grateful remembrance, and let 
the "expanding millions of their countrymen renew and mul- 
tiply their praise from generation to generation." 



^i^ < ,» ♦ 






hJ""^ 



THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET. 



GREAT EVENTS IN NORTH CAROLINA HISTORY. 



VOL. III. 

The Trial of James Glasgow, and the Supreme Court of North Carolina. 

Kemp P. Battle, LL. D. 
The Cherokee Indians. 

Major W. W. Stringfield. 
The Volunteer State (Tennessee) as a Seceder. 

Miss Susie Gentry. 
Historic Hillsboro. 

Mr. Francis Nash. 
Some Aspects of Social Life in Colonial North Carolina. 

Charles Lee Raper, Ph. D. 
Was Alamance the First Battle of the Revolution? 

Mrs. L. A. McCorkle. 
Historic Homes ^n North Carolina — Panther Creek, Clay Hill-on-the 
Neuse, The Fort. 

Mrs. Hayne Davis, Miss Mary Hilliard Hinton, Mrs. R. T. Lenoir. 
Governor Charles Eden. 

Mr. Marshall DeLancey HayTvood. 
The Colony of Transylvania. 

Judge Walter Clark. 
Social Conditions in Colonial North Carolina: An Answer to Colonel 
William Byrd, of Westover, Virginia. 

Alexander Q. Holladay, LL. D. 
Historic Homes in North Carolina — Quaker Meadows. 

Judge A. C. Avery. 
The Battle of Moore's Creek. 

Prof. M. C. S. Noble. 



One Booklet a month will be issued by the Noeth Caeolina Society 
OF THE Daughters of the Revolution, beginning May, 1903. Price, 
$1 per year. 

Address MISS MARY HILLIARD HINTON, 

"Midway Plantation," 

Raleigh, N. C. 

Arrangements have been made to have this volume of the Booklet 
bound in Library style for 50 cents. Those living at a distance will 
please add stamps to cover cost of mailing. State whether black or 
red leather is preferred. 

EDITORS: 
MISS MARY HILLIARD HINTON. MRS. E. E. MOFFITT. 



VOL. Ill DECEMBER, 1903 No. 6 



THE 



NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET 



"CAROUNAI CAROLINA! HEAVEN'S BLESSINGS ATTEND HER I 
WHILE WE LIVE WE WILL CHERISH, PROTECT AND DEFEND HER." 



RALEIGH 

E. M. UzzELL & Co., Printers anfj Binders 

1903 



OFFICERS OF THE NORTH CAROLINA SOCIETY DAUGHTERS 
OF THE REVOLUTION, 1903: 

REGENT : 

MRS. THOMAS K. BRUNER. 

VICE-REGENT : 

MRS. WALTER CLARK. 

# 

HONORARY REGENTS: 

MRS. SPIER WHITAKER, 

{Nee Fanny DeBerniere Hooper), 

MRS. D. H. HILL, Sk. 

SECRETARY : 

MRS. E. E. MOFFITT. 

TREASURER : 

MRS. FRANK SHERWOOD. 

REGISTRAR : 

MRS. ED. CHAMBERS SMITH. 



Founder of the North Cakomna Society and Regent 1896-1902: 
MRS. SPIER WHITAKER. 

Regent 1902: 
MRS. D. H. HILL, Sr. 



PREFACE. 



The object of the North Caeolina Booklet is to erect 
a suitable memorial to the patriotic women who composed 
the "Edenton Tea Party." 

These stout-hearted women are every way worthy of admi- 
ration. On October 25, 1774, seven months before the defi- 
ant farmers of Mecklenburg had been aroused to the point of 
signing their Declaration of Independence, nearly twenty 
months before the declaration made by the gentlemen com- 
posing the Vestry of St. Paul's Church, Edenton, nearly 
two years before Jefferson penned the immortal National 
Declaration, these daring women solemnly subscribed to a 
document affirming that they would use no article taxed by 
England. Their example fostered in the whole State a deter- 
mination to die, or to be free. 

In beginning this new series, the Daughters of the Revo- 
lution desire to express their most cordial thanks to the for- 
mer competent and untiringly faithful Editors, and to ask 
for the new management the hearty support of all who are 
interested in the brave deeds, high thought, and lofty lives 
of the North Carolina of the olden days. 

Mrs. D. H, Hill. 



GOVERNOR CHARLES EDEN. 



By MARSHALL DELANCEY HAy^OOD, 

Author of " Governor 'William Tryon and His Administration in the Province 
of North Carolina, 1765 — 1771." 



To strike down the barrier by whicb Father Time separates 
the present from the past, and introduce our reader to a digni- 
tary who was sent to rule the unruly people of jSTorth Carolina 
in the days of long ago^ is the purpose of this sketch. We thus 
salute CriAKLEs Eden, who bears the imposing title of "Gov- 
ernor, Captain-General, and Commander-in-Chief, in and over 
His Majesty's Colony of I>[orth Carolina, and Vice-Admiral 
of the same." This gentleman received his commission from 
Queen Anne, but she died a few months after his arrival in 
America, and he later served for a much longer time under 
her royal successor, George the First. 

A native, probably, of England, born in 1673, Governor 
Eden was a little over forty years of age when he crossed the 
Atlantic to enter upon the duties of his oiSce. The first record 
of his service which we are able to find is in the year 1713, 
when it appears in a communication from the British Board of 
Trade to the Earl of Dartmouth, Secretary of State under 
Queen Anne, that the Lords Proprietors of North Carolina 
had recommended Charles Eden, Esquire, to Her Majesty for 
appointment as Governor of said colony. This recommenda- 
tion having met with the Queen's approval at a meeting of 
the Eoyal Council on the 18th of May, in the above year, Mr. 



Eden was required to give bond to the amount of one thousand 
pounds for the faithful discharge of the duties of his office. 
Several months thereafter (August 13th) the Proprietors sent 
an order to Francis Brooke, Surveyor-General of l^orth Caro- 
lina, directing him to apportion a tract of land, embracing one 
thousand acres, for the personal use of the new Governor, 

It was a year, ahnost to the day, after receiving his appoint- 
ment, that Governor Eden appeared before the Provincial 
Council, "holden at y* house of Capt. Jno. Hecldefield in Lit- 
tle Eiver on ffriday the 28'^ day of May, Ano Dom. 1714," 
and took the oath of office. At the time of Eden's arrival the 
acting Governor was Thomas Pollock, President of the Pro- 
vincial Council. The latter had succeeded Governor Edward 
Hyde, recently deceased, who was a cousin of the reigning 
sovereign. 

At the time of Governor Eden's accession the members of 
his Council, or Deputies of the Lords Proprietors, were the 
following gentlemen: Thomas Pollock (President), Thomas 
Boyd, JSTathaniel Chevin, Tobias Knight, Christopher Gale 
and William Reed. This Board was increased by the appoint- 
ment of Francis Porster on August 10, 1714, and Frederick 
Jones on jSTovember 15, 1716. Richard Sanderson and John 
Lovick also appear as members at a later date during Eden's 
administration. 

As Mr. Knight will figure in some of the transactions pres- 
ently to be recorded, a few words concerning his personal his- 
tory may be of interest. On ISTovember 6, 1714, he was re- 
appointed Collector of Customs for the District of Currituck, 



a post which he had held since the 9th of May, 1712, at the 
beginning of the administration of Governor Hyde. Under 
Hyde's administration, Knight was also a member of the 
Council, and he became Chief Justice on August 1, 1717. 
He died in the summer of 1719. 

I^Tews of Queen Anne's death having been communicated 
to Governor Eden, a meeting of the Council was held on. 
November 6, 1714, when it was duly proclaimed that "the 
High and Mighty Prince, George, Elector of Brunswick 
Lunenburg," was lawful heir to the imperial crowns of 
Great Britain, France and Ireland. After this ceremonial 
the oath of allegiance to the new sovereign was taken in turn 
by the Governor and his Councilors. 

At the time of the terrible massacre by the Tuscarora 
Indians in 1711, the authorities of South Carolina had 
given generous and timely aid to North Carolina in her 
hour of peril by sending a force under Colonel John Bam- 
well to aid her against the savages. In the spring of 1715, 
South Carolina had troubles of her o^vn with the hostile 
tribe of Yemassee Indians and Governor Eden was prompt 
to repay her kindness. On May 25th, in the year just men- 
tioned, "The Honourable y* Governor's own Regiment" was 
drawn up, and the companies of Captains Benjamin West, 
John Palin and John Norton furnished volunteers to go by 
sea to tlie scene of hostilities under the command of Colonel 
Theophilus Hastings, of South Carolina; while Colonel 
Maurice Moore (who had first come to North Carolina with 
Barnwell's men) was sent by land to the relief of his former 



home with a force of colonial troops. The South Carolina 
Assembly was not immindful of the assistance rendered by 
Governor Eden, as on the record of their proceedings, jointly 
thanking him and the Governor of IvFew York, it appears : 

''Governor Hunter and Governor Eden claim also our best 
acknowledgments as persons sincerely aifected with our 
calamities, the one sending us very considerable assistance 
in gallant and expert officers and soldiers, and the other 
laboring v/ith the greatest application and industry to engage 
the warlike Senekas in our cause, a people who by their power 
of their arms and the terror of their name are alone equal to 
the war and aufficient to subdue all our enemies, and. whom 
v/-e may daily expect to that purpose." 

During the same session, upon motion to that effect, it 
was ordered : 

"That Colonel Maurice Moore be desired by the messen- 
ger to attend this House; and, when come into the same, Mr. 
Speaker do give him the thanks of the House for his service 
to this Province in his coming so cheerfully with the forces 
brought from ISTorth Carolina to our assistance, and for 
what further services he and they have done since their arri- 
val here, 

"The House being informed that Colonel Maurice Moore 
attended, it was ordered that he should be admitted ; he was 
"admitted accordingly, and Mr. Speaker (according to order) 
gave him the thanks of this House for his said services. 

"Having expressed his acknowledgment to the House for 
that favor, Colonel Moore then withdrew." 



At a later period the Soutli Carolina Assembly voted a 
sum of monej' to Colonel Moore and his command for their 
services, and the soldiers under Hastings were rewarded in 
like manner. Plastings, like Moore, was a veteran of the 
Barnwell expedition. 

Having been greatly reduced in power by war with the 
whites, and also unable . through smallness of numbers to 
cope with their Indian enemies, a large majority of the 
Tuscaroras, about the years 1714-'15, left North Carolina 
under Chief Handcock and went to join the Iroquois con- 
federacy in New York. This northern confederacy — com- 
posed of the Mohawks, Oneidas, Onondagas, Cayugas, and 
Senecas — was up to that time called the Five Nations; and, 
after the arrival of the Tuscaroras, which added one tribe to 
their number, came to be known as the Six Nations, under 
which name it afterwards so conspicuously figured in the 
colonial and Revolutionary warfare of New York. 

Before they made war on the colonists of North Carolina, 
which vv^as just before Eden became Governor, the Tusca- 
roras had been the most powerful tribe in the province. The 
historian Lawson (who afterwards fell a victim to their tor- 
ture) tells us that they had, in the beginning of the eigh- 
teenth century, about twelve hundred fighting men, scat- 
tered along the Neuse and Tar rivers, in fifteen villages. 
The names of these villages were as follows : Haruta, Waqui, 
Conta-nah, Anna Gooka, Conauh-kare Harooka, Una Nau- 
han, Kentanuska, Chunaneets, Kenta, Eno, Naur-hegh-ne, 
Oonossoora, Tosneoc, Nonawharitse, and Nursoorooka. After 



10 



the greater part of their tribe had gone northward, as above 
noted, a small band of the Tuscaroras stayed for a time in 
North Carolina under the friendly chief, King Tom Blount. 
In June, 1717, at their own request, they were removed 
from a reservation between the I^euse and Pamlico rivers 
which had been awarded them by treaty, but which they con- 
sidered too much exposed to Indian attacks from the south- 
ward, and received in exchange a new hunting ground in 
Bertie Precinct, on Morratock (now Roanoke) river. These 
Indians seem afterwards to have followed their kindred to 
ISTew York, as the l^orth Carolina historian Martin (whose 
work was published in 1829, though written at a somewhat 
earlier date), says: ''The descendants of these Indians, at 
this day, though removed to the northern lakes, still retain 
their right to the land thus granted them, and have at various 
times sent agents to collect the rents accruing thereon, in 
which they have been assisted by the Legislature." 

When the great English philosopher and publicist, John 
Locke, wrote the Pundamental Constitution or Grand Model 
for the government of Carolina, that instrmnent provided 
for the institution of an hereditary order of colonial nobility 
whose members were to bear the title of Landgrave. At a 
council of the Lords Proprietors held in London at the 
Palace of St James on the 19th of February, 1718, Gov- 
ernor Eden was raised to this Carolina peerage as a Land- 
grave, and was the last person who ever received that honor. 

At a meeting of the Governor's Council on the 30th of 
October. 1718, it was ordered that a Board of Commission- 



11 



ers — consisting of Frederick Jones, William Reed and Rich- 
ard Sanderson — sliould proceed in the following May to act 
conjunctively with a like commission from Virginia in set- 
tling the boundary between the two colonies. Owing to a 
disagreement between the Commissioners of the respective 
provinces, the duty wath which they were charged was not 
perfoiined, and it was not until about ten years later that 
the boundary was run by another joint commission, whose 
labors have been immortalized by Ctdonel William Byrd of 
Westover, in his History of the Dividing Line. 

A vacancy having occurred in the Vestry of the parish 
in Chowan Precinct by the death of Thomas Peterson, Gov- 
ernor Eden was chosen as successor to that gentleman on 
the 3d of January, 1715. The parish, just alluded to, now 
lies in Edenton, and is Icnown as St. Paul's, though the vener- 
able edifice which at present serves as a house of worship was 
erected at a somewhat later date. The Parish of St. Paul 
Vv'as erected by an act of the Colonial Assembly in 1701. 
Governor Eden was very active in his efforts for the advance- 
ment of religion, and kept up a constant correspondence with 
the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel, urging that 
more missionaries be sent to the neglected field in North 
Carolina. Under the laws of England a parish is a cer- 
tain amount of territory within the jurisdiction of ecclesias- 
tical authority ; and, in I^Torth Carolina, when the colony was 
a dependency of Great Britain, parishes were often fixed in 
their bounds before a house of worship, or parish church, 
was erected. It is probable that prior to the erection of the 



12 



present building of St. Paul's Ouircli, wliicli was begun 
about 1736, no cbureh worthy of the name existed in Eden- 
ton, though there was a rudely constructed log building begnin 
in 1702, the year after the parish was formed. In 1711 
this log structure was described as without floor or seats — 
loose benches on the sand serving as pews. Often, in those 
days, religious services v/ere held in the court-house; and 
sometimes, no doubt, private houses of the colonists were 
used for that purpose. In the spring of 1728, Colonel Byrd 
of Westover, in referring to Edenton, remarks : "I believe 
this is the only metropolis in the Christian or Mahometan 
world, where there is neither Church, Chapel, Mosque, Syn- 
agogue, or any other place of Publick Worship of any Sect 
or Religion whatsoever." This picture is almost as alluring 
as the one drawn by the Commissary of the Bishop of Lon- 
don, at an earlier period, when, referring to Charleston, 
then the capital of our sister colony of South Carolina, 
he wrote: "I never repented so much of anything, my sins 
excepted, as much as my coming to this place. * * * 
The people here, generally speaking, are the vilest race of 
men upon the earth; they have neither honour, nor honesty, 
nor religion, enough to entitle them to any tolerable charac- 
ter, being a perfect medley or hotch-potch, made up of bank- 
rupt pirates, decayed libertines, sectaries and enthusiasts of 
all sorts, who have transported themselves hither from Ber- 
mudas, Jamaica, Barbadoes, Monserat, Antego, iSTevis, New 
England, Pennsylvania, etc." 



13 



When Eden was Governor the Atlantic coast was swarm- 
ing with pirates, who plied their trade with great energy 
and success. Foremost among these freebooters was the 
notorious "Blackbeard," whose real name history tells us 
was Edwai'd Teach, In the original records, however, his 
name appears written about every other way but Teach, to- 
wit: Tach, Tache, Theach, Thach, ThacheJ Thatch, Thack, 
and Tack. Piracy finally gTCw so formidable that the author- 
ities were powerless to cope with those engaged in that 
dread calling; and King George, about the year 1717, offered 
a pardon to all buccaneers who should forsake their nefarious 
operations and surrender themselves to some officer of the 
Crown. "Blackbeard" at first did not take advantage of 
this amnesty ; but eventually he did make his submission to 
Governor Eden, receiving the King's pardon in due form. 
But the old corsair soon tired of life on shore, and put to 
sea again; nor sliould we judge him too harshly therefor, 
as history tells us that he had thirteen wives ! "JSTone but 
the brave deserves the fair," yet when these deserts run up 
to thirteen, even the brave may tremble. Apparently the 
gallant navigator was more sought after by the ladies of 
his time than if a prophecy had come to pass as recorded in 
Isaiah (iv, 1), where it is Vv^ritten : "And in that day seven 
women shall take hold of one man, saying: We will eat our 
own bread, and wear our own apparel ; only let us be called 
by thy name." At any rate, Captain Teach Vv^as once more 
on the high seas, ostensibly as a merchantman bound for the 
Island of St. Thomas. Soon, however, it began to be whis- 



14 



pered that "Blackbeard" had not forgotten his old tricks; 
and these suspicions were strengthened when he one day made 
his appearance, towing into port a large French vessel laden 
with cocoa, sugar, and other sweet-meats. This vessel, though 
uninjured by storm and intact in every particular, was said 
by Teach to have been found abandoned at sea ; and the Court 
of Admiralty sustained his claim. As the iNTorth Carolina 
authorities made no effort to apprehend Teach, Governor 
Spotswood of Virginia took the matter in hand, and sent 
Lieutenant Robert Maynard with an armed vessel (some 
accounts say two vessels) in search of the pirate. After a 
bloody battle fought at Ocracoke Inlet on the 22d of Novem- 
ber, 1718, Maynard was victorious. He sailed back to Vir- 
ginia with a number of prisoners, and the severed head of 
Teach (whom he had slain in single combat) dangling at 
his bow-sprit. On the pirate's body was found a letter from 
Tobias Knight, of whom mention has already been made. 
This letter contained many professions of friendship, with 
a few dark hints about matters which the writer said he 
wished to tell, but did not care to put on paper. Knight 
also said in his letter that he believed Governor Eden like- 
wise would be glad to see Teach. There can be no doubt 
whatever that Knight was on very friendly terms with 
"Blackbeard," as a large part of the goods awarded to the 
pirate by the Admiralty Court was stored in a barn which 
Knight owned. So strong, indeed, were the suspicions 
against the latter that the Virginia authorities formally pre- 
ferred charges against him for his alleged misconduct, and 



15 



demanded that he he put on trial as an accessory in the 
crime of piracy. When the matter, however, came before the 
ISTorth Carolina Council (of which, it may be mentioned, 
Knight himself was a member) he was acquitted of the 
charges made against him. 

There is no evidence whatever that Governor Eden himself 
ever had any improper relations with Teach, though one 
might think, from some accounts printed in history, that 
they were bosom friends. Knight's note, found on the pi- 
rate's body, stated that the writer believed the Governor 
would be glad to see Teach before the latter left the country, 
and that is the only shadow of a foundation for the charge. 
What reason there was for this belief (if it really existed, 
and was not intended as a bit of flattery) does not appear. 
Knight was not Private Secretary to the Governor, though 
many histories state that he was. He was Secretary of 
the Colony, and did not even live in the same locality, his 
hom.e being at the town of Bath, while the Governor lived in 
the vicinity of Queen Anne's Creek (now Edenton), nearly 
fifty miles away. 

At the time Teach lived unmolested in ISTorth Carolina he 
held the royal pardon for his past offenses. The vessel and 
its cargo, which he later brought into the port of Bath, 
though piratically taken, were adjudged to be his property 
by a decision of the Admiralty Court, and the Governor had 
no right either ofricially or personally to set aside that decis- 
ion and seize the property. 



16 



Of the disposition of Teach's skull I have read an account 
by Mrs. Cornelia Phillips Spencer which says that it was 
made into a bowl and rimmed with silver; and that in such 
form it is said still to be preserved in Virginia, The truth 
of this tradition (for Mrs. Spencer seems not to speak from 
positive personal knowledge) may be well worth the inves- 
tigation of some antiquarian of the Old Dominion. 

On December 26, 1718, quite a disturbance was raised at 
Sandy Point, when Edward Moseley, Maurice Moore, 
Thomas Luten, Joseph Moore, and Plenry Clayton forced 
their way into the office of John Lovick, Deputy Secretary of 
the Colony, and took possession of the public records, includ- 
ing Council Journals, together with the Great Seal of the 
Colony, and held the building for twenty-four hours. ^Vhat 
their object was in so doing does not appear, but the Gov- 
ernor promptly had them placed under arrest for the offense. 
Moore and Moseley were bound over to court in a bond of 
one thousand pounds each, and Moseley had to give an addi- 
tional bond of one thousand poimds to answer an indictment 
for slandering the Governor. The slanderous words were 
alleged to have been uttered on the day aftei Moseley's 
arrest for forcing Loviek's office. It was charged that he 
had declared that Governor Eden could easily engage an 
armed force to arrest honest men, but could not raise a power 
sufficient to apprehend pirates ; that the Governor acted like 
a German Prince, and he hoped to see him put in irons and 
sent home to answer for his misconduct. When placed on 
trial for the forcible trespass, Moore vv'as fined five pounds, 



11 



Luten twenty shillings, and Moseley and Clayton five shil- 
lings each. On the indictment for slander, Moseley was 
fined one hundred pounds and declared incapable of hold- 
ing any office of honor or trust in the colony for the space 
of three years. It is probable that this sentence was later 
remitted, as Moseley afterwards 'apologized for his violent 
language, at the same time promising for the future to "be- 
have himself with the greatest care and respect imaginable." 

Governor Eden married Mrs. Penelope Golland, the 
widow of a Mr, Golland who lived at Mount Golland (now 
Mount Gould), on the Chowan river in Bertie Precinct. 
Eden had no children of his own ; but, by her previous mar- 
riage, Mrs. Eden had at least two children, John and Penel- 
ope Golland. The last named was four times married : first, 
to Colonel William Maule ; second, to Secretary John Lovick ; 
third, to George Pheney; and fourth, to Governor Gabriel 
Johnston. It has been generally supposed, and often stated 
in print, that this lady, who eventually became the first wife of 
Governor Johnston (Johnston was twice married), was Gov- 
ernor Eden's own daughter. This, however, is unquestion- 
ably an error. 

There is one piece of legal proof on record which in itself 
shows that Governor Eden died childless, and is as follows : 
If he had been the father of any children, they, of course, 
would be his next of kin and heirs at law. Yet at a meeting 
of the Provincial Council of JSTorth Carolina during the ad- 
ministration of Governor Burrington, on July 31, 1724, a 
petition was presented on behalf of Roderick Lloyd and 



18 



Anne, his wife, together witli Margaret Pugh (daughter of 
Mrs. Lloyd by a former marriage), averring that Mrs. Lloyd 
Vv^as "only sister and heir" of Governor Eden; that John 
Loviek, "by pretext of a pretended will made by the said 
Governor/' had fraudulently possessed himself of the Eden 
estate as executor; that the will had been procured in an 
unlawful and indirect manner, and was not signed and wit- 
nessed, as the law required. Mr. Loviek, as executor, made 
due answer to this petition; and, ivhile not denying that 
Mrs. Lloyd was next of hm, proceeded to show that Governor 
Eden had made and sigiied his will in due form and that it 
was also attested, by the number of witnesses necessary ; that 
said will had been duly proven in open court, and afterwards 
recorded, as the law required. It may be of interest to add 
that the truth of Mr. Lovick's answer is even now shown by 
the fact that the will in question at present stands on record 
in the archives of North Carolina deposited in the office of 
the Secretary of State at Raleigh. It is signed by the testa- 
tor, and witnessed by Henry Clayton, William Badham, 
and Mary Badham. In it Governor Eden makes no refer- 
ence to any children or other relative, except his niece, the 
above-mentioned Margaret Pugh, "youngest daughter of 
Robert Pugh, Esq''% des''^" To her he bequeaths five hun- 
dred pounds sterling, and the rest of his fortune is left to 
friends in JSTorth Carolina and Virginia — with John Loviek 
as residuary legatee. 

Mrs. Penelope Eden, wife of the Governor, was born in 
1677, and preceded her husband to the grave by about six 



19 



years. She seems to have been a woman of strong mind 
and will power, deserving respect for the awe in which she 
was held by those impelled through selfish motives to influence 
her husband. The Reverend John Urmstone, whose charac- 
aeter was not the most savory, v^a^ote in 1717 as follows : "I 
have gained mightily upon the Governor since the death of 
his wife, a strange, meddling, troublesome, proud woman, 
who put him often upon doing that which he had no mind to. 
I believe for the future we shall always have a good under- 
standing." 

In the property inherited by John Lovick as residuary 
legatee of Governor Eden, was the latter's seat, Eden House, 
in Bertie Precinct, Lovick died childless and bequeathed 
the estate to his widow, who was Governor Eden's step-daugh- 
ter, as has been noted. She married Mr. Lovick after 
Eden's death. In later years, when this lady was the wife 
of Governor Gabriel Johnston, the latter made Eden House 
his home ; and, in the course of time it descended, with 
other property, to the Dawson family. Governor Johnston's 
only daughter having miarried John Dawson. 

The death of Governor Eden occurred in the fiftieth year 
of his age on Monday, the 26th of March, 1722, and he was 
succeeded by President Pollock, who was Governor pro tem- 
pore only for a few months, himself dying on the 30th of 
the following August. Then William Peed, President of the 
Council, acted as Governor until the arrival of George Bur- 
rington, who was regularly commissioned to that office by the 
Lords Proprietors. 



20 



Governor Eden was buried in the precinct (now county) of 
Bertie, near Eden House, his late dwelling. There his 
remains rested until July, 1S89, when they were exhumed 
and borne across the Chowan river to Edenton. In that his- 
toric town they now repose, being deposited in the burial- 
ground of St. Paul's Church, of which he was at one time a 
Vestryman. There, too, have been gathered the remains of 
Governors Henderson Walker and Thomas Pollock. To- 
gether lie these ancient rulers, with other builders of the 
colony, who, leaving their cares and earthly honors behind, 
have passed to a well-earned rest. 

"The breezy call of incense-breathing morn, 

The swallow twittering from the straw-built shed. 
The cock's shrill clarion, or the echoing horn, 
No more shall rouse them from their lowly bed." 

The original slab which was placed as a memorial to 
Governor Eden still marks his grave. It is made of slate, 
set in brownstone, and has shown itself more capable of with- 
standing the ravages of time than many marble monuments 
of less age. On it are the following inscriptions : 



21 



HERE LYES Y<^ BODY OF CHARLES EDEN ESQ-^ WHO 

GOVERNED THIS PROVINCE EIGHT YEARS TO Y« 

GREATEST SATISFACTION OF Y« LORDS PROPRIETORS 

& Y« EASE & HAPPYNESS OF Y^ PEOPLE. HE 

BROUGHT Y« COUNTRY INTO A FLOURISPIING 

CONDITION & DIED MUCH LAMENTED MARCH Y« 

26 1722 ^TATIS 49. 

AND NEAR THIS PLACE LYES ALSO Y« BODY 

OF PENELOPE EDEN HIS VIRTUOUS CONSORT 

WHO DIED JAN^y Y"^ 4*'' 1716 ^TATIS 39. 

VIVIT 

POST FUNERA 

ILLE 

QUEM VIRTUS NON MARMOR 

IN .«;ternum 

SACRAT. 



22 



Over these inscriptions were originally (on a separate slab) 
the armorial bearings of Governor Eden, but this escutcheon 
has been broken out and a part of it lost. A fragment of the 
shield, however, is still preserved, being in custody of the 
Reverend Robert Brent Drane, D. D., Rector of St. Paul's 
Church at Eden ten. By the sheaves of wheat (or garhs, 
to use an heraldic term) displayed on this fragment, the 
Governor is proclaimed a member of the Eden family of the 
County Palatine of Durham in the north of England. This 
noted family has contributed two English Governors to Amer- 
ican colonies: Charles Eden of North Carolina, whose ser- 
vices are set forth in the preseut sketch, and Robert Eden, 
who came to govern Maryland in the year 1768. The Eden 
family claims descent from Robert de Eden, an owner of land 
in Preston-on-Tees, held by knight's service under the 
Bishop of Durham, and who died about the year 1413. 
Anotlier Robert Eden (of West Auckland, in the county of 
Durham) became a Baronet on the 13th of JSTovember, 1672, 
and a like title was conferred upon one of his great-grand- 
sons, the above-mentioned Governor Robert Eden of Mary- 
land, on September 10, 1776. The latter's seat was Truir, 
in the county of Durham. These two baronetcies became 
merged in 1841, wlien Sir Robert Johnson-Eden, of West 
Auckland, died unmarried and was succeeded by liis cousin. 
Sir William Eden of Truir. Another William Eden 
(brotlier of the Governor of Maryland) was advanced to the 
Irish peerage on l^ovember 18, 1789, as Baron Auckland, 
and became Baron Auckland of West Auckland in the peer- 



23 



age of Great Britain on May 23, 1793. At a later date (in 
1839) his son and lieir received the additional titles of 
Baron Eden of Norwood, in the county of Surrey, and Earl 
of Auckland. This was George Eden, Earl of Auckland, 
at one time Governor-General of India. Among other dis- 
tinguished members of the family have been Sir Ashley 
Eden, Lieutenant-Governor of Bengal; Admiral Henry- 
Eden of the Royal ]Sravy; Sir Charles Eden, Vice- Admiral 
in the same service and a Lord of the Admiralty ; Lieuten- 
ant-General John Eden, of the Royal Army; Sir Frederick 
Morton Eden, a sociologist and author; the Right Reverend 
Robert John Eden, third Baron Auckland, who was Lord 
Bishop first of Sodor and Man and afterwards of Bath and 
Wells; the Right Reverend Robert Eden, Lord Bishop of 
Moray and Ross, and Primus of the Church in Scotland ; 
Morton Eden, a noted diplomatist, who was raised to the Irish- 
peerage as Baron Henley of Chardstock, and one of whose 
sons (the second Baron Henley) changed his surname of 
Eden to Henley ; Lieutenant-General Morton Eden of the 
Royal Army ; Sir Frederick Eden, also an army officer, who 
was killed at ISTew Orleans during the second war between 
Great Britain and America, just a fortnight before the 
great battle of January 8, 1815 ; Lady Emily Eden, a novel- 
ist, and writer on affairs in India, and others who might be 
mentioned. 

Though the old slab of slate which marks the resting-place 
of Governor Charles Eden has well seiwed its purpose, the 
historic town of Edenton — ^named in his honor — is a nobler 



24 



and more enduring memorial. This place at first went by the 
Indian name of Matecomack, or "the Towne in Matecomack 
Creek/' was sometimes called the Port of Roanoke, and later 
became known as Queen Anne's Creek, in compliment to 
E,ngland's lady sovereign. The Colonial Assembly gave it the 
name of Edenton about the time of Eden's death in 1722. 
For long years it was the capital of the colony. There it 
was that Governors Burrington, Everard, and the elder John- 
ston held sway; there, too, the patriotic ladies of a later 
period planned trouble for King George when they placed 
themselves on record against the tax on tea; there, in the 
dark hours of. the Revolution, Samuel Johnston, Joseph 
Hewes, James Iredell, and their compatriots maintained a 
standard of statesmanship nowhere excelled in America ; and, 
in the same ancient borough, within tlie memory of a genera- 
tion still living, have dwelt men who, in peace and in war, 
well proved that they were worthy inheritors of the fair fame 
won by their forefathers — 

"In the good old colony days, 
When we were under the King." 



THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET. 



GREAT EVENTS IN NORTH CAROLINA HISTORY. 



VOL. III. 

The Trial of James Glasgow, and the Supreme Court of North Carolina. 

Kemp P. Battle, LL. D. 
The Cherokee Indians. 

Major W. W. String-field. 

The Volunteer State (Tennessee) as a Seceder. 

Miss Susie Gentry. 
Historic Hillsboro. 

Mr. Francis Nash. 

Some Aspects of Social Life in Colonial North Carolina. 

Charles Lee Raper, Ph. D. 

Was Alamance the First Battle of the Revolution? 

Mrs. L. A, McCorkle. 

Historic Homes in North Carolina — Panther Creek, Clay Hill-on-the 
Neuse, The Fort. 

Mrs. Hayne Davis, Miss Mary Hilliard Hinton, Mrs. R. T. Lenoir. 
Governor Charles Eden. 

Mr. Marshall DeLancey Haywood. 
The Colony of Transylvania. 

Judge Walter Clark. 
Social Conditions in Colonial North Carolina: An Answer to Colonel 
William Byrd, of Westcver, Virginia. 

Alexander Q. Holladay, LL. '^ 
Historic Homes in North Carolina — Quaker Meauu a. 

Judge A. C. Avery. 
The Battle of Moore's Creek. 

Prof. M. C. S. Noble. 



One Booklet a month will be issued by the Noeth Carolina Society 
OF THE Daughters op the Revolution, beginning May, 1903. Price, 
$1 per year. 

Address MISS MARY HILLIARD HINTON. 

"Midway Plantation," 
Raleigh, N. C. 

Arrangements have been made to have this volume of the Booklet 
bound in Library style for 50 cents. Those living at a distance will 
please add stamps to cover cost of mailing. State whether black or 
red leather is preferred. 

EDITORS: 

MISS MARY HILLIARD HINTON. MRS. E. E. MOFFITT. 



VOL. 1!I JANUARY, 1904 No. 9 



THE 



NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET 



"CAROLINAI CAROUNAI HEAVEN'S BLESSINGS ATTEND HER! 
WHILE WE LIVE WE WILL CHERISH, PROTECT AND DEFEND HER." 



RALEIGH 

E. M. UzzELL & Co., Printers and Binders 
1903 



OFFICERS OF THE NORTH CAROLINA SOCIETY DAUGHTERS 
OF THE REVOLUTION, 1903; 

REGENT : 

MRS. THOMAS K. BRUNER. 

VICE-REGENT i 

MRS. WALTER CLARK. 

HONORARY REGENTS: 

MRS. SPIER WHITAKER, 

(Nee Fanny DeBerniere Hooper), 

MRS. D. H. HILL, Sr. 

SECRETARY : 

MRS. E. E. MOFFITT. 

TREASURER : 

MRS. FRANK SHERWOOD. 

REGISTRAR : 

MRS. ED. CHAMBERS SMITH. 



Founder of the North Carolina Society and Regent 1896-1902: 
MRS. SPIER WHITAKER. 

Regent 1902: 
MRS. D. H. HILL, Sr. 



PREFACE. 



The object of the JSToeth Carolina Booklet is to erect 
a suitable memorial to the patriotic wom.en who composed 
the "Edenton Tea Party." 

These stout-hearted women are every way worthy of admi- 
ration. On October 25, 1774:, seven months before the defi- 
ant farmers of Mecklenburg had been aroused to the point of 
signing their Declaration of Independence, nearly twenty 
months before the declaration made by the gentlemen com- 
posing the Vestry of St. Paul's Church, Edenton, nearly 
two years before Jefferson penned the immortal JSTational 
Declaration, these daring women solemnly subscribed to a 
document affirming that they would use no article taxed by 
England. Their example fostered in the whole State a deter- 
mination to die, or to be free. 

In beginning this new series, the Daughters of the Revo- 
lution desire to express their most cordial thanks to the for- 
mer competent and untiringly faithful Editors, and to ask 
for the new management the hearty support of all who are 
interested in the brave deeds, high thought, and lofty lives 
of the North Carolina of the olden days. 

Mrs. D. H. Hill. 



THE COLONY OF TRANSYLVANIA. 



By chief justice WALTER CLARK, 

Editor ''North Carolina State Records" and " Regimental Histories of 
North Carolina." 



In the armj of tlie ill-fated Braddock, which, in 1755, 
marched to its memorable defeat in the mountains of western 
Pennsylvania, were a hundred ISTorth Carolina frontiersmen 
under Captain Hugh Waddell. Their wagoner and black- 
smith, a native of Pennsylvania, but who had then for some 
years been a resident of what is now Davie county, North 
Carolina, was Daniel Boone,* at that time twenty-one years 
of age. In the following years he made the acquaintance of 
Colonel Richard Henderson, who, struck with Boone's intelli- 
gence and the opportunity for fortune offered by the new 
lands south of the Ohio, since known as Kentucky, organized 
a company, and employed Boone in 1763 to spy out the 
country. f The task was one" of hardship and danger, and 
years passed before it took final shape. Boone is known to 
have made one of his visits to Kentucky in 1769, and was 
probably there earlier. In 1773 he again attempted to enter 
Kentucky, carrying his family, but was driven back, with the 
loss of six men killed by the Indians, among them his eldest 
son, at Wallen's Gap. 

Under the ISTorth Carolina Judiciary Act of 1767, Martin 

*Thwaites' "Life of Boone," 21. 
tHaywood's "Tennessee," 48 (Ed. of 1891). 



Howard was appointed Chief Justice, 1 March, 1Y68, with 
Maurice Moore and Eichard Henderson associates, positions 
which they held until 1773, when the law expired and the 
courts were closed till another Judiciary Act was passed bj the 
new government in 1777. It is possible that as Henderson and 
his associates had employed Boone in 1763 that Henderson's 
appointment to the judgeship prevented prompt action, for we 
find that soon after the expiration of his office Henderson and 
Nathaniel Hart, one of his partners in the proposed land 
scheme, journeyed in October, 1774, to the Otari towns to open 
negotiations with the Cherokees for the grant of suitable terri- 
tory. The Indians very cautiously deputed one of their 
diiefs, called the "Little Carpenter," to return with the white 
men and examine the goods offered. This chief returned to 
his tribe with a favorable report in January, 1775, and the 
Overhill Cherokees were bidden to assemble at the Sycamore 
Shoals of the Watauga. The order to assemble was given by 
the head chief, Oconostata, a very old man, famous for his 
prowess in war with the whites. At the appointed rendez- 
vous, on 17 March, 1775, the treaty was signed by Oconostata 
and two other chiefs, Savanookoo and the Little Carpenter 
(Atta Culla-Culla), in the presence and with the assent of 
1,200 of the tribe, half of them w^arriors.* In consideration 
of £12,000 in goods, the Indians granted to Henderson and 
his associates all the lands lying between the Kentucky and 
the Cumberland rivers, embracing over half of what is now 
Kentucky and part of Tennessee. The treaty was debated 



*Roosevelt's "Winning of the West," Part H, Chapter 2. 



sentence by sentence, the Indians choosing their own inter- 
preter. It was only signed after four days' minute discus- 
sion and after fierce opposition from a chief known as Drag- 
ging Canoe. The goods must have been put at a high valua- 
tion, for one brave who received as his share only a shirt con- 
temptuously said he could secure more with his rifle in one 
day's hunting. On the other hand, the Indians received full 
value, for they had in truth no title to convey, and they plainly 
told Henderson he would have great trouble to obtain or hold 
possession on account of other tribes. The territory was not 
occupied and owned by the Cherokees, nor, indeed, by any 
tribe, but was a battle-field, where hostile bands met to fight 
out their quarrels. Besides, as we shall see later on, neither 
the British government nor the authorities of Virginia or 
North Carolina would recognize the authority of the Indians 
to convey. None the less the plan of Henderson and his asso- 
ciates was a bold, audacious dash for fortune. He at once 
named his acquisition Transylvania. 

Judge Richard Henderson, the moving spirit of the enter- 
prise, was born in Hanover county, Va., 20 April, 1735. 
His ancestors by his father's side were from Scotland and his 
mother's people (Williams) were Welsh. He accompanied 
his father, Samuel Henderson, to Granville county, JST. C, 
about 1745, where his father later became Sheriff. Richard 
Henderson studied law with his cousin, Judge John Williams, 
whose step-daughter, Elizabeth Keeling, he afterwards mar- 
ried. Besides being Judge 1768-1773, he was re-elected Judge 



8 



14 August, 1778, but declined. In 1778 and 1782 he was a 
member of the Council of State, and in 1781 a member of the 
House of Commons for Granville county. 

The company formed by Judge Henderson to buy the 
Indian lands consisted of himself, John Williams (later 
Judge) and Leonard H. Bullock of Granville, William 
Johnston, James Hogg, Thomas Hart, John Lutterell, ISTa- 
thaniel Hart and David Hart, of Orange county. The Harts 
were near kinsmen of Thomas Hart Benton, who was also 
born in Orange county. Thomas Hart, his grandfather, and 
Jesse Benton, his father, were among the colonists who accom- 
panied Judge Henderson to Boonesborough. 

A full account of the treaty and the incidents attending its 
negotiation and ratification are to be found in the proceed- 
ings of the Virginia Convention, 1777, taken upon the memo- 
rial of Richard Henderson and others, and is preserved to us 
in the Jefferson MSS., 5th Series, Vol. VIII. The British 
spy, Captain J. F. D. Smyth, in his "Tour in America," 
Vol. I, p. 124, visited John Williams at his home in Gran- 
ville about December, 1774, where he met Judge Henderson, 
whom he lauds as a genius, and says he did not know how to 
read and write till after he was grown. As Henderson became 
Judge at the age of thirty-three, and as, besides, Smyth styles 
him Nathaniel Henderson, and adds that Williams was said 
to be a mulatto, and looked like one, no faith is to be given to 
any of his statements. He, however, says probably with 
truth (p. 126) that Judge Henderson had made a secret pur- 



chase of territory from the Indians before his public treaty 
later on. 

As soon as it became apparent that the Indians would sign 
the treaty, Henderson started Boone on ahead, on 10 March, 
1775, with a company of thirty men to clear a trail from the 
Holston to the Kentucky. This was the first regular path 
opened into the wilderness, was long known as Boone's Trace, 
and became forever famous in Kentucky history as the Wilder- 
ness Eoad. It led over Cumberland Gap and crossed Cumber- 
land, Laurel and Rockcastle rivers at fords which required 
swimming when the streams were in freshet. It was a narrow 
bridle path, chopped out in the wilderness and thickets, and 
a blazed way in the tall open timber. After a fortnight's hard 
work the party had almost reached the Kentucky river, when, 
before daybreak on 25 March, as they lay around their dying 
camp fires, they were attacked by Indians, who killed two of 
their number and wounded a third. The hardy pioneers held 
their ground without further loss till daylight, when the 
Indians drew off. Boone held on his course till he reached 
the Kentucky river, and on 1 April began to build Boones- 
borough on an open plain, where there was a salt lick and two 
sulphur springs. His small force had scarcely erected their 
log cabins and broken ground for corn planting when the 
Indians they had already fought returned with re-inforce- 
ments and "killed and sculped," as Boone termed it, several 
men. The rest would have abandoned the settlement, but 
Boone was made of sterner stuff and sent a special messenger 
to Henderson to hurry him forward with the main body. 



10 



Boone's terse and common-sense letter has been publislied and 
is mentioned in Henderson's journal below given. 

Plenderson had started off as soon as the treaty was com- 
pleted, and took with him forty mounted riflemen and a num- 
ber of negro slaves, a drove of beef cattle and a train of wagons 
loaded with provisions, ammunition, material for making gun- 
powder, seed corn and other seed, and various articles of neces- 
sity for his intended settlement ; but he was obliged to leave the 
wagons in Powell's Valley, for Boone had not been able to con- 
struct more than a bridle path. Accordingly their goods and 
implements were packed on horses and they proceeded. Be- 
sides the journal which Henderson kept, a man named Wil- 
liam Calk jotted down the daily incidents of the journey in 
his diary, which has also been printed, numerous extracts 
from which, some of them amusing, are given in President 
Roosevelt's "Winning of the West," Part II, ch. 2. The party 
carried with them "Irish tators" to plant, among the agxicultu- 
ral supplies, besides bacon and corn meal, and one of the 
driven beeves was occasionally killed, though their chief de- 
pendence for subsistence was the deer, turkeys, buffalo and 
other game which they shot. The journey was very painful 
and much impeded by rains, snow, the often steep and muddy 
path, swollen streams and hourly peril of attack from Indians. 
On 1 April, at Cumberland Gap, they met Boone's special 
messenger, and time and again they met panic-stricken par- 
ties of other intending settlers returning home in all haste. 
Henderson sent an encouraging reply by one of his party, Cap- 
tain Cocke, who volunteered for this dangerous service, and 



11 



who later was one of the first United States Senators from 
Tennessee. But for the establishment of the fort at Boones- 
boroagh, Kentucky would have been entirely abandoned by 
the whites in 1775, just as it had been the previous year. 
Had this occurred again in 1775, Kentucky would have 
doubtless been entirely unsettled until after the Revolution, 
and might have remained British soil. To Boone and Hen- 
derson is due the fact that this did not happen, but they 
could not have held their ground, in all probability, had 
it not been for the defeat which had been inflicted on Corn- 
stalk and his confederacy of Indians at the battle of the 
Great Kanawha, or Point Pleasant, in the October previous, 
by General Lewis'. 

Felix Walker,* one of Boone's party, thus describes in his 
narrative, which is still in existence, the arrival at the future 
site of Boonesborough : "On entering the plain we w^ere per- 
mitted to view a very interesting and romantic sight. A num- 
ber of buffaloes, of all sizes, supposed to be between two and 
three hundred, made off from, the lick in every direction: 
some rumiing, some walking, others loping slowly and care- 
lessly, with young calves playing, skipping and bounding 
through the plain. Such a sight some of us never saw before, 
nor perhaps ever may again." 

Henderson, in the meantime, as already stated, was push- 
ing on with his party, and arrived, with the loss of some 
panic-stricken deserters, at Boonesborough on his fortieth 
birthday, 20 April, 1775, the day after the battle of Lexing- 



Later member of Congress from North Carolina, for three terms. 



12 



ton, which began the Revolutionary War, an event, however, 
of which he did not hear till 29 May. His journal on this 
memorable trip, from 20 March, 1775, and afterwards down 
to 25 July, is well worth preservation, and is here given: 

JOURNAL OP COLONEL, EICIIAED HENDERSON RELATING TO 
THE TRANSYLVANIA COLONY. 

Monday, March 20th, 1775. — Having finished my treaty with the 
Indians at Watauga, set out for Louisa, and arrived at John Shelby's 
in the evening. 

Tuesday, 21st. — Went to Mr. John Sevier's, in company of Colonel 
Williams and Colonel Hart, and staid that day. 

Wednesday, 22d. — Messrs. Williams and Hart set off home, and I 
staid with Mr. Sevier. 

Thursday, 23d. — Still at Mr. Sevier's. N. B. — Because our horses 
were lost, though not uneasy, as Messrs. Hart and Luttrell made a poor 
hand of traveling. 

Friday, 24th. — Set off in pursuit of Mr. Hart and Luttrell. Overtook 
them both and lodged at Captain Bledsoe's. 

Saturday, 25th. — Came to Mr. Calloway's. 

Sunday, 26th. — Staid there. 

Monday, 27th. — Employed in storing away goods. 

Tuesday, 28th. — Set off for Louisa. 

Wednesday, 29th. — Continued our jovirney. N. B. — Luttrell not 
come up. 

Thursday, 30th. — Arrived at Captain Martin's in Powell's Valley. 

Friday, 31st. — Employed in making a house to secure tlie wagons, as 
we could not possibly clear the road any farther. N. B. — My wagon and 
Samuel Henderson's came up; also Mr. Luttrell in the evening. 

Saturday (April) 1st (1775). — The first day of April. Employed in 
making ready for packing, etc. Mr. Hart came up. 

Sunday, 2d. — Continued at Captain Martin's, waiting for the wagon. 

Monday, 3d. — Still continued waiting for the wagon. 

Tuesday, J/th. — Still continued waiting for the wagon. The same 
evening the wagon arrived, though so late we could not proceed. 



13 



Wednesday, 5tli. — Started off with our pack-horses about three o'clock. 
Traveled about five miles to a large spring. The same evening Mr. Lut- 
trell went out hunting and has not yet returned. The same evening 
Samuel Henderson's and John Farrar's horses took a scare, with their 
packs, running away with the same, saddle and bridle. Farrar's saddle- 
bags and other things damaged. Next morning Samuel Henderson and 
Farrar went in pursuit of their horses, saddles, etc. The same evening 
John Farrar returned to our camp with news that they had found all 
their goods, but two of their horses were missing. 

Thursday, 6th. — Sent John Farrar back with provisions to meet and 
assist Samuel Henderson, with orders to stay with him till they over- 
took us, as we promised to wait for them at Cumberland Gap. 

Friday, 1th (probably Saturday, 8th). — Samuel Henderson and John 
Farrar returned to us with their horses, packs and everything safe, we 
having waited at our camp, ten miles below Martin's, for them. 

(Without date). — Traveled about six miles to the last settlement in 
Powell's Valley, where we Avere obliged to stop and kill a beef. Wait 
for Samuel Henderson. This was done (namely, "killing the beef") 
whilst waiting for Samuel Henderson. 

Friday, 7th. — About break of day, began to snow. About eleven 
o'clock received a letter from Mr. Luttrell's camp, that there were five 
persons killed on this road to the Cantuckee by the Indians. Captain 
Hart, upon the receipt of this news, retreated back with his company 
and determined to settle in the Valley to make corn for the Cantuckey 
people. The same day received a letter from Dan. Boone that his com- 
pany was fired upon by the Indians, (who) killed two of his men, though 
he kept the ground and saved the baggage, etc. 

Saturday, 8th. — Started about ten o'clock. Crossed Cumberland Gap 
about four miles. Met about forty persons returning from the Can- 
tucky on account of the late murder by the Indians. Could prevail on 
one only to return. Mem. — Several Virginians who were with us re- 
turned. 

Sunday, 9th. — Arrived at Cumberland river, where we met Robert 
Willis and his son returning. 

Monday, 10th (April, 1715). — Dispatched Captain Cocke to the Can- 
tucky to inform Captain Boone that we were on the road. Continued 
at camp that day on account of the badness of the weather. 



14 



Tuesday, lltli. — Started from Cumberland. Made very good day's 
travel of near twenty miles. Killed beef, etc. 

■Wednesday, 12th. — Traveled about five miles. Prevented going any 
farther by the rains and the high waters at Richland creek. 

Thursday, 13th. — Last night arrived near our camp. Stewart and ten 
other men camped within half a mile of us on their return from Louisa. 
Camped that night at Lorrel (Laurel) river. They had well-nigh turned 
three or four of our Virginians back. 

Friday, IJfth. — Traveled about twelve miles to a camp. 

Saturday, loth. — Traveled about eighteen miles and camped on the 
north of Rock Castle river. This river is a fork of the Cumberland. 
Lost an axe this morning at camp. 

Sunday, 16th. — About twelve o'clock met James McAfee with eighteen 
other persons returning from Cantucky. Traveled about twenty-two 
miles and camped on the head of Dick's river, where Luna, from McAfee's 
camp, came to us rpsolved to go to the Louisa. 

Monday, 17th. — Started about three o'clock. Prevented by rain. 
Traveled seven miles. 

Tuesday, 18th. — Traveled about sixteen miles. Met Michael Stoner 
with pacic-horses to assist us. Camped that night in the eye of the rich 
land. Stoner brought us excellent beef in plenty. 

Wednesday, 19th. — Traveled about sixteen miles. Camped on Otter 
creek, a good mill place. 

Thursday, 20th. — Arrived at Fort Boone, on the mouth of the Otter 
creek (on) Cantuckey river, where we were saluted by a running fire of 
about twenty-five guns, all that were then at the fort. The men ap- 
peared in high spirits and much rejoiced on our arrival. 

On viewing the fort and finding it not sufficient to admit of building 
for the reception of our company, and a scarcity of ground suitable for 
clearing at such an advanced season, was at some loss how to proceed. 
Mr. Boone's company having laid off most of the adjacent good lands 
into lots of two acres each and taking it as it fell to each individual by 
lot, were in actual possession and occupying them. After some per- 
plexity, resolved to erect a fort on the opposite side of a large lick near 
the river bank, which would place us at the distance of about three hun- 
dred yards from the fort — the only commodious place where we could be 
of any service to Boone's men, or vice versa. 



15 



On communicating my thoughts to Mr. Luttrell on this subject, with 
my reason for preferring this place to a large spring over a hill, at 
three-quarters of a mile from Fort Boone, he readily gave his assent and 
seemed pleased with the choice. Mr. Hart said, in a very cold, indif- 
ferent manner, "he thought it might do well enough." Accordingly it 
was resolved that a fort should be built on said place, etc. Moved our 
tents to the ground, i. e., Mr. Luttrell and myself and our particular 
companies lodged there Saturday night. 

Sunday, 23d (April, 1775). — Remained at camp. Passed the day 
without public worship, nothing of that kind having been put in practice 
before, and ourselves much at sixes and sevens and no place provided 
for that purpose. 

Monday. — Proceeded, with the assistance of Captain Boone and 
Colonel Calloway, to lay off lots. Finished nineteen, besides one re- 
served round a fine spring. 

Tuesday. — Finished the lots — in all, fifty-four in number. 

Saturday, 22d. — Finished running off all the lots we could conve- 
niently get, to-wit, fifty-four, and gave notice of our intention of having 
them drawn for in the evening. But as Mr. Robert McAfee, his brother 
Samuel and some more were not well satisfied whether they would draw 
or not, wanting to go down the river about fifty miles, near Captain 
Harrod's settlement, where they had begun improvements and left them 
on the late alarm, and being informed myself in hearing of all attend- 
ing that such settlement should not entitle them to lands, etc., from us, 
and appearing much concerned and at a loss what to do, on which the 
lottery Avas deferred till next morning at sunrise, thereby giving them 
time to come to a resolution. 

Sunday, 23d. — Drawed lots, etc. Spent the day without public wor- 
ship. 

Monday, 2Jftli. — Employed in viewing the respective lots and endeavor- 
ing to satisfy the drawers by exchanging my own and those over whom 
of our company I had any influence to give entire satisfaction. 

Tuesday, 25tli. — As there were fifty-four lots and not so many drawers 
by thirteen, some of the best lots were left; therefore had a second lot- 
tery, at the end of which everybody seemed well satisfied. I had been 
able by one way or other to obtain four lots for the fort garden, etc., and 



16 



in these lotteries our particular company had such luck in drawing as 
to enable me to give in exchange lots which entirely gave satisfaction. 

Wednesday, 26th. — Other people coming, employed in showing lots for 
their use. Sowed small seed, planted cucumbers, etc. 

Thursday, 27th. — Employed in clearing fort lot, etc. Mr. Luttrell, 
Nat. Henderson and Samuel Henderson all that assisted me. Mr. Hart, 
having made choice of a piece of ground for his own and people's culti- 
vation adjacent to the town lands, did not come near nor offer assist- 
ance, though I had often mentioned to him the necessity of building a 
magazine, our powder being exposed in tents and the weather somewhat 
rainy. Mr. Luttrell reported to me that Captain Hart would have noth- 
ing to say to the fort, things were managed in such a manner, though 
I cannot guess the reason of his discontent. 

Friday, 28th. — Mr. Luttrell chose a piece of ground about three- 
quarters of a mile from the fort and set three of his people to work; two 
remained with me to assist in clearing about where the fort is to stand. 
He on all occasions is exceedingly obliging and good-natured and seems 
desirous of promoting the company's interest. 

Saturday, 29th. — Built, or rather begun, a little house for a magazine, 
but did not finish it. Mr. Hart told me in the morning that he would 
assist, but never saw or heard of him this day more. 

Sunday, 30th. — No public worship. 

Monday, 1st May (1115). — Continued to work on the magazine. 

Tuesday, 2d. — Continued same work and working on our lots. 

Wednesday, 3d. — Finished the magazine. Captain John Floyd arrived 
here, conducted by one Jo. Drake from a camp on Dick's river, where he 
had left about thirty men of his company from Virginia, and said he 
was sent by them to know on what terms they might settle our lands; 
that if it was reasonable they would pitch on some place on which to 
make corn, or otherwise go on the north side of the river. Was much at 
a loss on account of this gentleman's arrival, as he was surveyor of 
Fincastle under Colonel Preston, a man who had exerted himself 
against us and said and did everything in his power or invention, as I 
am informed, to defeat our enterprise and bring it into contempt. 'Tis 
said that he not only had our ease represented, or rather misrepresented, 
to Lord Dunmore, but actually wrote to Governor Martin on the sub- 
ject. This man (Captain Floyd) appeared to have a great share of 



lY 



modesty, an honest, open countenance and no small share of good sense, 
pleading in behalf of himself and his whole company, among which were 
one Mr. Dandridge (son of Nat. West Dandridge of Virginia) and one 
Mr. Todd, two gentlemen of the law in their own parts, and several other 
young gentlemen of good families. We thought it most advisable to 
secure them to our interest, if possible, and not show the least distrust 
of the intentions of Captain Floyd, on v/honi we intend to keep a very 
strict watch. 

Accordingly, though the season was too far advanced to make much 
corn, yet we promised them land, etc., 1,000 acres to the principal gen- 
tlemen, on the terms of Henderson & Company. This we would not have 
done but for the scarcity of men and the doubt with respect to the Vir- 
ginians coming into our measures, according title, etc. 

We restrained these men to settle somewhere in a compact body for 
mutual defence and to be obedient to such laws as should from time to 
time be made for the government of all the adventurers on our pur- 
chase, and gave them leave to make choice of any lands not before 
marked by any of our men or a certain Captain Harrod and his men, 
who were settled somewhere about fifty miles west of us on the head of 
Salt river, and of whom we could form no conjecture, but thought it 
best to prevent any interruption to him or his men till we should know 
what he intended with respect to us and our title. 

The day before this, one Captain Callomees and Mr. Berry, with five 
other men, arrived here from Frederick or somewhere in the north-west 
frontiers of Virginia. They had heard nothing of our purchase when 
they left home, but merely set off to view the country, etc. Hearing of 
us and our pretentions, they thought proper to come, though they 
seemed not very conversable, and I thought I could discover in our first 
intercourse a kind of sullen dissatisfaction and reserve, which plainly 
indicated a selfish opinion to our disadvantage. This, after some time, 
wore off, and they gladly treated with us for lands and other indulgences, 
which we granted. 

Thursday, 4th (May, 1775). — Captain Floyd returned home; seemed 
highly pleased with gaining his point of settling, etc. I must not omit 
to mention here that Mr. Floyd expressed great satisfaction on being 
informed of the plan we proposed for legislation, and said he must most 



18 



heartily concur in that and every other measure we should adopt for the 
well governing or good of the community in general. This plan is ex- 
ceedingly simple and I hope will prove effectual. 'Tis no more than the 
people's sending delegates to act for them in general convention. 

Friday, 5th. — ^Nothing material. Let Mr. William Cocke have five 
yards and a half oznaburgs off my old tent, for which I charge him 
OS. 6d. V. money. 

Saturday, 6th. — Lived on as usual. Very little of Mr. Hart's company. 
He kept much to himself — scarcely social. 

Sunday, 7th (May, 1115). — Went into the woods with my brothers, 
Nat. and Samuel, and Captain Boone, after a horse left oiit on Saturday 
night. Staid till night, and on our return found Captain Harrod and 
Colonel Thomas Slaughter from Harrodstown on Dick's river. Colonel 
Slaughter and Harrod seemed very jocose and in great good humor. 

Monday, 8th. — Eainy. Was much embarrassed Vv'ith a dispute between 
the above-mentioned' gentlemen. Captain Harrod, with about forty men, 
settled on Salt river last year; was drove off, joined the army Avith 
thirty of his men, and, being determined to live in the country, had 
come down this spring from Monongahela, accompanied by about fifty 
men, most of them young persons without families. They came on Har- 
rod's invitation. These men had got possession some time before we got 
there, and I could not certainly learn on what terms or pretense they 
meant to hold land, and was doubtful that so large a body of lawless 
people, from habit and education, would give us great trouble and re- 
quire the utmost exertion of our abilities to manage them; and, not 
without considerable anxiety and some fear, wished for an intercourse 
with Captain Harrod, who, I understood, was chief and had all the men 
in that quarter under his absolute direction and command. But was 
soon undeceived as to this point. Though these gentlemen were friendly 
to each other and open in all their conduct, they were warm advocates 
and champions for two different parties. A schism had raised between 
Harrod's men, whom he brought down the Ohio with him, and those 
from divers parts of Virginia and elsewhere, amounting to about fifty 
in number on both sides. Harrod's men, being first on the spot, claimed 
a priority of choice; and had they stopped there the dispute would 
scarcely ever had existed, for the otliers seemed willing to give in to such 



19 



a preference. But the complaint laid before us by Colonel Slaughter in 
behalf of the other men, and on which we were to decide, was that Har- 
rod's men had not contented themselves with the choice of one tract of 
land apiece, but had made it their entire business to ride through the 
country, mark every piece of land they thought proper, built cabins, or 
rather hog-pens, to make their claims notorious at the place, and by 
that means had secured every good spring in a country of twenty-odd 
miles in length and almost as broad. That, though it was in those parts 
one entire good tract of land, and no advantage in choice except as to 
water, yet it was unjustly depriving them of every essential inducement 
to their settling in the country. That, for their own part, after giving 
up that Captain Harrod should, as to himself, have any indulgence, that 
his men might each make a choice for himself first, and then that they 
might come in for the second choice. This was strenuously urged by 
their advocate, Colonel Slaughter, a sensible and experienced old gentle- 
man, a man of good family and connexions and a great friend to our 
country, and with this farther in his favor, that the men he appeared 
for had, from their first assembling together at Harrodsburg, in obedi- 
ence to our written declaration respecting encouraging settlers in our 
country, industriously employed themselves in clearing land and mak- 
ing ready for as large a crop of corn as possible, depending on a punctual 
performance on our part. That Captain Harrod's men had totally neg- 
lected to do anything that way, there being at •this time in Harrod's 
settlem-ent at the Boiling Spring, six miles from Harrodsburg, not more 
than three acres cleared and ready to be planted, and that for the Cap- 
tain only, whilst in less time with the same number of hands they had 
somewhere between sixty and eighty. 

Fair and clear as this case was in favor of Slaughters men, upon 
every principle of justice and our own express declaration in writing, 
we were afraid to determine in favor of the right side; and, not being 
capable, if we could have done it, to give a decree against them, our 
embarrassment was exceedingly great. Much depended on accommo- 
dating the matter, which we dare not oflfer. The day favored us, being 
rainy, and caused them to spend it with us, by which means we had it 
in our power to get better acquainted with the opposite gentlemen and 
give a turn to the dispute for the present, trusting to a future day and 



20 



hoping that some conciliating measures would be olTered and agreed to 
by themselves. 

To divert the debate on the foregoing occasion and draw them a little 
ofT so disagreeable a subject, the lawless condition we were in, and the 
want of some such thing, made the subject conversation, mixed with 
occasional matters. It answered the end. Our plan of legislation, the 
evils pointed out, the remedies to be applied, etc., etc., were acceded 
to without hesitation. The plan v/as plain and simple; 'twas nothing 
novel in its essence; a thousand years ago it was in use, and found 
by every year's experience since to be unexceptionable. We were in 
four distinct settlements. Members of delegates from every place, by 
free choice of individuals, they first having entered into writings sol- 
emnly binding themselves to obey and carry into execution such laws 
as representatives should from time to time make, concurred with by 
a majority of the proprietors present in the country. 

The reception this plan met with from these gentlemen, as well as 
Captain Floyd, a leader in Dick's river settlement, gave us great 
pleasure; and therefore we immediately set about the business. Ap- 
pointed Tuesday, the 23d instant, at Boonesborough ; and accordingly 
made out writings for the different towns to sign, and wrote to Cap- 
tain Floyd, appointing an election, etc. Harrodsburg and the Boiling 
Spring settlement received their summons verbally by the gentlemen 
aforesaid. 

Tuesday, 9th (May, 1775). — Colonel Slaughter and Captain Harrod 
took their departure in great good humor, and apparently well satisfied. 
Our plantation business went on as usual; some people planting, others 
preparing, etc. We found it very difficult at first, and indeed yet, to 
stop great waste in killing meat. Many men were ignorant of the 
woods, and not skilled in hunting, by which means some would get 
lost, others, and indeed at all times, shoot, cripple and leave the game, 
without being able to get much, though always able to keep from 
want, and sometimes good store by them. Others of wicked and wan- 
ton dispositions would kill three, four, five or half a dozen buffaloes, 
and not take a half-horse load from them all. These evils we endeav- 
ored to prevent, but found it not practicable; many complaining that 
they were too poor to hire hunters, others loved it much better than 



21 



work; and some who knew little of the matter, but conceity, from 
having a hunting shirt, tomahawk and gun, thought it an insult to 
offer another to hunt for him, especially as pay was to be made. 

For want of a little obligatory law or some restraining authority, 
our game soon, nearly as soon as we got here, if not before, was drove 
very much. Fifteen or twenty miles was as short a distance as our 
good hunters thought of getting meat, nay, sometimes they were obliged 
to go thirty, though by chance once or twice a week a buffalo was 
killed within five or six miles. This method of destroying game was, 
from our first coming, kept a secret from us as much as possible, and 
indeed we did not wish to be informed of it. The strictest inquiry was 
made into every hunter's conduct. It would not do to have it in our 
power to convict a man of the fact we had highly censored, and spoken 
of as a thing to be taken notice of, and let the culprit pass unnoticed. 
'Twas some pleasure to find they were afraid of discovery; and I am 
convinced this fear saved the lives of many buffaloes, elks and deer. 
As to bear, nobody wasted any that was fit to eat, nor did we care 
about them. 

Mr. Hart continues to keep himself much retired on his hill, and 
unless urged does not give himself any pains about our public affairs. 
I wish it may not be owing to discontent with something done, or 
supposed to be done, by Mr. Luttrell or myself, or both. 

Wednesday, 10th (May, 1115). — Nothing remarkable. 

Thursday, 11th. — Common occurrences. 

Friday, 12th.— Old story. 

Saturday, 13th. — No washing here on this day; no scouring of floors, 
sweeping of yards, or scalding bedsteads here. 

Sunday (May 14, 1775). — No divine service, our church not being 
finished. That is to say, about fifty yards from the place where I am 
writing, and right before me as I am now writing, with my face to 
the south, the river about fifty yards behind my camp, and a fine 
spring a little to the west, stand one of the finest elms that, perhaps, 
nature ever produced in any region. This tree is placed on a beautiful 
plain, surrounded by a turf of fine white clover, forming a green to its 
very stock, to which there is scarcely anything to be likened. Its trunk 
is about four feet through to the first branches, which are about nine 



22 



feet from the ground; from thence above it so regiilarly extends its 
large branches on every side, at such equal distances, as to form the 
most beautiful tree that imagination can suggest. The diameter of 
its branches from the extreme ends is one hundred feet; and every 
fair day it describes a semicircle on the heavenly ground around it, 
after the sun has risen to the tune of fifteen degrees, and so at even- 
ing, above the horizon, of upwards of four hundred feet in circuit, and 
at any time between the hours of ten and two, one hundred persons 
may commodiously seat themselves under its branches. This divine 
tree, or rather one of tlic many proofs of the existence, from all eter- 
nity, of its Divine Author, we came time enough to redeem from 
destruction. Not owing to its beauty — that was iinnoticed — the leaves 
were not out; and the lazy could find no pleasure in basking under 
it — 'tv/as too big to be cut down without labor, and it would not die 
for butting ('twas said) the first year. The claimer of the lot in town, 
on which it stood, would have wished it in the Red Sea, at the devil, 
or anyAvhere, to have got clear of it; and I believe 'twas owing to the 
dread of cutting this tree that made my way easy in endeavoring to 
obtain the lot for the purpose of- building a fort. 

Thank God, the, tree is mine, where I often retire, and oh! were my 
family and friends under it with me, it would be a heavenly tree 
indeed. Biit this is not the case. 

This same tree is to be our church, state-house, co,uneil-chamber, 
etc.; and, having many things on our hands, we have not had time to 
erect a pulpit, seats, etc., but have by Sunday sennight to perform 
divine service for the first time in a public manner, and that to a set 
of scoundrels who scarcely believe in God or fear a devil, if we were to 
judge from most of their looks, Avords and actions. 

Monday (May), 15tli. — Omitted to mention the receipt of a packet 
of letters by express from Colonel Hart, Messrs. William Johnson and 
James Hogg, as also two from Captain Russell with some enclosures 
(vide letters). Was much disappointed in not receiving accounts from 
my family and friends. It seems these gentlemen of the company, 
strangely transported with the news of a few men's being killed, and 
my writing precisely for ammunition and supply of salt, had not even 
given themselves time to think; but sent off an express with little 



23 



more advice than that my last letter had come to hand; they were 
sorry for the accident; prayed fervently against such evils for the 

future; d d the Indians for rascals; commended our courage for 

going on notwithstanding the mischief; hoped that we were forted, and 
able to resist a little; gave us very good advice, and left us to destruc- 
tion. These letters bear date from the 20th to the 23d of April. Must 
not omit to mention a most friendly letter accompanying these, from 
my old friend Colonel Fanning, dated the 10th. This, over and above 
the satisfaction of perusing the most cordial declarations of entire 
friendship, etc., by the by, gave me some satisfaction as to my wife 
and family. A true friend cannot omit offices of friendship. He did 
not omit to mention his stay at Colonel Williams' a few days before, 
and that all was v/ell at my house. A word from Colonel Hart, which 
he got from Mr. Bullock, informs me that my wife and family were 
well about the 14th or 15th of last month, or Mr. Bullock must have 
been longer from home than 'tis presumable he was. 

With this express arrived here ten men, inclusive, eight from Dunmore 
and two from Powell's Valley (express, etc.). Major Bowman, Cap- 
tain Bowman and one Captain Moore were the principal men. With 
these we had no difficulty; they seemed to be well pleased with the 
country, offered to buy lands, and are willing to settle on our terms; 
were prepared to make corn; asked to be indulged, having come out 
at a late season, which we granted readily, as they seemed like very 
good people, and said they imagined one hundred families at least 
would be out with them before spring. They seemed desirous of being 
in Harrod's neighborhood, and there was some degree of relationship 
and acquaintance among them. Therefore sent them off in great good 
humor. 

Tuesday (May), 16th. — Continue eating meat without bread, and 
should be very contented, were it not for the absence of four men who 
went down the river by land, on Friday sennight, to bring up the goods 
left by Captain Callomees at the mouth of Elkhorn, about fifty or sixty 
miles below. These men were expected on Tuesday or Wednesday last, 
at farthest; and having no news of them till now, some matter of 
great concern to Captain Callomees; and it is not a little alarming to 
ourselves. 



24: 



Wednesday, 17th. — Hunters not returned. Almost starved — drank a 
little coffee, and trust to luck for dinner. Am just going to our little 
plant patches, in hopes the greens will bear cropping; if so, a sumptu- 
ous dinner indeed. No meat but fat bear and a little spoiled buffalo 
and elk, which we made out with pretty well, depending on amendment 
to-morrow. 

Captain Callomees grows very uneasy on account of his men — applies 
to me for men and horses to go in search — six men and nine horses. 
Gave my permission to do what was in my power; proposed it at dinner 
to Mr. Luttrell, who denied, as having no horses fit to go and thinking 
footmen would answer. In short, Mr. Luttrell was unwell ; seemed in 
an ill humor with everything about him, or don't think he would 
have refused doing a thing in which not only the honor of the company 
was so much concerned, but 'twas refusing to listen to the calls of 
humanity herself. He is at sometimes thoughtless, but, I think, means 
to act as well as nray be for himself and company. 

This evening wrote a line to Colonel Calloway at the fort (Mr. 
Boone being away) and another to Captain Hart, stating the case and 
desiring assistance, and, withal, asking them to come to my camp in 
the morning to determine on something. 

Thursday, 18th (May, 1775). — Colonel Calloway and Captain Hart 
came early. Mr. Calloway could raise three men and one horse; Cap- 
tain Hart, one horse. Mr. Luttrell was in bed, and not in good humor. 
(The bells made too much noise.) This I suppose from hearing him 
quarreling with the horses in the night and his lying later than usual. 
Had only two mares and one horse; the mares in the plough, the one 
very poor with a sore back, and the other not much better, but willing 
she should be rode. My horse was * * * running in the woods, 
very poor, and I believe would not go on a journey of twenty miles 
without giving out. However, the day proving dark, and no good 
woodsmen to be gotten, our hunters, Mr. Squire Boone and Michael 
Stoner, being still out, as also Captain Boone and some others, all of 
whom were by promise to have returned last night, and on whose 
account, as they were gone over and down the river, I was a little 
uneasy; went about a mile to Captain Callomees' camp, stated the 
case, etc. He seemed of my opinion, that it was best to wait this day. 



25 



and try to get more men and horses (which we hoped to effect), espe- 
cially some good woodsmen. 

'Tis now 12 o'clock. No news of hunters or the absentees. 

Three o'clock. Hunters came in; no news of the lost men. 

Friday, 10th (May, 1775). — Sent off Mr. Stoner with Captain Callo- 
way and some of his men in search of those persons above mentioned. 
On this occasion no person turned out except John McMillion, and no 
person offered, or could be prevailed upon to lead (though there were 
many fat, idle ones about town every day, and at this time more than 
twenty in sight), save Captain Cocke, Captain Hart, Nat. Henderson 
and myself. (Mine indeed was one of the companies). P. S. — Callo- 
mees returned, and Hogan going in his place. 

This evening Mr. Nath. Jewet arrived here from Captain Floyd, 
whom, with six other men, he says, he left about ten miles off on the 
west side of the river, looking land, etc. By him heard that Captain 
Floyd was not at St. Asaph at the return of Captain Slaughter and 
Mr. Harrod, and being afraid that the town on that account has not 
proceeded to elect delegates to meet in convention. 

Saturday, 20th (May, 1775). — The election for Boonesborough was 
had this afternoon with great regularity, when Squire Boone, Daniel 
Boone, William Cocke, Samuel Henderson, William Moore and Richard 
Calloway were elected. Number of votes as follows: (Here occurs a 
blank of several lines in the MS. ) . 

Wrote to Mr. Todd and sent Wm. Bush to St. Asaph, directing an 
election in case 'twas not done, with orders to be in on Tuesday even- 
ing at farthest. 

Monday 22d. — One Captain Thomas Guess arrived from above Pitts- 
burg with six or seven men. Their business was to survey 8,000 acres 
of land by officers' claims on the north side Kentucky. Brought news 
that the Lees, surveyors for the Ohio company, were at Wheeling as they 
past, and talked of coming down the river. 

Tuesday, 23d (May, 1775). — Delegates met from every town. Pleased 
with their stations, and in great good humor. 

Wednesday, 24th (May, 1775). — The Convention met; sent a message 
acquainting me that they had chosen Colonel Thomas Slaughter, Chair- 



26 



man, and Mr. Math. Jewet, Clerk; of which I approved. Went and 
opened the business by a short speech, etc. 

Thursday, 25th. — Three of the members of the committee waited on 
the proprietors with a very sensible address, which they asked leave 
to read, and read it and delivered it in. Returned an answer, and busi- 
ness went on. This day four bills were fabricated and read: One for 
establishing a Tribunal of Justice; 2d, Malitia; 3d, for Preventing the 
Destruction of Game; 4th, a Law Concerning Fees — some of which I 
got a slight view of — (very imperfect). The delegates very good 
men, and much disposed to serve their country. 

Friday, 26th, (May, 1115). — Convention continues. Good order, etc. 

Saturday, 27th. — Finished Convention in good order. Everybody 
pleased, etc. 

Sunday, 28th (May, 1775 J. — Divine service for the first time by the 
Rev. John Lyth, minister of the Church of England. Most of the dele- 
gates returned hotne. 

Monday, 29th. — Captain Guess and Captain Harrod set out on the 
north side of Kentucky to look for land whereon to lay officers' claims 
to the amount of 8,000 acres — five or six in company. Mr. Lawrence 

Thompson and Thompson arrived from Orange. No letters from 

our friends. Letter with an account of the battles at Boston. 

Tuesday SOth, — Nothing uncommon. 

Wednesday, 31st. — Mr. Hay and Captain — — - arrived from P. D. 
News that Governor Martin turned Regulator, joined by John Cobon 
and a number of other scoundrels. 

Thursday, 1st June (ll'ToJ. — Jesse Oldham arrived from the C. 
(probably Carolina) with letters. Much news. 

Friday, 2d. — Hunters returned. Very good meat, etc. 

Saturday, 3d. — People arrived from St. Asaph. Had wantonly broke 
up. Had their tools, and on their way home. 

Sunday, J/th. — Whitsunday; rainj-: divine sen^ice by Mr. Lyth. 
Captain Harrod returned. 

Monday, 5th. — Made out commissions, to-wit: for Harrodsburg, Boil- 
ing Spring Settlement and St. Asaph, both military and civil. 

Tuesday, 6th. — Captain Harrod went down the river home, accom- 
panied by Mr. David Wilson and Alexander from McLenb'g, who arrived 



27 



here last week. Mr. Hart talks of going next Monday. Abund- 
ance of people going away, selling their lots, etc., and will not be 
detained. Offered several young men to admit them to enter lands 
as if they were making corn, etc., rather than they should go; they 
seemed determined on going, and accordingly went in the evening. 
This afternoon Captain Hart entered 1,000 acres of land on Salt River, 
including the Salt Springs. His reason for so doing, as Mr. Luttrell 
informed me — and said Mr. Hart seemed much disturbed — was that 
I intended for myself the mouth of Salt Lick Creek, including a salt 
spring. Mr. Luttrell entered 1,000 acres adjoining Mr. Hart's entry at 
Salt Lick. 

Wednesday, Thursday, Friday and Saturday. — -Nothing extraordinary. 

Sunday, 11th (June, 1775 J. — Daniel Goodman went away with John 
Luney, Wm. Wilson and Page Portwocd. Divine service by Mr. Lyth. 
Wrote by Daniel Goodman to my wife, Daniel Williams and John 
Christmas. 

Monday, 12th. — -People going away — Mr. Hart, etc. Vv'rote constantly 
till 3 o'clock in the morning. 

Tuesday, IStk (June, 1715). — Colonel Boone set off for his family, 
and the young men sent with him for salt, etc. 

Wednesday, l^th. — ^Made a list of what men we had left at the camp, 
and found them to amount to . 

Thursday, 15th. — Things as visual. 

Friday, 16th. — Fine rain. 

Saturday, llth. — A muster of the men at the fort by Captain Moore. 
Thirty- two men appeared under arms — in bad order; Aveather wet, etc. 

Sunday, 18th (June, 1775 J. — Fine growing weather. Corn planted 
the 26th and 27th of April was tasseled and shot. Had a mess of snap 
beans. Peas ripe and cucumbers set. Michael Stoner, our hunter, not 
returned; was expected yesterday. No meat. Two men from Virginia 
found bacon, on which, with the beans aforesaid, we had an excellent 
dinner. 

Monday, 19th. — Fair and fine growing weather. Hunters not re- 
turned; grow very uneasy on their account. 

Tuesday, 20th. — Went a-hunting. Hunters returned just as we were 
ready to set out. , 



28 



Wednesday, 21st. — Returned home late at night with a load of buffa- 
loes, and found two gentlemen with Colonel Harrod and some young 
men at our camp. These gentlemen, Mr. Nourse and Mr. Johnston, were 
from Virginia; Nourse from Berkeley, and Johnston from Frederick 
county. Both had called on Captain Russell at Pt. Pleasant, who 
had tempered them well. We found them clever and as much in our 
interest as we could wish. They were then on their way to the No. 
of Kentvicky, to survey officers' claims, etc. They soon resolved on 
purchasing and becoming settlers with us. Mr. Johnston made appli- 
cation to have about 10,000 acres of land granted to him as officers' 
claims, though not more than 1,000 surveyed, the rest only entries in 
Colonel Preston's books. On being refused, or what amounted to the 
same, advised to survey on Crown lands, lest he might fail, went over 
to lay his claims on the other side. Seemed satisfied with our reasons 
for giving no arrearage warrant. N. B. — One piece of 1,000 acres, 
surveyed near the 'Falls, we gave him some encouragement about. 

Thursday, 22d. — Colonel Harrod, with the other two gentlemen, 
crossed the river. 

Friday, 23d. — Nothing extraordinary. Discharged Mr. Stoner and 
Mr. Jackson, our hunters, for a while. Stoner engaged to go after my 
brother Samuel's horses. Samuel and two others set off down the 
river in a canoe to hunt elks, our horses being too much fatigued with 
constant riding. 

Received a letter by Mr. Johnston from the Rev. Charles M. Tliurs- 
ton, advising of the proceedings in the Virginia Convention, and desir- 
ing to make a large purchase in partnership with Johnston and Emd's 
Taylor. 

Saturday, 24th (June, 1115). — Things as usual. 

Sunday, 25th. — Mr. Nourse and Mr. Johnston arrived from the 
woods much pleased with the lands, but complained much for want of 
water. Hunters returned; good luck. 

Monday, 26th. — Nothing extraordinary. 

Tuesday, 21th. — Mr. Nourse, Mr. Wilson, Mr. Alexander and Mr. 
Jonathan Jennings set off for Virginia. Colonel Harrod and Mr. Benja- 
min Johnston set off just before them for Harrodsburg. In the after- 
noon two very good fellows, to-wit, Sigisniund Striblin and Daniel 



29 



Holloback, who had been with us, off and on, upwards of a month, set 
off for Pittsburg. They took with them in their canoes two young men 
to bring up two canoes from down the river about seventy miles, 
belonging to Captain Callomees and Mr. Benj. Parry, for which we 
were to give 3£ 10s. in case they brought them up safe. Striblin and 
Holloback left us 93 pounds of flour, 20 of which was for Mr. Luttrell, 
the rest for two brothers and ourselves. This day settled all accounts 
with Abraham Mitchell and allowed him £6 for his trouble in coming 
out and having assumed to pay Ralph Williams £5 for him, am now 
indebted 2 of V. m'x, which is in full. 

Wednesday, 26th. — Things as usual, only scarcity of meat. 

Thursday, 29th. — Same case. 

Friday, 30th. — Meat plenty, and many joyful countenances. 

Saturday, 1st July, 1115. — Dry weather. People going away. Mr. 
Luttrell and myself set off for Harrodsburg to meet Colonel Slaughter, 
who has been about four weeks viewing Green River, etc. 

Sunday, Monday, Tuesday and Wednesday. — Were bogging in the 
woods, seeking the way. Went too near the river, and was much 
plagued with the hills, cane and bad ways. 

Wednesday morning, 5th July. — Arrived at Captain Harrod's and 
found all well. 

Thursday, 6th. — Went to Harrodsburg; saw Colonel Slaughter and 
others from Green River; accounts something different. Colonel Slaugh- 
ter seemed well pleased in general, but could not find a spot on which 
to locate his 10,000-acre tract, but said there was a fine country. 
Others spoke indifferently and thought otherwise. 

Friday, 1th. — Set off back in company with Mr. Slaughter and about 
twelve others who were going on to bring out their families or stock. 
Harrodsburg seemed quite abandoned — only five men left on the spot to 
guard the crop, etc. Came on to St. Asaph, where we lodged that 
night. On our way saw the Knob and Flat Lick — ^the former of which 
is a great curiosity — containing within the lick and (illegible) near 
100' acres of land. 

Saturday, Sunday, Monday and a part of Tuesday. — On our way 
home. 'Twas our intention to have hit Boone's Trace about 20 miles 
south-west of Boonesborough, but crossed it inadvertently and got out 



30 



of our way. We suffered in this journey a little for want of provis- 
ions. The weather very dry, and the springs being scarce, water was 
rarely to be gotten. Buffaloes had abandoned their range, and were 
gone into other parts. When we got to this place we found all well, 
but a scarcity of meat. Sundry people gone since we left home, and 
more going. 

Wednesday, 12th (July, 1115). — Horses being almost worn-out, my 
brothers, Nathaniel and Samuel, with some others, went up the river 
in a canoe to get meat if possible. Our salt quite out, except a quart 
which I brought from Harrodsburg. The men sent for salt not yet 
returned, nor any news from the East. Times a little melancholy; 
provisions very scarce; no salt to enable us to save meat at any dis- 
tance from home. No account or arrival from (illegible). Weather 
very dry, and we not able to raise above ten or fifteen fighting men at 
any one time, unless they were all summoned, which could not easily be 
done without long notice, they being much dispersed, hunting, etc. 

Thursday, 13th July. — Things as usual. Meat a little difficult to 
get. 

Friday, l^th; Saturday, 15th; Sunday, 16th; Monday, 11th; Tues- 
day, 18th; Wednesday, 19th. — Nothing uncommon, more than that three 
men arrived, to-wit. Captain Linn, Mr. Crittenden and one Thornton 
Farrar, from Monongahela, intending to settle on the No. of Kentucky. 
No news. 

Thursday, 20th. — My brother Samuel, Joel Walker, Val Harmon, 
John Harmon, and their boys set off for Carolina; and Captain Linn 
and his company set off down the river to Lee's Settlement, with whom 
I sent two men for a little salt, our men being not yet returned. 

Friday, 21st, Saturday, 22d; Sunday, 2Sd. — Nothing uncommon, 
more than that a fellow called Grampus, belonging to Mr. Luttrell, ran 
away on Thursday, which was thought nothing of at first, supposing he 
would return; but on Saturday it was discovered that he had stolen 
Mr. Luttrell's mare (his only riding beast), and was totally gone, 
supposed to be countenanced by the Ralstons, who went away a day 
or two before my brother, and were to wait. 

Monday, 24th (July, 1115). — Mr. Luttrell took a resolution of fol- 
lowing his man, and immediately set off with Captain Benning and Mr. 



31 



Hay and one William Bush, I believe with an intent of not returning 
till he goes home, though he declares he would not go farther than the 
settlement, or where he could get his man, till I should overtake him, 
as I have intentions of going home as soon as a sufficient number of 
people comes to defend the fort. 

Tuesday, 2oth. — Things as usual. Weather dry, and indeed has 
been so most of the summer. We had a little rain on Sunday and 
Monday as sennight, but are still in great want. One Mr. Thomas Car- 
len, from Colonel Floyd's camp, informs me that all is well there. By 
Captain Linn we were informed that five or six men were gone down 
the Ohio to the Falls, by order of Captain Bullit. Mr. Bullit's orders 
and his men's resolutions were to pay no regard to our title, but 
settle the land nolens volens. They also inform that Major Connolly 
is resolved on the same conduct. 

At the close of the ahove Journal (which is now in the 
"Draper" collection in the State Library at Madison, Wis.) 
Judge Henderson states that his journal, beginning with Wed- 
nesday, 26 July, continues the narrative, but the latter has 
never been found. 

Henderson established a land oiSce at Boonesborough and 
proceeded to issue grants, over nine hitndred in number, to 
the Transylvania colonists for five hundred and sixty thou- 
sand acres altogether. He also had hastened to organize a 
government and issued a call for the election of delegates to 
the Legislature of Transylvania. There were three other set- 
tlements at that time within the bounds of Transylvania, i. e., 
Harrodstown, Boiling Springs and St. Asaph's, and each 
sent its delegates to Boonesborough to establish a government. 
As stated in the journal above, these delegates, seventeen or 
eighteen in number, met at Boonesborough 23 May, in ses- 
sion under a gigantic elm, and were addressed by Colonel 



32 



Henderson, They organized a government and passed sundry- 
laws, under his advice, providing for courts of law, for regu- 
lating the militia, fixing clerks' and sheriffs' fees, issuing 
writs of attachment, prohibiting profane swearing or Sabbath 
breaking, for the protection of game, for preserving the breed 
of horses, to prohibit firing the range, and guaranteeing com- 
plete religious freedom and the toleration of all sects. The 
colony soon after, owing to the troublous times, began to lose 
population, and the new government not being recognized, 
the Legislature met only once more, in December, 1775, to 
elect a Surveyor-General. 

Virginia claimed the Kentucky country, and l^orth Caro- 
lina that part of Transylvania which lay south of the parallel 
of 36 degrees 30 minutes, and both proclaimed the Indian 
treaty with Henderson to be null and void as against them- 
selves, but valid against the Indians, for the statute law from 
the beginning had forbidden that any citizen should acquire 
title to any lands directly from the Indians. Lord Dunmore, 
the royal governor of Virginia, denounced Henderson and 
his acts, as did Governor Martin of North Carolina in special 
proclamations, which last is dated 10 February, 1775, and is 
to be found in Vol. IX, 'N. C. State Records. Indeed, the lat- 
ter in a letter styled Henderson and his associates "an infa- 
mous company of Land Py rates." 

The Journal of the Legislature which met at Boonesborough 
is printed in full in the appendix to Ranch's "History of 
Boonesborough," together with Judge Henderson's elaborate 
address to them as President of the Colony of Transylvania 



33 



and many other valuable documents connected with the brief 
history of the colony. 

On 8 July, 1775, Judge Henderson was doubtless surprised 
to see appear in the colony Captain (or Dr.) J. F. D. Smyth, 
who in Vol, I of his "Tour in America," p. 325-346, gives 
a fairly full description of the colony, country and a free opin- 
ion of Henderson and his followers. He had traveled the last 
four hundred and ninety miles through the almost unbroken 
wilderness in nineteen days. After a stay of six weeks, he left 
(p, 353) for New Orleans, going down the Ohio and Mis- 
sissippi. Had the settlers suspected his true character as a Brit- 
ish spy, his journeyings would have abruptly ended. Indeed, 
all during the Eevolution the sparse population of Kentucky 
had to endure the bloody inroads of the Indians, in the pay 
of the British government. Boonesborough sustained Indian 
sieges in 1776, 1777 and 1778, The account of the latter, 
given in Eanck's ''Boonesborough," is graphically told, and is 
one of the most thrilling and interesting incidents of the kind 
extant. The fort was constructed under Henderson's orders, 
and the original plan, in his handwriting, still exists. The 
history of the fort proves tliat it did not deserve the contemptu- 
ous opinion expressed of it by the aforesaid Smyth, It was 
in shape a parallelogram, two hundred and fifty feet long and 
half as wide. Little or no iron was used in its constructioli. 
At each corner was a two-story loop^-holed block-house to act 
as a bastion. The stout log cabins were arranged in straight 
lines, so that their outer sides formed part of the wall, the 
spaces between them being filled with a high stockade, made 



34 



of heavy squared timbers, thrust uprie:ht into the gTound and 
bound together within by a horizontal stringer near the top. 
They were loop-holed like the block-houses. The heavy wooden 
gates, closed with stout bars, were flanked without by the 
block-houses and within by small windows cut in the nearest 
cabins. The houses had sharp sloping roofs, made of huge 
clapboards, and these great wooden slabs were kept in place 
by long poles, bound with withes to the rafters. In case of 
dire need each cabin was separately defensible. A¥hen danger 
threatened the cattle w^ere kept in the open space. The weak 
point in this, as in all other Kentucky forts of that day, was 
the lack of water, for, strange as it may seem, all the colonists 
depended upon natural springs, and did not know that wells 
could be dug. There was not a well in that whole section till 
years later. 

The siege of 1778 took place after Transylvania had ceased 
to exist, but as it was against the fort built by Judge Hender- 
son, these incidents may be mentioned. Early in the morn- 
ing of 7 September, 1778, suddenly a war party consisting of 
four hundred and forty-four Indians, mostly Shawnees, and 
twelve whites, appeared. As they pretended to be peaceful, 
the men of the fort sent their women to bring in a supply of 
water and to drive in the stock, knowing the savages would 
not show their real designs by firing on them. An attempt 
at treachery in a meeting for a treaty of peace having failed, 
the savages noisily drew off at night, and their horses could 
be heard splashing in the stream, but they quietly returned 



35 



bj another route and lay in anibusli. Boone, however, com- 
manded the fort, and this ruse also failed. Then open siege 
began, lasting nine days, during which, out of the garrison 
of thirty men and twenty boys, two were killed and four 
wounded, while thirty-seven were killed and a great many 
wounded of the enemy. At one time the Indians stole near in 
the darkness and set the stockade on fire and shot at the 
defenders, who used their scanty supply of water to put it out, 
in which they were aided by a providential rain. Besides, 
the Indians had begun a tunnel from the river bank. The 
garrison finding this out, started a counter mine, and raised 
upon Colonel Henderson's former kitchen in the stockade a 
bullet-proof conning tower. The following colloquy took 
place : "What are you red rascals doing down there ?" yelled 
one of the garrison in Shawanese to the unseen Indians below 
the bank. "Digging," was the return yell. "Blow you all 
to the devil soon ; what you do ?" "Oh," was the cheerful 
reply, "we are digging to meet you, and intend to bury five 
hundred of you." When water and provisions in the fort 
were about exhausted and everything was desperate under the 
continuous fire, night and day, a rain came down in torrents, 
causing the Indian tunnel to cave in, as well as putting out 
the fire, as already stated, and replenishing the garrison's sup- 
ply of water. Thereupon the Indians were discouraged and 
sullenly withdrew. 

Among the most romantic incidents of the history of Boones- 
borough was the capture of three young girls by the Indians 



36 



14 July, 1776. They had gone a short way down the river 
in a canoe on a bright summer's day and were taken pris- 
oners by a straggling party of braves and hurried off. With 
the presence of mind of their time, they indicated the route 
taken by pieces furtively torn from their dresses and broken 
twigs, which caught the eye of their kinsmen. They were thus 
tracked and speedily retaken. One of them, Betsy Calloway, 
was soon after, on 7 August, 1776, united in marriage to 
Samuel Henderson, brother of Judge Henderson. This was 
the first marriage in Kentucky and was celebrated in great 
style, as was also the news of the Declaration of Independence, 
which reached the colony about the same time. In 1792, 
when Kentucky was admitted to the Union, Boonesborough 
was one of the largest towns in the State, but in 1810 it had 
almost ceased to exist, and now for long years has been a com 
field. Ilium fuit. 

John Williams visited the colony in December, 1775, and 
opened a land office. He returned to ]^orth Carolina in Sep- 
tember, 1776. Whether this was Judge John Williams or 
John Williams of Caswell (later Speaker of the jSTorth Caro- 
lina Senate) is not clear. Among the early pioneers who 
went with Boone and Henderson in 1775 were Isaac Shelby, 
afterwards a leader at King's Mountain in 1780 and later on 
the first Governor of Kentucky and United States Secretary 
of War; also Twitty, of the well known Rutherford County 
family, who brought a contingent of men from his neigh- 
borhood. The school-teacher at Boonesborough, Joseph Doni- 



37 



phan, was father of Colonel A. W. Doniphan, who made the 
famous ride to Chihuahua in the war with Mexico. 

On 25 September, 1775, the Proprietors — as Henderson 
and his associates were styled — held a meeting at Oxford, 
1^. C, and sent James Hogg as their delegate to Philadelphia 
with a written application to the Continental Congress to 
admit Transylvania as the fourteenth colony. He also car- 
ried letters to Jefferson and Patrick Henry, hut they opposed 
any recognition of the colony, and it was refused. In 1778 
the Virginia Legislature solemnly set aside the Transylvania 
proceedings as null and void, but allowed Colonel Henderson 
and his associates a grant of 200,000 acres. ISTorth Carolina 
pursued a similar course and also allotted the company 
200,000 acres on the collapse of the colony. 

Boone having gone back to I^orth Carolina, returned early 
in 1776 with his family and a re-inforcement of sturdy set- 
tlers. Among them were his wife and daughters, the first 
white women in Kentucky. The arrival of the sun-bonnets 
made a great change at once. The yoimg fellows spruced up, 
and decency and cleanliness came more into evidence. 
Boone remained permanently in Kentucky, but his con- 
nection with Henderson and Transylvania was over. Hen- 
derson likewise went home and returned the next year with 
forty settlers, but the enterprise collapsed in December, 1776, 
altogether. He visited Boonesborough again, and for the last 
time, in 1780, to procure com for his settlement on the 
200,000 acres granted him by this State near ISTashville, Tenn. 
The Virginia part of Transylvania became Kentucky county 



38 



in Virginia, 1 December, 17Y6, and later was further sub- 
divided. Kentucky became a State in 1792. 

In 1779 Judge Henderson was appointed a commissioner 
to extend the line between Virginia and ISTorth Carolina 
through Powell's Valley, his associates in this duty being 
Oroondates Davis, John Williams of Casw^ell, James Kerr 
and William Bailey Smith. The same year he opened a land 
office at the French Liek, now ISTashville, Tenn., for the sale 
of the lands which had been granted his company by Vir- 
ginia and ISTorth Carolina — 200,000 acres by each State. 

The next summer he returned home and spent the remain- 
der of his life, in the service of North Carolina, as above nar- 
rated. He died at his home in Granville county 30 January, 
1785, not quite fifty years of age. No stone or memorial 
marks his grave and no portrait of him exists. He lives 
in the memory of his deeds and in the fame of his descend- 
ants. The residence he occupied had been removed to Wil- 
liamsborO;, and though somewhat modernized still stands. 

He left by his marriage with Elizabetli Keeling, step- 
daughter of Judge Williams, six children : 1. Eanny, who 
married Judge Spruce McCay of Salisbury. 2. Richard, 
who died at the age of thirty, but who was already a la^^^er 
of note. 3. Archibald, also a lawyer and attaining great dis- 
tinction. He was a member of Congress, 1799-1803. 4. 
Elizabeth, who married Mr. Alexander. 5. Leonard, Chief 
Justice of the Supreme Court of this State. 6. John Lawson 
Henderson, also a lawyer. He was Comptroller of the State 



39 



in 1825, and afterwards, for several years and up to his death, 

in 1843, Clerk of the Supreme Court. From them have been 

descended many of the foremost citizens of this State, who 

have honored every walk in life. 

' Walter Clakk. 
Raleigh, N. C, 

25 December, 1903. 



READING FOR SCHOOLS 



of the 



By L. A. McCORKLE 
A book which every child in North Carolina should read. 



PratV'S Americans Story for 
Americans Children 

A series of Historical Readers adapted for the earlier grades, which sets 
forth in an impartial spirit and in a strong and fascinating style the 
main facts of the early history of our country. (i<'iVE Volumes). 



Home and School Classics 

Thirty-nine volumes graded for all schools, and offering the best reading 
to be found in the world's literature for children of all ages. Complete 
texts, carefully edited and printed, beautifully illustrated, durably bound 
and sold at low prices. 



WRITE TO THE PUBLISHERS FOR CIRCULARS 



D. C. HEATH & COMPANY 

BOSTON NEW YORK CHICAGO LONDON 



ys*V^A^ 



I VOL. n 




THE 



North Carolina Booklet 




THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET. 



GREAT EVENTS IN NORTH CAROLINA HISTORY. 



VOL. III. 

The Trial of James Glasgow, and the Supreme Court of North Carolina. 

Kemp P. Battle. LL. D. 
The Cherokee Indians. 

Major W. W. Stringfield. 

The Volunteer State (Tennessee) as a Seceder. 

Miss Susie Gentry. 

Historic Hillsboro. 

Mr. Francis Nash. 
Some Aspects of Social Life in Colonial North Carolina. 

Charles Lee Raper, Ph. D. 
Was Alamance the First Battle of the Revolution? 

Mrs. L. A. McCorkle. 
Historic Homes in North Carolina — Panther Creek, Clay Hill-on-the 
Neuse, The Fort. 

Mrs. Hayne Davis, Miss Mary Hilliard Hinton, Mrs. R. T. Lenoir. 

Governor Charles Eden. 

Mr. Marshall DeLancey Haywood. 
The Colony of Transylvania. 

Judge Walter Clark. 
Social Conditions in Colonial North Carolina: An Answer to Colonel 
William Byrd, of Westover, Virginia. 

Alexander Q. Holladay, LL. D. 
Historic Homes in North Carolina — Quaker Meadows. 
Judge A. C. Avery. 

The Battle of Moore's Creek. 

Prof. M. C. S. Noble. 



One Booklet a month will be issued by the North Caeolina Society 
OF THE Daughters of the Revolution, beginning May, 1903. Price, 
$1 per year. 

Address MISS MARY HILLIARD HINTON, 

"Midway Plantation," 

Raxeigh, N. C. 

Arrangements have been made to have this volume of the Bookuet 
bound in Library style for 50 cents. Those living at a distance will 
please add stamps to cover cost of mailing. State whether black or 
red leather is preferred. 

EDITORS: 
MISS MARY HILLIARD HINTON. MRS. E. E. MOFFITT. 



VOL. Ill FEBRUARY, 1904 No. 10 



THE 



NORTH CAROUNA BOOKLET 



"CAROLINA! CAROLINA! HEAVEN'S BLESSINGS ATTEND HER! 
WHILE WE LIVE WE WILL CHERISH, PROTECT AND DEFEND HER." 



RALEIGH 

E. M. UzzELL & Co., Printers and Binders 

1904 



OFFICERS OFTHE NORTH CAROLINA SOCIETY DAUGHTERS 
OF THE REVOLUTION, 1903: 

REGENT : 

MRS. THOMAS K. BRUNER. 

VICE-KEG E NT : 

MRS. WALTER CLARK. 

HONOKAKY REGENTS: 

MRS. SPIER WHITAKER, 
(Nee Fanny DeBerniere Hooper), 

MRS. D. H. HILL, Sk. 

SECRETARY : 

MRS. E. E. MOFFITT. 

TREASURER : 

MRS. FRANK SHERWOOD. 

REGISTRAR: 

MRS. ED. CHAMBERS SMITH. 



Founder of the North Carolina Society and Regent 1896-1902: 
MRS. SPIER WHITAKER. 

Regent 1902: 
MRS. D. H. HILL, Sr. 



PREFACE. 



The object of the ISTokth Carolina Booklet is to erect 
a suitable memorial to the patriotic women who composed 
the "Edenton Tea Party." 

These stout-hearted women are every way worthy of admi- 
ration. On October 25, 1774, seven months before the defi- 
ant farmers of Mecklenburg had been aroused to the point of 
signing their Declaration of Independence, nearly twenty 
months before the declaration made by the gentlemen com- 
posing the Vestry of St. Paul's Church, Edenton, nearly 
two years before Jefferson penned the immortal National 
Declaration, these daring women solemnly subscribed to a 
document affirming that they would use no article taxed by 
England. Their example fostered in the whole State a deter- 
mination to die, or to be free. 

In beginning this new series, the Daughters of the Revo- 
lution desire to express their most cordial thanks to the for- 
mer competent and untiringly faithful Editors, and to ask 
for the new management the hearty support of all who are 
interested in the brave deeds, high thought, and lofty lives 
of the North Carolina of the olden days. 

Mks. D. H. Hill. 



SOCIAL CONDITIONS IN COLONIAL NORTH CAROLINA. 



By ALEXANDER Q. HOLLADAY, LL.D., 

(In answer to Colonel William Byrd, of Westover, Vir^nia). 



There are few figures in the stately pageant of American 
colonial history so brilliant and fascinating as that of Colonel 
William Evelyn Byrd, son of the first William Byrd, who 
came to Virginia about 1656, and, purchasing the fertile lands 
on James River previously owned by the Pauletts and Blands, 
created there the noble old home of Westover, the dwelling 
place of the Byrd descendants for considerably more than a 
century; and now, after several changes of ownership, fortu- 
nately in the possession of a chatelaine in sympathetic touch 
with all the associations of the place, and dowered with the 
graces of temperament, taste and talent to cherish and per- 
petuate its traditions of social charm and polished hospitality. 

Colonel Byrd was born to one of the amplest estates in 
America, and may be said to have been a favorite child of for- 
tune to the very end of his active and prosperous life, at the 
age of three score and ten. He possessed much solid ability, 
as well as the lighter, sparkling gifts of the salon. He was 
noted for the beauty and commanding grace of his person, 
and endowed with a magnetic bearing which drew men to 
him and made him a central figure in every circle, the cjtio- 



6 



sure of neighboring eyes. As a fitting crown and climax to 
so many shining qualities, his character was strong, enter- 
prising, and sagacious, continually spurring him on to profit- 
able and public-spirited uses of the extraordinary advantages 
and opportunities he enjoyed. Wise, well-bred, and witty; 
rich, and respected ; generous, and genial ; surely all the good 
fairies brought their best gifts to his cradle, and on his tomb- 
stone might well be engraved the one word " F elicissimus" 
instead of the somewhat labored inscription we may still read 
in the pleasant old-time garden at Westover. 

And yet one fairy must have been present at his birth with 
a spice of malice in her nature, since with all his goodly gifts 
this brilliant and lordly gentleman of a lordly age grew up 
with one foible that never left him — a sharp and cynical wit, 
the shafts of which he was prone to scatter with something of 
careless levity, leaving his auditors uncertain whether he 
spoke in jest or earnest, and his readers doubtful lest he might 
be quite capable of distorting facts to heighten his antithesis, 
or of sacrificing accuracy to make a better backgroun.d for 
his honmot. 

Colonel Byrd, though not a professional author (perhaps 
he thought with the great Mr. Congreve that professional 
authorship was beneath the dignity of such a magTiate as him- 
self), had very considerable literary talent, not excelled, if 
equaled, by any American of his day, and left behind him a 
folio volume of manuscripts, evidently carefully copied by a 
neat amanuensis, and afterward studied by the author, with 
many revisions and corrections in his own handwriting. This 



volume was preserved for more than a hundred years, first at 
Westover and then by Colonel Byrd's Harrison descendants at 
Lower Brandon in Prince George County, Virginia. After 
their century-long slumber, these sprightly and entertaining 
manuscripts were published in 1841, and since that time have 
been several times reprinted, the last time in very sumptuous 
form, and edited by a I^orth Carolina scholar. The subjects 
treated by Colonel Byrd are as follows : "The History of the 
Dividing Line between Virginia and ISTorth Carolina" (Colo- 
nel Byrd being one of three commissioners from Virginia 
appointed to meet a similar commission of representative gen- 
tlemen from ISTorth Carolina, and jointly with them to deter- 
mine the line), "A Progress to the Mines," and "A Journey 
to the Land of Eden in 1733." All of these are written with 
an ease and vivacity that lead us to wish that instead of being 
as it were, born in the purple, the conditions of Colonel Byrd's 
life had been such as to force him into authorship as a pro- 
fession, and so led him to the production of works that might 
have achieved permanent fame and greatly enriched the scanty 
treasury of American colonial literature. It is in "The His^ 
tory of the Dividing Line" that we find the utterances to which 
we demur, for the reason that the witty writer, in the reck- 
lessness of his satire, makes statements about ISTorth Carolina 
which cast slurs upon the conditions of that colony, not only 
unneighborly and unnecessary, but, as may be easily shown, 
wholly unjustified by the facts themselves, or by any serious 
investigation on his part. We proceed to quote freely and 
literally some of his caustic remarks, not omitting the severest, 



to show tlie worst that a mocking wit could saj of a young 
colony, not yet removed by one long human life from its first 
settlement : 

"And because a good number of men were to go upon tliis 
expedition a chaplain was appointed to attend them, and the 
rather because the people on the frontiers of North Carolina, 
who have no minister near them, might have an opportunity 
to get themselves and their children baptized." Speaking of 
a certain piece of land, he says : "It would be a valuable tract 
of land in any country but North Carolina, where, for want 
of navigation and commerce, the best estate affords little more 
than a coarse subsistence." "And considering how fortune 
delights in bringing great things out of small, who knows but 
JSTorth Carolina luay one time or another come to be the seat of 
another great empire ?" "Flax thrives likewise extremely, 
being perhaps as fine as any in the world, and I question not 
might with a little care be brought to rival that of Egypt; 
and yet the men are so intolerably lazy they seldom take the 
trouble to propagate it" He says of the Quaker creed: 
"That persuasion prevails much for want of ministers to help 
the people to a decenter way to Heaven." 

"It is natural for helpless man to adore his Maker, in some 
form or other; and were there any exceptions to this rule, I 
should expect it to be among the Hottentots of the Cape of 
Good Hope and of ISTorth Carolina." These be somewhat bit- 
ter words. We once heard of an exemplary English lady who, 
finding occasion to remain a considerable time in Paris, reso- 
lutely refused to speak French, and nobly submitted to all the 



discomfort of never being able to mate herself understood 
during her sojourn, because she felt it vncong to encourage the 
perverted inhabitants of that frivolous but interesting city to 
persevere in the use of their absurd mother tongue. Perhaps 
for reasons of State or conscience, Colonel Byrd thought it 
unwise to encourage the ISTorth Carolina settlers to persevere 
in making their own fortunes in their ow^n way and in making 
a Commonwealth to suit themselves. 

But we proceed with our quotations : "If a parson come in 
their way, they will crave a cast of his office, as they call it, 
else they are content their offspring should remain as arrant 
pagans as themselves. They account it among their gi'eatest 
advantages that they are not priest-ridden, not remembering 
that the clergy is rarely guilty of bestriding such as have the 
misfortune to be poor. They do not know Sunday from any 
other day, any more than Robinson Crusoe did, which would 
give them a great advantage were they given to be industrious. 
But they keep so many Sabbaths every week that their dis- 
regard of the seventh day has no manner of cruelty in it, either 
to servants or cattle." "Some borderers, too, had a great mind 
to know where the line would come out, being for the most 
part apprehensive lest their lands should be taken into Vir- 
ginia. In that case they must have submitted to some sort of 
order and government, whereas, in J^orth Carolina every one 
does what seems best in his own eyes." "Surely there is no 
place in the world where the inhabitants live with less labor 
than in N'orth Carolina. It approaches nearer to the descrip- 
tion of Lubberland than any other, by the great felicity of 



10 



the climate, the easiness of raising provisions, and the slothful- 
ness of the people. The men, for their part, just like the 
Indians, impose all the work on the poor women. Thej make 
their wives rise ont of their beds early in the morning, at the 
same time that they lie and snore till the sun has risen one-third 
of his course and dispersed all the unwholesome damps. Then, 
after stretching and yawning for half an hour, they light 
their pipes, and, under the protection of a cloud of smoke, 
venture out into the open air, though if it happens to be never 
so little cold they quickly return, shivering, into the chiiimey 
corner. When the weather is mild they stand leaning with 
both arms upon the corn-field fence, and gravely consider 
whether they had best take a small heat at the hoe, but gen- 
erally find reasons to put it off till another time. Thus they 
loiter away their lives like Solomon's sluggard, with their 
arms across, and at the end of the year scarcely have bread 
to eat. To speak the truth, it is a thorough aversion to 
labor that makes people file off to ISTorth Carolina, where 
plenty and a warm sun confirm them in their disposition to 
laziness for their whole lives." ''Since we were like to be 
confined to this place till the people returned out of the Dis- 
mal, it was agreed that our chaplain might safely take a turn 
to Edenton to preach the gospel to the infidels there and 
christen their children. He was accompanied thither by 
Mr. Little, one of the Carolina commissioners, who, to show 
his regard to the church, offered to treat him on the road with 
a fricassee of rum." "Very few in this country have the 
industry to plant orchards, which in dearth of rum might 



11 



supply tliem witL. much better liquor." A page or two fur- 
ther on, when not very distant from Eclenton, he says: "Here 
there may be forty or fifty houses, most of them small and 
built without expense. A citizen here is counted extravagant 
if he has ambition enough to aspire to a brick chimney. Jus- 
tice herself is but indifferently lodged, the court-house having 
much the air of a tobacco house. I believe this is the only 
metropolis in the Christian or Mahometan world where there 
is neither church, chapel, mosque, synagogue nor any other 
place of public worship of any sort or religion whatsoever. 
What little devotion there may happen to be is much more 
private than their vices. The people seem easy without a 
minister as long as they are exempted from paying him." 
"For these reasons, these reverend gentlemen have always left 
their flocks as arrant heathen as they found them. This 
much, however, may be said for the inhabitants of Eldenton: 
that not a soul has the least taint of superstition or hypocrisy, 
acting very frankly and above-board in all their excesses. 
Provisions here are extremely cheap, and extremely good, so 
that people may live plentifully at a trifling expense. l^Toth- 
ing is dear but law, physic and strong drink, and the last they 
get with so much difficulty that they are never giiilty of the 
sin of suffering it to sour upon their hands." "Our chap- 
lain returned to us in the evening from Edenton. He had 
preached there in the court-house, for want of a consecrated 
place, and made no less than nineteen of Father Hennepin's 
converts." "We christened two of our landlord's children, 
which might have remained infidels all their lives had we not 



12 



carried Christianity to liis own door. Tlie truth of it is, our 
neighbors of ISTorth Carolina are not so zealous as to go much 
out of their way to procure this benefit for their children; 
otherwise, being so near Virginia, they might, without exceed- 
ing trouble, make a journey to the next clergyman upon so 
good an errand ; and, indeed, should the neighboring minis- 
ters once in two or three years vouchsafe to take a turn among 
these gentiles, to baptize them and their children, it would 
look a little apostolical, and they might hope to be requited 
for it hereafter, if that be not thought too long to tarry for 
their reward." "Then we went to Mr, Kinchin's, a man 
of figure and 'authority in ISTorth Carolina, who lives about 
a mile to the southward of the place where the surveyors left 
off. By the benefit of a little pains and good management 
this worthy magistrate lives in much aifluence. Amongst 
other instances of his industry, he had planted a good orchard, 
which is not common in that indolent climate, nor is it at all 
strange that such improvident people, who take no thought 
for the morrow", should save themselves the trouble to make 
improvements that will not pay them for several years to 
come; though if they could trust futurity for anything they 
certainly would for cider, wdiich they are so fond of that they 
generally drink it before it has been done working, lest the 
fermentation might unluckily turn it sour." "This being 
Sunday, we had an opportunity of resting from our labors. 
The expectation of such a novelty as a sermon in these parts 
brought together a numerous congregation. When the ser- 
mon was over, our chaplain did his part toward making eleven 



13 



of them. Christians." '^This part of the country being very 
proper for raising cattle and hogs, we observed the inhabitants 
lived in great plenty without killing themselves with labor." 
And on another occasion "Our chaplain did his office and 
rubbed us up with a seasonable sermon. This was quite a 
new thing to our brethren of ITorth Carolina, who live in a 
climate where no clergyman can breathe any more than 
spiders in Ireland." "The indolence and dissipation of the 
middling and lower classes of white inhabitants are such as to 
give pain to every reflecting mind. Horse-racing, cock-fight- 
ing and boxing matches are standing amusements, for which 
they neglect all business, and in the latter of which they con- 
duct themselves with a barbarity worthy of their savage 
neighbors. The ferocious practice of stage boxing in Eng- 
land is urbanity compared with their mode of fighting. In 
their combats, unless specially precluded, they are admitted 
(to use their own term) "to bite and gouge," which operations, 
when the first onset with fists is over, consists in fastening on 
the nose or ears of their adversaries with their teeth and dex- 
terously scooping out an eye, on which account it is no uncom- 
mon circumstance to meet men in the prime of youth deprived 
of one of those organs. This is no traveler's exaggeration ; 
I speak from knowledge and observation. In the summer 
months it is very common to make a party on horseback to a. 
spring, near which there is usually some little hut with 
spirituous liquors, if the party are not themselves provided, 
where their debauch frequently terminates in a boxing match, 
a horse race, or perhaps both. I was myself accidentally 



14 



drawn intO' one of these parties, where I soon experienced 
the strength of the liquor, which was concealed by the refresh- 
ing coolness of the water. While we were seated round the 
spring, at the edge of a delightful wood, four or five country- 
men arrived, headed by a veteran Cyclops, the terror of the 
neighborhood, ready on every occasion to risk his remaining 
eye. We soon found ourselves under the necessity of relin- 
quishing our posts and making our escape from these fellows, 
who evidently sought to provoke a quarrel. On our return 
home, whilst I was rejoicing at our good fortune and admiring 
the moderation of my company, we arrived at a plain spot of 
ground by a wpodside, on which my horse no sooner set foot 
than, taking the bit between his teeth, off he went at full 
speed, attended by the whoops and hallowings of my com- 
panions. At the end of half a mile my horse stopped short, 
as if he had been shot, and threw me with considerable vio- 
lence over his head. My buckle — for I was without boots — 
entangled me in the stirrup, but fortunately broke into twenty 
pieces. The company rode up, delighted with the adventure, 
and it was then for the first time I discovered that I had been 
purposely induced by one of my friends to change horses with 
him for the afternoon ; that his horse had been accustomed to 
similar exploits on the same race gronnd; that the whole of 
the business was neither more nor less than a native piece of 
pleasantry, and that my friends thought they had exhibited 
great moderation in not exposing me at the spring to the 
effects of "biting and gouging." 



15 



Before turning to sucli illustrative records on these sub 
jects as are accessible to us, we will cite the judgment of 
another, of higher authority than ourselves, upon Colonel 
Byrd's trustworthiness as a historian, and, holding as we do 
with the gentleman who said that for a really nice, dignified 
and influential job he would rather have that of a bishop than 
any other, we will first quote the late venerable Bishop Meade 
of Virginia, so long one of the foremost figures in American 
church history. Referring to one of Colonel Byrd's charac- 
teristic sarcasms leveled at the inhabitants of Governor Spotts- 
wood's once noted town of Germanna on the Rapidan, the 
good Bishop says: "Mr. Byrd's writings being full of such 
remarks, we may conclude that he does not always expect us 
to receive them as historical verities." 

The observations of our witty Colonel seem to have been 
limited to a few miles along or near the undetermined line 
between the two colonies, now on one side, now on the other, 
sometimes uncertain on which side he was sojourning, and 
to have been made in exactly thirty days, being wholly inci- 
dental to the tedious and harassing work of directing the sur- 
veyors through swamp and wilderness, scarcely inhabited. 
For rather more than half the time specified the commis- 
sioners seem to have made their halting places on the Virginia 
side of the line, though the shafts of the Cblonel's satire are 
invariably leveled, not indiscriminately, but at the dwellers 
on what he supposes to be the Carolina side. It seems hardly 
credible that a mile or two either way from an unknown 
boundary should show such remarkable variation. If true, 



16 



it presented an interesting and difficult problem to scientific 
investigators, and we grieve that there was no Humbolt or 
Darwin to sift these extraordinary facts to the bottom and 
explain the causes producing phenomena so unexpected. It 
seems to us, however, more reasonable to suppose that our 
traveling Colonel, with the celerity of impatient genius, was a 
little too hasty in his. generalizations to be accurate. Perhaps 
he pursued the novel though somewhat unsatisfactory method 
of collecting information practised later by Mrs. Leo Hunter's 
noble guest. Count Smartlark, when making notes for his 
monumental work on Chinese Metaphysics. With the direct- 
ness and simplicity of real genius this accomplished nobleman 
accumulated everything the encyclopedias contained, first 
under the heading Metaphysics, and second under China, 
and then dexterously united the two subjects into one, thereby 
producing an immortal work, ingenious and unique, and prob- 
ably quite as beneficial to mankind as if it had emanated 
from the mind of Hobbes or Kant. Colonel Byrd's account 
of the habits, morals and general condition of Edenton is in 
the Count's happiest vein. He never saw Edenton, not hav- 
ing accompanied the chaplain on his notable visit, but setting 
out with the axiom that the ISTorth Carolina settlers were Hot- 
tentots, and Hottentots being admittedly fond of intoxicating 
liquors, and Edenton being a ISTorth Carolina town, qu. e. d., 
the inhabitants of that unhappy metropolis cannot have any 
other virtue but that of being without hypocrisy and are 
shamelessly open and above-board in their vicious lives. We 
feel like crying out with the pious fruit peddlers of Smyrna, 



17 



"In the name of the Prophet ! Figs !" but nothing shall make 
us believe there was ever any dearth of "cakes and ale/' to 
say nothing of good ISTantes and Madeira, among the dainties 
of hospitable Westover. 

If all this captious badinage only means that the colony of 
^orth Carolina was younger than Virginia or Massachusetts, 
with a less numerous and more scattered population, and, as 
a necessary consequence, the details of governmental routine 
perhaps less completely organized at the extremities of its 
territory, and the settler's life in general somewhat simpler, 
then nobody wishes to deny that the settlement of that colony 
began about two generations later than the planting at James- 
town. Georgia was first settled two generations later yet 
than ISTorth Carolina, and we fail to see wherein the age of 
either colony furnishes occasion for ridicule or criticism. 

If Colonel Byrd's sarcasms seriously mean (which we are 
loth to believe) that in his deliberate judgment the brave men 
and good women who as pioneers opened the ground and laid 
the foundation on which was built the colony and State of 
ISTorth Carolina were not as respectable and respected as those 
of other American colonies, then we say bluntly and emphati- 
cally he either wrote in utter ignorance or in great disregard 
of all the authorities on the subject. Colonel Byrd was too 
well-read a scholar not to know that everything solid and last- 
ing must have its modest beginning. ISTever yet has any 
nation sprung into the arena of earthly grandeur, all pano- 
plied, magnificent and mighty, like Minerva with the majesty 
of Jove encircling her. The mighty empire of Persia began 



18 



witli the enterprise of a petty tribe of mountain shepherds. 
The still greater power of imperial Rome grew out of the 
banding of a handful of outlaws under a bold, ambitious cap- 
tain. England, the Rome of modern times, has grown out of 
repeated incursions of creek pirates who at last took possession 
of the soil, driving the native British into the swamps and 
mountains to lodge and feed with their own swine. In every 
pioneer State the whole method and apparatus of living is 
naturally simpler and less elaborate than it becomes in even 
one generation later, and the simplicity of life characteristic 
of the first settlers of every State in this great Union is in 
no sense the badge of that bitter poverty and unthrift which 
degrade or destroy. It is rather the beginning of affluence 
and the parent of luxury, and American manhood should feel 
a noble pride in the character, ideals and energy which enabled 
our forefathers, under many difficulties and privations, to lay 
broad and deep the foundation of various Commonwealths, 
out of which has grown a nation so populous and mighty that 
from the beginning of the present century it must be compared 
with the greatest empires of history. About the time English- 
men were busy planting settlements along the American coast, 
quaint Sir Thomas Browne wrote : "With all his faults, man 
is a noble animal." And so indeed he is, as he ought to be, 
since he is, even though faintly, the image of his Divine 
Maker; and it is one of the highest and noblest qualities of 
any race that it can send forth its young men, strong and 
brave, to subdue a wilderness, to form new societies and found 
new States, in the proud confidence that instead of sinking 



19 



into savagery and degradation they will patiently endure tem- 
porary hardship, privation and, as actually happened at 
Jamestown, even starvation, and march steadily on, stubborn, 
invincible, triumphant, to their destined goal. North Caro- 
lina has -every right to feel proud that at a period when the 
daily exigencies of life in a new settlement made constant 
demands upon time and energy her founders could show so 
much accomplished in the way of creating and organizing a 
new Commonwealth, with its varied needs and all the com- 
plex machinery of government for a territory larger than 
England, with a scattered population about equal in all to 
some of the parishes of London. It would be an interesting 
and useful work to make a thorough study of this matter in 
all its phases, and investigate the social conditions of colonial 
ISTorth Carolina in the broadest sense, and it could not fail 
to throw light on the genesis of a nation if it were possible 
to fully set forth all the conditions and environments of one 
of its component units. We should, indeed, like to see the 
founders as they really were, to know all about their ways and 
means of living, their domestic economies, their primitive 
manufactures, their schools and libraries, their recreations; 
in short, every interest, great or small, that made up the siuu 
of their lives. None of these are without value to a faithful 
historian ; but to study and present the subject would require 
a huge volmne, and is far beyond the power or scope of the 
present writer, whose only purpose is to refute Colonel Byrd's 
flippant criticisms. 



20 



To be more specific, we may, without "unfairness, sum up 
his charges as follows : total depravity, almost universal idle- 
ness, and general roughness and grossness of living. 

On the first count of this sweeping indictment, the utter 
disregard of all religious or moral obligation, we will first 
quote again from Bishop Meade: "Colonel Byrd was a man 
of great enterprise, a classical scholar, and a very sprightly 
writer. The fault of his works is an exuberance of humor 
and of jesting with serious things, which sometimes degener- 
ates into that kind of wit which so disfigures and injures the 
writings of Shakespeare. He never loses an opportunity of a 
playful remark ^bout Christians, and especially the clergy. 
He was under the impression that there was not a single minis- 
ter of the church in North Carolina. In tJiis we thinJc he is 
mistakeyi." The venerable Bishop might have spoken his 
last sentence much more positively. We know that Colonel 
Byrd was entirely wrong. In the third volume of the Eev. 
Dr. Anderson's "History of the Colonial Churches," pub- 
lished in London (and a most instructive and valuable work 
it is to American students), we find ample evidence bearing 
directly on this subject. Speaking of the labors of missionary 
clergymen sent out by the Society for the Propagation of the 
Gospel, just two hundred years ago. Dr. Anderson says: 
"Foremost among these were the services of John Blair, who 
first came out to North Carolina in llOJi^ as an itinerant mis- 
sionary, through the courtesy of Lord Weymouth, and after 
suffering many hardships returned to encounter them a second 
time as one of the permanent missionaries of the society and 



21 



commissary of the Bishop of London. At the time of Mr. 
Blair's first visit to JSTorth Carolina he found three small 
churches already built in the colony, with glebes belonging 
to them. His fellow-laborers sent out by the society in 1707 
and the next few years were Adams, Gordon, Urmstone, Eains- 
ford, ISTewman, Garzia and Moir. Governor Eden, and after 
him Sir Bichard Everard, appear to have actively exerted 
themselves to promote the extension and welfare of the church, 
and later Governor Dobbs urgently begged that a bishop be 
sent to the colony to take energetic charge of the spiritual 
needs of the people. In 1715 the Assembly passed an act 
dividing the colony into nine parishes, affixing a stipend to 
each, not to exceed fifty pounds per annum [a sum then equal 
to about seven hundred dollars now]." "Two more of the 
ISTorth Carolina clergy at this time deserve to be named with 
especial honor, because they had both resided as laymen for 
some years in the province, and therefore been eye-witnesses 
of the hardships to which the church there was exposed. The 
first of these, John Boyd, received from the Bishop of London 
authority to enter upon his arduous work, and the manner 
in which he discharged his duties in Albemarle County, North 
Carolina, till his death, six years later, proved how fitly it 
had been conferred upon him." "Clement Hall wa,s the 
second of these two consecrated men, and his career even 
more distinguished. His labors and journeyings remind us 
of those of the great Wesley. In eight years he traveled 
about fourteen thousand miles, preached near a thousand ser- 
mons, baptized more than six thousand gTOwn persons and 



22 



children, administering the Lord's Supper frequently to as 
many as two or three hundred persons on a single journey, 
besides performing the incidental labors of organizing 
churches and classes, catechising children, visiting the sick 
and burying the dead." This would seem to be no indifferent 
example of a true Christian soldier and shepherd of souls, not 
unworthy of comparison with St, Paul himself. He stands 
out in pleasing contrast with the Eev. John Dunbar, who dis- 
tinguished himself by fighting a duel in Westover church- 
yard, behind the wall of the pulpit from which he had often 
preached, and celebrated the Last Supper of the Prince of 
Peace. This edifying specimen of a Christian minister was 
the son-in-law of Cblonel William Byrd, whose intimate 
knowledge of his character may have added sharpness to the 
Colonel's many gibes at the clergy. We do not think the 
figures given in the above account of Rev. Clement Hall's 
labors make any bad showing for the Hottentots of Colonel 
Byrd's satire. They seem to have heard the Word gladly, 
to have welcomed Mr, Hall's ministrations and yielded such 
fruit to them as must have mightily lifted up that good man's 
soul and given him strength and courage for still greater 
exertions in the Master's service. 

It is not easy to produce direct evidence of the industry 
or indolence of any community a hundred and seventy years 
ago, but we can form a safe judgment from admitted indica- 
tive facts. There is no doubt that a mild climate, a fertile 
soil and teeming waters offer strong temptations to indolent 
enjoyment; and as Colonel Byrd concedes all these natural 



23 



advantages and attractions to J^ortli Carolina, the wonder is, 
not that some surrendered to the allurements of this earthly 
Paradise (their kind is hj no means unknown north as well 
as south of this particular Elysium), but that a sufficient num- 
ber resisted their temptations to create material for export 
not proportionately exceeded in quantity or value by any of 
the thirteen colonies. Certainly no other colony paid such 
taxes as $14 for a marriage license, or dreamed of building 
a vice-regal palace to cost a quarter of a million. All the 
facts go to show that a great majority of the people were reso- 
lutely bent on accumulating values and improving their for- 
tunes as rapidly as possible, and we can draw pretty accurate 
inferences as to the general industry of a people when we look 
into the books of the tax-gatherer. 

The personality of the influential men of a comiuunity, 
its statesmen and leaders, their character, public and private, 
their homes and way of living, furnish a sure guide to the 
standard of intellect, culture and refinement obtaining among 
their people. Does not Edward Moseley, statesman and 
patriot, stand out the peer of any public man in America of 
his own or any earlier day, not excepting Yane in Massachu- 
setts, or Nathaniel Bacon in Virginia ? Governor Gabriel 
Johnston was a worthy rival of Governor Spottswood in the 
energy and good sense with which through his long and success- 
ful administration he pushed forward the development of his 
province. jSTo fair-minded student will assert that the names 
of Pollock and Harvey, Samuel Johnston, Harnett, Porter, 
Caswell, Ashe or Hewes do not deserve as high and honorable 



24 



place in our eighteentli century as those of Hancock or Adams, 
Dickenson, Trumbull, Rutledge, Pendleton, Wythe or Mason. 
William Hooper was a greater statesman than Charles Carroll, 
and a much better man than Benjamin Franklin. In the 
military service Waddell, !N"ash, Davidson, Rutherford, John 
Ashe, Sumner approved themselves in all things worthy 
brothers-in-arms and true "knights companion" of Warren or 
Mercer. 

'No cavil can break down the evidence of a Mecklenburg 
Declaration of Independence on May 20th or May 30th, 1775, 
an action more spirited and dangerous to its participants than 
the famous wresting of Magna Charta by the united Barons 
of England from a powerless King, and entitling the names 
of Alexander and Brevard to a lofty niche in the American 
Walhalla. 

Truly there were giants in those days in l^orth Carolina 
as elsewhere. Stately men were there, too, and if Colonel 
Byrd had dined with Governor Eden or Sir Richard Everard 
he would have met some of them and have been invited to 
visit their hospitable homes, some of them not unworthy of 
comparison with his own fair Westover ; and we feel sure 
that when "put on his book oath" he would have freely ad- 
mitted that not grand homes but gi'and souls make a people 
great. \j Distinction of social charm, high breeding and refine- 
ment of domestic life are matters of local tradition rather 
than of statistical record. It is not often that one man or 
fmaily can draw the eyes of a nation to these neighborhood 
particulars, though it was said of Sir Walter Scott at Abbots- 



25 



ford that he did the honors for all Scotland; hut all the 
country-side in ISTorth Carolina is rich in the legend of these 
virtues, clustering around the hearth-stones of many a gallant 
mansion whose very ruins are more than a century old. These 
are only echoes now around the sites of Belfont and Brompton, 
The Hermitage, Lillington Hall, The JSTeck, Winendale, Or- 
mond House and Mosely Hall — ''etiam ruince perierunt." 
But when we remember the great men who dwelt in these van- 
ished homes, and the kindred spirits who gathered around 
them, we bow in silent reverence over their honored names. 
Clay Hill and Wakefield still remain, old and faithful custo- 
dians of the precious memories of their gentle owners. Orton 
still stands in solitary grandeur, keeping watch and ward over 
the lower Cape Fear, and King Eoger Moore was a worthy 
counterpart in every respect to King Carter of the Rappa- 
hannock. 

/ Is Buncombe Hall, with its open doors, its princely wel- 
come and boundless hospitality, no more to be remembered of 
men because its mutilated grounds and crumbling walls are 
now silent monuments of by-gone splendor, "whose lights are 
fled, its garlands dead" almost a hundred and fifty years ago ? 
As Steele finely said of a gifted lady in London, it was a 
liberal education to have enjoyed the privileged entree to the 
Montfort House, that realm of maiden beauty and purity, 
the home sparkling with wit and innocent mirth, of every 
refining influence, where Colonel Willie Jones and Colonel 
John Ashe found those exquisite wives, whose grace and wit 
and spirit not only charmed their countrymen but put to the 



26 



blusli and silenced armed foes, even the surly and savage 
Tarleton. 

It is difficult to imagine a more brilliant and attractive 
home than that of Colonel Willie Jones himself, in historic 
Halifax. It was like Monticello, the home of his friend, 
Thomas Jefferson, a roof which hj the magnetism of genius 
and high breeding drew to its cherishing hearth-stone every- 
thing of wit and wisdom and cultured merit that came within 
reach, and which gave out of all these as freely and richly as 
it received. 

There was no fairer home in all America than the old John- 
ston House by Edenton, later known as Hayes. ISTot even 
Drayton Hall on the Ashley near Charleston, nor splendid 
Hampton near Baltimore, nor Livingston Manor on the Hud- 
son, nor Eosewell on the York, speak more eloquently of home 
refinement in the olden time nor look down more gloriously 
upon the shining waters. The last time we saw it was near 
sunset. From the mossy walls of the grave-yard where rests 
so much honored dust we walked through the beautiful 
groimds by the windows of the library toward the bay, striving 
as we wallved to bring before our mind's eye the forms of the 
long-vanished fair women and great men who once lived and 
moved amid these exquisite scenes. Ships were gliding on to 
their appointed havens. "The horns of EMand" seemed to 
send out their mellow notes, echoing from shore to shore, and 
over everything was shed a golden glow that gave one mo- 
ment's fleeting vision of a celestial "light that was never on 



2Y 



sea or land." Almost unconsciously the words rose to our 
lips: "^Vede Napoli e muori." 

We do not believe a more dignified and polished society 
ever met in America than gathered in Governor Tryon's pal- 
ace in JSTew Bern. We look back through the mists of a cen- 
tury and a half, and may fancy we see in powdered hair and 
rustling brocade the gorgeously-attired figures gliding through 
solemn minuet and quick gavotte, keeping joyous time to bas- 
soon and viol, all unconscious of the storm destined to break 
so soon and bring to an end forever these loyal and royal 
fetes. The last ball in that grandest of all the vice-regal 
palaces on the American continent must have been sounding 
like the Duchess of Richmond's entertainment in Brussels the 
night before Waterloo, "where youth and pleasure met to 
chase the glowing hours with flying feet," and 

"There was a sound of revelry by night, 
And Belgium's capital had gathered there 
Her beauty and her chivalry; and bright 
The lamps shone o'er fair women and brave men; 
A thousand hearts beat happily; and when 
Music arose with its voluptuous swell, 
Soft eyes looked love to eyes which spoke again, 
And all went merry as a marriage bell." 

But hush ! hark ! A deep sound strikes like a rising knell, 
and the stem Governor must go forth, like a fierce eagle, to 
rend with bloody talon the plain of Alamance, and open the 
first act of the coming tragedy. Belles and beaux, courtiers, 
councilors. Governor — all are dust now, but we may be sure 



28 



they made a gallant show in ISTew Bern "in the auld time of 
the King." 

We will not pursue the subject further. It is not worth 
while to invoke the thunderbolts of Heaven to crush a butter- 
fly. Men do not gather grapes of thorns or figs of thistles, 
and both blossom and fruit of this Carolina century plant, in 
every season and sort of trial, have never failed to furnish 
proof beyond dispute or cavil as to the kind of seed from which 
it sprung. ISTorth Carolina can proudly rest, "^'sans 'peur et 
sans reproche/' upon the made-up record of what her past has 
been. Her brave and good men, her fair and noble women of 
the present are the sure pledges of what her future shall be. 

Before we close perhaps we ought to state that the last and 
longest of our quotations — the one describing certain offensive 
and barbarous diversions of the natives — is not taken from. 
Colonel Byrd's volume, but is to be found in the journal of 
the Marquis de Chastellux, a French officer under Eocham- 
beau, and is not written of ISTorth Carolina, but narrates a 
personal experience in 1Y82 near the Potomac River in Vir- 
ginia, in one of the most fertile, salubrious, beautiful and 
wealthy districts of that grand old State, fifty-four years later 
than Colonel Byrd's flying journey along its southern borders. 

The late famous orator, Henry A. Wise, Governor of Vir- 
ginia, used to say of Williamsburg, the old capital, where was 
and is a magnificent hospital for the insane, and which was 
a' part of the district he represented in CongTess, that it had 
about one thousand inhabitants, one half lazy and the other 



29 



half crazy ; yet we can assure all wlio may read lliis tract that 
if they ever visit that ancient bnrg they will find there one of 
the most polished and charming societies on our continent. 
We will not quote the indictment drawn by the Commissary 
of London against the inhabitants of Charleston. His epi- 
thets art so sweeping and terrible that we might well wonder 
if he is describing Algiers or Hades, and we ask in amazement 
if he is speaking of the haughty Charleston we have read of, 
enthroned by the sea, and, like Tyre or Carthage, receiving 
tribute from the nations, l^othing that he can say, however, 
can shake our conviction that from a time "whereof the 
memory of man runneth not to the contrary" Charleston has 
been one of the most delightful of American cities. We 
make no argument out of the "tu quoque," for we feel sure 
these unpleasant pictures are no more accurate than Colonel 
Byrd's, and we refer to them only in order to show how easy it 
is to draw caricatures and use hard words. There is no just 
foundation for quarrel or mutual jealousy in the family group 
of the South. In essentials the old slave-holding agricultural 
States of the South were one, as the same colonies were; in 
heart they should be indivisible. True comrades have they 
been in the past, alike in good and evil fortune ; true brethren 
may they ever be, even to the last hour of recorded time. 

We confess to no small admiration for Colonel William 
Byrd. His public life was distinguished and useful, his pri- 
vate life manly and generous, and he was a fine specimen of 
the grand seigneur of olden time. In the Presence to which 



30 



he was summoned a hundred and sixty years ago, rivalries, 
quarrels, ambitions, jealousies, earthly passions all are stilled. 
We doubt if he was ever very much in earnest in his satirical 
extravagancies, and, having entered good-humored protest 
against some of them, we call a truce to battle and reverently 
breathe a requiescat over his silent dust. 



he was sum-* 





North Carolina Booklet 




GREAT EVENTS IN 
NORTH CAROLINA HISTORY 



THE BATTLE OF MOORE'S 
CREEK BRIDGE, 



BY 



PROFESSOR M. C. S. NOBLE. 




PRICE, 10 CENTS 



$ 1 THE YEAR 



THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET. 



GREAT EVENTS IN NORTH CAROLINA HISTORY. 



VOL. IV. 

The Lords Proprietors of the Province of Carolina. 
Kemp P. Battle, LL.D. 

The Battle of Ramsour's Mill. 

Major William A. Graham. 

Rejection of the Federal Constitution in 1788, and its Subsequent 
Adoption. 

Associate Justice Henry G. Connor. 

North Carolina Signers of the National Declaration of Independence: 
William Hooper, John Penn, Joseph Hewes. 

Mrs. Spier Whitaker, Mr. T. M. Pittman, Dr. Walter Sikes. 
Homes of North Carolina — The Hermitage, Vernon Hall. 

Colonel William H. S. Burgwyn, Prof. Collier Cobb. 
Expedition to Carthagena in 1740. 

Chief Justice Walter Clark. 
The Earliest English Settlement in America. 

Mr. W. J. Peele. 

The Battle of Guilford Court House. 

Prof. D. H. Hill. 

Rutherford's Expedition Against the Indians, 1775. 

Captain S. A. Ashe. 
The Highland Scotch Settlement in North Carolina. 

Judge James C. MacRae. 
The Scotch-Irish Settlement in North Carolina. 

Governor Thomas Pollock. ^ 

Mrp. John Hinsdale. 



One Booklet a month will be issued by the North Carolina Society 
OF THE Daughters of the Revolution, beginning May, 1904. Price, 
$1 per year. 

Parties who wish to renew their subscription to the Booklet for Vol. 
IV are requested to notify at once. 

Address MISS MARY HILLIARD HINTON, 

"Midway Plantation," 
Raleigh, N. C. 

Arrangements have been made to have this volume jf the Booi'let 
bound in Library style for 50 cents. Those at a distance will ph-^ase 
\ add stamps to cover cost of mailing. 

EDITORS: 



^ 



VOL. Ill MARCH, 1904 No. 11 



THE 



NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET 



"CAROLINA! CAROINA! HEAVEN'S BLESSINGS ATTEND HER ! 
WHILE WE LIVE WE WILL CHERISH, PROTECT AND DEFEND HER." 



RALEIGH 
E. M. UzzELL & Co., Printers and Binders 

1904 



OFFICERS OF THE NORTH CAROLINA SOCIETY DAUGHTERS 
OF THE REVOLUTION, 1903: 

REGENT : 

MRS. THOMAS K. BRUNER. 

VICE-REGENT : 

MRS. WALTER CLARK. 

HONORARY REGENTS: 

MRS. SPIER WHITAKER, 
(.Nee Fanny DeBerniere Hooper), 

MRS. D. H. HILL, Sr. 

SECRETARY : 

MRS. E. E. MOFFITT. 

TREASURER : 

MRS. FRANK SHERWOOD. 

REGISTRAR : 

MRS. ED. CHAMBERS SMITH. 

JTOUNDEB OF THE NOBTH CAROLINA SOCIETY AND REGENT 1896-1902: 

MRS. SPIER WHITAKER. 

Regent 1902: 
MRS. D. H. HILL, Sr. 



PREFACE. 



The object of the Noktii Carolina Booklet is to erect 
a suitable memorial to the patriotic women who composed 
the "Edenton Tea Party." 

These stout-hearted women are every way worthy of admi- 
ration. On October 25, 1774, seven months before the defi- 
ant farmers of Mecklenburg had been aroused to the point of 
signing their Declaration of Independence, nearly twenty 
months before the declaration made by the gentlemen com- 
posing the Vestry of St. Paul's Church, Edenton, nearly 
two years before Jefferson penned the immortal National 
Declaration, these daring women solemnly subscribed to a 
document affirming that they would use no article taxed by 
England. Their example fostered in the whole State a deter- 
mination to die, or to be free. 

In beginning this new series, the Daughters of the Revo- 
lution desire to express their most cordial thanks to the for- 
mer competent and untiringly faithful Editors, and to ask 
for the new management the hearty support of all who are 
interested in the brave deeds, high thought, and lofty lives 
of the ]^orth Carolina of the olden days. 

Mrs. D. H. Hill. 



THE BATTLE OF MOORE'S CR.EEK BRIDGE, 

FEBRUARY 21, 1^6. 



MOORE'S CREEK BATTLE-GROUND IS HALF A MILE 
FROM CURRIE, PENDER COUNTY, NORTH CAROLINA. 



By professor m. c. s. noble, 

(University of North Carolina). 



Eighteen miles northwest of Vv'ilmington, I*>[orth Carolina, 
on a low, sandy bluff overlooking a deep, wide creek whose 
sluggish waters flow into the Black Eiver, a tributary of the 
Cape Fear, there stands to-day a simple brownstone monu- 
ment with this inscription on its western face : 

IN COMMEMORATION 

OF THE BATTLE OF 

MOORE'S CREEK BRIDGE, 

FOUGHT HERE 

27th FEBRUARY, 1776. 

THE FIRST VICTORY GAINED 

BY THE AjVIERICAN ARMS 

IN THE WAR OF THE 

REVOLUTION. 

The right to this direct claim to precedence in Revolu- 
tionary success and martial glory is one of Nortli Carolina's 
greatest historic possessions. The events leading up to and 



6 



culminating in this battle are full of interest and reflect 
clearly the patriotic character of ISTorth Carolinians. 

The Coercive Acts of 1774 were passed in order to punish 
the people of Massachusetts, and although they dealt only with 
that colony, it was clear that any other colony might, at any 
time and without warning, receive similar treatment at the 
hands of a British Parliament. 

The news of the closing of the port of Boston made a pro- 
found impression in all of the colonies. jS[orth Carolina, in 
great alarm for the safety of the constitutional rights of the 
colonies, and in deepest sympathy for the suffering people of 
Boston, began .to act speedily and heartily. Throughout the 
province there rang the cry '"'The cause of Boston is the cause 
of all" 

At a meeting of the people of the Wilmington district, in 
July, 1774, the various counties in the province were urged to 
send delegates to a Provincial Congress to be held at Johnston 
Court House the following August for the purpose of appoint- 
ing delegates to represent ISTorth Carolina in a Continental 
Congress to be held at Philadelphia. Among the resolutions 
adopted at this meeting was the following: 

"Resolved, That we consider the cause of the Town of Bos- 
ton as the common cause of British America and as suffering 
in defence of the Eights of the Colonies in general ; and that 
therefore we have in proportion to our abilities sent a supply 
of Provisions * * * as an earnest of our sincere Inten- 
tions to contribute by every means in our power to alleviate 



their distress and to enduce them to maintain, with Prudence 
and firmness the glorious cause in which they at present 
suffer." 

In rapid succession, in fact almost instantaneously, counties 
in every section of the province chose delegates to the proposed 
Provincial Congress, adopted resolutions bold, clear-cut and 
denunciatory of the Coercive Acts, and expressed the greatest 
sympathy for the people of Boston. From Anson and Rowan 
in the west to ISTew Hanover and Chowan in the east the men 
of the province spoke forth tO' the world through their "Resolu- 
tions" the characteristic ISTorth Carolina spirit of sympathy 
for the oppressed, and devotion to justice and liberty. Their 
sympathy did not stop with mere words. Contributions of 
money and provisions were made almost immediately — as 
much as $10,000 worth being sent from the port of Wilming- 
ton alone — and we shall presently see that, in their devotion 
to right and freedom, ten thousand men sprang to arms when 
the time for action came, in the early months of 17Y6, Th.e 
temper of the people is shown in the following extracts taken 
from resolutions adopted at a meeting of the citizens of 
Rowan, August 8, 1774 : 

"Resolved, That the Cause of the Town of Boston is the 
common Cause of the American Cblonies. 

"Resolved, That it is the Duty and Interest of all Ameri- 
can Cblonies, firmly to unite in an indissoluble Union and 
Association to oppose by every Just and proper means the 
Infringement of their common Rights and Privileges." 



Resolutions similar to the above were adopted throughout 
the province in to^vn and county meetings. The seriousness of 
those who adopted them could not be doubted. They en- 
deavored to force the mother country to a just consideration 
of their complaints in a most practical manner. They de- 
clared that no friend to the rights and liberties of America 
ought to purchase commodities imported from Great Britain ; 
that every kind of luxury, dissipation, and extravagance 
ought to be abolished ; that slaves ought not to be imported, 
and that manufacturing in this country ought to be promoted 
and encouraged, for '"to be cloathed in manufactures fabri- 
cated in the Colonies ought to be considered as a Badge and 
Distinction of Respect and true Patriotism."* From meet- 
ings breathing such a resolute spirit of patriotism as this, 
delegates were sent to the first Provincial CongTess held at 
jSTew Bern instead of at Johnston Court ITouse. 

Governor 
J s i a h 
Martin 
forbade the 
assembling 

of the Congress. It assembled, however, on the appointed 
day, August 25, ITT-i, elected William Hooper, Joseph Hewes, 
and Richard Caswell as delegates to the Continental Congress, 
and unanimously adopted resolutions which were as bold, 
direct and patriotic as any previously adopted in the towns 

*Col. Recs., Vol. IX, 1025-1026. 




9 



and counties of tlie province, and from which the following 
are extracts : 

"Resolved, That the inhabitants of the Massachusetts 
province have distinguished themselves in a manly support of 
the rights of America in general and that the cause in which 
thev suffer is the Cause of every honest American who de- 
serves the Blessings which the Constitution holds forth. * * * 

"Resolved, That we will not directly or indirectly after the 
first day of January 1775 import from Great Britain any 
East India Goods, or any merchandize whatever. * * * 

"Resolved, That unless American Grievances are redressed 
before the first day of October, 1775, We will not after that 
day directly or indirectly export Tobacco, Pitch, Tar, Turpen- 
tine, or any other articles whatsoever." ***** 

The CongTCss then adjourned and its members went to 
their homes determined to faithfully carry out the spirit of 
their "Resolutions." 

The first Continental CongTess met at Philadelphia during 
the following September and adopted the famous "Associa- 
tion" committing the colonies to the non-importation of 
British commodities, tea, and slaves. The eighth article of 
the "Association" read as follows: 

"We will in our several stations, encourage frugality, 
economy, and industry * * * and will discountenance 
and discourage every species of extravagance and dissipation, 
especially all horse-racing, all kinds of gaming, cock-fighting, 



10 



exhibition of shows, plays, and other expensive diversions and 
entertaininents. " 

The "Association" was in harmony with the resolutions 
already adopted in the province and the Committees of Safety 
enforced it unsparingly. The Wilmington Committee having 
heard (March 1, 1775) that a "Public Ball" was to be given 
at the house of a lady in that town, sent her the following note : 

"Madam : 

"The committee appointed to see the resolves of the Con- 
tinental Congress put into execution, in this town, acquaint 
you, that the Ball intended to be given at your house, this 
evening, is contraiy to the said resolves ; we therefore warn 
you to decline it, and acquaint the parties concerned, that 
your house cannot be at their service, consistent with the good 
of your country. 

"By order of the Committee, 

"Signed, Thos. Oeaike.'"^ 

The warning was heeded, and yet we are sure that foregoing 
the pleasure of the dance was no great hardship. The young 
people of North Carolina have ever been ready and willing to 
sacrifice on the altar of freedom not only pleasure but prop- 
erty, and even life itself whenever the public good required it. 

On April 2, 1775, Governor Martin heard that another 
Provincial Congress was soon to meet in l^ew Bern and ap- 
point delegates to a second Ciontinental Congress to be held in 
Philadelphia. With the approval of his Council he issued a 
proclamation forbidding the assembling of the Congress and 



11 



declaring that "the meeting of such Convention and the de- 
clared purpose thereof will be highly offensive to the King and 
dishonourable to the General Assembly of this Province, which 
is appinted to sit at this time for the dispatch of public busi- 
ness."* But no attention was paid to his proclamation. 

Oil April 3d the Ctogress met, organized, and adjourned 
till the next day, when the General Assembly was to meet. The 
next morning the Congress met, received four new members 
and adjourned till the following day. A few^ minutes after 
this second adjournment of the Provincial Congress the 
General Assembly met, and of the forty-eight members 
present, forty-seven were members of the Congress. The 
Provincial Congress thus continued to meet daily one hour be- 
fore the General Assembly met. It thanked Hooper, Hewes and 
Caswell for their services in the First Continental Congress, 

adopted resolutions approv- 
ing the "Association," and 




) (ji)(j/]rO<ty\J^ N^ then having finished its work, 

ifc_ " ~''*''*««*«-«^ adjourned on April 7th, two 

days after Martin had issued a proclamation commanding the 
members "on their allegiance and on pain of incurring His 
Majesty's highest displeasure to break up the said meeting 
and to desist from all such illegal, unwarrantable and danger- 
ous proceedings."f 

In his address to the General Assembly (April 4tli), 
Governor Martin reviewed the condition of affairs in the 



*Col. Recs., Vol. IX, 1177. tCol. Recs., Vol. IX, 1187. 



12 



province and plead with the members to be faithful to the 
royal cause, saying, among other things : 

^'Be it to yonr glory, Gentlemen, to record to latest pos- 
terity, that at a time when the monster, sedition, dared to raise 
his impions head in America, the people of North Carolina, 
inspired with a jnst sense of their dnt}^ to their King and 
Country, and animated by the example of its legislature, stood 
among the foremost of his Majesty's subjects, to resist his 
baneful snares, and to repel the fell invader of their happi- 
ness." 

But the angry Governor was merely shrieking in the teeth 
of a rapidly risi'ng gale of revolution, which was soon to gather 
force and sweep him and every other vestige of royal power 
from off our shores forever. The North Carolina spirit was 
thoroughly aroused and his high-sounding appeal met with a 
defiant answer. In their reply (April '7th ) the Assembly 
boldly asserted their right of petition for a redress of griev- 
ances, and in utter disregard of his wishes they said : 

''We take this opportunity^ Sir, the first that has been given 
us to express the warm attachment we have to our sister Colo- 
nies in general, and the heartfelt compassion we entertain for 
the deplorable state of the Town of Boston in particular, and 
also to declare the fixed and determined resolution of this 
Colony to unite v;ith the other (_^olonies in every effort, to 
retain those just rights and liberties which as subjects to a 



13 

British King we possess and which it is our absolute and in- 
dispensable duty to hand down to posterity unimpaired." 

These ringing words came from the very men at whom, as 
members of the Provincial Congress, he had hurled his procla- 
mation in vain two days before, and now as members of the 
General Assembly, they were still bold, determined, and 
defiant. JSTo wonder then that the Governor dissolved the 
Assembly on the following day. 

This constantly growdng spirit of resistance to the alleged 
unconstitutional acts of Parliament impressed Martin with 
the seriousness of the situation and he began to act accord- 
ineiv. 

After the battle of Alamance many of the Eegulators had 
been placed under bond to appear at court from time to time, 
and they were thus kept under fearful apprehensions of the 
da}' of trial. Martin had endeavored to win their good-will 
by ui'ging the home government to grant them a pardon. 
Others of the Eegulators had taken the oath of allegiance to 
the British Grown. To the K,egulators therefore the Governor 
might turn with reason for help in time of need, and so he 
sent his agents among them to secure their faithful service. 

In the valley of the Cape Fear there were himdreds of 
Scotch Highlanders. Many of them had come to ISTorth Caro- 
lina since the battle of Culloden (1746) where, as defeated 
followers of the Pretender, scores of their comrades, like the 
Regulators at Alamance, had felt the keen edge of the British 
sword. As an act of royal favor, these followers of the Pre- 



14 



tender had been pennitted to come to America and build new 
homes in a strange land. Thev had had enough of war, they 
had taken the oath of allegiance to the Crown, and, being 
royalists at heart, tliey had little sympathy with the political 
views of the Whigs in Carolina, ]\Iany of them had but re- 
cently come to jSTorth Carolina and their purses were empty. 
Serving as paid soldiers in a cause they believed in was far 
better than fighting with strangers against a government whose 
power they feared and whose rule they had sworn to support. 
They therefore gladly received the Governor's emissaries when 
they came among them in behalf of the royal cause. 

In the meantime Martin's alarm was increasing daily. In 
a letter to the Earl of Dartmouth, he wrote (May, 1774) : "In 
this little Town (i. e., JSTew Bern) they are now actually en- 
deavoring to fonii what tliey call independant Companies 
under my nose, & Civil Government becomes more and more 
prostrate every day.""" He had the guns in front of the 
palace dismounted in order to keep them from falling into 
the hands of the "Committee of that To\^ti," but when a few 
days thereafter the angry people led by Abner iSTash demanded 
his reason for such action, he claimed that he had done so be- 
cause he feared that the rotten 
gun-carriages were unable to 
stand the strain of discharge at 
the approaching celebration of the King's birthday. f This 
seemed to satisfv the "mob" as he called it. but, fearino' further 




•Col. Recs., Vol. IX, 1256. I Col. Recs., Vol. X, 42. 



15 



violence, he sent his family to ISTew York and then fled to Fort 
Johnston at the month of the Oape Fear River, arriving there 
June 2, 17T5. 

In a few days Martin heard that Robert Howe was then 
on his way to the Fort at the head of a band of patriots. He 
immediately dismounted the guns and took refug:e on the 
Cruizer sloop of war in the river near by. Soon after arriv- 
ing on the Cruizer he wrote to the Earl of Dartmouth, and, 
after referring to the King's recent proclamation proscribing 
John Hancock and Samuel Adams of Massachusetts, said "and 
seeing clearly that further proscriptions will be necessary be- 
fore Government can be settled again upon sure Foundations 
in America, I hold it my indispensable duty to mention to 
your Lordship, Cornelius Harnett, John Ashe, Robert. Howes, 
and Abner ISTash * * * as proper objects for such 
distinction in this Colony * * * that they stand fore- 
most among the patrons of revolt and anarchy."* 

Three days afterwards, five hundred men led by Ashe and 

Harnett came to the 
Fort and burned it. 
As Martin stood on 
the deck of the 
Cruizer that July 
morning and looked 
in helpless wrath at 
the burning Fort, he must have felt more than ever that Ashe 
and Harnett were indeed and in truth the "patrons of revolt 

*Col. Recs.. Vol. X, 98. 




16 



t . and anarchy." But lie was neither 

jdrPyK^ /jJyf ^-P ^^ i^l^ vn^XL nor a coward. He 
^ begged permission to be allowed to 

raise a battalion of Plighlanders and asked that the commis- 
sion of Lieutenant Colonel held by him prior to his coming to 
jSTorth Carolina be restored to him. The government declined 
to return his commission, but instructed him to organize the 
Highlanders and informed him that an officer would be sent to 
take command of them. 

His activity in rallying the Highlanders and the belief that 
he intended to incite the slaves to revolt (which he denied 
except as a last resort),* led the Wilmington Safety Committee 
to forbid any one to communicate with him without having 
first obtained permission from some Safety Committee. 

On August 8tli, Martin issued his "Fiery" proclamation de- 
nouncing Ashe, Howe, Caswell, and others, the actions of the 
Safety Committees in the province, and the "resolves" of the 
ITeople of Mecklenburg, and warned His Majesty's subjects 
not to send delegates to the Provincial Congress soon to meet 
in Hillsboro. The only notice that the Congress took of his 
proclamation was to denounce it as "scandalous, scurrilous, 
and malicious" and to order it to be "burnt by the common 
bangman." 

Among the many acts of this Congress (which now became 
the legislative body in the province) was one providing for the 
raising of two regiments to serve in the C<Dntinental Army. 



*Col. Recs., Vol. X, 138. 



17 



j£^p??tm^ 



James Moore of New Han- 
over was appointed Ck)lonel 
of one of. them. We shall 
soon hear more of him and his Continental regiment. 

Early in 1776 Martin's heart was gladdened by the receipt 
of a letter telling him that Lord Cornwallis and seven regi- 
ments would soon sail to his relief on a fleet commanded hy 
Sir Peter Parker, Additional aid was also to be brought to 
him from the north by Major General Clinton. The time 
for action was at hand. The Highlanders, Regulators, and 
all other loyalists must be brought down to the coast to join 
with the coming British soldiers and march through the 
province to overawe the people. All of his insults and injuries, 
beginning with the first Provincial Congress and ending 
with his virtual imprisonment on the Cruizer, are to be avenged 
at last. The rebellion will be crushed and his Majesty's law- 
ful government restored. 

He issued a proclamation declaring it to be necessary to 
raise the royal standard and calling on all of his Majesty's 
faithful serv^ants to repair to it or be regarded as "Rebels and 
Traitors." He had long looked for and planned for the 
coming of this hour. 

Donald McDonald, an old hero of Cullodeu and Bunker 
Hill, had been in the neighborhood of Cross Creek for 
months advocating the King's cause. Having been appointed 
General, he raised the royal standard and called on all to 
rally to it. In a few days two thousand Tories had assembled 
at Cross Creek and were ready to be led to Brunswick by 



18 



February 15th, according to Martin's instructions. Will the 
vrell-laid plans of the Governor succeed ? We shall see. 

Colonel Moore now marched his Continental regiment to 
meet the Tories and fortified a position at Rockfish Creek, 
eight miles from Cross Creek,* on the road running to Bruns- 
wick alone the south side of the Caoe Fear. 




MAP -e: ^^ 

FROM "^ 

CROSS CREEK W,c«j^»^>^ 

\ TO \ 

^vMOORE'S CREEK BRfDOE \ 



"Now Fayetteville. 



19 



In the meantime the Committee of Safety at New Bern, 
hearing of the Toiy uprising, had ordered Richard Caswell, 
Cblonel of minute-men in the IsTew Bern military district, to 
"march immediately with the Minnte Men under his Com- 
mand to join the Forces"'" from the other parts of the 
province for the purpose of suppressing the insun-ection. The 
militia colonels in the several counties in the district who, 
according to the military act adopted at Hillsboro,f were 
outranked by the Colonel of minute-men in the district, were 
ordered to take their men and "join the Minute Men under 
the Command of Colonel Richard Caswell.":}: While Caswell 
was hurrying from the east to join Moore at Rockfish, several 
other colonels from different parts of the province were 
marching rapidly to the front for the same purpose. 

By the middle of February Moore had with him at Rock- 
fish a force consisting of his own Continentals, Alexander 

/^^ /^yy y Lillington, Colonel 

^^^^^Jj^J^^^V^,.^:^^ of minute-men of the 

^^**'*^><-7^^^^ Wilmington district, 

^-^■^""^ ^■"•'O with one hundred and 

fifty men, Colonel John Ashe, of Xew Hanover, v/ith one hun- 
dred volunteers, and Colonel James Kenan with the Duplin 

militia. Colonel Thackston 
of the Hillsboro district and 
7y^;^^^<^ Cblonel Martin of the Salis- 
bury district were in striking 
distance of C'lross Cteek. In a 

•Col. Recs., Vol. X, 444. tCol. Recs., Vol. X, 199. tCol. Racs., Vol. X, 444. 




20 



few days McDonald marched to within four miles of Moore's 
position and sent him the following letter: 

"Headquarters^ February 19, 1776. 

"Sir : — I herewith send the bearer Donald Morrison * * * 
to propose terms to you as friends and countrymen. I must 
suppose you unacquainted with the Governor's Proclamation, 
commanding all his majesty's loyal subjects to repair to the 
King's royal standard, else I should have imagined you would, 
ere this, have joined the King's army, now engaged in his 
Majesty's service. I have therefore thought it proper to inti- 
mate to you, that, in case you do not, by twelve o'clock to- 
morrow, join the royal standard, I must consider you as 
enemies, and take the necessary steps for the support of legal 
authority. I again beg of you to accept the proffered clem- 
ency. * ■55- * 

"I have the honor to be, in behalf of the Army, sir, 
"Your most hiunble servant, 

"Donald McDonald. 

"P. S. — His excellency's Proclamation is herewith en- 
closed." 

Moore had had practically no military training, and yet 
he was a born strategist, as is shown by his management of 
the troops under his command in this campaign. To make 
sure of his game he "plays for time" until Thackston and 
Martin may be near enough to cut off the enemy's retreat,* 



•Moore's Letter to Harnett, Rev. Hist, of N. C, Kawkes, Swain, Graham, 218. 



21 



and hence his method of reply in the first of the following 
letters : 

"Camp at EockfisH;, rehruary 19. 

"Sir: — Yours of this date I have received; in answer to 
which I must inform you, that the terms which you are 
pleased to say * * * are offered to us as friends and 
countrymen, are such as neither my duty or inclinations will 
permit me to accept, and which I must presume you too much 
of an officer to expect of me. You were right when you sup- 
posed me unacquainted with the Governor's Proclamation ; 
but as the terms therein proposed are such as I hold incom- 
patible with tlie freedom of Americans, it can be no rule of 
conduct for me. However, should I not hear further from 
you before twelve o'clock to-morrow, by which time I shall 
have an opportunity of consulting my officers here, and per- 
haps Colonel Martin, who is in the neighborhood of Cross- 
Creek, you may expect a more particular answer; * * * 

"I am, sir, your most obedient and humble servant, 

"James Mooee." 

"Camp at Rockfish^ February 20, 17Y6. 

"Sir: — AgTeeable to my promise of yesterday, I have con- 
sulted the officers imder my command, respecting your letter, 
and am happy in finding them unanimous in opinion with 
me. We consider ourselves engaged in a cause the most 
glorious and honorable in the world, the defence of the liber- 
ties of mankind, in the support of which we are determined 
to hazzard every thing dear and valuable ; and in tenderness 



92 



to the deluded people under your command, permit me, sir, 
through you, to inform them, before it is too late, of the 
dangerous and destructive precipice on which they stand, and 
to remind them of the ungrateful return they are about to 
make for their favorable reception in this country. If this is 
not sufficient to recall them to the duty they owe to themselves 
and their posterity, inform them that they are engaged in a 
cause in which they cannot succeed, as not only the whole 
force of this country, but that of our neighboring Provinces, 
is exerting and now actually in motion to suppress them, and 
which must end in their utter destruction. Desirous, how- 
ever, of avoiding the effusion of human blood, I have thought 
proper to send you a copy of the Test recommended by the 
Continental Congress, which, if they will yet subscribe and 
lay down their arms by twelve o'clock to-morrow, we are 
willing to receive them as friends and countrymen. Should 
this offer be rejected, I shall consider them as enemies to the 
Constitutional liberties of America, and treat them accord- 
ingly. I cannot conclude without reminding you, sir, of the 
oath which you and some of your officers took at Xew Bern, 
on your arrival to this country, which I imagine you will find 
difficult to reconcile to your present conduct. -J^- * * * 
''I am, sir, your most obedient and humble servant, 

"J. MOOEE." 

"Head-QuxVrtees, February 20, 1T76. 
"Sir: — I received yoiir favor * * * and observed 
the declared sentiments of revolt, hostility, and rebellion to 



23 



the King, and to what I understand to be the Constitiitiou 
of this country. If I am mistaken, future consequences must 
determine ; but while I continue in my present sentiments, I 
shall consider myself embarked in a cause which must * * * 
extricate this country from anarchy and licentiousness. I 
cannot conceive that the Scots emigrants, to whom I imagine 
you allude, can be under greater obligations to this country 
than to the King under whose gTacious and merciful Govern- 
ment they alone could have been enabled to visit this Western 
region : and I trust, sir, it is in the womb of time to say, that 
they are not that deluded and ungrateful people w^hich you 
would represent them to be. As a soldier in his Majesty's 
service, I must inform you, if you are yet to learn, that it is 
my duty to conquer, if I cannot reclaim, all those who may 
be hardy enough to take up arms against the best of masters, as 
of Kings. 

"I have the honor to be, in behalf of the Army under 
my command, sir, your most obedient servant, 

"Donald McDonald. 

^'To James Moore, Esq." 

The next day Moore was informed that the enemy had 
crossed the Cape Fear the night before near Gross Creek and 
was then on the way to Wilmington. He knew" the country 
perfectly and formed his plans immediately. Thackston and 
Martin were ordered to take possession of Cross Cl'eek so as 
to prevent the enemy's return to that place, a special courier 
ordered Caswell to take possession of Corbert's Ferry over 



24 



Black River, while Lillington and Aslie were sent to re-inforee 
Caswell, if possible, but if not, to take possession of Moore's 
Ctreek Bridge, which, like Corbert's Ferry, w^as on the road the 
Tories were traveling to Wilmington. And now with every 
avenue of escape closely guarded, Moore and his Continentals, 
accompanied by Kenan and the Duplin militia, rushed down to 
Elizabethtown, hoping to cross the river there in time to meet 
McDonald on his way to Corbert's Ferry or to "fall in their 
rear and surround them there." Every order of Moore, the 
Commanding Colonel, was obeyed to the letter. Thackston 
and Martin took possession of Ci'oss Creek, Caswell went to 
Corbert's Ferry, and Lillington and Ashe took their stand at 
Moore's Creek Bridge. Soon Caswell informed Moore that 
the Tories had raised a flat, sunk in the Black Biver, five 
miles above him, and by erecting a bridge, had crossed it 
with their whole army.* Moore immediately hurried on 
towards Moore's Creek and ordered Caswell to do the same. In 
faithful obedience to the orders of his superior officer, Cas- 
well, who had been joined by Colonel John Hinton, of Wake 
county, marched to Moore's Creek Bridge, arriving there 
at night, f February 26th, where he found Lillington and 
Ashe in an entrenched position on a sandy elevation, about 
one hundred yards from the bridge. The flooring of the 
bridge w^as taken up, the pine pole girders thoroughly greased 



*Moore's Letter to Harnett, Rev. Hist, of N. C, Hawkes, Swain, Graliam, 219. 
tCasweirs Letter to Harnett, Col. Recs., Vol. X, 482. 



25 



MOOREB CREEK 
RENDER COUNTY 



with tallow, over 
which quantities of 
soft soap were pour- 
ed to make crossing 
the more difficult, 
and then the pa- 
t r i t s resolutely 
avvaited the coming 
of the Tories. 

We are now on 
the eve of a decisive 
battle which is to 
determine jSTorth 
Carolina's stand in 
the long struggle 
for American inde- 
pendence. Fro m 
across the ocean 
Comwallis and his regiments are coming to help establish for- 
ever the rule of Great Britain in ISTorth Carolina, Clinton and 
his army are on their way down the coast to join Lord Ctorn- 
wallis at the mouth of the Cape Fear, and Grovernor Martin, 
eager to welcome the coming of the Highlanders and Eegiila- 
tors, has moved up the river near to Wilming-ton, where, under 
the pretext of demanding supplies from its citizens, he stands 
on the deck of the Cruizer sloop of war anxiously awaiting 
to catch sight of the advancing loyal clans and hear the tri- 




26 



umphant sound of tlie Scotchmen's bagpipes. But whether 
IN orth Carolina is to he saved to the Britisli Crown or not, de- 
pends not so much on the coming of Cornwallis and Clinton, as 
on McDonald's leading his annj safely over the bridge and on 
through the patriots' lines of defence. Far out there in the 
piney woods of ISTorth Carolina, away from British interfer- 
ence, the Tories and the patriots are soon to settle forever, at 
the point of the sword, the political future of the province. 

In the early morning of February 27, 1776, the High- 
landers began their march. They moved bravely on, led by 
their gallant commander, Cblonel McLeod, who crossed over 
on the poles, and seeing an abandoned entrenchment "next 

the bridge," 
supposed 
that the pa- 
triots had 
fled. With 
a glad shout 
he called to 
his followers 
that the day 
was won, 
but just 
S^ then the 



^xw^'^M alarm gun 
sounded. 




Moore's Creek Bridge, 1904. 

volley after volley was poured upon the advancing columns. 



27 



the little cannon on the breastworks swept the bridge, Mc- 
Leod fell riddled with bnllets, and the Tories, stunned by the 
destrnetive and unexpected resistance, iled in confusion before 
the now advancing patriots, who quickly replaced the flooring 
of the bridge and rushed' on in pursuit of their enemies. In 
the meantime a detachment of patiiots had crossed the creek 
above the bridge and added to the defeat of the Highlanders 
by a flank attack. 

Thus in a few minutes sixteen hundred* Tories had been 
put to flight by one thousand patriots, who had only one killed 
and one wounded. "The number (of Tories) killed and 
mortally wounded * * * -was about thirty; most of them 
were shot on passing the bridge. Several had fallen into the 
water, some of whom, I am pretty certain, had not risen yes- 
terday evening (February 28th) when I left the camp. Such 
prisoners as we have made, say there were at least fifty of 
their men missing."f v 

General McDonald, who had been too unwell to command 
the Tories during the battle, was captured the next day at a 
house a few miles from Moore's Greek Bridge. Together 
with Allan McDonald and many other prisoners he was sent 
to Halifax for confinement and af tei^wards to Philadelphia. 

A few hours after the engagement Colonel Moore arrived 
on the ground, and, although he was too late to take active 
part in the battle, he could but rejoice in the successful 



*CasweU's Letter to Harnett, Col. Recs.. Vol. X, 482. 
tGen. McDonald's estimate, Col. Recs., Vol. X, 482. 



28 



execution of his well-laid plans by his subordinate officers, 
whose every movement had been in strict accord with his 
direct orders. 

The results of the victory were most important. The 
patriots roamed over the country in pursuit of the High- 
landers and Kegnlators, disarming them wherever found. 
Among the trophies were "350 guns and shot-bags; 150 
swords and dirks ; 1,500 excellent rifles ; two medicine chests, 
fresh from England, one of them valued at 300 pounds ster- 
ling; a box containing half Johanesses and Guineas, secreted 
in a stable at Cross Creek, discovered by a negro, and reported 
to be worth 15,000 pounds sterling; thirteen wagons, with 
complete sets of horses, and 850 common soldiers," who were 
disarmed and then discharged. 

This brilliant victory saved North Carolina to the cause of 
American independence; it showed that Xorth Carolina was 
able to hold in dieck the Tories within her borders; it won 
over to the cause of freedom many who had hitherto held 
back for fear of England's power, and it so thoroughly broke 
the spirit of Regulators and Highlanders that they never 
again rallied to the support of the royal cause, — no, not even 
when in 1Y81, Cornwallis marched among them on his way 
from Guilford Court House to Wilmington. And the fact 
that ten thousand men, during this month of Februarj^, 1776, 
had taken up arms in defence of liberty, showed that l^orth 
Carolina's opposition to wrong and oppression had reached 



29 



the fighting point of seriousness, tlms teaching England what 
to expect from all of her southern Colonies. 

Soon after tlie battle, Cornwallis and Clinton reached the 
Cape Fear, learned of the defeat of the Tories and sailed away 
to South Carolina, taking with them Josiah Martin, the last 
of ]^orth Carolina's royal Governors. Space v/ill not permit 
our following him further at this time. 

Unfortunately there is a dispute as to whether Lillington 
or Caswell commanded the American forces at the battle of 
Moore's Ci-eek Bridge. 

According to an act of the Provincial Congi'ess, passed at 
Hillsboro, September 7, 1775, a colonel of minute-men in 
a military district ranked the militia colonels in that district, 
but was himself ranked by a colonel in the regular army. In 
case two colonels of minute-men should hold commissions of 
the same date, the Provincial Council was to deteiinine the 
relative rank of eacli. Lillington and Caswell were made 
colonels on the same day, and there has not yet been found 
any record of the Provincial Council determining their 
relative rank. 

The spirit of the military legislation of the times was that 
a resident colonel or general of one district ranked an officer 
of the same grade coming from another district.* 

The battle was fought in Lillington's district, and accord- 
ing to Caswell's own statement he found upon his arrival at 

*Ck)l. Recs., Vol. X. 530. 



30 




Moore's Creek Bridge, the night before 
the battle, a detachment of the Wil- 
mington Battalion of minute-men 
already on the gronnd ''under the com- 
mand of Colonel Lilliugton.''* Cer- 
tainly Lillington, who had come to 
Moore's Creek in obedience to Colonel 
LiLLiNGTON's CREscENT.f Moorc's ordcrs, and had thrown up de- 
fences,:]: and taken his position behind them ready to receive 
the coming foe, would have hardly given up the post of honor 
to Caswell, who had been ordered to Moore's Creek Bridge 
by Colonel Moore, simply because the Tories had crossed the 
river five miles above his T Caswell's) position, and had again 
begun their march towards Wilmington. No doubt a glad shout 
greeted "Caswell and the brave officers and soldiers under 
his command" as they marched over the bridge that February 
night and took their position in the rear where they might 
support those already posted on the fighting line. A visit to 
the locality and a careful study of the battle-field and the old 
breastworks, yet to be seen, will, I think, convince one that 
this would be the natural arrangement of troops arriving 
there at different times. The only man killed was John 
Grady, of Duplin. We are told that he belonged to the com- 
pany of Captain Love, who lived in I*^ew Hanover, near the 
Duplin line. If so, he was no doubt either a minute-man in 



*Col. Recs., Vol. X, 4S2. tMany of the patriots wore silver crescents on their hats 
during the battle. Lillington's was sent, with other Revolutionary relics, to the Cen- 
tennial Exhibition at Philadelphia, where the whole collection was lost. tCol. Recs., 
Vol. XV, 785, 788. 



31 



Lillington's Battalion, since liis comity was in the Wilming- 
ton district, or belonged to Ashe's New Hanover volunteers, 
which formed a part of Lillington's command, a fact helping 
to show that Lillington's men were in the front of the fight. 
It is said that he did not go to the war until Caswell's com- 
mand passed his home, Vv^hen he marched away with it, and 
thus reached his old company in time to give his young life 
for his country. 

Tradition in the neighborhood of the battle-field gave the 
praise of leadership to Lillingi;on, "and the matrons and 
maidens of jSTew Hanover would often beguile the winter 
nights by a popular song, whose burden was the field — 

" 'Where Lillington fought for Caswell's glory.' "* 

Mr. Joshua G. Wright, in a speech delivered at the dedica- 
tion of a monument on the battle-field in 1857, said: "Aye, 
" ' even from the lips 

of the late Colonel 
Samuel Ashe, we have 
it that Lillington was 
the Great Leader of 
the contest." Colonel 
Ashe was in his four- 
teenth year at the time 
of the battle and must 
lillington'hIli,. bave received his in- 




"McRee's Iredell, Vol. I, 272. 



32 



formation from his nnele, who was there with his volunteers. 
Lillington died ten years after the battle and was buried 
at his home, Lillinj^on Hall, about six miles from Kocky 
Point, The following inscription on his tombstone is of great 
interest and help in determining the question of command 
at Moore's Creelv Bridge: 

BENEATH THIS STONE 
LIE THE MORTAL REMAINS OF 

GENERAL 

JOHN ALEXANDER LILLINGTON, 

A SOLDIER OF THE REVOLUTION 

WHO DIED IN 1786. 

HE COMMANDED THE AMERICAN FORCES 

AT THE BATTLE OF MOORE'S CREEK, 

ON THE 27th FEBRUARY, 1776; 

AND BY HIS MILITARY SKILL 

AND COOL COURAGE IN THE FIELD 

AT THE HEAD OF HIS TROOPS, SECURED A 

COMPLETE AND DECISIVE VICTORY. 

TO INTELLECTUAL POWERS OF A HIGH ORDER 

HE UNITED AN INCORRUPTIBLE INTEGRITY 

AND A DEVOTED AND SELF-SACRIFICING 
PATRIOTISM; A GENUINE LOVER OF LIBERTY, 
HE PERILLED HIS ALL TO SECURE THE 
INDEPENDENCE OF HIS COUNTRY, 

AND DIED IN A GOOD OLD AGE, 

BEQUEATHING TO HIS POSTERITY 

THE REMEMBRANCE OF 

HIS VIRTUES. 



33 



The claim that Oaswell commanded the American forces 
at Moore's Creek is based on the following resolution adopted 
by the Provincial Congress at Halifax six weeks after the 
battle : 

"Resolved, That the thanks of this Congi'ess be given to 
Col. Richard Caswell, and the brave officers and soldiers 
under his command, for the very essential service by theni 
rendered this comitry at the battle of Moore's Creek." 

!N"ow, who were ''the brave officers and soldiers under his 
command," to vrhom thanks were given for "the. very essential 
service" rendered at Moore's Creek ? 

We have already seen that when the E^ew Bern Safety 
Committee heard that the Tories were about to march to 
Brunswick, it ordered Colonel Casv/ell of the minute-men in 
the district to "march immediately with the Minute Men 
under his Command to join the Forces which may march from 
different Parts of this Province," and that it also ordered the 
militia Colonels of Dobbs, Johnston, Pitt and Craven coun- 
ties to take their troops and "join the Minute Men under the 
Command of Colonel Richard Caswell."^ 

Having been ordered to "join," and not having been ordered 
to take command of, forces coming from other parts of the 
province, he and "the brave officers and soldiers under his 
command" acted in accordance with the orders of Colonel 
James Moore from the time of their arrival in, and up to their 



»Col. Recs., Vol. X, 444. 



34 



departure from, the Wilmington military district. Two days 
after the battle, in a letter to Harnett, Caswell wrote: "I, 
therefore, with Colonel Moore s consent, am returning to New 
Bern with the troops under my command/' — that is, with 
those he had brought with him from his own district and not 
Lillington's men, for they went down to the defence of Wil- 
mington.* 

With the evidence before me I believe that the vote of 
thanks to C-aswell has been misconstrued beyond the intent of 
the Congress, that Lillington, the resident colonel of minute- 
men in the district, was technically the ranking officer in the 
battle ; that he bore the brunt of the attack and turned the 
enemy baek; that Caswell joined in the pursuit and helped to 
make the victory more complete ; that each strove for victory, 
thinking little of rank, and that the Provincial Congress, to 
which Caswell had already been elected and in which he was 
soon to take his seat, gladly gave a vote of thanks to him who, 
twice their representative in the Continental Congress, had 
now led eight hundred men into a neighboring district and 
rendered "very essential service" in gaining the first battle 
fought in the province. 

The great and undisputed hero of the campaign, however, 
was James Moore, of Brunswick, Cblonel of the First jSTorth 
Carolina Eegiment in the Continental Army. He planned 
the whole campaign, provided for every contingency, and 
drove the enemy into the hands of the two brave colonels 
who had taken their stand at Moore's Creek Brido;e in faithful 



*Col. Recs., Vol. XV, 785, 



35 



obedience to bis orders. Tbe success of the American arms 
is dne entirely to bis foresight, energj^, and skill ; and tbe 
Provincial Council, tbe military Board of Cbntrol in tbe 
Province, most promptly and properly passed tbe following 
resolution at a meeting beld in ISTew Bern, March 4, 1YT6: 

"Resolved, That the thanks of 
of this Council be given to Col. 
James Moore and all tbe Brave 
Officers and Soldiers of every de- 
nomination for their late very im- 
portant services rendered their 
country in effectually suppressing 
the late daring and dangerous in- 
surrection of the Highlanders and 
Regulators, and that this Eesolve 
be published in the iSTorth Caro- 
lina Gazette."* 

In 18 57 a monument was 
erected on the battle-field to com- 
memorate tbe victory. On one 
face of the monument is the name 
of LILLII^GTOI^ and on tbe 
opposite one is that of CASWELiL; on the third face is tbe 
inscription already quoted, while on tbe remaining face is 
the followina;: 




Monument at Moore's Creek. 



'Col. Recs., Vol. X, 475. 



36 



HERE LIE THE REMAINS OF 

PRIVATE JOHN GRADY, 

OF DUPLIN COUNTY, 

WHO FELL BRAVELY FIGHTING FOR HIS 

COUNTRY— THE FIRST MARTYR IN - ~ 

THE CAUSE OF FREEDOM IN NORTH 
CAROLINA, AND THE ONLY WHIG 
KILLED IN THE BATTLE. 

It would be of great interest, did space permit, to write 
more fully of these gallant leaders, — Moore and Kenan, 
Thackston and Martin, Lillington and Caswell, Aslie, Hinton, 
and others. Their names will ever be gratefully remembered 
when the story is told of how they fought the fight that saved 
our State and won "The first victory of the Eevolution." 
But of equal interest, charm and pride would be the story of 
the lives of the brave men they led to battle, those sturdy 
patriots who never laid aside their arms until independence 
was acknowledged, and who then went back to their homes 
where, as quiet, private citizens, they helped to build up the 
"Old !N'orth State'' — ^that State which their descendants will 
ever love, honor and defend. 

Chapel, Hill, N. C, 

March 31, 1904. 

Note.— I thank Dr. C. A. Smith, of the University of North Carolina, for careful 
reading of the proof, and Mr. A. D. Ward, of New Bern, and Messrs. Junius Davis and 
J. O. Carr, of Wilmington, for help in collecting data used in the preparation of this 
Booklet. N M. C. S. N. 



THE NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET. 



GREAT EVENTS IN NORTH CAROLINA HISTORY. 



VOL. IV. 

The Lords Proprietors of the Province of Carolina. 
Kemp P. Battle, LL.D. 

The Battle of Ramsour's Mill. 

Major William A. Graham. 

Eejeetion of the Federal Constitution in 1788, and its Subsequent 
Adoption. 

Associate Justice' Henry G. Connor. 

North Carolina Signers of the National Declaration of Independence: 
Yvilliam Hooper, John Penn, Joseph Hewes. 

Mrs. Spier Whitaker, Mr. T. M. Pittman, Dr. Waiter Sikes. 
Homes of North Carolina — The Hermitage, Vernon Hall. 

Colonel William H. S. Burgwyn, Prof. Collier Cobb. 
Expedition to Carthagena in 1740. 

Chief Justice Walter Clark. 
The Earliest English Settlement in America. 

Mr. W. J. Peele. 

The Battle of Guilford Court House. 

Prof. D. H. Hill. 

Rutherford's Expedition Against the Indians, 1775. , 

Captain S. A. Ashe. 
The Highland Scotch Settlement in North Carolina. 

Judge James C. MacRae. 
The Scotch-Irish Settlement in North Carolina. 

Governor Thomas Pollock. 

Mrs. John Hinsdale. 



One Booklet a month will be issued by the North Carolina Soclety 
OF THE Daughters of the Revolution, beginning May, 1904. Price, 
$1 per year. 

Parties who wish to renew their subscription to the Booklet for Vol. 
IV are requested to notify at once. 

Address MISS MARY HILLIARD HINTON, 

"Midway Plantation," 

Raleigh, N. C. 

Arrangements have been made to have this volume of the Booklet 
bound in Library style for 50 cents. Those at a distance will please 
add stamps to cover cost of mailing. 

EDITORS : 
MISS MARY HILLIARD HINTON. MRS. E. E. MOFFITT. 



VOL. Ill APRIL, 1904 No. 12 



THE 



NORTH CAROLINA BOOKLET 



"CAROLINA I CAROLINA! HEAVEN'S BLESSINGS ATTEND HER! 
• WHILE WE LIVE WE WILL CHERISH, PROTECT AND DEFEND HER." 



RALEIGH 

E. M. UzzELL & Co., Printers and Binders 

1904 



OFFICERS OF THE NORTH CAROLINA SOCIETY DAUGHTERS 
OF THE REVOLUTION, 1903: 

REGENT : 

MRS. THOMAS K. BRUNER. 

VICE-REGENT : 

MRS. WALTER CLARK. 

HONORARY REGENTS: 

MRS. SPIER WHITAKER, 

{Nee Fanny DeBerniere Hooper), 

MRS. D. H. HILL, Sr. 

SECRETxVRY : 

MRS. E. E. MOFFITT. 
TREASURER : 

MRS. FRANK SHERWOOD. 

REGISTRAR : 

MRS. ED. CHAMBERS SMITH. 



Founder of the North Carolina Society and Regent 1896-1902: 
MRS. SPIER WHITAKER. 

Regent 1902: 
MRS. D. H. HILL, Sr. 



PREFACE. 



The object of the IN^okth Carolina Booklet is to erect 
a suitable memorial to the patriotic women who composed 
the "Edenton Tea Party." 

These stout-hearted women are every way worthy of admi- 
ration. On October 25, 1Y74, seven months before the defi- 
ant farmers of Mecklenburg had been aroused to the point of 
signing their Declaration of Independence, nearly twenty 
months before the declaration made by the gentlemen com- 
posing the Vestry of St. Paul's Church, Edenton, nearly 
two years before Jefferson penned the immortal National 
Declaration, these daring women solemnly subscribed to a 
document affirming that they would use no article taxed by 
England. Their example fostered in the whole State a deter- 
mination to die, or to be free. 

In beginning this new series, the Daughters of the Revo- 
lution desire to express their most cordial thanks to the for- 
mer competent and untiringly faithful Editors, and to ask 
for the new management the hearty support of all who are 
interested in the brave deeds, high thought, and lofty lives 
of the North Carolina of the olden days. 

Mrs. D. H. Hill. 



THE NORTH CAROLINA AND GEORGIA BOUNDARY.* 



By DANIEL R. GOODLOE. 



It is not surprising that an important event in the history 
of I*^orth Carolina, which transpired within the present cen- 
tury, has been almost entirely lost sight of in view of the fact 
that its interesting incidents have not been recorded by any 
one of our historians. Hawks made thorough work as far as 
he went, but his valuable history stops short in 1729. His 
predecessors, Williamson and Martin, only brought down the 
narrative to the date of the Revolution. Jones wrote only 
sketches. Colonel Wheeler collected valuable materials for 
history in compiling the annals of the counties, but he some- 
how overlooked the most important incident in those of the 
great county of Buncombe. Mr. Moore refers to it in three 
lines. I can recall no reference to the affair, even by Gov- 
ernor Swain, whose essays and addresses are not now before 
me. Yet the materials for a history of this border war and 
struggle for territory are ample, and are preserved in the 
most authentic form — that of official documents. I find them 
in the annals of Congress ; and they may be seen in the laws 
and legislative proceedings of both Georgia and iSTorth Caro- 
lina. 

It appears from the annals of the House of Representatives 
that a memorial from the Legislature of Georgia was pre- 



*Reprinted by permission from the State Normal Magazine. This is a posthumous con- 
tribution, Mr. (Joodloe having been dead several years. 



sented on January 13, 1806, setting fortJi that great oppres- 
sion and injury had arisen to sundry citizens of the State in 
consequence of a claim of the State of JSTorth Carolina to cer- 
tain lands lying within the boundary of Georgia ; that the 
rights of Georgia had been affected and violated thereby, and 
praying that Congress would interpose and cause the thirty- 
fifth degree of north latitude to be ascertained, and the line 
between the two States to be plainly marked. 

The memorial was referred to a special committee consist- 
ing of Messrs. Spalding of Georgia, George W. Campbell of 
Tennessee, Moore of South Carolina, Stanford of I^orth Caro- 
lina, and E^Dps of Virginia, wdth instructions to examine and 
report their 'opinion thereupon to the House. 

On February 12th Mr. Spalding, of the committee, made a 
report in which it is stated that between the latitude of 35 
degrees north, which is the southern boundary claimed by 
North Carolina, and the northern boundary of Georgia, as 
settled by a convention between that State and South Caro- 
lina, intervenes a tract of country supposed to be about twelve 
miles wide, from north to south, and extending in length from 
the western boundary of Georgia, at ISTicajack, on the Tennes- 
see, to her northeastern limits on the Tuzalo. The commit- 
tee say that this tract was consequently within the limits of 
S^outh Carolina, and in the year 1787 it was ceded to the 
United States, who accepted the cession. This territory, the 
report, continues, remained in the possession of the United 
States imtil 1802, when it was ceded to the State of Georgia. 



Tlie committee, from the best information at hand, estimated 
the number of settlers upon this territory at 800. It was not 
known where they came from, and it was denied that they 
had any title to the land they occupied and on which they had 
made improvements. No title, indeed, could have been given, 
the committee say, since the lands remained within the boun- 
dary of Cherokee until 1798, when a part of it was purchased 
by treaty held at Tellico. 

At the earnest entreaty of the inhabitants of the territory, 
we are told, the Legislature of Georgia, in 1803, passed an 
act to organize the inliabited part of the territory, and to form 
it into a county, authorizing, at the same time, the Governor 
to appoint commissioners to meet such commissioners as 
should be apjDointed by the Government of j^orth Carolina, 
to ascertain and plainly mark the line dividing the territory 
from ]!^ortli Carolina. 

After adverting to some circumstances attending the failure 
of the two States to agree upon terms of settlement, the com- 
mittee came to the following resolution : 

"Resolved, That the President of the United States be 
authorized to appoint a commissioner to meet such commis- 
sioners as may be appointed by the States of jSTorth Carolina 
and Georgia, for the purpose of ascertaining and running the 
line which divides the territory transferred by the United 
States to Georgia from ISTorth Carolina. 

"The report was read and referred to a Committee of the 
Whole House on Friday next." 



But the Cbmmittee of the Whole House failed to take up 
the report and resolution on the Friday designated ; and noth- 
ing more was done in the premises. The reader will have 
noticed that the committee assumed all the facts to he such as 
they were stated in the memorial. But they failed to impress 
the majority of Cbngress as they had done the committee, and 
the matter was permitted to drop. 

It is said, indeed, that the jSTorth Carolina delegation gave 
the assurance that they would represent the matter to the 
State authorities and endeavor to bring about a settlement 
without the intervention of Congress. 

The county which was organized in the disp'Uted territory 
by the State of Georgia, and which is referred to in the report 
of the committee, took the name of a prominent citizen, Judge 
Walton. It not only bordered on the county of our Bun- 
combe, but it was carved out of it, as the subsequent survey 
demonstrated. It is a curious fact that that Georgia county 
within a North Carolina county was, in the settlement of the 
controversy, erased, expunged, obliterated, and no longer ex- 
ists, but the State of Georgia — determined to preserve the 
name — half a dozen years later organized a new county in the 
interior of the State of the same name ! Old Buncombe, on the 
other hand, though curtailed of her vast proportions, still lives, 
and on her narrowed territorial limits she contains ten times 
the population, the wealth and the intelligence which she 
possessed three quarters of a century ago. 

The two States, in 1807, came to an agreement as to the 
basis of a survey, the result of which, as will be seen, failed 



to satisfy the Georgians. Tliey again appealed to Congress, 
and that circumstance led to the preservation of all the facts 
in the Annals and in the House Journals. In the latter I find 
the case presented as follows : 

"April 26, 1810. 

"Mr, Bibb of Georgia presented a representation of the 
Legislature of the State of Georgia relative to her claim to a 
certain tract of country west of the State of South Carolina, 
ceded to her by the United States in the year one thousand 
eight hundred and two, which tract of country is claimed by 
and in the possession of I^orth Carolina, and soliciting the 
Government of the United States to appoint some person to 
run the dividing line between the States aforesaid, which was 
ordered to lie on the table." 

i!^othing further was done with the memorial or "represen- 
tation" at that session. But early in the next, or third, ses- 
sion of the Eleventh Congress, viz., on December 27, 1810, it 
was, on motion of Mr. Bibb, 

"Ordered, That the representation of the State of Georgia 
in relation to their disputed boundary with ISTorth Carolina, 
presented on April 26th last, be refered to a select committee. 

"Messrs. Bibb of Georgia, Macon of JSTorth Carolina, Cal- 
houn of South Carolina, Stephenson of Virginia, and Ring- 
gold of Maryland, were appointed the said committee." 

I have examined the Journals carefully, as well as the 
Annals, and find no report from this committee. The appli- 



10 



cation appears to have been abandoned by the Georgians as 
hopeless, as well it might have been, in view of the report 
made to the Legislature of that State by her commissioners 
appointed to run the line jointly with those of JSTorth Carolina. 

The memorial recites that the State of Georgia, by her con- 
vention with the United States of April 24, 1802, for the 
cession of her western territory, having acquired a right to a 
certain tract of country which was west of South Carolina 
and separated the States of ISTorth Carolina and Georgia ; and 
the commissioners of the United States having held out this 
territory as a strong and valuable part of the consideration 
offered, the State of Georgia sent her Surveyor-General to 
ascertain the extent and quality of the territory she had thus 
acquired. He ascertained the boundary to be at the points 
that had long been supposed by South Carolina and by all 
the precedent claims to this tract of country. Georgia then 
proceeded to extend her laws and government over the people 
there resident, and she then, with astonishment, first heard 
that her claims were to be resisted by JSTorth Carolina unless 
she would agree to sanction grants that had issued from the 
Government of that State, and which would swallow up the 
right of soil through the whole extent of country ; the sanction 
of which would have overthrown her benevolent intentions 
to its resident inhabitants, and confirmed a system of specu- 
lation which it had been the effort of Georgia to weed out of 
the limits of her State. 

The memorial states that Georgia, disappointed in her ap- 
plication to ISTorth Carolina, then addressed herself to Con- 



11 



gress; that her Representatives in (Congress refrained from 
pressing the application, on the assurance given by the JSTorth 
Carolina Representatives that they would bring the matter to 
the attention of the State authorities. This agreement led 
to the appointment of commissioners on the part of the two 
States. The commissioners met and made "some observa- 
tions" about the latitude of places. But these observations 
differed so widely from all the preconceived notions of the 
Georgians that the Legislature of that State refused to abide 
by the result. 

Accordingly, another application was made to the State of 
North Carolina to appoint commissioners, that the doubts on 
the subject might be removed, and that if Georgia had no 
just claim to the territory in dispute, and for which she had 
given a valuable consideration, she might go to Congress with 
conclusive evidence of the fact and claim to be remunerated. 
The memorial proceeds to state that the State of North Caro- 
lina had refused to listen to this second proposal for a survey, 
after Georgia had refused to abide the result of the first. 

The application to North Carolina, the memorial states, 
was reiterated, but was rejected ; and hence "The Legislature 
of Georgia now see but one mode of calming the irritations 
that have arisen between the two States on this subject; they 
therefore apply to the Government of the United States to 
appoint a proper person to run the dividing line between the 
two States, through the whole extent, either at the expense of 
the Union, as Georgia believes she has a right to demand, or 
at the expense of the two States, if Congress should so insist." 



12 



A resolution is added, calling on the Senators and Repre- 
sentatives of tlie State in Congress to press the matter upon 
the attention of the General Government 

The reader would naturally infer from this st^ement that 
the work of the joint commission of the two States was the 
merest pleasure excursion, and that its results were without 
moral or legal obligation upon the parties v/ho had agreed to 
abide by them. But the papers which accompany the memo- 
rial, or "representation," as the Legislature chooses to style 
it, presents the subject in a quite different light. 

First, we have correspondence between the two Governors. 
It begins with a letter from Governor Jared Irwin of Georgia, 
dated Louisville, Georgia, December 10, 1806, He encloses 
simdry resolutions adopted by the Legislature of Georgia, and 
announces that that body had chosen Thomas P. Oarnes, 
Thomas Flournoy and William Barnett as commissioners to 
ascertain the thirty-fifth degree of north latitude "and plainly 
to mark the dividing line between the States of jSTorth Caro- 
lina and Georgia." 

Governor ISTathaniel Alexander of ISTorth Carolina, under 
date of January 1, 1807, responds cordially to this letter from 
the Governor of Georgia, encloses him a copy of an act of the 
Legislature passed at the preceding session, assenting to the 
proposition of Georgia and appointing the commissioners. In 
view of the sparse population of the region to be surveyed, 
Governor Alexander suggests that the commissioners meet at 
Asheville, in Buncombe county, for the purpose of organizing 
and agreeing upon the plan of procedure. He announces 



13 



that Messrs. John Steele, John Moore, and James Welbourn 
had been appointed commissioners on the part of iSTorth Caro- 
lina. 

Governor Irwin replies, under date of March 11th, that he 
had corresponded with the commissioners on the part of 
Georgia, and that the arrangements proposed by Governor 
Alexander were quite agreeable to them. The only modifica- 
tion proposed was that the meeting should take place on June 
15th instead of April 20th. 

In turn. Governor Alexander, on March 25th, acknowledges 
receipt of Governor Irwin's letter with pleasure, and says 
June 15th will suit the commissioners from North Carolina. 

The gentlemen met at Asheville at the time specified and 
proceeded to organize for the work before them. The JSTorth 
Carolina commissioners had selected and were accompanied 
by the Rev. Dr. Joseph Caldwell, President of the Univer- 
sity and a distinguished matliematician, as their scientific 
observer. The Georgia commissioners were accompanied by 
Mr. J. Meigs, also distinguished as a scientist, in the same 
capacity. They adopted formal articles of agreement as to 
the mode of procedure. 

Article I declares that the territories of Georgia and 
ISTorth Carolina are, and of right ought to be, separated and 
bounded by the thirty-fifth parallel of north latitude, and for 
preventing in future all manner of discussions concerning 
jurisdiction, the under\vritten commissioners will proceed 
forthwith to ascertain the said thirty-fifth degree of north 
latitude, and to run and mark the line accordingly, which line, 



14 



when ascertained and completed with joint concurrence, shall 
ever after be regarded as the line of separation and boundary 
between the two States. 

Article II simply disclaims on the part of the Georgia 
commissioners the power to confirm land titles, in the event of 
the disputed territory falling on the south side of the line. 
That must be left to future settlement between the two States. 

Article III recites that there having been great dissen- 
sions between the people resident in the neighboring counties 
of Buncombe and T^alton, and the said dissensions having 
produced many riots, routs, affrays, assaults, batteries, tres- 
passes, woundings and impirisonments, as well on one side as 
the other, and' it being of primary importance that peace and 
tranquility should be restored and all animosity and ill-Avill 
be forever buried between people who from their local situa- 
tions will in all probability be constrained to continue in the 
vicinity of each other, and as the several outrages committed 
on both sides proceeded more (as the undersigned are im- 
pressed) from a mistaken zeal to support the government to 
which they thought themselves constitutionally bound than 
from a wish to injure their neighbors or disturb the public 
peace, the undersigned agree to recommend in the most earn- 
est manner to the Legislatures of their respective States to 
pass laws of amnesty, forgiveness and oblivion for all such 
offenses (under the degree of capital) as may have been com- 
mitted within the said coimties of Buncombe and Walton, 
respectively, subsequent to December 10, 1803, and which 



15 



shall have arisen from and had relation to the disputes which 
existed concerning the jurisdiction of the two States. 

These articles are formally signed June 18, 1807, with the 
mark of the seals (L. S.) by five of the six commissioners and 
witnessed by James Call, William Eobertson, Joseph Cald- 
well and J. Meigs. The name of Mr. Flournoy of the Geor- 
gia commission fails to appear in the proceedings. 

The report of the observations, or survey, is given by the 
Georgia commissioners. Doubtless a similar report was made 
by the ]^orth Carolina, commissioners to the Governor or 
Legislature of that State. But the former is perfectly fair 
and is all the more satisfactory as coming from the losing side. 
It is dated July 25, 1807, and signed by Messrs. Carnes and 
Barnett. 

After reciting some of the facts which have been stated 
above, they say that the proposition of the North Carolina 
commissioners to make some arrangement for securing the 
rights of North Carolina patentees of lands that might be 
found on the south of the dividing line showed that tliey ex- 
pected that result, and this accounts for the disclaimer ■ of 
authority on the part of the Georgia commissioners contained 
in Article II of the agreement to settle such questions. 

The commissioners, all arrangements having been per- 
fected, left Asheville about June 20th for the dispnted terri- 
tory, and made their first observation at the house of Mr. 
Justice, which they supposed to be upon or near the dividing 
line of thiry-five degTees. But they say: "Taking the mean 
difference, it is found that Justice's is on latitude north 35°, 



16 



22', 32". In other words, "instead of Justice's being on the 
line which divides the two States, it was twenty-two miles 
within old Buncombe." The report continues: "We take 
leave to state that when the report of this first observation 
made at Justice's was received our astonishment and disap- 
pointment were great in the extreme. We who had been 
taught to believe from preceding calculations, and those made 
under the authority of our government, and by a person whose 
public station obliged us to believe that a scientific fault could 
not be attributed tO' him, had the most abundant reason to be 
astonished and mortified at the result of their first attempt, 
w^hich made a difference and varied from the preceding obser- 
vations twenty miles or upwards. The case was the more 
perplexing and unaccountable wdien we reflected that all the 
observations, both by the Surveyor-General of this State and 
the present artists, were made by the same kind of instnmients 
and such as have become proverbial for their verity and accu- 
racy. We were, however, accompanied by an artist appointed 
by the Government, whose talents and integrity we had no 
reason to doubt, and of course were under the necessity of 
suspending our astonishment and proceeding on the duty as- 
signed us." 

On June 22d the commissioners say they proceeded about 
fifteen miles west, and there, at the mouths of Davidson's and 
Little rivers, "where Mr. Sturges, the Georgia Surveyor-Gen- 
eral, ascertained the thirty-fifth degree of north latitude to 
be," where another careful observation was made bv Messrs. 



lY 



Meigs and Caldwell. At this place the observation of Mr. 
Meigs was less favorable to the Greorgia claim than that of 
Mr. Caldwell, although there was substantial agreement be- 
tween them. 

Mr. Caldwell reported 35°, 17', 6", 93'". 

Mr. Meigs reported 35°, 18', 10", 22'". 

Upon this the Georgia commissioners remark that "After 
finding, from the foregoing observation, that we were upwards 
of seventeen minutes north of the desired point, we agree to 
proceed to Caesar's Head, a place on the Blue Ridge about 
twelve horizontal miles directly south and in the vicinity of 
Dowthet's Gap." In this vicinity three observations were 
taken : the first, on June 24th, resulted as follows : 

Mr. Meigs' observation showed 35°, 11', 1", 0'". 
• Mr. Caldwell's observation showed 35°, 9', 15", 21'". 

The second on the 26th: 

By Mr. Meigs, 35°, 6', 20", 24'". 

By Mr. Caldwell, 35°, 7', 21", 11"'. 

And on June 28th, which was the last observation, Georgia 
makes the latitude 35°, 02', 57", 56'". 

North Carolina, 35°, 04', 54", 04"'. 

The commissioners say : "This last observation, on the 28th, 
was made under unfavorable circumstances, as the clouds ob- 
scured the sun, about the time he was on the meridian, in 
such a degree that only one imperfect glimpse could be ob- 
tained." 



18 



These Georgia commissionersi tlien refer to the supplement- 
ary articles signed by them conjointly with those from I^orth 
Carolina. 

Article I of this document is as follows : "The commission- 
ers of Georgia, for and on the part of their State, acknowl- 
edge and admit, which acknowledgment and admission are 
founded on the aforesaid astronomical observations, that the 
State of Georgia hath no claim to the soil or jurisdiction of 
any part of the territory northwest of the ridge of mountains 
which divide the eastern from the western waters, commonly 
called the Blue Eidge, and east or south of the present tem- 
porary boundary line between the white people and the In- 
dians. 

"And that they will consequently recommend to the Legis- 
lature of the State of Georgia to repeal, at the next ensuing 
session, the act to establish the county of Walton, and to abro- 
gate and to annul all executive, ministerial or other proceed- 
ings for the organization thereof." 

Article II of this supplemental agreement gives the pledge 
of the I^orth Carolina commissioners that they, in turn, will 
exert their influence to dissuade the authorities of Buncombe 
from proceeding in the arrest of parties for the breaches of 
the peace in the disputed territory until the Legislature shall 
have had time to act in the premises. 

This paper is signed by the five commissioners and wit- 
nessed by "J. Meigs, Joseph Caldwell, William Eobertson and 
Amos Justice." 



19 



jSText follow the reports of the astronomical observers, 
signed jointly by them, from which the Georgia commission- 
ers made up their report to Governor Irwin. They need not 
be repeated here. 

December 28, 1808, Governor Irwin of Georgia writes to 
Governor Stone of ISTorth Carolina, informing him that the 
Legislature of Georgia urgently requested the appointment, 
on the part, of ISTorth Carolina, of a new commission to meet 
one already appointed by Georgia for the purpose of ascer- 
taining the thirty-fifth parallel of latitude. 

Governor Stone replies under date of March 21, 1809, ex- 
pressing regret that he could not do so at an earlier date. He 
informs him that his (Governor Irwin's), previous communi- 
cations on the same subject had been laid before the Legisla- 
ture, and that that body considered the subject of difference 
between the two States as solemnly adjusted. "Indeed, it 
does not readily occur on what basis the adjustment is to rest, 
if not upon that where it now stands — the plighted faith of 
two States to abide by the determination of commissioners 
mutually chosen for the purpose of making the adjustment 
those commissioners actually made. I cannot, therefore, con- 
sistently with my sense of duty, make the appointment urged 
in your letter of December last." 

Before this letter of Governor Stone reached Governor Ir- 
Avin the latter wrote again, March 16th, urging the matter, to 
which Governor Stone politely replied, reiterating what he 
had already said. 



20 



The Legislature of JSTorth Carolina, December 17, 1807, 
adopted and ratified by an act of that date the joint report 
of the commissioners of the two States, and on the following 
day, December 18th, it passed an act of amnesty for offenders 
within the disputed territory, as recommended by the com- 
missioners. 

And this was the case which the Georgia Legislature sent 
up by way of appeal to Congress. It is not surprising, after 
being referred to a committee of which a Georgia member 
was made chairman, it Avas never heard of again. 

The Legislature of Georgia, on December 5, 1807, put 
forth an earnest protest against the decision arrived at by 
their own commissioners. Thej^ declare that the very slight 
discrepancies in the observations of Messrs. Meigs and Cald- 
well "ought to have raised in their minds rational doubts as 
to the accuracy of the instruments," etc. 

The Legislature further declares, by resolution, some facts 
which are not sustained by the report of their commissioners, 
viz., that the commissioners from the State, in their "zealous 
solicitude," made repeated efforts to induce the l^orth Caro- 
lina commissioners to join them in further surveys. On the 
contrary, the Georgia commissioners, as has been shown above, 
"sorrowfully" admitted their disappointment in finding that 
the claims set up by their State were without foundation. 

But it is gratifying to know that the Georgians finally ac- 
quiesced in the report of the commissioners. Indeed, there 
is reason to believe that they at length became convinced that 
their claim of jurisdiction over the disputed territory was 



21 



without foundation, for when in the year 1819 some of their 
citizens who had set up claims to land in the extemporized 
county of Walton appealed to the Legislature for redress their 
claims were smnmarily rejected. The petition was referred 
to what was called ''the Joint Committee on the State of the 
Republic," whidi reported "that they have had under their 
consideration the petition of sundry citizens of what was for- 
merly Walton county, in this State, and the accompanying 
documents, and are of opinion that it would be unreasonable 
and improper for the State of Georgia to compensate the said 
petitioners for their alleged losses of land and other property." 
There can be no doubt that the Georgians were fully per- 
suaded of the justice of their claim of jurisdiction over the 
disputed territory. And when they called in the astronomers 
to interrogate the heavenly bodies, like Balak, the son of Zip- 
por, king of the Moabites, who sent the messengers, with the 
rewards of divination, to Balaam, the son of Beor, to curse 
the Israelites, they confidently anticipated a favorable answer. 
But as the prophet of Moab, to do him justice, albeit less 
gifted with spiritual insight than the ass he rode, gave an 
honest report of what the Lord revealed to him, so did the 
astronomers truly state what they learned from the sun at 
noon and from the stars in their courses by night. And as 
Balak, the son of Zippor, was dissatisfied with the first answer 
and with the second answer reported by Balaam from the 
Lord, so were the Georgia commissioners with the answers 
reported by the astronomers after communing with the heav- 



22 



enly hosts. iVltar after altar was reared upon every hill-top, 
yet the same answer came. 

But here the parallel ceases. The Georgians have been 
wiser than the people of Moab. Within a generation they 
have submitted to the inevitable, they bowed to the decrees 
of fate, and peace reigned. 



i 



I^orth 



Booklet 11^